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Full text of "The Great Ideas Vol II"

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GREAT BOOKS OP THE WESTERN WORLD 



Introductory Volumes: 

1. A Liberal Education 

2. The Great Ideas I 

3. The Great Ideas II 

4. HOMER 

5. AESCHYLUS 
SOPHOCLES 
EURIPIDES 
ARISTOPHANES 

6. HERODOTUS 
THUCYDIDES 

7. PLATO 

8. ARISTOTLE I 

9. ARISTOTLE II 

10. HIPPOCRATES 
GALEN 

11. EUCLID 
ARCHIMEDES 
APOLLONIUS 
NICOMACHUS 



12. LUCRETIUS 
EPICTETUS 
MARCUS AURELIUS 

13. VIRGIL 

14. PLUTARCH 

15. TACITUS 

16. PTOLEMY 
COPERNICUS 
KEPLER 

17. PLOTINUS 

18. AUGUSTINE 

19. THOMAS AQUINAS I 

20. THOMAS AQUINAS II 
2 I.DANTE 

22. CHAUCER 

23. MACHIAVELLI 
HOBBES 

24. RABELAIS 

25. MONTAIGNE 

26. SHAKESPEARE I 

27. SHAKESPEARE II 



GREAT BOOKS OF THE WESTERN WORLD 



28. GILBERT 
GALILEO 
HARVEY 

29. CERVANTES 

30. FRANCIS BACON 

3 I.DESCARTES 
SPINOZA 

32. MILTON 

33. PASCAL 

34. NEWTON 
HUYGENS 

35. LOCKE 
BERKELEY 
HUME 

36. SWIFT 
STERNE 

37. FIELDING 

38. MONTESQUIEU 
ROUSSEAU 

39. ADAM SMITH 

40. GIBBON I 



41. GIBBON II 

42. KANT 

43. AMERICAN STATE 

PAPERS 

THE FEDERALIST 
J. S. MILL 

44. BOSWELL 

45. LAVOISIER 
FOURIER 
FARADAY 

46. HEGEL 

47. GOETHE 

48. MELVILLE 
49- DARWIN 

50. MARX 
ENGELS 

51. TOLSTOY 

52. DOSTOEVSKY 

53. WILLIAM JAMES 

54. FREUD 



MORTIMER J. ADLER, Editor in Chief 
WILLIAM GORMAN, General Editor 

Associate Editors 
HERMAN BERNICK OTTO BIRD PETER WOLFF 



ROBERT ANDERSON 
AARON BELL 
SAUL BELLOW ^ 
JOAN BERNICK 
SEYMOUR CAIN 
ROBERT CAMPBELL 
FREDERIC CAMPER 
JOYCE CONNOR 
MARY JANE DEICHES 
GORDON DUPEE 
RAYMOND ELLINWOOD 
WILLIAM GERHARD 
ROBERT HEMENWAY 



Editorial Staff 

DONALD HOLLBNHORST 
LEONARD OLSEN 
JANET POLLAK 
JOHN SLEDGE 
WILLIAM SPARKS 
DOROTHY HODSON VINING 
URSULA VON ECKARDT 
ELEANOR FRANK WHITE 
BENJAMIN ZIMMERMAN 



THOMAS COSGROVB 
JAMES DOYLE 
JAMES ELLINGTON 



DANIEL FBTLER 
NORMAN ATWOOD 
JOHN HARMON 
GERTRUDE JAEGER 
JACK LANDAU 
RICHARD LEWIS 
WERNER Low 
CHARLES NELSON 
HBLOISB OLSBN 
MARY REIS 

lOLA SCOFIELD 

SHIRLEY SHAPIRO 
MARGARET STERN 



Assistant Editors 

VIRGINIA COLTON 
RUTH GUSTAFSON 

Bibliographical Assistants 
MARIE SACHEY 



ROBERT MALIM 
GLADYS MOORE 
JAMES VAIL 



Executive Editor 
GEORGE BRYSON 

Supervisors 
MARTHA DUBOIS 
LORRAINE HEATH 
JOSEPH J. RODDY 



Editorial Assistants 
ROSALIE GITTBLSON 
MIYO URAKAWA 

Special^Consultants 
ARTHUR HYMAN 
JANET KALVBN 
HERBERT LAMM 
MILTON MAYER 
JOSEPH SCHWAB 



GENERAL CONTENTS 



VOLUME I 

PREFACE ......... xi 

EXPLANATION OF REFERENCE STYLE .... xxxiii 

Chapters 1-50 : ANGEL to LOVE ..... 1-1082. 

VOLUME II 

EXPLANATION OF REFERENCE STYLE ix 

Chapters 51-101: MAN to WORLD .... .1-1140 
Appendix I. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ADDITIONAL READINGS . 1143 

Appendix II. THE PRINCIPLES AND METHODS OF 

SYNTOPICAL CONSTRUCTION ..... 12.19 

INVENTORY OF TERMS ....... 1303 



CONTENTS 



PREFACE 


xi 


c 

Chapter 24. EVOLUTION 


451 


EXPLANATION OF REFERENCE 




< 25. EXPERIENCE 


468 


STYLE 


xxxiii 


s 26. FAMILY ' 


486 


Chapter i. ANGEL 


i 


< 27. FATE 


515 


2. ANIMAL 


19 










28. FORM 


526 


*. ARISTOCRACY 


So 






j 


j 


^29. GOD 


543 


/4. ART 


6 4 


^30. GOOD AND EVIL 


605- 


5. ASTRONOMY 


87 






/ 




31. GOVERNMENT 


637 


' 6. BEAUTY 


112 










<32. HABIT 


665 


^ 7. BEING 


126 










^33. HAPPINESS 


684 


8. CAUSE 


jce 










vx-34. HISTORY 


7. 11 


S$. CHANCE 


179 










35. HONOR 


728 


^10. CHANGE 


193 


36. HYPOTHESIS 


749 


n. CITIZEN 


218 










v^37- IDEA 


761 


12. CONSTITUTION 


233 


^ 38. IMMORTALITY 


784 


Si$* COURAGE 


252 


39. INDUCTION 


805 


14. CUSTOM AND 




^ 40. INFINITY 


816 


CONVENTION 


268 






15. DEFINITION 


286 


^ 41. JUDGMENT 


835 


/ 




^42. JUSTICE 


850 


1 6. DEMOCRACY 


303 


^43. KNOWLEDGE 


880 


Xiy. DESIRE 


323 


^ 44. LABOR 


921 


1 8. DIALECTIC 


345 


^ 45. LANGUAGE 


941 


< 19. DUTY 


358 


^46. LAW 


962 


{ 20. EDUCATION 


376 


47. LIBERTY 


991 


21. ELEMENT 


400 


yHft. LIFE AND DEATH 


1013 


^ 22. EMOTION 


413 


^49. LOGIC 


1035 


23. ETERNITY 


437 


X^o. LOVE ' 


1051 



PREFACE 



L THE NATURE OF THE SYNTOPICON 

BY calling this work "a Syntopicon of Great Books of the Western 
World" the editors hope to characterize its nature, to indicate the 
function it performs in relation to the set as a whole, and to assert its 
originality as an intellectual instrument. The relation of these two volumes 
of The Great Ideas to the rest of the set is the key to the nature of the Syn- 
topicon and its originality as an instrument. Apart from this relation, The 
Great Ideas, though to some extent readable in itself, does not perform 
the function for which it was created to show that the 443 works which 
comprise Volumes 4 to 54 can be seen and used as something more than a 
collection of books. 

The great books are pre-eminently those which have given the western 
tradition its life and light. The unity of this set of books does not consist 
merely in the fact that each member of it is a great book worth reading, 
A deeper unity exists in the relation of all the books to one tradition, a 
unity shown by the continuity of the discussion of common themes and 
problems. It is claimed for this set of great books that all the works in it 
are significantly related to one another and that, taken together, they ade- 
quately present the ideas and issues, the terms and topics, that have made 
the western tradition what it is. More than a collection of books, then, this 
set is a certain kind of whole that can and should be read as such. 

The Great Ideas results from and records such a reading of the great 
books. The aim of this "syntopical reading" was to discover the unity and 
continuity of western thought in the discussion of common themes and 
problems from one end of the tradition to the other. The Syntopicon does 
not reproduce or present the results of this reading in a digest to save 
others the trouble of reading the great books for themselves. On the con- 
trary, it only lays down the lines along which a syntopical reading of the 
great books can be done, and shows why and how it should be done. The 

xi 



xii THE GREAT IDEAS 

various uses of the Syntopicon, described in Section III of this Preface, all 
derive from its primary purpose to serve as a guide to the reading of 
Great Booths of the Western World as a unified whole. 

The lines along which a syntopical reading of the great books can and 
should be done are the main lines of the continuous discussion that runs 
through the thirty centuries of western civilization. This great conversa- 
tion across the ages is a living organism whose structure the Syntopicon 
tries to articulate. It tries to show the many strands of this conversation be- 
tween the greatest minds of western civilization on the themes which have 
concerned men in every epoch, and which cover the whole range of man's 
speculative inquiries and practical interests. To the extent that it succeeds, 
it reveals the unity and continuity of the western tradition. 

It was with these considerations in mind that the editors called The 
Great Ideas a Syntopicon of the great books literally, a collection of the 
topics which are the main themes of the conversation to be found in the 
books. A topic is a subject of discussion. It is a place at which minds meet 
to agree or disagree, but at least to communicate with one another 
about some common concern. Just as a number of minds, or what they 
have to say, can be related by their relevance to a common theme, so a 
number of topics can be related by their relevance to a common term a 
single concept or category which generates a number of problems or 
themes for discussion. Hence the Syntopicon is organized, first, by a list- 
ing of the ideas that are the important common terms of discussion; and, 
then, by an enumeration of the topics that are the various particular points 
about which the discussion of each of these ideas revolves. 

The full title of this work The Great Ideas, a Syntopicon of Great 
Bool(s of the Western World thus indicates not only that its structure 
consists of terms and topics, but also that it functions as a guide to the 
great books from which its terms and topics are drawn. But the title may 
fail to indicate another equally important function which the Syntopicon 
performs when it is taken together with the great books. By serving as a 
guide to the syntopical reading of the great books, it does more than trans- 
form them from a mere collection of books into a unified whole; it trans- 
forms them into a new kind of encyclopaedic whole a new kind of 
reference library. Without in any way interfering with all the values the 
great books have as books to be read individually, the Syntopicon gives 



PREFACE xiii 

them the further utility of a unified reference library in the realm of 
thought and opinion. 

Because of the traditional and proved importance of the thought and 
opinion contained in the great books, the Syntopicon, in the editors* opin- 
ion, creates an intellectual instrument which is comparable to, though 
quite distinct from, the dictionary and the encyclopaedia. The dictionary 
is a basic reference work in the sphere of language. The general encyclo- 
paedia is a basic reference work in the sphere of fact, concerned with all 
matters ascertainable in the present state of historical and scientific knowl- 
edge. The Syntopicon these two volumes taken together with the rest of 
the set is a basic reference work in the sphere of ideas, comprehending the 
wisdom and understanding accumulated thus far in all major fields of 
inquiry. As its utility is realized, it will, the editors hope, take its place 
beside the dictionary and the encyclopaedia in a triad of fundamental ref- 
erence works. 



II. THE STRUCTURE OF THE SYNTOPICON 

The Great Ideas consists of 102 chapters, each of which provides a syn- 
topical treatment of one of the basic terms or concepts in the great books. 
As the Table of Contents indicates, the chapters are arranged in the alpha- 
betical order of these 102 terms or concepts: from ANGEL to LOVE in Vol- 
ume I, and from MAN to WORLD in Volume II. 

Following the chapter on WORLD, there are two appendices. Appendix I 
is a Bibliography of Additional Readings. Appendix II is an essay on the 
Principles and Methods of Syntopical Construction. These two appendices 
are in turn followed by an Inventory of Terms. 

THE IO1 CHAPTERS 

Each of the 102 chapters is constructed according to the same pattern. 
Each consists of five parts an Introduction, an Outline of Topics, Refer- 
ences, Cross-References, and Additional Readings. The inner structure of 
the Syntopicon is constituted by the order and relation of these five parts, 
and by the integral relation of the Inventory of Terms to the 102 chaptdus 
as a whole. 



xiv THE GREAT IDEAS 

(1) INTRODUCTION. Each chapter begins with an essay which com- 
ments on the various meanings of the idea under consideration, and takes 
note of the problems it has raised and the controversies it has occasioned 
in the tradition of western thought. 

The Introduction to a great idea is designed to serve as a guide to its 
topics and, through them, to the content of the references. For certain of 
the most important topics, it frequently provides, in the words of the au- 
thors themselves, a foretaste of the great conversation contained in the 
passages referred to. The Introduction usually expands on the necessarily 
brief statement of the themes or issues in the Outline of Topics, and fur- 
nishes some comment on the structure of the Outline as a whole, and on 
the relation of particular topics to one another. 

The Introduction serves one other purpose. It indicates some of the con- 
nections between the idea it discusses and other great ideas, thus function- 
ing as a commentary on the Cross-References. In some cases, the Introduc- 
tion also calls attention to the way in which certain works recommended 
in the Additional Readings supplement the references to the great books 
in the discussion of certain aspects of the idea under consideration. 

(2) OUTLINE OF TOPICS. In each chapter, the Outline of Topics 
follows the Introduction. It states the major themes of the conversation to 
be found in the great books on the idea of that chapter. It exhibits the in- 
ternal structure of the idea by presenting its topics in relation to one an- 
other. There are about 3000 topics in the Syntopicon as a whole, an average 
of 30 to a chapter, though the actual number varies from as few as six top- 
ics in a chapter to as many as 76. 

The 3000 topics provide a statement of the scope and variety of subjects 
with which the great books deal in a substantial and significant fashion. 
Since the topics are divided among 102 chapters, according to the great 
ideas under which they fall, the user of the Syntopicon can find a particu- 
lar topic by turning to the chapter on the idea which is a central term ex- 
pressed in the statement of that topic or, if not actually present in the 
phrasing of the topic, is implied by it. 

Almost all the topics involve one or more terms other than the name of 
'the great idea under which they fall. Hence, by consulting the Inventory 
of Terms, the user of the Syntopicon can ascertain whether the particular 
subject in which he is interested is represented by one or more of the 3000 



PREFACE xv 

topics. As will be seen below, the prime function of the Inventory is to 
enable the user of the Syntopicon to find topics in which he is interested 
and which he could not otherwise find except by examining the Outlines 
of Topics, chapter by chapter. 

Since the references to the great books are organized by topics, the indi- 
vidual topic, rather than a great idea, is the elementary unit of the Syntop- 
icon. From the standpoint of the references, the great ideas are collec- 
tions of topics. The same is true of all the other terms listed in the Inven- 
tory of Terms. For each of these, one or more topics are the headings un- 
der which the discussion of the subject can be found in the great books. 
The user of the Syntopicon must, therefore, always use a topic rather than 
a term to discover what the great books have to say on a particular subject. 
However, with the help of the Inventory of Terms, he can always use a 
term to find the topics which either state or approximately, represent the 
subject of his interest. 

For the convenience of the reader, the Outline of Topics in each chap- 
ter is keyed to the pages of the Reference section which immediatelyfol- 
lows. In the Outline, the number to the right of a particular topic indicates 
on which page of the Reference section it begins. 

(3) REFERENCES. The References are the heart of each chapter. As 
the Introduction and the Outline of Topics are designed to help the reader 
use the References, so the References, organized topically, are designed to 
enable him to turn to the great books for the discussion of a particular 
subject. For each topic they locate, by volume and page, the relevant works 
and passages in Great Boo\s of the Western World. There are about 
163,000 references in the Syntopicon as a whole, an average of 1500 to a 
chapter, though the actual number varies from as few as 284 references 
in a chapter to as many as 7065. 

Under each topic, the references are arranged in the order in which the 
authors and their works appear in Great Bool^s of the Western World. 
References to the Bible, when present, are always placed first. The order 
of references enables the user of the Syntopicon either to follow the dis- 
cussion of some theme through the great books in the historical sequence, 
or to select particular authors or the authors of a particular period, accord- 
ing to his interest 



xvi THE GREAT IDEAS 

Ideally, a syntopical reading of the great books in relation to any single 
topic should cover all the works or passages cited under that topic. Ideally, 
such a reading should proceed, in the first instance at least, in the order in 
which the references are presented. Reading the materials in chronological 
order enables the reader to follow the actual development of thought on 
a topic. In many passages, later authors explicitly refer to earlier ones; and 
even more frequently, the expression of later views presupposes an under- 
standing of earlier ones, on which they are based or with which they take 
issue. 

But the individual reader may deviate from this ideal procedure in a 
number of ways, according to his particular interests. He may wish only to 
sample the materials referred to under a given topic; or he may wish to 
examine what a certain group of authors have to say on a particular topic. 
The reader may know sufficiently well the position of certain authors on 
the topic in question, and so may turn his attention to other authors whose 
works are cited there; or he may wish to examine thoroughly the thought 
of certain authors, while merely forming a general impression of what 
others have to say. The Reference section is so constructed that it permits 
the reader, almost at a glance, to follow any one of a wide variety of pro- 
cedures. 

A brief explanatory note, repeated at the beginning of every Reference 
section, gives the minimum necessary directions for going from the refer- 
ences to the passages to which they refer. For the sake of brevity, it offers 
only such information as is uniform for all of the works cited. If the 
reader wishes complete information concerning the way in which each 
particular work is cited, he will find this set forth, by authors and titles, in 
the Explanation of Reference Style, which immediately follows this Pref- 
ace (see pg. xxxiii) and is also printed, for the reader's convenience, at the 
opening of Volume II. The Explanation of Reference Style contains a com- 
plete account of all the symbols and abbreviations used in the Reference 
section and gives examples of the usual typographical form of the refer- 
ences. 

Only one further point requires comment here. In some chapters, a few 
topics contain no references. These topics serve in the Outline as headings 
for other topics grouped analytically under them. The user of the Syn- 
topicon who wants to know what the great books have to say on a partic- 
ular subject, and finds that subject represented by a topic without reference 



PREFACE xvfl 

content, will find in its subordinate topics references to the great books 
on various aspects of the general subject he has in mind. 

(4) CROSS-REFERENCES. The Cross-References follow the Refer- 
ences in each chapter. They direct the reader to other chapters in which 
similar or related matters are considered. By relating the topics of one 
chapter to those of other chapters, the Cross-References show the inter- 
connection of the great ideas. 

In general, the order of the Cross-References follows that of the Outline 
of Topics. Each entry in the Cross-References indicates, by its phrasing, 
the subject of the topic in a given chapter to which topics in other chapters 
are related or similar. 

The phrasing of the Cross-References enables the reader to determine 
whether the topics in the other chapters mentioned are similar or related 
to the topic in this chapter. The related topics will usually offer a quite 
different set of references. 

The user of the Syntopicon will find that topics in different chapters 
often resemble one another, both in their phrasing and in the references 
set forth under them. In a few cases they are identical or almost identical. 
But similar topics will usually differ in their reference content because the 
meaning of a topic is partly determined by the idea under which it falls, 
and by the surrounding topics which form its context. Hence, in most 
cases, the reader who turns to similar topics in other chapters will find 
some proportion of different references. 

(5) ADDITIONAL READINGS, Great Booths of the Western World 
comprises 443 works by 74 authors; if we add the 77 books of the Bible, 
which are syntopically treated along with these published works, the num- 
ber is 520. But this large number does not represent all the books which 
make signal contributions to the great conversation in the sphere of each 
of the great ideas. 

The list of Additional Readings which is the last part of each chapter is 
a list of books recommended as companions to the works and passages 
cited in the Reference section. For the ideas and topics of each chapter, 
they supplement or amplify the discussion to be found in the great books. 
They represent some of the works in the wider field of literature, in which 
the great books occupy a central position. 



xviii THE GREAT IDEAS 

In each list of Additional Readings, the recommended titles are divided 
into two groups: first, works written by authors represented in Great 
Boofa of the Western World; and second, works by other authors. Each 
group is listed chronologically. Whenever they are available, translations 
of foreign works are suggested. The existence of English translations is 
always indicated by the use of English titles; these are usually accom- 
panied by the title in the original language. 

The 102 lists of Additional Readings, each constructed for the idea and 
topics of a particular chapter, contain in all 2603 titles by 1181 authors. For 
the convenience of the reader, the authors and titles in the 102 separate 
lists of Additional Readings are compiled into a single list in the Bibliog- 
raphy of Additional Readings, which is Appendix I (see Volume II, pg. 



In the Bibliography of Additional Readings, the authors' names are in 
alphabetical order and the works of each author are listed alphabetically 
under his name. In addition, the Bibliography provides useful information 
concerning authors and works, such as birth and death dates of authors, 
date and place of writing or publication, names of editors or translators, 
names of publishers, and names of standard collections in which individual 
works appear. A note, preceding the Bibliography, explains the principles 
of its construction. 

THE INVENTORY OF TERMS 

The Inventory of Terms is an integral part of the Syntopicon placed for 
convenience at the end of Volume II. 

The Syntopicon is both a book to be read and a reference book. The 
Table of Contents sets forth its contents as a book to be read. But since this 
is limited to listing the 102 great ideas chapter by chapter, it cannot indi- 
cate the scope and range of the Syntopicon as a reference book. The In- 
ventory of Terms performs that function; it serves as a table of contents 
for the Syntopicon as a reference book. 

The person who wishes to use the Syntopicon as a reference book, in 
order to learn what the great books have to say on a particular subject, 
must be able to find that subject among the 3000 topics. The primary func- 
tion of the Inventory of Terms is to enable him to find the topic or topics 
whfch either clearly express or approximately represent the subject of his 
inquiry. It does so by citing, for each term listed, the topics in which that 



PREFACE xix 

term is a principal element. It cites these by giving the name of the chapter 
in which the topic appears, and the number of the topic in that chapter. 
The reader can find the topic in which he is interested by looking in the 
Inventory for the term or terms that would appear in a statement of the 
subject. 

The user of the Syntopicon may have a broader interest than can be ex- 
pressed in a particular topic. He may wish to examine the whole range of 
discussion of a basic concept, whether that be one of the great ideas or 
some other term. This may involve, not one or two topics, but a large 
number, as is certainly the case for the great ideas, and for many other 
important concepts as well. Since the Inventory of Terms cites all the top- 
ics in which each term is significantly involved, it enables the reader to 
investigate the whole range of the discussion in the great books relevant to 
that term. 

Among the terms listed in the Inventory are the names of the 102 
great ideas. This does not duplicate the information furnished by the 
Table of Contents. For each of the great ideas, the Table of Contents lo- 
cates only the whole chapter which deals with that great idea; whereas 
the Inventory of Terms usually cites topics in many other chapters, in ad- 
dition to the chapter on that idea itself. For the reader who wishes to ex- 
plore the discussion of a great idea as thoroughly as possible, the Inven- 
tory of Terms supplements the topics to be found in the chapter on that 
idea, and even those mentioned in the Cross-References of that chapter. 

The 1800 terms in the Inventory are listed alphabetically, and for each 
term the relevant topics are cited in the alphabetical order of the chapters 
in which the topics occur. Sometimes the topics are divided into two 
groups, of primary and secondary importance. Within each group, the 
chapters are alphabetically arranged. 

The Inventory is likely to present only one difficulty to the person who 
consults it in order to find a particular topic. The first step in the location 
of a topic is accomplished when the reader turns in the Inventory to the 
term that he thinks is involved in a statement of the subject of his interest. 
But, finding a number of topics cited there, he must choose among them. 

There are two ways for him to proceed: (i) he can examine the topics 
one after another, until he finds the one which satisfies him as a state- 
ment of the subject; or (2) he can use the names of the chapters in which 
the topics occur as a clue to finding the topic which states the subject of 



xx THE GREAT IDEAS 

his inquiry. Since the content of particular topics is largely determined by 
the idea under which they fall, the chapter names will quite frequently 
prove a reliable guide. 

A brief note, at the beginning of the Inventory of Terms, explains its 
construction and furnishes directions for its use. Nothing more need be 
said here of its structure, or of its utility in making the Syntopicon a ref- 
erence book. But a word should be added about the significance of the In- 
ventory in relation to the great ideas. 

The division of the Syntopicon into 102 chapters may give rise to the 
notion that its editors think there are only 102 ideas worth discussing. The 
number of really great, that is, primary or pivotal ideas may be smaller or 
larger than 102. That number represents an editorial judgment which was 
made in the course of constructing the Syntopicon. How it was reached is 
explained elsewhere (see Appendix II, Section I); but here it should be 
said that it does not represent a judgment by the editors that the 102 terms 
selected by them are the only concepts or ideas which have notable sig- 
nificance in the tradition of western thought. The Inventory of Terms 
manifests exactly the opposite judgment. Its 1800 words or phrases express 
important concepts. Though many of these will immediately be seen to 
have much less comprehensive or critical meaning than the 102 major 
terms of the Syntopicon, they all have general currency or importance 
in some special field of inquiry. They also represent notions or topics 
which fall under one or more of the 102 great ideas. 

THE PRINCIPLES AND METHODS OF 
SYNTOPICAL CONSTRUCTION 

The essay on the Principles and Methods of Syntopical Construction is 
Appendix II (see Volume II, pg. 1219). It is intended as a supplement to 
this Preface. The foregoing brief descriptions of the parts of the Syntopi- 
con indicate its structure, but they do not explain how it was constructed. 

The work of creating each part of the Syntopicon raised many difficult 
intellectual and editorial problems. These problems, and especially the 
principles and methods by which they were solved, may be of interest to 
the reader after he has had some experience in using the Syntopicon, but 
probably not before. The editors decided to make the essay on the Syn- 
topicon's construction an appendix to the work, rather than burden the 
Preface with an account of the methods employed and an exposition of 



PREFACE xxi 

the principles adopted. While freeing the Preface from the burden of 
fuller explanations, they nevertheless hoped to provide systematic an- 
swers to questions which might arise in the reader's mind as a result of 
using the Syntopicon. 



III. THE USES OF THE SYNTOPICON 

The foregoing discussion of the nature and structure of the Syntopicon 
has expressed the purpose for which it was designed, but it does not fully 
state all its possible uses. There are four basic types of usefulness which the 
editors hope the Syntopicon will have. Two of these have already been 
mentioned. It has been pointed out that the Syntopicon is both a reference 
book and a book to be read. But the Syntopicon is also intended to serve 
as an instrument of liberal education, through the aid it can give to a cer- 
tain kind of study and teaching of the great books. It is not inconsistent 
with its primary function as a reference book that it should, in addition, 
prove to be an instrument of research and discovery. 

(i) The Syntopicon as a reference book. 

The description (in Section II of this Preface) of the parts of the Syn- 
topicon, and their function in the structure of the whole, includes some 
indication of how it may be used as a reference book. Here we are con- 
cerned with its general character as a reference work, as evidenced by the 
types of questions it has been constructed to answer. 

In contradistinction to books of other sorts, reference books are de- 
signed to help the reader who comes to them with inquiries on particular 
subjects. If, in addition to answering the questions he brings, they raise 
further questions in his mind and excite him to further inquiries, which, 
in turn, they are able to satisfy, they are more than answer-books. They are 
pedagogues, leading the mind from question to question in the pursuit of 
learning. Reference books at their best perform an educational function, 
not simply by answering questions, but by arousing and sustaining inquiry. 

Nevertheless, the field of any reference book is defined, in the first in- 
stance, by the types of questions it is able to answer. The specific type of 
inquiry which the Syntopicon is able to satisfy, and which gives it its spe- 
cial character as a reference book, can be formulated by the question. What 



xxii THE GREAT IDEAS 

do the great booty have to say on this subject? This is not the only ques- 
tion the Syntopicon is designed to answer, but it is the primary one. 

The topics are the units through which the Syntopicon functions as a 
reference book, since it is under the topics that the references to the great 
books are assembled; and it is through reading the works or passages rec- 
ommended by these references that the person who consults the Syntopi- 
con finds the answer to his question, What do the great books have to say 
on this subject ? 

The range and variety of the particular subjects of inquiry on which 
the Syntopicon can be consulted, is indicated quantitatively by the num- 
ber of topics and terms: 2987 topics are covered in the 102 chapters; 1798 
terms are listed in the Inventory of Terms. Qualitatively -, the range and 
variety of the inquiries the Syntopicon is able to satisfy, can be seen only 
through an examination of the topics, chapter by chapter, or by an exami- 
nation of the chapter titles in the Table of Contents and the words or 
phrases listed in the Inventory of Terms. 

To every question expressed in this way What do the great books have 
to say on this subject? the Syntopicon helps the reader to discover the 
answer for himself by a syntopical reading of the great books in the light 
of the topics and guided by the references assembled under them. This 
fact distinguishes the Syntopicon from all other familiar reference books, 
which contain within themselves the answers to the questions on which 
they are consulted. The Syntopicon does not contain the answers, but only 
a guide to where the answers can be found in the pages of the great books. 
The references which constitute this guide do not tell the reader what the 
great books have to say on a particular subject. They only tell him where 
to read in the great books in order to discover for himself the thought 
and opinion, the imagination and emotion, in which the authors of these 
books have expressed their minds on this or that particular subject. For 
this reason it was said earlier in this Preface that only when it is taken to- 
gether with the great books themselves, does the Syntopicon create a ref- 
erence library in the sphere of thought and opinion. 

While this is true for the primary type of question which the Syntopi- 
con is designed to answer through its system of references to the great 
books, it is not true, at least not to the same extent, for the subordinate 
types of questions now to be considered. 



PREFACE xxiii 

The question, What themes have been discussed in the tradition of west- 
ern thought under this idea? is answered in the first instance by the Out- 
line of Topics in the chapter on each of the great ideas. If the reader be- 
comes interested in the actual content of the discussion under one or more 
of these topics, he will then be asking the primary sort of question, to 
which the references, assembled under these topics, provide the beginning 
of an answer, and the great books the fullness of it. 

The question, To which of the other great ideas is this idea related and 
how is it related? is answered by the Cross-References in the chapter on 
each of the great ideas. The Cross-References enumerate the topics in 
other chapters which are related to the topics covered by the idea in ques- 
tion. The introductory essay on the idea also usually contains references 
to other Introductions in which related ideas are considered. By reading 
the Introduction and examining the Cross-References, a person can use the 
Syntopicon to discover, at least initially, the connections between one great 
idea and others. 

The question, What boo\s other than those published in this set contain 
important discussions of this idea? is answered, to some extent, by the 
Additional Readings listed in the chapter on each of the great ideas. 

The question, What is the history of the idea, its various meanings, and 
the problems or controversies it has raised? is answered, at least initially, 
by the Introduction to the chapter on each of the great ideas. Here as be- 
fore, if the reader's interest is aroused to further inquiry, the topics, the 
references under them, the passages in the great books referred to, and the 
books listed in the Additional Readings, provide the means for a fuller ex- 
ploration of the idea, in varying degrees of thoroughness and ramification. 

(^L) The Syntopicon as a book to be read. 

With respect to its 102 essays on the great ideas, the Syntopicon is first 
of all a book to be read. These essays are arranged in the alphabetical or- 
der of the ideas, but they need not be read in that order. Each is intended 
to be intelligible in itself, independently of the others. 

The reader can therefore begin according to his interests with any one of 
the Introductions to the great ideas. No matter where he begins, he will 
find that the reading of no other Introduction is presupposed. But he will 
also find that each Introduction traces some of the connections between 
the particular idea which it treats and other great ideas. 



xxiv THE GREAT IDEAS 

With whatever idea he begins, the introductory essay will at least sug- 
gest other ideas as subjects of related interest. These in turn will turn his 
attention to, and may arouse his interest in, still others. Since each of the 
great ideas is directly or remotely related to many others perhaps to all- 
through a network of connections radiating from each idea as a point of 
origin, the reader, starting at any point in the realm of thought, can ex- 
plore the whole of it by going from any one idea to all the rest by circuits 
or pathways of his own choosing. 

The reading of one or more Introductions should also turn attention to 
the Outlines of Topics in these same chapters; and, through them and the 
references organized under them, to the great books themselves. As in- 
tegral parts of the Syntopicon, the Introductions to the great ideas are not 
intended to satisfy the reader's interest, but rather to arouse it, and then 
direct it to the great books. The name "Introduction" specifies the func- 
tion these essays were designed to perform. When they function effective- 
ly as introductions to the Outlines of Topics and the References, they im- 
plement the use of the Syntopicon, not simply as a reference book, but as 
an instrument of liberal education. 

(3) The Syntopicon as an instrument of liberal education. 

The Syntopicon serves the end of liberal education to the extent that it 
facilitates the reading of the great books and, beyond that, the study and 
teaching of them. To make the nature of this educational contribution 
clear, it is necessary to distinguish between the integral and the syntopical 
reading of great books. 

Integral reading consists simply in reading a whole book through. But 
syntopical reading does not consist simply in reading parts of a book 
rather than the whole. It involves the reading of one book in relation to 
others, all of them relevant to the consideration of the same topic. 

In some cases, as the References show, whole works are cited along with 
passages from other works, which may be as short as a paragraph or as 
long as a chapter or a series of chapters. For the most part, a syntopical 
reading consists in reading passages of varying length rather than whole 
works; but die point remains that the essence of syntopical reading lies in 
the juxtaposition of many authors under the same topic and, in conse- 
quence, the reading together of their works, in whole or part. 



PREFACE xxv 

Neither of these two types of reading can ever be a substitute for the 
other, nor can either be taken as sufficient in itself. On the contrary, each 
is incomplete without the other. Those who begin by reading in the great 
books and reading them syntopically must eventually read at least some 
of them integrally. Those who have already read some of the great books 
through must read them syntopically to discover what an integral reading 
of the great books seldom reveals, except, perhaps, to the most mature 
student or conscientious scholar. For each of these two sorts of persons 
the beginning reader and the more advanced student or scholar the Syn- 
topicon functions differently and the syntopical reading of the great books 
serves a different purpose. 

FOR THE BEGINNING READER in the extreme case, a person who has read 
none of the great books a syntopical reading, done in accordance with 
the references under even a few topics, works in three ways: initiatively, 
suggestively, and instructively. 

It works initiatively by overcoming the initial difficulty that anyone 
faces when confronted by a collection of books as vast and, in a sense, as 
overpowering as Great Bool(s of the Western World. The problem is 
where to begin and in what order to proceed. There are many solutions to 
this problem, usually in the form of courses of reading based on different 
principles of selection; but these usually require the reading of whole 
books or, at least, the integral reading of large parts of them. 

It is a matter of general experience that this kind of solutioa seldom 
achieves the intended result. A syntopical reading of the great books pro- 
vides a radically different sort of solution, which promises to be more ef- 
fective. It initiates the reading of the great books by enabling persons to 
read in them on the subjects in which they are interested ; and on those 
subjects, to read relatively short passages from a large number of authors. 
It assumes only that every educable mind has some interest in one or more 
of the themes, problems, or ideas on which the great books touch. 

A syntopical reading may also work suggestively. Starting from a read- 
er's existing interest in a particular topic, it may arouse or create an interest 
in other topics related to those which initiated his reading in the great 
books. The syntopical reading of a collection of authors under a particular 
topic may also impel the reader to look beyond the passages cited. Except 



xxvi THE GREAT IDEAS 

when they cite whole works, the references cite passages which neces- 
sarily exist in a context, ultimately the context of the whole book. Few of 
these passages are absolutely self-contained. For few of them can it be said 
that it will be finally satisfactory to read them without looking further 
into the author's thought. Hence, proceeding along the natural lines of 
his own interests, the reader may be led from reading small parts of cer- 
tain books to reading larger parts and, eventually, to reading whole books. 
If this process is repeated, each syntopical reading may occasion and stimu- 
late a more and more extensive integral reading of the great books. 

Working initiatively and suggestively, syntopical reading opens the 
great books at the pages of maximum interest to the individual and, by 
the force of the passages read and their dependence on context, carries him 
from reading parts to reading whole works. Syntopical reading works in- 
structively when it guides the mind in interpreting and understanding the 
passages or works being read. It does this in three ways. 

First, the topic in connection with which the passage is being read serves 
to give direction to the reader in interpreting the passage. But it does not 
tell him what the passage means, since the passage cited may be relevant 
to the topic in any one of a number of ways. Hence the reader is called 
upon to discover precisely what relevance the passage has to the topic. To 
learn to do this is to acquire a major skill in the art of reading. 

Second, the collection of a number of passages on the same topic, but 
from different works and different authors, serves to sharpen the reader's 
interpretation of each passage read. Sometimes, when passages from the 
same book or author are read in sequence and in the context of one an- 
other, each becomes clearer. Sometimes the meaning of each of a series of 
contrasting or conflicting passages from different books or authors is ac- 
centuated when they are read against one another. And sometimes the 
passages from one author, by amplifying or commenting on the passages 
cited from another, materially help the reader's understanding of the sec- 
ond author. 

Third, if the individual does a syntopical reading of the great books 
under a number of distinct topics, the fact that the same passage will often 
be found cited under two or more topics will have its instructive effect. 
As relevant to distinct topics, the passage must have an amplitude of 
meaning which the reader will come to perceive when he interprets it 
somewhat differently in relation to different topics. Such multiple inter- 



-PREFACE xxvii 

pretation not only is a basic exercise in the art of reading, but also tends 
to make the mind habitually alert to the many strains of meaning which 
any rich or complex passage can contain. 

In this description of the ways in which a syntopical reading instructs in 
the art of reading the great books, we have emphasized only the influence 
of the topic under which the reading is done and the effect of reading one 
passage in relation to another or in relation to several distinct topics. But 
to assure or reinforce its instructive effect, two other factors may operate 
in the background of a syntopical reading. One is the whole Outline of 
Topics, which places a particular topic in the context of other topics under 
the same idea. The other is the Introduction to that idea, which may help 
the reader to interpret the particular topic, thereby increasing the effective- 
ness of that topic as a guide to the interpretation of the works or passages 
referred to under it. 

IF WE TURN NOW FROM THE BEGINNING READER to the more mature student 
or scholar in the extreme case, a person who has read through many, if 
not all, of the great books we shall see that a syntopical reading works 
in a different way. It no longer need function initiatively or suggestively; 
nor, for the competent reader, need it serve instructively, to develop skill 
in the art of reading. But it does provide the occasion and the materials 
for a more intensive and critical reading of passages already read; and it 
supplements the reading of whole works independently of one another by 
requiring an examination of these works, or passages from them, in mu- 
tual relation, as relevant to the same topic. 

It is the general experience of highly competent readers that a great 
book can be read through many times without the attainment of such 
complete mastery that the reader knows the relevance of every passage in 
it to every theme it touches. On the contrary, the integral reading of a 
great book, even when done more than once, seldom reveals even a large 
part of its meaning. Only the most intensive scholarly study of a particu- 
lar book or author ever arrives at such mastery. 

Short of that, reading a great book through one or more times will in- 
evitably leave unnoticed or only partly recognized many passages of criti- 
cal significance to a particular theme or problem. Only when the book is 
read with that particular subject in mind will these passages, hitherto 
unobserved, be found. 



xxviii THE GREAT IDEAS 

The truth of this can be verified by accomplished readers of the great 
books if they will examine, under particular topics, passages from books 
they have already read or even studied to some extent. Unless their previ- 
ous reading of the books was done in the light of the particular intellec- 
tual interest represented by this topic, they are likely to find some passages 
that they never saw before, or at least never fully recognized as having 
the significance they take on when read syntopically in the light of this 
topic and in relation to other works and passages relevant to the same 
theme. 

The Syntopicon can thus serve those who have already done, to a greater 
or less extent, an integral reading of the great books. The method of syn- 
topical reading not only provides a different and rewarding way of read- 
ing them, but also carries the study of them to deeper and deeper levels of 
understanding. It overcomes the defects of the ordinary integral reading 
in several ways. It involves reading the great books in relation to one 
another rather than in isolation. It supplements the knowledge of whole 
works by concentration on the significance of parts. Taking each of 3000 
topics as the occasion for a purposeful reading in all the great books, it 
makes possible the close study of each work in relation to all the problems 
or issues on which it bears. 

There is still another way in which the method of syntopical reading 
can advance the study of the great books, or rather a studious use of them. 
Here the aim is not to study the books themselves, but to consider a prob- 
lem or an issue to the solution or clarification of which they contribute. 

The particular problem may involve many topics in one or more chap- 
ters. It may involve a number of great ideas and many subordinate terms. 
The organization of the Syntopicon enables the student of such a problem 
to discover the range of the terms and topics traditionally involved in its 
consideration. The References enable him to examine systematically, in 
their chronological order or in any order he wishes, the record of western 
thought concerning this problem, so far as it is contained in the great 
books. The Additional Readings supplement these materials by citing 
other books which bear upon the problem more or less directly. 

It does not seem an exaggeration to say that a person who has done all 
the syntopical reading suggested by the References and the Additional 
Readings on a particular problem, will have a fairly adequate knowledge 
of that problem and its proposed solutions in the development of western 



PREFACE xxix 

thought. The Syntopicon should be able to save the person who is begin- 
ning his inquiry into a certain problem much of the preliminary labor of 
research, and advance him rapidly to the point where he can begin to 
think independently about it, because he knows what thinking has been 
done. For the scholar, already advanced in his research on a given problem, 
it may still be possible for the Syntopicon to serve some good purpose as 
a reminder or a check; it may even uncover a neglected passage, or throw 
new light upon one by placing it in the context of other passages. 

WHAT HAS JUST BEEN SAID about the studious or scholarly use of the Syn- 
topicon suggests how it may serve as an instrument in teaching the great 
books, or in using them as teaching materials. For the most part, the great 
books enter the curricula of schools and colleges engaged in liberal 
education only by way of courses in which some of these books, or most 
of them, are read integrally. Even when they are read in selections rather 
than as wholes, they are, for the most part, used as materials in a general 
course of study rather than as applicable to the study of particular subject 
matters. 

Without detracting from or competing with the unquestionable value 
of such procedures, the Syntopicon offers another pedagogical use of the 
great books. The method of syntopical reading makes them available in 
the teaching of courses concerned with particular subject matters, or in 
the conduct of seminars devoted to the study of particular problems. In 
certain cases, it may encourage the reading of the great texts in place of 
textbooks. 

For a particular problem or subject matter, whose name is either one of 
the great ideas or a major term in the Inventory of Terms, the Syntopicon 
suggests some, if not all, of the topics which deserve to be studied, and 
some, if not all, of the works which deserve to be read in whole or part 
It thus provides a set of materials organized so as to be adaptable to the 
method and interest of the individual teacher. For example, at one ex- 
treme, the teacher can use the Syntopicon merely as a guide to supplemen- 
tary reading; at the other extreme, he c&n ^se it to construct his own set 
of textual materials, selected from the fc^ferences and the Additional 
Readings and organized in the framework of a sequence of topics. 



xxx THE GREAT IDEAS 

(4) The Syntopicon as an instrument of discovery and researc 

What has already been said about the use of the Syntopicon by the s 
ous student, or even the advanced scholar, in the sphere of a partici 
problem or subject matter, obviously covers part of the Syntopicon's uti 
as an instrument of research or discovery. But there are three special ty 
of inquiry for the pursuit of which the Syntopicon seems to be especi; 
adapted. 

The first of these is the study of the history of ideas. The chapter 
each of the 102 great ideas presents the record of thought in the fonr 
references to the great books, organized under each topic. Since the 
erences are arranged in the order in which the authors and works app 
in the set of great books, and since, with few exceptions, this is a stri< 
chronological order, the record of thought is presented in an order sui 
to the historian's interest. The Additional Readings, which supplem 
the great books in the record, are also arranged chronologically. He 
the Syntopicon provides an organization of materials eminently usefu 
the scholar engaged in the historical study of ideas. 

The second type of special inquiry concerns the thought of a single 
thor, in its historical relation to the thought of predecessors who in 
enced him and followers influenced by him. If that author happens to 
one of the authors of the great books, the Syntopicon can facilitate si 
research, since, for hundreds of distinct topics, it places references to 
work of the particular author in the context of references to other auth 
earlier, later, or contemporary whom he may have influenced or 
whom he may have been influenced. 

The third type of special inquiry is limited to the thought of a parti 
lar period rather than a particular author. Within this limitation, the i 
torical interest may extend to all the great and near-great minds v 
formed the thought of this period, as well as to all the ideas with wh 
they dealt. So far as the formative minds of the particular period are re{ 
sented by authors of the great books and by other authors cited in 
Additional Readings, the Synt^ijpon can assist such research. Instead 
using its references vertically, t&m one end of the tradition to the otl 
as would the student of the history of aa idea, the student of an epoch 
thought would cut through the references horizontally. He would t 
all the authors and books which fell within the period under conside 



PREFACE xxxi 

tion; he would examine the materials referred to under every idea or topic 
which appeared to have been considered by the minds of that period. 

In these three types of historical inquiry, the Syntopicon is at best an 
auxiliary instrument in the service of scholarship. If it proves to be more 
than that for the ordinary student, it will probably be less than that for 
the accomplished scholar whose documentary resources in a particular 
field are more extensive than those from which the Syntopicon is con- 
structed. This is especially true of those problems in the history of ideas 
which have been investigated by prolonged research. But some problems 
have not been so investigated, and the Syntopicon may have something to 
contribute to the study of these. It is even possible that the Syntopicon may 
uncover or call attention to new problems, or may cause the re-formulation 
of old problems in a new way. 

THE GRAND RESEARCH suggested by the existence of the Syntopicon is not 
historical, however, but philosophical. Stated simply, it is the project of 
creating in and for the twentieth century a synthesis or summation of 
western thought, past and present, which will serve the intellectual needs 
of our time, as analogous syntheses or summations have served antiquity, 
the Middle Ages, and the period of the enlightenment. 

The 102 great ideas, the 1800 other terms, and the 3000 topics of the 
Syntopicon are a fair representation of the objects, as the materials to be 
found in the 443 works here published and the 2600 other works listed in 
the Additional Readings are a fair representation of the content, of west- 
ern inquiry and discussion. The Syntopicon is, therefore, an instrument 
adapted to the sort of research which might produce a summation of west- 
ern thought from the beginning to the present. 

Because the existence of the Syntopicon makes it possible and suggests 
that it be undertaken, the project envisaged might be called a Program 
of Syntopical Research. Because the method of this research, like the 
method which produced the Syntopicon, would be thoroughly dialectical 
in character, the intellectual summation which would be its product could 
be called a Summa Dialectica. 

MORTIMER J. ADLER, Editor 
Chicago, 1952 



EXPLANATION OF REFERENCE STYLE 



THE references have a uniform typographical style, but the manner 
of referring to particular works varies in certain respects. The Expla- 
nation of Reference Style describes the typographical construction of the 
references, with some comment on the variations. It is divided into four 
parts: 

I, General Typographical Style 
II. Style of Bible References 

III. Punctuation, Symbols, Abbreviations 

IV. Table of Authors, Titles, and Author's Divisions Cited 

I. GENERAL TYPOGRAPHICAL STYLE 

The two examples below illustrate the general typographical pattern of 
the references to Great Booths of the Western World \ and the headings 
above the examples call attention to the five elements commonly present 
in the construction of the references. 

Volume Author's Page 

Number Name Title of Work Author's Divisions Sections 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH xxi 178a-200d 

41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 365b-378d 

(1) Volume Number: 

The volume number indicates in which volume of Great Booths of the 
Western World the work or passage referred to can be found. Most vol- 
umes contain the work of one author. When a single volume contains the 
works of two or more authors, the volume number is given for each 
author. When the work of a single author is contained in two volumes, 
the volume number is assigned according to the contents of the volume. 

(2) Author's Name: 

The author's name immediately follows the volume number, except in 
the case of the American State Papers and the Federalist, which are in- 
cluded in Volume 43. Authors' names are usually given in shortened form, 

xxxiii 



xxxiv THE GREAT IDEAS 

(3) Title of Work: 

The title follows the author's name, with the two exceptions above 
noted. Titles are also frequently abbreviated or shortened. When two or 
more works are cited for a single author, the titles are listed in the order 
in which the works appear in the volume. 

(4) Author's Divisions: 

By "author's divisions" is meant all such subdivisions of a work as book, 
part, section, chapter, paragraph, line number. The phrase "author's divi- 
sions" does not necessarily mean divisions made by the author; they 
may have been made by an editor of his work. 

Author's divisions are given only for some works, according as, in the 
judgment of the editors, their inclusion would prove meaningful or help- 
ful to the reader. References to Locke, for instance, as in the example, 
always cite author's divisions; whereas references to Gibbon, as in the 
example, do not. 

For some works, author's divisions are completely given, as for Locke. 
For other works, only the most important or largest divisions are given. 
Thus for Rabelais only the book but not the chapter is given. 

Line numbers, in brackets, are given for all works of poetry, including 
those published in prose translations. For Goethe's Faust, the line num- 
bers cited refer to the lines of the English translation as well as to the lines 
of the original German. For other poetical works in translation the 
works of Homer, the Greek dramatists, Lucretius, Virgil, and Dante the 
line numbers cited refer to the lines of the works in their original lan- 
guages; for these works, the line numbers printed on the pages of this 
edition furnish only an approximate indication of the location of the 
equivalent lines in the English translation. For all poetical works written 
in English, the line numbers are the numbers of the English lines. In the 
case of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, the numbering of the lines is consecu- 
tive for all the tales written in verse. 

In references to the works of Aristotle (in Volumes 8 and 9), the figures 
and letters enclosed in the brackets signify the page, column, and approxi- 
mate line in the Berlin edition of the Greek text edited by Immanuel 
Bekker. In references to the American State Papers (in Volume 43), 



REFERENCE STYLE xxxv 

the bracketed line numbers refer to the lines on the pages of this 
edition only. 

In references to the Summa Theologica of Thomas Aquinas (in Vol- 
umes 19 and 20), the author's division "Part I-H" stands for Part I of the 
Second Part, and "Part II-H" stands for Part II of the Second Part. In the 
case of the Summa Theologica^ the author's divisions cited may include 
not only questions and articles, but the subdivisions of articles. In such 
cases the page sections correspond in extent to that of a whole article, to 
enable the reader to see the subdivision of an article, when it is cited, in 
the context of other parts to which it is related. 

Author's divisions precede page sections except in the case of footnote 
and note numbers, which follow page sections. When more than one pas- 
sage is cited within the same author's division, the author's division is not 
repeated; as, for example: 

38 ROUSSEAU: Social Contract, BK n, 403a-404a; 405d-406a 

(5) Page Sections: 

The pages of Great BooJ(s of the Western World are printed in either 
one or two columns. The upper and lower halves of a one-column page 
are indicated by the letters a and b. When the text is printed in two col- 
umns, the letters a and b refer to the upper and lower halves of the left- 
hand column, the letters c and d to the upper and lower halves of the 
right-hand column. These half and quarter page sections are based on 
divisions of a full text page. 

Page sections give the page numbers and locate the sections of the page 
in which the passage referred to begins and ends. For example, in the 
reference: 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 116a-119b 

the passage cited begins in the upper half of page 116 and ends in the 
lower half of page 119. In the reference: 

7 PLATO: Symposium, 163b-164c 

the passage cited begins in the lower half of the left-hand column of page 
163 and ends in the upper half of the right-hand column of page 164. 
In references to works printed in two columns, the format of the page 



xxxvi THE GREAT IDEAS 

sometimes places continuous reading matter in the a and c sections of the 
upper half of the page, or in the b and d sections of the lower half of the 
page. This occurs when a work or an author's division begins in the lower, 
or ends in the upper, half of the two-column page. Where continuous read- 
ing matter thus appears in discontinuous page sections, it is indicated by 
a,c or b,d. For example: 

14 PLUTARCH: Solon 64b,d-77a,c 

means that the work cited begins in the lower half of page 64 and ends in 
the upper half of page 77. 

Footnotes or notes are sometimes specifically cited by themselves in the 
references, in which case the page sections given correspond to their loca- 
tion on the pages referred to. When a footnote or a note is not specifically 
cited, the page sections given mark the beginning and the end of the text 
referred to. The reader is expected to consult the footnotes or notes indi- 
cated in the body of that text. 

Chaucer's works (in Volume 22) are printed in two columns; the inside 
column of each page contains the Middle English text, the outside column 
a Modern English version. Since both columns contain equivalent pas- 
sages, the references to this volume employ page sections (a and b) which 
divide each page only into an upper and a lower half. 

II. STYLE OF BIBLE REFERENCES 

All Bible references are to book, chapter, and verse in both the King 
James and Douay versions of the Bible. When the King James and Douay 
versions differ in the title of books or in the numbering of chapters or 
verses, the King James version is cited first and the Douay, indicated by 
a (D), follows. For example: 

OLD TESTAMENT: Nehtmiah, 7:45 (Z>) // Esdras, 7:46 

In references to the Bible, a colon is used to separate chapter and verse 
numbers; and a comma separates the numbers of verses in the same chap- 
ter. For example: 

OLD TESTAMENT: Exodus, 6:1-4,16-18 



REFERENCE STYLE xxxvii 

III. PUNCTUATION, SYMBOLS, ABBREVIATIONS 
(i) Punctuation 

Diagonal line: When a series of references to one author includes two 
or more of his works published in the same volume, a diagonal line is used 
to separate references to one work from references to another. The diago- 
nal line is used in the same way to separate references to different books 
of the Bible. For example: 

OLD TESTAMENT: Exodus, 33:12-23 /Job, 11:7-9 

43 MILL: Liberty, 302d-303a / Representative Government, 327b,d-332d 

Semi-Colon: When a series of references includes the citation of two or 
more passages in the same work, a semi-colon is used to separate the refer- 
ences to these passages. For example: 

OLD TESTAMENT : Genesis, 1:12-14; 9:1-11 

38 ROUSSEAU: Social Contract, BK n, 403a-404a; 405d-406a 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, PART n, 265c-266a; PART iv, 346c-348a 

Comma: When a comma separates the title of a work, or an author's 
division of a work, from the page sections which follow, passages cited are 
only a part of the whole work or of the author's division indicated. For 
example, in the references: 

14 PLUTARCH: Lycurgus, 36a-b; 44d-45c 
36 SWIFT: Gulliver, PART n, 73a-74b 

the passages from Plutarch are only a part of Lycurgus, and the passage 
from Swift is only a few pages from Part II of Gulliver's Travels. 

When the title of a work, or an author's division of a work, is not 
separated by a comma from the page sections which follow, the reference 
is to the whole work or to the whole of the indicated author's division. 
For example, in the references: 

14 PLUTARCH: Lycurgus 32a-4Sd 
36 SWIFT: Gulliver, PART n 45a-87b 

the whole of Lycurgus and the whole of Part II of Gulliver's Travels 
are cited. 



xxxviii THE GREAT IDEAS 

(2) Symbols 

esp: The abbreviation "esp" precedes one or more especially relevant 
passages which are contained within the page boundaries of a larger pas- 
sage or a whole work that has just been cited. 

Whenever passages contained within a single reference are especially 
referred to, a comma after the page sections separates these passages. For 
example: 

42 KANT: Science of Right, 435a-441d esp 435c-436b, 437c-d, 438d-441d 

Whenever passages contained within a single reference to the Bible are 
especially referred to, a comma is also used to separate these passages. For 
example: 

NEW TESTAMENT: Romans, 1-8 esp 2:11-16, 2:27-29, 7:21-25, 8:27 

passim: The word "passim" following a reference signifies that the 
work or passage referred to discusses the topic under which it is cited, 
intermittently rather than continuously. For example: 

9 ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK n, CH 7 461d-463c passim / Athenian 
Constitution, CH 1-41 553a-572d passim 

(3) Abbreviations 

The following is a list of the abbreviations used in the references. Unless 
an abbreviation for the plural is listed below, the singular abbreviation is 
used for both singular and plural words. 



A 
AA . . . 


ARTICLE 
ARTICLES 


W 
OT . 


. note 
OLD TESTAMENT 


ANS 


ANSWER 


par . . 


paragraph 


APH 


APHORISM , 


PREF 


PREFACE 


BK . . . 


BOOK 


PROP 


PROPOSITION 


CH . . . 


CHAPTER 


Q . 


QUESTION 


COROL . 

(0) 


COROLLARY 
DOUAY 


QQ . 
REP 


. QUESTIONS 
. REPLY 


DEF . 


DEFINITION 


SC 


SCENE 


DEMONS!' . 


DEMONSTRATION 


SCHOL . 


. SCHOLIUM 


DIV 


DIVISION 


SECT 


. SECTION 


EX PL . . 


EXPLANATION 


SUPPL . 


. SUPPLEMENT 


[fn] . . 


footnote 


TR 


. TRACTATE 


INTRO . 


INTRODUCTION 







REFERENCE STYLE xxxix 

IV, TABLE OF AUTHORS, TITLES, AND 
AUTHOR'S DIVISIONS CITED 

The following pages present a tabulation of the contents of Great Bool(s 
of the Western World y Volumes 4-54. The authors are enumerated in the 
order in which they appear in the successive volumes of the set; and under 
each author's name the titles of his works are listed in the order of their 
appearance. 

In the references, the name of the author is frequently given in short- 
ened form. In this table, their full names are given, followed by their life 
dates when these are ascertainable. Because some volumes contain the 
works of two or more authors who may be separated by centuries, the 
order in which the authors are cited in the references sometimes departs 
from the strict chronological order. The life dates help the reader to place 
the authors and their works in the right chronological order. 

In the references, the title of a work is frequently given in an abbrevi- 
ated or shortened form. In this table, the titles are first given exactly as 
they appear in the references. Whenever this is an abbreviated or short- 
ened title, the full title follows. 

The table also includes a notation of the author's divisions that are used 
in references to particular works. 



A dash in the column headed "Author's Divisions Cite,d" means that references 
to the work or works in question cite page sections only. Where the author's divisions 
cited are the same for several titles, they are named only once, either opposite the set 
of titles as a whole, or opposite the last title in the group. 

Titles m brackets are collective titles which appear on the title page of the work, 
but do not appear in the references. The names of the authors of The Federalist (in 
Volume 43) are bracketed because they do not appear in the references. 

ylume Number, Author, and Title Author's Divisions Cited 

HOMER 
The Iliad The Odyssey BOOK, Line 

AESCHYLUS (c. 525-456 B.C.) 
The Suppliant Maidens Agamemnon 

The Persians Choephoroe 

The Seven Against Thebes Eumenides Line 

Prometheus Bound 



xl 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



Volume Number, Author, and Title 

5 SOPHOCLES (c, 495-406 B.C.) 
Oedipus the King 
Oedipus at Colonus 
Antigone 
Ajax 

5 EURIPIDES (c. 480-406 B.C.) 
Rhesus 
Medea 
Hippolytus 
Alcestis 
Heracleidae 
The Suppliants 
The Trojan Women 
Ion 
Helen 
Andromache 

5 ARISTOPHANES (c. 445-**. 380 B.C.) 

The Acharnians 
The Knights 
The Clouds 
The Wasps 
The Peace 
The Birds 

6 HERODOTUS (c. 484-^. 425 B.C.) 

The History 

6 THUCYDIDES (c. 460-*, 400 B.C.) 

Peloponnesian War The History of the Peloponnesian War 



Electra 

Trachiniae 

Philoctetes 



Electra 

The Bacchantes 

Hecuba 

Heracles Mad 

The Phoenician Maidens 

Orestes 

Iphigenia Among the Tauri 

Iphigenia at Aulis 

The Cyclops 



The Frogs 

The Lysistrata 

The Thesmophoriazusae 

The Ecclesiazusae 

The Plutus 



Author's Divisions CM 



Line 



Line 



Line 



BOOK 



BOOK 



7 PLATO (c. 428-^. 348 B.C.) 
Charmides 
Lysis 
Laches 
Protagoras 
Euthydemus 
Cratylus 
Phaedrus 
Ion 

Symposium 
Meno 
Euthyphro 
Apology 
Crito 



Phaedo 

Gorgias 

The Republic 

Timaeus 

Crittas 

Parmenides 

Theaetetus 

Sophist 

Statesman 

Philebus 

Laws 

The Seventh Letter 



except Republic 

and Laws, BOOK 



REFERENCE STYLE 



Volume Number, Author, and Title 



8 ARISTOTLE (384-322 B.C.) 

Categories 

Interpretation On Interpretation 

Prior Analytics 
Posterior Analytics 
Topics 

Sophistical Refutations On Sophistical Refutations 

Physics 

Heavens On the Heavens 

Generation and Corruption On Generation and Corruption 

Meteorology 
Metaphysics 

Soul On the Soul 

Sense and the Sensible On Sense and the Sensible 

Memory and Reminiscence On Memory and Reminiscence 

Sleep On Sleep and Sleeplessness 

Dreams On Dreams 

Prophesying On Prophesying by Dreams 

Longevity On Longevity and Shortness of Life 

Youth, Life, and Breathing On Youth and Old Age, On 

Life and Death, On Breathing 

9 ARISTOTLE 

History of Animals 

Parts of Animals On the Parts of Animals 

Motion of Animals On the Motion of Animals 

Gait of Animals On the Gait of Animals 

Generation of Animals On the Generation of Animals 

Ethics Nicomachean Ethics 

Politics 

The Athenian Constitution 

Rhetoric 

Poetics On Poetics 

HIPPOCRATES (fl. 400 B.C.) 
The Oath 

Ancient Medicine On Ancient Medicine 

Airs, Waters, Places On Airs, Waters, and Places 

Prognostics The BooJ( of Prognostics 

Regimen in Acute Diseases On Regimen in Acute Diseases 

Epidemics Of the Epidemics 

Injuries of the Head On Injuries of the Head 

Surgery On the Surgery 

Fractures On Fractures 

Articulations r-On the Articulations 
Instruments of Reduction 



xli 
Author's Divisions Cited 

CHAPTER, Line 

BOOK, CHAPTER, Line 
CHAPTER, Line 

BOOK, CHAPTER, Line 



CHAPTER, Line 



BOOK, CHAPTER, 

CHAPTER, Line 

BOOK, CHAPTER, Line 

CHAPTER, paragraph 

BOOK, CHAPTER, LiftC 

CHAPTER, Line 



> paragraph 

paragraph, APPENDIX 
BOOK, SECTION, paragraph, CASE 



paragraph 



xlii 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



Volume Number, Author, and Title 

10 HIPPOCRATES (continued) 
Aphorisms 
The Law 

Ulcers On Ulcers 

Pistulae On Fistulae 

Hemorrhoids On Hemorrhoids 

Sacred Disease On the Sacred Disease 

10 GALEN (c. 130-^. 200 A.D.) 

Natural Faculties On the Natural Faculties 

11 EUCLID (ft. c. 300 B.C.) 

Elements The Thirteen Books of Euclid's Elements 



11 ARCHIMEDES (c. 287-212 B.C.) 

Sphere and Cylinder On the Sphere and Cylinder, 

Books HI 
Measurement of a Circle 

Conoids and Spheroids On Conoids and Spheroids 

Spirals On Spirals 

Equilibrium of Planes On the Equilibrium of Planes, 

Books HI 
The Sand-Reckoner 
Quadrature of the Parabola 

Floating Bodies On Floating Bodies, Books HI 

Boo ^ of Lemmas 

Method The Method Treating of Mechanical Problems 

11 APOLLONIUS OF PERGA (c. 2fa-c. 200 B.C.) 
Conies On Conic Sections 

11 NlCOMACHUS OF GflRASA (ft. C. 100 A.D.) 

Arithmetic Introduction to Arithmetic 

12 LUCRETIUS (c. 98-^. 55 B.C.) 

Nature of Things On the Nature of Things 

12 EPICTETUS (c. 6o-c. 138 A.D.) 
The Discourses 

12 AURELIUS (MARCUS AURELIUS) (121-180 A.D,) 

The Meditations 

13 VIRGIL (70-19 B.C.) 

The Eclogues 
The Georgics 
The Aeneid 



Author's Divisions Cited 

SECTION, paragraph 
paragraph 



BOOK, CHAPTER 



BOOK, DEFINITION, POSTULATE, 
COMMON NOTION, PROPOSITION, LEMMA 



BOOK, DEFINITION, ASSUMPTION, 

PROPOSITION, COROLLARY, LEMMA 

PROPOSITION 

DEFINITION, LEMMA, PROPOSITION 
PROPOSITION, DEFINITION 

BOOK, POSTULATE, PROPOSITION 

PROPOSITION, DEFINITION 
BOOK, POSTULATE, PROPOSITION 

> PROPOSITION 



BOOK, DEFINITION, PROPOSITION 
BOOK 

BOOK, Line 

BOOK, CHAPTER 
BOOK, SECTION 

Number of Eclogue, Line 

Number of Georgic, Line 

BOOK, Line 



REFERENCE STYLE 



xliii 



lume Number, Author, and Title 

PLUTARCH (c. 46-^. 120 A.D.) 

[The Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans} 



Author** Divisions Cited 



Theseus 

Romulus 

Romulus-Theseus Romulus and 

Theseus Compared 
Lycurgus 
Numa Pompihus 
Lycurgus-Numa Lycurgus and 

Numa Compared 
Solon 
Poplicola 
Poplicola- Solon Pophcola and 

Solon Compared 
Themistocles 
Camtllus 
Pericles 
Fabius 
Fabius-Periclcs Fabius and 

Pericles Compared 
Alcibiades 
Conolanus 
Alcibiades -Coriolanus Alcibiades 

and Conolanus Compared 
Timokon 
Aemihus Paulus 
Aemihus Paulus-Timoleon 

Aemilius Paulus and Timoleon 

Compared 
Pelopidas 
Marcellus 
Marcellus-Pelopidas Marcellus 

and Pelopidas Compared 
Anstides 
Marcus Cato 
Anstides-Marcus Cato Anstides 

and Marcus Cato Compared 
Philopoemen 
Flamininus 
Flamininus-Philopoemen 

Flamininus and Philopoemen 

Compared 
Pyrrhus 
Caius Marius 
Lysander 
Sulla 
Lysander-Sutta Lysander and 

Sulla Compared 



Cimon 

Lucullus 

Cimon-Lucullus Cimon and 

Lucullus Compared 
Nicias 
Crassus 
Crassus -Nicias Crassus and 

Nicias Compared 
Sertonus 
Eumenes 
Eumenes-Sertorius Eumenes and 

Sertonus Compared 
Agesilaus 
Pompey 
Agesilaus-Pompey Agesilaus and 

Pompey Compared 
Alexander 
Caesar 
Phocion 

Cato the Younger 
Agis 

Cleomenes 
Tiberius Gracchus 
Caius Gracchus 
Cams and Tiberius Gracchus- Agis 

and Cleomenes Caius and 

Tiberius Gracchus and Agis and 

Cleomenes Compared 
Demosthenes 
Cicero 
Demosthenes- Cicero Demosthenes 

and Cicero Compared 
Demetrius 
Antony 
Antony-Demetrius Antony and 

Demetrius Compared 
Dion 

Marcus Brutus 
Brutus-Dion Brutus and 

Dion Conipared 
Aratus 
Artaxerxes 
Galba 
Otho 



xliv 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



Volume 'Number, Author, and Title 

15 TACITUS, P. CORNELIUS (c. 55-^. 117 A.D.) 

The Annals The Histories 



Author's Divisions Cited 



BOOK 



16 PTOLEMY (c. IQO-C. 178 A.D,) 
The Almagest 

16 COPERNICUS, NICOLAUS (1473-1543) 

Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres 

16 KEPLER, JOHANNES (1571-1630) 

Epitome Epitome ofCopermcan Astronomy: IV and V 

The Harmonies of the World: V 



BOOK 



17 PLOTINUS (205-270) 
First-Sixth Ennead- 



-The Stx Enneads 



18 AUGUSTINE, SAINT (354-430) 

The Confessions 
The City of God 
Christian Doctrine On Christian Doctrine 

19 AQUINAS, SAINT THOMAS (c. 1225-1274) 

The Summa Theologica, First Part; 
Part I of the Second Part, Questions 1-48 

20 AQUINAS, SAINT THOMAS 

The Summa Thfohgica, Part I of the Second 
Part (continued), Questions 49-114; Part II 
of the Second Part, Questions 1-46, 179-189; 
Third Part, Questions 1-26, 60-65; Supplement 
to the Third Part, Questions 69-99 

21 DANTE ALIGHIERI (1265-1321) 

The Divine Comedy \ HELL, PURGATORY, PARADISE 



TRACTATE, CHAPTER 

BOOK, paragraph 

BOOK, PREFACE, CHAPTER 
PREFACE, BOOK, CHAPTER 



PROLOGUE, PART, QUESTION, ARTICLE, 
ANSWER, CONTRARY, REPLY 



22 CHAUCER, GEOFFREY (c. 1340-1400) 
Troilus and Cressida 
[The Canterbury Tales] 

The Prologue 

The Knight's Tale 

The Miller's Prologue 

The Miller's Tale 

The Reeve's Prologue 

The Reeve's Tale 

The Cook's Prologue 

The Coo^s Tale 

Introduction to the Man of Law's 
Prologue 

The Prologue of the Man of Law's 



PROLOGUE, PART, QUESTION, ARTICLE, 
ANSWER, CONTRARY, REPLY 

Number of Canto, Line 

BOOK, STANZA 

Line, except prose parts (sec below) 
The Tale of the Man of Law 
The Wife of Bath's Prologue 
The Tale of the Wife of Bath 
The Friar's Prologue 
The Friar's Tale 
The Summoner's Prologue 
The Summoner's Tale 
The Clerks Prologue 
The CM'/ Tale 
The Merchant's Prologue 
The Merchant's Tale 



REFERENCE STYLE 



xlv 



folume Number, Author, and Title 

!2 CHAUCER, GEOFFREY (continued) 
[The Canterbury Tales] 
The Squire's Tale 
The Words of the Frantfin 
The Franklin's Prologue 
The Franks Tale 
The Physician's Tale 
The Words of the Host 
The Prologue of the Pardoner's Tale 
The Pardoner's Tale 
The Shipman's Prologue 
The Shipman's Tale 
The Prioress's Prologue 
The Prioress's Tale 
Prologue to Sir Thopas 
Sir Thopas 
Prologue to Melibeus 

3 MACHIAVELLI, NICOLO (1469-1527) 
The Prince 



Author** Divisions Cited 



The Tale of Melibeus 

The Monffs Prologue 

The Mon^s Tale 

The Prologue of the Nun's Priest's Tale 

The Nun's Priest's Tale 

Epilogue to the Nun's Priest's Tale 

The Second Nun's Prologue 

The Second Nun's Tale 

The Canon's Yeoman's Prologue 

The Canon's Yeoman's Tale 

The Manciple's Prologue 

The Manciple's Tale 

The Parson's Prologue 

The Parson's Tale 

L' Envoi 



paragraph 



3 HOBBES, THOMAS (1588-1679) 

Leviathan Leviathan^ or, Matter, Form, and Power 

of a Commonwealth, Ecclesiastical and Civil 

4 RABELAIS, FRANCOIS (c. 1495-1553) 

Gargantua and Pantagruel 

5 MONTAIGNE, MICHEL EYQUEM DE (1533-1592) 

The Essays 



paragraph 



CHAPTER 



INTRODUCTION, PART, CONCLUSION 



BOOK 



SHAKESPEARE, WILLIAM (1564-1616) 
1st Henry VI The First Part 

of King Henry the Sixth 
2nd Henry VI The Second Part 

of King Henry the Sixth 
3rd Henry VI The Third Part 

of King Henry the Sixth 
Richard III The Tragedy of 

King Richard the Third 
The Comedy of Errors 
Titus Andronicus 
The Taming of the Shrew 
The Two Gentlemen of Verona 
Love's Labour's Lost 
Romeo and Juliet 



Richard II The Tragedy of King 

Richard the Second 
A Midsummer-Night's Dream 
King John The Life and Death of 

King John 

The Merchant of Venice 
1st Henry IV The First Part of 

King Henry the Fourth 
2nd Henry IV The Second Part of 

King Henry the Fourth 
Much Ado About Nothing 

Henry V The Life of King Henry the Fifth 

Julius Caesar 

AS YOU Life It PROLOGUE, ACT, SCENE, EPILOGUE, LlttC 



xlvi THE GREAT IDEAS 

Volume Number, Author, and Title Author's Divisions Cited 

27 SHAKESPEARE, WILLIAM 

Twelfth Night Twelfth Night; Antony and Cleopatra 

or, What You Will Coriolanus 

Hamlet Hamlet, Prince ofDenmar{ Ttmon of Athens 

The Merry Wives of Windsor Pericles Pericles, Prince of Tyre 

Troilus and Cressida Cymbeline 

All's Well That Ends Well The Winter's Tale 

Measure for Measure The Tempest 

Othello Othello, the Moor of Venice Henry VIII The Famous History 

King Lear of the Life of King Henry 

Macbeth the Eighth PROLOGUE, ACT, SCENE, EPILOGUE, Line 

Sonnets Number of Sonnet 

28 GILBERT, WILLIAM (1540-1603) 

Loadstone On the Loadstone and Magnetic Bodies PREFACE, BOOK 

28 GALILEO GALILFI (1564-1642) 

Two New Sciences Concerning the Two New Sciences DAY 

28 HARVEY, WILLIAM (1578-1657) 

Motion of the Heart On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals 

Circulation of the Blood- On the Circulation of the Blood 

On Animal Generation On the Generation of Animals 

29 CERVANTES, MIGUEL DE (1547-1616) 

Don Quixote The History of Don Quixote de la Mancha PAR r 

30 BACON, SIR FRANCIS (1561-1626) 

Advancement of Learning 

Novum Organum PREFACE, BOOK, APHORISM 
New Atlantis 

31 DESCARTES, RENE* (1596-1650) 

Rules Rules for the Direction of the Mind Number of Rule 

Discourse Discourse on the Method PART 

Meditations Meditations on First Philosophy Number of Meditation 

Objections and Replies Objections Against 

the Meditations and Replies DEFINITION, POSTULATE, AXIOM, PROPOSITION 

The Geometry BOOK 

31 SPINOZA, BENEDICT DB (1632-1677) 

Ethics PART, PREFACE, DEFINITION, AXIOM, PROPOSITION, DEMONSTRATION, 

SCHOLIUM, COROLLARY, LEMMA, POSTULATE, EXPLANAIION, APPENDIX 



REFERENCE STYLE 



xlvii 



Volume Number, Author, and Title 

32 MILTON, JOHN (1608-1674) 

[English Minor Poems] 

Christs Nativity On the Morning 

ofChrists Nativity and The Hymn 

A Paraphrase on Psalm 114 

Psalm 136 

The Passion 

On Time 

Upon the Circumcision 

At a Solemn Musicl( 

An Epitaph on the Marchioness of 
Winchester 

Song on May Morning 

On Shafespear. 1630 

On the University Carrier 

Another on the Same 

L' Allegro 

II Penseroso 

Arcades 

Lycidas 

Comus 
Paradise Lost 
Samson Agonistes 
Areopagitica 

33 PASCAL, BLAISE (1623-1662) 

The Provincial Letters 

Pensees 

Vacuum Preface to the Treatise on the Vacuum and 

New Experiments Concerning the Vacuum 
Great Experiment Account of the Great Experiment 

Concerning the Equilibrium of Fluids 
Equilibrium of Liquids and 
Weight of Air Treatises on the Equilibrium of 

Liquids and on the Weight of the Mass of the Air 
Geometrical Demonstration On Geometrical 

Demonstration 
Arithmetical Triangle Treatise on the Arithmetical 

Triangle 
Correspondence with Fermat Correspondence with 

Permat on the Theory of Probabilities 

34 NEWTON, SIR ISAAC (1642-1727) 

Principles Mathematical Principles 

of Natural Philosophy 
Optics 



Author's Divisions Cited 



Line, except Sonnets and Psalms 



Death of a Fair Infant On the Death of 

a Fair Infant 

Vacation Exercise At a Vacation Exercise 

The Fifth Ode of Horace The Fifth Ode 

of Horace. Lib, I 
Sonnets, i, vn-xix 
New Forcers of Conscience On the New 

Forcers of Conscience under the Long 

Parliament 
Lord Gen. Fairfax On the Lord Gen. 

Fairfax at the siege of Colchester 
Lord Gen. Cromwell To the Lord Generatt 

Cromwell May 1652 
Sr Henry Vane To Sr Henry Vane the 

Younger 
Mr. Cyriac\ Stynner To Mr. Cyriacf( 

Sinner upon his Blindness 
Psalms, I-VHI, LXXX-LXXXVIII 



BOOK, Line 
Line 



Number of Pense'e 



DEFINITION, SCHOLIUM, LAW, COROLLARY, BOOK, RULE, 
LEMMA, PROPOSITION, PHENOMENON, HYPOTHESIS 

BOOK 



xlviii 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



Volume Number, Author, and Title 

34 HUYGENS, CHRISTIAAN (1629-1695) 

Light Treatise on Light 

35 LOCKE, JOHN (1632-1704) 

Toleration- A Letter Concerning Toleration 

Civil Government Concerning Civil Government, Second Essay 

Human Understanding An Essay Concerning Human Understanding 



Author's Divisions Cited 



PREFACE, CHAPTER 



CHAPTER, SECTION 

INTRODUCTION, BOOK, 

CHAPTER, SECTION 



35 BERKELEY, GEORGE (1685-1753) 

Human Knowledge The Principles of Human Knowledge 

35 HUME, DAVID (1711-1776) 

Human Understanding An Enquiry Concerning Human 

Understanding 

36 SWIFT, JONATHAN (1667-1745) 

Gulliver Gulliver's Travels 

36 STERNE, LAURENCE (1713-1768) 

Tristram Shandy 

37 FIELDING, HENRY (1707-1754) 

Tom Jones The History of Tom Jones, A Foundling 

38 MONTESQUIEU, CHARLES DE SECONDAT, BARON DE (1689-1755) 

The Spirit of Laws 

38 ROUSSEAU, JEAN JACQUES (1712-1778) 

Inequality On the Origin of Inequality 

Political Economy On Political Economy 

The Social Contract 

39 SMITH, ADAM (1723-1790) 

Wealth of Nations An Inquiry Into the 

Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations 

40 GIBBON, EDWARD (1737-1794) 

Decline and Fall The Decline and Fall of the 

Roman Empire, Chapters 1-40 

41 GIBBON, EDWARD 

Decline and Fall The Decline and Fall of the 

Roman Empire (continued), Chapters 41-71 



PREFACE, INTRODUCTION, SECTION 



INTRODUCTION, SECTION, DIVISION 



PART 



BOOK 



BOOK 



INTRODUCTION, BOOK 



REFERENCE STYLE xlix 

Volume Numkr, Author, and Title Author's Divisions Cited 

42 KANT, IMMANUEL (1724-1804) 

Pure Reason The Critique of Pure Reason 

Fund. Prin. Metaphysic of Morals Fundamental 

Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals 

Practical Reason The Critique of Practical Reason 

Pref. Metaphysical Elements of Ethics Preface 

and Introduction to the Metaphysical Elements 

of Ethics With a Note on Conscience 
Intro. Metaphysic of Morals General Introduction 

to the Metaphysic of Morals 
The Science of Right 
Judgement The Critique of Judgement 

43 DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE Line 
43 ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION Number of Article, Line 
43 CONSTITUTION OF THE U.S. ARTICLE, SECTION, AMENDMENT, Line 

43 [HAMILTON, ALEXANDER (1757-1804), MADISON, JAMES (1751-1836), 

JAY, JOHN (1745-1829)] 
THE FEDERALIST Papers, by NUMBER 

43 MILL, JOHN STUART (1806-1873) 

Liberty On Liberty 

Representative Government 

Utilitarianism 

44 BOSWELL, JAMES (1740-1795) 

Johnson Life of Samuel Johnson, L.L.D. 

45 LAVOISIER, ANTOINE LAURENT (1743-1794) 

Elements of Chemistry PREFACE, PART 

45 FOURIER, JEAN BAPTISTE JOSEPH (1768-1830) 

Theory of Heat Analytical Theory of Heat 

45 FARADAY, MICHAEL (1791-1867) 

Researches in Electricity Experimental Researches in Electricity 

46 HEGEL, GEORG WILHELM FRIEDRICH (1770-1831) 

The Philosophy of Right PREFACE, INTRODUCTION, PART, paragraph, ADDITION 

The Philosophy of History INTRODUCTION, PART 

47 GOETHE, JOHANN WOLFGANG VON (1749-1832) 

Faust, Parts I and II DEDICATION, PRELUDE, PROLOGUE, PART, Line 

48 MELVILLE, HERMAN (1819-1882) 

Moby Dic^ Moby DicJ(; or, The Whale 



1 THE GREAT IDEAS 

Volume Number, Author, and Titk Author's Divisions Cited 

49 DARWIN, CHARLES (1809-1882) 

Origin of Species The Origin of Species by Means of 

Natural Selection 
Descent of Man The Descent of Man and Selection in 

Relation to Sex 

50 MARX, KARL (1818-1883) 

Capital 

50 MARX, KARL and ENGELS, FRIEDRICH (1820-1895) 

Communist Manifesto Manifesto of the Communist Party 

51 TOLSTOY, LEO (1828-1910) 

War and Peace BOOK, EPILOGUE 

52 DOSTOEVSKY, FYODOR MIKHAILOVICH (1821-1881) 

The Brothers Karamazov BOOK, EPILOGUE 

53 JAMES, WILLIAM (1842-1910) 

V Psychology The Principles of Psychology 

54 FREUD, SIGMUND (1856-1939) 

) The Origin and Development of Repression 

Psycho- Andy sis The Unconscious 

Hysteria Selected Papers on General Introduction A General 

Hysteria, Chapters i-io Introduction to Psycho- Analysis 

The Sexual Enlightenment of Beyond the Pleasure Principle 

Children Group Psychology Group Psychology 

Psycho- Analytic Therapy The and the Analysis of the Ego 

Future Prospects of Psycho- The Ego and the Id 

Analytic Therapy Inhibitions, Symptoms, and Anxiety 

" Wild" Psycho -Analysis Obseiva- War and Death Thoughts for the 

tions on "Wild" Psycho-Analysis Times on War and Death 

The Interpretation of Dreams Civilization and Its Discontents 

Narcissism On Narcissism New Introductory Lectures New 

Instincts Instincts and Their Introductory Lectures on Psycho- 
Vicissitudes Analysis 



THE GREAT IDEAS: I 
Chapters 1-50: ANGEL to LOVE 



Chapteri: ANGEL 



INTRODUCTION 



INFLUENCED by a long tradition of reli- 
gious symbolism in painting and poetry, our 
imagination responds to the word "angel" by 
picturing a winged figure robed in dazzling 
white and having the bodily aspect of a human 
being. 

This image, common to believers and unbe- 
lievers, contains features which represent some 
of the elements of meaning in the abstract con- 
ception of angels as this is found in the writings 
of Jewish and Christian theologians and in re- 
lated discussions by the philosophers. The hu- 
man appearance suggests that angels, like men, 
are persons; that they are most essentially char- 
acterized by their intelligence. The wings sug- 
gest the function of angels their service as 
messengers from God to man. The aura of light 
which surrounds them signifies, according to 
established conventions of symbolism, the spir- 
ituality of angels. It suggests that to imagine 
angels with bodies is to use a pictorial metaphor. 

Another interpretation might be put upon 
this aura of light if one considers the role which 
the notion of angel has played in the history of 
thought. Wherever that notion has entered in- 
to discussions of God and man, of matter, 
mind, and soul, of knowledge and love, and 
even of time, space, and motion, it has cast 
light upon these other topics. The illumination 
which has been and can be derived from the 
idea of angels as a special kind of being or nature 
is in no way affected by doubts or denials of 
their existence. 

Whether such beings exist or not, the fact 
that they are conceivable has significance for 
theory and analysis. Those who do not believe 
in the existence or even the possible exist- 
enceof Utopias nevertheless regard them as 
fictions useful analytically in appraising ac- 
cepted realities. What an ideal society would be 
like can be considered apart from the question 



of its existence; and, so considered, it functions 
as an hypothesis in political and economic 
thought. What sort of being an angel would be 
if one existed can likewise serve as an hypothe- 
sis in the examination of a wide variety of 
theoretical problems. 

The idea of angels does in fact serve in pre- 
cisely this way as an analytical tool. It sharpens 
our understanding of what man is, how his mind 
operates, what the soul is, what manner of ex- 
istence and action anything would have apart 
from matter. Hence it suggests how matter and 
its motions in time and space determine the 
characteristics of corporeal existence. Pascal's 
remark that "man is neither angel nor brute, 
and the unfortunate thing is that he who would 
act the angel acts the brute" points to the 
different conceptions of man which result from 
supposing him to be either angel or brute rather 
than neither. Such views of human nature, con- 
sidered in the chapters on ANIMAL and MAN, 
cannot be fully explored without reference to 
theories of the human mind or soul in its rela- 
tion to matter and to body. As the chapters on 
MIND and SOUL indicate, theories carrying the 
names of Plato and Descartes, which attribute 
to the human mind or soul the being and pow- 
ers of a purely spiritual substance or entity, 
seem to place man in the company of the angels. 
In this tradition Locke applies the word "spir- 
its" equally to human minds and to supra- 
human intelligences. 

IT WOULD BE misleading to suppose that the 
idea of angels is primarily a construction of the 
philosophers a fiction invented for their ana- 
lytical purposes; or that it is simply their con- 
ception of a supra-mundane reality, concerning 
the existence and nature of which they dispute. 
In the literature of western civilization, angels 
first appear by name or reference in the Old 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



and the New Testaments. Readers of the Bible 
will remember many scenes in which an angel 
of the Lord performs the mission of acquainting 
man with God'j> will. Among the most memor- 
able of such occasions are the visits of the angels 
to Abraham and Lot and the angelic ministry 
of Gabriel in the Annunciation to Mary. 

In one book of the Bible, Tobias (Tobit, as 
it is called in the King James Apocrypha), one 
of the leading characters is the angel Raph- 
ael. Through most of the story he appears as 
a man, but at the end, after he has accomplished 
his mission, he reveals his identity. "I am the 
angel Raphael," he declares, 

one of the seven, who stand before the Lord. 

And when they had heard these things they were 
troubled; and being seized with fear they fell upon 
the ground on their face. 

And the angel said to them. Peace be to you. 
Fear not. 

For when I was with you, I was there by the will 
of God: bless ye him and sing praises to him. 

I seemed to eat and to drink with you; but I use 
an invisible meat and drink, which cannot be seen 
by men. 

It is time therefore that I return to him that sent 
me. ... 

And when he had said these things, he was taken 
from their sight; and they could see him no more. 

As A RESULT of scriptural exegesis and commen- 
tary, the angels become a fundamental topic for 
Jewish theologians from Philo to Maimomdes, 
and for such Christian theologians as Augustine, 
Scotus Engena, Gregory the Great, Aquinas, 
Luther, Calvin, Pascal, and Schleiermacher. 
They figure in the great poetry of the Judaeo- 
Christian tradition in the Divine Comedy of 
Dante, in Paradise Lost of Milton, and in 
Chaucer's Canterbury Tales and Goethe's Faust. 
The philosophers, especially in the iyth and 
1 8th centuries, are motivated by Scripture or 
provoked by theology to consider the existence, 
the nature, and the activity of angels. Hobbes, 
for example, attacks the supposition that angels 
arc immaterial on the ground that the notion 
of incorporeal substance is self-contradictory, 
and undertakes to re-interpret all the scriptural 
passages in which angels are described as spirits. 
After examining a great many, he says that "to 
mention all the places of the Old Testament 
where the name of Angel is found, would be 
too long. Therefore to comprehend them all at 
once, I say, there is no text in that part of the 



Old Testament, which the Church of England 
holdeth for Canonical, from which we can con- 
clude, there is, or hath been created, any per- 
manent thing (understood by the name o[ Spirit 
or Angel) that hath not quantity . . . and, in 
sum, which is not (taking Body for that which 
is somewhat or somewhere) Corporeal." 

All the passages can be interpreted, Hobbes 
thinks, simply in the sense in which "angel" 
means "messenger" and "most often, a messen- 
ger of God," which signifies "anything thai 
makes known his extra-ordinary presence." If, 
instead of existing only when they carry God's 
word to men, the angels are supposed to have 
permanent being, then they must be corporeal. 
As "in the resurrection men shall be permanent 
and not incorporeal," Hobbes writes, "so there- 
fore also are the angels ... To men that under- 
stand the signification of these words, substance 
and incorporeal" 'and mean by "incorporeal" 
having no body at all, not just a subtle body 
the words taken together "imply a contradic- 
tion." Hence Hobbes argues that to say "an 
angel, or spirit, is (in that sense) an incorporeal 
substance, is to say in effect that there is no 
angel or spirit at all. Considering therefore the 
signification of the word angel m the Old Testa- 
ment, and the nature of dreams and visions that 
happen to men by the ordinary way of nature," 
Hobbes concludes that the angels are "nothing 
but supernatural apparitions of the fancy, raised 
by the special and extraordinary operation of 
God, thereby to make his presence and com- 
mandments known to mankind, and chiefly to 
his own people." 

Locke seems to take the exactly opposite po- 
sition. Asserting that we have "no clear or 
distinct idea of substance in general," he does 
not think spirits any less intelligible than bodies. 
"The idea of corporeal substance" he writes, "is 
as remote from our conceptions and apprehen- 
sions, as that of spiritual substance or spirit; and 
therefore, from our not having any notion of 
the substance of spirit, we can no more con- 
clude its non-existence, than we can, for the 
same reason, deny the existence of body." Just 
as we form the complex idea of bodies by sup- 
posing their qualities, such as figure and motion, 
or color and weight, to co-exist in some sub- 
stratum; so by supposing the activities we find 
in ourselves such as "thinking, understanding, 



CHAPTER 1: ANGEL 



willing, knowing, and the power of beginning 
motion, etc." -to co-exist in some substance, 
"we are able to frame the complex idea of an 
immaterial spirit" 

Not only does Locke think that "we have as 
clear a perception and notion of immaterial sub- 
stances as we have of material," but he also 
finds the traditional doctrine of a hierarchy of 
angels quite acceptable to reason. "It is not im- 
possible to conceive, nor repugnant to reason, 
that there may be many species of spirits, as 
much separated and diversified one from an- 
other by distinct properties whereof we have 
no ideas, as the species of sensible things are dis- 
tinguished one from another by qualities which 
we know and observe in them." 

Locke goes even further beyond the mere 
possibility of angels to the likelihood of their 
real existence. His reasoning resembles the tra- 
ditional argument of the theologians on this dif- 
ficult point. "When we consider the infinite 
power and wisdom of the Maker," he writes, 
"we have reason to think that it is suitable to 
the magnificent harmony of the Universe, and 
the great design and infinite goodness of the 
Architect, that the species of creatures should 
also, by gentle degrees, ascend upward from us 
toward his infinite perfection, as we see they 
gradually descend from us downwards." 

Such speculations concerning the existence 
and the order of angels are usually thought to 
be the province of the theologian rather than 
the philosopher. But Bacon, like Locke, does 
not think it unfitting for the philosopher to in- 
quire into such matters. In natural theology 
for him a part of philosophyBacon thinks it is 
improper "from the contemplation of nature, 
and the principles of human reason, to dispute 
or urge anything with vehemence as to the 
mysteries of faith." But "it is otherwise," he 
declares, "as to the nature of spirits and angels; 
this being neither unsearchable nor forbid, but 
in a great part level to the human mind on 
account of their affinity." 

He does not further instruct us concerning 
angels in the Advancement of Learning, but in 
the Novum Organum he throws light on their 
nature as well as ours by touching on one char- 
acteristic difference between the human and 
the angelic mind. Discussing there the theory of 



(the bestower and creator of forms), and pet> 
haps for angels or intelligences at once to recog- 
nize forms affirmatively at the first glance of 
contemplation." 

UNLIKE Most of the great ideas with which 
we are concerned, the idea of angel seems to be 
limited in its historical scope. It is not merely 
that since the i8th century the discussion has 
dwindled, but also that the idea makes no ap- 
pearance in the great books of pagan antiquity 
certainly not in the strict sense of the term, 
whereby "angel" signifies a creature of God, 
spiritual in substance and nature, and playing 
a role in the divine government of the universe. 

There are, nevertheless, analogous concep- 
tions in the religion and philosophy of the an- 
cients; and in philosophy at least, the points of 
resemblance between the analogous concepts 
are sufficiently strong to establish a continuity 
of discussion. Furthermore, elements in the 
thought of Plato, Aristotle, and Plotinus exer- 
cise a critical influence on Judaeo-Christian 
angelology. 

Gibbon relates how the early Christians made 
the connection between the gods of polytheism 
and their doctrine about angels. "It was the 
universal sentiment both of the church and of 
heretics," he writes, "that the daemons were 
the authors, the patrons, and the objects of 
idolatry. Those rebellious spirits who had been 
degraded from the rank of angels, and cast 
down into the infernal pit, were still permitted 
to roam upon the earth, to torment the bodies 
and to seduce the minds of sinful men. The 
daemons soon discovered and abused the nat- 
ural propensity of the human heart towards 
devotion, and, artfully withdrawing the adora- 
tion of mankind from their Creator, they 
usurped the place and honors of the Supreme 
Deity." 

In the polytheistic religions of antiquity, the 
demi-gods or inferior deities are beings supe- 
rior in nature and power to man. "The poly- 
theist and the philosopher, the Greek and the 
barbarian," writes Gibbon, "were 1 alike accus- 
tomed to conceive a long succession, an infinite 
chain of angels, or daemons, or deities, or aeons, 
or emanations, issuing from the throne of light." 
In Plato's Symposium, for example, Diotima 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



twecn the divine and the mortal . . . and inter- 
prets between gods and men, conveying and 
taking across to the gods the prayers and sacri- 
fices of men, and to men the commands and re- 
plies of the gods; he is the mediator who spans 
the chasm which divides them." Love, Diotima 
explains, is only one of "these spirits and inter- 
mediate powers*' which "are many and diverse." 

Such demi-gods are intermediate by their 
very nature. Although superhuman in knowl- 
edge and action, they still are not completely 
divine. Occupying a place between men and 
gods, they are, according to Plato, "by nature 
neither mortal nor immortal." Their existence 
is necessary to fill out the hierarchy of natures. 
They are links in what has come to be called 
"the great chain of being." 

The analogy with the angels arises primarily 
from this fact of hierarchy. Both pagan and 
Christian religions believe in an order of super- 
natural or at least superhuman beings graded in 
perfection and power. In both, these beings 
serve as messengers from the gods to men; they 
act sometimes as guardians or protectors, some- 
times as traducers, deceivers, and enemies of 
man. But the analogy cannot be carried much 
further than this. The angels, according to 
Christian teaching, arc not inferior gods, or 
even demi-gods. As compared with the "inter- 
mediate spirits" of pagan religion, they are less 
human in character, as well as less divine. 
Nevertheless, the reader of the great poems of 
antiquity will find a striking parallelism be- 
tween the heavenly insurrection which under- 
lies the action of Prometheus Bound and the 
angelic warfare in Paradise Lost. 

IN THE WRITINGS of Plato, Aristotle, and Ploti- 
nus, philosophical inquiry turns from the sensi- 
ble world of material things to consider the ex- 
istence and nature of an order of purely intelli- 
gible beings. As there is an inherent connection 
between being perceptible to the senses and be- 
ing material, so that which is purely intelligible 
must be completely immaterial. If ideas exist 
independently in their own right and apart 
from knowing or thinking minds then they 
constitute such an order of purely intelligible 
entities, 

At this point a number of difficult questions 
arise. Are the intelligibles also intelligences, *>., 



arc they an order of knowers as well as a realm 
of knowables? Can they be regarded as sub- 
stances ? And if so, do they have a mode of ac- 
tion appropriate to their mode of being action 
which is other than knowing, action which in 
some way impinges on the course of events or 
the motions of the physical world ? 

Plotinus answers affirmatively that the pure- 
ly intelligible beings are also pure intelligences, 
but he does not conceive them as having any 
power or action except that of knowledge. An- 
other answer to these questions given in antiq- 
uity and the Middle Ages is that the intelli- 
gences are the celestial motors, the movers of 
the heavenly bodies. "Since we see," Aristotle 
writes, "that besides the simple spatial move- 
ment of the universe, which we say that the 
first and unmovable substance produces, there 
are other spatial movements those of the 
planets which are eternal (for a body which 
moves in a circle moves eternally), each of these 
movements also must be caused by a substance, 
both unmovable in itself and eternal." These 
secondary movers, Aristotle thinks, are "of the 
same number as the movements ol the stars," 
and not only must they be eternal and unmov- 
able, as is the prime mover, but also "without 
magnitude" or immaterial. 

Plato offers an alternative hypothesis that 
the celestial bodies are alive and have souls. 
This hypothesis, like Aristotle's, tends in the 
Middle Ages to be restated in terms of the 
theory of angels. Aquinas reports Augustine as 
thinking that "if the heavenly bodies are really 
living beings, their souls must be akin to the 
angelic nature." He himself holds that "spirit- 
ual substances are united to them as movers to 
things moved," the proof of which, he says, 
"lies in the fact that whereas nature moves to 
one fixed end, in which having attained it, it 
rests; this does not appear in the movement of 
the heavenly bodies. Hence it follows that they 
are moved by some intellectual substances." 

The question whether intelligences govern 
the planets also occupies the attention of an 
astronomer like Kepler. Although he denies 
any need for such intelligences among other 
reasons because planetary motion is not circular 
but elliptical he argues that the celestial 
movements are the work either "of the natural 
power of the bodies, or else a work of the soul 



CHAPTER 1: ANGEL 



acting uniformly in accordance with those bod- 
ily powers." But whether or not they are to be 
regarded as movers* as well as knotvers and know- 
ables t the intelligences represent for ancient and 
mediaeval thought a mode of being exempt 
from the vicissitudes of physical change even as 
it is separate from matter. 

WHEN MODERN philosophers consider spirits or 
spiritual being, they seldom deal with the an- 
cient speculations about pure intelligibles or 
separate intelligences without being influenced 
by the theological doctrine of angels which de- 
veloped in mediaeval thought. 

The extent of this doctrine may be judged 
from the fact that the Summa Theologica of 
Aquinas contains a whole treatise on the angels, 
as well as additional questions on the speech of 
angels, their hierarchies and orders, the division 
between the good and the bad angels, and 
their action on men the guardianship of the 
good angels and the assaults of the demons. 
That these additional questions are contained 
in the treatise on divine government throws 
some light on their theological significance. 

The primary fact about the angelic nature is 
immateriality. An angel is immaterial both in 
its substantial being and in its characteristic ac- 
tivity which, says Aquinas, is "an altogether 
immaterial mode of operation." Being imma- 
terial, they are also incorruptible. "Nothing is 
corrupted except by its form being separated 
from the matter . . . Consequently," Aquinas 
writes, "a subject composed of matter and form 
ceases to be actually when the form is separated 
from the matter. But if the form subsists in its 
own being, as happens in the angels, it cannot 
lose its being." To signify that they are intelli- 
gences existing apart from matter, the angels 
are sometimes called "subsisting forms" and 
sometimes "separate substances." 

Although they are imperishable in being and 
have immortal life, the angels are not, like God, 
truly eternal. "That heaven of heavens which 
Thou crcatedst in the beginning is some intellec- 
tual creature," Augustine writes, but it is in 
"no ways cocternal unto Thee." As created, the 
angels have a beginning. Yet, while not eternal, 
neither are they temporal creatures in contin- 
ual flux, but, according to Augustine, they 



sweetness of that most happy contemplation of 
Thyself. . . cleaving dose unto Thee, placed be- 
yond all the rolling vicissitudes of times." It is 
for this reason that the angels are spoken of as 
"aeviternal." 

The familia r question concerning the num- 
ber of angels able to stand on a needle's point 
if it was ever asked by mediaeval theologians 
merely poses the problem of how an incorpo- 
real substance occupies space. The way in which 
Aquinas discusses "angels in relation to place" 
discloses how the question serves to raise gen- 
erally significant issues concerning the nature of 
space and quantity, and their relation to causal- 
ity. He points out that a body occupies place in 
a circumscribed fashion, />., its dimensive 
quantity is contained within the space; whereas 
"an angel is said to be in a corporeal place by 
application of the angelic power in any manner 
whatever to the place. ... An incorporeal sub- 
stance virtually contains the thing with which it 
comes into contact, and is not contained by it." 
To an objector who thinks that since, unlike 
bodies, angels do not fill a place, several can be 
in the same place at the same time, Aquinas re- 
plies that two angels cannot be in the same 
place because "it is impossible for two complete 
causes to be immediately the cause of one and 
the same thing." Since an angel is where he 
acts, and since by the power of his action he 
contains the place at which he acts, "there can- 
not be but one angel at one place." 

Angels are also said to go from one place to 
another without traversing the intervening 
space and without the lapse of time. Consider- 
ing their immateriality, such action is less re- 
markable for angels to perform than is the ac- 
tion of electrons, which, according to modern 
quantum mechanics, jump from outer to inner 
orbits of the atom without taking time or pas- 
sing through inter-orbital space. 

The immateriality of angels has other conse- 
quences which throw comparative light on the 
conditions of corporeal existence. In the world 
of physical things we ordinarily think of a 
species as including a number of individuals. 
While all men have the same specific nature, 
they differ numerically or individually. But be- 
cause angels are immaterial substances, it is 
held that each angel is a distinct species. 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



number," Aquinas explains, "agree in form but 
are distinguished materially. If, therefore, the 
angels are not composed of matter and form . . . 
it follows that it is impossible for two angels to 
be of one species." 

Furthermore, as Aquinas states in another 
place, among "incorporeal substances there can- 
not be diversity of number without diversity 
of species and inequality of nature." Each 
species is necessarily higher or lower than an- 
other, so that the society of angels is a perfect 
hierarchy in which each member occupies a dis- 
tinct rank. No two angels are equal as, on the 
supposition that they share in the same specific 
humanity, all men are. Yet such names as "sera- 
phim" and "cherubim" and the distinction be- 
tween archangels and angels indicate an organi- 
zation of spiritual substances into various 
groups according to the tradition, into nine 
orders or subordinate hierarchies. 

The nine orders or ranks of angelic being are 
described by Dante in the Paradtso as dis- 
tinct circles of love and light. Using these meta- 
phors he thus reports his vision of the heavenly 
hierarchy. "I saw a Point which was raying out 
light so keen that the sight on which' it blazes 
must needs close because of its intense bright- 
ness. . . . Perhaps as near as a halo seems to 
girdle the light which paints it, when the vapor 
that bears it is most dense, at such distance 
around the Point a circle of fire was whirling so 
rapidly that it would have surpassed that mo- 
tion which most swiftly girds the world; and 
this was girt around by another, and that by 
the third, and the third then by the fourth, by 
the fifth the fourth, and then by the sixth the 
fifth. Thereon the seventh followed, so wide- 
spread now in compass that the messenger of 
Juno entire would be narrow to contain it. So 
the eighth and ninth." 

Beatrice explains to him how the relation of 
the circles to one another and to the Point 
which is God depends upon their measure of 
love and truth, whereby there is "in each 
heaven a marvellous agreement with its Intelli- 
gencc, of greater to more and of smaller to less." 
She then amplifies her meaning: "The first cir- 
cles have shown to thec the Seraphim and the 
Cherubim. Thus swiftly they follow their own 
bonds, in order to liken themselves to the Point 
as most they can, and they can in proportion 



as they are exalted to see. Those other loves, 
which go around them, are called Thrones of 
the divine aspect, because they terminated the 
first triad. . . . The next triad, that in like man- 
ner bourgeons in this sempiternal spring which 
the nightly Aries despoils not, perpetually sing 
Hosannah with three melodies, which sound in 
the three orders of joy ... first Dominations, 
and then Virtues; the third order is of Powers. 
Then in the two penultimate dances, the Prin- 
cipalities and Archangels circle; the last is 
wholly of Angelic sports. These orders all gaze 
upward, and downward so prevail, that towards 
God all are drawn, and all draw." 

THE THEORY of angels raises many questions 
regarding the similarity and difference between 
them and disembodied souls. But for compari- 
son with men, perhaps the most striking conse- 
quences of the theory of angels as bodiless in- 
telligences concern the manner of their knowl- 
edge and government. The comparison can be 
made on quite different views of the nature of 
man and the soul. In fact, diverse conceptions 
of man or the soul can themselves be compared 
by reference to the angelic properties which 
one conception attributes to human nature and 
another denies. 

Lacking bodies, the angels are without sense- 
perception and imagination. Not being im- 
mersed in time and motion, they do not'reason 
or think discursively as men do by reasoning 
from premises to conclusion. Whereas "human 
intellects," according to Aquinas, "obtain their 
perfection in the knowledge of truth by a kind 
of movement and discursive intellectual opera- 
tion ... as they advance from one known thing 
to another," the angels, "from the knowledge 
of a known principle . . . straightway perceive 
as known all its consequent conclusions . . . with 
no discursive process at all." Their knowledge 
is intuitive and immediate, not by means of 
concepts abstracted from experience or other- 
wise formed, but through the archetypal ideas 
infused in them at their creation by God. That 
is why, Aquinas goes on to say, angels "are 
called intellectual beings" as contrasted with 
such rational natures as "human souls which ac- 
quire knowledge of truth discursively." If men 
"possessed the fulness of intellectual light, like 
the angels, then in the first grasping of princi- 



CHAPTER 1: ANGEL 



s>les they would at once comprehend their 
vhole range, by perceiving whatever could be 
easoned out from them." 

It would appear from this that conceptions of 
he human intellect which minimize its depend- 
ence on sense and imagination, and which em- 
Dhasize the intuitive rather than the discursive 
:haracter of human thought, attribute angelic 
x)wer to man. The same may be said of theories 
)f human knowledge which account for its ori- 
gin in terms of innate ideas or implanted prin- 
:iples. Still another example of the attribution 
>f angelic properties to man is to be found in 
he supposition that human beings can commu- 
ncate with one another by telepathy. The an- 
jels are telepathic; one angel, it is said, can 
nake its ideas known to another simply by an 
ict of will and without any exterior means of 
rommunication. 

Lacking bodies, the angels are without bodily 
-motions, free from the human conflict be- 
ween reason and passion, and completely di- 
ected in their love or the motion of their will 
-by what they know. In the Divine Comedy 
Beatrice speaks of the angelic society as one in 
vhich "the Eternal Love disclosed himself in 
lew loves." Adverting to the division between 
he good and the bad angels, she tells Dante, 
'those whom thou seest here were modest in 
grateful recognition of the Goodness which had 
nade them apt for intelligence so great, where- 
ore their vision was exalted with illuminant 
;race and by their merit, so that they have full 
ind steadfast will." Yet their vision and love of 
jod is not equal. In heaven "the Primal Light 
hat irradiates it all is received in it by as many 
nodes as are the splendors with which the 
.ight pairs Itself. Wherefore, since the affection 
ollows upon the act that conceives, in this na- 
ure the sweetness of love diversely glows and 
varms." 

Such a society, governed by knowledge and 
ove, has no need for the application of coercive 
orce, for angels are ordered to one another in 
uch a way that no misunderstandings or 
greements can occur among them. The philo- 
ophical anarchist whg proposes the ideal of a 
luman society without restraint or coercion 
eems, therefore, to be angelicizing men, or at 
sast to be wishing for heaven on earth. Con- 



the writers of The Federalist remark that "if 
men were angels, no government would be 
necessary." If they had considered that the an- 
gelic society is governed by love alone and 
without force, they might have said, "if men 
were angels, no coercion would be necessary in 
their government." 

ONE OF THE GREAT theological dogmas asserts 
that, from the beginning, the angels are divided 
into two hosts the good and evil spirits. The 
sin of Lucifer, or Satan, and his followers is that 
of disobedience, or rebellion against God, moti- 
vated by a pride which refuses to be satisfied 
with being less than God. As Satan himself says, 
in Paradise Lost, 

. . . pride and worse Ambition threw me down 

Warring in Heav'n against Heav'ns matchless King. 

... All his good prov'd ill in me, 

And wrought but malice; lifted up so high 

I 'sdeind subjection, and thought one step higher 

Would set me highest, and in a moment quit 

The debt immense of endless gratitude . . . 

And that word 

Disdain forbids me, and my dread of shame 
Among the spirits beneath, whom I seduc'd 
Then to submit, boasting I could subdue 
Th' Omnipotent. 

The theologians try to define precisely the 
nature of Satan's pride in wishing to be God. 
"To be as God" Aquinas explains, "can be un- 
derstood in two ways: first, by equality; sec- 
ondly, by likeness. An angel could not seek to 
be as God in the first way, because by natural 
knowledge he knew that this was impossible . . . 
And even supposing it were possible, it would 
be against natural desire, because there exists in 
everything the natural desire to preserve its 
own nature which would not be preserved were 
it to be changed into another nature. Conse- 
quently, no creature of a lower nature can ever 
covet the grade of a higher nature, just as an ass 
does not desire to be a horse." 

It must be in the other way, then, Aquinas 
Chinks, that Satan sinned by wishing to be like 
God. But this requires further explanation. "To 
desire to be as God according to likeness can 
happen in two ways. In one way, as to that 
likeness whereby everything is likened unto 
God. And so, if anyone desire in this way to be 
Godlike, he commits no sin; provided that he 



8 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



say, that he may obtain it from God. But he 
would sin were he to desire to be like God even 
in the right way, but of his own power, and not 
of God's, In another way, he may desire to be 
like God in some respect which is not natural 
to one; e.g., if one were to desire to create 
heaven and earth, which is proper to God, in 
which desire there would be sin." 

In this last way, Aquinas asserts, "the devil 
desired to be as God. Not that he desired to 
resemble God by being subject to no one else 
absolutely, for thus he would be desiring his 
own non-being, since no creature can exist ex- 
cept by participating under God." But he "de- 
sired as the last end of his beatitude something 
which he could attain by virtue of his own na- 
ture, turning his appetite away from the super- 
natural beatitude which is attained by God's 
grace." 

In the original sin of Lucifer and the other 
fallen angels, as well as in all subsequent inter- 
vention by Satan or his demons in the affairs 
of men, lie the theological mysteries of the ori- 
gin of evil in a world created by God's love and 
goodness, and of the liberty of those creatures 
who, while free, can only do God's will. As in- 
dicated in the chapter on SIN, the fall of Adam 
from grace and innocence involves the same 
mysteries. Man's destiny is connected with the 
career of Lucifer in traditional Christian teach- 
ing, not only on the side of sin, but also with 
regard to man's redemption salvation replac- 
ing the fallen angels by the souls of the elect in 
the heavenly choir. 

Among the most extraordinary moments in 
our literature are those in which Lucifer talks 
with God about mankind, as in Paradise Lost, 
or about a particular man, as in the Book of 
Job or in the Prologue in Heaven in Faust. 
Their pagan parallel is the speech of Prome- 
theus to a silent Zeus, but Prometheus, un- 
like Satan, is man's benefactor and he can defy 
Zeus because the Fates, whose secret he 
knows, rule over the gods. Lucifer, on the 
contrary, seems always to be in the service of 
God. When he appears to Ivan in the Brothers 
Karamazov, he protests, "I love men genuinely 
, . . and against the gram I serve to produce 
events and do what is irrational because I am 



commanded to." If it were otherwise, the war- 
fare between the powers of light and darkness 
would have to be construed as a battle between 
equals, which, according to Christian ortho- 
doxy, is the Manichean heresy that regards the 
world as the battle ground of the forces of good 
and evil. 

The word "angelic" usually has the connota- 
tion of perfect moral goodness, but that must 
not lead us to forget that the demons are an- 
gelic in their nature although of a diabolical or 
evil will. Nor should the fact of Satan's subser- 
vience to God cause us to forget that Christian 
theology tries not to underestimate the power 
of the devil in his goings and comings on earth. 
Satan tried to tempt even Christ, and through- 
out the New Testament the destruction of the 
diabolical influence over men occupies a promi- 
nent place. The intervention of the devil in 
man's life provides, if not the theme, the back- 
ground of Goethe's Faust. 

As the theory of demonic influences and dia- 
bolical possession is an integral part of the tra- 
ditional doctrine of angels, so, in modern times, 
demonology has been a major focus of attack 
upon theological teaching concerning spirits. 
Moralists have thought it possible to explain 
human depravity without recourse to the se- 
ductions of the devil, and psychiatrists have 
thought it possible for men to go mad or to 
behave as if bewitched without the help of evil 
spirits. The idea of the devil, according to 
Freud, is a religious fiction "the best way out 
in acquittal of God" for those who try "to rec- 
oncile the undeniable existence . . . of evil with 
His omnipotence and supreme goodness." 

The characteristic skepticism of our age has 
been directed against the belief in angels gener- 
ally. It casts doubt by satire or denies by argu- 
ment the existence of spirits both good and evil. 
Yet, all arguments considered, it may be won- 
dered whether the existence of angels or, in 
philosophical terms, the existence of pure intelli- 
gences -is or is not still a genuine issue. Or are 
there two issues here, one philosophical and the 
other theological, one to be resolved or left un- 
resolved on the level of argument, the other to 
be answered dogmatically by the declarations 
of a religious faith? 



CHAPTER 1: ANGEL 



OUTLINE OF TOPICS 

PAGE 

1. Inferior deities or demi-gods in polytheistic religion 10 

2. The philosophical consideration of pure intelligences, spiritual substances, supra- 

human persons n 

2j. The celestial motors or secondary prime movers: the intelligences attached to 
the celestial bodies 

2b. Our knowledge of immaterial beings 12 

3. The conception of angels in Judaeo-Christian doctrine 

30, The first creatures of God: their place in the order of creation 

3#. The angelic nature 

y. The aeviternity and incorruptibility of angels 13 

$d. The angelic intellect and angelic knowledge 

y. The angelic will and angelic love 

$f. Angelic action: its characteristics in general 

3. The angelic hierarchy: the inequality, order, and number of the angels and their 
relation to one another 

4. Comparison of angels with men and with disembodied souls: their relation to the 

blessed in the heavenly choir 14 

5. The distinction and comparison of the good and the bad angels 

50. The origin of the division between angels and demons: the sin of Lucifer or 

Satan 15 

5& The society of the demons: the rule of Satan over the powers of darkness 

6. The role of the angels in the government of the universe 

6a. The ministry of the good angels in the affairs of men: guardianship 

63. The intervention of the demons in the affairs of men: temptation, possession 16 

7. God and Satan 17 

70. Warfare between the powers of light and darkness: their struggle for dominion 
over man 

7& Lucifer in the service of God 

8. Criticism and satire with respect to the belief in angels and demons 



10 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



REFERENCES 

To find the passages cited, use the numbers in heavy type, which are the volume and page 
numbers of the passages referred to For example, in 4 HOMER Iliad, BK n [265-283] 12d, the 
number 4 is the number of the volume in the set; the number 12d indicates that the pas- 
sage is in section d of page 12 

PAGE SECTIONS: When the text is printed in one column, the letters a and b refer to the 
upper and lower halves of the page. For example, in 53 JAMES -Psychology, 116a-119b, the passage 
begins in the upper half of page 1 16 and ends in the lower half of page 1 19. When the text is 
printed in two columns, the letters a and b refer to the upper and lower halves of the left- 
hand side of the page, the letters c and d to the upper and lower halves of the right-hand side of 
the page. For example, in 7 PLATO Symposium, 163b-164c, the passage begins in the lower half 
of the left-hand side of page 163 and ends in the upper half of the right-hand side of page 164. 

AUTHOR'S DIVISIONS: One or more of the mam divisions of a work (such as PART, BK, CH, 
SECT) are sometimes included in the reference; line numbers, in brackets, are given in cer- 
tain cases; e.g., Iliad, BK 11 [265-283! 12d. 

BIBLE REFERENCES: The references are to book, chapter, and verse. When the King James 
and Douay versions differ in title of books or in the numbering of chapters or verses, the King 
James version is cited first and the Douay, indicated by a (D), follows; e g., OLD TESTA- 
MENT: Nehemiah, 7:45 (D) II Esdras, 7:46. 

SYMBOLS. The abbreviation "esp" calls the reader's attention to one or more especially 
relevant parts of a whole reference; "passim" signifies that the topic is discussed intermit- 
tently rather than continuously in the work or passage cited. 

For additional information concerning the style of the references, see the Explanation of 
Reference Style; for general guidance in the use of The Great Ideas, consult the Preface. 



1. Inferior deities or demi-gods in polytheistic 
religion 

4 HOMER: Iliad, BK vni 51a-56d esp [1-40! 
51a-b; BK xiv [135-360] 99c-101d; BK xv 
[1-235] 104a-106cf BK xvin [368-467] 133d- 
134d; BK xx 142a-147d, BK xxi [383-513] 
152a-153c / Odyssey, BK v [1-147] 208a-209c; 
BK ix [231-280] 231c-232a; BK xm [125-164] 
256b-d 

5 AESCHYLUS: Prometheus Bound 40a-51d / 
Eumenides 81a-91d 

5 SOPHOCLES: Trachtniae 170a-181a,c / Phil- 
octetes [1409-1471] 194d-195a,c 

5 EURIPIDES -.Rhesus [890-982] 210d-211d/H//7- 
polytus 225a-236d esp [1-55] 225a-c, [1268- 
1440] 235b-236d / Alcestis 237a-247a,c / Tro- 
jan Women [1-97] 270a-271a / Ion 282a-297d 
/ Helen 298a-314a,c / Andromache [1226-1288] 
32Sc-326a,c / Electra [1233-1359] 338b-339a,c 
/ Bacchantes 340a-352a,c / Heracles MadSfca- 
377d esp [1-59] 365a-c / Orestes [1625-1693] 
410b-d 

5 ARISTOPHANES: Clouds [595-626] 496a-b / 
Peace 526a-541d / Birds 542a-563d esp [571- 
638] 549d-550d, [1199-1261] 557c-558b, 
[1494-1693] 560c-562d / Frogs 564a-582a,c / 
Plutus 629a-642d 



6 HERODOTUS* History, BK i, 21d-22a; 31a-b; 
48c; BK n, 58a-60d; 79d-80c; 82d-83b; BK iv, 
155c-156a; BK vni, 266c-d 

7 PL\IO: Protagoras, 44a-45a / Euthydemus, 
&ld-82b/Cratylus, 92b-97d/ Phaedrus, 116b-d, 
122c-125b passim, esp 124d-125a; 130d-131a; 
141c / Symposium, 152b; 153b-d; 159d-161a, 
163a-164c / Euthyphro, 193a-c / Apology, 
204c-205c / Republic, BK ii-in, 320d-328a / 
Ttmaeus, 452b / Cntias, 481c-482a / States- 
man, 588a-589c / Laws, BK n, 653a-c; 662c-d; 
BK iv, 680c-684a passim, BK vn, 730a-d; BK x 
757d-771b 

8 ARISTOTLE. Metaphysics, BK in, CH 4 [iooo8- 
18] 518d-519a; BK xn, CH 8 [io74 b i-i4] 604d- 
605a 

9 ARISTOTLE: Rhetoric, BK HI, CH 18 [1419*8-13] 
673d-674a 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of 'Things, BK i [1-41] la-c; 

BK H [581-660] 22b-23b; BK v [396-404] 66b 
12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK i, CH 3 108b-c; 

CH 12 118d-120b; CH 14 120d-121c; BK 11, 

CH 16, 158b-d; BK iv, CH 4, 226d-228a; CH n, 

240d-241a 

12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK n, SECT n 258a-b 

13 VIRGIL: Aeneid 103a-379a esp BK i [223-233] 
109a, [297-304] Ilia, [657-694] 121a-122a, BK iv 
[218-258] 173a-174a, BK x [1-117] 302a-305a 



I to la 



CHAPTER I: ANGEL 



11 



14 PLUTARCH: Numa Pompilius, 50d-51c; 57b- 
58a / Coriolanus, 189a-c / Aemilius Paulus, 
220d-221b / Pelopidas, 238a-b; 239d-240c / 
Aristides, 268a-d / Dion, 781d-782a 

15 TACITUS: Annals, BK n, 35d-36a; BK m, 
59d-60c / Histories, BK 11, 214d-215a; BK iv, 
293b-294a; BK v, 294d-296a 

17 PLOTINUS: Second Ennead, TR ix, CH 9 70d-72a 
passim / Third Ennead, TR v 100c-106b / Fourth 
Ennead, TR HI, CH 14 149d-150a / Fifth 
Enncad, TR vin, CH 3, 241a; CH 10 244c-245a 

18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK i-x 129a-322a,c 
passim; BK xvm, CH 8-19 475d-482c; CH 21 
482d-483b; CH 24 485a-b; BK xix, CH 9 516a~c 
/ Christian Doctrine, BK n, CH 17 645d-646a 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 22, 
A 3, ANS 130d-131c; Q 63, A 7, ANS 331c-332b 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, HELL, xxxi 46a-47c; 
PARADISE, vin [1-15] 116d 

22 CHAUCER: Knight's Tale [1902-2482] 191a- 
200b 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART i, 79d-82c 

24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK m, 
132b-c 

25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 246d-248c; 256d-257d; 
269a-b 

26 SHAKESPEARE: As You Like It, ACT v, sc iv 
[114-152] 625a-b 

27 SHAKESPEARE: Tempest, ACT iv, sc i 541c- 
544d 

30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 20b-c 

32 MILTON: Christs Nativity la-7b / L Allegro 
17b-21a / // Penseroso 21a-25a / Arcades 25a- 
27b / Lycidas 27b-32a / Comus33a-56b / Par- 
adise Lost, BK i [331-621] 100b-107a / Samson 
Agonistes [896-902] 359a 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK i, CH in, 
SECT 15 116c-d 

37 FIELDING: Tom Jones, 152b-c 

40 GIBBON: Decline and Pall, 12b-d; 184c-185d; 
345b-347d esp 346c-347a; 461b-c; 583d-584a 

41 GIBBON. Decline and Fall, 135b; 226a-227c 

46 HEGEL. Philosophy of History, INTRO, 196d- 
197c; PART i, 224a-b; 228a-c; 238d-239b; 
252d-2$3c; PART H, 263d-265c; 268b-271c 

47 GOETHE: Faust, PART 11 [5300-5392] 131a- 
133a; [7005-8487] 171b-206b esp [7005-7039] 
171b-172a, [7080-7248] 173b-177b, [7263- 
7270] 178a, [7495-7820] 183b-190b 

2. The philosophical consideration of pure 
intelligences, spiritual substances, supra- 
human persons 

17 PLOTINUS: Second Ennead, TR ix, CH 17 76b- 
77a / Third Ennead, TR n, CH n 88b-c; TR v 
100c-106b; TR VIH, CH 8-10 132d-136a / Fifth 
Ennead, TR i, CH 4 209d-210c; TR vin, CH 3, 
241a / Sixth Ennead, TR vin, CH 3 344a-b 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK xn 99b-110d 

lp AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 22, 
A 3, ANS 130d-131c; Q 45, A 5, ANS 245c-247a; 
Q 47, A i, ANS 256a-257b; Q 50, A 3, ANS 272a- 



273b; Q 65, A 4, ANS 342b-343c; Q 79, A 4 
417a-418c; A 10, ANS 423d-424d; Q 84, A 4, 
ANS and REP 1,3 444d-446b; Q 87, A i, ANS 
and REP 3 465a-466c; Q 88, A i, ANS 469a- 
471c; Q no, A i, REP 3 564c-565d; Q 115, A i, 
ANS 585d-587c 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART HI SUPPL, 
Q 92, A i, ANS and REP 9-10 1025c-1032b 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PARADISE, n [112- 
123] 109a; xxvin [1-78] 148d-149c; xxix [13- 
45] 150b-c 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART HI, 174b-176d; PART 
iv, 258b-260c 

24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK HI, 
172d-173c 

30 BACON: Advancement of learning, 41d-42a / 
Novum Organum, BK n, APH 15 149a 

31 DESCARTES -.Objections and Replies, 225d 226a 

32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK n [142-154] 114b; 
BK in [694-735] 150b-151b; BK v [388-450] 
183b-185a; [469-505] 185b-186a; BK vi [316- 
353] 203a-204a 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH xv, 
SECT ii 165a-b; CH xxi, SECT 2 178c; CH xxm 
SECT 5 205a-b; SECT 15-37 208c-214b passim, 
BK in, CH vi, SECT n-12 271b-272b; BK iv, 
CH in, SECT 6, 315a-b; SECT 27 321d-322a; 
en xvi, SECT 12 370b-371a; CH xvn, SECT 14 
378c-d 

35 BERKELEY: Human Knowledge, SECT 25-27 
417d-418b; SECT 135-145 440a-442a 

41 GIBBON. Decline and Fall, 136b; 136d 

42 KANT- Pure Reason, 237c-d / Fund. Prtn. 
Metaphysic of Morals, 253d-254a; 259c-d; 
263a; 263d-264d; 266a-c; 271a-277b; 278a; 
280b-281a; 282c; 286a-287b / Practical Reason, 
296a-c; 300a-c; 303b-304a; 305c-d; 308c- 
309b; 321b-c; 325d-327a; 328b; 340c-d; 347d- 
348b /Judgement, 508b; 572d-574b 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, PART i, 238d- 
239a 

la. The celestial motors or secondary prime 
movers: the intelligepces attached to the 
celestial bodies 

7 PLATO: Timaeus, 452c-d / Laws, BK x, 765b 

8 ARISTOTLE: Heavens, BK H, CH i [284*27-^] 
376a; CH 12 383b-384c / Metaphysics, BK xii, 
CH 8 603b-605a / 'Soul, BK i, CH 3 [4o6 b 27- 
4 o7 b i3) 636b-637b 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK v [110-145] 
62c-63a 

13 VIRGIL: Aeneid, BK vi [724-732] 230b 

16 KEPLER: Epitome, BK iv, 890a-895b esp 890 b- 
893b; 896a-897a; 914a-b; 930b; 932a-933a; 
959a-960a / Harmonies of the World, 1080b- 
1085b esp 1083b-1085b 

17 PLOTINUS : Second Ennead, TR 11, CH j 40a-41a; 
CH 3 41c-42a; TR in, CH 2 42c-d / Third 
Ennead, TR 11, CH 3, 84b; TR iv, CH 6, 99d; 
TR v, CH 6 103b-104a / Fourth Ennead, TR iv, 
CH 8 162 b-d; CH 22-27 168d I72a; en 30 



12 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



(2. The philosophical consideration of pure in- 
telligences, spiritual substances, supra- 
human persons. 2a. The celestial motors or 
secondary prime movers: the intelligences 
attached to the celestial bodies.) 

174b-c; CH 35, 177c; CH 42 180d-181b; TR 

vui, CH 2, 202a 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 47, 
A i, ANS 256a-257b; Q 50, A 3, ANS and REP 3 
272a-273b; Q 51, A 3, REP 3 277a-278c; o 52, 
A 2 279b-280a; Q 66, A 2, ANS 345d-347b; Q 70, 
A 3 365b-367a; Q 76, A 6, REP 3 396a-d; Q no, 
A i, REP 2-3 564c-565d; A 3, ANS 566d-567b; 
Q 115, A 4, REP i 589d-590c; Q 117, A 4, REP i 
599b-d; PART i-n, Q 6, A 5, REP 2 648b-649a 

20 AQUINAS : Summa Theologica, PART in SUPPL, 
Q 91, A 2, REP 10 1017c-1020c 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, HELL, vn [67-96] 
lOb-c; PARADISE, i [103-126] 107b-c; n [112- 
138] 109a; vni [16-39] 116d-117a; [97- ri 4l 
118a; xm [52-72] 126a; xxvin 148d-150b; 
xxix [37-45] 150c 

28 GILBERT: Loadstone, BK v, 104b-105d 

2b. Our knowledge of immaterial beings 

ITPtoTiNus: Third Ennead, TR vni, CH 8-ro 
132d-136a 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK xu, par 2-9 99c- 
lOlc 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 50, 
A 2, ANS 270a-272a; Q 84, A 7, REP 3 449b- 
450b; Q 88, AA 1-2 469a-472c; Q 94, A 2 503a- 
504a; Q in, A i, REP 3 568c-569b; PART i-n, 
Q 3, A 6, ANS 627b-628a; A 7 628a-d 

20 AQUINAS : Summa Theologica, PART in SUPPL, 
Q 92, A i, ANS and REP 9 1025c-1032b 

30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 41d-42a 

31 DESCARTES: Objections and Replies, 122c 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH xv, 

SECT ii 165a-b; CH xxni, SECT 5 205a-b; 

SECT 13 207d-208b; SECT 15-37 208c-214b; 

BK in, CH vi, SECT ii-i2 271b-272b; CH xi, 

SECT 23 305a-b; BK iv, CH in, SECT 17 317c; 

SECT 27 321d-322a; CH vi, SECT 14, 336a-b; 

CH xi, SECT 12 357c-d; CH xvi, SECT 12 370b- 

371a 
35 BERKELEY: Human Knowledge, SECT 27 

418a-b; SECT 81 428c-d; SECT 89 430b-c; 

SECT 135-145 440a-442a 

3, The conception of angels in Judaeo-Christian 
doctrine 

18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK vin-xn 264b,d- 
360a,c 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, QQ 50-64 
269a-338d 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PARADISE, xxvm- 
xxix 148d-151d 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART in, 174b-176d 

32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK i 93a-110b esp 
[84-191] 95b-97b, [423-431] 102b; BK v [769- 
904] 192a-195a; BK vi [320-353] 203a-204a 



*. The first creatures of God: their place in the 
order of creation 

OLD TESTAMENT: / Kings, 8:27 (D) III Kings, 
8:27 / 77 Chronicles, 2:6; 6:18 (D) II Para- 
lipomenon, 2:6; 6:18 / Psalms, 8:4-5; 115:16; 
148:4 (D) Psalms, 8:5-6; 113:16; 148:4 / 
Isaiah, 6:1-3 (D) Jsaias, 6:1-3 / Eze^iel, 
i(D) Ezechiel, i / Daniel, 7:10 

NEW TESTAMENT: Matthew, 18:10 /John, 1:51 / 
Acts, 23:8 / Hebrews, 1-2 esp 1:1-8, 2:1-9 / 
1 Peter, 3:22 / Revelation, 5:11-14 (Z)) Apoc- 
alypse, 5:11-14 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK xii 99b-110d; BK 
xin t par 4 lllc / City of God, BK xi 322b,d- 
342a,c; BK xxii, CH i 586b,d-587b 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 45, 
A 5, ANS and REP i 245c-247a; Q 47, A i, ANS 
256a-257b; A 2, ANS 257b-258c; Q 50, AA 1-3 
269b-273b; Q 61 314d-317c; Q 62, A i 317d- 
318c; A 3 319c-320b; Q 65, AA 3-4 341c-343c; 
Q 66, A 3, ANS and REP 3 347b-348d; A 4, ANS 
and REP i 348d-349d; Q 67, A 4, ANS and REP 4 
352a-354a; Q 85, A i, ANS 451c-453c; Q 90, 
A 3 482c-483a 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PURGATORY, xn [25- 
27] 70c; PARADISE, vii [121-148] 116b-c; xix 
[40-51] 135c; xxix [1-48] 150b-d 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART in, 174d 

24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK in, 
132b-c 

30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 17c-d 

32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK in [86-102] 137a-b; 
BK v [800-868] 192b-194a / Samson Agonistes 
[667-673] 354a 

33 PASCAL: Pensees, 140 199a-b 

35 LOCKE. Human Understanding, BK in, CH vi, 
SECT 11-12 271b-272b; BK iv, CH xvi, SECT 12 
370b-371a 

&. The angelic nature 

OLD TESTAMENT: Psalms, 103:20-22; 104:4 (D) 
Psalms, 102:20-22; 103:4 / Isaiah, 6:1-3 (D) 
Isaias, 6:1-3 / Ezetyel, i; 10 (D) Ezechiel, i; 
10 

NEW TESTAMENT: Hebrews, 1-2 esp 1:1-8 / 77 
Peter, 2:10-11 / Revelation, 18:1 (D) Apoc- 
alypse, 18:1 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK xn, par 7 lOOd- 
lOla; par 9 lOlb-c; par 12 101d-102a; par 
18-22, 103b-104a / City of God, BK xxi, CH r 
560a-d 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, QQ 50- 
53 269a-284d; Q 79, A i, REP 3 414a-d; Q 87, 
A i, ANS and REP 2-3 465a-466c 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PARADISE, xxix [i~ 

48] ISOb-d; [127-145] 151c-d 
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART m, 174b-176d 

31 DESCARTES: Objections and Replies, 218d; 
225d-226a 

32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK i [84-191] 95b : 97b; 
[423-431] 102b; BK v [800-868] 192b-194a; 
BK vr [320-353] 203a-204a 



3c to 3g CHAPTER 1 : ANGEL 

33 PASCAL: Provincial Letters, 87a-88a 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH x, 

SECT 9, 143a-b; BK in, CH vi, SECT 11-12 

271b-272b 



13 



3c. The aeviternity and incorruptibility of 
angels 

18 AUGUSTINE- Confessions, BK xn, par 9 lOlb-c; 
par 12 101d-102a; par 15-16 102b-103a, par 
18-22, 103b-104a; par 28, 105c / City of God, 
BK xn, CH 15 351b-352d; BK xm, CH i 360a-b 

19 AQUINAS- Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 10, 
A 3, ANS and REP i 42c-43b; AA 5-6 44b-46d; 
Q 50, A 5 274b-275a; Q 61, A 2 315c-316a; Q 97, 
A i, ANS 513c-514c, Q 104, A i, ANS and REP 
i,3534c~536c 

21 DANTE. Divine Comedy, PARADISE, vn [64-69] 
115d; [121-148] 116b-c 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART in, 175d-176d 

24 R \BELAIS Gargantua and Pantagiuel, BK in, 
173a-c 

32 MILTON Paradise Lost, BKI [i 16-159] 96a-97a; 
BK ii [81-105] 113a-b, UK v [846-860] 193b- 
194a; [889-892] 194b; BK vi [296-353] 202b~ 
204a esp [320-353] 203a-204a; [430-436] 205b 

3d. The angelic intellect and angelic knowl- 
edge 

OLD TESTAMfcNr Genesis, 167-12; 18-9-15; 
22. 1 5-1 8 /Judges, 6 11-16, 13.2-14 / // Samuel, 
14*20 (D) II Kings, 14:20 / Daniel, 10-12 

NEW TFSTAMENT: Matthew, 2435-36 / Mar^, 
13 28-32 / / Timothy, 3 16 / / Peter, i 12 
/ Revelation, 17; 18.21-24; 21.9-22.7 (D) 
Apocalypse, 17; 18-21-24; 21:9-22:7 

18 AUGUSTINE Confessions, BK xn, par 12 lOld- 
102a, par 16 102d-103a, par 20 103c-d / City 
of God, BK ix, CH 20-22 296a-297a; BK x, CH 2 
299d-300a; BK xi, CH n 328d-329b; CH 13-15 
329c-331a; CH 29 339a-b; BK xvi, CH 6 426c- 
427a; BK xxn, CH i 586b,d-587b; CH 29, 
614b-d 

19 AQUINAS Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 7, A 2, 
ANS and REP 2 31d-32c; Q 12, A 4, REP 2 
53b-54c; QQ 54-58 284d-306b; Q 64, A i 334a- 
335c; Q 75, A 7, REP 3 384d-385c; Q 79, A i, 
REP 3 414a-d; A 2, ANS 414d-416a; A 8, ANS 
and REP 3 421c-422b; A 10, ANS 423d-424d; 
Q 84, A 2, ANS 442b-443c; A 3, REP i 443d- 
444d; A 7, ANS 449b-450b; Q 85, A i, ANS 
451c-453c; A 5, ANS 457d-458d; Q 87, A i, 
ANS and REP 2 465a-466c; A 3, ANS 467b- 
468a; Q 89, A 3, ANS 475d-476c; A 4, ANS 
476c-477a, Q 117, A 2 597c-598c; PART i-n, 
Q 3, A 8, REP 2 628d-629c 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 50, 
A 6 lla-12a; Q 51, A i, ANS and REP 2 12b-13c; 
PART H-II, Q 5, AA 1-2 410a-412a 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy >, PARADISE, xix [40- 
57] 135c; xxi [73-102] 139a-b; xxvm [98- 
114] 149d-150a; xxix [67-84] 151a; [127-145] 
151c-d 



30 BACON: Novum Organutn, BK n, APH 15 149a 

32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK i [242-255] 98b- 
99a; BK 11 [142-151] 114b; BK in [654-735] 
149b-151b esp [681-693] 150a-b; BK v [388- 
505] 183b-186aesp [388-41 3] 183b-184a, [469- 
505] 185b-186a; BK vm [66-79] 233b-234a 

33 PASCAL- Pensles, 285 224a 

35 LOCKE- Human Understanding, BK n, CH x, 
SECT 9 143a-c; CH xxm, SECT 13 207d~208b; 
SECT 36 213c-d; BK in, CH vi, SCCT 3 268d; 
CH xi, SECT 23 305a-b; BK iv, CH in, SECT 6, 
315a-b; SECT 23 320a-c; CH xvn, SECT 14 
378c-d 

35 BERKELEY: Human Knowledge, SECT 8j 
428c-d 

36 STERNE- Tristram Shandy, 318b 

3e. The angelic will and angelic love 

18 AUGUSTINE. Confessions, BK xn, par 9 lOlb-c; 
par 12-13 101d-102b; par 15 102b-c; par 18, 
103b-c; par 21-22, 103d-104a; par 28, 105c / 
City of God, BK ix, en 20-22 296a-297a; BK x, 
CH 7 302d-303a; BK xn, CH 3 343d-344b; 
CH 6-9 345b-348b; BK xxn, CH i 586b,d- 
587b 

19 AQUINAS. Summa Theologica, PART i, QQ 59- 
60 306b-314c; Q 62, A 2 318d-319c; Q 64, AA 
2-3 335d 337c 

20 AQUINAS Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 50, 
A 6 lla-12a; PART II-H, Q 5, A 2 411b-412a 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PARADISE, vm [31- 
39] 117a; xxm [70-139] 142a-c; xxvm 148d- 
150b esp [106-114] 150a; xxix [55-66] 150d- 
151a; [127-145] 151c-d 

32 MILTON- Paradise Lost, BK v [535-543] 187a; 

BK vin [612-643] 245b-246a 
35 LOCKL. Human Understanding, BK n, CH xxi, 

SECT 50-51 191b-c 
47 GOETHE- Faust, PART n [11,676-824] 284a- 

287b; [11,854-12,111] 288b-294b 

3/. Angelic action: its characteristics in general 

19 AQUINAS Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 45, 
A 5, ANS and REP i 245c-247a; QQ 51-53 275a- 
284d; Q 91, A 2, REP i 485b-486b; A 4, REP 2 
487d-488c; QQ 106-107 545c-552b; QQ iio-in 
564c-571d 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART in, 174c; 175c-d 

32 MILTON- Paradise Lost, BK vm [107-114] 
234b 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH 
xxm, SECT 13 207d-208b 

3#. The angelic hierarchy: the inequality, order, 
and number of the angels and their rela- 
tion to one another 

OLD TESTAMENT: Psalms, 80:1 (D) Psalms, 

79:2 / Isaiah, 6:1-7; 37:16 (D) Isaias, 6:1-8; 

37:16 / Ezetyel, 10; 11:22 (D) Ezechicl, 10; 

11:22 / Daniel, 7:10 
APOCRYPHA: Tobit, 12:15-21 (D) OT, Tobias, 

12:15-21 



14 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



4/o 5 



(3. The conception of angels in Judaeo-Cbristian 
doctrine. 5g. The angelic hierarchy: the 
inequality, order, and number of the angels 
and their relation to one another.) 

NEW TESTAMENT: Colossians, 1:16 / / Thessa- 
Ionian* , 4:16 (D) / Thessalonians, 4:15 / He- 
brews, 12:22-23 / Jude, 9 / Revelation, 5:11 
(D) Apocalypse, 5:11 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK xn, par 12, 102a; 
par 31, 106c-d / City of God, BK vm, CH 24, 
283b; BK xxn, CH 30, 617c 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 47, 
A 2, ANS 257b-258c; Q 50, AA 3-4 272a-274b; 
Q 63, A 7 331c-332b; A 9, REP 3 333b-d; QQ 
106-109 545c-564b; PART i-n, Q 4, A 5, REP 6 
632c-634b 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART in, Q 8, 
A 4 759b-d 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PARADISE, n [112- 
138] 109a; xxviii 148d-l50b; xxix [127-145] 
151c-d 

30 BACON : Advancement of Learning, 17d 

32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK v [600-904] 188b- 

195a esp [769-799] 192a-b, [809-845] 193a-b 
35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK iv, CH HI, 

SECT 27 321d-322a; CH xvi, SECT 12, 370c- 

371a 

35 BERKELEY : Human Knowledge, SECT 8 1 428c-d 
47 GOETHE: Faust, PROLOGUE [243-270] 7a-b; 

PART ii [11,844-12,111] 288a-294b 

4. Comparison of angels with men and with 
disembodied souls: their relation to the 
blessed in the heavenly choir 

OLD TESTAMENT '-Job, 4:18-19 / Psalms, 8:4-5 
(D) Psalms, 8:5-6 

NEW TESTAMENT. Matthew, 22:23-33 / Mar\, 
12:18-27 / Lufe, 20:27-38 / / Corinthians, 
6:2-3 / Hebrews, 1:13-14; 2:7; 12:22-23 / Rev- 
elation, 22 8-9 (D) Apocalypse, 22*8-9 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK xn, par 23 104b-c 
/ City of God, BK vii, CH 30, 261d; BK vm, 
CH 14-18 273d-277a; CH 25 283b-c; BK ix, CH 
5-13 288b-292d; CH 22 296d-297a; BK xi, CH 29 
339a-b; BK xm, CH i 360a-b; BK xvi, CH 6 
426c-427a; BK xxi, CH 10 569d-570b; BK xxn, 
CH 29, 614b-d / Christian Doctrine, BK i, CH 23 
630a-c; CH 30 632c-633b; CH 33 633d-634b 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 7, 
A 2, REP 2 31d-32c; Q 23, A i, REP 3 132c-133b; 
Q 47, A 2, ANS 257b-258c; Q 51, A i, ANS and 
REP 2-3 275b-276b; QQ 54-60 284d-314c pas- 
sim; Q 62 317c-325b passim; Q 66, A 3, ANS 
and REP 3 347b-348d; Q 75, A 7 384d-385c; 
Q 76, A 2, REP z 388c-391a; A 5, ANS 394c- 
396a; Q 79, A i, REP 3 414a-d; A 2, ANS 414d- 
416a; A 8, ANS and REP 3 421c-422b; Q 84, 
A 3, REP i 443d-444d; A 7, ANS 449b-450b; 
Q 85, A i, ANS 451c-453c; A 5, ANS 457d-458d; 
Q 87, A i, ANS and REP 2-3 465a-466c; A 3, 
ANS 467b-468a; Q 89, A 3, ANS 475d-476c; 



A 4, ANS 476c-477a; A 7, REP 2 478d-479c; 
Q 93, A 3 493d-494c; Q 97, A i, ANS 513c-514c; 
Q 108, A i, ANS 552c-553c; A 8 561a*562a; 
Q 117, A 2 597c-598c; PART i-n, Q 2, A 3, 
REP i 617b-618a; Q 4, A 5, REP 6 632c-634b; 
Q 5, A i, REP i 636d-637c 

20 AQUINAS. Summa Theologica, PART I-H, Q 50, 
A 6 lla-12a; Q 51, A i, ANS and REP 2 12b-13c; 
PART ii-n, Q 5, A 2 411b~412a; PART in, Q 6, 
A 3, REP 2 742a-743a; Q 8, A 4 759b-d; PART 
HI SUPPL, Q 69, A 3, REP 5 887d-889c; Q 70, 
A 3, CONTRARY 897d-900d; Q 89, A 3 1007d- 
1008b; A 8 1011b'1012a; Q 95, A 4 1046d- 
1047d; Q 96, A 9 1062d-1063b; Q 99, A 3 
1081d-1083a 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PARADISE, iv [28-48] 
Ilia; vn [121-148] 116b-c; vm [22-39] 116d- 
117a; xix [40-66] 135c-d; xxi [73-102] 139a-b; 
xxix [13-36] 150b-c; xxxi 153b-154c; xxxn 
[85-ii4]155c-d 

27 SHAKESPEARE: Hamlet, ACT n, sc n [314-322] 

43d 
30 BACON : Advancement of Learning, 80d-81a / 

Novum Organum, BK n, APH 15 149a 

32 MILTON: At a Solemn Music^ 13a-b / Para- 
dise Lost, BK n [345-353] 118b-119a; BK in 
[654-735] 149b-151b esp [681-693] 150a-b; BK 
iv [358-365] 160a-b; BK v [388-450] 183b- 
185a; [469-505] 185b-186a; BK vi [316-353] 
203a-204a; BK vm [66-178] 233b-236a; BK x 
[888-908] 293b-294a 

33 PASCAL: Pens&s, 140 199a-b; 418 243a; 793, 
326b 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH x, 
SECT 9 143a-c; CH xxm, SECT 13 207d-208b; 

BK IV, CH III, SECT 17 317c; CH XVII, SECT 14 

378c-d 

36 STERNE- Tristram Shandy, 318b-319a; 394a 

43 FEDERALIST. NUMBER 51, 163b-c 

44 BoswELL:/0^/w0, 363a-b 

47 GOETHE: Faust, PART n [11,894-12,111] 289b- 
294b 

51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK vn, 295b-c 

52 DOSTOEVSKY: Brothers Karamazov, BK n, 22c- 
23a 

5. The distinction and comparison of the good 

and the bad angels 
OLD TESTAMENT : Job, 4:18 
NEW TESTAMENT: // Peter, 2:4 / Jude, 6 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK x, par 67 88b-c / 
City of God, BK ix 285b,d-298a,c passim; BK 
xi 322b,d-342a,c passim, esp CH 11-13 328d- 
330b, CH 19-20 332b-333a; BK xn, CH 1-9 
342b,d-348b; BK xxn, CH i 586b,d-587b / 
Christian Doctrine, BK i, CH 33, 633d-634a 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 47, 
A 2, ANS 257b-258c; QQ 63-64 325b-338d 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PARADISE, xxix [49- 

81] 150d-151a 

23 HOB BBS: Leviathan, PART HI, 174d-175a; 
! PART iv, 258d-259b 



5a to 6a 



CHAPTER 1: ANGEL 



15 



32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK i 93a-110b esp 
[27-282] 94a-99b, [587-^15] 106a-b; BK n 
[229-283] 116a-117a; [477-485] 121b; BK in 
[613-742] 148b-151b; BK iv [1-130] 152b-155a; 
[788-1015] 169b-174b; BK v [577J-BK vi [912] 
187b-216a passim 

47 GOETHE: Faust, PROLOGUE [243-292] 7a-8a 

48 MELVILLE: Moby Dic{, 219b 

5a. The origin of the division between angels 
and demons: the sin of Lucifer or Satan 

OLD TESTAMENT: Isaiah, 14:4-27 (D) Isaias, 
14:4-27 

APOCRYPHA: Wisdom of Solomon, 2:24 (D) OT, 
Boo^of Wisdom, 2*24-25 

NEW TESTAMENT: // Peter, 2:4 / Jude, 6 / Revela- 
tion, 12:7-10 (D) Apocalypse, 12:7-10 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK x, par 67 88b-c/ 
City of God, BK xi, CH 9-20 326d-333a; BK 
xn, CH 3 343d-344b; CH 6-9 345b-348b; BK 
xxn, CH i 586b,d-587b 

19 AQUINAS. Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 47, 
A 2, ANS 257b-258c; Q 63 325b-333d 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, HELL, in [22-51] 4b-c; 

XXXIV [28-36] 51c; PURGATORY, XII [25-27] 

70c; PARADISE, xix [40-51] 135c; xxix [49- 
66] 150d-151a 

22 CHAUCER: Monies Tale [14,005-012] 434a 
30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 81a 

32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK i 93a-110b csp 

[27-83] 94a-95a; BK iv [32-104] 153a-154b; 

BK v [600-904] 188b-195a 
47 GOETHE: Faust, PART 11 [10,075-121] 246a- 

247a 
52 DOSTOEVSKY: Brothers Karamazov, BK xi, 

344c-d 

5b. The society of the demons: the rule of Satan 
over the powers of darkness 

APOCRYPHA: Eccksiasticus, 39:28 (D) OT, 
Ecclesiasticus, 39:33-34 

NEW TESTAMENT: Matthew, 9.34; 10:25; 12:22-30 
/ Marf(, 3:22 / Luke, 11:14-23 /John, 8:31-59 / 
Ephesians, 2:1-3; 6:12 / Hebrews, 2:13-15 / 
/ John, 3:8-12 / Revelation, 2:9,13; 9:1-11; 
18:2 (D) Apocalypse, 2:9,13; 9:1-11; 18:2 

18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK xx, CH n 541a-c 
/ Christian Doctrine, BK in, CH 37, 673d-674a 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 63, 
AA 8-9 332c-333d; Q 109 562a-564b 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, HELL la-52d esp vin 
[65)-ix [103] llc-13b, xvni [19-39] 25c-d, 
xxi-xxiii 30a-34c, xxvin [1-42] 41b-c, xxxiv 
[16-31] 51c 

22 CHAUCER: Friar's Tale [6957-7220] 279a-283b 
/ Summons's Prologue 284b-285a 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART in, 195a; PART iv, 
247a-248a 

32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK i [242-263] 98b- 
99a; BK n [1-520] llla-122b csp [11-42] 
lllb-112a; BK iv [89-92] 154b; BK v [600-904] 
188b-195a 



33 PASCAL: Provincial Letters, 116a 

47 GOETHE: Faust, PART i [2338-2604] 56b-63b 
csp [2465-2531] 60a-61b; [3835-4222] 93b- 
103a; PART n [11,636-675] 283a-284a 

6. The role of the angels in the government of 
the universe 

OLD TESTAMENT: Genesis, 3:24; 28:12 / Psalms, 
103-20-22 (D) Psalms, 102:20-22 / Daniel, 
7:10 / Zechariah, 1:7-21; 4:1-6:8 (D) Zacha- 
rias, 1:7-21; 4:1-6:8 

NEW TESTAMENT: Matthew, 24:31 / Marf(, 13:27 
/ John, 1:51 / Revelation, 5:2,11-14; 8-20 
passim (D) Apocalypse, 5:2,11-14; 8-20 pas- 
sim 

18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK vii, CH 30, 261d; 
BK vni, CH 24, 283a-b; BK x, CH 15 308a-b; 
CH 21 311c~312a; BK xn, CH 27 359c-360a,c; 
BK xvi, CH 5-6, 426a-c; BK xxn, CH i, 586b,d 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 45, 
A 5, ANS and REP i 245c-247a; Q 63, A 7, ANS 
331c-332b; Q 64, A 4, ANS 337d-338d; Q 66, 
A 3, REP 2 347b-348d; Q 89, A 8, REP 2 479c- 
480c; Q 91, A 2, REP 1,3 485b-486b; A 4, REP 2 
487d-488c; QQ 106-114 545c-585c 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, HELL, vii [67-96] 
lOb-c; PURGATORY, n [10-51] 54c-55a; vin 
[22-36] 64c; xv [1-36] 75b-d; xvn [40-63] 
78d-79a; xxiv [133-154] 91a-b; PARADISE, 11 
[112-138] 109a; vin [91-148] 117d-118c; xm 
[52-72] 126a; xxvin [120-129] 150a; xxix 
[13-45] 150b-c 

24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK n, 
117d 

32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK n [119-134] 113b- 
114a; [237-249] 116b; [402-416] 120a, BK vn 
[550-601] 229a-230a / Areopagitica, 410a 

6a. The ministry of the good angels in the 
affairs of men: guardianship 

OLD TESTAMENT: Genesis, 16:7-12; 18:1-19:22; 
21:9-21 ',22:1-19; 24:7, 40; 32:1-2,24-30; 48:15- 
16 / Exodus, 14:19-20; 23:20-23; 32:34; 33:2 / 
Numbers, 20:16; 22:22-35 /Joshua, 5:13-15 
(D) Josue, 5:13-16 / Judges, 2:1-4; 6:ii-24;i3 
/ II Samuel, 24:15-17 (D) II Kings, 24:15- 
17/7 Kings, i9:5-8-(D) /// Kings, 19:5-8 / 
// Kings, i9,'32-35-(D) IV Kings, 19:32-35 
/ 1 Chronicles, 21:11-30 (D) I Paralipomcnon, 
21:11-30 / // Chronicles, 32:21 (D) II Para- 
lipomenon, 32:21 / Psalms, 34:7; 35:5-6; 91:10- 
13 (D) Psalms, 33:8; 34:5-6; 90:10-13 / 
Isaiah, 6:6-7; 37 : 3^~(^) Isatas t 6:6-7; 37:36 
/ Daniel, 3:28; 6:22; 8-12 (D) Daniel, 3:95; 
6:22; 8-12 / Hosea, 12:2-4 (D) Osee, 12:2-4 
/ Zechariah, 1:7-21; 3 (D) Zacharias, 1:7- 
2i;3 

APOCRYPHA: Tobit, 3:17; 5-12 (D) OT, Tobias, 
3:25; 5-12 / Baruch, 6:7 (D) OT, Baruch, 
6:6 / Song of Three Children, 25-26 (D) OT, 
Daniel, 3:49-50 / Bel and Dragon, 31-42 
(D) OT, Daniel, 14:30-41 



16 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



(6. The role of the angels in the government of 
the universe. 6a. The ministry of {he good 
angels in the affairs of men: guardianship.) 

NEW TESTAMENT: Matthew, 1.18-25; 2.13,19-20; 
13:24-30,36-43,47-51; 18:10; 24:31; 28-1-7 / 
Mar{, 1:13; 13 27 / Luke, 1:1-38; 2-8-15; 16 22 
I John, 5.4; 12 28-29 / Acts, 5:17-20; 7-52-53; 
8.26, 10.1-7,22,30-32; 12:5-11; 23 9; 27-21-24 
/ Galatians, 3:19 / Hebrews, 1:13-14 / Revela- 
tion, i.i; 7-11; 14.6-20; 15-18, 19.17-18, 22.16 
(D) Apocalypse, 1:1; 7-11; 14.6-20; 15-18; 
19:17-18; 22:16 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK xn, par 37, 108d 
/ City of God, BK vin, CH 25 283b-c; BK x, CH 
8 303a-d; CH 12-13 306d-307c; BK xix, CH 9 
516a-c / Christian Doctrine, BK i, CH 30 632c- 
633b, CH 33 633d-634b 

19 AQUINAS' Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 64, 
A 4, ANS 337d-338d; Q 66, A 3, REP 2 347b< 
348d, Q 86, A 4, REP 2 463d-464d; Q 89, A 8, 
REP 2 479c-480c; o 91, A 2, REP 1,3 485b-486b; 
QQ 111-113 568b-581d; PART i-n, Q 3, A 7, 
RLP 2 628a-d; Q 5, A 6 641a 642a 

20 AQUINAS Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 98, 
A 3 241c-242b; PART in SUPPL, Q 76, A 3 
942b-d; Q 89, A 3 1007d-1008b 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, HELL, vin [65]-ix 
[103] llc-13b; PURGAIORY, v [85-129] 59d- 
60c; vin [1-108] 64a-65b; ix [70-145] 66c-67b; 
xn [73-136] 71a-d; xvn [40-63] 78d-79a; 

PARADISE, XXXII [85-114] 155c-d 

22 CHAuchR: Second Nun's Tale [15,588-825] 
463b-467b 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART in, 174d-175a; 
175c-d 

24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK in, 
132b-c; 158c-159b; 168c 

27 SHAKFSPI-ARE- King Lear, ACT iv, sc n [38- 
50] 270d-271a 

32 MILTON- Comus 33a-56b esp [170-229] 37a- 
38b / Paradise Lost, BK n [1024-1033] 133b, 
BK iv [549-588] 164b-165a; [776-843] 169b- 
170b; BK v [224-247] 180a-b; BK vi [893-912] 
215b-216a; BK vin [630-643] 246a / Areopa- 
gitica, 410a-b 

33 PASCAL: Provincial Letters, 124a / Pensees, 722, 
309b-312a; 846 339a-b 

47 GOETHE: Faust, PART n [11,676-12,111] 284a- 
294b 

48 MELVILLE: MobyDic^, 409b-410a 

52 DOSTOEVSKY: Brothers Karamazov, BK vn, 
185a-c 

66. The intervention of the demons in the 
affairs of men: temptation, possession 

OLD TESTAMENT: Genesis, 3 / / Samuel, 16:14-23 
(D) I Kings, 16:14-23 / / Kings, 22:20-23 
(D) III Kings, 22:20-23 / I Chronicles, 21:1 
(D) IParalipomenon, 21:1 / 77 Chronicles, 18:20- 
22 (D) 11 Paralipomenon, 18:20-22 / Job, 



APOCRYPHA: Tobit, 3:8 (D) OT, Tobias, 3:8 / 
Wisdom of Solomon, 2-24 (D) OT, Boo^of 
Wisdom, 2.24-25 

NEW TESTAMENT: Matthew, 4:1-11; 8:28-34; 
9:32-34; 12:22-30,43-45; 13:19,24-30,36-43; 
17:14-18 / Mar{, 1.13; 4:15; 5:1-20 / Lu^e, 
4*1-13; 8*2-3,12,26-36; 11:14-26; 22:3-6 / 
John, 8:31-59; 10-19-21; 13:2,21-27 / Acts, 
5:1-11; 85-8; 1037-38, 16 16-18 / Romans, 
8.38-39 / // Corinthians, 2 IO-H; 11-13-15 / 
Galatians, 1-8 / Ephesians, 2-2/7 Thessalon- 
tans, 2.18 / I Peter, 5:8-9 / Revelation, 2:10; 
9, 12-13 (D) Apocalypse, 2.10, 9; 12-13 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK x, par 67 88b-c / 
City of God, BK n, CH 24-26, 164c-166d; BK 
vni, CH 15-24 274d-283b; BK ix, CH 18 295c- 
d; BK x, CH 9-11 303d-306d; en 21-22 311c- 
312b; BK xvin, CH 18 480d-482a, BK xix, CH 9 
S16a-c / Christian Doctrine, BK n, CH 23-24 
648a-649a; BK in, CH 37, 673d-674a 

19 AQUINAS. Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 63, 
A 9, RLP 3 333b-d, Q 64, A 4, ANS 337d-338d; 
Q 86, A 4, REP 2 463d-464d; Q 89, A 8, REP 2 
479c-480c; Q 114 581d-585c 

20 AQUINAS- Summa Theologica, PART i-ii, Q 80 
159d-162d, P\RT in, Q 8, AA 7-8 761d-763b 

21 DANTE Divmc Comedy^ HELL, vin [65]-ix 
[103] llc-13b, xxvii [55-136] 40a-41b, xxxni 
[91-157] 50c-51b, PURGAIORY, v [85-129] 59d- 
60c, vin [1-108] 64a-65b 

22 CHAUCLR: Tale of Man of Law [4778-4805] 
240b-241a / Friar's Tale 278a-284a / Physi- 
cian's Tale [12,055-072] 368a-b / Pardoner's 
Tale [12,778-828] 380b-381b / Parson's Tale, 
par 20 508b-509a 

23 HOBBPS. Leviathan, P\RT i, 69c-71a, PART HI, 
174d-175a, 195a, PART iv, 258c-261a 

24 RABELAIS. Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK n, 
93d-94a; BK in, 169d-173d; BK iv, 261a-265a; 
285c-288d, 300b-d 

27 SHAKLSPEARE- Othello, ACT n, sc HI [356- 
379] 220c-d 

32 MILTON- Paradise Lost, BK i [27-36] 94a; 
[331-621] 100b-107a; BK n [310-389] 118a- 
119b; [496-505] 122a; [1024-1033] 133b: BK iv 
[32-113] 153a-155a; [358-392] 160a-161a; [502- 
535] 163b-164a; [776-1015] 169b-174b; BK vi 
[893-912] 215b-216a; BK ix [404-794] 256a- 
264b 

33 PASCAL: Provincial Letters, 140a / Pensfes, 784 
325b; 843, 337b-338a; 850 340a 

40 GIBBON Decline and Fall, 184c-d 

47 GOETHE: Faust, PROLOGUE 7a-9b; PART i 

[482-517] 14a-b; [1178-2336] 29b-56a esp 

[1322-1384] 32b-34a, [1530-1867] 37a-44b; 

[3776-3834] 92a-93b; [4176-4205] 102a-103a; 

PART H [4941-4970] 122b-123a; [5357~539 2 1 

132b-133a 
52 DOSTOEVSKY: Brothers Karamazov, BK n, 

21d-22b; BK iv, 86b-c; BK v, 130b-132c; 

BK vi, 169c-170b; BK vn, 175b-176b; BK x, 

295a-c 



7 to 8 



CHAPTER 1: ANGEL 



17 



7. God and Satan 

18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK xx 530a-560a,c 
passim 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theohgica, PART i, Q 63 
325b-333d esp A 3 327b-328b 

20 AQUINAS : Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 80, 
A i, REP 2-3 159d-160c 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, HELL, xxxiv 5lb-52d 

22 CHAUCER: Friar's Tale 278a-284a 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART in, 195a 

32 MILTON: Paradise Lost 93a-333a esp BK I-H 
93a-134a, BK HI [56-134] 136b-138a, BK iv 
[1006-1015] 174b, BK v [224-245] 180a-b, BK 
v [563]-BK vi [892] 187b-215b, BK x [1-62] 
274b-275b, [460-584] 284b-287a 

33 PASCAL: Pens&s, 784 325b; 820 331b; 826 
332b-333a; 846 339a-b 

52 DOSTOEVSKY: Brothers Karamazov, BK xi, 
337a-346a 

la. Warfare between the powers of light and 
darkness: their struggle for dominion 
over man 

OLD TESTAMENT: 7 Samuel, 16:14-23 (D) 
I Kings, 16:14-23 / Job, 1-2 / Zechariah, 3:1- 
7 (D) Zacharias, 3:1-7 
APOCRYPHA: Tobit, 8:}-(D) OT, Tobias, 8:3 
NEW TESTAMENT: Matthew, 4:1-11; 12:22-30; 
13:19,24-30,36-43; 25:41 / Marl(, 1:13; 5:1-20 
/ Lufa 4:1-13; 8:26-36; 10:17-20; 11:14-23; 
22:31-34 /John, 12:31-32 / Acts, 8:5-8; 19:11- 
20; 26.9-29 / Romans, 16:17-20 / / Corin- 
thians, 10:20-21 / // Corinthians, 2:10-11; 
4:3-4; 10:2-5; 11:13-15 / Ephesians, 4:27; 6:10- 
i8/77 Thessalonians, 2:8-9/7 Timothy, 4:1-5 / 
77 Timothy, 2:24-26 / Hebrews, 2:13-15 / 
James, 4:7 / 7 Peter, 5:8-9 / I John, 3.8-12 / 
Jude, 9 / Ret/elation, 2:9-13; 3:9-13; 12-14; 
16:13-14; 20:1-10 (D) Apocalypse, 2:9-13; 
3:9-13; 12-14; 16:13-14; 20:1-10 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK iv, par 24-27 
25b-26a; BK v, par 20 32d-33a; BK x, par 67 
88b-c / Cuy of God, BK n, CH 25 165c-166b; 
BK XH, CH 6 345b-346c; BK xx, CH 11-13 
541a-542d / Christian Doctrine, BK n, CH 23 
648a-c; BK in, CH 37, 673d-674a 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 8, A i, 
REP 4 34d-35c; A 3, ANS 36b-37c; Q 49, A 3 
266d-268a,c; Q 63, A 2, ANS 326c-327b 

20 AQUINAS : Summa Theologica, PART HI SUPPL, 
Q 74, A i, REP i 925c-926c 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, HELL, VIH [titf-ix 
[103] llc-13b; XXVH [55-136] 40a-41b; PURGA- 
TORY, v [85-129] 59d-60c; vin [1-108] 64a- 
65b; xi [1-30] 68d-69a; xiv [130-151] 75a-b 

22 CHAUCER: Friar's Tale [7227-7246] 284a 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART iv, 247a-248a 

32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK H [890-1009] 130b- 
133a; BK in [1-415] 135b-144b; BK ix [679- 
779] 262a-264a 



33 PASCAL: Provincial Letters, 116a*b 

40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 81b c 

41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 330b 

47 GOETHE: Faust, PROLOGUE 7a-9b; PART i 
[1335-1378] 33a-34a; PART n [11,612-843] 
282b-288a 

48 MELVILLE: Moby D/^esp 4b-5a, 117a-122b, 
131a-138a, 144a-b, 370b-372a, 418a-419b 

52 DOSTOEVSKY: Brothers Karamazov, BK in, 50c- 
54b esp 54a-b; BK iv, 86b-c; BK v, 130b-136b; 
BK vi, 151b-d; 169c-170b; BK VH, 175b-176c; 
185a-c; BK xi, 342d-343b 

7b. Lucifer in the service of God 

OLD TESTAMENT '.Job, 1-2 / Psalms, 78:49~(O) 

Psalms, 77:49 
APOCRYPHA: Ecclesiasticus, 39:28 (D) OT, EC- 

clestasticus, 39:33-34 

18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK vin, CH 24, 283a- 
b; BK x, CH 21 311c-312a; BK xn, CH 27 359c- 
360a,c; BK xxu, CH i 586b,d-587b 

19 AQUINAS : Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 64, 
A 4, ANS 337d-338d; Q 114, A i 581d-582c 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART in SUPPL, 
Q 89, A 4 10Q8b-1009b 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, HELL, xvui [19-39] 
25c-d; XXI-XXHI 30a-34c; xxvn [55]-xxvm 
[42] 40a-41c; xxxiv 51b-52d 

22 CHAUCER: Friar's Tale [7055-7085] 281a-b 
32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK i [157-168] 97a; 

[209-220] 98a; BK x [616-640] 288a-b 
47 GOETHE: Faust, PROLOGUE [271-353] 7b-9b; 

PART n [7127-7137] I74b-175a 
52 DOSTOEVSKY: Brothers Karamazov, BK vi, 

151b-d; BK xi, 341a-344d 
54 FREUD: Civilization and Its Discontents, 790d 

8. Criticism and satire with respect to the belief 
in angels and demons 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART i, 51d-52b; 69c-71a; 
PART HI, 174b-176d; 195a; PART iv, 258b- 
261a; 276c 

24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK HI, 
171a 173d; BK iv, 285c-288d; 300b-d 

25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 500a-501a 

30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 41d-42a / 
Novum Organum, BK i, APH 62, 113d 

38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK xn, 86d- 
87b 

40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 184c-d; 189c; 347a 

41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 229d; 231 b; 244c; 
334c 

42 KAMI Judgement, 592a-c; 599d-600e 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, PART iv, 354c- 

355b 
50 MARX: Capital, 31d 

52 DOSTOEVSKY: Brothers Karamazov, BK n, 21d- 
22b; BK xi, 337a-346a 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 148b 

54 FREUD: New Introductory Lectures, 876d-877a; 
877c 



18 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



CROSS-REFERENCES 

For: Other discussions relevant to the theory of angels, see ETERNITY 43; IDEA ic; KNOWLEDGE 
70; MIND IDC; Soui^dfe); and for the metaphysical consideration of immaterial substances, 
see BEING ybfa), 

The theological doctrine of the fallen angels, see SIN 3, 3b; and for the related doctrines of 
Heaven and Hell, see ETERNITY 4d; GOOD AND EVIL id, 2b; IMMORTALITY 5e~5f; PUNISH- 
MENT 5e(i). 

The theory of the celestial motors, see ASTRONOMY 8b; CHANGE 14. 



ADDITIONAL READINGS 

Listed below are works not included in Great Boofy of the Western World, but relevant to the 
idea and topics with which this chapter deals. These works are divided into two groups: 

I. Works by authors represented in this collection. 
II. Works by authors not represented in this collection. 

For the date, place, and other facts concerning the publication of the works cited, consult 
the Bibliography of Additional Readings which follows the last chapter of The Great Ideas. 



I. 

AUGUSTINE. De Genesi ad Litteram 

AQUINAS. On Being and Essence, CH 4 

. Summa Contra Gentiles, BK n, CH 46-55, 91- 

101; BK in, CH 104-110 
. Quaesttones Disputatae, De Ventate, QQ 8-9, De 

Halo, Q 16; De Anima, A 7 

. On Spiritual Creatures, AA 1-3, 5-8 

. De Substantiis Separates 

DANTE. Convivio (The Banquet), SECOND TREATISE, 

CH5-7 
MACHIAVELLI. Belfagor 

II. 

PHILO JUDAEUS. On the Cherubim 
PROCLUS. The Elements of Theology, (M) 
"DJONYSIUS". On the Celestial Hierarchy 
ERIGENA. De Divisione Naturae, BK i (4, 7-9), n (6, 

22), iv (7-9), v (13) 
MAIMONIDES. The Guide for the Perplexed, PART i, 

CH 49; PART n, CH 2-7 
BONAVENTURA. Breviloquium, PART n (6-8) 
R. BACON. Opus Majus, PART VH 
ALBO. The Boof( of Principles (Sefer ha-Ilfarim), BK 

II, CH 12 

CALVIN. Institutes of the Christian Religion, BK i, 

CH 14 (3) 

LUTHER, Table Tal{ 
DONNE. Aire and Angells 
SUAREZ. Disputationes Metaphysicae, xn (14), 

xxxiv (3, 5), xxxv, XLI (2), LI (3-4) 
MARLOWB. The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus 



HEYWOOD. The Hierarchic of the Blessed Angells 
H. LAWRFNCE. Of Our Communion and Wane with 

Angels 
CAMFIELD A Theological Discourse of Angels and 

Their Ministries 
LEIBNITZ. Discourse on Metaphysics, xxnr, xxxiv- 

XXXVI 

JOHN REYNOLDS, Inquiries Concerning the State and 

Economy of the Angelical Worlds 
SWEDENBORG Angelic Wisdom Concerning the Dwme 

Providence 

VOLTAIRE. "Angels," in A Philosophical Dictionary 
SCHLEIERMACHFR The Christian Faith, par 42-45 
W. SCOTT. Letters on Demonology and Witchcraft 
J, H. NEWMAN. "The Powers of Nature," in VOL u, 

Parochial and Plain Sermons 
HEINE. Gods in Exile 
LOTZE. Microcosmos, BK ix, CH 2 
MICHELET. Satanism and Witchcraft 
FRAZER. The Golden Bough, PART iv, BK i, CH 4; 

PART VI ; PART VII, CH 4-7 

WENDELL. "Were the Witches of Salem Guiltless?" 

in Stelligeri 

LEA. Materials Toward a History of Witchcraft 
FRANCE. The Revolt of the Angels 
FARNELL. Greef( Hero Cults and Ideas of Immortality 
WILLIAMS. The Place of the Lion 
GLOVER. "The Daemon Environment," in Grec\ 

Byways 
ZILBOORG. The Medical Man and the Witch During 

the Renaissance 
VONIER. The Angels 
C. S. LEWIS. Out of the Silent Planet 
. The Sci&vtape Letters 



Chapter r ANIMAL 



INTRODUCTION 



ALPHABETICAL ordering places ANIMAL 
Zi. after ANGEL in this list of ideas. There 
is a third term which belongs with these two 
and, but for the alphabet, might have come be- 
tween them. That term is MAN. 

These three terms and a fourth, GOD, 
which rounds out the comparison are con- 
joined in Shakespeare's statement of what is 
perhaps the most universal reflection of man 
upon himself. "What a piece of work is man!" 
says Hamlet, "How noble in reason! how infi- 
nite in faculty! in form and moving, how ex- 
press and admirable! in action, how like an an- 
gel! in apprehension, how like a god! the beauty 
of the world! the paragon of animals!" Animal, 
angel, god in each of these man has seen his 
image. And at different moments in the history 
of thought, he has tended to identify himself 
with one to the exclusion of the others. 

Yet predominantly man has regarded him- 
self as an animal, even when he has understood 
himself to be created in God's image, and to 
share with the angels, through the possession of 
intellect, the dignity of being a person. As his 
understanding of himself has varied, so has he 
altered his conception of what it is to be an 
animal. 

In terms of a conception of personality which 
involves the attributes of reason and free will, 
man has legally, as well as morally and meta- 
physically, drawn a sharp line between persons 
and things, and placed brute animals in the 
class of things. According to the principle of 
this distinction, being alive or even being sen- 
sitive does not give animals, any more than 
plants and stones, the dignity or status of per- 
sons. 

When man's animality either in terms of 
his biological affinities or his evolutionary ori- 
ginshas seemed an adequate definition of his 
nature, man has attributed to animals many of 



his own traits, his intelligence and freedom, 
even his moral qualities and political propensi- 
ties. Nevertheless, he has seldom ceased to re- 
gard himself as the paragon of animals, possess- 
ing in a higher degree than other animals the 
characteristic properties of all. 

There are exceptions to this, however. Ani- 
mals have been glorified by man for skeptical 
or satiric purposes. 

Montaigne, for example, doubts that man 
can lay claim to any special attributes or excel- 
lences, and further suggests that, in some par- 
ticulars at least, men are less able and less noble 
than the beasts. Relying on legends found in 
Pliny and Pluta-rch which describe the marvel- 
ous exploits of animals, he argues that "it is not 
upon any true ground of reason, but by a fool- 
ish pride and vain opinion, that we prefer our- 
selves before other animals, and separate our- 
selves from their conditions and society." 

Why, Montaigne asks, "should we attribute 
to I know not what natural and servile inclina- 
tion the works that surpass all we can do by na- 
ture and art" ? We have no grounds for believ- 
ing that "beasts, by natural and compulsory 
tendency, do the same things that we do by our 
choice and industry." Rather "we ought," he 
continues, "from like effects, to conclude like 
faculties, and consequently confess that the 
same reason, the same method, by which we op- 
erate, are common with them, or that they have 
others that are better." 

Nor can we excuse our presumption of su- 
periority by the fact that we are compelled to 
look at animals from our human point of view. 
"When I play with my cat," Montaigne writes, 
"who knows whether I do not make her more 
sport than she makes me? We mutually divert 
one another with our monkey tricks; if I have 
my hour to begin or to refuse, she also has hers." 
Suppose animals were to tell us what they 



19 



20 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



thought of us. "The defect that hinders com- 
munication betwixt them and us, why may it 
not be on our part as well as theirs? 'Tis yet to 
determine," Montaigne thinks, "where the fault 
lies that we understand not one another; for we 
understand them no more than they do us; by 
the same reason they may think us to be beasts 
as we think them." 

If Montaigne's view were to prevail, no spe- 
cial significance could be given to "brute" as 
opposed to "rational" animal. For that matter, 
the same holds true whenever man is conceived 
as just an animal, paragon or not. Animals are 
brute only when man is not only when to be 
human is to be somehow more than an animal, 
different in kind, not merely in degree. 

Satirists like Swift idealize an animal nature 
to berate the folly and depravity of man. In his 
last voyage, Gulliver finds in the land of the 
Houyhnhnms a race of human- looking crea- 
tures, the Yahoos, who by contrast with their 
noble masters, the horses, are a miserable and 
sorry lot. Here it is the Yahoos who are brutes, 
bereft as they are of the intelligence and virtue 
which grace the splendid Houyhnhnms. 

THE COMPARISON of men and animals takes still 
another direction in the allegories of fable and 
poetry. From Aesop to the mediaeval Bestiaries, 
there is the tradition of stories in which animals 
arc personified in order to teach a moral lesson. 
In the Divine Comedy Dante uses specific ani- 
mals to symbolize the epitome of certain pas- 
sions, vices, and virtues. The intent of his alle- 
gory is, however, never derogatory to man as 
man. But when Machiavelli allegorizes the qual- 
ities required for political power, he advises the 
prince "knowingly to adopt the beast" and "to 
choose the fox and the lion." This tends to re- 
duce human society to the j ungle where strength 
and guile compete for supremacy. 

The comparison of men and animals fails to 
touch the distinction, or lack of distinction, be- 
tween animals and plants. This is basic to the 
definition or conception of animal nature. As in 
the case of men and animals, this problem can 
be approached in two ways: cither torn the side 
of plant life, and with respect to those functions 
which seem to be common to all living things; 
or from the side of animal life, and with respect 
to those functions which seem to belong only to 



animals, never to plants. On either approach 
the issue remains whether plants and animals 
are different in kind, not merely in degree. 

On the one hand, it may be argued that sensi- 
tivity, desire, and locomotion (even perhaps 
sleeping and waking) are, in some form or de- 
gree, to be found in all living things. On the 
other hand, it may be argued that such func- 
tions as nutrition, growth, and reproduction, 
though obviously common to plants and ani- 
mals, are performed by animals in a distinctive 
manner. If plants manifest all the vital powers 
or activities present in animals; or if in func- 
tions common to both, animals differ only in 
degree, then the scale of life would seem to be a 
continuous gradation rather than a hierarchy. 

The opposite position, which affirms a differ- 
ence in kind and consequently a hierarchy, is 
taken by Aristotle. In his biological writings, as 
well as in his treatise On the Soul, he draws a 
sharp line between plant and animal life by ref- 
erence to faculties or functions absent in the one 
and found in the other. Aristotle first points out 
that "living may mean thinking or perception 
or local movement and rest, or movement in the 
sense of nutrition, decay, and growth. Hence," 
he goes on, "we think of plants also as living, 
for they are observed to possess in themselves 
an originative power through which they in- 
crease or decrease in all spatial directions; they 
grow up and down, and everything that grows 
increases its bulk alike in both directions or in- 
deed in all, and continues to live so long as it 
can absorb nutriment." 

This leads him to assign to plants what he 
calls a nutritive or vegetative soul, whereby 
they have the three basic faculties common to 
all living things nutrition, growth, and repro- 
duction. But Aristotle does not find in plants 
any evidence of the functions performed by 
animals, such as sensation, appetite, and local 
motion. These are the characteristic powers of 
the animal soul, called by him the "sensitive 
soul" because sensation is the source both of 
animal desire and animal movement. 

Galen follows Aristotle in this distinction. In 
his Natural Faculties he limits his investigations 
to the functions common to all living things. 
He uses the word "natural" for those effects, 
such as "growth and nutrition . . . common to 
plants as well as animals,"' which, in his view, 



CHAPTER 2: ANIMAL 



21 



are opposed to such activities as "feeling and 
voluntary motion . . . peculiar to animals," that 
he calls "effects of the soul," or "psychic." It 
may seem surprising at first that Galen's study 
of nutrition, growth, and reproduction not 
only of the functions themselves but of the 
bodily organs and processes involved in these 
functions should be restricted to their mani- 
festation in animals, and not in plants as well. 
The reason may be that for the naturalists of 
antiquity, the biological functions of vegetable 
matter did not yield their secrets readily enough 
to observation. A treatise on plants, not written 
by Aristotle but attributed to his school, be- 
gins with the remark that "life is found in ani- 
mals and plants; but whereas in animals it is 
clearly manifest, in plants it is hidden and less 
evident," 

This view of the world of living things as di- 
vided into the two great kingdoms of plant and 
animal life prevailed through centuries of spec- 
ulation and research. But from the time that 
Aristotle began the work of classification, it has 
been realized that there exist numerous exam- 
ples of what Bacon called "bordering instances 
. . . such as exhibit those species of bodies which 
appear to be composed of two species, or to be 
the rudiments between the one and the other." 

Within the last hundred years the difficulty 
of classifying such specimens, particularly those 
which seem to fall between plant and animal, 
has raised the question whether the traditional 
distinction can be maintained. "If we look even 
to the two main divisions, namely, to the ani- 
mal and vegetable kingdoms," writes Darwin, 
"certain low forms are so far intermediate in 
character that naturalists have disputed to which 
kingdom they should belong." Yet Darwin 
does not find the evidence available to him suf- 
ficient to determine whether all living things 
have descended "from one primordial form" or 
whether the evolution of life is to be represented 
in two distinct lines of development. 

Since Darwin's day the researches of scien- 
tists like Loeb and Jennings on the behavior of 
micro-organisms, and the phenomena of tro- 
pisms (e.g., the sunflower's turning toward the 
sun), and the study of what appears to be local 
motion in plants, have contributed additional 
evidence relevant to the issue. It is, however, 
still considered open and arguable. 



The fact that organisms exist which do not 
readily fall into either classification may signify 
continuity rather than separation between plants 
and animals; but it may also be taken to mean 
that more acute observations are required to 
classify these so-called "intermediate forms." 
Plant tropisms may or may not require us to 
deny that sensitivity belongs to animals alone. 
The apparent local motion of plants may be a 
mode of growth or a random movement rather 
than a directed change from place to place; and 
the attachment to place of apparently station- 
ary animals, such as barnacles and mussels, may 
be different from the immobility of rooted 
plants. 

AGAINST THE BACKGROUND of these major issues 
concerning plants, animals, and men as con- 
tinuous or radically distinct forms of life, the 
study of animal organisms their anatomy and 
physiology acquires much of its critical sig- 
nificance. 

Anatomy is an ancient science. Several sur- 
gical treatises of Hippocrates display an exten- 
sive knowledge of the human skeletal structure 
and the disposition of some of the organs of the 
human body. The dissection of animals, as well 
as gross observation, provides Aristotle with a 
basis for the comparative anatomy of different 
species of animal. For Galen as well as Aris- 
totle, much of this anatomical study was mo- 
tivated by an interest in the structure and rela- 
tion of the organs involved in the local motion 
of the body as a whole, and in local motions 
within the body, such as the motions of the 
alimentary or reproductive systems. 

It remains for a later investigator, schooled in 
the tradition of ancient biology, to make the 
startling discovery of the circulation of the 
blood through the motions of the heart. Harvey 
not only does this, but he also suggests the 
functional interdependence of respiration and 
circulation, based on his observation of the in- 
timate structural connections between heart, 
arteries, veins, and lungs. His contribution is at 
once a departure from and a product of the 
scientific tradition in which he worked, for 
though his conclusions arc radically new, he 
reaches them by a method of research and rea- 
soning which follows the general principles of 
Aristotle and Galen. His insistence, moreover, 



22 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



on the necessity of finding a functional purpose 
for an organic structure stands as the classic 
rejoinder to Francis Bacon's recommendation 
that formal and final causes be separated from 
material and efficient causes in the study of 
nature. Bacon assigns the first two types of 
cause to metaphysics, and limits physics to the 
last two. 

Harvey's work on the generation of animals 
is another example of the continuity between 
ancient and modern biology. In some respects, 
Aristotle's researches on the reproductive or- 
gans and their functions are more general than 
Harvey's. They represent for him only part of 
the large field of comparative anatomy, and 
have significance for the study of mating habits 
in different classes of animals. Yet on the prob- 
lem of the act of generation itself, its causes and 
consequences, especially the phenomena of em- 
bryonic development, Harvey's treatise reads 
partly as a conversation with Aristotle, and 
partly as the record of original observations un- 
dertaken experimentally. 

"Respect for our predecessors and for antiq- 
uity at large," he writes, "inclines us to defend 
their conclusions to the extent that love of 
truth will allow. Nor do I think it becoming in 
us to neglect and make little of their labors and 
conclusions, who bore the torch that has lighted 
us to the shrine of philosophy." The ancients, 
in his opinion, "by their unwearied labor and 
variety of experiments, searching into the na- 
ture of things, have left us no doubtful light 
to guide us in our studies." Yet, Harvey adds, 
"no one of a surety will allow that all truth was 
engrossed by the ancients, unless he be utterly 
ignorant . . . of the many remarkable discoveries 
that have lately been made in anatomy." Re- 
ferring to his own method of investigation, he 
proposes as a "safer way to the attainment of 
knowledge" that "in studying nature," we 
* 'question things themselves rather than by 
turning over books." 

It is particularly with respect to animal gen- 
eration that the great books exhibit continuity 
in the statement of basic problems in biology, 
as well as indicate the logical conditions of their 
solution. The issue of spontaneous generation 
as opposed to procreation runs through Aris- 
totle, Lucretius, Aquinas, Harvey, and Dar- 
win* The problem of sexual and asexual repro- 



duction, with all the relevant considerations of 
sexual differentiation and sexual characteristics, 
is to be found in Aristotle, Darwin, and Freud. 
Questions of heredity, though they are raised 
with new significance by Darwin and William 
James, have a lineage as ancient as Plato. 

Scientific learning has, of course, advanced 
in recent times with regard to the nature and 
behavior of animals. On such topics as heredity, 
the work of Mendel, Bateson, and Morgan is 
crucial; or, to take another example, our 
knowledge of the functioning of the respira- 
tory and the nervous system has been greatly 
enlarged by the researches of Haldane, Sher- 
nngton, and Pavlov. Yet even in these areas, 
the background of recent scientific contribu- 
tions is to be found in the great books in the 
writings, for example, of Harvey, Darwin, and 
William James. 

ANOTHER INTEREST which runs through the 
whole tradition of man's study of animals lies 
in the problem of their classification both 
with respect to the principles of taxonomy it- 
self, and also in the systematic effort to con- 
struct schemes whereby the extraordinary va- 
riety of animal types can be reduced to order. 
In this field Aristotle and Darwin are the two 
great masters. If the names of Buffon and Lin- 
naeus also deserve to be mentioned, it must be 
with the double qualification that they are fol- 
lowers of Aristotle on the one hand, and pre- 
cursors of Darwin on the other. 

The Aristotelian classification is most fully 
set forth in the History of Animals. There one 
kind of animal is distinguished from another by 
many "properties": by locale or habitat; by 
shape and color and size; by manner of locomo- 
tion, nutrition, association, sensation; by or- 
ganic parts and members; by temperament, in- 
stinct, or characteristic habits of action. With 
respect to some of these properties, Aristotle 
treats one kind of animal as differing from an- 
other by a degree by more or less of the same 
trait. With respect to other properties, he finds 
the difference to consist in the possession by one 
species of a trait totally lacking in another. He 
speaks of the lion as being more "ferocious** 
than the wolf, the crow as more "cunning 1 * 
than the raven; but he also observes that the 
cow has an "organ of digestion" which the spi- 



CHAPTER 2: ANIMAL 



23 



der lacks, the lizard an "organ of locomotion" 
which the oyster lacks. The sponge lives in one 
manner so far as "locale" is concerned, and the 
viper in another; reptiles have one manner of 
locomotion, birds another. So ample were Aris- 
totle's data and so expert were his classifica- 
tions, that the major divisions and sub-divisions 
of his scheme remain intact in the taxonomy 
constructed by Linnaeus. 

The radical character of Darwin's departure 
from the Lmnaean classification stems from a 
difference in principle rather than a correction 
of observational errors or inadequacies. Where 
Aristotle and all taxonomists before Darwin 
classify animals by reference to their similarities 
and differences, Darwin makes inferred geneal- 
ogy or descent the primary criterion in terms 
of which he groups animals into varieties, spe- 
cies, genera, and larger phyla. 

Naturalists, according to Darwin, "try to ar- 
range the species, genera, and families in each 
class, on what is called the Natural System. But 
what is meant by this system? Some authors 
look at it merely as a scheme for arranging to- 
gether those living objects which are most alike, 
and for separating those which arc most unlike. 
. . . The ingenuity and utility of this system are 
indisputable," but Darwin thinks that its rules 
cannot be explained or its difficulties overcome 
except "on the view that the Natural System is 
founded on descent with modification that 
the characters which naturalists consider as 
showing true affinity between any two or more 
species, are those which have been inherited 
from a common parent, all true classification 
being genealogical that community of descent 
is the hidden bond which naturalists have been 
unconsciously seeking, and not some unknown 
plan of creation, or the enunciation of general 
propositions, and the mere putting together 
and separating objects more or less alike." 

In Darwin's opinion, classification "must be 
strictly genealogical in order to be natural.' 1 
Only by the principle of descent "the one 
certainly known cause of similarity in organic 
beings" can we arrange "all organic beings 
throughout all time in groups under groups"; 
see "the nature of the relationships by which all 
living and extinct organisms are united by com- 
plex, radiating, and circuitous lines of affinities 
into a few grand classes"; and understand "the 



wide opposition in value between analogical or 
adaptive characters, and characters of true af- 
finity." Furthermore, "the importance of cm- 
bryological characters and of rudimentary or- 
gans in classification" becomes "intelligible on 
the view that a natural arrangement must be 
genealogical." By reference to "this element of 
descent," not only shall we be able to "under- 
stand what is meant by the Natural System," 
but also, Darwin adds, "our classifications will 
come to be, as far as they can be so made, gene- 
alogies; and will then truly give what may be 
called the plan of creation." 

Whereas the Aristotelian classification is static 
in principle, having no reference to temporal 
connections or the succession of generations, 
the Darwinian is dynamic almost a moving 
picture of the ever-shifting arrangement of ani- 
mals according to their affinities through com- 
mon ancestry or their diversities through ge- 
netic variation. Connected with this opposition 
between static and dynamic principles of clas- 
sification is a deeper conflict between two ways 
of understanding the nature of scientific classi- 
fication itself. 

The point at issue is whether the classes which 
the taxonomist constructs represent distinct 
natural forms. Do they exist independently as 
objects demanding scientific definition or are 
the scientist's groupings somewhat arbitrary 
and artificial? Do they divide and separate 
what in nature is more like a continuous distri- 
bution with accidental gaps and unevennesses ? 
This issue, in turn, tends to raise the metaphysi- 
cal question concerning the reality and fixity of 
species, which relates to the problem of the dif- 
ference between real and nominal definitions, 
and the difference between natural and arbi- 
trary systems of classification. 

On these matters Aquinas and Locke have 
much to say, as well as Aristotle and Darwin. 
Fuller discussion of such questions is to be found 
in the chapters on DEFINITION and EVOLU- 
TION. Insofar as problems of classification and 
the nature of species have a bearing on evolu- 
tion, they are treated in that chapter, as are the 
related issues of continuity or hierarchy in the 
world of living things, and of difference in de- 
gree or tynd as between plants and animals, ani- 
mals and men. The last two problems also occur 
in the chapters on LIFE and MAN. 



24 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



ON THE THEME of comparisons between ani- 
mals and men, two further points should be 
noted. 

The first concerns the soul of animals. When 
soul is conceived as the principle or source of 
life in whatever is alive, plants and animals can 
be said to have souls. Like Aristotle, Augustine 
distinguishes "three grades of soul in universal 
nature'*: one which has "only the power of 
life . . . the second grade in which there is sen- 
sation . . . the third grade . . . where intelli- 
gence has its throne." 

Though he also follows Aristotle in defining 
three kinds of soul, Aquinas distinguishes four 
grades of life, and in so doing differentiates be- 
tween perfect and imperfect animals. "There are 
some living things," he writes, "in which there 
exists only vegetative power, as the plants. 
There are others in which with the vegetative 
there exists also the sensitive, but not the loco- 
motive power; such are immovable animals, as 
shellfish. There are others which besides this 
have locomotive power, as perfect animals, 
which require many things for their life, and 
consequently movement to seek the neces- 
saries of life from a distance. And there are 
some living things which with these have in- 
tellectual power namely, men." 

On this theory, man, viewed in terms of his 
animal nature, is a perfect animal. Viewed in 
terms of his reason or intellect, he stands above 
the highest animals. Yet having a soul is not 
peculiar to man, just as being alive, or sensi- 
tive, or mobile, is not. But when, as with Des- 
cartes, soul is identified with intellect as "a 
thing which thinks, that is to say a mind ... or 
an understanding, or a reason" and, in addi- 
tion, soul is conceived as a spiritual and im- 
mortal substance, then the conclusion seems 
to follow that animals do not have souls. 

For Descartes, the theory of the animal as a 
machine or automaton follows as a further cor- 
ollary. "If there had been such machines, pos- 
sessing the organs and outward form of a mon- 
key or some other animal without reason," 
Descartes claims that "we should not have had 
any means of ascertaining that they were not 
of the same nature as those animals." Hobbes 
likewise would account for all the actions of 
animal life on mechanical principles. "For what 
is the heart, but a spring," he asks, "and the 



nerves, but so many strings; and the joints, but 
so many wheels, giving motion to the whole 
body?" The animal is thus pictured as an elab- 
orate system of moving parts, inflexibly de- 
termined to behave in certain ways under the 
impact of stimulation by external forces. 

The doctrine of the animal automaton is 
sometimes generalized, as by La Mettne, a 
follower of Descartes, to include the conception 
of man as a machine. The same conclusions 
which are reached from the denial of soul in 
animals seem to follow also from the theory 
that the soul, even in the case of man, is ma- 
terial or a function of matter. According to 
those who, like Lucretius, hold this view, the 
phenomena of life, sensation, and thought can 
be explained by the movement of atomic par- 
ticles and their interaction. 

The second point concerns the relation be- 
tween instinct and intelligence in animals. The 
nature of animal instincts (or innate habits) is 
considered in the chapters on EMOTION and 
HABIT, as is the nature of animal intelligence 
in the chapters on MAN and REASONING. But 
here we face the issue whether instinct func- 
tions in animals, as reason does in man, to meet 
the exigencies of life; or whether in both, 
though varying in degree, intelligence cooper- 
ates with instinct to solve the problems of ad- 
justment to environment. 

Those who, like Aquinas, regard instinct and 
reason as the alternative and exclusive means 
which God provides for the ends of animal and 
human life, necessarily tend to interpret ani- 
mal behavior in all its detail as pre-determined 
by elaborate instinctive endowments. Accord- 
ingly, animal behavior, even when voluntary 
rather than purely the action of physiological 
reflexes, is said not to be free, or an expression of 
free choice on the part of the animal; for, as 
is pointed out in the chapter on WILL, Aquinas 
calls behavior "voluntary" if it involves some 
knowledge or consciousness of the objects to 
which it is directed. 

Instinctive behavior, such as an animal's 
flight from danger or its pursuit of food or a 
mate, involves sense-perception of the objects 
of these actions, as well as feelings or emotions 
about them. But though it is "voluntary" in 
the sense in which Aquinas uses that word, in- 
stinctive behavior is, according to him, the 



CHAPTER 2: ANIMAL 



25 



exact opposite of action based upon free will. 
It is completely determined by the inborn pat- 
tern of the instinct. It may vary in operation 
with the circumstances of the occasion, but it 
does not leave the animal the freedom to act 
or not to act, or to act this way rather than 
that. Such freedom of choice, Aquinas holds, 
depends on reason's ability to contemplate al- 
ternatives, to none of which is the human will 
bound by natural necessity. 

Aquinas does not limit human reason and 
will to a role analogous to the one he ascribes 
to instinct and emotion in animal life. Their 
power enables man to engage in speculative 
thought and to seek remote ends. Never- 
theless, on the level of his biological needs, man 
must resort to the use of his reason and will where 
other animals are guided by instinct. "Man 
has by nature," Aquinas writes, "his reason and 
his hands, which are the organs of organs, since 
by their means man can make for himself in- 
struments of an infinite variety, and for any 
number of purposes." Just as the products of 
reason take the place of hair, hoofs, claws, 
teeth, and horns "fixed means of defense or 
of clothing, as is the case with other animals" 
so reason serves man's needs, in the view of 
Aquinas, as instinct serves other animals. 

Others, like Darwin, James, and Freud, seem 
to take a different view. They attribute in- 
stinct to men as well as to animals. In their 
opinion instinctively determined behavior is 
influenced by intelligence, and affected by 
memory and imagination, in animals as well as 
in men. They recognize, however, that instinct 
predominates in some of the lower forms of 
animal life, and acknowledge that the contribu- 
tion of intelligence is great only among the 
more highly developed organisms. 

"Man has a far greater variety of impulses 
than any lower animal," writes James; "and any 
one of these impulses taken in itself, is as * blind* 
as the lowest instinct can be; but, owing to 
man's memory, power of reflection, and power 
of inference, they come each one to be felt by 
him, after he has once yielded to them and ex- 
perienced their results in connection with a 
foresight of those results." On the same grounds, 
James argues that "every instinctive act, in an ani- 
mal with memory, must cease to be * blind" after 
being once repeated, and must be accompanied 



with foresight of its 'end 1 just so far as that end 
may have fallen under the animal's cognizance." 

If instinct, in animals or men, were sufficient 
for solving the problems of survival, there 
would be no need for what James calls "sagac- 
ity" on the part of animals, or of learning from 
experience. Like Montaigne, James assembles, 
anecdotes to show that animals exercise their 
wits and learn from experience. "No matter 
how well endowed an animal may originally be 
in the way of instincts," James declares, "his 
resultant actions will be much modified if the 
instincts combine with experience, if in addi- 
tion to impulses he have memories, associations, 
inferences, and expectations, on any consider- 
able scale," 

In his consideration of "the intellectual con- 
trast between brute and man," fames places 
"the most elementary single difference between 
the human mind and that of brutes" in the 
"deficiency on the brute's part to associate 
ideas by similarity," so that "characters, the 
abstraction of which depends on this sort of 
association, must in the brute always remain 
drowned." Darwin similarly makes the differ- 
ence in degree between human and animal in- 
telligence a matter of greater or less power to 
associate ideas. In consequence, human in- 
stincts are much more modified by learning 
and experience than the instincts of other ani- 
mals, as in turn the higher animals show much 
greater variability in their instinctive behavior 
than do lower organisms. 

It is not necessary to deny that men alone 
have reason in order to affirm that, in addition 
to instinct, animals have intelligence in some 
proportion to the development of their sensi- 
tive powers, especially their memory and im- 
agination. The position of Aristotle and Aqui- 
nas seems to involve both points. But if we at- 
tribute the extraordinary performances of ani- 
mals to their intelligence alone, rather than 
primarily to instinct, then we are led to con- 
clude with Montaigne that they possess not 
merely a sensitive intelligence, but a reasoning 
intellect. 

"Why does the spider make her web tighter 
in one place and slacker in another?" Mon- 
taigne asks. "Why now one sort of knot and 
then another, if she has not deliberation, 
thought, and conclusion?" And in another 



26 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



place he asks, "What is there in our intelli- 
gence that we do not see in the operations of 
animals? Is there a polity better ordered, the 
offices better distributed, and more inviolably 
observed and maintained than that of bees? 
Can we imagine that such and so regular a dis- 
tribution of employments can be carried on 
without reason and prudence?" 

GREGARIOUSNESS in animals and the nature of 
animal communities are considered in the chap- 
ter on STATE, in connection with the formation 
of human society. But so far as human society 
itself is concerned, the domestication of ani- 
mals signifies an advance from primitive to 
civilized life and an increase in the wealth and 
power of the tribe or city. 

Aeschylus includes the taming of animals 
among the gifts of Prometheus, who "first 
brought under the yoke beasts of burden, who 
by draft and carrying relieved men of their 
hardest labors . . . yoked the proud horse to 
the chariot, teaching him obedience to the 
reins, to be the adornment of wealth and lux- 
ury." The Mad pays eloquent testimony to the 
change in the quality of human life which ac- 
companied the training of animals to respond 
to human command. Homer's reference to 
Castor as "breaker of horses" indicates the 
sense of conquest or mastery which men felt 
when they subdued wild beasts; and the oft- 
repeated Homeric epithet "horse- taming," 
which is intended as a term of praise for both 
the Argives and the Trojans, implies the rise of 
a people from barbarous or primitive condi- 
tionstheir emancipation from the discom- 
forts and limitations of animal life. 

Aristotle points out that one mark of wealthy 
men is "the number of horses which they keep, 
for they cannot afford to keep them unless they 
are rich." For the same reason, he explains, 
"in old times the cities whose strength lay in 
their cavalry were oligarchies." 

Legend and history are full of stories of the 
loyalty and devotion of animals to their human 
masters, and of the reciprocal care and affection 
which men have given them. But, motivated as 
it is by their utility for economic or military 
purposes, the breaking of animals to human will 
also frequently involves a violent or wanton 
misuse. 



The use, or even the exploitation, of animals 
by man seems to be justified by the inferiority 
of the brute to the rational nature. As plants 
exist for the sake of animals, so animals, accord- 
ing to Aristotle, "exist for the sake of man, the 
tame for use and food, the wild, if not all, at 
least the greater part of them, for food, and for 
the provision of clothing and various instru- 
ments." Aristotle's conception of the natural 
slave, discussed in the chapter on SLAVERY, 
uses the domesticated animal as a kind of 
model for the treatment of human beings as 
tools or instruments. 

Though he does not share Aristotle's view 
that some men are by nature slaves, Spinoza 
takes a comparable position with regard to 
man's domination and use of animals. "The 
law against killing animals," he writes, "is 
based upon an empty superstition and woman- 
ish tenderness, rather than upon sound reason. 
A proper regard, indeed, to one's own profit 
teaches us to unite in friendship with men, and 
not with brutes, nor with things whose nature 
is different from human nature ... I by no 
means deny," he continues) "that brutes feel, 
but I do deny that on this account it is unlaw- 
ful for us to consult our own profit by using 
them for our pleasure and treating them as is 
most convenient to us, inasmuch as they do not 
agree m nature with us." 

But other moralists declare that men can be- 
friend animals, and insist that charity, if not 
justice, should control man's treatment of 
beasts. Nor is such contrary teaching confined 
to Christianity, or to the maxims of St. Francis, 
who would persuade men to love not only their 
neighbors as themselves, but all of God's crea- 
tures. Plutarch, for instance, argues that al- 
though "law and justice we cannot, in the na- 
ture of things, employ on others than men," 
nevertheless, "we may extend our goodness and 
charity even to irrational creatures." In kind- 
ness to dumb animals he finds the mark of the 
"gentle nature"- the sign of a man's humane- 
ness. "Towards human beings as they have 
reason, behave in a social spirit," says Marcus 
Aurelius; but he also writes: "As to animals 
which have no reason, and generally all things 
and objects, do thou, since thou hast reason and 
they have none, make use of them with a gen- 
erous and liberal spirit." 



CHAPTER 2: ANIMAL 27 

OUTLINE OF TOPICS 

PAGB 

1 . General theories about the animal nature 29 

i a. Characteristics of animal life: the animal soul 

(1) Animal sensitivity: its degrees and differentiations 30 

(2) Animal memory, imagination, and intelligence 

(3) Animal appetite: desire and emotion in animals 

(4) Locomotion: degrees of animal motihty 31 

(5) Sleeping and waking in animals 

ib. The distinction between plants and animals in faculty and function: cases difficult 
to classify 

ic. The distinction between animal and human nature 32 

(1) Comparison of brutes and men as animals 33 

(2) Comparison of animal with human intelligence 34 

id. The habits or instincts of animals: types of animal habit or instinct; the habits 
or instincts of different classes of animals 

ic. The conception of the animal as a machine or automaton 35 

2. The classification of animals 

20. General schemes of classification: their principles and major divisions 
2b. Analogies of structure and function among different classes of animals 

20. Continuity and discontinuity in the scale of animal life: gradation from lower 

to higher forms 36 

3. The anatomy of animals 

30. Physical elements of the animal body: kinds of tissue 

3^. The skeletal structure 

y. The visceral organs 37 

$d. The utility or adaptation of bodily structures 

4. Animal movement 

40. Comparison of animal movement with other kinds of local motion 

4#. The cause of animal movement: voluntary and involuntary movements 

4^. The organs, mechanisms, and characteristics of locomotion 38 

5. Local motion within the animal body 

50. The ducts, channels, and conduits involved in interior bodily motions 

5^. The circulatory system: the motions of the heart, blood, and lymph 39 

y. The glandular system: the glands of internal and external secretion 

5^. The respiratory system: breathing, lungs, gills 

5*. The alimentary system : the motions of the digestive organs in the nutritive process 



28 THE GREAT IDEAS 

PAGB 

$f. The excretory system: the motions of elimination 39 

5. The brain and nervous system: the excitation and conduction of nervous impulses 40 

6. Animal nutrition 

6a. The nature of the nutriment 

6b. The process of nutrition: ingestion, digestion, assimilation 

7. Animal growth or augmentation: its nature, causes, and limits 41 

8. The generation of animals 

Sa. The origin of animals: creation or evolution 

8. Diverse theories of animal generation: procreation and spontaneous generation 

8r. Modes of animal reproduction: sexual and asexual 42 

(1) Sexual differentiation: its origins and determinations; primary and secondary 

characteristics 

(2) The reproductive organs: their differences in different classes of animals 

(3) The reproductive cells and secretions: semen and catamenia, sperm and egg 43 

(4) The mating of animals: pairing and copulation 

(5) Factors affecting fertility and sterility 

Sd. Comparison of human with animal reproduction 44 

9. The development of the embryo: birth and infancy 

ga. Oviparous and viviparous development 
9#. The nourishment of the embryo or foetus 
9^. The process of embryogeny : the stages of foetal growth 
yd. Multiple pregnancy: superfoetation 

ge. The period of gestation: parturition, delivery, birth 45 

cf. The care and feeding of infant offspring: lactation 
V: o,. Characteristics of the offspring at birth 

10. Heredity and environment: the genetic determination of individual differences and 

similarities 

1 1 . The habitat of animals 46 

n a. The geographical distribution of animals: their natural habitats 
lib. The relation between animals and their environments 

12. The treatment of animals by men 

120. The taming of animals 

izb. The use and abuse of animals 47 

i2c. Friendship or love between animals and men 

13. The attribution of human qualities or virtues to animals: personification in allegory " 

and satire ' 48 



CHAPTER 2: ANIMAL 



29 



REFERENCES 

To find the passages cited, use the numbers in heavy type, which are the volume and page 
numbers of the passages referred to, For example, in 4 HOMER: Iliad, BK n [265-283] 12d, the 
number 4 is the number of the volume in the set; the number 12d indicates that the pas- 
sage is in section d of page 12. 

PAGE SECTIONS: When the text is printed in one column, the letters a and b refer to the 
upper and lower halves of the page. For example, in 53 JAMES -.Psychology, 116a-119b, the passage 
begins in the upper half of page 116 and ends m the lower half of page 119. When the text is 
printed in t\\o columns, the letters a and h refer to the upper and lower halves of the left- 
hand side of the page, the letters c and d to the upper and lower halves of the right-hand side of 
thepage. Forexample, in 7 PLATO Symposium, 163b-164c, the passage begins in the lower half 
of the left-hand side of page 163 and ends in the upper half of the right-hand side of page 164. 

AUTHOR'S DIVISIONS. One or more of the main divisions of a work (such as PART, BK, CH, 
SECT) are sometimes included m the reference; line numbers, in brackets, are given in cer- 
tain cases; e.g., Iliad, BK n [265-283] 12d. 

BIBLE REFERENCES- The references are to book, chapter, and verse. When the King James 
and Douay versions differ m title of books or in the numbering of chapters or verses, the King 
James version is cited first and the Douay, indicated by a (D), follows; eg, OLD TESTA- 
MENT. Nehemiah, 7 45 (D) 77 Esdras, 7 46. 

SYMBOLS. The abbreviation "esp" calls the reader's attention to one or more especially 
relevant parts of a whole reference, "passim" signifies that the topic is discussed intermit- 
tently rather than continuously in the work or passage cited. 

For additional information concerning the style of the references, see the Explanation of 
Reference Style; for general guidance in the use of The Great Ideas, consult the Preface. 



1. General theories about the animal nature 

la. Characteristics of animal life: the animal 
soul 

7 PLATO- Cratylus, 93c-d / Phaedo, 233b-c / 
Republic, BK x, 440b-c/ Timaeus, 476d-477a,c 

8 ARISTOTLE- Metaphysics, BK v, CH 8 [ioi7 b io- 
17] 538b / Soul 631a-668d esp BK n, CH 2 



9ARIS1OTLF. History of Animals, BK i, CH i 
[487 a io-488 b 29] 7d-9d; BK vin, CH i 114b,d- 
115b/ Parts of Animals, BK i, CH i [64i*33- b io] 
164b-c; CH 5 [645^4-646*5] 169c-d; BK m, 
CH 5 [667 b 2i~32] 196a / Motion of Animals, 
CH 6-1 1 235d-239d esp CH 10 238c-239a / 
Generation of Animals, BK i, CH 23 [73i ft 24- b 8] 
271c-d; BK n, CH 3 [736*24-737*19] 276d-278a; 
CH 5 [74i B 6-3i] 282a-b 

10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK i, CH i 167a-b; 
CH 12 172d-173c 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK HI [94-416] 
31b35c 

12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK in, SECT 16, 262d; 
BK ix, SECT 9 292b-d 

16 KEPLER: Epitome, BK iv, 855a-b 

17 PLOTINUS: First Ennead, TR i, CH n 5b-c / 
Fourth Ennead, TR in, CH 23 153d-154b 



18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK x, par n 74a-b / 
City of God, BK vii, CH 23, 256b-c 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 18, 
A i 104c-105c; Q 72, A i, REP i 368b-369d, 
Q 75, A 3 380c-381b; A 6, REP i 383c-384c; 
Q 78, A i 407b-409a; Q 118, A i 600a-601c; 
PART i-n, Q 17, A 2, REP 2 687d-688b 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART in SUPPL, 
Q 79, A i, ANS 951b-953b 

21 DANTE. Divine Comedy, PURGATORY, xxv 
[34-78] 91d-92a 

24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK in, 
138a-b; 192d 

28 HARVEY: Motion of the Heart, 302d-303a / On 
Animal Generation, 369d-370b; 372b; 384d- 
390b passim; 403d-404b; 418b-419d; 431b- 
434a esp 433c-d; 456b-458a esp 457a-d; 488d- 
496d 

30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK n, APH 48, 186a 

31 DESCARTES: Rules, xn, 19d-20a / Discourse, 
PART v, 56a-b; 59a-60c / Objections and 
Replies, 156a-d; 208c; 226a-d 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH ix, 
SECT 12 140c; CH xxvn, SECT 3-5 219d-220c 
passim; BK HI, CH vi, SECT 33 278b-c 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 4a-6b; 8a-14b passim, esp 
llb-12a; 47b-52a passim 



30 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



la(l) to la(3) 



(1. General theories about the animal nature, la. 
Characteristics of animal life: the animal 
soul.) 

54 FREUD: Beyond the Pleasure Principle, 651d- 
657d esp 651d-652c, 655b<656a / New Intro- 
ductory Lectures, 85la-c 

la(l) Animal sensitivity: its degrees and differ- 
entiations 

7 PLATO: Ttmaeus, 453b-454a 

8 ARISTOTLE: Soul, BK u, CH 2 [4i3 b i-i3] 
643c-d; [414*1-3] 644a; BK n, CH 5-BK in, 
CH 3 647b 661b; BK in, CH 8-13 664b-668d / 
Sense and the Sensible 673a-689a,c 

9 ARISTOTLE: History of Animals, BK i, CH 3 
[489*17-20] lOb; CH 4 [489*23-27] lOc; CH 
9-11 13b-15a; CH 15 [494 b n-i8] 16d; BK 11, 
CH 10 25b-c; CH 12 [504*19-29] 26c-d; CH 13 
[5 5 a 33-39] 27d-28a; BK iv, CH 6 [53i a 27- b 4] 
58b; CH 7 [532*5-10] 58d-59a; CH 8 59d-62a, 
BK v, CH 16 [548 b io-i5] 75b-c; BK vin, CH i 
[588 b i7~3i] 115a-b; BK ix, en 34 [620*1-5] 
145c / Pans of Animals, BK 11, CH i [647*i- b io] 
171a-d; CH 8 [65^22-29] 179b; CH 10-17 181d- 
188a,c esp CH 10 [656 a i4J-cn 12 [657*25] 182b- 
183d, CH 16-17 185d-188a,c; BK in, CH 4 
[666*34- b i] 194b; [667*10-15] 195b; BK iv, CH 
5 [68i 1) i4-682 R 9] 2l2b-d; CH n [690 b i7-6pi a 28] 
222d 223c / Gait of Animals, en 4 [705^9-13] 
244b / Generation of Animals, BK i, cn 23 
[73i*24~ b 8] 271c-d; BK n, CH i [732*12-14] 
272c; cn 3 [736*25- b i4] 276d-277b; CH 5 
[741*6-30] 282a-b; CH 6 [743 b 25-744 b n] 285a- 
d; BK v, CH i [778 b 2o]-cH 2 [78i b 3o] 321a-324a 
/ Ethics, BK i, CH 7 [i 097^3-1098*2] 343b; 
BK in, CH 10 [ni8*i7- b 8] 364d-365a; BK vi, 
CH 2 [1139*17-21] 387d; BK ix, CH 9 [1170*13- 
19] 423d-424a; BK x, CH 4 [ii74 b i5~i 175*2] 
429a-b 

10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK i, CH i 167a-b 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK n [398-477] 
20a-21a; BK in [231-287] 33 a -d; [323-416] 
34b-35c; BK iv [216-268] 47a-d; [524-548] 
51a-b, [615-721] 52b-53d 

12 AURELIUS: Meditations^ BK in, SECT 16, 262d 

16 KEPLER: Epitome, BK iv, 855a 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK x, par n 74a-b 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theohgica, PART i, Q 18, 
A 3, ANS 106b-107c; Q 75, A 3, ANS and REP 2 
380c-381b; Q 78, AA 3-4 410a-413d; Q 91, A 3, 
RBP 1,3 486b-487d 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART i, 49a-d 
25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 286a-287b; 290c-291b 
28 HARVEY: On Animal Generation, 369d-370b; 
433c-435a; 456b-458a esp 457a-d 

30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK n, APH 27, 
157b-d; APH 40, 173c-d 

31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART v, 59a-c 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK 11, CH ix, 

SECT 11-15 140b-141a 
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK xiv, 103a-c 



38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 337c-d 

48 MELVILLE: Moby Dic{, 244a-245b 

49 DARWIN: Descent of Man, 261c-262a; 301c- 
302a; 397d-398a; 402b-c; 406c; 432c-434c 
passim; 447b-d; 474a-b; 480a-482b passim; 
529a-b; 553d-554a; 568d-569b; 595b-596a 
esp 595d 

53 JAMES. Psychology, 8a; 9b-13a passim, esp 13a; 
27a-42b passim 

54 FREUD: Beyond the Pleasure Principle, 647a- 
648a 

la(2) Animal memory, imagination, and in- 
telligence 
4 HOMER: Odyssey, BK xvn [290-327] 280a-c 

6 HERODOTUS: History, BK in, 112b-c 

7 PLATO. Republic, BK n, 319c-320b 

8 ARISTOTLE: Metaphysics, BK i, CH i [980*28- 
b 27] 499a-b / Soul, BK HI, CH 3 [427^ 4-429*9] 
660a-661b; CH 10 [433*8-12] 665d; CH 10 
[433 b 27]-cH ii [434*9] 666c-d / Memory and 
Reminiscence 690a-695d 

9 ARISTOTLE: History of Animals, BK i, CH i 
[488^5-27] 9d; BK vm, CH i [588*18-31] 
114b,d; [589*1-3] 115b; BK ix, CH i [608*11- 
32] 133b,d; CH 7 [6i2 b i8~32] 138b-c, CH 46 
[630^7-23] 156a / Ethics, BK vn, CH 3 
[ii47 b 3-5J397d 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK iv [962- 
1036] 56d-57c 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK x, par 26, 78b 

19 AQUINAS- Summa Theohgica, PART i, Q 78, 
A 4, ANS and REP 3,5-6 411d-413d; PART i-ii, 
Q 13, A 2, REP 3 673c-674c 

23 HOBBES. Leviathan, PART i, 50a-51b; 52b; 

53d; 64b 

25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 218c-219b; 229d-230b 
28 HARVEY: On Animal Generation, 454a 

31 DESCARTES. Rules, xii, 19d-20a 

32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK vm [369-451] 
240a-242a 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK 11, CH x, 
SECT 10 143c-d 

35 HUME: Human Understanding, SECT ix, DIV 83 
487c-d 

36 SWIFT- Gulliver, PART iv, 163b-164b 

38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 337d-338a; 341d-342a 
49 DARWIN. Descent of Man, 291d-294c; 296c- 

297b; 400a-c; 412d; 447b-c; 480a-481b 
53 JAMES. Psychology, 3b-6b esp 5b; 13a-14a; 

49a-50a; 51a-52a; 679a-683a; 704a-706b 

Animal appetite: desire and emotion in 
animals 

4 HOMER: Iliad, BK xvn [426-455] 126c-d / 
Odyssey, BK xvn [290-327] 280a-c 

6 HERODOTUS: History, BK iv, 146c-d 

7 PLATO: Symposium, 165c-166b / Republic, BK 
n, 319c-320b / Laws, BK vi, 712b 

8 ARISTOTLE: Soul, BK in, CH 9-11 664d-667a 

9 ARISTOTLE: History of Animals, BK vi, CH 18 
97b-99c; BK vm, CH i [588^4-589*10] 115b; 



la(4) to \b CHAPTER 2: 

BK ix, CH 4 [611*9-14] 136d; CH 37 [621*28- 
622*10] 147c / Parts of Animals, BK H, CH 4 
[65o b 20-65i*i5] 175c-176a; BK HI, CH 4 
[667*10-22] 195b; BK iv, CH 5 [679*5-32] 
209a-c; CH n [692*22-27] 224b-c / Motion of 
Animals, CH 6-n 235d-239d / Ethics, BK in, 
CH 8 [iii6 b 23-ni7*9] 363a-c; CH 10 [1118*17- 
b 8] 364d-36Sa; BK VH, CH 6 [ii49 b 30-36] 400c; 
CH 12 [1153*27-35] 404c-d 
10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK in, CH 6 202d- 
203a;cH8,206b-c 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK in [136-160] 
31d-32a; [288-322] 33d-34b; [741-753] 39c-d 

13 VIRGIL: Aeneid, BK xi [745-760] 348b; BK xn 
[5-n]354a 

17 PLOTINUS: Fourth Ennead, TR in, CH 23, 154b 
19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 6, A i, 
REP 2 28b-d; QQ 80-8 1 427a-431d; PART i-n, 
Q 6, A 2 646a-c; Q n, A 2 667b-d; Q 12, A 5 
672a-c; Q 13, A 2 673c-674c; Q 15, A 2 682a-c; 
Q 16, A 2 684d-685b; Q 17, A 2 687d-688b; 
Q 40, A 3 794c-795a; Q 46, A 4, ANS and REP 2 
815bd 

22 CHAUCER: Manciple's Tale [17,104-135] 490a-b 

23 HOBBES* Leviathan, PART i, 61a-d; 64a-c 
25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 224c-225b 

27 SHAKESPEARE: King Lear, ACT iv, sc vi [109- 
125] 274c 

28 HARVEY: On Animal Generation, 346a-347d; 
349a-350a; 391a-c; 402a-d; 405c-406a; 476c- 
477a 

31 SPINOZA- Ethics, PART in, PROP 57, SCHOL 415b 
38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 343d-345a 
44 Bos WELL -.Johnson, 215d-216a 

48 MELVILLE: Moby Dtcf(, 289b-291a 

49 DARWIN: Descent of Man, 289a-291a; 303c; 
305c-309d; 371c-372c; 447b-c; 480a-481b; 
543d-545d 

51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK xni, 575b; BK 
xiv, 605d-606a 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 14a-b; 49b-51a; 700b-711a 
passim, esp 702a-703a; 717b; 723b-725a; 729b 

54 FREUD: General Introduction, 607d-609b csp 
609b / Inhibitions, Symptoms, and Anxiety, 
721a; 737c-d 

1<*(4) Locomotion: degrees of animal motility 

8 ARISTOTLE: Soul, BK in, CH 9-11 664d-667a; 
CH 12 [434*3o- b 9] 667 b-c 

9 ARISTOTLE: History of Animals, BK i, CH i 
[487 b 5~34] 8b-d; BK n, CH i [497 b i8-498 b io] 
20a-d; BK iv, CH i [523 b 20~524*24] 48d-49d; 
CH 4 [528*30- b n] 55b; BK vin, CH i [588 b n- 
24] 115a; BK ix, CH 37 [62^2-13] 147a-b; CH 
48 [631*20-30] 156c-d / Parts of Animals, BK 
iv, CH 6-9 213b-217b passim; CH 10 [686*25- 
b 35] 217d-218c; CH 12 [693*25]-^ 13 [696*34] 
225b-228a / Motion of Animals, CH 1-2 233a- 
234a; CH 8 [702*22]-CH 10 [703 b i] 237c-239a / 
Gait of Animals 243a-252a,c / Generation of 
Animals, BK n, CH i [732*12-24] 272c 

10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK n, CH 8, 193b-c 



ANIMAL 31 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK v [837-859] 
72a-b 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 18, 
A i, ANS 104c-105c; A 2, REP 1 105c-106b; A 3, 
ANS 106b-107c; Q 78, A i, ANS and REP 4 407b- 
409a 

24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK in, 

192d 

31 DESCARTES: Rules, xn, 19d-20a 
35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH ix, 

SECT n 140b-c; SECT 13 140d 
49 DARWIN: Descent of Man, 279a-280c; 37ld- 

372c 
53 JAMES: Psychology, 10a-12b esp 12a b; 699a 

la(5) Sleeping and waking in animals 

8 ARISTOTLE: Sleep 696a-701d 

9 ARISTOTLE: History of Animals, BK in, CH 19 
[521*15-17] 46a; BK iv, CH 10 63c-64b; BK vi, 
CH 12 [566 b i3~i5] 92d; BK vm, CH 14 [599*20]- 
CH 17 [6oo b i5] 125b-126d / Parts of Animals, 
BK n, CH 7 [653*10-20] 178b-c / Motion of 
Animals, CH n [703 b 8-i5] 239b / Generation 
of Animals, BK v, CH i [778^0-779*28 ] 321a-c 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK iv [907-961] 
56a-d 

20 AQUINAS* Summa Theologica, PART in SUPPL, 
Q 8 1, A 4, ANS 966d-967d; Q 82, A 3, ANS 971a- 
972d 

38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 337c 

ib. The distinction between plants and animals 
in faculty and function: cases difficult to 
classify 

\7 PLATO: Timaeus, 469d-470a 

8 ARISTOTLE: Topics, BK vi, CH 10 [148*23-38] 
202b-c / Physics, BK 11, CH 8 [i99*2o- b i3J 
276c-d / Heavens, BK 11, CH 12 [292 b i-n] 384a 
/ Soul, BK i, CH 5 [4 1 o b 1 6-4 1 1*2] 640d-641a; 
BK n, CH 2 [4i3*20- b io] 643b-c; CH 3 644c- 
645b; BK in, CH 12 [434*22- b 9] 667a-c / Sleep, 
CH i 696a-697c 

9 ARISTOTLE : History of Animals, BK iv, CH 6 
[53i b 8-9] 58b; BK v, CH i [539*15-25] 65b-d; 
BK vm, CH i [588 b 4-589*2] 114d-115b / Parts 
of Animals, BK n, CH 3 [650*1-37] 174c-175a; 
CH 10 [655 b 27-656*8] 181d-182a; BK iv, CH 4 
[677 b 36-678"i5] 207d-208a; CH 5 [68i*io- b 9] 
211c-212b; CH 6 [682 b 26-28] 213d; CH 10 
[686 b 23-687*i] 218b-c / Gait of Animals, CH 4 
[705*26- b 9] 244a-b / Generation of Animals, 
BK i, CH i [715^8-716*1] 255d-256a; CH 23 
271b-d; BK n, CH i [732*12-14] 272c; [735*16- 
19] 275d; CH 3 [736*25- b i4] 276d-277b; CH 4 
[740 b 25]-CH 5 [741*30] 281d*282b; BK in, CH 7 
[757 b i5~3o] 298c-d; CH n 302b-304d; BK v, 
CHi[778 b 3 o-779* 4 ]321a-b 

10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK i, CH i 167a-b 
12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK n [700-710] 

23d-24a 
12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK vin, SECT 7 286a; 

BK ix, SECT 9, 292c 



32 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



\c 



(1. General theories about the animal nature. \b. 
The distinction between plants and animals 
in faculty and function*, cases difficult to 
classify!) 

18 AUGUSTINE- City of God, BK vii, CH 23, 256b-c 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologies PART i, Q 18, 
A i, REP 2 104c-105c; A 2, REP i 105c-106b; 
A 3, ANS 106b-107c; Q 69, A 2, REP 1 361c-362c; 
Q 72, A i, REP i 368b-369d; Q 78, A i, ANS 
407b-409a 

28 HARVEY: Motion of the Heart, 278b / Circula- 
tion of the Blood, 327d-328a / On Animal 
Generation, 368a-b; 369d-370b; 372b; 397c- 
398c; 457c-d; 461b-d 

30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK n, APH 30 
159c-d 

35 LOCKE Human Understanding, BK n, CH ix, 
SECT 11-15 140b-141a; BK in, CH vi, SECT 12 
271d-272b 

43 FEDERALIST- NUMBER 37, 119c 

49 DARWIN Origin of Species, 241 b-c / Descent of 
Man, 372b-c 

53 JAMFS: Psychology, 8a 

54 FREUD: Unconscious, 429c-d 

Ic. The distinction between animal and human 
nature 

OLD TESTAMENT: Genesis, 1-20 -30 / Psalms, 8 esp 
8'4-8-(D) Psalms, 8 esp 85-97 Ecclesiastes, 
3 18-22 

5 AESCHYLUS: Prometheus Bound [436-505] 44c- 
45a 

5 EURIPIDES. Trojan Women [669-672] 275d 

7 PLATO: Laches, 35b-d / Protagoras, 44a-45k / 
Cratylus, 93a-b / Timaeus, 452d-453a / Laws, 
BK n, 653b-c; BK vn, 723c-d 

8 ARISTOTLE: Topics, BK v, CH 3 [132*17-22] 
183a / Heavens, BK 11, CH 12 [292 b i-ii] 384a / 
Metaphysics, BK i, CH i [98o a 28- b 27] 499a-b / 
Soul, BK n, CH 3 [4i4 b i7~2o] 644d, [4i5 a 7-i2] 
645b; BK in, CH 3 [427^-14] 659d-660a; 
[428*20-24] 660c; CH 10 [433 a 8-i3] 665d / 
Memory and Reminiscence, CH 2 [453*5-14] 
69Sb 

9 ARISTOTLE: History of Animals, BK i, CH i 
[488 b 20-27] 9d; BK iv, CH 9 [536*34- b 8] 63a-b; 
BK VIH, CH i [588 a i8- b 4] 114b,d / Parts of 
Animals, BK i, CH i [64i b 5-io] 164b-c; BK n, 
CH 10 [656*4-14] 182a-b; BK HI, CH 10 [673*4- 
10] 201d-202a; BK iv, CH 10 [686*25-687 b 5] 
217d-219a / Generation of Animals, BK v, CH 7 
[786 b i5-22] 328c-d / Ethics, BK i, CH 7 
[io97 b 33-io98*4] 343b; BK HI, CH 2 [im b 6-9] 
357b; BK vi, CH 2 [1139*17-20] 387d; CH 13 
[ii44 b i-io] 394b; BK vn, CH i [1145*15-26] 
395a; CH 5 399a-d; CH 6 [i 149^4-1 150*8] 
400b-c; BK x, CH 8 [i 178^3-32] 433c / Poli- 
tics, BK i, CH 2 [1253*7-18] 446b-c; BK in, CH 9 
[1280*31-34] 477d-478a; BK vn, CH 13 
Ji332*39- b 5] 537a-b / Rhetoric, BK i, CH i 
[i355 b i-3] 594d / Poetics, CH 4 [1448 V8] 682c 



12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK i, CH 3 108b-c; 

CH 6, llla-c; CH 9, 114c-115a; CH 16 121d- 

122d; CH 28, 134a*b; BK n, CH 8, 146a-c; 

BK in, CH 7, 183d; BK iv, CH 5, 228c-d; CH 7, 

233a b; CH 11, 240d-241a 
12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK in, SECT 16 262d- 

263a,c; BK v, SECT 16 271c-d; BK vi, SLCT 23 

276b; BK ix, SECT 9 292b-d 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK x, par n 74a-b; 
BK xni, par 35-37 120b-121a esp par 37, 121a 
/ City of God, BK vn, CH 23, 256b-c; BK xi, 
CH 27-28 337b-338d; BK xxix, CH 24, 610c-d 
/ Christian Doctrine, BK i, CH 8 626c-627a; 
CH 22, 629b-c 

19 AQUINAS. Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 3, A i, 
REP 2 14b-15b; A 4, REP i 16d-17c; Q 18, A 2, 
REP i 105c-106b; A 3, ANS 106b-107c; Q 19, 
A 10, ANS 117d-118b; Q 30, A 2, REP 3 168a- 
169b; Q 59, A 3, ANS 308b-309a; Q 72, A i, 
REP 1,3 368b-369d; Q 75, AA 2-3 379c-381b; 
A 6, REP i 383c-384c; Q 76, A 5, REP 4 394c- 
396a; Q 78, A i, ANS 407b-409a; A 4, ANS 
411d-413d; Q 79, A 8, REP 3 421c-422b; Q Si, 
A 3, ANS and REP 2 430c-431d; Q 83, A i, ANS 
436d-438a; Q 91, A 3, REP 1-3 486b-487d; 
O 92, A i, ANS 488d-489d; Q 96, A i 510b-511b; 
Q 115, A 4, ANS 589d-590c; Q 118, AA 1-2 
600a-603b; PART i-n, Q i, A i, ANS 609b-610b; 
A 2, ANS and REP 1,3 610b-611b; Q 2, A 5, 
CONTRARY 618d-619c; Q 6, A 2 646a-c; Q 10, 
A 3, ANS 664d-665c; Q n, A 2 667b-d; Q 12, 
A 5 672a-c; Q 13, A 2 673c-674c; Q 15, A 2 
682a-c; Q 16, A 2 684d-685b; Q 17, A 2 687d- 
688b 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART I-H, Q 50, 
A 3, REP 2 8b-9a; Q no, A 4, REP 3 350d-351d; 

PART III, Q 2, A 2, REP 2 711d-712dj Q 7, A 9, 

ANS 751d-752c; PART in SUPPL, Q 79, A i, 
ANS 951b-953b 

21 DANTE- Divine Comedy, HELL, xxvi [112-120] 
39b; PURGATORY, xxv [34-78] 91d-92a; PARA- 
DISE, v [19-24] 112b; vn [121-148] 116b-c 

22 CHAUCER: Knight's Tale [1303-1333] 181b- 
182a 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART i, 52b; 53a-b; 54a; 
59b-c; 63a; 79b-c; PART n, lOOa-c 

25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 207a-c; 215a-232c 

27 SHAKESPEARE* Hamlet, ACT iv, sc iv [32-39] 

59a 

31 DESCARTES- Rules, xn, 19d-20a / Discourse, 
PART i, 41d; PART v, 56a-b; 59a-60b / Objec- 
tions and Replies, 156a-d; 226a-d; 276c 

31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART in, PROP 57, SCHOL 
415b; PART iv, PROP 37, SCHOL i, 435a-b 

32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK vn [449-549] 227a- 
229a; BK vin [369-451] 240a-242a; BK ix 
[549-566] 259b 

33 PASCAL: Pens&s, 140 199a-b; 339-344 233a-b; 
418 243a / Vacuum, 357a-358a 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, INTRO, SECT i 
93a-b; BK n, CH xi, SECT 4-11 144d-146a pas- 
sim, esp SECT lo-n 145d-146a; CH xxvn, SECT 



Ml) 



CHAFER 2: ANIMAL 



8 221a-222a; SECT 12 223a-b; BK HI, CH i, 
SECT 1*3 251b,d-252a; CH vi, SECT 12 27ld- 
272b; SECT 22 273d-274a; SECT 26-27 274d- 
276a; SECT 29 276b-d; SECT 33 278b-c; CH xi, 
SECT 20 304c-d; BK iv, CH xvi, SECT 12, 
370c-371a; CH xvn, SECT i 371c-d 

35 BERKELEY: Human Knowledge, INTRO, SECT 
n407b-408a 

35 HUME: Human Understanding, SECT ix 487b- 
488c 

38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK i, ld-2a 

38 ROUSSEAU : Inequality, 334d-335a; 337d-338d; 
341d; 357c-d / Social Contract, BK i, 393b-c 

39 SMITH: Wealth of Nations, BK i, 6d-8b 

42 KANT: Pure Reason, 164a-c; 199c-200c / Prac- 
tical Reason, 316c-317a / Pref. Metaphysical 
Elements of Ethics, 372a-b / Intro. Metaphysic 
of Morals, 385c-386d / Judgement, 479a-c; 
584d-585c; 587a-588a; 602b,d (fn i] 

43 MILL: Utilitarianism, 448a-449c passim; 
469b-d 

46 HEGEL- Philosophy of Right, PART i, par 47 
24a-b; PART 11, par 132 46b-47a; par 139 48d- 
49b; PART in, par 190 66a-b; par 211, 70a-b; 
ADDITIONS, 4-5, 116a-d; 8 117c-d; 10 117d- 
118a; 28 121b; 62 126a; 118 136a-b; 121 136c-d 
/ Philosophy of History, INTRO, 156c; 168d; 
178a-b; 186a; PART i, 257d-258a; PART in, 
304d-305a 

49 DARWIN: Descent of Man, 255a-b; 278a-c; 
287a-c; 294c-305c csp 294c-295a, 297a-298a, 
304a; 311d-312c; 319b-d; 349d; 591d-593c 

50 MARX: Capital, 85b-c; 86b-c 

51 TOLSTOY- War and Peace, EPILOGUE n, 689c- 
690a 

52 DOSTOEVSKY: Brothers Karamazov, BK vi, 167c 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 85a-b; 677a; 678b-686b 
csp 678b, 683b-684a, 686a-b; 691a-b; 704a- 
706b csp 704a-b; 721a; 873a 

54 FREUD: Sexual Enlightenment of Children, 122c 
/ Interpretation of Dreams, 385b-c / General 
Introduction, 616b-c 

lc(l) Comparison of brutes and men as ani- 
mals 

4 HOMER: Iliad, BK HI [1-35] 19a-b; BK v [133- 
143] 31c; [159-165] 31d; BK vi [503-516] 
45b-c 

8 ARISTOTLE: Sow/, BK n, CH 9 [421*6-26] 652c- 
d; (42i b 8-33] 653a-b / Sense and the Sensible, 
CH i [436^7-437*17] 673d-674a; CH 4 [440 b 25~ 
441*3] 678b-c; CH 5 [443 b i7-445*3i] 681c- 
683b 

9 ARISTOTLE: History of Animals 7a-158d pas- 
sim, csp BK i, CH i [488*5-10] 8d-9a, BK i, CH 6 
[49i*i4]-BK in, CH 22 [523*27] 12d-48a,c, BK 
vii 106b,d-H4a,c, BK ix, CH i [6o8*io- b i9] 
133b,d-134a / Parts of Animals, BK n, CH 7 
[653*2^5] M8d; CH 9 [655 b 3-i6] 181c; CH 10 
[656*3-14] 182a~b; CH 14 184d-185c; CH 16 
[659 b 28]-CH 17 I66o b 3) 186d-187c; BK in, CH i 
[66i b 5-i5) 188b,dJ (662 b i7-23] 190a; CH 6 



33 

197d~l98a; BK iv, CH 10 [686*25- 
69o b io] 217d-222c / Gait of Animals 243a- 
252a,c csp CH 4 (705 b 3o-7o6*25] 244c-245a, 
CH 5 [706^7-16] 245b, CH 11-12 248d-249d / 
Generation of Animals 255a-331a,c csp BK n, 
CH 4 278b-282a, CH 6 [744*15-31] 285b-c / 
Ethics, BK in, CH 10 [in8*i8- b 7] 364d-365a; 
CH n [iii9*5-n]365c; BK vm, CH 12 [1162*16- 
25] 414c / Politics, BK i, CH 2 [1253*29-39] 446d 

10 HIPPOCRATES: Articulations, par 8 93c-94b; 
par 13 96b-c; par 46, 106a / Instruments of 
Reduction, par i, 122b 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK n [251-293] 
18b-d; BK in [288-322] 33d-34b; BK iv [962- 
1036] 56d-57c; [1192-1208] 59d-60a; [1251- 
1267] 60c-d; BK v [878-900] 72c-d; [1028-1090] 
74c-75b 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 75, 
A 6, REP i 383c-384c; Q 76, A 5, ANS and REP 
3-4 394c-396a; Q 78, A 4, ANS 411d-413d, QQ 
80-81 427a-431d; Q 91, A 3, REP 1-3 486b- 
487d; Q 98, A 2, ANS and REP 3 517d-519a; 
Q 99, A i, ANS and REP 2 519b-520a; PART i-n, 

Q 2, A 5, CONTRARY 618d-619c; A 6, CONTRARY 

619d-620d 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART in, Q 2, 
A 2, REP 2 711d-712d 

22 CHAUCER- Manciple's Tale [17,104-144] 

490a-b 
25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 215a-232c passim; 286a- 

287b; 290c-291b; 424d-425c 

27 SHAKESPEARE: King Lear, ACT iv, sc vi [109- 
125] 274c 

28 HARVEY: Motion of the Heart, 268d-304a,c csp 
280c-283a / On Animal Generation, 338a-496d 
csp 449a-454a, 463d-464a, 470c-472c 

30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK n, APH 40, 
173c-d 

31 DESCARTES: Rules, xii, 19d-20a / Discourse, 
PART v, 56a-b; 59a-60b / Objections and 
Replies, 156a-d; 226a-d 

31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART m, PROP 57, SCHOL 415b 

35 LOCKE: Civil Government, CH vn, SECT 78-80 
42b-43a / Human Understanding, BK n, CH ix, 
SECT 12-15 140c-141a 

36 SWIFT: Gulliver, PART n, 58a-b; PART iv, 147b- 
148b 

38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 334b,d-337d; 338c; 
346b-d; 348d-349c 

47 GOETHE: Faust, PROLOGUE [281-292] 8a 

48 MELVILLE: Moby Dic\, 284a 

49 DARWIN: Descent of Man, 255a-286d csp 
265c-d, 273d-275c, 285c-286d; 287d-290c; 
310a-312d; 331a-336a; 590a-593a 

51 TOLSTOV: War and Peace^ EPILOGUE n, 689c- 



52 DOSTOEVSKY: Brothers Karamazov^ BK v, 
122d-123a 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 49a-50a; 702a-b; 704a- 
706b 

54 FREUD: Civilization and Its Discontents, 782a-d 
ffn i]; 785a-b,d [fa i] 



34 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



lc(2) to id 



(lc. The distinction between animal and human 
nature!) 

lc(2) Comparison of animal with human in- 
telligence 

7 PLATO: Republic, BK n, 319c-320c 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK n, CH 8 [199*20-23] 
276c / Metaphysics, BK i, CH i [980*28-981*12] 
499a-c 

9 ARISTOTLE: History of Animals, BK i, CH i 
[ 4 88 b 2o-27] 9d; BK vm, CH i [588 R i8- b 4] 
114b,d; BK ix, CH i [6o8 a io- b i9] 133b,d-134a; 
CH 7 [6i2 b i8-32] 138b-c / Parts of Animals, 
BK i, CH i [64i b 5-io] 164b-c; BK iv, CH 10 
[686 b 22-687 a 23] 218b-d / Generation of Ani- 
mals, BK i, CH 23 [73i a 24- b 8] 271c-d; BK n, 
CH 6 [744*27-31] 285c / Ethics, BK vi, CH 7 
[1141*20 35] 390a-b, BK VH, CH 3 [ii47 b 3~5] 
397d / Politics, BK i, CH 5 [1254^0-25] 448b 

10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK i, CH 12 172d- 

173c 
12 AURELIUS. Meditations, BK ix, SECT 9 292b-d 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 59, 
A 3, ANS 308b-309a; Q 76, A 5, REP 4 394c- 
396a; Q 79, A 8, REP 3 421c-422b; Q 83, A i, 
ANS 436d-438a; Q 96, A i, ANS and REP 4 
510b-511b, PART I-H, Q 12, A 5 672a-c; Q 17, 
A 2 687d-688b 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART HI SUPPL, 
Q 79, A i, ANS 951b-953b 

23 HOBBFS: Leviathan, PART i, 52b; 53a-b; 53d- 
54a; 59b-c; 63a; 64b-c; 79b-c; PART n,100a-c; 
PART iv, 267b 

25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 215a-224a; 231d-232c 
28 HARVEY: On Animal Generation, 428a-b; 454a 

30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK i, APH 73 117d- 
118a; BK n, APH 35, 163d-164a 

31 DESCARTES: Rules, xii, 19d-20a / Discourse, 
PART v, 59d-60b / Objections and Replies, 
156a-d; 226a-d 

32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK vm [369-451] 240a- 
242a; BK ix [549-566] 259b 

33 PASCAL: Pensees, 339-344 233a-b / Vacuum, 
357a-358a 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH ix, 
SECT 12-15 140c-141a; CH x, SECT 10 143c-d; 
CH xi, SECT 4-11 144d-146a passim; CH xxvn, 
SECT 8 221a-222a; SECT 12 223a-b; BK in, 
CH vi, SECT 12 271d-272b; BK iv, CH xvi, 
SECT 12, 370c-371a; CH xvn, SECT i 371c-d 

35 BERKELEY: Human Knowledge, INTRO, SECT 
u407b-408a 

35 HUME: Human Understanding, SECT ix 487 b- 
488c; SECT xii, DIV 118, 504c 

36 SWIFT: Gullwer, PART iv 135a-184a esp 151b- 
152a, 159b-160a 

38 ROUSSEAU; Inequality, 337d-338a; 341d-342a 
/ Social Contract, BK i, 393b-c 

39 SMITH: Wealth of Nations, BK i, 6d-8b 

42 KANT: Pure Reason, 199c-200c; 235c-d / Prcf. 
Metaphysical Elements of Ethics, 372a-b / 
Judgement, 479a-c; 584d-585c; 602b,d [fn i] 



43 MILL: Utilitarianism, 469c-d 
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, ADDITIONS, 25 
121a; 121 136c-d 

48 MELVILLE: Moby Dic^, 134b-135a 

49 DARWIN: Descent of Man, 287a-303d esp 291c- 
297b; 319b-<l; 591d-592a 

51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, EPILOGUE n, 689c- 
690a 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 5a-6b; 13a-15a passim; 
49a-50a; 85a-b; 665a-666b; 677a; 678b-686b; 
704a-706b; 873a 

54 FREUD: Interpretation of Dreams, 385b-c 

id. The habits or instincts of animals: types of 
animal habit or instinct; the habits or in- 
stincts of different classes of animals 

6 HERODOTUS: History, BK n, 62c-64c passim; 
67b-c; BK in, llld-112c; BK vn, 236c 

7 PLATO: Republic, BK n, 320b 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK n, CH 8 [199*20-30] 
276c 

9 ARISTOTLE : History of Animals, BK i, CH i 
[487*io-488 b 29] 7d-9d; BK iv, CH 9 62a-63c; 
BK v-vi 65a-106d esp BK v, CH 8 [542*18^2] 
68d-69a; BK vin-ix 114b,d-158d esp BK vm, 

CH I [588^3-589*9] H5b, CH 12 [596 b 20-28] 

122d / Parts of Animals, BK n, CH 4 [650^9- 
651*5] 175c-d; BK iv, CH 5 [679*5-32] 209a-c / 
Generation of Animals, BK HI, CH 2 [753*8-17] 
294a-b/ Politics, BK i, CH 5 [1254^3-24] 448b; 
CH 8 [1256*18-30] 450a; BK vn, CH 13 [i332 b 3~ 
4] 537b 

10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK i, CH 12, 
173a-c 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK n [333-370] 
19b-d; [661-668] 23b-c 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 19, 
A 10, ANS 117d-118b; Q 59, A 3, ANS 308b-309a; 
Q 78, A 4, ANS 411d-413d; Q 81, A 3, ANS and 
REP 2 430c-431d; Q 83, A i, ANS 436d-438a; 
Q 96, A i, ANS and REP 2,4 510b-511b; Q 115, 
A 4, ANS 589d-590c; PART I-H, Q 12, A 5, ANS 
and REP 3 672a-c; Q 13, A 2 esp REP 3 673c- 
674c; Q 15, A 2, ANS 682a-c; Q 16, A 2, REP 2 
684d-685b; Q 17, A 2, REP 3 687d-688b; Q 40, 
A 3 794c-795a; Q 41, A i, REP 3 798b-d; Q 46, 
A 4, REP 2 815b-d 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 50, 
A 3, REP 2 8b-9a 

22 CHAUCER: Nun's Priest's Tale [15,282-287] 
457b / Manciple's Tale [17,104-144] 490a-b 

23 HOB BBS: Leviathan, PART n, lOOa-c 

24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK iv, 
247d-248b 

25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 184a-b; 216b-219a 

26 SHAKESPEARE: Henry V, ACT i, sc n [187-204] 
535d~536a 

27 SHAKESPEARE: Timon of Athens, ACT iv, sc 
HI [320-348] 414b-c 

28 HARVEY: On Animal Generation, 339a-b; 
346a-347d; 349a-350a; 361c-362a; 402 a- d; 
405c-406a; 428a-c; 476b*477b 



\eto2b 



CHAFER 2: ANIMAL 



35 



30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 72c / No- 
vum Organum, BK i, APH 73 117d-118a 

31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART v, 60b / Objec- 
tions and Replies, 156a-d 

31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART in, PROP 57, SCHOL 

415b 
33 PASCAL: PensSes, 342-344 233b 

35 HUME: Human Understanding, SECT v, DIV 38, 
466b; DIV 45 469c; SECT ix, DIV 85 488c; 

SECT XII, DIV Il8, 504C 

36 SWIFT: Gulliver, PART iv, 162a-b 

38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 334d-335a; 337d-338a; 
343d-344a 

42 KANT: Fund. Prin. Metaphysic of Morals, 
256d-257a / Practical Reason, 316c-317a 

43 MILL: Utilitarianism, 469c-d 

44 BOSWELL: Johnson, 221b-d 

48 MELVILLE: Moby Dic{, 144a-b; 146b-147a; 
283b-284a; 289b-292a 

49 DARWIN: Origin of Species, 66a-69c passim; 
82d-85c; 108d-lllb; 119a-135a,c esp 119a- 
122d, 134d-135a,c / Descent of Man, 287d- 
289a; 304b-310d esp 308a-310a; 312c-d; 
369b-371b; 456b-457c; 463a-464b; 470d-475c 
passim, esp 475c; 504d-507a passim, esp 506c; 
583a 

51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK xi, 499c-500c 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 49b-50a; 68a-73b; 700a- 
711a; 724a-b; 730a-b; 890b-891b [fn 3] 

54 FREUD: Narcissism, 401a-c / Instincts, 412b- 
415d / General Introduction, 615b-616c / Be- 
yond the Pleasure /V;r/^,650c-662b esp 651d- 
654a / Group Psychology, 684d-686c esp 684d- 
685b / Ego and Id, 711c-712a / New Introduc- 
tory Lectures, 846a-851d esp 846b-d, 849c- 
850a, 851a 

le. The conception of the animal as a machine 
or automaton 

9 ARISTOTLE: Parts of Animals, BK i, CH i 
[64o b 5-i8j 163a-b / Motion of Animals, CH 7 
[70i b i-i3] 236d-237a / Generation of Animals, 
BK it, CH i (734 b 3~ 20] 275a-b; CH 5 [74i b 5-io] 
282c 

10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK n, CH 3, 
185a-b 

23 HOB BBS: Leviathan, INTRO, 47a 

31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART v, 56a-b; 59a- 
60c / Objections and Replies, 156a-d; 226a-d 

33 PASCAL: Pens&s, 340 233a 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK H, CH x, 
SECT 10 143c-d; CH xi, SECT n 145d-146a; 
CH xxvn, SECT 5 220b-c 

38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 337d-338a 

42 KANT: Judgement, 558b-559a; 575b-578a; 
578d-582c 

50 MARX: Capital, 190d [fn i] 

51 TptsTOY: War and Peace, BK x, 449b-c; 
EPILOGUE H, 689c-690a 

53 JAMBS: Psychology, 3b*6b passim, esp 5b-6b; 
lla-12a; 47b-52b esp 51a-52a; 84a-94b; 700a- 
706b esp 705a-706b 



2. The classification of animals 

2a. General schemes of classification: their 
principles and major divisions 

OLD TESTAMENT: Genesis, 1:20-31; 2:19-20 / 
Leviticus, ii 

8 ARISTOTLE: Posterior Analytics, BK n, CH 13 
[96 b 25~97 a 6] 132a-b; CH 14 133c-134a / Top- 
ics, BK vi, CH 6 [144*27-145*2] 197d-198c 
passim / Metaphysics, BK v, CH 28 546b-c; 
BK vii, CH 12 [103^28-1038*35] 561c-562a / 
Soul, BK ii, CH 3 644c-645b 

9 ARISTOTLE: History of Animals, BK i, CH i 
[486 R i5]-CH 6 [491*5] 7b-12c esp CH i [486*15- 
487*1] 7b-d; BK n, CH i [497Vi8] 19b,d-20a; 
CH 15 [505^5-321 28b-c; BK iv, CH i [523*30- 
b 2o] 48b,d; BK v, CH i [539 < V I 5l 65b BK 
vm, CH i [588 b 4]-CH 2 [590*18] 114d-116c / 
Parts of Animals, BK i, CH 2-4 165d-168c; CH 5 
[645 b 2o-28] 169c-d; BK in, CH 6 [669 b y-i4] 
198a / Generation of Animals, BK i, CH i 
[7i5*i8- b 25] 255b-d; BK n, CH i [732*13- 
733 b i7] 272c-274a; BK in, CH ii ~ 
302c-d / Politics, BK iv, CH 4 
489d-490a 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 3, 

A 4, REP 1 16d-17c; Q 50, A 4, REP i 273b-274b; 

QQ 71-72 367a-369d 
28 HARVEY: On Animal Generation, 468b- 

469b 
30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK n, APH 27, 

158b-c; APH 30 159c-d 
35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK in, CH vi 

268b-283a passim, esp SECT 7 270b, SECT 36- 

37 279a-b; CH xi, SECT 19-20 304b-d 
42 KANT: Pure Reason, 193a-200c / Judgement, 

579b-c 

48 MELVILLE: Moby DicJ(, 95b-105b 

49 DARWIN: Origin of Species, 24a-b; 25d-29a 
esp 28c-29a; 30d-31d; 63d-64d; 207a-212c; 
215b-217b; 224d-225b; 228c-229a,c; 238b- 
239a; 241d-242a / Descent of Man, 331a-34ld 
esp 331b-333a, 337a-338c; 342a-350b passim, 
esp342a-b 

2b. Analogies of structure and function among 
different classes of animals 

8 ARISTOTLE: Posterior Analytics, BK ii, CH 14 
[98*20-23] 134a / Youth, Life, and Breathing 
714a-726d passim 

9 ARISTOTLE: History of Animals 7a-158d esp 
BK i, CH 1-6 7a-13a, BK n, CH i 19b,d-23d, 
BK iv, CH S-BK v, CH i 59d-66a, BK vm, CH i 
114b,d-115b / Parts of Animals 161a-229d pas- 
sim, esp BK i, CH 4 167d-168c, CH 5 [645 b i- 
646*5] 169b-d / Gait of Animals 243a-252a,c / 
Generation of Animals 255a-331a,c esp BK n, 
CH i 272a-276a 

10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK in, CH 2 199d- 

200a 
28 HARVEY: Motion of the Heart, 274b-d; 277b- 

278d; 280c-283a; 299b-302c / On Animal 



36 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



(2. The classification of animals. 2b. Analogies 
of structure and junction among different 
claues oj animals.) 

Generation, 336b-d; 338a-496d esp 449a-454a, 

463d-464a, 468b-472c 
30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK n, APH 27, 157b- 

15Sc 
35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK HI, CH vi, 

SECT 12 271d-272b 
35 HUME: Human Understanding, SECT ix, DIV 82 

487b-c 
42 KANT: Judgement, 579 b-c 

48 MELVILLE: Moby Dick^ 273a-b; 279b 

49 DARWIN: Origin of Species, 75b-78c; 82d-94c; 
112b-113c; 212d-215a; 217b-219d; 225c-228c; 
238c-239a/ Descent of Man, 255a~265d; 271c- 
275c; 279a-284b; 331a-335a; 338d-340c pas- 
sim ;348b-c 

2c. Continuity and discontinuity in the scale of 
animal life: gradation from lower to 
higher forms 

OLD TESTAMENT: Genesis, 1:20-25 

8 ARISTOTLE: Soul, BK H, CH 2 [413^-10] 643c; 
[414*1-3] 644a; BK in, CH n [433^32-434*9] 
666d; CH 12 [434 b o-3o] 667c-d / Sense and the 
Sensible, CH i [436^12-437*17] 673c-674a; CH 5 
[ 44 3 b i7- 44 5*3] 681c-682d 

9 ARISTOTLE: History of Animals, BK vm, CH i 
114b,d-115b / Parts of Animals, BK iv, CH 10 
[686 b 23-687 B i] 218b-c / Generation of Animals, 
BK n, CH i [732*i3-733 b i7] 272c-274a 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 18, 
A 2, REP i 105c'106b; A 3, ANS 106b-107c; 
Q 50, A 4, REP i 273b-274b; Q 71, A i, REP 4-5 
367a-368b; Q 72, A i, REP i 368b-369d; Q 76, 
A 5, REP 3394c-396a; Q 78, A i, ANS and REP 4 
407b-409a 

28 HARVEY: On Animal Generation, 336b-d; 
400d-401a; 412c-413a 

30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK n, APH 30 
159c-d 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH ix, 
SECT 11-15 140b-141a passim, esp SECT 12 
140c; BK in, CH vi, SECT 12 271d-272b; BK 
iv, CH xvi, SECT 12, 370c-371a 

42 KANT: Pure Reason, 199c-200c / Judgement, 
578d-580a esp 579b-c 

49 DARWIN: Origin of Species, 3a-b;-55J>62a esp 
60b-61a; 64a-d; 80a-82d; 117a-118d; 167a~ 
180d esp 180a-d; 207a-208a; 224d 225b; 
228c-229a,c; 238b-243d esp 241a-d, 243b-c / 
Descent of Man, 337a-338c; 340d-341c 

53IAMES: Psychology^ 41b; 51a-52b; 95b-98a; 
705b-706b 

54 FREUD: Civilization and Its Discontents, 768d- 
769a 

3. The anatomy of animals 

6 HERODOTUS: History, BK n, 63b~64c passim 

7 PLATO: Timaeus, 466a-469c 



9 ARISTOTLE: History of Animals, BK i-iv 7a- 
65a,c esp BK i, CH 1^6 7a-13a / Parts of Ani- 
mate, BK Ji-iv 170a-229d 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 91, 
A 3 486b-487d 

24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK iv, 

271a-272d 
28 HARVEY: On Animal Generation, 343b-345d; 

377c-380c passim; 485a-d 

30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 52b-c / 
Novum Organum, BK n, APH 7 139c-140a 

31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART v, 56b*57a 
42 KANT: Judgement, 579b-c 

48 MELVILLE: Moby Dic^, 243b-252a 

49 DARWIN: Origin of Species, 14c-15b passim; 
85d-87b; 89b-90c; 217b-219d / Descent of 
Man, 255c-265a passim; 266a-c; 271c-274d; 
278c-284b 

54 FREUD: Beyond the Pleasure Principle, 647a- 
648a 

^. Physical elements of the animal body: kinds 
oftissue 

7 PLATO: Timaeus, 468a-469d 

8 ARISTOTLE: Meteorology, BK IV,CH 10 [389*19- 
23] 493b; CH n [389^7-18] 493c-d; CH 12 
493d-494d 

9 ARISTOTLE: History of Animals, BK i, CH i 
[486*5-15] 7a; [487*1-10] 7d; BK in, CH 2 
[5ii b i-io] 35a; CH 5 [515*27]-^ 20 [52i b i7] 
39c-46c / Parts of Animals, BK i, CH i [640 b n- 

, 24] 163a-b; BK n, CH i [646*7]-^ 2 [648*20] 
170a-172c; CH 3 {649 b 22J-cH 9 [655^6] 174b- 
181d; BK in, CH 2 [663^2-36] 191b-c / 
Generation of Animals, BK i, CH i [715*8-11] 
255a; CH 18 [722 a i8- b i] 262a-b; BK n, CH 6 
[743*i- b i8] 284b-d 

10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK i, CH 6 169c- 
170c; BK n, CH 6 188c-191a; BK HI, CH n 
207d-208b; CH 15, 215a-b 

20 AQUINAS : Summa Theologica, PART HI SUPPL, 
Q 79, A 3, ANS and REP i 955c-956b 

28 HARVEY: Motion of the Heart, 274d-275c; 

302c-d / Circulation of the Blood, 316d / On 

Animal Generation, 414c-415b 
45 LAVOISIER: Elements of Chemistry, PART i, 

39a-41a 
48 MELVILLE: Moby Dic^ 226b-228b; 276b- 

277b 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 53a-b; 118a 

54 FREUD: Beyond the Pleasure Principle, 647a-d 

. The skeletal structure 

6 HERODOTUS: History, BK in, 91 b-c; 112a; 
BK ix, 306b 

7 PLATO: Timaeus, 468a*469d . - 

9 ARISTOTLE : History of Animals* BK r v OH 7 
13a-b; CH 13 {493*21-24] 15b; CH 15 (493^12- 
494*18! 15d-16b; BK n, CH i [499*i8-5oo a i4] 
21c-22b; l5oo b 2o-25) 23a; CH i [5Oi*a]^drt 5 
(502*3! 23b-24bicH 15 (506*7-10) 28c; UK m, 
CH 7-9 40b-41d; CH 20 (521*4*17] 46ct IK iv, 



Icto 



CHAPTER 2 .-ANIMAL 



37 



CH i [523 b i-i8] 48b,d; [524^1-30] 50c-d; CH 
2 (525 b n-i4] 51d; CH 4 [528*1-30] 54d-55b; 
CH 7 [532 ft 3i- b 5] 59b; BK vn, CH 10 [587**! 1-18] 
113d-114a / Parts of Animals, BK 11, CH 6 
176d-177c; CH 7 [653*34- b 2] 178d; CH 8 
[653 b 3o]-CH 9 [655 b io] 179b-181c; BK in, CH 
1-2 188b,d-191d; CH 4 [666*17-22] 194c-d; BK 
iv, CH 5 [679 b i3~35] 209d-210a; CH 10 [690*5- 
29] 221d-222b; CH 12 [695*1-26] 226c-227a; 
CH 13 [696 b i-7] 228a-b / Motion of Animals, 
CH i [698 a i5- b 9] 233b-c / Gait of Animals, 
CH ii 248d-249a / Generation of Animals, BK 
ii, CH 6 [ 7 44 b 28-745 b 9] 286a-d 

10 HIPPOCRATES: Injuries of the Head, par 1-2 
63b,d-64c; par 18 69a-b / Fractures 74b,d-91d 
esp par 2-4 75a-76c, par 9-12 78c-80a, par 18 
82b~c, par 20 83a, par 37 89a-b / Articulations 
91b,d-121d passim / Instruments of Reduction 
121b,d-130d passim, esp par i 121b,d-122c 

10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK in, CH 15, 
215a-b 

28 GALILEO: Two New Sciences, FIRST DAY, 132c; 
SECOND DAY, 187b-188c, 195c-d 

28 HARVEY. On Animal Generation, 443d-444c 

48 MELVILLE. Moby Dic1{, 333b<338a 

49 DARWIN. Origin of Species, 15a-b; 94a; 107a- 
113c passim, 217b-219d / Descent of Man, 
263c-264d; 273a, 280c-282c 

3c. The visceral organs 

7 PLATO. Timaeus, 466a-468a 

8 ARISTOTLE Metaphysics, BK vn, CH 10 
[io35 b 26-28] 559b / Soul, BK ii, CH 8 [420^3- 
27] 652a-b / Sleep, CH 3 [458*14-19] 701c / 
Youth, Life, and Breathing, CH 3 [468 b 28]-cH 
4 [469 b 2o] 715b-716b; CH 14 720d-721a 

9 ARISIOILE. History of Animals, BK i, CH 16-17 
16d-19d, BK ii, en I5-BK in, CH i 28b-35a; 
BK in, CH 3 [513*22-39] 36d-37a; CH 13-15 
44a-c; BK iv, CH i [524^-22] 50a-c; CH 2 
[526 b 22-527 a 2o] 53b-d; CH 3-7 54b-59d pas- 
sim / Parts of Animals, BK in, CH 4 193a-195d; 
CH 6-14 197b-205c; BK iv, CH 1-5 205b,d-213b 
/ Generation of Animals, BK i, CH 3-16 256c- 
261b passim 

10 HIPPOCRATES . Ancient Medicine, par 22 8a-d / 

Sacred Disease, 156a 
10 GALEN. Natural Faculties, BK i, CH 13 173d- 

177a, BK in, CH 8 205a-207b; CH n 207d-208b 
20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART in SUPPL, 

Q 80, A 2, ANS 957c-958b 
24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK i, 

14a-b 
28 HARVEY: Motion of the Heart, 271b-273a; 

274d~275c; 278b-c; 299b-302d / On Animal 

Generation, 339c-343a; 344d-345a; 350a-352d; 

375d-376c; 450d-451b; 452c-453b; 473b- 

476b; 485a-b 

31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART v, 56a 
49 DARWIN: Descent of Man, 266c; 281a-c 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 19a-42b; 118a 

54 FREUD: Beyond the Pleasure Principle, 647a-b 



3</. The utility or adaptation of bodily struc- 
tures 

9 ARISTOTLE: History of Animals, BK iv, CH 4 
[528 b 29~529*i] 55d; CH 5 [530 b i9~24] 57c; 
BK ix, CH 37 [62o b io~33] 146b-c; [622 b 9~i5] 
148a / Parts of Animals, BK n-iv 170a-229d 
passim / Gait of Animals 243a-252a,c esp CH i 
243a-b / Generation of Animals, BK i, CH 2 
[7i6 a i8- b 2] 256b-c; CH 4-13 257a-260b; BK iv, 
CH i [765 b 33~766*io] 307a-b; BK v, CH 8 
330b-331a,c 

10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK i, CH 6, 170b-c; 
CH 10 171b-172b; CH 13, 173d-174d; BK u, 
CH 4, 187c-d; BK in, CH 3 200a-201a; CH 8 
205a-207b; CH n 207d-208b 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK iv [823-857] 
55a-b; BK v [837-877] 72a-c 

18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK XXH, CH 24, 
610c-611b 

28 HARVEY: Motion of the Heart, 269a-b; 299b- 
304a,c / On Animal Generation, 390b-c; 401 b; 
402c;418b-c;453c-454c 

34 NEWTON* Optics, BK in, 529a 

48 MELVILLE. Moby Dici(, 227b-228a; 277b- 
279b 

49 DARWIN: Origin of Species, Ic; lOd-llb; 38c; 
41c-44c esp 43a-b, 43d-44a; 66a-68b; 82d- 
98a,c esp 97b-98a,c; 103c-113c; 115c-116b; 
225c-228c / Descent of Man, 258b-259a; 320b, 
532d-543d 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 701a 

4. Animal movement 

4a. Comparison of animal movement with other 
kinds of local motion 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK vni, CH 4 [254^2-33] 
339a-b / Heavens, BK n, CH 2 376b-377c 

9 ARISTOTLE- Motion of Animals, CH i 233a-c; 
CH 4 [700*5-27] 235b-c; en 6 235d-236b; CH 7 
[70i b i]-CH 8 [702 b i2] 236d-238a 

19 AQUINAS- Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 18, 
A i, REP 1-3 104c-105c; Q 70, A 3 365b-367a 

31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART v, 59a-d 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH 
xxvn, SECT 4-5 220a-c 

49 DARWIN- Origin of Species, 115b 
53 JAMES: Psychology, 4a-6b 

4b. The cause of animal movement: voluntary 
and involuntary movements 

7 PLATO: Phaedo, 241d-242a 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK vin, CH 2 [252 b i6- 
28] 336c-d; [253*6-21] 337a-b; CH 4 [254 b 
12-33] 339a-b / Soul, BK in, CH 9-11 664d- 
667a 

9 ARISTOTLE: Parts of Animals, BK i, CH i 
[64o b 30-64i b io] 163c-164c / Motion of Ani- 
mals, CH 6-1 1 235d-239d / Ethics, BK HI, CH 2 
[mi b 6-9]357b 

10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK i, CH i 167a-b 



38 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



4c to 5a 



(4. Animal movement. 4b. The cause of animal 
movement: voluntary and involuntary move- 
ments.) 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of 'Things, BK 11 [251-293] 
18b-d; BK in [161-167] 32b; BK iv [877-906] 
55d-56a 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 18, 
A 3, ANS 106b-107c; Q 78, A i, ANS and REP 4 
407b-409a; Q 80, A 2, REP 3 428a-d; Q 115, 
A 4, ANS 589d-590c; PART i-n, Q 6, A 2 646a-c; 
Q 12, A 5 672a-c; Q 13, A 2 673c-674c; Q 15, 
A 2 682a-c; Q 16, A 2 684d-685b; Q 17, A 2 
687d-688b 

23 HOB BBS: leviathan, PART i, 61 a- b 

24 RABELAIS- Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK in, 
192d-193a 

28 HARVEY: Motion of the Heart, 267a-b; 285d- 
286a; 302d-303a / Circulation of the Blood, 
316d; 325d-326d / On Animal Generation, 
369d-370b; 415b-429c csp 417a-419b, 423b- 
424a, 427c-428c; 456b-458a; 488d-496d 

31 DESCARTES: Rules, xn, 19d-20a / Discourse, 
PART v, 58d-59a; 60b / Objections and Replies, 
156a-d 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH xxi, 
SECT 5 179c-d; SECT 7-11 180a-d; CH xxxni, 
SECT 6 249a-b; BK iv, CH x, SECT 19 354a-c 

35 HUME: Human Understanding, SECT vn, DIV 
5i-52472b-473c 

42 KANT: Pure Reason, 164 b-c / Intro. Metaphysic 
of Morals, 386b-d 

49 DARWIN Origin of Species, 115b 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 3b; 5a; 8a-15a csp 12a-b, 
15a; 71b [fn ij; 694a-702a; 705a-706b; 761a- 
765b; 767b-768a; 827a-835a 

54 FREUD- Interpretation of Dreams, 351d-352a; 
363b-d / Instincts, 412b-414b passim 

4c. The organs, mechanisms, and characteris- 
tics of locomotion 

7 PLATO: Timaeus, 454b 

8 ARISTOTLE: Soul, BK in, CH 10 [433 b i3-27] 
666b-c 

9 ARISTOTLE : History of Animals, BK i, CH i 
[ 4 87 b i4-34) 8c-d; CH 4 [489*27-29] lOc; CH 5 
[489 b 2o-49o b 6] lla-12a; CH 15 [493 b 26-494*i8] 
16a-b; BK n, CH i [497 b i8-498 b io] 20a-d; 
CH 12 26b-27a passim; BK in, CH 5 39c-40a; 
BK iv, CH i [523 b 2 1-524*32] 48d*50a; CH 2 
[525 b i5-526 b i8] 51d-53b; CH 4 [528 a 29- b n] 
55b; CH 7 [532*19-29] 59a-b / Parts of Animals, 
BK n, CH 9 [654*3i- b 35] 180a-d; BK iv, CH 6-9 
213b-217b passim; CH 10 [690*4-^1] 221d- 
222c; CH 12 [693*24]-CH 13 [696*34] 225b 
228a / Motion of Animals, CH 1-2 233a-234a; 
CH 7 [7oi b i-i3) 236d-237a; CH 8 [702*22]- 
CH 10 [7Q3 b i] 237c-239a / Gail of Animals 
243a-252a,c 

10 HIPPOCRATES: Articulations, par 60 113b-d 
12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK iv [877-897] 
55d-56a 



16 KEPLER: Epitome, BK iv, 855b 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 71, 
A i, REP 2 367a-368b; Q 99, A i, ANS 519b- 
520a 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART HI SUPPL, 
Q 84, A i, REP 4 983c-984c 

28 HARVEY: Motion of the Heart, 301d-302a / 

Circulation of the Blood, 319b / On Animal 

Generation, 450a b 
31 DESCARTES: Rules, xii, 19d-20a / Discourse, 

PART v, 58d-59a / Objections and Replies, 

156a-d 
34 NEWTON: Principles, COROL n 15a~16b esp 16b 

48 MELVILLE: Moby Dict(, 276b-278a 

49 DARWIN: Origin of Species, 23a-b; 66a-67a; 
83b-84b; 93b-c; 94d-9Sa; 105c-106a / Descent 
of Man, 278c-280c; 365b-c 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 9a-12b; 19b-26b; 714a- 
715b passim 

5. Local motion within the animal body 

5a. The ducts, channels, and conduits involved 
in interior bodily motions 

7 PLATO: Timaeus, 470a-471b 

8 ARISTOTLE: Youth, Life, and Breathing, CH 14 
[474 b 2-9] 720d; CH 17 [ 4 76 a 26- b 8] 722b-c; 
CH 22 724b-d passim 

9 ARISTOTLE History of Animals, BK i, CH 2 
[488 b 29]-CH 3 [489*14] 9d-10b; CH 4 [489*20- 
23] lOb-c; CH 12 15a, CH 16 [495 n i8]-cH 17 
[497*29] 17b-19d; BK n, CH I5-BK m, CH 4 
28b-39c; BK in, CH 20 [52^4-8] 46c; BK v, 
CH 5 [540^29-541*12] 67b-c; BK vi, CH 11 
[566*2-14] 92a-b; BK vn, CH 8 [586 b i2-24] 
112d-113a / Parts of Animals, BK n, CH 9 
[654*3 i- b i2] 180a-b; BK in, CH 3 191d-193a; 
CH 4 [665 b io]-cH 5 [668 b 3i] 193b-197b; CH 7 
[670*7-18] 198c-d; CH 8 [67o b 34]-cn 9 [67^28] 
199c-200c, CH 14 203b-205c; BK iv, CH 2 
[676 b i6~677*24] 206b-207a; GH 4 [677^36- 
678*20] 207d-208a / Generation of Animals, 
BK i, CH 2 [7i6*33]-cn 16 [721*26] 256b-261a 
passim; BK n, CH 4 [738*9-739*2] 278d-279d; 
[740*21-35] 281a-b; CH 6 [743*1-11] 284b; CH 7 
J745 b 22-746*i9] 287a-c; BK iv, CH 4 [773*13- 
29] 315a-b 

10 HIPPOCRATES : Ancient Medicine, par 22 8a-d/ 
Sacred Disease, 156a-b 

10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK i, CH 10 171b- 
172b; CH 13 173d-177a; BK i, CH I5-BK n, CH 
3, 179d-185b; BK n, CH 5-6 188b-191a; CH 9 
195c-199a,c; BK HI 199a-215d passim 

28 HARVEY: Motion of the Heart, 268d-304a,c csp 
295d-296a / Circulation of the Blood 305a- 
328a,c / On Animal Generation, 339c-340c; 
342d-345a; 347d; 350a-353b; 368b-371c; 
373b-374d; 378b-d; 379b-c; 388d-389a; 401c- 
402c; 430b d; 438c-441a; 449c-d; 473d-476b; 
485a-487b 

31 DESCARTES : Discourse, PART v, 56b-59a 

49 DARWIN: Descent of Man, 2S7c 



5b to 5f 



CHAPTER 2: ANIMAL 



39 



5b. The circulatory system: the motions of the 
heart, blood, and lymph 

7 PLATO. Timaeus, 466c-d; 471c-d 

8 ARISTOTLE : Youth, Life, and Breathing, CH 26 
725d-726b 

9 ARISTOTLE: History of Animals, BK in, CH 19 
[521*6-31] 45d-46b; BK vi, CH 3 [561*9-15] 87c 
/ Parts of Animals, BK in, CH 4-5 193a-197b / 
Generation of Animals, BK n, CH i [735*10-26] 
275d-276a; CH 5 [74^15-24] 282d; CH 6 
[742 b 33-743*i] 284a; BK iv, CH i [766 ft 30- b 2] 
307c-d 

10 HIPPOCRATES : Sacred Disease, 160a 

10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK i, CH I5-BK n, 

CH 2 179d-185a; BK n, CH 4-6, 188a-d; BK in, 

CH 13-15, 213a-215d 

17 PLOTINUS: Fourth Ennead, TR HI, CH 23, 154b 
19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i-ii, Q 17, 

A 9, REP 2 692d-693d 
24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK in, 

138a-d 
28 HARVEY: Motion of the Heart, 268d-304a,c csp 

285b-296a / Circulation of the Blood 305a- 

328a,c esp 309b-d, 324a-326d / On Animal 

Generation, 368a-371b; 374a~d; 429c-441a; 

449c-d; 456b-d, 488d-496d 

30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK n, APH 48, 
186d 

31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART v, 56b-59a / 
Objections and Replies, 156c-d 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 64a-65a; 695a-696a 

5c. The glandular system: the glands of in- 
ternal and external secretion 
7 PLATO: Timaeus, 472a-474b 
9 ARISTOTLE: History of Animals, BK i, CH 12 
[493*10-16] 15a; BK ii, CH 13 [504 b 22-27] 27a- 
b; BK in, CH 2 [5ii b i-io] 35a, CH 20 [52i b 2i]- 
CH 21 [523*13] 46d-48c; BK vi, CH 20 [574 b 7- 
13] lOOb; CH 21 [575 b 9-i2] lOlb; CH 26 103d; 
CH 33 [580*2-4] 105c-d; BK vn, CH 3 [583*26- 
34] 108d-109a; CH 5 [585*29-32] lllb; CH n 
114a,c / Parts of Animals, BK u, CH 7 [653 b 8- 
19] 179a; BK in, CH 5 [668 b i-io] 196d; CH 15 
205d; BK iv, CH 10 [688*i9- b 34] 219d-220d / 
Generation of Animals, BK i, CH 20 [727 b 34~ 
728*9] 268a-b; BK in, CH 2 [752^3-24] 293d; 
BK iv, CH 8 318b-319c 

10 HIPPOCRATES : Ancient Medicine, par 19 6d-7b 
/ Airs, Waters, Places, par 8, 12a-b / Prognos- 
tics, par 6 20c 

10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK i, CH 13, 175d- 
177a; BK n, CH 2 184b-185a; CH 4-5, 188a-c; 
CH 8-9 191b-199a,c; BK in, CH 5 202c-d; CH 
12, 209a-b 

28 HARVEY: Motion of the Heart, 288d / Circula- 
tion of the Shod, 320a-b / On Animal Genera- 
tion, 396c-d; 435a-c; 451b; 461b; 464c-d; 
487c-488a 

31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART v, PREF 451a-452c 

34 NEWTON: Optics, BK in, 538a 



49 DARWIN: Origin of Species, HOc-llla / Descent 

of Man, 339d-340c; 547c-548c 
53 JAMES: Psychology, 66b-67a; 696b-697b 

5d. The respiratory system: breathing, lungs, 
gills 

7 PLATO: Timaeus, 470b-471b 

8 ARISTOTLE: Youth, Life, and Breathing, CH 7- 
27 717a-726d 

9 ARISTOTLE: History of Animals, BK i, CH i 
[487*14^3] 8a-b; CH 5 [489*34^6] lOd; CH n 
J492 b 5-i2] 14b-c; CH 16 [495*2o- b i9] 17b-d; 
CH 17 [496*27-34] 18c; BK n, CH 13 J5O4 b 27- 
505*19] 27b-c; CH 15 [505^2-506*4] 28c; BK 
iv, CH 2 [526 b i8-22] 53b; BK vi, CH 12 [566 b 2- 
14] 92c-d; BK vin, CH 2 [589*io- b 29] 115c-116b 
/ Parts of Animals, BK n, CH 16 [658^6- 
6 59 b i9l 185d-186c; BK in, CH i [662*16-28] 
189b-c; CH 3 191d-193a; CH 6 197b-198a; 
BK iv, CH 13 [696*37^24] 228a-c; [697*16^1] 
229a-b / Motion of Animals, CH 11 [703 b 3-i5J 
239a-b 

10 HIPPOCRATES: Prognostics, par 5 20b-c / 
Articulations, par 41 103c-104b 

10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK in, CH 13, 
211b-d 

28 HARVEY: Motion of the Heart, 268d-273a pas- 
sim; 282b-285b; 303d-304a,c / Circulation of 
the Blood, 309c; 317c-d; 324a; 325d / On 
Animal Generation, 339c-340c; 458a 

30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK n, APH 12, 
141d-142a 

31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART v, 58b-c 
33 PASCAL: Weight of Air, 415a-b 

48 MELVILLE: Moby Dic{, 272b-276b 

49 DARWIN: Origin of Species, 87d-88c; 90c-91a; 
238d / Descent of Man, 339a 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 696a-b; 740b [fn i] 

5e. The alimentary system: the motions of the 
digestive organs in the nutritive process 

7 PLATO- Timaeus, 467d-468a 
9 ARISTOTLE: Parts of Animals, BK n, CH 3 
[650*1-37] 174c-175a; BK in, CH i [66i*34- b i2] 
188b; CH 3 191d-193a; CH 14 203b-205c; BK 
iv, CH n [69o b i8-69i*i] 222d-223a; [691*28- 
b 27] 223c-d 

10 HIPPOCRATES: Ancient Medicine, par n 4b 

10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK i, CH 9-10 171b- 
172b; CH 16, 180c-181b; BK in, CH 4-5 201b- 
202d; CH 7-8 203b-207b; CH 13, 211d-212d 

28 HARVEY: Motion of the Heart, 279a-b / On 
Animal Generation, 350a-c; 451b; 452d-453a; 
456d; 460a-461a 

31 DESCARTES : Discourse, PART v, 58c-d 

3/. The excretory system: the motions of elim- 
ination 

9 ARISTOTLE: History of Animals, BK HI, CH 15 
44b-c; BK iv, CH i [524*9-14] 49d; BK vi, 
OH 20 [574 b i9-25] lOOb-c; BK vn, CH 10 [587* 
27-33] 113c; BK vin, CH 5 [594 b 2i~a6] 120d; 



40 



(5. Local motion within the animal body. 5/. The 
excretory system: the motions of elimination.) 

BK ix, CH 45 [63o b 7-i7] 155d-156a / Parts of 

Animals, BK in, CH 7 [6yo b 2^]-cH 9 [672*26] 

199b-201a; CH 14 ^y-^S] 204d-205c; BK 

iv, CH i [676*29-35] 206a; CH 2 206b-207b; 

CH 5 [679-5-32] 209a-c; CH 10 [689*3-34] 220d- 

221 b / Generation of Animals, BK i, CH 13 

[7i9 b 29-72o*n] 259d-260a 
10 HIPPOCRATES: Airs, Waters, Places, par 9 12d- 

13b / Prognostics, par 11-12 21c-22b 
10 GALEN. Natural Faculties, BK i, CH 13, 1 73d- 

175d; CH 15-17 179d-183d; BK H, CH 2 184b- 

185a; BK HI, CH 5 202c-d; CH 12-13 208b 213b 
1Q AQUINAS- Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 119, 

A i, REP i 604c-607b 
20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART HI SUPPL, 

Q 80, A 2, REP i 957c-958b; A 3, ANS and REP 2 

958b-959c 
24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK i, 

16c-18b; BK in, 138b-c; BK iv, 293a-b; 310d- 

311d 
28 HARVEY: Motion of the Heart, 273b-c; 283a-b 

/ On Animal Generation, 344b-345a; 351a-b; 

356c-d; 380c 

36 SWIFT- Gulliver, PART i, 26a-b 
45 LAVOISIER: Elements of Chemistry, PART i, 

45c-d 
49 DARWIN: Origin of Species, lllb-c; 120b-c 

5g. The brain and nervous system: the excita- 
tion and conduction of nervous im- 
pulses 

9ARismTLE: Parts of Animals, BK n, CH 7 

177c-179a; CH 10 [656*i4~ b 28] 182b-183a 
10 HIPPOCRATES: Sacred Disease, 156a-160b 
10 GALEN- Natural Faculties, BK n, CH 6 188c- 
191a 

16 KEPLLR: Epitome, BK iv, 855a b 

17 PLOHNUS: Fourth Ennead, TR in, CH 23, 153d- 
154a 

19 AQUINAS. Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 99, 
A i, ANS 519b-520a 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART i, 49b-d 

24 RABFLAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK in, 
190a-c 

28 HARVEY: On Animal Generation, 456b-458a 
31 DESCARTES: Rules, XH, 19d-20a / Discourse, 

PART v, 58d-59a / Meditations, vi, 102a-d / 

Objections and Replies, 156a-d 
31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART v, PREF 451a-452c 
34 NEWTON: Optics, BK in, 518b-519b; 522a-b 
45 FARADAY: Researches in Electricity, 540a-541a,c 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 2b-3a; 8a-67b csp 9b-17a, 
42a-b, 46b-47a; 70a-77b esp 70a-71a; 152a- 
153a; 497a-501b esp 500b-501b; 694a-695a; 
698b-699a; 705a-b; 758b-759a; 827b-835a 

54 FREUD Hysteria, 87a / Interpretation of Dreams, 
351c-352d; 363c-364b; 378a-b / Instincts, 
413a-d / Unconscious, 431d / Beyond the 
Pleasure Principle, 646b-649d / Ego and Id, 
700a-b 



THE GREAT IDEAS 

6. Animal nutrition 



5g to 6b 



6a. The nature of the nutriment 

OLD TESTAMENT: Genesis, 1-29-30 
5 ARISTOPHANES. Peace [1-172] 526a-527 l d 

7 PLATO: Timaeus, 469d-470a; 471d-472a 

8 ARISTOTLE: Generation and Corruption. BK i, 
CH 5 [322*4-28] 419d-420b / Metaphysics, BK 
i, CH 3 [983 b i9-25] 501d-502a / Soul, BK n, 
CH 4 [4i6 a i8- b 3i] 646c-647b / Sense and the 
Sensible, CH 4 [44i b 24-442 s i2] 679b-d 

9 ARISTOTLE: History of Animals, BK i, CH i 

[488*15-20] 9a,' BK III, CH 20 [52I b 2l]-CH 21 

[523*13] 46d-48c; BK vm, CH 2 [59o a i8]-cH 11 
[596 b i9] 116d-122d; CH 21 [60^25-34] 129d; 
BK ix, CH i [6o8 b i9]-cH 2 [6io b i9] 134a-136b; 
CH 9 140a-b / Parts of Animals, BK n, CH 4 
[651*12-19] 176a / Generation of Animals, BK 
iv, CH 8 [777*4-19] 319a-b / Politics, BK i, CH 8 
[1256*18-30] 450a; [1256^1-20] 450b-c 

10 HIPPOCRATES: Ancient Medicine, par 3-8 Id- 
3b, par 13-15 4c-5d / Regimen in Acute Dis- 
eases, par 4 27c-28a; par 14-17 32c-34c; 
APPENDIX, par 18 41a-d 

10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK i, CH 2, 168a~b; 
CH lo-n 171b-172d; BK n, CH 8, 191b-193d 
esp 192d-193b 

12 LUCRETIUS- Nature of Things, BK iv [633-672] 
52c-53a 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 97, 
A 3, REP 2 515a-d; A 4 515d-516d; Q 119, A i 
604c-607b 

24 RABELAIS. Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK in, 
138b 

28 HARVEY: On Animal Generation, 378b-d; 
398d-399c; 408c-d; 409c-d; 414a-b; 435a- 
438b, 439a-440a; 448a-c; 461a-d, 463b-466b; 
486c-d, 487c-488a; 494a-496d esp 494b, 
495c-496a 

30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK 11, APH 50, 
193b-c 

38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 337d 

6b. The process of nutrition: ingestion, diges- 
tion, assimilation 

7 PLATO: Timaeus, 467d-468a; 471c-472a 

8 ARISTOTLE: Meteorology, BK iv, CH 2 [379 b io- 
24] 483d-484a / Soul, BK n, CH 4 [4i6*i8- b 29] 
646c-647b / Sleep, CH 3 699b-701d passim 

9 ARISTOTLE: History of Animals, BK VIH, CH 4 
[594*11-21] 120a-b; CH 6 [595*6-13] 121a; CH 
17 [6oo b 7~i2] 126c / Parts of Animals, BK 11, 
CH 3 [65o*i- b i3] 174c-175b; BK HI, CH i 
[66i*36- b i2] 188b; CH 3 191d-193a; CH 14 
203b-205c; BK iv, CH 3 [677 b 3o]-cn 4 [678*20] 
207d-208a; CH n [69o b 20-69i*i] 222d-223a; 
[69i a 28- b 27] 223c-d 

10 HIPPOCRATES: Ancient Medicine, par n 4b / 
Regimen in Acute Diseases, APPENDIX, par 18 
41a-d 

10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK i, CH 2 167b- 
168c; CH 7-12 170c-173c esp CH 10-11 171b* 



CHAPTER 2: ANIMAL 



41 



172d; CH 16, 180c-181b; BK n, CH 4, 187 a- b; 
CH 6-7 188c-191b; BK in, CH i 199a-c; CH 4 
201b-202c; CH 6-9 202d-207b; CH 13 209b- 
213b esp 211d-213a 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK n [871-882] 
26a; [1118-1147] 29b-c; BK iv [858-876] 55b-c 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 97, 
A 3, REP 2 515a-d; A 4 515d-516d; Q 118, A i, 
ANS and REP 3-4 <KX)a-601c; Q 119, A i 604c- 
607b 

20 AQUINAS : Summa Theologica, PART in SUPPL, 
Q 80, A 3, ANS 958b-959c; A 4 959c-963a 

24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK in, 
134d-135a; 138a-139b 

27 SHAKESPEARE: Coriolanus, ACTI, sc i [92-150] 
352b-353a 

28 HARVEY: Motion of the Heart, 279a-b; 296a- 
297a esp 296d-297a; 297d-298b / Circulation 
of the Blood, 307c-308c; 319b; 320a-b / On 
Animal Generation, 350a-c; 408c-d; 413a-415a; 
435a-438b; 441b-443b; 446c-447a; 455c-d; 
460b-461d; 465b 

30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK n, APH 48, 
184a-c 

31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART v, 58c-d 

7. Animal growth or augmentation: its nature, 
causes, and limits 

6 HERODOTUS: History, BK n, 63b 

7 PLATO: Timaeus, 471d-472a 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK n, CH i [i93 b i3~i9] 
269d-270a; BK vi, CH 10 [24i a 27- b 2] 325b-c; 
BK VHI, CH 7 [26o*27~ b i] 346b-c / Generation 
and Corruption, BK i, CH 5 417b-420b / Meta- 
physics, BK v, CH 4 [ioi4 b 2o-26] 535a 

9 ARISTOTLE: History of Animals, BK v, CH 19 
[55o b 26-3i] 77d; CH 33 [558*18-24) 84d-85a / 
Motion of Animals, CH 5 235c-d / Generation 
of Animals, BK i, CH 18 [723*9-23] 263a-b; 
BK 11, CH i [735*13-23] 275d-276a; CH 3 
[7S7*35- b 7] 278b; CH A '[739^4-741*2] 280d- 
281d; CH 6 [744 b 32~745 b 9] 286a-d; BK iv, CH 4 
[77i b 33~772 B i] 313d / Politics, BK vn, CH 4 
[1326*35-40] 530c 

10 HIPPOCRATES: Ancient Medicine, par 3 ld-2b 
10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK i, CH 1-2, 167a- 

d; CH 5 169b-c; CH 7 170c-171a; BK n, CH 3, 

186c-d 
12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK i [184-214] 

3b-d; BK n [1105-1147] 29a-c; BK v [783-820] 

71b-d; [878-900] 72c-d 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 97, 
A 4 515d-516d; Q 99, A i 519b-520a; Q 119, 
A i, ANS and REP 4 604c-607b 

20 AQUINAS : Summa Tbeologica, PART in SUPPL, 
Q 80, A 4, ANS 959c-963a; A 5, REP i 963a-964b 

28 GALILEO: Two New Sciences, SECOND DAY, 

187b-188c 
28 HARVEY: On Animal Generation, 353b-354b; 

374b-d; 388c-d; 408c-409b; 412b*415b csp 

415a; 441a-443b; 450b-d; 494a-496d esp 

495c-496a 



48 MELVILLE: Moby Dicl^ 338a-339a 

49 DARWIN: Origin of Species, 71a-d; 227c-228b / 
Descent of Man, 402a-b; 405a-d; S40a-541c 

54 FREUD: Civilization and Its Discontents, 770b 

8. The generation of animals 

8*. The origin of animals: creation or evolu- 
tion 

OLD TESTAMENT: Genesis, 1:11-12,20-28; 2:4- 

9,19-23 

7 PLATO: Timaeus, 452c-454a; 476b-477a,c 
9 ARISTOTLE: Generation of Animals, BK in, CH 

n [762^8-763*8] 303d-304a 
12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK v [783-836] 
71b-72a 

18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK xn, CH 21 357a- 
b; CH 27 359c-360a,c; BK xvi, CH 7 427a-b 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, QQ 71- 
72 367a-369d 

32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK vn [387-550] 

225b-229a 

34 NEWTON: Optics, BK in, 542b 
42 KANT: Judgement, 578d-580a csp 579b-c; 

581b-582c 

47 GOETHE: Faust, PART n [8245-8264] 201a 
49 DARWIN: Origin of Species la-251a,c csp la- 

7d, 63b-64d, 85b-c, 217d-219a, 230a-243d / 

Descent of Man, 265a-d 

8^. Diverse theories of animal generation: pro- 
creation and spontaneous generation 

7 PLATO: Timaeus, 476b-477a,c 

8 ARISTOTLE: Meteorology, BK iv, CH i [379 b 6- 
8] 483c; CH 3 [38^9-13] 485d; CH n [389*28- 
b 7J 493c / Metaphysics, BK vn, CH 9 [1034*32- 
b 8] 557c-d; BK xn, CH 6 [io7i b 29-3i] 601c; 
CH 7 [io72 b 30-io73*2] 603a 

9 ARISTOTLE : History of Animals, BK v, CH i 
[539*i5- b i3] 65b-66a; CH n [543^8-19] 70b; 
CH 15 [5 4 6 b i7-547*i] 73c; CH 15 [5 4 7 b i2]-cH 
16 [548^] 74b-75b; CH 19 [550^1-551*13] 
77d-78a; [55i b i9-552 b 27] 78c-79c; CH 21 
[553*i6- b 2] 80a-b; CH 31 [556 b 25]-cn 32 
[557 b i4] 83c-84b; BK vi, CH 15-16 95a-96a / 
Generation of Animals, BK i, CH i [715*18- 
716*2] 255b-256a; CH 16 [721*3-11] 260d-261a; 
BK ii, CH i [732 b 8-i4] 272d-273a; CH 3 [737*1- 
5] 277d; BK in, CH 9 299b-300a; CH n 
[76i b 24-763 b i7] 302d-304d 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK n [865-943] 
26a-27a; BK v [783-820] 71b-d 

18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BKXII.CH n 349a-b; 
BK xvi, CH 7 427a-b 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 25, 
A 2, REP 2 144c-145b; Q 45, A 8, REP 3 249b- 
250a; Q 71, A i, REP i 367a-368b; Q 72, A i, 
REP 5 368b-369d; Q 92, A r, ANS ana REP i 
488d-489d; Q 118, AA 1-2 600a-603b; Q 119, 
A 2 607b-608d 

20 AQUINAS : Summa Theologica, PART MI, Q 60, 
A i, ANS 49d-50c 



42 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



(8. The generation of animals. 8b. Diverse the- 
ories of animal generation: procreation and 
spontaneous generation.) 
24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK n, 



28 GILBERT: Loadstone^ BK v, 105a-b 

28MARVEY: On Animal Generation, 338b-d; 
390b-c; 400d-401a; 406c-d; 412c-413a; 428c- 
d; 449a-b; 454d-455a; 468b-472c 

30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK n f APH 50, 
192a-b 

49 DARWIN: Origin of Species, Ic; 61a 

8c. Modes of animal reproduction: sexual and 

asexual 
7 PLATO: Svmposium, 157d-158b / Timaeus, 

476b-d / Statesman, 587a<588a 
9 ARISTOTLE: History of Animals, BK iv, CH n 

[537 b 22~5 38*21] 64b-d; BK v-vii 65a-114a,c 

csp BK v, CH i 65a-66a, BK vi, CH i897b-99c 

/ Generation of Animals 255a-331a,c esp BK i, 

CH 1-2 255a-256c, BK i, CH 2I-BK n, CH i 269c- 

276a, BK n, CH 5 282a-d 
10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK n, CH 3 185a- 

186d 
19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 119, 

A 2, ANS 607b-608d 
28 HARVEY: On Animal Generation, 331a; 338a- 

496d csp 390b-429c 
49 DARWIN: Origin of Species, 47c-49c; 220a-b / 

Descent of Man, 390c-391b; 395a-399c pas- 

sim 
54 FREUD: Imtmcts, 41 5b / Beyond the Pleasure 

Principle, 655b-657d; 659d-660c 

8c(l) Sexual differentiation: its origins and 
determinations; primary and secondary 
characteristics 

7 PLATO: Symposium, 157b-159b / Ttmaeus, 
476b-d 

9 ARISTOTLE: History of Animals, BK n, CH 3 
[50i b 2o-25J 24a; BK HI, CH 7 [516*15-20] 40c; 
CH ii [5i8*3o- b 4] 42d-43a; CH 19 [521*21-31] 
46b; CH 20 [522*11-21] 47a-b; BK iv, CH i 
(524 b 3 1-525*1 3] 50d-51a; CH 2 [525 b 34~526*6] 
52b; CH 3 [527 b jo-34] 54c-d; CH 11 64b-65a,c; 
BK v, CH 5 [540 b i4-28] 67b; CH 7 [54i b 3o]-cn 
8 [542*1] 68c; CH 14 [544^2-545*22] 71c-72a; 
CH 18 [55o b i7~2i] 77c-d; CH 28 [555^8-23] 
82c; CH 30 [556 b n~i3] 83b; BK vi, CH 2 
[559*27-29] 86a; CH 10 [565 b i3~i5] 91d; CH 19 
l573 b 3 2 -574* 1 ] &&'> BK vn, CH i [582*27-32] 
107d-108a; CH 3 [583 b i4~29] 109b-c; CH 6 
(585 b 2i-27] Hid; BK vni, CH 2 [589 b 29~59o*4] 
116b'c; BK ix, CH i [6o82i- b i9] 133b,d-134a 
/ Parts of Animals, BK in, CH i [66^33-662*5] 
189a-b; BK iv, CH 10 [688*20-26] 219d-220a; 
[688 b 3o-34] 220c-d / Generation of Animals, 
BK i, CH 2 256a-c; CH 18 [723*23-^3] 263b-c; 
CH 19-20 266c-269c; BK H, CH i [7^i b i8- 
732*12] 272a-b; BK HI, CH 10 [759 b i-7l 300c; 



BK iv, CH 1-2 304b,d-308d esp CH i [766*30- 

b 8] 307c-d; CH 3 [767 b 5-i4] 309a; BK v, CH 7 

[786^6-788*13] 328c-330a 
10 HIPPOCRATES- Airs, Waters, Places, par 9 12d- 

13b 
12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK iv [1225- 

1232] 60b 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 92, 
A i, ANS and REP i 488d-489d; Q 98, A 2, ANS 
517d-519a; Q 99, A 2 520a-d; Q 115, A 3, REP 4 
588c-589c; Q 118, A i, REP 4 600a-601c 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologtca, PART in SUPPL, 
Q 81, A 3 966a-c; A 4, REP 2 966d-967d 

28 HARVEY: On Animal Generation, 346b; 400c- 
401b; 402c-d; 454a-b, 462b; 481c 

30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK n, APH 27, 158a 

38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK xvi, 116d- 
117a 

49 DARWIN: Descent of Man, 339b-340c; 364a- 
561d esp 364a-366b, 373b-374c, 384c-d; 
586b-587d; 594a-595b 

54 FREUD: Beyond the Pleasure Principle, 659d- 
661c / Civilization and Its Discontents, 7$5a 
[fn i] / New Introductory Lectures, 853d-855b 

8c(2) The reproductive organs: their differ- 
ences in different classes of animals 

7 PLATO: Ttmaeus, 476b-d 
9 ARISTOTLE: History of Animals, BK i, CH 3 
[489*8-14] lOb; CH 13 [493*24]-cH 14 [493 b 6] 
15b-c; CH 17 [497*24-34] 19c-d; BK n, CH i 
[5oo a 32- b 25] 22c-23a; CH 10 [503*4-7] 25b-c; 
CH 13 [504 b i8-i9] 27a; BK HI, CH i 32a-35a; 
BK iv, CH i [524*2-9] 49a-c; [524 b 3i~525*8] 
50d; CH 2 [527*11-30] 53c-d, BK v, CH 2 
[540*3]-cH 3 [540*33] 66c-67a; CH 5 [540^9- 
541*12] 67b-c; CH 6 [54i b 7~i2] 68a-b; BK vi, 
CH 9 [564 b io]-cH 10 [564^4] 90d-91a; CH 10 
[565*12-22] 91b-c; CH n [566*2-14] 92a-b; CH 
12 [567*1 I]-CH 13 [567*24] 93b; CH 32 105b-c; 
BK ix, CH 50 [63i b 22-25] 157a; [632*22-27] 
157c / Parts of Animals, BK iv, CH 5 [680*12- 
681*5] 210b-211c; CH 10 [689*3-34] 220d-221b; 
CH 12 [695*26-27] 227a; CH 13 [697*10-14] 
228d-229a / Generation of Animals, BK i, CH 
1-16 255a-261b; BK in, CH 5 [755 b 5~756 a 5] 
296c-297a; CH 6 [756 b 30~757*i3] 297d-298a; 
CH 8 [758*7-15] 299a; BK iv, CH i [765^5- 
766 b 26] 307a-308a;cH 4 [772 b 27~773*25) 314d- 
315b 

10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK in, CH 2-3 199d- 
. 201a 

24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK i, 
lOc-lla; 15a-c; BK H, 70b-c; 95a-97b; BK in, 
131b,d; 143a-144c; 178b-185d; 192b-193b 

28 HARVEY: On Animal Generation, 338d-352d; 
401b-405c; 452c; 473b-476b; 477b-479c; 485a 

30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK H, APH 27, 158a 

48 MELVILLE: Moby Dic^ 310a-b 

49 DARWIN: Origin of Species, 136b / Descent of 
Man, 264d<265a; 272a-d; 339b-c; 364a-b 

54 FREUD: General Introduction^ 592a 



8r(3) to 8<r(5) 



CHAPTER 2i ANIMAL 



43 



8c(3) The reproductive cells and secretions: 
semen and catamenia, sperm and egg 

8 ARISTOTLE* Metaphysics, BK VH, CH 9 [1034* 
32- b 8) 557c-d; BK ix, CH 7 [1049*12-19] 574d; 
BK xn, CH 6 [io7i b 29-3i] 601c; CH 7 [1072^6- 
1073*2] 603a 

9 ARISTOTLE : History of Animals, BK x, CH 5 
[489 b 6-io] lOd; BK in, CH 22 48c; BK iv, CH i 
[525*2-8] 50d; CH 2 [527*31-33] 53d-54a; BK 
vi, CH 2 [559 a i5-56o b 2] 85d-87a; CH 10 [564** 
24-26] 91a, CH 13 [567 a i6- b i5] 93b-d; BK vn, 
CH i [582 tt i6]-cH 2 [583*13] 107d-108c / Gen- 
eration of Animals, BK i, CH 2 [716*2-17] 256a; 
CH 17-23 261b-271d, BK n, CH i [733 b 23]-cn 
4 [739 b 33l 274a-280d; CH 5 [741*6-32] 282a-b; 

BK II, CH 7 [746 b 25]-BK III, CH 2 [752 b I5] 

288a-293d; BK m, CH 3-5 295b-297c; CH 7-9 

298a-300a; BK iv, CH i [764 b 4~2i] 305c-d; 

CH i [765 b jo]-cH 2 [767*8] 306d-308b; CH 3 

[767 b i6-769 b io] 309a-311b / Politics, BK vn, 

CH 16 [1335*24-27] 540b 
10 HIPPOCRA n s Am, Waters, Places, par 14 15a- 

b / Sacred Disease, 155d 
10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK n, CH 3 185a- 

186d 
12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK iv [1037- 

1051] 57d; [1209-1277] 60a-d 

19 AQUINAS Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 71, 
A i, REP i 367a-368b; Q 92, A 3, REP 2 490c- 
491b; A 4, ANS 491b-d, Q 97, A 2, REP 3 514c- 
515a; Q 118, A\ 1-2 600a-603b; Q 119, A i, ANS 
604c-607b; A 2 607b-608d 

20 AQUINAS : Summa Theologica, PART in SUPPL, 
Q 80, A 2, REP 2 957c-958b; A 3, ANS 958b- 
959c; A 4, ANS and REP 2,4-5 959c-963a 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PURGATORY, xxv 
[37-51] 91d 

24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK in, 
144b; 189b 

25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 269b-d 

28 HARVEY : On Animal Generation, 338a-d ; 340c- 
342d, 347d-348d; 353a-363d; 365a; 383d- 
407a esp 402d-405c; 417a-429c; 461d-472c; 
473c-d 

36 STERNE: Tristram Shandy, 192a~b 
49 DARWIN- Descent of Man, 257c; 372b-c 
54 FREUD: Beyond the Pleasure Principle, 653b-c; 
655b-d / New Introductory Lectures, 853d-854c 

8c(4) The mating of animals: pairing and 
copulation 

6 HERODOTUS : History, BK n, 67b; BK in, 113a-b 

7 PLATO: Symposium, 158a-b / Republic, BK v, 
361c-d / Laws, BK vin, 737d-738b 

9 ARISTOTLE : History of Animals, BK n, CH i 
(5oo b 7-i4) 22d; BK v, CH 2-14 66b-73b; CH 19 
J55o b 2i-26] 77d; CH 28 [555 b i8-2j] 82c; CH 30 
[556*25-28] 83a; BK vi, CH 2 [560*25-32] 87b; 
CH 4 [562 b 26~29] 89a; CH 13 fe67 a 28- b i2] 93c; 
CH 17 [570*27-29] 96b; CH 18-37 97b-106d; 
BK vn, CH 7 [586*15-20] 112b; BK ix, CH x 



[6o9 b 2i-26] 135b; CH 8 (6i3 b 24~6 14*30} J3.9b- 
140a; CH 37 [62i b 22-28] 147b; CH 41 [628 b n- 
17] 153d; CH 47 156b / Generation of Animals, 
BK i, CH 4-7 257a-258b; CH 14-16 260b~261b; 
CH 1 8 [72^9-724*3 ) 263c-264a; CH 19 [727 b 7J 
-CH 23 [73^14] 267c-271d passim; BK n, CH 4 
l737 b *5-739 b 2o] 278c-280c; CH 7 [746*29)-cH 
8 [749*5] 287c-290a,c; BK in, CH i (749 b 7- 
750*7] 290d-291b; CH 5-6 296c-298a; CH 8 
298d-299b; CH 10 [760^33-761*12] 302a; BK 
iv, CH 5 [773 b 2 3-774*1 3] 315d-316a / Politics, 
BK i, CH 2 [1252*26-31] 445c 

10 HIPPOCRATES : Airs, Waters, Places, par 21 
17b 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK iv [1037- 
I0 57l 57d; [1073-1120] 58a-d; [1192-1208] 
59d-60a; [1263-1279] 60d 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 92, 
A 3, REP 2 490c-491b; Q 97, A 2, REP 3 514c- 
515a;Q98, A 2 517d-519a 

25 MONTAIGNE- Essays, 224a-225b; 399a-b 

28 HARVEY. On Animal Generation, 343b-350a 
passun; 394b-398c; 401b-406a; 406d-407a; 
417a-429c passim, csp 423b-c; 476b-477b 

36 SWIFT: Gulliver, PART iv, 162b; 166a-b 

36 STERNE: Tristram Shandy, 555a-556a 

48 MELVILLE: Moby Dic\, 287a-b; 289b-292a 

49 DARWIN: Origin of Species, 43d-44a; 47c-d; 
49b-c / Descent of Man, 366c-368b; 369b- 
372c; 387d; 395a-480a passim; 482b-486c; 
532a-d; 543d-545d; 580c-581b 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 14b 

54 FREUD: Ego and Id, 711d-712a 

8c(5) Factors aflFecting fertility and sterility 

9 ARISTOTLE: History of Animals, BK in, CH n 
[5i8 b i-3] 43a; BK v, CH n [54^21-31] 70c; 
CH 14 71b-73b; BK vn, CH i [58i b 22]-cn 3 
[583*25] 107b-108d passim; CH 5 [585*33]-^ 6 
[585 b 29] lllb-d; BK ix, CH 50 [63 i b 19-632*32] 
157a-c / Generation of Animals, BK i, CH 4 
[7i7*29~ b 5] 257b; CH 7 258a-b; CH 18 [725*4- 
726*7] 265a-266a; CH 19 [727 b 6-26] 267c-268a; 
BK ii, CH 4 [739*26-35] 280b; CH 7 (746 b i2]-CH 
8 [749*5] 287d-290a,c; BK in, CH i [749^6- 
750*13] 291a-b; BK iv, CH 2 [767*13-35] 308c- 
d; CH 5 [77^29-33] 315d / Politics, BK vn, CH 
16 [i335*7- b i] 540a-c 

10 HIPPOCRATES : Airs, Waters, Places, par 3 9c- 
lOa; par 19-23 16c-18c / Aphorisms, SECT v, 
par 46 139b; par 59 139d; par 62-63 139d- 
140a 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK iv [1233- 
i277)60b-d 

36 STERNE: Tristram Shandy, 474b-475a 

38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK xxin, 
190c-d 

38 ROUSSEAU: Social Contract, BK n, 404b-c 

49 DARWIN: Origin of Species, Mte-b; 47d-48a; 
132a-133a; 136a-151d esp 136a-b, 141a-c, 
143b-145c; 230b-231b / Descent of Man, 354b- 
355a 



44 

(8. The generation of animals,) 

&d. Comparison of human with animal repro- 
duction 

9 ARISTOTLE: History of Animals, BK i, CH 5 
[489*36-^8] lOd-lla; BK v-vn65a-114a,c esp 
BK v, CH i 65a<66a, CH 8 [542*i7~ b i] 68d-69a, 
BK vi, CH 1 8 97b-99c, BK vn 106b,d-114a,c / 
Generation of Animals, BK i, CH 9-11 258d- 
259b; BK n, CH i (732*24-733*23) 272c-274a; 
CH 4-7 278b-288b csp CH 4 [737 b2 5-739 b 33l 
278c-280d / Politics, BK i, CH 2 [1252*26-31] 
445c; BK vn, CH 16 [1335*11-18] 540a 

18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK XXH, CH 24, 
609b-610a 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theohgica, PART i, Q 75, 
AO\REP i383c-384c;Q92,A i, ANs488d-489d; 
Q 98, A 2, ANS and REP 1,3 517d-519a; Q 118, 
AA 1-2 600a-603b 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PURGATORY, xxv 

[34-78] 91d-92a 

25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 399a-b; 424d-425c 
28 HARVEY: On Animal Generation, 338a-496d 

esp 449a-454a, 463d-464a, 470c-472c 
36 STERNE: Tristram Shandy, 555a-556a 
38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 346b-d; 348d 
47 GOETHE: Faust, PART n [6838-6847] 167b 
49 DARWIN: Descent of Man, 256c-257a; 354b- 

355a 
54 FREUD: Sexual Enlightenment of Children, 

121d 

9. The development of the embryo: birth and 
infancy 

9a. Oviparous and viviparous development 

9 ARISTOTLE : History of Animals, BK i, CH 5 
[489*34^19] lOd-lla; BK v, CH 18 [549^0- 
550*31] 76d-77b; BK vi, CH 3 87c-88d; CH 10 
[564^6-565*12] 91a-b; CH 13 [567^7-568*4] 
93d-94a; BK vn, CH 7 112b-c / Pans of Ani- 
mals, BK iv, CH 12 [693 b 2i-27] 225c / Genera- 
tion of Animals, BK i, CH 8-13 258b-260b; 
BK n, CH i [732*24~733 b 23] 272c-274a; CH 4 
[737 b 7~ 2 5] 278b-c; [739 b2 '-33] 280c-d; BK 
in, CH i [749*12-33] 290b-d; CH i [751*5]-^ 4 
[755*34] 292a-296c / Politics, BK i, CH 8 
[1256^11-15] 450b-c 

28 HARVEY: Motion of the Heart, 277c-d; 298b-c 
/ On Animal Generation, 338a<496d esp 449a- 
454a, 463d-464a, 470c-472c 

9b. The nourishment of the embryo or foetus 

9 ARISTOTLE: History of Animals, BK v, CH 18 
[550*16-24] 77a; BK vi, CH j 87c-88d; CH 10 
[564 b 26-565*u] 91a-b; [565*2-10] 91c-d; CH 
13 [568*1-4] 94a; BK vn, CH 8 112c-113a / 
Generation of Animals, BK i, CH 22 [730*33^9] 
270d; BK n, CH 4 [740*17-741*2] 281a-d; CH 7 
[745*22-746*28] 287a-c; BK in, CH i [751*6-7] 
292ft;, CH 2 [752*24^28] 293b-294a; [753*36- 
754*15] 294c-295b; CH 3 [754 b i~755*6] 295c- 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



296a; BK iv, CH 6 [775 b 2-24] 317c-d; CH 8 
318b-319c 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theohgica, PART i, Q 118, 
A i, REP 4 600a-601c 

20 AQUINAS : Summa Theohgica, PART in SUPPL, 
Q 80, A 4, REP 5 9S9c-963a 

28 HARVEY: Motion of the Heart, 298b-c / On 
Animal Generation, 366d-367b; 373b-c; 378b- 
d; 379b-381a; 396b; 398d-399c; 408b-415b; 
438c-443b;446c-447a; 458a-461d csp461a-d; 
463b-466b; 471d-472a; 481d-482b; 484c; 
485c-488c 

9c. The process of embryogeny: the stages of 
foetal growth 

8 ARISTOTLE: Metaphysics, BK v, CH 4 [ioi4 b 2o- 
22] 535a 

9 ARISTOTLE: History of Animals, BK vi, CH 3 
87c-88d; CH 10 [564^6-565*12] 91a-b; CH 13 
[567^7-568*4] 93d-94a; BK vn, CH 3 [583^- 
8] 109a; CH 7-8 112b-113a; BK VIH, CH 2 
[589^9-590*1 1] 116b-c / Parts of Animals, BK 
in, CH 4 [665*3 i- b i] 19 ^ a / Generation of Ani- 
mals, BK i, CH 20 [729*i2]-CH 23 [731*21] 269b- 
271c; BK n, CH i [733 b 22-735 ft 28] 274a-276a; 
CH 3 [737 ai8 -34i 278a-b; CH 4 [73 9 b 2i-7 4 i ft 5] 
280c-282a; CH 5 [74i b 5]-cn 6 [745 b 22] 282c- 
287a; BK HI, CH 2 [752 b i2]-cn 4 [755*34] 
293d-296c; CH n [762*io- b io] 303a-d; BK iv, 
CH i 304b,d-308a; CH 4 [771 19-772*39] 313c- 
314b 

10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK i, CH 5-6 169b- 

170c; BK n, CH 3 185a-186d 
19 AQUINAS: Summa Theohgica, PART i, Q 118, 

A i, REP 4 600a-601c; A 2, REP 2 601c-603b 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PURGATORY, xxv 
[34-78] 91 d-92a 

28 HARVEY: Motion of the Heart, 277c-d; 298b-c; 
302b-c / On Animal Generation, 359a-c; 363d- 
398c esp 394b-d; 402d-405c; 407c-431b esp 
415a-b; 438c-456a esp 451c-453b; 478a-488d 

36 STERNE: Tristram Shandy, 352b-353b 

49 DARWIN: Origin of Species, 143d-144a; 219d- 
225b csp 219d-222a / Descent of Man, 257c- 
258b 

54 FREUD: General Introduction, 509d-510a 

9d. Multiple pregnancy: superfoetation 

OLD TESTAMENT: Genesis, 25:24-26; 38:27-30 
6 HERODOTUS: History, BK HI, 112d 113a 
9 ARISTOTLE : History of Animals, BK v, CH 9 
[542 b 3o-33] 69c; BK VI,CH 3 [562*24~ b 2] 88c-d; 
CH ii [566*15-16] 92b; CH 12 (566 b 6-8) 92c-d; 
CH 19 [573 b i9-32] 99c-d; CH 20 [574^5-26] 
lOOc; CH 22 t575 b 34-57 6 *3l lolc ? CH 3 (579* 
20-21] 104d; en 31 (579*34~ b i2) 105a-b; CH 
33-35 105c-106a; CH 37 (58o b io-2o] 106b-c; 
BK vn, CH 4 (584 b 26-585*27] UOc-lllb / Parts 
ofAninufifi BK iv, CH 10 [688*28^25] 220a-c / 
Generation of Animals, BK i, CH 18 [723 b 9~i6] 
263c-d; CH 20 {728 b 33-729*2o] 269a-b; BK iv, 
CH 4-5 3IIc-3l6c 



CHAPTER 2: ANIMAL 



45 



10 HIPPOCRATES: Aphorisms, SECT v, par 38 139a 
28 HARVEY: On Animal Generation, 363a; 382d- 

384a; 481 a; 482 b; 482d-483a; 484b; 488a; 

488c 

9e. The period of gestation: parturition, de- 
livery, birth 

OLD TESTAMENT: Genesis, 25:24-26; 38:27-30 / 

Job, 39:1-4 
APOCRYPHA: Wisdom of Solomon, 7:2 (D) OT, 

Boo\ of Wisdom, 7 .2 

6 HERODOTUS- History, BK in, 112d-113b; BK 
vi, 197b-c; 198b-d 

9 ARISTOTLE. History of Animals, BK v, CH n 
[543 b i4-i7] 70b; CH 12 [544*1-3] 70c; CH 14 
[ 54 5 b 6- 9 ] 72b; [540 b i-i4l 73a-b; CH 17 [549* 
14-20] 76a; [549^-13] 76b-c; CH 18 [550*26- 
29] 77b, [55o b 6-i4] 77c; CH 20 [553*2-11] 79d; 
BK vi, CH 2 [559 b n-i6] 86b; [56o b i7-24J 87a- 
b; CH 4 [562 b i5~3i] 89a; CH 10 [565*22-31] 
91c, [565^4-32] 92a; CH n [566*15-16] 92b; 
CH 12 [566 b i9-2o] 92d; CH 13 [567*28^27] 
93c-d; CH 17 96b-97b; CH 18 [572 b 3i-573*32] 
98d-99a, CH 19 [573 b 2i] 99c; CH 20 [574 a 2o- b 7J 
lOOa-b; CH 21 [575*25-29] lOla; CH 22 [575 b 
26-27] lOlc, [576*21-25] 101d-102a; CH 23 
[577 a 24- b io] 102d-103a; CH 26 [578 a io]-cH 29 
[578 b i8] 103d-104b; CH 30 [579 a i9]-CH 31 
[579 b 5] 104d-105a; CH 33 [579 b 3i]-cn 35 
[580*19] 105c-106a; BK VH, CH i [582*16-21] 
107d; CH 3 [583 b n]-cH 4 [584 b 25] 109b-110c; 
CH 9 [586 b 26]-cn 10 [587^] 113a-d; BK vin, 
CH 21 [603*34-604*3] 129d; CH 24 [604*29- 
605*1] 130c / Generation of Animals, BK i, CH 
n [719*2-30] 259a-b; BK n, CH 8 [748*27-31] 
289c; BK in, CH 2 [752 ft io- b i7] 293a-d, BK iv, 
CH 4 [772 b 5-n] 314b-c; CH 6 [775*28^2] 
317b-c, CH 8 [777*22]-cH 10 [778*12] 319b- 
320a,c / Politics, BK vu, CH 16 [1335*11-22] 
540a; [H35 b i2-i9] 540c 

10 HIPPOCRATES: Airs, Waters, Places, par 4-5 
lOa-d; par 7, lla-c / Aphorisms, SECT v, par 
29-62 138d-139d 

10 GALEN- Natural Faculties, BK in, CH 3 200a- 
201a; CH 12, 208c-d 

24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK i, 
5c-6b; 8c-9c 

28 HARVEY: On Animal Generation, 343d; 353a- 
b; 381b-382d; 406a-b; 458c-459d; 476c 

36 STERNE: Tristram Shandy, 268a-b; 270a-274a 

48 MELVILLE: Moby Dic{, 254a-255a; 287a-b 

49 DARWIN: Origin of Species, 94a / Descent of 
Man, 341b,d [fn 32], 384b-c 

51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK iv, 180d-183b 
54 FREUD: Inhibitions, Symptoms, and Anxiety, 
737c-738a passim 

9f. The care and feeding of infant offspring: 
lactation 

7 PLATO: Republic, BK v, 362b-c 

9 ARISTOTLE : History of Animals, BK n, CH i 
[500*13-33] 22b-c; CH 13 [504 b 22-27] 27a-b; 



BK III, CH 20 [52I b 2l]-CH 21 [523*13] 46d-48cj 

BK v, CH 18 [550 a 32- b 6J 77b-c, CH 22 [553 b 24~ 
554 b 6] 80c-81b; CH 26-27 82a-c; CH 33 
[55 8a 4 ]~ CH 34 [55 8b 4l 84d-85a,c; BK vi, CH 4 
88d-89b; CH 6-9 89c-90d; CH 12 (566 b i6- 
567*7] 92d-93a; CH 14 [568 b 13-569*4] 94c- 
9Sa, CH 20 [574 b 7-i3] lOOb; CH 21 [575 b 9~i2] 
lOlb, CH 22 [576 b n-i2] 102a-b; CH 26-27 
103d; CH 33 [580*2-5] 105c-d; BK vu, CH 3 
[583*26-33] 108d-109a; CH 5 [585*29-33] lllb; 
CH ii 114a,c; BK vm, CH i [588 b 3 1-589*3] 
115b; BK ix, CH 4 [6n*9]-CH 5 [611*21] 136d; 
CH 7 [612^6-613*16] 138od; CH 8 [613^-33] 
139a-c; CH n [6i4 b 3i~34] 140c; CH 29 143c-d; 
CH 32-34 144b-145c passim; CH 37 [62i*2i- b i] 
146d-147a; CH 49 [63i b i3-i7] 156d-157a / 
Parts of Animals, BK iv, CH 10 [688*i9- b 34] 
219d-220d / Generation of Animals, BK in, CH 
2 [752 b i7-753*i7] 293d-294b; CH 10 [759*36- 
b 8] 300c; BK iv, CH 8 318b-319c / Politics, 
BK i, CH 8 [i256 b 7~i5] 450b-c; BK vu, CH 17 
[1336*3-22] 541a-b 

12 LUCRETIUS- Nature of Things, BK v [806-815] 
71c 

28 HARVEY Motion of the Heart, 288d / On 
Animal Generation, 350c-d; 361b-362c; 381 b- 
382d; 402a-b; 439a-d; 461b; 464c-d; 487c- 
488a 

33 PASCAL: Weight of Air, 415a 

35 LOCKE: Civil Government, CH vn, SECT 78-80 
42b-43a 

36 STHRNL- Tristram Shandy, 316b 

38 ROUSSEAU- Inequality, 336a-b; 337b; 340c 
44 ROSWELL- Johnson, 510b-c 

48 MELVILLE Moby Dtc{, 286b-287b 

49 DARWIN. Origin of Species, HOc-lllb / De- 
scent of Man, 289d-290a; 339d-340c; 441c-d; 
443b-444a 

51 TOLSIOY: War and Peace, EPILOGUE i, 661 d; 
662c-d 

53 JAMES- Psychology, 709a-710a 

54 FREUD- New Introductory Lectures, 854c 

9g. Characteristics of the offspring at birth 

9 ARISTOTLE: History of Animals, BK vi, CH 20 
[574*20-29] lOOa; CH 30 [579*2i]-cH 31 [579*9] 
104d-105b; CH 33 [580*4]-^ 35 [580*29] 
105d-106a / Generation of Animals, BK iv, CH 6 
[774*5-775*6] 316c-317a; BK v 320a-331a,c 
passim 

49 DARWIN: Origin of Species, 222b-223b 
53 JAMES: Psychology, 49b-50a; 691a-b; 710a 

10. Heredity and environment: the genetic 
determination of individual differences 
and similarities 

7 PLATO: Republic, BK in, 340b-341a 

9 ARISTOTLE: History of Animals, BK vi, CH 19 

[573 b 32-574 a 9l 99d; CH 29 [57^26-30] 104c; 

BKjvn, CH 6 [585*29-586*14] llld-112b / Parts 

of Animals, BK i, CH i [640*14-28] 162c-d; 

[641*27-39] 164d-165a; CH 17 [72i*i4]-cH 18 



46 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



ll/o [la 



(10. Heredity and environment: the genetic de- 
termination of individual differences and 
similarities.) 

[724*13] 261c-264b; BK iv, CH i [766^-12] 

307d; CH 3-4 308d-315b / Politics, BK n, CH 3 

[1262*14-24] 457a; BK vn, CH 16 [i335 b i7-i9] 

540c 
10 HIPPOCRATES: Airs, Waters, Places, par 14 

15a-b / Sacred Disease, 155d-156a 
12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK HI [741-753] 

39c-d; BK iv [1209-1232] 60a-b 
19 AQUINAS; Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 119, 

A 2, REP 2 607b-608d 
28 HARVEY: On Animal Generation, 363a-c; 

386d-387b; 391c-393b; 395a-396a; 425b-d; 

446b-c; 455d-456a 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK HI, CH vi, 
SECT 23 274b-c 

36 STERNE: Tristram Shandy, 191b-192b 

38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 335a-b; 337a; 347a-b 

39 SMITH- Wealth of Nations, BK i, 7d-8a 
42 KANT: Judgement, 580a; 581d-582a 

49 DARWIN : Origin of Species, 9b-12a esp 9b-10d; 
53b-55b; 62a-63a; 65a-71a; 98c; 132a-134c 
csp 134a-c; 144a; 149b-150c; 182d-183a; 220b- 
228a esp 222a-224b / Descent of Man, 268b- 
269a; 375a-382d esp 381c-382a; 413d [fn 61]; 
429d-430c; 500a-525a passim, esp 500a-502a, 
511a-b, 524d-525a; 529d-531a,c 

53 JAMES- Psychology, 853a 858a esp 857b; 890b- 
897b esp 896a-897a 

54 FREUD: General Introduction, 594d-595a 

1 1. The habitat of animals 

I la. The geographical distribution of animals: 
their natural habitats 

OLD TESTAMENT: Genesis, 1:20-21,24-26 
6 HERODOTUS: History, BK in, 113a-b; BK v, 

161b-c; BK vn, 236d 

9 ARISTOTLE: History of Animals, BK i, CH i 
(487*14-^] 8a-b; BK iv, CH i [525*12-25] 51a- 
c; BK v, CH 15 [547*4-12] 73d; CH 15 [547 b n]- 
CH 16 [548*28] 74b-75a; CH 16 [548^8-30] 
75c-d; CH 17 [549 b i4-22] 76c; CH 22 [554 b 8- 
18] 81b-c; CH 28 [556*4-6] 82d; CH 30 [556*21- 
24] 83a; CH 31 [557*4-32] 83d-84a; BK vi, CH 5 
[563*5-12] 89b; BK vm, CH 2-20 115c-129b esp 

CH 2 [589*10-590*19] 115C-116C, CH 12-17 

122d-127b; CH 28-29 131c-132d; BK ix, CH 

11-27 140c-143c passim; CH 32 [6i8 b i8-6i9*8] 

144b-c / Generation of Animals, BK in, CH n 

[76i b 9-24] 302c-d 
12 LUCRETIUS- Nature of Things, BK n [532-540] 

21d 
19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, QQ 71- 

72 367a-369d 
32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK vn [387-498] 225b- 

228a 

41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 630b-c [n 43] 
48 MELVILLE: Moby Dic!(, 146b-148a 



49 DARWIN: Origin of Species, 181a-206a,c esp 
181a-184d, 196a-199d, 204d-206a,c; 231b-c; 
237c-238b 

1 \b. The relation between animals and their 
environments 

6 HERODOTUS: History, BK iv, 129a-b 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK n, CH 8 [i98 b i6-33] 
275d-276a / Longevity 710a-713a,c passim 

9 ARISTOTLE: History of Animals, BK i, CH i 
[487*i4~ b 33] 8a-d; BK HI, CH 12 [519*3-19] 
43d-44a; CH 21 [522^2-523*1] 47d-48a; BK 
iv, CH 5 [530^9-24] 57c; BK v, CH n [543 b i9- 
31] 70b-c; CH 22 [553^0-24] 80c; BK vm, CH 
2-29 115c-132d; BK ix, CH i [6o8 b i8-6io*34] 
134a-136a; CH 37 [622*8-15] 14 ? c / Parts of 
Animals, BK n, CH 16 [658^0-659*36] 185d- 
186b; BK iv, CH 5 [68o a 28- b 3] 210d; CH 8 
[684*1-14] 215b; CH 12 [693*10-24] 225a/ Gait 
of Animals, CH 15 [713*4]-^ 18 [714^] 250d- 
252a / Generation of Animals, BK n, CH 4 
[738*9-27] 278d-279a; BK iv, CH 2 308b-d; 
BK v, CH 3 [782 b 23-783 b 22] 324d-325d 

10 HIPPOCRATES: Airs, Waters, Places, par 12 

14b-d; par 19 16c-17a 
12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK v [845-854] 

72a-b 

24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK iv, 
242a-b 

25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 223c 

28 GALILEO' Two New Sciences, FIRST DAY, 160c- 

d; SECOND DAY, 187b-188c 
30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK 11, APH 13, 146c 
33 PASCAL: Equilibrium of Liquids, 401a-403a 
36 SWIFT: Gulliver, PART n, 79a-b 
36 STERNE: Tristram Shandy, 224b; 295b-296b 
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Latvs, BK xiv, 

102b,d-104a 

42 KANT, judgement, 553c-554b; 585b 

43 FEDERALIST. NUMBER n, 56a 

45 LAVOISIER: Elements of Chemistry, PART n, 

57b-c 

45 FOURIER: Theory of Heat, 209b 
45 FARADAY: Researches in Electricity, 534c-535b 
49 DARWIN. Origin of Species, 9a-10d; 32a-39a,c 

passim, esp 34c-36a, 39a,c; 40d-42c; 53d-55b; 

65a-69c esp 65b-66a; 106b-107a; 144a-145c; 

182d-183a; 230d-231b / Descent of Man, 

268b-269a; 320a-c; 341b,d [fn 32]; 354c-355a; 

430d-432c; 442a-443b; 468d-469a; 525b- 

527c;554d-555b 

53 JAMES : Psychology, 857b 

54 FREUD: Civilization and Its Discontents > 791 d- 
792a 

12. The treatment of animals by men 

\2a. The taming of animals 

4 HOMER: Odyssey, BK iv [625-637] 205c 

5 AESCHYLUS: Prometheus Bound [459-468] 44d 
5 SOPHOCLES : Antigone [332-352] I34a 

7 PLATO: Phaedrus, 128a-d 



\lbto \2c 



CHAPTER 2: ANIMAL 



47 



9 ARISTOTLE: History of Animals, BK i, CH i 
[488*26-31] 9b; BK vi, CH 21 [575 b i-3J lOla; 
BK ix, CH i [608*24-27] 133b,d; [6o8 b 3o- 
609*3] 134 b '' I 6 i*24-34l 135d; CH 26 143b; 
CH 46 [630 b i8-2i] 156a / Politics, BK i, CH 5 



14 PLUTARCH- Alexander, 542d-543b 

19 AQUINAS : Swnma Theologica, PART i, Q 96, A i, 
REP 2 510b-511b 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART I-H, Q 50, 
A 3, REP 2 8b-9a 

25 MONTAIGNE- Ewayj, 220d-222c 

36 SWIFT: Gulliver, PART iv, 146b-148b; 164b; 

167b-168a 

38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 337a; 356d-357a 
41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 86d; 107a-b; 221d 
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART i, par 56 

26b 

49 DARWIN: Origin of Species, 13c-d; 121b-122c 
passim; 233c-d 

50 MARX- Capital, 87b 

53 JAMES . Psychology, 708a-709a 

2. The use and abuse of animals 

OLD TESTAMENT: Genesis, 4:4; 8:6-12; 22:1-13 / 
Exodus, 20:8-11; 22-19; 2 3 :i2 / Leviticus pas- 
sim, esp 11, 18-23, 20-15-16 / Numbers, 22:21- 
34 / Deuteronomy, 5-12-14; 22*6-7,10; 25:4; 
27:21 / Proverbs, 12:10 / Daniel, 6:6-28 

APOCRYPHA: Bel and Dragon, 23-28 (D) OT, 
Daniel, 14:22-27 

NEW TESTAMENT: Matthew, 21:1-11 / Mar^ 1:6; 
6:34-44; 11:1-11 / Lu^e, 19:29-38 / John, 
12:14-15 / I Corinthians, 9:9 / / Timothy, 5:18 

4 HOMER: Iliad 3a-179d passim, esp BK i [428- 
471] 7c-8a, BK ii [394-431] 14a-b, [760-779] 
17c-d, BK iv [104-111] 25a, BK v [191-208] 
32a-b, BK xxin [262-611] 164a-167c / Odyssey, 
BK in [418-463] 197b-d; BK xi [23-50] 243b-c; 
BK xn [260-419] 252d-254c 

5 AESCHYLUS: Prometheus Bound [459-468] 44d 

5 ARISTOPHANES: Peace [1-181] 526a-528a / 
Birds [294-382] 545d-547b; [1076-1087] 556a-b 

6 HERODOTUS: History, BK 11, 57b-58b; 59b-c; 
62c-64c; BK m, 95b-c; llld'112c; 113c-d; BK 
iv, 127d-128a; 146d-147a; BK v, 183b-d 

9 ARISTOTLE: History of Animals, BK HI, CH 20 
[522*25]-CH 21 [523*13] 47b-48c; BK v, CH 22 
80b-81c; BK ix, CH i [610*15-34] 135d / Poli- 
tics, BK i, CH 8 [i 256^8-26] 450b-c; CH n 
[i258 b i2-2o] 452d-453a; BK iv, CH 3 [i289 b 33~ 
40] 488d-489a; BK vi, CH 7 [1321*9-12] 524d; 
BK VH, CH 2 [i324 b 36-4i] 528d-529a 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK v [860-870] 
72b-c 

12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK i, CH 16, 121d-122a 

12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK vi, SECT 23 276b 

13 VIRGIL: Aeneid 103a-379a esp BK HI [218-257] 
153a-154a, BK v [84-99] 189b, BK vin [81-87] 
261a 

14 PLUTARCH: Marcus Cato, 278d-279c / Alex- 
ander, 541 b-c 



19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 72, 
A i, REP 6 368b-369d; Q 96, A i 510b-511b 

20 AQUINAS : Summa Theologies, PART i-n, Q 
102, A 3 272b-276c; Q 105, A 2, REP 11-12 
309d-316a 

24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK HI, 
143b-d; BK iv, 245d 248c 

25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 139c-143c; 206b-208a; 
219b-d; 220d-222c 

31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART iv, PROP 37, SCHOL i, 

435a-b 

36 SWIFT: Gulliver, PART iv 135a-184a 
36 STERNE: Tristram Shandy, 474b-477a; 483b- 

485a 
38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 330d-331b 

40 GIB BON: Decline and Fall, 38b-39a; 139c- 
140a; 411d-412c; 619d-620a 

41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 107a-b; 221c- 
222a 

44 Bosw ELL: Johnson, 312b 

48 MELVILLE: Moby Dic{, 82b-83a; 307b-310b 

49 DARWIN: Origin of Species, 13c-d; 233c-d 

50 MARX: Capital, 86b; 183b-c 

51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK i, 19c-d; BK VH, 
278a-287a; 296d-297d; BK vin, 330d-332a; 
BK XH, 538a-d; BK xiv, 592a-c 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 705a; 720a 

54 FREUD: War and Death, 758b-c / Civilization 
and Its Discontents, 771d-772a 

12c. Friendship or love between animals and 
men 

4 HOMER: Iliad, BK xvn [426-455] 126c-d; BK 
xix [399-424] 141a,c; BK xxm [272-286] 164a 
/ Odyssey, BK xvn [290-327] 280a-c 

5 ARISTOPHANES: Birds [294-382] 545d-547b 

6 HERODOTUS: History, BK i, 5b-d 

9 ARISIOTLL: History of Animals, BK ix, CH 44 
[630*9-12] 155b; CH 48 [631*7-10] 156b-c 

14 PLUTARCH: Pericles, 121a-b / Marcus Cato, 
278d-279c / Alexander, 562b; 570a-b 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PARI n-n, Q 25, 
A 3 502c-503b 

25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 206b-208a; 224c-225b; 
227b-228b 

26 SHAKESPEARE: Two Gentlemen of Verona, ACT 
iv, sc iv [1-42] 248b-d 

29 CERVANTES: Don Quixote, PART i, 2c-d; 

112b-c 
31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART iv, PROP 37, SCHOL i, 

435a-b 

36 SWIFT: Gulliver, xixa; PART iv, 180a 
36 STERNE: Tristram Shandy, 483b-485a 
41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 221c-d passim 
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, PART i, 229a 
49 DARWIN: Descent of Man, 289c; 303c; 307a-c; 

317d 

51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK vn, 278a-287a 
passim; BK xm, 575b 

52 DOSTOEVSKY: Brothers Karamazov, BK vi, 
16 7c; BK x, 282a 288d 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 722a-b 



48 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



13 



13. The attribution of human qualities or vir- 
tues to animals: personification in alle- 
gory and satire 

OLD TESTAMENT: Genesis, 3.1-5 / Numbers, 
22:21-31 

4 HOMER: Iliad, BK xvn [426-455] 126c-d; 
BK xix [399-424] 141a,c; BK xxm [272-286] 
164a 

5 ARISTOPHANES: Knights [591-610] 477b-d / 
Wasps 507a-525d / Birds 542a-563d / Frogs 
[205-270] 566d-567b 

6 HERODOTUS. History, BK i, 21d-22a; 33a-b, 
BK ii, 61a-b; BK vi, 211a 

7 PLATO: Phaedrus, 128a-d / Republic, BK n, 
319c-320c / Statesman, 583c-d; 588b-c 

9 ARISTOILL: History of Animals, BK i, CH i 
[488^-25] 9c-d; BK vni, CH i [588 a i8- b 3] 
114b,d; BK ix, CH i [6o8 a ii- b i9] 133b,d-134a; 
CH 29 [618*25-30] 143d; CH 38 148b; CH 48 
[631*8-20] 156b-c / Politics, BK in, CH 13 
[i284 tt n-i8] 482b / Rhetoric, BK n, CH 20 
[139^8-1394*1] 641b-c 

14 PLUTARCH: Lysander, 357a / Sulla, 382c-d 
17 PLOTINUS- Third Ennead, TR iv, CH 2, 98a 



21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, HELL, i [i-m] la- 
2b, vi [1-33] 8b-d; xn [1-30] 16b-c; xvi [106]- 
xvii [36] 23c-24b; PURGATORY, xiv [16-66] 
73d-74b; xxix 97d-99b; xxxn [106-160] 
103c-104a 

22 CHAUCER: Nun's Priest's Tale [14,853-15,452] 
450b-460b 

23 MACHIAVELLI: Prince, CH xvm, 25a-b 

24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK i, 2b 

25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 215a 232b passim 

27 SHAKESPEARE: Timon of Athens, ACT iv, sc 

in [320-348] 414b-c 
29 CERVANTES: Don Quixote, PART i, 39b-d; 

40d-41a 
32 MILTON. Paradise Lost, BK ix [48-96] 248b- 

249b; [523-612] 258b-260b csp [549-566] 

259b; BK x [209-590] 279a-287a 
36 SWIFT* Gulliver, PART iv 135a-184a 
44 Bos WELL* Johnson, 215b-c 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, PART i, 253b- 
254d 

47 GOEIHE Faust, PART i [1202-1209] 30a 

48 MLLVILLE. Moby Dic{ esp 131a-145a, 248b- 
249a, 289b-292a 

51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK xn, 553d-554a 



CROSS-REFERENCES 

For: The general discussion of the grades of life and the kinds of soul, see LIFE AND DEATH 3, 3b; 

SOUL 2c-2c(3). 
Other considerations of the issue concerning continuity or discontinuity in the relation of 

plants, animals, and men, as well as between living and non-living things, see EVOLUTION 

3e, 7a~7b; LIFE AND DEATH 2, 33; MAN la-ic; NATURE 3b; SENSE 2a. 
The comparison of men and animals, or of different species of animals, with respect to 

sensitivity, memory, imagination, and intelligence, see MEMORY AND IMAGINATION i; 

MIND 3a~3b; REASONING la; SENSE 20-20. 
The general theory of instinct, see HABIT 3-36; and for the emotional aspect of instincts, see 

EMOTION ic. 

Diverse theories of classification, see DEFINITION 2a-2e; EVOLUTION la-ib. 
Alternative theories of the origin and development of living organisms, see EVOLUTION 43, 40. 
Other discussions of heredity, see EVOLUTION 3-36; FAMILY 6b. 
Other discussions of sexual attraction, mating, and reproduction, see CHANGE lob; FAMILY 73; 

LOVE 23(1), 2d. 

The causes of animal movement, see CAUSE 2; DESIRE 2c; WILL 33(1), 6c. 
Another consideration of sleeping and waking, see LIFE AND DEATH 50. 
The comparison of human and animal societies, see STATE la. 



CHAPTER 2: ANIMAL 



49 



ADDITIONAL READINGS 

Listed below are works not included in Great Boofy of the Western World, but relevant to the 
idea and topics with which this chapter deals. These works are divided into two groups: 

I. Works by authors represented in this collection. 
II. Works by authors not represented in this collection. 

For the date, place, and other facts concerning the publication of the works cited, consult 
the Bibliography of Additional Readings which follows the last chapter of The Great Ideas. 



I. 

GALEN. On the Utility of Parts 
HOBBES. Concerning Body, PART iv, CH 25 
GOETHE. Metamorphose der Pflanzen 

II. 

Aesop's Fables 

THEOPHRASTUS. Enquiry into Plants 

OVID. Metamorphoses 

PLINY. Natural History 

VESALIUS. The Epitome 

SUAREZ. Disputatwnes Metaphysicae, XLIV (3) 

LA FONTAINE. Fables 

LINNAEUS. Systema Naturae 

LAMETTRIE. Man a Machine 

CONDILLAC. Traite des animaux 

BUFFON. Natural History 

E. DARWIN. The Loves of the Plants 

CUVIER. The Animal Kingdom 

BALZAC. A Passion in the Desert 

COMTE. The Positive Philosophy, BK v 

SCHWANN. Microscopical Researches into the Accord- 
ance in the Structure and Growth of Animals and 
Plants 

LOTZE. Microcosmos, BK i, CH 5 



BERNARD. Introduction to Experimental Medicine 
E. HARTMANN. Philosophy of 'the Unconscious t (c)n t 

IV 

T. H. HUXLEY. Methods and Results, v 
FRAZER. The Golden Bough, PART v, CH 9, 13-17 
WUNDT. Outlines of Psychology, (19) 
JENNINGS. Behavior of the Lower Organisms 
SHERRINGTON. The Integrative Action of the Nervous 

System 

DRIESCH. The Science and Philosophy of the Organism 
HENDERSON. The Fitness of the Environment 
KOEHLER. The Mentality of Apes 
D. W. THOMPSON. On Growth and Form 
LOEB. The Organism as a Whole 
, Forced Movements, Tropisms and Animal 

Conduct 

J. S. HALDANE and J. G. PRIESTLEY. Respiration 
PAVLOV. Conditioned Reflexes 
ALVERDES. Social Life in the Animal World 
WHEELER. Foibles of Insects and Men 
BOSE. Life Movements in Plants 

. Growth and Tropic Movements of Plants 

NEEDHAM. Order and Life 
WHITEHEAD. Modes of Thought, LECT vn-vm 
LARGE. The Advance of the Fungi 
WIENER. Cybernetics 



Chapter y. ARISTOCRACY 



INTRODUCTION 



r T"" f HE forms of government have been vari- 

JL ously enumerated, differently classified, 
and given quite contrary evaluations in the 
great books of political theory. In the actual 
history of political institutions, as well as in the 
tradition of political thought, the major prac- 
tical issues with respect to the forms of govern- 
ment the choices open, the ideals to be 
sought, or the evils to be remedied have shifted 
with the times. 

In an earlier day not merely in ancient 
times, but as late as the i8th century the 
form of government called "aristocracy" pre- 
sented a genuine alternative to monarchy, and 
set a standard by which the defects and infir- 
mities of democracy were usually measured. If 
aristocracy was not always regarded as the ideal 
form of government, the principle of aristoc- 
racy always entered into the definition of the 
political ideal. 

Today, both in theory and practice, aristoc- 
racy is at the other end of the scale. For a 
large part of mankind, and for the political 
philosopher as well as in prevailing popular 
sentiment, aristocracy (together with mon- 
archy) has become a subject of historical inter- 
est. It is a form of government with a past 
rather than a future. It no longer measures, but 
is measured by, democracy. If the aristocratic 
principle still signifies a factor of excellence in 
government or the state, it does so with a mean- 
ing now brought into harmony with demo- 
cratic standards. 

This change accounts for one ambiguity 
which the word "aristocracy" may have for 
contemporary readers. Formerly its primary, 
if not only, significance was to designate a form 
of government. It is currently used to name a 
special social class, separated from the masses 
by distinctions of birth, talent, property, power, 
or leisure. We speak of "the aristocracy" as we 



speak of "the elite" and "the four hundred"; 
or we follow Marx and Engels in thinking of the 
"feudal aristocracy" as the class "that was 
ruined by the bourgeoisie." The Communist 
Manifesto wastes little sympathy on the aristo- 
crats who, while seeking an ally in the prole- 
tariat, forgot that "they [too] exploited under 
circumstances and conditions that were quite 
different." For Marx and Engels, the aristoc- 
racy and the bourgeoisie alike represent the 
propertied classes, but they differ in the man- 
ner in which they came by their property and 
power. The landed gentry and the feudal no- 
bility got theirs largely by inheritance, the 
bourgeoisie by industry and trade. 

Today, for the most part, we call a man an 
"aristocrat" if, justly or unjustly, he claims a 
right to certain social distinctions or privileges. 
We seldom use that word today to indicate a 
man who deserves special political status or pre- 
eminence, though we do sometimes use it to 
name the proponent of any form of government 
which rests upon the political inequality of 
men. 

Since the discussion of aristocracy in the 
great books is largely political, we shall here be 
primarily concerned with aristocracy as a form 
of government. The general consideration of 
the forms of government will be found in the 
chapter on GOVERNMENT. Here and in the 
other chapters which are devoted to particular 
forms of government, we shall consider each of 
the several forms, both in itself and in relation 
to the others. 

THERE is ONE element in the conception of 
aristocracy which does not change with chang- 
ing evaluations of aristocratic government. All 
of the writers of the great political books agree 
with Plato that aristocracy is a "government 
of the few," according as the few rather than 



50 



CHAPTER 3: ARISTOCRACY 



51 



the one or the many exercise political power 
and dominate the state. By this criterion of 
number, aristocracy is always differentiated 
from monarchy and democracy. 

Though he uses the word "oligarchy" to 
name what others call "aristocracy," Locke 
defines the three forms of government by refer- 
ence to numbers. When the majority them- 
selves exercise the whole power of the commu- 
nity, Locke says, "then the form of the govern- 
ment is a perfect democracy." When they put 
"the power of making laws into the hands of a 
few select men . . . then it is an oligarchy; or 
else into the hands of one man, and then it is 
a monarchy." Kant proceeds similarly, though 
again in somewhat different language. "The re- 
lation of the supreme power to the people," he 
says, "is conceivable in three different forms: 
either one in the state rules over all; or some, 
united in relation of equality with each other, 
rule over all the others; or all together rule 
over each individually, including themselves. 
The form of the state is therefore either auto- 
cratic, or aristocratic, or democratic." 

Hegel claims, however, that "purely quanti- 
tative distinctions like these are only super- 
ficial and do not afford the concept of the 
thing." The criterion of number does not seem 
to suffice when other forms of government 
are considered. It fails to distinguish monarchy 
from tyranny or despotism, which may consist 
of rule by one man, as has usually been the case 
historically. Number alone likewise fails to dis- 
tinguish aristocracy from oligarchy. In the de- 
liberations of the Medean conspirators, which 
Herodotus reports or invents, the rule of "a 
certain number of the worthiest" is set against 
both democracy and monarchy and identified 
as "oligarchy." How, then, shall aristocracy be 
distinguished from oligarchy? 

There seem to be two answers to this ques- 
tion. In the Statesman* Plato adds to the char- 
acteristic of number the "criterion of law and 
the absence of law." The holders of political 
power, whatever their number, may govern 
either according to the established laws, or by 
arbitrary caprice in violation of them. "To go 
against the laws, which are based upon long ex- 
perience, and the wisdom of counsellors who 
have graciously recommended them and per- 
suaded the multitude to pass them, would be," 



the Eleatic Stranger declares in the Statesman, 
"a far greater and more ruinous error than any 
adherence to written law." 

Taking the division of governments accord- 
ing to number, "the principle of law and the 
absence of law will bisect them all." Monarchy 
divides into "royalty and tyranny" depending 
on whether "an individual rules according to 
law ... or governs neither by law nor by cus- 
tom, but . . . pretends that he can only act for 
the best by violating the laws, while in reality 
appetite and ignorance are the motives." By 
the same criterion, the rule of the few divides 
"into aristocracy, which has an auspicious 
name, and oligarchy." While democracy is sub- 
ject to the same division, Plato makes the same 
name apply to both its good and bad forms. 

The second way in which aristocracy differs 
from oligarchy is also brought out in the States' 
man. Since "the science of government," ac- 
cording to Plato, is "among the greatest of all 
sciences and most difficult to acquire . . . any 
true form of government can only be supposed 
to be the government of one, two, or, at any 
rate, of a few . . . really found to possess sci- 
ence." Because of this demand for "science," 
which presupposes virtue and competence in 
ruling, monarchy and aristocracy came to be 
defined as government by the single best man 
or by the few best men in the community. 

A high degree of competence or virtue is, 
however, not the only mark by which the few 
may be distinguished from the many. The 
possession of wealth or property in any size- 
able amount also seems to divide a small class 
in the community from the rest, and Plato at 
times refers to aristocracy simply as the govern- 
ment of the rich. Yet if wealth is the criterion 
by which the few are chosen to govern, then 
oligarchy results, at least in contrast to that 
sense of aristocracy in which the criterion is 
excellence of mind and character. Aristocracy 
is called aristocracy, writes Aristotle, "either 
because the rulers are the best men, or because 
they have at heart the best interests of the state 
and of the citizens." 

By these additional criteria never by num- 
bers alonethe ancients conceive aristocracy. 
When it is so defined, it always appears to 
be a good form of government, but never the 
only good form, or even the best. The same 



52 



THE GREAT IOTAS 



criteria also place monarchy among the good 
forms, and at least in Plato's Statesman^- 
mocracy is a third good form, when it is lawful 
government by the many, the many being com- 
petent or virtuous to some degree. In this triad 
of good forms, aristocracy ranks second-best, 
because government by one man is supposed to 
be more efficient, or because, in the hierarchy 
of excellence, the few may be superior, but only 
the one can be supreme. Aristotle, however, 
seems to rank aristocracy above monarchy. 
"If we call the rule of many men, who are all 
of them good, aristocracy, and the rule of one 
man royalty," he writes, "then aristocracy will 
be better for states than royalty." 

THE INTRODUCTION of democracy into the com- 
parison tends to complicate the discussion. Not 
only are the many usually the poor, but they 
are also seldom considered pre-eminent in vir- 
tue or competence. According to the way in 
which either wealth or human excellence is dis- 
tributed, both oligarchy and aristocracy organ- 
ize the political community in terms of inequal- 
ities in status, power, and privilege. This fact 
leads Rousseau, for example, to use the different 
kinds of inequality among men as a basis for 
distinguishing "three sorts of aristocracy nat- 
ural, elective, and hereditary." 

Natural aristocracy, according to Rousseau, 
is based on that inequality among men which is 
due primarily to age and is found among simple 
peoples, where "the young bowed without 
question to the authority of experience." Elec- 
tive aristocracy arose "in proportion as artificial 
inequality produced by institutions became 
predominant over natural inequality, and rich- 
es or power were put before age." This form, in 
Rousseau's opinion, is "the best, and is aris- 
tocracy properly so called." The third, which 
is characterized as "the worst of all govern- 
ments," came about when "the transmission of 
the father's power along with his goods to his 
children, by creating patrician families, made 
government hereditary." 

This emphasis upon inequality radically sep- 
arates aristocracy from democracy. From Aris- 
totle down to Montesquieu, Rousseau, and our 
bwn day, equality has been recognized as the 
distinctive element of democracy. Disregarding 
slaves who, for the ancients, were political 



pariahs, Aristotle makes liberty the other mark 
of democracy all freemen having, apart from 
wealth or virtue, an equal claim to political 
status. As "the principle of an aristocracy is 
virtue," Aristotle writes, so wealth is the prin- 
ciple "of an oligarchy, and freedom of a de- 
mocracy." 

To the defenders of democracy, ancient or 
modern, aristocracy and oligarchy stand to- 
gether, at least negatively, in their denial of 
the principle of equality. To the defenders of 
aristocracy, oligarchy is as far removed as de- 
mocracy, since both oligarchy and democracy 
neglect or underestimate the importance of 
virtue in organizing the state. Yet oligarchy 
more than democracy is the characteristic per- 
version of aristocracy. It also puts government 
in the hands of the few, but it substitutes 
wealth for virtue as the criterion. The demo- 
cratic critic of aristocracy usually calls atten- 
tion to the way in which oligarchy tries to wear 
the mask of aristocracy. However far apart aris- 
tocracy and oligarchy may be in definition, he 
insists that in actual practice they tend to be- 
come identical, in proportion as wealth, or 
noble birth, or social class is taken as the sign 
of intrinsic qualities which are thought to de- 
serve special political recognition. 

The defenders of aristocracy have admitted 
the tendency of aristocratic government to de- 
generate into oligarchy. Its critics are not satis- 
fied with this admission. They deny that aris- 
tocracy has ever existed in purity of principle 
they deny that the governing few have ever 
been chosen solely for their virtue. Machiavelh 
assumes it to be a generally accepted fact that 
"the nobles wish to rule and oppress the people 
. . . and give vent to their ambitions/' Mon- 
tesquieu, although more optimistic about the 
possibility of a truly virtuous aristocracy, rec- 
ognizes its tendency to profit at the expense of 
the people. To overcome this he would have 
the laws make it "an essential point . . . that 
the nobles themselves should not levy the taxes 
. . . and should likewise forbid the nobles all 
kinds of commerce . . . and abolish the right of 
primogeniture among the nobles, to the end 
that by a continual division of the inheritances 
their fortunes may be always upon a level." 

But perhaps the strongest attack upon aris- 
tocracy in all of the great political boob is 



CHAPTER 3: ARISTOCRACY 



53 



made by Mill in his Representative Government. 
He admits that "the governments which have 
been remarkable in history for sustained mental 
ability and vigour in the conduct of affairs have 
generally been aristocracies." But he claims 
that, whatever their abilities, such govern- 
ments were "essentially bureaucracies," and 
the "dignity and estimation" of their ruling 
members were "quite different things from the 
prosperity or happiness of the general body of 
the citizens, and were often wholly incompati- 
ble with it." When their actions are dictated by 
"sinister interests," as frequently happens, the 
aristocratic class "assumes to themselves an 
endless variety of unjust privileges, sometimes 
benefiting their pockets at the expense of the 
people, sometimes merely tending to exalt 
them above others, or, what is the same thing 
in different words, to degrade others below 
themselves." 

Yet except by those political thinkers who 
deny the distinction between good and bad 
government, and hence the relevance of virtue 
to institutions which are solely expressions of 
power, the aristocratic principle is seldom en- 
tirely rejected. Even when the notion of a pure 
aristocracy is dismissed as an ideal which can 
never be fully realized, the aristocratic princi- 
ple reappears as a counsel of perfection in the 
improvement of other forms of government. 

Eveivso, one difficulty remains, which tends 
to prevent aristocracy from being realized in 
practice, quite apart from any question of its 
soundness in principle. It lies in the reluctance 
of the best men to assume the burdens of public 
office. The parable told in the Book of Judges 
applies to aristocracy as much as to monarchy. 

The trees went forth on a time to anoint a king 
over them; and they said unto the olive tree, Reign 
thou over us. 

But the olive tree said unto them, Should I leave 
my fatness, wherewith by me they honor God and 
man, and go to be promoted over the trees ? 

And the trees said to the fig tree, Come thou, and 
reign over us. 

But the fig tree said unto them, Should I forsake 
my sweetness, and my good fruit, and go to be 
promoted over the trees ? 

Then said the trees unto the vine, Come thou, 
and reign over us. 

And the vine said unto them, Should I leave my 
wine, which cheereth God and man, and go to be 
promoted over the trees? 



Then said all the trees unto the bramble, Come 
thou, and reign over us. 

And the bramble said unto the trees, If in truth ye 
anoint me king over you, then come and put your 
trust in my shadow: and if not, let fire come out of 
the bramble, and devour the cedars of Lebanon. 

Socrates thinks he has a solution for this prob- 
lem. In the Republic, he proposes a new way 
to induce good men to rule. Since "money and 
honor have no attraction for them," necessity, 
Socrates says, "must be laid upon them, and 
they must be induced to serve from fear of 
punishment. . . . Now the worst part of the 
punishment is that he who refuses to rule is lia- 
ble to be ruled by one who is worse than him- 
self. And the fear of this, as I conceive, induces 
the good to take office . . . not under the idea 
that they are going to have any benefit or en- 
joyment themselves, but as a necessity, and 
because they are not able to commit the task 
of ruling to anyone who is better than them- 
selves, or indeed as good." 

THE POLITICAL ISSUES, in which monarchy, 
aristocracy, oligarchy, and democracy represent 
the major alternatives, cannot be clarified with- 
out recourse to the distinction between govern- 
ment by laws and government by men. 

It has already been noted that in the States- 
man Plato makes respect for the laws and vio- 
lation of the laws the marks of good and bad 
government respectively. But he also proposes 
that "the best thing of all is not that the law 
should rule, but that a man should rule, sup- 
posing him to have wisdom and royal power." 
The imperfections of law could then be avoided, 
because one or a few men of almost superhuman 
wisdom would govern their inferiors even as 
the gods could direct the affairs of men without 
the aid of established laws. But if no man is a 
god in relation to other men, then, in Plato's 
opinion, it is better for laws or customs to be 
supreme, and for men to rule in accordance 
with them. 

The larger issue concerning rule by law and 
rule by men is discussed in the chapters on 
CONSTITUTION and MONARCHY. But here we 
must observe how the difference between these 
two types of rule affects the understanding of 
all other forms of government. This can be seen 
in terms of Aristotle's distinction between royal 



54 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



and political government, which closely resem- 
bles the modern conception of the difference 
between absolute or despotic government on 
the one hand, and limited, constitutional, or 
republican government on the other. 

There are passages in which Aristotle regards 
absolute rule by one or a few superior men as 
the divine or godlike form of government. 
When one man or a few excel "all the others to- 
gether in virtue, and both rulers and subjects 
are fitted, the one to rule, the others to be 
ruled/' it is right, in Aristotle's opinion, for the 
government to be royal or absolute rather than 
political or constitutional whether one man 
rules or a few. "Royal rule is of the nature of an 
aristocracy," he says. "It is based upon merit, 
whether of the individual or of his family." 

But in other passages Aristotle seems to re- 
gard absolute government as a despotic regime, 
appropriate to the family and the primitive 
tribe, but not to the state, in which it is better 
for equals to rule and be ruled in turn. In either 
case, it makes a difference to the meaning of 
aristocracy, as also to monarchy, whether it be 
conceived as absolute or constitutional govern- 
ment. 

When it is conceived as absolute government, 
aristocracy differs from monarchy only on the 
point of numbers the few as opposed to the 
one. Otherwise, aristocracy and monarchy are 
defended in the same way. The defense usually 
takes one of two directions. One line of argu- 
ment which stems from Plato and Aristotle 
claims that inequality in wisdom or virtue be- 
tween ruler and ruled justifies absolute rule by 
the superior. The other line is followed by those 
who, like Hobbes, maintain that since sover- 
eignty is absolute, unlimited, and indivisible, 
the difference between kinds of government 
"consisteth not in the difference of Power, but 
in the difference of Convenience, or Aptitude 
to produce the Peace, and Security of the peo- 
ple." When they are conceived as forms of ab- 
solute government, aristocracy and monarchy 
are attacked for the same reason; to those who 
regard absolutism or despotism in government 
as unjust because it violates the basic equality 
of men, an absolute monarchy and a despotic 
aristocracy are both unjust. 

Aristocracy, however, can also be conceived 
as a form or aspect of constitutional govern- 



ment. Montesquieu, for example, divides gov- 
ernments into "republican, monarchical, and 
despotic," and under "republican" places those 
"in which the body, or only a part, of the peo- 
ple is possessed of the supreme power," thus 
including both democracy and aristocracy. In 
both, laws, not men, are supreme, but the spirit 
of the laws is different. In democracy, the 
"spring," or principle, "by which it is made to 
act," is virtue resting on equality; in aristoc- 
racy, "moderation is the very soul ... a mod- 
eration . . . founded on virtue, not that which 
proceeds from indolence and pusillanimity." 
Hegel's comment on this theory deserves men- 
tion. "The fact that 'moderation' is cited as the 
principle of aristocracy," he writes, "implies 
the beginning at this point of a divorce between 
public authority and private interest." 

For Aristotle, in contrast to Montesquieu, 
the two major types of constitution are the 
democratic and the oligarchical, according as 
free-birth or wealth is made the chief qualifica- 
tion for citizenship and public office. Aristoc- 
racy enters the discussion of constitutional 
governments mainly in connection with the 
construction of the polity or mixed constitu- 
tion. Although in most states "the fusion goes 
no further than the attempt to unite the free- 
dom of the poor and the wealth of the rich," 
he points out that "there are three grounds on 
which men claim an equal share in the govern- 
ment, freedom, wealth, and virtue." 

When the fusion goes no further than the 
attempt to unite the freedom of the poor and 
the wealth of the rich, "the admixture of the 
two elements," Aristotle says, is "to be called a 
polity." But sometimes the mixture of democ- 
racy with oligarchy may include an ingredient 
of aristocracy, as in "the distribution of offices 
according to merit." The union of these three 
elements "is to be called aristocracy or the 
government of the best," and "more than any 
other form of government, except the true and 
the ideal," it has, in Aristotle's judgment, "a 
right to this name." Polity and aristocracy, as 
mixed constitutions, are fusions of some of the 
same elements; hence, he says, it is "obvious 
that they are not very unlike." 

BEGINNING IN the i8th century, and with the 
rise of representative government, the discus- 



CHAFFER 3: ARISTOCRACY 



55 



sion of aristocracy as a distinct form of govern- 
ment is largely super-ceded by the consideration 
of the role which the aristocratic principle plays 
in the development of republican institutions. 

The writers of The Federalist^ for example, 
respond in several places to the charge that the 
constitution which they are defending shows 
tendencies toward aristocracy or oligarchy. Yet 
in their consideration and defense of the new 
instrument of government as essentially repub- 
lican, they frequently appeal to principles that 
are aristocratic in nature. 

In giving their own meanings to the terms 
"republic" and "pure democracy" that is, 
government by elected representatives on the 
one hand, and by the direct participation of the 
whole people on the other the Federalists also 
give an aristocratic bent to the very notion of 
representation. They seem to share the opinion 
of Montesquieu that "as most citizens have 
sufficient ability to choose, though unqualified 
to be chosen, so the people, though capable of 
calling others to account for their administra- 
tion, are incapable of conducting administra- 
tions themselves." 

Thus Madison praises "the delegation of the 
government ... to a small number of citizens 
elected by the rest" as tending "to refine and 
enlarge the public views, by passing them 
through the medium of a chosen body of citi- 
zens, whose wisdom may best discern the true 
interest of their country." He further points 
out that "it may well happen that the public 
voice, pronounced by the representatives of 
the people, will be more consonant to the pub- 
lic good than if pronounced by the people 
themselves, convened for the purpose." 

On such a view, the people's representatives 
in the legislature, or other branches of govern- 
ment, are supposed to be not their minions, 
but their betters. For the American constitu- 
tionalists, as for Edmund Burke, the represent- 
ative serves his constituents by making inde- 
pendent decisions for the common good, not by 
doing their bidding. This theory of representa- 
tion, to which Mill and other democratic think- 
ers agree in part, supposes that the representa- 
tive knows better than his constituents what is 
for their good. 

The effort to ensure leadership by superior 
men may involve the aristocratic principle, yet 



it is also claimed by Hamilton, Madison, and 
Jay to be a necessary safeguard for popular gov- 
ernment. The senate, for instance, is not only 
to provide elder statesmen, but is also to serve 
as "a salutary check on the government . . . 
[which] doubles the security to the people, by 
requiring the concurrence of two distinct bodies 
in schemes of usurpation or perfidy, where the 
ambition or corruption of one would otherwise 
be sufficient," The electoral college aims di- 
rectly at placing the immediate election of the 
president in the hands of "men most capable 
of analyzing the qualities adapted to the sta- 
tion . . , under circumstances favorable to de- 
liberation." In addition it may serve as an 
"obstacle . . . opposed to cabal, intrigue, and 
corruption," which are the "most deadly ad- 
versaries of republican government." 

In all these respects, as well as in the restric- 
tions on suffrage which it permitted the states 
to impose, the unamended American constitu- 
tion appears to have adopted an aristocratic 
principle in government. Whether the motiva- 
tion of its proponents was m fact simply aris- 
tocratic, or whether it was partly or even 
largely oligarchical leadership being the right 
of men of "good" family and substantial prop- 
ertywill always be a question to be decided 
in the light of the documents and the relevant 
historic evidence. 

MORE DEMOCRATIC than the American consti- 
tutionalists of the 1 8th century, certainly so 
with regard to the extension of suffrage, John 
Stuart Mill appears to be no less concerned 
than they are to introduce aristocratic elements 
into the structure of representative govern- 
ment. 

According to Mill, two grave dangers con' 
front a democracy: "Danger of a low grade of 
intelligence in the representative body, and 
in the popular opinion which controls it; and 
danger of class legislation on the part of the 
numerical majority." Claiming that much of 
the blame for both dangers lies in the rule of 
the majority, Mill looks for means to overcome 
the situation in which "the numerical majority 
. . . alone possess practically any voice in the 
State." 

His major remedy was a system of propor- 
tional representation. This would supposedly 



56 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



constitute a democratic improvement by secur- 
ing representation for "every minority in the 
whole nation ... on principles of equal justice. 1 * 
But it may also serve to increase an aristocratic 
element, since it "affords the best security for 
the intellectual qualifications desirable in the 
representatives." This would be brought about 
by making possible the election of "hundreds 
of able men of independent thought, who 
would have no chance whatever of being chosen 
by the majority," with the result that Parlia- 
ment would contain the "very elite of the 
country." 

To make still more certain that men of su- 
perior political intelligence exert an effect upon 
government, Mill also proposes a plurality of 
votes for the educated and the establishment of 
an upper legislative chamber based on a spe- 
cially qualified membership. Such proposals 
seem to indicate Mill's leanings toward aris- 
tocracy, not only because they aim at procur- 
ing a "government of the best," but also be- 
cause they are designed to prevent a govern- 
ment based on a majority of "manual labour- 
ers" with the consequent danger of "too low a 
standard of political intelligence." 

THE ISSUES RAISED by the theory of aristocracy, 
or by the aristocratic principle in government, 
seem to be basically the same in all centuries, 
however different the terms or the context in 
which they are expressed. Even when, as today, 
a purely aristocratic form of government does 
not present a genuine political alternative to 
peoples who have espoused democracy, there 
remains the sense that pure or unqualified de- 
mocracy is an equally undesirable extreme. The 
qualifications proposed usually add an aristo- 
cratic leaven. 

One issue concerns the equality and in- 
equality of men. The affirmation that all men 
are created equal does not exclude a recognition 
of their individual inequalities the wide di- 
versity of human talents and the uneven dis- 
tribution of intelligence and other abilities. 
Nor does it mean that all men use their native 
endowments to good purpose or in the same 
degree to acquire skill or knowledge or virtue. 

To grasp the double truththat no man is 
essentially more human than another, though 
one may have more of certain human abilities 



than another is to see some necessity for the 
admixture of democratic and aristocratic prin- 
ciples in constructing a political constitution. 
But the issue is whether distributive justice re- 
quires, as a matter of right, that the best men 
should rule or hold public office. 

Some political philosophers, like Plato and 
Aristotle, tend to take the aristocratic view 
that men of superior ability have a right to 
govern that for them to be ruled by their in- 
feriors would be unjust. This theory places 
greater emphasis on the inequality than on 
the equality of men. Their democratic oppo- 
nents insist that the equality of men as men is 
the fundamental fact and the only fact hav- 
ing a bearing on the just distribution of suffrage. 
That certain individuals have superior aptitude 
for the exercise of political authority does not 
automatically confer that authority upon them. 
The inequality of men in merit or talent does 
not establish a political right, as does their 
equality in human nature. The selection of the 
best men for public office is, on this theory, not 
a matter of justice, but of expediency or pru- 
dence. 

Another issue concerns the weight to be given 
the opinion of the majority as against the 
opinion of the wise or the expert when, as 
frequently happens, these opinions diverge or 
conflict. As the chapter on OPINION indicates, 
the experts themselves disagree about the 
soundness of the popular judgment. 

Where Thucydides believes that "ordinary 
men usually manage public affairs better than 
their more gifted fellows," because "the latter 
are always wanting to appear wiser than the 
laws," Herodotus observes that "it seems easier 
to deceive the multitude than one man." 
Where Hegel holds it to be "a dangerous and a 
false prejudice, that the People alone have rea- 
son and insight, and know what justice is," 
John Jay declares that "the people of any coun- 
try (if, like the Americans, intelligent and well- 
informed) seldom adopt and steadily persevere 
for many years in an erroneous opinion respect- 
ing their interests," and Hamilton adds that 
"the people commonly intend \hz public good." 

Sometimes the same author seems to take 
both sides of the issue, as Aristotle does when, 
though he says that "a multitude is a better 
judge of many things than any individual," he 



CHAPTER 3: ARISTOCRACY 57 

yet prefers government by the one or few who present ambiguity. We have already noted it in 

are eminent in wisdom or virtue. Each side, considering the reality of the line between aris- 

perhaps, contributes only part of the truth, tocracy and oligarchy. The agreement or dis- 

Certamly those who acknowledge a political agreement of Mill and Aristotle, of Burke and 

wisdom in the preponderant voice of the many, Plato, of Hamilton and Paine, of Veblen and 

but who also recognize another wisdom in the Pareto, or fohn Dewey and Matthew Arnold 

skilled judgment of the few, cannot wish to ex- cannot be judged without determining whether 

elude either from exerting its due influence the distinction between the many and the few 

upon the course of government. derives from nature or convention. 

Still another issue has to do with education. It is this distinction which Jefferson had in 

Shall educational opportunity be as universal mind when, writing to Adams in 1813, he said, 

as the franchise? Shall those whose native en- "There is a natural aristocracy among men. 

dowments fit them for political leadership be The grounds of this are virtue and talents . . . 

trained differently or more extensively than There is also an artificial aristocracy founded on 

their fellow citizens? Shall vocational educa- wealth and birth* without either virtue or tal- 

tion be given to the many, and liberal educa- ents; for with these it would belong to the first 

tion be reserved for the few? class. The natural aristocracy I consider as the 

These questions provide some measure of the most precious gift of nature, for the instruc- 

extent to which anyone's thinking is aristo- tion, the trusts, the government of society . . . 

cratic or democratic or involves some admix- The artificial aristocracy is a mischievous in- 

ture of both strains. In the great discussion of gradient in government, and provision should 

these questions and issues, there is one ever- be made to prevent its ascendancy." 



OUTLINE OF TOPICS 

PAOB 

1. The general theory and evaluation of aristocracy 58 

\a. Aristocracy as a good form of government 

ib. Criticisms of aristocracy as unrealizable or unjust 59 

2. The relation of aristocracy to other forms of government 

20. Aristocracy and monarchy 

2b. Aristocracy and constitutional government: the polity or mixed constitution 

2C. Aristocracy and democracy 60 

2d. Aristocracy and oligarchy 

2e. Aristocracy and tyranny 

3. The causes of degeneration or instability in aristocracies: aristocracy and revolution 

4. Aristocracy and the issue of rule by men as opposed to rule by law 61 

5. The training of those fitted for rule: aristocratic theories of education 

6. The selection of the best men for public office: the aristocratic theory of representation 

in modern constitutional government 

7. Historic and poetic exemplifications of aristocracy 62 



58 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



REFERENCES 

To find the passages cited, use the numbers in heavy type, which are the volume and page 
numbers of the passages referred to. For example, in 4 HOMER: Iliad, BK n [265-283] 12d, the 
number 4 is the number of the volume in the set; the number 12d indicates that the pas- 
sage is in section d of page 12. 

PAGE SECTIONS: When the text is printed in one column, the letters a and b refer to the 
upper and lower halves of the page. For example, in 53 J MAES -.Psychology, 116a-119b, the passage 
begins in the upper half of page 116 and ends in the lower half of page 119. When the text is 
printed in two columns, the letters a and b refer to the upper and lower halves of the left- 
hand side of the page, the letters c and d to the upper and lower halves of the right-hand side of 
the page. For example, in 7 PLATO: Symposium, 163b-164c, the passage begins in the lower half 
of the left-hand side of page 163 and ends in the upper half of the right-hand side of page 164. 

AUTHOR'S DIVISIONS. One or more of the main divisions of a work (such as PART, BK, CH, 
SECT) are sometimes included in the reference; line numbers, in brackets, are given in cer- 
tain cases; e.g., Iliad, BK n [265-283] 12d. 

BIBLE REFERENCES: The references are to book, chapter, and verse. When the King James 
and Douay versions differ in title of books or in the numbering of chapters or verses, the King 
James version is cited first and the Douay, indicated by a (D), follows; e.g., OLD TESTA- 
MENT: Nchemiah, 7:45 (D) II Esdras, 7:46. 

SYMBOLS: The abbreviation "esp" calls the reader's attention to one or more especially 
relevant parts of a whole reference; "passim" signifies that the topic is discussed intermit- 
tently rather than continuously in the work or passage cited. 

For additional information concerning the style of the references, see the Explanation of 
Reference Style; for general guidance in the use of The Great Ideas, consult the Preface. 



1. The general theory and evaluation of aris toe- la. Aristocracy as a good form of government 
racy OLD TESTAMENT- Exodus, 18-13-26 / Deuteron- 

omy, 1.9-17 / Proverbs, 29.2 
APOCRYPHA- Ecclesiasticus, 10:1-2 (D) OT, 

Ecclesiasticus, 10.1-2 
6 HERODOTUS: History, BK in, 107d-108a 

6 TmjcYDiDES'.Peloponnetian War, BK iv, 478d- 
479b 

7 PLATO: Republic, BK in-iv, 339b-350a; BK 
vin, 401d-402d / Timaeus, 442a-443b / 
Statesman, 598b-604b esp 603d-604b 

9 ARISTOTLE- Ethics, BK vin, en n [1161*23-24] 
413c / Politics, BK HI, CH 7 [i27Q R 28-38] 476d; 
CH 15 [i28(> h 3-7J 484d; CH 18 487a,c; BK iv, 
CH 7 493a b; CH 8 [i294 H 9-24] 493d-494a 

14 PLUTARCH- Lycuigus, 47a-48d 

15 TACITUS: Annals, BK xi, 106a-107b 

18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK v, CH 12, 218d- 

219b 
20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 95, 

A 4, ANS 229b-230c; Q 105, A i, ANS 307d-309d 
27 SHAKESPEARE: Conolanus 351a-392a,c esp 

ACT i, sc i [51-192] 351d-353c 
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK ij, 7c 
38 ROUSSEAU: Social Contract, BK HI, 411c-412a 

43 MILL: Representative Government ', 340a-c; 
353b-354b; 363d-364b 

44 EoswELL-johnson, 125c-d; 141a; 211b-c; 220b 



6 HERODOTUS: History, BK HI, 107c-108c 

7 PLATO: Republic, BK ii-vn, 316a-401d / 
Statesman, 598b-604b / Laws, BK HI, 665c- 
666c; 669d-672a 

9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK viii, CH 10 [n6o b 32- 
n6i a 2] 413a-b; CH 11 [n6i ft 23-25] 413c / Poli- 
tics, BK in, CH 7 [1279*33-37] 476d; CH 9 
[1281*2-8] 478c-d; CH 15 [i286 b 4-5l 484d; CH 
17 [1288*8-10] 486d, CH 18 487a,c; BK iv, CH 7 
493a-b; CH 8 [1294*9-24! 493d-494a; CH 14 
[i298 b 5-io] 499a / Rhetoric, BK i, CH 8 
[i365 b 32-39] 608a-b 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 95, 
A 4, ANS 229b-230c; Q 105, A i, ANS 307d- 
309d 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan^ PART n, 104d-105a 

33 PASCAL: Pensees, 319-324 229b-230b; 335 
232b; 337-338 232b-233a 

35 LOCKE: Cwil Government, CH x, SECT 132 
55a-b 

38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK n, 6b-7c; 
BK HI, lOc-lla; BK v, 23a-25a; BK VH, 
45b-c 

38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 359a-c / Social Con- 
tract, BK HI, 410b-c; 411c-412c; 418c 

42 KANT: Science of Right, 450a-d 



\b to 2b 



CHAPTER 3: ARISTOCRACY 



'59 



lb. Criticisms of aristocracy as unrealizable or 
unjust 

6 HERODOTUS: History, BK in, 108b-c 
6THUCYDIDES: Peloponnesian War, BK vi, 

520a-c 

7 PLATO* Republic, BK v, 368c-369c; BK vi, 
380b-383a; BK vn, 401c-d; BK ix, 426d-427b 

9 ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK in, CH 10-13 478d- 

483a; BK iv, CH 8 [i2gf2i-2&] 493c 
15 TACITUS: Histories, BK i, 193c-194a 
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART n, 105a; PART rv, 

273a-b 
35 LOCKE: Civil Government, CH xi, SECT 138 

57b-c 

38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK 11, 7c 
38 ROUSSEAU: Social Contract, BK in, 411d 

42 KANT- Science of Right, 442c-d; 445a-c 

43 MILL: Representative Government, 366a-367b 
46 HEGEL. Philosophy of Right, PART in, par 297 

99b / Philosophy of History, PART iv, 356c- 
35'/ 365a 
50 MARX-ENGELS: Communist Manifesto, 420c 

2. The relation of aristocracy to other forms of 
government 

6 HERODOTUS' History, BK HI, 107c-108c 
6THUCYDIDES. Peloponnesian War, BK vni, 

579c-590c passim 

7 PLATO' Republic, BK i, 301c-d; BK vin-ix, 
401d-421a esp BK vm, 401d-402d / Statesman, 
598b-604b / Laws, BK in, 669d-672a 

9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK v, CH 3 [ii3i ft 24-29] 
378d; BK vin, CH 10-11 412c-413d / Politics, 
BK in, CH 5 [1278*15-34] 475b-c; en 7 476c- 
477a; CH 13 [i284*3- b 34] 482a-483a; CH 15 
[ia86 b 8-22] 484d-485a, CH 17 [i287 b 37]-cn 18 
[1288*37] 486c-487a,c; BK iv, CH 2 [1289*26 - b 4) 
488b-c; CH 3 [1290*13-29] 489b; CH 14 [1298* 
34- b io] 498d-499a; CH 15 [i 299^0-1 300*8] 
500b-d; on 16 [1301*10-16] 502c / Rhetoric, BK 
i, CH 8 608a-c 

14 PLUTARCH- Lycurgus, 34d-35d 

20 AQUINAS : Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 95, 
A 4, ANS 229b-230c; Q 105, A i, ANS 307d- 
309d 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART i, 73b; PART 11, 
104d-108b passim; 154b-c 

33 PASCAL- Pensees, 304 227b-228a 

35 LOCKE: Civil Government, CH x, SECT 132 
55a~b; CH xi, SECT 138 57b-c 

38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK ii-ni 4a- 
13d esp BK n, 4a, 6b-7c, BK in, lOc-lla; 
BK vi, 34d-35a; BK vin, 56b-57c; BK xn, 
90b*c; BK xv, 109a-b; BK xvm, 125a-b 

38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 359a-c / Social Con- 
tract, BK in, 410b-c; 415d; 418c; BK iv, 427a-d 

41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 81c-d 

42 KANT: Science of Right, 450a-452 esp 450b-d 

43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 39, 125b-d 

43 MILL: "Representative Government* 363b-369b 
passim; 387c-d 



46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART; HI, par 273, 
90d-91c; par 279, 94b 

2a. Aristocracy and monarchy ^ 

6 HERODOTUS: History, BK in, 107c-108c 

7 PLATO: Republic, BK iv, 355d-356a / States- 
man, 598b-604b 

9 ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK in, CH 7 476c-477a; 
CH 13 [1284*3-35] 482a-c; CH 15 [i286*23- b 8J 
484c-d esp [i286 b 4-8] 484d; CH 16 [i287 b 8-35J 
486a-c; CH 17 [1288*5-25] 486c-487a; c 18 
487a,c; BK iv, CH 2 [1289*26-35] 488b; BK v, 
CH 10 [i3io*39- b i4] 512d-513a; [i3io b 3i- 
1311*8] 513b / Rhetoric, BK i, CH 8 608a-c 

15 TACITUS' Annals, BK vi, 97b 

18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK v, CH 12, 218d- 
219b 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 95, 
A 4, ANS 229b-230c; Q 105, A i, ANS and REP 
1-2 307d-309d 

23 MACHIAVELLI: Prince, CH iv 7a-8a; CH ix 
14c-16a passim; CH xix, 27a-b 

23 HOB BBS- Leviathan, PART n, 104d-109a pas- 
sim; PART in, 201a 

38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK n, 6b-8c; 
BK in, lOc-lld; BK v, 23a-25d; 32b-c; BK vin, 
53d-54a; BK xi, 75b-d; 77b-c; BK xn, 90c; 
BK xx, 147a-d 

38 ROUSSEAU: Social Contract, BK in, 418c 

39 SMITH: Wealth of Nations, BK v, 308b~c 
41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 81c-d 

43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 17, 70a-d 

43 MILL: Representative Government, 351d 352b; 

366a-c 
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART HI, par 273, 

90c-91d; par 279, 94b / Philosophy of History, 

PART iv, 356d-357a 
51 TOLSTOY- War and Peace, BK vi, 241c-242b; 

BK ix, 384c-388a,c; EPILOGUE i, 668a-669c 

26. Aristocracy and constitutional government: 
the polity or mixed constitution 

6 THUCYDIDES Peloponnesian War, BK vin, 
579d-580d; 581b-c; 582a; S87a-b; 588a-589a; 
590a-b 

9 ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK in, CH 7 476c-477a; 
BK iv, CH 8 493c-494a; CH n [1295*31-34] 
495b-c; CH 14 [i298 b 5~io] 499a; BK v, CH 7 
[1307*5-27] 509a-b / Rhetoric, BK i, CH 8 
[i365 b 22-i366*2] 608a-b 

14 PLUTARCH: Lycurgus, 34d / Dion, 800c 

15 TACITUS: Annals, BK iv, 72a-b 

20 AQUINAS : Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 95, 

A 4, ANS 229b-230c; Q 105, A i, ANS 307d- 

309d 
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK n t 4a; 

6b-8c; BK v, 21d-22c; BK vin, 52c; BK xi, 

71d-72b; 75b-d; 76c-77c 

41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 81c*d 

42 KANT: Science of Right, 439c-440a; 450a-d 

43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 39, 125b-d; NUMBER 
63, 194b-195b; NUMBER 71, 216a-b 



60 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



2<r/o3 



(2. The relation of aristocracy to other jorms of 
government. 2b. Aristocracy and constitu- 
tional government: the polity or mixed con- 
stitution.) 
43 MILL: Representative Government, 353d-354b; 

406a-409c; 419b-c 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART HI, par 279, 
94b / Philosophy of History, PART n, 275b- 
276a; 277c-d; PART iv, 356d-357a 
51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK vi, 238c-243d 
passim, esp 241c-242b; BK ix, 384c-388a,c 
passim 

2c. Aristocracy and democracy 

6 HERODOTUS: History, BK in, 107c-108c 

6 THUCYDIDES: Peloponncsian War, BK vi, 520a- 
c; 533a-c; BK vm, 579c-581c; 582b-c; 590a-b 

7 PLATO: Republic, BK vni, 401d-402d; 408b- 
409d / Statesman, 598b-604b 

9 ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK HI, CH n [1281*3^- 
b 25] 479b-c; CH 13 [i284*3- b 25] 482a-d; BK iv, 
CH 7 [i293 b i2-i8] 493b; BK v, CH 7 [1307*5-27] 
509a-b; CH 8 [1307^ 9-1 308*24] 510a-b; 
[i}o8 b 3 1 -1309*10] 511a-b / Rhetoric, BK i, CH 8 
[I365 b 22~i366 a 2] 608a-b 

14 PLUTARCH: Lycurgus, 34d / Lycurgus-Numa, 
62b c / Dion, 792d-802a,c csp 800c 

15 TACITUS: Annals, BK vi, 97b 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 95, 
A 4, ANS 229b-230c; Q 105, A i, ANS 307d-309d 

23 MACHIAVELLI: Prince, CH ix 14c-16a passim 

23 HOB BBS: Leviathan, PART n, 104d-105a 

27 SHAKESPEARE: Coriolanus, ACT i, sc i [1-47] 
351a-d; ACT n, sc i [i-io6j 361a-362a; ACT HI, 
sci [140-161] 370d~371a 

33 PASCAL: Pensees, 294 225b-226b 

38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK n, 4a-7c; 
BK HI, 9b-lla; BK v, 23a-b; 23d; BK vn, 44d- 
45c; BK vni, 51d; 53d-54a; BK ix, 58b; BK x, 
64a-d; BK xn, 90b-c; BK xv, 109b 

38 ROUSSEAU: Political Economy, 369c-d / Social 
Contract, BK iv, 427a-d 

41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 81c-d 

42 KANT: Science of Right, 450a-d 

43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 39, 125b-d; NUMBER 57 
176d-179b passim; NUMBER 58, 181b-c; NUM- 
BER 60, 185b-187a 

43 MILL: Liberty, 298b-299a / Representative 
Government, 353b-354b; 364b-d; 366a-369b 
passim ;376b-c 

44 Bosw ELL: Johnson, 125c-d; 141a; 211b-c 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART in, par 273, 
91b-c; par 279, 94b / Philosophy of History, 
PART n, 275b-276a; 277c-d; PART in, 285b-d; 
310a-c 

2d. Aristocracy and oligarchy 

7 PLATO: Republic, BK vni, 401d-402d; 405c- 

407a / Statesman. 598b-604b 
9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK v, CH 3 [1131*24-29] 

378d; BK vm, on K> [1160^11-16] 412d; 



[n6o b 32-i 161*2] 413a-b / Politics, BK n, CH 10 
[i272*27- b io] 468c-469a; CH n 469a-470b; 
BK in, CH 5 [1278*15-24] 475b-c; CH 7 476c- 
477a esp [i279 b 4~io] 476d-477a; CH 13 
[i283*25- b 26]481b-d; CH 15 [i286 b i2-i6] 485a; 
BK iv, CH 2 [i289*26- b 4] 488b-c; CH 4 
[i290 b i7~2o] 489d; CH 5 [1292*39-^] 491d- 
492a; CH 7 [i293 b 2-i2] 493a-b; CH 8 [i293 b 3o- 
1294*28] 493c-494a; CH 12 [1297*6-9] 497b; 
BK v, CH 7 508c-509d; CH 12 [i3i6*39- b io] 
519c / Rhetoric, BK i, CH 8 [i365 b 22-i366*6] 
608a-b 

14 PLUTARCH: Lycurgus, 36a-37b; 47a-48a 

15 TACITUS: Annals, BK n, 35d 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART I-H, Q 95, 
A 4, ANS 229b-230c 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, HELL, xvi [64-78] 
23a-b 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART n, 104d-105a; PART 
iv, 273a-b 

38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK H, 7b-c; 
BK v, 23a-25a; BK xx, 151c-152a 

'38 ROUSSEAU: Social Contract, BK HI, 419b 

39 SMITH: Wealth of Nations, BK in, 165c-166a; 
BK v, 309c-310d 

42 KANT: Science of Right, 450a-c 

43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 63, 194d 

43 MILL: Representative Government, 363d-364d 
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, PART n, 277c-d; 
PART in, 292d-293b 

2e. Aristocracy and tyranny 

6 THUCYDIDES: Peloponnesian War, BK vi, 
533a-c 

7 PLATO: Republic, BK vni, 401d-402d; BK vm- 
ix, 411d-421a / Statesman, 598b-604b passim, 
esp 603b-604b / Laws, BK iv, 679c-680b 

9 ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK v, CH 10 [1310*40- 

1311*7] 512d-513b / Rhetoric, BK i, CH 8 

[1365^32-1366*6] 608a-b 
15 TACITUS: Histories, BK i, 193c-194a 
20 AQUINAS: Summa Thcologica, PART i-n, Q 95, 

A 4, ANS 229b-230c 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART iv, 273a-b 
33 PASCAL: PensSes, 380 238a 
35 LOCKE: Civil Government, CH xvin, SECT 201 

71c 
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK n, 4a; BK 

vi, 34d-35a; BK vni, 52c-d; BK xi, 70c; 78d- 

79b; BK xv, 109a-b 
43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 47, 153d; NUMBER 48, 

157b-c; NUMBER 70, 213d-214a 
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART m t par 273, 

91c / Philosophy of History, PART n, 277c-d 
51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK i, 9b-c; EPILOGUE 

1, 668a-669d 

3. The causes of degeneration or instability in 
aristocracies: aristocracy and revolution 

OLD TESTAMENT: / Samuel, 7:15-8:5 (D) 

/ Kings, 7U5-S-.5 
6 HERODOTUS : History, BK HI, 108b-c 



4/o 6 



CHAPTER 3: ARISTOCRACY 



61 



6 THUCYDIDES : Peloponnesian War, BK v t 482d- 
483a; BK vm, 579c-583c; 587a-589a; 590a-c 

7 PLATO: Republic, BK m-iv, 339b-350a; BK 
vm, 403a-404a / Cntias, 485a-c / Seventh 
Letter, 806d-807b 

9 ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK n, CH 9 [i27o b 7~34] 
466d-467a; CH 12 [i273 b 36-i274*7] 470c; BK 
in, CH 15 [i286 b i2-i6] 485a; BK v, CH 3 
[1303*2-10] 504 b-c; CH 4 [1304*18-29] 505d- 
506a, CH 7 508c-509d; CH 8 [no7 b 39-i3o8 a 24] 
510a-b; CH 12 [i3i6 a 39- b 3] 519c 

14 PLUTARCH: Lycurgus, 35c-d; 47a-48a / Carlo- 
lanus, 180a-184a / Lysander, 361a-368a,c / 
Cams Gracchus, 683b-c / Cicero, 708a-b 

15 TACITUS: Annals, BK i, lb-2a; 3a-b / His- 
tories, BK i, 193c-194a 

21 DAN IE- Divine Comedy, HELL, xvi [64-78] 
23a-b, PARADISF, xv-xvi 128b-132a 

23 MACIIIAVLLLI: Prince, CH iv 7a-8a, CH ix 
14c-16a 

36 SWIFF. Gulliver, PART iv, 158a-b 

38 MoNFFsouitu: Spirit of Laws, BK n, 6c-7b; 
BK in, lOc-lla, BK v, 23a-25a; BK vn, 45b; 
BK vm, 52c-53a; BK x, 64a-d; BK xn, 91c- 
92b; BK xm, 96d-97a; BK xx, 151c-152a 

38 ROUSSEAU. Social Contract, BK in, 411c-d; 
418c-419b 

39 SMITH Wealth of Nations, BK v, 420b-c 

42 KANT. Science of Right, 451a 

43 FEDERALIST' NUMBER 17, 70a-d 

43 MILL. Representative Government, 366a-367b 
46 HEGEL' Philosophy of Right, PART in, par 273, 

91c / Philosophy of History, PART iv, 355d- 

357a csp 356c-357a, 364a-b 

50 MARX-ENGLLS- Communist Manifesto, 423d- 
424b, 429c-430b 

51 TOLSTOY- War and Peace, EPILOGUE i, 666c- 
669d 

4. Aristocracy and the issue of rule by men as 

opposed to rule by law 
7 PLATO- Republic, BK vi, 380b-c / Statesman, 

598b-604b / Seventh Letter, 806d-807b 
9 ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK in, CH 10 [1281*29-38] 
479a; CH 13 [1284*3-18] 482a-b;cn 15 [1286*7- 
b 8] 484b-d; CH 17 486c-487a esp [1288*5-14] 
486c-d 

23 HOB BBS: leviathan, PART iv, 273a-c 
35 LOCKE: Civil Government, CH xvni, SECT 199- 

202 71a-72a 
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK n, 4a; BK 

vin, 52c; BK xi, 69a-c 
42 KANT: Science of Right, 450d-451d 

5. The training of those fitted for rule: aristo- 

cratic theories of education 

OLD TESTAMENT* Exodus, 18:13-26 / Deuteron- 
omy, 1:9-17 

APOCRYPHA: Ecclesiasticus, 38:24-34 (D) OT, 

Ecclesiasticus, 38 125-39 

7 PLATO: Republic, BK ii-in, 320c-339a; BK vi- 
vii, 383b-401d csp BK VH, 389d-401d / 



Timaeus, 442c-d / Statesman, 607b-608a / 
Laws, BK VH, 728b; BK xn, 794b-798b esp 
796d-798b 

9 ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK ni, CH 4 [i277*i4- b i5] 
474a-d; CH 18 487a,c; BK iv, CH 15 [1300*3-8] 
500d; BK vi, CH 8 [i 322^7-1 323*6] 526d; BK 
vn, CH 14 [I3$2 b i3-i333*i6] 537b-538a / 
Rhetoric, BK i, CH 8 [i365 b 32~39] 608a-b 

14 PLUTARCH: Lycurgus, 38a-45c / Alcibiades, 
156b-158b / Marcus Cato, 286c-287b / Lysan- 
der, 354b,d-355a / Dion, 781b,d-788b 

15 TACITUS- Annals, BK 11, 34c-d; BK xm, 125d- 
126a / Histories, BK iv, 267c 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PARADISE, vm [115- 
148] 118b-c 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, INTRO, 47b-d; PART i, 
94b-c; PART n, 112d; 154a; 158c-d; 164a,c 

24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK i, 
18b-19d, 24a-30c; BK 11, 75a-77a; 78b-83b 

25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 60a-62a; 63d-64a; 71d- 
72b 

26 SHAKESPEARE: Taming of the Shrew, ACT i, 
sc i [1-45] 202c-203a/ 1st Henry IV, ACT i, sc 
n [218-240] 437c-d / Henry V, ACT i, sc i [22- 
66] 533b-c / As You Li{e It, ACT i, sc i [1-28] 
597a-b 

29 CERVANTES: Don Quixote, PART n, 332c- 

336a; 362a-c 
36 SWIFT: Gulliver, PART i, 29b-31a; PART iv, 

158a-b; 166b-167a 

38 MONTESQUIEU. Spirit of Laws, BK v, 18d 

39 SMITH: Wealth of Nations, BK v, 347c-d 

40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 86c 

41 GIBBON. Decline and Fall, 508d-509d 

43 MILL: Liberty, 298b-299a / Representative 
Government, 384a-387d; 415a-417c 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, ADDITIONS, 169 
145d / Philosophy of History, PART in, 310a-c; 
PART iv, 368a-b 

51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK vi, 244d-245c 

6. The selection of the best men for public 
office: the aristocratic theory of repre- 
sentation in modern constitutional gov- 
ernment 

OLD TESTAMENT: Genesis, 41:33-40 / Exodus, 
18:13-26 / Deuteronomy, 1-9-18 / Judges esp 
9:8-15 / / Samuel, 1:1-25:1 (D) I Kings, 
1:1-25:1 / / Kings, 3 : 5 -i5_(D) /// Kings, 
3:5-15 / II Chronicles, 1:7-12 (D) II Para- 
lipomenon, 1:7-12 / Proverbs, 29:2 / Daniel, 

6:1-4 

APOCRYPHA: Wisdom of Solomon, 6; 9 (D) OT, 
Boo^of Wisdom, 6; 9 / Ecclesiasticus, 10:1-3 
(D) OT, Ecclesiasticus, 10:1-3 

5 EURIPIDES: Electra [367-400] 330c-d 

6 HERODOTUS: History, BK in, 93c; 107d-108a 

6 THUCYDIDES : Peloponnesian War, BK 11, 396c- 
d; BK in, 425b-c; BK iv, 478d; BK vi, 520b-c 

7 PLATO: Protagoras, 44d-45b / Republic, BK 11, 
319a-320c; BK in, 339b-341a; BK v, 369c- 
370a; BK vi, 373c-375b; 3S3b-d; BK vn, 



62 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



6 to 7 



(6, The election of the best men for public office: 
the aristocratic theory of representation in 
modern constitutional government.) 

390b-391b / Statesman, 598b-604b; 608c-d / 
Laws, BK vi, 697a-705c passim; BK xn, 786b- 
787b; 794b-799a,c csp 796d-798b / Seventh 
Letter, 807a-b 

9 ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK n, CH 9 [i2jo b j- 
1271*17] 466d-467b; CH n [1272* 35-127 3*2] 
469b-c; [1273*22-*?] 469d-470a; BK in, CH 4 
(1277*13-23) 474a-b; CH 5 [i278*4o- b 5] 475d; 
CH 7 [i279*24~ b 4] 476c-d; CH 10-13 478d- 
483a; CH 15 [i286*22- b i4] 484c-485a; CH 16 
[I287 b i2-i4] 486a; CH 18 487a,c; BK iv, CH 7 
[i293 b 2-2i] 493a-b; CH 8 [1294*9-24] 493d- 
494a; CH 14 [i298 b 5~io] 499a; CH 15 [1300*9- 
b 4] 500d-501b; BK v, CH 8 [i3o8 b 3 1-1309*10] 
Slla-b; CH 9 [i309*33~ b i3] 511c-d; BK vi, CH 4 
[I3i8 b 2i-i3i9*4] 522b-c; BK vn, CH 9 [i328 b 
33-1329*17] 533b-c / Rhetoric, BK i, CH 8 
[I36 5 b 32-3 9 ]608a-b 

14 PLUTARCH: Lycurgus, 45c-d / Lysander, 365a- 
366a/ Lysander-Sulla, 387d-388a 

15 TACITUS: Annals, BK xi, 105d-107b 

20 AQUINAS : Summa Theologtca, PART i-n, Q 92, 

A i, REP 3 213c-214c; Q 105, A i, ANS and REP 

1-2 307d-309d 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART n, 136b 
25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 364b-365a; 411a-d; 

452a-d 
27 SHAKESPEARE: Coriolanus, ACT i, sc i [90-166] 

352b-353a; ACT n 361a-369a 

35 LOCKE- Civil Government, CH vn, SECT 94, 
46b; CH VIH, SECT 105-112 48c-51b passim 

36 SWIFT: Gulliver, PART i, 28b-29a; PART n, 
73a-b 

38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK n, 4d-5a; 
BK in, 10c-lla; BK v, 21d-22c; BK xi, 71a~72b 

38 ROUSSEAU: Social Contract, BK in, 412b-c; 
BK iv, 427a-d 

39 SMITH: Wealth of Nations, BK iv, 269d-271d; 
BK v, 309c-311c 

40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 61d-62a 

43 CONSTITUTION OF THE U.S. : ARTICLE i, SECT 2 
[11-16] lib; SECT 3 [67-72] 12a; ARTICLE n, 
SECT i 14b-15a; SECT 2 [424-439] 15b; 

AMENDMENTS, XII 18d-C 

43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 3, 33d-34a; NUMBER 
10, 51d-53a; NUMBER 28, 98a; NUMBER 35, 
113a-114b; NUMBER 52-63 165a-195b passim, 
csp NUMBER 57, 176d-177a; NUMBER 68 205b- 
207a; NUMBER 76-77, 225a-229b 

43 MILL: Liberty, 290d-291a; 320c-322a / Repre- 
sentative Government, 336b-337a; 338a-b; 
341d-424c passim, csp 363b-366a, 384a-387d; 
439d-442a 

44 BoswELL:/oAmo, 125c-d; 141a; 178b-c; 191c 
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART in, par 279, 

94b-c; par 291-295 97d-99a; par 308 102c- 



103a; ADDITIONS, 169 145d; 182 148c-d / 
Philosophy of History, PART 11, 277c-d; PART 
iv,368b-d 
51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK vi, 241c-242b 

7. Historic and poetic exemplifications of 
aristocracy 

6 HERODOTUS: History, BK in, 107c-108d; BK v, 

160d-161a 
6 THUCYDIDES: Peloponnesian War, BK i, 355a- 

356a; BK n, 409a; BK in, 434c-438b passim; 

BK iv, 458d-459c; 463a-b; 465c; 478d-479b; 

BK v, 482d-483a; BK vi, 533a-c; BK vm, 568d- 

569a; 579c-590c 
9 ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK n, CH 9 [i270 b 7~34] 

466d-467a; BK v, CH 7 [i3O7*27->24] 509b-d / 

Athenian Constitution, CH 1-41 553a-572a 

passim, esp CH 23-26 563c-565a 

14 PLUTARCH: Theseus, 9a-d / Romulus, 20c-21a 
/ Lycurgus 32a-48d / Pericles 121a-141a,c csp 
126d-127a / Coriolanus, 174b,d-184a / Arts- 
tides, 263c-266a 

15 TACITUS: Annals, BK i, lb-2a; 3a-b; BK n, 
32b-d; 34a-c; BK iv, 65a-c; 72a-b; BK vi, 97b; 
BK xi, 105d-107b / Histories, BK i, 193c-194a; 
212a-b 

18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK v, CH 12, 218d- 
219b 

21 DANTE- Divine Comedy, PURGATORY, vin 
[112-1 39] 65c-d 

22 CHAUCER: Tale of Wife of Bath [6701-6758] 
274b-275b 

25 MONTAIGNE Essays, 181d-183c 

27 SHAKFSPEARE: Troilus and Cressida, ACT i, 
sc in [33-54] IQSc/ All's Well That Ends Well, 
ACT n, sc in [115-151] 152c-153a / Coriolanus 
351a-392a,c esp ACT i, sc i [1-47] 351a-d, ACT 
11, sc i [1-106] 361a-362a 

36 SWIFT: Gulltver, PART n, 73a-76b; PART iv, 
157a-158b 

38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirtt of Laws, BK n, 6b-7c; 
BK v, 23a-25a; BK vn, 45b-c; BK xi, 76c-84c 

38 ROUSSEAU: Political Economy, 369c-d / Social 
Contract, BK in, 418c-d [fn 2] 

39 SMITH: Wealth of Nations, BK in, 165b-181a,c 
passim 

40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 61d-62a 

41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 71d-73c passim; 
217d-219a; 387d-390b passim; 427d-428a; 
452d-456a,c esp 452d-453a,c, 453a-b; 570d; 
574b-582c; 588a-589a 

43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 17, 70a-d 

43 MILL: Representative Government, 363d-364d 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, PART n, 277c-d; 

PART in, 285b-d; 310a-c; PART iv, 368b-d 
50 MARX: Capital, 355d-364a csp 356a-357a, 

359a-c 

50 MARX-ENGELS: Communist Manifesto, 419b,d; 
420b-c; 423d-424b; 429c-430b 

51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK ix, 384c-388a,c 



CHAPTER 3: ARISTOCRACY 



63 



CROSS-REFERENCES 

For: The general theory of the forms of government, see GOVERNMENT 2-ae. 

Other chapters on particular forms of government, see CONSTITUTION; DEMOCRACY; MON- 
ARCHY; OLIGARCHY; TYRANNY; and for the conception of the ideal state, see STATE 6-6b. 

The comparison of aristocratic with democratic theories of education, see EDUCATION 8d. 

Discussions of the role of virtue in political theory, in relation to citizenship and public 
office, see CITIZEN 5; VIRTUE AND VICE j-jd. 

Another discussion of the theory of representation, see CONSTITUTION 9-o,b. 

The role of honor in the organization of the state, and the theory of timocracy, see HONOR 43. 



ADDITIONAL READINGS 

Listed below are works not included in Great Eoo^s of the Western World, but relevant to the 
idea and topics with which this chapter deals, These works are divided into two groups: 

I. Works by authors represented in this collection. 
II. Works by authors not represented in this collection. 

For the date, place, and other facts concerning the publication of the works cited, consult 
the Bibliography of Additional Readings which follows the last chapter of The Great Ideas. 

MONTALEMBERT. On Constitutional Liberty 
ARNOLD. Culture and Anarchy 
WHITMAN. Democratic Vistas 
RENAN. The Future of Science 



I. 
DANTE. Convwio(The Banquet), FOURTH TREATISE, 

CH 10-14 
SPINOZA. Tractatus Pohticus (Political Treatise), CH 

8-10 

II. 

Volsung Saga 

SPENSER. The Faerie Queene 

CAMPANELLA. A Discourse Touching the Spanish 
Monarchy 

FILMER. Patriarcha 

HARRINGTON. Oceana 

SEVIGNE. Letters 

A. SIDNEY. Discourses Concerning Government 

MILLAR. Observations Concerning the Distinction of 
Ran^s in Society 

PAINE. Common Sense 

J. ADAMS. A Defense of the Constitutions of Govern- 
ment of the United States of America 

JEFFERSON. Notes on the State of Virginia 

SIEYES. An Essay on Privileges 

GODWIN. An Enquiry Concerning Political Justice, 
BK v, CH lo-n, 13 

BURKE. An Appeal from the New to the Old Whigs 

. Letter to Sir Hercules Langrishe 

. Letter to a Noble Lord 

AUSTEN. Pride and Prejudice 

J. MILL. An Essay on Government, in-v 

STENDHAL. The Red and the Blac^ 

BALZAC. Gobsed^ 

TOCQUEVILLE. Democracy in America 

THACKERAY. Vanity Pair 

GOBINEAU. The Inequality of Human Races 

EMERSON. "Aristocracy," in English Traits 



-. Philosophical Dialogues 
H. JAMES. The American 
T. H. HUXLEY. Methods and Results, vi-vn 
IBSEN. An Enemy of the People 
NIETZSCHE. Thus Spaty Zarathustra 
MOSCA. The Ruling Class 
MALLOCK. Social Equality 

. Aristocracy and Evolution 

T. VEBLEN. The Theory of the Leisure Class 

SANTAYANA. Reason in Society, CH 4 

BOUGL. Essais sur le regime des castes 

SOREL. Reflexions on Violence 

WENDELL. The Privileged Classes 

SHAW. Socialism and Superior Brains 

WELLS. The New Machiavelli 

WEBER. Essays in Sociology, PART iv 

PONSONBY. The Decline of Aristocracy 

P. E. MORE. Aristocracy and Justice 

PARETO. The Mind and Society 

BRYCE. Modern Democracies, PART i, CH 7; PART in, 

CH75 

DEWEY. The Public and Its Problems 
MAIRET. Aristocracy and the Meaning of Class Rule 
TAWNEY. Equality 
BERGSON. Two Sources of Morality and Religion, 

CH i, pp 62-82 

J. B. S. HALDANE. The Inequality of Man 
NOCK. The Theory of Education in the United States 
MADARIAGA. Anarchy or Hierarchy 
LANDTMAN. The Origin of the Inequality of the Social 

Classes 
T.S.ELIOT. Notes Towards the Definition of Culture 



Chapter^. ART 



INTRODUCTION 



THE word "art" has a range of meanings 
which may be obscured by the current 
disposition to use the word in an extremely 
restricted sense. In contemporary thought, art 
is most readily associated with beauty; yet its 
historic connections with utility and knowledge 
are probably more intimate and pervasive. 

The prevalent popular association reflects a 
tendency in the i9th century to annex the 
theory of art to aesthetics. This naturally led 
to the identification of art with one kind of art 
the so-called "fine arts," "beaux arts" or 
"Schone Kunste" (arts of the beautiful). The 
contraction of meaning has gone so far that the 
word "art" sometimes signifies one group of 
the fine arts painting and sculptureas in 
the common phrase "literature, music, and 
the fine arts." This restricted usage has be- 
come so customary that we ordinarily refer to 
a museum of art or to an art exhibit in a 
manner which seems to assume that the woid 
"art" is exclusively the name for something 
which can be hung on a wall or placed on a 
pedestal. 

A moment's thought will, of course, correct 
the assumption. We are not unfamiliar with the 
conception of medicine and teaching as arts. 
We are acquainted with such phrases as "the 
industrial arts" and "arts and crafts" in which 
the reference is to the production of useful 
things. Our discussions of liberal education 
should require us to consider the liberal arts 
which, however defined or enumerated, are 
supposed to constitute skills of mind. We rec- 
ognize that "art" is the root of "artisan" as 
well as "artist." We thus discern the presence 
of skill in even the lowest forms of productive 
labor. Seeing it also as the root of "artifice" 
and "artificial," we realize that art is dis- 
tinguished from and sometimes even opposed 
to nature. 



The ancient and traditional meanings are all 
present in our daily vocabulary. In our thought 
the first connotation of "art" is fine art; m the 
thought of all previous eras the useful arts 
came first. As late as the end of the i8th cen- 
tury, Adam Smith follows the traditional usage 
which begins with Plato when, in referring to 
the production of a woolen coat, he says: "The 
shepherd, the sorter of the wool, the wool- 
comber or carder, the dyer, the scribbler, the 
spinner, the weaver, the fuller, the dresser, 
with many others, must all join their different 
arts in order to complete even this homely 
production." 

In the first great conversation on artthat 
presented in the Platonic dialogues we find 
useful techniques and everyday skills typify- 
ing art, by reference to which all other skills 
are analyzed. Even when Socrates analyzes the 
art of the rhetorician, as in the Gorgias, he con- 
stantly turns to the productions of the cobbler 
and the weaver an%to the procedures of the 
husbandman and the physician. If the liberal 
arts are praised as highest, because the logician 
or rhetorician wor||s in the medium of the soul 
rather than in matter, they are called arts "only 
in a manner of speaking" and by comparison 
with the fundamental arts which handle phys- 
ical material. 

The Promethean gift of fire to men, which 
raised them from a brutish existence, carried 
with it various techniques for mastering matter 
the basic useful arts. Lucretius, writing in 
a line that goes from Homer through Thucy- 
dides and Plato to Bacon, Adam Smith, and 
Rousseau, attributes the progress of civilization 
and the difference between civilized and primi- 
tive society to the development of the arts and 
sciences. "Ships and tillage, walls, laws, arms, 
roads, dress, and all such like things, all the 
prizes, all the elegancies too of life without 



CHAPTER 4: ART 



exception, poems, pictures, and the chiselling 
of fine-wrought statues, all these things prac- 
ticed together with the acquired knowledge of 
the untiring mind taught men by slow degrees 
as they advanced on the way step by step." 

At the beginning of this progress Lucretius 
places man's discovery of the arts of metal- 
working, domesticating animals, and cultivat- 
ing the soil. "Metallurgy and agriculture," says 
Rousseau, "were the two arts which produced 
this great revolution" the advance from prim- 
itive to civilized life. The fine arts and the 
speculative sciences come last, not first, in the 
progress of civilization. 

The fine arts and the speculative sciences 
complete human life. They are not necessary 
except perhaps for the good life. They are 
the dedication of human leisure and its best 
fruit. The leisure without which they neither 
could come into being nor prosper is found 
for man and fostered by the work of the use- 
ful arts. Aristotle tells us that is "why the 
mathematical arts were founded in Egypt; for 
there the priestly caste was allowed to be at 
leisure." 

THERE is ANOTHER ambiguity in the reference 
of the word "art." Sometimes we use it to name 
the effects produced by human workmanship. 
We elhptically refer to works of an as art. Some- 
times we use it to signify the cause of the things 
produced by human work that skill of mind 
which directs the hand in its manipulation of 
matter. Art is both in the artist and in the work 
of art in the one as cause* in the other as the 
effect. What is effected is a certain ennoble- 
ment of matter, a transformation produced 
not merely by the hand of man, but by his 
thought or knowledge. 

The more generic meaning of art seems to 
be that of art a cause rather than as effect. 
There are many spheres of art in which no 
tangible product results, as in navigation or 
military strategy. We might, of course, call a 
landfall or a victory a work of art, but we 
tend rather to speak of the art of the navi- 
gator or the general. So, too, in medicine and 
teaching, jpe look upon the health or knowledge 
which results frorn healing or teaching as natural. 
We do not find *tt in them, but rather in the 
skill of the healer or teacher who has 



to produce that result. Hence even in the case 
of the shoe or the statue, art seems to be 
primarily in the mind and work of the cobbler 
or sculptor and only derivatively in the objects 
produced. 

Aristotle, in defining art as a "capacity to 
make, involving a true course of reasoning," 
identifies it with making as distinct from doing 
and knowing. Though art, like science and 
moral action, belongs to the mind and involves 
experience and learning, imagination and 
thought, it is distinct from both in aiming at 
production, in being knowledge othow to make 
something or to obtain a desired effect. Science, 
on the other hand, is knowledge that something 
is the case, or that a thing has a certain nature. 
Knowledge is sometimes identified with science^ 
to the exclusion of art or skill; but we depart 
from this narrow notion whenever we recognize 
that skill consists in knowing how to make some- 
thing. 

"Even in speculative matters," writes Aqui- 
nas, "there is something by way of work; e.g., 
the making of a syllogism, or a fitting speech, 
or the work of counting or measuring. Hence 
whatever habits are ordained to suchlike works 
of the speculative reason, are, by a kind of com- 
parison, called arts indeed, but liberal arts, in 
order to distinguish them from those arts which 
are ordained to works done by the body, which 
arts are, in a fashion, servile, inasmuch as the 
body is in servile subjection to the soul, and 
man as regards his soul is free. On the other 
hand, those sciences which are not ordained to 
any suchlike work, are called sciences simply, 
and not arts." 

The discussion of medicine in the great books 
throws light on the relation of art and science, 
in their origin as well as their development. 
Hippocrates writes of medicine as both an art 
and a science. In his treatise on Ancient Medicine, 
he says, "It appears to me necessary to every 
physician to be skilled in nature, and strive to 
know if he would wish to perform his duties 
what man is in relation to the articles of food 
and drink, and to his other occupations, and: 
what are the effects of each of them on every 
one. And it is not enough to know simply tha,t 
cheese is a bad article of food, as disagreeing 
with whoever eats of it to satiety, but what 
sort of disturbance it creates, and wherefore* 



66 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



and with what principle in man it disagrees. . . . 
Whoever does not know what effect these 
things produce upon a man, cannot know the 
consequences which result from them, nor how 
to apply them." As a science, medicine in- 
volves knowledge of the causes of disease, the 
different kinds of diseases, and their charac- 
teristic courses. Without such knowledge, di- 
agnosis, prognosis, and therapy would be a 
matter of guesswork of chance, as Hippocrates 
says or at best the application of rule-of- 
thumb in the light of past experience. 

But the scientific knowledge does not by it- 
self make a man a healer, a practitioner of med- 
icine. The practice of medicine requires art in 
addition to science art based on science, but 
going beyond science in formulating general 
rules for the guidance of practice m particular 
cases. The habit of proceeding according to 
rules derived from science distinguishes for 
Galen the artist in medicine from the mere 
empiric. The antithesis of artist and empiric 
suggesting the contrast between operation 
by tested rule and operation by trial and 
error parallels the antithesis between scientist 
and man of opinion. 

IT HAS SELDOM, if ever, been suggested that an 
art can be originally discovered or developed 
apart from some science of the subject matter 
with which the art deals. This does not mean 
that an individual cannot acquire the habit of 
an art without being taught the relevant scien- 
tific knowledge. An art can be learned by prac- 
tice; skill can be formed by repeated acts. But 
the teacher of an art cannot direct the learning 
without setting rules for his pupils to follow; 
and if the truth or intelligibility of the rules 
is questioned, the answers will come from the 
science underlying the art. 

According to Kant, "every art presupposes 
rules which are laid down as the foundation 
which first enables a product if it is to be called 
one of art, to be represented as possible.** In 
the case of "fine art," which he distinguishes 
from other kinds of art as being the product of 
"genius," Kant claims that it arises only from 
"atalent for producing that for which nodefinite 
ftife can be given." Yet he maintains that a 
"rule" is still at its basis and may be "gathered 
from the performance, i.e., from the product, 



which others may use to put their own talent 
to the test." 

Granting that there is no art without science, 
is the reverse true, and is science possible with- 
out art ? The question has two meanings. First, 
are there arts peculiarly indispensable to the 
development of science? Second, does every 
science generate a correlative art and through 
it work productively ? 

Traditionally, the liberal arts have been con- 
sidered indispensable to science. This has been 
held to be particularly true of logic. Because 
they were intended to serve as the instrument 
or the art for all the sciences, Aristotle's logical 
treatises, which constitute the first systematic 
treatment of the subject, deserve the title Or- 
ganon which they traditionally carry. Bacon's 
Novum Organum was in one sense an effort to 
supply a new logic or art for science, and to 
institute a renovation of the sciences by the 
experimental method. 

As an art, logic consists of rules for the con- 
duct of the mind in the processes of inquiry, 
inference, definition, and demonstration, by 
which sciences are constructed. Scientific meth- 
od is, in short, the art of getting scientific 
knowledge. In the experimental sciences, there 
are auxiliary arts arts controlling the instru- 
ments or apparatus employed in experimenta- 
tion. The experiment itself is a work of art, 
combining many techniques and using many 
products of art: the water-clock, the inclined 
plane, and the pendulum of Galileo; the prisms, 
mirrors, and lenses of Newton. 

The second question whether all sciences 
have related arts and through them productive 
power raises one of the great issues about the 
nature of scientific knowledge, discussed in the 
chapters on PHILOSOPHY and SCIENCE. 

For Francis Bacon, and to some extent Des- 
cartes, art is the necessary consequence of sci- 
ence. At the beginning of the Novum Organum> 
Bacon declares that "knowledge and human 
power are synonymous since the ignorance of 
the cause frustrates the effect; for nature is only 
subdued by submission, and that which in con- 
templative philosophy corresponds with the 
cause, in practical science becomes the rule." 
The distinction Bacon makes here between the 
speculative and practical parts of knowledge 
corresponds to the distinction between science 



CHAPTER 4: ART 



67 



and art, or as we sometimes say, "pure and 
applied sdence." He opposes their divorce from 
one another. If science is the indispensable foun- 
dation of art and consists in a knowledge of 
causes, art in Bacon's view is the whole fruit 
of science, for it applies that knowledge to the 
production of effects. 

His theory of science and his new method for 
its development are directed to the establish- 
ment of man's "empire over creation" which 
"is founded on the arts and sciences alone." 
Just as the present state of the arts accounts 
for "the immense difference between men's 
lives in the most polished countries of Europe, 
and in any wild and barbarous region of the 
new Indies," so further advances in science 
promise the untold power of new inventions 
and techniques. 

On Bacon's view, not only the value, but 
even the validity, of scientific knowledge is to 
be measured by its productivity. A useless nat- 
ural science a science of nature which cannot 
be used to control nature is unthinkable. With 
the exception of mathematics, every science 
has its appropriate magic or special productive 
power. Even metaphysics, in Bacon's concep- 
tion of it, has its "true natural magic, which 
is that great liberty and latitude of opera- 
tion which dependeth upon the knowledge of 
forms." 

The opposite answer to the question about 
science and art is given by Plato, Aristotle, and 
others who distinguish between speculative and 
productive sciences. They differ from Bacon on 
the verbal level by using the word "practical" 
for those sciences which concern moral and 
political action rather than the production of 
effects. The sciences Bacon calls "practical" 
they call "productive," but under either name 
these are the sciences of making rather than 
doing sciences which belong in the sphere of 
art rather than prudence. But the significant 
difference lies in the evaluation of the purely 
speculative sciences which consist in knowledge 
for its own sake, divorced from art and morals, 
or from the utilities of production and the 
necessities of action. 

In tracing the history of the sciences, Aris- 
totle notes that those men who first found the 
useful arts were thought wise and superior. 
"But as more arts were invented, and some were 



directed to the necessities of life, others to 
recreation, the inventors of the latter were nat* 
urally always regarded as wiser than the in- 
ventors of the former, because their branches 
did not aim at utility. Hence, when all such in- 
ventions were already established, the sciences 
which do not aim at giving pleasure or at the 
necessities of life were discovered, and first in 
the places where meH first began to have lei- 
sure. ... So that the man of experience is 
thought to be wiser than the possessors of any 
sense-perception whatever, the artist wiser than 
the man of experience, the master-worker than 
the mechanic, and the theoretical kinds of 
knowledge to be more of the nature of Wisdom 
tjian the productive." That the theoretic sci* 
ences are useless, in the sense of not providing 
merrVith the necessities or pleasures of life, is a 
mark of their superiority. They give what is 
better than such utility the insight and un- 
derstanding which constitute wisdom. 

The Baconian reply condemns the concep- 
tion that there can be knowledge which is 
merely contemplation of the truth. It an- 
nounces the revolution which, for John Dewey, 
ushered in the modern world. The pragmatic 
theory of knowledge had its origin in a concep- 
tion of science at every point fused with art. 

THE ANCIENTS, trying to understand the nat* 
ural phenomena of change and generation, 
found that the processes of artistic production 
provided them with an analytic model. Through 
understanding how he himself worked in mak- 
ing things, man might come to know how na- 
ture worked. 

When a man makes a house or a statue, he 
transforms matter. Changes in shape and posi- 
tion occur. The plan or idea in the artist's mind 
comes, through his manipulation of matter, to 
be embodied and realized objectively. To the 
ancients a number of different causes or factors 
seemed to be involved in every artistic produc- 
tionmaterial to be worked on; the activity 
of the artist at work; the form in his mind 
which he sought to impose on the matter, thus 
transforming it; and the purpose which moti- 
vated his effort. 

In the medical tradition from Aristotle 
through Galen to Harvey, there is constant 
emphasis upon the artistic activity of nature. 



68 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



Galen continually argues against those who do 
not conceive Nature as an artist, Harvey con- 
sciously compares the activity of nature in 
biological generation to that of an artist. "Like 
a potter she first divides her material, and then 
indicates the head and trunk and extremities; 
like a painter, she first sketches the parts in 
outline, and then fills them in with colours; 
or like the ship-builder, who first lays down his 
keel by way of foundation, and upon this raises 
the ribs and roof or deck: even as he builds his 
vessel does nature fashion the trunk of the body 
and add the extremities.'* 

Of all natural changes, the one most closely 
resembling artistic production appears to be 
generation, especially the production of living 
things by living things. In both cases, a new 
individual seems to come into being, But upon 
further examination, artistic production and 
natural generation reveal significant differences 
differences which divide nature from art, 

Aquinas considers both and distinguishes 
them in his analysis of divine causation. In 
things not generated by chance, he points out 
that there are two different ways m which the 
form that is in the agent is passed on to another 
being. "In some agents the form of the thing to 
be made pre-exists according to its natural 
being, as in those that act by their nature; as 
a man generates a man, or fire generates fire. 
Whereas in other agents the form of the thing 
to be made pre-exists according to intelligible 
being, as in those that act by the intellect; 
and thus the likeness of a house pre-exists in 
the mind of the builder. And this may be called 
the idea of the house, since the builder intends 
to build his house like to the form conceived 
in his mind." 

Thus in biological procreation the progeny 
have the form of their parents a rabbit pro- 
ducing a rabbit, a horse, a horse. But in artistic 
production, the product has, not the form of 
the artist, but the form he has conceived in his 
mind and which he seeks to objectify. Further- 
more, in generation, and in other natural changes 
as well , the ma t ter which undergoes change seems 
to have in itself a tendency to become what it 
changes into, as for example the acorn naturally 
tends to become an oak, whereas the oaken 
wood does not have in itself any tendency to 
become a chair or a bed. The material the 



artist works on is entirely passive with respect 
to the change he wishes to produce. The artistic 
result is in this sense entirely of his making. 

The realm of art, or of the artificial, is then 
opposed to the natural and differentiated from 
it. Kant, for whom art is distinguished from 
nature "as making is from acting or operating 
in general," claims that "by right, it is only 
production through freedom, i.e., through an 
act of will that places reason at the basis of its 
action, that should be termed art." Conse- 
quently, art is that which would not have come 
into being without human intervention. The 
man-made object is produced by man, not in 
any way, but specifically by his intelligence, 
by the reason which makes him free. 

Animals other than man are apparently pro- 
ductive, but the question is whether they can 
be called "artists." "A spider conducts opera- 
tions that resemble those of a weaver, and a 
bee puts to shame many an architect in the 
construction of her cells. But," according to 
Marx, "what distinguishes the worst architect 
from the best of bees is this, that the architect 
raises his structure in imagination before he 
erects it in reality. At the end of every labour- 
process, we get a result that already existed 
in the imagination of the labourer at its com- 
mencement. He not only effects a change of 
form in the material on which he works, but 
he also realizes a purpose of his own that gives 
the law to his modus operandi, and to which he 
must subordinate his will." 

As indicated in the chapter on ANIMAL, some 
writers, like Montaigne, attribute the produc- 
tivity of animals to reason rather than to 
instinct. Art then ceases to be one of man's dis- 
tinctions from the brutes. But if man alone has 
reason, and if the productions of art are works 
of reason, then those who refer to animals as 
artists speak metaphorically, on the basis of 
what Kant calls "an analogy with art ... As 
soon as we call to mind," he continues, "that 
no rational deliberation forms the basis of their 
labor, we sec at once that it is a product of their 
nature (of instinct), and it is only to their 
Creator that we ascribe it as art." 

This in turn leads to the question whether 
nature itself is a work of art. "Let me suppose," 
the Eleatic Stranger says in the Sophist, "that 
things which are said to be made by nature 



CHAPTER 4: ART 



are the work of divine art, and that things 
which are made by man out of these are the 
work of human art. And so there are two kinds 
of making and production, the one human and 
the other divine.'* 

If we suppose that the things of nature are 
originally made by a divine mind, how does 
their production differ from the work of hu- 
man artists, or from biological generation? 
One answer, given in Plato's Timaeus, con- 
ceives the original production of things as a 
fashioning of primordial matter in the patterns 
set by the eternal archetypes or ideas. In conse- 
quence, the divine work would be more like 
human artistry than either would be like nat- 
ural reproduction. The emanation of the world 
from the One, according to Plotmus, and the 
production of things out of the substance of 
God in Spinoza's theory, appear, on the other 
hand, to be more closely analogous to natural 
generation than to art. 

Both analogies of creation with art and 
with generation are dismissed as false by 
Christian theologians. God's making is abso- 
lutely creative. It presupposes no matter to 
be formed; nor do things issue forth from 
God's own substance, but out of nothing. 

Thus Augustine asks: "How didst Thou 
ma^e the heaven and the earth ?" And he answers: 
"It was not as a human artificer, forming one 
body from another, according to the discretion 
of his mind, which can in some way invest with 
such a form, as it seeth in itself by its inward 
eye . . . Verily, neither in the heaven, nor in 
the earth, didst Thou make heaven and earth; 
nor in the air, or waters, seeing these also be- 
long to the heaven and the earth; nor in the 
whole world didst Thou make the whole world; 
because there was no place where to make it, 
before it was made, that it might be ... For 
what is, but because Thou art ? Therefore Thou 
sparest, and they were made, and in Thy Word 
Thou madest them." According to this view, 
human art cannot be called creative, and God 
cannot be called an artist, except metaphor- 
ically. 

The issue concerning various theories of cre- 
ation, or of the origin of the universe, is dis- 
cussed in the chapter on WORLD. But here we 
must observe that, according to the view we 
take of the similitude between human and di- 



vine workmanship, the line we are able to draw 
between the realms of art and nature becomes 
shadowy or sharp. 

THE DISCUSSIONS OF ART in the great books af- 
ford materials from which a systematic classi- 
fication of the arts might be constructed, but 
only fragments of such a classification are ever 
explicitly presented. 

For example, the seven liberal arts are enu- 
merated by various authors, but their distinc- 
tion from other arts, and their ordered relation 
to one another, do not receive full explication. 
There is no treatment of grammar, rhetoric, 
and logic (or dialectic) to parallel Plato's con- 
sideration of arithmetic, geometry, music, and 
astronomy in the Republic, nor is there any 
analysis of the relation of the first three arts 
to the other four traditionally organized as 
the tnvtum and the quadnvium. 

However, in Augustine's work On Christian 
Doctrine we have a discussion of these arts as 
they are ordered to the study of theology. 
That orientation of the liberal arts is also the 
theme of Bonaventura's Reduction of the Arts 
to Theology. Quite apart from the problem of 
how they are ordered to one another, particular 
liberal arts receive so rich and varied a dis- 
cussion in the tradition of the great books that 
the consideration of them must be distributed 
among a number of chapters, such as LOGIC, 
RHETORIC, LANGUAGE (for the discussion of 
grammar), and MATHEMATICS. 

The principles of classification of the fine 
arts are laid down by Kant from "the analogy 
which art bears to the mode of expression of 
which men avail themselves in speech, with a 
view to communicating themselves to one 
another as completely as possible." Since such 
expression "consists in word, gesture, and 
tone," he finds three corresponding fine arts: 
"the art of speech, formative art, and the art 
of the play of sensations." In these terms he 
analyzes rhetoric and poetry, sculpture, archi- 
tecture, painting and landscape gardening, and 
music. 

A different principle of division is indicated 
in the opening chapters of Aristotle's Poetics. 
The principle that all art imitates nature sug- 
gests the possibility of distinguishing and re- 
lating the various arts according to their char- 



70 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



actcristic differences as imitations -by refer- 
ence to the object imitated and to the medium 
and manner in which it is imitated by the poet, 
sculptor or painter, and musician. "Color and 
form," Aristotle writes, "are used as means by 
some . . . who imitate and portray many things 
by their aid, and the voice is used by others. . . . 
Rhythm alone, without harmony, is the means 

in the dancer's imitations There is, further, 

an art which imitates by language alone, with- 
out harmony, in prose or in verse." Aristotle's 
treatise deals mainly with this art poetry; it 
does not develop for the other fine arts the 
analysis it suggests. 

Aristotle's principle also suggests questions 
about the useful arts. Are such arts as shoe- 
making and house-building imitations of na- 
ture in the same sense as poetry and music? 
Does the way in which the farmer, the physi- 
cian, and the teacher imitate nature distinguish 
these three arts from the way in which a statue 
is an imitation, or poem, or a house? 

The Aristotelian dictum about art imitating 
nature has, of course, been as frequently chal- 
lenged as approved. Apart from the issue of 
its truth, the theory of art as imitation poses 
many questions which Aristotle left unanswered. 
If there are answers in the great books, they 
are there by implication rather than by state- 
ment. 

THE MOST FAMILIAR distinction between arts 
that between the useful and the fine is also the 
one most frequently made in modern discus- 
sion. The criterion of the distinction needs little 
explanation. Some of man's productions are 
intended to be used; others to be contemplated 
or enjoyed. To describe them in terms of imi- 
tation, the products of the useful arts must be 
said to imitate a natural function (the shoe, for 
example, the protective function of calloused 
skin). The imitation merely indicates the use, 
and it is the use which counts. But in the pro- 
ducts of the fine arts, the imitation of the form, 
quality, or other aspect of a natural object is 
considered to be the source of pleasure. 

The least familiar distinction among the arts 
is implied in any thorough discussion, yet its 
divisions are seldom, if ever, named. Within 
the sphere of useful art, some arts work toward 
a result which can hardly be regarded as an 



artificial product. Fruits and grains would grow 
without the intervention of the farmer, yet 
the farmer helps them to grow more abundantly 
and regularly. Health and knowledge are 
natural effects, even though the arts of medi- 
cine and teaching may aid in their production. 

These arts, more fully discussed in the chap- 
ters on MEDICINE and EDUCATION, stand in 
sharp contrast to those skills whereby man pro- 
duces the useful things which, but for man's 
work, would be totally lacking. In the one case, 
it is the artist's activity itself which imitates 
or cooperates with nature's manner of working; 
in the other, the things which the artist makes 
by operating on passive materials supplied by 
nature imitate natural forms or functions. 

For the most part, the industrial arts are of 
the second sort. They transform dead matter 
into commodities or tools. The arts which co- 
operate with nature usually work with living 
matter, as in agriculture, medicine, and teach- 
ing. The distinction seems warranted and clear. 
Yet it is cut across by Adam Smith's division 
of labor into productive and non-productive. 
The work of agriculture is associated with in- 
dustry in the production of wealth, but what- 
ever other use they may have, physicians and 
teachers, according to Smith, do not directly 
augment the wealth of nations. 

If to the foregoing we add the division of the 
arts into liberal and servile, the major tradi- 
tional distinctions are covered. This last di- 
vision had its origin in the recognition that 
some arts, like sculpture and carpentry, could 
not effect their products except by shaping 
matter, whereas some arts, like poetry or logic, 
were free from matter, at least in the sense that 
they worked productively in symbolic medi- 
ums. But by other principles of classification, 
poetry and sculpture are separated from logic 
and carpentry, as fine from useful art. Logic, 
along with grammar, rhetoric, and the mathe- 
matical arts, is separated from poetry and 
sculpture, as liberal from fine art. When the 
word "liberal" is used to state this last distinc- 
tion, its meaning narrows. It signifies only the 
speculative arts, or arts concerned with pro- 
cesses of thinking and knowing. 

The adequacy of any classification, and the 
intelligibility of its principles, must stand the 
test of questions about particular arts. The 



CHAPTER 4: ART 



71 



great books frequently discuss the arts of ani- 
mal husbandry and navigation, the arts of 
cooking and hunting, the arts of war and gov- 
ernment. Each raises a question about the na- 
ture of art in general, and challenges any anal- 
ysis of the arts to classify them and explain 
their peculiarities. 

THERE ARE TWO OTHER major issues which have 
been debated mainly with respect to the fine 
arts. 

One, already mentioned, concerns the imi- 
tative character of art. The opponents of imi- 
tation do not deny that there may be some 
perceptible resemblance between a work of art 
and a natural object. A drama may remind us of 
human actions we have experienced; music may 
simulate the tonal qualities and rhythms of the 
human voice registering the course of the emo- 
tions. Nevertheless, the motivation of artistic 
creation lies deeper, it is said, than a desire to 
imitate nature, or to find some pleasure in such 
resemblances. 

According to Tolstoy, the arts serve pri- 
marily as a medium of spiritual communica- 
tion, helping to create the ties of human 
brotherhood. According to Freud, it is emotion 
or subconscious expression, rather than imita- 
tion or communication, which is the deepest 
spring of art; the poet or artist "forces us to 
become aware of our inner selves in which the 
same impulses are still extant even though they 
are suppressed." Freud's theory of sublimation 
of emotion or desire through art seems to con- 
nect with Aristotle's theory of emotional ca- 
tharsis or purgation. But Freud is attempting 
to account for the origin of art, and Aristotle 
is trying to describe an effect proper to its en- 
joyment, 

The theories of communication, expression, 
or imitation, attempt to explain art, or at least 
its motivation. But there is also a conception 
of art which, foregoing explanation, leaves it a 
mystery the spontaneous product of inspi- 
ration, of a divine madness, the work of un- 
fathomable genius. We encounter this notion 
first, but not last, in Plato's Ion. 



THE OTHER MAJOR controversy concerns the 
regulation of the arts by the state for human 
welfare and the public good. 

Here, as before, the fine arts (chiefly poetry 
and music) have been the focus of the debate. 
It is worth noting, however, that a parallel 
, problem of political regulation occurs in the 
sphere of the industrial arts. On the question 
of state control over the production and dis- 
tribution of wealth, Smith and Marx represent 
extreme opposites, as Milton and Plato are poles 
apart on the question of the state's right to 
censor the artist's work. In this debate, Aris- 
totle stands on Plato's side in many particulars, 
and Mill with Milton. 

The problem of censorship or political regu- 
lation of the fine arts presupposes some prior 
questions. Plato argues in the Republic that all 
poetry but ' 'hymns to the gods and praises of 
famous men" must be banned from the State; 
"for if you go beyond this and allow the 
honeyed muse to enter, either in epic or lyric 
verse, not law and the reason of mankind, 
which by common consent have ever been 
deemed the best, but pleasure and pain will be 
the rulers in our State." Such a view pre- 
supposes a certain theory of the fine arts and 
of their influence on the citizens and the whole 
character of the community. Yet because both 
Plato and Aristotle judge that influence to be 
far from negligible, they do not see any reason 
in individual liberty for the state to refrain 
from interfering with the rights of the artist 
for the greater good of the community. 

To Milton and Mill, the measure of the 
artist's influence does not affect the question 
of the freedom of the arts from political or ec- 
clesiastical interference. While admitting the 
need for protecting the interests of peace and 
public safety, Milton demands: "Give me the 
liberty to know, to utter, and to argue freely 
according to conscience, above all liberties." 
The issue for them is entirely one of liberty. 
They espouse the cause of freedom for the 
artist to express or communicate his work and 
for the community to receive from him what- 
ever he has to offer. 



PAGE 



72 THE GREAT IDEAS 

OUTLINE OF TOPICS 

1. The generic notion of art: skill of mind in making 73 

2. Art and nature 

2a. Causation in art and nature: artistic production compared with natural generation 

ib. The role of matter and form in artistic and natural production 74 

2C. The natural and the artificial as respectively the work of God and man 

3. Art as imitation 75 

4. Diverse classifications of the arts: useful and fine, liberal and servile 

5. The sources of art in experience, imagination, and inspiration 76 

6. Art and science 

6a. The comparison and distinction of art and science 

6b. The liberal arts as productive of science: means and methods of achieving knowl- 
edge 77 

6c. Art as the application of science: the productive powers of knowledge 

7. The enjoyment of the fine arts 78 

70. Art as a source of pleasure or delight 

7#. The judgment of excellence in art 79 

8. Art and emotion: expression, purgation, sublimation 

9. The useful arts 80 

90. The use of nature by art: agriculture, medicine, teaching 

9^. The production of wealth: the industrial arts 81 

9C. The arts of war 

yd. The arts of government 82 

10. The moral and political significance of the arts 83 

1 00. The influence of the arts on character and citizenship: the role of the arts in the 
training of youth 

io. The political regulation of the arts for the common good: the problem of censor- 
ship 

1 1. Myths and theories concerning the origin of the arts 84 

12. The history of the arts: progress in art as measuring stages of civilization 



CHAWER 4: ART . 73 



REFERENCES 

To find the passages cited, use the numbers m heavy type, whicji are the volume and page 
numbers of the passages referred to. For example, in 4 HOMER: Iliad, BK n [265-283] 12d, the 
number 4 is the number of the volume in the set; the number I2d indicates that the pas- 
sage is in section d of page 12. 

PAGE SECTIONS: When the text is printed in one column, the letters a and b refer to the 
upper and lower halves of the page. For example, in 53 JAMES : Psychology, 116a-119b, the passage 
begins in the upper half of page 116 and ends in the lower half of page 119. When the text is 
printed in two columns, the letters a and b refer to the Upper and Tower halves of the left- 
hand side of the page, the letters c and d to the upper and lower halves of the right-hand side of 
thepage. Forexample,in 7 PLATO- Symposium, 163b-164c, the passage begins in the lower half 
of the left-hand side of page 163 and ends in the upper half of the right-hand side of page 164 

AUTHOR'S DIVISIONS: One or more of the mam divisions of a work (such as PART, BK, CH,, 
SECT) are sometimes included in the reference; line numbers, m brackets, are given in cer- 
tain cases; e.g., Iliad, BK n [265-283] 12d. 

BIBLE REFERENCES: The references are to book, chapter, and verse. When the King James 
and Douay versions differ in title of books or in the numbering of chapters or verses, the King 
James version is cited first and the Douay, indicated by a (D), follows; e.g., OLD TESTA- 
MENT: Nehemiah, 7*45 (D} II Esdras, 7:46. 

SYMBOLS: The abbreviation "esp" calls the reader's attention to one or more especially 
relevant parts of a whole reference; "passim" signifies that the topic is discussed intermit- 
tently rather than continuously in the work or passage cited. 

For additional information concerning the style of the references, see the Explanation of 
Reference Style; for general guidance in the use of The Great Ideas, consult the Preface. 



19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 14, 

1. The generic notion of art: skill of mind in A 8 82c -83b; Q 15, A i, ANS 91b-92a; A 2, ANS 

making and REP 2 92a-93b; Q 36, A 3, ANS 194c-195d; 

7 PLATO: Protagoras, 44a-45b / Phaedrus, 136b; Q 117, A i, ANS and REP 2 595d-597c; PART 
138c-139a / Ion, 145d-146c / Symposium, i-n, Q 14, A 4, ANS 679b-d; Q 21, A 2, REP 2 
160c-d; 164d / Gorgias, 260a-262a; 280d-283c 718a-d; Q 34, A r, REP 3 768c-769d 

/ Republic, BK i, 302c-306a; 307a-308a; BK 20 AQUINAS: Summa Tkeologica, PART i-n, Q 57, 

in, 333b-d;BKX,427c-434c/$taA?/wtf, 593d- AA 3-4 37b-39a; Q 58, A 2, REP i 42a-43a; 

595a / Phtlebus, 633a-c / Laws, BK iv, 679a-c A 5, REP 2 44d-45c; Q 65, A i, REP 4 70b-72a 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK n, CH i [i92 b 23-32] 25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 437 b 
268d-269a; [i93 b i2-i6] 269d-270a; CH 8 28 HARVEY: On Animal Generation, 333a 
[i99 b 26~3i] 277a / Metaphysics, BK i, CH i 30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK i, APH 85, 121d- 
[98o b 25-98i b 34] 499b-500b; BK vn, CH 7 122b 

(i032 a 25- b 29J 555b-d; BK ix, CH 2 571c-572a; 31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART vi, 61b-c 

CH 5 573a-c; CH 7 [io48 b 35-io49 8 i2] 574c-d 42 KANT: Judgement, 523c-524b; 525c-527b 

9 ARISTOTLE: Parts of Animals, BK i, CH i 46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART i, par 68 
[640*25-33] 162d / Ethics, BK i, CH 7 [io97 b 23~ 29d-30a / Philosophy of History, INTRO, 176a-c ; 
1098*18] 343a-c; BK vi, CH 4 388d-389a; BK PART n, 266a-274a; PART iv, 346c-d 

ix, CH 7 [n67 b 3j-ii68 a i8] 421b-c / Politics, 47 GOETHE: Faust, PRELUDE [134-157] 4a-b 

BK i, CH n [1258^35-39] 453b; BK vn, CH 13 49 DARWIN: Descent of Man, 278b-c 

[i33i b 30-38] 536c / Rhetoric, BK i, CH i 50 MARX: Capital, 8Sb-d 

[I354r-i2] 593a; [i355 b o- I 4l 594d-595a; CH 2 53 JAMES: Psychology, 186b; 774a 
[1355*26-36] 595b; [1356^6-1357*7] 596b-c 

12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK vi, SECT 16, 275c 2 * Art and Q *ture 

17 PLOTINUS: Fifth Ennead, TR vui, CH i 239b- 

240a 2a ' Causation in art and nature; artistic produc- 

18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK xxn, CH 24, tion compared with natural generation 
610a-c / Christian Doctrine, BK n, CH 30 ' 7 PLATO* Ion, 144b / Symposium, 155d-157a / 
651c-d ' Timaeus, 447a-449c / Laws, BK x, 760a-761d 



74 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



2a to 2c 



(2. Art and nature. 2a. Causation in art and na- 
ture: artistic production compared with 
natural generation?) 

8 ARISTOTLE: Posterior Analytics, BK n, CH n 
[95*3-9] 12 9d / Physics, BK i, CH 8 [i9i*33~ b 9] 
267b; BK ii, CH i [i92 b 8-32] 268b,d-269a; CH2 
[i94*33- b 8] 270d-271a; CH 8-9 275d~278a,c 
csp CH 8 [i99*8- b 7J 276b-d / Generation and 
Corruption, BK n, CH 9 [33 5 b i 8-336*13] 437b-d 
/ Meteorology, BK iv, CH 12 [390^2-14] 494c / 
Metaphysics, BK i, CH 6 [988*1-7] 506a; CH 9 
[992*29-34] 510c; BK vi, CH i [1025^8-27] 
547d; BK VH, CH 7-9 555a-558a; BK ix, CH 2 
571c-572a; CH 5 573a-c; BK xi, CH 7 [1064*10- 
16] 592b-c; BK XH, CH 3 [1070*4-8] 599b 

9 ARISTOTLE: Parts of Animals, BK i, CH i 
[639 b i2~640*35] 161d-162d; [64^13-29] 164c- 
d / Generation of Animals, BK i, CH 21-22 
269c-271a; BK n, CH i [734 a i7~735 a 5] 274c- 
275c; CH 4 [738 b i8-28] 279c; [740*13-18] 281a; 
[740^5-741*2] 281d; CH 6 [743^0-25] 285a; 
BK in, CH ii [762*15-20] 303b; BK iv, CH 2 
[767*16-25] 308c; CH 6 [775*20-23] 317b / 
Ethics, BK i, CH 9 [io99 b i8-24] 345a-b; BK vi, 
CH 4 [i 140*1 i-i6]388d 

10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK i, CH 7 170c- 
171a; CH 12 172d-173c; BK n, CH 3 185a-186d; 
CH 6, 189a-190a 

12 LUCRETIUS : Nature of Things, BK iv [823-857] 
55a-b 

12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK in, SECT 2 259d- 
260a; BK vi, SECT 40 277d 

17 PLOTINUS: Third Ennead, TR vin, CH 3-4 
130a-131a / Fourth Ennead, TR in, CH 10 147c- 
148b; TR iv, CH 31, 174d-175a / Fifth Ennead, 
TR viii, CH 1-2 239b-240c; CH 5, 242a; TR ix, 
CH 2, 247a / Sixth Ennead, TR n, CH ii, 275c 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 18, 
A 3, ANS 106b-107c; Q 36, A 3, ANS 194c-195d; 
Q 41, A 3, ANS 219d-221c; Q 45, A 2, ANS 242d- 
244a; Q 104, A i, ANS 534c-536c; Q 105, A 5, 
ANS 542a-543b; Q 117, A i, ANS and REP 1-2 
595d-597c 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART HI SUPPL, 
Q 80, AA 1-2 956c-958b 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, HELL, xi [91-111] 
16a-b; PARADISE, i [94-142] 107b-d; n [112- 
138] 109a; vin [91-111] 117d-118a; xm [52- 
84] 126a-b 

22 CHAUCER: Physician's Tale [11,941-972] 366b- 
367a 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, INTRO, 47a-b 
25 MONTAIGNE: Essays,, 93b-d 

28 HARVEY: On Animal Generation, 385a-c;400d- 
401a;407c;412b-415b;427d-428c;442d-443b; 
443d-444c; 447d-448a; 450c; 492a-b 

29 CERVANTES : Don Quixote, PART u, 251d-252a 

30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK i, APH 4 107b 
33 PASCAL: Geometrical Demonstration, 437a 

35 LOCKB; Human Understanding, BK n, CH xxvi, 
.SECT 2 217b-d 



42 KANT: Pure Reason, 188c-189a / Judgement, 
523c-d; 557c-558b; 564d-565b 

43 MILL: Representative Government, 327b,d-328d 
passim 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, PART n, 266a- 

267b 

50 MARX: Capital, 85b-d 
53 JAMES : Psychology, 186b 

2b. The role of matter and form in artistic and 
natural production 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK i, CH 7 [191*7-12] 
266d; BK n, CH i [i93 a 9- b i9] 269b-270a; CH 2 
[i94*2i- b i3J 270c-271a; CH 3 271a-272c / 
Metaphysics, BK i, CH 6 [988*1-7] 506a; BK 
vii, CH 7-9 555a-558a esp CH 8 556b-557b; 
BK viii, CH 3 [io43 b 5~24] 567d-568b / Soul, 
BK n, CH i [4i2 b io-i8] 642c-d 

9 ARISTOTLE: Parts of Animals, BK i, CH i 
[640 a io-64i b 42] 162b-165a / Generation of 
Animals, BK i, CH 20 [729*0]-^ 22 [730^2] 
269b-271a; BK n, CH i [734*8-735*10] 275a-d 

10 GALEN: Natural Faculties 167a-215d esp BK 

n, CH 3 185a-186d 
12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK vii, SECT 23 

281b 

17 PLOTINUS: First Ennead, TR vi, CH 2-3 21d- 
23a / Fifth Ennead, TR vin, CH 1-2 239b-240c; 
TR ix, CH 2, 247a 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK xi, par 7 90d-91a 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 41, 
A 3, ANS 219d-221c; Q 45, A 2, ANS 242d-244a; 
Q 47, A i, REP i 256a-257b; Q 91, A 3, ANS 
486b-487d; Q 104, A i, ANS 534c-536c; Q 105, 
A 5, ANS 542a-543b 

20 AQUINAS. Summa Theologica, PART in, Q 2, 
A i, ANS 710a-711c; PART in SUPPL, Q 79, A 2, 
REP 4 953b-955c; Q 80, AA 1-2 956c-958b 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy \ PARADISE, i [127-142] 
107c-d; xni [52-84] 126a-b 

28 HARVEY: On Animal Generation, 412b-415b 

30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 17b-d; 43c- 
45a 

32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK v [468-505] 
185b-186a 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART i, par 56-57 
26b-27a; ADDITIONS, 32 121d-122a / Philos- 
ophy of History, INTRO, 165a-166b; 185c-d; 
PART ii, 266a-267b 

50 MARX: Capital, 17a; 85b-c; 86d-87c 

2c. The natural and the artificial as respectively 
the work of God and man 

OLD TESTAMENT: Genesis, 1-2 / Leviticus, 26:1 / 
Numbers, 33:52 / Deuteronomy, 5:7-10; 16:21- 
22 / Job, 37:1-40:5 (D) Job, 37-39 / Isaiah, 
, 40 : 1 8-26 (D) Isaias, 40 : 1 8-26 
7 PLATO: Republic, BK x, 427c-428d / Timaeus, 
447a-449c / Sophist, 577d-578d / Laws, BK x, 
760a-76Xd 

12 AURBLIUS: Meditations, BK vi> SECT 40 277d 
16 KEPLER: Harmonies of the World, 1048a 



CHAPTER 4: ART 



75 



17 PLOTINUS: Fourth Ennead, TR iv, CH 31, 174d- 
175a / Fifth Ennead, TR vin, CH 5, 242a 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK xi, par 7 90d-91a 
/ City of God, BK xxii, CH 24, 610a-d / CAra- 
tian Doctrine, BK n, CH 30 651c-d 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 2, A 3, 
ANS and REP 2 12c-14a; Q 14, A 8 82c-83b; A 
n, ANS 84c-85c; Q 15 91b-94a; Q 16, A i 
94b-95c; Q 17, A i lOOd-lOld; Q 22, A 2, ANS 
and REP 3 128d-130d; Q 41, A 3, ANS 219d- 
221c; QQ 44-46 238a-255d passim; QQ 65-66 
339a-349d passim; Q 74, A 3, REP i 375a- 
377a,c, Q 91, A 3, ANS 486b-487d; Q 93, A 2, 
REP 4 493a-d; Q 103, A i, REP 1,3 528b-529a; 
Q 104, A i 534c-536c; PART i-n, Q i, A 2 
610b-611b; Q 13, A 2, REP 3 673c-674c 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART HI, Q 3, 
A 8, ANS 729b-730b; PART in SUPPL, Q 75, 
A 3, REP 4 938a-939d 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, HELL, xi [91-111] 
16a-b; PARADISE, vm [91-111] 117d-118a; ix 
[103-108] 119d; x [7-21] 120b-c; xm [52-84] 
126a-b; xvm [70-117] 134b-d esp [109-111] 
134d 

22 CHAUCER: Physician's Tale [11,941-972] 366b- 
367a 

23 HOBBES- Leviathan, INTRO, 47a-b 

28 HARVEY: On Animal Generation, 427d-428c; 

442d-443b; 492a-b 
32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK in [694-735] 

150b-151b 

40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 663d-664a 
42 KANT: Pure Reason, 188c-189a / Judgement, 

521b-523d 
49 DARWIN . Origin of Species, 87a-b 

3. Art as imitation 

4 HOMER Iliad, BK xvm [478-608] 135a-136c 

7 PLATO: Cratylus, 104c-106c; 108c-110d / 
Republic, BK ii-in, 320c-334b; BK vi, 382a c; 
BK x, 427c-434c / Timaeus, 443b-d; 455b-c / 
Cntias, 478c-d / Sophist, 552c-d; 560b-561d; 
577c-579d / Statesman, 596c-d / Laws, BK n, 
654a-c; 660a-662a; BK x, 760a-b 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK n, CH 2 [194*22-26] 
270c 

9 ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK HI, CH n [i28i b io-i5] 
479b-c; BK vin, CH 5 [i340 8 i4- b i9] 545c-546a 
/ Rhetoric, BK i, CH n [i37i b 4~io] 615a / 
Poetics 681a-699a,c esp CH 1-5 681a-684a 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK v [1379- 

1383] 79a 
12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK in, SECT 2 259d- 

260a; BK xi, SECT 10 303 b-c 

16 KEPLER: Harmonies of the World, 1048a 

17 PLOTINUS : First Ennead, TR vi, CH 2-3 21d-23a 
/ Fourth Ennead, TR HI, CH 10 147c-148b / 
Fifth Ennead, TR vm, CH 1-2 239b-240c; TR 
ix, CH 2, 247a; CH n 250c~251a / Sixth 
Ennead, TR n, CH u, 275c 

18 AUGUSTINE: Christian Doctrine, BK n, CH 25 
649b-d 



19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q i, A 9, 
REP i 8d-9c; Q 93, A 2, REP 4 493a-d; Q 117, 
A i, ANS 595d-597c 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, HBLL, xi [91-111] 
16a-b; PURGATORY, x [22-99] 67c-68b; XH 
[10-72] 70b-71a 

22 CHAUCER: Troilus and Cressida, BK n, STANZA 
149 41a / Physician's Tale [11,941-972] 366b- 
367a 

23 HOB BBS: Leviathan, INTRO, 47a-b; PART iv, 
262c 

27 SHAKESPEARE: Hamlet, ACT n, sc 11 [576-592] 
46b; ACT in, sc n [1-39] 49a-b / Timon of 
Athens, ACT i, sc i [28-38] 393d-394a; [156- 
160] 395b-c / Winter's Tale, ACT iv, sc iv 
[77-108] 508c-509a / Sonnets, LXVII-LXVIH 
596c-d 

28 HARVEY: On Animal Generation, 332c-333c; 
438c;444b-c;492b 

29 CERVANTES. Don Quixote, PART i, 82c-d; 
184a-185b; PART n, 237b-c; 251d-252a 

30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 33c-d / 
Novum Organum, BK n, APH 29 159b-c 

31 DESC \RTES: Meditations, i, 76a-b 

32 MILTON: Samson Agomstes, 337a-338a 

33 PASCAL: Pens&s, 29 176a; 32-33 176a-b; 120 
195a; 134 196a 

35 HUME: Human Understanding, SECT i, DIV 5, 

452d-453a 

37 FIELDING: Tom ] ones, 121b,d-123a; 243a-d 
40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 158d 
42 KANT: Judgement, 521b-524b, 525a-528c esp 

527b-528c; 557a-558b 
44 BOSWELL: Johnson, 196d-197a 
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART i, par 68 

29d-30a / Philosophy of History, PART i, 219b-c 

52 DOSTOEVSKY' Brothers Karamazov, BK x, 
284b-d 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 186b; 686b-688a 

54 FREUD: Interpretation of Dreams, 265c / Civil- 
ization and Its Discontents, 779c-d 

4. Diverse classifications of the arts: useful and 
fine, liberal and servile 

7 PLATO. Euthydemus, 74b-76b / Ion, 145d- 
148a,c/Gorwy,253c-255c; 260a-262a; 280d- 
282b / Republic, BK i, 305b-306a / Sophist, 
552c-553a; 560b-561d; 577c-579d / Statesman, 
592d-593a; 593d-595a / Philebus, 633a-635b 
/ Laws, BK n, 662c-663b; BK x, 760a b 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK H, CH 2 [i94*33- b 9] 
270d-271a / Metaphysics, BK i, CH i [98i b i3~ 
24] 500a 

9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK i, CH i 339a-b; CH 7 
[1097*15-23] 342c / Politics, BK i, CH n 
[i258 b 9-39] 452d-453b; BK vm, CH 2 [i337 b 3- 
23] 542c-d / Rhetoric, BK i, CH 2 [i355 b 26~36] 
595b / Poetics, CH 1-3 681a<682c 

17 PLOTINUS: Fourth Ennead, TR iv, CH 31, 175a 
/ Fifth Ennead, TR ix, CH n 250c-251a 

18 AUGUSTINE: Christian Doctrine, BK n, CH 30 
651c-d 



76 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



5 to6a 



(4. Diverse classifications of the arts: useful and 
fine, ttberal and servile.) 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 18, 
A 3, ANS 106b-107c; Q 103, A 2, REP 2 529a- 
530a; PART i-n, Q 8, A 2, REP 3 656a-d; Q 9, 
A i, ANS 657d-658d 

20 AQUINAS- Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 57, 
A 3, REP 3 37b-38a 

24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK n, 
82c-d; BK in, 190d-191a 

25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 69d-70d 

29 CERVANTES: Don Quixote, PART n, 251b-c 

30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 38c-39d; 
56a-b/ Novutn Qrganum, BK i, APH 85, 121d- 
122b 

42 KANT: Judgement, 524a-b; 526a-527b; 532a- 
536d 

5. The sources of art in experience, imagina- 
tion, and inspiration 

OLD TESTAMENT: Exodus, 31:1-11; 35*30-36:8 
4 HOMER: Iliad, BK i [1-7] 3a; BK n [484-493] 
14d-15a / Odyssey, BK i [i-io] 183a 

7 PLATO: Phaedru's, 124a / Ion 142a-148a,c / 
Symposium, 160c-d / Apology, 202 b-d / 
Gorgias, 253a; 260a-262a / Sophist, 561b-d; 
577d-579d / Laws, BK iv, 684b-c 

8 ARISTOTLE. Posterior Analytics, BK n, CH 19 
[100*3-9] 136c / Metaphysics, BK i, CH i 
[980^5-982!] 499b-500b 

9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK n, CH i [no3 a 26- b i3) 
348d-349a; BK x, CH 9 [ii8o b 29-ii8i b 23J 
435d-436a,c / Rhetoric, BK i, CH i [1354*1-12] 
593a; BK in, CH i [i4O4 ft i3~i9] 654b; CH 2 
[1405*3-9] 655b; CH 10 [i4io b 5~8] 662c / 
Poetics, CH 17 [1455*22-36] 690c 

10 HIPPOCRATES' Ancient Medicine la-9a,c esp 
par 1-8 la-3b / Articulations, par 10, 94d 

13 VIRGIL: Eclogues, iv [1-3] 14a; vi [1-12] 19a 
/ Aeneid, BK i [i-n] 103a; BK vn [37-44] 
237a 

14 PLUTARCH: Demosthenes, 692d-695d 

17 PLOTINUS: Fifth Ennead, TR vin, CH i 239b- 
240a 

20 AQUINAS : Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 68, 
A 4, REP i 91b-92c 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, HELL, n [7-9] 2c; 
xxxn [1-12] 47c; PURGATORY, i [1-12] 53a; 
xxiv [49-63] 90a-b; xxix [37-42] 98a; PARA- 
DISE, i [1-36] 106a-b; n [1-18] 107d; [91-105] 
108d; xvni [70-117] 134b-d csp [109-111] 
134d; xxii [112-123] 140d; xxm [55-69] 
141d-142a 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART iv, 262c 

24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK i, 
2d-3a,c; BK in, 129c-d 

25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 52d-53a; 309c-310c; 
450d-451a; 523c-524a; 532a-b 

26 SHAKESPEARE: Midsummer-Night's Dream, 
ACT v, sc i [1-27] 370d-371a / Henry V, PRO- 
LOGUE 532b,d; ACT in, PROLOGUE 543c-d 



27 SHAKESPEARE: Sonnets, xxxn 591a-b; 
LXXVIII-LXXXV 598b-599b; c-cvi 601c-602c 

28 HARVEY: On Animal Generation, 332c-333c 

29 CERVANTES: Don Quixote, PART n, 251d- 
252a; 340b 

30 BACON: Advancement of Learning^ 32d; 38c- 
39b 

31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART i, 43b / Medi- 
tations, i, 76a-b 

32 MILTON: On Sha^espear. 1630 16a/ Paradise 
Lost, BK i [1-26] 93b-94a; BK HI [1-55] 135b- 
136b; BK vn [1-39] 217a-218a; BK ix [1-47] 
247a-248a 

36 SWIFT: Gulliver, PART in, 97a-98a 

36 STERNE: Tristram Shandy, 198a-b; 302a-b 

37 FIELDING: Tom Jones, 152a-155b; 190b-191c; 
273a-274c; 280a; 296b,d-298a 

40 GIBBON. Decline and Fall, 185b; 627b-d 

41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 528c 

42 KANT: Judgement, 463a-464c; 473a-c; 482b- 
483d; 523d-524b; 525c-532a esp 526a-d, 
528c-530c;542b-543c 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, INTRO, 153a-c; 
176a-c;pARTii, 263d-268b 

47 GOETHE: Faust, DEDICATION la-b; PART n 
[9945-9960] 242a 

49 DARWIN: Descent of Man, 288d-289a; 292a-b 

50 MARX: Capital, 85b-c 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 165b [fn i]; 686b-688a 

54 FREUD: Interpretation of Dreams, 181a-b; 239c- 
240a; 246c-248c; 383d / General Introduction, 
483c; 600d-601b / Group Psychology, 670a-b; 
692c-693a 

6. Art and science 

6a. The comparison and distinction of art and 
science 

7 PLATO. Republic, BK vi, 386d-388a; BK vn, 
391b-398c, BK x, 427c-434c / Laws, BK iv, 
684b-685a 

8 ARISTOTLE: Posterior Analytics, BK n, CH 19 
[100*6-9] 136c / Physics, BK n, CH 2 [194*21- 
b i3] 270c-271a / Metaphysics, BK i, CH i 
[980^5-982*1] 499b-500b; BK vi, CH i 
[io25 b i8-28] 547d; BK xi, CH 7 [1064*10-18] 
592b-c 

9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK i, CH 1-2 339a-d; BK 
in, CH 3 [ni2*30- b io] 358b-c; BK vi, CH 3 
[ii39 b i4~i8] 388b; CH 4 [1140*10-16] 388d; 
CH 5 [ii40*33~ b 2] 389b; CH 7 390a-d 

10 HIPPOCRATES: Regimen in Acute Diseases, par 

3 27a-c 
17 PLOTINUS: Third Ennead, TR vin, CH 3-4 

130a-131a 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 16, 
A i, ANS 94b-95c 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i-n, 
Q 57 A 3 ANS an( ^ REP J 3 37b-38a; A 4, 
ANS and REP 2 38a-39a; Q 95, A 2, ANS 227c- 
228c 

28 HARVEY: On Animal Generation, 333a-b 



6b to 6c 

30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 5b-6a; 
48d-49b; 50c-51d; 53a-b 

31 DESCARTES: Rules, i, la-b / Discourse, PART 
vi, 61b-d 

34 NEWTON- Principles, la-b 

42 KANT: Intro. Metaphysic of Morals, 388d / 
Judgement, 463a-464c; 515b-c; 523d-524a; 
526a-527b esp 527a-b 

43 MILL. Utilitarianism, 445c-d 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, PART rv, 346c- 
348a 

53 JAMES- Psychology, 687a-688a; 863a-866a 

54 FREUD New Introductory Lectures, 874c-875a 



6b. The liberal arts as productive of science: 
means and methods of achieving knowl- 
edge 

7 PLATO Protagoras, 50d-52d; 57a-c / Phaedrus, 
134a-d; 139d-140b / Meno, 179d-183c / Gor- 
gias, 252a-262a / Republic, BK vi, 386d-388a; 
BK VH, 391b-398c / Parmemdes, 491a-d / 
Theaetetus, 525d-526b / Sophist, 571a-c / 
Statesman, 594d-595d / Philebus, 610d-613a; 
633a~635a / Seventh Letter, 809c-810d 

8 ARISTOILE. Prior Analytics, BK i, CH 30 63d- 
64b / Posterior Analytics 97a-137a,c esp BK i, 
CH 1-3 97a-100a, BK n, CH i-io 122b,d-128d / 
Topics, BK i, CH 1-3 143a-144b; CH 10-11 
147b-148c; BK vm, CH i [i55 b i-i6] 211a-b; 
en 14 [i63 b 8-i6] 222a / Sophistical Refuta- 
tions, CH 9-11 234b-237c; CH 16 [175*1-12] 
241a; CH 34 252c-253d / Physics, BK i, CH i 
259a-b, CH 2 [i84 b 25-i85*i9] 259c-260a / 
Heavens, BK i, CH 10 [279 b 4-i2] 370d, BK in, 
CH 7 f3o6 ll i-i8] 397b-c / Generation and Cor- 
ruption, BK i, CH 2 [316*5-14] 411c-d / Meta- 
physics, RK ii, CH 3 513c-d; BK in, en i 
[995*23 - b 4] 513b,d; BK iv, CH 3 [1005^-4] 
524c; CH 4 [ioo5 b 35-ioo6*28] 525a-c; BK xi, 
CH 3 589a-d, CH 5 [106^34-1062*19] 590a-c; 
BK xni, CH 2 [io77 b i]-cH 3 [1078*32] 608d- 
609d, CH 4 [io78 b i8-32] 610b-c / Soul, BK i, 
CH i 631a-632d; BK n, CH 4 [415*14-22] 645b-c 

9 ARISTOTLE: Parts of Animals, BK i, CH i 
161a-165d / Ethics, BK i, CH 3 339d-340b; 
CH 7 [io98*20- b 8] 343c-344a; BK vi, CH 3 
388b-c / Politics, BK i, CH i [1252*18-24] 445b 
/ Rhetoric, BK i, CH 2 [1358*3-33] 597d- 
598b 

11 ARCHIMEDES: Method, 569b-570a 

12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK i, CH 7 112b-113d; 
CH 17 122d-124a; BK n, CH 25 174b-c 

17 PLOTINUS: First Ennead, TR in 10a-12b 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK i, par 20-24 6a- 
7a / City of God, BK vm, CH 3-4 266a-267c 
esp CH 4, 267b / Christian Doctrine, BK n, CH 
3i-37651d-654b 

19 AQUINAS- Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 117, 
A i 595d-597c 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 57, 
A 3, REP 3 37b-38a; A 6, REP 3 40a-41a; PART 
in, Q 9, A 3, REP 2 765b-766b 



CHAPTER 4: ART 77 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART i, 56b; 58a-61a; 

65c-d 
25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 69d-77a passim; 240c- 

242a;446d-450a 
28 HARVEY: On Animal Generation, 331a-337a,c 

30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 56b-69c 
esp 56b-58c / Novum Organum, PREF 105a- 
106d; BK i 107a-136a,c esp APH 11-26 107d- 
108d, APH 39-69 109c-116b, APH 103-106 
127d-128c / New Atlantis, 210d-214d 

31 DESCARTES: Rules la-40a,c esp x 15d-17a / 
Discourse 41a-67a,c esp PART i, 41d-42b, PART 
n, 46c-48b, PART in, 50b-51a, PART iv, 52a, 
PART vi, 61d-62c / Meditations, i 75a-77c / 
Objections and Replies, 128a-129a / Geometry, 
BK i, 295a-298b; BK n, 304a-305a; BK in, 353a 

33 PASCAL- Pensees, 1-4 171a-172d / Vacuum, 
355a-358b passim; 365b-366a / Great Experi- 
ment 382a~389b / Geometrical Demonstration, 
430a-434a; 442a-446b 

34 NEW ION: Principles, BK in, RULES 270a-271b; 
LEMMA 5 338b-339a; GENERAL SCHOL, 371b- 
372a / Optics, BK in, 542a; 543a-544a 

35 LOCK F- Human Understanding, IN IRQ, SECT 
4-7 94a-95c; BK iv, CH in, SECT 18-20 317d- 
319c; CH vii, sccr n 340a-342d; CH xii, SECT 
1-8 358c-360c passim; SLCT 14-15 362d-363b; 
CH xvn, SECT ii 378b 

35 HUME- Human Understanding, SECT i, DIV 7-10 
453c-455b passim, SECT vn, DIV 48 470d-471c 

38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 339d-342b 

39 SMITH: Wealth of Nations, BK v, 335d-336a 

41 GIBBON- Decline and Fall, 299b 

42 KANT. Pure Reason, la-13d, 15c-16c; 17d-19a; 
36d-37d; 60a-c; 109d-112d; 119a-b; 146a- 
149d, 193d-194b; 211c-218d; 223a-d / Fund. 
Prm Metaphysic of Morals, 2'53a-254d; 261c- 
d; 264b-d/ Practical Reason, 291a-296d;310a- 
b, 319c-321b; 329a-330c 

43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 31, 103c-104a 
43 MILL: Liberty, 283d-284d; 287c-288c 

45 LAVOISIER- Elements of Chemistry, PREF, lc-2d 
45 FOURIER. Theory of Heat, 172a-173b 

45 FARADAY Researches in Electricity, 659a; 774d- 
775a 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, INTRO, par 31 
19c-20a 

50 MARX: Capital, lOa-lld 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 175a-176a; 385a-b; 674a- 
675b; 677b; 687a; 862a-865a; 869a-878a 

54 FREUD: New Introductory Lectures, 879c; 
881b-c 



6c. Art as the application of science: the pro- 
ductive powers of knowledge 

7 PLATO: Lysis, 16c-18b / Protagoras, 43b-d / 
Euthydemus, 70a-c / Ion 142a-148a,c / Gor- 
gias, 261a-262a / Republic, BK vn, 391b-397a 
esp 392b, 394b, 394d / Statesman, 580d-582a / 
Laws, BK iv, 684c-685a 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK n, CH 2 [i94 B 2i- b i3] 
270c-271a / Metaphysics, BK i, CH i 



78 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



fatola 



(6. Art and science. 6c. Art as the application of 
science: the productive powers o/ knowledge.) 

982*1) 499b-500b; BK vii, CH 7 [1032*25- 
1033*4] 555b-556a; CH 9 [1034*21-32] 557c; 
BK ix, CH 2 571c-572a; CH 5 573a-c; CH 7 
[1049*5-12] 574c-d; BK xr, CH 7 [1064*10-14] 
592b-c 

9 ARISTOTLE; Ethics, BK i, CH i 339a-b; CH 7 
[1098*28-32] 343d; BK ii, CH 4 [1105*17^4] 
350d-351a; BK vi, CH 4 388d-389a 
10 HIPPOCRATES: Ancient Medicine la-9a,c csp 
par 1-4 la-2c, par 14 5a-c, par 20-22 7b-8d / 
Epidemics, BK HI, SECT in, par 16 59b-c / 
Surgery, par i 70b / Articulations, par 58, 
112d/ The Law 144a-d 

10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK n, CH 9, 195c- 
197b 

11 NICOMACHUS: Arithmetic, BK i, 812d-813a 

12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK n, CH 17, 158d- 
159b 

13 VIRGIL: Georgics 37a-99a passim, csp n [475- 
5i5]65a-66a 

14 PLUTARCH: Marcellus, 252a-255a 

16 COPERNICUS: Revolutions of the Heavenly 
Spheres, BK i, 510b 

18 AUGUSTINE: Ctty of God, BK xxii, CH 24, 
610a-c 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 14, 
A 8 82c-83b; Q 17, A i, ANS lOOd-lOld; Q 19, 

A 4, REP 4 lllC-112c; PART I-II, Q 14, A 4, ANS 

679b-d 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 57, 
A 3, REP 3 37b-38a; A 4 38a-39a; Q 95, A 2, 
ANS 227c-228c 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART i, 60a-b; 73b; PART 

n, 158c-d; PART iv, 267a-b 
25 MONTAIGNE- Essays, 450d-451a; 523c-524b 
28 GILBERT: Loadstone, BK v, lOOc-lOlc 

28 HARVEY: Motion of the Heart, 289d-292a csp 
289d, 291d-292a / Circulation of the Blood, 
305a-d 

29 CERVANTES: Don Quixote, PART i, 145c-d; 
PART n, 251b-252a 

30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 42a-c; 48d- 
49b; 50c-51d; 53a-b; 56b-58c / Novum Orga- 
num 105a-195d csp BK i, APH 1-3 107a-b, 
APH ii 107d, APH 19-21 108b-c, APH 81-82 
120b-121b, APH 85 121d-122d, APH 92 125b-d, 
APH 103-105 127d-128c, APH 124 133c-d, APH 
129-130 134d-136a,c, BK n, APH 1-9 137a-140c, 
APH 44-52 175d-195d / New Atlantis, 210d- 
214d 

31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART vi, 61b-c; 66d- 
67a,c 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK iv, CH xu, 
SECT 11-12 361c-362c 

35 HUME: Human Understanding, SECT i, DIV 5 
452d-453b 

36 SWIFT: Gulliver, PART in, 103b-115b 

39 SMITH: Wealth of Nations, BK i, 5b-6a 

40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 633c; 661c-663c 



42 KANT: Intro, Metaphysic of Morals, 388d / 
Judgement, 523d-524a 

43 MILL: Representative Government, 369a 

45 FOURIER: Theory of Heat, 170a; 184a; 213a-b 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, PART i, 218d 
219a; 251a-b; PART iv, 347b-348a 

50 MARX: Capital, 170b-c; 177a; 183b-189a: 
239c-241a; 299b-d 

54 FREUD: Psycho- Analytic Therapy, 123a-125a / 
General Introduction, 484a / Civilization ana 
Its Discontents, 777a-c; 778b-779a esp 778d 

7. The enjoyment of the fine arts 

la. Art as a source of pleasure or delight 

7 PLATO: Gorgias, 260a-262a / Republic, BK x, 
433a-434c / Timaeus, 455 b-c / Statesman, 
596c-d / Philebus, 628d-630c / Laws, BK ii, 
654b-d; 658d-660d 

8 ARISTOTLE: Metaphysics, BK i, CH i (98i b i3- 
19] SOOa 

9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK vii, CH ii [ii52 b i8-i9 
403d; CH 12 [1153*24-27] 404c; BK ix, CH 7 
[ii67 b 34-n68 a i8] 421b-c / Politics, BK vin, 
CH 3 [ I 337 l>2 7- I 338 a 29] 543a-c; CH 5 544c 
546a / Rhetoric, BK i, CH ii [i37i b 4-n] 615a 
BK HI, CH i [i403 b i5]-cH 12 [1414*13] 653b,d 
667a esp CH i 653b,d-654c / Poetics, CH 4 
[1448^-23] 682c-d; CH 14 688b-689a 

12 LUCRETIUS : Nature of Things, BK v [1379- 
1411] 79a-b 

13 VIRGIL: Aeneid, BK i [440-493] 115a-116b 
BK vni [608-731] 275a-278b 

16 COPERNICUS : Revolutions of the Heavenly 
Spheres, BK i, 510a-b 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK i, par 20-27 ^ a 
7d; BK in, par 2-4 13c-14b; BK x, par 49-53 
83c-85a / City of God, BK i, CH 31-33 147d 
149a; BK xxii, CH 24, 610a-c / Christian Doc 
trine, BK n f CH 6 638a-d 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q i, A 9, 
REP i 8d-9c; PART i-n, Q 32, A 8, ANS 764c- 
765b; Q 34, A i, REP 3 768c-769d 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PURGATORY, ii [106- 
133] 55c-d 

24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK i, 
lb,d-3a,c; BK in, 129d-130c; 190d-191a; BK 
iv, 232a-b 

25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 104d-105c; 191c-192d 
399d-401a 

26 SHAKESPEARE: Taming of the Shrew, ACT HI, 
sc i [10-12] 21 2d/ Merchant of Venice, ACT v, 
sc i [66-88] 431b-c 

29 CERVANTES: Don Quixote, PART i, 184a-185b 

PART n, 251b-c 

32 MILTON: Samson Agonistes, 337a-338a 
37 FIELDING: Tom Jones, la-2a; 35a-d; 49a-50c 
40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 502c-503a 

42 KANT: Judgement, 471d-473a; 476a-483d 
516d-518d; 527b-528c; 532a-d; 534c-539d 

43 MILL: Utilitarianism, 446d-447a; 451c 

44 Bos WELL: Johnson, 254c-d 



Ibto 8 



CHAPTER 4: ART 



79 



46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, INTRO, 185c- 
186a 

47 GOETHE: Faust, PRELUDE 2a-6a esp [89-132] 
3a-4a; PART n [9863-9869] 239b 

49 DARWIN: Descent of Man, 569a-c 

51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK i, 37a-d; BK n, 
64d-65d; BK iv, 190d-192b; BK vi, 257c- 
259a; 268b; BK vn, 288c-290b; 295c-296a; 
BK vm, 318a-321d; 324b-325a; BK xiv, 601c- 
602d 

52 DOSTOEVSKY: Brothers Karamazov, BK x, 
284b-d 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 157a; 727b; 755a-758a 

54 FREUD: General Introduction, 601a-b / Beyond 
the Pleasure Principle, 643c / War and Death, 
756b-c / Civilization and Its Discontents, 773d- 
774c; 775b 

lb. The judgment of excellence in art 

5 ARISTOPHANES: Clouds [518-562] 494d-495c / 
Peace [732-774] 534c-535a / Frogs [758-1533] 
573a-582a,c 

7 PLATO: Phaedrus, 130c-141a,c / Ion 142a- 
148a,c / Republic, BK ii-m, 320c-334b / Cnt- 
tas, 478c-d / Theaetetus, 513c-d; 531c-532a / 
Statesman, 594a-595a / Laws, BK n, 653c-656b 
esp 656a-b; 660a-662a; BK in, 675c-676b 

9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK i, CH 7 [1097^3- 
1098*18] 343a-c; BK n, CH 6 [no6 a 2o- b i5] 
351d-352a; BK vi, CH 5 [ii4O b 2o-25] 389c, CH 
7 [114^9-12] 390a; BK x, CH 9 [n8i a i3- b i3] 
436a,c / Politics, BK i, CH 9 [i257 b 25-i258 a i8] 
451d-452b; BK in, CH 11 [i28i b 39~i282 a 2}j 
479d-480a; CH 12 [i282 b 32-i283 a i3] 480d- 
481a; CH 13 [i284 b 3~i2] 482c-d; BK VIH, CH 5 
[i339 a 4i- b 4] 544d-545a; CH 6 [i34o b 20~25] 
546b; [i340 b 35~4o] 546b-c / Rhetoric, BK in, 
CH 1-12 653b,d-667b / Poetics, CH 26 698c- 
699a,c 

10 HIPPOCRATES- Fractures, par 30 86a-d / Artic- 
ulations, par 78, 119d 
14 PLUTARCH: Pericles, 121c-122a; 128a-b 

17 PLOTINUS: First Ennead, TR vi, CH 2-3 21d- 
23a / Sixth Ennead, TR n, CH 11, 275c 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK in, par 14 16d- 
17a; BK iv, par 20 24b-c 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 21, 
A 2, ANS 125c-d 

20 AQUINAS : Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 57, 
A A 3-4 37b-39a 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PURGATORY, xi [79- 
120] 69c-70a; xxvi [91-126] 93d-94b 

25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 105a; 453d-454a; 455a-d 

26 SHAKESPEARE: Merchant of Venice, ACT v, sc i 
[89-no]431d 

27 SHAKESPEARE: Hamlet, ACT H, sc n [454-471] 
45a 

29 CERVANTES: Don Quixote, PART i, 184a-187c; 
189d-193a; PART n, 212a-215b 

31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART n, 44c-d 

32 MILTON : Paradise Lost, BK ix [1-47] 247a-248a 
/ Samson Agonistes, 337a-338a 



33 PASCAL: Penstes, 28-33 176a-b; 114 194b; 381 

238b 
37 FIELDING: Tom Jones, la-2a; 19a-20a; 35a-d; 

49b-50c; 73b-d; 121b,d-123a; 152a-155b; 

189a-191c; 204b,d-205c; 223a-225a; 246a- 

247a; 273a-274c; 296b,d-298a; 357a-d 

41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 300a-b; 573a- 
574a 

42 KANT : Judgement, 461a-495a,c esp 492b-493b ; 
513b-518d; 527b-528c 

43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 47, 154a 

43 MILL: Utilitarianism, 446d-447a 

44 BOSWELL: Johnson, 115c; 196d-197a; 202b; 
284a-b;373b-c;546d-547a 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, INTRO, 185c-d; 
PART i, 219b-c 

47 GOETHE: Faust, PRELUDE [95-103] 3b 

48 MELVILLE: Moby Dic{, 277a-b; 335b 

49 DARWIN: Descent of Man, 302a 

51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK i, 37a-d; BK iv, 
186c-188a; 191d-192a; BK vi, 257c-259a; BK 
vn, 288c-290b; 295c-296a; BK vm, 318a- 
321d; 324b-325a; BK x, 444a-445d esp 445a-c 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 157a; 288a; 689b-690a; 
755a-758a; 886b 

8. Art and emotion: expression, purgation, 
sublimation 

OLD TESTAMENT* Judges, 11:34 / I Samuel, 16:15- 
23; 186-7 (D) / Kings, 16:15-23; 18:6-7 / 
// Samuel, 6:14-15 (D) II Kings, 6:14-15 / 
Psalms, 150-4 / Ecclesiastes, 3:4 / Jeremiah, 
31:13 (D) Jeremias, 31-13 
4 HOMER: Odyssey, BK i [325-359] 186b-c; BK 
vni [71-103] 222d-223a; [482-547] 227a-d 

6 HERODOTUS History, BK vi, 189c 

7 PLATO: Ion, 145a-b / Republic, BK in, 325b- 
326b; BK x, 431b-434a / Timaeus, 455b-c / 
Philebus, 628d-630c / Laws, BK n, 654b-d 

9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK ix, CH 7 [n67 b 34- 
n68 a i8] 421b-c / Politics, BK vm, CH 5 544c- 
546a; CH 6 [1341*20-23] 546d; CH 7 [i34i b 33~ 
I342 b i8] 547c-548a,c / Rhetoric, BK i, CH i 
[1354*13-1355*3] 593b-594a; CH 2 [1356*1-25] 
595b-d; CH n [i37i b 4-n] 615a; BK n, CH i-ii 
622b,d-636a; BK in, CH 7 659a-660a; CH 16 
I I 4 I 7*37- b 7] 671c-d; CH 19 [i4i9 b io-27] 674c-d 
/ Poetics, CH 6 [1449^3-28] 684a; CH 9 
[1452*1-10] 686c-d; CH 11 [i452*37~ b 4] 687a; 
CH 13-14 687c-689a; CH 15 [1454^-14] 689c; 
CH 17 [1455*29-39] 690c; CH 18 [1456*19-23] 
691c-d; CH 19 [1456*33^8] 691d-692a 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK v [1379- 
14351 79a-d 

13 VIRGIL: Eclogues, v-vi 16a-21a / Aencid, BK i 
[440-493] 115a-116b; BK vm [608-731] 275a- 
278b 

16 COPERNICUS: Revolutions of the Heavenly 

Spheres, BK i, 510a-b 
18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK i, par 20-22 6a-c; 

par 25-27 7a-d; BK in, par 2-4 13c-14b; BK x, 

par 49-50 83c-84b 



80 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



9to9a 



(8. Art and emotion: expression, purgation, sub- 
limation.) 

21 DANTE- Divine Comedy, HELL, v [73-142] 7d- 
8b; PURGATORY, ii [76-133] 55b-d; xxiv [49- 
6}]90a-b 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART i, 69c 

24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK in, 
190a-191a; BK iv, 232a-b 

25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 104d-105c; 191c-192d; 
399d-401a; 410a-c; 507b-c 

26 SHAKESPEARE* Two Gentlemen of Verona, ACT 
in, sc ii [66-95] 245a-b / Richard II, ACT v, 
sc v [41-66] 350a-b / Merchant of Venice, ACT 
v, sc i [66-88] 431b-c 

27 SHAKESPEARE' Hamlet, ACT ii, sc n [575-633] 
46b-d / Measure for Measure, ACT iv, sc i 
[1-15] 192c / Cymbehne, ACT n, sc in [1-35] 
459b-c / Tempest, ACT i, sc n [375-397] 529d- 
530a; ACT v, sc i [58-61] 545c / Henry VIII, 
ACT in, sc i [1-14] 566a-b 

29 CERVANTES: Don Quixote, PART i, 184a-185b 

30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 38c-39d; 
78a-d, 87c-d 

32 MILTON: V Allegro 17b-21a / UPenseroso 21a- 
25a / Paradise Lost, BK i [549-559] 105b / 
Samson Agomstes, 337a-338a 

33 PASCAL: Pensees, n 173b-174a; 13-16 174a-b; 
I35l96a 

36 STERNE- Tristram Shandy, 306b-307a; 350b- 

351a 

40 GIBBON- Decline and Fall, 94a-b 
42 KANT: Judgement, 509c-d; 532a-539d 
44 Bos WELL -.Johnson, 53c-d; 308b-c; 362b-c 
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, INTRO, 153b; 

PART iv, 323b-c 

49 DARWIN Descent of Man, 570b-571b 

51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK n, 64d-65d, BK 

iv, 190d-192b; BK vi, 267d-268c; BK vn, 288c- 

290b, BK x, 444a-445d csp 445a-c; BK XH, 

554c-d, BK xw, 601c-602d; BKXV, 638c-639c 

53JAMFS: Psychology, 288a; 747b-748a; 751a- 

753b esp 752b-753b 

54 FREUD: Interpretation of Dreams, 239c-240a; 
246b-248c / General Introduction, 483 b-c; 
581d-582b; 600d-601b / Beyond the Pleasure 
Principle, 643c / Group Psychology, 692c-693a 
/ War and Death, 762c / Civilization and Its 
Discontents, 773d-774c 

9. The useful arts 

9*. The use of nature by art: agriculture, medi- 
cine, teaching 

OLD TESTAMENT: Genesis, 2:15; 3:17-19,23 
APOCRYPHA: Ecclesiasticus, 38*1-15 (D) OT, 
Ecclesiasticus, 38:1-15 

4 HOMER: Iliad, BK XVIH [541-589] 135d-136c 

5 SOPHOCLES : Antigone [332-364] 134a-b 

6 HERODOTUS: History, BK in, 117a-c 

7 PLATO: Lysis, 21d / Phaedrus, 136c-d / Sym- 
posium, 155d-156c/ Gorgias, 261a-262a; 289d- 



290a / Republic, BK m, 334b-337a; BK vn, 
391c-d / Timaeus, 475a-d / Statesman, 599a-b; 
599d-600a / Laws, BK x, 760c 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK n, CH i [i92 b 8~3i] 
268b,d-269a; [193^2-17] 269d-270a; CH 2 
[194*22-27] 270c; CH 8 [i99 b 26-3i] 277a / 
Metaphysics, BK vn, CH 7 [io32 b 6-29] 555c-d; 
CH 9 [1034*8-29] 557b-c 

9 ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK i, CH 8 [1256*1 5^25] 
450a-c; CH n [i258 b 9~34] 452d-453b; BK vn, 
CH 17 [i336 b 40-i337 a 2] 542a,c 

10 HIPPOCRATES. Ancient Medicine, par 3 ld-2b; 
par 20-21 7b-8a / Prognostics, par i 19a-b / 
Injuries of the Head, par 17 68d-69a / Surgery, 
par 15 73b-c / Fractures, par 1-3 74b,d-76a; 
par 33 88a-b / Articulations, par 2-3 92a-c; 
par 14 96d-97d; par 42 104b-c / Aphorisms, 
SECT i, par i 131a; SECT n, par 4 132b / The 
Law, par 2-3 144b-d 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK v [1361- 
1378] 78d-79a 

13 VIRGIL. Georgics 37a-99a esp i [50-159] 38b- 
41b, n [8-46] 52a-53b 

17 PLOTINUS: Fourth Ennead, TR iv, CH 31, 175a 

18 AUGUSTINE* City of God, BK xxn, CH 24, 
610a-d / Christian Doctrine, BK n, CH 30 651c-d 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q no, 
A 2, REP 3 565d-566d, Q 117, A i 595d-597c 

20 AQUINAS* Summa Theologica, PART I-H, Q 51, 
A i, ANS 12b-13c 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, HFIL, xi [91-111] 
16a-b; PARADISE, vin [115-148] 118b-c 

24 RABELAIS. Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK in, 
207c-d; BK iv, 303c-304a 

25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 52c-d; 63d-66b; 93b-d; 
368d-370c; 523c-524a; 527a-529b 

27 SHAKESPEARE: King Lear, ACT iv, sc iv [1-19] 
272b-c / Winter's Tale, ACT iv, sc iv [79-103] 
508c-d 

28 HARVEY. On Animal Generation, 438c 

30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 48d-49b; 
53a-d / Novum Organum, PRLF 105a-106d; 
BK 1 107a-136a,c esp APH 1-9 107a-d, APH 129 
134d-135d; BK ii, APH 4 137d-138b; APH 29 
159b-c / New Atlantis, 211b-214d 

31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART vi, 61b-c; 66d- 
67a,c 

36 SWIFT: Gulliver, PART n, 78a-b 

36 STERNE: Tristram Shandy, 195b-196a 

37 FIELDING: Tom Jones, 34b 

38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 336b-337a; 349a; 
352a-d 

39 SMITH: Wealth of Nations, BK n, 157a-b 

40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 21c-22b; 367d- 
368a; 655d-656b passim 

41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 221c-222a 
43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 14, 61d 

43 MILL: Representative Government, 331 b-c 
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART i, par 56 
26b; PART in, par 196 67a; par 203 68a-c / 
Philosophy of History, PART i, 244b-c; PART n, 
267a-b 



9b to 9c 



CHAPTER 4: ART 



81 



49 DARWIN: Origin of Species, 18a-22c csp 18b-c, 
20d-21a; 41c-d 

50 MARX: Capital, 16d-17a; 85a-88d csp 86a-b; 
250a,c; 298c-d 

50 MARX-ENGELS: Communist Manifesto, 421d 

51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK ix, 372a-373b; 
BK x, 449b-c; EPILOGUE i, 654a-653c 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 711b-712b 

54 FREUD: Origin and Development of Psycho- 
Analysis, 2a / Civilization and Its Discontents, 
777a-b; 778b; 779a 

&. The production of wealth: the industrial 
arts 

OLD TESTAMENT: Exodus, 35-39 / I Kings, 5-7 
(D) III Kings, 5-7 / / Chronicles, 22.15-16 
(D) I Parahpomenon, 22:15-16 / II Chronicles, 
2:11-5:14 (D) II Parahpomenon, 2*11-5*14 

APOCRYPHA: Ecclesiasttcus, 38:27-34 (D) OT, 
Ecclesiasticus, 38:28-39 

7 PLATO- Republic, BK 11, 316c-319a / Statesman, 
591c-593d; 596a-597b 

8 ARISTOTLE: Metaphysics, BK I,CH i [98i b i3-i9] 
500a 

9 ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK i, CH 4 447b-c; CH 
8-1 1 449d-453d 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK v [1241- 
1268] 77b-c; [1350-1360] 78c-d 

18 AUGUSTINE: Christian Doctrine, BK n, CH 30 
651c-d 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 2, 
A i 615d-616c 

30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK i, APH 85 121d- 
122d / New Atlantis, 210d-214d 

31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART vi, 61b-c 

36 SWIFT: Gulliver, PART n, 78a-b; PART in, 

106a-112a 
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK xxm, 

191a-c 

38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 349a; 352a-d; 365b- 
366b 

39 SMITH: Wealth of Nations, BK i, 6a-d; 27b- 
28a; 52d-53b; BK n, 157a-b; BK iv, 288c-300d 
csp 288c-291c, 294d-295a 

40 GIBBON: Decline and Pall, 88d-89d; 368a; 
655d-656b; 658a-b 

41 GIBBON: Decline and Pall, 314c-315b 

42 KANT: Judgement, 524a-b 

43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 8, 45d-46a 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART i, par 56 
26b; ADDITIONS, 125 137a / Philosophy of 
History, PART i, 243d-244c; PART n, 267a-b 

48 MELVILLE: Moby Dicf(, 79a-82a 

50 MARX: Capital, 16d-17a; 31a^7c passim; 85a- 
89b; 96a-97a; 100a-147b passim; 157a-188c 
esp 158a-159a, 164a-166c, 180d-188c; 205a- 
207c; 251b-255aesp254a-b; 279d-280a; 292d; 
299b-c 

50 MARX-ENGELS: Communist Manifesto, 420d- 
421a;421d-422c 

51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, EPILOGUE i, 654a- 
655c 



9c. The arts of war 

OLD TESTAMENT: Genesis, 14 / Exodus, 17:8^-16 / 
Numbers, 31 / Deuteronomy, 2-3; 20 /Joshua, 
i -i 2 esp 6, 8 (D) Josue, 1-12 csp 6, 8 / 
Judges csp 4, 7, 15 / / Samuel esp 17 (D) 
/ Kings esp 17 / // Samuel (D) II Kings 

APOCRYPHA: Judith, 7:8-31 (D) OT, Judith, 
7:8-25 / I Maccabees (D) OT, / Machabees / 
II Maccabees (D) OT, // Machabees 

4 HOMER: Iliad, BK iv [292-309] 26d-27a; BK 
vn [433-463] 50b-c; BK vni [489-565] 56a-d; 

" BK xin [125-154] 89c-d; BK xvin [509-540] 
135b-d / Odyssey, BK vm [491-520] 227a-b 

5 EURIPIDES: Suppliants [632-730] 264a-d / 
Trojan Women [1-14] 270a; [511-571] 274b-d / 
Heracles Mad [188-205] 366d 

6 HERODOTUS: History, BK i, 41c-42b; BK iv, 
141b-c; 144d-148d; 158d-159b; BK vi, 206d- 
208d; BK vn, 239a-241c; 247d-259a; BK vm 
260a-287d passim; BK ix 288a-314a,c 

6 THUCYDIDES: Peloponnesian War, BK n, 389d- 
391b; BK vi, 514d-516a; BK vn 538a-563a,c 

7 PLATO- Euthydemus, 75a-b / Republic, BK n, 
319a-c; BK iv, 343b-d; BK v, 366a-c / Sophist, 
552d-554c / Laws, BK vn, 716c-717c 

9 ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK i, CH 7 [i255 b 38~39] 
449c; CH 8 [i256 b 2O-26] 450c 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK v [1281- 
1349] 77d-78c 

13 VIRGIL: Aeneid, BK n [13-198] 124b-129b; BK 
vii [519-530] 250b; BK ix [25-76] 279b-281a; 
[590-620] 295a-b 

14 PLUTARCH: Themistocles, 90b-9Sb / Pericles, 
131b-139a / PabiuS'Pericles, 154a-d / Aemihus 
Paulus, 216a-223a / Marcellus, 252a-255a; 
257c-260c / Anstidcs, 266b-272c / Philopoe- 
men 293a-302a,c / Caius Marius, 338c-344c / 
Sulla, 382c-d / Lucullus 400a-421a,c / Nicias 
423a-438d/ 5fr/or/^457b,d-470d csp 464c-d 
/ Agesilaus, 498a-d / Pompey, 528c-534d / 
Alexander, 546b-550a; 555d-556b; 569b-d / 
Caesar, 583a-596a / Antony, 770a-773c / Mar- 
cus Brutus, 816d-824a,c 

15 TACITUS: Annals, BK n, 26c-28c esp 26c-27a; 
BK in, 63a-b; BK xm, 134a-136c / Histories, 
BK i, 210b-d; BK in, 247a-c; BK iv, 275b-c 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 57, 

A 4, REP 3 38a-39a; PART n-n, Q 40, A 3 

580d-581b 
23 MACHIAVELLI: Prince, CH m-v 3c-8c; CH x 

16a-d; CH xn-xiv 17d-22a; CH xvm, 25a-c; 

CH xx-xxi 30a-33a; CH xxv 35a-36b; CH 

xxvi, 37b-c 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART i, 73b; PART n, 
103b-c;159a-b 

24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK i, 
28a-29b; 31d-35a; 39c-44a; 50c-52d; 55b-57c; 
BK n, 95a-d; BK m, 127d-128b; BK iv, 276a- 
282d;304a-305a 

25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, llb-13c; 21a-b; 133b-d; 
136b-143c; 193a-194b; 327d-329d; 354b-358b 



82 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



(9. The useful arts. 9c. The arts of war.) 

26 SHAKESPEARE: 1st Henry VI, ACT n, sc i [50- 
77] 9b-d; ACT iv, sc iv 23b-d / 1st Henry IV, 
ACT iv, sc in [1-29] 459b-c / 2nd Henry IV, 
ACT i, sc in 472d-474a / Henry V, ACT in, sc 
n [59-152] 544d-545d / Julius Caesar, ACT iv, 
sc in (196-225) 590c-d 

27 SHAKESPEARE: Troilus and Cressida, ACT i, 
sc in [197-210] llOa-b / Othello, ACT i, 
sc in [1-47] 208d-209b; [220-229] 211b / 
Antony and Cleopatra, ACT HI, sc VH-X 
331b-333a / Coriolanus, ACT i, sc n 354d- 
355b 

29 CERVANTES: Don Qmxote, PART i, 145c- 
147d 

30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 23a; 54a 
36 SWIFT: Gulliver, PART i, 23a-25b; PART n, 

77a-78a, PART iv, 150a-151b 

36 STERNE: Tristram Shandy, 237b-238a; 448b- 
453a; 505b-510b; 535a-b 

37 FIELDING: Tom Jones, 241a 

38 MONTESQUIEU. Spirit of Laws, BK ix-x 58b,d- 
68d 

39 SMITH: Wealth of Nations, BK v, 301a-309a,c 
esp 303d-305c, 308c-309a,c 

40 GIB BON: Decline and Fall, 4b-8a; 85a-86d; 
281b-287d passim; 365b-375d; 377c-378d; 
411d-412c; 563a-566c esp 564d; 633b-c; 638d- 
639a 

41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 3d-4c, 120a; 126d- 
131d esp 127d-128a; 256a; 291d-292c; 311d- 
312a; 321b-325a; 394d-395c; 499a-b; 509a- 
510a,c; 542b-548d esp 542b-543a 

42 KANT: Science of Right, 453d-454c / Judge- 
ment, 502d-504b 

43FtDERALisr: NUMBER 8, 44c-45a; 45d-46a; 
NUMBER 25, 91a-b 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, PART iv, 343d- 
344a 

51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK i, 52c-53c; 54c- 
55c; BK n, 88b-89b; 92c-93d; 96c-97c; BK HI, 
135c-137c; 144d-146d; BK v, 208c-210b; BK 
VH, 278a-287a; BK ix, 350d-354a; 358b-365c; 
BK x, 389a-391c; 405a-b; 421c-426a; 430b- 
432c; 440c-443b; 445d-448c; 449c; BK xi, 
470d-475a; BK xm, 563a-571a; BK xm-xiv, 
582a-590c; BK xiv, 609a-613d; BK xv, 618b- 
621b 

94. The arts of government 
OLD TESTAMENT: Exodus, 18:13-26 

5 ARISTOPHANES: Knights [147-222] 471d-472c / 
Lysistrata [506-586] 589c-590d 

6 THUCYDIDES : Peloponnesian War, BK i, 366d 

7 PLATO: Protagoras, 43b-47c / Euthydemus, 
75c-76b / Ion, 147d-148a,c / Meno, 188b- 
190a,c / Gorgias, 285a-292b / Republic, BK 
m-iv, 339b-347a; BK vi, 382a-c; BK VH, 
390c-391b/ Critias, 479c / Thtaetetus, 531a-b / 
Statesman 580a-608d esp 585c-586a, 598b- 
608d / Laws, BK iv, 679a-c 



9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK i, CH 1-2 339a-d; BK 
vi, CH 7 [1141*20-33] 390a-b; CH 8 [ii4i b 
23-28] 390d; BK x, CH 9 434a-436a,c / 
Politics, BK n, CH 12 470b-471d; BK HI, 
CH n [1281*39-1282*41] 479b-480b; BK iv, 
CH i 487a-488b; BK v, CH 8-9 509d-512d; 
CH ii 5l5d-518c; BK vn, CH 2 528a-529a; 
CH 4 [1325^4-1326*4] 530a; CH 13-14 536b- 
538d 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK v [1136- 
n6o]76a-b 

12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK i, SECT 14 254b-c; 
BK vi, SECT 30 276d-277a 

13 VIRGIL: Aeneid, BK i [418-440] 114b-115a; BK 
vi [847-853] 233b-234a 

14 PLUTARCH: Romulus-Theseus, 30c-d / Poph- 
co/a,81b-c/ Pophcola-Solon,87b'd / Camillus, 
102d / Pericles 121a-141a,c esp 137b-138b / 
Fabius, 143b-d; 14Sd-146&/AIctl>iades 155b,d- 
174d passim, esp 167c-168a / Cortolanus, 180d- 
181b / Anstides 262b,d-276a,c esp 263d- 
267a, 273d-275c/ Cr^^-Ma^455b,d-457d 
/ Agesilaus, 482a-c / Phocion, 604b,d-605d / 
Cato the Younger, 625b-627b / Agis, 648b,d- 
649b / Cams and Tiberius Gracchus- Agis and 
Cleomenes 689b,d-691a,c 

15 TACITUS: Annals, BK iv, 63d-67a; 72a-b 

18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK xix, CH 16 
521d-522a 

20 AQUINAS : Summa Theologica, PART I-H, Q 
104, A 4, ANS 306d-307c 

21 DANTE. Divine Comedy, PARADISE, xni [91- 
108] 126b-c 

23 MACHIAVELLI : Prince la-37d 
23HoBBEs: leviathan, INTRO 47a-d; PART i, 

67d-68a; 80d-81a; 82b-d; PART n, 112d; 122b- 
124b, 127a-130a; 148c-159c; 164a,c 

24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK HI, 
131b,d-133b 

25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 3a-5a; 324c-326b esp 
326a-b; 437b-c; 450d-451a; 451d-452d 

26 SHAKESPEARE: Richard II, ACT in, sc iv [29- 
66] 340c-d 

29 CERVANTES: Don Quixote, PART n, 217a-b; 
331a-336a 

30 BACON. Advancement of Learning, 4c-7c; 23a- 
26a; 54a-b; 93c-95a 

32 MILTON. Paradise Lost, BK iz [430-456] 120b- 
121a 

33 PASCAL: Pensles, 82 186b-188b; 291-338 225a- 
233a passim 

35 LOCKE: Toleration, 9b 

36 SWIFT: Gulliver, PART H, 78a-b; PART in, 
112a-115b; PART iv, 157a-158a 

38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK i, 3b-d; 
BK H-V 4a-33a,c; BK vi, 40a-b; 43c-d; BK 
vin, 51a-53c; BK xi, 69a-75a; BK xn, 93c- 
96a,c; BK xix, 135a-141a; BK xxvi, 214b,d; 
BK xxix 262a-269a,c 

38 ROUSSEAU: Political Economy 367a-385a,c esp 
370c-d / Social Contract, BK n, 400c-406a; 
BK HI, 409d-410a; 412c-414d 



10 to 



x CHAPTER 4: ART 



83 



40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 24b,d-32d passim; 
48a; 61d-63b; 142c-144a; 153c-157c csp 155b, 
157c; 240b-255d passim; 284a-c; 288b-289a; 
338d-344a,c esp 338d-339a, 343a-c; 577a~578c 

41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 102c~103a; 176c- 
177c; 504c-505c 

43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 35, 113b-c; NUMBER 37, 

119c-120a, NUMBER 62, 190b-d 
43 MILL: Liberty, 322a-b / Representative Govern- 

w<?/tf,327b,d-328d;331b-c, 338d-339a; 356b- 

362c passim; 411d-412a; 442a-d / Utilitarian- 

ism, 445c-d 
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, PART n, 275d- 

276a; PART iv, 360b-c; 361d-362a 
51 TOLSTOY- War and Peace, BK vi, 238c-243d; 

260a-262a; BK ix, 350d-354a 
53 JAMES: Psychology, 201a 

10. The moral and political significance of the 
arts 

lOa. The influence of the arts on character and 
citizenship: the role of the arts in the 
training of youth 

5 ARISTOPHANES: Acharnians [626-658] 462b-d 
/ Wasps [1009-1070] 519d-520c / Frogs [1008- 
1098] 576b-577c; [1482-1533] 581d-582a,c 

7 PLATO Protagoras, 46b-c / Phaedrus, 140a-d / 
Symposnim, 156b-c / Gorgtas, 280d-282b / 
Republic, BK ii-nr, 320c-339a; BK iv, 344b-d; 
BK vii 388a~401d esp 389d-398c; BK x, 427c- 
434c / Timaeus, 455a-c / Laws, BK n 653a- 
663d; BK in, 675c-676b; BK v, 696b-d, BK 
vn, 717b-728b 

9 ARISTOTLL* Politics, BK vn, CH 17 [1336*30- 
b 24] 541b-d; BK vni 542a-548a,c 

12 AURELIUS- Meditations, BK i, SECT 7, 253c 

13 VIRGIL Acneid, BK i [441-493] 115a-116b; BK 
vi [847-853] 233b-234a; BK vni [608-731] 
275a-278b ' 

14 PLUTARCH Lycurgus, 33d-34a; 43b-d / Solon, 
76a / Pericles, 121a-122b / Timoleon, 195a-b / 
Demetrius, 726a-d 

15 TACITUS: Annals, BK xiv, 146b-d 

16 COPERNICUS: Revolutions of the Heavenly 
Spheres, BK i, 510a-b 

17 PLOTINUS : First Ennead, TR HI, CH 1-2 lOa-d 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK i, par 20-22 6a-c; 
par 25-27 7a-d; BK in, par 2-4 13c-14b; BK x, 
par 49-53 83c-85a / City of God, BK i, CH 31- 
33 147d-149a; BK H, CH 8-14 153d-157c; BK 
iv, CH 26-27 202a-203c / Christian Doctrine, 
BK n, CH 6 638a-d; CH 25 649b-d 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PURGATORY, xxn 
[55-93] 87a-c; PARADISE, i [1-36] 106a-b; n 
[1-18] 107d; xvii [100-142] 133a-c 

22 CHAUCER: Intro, to Man of Law's Prologue 
[4465-4510] 234b-235b / Prologue to Mehbeus 
400b-401a / U Envoi 550a-b 

24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK i, 
26d-30c 

25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 69d-80b passim 



26 SHAKESPEARE: Two Gentlemen of Verona, ACT 
HI, sc n [66-95] 245a-b / Richard H, ACT v, sc 
v [41-63] 350a-b / Merchant of Venice, ACT v, 
sc i [66-88] 431b-c 

27 SHAKESPEARE: Measure for Measure, ACT iv, 
sc i [1-15] 192c 

29 CERVANTES: Don Quixote, PART i, la-3b; 
12b-16c; 184a-187c; 189d-193c; PART 11, 427c- 
429d 

30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 4c-6c; 38c- 
39a; 78a-d; 79c-80a 

31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART i, 43a-b 

32 MILTON Paradise Lost, BK ix [1-47] 247a-248a 
/ Areopagitica, 385a-386b 

33 PASCAL: Pensees, 11 173b-174a 

35 HUME: Human Understanding, SECT i, DIV i 
451a-b 

36 SWIFT: Gulliver, xviib-xviiia 

36 STERNE: Tristram Shandy, 250b-251a 

37 FIELDING: Tom Jones, 253d-254d 

38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK iv, 17b- 
18d 

38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 365c-366b 

39 SMITH Wealth of Nations, BK v, 337d-343d; 
347c-d 

40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 3a-b; 79a-b; 94a-b; 
629a-b 

41 GIBBON '.Decline and Fall, 40d-41a; 225a-226a 
esp 225c; 300a-b; 573a-574b 

42 K\NT: Judgement, 521b-523c; 586d-587a 
44 BOSWELL: Johnson, 158a-b; 259b-c, 308b-d 
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, PART n, 259b-c; 

263d-265c; 267b-268b; 276a-d; PART iv, 

347b-d 
51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK i, 47b-48d; BK 

n, 64d-65d; BK iv, 172d-173d; BK vni, 316b- 

321d;324b-325d 
54 FREUD: General Introduction, 582a-b / War 

and Death, 762c 

0. The political regulation of the arts for the 
common good: the problem of censor- 
ship 

5 ARISTOPHANES: Acharnians [366-382] 459c-d; 
[480-508] 460d-461a 

7 PLATO: Republic, BK II-IH, 320c-339a; BK iv, 
344b-d; BK x, 427c-434c esp 432d-434c / 
Statesman, 601c-602c / Laws, BK n 653a-663d; 
BK HI, 675c-676b; BK vn, 717b-730c; BK vni, 
731d-732c; BK xi, 782d<783b 

9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK i, CH 1-2 339a-d / Poli- 
tics, BK vn, CH 17 [i336 b i2-23] 541c-d 

14 PLUTARCH: Solon, 76a 

15 TACITUS: Annals, BK in, 56d-57b; BK iv, 
67b-c; 72b-73a; BK xiv, 152d-153c 

18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK i, CH 31-33 
147d-149a; BK n, CH 9-14 154a-157c; BK vni, 
CH 13 273b-d 

23 MACHIAVELLI: Prince, CH xxi, 32d-33a 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART n, 102d-103a; 150c- 
151a 

25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 79d-80b; 191d-192b 



84 



THE GREAT IDEAS' 



il to 12 



(10. Tb* moral awl political significance of the 
arts. \Qb. The political regulation of the 
arts for the common good: the problem of 
censorship.) 

29 CERVANTES: Don Quixote, PART i, 13b-16c; 
117d-119d; 184a-187c 

30 BACON: New Atlantis, 214a-b 

32 MILTON: Areopagitica 381a-412b csp 384b- 
389a, 398a-b 

37 FIELDING: Tom Jones, 253d-254d 

38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK iv, 17b- 
18d; BK xn, 90b-c 

39 SMITH- Wealth of Nations, BK v, 347c-d 

40 GIBBON- Decline and Pall, 148a 

42 KANT: Pure Reason, 220b-221b; 223a-c / 
Science of Right, 425c-426a 

43 CONSTITUTION OF THE U.S.: ARTICLE i, SECT 8 
[214-217] 13b; AMENDMENTS, i 17a 

43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 43, 139d-140a 

43 MILL: Representative Government, 368d-369b 

44 BOSWELL: Johnson, 259b-c; 300c-301a csp 
301a-d [fn i] 

11. Myths and theories concerning the origin 

of the arts 

OLD TESTAMENT: Genesis, 4:20-22; 10:8-9 / 

/ Chronicles, 4:14 (/)) / Paralipomenon, 4-14 

5 AESCHYLUS: Prometheus Bound 40a-51d 

csp [109-113] 41 b, [248-256] 42d, [459-461] 

44d 

7 PLATO: Protagoras, 44a-45a / Phaedrus, 138c- 
139a / Symposium, 160c-d / Republic, BK H, 
316c-319c / Statesman, 589a-c / Philebus, 
610d-613a esp 611d-613a / Laws, BK n, 653a- 
c; 662c-663b 

9 ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK vm, CH 6 [134^2-8] 
547a / Rhetoric, BK in, CH i [i403 b i5~i404 a 39J 
653b,d-654c / Poetics, CH 3 [1448*25]-^ 5 
[I449 b i9] 682b-684a 

10 HIPPOCRATES* Ancient Medicine, par 3 ld-2b; 
par 7 3a; par 12 4b-c; par 14, 5a 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK v [1028- 
1104] 74c-75c; [1241-1457] 77b-80a,c 

13 VIRGIL: Georgia, i [121-146] 40b-41a 

24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK iv, 

299a-300b 
30 BACON : Advancement of Learning, 38d-39a / 

Novum Organum, BK i, APH 109 128d-129c 
38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 352a-d 
40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 655d-656a 
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, PART i, 239a-b; 

252a-c; PART n, 261 b 
49 DARWIN: Descent of Man, 278a-279c; 298a- 

301cj 329c; 348d-349d; 567c-571a esp 569d- 

570a, 570d 

52 DOSTOEVSKY: Brothers Karamazov, BK x, 
284b-d 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 727b-728a 

54 FREUD: General Introduction, 512d-513a / 
Group Psychology, 670a-b; 692a-693a / 
Cwilization and Its Discontents, 778b,d [fn 2] 
/ New Introductory Lectures, 862d 



12. The history of the arts: progress in art as 

measuring stages of civilization 
4 HOMER: Iliad, BK iv [104-111] 25a; BK ix 
[185-189] 59a; BK xi [15-46] 72b-c; BK xvm 
[368-617] 133d-136d/ Odyssey,vKix [105-115] 
230b 

6 HERODOTUS: History, BK i, 5b; 5d-6a; BK n, 
49d-50a; 75b-76a; BK in, 102c; BK vn, 220d- 
221b 

6 TwjcvniDES.Peloponnesian War, BK i,350b-d 

7 PLATO: Crttias, 479d / Statesman, 602b-c / 
Laws, BK n, 654c-655b; BK in, 675c-676b 

8 ARISTOTLE: Sophistical Refutations, CH 34 
[i83 b i6-i84 b 8] 253a-d / Metaphysics, BK i, 
CH i [98i b i3-24] SOOa; BK xn, CH 8 [i074 b ii] 
605a 

9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK i, CH 7 [1098*21-25] 
343c-d / Politics, BK n, CH 8 [1268^3-1269*29] 
464d-465b / Rhetoric, BK in, CH i [1403^5- 
1404^9] 653b,d-654c / Poetics, CH 4-5 682c- 
684a 

10 HIPPOCRATES: Ancient Medicine, par 1-4 la- 
2c; par 12 4b-c 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK v [324-337] 
65b-c; [925-1160] 73b-76b; [1241-1457] 77b- 
80a,c 

13 VIRGIL: Georgics, i [121-146] 40b-41a 

14 PLUTARCH: Pericles, 127a-129b / Marcellus, 
252a-255a / Aratus, 830b-c 

15 TACITUS: Annals, BK xv, 167c-168a 

18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK xn, CH 10, 
348b-c; BK xvm, CH 13-14 478d-479d; BK 
xxn, CH 24, 610a-c 

19 AQUINAS. Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 46, 
A 2, REP 4 253a-255a 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PURGATORY, xi [79- 
120] 69c-70a; xxiv [49-63] 90a-b 

23 HOB BBS: Leviathan, PART i, 85c; PART iv, 
267c-269b passim 

24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK n, 
81d-82c 

30 BACON: Advancement of Learning la-lOld esp 
la-15a, 18b, 20b-25c, 29a-32c, 33d-34a, 35b- 
36c, 38d-39a, 51d-54b / Novum Organum, 
BK i, APH 85 121d-122d; APH 129 134d-135d 

31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART vi, 61a-c 

36 SWIFT: Gulliver, PART in, 103b-115b esp 
106a-107a 

38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 338d-340a; 346d-347a; 
352a-d; 365b-366b 

39 SMITH: Wealth of Nations, BK i, 6a-d; BK in, 
173d-175b; BK iv, 191a; BK v, 308c-309a,c; 
337d-338c 

40 GIB BON: Decline and Pall, 18b-24a,c; 88d- 
89d; 157d-159a; 171c; 237c-239a; 502d-503a; 
633b-634a,c; 641b-642b; 655d-658b; 661c- 
664d 

41 GIBBON: Decline and Pall, 195d-197a; 225ac; 
291d-292c; 298a-300b; 327a-328a,c; 355a-d; 
451c-452d; 509d-510a,c; 522b-528a,c esp 
528a,c; 573a-574a; 590a-598a passim, esp 
596d-598a 



12 



CHAPTER 4: ART " 



85 



42 KANT: Judgement, 586a-587a 

43 CONSTITUTION OF THE U.S.: ARTICLE i, SECT 8 
[214-217] 13b 

43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 43, 139d-140a 

43 MILL: Representative Government, 367b-c 

44 BOSWELL: Johnson, 70d-71b; 307c-d; 380d- 
381a; 406c, 408d-409a; 446d 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART i, par 69, 
30b; PART in, par 356 113a-b / Philosophy of 
History, INTRO, 153a-b, 182b-c, 185a-186a; 
PARF i, 219b-c; 229b-d, 243d-244c; 247c- 
248d, 251a-b; 253b-c; PART n, 259a-282d esp 
261b, 267b-268b, 276a-d, 277d-278a; PART 



in, 312c-d; PART iv, 323c-d; 335a-d; 346c- 
348a 

49 DARWIN- Origin of Species, 13c; 19c-d / De- 
scent of Man, 278a-279a; 320a-321a; 329a- 
330a,c; 349b-d; 569d 

50 MARX: Capital, 86b-c csp 86d [fn 4]; 181d 

[fn 3l 

50 MARX-ENGELS: Communist Manifesto, 420d- 
421a; 421d 

53 JAMES- Psychology, 727b 

54 FREUD: Civilization and Its Discontents, 776c- 
780b esp 779a-b / New Introductory Lectures, 
882d883b 



CROSS-REFERENCES 

For- The conception of art as a habit of mind or an intellectual virtue, see HABIT 53, 5d; VIRTUE 

AND VICE 23(2). 
The applications of science in the useful arts, see KNOWLEDGE 8a; PHYSICS 5; SCIENCE ib(i), 

3b; and for the dependence of science on art, see PHYSICS 43; SCIENCE ^b, 6a. 
The distinction between art and prudence and the spheres of making and doing, sec 

PRUDENCE 2b. 

Other discussions of art and nature, see NATURE 2a; and for the comparison of artistic pro- 
duction, natural generation, and divine creation, see FORM id(i)-id(2); WORLD 4e(i). 
Experience as a source of art, see EXPERIENCE 3; for the distinction between artist and 

empiric, see EXPERIENCE 33; and for the opposition between art and chance, see CHANCE 5. 
The enjoyment of beauty in nature and in art, see BEAUTY 2; PLEASURE AND PAIN 4c(i) ; and 

for discussions of the aesthetic judgment or the judgment of taste, see BEAUTY 5. 
Other considerations of the educational influence of the arts, see EDUCATION 4d; POETRY 93; 

VIRTUE AND VICE 4d(4); and for the problem of political regulation or censorship of art, 

see EMOTION 5e; POETRY 9b. 
More extended treatments of the liberal arts, see LANGUAGE 4-8; LOGIC; MATHEMATICS; 

RHETORIC; and for an analysis of one of the fine arts, see POETRY. 
Discussions of the useful and industrial arts, see EDUCATION 5a~5b; LABOR 2b; MEDICINE; 

PROGRESS 3C, 43, 6a; STATE 8d-8d(3); WAR AND PEACE lo-iof; WEALTH 3C~3d. 



ADDITIONAL READINGS 

Listed below are works not included in Great Booths of the Western World, but relevant to the 
idea and topics with which this chapter deals. These works are divided into two groups: 

I. Works by authors represented in this collection. 
II. Works by authors not represented in this collection. 

For the date, place, and other facts concerning the publication of the works cited, consult 
the Bibliography of Additional Readings which follows the last chapter of The Great Ideas. 



I. 

DANTE. Convivio (The Banquet) 
HUME. Of the Rise and Progress of the Arts and Sciences 
ROUSSEAU. Discourse on the Arts and Sciences 
A. SMITH. "Of the Affinity Between Music, Danc- 
ing and Poetry," in Essays Philosophical and 
Literary 



HEGEL. The Phenomenology of Mind, vn (B) 

. The Philosophy of Mind, SECT m, SUB-SECT A 

. The Philosophy of Fine Art 

GOETHE. Poetry and Truth 

. Travels in Italy 

. Conversations with Ec^ermann 

. Maxims and Reflections 

J. S. MILL. A System of Logic, BK vi, CH n 



86 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



TOLSTOY. What Is Art? 
FREUD. Leonardo da Vinci 

. The Theme of the Three Caskfts 

. The Moses of Michelangelo 

. A Childhood Memory from "Dichtung und 

Wahrheit" 

II. 

EPICURUS. Letter to Herodotus 

HORACE. The Art of Poetry 

VITRUVIUS. On Architecture 

QUINTILIAN. InstitutioOratona (Institutes of Oratory), 

BK XII 

BONA VENTURA. On the Reduction of the Arts to The- 
ology 

LEONARDO DA VINCI. Notebooks 

. A Treatise on Painting 

CELLINI. Aut6biography 

SuAREZ. Disputationes Metaphysicae, XLIV (13) 

CORNEILLE. Trois discours sur Van dramatique 

. Examens 

J. HARRIS, Three Treatises. The First Concerning An. 
The Second Concerning Music, Painting, and Poetry. 
The Third Concerning Happiness 

BURKE. A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of 
Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful 

VOLTAIRE. "Fine Arts," in A Philosophical Diction- 
ary 

LESSING. Laocoon 

BEATTIE. An Essay on Poetry and Music 

HERDER. Plasti^ 

JOSHUA REYNOLDS. Discourses on Art 

SCHILLER. Letters upon the Esthetic Education of Man 

SCHELLINO. Philosophic der Kunst 

COLERIDGE. Biographia Literaria, CH 4 

SCHOPENHAUER. The World as Will and Idea, VOL i, 
BK in; VOL in, SUP, CH 34-36 

WHEWELL. The Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences, 

VOL II, BK XI, CH 8 

EMERSON. "Art," in Essays, i 
E. DELACROIX. Journal 
BAUDELAIRE. Curiosity's esthetiques 
COMTE. System of Positive Polity, VOL i, General View 
of Positivism, CH 5 



LOTZE. Microcosmos, BK vin, CH 3 

BURCKHARDT. The Civilization of the Renaissance in 
Italy 

RUSKIN. Modern Painters 

. The Stones of Venice 

. Sesame and Lilies 

TAINE. The Philosophy of Art 

E. HARTMAN, Philosophy of the Unconscious, (B) v 

ARNOLD. Essays in Criticism 

VAN GOGH. Letters 

MORRIS. Hopes and Fears for Art 

. Art and Socialism 

. The Aims of Art 

GUYAU. V art au point de vue sociologique 

NIETZSCHE. The Will to Power, BK in (4) 

BRUNETIERE. An Apology for Rhetoric 

FRAZER. The Golden Bough, PART i, CH 17 

GROSSE. The Beginnings of Art 

SHAW. The Sanity of Art 

HIRN. The Origins of Art 

MANN. Tonio Kroger 

SANTAYANA. Reason in Art 

CROCE. Aesthetic as Science of Expression 

. The Essence of Esthetics 

HARRISON. Ancient Art and Ritual 

BOSANQUET. Three Lectures on Aesthetic, 11 

T. VEBLEN. The Instinct of Workmanship, and the 
State of the Industrial Arts, CH 2-4, 6-7 

. The Vested Interests and the State of the Indus- 
trial Arts, CH 3 

ALAIN. Systtme des beaux-arts 

MARITAIN. Art and Scholasticism 

. An Introduction to Philosophy, PART n (9) 

ABERCROMBIE. An Essay Towards a Theory of Art 

LALO. Van et la morale 

ORTEGA Y GASSET. The Dehumanization of Art 

RANK Art and Artist 

H. DELACROIX. Psychologte de I' art 

GILL, Art-Nonsense 

COOMARASWAMY. The Transformation of Nature in 
Art 

DEWEY. Art as Experience 

MUMFORD. Technics and Civilization 

ADLER. Art and Prudence 



Chapter 5: ASTRONOMY 



INTRODUCTION 



ASTRONOMY could take its place in this 
1\ catalog of ideas on the ground that several 
of the great books are monuments of astronom- 
ical science, exemplifying the imaginative and 
analytical powers which have made it one of the 
most remarkable triumphs of the human mind. 
Its claim might further be supported by the 
fact that other great books of mathematics, 
physics, theology, and poetry have a context 
of astronomical imagery and theory. But the in- 
clusion of astronomy can be justified by what is 
perhaps an even more significant fact, namely, 
that astronomical speculation raises problems 
and suggests conclusions which have critical rel- 
evance for the whole range of the great ideas. 

Man has used astronomy to measure, not only 
the passage of time or the course of a voyage, 
but also his position in the world, his power of 
knowing, his relation to God. When man first 
turns from himself and his immediate earthly 
surroundings to the larger universe of which he 
is a part, the object which presses on his vision 
is the overhanging firmament with its luminous 
bodies, moving with great basic regularity and, 
upon closer observation, with certain perplex- 
ing irregularities. Always abiding and always 
changing, the firmament, which provides man 
with the visible boundary of his universe, also 
becomes for him a basic, in fact an inescapable, 
object of contemplation. 

Careful and precise astronomical observa- 
tions antedate the birth of astronomy as a 
science. The early interest in the heavenly bod- 
ies and their motions is often attributed to the 
usefulness of the predictions which can be made 
from a knowledge of celestial phenomena. 

Whether their motive was entirely utilitar- 
ian, or partly religious and speculative, the 
Egyptians and Babylonians, we learn from 
Herodotus, undertook patient study of the 
heavens. They observed and recorded with 



immense persistence. They calculated and pre- 
dicted. They turned their predictions to use 
through the priestly office of prophecy to fore- 
tell eclipses, tides, and floods, and they em- 
ployed their calculations in the mundane arts of 
navigation and surveying to guide travel and 
fix boundaries. But they did not, like the Greeks, 
develop elaborate theories which sought to or- 
ganize all the observed facts systematically. 

With the Greeks, the down-to-earth, every- 
day utility of astronomy seems to count for 
less than its speculative grandeur. The dignity 
which they confer upon astronomy among the 
disciplines reflects the scope and majesty of its 
subject matter. The Greek astronomer, con- 
cerned as he is with figuring motions that range 
through the whole of space and are as old as 
time or as interminable, takes for his object the 
structure of the cosmos. 

Aristotle and Plato pay eloquent tribute to 
the special worth of astronomy. In the opening 
chapters of his Metaphysics^ Aristotle associates 
astronomical inquiry with the birth of philos- 
ophy. "Apart from usefulness," he says, "men 
delight ... in the sense of sight" and, he adds, 
"it is owing to their wonder that men both now 
begin and at first began to philosophise." They 
wondered first about "the obvious difficulties," 
but little by little they advanced to "greater 
matters," and "stated difficulties . . . about the 
phenomena of the moon and sun and stars, and 
about the genesis of the universe." In his own 
philosophical thought, Aristotle's treatise On 
the Heavens is not only one of the basic natural 
sciences, but certain of its principles have gen- 
eral significance for all the other parts of his 
physical science. 

A wider view of the importance of astronomy 
is taken by Plato. In the Timaeus, he dwells on 
"the higher use and purpose for which God has 
given eyes to us. ... Had we never seen the 



87 



88 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



stars, and the sun, and the heaven," Timaeus 
says, "none of the words which we have spoken 
about the universe would ever have been ut- 
tered. . . . God invented and gave us sight," he 
continues, "to the end that we might behold 
the courses of intelligence in the heaven, and 
apply them to the courses of our own intelli- 
gence which are akin to them, the unperturbed 
to the perturbed; and that we, learning them 
and partaking of the natural truth of reason, 
might imitate the absolutely unerring courses 
of God and regulate our own vagaries." 

For Plato, then, man's intellectual relation to 
the heavens does more than initiate philosophy. 
Man's self-rule, his purity and peace of soul, is 
at stake in that relation. That is one reason why, 
in both the Republic and. the Laws, Plato makes 
astronomy a required part of the curriculum 
for the education of rulers. "He who has not 
contemplated the mind of nature which is said 
to exist in the stars . . . and seen the connection 
of music with these things, and harmonized 
them all with laws and institutions, is not able," 
the Athenian Stranger says in the Laws, "to 
give a reason for such things as have a reason." 

Plato considers the opposition to astronomy 
on religious grounds by those who think that 
men who approach celestial phenomena by the 
methods of astronomy "may become godless 
because they see ... things happening by ne- 
cessity, and not by an intelligent will accom- 
plishing good." His answer points out that one 
of the "two things which lead men to believe in 
the gods ... is the argument fiom the order of 
the motion of the stars and of all things under 
the dominion of the mind which ordered the 
universe." It was a false understanding of these 
matters which "gave rise to much atheism and 
perplexity." 

THE ISSUES RAISED by Plato concerning the im- 
portance of astronomy for purification and pi- 
ety, for education and politics, run through the 
tradition of western thought. Though they are 
somewhat transformed in the context of Jewish 
and Christian beliefs, and altered by later de- 
velopments in the science of astronomy itself, 
they remain as matters on which an author's 
strong assent or dissent forcefully reflects his 
whole intellectual position. 
On the one hand, astronomers like Ptolemy, 



Copernicus, and Kepler, for all their differences 
on points of scientific theory, seem to concur in 
reaffirming Plato's conception of the bearing of 
their science on religion and morals. Lucretius 
and Augustine, on the other hand, while not 
agreeing with each other, seem to disagree with 
Plato. In the tradition of western thought, they 
represent different types of opposition to the 
Platonic view. 

Where Plato and his followers, including re- 
ligious Christians like Copernicus and Kep- 
ler, hold that true piety profits from astronom- 
ical study, Lucretius hopes that astronomy may 
help to free men from religious superstitions. If 
when they * 'gaze on the heavenly quarters of the 
great upper world" and direct their thoughts 
"to the courses of the sun and moon," they do 
so with "a mind at peace" because they see only 
the workings of natural law and no evidences of 
a controlling power in the will of the gods, then 
men achieve the natural piety of the scientist 
different m the opinion of Lucretius from the 
false worship which is based on fear. 

From his own experiences in dealing with the 
astronomy of the Mamchean sect in relation to 
their religious doctrine, Augustine insists that 
the teachings of religion in no way depend upon 
astronomy. He denies that such knowledge is in 
any way essential to true piety. Though a man 
does not know "even the circles of the Great 
Bear, yet is it folly to doubt," he writes, "that 
he is in a better state than one who can measure 
the heavens and number the stars, and poise the 
elements, yet neglecteth Thee 'Who hast made 
all things m number, weight, and measure.' " 

When Faustus, the leader of the Mamcheans, 
"was found out to have taught falsely of the 
heaven and stars, and of the motions of the sun 
and moon (although these dungs pertain not to 
the doctrine of religion)," his religious teach- 
ings, according to Augustine, inevitably suffered 
ridicule because of his pretension that they de- 
rived support from a science of the heavenly 
bodies. Augustine would disengage theology 
from astronomy. His position anticipates that 
later taken by Cardinal Barbenni who, during 
the controversy over the Copernican hypothe- 
sis, is reported to have told Galileo that as- 
tronomy and religion have quite separate tasks, 
the one teaching how the heavens go, the other 
how to go to heaven. 



CHAPTER 5: ASTRONOMY 



89 



Still another point of view on the importance 
of astronomy is represented in the skeptical and 
humanist attitude of Montaigne. "I am very 
well pleased with the Milesian girl," he remarks, 
"who . . . advised the philosopher Thales rather 
to look to himself than to gaze at heaven." In 
saying this, or in quoting with approval the 
question asked of Pythagoras by Anaximenes 
"To what purpose should I trouble myself in 
searching out the secrets of the stars, having 
death or slavery continually before my eyes?" 
Montaigne intends more than a preference 
for the moral over the natural sciences. He re- 
gards astronomical inquiry as a prime example 
of man's "natural and original disease pre- 
sumption." It is presumptuous to suppose that 
our minds can grasp and plot the course of the 
heavens when we fail to comprehend things 
much nearer at hand. Hence Montaigne ad- 
vises everyone to say, in the spirit of Anaxi- 
menes: "Being assaulted as I am by ambition, 
avarice, temerity, superstition, and having so 
many other enemies of life, shall I go cudgel 
my brains about the world's revolutions?" 

Kant can be as critical as Montaigne of the 
frailty of human knowledge. "The investiga- 
tions and calculations of the astronomers," he 
writes, have shown us "the abyss of our igno- 
rance in relation to the universe." But Kant an 
astronomer himself as well as a moralist does 
not, therefore, advise us to forsake the study of 
the heavens. On the contrary, he recommends 
it not only for its scientific value, but for its 
moral significance. 

"Two things," Kant declares in a passage 
which has become famous, "fill the mind with 
ever new and increasing admiration and awe, 
the oftener and more steadily we reflect on 
them: the starry heavens above and the moral 
law within." The two fit together to produce a 
single effect. Astronomy with its view "of a 
countless multitude of worlds annihilates, as it 
were, my importance as an animal creature." 
Morality "elevates my worth as an intelligence 
by my personality, in which the moral law re- 
veals to me a life independent of animality and 
even of the whole sensible world." 

Kant's association of the starry heavens with 
the moral life is not so much an echo of, as a 
variant upon, Plato's precept that we apply 
"the courses of intelligence in heaven ... to the 



courses of our own intelligence." But in one 
passage of Freud we find an almost complete re- 
turn to the Platonic insight. "Order has been 
imitated from nature," he writes; "man's ob- 
servations of the great astronomical periodici- 
ties not only furnished him with a model, but 
formed the ground plan of his first attempts to 
introduce order into his own life." 

ASTRONOMY HAS connections with biology and 
psychology, as well as with mathematics and 
physics. The obvious fact that the sun supports 
terrestrial life operating here as a unique and 
indispensable cause occasions the inference by 
Aquinas that it may also operate as a cause in 
the production of new species by spontaneous 
generation from putrefying matter. This no- 
tion bears some resemblance to the theory in 
contemporary genetics of the effect of cosmic 
radiations upon gene mutations. 

Unlike these notions in biology, speculations 
concerning celestial influences upon psycho- 
logical phenomena seem to cross the line be- 
tween astronomy and astrology. Sometimes the 
influence upon man and his actions is found in 
the constellations attending a nativity; some- 
times it is a particular influence of the sort still 
signified by the meaning of the word "lunacy"; 
and sometimes omens and auguries are read in 
the aspect of the heavens. 

The chapters on PROPHECY and SIGN AND 
SYMBOL deal with the issues raised by astrol- 
ogy. Problems more closely associated with 
astronomical science and speculation are treat- 
ed in other chapters. The cosmological prob- 
lem of the origin of the material universe 
is discussed in the chapters on ETERNITY, 
TIME, and WORLD; the question of its size in the 
chapter on SPACE; the question of whether the 
celestial spheres are themselves alive or are 
moved by intelligences or spirits in the chapters 
on ANGEL and SOUL; and the question of the 
nature of the heavenly bodies in the chapter on 
MATTER. 

This last problem is of crucial significance in 
the history of astronomy itself. Opposed the- 
ories of the motions of the heavenly bodies be- 
come correlated with opposed theories con- 
cerning their matter whether that is different 
in kind from terrestrial matter or the same. It 
is with reference to these related issues that what 



90 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



has come to be called "the Copernican revo- 
lution" represents one of the great crises, cer- 
tainly one of the most dramatic turning points, 
in the development of astronomy, and of phys- 
ics and natural science generally. 

The Copernican revolution did not take place 
by the improvement and enlargement of astro- 
nomical observations alone, nor even by the ef- 
fect of these on alternative mathematical for- 
mulations. If it had not been accompanied by 
the radical shift from ancient to modern physics 
especially with regard to the diversity or uni- 
formity of the world's matter the Copernican 
hypothesis concerning the celestial motions 
would have been no more than a mathematical 
alternative to the Ptolemaic hypothesis. Coper- 
nicus seems to advance it only as such, but in the 
hands of Kepler, Galileo, and Newton it be- 
comes much more than that. They, rather than 
Copernicus, seem to accomplish the revolution 
connected with his name. 

When their contribution is neglected or in- 
adequately grasped, the Copernican revolution 
appears to be, as is often popularly supposed, 
merely a shift in astronomical theory. The prob- 
lem being to organize mathematically the ap- 
parent motions of the heavens, Copernicus of- 
fers an alternative solution to that of Ptolemy. 
Instead of treating the earth as stationary and 
central in the cosmic system, Copernicus at- 
tributes three motions to the earth by treating 
it as a planet which revolves around the sun, 
spins on its axis, and varies the inclination of its 
axis with reference to the sun. 

What is usually supposed to be revolutionary 
about this hypothesis is its effect on man's esti- 
mate of himself and his place or rank in the 
universe. On either of the rival hypotheses, the 
apparent motions of the heavens remain unal- 
tered, but not man's conception of himself, of 
his earth, or of the universe in which the earth's 
orbit cuts so small a figure. As Kant suggests, 
man's stature seems to shrink. He becomes "a 
mere speck in the universe" which has been en- 
larged to infinity, or at least to an unimaginable 
immensity. He is displaced from its center to 
become a wanderer with his planet. Humanity's 
self-esteem, according to Freud, was thus for 
the first time deeply wounded; he refers to the 
theory that "is associated in our minds with the 
name of Copernicus" as the ' 'first great outrage" 



which humanity "had to endure from the 
hands of science." 

It has been questioned whether this interpre- 
tation of the Copernican revolution fits all the 
documents in the case. Freud may be accurately 
reporting a popular feeling which, since the 1 8th 
century, has become a widespread consequence 
of Copernican and post-Copermcan astronomy. 
But in earlier centuries when the Ptolemaic 
system prevailed, or even after Copernicus, the 
appraisal of man's rank seems to depend more 
upon the position he occupies in the hierarchy 
of God's creatures below the angels and above 
the brutes than upon the place or motion of 
the earth, or the size of the world. 

Boethius, for example, finds the Ptolemaic 
universe large enough to remind man of the 
infinitesimal space he occupies. Dante, too, 
comments on the smallness of the earth in the 
scheme of things. When in his visionary travel 
Dante reaches the Empyrean, he looks down 
upon the earth and "with my sight," he tells us, 
"I returned through all and each of the seven 
spheres, and saw this globe, such that I smiled at 
its mean semblance; and that counsel I approve 
as best which holds it of least account." 

Kepler, a passionate Copernican deeply con- 
cerned with the human significance of astron- 
omy, can be found arguing that the new hy- 
pothesis involves something more fitting for 
man than the old. In his last argument in de- 
fense of the Copernican view against that of 
Tycho Brahe as well as that of Ptolemy, he de- 
clares, "it was not fitting that man, who was 
going to be the dweller in this world and its 
contemplator, should reside in one place as in a 
closed cubicle. ... It was his office to move 
around in this very spacious edifice by means of 
the transportation of the Earth his home." In 
order properly to view and measure the parts 
of his world, the astronomer "needed to have 
the Earth a ship and its annual voyage around 
the sun." 

Yet the very fact that Kepler argues in this 
manner may be interpreted as indicating his 
sense of the drastic implications for man of the 
altered structure of the universe. Kepler may 
even be thought to announce the problem of the 
so-called "Copernican revolution" when, in de- 
nying that the earth can any longer "be reck- 
oned among the primary parts of the great 



CHAPTER 5: ASTRONOMY 



91 



world," since it is only a part of a part, i.e., the 
planetary region, he deliberately adds the quali- 
fication: "But I am speaking now of the Earth 
in so far as it is a part of the edifice of the world, 
and not of the dignity of the governing crea- 
tures which inhabit it." 

Whether or not it was the traumatic blow to 
the human ego which Freud conjectures, there 
can be little doubt that the shift from Ptolemy 
to Copernicus involved a real shock to the imag- 
ination. The Ptolemaic system conforms to the 
look of the world, which is indeed the reason 
why it is still the one used in practical courses in 
navigation. Here again Kepler defends Coperni- 
cus by explaining why "our uncultivated eye- 
sight" cannot be other than deceived and why 
it "should learn from reason" to understand 
that things are really different from the way they 
appear. 

A certain disillusionment may result from 
this affirmation repeated by every schoolboy 
who is taught the Copernican system that, de- 
spite what we see, the sun does not move around 
the earth, and the earth both rotates and re- 
volves. It undermines the trust men placed in 
their senses and the belief that science would 
describe the world as they saw it. In order to 
"save the appearances," that is, to account for 
the phenomena, science might henceforward be 
expected to destroy any naive acceptance of 
them as the reality. 

Furthermore, though the Ptolemaic world 
was very large, the Copernican universe was 
much larger. Whereas in the former the radius 
of the earth was deemed negligible in relation to 
the radius of the sphere of the fixed stars, in the 
new universe the radius of the earth's orbit 
around the sun was negligible in relation to the 
same radius of the sphere of the fixed stars. It 
can hardly be doubted that this intensified some 
men's sense of almost being lost in an abyss of 
infinity. "I see those frightful spaces of the uni- 
verse which surround me," Pascal writes, "and 
I find myself tied to one corner of this vast ex- 
panse, without knowing why I am put in this 
place rather than in another." When he regards 
the world's immensity as "the greatest sensible 
mark of the almighty power of God," Pascal ex- 
periences an awe which for him is qualified by 
reverence. Other men may experience the same 
feeling, but less with reverence than with a 



gnawing loneliness, born of the doubt that so 
vast a cosmosif cosmos it is rather than chaos 
can have been beneficently designed as man's 
habitation. 

WHATEVER THE TRUTH about the effect of the 
Copernican theory in the order of opinion, im- 
agination, and feeling, it did produce a direct 
result on the intellectual plane. It, more than 
any other single factor, led to the overthrow of 
certain crucial doctrines which had been linked 
together in the physics and astronomy of Aris- 
totle; it thus radically changed the fundamen- 
tal principles in terms of which man had under- 
stood the order and unity of nature. That scien- 
tific event deserves not only the name but the 
fame of the "Copernican revolution." 

The revolution in the realm of theory goes 
much deeper than the substitution of one math- 
ematical construction for another to describe 
the motions of the world's great bodies. As 
Freud points out, the heliocentric hypothesis 
associated with the name of Copernicus was 
known to the Alexandrian astronomers of anti- 
quity. It is, for example, attributed to Aris- 
tarchus by Archimedes in the Sand-Reckoner. 

As far as the earth's rotation is concerned, 
Ptolemy admits it is quite "plausible" to sup- 
pose "the heavens immobile and the earth turn- 
ing on the same axis from west to east very 
nearly one revolution a day. ... As far as the 
appearances of the stars are concerned," he goes 
on, "nothing would perhaps keep things from 
being in accordance with this simpler con- 
jecture." 

Why, then, does Ptolemy reject a supposi- 
tion which is not only plausible but also, in 
accounting for the appearances, simpler^ In part 
the answer may be that he does so because the 
contrary supposition conforms to our ordinary 
sense-experience of the earth's immobility and 
the motions of the heavens from east to west. 
But that is far from being the most important 
part of the answer. Ptolemy indicates the cru- 
cial part when he tells us that the otherwise 
plausible supposition of a rotating earth be- 
comes "altogether absurd" when we consider 
the speed and direction of the motions of bodies 
within the earth's own atmosphere. His strong- 
est count against the supposition is that it does 
not conform to the Aristotelian physics which 



92 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



distinguishes between natural and violent mo- 
tions, assigns certain fixed directions to the nat- 
ural motions of each of the four elements of 
matter, and denies that these elementary kinds 
of terrestrial matter enter into the composition 
of the heavenly bodies. 

That Aristotle's physics and cosmology lie at 
the very heart of the issue is confirmed by the 
way in which Kepler later argues for the Coper- 
nican theory against Ptolemy. He does not de- 
fend its truth on the ground that it accounts for 
observable facts which the Ptolemaic hypoth- 
esis cannot handle. Nor does he prefer it merely 
because it is mathematically the simpler hy- 
pothesis. On the contrary, he specifically notes 
that anything which can be claimed on math- 
ematical grounds for Copernicus over Ptolemy 
can be equally claimed for Tycho Brahe over 
Ptolemy. (Brahe's theory was that while the 
other planets revolve around the sun, the sun, 
with its planets, revolves around a stationary 
earth.) According to Kepler, the truth of these 
competing theories must finally be judged phys- 
ically, not mathematically j and when the ques- 
tion is put that way, as it is not by Copernicus 
himself, Copernicans like Kepler, Galileo, and 
Newton take issue with what had been asso- 
ciated with the Ptolemaic theory the physics 
of Aristotle. 

IN ORDER TO EXAMINE this issue, it is necessary 
to state briefly here certain features of Aris- 
totle's physics which are more fully discussed 
in the chapters on CHANGE, ELEMENT, ME- 
CHANICS, and PHYSICS. 

Just as Ptolemy's astronomy conforms to 
what we see as we look at the heavens, so Aris- 
totle's physics represents a too simple conform- 
ity with everyday sense-experience. We observe 
fire rising and stones falling. Mix earth, air, and 
water in a closed container, and air bubbles will 
rise to the top, while the particles of earth will 
sink to the bottom. To cover a multitude of 
similar observations, Aristotle develops the 
theory of the natural motions and places of the 
four terrestrial elements earth, air, fire, and 
water. Since bodies move naturally only to at- 
tain their proper places, the great body which 
is the earth, already at the bottom of all things, 
need not move at all. Being in its proper place, 
it is by nature stationary. 



Two other observations exercise a decisive 
influence on Aristotle's theory. The naked eye 
sees no type of change in the heavenly bodies 
other than local motion or change of place. Un- 
like terrestrial bodies, they do not appear to 
come into being or perish; they do not change 
in size or quality. Furthermore, whereas the 
natural local motion of sub-lunary bodies ap- 
pears to approximate the path of a straight line, 
the local motion of the celestial bodies appears 
to be circular rather than rectilinear. 

To cover these observations, Aristotle's the- 
ory posits a different kind of matter for celestial 
and terrestrial bodies. An incorruptible matter 
must constitute the great orbs which are sub- 
ject to local motion alone and have the most 
perfect kind of local motion that of a circle. 
Since they are subject to generation and cor- 
ruption, to change of quality and quantity, and 
are in local motion along straight lines, terres- 
trial bodies are of a corruptible matter. 

The interconnection of all these points is 
marked by Aquinas when he summarizes Aris- 
totle's doctrine. "Plato and all who preceded 
Aristotle," he writes, "held that all bodies are 
of the nature of the four elements" and con- 
sequently "that the matter of all bodies is the 
same. But the fact of the incorruptibility of 
some bodies was ascribed by Plato, not to the 
condition of matter, but to the will of the 
artificer, God. . , . This theory," Aquinas con- 
tinues, "Aristotle disproves by the natural 
movements of bodies. For since he says that 
the heavenly bodies have a natural movement, 
different from that of the elements, it follows 
that they have a different nature from them. 
For movement in a circle, which is proper to 
the heavenly bodies, is not by contraries, where- 
as the movements of the elements are mutually 
opposite, one tending upwards, another down- 
wards. . . . And as generation and corruption 
are from contraries, it follows that, whereas the 
elements are corruptible, the heavenly bodies 
are incorruptible." 

The same points which Aquinas relates in his 
defense of the Aristotelian theory, Kepler also 
puts together when he expounds that theory in 
order to attack it and the Ptolemaic astronomy 
which tries to conform to it. "By what argu- 
ments did the ancients establish their opinion 
which is the opposite of yours?" he asks. "By 



CHAPTER 5: ASTRONOMY 



93 



four arguments in especial: (i) From the na- 
ture of moveable bodies. (2) From the nature 
of the motor virtue. (3) From the nature of the 
place in which the movement occurs. (4) From 
the perfection of the circle." He then states each 
of these arguments, and answers each in turn. 

WHAT is EXTRAORDINARY about Kepler's attack 
upon the Ptolemaic astronomy cannot be un- 
derstood without examining Ptolemy's defense 
of his theory, a defense which Copernicus meets 
in Ptolemy's own terms rather than, as Kepler 
does, by going outside them. 

Though his expressed intention was to con- 
struct a mathematical theory of the celestial 
motions which would also conform to Aris- 
totle's physics, Ptolemy, when he finished, 
recognized that the complications he had been 
compelled to add in order "to save the appear- 
ances" left him with a theory that did not con- 
form to Aristotle's doctrine of the perfect cir- 
cular motion of the heavenly spheres. Instead 
of abandoning Aristotle's physics, he defended 
his theory on the ground that astronomy, being 
mathematical rather than physical, could ad- 
mit such "unrealistic" complications if they 
served the purposes of calculation and of "sav- 
ing the appearances." 

In the thirteenth and last book of the Alma- 
gest> when he faces the fact that his mathemat- 
ical devices have become exceedingly difficult 
and strained from the point of view of the 
Aristotelian reality Ptolemy writes: "Let no 
one, seeing the difficulty of our devices, find 
troublesome such hypotheses. ... It is proper 
to try and fit as far as possible the simpler 
hypotheses to the movements of the heavens; 
and if this does not succeed, then any hypoth- 
eses possible. Once all the appearances are 
saved by the consequences of the hypotheses, 
why should it seem strange that such compli- 
cations can come about in the movements of 
heavenly things?" We ought not to judge the 
simplicity of heavenly things by comparison 
with what seems to be simple in the explanation 
of earthly phenomena. "We should instead 
judge their simplicity from the unchangeable- 
ness of the natures in the heavens and their 
movements. For thus they would all appear 
simple, more than those things which seem so 
here with us." 



Ignoring the supposition that simplicity must 
be judged differently in different spheres, Co- 
pernicus challenges Ptolemy on his own grounds 
when he proposes "simpler hypotheses" to fit 
"the movements of the heavens." But in doing 
so, he seems to adopt the traditional view of the 
mathematical character of astronomical hy- 
potheses. Yet, as will appear, he does not adopt 
this view in the unqualified form in which 
Osiander states it in his Preface to the Revolu- 
tions of the Heavenly Spheres. 

"It is the job of the astronomer," Osiander 
writes, "to use painstaking and skilled observa- 
tion in gathering together the history of the 
celestial movements, and then since he cannot 
by any line of reasoning reach the true causes 
of these movements to think or construct 
whatever causes or hypotheses he pleases, such 
that, by the assumption of these causes, these 
same movements can be calculated from the 
principles of geometry, for the past and for the 
future too. 

"It is not necessary," he adds, "that these 
hypotheses should be true, or even probable; 
it is enough if they provide a calculus which 
fits the observations. When for one and the 
same movement varying hypotheses arc pro- 
posed, as eccentricity or epicycle for the move- 
ment of the sun, the astronomer much prefers 
to take the one which is easiest to grasp." 

What distinguishes Kepler from both Ptol- 
emy and Osiander is the way in which he is 
concerned with the truth of alternative hypoth- 
eses in astronomy. He looks upon the truth of 
an hypothesis as something to be judged not 
merely in mathematical terms according to the 
adequacy and simplicity of a calculating de- 
vice, but to be measured by its conformity to 
all the physical realities. At the very beginning 
of his Epitome of Copernican Astronomy, he 
flatly declares that "astronomy is part of phys- 
ics." And in the opening pages of the fourth 
book, he insists that astronomy has not one, 
but "two ends: to save the appearances and to 
contemplate the true form of the edifice of the 
World." He follows this immediately by ob- 
serving that, if astronomy had only the first 
end, Tycho Brahe's theory would be as satis- 
factory as that of Copernicus. 

Early in his scientific career, before writing 
the Epitome, Kepler asserts that "one cannot 



94 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



leave to the astronomer absolute license to feign 
no matter what hypotheses." He complains that 
astronomers "too often . . . constrain their 
thought from exceeding the lirmtsof geometry." 

It is necessary to go beyond geometry into 
physics to test the consequences of competing 
hypotheses which are equally good mathemat- 
ically. "You must seek the foundations of your 
astronomy," he tells his fellow scientists, "in 
a more elevated science, I mean in physics or 
metaphysics." 

Because Kepler thus conceives the task and 
truth of astronomy, Duhem in his great history 
of astronomy calls him a "realistic Copernican." 
Galileo also, Duhem thinks, was a realistic 
Copernican. "To confirm by physics the Co- 
pernican hypotheses," he writes, "is the center 
towards which converge Galileo's observations 
as an astronomer and his terrestrial mechanics." 

Newton was the third member of this trium- 
virate, For him there remained the solution of 
the problem of deducing Kepler's formulation 
of the planetary orbits in a manner consistent 
with Galileo's laws of motion in the dynamics 
of bodies falling on the earth's surface. But the 
very posing of this problem itself depended on 
the insight that terrestrial and celestial me- 
chanics can proceed according to the same prin- 
ciples and laws. That insight entailed the com- 
plete overthrow of the ancient physics, with its 
division of the universe into two distinct parts, 
having different kinds of matter and different 
laws of motion. 

COPERNICUS, WHO, despite Osiander's apolo- 
getics, believed his theory to be true, did not 
himself face the great point at issue in the 
Copernican revolution the material uniform- 
ity of the physical universe. We shall subse- 
quently consider the question of the truth of 
astronomical hypotheses, but whether or not 
Copernicus and the Copernicans had in their 
own day a right to believe their theory true, 
it was the acceptance of the Copernican hy- 
pothesis as true which led Kepler and Galileo 
to deny the truth of Aristotelian physics. 

If the earth is not at the center and station- 
ary, then the basic doctrine of a natural direc- 
tion in motion and a natural place of rest for 
the various elements is completely upset. If the 
earth is one of the planets, then anything true 



on the earthor of the earth, such as Gilbert's 
theory of the magnetic fields generated by the 
earth's axial rotation could be equally true oi 
all the other planets. 

"Read the philosophy of magnetism of the 
Englishman William Gilbert," writes Kepler; 
"for in that book, although the author did not 
believe that the Earth moved . . . nevertheless 
he attributes a magnetic nature to it by very 
many arguments. Therefore, it is by no means 
absurd or incredible that any one of the pri- 
mary planets should be, what one of the pri- 
mary planets, namely, the Earth, is." Such a 
statement plainly shows that when the earth 
becomes a planet, as it does in Copernican 
theory, no obstacle remains to the assertion oi 
a homogeneity between the earth and the othei 
planets both in matter and motion. The old 
physical dualism of a supralunar and a sublunar 
world is abandoned. 

"Not the movement of the earth," White- 
head remarks, "but the glory of the heavens 
was the point at issue," for to assert the heavens 
to be of the same stuff and subject to the same 
laws as the rest of nature brings them down tc 
the plane of earthly physics. That is precisely 
what Newton finally does when, in the enun- 
ciation of his Third Rule of reasoning in natural 
philosophy, he dryly but explicitly completes 
the Copernican Revolution. Those "qualities 
of bodies . . . which are found to belong to all 
bodies within the reach of our experiments, 
are," Newton maintains, "to be esteemed the 
universal qualities of all bodies whatsoever," 

In the bifurcated world of ancient theory, 
astronomy had a very special place among the 
natural sciences, proportionate to the "glory 
of the heavens." But with Newton it could be 
completely merged into a general mechanics 
whose laws of motion have universal applica- 
tin. That merger, begun by Newton, has been 
perfected since his day. The last obstacle to the 
generalization lay in the apparent discrepancies 
between electrical phenomena on the subatomic 
scale and gravitational phenomena on the astro- 
nomic scale. But in our own time the unified field 
equations of Einstein's theory of relativity em- 
brace the very large and the very small motions 
of matter within a single conceptual scheme, 
with radical consequences for the revision oi 
the Newtonian or classical mechanics. 



CHAPTER 5: ASTRONOMY 



95 



But the unification of nature which Kepler 
began and Newton completed, when set against 
Aristotle's physics, may be even more radical. 
Newton's theory, because of the amazing way 
in which it covered the widest variety of phe- 
nomena by the simplest, most universal for- 
mula, is considered by Kant to have * 'estab- 
lished the truth of that which Copernicus at 
first assumed only as an hypothesis." But the 
larger contribution, in Whitehead's opinion, is 
"the idea of the neutrality of situation and the 
universality of physical laws . . . holding indif- 
ferently in every part." 

Whatever position we take today concerning 
the kind of truth which is possessed by hypoth- 
eses in mathematical physics, we now demand, 
in the spirit of the three Copernicans Kepler, 
Galileo, and, above all, Newton that physical 
hypotheses account at once for all the phenom- 
ena of the inanimate universe. Whatever the 
truth of modern as opposed to ancient physics, 
the Newtonian universe is so thoroughly estab- 
lished in our minds and feelings that, when we 
are reminded of the other universe in which 
men lived before the Copermcan revolution, 
we tend to think it quaint, incredible, prepos- 
terous, superstitious, none of which it was. 

Finally, from the point of view of our under- 
standing of natural science itself, the astro- 
nomical controversy we have been considering 
is almost an archetypical model. It is necessary, 
of course, to appreciate the real achievement of 
Ptolemy as well as of Copernicus and Kepler in 
order to realize how genuine and difficult the 
issues were. Facts unknown to all of them may 
now have closed the dispute decisively, but 
issues in other spheres of modern science, almost 
identical in pattern with that great astronom- 
ical one, are not yet closed; and to the degree 
that we are able to re-enact in our minds the 
motion of thought on both sides of the Coper- 
nican controversy, we can confront comparable 
scientific issues still open with open minds. 

Darwin, for example, finds in the astronomi- 
cal controversy a precedent to which he can 
appeal in the defense of natural selection against 
its adversaries. "The belief in the revolution of 
the earth on its own axis," he writes, "was until 
lately not supported by any direct evidence." 
But the absence of direct evidence does not 
leave a scientific theory without foundation, 



Darwin argues, if it has the power to explain 
several large classes of facts, which "it can 
hardly be supposed that a false theory would 
explain" in so satisfactory a manner. Darwin 
defends the theory of natural selection as having 
such power. To those who object that "this is 
an unsafe method of arguing," he replies 
citing an example from astronomy that "it 
has often been used by the greatest natural 
philosophers." 

THE GREAT BOOKS of astronomy most lucidly 
exhibit the essential pattern of that kind of nat- 
ural science which has, in modern times, come 
to be called "mathematical physics." Though 
that phrase may be modern, the ancients recog- 
nized the special character of the sciences which 
apply mathematics to nature and which consult 
experience to choose among hypotheses arising 
from different mathematical formulations. 

Outlining a curriculum for liberal education, 
Plato, in the Republic, groups music and astron- 
omy along with arithmetic and geometry as 
mathematical arts or sciences. In that context 
he treats them as pure mathematics. Astronomy 
is no more concerned with the visible heavens 
than music is with audible tones. Music is 
rather the arithmetic of harmonies, astronomy 
the geometry of motions. But in the Timaeus 
Plato turns mathematical formulae and calcula- 
tions to use in telling what he calls "a likely 
story" concerning the formation and structure 
of the sensible world of becoming. Here rather 
than in the Republic we have, according to 
Whitehead, the initial conception of mathe- 
matical physics as well as deep insight into its 
nature and pattern. 

Aristotle criticizes the notion of astronomy 
as a purely mathematical science. Just as "the 
things of which optics and mathematical har- 
monies treat" cannot be divorced from the 
sensible, so the objects of astronomy are also 
the visible heavens. "Astronomical experience," 
Aristotle writes, "supplies the principles of 
astronomical science." Yet, though its subject 
matter is physical and its method is in part em- 
pirical, astronomy like optics and harmonics 
takes the form of mathematical demonstration; 
and it is for this reason that Aquinas later calls 
such disciplines "mixed and intermediate 
sciences." 



96 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



The development of astronomy from Plato 
and Aristotle through Ptolemy, Copernicus, 
and Kepler to Galileo and Newton thus con- 
stitutes an extraordinary set of "case histories" 
for the study of what J. B. Conant calls the 
"tactics and strategy "of science, and especially 
mathematical physics. But astronomy has one 
peculiar feature which distinguishes it from 
other branches of mathematical physics. It is 
empirical rather than experimental. The astron- 
omer does not control the phenomena he ob- 
serves. He does not, like the physicist, chemist, 
or physiologist, produce an isolated system of 
events by means of the laboratory arts. 

Harvey comments on this aspect of astron- 
omy when he proposes an experiment that will 
enable the physiologist to do what the astron- 
omer cannot do, namely, deliberately prepare 
phenomena for examination by the senses. The 
astronomer must be content with the appear- 
ances as they are given. Defending psycho- 
analysis against attack "on the ground that it 
admits of no experimental proof," Freud points 
out that his critics "might have raised the same 
objection against astronomy; experimentation 
with the heavenly bodies is, after all, exceedingly 
difficult. There one has to rely on observation." 

Since the invention of the telescope, the 
astronomer has had instruments of all sorts to 
increase the range and accuracy of his observa- 
tions; but the fact that the place where he uses 
such apparatus is called an observatory rather 
than a laboratory indicates that these instru- 
ments do not make astronomy an experimental 
science. Nevertheless, as Bacon points out, the 
telescope enabled Galileo to do more than im- 
prove upon the accuracy of prior observations. 
It brought within the range of observation 
certain celestial phenomena, hitherto imper- 
ceptible to the naked eye, such as the phases of 
Venus, the satellites of Jupiter, and the con- 
stitution of the Milky Way. 

Concerning the last of these, Pascal later re- 
marks that the ancients can be excused for the 
idea they had of the cause of its color. "The 
weakness of their eyes not yet having been 
artificially helped, they attributed this color to 
the great solidity of this part of the sky"; but it 
would be inexcusable for us, he adds, "to retain 
the same thought now that, aided by the ad- 
vantages of the telescope, we have discovered 



in the Milky Way an infinity of small stars whose 
more abundant splendor has made us recognize 
the real cause of this whiteness." 

BECAUSE IT is a mixed science, both empirical 
and mathematical, astronomy advances not 
only with the improvement and enlargement 
of observation, but also with new insights or 
developments in mathematics. Kant gives us 
striking examples of how the work of the pure 
mathematicians contributes to the advance of 
physics and astronomy. Their discoveries are 
often made without any knowledge of their ap- 
plication to natural phenomena. "They inves- 
tigated the properties of the parabola," he 
writes, "in ignorance of the law of terrestrial 
gravitation which would have shown them its 
application to the trajectory of heavy bodies. 
. . . So again they investigated the properties of 
the ellipse without a suspicion that a gravitation 
was also discoverable in the celestial bodies, and 
without knowing the law that governs it as the 
distance from the point of attraction varies, and 
that makes the bodies describe this curve in free 
motion." 

So amazing are such mathematical anticipa- 
tions that Kant thinks Plato may be pardoned 
for supposing that pure mathematics "could 
dispense with all experience" in discovering the 
constitution of things. Whether or not Plato 
goes to this extreme, he does, in the Republic, 
seem to suggest the reverse of Kant's concep- 
tion of the relationship between mathematics 
and astronomy. "The spangled heavens should 
be used as a pattern," he writes, "and with a 
view to that higher knowledge" mathemat- 
ics. Astronomy should be used to instigate dis- 
coveries in pure mathematics by suggesting good 
problems and by requiring formulations which 
transcend an interest in the truth about the 
heavens. 

This twofold relation between mathematical 
discovery and empirical observation is pres- 
ent in the development of astronomy itself, and 
of all branches of mathematical physics. But 
there is another aspect of the relationship which 
must be taken in to account if we are to consider 
the problem of truth in such sciences. The way 
in which mathematical formulations fit the 
phenomena measures the truth of rival hypoth- 
eses with respect to the same reality. 



CHAPTER 5: ASTRONOMY 



97 



The logic of such verification has already 
been suggested in the discussion of the geo- 
centric and heliocentric hypotheses. It is fur- 
ther considered in the chapter on HYPOTHESIS. 
To be satisfactory, an hypothesis must in the 
language used ever since Simplicius "save the 
appearances," that is, account for the relevant 
phenomena. But two hypotheses (as for exam- 
pie the geocentric and heliocentric) may, at a 
certain time, do an equally good job of saving 
the appearances. Then the choice between them 
becomes a matter of the greater mathematical 
elegance of one than the other. 

That, however, does not give the mathe- 
matically superior theory a greater claim to 
truth. So far as reality is concerned, it is only, 
in Plato's words, "a likely story"; or as Aquinas 
points out with reference to the geocentric 
hypothesis, "the theory of eccentrics and epi- 
cycles is considered as established because there- 
by the sensible appearances of the heavenly 
movements can be explained; not however, as 
if this reason were sufficient, since some other 
theory might explain them." 

Two hypotheses may be equally satisfactory 
for the range of phenomena they were both de- 
vised to fit. But only one of them may have the 
quite amazing virtue of fitting other sets of 
observations not originally thought to be re- 
lated to the phenomena for which the hypoth- 



esis was devised. The word "consilience" has 
been used to name the property of an hypoth- 
esis which, in addition to saving a limited field 
of appearances, succeeds in fitting many other 
phenomena which seem to have become related 
to have jumped together under its covering ex- 
planation. The heliocentric hypothesis, as de- 
veloped by Newton's laws of motion and theory 
of gravitation, certainly has this property of 
consilience to a high degree, for it covers both 
celestial and terrestrial phenomena, and a wide 
variety of the latter. 

Is the heliocentric hypothesis true then? If 
the truth of an hypothesis depends on the range 
of the phenomena it fits or saves, it might seem 
to be so, for by its consilience it accounts for 
phenomena that the Ptolemaic theory cannot 
handle. But though this may cause us to reject 
the unsuccessful hypothesis, docs it establish 
beyond doubt the truth of the successful one ? 
Or, to put the question another way, is not our 
judgment here a comparative one rather than 
absolute? Are we saying more than that one 
hypothesis is more successful than another in 
doing what an hypothesis should do? Are we 
logically entitled to regard that success as the 
sign of its exclusive truth, or must we restrict 
ourselves to the more modest statement that, 
as the better hypothesis, it simply tells a more 
likely story about reality? 



OUTLINE OF TOPICS 

1. The end, dignity, and utility of astronomy 

2. The method of astronomy 

2a. Observation and measurement: instruments and tables 

2b. The use of hypotheses: the heliocentric and geocentric theories 

2C. The relation of astronomy to mathematics: the use of mathematics by astronomy 

3. Causes in astronomy 

30. Formal archetypal causes: the number and the music of the spheres 
3#. Physical efficient causes: gravitation and action-at-a-distance 

4. The relation of astronomy to the other liberal arts and sciences: the place of astronomy 

in the educational curriculum 

5. Astronomy and cosmology: the theory of the world or universe as reflecting astronomi- 

cal conceptions 



PACB 

99 



100 



101 



98 THE GREAT IDEAS 

PAGE 

6. Astronomy and theology: astronomy as affecting views of God, creation, the divine 

plan, and the moral hierarchy 102 

7. Astronomy and the measurement of time: calendars and clocks; days and seasons 

8. The heavenly bodies in general 103 

Sa. The special character of matter in the supra-lunar spheres 
8. Soul and intellect in the heavenly bodies 

Sc. Celestial motion: periodicity and the great year 104 

(r) The eternity of celestial motion 

(2) The form of celestial motion: circles, the equant, ellipses 

(3) The laws of celestial motion: celestial mechanics 105 
8d. The creation of the heavens 

9. The particular heavenly bodies 

ga. The sun: its position, distance, size, and mass 

gb. The moon: its irregularities 106 

gc. The planets: their eccentricities, retrogradations, and stations 

gd. The earth: its origin, position, shape, and motions 

ge. The fixed stars: the precession of the equinoxes 107 
o/. The comets and meteors 

10. The influence of the heavenly bodies upon terrestrial phenomena 

100. The influence of the heavenly bodies on living matter: generation and corrup- 
tion 108 

io. The influence of the heavenly bodies on the tides 

11. The influence of the stars and planets upon the character and actions of men 

12. The worship of the earth, sun, moon, and stars 109 

13. The history of astronomy 



CHAPTER 5: ASTRONOMY 



99 



REFERENCES 

To find the passages cited, use the numbers in heavy type, which arc the volume and page 
numbers of the passages referred to. For example, m4 HOMER: Iliad, BK n [265-283] 12d, the 
number 4 is the number of the volume in the set; the number 12d indicates that the pas- 
sage is in section d of page 12. 

PAGE SECTIONS . When the text is printed in one column, the letters a and b refer to the 
upper and lower halves of the page. For example, in 53 JAMES . Psychology, 1 16a-l 19b, the passage 
begins in the upper half of page 116 and ends in the lower half of page 119. When the text is 
printed in two columns, the letters a and b refer to the upper and lower halves of the left- 
hand side of the page, the letters c and d to the upper and lower halves of the right-hand side of 
the page. For example, m 7 PLATO. Symposium, 163b-164c, the passage begins in the lower half 
of the left-hand side of page 163 and ends in the upper half of the right-hand side of page 164. 

AUTHOR'S DIVISIONS: One or more of the mam divisions of a work (such as PART, BK, CH, 
SECT) are sometimes included in the reference, line numbers, in brackets, are given in cer- 
tain cases; e.g., Iliad, BK n [265-283] 12d. 

BIBLE REFERENCES : The references are to book, chapter, and verse. When the King James 
and Douay versions differ in title of books or in the numbering of chapters or verses, the King 
James version is cited first and the Douay, indicated by a (D), follows; e.g., OLD TESTA- 
MENT: Nehemiah, 7 45 (D) // Esdras, 7:46. 

SYMBOLS- The abbreviation "esp" calls the reader's attention to one or more especially 
relevant parts of a whole reference; "passim" signifies that the topic is discussed intermit- 
tently rather than continuously in the work or passage cited. 

For additional information concerning the style of the references, see the Explanation of 
Reference Style; for general guidance in the use of The Great Ideas, consult the Preface. 



1. The end, dignity, and utility of astronomy 

OLD TESTAMENT:^, 38:4-38 

7 PLATO: Symposium, 156d / Gorgias, 254c / 
Republic, BK vn, 394d-396b/ Timaeus, 447a- 
452b; 455b-c / Laws, BK vn, 728b-c; 729d- 
730d; BK xn, 797c-798b 

8 ARISTOILE: Metaphysics, BK i, CH 2 [982 b n- 
17] SOOd; BK xi, CH 6 [1063*10-17] 591b, BK 
xu, CH 8 [107^1-7] 603d 

9 ARISTOTLE: Parts of Animals, BK i, CH 5 
[644 b 2i-645 a 5] 168c-d 

10 HIPPOCRATFS- Airs, Waters, Places, par 2 
9b-c 

11 NICOMACHUS: Arithmetic, BK i, 812b-813a 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK v [509-771] 
67d-71a 

12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK xi, SECT 27 306b 

13 VIRGIL: Aeneid, BK vi [847-853] 233b-234a 

14 PLUTARCH: Ntcias, 435b-d 

16 PTOLEMY: Almagest, BK i, 5a-6b; BK in, 83a; 

BK iv, 135b; BK ix, 270b-273a; BK xin,429a-b 
16 COPERNICUS: Revolutions of the Heavenly 

Spheres, 505a-506a; 509a-b; BK i, 510a-511a 
16 KEPLER: Epitome, BK iv, 846a-851a; 852a- 

853a; 888b-890a; 929a-b; BK v, 961a-965a / 

Harmonies of the World, 1080a-b 
18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK v, par 3-6 27c-28c 

/ Christian Doctrine, BK n, CH 29 650d-651c 



19 AQUINAS. Summa Theologtca, PART i, Q 32, 

A i, REP 2 175d-178a 
21 DANTE: Divine Comedv, PARADISE, n [46-148] 

108b-109b; x [i -27] 120b-c 
25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 69d-70c; 213d-215a; 

257d-259d 

31 DESCARTES* Meditations, i, 76c 

32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK vni [1-202] 232a- 
236b 

33 PASCAL Pensees, 72 181a-184b; 242 217b-218a 

34 NEWTON- Principles, la-2a 

36 SWIFT: Gulliver, PART in, 94b-103a passim 
36 STERNE: Tristram Shandy, 229a 

41 GIBBON? Decline and Fall, 299b-c 

42 KANT: Pure Reason, 175b [fn i] / Practical 
Reason, 360d-361c 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, ADDITIONS, 120, 

136c 

48 MELVILLE: Moby Dic^, 365b-367a 
54 FREUD: General Introduction, 562c / Civiliza- 

tion and Its Discontents, 779c / New Intro- 

ductory Lectures, 832a; 876b-d 

2. The method of astronomy 



2a. Observation and measurement: 
ments and tables 



instru- 



7 PLATO: Republic, BK VH, 394d-396b/ Timaeus, 



100 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



2bto2c 



(2. The method of astronomy . 2a, Observation and 
measurement: instruments and tables) 

8 ARISTOTLE: Prior Analytics, BK i, CH 30 
(46*18-27] 64a / Posterior Analytics, BK i, CH 13 
(78 b 3 1-79*7] 108b-c / Heavens, BK i, CH 3 
[270^1-24] 361c-362a; BK 11, CH 4 [287 a 3i- b i4J 
379a; CH n 383b; CH 12 [292*2-9] 383c / 
Metaphysics, BK XH, CH 8 [io73 b i7-ic>74 a i7] 
604a*c 

9 ARISTOTLE: Pans of Animals, BK i, CH i 
[639*7-12] 161c-d 

16 PTOLEMY: Almagest, BK i, 24b-26a; BK i-m, 
29a-86b; BK in-iv, 93a-119b; BK iv-vm, 
123a-269a; BK ix, 273a-290b; BK ix-xin, 
296a-465b 

16 COPERNICUS: Revolutions of the Heavenly 
Spheres, BK ii-iu, 557b-626a; BK HI, 631b- 
652b; 657b-674b; BK iv-v, 680a-739b; BK v, 
744b-812a; BK vi, 818a-838a 

16 KEPLER: Epitome, BK iv, 907b-908b 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK v, par 3-6 27c-28c 
/ Christian Doctrine, BK n, CH 29, 651b-c 

19 AQUINAS* Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 32, 
A i, REP 2 175d-178a 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PARADISE, n [46-105] 
108b-d 

22 CHAUCER: Franklin's Tale [11,582-605] 360b 

23 HOB BBS; Leviathan, PART iv, 267a-b 

24 RABELAIS: Gargantua andPantagruel, BK i,29c 
28 HARVEY: Circulation of the Blood, 320b 

30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK i, APH 109, 
129b; BK n, APH 39, 170b-c; APH 45, 176a; 
APH 46, 178a-b 

32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK i [284-291] 99 b; 
BK in [588-590] 148a; BK v [261-263] 181a 

33 PASCAL: Vacuum, 358a 

34 NEWTON: Principles, BK in, PHENOMENA 272a- 
275a; PROP 41-42 342e-368b / Optics, BK i, 
412a-423b 

35 BERKELEY: Human Knowledge, SECT 58-59 
424a-b 

36 SWIFT: Gulliver, PART in, 102a 

41 GIBBON: Decline and Pall, 299b-c 
48 MELVILLE: Moby Dic{, 365b-367a 
54 FREUD: New Introductory Lectures, 81 5a 

2b. The use of hypotheses: the heliocentric and 
geocentric theories 

7 PLATO: Phaedo, 241c-242b; 247c / Republic, 
BK vi, 386d-387d; BK vn, 395c-396b; BK x, 
438c-439a/ Timaeus, 447b-d; 452a-b / Laws, 
BK xn, 797d-798a 

8 ARISTOTLE: Heavens, BK i, CH 3 [270 b i-24) 
361c-362a; BK n, CH i 375b,d-376a; CH 8 
381a-382a; CH n [29i b io]-CH 13 [293 b 33] 
383b-385b; CH 14 [296*24-297*9] 387d>388c / 
Meteorology, BK i, CH 7 [344*5-9] 450b / 
Metaphysics, BK xn, CH 8 [1073*17-1074*17] 
604a<c 

9 ARISTOTLE: Motion of Animals, CH 3 234a-c 
11 ARCHIMEDES: Sand-Reckoner, 520a-b 



12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK v [526-533] 

67d-68a; [720-730] 70c 
14 PLUTARCH: Numa Pompihus, 55a-b 
16 PTOLEMY: Almagest, BK i, 7a-8b; 9a-12b; BK 

in, 83a; 86b-93a; BK iv, 120a-122b; BK ix, 

270b-273a; 291a-296a; BK xm, 429a-b 
16 COPERNICUS: Revolutions of the Heavenly 

Spheres, 505a-506a; 507a-508b; BK i, 513b- 

515b; 517b-521a; BK in, 628b-629a; 653b- 

656b; BK iv, 675b-678a; BK v, 740a-b 
16 KEPLER: Epitome, BK iv, 852a-853a; 857b- 

860b; 887a-890a; 907b-916a; BK v, 964b; 

966a-967a / Harmonies of the World, 1014b- 

1016a 
19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 32, 

A i, REP 2 175d-178a 
25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 257d-261c; 276c 
28 GILBERT: Loadstone, BK vi, 107c-116a 
30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK n, APH 5, 139a; 

APH 36, 165c-166b; APH 46, 178b-c; APH 48, 

186b-d 

32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK in [552-587] 147b- 
148a; BK iv [589-597] 165a-b; BK vm [66-178] 
233b-236a esp [122-158] 234b-235b 

33 PASCAL: Provincial Letters, 165a / Vacuum, 
368b-369a 

34 NEWTON: Principles, BK in, PHENOMENON in 
273d-274a; GENERAL SCHOL, 371b-372a 

36 STERNE: Tristram Shandy, 226b-227a 

42 KANT: Pure Reason, 8d [fn 2] 

43 MILL: Liberty, 284a-b 

49 DARWIN- Origin of Species, 239c 
51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK xm, 563a-b; 
EPILOGUE n, 694d-696d 

2c. The relation of astronomy to mathematics: 
the use of mathematics by astronomy 

7 PLATO: Republic, BK vn, 394d-396b / 
Tmaeus, 451b-c;455b 

8 ARISTOTLE' Posterior Analytics, BK i, CH 13 
[78^1-79*16] 108b-c / Physics, BK n, CH 2 
1*93 25-194*11] 270a-c / Heavens, BK n, CH 14 
[297*3-9] 388c / Metaphysics, BK HI, CH 2 
[997 b i3-998 a i9] 516b-d; BK xn, CH 8 [io73 b i- 
17] 603d-604a; BK xm, CH 3 [1078*9-14] 609c 

9 ARISTOTLE: Pans of Animals, BK i, CH i 
[639 b 6-i2] 161c-d 

11 NICOMACHUS: Arithmetic, BK i, 813d-814a 
16 PTOLEMY: Almagest, BK i, 5a-6a; 14a-24b; 

26a-28b 
16 COPERNICUS: Revolutions of the Heavenly 

Spheres, 507a-508a; BK i, 510a-b; 532b- 

556b 
16 KEPLER: Epitome, BK v, 964b-965a; 968a- 

986b passim 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions^ BK v, par 3-6 27c-28c 
/ Christian Doctrine, BK n, CH 29, 651b-c 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 32, 
A i, REP 2 175d-178a; PART I-H, Q 35, A 8, 
ANS 779c-780c 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART IX-H* Q 9, 
A 2, REP 3 424b-425a 



3 to 5 



CHAPTER 5: ASTRONOMY 



101 



30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 37 b; 46b-c 

31 DESCARTES: Meditations, i, 76c 

34 NEWTON: Principles, la-2a; BK in 269a~372a 
36 SWIFT. Gulliver, PART in, 94b-103a passim 
42 KANT: Practical Reason, 361c / Judgement, 
551a-552a 

3. Causes in astronomy 

3<*. Formal archetypal causes: the number and 
the music of the spheres 

7 PLATO. Phaedo, 241b-242b / Republic, BK VH, 
395d-396b; BK x, 438c-439a / Ttmaeus, 447a- 
452b 

8 ARISTOTLE' Heavens, BK i, CH 2-5 359d-364a; 
BK n, CH 1-12 375b,d-384c / Metaphysics, BK 
i, CH 5 [985 b 22-986 B 2i] 503d-504b; en 8 
[989 b 29-99o a i2] 508a-b, BK xii, CH 8 603b- 
605a 

11 NICOMACHUS- Arithmetic, BK i, 811a-814b 
16 PTOLEMY: Almagest, BK i, 8a; BK ix, 270b 

16 COPFRNICUS: Revolutions of the Heavenly 

SpJieres, BK i, 511b 
16 KhPLFR: Epitome, BK iv, 846a-847b, 857b- 

860b, 863b-887a passim, 913a-b, 915b-916a; 

925b-928a; 932a-933a / Harmonies of the 

World, 1016b-1018a; 1023b-1085b esp 1049b- 

1050b 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK v, par 3-6 27c-28c 
21 D\NTE Divine Comedy, P\RADISE, i [76-126] 

107a-c, xxvin [1-78] 148d-149c 

30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK n, APH 48, 
185c-d 

31 SPINOZA Ethics, PART i, APPENDIX, 371d-372a 

32 MILTON. Chnsts Nativity [117-140] 4b-5a / At 
a Solemn Musu^ 13a-b / Arcades [54-83] 26b- 
27a / Comus [238-243] 38b / Paradise Lost, 
BK iv [660-688] 166b-167b; BK v [153-184] 
178b-179a; [616-627] 188b-189a, BK vin [15- 
168] 232b-235b 

34 NEWTON. Principles, BK in, GENERAL SCHOL, 
369b-370a 

35 HUME: Human Understanding, SECT i, DIV 9, 
454c-d 

36 SWIFT: Gulliver, PART in, 96b-97a 

47 GOETHE: Faust, PROLOGUE [243-246] 7a 

3b. Physical efficient causes: gravitation and 
action- a t-a-di stance 

8 ARISTOTLE- Heavens, BK 11, CH 8 381a 382a; 
CH 12 [292 b 26-293*i2] 384b-c / Meteorology, 
BK i, CH 4-8 447d-452d / Metaphysics, BK xn, 
CH 8 603b-605a csp [io73 b i7-io74*i7] 604a-c 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK v [509-533] 
67d-68a 

16 KEPLER: Epitome, BK iv, 895b-905a; 922a-b; 
935a-952a passim; 959a-960a; BK v, 965a-967a 
28 GILBERT: Loadstone, BK vi 106a 121a,c 

30 BACON: Novum Oiganum, BK n, APH 35-37 
162a-169c; APH 45 176a-177c; APH 48, 183b~c 

31 DESCARTES : Rules, ix, 15c / Discourse, PART v, 
55b-c 



32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK in [573-587] 148a; 
BK vin [122-158] 234b-235b 

34 NEWTON: Principles, BK in, PROP 1-9 276a- 
284a esp PROP 7 281b-282b; PROP 35, SCHOL 
320b-324a; GENERAL SCHOL, 371b-372a / 
Optics, BK in, 531b; 540a-541b 

35 BERKELEY: Human Knowledge, SECT 102-108 
432d 434a passim 

35 HUME: Human Understanding, SECT i, DIV 9, 
454c-d 

36 SWIFT- Gulliver, PART in, 94b-103a; 118b- 
119a 

42 KANT: Pure Reason, 8d [fn 2] 

45 FARADAY Researches in Electricity, 670a-673d; 

817a-b; 824a-b, 832b [fn i] 
51 TOLSTOY. War and Peace, EPILOGUE n, 694c- 

695c 

4. The relation of astronomy to the other liberal 

arts and sciences: the place of astronomy 
in the educational curriculum 

7 PLATO- Gorgias, 254b-c / Republic, BK vn, 
391b-398c csp 394d-396b / Laws, BK vn, 
728b-730d; BK xn, 797b-798b 

8 ARISTOTLE. Physus, BK n, CH 2 [i93 b 25~ 
194*11] 270a-c / Metaphysics, BK xi, CH 6 
[io63 a io-i7] 591b; BK xn, CH 8 [io73 b i-7] 
603d 

11 NICOMACHUS: Arithmetic, BK i, 812b-813d 

13 VIRGIL: Aeneid, BK vi [847-853] 233b-234a 
16 PTOLEMY: Almagest, BK i, 5a-6a 

16 COPERNICUS: Revolutions of the Heavenly 

Spheres, BK i, 510a-b 
18 AUGUSTINE: Christian Doctrine, BK n, CH 29, 

651b-c 
20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART n-n, Q 9, 

A 2, REP 3 424b-425a 

23 HOBBES- leviathan, PART i, 72a-d 

24 RABELAIS. Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK i, 
29c, BK 11, 82c-d 

25 MONTAIGNE Essays, 69d-70c; 257d-259d 

30 BACON- Novum Organum, BK i, APH 80 120a-b 

31 DESCARIES Meditations, i, 76c 

5. Astronomy and cosmology: the theory of the 

world or universe as reflecting astro- 
nomical conceptions 

7 PLATO: Ttmaeus, 447a-452b; 455a-b 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK iv, CH 5 [2i2 b 7~2i] 
291d-292a / Heavens 359a-405a,c / Meteor- 
ology, BK i, CH 1-3 445a-447d / Metaphysics, 
BK xii, CH 8 603b-605a 

11 ARCHIMEDES: Sand- Reckoner, 520a-b 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK i [951-1113] 
12d<14d; BK n [1048-1104] 28b-29a; BK vi 
[647-652] 89a 

14 PLUTARCH: Numa Pompilius, 55a-b 
16 PTOLEMY. Almagest, BK i, lOb 

16 COPERNICUS: Revolutions of the Heavenly 
Spheres, BK i, Sllb; 516a-529a esp 5l6a-517b 

16 KEPLER: Epitome, BK iv, 853b-857b; 882a- 
886b 



102 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



6/0 7 



(5. Astronomy and cosmology: the theory of the 
world or universe as reflecting astronomical 
conceptions.) 

17 PLOTINUS: Second Ennead, TR i 35a-39d 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PARADISE, x [7-21] 

120b-c 
25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 213d<215a 

31 DESCARTES : Discourse, PART v, 54d 56a 

32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK n [890-920] 130b- 
13U; (1010-1055) 133a-134a; BK in [418-429] 
144b; [501-539! 146b-147a; [552-587] 147b- 
148a; BK vn [261-273] 222b-223a; [551-557] 
229a; [617-625] 230b; BK vm [66-178] 233b- 
236a; BK x [282-329] 280b-281b 

33 PASCAL: Pensets, 72 181a-184b 

34 NEWTON: Principles, BK HI, HYPOTHESIS i- 
PROP 12 285a-286a 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK iv, CH in, 



42 KANT: Practical Reason, 360d-361a 

51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, EPILOGUE 11, 

695c-d 
54 FREUD: General Introduction, 562c 

6. Astronomy and theology: astronomy as 
affecting views of God, creation, the 
divine plan, and the moral hierarchy 

OLD TESTAMENT: Genesis, i .1-19 / Joshua, 10.12- 
i$(D)]osuc, 10:12-13 /Job, 9:6-9; 38:1-38 
/ Psalms, 19:1-6; 147:4 (D) Psalms, 18:1-7; 
146:4 /Jeremiah, 33:22; 51:15 (D) Jeremias, 
33:22; 51.15 

APOCRYPHA: Ecclesiasticus, 43 (D) OT, Ecclesi- 
asticus, 43 / Song of Three Children, 34-51 
(D) OT, Daniel, r5 6- n 

NEW TESTAMENT* / Corinthians, 15:40-41 

7 PLATO: Republic, BK vn, 396a / Timaeus, 
455b-c / Statesman, 586c-589c / Laws, BK vu, 
729d-730d; BK XH, 797d-798b 

8 ARISTOTLE- Physics, BK H, CH 4 [i96 m 25~ b 4] 
272d-273a; BK vin 334a-355d esp CH 4-6 
338d-346b, CH 10 353b-355d / Heavens, BK 
n, CH i 375b,d-376a / Metaphysics, BK XH, 
CH 6-8 601b-605a 

11 NICOMACHUS: Arithmetic, BK i, 811a-814b 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK v [55-771] 
61d-71a esp [55-234] 61d-64a; [1161-1217] 
76b-77a 

12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK xi, SECT 27 306b 

14 PLUTARCH: Nicias, 435b-c 

15 TACITUS: Histories, BK v, 295c 

16 PTOLEMY: Almagest, BK i, 5a-6b passim 

16 COPERNICUS: Revolutions of the Heavenly 
Spheres, BK i, 510a-511a 

16 KEPLER: Epitome, BK iv, 853b-854a; 915b- 
916a; 933a / Harmonies of the World, 1017b- 
1018a; 1025a-b; 1048a; 1061a; 1071b; 1080b- 
1085b 

17 PLOTINUS: Second Ennead, TR n, CH i 40a- 
41a; TR ix, CH 8-9 70a-72a / Fourth Ennead, 
TR HI, CH 17 150d-151b 



18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK v, par 3-6 27c- 
28c; BK xiii, par 6-48 112a-124a / Christian 
Doctrine, BK H, CH 16, 644d-645a; CH 29 
650d-651c 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 23, 
A 7, ANS and REP 2 138d-140a; Q 50, A 3, ANS 
and REP 3 272a-273b; Q 58, A i 300c-301a; 
Q 63, A i, REP 2 325c-326c; A 7, ANS 331c-332b; 
QQ 66-68 343d-359b; Q 70 362c-367a; Q 102, 
A 2, REP i 525a-526a; Q no, A i, REP 2-3 
564c-565d; Q 115, AA 3-6 588c-592d 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART HI, Q 5, 
A 2 736d-737c; PART in SUPPL, Q 77, AA 1-3 
943a-947a; Q 91, AA 2-3 1017c-1022c 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, HELL, vn [67-96] 
lOb-c; xxxiv [100-139] 52b-d; PARADISE, i 
[94-142] 107b-d; ii [46-148] 108b-109b; iv 
[22-63] HOd-lllb; vm [16-39] 116d-117a; 
[91-148] 117d-118c; x [1-45] 120b-d; xm [52- 
84] 126a-b; xxn [124-154] 140d-141b; xxvn 
[97-120] 148b-c; xxvni 148d-150b 

25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 213d-215a 
27 SHAKESPEARE- Troilus and Cressida, ACT i, 
sc in [85-101] 109a 

30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK i, APH 89 124a-d 

31 DESCARTES. Discourse, PART v, 54d-56a 

32 MILTON. Paradise Lost, BK in [694-732] 150b- 
151b; BK v [153-184] 178b-179a; BK vin 
[66-178] 233b-236a esp [66-84] 233b-234a 

33 PASCAL: Pensees, 72 181a-184b; 194, 207b, 
242 217b-218a 

34 NEWTON: Principles, BK in, GENERAL SCHOL, 
369b-371a / Optics, BK in, 542a-543a 

41 GIBBON: Decline and Pall, 226a-b; 227b-c 

42 KANT: Practical Reason, 360d-361a 

47 GOETHE: Faust, PROLOGUE [243-266] 7a-b 

49 DARWIN: Origin of Species, 239c-d 

51 TOLSTOY* War and Peace, EPILOGUE n, 695d- 

696d 

54 FREUD: General Introduction, 562c / New In- 
troductory Lectures, 832a, 876b-d 

7. Astronomy and the measurement of time: 
calendars and clocks; days and seasons 

OLD TESTAMENT: Genesis, 1.4-5,14-18 / Isaiah, 
38:7-8; 60:19-21 (D) Isaias, 38:7-8; 60:19- 
21 /Jeremiah, 33:20,25 (D) Jeremias, 33:20, 

25 
APOCRYPHA: Ecclesiasticus, 43:6-8 (D) OT, 

Ecclesiasticus, 43:6-8 
NEW TESTAMENT: Revelation, 21:23-24; 22:5 

(D) Apocalypse, 21:23-24; 22:5 
5 AESCHYLUS: Prometheus Bound [454-461] 
44c-d 

5 ARISTOPHANES: Clouds [607-626] 496a-b 

6 HERODOTUS: History, BK n, 49d-50a; 79c 

6 THUCYDIDES: Peloponnesian War, BK v, 487d 

7 PLATO: Republic, BK vn,394d-396b/ Timaeus, 
451a-d 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK iv, CH 14 [223 b i2- 
224*1] 303c-d / Metaphysics, BK x, CH i 

2] 579b-c 



CHAPTER 5: ASTRONOMY 



103 



9 ARISTOTLE: Generation of Animals, BK iv, CH 

10 [777 b i6~778 a 9] 319d-320a,c 
12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK v [614-750] 

69a-70d 
14 PLUTARCH: Numa Pompilius, 58d-59c / Solon, 

74a / Caesar, 599d-600a 
16 PTOLEMY: Almagest, BK n, 34b-38a; BK HI, 

77a-86b; 104b-107a 

16 COPERNICUS: Revolutions of the Heavenly 
Spheres, BK i, SlOb; BK n, 568a-576a; BK in, 
646a-652b; 672a-674b 

17 PLOTINUS: Third Ennead, TR VH, CH 7-8 122d- 
124c; CH 11-13 126a-129a 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK xi, par 29-30 
95d-96c / City of God, BK xi, CH 6 325c-d; 
BK xn, CH 15 351b-352d 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 10, 
A 6, ANS 45c-46d; Q 67, A 4, ANS and REP 2-3 
352a-354a; Q 70, A 2, ANS and REP 3,5 364b- 
365a 

20 AQUINAS : Summa Theologica, PART in SUPPL, 
Q 77, A 2, ANS 945a-946b; Q 91, A 2, REP 1-3, 
5,8 1017c-1020c 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, HELL, i [37-45] Ib-c; 
PURGATORY, i [13-21] 53a-b; n [1-9] 54c; iv 
[55-84] 58a-b; ix [1-12] 65d-66a; xv [1-15] 
75b-c; xxv [1-9] 91b-c; xxvn [1-6] 94c; PARA- 
DISE, i [38-48] 106c; x [28-33] 120c ; xxv 
[97-120] 148b-c 

23 HOBBES: leviathan, PART iv, 267b 

24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK 11, 
69b,d-70a 

25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 497b-c 

30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK n, APH 46, 

177c-178b 
32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK in [40-44] 136b; 

[555-623] 147b-149a; [726-732] 151a; BK v 

[166-179] 179a; BK vni [66-84] 233b-234a; 

BK x [651-679] 288b-289a 

34 NEWTON: Principles, DEFINITIONS, SCHOL, 9b- 
lOa; BK in, PROP 20 291b-294b 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH xiv, 
SECT 17-31 158a-162a 

36 SWIFT: Gulliver, PART iv, 169a 
36 STERNE: Tnstram Shandy, 229a 
41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 376a-b 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, PART i, 219a-b; 
251a-b 

8. The heavenly bodies in general 

8a. The special character of matter in the 
supra-lunar spheres 

NEW TESTAMENT: / Corinthians, 15:40-41 

7 PLATO: Phaedo, 247b-248c / Timaeus, 448a- 
449c; 451d-452a / Laws, BK XH, 797d-798a 

8 ARISTOTLE: Heavens, BK i, CH 3 [27o a i2- b 26] 
361b-362a; BK i, CH 9 [279*i2]-BK 11, CH i 
[284 b 6) 370b-376a; BK n, CH 7 380c-d / Meta- 
physics, BK vni, CH 4 [i<>44 b 2-8] 569a-b; BK ix, 
CH 8 [i<>50 b 6-27] 576b-d; BK XI,CH 6 [io63*io- 
17] 591b; BK xn, CH a [1069^4*27] 598d-599a 



9 ARISTOTLE: Parts of Animals, BK i, CH 5 

[6 44 b 2i-645 a 5] 168c-d 
12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK i [418-448] 

6b-c; [1052-1094] 14a-c; BK v [534-563] 

68a-b 
16 PTOLEMY- Almagest, BK i, 5a-6a; 8b; lOb-llb; 

BK xin, 429a-b 
16 COPERNICUS: Revolutions of the Heavenly 

Spheres, BK i, 517b-518a; 519b-520a 

16 KEPLER: Epitome, BK iv, 853b-857b; 888b- 
890b; 894a-b; 904b-905a; 919b; 929b-930b; 
931b-932a;934b-935b 

17 PLOTINUS: Second Ennead, TR i 35a-39d / 
Third Ennead, TR v, CH 6 103b-104a 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 10, 
A 5, ANS 44b-45c; A 6, REP 2 45c-46d; Q 46, 
A i, REP 2-3,5 250a-252d; Q 55, A 2, ANS 
289d-290d; Q 58, A i, ANS 300c-301a; A 3, 
ANS 301d-302d; Q 63, A i, REP 2 325c-326c; 
Q 66, A 2 345d-347b; Q 68, A i, ANS 354a-355c; 
Q 70, A 3, ANS and REP 2 365b-367a; Q 75, A 6, 
ANS 383c-384c; Q 84, A 3, REP i 443d-444d; 
Q 97, A i, ANS 513c-514c; Q 104, A i, REP 1,3 
534c-536c; Q 115, A 3, ANS 588c-589c; Q 119, 
Ai,ANs604c-607b 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i-ii, Q 49, 
A 4, ANS 5a-6a; PART in, Q 5, A 2, ANS and REP 
3 736d-737c; PART in SUPPL, Q 91, A 3, REP 3 
1020d-1022c 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PURGATORY, in [28- 
30] 56a; PARADISE, n [19-45] 108a; [112-148] 
109a-b; xxvin [1-78] 148d-149c 

25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 213d-215a; 257d-258b 
28 GILBERT: Loadstone, BK vi, HOb-c 
30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK n, APH 13, 146c- 
147a 

33 PASCAL: Vacuum, 358a 

34 NEWTON: Principles, BK in, RULE in 270b- 
271a; PROP 1-7 276a-282b esp PROP 7 281b- 
282b 

41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 226b 

8b Soul and intellect in the heavenly bodies 

7 PLATO Phaedrus, 124c-d/^/>o/o^,204d-205a 
/ Timaeus, 449b-450c; 451d-452b / Philebus, 
618b-619c / Laws, BK x, 762b-765c csp 764a- 
765c; BK xn, 797c-798b 

8 ARISTOTLE: Heavens, BK n, CH 1-2 375b,d- 
377c; CH 12 383b-384c / Metaphysics, BK xn, 
CH 8 603b-605a / Soul, BK i, CH 3 [406^6- 
407 b i3] 636b-637b 

12 LUCRETIUS : Nature of Things, BK v [76-90) 
62a-b; [110-145] 62c-63a 

13 VIRGIL: Aenetd, BK vi [724-738] 230b 

16 KEPLER: Epitome, BK iv, 854b-856a; 890a- 
895b; 896a-897a; 914a-b; 930 b; 932a-933a; 
959a-960a / Harmonies of the World, 1080b- 
1085b esp 1083b-1085b 

17 PLOTINUS: Second Ennead, TR H-III 40a-50a / 
Third Ennead, TR n, CH 3, 84b; TR iv, CH 6, 
99d; TR v, CH 6 103b-104a / Fourth Ennead, 
TR iv r CH 6-8 161b-162d; CH 22-27 168d-172a; 



104 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



(8. The heavenly bodies in general. 8b. Soul and 

intellect in the heavenly bodies.) 
CH 30 174b-c; en 35, 177c; CH 42 180d-181b; 

TR VIII, CH 2, 202a 

18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK vn, CH 6 248a-b 

19 AQUINAS: Sumtna Theologica, PART r, Q 18, 
A i, REP 1 104c-105c, Q 47, A i, ANS 256a-257b; 
Q 50, A 3 272a-273b; Q 51, A 3, REP 3 277a- 
278c; Q 52, A 2 279b-280a; Q 66, A 2, ANS 
345d-347b; Q 70, A 3 365b-367a; Q no, A i, 
REP 2-3 564c-565d; A 3, ANS 566d-567b; Q 
115, A 4, REP i 589d-590c; Q 117, A 4, REP i 
599b-d; PART i-n, Q 6, A 5, REP 2 648b-649a 

20 AQUINAS- Sumtna Theologica, PART HI SUPPL, 
Q 79, A i, ANS 951b-953b; Q 91, A 2, REP 10 
1017c-1020c 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, HELL, vn [67-96] 
lOb-c; PARADISE, i [103-126] 107b-c, n [112- 
138] 109a; vni [16-39] 116d-117a, [97-114] 
118a, xin [52-72] 126a, XXVIH 148d-150b, 
xxix [37-45] 150c 

25 MONIAIGNE. Essays, 213d-215a 

28 GILBERT' Loadstone, BK n, 38b; BK v, 104b- 

105d 

33 PASCAL: Pens^es, 482 258a 
41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 226b 
47 GOETHE: Faust, PROLOGUE [243-270] 7a-b 

Sc. Celestial motion: periodicity and the great 

year 

7 PLATO Republic, BK x, 438c-439a / Ttmaetts, 
451a-452b / Statesman, 586c-587b / Laws, BK 
vn, 730a-c 
SARisroiLh- Heavens, BK i-n 359a-389d / 

Metaphysics, BK XH, CH 8 603b-605a 
9 ARISTOTLE: Motwn of Animals, CH 3 [699*11]- 

CH 4 [700*5] 234a-235a 
12 LUCRETIUS. Nature of Things, BK v [509-533] 

67d-68a, [614-6 19] 69a-c 
12 AURELIUS* Meditations, BK vi, SFCT 13 271b; 

BK xi, SECT 27 306b 
16 PTOLFMY: Almagest, BK i, 7a-8b; 12b-14a; BK 

iv, 109a-112b 

16 COPERNICUS: Revolutions of the Heavenly 
Spheres, BK i, 513b-514b 

16 KEPLER Epitome, BK iv, 928a-933a 

17 PLOTINUS- Second Ennead, TR n, CH i 40a-41a 
/ Fourth Ennead, TR iv, CH 8, 162 b-d 

18 AUGUSTINF Confessions, BK v, par 3-6 27c-28c 
/ Christian Doctrine, BK n, CH 29, 65lb-c 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 32, 
A i, REP 2 175d-178a; Q 115, A 3, ANS 588c- 
589c 

20 AQUINAS. Summa Theologica, PART n-n, Q 2, 
A 3, ANS 392d-393c 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PARADISE, n [112- 
148] 109a-b; xxvn [97-120] 148b-c; xxvm 
[1-78] 148d-149c 

28 GILBERT: Loadstone, BK vi, HOb-c 
28 GALILEO: Two New Sciences, FOURTH DAY, 
245b-d 



30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK n, APH 46, 177d; 

APH 48, 185c-d 
32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK in [726-732] 151a; 

BK vn [339-386] 224b-225b 

34 NEWTON. Principles, BK 11, PROP 53, SCHOL 
266a-267a 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH xiv, 
SECT 19-22 158b-159d passim 

54 FREUD: Civilization and Its Discontents, 779c 

8c(l) The eternity of celestial motion 

7 PLATO: Timaeus, 447b-c; 450b-451a; 460c-d 

8 ARisroTLE'P^/a,BKVin,cH i-2 334a-337b; 
CH 8-9 348b-353b / Heavens, BK i, CH 2 
[269 b 2-io] 360c-d; CH 3 [27o b i7~26] 361d- 
362a; CH 9 [279*i2- b 4] 370b-d; BK n, CH i 
375b,d-376a; CH 6 379c-380c / Metaphysics, 
BK ix, CH 8 [io5o b 20-27] 576c-d, BK xu, CH 7 
[1073*3-10] 603a-b; CH 8 [1073*26-38] 603c 

12 LUCRETIUS* Nature of Things, BK v [55-70] 
61d-62a; [110-125] 62c-d; [235-246] 64a-b, 
[351-379] 65c-66a; [1209-1217] 76d-77a; BK 
vi [601-607] 88b 

12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK ix, SECT 28 293d- 
294a 

16 PTOLEMY: Almagest, BK xm, 429a-b 

16 KEPLER: Epitome, BK iv, 846a-848b; 888b- 
891a 

17 PLOIINUS Second Ennead, TR ix, CH 3-5, 67b- 
68b; CH 7-8 69c-70d / Third Ennead, TR vn, 
CH 7-8 122d-124c; CH 11-13 126a-129a / 
Fourth Ennead, TR iv, en 7-8 161d-162d 

19 AQUIN\S Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 10, 
A 2, RIP 2 41d-42c; A 4, ANS 43b-44b; A 5, 
ANS 44b-45c 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART in SUPPL, 
Q 77, A 2, ANS 945a-946b, Q 91, A 2 1017c-1020c 

21 DANTE Divine Comedy, PARADISE, i [73-81] 
107a 

30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK n, APH 35, 

163a-b 
34 NhwioN: Principles, BK HI, PROP 10 284a- 

285a / Optics, BK in, 540a-541b 

36 SWIPT: Gulliver, PART HI, 98a-b 

8c(2) The form of celestial motion: circles, the 
equant, ellipses 

7 PLATO Republic, BK vn, 394d-396b; BK x, 
438c-439a / Timaeus, 451a-452b / Laws, BK 
vn, 730a-d 

8 ARISTOTLE : Physics, BK vm, CH 8-9 348b-353b 
/ Heavens, BK i, CH 2-5 359d-364a; BK n, CH 4 
[287*2-31] 378c-379a; CH 5 379b-c; CH 8 381a- 
382a; CH 12 [293*4-14] 384c/ Metaphysics, BK 
xu, CH 6 [io7i^32]-CH 7 [1072*22] 601d-602b; 
CH 8 [1073^*17-1074*14] 604a-c 

16 PTOLEMY: Almagest, BK i, 7a-8b; BK in, 83a; 

86b; BK v, 148b-157a; BK ix, 270b; 291a-296a 
16 COPERNICUS: Revolutions of the Heavenly 

Spheres, 507a-508a; BK i, 513b-514b; BK in, 

628b-629a; BK iv, 675b-678a esp 677b~678a; 

BK v, 740a-b; 784b-785b 



8<r(3) to 9a 

16 KEPLER: Epitome, BK iv, 888b-893b; 929a- 
933a; BK v, 968a-979b esp 975a-977b; 984b- 
985b / Harmonies of the World, 1018a-b 

17 PLOTINUS: Second Ennead, TR i, CH 8 39c-d 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 66, 
A 2, ANS 345d-347b 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART in SUPPL, 
Q 77, A 2, ANS 945a-946b 

28 GILBERT: Loadstone, BK vi, HOb-d 

28 GALILEO: Two New Sciences, FOURTH DAY, 

245b-d 
30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK n, APH 48, 

186b-d 

32 MILTON- Paradise Lost, BK v [616-627] 188b- 
189 a 

33 PASCAL: Pensees, 72, 181a 

34 NEWTON. Principles, BK i, PROP n 42b-43b; 
PROP 17 48b-50a 

8c(3) The laws of celestial motion: celestial 
mechanics 

16 KEPLER- Epitome, BK iv, 888a-895b passim, 
897a-907a passim, esp 897a, 904b-905a; 933a- 
952a passim; BK v, 975a-979b / Harmonies of 
the World, 1018a-b; 1019b-1020b 

34 NEWTON- Principles, BK i, PROP 1-3 and SCHOL 
32b-35b; PROP 4, COROL vi 36a; PROP 11-13 
42b-46a esp PROP n 42b-43b; PROP 15 46b- 
47a; PROP 17 48b-50a; BK n, PROP 51-53 and 
SCHOL 259a-267a, BK in 269a-372a passim, esp 
RULE i-in 270a-271a, PHENOMENON I-PROP 7 
272a-282b, PROP 13 286a-b, PROP 35, SCHOL 
320b-324a, PROP 40 337b-338a, GENERAL 
SCHOL, 369a, 371b-372a 

35 HUME: Human Understanding, SECT i, DIV 9, 
454c-d 

42 KANT: Pure Reason, 8d [fn 2] 
51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK xni, 563b; 
EPILOGUE ii, 694d-695c 

8d. The creation of the heavens 

OLD TESTAMENT: Genesis, 1:1-8,14-19; 2-1-4 / 
Nehemiah, 9:6 (D) // Esdras, 9:6 /Job, 26*7; 
37:18; 38 / Psalms, 8:3-4; r 9 :i 89:11; 102:25; 
136:5-9; 148:1-6 (D) Psalms, 8:4-5; 18-2; 
88:121101:26; 135:5-9; i $\i-6/ Proverbs, y 19', 
8:27 / Jeremtah, 31:35; 51:15 (D) Jeremtas, 
31:35; 51:15 / Amos, 5:8 

NEW TESTAMENT: Acts, 14:15; 17:24 (D) Acts, 
14:14; 17:24 / Hebrews, 1:10 / // Peter, 3:5 / 
Revelation, 14:7 -(D) Apocalypse, 14:7 

7 PLATO: Timaeus, 450c-452b 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK vin, CH i [25i b i3-i9J 
335b / Heavens, BK i, CH 10-12 370d-375d 

9 ARISTOTLE: Parts of Animals, BK i, CH i 
[64^13-29] 164c-d 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK v [416-508] 
66c-67c; [1204-1213] 76d 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK xi, par 4-11 
90a-92b; BK xn, par 2-9 99c-101c; par 14-40 
102b-110a*, BK XIH, par 6-48 112a-124a / City 
of God, BK xi, CH 7 326a-c; CH 9 326d-327d; 



CHAPTER 5: ASTRONOMY 



105 



CH 19-21 332b-333d; CH 23 334c-335c; BK 
xn, CH 15 351b-352d 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 46, 
A i, REP 2-3,5 250a-252d; A 3, ANS and REP i 
255a-d; Q 66, A i, ANS and REP to CONTRARY 
343d-345c; A 3 347b-348d; A 4, ANS and REP 5 
348d-349d; Q 67, A 4 352a-354a; Q 68, A i 
354a-355c; Q 70, A A 1-2 362c-365a 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, HELL, vn [73-81] lOb; 
PARADISE, vii [121-148] 116b-c; x [1-6] 120b; 
xxix [13-45] 150b-c 

28 GALILEO: Two New Sciences, THIRD DAY, 214d 

30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 17b-d 

31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART v, 54b-56a 

32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK HI [708-735] 150b- 
151b; BK vn [192-386] 221b-225b; BK vm 
[15-178] 232b-236a 

34 NEWTON: Optics, BK in, 542a-543a 

9. The particular heavenly bodies 

9a. The sun: its position, distance, size, and mass 

OLD TESTAMENT- Joshua, 10:12-14 (D) Josuc, 
10:12-14 / Psalms, 136:7-8 (D) Psalms, 
135:7-8 / Isaiah, 13:9-11; 30:26; 60:19-20 
(D) Isaias, 13:9-11; 30:26; 60:19-20 / Joel, 
2:10,31; 3-15 / Amos, 8:9 

APOCRYPHA- Ecclesiasticus, 43:1-5 (D) OT, 
Ecclesiasticus, 43:1-5 

NEW TESTAMENT: Matthew, 24:29-30 / MarJ^ 

13:24-25/1^,23:44-45 
6 HERODOTUS: History, BK n, 53d-54b; 79c; 
BK iv, 130d-l3la 

6 THUCYDIDES: Peloponnesian War, BK n, 394c 

7 PLATO: Cratylus, 98a / Apology, 204d-205a / 
Republic, BK vi, 385c-386c / Timaeus, 451b-d 

8 ARISTOTLE: Heavens, BK n, CH 7 [289*26-35] 
380d; CH 12 [29i b 29~292 b 27]383c-384b; CH 13 
[293^4-294*12] 385c / Meteorology, BK i, CH 8 
[345 b i-9] 451c-d 

11 ARCHIMEDES: Sand-Reckoner, 520a-b 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK v [564-574] 
68b-c; [592-704] 68d-70b; [751-771] 70d-71a 

14 PLUTARCH: Pericles, 138d 

16 PTOLEMY: Almagest, BK in 77a-107a; BK v, 

171b-182b; BK vi, 215a-222b 
16 COPERNICUS : Revolutions of the Heavenly 

Spheres, BK i, 520b-529a; BK in, 646a-674b; 

BK iv, 710b-714a; 716a-731a 
16 KEPLER: Epitome, BK iv, 854b-856a; 857b- 

860b; 873a-876a; 882a-883b; 885b-886b; 

895b-905a; 907b-916a passim / Harmonies of 

the World, 1014b-1016a; 1080b-1085b 

18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK in, CH 15, 176d- 
177a 

19 AQUINAS : Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 70, A i, 
REP 5 362c-364b; Q 119, A r, ANS 604c-607b 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART HI SXTPPL, 
Q 91, A i, REP i 1016b-1017c; A 2 1017c-1020c 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PURGATORY, iv [55- 
84] 58a-b; PARADISE, i {38-63] 106c-d; x 
[1-48] 120b*d 



106 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



to 9d 



(9. The particular heavenly bodies. 9a. The sun: 
it$ position, distance, size, and mass.) 

25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 257d-258b 

28 GILBERT: Loadstone, BK vi, 112d-113a 

30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK n, APH 36, 
165c-166b 

31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART v, 54d-56a pas- 
sim / Objections and Replies, 231a; 233c 

32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK HI [555-623] 147b- 
149a; BK iv [539-543] 164a; BK vn [354-373] 
224b 225a; BK vm [66-168] 233b-235b 

33 PASCAL: PensSes, 72, 181a 

34 NEWTON: Principles, BK i, PROP 66 118a-128b; 
BK in, PHENOMENON in 273d-274a; PROP 2 
276a-b; HYPOTHESIS I-PROP 12 285a-286a; 
PROP 25 299b-300b; PROP 36 324a-b; PROP 40 
337b-338a / Optics, BK in, 518a-b 

36 SWIFT. Gulliver, PART HI, 98a-b 

45 FARADAY: Researches in Electricity, 819d 

9b, The moon: its irregularities 

OLD TESTAMENT: Genesis, 1:14-18 / Psalms, 
1367-9 (D) Psalms, 1357-9 / Isaiah, iv9- 
n; 30:26; 60:19-20 (D) Isaias, 13-9-11; 
30-26; 60: 1 9-20 /Joel, 2-10,31; 3:15 

APOCRYPHA: Ecclesiasticus, 43.6-8 (D) OT, 
Ecclesiasticus, 43*6-9 

NEW TESTAMENT: Matthew, 24:29-30 / Mar\, 
13.24-25 

7 PLATO. Cratylus, 98a-b/ Apology, 204d-205a 
/ Timaeus, 451b-d 

8 ARISIOFLE: Heavens, BK n, CH n [29i b i8-23] 
383b; en 12 [29i b 29~292 b 27] 383c-384b; CH 14 



12 LUCRETIUS. Nature of Things, BK v [471-479] 

67b; [575-584] 68c; [629-649] 69b-c; [705- 

771] 70b-71a 
14 PLUTARCH: Solon, 74a / Aemilius Paulus, 

220d-221b / Ntctas, 435b-d / Dion, 789b- 

790a 

16 PTOLEMY: Almagest, BK iv-vi 108a-222b 
16 COPERNICUS: Revolutions of the Heavenly 

Spheres, BK iv 675a-731a 

16 KEPLLR: Epitome, BK iv, 876a-878a; 918a- 
928a; 952a-960a 

17 PLOTINUS: Second Ennead, TR in, CH 5, 43d- 
44a 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 70, 

A i, REP 5 362c-364b 
21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PARADISE, n [46-148] 

108b-109b 
24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK in, 

188c 
26 SHAKESPEARE: Romeo and Juliet, ACT n, sc n 

[107-110] 295b / Midsummer-Night's Dream, 

ACT ii, sc i [103-114] 357a-b 
30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK n, APH 36, 

167a-b 
32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK n (662-666] 125b; 

BK in [708-735] 150b-151b; BK v [257-266] 

180b-181a; BK vn [346-386] 224b-225b; BK 



VHI [122-158] 234b-235b / Samson Agonistes 
[86-89] 341b 

33 PASCAL: Provincial Letters, 164a / Pensees, 18 
174b-175a; 817, 330b 

34 NEWTON: Principles, BK i, PROP 43-45 92b- 
lOla; PROP 66 118a-128b; BK HI, PHENOMENON 
vi 275a, PROP 3-4 and SCHOL 276b-278b; 
PROP 22-38 294b-329a 

34 HUYGENS: Light, CH i, 554b-555a 

9c. The planets: their eccentricities, retrogra- 
dations, and stations 

7 PLATO: Republic, BK x, 438c-439a / Timaeus, 
451a-d 

8 ARISTOTLE- Heavens, BK 11, CH 2 [285^8-33] 
377b-c; CH 7-12 380c-384c / Metaphysics, BK 
xii, CH 8 603b-605a 

16 PTOLEMY: Almagest, BK ix-xin 270a-465b 
16 COPERNICUS- Revolutions of the Heavenly 
Spheres, BK i, 521b-529a; BK v-vi 732a-838a 

16 KFPLLR: Epitome, BK iv, 860b 872b, 878b- 
88 2a; 888b-905a; 907b-910a; 928a-952a pas- 
sim; BK v 961a-1004a / Harmonies of the 
World, 1015b-1080b 

17 PLOHNUS: Second Ennead, TR HI, CH 5, 44a 
19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 32, 

A i, REP 2 175d-178a 
21 DANTE. Divine Comedy, PARADISE, n [46-148] 

108b-109b; x [1-27] 120b-c; xxn [124-154] 

140d-141b 
24 RABELAIS. Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK i, 

29c 

30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK n, APH 36, 
165c-166b 

31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART v, 54d-56a pas- 
sim 

32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK HI [481-483] 146a; 
[573-587] 148a; BK v [166-170] 179a; [618-627] 
188b-189a; BK vn [557-564] 229a-b; BK vm 
[122-152] 234b-235b; BK ix [48-51] 248b; BK 
x [657-661] 288b 

33 PASCAL: Vacuum, 368b-369a 

34 NEWTON: Principles, BK i, PROP 1-3 and 
SCHOL 32b-35b; PROP 4, COROL vi 36a; PROP 
ii 42b-43b; PROP 15 46b-47a; PROP 17 48b- 
50a; PROP 57-63 lllb 115a; PROP 65-69 
116b-130b; BK HI, PHENOMENON i-v 272a- 
275a; PROP 1-2 276a-b; PROP 5-6 278b- 
281 b; PROP 8-10 282b-285a; PROP 13-19 286a- 
291b 

34 HUYGENS: Light, CH i, 556a-557b 

36 SWIFT: Gulliver, PART in, 102a 

36 STERNE: Tristram Shandy, 227a 

45 FOURIER: Theory of Heat, 171b 

45 FARADAY: Researches in Electricity, 632b 

51 TOLSTOY: War and Peacc> BK xin, 563b 

9</. The earth: its origin, position, shape, and 

motions 

OLD TESTAMENT: Genesis, 1:1-10 I Job, 38:4-7 / 
Psalms, 90:2; 102:25; 119:90 (D) Psalms, 
89:2; 101 :26; 118:90 / Proverbs, 3:19; 8:23-29 / 



9<r to 10 



CHAPTER 5: ASTRONOMY 



107 



Isaiah, 45:12; 48:13 (D) Isaias, 45:12; 48:13 
/ Jeremiah, 51 .-15 (D) Jcremtas, 51:15 
NEW TESTAMENT: Hebrews, i .10 

7 PLATO: Phaedo, 241b-242b; 247b-c/ Timaeus, 
452a-b 

8 ARISTOTLE' Heavens, BK 11, CH 13-14 384d- 
389d 

9 ARISTOTLE : Motion of 'Animals, CH 3 [699*27]- 
CH 4 [699^9] 234b-23Sa 

11 ARCHIMEDES Sand-Reckoner, 520a-b 

12 LUCRETIUS. Nature of Things, BK v [416-508] 
66c-67c; [534-563] 68a-b 

14 PLUTARCH: Numa Pompihus, 55a-b 

16 PTOLEMY: Almagest, BK i, 8b-12b; BK n, 40a- 

44b 
16 COPERNICUS: Revolutions of the Heavenly 

Spheres, BK i, 511b-513a, 514b-521a; 529a- 

532a 

16 KEPLER- Epitome, BK iv, 854a-b; 873a-876a; 
911b-928a 

17 PLOTINUS: Fourth Ennead, TR iv, CH 26-27 
171b-172a 

28 GILBERT: Loadstone, BK i, 23b-25d; BK vi 
106a-121a,c 

30 BACON Novum Organum, BK n, APH 36, 
165c-166b 

31 DESCARILS: Discourse, P\RT v, 54d-56a pas- 
sim 

32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK in [702 -734] 150b- 
151b; BK iv [996-1004] 174a, BK v [577-579] 
187b-188a; BK vn [216-337] 221b-224b; BK 
vin [15-38] 232b-233a, [66-168] 233b-235b; 
BKIX [99-118] 249b-250a; BK x [668-678] 289a 

33 PASCAL: Provincial Letters, 165a/ Pensees, 72, 
181a / Vacuum, 368b-369a 

34 NEWTON: Principles, BK i, PROP 66, COROL 
xxn 127b-128b, BK in, PROP 18-21 288b-294b 

35 BERKELEY: Human Knowledge, SECT 58 
424a-b 

36 SWIFT Gulliver, PARI in, 98a-b 

45 FARAD \Y* Researches in Electricity, 819d 
51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK xm, 563b; 
EPILOGUE n, 695d-696d 

9e. The fixed stars: the precession of the equi- 
noxes 

OLD TESTAMENT: Genesis, 1*14-18 / Psalms, 

1367-9 (D) Psalms, 135:7-9 
APOCRYPHA. Ecclesiasticus, 43:9-10 (D) OT, 

Ecclesiasticus, 43:9-11 

7 PLATO: Timaeus, 451d-452a 

8 ARISTOTLE: Heavens, BK 11, CH 7-12 380c- 
384c / Meteorology, BK i, CH 8 [345 b i~9] 451c-d 

11 ARCHIMEDES: Sand-Reckoner, 520a b 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK v [509-533] 
67d-68a; [585-591] 68d 

14 PLUTARCH: Lysander, 358d-359c 

16 PTOLEMY: Almagest, BK i, 7a-8b; BK in, 77a- 

b; BK vn-viii 223a-269a 
16 COPERNICUS: Revolutions of the Heavenly 

Spheres, BK i, 517b-520b; BK n, 585b-621b; 

BK in, 622a-652b esp 622a-646a 



16 KEPLER: Epitome, BK iv, 882a-887a; 88 7 b- 

888a; 918a 
19AguiN\s: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 70, 

A i, REP 5 362c-364b 
21 DAN i E* Divine Comedy, PARADISE, n [46-148) 

108b-109b 
24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagrud, BK I, 

29c, BK n, 69d-70a 
28 GILBERT: Loadstone^ BK vi, 107c-116a; 117c- 

121a,c 
30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK n, APH 36, 165c- 

166b; APH 48, 185c-d 
32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK in [481-483] 146a; 

BK iv [641-676] 166b-167a; BK vn [346-352] 

224b; BK vin [15-38] 232b-233a; BK x [651- 

667] 288b-289a 
34 NEWTON: Principles, BK i, PROP 66, COROL 

xx-xxi 126b-127b; BK in, PROP 21 294b; 

LEMMA I-PROP 39 329a-333a / Optics, BK i, 

419a-b 
36 SWIFT: Gulliver, PART in, 102a 

9/. The comets and meteors 

8 ARISTOTLE: Meteorology, BK i, CH 4 447d- 

448d, CH 6-8 449b-452d 
14 PLUTARCH* Lytander, 358d-359c 
16 KEPLFR: Epitome, BK iv, 856b 
21 D AN rt. Divine Comedy, PARADISE, xv [13-24] 

128c 

30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK n, APH 30 
159c-d, APH 35, 163a-b; APH 36, 166a-b 

32 MILTON* Paradise Lost, BK i [535-537] 105a; 
[742-746] 109b; BK ii [706-711] 126b; BK iv 
[555-560] 164b; BK xii [632-644] 333a 

33 PASCAL: Vacuum, 358a 

34 NEWTON: Principles, BK in, LEMMA 4-pRop 42 
333a-368b; GENERAL SCHOL, 369a 

36 SWIFT* Gulliver, PART in, 98a-b; 102b 

41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 68c-69a; 615a-b 

[n 74-81] 
51 TOLSTOY. War and Peace, BK vin, 340d- 

341a,c 

10. The influence of the heavenly bodies upon 
terrestrial phenomena 

6 HERODOTUS: History, BK n, 79c 

7 PLATO: Theaetetus, 518b / Statesman, 586c- 
589c 

8 ARISTOTLE: Heavens, BK i, CH 9 [279*22-30) 
370c; BK n, CH 3 377c-378a / Meteorology \ 
BK i, CH 2 445b-d / Metaphysics, BK xn, CH 6 
[1072*9-18] 602a 

10 HIPPOCRATES: Airs, Waters, Places, par 1-7 
9a-12a passim, par 10-11 13b-14b 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART r, Q 18, 
A i, REP 1 104c-105c; Q 19, A 6, ANS 113c-114d; 
Q 65, A 4, REP 3 342b-343c; Q 67, A 3 351b- 
352a; Q 82, A 4, ANS 434c-435c; Q 86, A 4, 
REP 2-3 463d-464d; Q 103, A 5, REP i 531b- 
532b; Q no, A i, REP 2-3 564c-565d; Q 115, 
AA 3-6 588c-592d; Q 116, A i, ANS 592d- 
593d 



108 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



100/011 



(10. The influence of the heavenly bodies upon 
terrestrial phenomena,) 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART HI SUPPL, 
Q 76, A i, REP 2 939d-941a; Q 77, A i, ANS 
943a-944d; Q 86, A 2, ANS and REP 1-2 993c- 
994d; Q 91, A i, REP i 1016b-1017c 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PARADISE, n [112- 
148] 109a-b; vn [121-141] 116b-c; vm [97-114] 
118a; x [1-27] 120b-c; xm [52-78] 126a-b 

22 CHAUCER: Miller's Talc [3187-3212] 212b- 
213a; [35'3-3533l 218a 

24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK n, 
72c 

27 SHAKESPEARE: Troilus and Cressida, ACT i, 
sc in [85-101] 109a 

28 GILBERT: Loadstone, BK i, 14a 

32 MILTON: Arcades [61-73] 26b / Paradise Lost, 
BK in [606-612] 148b; BK iv [660-688] 166b- 
167b; BK vin [85-106] 234a-b; BK x [641-719] 
288b290a 

33 PASCAL: Pens&s, 18 174b-175a 
36 SWIFT: Gulliver, PART in, 98a-b 
41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 226b 

lOa. The influence of the heavenly bodies on 
living matter: generation and corruption 

7 PLATO: Cratylus, 98a / Theaetetus, 518b 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK n, CH 2 [i94 b i3] 271a 
/ Heavens, BK i, CH 9 [279*22-30] 370c; BK n, 
CH 3 377c-378a / Generation and Corruption, 
BK n, CH 10 437d-439c / Metaphysics, BK xn, 
CH 5 [i07ii2-i7] 600c; CH 6 [1072*9-18] 602a 

9 ARISTOTLE: Parts of Animals, BK iv, CH 5 
[680*30-35] 210d / Generation of Animals, BK 
I, CH 2 [716*15-20] 256b; BK n, CH 3 [736^0- 
737*5] 277c-d; CH 4 [738*9-25] 278d-279a; BK 
iv, CH 2 [767*2-9] 308b; CH 10 [777 b 15-778*10] 
319d-320a,c 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK v [76-81] 
62a 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 25, 
A 2, REP 2 144c-145b; Q 70, A i, REP 4 362c- 
364b; A 3, REP 3 365b-367a; Q 71, A i, REP i 
367a-368b; Q 82, A 4, ANS 434c-435c; Q 86, 
A 4, REP 2-3 463d-464d; Q 91, A 2, REP 2 
485b-486b; Q 92, A i, ANS 488d-489d; Q 105, 
A i, REP 1 538d-539c; Q 115, A 3 588c-589c; A 5, 
REP i 590d-591c; Q 118, A i, REP 3 600a-601c 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 60, 
A i, ANS 49d-50c; PART in SUPPL, Q 76, A i, 
REP 2 939d-941a; Q 84, A 2, REP 3 984c-985d; 
Q 86, A 2, ANS and REP 1-2 993c-994d; Q 91, 
A i, REP i 1016b-1017c; A 2, ANS and REP 1,4 
1017c-1020c; A 3, REP 2 1020d-1022c 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PARADISE, vn [121- 
141] 116b-c; x [7-21] 120b-c; xm [52-78] 
126a-b 

22 CHAUCER: franklin's Tale [11,343-347] 356b 
28 GILBERT: Loadstone, BK v, 105a-b 

28 HARVEY: On Animal Generation, 416a; 427b- 
d; 428c-429a 



29 CERVANTES: Don Quixote, PART n, 340b 

30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK n, APH n, 
140d-141a; APH 12, 141d; APH 35, 162b-c 

32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK iv [634-688] 166a- 
167b; BK vin [66-178] 233b-236a esp [90-97] 
234a; BK ix [99-113] 249b 

33 PASCAL: Pensees, 18 174b-175a 
49 DARWIN: Descent of Man, 256c 

10. The influence of the heavenly bodies on 
the tides 

6 HERODOTUS: History, BK n, 53d-54b 

16 KEPLER: Epitome, BK iv, 919b 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 105, 
A 6, REP i 543b-544a; Q no, A 3, REP i 566d- 
567b 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART ii-n, Q 2, 
A 3, ANS 392d-393c 

22 CHAUCER: Franklin's Tale [11,355-388] 356b- 

357a 
28 GILBERT: Loadstone, BK n, 47a-b; BK vi, 

113a 

30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK n, APH 36, 
164b-165c; APH 45, 176b; APH 46, 178c 

31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART v, 55c 

33 PASCAL: Pensees, 817, 330b 

34 NEWTON: Principles, BK i, PROP 66, COROL 
xvin-xix 126a-b; BK HI, PROP 24 296a-299b; 
PROP 36-37 324a-328b 

35 BERKELEY: Human Knowledge, SECT 104 
433a-b 

11. The influence of the stars and planets upon 
the character and actions of men 

OLD TESTAMENT: Isaiah, 47:13 (D) 7/0/^,47:13 

/Jeremiah, io.2(D)Jeremias, 10:2 
APOCRYPHA: Baruch, 6:60-69 (D) OT, Baruch, 

6:60-68 
6 HERODOTUS: History, BK n, 65b; BK vn, 

223b-c; BK ix, 289d-290a 
6 THUCYDIDES: Peloponnesian War, BK vn, 
552a-c 

14 PLUTARCH- Romulus, 20b-c / Nicias, 435b-d / 
Dion, 789b-790a 

15 TACITUS- Annals, BK i, 9a-b; 9d; BK iv, 79b; 
BK vi, 91a-d / Histories, BK i, 195b-c; BK v, 
295c 

17 PLOTINUS: Second Ennead, TR in 42a-50a / 
Third Ennead, TR i, CH 2 78d-79b; CH 5-6 
80a-81b; TR n, CH 10 88a-b / Fourth Ennead, 
TR iv, CH 30-45 174b-183a 

18 AUGUSTINE : Confessions, BK iv, par 4-6 20a-d; 
BK vii, par 8-ro 45d-47a / City of God, BK in, 
CH 15, 176d-177a; BK v, CH 1-7 207d-212c / 
Christian Doctrine, BK n, CH 21-23 647a-648d 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 70, 
A 2, REP i 364b-365a; Q 86, A 4, REP 2-3 463d- 
464d; Q 96, A 3, ANS 512a-c; Q 115, A 4 589d- 
590c; A 5, REP i 590d-591c; Q 116, A i, ANS 
592d-593d; PART i-n, Q 9, A 5 660d-662a 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, HELL, vir (67-96] 
lOb-c; PURGATORY, xvi [52-84] 77b-d; PARA- 



12 to 13 



CHAPTER 5: ASTRONOMY 



109 



DISE, iv [49-63] lllb; vin [1-12] 116d; [91- 
148] 117d-118c; xin [52-78] 126a-b; xxn [112- 
123] 140d 

22 CHAUCER- Knight's Tak [2438-2482] 200a-b 
/ Tale of Man of Law [4610-4623] 237b; 
[4715-4735] 239b-240a / Wife of Bath's Pro- 
logue [6187-6202] 266a 

24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK i, 
66b-67d; BK n, 69b,d-70d; BK in, 136c-137c; 
176a>b; BK iv, 267c-d 

25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 18d-20d; 213d-215a; 
246d-247c 

26 SHAKESPEARE: Julius Caesar, ACT i, sc n 
[139-141] 570d 

27 SHAKESPEARE: Hamlet, ACT i, sc i [113-125] 
30d-31a / Othello, ACT v, sc n [105-111] 240b 
/ King Lear, ACT i, sc n [112-166] 249a-c; 
ACT iv, sc in [34-37] 272a 

28 GILBLRT- Loadstone, BK in, 73a 

29 CERVANIES: Don Quixote, PART i, 94c; PART 
n, 222c 

30 BACON: Advancement of learning, 14b-c; 54c- 
55a 

32 MILTON: Christs Nativity [125-140] 4b-5a / 
Arcades [61-73] 26b / Comus [93-144] 35b-36b 
/ Paradise Lost, BK i [594-599] 106b, BK vin 
[511-514] 243b, BK x [657-661] 288b 

33 PASCAL Pensees, 173 203b-204a 
36 SWIFT. Gulliver, PART in, 98a-b 

36 Si ERNE. Tristram Shandy, 194b-195a; 332a- 

334b;407b-408b 
47 GOETHE Faust, PART n [4947-4976] 122b- 

123a, [6667-6670] 163b 
51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK vin, 340d- 

341a,c 

12. The worship of the earth, sun, moon, and 

stars 

OLD TESTAMENT: Genesis, 37*9-10 / Deuteron- 
omy, 4 19; 17:3 / II Kings, 2 3 '4-5, 1 1 (D) 
IV Kings, 23-4-5,11 / Jeremiah, 8-1-2; 10-2 
(D) Jeremias, 8-1-2; 10:2 / Ezefyel, 8 16 (D) 
Ezechiel, 8.16 / Zephaniah, 1:4-5 (D) Soph- 
onias, 1-4-5 

APOCRYPHA Wisdom of Solomon, 13*1-9 (D) 
OT, Bool( of Wisdom, 13.1-9 / Baruch, 6:60- 
69- (D) OT, Baruch, 6-60-68 
5 SOPHOCLES- Antigone [332-340] 134a 
5 EURIPIDES: Orestes [1625-1693] 410b-d 

5 ARISTOPHANES: Clouds [563-626] 495c-496b 
/ Peace [406-416] 530d 

6 HERODOTUS: History, BK i, 31a-b; 48c; BK 
vii, 226c 

7 PLATO: Apology, 204d-205a / Laws, BK vn, 
728b-730d; BK xn, 797b-798b 

8 ARISTOTLE: Metaphysics, BK XH, CH 8 [io74 b i- 
14] 604d-605a 

9 ARISTOTLE: Generation of Animals, BK i, CH 2 
[716*15-20] 256b 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK n [581-660] 
22b-23b; BK v [396-411] 66b; [821-836] 71d- 
72a 



14 PLUTARCH: Aemilius Paulus, 220d-221b 

15 TACITUS: Annals, BK xv, 176a 

16 KEPLER: Harmonies of the World, 1080b- 
1085b 

l7PLoiiNus: Fourth Ennead, TR iv, CH 24-26 

170b-171d 
19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q n, 

A 3, REP i 49a-c; Q 67, A 4, ANS 352a-354a; 

115, A 3, REP i 588c-589c 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PARADISP, iv [49-63] 
lllb; vin [1-12] 116d 

22 CHAUCER: Knight's Tale [2209-2482] 196b- 
200b / Franklin's Tale [11,339-393] 356b-357a 

25 MONTAIGNL- Essays, 246d-247c 

27 SHAKESPEARE: Antony and Cleopatra, ACT iv, 

sc ix [5-18] 340c-d 
35 BERKELEY. Human Knowledge, SECT 94 

431b-c 

40 GIBBON Decline and Fall, 59c-60a, 81d; 93b- 
d; 346d-347a 

41 GIBBON- Decline and Fall, 226a-b; 227c 

46 HFGEL- Philosophy of History, PART i, 238d- 
239a; 252a-c 

47 GOETHE: Faust, PART n [7900-7950] 192b- 
193b; [8034-8043] 195b; [8078-8081] 196b; 
[8285-8302] 202a 

13. The history of astronomy 

5 AESCHYLUS: Prometheus Bound [442-461] 
44c-d 

6 HERODOTUS- History, BK n, 49d-50a; 65b; 79c 

7 PLATO- Phaedrus, 138c-d / /fyo%>',204d-205a 
/ Statesman, 586c-589c / Laws, BK vii, 728b- 
730d; BK xn, 797b-798b 

8 ARISTOTLE- Heavens, BK i, CH 3 [270^2-26] 
361d-362a, en 10 370d-371d, BK n, CH 1-2 
375b,d-377c; en 12 [292*6-9] 383c; CH 13 
384d-387d / Meteorology, BK i, CH 6 449b- 
450b; CH 8 451b-452d, BK n, CH i [354*27-32] 
460b / Metaphysics, BK i, en 2 (982 b ii-i7J 
500d; BK xn, CH 8 603b-605a 

11 ARCIIIMLDES- Sand-Reckoner, 520a-b 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK v [720-730] 
70c 

14 PLUTARCH- Romulus, 20b-c / Numa Pompi- 

lius, 55a-b / Solon, 74a / Pericles, 138d 

/ Aemilius Paulus, 220d-221b / Lysander, 

358d-359c / Nicias, 435b-d 
16 PTOLEMY- Almagest, BK HI, 77a-83a; BK iv, 

109a-110b; BK vii, 223a*232b passim; BK ix, 

272a-b 
16 COPERNICUS: Revolutions of the Heavenly 

Spheres, 508a 
16 KEPLER: Epitome, BK iv, 861b-863a; 888b- 

891b; 907b-910a; 929a-933a passim; 955a 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK v, par 3-6 27c- 
28c 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 32, 
A i, REP 2 175d-178a 

22 CHAUCER: Miller's Tale [3187-3212] 212b-213a 
24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK n, 
69d-70a 



110 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



13 



13. The history of astronomy.) 

25 MONTAIGNE '.Essays, 237 d-25Sb 

28 GILBERT: Loadstone, BK vi, 107c-d; 117c-d; 

118d-119c 
30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 24d / JVb- 

vum Organum, BK i, APH 80 120a-b; APH 89 

124a-d; BK n, APH 36, 165c-167b 

32 MILTON. Paradise Lost, BK i [284-291] 99b; 
BK v (261-263] 181a; BK vui [66-168] 233b- 
235b / Areopagitica, 400a 

33 PASCAL: Provincial Letters, 165a / Vacuum, 
358a;368b-369a 



35 BERKELEY: Human Knowledge, SECT 58 
424a-b; SECT 104 433a-b 

35 HUME: Human Understanding, SECT i, DIV 9, 
454c-d 

36 STERNE: Tristram Shandy, 227a 

41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 68c-69a; 226b; 
299b-c; 664d (n 55-56] 

42 KANT: Pure Reason, 8d (fn 2]; 175b [fn i] / 
Practical Reason, 361b-c 

46 HEGEL- Philosophy of History, PART i, 219a-b, 

251a-b 
51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK vui, 340d- 

341a,c; BK xm, 563b; EPILOGUE n, 694d~696d 



CROSS-REFERENCES 

For: The discussion of related disciplines, see MATHEMATICS; MECHANICS; PHYSICS. 

The consideration of mathematical physics, see MATHEMATICS 50; MECHANICS 3; PHYSICS 

ib, 3; SCIENCE 5c. 
Other treatments of observation and measurement in natural science, see EXPERIENCE 5-50; 

MECHANICS 2a; PHYSICS 3, 43, 4d; QUANTITY 6-6c; SCIENCE 5a~5b; SENSE 5. 
The logic of hypotheses and their verification in scientific method, see HYPOTHESIS 40-^; 

PHYSICS 4b; PRINCIPLE 30(2); SCIENCE 56. 
The general consideration of scientific method, see LOGIC 4b; REASONING 6c; SCIENCE 

5-5*- 
The distinction between formal and efficient causes, see CAUSE la; and for the role of causes 

and causal explanation in natural science, see CAUSE 5b; NATURE 3c; PHYSICS 2b; 
SCIENCE 4C. 
The consideration of certain mathematical forms used in astronomy, see QUANTITY 3b(i)- 

3b(2), 3 c(2). 

Other discussions of celestial and terrestrial mechanics, see MECHANICS 4a, 5f-5f(2), 6c. 
The theory of gravitation and the problem of action-at-a-distance, see MECHANICS 6d(i)- 

6d(z); SPACE 2C. 
The issues concerning matter and soul or intellect in relation to the heavenly bodies, see 

ANGEL 2a; MATTER ib; SOUL la; WORLD 6a. 

Other discussions of the measurement of time, see QUANTITY 5b; TIME 4. 
The interpretation of celestial phenomena in divination and augury, see LANGUAGE 10; 

PROPHECY 3b; SIGN AND SYMBOL 50. 
Criticisms of astrology, see RELIGION 6a. 
The cosmological and theological implications of astronomy, see ANGEL 2a; CHANGE 13*14; 

ETERNITY 2; INFINITY 3d-3e; SPACE 33; TIME 2b; WORLD 43, 4e, 5, 7. 



CHAPTER 5: ASTRONOMY 



111 



ADDITIONAL READINGS 

Listed below are works not included in Great Booty of the Western World, but relevant to the 
idea and topics with which this chapter deals. These works are divided into two groups: 

I. Works by authors represented in this collection. 
II. Works by authors not represented in this collection. 

For the date, place, and other facts concerning the publication of the works cited, consult 
the Bibliography of Additional Readings which follows the last chapter of The Great Ideas, 



I. 

PTOLEMY. Tetrabiblos 

AQUINAS. Summa Contra Gentiles, BK in, CH 84-87 

. On the Trinity ofBoethius, Q 5 

DANTE. Convivio (The Banquet), SECOND TREATISE, 

CH 3-4 

CHAUCER. A Treatise on the Astrolabe 
COPERNICUS. Commentariolus 

. Letter Against Werner 

KEPLER. Mysterium Cosmographicum 

. De Motibus Stellae Mortis 

. Harmonices Mundi, BK i-iv 

GALILEO. The Sidereal Messenger 

. Dialogo dei massimi sistemi 

DESCARTES. The Principles of Philosophy, PART in, 

5-47, 103-120, 126-157 
HOBBES. Concerning Body, PART iv, CH 26 
KANT. Cosmogony 
A. SMITH. The History of Astronomy 

II. 

ARISTARCHUS. On the Sizes and Distances of the Sun 
and Moon 

EPICURUS. Letter to Pythocles 

. Letter to Herodotus 

IBN EZRA. The Beginning of Wisdom 

MAIMONIDES. The Guide for the Perplexed, PART n, 
CH 8-12, 24 

R. BACON. Opus Majus, PART iv 

RHETICUS. Narratio Prima 

SuXREZ. Disputationes Metaphysicae, xni (10-13), 
xv (3) 

FONTENELLE. Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds 

VOLTAIRE. "Astrology," "Astronomy," in A Philo- 
sophical Dictionary 

LAGRANGE. MScanique analytique 



LAPLACE. The System of the World 

. MScanique ctlcste (Celestial Mechanics) 

GAUSS. Inaugural Lecture on Astronomy 
WHEWELL. Astronomy and General Physics Considered 

with Reference to Natural Theology 
COMTE. The Positive Philosophy, BK n 

A. HUMBOLDT. Cosmos 

HERSCHEL. Familiar Lectures on Scientific Subjects, 11 
FRAZER. The Golden Bough, PART iv, BK in, CH 7-9; 

PART v, NOTE (Pliadcs in Primitive Calendars) 
G. H. DARWIN. The Evolution of the Satellites 
. The Tides and Kindred Phenomena in the Solar 

System 

SANTA VAN A. Reason in Society, CH 4 
DREYER. History of the Planetary Systems 
POINCARE". The Value of Science, PART n, CH 6 

. Science and Method, BK in, CH 3; BK iv 

KAPTEYN. Recent Researches in the Structure of the 

Universe 

DUHEM. Le systeme du monde 
ARRHENIUS. The Destinies of the Stars 
T. CHAMBERLIN. The Origin of the Earth 
E. HUNTINGTON. Earth and Sun 
DINGLE. Modern Astrophysics 
SHAPLEY. Starlight 
EDDINGTON. The Internal Constitution of the Stars 

. Stars and Atoms 

JEANS. Problems of Cosmogony and Stellar Dynamics 

. Astronomy and Cosmogony 

TOLMAN. Relativity, Thermodynamics, and Cosmology 
H. N. RUSSELL. The Solar System and Its Origin 
ABETTI. The Sun: Its Phenomena and Physical 

Features 

HUBBLE. The Realm of the Nebulae 
GAMOW. The Birth and Death of the Sun 

B. RUSSELL, Human Knowledge, Its Scope and 
Limits, PART i, CH 2 



Chapter 6: BEAUTY 



INTRODUCTION 



r "p r RUTH, goodness, and beauty form a triad 

JL of terms which have been discussed to- 
gether throughout the tradition of western 
thought. 

They have been called "transcendental" on 
the ground that everything which is is in some 
measure or manner subject to denomination 
as true or false, good or evil, beautiful or ugly. 
But they have also been assigned to special 
spheres of being or subject matter the true 
to thought and logic, the good to action and 
morals, the beautiful to enjoyment and aes- 
thetics. 

They have been called "the three fundamen- 
tal values" with the implication that the worth 
of anything can be exhaustively judged by 
reference to these three standards and no 
others. But other terms, such as pleasure or 
utility, have been proposed, either as additional 
values or as significant variants of the so-called 
fundamental three; or even sometimes as more 
fundamental. Pleasure or utility, for example, 
has been held by men like Spinoza or Mill to be 
the ultimate criterion of beauty or goodness. 

Truth, goodness, and beauty, singly and to- 
gether, have been the focus of the age-old con- 
troversy concerning the absolute and the rela- 
tive, the objective and the subjective, the uni- 
versal and the individual. At certain times it has 
been thought that the distinction of true from 
false, good from evil, beautiful from ugly, has 
its basis and warranty in the very nature of 
things, and that a man's judgment of these mat- 
ters is measured for its soundness or accuracy by 
its conformity to fact. At other times the oppo- 
site position has been dominant. One meaning 
of the ancient saying that man is the measure of 
all things applies particularly to the true, good, 
and beautiful. Man measures truth, goodness, 
and beauty by the effect things have upon him, 
according to what they seem to him to be. What 



seems good to one man may seem evil to anoth- 
er. What seems ugly or false may also seem 
beautiful or true to different men or to the 
same man at different times. 

Yet it is not altogether true that these three 
terms have always suffered the same fortunes. 
For Spinoza goodness and beauty are subjec- 
tive, but not truth. Because he "has persuaded 
himself that all things which exist are made for 
him," man, Spinoza says, judges that to be "of 
the greatest importance which is most useful to 
him, and he must esteem that to be of surpass- 
ing worth by which he is most beneficially 
affected." The notions of good and evil, beauty 
and ugliness, do not conform to anything in the 
nature of things. "The ignorant," says Spinoza, 
nevertheless, "call the nature of a thing good, 
evil, sound, putrid, or corrupt just as they are 
affected by it. For example, if the motion by 
which the nerves are affected by means of ob- 
jects represented to the eye conduces to well- 
being, the objects by which it is caused are 
called beautiful', while those exciting a con- 
trary motion are called deformed" 

BEAUTY HAS BEEN most frequently regarded as 
subjective, or relative to the individual judg- 
ment. The familiar maxim, de gustibus non dis- 
putandum, has its original application in the 
sphere of beauty rather than truth and good- 
ness. "Truth is disputable," Hume writes, "not 
taste . . . No man reasons concerning another's 
beauty; but frequently concerning the justice 
or injustice of his actions." Thus even when it 
was supposed that judgments of the true and 
the good could have a certain absoluteness or 
universality or at least be considered as some- 
thing about which men might reach agreement 
through argument opinions about beauty 
were set apart as useless to dispute. Beauty 
being simply a matter of individual taste, it 



112 



CHAPTER 6; BEAUTY 



113 



could afford no basis for argument or reasoning 
no objective ground for settling differences 
of opinion. 

From the ancient skeptics down to our own 
day, men have noted the great variety of traits, 
often sharply opposed, which have been con- 
sidered beautiful at different times and places. 
"We fancy its forms," Montaigne says of beau- 
ty, "according to our appetite and liking . . . 
Indians paint it black and tawny, with great 
swollen lips, big flat noses, and load the carti- 
lage betwixt the nostrils with great rings of gold , 
to make it hang down to the mouth ... In 
Peru, the greatest ears are the most beautiful, 
and they stretch them out as far as they can by 
art ... There are, elsewhere, nations that take 
great care to blacken their teeth, and hate to 
see them white; elsewhere, people that paint j 
them red . . . The Italians fashion beauty gross | 
and massive; the Spaniards, gaunt and slender; 
among us one makes it white, another brown; 
one soft and delicate, another strong and vig- , 
orous .... Just as the preference in beauty is 1 
given by Plato to the spherical figure, the 
Epicureans give it to the pyramidal or the 
square, and cannot swallow a god in the form 
of a ball." 

Like Montaigne, Darwin gives an extensive 
account of the things men have found beauti- 
ful, many of them so various and contradictory 
that it would seem there could be no objective 
basis for judgments of beauty. If any consensus 
is found among individuals about what is beau- 
tiful or ugly, the skeptics or relativists usually 
explain it by reference to the prevalence of 
certain prejudices, or customary standards, 
which in turn vary with different tribes and 
cultures, and at different times and places. 

Beginning in the sphere of beauty, subjec- 
tivism or relativism spreads first to judgments 
of good and evil, and then to statements about 
truth, never in the opposite direction. It be- 
comes complete when, as so frequently happens 
in our own time, what is good or true is held 
to be just as much a matter of private taste or 
customary opinion as what is beautiful. , 

The problem of the objectivity or subjec- 
tivity of beauty can, of course, be separated 
from similar problems with regard to truth and 
goodness, but any attempt to solve it will neces- 
sarily both draw on and bear on the discussion 



of these related problems. The degree to which 
the three problems must be considered inter- 
dependently is determined by the extent to 
which each of the three terms requires the con- 
text of the other two for its definition and anal- 
ysis* 

BEAUTY is, PERHAPS, not definable in any strict 
sense of definition. But there have been, never- 
theless, many attempts to state, with the brevi- 
ty of definition, what beauty is. Usually notions 
of goodness, or correlative notions of desire and 
love, enter into the statement. 

Aquinas, for example, declares that "the 
beautiful is the same as the good, and they 
differ in aspect only. . . . The notion of good is 
that which calms the desire, while the notion 
of the beautiful is that which calms the desire, 
by being seen or known." This, according to 
Aquinas, implies that "beauty adds to goodness 
a relation to the cognitive faculty; so that good 
means that which simply pleases the appetite, 
while the beautiful is something pleasant to 
apprehend." 

Because of its relation to the cognitive pow- 
er, Aquinas defines the beautiful as "that which 
pleases upon being seen" (id quod visum placet). 
Hence, he continues, "beauty consists in due 
proportion, for the senses delight in things duly 
proportioned . . . because the sense too is a 
sort of reason, as is every cognitive power/' 

The pleasure or delight involved in the per- 
ception of beauty belongs to the order of know- 
ing rather than to desire or action. The know- 
ing, furthermore, seems to be different from 
that which is proper to science, for it is con- 
cerned with the individual thing rather than 
with universal natures, and it occurs intuitively 
or contemplatively, rather than by judgment 
and reasoning. There is a mode of truth pe- 
culiar to the beautiful, as well as a special kind 
of goodness. 

Fully to understand what Aquinas is saying 
about beauty we are required to understand 
his theory of goodness and truth. But enough 
is immediately clear to give meaning to Eric 
Gill's advice to those who are concerned with 
making things beautiful: "Lookafter ^gpoclness 
and truthi" he says, "and beauty will take care 
of herself." _ " 

ne beauty in terms of pleasure would 



114 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



seem to make it relative to the individual, for 
what gives pleasure even contemplative pleas- 
ure to one man, may not to another. It should 
be noted, however, that the pleasure in ques- 
tion is attributed to the object as its cause. It 
may be asked, therefore, what in the object is 
the cause of the peculiar satisfaction which con- 
stitutes the experience of beauty? Can the same 
object just as readily arouse displeasure in 
another individual, and a consequent judgment 
of ugliness? Are these opposite reactions en- 
tirely the result of the way an individual feels? 

Aquinas appears to meet this difficulty by 
specifying certain objective elements of beau- 
ty, or "conditions," as he calls them. "Beauty 
includes three conditions," he writes: "integ- 
rity or perfection, since those things which are 
impaired are by that very fact ugly; due pro- 
portion or harmony \ and lastly, brightness or 
clarity, whence things are called beautiful which 
have a bright color." Quite apart from indi- 
vidual reactions, objects may differ in the de- 
gree to which they possess such properties- 
traits which are capable of pleasing or displeas- 
ing their beholder. 

This does not mean that the individual re- 
action is invariably in accordance with the ob- 
jective characteristics of the thing beheld. Men 
differ in the degree to which they possess good 
perception and sound critical judgment 
rven as objects differ in the degree to which 
they possess the elements of beauty. Once 
igam in the controversy concerning the objec- 
tivity or subjectivity of beauty, there seems to 
be a middle ground between the two extreme 
positions, which insists upon a beauty intrinsic 
to the object but does not deny the relevance 
}f differences in individual sensibility. 

William James would seem to be indicating 
juch a position when, in his discussion of aes- 
rhetic principles, he declares: "We are once and 
or all so made that when certain impressions 
:ome before our mind, one of them will seem to 
:all for or repel the others as its companions." 
\s an example, he cites the fact that "a note 
tounds good with its third and fifth." Such an 
icsthetic judgment certainly depends upon in- 
Jividual sensibility, and, James adds, "to a cer- 
ain extent the principle of habit will explain 
it]." But he also points out that "to explain all 
testhetic judgements in this way would be ab- 



surd; for it is notorious how seldom natural ex- 
periences come up to our aesthetic demands." 
To the extent that aesthetic judgments "ex- 
press inner harmonies and discords between 
objects of thought," the beautiful, according 
to James, has a certain objectivity; and good 
taste can be conceived as the capacity to be 
pleased by objects which should elicit that re- 
action. 

KANT'S THEORY OF the beautiful, to take 
another conception, must also be understood in 
the general context of his theory of knowledge, 
and his analysis of such terms as good, pleasure, 
and desire. His definition, like that of Aquinas, 
calls an object beautiful if it satisfies the ob- 
server in a very special way not merely pleas- 
ing his senses, or satisfying his desires, in the 
ways in which things good as means or ends fit 
a man's interests or purposes. The beautiful, 
according to Kant, "pleases immediately . . . 
apart from all interest" The pleasure that re- 
sults from its contemplation "may be said to be 
the one and only disinterested and free delight; 
for, with it, no interest, whether of sense or 
reason, extorts approval." 

The aesthetic experience is for Kant also 
unique in that its judgment "is represented as 
universal, i.e. valid for every man," yet at the 
same time it is "incognizable by means of any 
universal concept." In other words, "all judge- 
ments of taste are singular judgements"; they 
are without concept in the sense that they,do 
not apply to a class of objects. Nevertheless, 
they have a certain universality and are not 
merely the formulation of a private judgment. 
When "we call the object beautiful," Kant 
says, "we believe ourselves to be speaking with 
a universal voice, and lay claim to the concur- 
rence of every one, whereas no private sensa- 
tion would be decisive except for the observer 
alone and his liking." 

In saying that aesthetic judgments have sub- 
jective, not objective, universality, and in hold- 
ing that the beautiful is the object of a neces- 
sary satisfaction, Kant also seems to take the 
middle position which recognizes the subjec- 
tivity of the aesthetic judgment without deny- 
ing that beauty is somehow an intrinsic prop- 
erty of objects. With regard to its subjective 
character, Kant cites Hume to the effect that 



CHAFFER 6: BEAUTY 



115 



"although critics arc able to reason more plau- 
sibly than cooks, they must still share the same 
fate." The universal character of the aesthetic 
judgment, however, keeps it from being com- 
pletely subjective and Kant goes to some length 
to refute the notion that in matters of the beau- 
tiful one can seek refuge in the adage that/ 
"every one has his own taste.*' I 

The fact that the aesthetic judgment re- 
quires universal assent, even though the uni- 
versal rule on which it is based cannot be 
formulated, does not, of course, preclude the 
failure of the object to win such assent from 
many individuals. Not all men have good taste 
or, having it, have it to the same degree. 

THE FOREGOING CONSIDERATIONS selective 
rather than exhaustive -show the connection 
between definitions of beauty and the problem 
of aesthetic training. In the traditional discus- 
sion of the ends of education, there is the prob- 
lem of how to cultivate good taste the ability 
to discriminate critically between the beautiful 
and the ugly. 

If beauty is entirely subjective, entirely a 
matter of individual feeling, then, except for 
conformity to standards set by the customs of 
the time and place, no criteria would seem to 
be available for measuring the taste of individ- 
uals. If beauty is simply objective something 
immediately apparent to observation as are the 
simple sensible qualities no special training 
would seem to be needed for sharpening our 
perception of it. 

The genuineness of the educational problem 
in the sphere of beauty seems, therefore, to 
depend upon a theory of the beautiful which 
avoids both extremes, and which permits the 
educator to aim at a development of individual 
sensibilities in accordance with objective cri- 
teria of taste. 

THE FOREGOING CONSIDERATIONS also provide 
background for the problem of beauty in na- 
ture and in art. As indicated in the chapter on 
ART, the consideration of art in recent times 
tends to become restricted to the theory of the 
fine arts. So too the consideration of beauty has 
become more and more an analysis of excellence 
in poetry, music, painting, and sculpture. In 
consequence, the meaning of the word "aes- 



thetic" has progressively narrowed, until now 
it refers almost exclusively to the appreciation 
of works of fine art, where before it connoted 
any experience of the beautiful, in the things 
of nature as well as in the works of man. 

The question is raised, then, whether natural 
beauty, or the perception of beauty in nature, 
involves the same elements and causes as beau- 
ty in art. Is the beauty of a flower or of a flower 
ing field determined by the same factors as the 
beauty of a still life or a landscape painting? 

The affirmative answer seems to be assumcc 
in a large part of the tradition. In his discus 
sion of the beautiful in the Poetics^ Aristotle 
explicitly applies the same standard to botr 
nature and art. "To be beautiful," he writes 
"a living creature, and every whole made up 
of parts, must not only present a certain ordei 
in its arrangement of parts, but also be of a 
certain magnitude." Aristotle's notion that art 
imitates nature indicates a further relation be- 
tween the beautiful in art and nature. Unity, 
proportion, and clarity would then be elements 
common to^ beauty in its every occurrence, 
though these elements may be embodied dif- 
ferently in things which have a difference in 
their mode of being, as do natural and artificial 
things. 

With regard to the beauty of nature and of 
art, Kant tends to take the opposite position. 
He points out that "the mind cannot reflect on 
the beauty of nature without at the same time 
finding its interest engaged." Apart from any 
question of use that might be involved, he 
concludes that the "interest" aroused by the 
beautiful in nature is "akin to the moral," par- 
ticularly from the fact that "nature ... in her 
beautiful products displays herself as art, not as 
a mere matter of chance, but, as it were, design- 
edly, according to a law-directed arrangement." 

The fact that natural things and works of art 
stand in a different relation to purpose or in- 
terest is for Kant an immediate indication that 
their beauty is different. Their susceptibility 
to disinterested enjoyment is not the same. Yet 
for Kant, as for his predecessors, nature pro- 
vides the model or archetype which art fol- 
lows, and he even speaks of art as an "imi- 
tation" of nature. 

The Kantian discussion of nature and art 
moves into another dimension when it con- 



116 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



siders the distinction between the beautiful 
and the sublime. We must look for the sub- 
lime, Kant says, "not ... in works of art ... 
nor yet in things of nature, that in their very 
concept import a definite end, e.g. animals of 
a recognized natural order, but in rude nature 
merely as involving magnitude." In company 
with Longinus and Edmund Burke, Kant char- 
acterizes the sublime by reference to the limi- 
tations of human powers. Whereas the beauti- 
ful "consists in limitation," the sublime "im- 
mediately involves, or else by its presence pro- 
vokes, a representation of hmitlessness," which 
"may appear, indeed, in point of form to con- 
travene the ends of our power of judgement, 
to be ill-adapted to our faculty of presentation, 
and to be, as it were, an outrage on the imagi- 
nation." 

Made aware of his own weakness, man is 
dwarfed by nature's magnificence, but at that 
very moment he is also elevated by realizing 
his ability to appreciate that which is so much 
greater than himself. This dual mood signal- 
izes man's experience of the su^iine. Unlike 
the enjoyment of beauty, it is neither disin- 
terested nor devoid of moral tone. 

TRUTH is USUALLY connected with perception 
and thought, the good with desire and action. 
Both have been related to love and, in different 
ways, to pleasure and pain. All these terms nat- 
urally occur in the traditional discussion of 
beauty, partly by way of definition, but also 
partly in the course of considering the faculties 
engaged in the experience of beauty. 

Basic here is the question whether beauty is 
an object of love or desire. The meaning of 
any answer will, of course, vary with different 
conceptions of desire and love. 

Desire is sometimes thought of as funda- 
mentally acquisitive, directed toward the ap- 
propriation of a good; whereas love, on the 
contrary, aims at no personal aggrandizement 
but rather, with complete generosity, wishes 
only the well-being of the beloved. In this 
context, beauty seems to be more closely asso- 
ciated with a good that is loved than with a 
good desired. 

Love, moreover, is more akin to knowledge 
tharf is desire. The act of contemplation is 
sometimes understood as a union with the ob- 



ject through both knowledge and love. Here 
again the context of meaning favors the align- 
ment of beauty with love, at least for theories 
which make beauty primarily an object of con- 
templation. In Plato and Plotinus, and on 
another level in the theologians, the two con- 
siderations of love and beauty fuse together 
inseparably. 

It is the "privilege of beauty," Plato thinks, 
to offer man the readiest access to the world of 
ideas. According to the myth in the Phaedrus, 
the contemplation of beauty enables the soul 
to "grow wings." This experience, ultimately 
intellectual in its aim, is described by Plato as 
identical with love. 

The observer of beauty "is amazed when he 
sees anyone having a godlike face or form, 
which is the expression of divine beauty; and 
at first a shudder runs through him, and again 
the old awe steals over him; then looking upon 
the face of his beloved as of a god, he reverences 
him, and if he were not afraid of being thought 
a downright madman, he would sacrifice to his 
beloved as to the image of a god." When the 
soul bathes herself "in the waters of beauty, her 
constraint is loosened, and she is refreshed, and 
has no more pangs and pains." This state of 
the soul enraptured by beauty, Plato goes on 
to say, "is by men called love." 

Sharply opposed to Plato's intellectualiza- 
tion of beauty is that conception which con- 
nects it with sensual pleasure and sexual attrac- 
tion. When Darwin, for instance, considers the 
sense of beauty, he confines his attention almost 
entirely to the colors and sounds used as "at- 
tractions of the opposite sex." Freud, likewise, 
while admitting that "psycho-analysis has less 
to say about beauty than about most things," 
claims that "its derivation from the realms of 
sexual sensation . . . seems certain." 

Such considerations may not remove beauty 
from the sphere of love, but, as the chapter on 
LOVE makes clear, love has many meanings, 
and is of many sorts. The beautiful which is 
sexually attractive is the object of a love which 
is almost identical with desire sometimes with 
lust and certainly involves animal impulses 
and bodily pleasures. "The taste for the beau- 
tiful," writes Darwin, "at least as far as female 
beauty is concerned, is not of a special nature in 
the human mind." 



CHAPTER 6: BEAUTY 



117 



On the other hand, Darwin attributes to 
man alone an aesthetic faculty for the appre- 
ciation of beauty apart from love or sex. No 
other animal, he thinks, is "capable of admiring 
such scenes as the heavens at night, a beautiful 
landscape, or refined music; but such high 
tastes are acquired through culture and depend 
on complex associations; they are not enjoyed 
by barbarians or by uneducated persons." For 
Freud, however, the appreciation of such beau- 
ties remains ultimately sexual in motivation, 
no matter how sublimated in effect. "The love 
of beauty," he says, "is the perfect example of 
a feeling with an inhibited aim. 'Beauty* and 
'attraction 1 are first of all the attributes of a 
sexual object." 

The theme of beauty's relation to desire and 
love is connected with another basic theme 
the relation of beauty to sense and intellect, 
or to the realms of perception and thought. 
The two discussions naturally run parallel. 

The main question here concerns the exist- 
ence of beauty in the order of purely intelli- 
gible objects, and its relation to the sensible 
beauty of material tilings. Plotinus, holding 
that beauty of every kind comes from a "form" 
or "reason," traces the "beauty which is in 
bodies," as well as that "which is in the soul" 
to its source in the "eternal intelligence." This) 
"intelligible beauty" lies outside the range of] 1 
desire even as it is beyond the reach of sense-/ 1 
perception. Only the admiration or the adora-' 
tion of love is proper to it. 

THESE DISTINCTIONS m types of beauty nat- 5 
ural and artificial, sensible and intelligible, 
even, perhaps, material and spiritual indicate 
the scope of the discussion, though not all 
writers on beauty deal with all its manifes-/ 
tations. 

Primarily concerned with other subjects, 
many of the great books make only an indirect 
contribution to the theory of beauty : the moral 
treatises which consider the spiritual beauty of 
a noble man or of a virtuous character; the 
cosmologies of the philosophers or scientists 
which find beauty in the structure of the world 
the intelligible, not sensible, order of the 
universe; the mathematical works which ex- 
hibit, and sometimes enunciate, an awareness 
of formal beauty in the necessary connection 



of ideas; the great poems which crystallize 
beauty in a scene, in a face, in a deed; and, 
above all, the writings of the theologians which 
do not try to do more than suggest the ineffable 
splendor of God's infinite beauty, a beauty 
fused with truth and goodness, all absolute in 
the one absolute perfection of the divine be- 
ing. "The Divine Goodness," observes Dante, 
"which from Itself spurns all envy, burning in 
Itself so sparkles that It displays the eternal , 
beauties." 

Some of the great books consider the various 
kinds of beauty, not so much with a view to 
classifying their variety, as in order to set forth 
the concordance of the grades of beauty with 
the grades of being, and with the levels of love 
and knowledge. 

The ladder of love in Plato's Symposium de- 
scribes an ascent from lower to higher forms of 
beauty. "He who has been instructed thus far 
in the things of love," Diotima tells Socrates, 
"and who has learned to see beauty in due or- 
der and succession, when he comes toward the 
end will suddenly perceive a nature of won- 
drous beauty . . . beauty absolute, separate, 
simple, and everlasting, which without diminu- 
tion and without increase, or any change, is 
imparted to the ever-growing and perishing 
beauties of all other things. He who from these, 
ascending under the influence of true love, be- 
gins to perceive that beauty, is not far from 
the end." 

The order of ascent, according to Diotima, 
begins "with the beauties of earth and mounts 
upwards for the sake of that other beauty," go- 
ing from one fair form to "all fair forms, and 
from fair forms to fair practises, and from fair 
practises to fair notions, until from fair notions" 
we come to "the notion of absolute beauty and 
at last know what the essence of beauty is. This, 
my dear Socrates," she concludes, "is the life 
above all others which man should live, in thtf 
contemplation of beauty absolute." 

For Plotinus the degrees of beauty corre- 
spond to degrees of emancipation from matter. 
"The more it goes towards matter . . . the 
feebler beauty becomes." A thing is ugly only 
because, "not dominated by a form and reason, 
the matter has not been completely informed 
by the idea." If a thing could be completely 
"without reason and form," it would be "abso- 



118 THE GREAT IDEAS 

lute ugliness." But whatever exists possesses the type of supernatural knowledge promised 

form and reason to some extent and has some to the souls of the blessed the beatific vision in 

share of the effulgent beauty of the One, even which God is beheld intuitively, not known 

as it has some share through emanation in its discursively, and in which knowledge united 

overflowing beingthe grades of beauty, as of with love is the principle of the soul's union 

being, signifying the remotion of each thing with God. 

from its ultimate source. An analogy is obviously implied. In this life 

Even separated from a continuous scale of and on the natural level, every experience of 

beauty, the extreme terms the beauty of God beauty in nature or art, in sensible things or 

and the beauty of the least of finite things in ideas occasions something /% an act of 

have similitude for a theologian like Aquinas, vision, a moment of contemplation, of enjoy- 

Thc word visum in his definition of the beauti- ment detached from desire or action, and clear 

fill (id quod visum placet^ "that which pleases without the articulations of analysis or the 

upon being seen") is the word used to signify demonstrations of reason. 



OUTLINE OF TOPICS 



PAGE 



1. The general theory of the beautiful 1 19 

la. The beautiful and the good: beauty as a kind of fitness or order 

\b. Beauty and truth: the beautiful as an object of contemplation 120 

ic. The elements of beauty: unity, proportion, clarity 

id. The distinction between the beautiful and the sublime 121 

2. Beauty in nature and in art 

3. Beauty in relation to desire and love, as object or cause 

4. Beauty and ugliness in relation to pleasure and pain 122 

5. Judgments of beauty: the objective and the subjective in aesthetic judgments or 

judgments of taste 

6. The role of the beautiful in education 

7. Intelligible beauty 123 

ja. The beauty of God 

7^. The beauty of the universe 

yc. Beauty in the order of ideas 

7</. Beauty in the moral order 124 



CHAPTER 6: BEAUTY 119 



REFERENCES 

To find the passages cited, use the numbers in heavy type, which are the volume and page 
numbers of the passages referred to. For example, in 4 HOMER: Iliad, BK n [265-283] 12d, the 
number 4 is the number of the volume in the set; the number 12d indicates that the pas- 
sage is in section d of page 12. 

PAGE SECTIONS: When the text is printed in one column, the letters a and b refer to the 
upper and lower halves of the page. For example, m 53 JAMES : Psychology ', 116a-119b, the passage 
begins in the upper half of page 116 and ends in the lower half of page 119. When the text is 
printed in two columns, the letters a and b refer to the upper and lower halves of the left- 
hand side of the page, the letters c and d to the upper and lower halves of the right-hand side of 
the page. For example, m 7 PLATO: Symposium, 163b-164c, the passage begins in the lower half 
of the left-hand side of page 163 and ends in the upper half of the right-hand side of page 164. 

AUTHOR'S DIVISIONS: One or more of the main divisions of a work (such as PART, BK, CH, 
SECT) are sometimes included in the reference; line numbers, in brackets, are given in cer- 
tain cases; e.g., Iliad, BK n [265-283] 12d. 

Bi RLE REFERENCES : The references are to book, chapter, and verse, When the King James 
and Douay versions differ m title of books or in the numbering of chapters or verses, the King 
James version is cited first and the Douay, indicated by a (D), follows; e.g., OLD TESTA- 
MENT: Nehemiah, 7:45 (D) II Esdras, 7:46. 

SYMBOLS: The abbreviation "esp" calls the reader's attention to one or more especially 
relevant parts of a whole reference; "passim" signifies that the topic is discussed intermit- 
tently rather than continuously in the work or passage cited. 

For additional information concerning the style of the references, see the Explanation of 
Reference Style; for general guidance in the use of The Great Ideas, consult the Preface. 



20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologtca, PART i-n, Q 49, 

1. The general theory of the beautiful A 2> REP , 2 b-4a; PART II-H, Q 180, A 2, REP 3 

7 PLATO: Euthydemus, 81a-b / Cratylus, lOlc- 608c-609c 

102a; 113c-d / Phaedrus, 126b-d / Symposium, 31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART i, A ^ENDIX, 371b-372d 

167a-d / Phaedo, 242c-243a / Gorgtas, 266d- 33 PASCAL: Penstcs, 32-33 17,,a-b 

267a / Republic, BK v, 370d-373c; BK vi, 42 KANT '.Judgement, 46la-549ii esp 479c-d, 483d, 

385c / Parmenides, 490b-c / Laws, BK n, 491c, 493b-495a,c; 550a; S60b-c; 564d-565b 

654a-662a 44 Bos WELL : Johnson, 194b 

8 ARISTOTLE: Metaphysics, BK v, CH i [1013* 49 DARWIN: Origin of Species, 95a-d 

20-24] 533b; BK xn, CH 7 [io72*23~ b 4] 52 DOSTOEVSKI: Brothers Karam&zov,xKiu,S4&-b 

602b-c 53 JAMES: Psychology, 865a-b; 88<5b-888a 

9 ARISTOTLE: Poetics, CH 7 [i45o b 23~i45i a i5] 54 FREUD: Civilization and Its Discontents, 775a- 
685b-c c; 779b-d 

12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK in, SECT 2 259d- 

260a; BK iv, SECT 20 265a-b la - The . beautiful a O d the good: beauty as a 

17 PLOTINUS : First Ennead, TR in, CH 2 lOd; TR kind of fitness or order 

vi 21a-26a / Second Ennead, TR ix, CH 17 76b- 7 PLATO: Lysis, 21b-c / Symposium, 162d-163a; 

77a / Fifth Ennead, TR v, CH 12, 234a-c; 164c-d / Gorgias, 266d-267a / Republic, BK 

TR vin, CH I-TR ix, CH 2 239b-247b / Sixth in, 333b-334b; BK v, 357d-358a / Timaeus, 

Ennead, TR n, CH 18, 278a; TR in, CH n, 474d-475a / Statesman, 594a-c / Philebus, 

287b-c; TR VH, CH 22 332d-333b; CH 31-33 637d-638a / Laws, BK n, 654a-655b; 660a- 

336d-338b 662a 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK n, par 12 llc-d; 8 ARISTOTLE: Topics, BK m, CH 3 [n8 b 20-24] 
BK iv, par 20 24b-c; par 24-27 25b-26a; 165d / Physics, BK vn, CH 3 [246*io- b i9J 329c- 
BK x, par 53 84d-85a 330a / Metaphysics, BK i, CH 3 [984 b 8-22] 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 5, 502d; BK v t CH i [ioi3 E 2o-24] 533b; BK xii, 
A 4, REP i 25d-26c; Q 91, A 3, REP 3 486b-487d; CH 7 [1072*23-^4] 602b-c; [i072 b 30-ic>73*2] 
PART I-H, Q 27, A i, REP 3 737b-d 603a; BK xm, CH 3 [io78*3i- b 6] 609d-610a 



120 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



(1. The general theory of the beautiful la. The 
beautiful and the good: beauty as a kind of 
fitness or order.) 

9 ARISTOTLE: Parts of Animals, BK i, CH 5 
[645*4-^6] 168d-169a / Ethics, BK iv, CH 2 
[1122*34-1123*33] 369a-370b passim / Politics, 
BK vii, CH 4 [1326*30-35] 530c / Poetics, CH 7 
[i45o b 23-i45i a i5J 685b-c 

12EpiCTETUs: Discourses, BK in, CH i 175a- 
177c 

12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK n, SECT i 256b,d 

14 PLUTARCH: Lycurgus, 47a 

16 KEPLER* Epitome, BK iv, 868b 

17 PLOTINUS- First Ennead, TR vi 21a-26a / Fifth 
Ennead, TR v, CH 12, 234a-c; TR vm 239b-246c 
/ Sixth Ennead, TR vn, CH 22 332d-333b 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK n, par 12 llc-d; 
BK iv, par 20 24b-c; par 24-27 25b-26a; BK 
vn, par 23 50b-c/ City of God, BK xxn, CH 24, 
610c-611b 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 5, 
A 4, REP i 25d-26c; Q 91, A 3 486b-487d; Q 96, 
A 3, REP 3 512a-c; PART i-n, Q 27, A i, REP 3 
737b-d 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 
49, A 2, ANS and REP i 2b-4a; A 4, ANS 
5a-6a; y 50, A 3, REP 2 8b-9a; Q 54, A i, ANS 
22d 23d; PART n-n, Q 180, A 2, REP 3 608c- 
609c 

23 HOBBES- Leviathan, PART i, 62a 

42 KAN i : judgement, 476a-482b; 486d 489a; 

521b 523c, 540d-542a; 544c-545b; 546d-548c; 

550a; 557c-55fb 
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, PART n, 266a- 

268b, 280b-281b 

52 DOSTOEVSKY: Brothers Karamazov, BK vi, 
153b-d 

53 JAM*S Psychology, 755a; 865b 

54 FREUD. Civilization and Its Discontents, 779b-d 

I b. Beauty and truth: the beautiful as an object 
of contemplation 

7 PLATO. Cratylus, 113c-d / Phaedrus, 124c-129d 
/ Symposium, 167a-d / Republic, BK v, 370d- 
373c; BK vi, 383d-388a / Theaetetus, 525c-d / 
Philebus, 630d-631d / Laws, BK n, 660a-661b 

8 ARISTOTLE : Metaphysics, BK xn, CH 7 [1072*23- 
b 4] 602b-c; BK xm, CH 3 [1078*32^6] 609d- 
610a 

12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK iv, SECT 20 
265ab 

17 PLOTINUS: First Ennead, TR in, CH 1-2 lOa-d; 
TR vi 21a-26a / Fifth Ennead, TR vm 239b- 
246c / Sixth Ennead, TR vu, CH 31-33 336d- 
338b 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK vn, par 23 
50b-c 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 5, 
A 4, REP i 25d-26c; Q 39, A 8, ANS 210a-213a; 

PART I-II, Q 27, A I, REP 3 737b-dj A 2, ANS 

737d-738c 



Ibto \c 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART ii-n, Q 

1 80, A 2, REP 3 608c-609c, PART m SUPPL, 

Q 94, A i, REP 2 1040d-1041b 
27 SHAKESPEARE: Sonnets, xiv 588b; LIV 594c 
29 CERVANTES: Don Quixote, PART i, 184b-d 
35 HUME* Human Understanding, SECT i, DIV 5, 

452d-453a 
42 KANT: Judgement, 476a-479d esp 479a-d; 

484d-485b; 496d; 501d-502a; 518a-d; 521b- 

523c;525a-c 
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, PART n, 266a- 

267a; 278a c; PART iv, 346d-347a 

52 DOSTOEVSKY: Brothers Karamazov, BK vi, 
153b-d 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 865b-866a; 886b-888a 

54 FREUD. New Introductory Lectures, 880b 

\c. The elements of beauty: unity, proportion, 
clarity 

7 PLATO. Republic, BK in, 333b-334b; BK iv, 
342b-c / Ttmaeus, 448a-c; 474d-475a / Sophist, 
561b-d / Statesman, 594a-c / Philebus, 630d- 
631 d, 637c-638a / Laws, BK n, 660a-661b 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK vn, CH 3 [ 
329c-330a/ Metaphysics, BK i, en 
502d; BK xin, CH 3 [io78 a ^9~ b 5] 610a 

9 ARISTOTLE: Parts of Animals, BK i, CH 5 
[645*4-26] 168d-169a / Ethics, BK n, CH 6 
[no6 b 6-i4] 352a; BK iv, CH 2 [1122*34- 
H23 U 33] 369a-370b passim; CH 3 [112^4-7] 
370b / Politics, BK in, CH n [i28i b io-i5J 
479b-c; CH 13 [i284 b 3-i2] 482c-d; BK v, CH 9 
[i309 b 23-:$o] 512a; BK vn, CH 4 [1326^0-35] 
530c / Poetics, CH 7 [i45o b 23-i45i ft i5] 685b-c 

11 NICOMACIIUS: Arithmetic, BK i, 814a; 820a; 
826d 827a; BK n, 839d-840b 

16 KEPLI-R' Harmonies of the World, 1079b 

17 PLOTINUS. First Ennead, IR vi, CH 1-2 21a- 
22b / Sixth Ennead, TR vn, CH 22, 333b; TR 
ix, CH i 353d-354b 

18 AUGUSTINE- Confessions, BK iv, par 20 24b-c 
/ City of God, BK n, CH 21, 161b-c; BK xi, CH 
22, 334b; BK XVH, CH 14, 464d, BK xxn, CH 
19, 604d-605a; CH 24, 610c-611b 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 5, 
A 4, REP i 25d-26c; Q 39, A 8, ANS 210a-213a; 
Q 91, A 3 486b-487d 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 49, 
A 2, REP i 2b-4a; Q 54, A i, ANS 22d-23d; 

PART II-II, Q l8o, A 2, REP 3 608c-609c 

29 CERVANTES* Don Quixote, PART i, 184b 

31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART n, 44c-d 

33 PASCAL: Pcnstcs, 28 176a 

35 LOCKE. Human Understanding, BK n, CH xn, 

SECT 5, 148b 
42 KANT: Judgement, 471b-473a; 485c-491c; 

493c-495a,c 
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, INTRO, 185c-d; 

PART i, 219b-c 

48 MELVILLE: Moby Dic^, 277a-b 

49 DARWIN: Descent of Man, 301d-302a 
53 JAMES: Psychology, 186b; 755a 



Id to 3 



CHAPTER 6: BEAUTY 



121 



Id. The distinction between the beautiful and 

the sublime 

42 KANT: judgement, 473a; 480a-482b; 488a- 
489a; 495a-539d esp 495a-496d, 499b-c, 
501d-502a, 502d-512a 

2. Beauty in nature and in art 

7 PLATO: Symposium, 167a-d / Republic, BK n- 
iii, 320c-334b / Timaeus, 447a-448c / Sophist, 
561b-d / Statesman, 594a-c / Philebus, 630d- 
631d 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK vn, CH 3 [246 a io- b i9] 
329c-330a / Metaphysics, BK xm, CH 3 
[io78*3i- b 6] 609d-610a 

9 ARISTOTLE: Parts of Animals, BK i, CH 5 
[645*4-26] 168d-169a / Politics, BK in, CH n 
[i28i b io-i5] 479b-c; BK vm, CH 5 [1340*24-29] 
545d / Poetics, CH 7 685b-c 

12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK HI, SECT 2 259d- 

260a; BK iv, SECT 20 265a*b 
17 PLOTINUS : Fifth Ennead, TR vm, CH 1-3 239b- 

241a 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 39, 
A 8, ANS 210a-213a; Q 91, A 3 486b-487d 

20 AQUINAS : Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 49, 
A 2, REP i 2b-4a; Q 50, A 3, REP 2 8b-9a; Q 54, 
A i, ANS 22d-23d 

22 CHAUCER: Physician's Tale [11,94 1-972] 366b- 

367a 
25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 93b-d; 230b-231c 

32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK v [291-297] 181b 

33 PASCAL: Pensees, 29 176a; 32 176a-b; 134 196a 
42 KANT: Judgement, 473a-d; 488a-489a; 494c- 

496c; 501d-502a; 521b-524besp 523c-d; 525a- 
528c; 544c-546d esp 546a-c; 557a-558b 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, PART i, 219b-c; 
254b-d; PART n, 264a-268b 

47 GOETHE: Faust, PRELUDE [134-157] 4a-b 

48 MELVILLE: Moby Dic{, 276b-277b 

49 DARWIN- Origin of Species, 94c-95c; 235c-d / 
Descent of Man, 576b-577d 

53 JAMES : Psychology, 186b 

3. Beauty in relation to desire and love, as 

object or cause 

OLD TESTAMENT: Genesis, 3:6; 6:1-2; 12:11-20; 
26:7-11; 29:15-31; 39:6-20 / Deuteronomy, 
21:10-13 / I Samuel, 16:7 (D) I Kings, 16:7 / 
// Samuel, n; 13:1-19 (D) II Kings, n; 
13:1-19 / Esther, 2:15-17 / Proverbs, 6:24-26 / 
Song of Solomon (D) Canticle of Canticles / 
Isaiah, 53:2 (D) Isaias, 53:2 

APOCRYPHA -.Judith, 11:20-23; 12:16-20; 16:7-9 
(D) OT, Judith, 11:18-21; 12:16-20; 16:8-11 / 
Ecclesiasticus, 9:8; 25:21; 36:22 (D) OT, 
Ecclesiasticus, 9:8-9; 25:28; 36:24 / Susanna 
(D) OT, Daniel, 13 

4 HOMER: Iliad, BK in [121-160] 20b-c; BK xiv 
(153-351] 99d-101d 

5 EURIPIDES: Helen [1-67] 298a-d; [229-305] 
300b-d 



5 ARISTOPHANES: Ecclesiazusae [611-634] 622a- 
b; [877-11 1 i]625b-628a 

6 HERODOTUS: History, BK i, 2d-3d; BK v, 
168d-169a; BK vi, 196d-197K 

7 PLATO: Charmidcs, lb-2a / Phaedrus, 120a-c; 



/ Republic, BK in, 333b-334b / Timaeus, 455a-c 

/ Laws, BK v, 687b; BK vm, 735c-736c; 738a-c 

8 ARISTOTLE: Metaphysics, BK xn, CH 7 

[io72*23- b 4] 602b-c 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK iv [1141- 
1170] 59a-b 

12 EPICTETUS. Discourses, BK n, CH 22, 169b 

13 VIRGIL: Aeneid, BK i [657-722] 121a-123a; BK 
iv [1-30] 167a-b; BK vm [369-393] 269a-b 

17 PLOTINUS: First Ennead, TR in, CH 1-2 lOa-d; 
TR vi 21a-26a / Third Ennead, TR v, CH i lOOc- 
lOlc / Fifth Ennead, TR v, CH 12 234a-d; TR 
vm, CH 9, 244b-c / Sixth Ennead, TR vn, CH 22 
332d-333b; CH 30-34 336b-338d 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK iv, par 15 23a-b; 
par 20 24b-c; par 24-27 25b-26a; BK vn, par 23 
50b-c; BK x, par 8-38 73b-81a; par 51-53 
84b-85a / City of God, BK xn, CH 6, 346a-b; 
BK xxn, CH 24, 610c-611b 

19 AQUINAS Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 5, A 4, 
REP i 25d-26c; PART i-n, Q 27, A i, REP 3 
737b-d; A 2, ANS 737d-738c 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART n-ii, Q 
180, A 2, REP 3 608c-609c; PART in, Q 6, A i, 
REP 3 740b-741b 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, HELL, v [73-142] 7d- 
8b; PURGATORY, xxvn 94c-96a; xxx-xxxi 
99b-102b; PARADISE, xxvn [88-96] 148b; 
xxx [1-33] 151d-152a 

22 CHAUCER: Troilus and Cressida, BK n, STANZA 
48-50 27b-28a / Physician's Tale 366a-371a esp 
[12,055-191] 368a-370b 

25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 84b-85a; 230b-231c; 
310d-312a; 398c-399d; 432d-434c; 513a-514a 

26 SHAKESPEARE: Love's Labour's Lost, ACT iv, 
sc in [299-332] 271c-d / Romeo and Juliet, 
ACT i, sc i [214-244] 287d-288a; sc v [43-55] 
292b; ACT n, sc n [1-32] 294b-c 

27 SHAKESPEARE: Troilus and Cressida, ACT n, 
sc n [61-92] 114b-c / Antony and Cleopatra, 
ACT n, sc ii [196-250] 320d-321b / Sonnets, xx 
589b;xxiv 589d-590a; LIV 594c;cxxx 606a-b 

29 CERVANTES : Don Quixote, PART n, 381d-382a 

31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART i, APPENDIX, 371d 

32 MILTON: Comus [667-823] 48a-52a / Paradise 
Lost, BK vm [500-560] 243a-244a / Samson 
Agonistes [1003-1007] 361b 

37 FIELDING: Tom Jones, 15b-c; 17b-c; 50d-51a; 
130b-c;331b-332a 

38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 345d-346a; 347b-c 
42 KANT: Judgement, 476a-483d 

44 BOSWELLI Johnson, 485a 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, PART i, 220b-c 

47 GOETHE: Faust, PART n [6377-6565] 156a- 
160a esp [6483-6500] 158b; [8516-8523] 207b; 
[9192-9355] 223b-227a 



122 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



4/o6 



(3. Beauty in relation to desire and hvt, as object 

or cause.) 

49 DARWIN: Origin of Species, 95c / Descent of 
Man, 301c; 366b-c; 481c<482b; 571b-576b 
passim 

51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK i, 4a; 5d-6b; 
49a-b; BK n, 80d-81a; BK m, 113a-115a; 
120c-123a; 141b-d; BK vi, 235a-238a; BK vm, 
316d-317d; BK xi, 497d-498b; S30c-d; BK 
xn, 541b-542b; EPILOGUE i, 659a; 660b-c 

52 DOSFOEVSKY: Brothers Karamazov, BK HI, 
53d-54b 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 865b 

54 FREUD: Civilization and Its Discontents, 775b c 

4, Beauty and ugliness in relation to pleasure 

and pain 

7 PLATO: Gorgias, 266d-267a / Philebus, 630d- 
631d / Laws, BK n, 654a-656c; BK vir, 720c-d 

8 ARISTOTLE: Topics, BK vi, CH 7 [146*21-32] 
200a-b 

9 ARISTOTLE: Parts of Animals, BK i, CH 5 
[645*4-26] 168d-169a / Ethics, BK in, CH 10 
[in8 A i-i6] 364c / Politics, BK vm, CH 3 
[i}37 b 27-i3}829] 543a-c; CH 5 [1340*24-29] 
545d / Rhetoric, BK i, CH 6 [i362 b 5~9] 603b 

12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK in, SECT 2 259d- 
260a 

17 PLOTINUS: First Ennead, TR vi, CH 1-7 21a-25a 
passim / Fifth Ennead, TR v, CH 12, 234a-c 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK x, par 51-53 
84b-85a ' 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 5, 
A 4, REP i 25d-26c; Q 91, A 3, REP 3 486b- 
487d; PART MI, Q n, A i, REP 2 666b,d-667a; 
Q 27, A i, REP 3 737b-d; Q 32, A 8, ANS 764c- 
765b 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART i, 62a-c 

29 CERVANTES: Don Quixote, PART i, 184b-d 

31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART i, APPENDIX, 371d 

33 PASCAL: Pensees, 32 176a-b 

42 KANT. Judgement, 471d-473a; 476a-495a,c esp 

488a-489a; 502d-503d; 516d-518d; 527b-528c 

esp 527d-528a; 537a-539d 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, PART i, 220b-c; 
PART ii, 267b-268b 

47 GOETHE: Faust, PART n [8697-8811] 211b- 
214a; [11,288-303] 274b-275a 

49 DARWIN: Origin of Species, 95a-d / Descent of 
Man, 301d-302a; 568d-571b passim; 577b-d 
51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK iv, 190d-192b 

53 TAMES: Psychology, 157a; 755a-757b esp 
755a-b; 886b 

54 FREUD: Beyond the Pleasure Principle, 643c / 
Civilization and Its Discontents, 775b 

5. Judgments of beauty: the objective and the 

subjective in aesthetic judgments or 
judgments of taste 

7 PLATO: Ion 142a-148a,c / Symposium, 167a-d 
/ Gorgias, 261a-c / Republic, BK m, 333b-334b 



/ Statesman, 593d~595a / Laws, BK n, 654a- 

656b; 660a-662a; BK HI, 675c-676b; BK vn, 

720c-d 
9 ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK in, CH n [i28i a 43- b i5] 

479b-c 
12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK iv [1141- 

ii7o]59a-b 

12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK in, CH 1 175a-177c 
12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK in, SECT 2 259d- 

260a; BK iv, SECT 20 265a-b 

17 PLOTINUS: First Ennead, TR vi, CH 2-3 21d- 
23a / Sixth Ennead, TR in, CH u, 287b-c 

18 AUGUSTINE- Confessions, BK iv, par 20 24b-c; 
BK vn, par 23 50b-c / City of God, BK vin, CH 
6, 269b-c 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 5, 
A 4, REP i 25d-26c; PART i-n, Q 27, A i, REP 3 
737b-d 

20 AQUINAS : Summa Theologica, PART H-II, Q 
180, A 2, REP 3 608c-609c; PART HI SUPPL, Q 
94, A i, REP 2 1040d-1041b 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PURGATORY, xi [79- 
120] 69c-70a; xxvi [91-126] 93d-94b 

24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK iv, 
273d-274a 

25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 230b-231c 

26 SHAKESPEARE: Merchant of Venice, ACT v, sc 
i [98-110] 431d 

31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART i, APPENDIX, 371b-372d 
33 PASCAL. Pensees, 32-33 176a-b; 105 193a; 114 

194b; 381 238b 
35 LOCKE- Human Understanding, BK n, CH xn, 

SECT 5 148a-b 
35 HUME. Human Understanding, SECT xn, DIV 



42 KANT : Pure Reason, 23d [fn i] / Judgement, 

471b-473a; 476a-495a,c; 513b-516b; 516d- 

517c; 524d-525a; 540a-546d 
44 Bos WELL: Johnson, 202 b; 362 b-c 
46 HEGEL, Philosophy of History, INTRO, 185c-d; 

PART ii, 264b-268c; 280b-c 
49 DARWIN: Origin of Species, 95a-d / Descent of 

Man, 301c-302a; 462d-463a; 569c; 571c-577d 

esp 575d, 577b-c; 595c>596a 
51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK iv, 191b-192b; 

BKvm,318a-320b 
53 JAMES: Psychology, 755b-757b; 886b-888a 

6. The role of the beautiful in education 

7 PLATO: Symposium, 167a-d / Gorgias, 261a-c 
/ Republic, BK H-III, 320c-334b esp BK in, 
333b-334b; BK vm, 409d / Laws, BK ii 653a- 
663d; BK in, 675c-676b; BK vn, 720c-d 

9 ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK vm, CH 3 542d-543d, 

CH 5-7 544c-548a,c 
12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK iv, CH n, 242a-d 

17 PLOTINUS: First Ennead, TR in, CH 1-2 lOa-d; 
TR vi 21a-26a / Fifth Ennead, TR ix, CH 2 
246d-247b 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK vn, par 23 50b-c 
33 PASCAL: Penstes, 381 238b 

40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 24a 



7to7c 



CHAPTER 6; BEAUTY 



123 



41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 300a-b 

42 KANT: Judgement, 462b-d; 485b-491c; 493a-b; 
513d-514b, 521b-523c; 528b-c; 548c-549d; 
586d-587a 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, INTRO, 185c-d; 

PARF ii, 267a-268b; PART iv, 346d-347a 
49 DARWIN: Descent of Man, 302a-b, 595c- 

596a 
53 JAMES: Psychology, 288a; 757a-b 

7. Intelligible beauty 

la. The beauty of God 

OLD TESTAMENT: Psalms, 27.4; 90 17; 93, 97 6 
(D) Psalms, 26:4, 89:17; 92, 96:6 / Isaiah, 
28.5, J3:i5-i7-(0) Isaias, 28.5; 33:15-17 / 
Zechariah, 9.17 (D) Zachanas, 9:17 

APOCRYPHA: Wisdom of Solomon, 13; 11-5 (D) 
OT, Boo!( of Wisdom, 13:1-5 

7 PLATO. Symposium, 167a-d 

8 ARISTOTLE: Metaphysics, BK xn, CH 7 602a- 
603b; BK xiv, CH 4 [1091*29-1092*9] 624a-d 

17 PLOTINUS : First Ennead, TR vi, CH 6-9 24a-26a 
/ Fifth Ennead, TR vin, CH I-TR ix, CH 2 
239b-247b / Sixth Ennead, TR vn, CH 30-36 
336b-339d 

18 AUGUSTINE- Confessions, BK i, par 4 2a; BK 
n, par 12 llc-d; BK in, par 10, 15b; BK iv, 
par 29 26b; BK vn, par 23 50b-c; BK x, par 
8-38 73b-81a; par 53 84d-85a; BK xi, par 6 
90c-d/ City of God, BK vm, CH 6, 269b-c; BK 
xi, en 4, 324b 

19 AQUINAS Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 39, 
A 8, ANS 210a-213a; P*RT i-n, Q 3, AA 4-5 
625a-627a, A 8 628d-629c; Q 4, A i esp REP 2 
629d-630b 

21 DAN i E. Divine Comedy, PARADISE, vn [64-66] 
115d, xxx-xxxin 151d-157d 

31 DESCARTES. Meditations, HI, 88d-89a 

32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK in [372-389] 143b- 
144a 

lb. The beauty of the universe 

OLD TESTAMENT: Psalms, 8; 19:1-6; 104; 136:1-9 
(D) Psalms, 8; 18:1-7; I0 35 J 35 :I ~9 

APOCRYPHA: Wisdom of Solomon, 13:1-9 (D) 
OT, BooJ^ of Wisdom, 13-1-9 / Ecclesiasticus, 
16:26-27; 43 (D) OT, Ecclesiasticus, 16:26- 

27M3 

7 PLATO: Timaeus, 447a-448c 

8 ARISTOTLE: Metaphysics, BK i, CH 3 [984 b 8-22] 
502d, BK xii, CH 7 [io72 b 3o-io73 B 2] 603a; 
CH 10 [1075*12-24] 605d-606a; BK xiv, CH 4 
[1091*29-1092*9] 624a-d 

9 ARISTOTLE : Parts of Animals, BK i, CH 5 
[645*4-26] 168d-169a 

11 NICOMACHUS: Arithmetic, BK n, 839d-840b 

12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK in, SECT 2 259d- 
260a; BK vi, SECT 36-38 277c-d 

16 PTOLEMY: Almagest, BK i, 5a 
16 COPERNICUS: Revolutions of the Heavenly 
Spheres, BK i, 526a-529a 



16 KEPLER: Epitome, BK iv, 853b-887a passim, 
esp 863b-872b / Harmonies of the World, 
1023b-1085b esp 1049b-1050a, 1071b, 1077b- 
1080b 

17 PLOTINUS: Second Ennead, TR ix, CH 17 76b- 
77a / Third Ennead, TR n, CH 3 83d-84c; CH 
10-14 88a-89d / Fifth Ennead, TR vm, CH 8-9 
243c-244c; CH 12-13 245c-246c 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK vn, par 16-23 
48c-50c; BK x, par 8-10 73b-74a / City of God, 
BK v, CH ii 216c-d, BK vm, CH 6 268d<269c; 
BK x, CH 14 307c-308a; BK xi, CH 4, 324a-b; 
CH 18 331d-332a, CH 22-2} 333d-335c; BK xn, 
CH 4-5 344b-345b; BK xxii, CH 24 609a-612a 
/ Christian Doctrine, BK i, CH 4 625b-c 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 19, 
A 9, REP 2 116d-117d; Q 23, A 8, REP 2 140a- 
141a, Q 66, A i 343d-345c; Q 74, A 3, REP 3 
375a-377a,c 

20 AQUINAS . Summa Theologica, PART in SUPPL, 
Q 91 1016a-1025b 

21 D\NTE. Divine Comedy, PARADISE, x [1-36] 
120b-c, xxvin 148d-150b 

28 GILBFRT. Loadstone, BK v, 104b-10Sd 

28 HARVEY. On Animal Generation, 491d-492a 

31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART i, PROP 36-APPENDIX 
369b-372d 

32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK vii [548-568] 
229a-b 

34 NEWTON: Principles, BK in, GENERAL SCHOL, 
369b-370a 

35 BERKELEY Human Knowledge, SECT 109 
434b, SFCT 146 442a-b; SECT 151-154 443b- 
444b 

37 FIELDING Tom Jones, 186c-d 

42 KANT. Pure Reason, 187c-188c / Judgement, 

544c-546d 
52 DOSTOIEVSKY : Brothers Karamazov^ BK vi, 

153b-d 

7c. Beauty in the order of ideas 

APOCRYPHA: Wisdom of Solomon, 7:24-29; 
8:1-2 (D) OT, Boo^ of Wisdom, 7:24-29; 
8:1-2 

7 PLATO: Cratylus, 113c-d / Phaedrus, 126b-d / 
Symposium, 167a-d / Gorgias, 266d / Repub- 
lic, BK in, 333b-334b; BK v, 370d-373c; BK 
vi, 383d-388a 

8 ARISTOTLE: Metaphysics, BK xin, CH 3 
[1078*3 i- b 6] 609d-610a 

17 PLOTINUS First Ennead, TR in, CH 1-2 lOa-d / 
Fifth Ennead, TR vm 239b-246c; TR ix, CH 2, 
246d; CH n 250c-251a / Sixth Ennead, TR vn, 
CH 22 332d-333b, CH 30-33, 336d-338b 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK n, par 12 llc-d / 
City of God, BK xxii, CH 24, 61 la 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART ii-n, Q 
180, A 2, REP 3 608c-609c 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PURGATORY, xxvn 
94c-96a; xxx-xxxi 99b-102b; PARADISE, xiv 
[67-139] 127c-128b; xxx [1-33] 151d-152a 

29 CERVANTES: Don Quixote, PART n, 381d-382a 



124 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



(7. Intelligible beauty. 7c, Beauty in the order of 
ideas.) 

33 PASCAL: Penstes, 33 176b 

42 KANT: Judgement, 508b-c; 553b-<! 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 755a; 757a-758a 

7d. Beauty in the moral order 

7 PLATO: Charmides, lb-2a / Symposium, 164 b- 
167b / Republic, BK n-ni, 320c-334b esp BK 
HI, 333b-334b; BK v, 357d-358a / Theaetetus, 
5l3a-b; 535c / Philebus, 637c-638a / Laws, BK 
ii, 654a-c 

9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK ii, CH 6 351c-352d; BK 
iv, CH 2 368d-370b; CH 3 [1123^-?] 370b / 
Politics, BK HI, CH ii [i28i b io-i5] 479b-c; CH 
13 [i284 b 3~i2] 482c-d; BK v, CH 9 [i309 b i8- 
1310*2] 511d-512b; BK vn, CH 4 [1326*30-35] 
530c 

12 EPICTETUS- Discourses, BK in, CH i 175a- 
177c; BK iv, CH ii, 242a-d 

14 PLUTARCH: Lycurgus, 47a 

17 PLOTINUS: First Ennead, TR in, CH 1-2 lOa-d; 
TR vi 21a-26a passim / Second Ennead, TR ix, 
CH 17, 76c / Pifth Ennead, TR ix, CH 2 246d- 
247b 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK n, par 12 llc-d / 
City of God, BK n, CH 21, 161b-c; BK xvn, CH 
14, 464d; BK xxn, CH 19, 605 b 



19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologtca, PART i, Q 93, 
A 8, REP 3 499b-500c; Q 96, A 3, REP 3 512a-c; 
PART i-n, Q 27, A 2, ANS 737d-738c 

20 AQUINAS : Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 

105, A I, CONTRARY 307d-309dj PART II-II, 

Q 180, A 2, REP 3 608c-609c; PART in SUPPL, 
Q 82, A i, REP 5 968a-970c 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PURGATORY, xxvn 
94c-96a; xxx-xxxi 99b-102b; PARADISE, xiv 
[67-139] 127c-128b; xxvn [88-96] 148b; xxx 
[1-33] 151d-152a 

25 MoNTAiGNE:Zi.wfly.f, 84b-85a 

26 SHAKESPEARE: Merchant of Venice, ACT in, sc 
n [73-107] 420d-421a 

27 SHAKESPEARE: Twelfth Night, ACT i, sc n 
[47-51] 2b / Hamlet, ACT in, sc i [103-116] 
48a / Sonnets, LIV 594c; LXVI-LXX 596b-597a; 
xcni-xcvi 600b-601a 

29 CERVANTES. Don Quixote, PART ii, 381d- 

382a 

32 MILTON: Comus [417-475] 42b-44a 
42 KANT: Judgement, 488b-489a; 508b-c; 521b- 

523c;546d-548c 
46 HFGEL: Philosophy of History, PART n, 266a- 

267a, 276a-d, 278a-c; 280b-c; PART iv, 346d- 

347a 
51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK xn, 543b-544b; 

EPILOGUE i, 670c 
53 JAMES: Psychology, 755a; 757a 



CROSS-REFERENCES 

For: Other discussions of the relation of beauty to goodness and truth, see GOOD AND EVIL ic; 

TRUTH ic; and for the relation of grades of beauty to degrees of perfection in being, sec 

BEING 33. 

Unity, order, and proportion as elements of beauty, sec RELATION 50. 
The consideration of beauty as an object of love or desire, see DESIRE 2b; LOVE id. 
The theory of the aesthetic judgment or the judgment of taste, see SENSE 6; and for the 

controversy over the objectivity and universality of such judgments, see CUSTOM 93; 

RELATION 6c; UNIVERSAL AND PARTICULAR 70. 
The problem of cultivating good taste and critical judgment in the field of the fine arts, see 

ART 7b; POETRY 8a-8b. 
The context of the comparison of beauty in nature and in art, sec ART 23-3; NATURE aa, 5d; 

PLEASURE AND PAIN 40(1). 
Consideration of the kind of knowledge which is involved in the apprehension of beauty, see 

KNOWLEDGE 63(2), 6c(i). 
Another discussion of sensible and intelligible beauty, sec SENSE 6; and for the intelligible 

beauty of God and of the universe, see GOD 4h; WORLD 6d. 



CHAPTER 6: BEAUTY 



125 



ADDITIONAL READINGS 

Listed below are works not included in Great Boofy of the Western World, but relevant to the 
idea and topics with which this chapter deals. These works are divided into two groups* 

I. Works by authors represented in this collection. 
II. Works by authors not represented in this collection. 

For the date, place, and other facts concerning the publication of the works cited, consult 
the Bibliography of Additional Readings which follows the last chapter of The Great Ideas. 



I. 

F. BACON. "Of Beauty," "Of Deformity," in Essays 
HOBBES Concerning Body, PART 11, CH 10 
BERKELEY. Alctfhron, in 
A. SMITH. The Theory of Moral Sentiments, PART 

IV 

HEGEL. The Philosophy of Fine Art 

C. R. DARWIN. The Different Forms of Flowers on 
Plants of the Same Species 

II. 

LONGINUS. On the Sublime 

EBREO The Philosophy of Love, DIALOGUE in 

SHAFTFSBURY. Characteristics of Men, Manners, Opin- 
ions, Times 

LEIBNITZ. Monadology, par 1-9 

HUTCHESON. An Inquiry into the Original of Our 
Ideas of Beauty and Virtue 

BURKE. A Philosophical Enquity into the Origin of 
Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful, PART i-iv 

VOLTAIRE. "Beautiful," "Taste," in A Philosophical 
Dictionary 

T. REID. Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man, 

VIII 

SCHILLER. Letters upon the Esthetic Education of 

Man 
JEAN PAUL. Vorschule der Asthetit^ 

D. STEWART. Philosophical Essays, PART n 



COUSIN. Lectures on the True, the Beautiful and the 

Good 

HAZLIIT. On Taste 
SCHOPENHAUER. The World as Will and Idea, VOL 

in, SUP, CH 33 
STENDHAL. On Love 
CHALMERS. On the Power, Wisdom, and Goodness of 

God 

KIERKEGAARD. Either/Or, PART n 
A. HUMBOLDT. Cosmos 
LOTZE. Microcosmos, BK vm, CH 3 
EMERSON. "Love," in Essays, i 

. "Beauty," in The Conduct of Life 

RUSKIN. Sesame and Lilies 

VERON. Aesthetics 

LIPPS. Asthetit^ 

SANTA VAN A. The Sense of Beauty, PART i-iv 

. Reason tn Art, CH 10 

POINCARE. Science and Method, BK i, CH 3 
CROCF. Aesthetic as Science of Expression 

. The Essence of Esthetics 

CARRITT. The Theory of Beauty 
BOSANQUET. Science and Philosophy, 22-24 

. Three Lectures on Aesthetic, i, in 

WHITEHEAD. Process and Reality, PART in, CH 2(2), 

3(3,5). 5(7-8) 

BIRKHOFF. Aesthetic Measure 
GILL. Beauty Lool(s After Herself 
MAURON Aesthetics and Psychology 



Chapter 7: BEING 



INTRODUCTION 



/fc T" T HE words "is" and "(is) not" arc probably 

JL the words most frequently used by anyone. 
They are unavoidable, by implication at least, 
in every statement. They have, in addition, 
a greater range of meaning than any other 
words. 

Their manifold significance seems to be of a 
very special kind, for whatever is said not to be 
in one sense of being can always be said to be in 
another of its senses. Children and practiced 
liars know this. Playing on the meanings of be- 
ing, or with "is" and "not," they move smooth- 
ly from fact to fiction, imagination to reality, 
or truth to falsehood. 

Despite the obviousness and commonplace- 
ness of the questions which arise with any con- 
sideration of the meanings of "is," the study of 
being is a highly technical inquiry which only 
philosophers have pursued at length. Berkeley 
gives one reason why they cannot avoid this 
task. "Nothing seems of more importance," he 
says, "towards erecting a firm system of sound 
and real knowledge . . . than to lay the begin- 
ning in a distinct explication of what is meant 
by thing, reality ', existence; for in vain shall we 
dispute concerning the real existence of things, 
or pretend to any knowledge thereof, so long 
as we have not fixed the meaning of those 
words." 

In the whole field of learning, philosophy is 
distinguished from other disciplines from his- 
tory, the sciences, and mathematics by its 
concern with the problem of being. It alone 
asks about the nature of existence, the modes 
and properties of being, the difference between 
being and becoming, appearance and reality, 
the possible and the actual, being and non- 
being. Not all philosophers ask these questions; 
nor do all who ask such questions approach or 
formulate them in the same way. Nevertheless, 
the attempt to answer them is a task peculiar to 



philosophy. Though it often leads to subtleties, 
it also keeps the philosopher in deepest touch 
with common sense and the speculative wonder 
of all men. 

As A TECHNICAL concept in philosophy, being 
has been called both the richest and the empti- 
est of all terms in the vocabulary of thought. 
Both remarks testify to the same fact, namely, 
that it is the highest abstraction, the most uni- 
versal of predicates, and the most pervasive 
subject of discussion. 

William James is in that long line of philoso- 
phers which began with the early Greeks when 
he points out that "in the strict and ultimate 
sense of the word 'existence,' everything which 
can be thought of at all exists as some sort of 
object, whether mythical object, individual 
thinker's object, or object in outer space and 
for intelligence at large." Even things which do 
not really exist have being insofar as they are 
objects of thought things remembered which 
once existed, things conceivable which have 
the possibility of being, things imaginary which 
have being at least in the mind that thinks 
them. This leads to a paradox which the an- 
cients delighted in pondering, that even noth- 
ing is something, even non-being has being, for 
before we can say "non-being is not" we must 
be able to say "non-being is." Nothing is at least 
an object of thought. 

Any other word than "being" will tend to 
classify things. The application of any other 
name will divide the world into things of the 
sort denominated as distinct from everything 
else. "Chair," for example, divides the world 
into things which are chairs and all other ob- 
jects; but "being" divides something or any- 
thing from nothing and, as we have seen, even 
applies to nothing. 

"All other names," Aquinas writes, "arc 



126 



CHAPTER 7: BEING 



127 



either less universal, or, if convertible with it, 
add something above it at least in idea; hence 
in a certain way they inform and determine 
it." The concepts which such words express 
have, therefore, a restricted universality. They 
apply to all things of a certain fynd, but not to 
all things^ things of every kind or type. With 
the exception of a few terms inseparably associ- 
ated with 'being' (or, as Aquinas says, converti- 
ble with it), only being is common to all kinds 
of things. When every other trait peculiar to a 
thing is removed, its being remains the fact 
that it is in some sense. 

If we start with a particular of any sort, clas- 
sifying it progressively according to the char- 
acteristics which it shares with more and more 
things, we come at last to being. According to 
this method of abstraction, which Hegel fol- 
lows in his Science of Logic, 'being' is the empti- 
est of terms precisely because it is the com- 
monest. It signifies the very least that can be 
thought of anything. On this view, if all we are 
told of something is that it isthat it has being 
we learn as little as possible about the thing. 
We have to be told that a thing is a material or 
a spiritual being, a real or an imaginary being, a 
living or a human being, in order to apprehend 
a determinate nature. Abstracted from every- 
thing else, 'being' has only the positive meaning 
of excluding 'non-being.' 

There is an opposite procedure by which the 
term being has the maximal rather than the 
minimal significance. Since whatever else a 
thing is, it is a being, its being lies at the very 
heart of its nature and underlies all its other 
properties. Being is indeterminate only in the 
sense that it takes on every sort of determina- 
tion. Wherever being is found by thought, it 
is understood as a determined mode of being. 
To conceive being in this way, we do not re- 
move every difference or determination, but on 
the contrary, embrace all, since all are differ- 
ences or determinations of being. 

Aquinas, for example, conceives "being tak- 
en simply as including all perfections of being"; 
and in the Judaeo-Christian tradition, 'being' 
without qualification is taken as the most prop 
er name for God. When Moses asked God His 
name, he received as answer: "I AM THAT I 
AM . . . Thus shalt thou say unto the children 
of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you." Used 



in this sense, 'being* becomes the richest of 
terms the one which has the greatest ampli- 
tude of meaning. 

BOTH WAYS OF thinking about being are rele- 
vant to the problem of the relations among the 
various meanings of 'being.' Both are also re- 
lated to the problem of whether being is one or 
many the problem first raised by the Eleatics, 
exhaustively explored in Plato's ParmcntdeSj 
and recurrent in the thought of Plotinus, Spi- 
noza, and Hegel. 

The two problems are connected. If every- 
thing that is exists only as a part of being as a 
whole, or if the unity of being requires every- 
thing to be the same in being, then whatever 
diversities there are do not multiply the mean- 
ings of being. Although he speaks of substance 
rather than of being, Spinoza argues that 
"there cannot be any substance excepting God, 
and consequently none other can be con- 
ceived." From this it follows that "whatever 
is, is in God, and nothing can be or be con- 
ceived without God." 

Since "there cannot be two or more sub- 
stances of the same nature or attribute," and 
since God is defined as a "substance consisting 
of infinite attributes, each one of which ex- 
presses eternal and infinite essence," it is ab- 
surd, in Spinoza's opinion, to think of any 
other substance. "If there were any substance 
besides God, it would have to be explained," 
he says, "by some attribute of God, and thus 
two substances would exist possessing the same 
attribute," which is impossible. 

Spinoza's definition of substance, attribute, 
and mode or affection, combined with his axi- 
om that "everything which is, is either in itself 
or in another," enables him to embrace what- 
ever multiplicity or diversity he finds in the 
world as aspects of one being. Everything 
which is not substance, existing in and of itself, 
exists in that one substance as an infinite attri- 
bute or a finite mode. "The thing extended 
(rem extensam) and the thinking thing (rem 
cogitantem)" he writes, "are either attributes 
of God or affections of the attributes of God." 

If, on the contrary, there is no unitary whole 
of being, but only a plurality of beings which 
are alike in being and yet are diverse in being 
from one another, then our conception of being 



128 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



must involve a system of meanings, a stem of 
many branches. Descartes, for example, dis- 
tinguishes between an infinite being, whose 
essence involves its existence, and finite beings, 
which do not necessarily exist of themselves 
but must be caused to exist. The infinite being 
which is God causes, but does not contain with- 
in itself, other finite substances; and among 
finite things, Descartes holds, "two substances 
are said to be really distinct, when each of them 
can exist apart from the other." 

In addition to God "that substance which 
we understand to be supremely perfect" Des- 
cartes defines two kinds of finite substance. 
"That substance in which thought immediately 
resides, I call Mind," he writes; and "that sub- 
stance, which is the immediate subject of ex- 
tension in space, and of the accidents that pre- 
suppose extension, e.g., figure, situation, move- 
ment in space, etc., is called Body." All these 
substances, and even their accidents, have be- 
ing, but not being of the same kind or to the 
same degree. "There are," according to Des- 
cartes, "diverse degrees of reality, or (the qual- 
ity of being an) entity. For substance has more 
reality than accident or mode; and infinite sub- 
stance has more than finite substance." Its be- 
ing is independent, theirs dependent. 

The issue between Spinoza and Descartes a 
single substance or many is only one of the 
ways in which the problem of the unity or di- 
versity of being presents itself. Both Plato and 
Aristotle, for example, affirm a multiplicity of 
separate existences, but though both are, in 
this sense, plurahsts, being seems to have one 
meaning for Plato, many for Aristotle. 

According to Plato's distinction between be- 
ing and becoming, only the immutable es- 
sences, the eternal ideas, are beings, and though 
they are many in number, they all belong to 
one realm and possess the same type of being. 
But for Aristotle, not only do perishable as well 
as imperishable substances exist; not only is 
there sensible and mutable as well as immaterial 
and eternal being; but the being which sub- 
stances possess is not the same as that of acci- 
dents; essential is not the same as accidental 
being; potential being is not the same as being 
actual; and to be is not the same as to be con- 
ceived, that is, to exist in reality is not the 
same as to exist in mind. 



Again and again Aristotle insists that "there 
are many senses in which a thing is said to be 
. . . Some things are said to be because they are 
substances, others because they are affections 
of substance, others because they are in process 
towards substance, or destructions or priva- 
tions or qualities of substance, or productive or 
generative of substance, or of things which are 
relative to substance, or negations of one of 
these things or of substance itself. It is for this 
reason," he continues, "that we say even of 
non-being that it is non-being"; and, in another 
place, he adds that "besides all these there is 
that which 'is' potentially or actually." 

All these senses of being, according to Aris- 
totle, "refer to one starting point," namely, 
substance, or that which has being in and of 
itself. "That which is primarily, /.., not m a 
qualified sense," he writes, "must be a sub- 
stance." But when he also says that "that 
which 'is' primarily is the 'what' which indi- 
cates the substance of a thing," he seems to be 
using the words "substance" and "essence" 
interchangeably. This, in turn, seems to be re- 
lated to the fact that, although Aristotle dis- 
tinguishes between actual and potential being, 
and between necessary or incorruptible and 
contingent or corruptible beings, he, like Plato 
and unlike Aquinas, Descartes, or Spinoza, 
does not consider whether the essence and exist- 
ence of a being are identical or separate. 

It may be held that this distinction is im- 
plied, since a contingent being is one which is 
able not to exist, whereas a necessary being 
cannot not exist. A contingent being is, there- 
fore, one whose essence can be divorced from 
existence; a necessary being, one which must be 
precisely because its essence is identical with 
its existence. But the explicit recognition of a 
real distinction between essence and existence 
seems to be reserved for the later theologians 
and philosophers who conceive of an infinite 
being, as Aristotle does not. 

The infinity of a being lies not only in its 
possession of all perfections, but even more 
fundamentally in its requiring no cause outside 
itself for its own existence. "That thing," says 
Aquinas, "whose being differs from its essence, 

must have its being caused by another That 

which has being, but is not being, is a being by 
participation." Where Aristotle makes sub- 



CHAPTER 7: BEING 



stance the primary type of being, and the 
"starting-point 1 * of all its other meanings, 
Aquinas makes the infinite being of God, 
whose very essence it is to be, the source of 
all finite and participated beings, in which there 
is a composition of existence and essence, 
or "of that whereby they are and that which 
they are" 

Since "being itself is that whereby a thing 
is," being belongs to God primarily and to all 
other things according to modes of derivation 
or participation. God and his creatures can be 
called "beings" but, Aquinas points out, not in 
the identically same sense, nor yet with utter 
diversity of meaning. A similarity a sameness- 
m-diversity or analogy obtains between the 
unqualified being of God and the being of all 
other things, which have being subject to vari- 
ous qualifications or limitations. 

All other questions about being are affected 
by the solution of these basic problems con- 
cerning the unity of being, the kinds of being, 
and the order of the various kinds. If they are 
solved in one way in favor of unity certain 
questions are not even raised, for they are gen- 
uine only on the basis of the other solution 
which finds being diverse. The discussion, in the 
chapters on SAME AND OTHER, and on SIGN 
AND SYMBOL, of sameness, diversity, and anal- 
ogy is, therefore, relevant to the problem of 
how things are at once alike and unlike in being. 

THE GREEKS, NOTABLY Plato and Aristotle, 
began the inquiry about being. They realized 
that after all other questions are answered, 
there still remains the question, What does it 
mean to say of anything that it tsor is not} After 
we understand what it means for a thing to be 
a man, or to be alive, or to be a body, we must 
still consider what it means for that thing sim- 
ply to be in any way at all; or to be in one sense, 
and not to be in another. 

The discussion of being, in itself and in rela- 
tion to unity and truth, rest and motion, runs 
through many dialogues of Plato. It is central 
in the Sophist and Parmenides. The same terms 
and problems appear in Aristotle's scientific 
treatise which makes being its distinctive sub- 
ject matter, and which he sometimes calls "first 
philosophy" and sometimes "theology." It be- 
longs to this science, he declares, "to consider 



being qua being both what it is and the prop- 
erties which belong to it qua being." 

As pointed out in the chapter on META- 
PHYSICS, it is an historical accident that this 
inquiry concerning being came to be called 
"metaphysics," That is the name which, ac- 
cording to legend, the ancient editors gave to a 
collection of writings in which Aristotle pur- 
sued this inquiry. Since they came after the 
books on physics, they were called "meta- 
physics" on the supposition that Aristotle in- 
tended the discussion of being to follow his 
treatise on change and motion. 

If one were to invent a word to describe the 
science of being, it would be "ontology," not 
"metaphysics" or even "theology." Yet "meta- 
physics" has remained the traditionally accept- 
ed name for the inquiry or science which goes 
beyond physics or all of natural science in 
that it asks about the very existence of things, 
and their modes of being. The traditional con- 
nection of metaphysics with theology, discussed 
in the chapters on THEOLOGY and META- 
PHYSICS, seems to have its origin in the fact 
that Aristotle's treatise on being passes from a 
consideration of sensible and mutable substan- 
ces to the problem of the existence of imma- 
terial beings, and to the conception of a divine 
being, purely actual, absolutely immutable. 

In a science intended to treat "of that which 
is primarily, and to which all the other cate- 
gories of being are referred, namely, substance," 
Aristotle says, "we must first sketch the nature 
of substance." Hence he begins with what he 
calls "the generally recognized substances. 
These are the sensible substances." He post- 
pones until later his critical discussion of "the 
Ideas and the objects of mathematics, for some 
say these are substances in addition to the sen- 
sible substances"; yet he directs his whole in- 
quiry to the ultimate question "whether there 
arc or are not any besides sensible substances," 
His attempt to answer this question in the 
twelfth book makes it the theological part of 
his Metaphysics. 

THOUGH THEIR ORDER of discussion is different, 
the metaphysicians of the lyth century, like 
Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibnitz, deal with 
many, if not all, major points in the analysis 
of being which the Greek philosophers initi- 



130 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



atcd and the mediaeval theologians developed. 
Later philosophers, whose mam concern is with 
the origin and validity of human knowledge, 
come to the traditional metaphysical questions 
through an analysis, not of substance or essence, 
existence or power, but of our ideas of substance 
and power. 

This transformation of the ancient problem 
of being is stated by Berkeley in almost epi- 
grammatic form. Considering "what is meant 
by the term exist" he argues from the experi- 
ence of sensible things that "their esse \spercipi, 
nor is it possible they should have any exist- 
ence, out of the minds or thinking things which 
perceive them." Locke, too, although he does 
not identify being with perception, makes the 
same shift on the ground that "the first step 
towards satisfying several inquiries the mind of 
man was apt to run into, was to make a survey 
of our own understandings, examine our own 
powers, and see to what things they were 
adapted.'* 

Once the problems of being are viewed first 
in terms of the mind, the questions for the 
philosopher become primarily those of the rela- 
tion of our definitions to real and nominal es- 
sences, the conditions of our knowledge of ex- 
istence, and the identification of the real and 
ideal with perceptible matters of fact and intel- 
ligible relations between ideas. 

For Kant the basic distinction is between 
the sensible and supra-sensible, or the phenom- 
enal and noumenal, realms of being. From an- 
other point of view, Kant considers the being 
of things in themselves apart from human ex- 
perience and the being of natural things or, 
what is the same for him, the things of experi- 
ence. The former are unconditioned, the latter 
conditioned, by the knowing mind which is 
formative or constitutive of experience. 

"The sole aim of pure reason," Kant writes, 
"is the absolute totality of the synthesis on the 
side of the conditions ... in order to preposit 
the whole series of conditions, and thus present 
them to the understanding a priori" Having 
obtained these "conditions," we can ascend 
through them "until we reach the uncondi- 
tioned, that is, the principles." It is with these 
ideas of pure reason that metaphysics, accord- 
ing to Kant, properly deals. Instead of being, its 
object consists in "three grand ideas: God, 



Freedom, and Immortality, and it aims at 
showing that the second conception, conjoined 
with the first, must lead to the third as a neces- 
sary conclusion." 

Hegel, on the other hand, does not approach 
the problem of being or reality through a cri- 
tique of knowledge. For Hegel, as for Plotinus 
before him, the heart of metaphysics lies in 
understanding that "nothing is actual except 
the Idea" or the Absolute, "and the great thing 
is to apprehend in the show of the temporal 
and the transient, the substance which is imma- 
nent, and the eternal which is present." Plo- 
tinus calls the absolute, not the Idea, but the 
All-one, yet he tries to show that the One is the 
principle, the light, and the life of all things, 
just as Hegel reduces everything to a manifes- 
tation of the underlying reality of the Absolute 
Idea. 

Despite all such changes in terminology, de- 
spite radical differences in philosophical princi- 
ple or conclusion, and regardless of the attitude 
taken toward the possibility of metaphysics as a 
science, the central question which is faced by 
anyone who goes beyond physics, or natural 
philosophy, is a question about being or exist- 
ence. It may or may not be asked explicitly, 
but it is always present by implication. 

The question about God, for example, or 
free will or immortality, is first of all a question 
about whether such things exist, and how they 
exist. Do they have reality or are they only 
fictions of the mind ? Similarly, questions about 
the infinite, the absolute, or the unconditioned 
are questions about that primary reality apart 
from whose existence nothing else could be or 
be conceived, and which therefore has an exist- 
ence different from the things dependent on it 
for their being. Here again the first question is 
whether such a reality exists. 

Enough has been said to indicate why this 
discussion cannot consider all topics which have 
some connection with the theory of being. To 
try to make this Introduction adequate even 
for the topics outlined here, under which the 
references to the great books are assembled, 
would be to make it almost co-extensive in scope 
with the sum of many other Introductions all, 
in fact, which open chapters dealing with meta- 
physical concepts or problems. 

It is to be expected, of course, that the special 



CHAPTER 7: BEING 



131 



problems of the existence of God, of an immor- 
tal soul, and of a free will should be treated in 
the chapters on GOD, IMMORTALITY, and WILL. 
But it may not be realized that such chapters 
as CAUSE, ETERNITY, FORM, INFINITY, IDEA, 
MATTER, ONE AND MANY, SAME AND OTHER, 
RELATION, UNIVERSAL AND PARTICULAR all 
these and still others cited in the Cross-Refer- 
ences below include topics which would have 
to be discussed here if we were to try to cover 
all relevant considerations. 

Reasons of economy and intelligibility dic- 
tate the opposite course. Limiting the scope of 
this Introduction to a few principal points in 
the theory of being, we can also exhibit, 
through the relation of this chapter to others, 
the interconnection of the great ideas. The var- 
ious modes of being (such as essence and exist- 
ence, substance and accident, potentiality and 
actuality, the real and the ideal) and the basic 
correlatives of being (such as unity, goodness, 
truth) are, therefore, left for fuller treatment 
in other contexts. But two topics deserve fur- 
ther attention here. One is the distinction be- 
tween being and becoming, the other the rela- 
tion of being to knowledge. 

THE FACT OF CHANGE or motion of coming to 
be and passing away is so evident to the senses 
that it has never been denied, at least not as an 
experienced phenomenon. But it has been re- 
garded as irrational and unreal, an illusion per- 
petrated by the senses. Galen, for instance, 
charges the Sophists with "allowing that bread 
in turning into blood becomes changed as re- 
gards sight, taste, and touch," but denying 
that "this change occurs in reality." They ex- 
plain it away, he says, as "tricks and illusions of 
our senses . . . which are affected now in one 
way, now in another, whereas the underlying 
substance does not admit of any of these 
changes." 

The familiar paradoxes of Zeno are reductio 
ad absurdum arguments to show that motion is 
unthinkable, full of self-contradiction. The way 
of truth, according to Parmemdes, Zeno's mas- 
ter in the Eleatic school, lies in the insight that 
whatever is always was and will be, that noth- 
ing comes into being out of non-being, or 
passes out of being into nothingness. 

The doctrine of Parmenides provoked many 



criticisms. Yet his opponents tried to preserve 
the reality of change, without having to accord 
it the fullness of being. The Greek atomists, for 
example, think that change cannot be explained 
except in terms of permanent beings in feet 
eternal ones. Lucretius, who expounds their 
views, remarks that in any change "something 
unchangeable must remain over, that all things 
be not utterly reduced to nothing; for when- 
ever a thing changes and quits its proper limits, 
at once this change of state is the death of that 
which was before." The "something unchange- 
able" is thought to be the atom, the absolutely 
indivisible, and hence imperishable, unit of 
matter. Change does not touch the being of the 
atoms, "but only breaks up the union amongst 
them, and then joins anew the different ele- 
ments with others; and thus it comes to pass 
that all things change" that is, all things com- 
posite, not the simple bodies of solid singleness 
"when the clashings, motions, arrangement, 
position, and shapes of matter change about." 

In a conversation with Cratylus, who favors 
the Herachtean theory of a universal flux, Soc- 
rates asks, "How can that be a real thing which 
is never in the same state?" How "can we 
reasonably say, Cratylus," he goes on, "that 
there is any knowledge at all, if everything is in 
a state of transition and there is nothing 
abiding"? 

When he getsGlaucon to admit in the Repub- 
lic that "being is the sphere or subject matter of 
knowledge, and knowing is to know the nature 
of being," Socrates leads him to see the correla- 
tion of being, not- being, and becoming with 
knowledge, ignorance, and opinion. "If opinion 
and knowledge are distinct faculties then the 
sphere of knowledge and opinion cannot be the 
same ... If being is the subject matter of 
knowledge, something else must be the subject 
matter of opinion." It cannot be not-being, for 
"of not-being ignorance was assumed to be the 
necessary correlative." 

Since "opinion is not concerned either with 
being or with not- being" because it is obviously 
intermediate between knowledge and igno- 
rance, Socrates concludes that "if anything ap- 
peared to be of a sort which is and is not at the 
same time, that sort of thing would appear also 
to lie in the interval between pure being and 
absolute not-being," and "the corresponding 



132 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



faculty is neither knowledge nor ignorance, but 
will be found in the interval between them.'* 
This "intermediate flux" or sphere of becom- 
ing, this "region of the many and the variable," 
can yield only opinion. Being, the realm of the 
"absolute and eternal and immutable [Ideas]," 
is the only object that one "may be said to 
know." 

Aristotle would seem to agree with Plato 
that change "partakes equally of the nature of 
being and not-being, and cannot rightly be 
termed either, pure and simple." He points 
out that his predecessors, particularly the Eleat- 
ics, held change to be impossible, because they 
believed that "what comes to be must do so 
either from what is or from what is not, both of 
which are impossible." It is impossible, so they 
argued, since "what is cannot come to be (be- 
cause it is already), and from what is not noth- 
ing could have come to be." Aristotle concedes 
the cogency of this argument on one condition, 
namely, that the terms 'being' and 'not-being' 
are taken "without qualification." But his 
whole point is that they need not be taken with- 
out qualification and should not be, if we wish 
to explain change rather than make a mystery 
of it. 

The qualification Aristotle introduces rests 
on the distinction between two modes of being 
the potentiality and actuality correlative 
with matter and form. This makes it possible 
for him to maintain that "a thing may come to 
be from what is not ... in a qualified sense." He 
illustrates his meaning by the example of the 
bronze, which from a mere lump of metal comes 
to be a statue under the hands of the artist. The 
bronze, he says, was "potentially a statue," and 
the change whereby it came to be actually a 
statue is the process between potentiality and 
actuality. While the change is going on, the 
bronze is neither completely potential nor fully 
actual in respect of being a statue. 

Like Plato, Aristotle recognizes that there is 
"something indefinite" about change. "The 
reason," he explains, "is that it cannot be 
classed simply as a potentiality or as an actuali- 
tya thing that is merely capable of having a 
certain size is not undergoing change, nor yet 
a thing that is actually of a certain size." Change 
is "a sort of actuality, but incomplete . . . hard 
to grasp, but not incapable of existing.*' 



If to exist is to be completely actual, then 
changing things and change itself do not fully 
exist. They exist only to the extent that they 
have actuality. Yet potentiality, no less than 
actuality, is a mode of being. That potentiality 
power or capacity belongs to being seems 
also to be affirmed by the Eleatic Stranger in 
Plato's Sophist. "Anything which possesses any 
sort of power to affect another, or to be affected 
by another," he says, "if only for a single mo- 
ment, however trifling the cause and however 
slight the effect, has real existence ... I hold," 
he adds, "that the definition of being is simply 
power." 

The basic issue concerning being and becom- 
ing, and the issue concerning eternal as opposed 
to mutable existence, recur again and again in 
the tradition of western thought. They are in- 
volved in the distinction between corruptible 
and incorruptible substances (which is in turn 
connected with the division of substances into 
corporeal and spiritual), and with the nature of 
God as the only purely actual, or truly eternal, 
being. They are implicit in Spinoza's distinc- 
tion between natura naturans and natura natu- 
rata, and in his distinction between God's 
knowledge of things under the aspect of eter- 
nity and man's temporal view of the world in 
process. They are relevant to Hegel's Absolute 
Idea which, while remaining fixed, progressively 
reveals itself in the ever-changing face of nature 
and history. In our own day these issues engage 
Dewey, Santayana, and Whitehead in contro- 
versy, as yesterday they engaged Bradley, 
William James, and Bergson. 

As ALREADY NOTED, Plato's division of reality 
into the realms of being and becoming has a 
bearing on his analysis of knowledge and opin- 
ion. The division relates to the distinction be- 
tween the intelligible and the sensible, and be- 
tween the opposed qualities of certainty and 
probability, or necessity and contingency, in 
our judgments about things. The distinctions 
between essence and existence and between 
substance and accident separate aspects or 
modes of being which function differently as 
objects for the knowing mind. 

Aristotle, for example, holds that "there can 
be no scientific treatment of the accidental . . . 
for the accidental is practically a mere name. 



CHAPTER 7: BEING 



133 



And," he adds, "Plato was in a sense not wrong 
in ranking sophistic as dealing with that which 
is not. For the arguments of the sophists deal, 
we may say, above all, with the accidental." 
That the accidental is "akin to non-being," 
Aristotle thinks may be seen in the fact that 
"things which are in another sense come into 
being and pass out of being by a process, but 
things which are accidentally do not." But 
though he rejects the accidental as an object of 
science, he does not, like Plato or Plotmus, ex- 
clude the whole realm of sensible, changing 
things from the sphere of scientific knowledge. 
For him, both metaphysics and physics treat of 
sensible substances, the one with regard to their 
mutable being, the other with regard to their 
being mutable their becoming or changing. 

For Plotmus, on the other hand, "the true 
sciences have an intelligible object and contain 
no notion of anything sensible." They are di- 
rected, not "to variable things, suffering from 
all sorts of changes, divided in space, to which 
the name of becoming and not being belongs," 
but to the "eternal being which is not divided, 
existing always in the same way, which is not 
born and does not perish, and has neither space, 
place, nor situation . . . but rests immovable in 
itself." 

According to another view, represented by 
Locke, substance is as such unknowable, wheth- 
er it be body or spirit. We use the word "sub- 
stance" to name the "support of such qualities, 
which are capable of producing simple ideas in 
us; which qualities are commonly called acci- 
dents." The sensible accidents are all that we 
truly know and "we give the general name sub- 
stance" to "the supposed, but unknown, sup- 
port of those qualities we find existing." Some 
of these sensible accidents are what Locke calls 
"primary qualities" the powers or potentiali- 
ties by which things affect one another and also 
our senses. 

But to the extent that our senses fail to dis- 
cover "the bulk, texture, and figure of the mi- 
nute parts of bodies, on which their constitu- 
tions and differences depend, we are fain to 
make use of their secondary qualities, as the 
characteristical notes and marks whereby to 
frame ideas of them m our mind." Neverthe- 
less, powers which are qualities or accidents, 
not substances seem to be, for Locke, the 



ultimate reality we can know. "The secondary 
sensible qualities," he writes, "are nothing but 
the powers" which corporeal substances have 
"to produce several ideas in us by our sense, 
which ideas" unlike the primary qualities 
"are not in the things themselves, otherwise 
than as anything is in its cause." 

Hobbes exemplifies still another view. "A 
man can have no thought," he says, "represent- 
ing anything not subject to sense." Hobbes 
does not object to calling bodies "substances," 
but thinks that when we speak of "an incorpo- 
real body, or (which is all one) an incorporeal 
substance," we talk nonsense; "for none of these 
things ever have, or can be incident to sense; 
but are absurd speeches, taken upon credit 
(without any signification at all) from deceived 
Philosophers, and deceived, or deceiving, 
Schoolmen." 

He enumerates other absurdities, such as "the 
giving of names of bodies to accidents, or of 
accidents to bodies," e.g., by those who say 
that "extension is body." Criticism of the fallacy 
of reification the fallacy first pointed out by 
Ockham and criticized so repeatedly in con- 
temporary semantics also appears in Hobbes* 
warning against making substances out of ab- 
stractions or univcrsals "by giving the names of 
bodies to names or speeches." 

WHENEVER A THEORY of knowledge is concerned 
with how we know reality, as opposed to mere 
appearances, it considers the manner in which 
existing beings can be known by perception, 
intuition, or demonstration; and with respect 
to demonstration, it attempts to formulate the 
conditions of valid reasoning about matters of 
fact or real existence. But it has seldom been 
supposed that reality exhausts the objects of 
our thought or knowledge. We can conceive 
possibilities not realized in this world. We can 
imagine things which do not exist in nature. 

The meaning of reality of real as opposed 
to purely conceptual or ideal being is derived 
from the notion of thinghood, of having being 
outside the mind, not merely in it. In tradition- 
al controversies about the existence of ideas 
or of umversals, the objects of mathematics, or 
relations it is not the being of such things 
which is questioned, but their reality, their 
existence outside the mind. If, for example, 



134 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



ideas exist apart from minds, the minds of men 
and God, they have real, not ideal, existence. 
If the objects of mathematics, such as numbers 
and figures, have existence only as figments of 
the mind, they are ideal beings. 

The judgment of the reality of a thing, lames 
thinks, involves "a state of consciousness sui 
gcnerts" about which not much can be said 
"in the way of internal analysis." The focus of 
this problem in modern times is indicated by 
James' phrasing of the question, "Under what 
circumstances do we think things real?" And 
James gives a typically modern answer to the 
question. 

He begins by saying that "any object which 
remains uncontradicted is ipso facto believed 
and posited as absolute reality." He admits 
that "for most men . . . the 'things of sense' . . . 
are the absolutely real world's nucleus. Other 
things," James writes, "may be real for this 
man or that things of science, abstract moral 
relations, things of the Christian theology, or 
what not. But even for the special man, 
these things are usually real with a less real 
reality than that of the things of sense." But 
his basic conviction is that "our own reality, 
that sense of our own life which we at every 
moment possess, is the ultimate of ultimates for 
our belief. 'As sure as I exist!' this is our utter- 
most warrant for the being of all other things. 
As Descartes made the indubitable reality of 
the cogito go bail for the reality of all that the 
cogtto involvedj so all of us, feeling our own 
present reality with absolutely coercive force, 
ascribe an all but equal degree of reality, first to 
whatever things we lay hold on with a sense of 



personal need, and second, to whatever farther 
things continuously belong with these." 

The self or ego is the ultimate criterion of 
being or reality. "The world of living realities 
as contrasted with unrealities," James writes, 
"is thus anchored in the Ego. . . . That is the 
hook from which the rest dangles, the absolute 
support. And as from a painted hook it has 
been said that one can only hang a painted 
chain, so conversely from a real hook only a 
real chain can properly be hung. Whatever things 
have intimate and continuous connection with my 
life are things of whose reality I cannot doubt. 
Whatever things fail to establish this connection 
are things which are practically no better for 
me than if they existed not at all." James 
would be the first to concede to any critic of his 
position, that its truth and good sense depend 
upon noting that word "practically," for it is 
"the world of 'practical realities' " with which 
he professes to be concerned. 

WE CAN IN CONCLUSION observe one obvious 
measure of the importance of being in philo- 
sophical thought. The major isms by which the 
historians of philosophy have tried to classify 
its doctrines represent affirmations or denials 
with respect to being or the modes of being. 
They are such antitheses as realism and ideal- 
ism; materialism and spiritualism; monism, du- 
alism, and pluralism; even atheism and theism. 
Undoubtedly, no great philosopher can be so 
simply boxed. Yet the opposing isms do indi- 
cate the great speculative issues which no mind 
can avoid if it pursues the truth or seeks the 
ultimate principles of good and evil. 



OUTLINE OF TOPICS 

PACE 

1. Diverse conceptions of being and non-being: being as a term or concept; the meanings 

of wand is not 136 

2. Being and the one and the many 137 

20. Infinite being and the plurality of finite beings 
2^. The unity of a being 

3. Being and good 138 

30. The hierarchy of being: grades of reality, degrees of intelligibility 

3^. Being as the object of love and desire 139 



CHAPTER 7: BEING 135 

PAOB 

4. Being and truth 139 

40. Being as the pervasive object of mind, and the formal object of the first philoso- 
phy, metaphysics, or dialectic 140 

4^. Being as the measure of truth in judgments of the mind: clarity and distinctness 
as criteria of the reality of an idea 

5. Being and becoming: the reality of change; the nature of mutable being 

6. The cause of existence 141 

7. The divisions or modes of being 142 

fa. The distinction between essence and existence: existence as the act of being 

7^. The distinction between substance and attribute, accident or modification: 
independent and dependent being 

(1) The conceptions of substance 143 

(2) Corporeal and spiritual substances, composite and simple substances: the 

kinds of substance in relation to matter and form 

(3) Corruptible and incorruptible substances 144 

(4) Extension and thought as dependent substances or as attributes of infinite 

substance 

(5) Substance as subject to change and to different kinds of change: the role of 

accidents or modifications 145 

(6) The nature and kinds of accidents or modifications 

jc. The distinction between potentiality and actuality: possible and actual being 146 

(1) The order of potentiality and actuality 

(2) Types of potency and degrees of actuality 

(3) Potentiality and actuality in relation to matter and form 147 

yd. The distinction between real and ideal being, or between natural being and 
being in mind 

(1) The being of the possible 148 

(2) The being of ideas, universals, rights 

(3) The being of mathematical objects 149 

(4) The being of relations 

(5) The being of fictions and negations 150 

je. The distinction between appearance and reality, between the sensible and supra- 
sensible, between the phenomenal and noumenal orders 

8. Being and knowledge 

80. Being and becoming in relation to sense: perception and imagination 

8. Being and becoming in relation to intellect: abstraction and intuition 151 

8r. Essence or substance as the object of definition: real and nominal essences 

Sd. The role of essence in demonstration: the use of essence, property, and accident 

in inference 152 

8?. The accidental in relation to science and definition 

8/! Judgments and demonstrations of existence: their sources and validity 



136 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



REFERENCES 

To find the passages cited, use the numbers in heavy type, which are the volume and page 
numbers of the passages referred to. For example, in 4 HOMER: Iliad, BK n [265-283] 12d, the 
number 4 is the number of the volume in the set; the number 12d indicates that the pas- 
sage is in section d of page 12. 

PAGE SECTIONS: When the text is printed in one column, the letters a and b refer to the 
upper and lower halves of the page. For example, in 53 JAMES : Psychology, 116a-l 19b, the passage 
begins in the upper half of page 116 and ends in the lower half of page 119. When the text is 
printed in two columns, the letters a and b refer to the upper and lower halves of the left- 
hand side of the page, the letters c and d to the upper and lower halves of the right-hand side of 
the page. For example, in 7 PLATO Symposium, 163b-164c, the passage begins in the lower half 
of the left-hand side of page 16} and ends in the upper half of the right-hand side of page 164. 

AUTHOR'S DIVISIONS: One or more of the main divisions of a work (such as PART, BK, CH, 
SFCT) are sometimes included in the reference; line numbers, in brackets, are given in cer- 
tain cases; e.g., Iliad, BK n [265-283] 12d. 

BIBLE REFERENCES : The references are to book, chapter, and verse. When the King James 
and I )ouay versions differ in title of books or in the numbering of chapters or verses, the King 
James version is cited first and the Douay, indicated by a (D), follows, eg., OLD TESTA- 
MLNT: Nehemiah, 7:45 (D) // Esdras, 7.46. 

SYMBOLS. The abbreviation "esp" calls the reader's attention to one or more especially 
relevant parts of a whole reference; "passim" signifies that the topic is discussed intermit- 
tently rather than continuously in the work or passage cited. 

For additional information concerning the style of the references, see the Explanation of 
Reference Style; for general guidance in the use of The Great Ideas, consult the Preface. 



1. Diverse conceptions of being and non-being: 
being as a term or concept; the meanings 
of is and is not 

7 PLATO. Republic, BK v, 370d-373c / Timaeus, 
447b-d; 455c-458b / Parmemdc* 486a-511d / 
Theaetetus, 517d518b; 520b; 521d-522a / 
Sophist, 561d-563b esp 562a-563a; 565a-566b; 
567a-569a; 571d-573b passim 

SARisioiLE. Interpretation, CH 3 [r6 b i9-26] 
25d-26a, CH 13(23* 18-26] 3Sb-c/ Prior Analyt- 
ics, BK i, CH 36 [48*4o- b 9J 66d / Posterior 
Analytics, BK n, CH 7 [92 b i3) 126c / Topics, BK 
iv, CH i [i2i a i4-26] 169a-b; [i2i b i-8] 169c; 
CH 6 [127*26-40] 176d-177a; BK vi, CH 7 
[146*21-32] 200a-b / Sophistical Refutations, 
CH 5 [i66 b 37-i67 R 7] 229d; CH 7 [169*22-24! 
232d; CH 25 [180*32-38] 248c / Physics, BK i, 
CH 2 [i85*20- b 4] 260a-b; CH 3 [186*23-187*10] 
261b-262a; CH 5 [188*18-23] 263c; BK HI, CH 6 
[206*13-34] 284 b-d; BK v, CH i [225*20-29] 
305b-c / Generation and Corruption, BK i, CH 3 
413c-416c passim / Metaphysics, BK i, CH 3-10 
SOlc-Slld passim; BK HI, CH 3 [998^4-28] 
517b-c; BK iv, CH 2 [ioo3*^- b io] 522b; CH 5 
[1009*22-38] 528d; BK v, CH 7 537c-538b; BK 
VH, CH i 550b,d-551a; CH 4 [io}o*i7- b i4] 
552d-553b; BK ix, CH 10 [io5i*34- b 2] 577c; 



BK xi, CH 2 [io6o a 36- b io] 588c; CH 3 [io6o b 3i] 
1061*10] 589a-b; BK xn, CH 2 [io69 b i5 -34- 
598d-599a, CH 4 [1070^-8] 599d-600a / Soul, 
BK n, CH i [4i2 b 6-9J 642c 

17 PLOTINUS First Ennead, TR vm, en 3, 28a-b / 
Third Ennead, TR vi, CH 6-7 109d-lllc; TR 
vu, CH 6 122a-d / Fifth Ennead, IR i, CH 4 
209d-210c; IR n, CH i 214c-215a; TR vi, CH 6 
237b-d / Sixth Ennead, TR n, CH 7-8 272a- 
273c 

18 AUGUSTINE Confessions, BK vu, par 1-2 43b- 
44a/ City of God, BK vm, CH n, 272c, BK xn, 
CH 2 343c-d / Christian Doctrine, BK i, CH 32 
633c-d 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, QQ 2-13 
10c-75b passim, esp Q 3, A 4, REP i 16d-17c, 
Q n, A i 46d-47d, Q 13, A 5, ANS and REP i 
66b-67d, A 10, ANS 72c-73c; Q 14, A 9, ANS 
83b-d; Q 16, A 3, REP 2 96b-d, Q 22, A 4, REP 3 
131c-132b, Q 29, A i, REP 4 162a-163b; QQ 
44-45 238a-250a; Q 48, A 2, REP 2 260c-261b; 
Q 54, A 2, ANS 285d-286c; Q 104 534c-538c; 
Q 105, A 5, ANS 542a-543b; PART I-H, Q 2, A 5 
esp REP 2-3 618d-619c 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 61, 
A i, REP i 54d-55c 

23 HOBBES: Lei'iathan, PART iv, 269d-270c 
25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 292d-294a 



2 to 2b 



CHAPTER 7: BEING 



137 



31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART iv 51b-54b / 

Meditations, iv, 89c~d / Objections and Replies, 

139b-c;214d-215a 
31 SPINOZA; Ethics, PART i, PROP n, DEMONST, 

358d; SCHOL, 359a; PART n, PROP 40, SCHOL i 

387b388a 

33 PASCAL: Geometrical Demonstration, 432 b 
35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK HI, CH vn, 

SECT i 283a-b 
35 BERKELEY: Human Knowledge, SECT 2-3 

413b-d; SECT 17 416a-b; SECT 45-46 421b-c; 

SECT 48 422a; SECT 81 428c-d; SECT 88-91 

430a-431a; SECT 139 440d 
42 KANT: Pure Reason, 43d-44a; 52a-b; 107b- 

108a,c; 133c; 177b-187a esp 179c-182b, 185c- 

187a; 197b-198a / Pref. Metaphysical Elements 

of Ethics, 367d-368a / Judgement, 603b-c 
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, INTRO, 156d- 

157b; PART i, 224a-b; 233b-235a; 237d-238d; 

251d-252d; PART iv, 322a~b 
53 JAMES: Psychology, 636a-661b csp 639a-640a, 

641a-b, 643a-645b, 871b-872a 

2. Being and the one and the many 

7 PLATO: Republic, BK in, 333b-d; BK v, 370a- 
373c esp 372d-373c; BK vn, 392b-394b; BK x, 
427c-429c/ Parmemdes 486a-511d / Theaetetus, 
537a-c; 544d-547c esp 547a / Sophist, 564d- 
574c / Statesman, 594d-595a / Philebus, 610d- 
617d 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK i, CH 2-3 259b-262a / 
Metaphysics, BK i, CH 7 [988 a 34- b 5J 506c; BK 
in, CH i [996*4-8] 514c; CH 4 [iooi fl 4- b2 5l 
519d-520c; BK vn, CH 16 [1040^16-27] 564d; 
BK x, CH 2 580b-d; BK xi, CH 2 [1060*36-^9] 
588c-d, BK xiv, CH 2 [io88 b 28-i09o a 2] 621b- 
622c 

12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK i, CH 14, 120d~121a 
12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK 11, SECT 3 257a-b; 
BK iv, SECT 29 266a; SECT 40 267a-b; BK v, 
SECT 30 273a; BK vi, SECT 36-45 277c-278c; 
BK vn, SECT 9 280b-c; SECT 19 281a; BK ix, 
SECT 8-9 292b-d; BK x, SECT 6-7 297a-c; BK 
xii, SECT 30 310a-b 

17 PLOTINUS: Third Ennead, TR i, CH 4 79d-80a; 
TR ii, CH 1-2 82c-83d; TR vui, en 8-10 132d- 
136a; TR ix, CH 3 137b-138a,c / Fifth Ennead, 
TR i, CH 4-9 209d-213c; TR n, CH i 214c-215a; 
TR in, CH 11-12 222b-223c; CH 15-16 224c- 
226a; TR iv 226d-228b; TR vi, CH 6 237b-d / 
Sixth Ennead, TR n 268d-280d; TR iv, CH n 
302c-d; TR v, CH i 305c-306a; CH 5-8 307a- 
308c; TR vi, CH 5-6 312c-313d; CH 8-16 314a- 
319d 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK iv, par 15-17 
23a-c 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 3, 
A 3, ANS 16a-d; Q n 46d-50b; Q 30, A 3 169b- 
170c; Q 93, A 9, ANS 500c-501c 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PARADISE, n [112- 

123) 109a 
31 DESCARTES: Objections and Replies, 123c-d 



31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART i, DBF 2 355a; DEP 6 

355b; PROP 5-16 356b-362a 
35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK in, CH HI, 

SECT 19 259c-260a 
42 KANT: Pure Reason, 43d-44a; 49c-51d esp 

51c-d; 99a-101b; 107b-c; 173b-177b; 193a- 

200c 
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, PART i, 218c; 

224a-b; 232d; 237d-238a 
51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK xiv, 608a-b 

2a. Infinite being and the plurality of finite 
beings 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK i, CH 8 [i9i a 24- b i2J 
267a-c / Metaphysics, BK i, CH 5 [986 b i8- 
987*1 ]504d-505a 

12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK iv, SECT 29 266a; 
SECT 40 267a-b; BK xn, SECT 30 310a-b 

17 PLOTINUS: Third Ennead, TR n, CH 1-2 82c- 
83d; TR vn, CH 6 122a-d; TR vui, CH 8-10 
132d-136a / Fourth Ennead, TR ix, CH 2 205c- 
206a; CH 5 206d-207a,c / Fifth Ennead, TR i, 
CH 4-7 209d-212c; TR in, CH 11-12 222b-223c; 
CH 15-16 224c-226a; TR iv 226d-228b 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK vn, par 20-21 
49d-50a 

19 AQUINAS- Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 3, A 3, 
ANS 16a-d; A 7, REP 2 19a-c; QQ 7-8 31a-38c; Q 
n, AA 3-4 49a-50b; Q 13, A n 73c-74b; QQ 
44-45 238a-250a; Q 47 256a-259a; Q 50, A i, 
ANS and REP 3 269b-270a; Q 90, A i 480d- 
481d; QQ 103-105 528a-545b 

31 DESCARTES: Meditations, HI, 84a-b; 86a-88d/ 
Objections and Replies, 121d-122c; 123c-d; 
139b-c 

31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART i 355a-372d esp DEF 2 
355a, DEF 6 355b, PROP 7-16 356c-362a, PROP 
21-25 364a-365b, PROP 28 365c-366a, PROP 29, 
SCHOL 366b-c, PROP 30 366c-d; PART n, PROP 
45, SCHOL 390b 

33 PASCAL: Pensees, 121 195a 

42 KANT: Pure Reason, 130b-133c / Judgement, 
550a-551a,c; 564c-565d esp 565c-d; 566c-d; 
580c-d 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, PART i, 22 7d- 
228a;234d-235a 

2b. The unity of a being 

8 ARISTOTLE: Categories, CH 2 [i b 3~9] 5c / Top- 
ics, BK iv, CH i [121*14-19] 169a; [i2i b 4-8] 
169c; CH 6 [127*26-40] 176d-177a; BK vi, CH 4 
[i4i a 26- b 2] 194c-d / Sophistical Refutations, 
CH 7 [169*32-36] 233a / Metaphysics, BK iv, CH 
2 (ioo3 b 23-34) S22d; BK v, CH 6 536a-S37c; 
CH 9 [1018*3-9] S38d; BK VIII,CH 6 569d-570d; 
BK x, CH 1-2 578b,d-580d; CH 3 [1054*33-35] 
581a; BK xii, CH 10 [io75 b 34~37l 606d; BK 
xni, CH 2 [1077*20-23] 608c / Soul, BK n, CH i 
[4i2 b 6-9]642c 

11 EUCLID: Elements, BK vn, DEFINITIONS, i 
127a 

11 NICOMACHUS: Arithmetic, BK n, 840a-b 



138 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



3to3a 



(2. Being and the one and the many. 2b. The 
unity of a being.) 

17 PLOTINUS: Fourth Ennead, TR 11, CH i 139c- 
140c / Sixth Ennead, TR vi, CH 11-16 315d- 
319d, TR ix, CH 1-2 353d-355a 

19 AQUINAS* Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 6, 
A 3, REP i 29c-30b; Q n, AA 1-4 46d-50b 
passim; Q 39, A 3, ANS 204c-205c; Q 76 385c- 
399b passim; Q 103, A 3, ANS 530a-c; PART i-n, 
Q 12, A 3, REP 2-3 670d-671b; Q 17, A 4, ANS 
688d-689c 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART HI, Q 2, 
A i, ANS and REP 2 710a-711c; A 9 719d- 
720c; Q 17 806d-809d; Q 19, A i, REP 4 816a- 
818b; PART in SUPPL, Q 83, A 3, REP 4 978c- 
980d 

31 DESCARTES : Objections and Replies, 153b-154a ; 

213d-214a; 224d-225d 
31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART i, PROP 12-13 359b-d; 

PART n, DEF 7373c 
35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH xni, 

SECT 26 154b-c; CH xvi, SECT i 165c-d; CH 

xxin, SECT 1-6 204a-205c; CH xxm, SECT 

37-cH XKIV, SECT 3 213d-214d; CH xxvn 

218d-228c; BK HI, CH vi, SLCT 2-5 268c-269d; 

SECT 10 271b; SECT 49 282c 
35 BKRKELW. Human Knowledge, SECTI 413a-b; 

SECT 12 415b-c; SFCF 99 432b 
42 KANT- Pure Reason, 120c-129c csp 121a-124d, 

126a-128b / Judgement, 566c-d 
53JAMFS 1 Psychology, 104a-107b esp 104a-b; 

215b-216a;406b 

3. Being and good 

OLD TESTAMFNT: Genesis, i 
NEW TESTAMENT: / 'Timothy, 4 4 

7 PLATO- Phaedrus, 124c-125b / Republic, BK 
vi-vn, 383d-398c / Timaeus, 447b-448b 

8 ARISTOTLE: Topics, BK vi, CH 5 [143*9-12] 
196c; CH 6 [i45 tt i9-27] 198d-199a; CH 8 [146^- 
I47 ft n] 200c-201a; CH 12 [i49 b 3i-39J 204b-c / 
Generation and Corruption, BK n, CH 10 
[336 b 28-3o] 438d / Metaphysics, BK i, CH 6 
[988*8-16! 506a-b; CH 7 [988 b 6-i6] 506c-d; 
CH 9 [992*29-34! 510c; BK xn, CH 7 602a- 
603b; CH 10 [1075*11-24] 605d-606a; BK xiv, 
CH 4 [1091*29]- 5 [1092*17] 624a-625a 

9 ARISTOTLE: Generation of Animals, BK n, CH i 
[731*26-29] 272a / Ethics, BK i, CH 6 [1096*23- 
29]341c 

17 PLOTINUS: First Ennead, TR in 10a-12b; TR 
vn, CH i, 26c; TR vin, CH 3-12 28a-34a / 
Fifth Ennead, TR HI, CH 15-16 224c-226a; TR 
ix, CH 10, 250c / Sixth Ennead, TR v, CH i 
305c-306a; TR vn, CH 24-26 333d-334d; CH 28 
335b-d 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK in, par 10 15b-d; 
par 12 16b; BK iv, par 24 25b-c; BK v, par 20 
32d-33a; BK vn, par 3-7 44a-45d; par 16-23 
48c-50c / City of God, BK XI,CH 22,333d-334a; 
BK xti, OH 3 343d-344b 



19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 3, A 2, 
ANS 15c-16a; QQ 4-6 20c-30d; Q 13, A n, REP 
2 73c-74b; Q 21, A i, REP 4 124b-125b; Q 22, 
A i, ANS 127d-128d; Q 25, A 6, ANS 149a-150a; 
Q 48, AA 1-3 259b-262a; Q 73, A i 370a-371a; 
A 3, REP 3 371d-372c, Q 74, A 3, REP 3 375a- 
377a,c; PART i-n, Q 2, A 5 618d-619c; Q 18, 
AA 1-4 694a-696d esp A i, ANS and REP i 
694a-d, A 2, ANS 694d-695c; Q 29, A 5, ANS 
747c-748b 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 54, 
A 3, REP 2 24c-25b; Q 55, A 4, REP 1-2 28c-29d 

31 SPINOZA. Ethics, PART i, APPENDIX 369b-372d; 

PART n, DEF 6 373c; PART iv, OFF 1-2 424a 
42 KANT: Fund. Prin. Metaphysic of Morals, 

278b-c / Practical Reason, 307b-c 

30. The hierarchy of being: grades of reality, 
degrees of intelligibility 

7 PLATO: Phaedrus, 124c-126a / Symposium, 
167a-d / Republic, BK v, 370c-373c; BK vi-vn, 
383d-398c; BK ix, 422c-425b esp 423b-424d / 
Timaeus, 447a-455c / Philebus, 637c-639a,c 

SARISTOTLF- Interpretation, CH 13 [23*18-26] 
35b-c / Topics, BK vi, CH 4 [141*26-142*22] 
194c-195c / Heavens, BK i, CH 2 359d 360d; 
BK n, CH 12 383b-384c, BK iv, CH 3 [310^2- 
311*3] 402b-c / Generation and Corruption, BK 
i, CH 3 413c-416c; BK n, CH 10 [^6 b 25-34] 
438d / Meteorology, BK iv, CH 12 [389^3- 
390*17] 493d-494b / Metaphysics, BK i, CH 6 
505b-506b; CH 7 [988*34^5] 506c; CH 8 
[989 b 2i-99o*8] 507d-508a; CH 9 508c-511c; 
BK n, CH i [993 b i9-3i] S12a-b; BK iv, CH 4 
[ioo8 b 32-ioo9 a 5] 528b; BK ix, CH 9 [1051*4- 
22] 577a-b; BK xn, CH 5 [1071*30-36] 601a; 
CH 7 602a-603b; CH 10 605d-606d; BK xm, 
CH 2 [io77*i4~ b i4J 608b-609a, BK xiv, CH 4 

* [i09i*29]-CH 5 [1092*17] 624a-625a / Soul, 
BK in, CH 4 [429 a 29- b 4] 661c-d 

9 ARISTOTLE: Parts of Animals, BK i, CH 5 
[644^0 -645*5] 168c-d / Generation of Animals, 
BK n, CH i [73^24-33] 272a-b / Ethics, BK i, 
en 6 [1096*17-23] 341b-c 
13 VIRGIL: Aeneid, BK vi [724-751] 230b-231a 

17 PLOHNUS. First Ennead, TR vn, CH 1-2 26a-d; 
TR vin, CH 3-10 28a-33a; CH 12 33d-34a / 
Second Ennead, TR in, CH 11-12 46b-c; CH 
16-18 48b-50a; TR ix, CH 3 67b-c / Third 
Ennead, TR n, CH 1-2 82c 83d; TR viu, CH 
8-10 132d-136a / Fourth Ennead, TR vin, CH 
6 203d-204b / Fifth Ennead, TR n, CH i 214c- 
215a; TR in, CH 11-12 222b-223c; TR iv 226d- 
228b / Sixth Ennead, TR vi, CH 18 320c-321b, 
TR vn, CH 28-29 335b-336b 

18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK vin, CH n, 272c; 
BK xi, CH 16 331a-c; CH 22, 334b-c; BK xn, 
CH 2-5 343c-345b; BK xiv, CH 13, 387d / 
Christian Doctrine* BK i, CH 8 626c~627a; CH 32 
633c-d 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART I, Q 2, A i, 
R*P 2 10d-lld; A 3, ANS 12c-14a; Q 3, A i, ANS 



CHAFFER 7: BEING 



139 



14b-15b; A 2, ANS 15c-16a; A 7, REP 2 19a-c; 
QQ 4-6 20c-30d passim; Q n, A 4 49d-50b; 
Q 16, A 6, REP i 98b-d; Q 18, A 3 106b-107c; 
Q 19, A 8 116a-d; Q 22, A 4, ANS 131c-132b; Q 
23, A 5, REP 3 135d-137d; Q 25, A 6, ANS and 
REP 1,3 149a-150a; Q 36, A 2, ANS 192a-194c; 
Q 42, A i, REP 1-2 224b-225d; Q 44, A i, ANS 
238b-239a; Q 47, A 2 257b-258c; Q 48, A 2, 
ANS and REP 3 260c-261b; Q 50, A i, ANS and 
REP i 269b-270a; A 2, REP i 270a-272a; A 3, 
ANS 272a-273b; Q 57, A i, ANS 295a-d; Q 65, 
A 2, ANS and REP 3 340b-341b; Q 70, A 3, REP 2 
365b-367a; Q 75, A 7 384d-385c; Q 76, A 3, 
ANS 391a-393a; A 4, REP 3 393a-394c; Q 77, 
A 2 401b-d; A 4, REP i 403a-d; Q 79, A 9, REP 3 
422b-423d; Q 82, A 3, ANS 433c-434c; Q 93, 
A 3 493d-494c; Q 106, A 4, ANS 548b-549a; 
Q 108, A 4 555b-d; Q 118, A 2, REP 2 601c- 
603b; PART I-H, Q i, A 4, REP i 612a-613a; Q 
2, A 5, REP 2 618d-619c; A 8, REP i 621c-622b; 
Q 3, A 7, ANS 628a-d; Q 18, AA 1-4 694a- 
696d passim 

20 AQUINAS Swnma Theologica, PART i-n, Q 52, 
A i, ANS 15d-18a; Q 71, A 3, REP i 107c-l08b; 
Q 85, A 4 181b-d; PART ii-n, Q 23, A 3, REP 3 
485a-d; PART in, Q 7, A 9, ANS 751d-752c; 

PART III SUPPL, Q 74, A I, REP 3 925C-926C 

21 DANTE. Divine Comedy, PARADISE, i [103-142] 
107b-d; ii [112-148] 109a-b; vn [64-75] U5d- 
116a; [121-148] 116b-c; xin [52-87] 126a-b; 
xxvin [64-72] 149b-c; xxix [13-36] 150b-c 

31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART iv, 52d / Medi- 
tations, m, 84a-b / Objections and Replies, 
llld'112a; 121d-122c; AXIOM vi 132a; 139b-c; 
211b-d 

31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART i, APPENDIX, 372c-d; 
PART iv, PREF 422b,d-424a; PART v, PROP 40, 

DEMONST462C 

32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK v [468-490] 185b- 
186a 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH xxi, 
SECT 2 178c; CH xxin, SECT 28 211b-d; SECT 
36 213c-d; BK in, CH vi, SECT 11-12 271b- 
272b; BK iv, CH xvi, SECT 12 370b-371a 

42 KANT: Pure Reason, 206d-207c / judgement, 
556b-558b; 566d-567a 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, PART i, 224a-d; 
233b-235a; 237d-238d 

51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK v, 217c 

53 IAMES: Psychology, 639a-645b csp 641b-644a 

. Being as the object of love and desire 

7 PLATO: Phaedrus, 124c-126a / Symposium, 
165b-167d / Republic, BK v-vi, 369c-375b; 
BK vi, 376d; BK ix, 422c-425b csp 423b-424d 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK i, CH 9 [192*16-24] 
268b-c / Metaphysics, BK i, CH 3 [984 b 8]-cH 4 
[985*28] 502d-503c; CH 7 [988*^-16] 506c-d; 
BK xii, CH 7 602a-603b; CH 10 605d-606d 

9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK ix, CH 7 [i 167^4- 
1168*18] 421b-c; CH 9 [ii7o a i4- b i9] 423d- 
424b 



17 PLOTINUS: First Ennead, TR vi, CH 7 24c-25a / 
Fifth Ennead, TR vm, CH 9, 244b-c; TR ix, CH i 
246c-d 

18 AUGUSTINE: Christian Doctrine, BK i, CH 5 
625d-626a 

19 AQUINAS : Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 5 
23b-28b; Q 16, A 4, ANS and REP 1-2 97a-c; 
Q 19, A i, ANS 108d-109c; Q 20, A 2, ANS and 
REP 4 121b 122a; Q 48, A i, ANS and REP 4 
259b-260c; PART i-ii, Q i, A 8 615a-c; Q 2, 
A 5, ANS and REP 3 618d-619c; Q 8, A i, ANS 
and REP 3 655b-656a; Q 22, A 2, ANS 72lc- 
722c; Q 27, A 3 738c-739c; Q 29, A i, RBP i 
745a-c; A 5 747c-748b 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PARADISE, i [103-142] 
107b-d 

30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 73a-c 

31 SPINOZA- Ethics, PART in, PROP 4-9 398d- 
399c; PROP 12-13 400b-d; PA RT i v PROP 19-22 
429d-430c 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, PART i, 224a- 
225b; 233d-234b 

4. Being and truth 

7 PLATO Euthydemus, 71c-74a / Cratylus, 86a; 
113b-114a,c / Phaedrus, 124c-126c / Republic, 
BK vi,386b-388a; BK ix,423b-424a / Ttmaeus, 
447a-d / Parmemdes, 508d / Theaetetus, 534d- 
536a; 537a-c / Sophist, 561d-577b / Philebus, 
634b-635b / Seventh Letter, 809c-810c 

8 ARISTOTLE: Interpretation, CH 3 [i6 b i9~26] 
25d-26a / Prior Analytics, BK i, CH 36 [48*40- 
b g] 66d / Metaphysics, BK n, CH i 511b,d- 
512b; BK v, CH 7 [1017*31-34] 538a; CH 29 
[io24 b i6-26] 546c-d; BK vi, CH 4 550a,c; BK 
ix, CH 10 577c-578a,c 

17 PLOTINUS: Third Ennead, TR vm, CH 8 132d- 
133c / Fifth Ennead, TR in, CH 5, 218b; TR v, 
CH 1-2 228b-229d; TR vi, CH 6 237b-d 

18 AUGUSTINE Confessions, BK in, par 10 15b-d; 
BK v, par 5 28b-c; BK vn, par 16-23 48c-50c / 
City of God, BK xi, CH 10, 328c-d/ Christian 
Doctrine, BK i, CH 34 634b-c 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica i PART i, Q 3, 
A 4, REP 2 16d-17c; Q 14, A 9, REP i 83b-d; 
Q 16 94b-100d; Q 17, A i lOOd-lOld; A 4, REP 
1-2 103c-104b; Q 18, A 4, REP 3 107d-108c; 
Q 44, A i, ANS 238b-239a; Q 79, A 9, REP 3 
422b-423d; Q 119, A i, ANS 604c<607b; PART 
i-ii, Q 3, A 7, ANS 628a-d; Q 22, A 2, ANS 721c- 
722c; Q 29, A 5, ANS 747c-748b 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PARADISE, iv [124- 

126] 112a; xxxin [49-54] 156d 
31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART iv 51b-54b / 

Objections and Replies, 124c-125b; AXIOM x 

132b; 2^6d; 229e-d 
31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART i, AXIOM" 6 355d; PART 

ii, PROP 10, SCHOL 376d-377a; PROP 20-21 

382d-383a; PROP 32 385c; PROP 43 388c-389b; 

PROP 44, COROL 2 and DBMONST 390a 
35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK iv^ CH v, 
- - SEcr8330d 



140 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



(4. Being and truth.) 

42 KANT' Pure Reason, 36a-37b; 91d-93b; 102c- 
103a 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, INTRO, par 23 
17d; PART in, par 280 94d-95a / Philosophy of 
History, INTRO, 156d-157b; PART i, 237d-238a 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 141a<b; 636a; 852a 

4a. Being as the pervasive object of mind, and 
the formal object of the first philosophy, 
metaphysics, or dialectic 

7 PLATO: Phaedrus, 125a-b / Republic, BK v, 
368c-373c; BK vi-vn, 383d-398c / Parmenides, 
486a-491c csp 489a-c; 507c-509a / Theaetctus, 
535b-536a / Sophist, 561d-574c csp 571a-c / 
Philebus, 633a-635a esp 634b-635a / Seventh 
Letter, 809c 810d 

8 ARISTOTLE: Topics, BK vi, CH 12 [i49 b 3~23] 
203d-204a / Metaphysics, BK i, CH 9 (992 b i8- 
993*10] 511a-c; BK n, CH i [99^19-31] 512a-b; 
BK iv 522a-532d; BK vi, CH I-BK VH, CH i 
547b,d-551a; BK xi, CH 3-6 589a-592b 

17 PLOTINUS: First Ennead, TR in 10a-12b / Fifth 
Ennead, TR i, CH 4 209d-210c; TR v, CH 1-2 
228b-229d; TR ix, CH 11 250c~251a 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q i, A i, 
REP 1-2 3b-4a; Q 3, A 4, REP i 16d-17c; Q 5, 
A 2 24b-25a; Q n, A 2, REP 4 47d-48d; Q 14, 
A 9, REP i 83b-d; Q 16, AA 3-4 96b-97c; Q 79, 
A 7, ANS 420d-421c; A 9, REP 3 422b-423d; 
Q 82, A 4, REP i 434c-435c; Q 87, A 3, REP i 
467b-468a; PART i-n, Q 3, A 7, ANS 628a-d; 
Q 9, A i, ANS and REP 3 657d-658d; Q 10, A i, 
REP 3 662d-663d 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART I-H, Q 94, 
A 2, ANS 221d-223a 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART iv, 269b-270c 

30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 40a-48d csp 
40a-41b, 43a-c, 43d-45a 

31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART iv, 53b-d / 
Objections and Replies, 261a 

31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART n, PROP 44, COROL 2 

and DEMONST 390a 
35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH vii, 

SECT 7 132d 
42 KANT: Pure Reason, la-4a,c; 119a-c; 120b 

[fn i] / Judgement, 551a-552c; 603d607c csp 

606d-607c 
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PREP, 6a-7a; 

PART in, par 360 113d-114a,c / Philosophy of 

History, INTRO, 156d-157b; PART i, 234b-c; 

245d-246c 

4b. Being as the measure of truth in judgments 
of the mind: clarity and distinctness as 
criteria of the reality of an idea 

7 PLATO: Euthydemus, 71c-74a csp 72b-c / 
* Cntylus, 85a-89b / Parmenides, 507c-509a csp 

508d-509a / Sophist, 558c-d; 575a-577b 

8 ARISTOTLE: Categories, CH 5 [4io- b ia] 8b-9a; 
CH 10 [i2 b 6-i5J I7d-18a; CH 12 [i 



/ Interpretation, CH 3 [i6 b i9~26] 25d-26a / 
Prior Analytics, BK n, CH 2 (53 b ii-r26] 72d-73a 
/ Posterior Analytics, BK i, CH 19 (8i b i7-24) 
lllc-d / Physics, BK i, CH i 2S9a-b / Meta- 
physics, BK iv, CH 3-8 524b-532d; BK v, CH 7 
[1017*31-34] 538a; CH 29 [io24 b 22~39] 546c- 
547a; BK vi, CH 4 550a,c; BK ix, CH 10 577c- 
578a,c; BK xi, CH 4-6 589d-592b 
19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 3, 
A 4, REP 2 16d-17c; Q 14, A 8, REP 3 82c-83b; 
Q 16, AA 1-2 94b-96b; Q 16, A 8-Q 17, A i 
99d-101d; Q 21, A 2, ANS 125c-d; PART i-n, 
Q 2, A 3, ANS 617b-618a 

22 CHAUCER: TroilusandCressida, BK iv, STANZA 
154 108b 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART i, 56b 

31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART iv 51b-54b / 
Meditations, i-iv, 75a-89b; iv-v, 92d-96a; vi, 
98c-d / Objections and Replies, 108a-115a,c; 
121b-122c; 124c-125b; 126b-127c; DEF m-iv 
130b; POSTULATE iv-vn 131a-c; AXIOM vi 
132a; AXIOM x 132b; PROP n-iii 132c-133a; 
237c-238b; 257d 

31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART n, DEF 4 373b; PROP ^2 
385c; PROP 43 388c-389b 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK i, CH m, 
SECT 24-25 120a-d; BK n, CH vni, SECT 1-6 
133b-134a; CH xin, SECT n 150d-151b; SECT 
25-26 154a-c; CH xxm, SECT 5 205a-b; SECT 
15 208c-d; SECT 32 212c-d; CH xxxn 243c- 
248b passim, csp SECT 19 247a-b; BK in, CH 
vi, SECT 46-47 281d-282b; BK iv, CH v, SECT 
7-9 330b-331a; CH x, SECT 7 350d-351a; CH 
x, SECT I9-CH xi, SECT i 354a-c; CH xi, SECT 
I2357c-d 

42 KANT: Pure Reason, 36b-c; 85d-88a; 179c- 
182 b / Pref. Metaphysical Elements of Ethics, 
367d-368a / Judgement, 603d-604b 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 141a-142a; 636a; 638a- 
641a; 879b-882a esp 881a-b 

5. Being and becoming: the reality of change; 
the nature of mutable being 

7 PLATO: Cratylus, 94c-d; 99b-104b; 113c-114a,c 
/ Phaedrus, 124c-126c / Symposium, 165c-166b; 
167a-d / Phaedo, 231b-232b; 247b-248c / 
Republic, BK n, 322d-323a; BK v, 368c-373c; 
BK VI-VH, 383d-398c; BK vm, 403a-b / Ti- 
maeus 442a-477a,c esp 447a-d, 45Sc-458b / 
Parmenides 486&-Snd / Theattetus, 517d-534b 
/ Sophist, 561d-574c / Statesman, 587a-b / 
Philebus, 610d-617d; 631d-635a esp 634b-635a 
/ Laws, BK x 760a-765c 

8 ARISTOTLE : Physics, BK i 259a~268d esp CH 8 
267a-d; BK n, CH i 268b,d-270a; BK HI, CH 
1-3 278a-280c; CH 6 [ao6i8- b i6] 284c-285a; 
BK iv, CH ii [2i9 b 23~3i] 299c-d; BK vi, CH 6 
319c-321a / Heavens, BK i, CH 3 360d-362a; 
CH o |277 b 2-278 b 9) 369ft- d; BK iv, CH 3 
[3io b 22-3ii*i2] 402b-c; CH 4 [3ii b 29-3^] 403c 
/ Generation and Corruption, BK i, CH 3, 413c- 
416c; BK n, CH 9-11 436d-441a,e A Mcta- 



) to 6 



CHAPTER 7: BEING 



141 



physics, BK i, CH 3-10 Sole-Slid passim; BK 
n, CH 2 512b-513b; BK in, CH i [996*2-4] 514c; 
CH 2 [996 a i8- b 26] 514d-515b; CH 4 [1000*5- 
iooi a 2] 518d-519d; BK iv, CH 5 528c-530c; 
CH 7 [iou b 23-ioi2*9] 531c-532a; CH 8 [ioi2 b 
22-33] 532d; BK v, CH 4 534d-535c; BK vu, 
CH 7-9 555a-558a; BK ix, CH 3 [1047*10-29] 
572b-c; CH 6 [io48 b i8-34j 574a-c; CH 8 
[i049 b 2Q/~io5o*3] 575c-d; CH 10 [io5i b 26-3o] 
578a, BK x, CH 10 586c-d; BK xi, CH 6 590d- 
592b; CH 9 593d-594d; CH 11-12 596a-598a,c; 
BK xn 598a>606d esp CH 2-3 598c-599d, CH 
6-8 601b-605a 

9 ARISTOTLE: Generation of Animals, BK v, CH i 
[778 a 2o- b 7 ] 320a-d 

10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK i, CH 2 167b- 
168c; CH 5 169b-c; BK 11, CH 3, 186d 

11 NICOMACHUS: Arithmetic, BK i, 811b-d 

12 LUCRETIUS- Nature of Things, BK i [146-328] 
2d-5a; BK n [294-307] 18d-19a; [749-754] 
24c; [1002-1022] 27d-28a 

12 AURELIUS* Meditations, BK n, SECT 17, 259c- 
d; BK iv, SECT 36 266d; SECT 42-43 267b, 
SECi*46267c; BK v, SECT 23 272b;BK vi, sucr 
15 275a-b; BK vu, SECI 18 281a; SECT 49-50 
282d-283a, BK vin, SECT 6 285d-286a; BK ix, 
SECT 19 293b, SECT 35-36 294d-295a; UK \, 
SECT 7 297b-c 

16 KEPLER: Harmonies of the World, lOSlb 

17 PLOIINUS Second Ennead, TR i, en 3-4 36b- 
37b, TR iv, CH 6 51d-52a; TR v 57d-60c passim 
/ Third Ennead, TR n, CH 1-2 82c-83d; j R vi, 
CH 7-19 110d-119a / Fifth Ennead, TR vin, en 
12-13 245c-246c / Sixth Ennead, IR i, en 17 -22 
261c-264c; CH 25-30 265b-268c; TR in 281a- 
297b esp CH 1-8 281a-285d, CH 21-27 293a- 
297a; IR v, CH 2 306a-b 

18 AUGUSTINE* Confessions, BK in, par 10 15b-d, 
BK iv, par 15-19 23a-24b; BK vu, par 1-7 
43b-45d; par 16-23 48c-50c, BK xi, par 6 
90c-d, BK xn, par 3-6 99d-100c esp par 6, 
lOOc; par 8, lOlb; par 15 102b-c; par 24-26 
104c 105b; par 28 105c-d, BK xin, par 48 124a 
/ Christian Doctrine, BK i, CH 9 627a; BK n, CH 
38 654b-c 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 2, A 3, 
ANS 12c-14a, Q 4, A i, REP i 20d-21b, Q 9, A i, 
ANS 38c-39c; Q 10, A 4, REP 3 43b-44b; A 5, 
ANS 44b-45c; Q 26, A i, REP 2 150b-c; o 29, 
A i, REP 4 162a-163b; Q 65, A 4 342b-343c; 
Q 86, A 3 463 b-d; PART i-n, Q io r A i, REP 2 
662d-663d 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 
no, A 2, REP 3 349a-d; PART in, Q 62, A 4, 
REP 2 861a-862a; PART in SUPPL, Q 91, A 3, 
REP 2 1020d-1022c 

22 CHAUCER: Knight'sTale [2987-3040] 209a-210a 

25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 292a-294b 

31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART iv, 52d / Objec- 
tions and Replies, 212a 

31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART i, DBF 2 355a; PART n, 
PROP 31 385b*q 



35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK HI, CH iv, 

sECT8260d-261a 
35 BERKELEY Human Knowledge, SECT 89 430b- 

c, SECT 102 432d-433a; SECT 141 441a-b 
42 KANT: Pure Reason, 15a-b; 27a-33d esp 27a, 

28b-c, 31d-32a; 43a-b; 74b-76c; 82a-83b; 

91d-93c; 95a-d; 138b<139b [thesis]; 141b,d- 

145c; 200c-204c 
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, INTRO, 178a- 

179d; 186d-190b 

51 TOLSTOY. War and Peace, BK xiv, 608a-b 
53 JAMES: Psychology, 882a-884b passim 

6. The cause of existence 

OLD TESTAMENT* Genesis, 1-2; 7:1-5 / Nehemiah^ 
9-6 (D) II Esdras, 9:6 / Job, 26:7; 38 '1-42 -2 
/ Psalms, 8 esp 8:3-6; 19.1; 89-11-12; 102:25; 
136.5-9 (D) Psalms, 8 esp 8*4-6; 18:2; 
88-12-13; 101:26; 135:5-9 /Jeremiah, 31:35 
(D) feremias, 31:35 / Amos, 5:8 

APOCRYPHA* Ecclesiasticus, 18:1 (D) OT, Eccle- 
siasticus, 18:1 

NEW TESTAMENT: Acts, 14:15; 17.22-32 (D) 
Acts, 14 14; 17.22-32 / Romans, 11:36 / 
Colossians, 1.16-17 / Hebrews, 1:10 / Revela- 
tion, 4 *i i (D) Apocalypse, 4.11 

7 PLATO Timaeus, 447b-448a / Laws, BK x, 
760a-765d esp 763d-764a 

8 ARISTOTLE. Posterior Analytics, BK 11, CH 1-2 
122b,d-123c; CH 7 [92 b i8-25] 126d; CH 8-12 
127a-131b / Metaphysics, BK i, CH 7 [988 b 5~i6] 
506c-d, CH 9 [99i b i~9] 509c-d; en 10 511c-d; 
BK n, CH i [993 b 27~3i] 512a-b, BK v, CH 8 
[ioi7 b io-i7] 538b; BK vu, CH 17 565a-566a,c; 
BK xii, CH 6-7 601b-603b / Soul, BK n, CH 4 
[4i5 b n-i4]645d 

9 ARISTOTLE: Parts of Animals, BK i, CH i 
[640*4-9] 162b 

12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK i, CH 14, 120d- 
121a 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK i, par 10 3b-c / 
Christian Doctrine, BK i, CH 32 633c-d 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 2, 
A 3, ANS 12c-14a; Q 3, A 4, ANS 16d-17c; A 5, 
REP 2 17c-18b; Q 5, A 2, REP 1-2 24b-25a; Q 8, 
A i 34d-35c; A 2, ANS 35c-36b; A 3, ANS and 
REP i 36b-37c; A 4, ANS 37c-38c; Q 9, A 2, 
ANS 39c-40d; Q 14, A 8 82c-83b; QQ 44-46 
238a-255d; Q 57, A 2, ANS and REP 2 295d- 
297a; Q 61, A i 3l4d-315b; Q 65 339a-343c; 
Q 75, A 6, REP 2 383c-384c; Q 104 534c-538c; 
Q 105, A 3, ANS 540c-S41b; A 5, ANS 542a- 
543b; PART i-n, Q 1 8, A 4, ANS 696b-d 

28 HARVEY: On Animal Generation, 443b-c 
31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART v, 55d-56a / 
Meditations^ in, 87c-d / Objections and Re- 
plies, AXIOM ix 132b; 213b-d 
31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART i, DBF i 355a; PROP 17, 
SCHOL 362c-363c; PROP 24-29 365a-366c; 
PROP 33 367b-369a; PART n, PROP 6-7 374d- 
375c; PROP to, SCHOL 3764-377a; PROP 45, 
, SCHOL 390b 



142 



(6. The cause of existence.) 

32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK in [80-134] I37a- 

138a; BK vn 217a-231a csp [162-169] 220b, 

[601-640] 230a-231a 
35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH xv, 

SECT 12 165b-c; CH xxvi, SECT 1-2, 217a-c 
35 BERKELEY: Human Knowledge, SECT 2-4 

413b-414a; SECT 25-33 417d-419a; SECT 36 

419c-d; SECT 45-46 421b-c; SECT 48 422a; 

SECT 88-91 430a-431a; SECT 146-150 442a- 

443b 
35 HUME: Human Understanding, SECT vin, DIV 

74, 484a 
42 KANT: Pure Reason, 140b,d-145c; 177b-179b 

/ Practical Reason, 334b-337a,c 
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, PART i, 245d- 

246c 

7. The divisions or modes of being 

la. The distinction between essence and exist- 
ence: existence as the act of being 

OLD TESTAMENT: Exodus, 3-14 
8 ARISTOTLE : Metaphysics, BK ix, CH 3 [1047 '30- 
b 2] 572c 

17 PLOTINUS: Third Ennead, TR vn, CH 6 122a-d 
/ Fifth Ennead, TR v, CH 13, 234d-235a 

18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK xi, CH 10, 328c-d 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologtca, PART i, Q 3, 
A 4 16d-17c; A 5, ANS and REP i 17c-18b; A 6, 
ANS 18c-19a; A 7, ANS and REP i 19a-c; Q 4, 
A i, REP 3 20d-21b; A 2, ANS and REP 3 21b- 
22b; A 3, REP 3 22b-23b; Q 6, A 3 29c-30b; 
Q 7, A i, ANS and REP 3 31a-d; A 2, ANS and 
REP i 31d-32c; Q 8, A i, ANS 34d-35c; Q 9, A 2, 
ANS 39c-40d; Q 10, A 2, ANS 41d-42c; Q n, A 4, 
ANS 49d-50b; Q 12, A 2, ANS and REP 3 
51c-52c; A 4, ANS and REP 3 53b-54c; Q 13, 
A ii, ANS 73c-74b; Q 25, A i, REP 2 143d-144c; 
Q 29, A i, REP 4 162a-163b; Q 34, A i, REP 2 
185b-187b; Q 39, A 2, REP 3 203b-204c; Q 44, 
A i 238b-239a; Q 50, A 2, REP 3 270a-272a; 
Q 54, A i, ANS and REP 2 285a-d; A 2, REP 2 
285d-286c; A 3, ANS and REP 2 286c-287b; 
Ql75 A 5, REP 4 382a-383b; Q 88, A 2, REP 4 
471c-472c; PART i-n, Q 3, A 7, ANS 628a-d 

31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART iv, 52d-53a / 
Meditations, v 93a-96a / Objections and Re- 
/>/*<?/, 110a-112a;112d-113b;126b-127c; POSTU- 
LATE v 131b-c; AXIOM 1 131d; AXIOM X-PROP i 
132b-c; 158b-162a passim; 217d-218a 

31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART i, DBF 8 355c; AXIOM 
7 3$5d; PROP 7 356c; PROP 8, SCHOL 2 356d- 
357d; PROP n 358b-359b; PROP 17, SCHOL, 
363 b-c; PROP 20 363d-364a; PROP 24-25 365a- 
b; PROP 34 369a; PART n, DBF 2 373b; AXIOM i 
373c; PART HI, PROP 7 399a; PART iv, DBF 3 
424a 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK in, CH v, 
SECT 1-6 263d-265a; BK iv, CH ix, SECT 1 349a 

42 KANT: Pure Reason, 179c-182b; 191<M92b 



THE GREAT IDEAS 7 to Ib 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART in, par 280 
94d-95a / Philosophy of History, INTRO, 165a- 
b; 178c-d; PART i, 233d-234b 

53 JAMES : Psychology, 640b [fn i]; 644b 



Ib. The distinction between substance and 
attribute, accident or modification: inde- 
pendent and dependent being 

8 ARISTOTLE: Categories, CH 2 [i*20- b 9] 5b-c; 
CH 5 6a-9a; CH 7 [8*i2- b 24] 13a-d / Topics, 
BK v, CH 4 [i33 b i5-i34*4] 184d-185b / Sophis- 
tical Refutations, CH 7 [169*33-36] 233a; CH 22 
[i78 b 37-i79 ft io] 246c / Physics, BK i, CH 2 
[i 85*2o]-cH 3 [i 87*10] 260a-262a / Metaphysics, 
BK i, CH 9 [990^22-991*2] 509a; [992^8-24] 
511a; BK iv, CH 4 [ioo7*2o- b i8] 526c-527a; 
BK v, CH 7 [1017*23-31] 537d-538a; CH n 
[1019*1-14] 540a; BK vn, CH 3 [1029*7-26] 
551c-d; CH 4-6 552b-555a; BK vin, CH 3 
[io43 b i8-24] 568a-b; CH 4 [1044^-20] 569b; 
BK ix, CH i [1045^8-32] 570b; CH 7 [1049*19- 
b i] 574d-575a; BK x, CH 2 580b-d; BK xn, CH 
i [1069*18-25] 598a; CH 4-5 599d-601a; CH 7 
[io72 b 4-i3] 602c-d 

9 ARISTOTLE: Parts of Animals, BK n, CH 2 
[6 4 8 b 35]-cH 3 [649^2] 173b-174b 

12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK xn, SECT 30, 
310a 

17 PLOTINUS Fourth Ennead, TR vin, CH 6 203d- 
204b / Sixth Ennead, TR i, CH 3 253a-b; CH 5, 
254c-d; CH 15 260c-d; CH 25 265b-d; TR n, 
CH 14-15 276c-277b; TR in, CH 3 282a-c; CH 6 
284a-c; CH 8, 285b-c 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologtca, PART i, Q 3, A 6 
18c-19a; Q 6, A 3, ANS 29c-30b; Q 7, A 2, ANS 
31d-32c; Q 9, A 2 39c-40d; Q n, A i, REP 1-2 
46d-47d; A 2, REP i 47d-48d; A 4, REP 2 
49d-50b; Q 29, A i, ANS and REP 3 162a 163b; 
Q 39, A 3, ANS 204c-205c; Q 40, A i, REP i 
213b-214b; A 2, REP 4 214b-215b; Q 44, A 2, 
ANS and REP i 239b-240a; Q 45, A 4 244d-245c; 
Q 54, A i 285a-d; A 3 286c-287b; Q 67, A 3 
351b-352a; Q 76, A 4 393a-394c; A 6 396a-d; 
Q 77, A i 399c-401b; A 6 404c-405c; Q 85, A 5, 
REP 3 457d-458d; Q 90, A 2, ANS 481d-482c; 
Q 115, A i, ANS and REP 5 585d-587c; PART i-n, 
Q 7, A i, ANS and REP 2-3 651d-652c; A 4, 
REP 3 654b-655a; Q 17, A 4, ANS 688d-689c; 
Q 18, A 3, REP 3 695d-696b; Q 29, A 2, REP i 
745c-746b 

20 AQUINAS : Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 49, 
A 2, ANS and REP 3 2b-4a; Q 50, A 2 7c-8a; Q 
52, A i, ANS 15d-18a; Q 53, A 2, REP 3 21a*d; 
Q 66, A 4, ANS 78c-79b; PART n-n, Q 23, A 3, 
REP 3 485a*d; PART in, Q 2, A i, ANS 710a- 
711c; PART in SUPPL, Q 70, A i, ANS 893d- 
895d; Q 79, A i, REP 4 951b-953b; Q 83, A 3, 
ANS 978c-980d 

30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK i, APH 66, 114d- 
115a 

31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART i, 41d; PART iv, 
52d / Meditations, in 81d-89a passim, esp 



7b(\) to 7b(2) 



CHAPTER 7: BEING 



143 



87b-88c / Objections and Replies, DBF v 130b-c ; 
DBF ix 130d; 135b-136b; 136c; 139b-c; 153d; 
162d-165d; 170d; 211b-c; 228c-229c 

31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART i, DBF 3-5 355b; AXIOM 
1-2 355c-d; PROP 1-9 355d-357d; PROP 10, 
SCHOL 358a-b; PROP 19 363c-d; PROP 20, 
COROL 2 364a; PROP 21-23 364a-365a 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK i, CH in, 
SECT 19 117c-d; BK n, CH xii, SECT 3-6 147d- 
148c; CH xni, SECT 17-20 152a-d; CH xxin 
204a-214b esp SECT 1-15 204a-208d;cH xxxn, 
SECT 24 247c-d; BK in, CH ix, SECT 12-13 
287d-288d 

35 BERKELEY: Human Knowledge, SECT 1-7 
413a-414c; SECT 25-33 417d-419a passim; 
SECT 49 422b; SECT 73-78 427b-428b; SECT 
88-91 430a-431a; SECT 101-102 432c-433a 

42 KANT: Pure Reason, 33a-d; 74b-76c; 130b- 
133c esp 131c-d; 140b,d-143a / Practical 
Reason, 310d-311d / Judgement, 529c-530a; 
550a-551a,c; 566b-d; 580c-d 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, ADDITIONS, 26 
121a-b; 39 122d / Philosophy of History, INTRO, 
160c-161a; PART i, 211a-c 

53 JAMES : Psychology, 572a-b 

^(1) The conceptions of substance 

8 ARISTOTLE: Categories, CH 5 6a-9a; CH 7 
[8 a i2- b 24J 13a-d / Metaphysics, BK v, CH 8 
538b-c; BK vn-vni 550b,d-570d; BK x, CH 2 
580b-d; BK xn, CH i 598a-c; BK xni, CH 2 
[io77 a i4- b n] 608b-609a 

12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK VH, SECT 23 281b 
17 PLOTINUS: Sixth Ennead, TR i, CH 2-3 252c- 
253b; CH 10 257b-258b; CH 25 265b-d; TR in, 
CH 2-10 281c-286d 

19 AQUINAS : Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 3, 
A 5, REP 1-2 17c-18b; A 6 18c-19a; Q u, A 3, 
ANS 49a-c; Q 13, A 9, ANS 71b-72c; QQ 29-43 
161d-237a,c passim, esp Q 29, A 2 163b-164b; 
Q 45, A 4 244d-245c; QQ 75-76 378a-399b 
passim; Q 88, A 2, REP 4 471c-472c; PART i-ii, 
Q 17, A 4, ANS 688d-689c 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologtca, PART n-ii, Q 4, 
A i, ANS and REP i 402a-403d; PART in, QQ 1-3 
701b,d-730b; Q 17 806d-809d passim; PART in 
SUPPL, Q 83 974d-983b passim 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART in, 172b 

30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK n, APH 37 168d- 
J69c 

31 DESCARTES: Objections and Replies, DBF v- 
vinl30b-d;153c-155c 

31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART i, DBF 3,6 355b; PROP 
1-9 3S5d-357d; PROP 11-14 358b-360a; PROP 
15, SCHOL 360b-361d; PROP 19 363c-d; PART 
n, PROP 10 376c-377a 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK i, CH in, 
SECT 19 117c-d; BK n, CH xii, SECT 6 148b-c; 
CH xin, SECT 17-20 152a-d; CH xxni 204a- 
214b; CH xxxi, SECT 6-13 240d-243b; CH 
xxxn, SECT 24 247c-d; BK in, CH vi, SECT 21 
273c-d; SECT 42 280b-c; CH ix, SECT 11-17 



287d-290a; BK iv, CH vi, SECT 4-16 331d-336d 

passim, esp SECT n 334b-335b 
35 BERKELEY: Human Knowledge, SECT 6-7 

414b-c; SECT 26-27 418a-b; SBCT 73 427b-c; 

SECT 88-91 430a-431a; SECT 135-136 440a-b; 

SECT i39440d 
42 KANT: Pure Reason, 15b-c; 63a; 63d-64a; 

69c-72c;74b-76c;81b-83b;86c-87b;91d-93b; 

95a-d; lOOd-lOlb; 121a-128b; 131c-d; 137a- 

140c; 162b-163a; 186b-d / Judgement, 565b-d; 

566d-567a 
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART in, par 146 

55c-d / Philosophy of History, INTRO, 156d- 

157b; PART i, 211a-c; 227d-228a 
53 JAMES: Psychology, 221b; 223a 

7^(2) Corporeal and spiritual substances, com- 
posite and simple substances: the kinds 
of substance in relation to matter and 
form 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK i, CH 7 265b 267a; 
BK 11, CH i 268b,d-270a; BK iv, CH 2 288b- 
289a / Heavens, BK i, CH 9 [277 b 26-278 b 9] 
369a-d; BK iv, CH 4 [312*12-17] 403d / Gen- 
eration and Corruption, BK i, CH 3 413c-416c / 
Meteorology, BK iv, CH 12 493d-494d / Meta- 
physics, BK in, CH i [995 b i3~i8] 514a; (995 b 3i- 
39] 514b; [996*13-15] 514c; CH 2 [997*34- 
998*19] 516a-d; CH 4 [999*24~ b 23] 518a-c; CH 
5 520c-521b; CH 6 [ioo2 b n-32] 521b-d; BK v, 
CH 8 538b-c; BK vn-vni 5SOb,d-570d; BK xi, 
CH i [io59*33- b i4) 587b-c; CH 2 [1060*3-27] 
588a-b; [io6o b 23-29] 588d-589a; BK xn-xiv 
598a-626d / Soul, BK n, CH 1-2 642a-644c 

12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK iv, CH n, 240d- 
241a 

12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK iv, SECT 21 265b- 
c; BK vii, SECT 23 281b; BK vin, SECT n 
286b; BK xii, SECT 30 310a-b 

17 PLOTINUS: Second Ennead, TR iv, CH 2-4 
50b-51a; CH 6 51d-52a; TR v, CH 2 58b-d / 
Third Ennead, TR vi, CH 7-19 110d-119a / 
Fourth Ennead, TR vin, CH 6 203d-204b / 
Fifth Ennead, TR i, CH 2 208c-209b; TR ix, CH 3 
247b-d / Sixth Ennead, TR i, CH 27-28 266c- 
267c; TR in, CH 2-10 281c-286d; TR v, CH 5-8 
307a-308c 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK vii, par 1-2 43b- 
44a; par 7 45a-d; par 16 48c-49a; par 20 49d; 
par 26 51c-d; BK xn, par 5-6 lOOa-c; par 8 
lOla-b; par 16 102d-103a; par 18-22 103a- 
104b; par 24-26 104c-105b; par 28-30 105c- 
106c; par 38-40 108d-110a; BK xni, par 48 
124a / City of God, BK xi, CH 10 327d-328d 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica t PART i, Q 3 
14a-20c; Q 6, A 3, REP i 29c-30b; Q 7, A i, ANS 
31a-d; Q 8, A i, REP 2 34d-35c; A 2 35c-36b; 
Q 9, A 2, REP 3 39c-40d; Q it, A 4, REP 3 49d- 
50b; Q 14, A 2, REP 1,3 76d-77d; Q 18, A 4, 
REP 3 107d-108c; Q 29, A i, REP 4 162a-163b; 
A 2, REP 3,5 163b-164b; Q 40, A i, REP i 213b- 
214b; Q 45, A 4 244d-245c; Q 50 269a-275a; 



144 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



(lb. The distinction between substance and attri- 
bute, accident or modification: independent 
and dependent being. 73(2) Corporeal and 
spiritual substances, composite and simple 
substances: the kinds of substance in relation 
to matter andjorm.) 

Q 70, A 3, RBP 2 365b-367a; QQ 75-76 378a- 
399b; Q 77, A i, ANS and REP 2-3,6 399c-401b; 
Q 85, A 5, REP 3 457d-458d; Q 86, A 3 463b-d; 
Q 88, A 2, REP 4 471c-472c; Q 104, A i, ANS and 
REP i 534c-536c; Q 115, A i 585d-587c; A 3, 
REP 2 588c-589c 

20 AQUINAS- Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 52, 
A i, ANS 15d-18a; PART n-n, Q 24, A n, ANS 
498b-499c; PART in, Q 2, A i, ANS and REP 2 
710a-711c; PART in SUPPL, Q 69, A i, ANS and 
REP 2 885c-886c; Q 79, A 2, REP 2 953b-955c; 
Q 92, A i, ANS 1025c-1032b 

21 DANTE Divine Comedy, PARADISE, vn [121- 
148] 116b-c; xxix [13-36] 150b-c 

23 HOBBES. leviathan, PART in, 172a-177c; PART 
iv, 258b 261a; 269d-271b 

30 BACON- Advancement of Learning, 17b-d / 
Novum Organum, BK n, APR 37 168d-169c 

31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART iv, 51d-52a / 
Meditations, vi 96b-103d / Objections and Re- 
plies, DBF vi-vin 130c-d; 153c-155c 

31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PARI i, PROP 15 360a-361d; 
PART n, PROP 1-2 373d-374a; PROP 6 374d- 
375a; PROP 7, SCHOL 375b-c 

35 LOCKE- Human Understanding, BK n, CH xin, 
SECT 16-18 151d-152c; CH xv, SECT n 165a-b; 
CH xxi, SECT 2-4 178c-179c; CH xxin, SECT 5 
205a-b; SECT 15-37 208c-214b; CH XXVII,SECT 
2 219b-c; BK in, CH x, SFCT 15 295a-c; BK iv, 
CH in, SECT 6 313c-315b; CH x, SECT 9-19 
351b-354c passim; rn xvi, SECT 12, 370c-371a 

35 BERKELEY- Human Knowledge, SFCT 1-29 
413a-418c, SECT 35-38 419c-420a; SECT 47-50 
421c-422c; SECT 67-81 426b-428d, SECT 86 91 
429c-431a passim; SECT 133-142 439c-441c 

42 KANT: Pure Reason, lOOd-lOlb; 121a-128b; 
186b-d; 203d-204c / Judgement, 557c-558b; 
565b-d; 566d-567a 

46 H EC. EL: Philosophy of History, INTRO, 156d- 
157b; 160c-161a; 165a-b; PART i, 227d-228a 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 118b-119b passim; 220b- 
226a csp 221a-223a 

Corruptible and incorruptible substances 

8 ARISTOTLE: Interpretation, CH 13 [23*18-26] 
35b-c / Heavens, BK i, CH 1-3 359a-362a; CH 9 
[279*12^4] 370b-d; BK i, CH IO-BK n, CH i 
370d-376a; BK in, CH 6 396a~c / Metaphysics, 
BK in, CH 2 [996*21-28] 514d; BK iv, CH 5 
[1009*36-39] 528d; BK v, CH 5 [ioi5 b 9-i6] 
536a; BK ix, CH 8 [i05o b 5]-cH 9 [1051*21] 
576b-577b; BK x, CH 10 586c-d; BK xi, CH 6 
[1063*10-17] 591b; BK xn, CH i [io69*30- b 2] 
598b-c; CH 2 [io69 b 24~27J 598d-599a; CH 3 
[1070*20-27] 599c; CH 6-8 601b-605a; CH 10 



7*(3) to : 

1-14] 606b / Soul, BK n, CH 2 I 
29]643d-644a 
9 ARISTOTLE : Motion of Animals, CH 4 [699 b i2- 

700*5] 234d-235a 
12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK i [215-250] 

3d-4b; [483-634] 7a-8d 

16 PTOLEMY: Almagest, BK i, 5a-6a; BK xin, 
429a-b 

16 KEPLER: Epitome, BK iv, 929b-930b 

17 PLOTINUS : Second Ennead, TR i, CH 1-4 35a- 
37b; CH 8 39c-d; TR iv, CH 6 51d-52a / Fourth 
Ennead, TR vn, CH 10-12 198d-200a 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologtca, PART i, Q 9, A 2 
39c-40d; Q 10, A 2, REP 1-2 41d-42c; A 3, ANS 
and REP i 42c-43b; AA 5-6 44b-46d; Q 18, A 3, 
REP 3 106b-107c; Q 22, A 2, ANS 128d-130d; 
Q 46, A i, REP 2-3 250a-252d; Q 48, A 2, ANS 
and REP 3 260c-261b; Q 50, A 5 274b-275a; 
Q 63, A i, REP 2 325c-326c; Q 66, A 2 345d- 
347b; Q 68, A i, ANS 354a-355c; Q 75, A 6 
383c-384c; Q 76, A 3, REP 1-2 391a-393a, Q 97, 
A i 513c-514c; A 4 515d-516d; Q 104, A i, REP 
1,3 534c-536c; Q 113, A 2, ANS 576d-577d; 

PART I-II, Q 22, A I, REP 3 720d-721C 

20 AQUINAS- Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 49, 
A 4, ANS 5a-6a; Q 85, A 6 182d-184a; PART 
n-n, Q 24, A n, ANS 498b-499c; PART in 
SUPPL, Q 91, A i 1016b-1017c; AA 4-5 1022d- 
1025b 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PARADISE, vn [64-84] 
115d-116a;[i2i-i48]116b-c;xm[52-87]126a-b 

31 DESCARTFS- Objections and Replies, 127c-d 

31 SPINOZ\. Ethics, PART i, PROP 6-8 356b-357d; 
PROP 12-13 359b-d; PROP 15, SCHOL, 361d 

32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK i [116-156] 96a- 
97a; BK n [94-105] 113a b; BK vi [320-347] 
203a-b; [430-436] 205b 

33 PASCAL: Vacuum, 358a 

34 NEWTON: Optics, BK in, 541b 

35 LOCKE Human Understanding, BK in, CH HI, 
SECT 19, 259c 

35 BERKELEY: Human Knowledge, SECT 141 

441a-b 
42 KANT- Pure Reason, 121a-128b; 203d-204c / 

Practical Reason, 348d-349a 
53 JAMES: Psychology, 221b-222b; 224a-b 

76(4) Extension and thought as dependent 
substances or as attributes of infinite sub- 
stance 
31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART iv, 51d-52a / 

Meditations, vi 96b-103d / Objections and 

Replies, DBF vi-vin 130c-d; PROP iv 133c; 

135d-136b; 152d 155d esp 153c-155c; 224d- 

225d; 231a-232d; 248b 
31 SPINOZA: Ethics^ PART i, PROP 14, COROL 2 

360a; PART n, DBF 1-2 373a-b; PROP 1-2 373d- 

374a; PROP 5-6 374c-375a; PROP 7, SCHOL 

375b-c 
35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH xin, 

SECT 1 8 152a-c 
42 KANT: Judgement, 580c-d 



7b(5) to 

7$(5) Substance as subject to change and to 
different kinds of change: the role of 
accidents or modifications 

8 ARISTOTLE: Categories, CH 5 (4*io- b i9] 8b-9a 
/ Physics, BK i, CH 6-BK n, CH i 264c-270a; 
BK in, CH 1-3 278a-280c; BK v-vin 304a-355d 
/ Generation and Corruption, BK i, CH 1-5 
409a-420b; BK n, CH 9-10 436d>439c / Meta- 
physics, BK i, CH 3 [983 b 7-984 b 8] 501d-502c; 
BK in, CH 4 [999*24~ b 24] 518a-c; BK VII,CH 7-9 
555a-558a; BK vm, CH i [i042*24- b 7] 566b-d; 
CH 3 [io43 b i5-23] 568a-b; CH 4-5 568d-569d; 
BK ix, CH i 570b,d-571b; CH 3 572a-c; CH 6-7 
573c-575a; BK xi, CH 9 593d-594d; CH n 
596a-d; CH 12 [io68 a 7- b 26] 596d-597d; BK 
XH, CH 1-5 598a-601a / Soul, BK n, CH 4 
[4i6 b 8-i7] 646d-647a 

10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK i, CH 2 167b- 
168c; CH 5 169b-c; BK n, CH 4, 187a-b; BK in, 
CH 7 203b-205a; CH 15, 214d-215d 

17 PLOTINUS : Second Ennead, TR i, CH 3-4 36b- 
37b; TR iv, CH 6 51d-52a; TR vi, CH 1-2 60c- 
62b / Third Ennead, TR vi, CH 7-19 HOd- 
119a 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 3, 
A 6, ANS 18c-19a; Q 9, A 2 39c-40d; Q 41, A 3 
219d-221c; A 5 222b-223b; Q 44, A 2 239b- 
240a; Q 4$, AA 1-5 242a-247a passim; A 8 
249b-250a; Q 50, A 5 274b-275a; Q 53 280d- 
284d; Q 65, A 4 342b-343c; Q 66, AA 1-2 343d- 
347b; Q 67, A 3, ANS and REP i 351b-352a; 
Q 73, A 3 371d-372c; Q 75, A 6 383c-384c; 
Q 76, A 4 393a-394c; Q 78, A 2, ANS and REP 4 
409a-410a;Q9o,A2,ANs and REP2481d-482c; 
Q 92, A 3, REP i 490c-491b; Q 98, A i 516d- 
517d; Q 104 534c-538c; Q 105, AA 1-2 538d- 
540c; A 5, ANS 542a-543b; Q 115, AA 1-3 585d- 
589c; A 6, ANS 591d-592d; Q 118, A i 600a- 
601c; Q 119 604c-608d; PART i-n, Q 22, A i 
720d-721c 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 51, 
A 2, ANS and REP 1-2 13c-14b; Q 52, AA 1-2 
15d-19a; Q 53, A i, REP 1 19d-21a; A 2, REP 1-3 
21a-d; Q no, A 2, REP 3 349a-d; PART in 
SUPPL, Q 75, A 3, ANS 938a-939d; Q 80, A 4 
959c-963a; Q 82, AA 1-2 968a-971a; Q 83, A i 
974d-976b; A 5, ANS 981b-982c; Q 84 983c- 
989b; Q 86, A A 2-3 993c-996a,c 

30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK i, APH 66, 
115a-b 

31 DESCARTES: Objections and Replies, 162d- 
165d 

31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART i, PROP 6 356b-c; PROP 
12-13 359b-d; PROP 23 364d-365a; PROP 28 
365c-366a; PART n, PROP 13 377d-378c 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH xxn, 
SECT ii 203c-d; CH xxvi, SECT 1-2 217a-d; 
BK in, CH vi, SECT 42 280b-c 

42 KANT: Pure Reason, 74b-76c; 82a-83b; 86c- 
87b; 141b,d-143a passim 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, INTRO, 156d- 
157b; 178c<d 



CHAPTER 7: BEING 



145 



76(6) The nature and kinds of accidents or 
modifications 

8 ARISTOTLE: Categories, CH 2 [i*2o- b 9J 5b-c; 
CH 4 5d-6a; CH 5 fr^- 1 ^] 6b-c; [3*6-21] 7b; 
CH 6-9 9a-16d / Prior Analytics, BK i, CH 13 
[32 b 4-i4] 48b-c / Posterior Analytics, BK i, CH 4 
[73*33- b i6] lOOb-d / Topics, BK i, CH9 147a-b 
/ Physics, BK i, CH 2 [185*20-186*4] 260a-d; CH 
4 [188*5-13] 263b; BK n, CH i [i92 b 35~39] 
269a; BK iv, CH 3 [2io b i-8] 289 b-c; BK vn, CH 
3 329a-330d / Metaphysics, BK v, CH 6 [ioi5 b 
16-34] 536a-b; CH 7 [1017*23-30] 537d-538a; 
CH 9 [ioi7 b 27~ioi8*3] 538c; CH 30 547a-d; 
BK vn, CH i [1028*10-18] 550b; CH 4-6 552b- 
555a; BK vin, CH 4 [io44 b 8-2o] 569b; BK x, 
CH 9 586a-c; BK xn, CH i [1069*18-25] 598a / 
Seme and the Sensible, CH 6 [445^-446*20] 
683b-684c 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK i [449-482] 
6c-7a 

17 PLOTINUS : Second Ennead, TR vi 60c-62d / 
Sixth Ennead, TR i, CH 4-24 253b-265b; CH 30 
268b-c 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 3, 
A 6 18c-19a; Q 8, A 2, REP 3 35c-36b; Q 9, A 2, 
ANS 39c-40d; Q 28, A 2 158d-160a; Q 29, A 2, 
ANS and REP 4-5 163b-164b; Q 44, A 2, 
ANS 239b-240a; Q 45, A 4, ANS 244d-245c; 
Q 54, A i 285a-d; A 3 286c-287b; Q 66, 
A i, REP 3 343d-34Sc; Q 67, A 3 351b-352a; 
Q 76, A 6 396a-d; A 8, ANS 397d-399b; 
Q 77 399b-407a passim; Q 101, A i, REP i 522c- 
523a; Q 108, A 5, ANS 555d-558b; Q 115, A i, 
ANS and REP 3,5 585d-587c; A 6, ANS 591d- 
592d; Q 116, A i, ANS 592d-593d; PART i-n, 
Q 2, A 6, ANS 619d-620d; Q 7 651d-655a 
passim; Q 17, A 4, ANS 688d-689c; Q 18, A 3 
695d-696b; Q 35, A 4, ANS and REP 2 774d- 
775d 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i-n, QQ 
49-54 la-25d passim, csp Q 49, AA 1-2 Ib- 
4a; Q 56, A i, REP 1,3 30a-c; PART n-n, Q 23, 
A 3, REP 3 485a-d; Q 24, A 5, ANS and REP i 
492b-493d; PART in, Q 2, A 6 716b-718b; 
PART in SUPPL, Q 70, A i, ANS 893d~895d; 
Q 79, A i, REP 4 951b-953b; Q 83, A 3 978c- 
980d 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART i, 57a-b; 59c-d 

30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK i, APH 66, 114d 
115a 

31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART i, 41d / Objec- 
tions and Replies, 135b-136b; 136c; 162d-165d; 
228c-229c 

31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART i, DBF 4-5 355b; PROP 
10 358a-b; PROP 19, DBMONST 363c-d; PROP 
20, COROL 2 364a; PROP 21-23 364a-36Sa 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH vin 
133b-138b csp SECT 8-10 134b-d; CH xn, 
SECT 3-6 147d-148c; CH xm, SECT 17-20 
152a-d; CH xxi, SECT 3 178d; SECT 75 200b- 
d; CH xxiii, SECT 7-10 205d-206d; SECT 37 
2 13 d- 2 14 b; CH xxx, SECT a 238b~c; CH xxxi, 



146 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



7cto7c(2) 



(lb. The distinction between substance and attri- 
bute, accident or modification: independent 
and dependent being. lb(6) The nature 
and kinds of accidents or modifications.) 
SECT 2 239b-d; BK nr, CH iv, SECT 16 263b-c; 
CH ix, SECT 13 288a-d 

35 BERKELEY: Human Knowledge, SECT 1-15 

413a-416a; SECT 25 417d-418a; SECT 49 422b; 

SECT 73 427b-c; SECT 78 428a-b; SECT 102 

432d433a 

35 HUME: Human Understanding, SECT xu, DIV 

122 505c-d 
53 JAMES: Psychology, 503a-b; 572a-b; 650b-651a 

7c. The distinction between potentiality and 

actuality: possible and actual being 
8 ARISTOTLE: Interpretation, CH 9 [i9 a 6- b 4] 29b- 
d; CH 13 [23*18-26] 35b-c / Topics, BK v, CH 8 
[i38 b 27~i 39*9] 191c-d / Physics, BK HI, en 1-3 
278a-280c; BK iv, CH 9 [217^20-^26] 297a-c / 
Heavens, BK in, CH 2 [30 1^33-302*9 ] 393b / 
Metaphysics, BK iv, CH 5 [1009*22-39] 528d; 
BK v, CH 2 [1014*7-9] 534b; [1014*19-25] 
534b-c; CH 7 [ioi7*}5- b 9] 538a-b; CH 12 540b- 
541b; BK ix 570b,d-578a,c; BK xn, CH 2 
[io69 b i5-34] 598d-599a; CH 5 600b-601a; BK 
xin, CH 3 [1078*21-31] 609d; CH 10 [1087*10- 
25] 619c / Soul, BK n, CH 2 [414*14-28] 644b-c; 
CH 5 [417*2-418*6] 647c-648d 

17 PLOTINUS Second Ennead, TR v 57d-60c / 
Third Ennead, TR vi, CH 8-19 lllc-119a; TR ix, 
CH 3, 137d-138a / Sixth Ennead, TR i, CH 15-17 
260c-261d; CH 25-30 265b-268c; TR in, CH 22, 
293d 294a; CH 27 296b-297a 

18 AUGUSTINE: Christian Doctrine, BK n, CH 35, 
653c 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 2, 
A 3, ANS 12c-14a; Q 3, A i, ANS 14b-15b; A 2, 
ANS 15c-16a; A 4, ANS 16d-17c; A 5, ANS 17c- 
18b; A 6, ANS 18c-19a; A 7, ANS 19a-c; A 8, 
ANS 19d-20c; Q 4, A i 20d-21b; A 2, ANS 21b- 
22b; Q 5, A i 23c-24a; A 2, REP 2 24b-25a; 
A 3, REP 3 25a-d; Q 6, A 3, REP i 29c-30b; 
Q 7, A 2, REP 3 31d-32c; Q 9, A i, ANS and 
REP i 38c-39c; A 2, ANS 39c-40d; Q n, A i, 
REP 2 46d-47d; Q 14, A 2 76d-77d; A 3, ANS 
77d-78b; A 4, ANS 78b-79a; Q 18, A i, ANS 
104c-105c; A 3, REP i 106b-107c; A 4, REP 
3 107d-108c; Q 25, A i, REP i 143d-144c; 
Q 45, A 5, REP 3 245c-247a; Q 46, A i, REP 
i 250a-252d; Q 54, A i, ANS 285a-d; A 3, ANS 
and REP 2 286c-287b; Q 75, A i, ANS and 
REP 2 378b-379c; Q 86, A 3 463b-d; Q 115, 
A i, ANS and REP 1,4 585d-587c; PART i-n, 
Q 10, A i, REP 2 662d-663d; Q 27, A 3 738c- 
739c 

31 DESCARTES: Meditations, HI, 86d-87a 
31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART iv, DBF 4 424a 
42 KANT: Pure Reason, 90c-91a / Practical Reason, 

291a-292a / Judgement, 570c-571c 
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, INTRO, 156d- 

157b; 160d-161c; 178a-179d 



7c(l) The order of potentiality and actuality 

8 ARISTOTLE: Interpretation, CH 13 [23*21-26] 
35b-c / Physics, BK in, CH i [201*19-27] 278d / 
Heavens, BK iv, CH 3 [3io b 22-3 11*12] 402b-c / 
Metaphysics, BK in, CH 6 [ioo2 b 32-ioo3*5] 
521d; BK v, CH ii [1019*1-14] 540a; BK VH, CH 
9 [io34 b i6-i9] 558a; BK ix, CH 8-9 575b-577c; 
BK xn, CH 5 [1071*30-36] 601a; CH 6-7 601 b- 
603b 

17 PLOTINUS : Second Ennead, TR v 57d-60c / 
Third Ennead, TR vi, CH 7, llla-b; CH 1 1, 113b- 
c; CH 14-15 115b-116c; TR ix, CH 3, 137d-138a 
/ Sixth Ennead, TR i, CH 15-22 260c-264c 

19 AQUINAS : Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 3, A i, 
ANS 14b-15b; A 8, ANS 19d-20c; Q 4, A i, REP 2 
20d-21b; A 2, ANS 21b-22b; Q 9, A i, ANS 
38c-39c; Q ir, A 2, REP i 47d-48d; Q 25, A i, 
REP 2 143d-144c; Q 94, A 3, ANS 504a-505a; 
PART i-n, Q 2, A 7, ANS 620d-621c; Q 3, A 2, 
ANS 623a-624b; Q 9, A i, ANS 657d~658d; Q 22, 
A 2, REP i 721c-722c 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 50, 
A 2, REP 3 7c-8a; Q 71, A 3 107c-108b; PART in, 
Q 10, A 3, ANS 769d-771b 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PARADISE, i [103-142] 
107b-d; xin [52-87] 126a-b; xxix [22-36] 150c 

7c(2) Types of potency and degrees of actu- 
ality 

8 ARISTOTLE- Interpretation, CH 13 [22 b 35-2}*i7] 
34d-35b / Physics, BK in, CH 6 [206*18-24] 
284c; BK iv, en i [208^-209*1] 287b-c; BK 
vii, CH 3 [247 b i~248 a 6] 330b-d; BK vni, CH 4 
[255*3o- b 3i] 340a-c / Heavens, BK iv, CH 3 
[3io b 22-3ii*i2] 402b-c / Metaphysics, BK v, 
CH 12 540b-541b; BKIX, CH 1-9 570b,d-577c; 
BK xn, CH 5 600b-601a / Soul, BK n, CH i 
[412*6-12] 642a; [412*22-28] 642b; BK in, CH 
4-5 661 b- 662 d / Sense and the Sensible, CH 4 
[44i b i6-2 4 ] 679b 

9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK n, CH i [ii03*26- b 24] 
348d-349b; CH 5 [1106*7-10] 351c 

17 PLOTINUS: Second Ennead, TR v 57d-60c 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK i, par 10 3b-c / 
Christian Doctrine, BK i, CH 8 626c-627a 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 4, 
A 2, ANS 21b-22b; Q 5, A i, REP i 23c-24a; Q 14, 
A 2, ANS and REP 2-3 76d-77d; Q 18, A 3, ANS 
and REP i 106b-107c; Q 25 143c-150a; Q 48, 
A 4, ANS 262a-263a; Q 50, A 2 270a-272a; Q 52, 
AA 1-2 278d-280a; Q 58, A i 300c-301a; Q 63, 
A i, REP i 325c-326c; Q 66, A 2 345d-347b; 
Q 75, A 5 382a-383b; A 6, REP 2 383c-384c; 
Q 77, A i 399c-401b; A 3 401d-403a; A 6 404c- 
405c; Q 79, A 2 414d-416a; A 10 423d-424d; 
Q 87, A 2, ANS 466c-467b; Q 92, A 4, REP 3 
491 b-d; Q 104, A 4, REP 2 538a-c; Q 105, A 5, 
ANS 542a-543b; PART i-n, Q 3, A 2, ANS and 
REP i 623a 624b; Q 10, A i, REP 2 662d-663d; 
Q 22, A i 720d-721c 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 49, 
A 3 4b-5a; Q 50, A 2 7c-8a; A 6 lla-12a; Q 51, 



to 7d 



CHAPTER 7: BEING 



147 



A 2 13c~14b; Q 55, A 2, ANS 27a-d; Q 71, A 4, 
REP 3 108b-109a 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH vn, 
SECT 8 132d-133a; CH xxi, SECT 1-4 178b- 
179c; SECT 74, 199d-200bj CH XXIH, SECT 7 
205d-206a; SECT 28 211b-d 

7c(3) Potentiality and actuality in relation to 
matter and form 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK i, CH 9 [192*25-33] 
268c; BK ii, CH i [i93*9- b 2i] 269b-270a; BK 
in, CH 1-3 278a-280c / Heavens, BK iv, CH 3 
[3io b 22-3ii a i2] 402b-c / Generation and Cor- 
ruption, BK i, CH 3 413c-416c; CH 7 421d-423b; 
CH 9 425d-426c / Metaphysics, BK v, CH 4 
534d-535c; BK vii, CH 16 [i040 b 5-i6] 564c; 
BK vui, CH 6 569d-570d; BK ix, CH 6-9 573c- 
577c; BK xi, CH 9 593d-594d; BK xn, CH 5 
600b-601a; BK xm, CH 3 [1078*21-31] 609d / 
Soul, BK ii, CH 1-2 642a-644c 

17 PLOTINUS : First Ennead, TR vm, CH 3-8 28a- 
31c, CH 10 32a-33a; CH 12 33d-34a / Second 
Ennead, TR iv, CH 6 51d-52a; TR v 57d-60c / 
Third Ennead, TR vi, CH 7-19 110d-119a; TR 
ix, CH 3, 137d-138a / Fifth Ennead, TR i, CH 2 
208c-209b; TR ix, CH 3 247b-d/ Sixth Ennead, 
TR i, CH 25-30 265b-268c; TR v, CH 5-8 307a- 
308c 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK xn, par 3-6 99d- 
lOOc; par 8, lOlb; par 9, lOlc; par 14-16 
102b-103a; par 24-26 104c-105b; par 28-31 
105c-107a; par 38-40 108d-110a 

19 AQUINAS , Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 3, A 2, 
ANS and REP 3 15c-16a; A 4, ANS 16d-17c; Q 4, 
A i 20d-21b; A 2, ANS 21b-22b; Q 7, A i, ANS 
31a-d; A 2, ANS and REP 3 31d-32c; Q 14, A 2, 
REP 3 76d-77d; Q 18, A 3, REP i 106b-107c; 
Q 25, A i, REP i 143d-144c; Q 44, A 2, ANS and 
REP 3 239b-240a; Q 45, A 5, REP 2 245c-247a; 
Q 50, A 2, REP 3 270a-272a; A 5, ANS 274b- 
275a; Q 55, A 2, ANS 289d-290d; Q 62, A 7, 
REP i 322d-323b; Q 66, A 2 345d-347b; Q 75, 
A 2, ANS 379c-380c; A 5 382a-383b; Q 77, A i, 
REP 2 399c-401b; Q 86, A 3 463b-d; Q 90, 
A 2, REP 2 481d-482c; Q 92, A 3, REP i 490c- 
491b; Q 104, A i, ANS and REP i 534c-536c; 
Q 105, A i, ANS 538d-539c; PART I-H, Q i, 
A 3, ANS 611b-612a; Q 10, A i, ANS and REP 
2 662d-663d; Q 22, A i, ANS and REP i 720d- 
721c 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 49, 
A 4, ANS and REP i 5a-6a; Q 85, A 6 182d-184a; 
PART in, Q 2, A i, ANS and REP 2 710a-711c; 
PART in SUPPL, Q 82, A i, REP 2 968a-970c; 
Q 92, A i, ANS 1025c-1032b 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy ', PARADISE, i [121-141] 
107c-d 

28 HARVEY: On Animal Generation, 384c-d; 

494a-b 

31 DESCARTES: Objections and Replies, 212a 
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, INTRO, 156d- 

157b 



7< The distinction between teal and ideal 
being, or between natural being and 
being in mind 

7 PLATO: Parmenidcs, 489a-b 

8 ARISTOTLE : Prior Analytics, BK i, CH 36 [48*40- 
b 9] 66d / Metaphysics, BK v, CH 7 [1017*31-34] 
538a; BK vi, CH 4 550a,c; BK ix, CH 3 [1047* 
3o- b 2] 572c; CH 10 577c-578a,c; BK xn, CH 7 
[io72 b i8-24] 602d*603a; CH 9 [i074 b 35~ 
1075*11] 605c-d / Soul, BK in, CH 4 [429*13- 
29] 661b-c; CH 8 [43i b 2o~432*9] 664b-c / 
Memory and Reminiscence, CH i [45o b i2- 
451*14] 691c-692b 

11 ARCHIMEDES: Sphere and Cylinder, BK I, 

403b 
17 PLOTINUS: Third Ennead, TR vm, CH 8 132d- 

133c 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 2, 
A i, REP 2 lOd-lld; Q 3, A 4, REP 2 16d47c; 
Q ii, A i, ANS and REP 3 46d-47d; Q 12, A 2 
51c-52c; Q 13, A 3, REP 3 64d-65c; A 7, ANS 
and REP 2,4-5 68d-70d; A 9, ANS and REP 2 
71b-72c; A 12 74c-75b; Q 14, A i, ANS and 
REP 3 75d-76c; A 2, ANS and REP 2-3 76d-77d; 
A 6, REP i 80a-81c; A 8, ANS 82c-83b; A 9, 
ANS 83b-d; A 13, REP 2-3 86d-88c; Q 15, A i, 
ANS and REP 1,3 91b-92a; A 3, REP 4 93b-94a; 
Q 16, A 2 9Sc-96b; A 7, REP 2 99a~d; Q 17, A 3, 
ANS 102d-103c; Q 18, A 4, REP 2-^ 107d-108c; 

Q 19, A 3, REP 6 HOb-lllc; Q 29, A I, REP 3 

162a-163b; Q 30, A i, REP 4 167a-168a; A 4 
170c-171b; Q 34, A i, REP 3 185b-187b; Q 50, 
A 2, ANS 270a-272a; Q 55, A 2, ANS and REP i 
289d-290d; A 3 esp REP i 291a<d; Q 56, A 2, 
ANS and REP 3 292d-294a; A 3, ANS 294a-d; 
Q 57, A 2 295d-297a; Q 58, A 6, ANS and REP 
1,3 304c-305b; A 7, ANS 305c-306b; Q 66, A 2, 
REP 2 345d-347b; Q 67, A 3, ANS 351b-352a; 
Q 74, A 3, REP 5 375a-377a,c; Q 76, A 3, REP 4 
391a-393a; A 6, REP 2 396a-d; Q 84 440b-451b; 
Q 85, A 2 453d-455b; A 3, REP 1,4 455b-457a; 
A 5, REP 3 457d-458d; Q 88, A 2, REP 4 471c- 
472c; PART I-H, Q 5, A 6, REP 2 641a-642a; 
Q 6, A 6, ANS and REP 2 649a-650a; Q 8, A i, 
ANS and REP 3 655b-656a; Q 12, A 3, REP 2-3 
670d-671b; Q 17, A 4, ANS 688d-689c; Q 22, 
A 2, ANS and REP 3 721c-722c; Q 28, A i, REP 3 
740b-741a 

20 AQUINAS : Summa Theologica, PART m, Q 2, 
A 5, REP 2 715a-716b; PART in SUPPL, Q 82, 
A 3 % ANS and REP 2 971a-972d 

23 HOB BBS: Leviathan, PART i, 53c; PART in, 

172a-d; PART iv, 262a-d; 270a-c 
26 SHAKESPEARE: Richard //, ACT v, sc v [1-41] 

349d-350a 
29 CERVANTES: Don Quixote esp PART i, la-8c, 

18d-22a, PART n, 285a-288c 
31 DESCARTES: Meditations, 71d-72a; in, 83b- 

86a; v, 93a-94a / Objections and Replies, 108b- 

109d; 121a-c; DEF m-iv 130b; AXIOM v 131d- 

132a; 157b-158a; 212c-213a 



148 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



7d(\) to 7d(2) 



(l.Tbcdiwionsormodcto/btmg, 1<J, Tt* dis- 
tinction between real and ideal being, or 
between natural being and being in mind.) 

31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART i, APPENDIX 369b-372d 
esp371c-372c; PART n, PROP 5-9 374c-376c 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH xxn, 
SECT 2 201a-b; CH xxx, SECT 2 238b-c; CH 
xxxi, SECT 2 239 b-d; CH XXXH, SECT 14-18 
245c-247a passim; BK in, CH in, SECT 15-19 
258b-260a; CH vi 268b-283a passim, csp SECT 
2-3 268c-d, SECT 8 270b-c; BK iv, CH n, 
SECT 14 312b-d; CH iv, SECT 6-8 325a~c; CH 
ix, SECT i 349a; CH xi, SECT 4-9 355b-357a 

35 BERKELEY* Human Knowledge, SECT 1-96 
413a-431d csp SECT 1-24 413a-417d, SECT 29- 
44 418c-421a, SECT 48-49 422a-b, SECT 82-84 
428d-429c, SECT 86-91 429c-431a 

35 HUME: Human Understanding, SECT v, DIV 44 
468d-469c csp 469b-c; SECT xu, DIV 117-123 
504a-506a 

42 KANT: Pure Reason, 24a-33d csp 25c-26a, 
28a-b, 31d-32c; 85d-93c; 200c-209d; 211c- 
212a / Practical Reason, 295 b-d / Judgement, 
551a-553c; 604a-b 

44 BOSWELL: Johnson, 134c-d 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, INTRO, 153a-c; 
158a-160b; 188d-189a; PART i, 219d-220a; 
236a-c; 257c-d; PART iv, 354b; 364b-c 

48 MELVILLE: Moby Dic%, 385b 

50 MARX: Capital, llb-c 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 128a-b; 142a-b; 176a-177a; 
191b-192a; 302a; 639a-645b csp 640a, 644b~ 
645b; 659a-660b; 851b-852a; 865b-866a; 
868 b; 879b-886a esp 881a-882a; 889a-890a 

54 FREUD. General Introduction, 597d-598a 

7</(l) The being of the possible 

7 PLATO: Republic, BK v-vi, 368c-383a 

8 ARISTOTLE: Metaphysics, BK ix, CH 3 572a-c / 
Soul, BK in, CH 4 [429*18-23] 661c 

17 PLOTINUS : Second Ennead, TR v, CH 4-5 59c- 

60c 
19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 7, A 2, 

ANS and REP 3 31d-32c; Q 9, A 2, ANS 39c-40d; 

Q 14, A 2, REP 3 76d-77d; A 9, REP i 83 b-d; 

A 13, REP 2-3 86d-88c; Q 18, A 4, REP 3 107d- 

108c; Q 46, A i, REP 1-2 250a-252d 
31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART i, PROP 33, SCHOL i 

367c-d; PART n, PROP 8 375c-376a 
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK i, Ic 
42 KANT: Pure Reason, 85d-88a; 95a-tf; 97a-b; 

176d-177a; 179c-180c / Judgement, 550a-578a 

esp 550c-d, 552c<d, 555a-b, 564a-565b, 568a- 

c, 569a, 570c-575b 
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, INTRO, 153a~c; 

156d-157b; 178a-179d 
53 JAMES: Psychology, 233b [fn i); 301b-302a 

14(2) The being of ideas, universals, rights 

7 PLATO: Cratylus, 87d-89a; 113c-114a,c / 
Phaedo, 224a-225a; 228d-230c; 231b-232b; 



240b-246c csp 242c-244b / Republic, BK v-vi, 
368c-388a; BK ix-x, 426d-429c / Timaeus, 
447a-d; 457h-458a / Parmenides, 486c-491a 
csp 489a-c / Sophist, 567b; 570a-574c / Phile- 
bus, 610d-613a / Seventh Letter, 809c-810b 

8 ARISTOTLE: Posterior Analytics, BK i, CH n 
[77*5-9] 105d-106a; CH 22 [83*23-35] 113c-d; 
CH 24 [85*3i- b 3] 116c; [^17-22] 117a / 
Topics, BK ii, CH 7 [113*24-33] 158d; BK vi, 
CH 8 [147*5-11] 201a / Sophistical Refutations, 
CH 22 [i78 b 37-i79*io] 246c / Physics, BK n, 
CH 2 [i93 b 3 1-194*6] 270b; BK in, CH 4 [203*4- 
9] 280d / Metaphysics, BK i, CH 6 505b-506b; 
CH 9 S08c-511c; BK in, CH i [995 b i3~i8] 514a; 
[995 b 27~996*io] 514b-c; CH 2 [997*34- b i2] 
516a-b; [998*6-13] 516d; CH 4 [999 b 24- 1000*4] 
518c-d; [1001*4-25] 519d-520c; CH 6 [ioo2 b 
11-31] 521b-d; [1003*5-17] 521d-522a,c; BK 
vii, CH 8 [io33 b i9-io34*8] 556d-557b; CH 10 
[io35 b 28-32] 559b; CH 13-16 562a-565a; BK 
vin, CH 6 569d-570d; BK ix, CH 8 [io5o b 35- 
1051*2] 576d-577a, BK x, CH 2 [105^9-23] 
580b-c, CH 10 586c-d, BK xi, CH i [1059*34^8] 
587b-c; CH i [io59 b 2i]-CH 2 [1060*27] 587d- 
588b; CH 2 [io6o a 36- b 3o] 588c-589a; BK xu, 
CH i [1069*27-37] 598b; CH 3 [1070*4]-^ 5 
[I07i b 2] 599b-601a, BK xm, CH i [1076*17-33] 
607a-b; CH 4-5 610a-611d; CH 10 618c-619a,c 
/ Soul, BK ii, CH 5 [4i7 b i7~28] 648b-c 

9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK i, CH 6 341b-342c pas- 
sim 

17 PLOTINUS : Second Ennead, TR v, CH 3 58d-59c; 
IR vi, CH 3 62b-d / Third Ennead, TR vin, CH 
8 132d-133c / Fifth Ennead, TR v, CH i, 229a; 
TR vn 238a-239b; TR ix, CH 5-8 248a-250a / 
Sixth Ennead, TR v, CH 5-8 307a-308c 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK i, par 9, 3a / 
City of God, BK vin, CH 6, 269b-c 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 8, 
A 4, REP i 37c-38c; Q 14, PREAMBLE 75c-d; 
Q 15 91b-94a; Q 16, A 7, REP 2 99a-d; Q 18, 
A 4 107d-108c; Q 29, A 2, REP 4 163b-164b; 
Q 44, A 3 240b-241a; Q 47, A i, REP 2 256a- 
257b; Q 55 288d-291d; Q 57, AA 1-2 295a- 
297a; Q 65, A 4 342b-343c; Q 76, A 2, REP 4 
388c-391a; Q 79, A 3, ANS 416a-417a; Q 84, AA 
1-7 440d-450b; Q 85, A i, ANS and REP 1-2 
451c-453c; A 2, ANS and REP 2 453d-455b; 
A 3, REP 1,4 455b-457a; A 8, ANS 460b-461b; 
Q 86, A 4, REP 2 463d-464d; Q 87, A i, ANS 
465a-466c; Q 88, A i, ANS 469a-471c; A 2, 
ANS 47lc-472c; Q 105, A 3, ANS 540c-541b; 
Q no, A i t REP 3 564c-565d; A 2, ANS 565d 
566d; Q 115, A i, ANS 585d-587c; A 3, REP 
2 588c-589c; PART I-H, Q 29, A 6, ANS 748b- 
749a 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART HI, Q 2, 
A 5, REP 2 7l5a-716b; Q 4, A 4, ANS and REP 2 
733a-734a; PART in SUPPL, Q 92, A i, ANS 
1025c-1032b 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART i, 55b-c; 59d; PART 
iv, 262a-b 



70(3) to 7^(4) CHAPTER 7: BEING 

30 BACON: Advancement of Learning 43d-44c / 
Novum Organum, BK i, APH 51 lllc; BK 11, APH 
2 137b-c; APH 17 149b-d 

31 DESCARTES: Meditations, HI, 84a-85a / Ob- 
jections and Replies, 121a-c; DBF i-iv 130a-b; 
AXIOM vi 132a 

31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART n, PROP 37-40 386b- 
388b 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK i, CH i, 
SECT 15 98d-99a; BK 11, CH vm 133b-138b 
passim; CH xi, SECT 8-9 145b-c; CH xxn, SECT 
2 201a-b; CH xxx 238a-239b; CH xxxi, SECT 2 
239b-d; CH xxxn, SECT 6-8 244b-d; SECT 
14-18 245c-247a; BK in, CH HI, SECT 11-20 
257a-260a; CH v-vi 263d-283a passim, esp CH 
vi, SECT 32-33 277c-278c, SECT 36-37 279a- 
b; BK iv, CH iv, SECT 4-5 324c-d, SECT 11-12 
326b-d; CH vi, SECT 4 331d-332b, CH ix, SECT 
i 349a; CH xi, SECT 4-9 355b-357a 

35 BERKELEY: Human Knowledge, INIRO, SICT 
12-16 408a-409d; stcr 2-4 413b-414a; SECT 
48-49 422a-b, SECT 86-91 429c-431a 

35 HUME, Human Understanding, SECT xn, DIV 
122 505c-d 

42 KANT: Pure Reason, 93c-99a; 112d-209d esp 
112d-120c, 121a-128b, 129c-145c, 173b-190a; 
237b / Fund. Pnn. Metaphysic of Morals, 281c- 
282d / Science of Right, 404d-408b; 416b-417b 
/ Judgement, 461a-c; 489 b-c; 504d-505a; 
528d-530c; 542b-544c; 551a-552c; 570b c 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PRLF, 6a-7a; 
INTRO, par i 9a; PART i, par 66-67 29a-c; 
par 71 31 b-c; PART in, par 184 64b; par 280 
94d-95a; ADDITIONS, 2 115d / Philosoph\ of 
History, INTRO, 156d-190b esp 156d-157b, 
158a-160b, 165a-b; PART iv, 364b-c 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 113a-115a esp 113b-114a, 
128a-b; 300a-313a passim, esp 300a-301a, 
304b, 307a-b, 309a-311a, 641b-643a passim, 
659a-b; 865 b; 881b-882a 

7</(3) The being of mathematical objects 

7 PLATO. Phaedo, 228b-229d / Republic, BK vi, 
387b-c; BK vn, 392a-394c; 395c-397a / 
Theaetetus, 535b-c; 541b-d / Sophist, 562c-d / 
Philebus, 636b-c / Seventh Letter, 809c-810b 

8 ARISTOTLE: Posterior Analytics, BK i, CH 13 
[79*6-10] 108c; CH 18 [8i a 4o- b 5] lllb-c / Top- 
ics, BK vi, CH 6 [i43 b n-33] 197b-c / Physics, 
BKII, cH2[i93 b 23-i94 ft n]270a-c; BKIII, CH4 
[203*4-9] 280d; CH 5 [204*8-34] 282a-b; BK 
iv, CH i [2o8 b i9~24J 287b-c; CH n [2i9 b 5-8] 
299b; CH 14 [223*21-29] 303a / Metaphysics, 
BK i, CH 5 [985 b 22-986*2i] 503d-504b; CH 6 
[987 b io-34] 505c-506a; CH 8 [989 b 29~990 a ^2] 
508a~c; CH 9 [99i b 9-992 b i8] 509d-511a; BK in, 
CH i [995 b i3-i8] 514a; [996*13-15] 514c; CH 2 
[997^12-998*19] 516b-d; CH 5 [iooi b 26]-cn 6 
[ioo2 b 25] 520c-521c; BK vn, CH 2 [io28 b i8-28] 
551a-b; CH 10 [iO35 b 32-io36 a i2] 559b-c; CH 
n [io36 b 32-i 037*4] 560b-c; BK xi, CH 2 
[io6o*36- b i9] 588c-d; CH 3 [1061*29^4] 



149 

589c; BK xn, CH i [1069*30-37] 598b; CH 10 
[i075 b 25-i076*4]606c-d; BK xin, CH i-3<507a- 
610a; CH 6-9 611d-618c; BK xiv 619b,d-626d 
/ Soul, BK in, CH 7 [43i b i3~i9] 664b 
9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK i, CH 6 [1096*17-19] 

341b; BK vi, CH 8 [1142*16-19] 391b 
11 NICOMACHUS: Arithmetic, BK i, 811a-812a; 
813d-814b 

17 PLOTINUS: Sixth Ennead, TR vi 310d-321b 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK x, par 19 76a-b / 
Christian Doctrine, BK n, CH 38 654b-c 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 5, 
A 3, REP 4 25a-d; Q 10, A 6, ANS 45c-46d; Q 11, 
A i, REP i 46d-47d; A 3, REP 2 49a-c; Q 30, A i, 
REP 4 167a-168a; Q 44, A i, REP 3 238b-239a; 
Q 85, A i, REP 2 451c-453c 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART in SUPPL, 
Q 83, A 2, ANS 976c-978c; A 3, REP 2 978c-980d 

31 DESCARTES. Rules, xiv, 30b-32a / Discourse, 
PART iv, 52d-53a / Meditations, i, 76c; v, 
93a-d; v-vi, 96a-b / Objections and Replies, 
169c-170a; 216d-217c; 218c; 228c-229a 

35 LOCKE. Human Understanding, BK n, CH xni, 
SECT 5-6 149b-d; BK HI, CH in, SECT 19, 
259c-d; BK iv, CH iv, SECT 5-8 324d-325c 

35 BERKELEY Human Knowledge, INTRO, SECT 
12-16 408a-409d; SECT 12-16 415b-416a, SECT 
118-128 436b-438d passim, esp SECT 121-122 
436d-437c, SECT 125-126 438a-c 

35 HUME: Human Understanding, SECT iv, DIV 20 
458a-b; SECT xii, DIV 122 505c-d 

42 KANT: Pure Reason, 16a-b; 17d-18d; 24d-25b; 
31b-d; 46a-c; 55c; 62a-d; 68a-69c; 86b-c; 
87b-c; 91c-d; 94b-95a; 211c-213c; 217c-d / 
Practical Reason, 312c / Judgement, 551a-552c 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 874a-878a passim; 880 b- 
881a 

7</(4) The being of relations 

7 PLATO: Phaedo, 242c-245b / Parmenides, 489a- 
c / Sophist, 570a-574c 

8 ARISTOTLE: Metaphysics, BK i, CH 9 [990 b 9~i7] 
508d; BK xiv, CH i [io88 a i5- b 4] 620b-d 

9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK i, CH 6 [1096*18-22] 
341b-c 

17 PLOTINUS: Sixth Ennead, TR i, CH 6-9 254d- 
257a 

19 AQUINAS Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 13, A 7, 
ANS and REP 2,4-5 68d-70d; Q 28, AA 1-2 157c- 
160a; A 4, ANS and REP 1,3-4 160c-161d; Q 40, 
A 2, REP 4 214b-215b; Q 45, A 3, REP 1-3 244a-d 

20 AQUINAS : Summa Theologica, PART in, Q 2, 
A 7, REP 2 718b-d 

30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK i, APH 45 HOb 
35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n f CH xxv, 

SECT i 214d-215b; SECT 10 216d-217a; CH xxx, 

SECT 4 238d-239a 

35 BERKELEY: Human Knowledge, SECT n, 415a 
42 KANT: Pure Reason, 24a-33d esp 31d-32c; 

61a-64a esp 62d-63c; 72c-85d; 99a-108a,c; 

119b 
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, INTRO, 156b-c 



150 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



7</(5) to 8* 



(Id. The distinction between real and ideal being, 
or between natural being and being in 
mind. 7d(4) The being of relations.) 
S3 JAMES: Psychology, 157b-161a csp 158b-159b; 
458a-459b; 865b; 873a-b; 879b-886a csp 
884b-885a; 889a-890a 

7</(5) The being of fictions and negations 

7 PLATO: Sophist, 561d-564b; 571d-574c esp 
573a-574c 

8 ARISTOTLE: Metaphysics, BK i, CH 9 [990^9-15] 
508d; BK iv, CH 2 [1004*9-15] 523a; BK v, CH 7 
[1017*18] 537d; [1017*31-34] 538a; BK vn, CH 
4 [1030*24-27] 553a; CH 7 [i032 b i-6] 555b-c; 
BK ix, CH 3 [i047*3o- b 2] 572c; BK xn, CH i 
[1069*18-24] 598a 

9 ARISTOTLE: Rhetoric, BK n, CH 24 [1402*3-6] 
651b-c 

12 LUCRETIUS -.Nature of Things, BK iv [722-748] 
53d-54a 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK in, par 12 16b / 
City of God, BK xi, CH 22 333d-334c; BK XH, 
CH 7 346c-d 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 13, 
A 7, ANS 68d-70d; Q 34, A 3, REP 5 188b-189a; 
Q 48, A 2 esp REP 2 260c-261b; Q 51, A 2, ANS 
276b-277a; PART i-n, Q 8, A i, REP 3 655b- 
656a 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART i, 50d; 53c; 57b-c; 

PART iv, 262a-d 

31 DESCARTES: Objections and Replies, 157b 
35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH vm, 

SECT 1-6 133b-134a; BK in, CH in, SECT 19 

259c-260a 

40 GIBBON. Decline and Fall, 345c 
42 KANT: Pure Reason, 62d-63a; 174d-175b 
46 HEGEL. Philosophy of History, INTRO, 160a 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 639a-644a csp 642b [fn 2] 

54 FREUD: General Introduction, 597b-598a esp 
598a 

7e. The distinction between appearance and 
reality, between the sensible and supra- 
sensible, between the phenomenal and 
noumenal orders 

7 PLATO- Cratylus, 113c-114a,c/ Phaedrus, 124d- 
127a / Symposium, 167a-d / Phaedo, 224a- 
225a; 228a-232a / Republic, BK v, 370d-373c; 
BK vi, 383d-388a; BK vn, 396d-398c / 
Timaeus, 447a-d; 450b-c; 45Sc-458a esp 457c- 
458a / Thcaetetus, 534d-536a / Sophist, 567a- 
568c / Statesman, 595b-c / Philebus, 634b- 
635b / Seventh Letter, 809c-810d 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK i, CH 4 [i87*27- b 7] 
262b-c / Metaphysics, BK v, CH 29 [io24 b 22- 
27] 546c-d 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK n [308-332] 
19a-b 

17 PLOTINUS: Second Ermcad, TR vi, CH i, 60c- 
61b / Fourth Ennead, TR vm, CH 6 203d-204b 
/ Sixth Ennead, TR in, CH 1-2 281a-282a 



18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK n, par 10 lla-b; 
BK in, par 10 15b-d; BK vn, par 23 50b-c; 
BK x, par 13 74c-d; par 16-19 75b-76b / 
Christian Doctrine, BK n, CH 38 654b-c 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 18, 
A 2, ANS 105c-106b 

25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 291b-294b 

31 DESCARTES: Objections and Replies, 238a-b; 
257d 

31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART i, APPENDIX, 372a-c 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH vm 
133b-138b passim, esp SECT 7-10 134b-d, SECT 
15-20 135c-136c; CH xxin, SECT 5 205a-b; 
SECT 15 208c-d; SECT 29 211d-212a; SECT 32 
212c-d; CH xxxi, SECT 6-13 240d-243b; BK 
HI, CH in, SECT 15-18 258b-259c; CH vi 
268b-283a passim, esp SECT 9 270d-271a; BK 
iv, CH xvi, SECT 12 370b-371a 

35 BERKELEY: Human Knowledge, SECT 25-27 
417d-418b; SECT 86-91 429c-431a passim; 
SECT 101-102 432c-433a; SECT 135-142 440a- 
441c; SECT 148 442b-d 

35 HUME: Human Understanding, SECT iv, DIV 29 
461a-d 

42 KANT: Pure Reason, 15c-16c; 19a; 19d-20c; 
27b-33d; 53b-59b esp 58a-b; 86c-88c; 93c- 
99a; 101b-108a,c; 112b-d; 113c-115a; 153a-c; 
164a-165c; 172c-173a; 227a-228b / Fund. Prm. 
Metaphysic of Morals, 281c-282d / Practical 
Reason, 292a-c; 307d-314d; 319c-321b; 328a- 
329a; 331a-337c; 340a-342d esp 340c-341c; 
348b-353d/ Intro. Metaphysic of Morals, 383c- 
d / Science of Right, 416b-417b / Judgement, 
465a-c; 474b-475d; 500c-d; 501d-502a; 506d- 
507a; 510b-c; 530a; 541a-542a; 543a; 543c- 
544c; 551a-552c; 558d; 560c; 564a-c; 570b- 
572b esp 571c-572a; 574b<577a; 579a; 581a- 
b; 584c-d; 587d-588a; 594d [fn i]; 599d- 
600d; 603a-b; 604a-b; 606d-607c; 611c-613a,c 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART i, par 82-83 
34d-35a; ADDITIONS, 52-53 124d-125a / Phi- 
losophy of History, INTRO, 156d-157b; PART n, 
270d-271c; PART iv, 349b-350a 

48 MELVILLE: Moby Dic^, 120a-121a; 385b 

52 DOSTOEVSKY: Brothers Karamazov, BK vi, 
168b-c 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 185a-b; 234a-b; 503a-b; 
569b-570a; 606b-608b esp 608a-b; 648a 

54 FREUD- Unconscious, 430b-c 

8. Being and knowledge 

Ba. Being and becoming in relation to sense: 
perception and imagination 

7 PLATO: Phaedrus, 126b-d / Phaedo, 224a-225a; 
231b-232a / Republic, BK in, 333b-334b; BK 
v, 368c-373c; BK VI-VH, 383d-398c / Timaeus, 
447b-d; 450b-c; 453b-454a; 455c-458b esp 
457b-458a / Theaetetus, 517b-536b / Sophist, 
565a-569a esp 568a-569a / Philebus, 610d-613a 

8 ARISTOTLE: Generation and Corruption, BK i, 
CH 3 [3i8 b i8-3io*2) 415c-d; CH 4 [319*5-24] 



CHAPTER 7: BEING 



151 



416c-d / Metaphysics, BK i, CH 5 
987*1] 504d-505a; CH 6 foST^^iS) 505b-d; 
BK iv, CH 5-6 528c-531c; BK xi, CH 6 [io62 b 33~ 
io6? b 8] 591a-d / Soul, BK i, CH 2 [404*7- 
405*29] 633d-635a; CH 5 [409^8-411*7] 639c- 
641a; BK H, CH 5 647b-648d; BK n, CH 12 
[424*i6]-BK in, CH 2 [426*25] 656a-658c 
11 NICOMACHUS: Arithmetic, BK i, 811c-d 
iTPLOTiNus: Fifth Ennead, TR v, CH i 228b- 
229c; TR ix, CH 5 248a-249a / Sixth Ennead, 
TR r, CH 27-28 266c-267c esp CH 28 267b-c 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK in, par 10 15b-d; 
BK iv, par 15-17 23a-c; BK vn, par 23 50b-c / 
Christian Doctrine, BK n, CH 38 654b-c 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 67, 
A 3, ANS 3Slb-352a; Q 78, A 3, ANS 410a-411d; 
Q 86, A 3 463b-d 

25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 292d-293d 

31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART iv, 51c-53b / 

Meditations, 74a f c; n, 81 d 
35 BERKELEY: Human Knowledge, SECT 2-3 

413b-d; SECT 25-27 417d-418b; SECT 88-91 

430a-431a; SECT 135-142 440a-441c 
42 KANT: Pure Reason, 34a-72c esp 34a-c, 39a-c, 

41c-42b, 45b-59b, 61a-64a, 65d-72c / Fund. 

Prin. Metaphysic of Morals, 281c-282d / 

Judgement, 603d-604b 

&. Being and becoming in relation to intellect: 
abstraction and intuition 

7 PLATO: Cratylus, 113c-114a,c / Phaedrus, 125a- 
126c / Symposium, 167a-d / Phaedo, 224a- 
226c; 228a-232a / Republic, BK in, 333 b- 
334b; BK v-vi, 368c-375b; BK vi, 376d; 
382a-c; BK vi-vn, 383d-398c/ Timaeus, 447b- 
d; 450b-c; 455c-458b/ Theaetetus, 534d-536b/ 
Sophist, 565a-569a esp 568a-569a / Philebus, 
610d-613a; 615c-619d esp 619a-d; 634b-635b 
/ Seventh Letter, 809c-810d 

8 ARISTOTLE: Posterior Analytics, BK i, CH 8 
104a-b / Topics, BK iv, CH i [121*20-26] 169a- 
b / Physics, BK iv, CH n [2i9 b 23~3i] 299c-d; 
BK vn, CH 3 [247 b i-248 a 8] 330b-d / Heavens, 
BK in, CH i [298 b i5-24J 390a-b / Metaphysics, 
BK i, CH 5 [986^5-987*1] 504d-505a; CH 6 
[987*20^18] 505b-d; BK in, CH i [995 b 4~26] 
513d-514b; CH 2 [996*18-997*34] 514d-516a; 
BK iv 522a-532d; BK vi 547b,d-550a,c; BK 
vii, CH 15 [io39 b 20-i 040*8] 563c-564a; BK xi, 
CH 1-8 587a-593d; BK xn, CH 7 602a-603b; 
CH 9 605a-d / Soul, BK i, CH 2 [404 b 7-405 b 29] 
633d-635a; CH 5 [409^8-411*7] 639c-641a; 
BK ii, CH 5 [417*21-418*3] 647d-648c; BK in, 
CH 4-8 661b-664d 

11 NICOMACHUS: Arithmetic, BK i, 811a-d 

17 PLOTINUS: Fifth Ennead, TR v, CH 1-2 
228b-229d; TR ix, CH 5 248a-249a / Sixth 
Ennead, TR i, CH 27-28 266c-267c esp CH 28 
267b-c 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK vn, par 23 50b-c 
/ City of God, BK xi, CH 10, 328c-d / Christian 
Doctrine, BK n, CH 38 654b-c 



19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 5, 
A 2, ANS 24b-25a; Q 12, A i S0c-51c; AA 3-4 
52c-54c; Q 16, AA 2-3 95c-96d; Q 26, A 2, ANS 
150c-151a; Q 34, A i, REP 2 185b-187b; Q 50, 
A 2, ANS and REP i 270a-272a; Q 54, A 2 285d- 
286c; Q 78, A i, ANS 407b-409a; Q 79, AA i-io 
413d-424d passim; Q 84, AA 1-2 440d-443c; 
AA 6-7 447c-450b; Q 85, A i 451c-453c; A 5, 
REP 3 457d-458d; Q 86, A i 461c-462a; A 3 
463b-d; Q 88 468d-473a; Q 89, A 4 476c-477a; 
Q 105, A 3, ANS 540c-541b; PART i-n, Q 3, A 8, 
ANS 628d-629c; Q 10, A i, REP 3 66 2 d- 663d 

20 AQUINAS * Summa Theohgica, PART n-ii, Q 2, 
A 3, ANS 392d-393c; PART in SUPPL, Q 92, A i 
1025c-1032b 

31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART iv, 51c-53b / 

Meditations, n, 81b-d 
35 BERKELEY: Human Knowledge, SECT 25-27 

417d-418b; SECT 88-91 430a-431a; SECT 135- 

i42440a-441c 
42 KANT. Pure Reason, 38a-108a,c esp 39a-c, 

41c-93c / Fund. Prin. Metaphysic of Morals, 

281c-282d; 285a-287d / Judgement, 465a-c 
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART in, par 343 

HOd-llla / Philosophy of History, IN FRO, 160d- 

161c 

8c. Essence or substance as the object of defini- 
tion: real and nominal essences 

7 PLATO. Meno, 174a-179b passim / Euthyphro, 
196a-b / Gorgias, 252d-253b / Republic, BK vi, 
384a-386c esp 385b-c/ Theaetetus, 514b-515c; 
547c-549c / Sophist, 551a-552c / Laws, BK x, 
763c-d / Seventh Letter, 809a-810b 

8 ARISTOTLE: Categories, CH 5 [2*i9~3 b 24] 6b-8a 
/ Posterior Analytics, BK i, CH 22 113b-115b; 
CH 33 [89 a i7- b 5] 121d-122a,c; BK n, CH 3-10 
123c-128d; CH 13 131b-133c / Topics, BK i, CH 
4 [10^17-23] 144b-c; CH 5 [ioi b 37-io2*5] 
144d; CH 8 [io3 b i-n] 146d; CH 18 [io8 a 38- b 9] 
152d; [io8 b i9~32] 153a,c; BK vi, CH i [139*24- 
34] 192a; BK vi, CH 4~BK vii, CH 5 194c-211a,c 
passim / Physics, BK i, CH 3 [i 86 14-3 4] 261c- 
262a; BK n, CH i [i93*30- b i9] 269c-270a; CH 2 
[194*11-14] 270c / Meteorology, BK iv, CH 12 
493d-494d / Metaphysics, BK i, CH 3 [983*24- 
29] 501c; CH 5 [987*19-27] 505b; CH 6 [987*35- 
b io] 505c; [987 b 3o-33] 506a; BK n, CH 2 [994 b 
16-27] 513a-b; BK in, CH 2 [996^2-21] 515a- 
b; BK iv, CH 4 [ioo6*29- b i8] 525c-d; [1007*20- 
b i8] 526c-527a; BK v, CH 2 [1013*27-28] 533b; 
BK vi, CH i [io25 b 28-io26*6] 547d-548a; BK 
vn, CH i [1028*31-37] 550d;cH4-6552b-555a; 
CH 10-17 558a-566a,c; BK vin, CH 2-3 566d- 
568d; CH 6 569d-570d; BK xi, CH 7 [1064*19- 
28] 592c; BK xir, CH 9 [io74 b 37-i075*2] 605c; 
BK xin, CH 2 [io77 b i-io] 608d-609a; CH 4 
[io78 b i8-32] 610b-c / Soul, BK i, CH i 631a- 
632d; BK n, CH i [4i2*i- b 24] 642a-d; BK in, 
CH 6 [430 b 26-3i] 663b-c 

9 ARISTOTLE: Parts of Animals, BK i, CH i 
[641*14-31] 163d-164a; CH 2-3 165d-167d 



152 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



(8, Being and knowledge. Sc. Essence or substance 
as the object of definition: real and nominal 
essences.) 

19 AQUINAS : Sutnma Theologica, PART i, Q i, A 7, 
REP i 7a-c; Q 2, A i, REP 2 lOcMld; A 2, REP 2 
lld-12c; Q 3, A 3, ANS 16a-d; A 5, ANS 17c- 
18b; Q 17, A 3 102d-103c; Q 18, A 2, ANS 105c- 
106b; Q 29, A i 162a-163b; A 2, REP 3 163b- 
164b; Q 44, A i, REP i 238b-239a; A 3, REP 3 
240b-241a; Q 58, A 5 303c-304c; Q 75, A 4, 
ANS 381b-382a; Q 85, A 6 458d-459c; <? 116, 
A i, CONTRARY 592d-593d; PART i-n, Q 10, 
A i, REP 3 662d-663d 

20 AQUINAS- Summa Theologica, PART in, Q 2, 
A i, ANS 710a-711c; A 2, ANS 711d-712d, Q 60, 
A 4, RP.P i 849c-850b 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART i, 55b-c; 56b; PART 

iv, 269b-271a 
28 GALILEO: Two New Sciences, FIRST DAY, 142d- 

143a 

30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 43d-44c / 
Novum Organum, BK 11, APH 4 137d-138b 

31 DESCARTES:, Discourse, PART iv, 51d-52a / 
Objections and Replies, POSTULATE iv 131a-b; 
153d;160d 

31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART i, DBF 4 355b, PROP 8, 
SCHOL 2, 357b-d; PROP 10 358a-b; PART n, 
DEF 2 373b; PROP 37 386b-c; PART in, PROP 4 
398d 

33 PASCAL: Vacuum, 372b-373b; 376b-377a / 
Geometrical Demonstration, 430b-431b 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH 
xxni, SECT 1-16 204a-209a esp SECT 6 205b-c, 
SECT 14 208b-c; SECT 29-32 211d-212d; CH 
xxxi, SECT 3 240a-b, SECT 6-13 240d-243b; 
CH xxxn, SECT 18 246c-247a; SEC i 24 247c-d, 
BK in, CH in, SECT 12-20 257b-260a, CH iv, 
SECT 3 260b; CH v, SECT 14 267b-c; CH vi 
268b-283a; CH ix, SECT 11-17 287d-290a; CH 
x, SECT 17-21 295d-297b; CH xi, SECT 15-23 
303b-305b; BK iv, CH iv, SECT 11-17 326b- 
328d;cHVi, SECT4-i6331d-336d;cHXii,sLCT 
7-12 360b-362c passim, esp SECT 9 360d-361b 

35 BERKELEY: Human Knowledge, INTRO, SFCT 
18 410a-c; SECT 101-102 432c-433a 

42 KANT: Pure Reason, 179d~180a; 215d-216c / 
Science of Right, 404d; 423d-424b 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, INTRO, 176c 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 185a-b; 668a-670b 

8d. The role of essence in demonstration: the 
use of essence, property, and accident in 
inference 

8 ARISTOTLE: Prior Analytics, BK n, CH 27 
[70*3-39] 92a-c / Posterior Analytics 97 a-137a,c 
esp BK ii 122b,d-137a,c / Metaphysics, BK i, 

CH 3 {983*24-29] SOlc; BK III, CH 2 [996 b I2-2l] 

515a-b; [997*25-34] 515d-516a; BK vi, CH i 
[io25 b i-i8] 547b,d; BK xi, CH i [1059*29-34] 
587b; CH 7 [io63 b 36-io64 a 9] 592b / Soul, BK 
ii, CH 2 [4i3*io- b i3] 643 a- d; CH 4 [415*14- 
23] 645b-c 



Uto Sf 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 2, A 2, 
REP 2-3 lld-12c; Q 3, A 5, ANS 17c-18b; Q 17, 
A 3, REP 1-2 102d-103c; Q 18, A 2, ANS 105c- 
106b, Q 46, A 2, ANS 253a-255a; Q 77, A i, REP 
7 399c-401b 

23 HOBBES- Leviathan, PART iv, 269d-270c 

31 DESCARTES: Meditations, v, 93b-c / Objec- 
tions and Replies, 207b 

35 LOCKE Human Understanding, BK in, CH xi, 
SECT 15-17 303b-304a esp SECT 16 303c-d; 
BK iv, CH in, SFCT 9-17 315c-317c passim, esp 
SECT 14 316b-d; CH vi, SECT 4-16 33 Id- 336 d 
passim; CH xn, SECT 6-9 360a-361b 

42 KANT- Pure Reason, 180c-182b 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 666b-673a esp 667b-671a 

8e. The accidental in relation to science and 
definition 

8 ARISTOTLE. Prior Analytics, BK i, CH 13 [32 b 4~ 
23] 48b-d / Posterior Analytics, BK i, CH 4 lOOa- 
lOlb, CH 6 [75*18-38] 103a-c; CH 8 104a-b; 
CH 30 119d / Topics, BK ii-ni 153a-168a,c; 
BK iv, CH i [121*6 9] 168d-169a; CH 2 [i22 b i2- 
18] 170d-171a, CH 4 [i25 a 33- b io] 174b-c, CH 6 
[i27 b i-4] 177a; BK v 178b,d-192a,c; BK vi, CH 
6 196d-199c; CH 14 [i5i*32- b 2] 206b-c / Meta- 
physics, BK i, CH 9 [99o b 22~99i a 2] 509a; BK m, 
CH i [995 b i8-27] 514a-b, CH 2 [997*25-34] 
515d-516a; BK iv, CH 2 522b-524b esp [1005* 
13-17] 524b; BK vi, CH 2 548c-549c; BK vn, 
CH 4-6 552b-555a; BK vni, CH 4 [io44 b 8-2o] 
569b; BK xi, CH i [1059*29-34] 587b; CH 3 
589a-d, BK xin, CH 2 [io77*23~ b i4] 608c-609a 

11 NICOMACHUS- Arithmetic, BK i, 811b-812a 

19 AQUINAS* Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 14, 
A 13, ANS and REP 3 86d-88c, Q 18, A 2, ANS 
105c-106b; Q 57, A 3, ANS 297b-298a; Q 86, 
A 3 463b-d; PART I-H, Q 7, A 2 esp REP 2 
652d-653c; Q 18, A 3, REP 2 695d-696b 

31 DESCARTES Objections and Replies, 135b- 
136b; 153d, 170d; 207b; 209c-210b 

35 LOCKE. Human Understanding, BK n, CH 
xxni, SECT 3-16 204c-209a esp SECT 6 205b-c, 
SECT 14 208b-c; SECT 29-32 211d-212d, SECT 
37 213d-214b; CH xxxi, SECT 8-n 242a-243a; 
SECT 13 243a-b, BK m, CH vi 268b-283a pas- 
sim, esp SECT 2-5 268c-269d; CH ix, SECT 
13-17 288a-290a; CHXI,SECF 19-22 304b 305a 

35 BERKELEY: Human Knowledge, SECT: 1 413a-b; 
SECT 49 422b 

35 HUME Human Understanding, SECT vin, DIV 
67 480c-481a 

Sf. Judgments and demonstrations of existence: 
their sources and validity 

7 PLATO- Laws, BK x, 757d-765d esp 758c-760a, 
760d-762b, 765b-d 

8 ARISTOTLE: Metaphysics, BK i, CH 9 [99O b 9~22] 
508d-509a; BK vi, CH i [i025 b i-i8] 547b,d 

9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK ix, CH 9 (n7o*i6- b 8] 
423d-424b passim, esp [ii7o*28- b i] 424a 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK i [418-448] 
6b-c 



8/ CHAPTER 7: BEING 153 

18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK xi, CH 26 336d- CH HI, SECT 21 319c; CH VH, SECT 7 338c; CH 
337b ix-xi 349a-358c; CH XVH, SECT 2, 371d 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 2, 35 BERKELEY: Human Knowledge, SECT 18-20 
A i, REP 2 lOd-lld; A 2 lld-12c; Q 3, A 4, REP 2 416b-417a; SECT 25-29 417d-418c; SECT 88-89 
16d-17c; A 5, ANS 17c-18b; Q 12, A 12, ANS and 430a-c 

REP i 60d-61c;Q 46, A 2, ANS 253a-255a 35 HUME: Human Understanding, SECT iv, DIV 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART iv, 269d-270c 2O-SECT v, DIV 38 458a-466c passim, esp SECT 

31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART iv, 51c-53b / iv, DIV 30 461d-462b, SECT v, DIV 35 464c-d, 

Meditations, 71d-72a; n, 78a-b; in, 85a-86d; DIV 38, 466b; SECT xi 497b-503c passim, esp 

v-vi 93a~lQ3d / Objections and Replies, HOb-c; DIV 115 503b-c; SECT xn, DIV 117-123 504a- 

121b-c; 122c-123a; 126b-127c; POSTULATE iv- 506a; DIV 132 509a-d 

vn 131a-c; 140b-c; 207b; 209d-210b; 224b,d; 42 KANT- Pure Reason, 85d-88a; I79c-201c esp 

261a 193a-b; 228c-d 

31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART I, PROP n 358b-359b; 44 BOSWELL- Johnson, 134c-d 

PROP 14 359d-360a 46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART in, par 280 

35 LOCKE. Human Understanding, BK n, CH vn, 94d-95a 

SECT 7 132d; CH xiv, SECT 3 155c-d; CH xxin, 53 JAMES: Psychology, 176a-177a; 640b [fn i]; 

SECT 5 205a-b; BK iv, CH n, SECT 14 312b-d; 643a-659a esp 643b-645b, 648a 

CROSS-REFERENCES 

For: 'Being* as a transcendental term or concept, see IDEA 4b(4); METAPHYSICS 2b; OPPOSITION 
2c; for the analysis of the meaning of words like "being," and for the theory of 'being' as an 
analogical term or concept, see RELATION id; SAME AND OTHER 4c; SIGN AND SYMBOL 3d. 

The discussion of unity, goodness, and truth as properties of being, or as convertible with 
being, see GOOD AND EVIL ib; ONE AND MANY i; SAME AND OTHER la, 2e; TRUTH ib. 

Other treatments of the distinction between being and becoming, and of the problem of the 
reality of mutable as compared with immutable being, see CHANGE i, IDC; ETERNITY 43- 
4b; MATTER i; NECESSITY AND CONTINGENCY 2c. 

Considerations relevant to the distinction between essence and existence, see FORM 2a; GOD 
23-20, 43; NECESSITY AND CONTINGENCY 2a-2b; SOUL 4b; UNIVERSAL AND PARTICULAR 
2a; for considerations relevant to the distinction between substance and accident, or 
between the essential and the accidental, see FORM 20(2); MATTER ib; NATURE ia(i); 
NECESSITY AND CONTINGENCY 2d; QUALITY i; QUANTITY i; SAME AND OTHER 33; 
SOUL 2a; and for the problem of the being of qualities, quantities, and relations, see 
QUALITY i; QUANTITY i; RELATION la. 

Considerations relevant to the distinction between potentiality and actuality, or matter and 
form, see CHANGE 2a; DESIRE 23; FORM 2c(i); HABIT la; INFINITY ib, 40; MATTER i-ia, 
3b; MIND 2b, 40; NECESSITY AND CONTINGENCY i; for considerations relevant to the dis- 
tinction between the real and the ideal, see IDEA 30, 6a-6b; KNOWLEDGE 63(3); and for the 
controversy over the real existence of ideas, forms, mathematical objects, umversals, see 
FORM la, 2a; MATHEMATICS 2b; SPACE 5; UNIVERSAL AND PARTICULAR 2a-2c. 

Considerations relevant to the distinction between sensible and supra-sensible being, see 
KNOWLEDGE 6a(i), 63(4); MIND ia(i). 

Elaborations of the theory of substance and treatments of the distinction between material and 
immaterial, corruptible and incorruptible substances, see ANGEL 2; CHANGE ice; ELEMENT 
53; FORM 2d; MAN 33-33(1), 3b; MATTER 2, 2d, 33; MIND ib, 2a, loc-iod; SOUL 33-30, 4b. 

The relation of being and becoming as objects of knowledge to the faculties of sense and 
reason, see CHANGE u; KNOWLEDGE 6a(i); OPINION i; SENSE ib. 

Essence in relation to the natures of things and to their definitions, see DEFINITION la; FORM 
3c; KNOWLEDGE 63(2); NATURE la, 13(2), 43. 

The relation of the concept 'being' to the principle of contradiction, both as a principle of 
being and of thought, see OPPOSITION 23; PRINCIPLE ic. 

Logical problems concerning judgments of existence and proofs of existence, see GOD 2c; 
JUDGMENT 8c; KNOWLEDGE 63(3); NECESSITY AND CONTINGENCY 2b; REASONING da. 



154 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



ADDITIONAL READINGS 

Listed below are works not included in Great Booty of the Western World, but relevant to the 
idea and topics with which this chapter deals. These works ace divided into two groups: 

I. Works by authors represented in this collection. 
II. Works by authors not represented in this collection. 

For the date, place, and other facts concerning the publication of the works cited, consult 
the Bibliography of Additional Readings which follows the last chapter of The Great Ideas. 



AQUINAS, On Being and Essence 

DESCARTES. The Principles of Philosophy, PART i, 



HOBBFS. Concerning Body, PART n, CH 8, 10 
BERKELEY. Three Dialogues Between Hylas and 

Philonous 
HUME. A Treatise of Human Nature, BK i, PART i, 

SECT VI, PART II, SLCT VI 

KANT. Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science 
HEGEL. The Phenomenology of Mind, vni 

- . Science of Logic, VOL i, BK i, SECT i; SECT in, 

CH I (c), 3; BK II, SECT I, CH I J SECT II, CH I \ SECT 

in, CH 2, 3 (A) 

- . Logic, CH 7-8 

W. JAMES. Some Problems of Philosophy, CH 2-3 

II. 

SEXTUS EMPIRICUS. Against the Physicists, BK n, CH 5 
PORPHYRY. Introduction to Aristotle's Predicaments 
PROCLUS. The Elements of Theology, (c, j) 
BOETHIUS. In Isagogem Porphyri Commenta 

- . De Trimtate (On the Trinity) 
ERIGENA. De Dwisione Naturae 

BON A VENTURA. Itineranum Mentis in Deum (The 

Itinerary of the Mind to God) 
DUNS SCOTUS. Tractatus de Pnmo Pnncipw (A 

Tract Concerning the First Principle) 
CRESCAS. Or Adonat, PROPOSITIONS 18-25 
ALBO. The Boof(of Principles (Sefer ha-Ikfcarim), BK 

II, CH I 

G. Pico DELLA MIRANDOLA. Of Being and Unity 

CAJETAN. De Conceptu Entis 

SUAREZ. Disputationes Metaphysicae 

JOHN OF SAINTTHOMAS. Cursus Philosophicus Thomis- 

ticus, Ars Logica, PART n, QQ 2, 13-19 
MALEBRANCHE. Dialogues on Metaphysics and 

Religion 

LEIBNITZ. Discourse on Metaphysics, VIII-XIH 
1 New Essays Concerning Human Understanding, 

BK II, CH 23-24 

- . Monadology, par 1-9 
WOLFF. Ontologia 
DIDEROT. /> reve de fAlembert 



]. G. FICHTE. The Science of Knowledge 
SCHOPENHAUER. The World as Will and Idea, VOL i, 

BK I, IV 

I. H. FICHTE. Ontologie 

KIERKEGAARD. Concluding Unscientific Postscript 

CLIFFORD. "On the Nature of Things-In-Them- 

selves," in VOL n, lectures and Essays 
LOTZE. Microcosmos, BK ix, CH 1-3 

. Metaphysics, BK i, CH 1-3 

C. S. PURGE Collected Papers, VOL i, par 545-567; 

VOL vi, par 327-372, 385 
BRADLEY The Principles of Logic, Terminal Essays, 

VII, XI 

. Appearance and Reality, BK i, CH 2, 7-8; BK n, 

CH 13-15, 24, 26 
ROYCE. The World and the Individual, SERIES i 

('-4- 8) 

CASSIRER. Substance and Function, PART i; PART n, 
CH 6 

HUSSERL. Ideas: General Introduction to Pure Phe- 
nomenology 

GARRIGOU-LAGRANGE. God, His Existence and Na- 
ture, PART II, APPENDIX 2 

BERGSON. Creative Evolution 

. The Creative Mind, CH 3, 6 

MCTAGGART. The Nature of 'Existence ', BK i 

MOORE. Philosophical Studies, CH 6 

DEWEY. Experience and Nature, CH 2, 8, 10 

HEIDEGGER. Sein und Zeit 

B. RUSSELL. The Analysis of Matter, CH 23 

SANTAYANA. The Realm of Essence, CH i-ii 

WHITEHEAD. Process and Reality 

LOVE JOY. The Great Chain of Being 

A. E. TAYLOR. Philosophical Studies, CH in 

BLONDEL. Uhrc et les etres 

WFISS. Reality 

SARTRE. Letre et le nSant 

. Existentialism 

MARITAIN. An Introduction to Philosophy, PART n 

(5-7) 

. The Degrees of Knowledge, CH 4 

. A Preface to Metaphysics, LECT i-iv 

. Existence and the Existent 

GILSON. L'ftre et r essence 

. Being and Some Philosophers 



Chapter 8: CAUSE 



INTRODUCTION 



EXPLANATION is an inveterate human 
tendency. Even philosophers who think 
that we cannot attain to knowledge of causes 
get involved in explaining why that is so. Nor 
will their disputes about the theory of causes 
ever remove the word "because*' from the vo- 
cabulary of common speech. It is as unavoid- 
able as the word "is." "The impulse to seek 
causes," says Tolstoy, "is innate in the soul of 
man." 

The question "Why ?" remains after all other 
questions are answered. It is sometimes the only 
unanswerable question unanswerable either in 
the very nature of the case or because there are 
secrets men cannot fathom. Sometimes, as Dan- 
te says, man must be "content with the quta" 
the knowledge that something is without know- 
ing why. "Why?" is the one question which it 
has been deemed the better part of wisdom not 
to ask; yet it has also been thought the one 
question which holds the key to wisdom. As 
Virgil writes, in one of his most famous lines, 
Fehx, quipotuttrerum cognoscere causas (Happy 
the man who has been able to know the causes 
of things). 

The question "Why ?" takes many forms and 
can be answered in many ways. Other knowl- 
edge may prove useful in providing the answers. 
A definition, for example, which tells us what a 
thing is, may explain why it behaves as it does 
or why it has certain properties. A narrative, 
which tells us how some thing happened by de- 
scribing a succession of events, may also be part 
of the total explanation of some event in ques- 
tion. 

In other circumstances, a demonstration or a 
statement of grounds or reasons may be ex- 
planatory. "How do you know?" is often a con- 
cealed form of the "Why" question. To answer 
it we may have to give our reasons for thinking 
that something or other is the case; or perhaps 



give the genesis of our opinion ..Things as differ- 
ent as a logical demonstration and a piece of 
autobiography seem to be relevant in account- 
ing for our convictions; as, in accounting for 
our behavior, we may refer to our purposes and 
to our past. 

THE GREEK WORD for cause, from which our 
English word "aetiology" is derived, came into 
the vocabulary of science and philosophy from 
the language of the law courts. In its legal sense 
it was used to point out where the responsibility 
lay. A suit at law is based upon a cause of action; 
he who demands redress for an injury suffered 
is expected to place the blame. The charge of 
responsibility for wrongdoing the blame or 
fault which is the cause for legal redress or pun- 
ishment naturally calls for excuses, which may 
include a man's motives. 

In the context of these legal considerations, 
two different meanings of cause begin to ap- 
pear. One man's act is the cause of injury to 
another, in the sense of being responsible for 
its occurrence. If the act was intentional, it 
probably had a cause in the purpose which mo- 
tivated it. 

These two types of cause appear in the ex- 
planations of the historians as well as in trials at 
law. Herodotus and Thucydides, trying to ac- 
count for the Persian or the Peloponnesian war, 
enumerate the incidents which led up to the 
outbreak of hostilities. They cite certain past 
events as the causes of war the factors which 
predisposed the parties toward conflict, and 
even precipitated it. The historians do not 
think they can fully explain why the particular 
events become the occasions for war except by 
considering the hopes and ambitions, or, as 
Thucydides suggests, the fears of the contest* 
ants. For the ancient historians at least, finding 
the causes includes a. search. for the motives 



155 



156 



THE GREA'T IDEAS 



which underlie other causes and help to explain 
how other factors get their causal efficacy. 

Thucydides explicitly distinguishes these two 
kinds of causes in the first chapter of his history. 
After noting that the "immediate cause" of the 
war was the breaking of a treaty, he adds that 
the "real- cause" was one "which was formally 
most kept out of sight," namely, the "growth 
of the power of Athens, and the alarm which 
this inspired in Lacedaemon." 

It is sometimes supposed that Thucydides 
owes his conception of causes to the early medi- 
cal tradition. That might very well be the case, 
for^ Hippocrates constantly seeks the "natural 
caused of disease; and in his analysis of the 
various factors involved in any particular dis- 
ease, he tries to distinguish between the pre- 
disposing and the exciting causes. 

But the classification of causes was not com- 
pleted in the Athenian law courts, in the Greek 
interpretation of history, or in the early prac- 
tice of medicine. Causes were also the pre- 
occupation of the pre-Socratic physicists. Their 
study of nature was largely devoted to an anal- 
ysis of the principles, elements, and causes of 
change. Concerned with the problem of change 
in general, not merely with human action, or 
particular phenomena such as crime, war, or 
disease, Greek scientists or philosophers, from 
Thales and Anaxagoras to Empedocles, De^moc- 
ritus, Plato, and Aristotle, tried to discover the 
causes involved in any change. Aristotle carried 
the analysis furthest and set a pattern for all 
later discussions of cause. 

THE EXPLANATION OF a thing, according to 
Aristotle, must answer all of the queries "com- 
prehended under the question 'why.' " This 
question can be answered^ he thinks, in at least 
four different ways, and these four ways of say- 
ing why something is the case constitute his fa- 
mous theory of the four causes. 

u ln one sense," he writes, "that out of which 
a thing comes to be and which persists, is called 
'cause 1 " the material cause. "In anothersense, 
thd form or the archetype" is a causethe for- 
mal cause. " Again the primary sourc^dd? the 
change or coming to rest" is 1 caUse*~the em* 
cient cause, "Again the end or 'that for the 
saW of which' a thing is done" is a cause*--the 
final cause* 'This," he conclude, "perhaps ex 1 



hausts the number of ways in which the term 
'cause' is used." 

The production of works of art, to which 
Aristotle hinieeff frequently turns for examples, 
most readily illustrates these four different 
kinds of causes. In making a shoe, the material 
cause is that out of which the shoe is made the 
leather or hide. The efficient cause is the shoe- 
maker, or more precisely the shoemaker's acts 
which transform the raw material into the 
finished product. The formal cause is the pat- 
tern which directs the work; it is, in a sense, 
the definition or type of the thing to be 
made, which, beginning as a plan in the artist's 
mind, appears at the end of the work in the 
transformed material as its own intrinsic form. 
The protection of the foot is the final cause or 
end that for the sake of which the shoe was 
made. 

Two of the four causes seem to be less dis- 
cernible in nature than in art. The material and 
efficient causes remain evident enough. The 
material cause can usually be identified as that 
which undergoes the change the thing which 
grows, alters in color, or moves from place to 
place. The efficient cause is always that by 
which the change is produced. It is the 
moving cause working on that which is sus- 
ceptible to change, e.g., the fire heating the 
water, the rolling stone setting another stone 
in motion. 

But the formal cause is not as apparent in 
nature as in art. Whereas in art it can be iden- 
tified by reference to the plan in the maker's 
mind, it must be discovered in nature in the 
change itself, as that which completes the pro- 
cess. For example, the redness which the apple 
takes on in ripening is the formal c^use of its 
alteration in color. The trouble with the final 
cause is that it so often tends to be inseparable 
from the formal cause; for unless some extrinsic 
purpose can be found for a natural change* 
some end beyond itself which the change serves 
the final cause, or that for the sake of which 
the change took place, is no other than the 
quality or form which the matter assumes as a 
result of its transformation. 

THIS SUMMARY of Aristotle's dottrine of the 
four causes enables us to note some of the basic 
issues and shifts in the thebrv of causation. 



CHAPTER 8: CAUSE 



157 



The attack on final causes does not, at the 
beginning at least, reject them completely. 
Bacon, for example, divides natural philosophy 
into two parts, of which one part, "physics, 
inquireth and handleth the material and effi- 
cient causes; and the other, which is meta- 
physics, handleth the formal and final causes." 
The error of his predecessors, of which he com- 
plains, is their failure to separate these two 
types of inquiry. The study of final causes is 
inappropriate in physics, he thinks. 

"This misplacing," Bacon comments, u hath 
caused a deficiency, or at least a great impro- 
ficiency in the sciences themselves. For the 
handling of final causes, mixed with the rest in 
physical inquiries, hath intercepted the severe 
and diligent inquiry of all real and physical 
causes, and given men the occasion to stay upon 
these satisfactory and specious causes, to the 
great arrest and prejudice of further discov- 
ery." On this score, he charges Plato, Aristotle, 
and Galen with impeding the development of 
science, not because "final causes are not true, 
and worthy to be inquired, being kept within 
their own province; but because their excur- 
sions into the limits of physical causes hath bred 
a vastness and solitude in that tract." 

Such statements as "the hairs of the eyelids 
are for a quickset and fence about the sight," 
or that "the leaves of trees are for protecting of 
the fruit, "or that "the clouds are for watering 
of the earth," are, in Bacon's opinion, "imper- 
tinent" in physics. He therefore praises the 
mechanical philosophy of Democntus. It seems 
to him to inquire into the "particularities of 
physical causes" better "than that of Aristotle 
and Plato, whereof both intermingled final 
causes, the one as a part of theology, the other 
as a part of logic." 

As Bacon's criticisms indicate, the attack on 
final causes in nature raises a whole series of 
questions. Does every natural change serve 
some purpose, either for the good of the chang- 
ing thing or for the order of nature itself? Is 
there a plan, analogous to that of an artist, 
which orders the parts of nature, and their ac- 
tivities, to one another as means to ends? A 
natural teleology, which attributes final causes 
to everything, seems to imply that every nat- 
ural thing is governed by an indwelling form 
working toward a definite end, and that the 



whole of nature exhibits the working out of a 
divine plan or design. 

Spinoza answers such questions negatively. 
"Nature has set no end before herself," he de- 
clares, and "all final causes are nothing but 
human fictions." Furthermore, he insists, "this 
doctrine concerning an end altogether over- 
turns nature. For that which is in truth the 
cause it considers as the effect, and vice versa'' 
He deplores those who "will not cease from 
asking the causes of causes, until at last you fly 
to the will of God, the refuge of ignorance." 

Spinoza denies that God acts for an end and 
that the universe expresses a divine purpose. 
He also thinks that final causes are illusory even 
in the sphere of human action. When we say 
that "having a house to live in was the final 
cause of this or that house," we do no more than 
indicate a "particular desire, which is really an 
efficient cause, and is considered as primary, be- 
cause men are usually ignorant of the causes of 
their desires." 

Though Descartes replies to Pierre Gassen- 
di's arguments "on behalf of final causality," by 
saying that they should "be referred to the 
efficient cause," his position more closely re- 
sembles that of Bacon than of Spinoza. When 
we behold "the uses of the various parts in 
plants and animals," we may be led to admire 
"the God who brings these into existence," but 
"that does not imply," he adds, "that we can 
divine the purpose for which He made each 
thing. And although in Ethics, where it is often 
allowable to employ conjecture, it is at times 
pious to consider the end which we may con- 
jecture God set before Himself in ruling the 
universe, certainly in Physics, where every- 
thing should rest upon the securest arguments, 
it is futile to do so." 

The elimination of final causes from natural 
science leads Descartes to formulate Harvey's 
discoveries concerning the motion of the heart 
and blood in purely mechanical terms. But 
Harvey himself, as Boyle points out in his Dis- 
quisition About the Final Causes of Natural 
Things, interprets organic structures in terms of 
their functional utility; and Boyle defends the 
soundness of Harvey's method employing fi- 
nal causes against Descartes. 

Guided as it is by the principle of utility or 
function, Harvey's reasoning about the circula- 



158 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



tion of the blood especially its venal and ar- 
terial flow in relation to the action of the lungs 
appeals to final causes. He remarks upon the 
need of arguing from the final cause in his work 
on animal generation. "It appears advisable to 
me," he writes, "to look back from the perfect 
animal, and to inquire by what process it has 
arisen and grown to maturity, to retrace our 
steps, as it were, from the goal to the starting 
place." 

Kant generalizes this type of argument in his 
Critique of Teleologtcal Judgement. "No one has 
ever questioned," he says, "the correctness of 
the principle that when judging certain things 
in nature, namely organisms and their possi- 
bility, we must look to the conception of final 
causes. Such a principle is admittedly necessary 
even where we require no more than a guiding- 
thread for the purpose of becoming acquainted 
with the character of these things by means of 
observation." Kant criticizes a mechanism 
which totally excludes the principle of finality 
whether it is based on the doctrine of "blind 
chance" of Democritus and Epicurus, or the 
"system of fatality" he attributes to Spinoza. 
Physical science, he thinks, can be extended by 
the principle of final causes "without interfer- 
ing with the principle of the mechanism of 
physical causality." 

THE TENDENCY TO dispense with final causes 
seems to prevail, however, in the science of me- 
chanics and especially in the domain of inani- 
mate nature. Huygens, for example, defines 
light as "the motion of some sort of matter." 
He explicitly insists that conceiving natural 
things in this way is the only way proper to 
what he calls the "true Philosophy, in which 
one conceives the causes of all natural effects in 
terms of mechanical motions." 

Mechanical explanation is distinguished by 
the fact that it appeals to no principles except 
matter and motion. The material and the mov- 
ing (or efficient) causes suffice. The philosoph- 
ical thought of the i7th century, influenced by 
that century's brilliant accomplishments in me- 
chanics, tends to be mechanistic in its theory 
of causation. Yet, being also influenced by the 
model and method of mathematics, thinkers 
like Descartes and Spinoza retain the formal 
cause as a principle of demonstration, if not of 



explanation. Spinoza, in fact, claims that the 
reliance upon final causes "would have been 
sufficient to keep the human race in darkness 
to all eternity, if mathematics, which does not 
deal with ends, but with the essences and prop- 
erties of forms, had not placed before us another 
rule of truth." 

Nevertheless, the tendency to restrict causal- 
ity to efficiency a motion producing a motion 
gams headway. By the time Hume questions 
man's ability to know causes, the term cause 
signifies only efficiency \ understood as the energy 
expended in producing an effect. Hume's doubt 
concerning our ability to know causes presup- 
poses this conception of cause and effect, which 
asserts that "there is some connection between 
them, some power in the one by which it in- 
fallibly produces the other." The identification 
of cause with the efficient type of cause becomes 
a commonly accepted notion, even among those 
who do not agree with Hume that "we are ig- 
norant ... of the manner in which bodies oper- 
ate on each other"; and that "their force and 
energy is entirely incomprehensible" to us. 

The narrowing of causality to efficiency also 
appears in the doctrine, more prevalent today 
than ever before, that natural science describes, 
but does not explain that it tells us how things 
happen, but not why. If it does not require the 
scientist to avoid all reference to causes, it 
does limit him to the one type of causality 
which can be expressed in terms of sequences 
and correlations. The exclusion of all causes ex- 
cept the efficient tends furthermore to reduce 
the causal order to nothing but the relation of 
cause and effect. 

The four causes taken together as the suffi- 
cient reason for things or events do not as such 
stand in relation to an effect, in the sense in 
which an effect is something separable from and 
externally related to its cause. That way of con- 
ceiving causation as a relation of cause to 
effect is appropriate to the efficient cause 
alone. When the efficient cause is regarded as 
the only cause, having a power proportionate to 
the reality of its effect, the very meaning of 
came involves relation to an effect, 

In the other conception of causation, the 
causal order relates the four causes to one an^ 
other. Of the four causes of any change or act, 
the first, says Aquinas, "is the final cause; the 



CHAPTER 8: CAUSE 



159 



reason of which is that matter does not receive 
form, save in so far as it is moved by an agent, 
for nothing reduces itself from potentiality to 
act. But an agent does not move except from 
the intention of an end." Hence in operation 
the order of the four causes is final, efficient, 
material, and formal; or, as Aquinas states it, 
"first comes goodness and the end, moving the 
agent to act; secondly the action of the agent 
moving to the form; thirdly, comes the form.' 1 

THE THEORY OF causes, as developed by Aris- 
totle and Aquinas, proposes other distinctions 
beyond that of the four causes, such as the dif- 
ference between the essential cause or the cause 
per se and the accidental or coincidental cause. 
As indicated in the chapter on CHANCE, it is in 
terms of coincidental causes that Aristotle 
speaks of chance as a cause. 

A given effect may be the result of a number 
of efficient causes. Sometimes these form a se- 
ries, as when one body in motion sets another in 
motion, and that moves a third, or, to take an- 
other example, a man is the cause of his grand- 
son only through having begotten a son who 
later begets a son. In such a succession of causes, 
the first cause may be indispensable, but it is 
not by itself sufficient to produce the effect. 
With respect to the effect which it fails to pro- 
duce unless other causes intervene, it is an ac- 
cidental cause. In contrast, an essential cause is 
one which, by its operation, immediately brings 
the effect into existence. 

Sometimes, however, a number of efficient 
causes may be involved simultaneously rather 
than successively in the production of a single 
effect. They may be related to one another as 
cause and effect rather than by mere coinci- 
dence. One cause may be the essential cause of 
another which in turn is the essential cause of 
the effect. When two causes arc thus simulta- 
neously related to the same eifect, Aquinas calls 
one the principal, the other the instrumental 
cause; and he gives as an example the action of 
a workman sawing wood. The action of the saw 
causes a shaping of the wood, but it is instru- 
mental to the operation of the principal cause, 
which is the action of the workman using the 
saw. 

These two distinctions between essential 
and accidental causes and between principal 



and instrumental causes become of great sig- 
nificance in arguments, metaphysical or theo- 
logical, concerning the cause of causes a first 
or ultimate cause. Aristotle's proof of a prime 
mover, for example, depends upon the proposi- 
tion that there cannot be an infinite number of 
causes for a given effect. But since Anstotle 
also holds that the world is without beginning 
or end and that time is infinite, it may be won- 
dered why the chain of causes cannot stretch 
back to infinity. 

If time is infinite, a temporal sequence of 
causes reaching back to infinity would seem to 
present no difficulty. As Descartes points out, 
you cannot "prove that that regress to infinity 
is absurd, unless you at the same time show that 
the world has a definite beginning in time.'* 
Though it is a matter of their Jewish and Chris- 
tian faith that the world had a beginning in 
time, theologians like Maimonides and Aquinas 
do not think the world's beginning can be 
proved by reason. They do, however, think that 
the necessity of a first cause can be demon- 
strated, and both adopt or perhaps adapt the 
argument of Aristotle which relies on the im- 
possibility of an infinite regression in causes. 

The argument is valid, Aquinas makes clear, 
only if we distinguish between essential and 
accidental causes. "It is not impossible," he 
says, "to proceed to infinity accidentally as re- 
gards efficient causes. ... It is not impossible 
for man to be generated by man to infinity." 
But, he holds, "there cannot be an infinite num- 
ber of causes that are per se required for a cer- 
tain effect; for instance, that a stone be moved 
by a stick, the stick by the hand, and so on to 
infinity," In the latter case, it should be ob- 
served, the cooperating causes are simultaneous 
and so if there were an infinity of them, that 
would not require an infinite time. The crux of 
the argument, therefore, lies either in the im- 
possibility of an infinite number of simulta- 
neous causes, or in the impossibility of an infinite 
number of causes related to one another as in- 
strumental to principal cause. 

Among causes so related, Descartes, like 
Aquinas, argues that there must be one first or 
principal cause. "In the case of causes which are 
so connected and subordinated to one another, 
that no action on the part of the lower is possi- 
ble without the activity of the higher; e.g., in 



160 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



the case where something is moved by a stone, 
itself impelled by a stick, which the hand moves 
... we must go on until we come to one thing 
in motion which first moves." But for Des- 
cartes, unlike Aquinas, this method of proving 
God as the first cause of all observable effects 
has less elegance than the so-called "ontological 
argument" in which the conception of God as 
a necessary being, incapable of not existing, 
immediately implies his existence. 

The argument from effect to cause is tradi- 
tionally called a posteriori reasoning, in contrast 
to a priori reasoning from cause to effect. Ac- 
cording to Aristotle and Aquinas, the latter 
mode of reasoning can only demonstrate the 
nature of a thing, not its existence. Aquinas, 
furthermore, does not regard the ontological 
argument as a form of reasoning at all, but 
rather as the assertion that God's existence is 
self-evident to us, which he denies. 

The various forms which these arguments 
take and the issue concerning their validity are 
more fully discussed in the chapters on BEING, 
GOD, and NECESSITY AND CONTINGENCY. But 
here it is worth noting that Kant questions 
whether the a posteriori method of proving 
God's existence really differs from the ontologi- 
cal argument. It is, according to him, not only 
"illusory and inadequate," but also "possesses 
the additional blemish of an ignoratio elenchi 
professing to conduct us by a new road to the 
desired goal, but bringing us back, after a short 
circuit, to the old path which we had deserted 
at its call." Hence the causal proof does not, in 
Kant's opinion, succeed in avoiding the fallacies 
which he, along with Maimomdes and Aquinas, 
finds in the ontological argument. 

THE ANALYSIS OF CAUSATION figures critically 
in the speculation of the theologians concerning 
creation, providence, and the government of 
the world. 

The dogma of creation, for example, requires 
the conception of a unique type of cause. Even 
if the world always existed a supposition 
which, as we have seen, is contrary to Jewish 
and Christian faith but not to reason the re- 
ligious belief in a Creator would remain a belief 
in that unique cause without whose action to 
preserve its being at every moment the world 
would cease to be. 



On the assumption that God created the 
world in the beginning, it is, perhaps, easy 
enough to see with Augustine how "the creat- 
ing and originating work which gave being to 
all natures, differs from all other types of causa- 
tion which cause motions or changes, or even 
the generation of things, rather than their very 
existence." It may, however, be more difficult 
to understand the creative action of God in re- 
lation to a world already in existence. 

But a theologian like Aquinas explains that 
"as long as a thing has being, so long must God 
be present to it" as the cause of its being a 
doctrine which Berkeley later reports by saying 
that this makes "the divine conservation ... to 
be a continual creation." Aquinas agrees that 
"the conservation of things by God is not by a 
new action, but by the continuation of that 
action whereby He gives being." But in the 
conservation of things Aquinas thinks that God 
acts through natural or created causes, whereas 
in their initiation, being is the proper effect of 
God alone. 

The dogma of divine providence also requires 
a theory of the cooperation of the first cause 
with natural or secondary causes. Dante, m de- 
scribing the direction which providence gives 
to the course of nature, uses the image of a bow. 
"Whatsoever this bow shoots falls disposed to 
its foreseen end, even as a thing directed to its 
aim." That God governs and cares for all things 
may be supposed to reduce nature to a puppet 
show in which every action takes place in obe- 
dience to the divine will alone. Natural causes 
would thus cease to be causes or to have any 
genuine efficacy in the production of their own 
effects. 

Some theologians have tended toward this 
extreme position, but Aquinas argues contrari- 
wise that natural causes retain their efficacy as 
instrumental causes, subordinate to God's will 
as the one principal cause. "Since God wills 
that effects be because of their causes," he 
writes, "all effects that presuppose some other 
effect do not depend solely on the will of God" ; 
and, in another place, he says, "whatsoever 
causes He assigns to certain effects, He gives 
them the power to produce those effects ... so 
that the dignity of causality is imparted even to 
creatures." 

In addition to the role of divine causality in 



CHAPTER 8: CAUSE 



the regular processes of nature, still another 
kind of divine causation is presupposed by the 
religious belief in supernatural events, such as 
the elevation of nature by grace and the devia- 
tions from the course of nature which are called 
"miracles." All these considerations, and espe- 
cially the matter of God's miraculous interven- 
tion in the regular course of nature, have been 
subjects of dispute among theologians and phi- 
losophers (and sometime physicists and histo- 
rians). Some of those who do not deny the ex- 
istence of a Creator, or the divine government 
of the universe through natural law, neverthe- 
less question the need for divine cooperation 
with the action of every natural cause, or God's 
intervention in the order of nature. 

Throughout these controversies, the theory 
of causes defines the issues and determines the 
lines of opposing argument. But since other 
basic notions are also involved in the debate of 
these issues, the further consideration of them 
is reserved for other chapters, especially GOD, 
NATURE, and WORLD. 

THE DISCUSSION OF CAUSE takes a new turn in 
modern times. The new issues arise, not from 
different interpretations of the principle of 
causality, but from the skeptic's doubts con- 
cerning our ability to know the causes of things, 
and from the tendency of the physical sciences 
to limit or even to abandon the investigation of 
causes. 

According to the ancient conception of sci- 
ence, knowledge, to be scientific, must state the 
causes of things. The essence of scientific meth- 
od, according to the Posterior Analytics of Aris- 
totle, consists in using causes both to define and 
to demonstrate. Sometimes genus and differ- 
entia are translated into material and formal 
cause; sometimes a thing is defined genetically 
by reference to its efficient cause, and sometimes 
teleologically by reference to its final cause. 

The degree to which this conception of sci- 
ence is realized in particular fields may be ques- 
tioned. The treatises of the astronomers, for 
example, do not seem to exemplify it as much 
as do Aristotle's own physical treatises or Har- 
vey's work on the circulation of the blood. Yet 
until modern developments in mathematical 
physics, the ascertainment of causes seems to be 
the dominant conception of the scientific task; 



and until the separation widens between thei 
perimental and the philosophical sciences* M 
possibility of knowing causes is not genera 
doubted, 

Galileo's exposition of the new mccbar 
explicitly announces a departure from the t 
ditional interest of the natural philosopher 
the discovery of causes. The aim, he says in 
Two New Sciences, is not "to investigate 
cause of the acceleration of natural mott 
concerning which various opinions have b< 
expressed by various philosophers"; but rat 
"to investigate and to demonstrate some of 
properties of accelerated motion." The "v 
lous opinions" about causes are referred tc 
"fantasies" which it is "not really worth whi 
for the scientist to examine. 

This attitude toward causes, especially c 
cient causes, characterizes the aim of mat 
matical physics, both in astronomy and r 
chanics. For Newton it is enough in fact, 
says, it "would be a very great step in phii 
ophy" "to derive two or three general pi 
ciples of motion from phenomena . . . thoi 
the causes of those principles were not yet < 
covered. And, therefore, I scruple not to p 
pose the principles of motion . . . and lei 
their causes to be found out." In other passaj 
Newton disparages the search for "hidden 
occult causes" as no part of the business 
science, 

Hume goes further. He insists that all cat 
are hidden. By the very nature of what cai 
are supposed to be and because of the man 
in which the human mind knows, man i 
have no knowledge of how causes really j: 
duce their effects. "We never can, by our 
most scrutiny," he says, "discover anyth 
but one event following another, with 
being able to comprehend any force or po* 
by which the cause operates, or any connex 
between it and its supposed effect." 

All that men can be referring to when tj 
use the words "cause" and "effect," HU 
thinks, is the customary sequence of "one 
ject followed by another, and where all obj< 
similar to the first are followed by objects $i 
lar to the second." So far as any knowlei 
based upon reason or experience can go, 
relation of cause and effect is simply one 
succession, impressed upon the mind "far 



162 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



customary transition." That one event leads to 
another becomes more and more probable but 
never more than probable as the sequence 
recurs more and more frequently in experience. 

Hume's skepticism about causes, and his re- 
interpretation of the meaning of cause, gains 
wide acceptance in subsequent thought, es- 
pecially among natural scientists. William 
James, for example, considering "the principle 
that 'nothing can happen without a cause,' " 
declares that "we have no definite idea of what 
we mean by cause, or of what causality consists 
in. But the principle expresses a demand for 
some deeper sort of inward connection between 
phenomena than their merely habitual time- 
sequence seems to be. The word 'cause' is, in 
short, an altar to an unknown god; an empty 
pedestal still marking the place for a hoped-for 
statue. Any really inward belonging- together 
of the sequent terms," he continues, "if dis- 
covered, would be accepted as what the word 
cause was meant to stand for." 

Though Hume holds that we cannot pene- 
trate beyond experience to the operation of 
real causes imbedded in the nature of things, 
he does not deny the reality of causation as a 
principle of nature, On the contrary, he denies 
that anything happens by chance or that any 
natural occurrence can be uncaused. "It is uni- 
versally allowed," Hume says with approval, 
"that nothing exists without a cause of its exist- 
ence, and that chance, when strictly examined, 
is a mere negative word, and means not any 
real power which has anywhere a being in na- 
ture." But "though there is no such thing as 
chance in the world, our ignorance of the real 
cause of any event has the same influence on 
the understanding, and begets a like species of 
belief or opinion." 

In other words, Hume's position seems to be 
that man's ignorance of real causes, and the 
mere probability of his opinions about custom- 
ary sequences of "cause" and "effect," indicate 
human limitations, not limits to causal deter- 
mination in the order of nature itself. Adversar- 
ies of Hume, coming before as well as after 
him in the tradition of the great books, take 
issue with him on both points. 

Against Hume's determinism, which is no 
less complete than Spinoza's, Aristotle, for 
example, affirms the existence of chance or real 



contingency in the happenings of nature. 
Against Hume's reduction of statements about 
causes to probable opinion, Kant insists that, 
in the metaphysics of nature, such judgments 
can be made with absolute certainty. These 
related issues are discussed in the chapters on 
CHANCE, FATE, and NECESSITY AND CONTIN- 
GENCY. 

In the development of the natural sciences 
since Hume's day, his translation of cause and 
effect into observed sequences or correlations 
reinforces the tendency, which first appears 
with Galileo and Newton, to describe rather 
than to explain natural phenomena. Yet to the 
extent that the findings of science bear fruit 
in technology, man's control over nature seems 
to confirm Bacon's view of science rather than 
Hume's at least to the extent that the appli- 
cation of scientific knowledge to the production 
of effects implies a knowledge of their causes. 

THE PRINCIPLE OF CAUSALITY that nothing 
happens without a cause or sufficient reason, 
or, as Spinoza puts it, "nothing exists from 
whose nature an effect does not follow" has 
been made the basis for denials of human free- 
dom as well as of chance or contingency in the 
order of nature. The problem of man's free will 
is discussed m the chapters on FATE, LIBERTY, 
and WILL, but we can here observe how the 
problem is stated in terms of cause, with re- 
spect to both divine providence and natural 
causation. 

If God's will is the cause of everything which 
happens, if nothing can happen contrary to His 
will or escape the foresight of His providence, 
then how is man free from God's foreordmation 
when he chooses between good and evil ? If, as 
the theologians say, "the very act of free choice 
is traced to God as to a cause," in what sense 
can the act be called "free"? Is it not neces- 
sarily determined to conform to God's will and 
to His plan ? But, on the other hand, if "every- 
thing happening from the exercise of free 
choice must be subject to divine providence," 
must not the evil that men do be attributed to 
God as cause ? 

The problem takes another form for the scien- 
tist who thinks only in terms of natural causes, 
especially if he affirms a reign of causality in 
nature from which nothing is exempt just as, 



CHAPTER 8: CAUSfr , 163 

for the theologian, nothing is exempt from God's give to these questions have profound conse* 

will. Since the realm of nature includes human quences for man's view of himself, the universe, 

nature, must not human acts be caused as are ancl his place in it. As the issue of necessity and 

all other natural events ? Are some human acts chance is central in physics or the philosophy of 

free in the sense of being totally uncaused, or nature, so the issue of determinism and freedom 

only in the sense of being caused differently is central in psychology and ethics, in political 

from the motions of matter ? Are causality and theory and the philosophy of history, and above 

freedom opposed principles within the order of all in theology. It makes opponents of James 

nature, appropriate to physical and psychologi- and Freud, of Hegel and Marx, of Hume and 

cal action; or do they constitute distinct realms Kant, of Spinoza and Descartes, of Lucretius 

as for Kant, the realms of phenomena and and Marcus Aurelius. It raises one of the most 

noumena, the sensible and the supra-sensible; perplexing of all theological questions for Au- 

or as for Hegel, the realms of nature and gustine, Aquinas, Pascal, and for the two great 

history ? poets of God's will and man's freedom Dante 

The different answers which the great books and Milton. 



OUTLINE OF TOPICS 

PAGE 

1. The general theory of causation 164 

i a. The kinds of causes: their distinction and enumeration 165 

ib. The order of causes: the relation of cause and effect 

2. Comparison of causes in animate and inanimate nature 166 

3. Causality and freedom 167 

4. The analysis of means and ends in the practical order 

5. Cause in relation to knowledge 168 

50. Cause as the object of our inquiries 

5^. Cause in philosophical and scientific method: the role of causes in definition, 

demonstration, experiment, hypothesis 169 

5^. The nature and sources of our knowledge of causes 170 

5</. The limits of our knowledge of causes 

6. The existence and operation of final causes 171 

7. The causality of God or the gods 172 

70. Divine causality in the origin and existence of the world: creation and conserva- 
tion 

7& Divine causality in the order of nature or change: the first cause in relation to all 
other causes 

7?. Divine causality in the government of the universe: providence and free will 173 
7</. Divine causality in the supernatural order: grace, miracles 175 

8. The operation of causes in the process of history 176 



164 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



REFERENCES 

To find the passages cited, use the numbers in heavy type, which arc the volume and page 
numbers of the passages referred to. For example, in 4 HOMER: Iliad, BK n [265-283] 12d, the 
number 4 is the number of the volume in the set; the number 12d indicates that the pas- 
sage is in section d of page 12. 

PACE SECTIONS: When the text is printed in one column, the letters a and b refer to the 
uppcrand lower halves of the page. For example, m$3 JAMES; Psychology, 116a-119b, the passage 
begins in the upper half of page 116 and ends in the lower half of page 119. When the text is 
printed in two columns, the letters a and b refer to the upper and lower halves of the left- 
hand side of the page, the let terse and d to the upper and lower halves of the right-hand side of 
the page. For example, in 7 PLATO: Symposium, 163b-164c, the passage begins in the lower half 
of the left-hand side of page 163 ana ends in the upper half of the right-hand side of page 164. 

AUTHOR'S DIVISIONS: One or more of the mam divisions of a work (such as PART, BK, CH, 
SECT) are sometimes included in the reference; line numbers, in brackets, are given in cer- 
tain cases; e.g., Iliad, BK n [265-283] 12d. 

BIBLE REFERENCES: The references are to book, chapter, and verse. When the King James 
and Douay versions differ in title of books or in the numbering of chapters or verses, the King 
James version is cited first and the Douay, indicated by a (D), follows; e.g., OLD TESTA- 
MENT: Nehemiah, 7:45 (D) II Esdras, 7:46. 

SYMBOLS: The abbreviation "esp" calls the reader's attention to one or more especially 
relevant parts of a whole reference; "passim" signifies that the topic is discussed intermit- 
tently rather than continuously in the work or passage cited. 

For additional information concerning the style of the references, see the Explanation of 
Reference Style; for general guidance in the use of The Great Ideas, consult the Preface. 



I. The general theory of causation 

7 PLATO: Euthyphro, 195c-d / Phaedo, 226d- 
228a; 240b-246c / Timaeus, 447b-d / Phtlcbus, 
615c-619d / Laws, BK x, 760a-765c 

8 ARISTOTLE: Posterior Analytics, BK n, CH 11-12 
128d-131b / Physics, BK n, CH 3-9 271a-278a,c 
/ Metaphysics, BK in, CH 2 J996 a i 8-997*1 4] 
514d-515d; BK v, CH 1-2 533a-534c; BK vi, CH 
2 [1026^4-1027*15] 549a-b; BK vii, CH 17 
565a-S66a,c; BK vm, CH 3 1104^5-14] 567d- 
568a; CH 4 568d-569b; CH 6 569d-570d; BK x, 
CH i (i052 b 8-i4] 579a; BK xn, CH 4-5 599d- 
601a; BK xiv, CH 6 625d-626d 

9 ARISTOTLE: Rhetoric, BK i, CH 5 [136^39- 
1360111] 602c-d; CH 10 [1369*5-^7] 612b-613a 

12 LUCRETIUS* Nature of Things, BK vi [703-711] 

89c-d 
12 AUREUUS: Meditations, BK v, SECT 8 269d- 

270b 
17 PLOTINUS: Third Ennead, TR i, CH i 78a-c; 

CH 4 79d-80a; CH 10 82b / Fourth Ennead, TR 

iv, CH y 174d-175c / Sixth Ennead, TR vu, 

CH 2 322b-323a 
19 AQUINAS: Summa Theohgica, PART i, Q 2, 

A 3 12c-14a; Q 3, A 4, ANS 16d-17c; o 33, A i, 

REP i 180d-181c; Q 49 264d-268a,c passim; 

Q 52, A 3, ANS 280a-d; Q 65, A i 339b-340b; 



A 3 341c-342b, Q 82, A 3, REP i 433c-434c; 

Q 87, A 2, REP 3 466c-467b; q 103, A 7 533b-d; 

Q 104, AA 1-2 534c-537b; Q 105, AA 1-2 538d- 

540c; A 5 542a-543b; Q 106, A 3 547c-548b; 

Q 115, AA 1-2 585d-588c; Q 115, A 6-Q 116, A 4 

591d-595c 
20 AQUINAS : Summa Theohgica, PART i-n, Q 51, 

AA 2-3 13c-15a; Q 75, A i 137d-138c; A 4 

140a-d; Q 76, A i 141a-c; PART in SUPPL, Q 76, 

A i 939d-941a 
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART i, 80b-c 

30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 42a-46a 

31 DESCARTES: Meditations, in, 84b-86b / 
Objections and Replies, llld-112a; 121b-c; 
AXIOM i-iv 131d; 212a; 212c 

31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART i, DBF i 355a; DBF 7 
355b; AXIOM 3-5 355d; PROP 3 356a; PROP 8, 
SCHOL 2, 357b-d; PROP 36 369b; APPENDIX 
369b-372d; PART n, PROP 7, COROL and SCHOL 
375a-c 

34 NEWTON: Principles, BK in, RULE i-n 270a 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH xxi, 
SECT 1-5 178b-179d; SECT 19 182 b-c; CH xxn, 
SECT ii 203c-d; CH xxvi, SECT 1-2 217a-d 

35 BERKELEY: Human Knowledge, SECT 25-33 
417d-419a pa&im; SECT 6o-6 424b-426a 

35 HUME: Human Understanding, SECT HI, DIV 
i8-SECT viii, DIV 75 457c-485a passim 



la to \b 



CHAPTER 8: CAUSE 



165 



42 KANT: Pure Reason, 15a-b; 17c-d; 46d-47c; 
57c-d; 58d-59b; 63b; 67d-68b [fn i]; 76c~83b; 
95a-d; 133a; 140b,d-143a; 152a-153a; 164a- 
171a; 187c-189a; 214b,d [fn i); 225c-226b / 
Fund. Prin. Metaphysic of Morals, 279b,d- 
287d esp 285c-286a / Practical Reason, 291a- 
292a; 294c-295d; 311d-314d; 339a / Judge- 
ment, 550a-578a esp 550a-551a,c, 555a-558b, 
564a-c, 566a-b, 568c-570a, 577c-578a, 587a< 
591b; 592a-d; 597a-599d; 611d-613a,c 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 885b-886a 

la. The kinds of causes: their distinction and 
enumeration 

7 PLATO: Phaedo, 240c-245c / Timaeus, 447b-c; 
455a-458a; 465d-466a / Sophist, 577d-578b / 
Statesman, 592d-593a; 596a-b / Philebus, 615c- 
619d; 637c-d / Laws, BK x, 760a-765c esp 
762b-763b 

8 ARISTOTLE: Posterior Analytics, BK i, CH 2 
[7i b 33~72 a 6] 98b-c; BK n, CH n 128d-129d / 
Physics, BK n, CH 3-7 271a-275d esp CH 3 
271a-272c; BK in, CH 7 [207 b 35-2o8 & 4] 286c; 
BK iv, CH i [209*18-23] 288a / Generation and 
Corruption, BK n, CH 9-10 436d-439c / Meta- 
physics, BK i, CH 3-10 501c-511d; BK n, CH 2 
[994 b 28-3i] 513b; BK in, CH 2 [996 a i8- b 26] 
514d-515b, BK v, CH 2 533b~534c; CH 18 543c- 
d; CH 30 547a-d; BK vi, CH 2-3 548c-549d; 
BK vn, CH 17 565a-566a,c; BK vin, CH 2 566d- 
567d; CH 3 [104^5-24] 567d-568b; en 4 
568d-569b; BK xi, CH 8 [io65 R 26- b 4] 593d; 
BK xii, CH 4--') 599d-601a 

9 ARISTOTLE: Parts of Animals, BK i, CH i 
[639 b 8-642 b 4] 161d-165d / Generation of Ani- 
mals, BK i, CH i [715*1-18] 255a-b; CH 20 
(729 a io]-CH 22 [7}o b 33] 269b-271a passim; 
BK v, CH i [778 a i6- b i9J 320a-321a / Ethics, 
BK in, CH 3 [iii2 H 3o-33]358b/ Rhetoric, BK i, 
CH 10 [i369 a 3i- b 5] 612c-d 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 2, A 3 
12c-14a, Q 3, A 8, REP i 19d-20c; Q 4, A 3, 
ANS 22b-23b; Q 5, A 2, REP 1-2 24b-25a; A 4 
25d-26c; Q u, A 3, ANS 49a-c; Q 13, A 5, ANS 
and REP i 66b-67d; Q 14, A 8, ANS and REP i 
82c-83b; A n, ANS 84c-85c; A 16, REP i 90b- 
91b; Q 19, A 6, ANS 113c-114d, Q 25, A 2, REP 
2-3 144c-145b; Q 36, A 3, ANS 194c-195d, Q 39, 
A 2, REP 5 203b-204c; Q 44 238a-241d; Q 46, 
A 2, REP 7 253a-255a; Q 48, A i, REP 4 259b- 
260c; Q 49, A i, ANS 264d-265d; Q 51, A i, 
REP 3 275b-276b; Q 52, A 3, ANS 280a-d; Q 65 
339a-343c; Q 75, A 5, REP 3 382a-383b; Q 82, 
A 4, ANS 434c-435c; Q 87, A 2, REP 3 466c- 
467b; Q 104 534c-538c; Q 105, A 5, ANS 542a- 
543b; PART i-n, Q 2, A 5, REP 3 618d-619c; 
Q 7, A 3, ANS 653c-654b 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica JPWT i-n, Q 60, 
A i, ANS 49d-50c; Q 72, A 3 113b-114a; Q 75, 
A i, ANS and REP 2 137d-138c; Q 76, A i, ANS 
and REP i 141a-c; Q 85, A i, REP 4 178b-179b; 
A 5, ANS and REP i 181d-182d; PART in, Q 62, 



A i 858c-859d; A 4 861a-862a; PART in SUPPL, 
Q 76, A i, ANS 939d-941a 

22 CHAUCER: Tale ofMelibeus, par 37 417b 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART i, 78c-d 
28 GILBERT: Loadstone, BK n, 36d 

28 HARVEY. On Antmal Generation, 335d; 407c; 
408b; 415b-417a; 42Sa-429b 

30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 43a-d; 45a- 
46a 

31 DESCARTES: Meditations, HI, 87c-88c; iv, 
90a-b / Objections and Replies, llOc-llld; 
AXIOM vni 132b; 158b-161d passim, esp 158c- 
161b; 212a; 213b-c; 214c; 229c-d 

31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART i, DEF i 355a; PROP n 
358b-359b; PROP 17, SCHOL-PROP 18 362c- 
363c; PROP 28, SCHOL 366a; APPENDIX 369b- 
372d; PART n, PROP 45, SCHOL 390b; PART in, 
DEF 1-3 395d-396a; PROP 1-3 396a-398c; PART 
iv, PREF 422b,d-424a; DEF 7 424b 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH xxvi, 
SECT 2 217b-d 

35 BERKELEY: Human Knowledge, SECT 51-53 
422d-423a 

36 STERNE: Tristram Shandy, 229b-230a 

42 KANT- Pure Reason, 133a; 164a-171a / Judge- 
ment, 550a-551a,c; 553c-555a; 556b-558b; 
577c-578a; 584c-d; 594b-c 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, INTRO, 165a- 
166b 

\b. The order of causes: the relation of cause 
and effect 

7 PLATO: Lysis, 24b / Phaedrus, 124b-c / 
Euthyphro, 195c-d / Gorgias, 267c-268a / 
Timaeus, 455a-b; 460c; 465d-466a / Theaete- 
tus, 521b-522b / Philebus, 617b-c / Laws, BK 
x, 760a-765c esp 762b-763b 

8 ARISTOTLE: Categories, CH 12 [i4 b io-22] 20b / 
Posterior Analytics, BK i, CH 2 [7i b ^~72 a 6] 
98b-c; BK n, CH 12 129d-131b; CH 16-18 134b- 
136a / Physics, BK n, CH 6 [198*5-13] 275a; 
CH 8-9 275d-278a,c; BK in, CH 2 [202 a 2J-cH 3 
[202 b 22J 279c-280c; BK vn, CH 1-2 326a-329a; 
BK vni 334a-355d / Heavens, BK i, CH 7 
[275*i- b 29] 366a-367a / Generation and Cor- 
ruption, BK i, CH 7 421d-423b / Metaphysics, 
BK n, CH r (993 b 23J-cH 2 [994^0] 512a-513b; 
BK v, CH 2 [1013^3-16] 533c-d; [1014*20-25] 
534b-c; BK xi, CH 8 [io65 b 2~4] 593d; BK xn, 
CH 3 [1070*20-24] 599c; CH 4 [io7o b 22~35] 
600b; CH 6-8 601b-605a / Soul, BK i, CH 3 
[4o6 a 2-i2] 635b-c; [4o6 b 5~9] 635d-636a; CH 4 
[408*29-33] 638a 

9 ARISTOTLE: Parts of Animals, BK i, CH i 
[639 b i3-642*24] 161d-165b esp [639 b i3~32] 
161d-162a; BK n, CH i [646*25- b io] 170b-c / 
Motion of Animals, CH 5 235c-d / Generation 
of Animals, BK n, CH 6 [742*i6~ b i7] 283b-d / 
Rhetoric, BK i, CH 7 [1364*33-36] 606a; BK n, 
CH 23 [1400*28-35] 649a-b 

10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK i, CH 2, 168b-c; 
CH 4 169a 



166 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



\btol 



(1. The general theory of cautation. lb. The order 
qf causes: the relation of cause and effect.) 

16 KEPLJBR: Epitome, BK iv, 854b; 940b-941a 

17 PLOTINUS: Fifth. Ennead, TR H, CH i 214c-215a 
/ Sixth Ennead, TR VH, CH 2 322b-323a 

18 AUGUSTINE: City of 'God \ BK xn, CH 24-25 
358a-359a; BK xxn, CH 2 587b-588a; CH 24 
609a-612a 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q a, A 3 
12c-14a; Q 3, A i, ANS 14b-15b; A 2, ANS 15c- 
16a; A 4, ANS 16d-17c; A 6, ANS 18c-19a; A 7, 
ANS and REP i 19a-c; A 8, ANS and REP 1-2 
19d-20c; Q 4, A 2, ANS 21b-22b; A 3, ANS and 
REP 4 22b-23b; Q 5, A 2, REP i 24b-25a; A 4, 
ANS 25d-26c, Q 8, A i 34d-35c; Q 13, A 5, ANS 
and REP i 66b-67d; A n, REP 2 73c-74b; Q 18, 
A 3, ANS 106b-107c; Q 19, AA 4-5 lllc-113c; 
A 6, ANS and REP 3 113c-114d; A 7, REP 2 
U4d'115d; A 8 116a-d; Q 22, AA 2-3 128d-131c; 
Q 23, A 5, ANS 135d-137d; Q 36, A 3, ANS and 
REP 4 194c-195d; Q 39, A 2, REP 5 203b-204c; 
Q4i, A i, REP2217d-218c; A2, ANs218c-219d; 
Q 42, A 2, ANS 225d-227a; A 3, ANS and REP 2 
227a-d; Q 44, A i, REP i 238b-239a; A 2 239b- 
240a; Q 45, A 2, REP 2 242d-244a; A 3 244a-d; 
A 5, ANS 245c-247a; Q 46, A i, REP 6 250a- 
252d; A 2, HEP i 253a-255a; Q 48, A i, REP 4 
259b-260c; Q 50, A i, ANS 269b-270a; Q 52, A 
3, ANS 280a-d; Q 63, A 8, REP i 332c-333b; 
Q 65, A 3 341c-342b; Q 75, A i, REP i 378b- 
379c; Q 82, A 3, REP i 433c-434c; A 4 434c- 
435c; Q 87, A 2, REP 3 466c-467b; Q 88, A 3, 
REP 2 472c-473a; Q 90, A 3 482c-483a; Q 103, 
AA 6-8 532b-534b; Q 104, A i, ANS 534c-536c; 
A 2 536c-537b, Q 105 538d-545b; Q 112, A i, 
ANS 571d-573a; Q 114, A 3, ANS 583b-d; QQ 
115-116 !>85c-595c; Q 118, A 2, REP 3 601c- 
603b; PART i-ir, Q i, A 2 610b-611b; Q 46, A i, 
ANs813b-814a 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 66, 
A 6, REP 3 80c-81b; Q 75, A 4 140a-d; Q 112, 
AA 1-3 356c-358d; Q 113, A 8 367d-368c; PART 
II-H, Q i, A 7, REP 3 385c-387a; Q 9, A 2, ANS 
424b-425a; PART in, Q 6, A i, ANS 740b-741b; 
A 5, ANS 744a-d; Q 18, A i, RBP 2 810a-811c; 
QI9, A i, ANS and REP2816a-818b, g62858b- 
864c passim; Q 64, A i, ANS 870c-871b; A 8, 
REP i 876c-877c; PART in SUPPL, Q 70, A 3, 
ANS 897d-900d; Q 74, A 3, REP 2 927c-928d; 
Q 76, A i, REP i 939d-941a; A 2 941b-942b; 
Q 80, A i, REP i 956c-957c; Q 86, A 3, REP 2 
994d-996a,c 

21 DANTE' Dwine Comedy, PARADISE, n [112-148] 
109a-b 

22 CHAUCER: Tale ofMelibcus, par 37 417b 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART i, 78c-79a; 79d- 
80a 

28 GALILEO: Two New Sciences, FIRST DAY, 135c- 

136b 
28 HARVEY: On Animal Generation, 390c; 415b- 

416c; 426a-429b; 442c-443c; 445c; 447a-b 



30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 43a-d 

31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART v, 55d-56a / 
Meditations, in, 84b-86b; 87c-88c/ Objections 
and Replies, 110a-112a csp llld-112a; 120b- 
121c; AXIOM i-v 131d-132a; AXIOM vin 132b; 
PROP n 132c; 158b-161d passim; 212a; 213b-d; 
229c-d 

31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART i, DBF i 355a; AXIOM 
3-5 355d; PROP 3 356a; PROP 8, SCHOL 2, 
357b-d; PROP 11 358b-359b; PROP 21-29 364a ' 
366c esp PROP 28 365c-366a; PROP 33 367 b- 
369a; PROP 36 369b; APPENDIX 369b-372d; 
PART n, DEF 5 373b-c? DEF 7 373c; PROP 7, 
COROL and SCHOL 375a-cJ LEMMA 3 378d-379a; 

PROP 48, DEMONST 391a; PART III, DEF 2-3 

395d-396a; PROP 1-3 396a-398c; PART v, 
AXIOM 2 452c 

32 MILTON. Paradise Lost, BK v [469-490] 185b- 
186a 

33 PASCAL: Pensees, 505 261a-b / Vacuum, 
369a 

34 NEWTON: Principles, BK in, RULE i-n 270a 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK 11, CH xxi, 
SECT 1-5 178b-179d; SECT 19 182b-c; CH xxn, 
SECT ii 203c-d; CH xxvi, SECT 1-2 217a-d 

35 BERKELEY: Human Knowledge, SECT 25-33 
417d-419a passim; SECT 65-66 425d-426a 

35 HUME: Human Understanding, SECT in, DIV 
i8-SECT vni, DIV 75 457c-485a passim, esp 
SECT vn, DIV 60 477a-c; SECT xi 497b-503c 
passim, esp DIV 105 498d-499a 

42 KANT: Pure Reason, 15a-b; 17c-d; 47b-c; 
57c-d; 58d-59b; 63b; 67d-68b [fn i], 76c- 
83b esp 81c-d; 95a-d; 140b,d-145c; 152a- 
153a; 187c-189c; 214b,d [fn i] / Practical 
Reason, 311d-314d; 339a / Judgement, 550a- 
551a,c; 553c-555a; 561c-562a,c; 577c-578a; 
582c-583b 

45 FARADAY- Researches in Electricity, 582b-584a 
passim 

49 DARWIN: Origin of Species, 9b-c; lOd; 65a-66a 
/ Descent of Man, 285b-c 

51 TOLSTOY. War and Peace, BK x, 447c-448d; 
BK xi, 470a-c; EPILOGUE i, 650b-c; EPILOGUE 
n 675a-696d 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 772b; 884b-885a 

2. Comparison of causes in animate and in- 
animate nature 

7 PLATO: Phaedo, 241d-242b / Laws, BK x, 763a- 
765d 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BKII, CH8-9275d-278a,c; 
BK viii, CH 2 [252 b i6-28] 336c-d; [253*6-21] 
337a-b; CH 4 [254 b i2-33J 339a-b / Heavens, 
BK ii, CH 12 383b-384c / Meteorology, BK iv, 
CH 12 493d-494d / Metaphysics, BK v, CH 4 
[ioi4 b 2o-26] 535a; BK vn, CH 9 [1034*32- 
b 8] 55Tc-d; CH 10 [1035^4-28] 559a-b; CH 16 
[i040 b 5-i6] 564c; BK ix, CH 2 571c-572a; CH 5 
573a-c; CH 7 [1049*12-19] 574d / Soul, BK n, 
CH 4 (4i5 b 8-28] 645d-646a; BK HI, CH 9-13 
664d-668d / Sleep r CH 2 [455 b i3~28] 698b-c 



3 to 4 



CHAPTER 8: CAUSE 



167 



9 ARISTOTLE: Parts of Animals, BK i, CH i 
[639 b i2-642*i4) 161d-165b / Gait of Animals, 
CH 2 [704 b i2-i8] 243c / Generation of 'Animals, 
BK i, CH i [715*1-7] 255a; BK H, CH i [734*17- 
735'4] 274c~275c 

10 GALEN: Natural faculties, BK i, CH 12 172d- 
173c; CH 14-17 177a-183d; BK n, CH 1-7 
183b f d-191b passim; CH 9, 197b 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK n [700-729] 
23d-24b 

16 KEPLER: Epitome, BK iv, 930b-931b; 959a- 
960a 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 8, 
A i, REP 3 34d-35c; Q 14, A 8, ANS 82c-83b; 
Q 18, A 3, ANS 106b-107c; Q 22, A 2, ANS 128d- 
130d; Q 70, A 3 365b-367a; Q 98, A i, ANS 
516d-517c; PART i-n, Q i, A 2 610b-611b 

20 AQUINAS. Summa Theologica, PART in SUPPL, 
Q 75, A 3, REP 4 938a-939d 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PURGATORY, xvni 
[19-39] 80a-b; PARADISE, i [94-142] 107b-d; 
n [112-148] 109a-b 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART i, 50a; PART iv, 
271d 

27 SHAKESPEARE: Othello, ACT v, sc n [7-14] 
239a 

28 HARVEY: On Animal Generation, 385a-c 

31 DESCARTES- Meditations, iv, 90a-b / Objec- 
tions and Replies, 215a-b 

34 NEWTON: Principles, BK in, RULE i-n 270a 

35 LOCKE- Human Understanding, BK n, CH 
xxin, SECT 28-29 211b-212a 

42 KANT judgement, 555a-558b esp 557c-558b; 

564a-c; 566a-b; 578d-580a; 581a-582c 
45 FARADAY: Researches in Electricity, 540a-541a,c 
49 DARWIN: Origin of Species, 9b-10d 
53 JAMES: Psychology, 4a-6b; 84a-94b csp 85a- 

87b, 88b-90b 

3. Causality and freedom 

8 ARISTOTLE: Metaphysics, BK ix, CH 5 573a-c 

9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK in, CH 3 [iii2 a i8- b i2] 
358a-c / Rhetoric, BK i, CH 10 [i368 b 7-i369 b 27J 
611d-613a 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK n [251-293] 

18b-d; BK v [306-310] 65a 
12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK v, SECT 8 269d- 

270b 
15 TACITUS: Annals, BK in, 49c; BK iv, 69a; BK 

vi, 91b-d 

17 PLOTINUS: Third Ennead, TR i 78a-82b csp 
CH 4 79d-80a, CH 9-10 82a-b 

18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK v, CH 9-10 213b- 
216c 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 19, 
AA 3-10 110b-118b passim; Q 41, A 2 218c-219d; 
Q46, A i, REP 9-10 250a-252d; Q 47, A i, REP i 
256a-257b; Q 59, A 3 308b-309a; Q 62, A 8, 
REP 2 323c-324a; Q 83, A i 436d-438a; Q 103, 
A ii REP 1,3 528b-529a; Q 115, A 6, ANS 591d- 
592d; PART i-n, Q 10 662d-666a,c; Q 13, A 6 
676c-677b 



20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 71, 
A 4, ANS and REP 3 108b-109a 

21 DANTE: Dwtne Comedy, PURGATORY, xvi [52- 
84] 77b-d 

22 CHAUCER: Troilus and Cressida, BK iv, STANZA 
138-154 106b-108b / Nun's Prittfs Talc 
[15,238-256] 456b-457a 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART n, 112d-113c 

25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 452a-d 

26 SHAKESPEARE: Julius Caesar, ACT i, sc n 
[135-141] 570d 

31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART i, DEF 7 355b; PROP 
16-17 362a-363c, PROP 26-36 365b-369b; 
APPENDIX 369b-372d; PART n, PROP 48-49 
391a-394d; PART in, 395a-d; PART iv, PREP, 
423b-c 

33 PASCAL: Provincial Letters, 154b-159a / Pen- 
sees, 821 331b-332a 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK i, CH n, 
SECT 14, 108d-109a; BK n, CH xxi, SECT 7-27 
180a-184c; SECT 48-53 190c-192b 

35 HUME: Human Understanding, SECT vin478b- 
487a 

38 ROUSSEAU- Inequality, 337d-338a 

42 KANT: Pure Reason, 113b-115a; 132d-133a; 
140b,d-145c; 164a-171a; 234c-235a; 236d- 
237a; 238b / Fund. Pnn. Metaphystc of Morals, 
264d-265a; 275b; 279b,d-287d esp 282c, 
286a-c / Practical Reason, 292a-293b; 296a-d; 
301d-302d; 310b-321b esp 3l4b-d, 320c-321b; 
327d-329a; 331c-337a,c / Intro. Metaphysic of 
Morals, 383c; 386b-387a,c;390b; 392d-393c 
/Judgement, 463a-465c; 571c-572a; 587a-588a; 
594d [fn i] 

44 BOSWELL: Johnson, 392d-393a 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART i, par 39 
21d; par 66, 29a; PART n, par 139 48d-49b; 
PART in, par 187 65a-c; par 352 112b; ADDI- 
TIONS, 90 130b-d / Philosophy of History, IN- 
TRO, 160c-164d; 170c-172b; 178a-d 

48 MELVILLE: Moby Dic^, 158b-159a 

51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK ix, 342a-344b; 
BK x, 389a-391c; BK xi, 469a-472b; BK xin, 
563a-572a; BK xv, 619d-621b; EPILOGUE i, 
645a-650c; EPILOGUE n, 688a-696d 

53 JAMES : Psychology, 84a-94b esp 85a-87b, 88b- 
90b; 291a-295b; 388a; 820b-826a csp 825b- 
826b [fn 2} 

54 FREUD- Origin and Development of Psycho- 
Analysis, 13c / General Introduction, 454b-c; 
486c-487a 

4. The analysis of means and ends fn the 
practical order 

7 PLATO: Lysis, 23a-b / Laches, 29b-c / Gorgtas, 
262a-264b; 280b-d / Republic, BK n, 3lOc-d 

8 ARISTOTLE: Topics, BK in, CH i [n6 b 22~36] 
163b-c / Heavens, BK n, CH 12 [292*14^26] 
383d-384b / Metaphysics, BK n, CH 2 [994 b 8- 
16] 512d-513a; BK v, CH 2 [ioi3 m 32- b 3l 533c; 
[ioi3 b 25-28] 533d-534a; BK ix, CH 8 {1050*4- 
b i] 575d-576b / Soul, BK in, CH 10 665d-666d 



168 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



4 to 5a 



(4. The analysts of means and ends in the practical 
order.} 

9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK i, CH 1-2 339a-d; CH 5 
340d-341b csp [1096*5-10] 341a-b; CH 6 
[1096^-26] 341d-342a; CH 7 342c-344a pas- 
sim, CH 9 [io99 b 25~32] 345b; BK in, CH 3 
358a-359a; BK vi, CH 2 [ii39 a i7- b 5J 387d- 
388a, CH 5 389a-c passim; CH 9 [ii42 b i7~33] 
391d-392b / Politics, BK vn, CH 13 [i33i b 24- 
38] 536b-c / Rhetoric, BK i, CH 6-7 602d-607d; 
CH 8 [1366*3-16] 608b-c; CH 10 [i369*5- b 2;] 
612b-613a 

12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK HI, CH 2 177c-178d; 
CH 10 185d-187a; CH 14, 189d; BK iv, CH 4 
225a-228a 

12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK v, SECT 16 271c-d; 
BK vi, SECT 40-45 277d-278c; BK vn, SECT 44 
282b-c; BK vin, SECT 19-20 286d-287a 

17 PLOIINUS: First Ennead, TR iv, CH 6 15a-b 

18 AUGUSIINE: City of God, BK vm, CH 4 266d- 
267c, CH 8 270a-d; BK xix, CH 1-3 507a- 
511a; CH 13-17 519a-523a; CH 20 523d-524a / 
Christian Doctrine, BK i, CH 3-5 625b-626a; 
CH 22 629b~630a; CH 31-33 633b-634b; CH 35 
634c-d 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 5, A 4 
25d-26c; A 6, ANS 27c-28b; Q 18, A 3, ANS 
106b-107c; o 19, A 2, REP 2 109c-110b; A 3, 
ANS HOb-lllc; AA 4-5 lllc-113c; Q 23, A 7, 
ANS 138d-140a, Q 44, A 4 241a-d; Q 65, A 2 
340b-341b; Q 82, AA 1-4 431d-435c; Q 83, A 3, 
ANS 438d-439c; A 4, ANS 439c-440b; Q 103, 
A 2 529a-530a, PART i-n, QQ 1-2 609a-622b; 
Q 3, A i, ANS 622c-623a; Q 4, AA 1-4 629d-632c; 
5, A 6, REP i 641a-642a, Q 6, AA 1-2 644d- 
646c, Q 8, AA 2-3 656a-657c; Q 9, A i, ANS 
657d-658d; A 3, ANS 659c-660a; Q 10, A 2, 
REP 3 663d-664d; Q 11, A 3 667d-668d; Q 12, 
AA 2-4 670b-672a; Q 13, A 3 674c-675a; Q 14, 
A 2 678b-c; Q 15, A 3 682c-683b; Q 16, A 3 
685b686a 

20 AQUINAS- Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 54, 
A 2, REP 3 23d-24c; Q 57, A 5, ANS 39a-40a; 
Q 94, A 2, ANS 221d-223a; A 4, ANS 223d-224d; 
Q 95, A 3 228c-229b; Q 107, A i, ANS 325c-327b; 
114, A 4, REP i 373a-d; PART n-n, Q 27, A 6, 
ANS 524c-525c 

22 CHAUCER- TaleofMehbeusAQlaA32a 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART i, 53a-b; 76c-d; 
90a; PART in, 237d 

25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 330b-332a 

30 B\CON' Advancement of Learning, 91d-92a 

31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART n, 44c-45b; 
PART in, 50b 

31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PARTI, APPENDIX, 369b-370a; 

PART iv, DBF 7 424b 
33 PASCAL: Pensfes, 98 190b 
35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH xxi, 

SECT 52-53 191d-192b; SECT 62 194c-d 
42 KANT: Pure Reason, 235a-b / Fund, Prin. 

Mctaphysic of Morals, 253d-254c; 256a-b; 



257c-d; 260a-c; 265c-268b; 271c-279d csp 
274d-275b; 282c; 286a-287b / Practical Rea- 
son, 307a-d; 314d-329a esp 320c-321b, 327d- 
329a; 357c-360d / Pref. Metaphysical Elements 
of Ethics, 367c / Science of Right, 397b-398a / 
Judgement, 477b-c; 478a-b; 557d [fn 2); 586a- 
b; 588b [fn 2]; 594b-595c; 605d-606b [fn 2] 

43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 23, 85b; NUMBER 31, 
103c-d 

43 MILL: Utilitarianism, 445a-d; 446d-447a; 
461c-463c 

46 HEGEL- Philosophy of Right, PART i, par 45 
23c-d; par 61 27b-c; PART n, par 119-128 43b- 
45d esp par 122 44a; par 140 49b-54a, PART HI, 
par 182 64a; par 191-193 66b-c; par 328 
108b-c; par 340 llOb-c; ADDITIONS, 38 122c-d; 
76-81 128a-129a/ Philosophy of History, INTRO, 
162a-170c; PART n, 267a-b 

53 JAMES- Psychology, 4a-6b; 203a; 381b-382a; 
788a-789a 

5. Cause in relation to knowledge 

5a. Cause as the object of our inquiries 

7 PLATO: Meno, 188b-189a / Phaedo, 240a-246c 
/ Gorgias, 260a-262a / Timaeus, 465d-466a 

8 ARISTOTLE* Posterior Analytics, BK i, CH 2 
[7^19-33] 98a-b; CH 13 107c-108c; BK n, CH 
1-2 122b,d-123c / Physics, BK i, CH i [184*10- 
16] 259a; BK n, CH 3 [i94 b i6-23J 271a-b; 
[i95 b 2i-28] 272b; CH 7 275b-d / Meteorology, 
BK iv, en 12 [390 b i4-i9] 494d / Metaphysics, 
BK i 499a-511d esp CH 1-2 499a-501c, CH 7 
506b-d, CH 10 511c-d; BK HI, CH 2 [996 a i8- b 26] 
514d-515b; BK iv, CH 2 [ioo3 a 33~ b i9] 522b-c; 
BK vi, CH i [io25 b i-i8] 547b,d; BK vn, CH 17 
fi04i a io- b ii] 565b-d; BK vm, CH 4 [1044*33- 
b 2o] 569a-b; BK xi, CH i [io59 a i7-23] 587a; 
[1059*34-38] 587b; CH 7 [1063^36-1064*9] 
592b, BK xn, CH i 598a-c 

9 ARISTOTLE: Parts of Animals, BK n, CH i 
[646^- 1 3] 170a / Gait of Animals, CH i 243a-b 
/ Generation of Animals, BK i, CH i [715*1-18] 
255a-b; BK n, CH 6 [742^7-743*1] 283d-284a; 
BK iv, CH i [765 a 35- b 6] 306c; BK v, CH i 
[778 b 7~io] 320d / Ethics, BK i, CH 7 [1098*34- 
b 2] 343d; BK in, CH 3 [1112^5-24] 358c-d / 
Rhetoric, BK i, CH i [1354*1-11] 593a 

10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK i, CH 2, 168b- 
c; CH 4 169a 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK in [1053- 
1075] 43c-d; BK v [526-533] 67d-68a 

13 VIRGIL: Georgics, n [475-493] 65a-b 

16 COPERNICUS: Revolutions of the Heavenly 
Spheres, 505a<506a 

16 KEPLBR: Epitome, BK iv, 959a-960a 

17 PLOTINUS: Third Ennead, TR i, CH 2, 78d / 
Sixth Ennead, TR vm, CH n, 348b 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologtca, PART i, Q 19, 

A 5, REP 2 112d-113c; Q 85, A 7, CONTRARY 

459c-460b; PART i-n, Q 3, A 8, ANS 628d- 
629c 



CHAPTER 8: CAUSE 



169 



20 AQUINAS iiSbntma Theolagica, 



0,9, 



23 HOBBES : Leviathan, PART i, 53a-b; 60a-c; 63a; 

78a-80a 

25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 497d-498a 
28 GILBERT: Loadstone, BK i, 5a-7a passim 
28 GALILEO i Two New Sciences, THIRD DAY, 202a- 

203a 
28 HARVEY : Circulation of the Blood, 316a b; 319c 

/ On Animal Generation, 335c-336c; 425a 
30, BACON: Advancement of Learning, 42a-46a; 

46c-47c / Novum Organum, BK i, APH 4$ llOd- 

llla; APH 117-119 131a-132a; BK n 137a-195d 

esp APH 2 137b-c / New Atlantis, 210d 
31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART vi, 61d-62c / 

Meditations, iv, 90a-b / Objections and Replies, 

UOa; HOc-d; AXIOM 1 131d; 158b-162a;215a-b 
31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART i, APPENDIX 369b- 

372d; PART n, PROP 40, DEMONST 387a; PROP 

45, DEMONST 390b 
34 NEWTON: Principles, lb-2a / Optics, BK in, 

543a-b 

34 HUYGENS- Light, CH i, 553a-b 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK iv, CH in, 
SECT 16 317a-c 

35 BERKELEY. Human Knowledge, SECT 32 418d- 

419a; SECT 102-109 432d-434b passim, esp 

SECT 107 433d-434a 
35 HUME Human Understanding, SECT i, DIV 9 

454c-455a; SECT iv, DIV 26 460b-c; SECT vn, 

DIV 60 477a-c 

39 SMITH: Wealth of Nations, BK v, 335b-337a 
42 KANT: Fund. Prin Metaphysic of Morals, 

285c-d / Practical Reason, 311d-314d 
45 FOURIER: Theory of Heat, 169a 
49 DARWIN: Origin of Species, 6d-7a passim 
51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK ix, 342a-344b; 

BK xui, 563a-b; EPILOGUE n 675a-696d 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 2a; 89b-90a; 745b; 885b- 
886a 

54 FREUD: General Introduction, 454b-c 

. Cause in philosophical aad scientific 
method: the role of causes in definition, 
demonstration, experiment, hypothesis 

7 PLATO: Phaedo, 240b-246c / Timaeus, 455a-b; 
465d-466a 

8 ARISTOTLE: Posterior Analytics 97a-137a,c esp 
BK i, CH 13 107c-lQ8c, BK ii 122b,d-137a,c / 
Topics, BK vi, CH 6 [i45 a 32- b 2o] 199a-b / 
Physics, BK n, CH 7 275b-d; CH 9 [20o*3o- b 9] 
277d-278a,c; BK w, CH 4 [211*6-11] 290a / 
Metaphysics, BK i, CH 3 [983*24-32] 501c; BK 
in, CH 2 [996 a i8- b 26] 514d-515b; BK v,, CH 5 
[ioi5 b o-9] 535d-536a; BK vin, CH A {io44 b i2- 
15] 569b / Soul, BK i, CH i [40325- b 7] 632b-c; 
BK H, CH 2 [413*11-19] 643a-b 

9 ARISTOTLE: Parts of Animals, BK i, CH i 161a- 
165d esp [642*14-^4] 165b~d / Generation of 
Animals, BK i, CH i [715*1-18] 255a-b; BK n, 
qH 6 [742 b *7-743*lJ 283d- 284a; BK iv, CH i 
1765*35-^6] 306c; BK v, CH i [778 b 7-u] 320d 



. 10 GALJ&N: Natural Faculties, BK i, CH 4 l<Wa / i 
^ ,i2 LUCRETIUS : Nattitv of Things* BX v {5^6-533] 

67d-6Sa; BK vi [703-714] 89c-d 
16 COPERNICUS : Revolutions of* the Heavenly 

Spheres, S05a-506a 

16 KEPLER: Epitome, BK iv, 846b-847b; 959a- 
960a 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Thcologica, PART i, Q2, A 2, 
ANS and REP 2-3 lld-12c; Q 14,, A 7 31d-82b; 
A ii, ANS 84c-85c; Q 19, A 5, ANS 1124'113c; 
Q 44, A i, REP i 238b 239a; Q 57, A J,-ANS 
295d-297a; PART I-H, Q 14, A 5, ANS 680a-c 

20 AQUINAS : Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 55, 
A 4 28c-29d; PART n-n, Q 9, A 2, ANS 424b- 
425a 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART i, 60a-b; PART iv, 

267a-b 
28 GALILEO: Two New Sciences, THIRD DAY< 202a- 

203a; FOURTH DAY, 252a-b 
28 HARVEY: Circulation of the Blood, 316a-b; 

319c / On Animal Generation, 335c-336c; 

393b-c;425a 

30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 43a>4 56c- 
59c / Novum Organum, BK i, APH 73 117d- 
118a; APH 117, 131a-b; BK n, APH 2 137b-c / 
New Atlantis, 210d 

31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART iv, 52a-d; PART 
vi, 61d-62c, 66a-b / Meditations, m 81d-89a 
esp 84b-85a, 87c-88c; w, 90a-b / Objections 
and Replies, 108a-115a,c; 120c-122c; AXIOM v 
131d-132a; 212c; 215a-b 

31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART i, AXIOM 2,4 355d; 
PROP 8, SCHOL 2 356d-357d esp 357b-d; 
APPENDIX 369b-372d; PART HI, 395a-d; PART 
iv, PREF, 422b,d-423c; APPENDIX, i 447a 

33 PASCAL: Vacuum, 368b-369a 

34 NEWTON; Principles, lb-2a; DBF vni 7b-8a; 
BK HI, RULE i-ii 270a / Optics, BK HI, 531 b; 
541b-542a; 543a-b 

34 HUYCENS: Light, CH i, 553b-554a 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK iv, CH HI, 
SECT 9-17 315c-317c; SECT 28-29 322a-323a; 
CH xn, SECT 9 360d-361b; CH XVH, SECT 2 
371d-372b 

35 BERKELEY: Human Knowledge, SECT 50-53 
422c-423a passim; SECT 60-66 424b-426a 
passim; SECT 102-109 432d-434b 

35 HUME: Human Understanding, SECT vn, DIV 
57, 475d-476b [fn 2]; DIV 60, 477a; SECT vni, 
DIV 70, 481d-482a; SECT ix, DIV 82 487b-c; 
SECT xi, DIV 115 503b-c 

38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 348a>c 

42 KANT: Pure Reason, 46d-47c / Fund. Prin. 
Metaphysic of Morals, 285c-286a / Practical 
Reason, 311d:314d; 339a / Judgement, 574a-b; 
578-d; 579bnj 

45 LAVOISIKR: Elements of Chemistry, PAUT i, 9b- 
lOb 

45 FOURIER; Theory of Heat, 169a; I&3a484a 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, ADDITIONS, 3 116a 
/ Philosophy of History, INTRO^ 156c-158a; PART 
iv, 



170 

(5. Qruie fa relation to knowledge. 5b. Cause in 
philosophical and scientific method: the role 
of causes m definition, demonstration, ex- 
periment, hypothesis) 

49 DARWIN- Ortgtn of Species, 217d-218a; 239c- 
240d 

50 MARX: Capital, lOb-llb 

51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK xi, 470a-c; BK 
xni, 563b; EPILOGUE 11 675a-696d passim, esp 
677b~680b, 687b-688a, 694d-695c 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 89b 90a; 324b; 668a-671a 
esp 670a-b; 745b; 824b-825a; 884b-886a 

54 FREUD: General Introduction, 454 b-c; 483d- 
484a 



3c. The nature and sources of our knowledge 

of causes 

7 PLATO- Meno, 188b 189a / Phaedo, 240c-245c 
/ Republic, BK Vi, 383d-388a / Timaeus, 455a- 
c; 465d-466a 

8ARISTOTLF* Posterior Analytics, BK i, CH 2 
[7i b 33~72*6] 98b-c; BK n, CH 19 136a-137a,c / 
Metaphysics, BK i, CH 1-2 499a-501c, BK n, en 
i [99^19-31] 512a-b; BK in, CH 2 [996*i8- b 26] 
S14d-515b 
10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK i, CH 4 169a 

18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK xi, CH 7 326a-c; 
c 29 339a-b 

19 AQUINAS- Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 13, 
A 5, ANS 66b-67d; Q 14, A 8, REP i 82c-83b; 
Q 19, A 5, ANS 112d-113c; Q 57, A 2, ANS 295d- 
297a 

23 HORBFS- Leviathan, PARTI, 53a-b; 60a-b; 63a; 

78c-d; 79b-80a 
28 HARVFY. On Animal Generation, 442c; 443c 

30 BACON- Advancement of Learning, 42a-c; 
43a-c; 45a~46a; 46c-47c / Novum Organum, 
BK i, APH 48 llOd-llla; APH 99 127b-c; BK n 
137a-195d 

31 DFSCARTES: Discourse, PART vi, 62a-b / 
Objections and Replies, llOa-b 

31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART i, AXIOM 4 355d; 
APPENDIX 369b-372d 

33 PASCAL: Pentfes, 234-235 216b / Great Experi- 
ment, 388b 

34 NEWTON: Optics, BK in, 543a-b 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH xxi, 
SECT 1-7 178b-180a; CH xxv, SECT II-CH 
xxvi, SECT 2 217a-d 

35 HUME: Human Understanding, SECT in, DIV 
i8-SECT viii, DIV 75 4S7c-485a passim; SECT 
ix 487b-488c passim; SECT xi 497b-503c 
passim, esp DIV 105 498d-499a, DIV 115 503b-c 

3 SMITH: Wealth of Nations, BK v, 335b-337a 

42 KANT: Pure Reason, 15a-b; 17c-d; 46d-47c; 
57c-58b; 58d-59b; 66d-67b; 76c-83b; 85a-b; 
86c-d; 95a-d; HOb; 164a-l7la; 194d-195a; 
214b,d [fn i]; 225c-226b / Fund. Prin. Meta- 
physic of Morals, 285c 286a / Practical Reason, 
294c-295d; 311d-314d / Intro. Metaphystc of 
Morals, 387a-b / Judgement, 562d-563b 

53 JAMBS: Psychology, 88a-90b passim 



THE GREAT IDEAS 5c to 5d 

Id. The limits of our knowledge of causes 

OLD TESTAMENT: Job, 38-39 (D) Job, 38:1- 
39:30 

7 PLATO: Republic, BK vi, 383d-388a / Ttmaeus, 
447b-d 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK n, CH 4 [19^5-7) 273a 
/ Metaphysics, BK i, CH 2 [982 b 28-983 s n] 
501a-b; BK in, CH 2 [ 99 6*i8- b 26] 514d-515b 

9 ARISTOTLE: Generation of Animals, BK 11, CH 6 
(742 b i7-743*iJ 283d-284a 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK v [526-533] 
67d-68a; BK vi [703-711] 89c-d 

16 COPERNICUS: Revolutions of the Heavenly 
Spheres, 505a-506a 

17 PLOTINUS: Sixth Ennead, TR vin, CH n 348b-c 
19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 12, 

A 8, ANS 57b-58b; Q 19, A 5, REP 2 112d-113c; 

Q 57, A 3, ANS 297b-298a 
21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PURGATORY, in [24- 

45] 56a-b; xvin [49-60] 80b-c 
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART i, 54a; 78a-80c 
25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 80b-82b; 271b-273b; 

497b-502c passim 

30 BACON' Advancement of Learning, 45a-46a / 
Novum Organum, BK n, APH 2 137b-c 

31 DESCARTES: Meditations, iv, 90a-b / Objec- 
tions and Replies, llOa-b; 215a-b 

31 SPINOZA : Ethics, PARTI, APPENDIX 369b-372d; 
PART iv, PREF, 422b,d-423c 

33 PASCAL: Penstes, 184-241 205a-217b passim, 
esp 233-241 213b-217b 

34 NEWTON. Principles, BK in, GENERAL SCHOL, 
371b-372a 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK 11, CH xxi, 
SECT 4 178d-179c, SECT 70 197a-b; CH xxm, 
SFCT 28-29 211b-212a; BK iv, CH HI, SECT io~ 
16 315c-317c; SECT 28-29 322a-323a; CH vi, 
SECT 5-16 332b-336d passim; CH xvi, SECT 
i2,370b-c 

35 BERKELEY: Human Knowledge, SECT 102-109 

432d-434b 
35 HUME: Human Understanding, SECT iv-vii 

458a-478a; SECT vm, DIV 71-72 482c-483c; 

SECT xi 497b-503c passim, esp DIV 105 498d- 

499a, DIV 115 503b-c; SECT xii, DIV 127 507b-c 

38 ROUSSEAU- Inequality, 348a,c 

39 SMITH: Wealth of Nations, BK v, 335b-336c 
42 KANT: Pure Reason, 46d-47c; 140b,d-145c; 

171a-172c; 234c-235a / Fund. Prin. Metaphystc 
of Morals, 267d-268a; 285c-d / Practical 
Reason, 291a-292a; 294c-295d; 313b-314d / 
Intro. Metaphystc of Morals, 390b / Judgement, 
550a-551a,c; 557c-558b; 564a-c; 584c-d;611d- 
613a,c 

45 FOURIER: Theory of Heat, 169a 

49 DARWIN: Origin of Species, 65a; 92d-94c pas- 
sim 

51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK ix, 342a-344b; 
BK x, 405a-b; BK xi, 469a-470c; BK xin, 
563a-b; EPILOGUE i, 646c-647b; 650b-c; 
EPILOGUE n 675a<696d esp 687d-688a, 693c 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 90a; 822b; 885b-886a 



CHAPTBR 8: CAUSE 



171 



6. The existence and operation of final causes 

7 PLATO: Phaedo, 241b-242b / Timaeus, 447d- 
448a;465d-466a 

8 ARISTOTLE: Posterior Analytics, BK n, CH n 
(94 b 8-95*9] 129b-d / Physics, BK i, CH 9 
[192*16-24] 268b-c; BK 11, CH i [i93 b i2-i9] 
269d-270a; CH 2 [i94*27- b 8] 270d-271a; CH 3 
[I94 b 33-i95*2] 271b-c; [195*22-26] 271d; CH 
8-9 275d-278a,c / Heavens, BK n, CH 12 
[292*i4- b 26] 383d-384b / Meteorology, BK iv, 
CH 12 [389 b 22-390 b 2] 493d-494c / Metaphys- 
ics, BK i, CH 2 [982 b 4-n] 500d; CH 7 [988^-15] 
506c-d; CH 9 [992*29-34] 510c; BK 11, CH 2 
[994 b 8-i6] 512d-513a; BK m, CH 2 [996*22-36] 
514d-515a; BK v, CH 2 [ioi3*33- b 2] 533c; CH 4 
(ioi4 b 34-ioi5*io] 535b; BK xn, CH 7 [io72 b i- 
4] 602c; CH 10 [io75*i2- b i6] 605d-606c / Soul, 
BK n, CH 4 [4i5 b i5-22] 645d-646a; CH 8 
[42o b i6-23] 652a; BK in, CH 9 [432^1-26] 
665b-c; CH 12-13 667a-668d passim / Sleep, 
CH 2 [455^3-28] 698b-c 

9 ARISTOTLE: Parts of Animals, BK i, CH i 
[639 b 8-640*i2] 161d-162b; [64i b io-642 b 4] 
164c-165d; CH 5 [645*23-26] 169a; BK n-iv 
170a-229d passim, esp BK n, CH i [646*25^27] 
170b-d, BK in, CH 2 [663 b 22-2}] 191b, BK iv, 
CH 2 [677*15-19] 206d-207a / Gait of Animals, 
CH 2 [704 b i2-i8] 243c; CH 12 249b-d passim / 
Generation of Animals, BK i, CH i [715*1-11] 
255a; CH 4-13 257a-260b; BK n, CH 5 [74i b 2- 
4] 282c; CH 6 [742*i6- b i7] 283b~d; [744*36- 
b 28] 285c-286a; BK in, CH 4 296b-c; BK iv, CH 
3 [767^-15] 309a; BK v, CH i [778*1 5^19] 
320a-321a; CH 8 [788 b 22~789 b i5] 330c-331a,c 
/ Politics, BK i, CH 2 [1252^0-1253*1] 446a-b; 
CH8[i256 b 8-26]450b-c 

10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK i, CH 6, 170b-c; 

CH 10 171b-172b; CH 12 172d-173c; CH 13, 

174d-175c; BK n, CH 3 185a-186d; CH 4, 187c; 

BK in, CH i 199a-c; CH 3 200a-201a 
12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK i [1022-1037] 

13c-d; BK ii [1052-1063] 28b-c; BK iv [823- 

857] 55a-b; BK v [76-90] 62a-b; [156-234] 

63a-64a 
12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK v, SECT 8 269d- 

270b; BK vi, SECT 40 277d 
16 COPERNICUS: Revolutions of the Heavenly 

Spheres, BK i, 51 Ib 

16 KEPLER: Epitome, BK iv, 846b-847a; 857b- 
860b; 863b-887a passim; 913a-b; 915b-916a; 
925b-928a; 932a-933a / Harmonies of the 
World, 1023b-1080b esp 1049b-1050a 

17 PLOTINUS: Second Ennead, TR n, CH i 40a- 
41a / Fifth Ennead, TR vm, CH 7 242d-243c 

18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK xi, CH 22 333d- 
334c; BK xn, CH 4-5 344b-345b; BK xix, 
CH 12-14, 518c-520c; BK xxn, CH 24, 610c- 
611c 

19 AQUINAS : Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 2, A 3, 
ANS and REP 2 12c-14a; Q 5, A 2, REP 1-2 
24b-25a; A 4 25d-26c; Q 6, A i, REP 2 28b-d; 



Q 18, A 3, ANS 106b-107c; Q 19, A i, ANS 108d- 
109c; A 4, ANS lllc-112c; Q 22, A 2, ANS 
128d-130d; Q 23, A i, ANS and REP 1-2 132c- 
133b; Q 36, A 3, ANS 194c-195d; Q 44, A 4 
241a-d; Q 48, A i, REP 4 259b-260c; Q 59, A i, 
ANS 306c-307b; Q 60, A 5, ANS 313b-314c; Q 
65, A 2 340b-341b; Q 70, A 3, ANS 365b-367a; 
Q 76, A 5, ANS 394c-396a; Q 78, A i, REP 3 
407b-409a; Q 82, A 4, ANS 434c-435c; Q 85, 
A 3, REP i 455b-457a; Q 91, A 3 486b-487d; 
92, A i, REP i 488d-489d; Q 98, A i, ANS 
516d-517c; Q 103 528a-534b passim; Q 105, 
A 5, ANS 542a-543b; PART i-n, Q r, A 2 
610b-611b; A 3, ANS and REP 3 611b-612a; 
A 6, ANS 614a-c; A 8 615a-c; Q 2, A 5, REP 3 
618d-619c; Q 8, A i, ANS 655b-656a; Q 9, A i, 
ANS 657d-658d; Q 12, A 5, ANS 672a-c; Q 21, 
A i, ANS and REP 1-2 717a-d 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART in SUPPL, 
Q 75, A 3, ANS and REP 4 938a 939d 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PURGATORY, xvni 
[19-39] 80a-b; PARADISE, i [94-142] 107b-d 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART i, 50a; PART iv, 
271d 

28 HARVEY: Motion of the Heart, 302c / Circula- 
tion of the Blood, 309b-d / On Animal Genera- 
tion, 349a-b; 355c-d; 390b-c; 402c; 418b-c; 
439c-440a; 442d-443c; 447a-b; 453c; 454b-c; 
461a-c;462c-d 

30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 43a-d; 
45a-46a / Novum Qrganum, BK i, APH 48 
llOd-llla 

31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART n, 44c-45a / 
Meditations, iv, 90a-b / Objections and Re- 
plies, 215a-b 

31 SPINOZA \Ethics, PART i, APPENDIX 369b-372d; 
PART iv, PREF 422b,d-424a; DBF 7 424b 

33 PASCAL: PensSes, 72, 184b; 75 185b-186a 

34 NEWTON: Principles, BK in, GENERAL SCHOL, 
371a / Optics, BK in, 528b-529a 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH i, 
SECT 15, 125b 

35 BERKELEY: Human Knowledge, SECT 60-66 
424b-426a passim; SECT 107 433d-434a 

35 HUME: Human Understanding, SECT v, DIV 44, 
469b-c; SECT xi, DIV in 501b-c 

36 STERNE: Tristram Shandy, 229b-230a 

42 KANT: Pure Reason, 187a-190a; 205a-209b; 

239a-240b / Judgement, 467d-470b; 473a- 

474b; 523c-d; 550a-613a,c esp 550a-562a,c, 

568c-570b, 575b-578a, 587a-588a 
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, INTRO, 157b-c; 

161d-162a 
49 DARWIN: Origin of Species, 40c-d; 41c-42a; 

60b-61d passim; 95d-97a esp 96b; 217d-218a 

/ Descent of Man, 593d 
51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, EPILOGUE i, 646c- 

647b; 650b-c; EPILOGUE n, 687d-688a 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 4a-6b; 671b [fn i] 

54 FREUD: Narcissism, 401 b / Instincts, 415b / 
Beyond the Pleasure Principle, 651d-654c pas- 
sim, esp 654a-c 



172 

7. The causality of God or the gods 

la, Divine causality in the origin and existence 
of the world; creation and conservation 

OLD TESTAMENT: Genesis, 1-2; 7:4 / Nehemiah, 
9:6-(>) // Esdras, 9:6 / Job, 26:7; 37:18; 
38:1-42:2 / Psalms, 8 esp 8:3-5; 19:1; 33.6-9; 
74:16-17; 89:11-12; 95:4-5; 96:5; 102:25; 104; 
115:3; 119:73; 121:2; 136:5-9; 146:5-6; 148.1- 
6~(D) Psalms, 8 csp 8:4-6; 18:2; 32:6-9; 
73:16-17; 88:12-13; 94:4-5; 95:5; 101:26; 103; 
113:3; 118:73; 1202; 135:5-9; 145:5-6; 148:1- 
6 / Proverbs, 3:19-20; 8:23-29 / Isaiah, 40:26- 
28; 42:5; 44:24; 45:7-12,18; 48:13; 65:17- 
(D) Isaias, 40:26-28; 42:5; 44:24; 45:7-12,18; 
48:13; 65:17 / Jeremiah, 10:12; 27:5; 31:35; 
51:15-16 (D) Jeremias, 10:12; 27:5; 31:35; 
51:15-16 / Amos, 5:8 / Zechanah, i2'i (D) 
Zacharias, 12:1 

APOCRYPHA: Judith, 16:14 (Z)) OT, Judith, 
16:17 / Rest of Esther, 13:10 (D) OT, Esther, 
13:107 Wisdom of Solomon, 1:14; 11:17 (D) 
OT, Boo^ of Wisdom, 1:14; 11:18 / Ecclesias- 
ticus, 24:8-9; 33:10-13; 39:16-35; 43 (D) 
OT, Ecclesiasticus, 24:12-14; 33:10-14; 39*21- 
41 ; 43 / Bel and Dragon, 5~(D) OT, Daniel, 
14:4 / // Maccabees, y.2^-(D) OT, II 
Machabees, 7:23,28 

NEW TESTAMENT: Acts, 7:40^50; 14:15; 17:22-28 
(D) Acts, 7:49-50; 14:14; 17:22-28 / Colos- 
sians, 1:16-17 / Hebrews, i.io; 3:4; 11:3 / 
// Peter, 3:5 / Revelation, 4:11; 14:7 (D) 
Apocalypse, 4 : 1 1 ; 1 4 7 

7 PLATO: Timaeus, 447a-452d; 465d-466a / 
Sophist, 577d-578b 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK i [146-158] 
2d-3a; BK v [146-234] 63a-64a 

17PLOTINUS: Second Ennead, TR ix, CH 1-12 
65d-73d / Fifth Ennead, TR n, CH i 214c-215a; 
TR vni, CH 7 242d-243c 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK i, par 10 3b-c; 
BK vii, par 16-23 48c-50c; BK xi, par 4-11 
90a-92b; BK xn, par 2-9 99c-101c; par 14-40 
102b-110a; BK xni, par 6-48 112a-124a / City 
of God, BK vn, CH 29-31 261a-262a; BK xi, 
CH 4-24 324a-336a; BK xn, CH 10-27 348b- 
360a,c; BK xxn, CH i 586b,d-587b / Christian 
Doctrine, BK i, CH 32 633c-d 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 8, A i 
34d-35c; A 2, ANS 35c-36b; A 3, ANS and REP i 
36b-37c; Q 9, A 2, ANS 39c-40d; Q 21, A 4, 
REP 4 126c-127c; QQ 44-46 238a-255d; Q 50, 
A i, ANS 269b-270a; A 3, ANS 272a>273b; Q 56, 
A 2, ANS and REP 4 292d-294a; Q 57, A 2, ANS 
and REP 2 295d-297a; Q 61 314d-317c; Q 65 
339a-343c; Q 75, A 6, REP 2 383c-384c; Q 84, 
A 3, REP 2 443d-444d; QQ 90-93 480c-501c; 
Q 94, A 3, ANS 504a-505a; Q 104, A i csp REP 4 
534c-536c; Q 118, AA 2-3 601c-604b; PART 1-11, 
Q 17, A 8, REP 2 692a-c 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PURGATORY, xxv [37- 
78] 91d-92a; PARADISE, vn [121-148] 116b-c; 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



7 to n 



x [1-6] 120b; xni [52-84] 126*-b; xix [40-51] 
135c; xxix [13-45] 150b-c 

22 CHAUCER: Knight's Tale [2987-3010] 209te-b 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART 111, 173d; PART iv, 
251a<b 

28 GALILEO : Two New Sciences, FOURTH DAY, 
245b-d 

30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 17b-d 

31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART v, 54d-56a / 
Meditations, HI, 87b-88c / Objections and Re- 
plies, AXIOM ix 132b; PROP in 132d-133a; 
137d-138a; 214c; 215a-b; 228a-c; 229c-d 

31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART i, PROP 16-18 362a- 
363c; PROP 25 365b; PROP 33, SCHOL2, 368c- 
369a 

32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK i [650-659] 107b; 
BK ii [345-353] 118b-119a; BK in [708-735] 
150b-151b; BK iv [720-735] 168a-b, BK v 
[468-505] 185b-186a; [577-594] 187b-188a; 
[800-868] 192b-194a; BK vn [59-640] 218b- 
231a esp [139-161] 220a-b, [216-550] 221b- 
229a 

33 PASCAL: PensSes, 482 258a 

34 NEWTON- Optics, BK in, 542a-543a 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH xv, 
SECT 12, 165c; BK iv, CH x, SECT 15 352d- 
353a; SECT 18-19 353c-354c 

35 BERKELEY: Human Knowledge, SECT 25-33 
417d-419a esp SECT 29-33 418c-419a; SECT 
45-46 421b-c; SECT 48 422a passim; SECT 57 
423d-424a; SECT 146-150 442a-443b 

35 HUME: Human Understanding, SECT xn, DIV 
132, 509d[fn i] 

42 KANT: Pure Reason, 81d-82a; 143a-145c / 
Judgement, 597a-599d 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, PART i, 245d- 
246c; PART iv, 361a-b 

49 DARWIN: Origin of Species, 239c-d; 243d 

lb. Divine causality in the order of nature or 
change: the first cause in relation to all 
other causes 

7 PLATO: Timaeus, 455a-b; 465d-466a / States- 
man, 587a-589c 

8 ARISTOILE: Physics, BK vn, CH 1-2 326a-329a; 
BK vin 334a-355d / Heavens, BK n, CH 12 
383b-384c / Generation and Corruption, BK n, 
CH 10 [336^5-34] 438d; [337*15-23] 439a*b / 
Metaphysics, BK i, CH 2 [983*7-9] 501 b; BK 
xn, CH 4 [io7o b 22~35] 600b; CH 5 [1071*30-36] 
601a; CH 6-10 601b-606d 

10 HIPPOCRATES: Sacred Disease, 154a 156a; 

160b-d 
12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK i [146-158] 

2d-3a; BK n [167-183] 17a-b; [1090-1104] 29a; 

BK vi [43-95] 80d-81c; [379-422] 85b-d 
12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK i, CH 6 110c-112b; 

CH 14 120d-121c 

16 KEPLER: Harmonies of the World, 1049b-1050a 

17 PLOTINUS: Sec&nd Ennead, TR n, CH 2 4la-c / 
Third Enntad, TR II-IH 82c-97b passim; TR vni 
129-136a / Fifth Ennead, TR i, CH 2 208c-209b 



Ib to 7c 



CHAPTER 8: CAUSE 



173 



18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK i, par 10 3b-c; 
BK vn, par 16-23 48c-50c / City of God, BK vn, 
CH 29-31 261a-262a; BK x, CH 14 307c-308a; 
BK xi, CH 22 333d-334c; BK xn, CH 25 358b- 
359a; BK xix, CH 12-17 517b-523a; BK xxn, 
CH 24 609a-612a 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 2, 
A 3 12c-14a; Q 3, A i, ANS 14b-15b; A 2, ANS 
15c-16a; A 4, ANS 16d-l7c; A 6, ANS 18c~19a; 
A 7, ANS and REP 1 19a-c; A 8, ANS and REP 1-2 
19d-20c; Q 4 20c-23b; Q 12, A i, ANS 50c-51c; 
Q 18, A 3, ANS 106b-107c; Q 19, A 5 112d-113c; 
Q 23, A i, ANS and REP 1-2 132c-133b, Q 46, 
A 2, REP 7 253a-255a; Q 47, AA 1-2 256a-258c; 
Q 49, A 2 266a-c; Q 51, A i, REP 3 275b-276b; 
A 3, REP 3 277a-278c; Q 52, A 2 279b-280a; 
Q 60, A i, REP 2-3 310b-311a; Q 75, A i, REP i 
378b-379c; Q 76, A 5, REP i 394c-396a; Q 83, 
A i, REP 3 436d-438a; Q 84, A 2, ANS 442b- 
443c; A 4, REP i 444d-446b; A 5 446c-447c; 
Q 88, A 3, REP 2 472c-473a; Q 89, A i, REP 3 
473b-475a; Q 92, A i, REP i 488d-489d; A 2, 
REP 2 489d-490c; A 4 491b-d; Q 94, A 3, ANS 
504a-505a; QQ 104-105 534c-545b; Q 116 
592d-595c; PART i-n, Q 2, A 3, ANS 617b-618a, 
A 5, REP 3 618d-619c; Q 6, A i, RFP 3 644d- 
646a; Q 9, A 6 662a-d; Q 12, A 5, ANS 672a-c; 
Q 17, A 8, REP 2 692a-c 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 79, 
A 2, ANS 157b-158a; Q 85, A 6 182d-184a; 
Q 109, A i, ANS 338b-339c; Q no, A i, REP 2 
347d-349a; PART II-H, Q 9, A 2, ANS 424b- 
425a; Q 18, A 4, ANS 464c-465a; PART in, y 6, 
A i, REP i 740b-741b; Q 13, A3, CONTRARY 
782b-783b; PART m SUPPL, Q 74, A 2, RLP 3 
926c-927c 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PARADISE, i [94-142] 
107b-d; ii [112-148] 109a-b; xm [52-84] 
126a-b, xxvn [97-120] 148b-c 

22 CHAUCER: Knight's Tale [2987-3040] 209a- 
210a / Tale of Mehbeus, par 37-38 417b- 
41 8a 

23 HOBBES- Leviathan, PART i, 78d-79a; 79d-80a; 
PART in, 241c-242a; PART iv, 272b-c 

28 HARVEY: On Animal Generation, 390d-391a; 
406b-407b; 416b-c; 426a-429b; 443a-c; 490d- 
493a 

30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 2c-d; 4b-c / 
New Atlantis, 203a-b 

31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART v, 55d-56a / 
Meditations, in, 87c-88c; iv, 90a-b / Objec- 
tions and Replies, llOa; 123b; AXIOM ix 132b; 
158a-162a; 213b-d; 229c-d 

31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART i, PROP 16-18 362a- 
363c; PROP 24-29 365a-366c; PROP 33 367b- 
369a; APPENDIX 369b-372d; PART u, PROP 5-7 
374c-375c; PROP 9-10 376a-377a; PROP 45 
390a-b 

32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK v [468-474] 185b 

33 PASCAL: Pensees, 77 186a; 513, 262a 

34 NEWTON: Principles, BK in, GENERAL SCHOL, 
369b-371a / Optics, BK in, 528b-529a 



35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK u, CH xxi, 

SECT 2 178c; CH xxin, SECT 28 211b-d; BK iv, 

CH in, SECT 28-29 322a-323a 
35 BERKELEY: Human Knowledge, SECT 25-33 

417d-419a passim, esp SECT 29-33 418c-419a; 

SECT 51-53 422d-423a; SECT 57 423d-424a; 

SECT 60-66 424b-426a; SECT 105-109 433 b- 

434b passim; SECT 146-153 442a-444a passim, 

csp SECT 150 442d-443b 
35 HUME: Human Understanding, SECT vn, DIV 

54-57 474b-475d 
42 KANT. Pure Reason, 140b,d-145c; 164a-165c; 

171a-172c; 177b-179b; 183b [fn i); 184b-c; 

187a-189c esp 188c-189a; 190a-b; 191a-d; 

205a-209a;239a-240b / Practical Reason,334b- 

335c; 345a-c / Judgement, 564a-567b; 572b- 

578a; 581b-582c; 587a-592d; 597a-599d 
46 HFGEL: Philosophy of History, INTRO, 161d* 

162a; PART i, 245d-246c 

48 MELVILLE: Moby Dic^, 396b-397a 

49 DARWIN: Origin of Species, 243b-d 

7c. Divine causality in the government of the 
universe: providence and free will 

OLD TESTAMENT: Genesis, 1-3; 4:5-7; 6-9 esp 
8-21-22; 12-13 esp 12:1-3, 127, 13.14-18; 15 
esp 15:13-21; 17-18; 21-22 esp 22:1-19; 26:1- 
6,22-25; 28.10-22; 35:9-15; 37-50 csp 45.7-8 
/ Exodus, 3; 4:21; 7-14 esp 7:3, 9 12, 10:1, 
10.20, 10:27, u. 10, 12:1-51, 13:21-22, 14:4, 
14:8, 14*17; 15:18; 19-20 esp 19:3-9; 23 20-33; 
33-18-19; 40-34-38 (D) Exodus, 3; 4:21; 
7-14 esp 7:3, 9:12, 10. i, 10:20, 10:27, ir.io, 
12-1-51, 13:21-22, 14-4, 14:8, 14:17; 15:18; 
19-20 esp 19*3-9; 23:20-33; 33-18-19; 40:32- 
36 / Numbers, 9:15-23; 12; 22-24 / Deuteron- 
omy, 4-1-40; 5-11 esp 11:26-28; 29:1-31:8 esp 
30:1-4, 30:19-20 / Joshua, i-n; 23-24 esp 
24:14-28 (D) Josue, i-n; 23-24 esp 24:14- 
28 / Judges, 1-16 / 7 Samuel, 8-10; 15-16 (D) 
I Kings, 8-10 ; 15-16 / // Samuel, 7 (D) 
// Kings, 7/7 Kings, n; 13-22 passim (D) 
/// Kings, u ; 13-22 passim / // Kings passim 
(D) IV Kings passim / / Chronicles, 17:4-14; 
29-11-12 (D) / Parahpomenon, 17.4-14; 
29:11-12 / II Chronicles, 1 1-36 passim, esp 36 
(D) // Parahpomenon, 11-36 passim, esp 36 / 
Esther esp 4:12-17 (D) Esther, 1.1-10:3 esp 
4:12-17 / Job esp 1-2, 24, 27, 38-41 / Psalms 
passim, esp 3-4, 9-11, 13, 17-18, 20, 23, 65, 
104 (D) Psalms passim, esp 3-4, 9-10, 12, 
16-17, J 9 22 *M I0 3 / Proverbs, 16:33 / 
Ecclesiastes, 3; 8-9; 11-12 / Isaiah, 36-37; 46; 
51; 52:7 (D) Isaias, 36-37; 46; 51; 52:7 / 
Jeremiah, 17:5-8; 18-19; 31; 45 (D) Jeremias, 
17:5-8; 18-19; 31; 45 / Ezetyel, i8-(D) 
Ezechiel, 18 / Daniel esp 3, 6 (D) Daniel, 
1:1-3:23 esp 3:1-23; 3:9^12:13 esp 3:91-97. 
6:1-28 / Jonah, i-2 (D) Jonas, 1-2 

APOCRYPHA: Tobit(D) OT, Tobias / Judith esp 
5^6, 8-i6-(Z>) OT, Judith esp 5-6, 8-16 / 
Rest of Esther (D) OT, Esther, 10:4-16:24 / 



174 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



7c 



[7, The causality of God or the gods. Ic. Divine 
causality in the government of the universe: 
providence and free will) 
Eccltsiasticus, 15:11-20 (D) OT, Ecclesias- 
ticus, 15:11-22 / Song of Three Children (D) 
OT, Daniel, 3:24-90 / Susanna (D) OT, 
Daniel, 13:1-64 / Bel and Dragon (D) OT, 
Daniel, 13:65-14:42 / I Maccabees, 3:13-26 
(D) OT, / Machabees, 3 13-26 / II Maccabees, 
6:i-i6-(Z)) OT, // Machabees, 6:1-16 
NEW TESTAMENT: Matthew, 6.25-34; 10:29-33; 
23.37 / Lu^e, 12:4-7,22-34; 21 112-19 esp 21 :i8 
/John, 6:22-71 csp 6:40, 6:44-45, 6:64-65 
(D) John, 6:22-72 esp 6:40, 6:44-45, 6:65-66 
/ Acts, 6:8-7.60 csp 7:51; 13:48 (D) Acts, 
6:8-7.59 csp 7:51; 13:48 / Romans, 8:28-11:36 
/ Ephesians, 1:4-2:10; 4:1-7 / Philippians, 
2:12-13 / // Timothy, 1:9 / Hebrews, 13-5-6 
/ / Peter, 1:1-5 / Revelation, 1 1-15-1 8 (D) 
Apocalypse, 11:15-18 

4 HOMER: Iliad, BK VIH [130-144] 52c; BK xxiv 
[522-551] 176d-177a 

5 EURIPIDES- Helen [703-733] 304d-305a 

6 HERODOTUS: History, BK in, 112d-113b 

7 PLATO: Republic, BK n, 321d-322d; BK x,439b 
/ Critias, 479c 

8 ARISTOTLE: Generation and Corruption, BK n, 
CH 10 [336 b 25~34] 438d / Metaphysics, BK xn, 
CH 10 605d-606d 

9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK x, CH 8 [1179*23-32] 
434a / Politics, BK vn, CH 4 [1326*29-32] 
530b-c 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK n [167-183] 
17a-b; [1090-1104] 29a; BK v [146-234] 63a- 
64a; [1161-1240] 76b-77b; BK vi [43-95] 80d- 
81c; [379-422] 85b-d 

12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK i, CH 6 110c-112b; 
CH 12 118d-120b; CH 16 121d-122d; BK n, CH 
14 153d-155b; BK in, CH 17 191d-192a; CH 22 
195a-201a; BK iv, CH 3 224b-d; CH 5 228a- 
230b;cH7232c-235a 

12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK n f SECT 3 257a-b; 
SECT ii 258a-b; BK in, SECT 11 262a-b; BK v, 
SECT 8 269d-270b; BK vi, SECT 8 274b; SECT 
n 274c; SECT 40-45 277d-278c; SECT 58 279d; 
BK vn, SECT 8 280b; SECT 58 283c-d; SECT 68 
284c-d; BK vm, SECT 17 286d; SECT 35 288b; 
SECT 46-47 289b-c; SECT 51 289d-290a; BK x, 
SECT 3 296d; SECT 6 297a-b; SECT 25 299c; 
SECT 35 301b; BK xii, SECT 3 307b-d; SECT 5 
307d-308a; SECT 11-14 308b-c 

13 VIRGIL Aeneid, BK i [254-296] llOa-llla; BK 
IV i33 2 -3 6 3) 176a-177a;BKix [123-139] 282a-b 

14 PLUTARCH: Coriolanus,lS9a-c/ Nicias,435b-d 

17 PLOTINUS : Second Ennead, TR in, CH 7 44c-45a 
/ Third Ennead, TR n-ni 82c-97b passim / 
Fourth Ennead, TR in, CH 13 149b-d; TR iv, 
CH 31, 175b-c 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK n, par 14 12a-b; 
BK ix, par i 61c-d / City of God, BK i, CH 8-9 
133a-135a; BK iv, CH 33 206c-d; BK v, CH i-n 
207d-216d; CH 21-22 226a 227a; BK vii, CH 30 



261 b-d; BK ix, CH 21 296d-297a; BK x, CH 
14-15 307c-308b; BK xi, CH 17 331c-d; CH 22 
333d-334c; BK xn, CH i-9342b,d-348b; CH22 
357c; CH 25 358b-359a; CH 27 359c-360a,c; 
BK xiv, CH 27 396c-397a; BK xix, CH 12-17 
517b-523a; BK xxn, CH 1-2 586b,d<588a 

19 AQUINAS : Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 2, A 3, 
ANS 12c-14a; Q 3, A i, REP i 14b-15b; Q 8, A 3, 
ANS and REP 2-3 36b-37c; Q 13, A 8, ANS and 
REP i 70d-71b; Q 15, A 3, REP 4 93b-94a; Q 19, 
A 3 HOb-lllc; QQ 22-24 127c-143c; Q 63, A 7, 
ANS 331c-332b; Q 96, A r, ANS and REP 2 510b- 
511b; QQ 103-119 528a-608d esp QQ 103-105 
528a-545b; PART i-n, Q 9, A 6 662a-d; Q 10, 
A 4 665d-666a,c; Q 19, A 4 705b-c; Q 21, A 4, 
REP 2 719d-720a,c 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 91, 
AA 1-2 208b-209d; Q 93 215b,d-220d passim; 
PART ii-n, Q i, A 7, ANS 385c-387a; Q 25, A 11, 
REP 3 508d-509c; PART in, Q 61, A i, ANS 
855a-d 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, HELL, vii [61-96] 
lOb-c; PURGATORY, xvi [52-114] 77b-78a; xxi 
[40-72] 85b-d; PARADISE, i [94-142] 107b-d; 
n [112-148] 109a-b; vm [85-148] 117c-118c; 
xi [28-39] 122b; xn [37-45] 124a; xx [118-138] 
138a 

22 CHAUCER: Troilus and Cressida, BK iv, STANZA 
137-154 106b-108b / Knight's Tale [1251-1267] 
180b; [1303-1333] 181b-182a; [1663-1672] 
187b; [2987-3046] 209a-210a / Friar's Tale 
[7064-7085] 281a-b / Franklin's Tale [11,177- 
206] 353b-354a / Monk's Tale 434a-448b / 
Nun's Priest's Tale [15,236-256] 456b-457a 

23 MACHIAVELLI: Prince, CH xxv, 35a~b 

23 HOB BBS- Leviathan, PART i, 53d; 96b; PART 11, 
113b-c; 160b-c; 163d-164a, PART iv, 254b; 
271b;272b-c 

25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 98b-99a 

27 SHAKESPEARE: Hamlet, ACT v, sc 11 [7-11] 
68a; [230-235] 70a 

28 HARVEY- On Animal Generation, 491d-492a 

29 CERVANTES: Don Quixote, PART n, 408c 

30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 38a; 94b-c 
/ Novum Organum, BK i, APH 93 125d-126a 

31 DESCARTES: Meditations, iv 89a-93a; vi, 99c 
/ Objections and Replies, 229c-d 

31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART i, DEF 7 355b; PROP 17, 
COROL 1-2 and SCHOL 362b-363c; APPENDIX 
369b-372d; PART n, PROP 3, SCHOL 374b-c 

32 MILTON: Sonnets, xvi 66b-67a / Paradise Lost, 
BK n [310-328] 118a; BK in [80-134] 137a- 
138a; BK v [600-615] 188b; BK vi [171-188] 
200a; BK vn [139-173] 220a-221a; BK x [1-62] 
274b-275b / Samson Agonistts [667-709] 354a- 
355a / Areopagitica, 394b-395b 

33 PASCAL: Pens&s, 205 211a; 619-641 284b- 
290a; 876345a 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH 
xxvm, SECT 8 230a 

35 BERKELEY: Human Knowledge, INTRO, SECT 3 
405b-c; SECT 29-33 418c-419a passim; SECT 57 
423d-424a; SECT 60-66 424b-426a; SECT 93- 



7d 



CHAPTER 8: CAUSE 



175 



94 431b-c; SECT 105-109 433b-434b passim; 
SECT 146-155 442a-444c passim 
35 HUME: Human Understanding* SECT VH, DIV 
54-57 474b-475d; SECT vm, DIV 78-81 485c- 
487a; SECT xi 497b-503c passim, csp DIV 108- 
109 500b-501a 

37 FIELDING: Tom Jones, 75c-d 

38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK i, la-2b 
38 ROUSSEAU: Social Contract, BK in, 414d; BK 

iv, 437d-438b 

40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 292d-293b 
42 KANT: Practical Reason, 334a-335c / Judge- 
ment, 594 d [fn i] 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, INTRO, 156d- 
160b; 161d-168b; 168d-170b; 182d-184d; 
PART iv, 368d-369a,c 

47 GOETHE: Faust, PROLOGUE [243-270] 7a-b 

48 MELVILLE: Moby Dic{, 85a; 237a; 396b-397a 

51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK vi, 272a-b; BK 
vm, 303d-304b; BK ix, 342a-344b; 357b- 
358b; BK x, 389a-391c; 447c-448a; 465c-467a 
passim; BK xin, 563a-b; BK xv, 619d-620a; 
631a-c; EPILOGUE i, 645a-650c passim, esp 
646c-647b, 650b-c; EPILOGUE n, 675a-676a; 
680b c; 684b-d 

52 DOSTOEVSKY: Brothers Karamazov, BK v, 
127b-137c passim; BK xi, 343b-c 

54 FREUD- Civilization and Its Discontents, 771a-b 
/ New Introductory Lectures, 878a-b 

id. Divine causality in the supernatural order: 
grace, miracles 

OLD TESTAMENT: Genesis, 19:24-26; 21:1-8 / 
Exodus, 3-12 passim, esp 3-2, 3:20; 14; 16-17 / 
Numbers, 9:15-23; 11-12; 16-17; 20:1-13; 
21:5-9; 22.21-34 / Joshua, 3:13-4.24; 6'i- 
20; 10:12-14; 24.6-7 (D) Josue, 3:13-4 25; 
6-1-20; 10:12-14; 24:6-7 / Judges, 6:36-40 / 
/ Samuel, 12:17-19 (D) / Kings, 12-17-19 / 
/ Kings, 17; 18:30-39 (D) HI Kings, 17; 
18:30-397 II Kings, 1-6; 13:20-21; 20:1-11 
(D) IV Kings, 1-6; 13.20-21; 20:1-11 / Nehe- 
miah, 9 (Z>) II Esdras, 9 / Psalms, 78; 84 n; 
85:1-3; 86:5; 103:1-5; 105; 1067-11; 130 (D) 
Psalms, 77; 83:12; 84:2-4; 85:5; 102:1-5; 104; 
105:7-11; 129 / Proverbs, 3-1-4,21-26 / Isaiah, 
38; 44:22; 557-(Z>) Isaias, 38; 44:22; 55.7 
/Jeremiah, 33:1-14 (D) Jeremias, 33:1-14 / 
Daniel, 3:1-4:3; 5-6; 9:9 (Z)) Daniel, 3:1- 
23,91-100; 5-6; 9:9 / Joel, 2:30-31 / Jonah 
(D) Jonas / Micah, 7:18-20 (D) Micheas, 
7:18-20 / Zechariah, 12:10 (D) Zachanas, 
12-10 

APOCRYPHA: Song of Three Children (D) OT, 
Daniel, 3:24-90 / Bel and Dragon, 28-42 (D) 
OT, Daniel, 14:27-42 / II Maccabees, i -18-22; 
2:10 (D) OT, UMachabees, 1:18-22; 2:10 

NEW TESTAMENT: Matthew, 8-9; 12:22-29; 
14:13-36; 15:22-39; 17:1-8; 20:29-34 / Marl^ 
1:20-34,40-44; 2:3-12; 4:34-41; 5; 6:34-56; 
7:24-8:26; 9:2-10,17-30; 10:46-52; 13:24-26 
^(D) Mar)(, 1:29-34,40-44; 2:3-12; 4:34-40; 
51 6:34-56"! 7:24-8:26; 9:1-9,16-29; 10:46-52; 



13:24-26 / Lu%e, 1:5-66; 4:31-5:26; 7:1-16; 
8:22-56; 9:12-17,28-42; 11:14-26; 13:11-17; 
14:1-6; 17:11-19; 18:35-43 (D) Lu^e, 1:5-66; 
4:31-5:26; 7:1-16; 8:22-56; 9:12-17,28-43; 
11:14-26; 13:11-17; 14:1-6; 17:11-19; 18:35-43 
/ John, 1:14-17; 2:1-11; 4:46-54; 11:1-45 / 
Acts, 2:1-22; 3:1-16; 4:33; 5:12-16; 9:36-43; 
14:8-10; 19:11-12; 20:7-12; 28:1-10 (D)Acts, 
2:1-22; 3:1-16; 4:33; 5:12-16; 936-43; 14:7- 
9; 19:11-12; 20 7-12; 28:1-10 / Romans, 1:3-5; 
3:19-7.25; ii // Cormthians, 3:1-15; 15:9-10 / 
// Corinthians, 4:15; 8-9 passim; 12:1-10 / 
Galatians, 5 14 / Ephesians, i :i-i i / Philippians, 
2:12-13; 4-13 / // Thessalomans, 2:16-17 (D) 
II Thessalonians, 2:15-16 / II Timothy, 2:1 / 
Titus, 2:11-15; 3:3-9 / Hebrews, 2:9; 12:14-29 
/ James, 4 :6 / / Peter, 5 15 
14 PLUTARCH: Coriolanus, 191d-192b 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK i, par 5-6 2b-c; 
BK n, par 15 12b-c; BK vi, par 4 36a-b / City of 
God, BK x, CH 8 303a-d; CH 12-18 306d-310d; 
BK xni, CH 3-5 361a-362c; CH 7 362d-363b; 
CH 14-15 366b-d; CH 20 370c-371a; BK xin, 
CH 23-BK xiv, CH i 372a-377a; BK xiv, CH 
26-27, 396b-397a; BK XV,CH 1-3 397b,d-399c, 
BK xvi, CH 26 438c-439a; CH 37 444b-445a; 
BK xvni, CH ii 477c-d; BK xxi, CH 5-8 563d- 
568d, CH 15-16 572c~574a; BK xxn, CH 5-10 
589a-599b / Christian Doctrine, BK i, CH i 
624b,d 

19 AQUINAS' Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 2, A 2, 
REP i lld-12c; Q 8, A 3, ANS and REP 4 36b- 
37c; Q 12, A 2 51c-52c; AA 4-5 53b-55b; A 13 
61c-62b; Q 62 317c-325b; Q 89, A i, REP 3 
473b-475a; A 2, REP 3 475a-d; A 8, REP 2 
479c-480c; Q 92, A 4, ANS 491b-d; o 95 506b- 
510a; Q 104, A 4, ANS 538a-c; Q 105, AA 6-8 
543b-545b; Q 106, A 3, ANS 547c-548b; Q 108, 
A 8, ANS and REP 1-2 561a-562a; Q no, A 4 
567c-568b; Q 113, A i, REP 2 576a-d; Q 114, 
A 4 584a-585a; Q 119, A i, ANS 604c-607b; 
PART i-n, Q 5, A 6, REP 2 641a-642a; Q 10, A 4, 
REP 2 665d-666a,c 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 51, 
A 4 15a-d; Q 55, A 4, ANS and REP 6 28c-29d; 
Q 58, A 3, REP 3 43b-44a; Q 62, A i 60a-d; 
Q 63, A 2, ANS and REP 1-2 64b-65a; Q 65, A 3, 
ANS 72d-73d; Q 66, A 2, REP i 76c-77c; Q 76, 
A 2, REP 2 141d-142c; Q 79, A 3, ANS 158a-d; 
Q 81, A 3, REP 3 165d-166b; A 4 166b-167a; 
Q 85, A 6, ANS 182d-184a; Q 98, A i, ANS 239b- 
240c; Q 106, A i, ANS and REP 1,3 321a-322a; 
QQ 109-114 338a-378a,c esp Q 113, A 10 369c- 
370b; PART n-ii, Q 24, A 3, REP i 491a-d; PART 
in, QQ 7-8 745c-763b; Q 61, A r, REP 2 855a-d; 
Q 62 858b-864c; PART in SUPPL, Q 75, A 3 938a- 
939d; Q 83, A 3 978c-980d; Q 92, A i 1025c- 
1032b 

21 DANTB: Divine Comedy, PARADISE, vn [16- 
120] 115b-116b; xni [52-87] 126a-b; xx 
[79-138] 137c-138a; xxix [58-66] 150d-151a; 
XXXH [40-87] 155a-c; XXXH [i39]-xxxiii [145] 
156a-157d 



176 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



8 



(7. The causality of God or the gods. Id. Divine 
causality in the supernatural order; grace, 
miracles.) 

22 CHAUCER: Tale of Man of Law 236b-255b esp 
[4869-4924] 242b-243b, [5247-5253] 249b / 
Prioress's Tale [13,418-620] 392a-395b 

23 HOB BBS: Leviathan, PART i, 83c; 88c-89a; 
PART n, 137b-c; 149c-d; 160b-c; PART in, 
165d-167b; 172a-177c passim; 183d-187a; 
188a-191a; 241c-242a; PART iv, 249b-250a; 
264a 

25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 212a-d; 267d-268a; 
273a b; 294a-b 

30 BACON: Advancement of learning, 19b-c; 
33c-d, 41b-c / New Atlantis, 201d-203c 

31 DESCARTES: Objections and Replies, 125d- 
126a 

32 MILTON '.Paradise LOJ/,BK n [1024-1033] 133b; 
BK in [56-415] 136b-144b csp [130-134] 138a, 
[167-184] 139a~b, [227-238] 140b; BK xi [1-21] 
299a~b; [251-262] 304b-305a; BK xn [173-222] 
323a-324a / Samson Agomstes [356-372] 347b; 
[652-666] 353b-354a 

33 PASCAL: Provincial Letters, la-14a; 19a-26b; 
29b; 154b-159a / Pensees, 202 211a; 430-435 
245a-251a; 458 254a; 505 261a-b, 508-511 
261b; 513-517 262a-263b; 520-524 263b-264a; 
643-644 290b-291b; 803-856 328b-341b, 876 
345a; 88 1 345b 

35 LOCKE* Human Understanding, BK iv, CH xvi, 

SFCT 13 371a-b 
35 BERKELEY: Human Knowledge, SECT 62-63 

425a-c; SECT 84 429b-c 
35 HUME: Human Understanding, SECT vn, DIV 

54 474b-c, SECT x 488d-497b 
37 FIELDING: Tom Jones, 38d 

40 GIBBON: Decline and Pall, 180b-c; 189b-191a; 
206b-d; 295b-296b; 465d-467a; 605b-d 

41 GIBBON: Decline and Pall, 227d-228a; 232a-c; 
398b399b 

42 KANT: Pure Reason, 238b 

44 Bosw ELL- Johnson, 126b-c; 359a 
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, PART in, 307a- 
b; PARI iv, 338b-c; 348d-349a 

51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK v, 219b-220a 

52 DOSTOEVSKY: Brothers Karamazov, BK i, lla- 
b; BK v, 127b-137c passim; BK vii, 171a-177b; 
189d-190a 

}. The operation of causes in the process of 
history 

6 HERODOTUS: History, BK i, 21d-22a; BK ix, 
291b-c 

6 THUCYDIDES: Peloponnesian War, BK i, 354d- 
355a; BK iv, 462a-b 

7 PLATO: Statesman, 587a-589c / Laws, BK in, 
663d-666d; BK iv, 679a-c 

9 ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK v 502a-519d passim 
12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK i [449-482] 

6c-7a 
12 AURBLIUS: Meditations, BK v, SECT 8 269d- 



270b; BK vii, SECT i 279b; SECT 49 282d; 
BK ix, SECT 28 293d-294a; BK x, SECT 27 299d 

13 VIRGIL- Aeneid 103a-379a csp BK i [254-296] 
HOa Ilia, BK vi [713-853] 230a-234a 

14 PLUTARCH: Camillus, 107c / Timoleon, 201a- 
203b 

15 TACITUS- Annals, BK in, 49c; BK vi, 91b-d / 
Histories, BK i, 190a-b 

18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK i, PREF 129a-d, 
CH 36 149c-d; BK n, CH 2-3 150c-151c; BK iv, 
CH 33 206c-d, BK v, CH i 207d-208c, CH 11-26 
216c-230a,c; BK xi, CH i 322b,d-323a; CH 18 
331d-332a; BK xiv, CH 28-BK xv, CH i 397a- 
398c; BK xv, CH 21-22 415b-416c; BK xvm, 
CH 1-2 472b,d-473d 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, HELL, vn [61-96] 
lOb-c; PURGATORY, xvi [52-114] 77b-78a; 
PARADISE, vi [28-111] 113d-114d 

23 MACHIAVELLI: Prince, CH xiv, 21b; CH xxv 
35a-36b 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART i, 76c-d 

25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 464b-465c passim 

26 SHAKESPEARE' Julius Caesar, ACT iv, sc in 
[215-224] 590d 

30 BACON- Advancement of Learning, 34c 

33 PASCAL: PensSes, 505 261a-b; 619-641 284b- 

290a 

36 SWIFT: Gulliver, PART in, 121a-b 
38 MONTESQUIEU' Spirit of Laws, BK vin, 56b- 

57c; BK xvn 122a-125a,c 
38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 348a,c 

40 GIBBON- Decline and Pall, 456d-457a,c; 
609b-c;630b,d-634a,c 

41 GIBBON: Decline 0/^Ftf//,451c-453a,c; 590a-b 
43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER 3, 33c 

43 MILL- Representative Government, 327b,d-332d 
passim, esp 331b-332d 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART n, par 115 
42b-c; PART in, par 340-360 110b-114a,c esp 
par 342 llOc-d, par 347 lllb-c / Philosophy of 
History, INTRO, 155c; 156d-170b; 173a-175c; 
190b-201a,c esp 190b-d, 194b-196a; 203a- 
206a,c; PART i, 235d-237a; 258b-d, PART n, 
262c-263d; 274a-275a; 281d-282d; 283c- 
284a,c; PART in, 300a-301c; PART iv, 337d- 
342a 

49 DARWIN- Descent of Man, 323a-b; 327a-328d 

50 MARX- Capital, 7b; 8a-lld passim; 377c-378d 

50 MARX-ENGELS: Communist Manifesto, 416c- 
417a,c; 419b,d-425b passim; 428b-d 

51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK ix, 342a-344b; 
BK x, 389a-391c; 430b-432c; 447c-448c; BK 
xi, 469a-472b; BK xin, 563a-575a; BK xiv, 
588a-590c; 609a-613d; BK xv, 618b-621b; 
EPILOGUE i, 645a-650c; EPILOGUE n 675a- 
696d 

52 DOSTOEVSKY: Brothers Karamazov, BK v, 
127b-137c 

54 FREUD: War and Death, 761a-c / Civilization 
and Its Discontents, 781a-782d; 787a-788d; 
791b-d; 799a-802a,c esp 801d-802a,c / New 
Introductory Lectures, 834b-c; 882b-884c 



.CHAPTER 8: CAUSE 177 



CROSS-REFERENCES 



For: The consideration of cause in relation to principle and clement, sec ELEMENT a; PRINCIPLE la. 
The distinction between necessary and contingent causes, and for the conception of chance 

in relation to cause, see CHANCE xa-ib; NATURE 3c~3c(i); NECESSITY AND CONTINGENCY 

3a-3c. 
The issue concerning determinism in nature or history, see FATE 5-6; HISTORY 43(1); 

MECHANICS 4c(i); NATURE 2f, 3c(2). 
Other discussions of the controversy concerning causality and free will, and of the problem 

of man's freedom in relation to God's will, see FATE 2, 4; HISTORY 43(1); LIBERTY 4a~4b, 

53, 5d; WILL 5a(3)~5 a (4)> 5^), 5 C > ?c- 
The theory of divine causality in creation, providence, and the performance of miracles, see 

ASTRONOMY 8d; GOD 53, 73-76; MATTER 3d; NATURE 3c(4); WORLD 40, 4d^e. 
The role of ends or final causes in the order of nature and the structure of the universe, sec 

DESIRE i ; GOD 5b; NATURE 3c(3); WORLD ic, 6c; and for the general theory of means and 

ends, see GOOD AND EVIL 40, 5c; JUDGMENT 3; PRUDENCE 33, 4b; WILL ac(2)-2c(3). 
The discussion of cause as an object of knowledge and in relation to the methods and aims of 

philosophy, science, and history, see ASTRONOMY 3a~3b; DEFINITION 2d; HISTORY 3b; 

KNOWLEDGE 53(3); MECHANICS 2c; PHYSICS 2b; REASONING 5b(4)~5b(5); SCIENCE ib(i), 



ADDITIONAL READINGS 

Listed below are works not included in Gieat Booty of the Western World, but relevant to the 
idea and topics with which this chapter deals. These works are divided into two groups; 

I. Works by authors represented in this collection. 
II. Works by authors not represented in this collection. 

For the date, place, and other facts concerning the publication of the works cited, consult 
the Bibliography of Additional Readings which follows the last chapter of The Great Ideas, 

I. II. 

AQUINAS. Summa Contra Gentiles, BK in, CH 1-16, SEXTUS EMPIRICUS. Outlines of Pyrrhonism, BK HI, 

64-83, 88-98 CH 1-20 

DESCARTES. The Principles of Philosophy, PART i, 28 . Against the Physicists, BK i (Concerning Cause 

HOBBES. Concerning Body, PART n, CH 9 and the Passive) 

HUME. A Treatise of Human Nature, BK i, PART in, PROCLUS. The Elements of Theology, (B,G,I) 

SECT n-iv, xv MAIMONIDES. The Guide for the Perplexed, PART i, 

BERKELEY. Sins CH 69; PART n, CH 48 

KANT. Metaphysical Foundations of Natural DUNS SCOTUS. Tractatus de Prtmo Pnncipio (A 

Science, DIV in Tract Concerning the First Principle) 

GIBBON. An Essay on the Study of Literature, XLVIII- BRUNO. De la causa, principio, e uno 

LV, LXXVIII-LXXXII SUAREZ. Disputatwncs Mctaphysicac, xi (3), xn- 

HEGEL. Science of Logic, VOL i, BK n, SECT i, CH 3; xxvn,xxix,xxxi(8-io), xxxiv(6-7), XLVIII (i) 

SECT HI, CH 3(fl) ; VOL II, SECT II, CH 3 JOHN OP SAINT THOMAS. CuTSUS PhlloSOphlCUS Tho- 

J. S. MILL. A System of Logic, BK in, CH 4-6, 9-10, misticus, Philosophia Naturalis PART i, QQ 10-13, 

15, 21 25-26 
. An Examination of Sir William Hamilton's BOYLE. A Disquisition About the Final Causes of 

Philosophy, CH 16 Natural Things 

FREUD. The Psychopathology of Everyday Life, CH 12 MALEBRANCHE. De la recherche de la veritc, BK vi(n), 

W. JAMES. Some Problems of Philosophy, CH 12-13 CH 3J Edaircissement 15 



178 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



MALEBRANCHE. Dialogues on Metaphysics and Reli- 
gion, VII 

LEIBNITZ. Discourse on Metaphysics, xv-xxii 

. New Essays Concerning Human Understanding, 

BK 11, CH 26 

VOLTAIRE. Candtde 

. "Change or Generation of Events/' "Final 

Causes," in A Philosophical Dictionary 

T. REID, Essays on the Active Powers of the Human 
Mind, i 

SCHOPENHAUER. On the Fourfold Root of the Princi- 
ple of Sufficient Reason 

, The World as Will and Idea, VOL HI, SUP, CH 

26; APPENDIX 

BROWN. An Inquiry into the Relation of Cause and 
Effect 

. Lectures on the Philosophy of the Human Mind, 

VOL i, pp 189-220, VOL ii, pp 128-134 

COMTE. The Positive Philosophy, INTRO, CH i ; BK HI, 
CH i 

W. HAMILTON, lectures on Metaphysics and Logic, 
VOL i (38-40) 

WHEWELL. The Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences, 

VOL I, BK HI, CH 1-4; BK IX, CH 6j BK X, CH $', VOL 
II, BK XI, CH 7 

HELMHOLTZ. Popular Lectures on Scientific Subjects, 

VIII 

WUNDT. Die Prmzipien der mechanischen Naturlehre 
JEVONS. The Principles of Science, CH 1 1 

LOTZE. Logic, BK I, CH 2 (fl) 

P. A. JANET. Final Causes 

C. S. PEIRCE. Collected Papers, VOL vi, par 66-87, 

393-394 

DOMET DE VORGES. Cause cfficiente et cause finale 
WATTS. The Reign of Causality 
VENN. Principles of Empirical or Inductive Logic, CH 2 



FRAZER. The Golden Bough, PART i, CH 3 
PEARSON. The Grammar of Science, CH 4 
BRADLEY. The Principles of Logic, BK in, PART n, 

CH 2 

. Appearance and Reality, BK i, CH 6 

BOSANQUET. Science and Philosophy, 8 

BERGSON. Creative Evolution 

BROAD. Perception, Physics, and Reality, CH 1-2 

HENDERSON. The Order of Nature 

W. E. JOHNSON. Logic, PART HI, CH 3-1 1 

MEYERSON. Identity and Reality, CH i 

. De F explication dans les sciences 

DUCASSE. Causation and the Types of Necessity 
WHITEHEAD. An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of 

Natural Knowledge, CH 16 

. Symbolism, Its Meaning and Effects 

EDDINGTON. The Nature of the Physical World, 

CH 14 

McTAGGART. The Nature of Existence, CH 24-26 
SANTAYANA. The Realm of Matter, CH 7 
M. R. COHEN. Reason and Nature, BK i, CH 4(2) ; 

BK II, CH 2 

LENZEN. The Nature of Physical Theory, PART iv, 

CH 16 

WEYL. The Open World, LECT n 
MARITAIN. A Preface to Metaphysics, LECT V-VH 

A. J. TOYNBFE A Study of History 
PLANCK Where Is Science Going?, CH 4-5 

. The Philosophy of Physics, CH 2 

DEWFY, Logic, the Theory of Inquiry, CH 22 

B. RUSSELL. Principles of Mathematics, CH 55 

. Our Knowledge of the External World, vin 

. Mysticism and Logic, en 9 

. The Analysis of Matter, CH 30-31, 35 

. Human Knowledge, Its Scope and Limits, 

PART IV, CH 9~IO; PART VI, CH 5~6 



Chapter 9: CHANCE 



INTRODUCTION 



ONE sense in which we use the word 
"chance" does not exclude the operation 
of causes. The chance event, in this sense, is 
not uncaused. But within this meaning of 
chance, there is the question oihow the chance 
event is caused. 

On one view, what happens by chance is dis- 
tinguished from what happens by nature in 
terms of a difference in manner of causation 
the difference between the contingent and the 
necessary. On another view, the chance event 
does not differ causally from that which hap- 
pens regularly or uniformly. The difference lies 
not in the pattern of causes, but in our knowl- 
edge of them. The chance event is unpredict- 
able or less predictable because of our ignorance 
of its causes, not because of any real contingency 
in the order of nature. 

There is still a third sense of "chance" in 
which it means that which happens totally 
without cause the absolutely spontaneous or 
fortuitous. 

These three meanings of chance at once in- 
dicate the basic issues in which the concept is 
involved. The third meaning is the most radi- 
cal. It stands in opposition to the other two. 
Their opposition to one another can be con- 
sidered after we examine the sense in which 
chance excludes every type of cause. 

THE DOCTRINE OF absolute fortuitousness is 
indetermmism in its most extreme form. The 
familiar phrase, "a fortuitous concourse of 
atoms,'* indicates the classical statement of 
this doctrine, and identifies it in the great books 
with the theory of atomism. It would be more 
precise to say "with Lucretius' version of that 
theory," because it is with regard to chance 
that he departs from the teachings of Democ- 
ritus and Epicurus, and adds an hypothesis of 
his own. 



The swerve of the atoms, according to Lu- 
cretius, accounts for the origin of the world, 
the motions of nature, and the free will of man. 
But nothing accounts for the swerve of the 
atoms. It is uncaused, spontaneous, fortuitous. 
"When the atoms are being carried downwards 
straight through the void by their own weight, 
they push a little from their path at times quite 
undetermined and at undetermined places, 
yet only just so much as you would call a 
change of trend. If they did not swerve, all 
things would fall downward through the deep 
void like drops of rain, nor could collision come 
to be, nor blows be brought to pass among the 
atoms; thus nature would never have brought 
anything to being." 

Since the atoms differ in shape, size, and 
weight, it might be supposed that the heavier 
atoms, falling straight yet more rapidly, would 
overtake and hit the lighter atoms, thus bring- 
ing about their grouping or interlocking. But 
this supposition, says Lucretius, is contrary to 
reason. It may hold for things falling through 
water or thin air, but through the empty void 
"all things, even of unequal weight, move with 
an equal velocity through the unresisting void." 
Therefore heavier things will never be able to 
fall on the lighter from above nor of themselves 
bring about the blows sufficient to produce the 
varied motions by which nature carries things 
on. Wherefore, Lucretius concludes, the atoms 
"must swerve a little." 

Once the atoms have collided, the way in 
which they are locked together in the patterns 
of composite things, and all the subsequent mo- 
tions of these things, can be accounted for by 
reference to the natural properties of the atoms. 
The atomic sizes, shapes, and weights determine 
how they behave singly or in combination. But 
the swerve of the atoms is not so determined. 
It is completely spontaneous. 



179 



180 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



"If each motion is always due to another, and 
the new always springs from the old in a deter- 
mined order, and if the atoms do not by swerv- 
ing break through the decree* of fate, so that 
cause does not follow cause through infinite 
time"; whence, asks Lucretius, "is it wrested 
from fate, this will whereby we move forward 
where pleasure leads each one of us, and swerve 
likewise in our motions, neither at a fixed time 
nor at a fixed place, but only when and where 
the mind itself has prompted us?" The answer 
he gives is that there must be "in the atoms . . . 
another cause of motion besides blows and 
weights, whence comes this power born in us, 
since we see that nothing can come to be from 
nothing." 

BEING ABSOLUTELY fortuitous, the swerve of 
the atoms is absolutely unintelligible. There is 
no answer to the question why they chance to 
swerve at undetermined times and places. This 
unintelhgibility may not, however, make the 
fortuitous either unreal or impossible. It can 
be argued that chance may exist even though, 
for our limited understanding, it remains mys- 
terious. 

The same problem of intelligibility arises 
with respect to that meaning of chance wherein 
it is identified with coincidence or contingency. 
Here, as in the case of the absolutely fortuitous, 
chance belongs to reality or nature. "Some 
things always come to pass in the same way, and 
others for the most part," writes Aristotle as an 
observer of nature, but there is also "a third 
class of events besides these two events which 
all say are 'by chance.' " Things of this last 
kind, he goes on to say, are those which "come 
to pass incidentally" or accidentally. 

According to this theory, a real or objective 
indeterminism exists. Chance or contingency is 
not just an expression of human uncertainty 
born of insufficient knowledge. Contingency, 
however, differs from the fortuitousness or 
spontaneity of the atom's swerve, in that it is 
a product of causes, not their total absence. 
Of the contingent event, "there is no definite 
cause," in Aristotle's opinion, but there is "a 
chance cause, />., an indefinite one." 

In the chance happening, two lines of action 
coincide and thereby produce a single result. 
This is our ordinary understanding of the way 



accidents happen. The chance meeting of old 
friends who run across each other in a railroad 
station after a separation of many years is a 
coincidence a coinciding of the two quite 
separate and independent lines of action which 
brought each of them to the same station at 
the same time, coming from different places, 
going to different places, and proceeding un- 
der the influence of different causes or pur- 
poses. That each is there can be explained by 
the operation of causes. That both are there 
together cannot be explained by the causes 
determining their independent paths. 

So understood, the chance event exemplifies 
what Aquinas calls a "clashing of two causes." 
And what makes it a matter of chance is the 
fact that "the clashing of these two causes, in- 
asmuch as it is accidental, has no cause." Pre- 
cisely because it is accidental, "this clashing of 
causes is not to be reduced to a further pre-ex- 
isting cause from which it follows of necessity." 

The illustration is not affected by considera- 
tions of free will. Whether men have free will 
or not, whether free acts are caused or are, as 
Kant suggests, uncaused and spontaneous, the 
event we call a "chance meeting" remains acci- 
dental or, more precisely, a coincidence. What- 
ever the factors are which control the motions 
of each man, they operate entirely within that 
single man's line of action. Prior to the meeting, 
they do not influence the other man's conduct. 
If we could state the cause for the coincidence 
of the two lines of motion, it would have to be 
some factor which influenced both lines. Were 
there such a cause and were it known to us, we 
could not say that the meeting happened by 
chance. It would still be a coincidence in the 
merely physical sense of coming together, but 
it would not be a coincidence causally. 

That free will is irrelevant to this meaning of 
chance can be seen from the fact that the col- 
lision of particles which produces atomic fission 
is regarded as resulting from chance or coinci- 
dence in a manner no different from the acci- 
dental meeting of friends. Causes control the 
speeds and directions of the colliding particles, 
but no cause determines their collision > or, in 
other words, there is no cause for the coinci- 
dence of two separate lines of causation. Con- 
temporary physics affirms a real or objective 
indeterminism insofar as it does not merely say 



CHAPTER 9: CHANCE 



181 



that the cause of the coincidence is unknown 
to us, but rather holds that no such cause exists 
to be known. 

THE CONCEPTION OF THE chance event as an 
uncaused coincidence of causes is an ancient as 
well as a modern doctrine. In his Physics^ Aris- 
totle distinguishes between what happens by 
nature and what happens by chance in terms of 
different types of causality. "Chance," he 
writes, is "reckoned among causes; many things 
are said both to be and to come to be as a result 
of chance." But the fact that its effects cannot 
be "identified with any of the things that come 
to pass by necessity and always, or for the most 
part" at once distinguishes the causality of 
chance from that of nature. 

"The early physicists," Aristotle observes, 
"found no place for chance among the causes 
which they recognized . . . Others there are 
who, indeed, believe that chance is a cause, but 
that it is inscrutable to human intelligence, as 
being a divine thmgand full of mystery." But to 
Aristotle himself "it is clear that chance is an 
incidental cause" and "that the causes of what 
comes to pass by chance are infinite." For this 
reason, he explains, "chance is supposed to be- 
long to the class of the indefinite, and to be in- 
scrutable to man." Though he distinguishes be- 
tween spontaneity and chance, he says that both 
"are causes of effects which, though they might 
result from intelligence or nature, have in fact 
been caused by something incidentally." 

What happens by nature happens regularly, 
or for the most part, through causal necessity. 
This necessity results from the operation of es- 
sential causes, causes in the very nature of the 
moving things. When the regularity fails, it is 
due to the intervention of some accidental 
cause. What happens by chance, then, or con- 
tingently, is always due to an accidental (or 
better, incidental) cause. As indicated in the 
chapter on CAUSE, an accidental as opposed to 
an essential cause is, in Aristotle's theory, one 
which does not by itself 'produce the given effect. 
It does so only through the conjunction of other 
causes. But since it does not determine these 
other causes to operate, the effect contingent 
on their combined activity is produced by 
chance, that is, by the contingency of several 
incidental causes working coincidentally. 



A world in which chance really exists is re- 
markably different from a world in which neces- 
sity prevails, in which everything is determined 
by causes and there are no uncaused coinci- 
dences. William James vividly epitomizes their 
difference by calling the world of absolute ne- 
cessity or determinism the world of Spinoza 
or Hegel a "block universe" in contrast to 
what he describes as a "concatenated universe.** 
Voltaire before him, in his Philosophical Dic- 
tionary, had used the phrase "the concatenation 
of events" to express the meaning of chance. 

The phrase evokes the right image, the pic- 
ture of a world in which many concurrent lines 
of causality, exercising no influence upon one 
another, may nevertheless concatenate or be 
joined together to produce a chance result. 
The block universe presents the contrasting pic- 
ture of a world in which each motion or act de- 
termines and is determined by every other in 
the fixed structure of the whole. 

Spinoza claims, for example, that "in nature 
there is nothing contingent, but all things are 
determined from the necessity of the divine 
nature to exist and act in a certain manner.** 
Chance, in other words, does not exist in nature. 
A thing is said to be contingent, Spinoza writes, 
only "with reference to a deficiency in our 
knowledge. For if we do not know that the es- 
sence of a thing involves a contradiction, or if 
we actually know that it involves no contra- 
diction, and nevertheless we can affirm nothing 
with certainty about its existence because the 
order of causes is concealed from us, that thing 
can never appear to us either as necessary or 
impossible, and therefore we call it either con- 
tingent or possible." Hence, for Spinoza, con- 
tingency or chance is illusory rather than real 
a projection of the mind's ignorance or of its 
inadequate knowledge of causes. 

The issue between real indeterminism and 
absolute determinismfurther discussed in the 
chapters on FATE and NECESSITY AND CON- 
TINGENCY inevitably raises theological ques- 
tions. Just as the theologian must reconcile 
man's free will with God's predestination, so 
must he, if he accepts its reality, also reconcile 
chance with divine providence, apart from 
which nothing can happen either necessarily 
or contingently. 

For Augustine it would seem that divine 



182 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



providence leaves no room for chance among 
natural things. After noting that causes are 
sometimes divided into a "fortuitous cause, a 
natural cause, and a voluntary cause/' he dis- 
misses "those causes which are called fortui- 
tous" by saying that they "are not a mere name 
for the absence of causes, but are only latent, 
and we attribute them either to the will of the 
true God, or to that of spirits of some kind or 
other/' 

In certain places Aquinas seems to talk in 
much the same fashion as though chance 
existed only for our limited intellects and not 
for God. "Nothing," he declares, "hinders 
certain things from happening by luck or 
chance, if compared to their proximate causes; 
but not if compared to divine providence, ac- 
cording to which 'nothing happens at random 
in the world/ as Augustine says." The example 
he uses to illustrate his point is that of two serv- 
ants who have been sent by their master to the 
same place: "the meeting of the two servants, 
although to them it appears a chance circum- 
stance, has been fully foreseen by their master, 
who has purposely sent them to meet at one 
place, in such a way that one has no knowledge 
of the other." In such a way also "all things 
must of necessity come under God's ordering," 
from which it follows that God directly causes 
the action of even accidental causes, and their 
coincidence* The chance event would then be 
necessitated by God. It would be determined 
by His will, however indeterminate it might ap- 
pear to us. 

Yet in other places Aquinas writes that "God 
wills some things to be done necessarily, some 
contingently .... To some effects He has at- 
tached unfailing necessary causes, from which 
the effects follow necessarily; but to other 
defectiblc and contingent causes, from which 
effects arise contingently." For some minds 
this may only deepen the mystery rather than 
solve it. At least it leaves many questions un- 
answered. 

Docs Aquinas mean that a coincidence of 
causes is not itself uncaused ? Does he mean that 
God causes the concatenation of events, and 
that a sufficient reason for every contingency 
exists in God's will? If so, is chance an illusion, 
a function of our ignorance of divine provi- 
dence? May chance be quite real on the level of 



nature where no natural causes determine the 
coincidence, while not real at least not in the 
same sensefor God ? Or does the statement 
that what "divine providence plans to happen 
contingently, happens contingently" mean that 
chance remains a real feature of the universe 
even for God ? 

One thing is clear. In one sense of the word, 
the Christian theologians completely deny 
chance. If "chance" means something which 
God does not foresee, something unplanned 
by His providence, then according to their 
faith nothing happens by chance. It is in this 
sense also that what happens by chance is 
opposed to what happens on purpose, or has a 
final as well as an efficient cause. As the chapter 
on CAUSE indicates, those who deny final causes 
in nature sometimes use the word "chance" to 
signify not lack of cause, nor even contingency, 
but only the blindness of causality working 
to no end. 

The controversy discussed in the chapter on 
WORLD between those who see in the struc- 
ture of the universe the grand design of a di- 
vine plan and those who attribute whatever 
order there is in nature to blind chance further 
indicates the sense in which theologians like Au- 
gustine and Aquinas deny chance. But if 
"chance" means no more than contingency, then 
to affirm chance excludes, not providence, but 
fate, at least that sense of "fate" according to 
which everything is blindly necessitated. Here 
it is Spinoza's statement that "in nature there 
is nothing contingent, but all things are de- 
termined from the necessity of the divine na- 
ture" which opposes the statement of Aqui- 
nas that "the mode both of necessity and con- 
tingency falls under the foresight of God." 

THE THEORY OF chance has obvious bearings on 
the theory of knowledge, especially with regard 
to the distinction between knowledge and opin- 
ion and between certainty and probability. 

On any view of chance whether it is real or 
illusory 'iyhen men call a future event con- 
tingent they mean that they cannot predict it 
with certitude. So far as human prediction goes, 
it makes no difference whether the future event 
is necessarily determined and we lack adequate 
knowledge of its causes, or the event has a gen- 
uine indeterminacy in the way it is caused or 



CHAPTER 9: CHANCE 



183 



uncaused. Regardless of what the objective 
situation is, the assurance with which we pre- 
dict anything reflects the state of our knowl- 
edge about it. 

The ancients who, for the most part, regard 
chance as real and objective, treat probability 
as subjective. For them, the different degrees of 
probability which men attach to their state- 
ments measure the inadequacy of their knowl- 
edge and the consequent uncertainty of their 
opinions about matters which cannot be known 
but only guessed. Holding different theories 
of the distinction between knowledge and 
opinion, both Plato and Aristotle exclude the 
accidental and the contingent, along with the 
particular, from the objects of science. Since in 
their view certitude belongs to the essence of 
science or of knowledge as contrasted with 
opinion science for them deals not only with 
the universal but with the necessary. 

In the Republic Socrates assigns opinion to 
the realm of becoming the realm of changing 
and contingent particulars. Unlike Plato, Aris- 
totle does not restrict knowledge to the realm of 
eternal and immutable being, but he does in- 
sist that physics, as a science of changing things, 
preserve the certitude of science by concerning 
itself only with the essential and the necessary. 
"That a science of the accidental is not even 
possible," he writes, "will be evident if we try 
to see what the accidental really is." It is a mat- 
ter of chance that cold weather occurs during the 
dog-days, for "this occurs neither always and 
of necessity, nor for the most part, though it 
might happen sometimes. The accidental, then, 
is what occurs, but not always nor of necessity, 
nor for the most part. Now ... it is obvious 
why there is no science of such a thing." 

Though he disagrees with Aristotle and 
Aquinas about the reality of chance or con- 
tingency, Spinoza agrees with them that knowl- 
edgeat least adequate knowledge has the 
necessary for its object. Of individual things, 
he says, "we can have no adequate knowledge 
. . . and this is what is to be understood by us as 
their contingency." To be true to itself and to 
the nature of things, reason must "perceive 
things truly, that is to say, as they are in them- 
selves, that is to say, not as contingent but as 
necessary." 

The position of Aquinas is worth stating for 



comparison. To the question "whether our 
intellect can know contingent things," he re- 
plies that "the contingent, considered as such> 
is known directly by sense and indirectly by 
the intellect, while the universal and necessary 
principles of contingent things are known by 
the intellect. Hence," he goes on, "if we con- 
sider knowable things in their universal prin- 
ciples, then all science is of necessary things. 
But if we consider the things themselves, thus 
some sciences are of necessary things, some of 
contingent things." 

Among the sciences of contingent things, 
Aquinas includes not only "the sciences of na- 
ture" but also "the moral sciences," because the 
latter, dealing with human action, must reach 
down to contingent particulars. In the sphere 
of morals as of nature, certainty can be achieved 
only on the level of universal principles. De- 
liberation about particular acts to be done 
moves on the level of probable opinion. In con- 
trast to the moral scientist, the man of action 
must weigh chances and make decisions with 
regard to future contingencies. It would be as 
foolish, Aristotle says, to expect the certitude 
of scientific demonstration from an orator or a 
judge, as "to accept probable reasoning from a 
mathematician." 

IT is NOT SURPRISING that the modern theory of 
probability or, as it was later called by Boole, 
Venn, and others, the "logic of chance" 
should have its origin in the sphere of practical 
problems. Pascal's correspondence with Fermat 
illustrates the early mathematical speculations 
concerning formulae for predicting the out- 
come in games of pure chance. For Pascal the 
logic of chance also has moral implications. If 
we are willing to risk money at the gaming 
table on the basis of calculated probabilities, 
how much more willing should we be to act 
decisively in the face of life's uncertainties, 
even to risking life itself on the chance of eternal 
salvation. 

When we act "on an uncertainty, we act 
reasonably," Pascal writes, "for we ought to 
work for an uncertainty according to the doc- 
trine of chance." If the chance of there being 
an after-life is equal to the chance of there 
being none if the equiprobability reflects our 
equal ignorance of either alternative then, 



184 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



Pascal argues, we ought to wager in favor of 
immortality and act accordingly. "There is 
here the infinity of an infinitely happy life to 
gain, a chance to gam against a finite number of 
chances of loss, and what you stake is finite." 

Like Pascal, Hume thinks that we must be 
content with probability as a basis for action. 
"The great subverter of Pyrrhonism or the ex- 
cessive principles of skepticism," he writes, "is 
action, and employment, and the occupations 
of common life." But unlike the ancients, 
Hume also thinks we should be content with 
probabilities in the sphere of the natural sci- 
ences. Certitude is attainable only by the 
mathematician who deals with the relations be- 
tween ideas. Since the natural sciences deal 
with matters of fact or real existence, and since 
to know such things we must rely entirely upon 
our experience of cause and effect, we cannot 
reach better than probable conclusions. 

The scientist, according to Hume, "weighs 
opposite experiments. He considers which side 
is supported by the greater number of experi- 
ments; to that side he inclines, with doubt and 
hesitation; and when at last he fixes his judg- 
ment, the evidence exceeds not what we prop- 
erly call probability. All probability, then, sup- 
poses an opposition of experiments and observa- 
tions ... A hundred instances or experiments 
on one side, and fifty on another, afford a 
doubtful expectation of any event; though a 
hundred uniform experiments, with only one 
that is contradictory, reasonably beget a pretty 
strong degree of assurance." 

Hume applies the logic of chance to weighing 
the evidence against and the testimony in 
favor of miracles, as well as to contrary hy- 
potheses in science. As much as Spinoza, he 
denies the existence of chance or contingency 
in the order of nature. Chance is entirely sub- 
jective. It is identical with the probability of 
our opinions. In the throw of dice, the mind, he 
says, "considers the turning up of each particu- 
lar side as alike probable; and this is the very 
nature of chance, to render all the particular 
events, comprehended in it, entirely equal." 
But there may also be "a probability, which 
arises from a superiority of chances on any side; 
and according as this superiority increases, and 
surpasses the opposite chances, the probability 
receives a proportionate increase . . . The case," 



Hume asserts, "is the same with the probability 
of causes, as with that of chance." 

Since Hume's day, the theory of probability 
has become an essential ingredient of empirical 
science. The development of thermodynamics 
in the I9th century would have been impossible 
without it. This is also true of the quantum 
mechanics and atomic physics of our own time. 
But like the doctrine of chance, the theory of 
probability tends in one of two directions: 
either toward the subjective view that proba- 
bility is only a quality of our judgments, meas- 
uring the degree of our ignorance of the real 
causes which leave nothing in nature unde- 
termined; or toward the objective view that 
there is genuine indetermmism in nature and 
that mathematical calculations of probability 
estimate the real chance of an event's occurring. 

THE ELEMENT OF chance also has a bearing on 
the general theory of art. The hypothesis of the 
melody which a kitten might compose by walk- 
ing on the keyboard, is obviously intended to 
contrast a product of chance with a work of 
art. The competent musician knows with 
certainty that he can do what the meandering 
kitten has only one chance in many millions 
of ever accomplishing. 

In proportion as an art is developed, and to 
the degree that its rules represent a mastery of 
the medium in which the artist works, chance 
is excluded from its productions. This point is 
strikingly exemplified in the history of medi- 
cine. "If there had been no such thing as medi- 
cine," Hippocrates suggests, "and if nothing 
had been investigated or found out in it," all 
practitioners "would have been equally un- 
skilled and ignorant of it, and everything con- 
cerning the sick would have been directed 
by chance." On the same principle, Galen dis- 
tinguishes the physician from the empiric, who, 
"without knowing the cause," pretends that he 
is "able to rectify the failures of function." 
The empiric works by trial and error the very 
opposite of art and science, for trial and error 
can succeed only by chance. The physician, 
learned and skilled in medicine, works from a 
knowledge of causes and by rules of art which 
tend to eliminate chance. 

Augustine reports a conversation with the 
proconsul concerning the relative merits of 



CHAPTER 9: CHANCE 



medicine and astrology. When the proconsul 
tells him that, as compared with medicine, 
astrology is a false art, Augustine* at this time 
himself "much given to the books of the horo- 
scope-casters," asks how the fact that "many 
things were foretold truly by [astrology]" can be 
explained. The proconsul "answered, very rea- 
sonably, that it was due to the force of chance, 
which is always to be allowed for in the order of 
things." Thus, Augustine says later, "I saw it 
as obvious that such things as happened to be 
said truly from the casting of horoscopes were 
true not by skill but by chance; and such things 
as were false were not due to want of skill m the 
art but merely that luck had fallen the other 
way." 

Neither art itself, nor skill in its practice, 
can ever be perfect enough to remove chance 
entirely, for the artist deals with particulars. 
Yet the measure of an art is the certainty which 
its rules have as directions for achieving the de- 
sired result; and the skill of the artist is meas- 
ured by the extent to which he succeeds by 
rule and judgment rather than by chance. 

When Aristotle quotes Agathon's remark that 
"art loves chance and chance loves art," he ex- 
plains its sense to be that "chance and art are 
concerned with the same objects" that which 
docs not come to be by nature nor from neces- 
sity. Hence art sometimes fails, either from un- 
controllable contingencies or from insufficient 
knowledge of causes. "All causes," says Hume, 
"are not conjoined to their usual effects with 
like uniformity. An artificer, who handles only 
dead matter, may be disappointed of his aim, as 
well as the politician, who directs the conduct 
of sensible and intelligent agents." 

IN THE REALM OF human affairs in morals, 
politics, and history the factor of chance is 
usually discussed in terms of good and bad for- 
tune. The word "fortune" as may be seen in 
the root which it shares with "fortuitous" 
has the same connotations as "chance." Aris- 
totle treats fortune as the kind of chance that 
operates in the sphere of human action rather 
than natural change. Fortune, he thinks, can 
be attributed properly only to intelligent be- 
ings capable of deliberate choice. The sense of 
this distinction between chance and fortune 
seems to be borne out in history by the fact 



that fortune, unlike chance* receives persdnin> 
cation in myth and legend. Fortune is a goddess 
or, like the Fates whom she combats, a 'power 
with which even the gods must reckon. 

The doctrine of chance or fortune occupies 
an important place in moral theory. Aristotle's 
classification of goods tends to identify external 
goods with goods of fortune the goods which, 
unlike knowledge and virtue, we cannot ob- 
tain merely by the exercise of our will and 
faculties. Considering the elements of happi- 
ness, Aquinas groups together wealth, honor, 
fame, and power as goods of the same sort be- 
cause they are "due to external causes and in 
most cases to fortune." 

The goods of fortune, as well as its ills, con- 
sist in things beyond man's power to command 
and, in consequence, to deserve. Recognizing 
the unpredictable operation of fortune, Epicte- 
tus, the Stoic, argues that "we must make the 
best of those things that are in our power, and 
take the rest as nature gives it." We have "the 
power to deal rightly with our own impres- 
sions." Hence the Stoics advise us to control our 
reactions to things even though we cannot con- 
trol the things themselves. Yet men will always 
ask, as Hamlet does, "Whether 'tis nobler in 
the mind to suffer the slings and arrows of out- 
rageous fortune, or to take arms against a sea of 
troubles, and by opposing end them?" 

The fact that the goods and ills of fortune arc 
beyond our power to control raises the fur- 
ther question of man's responsibility regarding 
them. We can hardly be held responsible for 
everything that happens to us, but only for 
those things which are subject to our will. 
This traditional moral distinction between the 
good or evil which befalls us by fortune and 
that which we willfully obtain or accomplish, 
parallels the legal distinction between acciden- 
tal and intentional wrongdoing. 

What is true of the individual life seems to 
apply to history the life of states and the de- 
velopment of civilization generally. For the 
most part, the historians Herodotus and 
Thucydides, Plutarch, Tacitus, and Gibbon- 
find fortune a useful principle of interpretation, 
To Machiavelli history seems to be so full of 
accidents and contingencies "great changes in 
affairs . . . beyond all human conjecture" 
that he tries to advise the prince how to make 



186 THE GREAT IDEAS 

use of fortune in order to avoid being ruined by shall not be obliged to have recourse to chance 

it. Such advice can be followed because, in his for an explanation of those small events which 

opinion, "Fortune is the arbiter of one half of made these people what they were, but it will 

our actions, but still leaves us to direct the be clear that all those small events were inevi- 

other half, or perhaps a little less." table." 

Hegel, on the contrary, does not admit chance As the contingent is opposed to the neces- 

or fortune in his view of world history as a sary, as that which happens by chance is op- 

"necessary development out of the concept of posed to that which is fully determined by 

the mind's freedom alone." For Tolstoy also, causes, so fortune is opposed to fate or destiny, 

either necessity or freedom rules the affairs of This opposition is most evident in the great 

men. Chance, he writes, does "not denote any poems, especially the tragedies, which depict 

really existing thing," but only "a certain stage man's efforts to direct his own destiny, now 

of understanding of phenomena." Once we pitting his freedom against both fate and for- 

succeed in calculating the composition of forces tune, now courting fortune in his struggle 

involved in the mass movements of men, "we against fate. t 



OUTLINE OF TOPICS 

PAGE 

1 . The conception of chance 1 87 

la. Chance as the coincidence of causes 

\b. Chance as the absolutely fortuitous, the spontaneous or uncaused 

2. The issue concerning the existence of chance or fortune 188 

2a. The relation of chance to causality: philosophical or scientific determinism 
2^. The relation of chance to fate, providence, and predestination 

3. Chance, necessity, and design or purpose in the origin and structure of the world 189 

4. Cause and chance in relation to knowledge and opinion: the theory of probability 

5. The control of chance or contingency by art 

6. Chance and fortune in human affairs: the mythology of Fortune 190 

6a. Chance and fortune in the life of the individual 

6. Chance and fortune in politics and history 191 



CHAPTER 9: CHANCE 187 



REFERENCES 

To find the passages cited, use the numbers in heavy type, which arc the volume and page 
numbers of the passages referred to. For example, in 4 HOMER- Iliad, BK n [265-283] 12d, the 
number 4 is the number of the volume in the set; the number 12d indicates that the pas- 
sage is in section d of page 12. 

PAGE SECTIONS: When the text is printed in one column, the letters a and b refer to the 
upper and lower halves of the page. For example, in 53 JAMES -Psychology, 116a-119b, the passage 
begins in the upper half of page 116 and ends in the lower half of page 119. When the text is 
printed in two columns, the letters a and b refer to the upper and Tower halves of the left- 
hand side of the page, the letters c and d to the upper and lower halves of the right-hand side of 
the page. For example, in 7 PLATO: Symposium, 163b-164c, the passage begins in the lower half 
of the left-hand side of page 163 and ends in the upper half of the right-hand side of page 164. 

AUTHOR'S DIVISIONS: One or more of the mam divisions of a work (such as PART, BK, CH, 
SECT) are sometimes included in the reference; line numbers, in brackets, are given in cer- 
tain cases; e.g., Iliad, BK n [265-283] 12d. 

BIBLE REFERENCES- The references are to book, chapter, and verse. When the King James 
and Douay versions differ in title of books or in the numbering of chapters or verses, the King 
James version is cited first and the Douay, indicated by a (D), follows; e.g., OLD TESTA- 
MENT: Nehemiah, 7:45 (D) II Esdras, 7:46. 

SYMBOLS. The abbreviation "esp" calls the reader's attention to one or more especially 
relevant parts of a whole reference; "passim" signifies that the topic is discussed intermit- 
tently rather than continuously in the work or passage cited. 

For additional information concerning the style of the references, see the Explanation of 
Reference Style, for general guidance in the use of The Great Ideas, consult the Preface. 



1. The conception of chance REP i 531b-532b; A 7, REP 2 533b-d; Q 115, 

A 6, ANS and REP 3 591d-592d; Q 116, A i 

la. Chance as the coincidence of causes 592d-593d 

7 PLATO- Timaeus, 455a-b 23 HOBBI&S: leviathan, PART iv, 272b 

8 ARISTOILE: Interpretation, CH 9 [i8 b 5~9] 28c / 31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART HI, DEP 1-3 395d- 
Prtor Analytics, BK i, CH 13 [^2 b 4-i4] 48b-c / 396a 

Posterior Analytics, BK n, CH n [95*3-9] 129d/ 35 HUME: Human Understanding, SECT vi 469d- 

Toptcs, BK n, CH 6 [ii2 b i-2i] 157d-158a; BK 470d passim; SECT vm, DIV 67 480c 481a 

in, CH i [n6 b i-7J 162d-163a / Physics, BK n, 42 KANT, Judgement, 566a-b 

CH 4-6 272c-275a; CH 8 275d-277b / Heavens, 51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK ix, 342a-344b; 

BK i, CH 12 [283 a 3o- b 6] 375a-c; BK n, CH 5 BK xm, 584d-585b 

[287^2-26! 379b; CH 8 [289^2-28] 381b; BK 53 JAMES- Psychology, 71a; 91a-92a; 765b; 857b- 

iv, CH 3 [310*23-31] 401d / Metaphysics, BK v, 858a passim 

CH 30 [1025*13-29] 547a-c; BK vi, CH 2-3 

548c-549d; BK xi, CH 8 593a-d; BK xn, CH 3 ** Chance as the absolutely fortuitous, the 

[1070*4-9] 599b / Memory and Reminiscence, spontaneous oruncaused 

CH 2 [452*3o- b 6] 694b 8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK n, CH 4 lipfft^-fy] 

9 ARISTOTLE: Parts of Animals, BK i, CH i 272d-273a; CH 6 [198*5-14] 275a 
[640*12-33] 162b-d / Rhetoric, BK i, CH 10 12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK i [1022- 
[i369*3i- b 5] 612c-d 1029] 13c-d; BK n [184-293] 17b-18d esp [284- 

12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK n, SECT 3 257a-b 293] 18c-d; [1048-1066] 28b-c; BK v [181-194] 

17 PLOTINUS: Fourth Ennead, TR in, CH 16, 150c 63b-c; [416-431] 66c-d 

/ Sixth Ennead, TR vm, CH 10, 347c-d 17 PLOTINUS: Third Ennead, TR i, CH 3 79b-c 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BKIV, par4-620a-d; 18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK iv, CH 18 197c- 
BK VH, par 8-10 45d-47a passim 198a 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theohgica, PART i, Q 22, 19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 16, 
A 2, REP i 128d-130d; Q 47, A i, ANS 256a- A i, REP 2 94b-95c; Q 22, A 2, ANS 128d-130d; 
257b; Q 57, A 3, ANS 297b-298a; Q 103, A 5, Q 47, A i, ANS 256a-257b 



188 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



2 to Ib 



(1. Tb* conception of chance. Ib. Chance as the 
absolutely fortuitous, the spontaneous or 
uncaused.) 

42 KANT: Pure Reason, 132d-133a; 140b,d-143a 
/ Practical Reason, 331c-332a / Judgement, 
566a-b 
54 FREUD: General Introduction, 454b-c 

2. The issue concerning the existence of chance 
or fortune 

2a. The relation of chance to causality: philo- 
sophical or scientific determinism 

7 PLATO: Republic, BK x, 438c-439a / Timaeus, 
455c-456a; 465d-466a / Statesman, 587a~589c 
csp 587a-b / Laws, BK x, 759d-765d 

8 ARISTOTLE: Interpretation, CH 9 28a-29d / 
Posterior Analytics, BK 11, CH n [95*3-9] 129d/ 
Physics, BK n, CH 4-5 272c-274b; CH 8 [199*33- 
b i6] 276c-277a / Heavens, BK n, CH 5 [287*22- 
26] 379b; CH 8 [28942-28] 381b; BK iv, CH 3 
[310*23-31] 401 d / Generation and Corruption, 
BK n, CH 6 [333*35~ b 2o] 434b-c / Metaphysics, 
BK v, CH 30 547a-d; BK vi, CH 2 [1027*8-18] 
549b; CH 3 549c-d; BK xi, CH 8 [io65*6- b 4J 
593b-d; BK XH, CH 3 [1070*4-9] 599b / 
Memory and Reminiscence, CH 2 [452*30-^6] 
694b 

9 ARISTOTLE: Parts of Animals, BK i, CH i 
[640*1 2- b 4] 162b-163a / Ethics, BK HI, CH 3 
[1112*30-33] 358b / Rhetoric, BK i, CH 10 
[1369*31-%] 612c-d 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK n [184-307] 
17b-19a; [1048-1066] 28b-c; BK v [55-58] 61d; 
[181-194] 63b-c; [306-310] 65a; [416-431] 66c-d 

12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK vn, SLCT i 279b; 
SECT 49 282d; BK ix, SECT 28 293d-294a, 
SECT 35-36 294d-295a; SECT 39 295a; BK x, 
SECT 27 299d 

17 PLOTINUS : Third Ennead, TR i, CH 2, 78d; CH 3 
79b-c; TR n, CH i, 82c / Fourth Ennead, TR HI, 
CH 16 150c-d; TR iv, CH 33 176b-d / Sixth 
Ennead, TR vm, CH 9-10 347a-348a 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Thcologica, PART i, Q 14, 
A 13, REP i 86d-88c; Q 19, A 8 116a-d; Q 22, 
A 2, REP i 128d-130d; A 4 131c-132b; Q 103, A 

5, REP i 531b-532b; A 7, REP 2 533b-d; Q 115, 
A 6 591d-592d; Q 116, A i 592d-593d; A 3 
594c-595a 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART n, 113b-c; PART iv, 

272b 
28 HARVEY: On Animal Generation, 412c-413a 

30 BACON : Advancement of Learning, 45b-c 

31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART i, DBF 7 355b; AXIOM 3 
355d; PROP 16 362a; PROP 21-23 364a-365a; 
PROP 26-29 365b-366c; PROP 33-36 367b- 
369 b; PART n, PROP 31, COROL 385c; PROP 44 
389b-390a; PART HI, 395a-d; PROP 2, SCHOL 
396d-398b; PART iv, PREF 422b,d-424a; DEP 
3-4 424*; APPENDIX, vi 447c-d; PART v, PROP 

6, DBMONST 454a 



34 NEWTON: Optics, BK in, 542a-b 

35 HUME: Human Understanding, SECT vi, DIV 46, 
469d; DIV 47, 470b; SECT vm 478b-487a pas- 
sim, csp DIV 67 480c-481a, DIV 74 484a-c 

38 ROUSSEAU: Social Contract, BK n, 397a 
42 KANT: Pure Reason, 72c-85d esp 74b-76c; 
91d-92c; 132d-133a; 140b,d-143a; 153a; 171a- 
172c; 184b-c / Fund. Prin. Metaphysic of 
Morals, 285c-d / Practical Reason, 331c-333a / 
Judgement, 558b-c; 564a-c; 566a-b; 587a-c 
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART in, par 342 
HOc-d / Philosophy of History, INTRO, 157b- 
158a 

48 MELVILLE: Moby Dick,, 159a 

49 DARWIN: Origin of Species, 37c-d; 65a / 
Descent of Man, 593d 

50 MARX: Capital, lOb-llb 

51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK ix, 342a-344b; 
BK x, 389a-391c; BK xi, 469a-472b; EPILOGUE 
i, 646c-650c esp 646c-647b; EPILOGUE n 675a- 
696d 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 71a; 90b-93a esp 91a-92a; 
377b; 387b-388a; 765b; 823a-825a passim 

54 FREUD: General Introduction, 454b-c; 486c- 
487a / Beyond the Pleasure Principle, 660c 

2b. The relation of chance to fate, providence, 
and predestination 

OLD TESTAMENT: Proverbs, 1633 / Jonah, i i-io 

(D) Jonas, 1:1-10 
NEW TESTAMENT: John, 6:44-45, 64-65 (D) 

John, 6:44-45,65-66 / Acts, 1:15-26; 13-48 / 

Romans, 8:28-11:36 esp 8 28-30, 9.15, 10.13- 

14, 11:5 / Ephesians, 1:4-2:10 

4 HOMER: Iliad, BK xxiv [522-551] 176d-177a 

5 AESCHYLUS: Prometheus Bound [507-520] 
45a-b 

5 SOPHOCLES: Trachiniae [95-140] 171a-b / 

Philoctetes [169-200] 183d-184a 
5 EURIPIDES: Helen [712-720] 304d-305a / 

Heracles Mad [60-8 1] 365c-d 

7 PLATO. Laws, BK iv, 679a-c 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK n, CH 4 [i96 b 5~7] 273a 
/ Metaphysics, BK XII,CH 10 [1075*11-24] 605d- 
606a 

9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK i, CH 9 [i099 b 8-24] 
345a-b 

12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK i, CH 6 110c-112b; 
CH 12 118d-120b; CH 16 121d-122d; BK in, CH 
17 191d-192a; BK iv, CH 3 224b-d 

12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK n, SECT 3 257a-b; 
SECT ii 258a-b; BK in, SECT n 262a-b; BK iv, 
SECT 3, 263c; BK ix, SECT 28 293d- 294a; BK 
XH, SECT 14 308c 

13 VIRGIL: Aeneid, BK i [194-209] 108a-b; [595- 
624] 119b-120a; BK XH [631-649] 370b-371a 

14 PLUTARCH: Camillus, 107c 

15 TACITUS: Annuls, BK vi, 91b-d / Histories, BK 
i, 194a-c 

17 PLOTINUS: Third Ennead, TR n, CH 1-2 82c- 
83d; TR HI, CH 2 93d / Fourth Ennead, TR in, 
CH 1 6 i50c-d 



3/o 5 



CHAPTER 9: CHANCE 



189 



18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK v, CH i 207d- 
208c; CH 9 213b-215c 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART I, Q 14, 
A 13 86d-88c; Q 15, A i, ANS 91b-92a; Q 16, 
A i, REP 2 94b-95c; Q 19, A 8 116a-d; Q 22, 
A 2, REP i 128d-130d; A 4 131c-132b; Q 47, 
A i, ANS 256a-257b; Q 57, A 3, ANS 297b- 
298a; Q 86, A 4, ANS 463d-464d; Q 103, A 5, 
REP i 531b-532b; A 7, REP 2 533b-d; Q 116, 
A i 592d-593d; A 3 594c-59Sa; PART I-H, 
Q 10, A 4 665d-666a,c 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, HELL, vn [49-99] 
lOa-c; PARADISE, viii [91-148! 117d-118c; xm 
[52-87] 126a-b 

22 CHAUCER: Troilus and Cressida, BK in, STANZA 
89 66a; BK w, STANZA 138-154 106b-108b; 

BK V, STANZA 221 149a 

23 MACHIAVELLI: Prince, CH xxv, 35a b 
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART 11, 149d 

25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 514d-515a 

29 CERVANTES: Don Quixote, PART n, 408c 

32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK in (80-134] 137a- 
138a; BK vn [170-173] 220b-221a, BK x [613- 
640] 287b-288b / Samson Agomstes [667-709] 
354a-355a / Areopagitica, 394b-395b 

33 PASCAL. Pensees, 205 21 la 

35 BFRKELEY. Human Knowledge, SECT 93 431b 

37 FIELDING Tom Jones, 75c-d 

38 MONILSQUIEU Spirit of Laws, BK i, la-b 

42 KANT. Practical Reason, 334a-335c / Judge- 
ment, 594d [fn i] 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART in, par 343 
HOd-llla / Philosophy of History, INTRO, 158c- 
159b; 169d-170b; PART in, 300c-301c 

49 DARWIN. Descent of Man, 593d 

51 TOLSTOY. War and Peace, BK ix, 342a-344b; 
BK x, 389a-391c; 447c-448c; EPILOGUE i, 
646c-650c esp 646c-647b; EPILOGUE 11 675a- 
696d 

3. Chance, necessity, and design or purpose in 
the origin and structure of the world 

7 PLATO: Timaeus, 450b-c / Phikbus, 618b-619c 
/ Laws, BK x, 760a-765c 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK 11, CH 4 [i96 8 25- b 4] 
272d-273a; CH 6 [198*5-13] 275a / Metaphys- 
ics, BK i, CH 3 [984^-22] 502d 

9 ARISTOTLE: Parts of Animals, BK i, CH i 
[64^13-24] 164c 

12 LUCRETIUS' Nature of Things, BK i [1008- 
1051] 13c-14a; BK n [167-183] 17a-b; [1048- 
1066] 28b-c; BK v [146-194] 63a-c; [416-508] 
66c-67c 

12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK iv, SECT 27 266a; 

BK VI, SECT 10 274b-C 

17 PLOTINUS Second Ennead, TR in, CH 7 44c-45a 

/ Third Ennead, TR i, CH 3 79b-c 
19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 15, 

A i, ANS 91b-92a; Q 19, A 4, ANS lllc-112c; 

Q 22, A 2, ANS and REP 3 128d-130d; A 4 131c- 

132b; Q 47, A i, ANS 256a-257b; Q 103, A i 

528b-529a; A 7, REP 2 533 bd 



31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART i, PROP 33 367b-369a; 
APPENDIX 369b-372d 

34 NEWTON: Principles, BK in, GENERAL SCHOL, 
369b-370a / Optics, BK in, 541b-542b 

42 KANT: Judgement, 558b-559d; 560d-562a,c; 

562d-567b; 568c-570b; 575b-588a 
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, INTRO, 156d- 

157b; 158c-159b 
53 JAMES: Psychology, 5a 

4. Cause and chance in relation to knowledge 

and opinion: the theory of probability 

7 PLATO: Meno, 189c / Crtto, 214a 

8 ARISTOTLE: Interpretation, CH 9 28a-29d / 
Prior Analytics, BK i, CH 13 [32 b 4-23] 48b-d / 
Posterior Analytics, BK i, CH 2 [7i b 8-i6] 97d- 
98a; CH 6 102b-103c; CH 30 119d; CH 33 
[88 b 3 0-89*10] 121b-c / Metaphysics, BK vi, CH 
2 548c-549c; BK vn, CH 15 [io39 b 3i-i04o*8] 
563d-564a; BK ix, CH 10 [io5i b 6-i7] 577d; 
BK xi, CH 8 593a-d 

9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK i, CH 3 [1094^2-27] 
339d-340a; BK in, CH 3 [ni2*i9- b i2] 358a-c; 
BK vi, CH 3 [ii39 b i8-24] 388b-c; CH 5 389a-c 
/ Rhetoric, BK i, CH 2 [1357*14-39] 596d- 
597a 

17 PLOTINUS: Third Ennead, TR i, CH 3 79b-c / 
Sixth Ennead, TR vin, CH 10 347c-348a 

19 AQUINAS. Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 14, 
A 13, ANS and REP 3 86d-88c; Q 16, A i, REP 2 
94b-9Sc; Q 57, A 3, ANS 297b-298a; Q 79, A 9, 
REP 3 422b-423d; Q 86, AA 3-4 463b-464d; 
Q 116, A i, ANs592d-593d 

23 HOB BBS- Leviathan, PART iv, 272b 

31 DESCARTES Rules, 11 2a-3b 

31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART 11, PROP 29-30 384d- 
385c; PROP 44 389b-390a 

33 PASCAL: Pens&s, 23^-241 213b-217b / Arith- 
metical Triangle, 460a-468b / Correspondence 
with Permat, 474a-477b; 479b-486a 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH xxi, 
SECT 70 197a-b, BKIV, CHIII, SECT I4316b-d; 
SECT 29 322c 323a; CH vi, SECT 5-16 332b- 
336d passim; CH xv-xvi 365a-371c; CH xvn, 
SECT2371d-372b 

35 HUME* Human Understanding, SECT vi 469d- 

470d; SECT x, DIV 86-91 488d-491c passim, csp 

DIV 87 489b-d 
42 KANT: Pure Reason, 228c-d / Fund. Pnn. 

Metaphysic of Morals, 285c-d / Judgement, 

603d 604b 

49 DARWIN: Origin of Species, 65a 
51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK iv, 188a-190c; 

BK ix, 365a-c; BK x, 441b-d; BK xni, 584c- 

585b; EPILOGUE i, 646c-647b; EPILOGUE n, 

694d-695c 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 851b csp [fn i] 

54 FREUD: General Introduction, 454b-c 

5. The control of chance or contingency by art 

7 PLATO: Euthydemus, 69a-71a / Gorgias, 253a / 
Laws, BK iv, 679a-c; BK x, 760a-b 



190 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



6 to 6a 



(5. The control of cbanct or contingency by art.) 

8 ARISTOTLE: Posterior Analytics, BK 11, CH n 
[95*3-9] 129d / Metaphysics, BK i, CH i [980** 
25-98 1*5] 499b; BK xn, CH 3 [1070*4-9] 599b 

9 ARISTOTLE: Parts of Animals, BK i, CH i 
[640*25-33] 162d / Ethics, BK i, CH 9 [io99 b i8- 
24] 345a-b; BK n, CH 4 [1105*18-26] 350d; BK 
in, CH 3 [ni2*i9- b i2] 358a-c; BK vi, CH 4 
[1140*10-23) 388d-389a / Politics, BK i, CH n 
[125^35-36] 453b; BK n, CH n [i273 b i7~24] 
470b; BK vn, CH 13 [1332*28-32] 537a / Rhet- 
oric, BK i, CH i [1354*1-11] 593a; CH 5 [i36i b 
39-1362*4] 602c 

10 HIPPOCRATES: Ancient Medicine, par i la-b 
13 VIRGIL: Aeneid, BK xn [391-440] 364b- 

365b 
19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 57, 

A 3, ANS 297b-298a; PART I-H, Q 14, A 4, ANS 

679b-d 
21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PARADISE, xm [52- 

84] 126a-b 

25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 52c-53c; 377a-d 

26 SHAKESPEARE: Richard II, ACT in, sc iv [29- 
66] 340c-d 

30 BACON Advancement of Learning, 50c-51d; 
56b-57b; 85c-86c; 90b-91a / Novum Organum, 
BK i, APH 8 107c-d; APH 82, 121a; APH 108- 
109 128d-129c; BK n, APH 31 159d-161a 

35 HUME: Human Understanding, SECT vm, DIV 
67 480c-481a 

43 MILL- Utilitarianism, 452a-b 

47 OORTHE: Faust, PRELUDE [134-157] 4a-b 

50 MARX: Capital, 183b-184a 

51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK iv, 188a-190c; 
BK ix, 359a-365c; BK x, 425b-426a; 441b- 
442c; 445d-448c; 456a-459d esp 458c-459d; 
BK xi, 471c-472b; 505a-507a csp 505d-506a, 
507a; BK xm, 563c-575aesp 563c-564d, 570d- 
572a, 573c-575a; 582a-587d esp 584c-585b; 
BK xiv, 609a-613d; BK xv, 618b-621b 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 673a-b 

6. Chance and fortune in human affairs: the 
mythology of Fortune 

6a. Chance and fortune in the life of the indi- 
vidual 

OLD TESTAMENT: Ecclesiastes, 9:11 

4 HOMER: Iliad 3a-179d esp BK xxiv [522-551] 
176d-177a 

5 AESCHYLUS: Persians [909-1076] 24d-26d 

5 SOPHOCLES: Oedipus the King 99a-113a,c esp 
[1522-1530] 113c / Antigone [1155-1171] 140d- 
141a / Trachiniae [1-48] 170a-c; [293-306] 
172c-d; [932-946] 178b / Philoctetes [500-506] 
186c 

5 EURIPIDES: Heracleidae 248a-257a,c esp [853- 
866] 2S5d / Suppliants [263-270] 260c; [549- 
557] 263a / Trojan Women 270a-281a,c esp 
[1200-1206] 280a-b / Heracles Af^36Sa-377d 
csp (474-49^1 369a 



6 HERODOTUS: History, BK i, 7b-8a; 46c; BK 
in, 91d-92b; 98a-99a; 116a-b; BK vir, 225b-d; 
252b-c 

6THucYDiDBs: Peloponnesian War, BK n, 
398c-d 

7 PLATO: Euthydemus, 69a-71a / Republic, BK x, 
439b-440c 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK n, CH 5 [197*25-32] 
274a-b 

9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK j, CH 9-10 345a-346c; 
BK vn, CH 13 [ii53 b i4~24] 405a / Politics, BK 
vn, CH i [1323^2-36] 527c-d / Rhetoric, BK i, 
CH 5 [1361^39-1362*11] 602c-d; CH 10 [i368 b 
33-1369*7] 612a-b; [i369*3i- b 5] 612c-d; BK 
n, CH 12 [i388 b 3i-i389*i] 636a; CH 15-17 
638a-639a 

12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK n, SECT 3 257a-b; 
SECT 17 259b-d; BK in, SECT 4 260b 261a; 
SECT lo-n 261d-262b; BK iv, SECT 26 265d; 
SECT 33-36 266c-d; SECT 44 267b; SECT 49 
268a-c; BK v, SECT 8 269d-270b; SECT 24 
272c; SECT 27 272d; BK vi, SECT n 274c; 
SECT 20 276a; SECT 39 277d; SECT 58 279d; 
BK vn, SECT 8 280b; SECT 34 282a; SECT 54 
283b; SECT 57-58 283c-d; SECT 68 284c-d; 
SECT 75 285c, BK vin, SECT 17 286d; SECT 32 
287d-288a; SECT 35 288b; SECT 44-47 289a-c; 
SECT 51 289d-290a; BK ix, SECT 28 293d- 
294a; BK x, SECT 3 296d; SECT 5-6 296d-297b; 
SECT 25 299c; SECT 33 300c-301a; SECT 35 
301b; BK xn, SECT 3 307b-d; SECT 11-14 
308bc 

13 VIRGIL: Aeneid, BK i [194-209] 108a-b; [595- 
624] 119b-120a; BK xn [391-440] 364b-365b; 
[631-649] 370b-371a 

14 PLUTARCH: Solon, 66b-d; 74c-75c / Sulla, 
370c-371b / Sertorius, 457b,d-458b / Pompey, 
535c-d / Demetrius, 739c-740d; 744b-c 

15 TACITUS. Annals, BK vi, 91b-d / Histories, BK 
iv, 281a-b 

17 PLOTINUS: Second Ennead, TR in, CH 10 46a-b 
/ Third Ennead, TR ii-m 82c-97b passim / 
Fourth Ennead, TR HI, CH 16 150c-d 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK iv, par 4-6 20a-d; 
BK vn, par 8-10 45d-47a / City of God, BK iv, 
CH 18-19 197c-198b 

21 DANTE' Divine Comedy, HELL, vn [49-99] 
lOa-c; xv [22-99] 21b-22a; PARADISE, vin 
[94-148] 118a-c 

22 CHAUCER: Troilus and Cressida, BK i, STANZA 
120-122 16b-17a; BK n, STANZA 40-42 26b- 
27a; BK in, STANZA 89 66a; BK iv, STANZA 41 
94a; STANZA 55-56 95b-96a / Words of the Host 
[12,226-231] 371a / Tale of Mehbeus, par 42 
419a-b / Monf(s Tfl^434a-448b 

23 MACHIAVELLI: Prince, CH xxv 35a-36b 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART i, 79b-80d; 81b-c 

24 RABELAIS: Gargantua and Pantagruel, BK in, 
144d-156c; 158b-178a; 204c-215c; BK iv, 258c- 
259d 

25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 26d-28a; 52c-53c; lOOa- 
lOlc; 169c-170a; 302b-306a passim; 312d- 



CHAPTER 9: CHANCE 



191 



314b; 318a-319b; 393b-394a; 451d-452d; 
484b-d; 489b-490c; 506d-508a; 514d-515a 

26 SHAKESPEARE: Comedy of Errors 149a-169d 
csp ACT i, sc i [29-159] 149b-150d / Merchant 
of Venice, ACT n, sc i [23-46] 411d-412a / 
Henry V, ACT in, sc vi [21-40] 547d-548a / 
Julius Caesar, ACT i, sc n [135-141] 570d; ACT 
iv, sc HI [218-224] 590d / As You Like It, ACT 
i, sc n [29-60] 599b-c 

27 SHAKESPEARE: Hamlet, ACT i, sc iv [23-37] 
36a-b; ACT HI, sc n [68-79] 49c-d; [210-223] 
51b / Troilus and Cressida, ACT i, sc in [1-54] 
108a-c; ACT in, sc m [74-174] 123b-124b / 
AlTs Well That Ends Well, ACT v, sc n [1-36] 
169a-c / King Lear, ACT n, sc n [162-180] 
257d-258a; ACT iv, sc i [1-9] 269b-c / Antony 
and Cleopatra, ACT iv, sc xn [19-30] 341 b-c / 
Ttmon of Athens, ACT i, sc i [63-94] 394b-c; 
ACT iv, sc in [3-18] 410c-d / Sonnets, xxv 
590a;cxi603b 

29 CERVANTES: Don Quixote, PART n, 408c 

30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 76d-77a 
32 MILTON On Timel2a-b 

35 HUME: Human Understanding, SECT vui, DIV 
67-70 480c-482c 

36 STERNE: Tristram Shandy, 194b-195a; 202b- 
208b 

37 FIELDING Tom Jones, 15d; 32a-d; 275d-276a; 
283a-b;310b 

39 SMITH: Wealth of Nations, BK i, 44d-47b 
43 MILL: Representative Government, 347b-c / 

Utilitarianism, 452d 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, PART in, 311a-b 
48 MELVILLE Moby Dic{, 158b-159a; 237a 
51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK iv, 188a-190c; 
BK v, 221b-d; EPILOGUE i, 646c-650c; EPI- 
LOGUE n, 688a-696d passim 

6b, Chance and fortune in politics and history 

5 AESCHYLUS: Persians [909-1076] 24d-26d 

6 HERODOTUS: History, BK i, 2b; BK vn, 225b-d; 
252b-c 



6 THUCYDIDBS: Pelopormesian War, BK i, 368d- 
369a; BK iv, 451a-c; 462a-b; BK v, 506a-c; BK 
vu, 560a-b 

7 PLATO: Republic, BK v, 366a-c / Laws, BK iv, 
679a-c 

9 ARISTOTLE: Politics, BK n, CH n [i273 b i7-24] 
470b; BK vu, CH 13 [1332*28-32] 537a 

13 VIRGIL: Aeneid, BK i [441-495] 115a-116b 

14 PLUTARCH: Romulus, 18d / Camtllus, I07b-c; 
109c-110a / Timoleon 195a-213d esp 196b, 
203b, 205b-c / Aemihus Paulus, 225a-c / 
Philopoemen, 300b-c / Phoaon, 604b,d-605d / 
Demosthenes, 698b-d 

15 TACITUS: Annals, BK m, 49b-c; BK vi, 91b-d 
/ Histories, BK iv, 281a-b 

18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK V,CH i 207d-208c 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, HELL, vn [49-99] 
lOa-c; PARADISE, xvi [73-87] 131a 

22 CHAUCER: Troilus and Cressida, BK i, STANZA 
20 3b; BK v, STANZA 221 149a 

23 MACHIAVELLI: Prince, CH vi, 8c-9b; CH vn, 
lOa-c; CH xxi, 32d; CH xxiv-xxv, 34d-36b 

25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 52c-53c; 136b-139b; 
451d-452d 

26 SHAKESPEARE: Julius Caesar, ACT iv, sc m 
[215-224] 590d ( 

35 HUME: Human Understanding, SECT vm, DIV 
70, 481d-482a 

40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 609b-c; 615a; 630b 

41 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 590a-b 
43 FEDERALIST: NUMBER i, 29a-b 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART in, par 323- 
324 107a-d; par 340 llOb-c; par 345 lllb / 
Philosophy of History, INTRO, 166b-c; PART in, 
300c-301c 

47 GOETHE: Faust, PART n [10,849-872] 264a~b 

50 MARX: Capital, 378b-d 

51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK ix, 359a-365c; 
BK x, 389a-391c; 447c-448c; 449a; 456a-4S9d 
csp 458c-459d; BK xi, 505a-507a csp 505d- 
506a, 507a; EPILOGUE i, 646c-650c; EPILOGUE 
n, 688a-696d passim 



CROSS-REFERENCES 

For: Other discussions of the issue of determinism and chance, see FATE 3, 5-6; HISTORY 43(1); 

NATURE 30-30(1); NECESSITY AND CONTINGENCY 33-30; and for the relation of chance to 

free will, sec LIBERTY 43; WILL 53(3), 50. 
The general theory of cause and its bearing on the concept of chance, see CAUSE i-ib, ^d~6; 

NATURE 30(3). 
The theological problems of chance in relation to fate, providence, and predestination, see 

CAUSE 70-70; FATE 4; GOD 70. 
Other discussions of the theory of probability, see JUDGMENT 6c; KNOWLEDGE 4b, 6d(i)- 

6d(3); NECESSITY AND CONTINGENCY 43; OPINION i, 3b; SCIENCE 46; TRUTH 4d. 
Discussions bearing on the rektion of art to chance, see ART i, 2a; and for the role of chance 

in the sphere of prudence, see PRUDENCE 43-4^ 53. 
The theory of the goods of fortune, see GOOD AND EVIL 4d; HAPPINESS 2b(i); VIRTUE AND 

VICE 6~c; WEALTH loa. 



192 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



ADDITIONAL READINGS 

Listed below are works not included in Great Booths of the Western World, but relevant to the 
idea and topics with which this chapter deals. These works are divided into two groups: 

I. Works by authors represented in this collection. 
II. Works by authors not represented in this collection. 

For the date, place, and other facts concerning the publication of the works cited, consult 
the Bibliography of Additional Readings which follows the last chapter of The Great Ideas. 



I. 

PLUTARCH. "Of Fortune," "Of the Tranquillity of 

the Mind," in Moralia 
F. BACON. "Of Fortune," in Essays 
HUME. A Treatise of Human Nature, BK i, PART in, 

SECT XI-XIII 

KAN r. Introduction to Logic, x 
J. S, MILL. A System of Logic, BK in, CH 17-18 
FREUD. The Psychopathology of Everyday Life, CH 12 
W. JAMES. "The Dilemma of Determinism," in 

The Will to Believe 
. Some Problems of Philosophy, CH 9-13 

II. 

BOETHIUS. The Consolation of Philosophy, BK n, 

iv-v 

SUA*REZ, Disputationes Metaphysicae, xix (12) 
J. BUTLER. The Analogy of Religion, INTRO 
VOLTAIRE. "Change or Generation of Events," 

"Necessary-Necessity," "Power-Omnipotence," 

in A Philosophical Dictionary 
SCHOPENHAUER. On the Fourfold Root of the Princi- 
ple of Sufficient Reason 

LAPLACE. A Philosophical Essay on Probabilities 
DE MORGAN. An Essay on Probabilities 
COURNOT. Exposition de la theone des chances et des 

probability 
BOOLE. An Investigation of the Laws of Thought, CH 

16-18, 21 
TODHUNTER. History of the Mathematical Theory of 

Probability 



VENN. The Logic of Chance 

WHITWORTH Choice and Chance 

BOUTROUX. The Contingency of the Laws of Nature 

JEVONS. The Principles of Science, CH 10-12 

BRADLEY. The Principles of Logic, Terminal Essays, 

VIII 

C. S. PEIRCE. Collected Papers, VOL n, par 645-754; 

VOL vi, par 35-65 
T. HARDY. Life's Little Ironies 
PL ARSON. The Chances of Death 
MEYERSON. Identity and Reality, CH 9 
POINCARE". Science and Hypothesis, PART iv, CH n 

. Science and Method, BK i, CH 4 

HENDERSON. The Fitness of the Environment 
N. R. CAMPBELL. Physics; the Elements, CH 7 
W. E. JOHNSON. Logic, PART in, CH 2 
J. M. KEYNES. A Treatise on Probability, PART i-n, 

iv-v 

G. N. LEWIS. The Anatomy of Science, ESSAY vi 
DEWLY. The Quest for Certainty, CH i 
HEISENBERG. The Physical Principles of the Quantum 

Theory 

NAGEL. On the Logic of Measurement 
M. R. COHEN. Reason and Nature, BK i, CH 3(4) 
MARITAIN. A Preface to Metaphysics, LECT vn 
RLICHENBACH. Theory of Probability 
SANFAYANA. The Realm of Truth, CH n 
VON NEUMANN and MORGENSTERN. Theory of Games 

and Economic Behavior 
JEFFREYS. Theory of Probability 
B. RUSSELL. Human Knowledge, Its Scope and 

Limits, PART v 



Chapter 10: CHANGE 



INTRODUCTION 



FROM the pre-Socratic physicists and the 
ancient philosophers to Darwin, Marx, and 
James and, in our own day, Dewey and White- 
head the fact of change has been a major focus 
of speculative and scientific inquiry. 

Except by Parmenides and his school, the 
existence of change has never been denied. Nor 
can it be without rejecting all sense-perception 
as illusory, which is precisely what Zeno's para- 
doxes seem to do, according to one interpreta- 
tion of them. But if argument cannot refute 
the testimony of the senses, neither can reason- 
ing support it. The fact of change, because it 
is evident to the senses, does not need proof. 

That change is, is evident, but what change is, 
is neither evident nor easy to define. What prin- 
ciples or factors are common to every sort of 
change, how change or becoming is related to 
permanence or being, what sort of existence be- 
longs to mutable things and to change itself 
these are questions to which answers are not 
obtainable merely by observation. Nor will 
simple observation, without the aid of experi- 
ment, measurement, and mathematical calcu- 
lation, discover the laws and properties of mo- 
tion. 

The analysis of change or motion has been a 
problem for the philosophers of nature. They 
have been concerned with the definition of 
change, its relation to being, the classification 
of the kinds of change. The measurement of 
motion, on the other hand, and the mathemat- 
ical formulation of its laws have occupied the 
experimental natural scientists. Both natural 
philosophy and natural science share a common 
subject matter, though they approach it by dif- 
ferent methods and with different interests. 
Both are entitled to use the name "physics" 
for their subject matter. 

The Greek word phiisis from which "phys- 
ics" comes has, as its Latin equivalent, the word 



natura from which "nature" comes. In, their 
original significance, both words had reference 
to the sensible world of changing things, or to 
its underlying principle- to the ultimate source 
of change. The physics of the philosopher and 
the physics of the empirical scientist are alike 
inquiries concerning the nature of things, not in 
every respect but in regard to their change and 
motion. The conclusions of both inqumes have 
metaphysical implications for the nature of the 
physical world and for the character of physi- 
cal existence. 

The philosopher draws these implications for 
being from the study of becoming. The scien- 
tist, in turn, draws upon philosophical dis- 
tinctions in order to define the objects of his 
study. Galileo, for example, in separating the 
problem of freely falling bodies from the 
motion of projectiles, employs the traditional 
philosophical distinction between natural and 
violent motion. The analysis of time and space 
(basic variables in Newtonian mechanics), the 
distinction between discontinuous and contin- 
uous change, and the problem of the divisibility 
of a continuous motion these are philosoph- 
ical considerations pre-supposed by the scien- 
tific measurement of motion. 

WE HAVE so FAR used the words "change" and 
"motion," as well as "becoming," as if all three 
were interchangeable in meaning. That is 
somewhat inaccurate, even for the ancients 
who regarded all kinds of change except one 
as motions; it is much less accurate for the 
moderns who have tended to restrict the mean- 
ing of "motion" to local motion or change of 
place. It is necessary, therefore, to examine 
briefly the kinds of change and to indicate the 
problems which arise with these distinctions. 
In his physical treatises, Aristotle distin- 
guishes four kinds of change. "When the change 



193 



194 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



from contrary to contrary is in quantity" he 
writes, "it is 'growth and diminution'; when 
it is in place, it is 'motion'; when it is ... #i 
quality, it is 'alteration'; but when nothing per- 
sists of which the resultant is a property (or an 
'accident' in any sense of the term), it is 'com- 
ing to be,' and the converse change is 'passing 
away.' " Aristotle also uses other pairs of words 
"generation" and "corruption," "becom- 
ing" and "perishing" to name the last kind of 
change. 

Of the four kinds of change, only the last is 
not called "motion." But in the context of 
saying that "becoming cannot be a motion," 
Aristotle also remarks that "every motion is a 
kind of change." He does not restrict the mean- 
ing of motion to change in place, which is usu- 
'ally called "local motion" or "locomotion." 
There are, then, according to Aristotle's vocab- 
ulary, three kinds of motion: (i) local motion, 
in which bodies change from place to place; 
(2) alteration or qualitative motion, in which 
bodies change with respect to such attributes 
as color, texture, or temperature; (3) increase 
and decrease, or quantitative motion, in which 
bodies change in size. And, in addition, there 
is the one kind of change which is not motion 
generation and corruption. This consists in the 
coming to be or passing away of a body which, 
while it has being, exists as an individual sub- 
stance of a certain sort. 

Becoming and perishing are most readily ex- 
emplified by the birth and death of living 
things, but Aristotle also includes the transfor- 
mation of water into ice or vapor as examples of 
generation and corruption. One distinctive 
characteristic of generation and corruption, 
in Aristotle's conception of this type of change, 
is their instantaneity. He thinks that the other 
three kinds of change are continuous processes, 
taking time, whereas things come into being 
or pass away instantaneously. Aristotle thus 
applies the word "motion" only to the con- 
tinuous changes which time can measure. He 
never says that time is the measure of change, 
but only of motion. 

But the contrast between the one mode of 
change which is not motion and the three kinds 
of motion involves more than this difference 
with regard to time and continuity. Aristotle's 
analysis considers the subject of change that 



which undergoes transformation and the 
starting-point and goal of motion. "Every mo- 
tion," he says, "proceeds from something and 
to something, that which is directly in motion 
being distinct from that to which it is in mo- 
tion and that from which it is in motion; for in- 
stance, we may take the three things 'wood,' 
'hot,' and 'cold,' of which the first is that which 
is in motion, the second is that which to which 
the motion proceeds, and the third is that from 
which it proceeds." 

In the alteration which occurs when the 
wood changes quality, just as in the increase 
or decrease which occurs with a body's change 
in quantity and in the local motion which 
occurs with a body's change of place, that which 
changes persists throughout the change as the 
same kind of substance. The wood does not 
cease to be wood when it becomes hot or cold; 
the stone does not cease to be a stone when it 
rolls from here to there, or the organism an 
animal of a certain kind when it grows in size. 
In all these cases, "the substratum" that 
which is the subject of change "persists and 
changes in its own properties. . . . The body, 
although persisting as the same body, is now 
healthy and now ill; and the bronze is now 
spherical and at another time angular, and yet 
remains the same bronze." 

Because the substance of the changing thing 
remains the same while changing in its proper- 
ties i.e., in such attributes or accidents as 
quality, quantity, and placeAristotle groups 
the three kinds of motion together as accidental 
change. The changing thing does not come to be 
or pass away absolutely, but only in a certain 
respect. In contrast, generation and corruption 
involve a change in the very substance of a 
thing. "When nothing perceptible persists in 
its identity as a substratum, and the thing 
changes as a whole," then, according to Aris- 
totle, "it is a coming-to-be of one substance, 
and the passing-away of another." 

In such becoming or perishing, it is matter 
itself rather than a body or a substance which 
is transformed. Matter takes on or loses the 
form of a certain kind of substance. For exam- 
ple, when the nutriment is assimilated to the 
form of a living body, the bread or corn be- 
comes the flesh and blood of a man. When an 
animal dies, its body decomposes into the ele* 



CHAPTER 10: CHANGE 



195 



mcnts of inorganic matter. Because it is a 
change of substance itself, Aristotle calls the 
one kind of change which is not motion sub- 
stantial change, and speaks of it as "a coming* to- 
be or passing-away simply"~-that is, not in a 
certain respect, but absolutely or "without 
qualification." 

These distinctions are involved in a long 
tradition of discussion and controversy. They 
cannot be affirmed or denied without opposite 
sides being taken on the fundamental issues 
concerning substance and accident, matter and 
form, and the causes of change or motion. The 
adoption or rejection of these distinctions af- 
fects one's view of the difference between inor- 
ganic and organic change, and the difference 
between the motions of matter and the changes 
which take place in mind. The statement of 
certain problems is determined accordingly; 
as, for example, the problem of the transmu- 
tation of the elements, which persists in various 
forms from the physics of the ancients through 
mediaeval alchemy and the beginnings of 
modern chemistry to present considerations 
of radioactivity and atomic fission. 

SINCE THE lyTH CENTURY, motion has been 
identified with local motion. "1 can conceive 
no other kind" of motion, Descartes writes, 
"and do not consider that we ought to conceive 
any other in nature." As it is expressed "in com- 
mon parlance," motion, he says, "is nothing 
more than the action by which any body passes 
from one place to another" 

This can hardly be taken to mean that 
change of place is the only observable type of 
change. That other kinds of change are ob- 
servable cannot be denied. The science of 
mechanics or dynamics may be primarily or ex- 
clusively concerned with local motions, but 
other branches of natural science, certainly 
chemistry, deal with qualitative transforma- 
tions; and the biological sciences study growth 
and decay, birth and death. 

The emphasis on local motion as the only 
kind of motion, while it does not exclude ap- 
parent changes of other sorts, does raise a ques- 
tion about their reality. The question can be 
put in several ways. Are the various apparently 
different kinds of change really distinct, or can 
they all be reduced to aspects of one underlying 



mode of change which is local motion? Even 
supposing that the kinds of change* are not re- 
ducible to one another, is local motion pri- 
mary in the sense that it is involved in all the 
others ? 

When mechanics dominates the physical 
sciences (as has been so largely the case in 
modern times), there is a tendency to reduce all 
the observable diversity of change to various 
appearances of local motion. Newton, for ex- 
ample, explicitly expresses this desire to formu- 
late all natural phenomena in terms of the 
mechanics of moving particles. In the Preface 
to the first edition of his Mathematical Princi- 
ples, after recounting his success in dealing with 
celestial phenomena, he says, "I wish we could 
derive the rest of the phenomena of Nature by 
the same kind of reasoning from mechanical 
principles, for I am induced by many reasons 
to suspect that they may all depend upon cer- 
tain forces by which the particles of bodies, by 
some causes hitherto unknown, are either mu- 
tually impelled towards one another, and co- 
here in regular figures, or are repelled and re- 
cede from one another." 

The notion that all change can be reduced to 
the results of local motion is not, however, of 
modern origin. Lucretius expounds the theory 
of the Greek atomists that all the phenomena 
of change can be explained by reference to the 
local motion of indivisible particles coming to- 
gether and separating. Change of place is the 
only change which occurs on the level of the 
ultimate physical reality. The atoms neither 
come to be nor pass away, nor change in quality 
or size. 

But though we find the notion in ancient 
atomism, it is only in modern physics that the 
emphasis upon local motion tends to exclude all 
other kinds of change. It is characteristic of 
what James calls "the modern mechanico- 
physical philosophy" to begin "by saying that 
the only facts are collocations and morions of 
primordial solids, and the only laws the changes 
of motion which changes in collocation bring/ 1 
James quotes Helmholtz to the effect that "the 
ultimate goal of theoretic physics is to find the 
last unchanging causes of the processes of Na- 
ture." If, to this end, "we imagine the world 
composed of elements with unalterable quali- 
ties," then, Helmholtz continues, "the only 



196 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



changes that can remain in such a world are 
spatial changes, />., movements, and the only 
outer relations which can modify the action of 
the forces arc spatial too, or, in other words, the 
forces are motor forces dependent for their ef- 
fect on spatial relations." 

In the history of physics, Aristotle represents 
the opposite view. No one of the four kinds of 
change which he distinguishes has for him 
greater physical reality than the others. Just as 
quality cannot be reduced to quantity, or cither 
of these to place, so in his judgment the mo- 
tions associated with these terms arc irreducible 
to one another. Yet Aristotle does assign to lo- 
cal motion a certain primacy. "Motion in its 
most general and primary sense," he writes, "is 
change of place, which we call locomotion." He 
does not mean merely that this is the primary 
sense of the word, but rather that no other 
kind of motion can occur without local motion 
being somehow involved in the process. Show- 
ing how increase and decrease depends on alter- 
ation, and how that in turn depends on change 
of place, he says that "of the three kinds of 
motion ... it is this last, which we call locomo- 
tion, that must be primary." 

THE SHIFT IN MEANING of the word "motion" 
would not by itself mark a radical departure in 
the theory of change, but it is accompanied by 
a shift in thought which has the most radical 
consequences. At the same time that motion is 
identified with local motion, Descartes con- 
ceives motion as something completely actual 
and thoroughly intelligible. For the ancients, 
becoming of any sort had both less reality and 
less intelligibility than being. 

Aristotle had defined motion as the actuality 
of that which is potential in a respect in which 
it is still potential to some degree. According 
to what Descartes calls its strict as opposed to 
its popular meaning, motion is "the transfer- 
ence of one part of matter or one body from 
1 the vicinity of those bodies that are in immedi- 
ate contact with it, and which we regard as in 
repose, into the vicinity of others." This defi- 
nitioncontrasted with the Aristotelian con- 
ception which it generally supersedes in the 
subsequent tradition of natural science is as 
revolutionary as the Cartesian analytical geom- 
etry is by comparison with the Euclidean. Nor 



is it an unconnected fact that the analytical 
geometry prepares the way for the differential 
calculus that is, needed to measure variable mo- 
tions, their velocities, and their accelerations. 

The central point on which the two defini- 
tions are opposed constitutes one of the most 
fundamental issues in the philosophy of nature. 
Does motion involve a transition from poten- 
tial to actual existence, or only the substitution 
of one actual state for another only a "trans- 
portation," as Descartes says, from one place to 
another? 

While motion is going on, the moving thing, 
according to Aristotle's definition, must be 
partly potential and partly actual in the same 
respect. The leaf turning red, while it is altering^ 
has not yet fully reddened. When it becomes 
as red as it can get, it can no longer change in 
that respect. Before it began to change, it was 
actually green; and^since it could become red, 
it was potentially red. But while the change is 
in process, the potentiality of the leaf to be- 
come red is being actualized. This actualization 
progresses until the change is completed. 

The same analysis would apply to a ball in 
motion. Until it comes to rest in a given place, 
its potentiality for being there is undergoing 
progressive actualization. In short, motion in- 
volves some departure from pure potentiality 
in a given respect, and never complete attain- 
ment of full actuality in that same respect. 
When there is no departure from potentiality, 
motion has not yet begun; when the attain- 
ment of actuality is complete, the motion has 
terminated. 

The Aristotelian definition of motion is the 
object of much ridicule in the iyth century. 
Repeating the phrasing which had become tra- 
ditional in the schools- "the actualization of 
what exists in potentiality, in so far as it is 
potential" Descartes asks: "Now who under- 
stands these words ? And who at the same time 
does not know what motion is? Will not every- 
one admit that those philosophers have been 
trying to find a knot in a bulrush?" Locke also 
finds it meaningless. "What more exquisite 
jargon could the wit of man invent than this 
definition . . . which would puzzle any rational 
man to whom U was not already known by its 
famous absurdity, to guess what word it could 
ever be supposed to be the explication of. If 



CHAPTER 10: CHANGE 



197 



Tully, asking a Dutchman what beweegmgc 
was," Locke continues, "should have received 
this explication in his own language, that it 
was actus entts in potcntia quatcnus in potential 
I ask whether any one can imagine he could 
thereby have guessed what the word beweeginge 
signified?" 

Locke does not seem to be satisfied with any 
definition of motion. "The atomists, who define 
motion to be 'a passage from one place to an- 
other/ what do they more than put one synon- 
ymous word for another? For what is passage 
other than motion ? . . . Nor will 'the successive 
application of the superficies of one body to 
those of another,' which the Cartesians give us, 
prove a much better definition of motion, when 
well examined." But though Locke rejects the 
definition of the atomists and the Cartesians 
on formal grounds, he accepts their idea of 
motion as simply change of place; whereas he 
dismisses the Aristotelian definition as sheer 
absurdity and rejects the idea that motion or 
change necessarily involves a potentiality capa- 
ble of progressive fulfillment. 

As we have already remarked, the omission 
of potentiality from the conception of motion 
is a theoretical shift of the deepest significance. 
It occurs not only in Descartes' Principles of 
Philosophy and in the atomism of Hobbes and 
Gassendi, but also in the mechanics of Galileo 
and Newton. According to these modern philos- 
ophers and scientists, a moving body is always 
actually somewhere. It occupies a different 
place at every moment in a continuous motion. 
The motion can be described as the successive 
occupation by the body of different places at 
different times. Though all the parts of the mo- 
tion do not coexist, the moving particle is com- 
pletely actual throughout. It loses no reality 
and gains none in the course of the motion, 
since the various positions the body occupies 
lie totally outside its material nature. It would, 
of course, be more difficult to analyze alteration 
in color or biological growth in these terms, but 
it must be remembered that efforts have been 
made to apply such an analysis through the re- 
duction of all other modes of change to local 
motion. 

The principle of inertia, first discerned by 
Galileo, is critically relevant to the issue be- 
tween these two conceptions of motion. It is 



stated by Newton as the first of his "axioms or 
laws of motion." "Every body," he writes, 
"continues in its state of rest, or of uniform 
motion in a right line, unless it is compelled to 
change that state by forces impressed upon it." 
As applied to the motion of projectiles, the 
law declares that they "continue in their mo- 
tions, so far as they are not retarded by the re- 
sistance of air, or impelled downwards by the 
force of gravity." 

In his experimental reasoning concerning the 
acceleration of bodies moving down inclined 
planes, Galileo argues that a body which has 
achieved a certain velocity on the descent 
would, if it then proceeded along a horizontal 
plane, continue infinitely at the same velocity 
except for the retardation of air resistance 
and friction. "Any velocity once imparted to a 
moving body," he maintains, "will be rigidly 
maintained as long as the external causes of ac- 
celeration or retardation are removed." So in 
the case of projectiles, they would retain the 
velocity and direction imparted to them by the 
cannon, were it not for the factors of gravity 
and air resistance. Bodies actually in motion 
possess their motion in themselves as a complete 
actuality. They need no causes acting on them 
to keep them in motion, but only to change 
their direction or bring them to rest. 

The motion of projectiles presents a difficulty 
for the theory which describes all motion as a 
reduction of potency to act. "If everything that 
is in motion, with the exception of things that 
move themselves, is moved by something else, 
how is it," Aristotle asks, "that some things, 
e.g., things thrown, continue to be in motion 
when their movent is no longer in contact with 
them ?" This is a problem for Aristotle precisely 
because he supposes that the moving cause 
must act on the thing being moved throughout 
the period of the motion. For the potentiality 
to be progressively reduced to actuality, it 
must be continuously acted upon. 

Aristotle's answer postulates a series of causes 
so that contact can be maintained between the 
projectile and the moving cause. "The original 
movent," he writes, "gives the power of being 
a movent either to air or to water or to some- 
thing else of the kind, naturally adapted for 
imparting and undergoing motion The mo- 
tion begins to cease when the motive force pro- 



198 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



duccd in one member of the consecutive scries 
is at each stage less than that possessed by the 
preceding member, and it finally ceases when 
one member no longer causes the next member 
to be a movent but only causes it to be in mo- 
tion." It follows that inertia must be denied by 
those who hold that a moving body always re- 
quires a mover; or even that a body cannot sus- 
tain itself in motion beyond a point propor- 
tionate to the quantity of the impressed force 
which originally set it in motion. 

FOR THE ANCIENTS, the basic contrast between 
being and becoming (or between the permanent 
and the changing) is a contrast between the in- 
telligible and the sensible. This is most sharply 
expressed in Plato's distinction between the 
sensible realm of material things and the intel- 
ligible realm of ideas. "What is that which al- 
ways is and has no becoming," Timaeus asks; 
"and what is that which is always becoming 
and never is?" He answers his own question by 
saying that "that which is apprehended by in- 
telligence and reason is always in the same state; 
but that which is conceived by opinion with 
the help of sensations and without reason, is al- 
ways in a process of becoming and perishing, 
and never really is." 

Even though Aristotle differs from Plato in 
thinking that change and the changing can be 
objects of scientific knowledge, he, too, holds 
becoming to be less intelligible than being, pre- 
cisely because change necessarily involves po- 
tentiality. Yet becoming can be understood to 
the extent that we can discover the principles 
of its being the unchanging principles of 
change. "In pursuing the truth," Aristotle re- 
marksand this applies to the truth about 
change as well as everything else "one must 
start from the things that are always in the 
same state and suffer no change." 

For Aristotle, change is intelligible through 
the three elements of permanence which are its 
principles: (i) the enduring substratum of 
change, and the contraries (2) that to which, 
and (3) that from which, the change takes 
place. The same principles arc sometimes stated 
to be (i) matter, (2) form, and (3) privation; 
the matter or substratum being that which 
both lacks a certain form and has a definite po- 
tentiality for possessing it. Change occurs when 



the matter undergoes a transformation in which 
it comes to have the form of which it was de- 
prived by the possession of a contrary form. 

Neither of the contrary forms changes. Only 
the thing composite of matter and form changes 
with respect to the forms of its matter. Hence 
these principles of change are themselves un- 
changing. Change takes place through, not j, 
them. As constituents of the changing thing, 
they are the principles of its mutable being, 
principles of its being as well as of its being 
mutable. 

The explanation of change by reference to 
what does not change seems to be common to 
all theories of becoming. Lucretius, as we have 
already seen, explains the coming to be and 
passing away of all other things by the motions 
of atoms which neither come to be nor pass 
away. The eternity of the atoms underlies the 
mutability of everything else. 

Yet the atoms are not completely immutable. 
They move forever through the void which, 
according to Lucretius, is required for their 
motion. Their local motion is, moreover, an 
actual property of the atoms. For them, to be 
is to be tn motion. Here then, as in the Cartesian 
theory, no potentiality is involved, and motion 
is completely real and completely intelligible. 

THE NOTIONS OF time and eternity are insep- 
arable from the theory of change or motion. As 
the chapters on TIME and SPACE indicate, local 
motion involves the dimensions of space as well 
as time, but all change requires time, and time 
itself is inconceivable apart from change or mo- 
tion. Furthermore, as appears in the chapters 
on TIME and ETERNITY, the two fundamentally 
opposed meanings of eternity differ according to 
whether they imply endless change or absolute 
changelessness. 

Eternity is sometimes identified with infinite 
time. It is in this sense that Plato, in the Ti- 
maeus, refers to time as "the moving image of 
eternity" and implies that time, which belongs 
to the realm of ever-changing things, resembles 
the eternal only through its perpetual endur- 
ance. The other sense of the eternal is also im- 
pliedthe sense in which eternity belongs to 
the realm of immutable being. The eternal in 
this sense, as Montaigne points out, is not mere- 
ly that "which never had beginning nor never 



CHAPTER 10: CHANGE 



199 



shall have ending, 11 but rather that "to which 
time can bring no mutation.* 1 

There are two great problems which use the 
word "eternity" in these opposite senses. One 
is the problem of the eternity of motion: the 
question whether motion has or can have either 
a beginning or an end. The other is the prob- 
lem of the existence of eternal objects im- 
mutable things which have their being apart 
from time and change. 

The two problems are connected in ancient 
thought. Aristotle, for example, argues that "it 
is impossible that movement should either have 
come into being or cease to be, for it must al- 
ways have existed." Since "nothing is moved 
at random, but there must always be something 
present to move it," a cause is required to sus- 
tain the endless motions of nature. This cause, 
which Aristotle calls "the prime mover," must 
be "something which moves without being 
moved, being eternal, substance, and actual- 
ity." 

Aristotle's theory of a prime mover sets up a 
hierarchy of causes to account for the different 
kinds of motion observable in the universe. The 
perfect circular motion of the heavens serves to 
mediate between the prime mover which is 
totally unmoved and the less regular cycles of 
terrestrial change. The "constant cycle" of 
movement in the stars differs from the irregular 
cycle of "generation and destruction" on 
earth. For the first, Aristotle asserts the neces- 
sity of "something which is always moved with 
an unceasing motion, which is motion in a cir- 
cle." He calls this motion of the first heavenly 
sphere "the simple spatial movement of the 
universe" as a whole. Besides this "there are 
other spatial movements those of the planets 
which are eternal" but are "always acting in 
different ways" and so are able to account for 
the other cycle in nature the irregular cycle 
of generation and corruption. 

In addition, a kind of changelessness is attrib- 
uted to all the celestial bodies which Aristotle 
calls "eternal." Eternally in motion, they are 
also eternally in being. Though not immovable, 
they are supposed to be incorruptible sub- 
stances. They never begin to be and never 
perish. 

The theory of a world eternally in motion is 
challenged by Jewish and Christian theologians 



who affirm, as an article of their religious faith, 
that "in the beginning God created heaven and 
earth." The world's motions, like its existence, 
have a beginning in the act of creation. Crea- 
tion itself, Aquinas insists, is not change or mo- 
tion of any sort, "except according to our way 
of understanding. For change means that the 
same thing should be different now from what 
it was previously. . . . But in creation, by which 
the whole substance of a thing is produced, the 
same thing can be taken as different now and 
before, only according to our way of under- 
standing, so that a thing is understood as first 
not existing at all, and afterwards as existing." 
Since creation is an absolute coming to be from 
non-being, no pre-existent matter is acted upon 
as in generation, in artistic production, or in 
any of the forms of motion. 

THE PHILOSOPHICAL and theological issues con- 
cerning creation and change, eternity and time, 
are further discussed in the chapters on CAUSE, 
ETERNITY, and WORLD. Other problems aris- 
ing from the analysis of change must at least 
be briefly mentioned here. 

Though less radical than the difference be- 
tween creation and change, the difference be- 
tween the motions of inert or non-living things 
and the vital activities of plants and animals 
raises for any theory of change the queslf&i 
whether the same principles apply to both. The 
rolling stone and the running animal both move 
locally, but are both motions locomotion in the 
same sense ? Augmentation occurs both in the 
growth of a crystal and the growth of a plant, 
but are both of them growing in the same sense ? 
In addition, there seems to be one kind of 
change in living things which has no parallel in 
the movements of inert bodies. Animals and 
men learn. They acquire knowledge, form hab- 
its and change them. Can change of mind be 
explained in the same terms as change in mat- 
ter? 

The issues raised by questions of this sort are 
more fully discussed in the chapters on ANIMAL, 
HABIT, and LIFE. Certain other issues must be 
entirely reserved for discussion elsewhere. The 
special problems of local motion such as the 
properties of rectilinear and circular motion, 
the distinction between uniform and variable 
motion, and the uniform or variable accelera- 



200 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



tion of the latter are problems which belong 
to the chapters on ASTRONOMY and ME- 
CHANICS. Change, furthermore, is a basic fact 
not only for the natural scientist, but for the 
historian the natural historian or the histori- 
an of man and society. The considerations 
relevant to this aspect of change receive treat- 
ment in the chapters on EVOLUTION, HISTORY, 
and PROGRESS. 

Even these ramifications of discussion do not 
exhaust the significance of change. The cyclical 
course of the emotions and the alternation of 
pleasure and pain have been thought inexpli- 
cable without reference to change of state in re- 
gard to desire and aversion the motion from 
want to satisfaction, or from possession to dep- 
rivation. Change is not only a factor in the 
analysis of emotion, but it is also itself an object 
of man's emotional attitudes. It is both loved 
and hated, sought and avoided. 

According to Pascal, man tries desperately to 
avoid a state of rest. He does everything he can 
to keep things in flux. "Our nature consists in 
motion," he writes; "complete rest is death. . . . 
Nothing is so insufferable to man," he contin- 
ues, "as to be completely at rest, without pas- 



sions, without business, without diversion, 
without study. He then feels his nothingness, 
his forlornness, his dependence, his weakness, 
his emptiness." Darwin does not think that the 
desire for change is peculiar to man. "The lower 
animals," he writes, "are . . . likewise capricious 
in their affections, aversions, and sense of beau- 
ty. There is also reason to suspect that they love 
novelty for its own sake." 

But men also wish to avoid change. The old 
Prince Bolkonski, in War and Peace, "could not 
comprehend how anyone could wish to alter his 
life or introduce anything new into it." This is 
not merely an old man's view. For the most 
part, it is permanence rather than transiency, 
the enduring rather than the novel, which the 
poets celebrate when they express man's dis- 
content with his own mutability. The with- 
ering and perishing of all mortal things, the 
assault of time and change upon all things fa- 
miliar and loved, have moved them to elegy 
over the evanescent and the ephemeral. From 
Virgil's Sunt lacnmae rerum et mentem mortaha 
tangunt to Shakespeare's "Love is not love 
which alters when it alteration finds," the poets 
have mourned the inevitability of change. 



OUTLINE OF TOPICS 

1. The nature and reality of change or motion 

2. The unchanging principles of change 

2a. The constituents of the changing thing 

2#. The factor of opposites or contraries in change 

3. Cause and effect in motion: the relation of mover and moved, or action and passion 

4. Motion and rest: contrary motions 

5. The measure of motion 

50. Time or duration as the measure of motion 
5#. The divisibility and continuity of motion 

6. The kinds of change 

6a. The reducibility of all modes of motion to one kind of change 

6. The primacy of local motion 

6V. Comparison of change in living and non-living things 

6V. Comparison of the motions of matter with changes in the Older of mind 



PAGE 
202 

203 

204 



205 



206 



CHAPTER 10: CHANGE 201 

PAOB 

7. The analysis of local motion 207 

ja. Space, place, and void 

7^. Natural and violent motion 

yc. Kinds of local motion 208 

(1) Rectilinear and rotary or circular motion 

(2) Uniform or variable motion 

(3) Absolute or relative motion 

(4) Terrestrial and celestial motion 

yd. The properties of variable motion: the laws of motion 

8. Change of size 209 

80. The increase and decrease of inanimate bodies 
8. Growth in living organisms 

9. Change of quality 

90. Physical and chemical change: compounds and mixtures 210 

9^. Biological change: vital alterations 

10. Substantial change: generation and corruption 

100. Substantial change in the realm of bodies: the transmutation of the elements 211 

io. Plant, animal, and human reproduction 

loc. The incorruptibility of atoms, the heavenly bodies, and spiritual substances 

11. The apprehension of change: by sense, by reason 212 

12. Emotional aspects of change 

120. Rest and motion in relation to pleasure and pain 
lib. The love and hatred of change 

13. The problem of the eternity of motion or change 213 

14. The theory of the prime mover: the order and hierarchy of movers and moved 214 

15. The immutable 

150. The immutability of the objects of thought: the realm of truth 

15^. The unalterability of the decrees of fate 215 

15^. The immutability of God 



202 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



REFERENCES 

To find the passages cited, use the numbers in heavy type, which are the volume and page 
numbers of the passages referred to. For example, in 4 HOMER: Iliad, BK n [265-283] 12d, the 
number 4 is the number of the volume m the set; the number 12d indicates that the pas- 
sage is in section d of page 12. 

PAGE SECTIONS: When the text is printed in one column, the letters a and b refer to the 
upper and lower halves of the page. For example, in 53 JAMES : Psychology, 1 16a-119b,the passage 
begins in the upper half of page 116 and ends in the lower half of page 119. When the text is 
printed in two columns, the letters a and b refer to the upper and lower halves of the left- 
hand side of the page, the letters c and d to the upper and lower halves of the right-hand side of 
the page. For example, in 7 PLATO Symposium, 163b-164c, the passage begins in the lower half 
of the left-hand side of page 163 and ends in the upper half of the right-hand side of page 164. 

AUTHOR'S DIVISIONS: One or more of the main divisions of a work (such as PART, BK, CH, 
SECT) are sometimes included in the reference; line numbers, in brackets, are given in cer- 
tain cases; e.g., Iliad, BK n [265-283] 12d. 

BIBLE REFERENCES: The references are to book, chapter, and verse. When the King James 
and Douay versions differ in ti tie of books or in the numbering of chapters or verses, the King 
James version is cited first and the Douay, indicated by a (D), follows; e.g., OLD TESTA- 
MENT: Nehemiah, 7-45 (D) // Esdras, 7 46. 

SYMBOLS: The abbreviation "esp" calls the reader's attention to one or more especially 
relevant parts of a whole reference, "passim" signifies that the topic is discussed intermit- 
tently rather than continuously in the work or passage cited. 

For additional information concerning the style of the references, see the Explanation of 
Reference Style; for general guidance in the use of The Great Ideas, consult the Preface. 



1. The nature and reality of change or motion 

7 PLATO: Cratyhs, 86b-89b; 94c-d; 99b-104b; 
H2a-lUa,c/Phaedrus, 124c-126c / Symposium, 
165c-166b / Phaedo, 231c-232b / Republic, BK 
n, 322d-323a; BK v, 370a-373c / Timaeus, 
447b-d; 455c-4S8b passim; 460c-d / Par- 
menides, 504c-505c / Theaetetus, 517d-534b 
csp 517d-518b, 532a-534b / Sophist, 564d- 
574c / Statesman, 587a-b / Philebus, 632a-d / 
Laws, BK x, 760a-765d esp 762b-765d 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK i, CH 2 [i84 b i5-i85 ft i4] 
259b-d; CH 4-9 262a-268d; BK in, CH 1-3 
278a-280c; BK iv, CH n [2i9 b 9~3i] 299b-d; 
BK vi, CH 6 319c-321a / Heavens, BK iv, CH 3 
(3io b 22-3ii*i2] 402b-c; CH 4 [3ii b 2o-33] 403c 
/ Generation and Corruption, BK n, CH 10 
[336 b 25~34] 438d / Metaphysics, BK i, CH 3-10 
501c-511d passim; BK iv, CH 2 [ioo4 b 27~29] 
523d; CH 5 [1010*6-38] 529c-530a; CH 8 
[ioi2 b 22~33] 532d; BK ix, CH 3 [1047*10-29] 
572b-c; CH 6 573c-574c; CH 8 [io49 b 29-io5o*3J 
575c-d; CH 10 [io5i b 28~3o] 578a; BK xi, CH 6 
590d-592b; CH 9 593d-594d; CH 11-12 596a- 
598a,c esp CH 11 [io67 b i5-io68*7] 596b-d, CH 
12 [io68 b 2o-25] 597c-d; BK xn, CH 5 [io7o b 36- 
1071*4] 600b-c / Soul, BK i, CH 3 [4o6 b n-i4] 
636a; BK HI, CH 7 [431*1-8] 663c 



9 ARISTOTLE: Generation of Animals, BK v, CH i 
[778^-7] 320c-d / Ethics, BK x, CH 4 [1174*13- 
b i4] 428b-429a 

10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK i, CH 2 167 b- 
168c 

11 NICOMACHUS: Arithmetic, BK i, 811b-d 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK i [146-448] 
2d-6c; BK n [62-332] 15d-19b; [1105-1174] 
29a-30a,c; BK v [235-415] 64a-66c 

12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK iv, SECT 35-36 
266d; SECT 42-43 267b; SECT 46 267c; BK v, 
SECT 23 272b; BK vi, SECT 15 275a-b; BK vn, 
SECT 18 281a; SECT 50 283a; BK vin, SECT 6 
285d-286a; BK ix, SECT 19 293b; SECT 28 
293d-294a 

16 KEPLER: Harmonies of the World, 1051b 

17 PLOTINUS: Second Ennead, TR i, CH 3-4 36b- 
37b; TR v 57d-60c / Sixth Ennead, TR i, CH 
15-22 260c-264c; TR in, CH 21-28 293a-297b 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK iv, par 15-17 
23a-c; BK vn, par 17-18 49a-b; BK xi, par 6 
90c-d 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 2, 
A 3, ANS 12c-14a; Q 9, A i, ANS and REP i 38c- 
39c; Q 10, A 4, REP 3 43b-44b; A 5, ANS 44b- 
45c; Q 18, A i t ANS 104c-105c; A 3, REP i 
106b-107c; Q 23, A i, REP 3 132c-133b; Q 53, 
A i, REP 2-3 280d-282a; A 3, ANS 283 b- 2 84 d; 



2 tola 



CHAPTER 10: CHANGE 



203 



Q 65, A 4 342b-343c; Q 67, A 3, REP r 351b- 
352a; A 4, ANS 352a-354a; Q 73, A i, REP 2 
370a-371a; A 2, ANS 371b-d; Q 79, A 9, ANS 
422b-423d; Q 103, A 5, REP 2 531b-532b; 
PART I-H, Q 10, A i, REP 2 662d-663d; Q 23, 
AA 3-4 725c-727a; Q 25, A i, ANS and REP 2 
730b-731b; Q 31, A 3, REP 2 754a-d; A 8 
758b-759a 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART in, Q 15, 
A 10, REP i 795b-796a; Q 62, A 4 861a-862a; 

PART III SUPPL, Q 91, A 3, REP 2 1020d-1022c 

22 CHAUCER: Knight's Tale [2987-3040] 209a- 
210a 

25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 292d-294b 

28 GALILEO: Two New Sciences, THIRD DAY- 
FOURTH DAY 197a-260a,c esp THIRD DAY, 224d 

30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK i, APH 66 114d- 
115c; BK ii, APH 48 179d-188b 

31 DESCARTES: Rules, xn, 24a 

31 SPINOZ\: Ethics, PART n, LEMMA 3 378d-379a 

33 PASCAL: Geometrical Demonstration, 433b- 
434a 

34 NEWTON- Principles, DEFINITIONS-BK n 5a- 
267a esp DEFINIIIONS, SCHOL 8b-13a, LAW i 
14a 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK in, CH iv, 
SFCT 8-9 260d-261b 

35 BERKELEY Human Knowledge, SECT 102 

432d-433a, SECT 110-115 434b 435c 
42 KANT. Pure Reason, 27a; 28b-c; 29c-d; 31d- 

32a; 55c-56a; 72c-85d esp 74b-76c, 82a-83b; 

91d-93c; 95a-d 
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, INTRO, 178a- 

179d; 186d-190b 

51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK xiv, 608a-b 
53 JAMES: Psychology, 882a-884b 

2. The unchanging principles of change 

7 PLATO Phaedrus, 124b-c/ Ttmaeus, 455c-458a 
/ Sophist, 564d-574c / Philebus, 610d-619d / 
Laws, BK x, 760a-765d 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK i 259a-268d / Heavens, 
BK i, CH 3 [270 a i2-i7) 361b / Metaphysics, 
BK in, CH 4 [99Q a 24- b 24] 518a-c, BK xn, CH 10 
[1075*25-34] 606a 

10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK i, CH 2 167b- 

168c 
12 LUCRETIUS- Nature of Things, BK i [146-920] 

2d-12b 
12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK iv, SECT 4 264a; 

BK vi, SECT 15 275a-b; BK ix, SECT 28 293d- 

294a; BK x, SECT 7 297b-c 

16 KEPLER: Epitome, BK iv, 854b 

17 PLOTINUS- Second Ennead, TR i, CH 1-4 35a- 
37b; TR iv-v 50a-60c / Third Ennead, TR vi, 
CH 7-19 110d-119a 

19 AQUINAS- Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 19, 
A i, ANS 108d-109c; Q 84, A i, REP 3 440d- 
442a; Q 86, A 3 463b-d; Q 113, A i, ANS 576a-d; 
Q 115, A3, ANS and REP 2 588c-589c 

42 KANT: Pure Reason, 23a 33d esp 27a, 29c-d; 
49c-51d esp 51c-d; 72c-76c; 82a-83b; 91d- 



93c; 120c-129c esp 121a-124<J, 126a-128b; 
141b,d-145c; 200c-204c 

2a. The constituents of the changing thing 

7 PLATO: Ttmaeus, 458a-460d / Philebus, 610d- 
619d 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK i, CH i 259a-b; CH 6-9 
264c-268d; BK HI, CH 1-3 278a-280c; BK iv, 
CH 9 [2i7 a 20- b 27] 297a-c; BK v, CH i [225*12- 
29] 305b-c; BK vi, CH 10 [240 b 8-24i*26] 324c- 
325b / Heat/ens, BK r, CH 3 [270*12-17] 361b; 
BK iv, CH 4 [312*3-22] 403c-d / Generation and 
Corruption, BK i, CH i [31 4^6-3 15*3] 410a-b; 
CH 3 413c-416c esp [3i8*i-3i9 b 4] 414b-416c; 
CH 4 [320*2-6] 417a; BK n, CH i [}29 B 24- b 2] 
429a-b / Metaphysics, BK i, CH 6 [987^0- 
988*8] 506a; CH 8 [988 b 22~989 b 24] 506d-508a; 
BK in, CH 4 [999*24^24] 518a-c; BK iv, CH 5 
[1009*22-38] 528d; BK v, CH i [1013*3-7] 533a; 
CH 2 [1013*24-27] S33b; CH 4 534d-535c; BK 
vn, CH 8-10 556b-559d; CH 15 [io39 b 2o- 
1040*8] 563c-564a; BK vin-ix 566a-578a,c; 
BK xi, CH 9 [1065^5-31] 594b; CH 12 [io68 b io- 
14] 597c; BK xn, CH 1-5 598a-601a; CH 10 
[1075*25-34] 606a 

9 ARIS TOTLE: Generation of Animals, BK i, CH 18 
[724*20^13] 264b-d; CH 20 [729*6]-^ 22 
[73o b 33] 269b-271a 

10 GALEN* Natural Faculties, BK i, CH 2-3 167b- 

169a 
12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK i [146-634] 

2d-8d; BK n [62-1022] 15d-28a 
12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK xn, SECT 30 

310a-b 

17 PLOTINUS: First Ennead, TR vm, CH 8 30d-31c 
/ Second Ennead, TR i, CH 1-4 35a-37b; TR iv, 
CH 6-8 51d-53a; TR v, CH I-TR vi, CH 2 57d- 
62b / Third Ennead, TR vi, CH 8-19 lllc-119a 
/ Sixth Ennead, TR in, CH 22 293d-294c; TR v, 
CH 8 307d-308c 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK xn, par 3-16 99d- 
103a 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 9, 
A i, ANS 38c-39c; Q 19, A i, ANS 108d-109c; 
Q 29, A i, REP 4 162a-163b; Q 45, A 2, REP 2 
242d-244a; Q 48, A 3, ANS 261b-262a; Q 58, 
A 7, REP 3 305c-306b; Q 62, A 7, REP r 322d- 
323b; Q 66, A 2, ANS 345d-347b; Q 75, A 5, 
REP 2 382a-383b; Q 92, A 2, REP 2 489d-490c; 
A 3, REP i 490c-491b; A 4, ANS and REP i 
491b-d; Q 104, A i, ANS and RHP 1-2 534c- 
536c; PART iii, Q i, A 3, ANS 611b-612a; Q 10, 
A i, REP 2 662d-663d 

20 AQUINAS* Summa Theologica, PART ii-n, Q 24, 
A n, ANS 498b-499c 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART HI, 172b 

28 HARVEY: On Animal Generation, 494a-496d 

esp 494b, 495c-496a 
30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK n, APH 6 

139b-c 

34 NEWTON: Optics, BK in, 541b 
42 KANT: Pure Reason, 74b-76c 



204 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



2bto 3 



(2. The unchanging principles of change.) 

2b. The factor of opposite* or contraries in 
change 

7 PLATO: Symposium, 165c-166b/ Phaedo, 226d- 
228a; 243c-246c / Republic, BK iv, 350d-351b 
/ Thcaetctus, 519d-520b / Sophist, 565a-c / 
Laws, BK x, 760a-c; 762b-764c 

8 ARISTOTLE: Categories, CH 5 [4*10^19] 8b-9a; 
CH 10 [13*17-37] 18d-19a; CH 14 [i5 b i-i6] 
21b-c / Physics, BK i, CH 5-9 263c-268d; BK n, 
CH x [i93 b i9-22] 270a; BK in, CH i (201*4-8] 
278c; BK iv, CH 9 [2i7*2o- b 26] 297a-c; BK v, 
CH i [224 b 27-225*i2] 304d-305a; [225*34- b 9J 
305d; CH 2 [226*23- b 9] 306d-307a; CH 3 
[226^4-34] 307c; CH 5 310a-311a; CH 6 
[23o b 27-23i*2] 312b-c; BK vi, CH 4 [234 b io-2i] 
316d-317a; BK vin, CH 2 [252 b 9-n] 336b-c; 
CH 7 [260*29-^] 346b-c / Heavens, BK i, CH 3 
[270*13-23] 361b-c; CH 4 362a-c; CH 8 [277*13- 
34] 368b-c, CH 12 [283^7-23] 375c-d; BK iv, 
CH 3 401c-402c; CH 4 [31^29-312*22] 403c-d 
/ Generation and Corruption, BK i, CH 4 416c- 
417a; CH 7 421d-423b, BK n, CH 1-5 428b,d- 
433d csp CH 4-5 431b-433d / Metaphysics, 
BK i, CH 8 [989*18-29] 507b-c; BK n, CH 2 
[994i9- b 6] 512c-d; BK iv, CH 7 [ioii b 29~38| 
531d; BK vin, CH 5 569b-d; BK ix, CH 9 
[1051*4-13] 577a; BK x, CH 7 [1057*18-34] 
584c-d; BK xi, en 9 [io65 b 5~i4] 593d-594a; 
CH n 596a-d; BK xn, CH 2 598c-599a; CH 10 
[1075*25-34] 606a / Soul, BK H, CH 4 [416*18- 
b 8] 646c-d / Longevity, CH 3 710d-711b 

9 ARISTOTLE. Generation of Animals, BK i, CH 18 
[724*20- b i3] 264b-d; BK iv, CH 3 [768*2-7] 
309c / Ethics, BK vm, CH 8 [i 159^9-23] 411d 

10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK i, CH 2, 167b-d 
17 PLOIINUS: Third Ennead, TR vi, CH 8 lllc-d / 

Sixth Ennead, TR HI, CH 22 293d-294c; CH 27 

296b-297a 
19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 19, 

A i, ANS 108d-109c; Q 23, A i, REP 3 132c-133b; 

Q 26, A j, REP 2 150b-c; Q 58, A j , REP 3 305c- 

306b; Q 62, A 7, REP i 322d-323b; PART i-n, 

Q 18, A 8, REP i 699d-700b; Q 23, A 2 724c- 

725c 

28 HARVEY: On Animal Generation, 408c-d 
31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART in, PROP 4-6 398d- 

399a; PART iv, PROP 29-35 431d-434a; PART 

v, AXIOM i 452c 
42 KANT: Pure Reason, 27a; 76c-83b csp 76c-d; 

91d-93c 
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, INTRO, 160c-d; 

165a-b; 178a-d; 179b-d 

3. Cause and effect in motion: the relation of 
mover and moved, or action and passion 

7 PLATO: Phaedrus, 124b-c / Gorgias, 267c-268a 
/ Timaeus, 460c-d / Laws, BK x, 760a-7<?5d 
csp 761b-765d 

8 ARISTOTLE: Categories, CH 9 [n b i-7] 16c-d / 
Physics, BK HI, CH i [2oo b 29~32] 278b; CH 2 



[202*2 ]-CH 3(202 b 29] 279c-280c; BK vn, CH 1-2 
326a-329a; BK vin, CH 10 [266 b 27~267*2 1 ] 
354b-d / Heavens, BK i, CH 3 [270*12-17] 361b; 
CH 7 [275*i- b 29] 366a-367a; CH 8 [277^-8] 
368c-d, BK HI, CH 2 [3oo b 8-30i*i2] 391d-392c; 
[3oi b 2-32] 392d-393b; BK iv, CH 3 401c-402c / 
Generation and Corruption, BK i, CH 6 [323*12- 
34] 421b-c; CH 7-9 421d-426c; BK 11, CH o-io 
436d-439c / Metaphysics, BK i, CH 6 [987^30- 
988*8] 506a; CH 7 [988*3i- b i6] 506c-d; BK v, 
CH 2 [ioi3 b 3-i6] 533c-d; BK ix, CH 1-5 
570b,d-573c; CH 7 [i048 b 35-io49 a i8] 574c-d; 
BK xi, CH 9 [1066*27-34] 594d; BK xn, CH 3 
[1069^5-1070*9] 599a-b; [1070*21-30] 599c-d; 
CH 4 [io7o b 22]-cH 8 [io74 b i4] 600b-605a; CH 
10 [io75 b i~37] 606b-d / Soul, BK n, en 5 
647b-648d; BK in, CH 2 [426*2-6] 658a-b 
9 ARISIOFLE Motion of Animals, CH 8 [702*5- 
22] 237b-c / Generation of Animals, BK i, CH 20 
[729*9]-cH 21 [729^1] 269b-270a; BK n, CH 4 
[740^8-26] 281c-d; BK iv, CH 3 [768^6-24] 
310b-c 

10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK i, CH 2, 168b-c; 
BK in, CH 7, 203b-c 

12 LucRi-nus: Nature of Things, BK n [80-141] 
16a-d; [184-293] 17b-18d 

16 KEPLER- Epitome, BK iv, 854b; 855b; 940b- 
941a; 959a-960a 

17 PLOTINUS: Sixth Ennead, TR i, CH 15-22 260c- 
264c; TR in, CH 23 294d-295a 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 8, A i, 
ANS and REP 2 34d-35c; Q 41, A i, REP 2 217d- 
218c; Q 44, A 2, REP 2 239b-240a; Q 48, A i, 
REP 4 259b-260c; Q 60, A i, REP 2 310b-311a; 
Q 75, A i, REP 3 378b-379c; Q 80, A 2, ANS 
428a-d; Q 115, A i 585d-587c; PART i-n, Q i, 
A 3, ANS and REP i 611b-612a; A 6, ANS 614a-c; 
Q 9, A 4, ANS 660a-d, Q 22 720b,d-723b; Q 23, 
A 4 726a-727a 

20 AQUINAS. Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 113, 
A 8 367d-368c 

28 GILBERT: Loadstone, BK n, 26d-40b passim; 
BK vi, 109a-b, 112d 

28 GALILEO: Two New Sciences, THIRD DAY, 
202a-203a 

28 HARVEY' On Animal Generation, 423d 

31 DESCARTES: Meditations, in, 87c-88a / Objec- 
tions and Replies, AXIOM ii 131d; 212a 

31 SPINOZA. Ethics, PART n, AXIOM 1-5 373c-d; 
LEMMA 3 378d-379a; PART in, DEF 1-3 395d- 
396a; PROP 1-4 396a-398d; PART iv, AXIOM- 
PROP 7 424c-426b; PART v, AXIOM 2 452c; 
PROP 3-4 453a-d 

34 NEWTON: Principles, DBF in-iv 5b-6a; LAW 
i-ni 14a-b 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK 11, CH xxi, 
SECT 1-5 178b-l79d; SECT 74, 199d-20Qb; CH 
xxn, SECT ii 203c-d; CH xxin, SECT 28-29 
211b-212a 

35 HUME: Human Understanding, SECT in, DIV 
i8-SECT vin, DIV 74 457c-484c passim, csp 
SECT VH, piv 60 477a-c 



CHAPTER 10: CHANG 



205 



42 KANT: Pure Reason, 15a-b; 43a-b; 76c-83b; 
91d-93c 

4. Motion and rest: contrary motions 

7 PLATO. Cratylus, 112b / Republic, BK iv, 350d- 
351b / Timaeus, 453b-c; 460c-d / Sophist, 
567a-574c , Statesman, 587a-589c esp 587a-b 

8 ARISTOTLE: Categories, CH 14 [i5 b i-i6] 21b-c 
/ Physics, BK v, CH 5-6 310a-3I2d / Heavens, 
BK i, CH 4 3fc2a-c / Metaphysics, BK iv, CH 2 
[ioo4 b 27-29J 523d; BK xi, CH 12 [1068^0-25] 
597c-d / Soul, BK i, CH 3 [406*22-27] 635c 

10 GALEN Natural Faculties, BK i, CH 2, 167b-d 

11 NICOMACHUS: Arithmetic, BK n, 832c 

16 COPERNICUS: Revolutions of the Heavenly 
Spheres, BK i, 517b-518a, 519b-520b 

16 KEPLER: Epitome, BK iv, 931 b 

17 PLOTINUS: Sixth Ennead, TR in, CH 24 295b-c; 
CH 27 296b-297a 

19 AQUINAS Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 10, 
A 4, REP 3 43b-44b, Q 18, A i, REP 2 104c-105c; 
Q 53, A 3, ANS 283b-284d; Q 73, A 2, ANS 
371b-d; P\RT in, Q 6, A i 644d-646a; A 4 
647b-648a, Q 9, A 4, REP 2 660a-d, Q 41, A 3 
799c-800b 

20 AQUINAS. Summa Theologica, PART in SUPPL, 
Q 75, A 3, ANS and REP 3-5 938a-939d, Q 84, 
A 3, REP 2 985d-989b 

23 HOBBES Leviathan, PART i, 50a 
28 GILBERT: Loadstone, BK n, 26a-b; BK vi, 
HOb 

30 BACON . Novum Organum, BK n, APH 35, 163a 

31 SPINOZA. Ethics, PART n, AXIOM i 378c; 
LEMMA 1-3 378c-379a 

34 NEW i ON: Principles, DBF in 5b; LAW 1 14a 

5. The measure of motion 

5a. Time or duration as the measure of motion 

7 PLAIO. Timaeus, 450c-451d / Panpenides, 
504c-505c 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK iv, CH 10-14 297c- 
304a,c; BK vi 312b,d-325d esp CH 2 314a-315d 
/ Generation and Corruption, BK n, CH 10 
[337*22-34] 439b-c / Metaphysics, BK v, CH 13 
[1020^5-33] 541c; BK x, CH i [1053*9-12] 
579c; BK xn, CH 6 [107^6-12] 601b 

9 ARISTOTLE. Ethics, BK x, CH 4 [ii74*i2- b i4] 
428b-429a 

12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK vi, SECT 15 275a-b 

17 PLOTINUS: Third Ennead, TR vn, CH 7-13 
122d-129a / Fourth Ennead, TR iv, CH 15 
165c-d / Sixth Ennead, TR i, CH 5, 254c-d; CH 
16 260d-261c; TR in, CH 22, 294c 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK xi, par 12-40 
92b-99a; BK xn, par 9 101 b-c / City of God, 
BK xi, CH 6 325c-d; BK xn, CH 15 351b- 
352d 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 7, 
A 3, REP 4 32c-33c; Q 10, A i, ANS 40d-41d; AA 
4-6 43b-46d; Q 53, A 3 283b-284d; Q 57, A 3, 
REP 2 297b-298a; Q 63, A 5, ANS 329a-330c; 



A 6, REP 4 330c-331c; Q 66, A 4, REP 4 348d- 
349d; PART i-n, Q 31, A 2, ANS and REP i 
753c-754a 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 113, 
A 7, REP 5 366a-367c; PART in SUPPL, Q 84, 
A 3 985d-989b 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PARADISE, xxvn 
[106-120] 148b-c 

28 GALILEO: Two New Sciences, THIRD DAY, 
201a-202a 

30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK n, APH 46 177c- 
179a 

31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART n, DEF 5 373b-c 

32 MILTON : Paradise Lost, BK v [580-582] 188a 

33 PASCAL. Geometrical Demonstration, 432b- 
433b;434a-439b passim 

34 NEWTON* Principles, DEFINITIONS, SCHOL, 8b- 
lOa; 12a-b 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH xiv, 
SECT 22 159d, CH xvin, SECT 2 174a-b 

36 STERNE: Tristram Shandy, 292a-293a 

42 KANT: Pure Reason, 27a; 29c-d; 72c-76c 
45 FOURIER: Theory of Heat, 249a-251b 

5b. The divisibility and continuity of motion 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK iv, CH n [219*10-13] 
298d-299a; BK v, CH 4 308b-310a; BK vi 
312b,d-325d; BK vii, CH i [242*32^4] 326c-d; 
BK vin, CH 7 [26i*28]~cH 8 [265*12] 347c-352a 
/ Metaphysics, BK v, CH 6 [1016*4-7] 536b-c; 
CH 13 [1020*25-33] 541c; BK x, CH i [1052*15- 
21] 578b; BK xii, CH 6 [107^8-11] 601b 

9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK x, CH 4 [ii74 b 9-i4J 
428d-429a 

17 PLOTINUS. Third Ennead, TR vii, CH 8-9 123b- 
125d 

19 AQUINAS- Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 7, A 3, 
REP 4 32c-33c; Q 53 280d-284d 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 113, 
A 7 366a-367c 

28 GALILEO: Two New Sciences, THIRD DAY, 201a- 
202a 

30 BACON. Novum Organum, BK n, APH 6 139b-c; 
APH 41 173d-174b 

31 DESCARTES: Meditations, in, 87c-d / Objcc* 
tions and Replies, 2 13 b-c 

33 PASCAL: Geometrical Demonstration, 434a- 
439b 

34 NEWTON: Principles, BK i, LEMMA n, SCHOL, 
31b-32a 

42 KANT: Pure Reason, 26b-27a; 74b-76c 
51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK xi, 469a-d 

6. The kinds of change 

7 PLATO: Timaeus, 449b-450c esp 450a / Par- 
menides, 492a-493b esp 492d-493b; 504c-505a 
/ Theaetetus, 533a-b / Laws, BK x, 762b-763b 

8 ARISTOTLE: Categories, CH 14 20d-21c / Phys 

tCS, BK III, CH I [200 b 32-20I*I4] 278b-CJ BK V, 

CH 1-2 304a-307b; CH 5 310a-311a; BK vn, 
CH 4 330d-333a / Heavens, BK i, CH 2 [268 b i5- 
269*8] 359d-360a; BK iv, CH 3 401c-402c / 



206 

(6. Tbt touts of change.) 

Generation and Corruption, BK i, CH 1-5 409a- 
420b csp CH 4 [3i9 b 32~32o*2] 41 7a / Metaphys- 
ics, BK n, CH 2 [994*1 9~ b 6] 512c-d; BK vn, 
CH 9 [io34 b 8-i9] 557d-558a; BK xi, CH 9 
[io65 b 7-i4] 593d-594a; CH n [io67 b i]-cH 12 
[io68 b 25] 596a-597d; BK xn, CH 2 [1069^-14] 
598d / Soul, BK i, CH 3 [406*12-21] 635c 
9 ARISTOTLE: Generation of Animals, BK i, CH 18 
[72420- b i3] 264b-d 

10 GALEN: "Natural Faculties, BK i, CH 2, 167b-d; 
CH 5 169b-c 

17 PLOTINUS: Sixth Ennead, TR in, CH 21-27 
293a-297a 

19 AQUINAS- Summa Theohgica, PART i, Q 44, 
A 2, AN!> 239b-240a; Q 45, A i, REP 2 242a-d; 
Q 66, A i, ANS 343d-345c; Q 118, A 2, REP 2 
601c-603b; PART I-H, Q i, A 3, ANS 611b-612a; 
Q 23, A 2, ANS 724c-725c 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theohgica, PART I-H, Q 107, 
A i, ANS 325c-327b; PART HI SUPPL, Q 84, A 2, 
REP 1,4 984c-985d; A 3, ANS 985d-989b 

28 HARVEY: On Animal Generation, 407c-409b 
30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK i, APH 66 114d- 

115c 
35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH xxn, 

SECT ii 203c-d 



6a. The reducibility of all modes of motion to 
one kind of change 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK VHI, CH 7 [26o a 26- b i4] 

346b-c / Generation and Corruption, BK i, CH 

1-5 409a-420b 
10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK i, CH 2, 167b- 

168b 
12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK i [418-448] 

6b-c; BK n [730-1022] 24b-28a; BK in [417- 

869] 35c-41a; BK iv [522-817] 51a-54d 
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART i, 61a-c; PART HI, 

173a; PART iv, 271a-b 

30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK i, APH 50 11 Ib 
34. NEWTON: Principles, lb-2a / Optics, BK HI, 

541 b 

34 HUYGENS: Light, CH i, 553b-554a 
45 FOURIER: Theory of Heat, 169a-b; 182a-b 
53 JAMES: Psychology, 882a-884b 

6b. The primacy of local motion 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK iv, CH i [208*28-33] 
287a; BK vm, CH i [250^5-18] 334a; CH 7 
346b-348a / Heavens, BK i, CH 2 [268^5-17] 
359d; BK iv, CH 3 [3io b 22-34] 402 b / Genera- 
tion and Corruption, BK n, CH 10 437d-439c / 
Metaphysics, BK xn, CH 6 [io7i b 2-n] 601 b; 
[1071*32-38] 601d; CH 7 [io72 b 4-io] 602c; CH 
8 [1073*24-39)6030 

9 ARISTOTLE: Motion of Animals, CH 5 23Sc-d 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theohgica, PART i, Q 67, 
A 2, REP 3 350b-351a; Q 78, A 3, ANS 410a- 
411d; Q 1 10, A 3, ANS 566d-567b 

20 AQUINAS : Summa Theohgica, PART HI SUPPL, 
Q 84, A 2, RBP 1,4 984c-985d 



THE GREAT IDEAS 6a to 6d 

6c. Comparison of change in living and non- 
living things 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK vn, CH 2 [244 b i- 
245*12] 328b-d; BK vm, CH 4 338d-340d; CH 
6 [29*2o- b 3i] 345a-d / Heavens, BK i, CH 7 
[275^26-28] 367a; BK n, CH ^ [284^0 -285*1] 
376c / Soul, BK H, CH 4 [4i5 b 22-4i6 b 3i] 646a- 
647b 

9 ARISTOTLE: Motion of Animals, CH i [698*15- 
21] 233b; CH 4 [700*5-27] 235b-c; CH 6 235d- 
236b; CH 7 [7oi b i]-cH 8 J702 b i2] 236d-238a / 
Generation of Animals, BK i, CH 21-22 269c- 
271a; BK n, CH i [734*17-735*15] 274c-275d; 
CH 4 [740*13-18] 281a 

10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK i, CH 7 170c- 

171a; BK n, CH 3, 186c-d 
12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK n [700-729] 

23d-24b; [1105-1174] 29a-30a,c 
19 AQUINAS: Summa Theohgica, PART i, Q 18, 

A i 104c-105c; Q 27, A 2, ANS 154c-155b; PART 

i-n, Q 17, A 9, REP 2 692d-693d 

27 SHAKESPEARE: Othello, ACT v, sc n [7-15] 
239a 

28 GILBERT: Loadstone, BK in, 67b-d 

28 HARVEY: On Animal Generation, 412b-415b 

30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK n, APH 27 157b- 
158d 

31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART v, 59a-60c / 
Objections and Replies, 156a-d 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH ix, 
SECT ii 140b-c; CH xxm, SECT 22 209d; SECT 
28-29 211b-212a; CH xxvi, SFCT 2 217b-d; 
CH xxvii, SECT 5 220b-c; BK iv, CH x, SECT 19 
354a-c 

42 KJ^NT. Judgement, 579d-580a; 582b-c 
45 FARADAY . Researches in Electricity, 836d 
49 DARWIN: Origin of Species, 62a-b 
53 JAMES: Psychology, 4a-6b; 68a-69b; 71a 



64. Comparison of the motions of matter with 
changes in the order of mind 

7 PLATO: Laws, BK x, 764c-765a 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK vn, CH 3 [247^- 
248*8] 330b-d / Generation and Corruption, BK 
ii, CH 6 [334*10-15] 435a / Metaphysics, BK ix, 
CH 2 571c-572a / Soul BK i, CH 3 635b-637b; 
CH 4 [408*29-^1] 638a-d; BK ii, CH 5 [417*21- 
b 2i] 647d-648b; BK in, CH n [434*16-22] 
667a 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK in [177-207] 
32b-d 

17 PLOTINUS: Third Ennead, TR vi, CH 1-3 106b- 
108c 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theohgica, PART i, Q 14, 
A 15 89b-90b; Q 18, A i, ANS 104c-105c; A 3, 
REP i 106b-107c; Q 19, A 7 114d-115d; Q 27, 
AA 1-2 153b-155b; Q 34, A i, REP 2 185b-187b; 
Q 46, A 2, REP 3 253a-255a; Q 50, A i, REP 2 
269b-270a; Q 73, A 2, ANS 371b-d; Q 75, 
A 5, REP 2 382a-383b; Q 78, A 3, ANS 410a- 
411d; Q 82, A 2, REP 2-3 432d-433c; Q 94, 
A 2, ANS 503a-504a; PART i-n, Q 22, A i, ANS 



7 to n 



CHAPTER 10: CHANGE 



and REP i 720d-721c; A 2, REP 3 721c-722c; 
Q 35, A 6, REP 2 777b-778c; Q 36, A i, ANS 
780c-781b 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 52, 
A i, ANS and REP 3 15d-18a; Q 72, A 3, ANS and 
REP 1-2 113b-114a; Q 113, A 7, ANS and REP 1,4 
366a-367c; PART ii-n, Q 180, A 6 613a-614d; 

PART III SUPPL, Q 82, A 3, ANS and REP 2 

971a-972d; Q 84, A 3, ANS and REP i 985d- 
989b 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PURGATORY, xvm 
[10-33] 80a 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART i, 49a-d; 61a-c 

31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART n, PROP 7 375a-c; PART 

in, 395a-d; PROP 1-3 396a-398c; PART iv, 

PROP 7 426a-b; PART v, PROP i 452d 
35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH xn, 

SECT i 147b-d; CH xxi, SECT 74 199c-200b 
35 BERKELEY: Human Knowledge, SECT 144 441d 
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, INTRO, 160c- 

161a; 178a-179c; 186d-190b 
53 JAMES : Psychology, 95b-97a 

7, The analysis of local motion 

7<*. Space, place, and void 

7 PLATO: Timaeus, 460c-d; 471 b-c / Laws, BK 
x, 762b-d 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK in, CH 5 [205*10- 
206*8] 283b-284b; BK iv, CH 1-9 287a-297c / 
Heavens, BK i, CH 7 [274 b 3o~33] 366a; [275 b 30- 
276 a i8] 367a-b; CH 8 [276*22-27] 367b-c; 
[277 b i4-23] 368d-369a; BK n, CH 2 376b-377c; 
BK in, CH 6 [305*27-28] 396c; BK iv, CH 1-5 
399a-404d / Metaphysics, BK v, CH 13 [1020* 
25-33] 541c; BK ix, CH 6 [i048 b 9~i7] 574a; 
BK xi, CH 10 [1067*8-33] 595c-596a / Soul, 
BK i, CH 3 [406*12-21] 635c 

10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK i, CH 16, 181a~d; 
BK n, CH 1-2, 183b,d-184c; CH 6 188c-191a; 
BK in, CH 14-15, 213b-214c 

11 NICOMACHUS: Arithmetic, BK ir, 832c 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK i [329-448] 
5b-6c; [958-1007] 12d-13b, [1052-1082] 14a-c; 
BK n [80-250] 16a-18a; BK vi [830-839] 91b-c; 
[998-1041] 93c-94a 

16 PTOLEMY: Almagest, BK i, lOb-llb 
16 COPERNICUS: Revolutions of the Heavenly 
Spheres, BK i, 517b-518a; 519a-520b 

16 KEPLER: Epitome, BK iv, 855b; 900b-903a; 
922a-b; 931b-932a 

17 PLOTINUS: Third Ennead, TR vn, CH 8, 123d- 
124a 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 8, 
A i, REP 3 34d-35c; A 4 37c-38c; Q 52, AA 1-2 
278d-280a; Q 53, AA 1-2 280d-283b 

20 AQUINAS : Summa Theologica, PART in SUPPL, 
Q 83, AA 2-5 976c-982c; Q 84, A 2, REP i 984c- 
985d; A 3 985d-989b 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART i, 50a; 61b; PART 

in, 173a; PART iv, 271d 
28 GILBERT: Loadstone, BK n, 32c; BK vi, 110b-c 



28 GALILEO: Two New Sciences, FIRST DAY, 157b- 
160a passim; THIRD DAY, 202d 

30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK n, APH 37 168d- 
169c; APH 45 176a-177c; APH 48, 180a 

31 DESCARTES: Rules, ix, 15c 

33 PASCAL: Vacuum, 366a-367a; 370a / Weight 
of Air, 405b-415b passim 

34 NEWTON: Principles, DEFINITIONS, SCHOL 8b- 
13a; BK in, GENERAL SCHOL, 3 70a-37 2a / 
Optics, BK in, 520a-522b; 542a-543a 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH xm, 
SECT 23 153c-d; CH XVH, SECT 4 168b-d 

35 BERKELEY: Human Knowledge, SECT 110-117 

434b-436a 
42 KANT: Pure Reason, 29c-d; 31d-32a; 55c-56a; 

84b-c;135d[fn2] 
45 FARADAY: Researches in Electricity, 513d-514c; 

685d-686c; 816b,d-819a,c; 824a-b; 855a,c 

Ib. Natural and violent motion 

7 PLATO: Timaeus, 463d-464b 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK iv, CH i [2o8 b 9~22] 
287b; CH 8 [215*1-13] 294c-d; BK v, CH 6 
[230*18-231*19] 311c-312d; BK vin, CH 4 
338d-340d / Heavens, BK i, CH 2 [268 b i2j- 
CH 3 [270*13] 359d-361b; CH 7 [274 b 3o~33] 
366a; [275 b i2-29] 366d-367a; CH 7 [276*8]- 
CH 8 [277 b 25] 367b-369a; CH 9 [278 b 22- 
279*8] 370a-b; BK n, CH 13 [ 2 94 b 3 I ~ 2 95* 2 9] 
386b-d, BK in, CH 2 391c-393b; CH 5 [3O4 b 
11-23] 395d-396a; CH 6 [305*22-28] 396c / 
Generation and Corruption, BK 11, CH 6 [333 b 
22-33] 434c-d / Soul, BK i, CH 3 [406*12-29] 
635c-d 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK i [1052- 
1094] 14a-c; BK n [184-215] 17b-d 

16 PTOLEMY: Almagest, BK i, lla-b; BK in, 86b; 
BK ix, 270b 

16 COPERNICUS' Revolutions of the Heavenly 
Spheres, BK i, 517b-520b passim 

16 KEPLER: Epitome, BK iv, 929b-930b 

17 PLOTINUS: Second Ennead, TR i, CH 8, 39d 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 18, 
A i, REP 2 104c-105c; Q 105, A 4, REP i 541c- 
542a; A 6, REP i 543b-544a; PART i-ii, Q 6, 
A i, ANS and REP 3 644d-646a; A 4 647b-648a; 
A 5, ANS and REP 2-3 648b-649a; Q 41, A 3 
799c-800b 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART HI SUPPL, 
Q 75, A 3, ANS and REP 3-5 938a-939d; Q 91, 
A 2, ANS and REP 6 1017c-1020c 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PARADISE, i [94-142] 
107b-d 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART i, 50a; PART iv, 

271d 

28 GILBERT: Loadstone, BK vi, 109a-b; HOb-d 
28 GALILEO: Two New Sciences, FIRST DAY, 157d- 

158a; THIRD DAY, 200a-d; 203d; FOURTH DAY, 

238a-b 
30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK i, APH 66, 115b- 

c; BK n, APH 36 164a-168d passim; APH 48 

179d-188b 



203 

7c. Kinds of local motion 

lc(l) Rectilinear and rotary or circular mo- 
tion 

7 PLATO: Republic, BK iv, 350d-351b / Parmen- 
f<fo,492d-493b / Laws, BK x, 762 b-d; 764b- 
765a 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK iv, CH 5 [212*3 i- b 2] 
291d; BK vii, CH 4 [248*io- b 6] 330d-331b; BK 
VIH, CH 8-9 348b-353b / Heavens, BK i, CH 2- 
6 359d-365c; CH 7 [274 b 22-29] 365d-366a; 
[275 b i2-i8] 366d; CH 8 [277*12-26] 368b-c; 
[277 b 8-i8] 368d / Metaphysics, BK xn, CH 6 
[io7i b io-n] 601b; CH 7 [1072*20-22] 602b 
/ Soul, BK i, CH 3 [4o6 b 26-407 b i3] 636b- 
637b 

16 PTOLEMY: Almagest, BK i, 6a; 7a-8b; BK in, 

86b; BK ix, 270b 
16 COPERNICUS: Revolutions of the Heavenly 

Spheres, BK i, 514a; 517b-518a; 519b-520b 

16 KEPLER: Epitome, BK iv, 887a; 913a; 931 b- 
933a 

17 PLOTINUS: Second Ennead, TR i, CH 3, 36b-c; 
CH 8 39c-d; TR 11, CH i, 40b-c; CH 2, 41b-c / 
Sixth Ennead, TR in, CH 24 295b-c 

19 AQUINAS* Summa Thcologica, PART i, Q 7, 

A 3, ANS 32c-33c; Q 66, A 2, ANS 345d-347b 
28 GILBERT: Loadstone, BK vi, HOb-c 
28 GALILEO' Two New Sciences, FOURTH DAY, 

240d; 245b-c 
30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK n, APH 35, 

163a-d; APH 48, 186b-d 
34 NEWTON: Principles, DEF in 5b, DEF v 6a-7a; 

DEFINITIONS, SCHOL, llb*12a; LAW i 14a; 

LAWS OF MOTION, SCHOL, 19b-20aj BK I, PROP 

1-3 and SCHOL 32b 35b; BK n, PROP 53, SCHOL 
266a-267a 

7<r(2) Uniform or variable motion 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK iv, CH 8 [215*24- 

216*21] 295a-d; BK v, CH 4 [228 b i 5-229*7] 

309d-310a 
12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK n [225-242] 

17d-18a 
28 GALILEO: Two New Sciences, FIRST DAY, 157b- 

160a; THIRD DAY, 197b-198b; 200a-d; 203d; 

205b-d; 209a-c; 224d 
30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK n, APH 48, 

186b-d 
34 NEWTON: Principles, DEF HI-IV 5b-6a; LAW 

j-n 14a-b; COROL iv-vi 18a-19b 

7^(3) Absolute or relative motion 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK iv [387-390] 

49b 
16 COPERNICUS: Revolutions of the Heavenly 

Spheres, BK i, 514b-515a; 519a; BK n, 

557a-b 

16 KEPLER: Harmonies of the World, 1015a-b 
2^ GILBERT: Loadstone, BK vi, 115a d 
3Q BACON: Novum Organum, BK n, APH 36, 165c- 

166b 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



7 c to Id 



34 NEWTON: Principles, DEFINITIONS, SCHOL 8b- 
13a csp 9a-b; COROL v-vi 19a-b; BK i, PROP 
57-61 lllb-114b 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH xin, 
SECT 7-10 149d-150d passim 

35 BERKELEY: Human Knowledge, SECT 110-115 

434b-435c 
53 JAMES- Psychology, 511b-512a 

7c(4) Terrestrial and celestial motion 

7 PLATO: Statesman, 587a-b / Laws, BK vii, 
729d-730d; BK x, 763d-765c 

8 ARISTOTLE: Heavens 359a-405a,c csp BK i, 
CH 2-3 359d-362a / Metaphysics, BK ix, CH 8 
[i05o b 20-28] 576c-d; BK xn, CH 2 [1069^4- 
27] 599a; CH 6 [io7i b 32]-cn 7 [1072*22] 601d- 
602b / Soul, BK i, CH 3 [4o6 b 26-407 b i3J 636b- 
637b 

9 ARISTOTLE: Motion of Animals, CH 3 234a-c 
16 PTOLEMY: Almagest, BK i, 5a-6a; 7a-8b; 12a; 

BK in, 86b-87a; BK ix, 270b; BK xin, 429a-b 
16 COPERNICUS: Revolutions of the Heavenly 
Spheres, BK i, 513b-514b; 517b-518a; 519b- 
520b 

16 KEPLER: Epitome, BK iv, 888b 895b; 897a- 
905a passim, csp 904b-905a; 929a-933a; 934b- 
935b; 940b-941a; 959a-960a 

17 PLOTINUS' Second Ennead, IR i, CH 1-4 35a- 
37b; TR i, CH S-TR n, CH 2 39c-41c 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 66, 
A 2, ANS 345d-347b; Q 70, A 3 365b-367a 

20 AQUINAS Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 49, 
A 4, ANS 5a-6a; PART in SUPPL, Q 84, A 3, REP 2 
985d-989b 

28 GILBERT' Loadstone, BK vi, HOb-c 

28 GALILEO: Two New Sciences, FOURTH DAY, 
245b-d 

30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK 11, APH 35, 
163a-b, APH 36, 165d-166a; APH 48, 186b-d 

34 NEWTON- Principles, la-2a; BK in 269a-372a 
passim, csp RULE i-m 270a-271a, PROP 1-7 
276a-282b, PROP 35, SCHOL 320b-324a, GEN- 
ERAL SCHOL, 371b-372a / Optics, BK in, 540a- 
541b 

Id. The properties of variable motion: the laws 
of motion 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK iv, CH 8 [215*24- 
216*21] 295a-d; BK vn, CH 4 330d-333a 

9 ARISTOTLE: Motion of Animals, CH 1-4 233a- 
235c passim / Gait of Animals, CH 3 243d-244a 
/ Generation of Animals, BK iv, CH 3 [768** 1 6- 
24]310b-c 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK 11 [80-99] 

16a-b; [184-250] 17b-18b 
16 KEPLER: Epitome, BK iv, 894a; 899a-900a; 

905a-906b; 933b-934b; 936a-937a; 938b-939a 
23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART i, 50a; PART iv, 271d 
28 GILBERT: Loadstone, BK n, 56b c 
28 GALILEO: Two New Sciences, FIRST DAY, 157b- 

172d passim; THIRD DAY-FOURTH DAY 197a- 
. 260a,c 



8/o 9 



CHAPTER 10: CHANGE 



209 



30 BACON: Novum Ofganum, BK n, APH 35, 
163c-d; APH 36, 166b-c; 167b-c; APH 48 179d- 
188b 

31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART n, AXIOM I-LEMMA 7 
378c-380b 

34 NEWTON: Principles, DBF in 5b; LAWS OF 
MOTION 14a-24a; BK i, PROP 1-17 and SCHOL 
32b-50a; PROP 30-69 and SCHOL 76a-131a; 
PROP 94-98 and SCHOL 152b-157b; BK n 
159a-267a passim / Optics, BK in, 540a-542a 

34 HUYGENS: Light, CH i, 558b-563b 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK 11, CH xxi, 
SECT 4 178d-179c; CH xxin, SECT 17 209a; 
SECT 22 209d; SECT 28-29 211b-212a 

35 BERKELEY: Human Knowledge, SECT 50 422c; 

SECT 102 432d-433a 
35 HUME Human Understanding, SECT iv, DIV 

27, 460c; SECT vn, DIV 57, 475d-476b [fn 2] 
38 MONTESQUIEU: Spirit of Laws, BK i, Ib 
45 FOURIER: Theory of Heat, 169a-b 
51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, EPILOGUE n, 694d- 

695c 

8. Change of size 

8a. The increase and decrease of inanimate 
bodies 

7 PLATO* Timaeus, 460c-d / Laws, BK x, 762b-c 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK iv, CH i [209*27-29] 
288a; CH 6 [2i3 b i9~22] 293b; CH 9 296b-297c; 
BK vii, CH 2 [245 ft i2-i8] 328d-329a; BK vin, 
CH 3 [253 b i2-23J 337d / Heavens, BK i, CH 3 
[270*23-36] 361c / Generation and Corruption, 
BK ii, CH 6 [333 B 35- b 3] 434b / Soul, BK n, CH 4 
[4i5 b 28-4i6 ft i8] 646a-c 

10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK i, CH 7 170c- 

171a; BK n, CH 3, 186c-d 
12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK i [311-328] 

5a; BK n [62-79] 15d-16a; [1105-1174] 29a- 

30a,c; BK v [235-323] 64a-65b 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 119, 
A i, ANS 604c-607b 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART I-H, Q 52, 
AA 1-2 15d-19a; PART ii-n, Q 24, A 5 492b- 
493d; A 6, ANS 493d-494b; PART in, Q 7, A 12, 
REP i 754c-755c 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART iv, 271d-272a 

28 GALILEO: Two New Sciences, FIRST DAY, 

139b-141d; 151c-154b 
28 HARVEY: On Animal Generation, 412b 
30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK n, APH 40, 171a- 

172d; APH 48, 180a-181a; 184a-c 
34 NEWTON: Principles, BK in, PROP 6, COROL iv 

m\>/ Optics, BKin,539b 
45 LAVOISIER: Elements of Chemistry, PART i, 9a- 

15c csp 9a-10b 
45 FOURIER: Theory of Heat, 184a-185b; 192a-b 

8. Growth in living organisms 

7 PLATO: Timaeus, 471d-472a 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK n, CH i [i93 b i3-i9] 
269d-270a; BK vi, CH 10 [24 1*32^2] 325c; BK 



vin, CH 7 [26o*2^- b i] 346b-c / Generation and 
Corruption, BK i, CH 2 [3i5*26- b 3] 4104-41U; 
CH 5 417b-420b; BK IT, CH 6 [333*35- b 3) 434b; 
CH 8 [335*10-14] 436c / Metaphysics, BK v, 
CH 4 [ior4 b 2o-26) 535a / Soul, BK n, CH 4 
[4i5 b 28-4i6i8] 646a-c 

9 ARISTOTLE: History of Animals, BK v, CH 19 
[55o b 26-3i] 77d; CH 33 [558*17-24] 84d-85a 
BK vn, CH i [582*21-25] 107d / Motion oj 
Animals, CH 5 235c-d / Generation of Animals, 
BK i, CH 18 [723*9-23] 263a-b; CH 22 [730*33- 
b 9] 270d; BK n, CH i [733 b i-4J 273d; [735*13- 
26] 275d-276a; CH 4 [7 3 9^4-74 1*2] 280d- 
281d; CH 6 [744^8-745^] 286a-d 

10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK i, CH 2, 167b-d 
CH 5 169b-c; CH 7 170c-171a; CH n 172b-d, 
BK n, CH 3 185a-186d 

12 LUCRETIUS; Nature of Things, BK i [146-264 
2d-4b; BK n [1105-1174] 29a-30a,c; BKiv[858- 
876] 55b-c 

28 GALILEO: Two New Sciences, SECOND DAY 
187b-d 

28 HARVEY : Circulation of the Blood, 320a-b / Of 
Animal Generation, 353b-354a; 388c-d; 408c 
409b, 412b-415b csp 415a; 441a-443b; 494a-c 

49 DARWIN: Origin of Species, 71a-c 

9. Change of quality 

7 PLATO- Parmenides, 509a-510a / Theaetetus 
533a-534a 

8 ARISTOTLE: Categories, CH 5 [4*io- b i9] 8b-9a 
CH 14 [15*14-32] 20d-21a / Topics, BK vi, CH ( 
[145*2-13] 198c-d / Physics, BK i, CH 7 [190^- 
9] 266b; BK v, CH 2 [226*26-29] 306d; [226V 
9] 307a; BK vi, CH 10 [241*26-32] 325b~c 
BK vn, CH 2 [244 b i-245*i2] 328b-d; CH 
329a-330d; BK vm, CH 7 [260*26^14] 346b-< 
/ Heavens, BK i, CH 3 [270*26-36] 361c; CH i. 
[283 b i7-23] 375c-d / Generation and Corrup 
tion, BK i, CH 1-4 409a-417a csp CH 4 416c 
41 7a / Metaphysics, BK i, CH 8 [989*18-29 
507b-c; BK v, CH 21 544a-b; BK xi, CH i, 
[io68 b i5-i9] 597c / Sense and the Sensible, CH i 
[4 4 6 b 27-44 7 * 9 ] 685b-c 

10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK i, CH 2, 167b 

168b 
17 PLOTINUS: Third Ennead, TR vi, CH 8-10 lllc 

113a 

19 AQUINAS : Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 48 
A 4, ANS and REP 3 262a-263a 

20 AQUINAS : Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 5C 
A i, REP 3 6a-7b; Q 52, A i, ANS and RE 
3 15d-18a; PART in SUPPL, Q 82, A 3, ANS an< 
REP 2 971a-972d; Q 91, A i, REP 2,4 1016t 
1017c 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART in, 172b 

34 NEWTON: Optics, BK in, 541b 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH xxv; 
SECT 1-2 217a-d 

35 BERKELEY: Human Knowledge, SECT 25 
33 417d-419a passim, esp SECT 25-26 41 7d 
418a 



210 

(9. Change of quality.) 

9a, Physical and chemical change: compounds 
and mixtures 



7 PLATO: Ttmaeus, 448b-d; 459d-462b 

8 ARISTOTLE: Topics, BK vi, CH 14 [151*20-32] 
206a / Heavens, BK i, CH 3 [270*26-36] 361c, 
CH 5 [27i b i8-23J 362d-363a; BK in, CH 3 
393c-d; CH 8 [3o6 b 22-29] 398a / Generation 
and Corruption, BK i, en 2 [315*28-33] 410d; 
CH 10 426c-428d; BK 11, CH 6-8 433d-436d / 
Meteorology, BK in, CH 6 ftyS^J-BK iv, CH 12 
[390 b 2i] 482c-494d / Metaphysics, BK vn, CH 
17 [io4i b i2-33] 565d-566a,c / Sense and the 
Sensible, CH 3 [440*33- b i3] 677d-678a 

9 ARISTOTLE: Parts of Animals, BK n, CH i 
[646*12-24] 170a-b 

12 LUCRETIUS- Nature of Things, BK i [635-920] 

8d-12b; BK n [730-864] 24b-26a 
12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK x, SECT 7 297b-c 
17 PLOTINUS . Second Ennead, TR i, CH 6-8 37d- 

39d, IR vn, CH 1-2 62d-64b 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 71, 
A i, REP 1-2 367a-368b; Q 76, A 4, REP 4 
393a-394c; Q 91, A i 484a-485b 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i-ii, Q 50, 
A i, REP 3 6a-7b; PART in, Q 2, A r, ANS 710a- 
711c; PART in SUPPL, Q 74, A i, REP 3 925c- 
926c, A 5 929d-931b; Q 80, A 3, REP 3 958b- 
959c; Q 82, A i, ANS 968a-970c 

28 GILBERT: Loadstone, BK i, 13b-14d; BK n, 

29c-30a 
28 GALILEO: Two New Sciences, FIRST DAY, 

148c-d 

28 HARVEY: On Animal Generation, 495c-496d 
30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK i, APH 50 lllb; 

BK n, APH 7 139c-140a; APH 48, 181a-183a 

34 NEWTON: Optics, BK in, 517b-518a; 531b- 
542a esp 541b 

35 LOCKE Human Understanding, BK n, CH xxvi, 
SECT 1-2 217a-d 

45 LAVOISIER: Elements of Chemistry, PART i-n, 
22c-86a,c; P\RT in, 87c-d; 103b-c; 105d; 
117a-128c csp 117a-118a 

45 FOURIER: Theory of Heat, 169b 

45 FARADAY: Researches in Electricity, 309a-312a; 
312c-313d; 314a-b; 315a-b, 327a-422a,c pas- 
sim; 541b,d-584a,c passim 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 68a-b; 104a-105a; 876a 

A. Biological change: vital alterations 

7 PLATO: Laws, BK n, 659c-d; BK vn, 713d 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK vn, CH 3 [246 a io- b i9] 
329c-330a 

9 ARISTOTLE- History of Animals, BK v, CH 19 
I55i a i3-552 b 5l 78a-79b; CH 30 [55^5-9] 83b; 
BK vn, CH i 106b,d-108a; BK ix, CH 50 
[63i b i9-632 a 32] 157a-c; CH 498 [632 b i4~ 
633*29] 157d-158c / Motion of Animals, CH 5 
235c-d; CH 7 [7oi b i]-cH 8 [702*22] 236d-237c; 
CH n (703 b 8-ai] 239b-c / Generation of Ani- 
mals, BK i, CH 18 [724*2o- b i3] 264b-d; BK n, 



THE GREAT IDEAS 9a to 10 

* CH i t733 b i-i7] 273d-274a; CH 5 [74^5-15] 

282c; CH 6 [742*8-16] 283a; BK v, CH i [778* 

15-20] 320a-b; CH 3 [782*1-20] 324a-b 
10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK i, CH 5, 169b; 

CH 8 171a; BK HI, CH 7, 203c-204c 
12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK iv [1030- 

1057] 57c-d 

25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 292d-293d 
28 HARVEY: On Animal Generation, 412a-415b; 

450b-d 
31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART iv, PROP 38-39 436b- 

437a 
49 DARWIN: Origin of Species, lOa-c; 61d-62a; 

219d-222a csp 221b-222a, 224b-c / Descent of 

Man, 354c-355a 
51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, EPILOGUE i, 665a-d 

53 JAMES. Psychology, 68b-73b 

54 FREUD' Beyond the Pleasure Principle, 65 5a- 
657d esp 655b, 656b-657c / Civilization and 
Its Discontents, 770b 



10. Substantial change: generation and corrup- 
tion 

7 PLATO Symposium, 165c-166b/ Phaedo,226d- 
228a / Republic, BK vin, 40Ja-b, BK x, 434c- 
436a / Parmemdes, 504c-d; 509a-d / Laws, 
BK x, 761b-762c 

8 ARISTOTLE Topics, BK vn, CH 3 [153^1-34] 
209a / Physics, BK n, CH i [19^19-22] 270a / 
Generation and Corruption 409a-441a,c / 
Metaphysics, UK i, CH 3 [98^8-19] 501d; CH 8 
[ 9 88 b 22-c)89 b 24] 506d-508a; BK n, CH 2 
[994 a i9- b 8] 512c-d; BK vn, CH 7-9 555a-558a; 
BK xi, CH n 596a-d; BK xn, CH 2-3 598c-599d 
/ Soul, BK n, CH 4 Ui6 b 8-i7l 646d-647a 

10 GALEN- Natural Faculties, BK i, CH 2, 167d- 
168b; CH 5 169b-c, CH 12 172d-173c 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK n [569-580] 
22b, [865-1022] 26a-28a, BK in [117-129] 
31c-d; [203-230] 32c-33a; [323-349] 34b-c; 
[417-869] 35c-41a; BK v [783-836] 71b-72a 

12 AURELIUS Meditations, BK vii, SECT 23 281b; 
SECT 25 281c 

18 AucusiiNh' Confessions, BK vn, par 18 49a-b 

19 AQUINAS, Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 15, 
A i, ANS 91b-92a; Q 19, A 9, ANS 116d-117d; 
Q 27, A 2 154c-155b; Q 33, A 2, REP 4 181c- 
182b; Q 41, A 5, ANS and REP i 222b 223b; 
Q 44, A 2, ANS 239b-240a, Q 45, A 2, REP 2 
242d-244a; Q 50, A 5, REP 3 274b-275a; Q 53, 
A 3, ANS 283b-284d; Q 65, A 4, ANS 342b-343c; 
Q 66, A i, ANS 343d-345c; A 2, ANS 345d-347b; 
Q 67, A 3, REP i 351b-352a; Q 71, A i, REP i 
367a-368b; Q 72, A i, REP 5 368b-369d, Q 75, 
A 6, ANS 383c-384c; Q 90, A 2, ANS 481d-482c; 
Q 96, A i, ANS 510b-511b; Q 119 604c-608d; 
PART I-H, Q 22, A i, ANS and REP 3 720d-721c 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 53, 
A 1 19d 21a; A 3 21d 22d; Q 85, A 6 182d-184a; 
Q no, A 2, REP 3 349a-d; PART II-H, Q i, A 7, 
REP 3 385c-387a; PART in SUPPL, Q 75, A 3, 
ANS 938a-939d; Q 79, A i, REP 3-4 951b-953b; 



to lOc 



CHAPTER 10: CHANGE 



211 



A 2, REP i 953b-955c; Q 80, A 5, REP 3 963a- 
964b; Q 82, A i, REP 2 968a-970c; Q 86, A 2, 
ANS and REP 1-2 993c-994d 

22 CHAUCER: Knight's Tale [3011-3034] 209b 

23 HOB BBS: Leviathan, PART iv, 249b-250a 
28 GILBERT: Loadstone, BK v, 104d-105d 

30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK 11, APH 35, 162c 

31 DESCARTES: Objections and Replies, 127c-d 
31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART i, PROP 6 356b-c 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH xxvi, 
SECT 1-2 217a-d passim; BK in, CH in, SECT 
19 259c-260a 

42 KANT. Pure Reason, 74b-76c, 82a-83b 

45 LAVOISIER: Elements of Chemistry, PART i, 
41b-c 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, INTRO, 187a-b; 
189b-190a 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 95b-98a passim 

54 FREUD' Beyond the Pleasure Principle, 652b- 
653c;655a-657d 

lOa. Substantial change in the realm of bodies: 
the transmutation of the elements 

7 PLATO. Timaeus, 456b-c; 458b-460b 

8 ARISTOTLE- Heavens, BK i, CH 3 360d-362a; 
BK in, CH i [298 a 24-299 a i] 389b,d-390b, CH 2 
[3oi b 33-302 tt 9] 393b; CH 6 [30^2 ^]-CH 8 
[3o6 b 29] 396a.'39Sa/ Generation and Corruption 
409a-441a,c esp BK i, CH 1-3 409a-416c, CH 6 
[322 b i-2i] 420b-d, BK n, CH 4-11 431b-441a,c 
/ Meteorology, BK i, CH 3 [339*36-^3] 445d; BK 
iv, CH i 482b,d-483c / Metaphysics, BK i, CH 3 
[9 8 3 b 7-9 8 4 ai6 l 501d-502b; CH 8 [989*18-29] 
507b-c 

10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK i, CH 2, 167d- 
168b; BK 11, CH 3, 185c-d; CH 4, 187a-b; BK 
in, CH 7, 203c 

12 LUCRETIUS Nature of Things, BK i [635-920] 
8d-12b; BK 11 [80-108] 16a-b; BK v [235-305] 
64a-65a; [380-415] 66a-c 

12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK in, CH 13, 189a 

12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK 11, SECT 3 257a-b; 
BK iv, SECT 21 265b-c; SECT 46 267c; BK v, 
SECT 13 271b; BK vn, SECT 18 281a; SECT 23 
281b; SECT 25 281c; SECT 50 283a; BK x, 
SECT 7 297b-c 

17 PLOTINUS: Second Ennead, TR i, CH 3-4 36b- 
37b; TR iv, CH 6 51d-52a 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 66, 
A 2, ANS 345d-347b; Q 67, A 2, ANS 350b- 
351a; Q 91, A i, ANS and REP 3 484a-485b 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART in SUPPL, 
Q 74, A i, ANS and REP 3 925c-926c; A 5, ANS 
929d-931b; Q 91, A 5, ANS and REP 4 1024a- 
1025b 

21 DANTE- Divine Comedy, PARADISE, vn [121- 
148] 116b-c 

22 CHAUCER: Canon's Yeoman's Prologue 471b- 
474a / Canon's Yeoman's Tale 474b-487a 

30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 14b-c / 
Novum Organum, BK i, APH 66 114d-115c; BK 
n, APH 35, 162c 



34 NEWTON: Optics, BK in, 531a-b 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n CH n, 
SECT 2 128a-b; CH xxvi, SECT 1-2 217a-d 
passim 

40 GIBBON: Decline and Fall, 148a-b 

41 GIBBON. Decline and Fall, 299d-300a 

42 KANT: Judgement, 582 b-c 

44 BoswELL:/o/r;won, 262c 

45 LAVOISIER: Elements of Chemistry, PART I, 
41b-c 

10&. Plant, animal, and human reproduction 

7 PLATO: Timaeus, 476b-d / Statesman, 586c- 
588a 

8 ARISTOTLE: Meteorology, BK iv, CH i [379 b 6-8] 
483c; CH 3 [38^9-^3] ^Sd; CH n [389 R 28- b 7] 
493 c / Metaphysics, BK vn, CH 9 [io34*32- b 8] 
557c-d; BK ix, CH 7 [1049*12-18] 574d; BK 
xn, CH 6 [io7i b 29~3i] 601c; CH 7 [io72 b 3o- 
1073*2] 603a 

9 ARISTOTLE* Generation of Animals 25$a-33la,c 
passim, esp BK i, CH 1-2 255a-256c, CH 17-22 
261b-271a, BK 11, CH i [733 b 23]-CH 5 [74^24] 
274a-282d 

10 GALEN: Natural Faculties, BK i, CH 5-6 169b- 
170c; BK 11, CH 3 185a-186d 

18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK xn, CH 25 358b- 
359a; BK xxn, CH 24, 609c-610a 

19 AQUINAS' Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 41, 
A 5, ANS and REP i 222b-223b; Q 72, A i, REP 4 
368b-369d; Q 73, A 3, ANS 371d-372c; Q 78, 
A 2, REP 2-3 409a-4lOa; Q 90, A 2, ANS 481 d- 
482c; Q 92, A i, ANS 488d-489d; A 4, ANS and 
RFP i 491b-d; Q 98 516d-519a; Q 115, A 2, 
RKP 3-4 587c-588c; A 3 588c-589c; Q 118, A I 
600a-601c; Q 119 604c-608d 

21 DANTE' Divine Comedy, PURGATORY, xxv 
[34-78] 91d-92a; PARADISE, vn [121-141] 
116b-c 

28 GILBERT: Loadstone, BK i, 14b-c; BK v, 105a-b 

28 HARVEY: Motion of the Heart, 278a / On Ani- 
mal Generation 329a-496d passim, esp 331a-b, 
383d-396a, 400c-429c, 496b-d 

30 BACON' Novum Organum, BK n, APH 50, 
192a-b 

32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK iv [660-673] 166b- 
167a 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH xxvi, 
SECT2217b-d 

42 KANT: Judgement, 582b-c 

54 FREUD: Beyond the Pleasure Principle, 654c- 
656d;659d-660b 

lOc. The incorruptibility of atoms, the heavenly 
bodies, and spiritual substances 

8 ARISTOTLE: Heavens, BK i, CH 3 [270*12-36] 
361b-c; CH 9 [279*12]-^ 12 [283^24] 370b- 
375d / Metaphysics, BK ix, CH 8 [io5o b 2o-28] 
576c-d; BK xn, CH 2 [io69 b 24-27l 599a; CH 
6-8 601b-605a 

9 ARISTOTLE : Motion ofAnimals t CH 4 [699^2- 
700*6] 234d-235b 



212 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



11 to \2b 



(10. Substantial change; generation and corrup- 
tion. We. The incorruptibility of atoms, the 
heavenly bodies, and spiritual substances.} 

10 GALEN ; Natural Faculties, BK i, CH 12, 173a-b; 

BK n, CH 6, 189c-190a 
12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK i [483-634] 

7a-8d; BK n [842-864] 25c-26a 
16 PTOLEMY: Almagest, BK i, 5a-6a; BK xin, 

429a-b 

16 KEPLER: Epitome, BK iv, 929b-930b 

17 PLOTINUS: Second Ennead, TR i, CH 1-4 35a- 
37b; CH 8 39c d 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 9, 
A 2 39c-40d; Q 10, A 2, REP 1-2 41d-42c; A 3, 
ANS 42c*43b; A 5 44b-45c; Q 46, A i, REP 
2-3,5 250a-252d; Q 50, A 5 274b-275a; Q 58, 
A 3, ANS 301d-302d; Q 63, A i, REP 2 325c- 
326c; Q 66, A 2 345d-347b; Q 68, A i, ANS 
354a-355c; Q 70, A 3 365b-367a; Q 97, A i, ANS 
513c-514c; Q 104, A i, REP 1,3 534c-536c 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 49, 
A 4, ANS 5a-6a 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PARADISE, vn [121- 
148] 116b-c; xni [52-60] 126a 

31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART i 355a-372d passim, esp 
DBF r 355a, DEF 3,6 355b, AXIOM 1-2 355c-d, 
PROP 1-15 355d-361d 

32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK i [128-142] 96a-b; 
BK ii [81-105] 113a-b; BK vi [296-353] 202b- 
204a esp [320-353] 203a-204a; [430-436] 205b 

33 PASCAL- Vacuum, 358a 

34 NEWTON- Optics, BK in, 541b 
42 KANT: Pure Reason, 137a-140c 
53 JAMES: Psychology, 68a-b 

11. The apprehension of change: by sense, by 
reason 

7 PLATO- Cratylus, 113c-114a,c / Phaedo, 231c- 
232a / Timaeus, 447b-d; 457c-d / Sophist, 
565a-569a esp 568a-569a/ Laws, BK x, 765a-b 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK iv, CH n 298c-300a 
/ Metaphysics, BK i, CH 6 [987*29^18] 505 b-d, 
CH 9 [990^9-15] 508d; BK in, CH 2 [996*1 8 - b 26] 
514d-515b; BK iv, CH 5 528c-530c; CH 8 [ioi2 b 
23-32] 532d; BK xi, CH 6 [io63 B io~ b 8] 591b-d 
/ Soul, BK HI, CH i [425*i4- b io] 657b-d 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK i [311-328] 
5a; BK n [62-141] 15d-16d; [308-332] 19a-b 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK vn, par 23 50b-c; 
BK xi, PAR 17-41 93b-99b / Christian Doctrine, 
BK i, CH 8-9 626c-627a; BK n, CH 38 654b-c 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 14, 
A 15, REP 2 89b-90b; Q 78, A 3, REP 2 410a- 
411d; Q 84, A i esp REP 3 440d-442a; Q 86, 
A 3 463b-d 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART in, 172b; PART iv, 

249c-d 

25 MoNTAidNE: Essays, 291b-294b 
30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK 11, APH 5-6 

138b-139c; APH 23 153d-154c; APH 40-41 170c- 



31 DESCARTES: Rules, xii, 24a 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH v 

131b; CH vn, SECT 8-9 132d-133a; CH vin, 

sect 18 136a-b; CH xiv, SECT 6-12 156b-157c; 

CH xxm, SECT 28-29 211b-212a; CH xxvi, 

SECT 1-2 217a-d 
42 KANT: Pure Reason, 27a-33d esp 28b-c, 29c- 

d; 43a-b; 55c-56a; 76c-83b esp 76c-d; 91d- 

93c 
53 JAMES: Psychology, 405b-406b; 418b-419b; 

510a-512a; 563a-567a; 612a-616b esp 616a; 

634b-635a 

12. Emotional aspects of change 

I2a. Rest and motion in relation to pleasure 
and pain 

7 PLATO- Gorgias, 275c-277c / Timaeus, 463d- 
464b / Philebus, 619d-620b, 626a-c; 631d- 
632d / Laws, BK vn, 713c-715a 

8 ARISTOTLE Topics, BK iv, CH i [i2i a 27-39J 
169b 

9 ARISTOTLE* Ethics, BK vn, CH n [ii52 b 8]-cH 
12 [1153*17] 403c-404b, CH 14 [i 154^0-30] 
406c; BK x, CH 3 [ii7329- b 7] 427c-d; CH 4 
[ii74*i3- b i4] 428b-429a / Politics, BK vin, 
CH 5 [i34o a i- b i9] 545c-546a / Rhetoric, BK i, 
CH n [i369 b 33-i37o tt i7] 613a-c, [1371*26-30] 
614d 

17 PLOTINUS: Fourth Ennead, IR iv, CH 18-21, 

167a-168c 
19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 32, 

A2759d-760d 

23 HOBBES Leviathan, PART i, 50a 
31 SPINOZA- Ethics, PART in 395a-422a,c 
35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH xxi, 

SECT 29-48 184d-190d passim 
50 MARX. Capital, 166b-c 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 41 Oa 

54 FREUD. Narcissism, 403d-404a / General In- 
troduction, 592c-593a / Beyond the Pleasure 
Principle, 639b-640a; 648d-649c / Ego and Id, 
701a-b 

12^. The love and hatred of change 

5 SOPHOCLES: Oedipus at Colonus [1211-1248] 
125b-c 

6 HERODOTUS: History, BK vn, 224d-225a 

7 PLATO: Republic, BK iv, 344b-d / Laws, BK 
vn, 717d-718d 

9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK vn, CH 14 [11 54^0-30] 

406c 
10 HIPPOCRATES: Fractures, par i 74b,d-75a / 

Aphorisms, SECT n, par 50 133d 
12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK n [1105- 

1174] 29a-30a,c; BK in [912-977] 41d-42c; 

[1053-1084] 43c-44a; BK v [156-173] 63a-b; 

[I379-H35] 79a-d 
12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK 11, SECT 14 258d; 

SBCT 17 259b-d; BK iv, SECT 3 263b-264a; 

SECT 5 264b; SECT 12 264c; SECT 33 266c-d; 



lib to 13 



SECT 10 270c-d; SECT 13 271b; SECT 23 272b; 
SECT 33 273b-c; BK vi, SECT 15 275a-b; SECT 
36 277c; BK vn, SECT 18-19 281a; SECT 35 
282a; SECT 49 282d; BK vin, SECT 6 285d- 
286a; SECT 16,18 286d; BK ix, SECT 21 293 b-c; 
SECT 28 293d-294a; BK x, SECT 7 297b-c; 
SECT 31 300a-b; SECT 34 301a 

13 VIRGIL: Aeneid, BK i [441-462] 115a-b esp 
[462] H5b 

14 PLUTARCH: Aemihus Paulus, 225b-c; 229a-c 

17 PLOIINUS: First Ennead, TR iv 12b-19b 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK vm, par 18 57d- 
58a; par 25-26 60a-b / Christian Doctrine, BK 
i, CH 9 62 7a 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, HELL, vn [61-96] 
lOb-c; xiv [94-120] 20c-d; xxvi [90-142] 39a- 
c; PURGATORY, xi ['j^-n'j} 69c-70a; xiv [91- 
126] 74c-75a; xxvm [76-148] 96d-97c; PARA- 
DISE, xv-xvi 128b-132a 

22 CHAUCER: Wife of Bath's Prologue [5583-6410] 
256a-269b 

23 MACHIAVELLI: Prince, CH vi, 9b-c 
23HoBBEs- Leviathan, PART i, 79c-d; PART 11, 

150c; 154b-c; PART iv, 271d 

25 MONTAIGNE- Essays, 33b-36a; 47a-51a; 131b- 
132a; 28Ia-282a; 292d-294b; 318c-319b; 
458b-c, 462c-465c; 478c-479c; 540d-541c 

26 SHAKESPEARE. 2nd Henry IV, ACT in, sc I 
[45-56] 483b 

27 SHAKESPEARE: Hamlet, ACT i, sc n [68-73] 
32b; ACT v, sc i [202-240] 66c-d / Troilus and 
Cressida, ACT in, sc in [145-189] 124a-c; ACT 
iv, sc iv [26-50] 128c / King Lear, ACT iv, sc i 
[10-12] 269c / Sonnets, xv 588b-c, xxv 590a; 
XLIX 593d; LX 595b-c, LXIV-LXV 596a-b; 
cxvi 604a, cxxin 605a 

28 GILBERI: Loadstone, PREF, 2a 

28 HARVEY. Motion of the Heart, 274a; 285b-c 

30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 14c-15c csp 
15a-b; 16c-d; 61b; 65b-c; 90b-d / Novum 
Organum, BK i, APH 90 124d-125a 

31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART n, 45d 

31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART in, PROP 4-11 398d- 
400b; PART v, PROP 6, SCHOL 454a 

33 PASCAL: Pensees, 129-131 195b; 135 196a; 
139-143 196b-200a; 164-172 202b-203b; 181 
204b / Vacuum, 355a-358b 

35 LOCKE: Civil Government, CH xix, SECT 223 
76c-d / Human Understanding, 85a-c 

36 SWIFT. Gulliver, PART in, 105a-106b 
38 ROUSSEAU: Inequality, 335c 

43 DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE. [15-20] Ib 

43 FEDERALIST. NUMBER 14, 62a-d 

43 MILL: Liberty, 293b-302c passim / Repre- 
sentative Government, 336b-c; 350c; 377d- 
378a 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of History, INTRO, 178a-c; 
PART i, 209b; 258b 

47 GOETHE: Faust, DEDICATION la-b; PART n 
[n.573-586] 281b-282a; [11,612-622] 282b- 
283a 

49 DARWIN: Descent of Man, 302b; 577c-d 



CHAFER 10: CHANGE 213 

51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK v, 221b-d; BK vi, 
238c-243d passim; 267c; BK vn, 275a-276b; 
294a-b; BK vm, 305b d; 307d-309c; BK ix, 
356b-d; BK x, 394 d; 403a-405a; BK xir, 538a- 
539c; 5S6d-557a; BK xv, 639c; EPILOGUE i, 
645a-646c; 668a-669c 

53 JAMES: Psychology, 524a-525a; 707b-708a 

54 FREUD: Beyond the Pleasure Principle, 651b-d 



13. The problem of the eternity of motion or 
change 

7 PLATO: Phaedrus, 124b-c / Timaeus, 450c- 
451a; 460c-d 

8 ARISTOTLE : Physics, BK iv, CH 13 [222*29~ b 8] 
302 b; BK vin, CH 1-4 334a-340d; CH 8 348b- 
352a / Heavens, BK i, CH 2 [269 b 2-io] 360c-d; 
CH 3 [27o b i-24] 361c-362a; BK i, CH 9 [279*12]- 
BK ii, CH i [284^] 370b-376a; BK n, CH 6 
379c-380c / Generation and Corruption, BK n, 
CH 10-11 437d-441a,c / Meteorology, BK i, CH 
14 [352*16-353*27] 458b-459a,c passim; BK n, 
CH 3 [356^-357*4] 462b-c / Metaphysics, BK 
ix, CH 8 [1050^0-28] 576c-d; BK xn, CH 6 
[io7i b 3]-CH 7 [1072*22] 601b-602b; CH 7 
[1073*2-34] 603a c 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK i [951-1051] 
12d-14a csp [988-1007] 13b; BK n [80-141] 
16a-d; [294-302] 18d; [569-580] 22b 

12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK v, SECT 13 271b; 
SECT 23 272b; BK vi, SECT 15 275a-b; BK ix, 
SECT 28 293d-294a; BK xi, SECT 27 306b 

16 PTOLEMY: Almagest, BK xin, 429a-b 

16 KEPLER: Epitome, BK iv, 888b 891a 

17 PLOTINUS: Third Ennead, TR vn, CH 7-8 122d- 
124c; CH 11-13 126a-129a / Fourth Ennead, 
TR iv, CH 7-8 161d-162d 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK xi, par 10-17 
91d-93c; BK xn, par 8-9 lOla-c; par 12-16 
101d-103a; par 29 105d-106a; par 33 107b-c; 
par 39-40 109a-110a / City of God, BK xi, 
CH 4-6 324a-325d; BK xn, CH 10-20 348b- 
357a 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 10, 
A 2, REP 2 41d-42c; A 4, ANS 43b-44b; Q 14, 
A 12, ANS 85d-86d; Q 46, AA 1-2 250a-255a; 
Q 75, A i, REP i 378b-379c 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART in SUPPL, 
Q 77, A 2, ANS 945a-946b; Q 91, A 2 101 7c- 
1020c 

28 GILBERT: Loadstone, BK n, 56b-c 
28 GALILEO: Two New Sciences, THIRD DAY, 
224d 

30 BACON: Novum Organum, BK n, APH 35, 
163a; APH 48, 186b-c 

31 DESCARTES: Rules, xin, 27b-c 

34 NEWTON: Prmc iples, LAW 1 14a; BK HI, PROP xo 
284a-285a / Optics, BK in, 540a-541b 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK 11, CH xiv, 
SECT 26 160c-d 

42 KANT: Pure Reason, 135a-137a,c; 152a-d; 

160b-161d 
53 JAMES: Psychology, 882a 



214 



THE GREAT IDEAS 



14*? 15* 



14. The theory of the prime mover: the order 
and hierarchy of movers and moved 

7 PLATO: Phaedrus, 124b-c / Statesman, 587a- 
589c / Laws, BK x, 758d-765c 

8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK vn, CH i-2326a-329a; 
BK vui 334a-355d / Heavens, BK HI, CH 2 
[30o b 8-3oi*i2] 391d~392c / Generation and 
Corruption, BK i, CH 7 421d-423b; BK 11, CH 6 
[334*6-9] 435a / Metaphysics, BK iv, CH 8 
[ioi2 b 22-32] 532d; BK v, CH ri [ioi8 b i9~22] 
539c-d; BK ix, CH 8 [i049 b i7~28] 575b-c; 
[io5o*3- b 6] 575d-576b; BK XH, CH 4 [io7o b 22- 
35] 600b; CH 5 [1071*30-36] 601a; CH 6-8 
601b-605a 

9 ARISTOTLE: Motion of Animals, CH i [698*10- 
15] 233a; CH 3-6 234a-236b 

12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK i, CH 14, 120d- 

121a 
16 PTOLEMY: Almagest, BK i, 5a-b 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 2, 
A 3, ANS 12c-14a; Q 3, A i, ANS 14b-15b; Q 9, 
A i, REP i 38c-39c; Q 19, A i, REP 3 108d-109c; 
Q 25, A 2, REP 3 144c-145b; Q 46, A i, REP 5 
250a-252d; Q 51, A 3, REP 3 277a-278c; Q 60, 
A i, REP 2 310b-311a; Q 75, A i, REP i 378b- 
379c; QQ io5-ii9538d-608d passim; PART i-n, 
Q i, A 4, ANS 612a-613a; A 6, ANS 614a-c; Q 6, 
A i, REP 3 644d-646a 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 
109, A i, ANS 338b-339c; PART in SUPPL, Q 91, 

A I,REP2l016b-1017c 

21 D\NTE: Divine Comedy, PARADISE, i [103-142] 
107b-d; xin [52-84] 126a-b; xxvn [106-120] 
148b-c; xxvin [1-78] 148d-149c 

23 HoBBLs: leviathan, PART i, 79d-80a 

28 GILBERT: Loadstone, BK vi, 107c-110d 

28 HARVEY: On Animal Generation, 415b-417a 

esp 416b-c; 426a-429b; 443a-c; 490d-493a esp 

492b-c 

32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK v [469-505] 185b- 
186a 

33 PASCAL: Pensfes, 77 186a 

42 KANT: Pure Reason, 140b,d-145c; 177b-179b; 
239a-240b / Practical Reason, 334b-337a,c / 
Judgement, 597d-599d; 610b-613a,c 

15. The immutable 

1 5a. The immutability of the objects of 
thought: the realm of truth 

OLD TESTAMENT: Psalms, 100:5; 117:2; 119:160; 

146:6 (D) Psalms, <)g\%; 116:2; 118:160; 145:7 

/ Proverbs, 8.22-30 
APOCRYPHA: Ecclesiasticus, 24:9 (D) OT, Eccle- 

siasticus, 24:14 
NEW TESTAMENT: II John, 2 
7 PLATO: Cratylus, 1130-1148,0 / Phaedrus, 125a- 

b / Symposium, 167b-d / P haedo, 231b-232b / 

Republic, BK v, 371a-373c / Timaeus, 447a-d; 

4S7b-458a / Parmenides, 487c-491a / Sophist, 



568a-b / Philebus, 634b-635b / Seventh Letter, 
809c-810d 

8 ARISTOTLE: Categories, CH 5 [4 a io- b i2] 8b-9a 
/ Posterior Analytics, BK i, CH 8 104a-b / Meta- 
physics, BK i, CH 6 505b<506b; CH 9 508c-511c; 
BK in, CH i [995 b i3-i8] S14a; [995 b 3 1-996*1] 
514b; [996V91 [99^ l *3- I 5l 514c c 2 
[997*34-99 8 *i9] 516a-d; CH 3 [998 b i4]-cH 4 
[999^4] 517b-518c; CH 4 [iooi*4)-cH 6 
[ioo2 b 3i] 519d-521d; BK vn, CH 8 [io33 b i9- 
1034*8] 556d-557b; CH 10 [1035^2-1036*12] 
559b-c; CH n [io36 b 32-io37*4] 560b-c; CH 
13-14 562a-563c; CH 15 [iO4o*8- b 4] 564a-c, CH 
16 [i040 b 28-i04i*4] 564d-565a; BK ix, CH 8 
[io5o b 35-io5i*2] 576d-577a; BK x, CH 10 
586c-d; BK xi, CH i [i059*33- b i4] 587b-c; 
BK xii, CH i [io69*30- b 2] 598b-c; CH 3 
[1070*4-30] 599b-d; BK xm, CH 1-5 607a- 
611d 

9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK i, CH 6 341b-342c 

11 NICOMACHUS. Arithmetic, BK i, 811b-d; 813d- 
814b 

17 PLOHNUS: Second Ennead, TR v, CH 3 58d-59c 
/ Third Ennead, TR ix 136a-138a,c / Fifth 
Ennead, TR vn, CH i 238a*b; TR ix, CH 5-13 
248a-251c 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK i, par 9, 3a; BK 
xi, par 9-11 91c-92b / Christian Doctrine, BK i, 
CH 8-10 626c-627b, BK n, CH 38 6S4b-c 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 5, 
A }, REP 4 25a-d; Q 10, A 3, REP 3 42c-43b; 
Q 16, AA 7-8 99a-100d; Q 44, A i, REP 5 
238b-239a; Q 84, \ i, ANS and REP 3 440d- 
442a; Q 85, A i, REP 2 451c-453c; Q 86, A 3 
463b-d; Q 113, A i, ANS 576a-d 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i-n, Q 53, 
A i, ANS and REP 2-3 19d-21a; Q 94, AA 5-6 
224d-226b 

30 BACON: Advancement of Learning, 27d-28c; 
43d-44c 

31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART iv, 52d-53a / 
Meditations, v 93a-96a / Objections and Re- 
plies, 123b; 216d-217d; 228a-c; 229c-d 

31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART i, DEF 8 35Sc; PROP 7 
356c; PROP 8, SCHOL 2 356d-357d; PROP 17, 
SCHOL 362c-363c; PART n, PROP 32 385c; PROP 
34 385d; PROP 37-39 386b-387a; PROP 40, 
DEMONST 387a; PROP 43-47 388c-391a 

32 MILTON: Areopagitica, 384a-b 

33 PASCAL: Vacuum, 358b 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH n, 
SECT 2 128a-b; BK HI, CH HI, SECT 19 259c- 
260a; CH vi, SECT 6 269d-270a; BK iv, CH i, 
SECT 9 308c-309b; CH HI, SECT 31 323c-d; 
CH xi, SECT 14 3S8b-c 

42 KANT: Judgement, 551a-553c 

46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, ADDITIONS, i, 
115a / Philosophy of History, INTRO, 156d- 
157b 

47 GOETHE: Faust, PRELUDE [73-74! 3a 

50 MARX-NOELS: Communist Manifesto, 428b-d 



I5b to I5c 



CHAPTER 10: CHANGE 



215 



53 JAMES: Psychology, 299a-304b csp 301a, 302a- 
304 b; 869a; 879b-882a 

1 5b. The uaalterability of the decrees of fate 

4 HOMER: Iliad, BK xvm [52-126] 130c-131c; 
BK xxn [131-223] 156c-157c 

5 AESCHYLUS: Prometheus Bound [507-525] 45a- 
b / Agamemnon [1018-1033] 63a 

5 EURIPIDES: Heracles Mad [1313-1353] 376c-d 
/ Iphigenia Among the Tauri [1435-1499] 
424a-d 

6 HERODOTUS: History, BK i, 6c-10a; 20b-22a; 
BK n, 77a-b 

12 LUCRETIUS: Nature of Things, BK n [251-293] 

18b-d 
12 EPICTETUS: Discourses, BK i, CH 12 118d-120b; 

BK n, CH 8 146a-147c 

12 AURELIUS: Meditations, BK HI, SECT n 262a- 
b; BK x, SECT 5 296d 

13 VIRGIL: Aeneid, BK x [606-632] 318b-319b 

14 PLUTARCH: Caesar, 601c-604d 

18 AUGUSTINE: City of God, BK v, CH i-io 207d- 
216c 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 116, 
A 3 594c-595a 

22 CHAUCER: Troilus and Cressida, BKIV, STANZA 

136-154 106a-108b 
32 MILTON: Arcades [54-83] 26b-27a / Paradise 

Lost, BK vn [170-173] 220b-221a 
51 TOLSTOY: War and Peace, BK ix, 342a-344b; 

EPILOGUE i, 645a-650c; EPILOGUE n, 675a-c 

1 5c. The immutability of God 

OLD TESTAMENT: Exodus, 15:18 / Deuteron- 
omy, 32:39-40 / 7 Chronicles, 16:34-36 (D) 
I Parahpomenon, 16:34-36 / Psalms, 9:5-8; 
10:16; 29.10-11; 33:10-11; 45.6; 48 esp 48 8, 
48:14; 66:7; 89-90 esp 89:30-35, 90:1-4; 93:2; 
102 esp 102:11-12, 102*26-27; 103:17-18; 136; 
145-146 esp 145:13, 146:10 (D) Psalms, 9:6- 
9; 9.16; 28:10; 32:10-11; 44.7; 47 esp 47:9, 
47:15; 65:7; 88-89 es P 88*31-36, 89:1-4; 92-2; 
101 esp 101:12-13, 101:27-28; 102:17-18; 135; 
144-145 esp 144:13, 145:10 / Ecclesiastes, 3:14- 
15 / Isaiah, 40:8,28; 43:10-13; 57:15 (D) 
Isaias, 40:8,28; 43:10-13; 57:15 / Jeremiah, 
10:10 (D) Jeremias, 10:10 / Lamentations, 
5:19 / Daniel, 6:25-27 / Malachi, 3:6 (D) 
Malachias, 3*6 

APOCRYPHA: Eccksiasticus, 36:17; 39:20; 42:21 
(D) OT, Eccksiasticus, 36:18-19; 39:25542:21- 
22 

NEW TESTAMENT: Matthew, 24:35 /John, 1:1-5 / 
Romans, 1:21-25; 6.23 / Colossians, 1:16-17 / 
/ Timothy, 1:17 / Hebrews, 1:10-12; 7:23-28; 
13:7-8 /James, 1:17 / I John, 5:11-12 / Revela- 
tion, 1:17-18; 10 :6; 11:15-18 (D) Apocalypse, 
1:17-18; 10:6; 11:15-18 
5 SOPHOCLES: Oedipus at Colonus [607-615] 120a 

7 PLATO: Republic, BK n, 322d-323c; 324a-b 



8 ARISTOTLE: Physics, BK vm, CH 6 [258 b io- 
2 59 b 3 I l 344b-345d / Heavens, BK i, CH 9 
[279*23- b 4J 370c-d; BK n, CH 3 [286*8-13] 377c 
/ Generation and Corruption, BK n, CH 10 
[337*15-23] 439a-b / Metaphysics, BK v, CH 5 
[ioi5 b 9-i6] 536a; BK XH, CH 6-7 601b-603b; 
CH 9 605a-d 

9 ARISTOTLE: Ethics, BK vn, CH 14 [ii54 b 20- 
3o]406c 

15 TACITUS: Histories, BK v, 296a 

17 PLOTINUS: Third Ennead, TR vn, CH r-6 119b- 
122d / Sixth Ennead, TR vm, CH 18-^-21 351d- 
353d 

18 AUGUSTINE: Confessions, BK i, par 10 3b-c; 
BK iv, par 26 25c-d; par 29 26b; BK vn, par 
1-6 43b-45a; par 17-18 49a-b; par 23 50b-c; 
par 26, 51c; BK xn, par n lOld; par 18 103a-c; 
BK xin, par 44 122d / City of God, BK vn, CH 
30 261b-d; BK vm, CH n, 272c; BK x, CH i, 
298b,d; BK xi, CH 10 327d-328d; CH 21-22 
333a-334c; BK xn, CH 1-3 342b,d-344b; CH 14 
350d-351b; CH 17 353a-354a / Christian Doc- 
trine, BK i, CH 5 625d-626a; CH 8 626c-627a; 
CH 10 627b; CH 22-23 629b-630c 

19 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART i, Q 2, 
A 3, ANS 12c-14a; Q 3, A i, ANS and REP 4 14b- 
15b; QQ 9-10 38c-46d; Q 14, A 7 81d-82b; A 15 
89b-90b; Q 18, A 3 106b-107c; Q 19, A 7 114d- 
115d; Q 26, A i, REP 2 150b-c; Q 43, A 2, REP 2 
230d-231c; Q 51, A 3, REP 3 277a-278c 

20 AQUINAS: Summa Theologica, PART I-H, Q 61, 
A 5, ANS 58b-59d; PART in, Q i, A i, REP 3 
701d-703a; Q 2, A i, ANS 710a-711c 

21 DANTE: Divine Comedy, PARADISE, xnr [52- 
84] 126a-b; xxiv [130-141] 144a; xxvni [1-78] 
148d-149c; xxix [13-36] 150b-c 

22 CHAUCER: Knight's Tale [2994-3015] 209a-b 

23 HOBBES: Leviathan, PART HI, 173a 
25 MONTAIGNE: Essays, 292d-294b 

31 DESCARTES: Discourse, PART iv, 52b-d / 
Meditations, in, 86a-87a; v 93a-96a esp 93d- 
95b / Objections and Replies, 228a-c; 229c-d 

31 SPINOZA: Ethics, PART i 355a-372d esp DEF i 
355a, DEF 3,6-7 355b, PROP 3 356a, PROP 5-8 
356b-357d, PROP 11-15 358b-361d, PROP 17 
362b-363c, PROP 19-20 363c-364a, PROP 33, 
SCHOL i 367c-d, PROP 34 369a; PART v, PROP 
17 456c-d 

32 MILTON: Paradise Lost, BK HI [372-389] 143b- 
144a 

33 PASCAL: Penstes, 469 256a 

34 NEWTON: Principles, BK in, GENERAL SCHOL, 
370a-371a 

35 LOCKE: Human Understanding, BK n, CH xvn, 
SECT 20 172d-173c; CH xxm, SECT 21 209c 

35 BERKELEY: Human Knowledge, SECT 117 436a 
42 KANT: Pure Reason, 175d-176c; 177b-179b; 

190c; 192d; 201b-c / Practical Reason, 352a-b 
46 HEGEL: Philosophy of Right, PART in, par 270, 

85c / Philosophy of History, PART in, 306a 



216 THE GREAT IDEAS 

CROSS-REFERENCES 

For: The broad philosophical context of the theory of change, see BEING 5; DESIRE i ; FORM i-ib; 
MATTER i-ib, 20. 

The distinction between the mutable and the immutable, #v ASTRONOMY 8a; BEING 7b(3); 
ELEMENT 53; ETERNITY 4~4d; FORM la; TRUTH 5. 

The issue concerning time and eternity in relation to change, see ASTRONOMY 8c(i); ETER- 
NITY i ; TIME 2, 2b; WORLD 43. 
' A discussion relevant to the theory of the prime mover, see ANGEL 2a. 

The mathematical and experimental approach to the study of local motion and the formula- 
tion of its laws, see ASTRONOMY 8c-8c(3); MFCHANICS 5-5^2), 6c-6e; ONE AND MANY 
33(2); QUANTITY 5c; SPACE 2a. 

The discussion of biological and psychological change, see ANIMAL 43, 60-7, 8b; CAUSE 2; 
DESIRE 2c-2d; EDUCATION 4, 5c, 6; EMOTION ib, 2b; HABIT 4b; REASONING ib; TIME 7; 

VlRTUL AND VlCE 40-4^ 

Other discussions of the distinction between generation and other kinds of change, see ART 
2a; FORM id(2); WORLD 4e(i); and for the problem of the transmutation of the elements, 
see ELEMENT }c. 

The theory of historical change in nature and society, see EVOLUTION 4d, 6a, 7c; HISTORY 
4b; PROGRESS la, ic-2; TIME 8a. 

The consideration of economic, political, and cultural change, see CONSTITUTION 7-73, 
8-8b; PROGRESS 3-4^ 6-6b; REVOLUTION 2-2C, 4-4^ WEALTH 12. 

The discussion of change or becoming as an object of knowledge, see BEING 8a-8b; KNOWL- 
EDGE 6a(i); OPINION i. 

Other considerations of man's attitude toward change and mutability, see CUSTOM AND 
CONVENTION 8; PROGRESS 5; TIME 7. 



ADDITIONAL READINGS 

Listed below are works not included in Great Boofe of the Western World, but relevant to the 
idea and topics with which this chapter deals. These works aie divided into two groups: 

I. Works bv authors represented in this collection. 
II. Works by authors not represented in this collection. 

For the date, place, and other facts concerning the publication of the works cited, consult 
the Bibliography of Additional Readings which follows the last chapter of The Great Ideas. 

I. II. 

AQUINAS. De Principiis Naturae SEXTUS EMPIRICUS. Against the Physicists, BK n, 

DESCARTES. The Principles of Philosophy, PART 11, CH 2, 5 

24-53 . Outlines of Pyrrhonism, BK in, CH 1-20 

HOBBES. Concerning Body, PART in, CH 15-16, 21-22 CRESCAS. Or Adonai, PROPOSITIONS 4-9, 13-14, 

BERKELEY. Siris 17, 25 

KANT. Metaphysical Foundations of Natural SUAREZ. Disputationes Metaphysicae, xvm (n), 

Science xxx (8-9), LX (8), XLVI (3), XLVIII-L 

HEGEL. The Phenomenology of Mind, in JOHN OF SAINT THOMAS. Cursus Philosophicus Tho- 

. Science of Logic, VOL i, BK i, SECT i, CH i(c) misttcus, Philosophia Naturalis, PART i, QQ 14, 19, 

. Logic, CH 7 22-24, PART ni QQ I ~ 2 10-12 

W. IAMBS. Some Problems of Philosophy \ CH 9-10, LEIBNITZ. Discourse on Metaphysics, xv-xxn 

12 . Monadology, par 10-18 



CHAPTER 10: CHANGE 



217 



VOLTAIRE. "Motion," in A Philosophical Dictionary 
SCHOPENHAUER. The World as Will and Idea 
WHEWELL. The Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences, 

VOL i, BK ii, CH 13 
HELMHOLTZ. Popular Lectures on Scientific Subjects, 

VII 

MAXWELL. Matter and Motion 

CLIFFORD. The Common Sense of the Exact Sciences, 

CH 5 

LOTZE. Metaphysics, BK i, CH 4-5 ; BK n, CH 4 
BRADLEY. Appearance and Reality, BK i, CH 5 
CROCE. History, Its Theory and Practice 
BERGSON. Creative Evolution 
. The Creative Mind, CH 5 



G. N. LEWIS. The Anatomy of Science, ESSAY m-iv 
HEIDEGGER. Sftn und Zcit 
B. RUSSELL. Principles of Mathematics, CH 54, 
56-59 

. The Analysis of Matter, CH 27, 33-34 

EDDINGTON. The Nature of the Physical World, 

CH 5 

DEWEV. Experience and Nature, CH 2 

. The Quest for Certainty, CH 2 

WHITEHEAD. The Concept of Nature, CH 5 

. Process and Reality, PART n, CH 10 

SANTA Y AN \. Scepticism and Animal Faith, CH 5 

. The Realm of Matter, CH 5-6 

RIEZLER. Physics and Reality 



Chapters: CITIZEN 



INTRODUCTION 



," like "comrade," has been and 
/ still is a revolutionary word. Both words 
have been titles proudly adopted by men to 
mark their liberation from the yoke of despo- 
tism or tyranny. Both titles are still sought