(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The great revolution; a history of the rise and progress of the People's Party in the city of Chicago and county of Cook"

\ 



THE 



Great Revolution, 



A HISTOUY OF THB 



i^ige anti ^togresg of tf)e people's Wartp 



IN THE CITY OP 



Chicago and County of Cook, 



WITH 



SKETCHES OF THE ELECT IN OFFICE. 



By M. L. 'V:H"£RN. 



CHICAGO : 
Lakeside Publishing and Printing Company 

1874. 



THE NEW YORK 

PUBLIC LIBKARYI 

201129 

ASTdR'.kfcNOX /ND 
TIWDEN FOUNDATIONS. 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1874, by 

M. L. AHERN, 

In the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 









TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PART I. 

HISTORY OF THE PEOPLE'S PARTY. 

PAGE. 

The People's Party, - - - - - 17 

Medill — Washburn — Sheridan, - - - - 27 

Counting the Money, . _ . . - 45 

How It Was Done, ------ 65 

How the Opposition Worked, . _ - - 104 

The Official Returns, ----- 108 

The Sunday Question, - - - - - m 

Gage Not Guilty of Perjury, - - - - 115 



PART II.— CITY OFFICERS. 

Harvey D. Colvin, Mayor, - - - - - 119 

Daniel O'Hara, City Treasurer, . - . . 123 

Jesse O. Norton, Corporation Counsel, - - - 126 
S. S. Hayes, Comptroller, ----- 129 

Egbert Jamieson, City Attorney, - - - -* 131 

J. K. C. Forrest, City Clerk, - - - - - i34 



8 TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

POLICE AND FIRE COMMISSIONERS. 

PAGE 

Mark Sheridan, - - - - - -139 

E. F. C. Klokke, - - _ . . - 142 

C. A. Reno, - - - - - - - 144 

James Avars, Jr., - - - - - - 145 

Secretary Ward, ------ 146 

POLICE SUPERINTENDENT AND CAPTAINS. 

Jacob Rehm, - - - . . _ - 149 

William Buckley, - - - - - ■- 151 

Michael C. Hickey, . . - - _ - - 152 

Frederick Gund, - - - -- - 154 

FIRE MARSHALS. 

Matthias Benner, - - - - - -157 

Denis J. Swenie, - - -- - - 159 

Charles S. Petrie, - - - - --161 

William Musham, - - - - - - 162 

Maurice W. Shay, ■* -.. - - 163 

Leo Meyers, - - - - - - - 164 

BOARD OF PUBLIC WORKS. 

Redmond Prindiville, - - _ . . 169 

William H. Carter (out of office). - - 170 

J. K. Thompson, - - - - - - 171 

Louis Wahl, - - - - . - 172 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 9 
BOA RD OF HE A L TH. 

PAGE 

Dr. Hahn, - - - - - - - 177 

Charles E. Moore, - - - - - - ^78 

George Schlcetzer, - % - " ' " - ^79 

Ben. C. Miller, - - - - - - ^^^ 

Joseph McDermott, - - - - - - 181 

POLICE JUSTICES AND CLERK. 

Daniel Scully, - - - - - - ^^5 



H. A. Kaufmann, 



1S7 



Martin Scully, - - - - - - ^^^ 

COLLECTORS AND ASSESSORS. 

George Von Hollen, _ _ . - - 191 

P. M. Cleary, ------- 193 

Laurence O'Brien, ------ ^95 

John Murphy, ------- 196 

Charles Dennehy, ------ 198 

Edward Phillips, - - - - - - 200 

Albert Patch, ------ 201 

A. L. Amberg, - - - - - ■ - 202 

i 

common council. 

William H. Richardson, ----- 205 

Thomas Foley, - - - - - - - 206 

Francis \V. Warren, - . - - 208 

Arthur Dixon, ------- 209 



lO 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



David Coey, - 
William Fitzgerald, 
Jesse Spalding, 
A. H. Pickering, 
R. B. Stone, - 
Ald. Schmitz, 
Phillip Reidy, 
Patrick McClory, 
E/F. Cullerton, 
M. B. Bailey, 
J. H. Hildreth, 
James O'Brien, 
T. F. Bailey, 
D. W. Clark, Jr., 
C. L. Woodman, 
Patrick Kehoe, - 
George E. White, 
Amos F. Miner, - 
Monroe Heath, 
Avery Moore, 
J. L. Campbell, 
Bartholomew Quirk, 
Silas E. Cleveland, 
Nicholas Eckhardt, 
J. J. McGrath, 
Peter Mahr, 
Thomas W. Stout, 
Louis Schaffner, 



PAGE 

2IO 
211 
212 
213 
214 

215 

216 

217 

218 

219 

220 

223 

224 

225 

226 

228 

229 

230 

231 

233 

234 

235 
236 

237 

238 

239 
240 

241 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



II 



Jacob Lengacher, 
Thomas Cannon, 
David Murphy, 
Michael Brand, - 
Thomas Lynch, 
John T. Corcoran, 
Julius Jonas, 



PAGE 
242 

244 

246 

249 



PART III. 



COUNTY OFFICERS. 

H. B. Miller, County Treasurer, 
Hermann Lieb, County Clerk, 
M. R. M. Wallace, Judge County Court, 
James Stewart, Recorder, . . . 

Austin J. Doyle, Clerk Criminal Court, 
John Stephens, Coroner, 



253 

255 
257 
258 

259 
260 



MISCELLA NEOUS. 

P. O'Brien, Supervisor, 

Miles Kehoe, City Weigher, 

Julius Rodbertus, Assistant Assessor, 



263 
264 
26^ 



COMMON COUNCIL STANDING 
COMMITTEES. 



The following is the disposition of standing committees 
in the Common Council for 1873-4, as appointed, under the 
Mayor's bill, by Mayor Colvin :* 

Finance. — McGrath, Spalding, Lynch, Schaffner, Heath. 

Railroads, — Lengacher, Richardson, McGrath, Stout, 
Woodman. 

Judiciary. — Richardson, Cannon, White, Cullerton, 
Campbell, 

Fire and Water. — Corcoran, Mahr, Foley, Woodman, 
Stone. 

Schools. — Moore, Reidy, Eckhardt, Lynch, Cleveland. 

Streets and Alleys, S. D. — Schmitz, Stone, Coey 
Foley, Spalding, Dixon. 

Streets and Alleys, W. D. — McClory, Hildreth, Ke- 
hoe, Woodman, Miner, O'Brien, Campbfell, Cleveland, Eck- 
hardt. 

Streets and Alleys, N. D. — Lynch, Cannon, Corcoran, 
Lengacher, Stout. 

Wharves and Public Grounds. — Cannon, Schmitz, 
Moore, Jonas, Bailey of the Ninth. 

* Under this bill, Mayor Colvin presided over the Council. At the expiration of 
the measure, Aid. Dixon succeeded to the position. 



14 COMMON COUNCIL STANDING COMMITTEES. 

Wharfing Privileges. — Kehoe, Cleveland, O'Brien, 
Warren, Clark. 

Local Assessments. — Fitzgerald, Moore, Reidy, Hil- 
dreth, Murphy. 

Bridewell. — White, Heath, Bailey of the Ninth, Spal- 
ding, Jonas. 

Licenses. — Brandt, Bailey of the Ninth, Mahr, Reidy, 
Corcoran. 

Police. — Schaffner, Richardson, Murphy, Cullerton, 
Mahr. 

Gaslights. — Cullerton, Jonas, Pickering, Schaffner, 
Miner, 

Harbor and Bridges. — Hildreth, Coey, Sidwell, Len- 
gacher, Bailey of the Ninth. 

Printing. — Foley, Fitzgerald, McGrath, Murphy, Bailey 
of the Eighth. 

Markets. — Stout, O'Brien, Warren, Quirk, Sidwell. 

Public Buildings. — Bailey of the Eighth, Schmitz, Coey, 
Heath, Brandt. 

County Relations. — Pickering, Hildreth, Dixon, Brand, 
Bailey of the Ninth. 



PART I. 



History of the People's Party. 



THE PEOPLE'S PARTY. 



The People's Party was built after a very peculiar fashion. 
The plans and specifications of the doughty structure 
were prepared by a party of religious adventurers, known 
as "The Committee of Seventy" — an organization of gen- 
tlemen constructed in the interest of temperance, immedi- 
ately after the passage of the State Liquor Law. Mr. 
Joseph Medill filled the important duties of contractor; 
and Mr. Elmer Washburn — whose acquaintance with dur- 
able stone work was never questioned — acted as sub-con- 
tractor. Before the building was completed, it is true 
Mr. Medill departed for Europe; and when it was com- 
pleted, it is a well-known fact that Mr. Washburn sud- 
denly and mysteriously disappeared ; leaving behind 
Messrs. A. C. Hesing, Daniel O'Hara, H. D. Colvin, and 
others — who were merely assistants — to enjoy the fruits 
of their labor. These facts to the contrary notwith- 
standing, the People's Party is an edifice nobody need 
feel ashamed of. 

Messrs. Hesing, O'Hara and Company have decided 
that the structure will be far more substantial tlian 
its predecessor No pains will be spared to make it 

2 



l8 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

what it should be. Among other improvements, it is 
said, Mr. O'Hara has brought into requisition an in- 
genious device — for these days — whereby the People's 
money will be perfectly secure, and can be counted at any 
moment without extraordinary public excitement. 



Two errors by the Medillian administration, it may be. 
said, are chiefly responsible for what is known as the Peo- 
ple's Party. This organization, it will be allowed, to-day 
holds the balance of power in the great city of Chicago. 
How those two errors occurred is best known to the ad- 
ministration during whose reign they were committed. 

One error was the importation from Joliet, 111., of a Super- 
intendent of Police for Chicago. The other error was the 
attempt to enforce an oppressive liquor ordinance, sug- 
gested by a party of men calling themselves "The Com- 
mittee of Seventy." There was another error, about which 
the daily press has spoken considerably. The Tribune^ of 
December 15, 1873, referring thereto, said: 

" The disclosures published elsewhere regarding the defal- 
cation of the City Treasurer, Mr. David A. Gage, amply 
justify all the charges brought against him by his opponents 
in the recent city election. They also justify a change in 
the city government. Having supported Mr. Gage in good 
faith, and having disbelieved the charges preferred against 
him until a few days ago, when we learned the real facts 
from one of the bondsmen, we are now free to acknowledge 
that the People's Party were right from the beginning, so far 
.as they made their demand that the city money be counted. 



THE people's party. 



19 



Mr. Gage is a defaulter. A manful acceptance of all the 
consequences of his acts is the best way out of his present 
difficulties. We believe that he has sufficient property to 
pay everything he owes to the city in time. Certainly that, 
added to the security of his official bond, is sufficient. 
Meanwhile, he has placed the City Government in grave 
embarrassments." * * * * 

For the benefit of the reader, it may be stated that the 
Chicago Tribune was an Opposition paper, and the David 
A. Gage, of whom it speaks, City Treasurer, under the Me- 
dillian administration. Full particulars regarding Mr. Gage's 
misfortune will be found, hereafter, under the head, "Count- 
ing the Money." 

As regards Error No. i : The gentleman imported from 
Joliet was known as Elmer Washburn. At whose instance 
the Mayor, acting under the Mayor's Bill (passed for the 
benefit of cities exceeding 10,000 inhabitants), came to be 
convinced that there was not a solitary man in Chicago, fit 
to be the Superintendent of Police of the city in which he 
lived ; that in fact he must needs go to Joliet after him, is 
beyond ordinary comprehension. Certain it is that Mr. 
Washburn, when he made that trip from Joliet to Chicago, 
was an ill-fated passenger. From the moment he made his 
first appearance in the habiliments of his office, it was pain- 
fully evident that Mr. Washburn, while apparently a very 
fine gentleman, had mistaken his vocation. He did not 
seem to comprehend the duty of Superintendent of Police 
from the outset, in but very rare instances. Whether he 
was acting under impulse or instruction, his orders touch- 



20 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

ing police duty form the strangest record this generation 
has ever witnessed in this particular line. His order for 
twelve hours successive service by the patrolmen, among 
other fatal mistakes, made him very unpopular among his 
men; and his disposition of the force regarding the detec- 
tion of liquor-sellers on Sunday, while unwary travelers were 
being sand-bagged with impunity, made him the target of 
most extensive abuse. At the approach of the fall elect- 
ions, the following, in regard to Mr. Washburn, appeared in 
a leading journal : 

" The leaders of the Republican party in this city have 
just awakened to the fact — long ago apparent to the blind- 
est — that the association of moral ideas is not as strong as 
it formerly was in this city. They look profound astonish- 
ment when they get on that subject, and remark, 'We have 

been losing votes,' and vainly inquire 'Where is the leak.^" ' 
* % % * * 

At last, they think they have found it. It is Superintendent 
Washburn." * * * * 

The Times, of Wednesday, October 22, 1873, under the, 
head of " How He Does It," contained the following : 

" If anybody anywhere knows of anything that has not 
been done — outside of his duty — by a Chicago police- 
man, and will kindly inform Mr. Washburn what that par- 
ticular thing is, he will detail some of his force to do it at 
once. In this category of things done should be included 
everything except the suppression of crime. This, however, 
is a department of effort in which our excellent chief has 
no ambition. What he is evidently attempting to do, and 



THE PEOPLES PARIV. 2 1 

which he has attained a most astonishing success in doing, 
is doing every possible thing except his duty. So marked 
is this line of action on the part of our chief, that it leads 
the Twics to make a suggestion which, it believes, will be 
greatly to the benefit of the city, by enabling Chicago to 
avail itself of the services of a very excellent man. This 
suggestion is that, in order to have our police business thor- 
oughly attended to, Mr. Washburn should be made comp- 
troller of the currency, or elected as a Trustee in Hyde 
Park. Once in either of these positions, or any similar 
one, Mr. Washburn would at once give his whole attention 
to the police work of Chicago, from the idiosyncracy in his 
nature to do with great vigor that which he is not expected 
to do, and which is entirely outside of his official position. 
It is true that as such Comptroller, he would pay no atten- 
tion to the currency, or, if a Trustee of Hyde Park, he would 
not have the slightest interest in the doings of that domin- 
ion. As a Trustee of Hvde Park, he would esteem it his 
especial duty to put down houses of ill-fame, and bunko- 
players, just as now; while Chief of the Chicago police, he 
feels it to be his duty to regulate affairs over in the State of 
Indiana. As Comptroller of the currency, he would at once 
institute measures against the ten thousand and odd crimi- 
nals of Chicago, just as now; while Superintendent of our 
police, he employs himself as a boss-tailor by inventing a 
new roll for the lappel of a coat, or adds an inch to its tails. 
It is quite certain that it is only by some such ruse, as this 
that the public will ever succeed in getting Mr. Washburn to 
attend to properly policing the Garden City. Meanwhile, 



2 2 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

until something is accomplished, as above suggested, the 
people will watch with interest the vagaries of the erratic 
Superintendent. When he has arranged affairs in Indiana 
to suit his ideas, he will probably look into things in Iowa 
and Kansas. We may also venture to hint to him that the 
currency act needs tinkering, and which being altogether 
out of his line, he will be proportionately anxious to take 
hold of it. This attended to, the spots on the sun might be 
looked into, and then he might apply himself to discovering 
a wash that would take the stripes out of a zebra. Of 
course, there is no reason why the stripes should be taken 
out of a zebra, which assurance, it is certain, will awaken 
all Mr. Washburn's ambition to take them out at once. 
Meanwhile, the thieves, bunko-players, and the rest of the 
guild, will have to have their own way until such a time as 
Mr. Washburn's successor shall be appointed." 

The following touching farewell notice, given to the mys- 
teriously disappearing Superintendent by a leading journal, 
will convey an idea of the popularity of his regime : 

" Elmer Washburn will leave Chicago in about the same 
manner that he came, with this exception : Many regretted 
his coming, and but few will sigh at his departure. Those 
who have entertained the idea that he contemplated resist- 
ing the power of the Mayor's bill, or that he would remain 
in Chicago after his head was chopped off, would undoubtedly 
be convinced of their error should they visit his late res- 
idence, No. 97 Twenty- Second street. The card, " For 
Rent," is on the door, and not a sign of Elmer, or any mem- 
ber of his household, can be perceived by the closest scru- 



THE PEOPLES PARTY. 23 

tiny. In a somewhat mysterious manner, his goods and 
chattels were carted to the Twenty - Second street depot, 
where they were deposited in a freight car, of either the 
Illinois or Michigan Central Railroad, and are, before this 
time, far away. As a master-stroke of economy, the Super- 
intendent detailed one of the patrolmen from the Second 
Precinct station, to assist in the removal of his goods. On 
yesterday, rag-pickers were poking about the yard, No. 97 ; 
but they found nothing. Our Superintendent is a careful 
man, and permits nothing to go to waste. Where he will go 
when he delivers up his star of authority, no mortal knows, 
but there is a good army whose prayers, could they be of 
avail, would certainly place one or two oceans between 
Elmer and Chicago." 

As regards error No. 2 : In the fog succeeding the Great 
Fire, the organization known as a Committee of Seventy 
sprung into an active existence. Contemporaneously, a 
Committee of Safety was working energetically, whose 
creation was suggested as a matter of vigilance regard- 
ing the frequent commission of crime in those days. 
Those Committees should not be confounded. Among 
the members of said organization of Seventy were, on 
the outset, and for some time in fact, several very worthy 
gentlemen. It was a prominent attraction for a time. It 
then retired from tlie public gaze. After an interval, how- 
ever, what was left of it besought the Mayor to enforce the 
liquor ordinance, the most objectionable features of which 
come under the head of " Misdemeanors," in the records of 
the Common Council. To the prayer of the petitioners, 



24 THE GREAT REVOLUTION 

Mayor Medill finally acceded, and issued an order for the 
enforcement of the Sunday ordinance. The measure of 
Germ an- American indignation, at this juncture, was full to 
over-flowing. A committee of this element of our popula- 
tion, appointed by a mass-meeting, called upon his Honor, 
the Mayor, and assured him that the law was too strin- 
gent ; but without avail. 

The opposition, while quite universal among the deal- 
ers — who considered the order most oppressive — was most 
spirited from this quarter, as the custom among the German 
people had become sacred to sit beneath the umbrage of 
some spreading arbor, of a Sunday, and sip in harmony the 
flowing nectar. It was a custom those people had trans- 
planted from the Fatherland. 

The movement was denounced by the German- Ameri- 
can element everywhere, as a blow aimed directly at 
their liberties guaranteed by the Constitution of the coun- 
try and the State ; in fact, they regarded it as an effort 
to enthrone detested Know - Nothingism in the midst of 
American citizens of foreign nativity. Indignation meet- 
ings followed in quick succession throughout the entire 
city. The commingling of the religious element with poli- 
tics was particularly nauseating, inasmuch as it even fore- 
shadowed to them the possible loss of freedom of con- 
science. 

The first shot fired was heard in the Seventeenth Ward. 
At this meeting, an invitation to co-operate was extended to 
all liberal elements of all parties and nationalities prone to 
combat an attempt to destroy personal liberty. A great 



THE people's party. 25 



German mass-meeting followed at Aurora Turner Hall, on 
Milwaukee Avenue. Mr. A. C. Hcsing, on this occasion, 
instructed his hearers that they must assure their fellow 
citizens that they were for good order every day, as they 
were. 

From this ])oint forward, the Liberal movement steadily 
advanced. At the meetings in the several wards, delegates 
were appointed upon whom the Union could implicitly rely. 
Those gentlemen met in Bismarck Hall, and appointed an 
Agitation Committee. This Committee prepared an Address, 
from which the following extracts are selected: "A govern- 
ment that rests on material force alone, and adopts coercive 
measures to compel the people to follow a certain line of 
conduct, must always be a tyranny, whatever form it as- 
sumes." "The question * * * * is that concerning the 
renewed attempts to enforce certain laws which, for some 
time, had been obsolete; and to lend assistance to their 
sanctioning power by additional legislation, and which, for 
the sake of brevity, is familiarly styled the Temperance and 
Sunday Laws." 

To the Address were appended resolutions pressing a 
thorough reform of the Civil Service; advocating economy; 
urging the establishment of more schools, with competent 
teachers, as a preventative of crime ; denouncing arrests 
where a summons would answer; placing police duty in its 
proper channel ; recognizing the right of the citizen to pass 
the Sunday in his own way, provided he did not interfere 
with the choice of any other person ; recommending tem- 
perance in all things, and a reasonable regulation of the 



26 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

liquor business, such as the appointment of inspectors, and 
the fining of dealers in impure stuffs ; and demanding that 
drunkards be held strictly accountable as well for their acts 
committed while drunk, as for committing the act of getting 
drunk. 

The principles embodied in the foregoing mainly consti- 
tuted the platform adopted at the great mass-meeting in 
Kingsbury Hall. Cemented by those principles, the great 
legion of foreign-born Americans, with a very fair sprinkling 
of native-born Americans, marched to an overwhelming 
triumph, under the banner of the People's Party, November 
4, 1873. 

The enforcement of the obnoxious Sunday ordinance 
came within the province of the Board of Police and Fire 
Commissioners ; as also did the manner in which Superin- 
tendent of Police Washburn would enforce said ordinance. 

Particulars concerning the same have been carefully taken * 
from the proceedings of the Board; all of which have been 
classified under the head, " Medill — Washburn — Sheri- 
dan," as those three gentlemen represented the two sides to 
this matter — in fact, it may be added, the two sides to 
various other matters. So many changes have taken place 
in the Board that the writer deemed fit to go as far back as 
the inauguration of the Fire-proof Ticket. Incidents illus- 
trative of Mr. Washburn's conduct, otherwise, are contained 
therein. 



MEDILL — WASHBURN — SHERIDAN. 



Mancel Talcott and Jacob Rehm joined Mr. Sheridan as 
Police Commissioners with the success of the Fire- proof 
Ticket. Talcott's entry was imposing. His brow was fur- 
rowed with great thoughts apparently, and his lips were set 
expressive of marvelous intention. The advance of Rehm 
was much less pretentious. He walked into the Board room 
like any ordinary individual, and took his seat beside Mr. 
Sheridan without the least suggestion of importance. Mr. 
Talcott was elected President of the Board at once. For 
some time, all was harmony. The Board of Police, con- 
trolling the two great arms of the city government, — the 
Police and Fire Departments, — became immediately the 
cynosure of the public eye. The necessity of a good Fire 
Department was uppermost in the public mind as a natural 
result of the experience of the great fire. The skeleton of 
« perished life and- property rose up before all citizens alike, 
and pointed to a future when the grim ordeal of October 9, 
1 87 1, might easily be repeated. It was the necessity of the 
hour, in accordance with the platform of the Fire-proof Party, 
that the Board should enforce with rigor every ordinance 



28 . THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

enacted by the Council for protection against fire. This the 
Board scrupulously did. 

In the spring of 1872, Mr. Rehm resigning, the Mayor 
appointed in his place Ernest F. C. Klokke. The Board 
was now composed of Messrs. Talcott, Sheridan and Klokke. 
About this juncture, the President of the Board, inflated, it 
would appear, by complimentary notices from the Press, fell 
into the error of supposing that Talcott constituted the 
Board of Police, and that his colleagues were merely spec- 
tators, as it were. He would fain be Dictator. Such action 
on the part of Mr. Talcott necessarily fastened upon him 
the eye of the Press. Hence he derived great titles : 
"Grand Sachem," " Papa Talcott," "Mr. Oldtalcott," and 
so-forth. His reign subsequently was one series of strange 
movements. When he withdrew from the Board, however, 
he brought with him the warmest personal friendship of his 
colleagues. 

Upon the inauguration of Mr. Klokke, the first matter of 
importance that arose was the removal by the Mayor of 
Superintendent of Police Kennedy. This occurred on 
July 29, 1872. On August 13", 1872, Elmer Washburn suc- 
ceeded. Mr. Washburn was not a resident of Chicago ; 
knew nothing of its ways, wicked or otherwise, it appears; 
could not point out the haunts of her evil-doers ; indeed, 
his only qualification to rule a police force was the result of 
his experience in Joliet State Penitentiary, attending to 
convicts. The moment Mr. Kennedy was removed, specu- 
lation became rife as to his successor. It was presumed 
that Mr. Medill, with his great good sense, would select, if 



MEDILL WASHBURN SHERIDAN. 2() 

not an officer from tlie police force, at least a man conver- 
sant with Chicago criminal life, and the way in which to 
deal therewith, Mr. Medill pursued exactly the different 
course, however, and proceeded to Joliet State Prison to 
find a man competent to act as Superintendent of Police of 
the great city of Chicago. This may be set down as the 
first grave mistake of the Medillian administration. The 
act, it cannot be disputed, caused general mortification 
among Mr. Medill's warmest friends. What policy actu- 
ated the Mayor in his action it is impossible to conceive. 
It was certainly a most discouraging affair to the police 
force thus made hopeless of deserved promotion ; and the 
marvel is that it did not totally demoralize them. The con- 
sequence hereof would be terrible, at the time, when crimi- 
nals were flocking in by scores from all parts of the country, 
and murders were being ; attempted and committed in al- 
most every district of the city. 

The necessities of the hour 'at this particular period of 
Chicago's history could not be overlooked. It appeared 
evident to our best citizens that all must act to protect 
themselves and their homes from concerted outrage at the 
hands of cut-throats. 

A meeting was held on September 12, 1S72, in the Cham- 
ber of Commerce, on Market street. The purpose of the 
convention was the repression of crime which, with the 
resurrection of the city, had assumed gigantic proportions. 
Henry Greenebaum presided. Three committees were 
appointed for the three divisions, and comj^rised twenty- 
five leading citizens, (^n September 30th, another meeting 



30 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

was held, called by the Committee of Seventy, then existing 
for some time, in the interest of temperance. Police Com- 
missioner Talcott was present, and stated that nine-tenths 
of the crime was induced by drunkenness, and advocated 
the enforcement of the law closing saloons on the Sabbath. 
To reach this result, a Committee of Fifteen was sent to 
Mayor Medill. 

This gentleman told the committee that the movement 
was rather impracticable ; the law could not be enforced. 
The Mayor's address on this occasion was substantially as 
follows : 

" After referring to the demand that the saloons be closed 
on Sunday, His Honor inquired if this meant that therein 
all drinking should be prevented, or that to outward appear- 
ances no liquor must be consumed therein. The demand 
clearly stated was this : that the Mayor is commanded to 
prevent the masses of the people of Chicago from drinking 
liquor on Sunday in places licensed to supply them on the 
other six days of the week. Could this be done with the 
insignificant police force ? It appeared to be thought that the 
saloons had been recently opened on that day, when, in fact, 
they had never ceased to furnish liquor on any Sunday since 
the incorporation of the city, more than thirty years ago. 
Efforts had been made by preceding Mayors to prevent the 
practice; but the most that was ever accomplished — and 
that for a short time only — was to force the keepers to pull 
down their blinds and shut their front doors while the drink- 
ing went on. The hotels closed their bars, and the waiters 
supplied the guests at their rooms. To this extent he thought 



MEDILL WASHBURN — SHERIDAN. 3 I 

the Sunday ordinance could be enforced, but it was ques- 
tionable if any less liquor would be consumed. He was will- 
ing to issue an order to the police to close the saloons on 
Sunday, but could not give any assurance that drinking 
would be stopped. In no city like Chicago, with a mixed 
population, had the attempt ever succeeded. His Honor 
proceeded into a careful consideration of the matter to 
prove the strength of his position. He asked the Committee 
how could the police prove that liquor was being drunk on 
the premises, with the street door locked and the windows 
shaded ? Should they be orded to break in the doors and 
smash the windows on suspicion ? Or should they put on 
citizen's clothes, slip around through the alley to the kitchen, 
and sneak in, call for liquor, and drink it ? Or was it 
expected that he himself should do it ? It could not be done 
in Chicago. Again, while the ordinance forbade the saloon 
keepers to sell liquor on Sunday, it did not forbid the citi- 
zen to buy from him on Sunday and drink. There was no 
penalty for purchasing and imbibing, and it was hard to con- 
vince the dealers that it was wrong to sell on the first day of 
the week, when it was legal for anybody to purchase and 
drink it on that day. His Honor very sensibly remarked 
that to stop liquor drinking would require the aid of one 
teetotaler policeman to be stationed in every saloon, billiard 
hall, house of ill-fame and tavern in Chicago — say 3,000 in 
all. The tax-fighters made it hard work to support 450 
policemen; and most of the force sympathized with the 
saloons, and he had no power to discharge them. He had 
repeatedly made known to members of the Temperance 



32 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

Organization that he would revoke any saloon keeper's license 
who was convicted before a magistrate of selling on Sunday. 
Any citizen knowing it to be done had the legal right to com- 
plain before any Justice of the Peace in Chicago, and make 
proof and have the keeper fined. His Honor closed his 
address by saying to the Committee that if their meeting 
supposed that drinking ought be freely indulged on six days 
of the week, and could be suppressed on the recurring 
seventh, they had studied human nature to little purpose, and 
had their first lessons yet to learn." 

On October 8, the committee published a reply, accus- 
ing the executive department of the city with cowardice. 
From the reply the following extract is taken : " All the 
facts go to show that whenever an honest endeavor has been 
put forth to eilforce the Sunday liquor law, it has been suc- 
cessful. The difficulty lies in this, that the liquor interest in 
our city is active and united, and exerts a controlling influ- 
ence in the nominating caucuses and conventions. The re- 
sult is, we have executive officers chosen by their votes who 
have not the conscience nor the moral courage to do right, 
and rather violate their oaths of office than to offend the vot- 
ing power of the saloons, to which they owe their elections." 

The report was signed by C. H. Fowler, Abbott E. Kit- 
tridge and Philip Meyers, " by order of the Citizens' Com- 
mittee." 

On October lo. Mayor Medill, in a conversation, claimed 
that the reply of the Committee was very unfair, and referred 
to the fact that they were quick at seeing the mote in other 
people's eyes ; they should cast the beam out of their own. 



MEDILL WASHHURN SHERIDAN. 



33 



The Washingtonian and Fatlicr Matthews' Associations 
never resorted to the constabuhiry, to prevent men, by ani- 
mal process, from drinking, but appealed to the mind and 
conscience; and their success was wonderful. 

On the same day, the Committee had an interview with 
the Police Commissioners. Talcott favored prohibition. 
Klokke objected to extreme measures, as unadvisable; con- 
sidering the enforcement of the ordinance impracticable. 
Sheridan was not present. 

On the same day. Mayor Medill, having evidently weak- 
ened, sent the following communication to the Board of 
Police : 

Board of Police Commissioners. 

Ge7itlemen : I was waited upon last week by a committee 
of clergy and laity, who presented some resolutions adopted 
by a public meeting, asking that the saloons be closed on 
vSunday, and the ordinance on that subject be enforced. In 
the general conversation that followed, I expressed a perfect 
willingness to undertake to do whatever was practicable in 
the premises, but also some doubts whether with the small 
police force at command, liquor-drinking on the first day of 
the week could be effectually prevented in the city. 1 asked 
for the active support and assistance of those whom they 
represented in making complaints before the magistrates, 
in helping to procure evidence against those who violate 
the ordinance. But the proposition was coldly received and 
cynically disposed of. I was unable to procure any promise 
of efficient aid, whether moral, religious, legal, or physical ; 

3 



34 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

their business seemed to be censure, but not to encourage 
or support the authorities, I observe in the partial report 
of the interview by their sub-committee, that they waited on 
your Board and obtained more encouragement as to the 
practicability of enforcing the ordinance. They say (extract 
from newspaper )\ "On the contrary, the Commissioners and 
Superintendent of Police upon whom the Committee also 
called the same day, declared themselves ready to enforce 
such an order when issued by the Mayor, and they antici- 
pated no serious trouble in doing so." 

I am happy to learn that you anticipate no difficulty in 
stopping liquor-drinking in the saloons on Sunday, if an 
order is issued by the Mayor to that effect. 

I therefore and hereby issue said order, and ask your 
Board to enforce Section 4, of Chapter 25, of the City Or- 
dinances, and all other ordinances relating thereto. 

Joseph Medill, Mayor. 

It may be well to state that no official information Avas 
given to His Honor as to the attitude of the Board. 

On October 25, there was issued, by the Committee of 
Seventy, an "Address to the People," in which the closing 
of saloons Sundays was advocated. On October 26, the 
Mayor received a committee of Germans, who went away 
satisfied with his position. On October 28, a portion of the 
Committee of Twenty-Five met, and committed itself to the 
Sunday law ; whereupon Mr. Greenebaum resigned his posi- 
tion. Mr. Hesing also abandoned the organization. 

The best epitaph that could be written on the tombstone of 



MEDILL WASHBURN SHKRIDAN. 35 

the Committee of Seventy is contained in the following con- 
clusion of the Tn7f!/;ie's 3.r\.'\c\c: " 'rnK Commii'ikk of Sev- 
enty SOON ABSORBED THE SMALLER ORGANIZATIONS. It PUT 
A TICKET IN THE FIELD LAST YEAR, BUT ITS FIRST VENTURE IN 
POLITICS WAS NOT ENCOURAGING. DURING THE WINTER IT 
WAS DORMANT; BUT SOME THREE MONTHS SINCE, IT SMELT 
THE BATTLE AFAR OFF, AND CAME OUT OF ITS WINTER'S 
QUARTERS. It PROCEEDED TO ORGANIZE THE RECENT CAM- 
paign, in which it met with a crushing reverse. 
Hereafter, it will be remembered in the history "Df 
local politics for good intentions, for miserable 

inefficiency AS A POLITICAL ORGANIZATION, AND FOR ITS 
FAILURE TO EXECUTE THE DESIGN FOR WHICH IT WAS 
ORGANIZED." 

The fact was, that the Committee of Seventy made a mis- 
take in going into the political business, and never showed 
a more illustrious example than when, in the Grand Pacific, 
they constructed that "Law and Order Ticket." 

So much for the Committee of Seventy. 

On December 2d, 1872, Mr. Talcott resigning, C. A. Reno 
was appointed to the Presidency of the Police Board. The 
Board was now, Reno, Sheridan and Klokke. On the in- 
auguration of Mr. Reno, it became apparent that the Super- 
intendent of Police was arrogating too much, having issued 
various orders without its approval. It was resolved, there- 
fore, that all orders should be submitted before issued. 

On January 25, 1873, as an evidence of discontent among 
the police, the Board received a communication from the 
force, asking to be relieved from the order issued by the 



;^6 ^ THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

Superintendent, compelling them to travel their beats for 
twelve successive hours. The order impressed the Board 
at once as tyrannical in the extreme. They accordingly 
ordered the Superintendent to conform with the established 
practice of patrol duty. 

Now war was declared. The Superintendent failing to 
comply, it was evident he was acting under the advice of the 
Law Department concerning the power conferred by the 
Mayor's bill, and the Board of Police seized the opportunity 
to test the question whether they had any power at all. On 
January 28, 1873, accordingly, the Secretary of the Board 
was directed to present charges against the Superintendent 
of Police for neglect of duty, incompetency, disobedience of 
orders, in the violation of the rules and regulations, by en- 
forcing unauthorized orders, and annulling the orders of the 
Board. Then Dr. Ward was appointed Acting Superin- 
tendent. So here was the spectacle of two Police Superin- 
tendents at one and the same time, issuing orders of a con- 
tradictory nature to the Police Department. 

The second volley in the battle of disputed rights was 
fired from the Mayor's office January 26, 1873. It was a 
communication from Mayor Medill to the Police Commis- 
sioners, notifying said Board of the removal of Police Com- 
missioners Reno and Klokke. The Board concurred in 
refusing to recognize the authority of the Mayor in said 
removal. They also instructed the Acting Superintendent 
to recognize no other authority than the Board which was 
elected by the people, and a majority of whom were com- 
missioned by the Governor. 



MKDILL WASHBURN SHERIDAN. 37 

From this date up to Fcl)ruary 24, 1873, no business was 
transacted in the Board rooms. 

On this day, Carlile Mason and T>evi P. Wright, having 
been appointed by the Mayor, presented certificates. Police 
Commissioner Sheridan thereupon arose in tlie crowded 
rooms of the Police Board, and, with unruflled precision, 
read the following protest: 

' "The Council having confirmed the Mayor's nominees for 
Police Commissioners, and the Mayor and Comptroller hav- 
ing refused to adjust the claims of persons furnishing sup- 
plies to the Police and Fire Departments, as well as the 
claims of the members of said departments, until such time 
as some other person more acceptable than Mr. Reno, act- 
ing as President of the Board, certifies to the correctness of 
said claims, it becomes necessary that something be done to 
relieve from embarrassment all those having just claims 
against the city. There is no doubt in my mind that the 
Mayor and Comptroller will recognize Messrs. Mason and 
Wright as the authorized Commissioners, and that, conse- 
quently, the business of the departments may be carried on 
by them, whatever be the merits of their claims as contest- 
ants for the position of Police Commissioners. I am Police 
Commissioner, and cannot, if I would, neglect the duties of 
my office with impunity. / must act, and it becomes my 
duty to act effectively ; and, in order to do so, I am con- 
strained by the action of the Mayor and Comptroller to act 
with Messrs. Mason and Wright, but I do so only to advance 
the interests of the city, and maintain the discipline and effi- 
ciency of the Police and Fire Departments, and not because 



38 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

I have any doubt as to the legality of the claims of Reno 
and Klokke ; and consequently I will have to serve under 
protest until this conflict of authority shall be determined 
by due process of law. I protest, because I am fully satis- 
fied that Commissioners Reno and Klokke, having been 
elected by the voters of Cook county to the office of Police 
Commissioners, and having qualified under that election, 
were in the lawful exercise of the functions of their office, 
when the Board suspended from duty Superintendent Wash- 
burn for inefficiency, neglect of duty, insubordination, and 
conduct unbecoming a police officer, and that, consequently 
they were guilty of no offence for which they could be justly 
or lawfully removed from office ; and because I am also sat- 
isfied that the power claimed and attempted to be exercised 
by the Mayor, under and by virtue of the act known as the 
' Mayor's Bill,' is contrary to the genius of our republican in- 
stitutions and the spirit of our Constitution, and, also, that 
even if the power exists, the arbitrary, unjust, and unneces- 
sary exercise of it would not be sustained or even tolerated 
by the Courts." 

The first matter of importance coming before the new 
Board was the dismissal of the charges against Washburn, 
February 26, 1873. On April 7, business commenced with 
the removal by the Mayor of Sergeants Douglas, Macauley, 
Rehm, and Bischoff. Their offence consisted in obedience 
of orders issued by the Board of Police. 

Then followed, on April 28,1873, Order No. 20, as follows: 



medill washburn sheridan. 39 

Office of the Police Department, ) 
Chicago, April 28, 1873. f 

General Order No. 20. 

1. The commanding officers of districts and precincts 
will require their men to enter frequently on Sunday all 
places or rooms on their respective beats where they have 
any good reason to suspect that intoxicating drinks are sold, 
or that cards or other games of chance are being played, for 
the purpose of obtaining evidence, if any exist, of the vio- 
lation of the provisions of Section 3, Chapter 28, of the Re- 
vised Ordinances of 1873. And complaint shall be entered 
in accordance with the provisions of Section 2, General 
Order No. 6, 1873. 

2. In all cases where violations of the provisions of Sec- 
tion 3, Chapter 28, of the Revised Ordinances of 1873 shall 
occur, and it shall be difficult to determine whom to sum- 
mon, the officer will demand that the license be shown and 
enter complaint against the licensee. If no license is pro- 
duced, the officer will demand the name and residence of 
the party or parties who are tending the bar, if the same 
are unknown to him, and enter complaint against him or 
them. If such party or parties fail or refuse to give their 
name or residence, the officer will arrest such party or par- 
ties at once, take him or them to the lockup, and enter 
complaint for the same offense. 

3. In no case named in this order shall doors, windows, 

or fastenings be broken or forced to gain admission. 

Elmer Washburn, 

General Superintendent. 



40 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

The foregoing was the production, it is supposed, of Mayor 
Medill, Washburn, and the Law Department. *This order 
Mr. Sheridan opposed in his might. Finding it impossible 
to convince the Mayor of its unwisdom, the Commissioner 
entered the following protest : " I protest because I regard 
the order as unnecessary^ odious^ and oppressive ; because the 
members of the police force are not vested under the char- 
ter with the power or authority to lawfully comply with the 
order, and if they do comply with it, they will have to do so 
at their own peril ; because it is to my mind clearly uncon- 
stitutional, Section 6, Article 2, of the Constitution being as 
follows : ' The right of the people to be secure in their per- 
sons, houses, papers, and effects against unreasonable 
searches and seizures shall not be violated.' " 

To this iron-clad remonstrance, Messrs. Mason and 
Wright, on May 9, 1873, after formidable preparation, replied 
as follows : 

" Resolved^ That the protest entered by one of the Com- 
missioners of this Board in the record of the proceedings of 
the 28th day of April, 1873, was so entered without being 
first presented to the Board, and that we disapprove of the 
language used in said protest, as incendiary in character, 
as tending to incite the force to disobey the orders of the ' 
Board, and unreflecting citizens to resist the police in the 
discharge of their duties. // is therefore ordered that here- 
after NO PROTEST shall be entered of record, unless the 
same be first submitted in writing to and permitted by a 
majority vote of this Board." 



MEDILL WASHBURN — SHERIDAN. 41 

Mr. Sheridan's protest appeared in the puljlic journals 
first; industrious reporters having adroitly secured it. 

Following fast upon the foregoing resolution came the 
following broadside from Mr. Sheridan : 

"I protest against the resolution passed by the Board on 
Friday, because it conveys the idea tliat my protest, entered 
against general order No. 20, was surreptitiously placed on 
record; whereas, the truth is, the objections therein set 
forth to said order were frequently and urgently pressed by 
me, to dissuade both INTessrs. Mason and Wright from ap- 
proving the order; failing in which, I told them I could 
not be a party to what I believed to be an unlawful pro- 
ceeding, and I should protest against it. To which they 
replied, ' All right ; do so. We would rather you should do 
so than not.' Next morning, I wrote the protest and handed 
it to the Secretary. It is, therefore, a willful misstatement of 
the facts in the case, a malignant perversion of my language, a 
deliberate attempt to gag the free expression of opinion, 
and is itself the expression of cringing servility to the will 
of the master." 

On May 13, an order was passed requiring the arrest of 
parties selling, giving away, or in any manner dealing in 
any vinous, spirituous, or fermented liquors. Sheridan 
voted in the negative. On May 15, he entered his protest 
against the order, as unnecessary, injurious, and a dangerous 
exercise of power. On July 12, Capt. Hickey, convinced 
that his head was doomed under the Washburn regime, re- 
signed the police force. 

July 18, furnished an event that cannot be passed over. 



42 THE GREAT REVOLUTION, 

Mr. Sheridan, learning of misconduct on the part of a 
police officer, took his star away from him. The officer 
complaining to Washburn, had it restored by the Superin- 
tendent. Hereupon, Sheridan summoned the chief into his 
presence on the day referred to. The conversation upon 
the subject was pretty bitter, the Commissioner feeling that 
he was insulted by a subordinate, and the Chief not recog- 
nizing superiority. The result of the meeting was that Mr. 
Washburn siezed an inkstand to hurl at the Commissioner's 
head. Quick second thought, however, held the Superin- 
tendent's arm, and he nervously replaced the missile on the 
desk. - 

On July 2 1, the Commissioner preferred charges against 
the Superintendent, including the specification "ungentle- 
manly conduct, and conduct unbecoming a police officer." 
On July 2 2, the police officer, who had his star restored, was 
discharged by the Board, under the evidence. 

On July 22, a communication was received by the Board 
from the Council, requesting an investigation of the facts 
connected with the charges preferred by the Milwaukee 
press against Washburn. A store had, it appears, been 
robbed in Milwaukee, and the thieves were tracked to 
Chicago, and arrested by Chicago officers. The Milwaukee 
press charged that Washburn refused to give up the property 
recovered, unless a reward was forthcoming for the officers 
who caused the arrest. This charge was denied by Mr. 
Washburn, and the Common Council subsequently acquitted 
the chief. 

The next matter the public journals were called upon 



MEDILL WASHBURN SHERIDAN. 43 

to chronicle, was a communication from the Mayor, set- 
ting forth his desire that the Board make a full statement 
of the facts in the case between Sheridan and Washburn, 
and submit in writing. Hereupon, Messrs. Mason and 
Wright reported the opinion that it would not be for the 
best interests of the service to spread on the record ; that 
they believed they had found upon investigation that the 
provocation given by Mr. Sheridan was so great as to great- 
ly palliate the disrespectful language, if not to justify it. 

Up to July 28, 1873, there now seemed to be a lull in 
matters between the members of the Board, the Mayor, the 
Police force, and the world at large. On this day, however, 
Mr. Sheridan succeeded in introducing the following reso- 
lution, which was passed : 

''''Be it ordered^ That the practice of sending police officers 
in citizen's clothes to saloons, for the purpose of inducing 
the keepers thereof to sell intoxicating drinks to such offi- 
cers, in violation of law, with the view of prosecuting said 
saloon keepers, be at once discontinued." 

On July 29, 1873, Commissioner Mason, having voted for 
one measure introduced by Mr. Sheridan, resigned. 

He was succeeded by Reuben Cleveland. The advent of 
this gentleman was signalized by a message from the Mayor, 
touching the charges preferred by Commissioner Sheridan 
against Superintendent of Police Washburn. The commu- 
nication set forth that his Honor, the Mayor, considered 
the occurrence as a first offense on both (.?) sides, and as 
a case not calling for extreme measures. 

On August 4, nevertheless. Superintendent of Police, 



44 THR GREAT REVOLUTION. 

♦ 

Washburn, apologized to Mr. Sheridan on the ground that 
few men could be milder under equal provocation. Mr. 
Sheridan did not apologize, as another man mighty under the 
Mayor's decision. 

In the foregoing brief recital are contained the leading ele- 
ments in the grand cause for a change in municipal affairs. 
While the Press, eager to promote universal harmony, no 
doubt, generally favored the Medillian administration, yet 
the people watched their interests keenly, and as certain 
events in this history plainly indicate, subserved them by 
the movement of November, 1873. The power of that 
movement is recognized everywhere as having asserted itself 
against the sentiments of every American newspaper in the 
city of Chicago. 



COUNTING THE MONEY. 



For several weeks previous to the election, whispers were 
gradually spreading throughout the city, the burden of 
which was that, if it only could be inspected, the City Treas- 
ury was in a very wretched condition ; and that the fact was 
due to the reckless speculations of the City Treasurer, David 
A. Gage. This gentleman, being a candidate for re-election, 
and being considered the heaviest card on the " Law and 
Order" ticket, it is not at all marvelous that the speakers of 
the People's Party gave the rumor as thorough ventilation as 
possible throughout the several wards. 

To assist the circulation of said rumors, the Staats Zeitung 
caused to be published in English a great number of circu- 
lars, whence the following extracts are taken : 

" It has been publicly charged and not denied that Gage 
has deposited the public moneys with banks upon express 
agreements, that such banks extend him credit to the amount 
of a certain proportion of such deposits. The name of a 
bank could be given, which held a note of Gage's for $40,- 
000, and to which he offered $60,000 city deposits on condi- 
tion of an extension being granted to him. There is scarcely 



46 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

a doubt that the dealings oi private citizen D. A. Gage with 
the banks have been based upon the city funds deposited 
with them by City Ti^easurer D. A. Gage. And it is next to a 
certainty that if D. A. Gage should cease to have control 
over the city deposits, the bank credit extended to him on 
that account would vanish. 

" Thus it will be readily understood why D. A. Gage can 
afford to shoulder all the expenses of the campaign of his 
party, and offer to pay the expenses of the People's Party, if 
they should nominate him for City Treasurer and Dan 
O'Hara for County Treasurer. It is, with him, a matter of 
life or death. But the weakest minded man must be able to 
see that, if a candidate spends $25,000 in order to obtain an 
office with a salary of only $4,000, there must be considera- 
bly more in that office than the salary. 

"As to the means employed, apart from a direct expendi- 
ture of money to buy up votes, the following affidavit of Mr. 
A. C. Hesing tells the tale : 

" A. C. Hesing, being duly sworn, deposeth as follows : 
"That on or about Wednesday, the 15th of October, he 
was invited to see a prominent lawyer in H. H. Honore's 
block; that he went and saw that lawyer, and that there and 
then the proposition was made to him to use his influence to 
secure the nomination of David A. Gage by the People's 
Party for the office of City Treasurer, and of Daniel O'Hara 
for County Treasurer, in consideration of which said David 
A. Gage would give to the deponent, A. C. Hesing, the co?i- 
trol, for two years, of one-fifth part of the city deposits j that 
said proposition was instantly rejected by said deponent ; 



COUNTING THE MONEY. 47 

that, on the Saturday following, the same prominent lawyer 
met the deponent, A. C. Hesing, in the sample room of Her- 
mann Fink, in the Staats Zeitiing building, in company with 
two other gentlemen, and engaged with them in conversation 
upon a certain article published in the Staats Zeitiing under 
the heading, "A few simple questions." That in the course 
of such conversation said lawyer remarked that that article 
need not necessarily prevent the Staats Zeitung from yet sup- 
porting D. A. Gage; that, after the two gentlemen and said 
lawyer had left the place, said lawyer returned in a short 
time, and stated to this deponent that another newspaper 
had to be ^' seeji'' first, and that, therefore, if this deponent 
was willing to make arrangements for the support of D. A. 
Gage, the consideration would have to be reduced from one- 
half to one-sixth part of the city deposits ; that this deponent 
again refused the offer. That on Sunday afternoon, when this 
deponent was stepping into his buggy in front of Greene- 
baum's bank building, the said lawyer hailed him, and, again 
commencing to speak about the offer theretofore made by 
him, remarked that all the papers had been " seen ; ". that from 
and after Monday no line would be written in any of the 
English dailies against David A. Gage, and that this depo- 
nent was foolish not to have accepted the propositions made 
to him. That then this deponent replied that it was of no 
use to say any more to him, since he was determined to work 
with heart and soul for the good cause of the People's Party 
and for the defeat of a damnably corrupt treasury ring. 

"Further deponent sayeth not. Anthony C. Hesing. 

"Sworn to before me this ist day of November, 1873. 

Julius Rosenthal, Notary Public ^ 



48 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

The Opposition observing the immense loss their cause 
was suffering by reason of the insinuations as to the integrity 
of the alleged best man on their ticket, Mr. David A. Gage 
was induced, on October 20, to issue the following : 

TO HIS HONOR, THE MAYOR, AND COMMON COUNCIL. 

Gentlemen : As there have been various speeches made 
and rumors afloat detrimental to me as a public officer, I 
most respectfully ask that your body, through a proper com- 
mittee, would examine my accounts as City Treasurer, and 
make an official report of the same. Most respectfully, 

David A. Gage, Treasurer. 

The members of the Finance Committee were L. L. Bond, 
Chairman ; Mahlon D. Ogden, J. W. McGenniss, J. H. Mc- 
Avoy, and Geo. Slierwood. At the investigation of the Com- 
mittee, the two last named gentlemen were not present. 

In obedience to Mr. Gage's request, an official report was 
made of the Finance Committee, as follows : 

Chicago, III., Oct. 31, 1873. 

l, l. bond, esq., chairman finance committee. 

Sir : In the matter of the communication of D. A. Gage, 

Treasurer, referred to our committee, you are autliorized to 

report that we find the Treasurer's accounts correct, and the 

cash in hand, so that the city funds are entirely safe, and 

the special funds in the condition required by law. 

Mahlon D. Ogden. 
J. W. McGenniss. 

This report the Opposition used with tremendous ostenta- 
tion, and with considerable success. While there were many 



COUNTING THE MONEY. 49 

who regarded the report with grave misapprehensions, — 
owing to the absence of figures which, it is pretty well es- 
tablished, never lie, — yet, the instrument was a most advan- 
tageous missile to hurl at the heads of the People's Party. 
In their speeches through the city, the Opposition intro- 
duced the report at every possible opportunity, as illustra- 
tive of the base uses to which the People's party had come 
at last, in order to achieve the success of their ticket. 

Had the " Law and Order " ticket been victorious, there 
is hardly any room to doubt but that the People's party were 
capable of some very mean business. In that event, David 
A.Gage would be our present City Treasurer, Victory perch- 
ing upon the banners of the People's party, however, the 
great public obtained admission into tile inmost recesses of 
the treasury, and through the fingers of Daniel O'Hara, had 
the satisfaction of seeing the money counted. 

The first reliable intelligence of Mr. Gage's misfortune — 
Mayor Colvin having just taken his seat — came, it would 
appear, through Mr. John A. Rice, one of Mr. Gage's bonds- 
men. On the morning of December 15, this gentleman ap- 
proached the Mayor elect, and informed him that David A. 
Gage was $350,000 (three hundred and fifty thousand dol- 
lars ) short ! and that, in order to make good this amount, 
Mr. Gage would turn over everything he had. Anxiety 
being wild upon the topic from the first moment the rumor 
gained circulation, the daily journals next morning, as might 
be expected, threw forth columns concerning the startling 
defalcation. For days afterward, the defalcation was the 
most prominent subject on everybody's tongue. The 
4 



50 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

exposure shocked the entire community, and perfectly 
dumbfounded those who had voted for the ticket which, for 
its success, depended ahiiost solely upon the sterling integ- 
:;rity of David A. Gage. 

The first thought, when the terrible indignation of the 

:public had given place to reflection, was, in what manner the 

gigantic loss could be repaired. Now the public eye was 

.turned upon Mr. Gage's bondsmen. But the bondsmen, it 

was said, claimed they were not altogether responsible, from 

.the fact that shortly after the Medillian administration went 

into power, it was discovered that Mr. Gage was then short 

to the extent of some $200,000, and that the city officials, 

or some of them, knew it. The bondsmen, it seems, claimed 

that they should not be held for any deficiency previous to 

their bond being filed. 

Whether the bondsmen presumed too much, nevertheless, 
was susceptible of a test. The legal advisers of the city, 
.accordingly, filed a praecipe in a plea of debt on December 
24, placed damages at $1,000,000, and made the following 
bondsmen of Mr. Gage parties defendant : David A. Gage, 
William F. Tucker, Albert Crosby, John B. Sherman, James 
H. McVicker, Nathaniel P. Wilder, John A. Rice, and 
George W. Gage. 

On December 26, Treasurer O'Hara, pursuant to instruc- 
tions, wrote the following demand upon the Ex- City Treas- 
urer : 

"David A. Gage, Esq., 

Sir: — Agreeably to the instructions of the law advisers 
of the city, and as your successor in office, I am requested 



COUNTING THE MONEY. 5 I 

to demand of you the deficit of money belonging to the City 
Treasury, amounting to $507,703.58. 

I am very respectfully your obedient servant, 

Daniel O'Hara, City Treasurer.'' 

In the meantime conferences were being held by the bonds- 
men of Mr. Gage, and his friends. At these meetings various 
propositions were agitated. The result was that, on Decem- 
ber 30, a formal conveyance of a trust deed of Mr. Gage's 
property was made to Mr. George Taylor. This action 
served in a measure to allay public excitement, which had 
waxed the more intense under the pressure of the bank 
panic, and the condition of the vast army of unemployed 
in the city. 

But there was another matter in connection with the sit- 
uation of Mr. Gage. It was charged against him that he 
was guilty of perjury. The following oath, required to be 
taken by the City Treasurer, formed the basis of the accu- 
sation : 

" I, D. A. Gage, City Treasurer, being duly sworn upon 
oath, say that the foregoing statement, so far as I know, or 
have reason to believe, is a fair, accurate and full statement 
of the matters to which it relates, and of all moneys in my 
hands which I, or any one for me, has received since my last 
official account was rendered ; and that I have not directly 
or indirectly used, loaned, invested or converted to my own 
use, or suffered any one to use, loan, invest or convert to his 
or their own use, any of the public moneys receivable or 
received by me or subject to my warrant or control, and 



52 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

that I have rendered true and full account thereof in my 
said foregoing statement, and further saith not. 

D. A. Gage. 
Sworn, etc., Frank Barrett, 

Notary Public r 

It having been known that if Mr. Gage had committed 
perjury at all he had committed it repeatedly — for it was 
required that the oath should be taken every month — it evi- 
dently became the duty of the State's Attorney to step in. 
He did so. 

On January 2, 1874, State's Attorney Charles H. Reed 
sent the following to the City Treasurer : 

"Daniel O'Hara, Esq., City Treasurer. 

My Dear Friend : — It is reported that David A. Gage, 
the late City Treasurer, has failed to pay over to you, as his 
successor, large sums of money belonging to the city of Chi- 
cago. In view of proceedings being about to be instituted 
against him for such failure to pay over to you said sums of 
money, I hereby request you to forthwith make a formal 
written demand on said Gage to pay over to you said sums 
of money. I desire this to be done by you under and by 
virtue of Section 16, page 179, of the Statutes of Illinois, 
Gross' Ed., 187 1. Please make the demand in such a man- 
ner as that you can testify thereto under oath. The demand 
should be made by you officially and in person. 

Respectfully yours, Charles H. Reed," 

In compliance with instructions Mr. O'Hara visited Mr. 
Gage, and Mr. Gage did not turn over as requested. 



COUNTING THE MONEY. 53 

State's Attorney Reed forthwith proceeded to the work of 
empaneling a Grand Jury. Xhat body was in existence on 
January 6. 

On January 7 the said Grand Jury indicted David A. 
Gage for failing to pay over the money entrusted to him, 
and also for false swearing. 

On January 8, Mr. Gage was arraigned in the Criminal 
Court, and his bail was fixed at $100,000 on the former 
charge, and $10,000 on the latter. 

Subsequently the ijidictment for false swearing was quashed 
on technical grounds; and that for failing, etc., was sustained. 
On this indictment Mr. Gage has obtained a chance of venue 
to Lake county. The State's Attorney, moreover, succeeded 
in having the following additional indictment returned, 
which is still pending : 

Of the February term of the Criminal Court of Cook 
County, in said county and State, in the year of our Lord 

1874 

The Grand Jurors, chosen, selected, and sworn, in and for 
the county of Cook, in the State of Illinois, in the name and 
by the authority of the People of the State of Illinois, upon 
their oaths present that David A. Gage, late of the county 
of Cook, on the 6ih day of December, in the year of our 
Lord 1873, in said county of Cook, in the State of Illinois 
aforesaid, was the Treasurer of the city of Chicago, in said 
county and State, and that he, the said Gage, had been and 
was the Treasurer of said city for and during the period of 
one year and more immediately before and prior to the said 
6th day of December ; and, that he, the said Gage, as such 



54 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

Treasurer, during the period aforesaid was required by law, 
at the end of each and every month to render to the Comp- 
troller of said city an account under the oath of him, the 
said Gage, as such Treasurer, showing the state of the treas- 
ury of said city at the date of each of said accounts, and 
the balance of money in said treasury at the date of each of 
said accounts, and a fair, accurate, and full statement of all 
moneys in the hands of him, the said Gage, as such Treas- 
urer, at the date of each of said accounts ; and that he, the 
said Gage, as such Treasurer, was, during the period afore- 
said, at the en.d of each and every month, and oftener if re- 
quired, required by law to attach said oath to each of said 
accounts, and to render, present, and deliver said accounts 
and oaths thereto attached to the said Comptroller ; and 
that he, the said Gage, as such Treasurer, was required by 
law to render to said Comptroller at the end of the month 
of November, in the year last aforesaid, an' account under 
the oath of him, the said Gage, attached to said account, 
showing the state of the treasury of said city at the date of 
such account, and the balance of moneys in said treasury at 
the date of such last-mentioned account, and a fair, accurate, 
and full statement of all moneys in the hands of him, the 
said Gage, as such Treasurer, at the date of the said last 
mentioned account ; and that he, the said Gage, by his own 
fault and neglect, failed to render to said Comptroller the 
account last aforesaid at the end of the month of November 
last aforesaid. 

And that the said Gage, as such Treasurer, was required 
by law to render the said last named account afterwards, to- 



COUNTING THE MONEY. . 55 

wit, on the 6th day of December last aforesaid ; and that he, 
the said Gage, as such Treasurer, was required by law on 
the said 6th day of December last aforesaid, to render to 
the said Comptroller an account under the oath of him, the 
said Gage, showing the state of the treasury of said city on 
the ist day of December in the year last aforesaid, and the 
balance of moneys in said treasury on the said ist day of 
December aforesaid, and a fair, accurate, and full statement 
of all moneys in the hands of him, the said Gage, as such 
Treasurer, on the said ist day of December last aforesaid; 

And that the said Gage, as such Treasurer, did, on the 
said 6th day of December, render, present, and deliver to 
one Augustus H. Burley, he, the said Burley, being then and 
there the Comptroller of said city, an account showing the 
state of the treasury of said city on the ist day of Decem- 
ber aforesaid, and the balance of moneys in said treasury 
on the said ist day of December, and a statement of all 
moneys in the hands of him, said Gage, as such Treasurer, 
on the said ist day of December; 

And that he, the said Gage, as such Treasurer, in order 
to render the said last named account under his oath, and 
in order to verify the same by his oath as he was by law 
required to do as aforesaid, did on the said 6th day of De- 
cember last aforesaid, come and appear in his own proper 
person, in said city of Chicago, and county of Cook, before 
one Francis M. Barrett, he, the said Barrett, being then and 
there a Notary Public in said city and county, and then and 
there, in due form of law, sworn by and before him, the said 
Barrett, as such Notary Public, and did then and there take 



56 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

his oath before said Barrett as such Notary Public, he, the 
said Barrett, as such Notary Public, then and there having 
full and competent power and authority to administer said 
oath to him, said Gage, as such Treasurer in that behalf: 
and that he, the said David A. Gage, as such Treasurer, 
being so sworn as aforesaid, upon his oath as aforesaid, did 
then and there, to-wit, on the day and year last aforesaid, in 
the city and county aforesaid, before him, the said Barrett, 
as such Notary Public, falsely, willfully, unlawfully, and cor- 
ruptly say, depose, swear, and make oath and affidavit, partly 
written and partly printed, among other things, in substance 
and to the effect following, that is to say : that there was on 
the said- ist day of December in the 3^ear last aforesaid, so 
far as he, said Gage, knew or had reason to believe, a bal- 
ance of money in the treasury of said city in the sum of and 
to the amount of Ji,i 18,1 10.49, ^^^ that he, the said Gage, 
on the first day of December, in the year last aforesaid, so 
far as he, said Gage knew or had reason to believe had in 
his hands as such Treasurer, moneys in the sum, and to the 
amount last aforesaid, which said last named account and 
said oath and affidavit, said Gage, as such Treasurer, rend- 
ered, delivered and presented to said Burley, as such Comp- 
troller, the said oath and affidavit being then and there 
attached to said account, the said 6th day of December last 
aforesaid, as by said account, oath and affidavit now on file 
in the proper office of the Comptroller of said city more 
fully and at large appears. Whereas, in truth and in fact, 
as he, the said Gage, as such Treasurer, then and there, to- 
wit, on the said 6th day of December aforesaid, in the city 



COUNTING THE MONEY. 57 

« 

and county aforesaid, well knew that there was not, and 
had good reason to believe that there was not, on the said 
I St day of December aforesaid, a balance of moneys in said 
treasury in the sum and to the amount of §1,118,110.49 5 
and whereas, in truth and in fact, he, the said Gage, on said 
6th day of December, as said Treasurer, well knew that 
there was not, and had good reason to believe there was not, 
in his hands as such Treasurer moneys in the sum and to 
the amount last aforesaid. 

And so the Grand Jury aforesaid, upon their oaths and 
affirmations aforesaid, do present and say that he, the said 
David A. Gage, as such Treasurer, well knew and had 
reason to believe, that the said oath and affidavit were will- 
fully and corruptly false in manner and form aforesaid, and 
that he, the said David A. Gage, did commit willful and 
corrupt perjury in manner and form aforesaid, contrary to 
the statute, and against the peace and dignity of the people 
of the State of Illinois. 

Charles H. Reed, State's Attorney. 

Indorsed : A true bill, 

R. R. Clark, Foreman of the Grand Jury. 

Filed Feb. 10, 1874. Austin J. Doyle, Clerk. 

The civil and criminal actions are still pending. The 
financial status of Mr. Gage, as to the City Treasury, may 
be thus stated . 

The deficit in the City Treasury, at the expiration of Mr. 
Gage's term, amounted to $507,703.58. Of this, in the banks 
were $147,500, leaving what might be called Gage's personal 
indebtedness $360,203.58. 



58 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

In the report given as the work of the Finance Committee, 
it is observed that the signature of Alderman Sherwood, one 
of the Committee, is not visible. In justice to Mr, Sherwood, 
the following is published, being a copy of an interview 
between that gentleman and a Tribmie reporter : 

" Alderman Sherwood, a member of the Committee, had 
been called to Minnesota by the death of a sister. On his 
return, after the election, he was asked to sign the report, but 
declined because he was not satisfied that all was right. He 
went into the Treasurer's office, and was shown that the 
balance corresponded with the amount called for by the 
Comptroller's books. Mr. Sherwood then asked where the 
money was, and was given a list of the banks in which it was 
said to be deposited, as follows : * 

Commercial .. % 220,883.34 

Union Stock Yards _• 60,000.00 

Third National i33j78o.53 

Union National 204,113.70 

Fourth National 50,000.00 

Manufacturers' National 15,000.00 

Badger's Bank 7,500.00 

Second National 1 15,000.00 

Mechanics' 38,500.00 

Cook County 101,113.79 

Hibernian 10,000.00 

Bank of Chicago 5,000.00 

State Savings Institution 122,125.08 

November Balance, Ji, 083, 016. 44 

* Mr. Sherwood obtained the foregoing statements some days before 
election ; but, being called suddenly away, did not have an opportunity 
to analyze them before his return from Minnesota. 



COUNTING THE MONEY. 59 

" Mr. Sherwood asked to see the bank books, to compare 
them with the bakmces above given. The clerk replied that 
Mr. Gage had taken the bank books away, and that they 
had not been written up for several months. He (the clerk) 
had entered the balances as Mr. Gage gave them to him, 
and, to the best of his knowledge, the accounts were all 
straight. The stubs on the check - book showed that there 
were but two " live " banks, — that is, banks on which checks 
were drawn,— the others being accounts that had not been 
disturbed from the time of the fire until the panic. The 
September balance sheet showed that the Second National 
had j^ioo,ooo and the Mechanics ^35,000, while the Novem- 
ber balance showed an increase of $15,000 deposited in the 
former, and of $3,500 in the latter. With the exception of 
the two banks that were being constantly checked upon, 
these were the only changes that had been made in the 
accounts of other banks since the fire. Such is the report 
which Mr. Sherwood received from the clerk. 

" Mr. Sherwood insisted that the bank books should be 
exhibited fully written up. Soon after, Mr. Sherwood re- 
ceived a note from Mr. Gage requesting him to call at the 
Pacific Hotel, as he desired to see him. The result was an 
interview, during which Mr. Gage acknowledged he was 
short, and appealed to Mr. Sherwood to give him ten days, 
and he would come out all right ; that if he (Sherwood) had 
not discovered the real facts, nothing would ever be known 
about them. Mr. Gage felt keenly the situation in which he 
was placed. He appealed to Mr. Sherwood's generosity, and 
his appeal prevailed. Mr. Sherwood did not insist upon 



6o THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

examining the bank books, though he now thinks he should 
have done so. He says he pitied Mr. Gage. He told Mr. Gage 
it was due to him that he should know the worst, that he 
understood that Mr. Gage had confessed to Mr. Bond and 
Mr. Burley, since the election, that the deficit amounted to 
$250,000. Mr. Gage replied that he was short $300,000. 

" The interview closed, Mr. Sherwood retiring with the 
expectation and belief that Mr. Gage would make up the 
deficiency before his successor demanded a settlement. 
This explains .why the report of the Finance Committee was 
never sent to the Council." 

While pursuing his investigations, Mr. Sherwood procured 
from the Treasurer's office a statement which is interesting, 
as it shows the amount in the hands of the Treasurer each 
month from October, 1871, to October, 1873, inclusive: 

Oct. 17, 1871 . $ 645,727.98 

Dec. 1,1871 458,463.86 

Jan. 2, 1872 _ 516,666.60 

Feb. I, i872__. 690,295,66 

March i, 1872 699,359.38 

April I, 1872 821,522.19 

May I, 1872 898,594.66 

June I, 1872 861,925.00 

July I, 1872 „ 1,082,993.74 

August I, 1872 1,275,952.56 

Sept. 2, 1872 1,256,584.21 

Oct. I, 1872 1,164,933.40. 

Nov. 1,1872 1,077,975,35 

Dec. 2, 1872 1,175,048.99 

Jan. 2, 1873 1,110,109.12 



COUNTING THE MONEY. 6l 

Feb. I, 1873 $, 958,901.51 

March i, 1873 984,326.62 

April I, 1873 889,559.53 

May I, 1873.. 1,087,051.45 

June 2, 1873 1,016,998.99 

July I, 1873 999,588.48 

Aug. I, 1873 1,288,588.39 

Sept. I, 1873 1,444,909.57 

Oct. I, 1873 1,425,461.56 

There were several good causes, in Mr. Sherwood's opin- 
ion, why he should not sign the report — if report it was. 
As regarded the water fund especially, all the information 
he could secure from officials could not explain to his satis- 
faction the remarkable shrinkage. All seemed to agree that 
this fund was over a million dollars before the fire. This 
fund was sacred under the charter, and Mr. Sherwood could 
not but be convinced that it was drawn from when the 
amount in the hands of the Treasurer on Oct. 17, 187 1, was 
found to be $645,727.98. 

Had this special water fund been put into bonds, bear- 
ing interest, instead of placing the currency in the hands 
of the Treasurer for speculation, it is certain that the city 
would draw the interest, and the principle would have been 
something over a million, instead of $645,727.98, as reported 
on Oct. 17, 1871. 

In his investigation, Mr. Sherwood ascertained that not 
one of the special appropriation accounts had been bal- 
anced since the fire. Then, too, what purported to be the 
report of the Finance Committee was singularly irregular, 



62 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

as it was addressed to the chairman, L. L. Bond, instead of 
being signed, as is the custom, by the chairman, who is a 
member of the committee making the report. 

If Mr. Sherwood had signed the report, it was the general 
impression that the white-washing process as regards the 
city Treasury would have been complete. 

In the defense of Mr. David A. Gage, the able services of 
Hon. Leonard Swett have been secured. In an interview 
between this learned gentleman and the writer of this work, 
the following defense by Mr. Gage was ascertained : 

"The defense lies in the fact that Mr. Gage used and 
loaned the City's funds by authority of the City of Chicago. 
The charter of 1863 provided that the City Treasurer keep 
the funds in a place designated by the city ; and a penalty of 
imprisonment in the penitentiary was met if the Treasurer 
converted, used or loaned such moneys in any manner what- 
soever, notwithstanding the specifications of a place, the 
city never did furnish a place ; and the city's safe being so 
insecure as to require a special guard over night, the habit 
arose, from necessity, to keep the money in the city banks. 
Each bank, desiring as much of the money as possible, com- 
petition arose, and between the years 1863 and 1869, interest 
was paid on balances, which was kept as a perquisite of 
office by the City Treasurer. As the banks were always 
considered good, — the fact of loaning being notorious — 
the city came to desire the interest. Consequently, in the 
winter of 1869, a law was passed providing that the City 
Council might, by ordinance, direct the City Treasurer where 
to place such public money at such a rate of interest, and 



COUNTING THE MONEY. 6;^ 

with such security as were prescribed by ordinance. Mr. 
Gage was the first Treasurer elected after the passage of this 
law, and his first official act consisted of a written commun- 
ication to the Council in which he asked it to act under this 
law, and supervise the loaning of the city money. With 
this communication Mr. Gage sent in his official bond in the 
sum of $400,000, which was the amount required of his pre- 
decessors. The Council, after mature deliberation, deter- 
mined that if they should direct where the money should be 
placed, and, if placed as directed, should be lost, the City 
must lose it. They therefore determined to exact a bond 
from Mr. Gage of $2,500,000, with most approved security; 
and this indemnified the city in a larger sum than any money 
in Mr. Gage's hands, and to permit him to do what he 
pleased with the money. As Mr. Gage assumed, by this 
arrangement, personal risk of losing, the City paid him 
$10,000 per annum for his risk. After two years Mr. Gage 
accounted with the city, having made more than $100,000 
by loans. Mr. Gage asked the Council for a relief of res- 
ponsibility, and to direct where to place the funds. The 
Council declined, telling him to do as he pleased — still 
paying him $10,000. And now, having invested and loaned 
in good faith, Mr. Gage denies criminal liability. It is not 
the case of a public officer using the public funds and 
becoming a defaulter, but simply a civil liability upon a loan 
by authority of the Council. At the end of Mr. Gage's 
term, every dollar had been loaned — aggregating about 
$1,000,000. It was during the great panic of '73, Mr. Gage 
collected about $500,000, and paid over about $150,000 in 



64 THE GREAT REVOLUTION 

the city suspended banks, and about $350,000 in other loans. 
In this situation Mr. Gage, although his liability to do so was 
very doubtful, assumed payment of deficiencies, and put 
nearly $600,000 as assets into the hands of a trustee to cover 
any deficiency ultimately found in the settlement of his 
accounts." 



HOW IT WAS DONE. 



The great meeting in the Seventeenth Ward was recog- 
nized as the inauguration of the local political campaign. 
It was held in Thielman's Theatre, on Clybourne avenue, 
on the evening of May 14. 

The meeting was called to order by Mr. A. Hottinger, who 
denounced the way in which the municipal government was 
conducted under the Medillian administration. He said 
he believed so-called temperance notions, with which the 

« 

heads of the local rulers seemed to be full, could be era- 
dicated as well as slavery had been. He could see nothing 
but tyranny in the then city government. The Germans 
would obey the law, or what was called the law, but would 
seek their redress with other liberal people at the polls in 
November. 

Messrs. Adolphe Schoeninger and Frick were elected 
President and Secretary. 

The former said the object of the meeting was to organize 
a movement, regardless of party politics, whereby the liberties 
of the people could be secured and retained. It appeared 
to be the aim of the city government to abridge the consti- 
tutional rights of citizens and make them subservient to its 

5 



66 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

will. Under its Know-Nothing displeasure the Germans had 
come more than any other people; but they were determined 
to assert their manhood, and show the so-called temperance 
people that they were neither drunkards, serfs nor fools. 
It was hoped that the German papers could conscientiously 
unite in its support, and that other people would join in the 
movement. 

Mr. Knoblesdorf said that the Germans had been driven 
to organize for self -protection by the narrow-minded men 
who were at the head of municipal affairs, and who were en- 
deavoring to force their own sectarian and Know - Nothing 
opinions down the public throat. The Germans were deter- 
mined to stand the oppression no longer. They were about 
to organize for the preservation of their rights and privileges, 
gauranteed them by the constitution of the country and the 
state. He believed the result of the November election in 
Chicago would be a stern rebuke to the Know-Nothing and 
so-called temperance element. It would show them that the 
Germans and people of other nationalities were not Puritani- 
cal, but progressive and free in their ideas, and jealous of 
their political rights. 

Messrs. Knoblesdorf, Karls, Schmehl, Lengacher and Lin- 
don were appointed a committee on resolutions. 

Mr. A. C. Hesing, having been loudly called for, spoke 
in favor of any movement which would free the people from 
the thralldom of narrow views and national prejudices, by 
which the municipal rulers seemed to be swayed. If such 
a movement could be organized by Republicans and Demo- 
crats anxious to preserve the constitutional liberties of the 



HOW IT WAS DONE. 67 

people, so much the better. The record of the Germans 
could be pointed to with pride. They were not drunkards 
because they loved convivial beer. They had shown their 
patriotism and love of American institutions on many a 
blood-stained field. But it seemed, from present appear- 
ances, that all their present sacrifices only entitled them to 
be trodden under foot in civil life. Their moral record was 
clearly shown by the national statistics of crime. Know- 
nothingism was striving to get the upper hand again in this 
city, but it would be put down as it was before. Native 
Americans had produced more public men at whom the fin- 
ger of scorn could be pointed, than foreigners. The speaker 
instanced the cases of Colfax, Brooks, and Ames. Mr. 
Hesing concluded by stating that he would vote for any 
man, be he Republican, Liberal, or Democrat, who would 
exert himself to keep the personal rights of citizens invio- 
late. 

Mr. H. B. Miller followed by a renunciation of the Re- 
publican party. 

The Committee on Resolutions then returned resolutions 
expressive of the sentiment of the meeting. The following 
is a copy of the resolutions: 

Resolved^ That the present meeting of German citizens, 
without distinction of party, declares it to be the duty of 
every liberal-minded citizen to seek in the impending elec- 
tion to work for the future, and not to fight over the past. 

Resolved^ That we invite all the liberal elements of all 
nationalities and all parties to co-operate with us. 

Resolved^ That, in the contest which has been forced upon 



6S ■ THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

I - ■ 

US, not merely the oppressive temperance laws are concerned, 
but the principle of freedom of conscience, and freedom to 
conduct business of all kinds. 

Resolved^ That we invite the citizens of all the wards to 
organize at once, and that the united organizations unite in 
a central body as quickly as possible. 

Resolved^ That we are of the opinion that not only all 
liberal-minded citizens, but also the German newspapers, 
should take a part in this contest ; and we, therefore, request 
them to unite with us in the approaching election, and that 
we reject with indignation every attempt to make capital 
out of this common cause. 

To carry out these principles, the following measures were 
agreed to : 

That the representatives of the German press pledge 
themselves to support effectually the efforts of the liberal- 
minded citizens, and. refrain from all personal attacks upon 
them. 

That, at all future elections, we will give our votes to only 
those men who can give us satisfactory written guarantees 
that they will act for the preservation of the personal free- 
dom and rights guaranteed by the constitution of the 
United States, and that they are in favor of the putting 
down of the unconstitutional and hostile-to-freedom Tem- 
perance and Sunday laws, and of the maintainance and 
freedom of trade. 

That a committee be appointed in each ward to see to the 
naturalization of all who are entitled to become citizens. 

That the citizens of all the wards are invited to elect exe- 



HOW IT WAS DONE. 69 

cutive committees, and that they unite to form a central 
committee. 

Then came the great German mass meeting, on the even- 
ing of May 20, at Aurora Turner Hall, on Milwaukee 
avenue. 

Ex-Alderman John Buehler was elected Chairman, and 
Mr, Pfurstenberej acted as Secretarv. 

The first speaker was Mr. A. C. Hesing. He said that he 
was greatly pleased that the movement begun on the North 
Side had spread like wildfire into the rest of the city. His 
exchanges showed that the movement here met with applause 
everywhere. They must forget the past, and think only how 
to succeed in the future. The Germans must assure their 
fellow-citizens that they were for good order every day, and 
that they would support only good candidates for every 
position, and turn out every man from the Council who had 
anything to do with rings or with pushing on these domicil- 
iary visits of police, etc. The German who went to church 
Sunday morning and to a lager beer garden in the afternoon 
had a right to have his opinion respected. They should be 
careful to nominate men who would not betray them. The 
ward committees would form a central one, which would 
issue an address to the public, stating their views, and de- 
claring by the Almighty they would not cease till their 
objects were attained. 

Francis A. Hoffman, Jr., followed. The speaker said that 
the United States was settled by many nationalities, even 
before the Constitution was adopted. French, Dutch and 
English had come here. Afterwards an immense immigra- 



yo THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

tion ensued. So many Germans had come that they pre- 
served their own customs and manners, to a great extent. 
Then the Know-Nothing movement arose, and those who 
belonged to it denied their connection, as Henry Wilson had 
done. They must in this movement join all hand in hand, 
irrespective of anything but their rights. It was said that 
the Supreme Court would sustain the Sunday and temper- 
ance laws. That was so ; but the Federal Supreme Court 
had not decided anything of the kind. Slavery was consti- 
tutional, and yet it had been put to death. This was not a 
question of beer, it was one of personal rights. Why, 
instead of fighting the Germans and their rights, did not the 
Puritans reprove their Ben. Butlers ? The Germans had 
fought bravely for American Union. Never would such a 
people be conquered in the present contest. They must 
sink Republican and Democrat, Catholic and Protestant, 
Free Trader and Protectionist, and go in single-hearted to 
their contest for freedom and the right, and the good old 
customs of the mother land which they had transplanted to 
these American shores. 

Mr. Emil Dietzsch followed. He said that Germans and 
Irish, they were all Americans. For years the Germans had 
stood by the Republican party; now the temperance people 
were demanding their pound of flesh. 

General Herman Lieb and others closed the meeting with 
remarks. 

Meetings in the various wards followed fast and numerous, 
awakening a perfect storm of feeling. 

At a meeting of the Chicago Turngemeinde, held in the 



HOW IT WAS DONE. 7 I 

North Side Turner Hall, May 21, the following resolutions 
were adopted : 

"Whereas, That element of the nation which is inimical 
to the foreign-born citizens has got control in Chicago, as 
well as all over the country ; of the legislative branches 
of government, and through them infringes upon the per- 
sonal liberty of individuals, prostitutes the basis of a Repub- 
lican form of government, and attempts to force upon the 
free and independent citizen the straight-jacket of Puritan- 
ical views ; and 

"Whereas, The Turngemeinde of Chicago is in duty 
bound to take up unanimously the side of reformatory, lib- 
eral and Democratic ideas in the political and social life ; 
therefore, 

''''Resolved^ That we hail with joy the union of all liberal- 
minded citizens of Chicago, and that we promise to assist 
with all our might in the battle against the attempts of the 
Puritans against personal rights and the freedom of trade. 

" Resolved^ That it advise its members to forget all party 
differences of the past, and to elect only such men as those 
whose past life is a guaranty of their coincidence with our 
views, and that they will honestly fulfill the promises given 
to us. 

^'Resolved, That, as the joint action of all liberal organ- 
izations and societies, without distinction of party or nation- 
ality, will give this movement sure victory, the Turnge- 
meinde invites all societies to delegate five members each, 
for mutual consultation and united action. 



72 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

" Resolved^ That it is advisable to secure to the movement 
general confidence, to request societies to elect only such 
delegates as are honored in their walks of life, and whom 
nobody can reproach with studying any special interests. 

^^ Resolved, That the Turngemeinde absolutely denies the 
insinuation that in the coming election the German element 
intends to force itself to the front; far from it; we think we 
are able to promise the hearty support and warm apprecia- 
tion of Germans to all those liberal-minded men, of all na- 
tionalities, who will fight with us against falsehood and 
hypocrisy. 

" Resolved, That the Turngemeinde offers its hall and 
building, free of charge, for mass-meetings, committee- 
meetings, and all purposes that will help the cause. 

" Resolved, That these resolutions be published in the 
German and English dailies, and the Scandinavian and 
Bohemian weeklies." i 

At this juncture, the movement had attained such formi- 
dable proportions that the Chicago Tribune, on May 24, 
published the following head-lines, in very bold type, pre- 
ceding reports of meetings : '^ The Germans ; They are 
Rapidly Drifting Away from the Republican Party." 

Again, in the same journal of May 29, the following head- 
lines appeared in bold type : " It is Spreading ; The New 
Departure of the German Americans." Eight enthu- 
siastic liberal meetings had been held the evening previous. 

At those meetings, in conformity with the programme of 
"the New Departure," delegates were appointed to meet and 
select an Agitation Committee. 



HOW IT WAS DONE. 73 

On the evening of May 29th, these delegates met in 
Bismarck Hall, in the Teutonia Building, and appointed the 
following Agitation Committee : Frank Schweinfiirth, Will- 
iam Floth, Clovis Tegtmeyer, C. Niehoff, Dr. Matthei, Max 
Eberhardt, Emil Muhlke, R. Thieme, F. A. Hoffman, J, 
Schiellinger, R. Michaelis, G. R. Korn, William Schwarz, B. 
Eisendrath, Carl Dahinten, Philip Stein, H. Schandlin, W. 
Schaeffer, Carl Bluhm, R. Freiberg, A. C. Hesing, R. Chris- 
tiansen, J. C. Meyer, Peter Hand, A. Erbe, L. Schwuchow, 
F. Sengi, and the editors of the various German papers. 

This Agitation Committee went to work at once with 
great earnestness. The result of their labors was the fol- 
lowing: Address and resolutions. Said Address and resolu- 
tions were presented, on the evening of June 25, to the 
Central Committee, in Bismarck Hall, and were adopted 
unanimously : 

" If it is in times of great political excitement that every 
citizen is called upon to discharge his duties in upholding 
and supporting the rights of his fellow-men, the integrity of 
the nation, or the public welfare and prosperity, it is also at 
such times that, from passion and self-interest, men will 
lose sight of the goodness of the cause in which they have 
enlisted, that they will endeavor to corrupt the true instincts 
of the people, in order to make them subservient to their 
own personal ends, to their desire of private gain and self- 
aggrandizement. The great conflict that was carried on 
between two large and powerful sections of this country, 
which resulted in the final triumph of the principle advocat- 
ing the right of freedom from involuntary servitude and 



74 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

bondage among men, has also fired the passion and encour- 
aged the love of power and personal gain among our 'people. 
We have seen the scandalous transactions of men in high 
office, we have witnessed the attempt of defrauding the pub- 
lic treasury. Instead of the personal rights of the citizen 
being respected, and the principles of our fundamental laws 
being carried out, men seek to control those rights, and use 
the instrument of government as a means of oppression. 
Men seem to forget that the first condition of liberty is the 
establishment of some higher principle than compulsion and 
fear. A government that rests on material force alone, and 
adopts coercive measures to compel the people to follow a 
certain line of conduct, must always be a tyranny, whatever 
form it assumes, 

" The question that seems most deeply to interest the people 
at the present moment, not only in this community, but in 
all parts of the country, is that concerning the renewed at- 
tempt to enforce certain laws which, for some time, had been 
obsolete, and to lend assistance to their sanctioning power 
by additional legislation, and which, for the sake of brevity, 
we familiarly style the Temperance and Sunday laws. 

"That these laws are obnoxious to a large and respectable 
portion of our people, is not so much owing to the fact that 
they are intended to wage war against the legitimate customs 
and habits of a large class of our population, but to the 
well-founded apprehension that they are calculated to aim a 
deadly blow against the fundamental rights of American 
citizenship — the right to be protected in the pursuit of hap- 
piness, the acquisition of private property, and the exercise 



HOW IT WAS DONE. 75 

of personal liberty. It is the candid opinion of those who 
undertake to oppose those laws tliat, although they pretend 
to be mere police regulations, for the preservation of the 
public peace, they are dictated by the spirit of religious sec- 
tarianism, which is bent upon subjecting the powers of gov- 
erhment and the private conduct of its citizens to a system 
of religious belief to which a number of our citizens, who 
by no means form a minority, can, from private convictions, 
never conform. 

" We claim that these rules, by which our own civil conduct 
is to be regulated, tend toward the establishment of a State 
religion, and violate, if enforced, without qualification, the 
fundamental rights reserved to the people by our organic 
laws. 

" We hold that moral principles, which are to shape the 
conduct of our people, cannot effectually be taught in the 
form of positive law in the halls of legislation, but in the 
schools, whether public or private, whether denominational 
or otherwise, and in the sacred confines of our private homes. 
We hold that in those countries where public instruction is 
encouraged, and where all essential facilities are freely given, 
the commission of crime is far less frequent, immoral prac- 
tices but few in number, and the tone of public morality the 
most healthy. We are of opinion that, in order to preserve 
and maintain the virtue of the people, we have to raise the 
moral standard of our youth, we have to educate the rising 
generation up to that standard of public and private virtue 
wliich has been the pride of those days, in which the fathers 
of this country reared this noble fabric of government, whose 



76 THE GREAT REVOLUTION, 

object is to secure the greatest happiness to the greatest 
number of its citizens. 

" In submitting the subjoined resohitions, adopted by a 
central committee, regularly chosen, we disclaim any inten- 
tion of disobeying the laws as long as they exist ; we shall 
use all legal means to alter them, and will be guided in our 
political conduct hereafter by the platform which we submit. 
We further disclaim all tendencies towards German Nativism, 
as sometimes charged against us. A common language and 
views common to citizens of German descent have neces- 
sarily caused us to act in harmony in this case, but speaking 
also the English language, and in the proud consciousness of 
being American citizens, always true to our adopted country, 
we call on citizens of all nationalities, whether born here or 
in another country, to join us in this movement which, we 
believe, is a combat for right and liberty. 

" Resolved^ That the civil service of the general, state, and 
local government has become a mere instrument of partisan 
tyranny, and personal ambition, and an object of selfish 
greed. It is a scandal and reproach upon free institutions, 
and breeds demoralization dangerous to the perpetuity of 
Republican government. We therefore regard a thorough 
reform of the civil service as one of the most pressing 
necessities of the hour ; that honesty, capacity and fidelity 
constitute the only valid claims to public employment; that 
the offices cease to be a matter of arbitrary favoritism and 
patronage ; and that public stations shall become again posts 
of honor. 

" Resolved^ That in the'present state of the public finances, 



HOW IT WAS DONE. 77 

it is imperatively necessary that our city and county affairs 
be managed in the most economical manner, and that the 
public monies be husbanded as carefully and frugally as 
possible. 

" "Resolved^ That education of the youth is the most effective 
agency for the suppression and prevention of crime, and 
that the establishment of a sufficient number of well-located 
schools, and the engagement of a large number of competent 
teachers is one of the greatest demands of this city, and 
ought at once to be attended to. 

" Resolved^ That we regard it as an outrage and in conflict 
with the spirit of the times and our institutions, that a man 
should, except in cases of breach of the peace, be arrested, 
in cases where his offence, if any, is punished by law with a 
fine only. In such cases a mere summons answers every 
just and lawful purpose. All laws and ordinances in conflict 
with this resolution ought to be modified in accordance 
therewith. 

''Resolved, That the police power of the state, county, 
or city should under no circumstances be wielded in the 
interest of only infractions of society for the single purpose 
of enforcing their individual views and convictions upon 
another portion of the community, or in the interest of their 
individual religious views, or in the interest of exclusive 
modes in which happiness should be pursued and life enjoyed. 
Recognizing existing institutions, we assent to the demand tliat 
during Sunday all business and amusements should be under 
such restrictions as will in no manner interfere with or dis- 
turb the devotion or worship of any class of society, at the 



78 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

same time denying the right of any portion of the community 
to determine how their neighbors shall pass their Sunday, 
meaning hereby to concede just what is demanded in return 
— that all shall be left free to spend their Sunday as they 
may see fit, provided, only, that they do not commit a breach 
of the peace, or interfere with any other person exercising 
exactly the same right of choice, this right of choice, under 
the above limitations, being, as we believe, a sacred right 
guaranteed by the institutions of our country. 

" Resolved^ That the cause of Temperance is deserving of 
aid and assistance by all good men ; intemperance in all 
things whatsoever ought to be combated with all suitable 
means. For this reason, we are in favor of encouraging the 
planting and growing of vineyards in this country, and en- 
couraging the brewing of good beer, ales, etc. ; and we also 
recommend the repeal or reduction of duties upon the im- 
port of vinous and malt liquors. There ought also to be 
appointed by the proper authorities inspectors of all the 
beverages sold publicly, and those found impure and deteri- 
orated ought to be condemned, and the dealers therein 
fined. 

^^ Resolved, That we recommend the passage of an ordinance 
prohibiting the granting of licenses for keeping saloons, 
pawn-broker shops, fruit stands, auction stores, hacks, etc., 
to persons of bad repute. 

^^ Resolved, That we consider it a cardinal principle that a 
person should be held liable for his own wrong only; and 
for that reason we consider as unjustifiable the statutory 
enactment making the owner or landlord of premises respon- 



HOW IT WAS DONE. 79 

sible for the neglect or misdemeanor of his tenant. And for 
the same reason we demand that drunkards be held 
strictly accountable as well for their acts committed while 
drunk as for committing the act of getting drunk. 

''''Resolved^ That we recommend the principles and views 
above set forth to the candid consideration of any good cit- 
izen, and we herewith invite all to join us in our efforts to 
re-establish and maintain our fundamental rights and liber- 
ties as citizens of this glorious Republic, and to oppose 
every candidate for office who is not in sympathy with the 
spirit of the foregoing resolutions." 

At the same meeting it was agreed, on suggestion of Mr. 
A. C. Hesing, to hold a mass meeting. 

On the evening of July 17, seventeen members of the 
Committee of Seventy met in the Builders' Exchange, on 
LaSalle street. The meeting here decided the fight to be a 
square stand-up one on the " Law and Order " side. 

Sunday afternoon, August 31, 1873, several gentlemen met 
in Greenebaum's bank. Present, among others, B. G. Caul- 
field, W. J. Onahan, A. C. Hesing, General Leib, Justice 
Boyden, Peter Hunt, Ed. O'Neil, R. Kenney, J. Bonfield, J. 
H. McAvoy, M. Evans, John Corcoran, Aritp Voss, Ed. 
Phillips, A. Schoenninger, Jacob Rehm, P. M. Cleary, T. Bren- 
nan, George von Hollen. 

Arno Voss presided. W. J. Onahan acted as Secretary. 

Mr. O'Hara said it made him feel proud that he had been 
a Democrat from childhood ; he had lived a Democrat and 
hoped to die a Democrat. There was in the present admin- 



8o THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

istration a dangerous tendency to despotism, and a display 
of Puritanism which was simply intolerant. While he fav- 
ored a proper observance of law, he could not but deprecate 
extreme measures. Crime nor lawlessness did he favor, but 
he thought the best interests of society could be consulted 
by adopting such a course as would harmonize all classes-of 
our people. He did not care to see the doors of saloons 
thrown wide open on Sundays. This would offend a certain 
class, and be very illiberal. To compromise, why not cause 
saloon proprietors to keep closed doors and drawn curtains, 
place the establishments under police surveillance, and sup- 
press disorderly conduct.'' The main question to insure 
success was the selection of good men for city officers. 

Mr. B. G. Caulfield followed. He said Mayor Medill was 
elected irrespective of politics, but had sold out to the Law 
and Order nien. In his administration onl)^ a moiety of our 
population had been regarded. Washburn was nothing but 
an importation, and had displayed a stubborn and ill-governed 
disposition. The Police Department had become a tool in 
his hands to enforce Puritanical ideas. 

Mr. A. C. Hesing denounced the city government briskly. 
As an evidence of the manner in which Washburn was con- 
ducting polli^ affairs he instanced the case of Dennis Sim- 
mons, one of the best officers on the force, who was dis- 
charged on a most frivolous charge. 

Messrs. Michael Keeley and Lieb also addressed the 
meeting. 

On the evening of Sept. 3, the German-American Central 
Committee met at Bismarck Hall. 



HOW IT WAS DONE. 8 1 

Mr. A. Schoenninger called the meeting to order. He re- 
ferred to the meeting in Greenebaum's building, where a 
committee was appointed to confer with the Committee of 
Agitation. 

Mr. A. C. Hesing said that the committee, appointed by 
the meeting at Greenebaum's bank, consisted of Americans 
Irishmen, and members of all nationalities excepting Ger- 
mans. It was intended hereby that a coalition should be 
formed. 

On the evening of Sept. 5, a meeting was held in Greene- 
baum's building. Col. Arno Voss called the meeting to 
order, and stated it was a continuation of the meeting of 
the Sunday previous. 

Alderman McAvoy, Chairman of the Committee appoint- 
ed to act in connection with the German organization for 
the purpose of calling a mass-meeting, reported the names 
for said committee. It was acccf^ted. 

A committee of five was appointed to see that all nation- 
alities were represented in committees. 

Pending the Committee's report, Mr. A. C. Hesing, having 
been called upon, gave the history of the organization 
known as the German-American club. This body, he said, 
it was intended, should meet another body constructed by 
this meeting, to exchange suggestions for a platform. This 
platform, he hoped, would speak in favor of law and order, 
of which he was in favor as much as Alderman Woodard, 
or any other man. 

Alderman McGrath returned with additional names for 



82 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

the Committee of Conference, adding also several for the 
county. 

Mr. Keeley moved that the joint committees be instructed 
to draw up a platform, representing the wishes of the people, 
and report the same to a mass-meeting. The motion pre- 
vailed. 

On Saturday evening, Sept. 6, the coalition met in Bis- 
mark Hall, and received the platform of the preceding 
June. 

On the evening of Sept. 12, the platform of Sept. 26, 
1873, was adopted. 

The following amendment was adopted, offered by Mr. 
Rosenthal : 

Resolved^ That there ought also to be appointed, by the 
proper authorities, inspectors of all beverages sold publicly, 
and those found impure and deteriorated ought to be con- 
demned, and dealers therein fined. 

The following letter was read, from Henry Greenebaum, 
Esq.: 

You will please excuse me from taking any active part 
in the deliberations of your committee. While I have 
no inclination to figure in politics, — my business duties ab- 
sorbing my time fully, — candor prompts me to say that I 
am in sympathy with your movement, and I am of the 
opinion that a municipal ticket, to be composed of gentle- 
men possessing honesty and integrity, as well as broad and prac- 
tical views, will be overwhelmingly sustained at the polls. 

Respectfully, Henry Greenebaum. 



HOW IT WAS DONE. S^ 

Mr. Rosenthal presented a resolution whicli was adopted, 
making the election of judges independent of party issues. 

On the evening of Friday, Sept. 26, 1873, a meeting of the 
joint committee was held in Bismarck Hall. 

Mr. Hesing presented the following call which was unan- 
imously adopted : 

TO OUR FELLOW CITIZENS. 

" In view of our approaching municipal election and the 
important issues for the welfare of our city involved there- 
in, we call on all those who look calmly and without preju- 
dice upon the political situation, to unite with us in order to 
secure a good and economical government for the next mu- 
nicipal term. We call upon those who are in favor of an 
honest city and county administration ; who are opposed to 
intemperance, and endeavor to advance public morals by 
moral suasion, and not by prohibitory laws ; who are in 
favor of a quiet Sunday by protecting religious services 
without resort to a stringent general law; who are opposed 
to the granting of licenses to people of bad repute ; who 
are in favor of reforming our police so that the force may 
be the protectors of life and property, and not the tools of 
intolerance and bigoted fanaticism ; who are in favor of /aw 
and order ^ but are opposed to every faction and every can- 
didate who misapply the term for the purposes of intol- 
erance and tyranny, — we invite all citizens of all national- 
ities to whatever political party they may have formerly 
belonged, who adopt the above views, to meet in mass-meet- 
ing at Kingsbury Hall, on Saturday, October 4, at eight 



84 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. ' 

o'clock p. m., for consultation and joint action in regard 
to the approaching election." 

Now came the great and enthusiastic meeting at Kings- 
bury Hall, Saturday evening. It was an immense demon- 
stration. Clark street was black with the masses. 

Among the many transparencies carried by the multitude 
were observed the following : 

" Who owes the city over $2,000,000 in taxes ? The Law 
and Order Party." 

"Equal rights for cottages and palaces." 

" Down with an aristocracy of stock swindlers and grain 
gamblers." 

"If Puritans rule, the country is gone." 

" Our capital consists of muscle and strength." 

" Protection against crime and a sledge - hammer police 
force." 

" Who resists the payment of taxes ? The leaders of the 
Law and Order Party." 

"The People's choice is the best." 

" Fifteen hundred majority for the Fifteenth Ward." 

"Let the light shine on our actions, Sundays not ex- 
cepted." 

" Law and order is our motto, but not by force." 

"The People's Party is too glorious not to be this time 
victorious." 

"We favor temperance a.nd toleration in all things." 

"The People will reform our politics." 

" The Mayor's bill will prove a failure." 

" Our Party is the strongest." 



HOW IT WAS DONE. ' 85 

"The People will reform our Police Department." 

"We are tax-payers, not tax-fighters." 

"Send Washburn home to Joliet." 

"We will vote for the support of law and order." 

"Old Barnacles, take back seats." 

"Equal rights to all. Down with fanatics." 

" The people have arisen in their might. When the peo- 
ple rise fanaticism trembles." 

" The great power for good is by moral suasion, and not 
by prohibition." 

" The duty of the police is to arrest criminals and not 
innocent men." 

"The Nineteenth Ward good for i,ooo majority." 

"No more gilt-edged candidates." 

" We claim our constitutional rights.' 

" Good-by, Joe; don't you wish you had joined the Peo- 
ple's Party ? " 

H. B. Miller, Esq., occupied the chair. The gentleman 
referred to the time after the great fire when all, sharing 
in a common loss, laid aside political sentiments to elect a 
worthy administration. Soon after the installation of the 
new officers, a handful of bigoted and fanatical men com- 
menced to plot to undermine the privileges of a weakened 
people; to undermine privileges they had been accorded 
from time immemorial. Against the earnest pleadings and 
protests of our best citizens, the ear of the Executive was 
opened to them. A superintendent of police had been im- 
ported from Joliet, who knew nothing of us, and under his rule 
the police force, being subjected to a system of mean espion- 



S6 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

age and other humilities, became demoralized. It was now 
proposed to place in the field men of honesty, who would 
pay attention to the vital interests of the city. The weapon 
to be used was the ballot box. 

Mr. B. G. Caulfield followed in an energetic speech. 
The following is a brief synopsis : 

** It is probable that during the preparations made for the 
election there will be various meetings held with the view of 
bringing out our best citizens. I am glad to attend the 
inaugural meeting of the campaign — a meeting of the free 
American citizens of Chicago — that is a meeting irrespective 
of all feeling of nationality. I have been requested to be 
here to - night as a private citizen to express my views 
upon the matters in question. I represent no party, I rep- 
resent no nationality. I favor the election of men un- 
pledged to party, whose character and ability will recom- 
mend them. There being no political question before us, I 
feel as a private individual that I can express only my own 
sentiments, for which you are in no wise responsible. We 
have come to consult, and all that any speaker can do is to 
present his own views. I shall simply lay down the principles 
which I think should govern the campaign. For what I say 
I am responsible, and I shall exact from the men for whom 
I vote the opinions I express. In the first place I shall 
oppose combinations of any nationalities made for the pur- 
pose of obtaining control of the city government, and of 
any coalition of citizens for the purpose of making prescrip- 
tive laws. I believe that our first duty is to our Creator, and 
that every man should keep the Sabbath holy ; but I do not 



HOW IT WAS DONE. 87 

see that 'this is inconsistent with the proper enjoyment of 
the day. I would recommend that the meeting apj)oint a 
committee, to co-operate with any other citizens' movement, 
with a view to obtain the very best men for city officers. 
Now, these are my private views, but I beh'eve they enter 
into the feelings of the campaign. If they are not adopted 
by this meeting they will still remain my views. 

" We must co-operate with all men who have the good of 
the city at heart, by putting into the field a ticket for which 
they need never be ashamed. Let us take no man from whom 
it would be necessary to exact a pledge, no man who is not fit 
to be trusted to the utmost with the city's management and 
money. Let us look around at the financial position of the 
city and country, and ask if it is a time to bicker about pal- 
try police regulations. All other questions must sink into 
insignificance beside the question of bread — the question that 
will come home to the workingmen this winter — and that 
must be looked after. [Applause.] It may be well for Chicago 
to let her voice be heard in the councils of the nation, warn- 
ing the people. The cotton and wheat crops alone cannot 
be bought by the present amount of circulating medium. 
We want more money. We do not say that the money is 
not good, but that we have not enough of it, and we must 
call upon the government to supply the want. It is true it 
has been said much of our money is wrapped up in bogus 
railway operations ; but, surrounded as we are, we know not 
where succor is to come from. We must tell the men who 
hoard up their greenbacks that they are bringing ruin upon 
us. I would like to return to specie payment, but we can- 
not do it yet. We must have more money first. 



88 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

" There is another question. How are we to pay our taxes, 
now a hundred per cent, higher than ever before, while we 
are fifty per cent, less able to pay them than a year ago } 
Some of the poor have judgments against their property 
for taxes, and it will be sold. Now, what do you think of 
men who will prate about what we should drink on Sunday, 
with such a state of things staring them in the face ? I 
want to see the Sabbath respected, but I want no bigotry in 
our Sunday laws. I want every drunken man arrested. 
The proper way to protect Sunday from violation is to pun- 
ish those who violate it. I know nothing inconsistent with 
the law of God in listening to music on Sunday or any 
other day. We have music in our churches to elevate our 
hearts, and why cannot we have it in our parks and on 
our prairies } I am not in favor of wholesale liquor selling 
on Sunday, but I want it done under proper regulations. 

" I might talk longer, but there are other speakers here, 
and they will entertain you better than I can ; and all I 
have to say is, indulge in fraternal charity ; abolish all dis- 
cord and bickerings, and let us unite for a single purpose — 
that of producing a good government for the rich and 
poor." \ 

The Chairman then read the following letter from Gov- 
ernor Palmer : 

Springfield, III., Oct. 3, 1873. 

Gentlemen : Your note inclosing a copy of a series of 
resolutions adopted by a meeting in Chicago, and in which 
you invite me to be present at a mass-meeting, to be held on 
to-morrow evening, favorable to the principles recited in the 



HOW IT WAS DONE. 89 

resolutions, is before me. I have withheld my answer until 
now, with the hope that I might be able to accept your invi- 
tation, but I find that it will be'impossible. 

It affords me great pleasure to express my full concur- 
rence in what I understand to be the leading ideas of the 
resolutions : that every person should be free to preserve his 
own happiness, subject only to such restrictions as will 
afford protection to the equal rights of all others ; that ques- 
tions like that of the mode of the observance of the Sab- 
bath are beyond the rightful domain of legislation ; and that 
every person should be permitted, without legal hindrance, 
to decide for himself on that, as on all other days, how he 
shall employ his time, only that he shall not in any sense 
invade the liberties of others. 

In my judgment the highest earthly authority upon all 
questions of personal morals is each individual citizen, who 
has the right, subject to the limitations before mentioned, to 
decide for himself the extent and nature of his own moral 
duties. But it is due to my own estimate of the character 
of the American people that I should say that I do not be- 
lieve that there is any serious difference among them as to 
the theory of personal rights, upon which our institutions rest, 
but the real controversy is as to the practical application of 
these theories to the government of the great cities, and to 
the regulation of the conduct and the intercourse of their 
inhabitants. I have no faith in the ministry of the police 
officer as an agency for the promotion of morals. Under 
our system of municipal government the authority of its 
local magistracy and of its police is practically absolute, and 
the helpless and feeble are often outraged, and thousands 
are made criminals by being first treated as outlaws. My 
best wishes are with every movement which is designed to 
vindicate the rights of every man who is honest and orderly, 
and regardful of the rights of others, to do on all days that 



90 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

which seemeth good in his own eyes, without challenge from 
any earthly authority whatever. 

I am, very respectfully, John M. Palmer. 

General Hermann Lieb, the Hon. A. C. Hesing, the Hon. 
Casper Butz, Committee. 

Several speeches followed. 

Then, amid unbounded enthusiasm, the platform of the 
party was adopted as follows : 

'"''Resolved^ That, in the present state of the public finances, 
it is imperatively necessary that our city and county affairs 
be managed in the most economical manner, and the public 
monies be husbanded as carefully and frugally as possible, 
in order that our increased municipal taxation be reduced to 
a just and discriminating government, and the expenditures 
be made, not for the benefit of any particular class, but for 
the benefit of the entire community. 

''''Resolved^ That the education of the youth of our country 
is one of the most effective agencies for the suppression and 
prevention of crime ; that this object is much better attained 
by the instruction of our children in the schools than to 
attempt to enforce morality by legislation. 

^^ Resolved^ That the cause of temperance is deserving of 
the aid and assistance of every good "man. Intemperance 
in all things whatever ought to be combated with all suitable 
means. But we hold that the desirable object of temperance 
can only be accomplished by elevating the moral standard 
of the people through enlightened education, and not by 
sumptuary laws or special legislation. 

" Resolved, That we recognize the pursuit of happiness as 



i 



HOW IT WAS DONE. 9 1 

one of the inalienable rights of tlie citizen, and every one 
should be left free to exercise his right witliout let or hin- 
drance, except under such restrictions as are imposed by 
constitutional law; and while we believe that on Sunday all 
business and amusements should be restricted as in no mea- 
sure to interfere with or disturb the devotion or worship of 
any class of citizens, yet we firmly deny the right of any one 
or any class of individuals to prescribe how or in what man- 
ner Sunday or any day shall be enjoyed by a free people in 
a free Republic. 

^'' Resolved^ That we are in favor of the passage of an ordi- 
nance prohibiting the granting of licenses to persons of bad 
repute, for any purpose or purposes whatsoever. 

''''Resolved^ That there ought also to be appointed by the 
proper authorities inspectors of all beverages sold publicly, 
and those found impure and deteriorated ought to be con- 
demned, and dealers therein fined. 

''''Resolved, That we look with deep regret and apprehen- 
sion upon the demoralized condition of our Police Depart- 
ment, Instead of serving as a department for the protection 
of life and property of the people, it has been used as an 
instrument of oppression in the hands of a class of preju- 
diced and narrow-minded men, and that we deprecate that 
the legitimate duties of the police force have been prosti- 
tuted to gratify the intolerant spirit of a minority faction. 

''''Resolved, That the frequent arbitrary arrest of our citi- 
zens, in cases where fines only are imposed for breach of city 
ordinances, is a gross outrage and a violation of constitu- 
tional rights, and should not be tolerated by a free and 
enlightened people. 



92 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

''''Resolved^ That we consider it a cardinal principle that a 
person should be held liable for his own wrong only ; and 
for that reason we consider as unjustifiable the statutory- 
enactment making the owner or landlord of premises which 
have been rented for lawful pursuits responsible for the ne- 
glect or misdemeanor of his tenants, and for the same reason 
we demand that drunkards be held strictly accountable for 
their acts committed while drunk. 

^^ Resolved, That the principles we represent in our plat- 
form and resolutions are conducive to law and order ; and 
while we appeal to the sympathy and support of the com- 
munity at large, regardless of all party affiliations, to endorse 
them, and the action that we have deemed proper to take in 
this municipal contest in opposition to a spirit of intoler- 
ance, we pledge ourselves that we shall abide by law and 
order, and denounce any faction that arrogates to itself that 
name ; and to this end we shall oppose every candidate for 
office who is not in sympathy with the foregoing resolutions." 

Mr, J. K. C. Forrest offered the following as an additional 
declaration of principles : 

" In view of the present demoralized condition of the 
trade, commerce and industry of the country, the meeting 
held in the financial and commercial center of the great 
Northwest resolves : 

"i. That the President be respectfully requested to 
immediately convene 'Congress in extra session, for the pur- 
pose of considering the advisability of issuing a sufficient 
amount of legal tender currency, based upon the deposit of 
national securities, and at such high rates of interest as 



HOW IT WAS DONE. 93 

will attract it again to the Treasury upon the restoration of 
private and corporate credit. The great want at the present 
time is currency. It is absurd to ask the people to deposit 
money in banks which do not pay it out on demand. At 
the same time such deposit of money merely tends to intens- 
ify the existing stringency ; it simply enables the banks to 
save themselves at the expense and to the vital injury of the 
manufacturing and mercantile community. The legitimate 
and truly commercial mode of calling out currency from its 
hiding places is to make it for the interest of holders to 
part with it, 

" 2. Congress should be respectfully asked to repeal the 
existing national bankrupt act. A person with $10,000 of 
property other than money can now be compelled to sacri- 
fice it for a debt of $150. At the same time such sacrifice, 
if general, will depreciate the real and personal property of 
the couptry from fifty to seventy-five per cent. This would 
necessarily entail ruin upon hundreds of thousands of our 
citizens. 

" 3. Congress should replace the notes of national banks 
which have gone into liquidation with legal-tender money. 
This would save interest and prevent stringency of currency. 

" 4. The city of Chicago should promptly issue a suf- 
ficient amount of scrip to keep the mechanics and laborers 
now engaged in municipal improvements in full work. 

"5. The advertised sale of city lots on which are the 
houses of our citizens, and on which tax payments have not 
yet been made, should be postponed until the city scrip to 
be issued has, to some considerable extent, filled the vacuum 
caused by the withdrawal of money from circulation. 



94 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

" With this declaration of principles we submit the cause of 
the People's Party to our citizens of all religions and nation- 
alities." 

When considerable routine business had been done, vehe- 
ment cries brought forth Mr. A. C. Hesing, who spoke as 
follows : 

" Fellow Citizens: I shall entertain you only for a few 
minutes, and I will say that I never intended to say a word 
here to-night. But, as I have been called upon several times, 
I come forward to give you my sentiments in regard to this 
present movement. We are here to-night for the purpose of 
organizing a party which shall bring us law and order in 
this city ; which shall respect life and property, and give us a 
chance, give the poor a chance — you, the laboring classes 
of this community, at least the right to enjoy yourselves 
according to the dictation of your consciences. [Applause.] 
Now, gentlemen, I recollect the time in this city, and in 
other places, when the people — when these very same news- 
papers — were very glad to hear occasionally from your hum- 
ble servant who is now before you. I recollect the time — 
and it is not very long since — when the gentleman whom I 
how see here to-night before me, who said to-day: "Who 
would have anything to do with that crowd that would 
assemble at Kingsbury hall to-night?" — when he begged 
me to come to the Thirteenth ward and give him a speech 
to help elect General Grant and the Republican ticket. I 
recollect the time when this same abused man who stands 
here before you, when a boy, at the age of nineteen, opened 
his mouth and lifted his voice for the liberty of an oppressed 



HOW IT WAS DONE. 95 

race in this country. And to-day I stand here to obtain lib- 
erty for the oppressed who are here before me. I recollect 
the time when these newspapers called upon Mr. Hesing to 
organize war clubs to fill our regiments — to induce men to 
leave their families — to induce them to take up their mus- 
kets and go to the war, and fight the battles for these nabobs 
who now try to oppress us. Where would that glorious ban- 
ner be which floats over us in this hall if it had not been for 
you who rescued it from the hands of those robbers? [Ap- 
plause.] They say that " the foreigners want to dictate to 
us." These same men were not yet born when I went on 
the stump to speak for this great nation, and for American 
liberty, and liberty for all. [Applause.] It is more than a 
third of a century since I landed in Baltimore — it is thirty- 
four years ago that I set my foot on this soil, and to-day I 
am yet called a foreigner by this villainous press of the city 
of Chicago. [Unusual applause.] I claim to be an Amer- 
ican, citizen as much as anyone. And if I were in the City 
Council I would not go there to put my books that I printed 
into the public schools, as some men who now pray for law 
and order do. I have been in these Republican conven- 
tions, but I have always opened my mouth in defence of 
right and justice as against corruption. There is not a man 
in this city who can say to my face that I have ever sup- 
ported a corrupt man for office — that I have ever raised my 
voice for a corrupt man for any position. When my native 
American friends had not the courage to put a corrupt aspi- 
rant aside, they would generally call upon me and say: 
"You have the courage, Hesing, step forward and put him 



g6 THE GREAT REVOLUTION, 

off; " and I generally stepped forward and put him off the 
ticket. [Applause.] In 1869, when those same reformers 
thought that the Germans were getting too much influence, 
they tried to put them down, and what was the result ? That 
law and order Council of 1869, were indicted. [Cries of 
" Good ! " and great applause.] Now, gentlemen, I have as 
much interest in the city of Chicago as any other man. I 
have lived here since 1854. I have my business here, which 
I have to take care of. 

" Gentlemen, these men who have built their churches, not 
with their own money, bat with the money of the poor, pray 
that they alone may have liberty. They think no one else 
is entitled to liberty and the pursuit of happiness. I say 
that God knows he bestowed freedom and the rights of the 
pursuit of happiness upon every one. 

" I tell you now, once for all, that I shall not support any 
man who can be charged with corruption, or has any of these 
steals sticking to his fingers. [Applause.] I want an hon- 
est administration. I want a just administration. I want 
an administration that will give us law and order not only 
on Sunday, but on every day in the week. I am in favor of 
respecting those who attend church, and I believe that 
others should be. I think their worship should not be 
interrupted by any parades on the streets, with music and 
banners, on Sunday. That is the platform on which I stand, 
and on which I always stood. I am in favor of nominating 
a man for the Mayoralty like S. S, Hayes, for instance. A 
man like Thomas Hoyne — a man like Rountree, if he wants 
it — representative men, like a hundred others I could name ; 



HOW IT WAS DONE. 97 

but I am not in favor of men who call conventions to have 
God Almighty represented in the Constitution of this coun- 
try. I believe that God Almighty is represented in the 
hearts of those humble men who stand here before me. I 
believe He has very little to do with men like Colfax or Pat- 
terson ; I am not in favor of a party of men who will suj)- 
port such men for office. 

" I tell you, gentlemen, this is not the first time that the 
humble classes, the hard-working mechanics and artisans, 
have had to take the reins in their own hands ; and when 
the Chicago Jourtial says to-night that ' the bummers will 
meet in Kingsbury hall,' I say it insults the 20,000 ballots 
here represented. [Applause.] They say we can 't win ; 
the ' Law and Order' men must win. I think we are the 
Law and Order party; and I say it myself, like Mr. Caul- 
field, that if anyone gets drunk on Sunday, or on any other 
day, he should be arrested and punished, but I cannot ad- 
mire or agree with the man who goes to church on Sunday, 
and prays, and goes the next day on the Board of Trade, 
and swindles his colleagues there out of so many bushels of 
grain. [Applause.] I say when a man keeps a disorderly 
house he should be shut up ; but I say, too, that a man 
should not be sent twice to shut up a small saloon, while no 
one interferes with a dance-house on Clark street. I believe 
in dealing justice to every man alike. Let us to-night de- 
termine that we will have an orderly city, with no sympathy 
with criminals, and justice to all. I want the law to take its 
course in every instance; crime punished according to the 
law, and no pardons. I want every law executed, not only 

7 



98 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

that against Sunday beer selling. The administration of 
this city government has been a curse to us for two years, 
and I believe we can elect a man like our old Mayors, who 
will execute the laws as they should be. Be united, and we 
can elect anything. Let them scold us, call us bummers, 
tax-eaters, tax-fighters, and all the names they please. I say 
that no man in this house ever fought a tax in his life. You 
can name no German in this city that ever refused to pay a 
tax. It is these men who preach the gospel, and pray aX 
their meetings, and cry ' Law and Order ' at the corners of 
the streets, who jump their taxes, and cheat the city out of 
what they owe it. They are not able to pay their taxes, 
although they have caused them, and they never will be. 

"I have worked hard in this cause, notwithstanding the 
' Law and Order ' people have said it would be a fizzle, and 
said that the people had no confidence in Hesing or O'Hara, 
or Herr Von Hara and O'Hesing, as the papers put it. We 
have fired the first cannon to-night, and its echoes will ring 
throughout the campaign. We have filled two halls, and 
5,000 people have stood at the door unable to get in. Does 
this look like a fizzle ? Does this look as if the people had 
no confidence in Hesing and O'Hara ? Search the poor 
man's heart and show him how he is oppressed, how his 
•comforts and luxuries are stolen from him, and he will fight 
his oppressors. The ' Law and Order ' people are your 
oppressors. They give you no cheap concerts and lectures 
ito educate you ; they will not even let you go to the Expo- 
sition on the day when you can dress up and appear like 
them, but they go there whenever they please and make you 



HOW IT WAS DONE. 99 

and their clerks do their work. They go there and look at 
the machinery and furniture and fabrics you have made at 
wages of a dollar and a half a day. I ask Dr. Kittredge or 
Dr. Fowler, who preach morality and try to crowd their 
words down our throats, to lay their hands on their hearts 
and answer if it is right for them to rob the poor of their 
privileges. I ask them what harm there is if, after you have 
been working hard in a dirty, dusty shop all the week, you 
go to Lincoln Park on Sunday with your wives and babies to 
breathe a little of the fresh air the Lord they pray to has 
made .'' 1 ask them what harm it would be for you to hear 
music there as they hear it in their churches ? I ask them 
what harm there is if, when you return, you take a glass of 
lager or Avine to refresh you .-* You are a pack of slaves if 
you suffer laws that prohibit this, and if I have to vote alone 
on the 5th of November I shall cast my vote to relieve you 
of this oppression they have cast upon you." 

The nominating convention met at 205 East Randolph 
street, on October 24. 

Mr. Greenebaum presided; Mr. T. M. Halpine served as 
Secretary; and Mr. J. J. Crowley assisted. 

Mr. Greenebaum said : — 

" Gentlemen, Delegates : A narrow-minded, uncatholic 
religious spirit, originating with over-zealous and irresponsi- 
ble persons, has forced an issue of proscription and intoler- 
ance upon the community which unfortunately, or fortunately, 
perhaps, divides the sovereign voters at the approaching mu- 
nicipal election. An immense mass meeting of the people. 



om 1 QCk 



lOO THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

without distinction of party, religion or nationality, have 
delegated you gentlemen to nominate candidates for the 
various offices to be filled at the approaching election, solely 
upon their personal fitness, their honesty, and ability to serve 
public interest. It is necessary for me to urge upon you to 
discharge faithfully the high trust imposed upon you. You 
will enter upon the work before you as the selected repre- 
sentatives of the great People's Party. In a spirit of har- 
mony and rectitude you will make all personal preferences 
subservient to the general good, and nominate a ticket that 
will be overwhelmingly sustained at the polls, and avert the 
impending danger of placing the control of the city in the 
hands of speculative office-seekers and bankrupts." 

Mr. A. C. Hesing offered the following resolutions, which 
were adopted : 

" That this convention emphatically endorse the platform 
of principles adopted by the people's mass meeting at Kings- 
bury Hall, October 4, believing that platform to be a true 
expression of the fundamental doctrines underlying the 
structure of a free government, and a legitimate protest 
against all efforts to make sectarianism and class legislation 
prevalent in our public affairs. 

" That as long as our people, discarding the sub-treasury 
system, expect that the temporary balances in our city and 
county treasuries shall draw interest, and so long as it is 
thereby admitted that such public moneys may be made use 
of by the banks with whom they are deposited, for all those 
purposes which they may consider as legitimate ; the risk 
incurred thereby on behalf of the tax-payers, and the temp- 



HOW IT WAS DONE. lOI 

tation which treasurers may be led into, are so obvious that 
the public interests require a strict adherence to the one-term 
principle in regard to the office of custodian of such public 
moneys. 

" That this convention recommend to the Mayor to be 
elected the appointment of S. S. Hayes as City Comptroller, 
since it would be difficult to find, among our citizens, one 
who, by his wide financial experience, his thorough business 
capacity, and the sterling integrity of his character, is so 
well fitted for an office which, in view of the present finan- 
cial embarrassment, is one of the most important and res- 
ponsible in our municipal administration." 

Mr. F. H. Winston offered the following, which was 
adopted unanimously : 

" Resolved. That the representatives of the people of the 
city of Chicago and of the county of Cook, here assembled, 
do declare as one of our cardinal principles, for the main- 
tenance of which we pledge ourselves and the candidates for 
whom we propose to cast our suffrages, that we favor and 
shall demand and insist upon the most rigid economy, as 
well as scrupulous honesty, in the expenditure of the pub- 
lic money of the city and county, to the end that the present 
oppressive and almost unbearable burden of taxation may be 
lightened, and not increased ; and that we demand that all 
extravagant schemes for public buildings to be erected for 
the purpose of glorifying architects and enriching contrac- 
tors shall be at least postponed until demanded by the neces- 
sities of the public or to give our laborers necessary employ- 
ment ; and that we pledge our candidates to cheerfully 



I02 THE GREAT REVOLUTION 

accept the accommodations now provided for the trans- 
action of public business of the offices to which we propose 
to elect them." 

A. C. Hesing asked permission to introduce the following 
from the Democratic Central Committee : 

" We the undersigned, members of the Liberal and Dem- 
ocratic Central and Executive Committees of Cook County, 
hereby certify that we have not authorized any person for us 
to pledge the support of the party, as a party, to what is 
known as the " Grand Pacific Hotel " nominations, or to 
any other nominations, made or to be made; and believing 
it inexpedient to make any nominations as a party at this 
time, we leave to all persons the privilege of supporting such 
candidates in this local election as their judgment and con- 
sciences may dictate. 

"And we may say that we beheld with surprise the announce- 
ment in the papers that parts of our committee had partici- 
pated in, and indorsed, the said Grand Pacific Hotel nomi- 
nations ; and we further say that neither of the three named 
persons who pretended to represent the party at the Grand 
Pacific Hotel are members of the Liberal and Democratic 
Central Committee of Cook county, and consequently have 
no authority to pledge the party to any nominations except 

as private individuals. " Ch, Koehler. 

"Jacob D. Felthausen, 
" Robert Kenney, 
" Edward Kehoe, 
" Albert Michelson, 

" Democratic Central Committee of Cook County." 

"Chicago, Oct. 24. 1873." 



HOW IT WAS DONE. I03 

The communication was accepted and placed on the 
records of the convention. 

The following nominations were then made : 

For Mayor, H. D. Colvin. 

For City Treasurer, Daniel O'Hara. 

For City Collector, George von Hollen. 

For City Assessor, Charles Dennehy, 

For Superior Court Judge, S. M. Moore. 

For County Court Judge, M. R. M. Wallace. 

For County Clerk, Hermann Leib. 

For Clerk Criminal Court, Austin J. Doyle. 

For County Treasurer, H. B. Miller. 

Then followed the nominations of George D. Plant, 
County Superintendent of Schools ; Christian Busse, John 
Herting, William P. Burdick, Thomas Lonergan, and A. B. 
Johnson, County Commissioners. 

Mr, Mark Sheridan, having been called upon, named as 
Commissioner, C. A. Reno, for the West Side. This gentle- 
man was nominated. 

On Monday, October 28, Egbert Jamieson was selected 
for City Attorney; and Martin Scully, for Police Clerk. 

The disposition of the other offices followed. 



# 



HOW THE OPPOSITION WORKED. 



When it had definitely been ascertained what the People's 
Party was, and what policy it would pursue, the cry of the 
Opposition was, " Anything to beat the Hesing-O'Hara com- 
bination." To effect this, one of the strangest fusions was 
formed that has ever been recorded. 

On Saturday, Oct. i8th, 1873, in the Grand Pacific, the 
fusionists, after great confusion, met and nominated the fol- 
lowing gentlemen : 

For Mayor, L. L. B<)nd. 
For City Treasurer, David A. Gage. 
For City Collector, A. L. Morrison. 
For City Assessor, W. H. P. Gray. 
For City Attorney, I. N, Stiles. 
For Police Court Clerk, K. R. Matson. 
For Judge of Superior Court, Wm. H. Porter. 
For Judge of County Court, M. R. M. Wallace. 
For County Clerk, J. W. Brockway. 
For Clerk of Criminal Court, W. K. Sullivan. 
For County Treasurer, Phillip Wadsworth. 
For Superintendent of Schools, A. G. Lane, 
For County Commissioners, Messrs. S. Olin, A. J. 
Galloway, Wm. M. Laughlin, W. B. Bateham, S. 

W. KiNGSLEY. 

For Police Commissioner, Reuben Cleveland. 



HOW THE OPPOSITION WORKED. 105 

On October 23, at Kingsbury Hall, the Committee of 
Seventy indorsed the Grand Pacific nominations.* 

Prior to the nomination of Bond for Mayor, the following 
letter and reply were read : 

Chicago, Oct. 22, 1873. 
Hon. L. L. Bond: 

Dear Sir : You have been requested by a respectable 
body of citizens to become a candidate for the office of 
Mayor at the approaching municipal election. The repre- 
sentatives of Law and Order will have a convention to- 
morrow for the nomination of candidates to be supported 
by them at that election. The office of Mayor is the most 
important one to be filled. We wish the best man, regard- 
less of nationality, creed, or party, for the place — one who 
is in accord with our principles. They demand that there 
shall be honesty and strict economy in the management of 
our finances, to the end that all expenditures be limited to 
the actual needs of the people, and that taxation be light- 
ened as much as possible. 

We demand that the laws shall be enforced for the protec- 
tion of life and property. We claim that the protection of 
every member of society, regardless of age, sex or condi- 
tion, in person, property and freedom, is the supreme object 
and duty of government. 

We claim that every .person has a right, so far as human 
law is concerned, to his own opinions, and to act upon them 
as he shall deem best, and to engage in any lawful traffic, 
and to all the guaranties which the law affords for its con- 
duct and management. 

But upon the question of what kinds and modes of traffic 

* Here it may be stated that an error heretofore ascribed the construc- 
tion of the Grand Pacific Ticket to the Committee. 



I06 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

are injurious to the citizen, as promoters of disorder, igno- 
rance, pauperism and crime, and consequent unnecessary- 
taxation, the aggregate will of the people is supreme, and 
must be obeyed ; and to be specific on this point, we insist 
that the saloons shall be closed on Sundays; that the 
licenses of those who violate the law shall be revoked ; that 
the keepers of these establishments be required to give 
bonds, as required by law, with good security, for the pro- 
tection and indemnity of those who suffer from violation of 
the law ; and that the law be enforced by a faithful and effi- 
cient police, to the end that crime may be diminished, and 
public order maintained. 

We respectfully ask if the principles we have announced 
meet with your approval. If they do, we pledge to you 
such a support as, we believe, will secure your nomination 
and triumphant election, with a result which will give to our 
city a character and attitude she is entitled to possess and 
to occupy before the world. By order of Committee, 

S. B. GOOKINS. 
MAYOR bond's REPLY. 

Mayor's Office, Chicago, Oct. 22, 1873. 

The Hon. S. B. Gookins. 

Dear Sir : Your letter of to-day is at hand, and in reply 
I have to say that if the people assign to me the duties 
appertaining to the office of Mayor, I shall earnestly en- 
deavor to have all the financial interests of the city honestly 
and economically administered, and to that end will do all 
the Mayor can do. 

With regard to the other points, I have to say that no 
executive officer can stand in any other position than that 
contained in the oath of office — " that he will faithfully and 
impartially execute all of the laws to the extent of his 
ability," and in the discharge of his duties protect all citi- 



HOW THE OPPOSITION WORKED. IO7 

zens in their personal and property rights, and in the prose- 
cution of all lawful business enterprises, regardless of the 
condition of such persons. 

As this is the effect of the oath, and the position of an 
executive officer, it is apparent that I cannot make an 
exception of the Sunday law, and this necessarily includes 
the exercise of all lawful means for its enforcement. 

It is my purpose to devote my whole energies, if elected, 
to secure such a government as will promote the safety, 
honor and welfare of the whole people, and to maintain the 
good name and credit of our city. No man can do more 
than this, and no honorable man can do less. 

Lester L. Bond. 

The reading occasioned loud and prolonged applause. 

On October 29 Mr. Joseph P, Clarkson was nominated 
for Judge of the Superior Court, vice Judge Porter, who died 
a short time subsequent to his nomination. 



THE OFFICIAL RETURNS. 



The People's ticket made a clean sweep. In the County 
it elected a Judge of the Superior Court ; a Judge of the 
County Court ; a Clerk of the County Court ; a Clerk of 
the Criminal Court; a County Treasurer; a Superintend- 
ent of Schools ; five County Commissioners ; a member 
of the Board of Equalization, and a Police Commissioner. 

The following are the official returns in totals of votes 

given in the County of Cook and State of Illinois, at an 

election held in said County on Tuesday, the 4th day of 

November, A.D. 1873. The candidates in italics were 

elected : . 

Judge of Superior Court.- — S. M. Moore. 32,019 votes. 
Joseph P. Clarkson, 21,167. 

Judge of County Court. — M. R. M. Wallace, 53,417. 
Placed on both tickets. 

Clerk of County Court. — Hermann Lieb, 31,156. James , 
W. Brockway, 22,046. 

Clerk of Criminal Court. — Austin Doyle, 33>o3i. W. K. 
Sullivan, 20,163. 

County Treasurer. — H, B. Miller, 31,941. Philip Wads- 
worth, 21,106. 



THE OFFICIAL RETURNS. I09 

Superintendent of Schools. — 6'<f^/;i^^ D. Plani, 31,248. 
A. G. Lane, 21,839. 

County Commissioners. — Christian Busse, 30,837; A. B. 
Johnson^ 31,846/ Thomas Loner gan^ 3i)976; IVm. B. 
Burdick, 31,629; John Hertijig^ 3i>784 E. A. Lynn, 
20,999; S. W. Kingsley, 21,782 ; W. B. Bateham, 21,340 ; 
Wm. M. Laughlin, 21,557; A.J. Galloway, 21,626. 

Members of State Board of Equalization. — S. S. 
Gardner^ 10,673. R. P. Derrickson, 9,173. 

Police Commissioners. — Chas. A. Reno, 27,148. R. Cleve- 
land, 18,729. 

Messrs. Thomas Cannon and Max Eberhardt were elected 
as County Justices ; but the Governor refused to commission 
on the ground of the non-existence of any such office. 

In the City. — The ticket carried the Mayor, the City 
Treasurer, the City Attorney, the City Collector, the City 
Assessor, the Clerk of the Police Court, and the great pna- 
jority among the Aldermen. 

The following are the official returns : 

Mayor. — M. D. Colvin, 28,791. L. L. Bond, 18,540. 

City Treasurer. — Daniel O'Hara, 28,761. D. A. Gage, 
18,629. 

City Attorney. — Egbert Ja/nieson, 28,586. Thomas J. 
Turner, 18,636. 

City Collector. — George Von Hollen, 28,590. A. L. Mor- 
rison, 18,560. 

City Assessor. — Chas. Dennehy, 28,570. Wm. B. H. Gray, 
18,705. 

Clerk of Police Court, — Martin Scully, 27,544. K. R. 
Matson, 19,240. 



no THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

As to the Aldermen, the following are the official returns : 

First Ward. — Foley, 501. Lyons, 478. 

Second Ward. — Dixon, 666. Reid, 285. 

Third Ward. — Fitzgerald, 1,700. McGenniss, 984; Thomas, 

348. 
Fourth Ward. — Spalding, i,']2,S' McArthur, 688. 
Fifth Ward. — Stone, 1,805. James, 938. 
Sixth Ward. — Reidy, 2,212. Tracy, 984; Conley, 149. 
Seventh Ward. — Cullerton, 2,204. Millard, 299. 
Eighth Ward. — Hildreth, 1,687. Fleming, 848; McDon- 
ald, 695. 
Ninth Ward. — Bailey, 1,547. Powell, 1,422; Clark, 510; 

Ryan, 338. 
Tenth Ward. — Woodma?t, 1,384. Greenebaum, 672 ; 

Eaton, 206. 
Eleventh Ward. — White, 1,136. Walsh, 809; Ferguson, 

89. 
Twelfth Ward. — Heath, 1,543. Courtney, 585. 
Thirteenth Ward. — Campbell, 1,233. Sherwood, 853; 

White, 292. 
Fourteenth Ward. — Cleveland, 1,127. Turtle, 877. 
Fifteenth Ward. — McGrath, 2,874. Casselman, 454; 

Brown, 235. 

Sixteenth Ward. — Stout, 2,162. Hawkinson, 460. 

Seventeenth Ward. — Lengacher, 2,454. Pfolstrom, 211. 

Eighteenth Ward. — Murphy, 1,00^]. Handly, 606 ; Bean, 
455 ; Barrett, 96. , 

Nineteenth Ward. — Lynch, 540. Greeley, 198. 

Twentieth Ward. — Jonas, 837. Harvey, 494; Kehoe, 
283. 



THE SUNDAY QUESTION. 



Notwithstanding the fact that the platform adopted at 
Kingsbury Hall clearly foreshadowed the attitude of the 
Mayor and Aldermen elected on the People's ticket, the 
Great Defeated yet awaited, in suspense, any opportunity that 
might arise to cause the total suppression of the sale of 
liquor on the Sabbath. 

Accordingly, when the temperance fever that had sud- 
denly visited the " praying women " of Ohio reached Chi- 
cago, the advocates of the idea that principally caused their 
discomfiture and total rout at the polls in November, 1873, 
favored an organization of " praying women " in Chicago. 

Throughout Ohio and other states the bands of "praying 
women," among other resorts adopted, visited places where 
liquor was sold, and besought the proprietors to close their 
institutions. To attempt any such thing in Chicago was 
utter folly ; a few venturesome ladies demonstrated the fact 
in a very brief time. 

A strong organization was, nevertheless, subsequently 
formed, with the object of causing the closing of saloons on 
Sunday. To attain this end, it was deemed best to present 
a petition to the Council, as numerously signed as possible. 
Armed witli this, it was quite absurdly hoped that the 



112 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

" praying women " might move to accede to their request a 
Council in which the People's Party was represented by a 
majority of about twenty-five to fifteen. 

On Friday, March 13, the first movement of importance 
was inaugurated, in the Methodist Church block. On this 
occasion it was resolved, by the votes of about six hundred 
ladies, to approach the Common Council, assembled in ses- 
sion, and entreat them to pass an ordinance in conformity 
with their wishes. Several clergymen santioned the proceed- 
ings with their presence. On the Sunday following, and 
preceding the day upon which the visit was to be made, sev- 
eral meetings were held in sympathy with the Sunday saloon 
closing idea ; among others, a meeting in the First Baptist 
church. Several ministers' meetings followed. 

The ladies, thus strengthened in their crusade, met in the 
Methodist Church block, and appointed a committee to pre- 
sent their petition to the Council. At the session. Rev. 
Arthur Mitchell presented a resolution, adopted at the min- 
isters' meeting, in earnest support of the ladies. 

The resolution was received with enthusiasm. 

The ladies forming the delegation to the Council now set 
out upon their mission. Reaching the CouncilChamber, 
they found a miscellaneous gathering of men and boys 
attracted by the novel demonstration. There was certainly 
a rough element in the crowd — partaking considerably of 
the nature of such assemblages as have been noted wherever 
in the country the " praying women " have been at work. 
Whatever of insult that element was guilty of can hardly 
reflect discredit upon the Board of Aldermen. 



THE SUNDAY QUESTION. II3 

After the transaction of some routine business, the peti- 
tion of the ladies was presented to the Council. 

Considerable discussion followed. Finally, Aid. Culler- 
ton moved the passage of the engrossed ordinance, as fol- 
lows : 

An Ordinance amending section one (i), chapter fifty (50), 
and section three (3), chapter twenty-eight (28), of the 
revised ordinances. 
Be it ordained by the Coimnon Council of the City of Chicago : 
Section i. The Mayor is hereby authorized to grant li- 
censes for the sale of spirituous, vinous, and fermented 
liquors to any person who shall apply to him in writing, 
upon said person furnishing sufficient evidence to satisfy 
him that he or she is a person of good character, and upon 
such person executing to the city of Chicago a bond, with 
at least two sureties, to be approved by the Mayor, in the 
penal sum of five hundred dollars ($500), conditioned that 
the licensed party shall faithfully observe and keep all ordi- 
nances now in force, or hereafter to be passed, during the 
period of such license, and that he will keep closed all doors 
opening out upon any street from the bar, or room where 
such liquors are sold, on Sunday, and that all windows 
opening upon any street from such bar, or room where such 
liquors are sold, shall be provided with blinds, shutters, or 
curtains, on Sundays, so as to obstruct the view from such 
streets into such rooms, and paying for the use of the city 
fifty-two dollars ($52) and no other fees. On compliance 
with these requirements a license shall be issued to the ap- 
plicant, under the corporate seal, signed by the Mayor, and 
countersigned by the Clerk, which shall authorize the per- 
son or persons therein named to sell, barter, give away, or 
deliver wines and other liquors, whether vinous, or ardent, 
or fermented, in quantities less than one gallon, in the place 
8 



114 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

designated in the application ; provided^ all licenses issued in 
pursuance hereof shall expire on the ist day of July in each 
year. 

Sec. 2. If any person shall keep a common, ill-governed, 
or disorderly house, or suffer any person to play any game 
of chance on his or her premises for money, or any other 
valuable things, any such person, on conviction, shall be 
fined in a sum of not less than five dollars ($5) nor more 
than one hundred dollars (Jioo). 

Sec. 3. Section three (3), chapter twenty-eight (28), and 
section one (i), of chapter fifty (50), of the revised ordi- 
nances of the city of Chicago, are hereby repealed. 

Sec. 4. This ordinance shall be in force from and after its 
passage. 

The motion of Aid. Cullerton prevailed by the following 
vote : 

Ayes — Richardson, Foley, Fitzgerald, Schmitz, Reidy, 
McClowry, Cullerton, M. B. Bailey, Hildreth, O'Brien, T. F. 
Bailey, White, Eckhardt, Mahr, Stout, Schaffner, Lengacherj 
Cannon, Murphy, Brand, Lynch, and Corcoran. — 22. 

Noes — Warren, Dixon, Coey, Sidwell, Pickering, Stone, 
Clark, Woodman, Miner, Heath, Moore, Campbell, Quirk, 
and Cleveland. — 14. 

The absent Aldermen were Spalding, Kehoe, McGrath, 
and Jonas. 

The attitude of the Council on this question may be stated 
as 25 to 15, recording Spalding in the negative, and Mc- 
Grath, Kehoe, and Jonas in the affirmative. 

The ladies now besought Mayor Colvin to exercise his 
veto privilege. This his Honor refused to do, pledged as 
he was to execute the wishes of The People who elected him. 

Aid. Dixon was elected President of the Council on the 
same evening. 



GAGE NOT GUILTY OF PERJURY. 



The last indictment for false swearing against David A. 
Gage, Ex- City Treasurer, which appears in full under the 
head " Counting the Money," was quashed by Judge Moore 
March 26, 1874^. But one indictment remains at the present 
writing, being that for failing to pay over. In reference to 
this indictment, Mr. Gage obtained a change of venue to 
Lake County. That he will ever be tried thereunder is 
quite doubtful, however, as the prospects that the city will, 
in a short time, recover every cent due it, are very promis- 
ing. In the event of full satisfaction of the debt, a quite 
general impression exists that to further prosecute would be 
to persecute. While anticipating so early a settlement of 
the whole matter, Mr. Gage's counsel yet believe they have 
a sufficient defense under the indictment for failing to pay 
over. The main points in said defense are published here- 
tofore, having been elicited in an interview with Hon. 
Leonard Swett, Mr. Gage's counsel. 

The Court (Judge Moore), in his opinion quashing the last 
indictment for false swearing, referred to the affidavit made 
by Mr. Gage and published heretofore. This affidavit con- 
formed substantially to the provision made by the 35th sec- 



Il6 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

tion of chapter 5 of the city charter. But by an amendment it 
was provided that the word " unlawfully " should be inserted 
before the word " use " whenever the same occurred. By 
section 34 it was provided that the treasurer may be directed 
or authorized by ordinance or resolutipn of the Common 
Council to loan, on deposit, the funds of the city, in the 
banks thereof. Hence the word " unlawfully " was very 
necessary, preceding the word "use." Inasmuch as said 
word " unlawfully " was omitted by Mr. Gage, his affidavit 
did not comply with the statute, and was therefore a volun- 
tary affidavit. There was also concerned a question as to 
the time of making the affidavit. 

The Court concluded as follows : 

"Because the affidavit was not authorized by law; or, 
rather, because it did not conform to the law, and was there- 
fore unauthorized ; and secondly, because it does not appear 
that the affidavit was made at or about the end of the month, 
and because it does not appear that the report and affidavit 
were required by the Comptroller when made, on the 6th of 
December, 1873, the indictment must be quashed." 



The report of a portion of the Finance Committee, published elsewhere in reference 
to the Gage matter was not " official." Messrs. McGennis and Ogden signed the 
report after a comparison of the books of the Comptroller, Collector and Treasurer ; 
presuming the cash to be safe on the showing. If those gentlemen had visited the 
banks, they might have been snubbed, as Aid. Bateham of the old Committee had 
been. Upon his visit, it appears he was informed that if Mr. Gage desired to know 
how much money he had there, Mr. Gage could ascertain. Again, in calm considera- 
tion, there were very few men at that time who had not the strongest confidence in Mr. 
Gage. 



PART II. 



City Officers. 



HARVEY D. COLVIN. II9 



HARVEY D. COLVIN. 



Harvey D. Colvin, Mayor of the city of Chicago, was 
born in Herkimer, Herkimer county. New York, Dec. i8, 
1814. Up to his election on the People's ticket, by a ma- 
jority of 10,251, Mr, Colvin devoted the greatest energies of 
an uniformly active life to the building up of the United 
States Express Company in the West. Of this most flour- 
ishing institution Mr. Colvin was the General Agent in Chi- 
cago, when called upon to stand at the head of the People's 
ticket — a selection made only after the most mature delib- 
eration of the leaders. 

Mr. Colvin's business life commenced in Little Falls, N. 
Y., where he was engaged for seventeen years in the manu-' 
ufacture of boots and shoes. He subsequently became con- 
nected with the American Express Company in the same 
locality. Removing thence, he organized, in 1854, the Uni- 
ted States Express Company in Chicago, with a capital of 
about $500,000. The growth of the company under his 
direction, in those twenty years, has been so marvellous that 
the amount of capital now invested is $6,000,000. 

Among the positions of public trust held by Mr. Colvin, 
while in Little Falls, were the Overseership of the Poor, the 
County Superintendency of the Poor, and a Town Supervi- 
sorship. 

Mayor Colvin assumed the duties of his present office on 
the first day of December, 1873. His Honor's inaugural Ad- 
dress was read before thirty-nine aldermen, as follows : Rich- 
ardson, Foley, Warren, Dixon, Coey, Fitzgerald, Sidwell, 



I20 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

Spalding, Pickering, Stone, Schmitz, Reidy, McClory, 
Cullerton, M. B. Bailey, Hildreth, O'Brien, T. F. Bailey, 
Clark, Woodman, White, Miner, Heath, Moore, Campbell, 
Quirk, Cleveland, Eckhardt, McGrath, Mahr, Stout, Schaff- 
ner, Lengacher, Cannon, Murphy, Brandt, Lynch, Corcoran, 
and Jonas. Alderman Kehoe was absent. 

The following extracts are culled from the Address as in- 
dicative of the attitude of His Honor upon the several 
important questions referred to : 

" During the last municipal administration the attention 
of our community has, to a great extent, been diverted from 
all questions referring to an economical management of the 
city finances, or even to the protection of life and property, 
by efforts as fruitless as they were frantic, to enforce certain 
ordinances in regard to the observation of the first day of the 
week. It is a well known fact that those ordinances, how much 
soever they may have been in consonance with the public 
opinion of a comparatively small and homogeneous popula- 
tion at the time of their enactment, have ceased to be so, since 
Chicago has, by the harmonious cooperation of citizens be- 
longing to different nationalities, grown from a village to the 
rank of one of the greatest cities of the world. For a series of 
years it has been the practice of our municipal administration 
to treat those ordinances as 'obsolete,' and to refrain from 
enforcing them. It is not intended to denounce that practice, 
but merely to state that, within the past year, it has become 
distasteful to a large portion of the community. In our late 
election the issue has been fairly and squarely made whether 
the existing ordinances shall be retained and enforced, or, 
upon the other hand, either repealed or so modified as to be 
in consonance with the present state of public opinion in 
our community. A majority of our people, so overwhelming 
that it would be preposterous to designate their decision as 
a snap judgment, or to cavil at its meaning, has decided 



HARVEY D. COLVIN. 121 

the question in favor of the latter alternative. It behooves 
all good citizens who believe the principles of our republi- 
can form of government to accept that po])ular decision, to 
' which, following the advice of my predecessor in office, they 
have appealed. There is no reason to fear that those who 
conscientiously believe the existing ordinance upon the sub- 
ject to be dictated by a spirit of religious intolerance incom- 
patible with the spirit of our age, will, on their own part, 
defy the spirit of mutual toleration. If the Common Coun- 
cil, in its wisdom, and having undoubtedly full power upon 
the subject, should determine either to repeal or modify the 
Sunday prohibitions and Sunday clauses in the license law, 
or to fully secure the religious exercises of a portion of our 
citizens from all disturbance, without interfering with the 
harmless enjoyments of other citizens, it will do more than 
its duty toward the majority of the people of this city. 

" Our police system should be conducted upon the prin- 
ciple of the prevention rather than the punishment of crime. 
Nor should the city seek to obtain revenue by means of any 
of the prevalent forms of vice. When it does, it becomes 
particeps criniinis in the iniquity it professes to punish or 
suppress. My nature revolts against this barbarous and 
brutal practice, not pursued for the purpose of extirpating 
vice, but with the object of adding a few paltry dollars to 
the public revenue. It shall never receive my sanction. All 
that can usefully be accomplished in this direction is the 
mitigation of the more glaring and demoralizing effects of 
that which in all ages and among all races has existed as an 
evil that may be mitigated, or, perhaps, regulated, but which 
has never yet been exterminated. 

" Police officers should be made to understand and feel 
that laws are enacted as much to protect the unfortunate as 
to punish the wicked. In no case should a person be inhu- 
manly treated simply because he has been arrested for some 
p etty offense or misdemeanor. 



122 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

" I am decidedly opposed to the practice of police officers 
receiving money, in the shape of rewards for services ren- 
dered, from any corporation or individual. Let them look 
to the city alone for remuneration. Such practice will, 
sooner or later, end in the force becoming merely the instru- 
ments of great corporations or wealthy individuals." 

His Honor, having comprehensively referred to the con- 
dition of the city's finances, which was not very promising, 
suggested rigid economy as the only resort in the conclusion 
of his address, He said : — 

" In conclusion, gentlemen, I would add that, in view of 
the prostrated condition of our city treasury, our fellow- 
citizens loudly call upon you for economical legislation. At 
the same time they look to me for a prompt interposition of 
my veto to any measure of wasteful, excessive, or corrupt 
expenditure. I hope and trust that neither will fail in the 
duties of our respective provinces. In the event that we 
do not, we shall acquit ourselves to our own and the public 
satisfaction, and receive the regard due to good and faithful 
servants." 



DANIEL O'hARA. I 23 



DANIEL O'HARA. 



Daniel O'Hara, City Treasurer of Chicago, filled a van- 
guard position on the People's ticket, having assumed the 
undertaking of opposing David A. Gage in a contest for the 
custodianship of the city's money. Successive terms as 
City Treasurer had made Mr. Gage's name the synonym of 
the loftiest character of official integrity ; and the fact that he 
had paid into the city's exchequer the interest on city deposits 
— which his predecessors pocketed — seemed to make his 
re-election a foregone conclusion. This last contest, too, as 
subsequent developments proved, was the battle of David A. 
Gage's life. In its result was staked every thi?ig that concerned 
his future welfare, and the standing forever afterwards of 
his connections both public and private. A situation like 
this shrank from .very few availibilities that could tend in 
the remotest manner to secure success. Against all of these 
resources, gathered together at suggestion, the People's 
Party was intrepid enough to present Daniel O'Hara, backed 
by a simple record fox honesty and capability in the discharge 
of his official duties. 

Daniel O'Hara is of Irish descent, as the name indicates, 
and carries as much of life's sunlight over to the shady side 
of fifty, as any of his most genial fellow-countrymen. It is 
his nature to look at the bright side of the picture ; and his 
chief glory is to observe everybody else doing likewise. 
This cheerful disposition, maintained under all circum- 
stances, has, during the quarter of a century Mr. O'Hara 



124 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

has dwelt among us, contributed materially to his uniform 
success in public life. 

There are a great many people whose comfort is much 
heightened by the conviction that others are suffering; 
while some people are trudging through a merciless rain- 
storm, that they are snugly esconced in a pair of blankets. 
A thought like this to a man of Mr, O'Hara's generous im- 
pulses, is a source of absolute pain. In a commercial point 
of view, this peculiarity of disposition very rarely enriches 
the possessor. Yet it has appeared, through the vagaries of 
circumstances, that Mr. O'Hara's good deeds have been 
remembered by at least a portion of the world; for to their 
influence is accredited a goodly proportion of his own pros- 
perity. 

The early life of Mr. O'Hara was devoted to journalism, 
a field for which he was peculiarly adapted. Twenty years 
ago, he served as official reporter for the Chicago Tribu?ie, 
and on two occasions he exhibited an ambitijDn to see, prop- 
erly represented, the interests of the Western Catholics 
through the Detroit Vindicator and Western Tablet, both of 
which journals he founded, only to witness their failure, after 
he had severed his connection with them. In 1855, aban- 
doning journalism, he entered the Recorder's office, and 
was soon created chief clerk. 

In 1859, the Legislature created a new court, built upon 
the then Court of Common Pleas, and christened it the 
Superior Court. Provision having been made under the new 
dispensation for additional judges and clerks, Mr. O'Hara, 
then chief clerk in the Recorder's office, was placed in the 
field by the Democratic Convention as a candidate for the 
clerkship. In the race, he was defeated by a trifling majority. 
He ran so far ahead of his ticket, however, that he sprung 
at once into the vanguard of his party, universally recog- 
nized as one of the strongest lions of the fold. This was 
Mr. O'Hara's first appearance in the political arena. 



DANIEL O KARA. I25 

In 1863, under the new charter, Mr. O'Hara was a candi- 
date for the clerkship of the Recorder's Court, on the ticket 
led by Hon. Francis C. Sherman, one of the old field-horses 
of the Democratic party, and one of Chicago's most illus- 
trious pioneers. The Republican party, at the previous 
election, elected its ticket by a majority of 4,600. But such 
was the standing of the men placed on the Democratic ticket, 
that the party made a clean sweep by a trifling majority. 
Hon. Evert Van Buren was elected Judge of the Recorder's 
Court on the same occasion. 

In the spring of 1868, the Democratic Convention nom- 
inated Hon. W. K. McAllister for the Judgeship of the 
Recorder's Court, and Mr. O'Hara for the Clerkship. 
This was a very fierce fight; — judge and clerk being both 
staunch Democrats — and resulted in a magnificent victory. 

In 187 1, under the new constitution, the Recorder's 
Court became the Criminal Court. The jurisdiction of the 
Court was now extended to the county ; and the judicature was 
so altered as to require the Judges of the Superior and Cir- 
cuit Courts to sit therein in rotation. With this change, Hon. 
W, K. McAllister became a candidate for the Supreme Bench 
of the State, and was overwhelmingly elected Associate 
Justice, which distinguished office he yet fills, to the honor 
of the great State of Illinois and the satisfaction of the 
people at large. 

Mr. O'Hara's term as Clerk of the Criminal Court expired 
in the fall of 1873, when the People's Party placed him 
in the field as a candidate for the City Treasurership of 
Chicago. 

Throughout his career, Mr. O'Hara has been a stout Dem- 
ocrat, and will always revere the principles inculcated by 
Senator Douglas, whom he has esteemed as his political 
Gamaliel. 



126 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 



JESSE O. NORTON. 

The People's Party increased to a very considerable ex- 
tent the confidence of the public, by the selection of Jesse 
O. Norton for the responsible office of Corporation Counsel. 
The adaptability of Judge Norton for the thorough discharge 
of the manifold duties of the position was universally recog- 
nized at once by Press, Bench and Bar. The local press 
was singularly united in his favor as Corporation Counsel, 
and a portion of the outside press took early occasion to 
extol the appointment. The following extract in reference 
thereto is taken from a leading journal in Joliet (where 
Judge Norton passed many of his days) : 

" The numerous friends of Hon. J. O. Norton, in this 
'Congressional district, were pleased to learn of his appoint- 
ment as Corporation Counsel of Chicago, with an annual 
salary of six thousand dollars. 

" We regard Mr. Norton as not only one of the ablest, but 
one of the purest public men of the times. For nearly a, 
quarter of a century he was a resident of this city and filled 
numerous public offices, including that of County Judge, 
member of the Constitutional Convention, Judge of Circuit 
Court, member of Congress from this district three terms, 
and U. S. Attorney, in all of which positions it was never 
charged that he neglected a single duty or made use of a 
cent that he was not justly entitled to. His soul is 
unstained by Credit Mobilierism or official peculation. He 
is a man of fine ability, and his decisions while on the bench 
were characterized for their legal knowledge and adherence 
to correct principles." 

Throughout his entire career, Mr. Norton has uniformly 



JESSE O. NORTON. 

commanded the unqualified confidence of those who have 
kno'wn him — confidence not alone in his ability as a jurist, 
but confidence in his sterling integrity. Very few men can 
point to more flattering testimonials in this behalf. Among 
his invaluable memories, the movement in 1862 to place him 
as one of the judges in the Court of Claims, is recalled dis- 
tinguishedly. On this occasion letters of the strongest char- 
acter, in his favor, were written to the President by such men 
as Schuyler Colfax, John Covode, O. H. Browning, Lyman 
Trumbull, Roscoe Conklin, Thaddeus Stevens, R. E. Fenton, 
and Erastus Corning. While the matter was pending, how- 
ever, Mr. Norton withdrew from the field, having been re- 
elected to a seat in Congress. 

During his residence in Joliet, the admirers of our subject 
first introduced him into the arena of politics — a thoroughly 
unwilling candidate for the public honors vouchsafed to him 
at the time, it may be said. Filled with a laudable ambition 
to go to Congress before his brother graduates of Williams 
College, in Massachusetts, it is true Mr. Norton stepped into 
the ranks of the legal profession, bent upon becoming a 
Congressman. This was his only political desire. Having 
once gratified it, he placed his whole soul in the practice of 
the profession he loves so sincerely. 

Jesse O. Norton was born in Bennington, Vermont, and 
is about fifty-seven years of age. Having graduated quite 
early in life, in Williams College, Massachusetts, with high 
honors, he came W^est and settled in Joliet, Illinois. Here 
he was admitted to the Bar, and practiced for a period ex- 
ceeding twenty years. 

In 1847, he was elected a member of the Constitutional 
Convention. While so serving, perhaps his most prominent 
attitude was taken on the question in reference to the 
exclusion of negroes from the State. He took a bold stand 
against the exclusion idea; contending that it was entirely 



]28 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

unconstitutional. The arguments on which he based his 
position were conceded, on all hands, to be unanswerable. 

In 1850, he was elected to the Legislature. In the delib- 
erations of that body he took a most prominent part. His 
principal efforts were chronicled in the question of the rail- 
road system of those days. 

In 1852, he was elected to Congress, and in 1854, he was 
re-elected. During his first year he achieved a magnificent 
record; due principally to his telling speech against the 
Nebraska Bill. Senator Douglas paid him an eloquent com- 
pliment upon this occasion. He also assisted materially in 
that movement which gave about $2,000,000 worth of swamp 
lands to the State ; and favored the appropriation of ;|5,ooo,- 
000 for the deepening of the Illinois and Michigan Canal, a 
measure which was lost in the Senate. 

In 1857, he was elected Judge of the Circuit Court, and 
served up to the summer of 1861. He subsequently de- 
clined re-election. 

In 1862, he was re-elected to Congress. 

In 1866, Mr. Norton came to Chicago. In this year, he 
was appointed U. S. Attorney, and held the office up to the 
spring of 1869. While United States Attorney, the records 
showed more convictions and a greater amount of monies 
collected than in any other State, except New York. 



S. S. HAYKS. 129 



SAMUEL S. HAYES. 



Samuel Snowden Hayes, the Comptroller of the City of 
Chicago, was born Dec. 25, 1820, in Nashville, Tennessee, 
where his father, Dr. R. P. Hayes, settled soon after his re- 
tirement from the Surgeonship of a New York regiment, 
engaged in the last conflict between the United States and 
Great Britain. Having accjuired all the educational advan- 
tages a solicitous father could procure for his son, Mr. Hayes 
began active life as a store boy in a drug store ; was soon 
made a prescription clerk, and rose so rapidly subsequently, 
as, in a brief interval, to decline the entire charge of, and a 
partnership in, a drug store in Indiana. In August, 1838, 
he went into the drug business on liis own account in Shaw- 
neetown, Illinois. The occupation proving incongenial, 
however, he abandoned it soon after for the legal profession. 
In the practice of law — he was admitted to the bar in 1842 
— Mr. Hayes remained up to 1852, when, having caused the 
wilds of Mount Vernon and Carmi, Illinois, to ring with the 
music of his forensic efforts, he removed to Chicago. This 
was a sensible project. 

Very early in life Mr. Hayes gave good promise of success 
in the political arena. The first demonstration, perhaps, 
was in 1843, when he took. the stump in favor of the Demo- 
cratic Party. In 1845, at the Memphis Convention, called 
for the promotion of Western and Southern interests, his 
speech for the coalition of parties elicited a high compli- 
ment from John C. Calhoun, whose expressions he con- 
9 



130 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

demned; in 1846 he was sent to the Legislature; in 1847 
he was selected a delegate to a Convention for the Revision 
of the Constitution ; and in 1848 he was constantly on the 
stump in Southern Illinois. 

On his removal to Chicago, Mr. Hayes was employed by 
the City as Counsellor and City Solicitor. Senator Douglas, 
however, soon brought him from his seclusion, by proposing 
the repeal of the Missouri Compromise. This measure he 
opposed vehemently. His action brought forward, Senator 
Douglas in 1855, when that statesman paid particular 'atfeiS^: 
tion to Mr. Hayes and others. This fact to the contrary, 
notwithstanding, in obedience to the Democratic principle, 
no better supporter of Douglas, it is said, was afterwards 
found than Mr. Hayes. From this period up to and during 
the war of the Rebellion, the voice of our present Comptrol- 
ler was always heard plainly in open convention. 

The position assumed by Mr. Hayes when appointed 
Comptroller of Chicago, in 1862, was in the interest of econ- 
omy and regularity so emphatically that the Council, on his 
withdrawal in 1865, gave him an unanimous vote of com- 
mendation. Shortly after, he was appointed one of the 
three members of the United States Revenue Commission. 
Messrs. Wells and Colwell were taken from the Republican 
Party, and Mr. Hayes from the Democratic. The financial 
report of Mr. Hayes, in this connection, elicited an editorial 
from the London Times. His reply ended as follows : " As 
far as the liabilities of the United States are concerned, they 
seem to me quite within our means of payment, without 
impoverishing our people, and without wronging our cred- 
itors." 



EG HER T JAMIESON. 131 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF EGBER'l lAMlKSON 



• * 



" Crede ijiiod habes, et habes'' 

It may not be unnecessary to inform the reader that tlie 
following autobiography had its origin in a conversation 
between the author and the publisher, who did him the 
honor of calling several times upon him. 

It appeared to me a favorable opportunity to undertake 
the task, and enriching myself with all the necessary material, 
r accordingly took advantage of it. I regret, however, that 
the very general curiosity of the public, with regard to the 
particulars of my history, could not have been satisfied at 
an earlier date — say on yesterday, — but its importance 
required rather a more detailed consideration than at that 
time I had any leisure to bestow ui)on it. Besides, the 
original memoirs in Spanish, prepared soon after my return 
from Europe, early last spring, were destroyed in the great 
fire of October, 187 i, and hence it has been with no little 
difficulty that a correct recital of facts and occurrences has 
been prepared. 

To begin, then. I had two parents — one of each kind 
— both '* poor, but honest," and I have good reason to 
believe, and do most solemnly assert, that 1 was not ushered 
into this life on the Euro[)ean Plan. Consequently, my cra- 
dle was not surrounded by those prejudices and ideas of 

*Note. — The city attorney lia\ ing repeatedly declined to be interviewed, wrote his 
aiitobiogr.Tphy, at the request of the author of this work It would not be fair to leave 
the gentleman out. — The Ai:tH(.)K. 



132 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

superiority with which pride and flattery always seek to 
intoxicate the minds of the privileged classes. 

It is a most extraordinary circumstance that the earliest 
ancestor our family has any record of, superintended, with 
the assistance of the princes of the line of the Pharoahs, 
the building of those wonderful structures, the Pyramids. 
Having completed this job, he next turned his attention to 
life insurance, but in this he met with little or no success, 
(the family cheek having then not sufficiently developed 
itself,) and we next hear of him as a sutler in the army of 
Cambyses Second, King of Persia, in his raid against the 
Egyptians. During this campaign he was shot by his com- 
mander, there being at that time a great surplus of warriors, 
and the railroad facilities for transporting them greatl}' 
obstructed. This painful incident took place some five 
hundred years before Christ, and none of the descendants 
have felt like doing much since. 

Coming down a trifle later, say about the fifteenth cen- 
tury, our family tree blossoms profusely with celebrated 
musicians, with an occasional literary bud. It is related of 
Claudin Gaimeisen, (an Italian, in the direct line), that in 
1475, while playing an engagement in a horse car in Jersey 
City, he caused a very spirited air to be sung, accompanying 
himself with the accordion, which so animated a gentleman ' 
who was present, that he clapped his hands on the person of 
my ancestor, — a struggle ensued — and my deceased relative 
was buried from the hospital on the next day. 

Claudin left surviving him a widow of the name of 
Jinkins, and two adopted children.- William Henry, the 
elder of the children, is said to have been a delicate youth, 
and excessively fond of books; but the supply in general 
literature was somewhat limited at home, being confined to 
" Hoyle's Games," and the "Life of James Buchanan." He 
was accordingly sent at an early age to a Female Seminary, 



EGBERT JAMIESON. 1 33 

where he graduated with distinf^uished honors. He was the 
author of numerous poems and tales; his chief production 
being " Betsey and I Are Ouj'," — a passionate story of 
Italian incident, which was marked by such grandeur of 
thought and eloquence of expression, that it attracted for it 
great attention in " going the rounds of the press." In ath- 
letic sports he was a great enthusiast, and is said to have 
had few superiors. But at last, " vaulting ambition o'er- 
leaped itself," and in a hotly contested game of " freeze 
out," he took a severe cold, and shortly after expired in 
great agony. 

For the next four hundred years the family history is too 
barren of incident to write about. It wants variety — it 
wants activity — it wants interest. If you don't believe it, 
some one more interested in the matter than I am had better 
undertake the search. 

In conclusion, it is but proper that the reader should be 
informed that my principal object in thus far divulging the 
important historical events which are here communicated to 
my fellow citizens, was to supply in some measure, the 
immense chasm which the absence of these memoirs may 
leave in the annals.jof our country. In so doing, I have to 
acknowledge my obligations to Captain Hickey, and Detec- 
tives Ellis and Dixon, for many valuable suggestions, bi« for 
reasons which I do not choose here to divulge, I have not 
availed myself of them, notwithstanding their absence may, 
to sonie extent, render the plan of my work incomplete. 



134 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 



JOSEPH K. C. FORREST. 



The City Clerk, Mr. Forrest, was born in the city of Cork, 
Ireland, November 26, 1820, and was baptized in St. Ann's 
Shandon Church — "Bells of Shandon." His father, who 
resided in the city of Cork and vicinity for fifty years, 
was for thirty years director of one of the largest mercan- 
tile firms there — Cummins Brothers & Co. He acquired 
here a business education, and aside from his occupation 
in this particular branch of industry, farmed over six hun- 
dred acres of land, and conducted a large planing mill and 
tanyard. He was, as well, a freeman and burgess of the 
city. Mr. Forrest's uncle, Phillip Ryder, was for thirty 
years Comptroller of Customs for the port of Cork. His 
first cousin, Mr. P. R. Tivy, is married to a sister of Sir 
Thomas Lyons, form'erly Mayor and Member of Parliament 
for Cork. His oldest brother, John L. Forrest, married a 
daughter of James Lane, Esq., formerly Mayor of the city 
of Cork. . The subject of this sketch was a schoolmate of 
the late John Francis Maguire, Mayor and Mem^ber of Par- 
liament for Cork. 

Mr. Forrest came to Chicago July, 1840, and was intro- 
duced into society by Hon. J. Young Scammon, who con- 
tinues to be his friend. After a short time, Mr. Forrest 
became associate editor of the Journal^ with Riebel L. 
Wilson, Esq. He then became editor of the Gem of the 
Prairie^ a weekly paper which was merged into the Tri- 
bune. In fact, it was at the urgent solicitation of Mr. For- 



J(JSKI'H K. C. F(^RKEST. 135 

rest, who was one of its founders, that this journal was so 
christened. The prospectus, however, was written by Mr. 
Wheeler, under the old heading Mr. I'orrest subsequently 
sold his interest. In 1846-7, he went as associate editor 
upon Hon. John Wentworth's paper, the old Democrat, 
accepting the very large salary, at that time, of $r,ooo. 
While acting as editor, Mr. Forrest was elected Clerk of 
the Recorder's Court, vancpiishing Hon. Philip A. Hoyne 
by over nine hundred votes. Hon. Daniel O'Hara, at 
present City Treasurer, was his successor in the office. 

Mr. Forrest has written a great deal on Finance for the 
Press. He is at present engaged in a philosophical work on 
" The Nature of Life and Government," in which he com- 
bats the Darwinian theory, and the competitive theory of 
enlightened self-interest as set forth by Mill, Lecky, and 
other modern writers. He contends that the "body of 
thought " which has governed the civilized world from the 
time of Bacon to the present, and on which our great legal 
principles are founded, is in process of consummation; 
also, that the era, and the reign of force, and the power of 
great governments to control the social as they have hereto- 
fore the political state, is gradually asserting itself. In fact, 
he contends that the age of intellect, the power of man's 
intellect to control man, as held by Buckle and others, is 
fast fading away. He assumes that, ere long, the material- 
istic races of the world, such as the Anglo-Saxons and the 
Germans especially, will put the Church and the Latin 
races which are its chief support under the feel of the 
practical, or the State ; that, as it was when Christ came 
first, the Romans were the masters of the world, so, when 
He comes the second time, the Germans, who are the mod- 
ern counterparts of the ancient Romans, will be the rulers 
of the modern world. 



Police and Fire Commissionkrs. 



POMCK AND KIRK COMNflSSIONF-RS. 139 



MARK SHERIDAN. 



The Presidency of the Board of Police and Fire Com- 
missioners has come unto Mr. Sheridan through a combina- 
tion of circumstances never equaled in political history. 
During his term he has observed the vanishing coat tails of 
no less than five presidents : Brown, Talcott, Reno, Mason, 
-and Cleveland. Brown resigned immediately after the great 
fire; Talcott threw up the sponge in a fit of horrible despe- 
ration — and he wrote his own death warrant ; Reno was 
removed by the Medill administration, for daring to main- 
tain the dignity of his position — and The People subse- 
quently restored him; Mason failed to "make a spoon, but 
spoiled a horn," to use his own words; and Cleveland was 
ousted by the great political revolution. Throughout the 
same period, Mr. Sheridan was fighting Mayor Medill, the 
Press, the entire Law De])artment, and Superintendent of Po- 
lice Washburn; narrowly escaping, by the way, an untimely 
end from an inkstand in the hands of the mild and slim Po- 
lice Superintendent. During this unpleasantness, indeed, it 
was broadly hinted that the assassination of the Commissioner 
"was meditated by somebody. The idea sprung from the fact 
that at one of the sessions of the Board of Police the desk 
of the Secretary, Dr. Ward, was changed so as to completely 
imprison Mr. Sheridan, in the event of open war. Mr, Sher- 
idan also saw the removal of Police Superintendents Ken- 
nedy and Washburn, Deputy Superintendent Sherman, Cap- 
tains French, Fox and Lull; the resignation and reinstate- 



* 



I40 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

ment of Captain Hickey ; and the removal of Fire Marshals 
Williams, Schank and Walters. What he did not see of the 
events that foreran and justified the remarkable political 
revolution, would occupy a very small space indeed in this 
batch of memoirs. 

Police Commissioner Mark Sheridan was born in the 
city of Waterford, Ireland, in 1826. At the age of fif- 
teen, his father prosecuting a flourishing brewing traffic, 
Mark entered the establishment as clerk and disburser. 
This was his first idea of the business world ; and the cir- 
cumstances under which that idea was acquired were quite 
arduous, the illness of his father placing the entire manage- 
ment of his extensive affairs on Mark's shoulders. He was 
so engaged up to the revolutionary epoch in Irish history, 
which numbered among its prominent spirits the names of 
Smith, O'Brien, John Mitchell, and Thomas Francis Mea- 
gher. At the first breath, Mr. Sheridan threw his whole 
soul into the movement, and might have easily had a hempen 
necklace if he did not escape to America under the protec- 
tion of the flag of Norway. This prominent event in his life 
occurred in 1848. 

In this year he arrived in New York. Thence he pro- 
ceeded to Philadelphia; thence to Baltimore. In those 
localities, Mr. Sheridan, after repeated efl"orts, failed in find- 
ing reliable employment. He accordingly went to Missouri. 
Here he built bridges. In Cincinnati he was more fortunate, 
obtaining a railroad clerkship. In 1856 he came to Chicago, 
and was identified, up to 1861, with packing interests. This 
comprises the business record of the Commissioner. 

Mr, Sheridan's political life has been a continuous series 
of successes, this being his .^sixth election. He was first 
elected overseer of highways. Re-elected, he declined the 
unprofitable honor. Shortly afterward he was elected to 
represent the fifth ward in the Common Council. His posi- 



POLICE AND FIRE COMMISSIONERS. I41 

tion was very clearly defined as an alderman, on all subjects. 
Perhaps his attitude on the matter of assessment is one of 
his most noteworthy recollections. He held that the assess- 
ment of those days was decidedly inequitable, and clearly 
demonstrated it. He was re-elected Alderman for the third 
time, and had served about eighteen months of his last term, 
when elected Police Commissioner. On the organization of 
the new Board, under the new administration, he was elected 
its President. As President of the Board, Mr. Sheridan 
commands the strongest confidence of his colleagues, and 
of the great public. 



\ 

142 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 



E. F. C KLOKKE 

The history of this gentleman is a part and parcel of the- 
antecedents of that great movement which swept chronic 
office holders completely out of existence. He was cheated 
badly out of his honors; only for a short time, however. 

Police Commissioner E. F. C. Klokke was born in Hol- 
land in 1834. Up to the age of sixteen, his time was de- 
voted to the securing of a mercantile education. In 1850, 
he came to New York, w^here he served his time at the hat 
trade. 

In 1857, Mr. Klokke came to Chicago. He found it up- 
hill work at this time, being the occasion, as old residents 
will remember, of a financial crisis. From the vear of his 
arrival up to 186 1, he filled position of bookkeeper and sales- 
man alternately. 

In this year Mr. Klokke entered the military service. At 
the first tap of the drum he had his name enrolled in the Ells- 
worth Zouaves, and when the call for 300,000 troops was. 
made, he was one of the very first to march to the front, to 
the tune, "We are coming, Father Abraham." At this junc- 
ture he entered the Twenty-Fourth Illinois, joining the fam- 
ous organization known as the Hecker Jaegers. He entered 
the service as a Lieutenant. Thence he was detached to- 
the Signal Corps, and, as signal officer, served under Gen. 
Thomas, until 1864. His conduct for gallantry while thus 
engaged caused his promotion to a majorship. 

On his return from the field, Mr. Klokke immediately re- 
sumed business and devoted his entire attention thereto up- 



POLICE AND KIRK COMMISSIONERS. I43 

to July, itSyi, when, upon the earnest solicitation of Mayor 
Medill, he accepted the position of Police Commissioner. 
At the fall election of same year he was elected by a majority 
of about 15,000. 

In January, 1873, the difficulty arising between the Board 
of Police and the Superintendent of Police, touching the de- 
moralizing twelve o'clock order — disapproved by the unan- 
imous action of the Board — caused the removal of Mr.. 
Klokke, and also Mr. Reno, from office, at the hands of 
Mayor Medill. Comment on Mr. Medill's action is ren- 
dered unnecessary by the fact that both of these gentlemen 
are returned to their old positions by the people. 

The prominence of Mr. Klokke in the grand programme 
which culminated in the overwhelming triumph of the 
People's movement gained his nomination to the i)osition. 
of Police Commissioner, at the hands of Mayor Colvin. 



#:44 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 



C. A. RENO. 



Police Commissioner Reno was elected on the People's 
•ticket to the position he now holds. He has paid but very 
little attention to politics. In 1859, however, he represented 
the Sixth Ward in the Common Council. He was born in 
Pennsylvania in 1818, November 17th. Up to 1845, in 
.company with his father, Mr. Reno prosecuted a flourishing 
iron trade. Removing to Chicago in this year, he was the 
first man to devote himself exclusively to the sale of Briar ' 
Hill and Erie coal. The sales averaged, in these days, 
probably one hundred tons per day. As early as 17 15, the 
Renos came over from France, to mine a lead-bank in St. 
Louis, and secured an extensive land grant. About 4,000 
^acres are yet left in Randolph County. 

Mayor Medill nominated Mr. Reno, and the Council con- 
firmed him. When the Board of Police, however, thought 
iit to suspend Mr. Washburn for conduct unbecoming an 
.officer, Mayor Medill removed Mr. Reno in company with 
Mr. Klokke. What the people thought of it was shown at 
;the election. Both Mr. Reno and Mr. Klokke are still 
Police Commissioners. 



POLICE AND FIRE COMMISSIONERS. 145 



JAMES AVARS, Jr. 



Mr. Ayars, having been almost unanimously nominated by 
the Board of Underwriters, was appointed Fire Commis- 
sioner by the Council, Nov. lo, 1873. I'he Commissioner 
was born in New Jersey in 1836, and at the age of 16 pro- 
ceeded to New York. Here he was engaged for four years 
in the wholesale grocery trade. About this time he received 
an appointment to West Point. He did not accept it, how- 
'ever, but went to Covington, Kentucky, where his ])arents 
resided. Here, in 1858, he was admitted to the Bar, by 
Judge Moore, at present^ sitting in the Superior Court of 
Cook county. In 1862, he was elected County Clerk of Ken- 
ton county, Kentucky, and while serving was elected City 
Treasurer of Covington, for two terms, by a very large vote. 
In 1867, he came to Chicago, and entered the grain and in- 
surance business, representing the " Phoenix " Insurance 
Company of Hartford, as local agent. On July i, 1869, he 
was appointed Special Deputy of Customs. On Dec. i, 1872, 
he resigned and returned to his insurance agency. He is 
not a People's ticket man. In deference to friendship for 
Mr. Philip Wadsworth, he accepted a position on the Exec- 
utive Committee of the Citizen's Union ticket. 

During the war, the Commissioner was a Captain of a bat- 
tery attached to the 41st Kentucky Volunteers, and witness- 
ed considerable guerilla warfare. 

10 



146 THE GREAT REVOLUTION, 



DR. WARD. 



The Secretary of the Board of Police and Fire Commis- 
sioners, Dr. Ward, — this is the name by which he is best 
known, — was born at Pittsfield, Mass., December 9, 1823, 
and graduated in medicine at the Berkshire Medical college 
in 1845. In 1847, he removed to Chicago, and in January, 
1855, he permanently settled here. He was a deputy in the 
office of the Clerk of the County Court of Cook county, for 
nine years — eight years in charge of the Probate depart- 
ment ; was principal clerk in the County Treasurer's office 
for two years, and has been Secretary of the Board for seven 
years. His usefulness here is a matter well recognized by 
all with whom he has been brought in contact. 



Police Superintendent and 

Captains. 



POLICE FORCE. 1 49 



JACOB REHM. 



The Superintendent of the pretty thoroughly reconstruct- 
ed police force of the city of Chicago is Jacob Rehm ; this 
being the third time he has been called upon to assume so 
responsible a position. 

Mr. Rehm was born near Strasbourg, in the province of 
Alsace, in 1828, and is of German descent. The place of 
his birth is a French possession, yet its inhabitants speak 
the German tongue. In his native place, Mr. Rehm remain- 
ed at school up to the age of 12. In 1840, the family 
removed to Chicago. Here the subject of this sketch has 
lived ever since, excepting a brief stay in Dupage county. 

In early life, Mr. Rehm pursued a miscellaneous career ', 
as in fact did a great many people who entered Chicago at 
so undeveloped a period. His first experience in police life 
occurred in 185 1. In this year he joined the force as a pa- 
trolman — in the days of James L. Howe, who was City 
Marshal. As patrolman, Mr. Rehm served on the force up 
to 1855, when he accepted a Street Commissionership in the 
North Division. One year's service — the term for which 
he was elected — was succeeded by an appointment as Fore- 
man of Street Improvement under the Superintendent^ of 
Public Works. His experience here, with the recollection of 
his police service, may be said to have thoroughly initiated 
him into public life, as upon his retirement he was appointed 
City Marshal, or Chief of Police. Two years after, how- 
ever, he left the force and entered the service of Lill c^' Di- 



150 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

versy, brewers. In the spring of 1861, on the organization of 
the police force after the Metropolitan system, police life 
assumed a resistless attraction, and Mr. Rehm accepted the 
Deputy Superintendency under the new law. 

Resigning, he once more entered the service of Lill & Di- 
versy. The old love was strong, nevertheless. Accordingly 
Mr. Rehm went back to the force again, assuming the posi- 
tion of Superintendent. While acting as such, in 1863, he 
was elected County Treasurer. In 1866, he, once more, was 
appointed Superintendent of Police. The office he filled up 
to 1869, in which year he resigned, to be succeeded by ex- 
Superintendent Kennedy. This comprised Superintendent 
Rehm's police experience up to his present appointment. 
The experiences of a Chief of Police during his successive 
terms of office would form volumes of criminal history. The 
sudden growth of a great city invariably multiplies the 
agents of crime, and no city observed a better illustration of 
the fact. 

After the appointment of Mr. Kennedy, Mr. Rehm accept- 
ed a position in the United States Revenue office in this city. 
He then entered the malt business on his own account, which 
has proven very successful. His establishment still stands 
in the vicinity of Clybourne Avenue Bridge. 



POLICE FORCE. 151 



WILLIAM BUCKLEY. 



The Captain of the First District of Police was born in 
Ballyhone, parish of Afhane, county of Waterford, Ireland, 
June 9, 1832, and is therefore about 41 years of age. In 
1848 — at the age of 16 — having spent his early life at 
school, he emigrated and came to New York, where he went 
to work on the farm of Col. George D, Coles, of Glencoe, 
Queen's county, at a salary of $10 per month. In 1856, 
having spent a short time on a farm in Warren county, Ohio, 
the Captain came to Chicago. He now was placed in charge 
of the coal business of Col. R. J. Hamilton, and subse- 
quently engaged in the same business for Law c\: Strother. 
A little experience as a car-driver and conductor followed. 
He then joined the police force in 1*865. • Promotion rap- 
idly followed. As Roundsman, Station-Keeper, and Ser- 
geant, Mr. Buckley's conduct won for him early, on the 
resignation of Capt. Hickey, the position of Captain, which 
he obtained July 14, 1873, receiving the unanimous confirm- 
ation of the Council. Among other experiences, Capt. 
Buckley narrowly escaped assassination at the hands of the 
supposed murderers of McKeaver, killed in the race between 
*' Butler " and " Cooley," on the turf; was dragged under 
a private carriage by a contumacious driver at the time of 
the Sanitary Fair in Chicago ; and received a severe pum- 
meling at the hands of rouglis while returning from St. 
John's Church with his wife, March to, 1871. He tells with 
gusto a great many experiences with soldiers, returning 
from the war of the rebellion. 



152 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 



M. C. HICKEY. 



Capt. Michael C. Hickey, of the Second District, was 
born near the city of Limerick, Ireland, April 18, 1826, 
The close proximity of the Captain's birthplace to that city, 
so deservedly famed for the beauty of her daughters, afforded 
him excellent opportunities to j-evel repeatedly in love's 
young and festive dream. His susceptibilities were not 
inclined that way, however. The path that lay before him 
he perceived was one he should construct with his own 
head and his own hands. At the age of 18 he accordingly 
bid adieu to the environs of fair Limerick, and crossed the 
broad ocean to toil. 

Arriving in ]8fc)ston, Massachusetts, the Captain appren- 
ticed himself to the plumbing and gas-fitting trades. Four 
years of a stay here satisfied him that he might do better. 
He therefore, in 1848, came to Chicago. Up to 1853 he 
directed his energies to meat interests, acquiring all conve- 
nient acquaintances in the meantime. In this year he was 
elected Constable of the Fourth Ward ; performing, at the 
same time, police duty. In 1855 he was elected County 
Constable. Immediately afterward he was elected Justice 
of the Peace, and acted as such up to 1858. It now came 
to pass that in an effort to be re-elected, he was defeated. 
From 1858 up to 1861, he consequently built sewers under 
the firm name of Farrell & Hickey, and did extraordinarily 
well for that period. 

In 1 86 1 he joined the police force as a patrolman. Two 



POLICE FORCE. I 53 

months had hardly elapsed before he was created a Ser- 
geant. The position in those days was not an enviable one, 
the incumbent being required to take care of his men during 
all the hours of the night, and at an era in Chicago's his- 
tory when crime stalked terrorless in broad daylight. The 
beat allotted to Capt. Hickey out-deviled any in Chicago, 
embracing the region of which such filthy purlieus as Gris- 
wold street formed the unattractive center. In this vicinity 
in 1862 he was shot by burglars, and it was only after five 
months of the best surgical treatment that his life was saved. 
He had just recovered when he narrowly escaped being 
crushed to death between two cars on State street. 

On January i, 1866, he was appointed Captain. As such 
it is said he has been instrumental in sending about 500 evil- 
doers to the Penitentiary — among them the six masked 
ruffians interested in the Jefferson-Snell robbery; and Cor- 
bett, Flemming, and Kennedy, the perpetrators of the 
Cicero murder, to the gallows. 



154 THE GREAT REVOLUTION, 



FREDERICK GUND. 



Capt. Gund was born in Planckstadt, Baden, Germany, 
December i, 1823, At the age of 17 he was sent to a mili- 
tary school at Mannheim, according to the commendable 
custom in vogue in Germany. After six years, impressed 
iwith the attractiveness of a republican form of government, 
he came to America and engaged in tobacco manufacture. 
In 1847 he came to Chicago. In 1854 he joined the police 
force, and was appointed a Lieutenant under Dyer. In 
1863 he was appointed Captain of the North Side. In 1865 
he was elected a Police Commiissioner. At the expiration 
of his term he was appointed Captain. 

The duties devolving upon Capt. Gund lie among the 
Germans mainly ; and the best endorsement is their entire 
confidence in the Captain. 



Fire Marshals 



FIRK MARSHALS. I57 



MATTHIAS BENNER. 



The Chief Fire Marshal is Matthias Benner. He was 
born in Lauffeldt, Germany, and came to America in 1848, 
settling within nine miles of Port Washington, Wisconsin. 
In May 5, 1851, he came to Chicago, his family taking up 
an economical abode on State street, near Harrison. The 
chief, upon his arrival, entered a cigar shop, and subse- 
quently engaged in the trunk business, where he remained 
for nine months. In the meantime, there were very few 
large fires by night he did not attend, ringing No. 7's bell 
when anything "showed up." In these expeditions he 
served on Hook and I>adder No. i. 

He was not a regular member of the fire department 
until arrived at the age of *eighteen. He was duly elected 
about October 10, 1856. He remained a member up to 
April 5, 1859. He then joined the Enterprise No. 2. 
He then went for six months to St. Louis. In March, 
i860, however, throughthe misrepresentation of a poli- 
tician, it is stated, Mr. Benner was removed from the 
force. Subsequently, he was invited back by Chief U. P. 
Harris, but declined. He eventually accepted a posit- 
ion on Hook and Ladder No. i. In a short time, he 
was transferred to the foremanship of the Island Queen, 
which he held u\) to April 1, 1861. Afterwards, Mr. 
Benner, at the request of Mr. Harris, took charge of 
the Long John. But at his own request, he was made a 
private, to attend a night school. The school shortly 
failing, he, at the recjuest of the Board of Police, was 



158 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

assigned to the charge of Enterprise No. 2. This pos- 
ition he held until May 4, 1868. He was now appointed 
by the Commissioners Third Assistant. He filled the 
position up to March, 1871. Then he was appointed First 
Assistant, which he filled up to the time he was appointed 
Chief, vice Williams, removed. 

The record of the Chief is truly an eventful one ; and it 
is certain nobody was more surprised than himself when he- 
was appointed Chief Fire Marshal. 

Mr. Benner, in November and December, made an ex- 
tensive inspection tour for the purpose of improving his- 
department. Among other places, he visited Pittsburgh,. 
Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York, Brooklyn 
and Boston; also,' the Amoskeag Works, and the Seneca 
Falls establishment. The result of his visits will probably 
be a great improvement in the Fire Department; satis- 
factory to himself, and advantageous to the public. 



FIRE MARSHALS. I59 



DENIS J. SWENIE. 



The First Assistant Fire Marshal was born in the citv of 
Glasgow, Scotland, in the year 1834, where he remained until 
he arrived at the age of fourteen. In 1848 he came to Chi- 
cago and engaged in the harness trade. This engrossed his 
attention up to the year of 1859. In the meantime Mr. 
Swenie was a member of the volunteer fire department, 
running " wid der masheen " more for sport than anything 
else. In 1849 he entered the service as a hose boy on No. 
3, stationed at that time on the corner of Wells and Kinzie 
streets. He subsequently joined the regular engine corps. 
In 1852 Mr. Swenie went on the "Red Jacket," and took 
the position of Assistant Foreman. In 1854 the company 
was disbanded. Mr. Swenie then returned to No. 3. It 
was now that his services became appreciated. In 1856 he 
was appointed First Assistent Engineer. In 1858 he was 
appointed Chief Engineer, organizing the paid steam fire 
department. 

In those days the position of ]\Ir. Swenie was anything 
but enviable. The volunteer department considered the or- 
ganization of a paid department as a slur upon their honor, 
and fought with a desperation worthy of a better cause. All 
those squabbles, memorable in the annals of our fire history, 
Mr. Sweenie successfully mastered. 

In 1 86 1 Mr. Swenie took command of the Libert v, sia- 
tioned on North Dearborn street. \n 1867 the same com- 
pany accompanied him to the command of the (iund. He 



l6o THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

was captain of this company when appointed First Assistant 
Fire Marshal, October i, 1873. 

In all the great fires of his days the First Assistant Fire 
Marshal participated; among others, the great fire of 1857. 
On this occasion, Mr. Swenie took charge of the diggers, 
and recovered eighteen bodies out of twenty-three supposed 
to have been lost. His traveling in pursuit of interesting 
information to further the interests . of the Fire Depart- 
ment is extensive; and there are a great many who rank 
Mr. Swenie to-day among the foremost firemen of the 
country, from the extent of his experience. 

In the great fire, Marshal Swenie, taking charge of affairs 
on the North Side, saved, it is said, five entire blocks in the 
vicinity of Kinzie street bridge. The engines in action at 
the time were Nos. 11, 5, and 16. 



FIRK MARSHALS. lOI 



CHARLES S. PETRIE. 



'I'he Second Assistant is Charles S. Petrie. He was born 
in Chicago, Sept. 25, 1840, and studied at the Kinzie Public 
School. His educational- course was further extended by 
a term at St. Joseph's Catholic School in this city, and aft- 
erwards at South Bend. At the age of 13, or thereabouts, 
he went to work at Fuller's old light - house. Here he was 
employed for about three years. He then went into McCor- 
mick's manufacturing establishment, and then into Wright's 
machine shop. In the meantime, he served in the \'olunteer 
Fire Department. He now went South, and served as As- 
sistai-kt Engineer on the Mississippi. At the breaking out of 
the war he returned to Chicago, and joined the Steam Fire 
Department, serving as stoker on Engine 3. In 1866, he 
went upon the " Rice " as stoker. Thence he was promoted 
to the engineership. He was then appointed Engineer on 
No. 3, the " James." 

In 1872, he was promoted to the position of Third Assist- 
ant, and in the same year to the Second Assistantship. It 
is in the mechanical department Mr. Petrie's energies are 
most felt. 



II 



l62 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 



WILLIAM MUSHAM. 



This gentleman is Third Assistant Fire Marshal. He was 
born in the city of Chicago, Feb. 9, 1839. In February, 
1855, he joined the Volunteer Fire Department — at the 
early age of 16. Meantime, he pursued his avocation as a 
carpenter. About 1861, Mr. Musham joined the Paid Fire 
Department, which, at that time, was about fully organized. 
The first engine our subject went upon was the " Little Gi- 
ant," located on the corner of Washington and Dearborn 
streets. He served here as a pipeman. He was then trans- 
ferred to the " Atlantic," corner of State and Michigan 
streets. Having served here for a time, he was transferred 
to the "Giant," but after a short time, resigned and went to 
Philadelphia, v/here he served on the Volunteer Department, 
on the engine " Fairmount." Returning to Chicago, he 
went upon the " T. B. Brown," on West Lake street. Here 
he served as assistant foreman up to 1868. He now went 
as Foreman upon the " Giant," located at this time upon 
Maxwell street. After the great fire, March i, 1872, Mr. 
Musham was appointed Third Assistant Fire Marshal. 

The experience of Mr. Musham on our Fire Department 
is quite varied ; among other adventures, suffering severe 
injuries by the falling of a wall at a fire, corner of LaSalle 
and Water streets, in 1865, where two firemen were killed. 



FIRE MARSHALS. 163 



MAURICE W. SHAY. 



The Fourth x\ssistant Fire Marshal is Maurice W. Shay. 
He was born in Nova Scotia, in 1832, and, as early as 1838, 
came to Eastport, Maine, remembering the great fire in that 
city in 1839, which destroyed three-quarters of a mile of 
property, including many wharves and much shipping. In 
1840 he went to Charlestown, Massachusetts. In that city, 
in 1847, he ran with the " Warren " engine company, and 
with that company went to Boston and participated in the 
Haverill street fire, which destroyed three squares. In 1849 
he went to Cleveland, Ohio, and in 1850 joined "Phoenix " 
engine company. In 1852, he was a member of the Eagle 
Fire Department in Pittsburgh. In 1855 he was elected 
Assistant Foreman of the company. In 1856 he was elect- 
ed Assistant Engineer of the Cleveland Fire Department, 
He participated in the New England fire in that city. 

Mr. Shay then came to Chicago. Here his old love accom- 
panied him. In 1857 he joined the Liberty Hose Company, 
No. 6, as a pipeman. In 1858 he was appointed Assistant 
Foreman. In 1861 he joined the Paid Fire Department as 
a truckman on Hook and Ladder No. i. In 1862 he was 
transferred to engine 6, the " Little Giant." In 1864 he was 
appointed Foreman of engine company No. 9, the " Sher- 
man." In 1867 he accepted the foremanship of No. 13, 
the "Titsworth." Here he stayed until detailed Assistant 
?'ire Marshal, in October, 1873. In all the great fires of 
his days Mr. Shay participated, with high honors. 



164 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 



LEO MEYERS. 



The Fifth Assistant Marshal is Leo Meyers, aged about 
thirty-nine, of French extraction ; was born on the North 
Side, and is distinguished by the reputation of being the 
Chesterfield of the Fire Department. He is very popular. 
Mr. Meyers joined the Volunteer Fire Department probably 
at the age of fourteen, and, up to the organization of the 
Fire Department, followed iron moulding, being for some 
time foreman in Letz' foundry. He first served as a torch 
boy on No. 3, the "Niagara;" became Foreman of the 
"Island Queen;" held the same position on the "U. P. 
Harris ; " was at one time Assistant Engineer under U. P. 
Harris ; and also served as Foreman of the " Tempest Hose" 
and of the "Babcock." On October 5, 1873, he was ap- 
pointed Marshal under Chief Benner. 



HYDROGEN GAS iMALHlNE. 1 65 



J. J. WADE, 

95 South Desplaines street, a prominent plumber and gas 
fitter, has gotten up a Hydrogen Gas Machine, which is ben- 
eficial to the public in the fitting up of buildings where 
tanks are in use, as there is no fire connected with it, and 
the lead is put together without the use of solder, therefore 
saving from thirty to forty per cent, in labor and material. 
This machine is indispensable in the fitting up of chemical, 
vinegar, distilling, and other works where acids are in use. 
The value of the instrument is enhanced by the fact that 
it lessens the liability to fire in large public buildings. Mr. 
Wade has been connected with the plumbing and gas fitting 
interests of Chicago for over sixteen years, and has accom- 
plished the wqrk on our most prominent public structures. 



Board ov Public Works, 



BOARD OF PriM.IC WORKS. 169 



REDMOND PRINDIVILLE. 



Mr. Prindiville was born in the southern part of Ireland, 
in 1826, of parents of the purest description of Norman 
about them. His father and uncle took degrees in 
Trinity. At a very early age, Redmond was borne to 
the State of New York, whence he was removed to Michi- 
gan for a time, to suit the convenience of the family, most 
probably. At nine, he entered Chicago. From this time 
up to 1849, it might be said that Redmond divided his 
days between sailing and attending school; holding a caj)- 
taincy at 17, and until he was 23. He now connected him- 
self with the Galena Railroad; and in various positions he 
remained in the service of this corporation up to 1855, when 
he resigned. Since, Mr. Prindiville has identified himself 
extensively with river interests, owning, at the present, con- 
siderable shipping. He was appointed to the Hoard in 
December, 1869. He served in the (Council from i860 to 
'62, from the then Eighth Ward. 



lyo THE GREAT REVOLUTION, 



WILLIAM H. CARTER. 



Commissioner Carter was born in Lancaster, Worcester 
county, Massachusetts, in 1821. He is, accordingly, 53 
years of age. When about eight years old, Mr. Carter went 
to Franklin county, and worked there diligently on a farm 
for some time. He went to school there, and subsequently 
to the Academy at East Hampton, Massachusetts. He 
thence went to Springfield, in the same State, and engaged 
in building. He was at this time but 20. He went now to 
Northampton, and built there, among other structures, the 
House of Correction. 

In the Fall of 1853, Mr. Carter came to Chicago, and 
pursued building up to the time of his election to the Coun- 
cil, where he served in 1855 and 1856. In 1857, he served 
on the Board of Education. In February, 1868, he was 
elected a member of the Board of Public Works. 

He retired with the success of the People's Party ; giving 
place to Louis Wahl. 



BOARD OF PUBLIC WORKS. 17 1 



I. K. THOMPSON. 



Mr. Thompson was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1816, and 
followed building up to 1857. In July, 1855, he came to 
Chicago. In March, 1857, Mr. Thompson was given the 
full control of bridges and public buildings. In i86t, when 
the Board was organized, he was appointed Superintendent 
of Streets and Public Buildings, a position he has filled 
with great ability. He is the parent of the present style of 
bridges. 

In his peculiar sphere Commissioner Thom})son, it is 
said, stands without an equal. It has been intimated that a 
desideratum, municipally, would be an Inspector of Public 
Buildings. If such an office were made, it would, most 
probably, be tendered to Mr. Thompson. 



172 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 



LOUIS WAHL. 



Louis Wahl, over whose selection as a member of the 
Board of Public Works so much of a stir was made in the 
Common Council, was born at Pirmassens, in Rhenish Bava- 
ria, in 1830. He is of pure German extraction, and his con- 
nections, wherever found, rank very high in society. His 
father was attached to the Bavarian Crown in the capacity 
of tax collector, and his uncles at one time represented five 
million francs in Paris, France. One of those relatives is at 
present Superintendent of the Road from Paris to the Med- 
iterranean. He was probably the only prominent German 
who, during the unpleasantness between France and Prussia* 
w^as not hustled out of Paris. 

In 1847, the Wahl family, removing to America, Mr. Louis 
Wahl's father entered the glue business in Milwaukee, and 
achieved an independent fortune. The business, like many 
other foreigners upon their arrival on these shores, he picked 
up accidentally, and established. His success may be judged 
from the fact that he left, as an inheritance to his sons, the 
magnificent sum of $200,000. Besides this, he established 
the facilities for a glue house in Chicago for them. In 1850 
Louis Wahl, in company with his brother Christian, took a 
portion of the fortune left them and made the trip to Cali- 
fornia; and it might be said passed through the Golden 
Gate to amass a fortune in Chicago. 

They came to this city in 1854. The first place they con- 
structed their glue works (their father's success having urged 
them to stick to glue) was on the North Branch. In 1856 



BOARD OP^ PUBLIC WORKS. 1 73 

they removed to their present location, situated on Broad 
street near Thirty-first. At the outset they sent out 50,000 
pounds of glue annually. Their present production is 
3,000,000 pounds; the amount of capital invested is $600,- 
000, and their business is probably the largest in the world. 

The political position of Louis Wahl has been on the Re- 
publican side; though he cast his first vote for Pierce in 
1852. He never cared much for office, on account of the 
immense requirements of his business. Among the posi- 
tions of trust he held, however, was a position in the State 
Legislature, and a Commissionership of Bridewell. A great 
effort was also made to run him for Mayor in last fall's elec- 
tion, on the Citizen's Union ticket. 

His election to the Board of Public Works was bitterly 
opposed, on account of his presumed connection with an 
effort to once bribe the Aldermen in reference to the Ford 
contract. It is stated, nevertheless, that Mr. Wahl knew 
nothing of the attempt ; handing over to a certain party a 
certain sum of money, with no knowledge whatever of its 
disposition. This money reached certain Aldermen, it ap- 
pears, subsequently. The probable presumption of Mr. 
Wahl was that it was merely a present to an editor for the 
influence of his newspaper. 



Board of Health. 



HOARD OF HK-ALIH. 177 



DR. HAHN. 



Dr. Hahn, the President of the Board of Health, was 
born in the east. He graduated in Jefferson Medical Col- 
lege, and for a time was connected, as a resident physician, 
in Blockley College, of Philadelphia. He subsequently 
removed to Chicago. 

The Doctor's experience, as spoken of in Chicago, is 
ranked among that of the highest in the profession. 

Among other political positions he has held that of an 
alderman. 



178 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 



CHARLES E. MOORE. 



Charles E. Moore was born in Dublin, Ireland, in 1825. 
In 1837 he went to Albany, N. Y., where he remained until 
1848. Here he learned the trade of masonry. While here 
he was a member of the Emmett Guards, and offered his 
services in the Mexican war, with that organization. They 
were not called out, however. 

In 1848, Mr. Moore came to Chicago and worked at his 
trade. In i860 he made the trip to Pike's Peak. Returning 
in 1 86 1, he entered the army, and for three years and three 
months served as Major of the 23d, which, in company with 
Col. Mulligan and others, he helped in organizing. 

Among the positions of public trust he has filled were the 
Aldermanship of the Seventh Ward and Police Judgeship. 
Resigning the latter, he was subsequently chosen to the 
Board of Health. 



H()AKL» oh HEALTH. 179 



GEORCE SCHLCETZER. 



'I'his gentleman was born in Kusel, Rhenish Bavaria, and 
is 52 years of age. His early life was spent in a very class- 
ical atmosphere ; which the observer of the Doctor's habits 
and predilections to-day may easily surmise. His father 
was the chief medical officer in the Bavarian army, at one 
time, and participated therewith in the Russian campaign. 

Educated in Munich, Dr. Schloetzer practiced medicine 
in the locality of that name as well as in Prague and Brus- 
sels, and very considerably throughout all Germany. He 
came to Chicago fifteen years ago, and has devoted himself 
to his practice ever since. He entered the Board of Health 
in 1869; was the City Physician at one time; and is at 
present connected with the Protestant Diaconese Hospital. 



l8o THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 



BEN. C. MILLER. 



Dr. Miller was born in Putnam county, Indiana, and hav- 
ing received an academical education at Battle Ground, Indi- 
ana, joined the army at 17 — Company K, loth Indiana 
Cavalry ; rising from the ranks to a First Lieutenantcy, in 
the Army of the Cumberland. In 1865 Ben. studied medi- 
cine in his father's office, and soon graduated at Rush Med- 
ical College. He then entered Cook County Hospital, and 
in 1869 was appointed County Physician. 

Dr. Miller was appointed Superintendent of Public Char- 
ities for Cook county in 1872. In this position he effected 
incalculable good, especially in the matter of hospitals. A 
comparison of the expenditures of his year and of the year 
previous shows a reduction in his favor of over ^ioo,o"oo. 
He was subsequently selected to his present office — the 
Health Superintendency. Here he has perfected the pres- 
ent admirable vaccination regulations. 



BOARD OF HEALTH. l8l 



JOSEPH McDERMOTT. 



Joseph McDermott was born in Durrow, King's county, 
Ireland, in 1827. When arrived at the age of twenty, he 
came to this country, and settled in New York, in the liquor 
traffic. After a successful experience there, he came to 
Chicago, and resumed the same business. He is engaged 
therein at present. 

Politically, Mr. McDermott is a Democrat. He never 
sought office much, and his selection to the Board of Health 
probably surprised him somewhat. 

Mr. Moses Hook. — This gentleman has also just been 
elected to the Board of Health. 



Police Justices and Clerk 



POLICE JUSTICKS ANI> CLKRK. 185 



DANIEL SCULLY. 



The name of Daniel Scully is a household word in a very 
large region. There never was a more efficient Justice 
elected in the city of Chicago. 

Mr. Scully was born in the city of New York, March 28, 
1839. When the boy was two years old, his ])arents removed 
to McHenry county. Here the old folks placed him in 
charge of the farm. Agricultural pursuits were not sympa- 
thetic with the disposition of the Judge. He looked for 
better things. 

In those days it was habitual with men of remarkable pro- 
clivities to get all the information they could. With this 
end in view, the Judge, in the year i860, devoted himself to 
teaching school. The more he taught, the more he became 
convinced that he needed to learn something himself. His 
education he considered simply fortuitous. So it was. Ac- 
cordingly, in the fall of i860, Mr. Scully went to St. Mary's 
of the Lake. Here he graduated, after two years, in the 
scientific and commercial departments. His conduct here 
elicited a very complimentary notice from Dr. McMullen, 
the principal of the institution. 

In 1863 and 1864 Judge Scully studied law in the Chicago 
Law School, under the control of Judge Booth, at present 
of the Circuit Court. When graduated, he received a hand- 
some compliment from the principal, being the only one out 
of a class of thirty-four who had not been in a law othce. 

A promiscuous line of life followed his honors. The edu- 
cational seemed to have the mastery, however. Having 



l86 THE GREA.T REVOLUTION. 

graduated in law, Mr. Scully made a tour of Iowa and Min- 
nesota ; but failing to discover any favorable locality where- 
in to throw out his shingle, he came to Chicago. He now 
entered the office of Willard & Quinn, and devoted himself 
rigidly to study. The result was a success that promises to 
be permanent. 

The Judge has been appointed Police Justice three times 
by an overwhelming vote. Among other honors, he has 
served Hartland, in McHenry county, as Town Supervisor. 



POLICE JUSTCES AND CI.ERK. 1 87 



H. A. KAUFMANN. 



The Justice of the North Division Police Court is Henry 
Aaron Kaufmann, a gentleman whose admirers north of the 
river, it is said, are very numerous. His progress so far in 
public life, it is certain, is only the result of an industrious 
attention to the minutest details of the various stations in 
life allotted to him. 

Mr. Kaufmann was born in Hesse-Darmstadt, in 1821. 
Early in life, conceiving an idea that a young and rising 
region possessed availabilities not discoverable elsewhere, 
Mr. Kaufmann came to America, and, after prospecting 
somewhat, settled in Chicago. 

His first introduction to public life, it may be said, was 
while employed by the city as a police patrolman and detec- 
tive. Thus engaged, Mr. Kaufmann enjoyed ample oppor- 
tunities for forming friendsliips — acquisitions he succeeded 
admirably in securing. 

Being moderately ambitious, Mr. Kaufmann, subsequent to 
his retirement from the police force, was elected a Town 
Supervisor. The next prominent office of public trust await- 
ing him was the Police Justiceship of the North Division. 



l88 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 



MARTIN SCULLY. 



The Clerk of the South Side Police Court is Martin 
Scully. He was born in the county of Tipperary, Ireland, 
in 1835. I^ 1S51 ^^ emigrated to America, and learned the 
moulding business. This avocation he pursued up to his 
election. When the war broke out Mr. Scully entered the 
23d Illinois regiment, under Mulligan, and was very soon 
appointed Sergeant of Company K. When the siege of Lex- 
ington took place, Sergeant Scully succeeded in showing an 
extraordinary hand, turning out 1,600 weight of shot from a 
rebel foundry at the time of the bombardment. He was here 
captured, but was subsequently exchanged, among the Camp 
Jackson prisoners. In 1861 he was mustered out at St. Louis. 
Returning to Chicago, in company with Capt. Shanley he 
raised a company and took 100 men to the famous Sixty- 
Ninth, the Irish regiment. Promotion soon followed, serving 
at the battle of Fair Oaks as Second Lieutenant. After the 
battle of Antietam he was appointed Captain. At Fair Oaks 
Mr. Scully was wounded. He was present also at the seven 
days fight under Gen. McClellan. The history of Capt. Scully 
can be learned at a glance when it is told that himself and 
two others were the sole survivors of Company D, of the 
Sixty-Ninth. W^hen the Fenian excitement broke out, Capt. 
Scully went to Ireland, and was arrested in the city of Cork. 
Returning in 1869, he was elected Clerk of the North Side 
Police Court. In 1873 he was elected Chief Clerk on the 
People's ticket. Aside from his political history, Mr. Scully 
has always taken an active part in the interests of the work- 
ing men. 



Collectors and Assessors. 



COLLECTORS AND ASSKSSORS. 19I 



(;p:()R(;e von hollkn. 



'I'his gcntlt-num is ihf City Collector. He was born in 
the village of Drifthsethe, in Hanover, (Germany, March 2, 
1834, and, up to the age of fifteen, devoted himself to farm- 
ing. At this age he left Fatherland, arriving in New York 
in 1849. Here he gave his services to a grocer, and subse- 
quently to a butcher. In 1854, he came to Chicago. Here 
he resumed the business prosecuted in the east. Being a 
first-class Republican, Mr. Von HoUen soon became thor- 
oughly identified with politics. From 1863 to 1865, he rep- 
resented the Eleventh Ward in the Common Council. At 
the expiration of his term, he entered the Post-office and 
acted as foreman of foreign and general delivery. In i<S69, 
he was a candidate for City Collector on the Republican 
ticket, but was defeated. In September, 1870, he was ajj- 
pointed a member of the Board of Health. This position 
he resigned in 187 1, when elected on the Fire-proof ticket to 
the position of City Collector. His majority wns o\ er 0,000. 
In 1873, espousing the People's ticket, he was re-elected by 
a majority of over 10,000. 

The experience of Mr. Von Hollen during the war, 
for his adopted country, was not very pleasant. Among 
other tribulations, he was captured by Morgan's guerillas 
while administering to the wounded and sick boys of the 
'I'wenty-Fourth Illinois, after the battle of Perryville, Ken- 
tucky. In this engagement, his brother, Bernhard, was 
killed. 

» 

In 186S. Mr. Von Hollen was elected President of the 



192 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

North Side Turner Society, of which he is a distinguished 
member. 

It is very rarely found that the dry duties of a City Col- 
lector correspond with the divine affinities of the poet. Mr. 
Von Hollen, nevertheless, has written some of the very 
finest kind of German and English verses, about one hun- 
dred of which have graced the coiums of the Sfaats Zeitung. 



COLLECTORS AND ASSESSORS. 1 93 



COL. P. M. CLEARY 



The gentleman whose familiar name is observed at the 
top of this page is Collector for the South Town of Chicago. 
He was elected to his position April i, 1873, by a majority 
of about T,ioo. 

He w^as born in Nanagh, county of Tipperary, Ireland, 
April 6, 1826, and arrived on these shores as long as 32 
years ago. Five years of life in New York sufficed for an 
eager spirit like the Colonel's. The clattering wheel and 
the vulgar jostle were fresh variety when contrasted with 
the every-day life of his native town of Nanagh. But the 
combination grew monotonous, at length. Col. Cleary re- 
solved to see the world. He accordingly selected Chicago 
as the starting-point. He had an uncle in this city, in the 
drug business ; and this in itself w-as as great an induce- 
ment as a man of his push needed, to try his fortune in a 
strange city. 

Here, fortune seemed to smile upon him at the outset. 
He found here a host of friends just like himself — genial, 
broad-hearted, and energetic. What go-aheadativeness he 
did not bring with him he procured with the least possible 
trouble. He entered real estate speculation when he had 
secured a good footing, and to this industry he still devotes 
the efforts of his matured business talent. Occasionally, the 
Colonel takes a trip to Europe, and, when he returns, dwells 
with ecstacy upon the many scenes he has observed there. 

The Colonel's actpiaiutances tell stories of his adventures 
13 



194 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

during the war, that have beguiled the hours beside many a 
pleasant fireside. Those narratives it is not the province 
of the writer to rehearse, however. 

Since his election to his present position, Col. Cleary has 
achieved a reputation as Collector that has elicited the 
unqualified approbation of the Press, having successfully 
moved upon the banks which manifested so sturdy a desire 
to resist payment. 



COLLECTORS AND ASSESSORS. 195 



LAURENCE O'BRIEN. 



'I'his gentlemen is the Collector of the West-'l'own of 
Chicago, and was elected April i, 1873, on the Citizens' 
ticket, by a majority of 2,2;^. By-the-way, it was rather a 
coincidence that the three town collectors elected that day 
were all Irishmen — Cleary, O'Brien, and Murphy. 

Mr. O'Brien was born in the town of Newport, in Tip- 
perary, Ireland, about the year 1836. At the age of 17, our 
subject, with an eye to sport of the good old Irish style, left 
his native town and took a stroll through Leinster, Kildare, 
and other places of historic note in Ireland. Among other 
spots visited, Mr. O'Brien paid his respects to the Curragh, 
the Heath of Marlborough, the Castle of Lord Nace, late 
Governor of India, and the beautiful strawberry beds of 
Dublin. 

Mr. O'Brien served four years in the Irisl) constabulary, 
but was forced to leave on account of his nationalistic 
principles. In Ireland, our subject followed baking, which 
trade he there acquired. Since his advent to America, he 
has devoted himself mainly to the liquor trafhc. 



196 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 



JOHN MURPHY. 



This gentleman is Collector for the north town of Chicago, 
and was elected on the Workingman's ticket. He was born 
in the borough of Ross, County Wexford, Ireland, in 1841, 
and left at the age of fifteen years, coming directly to Chi- 
cago, where he worked, up to the fall of i860, as a machinist. 
He then went to Pike's Peak, where he flourished ; a great 
many, having been driven thither by the well remembered 
gold fever, returning disheartened. Mr. Murphy now 
'returned to Chicago, intending to return to Pike's Peak with 
a set of machinery. The war of the Rebellion waxing 
warmly, however, at the time, he concluded to fight for his 
adopted country. Raising a company of three months 
troops, he was elected Second Lieutenant in the 67th Illinois, 
of which Mr. Hough was Colonel, and was detached to guard 
the prisoners at Camp Douglas. Thence he was detached 
to raise a company for the 90th Illinois. Raising Company 
G, he was elected its Captain, and in the following Novem- 
ber proceeded to the field. Assigned to Gen. Denver's 
division, the Captain was ordered to LaGrange, Tennessee, 
to protect the Memphis and Charleston road. He went 
thence to Coldwater, Mississippi, where an engagement was 
had, wherein Gen. Van Dorn met his first repulse ; to La- 
fayette, Tennessee ; to Vicksburg, where he was present 
during the seige; to the battle of Mission Ridge, where his 
canteen was shot off him; to Knoxville, Tennessee, through 
a barren country, to meet Longstreet, who withdrew at the 



COLLECTORS AND ASSESSORS. 1 97 

sight of the blue; to Chattanooga; and then to Atlanta with 
Sherman. Then came the battle of Dallas, where the com- 
pany, with Company H, under command of Captain Murphy, 
were placed on the extreme right, with orders to fall back in 
case the Rebels charged. A charge was made, and the skir- 
mish line to the left wavered. Vet the two companies under 
Murphy held the line in constant skirmish from nine o'clock 
in the evening until ten o'clock in the morning. The 
Rebels, supposing from the scattering fire kept up that all of 
the boys were there, fell back. 

The Captain's company also participated when McPher- 
son was killed, and lost in the engagement their knapsacks, 
cherished photographs, etc. Subsequently, when, the lines 
clashing, a hand-to-hand fight ensued, the 48th Illinois were 
knocked out of position, Murphy cried out to the 90th him- 
self, and the result was a most desperate charge ; plunging 
through the broken columns of the 48th, killing or capturing 
every man of the enemy, and appropriating six stands of 
colors. All through this campaign the gallantry of Captain 
Murphy was well recognized, and when mustered out in 
June, 1S65, he was loaded down with honors. 



198 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 



CHARLES DENNEHY. 



Charles Dennehy took a prominent part in the organ- 
ization of the People's Party, His counsels and influence 
went a good ways to form a rational and conservative 
platform. Mr, Dennehy, it is understood, was one of 
the number who called the first meeting and laid the 
foundation for the new party. The difficulties to be en- 
countered were, to harmonize conflicting elements and 
reconcile men who, for years past, had been bitter political 
opponents. It was apparent to him, as to others, that the 
only sure road to success was to unite the liberal American, 
Irish, and German people on one common platform, regard- 
less of former political affiliations, 

Mr. Dennehy being known as a thorough representa- 
tive Irishman, combined with his personal popularity 
with all classes of citizens, the People's Party unani- 
mously placed his name on their ticket for the important 
position of City Assessor, As an evidence of the high es- 
teem in which he is held by his fellow citizens, he ran very 
strongly upon his ticket. It is needless to say that no better 
selection could have been made for the discharge of the im.- 
portant duties of the office to which he has been elected. 

Mr, Dennehy possessing the adventurous spirit of his race, 
emigrated from County Kerry, Ireland, in the 17th year of 
his age, to this country. He has lived in Chicago for the 
past twenty years, and by his honesty, industry, and business 
tact has acquired a liberal fortune. He is now a member of 



COLLECTORS AND ASSESSORS. I99 

the well-known firm of Weadly, Dennehy & Cleary, a relia- 
ble and leading wholesale li(|iior house. During the past 
four years, he has filled the office of North Town Assessor, 
to the i)erfect satisfaction of all. His knowledge of real 
estate and his unblemished character pre-eminently cjualify 
him for the very responsible position to which he has been 
so handsomely elected by the people. 



200 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 



EDWARD PHILLIPS. 



Mr. Phillips, Assessor of the South Town of Chicago, was 
born in the County of Cavan, Ireland, in 1837. In 1840, he 
left his native place, and went to Schenectady, New York. 
After a stay of five years there, he went to the city of New 
York. The Phillips family had not been settled comfort- 
ably in the metropolis more than four years, it seems, when 
a westward yearning brought them inevitably to Chicago. 
The boy declined to come as yet, however. He desired a 
little more experience in life in the great city. Five years 
more of it induced him to pack up also, and come west. 

No sooner had he arrived than his adventurous spirit 
enlisted him in the ranks of Fire Company No. 6, where 
he ran with Ex-Fire Marshal Williams, Capt. Connors, and 
others. Tiring of Chicago, a trip to Memphis in '59 fol- 
lowed. Then, in 1861, he returned to Chicago. In the 
same year, he became connected with the Chicago City 
Railway Company, and, during his service there, invented 
the improved one-horse cars. He was elected to his position 
in 1873, on an Independent ticket. 

Throughout his varied experiences, Mr. Phillips can sub- 
stantiate the appreciation of his friends by several substan- 
tial testimonials. 



COLLECTORS AND ASSESSORS. 20I 



ALBERT PATCH. 



This gentleman is the Assessor of the Nortli Town of 
Chicago. He has been elected three times, the last by the 
votes of not only Republicans but of Democrats. In fact, 
if it were not for the votes of his Democratic friends, it is 
the general opinion he would not be elected. 

The Assessor was born in Worcester, Massachusetts, in 
1827, and thence went at the age of 19, to Haverill, Mass., 
where he engaged in the business of polishing pianos and 
other furniture, for the space of five years, in which he was 
an eminent success. Hence he went to Lawrence, Mass.^ 
and engaged in an unsuccessful dry goods business. He 
then came to Chicago, and resumed his former occupation. 
In 1856, he went to St. Louis, where he stayed for about 
four years. Now he returned to Chicago, and continued in 
the i)olishing business, which, becoming dull — to use his 
own words — he engaged in the butter business, and slipped 
up on it. He then went into the real estate business, in 
which he is at present engaged. 



202 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 



A. L. AMBERG. 



The Assessor for the West Town of Chicago is Adam L. 
Amberg. This gentleman was born in New Jersey, May 22^ 
1841, but recollects very few experiences connected with 
his native place, from the fact that he left there when one 
year old to come (in company with his parents) to Chicago. 
The public life of Mr. Amberg is not a very extensive one. 
It was not before 1869 that he aspired to public emolu- 
ment. In this year, he was appointed Clerk of the West 
Side Police Court, on the Citizens' ticket. He was subse- 
quently re-appointed on the Fire-proof ticket. His conduct 
during both terms was such as to commend him to the peo- 
ple's suffrages for the position of West Town Assessor, to 
which he was elected in April, 1873. 



Common Council. 



COMMON COUNCIL. 205 



WILLIAM H. RICHARDSON. 



For a gentleman of 34, Mr. Richardson, one of the Al- 
dermen, representing the First Ward, has seen experience in 
juristic matters not often witnessed. It is probably a fact 
that there is no lawyer who prosecutes a more extensive 
criminal business of a respectable character in the county 
than he. The matter is quite inevitable from the fact that, 
almost ever since he has begun practice, he has been asso- 
ciated with such men as Judge Knox, Carlos Haven, and 
Charles H. Reed. With the last-named, the Alderman, for 
a number of years, was in partnership. About the year 
1870, Mr. Reed assuming the robes of the State's Attorney, 
the partnership was dissolved. Mr. Richardson has con- 
ducted practice alone ever since. 

The Alderman was born near Buffalo, in 1840. In 1S57, 
he went to Andover, Massachusetts, where he proceeded 
through a preparatory curriculum. About the year 1861, he 
came to Chicago, and read law, first with Judge Knox, and 
subsequently with other prominent lawyers. In 1872, he was 
elected Alderman of the First Ward on the " Law and Or- 
der" ticket. He van(juished a strong man when he worst- 
ed Mr. Philip Conley. 



206 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 



THOMAS FOLEY. 



Certainly, Mr. Foley, the billiard king, is a self-made man ; 
having spent just three months in school; and since then he 
has been struggling against difficulties which to another man 
would seem insurmountable. 

Mr. Foley was born in Cashel, county of Tipperary, Ire- 
land, August 1 6, 1842. In the fall of '49 he went to New 
York, Here he stayed for about five years. At the early 
age of twelve he came to Chicago, and became employed 
brushing billiard tables in the old Tremont House. In i86a 
he went to the Briggs House, and took charge of the bar. 
Here he remained until 1865, when, importuned, he went to 
Milwaukee and took charge of billiardistic matters in the 
well known Newhall House. Tiring of this, he came back 
to Chicago and engaged in business for himself, at the cor- 
der of Dearborn and Monroe streets. Thence he removed 
to his old, good-natured stand opposite the Post-office,, 
where others had failed repeatedly. Mr. Foley's friends 
delight in calling attention to the fact, as an evidence of his 
sterling popularity. In this locality Mr. Foley stayed up to 
the fire. To recount the scenes witnessed there among the 
greatest billiard artists in the world, would be nonsense. 
Everybody has heard of " Tom, Foley." Poor John McDevitt 
had just left there the night of the great fire, before he was 
burned, and never found, 

The fire wrought strange wonders w'ith " Tom." Bracing 
himself up, nevertheless, Mr. Foley went over to the West 



(OMMON COUNCIL. 207 

Side, and leased for i§i,5oo — he did not have a cent, to the 
contrary, notwithstanding — a basement under the Barnes 
House ; and, at the same time, started a place on Wabash 
avenue, near Twenty-Second street. Subsequently he leased 
his present place, fitted it uj) at the expense of ^35,000, and 
made the grandest l)illiard palace in the world. 

He was elected Alderman of tlie First ^\'ard on the Peo- 
ple's ticket, and congratulates himself on the fact that he is 
a first-class Irishman, and looks after one-fifth of the taxes, 
of the entire city. 



208 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 



FRANCIS WHITAKER WARREN. 



This gentleman represents the Second Ward, being elected 
in 1872, on the Republican ticket. He was placed in his 
position by a handsome majority. 

He was born in the county of Sligo, Ireland, November 
26, 1839, where he stayed until the age of twelve. Leaving 
his native place at this age, he proceeded to Boston, Mass., 
where he stayed five years, employed in the grocery trade. 
He then removed to Chicago, where he learned marble-cut- 
ting. He subsequently entered the livery business, in which 
he is at present engaged, doing a successful business. 

In the Council, Alderman Warren acts on the Markets 
and Wharfing Privileges Committee. He is a "Law and 
'Order" man, strictly speaking. 



COMMON COUNCII.. 209 



ARTHUR DIXON. 



Alderman Dixon was elected to represent the Second 
Ward, in 1867, by a majority of 250; and in 1S69, by a ma- 
jority of 700. 

He was born in P^rmanaugh county, Ireland, in 1838, 
and when fifteen, came to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and 
sandwiched an occasional tap on the farm. In i860 he 
came to Chicago, and was engaged as a porter in a grocery 
store. He shortly after engaged in teaming, and prosecutes 
the same to-day on an extensive scale, giving all the time 
and attention demanded. He exactly knows the require- 
ments, having handled the lines on every vehicle known to 
invention, from a dray up. 

Politically, Alderman Dixon is considerable of a success. 
In 1869 he was elected to a position in the National Execu- 
tive Committee, by the Irish Republican Convention, of which 
he is now Treasurer. In 1870 he was elected to the Gen- 
eral Assembly. Here Alderman Dixon gained distinction 
by his efforts in the one mill tax matter on special assess- 
ments, and in the alleged Springfield clique question. He 
is also a member of the Republican Executive Committee, 
and a member of the Irish Literary Society. 



14 



2IO THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 



DAVID COEY. 



Elected from the Third Ward, on the Republican ticket, 
first in 1870 — 500 majority. The x^lderman is about forty- 
six years of age. He was born of Scotch-Irish parents (Old 
School Presbyterian), near Belfast, Ireland, and, having 
attended a semi-theological seminary, took a sudden idea and 
a life partner, and left the romantic heath of his father, to 
grow wealthy in America, before he was twenty- one. He was 
all the time bent upon coming to Chicago, but went to New 
York first, that he might, by contrast, better in after days 
admire the inevitable growth of the western prairies. Here 
he pursued carpentry for a matter of six years, when he came 
to Chicago (in 1852), 

Resuming his trade, he drifted gradually into the building 
business on his own account, to suffer in the '57 crisis. The 
number of structures he has erected since, intimate that his 
disaster was not permanent. 

The Alderman is fervent on retrenchment. For a quiet 
man he created considerable excitement by changing his vote 
when the appropriation for Union Park came up. He 
changed his vote at 11:45, p- ^^-j ^^^ caused the defeat of the 
entire appropriation bill. 



COM Ml iN COUNCII.. 2 I I 



WILLIAM FITZGERALD. 



Aid. Fitzgerald was elected on the People's ticket in 
1873 to represent the Third Ward — a district said to con- 
tain the largest number of colored residents in the city. 
His majority over the other two candidates in the field was 
about 480. 

The Alderman was born in Coachford, County of Cork, 
Ireland, a little west of the City of Cork, in 1842. In 1850, 
he came to Skaneateles, New York, where he stayed until 
1858. In this year, he went to Seneca Falls, N. Y., and 
acc^uired a knowledge of the tin trade. Having traveled 
through nearly all of the Western States, he finally came to 
Chicago, and in 1S65 made it his permanent home. It was 
not long before the alderman, realizing the vast promise of 
trade, established himself in the hardware business at 589 
State Street, where he is still located. He also started a 
flourishing branch store at 107 Blue Island Avenue. The 
fruits of his business enterprise are visible in several sub- 
stantial buildings, among them the Fifth Avenue Hotel — a 
structure 92 X41, and containing 78 rooms. 

The Alderman is and always has been a Democrat. Pub- 
lic emolument seems to be an acquisition he never coveted 
much. In fact, he had been offered an aldermanship twice, 
and refused the office. He stands upon the Committee on 
Printing, and is Chairman of the Committee on Local As- 
sessments. 



212 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 



JESSE SPALDING. 



This gentleman represents the Fourth Ward. He was 
elected in 1873, on the Republican ticket. This is about 
the only political position he has filled, not devoting much 
attention to public honors. 

Mr. Spalding was born in Pennsylvania, and is about 45 
years of age. He is a member of the Menominee River 
Lumber Company, and is a very extensive owner of Michi- 
gan pine lands. His colleague is George H. Sidwell. 



COMMON COUNCIL. 213 



A. H. PICKERING. 



Aquila Herford Pickering was elected to represent the 
Fifth Ward on an Independent Ticket, by a majority of 
about 1,400. Ex-Alderman Peter Daggy was one of his two 
i>pponents. The Alderman was born on a farm on Short 
Creek, Harrison county, Ohio, near Cadiz, the county-seat, 
in 1820. At the age of 14, he was placed at school, and re- 
mained under careful tuition until arrived at the age of 21. 
In 184T, he went to Salem, Henry county, Iowa, and in that 
locality pursued a thriving mercantile business, under the 
name and style of ''Pickering's Emporium." Here he re- 
mained until 1S63. In this year he came to Chicago, and 
engaged in general commission business, and the salt trade. 
The latter he abandoned in 1871, and gave his exclusive at- 
tention to grain. In this trade he has been, and is to-day, 
one of the very heaviest operators in the market. 

In the Council, Alderman Pickering was the first to move 
for a new franchise for the Gas Company, but was defeated. 
One of his best movements vvas the introduction of an ordi- 
nance for the prevention of cruelty to animals. He was 
also the originator of the idea of putting iron-pipes into 
lofty buildings for the use of the Fire Dei)artment; although 
the credit was given to ex-Mayor Medill. His mind is at 
present filled with the propriety of selling the Lake front at 
a fair valuation. 



214 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 



RICHARD B. STONE. 



This gentleman represents, in the Common Council, the 
Fifth Ward, He was elected in November, i87i,on the 
Fire-Proof ticket, by a majority of 397. He was elected 
in 1873 on the Citizen's Union ticket, by a majority of 867; 
the whole number of votes given to his opponent, only ap- 
proximating 938. 

The Alderman was born in Oxford, Worcester county, 
Massachusetts, in 1829. At the age of six, he went to 
Bridgewater, in Plymouth county, Massachusetts. He then 
went as an apprentice to the carpenter trade, and attached 
himself to the business until 1851. He subsequently went 
to Western New York, and bought an interest in a sash fac- 
tory and lumber business. In 1855, losing his health, he 
went to a water-cure in the east. On April 19, 1856, he 
came to Chicago. Here he entered the lumber business, and 
is still engaged in it. 

During his first term in the Council he served with dis- 
tinction on the Committees on Bridewell, Streets and Alleys, 
and Printing. During his second term, he served on the 
Bridewell, Streets and Alleys, and County Relations Com- 
mittees. He was a strict supporter of the measures advoca- 
ted by the " Law and Order " men. 



COMMON ( {)l'N( 11.. 215 



ALDERMAN SCHMITZ. 



This gentleman represents the Sixth Ward, having been 
re-elected, in 1872, on the Republican ticket. In his elec- 
tion, on each occasion, almost the stoutest support he has 
received has come from the Democrats. He is forty-five 
years of age. 

He was born in the province of the Rhine, Prussia, and 
served in carpentry up to 1850. At this time, as provided 
by the enactments of his country, he joined the army. He 
had only served two years, when his services bore him into 
the Sergeantcy. In 1855 the Alderman came to Chicago ; 
and in 1857 commenced business as a builder, in which he 
is now engaged. During his second term in the Council, 
Alderman Schmitz followed up the record of his previous 
term, by looking devotedly after the matter of sewerage and 
water service. Among other projects, he rigidly conserved 
the people's interest against railroad intrusion; was an 
ardent abater of slaughter-house nuisances ; and fought hard 
for the banishment of Healy Slough. 



2t6 the great revolution. 



PHILLIP REIDY. 



This gentleman represents the Sixth Ward, elected on the 
People's ticket by a very large majority; three other candi- 
dates being in the field. The confidence Mr. Reidy has 
won among his constituents he secured only after a long 
career of untiring industry in their midst. 

The Alderman was born in Tralee, county of Kerry, Ire- 
land, in 1831, and, at the age of twenty-two, proceeded to 
New York. In February, 1854, he came to Chicago, and 
adopted blacksmithing, locating at the canal locks, in Bridge- 
port, in 1856. In this business he is still engaged; having 
accumulated therein considerable of a competence. 

In the Council Mr. Reidy favors the least possible display 
in the sale of liquors on Sunday. He serves on the Com- 
mittee on Schools, Licenses, and Local Assessments. He is 
also the President of St. Vincent's Society, of St. Bridget's 
church ; and of the Hibernian Benevolent Society ; mani- 
festing much interest in church organization. 



COMMON COL NLlL. 217 



PATRICK McCLORY. 



This gentleman was elected from the Seventh Ward, on 
the Republican ticket; in 1872, by a large majority. The 
influence of the Personal Liberty League conspicuously 
manifested itself on the occasion. 

Alderman McClory was born in the county of Down, Ire- 
land, in 1 83 1. At the age of eighteen, the Alderman, exhi- 
biting an unmistakable inclination to see everything worth 
seeing throughout the world, by an expressed wish to go to 
New Zealand, his father attempted to place him on the con- 
stabulary force. He was too young, however. At the age 
of nineteen his predilection to travel finally culminated in a 
trip to Glasgow, in Scotland. He remained here about two 
years, em])loyed at the trade of boiler making in a large 
ship building establishment. He then returned to Ireland, 
but did not stay longer than about a year, when he set out 
for Liverpool with a one-pound note. Here he obtained 
employment in Baring «Sc Bros.' warehouse. Finding mat- 
ters in this part of the world distasteful, he finally came to 
America, working his passage for $12.50, and arriving in New 
York, with one shilling and sixpence. He soon procured 
a position, as all competent workmen do; firstly in the Nov- 
elty Iron Works ; then with the great Manhattan Gas Com- 
pany; and afterward assisted at the construction of the 
Metropolitan Gas Works. 1^'or three years subsequently he 
acted as foreman of the gas works in Troy, New York. Re- 
moving to Chicago, the Alderman connected himself with 
the People's Gas Light and Coke Company, where he is at 
the present writing. 



2l8 J' HE GREAT REVOLUTION. 



E. F. CULLERTON. 



This gentleman represents the Seventh Ward in the Coun- 
cil. He was born in Chicago, in 1842, and devoted his 
early life to a rigid public school education. At the age of 
19 he struck out for himself, and built, in a very short time, 
a rushing boarding-house and livery-stable business. 

In 187 1, he was elected by a very large majority to repre- 
sent the Seventh Ward. In 1872 he was elected to the Leg- 
islature. Here he distinguished himself in opposition to the 
West Side Park Commissioners' taxation scheme. In the 
Council he occupies a high position on gas and police 
matters. He was re-elected on the People's ticket. 

The record of Alderman CuUerton in the Common Council 
is a very satisfactory one to his constituents. No vital ques- 
tion, as well in a general sense, escapes his closest attention. 

The alderman rarely speaks. When he does, his speech is 
the result of the most thorough conviction. 



COMNfON COUNCII.. 219 



M. B. BAILEY. 



This gentleman represents the Eighth Ward. He was 
elected in 1870 on the Republican ticket, though an old 
Democrat, and in 1872 on the People's ticket. His first 
term in tlie Council was noted by liis herculean efforts to 
promote the sewerage facilities of his ward, securing the 
same when no appropriation had been made. A prominent 
feature of his second term was his minority report on the 
I'illy plan for a new Court House. He also distinguished 
himself bv his efforts for the Canal and Twelfth street via- 
ducts. The Alderman was born in Limerick — near the 
boundaries — Ireland, in 1S37, the year in which Chicago 
was incorporated. About the age of 16 he came to Chicago 
and acquired llu- mason and plastering art. In 1855 he 
went into business for himself, taking every contract he 
could get. In the latter part of 1856, setting forth from 
Lawrence, Kansas, he went to the Rocky Mountains, and 
after six months came back to St. Joseph, Missouri, where 
he built several large structures. 

He then came to Chicago, where many a foot of land bears 
the weight of his work. Among many other structures, he 
has built the new County Jail, the Second National Bank, 
the Empire Block, the Washington School, Father Waldron's 
School, Schccllkopf 's, on Randolph street, and Cohn Broth- 
er's Building. The Alderman's ambition is building. 



220 THE GREAT REVOLUTION, 



JAMES H. HILDRETH. 



This is the second term of Alderman James Henry Hil- 
dreth, in the Common Council, having been elected first in 
1869 to represent the Seventh Ward, and in 1873, on the 
People's ticket, to represent the Eighth. The districts are 
almost identical, the numbers of the Wards being changed 
by the Legislature. 

Mr. Hildreth was born in Chester county, Massachusetts, 
July 8, 1840, and is of American descent. At about the age 
of 19, having spent a short time farming in Will county, he 
came to Chicago, procuring, upon his arrival, a conductor- 
ship from the North Side City Railway Company. This 
position he subsequently abandoned for an appointment as 
Grain Inspector under the Board of Trade. In 1862, upon 
the organization of the Board of Trade Battery, our subject 
enlisted and proceeded to the front. In all of the principal 
battles fought by this deservedly famous organization, Mr. 
Hildreth tc-ok a prominent part; remembering the stirring 
incidents of no less than 34 battles, and the capture of the 
head and front of the Southern Confederacy, Jefferson 
Davis. The army life of the Alderman is replete in a 
continuous series of thrilling adventures which well illus- 
trate the daring spirit of the man. On one occasion, in the 
vicinity of Covington, Georgia, a few horses of the division 
giving vefy good promise of dropping under their riders, 
Hildreth was dispatched, as he always was on such occa- 
sions, to look about for substitutes. He had not gone far 



COMMON COUN'Cll. 22 1 

before he met with the most brilliant success. It was so 
encouraging, in fact, as to keep him so long absent that his 
companions gave him up for dead. While ruminating over 
his untimely demise, the boys were suddenly aroused by the 
appearance of a batch of horses and mules, numbering in 
all 27, and commanded by negroes. Four horsemen bring- 
ing up the rear comi)rised Corporal Hildreth, a Rebel 
lieutenant -colonel, and two privates. The animals were 
bagged while hotly pursued into apparent safety, by the 
negroes: the officer was surprised from the shadow of a 
tree; and the two privates were captured when half way 
through a fence, having just bidden an affectionate fare- 
well to their sweethearts. In recognition of his extraor- 
dinary service on this occasion, he was presented with a 
magnificent testimonial. On his return from the war, Mr. 
Hildreth received his old position on the Board of Trade. 

The trying scenes of the Great Fire counted no bolder 
hero than Hildreth. As very often happens, however, the 
glory of his achievements was appropriated to the credit of 
somebody else. When the water supply had ceased, bring- 
ing panic into the hearts of the bravest, Hildreth, with the 
suddenness of thought, hurried to the powder magazines on 
South Water street, near State, and, bursting the doors (jpen, 
gathered up all of the kegs of powder and fuse he could 
find, and, through showers of sparks and clouds of suffocat- 
ing smoke, proceeded to the work of blowing-up. The first 
building that trembled was the Union National Bank; then 
Smith &: Nixon's. In his experience in these structures, 
Mr. Hildreth learned that he did not succeed as well as he 
might. The subsequent efforts of the Alderman proved 
more successful, the following buildings tumbling above 
the powder with tremendous beauty: at the northwest and 
southwest corners of Washington street and Wabash avenue ; 
at the corner of State and Harrison, where the fire was 



222 THR GREAT REVOLUTION. 

checked; and about six buildings on the north side of Con- 
gress street, near Wabash avenue. Vet, the wires flashed in 
all directions the news of the perilous powder performance 
entirely credited to Gen. Phil. Sheridan. This mistake, 
however, might arise from the fact that Police Comraisioner 
Sheridan took a prominent part in the proceeding, and that 
Gen. Sheridan was present in the burning city. 



COMMON COINCII.. 22^ 



JAMES O'BRIKN. 



This gentleman was elected by a very large majority to 
represent the Ninth Ward in the Common Council. Votes 
to the number of 1,025 '^ ^^^^^ ward is something to be 
]")roud of. 

The Alderman was born in the county of Wex- 
ford, Ireland, July 25, 1842. His early life was not replete 
in anything very extraordinary. Before his advent in 
("hicago, in fact, nothing occurred, it may be said, to mar the 
harmony of a very ordinary life. Railroad enterprise had 
fascinations for him, and commencing at car coupling, he, 
in a brief time, was appointed assistant yard-master in the 
employ of the Michigan Southern. Relinquishing this busi- 
ness after a time, he entered the retail liquor business, in 
which he is now engaged. 

In the Council Alderm.an ()T>rien's position is a peculiar, 
but doughty one. He has convictions, and insists always upon 
vindicating them. It is true, he generally stands in the 
minority; but his status is, to say the least, very manly. He 
stood acjainst the confirmation of Commissioners Wrlirht and 
Mason, as a niatter of law ; and in the slate made by Mayor 
Colvin, was the first Alderman to e.xercise the spirit of his 
inde])endence. 



224 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 



THOMAS R BAILEY. 



Thomas PVancis Bailey was elected from the Ninth Ward 
in 1873, on the People's ticket, by a majority of about 470. 
One of his opponents was Ex-Alderman Powell, whose 
strength in the ward was very great. 

Alderman Bailey was born in Lough Gur, Limerick, 
in 1842. He is, therefore, 32 years of age. He remained 
in his native place perhaps until arrived at the age of 11. 
He then went to Bradford county, Pennsylvania, and worked 
on a farm. In 1856, having reconsidered an intention to 
settle in Michigan, he came to Chicago, and entered general 
merchandise, serving in Shufeldt's distillery as general fore- 
man up to Jan. I, 1874. 

The election of Alderman Bailey from so peculiar a ward as 
the Ninth, it is said, even surprised himself only less than it 
did Ex-Alderman Powell. • - 



COMMON COUNCIL. 225 



DAVID W. CLARK, Jr. 



This gentleman is Alderman of the Tenth Ward, having 
defeated C. C. P. Holden, Esq., in 1872, on the straight Re- 
publican ticket. He had not the remotest idea of achieving 
the victory, as it was generally supposed Mr. Holden could 
not be beaten in a ward he had represented so long. 

Mr. Clark was born in Boston, Massachusetts, May 6, 1840. 
In 1853, he left there and proceeded to New York, where he 
stayed one year. He then came to Chicago and entered the 
job printing business, in which he is now engaged. He was 
Supervisor in 187 1, representing the Tenth Ward, and through 
his exertions principally, it is claimed, the abstract matter 
was referred to the incoming Board, whereby the county, it 
is estimated, was saved $1,250,000. 

In the earlier life of our subject he figured well in the 
Volunteer Fire Department, receiving a medal in 1859, on 
Company 2 of the Fire Brigade, for not missing an alarm or 
fire during the year. In the same year he was elected First 
Lieutenant of the Company. He also served in Barker's 
Dragoons during the war. This company formed Gen. Mc- 
Clellan's body guard through West Virginia. Mr, Clark was 
Secretary of W. B. Warren Lodge of the Masonic order, and 
in 1868 received a magnificent gold watch and chain for mer- 
itorious services. 

15 



226 THE GREAT REVOLUTION 



C. L. WOODMAN. 



Charles Leonard Woodman represents the Tenth Ward in 
the Common Council, elected in 1873 on the "Law and 
Order " ticket, by about 700 majority. This is the Alder- 
man's fourth term in the Common Council. He represented, 
under the administration of Mayor Sherman, the Eighth 
Ward; represented the Sixteenth Ward on Sherman's sec- 
ond term, and was elected from the Twentieth Ward after 
the Great Fire. In this connection it may be interesting to 
state that, when chosen to represent the Twentieth Ward, 
there was scarcely a house there to relieve the monotony of 
a prairie waste. The old residents were compelled to travel 
from their scattered habitations throughout the city to be 
represented in a ward they did not live in. The contests in 
the Council Alderman Woodman remembers with pleasure, 
concern the improvement of the mouth of the river, the 
construction of the great Lake Tunnel, and the deepening 
of the Chicago River. All of these he successfully favored 
against active opposition. He was also most conspicuous 
on the Railroad Committee. 

Mr. Woodman was born in Barrington, Stafford County, 
N, H., July 7, 1829. At the age of thirteen, he removed to 
Great Falls, and, excepting six months at school, devoted 
himself to the bakery business, in company with his brother. 
In those days no machinery being at hand, it occupied the 
time of four men and a bov to turn one barrel of flour into 
crackers. Now, one man can work five barrels per day. 



COMMON COUNCIL. 227 

At the age of twenty, Mr. Woodman built an oven in Great 
Falls, and went into business for himself. After the lapse 
of five years, he came to Chicago. Immediately upon ar- 
rival, he secured a position at fifteen dollars per week, com- 
petent workmen receiving at the time from six to eight 
dollars. His position was the superintendency of a bakery 
at the corner of Dearborn and Illinois streets. He soon 
bought this establishment out, and did well enough to start 
a more extensive business on the South Side. Forming a 
copartnership with Joseph M. Dake, — now dead, — he es- 
tablished himself on Dearborn street, near the- Post-office, 
where his shingle was visible at the time of the Fire. It 
was here he conceived the " aerated bread " idea, which was 
so popular for a time. About five years ago, in company 
with Edward Olcott, he built a bakery on Kinzie street. Both 
of his establishments, as well as his residence, were burned in 
the great Fire, entailing a loss of about $75,000. The loss 
did not affect the spirit of the Alderman much, however. 
Within thirty days after the fire, he was baking one hundred 
barrels a day in his temporary structure, on the corner of 
Adams and Canal streets. The extent of his business since 
can be judged from the following, taken from his ledger : 
For 1873, upwards of 30,000 barrels of flour made into 
bread and crackers — production, 1,500,000 loaves of bread, 
and 75,000 barrels of crackers. Sales, over $125,000 more 
than previous year. 



228 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 



PATRICK KEHOE. 



Patrick Kehoe was elected to represent the Eleventh 
Ward, in 1872, on the People's ticket, by a most favorable 
majority. 

Mr. Kehoe was born in Carlow County, in the town of 
Clonegall, Ireland, in 1834. In 1854, he came to Chicago, 
and established a flourishing grocery business in the vicinity 
of his present locality, corner of Carroll and Halsted streets. 
It was in an era in Chicago's history when a little foresight 
would work tremendous marvels for a man. That commod- 
ity forming one of our subject's capabilities, he succeeded 
in building himself up remarkably fast. 

Mr. Kehoe has not figured very prominently in politics, 
devoting most scrupulous attention to trade. 



COMMON COUNCIL. 229 



GEORGE E. WHITE. 



This gentleman represents the Eleventh Ward. He was 
elected in 1873, on the People's ticket, and is the youngest 
man in the Council, and one of the shrewdest. He was born 
in Millbury, Massachusetts, in 1848, and left there at the age 
of 13, to graduate in North Wilberham College, About 15 
he entered the army. 

In the battles for the Union, Alderman White took a promi- 
nent part, figuring in no less than 17 battles. Among other 
reminiscences, he was present at Lee's surrender. He fought 
under Meade, Burnside, and Wilcox, and was three times 
wounded. At the beginning of the war, he went out under 
Col. Bartlett, now Brevet Major General, a bosom friend, 
and a magnificent officer. 

At the end of the war. Alderman White settled in Chicago, 
working for Messrs. White & EUson at a salary of $50 per 
month. He then went into business for himself, when the 
firm name was Burchard, White & Co. Burchard was now 
bought out, and the firm name was White & Haffner. Mr. 
White now bought out Haffner, and ran the lumber business 
himself; in which he is now engaged. 

The extent of the Alderman's business may be learned 
from the fact that his pay-roll per week amounts to $2,000, 
His acquaintances say he is worth $75,000. 



230 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 



AMOS F. MINER. 



Amos F. Miner was elected to represent the Twelfth Ward 
in the Common Council, in 1872, on the Republican ticket, 
by a majority of about 386 ; two other candidates being in 
the field. 

The Alderman was born in Grafton county, New Hamp- 
shire, in 1826. At the age of eight he left his native place 
and went to Rensselaer county. New York, where he went to 
work on a farm ; devoting his leisure hours to the acquisi- 
tion of an education. He then became a school teacher. 
But the birch and rule did not develop sufficient muscle to 
wield, very healthily, the hammer of life. Accordingly the 
Alderman learned the carpenter's and joiner's trade. Hav- 
ing acquired a thorough knowledge of the business, he pro- 
ceeded to Westchester county, where he remained three or 
four years. He then removed to Desplaines, Cook county, 
Illinois, where he remained for about ten years. In both of 
these places he was quite busily engaged in building enter- 
prises. He has been since, and is now, engaged in building. 

Ten years ago Mr. Miner was admitted to the Bar, but 
did not enter practice. He has interested himself in public 
affairs for some time ; yet he does not care to figure much 
politically, it seems. Among other positions of public trust 
he served as Assistant Examiner of Schools in the North- 
west, under Greenleaf, and as a Justice of the Peace for five 
years. He came to Chicago in 1866. 



COMMON COUNCIL. 23I 



MONROE HEATH. 



Monroe Heath, Alderman of the Twelfth Ward, was re- 
elected in the fall of 1873, on the "Law and Order " ticket, 
by about 986 majority. Only seventeen votes stood against 
him on his first election on the Fire-Proof ticket. 

Mr. Heath was born in Springfield, Sullivan county, New 
Hampshire, in 1828. His ancestors, on the maternal side, 
it is pretty clearly established, came over in the Mayflower ; 
and the very fair presumption is that his progenitors were of 
English descent. 

His mother dying when our subject was but four years 
old, and his father when he was but eight, circumstances 
required the placing of the boy in the custody of his 
grandmother. The old lady took care of him up to 
the age of about seventeen. He now went to Boston, 
and acquired a knowledge of general merchandise. Hence- 
forward, up to his arrival in Chicago, his mercantile career 
was relieved by considerable traveling; experience in the 
Mexican war, and a trip to Pike's Peak, contributing enliven- 
ing reminiscences. ^ 

In the early part of 185 1 Mr. Heath came to Chicago, 
when he immediately engaged in the painting business. The 
first locality he selected was upon the North Side, in the 
vicinity of Wells street bridge. During the first year he 
employed but four or five men. In the second year the 
force was increased to about forty. He then removed to the 
South Side, and, in company with Mr. Henry Milligan, with 



232 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

whom he associated in 1855, has since succeeded in building 
up the magnificent proportions of business they now enjoy, 
on East Randolph street, near LaSalle. To go into detail 
regarding the immense progress made by the firm of Heath 
& Milligan since its organization, would be superfluous. 
The entire business community built up in Chicago recog- 
nize Messrs. Heath & Milligan as standing at the very head 
and front of the most successful in their particular line of 
business. 

Their success they have achieved, too, under quite dis- 
couraging circumstances. The firm was burned out twice, 
and lost heavily. They rebuilt immediately after the first 
occasion, and after the second. The latter occasion hap- 
pened to be that of the great fire, an event distinctly remem- 
bered, it is presumed. The present establishment they 
entered about ninety days after the great disaster. 



COMMON COUNCIL. 2^^ 



AVERY MOORE. 



This gentleman represents the Thirteenth Ward in the 
Common Council, elected on the Republican ticket, in 1872, 
He was elected first in 1865, from the old Seventh Ward, 
being, it is said, the first Republican ever elected in that 
district. -* 

Mr. Moore was born in Belmont county, Ohio, in 1830. 
Here he remained up to the age of 25, devoting his days ta 
school and a mercantile career. He now removed to War- 
saw, Hancock county, Illinois, where he taught school and 
pursued real estate principally. In 1863 — after having 
constructed a commendable war record — Mr. Moore came 
to Chicago. In 1864, he entered the employ of the Chica- 
go, Burlington, & Quincy Railroad. He subsequently left 
this institution and established himself in the storage busi- 
ness, corner of Rush and Kinzie streets. 

Mr. Moore's first political experience was in Ohio, where 
he represented Belmont county in convention. Among 
other positions of trust, Mr. Moore has served honorably in 
the Board of Education. 



234 - THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 



J. L. CAMPBELL. 



Alderman Campbell was first elected in 1869, from the 
Thirteenth Ward, on the straight Republican ticket, by a 
majority of 262. 

He was born in Livingston county, New York, and came 
to Illinois at the age of 19, settling in Elgin. After a stay 
of six years in the milk (and water) region, Alderman Camp 
bell went to Northern Iowa, and studied in the Iowa Uni- 
versity, in Lafayette. Since that time his progress in his 
(legal) profession has been very rapid. The political promi 
nence of Alderman Campbell was first made manifest in 
Idaho, when the question was first agitated of organizing a 
territory east of the mountains. He went to Washington at 
this time, and stayed there until the territory known as Mon- 
tana had been an accomplished fact. He is responsible 
for the events that conspired to effect it. The fact was duly 
appreciated by the denizens of that locality, Alderman 
Campbell having been invited to represent the people of that 
region in Congress immediately. Having accepted the mer- 
ited honor, he was on his way thither, when a horde of Indi- 
ans between Fort Kearney and Denver intercepted his 
approach. The event checked the political aspirations of 
the Alderman, but not much. Subsequent history stands as 
evidence of the fact. 



COMMON COUNCIL. 



l« 



BARTHOLOMEW QUIRK. 



The Alderman, representing the Fourteenth Ward, was 
elected on the Republican ticket, in 1872. He was born in 
Castle Gregory, County of Kerry, Ireland, in 1834. In 1841 
he went to Albany, New York ; thence to Buffalo ; and, in 
1844, came to Chicago. 

He spent about four years in school, firstly in the old Plant- 
er's House, and afterwards at the Old Dearborn. He now 
went to printing. His employer failing to pay, the Alderman 
failed to make pi, etc., and went to carpentry. He remained 
in the business to become a successful builder of residences. 
The Alderman was for three years and three months in the 
army, serving in the Twenty-Third Illinois. In the princi- 
ple battles shared by that regiment, Mr. Quirk participated. 
He accompanied Mulligan, Sheridan and Cook through all 
of the engagements, mostly in Western Virginia; witnessed 
"Sheridan's ride," and was within fifty feet of Colonel Mul- 
ligan when killed. 



2-z6 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 



. SILAS E. CLEVELAND. 



This gentleman represents the Fourteenth Ward, and has 
been elected twice: in 187 1, on the Fire-Proof ticket; and 
in 1873, on the "Law and Order" ticket. He was born in 
Clinton county, New York, in 1839. In 1849 the family 
removed to Chicago, and placed the Alderman at school ; 
first at .Hathaway 's old school, then at Washington school, 
and also at Mount Morris College, Ogle county, Illinois. He 
then went to work in the carpenter shop of his father, 
spending a short time with Olmstead & Nickerson, archi- 
tects. He was soon placed in the carpenter shop, in charge 
of the planing department. In 1861 he accompanied his 
father, a captain in the Eighth Illinois cavalry, to the front; 
and witnessed, among other battles, the fight in front of 
Richmond, and the battles of Bull Run, Malvern Hill, and 
Williamsburg. In 1862 he filled several building contracts 
with the Pittsburg & Ft. Wayne Road. He also served 
three years as a mail agent on the Northwestern Road. 
Since then he has been engaged in prosperous business 
enterprises. 

In the Council the Alderman favors strongly the princi- 
ple of the " Law and Order " party, and advocated fervently 
the closing of the saloons on Sunday. 



COMMON COUNCIL. 237 



NICHOLAS ECKHARDT. 



Mr. Eckhardt is Alderman of the Fifteenth Ward, and 
was elected in 1872 on an Independent ticket, by a majority 
of 156, two otlier candidates being in the field. 

He was born in 1S32 in Germany, and left his native 
country at the age of 17. He then came almost directly to 
Chicago. Here he learned the carpentry trade, and re- 
lieved the monotony of his avocation by running, like so 
many citizens, in the Fire Department. He was on the 
regular Fire Department for eight years, serving as pipe- 
man on the "Queen," and subsequently on the "Brown." 
He is at present engaged in the liquor trade. 



238 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 



J. J. McGRATH. 



Alderman McGrath represents the Fifteenth Ward in the 
Common Council. 

Born in Ireland, he came, when quite young, to America, 
and settled with an uncle in New York City, where he re- 
ceived a liberal education. He then learned cooperage, 
transacting the same for several years, and finally became 
interested in the Chicago Distilling Company. He was 
shortly appointed superintendent over some eighty men, 
then employed in the business of cooperage. He subse- 
quently purchased the institution, and now employs about 
fifty operatives. 

He visited Canada, and the Southern States, returned to 
his native land in 1867, glanced at the principal cities of 
the Old World, and dropped in to view the marvels of in- 
dustry in the Paris Exposition. It was on this trip Alder- 
man McGrath acquired the extensive knowledge he has so 
often displayed in sewerage, water supplies, and kindred 
subjects of municipal importance. When the sewer bill of 
Corporation Counsel Tuley was pending before the body, 
the report submitted on the question by Alderman McGrath, 
Chairman of the Sewer Committee, will be recalled as a 
document of a most exhaustive nature. 



(.;()MMON col:ncii.. 239 



PETER MAHR. 



Alderman Peter Mahr was elected to represent the Six- 
teenth Ward, on the Republican ticket, in 1872. He was 
born in Nassau, Germany, June 11, 1835, and lived under 
the paternal roof up to the age of 15. While the old people 
were doing very well in Fatherland, they thought, neverthe- 
less, that their heir might grow more useful to himself in 
America. With this intention, the family removed to this 
country and settled down to agricultural pursuits in Wis- 
consin. Their stay was but short. The golden grain was 
very pretty, indeed, in the eyes of Peter, but the suggestions 
it afforded were more practical than poetic. The result of 
his education was that he became a brewer. He pursued 
this avocation in Wisconsin until he thought it would pay 
better in Illinois. 

He accordingly came to Chicago, and gave his 
services to Lill «S: Diversy for many years. He then 
went into business for himself. He was elected a Ward 
Supervisor for two years, and a Town Supervisor for about 
the same period. 



240 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 



THOMAS W. STOUT. 



Alderman Thomas W. Stout was elected to represent the 
Sixteenth Ward in 1871 on the Star Chamber, and in 1873 
on the People's ticket. He was born in Pennsylvania, Sept. 
15, 1836. The early education of the Alderman assisted his 
fondness for a mercantile life materially. In several fields 
■of industry his work has made a very perceptible impress ; 
securing, as he did, a position in the employ of the North- 
western Railway Company, that gave him ample opportuni- 
ties. He held a position on this road for no less than 22 
years. 

In the Council he was a strenuous advocate of clos- 
ing saloons on Sundays up to i p. m. ; conspicuously 
figuring on the Committee of Nine. He was a strong oppo- 
ser of gas monopoly ; having advocated a measure which he 
claims would save the city the sum of $200,000 annually. 



COMMON COUNCIL. 24^ 



LOUIS SCHAFFNRR. 



Alderman Schaffner, better known as Col. Schaffner, rep- 
resents the Seventeenth Ward. 

He was born in Alsace, France, and is now 46 years of 
age. At the age of nine, Col. Schaffner removed to the 
city of New York, and engaged in the dry goods business, 
where he remained until the outbreak of the Rebellion, when 
he organized, Jan. 8, 1861, Company A, of the Seventh New 
York Volunteers (Steuben). Elected Captain, the Colonel 
assumed, very modestly, however, the rank of Adjutant, con- 
fiding in future merit for a soldier's promotion, and winning 
it bravely. Col. Schaffner participated in the fight at Big 
Bethel, at Ball's Bluff, and Port Hudson, and many other 
engagements, and suffered, during his service through the 
entire war, two severe sunstrokes, and but a slight wound in 
the knee, which he received when Lieutenant Grebel was 
killed beside him. Promoted to the Lieutenant Colonelcy in 
a short time after the commencement of the struggle, he 
subsequently declined two offers of a brevet Brigadier-Qen- 
eralship. He had also charge of the prisoners at Rock 
Lsland and Camp Douglas. In the dawn of peace he en- 
tered the grocery business, and left it for the office of Assist- 
ant Assessor of Internal Revenue. 

In 1868, Col. Schaffner, always a staunch Republican, 
handled the North Side Tanners so well that every ward in 
the Division went Republican at the Presidential election. 
In 1869, he was defeated, but in 1870, he was elected to a 
seat in the Council by a handsome majority. 
i6 



242 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 



JACOB LENGACHER. 



This gentleman was elected to represent the Seventeenth 
Ward in the Common Council. First time in 1871, on the 
Union People's ticket ; the second time in 1873, on the Peo- 
ple's ticket. 

He was born in Berne, Switzerland, in 1833. One year 
and a half at school in Berne, and up to 1858, in the city of 
Deintigen, completed his educational course. He now came 
to Laporte, Indiana. He here entered into a contract for 
clearing land five miles or so distant from the city of Laporte. 
He subsequently entered the brewing business. In August, 
1861, with some fourteen friends, the Alderman proceeded 
to Indianapolis, and offered his services to Gen. Willich, 
commander of the32d Indiana. Promotion soon succeeded. 
Corporalship, sergeantcy, lieutenantships, and captaincy fol- 
lowed. After the battle of Shiloh, he was compelled to 
take an orderly sergeantship. When the Captain of Com- 
pany D was killed, the Alderman, who belonged to Company 
I, was appointed to his position. 

Coming to Chicago, he entered the Collector's office. 
Business growing dull, however, he went, at suggestion, into 
the insurance business, in which he is now engaged. He 
represents eight different companies. 



COMMON COUNCIL. 243 



THOMAS CANNON. 



This gentleman represents the Eighteenth Ward in the 
Common Council. He was born in the townland of Cloon- 
coe, County Leitrim, Ireland, May 15, 1828, and came to 
this country in 1851, coming directly to Chicago. Up-hill 
work encountered the Alderman at once. He succeeded in 
obtaining employment, however, very soon, as a laborer, 
from which he rose to a position as* forwarding freight agent 
for the old Galena Railroad. After six years of dilligent 
service here, Mr. Cannon was removed to make place for the 
pet. of certain politicians. The Alderman had accumulated 
consideral)le money in the meantime, and this he invested 
in real estate. He had hardly done so, however, when the 
financial crash of '58 and '59 swept it away. Then followed 
a checkered career. Firstly he speculated on the Board of 
Trade; had bad luck, after seven years, and went to team- 
ing ; was then engaged as a Sidewalk Inspector, under the 
Board of Public Works ; then as an United States Mail 
Agent. He now procured a position in the Custom House, 
whence he was discharged, with twenty others, for want of 
employment. But the Alderman had made friends. Gov- 
ernor Beveridge was one of them. At the demise of Owen 
Dougherty, Mr. Cannon was appointed by his Excellency to 
fill the vacancy as a Justice of the Peace, which position he 
now holds. His successful race for Alderman was his third : 
in the first heat being beaten by five hundred and seventy- 
four majority ; in the second, by twenty-seven ; and being 
successful in the last by a majority of five hundred and 
sixty-four. The Alderman j^rides himself upon having 
built the first house on the North Side after the great fire. 



244 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 



DAVID MURPHY. 



This gentleman represents the Eighteenth Ward in the 
Common Council, and was elected in 1873, on the People's 
ticket. He was born in the county of Wexford, Ireland ; 
and, leaving there twenty years ago, came directly to Chi- 
cago. 

The experience of the Alderman in a business point of 
view — for he was never much in politics — deserves more 
than a passing notice. On his arrival in Chicago he went 
into partnership with his brother. Collector Murphy, in the 
grocery business, and has been ever since invariably success- 
ful. 

In politics, Mr. Murphy, as before intimated, did but little. 
However, having been pressed upon by his friends, he 
accepted a candidacy, and won the Aldermanship of the 
Eighteenth Ward, by a majority of four hundred and one, 
three other candidates being in the field. He ran against 
Ex-Alderman Carney before, but was defeated. 

In the Council Mr. Murphy is quite conservative ; cater- 
ing to the senses of no other representative, but closely 
watching the interests of his ward. His constituents ap- 
preciate the fact. 



COMMON COUNCIL. 245 



MICHAEL BRAND. 



Elected to represent the Nineteenth Ward in the Common 
Council, Mr. Brand took his seat as the result of the fall 
election, in 1873. 

The gentleman established a brewing business at 30 Cedar 
street, he may well feel proud of, years ago, and in establish- 
ing the same has carefully eschewed politics. 



246 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 



THOMAS LYNCH. 



The colleague of Alderman Brand is Thomas Lynch, 
elected by a handsome majority to represent the district in 
which he lives. ■ 

The utmost confidence is reposed by his constituents in 
Alderman Lynch, and the prospects are that he will not 
betray it. 



COMMON l.OUNCIL. 247 



JOHN T.CORCORAN. 



Mr. Corcoran was elected to represent the Twentieth 
Ward, in 1872, on the Greeley ticket, by a majority of about 
900 ; two other candidates being in the field. One received 
98 votes; the other 180. The Alderman was born in 
Killarney, and is 37 years of age. When but five weeks 
old, he was removed by his parents to the city of Ottawa, 
Ontario. Here the family stayed for about eight years. They 
now came to Chicago. In those days there were not so 
many hotels in Chicago as now. They were not so ornate, 
besides, what there were of them. The old St. Louis, how- 
ever, was about as respectable as any of them. This edifice 
Mr. Corcoran 's father purchased, and succeeded in estab- 
lishing in a very brief time. The hotel stood on East Wash- 
ington street, near Franklin, and was subsequently burned. 
The father dying in 1854, a rather flourishing grocery business 
and the care of six young children devolved upon the Alder- 
man. He did not prosecute the business very long, as he 
saw something more lucrative in hotel life. He accordingly 
secured the old Continental, a building with 35 rooms. 
Here he laid the foundation of his subsequent success. This 
was about eleven years ago. Foreseeing even then the possi- 
bilities of trade, Mr. Corcoran advanced in close proximity 
to railroad travel, and i)urchased the Hatch House, located 
on the southeast corner of Fifth avenue and Kinzie street. 
From the outset the career of the house was brilliant; 
although street improvement took off considerable of the 



248 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

profit, the building of the Fifth avenue viaduct and the 
consequent elevation of the street costing the Alderman 
^22,400. The building had 118 rooms for guests at the time 
of the great fire. It was insured for ^35,000, and of this 
the Alderman recovered perhaps 181^ percent. The present 
building cost $17,000, 

In the Council Alderman Corcoran, during the past year, 
has stood in the minority. He was bitterly opposed to the 
Mayor's bill as being tyrannical, and has the best hopes for 
the entire success of the People's party. 



COMMON COL'NCIL. 249 



JULIUS JONAS. 



Julius Jonas is the colleague of Alderman J. V. Cor- 
coran, in the administration of the affairs of the Twentieth 
Ward. He was elected to his position in 1873. 

It is the impression of the residents of the Twentieth 
Ward that Alderman Jonas will fulfill the requirements of 
his office with entire satisfaction. 

Mr. Jonas was born in Pleshen, Prussia, and is 37 years 
of age. At the age of 14, he came to New York. After a 
stay here of about five years he went to Quincy, Illinois. 
He then came to Chicago, and opened the hide business, 
over 231 S. Water street, and subsequently removed to 183 
Michigan street. His annual business here, added to that 
of several branches, approximates $800,000. 

Mr. Jonas has not paid much attention to politics ; giving 
deep attention to his business. As a result, he has succeeded 
in building up a remarkable business. 



PART III. 



County Officers 



COUNTY OFFICERS. 2^^ 



H. H. MILLER. 



H. B. Miller is the County Treasurer, elected by the 
People's Party in the Fall of 1873 by a very large majority. 
When placed on the ticket, the opposition sought very hard 
to prove that he was not an American. Indeed, a large 
number of voters believed he was not, from his connec- 
tion with the interests of our German residents. A sketch 
of his history, however, will show that, if ever a man could 
be Americanized, Mr. Miller enjoys that sweet boon with a 
vengeance. 

H. B. Miller was born in 181 9, in the Lebanon Valley, in 
Pennsylvania, where his great grandfather settled about the 
year 1720. Both of his grandfathers were born in America, 
and fought under Washington's banner in the struggle for 
national independence. 

.\t the age of 14, he entered a printing office, learned 
the trade, and pursued it for four years, or thereabouts. In 
1839, fast acquiring a taste for journalism, Mr. Miller 
founded, in Niles, Michigan, an English paper, the Repub- 
lican^ and edited it till 1844. In this year he founded the 
Tele^raph^ at Kalamazoo. Both of these journals — the 
latter advocating the principles of Henry Clay — he edited 
with much ability; and recognition of their political influ- 
ence was not slow in making itself apparent. 

In 1845, he removed to Buffalo. In this city he followed 
up his journalistic aspirations, and founded a German pa- 
per, the Telef^raph, which is still in existence. Subsequently. 



25-4 THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 

President Taylor appointed him Chief Inspector of the 
Lighthouses on the Lakes. 

Severing his connection with the Press, Mr. Miller, after 
a time, became a contractor of Public Works. While so 
engaged, by order of the British-American Telegraph Com- 
pany he constructed a telegraph line from Quebec to Mon- 
treal. Subsequently, he built a mile of the enlargement of 
the Erie Canal, and a dock and landing on the Niagara 
River for the Buffalo and Lake Huron Railroad, which 
cost about $1,500,000. In 1858, Buffalo elected him a mem- 
ber of the State Legislature, and the next year re-elected 
him. 

Removing to Chicago, Mr. Miller at once became identi- 
fied with her largest business interests. His record thus 
engaged brought him gradually to the political surface, and 
it was not long before he figured prominently before the 
people. He always took an active interest in public ques- 
tions, and was rarely guilty of misconstruing their im- 
port. It has invariably been his method to transact public 
affairs conservatively, on the same basis, in fact, as his private 
business. This trait in his character, doubtlessly, led to his 
election to the important position of County Treasurer. 
Among other positions of political preferment, he has served 
honorably as member of the County Commissioners, and 
acted at the time of his recent election as President of that 
body. He was also, in 1868, a member of the State Legis- 
lature. 



COUNTY OFFICERS. 255 



HERMANN LIEB. 



The People's ticket, in the fall of 1873, elected Hermann 
Lieb Cook County Clerk, by a very handsome majority. 

Mr. Lieb was born in the canton of Turgau, Switzerland, in 
1826, and is of Swiss descent on the paternal side. His 
mother was a Dane. When 19 he left his native place and 
went to Paris, in France, where he entered a mercantile life 
in company with his brother. So engaged he remained up to 
the revolution of 184S. He now entered the Garde Mobilev 
with which in February and June of 1848 he participated in 
all of the battles fought during that period in the streets of 
Paris. 

In 1 85 1 Mr. Lieb came to America. A tour through New 
York, Boston, and Cincinnati preceded his arrival in Illinois 
in 1856. In this year he settled in Decatur, where he 
remained until the beginning of the war of the Rebellion. 
On this event he enlisted in the Eigth Illinois Infantry, 
under General Oglesby. With this regiment he participate'd 
in the battles of Fort McHenry, Fort Donelson, Shiloh, and 
the siege of Corinth. He was not long in the service — 
only three months — when he received a Captaincy in Com- 
pany B. He now accompanied Logan's Division to Vicks- 
burg, where he was i)laced in charge of the skirmishers. In 
fact, in tlie engagements immediately succeeding he per- 
formed the same hazardous service. When " The Bend '*" 
was attacked he received a jjainful wound in the left leg. 
This procured for him a leave of absence. Return- 



256 THE GREAT REVOLUTION, 

ing to duty after about a month, Mr. Lieb, under orders 
from General Grant, raised a colored regiment of 
heavy artillery, which gained the reputation of being one 
of the best drilled regiments in the service. Among other 
recognitions for meritorious service, he was appointed In- 
spector General of the Department of the Mississippi, and 
was breveted a Brigadier General. 

Having been mustered out, Mr. Lieb went to Springfield 
and founded the Illinois Post, a German Republican paper. 
After two years he came to Chicago, and in company with 
Mr. Brentano, started the Abend Zeitung, which took an 
active part in the polical movement of 1869. A trip to 
Memphis followed, with a view to establishing a German 
colony. This movement was a failure, however, owing to 
the condition of the country. Returning thence, Mr. 
Lieb established the German American. Subsequently he 
founded The Union, a German paper with Democratic sym- 
pathies. 



C(JUNTV OFK.ICKRS. . 257 



M. R. M. WALLACE. 



Martin R. M. Wallace, the poindar Judge of the Cook 
County Court, was born in Urbana, Champaign county, 
Ohio, September 29, 1829, and is consequently in the vicinity 
of forty-four years of age. 

In 1834 his father, John A\"allace, removed to Illinois, and 
settled his family in LaSalle county. In 1839, entering Ogle 
county, Judge Wallace was placed at school, and, on his 
removal to Mount Morris, resumed his studies there. At 
this seat of the well known Rock River Seminary he pur- 
sued his academical course. In 1852 Judge Wallace left 
home, and went to Ottawa. Here he entered the law office 
of Dickey & Wallace, and remained up to 1856. In this 
year he came to Chicago, and entered the office of Dent &: 
Black. He also practiced with Major Whitney and Colonel 
Reading, of Morris, 

In 1861 Judge Wallace assisted in raising the Fourth Illi- 
nois cavalry, and proceeded to the front as a Major. Hav- 
ing particii)ated, among other engagements, in the battles of 
Shiloh, Pittsburg Landing, and the movements around 
Vicksburg, he was mustered out, with the rank of Colonel, 
in 1864. From this date up to the assum])tion of his duties 
as Judge of the County Court, December 6, 1869, he exer- 
cised the charge of the United States Assessor's office for 
the P'irst District of Illinois. In 1873 he was placed on both 
of the tickets, the " Law and Order." and the " People's," 
and was re-elected bv a tremendous number of \otcs, )udi:e 
of the Cook County C'ourt. 

17 



25S THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 



JAMES STEWART. 



The Recorder of Cook County is James Stewart, a gen- 
tleman whose career through life has preeminently been a 
popular one ; affiliating with a class of elements young and 
vigorous, which rarely fail to advance the interests of their 
champions. 

Mr, Stewart was born in the city of Edinburgh, Scotland, 
June 24, 1842, and is accordingly thirty-one years of age. 
Arriving in Chicago at the early age of five years, our sub- 
ject grew up surrounded by the best influences possible for 
local success. Educated in the public and High schools, he 
apprenticed himself to the plumbing business quite early- in 
life, and learned the trade. He followed it up to about the 
breaking out of the war, when he joined the Nineteenth Illi- 
nois infantry, where he served three years and four months, 
and where he formed several boon companionships. Mr. 
Stewart took the Recorder's office, December 2:, 1872. 
From the age of thirteen the Recorder has adopted the 
motto that "God helps him who helps himself," and has 
accordingly done .so. 



fOUN'l Y OFFICERS. 259 



AUSTIN J. DOYLE. 

The subject of this sketch is Austin J. Doyle, who was 
elected Clerk of the Criminal Court in 1873, on the People's 
ticket, by the largest majority given, about 13,000. 

Mr. Doyle was the youngest man on the ticket. He was 
born in Chicago, September 18, 1849, ^^^ '^> consequently, 
but twenty-four years of age. His active life, it might be 
said, was spent amid the duties of the Court the people 
called upon him to manage. Retiring from school, the first 
he knew of the world he learned in the dry-goods house of 
W. M. Ross & Co., where he carried parcels, and was after- 
wards collector. He then, in 1865, procured a position as 
clerk in the Recorder's Court, under Hon. Daniel O'Hara, 
Clerk, and now City Treasurer of Chicago. In 1868, Mr. 
Doyle was appointed first deputy, vice Charles S. Loding who 
ran against Mr. O'Hara, and was defeated. In 1870, under the 
new constitution the Recorder's Court was made the Crim- 
inal Court of Cook county, Hon. Daniel O'Hara being still 
the Clerk, with Mr. Doyle, his principal deputy. This 
position our subject filled when called upon by the popular 
vote to the very important office he now holds. The secret 
of Mr. Doyle's success, it may well be said, has been his 
close attention to business, and his invariable urbanity to 
everybody. 

A man who has prosecuted the duties devolving upon Mr. 
Doyle, necessarily knows volumes of criminal history. Such 
knowledge necessarily goes a good distance to make an ad- 
mirable character reader. This (pialification is universally 
conceded to the subject of this skctcli. 



26o THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 



JOHN STEPHENS. 

The Coroner of Cook county is John Stephens, who has 
been twice elected by the very largest majorities on his 
ticket — the first time by about 7,661, and the second time 
by about 14,000. 

Mr. Stephens was born in Albany, N. Y., in 1839, and is 
of German descent. The family removing to Chicago as 
early as 1844, or thereabouts, the future Coroner was neces- 
sarily placed in a most advantageous situation to grow up 
with Chicago enterprise and serve in time as one of its 
prominent exponents. Having spent the rudimental ex- 
perience of life in the public school and in one of the com- 
mercial colleges, Mr. Stephens became employed in the 
furniture store of Thomas Manahan, of No. 205 Lake street; 
devoting, like many of his companions, considerable atten- 
tion to an observation of life as enacted upon the stage. 
An occasional glimpse in this direction after a time induced 
him to become an actor himself, in the capacity of property- 
man, for which his furniture experience peculiarly fitted 
him. When the war broke out, however, sham battles, in 
which the vanquished dropped before blaq^ cartridges, lost 
all charms for Mr. Stephens, and he accordingly entered the 
19th Illinois. With this regiment he participated in many 
hard - fought battles, including about 24 minor engage- 
ments. He was always in the front, and was wounded several 
times. At the battle of Chickamauga, he had his left foot 
carried away by two grape-shots, and was made a prisoner 
for fifteen days. While he was created a sergeant, Mr. 
Stephens yet commanded Company K, at Stone River, 
and for some time subsequently. When elected Coroner, he 
was engaged in the Registry Department of the Post-ofiice 
in Chicago. 



Miscellaneous. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 263 



PATRICK O'BRIEN. 



This gentleman was elected Supervisor for the South Town 
of Chicago, April i, 1873, by a majority of over 1,000 — the 
result of some very active work in the cause of the people. 

Mr. O'Brien was born about thirty miles west of the city 
of Cork, Ireland, January i, 1830. In 1847 he left his native 
place, and went to Boston, Massachusetts. Up to 1856 he 
devoted himself to hotel life throughout various portions of 
Connecticut and Massachusetts. In this year he came to 
Chicago, and became identified with the Tremont House, 
where he remained up to i860. At this period of his days 
Mr. O'Brien grew weary of the rush and crush of life in a 
hotel, and became a street car conductor. After four years 
of service, he put his accumulations into the liquor busi- 
ness, in which he is at present engaged. 

Supervisor O'Brien has figured in the political arena in 
state, county and city, conspicuously for some time. The 
most gratifying movement in which he ever was engaged was 
when, in June, 1872, in company with Messrs. Michael 
Kelley and McAvoy, he assisted in organizing the Personal 
Liberty League for the purpose of opposing the obnoxious 
clause in the State Liquor Law. To this movement he gave 
all the support he could muster; a fact which is well recog- 
nized by the liquor interest everywhere. 



264 ■ THE GREAT REVOLUTION. 



MILES KEHOE. 



The City Weigher was born in Carlow county, Ireland, 
August 15, 1845, ^^d arrived in Chicago in 1848, where he 
was educated in the public schools. Retired from school, 
Mr. Kehoe pursued general work wherever he could get it, 
improving himself in his leisure hours as best he could. The 
result was that, in 1872 he was elected to the Senate — the 
youngest member that ever sat there. While there, among 
other bills he introduced the following: The Firemen's Pen- 
sion Bill; a Bill to Regulate the Election of County Commis- 
sioners ; and a Bill to Repeal the "Mayor's Bill." He also 
strenuously opposed the Park Bill, whose defeat saved the West 
Division the sum of about ^700,000. His opposition, espe- 
cially, to the movement to abolish the Board of Police — being 
the only man in the Cook county delegation to defend the 
Board — secured him a great deal of popularity. 

During the People's movement, Mr. Kehoe made no less 
than 38 speeches. He was one of the first to uphold the 
rights of liquor dealers, under the auspices of the Personal 
Liberty League. 



MISCKl. LAN ECUS. 265 



JULIUS RODBERTUS. 



Mr, Rodbcrlus look a ([iiite active part in the movements 
preceding the success of the People's Party. He was born 
in Mecklenburg - Schwerin, Prussia, Sept. 4, 1843. At the 
age of 13 he left his native place and came directly to Chi- 
cago. After a time devoted to various occupations — spend- 
ing his leisure hours at school — Mr. Rodbertus, in 1859^ 
entered the machine shop of N. S. Bouton,and here learned 
his trade. He subsequently worked in the shops of the Illi- 
nois Central, Galena, and Rock Island Railroads, and in 
Fuller & Ford's. Finding this employment unremunerative, 
he afterwards traveled for the IVorkhn^man's Advocate for 
two years. While in Bouton's, Mr. Rodbertus joined Com- 
])any C, of the 19th Illinois, hwt did not serve therein more 
than two months ; l)y reason of a severe attack of typhoid 
fever. When the call was issued for 100 days' troops, he 
enlisted in Comi)any A, of the 134th Illinois, and served 
until mustered out. 

Politically, Mr. Rodbertus' record dates back to the vicin- 
ity of 1863, about which time he was placed on the Tliird 
Ward Rei)ul)lican ticket. In 1870, he was elected State and 
County Assessor for the Soutli Town of Chicago, by a ma- 
jority of about 25,000. At present he is Assistant Assessor 
to Edward Phillips, and is also employed in the office of the 
Collector of South Town. His forte lies in the assessment 
and collection of taxes. 



W. J. ONAHAN, 



Real Estate 



DEA.LEII. 



OFFICE, 112 AND 114 DEARBOI[N STREET. 



\ 



TJie experience of Mr. Oiiahan as City Col- 
lector c7Jiinently justifies his knozvledo;c of the 
vahie of Real Estate generally. 



■ * 



RAGOR'S 



Omnibus Line. 



OFFICE ON WEST TWELFTH ST, 



Near Turner Hall. 



Tkzs is one of the best lines in the city. It 
has been const7^ticted aftei' a fashion to meet the 
needs of the traveling public, and deserves success. 



£vANS & j^ICKEY. 



No. 205 East Randolph Strekt, 



IMMEDIATELY UNDER THE 



Head()UARTers of the People's Party 



One of the most extensive Wholesale I'irms in 



Wines, Liquors & Cigars 



IN THE CITY. 




Coleman's Fire Department Heater, 



Dfs' 



1^ 



f»