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in honor of 


1866 - 1928 

Professor of History 

Lifelong Benefactor and 
First Director of This Library 





IN 1840 



IN 18 2 5. 














\ . 




1 . . / .1 < . It 

II • . < .1 


MAR 19 11C3 








Utt Inittihits, 




In the hope of conciliating the indulgence of the 
reader in favour of the contents of the following 
pages, the author begs to lay before him the 
reasons which have delayed their appearance 
until the present day, as also those which have 
now induced him to submit them to his notice. 

A long and depressing illness, which attacked 
him at Cairo, prevented his further progress 
eastwards, and subsequently detained him in the 
south of Europe, disabling him alike, until re- 
cently, from returning to his own country, and 
from preparing his notes for the press. His 
reasons for now trespassing on the public atten- 
tion require a longer explanation or apology. 


At the time when Greece, rich only in the 
hardihood and stern resolve of her sons, and in 
the good wishes of the philanthropist, stood 
forth single-handed to work out her own desti- 
nies, and to wrest her freedom from the hands 
of the Moslem, the author was a sojourner in 
that land. His good fortune permitted him to 
witness and to appreciate the daring gallantry of 
some of those sons, and the patient endurance of 
others, — ^nay, of all, at that period of the war of 
independence, when the Morea was nearly over- 
run by the disciplined troops of the Pacha of 
Egypt, and when, of the cities and villages of 
Northern Greece, Missolonghi alone had not 
been profaned by the foot of the invader. Cir- 
cumstances threw him into constant and intimate 
association with the leading Moreote chiefs, with 
the members of the Provisional Government, and 
with the most ^distinguished of those gallant 
islanders, who have earned to themselves an un- 
dying pame in the marine ** guerilla'* warfare, 
which during years was waged by their tiny 
vessels with the leviathans of the Porte. He was 
a spectator of the desolation which the Turk and 


the Arab had successively scattered over the 
land, — ^its rich plains laid waste, — the olive-trees, 
vineyards, and woods, cut down or destroyed by 
fire, — the homes and the altars of Greece in- 
volved in one common ruin, — ^her sons in arms, 
contending at the same time with the Turk and 
the Arab, and with the severest privations, — and 
her fair daughters seeking that shelter which 
their homes could no longer afford^ in the 
recesses and caverns of the mountains^ or 
crowded together in hut3, under the walls of the 
very few of her cities which still held out against 
the enemy. 

He had witnessed all this, and if he wept over 
the woes of the unhappy country, should it be 
registered against him as a weakness ? Be this 
as it may, he was compelled to quit these scenes 
by the fever, which under similar circumstances 
was fatal to so many of his countrjrmen, and 
would, perhaps, have been fatal to him, if he 
had not at the time been received with almost 
parental kindness by the distinguished com- 
mander of the British naval forces in that 


Peace to the manes of that gallant sailor I 
Splendid in person and noble in mind, his hand 
atid his heart were open to the unfortunate, and 
many were they who blessed his name for relief 
from misery, and not a few those to whom it 
was hallowed for life and for honour preserved. 
.Respected himself, even by those whom duty 
compelled him to chastise, he enforced respect to 
the flag^under which he sailed ; and ov^ him it 
waved, stainless and absolute, as the beacon of 
justice among the intrigues of contending 

The author returned to Greece, after having 
been during some weeks the guest of Captain Ha- 
milton, on board the Cambrian^ but was imme- 
diately compelled again to quit the country by a 
severe return of the same malady ; nor did he 
make any further effort to bear up against the 
climate which had proved so unfriendly to him. 

The varied fates of the country during the 
following years were, as may be supposed, 
watched by him with deep interest, and his remi- 
niscences often carried him back from the gay 
haunts of civilized life, to the companions of his 


youthful rambles on the mountains ot Greece, 
and of his cruises among the islands of the 

Circumstances having induced him to turn his 
steps towards the scene of those rambles in the 
early part of last year^ it struck him that the 
change which has been since wrought in th^ 
political and social state of the country would 
offer many contrasts with the past, an(^matter 
for much interesting observation. Under that 
impression he determined on keeping a journal 
during his visit, without precisely deciding at the 
time whether he would reserve it for the perusal 
of those who were acquainted with the circum* 
stances of his former residence in Greece, or 
whether he would submit it through the press 
to those who had interested themselves in the 
protracted struggle of the Greeks, and in the 
political intrigues, through the influence of which 
they were eventually enabled to occupy a place 
among the civilized states of Europe. 

The assurances of his friends have induced him 
to believe that his journal may be read with 
satisfaction by both : in confessing such belief, 


he must however state, that his original inten- 
tions have hy no means heen carried out.. The 
statistical notes, which, together with some de- 
tails as to the administration of the government, 
and of the courts of justice, he collected during 
hi? stay at Athens, with a view to establish a 
.comparison between things as they are^ and 
things as theyu;^e before the revolution, are not 
sufficiently comprehensive to permit him to 
undertake this task. The effects of the changes 
which have taken place were prominently and 
agreeably brought home to himself in many ways, 
and he would have wished to have made them 
also evident to those who have not been spectators 
of the different '' phases'" of the country. 111- 
nes3, which checked his course eastward, pre- 
vented, also, a second visit to Greece, which was 
to have closed his journey, and thus prevented 
his completing his collection of the requisite 


* He has felt less regret on this score, since the announce- 
ment of a statistical work, entitled, << Greece as a Kingdom." 
The long residence of the author at Athens in an official 
capacity has afforded him the best opportunities of rendering 
his work in every way complete. . 


This is his apology for publishing so much of 
his journal as refers to Greece, and at the same 
time, for its not being more comprehensive on 
certain subjects. 

The sketch of the incidents of Thirty-six 
Hours in Greece, in 1825, is added, as bringing 
into view, under different circumstances and in 
more stirring scenes, some of those who are 
named in the journal. ^ 

With respect to that portion of his journal 
which refers to Egypt, the author's apology will 
be much more laconic : he doubts even whether 
an apology be absolutely necessary. Whatever 
he has written respecting the monuments of 
ancient Egypt, applies to them now as it did 
then, and probably will equally apply to them 
one thousand years hence. The hand of Time 
rests harmlessly and inactively upon them, — 
neither shaking their solidity, nor lifting up the 
veil of mystery in which they are shrouded. If, 
therefore, there be any merit in his observations, 
the delay in bringing them forward will not have 
diminished it. 

Such part of the journal as relates to the poll- 


tical state of the country, he even flatters him- 
self may have acquired additional value, if value 
it would have possessed before, from this delay, 
as^ owing to the changes which have taken 
place in the interim, it now describes a state of 
things which no longer exists, or exists only in 
a very modified form. 

If the reader deems a sufficient cause has been 
assigned for the publication of the journal, he 
will wade through the first pages with patience, 
and possibly, as he progresses, ** his condescen- 
sion may increase." 

That such may be the case, and that ** his 
shadow may never be less,'' is the earnest 
desire of 


Liverpool, 1842. 





Corfu — Beauty of the island — Works of the Venetians in 
the Levant — Philorthodox Conspiracy — Missolonghi — 
Patras — Navarino — Modon — Hydra and its inhabitants 
— Temples of the Hellenes — Arrival at the Piraeus, p. 1 


Piraeus — Approach to Athens — Theatres — Contrasts — Colo- 
cotroni — Gennaios Colocotroni — Kriezis — Mr. Masson — 
Trial of the Poet Soutzo for libel— Rev. Mr. Hill. p. 24 


Bey of Maina — Offerings of the Mavromichali family on the 
altar of their country — Present and former political po- 
sition — Giorgio Psylla — Political career, and various 
modes of government in which he took part — Political 
parties — Philorthodox conspiracy — Glarakis — Cdiris, 

p. 51 



Ball at the Palace — Presentation to tbeir Majesties — Usages 
of Athenian society in 1826-t-First day of Greelc Lent — 
Maslcs — Picturesque pic-nics around the Temple of 
Jupiter p. 81 


Public Schools — Rev. Mr. Hill and his lady — Temple of 
Jupiter Olympius — Causes of disappearance of ancient 
ruins — Power of those who raised them, and prospects 
of their descendants p. 99 


Theatre of Herode^ Atticus — Death of Gourrha — Review 
of present state of the Acropolis^ compared with that of 
i826 — Propylsea — Temple of Victory — Parthenon — 
Erectheum — Galleries of Antiques — Cause of selection 
of Acropolis as site of the Sanctuary • . • . p. 115 


Temple of Theseus — Areopagus — Pnyx — Monument of 
Philopapus — Turkish batteries — Ilissus — Long walls and 
defences of the three harbours — Temple of the Winds — 
Agora — Street of Kings — Lantern of Demosthenes — 
State of the streets and buildings of modern Athens — 
Site chosen unfavourable to further discoveries of re- 
n^ains of antiquity p. 186 


Embark on board government schooneri Nauplia — Arrival at 
Milo — Harbour — Proposal of Knights of Malta — Visits 
on board — Ride up to the Castro— -Sepulchral chambers 


— Calls upon the governor, the French consul, and Ma- 
dame Tataraki — The Castro — Pilots — Beauty of the 
women — Hellenic city — Theatre — Venus of Milo, p. 158 


Deserted city — Kriezis' captivity in Algiers — Hellenic 
remains — Excursion to Cape Firlingo — Palaeochori — 
Extinct crater — Candiote refugee — Amulet and vestige 
of Pagan superstitions — Salt springs — Natural bath — 
Palace of Zopiros— General remarks as to Milo. p. 178 


Departure from Milo — Gulf of Salamis— -Agios Giorgios — 
Hydriote patriarch — Rencontre with royalty — Ruins of 
Pieraic walls — Tomb of Miaoulis — Tomb of Themis- 
todes — Abstinence of Greek sailors — Dinner to Athenian 
friends, and toasts thereat— ^Visit to Piraeus, and the 
steamer Otho — Visit to Captain of Nauplia — Monument 
of Karaiskaki — Funeral of Karaiskaki — Cross of Merita- 
Feast of our Lady of Tinos — Conversazione at British 
minister's — Heart of Miaoulis — Royal palace — ^Lyceum 
of modern Athens — Audience of the king — Opera — Mi- 
litary music, and royal and picturesque attendance there- 
upon — Rencontre with an old comrade • . • p. 205 


Anniversary of Enavatrratn^ — Te Deum at church of St. Irene 
— Absence of certain foreign ministers — Levee at 
Kriezis* — Sir R. Church — Bey of Maina's circle — Gen- 
naios Colocotroni — Bishop of Attica a vassal of AH 
Pacha — Chronicles — Greek beauty and toilette — Illumi- 
nations — General Church — Passport missing^Turkish 


bath — Farewell visits — Capitano Salafattino — Giorgio 
Balgari, governor of Hydra — l^laugbterer of the Mam- 
loulcs — Sir E, Lyons — Farewell to Athens — Veteran 
ganner of Miaoulis — Reduction of the navy . • p. 237 


Hydra— Origin and antiquity — Rise — State of^at commence- 
ment of war of independence— Fleet — How armed, and 
manned — Government under Turks — First naval expe- 
dition — Second idem — Miaoulis joins the fleet — His gal- 
lantry at Fatras — Named Navarch — Battle off Spezia — 
Gallantry of Kriezis — Effects on position of Morea — 
Defeat and slaughter of Dramali Pacha's army — Hydriote 
families — Kriezis — Blowing up of Nereus, and massacre 
of prisoners at Hydra — Miaoulis — Anecdotes of the ad- 
miral — Condouriottis — Zamados — Tombasis — Giorgio 
Bulgari— Administration of justice — Knout given by 
members of council — Bastinado administered by Coloco- 
troni — Present condition of Hydra — Causes of decay — 
Character of Hydriotes— Spezia— Inhabitants — Hospi- 
table reception of the author — Calojeros Procopio— Pre- 
sent . state of Spezia — Amazon Bobolina — Ipsara — Cha- 
racter of inhabitants — Giorgio D'Apostoli — Ipsariote 
. admiral — ^Lamentations over wife and daughter • p* 267 

t • • » '• 't ^ 



IN 1840. 


Corfu — ^Beauty of the island — Works of the Venetians in 
the Levant — Fhilorthodox Conspiracy — Missolonghi — 
Patras — Navarino— Modon — Hydra and its inhabitants — 
Temples of the Hellenes — ^Arrival at the Pirsus. 

C!i>r/ft, Fc6. 20. — I arrived in this harbour yes- 
ter-evening, at nine o'clock, having embarked at 
Ancona, on board the Austrian steamer '* Gio- 
vanni Arciduca d'Austria/' at five p.m. on the 
1 7th instant. 

My last visit to the island was in 1825. The 
town appears to me to have been embellished in 
the interim, but there is an air of poverty in the 

VOL. I. B 


inhabitants which I do not remember then to 
have remarked. Some of my fellow-passengers 
are disposed to ascribe this to the defective go- 
vernment of the protecting power ; but it may, 
with more justice, be attributed to a cause inde- 
pendent of her control — the failure of the olive 
crops during several seasons. This fruit is of 
immense importance to the inhabitants of the 
island, and upon it their resources in a great 
measure depend. It is computed that fully 
three-fifths of the soil which is cultivated, or 
admits of cultivation, are planted with olive 
trees, and that of the remainder about one-third 
is in pasture, one- third in tillage, and one-third 
laid out in vineyards. This unequal distribution 
of the soil renders the island dependent on foreign 
supplies for a portion of the grain necessary for its 
consumption, and is the result of the policy of its 
former protectors, the Venetians. Those so-called 
republicans, in order to render the Corfuites as 
much as possible dependent upon themselves, 
encouraged^ if they did not compel, the cultiva- 
tion of the olive in preference to every other 
crop, and at the same time prohibited, under 


penalties, the extirpation of the tree when once 
planted. The consequence is, that it abounds to 
an undue extent in every part of the island, al- 
though the prohibitory statutes are no longer in 
force. Whether this preference be for the ad- 
vantage of the island in a statistical point of 
view is doubtful ; but it unquestionably contri- 
butes much to the beauty of the scenery, this 
favourite tree being here not only a rival of the 
tree of the forest in its dimensions, but display- 
ing also a rich and dark foliage, which tempts one 
to doubt its affinity to the parched and dusty- 
looking olive tree of lands more to the west- 

Short as my present visit to Corf in has been, 
it has sufficed to confirm the impression left by 
a residence of some duration in the year 1 826 — 
that it is a spot on which nature has lavished her 
choicest gifts, and where the lover of the pic- 
turesque and beautiful will find spread out before 
him more rich and varied scenes than are perhaps 
to be found elsewhere within the limits of Europe. 
The vaunted ** isles of the Egean" are but grey 
rocks when compared with it. Its outline is 

B 2 


not less graceful, and it is at the same time 
clothed in profusion with woods and rich ver- 
dure, which on the former are either sought for 
in vaiUi or are found only in isolated valleys. It 
is true that the ** grey rocks'* of the Egean 
abound more in classic reminiscences ; but even 
of these Corfil is by no means barren. The 
scholar may amuse himself either by establishing 
the localities of the exploits of the Corcyreans, 
as recorded by Thucydides, or by tracing the 
footsteps of that most unlucky of all navigators, 

the hero of the Odyssey. He will find no diffi- 
culty in fixing upon the scene of his shipwreck, 
and of his encounter with the fair Nausicaa. 
The descriptions of the poet will satisfactorily 
prove that his powers of vision were in full 
vigour when he visited the island, and that, 
when he sung or wrote, his memory retained 
untarnished the treasures with which it had been 
stored before the bright face of nature had been 
veiled from them. 

When I was last here, it was impracticable to 
travel in the interior of the island otherwise than 
on horseback or on foot. A carriage-road lead- 


ing from the capital had been commenced, but 
was completed to the distance of only a few 
miles. The island is now intersected by excel- 
lent roads in various directions. Since then has 
also been conveyed into the interior of the town 
an abundant supply of excellent water — a boon 
which in this climate is beyond all price. For 
both these works, of such vital importance to 
their comfort and welfare, the inhabitants are 
indebted to their former excellent governor, Sir 
Frederick Adam, whose name is justly held in 
high veneration by them. When he presided 
over their destinies, they appeared at times to 
think that he curbed them rather too severely ; 
but they now acknowledge that he was their best 
friend and protector, and that he had warmly at 
heart the welfare of the islands committed to his 
care. The works which he left behind him will 
remain as lasting testimonies of the wisdom of 
his views, and of his vigour in carrying them 
into effect. 

The government is now occupied in the con- 
struction of works of a very different nature — 
viz., of fortifications on the island of Vido; in 


the island would perhaps be a more correct ex- 
pression, for the very bowels of the rock are 
converted into a fortress. As the island com- 
mands every approach to the city by sea, as well 
as the city itself, it will be equally efficient to 
protect or to overawe, as the case may require. 
vPart of the landward defences of the city, raised 
by the Venetians, are in progress of demolition. 
Whether this be not a hasty measure, as there 
are many parts of the island where a landing 
might be effected, or whether it be not one ren- 
dered imperative by the great extent of the for- 
tifications, to man which would have required a 
much more numerous garrison than England has 
ever retained here, is a question which I am not 
competent to discuss. However this may be, 
the casual visiter will scarcely contemplate the 
work of demolition without a feeling of regret. 
The defences of the Venetians have been so 
solidly put together; that to dismantle them ap- 
pears to require an expenditure of labour almost 
as great as that which must have been bestowed 
on their construction. 
I do not remember anything which strikes a tra- 


veller in the Levant more forcibly than the extent 
and solidity of the fortifications which have been 
left by these ** republicans" on the shores and 
islands of the Mediterranean. Those which still 
exist in this island, in Candia, and in the Morea, 
would seem to have been created by the resources 
of a great empire, rather than by those of a state 
of such limited extent as was that of Venice ^ 
even in her most prosperous days. They will 
excite his admiration yet more if he has visited 
that ** lone city of the waters" in its present 
melancholy state of decay ; and possibly, though 
he may not approve all the deeds which were 
sanctioned by the Lion of St. Mark, in the days 
when the Venetian banner scarce brooked a 
rival on the waters of the Mediterranean, these 
monuments of her past grandeur and enterprise 
may excite some sympathy for her fallen con- 

Before I left Italy, it was well known that an 
extensively ramified conspiracy had been dis 
covered in Greece, the ostensible object of 
which was the conversion of the sovereign to the 
Greek faith ; hence its title of Philorthodox Con- 


spiracy. And it was predicted to me by my 
friends that I should find that country in a state 
of anarchy and confusion. I am informed here 
that, in consequence of its timely discovery, no 
outbreak has taken place, and that its chief 
promoters have been placed in arrest. Among 
them are named a Capo dlstria, an Ionian phy- 
sician named Mavrojanni, and my old com- 
mander, Colocotroni. I am informed also that 
inany of the Septinsulars have been discovered 
to be affiliated to the ** Hetareia" by which (pro- 
bably the unconscious instrument of foreign 
projects) this ill-advised plot was concocted. 
Certain restrictions have in consequence been 
laid upon the intercourse with the neighbouring 
kingdom, and arrests have taken place in several 
of the islands. At Zante, the papers of Count 
Roma were seized by the resident in a very sum- 
mary manner, and subjected to rigorous scru- 
tiny. In Cephalonia, four priests, who, in their 
sermons, had held out that it was the intention 
of the government to change the religion of the 
people, were arrested, and afterwards exiled to 
a neighbouring rocky island. Tlie arrest, at 


Athens, of Mavrojanni, who is accused of being 
deeply implicated in the conspiracy, renders it 
probable that the precautionary measures taken 
here were not uncalled for. Speaking the same 
language, and professing the same religious 
faith as the inhabitants of Greece Proper, it is 
not surprising that the lonians should have 
sympathized with designs which they were 
taught to look upon as sacred, however perni- 
cious or impracticable they might in reality be. 

There exists among the lonians a longing, if 
not a lingering hope to be one day united under 
the same government with their brethren in the 
Morea. Whether they would be gainers by the 
exchange at present is somewhat questionable; 
but it is to be hoped that the lapse of a few 
years will work such changes at Athens as will 
justify this ** longing," on the score of policy 
and good government, not less than on that 
of identity of religion and of language. I con- 
fess that as a quondam Philhellene, I myself en- 
tertain a '* lingering hope" that, at some not 
very distant period, it may enter into the policy 
of Great Britain to countenance such an acqui- 

10 CORFU. 

sition of territory and power by the monarchy 
created under her auspices, as will not merely 
enable it to lighten the burdens which now press 
heavily on a scanty and impoverished population, 
but place it in a position to become an effective 
ally in opposing aggressions from the north. 
Greece, whatever may be the personal sym- 
pathies of its rulers, must of necessity court the 
alliance of the maritime power which is para- 
mount in the Mediterranean, 

CoTdi was taken possession of by the Vene- 
tianSy in 1401, in virtue of its. cession to the 
Republic by Ladislaus, king of Naples. Vigorous 
efforts were made to dispossess them in 1 537-8, 
by Sultan Solyman, and in 1716 by Achmet the 
Third, which they successfully resisted. The 
French took possession of the island in 1797, 
and were replaced by the allied Turks and 
Russians in 1798. The following year, the 
Turks, under General Berthier, became masters 
of it, and so remained until 1814, when it was 
surrendered to the British. 

PatraSy Feb. 21. — We had a splendid sail yes- 
ter-afternoon through the canal of Corfh and 


between the island of Paxos and Parga, of heroic 
but " untoward" celebrity. Night closed in 
before we were in sight of the Cape which the 
ill-fated Sappho chose as an antidote to her un- 
requited passion. At daybreak we were paddling 
across the waters on which the great battle of 
Lepanto was fought, and had in view the small 
town of Missolonghi — a name which will be 
scarcely less venerated for its connexion with 
the closing scene of the life of the great poet of 
modem times, than for the brilliant exploits of 
the band of devoted patriots of which it was the 
theatre. The battle of Lepanto was fought in 
1571, and the united navies of southern Europe, 
led by a hero, and manned by veterans in whose 
bosoms military ardour was exalted by religious 
zeal, were then a barely efficient barrier to the 
progress of Ottoman conquest. Three centuries 
and a half afterwards, the armies and the fleets of 
the same power were baffled by a small body of 
resolute men, sheltered only by mud walls ! At 
this period, after several ineffectual attempts to 
carry Missolonghi by assault, the commander of 
the Ottoman forces sent a flag of truce to treat 


for the surrender of the place, proposing not 
only that the garrison should march out with 
their arms and baggage, but that a large sum of 
money should be paid down to them on its 
evacuation. The answer is deserving of record: — 

hv ayopaZjtrai — '* The soil of Missolonghi is 
kneaded with blood, and is not to be purchased 
with gold." 

I ask pardon for a digression suggested by a 
view which embraces at once the scene of the 
exploits of Don John of Austria, and of the more 
humble but not less heroic champions of Suli 
and of Modem Greece. 

Our approach to Patras was retarded by a 
stiff breeze from the eastward, and by the cur- 
rent which sets out of the Gulf of Lepanto, the 
entrance of which was shrouded from us by a 
heavy bank of clouds, stretching from shore to 
shore, and so dark and massive as to seem a por- 
tion of the mountains on which they rested. We 
did not come to anchor in Patras Road until 
about eleven a.m., and for an hour or two were 
prevented going on shore by a deluge of rain. 


Even under such unfavourable circumstances 
the town had a cheerful and pleasing appearance, 
the white buildings, of which the streets near 
the landing-place are conaposed, forming an 
agreeable contrast with the dark walls of the 
castle, which stands on an eminence behind. 
The castle is an irregular, rambling pile of forti- 
fications, in which bastion and turret are mingled 
in a manner which is more consistent with pic- 
turesque effect than with the precepts of Vau- 
ban. It is in a very dilapidated state, and being 
commanded by the heights beyond, could not be 
long held out against a regular attack. During 
the revolutionary war, it was, however, for a 
considerable time, maintained by the Turks 
against the desultory attacks of the irregular 
soldiery of the Morea. The Greeks made them- 
selves masters of the town at the outset of the 
struggle, and afterwards made more than one 
attempt to carry the castle by assault. Being 
unsupported by effective artillery, they were 
driven back with heavy loss. Subsequently they 
were also more than once obliged to abandon 
possession of the town, which thus, being the 


seen? of renewed contests^ was reduced to a heap 
of ruins. The castle was taken by escalade in 
1378| by the united forces of the Venetians and 
of the Knights of St. John, under the command 
of the Grand Master Juan Fernandez de Herrera. 
The Grand Master, when attempting subse- 
quently to obtain possession of Corinth, was 
made prisoner by the Turks, and detained in 
captivity three years. 

On landing, I was gratified to find that the 
town realized, on a nearer approach, the promise 
which it held out at a distance. The streets are 
wide and well-drawn, and many excellent houses 
have already been built, and others of the same 
class are in progress of construction. The streets, 
it is true, are not yet paved, and the houses re- 
cently built or building are mixed up with cabins 
and huts which barely shelter their inmates from 
the inclemency of the weather ; but there is, not- 
withstanding these inconsistencies, an air of 
. prosperity about the whole, and of activity and 
industry in the bazaars, which cannot fail to be 
consolatory to those who have been spectators 
of the scenes of misery and desolation which this 


and every other town of the Morea exhibited 
during the revolutionary struggle. The flourish- 
ing aspect of this town is more particularly gra- 
tifying when it is borne in mind that its heroic 
archbishop (Germanos) was the first captain of 
the Sons of the Hellenes. The rich plains which 
lie between it and Cape Papa have furnished the 
materials for its rapid restoration. 

Near to the Mole are two very respectable 

Feb. 22. — Having taken in a supply of coals, 
we got out to sea at 9 p.m. yester-evening. At 
daybreak this morning we encountered sharp 
squalls and a heavy sea off Cape Corella. Several 
sail were in sight, standing to the southward 
under press of canvas, all of which were soon 
left far astern by the steaming Arciduca. The 
weather being bright and clear, we had an excel- 
lent view of both entrances of the port of Nava- 
rino, and of the island Sphacteria, which, as its 
name indicates, has so often been the field of 
combat and of slaughter. This island, ^tpaxrvipiov, 
" a slaughter-house," is derived from (rtpa^af-^a, 
" to slay." It has been a human (rfaKrri^m 

16 MODON. 

from the earliest ages of Greece down to the 
present time. B.C. 425, it was the theatre of a 
bloody and protracted combat between the Athe- 
nians and Lacedemonians. (Thucydides, book iv. 
year 17.) A.D. 1768, the unhappy Moreotes, 
who had been urged to insurrection by the in- 
trigues of Russia, and were shortly afterwards 
basely abandoned by Orloff and Dolgorouki, 
sought refuge on it in great numbers, and were 
relentlessly butchered by the Turks. It was on 
this rock of ill-omened name that the gallant 
and accomplished Santa-Rosa, a distinguished 
member of the short-lived provisional govern- 
ment of Piedmont, in 1821, closed his eventful 
career, whilst vainly opposing the landing of the 

Our course lay between the island of Sapienza 
and the city of Modon, on the walls of which 
neither sentinel nor inhabitant was visible. No 
sound or symptom of life was sent forth in reply 
to the signal of the steamer, and but for the rich 
cultivation of the plains beyond, the city might 
have been deemed uninhabited. Unimportant 
as is the rank which Modon at this time holds 


among the cities of modern Greece, it will be 
viewed with interest by the passing traveller, 
not only as having been one of the strongholds 
of Turkish tyranny, but as having been at one 
time selected as a place of refuge by the most 
inveterate foes of the Moslem. After their ex- 
pulsion fronl the island which they had so heroi- 
cally defended, the Knights of St. John pro- 
jected the conquest and occupation of this city ; 
but the Christian powers, though willing enough 
that the attempt should be made, refused to pro- 
mote its success by the loan of either ships or 
money. The project of making it the seat of 
the Order was therefore abandoned, but that of 
its conquest was resumed afterwards when the 
knights were in possession of Malta. A few of 
the knights, accompanied by a small body of 
chosen men, succeeded in gaining admission into 
the town, while the galleys, bearing the main 
strength of the expedition, lay concealed under 
cover of the island of Sapienza ; but many of the 
soldiers, having rashly dispersed for the purposes 
of plunder, were cut off in detail by the Turks, 
who had thus an opportunity of recovering from 

VOL. I. c 

18 HYDRA. 

their panic, and of rallying round their banners. 
Before the main body could come up to the 
support of their comrades, they with their leaders 
were beaten back to the port, whence but few of 
them succeeded in effecting their escape. 

It is characteristic both of the age and of the 
Order, that the fortress, first selected by the 
knights as a harbour of refuge, was in the hands 
of their conquerors and implacable foes at the 
time when they besought the Christian powers 
to countenance their establishment therein. 

Feh 23. — At sunrise we were between Bello 
Poulo and Cape Malea. The day was brilliantly 
clear, and as we glided over the bright Egean, 
we had a lovely view of its picturesque shores, 
and of the many isles with which it is studded. 
Not without feelings of veneration and many 
reminiscences of the past did I contemplate that 
island, which may truly be called the Rock of 
Liberty, and in days not yet very distant was 
fondly designated by its inhabitants as the Eng- 
land of the Archipelago. Is it necessary that 
the name of Hydra should be given ? During 
the war of independence the Hydriotes were proud 


of tracing a resemblance between their native 
island and its potent prototype of the west. Its 
dependence on its maritime resources, and the 
devotion of those resources to the cause of 
liberty, were the points of resemblance on which 
they insisted. I was a guest here in the autumn 
of 1825, when it was expected that the Ottoman 
and Egyptian fleets would attempt to carry into 
effect the *' sublime" decree of the Porte, which 
awarded to the Hydriotes the fate of the gallant 
Ipsariotes and of the unresisting inhabitants of 
Scio; and also when, the dread of immediate in- 
vasion being passed, their tiny vessels went forth 
to court encounter with the huge leviathans of 
the Moslem. When they were awaiting the foe 
on their native rocks, but one voice was heard 
among them — ''Victory or the grave!" — and 
when they sought him on their ovm element their 
spirit was not less determined. Nor were their 
hardihood and unflinching resolution the only 
merits of the island chiefs : among them were 
many who were animated by as pure and chival- 
rous a spirit of patriotism as was ever breathed 
by the illustrious of any age or of any clime, — 



men who devoted at once their persons and their 
fortunes to their country's cause. If some there 
were of a less magnanimous temper, and a few 
who sought to aggrandize their fortunes through 
the convulsions of the time, their sins should be 
as dust in the balance when weighed against the 
many bright and gallant deeds which grace the 
annals of these island champions of liberty 1 Are 
the bright examples offered by the career of such 
men as the Miaulis, Kriezis, Tombasis, Sach- 
touris, and other less distinguished, but perhaps 
scarcely less devoted patriots ; or are the efforts 
of a people to be depreciated in the page of his- 
tory, because the historian has also to record the 
piratical excesses of a Jacca? Rather let it be 
remembered that not a few of the powerful 
families have sacrificed their wealth on the altar 
of their country, and that all have freely offered 
their lives at the same shrine ; nor should it be 
forgotten that the inhabitants of this rocky isle, 
supported only by those of the smaller islands 
of Ipsara and Spezia, braved for a time the united 
navies of Turkey and Egypt I If these remarks 
should appear uncalled for at the present mo- 


mental must plead as an apology a warm discus- 
sion as to the merits of the HydrioteSi which 
took place on the quarter-deck of the '* Arch- 

I shall also, perhaps, be pardoned for here re- 
lating a trifling anecdote personal to myself. 
When I was in Hydra, in the autumn of 1825, 
and the Hydriotes were in daily expectation of 
the appearance of the Egyptian fleet,' ail En- 
glish ship of war, passing through the straits, 
sent a boat into the harbour to communi- 
cate and receive intelligence. Seated on the 
terrace of a cafFd which overlooks the port, and 
which was at that time the general resort of the 
captains and principal inhabitants, I observed 
that the young of&cer sought in vain to make 
himself understood by those who crowded round 
him, and I went down to the water-side to offer 
my assistance as interpreter. He and his boat's 
crew were not a little astonished when I addressed 
him in English, for I was accoutred as a Palle- 
kar, and, having recently come over from the 
Morea, my petticoat was not of dazzling white- 
ness. After interchanging news, we came to an 


interchange of names, when, to the equal sur- 
prise of both parties, we found that we were na- 
tives of the same city : he was a member of the 
well-known family of the M. . . . y's, of Chester. 


As we sailed between Egina and Attica, the 
temples of Jupiter Panhellenius, of Minerva Suni- 
ades, and of the Parthenon, rose successively to 
view, the white columns of the two latter glanc- 
ing brightly in the evening sunshine. These 
three temples are lasting monuments of the 
exquisite judgment with which the Greeks were 
wont to select the sites of their most hallowed 
shrines. They are all so placed as to exhibit their 
splendours from afar to the devotee or return- 
ing mariner, while he who bent the knee at the 
shrine itself saw stretched out before him the 
most glorious evidences of the power of the 
Divinity whom, ** albeit under a veil," he wor- 
shipped. I have stood within each of these tem- 
ples at sunset, and remember well how sur- 
passingly beautiful are the views which they 
embrace at that hour. As the sun's last and 
lingering rays fall on cape, on mountain^ and on 
island, they glow with such rich and rosy tints 


as are only dreamed of in the far island of the 
West. In such a spot and at such an hour the 
rapt worshipper would see, ** mirrored" in the 
Egean^ the beneficence of his Divinity. If a 
storm passed over it, awe struck he would be- 
hold, imaged therein, the wrath of his God I 



Pirseus — Approach to Athens — Theatres — Contrasts — Colo- 
cotroni — Gennaios Colocotroni — Kriezis — Mr. Masson — 
Trial of the Poet Soutzo for libel— Rev. Mr. Hill. 

Athens f Feb. 24th. — At four p. m., yester-after- 
noon, we came to anchor in the harbour of the 
Piraeus^ in which were lying two other steamers, 
and several cutters and vessels of war of various 
powers. I quitted the Archduke with regret, 
and can bear testimony to the excellence of the 
boat, and to the comfortable accommodations 
and abundant table which passengers find on 

Although what I had seen at Patras had, in 
some measure, prepared me for the change, the 
contrast which the present state of the Piraeus pre- 

PIRiEUS. 25 

sents with its appearance in 1826 did not fail to 
produce a lively impression upon me. When I was 
there, at that time, a half-ruined monastery, and 
a few cottages and huts in an equally dilapidated 
state, were the only buildings which occupied the 
shores of the harbour, while in the harbour itself 
were anchored only a few caiques and mysticos. 
Now, besides a crowd of small craft and mer- 
chant vessels of other nations, are anchored in 
the harbour ships of war of almost every 
European power, and on its shores are ranges of 
handsome houses, and a town of no inconsider- 
able extent. Instead of the riiin and desolation, 
and almost solitude, which I left at that time, 
I have found a scene of activity and prosperity, 
and a numerous and busy population, mixed up 
with sailors of various nations. The lazaretto, 
the dogana, the cafF<^s, the carriages drawn up 
at the landing-place, were all so inconsistent 
with my reminiscences of a spot, where, as an 
invalid, I had with difficulty found a roof which 
could protect me from the rain, that for a mo- 
ment I felt as if under the influence of a dream. 
I should, indeed, have accused of dreaming him 


who, fourteen years ago, would have told me 
that I should one day find myself at the Piraeus, 
bargaining in my best Romaic for a conveyance 
to Athens in a good britscha, or that I should be 
driven from the one place to the other by a 
coachman in full Albanian costume. Such was 
*the case with me yester-evening ; and I confess 
that it was no disagreeable contrast, to be con- 
veyed at a round pace, and along an excellent 
road, over the same ground which it then required 
some caution to traverse on horseback. 

This modem mode of travelling permitted me 
to luxuriate in the beauty of the approach to 
Athens, which to be appreciated must be seen, 
and seen, too, at the hour when the Acropolis is 
gilded by the rays of the setting sun, and every 
outline of the rock, the walls, and the columns is 
defined with the delicacy of an etching. When 
I first visited Athens, I acknowledged to be un- 
rivalled in beauty and in splendour the approach 
to the city, under such circumstances ; but the 
scene of yester-evening seemed to me yet richer 
than the picture treasured up in my memory. 
As I called to mind that many an exile had 


wept as the same sacred columns receded from 
his view, I should have pronounced the tribute 
of tears to be justly paid to the beauty of the 
objects they were compelled to quit, independent 
of the associations which, at such a moment, 
patriotism and religion would summon in array 
before them. Even to a ** barbarian," a divine 
halo seems to float around them. 

From the windows of my present quarters 
(the ** Hotel Royal,") I have a view of the 
Acropolis ; but, being near to the base of the 
rock on which it stands, the walls form a mask 
between me and the buildings in its interior. It 
therefore presents itself to me this morning 
rather as some half-dismantled fortress of a 
remote age than as the repository of the works 
of Phidias, or the Holy of Holies of the blue- 
eyed goddess. The fragments of columns em- 
bedded in the walls remind me, however, that 
I have before me the defences which were hastily 
thrown up after the retreat of the Persians. 

The view I have of the modern city is most 
gratifying, as it extends, in every direction, over 
spacious and welUbuilt mansions, indicating the 


uL ?•*•*. 

presence of w 
saw only mi«' 
blackened by *' 

To complett 
terday, I accrr 
sengers to tl^ 
style. The K 
former in an * ' 
sit as easily \ 
Pallekar;tlK ' 
in the fa8hi(i 
of honour, a 
brated Man 
beauty; but 
fairer soverei* 

The medlc^ 
the mixture e 
pallet6ts, of 
produces ar 
old Philhel 

^i4«tie jf old monarchies 

^%.«» u this respect, but 

Htsvail in another par- 

^ he male part of the 

^uven?d iit the presence 

ts 4ueen, as a beautiful 

.. .laim to this token of 

.i%ti this prescription to 

^^ u Frank costume, cind 

^ vearers of the national 

ut^terodox'' for the latter 

..^^ .iud I am too much of an 

.u^ departure from ancient 

.^^.i;i;€. It was with regret 

.^i4^ oS the Greeks substitute 

.. .»i»w, o£ taking off the cap, for 

c aijLg;i4ic«ful salutation of other 

H«;i^um^ the right hand slowly up 

'^Ui^tiV is an isolated marble 

Hj|^(tMi superstitious, ^^ believed 

';i|( HMne holy man with anti- 

^IJK^k however, prevails in 

ti ||l9 poorer classes of the 


ledge the drama or the opera to be a not despi- 
cable assistant to the ** schoolmaster" in his 
progress, he finds some difficulty in reconciling 
himself to the frivolity of the scene on a spot, 
for him, associated with recollections only of a 
grave and exalted character. Yet will he 
scarcely repress a smile, when he sees grim old 
pallekars, perhaps the comrades of his younger 
days, applauding to the very echo the cavatina 
of a prima donna I 

The theatre is small, but well proportioned, 
and not overloaded with ornament. It is of 
very recent construction, and externally has no 
pretensions to architectural merit. The orches- 
tra was good, and the ** corps dramatique'* re- 
spectable. Madlle. Bassi, who played the part 
of Lucia, has a voice of much sweetness and 
some power, and the applause lavished upon 
her was not unjustly bestowed. To one accus- 
tomed to the etiquette of the opera in Italy, it is 
a novelty to see the actors applauded, and 
repeatedly called forth to receive the greetings 
of the audience without the sanction of the 
royal personages who are present. Perhaps 


it is as well that the etiquette of old monarchies 
should not be introduced in this respect, but 
I should wish to see it prevail in another par- 
ticular — that of enjoining the male part of the 
audience to remain uncovered iit the presence 
of the sovereigns. The Queen, as a beautiful 
M'oman, has a double claim to this token of 
homage. I would have this prescription to 
apply merely to those in Frank costume, and 
by no means to the wearers of the national 
dress. It is decidedly ^* heterodox" for the latter 
to uncover their heads, and I am too much of an 
Oriental to desire any departure from ancient 
usages in this respect. It was with regret 
that I observed many of the Greeks substitute 
the European salute, of taking off the cap, for 
the more simple and graceful salutation of other 
days, that of bringing the right hand slowly up 
to the heart. 

Near to the theatre is an isolated marble 
column, which, by the superstitious, is believed 
to have been gifted by some holy man with anti- 
febrile virtues. Fever, however, prevails in 
the autumn amongst the poorer classes of the 


inhabitants of the capital, notwithstanding the 
frequent visits to the column for the purpose of 

Feb. 24 to 29. — ^The weather has been very 
severe and wet ; and Mounts Fames, Pentelicus, 
and Hymettus, are covered with snow. As the 
streets are not yet paved, and the houses, even 
in the best quarters of the modem city, are in- 
termingled with ruins, there is not much tempta- 
tion in such weather to perambulate by day, and 
by night it is somewhat dangerous. However, 
I have contrived to pay my devoirs to many of 
those whom I have known in less peaceful times. 

I made my first visit to my old commander, 
Colocotroni, whom/ notwithstanding the report 
as to his arresti which Was circulated at Corfii, 
I found living in tranquillity in the city, sur- 
rounded by his family. He is little changed by 
the fourteen summers which have passed since 
I last saw him. His tall and erect form is 
apparently as vigorous as ever, and neither his 
intrigues, nor the campaigns and imprisonments 
which he has subsequently gone through, seem 
to have added a wrinkle to those which had then 


established themselves on his broad and com- 
manding forehead. I could not refuse him a 
mental tribute of admiration and respect, al- 
though conscious that his escutcheon as a patriot 
has been too often sullied by his intrigues as a 
political partisan, and that, on more than one occa- 
sion, his personal ambition may have blinded him 
to the true interests of his country. Still he has 
fought gallantly and endured much in the sacred 
cause, and in its behalf several times effectually 
rallied the sinking energies of the Peloponnessus. 
It is well understood that he is now a supporter 
of Russian influence, and it is suspected that he 
was more or less implicated in the Philorthodox 
conspiracy. I was rather disappointed not to be 
immediately remembered by him, though, look- 
ing at the change which years may have made, 
and dress must make, I ought not to have ex- 
pected it. I received rather an amusing proof of 
it in my own person, in 1826, when on the eve 
of quitting Greece. I was a passenger on board 
H. M. frigate Seringapatam^ then lying-to off 
Hydra, and was requested by the captain to go 
on shore, for the purpose of negotiating with the 


primates respecting the surrender of an Ionian 
brig, which had been made prize of by a Hydriote 
vessel, (commanded by Jacca,) and was supposed 
to be then in the harbour. As it seemed to me 
advisable that I should make my appearance 
as a negotiator in the same garb in which the 
Hydriotes had always known me, I went below 
to equip myself accordingly. When I came up, 
Captain^ S. was below ; but he also came upon 
deck shortly afterwards, whilst I was in conver- 
sation with one of the officers. As soon as his 
eye fell upon me, he stopped short, and address- 
ing the officer of the watch, ** How is it," said 
he, ** that you allow these people to come on 
board without reporting it to me ?" He had 
taken me for one of the natives^ and the error (?) 
caused no little amusement. 

By the son of Colocotroni, the Gennaios, (the 
*' generous,'* or *' well-born :" a title bestowed 
upon him after some dashing exploit in the early 
part of the revolution ; his baptismal name of 
Janni being completely superseded by that of 
Gennaios,) I was at once recognised, and most 
cordially received, and without my reminding 

VOL. I. D 


him of the past, he went back to the ''when and 
the where" of our having been companions in 
arms, in the Morea. He is now one of the aides- 
de-camp of his Majesty, and, his turn of service 
having just expired, is on the point of departure 
for the estates of his family, near Corinth and 
Caritene. He proposed to me to accompany him, 
and, finding that it is my intention to remain at 
Athens for the present, afterwards kindly offered 
to supply me with letters to the demarchs and 
chiefs of departments in the Morea, whenever 
I should be disposed to visit the interior. As 
they are, for the most part, intimately connected 
with him by friendship or by blood, the pro- 
posal was highly appreciated by me, and received 
as a convincing proof of his regard for an old 
comrade ; more especially as at the present junc- 
ture, when the British and Russian parties may 
be said to be in presence, it might be deemed 
inexpedient for him that an Englishman should 
travel among his partisans as a friend of the 
family. From some observations made to him 
in an under tone by the old man, I inferred that 
siich was the opinion of the latter ; notwithstand- 


ing which, the son repeated his offers with much 
warmth. ** Old man," is a title of especial 
honour, according to the ancient usages of the 
country. When Colocotroni was commander- 
in-chief in the Morea, he was more fre- 
quently addressed as the '' Old Man," than by 
the titles appertaining to his military dignity. . 
At that time he was young in constitution, and 
in vigour of mind and of body, though he had 
numbered fifty-six years before the war com- 
menced ; still he was the Old Man par excellence. 
It is generally reported here, that in his feelings 
the Gennaios is as thoroughly Philo-Russian as 
his father, although more chary in the display of 
them. I may, and must regret the political sym- 
pathies now attributed to him ; but this does not 
render it less gratifying to me to have been met 
by him with so much cordiality. I do not know 
him as a Russian partisan, otherwise than by 
report, but I have seen him do his devoir right 
gallantly as a patriot soldier and captain, and 
have been at his side when, in that capacity, by 
his decision of character and influence over the 



feelings of his followers, he has repaired the 
errors of older commanders. 

I called upon my old commander, Captain 
Antonio G. Kriezis, with whom I was for some 
time a volunteer on board his eighteen-gun brig, 
the Epaminondas. He is now Minister of Marine, 
having, it is said, been especially recommended 
to the king for that office by the gallant and 
single-minded Miaoulis a short time before his 
death. During the war he was ever to be found 
at the side of the Navarchos, and was his firmest 
supporter in his endeavours to establish' subordi- 
nation and discipline among the vessels of the 
Hydriote fieet. To say that he was always to be 
found at the side of the noble old admiral, is to 
say that he was ever in the van when the enemy 
was near, and when duty summoned. It was 
Kriezis who, in 1825, shortly before I joined him, 
conducted, conjointly with Canaris, the attempt 
to bum the Egyptian fleet in the harbour of 
Alexandria; and he it was who covered the retreat 
of the Hydriote squadron after its failure, when 
Mohammed Ali, frantic with rage, put to sea in 
person, in pursuit of it. The pacha had the mor- 


tification of seeing one of his own brigs sunk in 
his presence^ while the Hydriotes, by superior 
seamanship, effected their retreat, comparatively 
uninjured. It is well known that the Egyptian 
fleet, on that occasion, was saved from destruc- 
tion by a sudden change of wind, which took 
place just as the gallant crew of the fireship had 
luffed her helm and taken to their launch, at 
what may be called the elbow of the harbour. 
Had the wind held as it was blowing at that time, 
the fireship must have drifted into the centre of 
the fleet, but, veering suddenly to the northward, 
she was forced on shore opposite to the entrance 
of the port, where only a few insignificant craft 
were endangered by her. It is not uninteresting 
to refiect that, but for so slight a circumstance 
the entire policy of Europe, as regards the East, 
and the relative position of Turkey and of 
Egypt, might have been the reverse of what they 
now are. Had the attempt succeeded, the 
Egyptian fleet would have been destroyed ; and 
that of the Porte, which did not enter the har- 
bour of Alexandria until three days afterwards, 
would have remained powerful ; the battle of 

38 ^ KRIBZI8. 

Navarino would not have filled a page in history ; 
and the plains of Adrianople would most proba- 
bly have still been untrodden by the foot of the 
northern invader, — ^but ^* it was not so written/' 
During the short-lived command of Lord 
Cochrane, Kriezis, like his noble uncle, placed 
himself unreservedly at the disposal of that 
admiral, and supported his authority among his 
co-insulars both by precept and example, and 
occasionally by measures of necessary severity. 
He was the companion of the gallant Captain 
Hastings in some of his most brilliant exploits, 
and speaks with much feeling of his untimely 
fate, and with unqualified eulogium of his hardi- 
hood and skill, and of his devotion to the cause 
for which he bled. Kriezis has since recounted 
to me that on one occasion, (I think it was at 
Trikali,) when he was a sharer with Captain 
Hastings in a successful attempt to cut out and 
destroy several Turkish vessels, he was surprised 
to see the steamer commanded by the captain in- 
crease its distance from the enemy, while the sig- 
nal for him to engage closely remained Aying. " I 
could not understand,'' said he, " that an English- 


man could turn his back upon danger, or leave the 
honour of the aflfair to another/' The mystery 
was soon explained, by the blowing up of the 
vessel which Hastings had honoured with his 
especial attention. Finding that when engaging 
her too closely his red-hot shot went right 
through her, he backed off, and, at the same time 
diminishing his charge, succeeded in lodging his 
shots in the body of the vessel, and^ in conse- 
quence, very soon set her on fire. It is scarcely 
necessary, to state that, as soon as this was 
accomplished, he paid his addresses to another 
of the enemy's fleet. In later years, Kriezis has 
been the resolute opposer of despotic power ; and 
when the frigate Hellas was blown up at Poros, 
in order to prevent her falling into the possession 
of the Russians acting under the orders of Agos- 
tino Capo d'Istria, the match was lighted by 
him. Be it said, however, that, as regards the 
extremity of this measure, he yielded his own 
opinion to that of Miaoulis ; his counsel having 
been that the frigate, and the other vessels 
lying in that port, should merely be so far 
disabled as to prevent their being immediately 


employed against the constitutional party. He, 
however, took upon himself the risks (present 
and prospective) of executing a command to 
which his own opinion was opposed ; and to this 
proof of his devotion to the naval hero of the 
revolution, he subsequently added that of pro- 
tecting his person from danger, at the imminent 
hazard of his own, whilst passing with him in 
an open boat through the canal between Poros 
and the main. He then interposed his own 
powerful form between a heavy fire of musketry 
from the pallekars of Capo dlstria, stationed 
along the shore, and the aged admiral,- — a shield 
worthy him it protected, and an act of devotion 
which does honour alike to him who performed 
and to him who inspired it, — to the patriot 
leader, and to his patriot follower, — to the heroic 
uncle, and his not less heroic nephew. 

My reminiscences of Kriezis being of the 
same tone as the preceding observations, I 
sought him with feelings of unqualified respect 
and esteem ; and I could almost have pardoned 
the minister, if I had found him less cordial in 
his reception of me than, a quondam volunteer 


with the captain had perhaps a right to expect. 
Such, however, was not the case, and I had the 
pleasure of being met by him with all the 
warmth and cordiality which I could desire. I 
have smoked more than one chibouque with him, 
whilst our discourse has gone back to the stir- 
ring scenes of passed years, not, of course, 
forgetting the incidents of my own cruize under 
his command. He has abandoned his Hydriote 
costume ; and as I had never the same admira- 
tion for the ample brachia of the islanders which 

I entertain for the fustanelUiy or ** white camise" 


of the mountaineers, I am by no means disposed 
to criticise this departure from the fashions of 
his fathers ; more especially as the present naval 
uniform well becomes his somewhat portly form, 
and sits upon him as easily as if it had been 
adopted in early life. Madame Kriezis (a daughter 
of Giorgio Bulgari, whose name I shall perhaps 
have occasion again to mention) adheres to her 
island costume even at court. She is a noble 
specimen of the Hydriote matron ; and her com- 
manding figure and lofty style of beauty bespeak 
her descent from a fearless race. I remember 

42 KRIBZ18. 

her, a beautiful creature, nursing her first child ; 
Qhe is now surrounded by a numerous group of 
burly sons and gentle daughters, and I know not 
a more lovely or interesting picture than the 
family of the patriot minister presents when 
assembled in an interior, where the fashions of 
the East are modified by the comforts of the 
West, and the whole is characterized by an 
almost patriarchal simplicity. 

The integrity and patriotism of Kriezis are so 
generally recognised, that, in the midst of the 
cabals and rivalries of parties, only one of the 
journals has had the courage or inclination to 
attack him. The attack was refuted by the other 
journals of all parties, and no repetition of it has 
been ventured upon. On several occasions he 
has riQked his position by uttering unpalatable 
truths in the presence of his sovereign. He is 
held in high esteem by most of the foreign diplo- 
matists resident in Athens, and by more than 
one I have heard him quoted as a model of what 
a minister of the ''infant" kingdom ought 
to be. 

I was much gratified to find established here 


as an advocate, my old friend, Mr. Edward 
Masson, who, in 1825 and 1826, was residing at 
Hydra, as a •* civiP* Philhellene, and on my 
visits to that island always received me with the 
most hospitable kindness. Since then he has 
figured at various times in a less pacific capacity, 
and during several months officiated as secretary 
to Lord Cochrane. He has been faithful to 
Greece through good report and evil report, and 
still glows with enthusiasm in her behalf. He 
has filled public offices of high responsibility, and 
among them that of attorney-general : as such, 
in 1834, he was the accuser of Colocotroni 
before the criminal court of Nauplia. Subse- 
quently, when young Mavromichali was arraigned 
before a military commission, for the deed which 
closed the mortal career of Capo dlstria, he was 
his advocate, and built an eloquent, but fruitless 
defence, upon the incompetency of the tribunal 
by which he was tried. He was allowed to com- 
municate with him up to his last moments, the 
details of which I have listened to with much in- 
terest. From them it would appear that young 
Mavromichali died the death of a martyr, being 


thoroughly imhued with a conviction that he 
had fulfilled a sacred duty to his country. 

On the 26th, I had the pleasure of hearing 
Mr. Masson exercise his vocation as a Greek 
advocate, under peculiar circumstances. I went 
with him to the Correctional Court, to hear the 
trial of the poet Soutzo^ for a libel on the 
Government — a poetical libel — which had been 
printed in a work, the copies of which, during 
a temporary absence of the poet, were depo- 
sited with one of his friends. The work had 
not been previously published, and, when given 
Into the custody of the friend of the poet^ the 
copies were made up in a case, carefully secured. 
Curiosity^ or some less pardonable motive, 
caused the friend (whose name I withhold) to 
violate the trust reposed in him, and he threw 
into circulation one or more copies of the work 
in which the V* corpus delicti'' was to be found. 

The poet read a brilliant defence of his own in 
reply ^ to the accusatory pleading of the King's 
Attorney, and was followed by two advocates — 
viz., Argyzoppulo, brother-in-law to the Prince 
Mavrocordato, and Pezzali, editor of the ** Age," 


(o Aim.) It seemed to my friend Masson, who 
like myself was present merely as a spectator, 
that the fact of the non-publication of the libel 
was not sufficiently insisted upon, either by the 
advocates or by the poet himself ; and he com- 
municated his opinion to that effect to the latter, 
who, in reply, earnestly pressed him to con- 
clude the defence himself. This he was pre- 
vailed upon to do, and stepped down among the 
lawyers by whom the poet was surrounded. 
There was immediately what is called ia sensation 
among the audience, and his opening address 
was awaited in profound silence, and evidently 
with peculiar interest. After having duly and 
severely discussed the point of law, as regarded 
the non-publication, citing with much effect 
the case of Algernon Sydney, whose name, to 
use his own expression, '' tyrants hear, and 
tremble," he claimed in behalf of his impromptu 
client the privileges of the creative brotherhood, 
in a lighter, but a not less effective manner, inas- 
much as it called a smile across the countenances 
of the judicial triumvirs, who had previously sat 
in gloomy severity. He concluded his address 


by a brilliant appeal to the feelings of the judges 
in behalf of a poet, whose works have recorded 
the heroic efforts of the vindicators of the 
liberties of their common country, and will 
remain a lasting testimony that the first years 
of its independence have not been devoid of the 
milder glories of literary distinction. 

His audience was so much carried away by his 
eloquence, and sympathized so strongly in the 
arguments brought forward, and in this appeal 
to the feelings of his judges, that they several 
times gave utterance to their approbation in the 
most unequivocal manner ; indeed, so loud and 
general was this applause, that it was utterly 
inconsistent with the severe decorum of a crimi- 
nal court, and called forth reiterated and me- 
nacing repression on the part of the tribunal. 
When Mr. Masson had concluded, an impression 
prevailed that he had assured the acquittal of the 
accused ; and this impression happily proved to 
be in conformity with the decision of the court, 
the poet being acquitted by the unanimous voice 
of the three judges. It is a circumstance of high 
interest to me to have been present when an 

MR. MASSON. 47. 

Englishman was pleading in Greek before a 
Greek tribunal, and in so triumphant a manner. 
After relating this anecdote, it is scarcely ne- 
cessary for me to state that Mr. Masson is pro- 
foundly versed in the language of his adopted 
country ; it is as familiar to him as that of his 
native land, and the Hellenic is scarcely less so. 
He is now occupied in translating into the purest 
Romaic (which differs from the Hellenic much 
less than is generally supposed, and is gradually 
more and more assimilating itself to it) choice 
specimens of British eloquence, both ecclesias- 
tical and parliamentary ; and the fruit of his la- 
bours will, I doubt not, prove of much interest 
and utility to his fellow-citizens. He has under- 
taken also the compilation of an English and 
Greek Lexicon, in which formidable work he has 
already made considerable progress. Judging 
from the specimens of it which I have seen, I 
should think it calculated to drive out of the 
field all those which are at this time in use with 
us, in which a third language is so injudiciously 
made the medium of interpretation between the 
language of the student and that which he is 
seeking to acquire. 

48 MR. MAS80N. 

Since the above was written, Mr. Masson has 
defended the editor of the ** Minerva/* (4 AOnmj 
who was brought before the Criminal Tribunal 
of First Instance, accused of a libel on the judges. 
Notwithstanding a very eloquent defence, the 
accused was condemned to fifteen days' impri- 
sonment, and a fine of 150 drachmas. Mr.Mas- 
son appealed from this sentence, which was 
revoked by the Areopagus. 

A few days afterwards, Mr. Masson defended 
the editor of the ''Age," (o Aio/y,) accused of a libel 
on M. Rigny, the Intendant of Finances. The 
accused in this instance was condemned to the 
minimum of punishment. The maximum would 
have been a serious affair — viz., five years' im- 

Mr. Masson's pleading in these cases was based 
upon the necessity of the freedom of the press 
for the wellbeing of the Greeks, of whatever 
opinions or party they may be, and has been the 
subject of general admiration. His exertions in 
behalf of the accused were the more highly ap- 
preciated, because in their editorial capacities 
they had been by no means friendly to him. 

He has been requested by Capo d'Istria and 

MR. MAS80N. 49 

Nikitas to undertake their defence in the affair 
of the Philorthodox conspiracy, which, as his 
anti-Russian and constitutional feelings are no- 
torious, is a high tribute to his integrity and 

Early in the year 1841, an Athenian friend 
of mine wrote to me, while at Naples, as fol- 
lows, respecting him : — " II Masson continua 
a far le sue lezioni di Filosofia Baconica nel 
navf?ri(rT9)/xov tre volte la settimana come professore 
onorario. Trascura i proprii suoi interessi e come 
awocato i suoi guadagni per avere il piacere d'is- 
truire la gioventiH Greca. Ha sempre un grande 
auditorio di discepoli. £ troppo adoratore della 
verity e non teme di esporla quando si tratta 
d'istruire gli altri. La stima generale della gio- 
ventili Greca commincia a suscitare Tinvidia 
contro di lui e a fargli de' nemici nascosti. Oi 
(pMTwrCtfrrai non possono vedere la luce." 

By M. Masson I was introduced to the Rev 
Mr. Hill, an American missionary of the Epis- 
copal church, who has been many years resident 
in Greece, and who established his domicile at 

VOL. I. E 

50 REV, MR. HILL. 

Athens when the modem city was little more than 
a heap of ruins. He is held in high respect by 
men of all parties ; and the public and private 
schools which are under his control, and of which 
I shall have to speak hereafter, promise to be of 
lasting utility to the country. 



Bcj of Moina — OflTerings of the Mayromichali familj on the 
altar of their country — Present and former political posi- 
tion — Giorgio PsjUa — Political career, and various 
modes of government in which he took part — Political 
parties — ^Philorthodox conspiracy — Glarakis — Cairis. 

March \st to 8th. — Accompanied by my friend 
Mr. Masson, I called to pay my respects to 
Pietro Mavromichali, the ex-Bey of Maina. We 
found the aged chief stretched on a bed of sick- 
ness, and suffering severely from acute rheuma- 
tism. He gave my friend a most cordial wel- 
come^ and reproached him with the rarity of his 
visits ; repeating several times the simple expres- 
sion, }fy lA* ayavas — }cv pb' ayairaf^ ('* Thou lovest me 

nof ) As soon as he was informed that an 
English Philhellene had come to pay his respects 
to him, he insisted upon being raised up in his 

E 2 


bed ;,and| supported by pillows and enveloped in 

. * •» 

a fur cloak, he was quickly absorbed in the re- 

. - • 

collections of past events, and the discussion of 
the politics of the day. I do not remember to 
have witnessed a more striking example of the 
power of mind over body than on this occasion. 
When we entered the room, the Bey was groan- 
ing under the intense suffering of his disorder ; 
but as ^Qon as he became engaged in the discus- 
sion of subjects to which the energies of his 
eventful life had been devoted, his pain was for- 
gotten, and the languor attendant upon pro- 
longed sickness was replaced by all the anima- 
tion of health ; his cheek glowed, and his eye 
brightened with the enthusiasm of his feelings. 
The fine old man at that time would have been 
a noble study for an artist, and has left in my 
memory a picture which will not speedily be 
effaced. The pillows by which he was supported, 
his whitened hair, and long gray moustachios, 
(which I remember as black as jet,) told a tale of 
suffering and of years ; while the energy of his 
language and the brilliancy of his glances, be- 
spoke a soul which neither time nor sorrow had 


been able to subdue.* He has, indeed, suffered 
much ; for exclusive of the son and brother^ who 
paid the forfeit of their lives for the assassination 
of Capo d'Istria, he has seen a host of his nearest 
blood relatives cut off since the banner of inde- 
pendence was first raised in Greece. The latter 
fell before the sword of the invader or oppressor, 
and died bravely and nobly in the van of battle ; 
and as the old chief well said, have rendered the 
name of Mavromichali immortal in the annals of 
their country, and among those who have symi- 
pathized in its struggles for liberty: He has 
need of this reflection to console him in his 
declining years ; for the outbreak of the revolu- 
tion found him an independent prince, in the 
vigour of manhood and of power, surrounded by 
a numerous offspring, and by a powerful body 
of devoted brothers and relatives, and ruling 
over a warlike and attached race of tnouti- 
taineers. Of his line few now remain, and his 

* For a personal description of the Bej, see Poucqueville's 
" History of the Regeneration of Greece," book v., chap. v. 
It is by no means poetical^ as are too many of his descriptions 
and details. 


power is not only departed from him, but trans- 
ferred to an alien, a Bavarian officer, who rules 
almost despotically over his former subjects, 
and is the avowed enemy of himself and of his 

Among those who have played a part in the 
revolution, none would seem to have been moved 
thereto by less interested motives, none to have 
sacrificed so much during its progress, or to 
have participated so little in its results. So far 
from being especially cherished by the present 
government, as might reasonably be expected, 
he is an object of its peculiar jealousy, on ac- 
count of the bias of his political feelings, which 
are known to be highly constitutional, and 
opposed to Russian ascendancy in the cabinet. 
If the nomination of the Bey as an honorary 
councillor of state ; of his son the Beyzadeh, as 
aide-de-camp to the King ; and of his brother, 
as colonel, were quoted as adequate compensa- 
tions for the sacrifices made by the family, the 
remark would be met with a smile of derision 
from any one whose experience enables him to 
compare what is with what has been — its present 

MAINA. 55 

" fallen estate" with its power previous to, and 
during the first years of the revolution. 

Let it not, however, be inferred from these 
remarks that I have heard any expression of 
repining from the lips of the Bey I On the con- 
trary, he appears to forget his own sacrifices in 
his hopes and anticipations of the future in- 
creased prosperity and happiness of his fellow- 
countrymen. I will not, however^ assert that he 
does not mourn over the present fate of those 
who were once his subjects. 

Maina was merely tributary to the Porte, and 
the light tribute paid by that province was col- 
lected by the officers of the Bey, without the 
interference of Turkish agents : no Turkish 
soldiers were permitted to enter his territory. 
Previous to the revolution, the Bey .had brought 
this district into comparative tranquillity and 
order, by the severe repression of private feuds^ 
which for centuries before had been fostered by 
the " vow of blood ;" transmitting vengeance, as 
a sacred duty, not only from father to son, but 
through every branch of the hostile families. 

Tlie troops of Ibrahim Pasha suffered most 


severely when they attempted to overrun Maina, 
in 1826. The resolute valour of the inhabitants 
was seconded by the wild and mountainous cha- 
racter of the country, and by the peculiar con- 
struction of their habitations. The latter (at 
least, those of persons of any property) are built 
of stone, and are accessible only on the first story, 
the approach to which is by a staircase, termi- 
nating in a platform on a level therewith, upon 
which a sort of drawbridge is lowered at pleasure 
from the house. Before these houses, or Tlupyot, 
the Arabs, unprovided with artillery, except such 
light pieces as could be transported over the 
mountains on the backs of mules, fell in great 

M. Tricoupi, whose history, as connected 
with the revolution, is too well known to admit of 
any recapitulation by me, I found living in com- 
parative retirement . at Patissia. The house in 
which he resides was built by Admiral Malcolm, 
from whose hands it passed into those of its 
present distinguished occupant. It stands on 
the spot where Kiutahi Pacha pitched his tent 
during his siege of the Acropolis, and as it com- 


mands an exquisitely beautiful view of that 
citadel, as well as of the city itself, the site is 
not less appositely chosen for the temporary re- 
tirement of a cabinet minister, than it was for 
the head-quarters of an invading general. The 
former may contemplate from it the arena of his 
future labours for his country's welfare, and find 
in the beauty of the view an additional stimulus 
to his desires to repossess himself of office ; as 
the latter, no doubt, imagined that he beheld 
from the same spot, at once the theatre and the 
prize of a future victory. 

M. Tricoupi was for some time in bad odour 
with the government, and, subsequently to the 
resignation of his appointment as ambassador at 
Constantinople, remained until recently without 
office. He is now a member of the Council of 
State. His political sympathies are generally 
understood to be with the English party, and the 
quasi-disgrace of a minister who played so dis- 
tinguished a part during the vicissitudes of the 
revolution, at a time when Russian influence has 
been decidedly in the ascendant, confirms this 
general impression ; which, moreover, is further 


borne out by the friendly intimacy of his inter- 
course with the British minister. He is known 
as a warm Constitutionalist, and is much re- 
spected by a numerous party ; and as recent 
events appear to have weaned the court, in some 
measure, from its devotion to Russia, and to 
have disposed it to become more liberal in its 
views, it is to be hoped that, before long, 
M. Tricoupi may again be placed at the head of 
one of the departments of the government. His 
accomplished and beautiful lady has brought 
with her from England impressions and reminis- 
cences which are highly gratifying to an English- 
man. She is a sister of the celebrated Prince 
The distinguished part enacted by the Prince, 

as a statesman, in the great drama of the revo- 
lution, is well known. I do not, however, re- 
member to have seen mentioned the following 
anecdote of him as a pallekar. In 1825, when 
the brig of war of Sachtouris, of which Tsama- 
dos had taken the command, fought its way so 
gallantly out of the harbour of Navarino, through 
the midst of the Turkish fleet. Prince Mavrocor- 

M. PSYLLA. 59 

dato was on board ; and at his suggestion it was 
resolved to blow up the vessel in the event of the 
Turks making themselves masters of her. To 
him was entrusted the duty of setting fire to 
the powder magazine. The Turks attempted 
several times to board, but happily were re- 
pulsed with great slaughter. In the meanwhile , 
the Prince sat at the entrance of the magazine, 
pistol in hand, waiting the announcement of the 
fatal moment. His enemies endeavoured to 
represent his having volunteered to perform 
this awful duty as the effect of his anxiety to 
escape the dangers of the deck ; but leaving out 
of the question the trying nature of the duty 
itself, and of the suspense in which he was com- 
pelled to remain, (far more fearful than the stir 
of the fight above,) the active part taken by the 
Prince in the military operations of the first 
years of the revolution, both in the Morea and 
in Northern Greece, was sufficient to vindicate 
him from so strange an accusation. 

I found my old friend, M. Giorgio Psylla, also 
living in comparative retirement, his only con- 
nexion with the present government being such 

60 M. PSYLLA. 

as . results from his nomination as honorary 
member of the Council of State. He is known 
as a zealous Constitutionalist, and as such, en- 
tertains an affection for the influence of England 
and of France, in preference to that of Russia. 
When I was in this city in 1825-6, he was editor 
of the " Efe^figiy rofv AO^v^v,*' the only journal then 
published here, and having studied in the uni- 
versities of Jena and Gottingen, was peculiarly 
fitted for discharging the duties of Literary 
Dictator of the Epoch. His journal was re- 
markable, not less for the simplicity of its style, 

■ • • 

than for. the spirit of ^ devoted patriotism which 
breathed through its jpages.r He had previously 
fulfilled, with , high, reputation, the duties of 
member of more than one national assembly, and 
since then he has been called upon to fill similar 
and other offices of high civil trust. He has, 
moreover, during the many changes in the 
destinies of his native city, which have taken 
place in the interval, on various occasions done 
his devoir, as a good pallekar. To him and to 
some others of his fellow-labourers, in the 
vineyard of independence, might be applied, 

M. PSYLLA, 61 

with some slight variation as to its exclusive- 
ness, the distich which was written for Tasso— 

'' Colin penna e colla spada 
Ncssun val quanto Torquato." 

M. Psylla is married to a daughter of the 
well-known Athenian physician, Vitali, in whose 

house I had the good fortune to reside when in- 

• « * 

valided from the.- fleet; in 1825. - She was then a 
beautiful little creature of nine, or ten years of 
age, and, with a sister equally interestingi con- 
tributed by her presence to sooth the tedium of 
many an hour of pain. They are both now 
in vested. \irith all the^hoi^ours of matronship, and 
surrounded by infant props of the infant king- 
dom. The elder 'Sister 'Js married, to M. Palli, 
a native of Joanninai a physician, in high repute 

A catalogue of the various offices which have 
been 'filled .'by my friend since the outbreak of the 
revolution will, I trust, be found not devoid of 
interest; more especially when it is borne in 
mind that others, whose career has been distin- 
guished by the same activity and variety in times 


of danger, are, like him, now laid on the shelf 
by the government. This catalogue will also 
present a tolerably complete picture of the many 
changes which the internal government of the 
country underwent before it was settled in its 
present form by the interference of the European 
powers ; what may appear wanting to that effect, 
I will endeavour to supply from other sources. 

In 1 82 1 , M. Psylla was Ephore, or member of 
the Municipality, << A^/xo7f/)avTkz," of Athens. 

In 1822, Deputy, or member of the province 
of Attica, at the first National Assembly of Epi- 

In 1823-4, member of the National Assembly 
held at Astros ; Professor of the Public School 
of Athens, and Editor of the '' Ephemeris ;" as 
also member of the Supreme Court of Judicature 
of Attica. 

After the convocation of the first National 
Assembly of Epidaurus, the government, entitled 
the Provisional Government of Greece, (ii npoao- 
qlm Aio/x«i(riy rrii 'Exxa^os) was delegated to an exe- 
cutive, CExTiXscTTixav 5«pu»,) composed of five mem- 
bers, under the control of a legislative body. 


(Bot/Xii/rixiv t&iM,) composed of delegates or depu- 
ties from each province of revolutionized Greece, 
some of the more important of which, as Hydra, 
Spezia, Psara, Livadia, &c., sent two members. 
Under this form the government continued until 
April, 1826, when the second National Assembly 
of Epidaurus was convoked. 

The fall of Missolonghi took place whilst this 
assembly was sitting, and no doubt had consi- 
derable influence on its deliberations. To it may 
be ascribed the resolution taken by the assembly 
to solicit the interference of the great powers in 
behalf of the country, then almost overrun and 
exhausted by the armies of the Porte and of the 
Pacha of Egypt, and, alas ! torn also by internal 
dissensions. An executive commission, (Aioix^nx^i 
'ETTirpoTTt),) composed of eleven members, was in 
consequence appointed, and entrusted with the 
provisional government ; and a further commis- 
sion of eleven was nominated, and styled the 
Commission of the Assembly, {*Emrpoirri rUs St/vixsv- 
(reft;?,) to which Were confided, not the legislative 
powers of the assembly, but especial power and 
authority to treat for a pacification through the 


medium of the European powers, and more par- 
ticularly throujg^h that of England. To the latter 
power the . Greeks still were more disposed to 
turn for protection than to any other, although, 
in 1825, they had in vain sought for it in the 
same quarter. On this point I can , speak from 
personal knowledge, having been at that time in 
intimate and continued intercourse with many 
of the Moreote chiefs, as well as with the most 
distinguished of the Hydriote captains. In 1825, 
after the arrival of the first Egyptian expedition 
in the Peloponessus, thehopes of all were turned 
almost exclusively to Great Britain, and' both 
Islanders and Moreotes would have joyfully and 
uncohditionally accepted her protection. Their 
overtures to that effect were either, rejected or 
unheeded. Among • those who were; then ; the 
warmest advocates of British protection are now 
to be found some of the most zealous partisans 
of R\li^i|ia. i>i-' 

In* 1827, M. Psylla was member of the Na- 
tional ^Assembly of Traezene. By this assembly 
the government was restored, in a great measure, 
to the same form as that established by the first 


National Assembly of Epidaurus, being confided 
to two bodies — viz., an Executive Commission, 
{KuCipvnTKfi EkriT/xwrtl,) and a Legislative Assembly, 
similar to that which was then instituted. There 
was, however, this difference, that Capo d'Istria 
was named President, or Governor, (Kc/Ci^MSmr,) 
and on his arrival was to replace the Executive 
Commission in its functions. 

In 1828, Capo d' Istria arrived, and, having 
dissolved the legislative body, reinstated by the 
Assembly of Trsezene, undertook to carry on the 
government of the country, assisted or controlled 
only by the Council of State,^ called the Panhel- 
lenium, (n«vixx4Mav,) the methbeM of which wer^^ 
appointed by himself. The government remained 
on this footing until the co&vocatiob of the Assemi 
blyof 1829,wlieti'thePaliliellenittttiLWad, 
replaced byaSenate;(ri^iB,)^fo^^^ 
of members choseii by'UiA^lH^idetit, from a list 
presented to him' by that assembly. He con^ 
tinned to carry on the government, with the 
assistance of this body, until the time of his 

By Capo d' Istria, M. Psylla was appointed 

VOL. I. F 


member of the Panhelleniumi and also Governor 
of Lower Messema^ a province comprising twelve 
divisions or departments, six of which constitute 
Eastem Maina. In 1829 he was elected member 
of the National Assembly of Argos ; and in 
1830, was nominated Judge of Appeals for the 
islands of the Egean. This appointment he did 
not accept ; but the nomination was a distin- 
guished proof of the esteem in which he was held 
by the President ; while his having been deputed 
by his former constituents again to represent 
them in the National Assembly was a pledge 
of their esteem, and of his having exercised 
with sound discretion the extensive authority 
which had been previously entrusted to him 
by the head of the state. I have been in- 
formed, by those who had an opportunity of 
appreciating the details of his administration 
whilst Governor of Maina, that it was distin- 
guished as much by moderation as by firmness, 
and that he won ^^ golden opinions" from the 
inhabitants of that wild district, causing the 
government to be respected, and quelling the 
petty but bloody feuds by which the province 


was disquieted, almost without the assistance of 
the armed force which was placed at his disposal. 
The term of his first appointment having expired, 
and his health being in a precarious state, he 
solicited his recall ; but the wishes of the Presi- 
dent, backed by those of the Mavromichali 
family, induced him to continue in his office for 
a further period. The dose of his administra-^ 
tion was distinguished by the same firmness tod 
moderation which had characterized the early 
part of it. The reign of the present Governor 
has been of a very different tenour 1 

Towards the close of 1831, Agostino Capo 
d' Istria was named President. In 1 832 he was 
deposed by the constitutionalists ; and at the 
National Assembly of Pronea was replaced by an 
executive commission composed of five members, 
by which the government was carried on until 
the arrival of the regency^ in 1833. His present 
Majesty took the helm of state from the regency 
in 1835, and may be said to have governed 
hitherto as an autocrat ; the only body which can 
exercise any control over his acts being the 


68 M. FSYLLA* 

Council of State^ the members of which are 
nominated by himself. 

Subsequently to the death of Capo d' Istria, 
M. Psylla was chosen member of the National 
Assembly (the last) of Pronea. In 1833 he was 
appointed Governor of Negropont, and very 
shortly afterwards received the portfolio of Mi- 
nister of the Interior, which he retained but for 
a short time. In 1 834 he was Nomarch of Attica 
and Boeotiai and was named Councillor of State 
Extraordinary. In 1835 he was Nomarch of 
Euboea, with which appointment his active and 
varied career as a public man terminated, the 
title of Councillor of State Extraordinary, which 
he. still preserves, not entailing any active duties 
on its possessor. 

I have chosen M. Psylla as the subject of a 
sketch of the career of a patriot, during the stir- 
ring years of revolution, because his name has 
been comparatively little noticed by those of my 
countrymen who have visited Greece. It is a 
humble tribute which I offer to one who appears 
to have found the reward of a life of unwearied 
usefulness in the conscientious performance of 

M. PSYLLA. 69 

his duties, rather than to have sought for it in 
the acquisition of fame among his contempo- 
raries ; as such, I trust it will support the asser- 
tion which I unhesitatingly make, that, besides 
the Miaoulis, the Kriezis, the Bozzaris, the 
Canaris^ &c., whose names must be encircled 
with a halo of glory in every clime where the 
eventful tale of late years shall be told, the revo- 
lution produced many whose devotion to their 
country might be triumphantly compared with 
that of the most distinguished patriots of ancient 
or modern times, but whose names, unfortu- 
nately, are but little known out of their own 
immediate sphere of action. If, notwithstanding 
the various and important duties discharged by 
him, the name of M. Psylla be comparatively so 
little known beyond the limits of Greece, it will 
not appear surprising that other patriotic names 
have not been bruited beyond the frontier. > : 
As in the foregoing remarks repeated allusions 
have been made to British and Russian influence, 
it will not be out of place here to observe, that 
the former is supposed to be actively employed 
both among the leading men of the state, and at 


the foot of the throne itsdf, (I beg Sir Edmund 
Lyon'8 pardon for the eiqpresdon in the sup- 
port of constitutional principles, as applied to the 
spirit of the government, and p^hiqps also as 
applied to the form itself of the goyemment ; 
while the latter is thought to be exerted with 
equal activity in upholding the present unconsti- 
tutional '' status quo/' and in preventing what 
his Excellency the Russian minister would no 
doubt style ** innovations." French influence has 
at times appeared to waver between the two ; but 
of late, and more particularly since the discovery 
of the Philorthodox Conspiracy, it has lent its 
decided support to constitutional principles : 
when a contrary tendency has existed, it may 
be supposed to have arisen from a jealousy of 
the predominance of British influence, quoad 
British, rather than from any sympathy with the 
principles of the rival party. 

The parties and politics of Athens have been 
rendered so very complicated by the various 
foreign intrigues of which, since her indepen- 
dence was recognised, Greece has been made the 
arena, that to analyze them would be a task of 



most difficult accomplishment. I shall therefore 
confine myself, for the present, to a few passing 
remarks on the subject. 

The two leading parties, into which the others 
more or less merge, are the ^^ Constitutionalists/' 
(Scnrra^fMBrwoi,) and the ^^ Absolutists,'' commonly 
called Napists. The former are supposed to be 
fostered and supported by the cabinets of Eng- 
land and of France, — the latter, by those of 
Russia and of Austria, and more especially by 
the former. The Constitutional phalanx, it is 
gratifying to observe, is the more numerous of 
the two ; and foremost in its ranks are very 
many of those who have distinguished them- 
selves during the vicissitudes of late years. 
Among the Absolutists are a few of the same 
class ; but their numerical strength consists in 
men who, possessing no merits as patriots upon 
which to repose, can only hope for distinction 
through the infiuence of the throne. The latter, 
as regards the possession of political power^ are 
unfortunately the ** ins" of the present day. 

The title of Napists (NairiVroi) was, I believe^ 
first bestowed upon this party in derision, and 
may be said to have descended to them as a sort 


of heir-loom from.the partiranB of Ciount Agos- 
tino Capo d' Istria, whose : political prindples 
and partialities they have also inherited,. ; The 
partisans of Capo d* Istria acquired it in conse- 
quence of that of Napa having been bestowed 
upon their leader. The real Napa was a sort of 
half-cracked, half-wily, and wholly drunken 
Corfiote, who used to frequent the caf6a at Nau- 
plia, and hold forth on political subjects. He 
was not deficient in talent, and had, I am in- 
formed, ** done the state some service," as a pal- 
lekar, during the war ; but his devotion to the 
>yine-cup had marred the promise of a proper 
man. . Whether there was any personal resem- 
blance between him and the Count, or whether 
the name fell to the share of the latter merely 
because he was also a Corfiote, I am not pre- 
pared to state. However this may be, M. Napa, 
for the nonce, is in some sort immortalized. 

The Napists are supposed to have been deeply 
implicated in the Philorthodox Conspiracy, and 
those who have been arrested on the score of 
participation in the plot are notoriously of that 

It is difficult to collect, from the various con- 


tradictory reports which are afloat, the real views 
of the conspirators, or even to understand with 
precision what means it was their intention to 
employ in order to carry their views into effect. 
The professed object of the conspiracy ; as its 
title denotes, was to bring the church of this 
kingdom again under the control of the patriarch 
of Constantinople ; and this object was probably 
the only one which was made ostensible to such 
members of the association as had joined it on 
principles merely religious, or (as they supposed) 
purely patriotic. To others, a lure of a more 
personal nature was held out. Besides the 
scheme of renewed national submission to the 
former head of the Greek church, the Hetarists 
entertained projects of political aggrandizement, 
and of acquisitions of territory on the northern 
frontier of Greece : of the provinces to be so 


acquired, some of those who were nominally the 
leaders, but virtually the tools, of the conspiracy, 
were induced to believe that they should be ap- 
pointed tributary or federative chieftains. 

The immediate means to be employed for at- 
taining the professed object of the conspiracy 


was the conyersion of the king to the Greek 
faith. This conversion was to be summarily ex« 
acted from his Majesty on new year's day, when, 
according to custom, the king was to go in state 
to the church of 8t. Irene. Happily, the plot 
was discovered before the day appointed for the 
mad attempt, and such precautions were adopted 
as must have rendered futile any attack upon 
the head of the government. The procession 
took place, and the day passed away without 
disturbance. It is almost superfluous to ob- 
serve, that the projected attempt at the conver- 
sion of the. king must have caused tumult and 
bloodshed, if not a temporary subversion of all 
government, and the extinction of royalty itself. 
By a singular coincidence, at the time the at- 
tempt was to have been made there were several 
Russian ships of war at anchor in the Piraeus — 
more than had previously ever been collected in 
that port at one time* This circumstance may 
have been merely fortuitous, but it lends an air 
of probability to the surmises which I have heard 
expressed by Athenians, that the whole affair 
was known beforehand to the Russian govern- 


menty and that the ships of war were sent there 
either to support the Hetarists, or to offer the 
protection of the imperial flag to the royal family, 
as the aspect of events might render advisable. 

If the government had acted with common 
energy and promptitude at the time the conspi- 
racy was discovered, all its ramifications must 
have been brought to light, and its partisans 
made known. It would appear, however, that 
the government was fearful of having the full 
extent of it made public ; for so dilatory were 
the proceedings adopted for the discovery of those 
implicated, that, with few exceptions, they had 
ample time to take measures for their own pro* 
tection. The arrests made were very few, and 
the only persons of mark thrown into prison 
were, George Capo d'Istria ; Nikitas (sumamed, 
for his exploits as a pallekar, Turcophagus) ; a 
Speziote, whose name I forget ; and Mavrojanni^ 
an Ionian physician. These individuals, even up 
to the present time, have not been brought to 
trial ; so that, as regards the public, the affair is 
still enveloped in mystery : the prevailing belief, 
however, is, that the Hetaria was not confined 


to the Grecian territory, but had extensive rami- 
fications in Asia Minor, Epirus, and the Ionian 
Islands. Glarakis, who was Minister of the In- 
terior at the time the discovery took place, is 
suspected bf having been personally implicated ; 
but no positive proof to that effect haa hitherto 
been brought to light. The presumptions against 
him are founded on the prolonged concealment 
of an association so widely extended and enter- 
taining projects of so perilous a nature, not less 
than on the extreme djlatoriness of the measures 
taken for the discovery of the leaders of it. 
. . This minister — or rather ex-minister, for he 
has.been very justly dismissed from office— is by 
profession a physician, and during the revolution 
was known only in that capacity. He did not 
step forward as a candidate for the honours 
of public life until the storm had passed by; 
and th$ qualities for which his co-insulars are 
more particularly distinguished might be sup- 
posed to be more useful in the attainment of 
them than the loftier qualifications of courage, 
moral, and physical, which were indispensable 
even for the civilian of an earlier epoch. He is 


known as a devoted partisan of Russia, and for 
that reason, whilst in office, was distinguished 
in the constitutional journals by the appellation 
of " Glarakoff ;" in like manner as wasTricoupi, 
in the Napist journals, qualified as '^ Lord Tri- 
coupington/' in order to mark him as an English 
adherent. It may seem irrelevant to mention 
that he is known also as a devout worshipper of 
Bacchus ; my excuse must be sought for in* a 
practical witticism of his fellow-citizenSi in which*- 
his downfall was celebrated, at once as minister, 
as a Russian partisan, and as a votary of the 
rosy god. When his dismissal from office was 
made public, some of the wits of the capital 
placed a wine-cask upon a tumbril, covered it 
with a pall, and, surrounding the carriagb with 
lighted torches, after the fashion of a bier, went 
in procession to the house of Glarakis, and re- 
cited over it the offices of the dead, mingling the 
name of '^ Glarakoff '' with their lugubrious (and 
perhaps unholy) chaunts. 

He is a Sciote. The Sciotesare the most 
educated, and at the same time the most an-^ 
triguing, of the islanders of the ' Archipelagor 

78 0LARAKI8. 

Their reputation for courage is in inverse pro- 
portion to that accorded them for intrigue. To 
tell a pallekar that he is as brave as a Sciote is 
a mortal offence. Young M. recounted to me, 
as an instance of the slight estimation in which 
they are held by the more warlike islanders, that 
on one occasion a Hydriote captain, on his return 
to his native island, reported that he had on 
board as passengers '' nine men and one Sciote/' 
Their deficiency in courage, or in warlike habits 
— the effect, probably, of their peculiar position, 
as vassals of the Sultana — ^was, alas I most bit- 
terly chastised by the horrible massacres perpe- 
trated upon the inhabitants of Scio in the early 
part of the revolutionary war. Be it remarked, 
in justice to these islanders, that several of them 
distinguished themselves greatly in the princi- 
palities under Ypsilanti. Sciote merchants, esta- 
blished in Etu-ope, contributed largely to the ex- 
penses of the war. 

One of the acts of despotic power ascribed to 
Glarakis is the banishment of the Professor 
Cairis, without a regular trial, which took place 
not very long before his dismissal from oiiice. 


Cairis is a man of profound learning and ex- 
tensive acquirements, who, in the early part of 
the revolution, played the part of a good soldier 
in various encounters with the enemy, but was 
at length disabled from further active service by 
a severe gun-shot wotmd, from which the sur- 
geons failed to extract the ball. He afterwards 
devoted himself to the service of his country in 
a more pacific capacity, and made the tour of 
Europe for the purpose of collecting voluntary 
contributions for the establishment of schools; 
To this holy purpose were allotted not only the 
fruits of his peregrinations, but such private 
means as he himself possessed, and he instituted 
a sort of college in the island of Andros. This 
establishment was so constituted as to offer to 
the students the means of acquiring a thorough 
education, and was under the immediate guid- 
ance and control of Cairis. The youth both of 
Continental Greece and of the Islands flocked to 
Andros ; the sons of the wealthy paying accord- 
ing to their means, and those of the poorer 
classes receiving the same instruction free of 
expense ; and the director of their studies was 

80 .CAIRIS. 

looked up to by the generality of his countrymen 
as a public benefactor. . This afflux to Andros 
of young candidates for! the acquirement of 
knowledge probably, excited the jealousy and 
fears of the party opposed to the extension of 
education, which was then (and is yet to a cer- 
tain extent) in the possession of power ; for 
under its influence, on the strength of a vague 
accusation of having instilled into his pupils 
dangerous and atheistical doctrines, Cairis was 
banished to the rocky island of Skiatho, and his 
institution closed. He is still under sentence of 
banishment from the theatre of his patriotic and 
philanthropic labours ; but has been transferred 
from Skiatho to the more genial isle of San- 



Ball at the Palace — ^Presentation to their Mtyesties — Usages 
of Athenian society in 1826 — First day of Greek Lent — ' 
Masks — ^Picturesque pic-nics around the Temple of 

March 8th and 9th. — On the 8th, being the last 
day of the Greek carnival, a ball was given at 
the palace, to which I had the honour of being 
invited. I had not yet been presented to their 
Majesties, the king having, a few days pre* 
viously, fixed the evening of the ball for the 
presentations which the British minister might 
have to make. In such cases, etiquette requires 
that they should be made immediately after 
the appearance of their Majesties in the ball- 

VOL. I. o 


At the appointed hour, I was disconcerted not 
a little by the arrival of tlie driver of my hired 
conveyance in woful plight, and without his 
vehicle, which he had contrived to upset, and to 
render unserviceable for the evening. Before 
it could be replaced, more than an hour elapsed, 
so that I did not enter the ball-room until 
long after active operations had commenced. 

From two to three hundred guests were pre- 
sent, among whom were the corps diplomatique, 
the members of the government, several well- 
known English Philhellenes, and many of the 
captains or chiefs distinguished during the 
revolutionary war. Of the latter, some few 
have adopted the European dress ; but the far 
greater number still adhere to the picturesque 
Albanian costume, which may be rendered gor- 
geously rich, without detriment to its martial 
character. These were, to my taste, the most 
brilliant ornaments of the ball-room. Among 
the " renegades," now equipped in the uniform 
of the regular troops, and bedizened with crosses 
and stars, I recognised several with whom I had 
held companionship in scenes of a very different 


character. On some, their honours and their 
dress sat so gracefully that they would have 
passed muster at any court of Europe ; others 
evidently were not at ease in their Frank habili- 
ments, and exhibited in their persons no very 
favourable contrast with the free-limbed moun- 
tain chiefs of by-gone days. 

Among the guests , was the ex-President Con- 
douriottis, differing in costume and appearance 
from the President of the Executive of 1825-6, 
only in having discarded his colombajo, or 
rosary, and in being decorated with the star of 
the Saviour. The slightness of the change in 
his personal appearance rendered yet more 
striking the contrast between the scene of my 
last interview with him and that of my present 
encounter. The former was a small room in a 
partially dilapidated Turkish mansion, at Nauplia, 
on the divans of which the Executive sat cross* 
legged ; and, with chibouque in one hand aiid 
rosary in the other, discussed with Oriental 
gravity the affairs of the nation. The counte- 
nance of Condouriottis is expressive of good feel- 
ing and honesty of purpose ; but it is heavy and 

G 2 


unintellectual, and by no means such an one as 
indicates an aptitude for the performance of the 
important duties which were assigned to him. 
During his presidency it was said that the duties 
of the office were virtually discharged by his 
brother, Lazaro Condouriottis, and that the 
president never came to any determination upon 
matters of importance without consulting him. 
Lazaro Condouriottis remained in the meanwhile, 
to all appearance, a merely passive spectator of 
the stirring drama which was enacted around 
him, and did not move from his native island. 
He was recognised generally by his countrymen 
as fully capable of supplying the deficiencies of 
his brother, and by some of them was rather 
quaintly compared, in his retirement at Hydra, 
to a spider in the midst of his web. 

To return, however, to the ball-room, which I 
have, perhaps, already absented myself from too 
long* The V antecedents *' of many of the 
guests called up reminiscences, and offered con- 
trasts, which for me invested the assemblage 
with a peculiar interest ; and the variety of cos- 
tumes must, even in the eyes of a passing spec- 


tator, have lent to the scene a picturesque and, 
as it were, a poetic character, which would in 
vain be sought for in the saloons of any other 
capital. I regretted to observe that but few of 
the ladies are faithful to their national costume ; 
most, however, of those who were present, are 
Constantinopolitans, by birth and education; 
the ladies of Greece Proper being rather shy of 
appearing in assemblages of this description, in 
which the habits of their early years have not 
fitted them to take an active part. 

First in beauty and in grace, as in rank, 
among the fair denizens of the saloon, M'as the 
Queen ; who, as she glided through the mazes 
of mazourka, waltz, and quadrille, was literally 
and deservedly the cynosure of every eye. Her 
countenance beams with kindness and good feel- 
ing ; and altogether, she is a princess for whom, 
in days of yore, belted knights would right joy- 
ously have splintered their lances and jeopar- 
dized their limbs, and their hearts. Wherever 
she addressed a passing remark, whether to 
young or old, a glow of gratification suffused the 
countenance of the favoured individual, evi- 


dently a tribute spontaneously offered rather to 
the graceful and lovely woman than to the 

My presentation to their Majesties was rather 
a nervous affair for one all unused to courtly 
ceremonial. Owing to my late arrival in the 
rooms, I had to go through the ceremony unac- 
companied, except by Sir Edmund Lyons, who 
did me the honour of being my godfather on the 
occasion. It took place in the centre of the 
saloon, during a pause between the dances, and 
I was thus necessarily converted into a target for 
the critical eyes of the surrounding circle. I 
thought, at the moment, that I should have pre- 
ferred again taking my chance, in the same 
capacity, in a mountain onslaught. A most gra- 
cious reception on the part both of the King and 
of his fair Princess speedily convinced me that 
the latter selection would have been an inju- 
dicious one, and rendered me proof against the 
'* artillery" by which I was, or imagined myself 
to be, surrounded. 

During the short conversation with which I 
was honoured by the Queen, she questioned uie 


as to the changes which I had remarked at 
Athens, in such a manner as to give me to un- 
derstand that the circumstances of my former 
residence in the country were not unknown to 
her. This I mention, not as a matter from 
which to draw any self-gratulation, but as an 
instance of tact in the exercise of the '' metier de 
prince ;'* for I believe it to be generally admitted 
that a sovereign ought, in order the more effec- 
tually to win *' golden opinions," to shew a 
degree of acquaintance with the history of every 
one by whom he is approached. When the sove- 
reign is a beautiful woman, sentiments of grate- 
ful loyalty will be lavishly poured out in re- 
turn for such semblance of personal interest ; 
for the strongest of us are weak when our 
vanity is assailed by beauty alone, and still more 
so when that beauty is encircled by a royal 

The body of English Philhellenes was worthily 
represented by Sir Richard Church, General 
Gordon, and Major Finlay ; that of northern 
Europe, once so numerous, by Major Hahn 
alone — a host, however, in himself, as regards 


perils encountered, and devotion displayed, in 
support of the good cause. 

If these remarks, suggested by a ball, be found 
more diffuse than so commonplace a topic would 
seem to authorize, I have to allege in my defence 
that, though balls be commonplace enough, a ball 
at Athens is still somewhat of a novelty. When 
I was before here, the etiquette or prejudices of 
the East prevailed so far, that such a promis- 
cuous association of the sexes would have been 
considered highly indecorous. At that time, 
on the birth-day or saint's-day of any lady of 
mark, it was customary for her female friends to 
offer their congratulations in the morning, and 
for her male acquaintance to present their 
homage in the afternoon, in order that no such 
association might take place. 

On one occasion, (if I remember rightly, it 
was on the birth-day of Madame Nakos, wife of 
the Deputy of Livadia,) I feigned ignorance of 
this custom, and made a point of paying my 
devoirs to the heroine of the day in the fore- 
noon, knowing that the most distinguished 
beauties of Attica and Livadia would be assem- 


bled around her at that time. After I had sent 
in my name, a consultation was held by the 
household, and perhaps also by the lady and her 
fair guests, before I was admitted ; but I was 
admitted into the presence^ where I found a bevy 
of mortal houris seated in not ungraceful confu- 
sion on the divans and carpets of a wainscoted 
and latticed chamber, as oriental in its character 
as were the dresses and attitudes of its fair in- 
mates. The scene was one not to be soon for- 
gotten, and the contemplation of it well repaid 
the risk of a pistol-shot, which some of the pal- 
lekars in the suite of Madame Gourrha (wife of 
the Roumeliote Chief of that name, then Go- 
vernor of the Acropolis) seemed disposed to 
bestow upon me as I stalked through them. 
The greetings of the fair assemblage within were 
less hostile in their character, but perhaps not 
less perilous to the intruder. My apologies, in 
which professions of ignorance of the usages of 
the country were curiously mixed up with con- 
fessions of my desire to see assembled together 
the distinguished beauties of Greece, were most 
graciously received, and I was placed in the 


centre of the lovely group, whilst the chibouque, 
coffee, sweets, (to y\vKu,) and water, were succes- 
sively presented to me by the fairest of hands ! 
I might then (fifteen years ago) have been par- 
doned imagining myself for the moment a young 
Pacha, encircled by an exquisitely selected 
Harem ! This innovation upon long-established 
usages was much talked of and criticised at the 
time ; but before many days had passed it was 
generally admitted, even by the benedicts, that 
the adoption of it would be an improvement 
upon the unsocial fashion of the day. In truth, 
it was full time that the ladies of Greece should 
reap some advantages from the national inde- 
pendence, and be released more fully from the 
seclusion which, by the expulsion of the Turks, 
had been rendered unnecessary as a measure of 
protection (alas ! too often had it been found 
inefficient !) to the sanctity of their homes. 

Whilst on this subject, I may, perhaps, be 
excused for recalling another anecdote, which 
may Bet in a stronger light the change which has 
taken place in the national feelings on this head. 

In the early part of 1826, a distinguished 


Roumeliote Chief, Mavrojanni, was married at 
Athens. The marriage was in some sort a 
public one, and the guests were very numerous. 
Among them were, Colonel Fabvier ; Renaud de 
St. Jean d' Angely, who commanded the regular 
cavalry ; Count Porro Lambertenghi, of Milan ; 
and two or three other officers of the regular 
troops : I also was invited. After escorting the 
bride in procession, from the house of her father 
to that of the bridegroom, and assisting at the 
marriage ceremony — or " crowning," {tm^ivejiAM,) 
as it is called, from the circlets or crowns which 
are placed alternately on the heads of the bride 
and bridegroom ; a ceremony which in the Greek 
church is very tedious, but which on this occa- 
sion, being performed in an orange garden, and 
in the midst of a brilliant assemblage, lighted 
up by the rays of a vernal sun, was not found 
so by us — the guests were summoned to par- 
take of a dinner, provided for them by the 
bridegroom. To my amazement, the ladies 
moved off to one side the house, and we were 
marched off in an opposite direction, where we 
devoured our meal unblessed by their presence. 
The dinner was most profuse, and was followed 


by toasts, proposed and drunk pretty nearly 
in the English fashion. The variety of the for- 
mer, and the patriotic tone of the latter were, 
in my eyes, but indifferent compensations for the 
absence of the bright glances which had corus- 
cated among the orange trees in the early part of 
the day ; and I inquired from my neighbour when 
we should ** join the ladies.*' ** Not at all/' said 
he ; *' they are dancing in their quarter, and we 
must drink in ours." 1 doubted the necessity 
of so doing, and, making my escape quietly, 
speedily found myself a spectator of the terpsi- 
chorean feats of the fair Athenians, whose sanc- 
tuary, however, I did not presume to invade, 
remaining confounded with the inquisitive crowd 
which surrounded the entrance. My modesty 
was before long rewarded by an invitation from 
the mistress of the ceremonies, to approach the 
queen of the evening, at whose feet I was 
accordingly installed, chibouque in hand, the 
only male of the numerous assemblage. On the 
carpets near me were sprinkled some very inter- 
esting specimens of Grecian beauty. Whether 
my successful intrusion were reported or not in 
the dining-room I do not remember ; but I had 


not been long settled on my ** carpet of content- 
ment," when Fabvier, Renaud de St. Jean 
d'Angely, and Count Porro, successively made 
their appearance at the gates of the Paradise, and 
were bidden within its precincts. Their example 
was again followed by others, and, before the 
evening concluded, the assemblage became al- 
most as much mixed as an European one ; qua- 
drilles were attempted, and with the assistance 
of one or two of the dames who had visited 
France, even a waltz was perpetrated, to the 
amaze, and almost horror, of their less sophisti- 
cated countrywomen. What is now the esta- 
blished fashion of the day was then an unex- 
ampled innovation ! 

The first day of the Greek Lent fell upon the 
9th instant. It is not distinguished from the 
days which close the carnival otherwise than by 
a general abstinence from animal food, the 
maskers still retaining their carnival attire. It 
is somewhat curious for a Frank,* to see worn as 

* The name iKistowcd indiscriminately upon Europeans not 

94 MASKS. 

masquerade dresses the every-day costume of 
his own country. Among the masks of this 
day, which in general were badly dressed and 
without meaning, I observed one group which 
was by no means deficient in character. It was 
composed of two individuals dressed asEuropeans 
of fashion, attended by a third in the Turkish 
dress, carrying an umbrella, camp-stool, &c. — 
representing two European travellers and their 
dragoman. From time to time the Franks would 
make a halt, take out their portfolios, and be 
seemingly intently occupied in taking a sketch, 
or in drawing the portrait of some one whom 
they would stop for that purpose. Anon they 
would enter into conversation with another of 
the passers by, through the medium of their at- 
tendant, as if themselves ignorant of the country, 
and affecting to be much struck with some re- 
mark or reply, would take out their note-books 
and set it down therein, with an air of infinite 
satisfaction. It was really a good practical sa- 
tire upon the bearing of many European tra- 

About two, P.M., accompanied by my friend 


K , I strolled out of the city in the direction 

of the temple of Jupiter Olympus, in the neigh- 
1)ourhood of which it is customary for the Athe- 
ni«nns to congregate on this day, and to partake 
in pu1)lic of their first Lenten meal. The spec- 
tacle which awaited us was of a most animated 
and interesting character, and distinguished hy 
peculiarities which would in vain be sought for 
elsewhere than on Attic soil. 

The day was brilliantly clear, and the greater 
part of the population of Athens had quitted the 
city, and was collected on the plain around the 
ruins of the temple, along the banks of the Ilis- 
sus, on the Eleusinium, and on the rocky sides of 
the hills which rise abruptly beyond the bed of 
the river. Several thousands of people, of both 
sexes, and of all ages, were thus assembled in a 
sort of natural amphitheatre of about a third of 
a mile in diameter. Some, like ourselves, were 
there merely as spectators ; but by far the greater 
number were active partakers in the occupations 
of the day, which were by no means those of a 
day of fasting. 


Here was to be seen a family group seated in 
a circle on the turf, tranquilly discussing their 
bread and olives, and washing down with wine 
their otherwise abstemious fare ; there was a 
more numerous band, already slightly exhila- 
rated by the juice of the grape, Hnked hand-in- 
hand, and threading the mazes of the albanitika 
— their movements regulated by the simple notes 
of the mandolin, or not unfrequently by the ca- 
dences of their own voices ; hard by, a party of 
a more grave character stood listening to the 
song or recitation of some Homer of modern 
times ; on the outskirts of the assemblage were 
horsemen, both gentle and simple, in point-dc- 


vice European uniform, and in flowing Albanian 
camise and capote, skirring across the plain in 
quest of admiration ; bright eyes glancing from 
many of the groups, and bestowing the desired 
meed ; and a general air of joyousness and con- 
tentment pervading alike among actors and spec- 
tators. Such was the character of the scenes of 
animated life, with which the distant view of the 
Egean and its isles, glowing in sunshine, but 


undimmed by the haze which accompanies in- 
tense heat, was in perfect harmony. Mean- 
while the monuments of the Athens of other 
8gGS, — the silent Stadium, — the stately and 
palm-like columns of the Olympium, — the 
Acropolis, severe in beauty, — were thrown into 
bolder relief by the contrast which their de- 
solate aspect offered to the gay and brilliant 
groups which thronged in their vicinity. 

The King and Queen, with a brilliant suite of 
attendants, among whom was the lovely M adlle. 
Bozzaris, made their appearance on the ground in 
the course of the afternoon, and mingled with 
the crowd, so far as a band of equestrians might 
do so without danger to their neighbours. 
They were greeted from all quarters with accla- 
mations of ** Zmu BjKFiXewf— Z*)Tft; ii B«(r/Xi<r(ra" 

(Long live the King — long live the Queen,) and 
the King accepted the invitation of more than 
one group, to partake of their wine-cup. The 
Queen declined the proffers of the same nature 
which were made to her, but her refusal was 
expressed with so much sweetness as to draw 

VOL. I. H 


forth yet more enthusiastic expressions of loyalty. 
The King wore the Albanian garb, and, with 
hand at the bridle-rein of his fair princess, 
charged the rocky hills beyond the Ilissus as 
became a good pallekar. 



Public Schools — Rev. Mr. Hill and his ladj — Temple of 
Jupiter Oljmpius — Causes of disappearance of ancient 
ruins — Power of those who raised them, and prospects of 
their descendants. 

March lOth to 1 5th. — In company with one or 
two other Englishmen, I have been admitted 
into the schools which are under the direction of 
the Rev. Mr. Hill and his lady. 

The public establishment, in which children are 
educated without charge, is supported by funds 
supplied by the American Missionary Society, 
augmented by the voluntary contributions of 
European Philhellenes. It affords the means of 
gratuitous instruction to about five hundred chit 
dren of the poorer classes. The private establish- 

n 2 


ment is devoted to the education of the children of 
persons in the higher walks of life, who can pay 
for their instruction, and to that of children who 
are brought up at the charge of the Government. 
Of these classes, there are about one hundred and 
twenty, nearly two- thirds of whom are resident in 
thehouse,under the immediate care of the amiable 
directress of the institution. The school-rooms 
of the private establishment exhibited a series of 
gratifying and beautiful pictures of infantine life. 
The pupils are, for the most part, very young 
girls, distinguished, with few exceptions, by an 
air of extreme intelligence and vivacity, and in 
many instances by countenances of singular 
delicacy and beauty. When we were admitted 
into the rooms, they were pursuing their studies 
in classes, and it was evident that their occupa- 
tions were regarded by them rather as an enjoy- 
ment than as a task— a pledge, I should think, 
of future proficiency on the part of the students. 
Having observed that several very young dam- 
sels had produced drawings of no inconsiderable 
merit, as also that the musical pupils were less 
numerous and apparently less advanced in their 


studies, although under the guidance of an ac- 
complished musician, I was tempted to inquire 
whether this difference arose from a preference 
accorded to the former study by the parents, or 
from a peculiar taste for it on the part of the 
pupils, and was informed in reply that, among the 
latter, a decided talent for design is of frequent 
occurrence, whilst a taste or talent for music is 
comparatively rare. Mrs. Hill numbers among 
her pupils the daughters of many of the first 
Greek families of Constantinople, as well as of 
the most distinguished of Greece Proper. The 
names of Kriezis, Mavrocordato, Grivas, &c., fall 
oddly, but pleasingly, on the ear, in this scene 
of youthful loveliness and simplicity. 

The impression which remains with the visitor 
who has the gratification of seeing Mrs. Hill in 
the midst of her flock, is, that she possesses that 
** jewel beyond all price" to the instructress of 
youth — the talent of winning the heart,^ while 
she forms the mind. Madame Tricoupi, who is 
well acquainted with such part of the establish- 
ment as does not admit of the inspection of a 
male visitor, speaks of it as perfect throughout, 


and of its inmates as a happy family, of which 
Mrs. Hill is the centre. 

Besides the public school under the direction 
of Mr. and Mrs. Hill, there is a Greek school 
established by voluntary contributions, and sup- 
ported by subscriptions of the same nature. 
The building devoted to it is spacious and hand- 
some. I have not visited the interior ; but, as 
the entrance to it is immediately opposite to 
my windows, I have had frequent opportunities 
of observing that it is numerously attended. It 
is, I am informed, conducted exclusively by 
Greeks, and extremely well managed. In the 
first instance, it was established as a rival to that 
of the Americans, by parties who were jealous 
of the influence and reputation acquired by 
them ; but so far were they (the Americans) 
from looking upon it in that light, that they 
assisted the conductors of it by every means in 
their power, and eventually gave them teachers 
formed in their own establishment. 

The Rev. Mr. Hill and his lady have since 
supplied the schools in Hydra with teachers, and 
thus may be said to be pouring the blessings of 


education into Greece through a variety of chan- 
nels. I have already remarked, that when they 
first took up their residence at Athens, scarcely 
a house of the modern city had been rebuilt ; the 
commencement of their career of usefulness must 
have been attended with many privations, but 
they have since been compensated by the con- 
sciousness that those privations have not been 
suflcred in vain, and by the respect and approval 
of all those who can or will appreciate the in- 
fluence which the education of the rising gene- 
ration must have upon the fates of the country. 
It is gratifying to know that the youth of Greece, 
both male and female, display as much ardour 
as capacity for the acquisition of knowledge. 

There has hitlierto been little mention made 
in my journal of the monuments of ancient 
Greece, and the objects which usually form the 
leading topic of wanderers in these lands would 
seem to have been neglected by me. Such, how- 
ever, has been by no means the case ; and I can 
safely appeal to Mr. De V. . . , Capt. Wilf. . d, 
and Mr. B. . .n C. . . ke, and claim their testi- 
mony (if ever this work should fall into their 


hands, and the writer be remembered by them) to 
the frequency and fervency of my pilgrimages to 
the shrines of antiquity, many of which, happily 
for me, have been performed in their society. 
The shrine which I have most frequented is that 
of Jupiter Olympius ; my favourite evening 
lounge being among the ruins of the temple de- 
dicated to that deity. To stroll towards them a 
little before sunset became a habit with me when 
I was before in Athens, and it has been renewed 
and confirmed during my present visit. Among 
those who have sojourned in this country, many, 
I doubt not, have accorded the same preference ; 
and those who may follow our example will ad- 
mit that there is good and sufficient reason for it. 
In this climate, the sun rarely sinks below the 
horizon otherwise than in splendour and beauty; 
and there is no spot near Athens from which his 
setting can be contemplated more advantageously 
than from this one: its splendour is enhanced 
by the solemnity of the surrounding objects. The 
worshipper of the departing luminary turns his 
back upon the living city, and sees only the ves- 
tiges of a race whose power and whose ex])loits 


have mingled with the dreams of his boyhood, 
and as his glance ranges from the citadel, in 
which they devoutly worshipped and stoutly 
fought, to the rocky hill which is honeycombed 
with their tombs — from the Phalerum to Salamis, 
and from Salamis to Egina — the shadows of the 
illustrious dead seem to pass dimly before him, 
and the evening breeze, sweeping round the lofty 
columns near which he stands, sounds like a 
solemn dirge. 

If it be objected that there is more of imagi- 
nation than of reality in these inducements to a 
lounge among the remains of the Olympium, I 
must appeal to those who have visited them at 
my favourite hour. Leaving out of the question 
the shadows f (and they are more readily called up 
than ** spirits from the vasty deep,") my descrip- 
tion is mere matter of fact ; for the breeze wails 
and laments among these columns when it is 
scarcely perceptible elsewhere, and in the gloom 
and silence of evening with an effect almost un- 
earthly. The loneliness and stillness of a spot 
where once stood a temple, with the vast extent 
«ind magnificence of which every one is familiar, 


renders the ground holy; and the visitor who 
may have strayed thither merely to cast a glance 
of admiration at the exquisite finish and colossal 
proportions of the columns, finds himself, when 
reposing at their feet, impressed with feelings of 
melancholy, if not of religious awe. As to the 
columns themselves, at whatever hour, and under 
whatever accidents of light and shade they may 
be seen, — in the blaze of noon, and in the pale 
moonlight, — they are always surpassingly beau- 
tiful, and the group is one of the most strilcing 
features in the landscape around Athens. Most 
devoutly is it to be desired that the desecration 
of the immediate vicinity of the temple by the 
construction of any modern buildings should be 
prohibited by the government 1 

It has often been a matter of marvel that of the 
massive walls of the Olympium, and of the other 
104 gigantic columns which decorated its exterior, 
not a fragment should remain. The excavations 
and the pulling down of the ruins, which the re- 
building of the modern city has of late rendered 
necessary, have in a great measure cleared up 
the mystery, by exhibiting fragments of columns. 


capitals and architraves of the most elaborate 
style of workmanship, which had been imbedded 
in the walls of the meanest buildings of the city 
of the middle ages. Similar fragments may still 
be observed in the walls and pavements of the 
churches now in ruins. If the remains of the 
ancient monuments were used for private pur- 
imseSy and in the construction of Christian tem- 
ples with so little ceremony, it is fair to infer 
that they were also applied with a lavish hand to 
the construction of the walls and fortifications, 
which, owing to the ever-changing fates of the 
country, must have required constant repairs, if 
not occasional renewal. It is also notorious that 
it was customary to break up the marble for the 
fabrication of lime. So recently as in the year 
1825, in one of the islands of the Archipelago, (I 
think Naxos,) I saw columns of Parian marble 
broken up for calcination. They were the remains 
of a temple, from which, twenty or thirty years 
previously, many perfect columns had been carried 
off to be used in adorning an adjoining monastery. 
Used as a quarry by successive governments, 
and by private individuals during a series of 


ages, it is not .surprising that these remains 
should at length have disappeared. Many others 
have no doubt undergone the same fate, and, 
under such circumstances, it becomes almost a 
matter of surprise, that in the vicinity of populous 
towns any should have been preserved. The 
Greeks themselves, in the demolition of the mo- 
numents of their progenitors, appear to have 
been, for a time, not less *' barbarous" than their 
oppressors ; and their church, in more senses 
than one, may be said to have been built on the 
ruins of Paganism. But an European traveller 
has borne away the palm from all competitors 
in the work of wanton destruction, as is re- 
corded on a tablet, deposited, together with a 
defaced inscription, at the foot of the Propylaea. 
It is recorded, also, by the '* barbarian" himself, 
who, in his correspondence with the savans of his 
age (reign of Louis XV.), boasts not only of hav- 
ing destroyed inscriptions, but of having effaced 
the remains of several ancient towns, Sparta, Her- 
mione, Traezene, &c., '' Je les ai fait non pas raser 
mais abattre de fond en comble." The reason 
assigned is, ** Je n'avais que ce moyen 1^ pour 


rendre illustre mon voyage." Both Turkish and 
Romaic barbarism sink into insignificance when 
compared with that of him who sought thus to 
render himself ** illustrious" — M. L'Abb^ Four- 

It would appear, however, that the barbarians, 
both native and foreign, of the middle and latter 
ages, entertained either a superstitious dread of 
being the leaders in the work of destruction, or 
a certain respect for the monuments, the beau- 
tiful proportions of which remained uninjured ; 
and under the influence of the one or the other 
feeling, confined their ravages to those which had 
been partially overturned by the barbarians of a 
more remote age, or by the hand of time ! Other- 
wise, why should the very fragments of the 
Olympium have been carried away, whilst other 
monuments of less extensive proportions have 
remained uninjured? In the Acropolis, the 
Erectheum, which was perfect, (saving the rape 
of the Caryatides, by Lord Elgin,) until crushed 
in by a shell during the last siege, offers an 
argument in support of this belief, as does the 
Theseum in the plain below. The Parthenon 


would seem to have remained inviolate until the 
fatal explosion, which overthrew so many of its 
glorious columns during the siege of Morosini. 
The disjointed fragments have remained undis- 
turbed where they fell, having probably been 
exempted from the fate of the ruins of other 
monuments by the peculiar position of the mo- 
nument itself, and by the enormous bulk of the 
materials. The Propylsea, in addition to the 
same causes of preservation, has been protected 
by having been imbedded in the modern defences 
of the citadel. 

On the walls and columns of the Theseum are 
many traces of cannon shot, which are com- 
monly stated to be the effects of attempts made 
by the Turks wantonly to destroy it. I am more 

disposed to ascribe them to the chances of war. 
There are similar traces on the columns of the 

Olympium, which are vulgarly ascribed to the 

same cause as those on the Theseum ; but these 

also, I am inclined to think, have been received 

during some of the many struggles which have 

taken place for the possession of the city. Both 

the platform of masonry on which the Temple of 


Jupiter has been built, and the mound on which 
that of Theseus stands, may very well have been 
chosen as positions, from which the approach to 
the city, in the respective directions, might be 
defended. I do not know whether it has been 
before remarked, that on both these monuments 
are visible the effects of a more mighty agent of 
destruction than any which man can wield, — 
those of an earthquake, or of a succession of 
earthquakes. The blocks, of which the columns 
are composed, are in some of them so far dis- 
placed, that the profile of the column is con- 
verted into a jagged, irregular line ; many of the 
blocks have also been more or less twisted, so 
that the grooves of the flutings do not corre- 
spond with those of the blocks above or below. 
This is much more observable in the columns of 
the Theseum than in those of the Olympium, 
and can only have been produced in either by the 
shock of an earthquake. 

It appears, then, that the convulsions of na- 
ture, as well as the outrages of war, have by 
turns assailed these monuments ; in despite of 
which, and of the corroding touch of time, during 


a lapse of more than twenty centuries, they still 
excite our wonder and admiration, as much by 
perfection of detail as by grandeur of design. 
While seated in their shade, it would be difficult 
to refuse to those by whom they were raised the 
tribute of our veneration, or to dispute the 
veracity of the historians who record their 
prowess ; and we must confess, that works of so 
much grandeur and beauty could have been un- 
dertaken and executed only by a people both 
morally and physically powerful. The contem- 
plation of them will scarcely fail to excite or to 
increase our sympathy in the fates of their de- 
scendants ! 

Give to the latter a fair chance, and they will, 
I doubt not, prove themselves as worthy of their 
illustrious progenitors in the possession of inde- 
pendence, as they have already done in their pro- 
tracted struggle for the acquisition of it. Those 
who vilipend the modern Greek, would do well to 
retrace the history of their own country, whether 
it be England, France, or Germany, and to mark 
therein the slow progress of moral and political 
improvement : with it before their eyes, they will. 


perhaps, become less hasty in the judgments 
they pass upon the inhabitants of this country, 
nor look upon them as irreclaimable, because the 
space of twenty years has not sufficed to realize 
among them visions of Utopian perfection, — 
twenty years, the half of which was spent either 
in a war to the knife with their former op- 
pressors, or in a struggle for political existence, 
amid the intrigues and jealousies of civilized 
Europe. We sympathize with Turkey now, be- 
cause she lies prostrate before a Power more 
formidable than herself, and whose policy is not 


less opposed than her own to the progress of 
civilization ; but it is not to be forgotten that, 
as mistress of Greece, she ruled her unhappy 
vassals with a rod of steel. Held in cruel bond- 
age by a barbarous race, it is marvellous that 
the Greeks did not themselves fall into a state 
of irreclaimable barbarism and ignorance ; and 
it is scarcely less surprising that in the short 
space of time, during which they have enjoyed 
the blessings of peace and of national indepen- 
dence, they should have been able to assume 

VOL. I. I 


among the civilized nations of Europe^ so re- 
spectable a position as that which they now 
occupy. The progress of education, their 
public institutions, their courts of law, and 
their press, vindicate their title to such posi- 
tion I 



Theatre of Ilerodes Atticus — Death of Gourrha — Review of 
present state of the Acropolis, compared witli that of 1826, 
— Propylaai — Temple of Victory — Parthenon — Ercc- 
theum — Galleries of Antiques — Cause of selection of 
Acropolis as site of the Sanctuary. 

I DO not know whether the remarks which I 
have already made respecting the present condi- 
tion of the monuments of ancient Greece, will 
suffice to persuade my readers that I am alive to 
their beauties, or will induce them to grant a 
perusal to my further observations on the sub- 

As it is by no means my intention to play the 
part of a topographer, nor to make an attempt 
at archaiological dissertations, I refer those who 
are desirous of being versed in the topography 
of the ancient city to the valuable work of 



Colonel Leake. Colonel Leake's work has been 
my companion and my guide, both recently and 
in former years, and I have found that the dis- 
coveries which have been made since he was on 
the spot, have served only to demonstrate the 
correctness of the conclusions which he then 
drew. Although by him and by others the 
results of much profound learning and research 
have been applied to the description of the mo- 
numents which remain, and to the elucidation of 
doubts respecting those which have fallen before 
the scythe of the destroyer, or the sacrilegious 
hand of the barbarian, I may perhaps, without 
laying myself open to the charge of presump- 
tion, be permitted to offer some observations as 
to the present state of the former, more espe- 
cially as compared with that in which they were 
found by them: the changes which are to be 
remarked, are more or less the consequence of 
the political vicissitudes which have taken place 
during the interval. 

These observations I will transcribe nearly 
verbatim from my journal. They were intended 
for the perusal of a friend, to whom the descrip- 


tibns of Colonel Leake are familiar ; my reader is 
probably equally well acquainted with those 
descriptions, and he will, I trust, permit me to 
consider him also as friend for the while, and 
grant me his pardon both for the freedom of the 
tone in which I address him, and for the autho- 
rity of cicerone which I assume* 

First, then, let us visit that cynosure of all 
ages, the Acropolis. 

As we approach Ihe citadel from the southi 
we are struck by the dilapidated condition of the 
walls of the Theatre of Herodes Atticus, which 
during the last siege by the Turks suffered 
severely from the fire of a battery established 
by them on the hill of Philopapus. The theatre 
has been literally ** peppered" with shot, and its 
south-west angle has evidently been shaken to 
its base. Within the theatre was a favourite 
outwork of Gourrha, and he received his death- 
wound whilst visiting it during the night. He 
imprudently fired a shot at one of the Turkish 
outposts, and the flash of his own piece guided 
the reply from that which was fatal to him ; the 
shot, I am told, was accompanied by a shrill cry 
of, •'For Gourrha!" 


As we climb the tortuous path which leads 
towards the Propylsea, the battered condition of 
the outworks raises melancholy anticipations as 
to th^ state of the monuments on the summit of 
the hill. As regards the Propylaea, these anti- 
cipations will be in part realized ; but when we 
first stand at the foot of the rocky ascent to that 

** most glorious of gates,*' we are too deeply 
impressed with admiration to mark the ravages 
which have been made on 'the columns by the 
shot of the besiegers. Such, indeed, is their 
massiveness and solidity that the injury inflicted 
is but superficial, and until brought to light by 
a nearer approach, is lost in the grandeur of 
their proportions. The iron shower has rained 
heavily, but almost idly^ upon this magnificent 
monument ! It is now entirely cleared of the 
rude ujasonry which, in 1826, blocked up the 
entrances, and in great part concealed the co- 
lumns, and stands forth in severe majesty and 
eiroplicity, to command the veneration of all who 
approach it* The solidity of the structure sup- 
port9 the theory which supposes the Propylaea to 
have been intended as a defence, as well as an 
ornament, to the ^cropolis — a theory which is 


borne out also by the manner in which the 
ancient approaches to it have been carried across 
the face of the hill. 

To the right of the Propyleeai (to our right as 
we ascend towards the entrance,) is the square 
marble tower assigned to the Venetians; but 
probably of a much earlier date than their domi- 
nation ; in which the Ulysses {oiu^^ws) of the 
revolution was confined by the government of 
the day, and from the summit of which he was 
either fiung, or fell in an attempt to effect his 

This tower id now commonly called the Tower 
of Ulysses. The body of that chieftain, cele- 
brated both for good and for evil, (vide Poucque- 
ville and others,) but perhaps more for the 
former^ was found lifeless at its foot, about the 
time when an attempt was made to g^in posses- 
sion of his fortified cave, in Mount Parnassus, 
through the assassination of his friend, Mr. Tre- 
lawney. A broken cord was attached to the 
body, and a rumour was circulated by hid qiion* 
dam friend and follower, Gourrha, that he had 
fallen when attempting to escape ; but marks of 


Strangulation about his neck, and otheif indica- 
tions of a mortal struggle, led to a conclusion 
that he had been slain first, and then thrown 
down from the top of the tower. It was ru- 
moured in Athens, at the time, that a messenger 
from Northern Greece had brought to the Acro- 
polis, the day previous, a divided orange or 
pomegranate, and that this mysterious token in- 
dicated that the capture of the stronghold of the 
imprisoned chieftain was assured to those impli- 
cated in the conspiracy against his friend Tre- 
lawney. The tower being within the fortifica- 
tions of the Acropolis, his escape from it would 
by no means have assured his liberty. 

Considerably in advance of thiSi on a platform 
of ancient masonry, is the exquisitely beautiful 
little Temple of Victory without wings (NixfJ 
avri^)i which was seen and described by Po- 
cocke; but was afterwards thrown down and 
remained hidden from subsequent travellers. 
The columns and capitals and the materials of 
the Cella were found embedded among the rude 
works of defence constructed around the plat- 
form upon which the temple had stood, and upon 


which^ thanks to the restoring care of the pre- 
sent government, it now again stands. They 
have suffered comparatively little during the 
vicissitudes to which they have been subjected ; 
from which circumstance it may be inferred that 
the soldier, who found the demolition of the 
temple to be necessary for the completion of 
the defences of his stronghold, was not insen- 
sible to its beauty, and looked forward to the 
possibility of its re-erection. At all events 
it is pleasing to suppose that such a feeling 
existed in an age of barbarism ! Had not this 
beautiful fabric been for a while entombed, the 
slender and graceful columns with which it is 
adorned, as well as the walls of the Cella, must 
have been broken to pieces by the shot which 
rebounded idly from the Propylsea. 

The Venetian tower, and a lofty pedestal of 
marble which stands in advance of the left wing 
of the Propylsea, have been battered with shot as 
furiously as the angle of the Theatre of Herodes, 
and it is a matter of surprise that they have not 
both fallen. As they are built in a style which 
is by no means in harmony with that of their 


mighty neighbouri their fall would scarcely have 
been regretted. 

As we ascend to the Propylsea^ we cannot fail 
to remark broad and deep traces of wheels on 
the rock on which we tread, nor to feel surprised 
that chariots should have been driven up such 
an acclivity ; however adventurous may be the 
charioteers of modern days, they would shrink 
from the attempt. These traces terminate at a 
short distance below the gateway, where the 
precipitous rock has probably been covered with 
steps of marble* Passing onwards, we tread 
* upon the pavement which has echoed to the foot- 
steps of the heroes of our youthful reveries ; and 
within the Propylsea find pedestals ranged on 
either side of our path, which we may suppose 
to have supported statues dedicated to them. 
The statues are no longer there, and the pedestals 
were hidden during many centuries. It is to be 
regretted that this assemblage, so admirably cal- 
culated to exalt the patriotism and devotion of 
those who were on their way to offer their 
trophies and their thanksgivings to the blue- 
eyed Protectress of the State, should not have 


been preserved for the admiration of after 

Ascending towards the Parthenon, we continue 
to tread on the veritable platform of the Acro- 
polis, which, between the Propylsea and the 
Temple, and also along the greater part of the 
northern side of the latter, has been relieved 
from the mean constructions and from the accu- 
mulation of soil and fragments with which a few 
years ago it was encumbered to the height of 
several feet. You will observe that a numerous 
gang of labourers are now actively employed in 
the prosecution of this ** good work," and that 
they exercise infinite care while carrying on their 
excavations among the pile of immense frag- 
ments which were projected beyond the basement 
of the temple by the fatal explosion of 1687. 
Among these are many precious morceaux of the 
frieze and metopes. 

However long we might linger among the 
ruins of this most majestic and beautiful of 
temples, I should expect you to pronounce our 
stay far too brief, and should be much disap- 
pointed if you did not declare that no description 


has yet done justice to its grandeur and beauty. 
In any anathema you might utter against the 
builders of the unsightly structure, by turns 
mosque and church » which cumbers the precinct 
of the holy of holies, I should most heartily 
sympathize ; and not less so in any tribute of 
admiration, however extravagant, you might be 
disposed to offer to the lordly citizen in whose 
brain the beauteous fabric first was reared. 

Before turning away from the Parthenon, I 
should point out to you a broad space near to its 
south-east angle, covered with huge half-hewn 
masses of marble, and with unfinished columns 
of the same dimensions as those of the temple, 
which lie confusedly together, as if the work- 
men employed in fashioning them had just 
quitted their labours. The ground in the vici- 
nity is strewn with the fragments which have 
been struck off from them. The adjoining base- 
ment of a temple, or other extensive building, 
which the workmen are at this time occupied in 
clearing, might perhaps assist our speculations 
as to the uses to which they were destined ; but 
those in which we might indulge as to the means 


used for conveying blocks of such weight and 
size from the bowels of the mount Pentelicus to 
the summit of the hill of the Acropolis, must, of 
necessity, be very inconclusive. I should then 
lead you to the Erectheum. 

After allowing you to decide, if possible, to 
your satisfaction, to which deity each of the 
several compartments of this triple temple has 
been dedicated, and what part of it has been 
shaded by the sacred olive of Minerva, or watered 
by the fountain of Neptune, I should call your 
attention to the melancholy catastrophe which 
has converted the northern portico (to use the 
nomenclature of Leake) into a heap of ruins. 
When I was last here, it was in a more perfect 
state of preservation than any other monument 
of the Acropolis^ which was perhaps owing as 
much to its exquisite beauty as to the causes 
suggested in the preceding chapter. An exami- 
nation of the Ionic capitals, and of the broken 
cornices which protrude themselves from among 
the ruins, will enable you to form an adequate 
estimate of the extreme delicacy of its details. 
As specimens of the power of the chisel, and of 

126 BR£CTH£UM. 

the ductility of marble, they are excelled only by 
the works of the statuaries of the same age. It 
is the intention of government to attempt to re- 
store this beautiful little temple ; and as it seems 
to have been borne dowaby the weight suddenly 
added to that of the other objects laid upon the 
roof for its protection, rather than to have been 
dissevered by the explosion of the shell, it is 
probable that its restoration will be fully as ef- 
fective as that of the Temple of Victory. Such 
a consummation would have been utterly unat- 
tainable, had it been applied by the Greeks to 
the same uses to which it was devoted by the 
Turks. The latter, notwithstanding the warning 
given by the explosion of the powder magazine 
in the Parthenon, had converted it into a store- 
house of the same description. At the time of 
its fall, the widow of Gourrha, her children, her 
servants, and several of her friends, had sought 
in it a refuge from the fire of the besiegers, and 
were crushed to death in its ruins. I was much 
struck by a remark as to their fate, made to me 
by a Greek of the old school, who had been one 
of the followers of Gourrha — ** Gourrha be- 

RELICS. 127 

trayed the man whose bread he had eaten, and 
himself and his family paid the forfeit of his 

In my double capacity of cicerone and quon- 
dam Philhellene, I should point out to you the 
ruins of some buildings which were the residence 
of this fair victim, when, in the zenith of her hus- 
band's power and of her own youth and beauty, 
she was in some sort the queen of Athens ; and 
I should not fail to tell you that within those 
now desolate walls I have been welcomed with 
coffee and sweetmeats from her fair hands. 

In the same twofold character I should call 
your attention to that pile of human sculls and 
bones, which our veteran guide will tell us are 
the remains of those who have fallen in de- 
fence of the citadel, assuring us that within that 
narrow space more than fifteen hundred of the 
former are collected. It will probably suggest 
itself to you, that these relics ought before now 
to have been honoured with a grave or a trophy, 
or with both ; our guide, however, will inform 
us that they are destined to bleach in the wind 
and sun until the pile be completed, by the addi- 

128 RELICS. 

tion of those which yet lie scattered among the 
rubbish on the uncleared part of the platform. 
The remains of Greek and Turk, of Christian 
and Mussulman, will then be deposited in the 
same sepulchre. The clearance of the platform 
will necessarily be a work of time, the accumu- 
lated mass on its surface being in some places 
from eight to ten feet in depth, and rarely less 
than six ; it is a mixture of soil, stones, bricks, 
fragments of earthenware, cement, and sculptured 
marble, among which are interspersed human 
bones, and shot and shells of enormous size — a 
melancholy illustration of the history of the spot. 
If curious in such matters, you may remark that 
many of the sculls are distinguished by the lofty 
Roumeliote forehead, and that not a few bear 
traces of the wound by which the ** human* 
capital and column" were laid prostrate among 
the ruins of loftier but less wondrous fabrics. 

With or without ray guidance, you will, with- 
out fail, be conducted into the vaults of the 
Casemates, which now serve as deposits for the 
fragments of sculpture which are discovered in 
clearing away the above accumulation ; as also 

RELICS. 129 

to the ex-mosque of the Parthenon, and a spa- 
cious chamber attached to the north wing of the 
Propylaea, which are applied to the same uses. 
The latter, if I mistake not, was used as a poecile, 
or gallery, when visited by Pausanias. 

In these temporary galleries of sculpture you 
will find many specimens of almost ideal beauty, 
at the head of which by many is placed a basso- 
relievo of Victory (winged), in the act of loosening 
or fastening her sandal. The head and such part 
of the bust as is not covered by the drapery, are 
** breathingly" beautiful, and the drapery itself 
seems to flutter in the breeze ; but it is difficult 
to bestow the palm, when it is contended for by 
a crowd of claimants of indisputable merit. 
Some of the recently-discovered fragments of the 
frieze of the Parthenon, representing the Pana- 
thenaic procession, are so highly finished that 
they might be supposed to have been destined for 
microscopic observation, rather than for the de- 
coration of a part of the building so far above the 
level of the spectator. The same remark may, 
with equal justice, be made as to the Metopes of 

VOL. 1. K 

130 RELICS. 

the same building, which have been disentombed 
during the progress of the excavations on the 
northern side of the temple. The veins and 
muscles of the horses seem to quiver under the 
eyes of the examiner. It is almost superfluous to 
point out that the extreme delicacy of the details, 
which a close examination discloses, does not in 
any way detract from their vigour of effect, 
when contemplated at a distance. A very small 
portion of such of the bassi-rilievi as have been 
mutilated, suffices to bring before you the story 
which the group when complete has told. 

In these museums, are also preserved various 
other objects which have been brought to light 
by the excavations around the Parthenon : vases 
of terra-cotta and of glass ; armour, arms, and 
ornaments of bronze; sculls, reputed to be 
Hellenic, &c. Among the vases are several of 
peculiar form and of singular beauty, and the 
collection altogether is highly interesting, as 
connected with the history of the surrounding 
localities, although as yet in a very confused 
state, and but insignificant in point of extent, 

RELICS. 131 

when compared with others which exist in 
European* capitals. Among the relics which 
have been collected from the ruins of the temple 
are numerous small blocks or wedges of cedar- 
wood, which have been used instead of metal to 
bind together the masses of which the columns 
are composed; they are still perfectly solid, 
though somewhat shrunken from their original 
shape and dimensions, probably since the pros- 
tration of the columns has exposed them more 
or less to the action of the atmosphere. Tn one 
of the casemates, an Italian artist is busied in 
preparing a caryatid of marble, to replace that 
which was carried away by Lord Elgin. Allow- 
ing you to make what reflections you please 
on the delegation of this duty to an Italian, in 
the very studio of Phidias, I should point out to 
you how much the southern portico of the Erec- 
theum is disfigured by the plaster column, which 
for the present occupies the post of the fugitive 

♦ I have to apologize if, here and elsewhere, I speak of 
Athens or Greece, as distinct from Europe. This distinction 
has, of course, reference only to the Asiatic character of its in- 

K 2 

132 RELICS. 

lady. You will also remark how grievously the 
south-west angle of the Parthenon is defaced 1)y 
the absence of the metopes carried away at the 
same time, and by the traces of the violence 
used in the abstraction of them ; and, however 
charitably disposed you may have been towards 
the ** Pict" and his motives, before contem- 
plating these monuments, on quitting them you 
will scarcely fail to class him with those barba- 
rians, from whose destroying hand he professed 
to rescue the treasures which he bore away to 
his OMHi land. 

It should, however, in justice, be remarked, 
that probably at the time he carried them away 
he was justified in believing that he did so rescue 
them. Whether the expediency of destroying 
the Hellenic monuments had then been dis- 
cussed by the Turks, I know not ; but not very 
long afterwards, the destruction of them was 
certainly contemplated as a means of rendering 
the Greeks less mindful of the power and inde- 
pendence of their progenitors. I have been 
asked more than once by Greeks, whether it be 


not the intention of the British Government to 
restore them ! 

Before leaving the Acropolis » I should point 
out to you a passage hewn out of the rock, 
which led down, from the interior of the citadel, 
to the Agraulium, the discovery of which illus- 
trates several incidents of Athenian history. I 
should also invite you to ascend the winding 
staircase, constructed within the south-west 
angle of the portico of the Parthenon, and lead- 
ing out upon its roof, whence you will command 
a magnificent and extensive view, which em- 
braces a great portion of Attica, many of the 
islands beyond its southern promontory, the 
isles and opposite coasts of the Saronic Gulf, 
the Plain of Athens, Hymettus, Pentelicus, 
Pames, &c. As the view from this point is unin- 
terrupted in every direction, it is probable that the 
staircase had been constructed during the lower 
ages to serve the purposes of a watch-tower. 
Tlie external masonry is of Pentelican marble, 
and is well put together, from which it may be 
inferred that it is the work of an artist who was 
not insensible to the vandalism of making any 

134 RELICS. 

addition to the sacred fabric, and was desirous of 
rendering his work as unobtrusive as might be. 
It is evidently of a far earlier date than any of 
the modern buildings of the Acropolis, excepting 
only the Tower of Ulysses. The buildings raised 
by the Turks were invariably of the rudest ma- 
terials and workmanship, planned and executed 
without reference to their incongruity with the 
beautiful monuments around them. The church, 
or mosque, in the interior of the Parthenon, 
which is quite of this character, is destined to be 
removed altogether. 

If the beauty of surrounding objects enhance 
our feelings of devotion, no spot could be more 
judiciously selected for the site of a temple than 
that on which the Parthenon stands ; and you 
will probably ascribe to some impression of this 
nature, prevailing alike with the refined, and 
with the barbarian lords of the city below, both 
its first selection as a ** high place'* by those 
who transported hither the worship of the blue^ 
eyed goddess from the banks of the Nile,* and 

* From Sais, where she was worshipped with great devo- 
tion under the name of Neth or Neith, NH9. 

RELICS. 135 

the alternate adoption of it» in the same capacity, 
by the worshippers of the true Jehovah, and by 
the followers of Mahomet. 

It would be ungracious for lovers of the an- 
tique and beautiful to turn away from the Acro- 
polis, without expressing their admiration of the 
exertions made by the present government to 
free this hallowed spot ffom the accumulations 
by which so many of its beauties have been con- 
cealed during a series of ages. The progress 
made may have been somewhat slow, but in ap- 
preciating what has been done, and what is now 
doing, for the attainment of this object, it must 
not be forgotten that the means which the 
government has at its disposal are very limited, 
and the claims upon it very numerous. 



Temple of Theseus — Areopagus — Pnyx — Monument of Plii- 
lopapus — Turkish batteries — Ilissus — Long walls and 
defences of the three liarbours — Temple of the Winds — 
Agora — Street of Kings — Lantern of Demosthenes — State 
of the streets and buildings of modern Athens — Site 
chosen unfavourable to further discoveries of remains of 

FuoM the citadel, I should conduct you to the 
Temple of Theseus, the inspection of which will 
interest you almost as deeply as that of the Par- 
thenon. The shrine of the hero of Paganism, 
at the time I last visited it, was consecrated to 
one of the heroes of Christianity — to St. George. 
This monument, in which severe simplicity and 
beauty are so happily blended, has withstood (as 
before observed) the shocks of earthquakes and 
the outrages of war, and is still in a compara- 
tively perfect state. It is now used as a gallery 


of sculpture, and you will remark therein several 
figures and groups, the perfection of which bears 
witness to their being the production of the 
golden age of the art, whilst others are not less 
evidently of a date greatly anterior to it, approxi- 
mating very much in their outline and attitudes 
to those of Egyptian creation. The gallery is rich 
also in inscriptions of high historical interest, 
among which are to be observed, lists of the 
citizens who fell in some of the most celebrated 
battles of the republic. 

From the Temple of Theseus it would be well 
to retrace our steps towards the Acropolis, and 
to ascend the hill of the Areopagus as far as the 
Grotto of the Furies. Clambering over some 
masses of rock, the disruption of which from 
the parent hill has laid open the inmost recesses 
of the cavern, we shall have no difficulty in ap- 
proaching the •• dark waters" within. Thence 
we will pass round to the southern side of the 
hill, and reach its summit by the staircase, 
which, of old, was reserved for the members of 
that inflexible and mysterious tribunal which sat 
and judged only in darkness. The staircase, 


being hewn out of the body of the rock^ remains 
unchanged. Not so the summit of the hill, on 
which are now strewn the remains of a battery, 
or earthwork, thrown up during the last siege. 

Notwithstanding this change in its aspect, we 
certainly shall not quit the spot without calling 
to mind, that from it the great Apostle of Chris- 
tianity declared unto the Athenians who was the 
unknovm Qod whom they ignorantly worshipped, 
and told them, in a discourse glowing scarcely 
less with the poetical influence of the surround- 
ing objects than with the divine inspiration of 
his mission, that ^'he dwelleth not in temples 
made with hands." To tell the Athenians this^ 
when in the midst of their beautiful and beloved 
fanes, was a duty, from the performance of 
which the hardy soldier might have shrunk 
back, but from which the Apostle of Truth did 
not recoil. 

Descending from the hill of Mars, I should 
direct your steps towards Mount Lycabettus, 
(sec. Leake,) more commonly known as the Hill 
of Philopapus, and Crossing the valley, where 
once stood a populous quarter of the city, and 

THE PNYX. 139 

where now is the promise of a rich crop of grain, 
I should lead you to the Cyclopean wall, beneath 
tlie Pnyx. As this work has been but little 
noticed by those who have described the situa- 
tion of the Pnyx, I should point out to you that 
it has been carried from one rocky side of a 
ravine to another, in order that the hollow be- 
neath that monument might be filled up and 
converted into a semi-circular plain, slightly 
rising towards its outward boundary, and so as 
to permit the assemblage of a numerous audi- 
ence in close proximity with the orator. It 
would scarcely be necessary for me to call your 
attention to the unwieldy proportions of the 
roughly-fashioned blocks of which the wall is 
composed : laid together without cement, their 
immense weight has sufficed to preserve them 
in sullen stability, whilst cities and temples 
have risen and fallen around them, and will pro- 
bably so preserve them until the grand consum- 
mation of all things. The Pnyx itself is equally 
unchanged ; hewn out of an elevated portion of 
the rocky ridge, the BT}/[xa, with the steps or seats 
by which it is encircled, save in the accessories 
of the orator and his entranced auditory, wears 

140 TUB PNYX. 

the same aspect, '^ simple and severe/' as in the 
days of Demosthenes. It is turned towards the 
city, of which, of the Acropolis, and of the plain 
of Athens, with the mountains beyond, it com- 
mands an admirable view. On the reverse side 
of the ridge, but at a very short distance, is an- 
other Bvipia, also hewn out of the rock, which has 
been partially destroyed. The latter looks to- 
wards the Phalerum, commanding a view of Sa- 
lamis and the Egean. The two may have been 
used, as it suited the purpose of the orator, to 
awake either the naval or military reminiscences 
of his audience, or, as is more probable, they 
may have belonged to different epochs of 
Athenian history.* 

At a short distance from the Pnyx, we shall 
find a small ruined chapel, which occupies the 
site of an ancient postern, and during the last 
siege was occupied as an advanced work by the 
Turks. A few minutes walk thence, along the 
cityward face of Mount Lycabettus, will bring us 
to the chambers excavated in the rock, which 

* Plutarch, in liis life of Thomistoclcs, states that tlio 
Bi}/itt was originally built to front towards tlic scu, and by the 
Tliirty Tyrants turned towards tlic land. 


are styled the prison of Socrates. Issuing from 
the gate, we can visit, in an equally short space 
of time, the spacious tomb in which the illus- 
trious victor of the Olympic games and his 

favourite horses were buried, and pursuing 


our walk to some distance, we shall find, in the 
seaward face of the same mount, other repo- 
sitories for the dead, some of which are simple 
excavations in the rock for the reception of one 
body, and others excavated chambers of ample 
dimensions, in which several may have been de- 
posited. On the hills adjoining, which slope 
gently towards the sea, you will observe terraces 
formed in the rock, and excavations evidently 
made to receive the foundations of buildings ; 
also cisterns, many of them very spacious, hol- 
lowed out of the rock ; these vestiges being very 
numerous, and scattered over a wide surface, 
will lead yoii to infer that a crowded extra-mural 
population has existed in this quarter. 

Retracing our steps to the ruined chapel, we 
can thence follow the walls of the city as far as 
the monument of Philopapus, observing, by the 
way, that the line of defence of the ancient city 
was converted by the Turks into a line of offence 


against the Acropolis. The same circumstance 
would strike you if we traced the line of the 
walls on the crest of the hills in the opposite 
direction, towards the temple of Theseus, the 
remains of the Turkish batteries being very evi- 
dent also on that side of the citadel. As the 
monument of Philopapus crowns the summit of 
the hill, it became the centre of the most for- 
midable of the batteries thrown up by the Turks, 
and has, in consequence, suffered greatly from 
the fire of the besieged. The shot has literally 
rained upon it, and the dimensions of the blocks 
of marble, of which it is composed, alone have 
preserved it from entire destruction. As it is, 
the solidity of the monument has been shaken, 
and its dimensions are considerably reduced from 
what they were some years ago — a circumstance 
which is to be regretted rather because, owing to 
its situation, it forms one of the peculiar features 
of Athenian landscape, than because it possesses 
any intrinsic architectural merit. 

From the summit of the hill, acting as your 
guide, I should follow the line of the ancient 
walls and of the Turkish trenches, down its pre- 
cipitous flank, and across the plain below, as 


far as the banks of the Ilissus. Your fur- 
ther progress to the northward and westward, 
which would include the Olympium, the Arch of 
Hadrian, the Stadium, and perhaps the classic 
grounds (no longer shades) of the Lyceum and 
Academy, would be pursued more profitably 
under the exclusive guidance of Colonel Leake 
than under mine, no change either for better or 
for worse having been wrought therein by recent 
events. If, on reaching the banks of the Ilissus, 
you had expressed your surprise at the miserable 
dearth of water in the bed of a river so celebrated 
by the city poets, and your indignation at their 
misrepresentations respecting it, I should volun- 
teer my guidance as far as the Fountain of Cal- 
lirhoe, in order to be assured that you did not 
pass unnoticed the traces which the rocks above 
retain of the passage of a powerful stream of 
water over them. The poets are not to be held 
responsible if the waters by which they loved to 
wander, and whose delicious coolness they sung, 
have either been allured from their native bed 
for the purposes of husbandry, or affrighted from 
it by some convulsion of nature. My last act 


of ciceroneship in this quarter, would be to call 
your attention to the stone-quarries on the sides 
of Mount Anchesmus, and to claim your concur- 
rence in the ban which I should pronounce 
against those who have thus rudely invaded the 
beauty, if not the identity, of that classic hill, by 
destroying the graceful outline of its base. 

This sketch of my progress as a cicerone may 
have been found somewhat tedious, and there- 
fore, as regards the monuments within the limits 
of the modern city, I shall' confine myself to 
merely noting down the discoveries or changes 
which have been effected of late years. 

First, however, let me recommend to those 
who are desirous of appreciating the power and 
enterprise of the ancient Athenians, not to con- 
fine their researches to the limits of the city, 
ancient or modern, but to direct them to the 
walls which united the city with the Piraeus, and 
to those by which that port, and the adjacent 
harbours and promontories, were defended. Of 
the former, the remains are but insignificant, 
except in the immediate neighbourhood of the 
Piraeus ; but enough still exists near to that port 


to demonstrate the strength and solidity of the 
work. The latter are in a much better state of 
preservation, and, commencing operations at the 
north tower of the Phalerum, it is a task of not 
very difficult accomplishment to trace them 
throughout their full extent. The wall which 
connected the defences of Port Phalerum with the 
southernmost (or Phaleric) of the long walls may 
be followed without difficulty to the point where 
the junction took place. The sea-walls of the 
port itself, and the towers by which the entrance 
was protected, are yet above the level of the sea, 
and the seaward defences on the hill above, 
which, following the line of coast, connect the 
fortifications of the Phalerum with those of Port 
Munychia, although much dilapidated, are easily 
to be traced. Crossing the neck of Port Muny- 
chia, and following the shore of the Promontory 
of Alcimus, the wall and the towers by which it 
has been defended will be found in a much better 
state of preservation. They have been con- 
structed of large hewn blocks of stone, several 
layers of which, with occasional interruptions, 
have remained undisturbed throughout the whole 

VOL. I. L 


length of the wall. No cement has been used 
in putting them together, but the masonry is 
excellent; and if the walls had been attacked 
only by time, the solidity of the materials would 
probably have preserved them in nearly the same 
state as they are described to have been in the 
time of Thucydides. In breadth and style of 
construction, the remains correspond with his 
description. The towers are of frequent occur- 
rence throughout the whole line, which, follow- 
ing the irregularities of the coast to the entrance 
of Port Piraeus, completes and connects the de- 
fences of the three ports. It is computed that 
from the north point of the Phalerum to the 
entrance of Port Piraeus, the length of the wall is 
about seven miles, or sixty stadia. The length 
of the long walls conjointly was seventy-five 
stadia ; the northern one, or Pieraic, being forty 
stadia, and the southern, or Phaleric, thirty-five 
stadia. Looking at the extent of these accessories 
to the defences of the city, and having in view 
the solidity and masterly style of their construc- 
tion, and the disregard to obstacles of every 
description with which the seaward portion of 


them has been carried perseveringly along the 
line of coast, we cannot fail to draw conclusions 
favourable to the energy and enterprise of the 
citizens, which we may have been previously 
disposed to think were lavished to an undue 
extent on their temples and their theatres. 

In appreciating these works as monuments of 
the power of the AthenianSi it should not be lo3t 
sight of that they were erected in haste, and at 
a time when the resources and population of the 
state were comparatively exhausted by the recent 
irruption of the Persians. They are also lasting 
monuments of their ingratitude towards him 
who, scarcely less by his skilful diplomacy than 
by his naval and military exploits, had vindicated 
his right to be styled the saviour of his country. 
I scarcely need remind my readers that they were 
constructed by the counsel of Themistocles. 

On the enclosed promontories may be ob- 
served several quarries, from which' the materials 
for the walls have doubtless been taken/ as also 
the remains of two theatres, and other indica-^ 
tions that a numerous population has at one 
time been collected upon them. 



Praying pardoD for this digression, I return to 
the monuments within the limits of the modern 

An excavation has been made round the 
Tower of Titua Andronicus, commonly called 
the Temple of the Winds, by which the base- 
ment of that building, as well as a portion of the 
aqueduct by which the Cie|^ydra within it was 
supplied, has been laid open to the inspection of 
the antiquarian. 

The Gate of the Agora has been cleared in the 
same manner, and the ancient pavement in its 
vicinity laid bare. Many other portions of the 
Agora, which had been blocked up and con- 
cealed by Turkish buildings, have also been 
brought to light ; and in various other parts of 
th« dty have been discovered walla and fouoda- 
tiona of ancient buildings, whidi will much assist 
ftiture visitors in their researdies reqiectiog the 
topogn^y of the Hellenic dty. ' 

The exact line of die Stre^ of Kings or of ' 

Heioet, vrttidi led from die Agon to the Temple ^ 
«rilMMw.lMa beaaiBdHatedbrthe£soDveTy *' 
t of the statues by which it waaoraamented. ^ 



The statue is that of Erichthonius. It is of 
colossal dimensions, and is more remarkable on 
that account than for expression or high finish. 
On a casual glance^ its attitude appears to be 
that of kneeling ; but further inspection will 
shew that the limbs from the knee downwards 
terminate in fins, which are doubled up behind. 
This statue was brought to light by the demoli- 
tion of a Turkish house, of which it formed the 
principal support, being the centre where the 
four main walls of the building met. The line 
of the street is still encumbered with the ruins 
of houses, among which, besides the above 
statue and its pedestal, two pedestals suitable for 
statues of similar dimensions have been released 
from their modem superstructure of brick and 
mortar. As they are in a line with the statue 
of Erichthonius, and at equal distances from it ; 
they sufficiently indicate the direction of the 
street, and of the goodly array of heroes by 
which this approach to the temple of a hero was 

The convent adjoining the Choragic monu- 
ment of Lysicrates, more commonly known as 


the Lantern of Demosthenes^ has been left in a 
very ruinous state by the vicissitudes of the late 
wars, but that delicate monument has happily 
escaped uninjured. 

The hollow of the hill of the Acropolis, in or 
against which the great theatre of the Odeum 
was constructed, has been in some measure dis- 
figured by the rubbish thrown down from the 
citadel ; but it will nevertheless be a work of no 
great difficulty to clear the original site of that 
monument. The sweep of the upper seats, 
which are formed out of the rock, together with 
the indentation of the hill below, suffice to indi- 
cate to the visiter who clambers to its summit 
the vast extent of this theatre. The Odeum 
is, in fact, at a considerable distance from the 
modern city; but as a military hospital has 
been built in the plain immediately below^it, it 
may be considered as virtually within its limits ; 
at least, sufficiently so to excuse my mention of 
it in this place. 

The specimens and fragments of statuary and 
sculpture which have been brought to light by 
the removal of ruins actually within the Jimits of 


the city are very numerous ; they already crowd 
the temporary galleries before alluded to, and 
hold out the promise of a museum of unrivalled 
interest. Besides these objects of intrinsic ex- 
cellence, are daily discovered others, which are 
chiefly valuable as having formed parts of monu- 
ments which no longer exist, and as illustrating 
their fate, — I mean, the portions of columns, 
architraves^ &c», of Pentelican marble, which 
are found enclosed in buildings formed of the 
roughest materials, or laid down as the founda- 
tion stones of houses and churches. Hellenic 
foundations and portions of walls are also 
brought to light from day to day. 

Those who build on the site to be occupied by 
the modern city are bound to make known, in an 
appointed quarter, any discoveries of ancient 
foundations, or of works of art, which may be 
made whilst clearing away the ruins preparatory 
to building. They are also under obligation to 
build after a plan which has been laid down by 
government architects, for the streets and squares 
of the new town. 

The present aspect of Athens is more pic- 

0%, •' ^« I - ■ 

;;;.152 ANT1QUITIB8. 

turesque than beautiful. The street of Hermes, 
(i Ubf ToD '%fAo5|) which intersects the city, east and 
westi running in a right line from the palace to- 
wards the road to the Piraeus, is the only street 
which has yet been brought into regular form, and 
even its * sides are not quite cleared from houses 
in ruins. The other streets, which have been 
laid down in the government plans, are all more 
or less incomplete ; and a ramble through the 
city, in any direction, must be pursued through 
a confused assemblage of well-built houses of 
recent construction, of miserable hovels raised 
among the ruins of former habitations, for the 
purposes of temporary shelter, and of ruined 
churches and houses, the desolation of which has 
not yet been intruded upon by the present inha- 
bitants. In the midst of the latter you may fre- 
quently observe some half-buried column or 
massive fragment of antique wall or foundation, 
thrown into bolder relief by the mean and insig- 
ni^cant proportions of the remains strewn 
around them. This anomalous association of 
two epochs of the past with a present so 
widely different from both, is a peculiarity which 


will awake the imagination of the least specu- 

The ruins of the Athens of the last century 
willy in all probability, entirely disappear before* 
many years are gone by ; for the present inha- 
bitants raise up houses with a rapidity which 
would seem almost fabulous. It is to be feared, 
however, that many vestiges of the ancient city 
will, at the same time, be irrecoverably buried. 
TTiere is, it is true, a prohibition on the part of 
the government against building where such ves- 
tiges are discovered ; but the interest and con- 
venience of those who build, and the superficial 
nature of the excavations made by them, com- 
pared with the depth of the soil and fragments 
of all sorts which have accumulated on the site 
of the old city, will, no doubt, in very many in- 
stances, render such prohibition nugieitory. '■ ' 

It is greatly to be regretted that the present 
site should have been selected for the modem 
town. If the Pireeus were considered an ineli- 
gible situation for the capital, and, on the score 
of associations with the past, it had been re- 
solved to make Athens the seat of government, 
the object might have been accomplished with- 


oat ranning the risk of burying much of what 
remains of the old city ; on the contrary, with 
the asswance of bringing it more effectaally to 
light Had the ground between the present 
town, Mount Anchesmus, and the Hissus, been 
choseUi or that between the extreme limit of the 
former and the academy, the modem capital 
would have been not less completely identified 
as to its position with the Athens of Pericles, 
and the ruins of the Athens of the lower ages 
being used as a quarry to furnish materials for 
its construction, that portion of the ancient city 
would have been released from the ignoble super- 
structures by which it has so long been con- 
cealed, and have remained an accessible and rich 
field for antiquarian research, and a fit appendage 
to the glorious citadel above. 

Of my visit to Phyle and Mount Pentelicus, 
my ride to the field of Marathon , and my expe- 
dition to the caverns of Hymettus, it is unne- 
cessary to give the details, the ground having 
been trodden by so many, and no perceptible 
changes having taken place since other pilgrims 
have recorded their observatiohs. I cannot help, 
however, remarking a rude statue, probably of 


the presiding deity of the place^ which is seen in 
the caverns of Mount Hymettus, and which is 
evidently of a date far more remote than any 
preserved in the temporary museums of Athens. 
This figure is clothed, and the dress is an exact 
counterpart of the Albanian garb of the present 
day, petticoat or fustanella included. To the 
lover of classic lore who visits the field of Mara- 
thon, the ** moving accidents'' of that glorious 
fight, — thanks to the graphic page of the histo- 
rian, and to the marked features of the scene, — 
will be as vividly present as, to the erudite in 
modern despatches and bulletins who visit them^ 
are those of Marengo, Waterloo, or of any other 
battle-field where the soil is yet rank with the 
blood of the slain. How few of the latter are 
there where the victims of the fight command 
our unmixed sympathy and admiration, like the 
devoted patriots who fell at Marathon ! 

In 1826, 1 visited every corner of Attica, and it 
is an example which every one who has leisure 
should follow. The eastern shore of the province 
offers much matter for antiquarian research, not 
only in ruins coeval with those of the capital, 
but in remains of an epoch much anterior, re- 


sembling those still existing in the province of 
ArgoSi some of which are incontestably of an age 
more remote than the Trojan war. In the villages 
of Eastern Attica, the manners of the inhabitants 
are, or were, marked by a simplicity and hospi- 
tality truly patriarchal. They are descendants of 
the fugitives from North Greece, and both their 
language and their countenances bear witness to 
their mountain origin. 

The remains of the temple and citadel of 
Sunium would make a fit centre for an excur- 
sion in this province, provided the season were 
such as would permit a bivouac in the open 
air, or under a tent. There is now no fear of 
molestation from pirates on that coast. In 
rainy or cold weather, the traveller will be re- 
ceived with hospitality and kindness in the vil- 
lages on the eastern coast. Some of the ruins 
in that quarter have yet to be described ; and the 
peasants of the district will be better guides than 
any handbooks, or even than the classical remi- 
niscences of the traveller. I remember to have 
myself explored, in the midst of an exten- 
sive thicket of myrtle, or arbutus, the ruins 
of a temple, of which I could find no notice in 


the records of Gell, or of any previous topo- 
grapher. If the traveller proceed direct from 
Athens to Sunium, be can return along the 
eastern coast to Marathon, and thence either 
move onward to TTiebes or return to Athens 
across the flank of Mount Pentelicus, taking the 
celebrated quarries of marble in his way. In 
1826, 1 narrowly escaped being laid hold of by 
pirates in a small village on the verge of the 
plain of Marathon ; and a few hours afterwards, 
the band, of which I was one, was welcomed by 
a discharge of fire-arms from the inhabitants of 
another village at no great distance, who had 
been alarmed by intelligence of the piratical 
descent, and had mustered to give battle pro aria 
etfocis. They had mistaken us for a detachment 
of marauders, and it was not until we had caught 
a wandering peasant, and dispatched him with a 
flag of truce to the village, that we were ad- 
mitted within its limits. Our friendly reception 
was then as warm as the hostile one would 
doubtless have been : all the stores of the village 
were placed at our disposal. There is now neither 
fear nor hope of adventures of this description. 



Embark on board govemment schooner, Nauplia — An-ival at 
Milo — Harbour — ^Proposal of Knights of Malta — Visits 
on board — Ride up to the Castro— Sepulchral chambers — 
Calls upon the governor, the French consul, and Madame 
Tataraki — The Castro — Pilots — Beauty of the women — 
Hellenic citj — Theatre — ^Yenus of liGlo.' 

SiNCB I have been resident here, I have had 
occasion to communicate personally with the 
heads of some of the public offices, and have 
been gratified by their accessibility, and inter- 
ested by the simplicity of the style in which 
business appears to be conducted in the various 

The result of these communications rendered 
it advisable for me to make an excursion to the 
Island of Milo^ and the Minister of Marine had 
the kindness to afford me the means of doing so 


by placing a government schooner at my dis- 
posal. I shall take the liberty of offering the 
notes taken by me during this excursion, from 
day to day, in their original form of a journal. 

March 16. — T left Athens, accompanied by my 
old friend, A. D. Kriezis, and in the evening 
embarked on board the Nauplia^ a beautiful 
schooner, commanded by the Stviouo^^, Hadji 
Anargyro. TTie evening being perfectly calm, 
we were obliged to wait the springing up of the 
land-breeze before attempting to get to sea, and 
it was past midnight before we weighed anchor. 
It being a bright moonlight night, the interval 
passed away very agreeably, under the soothing 
influence of the chibouque, and of a selection of 
music, with which we were regaled by the band 
of a Dutch frigate moored close to us. 

The land-breeze left us soon after we got out 

of the harbour, and day-break found us at the 
distance of five or six miles from Cape Alcimus, 
Salamis and Egina on the one hand, andthe bold 
coast and mountains of Attica, with the Acro- 
polis in the foreground, on the other, presenting 
a panorama of extreme beauty and interest, but 
which, under the circumstances, was not appre- 


ciated by us so highly as it otherwise might have 
been. A light breeze sprang up early in the 
afternoon, and whilst we were beating out of the 
gulf, we had ample opportunity of examining 
the details of the various views. 

We were off the island of Agios Giorgios (St. 
George d'Arbora) about eight p. m., when the 
wind freshened and veered round some points 
in our favour ; and from thence we had a beau- 
tiful run down to this island, and came to an 

anchor in its magnificent harbour about six 
o'clock this morning (March 18.) A French 
two-decker, is moored at a short distance from 
us, and we are informed that two other ships of 
war of that nation and an English ship of the 
line were at anchor here in quarantine a few 
days ago. As yet, on account of the heavy rain 
which is falling, we have communicated only 
with the captain of the port. Abreast of us is 
a small village^ bearing the lofty title of Ai^urnvr, 
*^ the invincible,"* which, possibly, it may have 
inherited from some strong-hold which formerly 

* AiafiarroQ is a Hellenic word, rignifying alike ** adamant" 
and ** invincible f^ aU/ioc/iairor, and aJupiirocov, were 
used, I think, indiscriminately in a substantive sense. 


existed on the conical hill above it. A more 
unpretending name would better suit the presetit 
village, which consists of only thirty or forty 
humble habitations, with a small church, grouped 
together at the back of the residences of the 
directors of the customs and of the quarantine ; 
the latter are close to the shore of the harbour, 
and though sufficiently modest, are of a much 
superior character to the houses above. 

The harbour is land-locked, and appears 
to be about five miles in length, and to vary 
from two to three miles in breadth, eitcept at 
the entrance, where it is much narrower, and 
commanded by bold rocky hills on either side. 
There is great depth of water, and space enough 
for the united navies of Europe to ride in safety, 
so that the possession of the island would be of 
infinite value to a maritime power desirous of 
controlling the navigation of the Archipelago. *; 

At an early period of the Greek revolution, 
the Knights of Malta proffered to assist the 
Greeks with arms and money, on condition that 
this island and Anti Milo, with one of the neigh- 
bouring Cyclades, should be ceded to them in 

VOL. I. M 


absolute sovereignty. The Order made a judi- 
cious dioice, and the Ghreeks did well to look 
upon such a proposal with suspicion. Scattered 
and impoverished as the Order then was, it was 
more than surmised that the proposals originated 
with the diplomatists of St. Petersburgh, where 
the grandmastership has been, nominally at least, 
long resident. Towards the close of the revolu- 
tion, the French displayed an especial affection 
for this island. 

March \%th. — The heavy rain which was fall- 
ing when I wrote my notes of yesterday conti- 
nued throughout the day. It did not, however, 
prevent the governor from coming down to visit 
us in reply to the letters which we had sent up 
to his residence at the Castro. He is a fine, in- 
telligent, old man, having still much of the 
vigour and vivacity of youth, and speaks both 
French and Italian with fluency. He was ac- 
companied by one of his sons, an ex-scholar of 
the banished Cairis, and a perfect model of 
youthful eastern beauty, as also by the superin- 
tendent of the quarries and mines. 

We received them with such hospitable ap- 


pliances as our sea store afforded, seasoned with 
the inevitable chibouque and coffee, and after- 
wards accompanied them on shore to the house 
of the director of the Dogana, Capt. Hadji* An- 
drea, by whom we were regaled with the same 
eastern pledges of welcome. He is a maternal 
cousin of the governor, and a fine specimen of 
the Hydriote of the revolution ; with features 
strongly marked, but handsome, and expressive 
of indomitable resolution, he possesses the frame 
of a Hercules. He and his whole family retain 
the Hydriote dress and customs ; and under his 
roof, for the first time since my return to Greece, 
I had my coffee and sweetmeats (to yXwti) pre- 
sented to me by the hand of the eldest daughter 
of the family, according to ancient usage. On 
paying a visit to the adjoining village, we found 
the houses, so unpromising without, to be ex- 
ceedingly clean within. 

At about ten o'clock this morning, the wea- 
ther became bright and propitious, and we set 

♦ The title of Hacyi is assumed by those who have visited 
the Holy Sepulchre, and is inherited by the eldest son, with 
whom it terminates. 

M 2 

1 64 C A9TBO. 

out for the Castro. The road, or bridle-path, 
winds among hills, covered with volcanic re- 
mains. For some distance before approaching 
the town, the hills abound in excavations, many 
of which are used as storehouses, or as places 
of refuge for shepherds and their flocks ; others 
are partially choked up ; but those which have 
been recently opened, and they are numerous, 
are free from rubbish, and by their internal ar- 
rangement, shew for what purpose they have 
been originally formed. They are quadrangular, 
and on either side and at the extremity of the 
excavations are tiers of sarcophagi, hollowed 
out of the rock, and disposed with architectural 
regularity. Some of the chambers contain six, 
some nine, or even more, of these resting-places 
of the departed. Over the entrance of one of 
those recently opened had been found a marble 
tablet, with an inscription,' indicating that the 
sepulchre had been prepared for himself and his 
descendants by an inhabitant of the neighbour- 
ing city. The entrance had been protected by 
large hewn stones, laid horizontally over the top 
of a staircase cut in the rock, which led down 



to the chamber of repose. The inscription has 
been removed to a cottage hard by, where it was 
shewn to us. We were guilty of an omission in 
not taking a copy of it. 

After visiting several of these family tombs, 
we went to pay our respects to the governor, 
whose residence is situated at the foot of the 
hill on which the Castro stands. In his house 
we were received with the same pleasing, but 
almost obsolete, etiquette which had been exer- 
cised to us the day preceding at that of the di- 
rector of the customs. His government in- 
cludes the islands of Siphno,Argentiere,Siphanto, 
and Polycandro. Notwithstanding so respectable 
an extent of rule, he seems disposed to look upon 
his government as a sort of exile, inasmuch as 
it debars him from giving to his children the 
education he would wish. On my inquiring 
what armed force he had to support his autho- 
rity in the island, he told roe that he had one 
phalangide,* and that even of his assistance he 

* The phalangides were a body of irregular infantry, 
formed of the veteran pallekars of the revolution. The staff 
Btill exista in an organized form, but the soldiers have been, 
for the most part, disbanded. 


had little needi his subjects being very orderly, 
and| moreover, so docile, that when any irregu- 
larity occurred, he had only to send an order to 
the culprit to go to prison, and forthwith to 
prison he went. 

From the house of the governor, accompanied 
by him, we went to that of the French consul, 
by whom we were received with much kindness 
and politeness. The honours of his house were 
performed by a daughter of great beauty, who 
acquitted herself of the duty with a simple grace, 
which could scarcely be excelled among the most 
accoQiplisbed of the fair daughters of my own 
country. In those parts of the Levant where 
the light of woman's countenance is not hidden 
within the precincts of the harem, there is an 
extreme gentleness and almost submissiveness 
in the deportment of the sex, which, when ac- 
companied by grace and beauty, tell forcibly 
upon the feelings of the wanderer from western 
climes. Whether it be as a tacit acknowledg- 
ment of his lordly superiority, or as a silent ap- 
peal to him for the protection and indulgence 
which the strong owes to the weak, that this 
eastern peculiarity so interests him, I do not pre- 


tend to say ; but that so it is, my own expe- 
rience and the observations made to me by other 
** wanderers/' enable me to state. Let it not, 
however, be supposed that this perilous humility 
of the eastern fair has ever for a moment tempted 
me from my rightful allegiance to the surpassing 
beauty of my own countrywomen, or that I 
should presume to recommend to them to com- 
port themselves in the same style, which per- 
haps would be an unfitting accompaniment 
to their mental accomplishments ,. and moral 
power. I ret urn from this digression' to the 
visits of the day, and to the house of the Cheva- 
lier Brest. 

Though of French descent, and the representa- 
tive of that nation, he can hardly be looked upon 
as a Frenchman, having been born in one of the 
islands of the Archipelago, and educated at Con- 
stantinople. He is also wedded to a Greek lady, 
the mother of our beautiful friend, and of three 
other daughters celebrated for their personal 
charms, who are married and established else- 
where, so that he may be considered as tho- 
roughly naturalized. M. Brest has been resident 


here since 1816; and while the island was yet 
under Turkish' rule, and such exports were not 
forbiddeUi he had the gratification of embarking 
the beautiful Venus of Milo for the land of his 
fathers. During the revolution, his house 
afibrded shelter to the ladies of more than one 
distinguished family, and his assistance was 
freely extended to the unfortunate Sciotes and 
Moreotes who sought refuge here. I visited him 
in 1825, when the Greek fleet was lying ofi^ the 
south coast of the island, and it was not with- 
out pleasure that I found myself recognised by 
him as an old acquaintance, despite of the lapse 
of years and the substitution of a pallet6t for a 
fustanella. M. Brest's house is situated on 
the verge of a lofty perpendicular cliffy, which 
overlooks the entrance of the port. 

Pursuing our round of visits, in which we 
were now accompanied by the Consul, we went 
to call upon Madame Tataraki, widow of a pri- 
mate, who had extensive possessions in this 
island, and in those of Serpho and Siphanto ; her 

• 9 

son is affianced to the fair damsel whose grace 
and beauty suggested the foregoing observa- 


tions respecting the ladies of the Levant. She 
received us with the same pledges of Eastern 
hospitality with which we had been met else- 
where, withy however, this difference, that her 
unmarried daughters, who are said to be very 
beautiful, did not make their appearance to do 
the honours of the house. I saw them, how- 
ever, taking stealthy glances at the strangers ; 
and, notwithstanding the care they took to avoid 
observation, I had ample opportunity of assuring 
myself that they well deserve their reputation as 
to beauty. The mother possesses the remains 
of equal or greater loveliness, and notwithstand- 
ing the peculiarity of her Serphiote costume, 
which is rather opposed to the acquirement or 
display of graceful carriage, is altogether lady- 
like and aristocratic in her bearing. She was 
clad in deep mourning, which she has not quitted 
since the death of her husband, who perished in 
a squall between this and one of the neighbour- 
ing islands about five years ago. Though the 
exterior of Madame Tataraki's residence be very 
unpretending, compared with the houses of per- 
sons of the same rank elsewhere, the interior is 

1 70 C A8TR0. 

spacious, and fitted up with much elegance, and 
at the same time with extreme simplicity. 

After paying our respects to her, we ascended 
by a sort of half streets, half staircases, to the 
highest point of the Castro, which is one of the 
stations whence the pilots look out for vessels 
entering the Archipelago. There are various 
other stations around the town, from which a 
constant look-out is kept by them ; and when 
any one of them observes a vessel, he makes all 
haste to arrive the first at a certain stone in a 
central p^t of the Castro ; if he set his foot 
thereon I and announce the appearance of the 
vessel before any other of the brotherhood has 
done so, he is entitled to serve on board her as 
pilot, if she require one. Such, at least, was 
the report we received as to their internal regu- 
lations from the pilot whom we found on the 
look-out, and from whom we made inquiries 
on the subject. From this station the eye 
has an immense range, embracing the shores 
of the Morea and the island of Cerigo to the 
west, Candia to the south, and Argentiere, 
Serpho, Siphanto, Thermia, and Syra, besides 


other islands, to the east and north-east, and 
commanding in detail the bays, headlands, and 
harbour, of Milo itself. With the aid of a glass 
we could distinguish villages, and even isolated 
houses, on islands which, we were informed by 
the pilot, are forty miles distant. 

The houses at the Castro are very unpretend- 
ing in their outward appearance, but are models 
of neatness and cleanliness within. The sea- 
faring portion of the inhabitants is a fine manly- 
looking race, and, judging from the specimens 
which we saw, the women are remarkable for 
beauty. During our ascent and descent through 
the town we noticed ten or twelve heads, which 
in delicacy of outline realized the beau-ideal of 
Greek sculptors, and scarcely less the dreams 
of eastern poets, in the softness of the eyes and 
the fine pencilling of the eyebrows. Two of these 
beauteous heads we saw bending over an occu- 
pation of a very humble nature — that of plying 
the shuttle. The noise of a loom attracted our 
attention, and having had occasion to observe, 
in the course of our previous perambulations^ 
the simple manner in which the islanders card 

4 ■ ■ 


. 1 


and spin their native cotton, we were desirous of 
seeing also their process of weaving, and asked 
jperinission to enter the house from which the 
sounds proceeded. This was granted with ala- 
crity, and we were absolutely startled by the 
beauty of the countenances which were raised to 
pass us in review as we stepped over the 
threshold ; they were for an instant suffused 
with a blush, and brightened by a smile, which, 
as I cannot adequately describe, I shall leave to 
your imagination to paint, referring you to the 
face you love best as a prototype. 

The costume of the women is very peculiar : 
for a description and drawing of it I refer the 
curious to the work of M. Tournefort, merely 
begging to correct him as regards the length of 
the petticoat, which, at all events now, is much 
more ample than represented to be in his draw- 
ings. I by no means refer to the same writer 
with respect to their moral qualifications, for, so 
far as I can judge from my own observations, 
and from the reports made by others, he is de- 
cidedly wrong on that head. They do not appear 
insensible to the admiration they excite ; but this 


very venial degree of sensibility does not autho- 
rize the conclusions which he has drawn. 

From the Castro we descended to the site of 
the ancient city. On visiting the theatre, I found 
it to be completely cleared of the soil and rub- 
bish in which it was half buried when I was last 
here. It is beautifully situated on the slope of 
a hilli and the spectators, on looking beyond 
the scene, would command a view of a portion 
of the harbour, and of the coast beyond. The 
seats of the theatre are for the most part perfect, 
as is also their sheathing of white marble. 
Altogether it is in a better state of preservation 
than any other Hellenic theatre which has been 
discovered. The Venus of Milo was found at 
a very short distance from it, and probably other 
treasures of the same description are still lying 
buried in the neighbourhood. The inhabitants 
hold in a sort of superstitious awe the statues 
which they discover when excavating. They 
look upon them as personifications of the genius 
of the spot, and consider it unlucky to meddle 
with them. The superstitions of the Hellenes 
may be traced to this l)elief in an intermediate 
race between men and angels, which prevails 


both in the islands and among the mountains of 
Attica and of the Peloponnesus. 

The presumed site of the ancient city is strewn 
with fragments of marble and of terra cotta in 
great profusion; and in various directions on the 
slope of the hill are massive piles of ancient 
masonry, which, by their solidity and style of 
architecture, remind one of the defences of the 
Piraeus. There are also two masses of wall 
which resemble the Cyclopean walls of the 
citadel of Mycenise. They are formed of blocks 
irregular in shape, but fitted to each other so as 
to'|)re8ent a perfectly compact and regular face. 
These are, no doubt, the remains of some build- 
ings of a higher antiquity than those which 
have stood in their vicinity, to which the piles 
first mentioned have belonged, the latter being 
composed of regular quadrangular blocks, the 
faces of which are rough-hewn. The profusion 
with which marble has been used in fitting up 
the theatre, and the abundance of that material 
which is scattered in fragments over the site of 
the city, are no slight evidences of its ancient im- 
portance, marble not being found in its native 
state in any part of the island. 


In the neighbourhood of these ruins is an 
isolated rocky hill, commanding the entrance 
of the harbour, on which are the remains of a 
church. Built into its walls are several blocks 
of marble, a fluted column laid horizontally, 
and portions of the architrave of a building 
corresponding in style and materials with the 
column, which is of Parian marble.* Here pro- 
bably stood a temple, the position being pre- 
cisely such as the Greeks preferred for their holy 
places. The hill evidently has been fortified, 
there being on its sides considerable remains of 
walls, of a construction similar to those which 
are found on the site of the city. On the summit 
is a large cistern, which appears to be coeval with 
the walls, and at its foot are several spacious 
caverns ; but whether the latter be the work of 
nature or of art it is difficult, in their present 
half-choked-up state, to judge. Between the 
foot of this hill and the site of the ancient town 

* The marble of Faros is distinguishable at a glance from 
that of Pentelicus. It is of a more brilliant white, and wants 
that appearance of softness and ductility which is peculiar to 
the latter. 


is the basement of a square tower, formed of 
massive quadrangular stones, like the walls be- 
fore described. The ground slopes gently from 
it towards the foot of the hill ; and it is conjec- 
tured that here was the Gymnasium of the city, 
and that on the basement in question was a 
building, from which the citizens of distinction 
contemplated the sports. Hard by may be traced 
the remains of an amphitheatre. 

After exploring the ruins of the city, we 
visited various sepulchral excavations in its vi- 
cinity, all of which we found to contain several 
sarcophagi, arranged with the same regularity as 
in the sepulchres visited by us earlier in the day. 
Many of them open out on the side of the hill, 
and are entered from it without any descent. In 
the sarcophagi, when the chambers are first 
opened, are found small statues, and vases of 
earthenware and of opaque glass, and not un- 
frequently, rings and other small ornaments of 
fine gold. This tempts many of the peasantry 
to employ, in researches among the tombs, and 
in disturbing the bowels of the earth, time and 
labour which would be bestowed more profitably 
to themselves in turning over its surface. 


After visiting these catacombs, we separated 
from our friends, they taking their way back to 
the Castro, and we wending down to Adamantos, 
by a bridle-road, winding among hills of the same 
description as those which we had skirted in the 

During our day's ramble, I observed continued 
indications of the industrious habits of the scanty 
population of the island, the men being every, 
where employed in out-door labours, while in the 
cottages the women were busied either in card- 
ing, spinning, or weaving cotton, or in knitting. 
Both the dress of the women and the interior of 
their cottages are remarkable for extreme neat- 
ness and cleanliness. 

VOL. I. N 



Peserted citj — Kriezis' captivitj in Algiers — Hellenic re- 
mains — Excursion to CapeFirlingo — ^Palieochori — ^Extinct 
crater — Candiote refugee — Amulet and vestige of Pagan 
superstitions — Salt springs — Natural bath — Palace of 
Zopiros— General remarks as to Mllo. 

March 20. — ^The day opened very unfavourably ; 
however, about eight o'clock it cleared up, and 
shortly afterwards, the governor and the director 
of the mines made their appearance at the port, 
and mounting our mules and asses, we set forth 
on our day's excursion — a numerous and rather 
grotesque cavalcade. We followed the shore of 
the harbour nearly to its extreme point, when, 
leaving the ruins of the old city (not Hellenic) on 
our left, we turned inland to avoid the marshy 
lands which surround the salind, or reservoirs 
in which salt is crystalized by solar heat. 


Thence, passing over some hills of no great 
height, and winding through ravines and dells 
totally destitute of wood, we crossed over to the 
southern side of the island. 

On a rocky promontory, called Calamos, we 
visited the crater of an extinct volcano, from 
many crevices of which smoke still issues. The 
surface is hot to the tread, and on digging to the 
depth of a foot or a little more, the matter thrown 
up is almost of a boiling heat, and abounds in 
crystals of sulphur. The mountain rises consi- 
derably higher than the level of the crater, and 
almost at its extreme elevation, where we caused 
an excavation to be made, we found the same 
heat and the same materials. The sides of the 
mountain, both inland and towards the sea, are 
covered with short, fine grassland aromatic herbs, 
and the volcanic phenomena are confined to its 
summit and to the immediate vicinity of the 
crater, around which the strata of rock are 
heaped together in the utmost confusion. 

Proceeding thence eastward, and winding about 
half an hour among a succession of rude and 
barren hills, covered with volcanic cinders and 



lapillii we found another crater, of from fifteen to 
twenty paces in breadth, and about fifty in length* 
It is distant about half a mile in a direct line 
from that of Calamos, and is near to a small 
church, or chapel, called St. Domenica, (Ayi^ Ri;- 
putKfi,) from which it takes its name. The heat 
below its surface is much greater than that of 
the crater of Calamos. There is no oral tradi- 
tion in the island of any eruption from either of 
these craters. 

The sides of the hills below the latter, in the 
direction of the sea, are studded with almost 
countless tombs, which have been opened by the 
islanders in their search after Hellenic antiquities. 
The greater number of them are simply excava- 
tions in the rock, of the size and form suited for 
the reception of a human body ; but there are 
others which have been formed in a more elabo- 
rate style, and are lined with masonry. Mixed 
up with the soil thrown out of such as have been 
recently opened, I found fragments of vases of 
earthenware and glass, and human bones in a 
fossil state. The tombs found on this side of 
the island are very different from those in the 


neighbourhood of the Castro, being merely re- 
ceptacles for one, whilst the latter are spacious 
family dormitories. Our guide quaintly ob- 
served to us, whilst we were pursuing our re- 
searches of to-day — *' These are the beds of the 
poor devils, — those near the Castro are the 
houses of the Archontes;'' following up his ob- 
servation by informing us, that ornaments, of 
gold are very rarely found in this quarter. . 

There is no town or village on this side of the 
island, and even isolated houses jand cottages are 
of very rare occurrence, and from St. Domenica 
none are to be seen. To find so extensive a 
'* city of the dead" where no habitations of the 
living are in view is a peculiarity of a very me- 
lancholy and striking character. Not less strange 
does it appear that there should be so scanty a 
population in an island where these cities of the 
dead are so numerous. Looking at its present po- 
pulation, (between two and three thousand souls,) 
one might be tempted to treat as a fable the ac- 
counts given by historians of the bloody ven- 
geance taken by the Athenians upon the inha- 
bitants of Milo, and utterly to disbelieve the 
extent of the massacres described by them ; but a 


ramble among these tombs will go far to convince 
us of their veracity, — ^proving to us, at least, 
that there was food for slaughter at those remote 
epochs, without reference to the traces which 
exist of an abundant population in the inter- 
mediate time.* 

From St. Domenica we re-crossed the hills in 
the direction of the harbour, taking in our way 
a scene of desolation of another description, and 
ruins of a much more recent epoch — the deserted 
city, called by the islanders, i Xopot, The City, 
i This city is of considerable extent, and in its 
days of prosperity is reported to have contained 
nearly twenty thousand inhabitants. I am not 
quite certain as to dates, for the answers given to 
my inquiries were very contradictory, and I have 
been able to find no written account of the mat- 
ter ; but from such information as I have been 
able to collect, it appears that the abandonment 

* The first expedition of the Athenians, under Nieios, is 
mentioned by Thueydides, book 3, year 6 ; the second, under 
Cleomedes, is recounted in detail by him, book 5, year 16, 
B.C. 416. On the first occasion, the island was laid waste ; 
and on the second, all the inhabitants capable of beaiing ai*ms 
.were put to the sword, although, after a vigorous resistance, 
they had capitulated to the Athenians. Melos had previously 
governed itself during seven centuries as an independent state. 


of this capital took place towards the close of 
the last century. Some years previously, the 
plague, or a disorder equally rapid in its pro- 
gress, and equally fatal in its effects, broke out, 
and carried off, in a very short space of time, one^ 
half of the inhabitants. It was followed by an 
epidemic, which reappeared from year to year, 
and either swept away the remainder, or com* 
pelled them to quit their homes in search of a 
less noxious climate. When I visited the city in 
1825, the churches were uninjured, the walls 
nearly so, and the houses, which are of stone, 
were in so perfect a state that it seemed as if 
the streets had been but a short while previously 
the haunt of a busy multitude. There was then 
something fearful in its silence and desolation, 
comparable only with the impressions produced 
by a solitary ramble among the ruins of Pompeii. 
Since that time a great change has taken place, 
and the larger part of the town is converted 
into a heap of ruins « The walls and houses 
have been thrown down, and the materials car<^ 
ried away to contribute to the modern cities of 
Athens, the Piraeus, and Syra. It has been a 
quarry of stone prepared to the hand of the 


builder. Notwithstanding this, as the cathedral 
is still perfect, and many of the churches have 
suffered but little, at a certain distance the town 
ftppears to be yet flourishing. The highly-culti- 
yated state of the land in its immediate neigh- 
bourhood strengthens this illusion, which a 
nearer approach of course dispels ; a few lofty 
palm trees, which tower above the ruins, add to 
the picturesque character of the scene. Of late 
years a few faniilies have established themselves 
within the walls ; they are, for the most part, 
Candiotes,. who were driven out of their native 
island towards, the close of the revolutionary war 
by the barbarous and indiscriminate vengeance 
taken upon the inhabitants by the soldiers of 
Mehemet Ali. Their pale and haggard counte- 
nances bear testimony to the unhealthiness of 
the climate, and as they stood grouped around 
us in the Piazza, which forms the centre of the 
city, went far to destroy the relish of the simple 
meal which we had ordered to be prepared for 
us. The Piazza is in front of the cathedral, and 
'still exhibits. some remains of its former splen- 
dour, in the shape of broken columns and benches 
of marble. 


The vegetation in the district around « i Xopa'' 
is highly luxuriant, and all animals, man ex- 
cepted, thrive well in the climate ; these pecu- 
liarities are to be remarked in many other lo- 
calities in which malaria prevails. 

In the course of our day's excursion^ I was in- 
formed by the governor that he had been a Cap- 
tive in Algiers, in 1811, as also that his brother, 
the Minister of Marine, was made prisoner at 
the same time. Notwithstanding my long and 
intimate intercourse with the latter, I had never 
heard him allude to the subject^ although the 
circumstances connected with it are scarcely, if 
at all, less honourable to him than the most 
brilliant of his exploits in his public career. The 
two Kriezis were made captives, together with 
many others of their countrymen, and, at the 
commencement of their captivity, all were ein- 
ployed indiscriminately in the naval arsenal and 
in other public works, and were treated with much 
severity. The Dey, however, having observed 
the deference with which the younger Kriezis 
was treated by his countrymen, and the influ- 
ence which he exercised over them, relieved him 


from all manual labour; and appointed him 
superintendent over the works in which they 
were employed. The elder brother continued 
to be occupied at task-work as before, but his 
fate, as well as that of the other Hydriotes, was 
alleviated in no inconsiderable degree through 
the influence which the younger Kriezis had ac- 
quired with the Dey. They had been in capti- 
vity about a year, when an order was received 
from Constantinople, enjoining the Dey to re- 
lease all the Hydriote captives. The Dey partly 
complied with and partly evaded the order, by 
setting at liberty a limited number of them, 
among whom was the present Minister of 
Marine. He, however, besought the Dey to re- 
lease, in his stead, his elder brother, who had a 
wife and family at Hydra, proposing to take 
upon himself his labours in the arsenal. The Dey 
complied with his prayer, but did not liberate 
him in reward of so noble a sacrifice. He 
remained in slavery nearly three years longer, 
after which, a further and more peremptory order 
from Constantinople caused him and the other 
Hydriotes to be set free without ransom. His 


family, in the interim, had sent to him, through 
a Jewish merchant at Algiers, the sum of fifteen 
hundred dollars^ in order that he might negotiate 
his liberation. Instead of applying it to that 
purpose, he devoted the entire sum to the relief 
of his poorer countrymen and companions in 
captivity. Such actions need no comment- — 
they deserve to be recorded in letters of gold, 
rather than in so humble a page as mine 1 

March 21. — ^The equinox has been ushered in 
by a heavy gale from the southward, which, 
although our anchorage be completely land- 
locked, has rendered our communication with 
the shore somewhat difficult. The French consul 
came down to the port, in order to join us in an 
excursion to a district on the southern coast of 
the island, which abounds in natural curiosities 
and mineral treasures ; but the weather was so 
much overcast^ and the gale so violent, that it 
was judged by the •* conclave*' to be not prudent 
to set out upon a ride of eight or ten hours, over 
hills and along ravines where no shelter is to be 
found. We contented ourselves, therefore, with 
a second excursion to the Castro, where we laid 


the Consul and the Governor under contribution 
for chibouques and coffee.* 
. On a rocky ridge, between the Castro and the 
site of the Hellenic City, I observed the remains 
of walls which on my former visit had escaped 
my notice, or, if noticed, had been supposed by 
me to be part of the ridge on which they stand. 
On ascending the hill, the summit of which is 
enclosed by them, I found them to be constructed, 
in great part, in the roughest Cyclopean style, 
resembling more the walls of Tyrinthus than 
those of the citadel of Mycenae, but interspersed 
with masses of masonry evidently of a less remote 
date. The size of the displaced blocks, of which 
they have been composed, leads to an inference 
that violence has been used in dismantling the 
citadel or fortress of which they, no doubt, 

* I must, once for all, apologize for the frequent mention 
of the chibouque in the course of my narrative. As the pledge 
of welcome and respect throughout the East, the chibouque is 
a sort of talisman in the eyes of the traveller, and his insepa- 
rable companion, and the mention of it should meet with 
indulgence from those who interest themselves in his wander- 


formed the outer defences, — possibly the work of 
the vengeful Athenians 1 

March 22. — The morning being fine, and the 
son of the French Consul having kindly oflfered 
his services as ciceronci we carried into effect 
our project of the preceding day. 

Again following the shore of the harbour, and 
passing through the ruined city, we crossed the 
mountains in a south-east direction, and, after a 
laborious ride of about three hours, reached the 
south shore of the island at Cape Firlingo. This 
cape is the extremity of a ridge of hills, from 
ten to twelve hundred feet above the level of the 
sea, which terminates in a nearly perpendicular 
white cliff, of about five hundred feet in height. 
Both from the appearance of the hill above the 
cliff, and from that of the irregular shallows at 
its foot, it is easy to perceive that large masses 
of rock have been from time to time detached 
from it, and hurled into the waters beneath ; im- 
mense fragments seemed to be, as it were, on 
the point of separating themselves from the 
mountain whilst we were on its summit. It was 
not, therefore, without a feeling of horror that. 


from a jetty of rock which commands a full view 
of the diff, I saw one of the attendants of our 
party hanging on its face, with a pickaxe on his 
shoulder, and dwindled, by the distance and the 
immensity of the objects above and below him, 
to a very pigmy. He had been dispatched 
thither for the purpose of bringing up some 
specimens of crystals and concretions which are 
found in grottoes about one hundred and fifty 
feet above the level of the sea, but to which there 
is no access from the water. The approach 
from above is fearfully difficult, the steps formed 
in the face of the cliff being barely perceptible at 
any time ; and, after such heavy rains as had 
fallen before our visit, being slippery and inse- 
cure in the extreme. While we were anxiously 
watching the progress of the cragsman, he 
seemed to sink suddenly within the cliff, and 
remained hidden from us so long, that even those 
of the party who were acquainted with the loca- 
lities were alarmed for his safety. When he 
re*-appeared he climbed the rock with much diffi- 
culty, and when he reached us he was pale and 
almost breathless. This he accounted for, by 


informing us that he had found the interior of 
the cavern much hotter than usual, and so full 
of sulphureous vapour, that it was with difficulty 
he could breathe, and that, whilst he was striking 
off from the sides the specimens which he went 
to seek, some large fragments had fallen from 
the roof, their fall being accompanied with such 
stunning sounds as made him' suppose that the 
rocks were falling in over his head. His alarm 
did not prevent him bringing away either his imr 
plements or the specimens he had struck off. 
He told us, but not until his return, that after 
heavy rains the abundance of the sulphureous 
exhalations makes it dangerous to penetrate into 
the interior of the grottoes. The islanders, 
at some risk, draw from these caverns their sup- 
plies of sulphur, which mineral is found in them 
in a highly purified state. 

After breakfasting very comfortably, not far 
from the edge of the precipice, we set our faces 
westward, and, travelling for about an hour over 
irregular and hilly ground, intersected by deep 
ravines, arrived at Palseochori, where, as the 
name indicates, has been the site of a town or 


village of which some slight ruins may still be 
traced. Not far from them is an extinct crater, 
of about the same dimensions as that of St. Do- 
menica, and presenting precisely the same phe- 
nomena, when the surface is disturbed. This 
crater, or solfatara, is on a sort of platform, 
about half-way up the mountain, the sides of 
which are strewn with volcanic matter. From 
among the rocks, above the solfatara, are seen to 
issue, in various directions, light streams of 
vapour or smoke ; and on the sea-shore below 
are many natural caverns, from which a sul- 
phureous vapour of great pungency exhales. With 
so many evidences of the internal activity of the 
volcanic matter, it surprises one to find that there 
is no record of an eruption, other than such as 
are scattered here and elsewhere on the surface 
of the island in the shape of scoriae, lava, lapilli, 
&c., which, unfortunately for the naturalist, bear 
no date. 

Palaeochori is at the western extremity of a 
nearly semi-circular basin, having the sea-shore 
for the chord of the arc ; the sides of the hills or 
mountains^ which form this basin, abound in such 


mineralogical phenomena as in Sicily are received 
as indications of the existence of sulphur mines 
beneath. If the attention of government or 
private enterprise were directed to the subject, 
in all probability abundant stores of this mineral 
would be found to exist in the island. It abounds 
in alum, fuUer^s earth , and mill-stones of excel- 
lent quality, and rich specimens of lead-ore and 
iron-stone have been, from time to time, picked 
up in different parts of it ; so that there is ample 
field for speculative enterprise. The scantiness 
of the population is the most serious obstacle to 
the development of its mineral treasures. 

From Palaeochori we re-crossed the hills, and 
again passing through the Deserted City, and re- 
freshing ourselves with an " al fresco" chibouque 
and cup of wine in the Piazza, we regained our 
floating residence about sunset, pretty well 
knocked up by our day's excursion. 

On the road between the old city and Ada- 
mantos, our friend and guide, M. Brest, stopped 
for a few minutes to converse with a singularly 
fine-looking man, dressed in the most simple 
peasant garb, who apparently was returning 

VOL. I. o 


home after the oiit-door labours of the day. On 
my making some remark as to the discrepancy 
between the person and bearing of the man and 
his dress » M. Brest informed me that he is a 
Candiote refugee, who in his native island was a 
man of some substance, but is here compelled to 
earn a scanty livelihood by the sweat of his 
brow. He fled from Candia, and sought refuge 
here, after slaying with his own hand two Maho- 
medan soldiers who had brutally insulted the 
females of his family. He is both patient and 
proud in his poverty, and declares that the ful- 
ness of his vengeance is almost equivalent to the 
wealth he has lost. 

March 23. — ^We spent the greater part of the 
day in calls upon our friends at the Castro, and 
a second visit to the Hellenic city. I was amused, 
when we landed, by a request which was brought 
to us on the behalf of a lady who is as *• ladies 
love to be," &c. It was, that we would be 
pleased to let her have some of the fresh butter, 
which she had heard we have on board, and to 
which she had taken a *^ fancy.'' These fancies 
are here considered as sacred ; and we treated 


that of the lady in question as such, and sent 
orders on board accordingly. An antique was 
offered to me for sale which has reference to 
ladies in the aforesaid interesting situation. It 
was a small hexagonal lozenge of fine agate, en- 
graved on one of the faces, and pierced through 
its entire length, so as to be worn suspended 
round the neck. When so worn, it becomes an 
amulet, the virtue of which is to insure the 
safety of the young descendant of Adam before 
he makes his appearance in this world of woe, 
and to insure him also ample supplies of nourish- 
ment when he has entered it. This is, I believe, 
a superstition which has descended from the 
Hellenes to the Greeks of the present day ; and 
the virtues of the pagan amulet are not the less 
efficient because the wearer is a Christian. 

Vases of glass and of earthenware, rings and 
intaglios, are daily brought down and offered for 
Pale by the peasants. The ornaments and stones 
of the greatest value, among those which have 
recently been found, have unfortunately been 
forestalled by an Italian dealer in antiques, who 
asks enormous prices for them. 

o 2 


March 24. — The weather continuing to be 
boisterous and rainy, we were compelled to con- 
fine our exploratory excursions to the neighbour- 
hood of the harbour. 

We first visited the hot springs, which rise in 
the sea, at the distance of a few yards from the 
shore. They are at the upper end of the har- 
bour, and in calm weather are easily distinguished 
by the bubbles which rise to the surface of the 
water, and the vapour which is thrown off from 
it. Such was the report made to us by our 
guide, and though the breaking of the surf on 
the beach prevented us from observing these 
phenomena to-day, we were well convinced of its 
correctness by the warmth of the rock and sand 
in the vicinity of the springs. The sand, at a 
few inches below the surface, is of almost a boil- 
ing heat. The stones on the beach and a ledge 
of rock which runs into the harbour, near to the 
springs, are covered with a ferruginous deposit. 

Not far from this spot are the inland hot salt- 
8pring9 which supply the salt-pans near to the 
head of the harbour, and also some natural baths, 
which have long been held in great esteem for 


medicinal purposes. These baths are in ** statu 
natura/* at least the appearance of the grotto in 
which they are found is such as to indicate that 
art has not been called in to assist nature in her 
arrangements. The grotto is a rude cavern in 
the hill-side, in the inmost recess of which is a 
deep reservoir, or very slow stream of tepid 
mineral water. As this bath has been known, 
and esteemed from a very remote date, and was 
much resorted to when the *' Xo^a" existed as a 
populous city, it is surprising that the grotto 
should not Iiave been arranged so as to facilitate 
the approach of patients to the waters of health, 
— which, be it said, en passant^ in their present 
state more resemble the " waters of Lethe.*' 
They can only be reached with the aid of torches. 
Before quitting them, we set fire to a quantity of 
brushwood, which we had taken in with us, and 
the glare of light thrown upon the dark water 
and among the irregular masses of rock, as well 
as upon the varied costumes of the visiters, pro- 
duced an effect which would have been precious 
to a painter, but which the heat of the place 
would scarcely have allowed him to do more than 


After visiting several excavations near to the 
shore, which may have served as places of refuge 
for pirates, when this island was a favourite 
resort of that daring and lawless race, we as- 
cended the hills to one of much greater extent, 
which is called hy the islanders the Palace of 
Zopiros, and, as the story goes, was the strong- 
hold of a chief, or sovereign, of that name, who 
had fallen into disfavour with his subjects. 

I will not pretend to say whether this Zopiros 
be the same who had a palace near the ancient 
Hellenic Theatre, as appears from an inscription 
wliicb was found there, or whether he be a chief 
OX freebooter of less remote ages ; or even to 
offer an opinion as to whether the excavation has 
been made by a Zopiros, ancient or modern. 
What I can affirm is, that the excavation in 
question has been formed by some one who had 
abundance of men at his beck, and who had 
strong reasons for isolating himself from the 
crowd of his fellow-men. It will be very diffi- 
cult to give an idea of it by description ; however, 
I will make the attempt. 

Close below the sunimit of a rocky hill is a 
suite of lofty and spacious chambers, hollowed 


out of the rock, which are entered from a plat- 
form on the hill side. From one of the inner 
chambers, a narrow corridor, not sufficiently lofty 
to allow a man of moderate stature to pass along 
it without stooping, leads downwards for some 
distance into the bowels of the hill, opening 
from time to time into small chambers on either 
side. The corridor is then carried for a space in 
an upward direction, turning, as it were, on 
itself; so that the chambers, with which the 
latter part of it is flanked, command through 
small apertures the former part of the passage. 
At its extremity is a long flight of steps, which 
again leads downwards, and communicates at the 
lower end with a few steps in an ascending 
direction, from the top of which you rise into a 
suite of chambers almost as spacious as those 
nearer to the surface. This entrance has evi- 
dently been secured by a long, horizontal trap- 
door, resting upon ledges, and fastened within 
by cross-bars let into the rock. At intervals, in 
the corridors, are places for establishing perpen- 
dicular barriers, secured in the same manner. 
The whole is excavated and finished with much 


skill and nicety, more particularly the lower 
chambers. When in the latter our torches were 
almost extinguished by the closeness of the 
atmosphere ; and though we continued our 
researches quite as long as our safety would 
permit, we could not discover any apertures by 
which fresh air could be conveyed to the inmates 
of them. Such, however, must have existed, 
as probably also some downward outlet ; but the 
danger of being left without light in the recesses 
of this confused labyrinth compelled us to beat 
a retreat with our curiosity unsatisfied. 

This.-' Palace of Zopiros" is altogether a most 
curious specimen of subterranean architecture ; 
and the means of protracted (though it would 
seem hopeless) defence which the planner of it 
has assured to himself correspond with the 
popular tradition, which ascribes its formation 
to the fears of a man of violence, prince or 
pirate. There are no remains of external works 
on the summit of the hill, but such may have 
existed, and the ^'palace" may have been at 
once the keep and the treasury of the fortress. 

On our return from our day^s ramble we 


found a comfortable dinner prepared for us at 
the Dogana, and had the pleasure of enter- 
taining one or two guests to the best of our 

March 25. — ^During the night, it blew a heavy 
gale from the south-west, accompanied by a 
deluge of rain. Our schooner dragged her 
anchor about one, a.m., and drifted close in shore 
before she was brought up by a second anchor 
which had been dropped. She had changed her 
moorings the day previously, and the anchor 
was unadvisedly let go in a part of the harbour 
where the alga marina grows in great abun- 
dance — forming a sort of submarine forest — 
and prevents light anchors from taking hold. 
Tlie rain continued without intermission until 
nearly noon, when a gleam of sunshine tempted 
us to set out on an excursion previously ar- 
ranged, but which we were not destined to 
accomplish. At the distance of a few miles 
from the port, we were overtaken by a pelting 
shower, which compelled us to seek refuge in 
one of the natural caverns which abound in the 
island, and kept us prisoners for nearly three 


hours ^ until it was too late in the day to carry 
our plans into execution. The time would have 
crept by very tediously had we not been armed 
with our chibouques, and, moreover, found an 
occupation in endeavouring to dispel with a 
blazing fire the damps which hung round the 
sides of the cavern. We flattered ourselves 
whilst pursuing this occupation, the correct per- 
formance of which is no slight accomplishment 
for a traveller, that we formed an extremely pic- 
turesque group. 

On our return on board our lady-like craft, it 
was resolved to put to sea as soon as the weather 

The Harbour of Milo runs so deep into the 
island as almost to divide it into two equal parts. 
On a conical hill, nearly at the western extre- 
mity of the northern division, is situated the 
town or village of Castro, which is now its 
capital. The ruins of the Hellenic city, theatre, 
&c., are about a mile from it, nearer to the en- 
trance of the harbour. The city of more modern 
date, now in ruins, is about the same distance 
from the most inland point of the harbour, and 


is situated, as nearly as may be, in the centre of 
the island. The north division of the island is 
very bare of wood, exhibiting only a few widely- 
scattered olive and fig trees. In the narrow 
valleys, (if the dry hollows between the hills 
deserve such a title,) and where there is any 
extent of plain, there are spots of land cultivated 
with much care ; and both near to the Castro 
and to the ruined city is a considerable extent of 
ground, which is highly productive. Near to 
Adamantos, and in the valleys between the Hel- 
lenic City and the harbour, the soil is also rich 
and productive. The extent of land so culti- 
vated is, however, very limited, compared with 
that which lies waste. Much of this waste land 
is well adapted for vineyards, and judging from 
the vigorous appearance of the few olive-trees 
which are met with, they also would succeed 
well in most districts. In the southern division 
of the island, where there is more wood, this 
tree abounds in a wild state, and, when grafted, 
thrives and yields well. The scanty population 
of the island is inadequate to the development 
of the many resources offered by its surface. 


without taking into account those which are 
supposed to be concealed in its bosom ; and it is 
much to be regretted that the vicissitudes of the 
revolutionary war did not drive hither the busy 
and enterprising crowd which, under their influ- 
ence, has established itself on the barren rocks 
of Syra. 

. Strangers who visit Milo must make up their 
minds to submit to the privation of most of the 
enjoyments of civilized life, and be content with 
very homely fare and homely quarters, unless 
they partake of the hospitality of some of the 
'^ archontes,'' of whom mention has been made ; 
without they have a claim to such hospitality, 
they will do well to establish their head-quarters 
on board the craft which may have brought them 
here, or at all events to be provided with bedding 
and cooking utensils. When I visited the island 
in 1825, the English vice-consul (since dead) in- 
sisted on my taking up my quarters at his house 
in the Castro. There is now no English consul 
to ofler similar hospitality to English visiters. 



Depftrture from llilo— Gulf of Salamis — Agios Giorgios — 
Iljdrioto patriarch — Rencontre with royalty — ^Ruins of 
Pieraic walk — Tomb of Miooulis — Tomb of Themistodes, 
— ^Abstinence of Greek sailors — Dinner to Athenian 
friends, and toasts thereat — Visit toPirrous, and the steamer 
Otho — Visit to Captain of Nauplia — Monmnent of Karais- 
kaki — Funeral of Karaiskaki — Cross of Merit — Feast of 
our Lady of Tinos — Conversazione at British minister's — 
Heart of Miaoulis —Royal palace — Lyceum of modem 
Athens — Audience of the king — Opera — Military music, 
and royal and picturesque attendance thereupon — Ren- 
contre with an old comrade. 

March 26, {at sea.) — ^The life of a sailor, and of 
those who entrust their persons to the caprices 
of the great deep, is certainly a life of rapid vicis- 
situdes, and of strong contrasts. 
The state-room of the Nauplia is at this time 


a scene of quiet, oriental enjoyment ; the pas- 
sengers (ourselves and the son of the French 
Consul at MQo) are lazily extended on their mat- 
tresses, or capotes, whilst the captain awakes 
with much skill the notes of a mandolin, and 
our bark glides swiftly, with a favouring breeze 
and over a sunny sea, between the island of 
Egina and the coast of Attica. At one o'clock 
this morning the scene was very different. We 
had just got dear of the capes which form the 
entrance of the Port of Milo, and found outside 
a heavy, tumbling, confused sea, left by the 
storms of the preceding days, which tormented 
our little frigate most pitilessly, and ejected us 
very summarily from our berths, mingling pas- 
sengers, capotes, mattresses, and baggage in 
utter confusion. The sea, meanwhile, was 
sweeping the deck , and our cabin was not quite 
free from its inroads. The scene was anything 
but agreeable to a landsman, and the remem- 
brance of it heightens, by comparison, the enjoy- 
ment of that which is now around me. At about 
eight, A.M., we were close in with the island of 
Agios Giorgios. Since that hour the breeze, 


which had been very fresh during the night, has 
much moderated, and we shall probably not be 
in the Piraeus before the evening. 

Agios Giorgios is a rocky island, of about two 
and a half miles in length, and a mile in breadth, 
to the south-west of Cape Colonna. It has no 
port, but there is a beach, off which, in calm 
weather, is an anchorage for small craft. 

This island is inhabited by one family only — 
that of a Hydriote, who is also the proprietor 
of it. It was bestowed upon his father by a 
Capudan Pacha, to whom he had rendered some 
signal service, and who commanded him in re- 
turn to name such reward as it might be in his 
power to grant. The Hydriote asked the grant 
of this island, which was then uninhabited, and 
his prayer was forthwith accorded by the Pacha, 
who also expressed his surprise at his modera- 
tion. The grant was confirmed by the Porte, 
and has remained unquestioned through sub- 
sequent political changes. The son of the 

original grantee has brought great part of 


the island into cultivation, and it now yields 
grain, wine, and figs in abundance, besides 
supporting four or five hundred head of sheep 


and goats. The lambs and the cheese of St. 
George are esteemed for their excellent quality, 
and in these and other produce the proprietor 
carries on an advantageous traffic with his native 

This '' Lord of the Isle'' has a wife and a nu- 
merous family of children, so that his existence 
must be rather that of a patriarch than of a re- 
cluse. During the winter months, his opportu- 
nities of communicating with the mainland, or 
with the neighbouring islands, are very rare. In 
that season he inhabits a house which he has 
built in a sheltered situation on the east side of 
the island ; during the summer, he takes up his 
quarters in a spacious-looking building on the 
highest point of it. Near to the latter is a very 
small chapel, and when we were off the island, 
with the aid of the glass, we could distinctly 
perceive the patriarch and his family passing 
from the chapel to the house, probably returning 
from the performance of his morning devotions. 
How much more pure and exalted must or may 
be the devotion of a man so situated than that 
of the inhabitant of a crowded city ! 

Agios Giorgios, by some of the commentators 


of Lord Byron, has been selected as the scene of 
the ** Corsair.'* There are many points of the 
island from which Medora may be supposed to 
have gazed on the departing Conrad until 

** The tender blue of that large loving eje 
Grew froaeen with its gaze on vacancy ;** 

but the distance between it and Coron is much 
too great to allow the departure and arrival of 
the corsair to have taken place as represented in 
that exquisite poem. The visiter of these days 
must therefore be satisfied with the romance 
which the history of the present possessor of it 



On shore. — ^As we were rounding the promon- 
tory to the southward of the entrance of the 
Piraeus, we met the royal steamer Otho con- 
veying their Majesties and the court on a visit to 
the French admiral in the bay of Salamis. Her 
gay decorations gave us notice of the illustrious 
freight she bore ; but she came upon us so sudr 
denly, that we had barely time to prepare for 
rendering the accustonied honours as she swept 
by. It was, however, accomplished in goo4 

VOL. I. P 


Style. The harbour wore a very gay appear- 
ance, the vessels of every nation, lying at anchor 
there, being decorated with all their colours. 
They fired a royal salute on the return of their 
Majesties, and from the deck of the Nauplia 
I had the pleasure of doing homage to the Queen 
of Beauty and to her fair Suliote attendant, as 
the royal barge floated from the Otho to the 

I had passed the interval in making the circuit 
of the ancient defences of the Piraeus on the 
northern shore of the harbour, and in revisiting 
the tombs of Miaoulis and Themistocles, on the 
south promontory. 

The remains of the former are even more 
massive than those on the south peninsula, and, 
though comparatively of very limited extent, 
are, like the latter, striking monuments of 
the power and enterprise of those who raised 
them. At the extreme point of the north pro- 
montory, and at the outer entrance of the har- 
bour, is the basement of a tower, about seventeen 
yards square, which, although swept by every 
wave when the least sea is running, is as com- 


pact and perfect as when it was laid down. It 
is much to be regretted that these ancient relics, 
as well as those to the southward, have been de- 
spoiled in favour of the modern town of the 
Piraeus. There is now a prohibition of such 
sacrilegious pilferage ; but before it had attracted 
the attention of government, much mischief was 
already done, and great, quantities of stone had 
been carried away from the walls in the imme- 
diate vicinity of the port. 

The tomb of Miaoulis is near to the southern 
entrance of the harbour. The site of his grave 
is for the present marked only by an unpretend- 
ing stone column, or pyramid, on which is the fol- 
lowing simple inscription : — " Qie xtXrAi h 'Netv&px^q 

AvipiasMicLGuXfis, 1838.'' It is the intention of the 
government to erect a splendid monument oa 
the spot ; but no such record is required to ren-i 
der it hallowed in the eyes either of his country-* 
men or of those who have watched with interest 
their struggles for independence. A monu-* 
ment, however splendid, could not increase the 
respect in which his name is held, but it will 
reflect honour on the government and on his 



country. The heavy debt of neither has been 
discharged by the distinguished honours which 
were rendered to his remains when deposited in 
their present resting-place. To those who have 
had an opportunity of appreciating personally 
the unpretending, yet dignified simplicity of the 
man, the lofty disinterestedness of the patriot, 
and the calm and undaunted resolution of the 
naval chieftain, this resting-place of his mortal 
remains must be thrice hallowed. 
. The sarcophagus in which the remains of the 
hero of Salamis are said to have been deposited 
is at a short distance to the southward, outside 
the walls which were raised by him. It is hol- 
lowed out of the rock, and nearly on a level with 
the sea, from which it is distant but a few paces, 
so that when the waters are at all agitated, each 
rising wave washes over it — no unfit emblem of 
the troubled close of the career of him whose 
ashes were laid within it. Disjointed columns 
are scattered around^ and altogether it is a nie- 
lancholy memorial of the tardy repentance of his 
countrymen, I must confess, however, that I 
have been, more moved when standing by the 


' simple column which is inscribed with the name 
of the modern patriot than by the classic remi- 
niscences which hover round the tomb of The- 

Before taking leave of my gaUant bark, I 
must not omit to notice the extreme abstinence 
of Greek sailors during the fasts appointed by 
their church, nor to mention that its commander 
distinguished himself by his gallantry during the 
• revolutionary war, and, in acknowledgment of 
his services, is decorated with the Silver Cross of 
the Order of Merit. He is a Speziote. We are 
now in the heart of Lent, and during the ten days 
I have been on board the Nauplia the fare of 
the crew has consisted only of bread, olives, 
onions, and caviar, not even eggs or oil being 
permitted. Notwithstanding this abstinence 
from solid food, they are hale and strong, and 
when equipped in trowsers and jackets and low 
round hats, after the model of British' sailors,* 
would be no unfit mates for our own dashing 
tars. I have been amused to observe that when 
out at sea, and especially when the weather is 
such as to call for more than usual activity. 


they resume their seemingly cumbrous Hydriote 
breekSy or brachia. I took my leave of Capt. 
Hadji Anargyro with regret, having been made 
as comfortable on board his schooner as if she 
bad been my own yacht. 

Athens, March 27 to 31.— On the 30th, I had 
the pleasure of entertaining at dinner some of 
my oldest Greek friends. My party consisted 
of the Minister of Marine, his cousin, A. D. 
Kriezis, two Miaoulis, the younger sons of the 
Navarchos, M. Psylla, Mn Masson, and M. Palli ; 
and its sitting was protracted to a late hour, and 
enlivened by a series of toajstB, proposed and 
drank in the English style. The campaign was 
opened by Mr. Masson, who introduced a na- 
tional toast by a speech which came home to the 
feelings and seized the fancy of my Greek guests 
so effectually, that they caught the spirit of the 
moment, and emulated bis example in excellent 
9tyle. The toasts were numerous, and various 
in character. Among those proposed by the 
guests were, the '' memory of Captain Hamil- 
ton," and the '* memory of Canning,"— the 
former was introduced by Krie^iSi in a speech 


full of feeling and of just acknowledgments of 
the interest taken by that distinguished officer 
in the welfare of the rising nation, and of the 
services whicb, even in his severity, he had ren- 
dered to it. These sentiments are common to 
men of all parties and professions, but from no 
one could the expression of them come with so 
much grace and effect as from the nephew and 
bosom friend of Miaoulis. The '' memory of 
Miaoulis'' was not forgotten aniong the toasts 
which proceeded from the chair. 

On the 31st, I went down to the Piraeus, ac- 
companied by my friend, A. D. Kriezis, and by 
the elder of the young Miaoulis, who had served 
as a midshipman on board an English frigate. 
At the Piraeus we met the nephew of th.e latter, 
a distinguished looking and handsome young 
man about his own age, four or five and twenty. 
Both unde and nephew speak English with much 
fluency, and, I am happy to say, have inherited 
from their venerable progenitor his feelings of 
predilection for England and Englishmen. The 
nephew is lieutenant of the royal steamer Otho, 
and, accompanied by him, we went on board 


that vessel. She is a fine boat, qarrying four 
42-pounder carronades and two half- guns, 
which, I believe; are called cannonades. The 
machines (of 120 horse power) are English, but 
the boat was built at Poros. Her crew consists of 
from fifty to sixty men and boys. She has been 
fitted up for the express use of the King, and as 
his propensities are unfortunately by no means 
maritime, she lies at anchor in the Piraeus much 
more frequently than suits the taste of the 
officers, or than is conducive to habits of disci- 
pline among the crew. Her head engineer is an 
Englishman ; his assistant, to my extreme sur- 
prise^ I found to be a Bavarian, placed on board 
to leam what he ought to be qualified to teach — 
the management of the machinery. He is a 
theoretical machinist, who, on his arrival in this 
country, professed himself able to effect the pro- 
pulsion of small vessels at the rate of ten or 
twelve miles an hour without the assistance of 
steam ; and, being patronised by some of his 
countrymen then in office, wasted not only his 
own money, but that of the government, in futile 
experiments to that effect. 


Accompanied by my friends, I paid a visit to * 
the captain of tlie NaupHa^ and was much struck 
with the extreme simplicity and neatness of his 
little household. We were regaled with sweets 
and coffee from the hands of his wife, a fair and 
tall Speziote matron, fit to be the mother of sol- 
diers. At the time of her marriage, she was 
fourteen years of age, and her husband nine- 

On our way back to the capital, we visited the 
monument erected to the memory of Karaiskaki, 
on the spot where he received his death-wound. 
He was mortally stricken in a skirmish a few 
days previous to the battle of Athens, which was 
fought the 6th May, 1827, and breathed his last 
in Salamis. His bones were brought over from 
that island soon after the arrival of King Otho 
in Greece, and are deposited in a small cell 
formed in the base of the monument. On one 
side of it is an inscription to his honour, and on 
the other are the names of his most distinguished 
companions in arms who fell in the same skir- 
mish and in the subsequent battle. The slaughter 
of the Greeks at the battle of Athens was 


very great, the irregular infantry having been 
brought donm into the open plain, and exposed 
to the attacks of the Turkish horse in an ineffec- 
tual attempt to relieve the Acropolis. Close by 
the monument is a small inclosure, surrounded 
by a wall^ in which are collected the bones of 
those who fell on that fatal day. So to collect 
them was an act of religious duty on the part of 
their surviving countrymen, or of the govern- 
ment ; but, alas I the feeling which dictated it 
appears to have been but transitory, for the eartli 
with which they were then covered having been 
in part washed away by the winter rains, the 
bones are now permitted to bleach in the wind 
and sun. 

The day on which the remains of Karaiskaki 
were deposited in their present resting-place 
was distinguished by a ceremony which will not 
easily be effaced from the memory of those who 
took part in it. The King and court, accom- 
panied by the garrison, attended in state at the 
Pirseus^ to receive the canvoi, which was landed 
under a salute from all the vessels in the bar- 
hour, and escorted by the sovereign and the 


military to the receptacle prepared for it. In 
the plain around were assembled, as spectators, 
the entire population of Athens and of the sur- 
rounding district, together with a host of visiters 
from distant parts of Greece and from the islands 
of the Egean. A funeral oration was pronounced 
by the Minister of the Interior, and the daughters 
of the deceased warrior were declared to be 
adopted by the country. The daughters were 
present, veiled and in deep mourning, and their 
sobs told of heartfelt emotions, which found an 
echo in the bosom of every true Greek who stood 

Crowns of laurel were thrown over the tomb ; 
the Grand Cross of the Order of the Saviour was 
deposited upon it, and declared to be an heir- 
loom in the family of the deceased; and the 
artillery and musketry rolled forth their incense 
to his manes. 

In our northern lands, some of the accessories 
of the ceremony would appear a little theatrical, 
but in this land of susceptibility and sunshine no 
such impression would be conveyed, more espe- 
cially as on the very spot where the funeral 


honours were thus rendered, he to whom they 
were offered had fallen fighting the battles of his 
country ; and among the spectators were many 
who had fought by his side on the day he fell, 
and shared his perils in a hundred former fights.* 
The name of Karaiskaki may be interpreted, 
** Iska, the Black," the concluding '* ki " being a 
diminutive. Kara is, in Turkish, *' black/' either 
physically or morally, and is usually added to the 
name of such as are placed under the ban of the 
Porte. Thus Ali Pacha, of Jannina, was at one 
time styled, Kara Ali. Kara Iska*s parentage 
was, I believe, unknown except on the side of 
the mother, who was, or had been, a nun. 
His uncertain extraction, his gallant exploits, 
and high reputation as a soldier of the revolu- 
tion, — ^his influence over his companions in 
arms, and over a beautiful woman, who was one 
of the most constant of them^ being ever at his 
side, offer food for romantic story. 

April 1. — I have had to-day the gratification 
of receiving through the office of the Minister of 

* Literally — ^for ho had been a regular '^ Are-cater,*' and 
was ever to be found the foremost in the fray. 


Marine the silver National Cross of Merit. This 
cross is conferred only on those who have 
seen actual service during the war of indepen- 
dence ; and for that reason is here more prized 
than that of the Saviour. The inscription on 
the one side is, '* *06m pa^riXws rfif 'Exxihf ;" on the 

other, ** Tor$ in^AuiotgirforoiJLaxo7s rUsIIarplios**^ There 

are three descriptions or grades of this cross,-— 
that of iron, that of bronze, and that of silver, 
which are bestowed according to the rank or 
services of him on whom it is conferred. 

There has been throughout the day a great 
affiux of travellers of both sexes towards the 
PiriBUS, bound on a devout pilgrimage to our 
Lady of Tinos, (i Uavayla, or **all holy.*') A 
religious fSte takes place there on Monday next, 
and, I am informed, offers a most interesting 
spectacle, being attended by crowds from the 
Peloponessus, as well as from Attica and the 
neighbouring islands. The devotees of the fair 
sex are usually very numerous ; and among them 
are invariably to be found many choice speci- 
mens of island loveliness. Tinos itself is rich in 



An ex-cicerone of mine called upon me to 
make his bow before setting out on this pil- 
grimage, and on my making him a trifling pre- 
sent in acknowledgment of services he had 
rendered me, he assured me that he should apply 
it to the purchase of a massive taper, which he 
would light before the Panagia in my behalf. 
This uncalled-for promise may or may not be 
kept ; in the meanwhile it explains to me the 
destination of the tapers with which I have ob- 
served most of the pilgrims to be provided, vary*- 
ing in size according to the means of the devotees, 
or to the ardour of their devotion. Some which 
I saw were fully four feet long, and from three 
to four inches in diameter, and gaily ornamented 
with ribands of various colours. The f^te has 
been described to be so brilliant and so pecu- 
liarly national, that I should have made a point 
of being a spectator of it, were not the anniver- 
sary of the outbreak of the revolution {i Eiravoo-- 
roff^i) to be celebrated on the same day in this 

I have had the pleasure of making the ac- 
quaintance of the '' Maid of Athens," so cele- 



brated by Lord Byron. She is still a fine woman, 
and must have been very beautiful when he ad- 
dressed to her the outpourings of his fervid 
imagination. Being now surrounded by a fine 
family of children, though interesting as a ma- 
tron, she is. of course, no longer the poetical 
personage of days of yore. She is the wife of 
Mr. Black, (son of the professor of that name,) 
who was for some time director of the police in 
Athens, and to whom I am indebted for much 
kind assistance in my communications with the 
government offices. 

April 2. — ^The day was rainy and chill, and I 
did not leave my rooms at the Hotel Royal until 
the evening, when I exchanged them for the 
hospitable salon of the gallant officer who, after 
having supported the honour of Great Britain 
on his own element, is charged with the protec-^ 
tion of her interests in this quarter. All the 
foreign ministers were present, except those of 
Russia and the Porte ; and there was no peculi- 
arity to indicate that the conversazione was in 
Athens, (excepting always the attic salt with 
which the guests seasoned their conversation,) 


saving the presence of an aide-de-camp of Sir 
Richard Church in his national costume. This 
costume^ as now worn by the military, is not 
quite orthodox, collars being added both to the 
vest and shirt, and shoes substituted for the 
zarouchia of the ** olden time." The former 
interfere with the freedom of the movements of 
the head and neck, and are not in keeping with 
the rest of the dress ; and the shoe is neither con- 
gruous to it, nor, on the rocky mountains with 
which the country abounds, is it half so efficient 
a protection to the foot as the old-fashioned and 
picturesque zarouchia; the latter, in case of 
need, can be re^^soled by the soldier himself in 
the course of a few minutes. 

I had a good deal of desultory conversation 
with Captain Mostra respecting the brigands, 
who have recently made their appearance in 
several parts of the Morea, and more particularly 
in Messenia, and was gratified to find from him 
that the national, or rural guard, has displayed 
much enthusiasm for the re-establishment of 
good order, and great courage and perseverance 
in following *' to the death" the disturbers of it. 


It appears that the rumours of disaffection, and 
connivance with the brigands on the part of 
the peasantry, by which the capital has of late 
been alarmed, are absolutely without foundation. 
Two of these brigands were guillotined half- 
way between the city and the Piraeus some days 
ago. The manacles having been taken off, one 
of them^ before his head was laid on the fatal 
block, attempted to make his escape, and a long 
and desperate struggle took place between him 
and the executioner before he could be secured. 
The scene is reported to me to have been of a 
very horrible description : no native Greek could 
be found to undertake the office of headsman, 
and the one employed had been accepted on the 
strength of his own report as to his skill. A 
Greek, who had acted as executioner on a former 
occasion, was shot in a caf^ of the Piraeus, 
although under military protection at the time. 

The claims of our countrywomen to pre-emi- 
nence in beauty were well supported by more 
than one of those present in Lady Lyons' 

April 3. — ^I called at the office of the Minister 
of Marine, to offer my acknowledgments to him 

VOL. I. Q 


for having conveyed to me the National Cross, 
and at the same time to ''do homage" to the 
noble heart of the gallant Miaoulis, which, as 
I have before mentioned, is preserved there. It 
is deposited in a silver urn, and the urn is kept 
in an oaken case, formed out of one of the tim- 
bers of the navarch's favourite vessel, which 
stands in the private audience-chamber of the 
minister,— the key being in his possession. The 
present minister requires no such solemn me- 
mento to incite him to the performance of his 
duty ; but were he other than he is, in its pre- 
sence he could not betray the interests of his 
country. On the urn are the following inscrip- 
tions : — 






Eyevvijdif) Ayipixs MiaouXvis' ^v Tipa vnv 20 Malou, 1769. 
AycOavfi ii rri 11 louyioi;, 1835.* 

* Hail to the heart of the Navarch Miaoulis I Otho, the 
first King of Hellas, deposited in the Church of the Most 
Holy Virgin (Mother of God), in Hydra, this Urn, containing 
the heart of Miaoulis. Andrea Miaoulis was bom in Hydrn, 
the 20th May, 1769, and died the 11th June, 1835. 


On leaving the Admiralty, I applied at the 
palace for permission to return thanks to his 
Majesty for the grant of the National Cross. 
The aide-de-camp of service, Sahini (aHydriote), 
informed me that my application being made so 
short a time before the reception of to-morrow, 
could not, according to usage, be complied with, 
but promised that he would mention my request 
to the King, and endeavour to have the matter 
arranged according to my wishes. Since then 
I have received a note from him, to intimate that 
the King will receive me at five, p.m. to-morrow, 
— an exception being thus made in my favour, 
which indicates, perhaps, that Englishmen are 
now in better odour at the palace than they were 
a few months ago. 

In the course of my afternoon walk I met the 
King twice, attended only by his aide-de-camp. 
He was inspecting the works at the new palace 
and the university, in the progress of which 
buildings he takes much interest. I have before 
met him in the same quarter, which is at a short 
distance from the outskirts of the city, and al- 
ways with the same slight attendance, and have 



been gratified to observe that the recent plots, 
and rumours of plots, have not caused him to 
exhibit any symptoms of distrust in the mass of 
his subjects. 

. The new palace is beautifully situated on a 
gentle eminence between the city and the Ilissus, 
the ground sloping gradually downwards from it 
in both directions. The centre of the palace is 
opposite to the upper extremity of the street of 
Hermes, which, as before mentioned, traverses 
the city from east to west. The front, conse- 
quently, looks upon the Acropolis, the city, and 
the great plain of Olives ; to the left are the 
columns of the temple of Jupiter, and to the 
rrght the rocky heights of Anchesmus. The 
palace itself is a very extensive building, much 
larger than a King of Greece can require for his 
residence, or than his household can fill. It is 
an oblong square, about ninety paces by seventy. 
I have not seen the plans, but for the present it 
looks as if rather intended for a barrack than 
for a royal palace, and threatens to be little in 
accordance, as regards architectural beauty, with 
what remains of the works of the ancient Athe- 


nians : the architect is a Bavarian. It is gene- 
rally stated that the cost of this building will be 
defrayed out of the private estate of the King ; 
even if this be the case, it is to be regretted that 
a portion of the fund should not be otherwise 
applied. A smaller royal residence would have 
harmonized better with the extent of the king- 
dom, and have permitted the King to lend his 
aid to works of national utility in such a manner 
as to increase his hold upon the affections of his 

April 4. — About noon I made my appearance 
in the square before the palace. It is laid out 
as a garden and planted, and at that hour, when 
the guard is relieved, is the favourite resort both 
of strangers and of the Athenians, — some at- 
tracted by the military music, and some, per- 
chance, by the hope of a glimpse of certain fair 
maids of honour, who usually shew themselves 
whilst the band is playing. The King and Queen 
also generally make their appearance ; but the 
neighbourhood of the royal windows is decidedly 
less popular with the loungers, military and 
civil, than that of the windows of the aforesaid 


maids of honour. The square is, however, not 
the resort of the lovers of music and worshippers 
of beauty exclusively, for at the same hour may 
be seen within its precincts ex-ministers of state, 
ministers in ** esse," and ministers in '* posse," 
and not unfrequently some of the members of 
the corps diplomatique. It is a sort of neutral 
ground, on which news may be collected, and 
interviews with political friends or opponents 
arranged, and where, possibly, under the cover 
of a lounge, a good deal of political intrigue 
is carried on. It is the Lyceum of the Peri- 
patetics of modem Athens, 
r In the afternoon I had a private audience of 
the King, who, after receiving my acknow- 
ledgments, made inquiries as to my intended 
route on my departure from Athens. On 
being informed that my destination is Egypt, he 
made such remarks as to the monuments which 
exist in that country and as to the extraordinary 
man who rules it, as were calculated to leave an 
impression that he had made them the objects of 
his peculiar study. He afterwards questioned 
me as to the changes which I had remarked in 


the aspect of Athens and its vicinity; and in 
reply to the comparisons which I drew, he ob- 
served, very justly, '' Ce sont les bienfaits de la 
paix," — a proposition to which I most devoutly 
assented. The rejoinder suited to the atmosphere 
of an audience-chamber would have been — " Et 
du gouvernement paternel de votre Majesty ;" 
but, owing either to unreadiness of wit or to 
want of conviction, I allowed the opportunity of 
playing the courtier to escape me. 

From the palace I adjourned to the hospitable 
board of M. de Sartiges, the French Charg^ 
d' AflFaires, and thence to the opera, where Made- 
moiselle Bassi played the part of Norma with 
much taste, feeling, and science. The music of 
this opera, and the spirit with which the prima 
donna represents the jealousy and sorrows of the 
sinning and betrayed priestess, have turned half 
the young heads in Athens, and the theatre^ in 
consequence, is in extreme disfavour with some 
of the severe patriots of the revolutionary school, 
who look upon it as a channel through which 
corruption is poured into the arteries of ' ' la 
jeune Grfece.'* By some it is regarded as a field 


of innocent amusementi and by others as a 
means of hastening the progress of civilization^ 
and also, by being a centre in which men of all 
parties meet and communicate, of increasing the 
value of public opinion on matters of greater 
importance. The royal party, probably without 
reference to other motives than the amusement 
of the passing moment, patronizes the opera 
very frequently, and this evening was attended 
by the young Archduke Frederic, whose frigate 
arrived at the Piraeus yesterday. He appeared 
to be very animated and amusing in his conver- 
sation with his fair and royal neighbour, and in 
that offered a striking contrast to the bearing of 
the royal visiter who preceded him — Prince 
Henry of Orange, whose appearance in public 
was reserved and chilling in the extreme. The 
young archduke has gathered **golden opinions" 
from all who have approached him, whilst the 
young prince failed in rendering himself po- 
pular, either with the men or the ladies of 
Athens i by the latter^ his reserve was ascribed 
to insensibility to the charms of the sex, (no 
venial offence !) and by the former, to extreme 


hauteur. A Greek friend of mine observed to 
me, '' It is a pity (fiyai x^/pus) that here, where all 
that is constitutional should be fostered, the 
scion of a race of constitutional kings should 
have shewn himself so much less aifable than a 
nephew of the emperor I'' Those who know 
the young prince well, say that he is full of 
instruction and good feeling, and that his reserve 
is the effect of diffidence, — an inconvenient qua- 
lity for one who has to enact so distinguished a 
part on the stage of life. 

April 5. — I received an invitation from the 
Minister of Marine, to accompany him to the 
celebration of the anniversary of the outbreak of 
the revolution, which is to take place to-morrow 
at the church of St. Irene. It had been appre- 
hended that the plot of the 1st of January (O.S.) 
might serve as a pretext for abandoning, on the 
present occasion, this national ceremony. 

In the afternoon I walked out in the direction 
of the Academy, or rather of Patissia, between 
which place and the slope of Mount Anchesmus 
a military band usually plays on Sundays and 
holidays. Near the music was collected a goodly 


assemblage of Athenian beauty, in which were 
mingled several groups of English and other 
European ladies, whilst, attracted either by the 
sounds which filled the ear, or the sights which 
charmed the eye, was in attendance a crowd of 
loungers of various nations and in varied cos- 
tumes. On the outskirts of the crowd hovered 
several groups of horsemen, escorting the lady 
of the British minister and her daughter, both 
accomplished horsewomen, as it becomes En- 
glishwomen to be, and the Greek ladies of Gen. 
Gordon and Major Finlay, who worthily emulate 
the fashions of their adopted country ; these 
were the *' observed of all observers,*' until the 
court rode briskly across the plain to the edge 
of the circle, and fixed for a while the attention 
of all. The group was exceedingly picturesque ; 
the King, (who rides admirably,) dressed as an 
Albanian, — the Queen, flushed with exercise, and 
looking lovely, — the young Archduke, sitting 
his beautiful steed like a Templar, — the suite, 
some in Eastern, and some in Frank dresses, 
formed altogether a gallant array, which harmo- 
nized well with the motley assemblage of pedes- 


I have been present on the same ground 
when it exhibited scenes of a very different cha- 
racter. It was made use of as a '' place d'armes" 
when the head-quarters of the regular troops 
(m raxrixtfi) Were at Athens ; and in 1826 I was 
frequently a spectator when Colonel Fabvier 
passed his young legion in review, or formed 
them into square, precisely where the loungers 
of this afternoon were collected. On the same 
spot I saw the colours of the Tactikoi, which had 
been wrought by the fair hands of the ladies of 
Athens, consecrated and entrusted to the corps 
by the Bishop of Talandi, now Bishop of Attica, 
and the venerable head of the independent Greek 

Whilst musing on these contrasts and changes, 
I was addressed by a fineJooking man, in a rich 
Hydriote dress, whose countenance at once 
struck me as one which had been familiar to me 
years ago. I soon found that we were old ac- 
quaintances, he having commanded a beautiful 
schooner belonging to one of the gallant patriot 
brothers, Tombasi, at the time I was with the 
Greek fleet. When captain of that vessel, he 


distinguished himself as one of the most dashing 
officers of the fleet, and as one of the firmest 
supports of then avarch and of discipline in all 
critical circumstances. A distich, currently sung 
by the people of Hydra, though not very poetic, 
was strongly indicative of his high merit : — 

*H yoXXirra rou ToptC«(ri 
Tviv (tqiAoia riiv rgopka^if.* 

His name is Rafelli^, and he now holds the rank 
of full captain in the Greek navy. These ren- 
contres with men known under such different 
circumstanceSi and knowni too, as deserving of 
admiration and esteem, are highly interesting. 

* Which, after the doiggerel style of the origiDa], may be 
translated — 

" Tombasis' schooner in the fight, 
Doth the hostile fleet affright." 



Anniversary otEway&araffi^ — Te Deum at church of St Irene 
— Absence of certain Foreign ministers — Levee at 
Krieds* — Sir R. Church — Bey of Maina's circle — Gen- 
naios Colocotroni — Bishop of Attica a vassal of All 
Pacha — Chronicles — Greek beautj and toilette — Illumi- 
nations — General Church — ^Passport missing — Turkish 
bath — Farewell visits — Capitano Salafattino — Giorgio 
Bulgari, governor of Hydra — Slaughterer of the Mam* 
louks — Sir E. Lyons — Farewell to Athens — Veteran 
gunner of Miaoulis — Reduction of the navy. 

April 6. — ^The day opened most inauspiciously, 
the rain having fallen in torrents from midnight 
until about seven o'clock in the morning. At 
that hour a temporary cessation took place ; but 
the sky remained overcast with heavy clouds, 
threatening us with a day by no means in har- 
mony with the feelings of the inhabitants. 


At nine o'clock I went down to the Minister 
of Marine, whom I found surrounded by officers 
of the navy, assembled to offer their congratula- 
tions to their chief. We went in a body to the 
church of St. Irene, and although the building 
was already crowded to repletion, I very shortly 
found myself occupying an excellent post, close 
to the dais on which the seats of the royal 
couple were placed. Over it was a canopy of 
crimson velvet, on which were laid the crown 
and other insignia of royalty. Most of the mi- 
nisters and military chiefs were already in the 
church i but, in consequence of a deluge of rain 
which commenced just as we crossed the 
threshold, converting the streets into torrents, 
the arrival of the leading personages was de- 
layed, and the court did not make its appear- 
ance until nearly eleven o'clock. The interim, 
however, was by no means tedious to me, for it 
was well employed in conversing with those who 
were near to me. General Church stood at the 
right hand of the dais, and in a group behind 
him and at his side were Condouriotti, Zaimi, 
Delejanni, twoMavromichalis, Londos,Tzavellas, 
Grisiotti, and the two Grivas, besides several of 

T£ DBUM. 239 

the members of the first National Assembly of 
Astros, distinguished by a medal appended to a 
green riband. To the left of the dais stood Sa- 
hini, Gennaios Colocotroni, the young Deme- 
trius Mavromichali, and Prince Michael Soutzo, 
aides-de-camp to the King. The maids of ho- 
nour stood near to their royal mistress ; oppo- 
site to the dais were the ministers of state and 
the representatives of foreign powers. I am 
wrong, perhaps, in saying the representatives, 
for neither the Russian, Austrian, nor Prussian 
minister was present. The King and Queen 
were both in the national dress, which becomes 
the latter exceedingly ; as an adopted daughter 
of Hellas, her subjects might justly be proud of 

On the arrival of the sovereigns, they were 
met at the threshold of the church and con- 
ducted to the dais by the bishop of Attica, in 
mitre and pontificals, at the head of his clergy. 
The ceremony was very short, consisting simply 
of the Te Deum, sung by the ecclesiastical body, 
and of a benediction, pronounced by the bishop. 
The first strains of the Kyrie Eleison were greeted 
by a bright gleam of sunshine, which suddenly 


illuminated the churchi producing an effect 
almost electrical. The benediction was accom- 
panied by the roar of artillery in the capital, and 
in the church was succeeded by cries of z^Sroi 6 
Ba<nXfi}(— ZfSro; ti Bxalxunra ; to which was added, 
from the group behind me, that of z^Stw i 'EKxis.^ 
Outside the church, as the King got into his 
carriage, r6%vyraytJM — r6 2uvTa7ixa, " The constitu- 
tion ! — the constitution !'* was repeated by seve- 
ral voices mingled among the crowd. 

From the church we adjourned to the house of 
Kriezis, where were speedily added to his parti- 
cular cortege, Sahini, Gardikiotti Grivas, and the 
Beyzadeh of M aina ; and over chibouques and a 
cup of right moka the ceremony of the morning 
was duly discussed. Both among this party and 
elsewhere, subsequently in the course of the day, 
I heard the absence of the recreant ambassadors 
commented on as it deserved, — i. e., as an insult 
to the nation, and as a slight virtually offered to 
the King himself, the event, in the celebration 
of which they have refused to take part, having 
laid the foundation of the throne which he now 

♦ " Long live the King** — "Long live the Queen — May 
Greece flourish !" 


fills. Without that event, neither King nor am- 
bassadors would be at present in existence at 

From Kriezis' we progressed to the house of 
the commander-in-chief, Sir R. Church, where I 
met my quondam strategos (General) Londos. 
He has now the rank of colonel in activity, wears 
the Frank uniform, and is one of the most deter- 
mined '' appassionati" of Madlle. Bassi, offering, 
in person and pursuits, a singular contrast with 
the petticoated chieftain of the revolution. 

At the Bey's, where I afterwards presented 
myself, I found a collection of the gallant pal- 
lekaria of the old school, and among them 
had the pleasure of meeting some of the com- 
panions of my youthful adventures in the 
Morea. One of these, Capt. Salafattini, is now 
a grim old warrior of sixty, with beard as black, 
teeth as white, and step as firm, as when I 
scrambled over the mountains with him in 1825. 
He is still the true Mainote pallekar, and knows 
only his God, his country, and his chief. Among 
other circumstances of a less trifling nature 
which he recalled, my efibrts to keep my dress 

VOL. I. R 


cleaner and more free from inhabitants than that 
of my comrades, were not forgotten. 

Later in the day, I went to offer my congra- 
tulations to young Colocotroni, who is just re- 
turned from hip excursion to Corinth, Caritene, 
&c. My visit was returned by him whilst I was 
"journalizing" the scenes of the morning — an 
occupation which I willingly exchanged for a 
long and interesting conversation with him, in 
the course of which he informed me that he had 
taken notes of all the military and civil events of 
the revolution, in which he had been personally 
engaged. The perusal of them would be highly 
interesting, and the possession of them most va- 
luable to any one who might undertake the com- 
pilation of a detailed history of the times. I may, 
without violating the confidence of private inter- 
course, which (perhaps to the prejudice of the 
interest of my journal) I have endeavoured on 
all occasions to avoid, state, that my quondam 
commander disclaims the connexion with the 
Russian party which is generally imputed to 
him, and more especially with the Philorthodox 
conspiracy, the leaders of which he treats as men 


without head, ** y^fpis xg^oXi/' and whose views 
embraced merely a personal aggrandizement to 
which they are unsuited. He declares himself 
to be of no foreign party, but moved by patriotic 
feelings and views alone, professing that he has 
the same personal and national esteem for Eng- 
lishmen which distinguished him when I was 
before in this country, albeit he is no personal 
friend of the British minister. 

With reference to the cries of " Constitution T* 
which had been heard in the morning, he ob- 
served, that the desire of a constitution pervaded 
all classes and all parties, without distinction ; 
and that, ultimately, the general wish must be 
complied with by the sovereign. Although he 
professes to be a soldier, and no politician, I 
could perceive that he is fully alive to the poli- 
tical influence which a representative form of 
government would give to himself and his family, 
through their wide territorial possessions, and 
their extended relationship with the influential 
families of the Morea. When speaking of his 
present pursuits, he said, '* I have now changed 
my sword for a ploughshare, and am as actively 

R 2 


employed in planting currant and' mulberry trees 
as ever I was in uprooting Turks and Egyptians 
on the same ground." 

' It gratified me to hear him admit the good 
quality and capacity of several leading men 
whom he knows to be neither friends nor eulo- 
gists Qf himself, and, by this token of generous 
feeling, he has effaced from my memory many 
reports to his disadvantage which I have heard 
during my stay here, dictated possibly by po- 
litical animosity. It would be unpleasing to 
me to remember him otherwise than as the gal- 
lant patriot ; though, alas, years too frequently 
convert gallant soldiers into wily political in- 
triguers ! The Gennaios Colocotroni is married 
to a sister of Tzavellas, who holds so distin- 
guished a rank among the heroes of Misso- 

In the evening, accompanied by M. Psylla, I 
went to pay my respects to the Bishop of Attica, 
now the highest dignitary of the Independent 
Greek Church, whom, in 1826, 1 had known as 
the warlike Bishop of Talandi. His house was 
at that time the evening resort of all the distin- 


guislied patriots whom their public duties as^ 
sembled in Athens. I found the venerable old 
man little changed by the intervening years; 
and, though he has been going through the try- 
ing ordeal of the Greek Lent, he appeared as 
vigorous in mind and body as ever, and as ca- 
pable, if need were, of taking up the cross, and 
leading his flock to the combat, as he shewed 
himself to be at the outset of the revolution. 
Whilst I smoked a chibouque ** ecclesiastical'' in 
company with several long-bearded and saintly- 
looking personages, the bishop entertained us 
by recounting various anecdotes of that extraor- 
dinary man, Ali Pacha, whom, during twenty 
years, he visited twice a-year as the spiritual 
pastor of a numerous body of his subjects, and 
as intercessor in their behalf in temporal affairs. 
When detailing some of his conversations with 
him, the object of which was to prevent the effu- 
sion of blood, he gave the replies of Ali with an 
expression of countenance and a change in the 
tone of his voice so much in accordance with the 
recorded acts of the man, that I almost imagined 
the old Pacha to be seated at my side in proprid 


per8ond. He spoke of him as a man of great in- 
tellect, ^* ^«cXo «vfSM««/' but utterly destitute of 
all human feeling ; and cited the last act of his 
life — ^which gave him up to the tender mercies of 
his bitter personal enemy, and was so opposed 
to the dictates of common prudence, much more 
to those of the profound cunning and depth of 
purpose which had distinguished his previous 
career — as an especial dispensation of Provi- 
dence. In reply, I quoted the old saw : ** Quem 
Deus vult perdere prius dementat," with which 
his '' despotship" (Aeavor^^ is the title given to 
bishops) seemed not a little pleased. He told' 
me that he left Jannina only five days before the 
death of Ali, ascribing also to the wise purposes 
of Heaven the inspiration which made him fore- 
see the final catastrophe, and turn away his face 
from the den of the tyrant before it became an 
arena of indiscriminate slaughter, thus preserv- 
ing him to be useful to his country. He has 
noted down, from day to day, all the incidents of 
his life, both as connected with that of the 
Pacha of Jannina, and with the Greek revolution. 
How replete with interest must these ** chro- 


nicies" be, and what a strange contrast would 
their details present to those of my chivalrous 
and clerkly friend, Sir John Froissart I 

During the day the shops were closed through- 
out the city, and the inhabitants, both male and 
female, exhibited themselves in festal attire. Tlie 
dresses of the old pallekars were especially bril- 
liant, throwing into the shade those of the '* re- 
negade'' Hellenes, and of the Frank visiters. 
Among the fairer part of the population were 
visible many lovely countenances, which on 
ordinary days are seldom exposed to the public 
eye. Their ample tresses plaited round the 
head, and interwoven with bright-coloured ker- 
chiefs, or wreaths of flowers, display the profile to 
great advantage. The only part of their dress 
which calls for reform or modification, is that 
which ought to conceal and support the regions 
adjacent to the heart, but does not perform that 
duty so effectually as the advocates of the mys- 
tery of female delicacy would wish. This remark 
applies only to the matrons, — the unmarried fair 
are as reserved as the matrons are lavish in their 
display. It is*not in Athens that the finest spe- 



cimens of Greek beauty are to be sought. Cer- 
tainly, on a day like this,' many are to be found 
by the observer curious in such matters, (and 
what Wanderer of good taste is hot curious 
therein ?) but for the most part they are 
st^'angers here. It is in the islands of the Archi- 
pelago that the purest blood is to be found ; and 
both among them and in Livadia, the curiosity 
of the most curious will receive ample gratifi- 
cation in this particular. 

In the afternoon the Queen drove through 
the city, attended by one of her maids of honour, 
and was greeted in all quarters, by all classes, 
and by both sexes, with demonstrations of de- 
voted loyalty and affection. 

In the evening there was a state dinner at the 
palace ; and, in the city, the government offices, 
and the residences of such of the foreign mi- 
nisters as had assisted at the ceremony of the 
morning, were brilliantly illuminated. The theatre 
also was lighted up, and the court, ministers, 
&c., attended '* en grande tenue.'' On the walls 
of the Acropolis were rows of immense torches, 
the fitful light from which > glancing on the 


monuments within, produced a most picturesque 

I should have treated as a '' dreamer of 
dreams" any one who, fourteen years ago, 

might have told me that I should ever be a spec- 


tator of such ceremonies and scenes, and pass 
the day in the manner I have described at the 
foot of the Acropolis I . 

I devoted the morning of the 7th to a farewell 
circuit of the Acropolis, and to a visit to the 
building which, for the present, does duty as the 
University of Athens. 

In the lecture-room I found M. Landerer, the 
royal professor of chemistry, surrounded by an 
attentive audience, composed of both middle- 
aged and young pupils, to whom he was deliver- 
ing a lecture on mineralogy. He is a Bavarian, 
but is a perfect master of the language of the 
country, in which his lecture was delivered. I 
have thus heard an Englishman plead, an Ame- 
rican preach, and a Bavarian lecture, in Greek, 
all apparently thoroughly versed in the delicacies 
of the language. 

My day was agreeably closed at the table of 


General Church » whose career is too well known 
to require any record from me. He is held in 
high esteem by men of all parties, and, even by 
those who are opposed to him in opinion upon 
political subjects, is recognised as one of the 
most ardent and enthusiastic of the adopted sons 
of Greece. Years do not seem to have damped 
the ardour of his feelings, nor to have tarnished 
the brightness of his chivalry. The unfortunate 
result of the battle of Athens has been laid to the 
charge of General Church, who has been taxed 
with imprudence by more than one ** chronicler** 
of the affairs of Greece, for having opposed the 
irregular soldiery under his command to the 
Turkish horse in the open plain. That it was 
imprudent and hazardous so to expose them, 
unsupported by cavalry, or by efficient artillery, 
there can be no doubt ; but I do doubt whether 
the blame has been laid upon the right shoulders. 
I have had an opportunity of discussing that dis- 
astrous affair both with Greeks and Philhellenes 
who were present, and they all concur in stating 
that General Church was forced into it against 
his better judgment, and under a threat of the 

PASSPORT M1£S1N0. 251 

withdrawal of the Aeet. It is said that even 
taunts were employed by those who were eager 
for the fray — taunts which it is difficult for a 
soldier to tolerate, but which the previous career 
of General Church authorized him to meet with 
disdain; 'unfortunately, he permitted them to 
move him from his purpose, and surrendered his 
judgment to that of others of less experience in 
the warfare of the country. He narrowly escaped 
being made prisoner by the Turkish horse ; him- 
self and a few pallekars, whom he had kept 
together after the rout took place, having been 
beaten back to the sea-shore, and been compelled 
to wade or swim to the boats, which were lying 
off, under a heavy fire from their pursuers. 

On the 8th, I commenced my preparations 
for departure, and was not a little disconcerted 
to find, on application at the police office, that 
my passport was missing. I was assured that 
it had never made its appearance at the office, 
as also that it was not necessary that English 
passports should be deposited there. On my 
arrival at the Piraeus, the captain of the Austrian 
steamer had informed me that it was delivered 


by him to the police of that port, and would be 
duly forwarded to the capital, such being the 
regular course of proceeding ; and, confiding in 
his information, I allowed myself to be separated 
from it without further inquiry. I could find no 
trace of it either at the police or the health office 
of the Piraeus, but was more fortunate in my 
inquiries at the bureau of the Austrian steamers, 
where it had been, in the interval since my 
arrival, exposed to the claims of all comers. 
I was too happy to resume possession of it to 
feel disposed to enter into any investigation as 
to the cause of the irregularity, which I mention 
merely as a caution to those who may hereafter 
be iqvited, like myself, to separate themselves 
from so important a document. Tt is far from 
agreeable to suppose that the possession of one's 
passport by another may be entailing a respon- 
sibility for follies or misdemeanors in which we 
have no share. 

I had caught a severe cold at the national fes- 
tival of Monday, and being on the eve of my 
departure, I was tempted to try the effects of a 
Turkish bath, as offering the chances of a more 


prompt cure than any other remedy. The result 
was fortunately successful; and I should not 
hesitate again to employ the same remedy under 
similar circumstances, or to recommend it to 
others, although I was afterwards informed that 
at this season of the year it is rather a dangerous 
experiment. I was stewed, kneaded, half dis- 
solved in perspiration, deluged with soap-suds 
almost to suffocation, then half drowned in hot 
water, and by the time the operation was com- 
pleted, found myself a ** new man." The stew- 
ing process was, I confess, rather trying, for, 
during the first quarter of an hour which I passed 
in the heated chamber, the feeling of oppression 
at my chest, which, together with a dry cough, 
constituted my malady^ increased almost to suf- 
focation. I was, however, then relieved by tor- 
rents of perspiration, by which the oppression 
was gradually, sensibly, and entirely carried off. 
A chibouque and a long sleep completed the 

The baths, or ** loutro," at Athens, are in the 
old Turkish establishment, but are much inferior 
in their arrangements to the establishments of 


the same nature at Smyrna and Constantinople. 
They are indifferently fitted up, and the cham- 
bers in which the patient is stoved are very 
gloomy, being dimly lighted by small glazed 
apertures in the domes, by which they are sur- 
mounted. Tf the patient be rather an invalid, 
and his bath be taken in the evening, his ima- 
gination will become almost as heated as his 
person. The imperfect light, — the mistiness 
created by the steam, — the long, hollow rever- 
berations of his own voice, and of that of the 
operator, as he cheers himself in his various 
occupations of kneading and cracking of joints, 
— the intense heat in which he is enveloped, 
form a combination which affects the nerves to a 
certain extent, and transforms for the moment 
the naked and swarthy attendants into ministers 
of evil ! 

April 9. — The day passed away in paying and 
receiving farewell visits, in the course of which 
I received, and willingly believed, many assur- 
ances that my return to Athens would afford 
pleasure to those who have contributed to the 
enjoyment and interest of my present visit to 


the capital. That many of these assurances 
were sincere I have a thorough conviction ; but 
even if the belief in them were an illusion, it is 
one of those illusions which are the sunshine of 
life, and without which our pilgrimage would be 
but a weary journey, and sorry should I be were 
they dissipated. 

Among my visiters was the young Mavro- 
michali, by whom I was favoured with many 
interesting particulars respecting those members 
of his family who perished during the revolution. 
These will form no unfit appendage to a sketch 
of the state of the province of Maina prior to, 
and since the revolution, which one who has 
long resided in that wild and primitive district, 
and for a while ruled its destinies, has promised 
to supply me with. The young Beyzadeh also 
recounted to me many anecdotes of my old com- 
rade. Captain Salafattini, of whom mention is 
made in the details I have given respecting the 
anniversary of the Enayeurratni. 

That fine old man was in active service from 
the outbreak of the war until its close, and on 
many occasions, both in the Morea and in 


Roumely, distinguished himself as a dauntless 
and indefatigable soldier. In the early part of the 
revolution, as an acknowledgment of some signal 
act of successful daring, the provisional govern- 
ment awarded to him the title of ** Strategos," 
together with a sum of no inconsiderable mag- 
nitude. He refused the former, saying that he 
might be a good captain, but should make a bad 
general ; and declined receiving the latter, alleg- 
ing that his country had greater need of money 
than his family. This took place at a time when 
the love of money, and the desire of military 
titles, were the besetting sins of many of his 
fellow soldiers. Previous to and during his mili- 
tary career, his favourite amusement was to 
listen to the History of Ancient Greece, whilst 
read aloud by any of his more erudite com- 
panions or comrades. Since the country has 
been at peace, he has taught himself to read, and 
he now passes his time in studying the same 
history, or the Bible, and in attendance upon his 
sick chief. He has been attached to the Mav- 
roniichali family since his earliest infancy, and, 
except during the war, has been the constant 


companion of the Bey. During the war he at- 
tended other members of the family wherever 
the struggle promised to be most severe, and 
several of them died in his arms. His life oflfers 
a bright example of disinterested devotion to his 
country and to his chief. 

During a visit to Kriezis, the conversation fell 
upon the political position of Egypt, and from 
that reverted to the early career of Mehemet 
Ali, and to the pachas who had preceded him in 
the government of that country, Hussein and 
Khosref. These topics led to the history of the 
father of Madame Kriezis, Giorgio Bulgari, a 
Hydriote. He held high rank in the fleet of 
both those pachas, was mainly instrumental in 
crushing the power of the Mamlouk beys under 
Hussein, and when Omer Vrionis (whose name 
is so frequently mentioned in the history of 
Poucqueville) was driven from, or negotiated 
out of, his share in the government of the 
country by Mehemet Ali, he conveyed him and 
his immense treasures in safety to Salonica, first 
having insisted on his embarking, accompanied 
only by a small suite of personal attendants, in 

VOL. I. s 


acknowledgment of his implicit reliance on the 
honour of himself and his Hydriote followers. 
Subsequently he was appointed by the Porte to 
the command of a division of the Turkish fleet 
which was despatched on a cruise against the 
pirates of Tripoli, and afterwards (in 1804) was 
named governor of his native island, where he 
died in 1812. Whilst he was governor of Hydra, 
a Russian fleet made its appearance off the har- 
bour, and summoned, or invited, the inhabitants 
to hoist the imperial flag in place of that of the 
Porte, holding out to them the promise of effi- 
cient protection against the power of the Sultan. 
Several of the most influential primates were de- 
sirous that the summons should be complied 
with, but Bulgari wisely rejected it, and laying 
before his countrymen the conduct of Russia on 
former occasions, when the Greeks had been in- 
cited by that Power to throw off the Turkish 
yoke, and afterwards abandoned to the vengeance 
of their enraged '' Suserain," he endeavoured to 
convince them that on that occasion also they 
would be abandoned as soon as the purposes of 
Russia should be served. His views of the 


matter drew down upon him the enmity of the 
philo-Russian primates, and they formed a con- 
spiracy, the object of which was to obtain pos- 
session of his person, and to deliver him into the 
hands of the Russian admiral. Bulgari having 
a strong party among the islanders, by the mass 
of whom he was both beloved and feared, the 
plot was discovered, and failed, and the Russian 
admiral in consequence withdrew his fleet with^ 
out accomplishing his object. The withdrawal 
of the fleet did not, however, put an end to the 
projects of the dissentient primates, and violent 
feuds arose between their partisans and such of 
the islanders as supported the authority of the 
governor, menacing the island with civil strife 
and bloodshed. Partly to prevent this, and partly 
to satisfy the wishes of his friends, who under- 
took to maintain his authority in the meanwhile, 
Bulgari withdrew for a time to Athens.* On 
his return to Hydrai a Turkish squadron (manned 
in part by Hydriotes, as was then the custom) 
made its appearance off the island, and the go- 
vernor received orders to inflict signal punish- 
ment on the rebeUious primates. . Far, however, 



from lending a prompt obedience to this com- 
mand, which offered him the means of taking 
vengeance on the men who had sought his de- 
struction, he connived at the escape or conceal- 
ment of the offending parties, and, becoming 
himself the mediator between them and the Porte, 
eventually screened them from all punishment. 
After giving me a sketch of the adventurous life 
of his father-in-law, my host remarked, that if 
he had lived, the Greek revolution would not 
have wanted a native chief capable of moulding 
into system its heterogeneous materials ; adding 
the very characteristic observation, that ^' he was 
a man of head and of heart, and who, with two 
words, could make his companions walk through 

There is a strange inconsistency in the cha- 
racter and deeds of men of these climes at the 
epoch to which this sketch refers. The same 
Giorgio Bulgari, who, as governor of Hydra, so 
nobly interfered to protect his personal foes from 
the consequences of their conspiracy against 
himself, when he was in the service of the 
Egyptian Pacha, relentlessly issued the mandate 


which consigned to destruction a body of gallant 
soldiers, the Mamlouk beys, who had come in 
all amity to visit the Pacha's yacht, then com- 
manded by him. For this act he had simply the 
command of his chief ; at the beck of an infidel 
he slew infidels, and possibly in so doing he ima- 
gined himself to be acting the part of a good 
Christian as well as of a faithful soldier. Be 
this as it may, unfortunately for his otherwise 
untarnished reputation, Bulgari was the chief 
actor in a deed of political vengeance and 
treachery, which, only in the number of its vic- 
tims, was surpassed by that of which subse- 
quently the citadel of Cairo was the theatre, and 
the Mamlouk beys also the victims. 

The beys had visited the Pacha (the Pacha of 
the Porte, not Mehemet Ali, who at that time 
held only a subordinate military rank) under a 
pledge of safety guaranteed to them by the com- 
mander of the British fleet. They were received 
courteously, and after being regaled with the 
customary tokens of Eastern welcome and hospi- 
tality, were dismissed by the Pacha with smiles 
and assurances of friendship. On quitting his 


presence they were induced by his followers to 
visit the yacht, alongside of which they were re- 
ceived with a discharge of musketry. Sixteen of 
the beys were killed or mortally wounded, and 
the persons of the remainder secured, after a 
vigorous but confused resistance. The English 
admiral interfered as soon as the affair came to 
his knowledge, and obtained the immediate re- 
lease of the latter. The Pacha alleged that it 
had arisen from a sudden quarrel between the 
beys and the Greek sailors, and promised that 
the offenders should be given up to condign 
punishment. In the meanwhile he had ordered 
Bulgari and his sailors (who, I ftor^ were also 
Hydriotes) to make their escape, and to remain 
in concealment until the matter, should be for- 
gotten. Thus the first blow aimed at the power 
of the beys was inflicted by a native of that 
island which was destined, io after years, to send 
forth the bitterest enemies of the exterminator of 
that fated race. 

After devoting the day to my Greek friends, I 
passed the evening at the hospitable board of 
his excellency the British minister, where I met 

SIR E. LYONS. 263 

a thoroughly European, and almost English, 
circle. Among the party were several of the 
restless tribe of wanderers, which England sends 
forth in so much greater number than any other 
nation, who here are welcomed by their national 
protector with a liberality and hospitality which 
in some of the western capitals of Europe are 
becon\e merely traditional. Sir Edmund Lyons 
will, I trust, pardon this observation from one 
who carries away from Athens a grateful remem- 
brance of his personal kindness, as well as of 
his valuable counsel and assistance in matters 
sumbitted to the government. To the latter, 
in my quality of Englishman, I might suppose 
myself to have some claim, — the former I ac- 
knowledge as purely ** octroy^," and my grati- 
tude has been awakened accordingly. I trusti 
also, that Sir E. Lyons will pardon the occa- 
sional reference which I have made to his poli- 
tical bias and to the exercise of his political in- 
fluence. I have abstained from such reference 
excepting on points on which he is supposed 
frankly to avow them ; and whereupon their 
frank avowal is perhaps the most astute diplo- 


macy. Both as an Englishman and as a Fhil- 
hellene do I devoutly wish that his zealous 
efforts may be crowned with success ; nor am I 
without sanguine hopes that such will be their 
result^ seeing that he has assured himself of the 
sympathy and co-operation of men who have 
given, in their past career, undeniable pledges of 
their disinterested patriotism and devotion, to the 
public weal. 

On the 10th, I bade adieu to my beloved 
Acropolis, and at six, p.m., embarked on board 
the French steamer Eurotas. 

The last moments I spent on Attic soil were 
passed in the society of my friend A. D. Kriezis, 
and of the grandson of Miaoulis, who softened 
the regrets of my departure by many kind wishes 
for my safe and speedy return. They were dis- 
tinguished by one of those rencontres which 
bring the past and present of the political posi- 
tion of Greece in forcible contrast. Whilst 
smoking ' a farewell chibouque under a pic- 
turesque shed, which forms part of the principal 
caf6 on the shore of the harbour of the Piraeus, 
a tall, gaunt, but vigorous old man, in the uni- 


form of a petty naval officer, was pointed out to 
me by the young Miaoulis, who inquired whether 
I did not remember him. I had a sort of dreamy 
recollection of his features, but was unable to 
connect them with time or place, until my in- 
quirant asked me whether I had not seen him on 
board the Navarch's vessel. I then at once re- 
membered him as a favourite follower of the 
admiral, at whose side he had fought from the 
commencement of the war. He had a smatter- 
ing of gunnery, and was for that reason a man 
of some importance among his companions. By 
Miaoulis himself he was greatly esteemed, and in 
return was devotedly attached to him, and was 
most exemplary in his performance of the duties 
which devolved upon him as gunner of the ad- 
miral's ship. After the close of the war^ he 
adventured his all in the purchase of a small 
vessel, which unfortunately was wrecked, and he 
was thrown upon the world in his old age, with 
a numerous family of daughters depending upon 
him for support. In consideration of his past 
services, the same rank which he held in the 
service of Miaoulis was granted to him in the 


Royal Navy in 1 833, and has been since held by 
him. Recently^ however, he was on the point 
of being again thrown destitute upon the world, 
the vigorous remonstrances of the Minister of 
Marine having alone prevented the government 
from making such a further reduction of the 
naval force of the country (already far more re- 
duced than gratitude for past services, or policy 
warrants) as would have involved the dismissal 
of this old veteran, and of many others scarcely 
less deserving. 

I would willingly have closed the memoranda 
of my visit to Athens with anecdotes indicative 
of a desire on the part of the present government 
to discharge the debts of therevoluti on, through 
which it has been called into existence, but un- 
fortunately such instances are rare, more espe- 
cially as regards the ^* England of the Archipe- 
lago," and probably will so remain until northern 
influence be less predominant around the throne. 



Hydra— Origin and antiquity — Rise — State of, at commence- 
ment of war of independence — Fleet — How armed, and 
manned— Government under Turks — First naval expe- 
dition — Second idem — Miaoulis joins the fleet — His 
gallantry at Patros — Named Navarch — ^Battle off Spezia — 
Gallantry of Ej*iezis — ^Effects on position of Morea — De- 
feat and slaughter of Dramali Pacha's army — Ilydriote 
families — Kriczis — Blowing up of Ncreus, and massacre of 
prisoners at Hydra — Miaoulis — Anecdotes of the admiral, 
— Condouriottis — Zamados — Tombasis — Giorgio Bul- 
gari — Administration of justice — Knout given by 
members of council — Bastinado administered by Coloco- 
troni — Present condition of Hydra — Causes of decay- 
Character of Hydriotcs — Spezia — Inhabitants — Hospi- 
table reception of the author — Calojeros Procopio — Pre- 
sent state of Spezia — Amazon Bobolina — Ipsara— Cha- 
racter of inhabitants — Giorgio D'Apostoli — Ipsariote 
admiral — Lamentations over wife and daughter. 

Before turning my back upon Athens, I may, 
perhaps, be permitted to devote a chapter to the 
past and present condition of those islands which 
supplied and manned the fleets, and without the 

268 HYDRA. 

co-operation of which the efforts made by the 
inhabitants of continental Greece to shake off 
the Turkish yoke would only, as in time past, 
have served to rivet their chains more firmly. 

These remarks will be compiled chiefly from 
the notes with which I have been supplied by a 
member of a Hydriote family, which has suffered 
and sacrificed much for the public weal ; but I 
shall take the liberty of mingling therewith the 
substance of some memoranda taken by myself, 
whilst living in daily intercourse with the leaders 
and captains of the fleet in 1825, as also a few 
anecdotes which may appear to me to throw 
light either on the character of individuals, or 
on the manners of a country less known to us, 
until late years, than those of parts of the globe 
infinitely more distant. 

I commence with Hydra. 

According to the most approved local autho- 
rities, the island, if inhabited at all, has been 
inhabited to a very limited extent during little 
more than four centuries, and until nearly the 
middle of the last century, was one of the most 
insignificant of the Archipelago. Within the 
memory of a few of its most aged inhabitants, (in 

HYDRA. 269 

1825,) the town of Hydra was composed of only 
between two hundred and three hundred houses, 
built of wood, and roofed with shingles. At that 
time the mountains of the island were covered 
with olives, and with such trees as find nourish- 
ment on a rocky soil, and its caiques built of 
timber of native growth. The late Antonio 
Miaoulis, in his work on the origin of Hydra, en- 
deavours, however, to prove, that the island has 
been inhabited from the most remote antiquity. 
This is a point of little moment ; for it is not 
to any exploits of their ancestors, but to the 
stalwart deeds of the Hydriotes of the present 
day that the island owes its celebrity. Their 
annals during late years would have borne com- 
parison with those of the most brilliant days of 
Greece, and they have no need to produce the 
chronicles of their fathers to entitle them to pur 
respect. In this, how much more fortunate are 
they than the inhabitants of certain islands and 
cities, both eastward and westward, who perhaps 
glory in the history of the past, while it ought 
only to call to their brow the blush of shame for 
their present degeneracy. 


It may not, however, be uninteresting to trace 
in the sources from which the island has succes- 
sively derived its increase of population, the 
origin of the spirit of enterprise and of hardihood 
by which, since they have become known as a 
distinct race, these islanders have been distin- 

The first settlers in Hydra from a distance, of 
whom there is any certain record, were from the 
mountains of Albania. They were a portion of 
the followers of that gallant patriot chief. Scan- 
derbeg. When his career of brilliant exploits, 
achieved with scanty forces, in the face of the 
then mighty power of the Porte, was terminated 
by his untimely death* — a career which is yet the 
subject of martial ditties and tales of wonder in 
the wild mountains of Albania-r-many of his 
hardy followers sought refuge in this island from 
the Turkish yoke, which, deprived of their leader, 
they had no longer the means of avoiding at 

The population of the island was subsequently, 

' * Scanderbeg, otherwiso Giorgio Castriolcs, died in the 
year 1467. 


from time to time, augmented by refugees, 
driven thither from the mainland by causes of a 
similar nature, but it did not assume any nume- 
rical importance until the fatal attempt to thro^v 
off the Turkish yoke, which was made by the 
inhabitants of the Peloponessus at the instiga- 
tion of Catherine of Russia, and which, having 
received only the semblance of support from her 
fleet under the command of her minion, Orloif, 
drew down upon them the bloody and unsparing 
vengeance of their enraged masters. 

Many of the inhabitants of Argolis and of 
Liaconia, at that time, sought refuge in Hydra, 
and the island thenceforward made rapid in- 
crease in population and in wealth. The soil 
being, for the most part, arid and unproductive^ 
and the land susceptible of cultivation being 
barely sufficient to supply the wants of the for- 
mer inhabitants, the new comers necessarily 
turned their attention to the resources which its 
insular position offered. 

The caiques and barks, which had hitherto con- 
stituted the maritime strength of the island, were 
gradually replaced by vessels of larger size, and 

272 FLEBT 

the enterprise of those by whom they were 
manned extended itself in proportion. From 
being mere traders to the neighbouring islands 
of the Archipelago, they became frequenters of 
the coast of Africa and of Asia Minor, and car- 
ried on a traffic of some importance between 
those districts and Constantinople. It was, 
however, destined that the trade and importance 
of Hydra should again receive an impulse from 
a revolution, not such an one as had before ad- 
vanced its prosperity, but a revolution, the vibra- 
tions of which were to be felt, for good and for 
evil, beyond the limits of Europe, but which, 
for the Hydriotes, was productive only of good— r- 
that of France. It opened for them a carrying 
trade in grain from the Black Sea to the ports of 
Italy, of France, and of Spain, which was suc- 
cessfully carried on by them for years, and ra- 
pidly increased their capital. Their enterprise 
kept pace with their increase of means, and at 
the commencement of the present century their 
commercial navy was not greatly inferior in 
number and strength to that which they pos- 
sessed at the outbreak of the revolution of 


Greece, though prior to the French revolution 
they had few vessels exceeding in burthen from 
a hundred to a hundred and thirty tons. 

At the commencement of the war of indcr 
pendence, Hydra counted nearly twenty thousand 
inhabitantSi of whom between four and five thou- 
sand were able-bodied seamen ; in fact, with the 
exception of the very young and very old, few of 
them were not seamen. These were barely suffi- 
cient to furnish her yearly tribute of men to the 
Porte, (two hundred,) and to man her commercial 
navy, which had then increased to ninety vessels, 
varying from two hundred to five hundred tons in 
burthen, the greater number being of a size be- 
tween the two extremes. Most of these vessels 
were built at Hydra and by Hydriote builders, 
some few at Venice and Leghorn. 

When these vessels were converted into ships 
of war, they were armed with from ten to fourteen 
guns, and manned with from fifty to eighty men, 
according to their tonnage. Some of them, but 
these were very few, carried eighteen or twenty 
guns, and were manned in proportion. The 
larger vessels, for the most part, had four long 

VOL. I. T 


brass guns amid ships. The older and less sea- 
worthy and smaller craft were converted into 
fire-ships. It is estimated that thirty-two of 
their own vessels were disposed of in this man- 
ner by the Hydriotes in the course of the war, 
and that eighteen of those belonging to other 
islands were set fire to by them in the same ca- 
pacity. With what success many of them were 
consumed is matter of history. With few excep- 
tions, the vessels, as ships of war, were under 
the immediate command of their owners. Where 
the ownership extended to several vessels — ^as 
with the Tombasis, Kriezis, &c. — the owners 
were represented in their command of the smaller 
ones by confidential captains, some of whom 
distinguished themselves not less than those 
whose all was at stake in the struggle. 

A word as to fire-ships may be not misplaced. 
I do not know in what manner the fire-ships of 
nations more experienced in naval warfare are 
managed ; those of the Greeks were thus con- 
structed and conducted : — ^The body of the vessel 
was filled with combustibles of eyery description ; 
under each of the hatches was placed a certain 


quantity of powder, communicating with which 
were trains or quick-burning matches, laid in 
pipes to, and along each side of the vessel, and 
having openings outward which were stopped 
with plugs. The captain of the ** doomed'^ 
vessel was aided by his crew in carrying her as 
near as might be to the enemy. When so near 
that the fire of the enemy rendered the deck no 
longer tenable for the crew, they got down into 
the launch, which was towed under cover of the 
least exposed side of the vessel. The captain, 
however, kept his post at the helm until the mo- 
ment for setting fire to the craft was arrived. 
He then lashed the helm, and joining his com- 
rades in the launch, set fire to the train, and 
every nerve was strained by the crew to get away 
from the fire of the enemy and beyond reach of 
the explosion. The fire running along the pipes, 
the hatches were blown up, and the vessel be- 
fore its final explosion became a mass of flame. 
Great as was the terror of the Turks on the ap- 
proach of these vessels, the service was one of 
no common danger, and these devoted brfllotiers, 
holding on their lonely way under a storm of 



shoty are certainly entitled to our admiration. 
Many of the most daring, and among them Ca- 
naris, however, repeatedly escaped uninjured 
from these acts of devotion. The Speziotes dis- 
tinguished themselves less than either the Hy- 
driotes or Ipsariotes in the management of fire- 
ships. One of their fire-ships, which for several 
years had remained unconsumed, was quaintly 
styled by their confederates, to adavarov w/>foXixov, 
** the immortal fire-ship,'* or, literally, ** thrower 
of fire." If I remember rightly, it belonged to 
the primate Botassi. 

Under the Turks, Hydra had been exempted 
from receiving a Turkish governor — a privilege 
which was granted in exchange for the yearly 
contribution of sailors with which it supplied the 
Turkish fleet. They were esteemed by the 
Turks as the best and bravest of their galiongis, 
and had many privileges secured to them, whence 
their title of ** Chamesli," or the privileged. 
The island was first under the protection of the 
Sultana Validd, and afterwards under that of the 
Capudan Pacha. The yoke of the Turk, conse- 
quently, pressed more lightly U|:on its inhabi- 


tants than upon those of any of the other islands 
of the \rchipelago, (for the conscription was 
scarcely looked upon as a hardship by men who 
often made a brilliant career on board the Turkish 
fleet,) and such being the case, they are the more 
entitled to our admiration for having been the 
first to devote themselves and their hardly-earned 
wealth on the altar of patriotism and liberty. 

The result of the first naval expedition was 
not very brilliant. The fleet was composed of 
a hundred and twenty vessels, of which about 
the half were Hydriote, and the remainder Spe- 
ziote and Ipsariote. The Hydriote division was 
under the joint command of Giacomaki Tombasi, 
Anastasio Tzamados, and Lazaro Lalecos, as 
navarchs. The various captains not being yet 
accustomed to act in concert, the commanders 
effected little in the way of annoyance to the 
enemy, and their efforts were almost exclusively 
confined to offering succour and an asylum to 
the less warlike inhabitants of the other islands, 
more particularly of Scio. 

The second expedition was conducted much in 
the same manner, and with similar results, the 


Greek vessels venturing to do little more than 
to exchange distant shots with the enemy, in 
order to cover the attack and retreat of their 
fire-ships. The attacks made with the latter^ 
compared with those which took place in the 
ensuing year, (1823,) were mere trials, or les- 

During these two expeditions, Miaoulis had 
remained a mere spectator. He had previously 
endeavoured to dissuade his countrymen from 
entering upon the war, on account of the enor- 
mous superiority of the naval forces with which 
they would have to contend, and it was not until 
after the return of the second expedition that he 
decided on joining the combined fleet of the three 
islands. During his first cruise he acted merely 
as captain of his own vessel — a beautiful brig 
of sixteen guns — and in the council of captains 
was distinguished rather for his extreme caution 
than for any spirit of enterprise ; so much so, 
indeed, that he was even reproached by his com- 
rades with timidity. 

It would appear, however, that the future hero 
was at this time studying both the weak points 


of the enemy and the resources of his own 
countrymen, with a view to future action ; for 
so sooh as an opportunity presented itself of 
bringing them to the proof, and, at the same 
time, of setting a brilliant example in his own 
person, he eifectually demonstrated to his com- 
rades that, although he could calculate and reason 
upon the disparity of forces, he was insensible 
to fear. This opportunity offered itself in the 
waters of Patras. He had boldly pressed for- 
ward on the rear of the Turkish fleet, which was 
making all sail from the dreaded fire-ships, and 
his was the headmost vessel of the squadron, 
when the wind lulled, and he was becalmed be- 
tween two of the enemy's frigates. He continued 
for some time in that perilous position, and the 
three vessels being enveloped in the dense smoke 
from their own guns, which the calm allowed to 
hang lazily over them, his consorts lost sight 
of him, and supposed him to be sunk. Such 
must necessarily have been his fate had he to 
deal with any other than the disorderly and un- 
skilful crews of Turkish vessels, deprived of 
the assistance of those (the Hydriote galiongis) 


to whom the working of their ships had been 
heretofore entrusted. At length a slight breeze 
sprung up, and discovered the two frigates much 
crippled in their rigging, and the gallant brig 
comparatively uninjured, under the complete 
command of her crew, and pouring repeated 
(Lilliputian !) broadsides fore and aft of her now 
unwieldy antagonists. This chastisement, thanks 
to the confusion of the enemy, she was enabled 
to continue for more than an hour, when the ap- 
proach of other vessels cornpelled her to make 
her retreat, which she effected without suffering 
severe loss. This brilliant affair, achieved in 
view of his countrymen, who were at too great a 
distance to afford him effectual assistance, won 
all their confidence, and obtained for him his com*- 
mission as supreme navarch of the combined 
fleet. The old admiral has since confessed that 
whilst in this critical situation he had given him- 
self up as lost, but was determined to punish 
the enemy as severely as possible before going 
down. When the clearing away of the smoke 
shewed the crippled state of their rigging, he 
saw and availed himself of his advantage. 


The next naval affair of note took place in the 
waters of Spezia, and between that island, Hydra, 
and the Main. The Turkish fleet was composed 
of seventy ships of war (of which four were 
three-deckers) and thirty transports, and was 
destined for the bombardment of Hydra and 
Spezia, and for the relief of Napoli di Romania, 
at that time closely invested by land. The Greek 
fleet consisted of about seventy sail. Notwith- 
standing the advantage which their knowledge 
of the currents, shoals, &c. of those narrow seas 
afforded to the Greeks, and the difficulty which 
the Turks experienced in availing themselves, in 
such a situation, of their immense superiority 
in strength and number, the first onset was un- 
favourable to the islanders, and several of their 
vessels were driven on shore, and many others 
sought safety in a confused flight. Kriezis, on 
this occasion, greatly distinguished himself, and 
prevented a general rout. He successively en- 
gaged the pursuing vessels between Hydra and 
the small island of Docos, and by his superior 
seamanship contrived to throw broadside after 
broadside into ships of double and treble his 


Strength, with comparatively slight damage to 
his own vessel, (the Epaminondas^ carrying 
eighteen heavy guns.) Meanwhile he had sig- 
nalled to one of the most dashing brfilotiers to 
carry his vessel into the thickest of the pursuing 
squadron^ which was gallantly effected, Kriezis 
protecting the retreat of the launch. Though 
the fire-ship unfortunately burnt without setting 
any of the enemy's vessels on fire, the panic she 
created threw them into confusion, and gave his 
flying countrymen time to resume the defensive, 
and also afforded Miaoulis, who had been be- 
calmed on the outside of Spezia, time to come 
up with several vessels of his division, and to 
take his share in the fight. This was done so 
effectively that the enemy made the best of his 
way into theGulf of Napoli, leaving two Austrian 
transports in the possession of the Greeks. 
The Epaminondas received many shots in her 
hull and rigging, and suffered severely in killed 
and wounded. Among the latter was her gal- 
lant commander, who was struck by a musket- 
shot in the heel whilst standing on the elevated 
poop of his vessel, cheering and directing his 


however, they effected before another detach- 
ment of Greeks had time to occupy a position 
(formerly fortified by the Venetians) at the ex- 
tremity of the defile towards Corinth. At Corinth 
famine fought the battles of the Greeks, and 
subsequently a pestilence, brought on by the 
stench of the bodies of the camels and horses, 

which had perished for want of food, was a still 


more effective ally. 

Dramali Pacha retreated northward, through 
a mountain-pass of ill-omened name, xaxtS <rxaXa, 
*' the evil pass.*' He was followed by barely 
four thousand men, the miserable remains of an 
army of thirty thousand^ chiefly horsemen, and 
the flower of the troops of the Porte, which he 
had led into the Morea a few months previously. 

When Iwas atCorinth,in 1826,thesilentstreets 
WTre strewn with the bones of men, horses, and 
camels, and the roofless churches and houses were 
encumbered with similar memorials of the fate 
of the army of Dramali. The pass of Lykokuri 
was also still white with the bones of the Os- 
manlis. At that time, there was not a single 
inhabitant in the once-populous city of Corinth, 
and our quarters for the night were established 


anxiously to Napoli and to the fleet for a supply 
of their wants. On the retreat of the Capudan 
Pacha, Dramali hroke up his camp, and led his 
dispirited troops, chiefly cavalry, in the direction 
of Corinth. This movement having been ob- 
served by the besiegers of Napoli, Colocotroni 
and Nikitas* made a forced march across the 
mountains, and established themselves on the 
rocks above the gorge of Lykokuri, '* the pass of 
the wolves," at some distance from its opening 
into the plain of Corinth, and where the pass 
between the rocks is so narrow that it is scarcely 
possible for two horsemen to ride abreast. Here 
they awaited in ambuscade the approach of the 
enemy ; and not until the defiles were crowded 
and blocked up with horsemen and camels did 
they commence the attack. The helpless cava- 
liers were then shot like dogs, or crushed with 
fragments of rock rolled down from the heights 
above. A frightful slaughter took place before 
the Turks succeeded in forcing the pass, which, 

* The some who is more or less implicated in the Philor- 
thodox Conspiracy. During the war, he earned for himself 
the title of Toupiro^yoc — " the devourer of Turks." I believe 
it to be first bestowed upon him after the affair of Lykokuri. 


however, they effected before another detach- 
ment of Greeks had time to occupy a position 
(formerly fortified by the Venetians) at the ex- 
tremity of the defile towards Corinth. At Corinth 
famine fought the battles of the Greeks, and 
subsequently a pestilence, brought on by the 
stench of the bodies of the camels and horses, 
which had perished for want of food, was a still 
more effective ally. 

Dramali Pacha retreated northward, through 
a mountain-pass of ill-omened name, xaxtS <rxaXa, 
*' the evil pass.*' He was followed by barely 
four thousand men, the miserable remains of an 
army of thirty thousand^ chiefly horsemen, and 
the flower of the troops of the Porte, which he 
had led into the Morea a few months previously. 

When I was atCorinth, in 1826,thesilcnt streets 
were strewn with the bones of men, horses, and 
camels, and the roofless churches and houses were 
encumbered with similar memorials of the fate 
of the army of Dramali. The pass of Lykokuri 
was also still white with the bones of the Os- 
manlis. At that time, there was not a single 
inhabitant in the once-populous city of Corinth, 
and our quarters for the night were established 


in a church, a portion of the roof of which had 
not fallen in. I remember offering hospitality 
to a band of half-starved pallekars, who were on 
their way from Missolonghi to the camp of 
Argos. Even to this day I have before me the 
half-famished group, devouring with their eyes 
the carcass of a lamb, whilst it was undergoing 
the process of roasting, after the slow and primi- 
tive fashion of the time. This was effected by its 
being held over the glowing embers, and, with 
the aid of a stick or stone, passed horizontally 
through it, turned by two of the party, who were 

relieved, until it was fit for the table. (?) When 
set before them, the yataghans and knives of the 

party speedily relieved the bones of their tegu- 
ments, and before the meal was completed many 
of the smaller bones had also disappeared, and 
the more massive ones were reduced to a state 
of fit companionship for those already scattered 
on the pavement of the church. Elevated by this 
comparatively sumptuous fare, washed down by 
raki, the poor pallekars danced round our fire 
(lighted in the church) the. greater part of the 
night, presenting themselves to me, each time I 
awoke from my chill and comfortless slumbers. 


as a band of demons enacting some unholy mys- 

Tlie following day they volunteered their 
escort as far as the camp of Argos, whither I 
also was bound, and right faithfully did they 
perform their duty, though I and my slender 
suite would have been an easy and not valueless 
prey for men so denuded, 

After the preceding brief sketch of the first 
naval efforts of the islanders, and of their influ- 
ence on the fates of the Morea, (my Corinthian 
reminiscences are an episode for which I crave 
indulgence,) a short notice of some of the lead- 
ing Hydriote families will probably not be 
thought misplaced. 

Tlie eldest Hydriote families are, I believe, the 
Ghionis, the Anagnostis, and the Anastasis, but 
they were not among the most wealthy at the 
commencement of the revolution. I remember, 
however, a member of the last-named family, a 
tall, noble-looking veteran, as commander of a 
beautiful brig whilst I was with the fleet. He 
was in high esteem with the navarch. 

The Kriczis may also be considered one of the 


old Hydriote families, having been established 
in the island for four generations. They are 
originally from the island of Negropont, from a 
district which is still called <' Kpfs^onpux.'* It lies 
at the foot of a mountain, the name of which is 
"Kpn'^i," a Romaicized Albanian word, signifying 
** black-head, or crest.'* This name was pro- 
bably given by the Epirote settlers in Negropont. 
The founder of this family in Hydra was 
D^dde Kriezis ; and a brother of his originated a 
family of the same name in Poros. Four gene- 
rations have sufficed to render both branches of 
the family very numerous, but more especially 
that of Hydra, which the exploits of the present 
Minister of Marine have also rendered far the more 
illustrious of the two. The Kriezis have freely 
expended their blood and their fortunes in the 
furtherance of the good cause. In the spring of 
1825, a catastrophe took place which plunged all 
the members of this family into deep affliction. 
The NereuSj a fine sixteen-gun brig, belonging to 
an uncle of the minister, and officered by two of 
the sons of the owner, young men of high pro- 
mise, and in great esteem with their country- 


men, was blown up whilst at anchor off one of 
the southern ports of the Morea. The .two 
Kriezis, (brothers of my fellow-pilgrim to the 
island of Milo,) and the greater part of the crew, 
perished in the explosion. There was reason to 
believe that the fatal match had been applied by 
a Turkish prisoner ; and an impression having 
gained ground that a conspiracy existed among 
the prisoners, to work out similar effects on board 
other vessels, and at Hydra, the inhabitants of 
the island rose en masse, and massacred the pri- 
soners who had been deposited there, in number 
about two hundred. It was a horrible affair, for 
the poor wretches were dragged down to the 
edge of the port, and shot or stabbed, and thrown 
into the sea one by one by the infuriated mob. 
The primates remonstrated in vain, and it is to 
be remarked, that no one of them was so perse* 
vering in his efforts to protect the victims as the 
father of the two young commanders of the 
Nereus. He and his family, in fact, succeeded, at 
great risk to themselves, in withholding from the 
popular fury two prisoners who were employed 
as household slaves at their residence, and even- 

VOL. I. u 


tually in getting them away from the island. A 
few pionths afterwards I became intimately ac- 
quainted with this family. The father and mo- 
ther were fine specimens of venerable simplicity 
of manners, and of devout resignation to the 
will of the Most High. Patriotism was with 
them a religious feeling, and their regret seemed 
to be, not that their two promising sons had 
fallen, but that they had so fallen. * 


Ao^a Tcj 0sai — ir^i lofleXg o 06oV — 

?' Glory to God — so God willed it." I have 
heard the father more than once say, '' But had 
it pleased Him that they should fall in battle, I 
should have mourned less." • 

It is probable that the destruction of the JVe- 
rev^s was owing to the despair of a Turkish pri- 
soner ; but it is not impossible that it was the 
effect of mere accident, for in those days the 
powder magazine opened by a trap-door into the 
commander's cabin, where the chibouque was 
more or less in activity from morning until 
evening. Many a chibouque have I heedlessly 
smoked similarly situated. 


The Miaoulis family is also very numerous. 
Like that of the Kriezis, it is of Euboean origin, 
but is of much more recent establishment in 
Hydra than the latter. The original family 
name was Vocos, (b«x<k, Hellenic, " a herds- 
man/') and that of Miaoulis, which has since 
been rendered so illustrious, was assumed as a 
distinctive surname by the late navarch at the 
commencement of the present century. He 
adopted it from a Candiote vessel which he pui^- 
chased, and with which he made many very suc- 
cessful voyages. Thenameof the vessel, when pur- 
chased by him, was Miaul^ a Turkish word, which, 
if I mistake not, signifies " strong," or " fierce." 

When on board this vessel, laden with grain, 
and bound for a Spanish or French port, Miaoulis 
fell in with a division of the British fleet under 
the command of Nelson. He made desperate 
efforts to get away, but they were fruitless, and 
he was summoned on board Nelson's ship. 
After answering, with the frankness by which, 
even as an old man, he was distinguished, va- 
rious questions which were put to him respecting 
the vessels he had fallen in with, he declared, 

u 2 


with equal candour^ whither it was his intention 
to carry his cargo, and that it was his own pro- 
perty. Whether his previous information had 
been valuable to the admiral, or whether by a 
secret freemasonry the latter recognised in him 
a man of his own heroic mould, I will not pre- 
tend to say ; but Miaoulis and his vessel were 
permitted to pass on their way unmolested. 

When the naVarch recounted to me this anec- 
dote, he told me that Nelson laughed heartily 
when the answers which he gave respecting his 
ship and himself were translated to him. Be- 
fore passing on to another of the Hydriote 
families, I beg permission to relate one other 
short anecdote of this gallant and good old man. 

After having been dispersed in a heavy gale of 
wind, a part of the Greek fleet was at anchor off 
Kimolo, waiting to be joined by the fire-ships 
and other heavy sailers, (Oct. 1, 1825.) I had 
gone to pay my respects to the admiral, and 
whilst I was smoking a chibouque in his cabin, 
some of the inhabitants of the island, who had 
brought off presents of fruit and game, M^ere ad- 
mitted into his presence. They approached the 


venerable navarch in the true style of Oriental 
vassals, bowing and touching the plank with 
their hands, which M'ere then carried humbly to 
their foreheads, and then pressing forward to 
kiss his hand. Miaoulis drew back his hand, 
and looking somewhat sternly upon them, 
gravely exclaimed, '* I came not here to receive 
such tokens of homage as you were wont to offer 
to the Turks, but to war in your behalf." The 
disconcerted yeomen were not, however, dis- 
missed without counter offerings of amity. The 
following day a council of captains was held on 
board the admiral, which I attended with my 
friend and commander, Kriezis. The council 
being concluded, the navarch went for a time 
upon deck. On his return into the cabin, the 
captains rose to offer him the seat of honour. 
He bowed his thanks, but declined the proffer, 
and seating himself upon the nearest vacant spot 
on the divan, said '' cT^ieda oXoi IXEt^dspoi — oKoi diixpoi,*^ 
— «< We are all freemen — all brothers." 

The Condouriottis are of Attic descent, the 
grandfather of the ex-president having migrated 
from KroDvTpa, a village not very distant from 


Athens. Their trae origin is perhaps Albanian, 
for the natives of many parts of Attica still speak 
a dialect of the language of that country. The 
ex-president George, and his brother Lazaro, in- 
herited some property from their father, and 
instead of dividing it, as is usual in Hydra, traded 
with it conjointly. They were so very successful 
in all their undertakings that, prior to the revo- 
lution, they were owners of thirteen vessels, and 
were supposed to possess from four hundred to 
five hundred thousand dollars in effective, and in 
European securities. Theirclaim upon the govern- 
ment exceeds a hundred and eighty thousand 
dollars. There have been no fighting men of this 
family ; but Lazaro is universally regarded as a 
man of powerful mind and of extensive practical 
knowledge ; when George Condouriottls was pre- 
sident, (as elsewhere observed,) on all critical 
matters he deferred blindly to his judgment, La- 
zaro has lost an eye ; his countrymen were used 
to say, that the one which remained was worth 
a score of pairs of ordinary optics. 

The Tzamados are originally of Cranidi^ a 
village near to Ilermionc. The name has been 


distinguished in the annals of the revolutioni 
through the gallantry of both brothers, Anastasio 
and Demetrio. Demetrio was owner of five or six 
vessels, and his present claims upon the govern, 
ment amount to seventy-five thousand dollars. 

Tlie Tombasis are of Anatolian origin, the 
grandfather of the first Greek navarch having 
migrated from Vourla. The name of Tombasi 
was assumed by the son of the Vourliote under 
circumstances similar to that of the assumption 
of Miaoulis by Vocos. He was a man highly re- 
spected by his countrymen, and also by the 
Turks, with whom his singularly frank and open 
character, and his personal strength and lofty 
stature, rendered him popular. Under the pro- 
tection of the Capudan Pacha he amassed a con- 
siderable fortune. His sons were in person and 
character worthy of their sire, and were, more- 
over, distinguished by scientific acquirements 
much more extensive than were then to be found 
among the generality of their countrymen. Their 
example and instructions effected great improve- 
ments, both in the naval and domestic architec- 
ture of the Hydriotes. Their vessels were perfect 


models, and the interiors of their residences were 
worthy the merchant princes of Florence or 
Genoa. Giacomaki was the first Greek navarch, 
and Manoli, in 1823-4, was commander-in-chief 
of the Greek army in Candia, where, by his 
judgment and bravery, he for a long time made 
up for the numerical deficiencies of the troops 
under his command. 

To sketch the history of the Cochinis, Bou- 
douris, Orlandos, and the various other families 
which, in person or in purse, have contributed 
to the rescue of Greece from the Turkish yoke, 
would require more time and space than in a 
work of this kind it would be safe to devote 
thereto ; nay, I already fear that my readers may 
think I have been too diffuse as regards the 
origin &c. of the families I have brought before 
them. I shall therefore close my notes, as to 
individuals, by the further mention of a man 
whose history is a remarkable specimen of the 
career of a master-spirit in these climes, during 
the epoch which preceded the revolution. The 
hero of my tale is George Bulgaris, whose name 
has been already brought forward in connexion 


with the family of Kriezis, and some of his ex- 
traordinary deeds noticed at the same time. 

He was of comparatively humble origin, being 
one of four sons of a continental yeoman, or 
small landholder, who tended his own sheep. His 
three brothers were men of no common stamp^ 
for, though so humble was their birth, and so 
unsuited their education, for fitting them for their 
future career, they all became owners and com- 
manders of vessels of considerable burthen. 
George Bulgaris quitted his paternal home and 
flocks at a very early age, and enrolled himself 
among the galiongis, who from year to year went 
forth from Hydra to serve on board the Turkish 
fleet, which he entered as a cabin-boy. He was 
distinguished even as a boy, by great activity both 
of mind and body, and by extraordinary resolu- 
tion; the first indications of which were his 
readiness, in all moments of danger, to perform, 
as a sailor, duties which others hesitated to un- 
dertake, and, in moments of leisure, to exhibit 
feats of activity and daring on the rigging of the 
ship of the Capudan Pacha. This attracted the 
notice of the admiral, and he rose rapidly in 


rank, and in the course of a few years was ap- 
pointed to the command of all the Hydriotes and 
Speziotes serving on board the Turkish fleet. 
He filled this rank when he was employed at 
Alexandria in the destruction of the Beys, as 
also when he was entrusted by the Porte with 
the command of a division of the Turkish fleet 
despatched on a cruise against the pirates of 
Tripoli, as stated in the preceding pages. 

Some time afterwards he was sent as Governor 
to Hydra, armed with the firman of the Sultan, 
and decorated with the title of Bey. After the 
temporary absence from his government, which 
was the consequence of the intestine divisions 
among his countrymen, brought about by the 
appearance of the Turkish squadron, and the 
intrigues of its commander, before adverted to, 
he was sent back to Hydra, armed with authority 
and instructions to restore the island to order, 
and for that purpose to burn, kill, and destroy. 
The Pacha by whom he was conveyed to Hydra 
wished him to land, accompanied by a body of 
troops, sufficiently powerful to enable him to 
curry these commands into eftect, and to crush 


all opposition from his personal enemies, and 
from the partisans of Russia, (the Condouriottis, 
Cochinis, &c.,) but the proffered assistance was 
declined by Bulgaris, who contrived to persuade 
the ex-Pacha that he could effect the purposes of 
the Porte aided only by a body of Hydriote gali- 
ongis. On landing, he resumed possession of 
the government, in virtue of the authority dele- 
gated to him by the Porte, and formed a council, 
composed of the primates who had previously 
given proofs of their attachment to him. The 
council advised him to make himself master of 
the persons of his enemies, and of the avowed 
partisans of Russia ; but this he declined doing, 
and contented himself with indirectly giving 
them to understand that they would do well to 
withdraw themselves for a while from the island. 
The suggestion was not thrown away. 

Bulgaris remained in possession of the su- 
preme authority over his adopted country until 
1812, when he died of malaria fever, caught 
whilst visiting a farm near Hermione, which 
he had purchased not long before. He had been 
** autocrat" of the island nearly eight years. 


during which time (with the exception of the 
attempt at co-operation with the Turkish fleet) 
he maintained internal tranquillity undisturbed. 
Prior to his accession, if I may be allowed the 
term, the inhabitants were divided into factions, 
and bloody feuds and contests were of daily 
occurrence. Among his decrees {AiaTuyai) are 
one which prohibits the carrying weapons of any 
description, — one which prohibits all citizens 
from walking in the town after dark without a 
lantern, — one which orders that strangers {l^ivo^) 
shall not be ill-treated or molested, — one which 
regulates the prices of provisions, — cum multis 
aliis, which indicate that he had to deal with 
subjects who had not yet made great progress in 

As an example of the simple and semi-bar- 
barous usages of the time, and as a contrast with 
the manner in which justice is administered at 
the present day, it may be stated that culprits 
were tried and judged by the Bey, or Governor 
in council, in a summary manner, without con- 
sulting any other statutes than his own decrees, 
and that, as soon as sentence was passed, it Avas 


carried into effect in a manner equally summary. 
The councillors were four, each of whom held 
in his possession a fourth part of the seal of 
the council, which when complete represented 
the llayayla, ov " Virgin,*'— the " All Holy." In 
the impressions of her image affixed to these de- 
crees may yet be observed traces of this primitive 
mode of testifying that they were published with 
the concurrence of each of the members of the 
council. The avengers of the law were the council- 
lors themselves, and the instrument of chastise- 
ment was a very formidable sort of cat-o'nine- 
tails, with which stripes were inflicted by them on 
the prostrate patient, while the Governor told off 
the count on his combolajo, et-^esaryv It is said, 
but I know not with what degree of truth, that in- 
stances have occurred of the culprit expiring after 
the infliction of this " knout." It may appear 
strange that within the limits of Europe, and in 
the present century, usages should have existed 
so little in accordance with European ideas of 
civilization. Hydra, however, was not behind 
the adjoining continent of Greece as regards 
these matters, for so recently as the year 1825, 
I saw, on more than one occasion, the bastinado 


administered to soldiers by the 2r§«Ttyoi, or Ge- 
nerals Londos and Delejanni, and even by the 
Commander-in-Chief of the forces in the Morea, 
with their own hands. When I inquired why so 
unpleasing a duty was not committed to other 
hands, Colocotroni told me, that when adminis- 
tered by him the punishment would be regarded 
merely as a punishment, and a well-deserved 
one ; but that, if administered by a person of the 
sufferer's own rank, it would be looked upon as 
a deadly insult, which could be washed out only 
by the blood of the inflictor. 

I have already mentioned, that at the com- 
mencement of the war Hydra contained about 
twenty thousand inhabitants ; the houses were 
from four thousand five hundred to five thousand, 
all inhabited. Things remained in pretty nearly 
the same state until 1833, since which year the 
place has rapidly diminished in population as in 
wealth, and at the present time it barely contains 
ten thousand souls. Many families have mi- 
grated to the Continent and to Negropont ; and 
of the island sailors, no inconsiderable portion 
has sought employment in the fleets of the Porte 
and of the Pacha of Egypt, where their superior 


seamanship and known hardihood assure them 
of a ready welcome. The harbour is encumbered 
with the gravelly deposit of the mountain tor- 
rents, which empty themselves into it during 
the autumnal and winter rains ; and in place of 
the fleets of by-gone days, are to be seen therein 
merely such barks and scampa-vias as are suited 
to trade with the islands of the Archipelago and 
the coast of Asia Minor. Hydra now does not 
own more than fifteen or sixteen vessels, of from 
two hundred and fifty to five hundred tons. The 
greater number of those which constituted the 
Hydriote navy during the war were taken or 
bought for the Royal Navy, but have not yet 
been paid for. The authenticated claims of the 
Hydriotes, on account of disbursements during 
the war, over and above the portion of the loan 
which was paid to them, amounted to 1,500,000 
Spanish dollars, no part of which, as far as I can 
learn, has been repaid. Certainly, no compen- 
sation for these disbursements is offered by the 
present state of the island ! 

The decay of Hydra cannot, however, fairly 
be attributed in toto to the jealousy of the govern- 
ment, which is said to have mistrusted the indo- 


mitable love of freedom which prevailed among 

« • 

all classes of its inhabitants. Such jealousy- 
may have had some influence in bringing it 
about, but more direct causes are to be found in 
the long-continued general peace, which permits 
the vessels of the north of Europe to rival those 
of the Greeks as carriers from the Black Sea, — 
in the rapid rise of Syra during the later years 
of the war as a dep6t for Eastern trade, — and 
perhaps more than all in the expected and direct 
consequences of the revolution itself which 
render it no longer necessary or desirable for the 
Greeks to seek an asylum on a rocky and sterile 

The resources of all the leading Hydriote 
families have more or less suffered from the de- 
preciation in the value of their property brought 
about by this change, and those of many of them 
were already nearly exhausted by the losses and 
expenditure which they incurred in the public 
service during the war of independence ; the con- 
sequence is, that not a few of them are now living 
in comparative penury. This ought not to be ! 

The Hydriotes are an athletic and handsome 
race. The women are generally tall and well 

HYDRI0TB9. • ' 305 

formed, and distinguished by regularity of fea- 
tures, the character of their beauty resembling 
much that of the women of Albano and Velletri. 
Marriages are usually contracted at a very early 
age, and the vices which enervate the youth of 
more civilized lands, and, be it said, also of some 
of the neighbouring islands of the Archipelago, 
are scarcely known in Hydra. The language is 
a dialect of the Albanian, which was probably 
first brought hither by the Epirotes, who made 
Hydra their asylum after the death of their heroic 

Most of the wealthier inhabitants, however, 
speak Romaic. They are much less voluble than 
the Moreotes, and, like their Lacedemonian pro- 
genitors, generally contrive to express much infew 

words. — «* "E, \tya Xrfyia xai voXv Joi/Xeio,*^ " Come, 

little talk and much business," is, or was, a com- 
mon proverbial expression among them. I have 
heard the following specimen of a pithy epistle, 
quoted by them as worthy of imitation. It was 
addressed by a Turkish Grovemor of Egina to 
Kara Ali, a Capudan Pacha, from whom he had 
received an order to supply the fleet with pitch 

VOL. I. X 


or tar : A«i '/X€va roy *AXKvi itv §aha KafetKKti. Ti xarpaept 
£ivai %»^'nqh <''TiiXXf r *&(r9fa va to 9eifns, ** From me, 

Ali, to thee, Kara Ali (Black Ali.) The pitch is 
all ready; send the money, and take it." 
Whether the original letter were written in Turk- 
ish or Romaic I will not pretend to say, but such 
was its pithy and laconic form as quoted to me. 
The island of Spezia is about fifteen miles dis- 
tant from that of Hydra. Its wealth and impor- 
tance are to be ascribed to the same causes, and 
may be traced to the same epochs, as those of 
its more powerful neighbour. The Speziotes 
speak the same language as the Hydriotes, and 
much resemble them in person ; they are, how- 
ever, generally taller and more fleshy. The same 
simplicity of manners distinguishes the inhabi- 
tants of both islands, but the Speziotes, of the 
two, are (or were) the less civilized. As far as 
my own experience goes, however, I must affirm 
that they are hospitable and kind ; for during a 
stay of some days which I made in the island, 
when formerly a pilgrim in these lands, the pri- 
mates assigned me rooms in the government 
house, sent an ample supply of provisions for 

SPBZIA. 307 

my attendants, and entertained me alternately at 
their own houses. The Secretary of the Council 
of Primates, the Calojeros Procopio, was my dra- 
goman and cicerone, and no English village 
pastor could have displayed more genuine kind- 
ness to one of his own flock, than did this good 
father to me, an alien in faith and in country. 
We had many discussions on religious matters, 
on which there was necessarily considerable dif- 
ference of opinion between us, notwithstanding 
which, when he gave me his parting benediction, 
he smilingly added, '' We shall meet again in 
heaven if not on earth." 

At the commencement of the revolution, Spezia 
contained about eight thousand inhabitants, and 
possessed from fifty-five to sixty vessels, generally 
of smaller burthen than those of Hydra. The most 
numerous Speziote fleet I have seen at sea at 
one time consisted of fifteen sail, (exclusive of 
Brul6ts,) one only of which was three-masted, 
or carried so many as eighteen guns. Spezia 
has continued to prosper, whildt Hydra has been 
falling into decay. Its present population is 
estimated at nearly fourteen thousand souls^ and 



its mercantile fleet at eighty vessels of two 
hundred and fifty tons burthen and upwards. 
The islanders have extensive possessions on the 
opposite coast of Argolis. The unsatisfied claims 
on the government amount to 800,000 dollars. 

The Amazon Bobolina, so celebrated in the 
first years of the revolution, was a native of this 
island, and was owner of three vessels, which 
she armed for the service of the infant state. 
On many occasions during the war, especially at 
Argos and Tripolitza, she displayed a couriage 
which would have done honour to a veteran pal- 
leitar. Her end was characteristic of the semi- 
barbarous manners of the time. Her son was 
enamoured of a fair island Helen, who had been 
promised in marriage to another. Notwithstand- 
ing the jealous restrictions under which the 
intercourse between the sexes was then carried 
on, the two lovers found means to communicate, 
and to arrange an elopement from the island, 
which was successfully elBTected. The father of 
the fair one, on discovering her flight, went with 
all speed, escorted by his three sons, to the castle- 
like mansion of the Bobolina, and claimed the 


surrender of his daughter. The lady had received 
some notice of hostile intentions on his part, 
and on his arrival he found the house barricadoed. 
A parley took place between the Bobolina, at 
one of the upper windows, and the claimants for 
the fugitive, who had drawn up armed in front 
of the house, below. Protestations on the part 
of the amazon that neither the fugitive nor her 
son was in the house, and that she was totally 
ignorant of the circumstances of the elopement, 
if elopement there were ; professions of disbelief 
on the part of the besiegers, and claims to be ad- 
mitted to make search in the house ; these were 
met by a haughty defiance from the amazon, in 
answer to which shots were fired, and she fell 
dead, pierced by a pistol-ball in the centre of the 
forehead. The fugitiveis had, in fact, quitted 
the island, or further blood-shed would no doubt 
have ensued. 

Strange to say, at the time of my visit to 
Spezia (1825), peace had been restored, and the 
son of the heroine was living on terms of amity 
with his father-in-law and brothers-in-law, one 

310 IPSARA. 

of whom must have been the slayer, not to say 
the murderer, of his mother. 

Ipsara (^tapa) is also an island of the same 
rocky character as Hydra and Spezia, and its rise 
and importance are to be ascribed to nearly the 
same causes as those which augmented the 
wealth and population of the latter. The men 
are smaller in stature than their confederates of 
the other islands, but robust, active, and reso- 
lute. They are of a gay and talkative disposi- 
tion, and somewhat given to boasting; resembling 
in those qualities the inhabitants of the less war- 
like islands of Mycone,Tinos, &c. ; but as sailors 
and pallekars they do not yield the palm either 
to the Hydriotes or the Speziotes. As captains 
of fire-ships, whose duty is certainly not child's 
play, they have especially distinguished them- 
selves. Canaris is a native of this island. The 
women are graceful in person, animated, and 
fond of admiration, of which the island descend- 
ants of the Epirotes are, or appear to be, careless. 
When the Turks wreaked their vengeance on 
the inhabitants of this devoted island, (1824,) 

IPSARA. 311 

many of them, gay and graceful though they be, 
preferred death to captivity, and sdught refuge 
from the loathed caresses of the conquerors in 
the burning ruins of their homes. The heroic 
but vain defence of the island is » well described 
in General Gordon's work. Since then, Ipsara 
may be said no longer to exist, though the Ipsa- 
riotes, justly proud of the fearful sacrifices they 
have themselves made^ and of those which they 
exacted from their invaders in the defence of 
their homes, are still Ipsariotes wherever they 
may have taken up their abode. In .1825, how*- 
ever, Ipsara was virtually transferred, together 
with the remnant of her gallant sons, to the 
Ipsariote division of the combined fleet. Such 
was the feeling of its aged commander, Giorgio 
D'Apostoli, whom I have more than once heard 
exclaim, as he surveyed the vessels of which it 

was composed, — At/t*} livai 4 icarpiia iMU—**ThiB is 

now my country." If I remember rightly/ the 
Ipsariote division at that time was composed of 
only five or six ships. The wife and a daughter 
of D'ApostoH were carried into captivity when the 
island was sacked, and the uncertainty in which 

1 :• 

312 IP8ARA. 

he then remained as to* tbeif ; fate; appeared to 
prey upon him deeply and upceaBingly. ** Would 
to ;Pod/! he would say, ** thi^t they had been 
talceq^oin me to Him, 1 could then have sub- 
mitted without a murmur ; but the hope of ven- 
geance alone enables me to bear the burden 
which is thus laid upon me!'' 

The Ipsariotes are now established in various 
parts of the modem kingdom of Greece, but 
more particularly, I believe, in Negropont and 
Syra. They settle as much as possible in the 
vicinity of each other^ and, as before observed, 
always : distinguish themselves m Ipsariotes. 
Their claims upon the government have been 
rated at eight hundred thousand dollars— cer* 
tainly not an excessive estimate, merely in a pe- 
cuniary point of view, of the losses which they 
have sustained. 

Poros is the naval port of modern Greece ; it 
is about fifteen miles distant from that of Hydra. 
The port is excellent, but the climate of the 
island, as also of the opposite shore of (he main- 
land, is unhealthy. ' For that reason, perhaps, 
the population has not kept pace with its im- 


portance as a naval station. It does not exceed 
three thousand or four thousand souls. 

As in this and other chapters I have more 
than once made allusion to the friendly footing 
on which I was accustomed to assbciate with the 
chiefs of hoth the sea and land forces during the 
war of independence, I annex in the Appendix a 
copy of a letter with which I was furnished by 
the executive government of the day, for the 
commander of the camp at Salona, a brother 
of the renowned Marco Bozzaris. It may serve 
as a specimen of those which were addressed, in 
my behalf, to the commander of any other camp 
or expedition which I wished to join. Thanks 
either to such introduction, or to my quality of 
Englishman, or to both conjointly, my reception 
was, in every instance, highly gratifying to my 



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