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When I had the honour — now about thirty years 
ago — of bemg appomted to the Chair of Humanity in 
the University of Aberdeen, a city then, and still, 
famous for the excellency of its Latin scholarship, I had 
not been many weeks employed in the discharge of my 
new functions when I became aware of certain very 
glaring perversities and absurdities which had grown up, 
like tares among the wheat, in connexion with an other- 
wise admirable system of training. Of these perver- 
sities the foUowing were the most prominent. In the 
first place, the young Latinists had been taught, with a 
great amount of labour, a system of rules about the 
pronunciation of words to which they systematically 
gave the lie whenever they opened their mouths. One 
of these rules, for instance, I recollect, commenced thus 
— ^for they were in Latin — "o« proc?z^" — ^which was 
meant to inculcate the doctrine that in the Latin lan- 
guage, when a word ends with the syllable osy the 
vowel in that syllable, like a long note in music, is 
pronounced with a prolongation of the voice, as when 
we say in English the Fape, and not the Fi^, hope, 


and not h6p. But in the face of this rule, which has 
no sense at all except as regulating pronunciation, they 
never made any distinction in reading betwixt os^ the 
motUk, which follows the rule, and ds (according to 
English orthography 088)y a hone, which is an exception. 
And in perfect consistency with this glaring inconsist- 
ency, they dealt with their rules for final syllables 
through the whole long weary catalogue, pronouncing 
longos as if it had been written in English longdss, 
which is not a whit less ridiculous than if an English- 
man were to talk of having the gtU in his toss, instead 
of the gout in Ms toes. The next thing I noticed in 
the linguistic habit of the Aberdeen Latinists was, that 
whenever I addressed to them, in the way of conver- 
sation, the shortest sentence in the language which they 
professed to understand, they looked very much sur- 
prised ; a peculiarity which indicated certainly that the 
colloquial method, which I had taught myself, and 
which was lai^y practised by Erasmus, Amos Com- 
enius, and other distinguished scholars of the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries all over Europe, and is still, 
to a considerable extent, practised on the Continent, had, 
in Aberdeen at least, fallen altogether into disuse. And 
not only had the colloquial element in language been 
neglected, but there were no signs whatever of a living 
appeal from the tongue of the teacher to the ear of the 
taught having played any part in the course of scholastic 
indoctrination, to which the young men had been sub- 
jected j and this appeared the more strange as the laws 
of the Northern University were regularly written and 
read out in Latin, and discourses in that language deli- 
vered constantly by the students of theology in the 


Divinity Hall. Closely connected with these three per- 
versities, and springing manifestly from the same root, 
was the extreme narrowness of the vocabulary of which 
these young gentlemen, so nicely drilled in curious 
syntactic rules, had been made masters. It was plain 
their memory had been well packed, or at least their 
phrase-book well stored, with a routine of military 
phrases from Csesar's Commentaries ; but if the Pro- 
fessor, speaking the language which he taught, told an 
ill-bred lad to take off his hat, or to raise his voice and 
not squeak like a weasel, they understood no more of 
his diction than if he had addressed them in the dia- 
lect of the Brahmins. It was plain that, whatever 
else they had been taught, the objects round about them 
and immediately before their eyes had, so far as their 
training was concerned, been considered as non-existent. 
It was plain also that they had never been taught to 
think in the language which they had been studying ; 
for, instead of directly using their store of words to 
express their thoughts, they had always to go through 
the process of a translation through the English ; a 
process unnatural, cumbrous, and slow, and so beset 
with difficulties that it ought never to be largely used 
without the facilities which a previous exercise in the 
more natural, direct, descriptive, and colloquial method 
so richly supplies. 

There is a class of persons who will think that all 
this is but the necessary consequence of the difference 
in the method of teaching which belongs to a dead, as 
contrasted with a living, language, and that nothing 
more should be said about the matter. But a moment's 
reflection will show the inadequacy of this notion. No 

viii PREFACE, 

doubt one may imagine the case of a solitary individual, 
for special prof(^ional purposes, getting up the mere 
bookisti form of a language as presented to the eye, 
without concerning himself in any degree with the living 
reality of the vocal organism, as it addresses itself to 
the ears of those who use it ; but this is not the way. 
in which either a practical knowledge of language for 
purposes of business, or a scientific knowledge for the 
cultivation of the taste, is ever acquired, — certainly not 
the way in which the classical languages are taught in 
our great schools and colleges. For, though a book is 
always the medium of instruction, the book is read 
aloud, and thus raised from the category of a dead 
record to that of a living utterance ; and this to such 
an extent that compositions in Greek and Latin prose, 
and even more notoriously in verse, passing in some 
way or other through the ear, form a prominent part of 
the scholastic drill of our classical scholars. It appears, 
therefore, that the dead language is to a certain extent 
resuscitated, and the ear, though not scientifically treated, 
is nevertheless used. Let it therefore be used in the 
proper sense of that word, and not rather, as it too 
often now is, grossly abused. If we profess to derive 
an sesthetic luxury from the nice balance of Greek and 
Latin verses, and the grand roll of the classical prose 
periods — a luxury which has no meaning except as 
addressed to the ear — ^let us not stultify ourselves by 
writing verses from rules which contradict the practice 
of our ears, and by admiring periods enunciated in 
direct antagonism to the demonstrable orthoepy and 
rh3rthmical harmony of the languages of which they are 
a part. In this respect, so far as teaching is concerned, 


there can be no difference between a living language 
and a dead ; of the dead as of the living, the ear is the 
direct receiver, the memory only the storehouse, and 
the judgment the dispenser of the stores. No rule, 
indeed, of grammatical or philological science has any 
significance except in reference to what is spoken ; and 
if thd articulate speech be not actually regulated accord- 
ing to the known rules of the language, then the rules 
become a display of cumbrous pedantry, and the speech 
an incongruous mixture of natural expression with 
random blundering and conventional grimace.^ 

These remarks, founded as they are on nature and 
the plainest common sense, point to a radical reform in 
some of our methods of scholastic drill, such as has been 
already indicated by Professor Jowett of Oxford, Mr. 
Farrar of Harrow, and other distinguished English 
teachers.^ I have myself not only taught the principles 
of such a reform, but acted upon them consistently, 
both as Latin Professor in Aberdeen, and as Greek 
Professor in Edinburgh, for a period of thirty years. 
That my practice may as yet have produced little effect 
in Scotland was only natural ; for neither is Scotland a 
kindly climate for classical literature generally, nor is 
the meagre Scottish schoolmaster, taken generally, found 
less tinged with the proverbial conservatism of the 

^ On the advantage of a systematic training of the ear in the 
study of language, see the account of a remarkable experiment 
made by Erasmus m his Dialogus de pronuntiatione, Basil, 1528, 
p. 209. 

• See particularly Professor Jowett's first lecture on Education, 
delivered before the Philosophical Institution, Edinburgh, March 
2, 1869, and Mr. Farrar's lecture on Public School Education 
to tjie Royal Institution, London. 


profession than his fat aristocratic brother in the south. 
No man should grumble because his right reasons do 
not forthwith jump into right practice. There is plenty 
of time for all changes j and truth in the long-run, 
under fair circumstances, is sure to prevail But if I 
am not much deceived, we are now arrived at an im- 
portant crisis in the educational life of this country, 
which makes the moment especially favourable for a 
recurrence to first principles. .The inadequate results 
attained by the present methods of classical training are 
universally complained of ; the claims of rival subjects 
are becoming every day more clamorous and more just ; 
in mere self-defence, therefore, the advocates of the 
ancient learning must study to avail themselves of 
methods at once more natural, more scientific, and more 
expeditious. I am convinced also that there is a great 
amount of secret dissatisfaction with the prevalent 
methods felt by many intelligent teachers, who are too 
closely inosculated into the existing machinery to be 
able to attempt the necessary reform. From these con- 
siderations, and with these feelings, it is that I have, 
after many years' delay — for I had no lack of more 
genial occupation — ^prepared the present work for pub- 
lication, the exact end and practical use of which I now 
proceed to state shortly. 

I start from the proposition that in the acqutsUion 
of any langtutge, whether living or dead^ the commence- 
ment must be made with a living appeal fr(mi the 
tongue of the teacher to the ear of the learner^ and 
this with direct reference to objects in which the 
learner feels a natural and a familiar interest. This 


is the principle on which nature proceeds when teaching 
the mother-tongue, and, therefore, must J)e the correct 
one ; only in the scholastic teaching of languages the 
teacher has the advantage of being able to use nature 
according to a calculated and graduated plan, so as to 
achieve the same end by the same plan indeed, but more 
systematically and much more expeditiously. The 
teacher also has the advantage of dealing with a grow- 
ing or a grown mind, while nature, in the first instance, 
deals with an undeveloped mind. Now, if all our 
classical teachers could speak Greek and Latin as 
fluently as many a German governess speaks German, 
there would be no need of a book such as I now present. 
Having the materials and the dexterity, the teacher 
might be trusted to chalk out the steps of the graduated 
scheme for himself. But as we well know, the great 
majority of our teachers are not so accomplished ; and 
many of them, however willing they might be to try 
the conversational method, are so over-worked and so 
ill paid, that they have no leisure to make the requisite 
excavations for themselves. I have therefore come to 
consider it my duty to do this work for them ; and the 
system on which I proceed is this : I choose some score 
or two dozen subjects of particular interest to young 
men going through the usual course of school and col- 
lege education in this country ; under each of these 
heads I give a dialogue, in double columns, English and 
Greek, intended to bring into play some of the promi- 
nent notions and words belonging to the subject, in the 
familiar tone of conversation, such as intelligent students 
may be supposed to use ; and to each dialogue is appended 
a short list of additional words and phrases, to supple- 


ment in some degree the necessary omissions of the 
colloquy. The practical object in the work of teaching 
which such a book strives to attain, is obvious. Both 
master and scholar are furnished with a rich store of 
words not requiring to be sought for by any distract- 
ing process — words expressly chosen with the view of 
enabling them to name every familiar object in Greek 
which they can name in English ; while the dialogues 
plunge them into the living element of Greek, in which 
they may learn to plash about joyously like young 
porpoises in a sunny sea. 

It will be evident from these remarks that I do not 
put forth this work as a substitute for any educational 
book now used, but altogether as an addition. I have, 
in fact, no quarrel with either Greek reading or Greek 
writipg as at present practised ; I only say that the 
conversational method, or, if you choose — for it makes 
no difference in the principle — ^the method that proceeds 
by forming a direct bond between the thought of the 
learner and the features of an external object through 
ear and tongue, — this method, I say, has certain advan- 
tages which do not belong to the others ; and I further 
give practical prominence to the great truth, that, under 
all methods, the first thing to be correctly educated is 
the ear. Neither do I intend this book as the boy's 
first step to Greek dialogue. It is a book which sup- 
poses boys already considerably advanced ; but it is a 
book also which supplies to the intelligent teacher the 
materials by which he can easily construct for himself 
the boy's first step, while in the hands of the willing 
student it presents direct aid to the practice of thinking 
and speaking and writing Greek, much more ready for 

TREFAGE. xiii 

use, and more safe in the using, than what he may 
find in an alphabetical dictionary. 

I will now proceed to state how these objects can be 
attained ; for there is no doubt a vulgar notion abroad 
that speaking any language is a very difficult process, 
and speaking a dead language a dexterity belonging only 
to consummate scholarship. Of this idea we must, 
in the first place, get rid. Suppose, therefore, the 
pupil in his first lessons has learned the scheme of 
common nouns in the first and second declensions, and 
with that the present indicative and the infinitive of 
any simple verb, he may then immediately commence to 
think and speak in the language. Let it be, for instance, 
a bright day ; the master, pointing with his finger to 
the sky, says to the scholar, Aa^iTrct 6 riXios — The sun 
shines; op^s rov Xafiirpov ovpavov ; — Do you see the 
bright sky ? which, of course, he understands, the 
master having given him the words previously, or 
explaining them at the time by pointing to the object 
meant ; and wil^ equal ease he can be made to reply, 
6/3U) rov kafiirpov ovpavov — I see the bright sky. Now, 
will any man of common sense say that it is more difficult 
for a teacher to say this short sentence in Greek than 
in English 1 If he feels the least difficulty in putting 
such simple words properly together, he is plainly unfit 
even for the most elementary teaching. Very well. It 
is with speaking any language as it is with drawing or 
playing on an instrument. You commence with playing 
a single note, or adjusting a single pace, at first slowly, 
and it may be, in the case of very awkward persons, 
painfully, but gradually with ease, and' if the stages of 
the process are well calculated, very soon with dexterity. 


All beginnings are difficult. The master will then 
proceed to name every object in the room, making his 
practice always keep pace with an enlarged knowledge 
of the grammar. The elements of syntax will, of course, 
be taught also according to this plan, by the living 
necessities of practice ; and frequent repetition, combined 
with a graduated rise, will cause a large stock of words, 
idiomatically expressed, to slide easily and gracefully into 
the ear, which otherwise must have been forced into 
the memory through cold formulas of the understanding. 
With regard to my own academical teaching, the way 
in which I mean to use this book may be simply told. 
I will merely do what I have constantly been in the 
habit of doing without the vantage-ground which the 
book supplies to the student. I will intimate to the 
students of a class that to-morrow I shall address some 
remarks to them on a certain subject — say, the seasons 
and the weather — and in preparation for this they will 
be so good as look over the vocabulary of the chapter 
so named. In our Scottish Universities working is the 
rule ; and there is no doubt that four-fifths, or perhaps 
nine-tenths, of a class will do this, or any other thing 
they are bid. Next morning comes ; and I forthwith 
describe a snow-storm, or a frost with skating, or any 
other suitable subject, and by interrogation find that 
the students, or at least those of them who are worth 
fishing for, thoroughly understand me. I then intimate 
that I expect the students themselves, or at least such 
of them as are bent on improvement, to take my place 
on the day after, and make the description vivd voce 
before the class. This accordingly is done ; and so on 
with other subjects in a space of time not more than 


twenty minutes, and leaving ample room for reading 
forty or fifty lines of a tragic author besides. Then, to 
insure accuracy, I impose a written composition on the 
same subject as the conversation, and constructed always 
so as to involve a graduated advance in the knowledge 
of the leading rules of syntax ; and this composition is 
minutely revised and commented on once or twice, or, 
it may be, every day a week by myself or the class 

In estimating the full value of this descriptive and 
conversational method of teaching the classics, one or 
two additional observations require to be made. As a 
text to these we cannot do better than take Bacon's 
well-known aphorism, << Beading makes a full man, 
speaking makes a ready man, writing makes an accurate 
man.'' This is the exact state of the matter in the 
case of a full-grown man acquiring knowledge through 
the medium of a language which he perfectly under- 
stands; but that the maxim may be applicable to young 
men learning a foreign language, we must alter it a 
little ; 'for it is just because it is difficult to make young 
persons read much in a language imperfectly understood 
that we must adopt some machinery for supplying, in 
the early stages at least, the place of reading ; and that 
machinery is speaking. Let us therefore say — modify- 
ing the Baconian maxim so as to suit exactly the method 
according to which I conceive classics ought to be 
taught) — "Speaking makes both a full and a ready 
man, reading and writing, within the limits usu- 
ally practised at school, and under the correction of 
constant analysis and construction, make an accurate 
man." Now, what I say is, that our classical teachers, 


while they make a boast of producing the minutely 
accurate man, fail to produce the full and the ready 
man ; and this defect is what the conversational method 
is specially calculated to supply. For how does it act ? 
In the first place, it forces a man to entwine directly 
with his every-day thoughts the names of a thousand 
objects that might not otherwise occur; and, in the 
second place, it creates a process of repetition ten times 
more rapid than that which arises out of the existing 
slow process of reading and writing. It facilitates, 
therefore, while it does not in the slightest degree cur- 
tail, either reading or writing. Neither does it dispense 
with rules, but renders them more largely serviceable. 
It does not prevent or proscribe, but rather pioneers the 
way, and provides facilities, for the more curious pro- 
blems of written accuracy. Fluency first, and preciseness 
afberwards. This is the order of nature. A man must 
have his nails before he pares them. 

The conversational method has further some special 
advantages in reference, on the one hand, to certain 
philological and literary peculiarities of the Greek lan- 
guage ; and, on the other, to the place which the phy- 
sical sciences must necessarily occupy in the improved 
education of the rising generation. With regard to the 
first point, it is well known that, while in the march of 
Latin sentences, and the attitude of the Eoman speech, 
there is a certain formal majesty which seems to betray 
tl^e juridical training of those who used it, the forms of 
the Greek language, on the other hand, are marked by 
the graceful flexibility which belongs to the dialogue of 
common life ; and this form accordingly is that which 
has been used with consummate mastery by the best 

PREFACE. xvii 

writers of the language. In the colloquial form are 
embodied equally the practical wisdom of Socrates, the 
poetical philosophy of Plato, and the philosophical 
humour of Aristophanes. By using the cdloquial style, 
therefore, in the teaching of Greek, we are giving 
prominence to precisely that element which is most 
characteristic of the language, and a familiarity with 
which is the most patent door to the thoughts of its 
greatest writers. Then, as to the natural sciences, no 
well-informed peison can doubt that the narrow jealousy 
with which they have been hitherto looked on by a 
certain school of scholars must forthwith die out, if, 
indeed, it is not already dead ; and, in this view, it is 
plain that, as the language of the natural sciences is 
pre-eminently Greek, a method of teaching which fastens 
directly upon real objects, must furnish a common 
ground on which science and classics can embrace each 
other with a mutual respect and a common benefit. 
In my opinion, every classical school should devote, as 
indeed they do in the German gymnasia, at least two 
hours a week to the natural sciences ; and under such 
an arrangement it will be the wisdom of the classical 
teacher to repeat in the Greek hour some of the lessons 
of the scientific hour, and explain shortly, in colloquial 
Greek, the birds, plants, or other objects of nature 
which formed the material of the Science lecture. In 
order to encourage teachers to do this, I have taken 
care to make the scientific part of my vocabulary as 
copious as the nature of this little work would permit. 
Supposing, however, that .there are some classical 
teachers who, whether from ignorance, indifference, or 
prejudice, will not be prevailed on to enter into that 


xviii PREFACE. 

friendly alliance between, science and scholarship, which 
is so much for their mutual benefit, there remains for 
them also an application of the descriptive method, 
which it is wonderful has been so long overlooked. I 
mean the introduction, upon a liberal scale, into the 
schools, of what, in opposition to pure philology, has 
been termed the archaeology of classical studies. No- 
thing would be easier, in this day of photographs and 
cheap adumbrations of all kinds, than to have in every 
classical school a museum of enlarged representations of 
objects of ancient art and mythological subjects from 
vases or other ancient monuments. To these a collec- 
tion of casts of celebrated statues, and bas-reliefs might 
soon be added ; and if the classical teacher, twice or 
thrice a week, for only half-an-hour, were to give a vivd 
voce Greek description of these objects, an element would 
be added to our system of classical training both instruc- 
tive and delightful, and calculated not less to improve 
the taste than to fm^nish the memory and give precision 
to the ideas, of the young scholar. 

The objections which I have occasionally heard urged 
against the colloquial method of vivd voce description 
here recommended, so far as they are not founded on 
the mere laziness, carelessness, or conservatism of 
teachers, are of that description which spring up in the 
minds of persons who have either not considered the 
subject seriously, or, from want of practical experiment, 
do not know how the method really works. There is 
not the slightest question, on one point, that to remit 
his scholars dmpliciter to a book, and confine his teach- 
ing rigidly within the boards of a book, is the method 
which is most naturally resorted to by a teacher of 


small attainments^ or of easy conscience. But of that class 
of educational mechanics I take no account. There is no 
work requires more energy and more enthusiasm than 
teaching ; and he who does not teach with fervour will 
never teach with effect. But as for those who know that 
teaching the green mind of youth how to swell into bud, 
and to burst into blossom, is one of the most delightM 
of human occupations, to them I say that the difficulties 
in the way of the general adoption of the method here 
sketched are purely imaginary, and will vanish in a 
moment at the touch of an honest and manly experi- 
ment. In one of the idylls of Theocritus, two Alexan- 
drian women are represented as going out to see the 
feast of Adonis in the streets ; and, when they come to 
the palace where one of the principal shows of the 
occasion is to be exhibited, they find a great crowd of 
people ; whereupon one of them says to the other, "Caw 
we get in ?'^ "I suppose we can," says the other ; 
" at least we may try I Agamemnon could not have 
taken Troy, unless he had made up his mind to try ; 
so neither can we succeed in breaking through this 
crowd unless we try." And thus it is with all other 
practical things. To be known they must be tried. I 
have met with scholars, for instance, who told me that 
it was impossible for the human organs to pronounce 
the word.av^pwTTos in such a manner as that the accent 
should be on the antepenult, while the prolongation of 
the voice, which prosodians call quantity, is on the 
penult ; but I answered the objection in a moment, by 
enunciating the word Idndholder, which is in every 
respect the exact counterpart of the Greek word.^ I of 

1 A learned argument in defence of the rights of Greek accent 


course know practically that there is no real difficulty in 
doing what I habitually do in my own class-room with 
the utmost ease. And as to what may occur to some 
persons that there is no use of speaking languages 
which are now spoken by no man, I answer, in the 
first place, that so far as Greek and Latin are concerned 
the fact is not exactly as stated ; for Greek and Latin 
are both actually spoken by not a few persons, and if 
spoken in a rational way by persons studying these 
languages in this country, would prove of no small 
utility to British scholars travelling abroad, as not a 
few pointed anecdotes can avouch ; and, in the next 
place, I say, that I do not practise Greek description of 
objects, and Greek conversation, as an end, but as a 
means ; and I have proved by experiment that this 
practice not only does not prejudice reading and writing, 
as now used, but, as already stated, immensely facili- 
tates and improves both these exercises. In fact, it is 
the only efficient way to turn the languages taught into 
the blood and bone of the learner in the shortest pos- 
sible time, and with the greatest amount of profit.^ As 
little does the practice of colloquial Greek in any way 

was unsuitable to the plan of this little work ; but those who wish 
to see the firm basis of reason and authority on which this matter 
stands, may consult my Discowrse on Oreek Pronunciationy Accent y 
and Quantity (Edinburgh, 1852), or my paper on the PUice and 
Power of Accent in Lan,guage, read before the Koyal Society of 
Edinburgh, March 6, 1870. There is in fact no argument on the 
other side ; the present perverse practice of pronouncing Greek 
with Latin accents being only an inveterate bad habit, which, like 
other bad habits, cannot always be changed, merely because it is 
scientifically proved to be bad. 

1 See an account of his experience in speaking Greek, by Erasmus 
in the work above quoted, p. 211. 


interfere with the scientific anatomy of language on the 
principles of comparative philology, as now practised by 
all thorough-bred teachers, a practice which, when not 
prematurely protruded, or pretentiously paraded, must 
certainly be regarded as one of the most notable 
advances recently made in school tactics. In conclu- 
sion, I have only to return my sincere thanks to those 
gentlemen who have performed for me faithfully the 
fretful duty of revising the Greek of the dialogues. A 
work of this kind, however carefully executed, will no 
doubt contain some errors, which it will require no 
microscope of the curious critic to detect ; but after 
passing through the hands of such accomplished scholars 
as Professor Lushington of Glasgow, Professor Geddes 
of Aberdeen, Dr. Clyde of the Edinburgh Academy, 
Dr. Donaldson of the High School, Edinburgh, the 
Rev. F. W. Farrar, Head Master of Marlborough 
College, and Mr. W. Merry of Lincoln College, Oxford, 
my Greek may reasonably be expected to have been 
well weeded of any of those modernisms and linguistic 
slips which might give just cause of ofifence to a 
scientifically trained teacher. 





" In omnHmsfere minus valent prcecepta quam experiinenta, 

" Omnem semumem aurffms priinum accepim/us. 

" Excitat qui dicit spiritu ipso, nee imagine et ambitu rerum sed 
rebus incendit. Vivunt enim omnia et moventur, excipimusque 
nova iUa et nascentia cum/avore et solicUudine. 

** Scribendo dicimus diligentius, dicendo scribimus facUitis" — 


**Ad linguce cognitumemplurimum hahebit rrunrventiy si inter bene 
loquaces educetur pu£r, Fdbulas et apologos hoc discet libentiuSf ac 
meminerit melius, si horum argumenta scite depicta pueri oculis 
mbjidantur, et quicquid oratione narratur, in tabidd demonstretur. 
Idem cequ^e valebit ad ediscenda arhorum, herharumy et anim/intium 
nomina, prcesertim eorum quce non ita passim obvia sunt, veluti 
rhinoceros, tragelaphus, onocrotalus, asinus Indicus, elephantus. 

" Scis honam eruditionis partem esse scire rerum vocainda. Hie 
supra modum peccatur a grammaticis vulgaribus, quorum vitiojit 
ut adolescentespost multos annosin gramtnaticd contritos vix norint 
uUius arboris, piscis, voltLcris quadrupedis aut leguminis verum 
nom^en" — Erasmus. 

" Omnis lingua usu potius discitur quam prceceptis : id est audi- 
endo, legejido, relegendo, . imitatumem manu et lingud tentando 
quam creberrime, 

" Institv/endi erunt varii de rebus discursus, quos/ormd dialo- 



ffisticd concipi quatuor hax suadent: primum nihil est hotnini 
naturalius coUoquio, quo sensim sine sensu perdud potest quocun' 
que : secundo colloquia excitant animum, foventque atteniionem, 
idque ob qtMBstionum et responsionum varietatem, eorumque varias 
occasiones et formas, intermixtis subinde qyux oblectant. Tertio 
serviunt dialogi cum rerum impressioni Jvrimoriy turn repetitioni 
(etiam inter discipulos ipsos privatim) faciliori. Denique quia 
potior vitas nostras pars coUoquio constat, eUganter compendioseque 
ad earn manu ducitur juventus, si res non solum intelligere sed et 
de iZlis expedite disserere consv;escat.'*—AMOS Comenius. 

** Sane pueriles animi mire capiuntur narratiunculis et picturis, 
Figuras singvlas monstrentur, explicentur: quorum occctsione sylvani 
vocum Latinarum addiscere licebit." — Gerard John Yossius. 

" For their studies^ Jirst, they should begin with the chief and 
necessary rules, of some good grammar, and while this is doing 
their speech is to be fashioned to a distinct and dear pronunciation, 
as near as may be to the Italian, especiaUy in the vowels. For we 
Englishmen, being far Northerly, do not open our mouths in the 
cold air wide enough to grace a Southern tongue, but are observed 
by all other nations to speak exceeding close and inward, so thai to 
sm/Uter Latin with an English mouth is as HI as learning as law 
French."— J OBN Milton. 

" If you will consider it, Latin is no more unknown to a child 
when he comes into the world than English, and yet he learns 
English without master, rule, or grammar ; and so might fie Latin 
too, as TuUy did, if he had somebody always to talk to him in this 
language." — John Locke. 

" Why shaidd the old practice of conversing in Latin and Greek 
be altogether discarded T'— Professor Jowbtt. 



As language consists of articulate sounds, and all 
sounds are addressed to the ear, it is of the utmost im- 
portance in learning a language to educate that organ 
accurately from the very first, so that the learner, as 
he goes on to perfection, may have no bad habits to 
unlearn, and may not, contrary to nature, be forced to 
master rules as mere abstract truths never to be applied 
in practice. In trsaning the ear to the accurate recep- 
tion of Greek sounds,^ three things are to be attended 

1. The proper sounds of the letters, specially of the 
vowels, in which the musical value of language mainly 

2. The quantity of the syllables; that is, the length of 
time occupied in the enunciation of the syllables. This 
again depends mainly on the vowels, in pronouncing 
which the breath may either be cut sharply off, which 
makes a short vowel, or drawn out to a greater length, 
which makes a long vowel. 


3. The accent of the syllables ; that is, the compara- 
tive predominance given to certain syllables by the 
greater stress of the voice (cTrtrao-ts <^<«)vt}s) laid on 
them, and the natural rise in the key of the voice, 
with which this stress is accompanied. The stress laid 
on the syllable is called in Greek the acute or sharp 
(of vs) accent, corresponding to a treble note in music ; 
in contrast with which every unaccented syllable is 
necessarily grave, *.e., lower in tone, corresponding to 
a bass note in music, or a note lower down the scale. 
The less emphatic syllables in speaking depend upon 
a universal law of nature, in virtue of which every 
stretch or stress is necessarily followed by a slackness 
or remission (avco-ts <lxavqi). 

To guide the learner under each of these three 
heads, the following simple remarks will for practical 
purposes be found sufficient : — 

1. The certain elements of Greek vocalization, i.e., 
so far as they depend on an authoritative tradition, or 
a just philological induction, going back as far as the 
age of the Ptolemies, are as follows : — 
a = English a mfar, 
€ = „ e „ get 

L = ,, ee „ seen, 
V = German t*e „ Brueder, 
This last sound is unknown to the English, as it was 
to the ancient Eomans, who accordingly adopted the 
Greek letter Y, which we call Y, in writing all Greek 
names — as K v/)os, — ^written with this vowel. The sound, 


however, is familiar to the Scotch of the south-west, 
as in hluidj guid ; and is produced by a gentle and 
elegant approximation of the lips as described by 
Dionysius. Students should from the first be habi- 
tuated to pronounce this vowel correctly, as it not only 
is a sound specially characteristic of Oreek vocalization, 
but one which, when once learned in connection with 
Greek, will prove of great service in the proper pro- 
nunciation of German and French. 

The long vowels, of course, are only prolongations 
of the short, as the English Pope^ though differently 
spelt, is the corresponding long to j^^ and hrrpe to 

Of diphthongs the original pronunciation was no 
doubt a sound composed of their vocalic elements 
rapidly enunciated ; but this rapidity naturally led to 
obscuration, and diphthongs assumed the character of 
single vowels — always, however, long. A complete scale 
of all the Greek diphthongal sounds has unfortunately 
not been handed down to us : three only are known 
with certainty : — 

ov = English 00 in hoom. 

at = „ o „ vane. 

€t = ,, ie „ mien. 
Nothing can be more contrary to the physiology of 
Greek pronunciation (belonging as it does chiefly to 
the front of the mouth) than the how-wow style of pro- 
nouncing the diphthong ov in vulgar English usage. 
Of the other diphthongs, the most important, especially 
for epic Greek, is o(, which, till better informed with 


regard to early classical usage, we shall be wise to 
sound as we do now, like the English oy in hoy. To 
(Lv some probability assigns the sound of English ou in 
hound ; and the comparatively few words in which thiff 
sound occurs stand as a characteristic contrast to the 
favourite Hellenic sound of ov. Of €v I know not 
what to say. 

Those who wish to cultivate intercourse with the 
living Greeks, — and there may be not a few in London, 
Liverpool, and elsewhere to whom this advantage is 
open, — should accustom themselves, in reading prose at 
least, to pronounce the vowels and diphthongs exactly 
as the modern Greeks do; a habit which will be of 
great use even to exact scholarship, as it is certain 
that the so-called modem Greek pronunciation is in its 
main peculiarities as ancient at least as our earliest 
manuscripts, which contain not a few errors springing 
obviously from the ears of the transcribers having been 
habituated to the vocalization 30 characteristic of the 
present Komaic. The peculiarity of this Byzantine 
orthoepy, as we may perhaps most correctly call it, is 
the predominance of the slender sound of ee, which, 
besides the two cases of t and ct given above, engrosses 
also the three sounds of )/, ol, and v. That this pre- 
dominance of one of the feeblest sounds in the scale is 
both a corruption and a deformity need scarcely be 
proved ; it ought to be remembered, however, that it 
is both an early and a characteristic corruption, and 
harmonizes completely with what Quinctilian tells us of 
the character of the Greek vocalization as opposed to 


Latin in his days: ^^ quamguam Us major est gbaoi- 
LITAS, nos tamen sumus fortiores." 

2. The quantity of the Greek vowels is easily known 
from the fact that in the case of two of the vowels, 
6 and o, special characters, )/ and (o, were at an early 
period introduced to mark the pronunciation to the 
eye ; while in the case of the other three vowels, a, i, v, 
the quantity of the syllable may in many cases be known 
from the character and place of the accent with which 
it stands in a well-defined connection. Thus a word so 
accented as rifikpa or Oka will generally have the final 
vowel long;^ but if the accent be as in irpayfia, or in 

^ The following are the principal cases in which the acute ac- 
cent on the penult does not indicate a long final syllable in the 
case of the doubtful vowels : — 

(1.) a in the nom. accus. and voc. sing., 1st dec, when the 
termination is ^a, XXa, wa, aaaf or ^, as fdvOa^ Zxi^Xa, yiwoLf 

(2.) a in neuters plur. of the 2d, and neuters sing, and plur. 
of the 3d dec, as fiirpaf ffrLyiJxi, i}84a, 

(3.) Dissyllables of 3d dec in ap and as, as fJuiKupf Sdfiap, 
Ppiras, ffiXas. 

(4.) as in accus. plur. of 3d dec, when the nom. is not in ei^s, 
as iraripas. 

(5.) Final t in neuters and vocatives of 3d dec, as ^^Xt, <f>dTi. 

(6.) Final ts in nom., 3d dec, of nouns with Attic gen. em 
or tdos, and iros, as ^6X1$, x^-pf-h ^P^h ^i^^ their accusatives. 

(7.) Final v in neuters of 3d dec, as 76^1;. 

(8.) Final t/s with gen. in vos, as ardxvs, 

.(9.) Final i in dat., sing, and plur., of 8d dec, as voip.ivij 

(10.) Adverbs, particles, and numerals, in a, ts, tv, and v, as 
voXXdicts, vdXiVf TrdpVf tva^ dfia^ f^ififpa^ S^/ca. 

It will be of course unnecessary to mark in the text the quan- 
tity of any final syllables of words falling under these categories. 


(rrpdrevfia^ the final Yowel is short. In all cases where 
the accent does not determine the quantity hj the rules 
immediately to be mentioned, the long quantity will in 
the present work be marked by the sign — , short 
syllables remaining unmarked. 

8. As for the accents, nothing can be more simple, 
as they stand out on every printed syllable of the lan- 
guage, and cry aloud to be used. The principles which 
regulate this notation, introduced at an early period 
by a learned Alexandrian grammarian, are few and 
simple : — 

Words not ozytone haying the last syllable long are ac- 
cented on the penult, as ^Xdt^if, like English pHrnrose, 

Trisyllabic and polysyUabic words not oxytone having 

The student should also note that the penult of all such words 
is naturally short. 

In the case of words with the antepenultimate accent, it will 
be observed that final at and ot, in the declension of nouns and 
verbs, are in the great majority of cases treated as short. 

The quantity of the final syllable in oxytone words presents 
little difficulty, as being in large groups of cases indicated by the 
presence of the short or long vowel visible to the eye. 

If the student starts with a clear view of these great leading 
principles of the doctrine of accent in definite relation to quan- 
tity, he will find nothing more easy than to fix in his ear the just 
quantity of every syllable in the language. Of this the small 
number of words whose long quantity is marked in the text 
affords a striking proof. Let all syllables be pronounced ishort 
whose long quantity is not evident, either by the presence of 
a long vowel or diphthong, or double consonant, or from the 
accent, or, in the few cases where these are not sufficient, by the 
mark — . Such a rule, strictly applied in the earliest stages, and 
attended to in the preparation of our elementary books, would 
insure- accuracy, and save time to an extent of which teachers, 
with the present loose practices; can have no conception. 


the last syllable short are accented on the antepenult, 
as av^/owTTos,* like English landholder. 

A circumflex on the penult of any word indicates 
that the last syllable is short, as o-ca/Aa. 

Oxytone words, or words accentedon the last syllable, 
of which there is a gi'eat number in Greek, can only be 
known by practice ; they are, however, to a certain 
extent, capable of an arrangement into groups, which 
the student can make for himself, or find in Jelf's 
Grammar (55-62). 

The only practical caution which the student requires 
to. take with him in pronouncing the accents, is to 
beware, on the one hand, of lengthening a short syllable, 
merely because it is accented, or, pn the other, of 
shortening a long syllable which happens to be un- 
accented — ^blunders which careless and vulgar speakers, 
in all languages, are very apt to commit. The absurd- 
ity of confounding accent and quantity will be seen by 
comparing two such words as nominal and mtional in 
English, where the accent is antepenultimate in both 
cases, but the quantity different. 

Certain words on which no emphasis is laid are called 
enclitics (ly/cXivco), and are pronounced as one word 
with that on which they lean ; as o$ y€, 80$ /iot, etc. 
This is a rule which belongs to all languages, as in 
Italian, datemi, dateciy where the enclitic word is 
written as part of the word by which it is orthoepically 
absorbed. But pronouns, and certain particles, as ov, 
(OS, the moment they are emphasized become accented, 
emphasis being of the essence of all accent. For the 


same reason /x.£v and hk are not enclitic, because they 
call special attention to a contrast. 

The circumstance that words whose last syllable has 
the acute accent in the dictionaries are marked with a 
grave in the books, unless when they occur at the end 
of a sentence, or a colon, seems to indicate that the 
Greeks had a habit of raising their voice at the end of 
a clause with completed sense, while in the continuity 
of an unbroken period, a final syllable, though emphatic, 
was less prominent, and pronounced in a lower key. 
In practice the student need not trouble himself with 
this peculiarity, the significance of which is conjectured 
rather than understood. 


In the Greek language assertive propositions are 
made, either, as in Latin, by the accusative before the 
infinitive, or, as in English, by a conjunction (cas or on 
=tha£) with the indicative. 

In negative sentences, the particle ov (or ovk before 
a vowel, and ov\ before an aspirate) is used to express 
the negation of prominent and strongly emphasized fact; 
subordinate, less emphatic, conceptive and hypothetical 
negations are made by li^-q. 

Questions are asked either by the simple verb, as 
o/o^s, Do you see f or with an interrogative particle, as 
TTorepovy apa, or 17 prefixed. When an affirmative 
answer is expected ovk is used, as in English, as ovk 
l^cis ctTTctv, Can you not say f Yes, I can. On the 


other hand, the particle /a*)}, or fiCyv^firj ovv, is prefixed 
when a negative answer is expected. 

Forms of assent in dialogue are worked out with a 
wonderful exuberance in Oreek, as any one may see in 
Plato. Among the most common are fxdXKrra, vae, 
irdw y€y Kol fj,d\a y€, wavrdiraa-L fxev oi v. 

Often the verb of the previous question is repeated, 
as op^s, Do you see f opo), I do ; sometimes the single 
pronoun suflSces, as lycoyc 

Forms of denial are ovSa/x-ws, ov S^ra, rJKKrrd yc, 


. Both in assent and denial frequent use is made of 
yap, for / a wo or i/es in the mind being tacitly sup- 
pressed. 'AXXa also is a particle of which large use is 
made in dialogue, and implies a reference to something 
either previously said or supposed in the mind of the 
speaker. It often answers pretty nearly to the Eng- 
lish toell I 

In the formation of Greek sentences, the classical 
student must carefully avoid allowing his ear to be 
influenced by the analogies of Latin style. The Oreek 
dialogic style is infinitely more flexible, more easy, 
more various, and more graceful than the Latin ; and 
this flexibility and ease is attained chiefly by the 
various use of participial and infinitival clauses ; the 
one expressing every variety of subordinate clause 
generally rendered by conjunctions in Latin, and the 
. other, with the article, forming a verbal noun, capable 
of being governed by prepositions, and thus woven into 
every sort of variously related dependent clauses. Pre- 


ceded by wo-tc, and in the case of some verbs without 
w<rT€, it 18 used to express every variety of result or 
issue, or outcome of an inherent quality, such as re- 
quires in Latin ut or qui with the subjunctive mood. 

As to the collocation of words, the common schoolboy 
practice of putting the verb at the end of the sentence, 
liable to many modifications even in Latin, has scarcely 
any place in Greek. If any definite position is to be 
assigned to a Greek verb, it is rather in the middle of 
a simple assertive clause, between the adjective and the 
substantive which it governs; as, /AcXaivas Ixci rots 
rpix^^j ^ ^cL8 Hack hair. The obvious reason of this 
collocation is to avoid the monotony of sound caused by 
the juxtaposition of two, three, or more words having 
the same termination. Generally the order of words 
in a Greek sentence is determined by emphasis and 
euphony; and the collocation is that which is prescribed 
by passion and imagination, not by logic and gram- 
matical construction, or rigid convention. The best 
key to it, so far as 'our language allows, will be found 
in the style of Shakespeare, and of vivid imaginative 
prose such as that of Thomas Carlyle. Our common 
English style, partly from false ideas of propriety, 
partly from linguistic poverty, is too cold, unimpas- 
sioned, and undramatic. 

As the general norm of Latin style is to be con- 
trasted, so that of English may, in many cases, profit- 
ably be compared with Greek. This is particularly 
the case with regard to the infinitive, the participle, and 
the optative mood, which has many remarkable coinci- 


denceswith the use of the conditionnl might, could, would, 
and should in our language. The particle av, which is 
apt to give trouble to beginners, is really only another 
method of turning an assertive tense into a conditional, 
as is done by these auxiliary verbs with us. Thus, 
lAajSov, / took ; iXa/Sov av, I would have taken ; 
yevofjLcvov, a thing that took place ; yevofxcvov 3lv, that 
would have taken place, etc. etc. 

In Greek the logical sequence of the grammatical 
forms of the tenses is observed much less strictly than 
in Latin, the natural tendency of a quick imagination 
to pass from the indirect to the direct speech being 
much more largely indulged; and in dependent sen- 
tences this frequently leads to a form of speech which 
in English would not be tolerated; thus — '^ The general 
took all these precautions that the soldiers may (for 
might) not be surprised by the enemy." This sin- 
gularity led to the gradual disuse of the optative, so 
that in the New Testament it appears rarely, and in 
modem Oreek entirely disappears; and even in the 
most elegant writers certain optatives, as the optative of 
the future, though a recognised part of the language, 
are not used once, for thirty times that the correspond- 
ing indicative tense is used. 

It is too common a practice with teachers to remit 
the doctrine of the particles, as a delicate and difficult 
matter, to the special study of the more advanced 
scholar. This error must be carefully avoided. It is 
impossible to utter the simplest Oreek sentence so as to 
fall pleasantly on an Attic ear, without using particles ; 


and of these the most important, as well as in prin- 
ciple the simplest, are S^ and y€. The first is simply 
demonstrative, and is joined accordingly to all strongly 
emphasized demonstrative words, whether pronominal 
or adverbial, as vvv Si}, totc 8»J, ovtco 8i}, os 5i}, kir^i 
St}, corresponding frequently to the Latin demum and 
vero. The same emphasized demonstrative power, 
which is its essence, leads to its frequent use with 
imperatives as Xcyc 81}, where it corresponds to the 
English then. The other particle, ye, of so constant 
use, is essentially limitative and contrastive — the special 
attention which it directs to a particular word always 
implying a contrast to some other person or thing, 
sometimes expressed, oftener understood. Thus, if 
you ask me in Greek to do anything to which I am 
extremely averse, I say Ma Ala ovk lycoye, that is. Not 
I indeed, whatever others do; or, if I wish to express 
my own opinion on any subject modestly, I say, Kar' 
ifirjv ye yvw/x7;v, " In my humble opinion," though per- 
haps wiser men may think otherwise. The particles, 
with their combinations, are for the most part fully 
discussed in the excellent G-reek Dictionary of Liddell 
and Scott, based upon the great German works of 
Schneider and Passow ;'but the most natural, easy, and 
effective way to master them, is a careful observation 
of the style of Plato, Lucian, and Aristophanes. 

These remarks are not intended in any way to super- 
sede a systematic study of the structure of Greek sen- 
tences in a regular Syntax. They are only meant to 
give a natural prominence to some of its more obvious 


points and fundamental principles. In the following 
dialogues, whose chief value should consist in throwing 
the material of the language, aifter the most familiar 
fashion, into the hands of the student, short reference 
will, at the same time, be made to points of syntax as 
they occur ; and for this purpose the following three 
abbreviations will be used : — 

1. J. = Kiihner*s Greek Grammar, by Jelf. 4th Edit. 

Oxford; 1866. 

2. F.= A brief Greek Syntax, by F. W. Farrar. 

3d Edit. London : 1870. 

3. C.= Greek Syntax, by Dr. Clyde. 4th Edit. 

Edinburgh: 1870. 



How dark the sky is to- 
day I Shall we have 

No ; it rather looks like 
rain. There are signs of 
a thaw. 

Then my skates will be of 
no use. 

Are you fond of skating ? 

Passionately. I feel like 
a terrestrial Hermes scud- 
ding along. 

Here comes the rain. 

I hope we shall have a re- 
gular downpour. I hate 
a drizzle. 

Put up your umbrella ! 

No ! that for the hens and 
the ladies. I always look 
Jove in the face, whether 
fair or fouL 

You may march through 
the rain. I will seek 
shelter from the storm, 
— ^farewell ! 

How mild the breeze is to- 

Very mild. The wind is 
west. This warmth and 


*Qs OTvymfft 6 ovpavos crrifie- 

pov, TTorepov fiiXKei vt^f tv 6 

Beds ; 
ov drJTa* fMXKov yap doxei 

V creiv. T€KfirjpLd ye yiyverai 

Tov rrjKfcrBai, 
oifdcv oZv 6(l)€\6s fioi TCI vno- 

drifiara ra irayobp6p.a, 
ayairqs to nayoBpofieiv ; 
vnep^vm fi€V ovv. irdw yap ods 

iiriyeiSs ris *Epfirjs Kara roifs 

KovoTciXXoTrriKTovs TTTcparbs 
'Kpepoiiai TTorafiovs. 
Ka\ fi^v vvv brj cpxerai 6 v€t6s. 
*Pay8alos yovv yevoiTo. r^v 

yap yfrcKaba fii<ra>. 

'AvafrreTotrov d^ t6 aKidbciov. 

Mo t6v Kvva ovK tycaye, irpocr- 
TjKfi 8rprov ra roiavra rats re 
oKeKrpvoai Kai rals yvvai^lv, 
^Eycoyc els rov Aia drevi(ei.v 
^i\S> etre <^atd)}fii)7r6v, etre 

Udpeari a-oi ye Kark'ov tto- 
pevecrBai rov ver6v, tfyatye 
{TKeirrfv riva rrjs XaiKairos for© 
Kal Kara<fivyr]V' "EppcDao. 

y t 



as <fieperai 

^TTtoTOTT; ydp, Ze(fivpiov irvei 

r6 TTvevficu *H yoiJv rrjkiKavrr] 



moisture will cause the 
grass to grow. 

I plucked the spring cro- 
cus this morning by the 

My old friends the swal- 
lows are twittering about 
the eaves. 

How changeable our Scotch 
weather is ! 

Only yesterday it was 
clear hard frost. 

Yes ; one requires to have 
good nerves here. 

The birds are singing in 
the wood. 

I wish I were singing with 
them ! But I have books 
to read. When the sun 
shines out in April, I 
always wish to wander. 

" In snatches humming 
quiet tunes 
To the fresh breeze of 

the mountain," 
as Ossian says. 
O yes! Ossian and the 
Highlands for me ! Fling 
your books on the shelf 
for a day, my good fel- 
low, and let us have a 
holiday ! 
Done ! I shall be wise for 
once : let us be off ! 

^epfiSrrjs fura rov vypov noir}- 

<T(L av(dv€(r6ai ^ rrfv iroav, 
Ka\ fiTfV Ka\ €a>6(V ebpc^dfirfv 

t6v koSkov top \cvk6v irapa 

r^ voari^. 
aX a-uvT]6€LS fiov <f>LKoi ai x^^^~ 

dopes rpi^ovaiv \mh rSav yci- 

*Qs tvfierafioXos 6 Kara r^v 

Ka\t]8oviav oi/pavos. 
Koi yap xSes yt ^6pia(€, 

Trpotr^KfL 8ti Tois ivBdbf^ dv6po>' 
nois Savixatrla ris €VTovla rov 

aoovat Kara to 

akaos oi opvl" 


£i^€ fUTOxos yfvolp.ijv avrbs tS>v 
dtrfidrfov. €fiol /icvroi irapd- 
KcivTM pipkoL &s xpV ^vayva- 
vai, '£icXa/ifra>y yap €KdaTOT€ 
6 T)\ios, <t>6ivovTos Tov 'EXa^i/- 
^oXiavos, dfLV^v TOV TrXawcr- 
dai c/iTTOtci fioi ijndvfiiav, 

** /icXcpS^/xara avTOfidTas nap- 
tfi^aXktop rj<rv\a 

VTTO T^ fl^TT? 1"® ^I^XP^ ^^ 

t6 tov *0(r<Tiavov. 
Kai fidXa ye. ravra hrcuvSi. 
^ATToppiyiras B^ ovi/, S> SavuMaie, 
Tag pipAovs Ta wv ye eis ttjv 
6riKrjp, cTTtXajSoO dvBpeias fier 
€fiov dirpa^ias.^ 

^vfi<f>rjp.i. dtra^ ye, cViicXi;^^- 
iTOfiat (ro<f>6s. 'Anicafiev. 


Climate — Kpaais tov ovpavov, or tov dcpos. To become 
cool — d7ro'\/^vx<o* A cloud — ve<f>e\T}f r/.. Cloudy — <rvvve<l>i)s. 

1 irotw, with infln. ; for/acio iU in Latin.— Above, p. 8. 
« Adverbs used for adjectives.^J. 486, c ; P. 24 ; C. 8, a. 
8 Gen. after verbs of layim,g hold of.— 3, 612 ; P. 46 ; C. 72, c. 



A comet — KOfir]rr)s. The day dawns — v7ro(f>aiv€L rj fjfiepa. 
The early dawn — \vKavyes, to. At break of day — cf/ma r,^ 
€<o. The dog-days — fjfi€paL Kvvdbes, ai. The dog-star — cfipi- 
oy, 6. Drought — avxf-os, 6. Fine weather — eiibia, fj. Frost 
— irayos, 6. Hail — xaka^af fj. Hot weather — Kavfia, t6. 
Mist — ofiLx^rjy rj' The night is far gone — iroXv npoeprj ttjs 
pvkt6s. To pelt as by a storm — crTroSeiv. Rainy weather — 
eirofifipia. A star — doTrjp, -epos, 6. A shooting star — dar^p 
diarrtov. Sunset — bv(rp.r], rj. Sunrise — dvaroXrj, r). Sultry 
weather^ — irviyos, to. A surge, swell — K\vba>vtoPf to. Steady 
— arda-Lfios. Weather, to have any kind of — xP^H^^' ^ 
whirlwind — crrpdjStXoff, 6. 




Whose house is this ? 

I don't know. 

It has splendid wa^s and 
ellegant piUars. 

Do you observe those large 
windows, all of one pane 
of plate glass ? 

I do. 

I do not admire the chim- 

They are too large. 

Do you like the lobby ? 

Very much. It has abund- 
ance of light, and looks 

The stair, however, I think 
is rather narrow. 

This bedroom also is too 

Here is the vaulted cellar. 

Is there a good stock of 
wine in it ? 

Tivos 6 oiKos ovTotri ; 

ovK olbcu 

ToL^ovs ye €;f6t Xafiirpovs, Koi 

Kokovs Toits arvXovs. 
Spas t6.s Bvplhas eKelvas tos 

fieydXas €K fiids eKdarqv ir\a- 

Kos vaXivrjs ; 
Tas be Kmrvoboxfis ov Bavfid- 

MaKpdTepm yap. 
*0 8€ irpodofios ipd y( dpitrKfi ; 
Kal fidXa yt. ttoXv d^ t^^L to 
<l>S>s Koi (ftaibpap ttjv oylriv. 

*H §€ jcXipz^ aT€VOT€pa nov do- 


Kai firjv t6v KoiTava tovtop). 

fiiKpoTepov riyovfiai. 
'EvOdde q Kafidpa. 
^Apa iroXifV e^fi t6v oivov ; 




Oh, no end ! How do you 
like the dining-room ? 

Not at all. }. dislike it. 

The pictures on the wall 
give a look of great dig- 
nity to the room. 

The chairs are very ele- 

Yes ; but the sofas are 

They are rather dumpy. 

How dull the fire burns on 
the hearth ! 

Take the poker and stir 

Take the tongs, and pile 
up the coals. 

There are coals enough 

The carpet is splendid on 
the floor. 


This neat little footstool is 
admired by everybody. 

And with good reason. 

I shall not be able to sit 
contentedly in my little 
dingy study after all this 
splendour. But we must 
go. Gome along, Tom ! 

Farewell palaces ! farewell 
splendour I 

'AnepavTov d^irov to xp^yua, 

fi&v dyanas t6 btLirvrjjrqpiov ; 
Ovdev fiaXXov dc fiT(ra. 
*Qs <T€fiv6v TL TTpoa'dirrovo'i t« 

oiKifrKi^ oi irivaK€s oi Karh, rov 

Al 8f dri Zbpai ov afUKpav exovtri 

^vfKJxovaf rds be Kkivas diri- 

TraxvTtpcu, yap. 
a>s d<j>€yy€S t6 irvp rh iv rj 

Aafioiv t6 fTKoKevOpov Ktvti t6 


Aa)3a>v rr^v irvpdypav iino'&pev- 

(Tov SvOpaKas*. 
"AvOpaKai €\€i t} €a'\dpa rjbri 

AafMTpSis Koafi€L t6 eba(f)os 6 

*AXt]Srj Xcycty. 
Kai fi^v Koi t6 KopylfbvTovTo viro- 

TTobiov 6avpA(ov(riv ajravres* 
AiKaifos ydp, 
^'Eyaoyc t^s ttoWtjs Tavrrjs y€v- 

(rdpicvos x^ib^s ovk &v wro- 

fievoifii^ fvBvpos KaOrjaOai iv 

T^ <f>pOVTlOTrjpL^ flOV tS CKO' 

T€iva. 'Ardp xprj aTraXXar- 
Tccraai. ''l^t o^, i Qoyuatridiov. 
tppaxrBe pitv d^ audicTopa* 
eppaxrde ;^Xid^/xara. 


Bell — Ka>do)v, -(ovos, 6. Bellows — <t>v(ra, -t/j, 17. A box — 
irv^isi -ibos, rj. Cage — jcXca/Sof, -ov, 6. Candlestick — ^Xyvyta, 
-as, Tj. Curtain — irapairiraa'pxLi aros, t6. Cradle — \ikvov, 
-ov, r6. Cistern — rv^poSrjKtj, -rjs, rj. Ewer — jrpoxvrrjs, -ov, 6. 

1 1 aor. for present in certain verbs.— J. 403, 1 ; C. 88, c. 

s A compound clause, with two imperatives, resolved into a single clause, 
with one imperative, and an aorist participle.— F. 248 ; C. 46, a. 

» av with the optative, expressive of futurity or possibility.— J. 425 ; P. 
268, c; C. 48. 



Jar — 7ri6os, -ov, 6. Kettle — \ePrjs, -lyror, 6, Garret — wrcp- 
^ovj -ov, t6. Lumber-room — ypvTo86Kri, -ijSj ^. Pillow — 
'7rpo(rKfd>akaioVj t6. Roof — 6poq>fj, -^s, ^. Shovel — Xicrrpov, 
-r6. Snake-down — (mPds, -abos, ^. A story — areyrj, -.jyr, ^, 
Storeroom — rap-ielov, t6. Wardrobe — ip/mo<f)v\dKLopj -ov, 
t6. Wash-bason — ^cpvi^iov, -ov, r6. 



Do you see that boy in the 
field ? Who is he ? 

He is the farmer's son ; a 
handsome youth. 

Who lives in that large 
white mansion ? 

I don't know ; a rich Lon- 
don brewer I believe. 

These knolls sprinkled with 
trees are beautifuL 

The brook runs clear and 

The river rolls gracefully 
round the village church. 

Did you see the shepherd's 
cottage in the glen ? 

Yes ; it was very neat. 

The shepherd is an excel- 
lent man. 

The roads in the Highlands 
are admirable. 

Yes! formerly, in the days 
of Rob Roy, they were 
hard and stony. 

There you are right ; there 
was no access, I guess, to 
Rob Roy's cave I 


*Opas iKtlvov rhv ircuha rhv iv 

T^ dyp^ ; Tis iror cariv ; 
vlos bh Tov y€(opyov' daT€los 6 


Tis be brf jcarotKct cV ra pL€ydK<o 

Ovjt oiba' ivuonoLds ris ttXov- 

cios, otjfiai, tS>v €k Aopbivov, 
KoXa y€ ra Xo^iSta ravra 8ev- 

8p€(rt dt€iKrjp.p.€va, 
Kal pr)v Ta\vs pfi 6 irorap.LvKOs 

Koi dta(f)cunis, 
MoXa yovv xf^^pi-^vTOis nepuXia- 

(rercu 6 jrorafibs irtpi rh t§5 

K^firfs itpov. 
''EapdKas r^v tov iroip.evos kclKv- 

Kai fiaXa yc* KOfiyfroTarr} yap. 
^novdatos brjirov avrip 6 Trot/x^y 

At €V TJ 6p€lVJ 6do\ €^aip€TCl>S 

KoXXiorat yap' Kairoi nporepSv 

ye, cVl TOV ^FofiepTov tov irvp- 

pov Tpijyopidbov rpaxyrarai 

rjo-av KCii XiOiaheis. 
TavTtt ye akqOri Xeyeif ov yap 

im^pxev ot/xat irpSaobos ovbe- 

fiia^ els t6 tov Tprjyopidbov 


1 Double or triple negative, as often in Chaucer and Shakespeare.— J. 
747 ; F. 286, 7 ; C. 48, 4, a. 



Do jon like the village ? 

Much. I admire it for 
being adorned not only 
with gardens and or- 
chards, hut with green 
slopes, pleasant pastures, 
woods, rirers, and purling 

The man who bnilt that 
cottage below the crag 
had some taste. 

The parish is altogether 
ronarkable for J^eanty. 

And the whole coimty 

The cattle which feed on 
that meadow ought to be 

So they are ; see that cow 
recumbent, how smooth 

She makes me ashamed of 
my meagreness. 

Be ashamed of nothing, as 
a man, but lies, and cow- 
ardice, and sloth. But 
here comes the boat. Let 
us ferry across to the 
island, and, rambling over 
the stout old grass, un- 
trodden by the profane 
foot of tourists, have a 
hunt for mushrooms. 

Agreed ! 

^^^po. yr Kara woxw iroi ij K^fiq ; 

H on us a <rt /icv tnnr or yc^ Btnt- 
IMa(9» mrrrp^ fka ro voucikOijvai 
ov /ummm icrftroit Ktu /iiyX&o-i, 
aXXa Kol liXlTVin x^ocpals, 
wofuus TFpwmr, akir€tn<, wora- 
fUHSy nu viarimm xtXapwrfMoori 

ovjc SytvoTos yr rov nzXov ^ nv 
o danip o Kouiopviras €K€iwfjw rrfv 
KoiXv^riw vvtMcorw rov Kpvffjofov. 

*E.wUr^fMos voFv 6 S^fMos wairra- 
J(OV TU Kokkfu 

Kot yap jcaXXumi orrfisraona ^ 

Eijcof Totpvw ^wrapKov^ ctMU rar 
jSovr Ta£ cjcctpov TOW XfffiMpa 

"Ewntfiarown yap vmptfw^af 
liovT^povp €K€anfw, «>r cwpt^ 
jconucciroi Kai Xnrapa. 

"Qare axaxypttrBai c/Aeyr riyv 
c/AijF laxvoTTfra. 

'AXXa ff€ yr arc apBptsnow otrra 
dcT pafihf cuaxvvcovoi ci fi,^ ro 
yL€vios Ktu r^v dciXioy Jtac 7-nv 
opyunr. arap ** op<o cvravmz r-o 
wopSptlaw. iropBfjLeu<rci>fM€Ba fjL€v 
ovw €ls r^v vj<roF, icai irXara- 
^icvoc icara t^f vayiav inSoy ri7F 
iroXvcT^, Toir t»f wcpiTjyrirStv 
firipatrtM Sfiarow * dpvqriuVt 
BtipStp€¥ rovr lAVKqras. 

^w^OKKi ravra. 

1 Y* >Aer oc, often used for assfgning a reason «fpote gvi. quippe qui. — 
J. 735, 9 : F. 304. 

* Gen. priTative after a^j., compounded with a priv.— J. 529 ; P. 46 ; 
C. 09, b. 

* «Taf»— often nsed when taming to a newsnlQect, as aurip in Homer. — 
J. 771-4. 

« DatiTe case after pass, and verbals, in roi and Wos.— J. 611, a ; F. 
54, 5 : 247, 9 ; C.*70. 




A rural constable — jrcpiTrokos, -ov, 6. A shepherd's crook 
— KoXavpoifr, -oTTOff, 6. Clod — /3o>Xoff, -ov, 17. A croft or 
small farm — y^8toi/, -ov, to. A ditch — PoSpos, -ov, 6, A 
stone dyke — alfiatrla, -as, rj. Firth — iropOfios, -ov, 6. A 
flower — avOoi, -ovs, to. Fountain — Kprjvrj, -rjs, rj. Hedge — 
(l>payp.6s, -ov, 6, A sheepfold — otjkos, -ov, 6, A milk -pail — 
TTcXXa, -rfs, fj, A remote part of the country — ecrxoTid, -as, rj, 
A spade — a'Ka(f>clov, -ov, to. A stable — iTnroav, -a>vos, 6, A 
pig-sty — (Tv<fi€iov, -ov, to, A mountain torrent — x^P^^P^y 
-as, Tf. To overhang or be situated above— iTrcpjtetcr&at tivos. 
Visible from any point — ovvotttos. ■ 



What a noise there is in 
the streets I 

Yes; and the dust is 

Whose house is that ? 

It is nobody's house ; it is 
the Post-Office: do you not 
see the crowd of people ? 

It is an elegant buildmg. 

Edinburgh has many ele- 
gant buildings. 

What building is that with 
the lofty dome? is it a 
church ? 

No; it is a bank, the 
Bank of Scotland. 

This street is full of splen- 
did shops. 

Yes ; the shopkeepers are 
rich fellows. 


1It}\Ikos 6 66pvPos 6 KaTa tcls 

/^(ivos yap* Ka\ en xcipov ^ xd- 


6 OIKOS oifTOS TLVOS d^ ioTlV ,* 

Ovdev6s fi€v ovv Taxvdpofiflov 

yap' ovx opas tov ttoXvv 

oxkov ; 
KOfV^dv y€ TO olKodofirjfia, 
noXXa €xfi Tj 'EdiraTToXtf TO. 

*'Ek€ivo t6 olKob6p,r}fjLa t^v B6Kov 

cyov TTfv v^njXriv, icpov ttov hv 

€iij ;^ Tj yap ; ^ ^ 
Ov brJTa, Tpdne^d eariv, rj t^s 

KdXribovias Tpdnc^a. 
*H 686s avTTj \au.irpS>v irXrjpijs 

vjrdpxti- KojnjkcKop. 
JlXovatoi yap ol Kdnrjkoi. 



should be at once so 
beautiful and so filthy ! 

Kot at all strange. Evil 
delights to dwell beside 
good; as the proverb 
says, "Where God builds 
a church, the Devil al- 
ways erects a chapel 
beside it." 

Very true. 

How many storeys have 
these houses ? 

More than twelve at 

I should not like to live 
in the top flat. 

Nor I — if I had rheuma- 

* tism; but these houses 
command a splendid view 
beyond the- Firth of 

What fine old churchyard 
is this? 

The Greyfriars. Here, a- 
mong others, are the 
monuments of the mar- 
tyrs who suffered perse- 
cution under Charles IL 

They were noble fellows. 
I am an Episcopalian, but 
a brave heart can beat 
under a Geneva gown as 
well as beneath a bishop's 
surplice. Let us go and 
seethe monuments. Come 


#» t / 

xaXXct Kai ra pvirta roirovrov 
V7r€p€\€iv rrfv 'EStvaTToXii/. 
OvSev BavfiaoTOP rovro ye dci 
yap di7 t6 KaKbv yeirviq. r^ 
dyaOS' TO ttjs rrapoifiiaSj^ onov 
vaov (OKob6p.rjcr€v 6 debs cicct 
l^pytracrdaL (ptkci wf)Kov 6 

^AXrjdforaTa Xeycif. 

Hocra €\€i OTcyrj ra oiKobofiff- 

jMara ravra ; 
'Yrreppaivct « rovXa;(ioToi/ ra 

"'E.yfuyf rh dvo>rarov ariyos ovk 

dcfifvos 3.V KaToiKolrjv, 
Ovb* eyo)' (Tuvcx^P'^vos ye r^ ptv- 

€' T 

paTL(rp,C^' OVTOl p,€VTOl Ol OlKOl 

iv frepKoirfj Kelvrai /xfyaXoTrpe- 
TTct avpirdoT^s ttJ£ x^P^^ '^^ 
irepav tov t^s Bobayrptas nop6- 

T6 8c 8i) KOiprjrqpiov tovto tI 
fOTiv ; (rtpvbv yap tl t\€i. 

To Upov rSiv \€VKo<f>ai(ov px)V- 
dxcav aXXa re ttoXXo ^x®" 
Kal brj Ka\ to. tS>v paprvptov 

t \ 

p.vrip^ia Ta>v \m€p ttjs TTicrrcor 
djroOavdvTfov Karh rovs cVi Ka- 
pokov TOV p dicoy/xovff. 
Tevvaloi o^Toi hr)' fya> pev, a>s 
oicrSa, dpi tS>v ra tS>v iino'Kd- 
iroiv <f>povovvTCi}V' ov p^v akXii^ 
<t>p6v7)pLa CDS aKrj3S>s dvbpclov 
btairdcrBai ^iXcI ovx ^ttov vtto 
(TuppLari tS>v KaXPiviar&v rj 
vno ra tS>v itricrKdTrcov tpLari^. 
*A7rl€op,€v p.€v oZv o'^opevoi ^ 
rh pvqpeia, <t>^pf brj I 

1 The article in a short inteijected clause. — J. 457. 

« ow firiv oAAa, a strong nevertheless— not what you would expect, but 
something else. — J. 778, 6 ; C. 64, a. 

* Put. part, after verbs of motion, to express intention or purpose.— 
J. 690, 2 ; C. 46, b : 90, c. 




An aqueduct — vbpayayyetoVf t6. A brewery — (vdoTroiciov, 
t6. a place of business — xPVHf^^^hp^^^y "^o. City cham- 
bers — apx^iov, TO. A chimney — Kairvoooxri, ^. An enclosure 
— TTcpiPoXos, 6. A fleshmarket — Kpconoaikflov, rd. A green- 
market — XaxavoTrtoXflov, to. A jail — <f>v\aKfj, rj. A har- 
bour — \Lfir]Vf 'tvosy 6. An inclination or exposure in a par- 
ticular direction — eyieXta-tr, -tons (1)) 7rp6s. An infirmary — 
voaoKoptlov,- TO. AJn inn — iravboKeiov, t6. A music-hall — 
eJdcioi/, TO. Register House — ypapp^To^vXaKLov, t6. A reser- 
voir — vnoBoxf}, rj, A steeple — Ka>da>i/o(rrd(rtoi/, to. Suburbs 
— 7rpodaT€iaj tcl. A town-hall — Trpvramoi/, r6. 



Well, as King George said, 
"Edinburgh is indeed a 
city of palaces." What a 
noble building this is ! 
only it seems to have no 
door, like some old tem- 
ple of the mystical Isis. 

This is the High SchooL 

Oh ! a famous nursery of 
learning ! Is there any 
other school in Edin- 

Yes; a legion. There is 
the Edinburgh Academy, 
Fettes College, and many 

Is the teaching good ? 


'AXXa yovv, TKeye tA oKijBrj 
Teoipyios 6 ^aaiXtifS Xeywi/ 

'Edii/aTToXif. *Qs (Tep.voirpen'es 
t6 OLKo86pr}p/i TOVTO I TrXrjv 
ovh€p.iav y€ fpaiveTGL ^x^w Bv- 
pavy a>aircpavcl nakaiov rt 'upov 
TTJS pv(rTLKTJ£''l(ridos. 

TovTO t6 TTJs nokcoDS yvp.vdo'iov 

Il€piP6rjTov bn TrJ£ iroXvpxideias 
(pvTCDpiov ! aod y€ vnapx^i- f^ai 
aKKa ev tJ EbwaTTokcL biba- 
(TKaKtla ; 

Kal p.vpia y€* olov r) ^AKabrfp^ia 
T) T^s *Eoii/o7rdX€a)s, to itr- 
TTi<nov iraibevTrjpiov, kol SKKa 
OVK oXiya. 

*Ap* oZv ol bibda-KciKot T€xviKoi ; 

1 Opt in indirect speech.— J. 802 ; F. 190 ; C. 95, c ; 96. 



Excellent ! No man beats 
the Scotch at teaching, at 
gardening, or in a theo- 
logical argument. Now> 
come with me along the 
North Bridge, and you 
shall see another fine 

What is that ? 

The University. — Here it 
is — unquestionably a 
grand edifice ; but one 
can with difficulty see it 
in the narrow street. 

I wish they would open 
up the street. 

So do L Wishing is easy. 

Will they not do it? 
Doing is difficult. 
What is this inscription ? 

It is Latin : you may read 

How many Professors has 
the University? 

About thirty, I think. 

That is a great number. 

Not at alL In Berlin they 
have five times thirty. 

The Germans are an aca- 
demical people. 

The Scotch are a practical 

The Germans make ideas, 
the Scotch make — 

Money 1 

Ha ! ha ! ha ! a nation of 
shopkeepers, as Napoleon 
said ! 

Let us enter the class- 

This one ? 

TexvLKODTaTfii yap. roi/s yovv 
KdXrjbovLOvs avopas ovBels ap 
irapaWdTTOi oijTe rw bidda-KeiVt 


\6yois Tois OeoXoyiKois. 'Arap 
Pabitrop ^8r} /icr' efiov, koto. Tr]v 
irphs ^oppav yc(l)vpav, erepov tl 
KciXov oyfrofievos oiKobofirifia, 

To TToiiov ; 

To 7rav€TnaTr)p.iov' Ibov* fieya- 
XoTrpeircs a>s d\rf6S>s olKodo' oparov p.€VTOi fidyis, 8id 
t6 OTfvov T^s 68ov, 

BovKoifiTjv hv evpvvd^pai Tr}v 

ravrd tUxofiai Koi iya, pdbiov 

brjTTov TO €ii\€(r6ai. 
ovK apa tvpvvai &v Oekoifv ; 
X(iX€7r6v del t6 irpdrreiv. 
AvTTj Be 8^ ^ ijriypa<f>r), iv t<5 

ep^irpoaOev Troid ti£ eariv ; 
""EaTiv^ dvayvSivair *Fa>fjuuK^ yap 

TTOcrovs ?x^* KadriyrfTas to iraV' 
efriarrjfuov ; 

CDS TpldKOVTa^ OlfJMl, 

Meya Brf to Trkrjdos. 

Ov drJTa' ev t^ ye BepoXivc^ nev- 

TdKis TpidKOPTa V7rdpxov(riP. 
'AKadijfUKov eduos oi TepfxaPoL 

IlpaKTUc6p eOvos oi Kakrjdopioi, 

Oi p.ep Teppjdpo\ epyd^oprai votj- 
fMiTa, oi 8e KdXijdopioi — 


Ba/3ai* edpos KairrfXiKOPf to tov 

JElaiafiep els r6 dKpoaTrjpiop. 

'Apa ye tovtI ; 

i<m.v with penult accent for licet.— Z. 666, c. 




This is the Greek class- 

I see a blackboard on the 
platform; does the pro- 
fessor use it ? 

Of course. 

It is very usefuL 

Give me some ink. 

Mend this pen. 

I prefer writing with a 

What names are those on 
the wall in golden let- 

These are the names of 
students of distinguished 
merit, who carried oflF the 
highest honours of their 

Whose bust is that ? 

It is the bust of Socrates. 

What long roll is that ? 

It is a chronological table 
of Greek literature. 

How many hours a day 
does the Greek class meet? 

Three hours a day. 

Does the Professor pre- 
scribe exercises? 

yes! and he proposes 
questions also, and puz- 
zles the students with 
knotty points. 

Are there any examina- 
tions ? 

Yes ; constant examina- 
tions ; and three great 
examinations besides. 


TovTO ioTi TO aKpodr^piov to 

Tns *'E\\rjviKrjs </)iXoXoytar. 
MfKava 6pS> nlvaKa eTTi Ta na- 

vtdco/xarc (Is Xptio'iv yc tov 

KaOrjyrjTOV ; 
TT&s yap oiS. 
XpTjo-ifiCiyraTov yap, 
irapdbos tov fieXavos.^ 
Sro/xtixrdv fioi t6v KoXauov Tdpbe. 
'^'Eycoyt uaKkov ypa^loi hv ypd- 

Ta dc opSfioTa ravTa to, eir\ t© 

rotY(j» )(pva'o2s ypafifjuun TLvmv 

Bt) tariv ; 
Tmv fiadrfTav reoi/ dper^ dut- 

7rp€fr6vT<i>v, Koi ppaPcla \a- 

P6vT(0P iv r^ tS>v a^p.fiaBr^S>v 


Tipos Tf wpOTOfirj avrrj ; 

Tot) 'SaKoarovs. 

'Ekcii/t; OTi ri dpaypa<f)fi rf fuucpci 

TToia Tis ; 
TTiVof bri \popoKoyiKbs tS>p vepi 

TO. *'E\\rjpiKa ypafifxaTa. 
irSa-as &pas dtoacricei 6 KaBrjyrj- 

TrjSy TTJs fjfi€pas ; ^ 
Tpels &pas. 
*Apd y€ npoardTTei ti t&v oct- 

KryrSiP ; 
Kal pi.aKa ye Zti ht jcal ip&rrj- 

fiaTa TiSrjo'i, ical ifjfidWci els 

dnopias tovs fiaOrjTaSt iroiKika 

itpofficpciP diropripMTa, 
Hdrtpop €^€Td(r€is yiypoPTCu ; 

^AbidkfiTTTOi yap- irphs dc rov- 
Tois tS>p pLtyakfop c£rra(rco»v 

1 Gen. for accus., i.e., a part (j/'/ as in French, or English— 80iii« 
635 ; F. 46 ; C. 18, a. 
a Opt. of politeness, as vdim for volo.S. 425,* 6 ; F.177, 3 ; C. 43 obs. 
The day for every day.— 3. 623, 2 ; F. 22, 1 ; C. 82, c. 



But tlie session is short. 

Yes ; but the students 
work very hard. 

I suppose they must study 

hai'd ; otherwise they 

must starve. 
You say well. Hungry 

dogs hunt best. 
Then the Scotch study for 

pudding, not for the love 

of truth. 

I am afraid not a few of 
the English do so too. 
The English are fond of 
pudding. The Germans 
love truth more for the 
sake of truth. 

Certainly they are a very 
learned nation, and make 
many big books. 

Quite prodigious. The Pro- 
fessor told me that his 
library was crammed with 
German books on all 
subjects, and a few 

My father says that I must 
go to Germany if I wish 
to be a scholar. 

Your father was not far 

Well ; but I must contrive 
to get a bursary in the 
first place. 

There is a competition to- 
morrow for the Gteek 
TravellingFellowship. Do 
you mean to go in ? 


PpaxvT€pos fi€VToi<l)aiv€Tai 6 tov 

dibdo'Ktiv xpovos, 6 f^dfirjvos. 
*A\ri6rj XiycLS' dWa firiv ol fjM- 

3rjTal ye irdw dvbpeias iiri- 

K€ivTai rals /SijSXotf . 
TTtefet fj avdyicr}' el Be /ii), 

Xlfx^ &v diroQdvoiev, 

Eu Xeyftr, eiye irpoexovtri pi- 
vrjKairia ai Xip.carrovtrai Kvves, 

OvKovv 01 Ka\rj86vLOL ye e^r^fioi 
<nrovbd(ov(n nepl ras fii^Xovs, 
TOV &lre'i<rSai epeKo, aXX' ov 
T^s dXrjdeias. 

(l>opovp.<u fjL^ TOVTo, Trdo'xoo'i 
tS>p AyyXo)!/ ovk okiyor <f>i- 
Xocrtroi ydp rives oi ''AyyXoi. 
TOLS be TepfAdpols reXos npo- 
Keirai avr^ rj aKfjOeicu 

HoXvfiadels hr)irov6ev eltriv dfiff- 
X_avov 8(rov, Koi brj Koi oyKmteis 
avyKcaTvovtri ras pifiXovs. 

TepaT0i>8eis fiev ovv eUre fwi 6 
KoBrjyrfTris cjs fiefiva'p.evriv exoi 
T^v 0ipXio6fjKrjv jSijSXo)!/ Tep- 
piaviK&VjirepL TraPTobair&v irpay - 
ftdrav Kol TTpds.^ 

Aeyct 6 frar^p ©y Trdvrtos be2 
7repaiov(r6ai eh ttjv Tepp.aviav, 
TOP ^ovX6fiep6p ye tvx^Ip ttjs 

TavTa ye, ov iroppaa dirervx^v 6 
TTUTTIp TOV dXrfoovs. 

*AXX* ofjLios (rtrrjcrip bijp.oo'iav 
Trpdrepop iravThs p.aXXop bel 
Xapeip eueye. 

Aiipiop aycjp yepria-eTai irepX 
TTjs *'EXXrfPiKrjs (riTrja-efas T^r 
Trepirffr)TiKris. rcorepov ev p£ 
exff'S (TVPajjiiXXaa'dai ; 

ILaPTdiratri fiep ovp. 

1 irp6j without a noun— <o hoot.— J. 640 ; C. 51. 



And I too. We were wise 
to go home and prepare, 
cramming our brains with 
the stiff lore of the gram- 

'Au(XX^(ro/iai Kai iyoD. (ro(f>Sis 
av irpcLTTOLyLev en olkov 16vt€s 
7rpo7rapa(rK€va(r6fi€voi,Ta nayia 
€is TOP €yK€(f>aK.ov (fj^vovres 
TO. T&v TpafifiaTiKa>p doy/xara. 


A bell — Koibcav, -wvos, 6 ; Att. ^. A doorkeeper — Ovpto- 
posj 6. Dux of the class — Kopvffiaios, 6. An error — a-<l)ak- 
fia, -ToSt r6. A gateway — irvXav, -apoSf 6. The public hall 
— opMKoiuop, -ov, TO, An introductory address — \6yos itri- 
rrjpiosj 6. A janitor — jrv\(op6s, 6. A tablet for writing or 
ciphering — ypaiip.aT€LOP, ro. Repetition — ijravoKrfyfnSt ^. A 
statue — avbpids optos, 6. A short theme or essay — ypofi- 
p-aridioPf t6. Translation — iKTd<f>pa(Tis, -€a>f , ^. A valedic- 
tory address — \6yos i^irrfpios. 



Well, my dear fellow, what 
are you studying now ? 


I detest grammar. 


It is dry, meagre, and 

Well, I grant you, if you 
take it alone ; but fol- 
lowing the steps of prac- 
tice it is agreeable and 
useful. Into how many 
classes do you divide the 
letters ? 

Into vowels and conson- 


'AXXa <rv ye, & OavfidaUf ri pvp 
hri TTOPels ; 

T^i' ypap.iJMTi,Kr)p, 

MvcrdxT0p4U T^p ypafipariKijP. 

Ti ira6Sp ; ^ 

Kal yap ^rjpd iari Kal l(rxv^ i^cu 

Koi fi^p <rvyx<*>pSii r^ ttjp roiav- 
rrjp xi^pKn-riP ye biaTropovp.€P^^ 
irpaypxirtiap' aKkdp.riP ip^iekSis 
ippvOfucTfievri rrj da-Kfjaci XPV^' 
Ifirj jTov ccrri Kal repirpr), "Els 
TTOcra etbrj bicupcirai to. ypd/i- 

"Els (jxoprjtPTa koi atfxopa. 

» Tt iraBiov, and rC iia0(ov. - J. 872 ; F. 241 ; C. 46, b. 

2 Part alone, and often with ye = if or when.— 3. 697, c ; F. 241 ; C. 46, b. 



How many vowels are 
there 1 

In Greek, seven — a, e, i, 
o, Vy rj, <o. 

How do you classify the 
consonants ? 

They are divided into class- 
es, according to the parts 
of the mouth and throat 
by which they are pro- 

I learnt this when a boy 
at school. 

Let us see then if you 
know your lesson. 

Perhaps I have forgot ; for 
my memory is weak. 

Which are the labials ? 

TT, ft 0. 

Is that aU ? 

I know only these three. 

There is a fourth — fi. 

That is called a liquid in 
my Grammar. 

In Greek, for certain pur- 
poses it is treated as a 
liquid ; but it is really a 
labial, or rather a mix- 
ture of labial and nasal ; 
for when you pronounce 
m, you shut your lips, as 
in the English word mvm, 
and by compression drive 
the breath through the 

I understand. 

Hoo-a TO. (jicDvfjfvra ; 

*Ev rfj ye ^EXXj^wkJ yXaxrafj 

TS>v de d^a>i/o)i' noia tis fj bial- 

petris ; 
riyperai fi t&v atficavoiv biaipetris 

Kara to. fi6pia tov t€ (Tr6\iaTos 

ical ttJs \dpvyyos otoTrep TTpo- 


'AXV eyoyyc ravr* tfiaOov Trais 
'^'EoTiv o^v irelpav \a$€LV tS>v 

€^Kpip(i>IMfP<OV (TOl fiaSrjfJLaTODV. 

^Icro)S fViXeXjycr/iat, fire bff ovk 

&v ^ tS>v <r(f>68pa fivrjfioviK&v, 
Ta x€Ckonp6^fpTa ypa/x/xara 

riva ioTiv ; 
TT, ft </>. 

Ovk ?x^^^ iraph ^ ravra SKKa ; 
Tavra fiovov oiSa ra rpia. 
Ov fi^v aXXa reraprov 8^ cot* 

rh M. 
ToOro ficvToi iv ypafifiariK^ rfj 

y€ ip.fl vyphv ovopa^trai rfroi 

'Ei/ TTJ 'EXXj^vikJ yXaxroT/ fi€- 

Ta\€ipi^ovTai rh M ivioTfy 

o>s vypov aXX' o/iox <rvvT€- 

Xei €is TO. x'^^^^P^i^^P'^o-t 
pahXov he els (rvvderSv n 
tS)v ;(€iXo7rpo0€pra)i/ Kal tS>p 
plvonpoff)epTo>v 7rpo<l)epop,ev 
yap t6 M, pva-dvTmv t&v ;(€tXo>i/ 
KaBdirep cVi* r^ff 'AyyXtJC^y 
Xc^ccoff wiwm, iK^Xipovres to 

^ t 0* 

TTPevpa Ota rmv pivtov, 

1 Part, for time when.— J. 696 ; P. 236 ; C. 4flL 

« Part, with ore aij, assigning a cause — J. 704 and 721 ; F. 287; 0. 46, b. 
« Use of irapa in comparisons.— J. 637, B. ; F. 86, v.; C. 69, 1. 
«cirt with gen. in the ease of, Latin in with ablat.— J. 633, 3 ; C. 83, 
10, a. 



Is there any other nasal 
letter ? 

Perhaps v. 

Of course ; v is a dental- 
nasal, and may be called 
the sister of /i — as in 
Latin, for instance, we 
find fi in the accusative 
case for v in Greek. 

Do you not think Prosody 
a very difficult part of 

Not at all: it is the easiest 
of all. 

How do you prove that ? 

Prosody is just pronuncia- 
tion ; as soon as you hear a 
long syllable pronounced 
long, you know that it is 

But long syllables are 
not always pronounced 

Whose fault is that ? 

I am often puzzled with 
the optative and subjunc- 
tive moods. 

If you compare the Greek 
optative with the Eng- 
lish conditional^ of which 
the sign is mighty coiUd, 
would, . and should, you 
will find little difficulty ; 
and, generally, let this be 
laid down, that Greek 

'Apa yc napa to M SKKo t* coti 
ypdfiixa6ivo7rpA<l>€pTov ; 

Tax ^^ ^"1 ^ ^^ N. 
IlavTa.7rd(ri iiiv o5v ct ye avv- 
derov fjJv €(rrt t6 N oroivf toi/, 

• cffUZ flCV plv07Tp6(f>€pT0V OV dfUl 

5e 68ovT07rp6(t)€pTov, &aT€ *Pa>- 
pxufTTi ye TO M KadiaraaSai 
els T^v Tov N x&pav ev tcus 
alTtaTLKols irraaeo'i. 

2v ov vofu{^eis to, irepl tcls t&v 
(TvXXa/Seai/ TTOo'on/raf p.epos 
elvcu T^s ypafifULTiK^s dvaKO- 
\a)TaTov ; 

Ov fiev odv dk\h noKv d^ p$<''~ 


TovTfov de tL e^eis TeKfifipiov ; 

Ovdep SKXo earlv ^ jrepl iroa'6- 
Ti)Tas Texvrj dXX' ^^ t6 6pdS>s 
irpo^epew eX ye Si) cf/xa akov- 
aas Tis fiaKpav oiapdrjnoTe trvk' 
Xap^p eKtretptoprjfieprjp, fuucpav 
ovaav olbev, 

'AXXa fi^p ov jraPTaxov ye fioK' 
pea r^ (fxidPriePTt 7rpo(f)epoPTtu 
at p^KpaL 

TavTa 6ti Ttpa de2 alTiaaSai ; ^ 

^vx^oLKis tp.eye els diropias ep,- 
PakXovo'iP ai eyKkitreis ^ re 
evKTiKTi Kai ^ vrroTcucriK^. 

El Oekois irapo^oXf IV ttjv evKTi- . 
K^p t£>p *^XKr}P(OP 7rj}6s t^v 
eyjcXicriv r^v imb tS>p AyyX«i/ 
Kcikovpeprjp conditional, rjoirep 
t6 OTjpelop might, could, woula, 
and should, ndpv apiKp6p ev- 
pois &P^ t6 dva-Kokop. Koi d^ 
Kal oka>s Kel<T6a> tovto, tt^p 

1 Opt with av expressing probability or likelihood, 
s For oAA* ^, see J. 778, 6 ; C. 54, a. 

• Verbs with two accusatives, especiaUy when the first is a demonstra- 
tive pronoun.— J. 646, B. ; P. 68 ; C. 16, d, 77. 

* ei with opt. in protasis of a supposition not directly before the speaker. 
' 866 ; P. 207 ; C. 93. 



syntax is in many striking 
points identical with Eng- 
lish, while Latin stands 
strongly contrasted with 

Is it reaUy so ? 

It is so. 

Then do you assert that 
Greek syntax is easier 
than Latin to an English- 
man ? 


Then why do they not 
write Greek as they do 

Because they do not prac- 
tise it. 

Why do they not practise 

Because, for these many 
centuries, Latin is the cur- 
rent language of learned 
men — not Greek. But if 
you wish to make pro- 
gress, take my advice : 
use your ears and your 
tongue chiefly, not merely 
your eyes. 

Do you speak Greek ? 

I speak every day. 

To whom ? 

To myself and the Muses. 

Could I try the same 

plan with success ? 
Of course; there is no 

'EXXi/vtjc^v avvTo^iv iv TroXXoi; 
opois TTjv avTrjv tivai rj *AyyXt- 
KJi onovye rj 'Pa>^aiic^ dfi^ori- 
pcus ivapy&s ivavriovrcu, 

MStv ovTcos €X€i t6 wpayfJLa ; 


Eira (TV y€ aTroCJiaivei €vko\(o 
T€pay €iVM T^v '"EWrfviK^v <rvv- 
Ta(iv,''Ayy\<a ye dpBplf rrapa 
T^v *F(iop.(UK{]p ; 

a7ro(l>aivofiai yap. 

EiTO bia ri ov \pS>VTcu, rfj *EX- 
\r)viK^ dtaXcKTO) 01 ndkyfiaOels 
rmv <rvyypa(l>S>Pf Sxnrep hr) tJ 

Aiori beovrai Tr\s da'Kr)a'€&s. 

I^IU 06 0^ ri OVK €Trip.€AOVVTai 

rrjs d(rKr)(r€ci>s ; 
Atort, TToXXc^v rfdrj €tS>p,^ eVt- 
XOi>pid(€i napa vols <ro(bolst 
ro)/uuoTt <rvyypd^(u ^ipkovs 
aXX' OVK *EXXi;vMrrt. Ov fir)V 
oKka (TVf 61 0ov\€t ye irpo- 
K6yfrai, (ro(l>6s hp etrjs yvpvd' 
(<op^ del rd re &Ta ical rrjv 
y\Si(r<rap dXKd p,ri rovs o^^oX- 
puovs fidpop, Kar* efirfp ye yva 

2v 8e 8fj exois ap els \6yovs cX- 

0eip Ttvi, TJj 'iSXkrjPiKTJ xpe>fie- 

vos dtoXeicrci) ; 
Kat yap drj xpS>iuu oojjfiepcu, 
1Ip6s Tipa dTj ; 
Avt6s irphs eiuLvrdp* en be Ka\ 

Trp6s rds Mova-as. 
Mt)^ Ka\ iyoD dvpaifirfp dp Tovrd 

irpdrroiP Karopd&aat ; 
Ov8ep,iap tlx^i' f^ irpdypA oyi- 

1 Gen. of times expressing duration, firom a certain time up to the pre- 
tent moment-^. 528 ; C. 13, obs. 2, a. 
« The protasis expressed hy a participle. — 0. 46, b. 
* iiMv and /uii} expect, but do not always get, a negative answer. 

All / 














along ! I am going 
'• Greek class. 
not I ; I do not like 


ise it is so difficult. 

.,o very sight of the 

lus frightens me like 

hedge bristling with 


^aw! All excellent things 
iC difficult, as the pro- 
orb says. 
. oil, I will go, and hear 
u,t least the introductory 
^ct us go then ! 

>VeU, how did you like 
the lecture ? 

I was astonished when the 
Professor spoke of the 
longevity of the Greek 

Yes ! that is wonderful ; 
Greek is as vital now as 
it was in the days of 

When did Homer flourish? 

About 850 years before 
Christ, according to He- 


''I^t brj- epxofiai yap npos t6 
dKpodrfjpiov TO ^lEXKrjviKov. 

OvK eyayy^' Koi yap p.ia-S) to. 

Ti waOoav ; 

Alo. to TTJklKaVTaS €X€IV T^V 

y\S>TTav Tas bva-KoXias. ^T\6v 
TO Bedfia tS>v pT^fidTcav ^o/Sfi 
p,€ Sxnrcp 7r€pi(l>payp.a fiaTOLS 
<l>p'i(ra-ov Ka\ doTraiKdBois. 
Oifdev \eycis' ^^^^^ 7^9 ^^ 
Koka, t6 TTJs irapoLp.ias, 

Etcv ^ovKopxu. (rvviKOetv ov- 
bcLS f^Oovos Tov y€ cla-iTrjplov 
p.€T€X€iv Xoyov. 

Nvv ovv rja-Brfs rj aKpoacrct ; 

Kai p.^v i^eTrkdyrfv eVt tw KaBt)- 
yrjTfj TTjv TTJs ^EWt^vik^s Bia- 

XcKTOV fJLOKpofilOTTJTa i^Tjyov- 

QavpxKrrhv ((otik^v Btj ye dv- 
vap.iv €^€1 ff yXcirra, wore dic- 
fld^CLV TO, vvv ovx ^ttov ^ Kaff 

*0 8e '*Opr)pos 7n;i/iJco rJKpMa-ev ; 

*Qs ^ 7r€VTrjK0VTa err) cVt rots 
6KTaKo(rioLS irpo t^s ivtrdpKov 
olKovofiiaSf KaTd ye tov *Hpo- 


1 On this use of w«.— J. 615, 626 ; P. 84 ; C. 69, 1, 6. 




I used to think Greek was 
a dead language; but the 
Professor read a passage 
out of a book recently 
printed in Athens, which 
one of the students trans- 
lated without a blunder. 

Of course. No language 
has so wonderfully re- 
sisted the vicissitudes of 

They say Greek is the 
most perfect of all lan- 

That I do not know : per- 
haps Sanscrit is more per- 
fect; but so far as cul- 
ture is concerned Greek 
certainly has more to 
boast of than any lan- 
guage thiat I know. 

How many languages do 
you know ? 

Some three or four, or half- 
a-dozen after a fashion. 

What are the principal 
excellencies of Greek ? 

It is musical ; it is rich ; 
it is flexible ; it is copious ; 
and contains the best poe- 
try, philosophy, religion, 
and science. It is first- 
rate in all departments. 

How do you mean that it 
produces the best reli- 
. gion? 

Of course I mean because 
the New Testament is a 
Greek book. 

I understand. But do the 

^ETiOrjv TTOTC rywye rrjv 'EX- 
XriviKrjV y\S>TTav €V vcKpov 
Tivos Koi a7rr)pxcuoi>ii€vov fieper 
6 de KadrjyriTrjs \6yov riva 
av€yv<o €K ^ifiXov 'EXXi;^^^^ 
€vay\os ^ABrjVTjiri cKrvnaOfi- 

p,€T€(^pa<r€V dTTTaiOTWS. 

E(K($ra>f* ov8€p.ia yap d^ tS>v 
yXtoTT&v els ToaovTOV avriarr] 
T(ds Tov xpovov fi€TaP6kals. 

T^v tS>v *lS,Wrjvci>v <l>a<ri 7ra<ra>v 
tS>p y\<oTTS>v clvai TcXeiora- 

Tovt6 ye ovk olda' rdxa d* &p 
etq Ti tS>v BpaxfJ^dvav yXSyrra 
Tcketorepa ttcds* rrk^v rrjs ye 
TTcudeias eveKa^^ t) *EXXi;vi#ci7 
yXSiTTa diKaicDS Av cVl TrXeto- 
(Ti <rep,vvvoiTO dperais ^ aXKrf 
yXarra jjtktovv t&v ep,oiy€ 

Sv be 7r6(rcip efineipos el dia- 
XcKToiv ; 

TpiS>v nepiTTOVi ^ TeTrdpap, ^ 
rponov Tiva cj. 

Uolcus Bff fidXiOTa dperais xmep- 
e^ei 17 'EXXt^wk^ yXarra ; 

HoXXatf Ka\ yap efxaeXTis re 
earl nal vypa, Ka\ Xe^eav d<t>' 
Bovla dp.rixavov oa-ov airap- 
y&aa, Ka\ p.^v Ka\ irepiexei 
7roirj(nv koi ^CKofro^iav kcu. ev- 
a-efieiav Ka\ eTria-rrjfnjv dpia^rjv' 
8\a)s bfj Kara ndvra irpcurevei. 

HS)s rrjv^EWriviKrjpXeyets yXcSr- 
rav o>r fieXriarrjs noirjriicfj cV- 
riv eva-epeias ; 

^Afiekei on fj Kaivrj diadrjietj /3i- 
jSXof eari yeypafifievrj 'EXXi/w- 


Mav3dva>* oi 8e Brj "EXXiyvey 

1 ere/ca — SO far as concerns. — J. 621 ; C. 82, c. 



Greeks surpass the Eng- 
lish in poetry, or the 
Germans in philosophy ? 
This is a difficult question. 
.^Ischylus is certainly less 
than Shakespeare, but 
Homer perhaps is greater 
than Milton; and as for 
philosophy, Plato and 
Aristotle are inferior %o 
none of the most subtle 
Germans, and they have 
infinitely more taste. 

But the Greeks are weak 
in science. 

No ; Aristotle,Hippocrate8, 
Aretaeus, Euclid, Archi- 
medes are weighty names 
in science even at the 
present day. 

Well, if this be so, I will 
try and master the verb. 

Try, and you will never 
repent. A little Greek 
is not a dangerous, but a 
useful thing; and much 
Greek is gold to the wise. 
God be with you ! 

yiSiV vncpfidWova-iv rjroi, tovs 
"AyyXovs TJj noLrjo-fi fj tovs 
Tepfidvovs rfj aoipiq. ; 
TovTO €;(ct aTropLca/. 6 yovv Al(r- 
Xv^os avapX^io'^rYnYr^os \fiirf- 
Tcu. Tov 2xa/«nn)por, 6 ^ av 
Tcivos' T^s de <l}iko(ro<pias €V€Ka, 
6 T€ nXarcDV kol 6 Aptarore- 
\TfSt Tois p>€v duivoiais ovbiv 


T&v Ttpjxdv&v, T« ye Trjs Xc^c- 
ODS y\a(f)vpa dp.rjxavov 0(rov 

'Yarcpovai fievroi oi ""EWrjvfs 
rfj yc imarrip.jj, 

Ovdafias' crcfiva yap Kal Kaff 
fjp£is ovofiara iv roXs irepl ras 
inicrrfifias iiriKpaT^i 6 re *Api- 
(TTOTcKris Koi 6 Ev/cXetdi^r, ert 
fie 6 'Ap;(tu^8i;r koi 6 'linroKpd- 


ISJev, ovTas Brj ^ neipaaofiai ck- 
IxaBelv TO priiJLa, 

Jleipa avyc ov yap &v aoi 
IX€Tap.€\^a-€i€, 6 EWrfVKrfihs 
oXiyos p.€P iwirdpxatv, ov klv- 
dvvS>b€s aXX* axpeKifiov, irokvs 
be xp^^^^ dvTiajfKo'L, toIs ye 
avverols. *Aya6hv €xoiS dai- 
fiova iv SLirdfTi 7rapa<rTdTrip, 


The vocabulary belonging* to this chapter will be found 
under the dialogue Rhetoric and Belles Lettres below. 

OvTttts ^ — under these circumstances 8ic demum. 





So you are studying na- 
tural history ? 

Yes ; I have commenced 
witiii the amoeba, intend- 
ing to mount up to man. 

What is the amoeba? I 
have never seen one. 

For that you will require 
a microscope : the amoeba 
is one of the smallest 
of living creatures, that 
floats about in the water, 
frequently changing its 
shape — ^whence the name. 

There is a class of animals 
called molluscs, I believe? 

Yes ; creatures with soft 
bodiies, as we have men 
with soft brains. 

How do such creatures 
contrive to keep their 
shape in this hard world? 

They live mostly in water; 
and in order that they 
may not be dashed out 
of shape by the storms, 

'AXXi (Tvye (TTrovfiafeir irept ra 

OvTCDS' Koi firjv rrfv a.pxr)v ye irc- 
7r6ir}fiai dno rrjs afioifi^St dva- 
^ria-Qiievos tncira fi^XP'' '''^^ 

Uoiov Tt Bripiov TOVTO rj dfioL^^ ; 
ov yap TOt ovbcv ovdenort 

flbov T0lOVTa>8€S, 

Km yg,p els tovto ye ndw dvay- 
Kai6v ioTi rh fiiKpoa-KOTrelov 
irreiTrep tS>v fo)^v ixovrtav 9p€fi- 
/juzrcdv fUKpoTarov iarw t) d- 
fwipTj, viixea-dax be (ptXel ev toIs 
vbaai TToWaKis p.eTafiaX\ov<ra 
Tfjv fxapiphv, odev brj kolto ovofia. 

virdp\eiy OLfuUf eibos rt (a&v ols 
Toijvofia pM\aK6(<oa' ovx ovroas ; 

Kal fwXa ye' ^pefifiara brjXcbbrf 
fmkoKois Tols o'a>/juzo't, KoBdrrep 
brjTTOv auBpomois irepnriwropxv 
ftaXuKoifS €xov(n tovs eyKetjid- 

Ti odv firjxavdTcu raToiavraBpep.' 
yuQLTa OTTOis Trfv yLop<f)r)v aaxrei,^ 
TToXXa exov(Trjs koi (ricKrjpa rrjs 
Toi)v oXav (pva-ecos ,* 

Aidyei b^ as eVi to troXv ev 
Tois vbaa-if koi b^ koi, irphs r6 p.^ 
&pop<l>a yev€(rBai^ avvreffKip- 
peva, npoaebtoKep avTols 6 6e6s 

1 oirw«, with Alt. indie, after certain verbs, above, p. 32. 
3 irpbs, els t6, €V€Ka rov, vnkp tov, With infln., to express a purpose.— J. 
678 ; C. 6, obs. 1, a. 



Nature has protected 
them with a substantial 
coating of hard shells. 

An oyster belongs to this 

Yes ; but not the crab, 
and the lobster, and other 
such creatures, whose 
houses heap our sandy 
beaches with the most 
beautiful shells. 

Are fishes a superior class 
of animals to molluscs ? 

Of course ; they have a 
vertebral column as well 
as man. 

By what grades does the 
scale then ascend ? 

Through frogs, toads, ser- 
pents, and crocodiles, we 
rise up to quadrupeds, 
who are nearest of kin to 
the great biped, man. 

In what does their kin- 
ship consist ? 

In a vertebral column and 
a more full development 
of the nervous system ; 
for fishes have a very 
small brain. 

But a monkey, I presume, 
has a much larger one ? 

What makes you think so? 

Because it is a sort of 
cousin to man. 

Ha ! ha ! ha ! you jest : some 
scientific men say that the 
monkey was the great- 
grandfather of Adam. 

vir€pa<nrL(rfi6vi oarpaKav (ricXiy- 
pS>v KoKvfifia TrayiCDTOTov, 

To yovv oarpeov €is ravra to. 
fmkaKS^ioa (rvvrekei ; 

MaXioTa* ovp.^v 6 napKLVosye koi 
6 daraKOS Koi ocra Toiavraf hv 
8ti 01 oiKOL ima-cipcvBevTes tovs 
i/ra/i/xcbdetf alyuikovs koXXiV- 
Tois KareaTopea-av oarpaKOis' 
ravra yap oarpaKSBeppxi i<mv, 

^Apd ye rcXeioTepov ro r&v Ix- 
ova>v y€VOS napa ra uoXaKo^oMz ; 

Jl<os yap ov eiye orf paviv 
exova-iv €K axl>ov8vka>v avvo€- 
roVf &air€p 6 avdpamos, 

Kara rivas olv ^adfiovs dvafiai- 
P€i els r6 dKp6rarov ro rSnv 
(cDav eidos ; 

Am drf rS>v re fiarpaxoav kcu 
rS>v (ppivoiVf rS>v re bpaKovroav 
Kc^ rS>v KpoKodeiKcDVf p.expi irpos 
ra rerpdnoba dvafialvei, a d^ ey- 
yvrara irpo(rrjKei t<5 r&v dmo- 
oa>y Kopv(f)aLmf r& dv9payir<p, 

Kara rt /jtoXtOTo €v;(€Tai avy- 
yej^ eivai ra dvBpayirta ; 

MaKpav BrjXaofj exovtn cc^oi/Sv- 
Xcav <rvvdp3p<oa-iVf r^v koXov- 
fjLevrfv pdxiVf Koi d^ kol rS>v 
vevpa>v eK^\d(Trr)pja iroXvo'Xto'- 
rov veavLKcarepov rols yap Ix' 
BviTL, o'fiiKporepos 6 €yKe(f>(iKos. 

Tols be bf] nidriKois, otp^i, ttoXv 
p.elioi)v xmapxei 6 eyKe^oXpf* 
ovx ovrms ; 

Tt pjaOcdv ^ ravra Xey€ts ; 

"'EoTi. yap 6 nidrjKos et ris Ka\ SX- 
\oSi ave'^ids irtos rov dvBpamov. 

Ai^oi, jSor rS)v yovv ra <f>v(riKa 
* rjKpifioKdroDV eoTiv ol rhv nlBrj- 
Kov d7ro<f>aivovrai irpoirainrov 
rov 'A8a/x. 

I Tt iJLaBtav as contrasted with ri irotfuv.— J. 872 ; F. 241 : C. 46, b. 



Credat Jtidceus I Scientific 

men are sometimes fond 

of nonsense. 
Yes ; they love their own 

crotchets as mothers their 

misbegotten brats. 

I believe the ancients were 
very fond of fish. 

O yes; they considered 
them a great dainty, as 
you may read in Athen- 
aeus. For myself, I am 
not particular about my 
food; the ox and the 
sheep supply my nutri- 

With a few partridges and 
pheasants, I suppose, in 
the shooting season ? 

Yes ; and deer, with the 
spotted troutlings that 
people our streams. 

In France and Belgium, I 
am told, they eat thrushes 
and blackbirds and night- 

Yes, the monsters ! and so 
their groves are without 
melody, and their souls 
without poetry. 

Green trees and singing 
birds are the great charm 
of British scenery. 

There you ape right. With 
Bums's songs in my hand, 
and the mavis pouring 
rich melody from the 
fresh green birches in 

Credat JudcBus ! ol yap br) irepi 
TCis eTriarrjiias beivoi tariv otc 
airoKkivovfTiv cir (pXvdpias. 

*Epa<TB€VT€s y€ rSiv KOfiyfrav 
yvaifii8ia>v tS)V avroXo;(€VTO>i', 
cSoTTcp drjTTOv Koi al p.i]T€p€S ra 
d(rvfjLii€Tpa Pp€<l>vWia Bavpaar- 
rhv 0(TOv arepyovaiv. 

Ol TToXai ''£XXi;i/€f , oi/xoi, paKa 
ribecos rjo'Biov rovs Ix^vs. 

2>7rovbaiciS yovv ra roiavra iOri- 

p<ov Xixvevparaf as iv r^ yc 

ABrjvaita eoTiv dvayvS>vcu' eya> 

irphs ra ihea-fxara ovbapas 

dpi d-^LKopos, 8,T€ Tpo(f>r]v Xa- 

fioiV €K TOV )3o6s KOi tS>V TTpO^d- 

Toiv iKcanjv. 

Upos 8c TovTois, 7rpo<r<f>p6p€Vos 
olpcu, irtpSiKas Koi (l>a<ridvovs 
oXlyovs, TTtpl 'ApKTOvpov OTaP 
€^€px<»>vTai ol KoKoX KayaBoX 
els rrjv opeivfjP, irvpofiokois 
KOToPaXovvTcs TO. aypia tS>p 

*Eti be Koi €\d<t>ovs Koi rd noi- 
Kika xpurrd^apcL, ra TrXiy^vovra 
iv Tois ivBdoe irorapois. 

Hapd ye to7s ^pdynois, kcu iv 
T^ BekyiKfji (l>aa\v icrBUiv rovs 
dvBpairovs Kix^as re koi koi/ti- 
;(ovf , Koi brj koi drjbovas, 

Kai ar(j)6bpa ye, ronv dTravBpoi- 
ira>v' eiKOS oiv ivbe&s exeiv 
rd pev SXojf avr&v t^s /acX^- 
blaSfTasbeyfrvxas t^sttoitjtik^s. 

Kcu ydp ra bevtpa rd xXapd, kcu 
oi ^pvlBes oi aa-paronoioX pi- 
yiarov TrpoadTrrovai BeXyrirpov 
Tols iv Tfj 'Qperawlq. tottois. 

**A\riB€(jTaTa \iyeis' eXye b^ 
Zxa>v iv TJj x^'P' '■^'' Bovpv<Tiov, 
Koi vird T« airepiepya peKei 
tS>V Kl)(\S>V tS>v €K tS>v VeOTT' 

TopB^iV oTjpvbSv abov(rS>v iv 



spring, walking along the 
banks of a wimplingbum, 
I am perfectly happy. 
Long may you be so I 

Meanwhile, the bell calls ; 
I must be off. 

rais Sx^cus norafiiCKov iXiKop- 

poio 7rXava>/x6vor, Kara iravra 

€yfoy€ €vbaiuovai, 
Mr]7roT€ navacLLO Kara ravTrjv 

y€ TTju T€xyr)v oXj3tfd/i€vos.^ 
'Arap iv t^ ye irapoim koXci /!€ 

6 Kcbdtfv* avayKYi airciKKdTTea'' 



Amphibious animals — i7rap,^oTfpi^ovTa, ra. An anchovy 
— d(t)vrjf -17s, ^. To beUow — p,vKS)fjLai, A bug — Kopis, -cwr, 6. 
Carnivorous animals — a-apKO(l)dya, rd. A centipede — o-koXo- 
Trevdpa, -as, rj. A finch— (TTrifa, -rjs, rj. A flea — ^frvXXa, -r}s, 
Tf. A flounder — ^^tJtto, -i;r, r], A glow-worm — TrvyoXa/xTrtr, 
-tSof , ^. Gregarious animals — <rvvay€\a^6p,tva, rd. A guinea- 
hen — fjLcXeaypis, -ibosy tj. Herbivorous animals — KapTroi^aya, 
rd. An insect — ?i/ro/iov, -ov, t6, A lark — KopvdaXX/f, -idos, 
T}. A larva or grub —], -rjs, 17. An otter — cwdpiSt 
-toy, Tj. To cry like a partridge — riTTv^ifa). A plover — 
Xapa^ptds, -oC, 6. To squeak — rpl^o}. A sea-gull — \dpos, 6, 
A sea-urchin — €)fivosy -ov, 6. A shell-fish — 'Kdyxtjf -tjs, fj, 
A shrimp — Kdpis, -ibos, 17. A snail — KoxXlas, -ov, 6. Soli- 
tary animals — (nropahiKd, rd, A sparrow — arpovBdpiov. To 
twitter — TepeTi^fo. A woodcock — (rfcoX($7ra£, -okos, 6. A 
worm — (rKoiXtj^f -tikos, 6, 



Well, you have given up 
the Church and taken 
refuge in Medicine, I un- 
derstand ? 

Yes ; I am just come from 
an admirable lecture on 

*AXX^ av ye, dnobpas diro rov 
eKKKri<ruumKov <rvcrrfifjMTOS,Ka' 
Taipvyriv €\eis TrjP larpiKriP' 
ovx ovTtos; 

Ovras' KCLi yap fJKoa rjbri KoXXtV- 
rr)v dKov(rds 7rapdbo<riv irepX 
T^s dvaropxK^s. 

1 Participles after verbs of ceasing, etc.— J. 688 ; F. 238 ; C. 46, obs. b. 



What a wonderful struc- 
ture the human body is ! 
* Yes ; it seems impossible 
for an anatomist to be an 

Unless, indeed, he be 
either drunk, or mad, or 

Or a vain creature fond of 
puzzling himself for the 
sake of appearing clever 
to himself and others. 

The wisdom of the Great 
Architect in forming the 
body was first observed 
by Socrates. 

Where ? 

You will find the discus- 
sion, the germ of Paley 
and all the Bridgewater 
host, in the Memorabilia 
of Xenophon. 

In the joints of the body 
I am astonished at the 
wonderful combination of 
strength and flexibility. 

But the most wonderful 
thing is the lightness of 
the structure, weighing, 
as it does, so many pounds 
of stout flesh and bone. 

Yes ; life is truly a stand- 
ing miracle. I sometimes 
think it strange that we 
do not require a surgeon 
once a week to readjust 
our poor shaken bones. 

*H Tov avOpomLvov acap^Tos Ka- 

Ta<rK€v^ o)j BavfiaaTov ri cyci. 
^d)68pa ye- ovk tvff wrtu^ aocos 

av yevoLTO Sotis rrjs dvarofiiK^s 

efxireipos €ii;.^ 
El fiTf apa fj irdpoivos rvyxd-Vfi 

tav^ ri napaKonos, ^ tv(I)\6s. 

*H 8* a^ Bo^oKdiros ris aafievos 
yiyv6p.€vos ncpl ras diropias, 
&aT€ avT^ y€ BokcIp r&v Sci- 
v&v ^ €Lvai Koi Tols dvBpmrois. 

Trjv TOV p.€ya\ov drjfuovpyov tro- 
^iav rfjv iv rji tov dvupcoTrivov 
(rap^Tos KOTCUTKevfj irparos 

ia-KOTTCl 6 ^(OKpdTTJS. 

Uov 8ti ; 

UdpeoTiv tvpelv roifs irepl tov- 
Tov \6yovsj odev Brj c^fjSXacr- 
T7f(r€v 6 re Ucukelos, Koi 6 
<rvp.7ra5 \6xos tS)v 'RpibyovaTep- 
i(6pTa>v, iv Tols dnopvr)povev' 

/UUrt Tols TOV S€V0<f>cl>VT0S. 

'Ev 8e 8ti rat 9 TrfS KaTaaKev^s 
<rvva<f>cus iKTrkrjTTopxiL Bavpa- 
(Tiav ndw ttjs tc pcDprjs Koi ttjs 
VypOTTJTOS Kocuriv, 

Ov prjv dK\a koi peyiarov ip.- 
TToiei BavpM(rp6v rj tov (rapa- 
Tos Kov<l>6Tr)s, Koi TavTa^ eX- 
koptos ToaavTas XiTpas dtpds 
T€ aapKos Koi nayltov oar&v. 

E^ Xcyetff* ft avTTi yi rot r\ (<o^ 
dlbiov Bavpa napioraTai tois 
avvfTols. "'EuoLyc iiripx^Tcu, 
cvloTC Bavpa €ivai t6 prf bfla-Bai 
rjpds laTpov dira^ t^s e^bopA- 
boSi TOV (TvvbiopBovv TO, €^ap- 
Bpa ooTa. 

1 OVK e<rO onuK— fieri non potest ut. — J. 817, 5. 

* Optative after oori? almost like el rts— whoever might happen to be. — 
J. 831. 

» Greek partiality for the partitive. -J. 633 ; F. 46 ; C. 63, obs. 8, c. 

* KoX TavTOif and thai, quite as in English ; only in this and other uses 
of neuter demonstratives the Oreeks prefer the plural. 



But the circulation of the 
blood and the sleepless 
beating of the heart as- 
tonishes me most of all. 

And the pulses of the 
blood, how regular they 
are, and musical ! 

Most musical ! All things in 
the world, as Pythagoras 
long ago declared, are 
full of number, and num- 
ber is always the work 
of mind. 

The wing of a bird has al- 
ways appeared to me a 
most perfect contrivance. 

On that point you could not 
do better than read the 
Duke of Argyll's book on 
the fteign of Law. 

Though medicine is now 
my profession, T feel that 
I have still a sort of in- 
clination for these theo- 
logical studies. 

I am glad to hear that. 
Theology is the eye of 
Science. I have of ten won- 
dered what could have 
induced you to desert 
your first love. 

The Confession of Faith. 
I read the Bible carefully, 
but unconsciously became 
every day more hetero- 

Thatwas amisfortune; how- 
ever, as Heraclitus says. 

*AXXa yLr]v rj ye tov oijiaTos kv- 

Kko^Opla, KOL oi aVTTVOl T^S 

Kapdias TraX/iot npo irdvTa>v iroi- 
ova-l fi€ TeBrjTrevai. 

Ot fie 6rj TOV atpxiT09 a'<f>vyp.o\ 
iv reus (fiKf'^Xv ois efifierpoi 
clfTi Koi cpjieke'is. 

'E/x/icXfOTOTot yap' €Ly€ dpiB- 
fiov irKripr) iarlv dTravra, as 
6fj TTokaL direKprfvaTO 6 UvBa- 
yopas' dpiBfjios Be ottov hv 
'irapfj, (rrjfie'iov cWi tov ewndp- 
XOVTOS vov. 

Kat p.^p efioiye eKOOTore reXftd- 
rarov <l>aiv€Tai p.ijxO'VTjp-o. al 
tS)v opviBav TTTcpvycs. 

Uepi ye rovTOv ov yelpov dva- 
yvS>vai direp (Tvveypa^ev 6 rris 
^ApyaBrjklas AovKas ev jSijSXo) ^ 
ewLypd^erai fj tov v6p.ov fiaai- 

""Eyayyef Kaiirep vvv brj to, larpiKO. 
eTToyyeWofievoSi^ avvoiba pe- 
iroiv jTov em ras BeoXoyiKOs 
ravTas Becopias, 

'^Ha-Briv ^ dKOva>v' etye 
6<f)Ba\fjL6s T&v e7ricrrrifiS>v ^ 
BeoXoyla. UoWaKLS yovv eBav- 
pjaaa rt naBo^v to, irporepa 
direkiires ircubiKu, 

Th avfipoXa rrjsdpdobo^ias irape- 
^erpane p,e, ra napa rols KaX- 
^iviOTois. 'AdiaXciTTTtos yap 
eyKeip.evos tJ t&v ypa(l>&v dv- 
ayvaxrei, ekaBov Troppmrepa) 
aTTOKAivcdv eis rrjv erepooo^iav, 

Olicrpa ravra' Xe'yti p.evTOi 6 

I Although — "best rendered ty KoUirep with a participle, when the clause 
refers to the same subject as the principal clause, otherwise with ei xai.— 
J. 697 ; F. 246 ; C. 46, b, 93, obs. 

» Aor. for present with certain verbs.— P. 18, note 1, supra. 



Evil has no more intim- 
ate companion than Good. 
You are now not only a 
theologian, but a physi- 
cian ; a perfect man both 
for soul and body. I 
wish all our doctors 
were as deeply read in 
the Bible as in the Phar- 
macopoeia, and then they 
would know how to deal 
with a curious compound 
creature^ whose soul as 
often deranges his body 
as his body disturbs the 
free action of his soul. — 
But the bell rings ; I see 
the Professor coming, 
and must go to the 

ircupSraTov ex^i rh ayaOov Kai 
vvv 8^ dnoPepriKas ovyty irphs 
r<p larphs clvcu,^ kcu BeoXoyos' 
dufjp brjTTOv reXetof , kcu. trco/um 
Koi ^vxji T€Tpay<ovos. fiov- 
\oip.r)v av eyat Tract rols 'Acr- 
KXrjiTidbcus ovx ^ttov cyjce- 
XpSxrBcu TCLS ypaKpas ^ r^v 
^appxLKOirodav ovtcds d^ eiKos 
€ib€vai avToifS onms Bel fiera' 
Xfipl^ifTOai avvBerdv tl kcX ov 
tS>v Tvx^vTtov Bp€p.fia, o5 8ri 17 
"^VXV TocraKiS' to (rS>p£i Topdr- 
ret otrdKis t6 <rci>na Trjv r^s 
i/rv^^r avTOKivrjaiv €fjL7robl(€i. 
Arap Tix^f' o K<oooiv' opoa epyo- 
fi€vov Tov KaBTjyrjTriVj koi dvay- 
Kfj irapfivai rfj dKpoia'€i. 


To build into an organism — biapBpda. Beak — pdfi<f>os, -ovs, 
t6, a beard — 7ra>ya>v, -atvos, 6. Cartilage — x^^^P^^i '^^i o* 
To distort — htaarpe^io. Digestion — rrcylris, -ewr, ^, To ex- 
pectorate — ;(p€/x7rTo/jtat. Forefinger — \ixav6si 6. Function — 
irpd^iSf fV€py€La. To grow out of — dno^jivofiai. Gullet — 
arSpaxoSy -ov, 6. Hip joint — KoruXr}, r}Sf t). Hooked — ypxmds. 
Intestines — to, Zvr^pa. Joint — doBpovy -ov, t6. Jugular 
vein — axl>ayTif'TJs,fi. Kidneys — v€q)poi,-ol. Lungs — irvevpxdv^ 
-ovos, 6. Membrane — vprfVf -evos, 6. A moustache — /ivorof , 
-oKos, 6, Ringlets — ir\6Kap^s, -ov, 6, Secretion — cKKptcts, 
-fo)r, rj. Shoulder-blade — (upnrXan;, -»;?, rj. The skull — Kpa- 
vLopf -ov, TO. Spinal marrow — 6 vodtioIos pveXds, To spit — 
TTTvo). Suture — pa<f>ri, -rjSf rj. Snub — a-lp6s. Thumb— 
dvTixci-Pf -eipoSi 6. Wrinkle — pvTiSt -ibos, rj. Wrist — Ktip» 
7r6s, -oVf 6. 

1 Nominat. before infln.. caused by attraction of the nominative of 
principal subject in the leading clause.— J. 672 ; F. 229 ; C. 66, obs. 





I had a beautiful walk to- 
day aloDg the banks of 
a winding brook near 

It was indeed a glorious 

The banks were all studded 
with spring flowers. 

Next week the Botanical 
classes will be opened: 
do you mean to join ? 

Certainly. Botany is in 
my opinion the most 
delightful of the natural 
sciences. Besides, the ex- 
cursions lead the students 
into the most lovely re- 
gions, and are favourable 
to health. 

I thought Botany was 
studied only by the Medi- 

Quite a mistake ; do you 
think flowers have no 
interest to a wise man, 
except when they furnish 
drugs to the apothecary ? 

^'EiTvyxavov (rmiepov inpiirarov 
TTfpmaT&v €v fiaXa repTVvhv 
Kara tcls 6xBas noKvKafiTrovg 
noTafiia-KOv iyyvs t^s ^loTnnjs, 

Evdia yap rot t]v irdw Beia, 

Aieikrjfifievai rjbrj rjaav ai ox6ai 
av6e(nv iapivois. 

Tj €7riov(ri/ €J3do/iaSi ap^ovrcu 
al aKpoaaeis al Trepi r^s fiora- 
viKtjs. *Apa ye BeKfis fiere- 

HavraTrdai u.€V ovv, Eart yap 
d^i Kar fp>r)v yc yvcap^iv t) ^ora- 
viKrj avii7raa-S>v rS>v €iriaTr}p.a>v 
rj fieylcrrriv <t>€pova-a TepncoXriv 
aXXo>f re Ka\ bia to noielv 
ir\avaa-6ai rovs fiaBi^Tas i^i- 
Xvid^ovras ras ^ordvas, Kara 
irayKoKovs roirovs — onep drf 
ovK oXlyov ovfi^aSXeTai npos 
T^v vyicMV, 

^rj6rjv rycoye rrjp fioraviK^v 
TTcpunrdvbaoTov elvai Tois 
Trjv larptKTiv eVayyeXXo/ievoir 

Tavrd ye Oavpjaarbv oaov rjpap- 
T€S, Mav av ye oas tS>v dvBetnv 
p,rj8ev exdvTfOv^ ^vxayoyyiKbvf 
p.rj TTopi^ovrav ye q)dpiJuiKa 
Tffl ^apfiajco7ra>Xi7 ovtcos ex^is 
TTjv yvdyfXTjv ; 

1 w« with gen. particip. for accus. with infin.— P. 34, note 2, supra. 



No ; but Botany always 
seemed to me a trifling 

It is trifling only to the 
superficial, who content 
themselves with learning 
by heart a roll of Latin 
names. The structure 
and growth of plants is a 
subject worthy of the 
profoundest study. 

The Linnean system I 
cannot but think some- 
what arbitrary and arti- 

So it is ; but it is, like a 
dictionary of words in 
alphabetical order, more 
useful, if not so scientific. 

A flower-garden seems to 
me a brilliant confusion. 

There is no confusion in 
nature. A child might 
distinguish a monocotyle- 
don o us plant from a dico- 
tyledonous by the mere 

What do you mean by 
monocotyledonous ? 

I mean plants that have 
only one seed-lobe. Most 
plants have two, which 
you will see when the 
plant first appears above 
ground in growing. 

"HiciOTa y€. rj be fioravLKTi irakai 
€fwty€ boKel^ fiiKpokoyia Tivl 

*A\\a fiTjv fxiKpoKoyiav ye ovk 
€Yf t, cl uh Tois eTTinokaiois rav 
TTept avTTjv ytyvofj.€V(ov, otroi o^ 
dyaTrSMTi *P<oficuKa>v tivquv ovofi- 
droiv wivaKa cmoaToitarl^ovres. 
*H 8c rSiv (pvT&v KaTcuTKevrj 
Koi axj^rj(ris irpayyA iartv d^io- 
OTTOvbaaTov kw, rois aoiptord- 


Trjv dc Tov ALVvalov Ktikovfievrjv 
fieBodov OVK taff oiras ovk hv 
TjyoifiTjv €7rirej(yT)Tov ncos €ivai 
KOL Trkaarrjv. 

*AXr}6^ ravra' rj be fieOobos avrrf, 
KaBdirep Xc^lkov awTdaaov ra 
ovopxira Kara aToi)^e'iov, el fXTj 
els Toa-ovTov TexviKt] eariv, aXX' 
d)<f)e\ip.<M)Tepa ye, 

K^TTor ye bfj Xap.npov /lot eKdxr- 
Tore (jialverai /xiy/xo. 

'AXXa firjv 17 <f>va-is ov irpoaterai 
elKoiov fityiMi ovbev, Ta ye 

. fwvoKOTvXrjboviKa tS>v <l>VTci>v 
KOL vrjTTLOSj TTpoa^Xe'^^as fwpop, 
pq.bioi>s hv buiKpivoL. 

TovTo be ri fiovXeraL, to pjovo- 

KOTvkr^boVLKOV ; 

^VTo. XeycD oaa^ ev fjidvov exet 
^vWov (TTTepfioKpves rjyovv Xo- 
^6v. Ta yap TrXeiora roav <f>v- 
t5)v bia-aovs exei tovs Xoj3ou?, 
ots brj TrdpeoTiv Ibelp orai^ 
av^av6p,evov to (I>vt6v dvacfyvrj' 
Tcu els t6 (l>Sis. 

1 Pres. for a past continued into the present.— J. 396, 2 ; F. 138 ; C. 34, b. 

* oo-a used for a, after iras, oAAos, and plurals generally, to direct atten- 
tion to the individuals of a mass. — C. 67. 

> oToi' with subj., not ore, because not one definite act, but an action 
that may occur at any time, or recurs at definite times.— J. 841, 2 ; F. 188 ; 
C. 92, b. 



What kind of plants are 
monocotyledonous ? 

Grasses, lilies, and palm- 

To what class do wheat 
and barley belong ? 

They are grasses. 

Which of the Scottish 
trees do you like best ? 

The birch is my favourite. 
On the banks of the 
rushing Highland rivers 
in May it flings the 
breath of Paradise about 

You speak like a poet. 

Flowers and trees are the 
poetry of the Earth. I 
wish my thoughts were 
always as sweet as the 
birch and as bright as 
the rose. 

I am very fond of the ash, 
though it is rather late 
in unfolding its tresses. 


Because in Scotland ash- 
trees were generally 
planted beside the lone 
cottages in the beautiful 
green glens. 

You are right; I have 
often seen these ashes, 
but they rather make me 

How so? 

Because they show where 
men once had happy 
hearths, but where be- 
neath the old ash-tree 
there are now only stones 
and nettles. 

Ta Se TToia (fivrh (rvvrfkei ctr ra 
fiovoKOTvXribovLKd ; 
0(ra iroSiv yevr) avfiTravra, ra 
T€ Kpiva Kal at (poivLKes. 

*0 bi drj TTVpos Koi rj KpWq^ rlva 
olKfiovvrai x.aipav ; 

^rjKov on rSiv iroSiv elcriv, 

Sv 8e tS>v iv Kakrjdovia iiri.X€iipia>v 
8tv8p(ov Tt /xaXicrra dyanas ; 

'YnepayaTTO) Trfv crrffivoavt ij ye 
iv Tjj optivri cVl reus oxBais ratv 
fiiaita p€ov(rav pevfiari X^P^' 
8pav' ^BlvovTOS Tov QapyrjXiSi- 
vos d/x^i^aXXei yLOi Trvorjv riva 
a>airtpca/€\ rov Tlapabeiaov, 


"Eoti fjLevToi ra avdrj Kal tA hev- 
8pa TroiTja-is ris rrjs y^s, "A- 
Cfievos bexptfirfv hv ra vorjfiaTd 
pjov dii ovTtos €;(C£y ^dea, as 
rj (rrjpvBa, nal \ap.iTpd as t6 


'Eyo) xm€p<f>v&s rjbofuu rjj fUXia 
Kalnep fipabvrepov^ dvairrvfT' 
aovajf T^iv (fyo^Tjv, 

Aia ri ; 

Aidrt Kara rr)V yc Kc^rjbovlav 
ras fifXias €<f>vT€vop irapa K(ikv- 
fiais fiovrfpcaiv iv raXs ev;(Xdotff 
firia-a-ais ttjs opeivrjs. 

OpOSis \fyeis' ras fieXias rav- 
ras TToXKaKLS fUv iBeaa-dfirfVf 
Ximrfv de fiaXkov iTrifidXov fwi 


H&s TovTO Xeyeis ; 

MvYifiela ydp irons ifrri rav dv- 
Bpairav ol iroKai p,kv ivravBa 
iKapais ixpSivro rais ioTLcuSf 
OTTov TO, vvv XiBoi p.6vov 
<t)aivovT(u Kal dKaXi7^a£. 

1 Comp. ratheTf somewhat ; i.e., slower than other trees. - 
C. 23, c 

784 : F. 70 ; 



That is true ; but I never 
indulge sad thoughts. 

You are a philosopher, 
perhaps ; I am a man, 
and must weep some- 
times. Uhi solitudinem 
fadurU, pacem appellant, 
Alas ! the poor High- 

The Highlanders will be 
happier perhaps in Ame- 

Perhaps ! Only Scotland 
will be poorer. But let us 
drop this subject. Though 
you are not a student of 
medicine, come with me 
to the Botanic Garden. 

Right gladly; and perhaps 
I may join the class. 

You could not possibly do 
a wiser thing. It will 
deliver you from the 
smell of books, and mid- 
night oil, which is ex- 
tremely unhealthy. Come 
along I 

'AXj;^^ \eyeis' Trkrfv eyoaye Tois 
oKytivois ov (jiiKa ivbovvai dux- 

^i\6<ro<l)os brjnovBev avyc 
€fi€ bcy &r€ avBpayrroVf ickaUiv 
avayKf) eviore' " Ubi solitu- 
dinem fadunt, pacem appel- 
lant " ^€Vy (f>€V T&V OpCLT&V 

tSv Takcunoipav.^ 

Tois ye opclrais Ta\ hv yivoiro 
fiei^oiv 17 cvrjfjLfpia iv rrj 'A/xt- 

Eticdro)?* 17 be Kakrfbovla ivbe- 
carepayevqo'cTcu. *AX\*d<f>€L(r- 
3<o ravra. 2v de 6^, KaiTrep ov 
TTcpi larpiKTiv <nrovbd^a>p, avva- 

KoXovBei flOl €ls TOV fioTOVlKOV 

" h.o'p.evas fiey oZv Koi dr) Koi 
tyKOTakey^vai fie t« rav 0o- 
ravi^ovTdiv X<5x<J> trvfW^tXoo'o- 
f^ovvrd 0*01 ovbkv dmaavov, 

OvK eaff onms (ro(f>d)T€p6v rt 
Av irpd^eias, Ota* yap rj irepl 
rds ^ordvas fiekerrj (rao'cu (re 
dnb T^s 68fi^s TTJs T&v fivba- 
\€<ovPip\a>v Koi ttjs tov eXaibiov 
TOV fieaowKTiov' ff brj pXc^rfv 
enKpepei toIs ccDfiaaiv ov cfUK- 
pdv, "iBi wv. 


Agaric — dyapiKdVf to. An artichoke — Kivdpay -as, x). Bed- 
straw — yoKiovy -ov, TO, Beet — t€vt\ov, -ov, t6. Blue — 
Kvdveos* Greyish blue — ykavKds. Celandine — xekiboviov, 
-ov, TO. Comfrey — o-vfKpvToVy -ov, to. Cork — <f>eXX6sy -ov, 
6. Cotton — ^afifiaKiov, -ov, to. Corn marigold — xpvtrdv- 
Befiov, -ov, TO. Cresses — Kdpbafiov, -ov, to. Daffodil — vdp- 
Kia-a-os, -ov, 6. Dock — XdnaBov, -ov, to. Down on seeds — 
ndmros, -ov, 6. Fern — nTepis, -ibos, f). Flea-bane — kow^o, 
-rfs, rf. Flower's head, cluster of flowers — Kopvpfios, -ov, 6. 

1 Genitive of source of emotion.— J. 489 ; F. 45 ; 0. 87. 

^ olos, with infin., is->of such a nature as to.— J. 666, 1 ; 0. 30, obs. e. 



Garlic — a-KSpotoVy -ov, to. Green — j(\a)p6s. Heath — ipciicrj, 
'TIS, ^. Honeysuckle — nepiKKvficvov, -ov, to. Horsetail — 
tmrovpiSy -tfios, f). Juniper — dpK€v3oSy ov, 17. St. John's 
wort— vTTepticoi/, -ov, t6. The kernel — irvpr)Vy -rivosy 6. 
King'a-spear — aa<^6biKoSy -ov, 6. Husk or shell — K€\v(f)r}, 
-r}s, ij. Larkspur — deXKpiviovy -ov, t6. Large and ample — 
dfi<l)i\a<l)ris. Leek — trpcurovy -ov, rd. Lettuce — BpibaKivrjy 
'TjSy ^. Leaves, to cast — (^vXXo/SoXeo). Marjoram — opiyavovy 
-ov, TO. Meadow-rue — BoKiKTpovy -ov, t<5. Mint — f)dvo(rfiovy 
-ov, T<5. Mistletoe — i^6s, -ov, 6. Mustard — vSttv, -voy, to. 
Nut — Kcipvovy oV, T(5. Peas — ttiVov, -ov, t<$. Sea-kail — Kpdp^rj 
OdkafTfria, Seed — (mcpfiay -aToSy to. Snapdragon — ainippl- 
vovy -ov, TO, Southernwood — dBpoTovoVy ov, t6. Stock gilly- 
flower — \€VK6u)Vy -ov, t6. Monkshood — aKoviTOVy -ov, to. 
Wormwood — d-^iV^iov, -ov, to. 



What shall we do now 
that the winter is over ? 

When the flowers bloom, 
I study Botany. 

And I Geology. 

Surely living flowers are 
more worthy of study 
than dead stones. 

I think not; books also 
are dead, but though dead 
they are full of wise dis- 

But what can a barren 
rock say ? 

If you attend, I will tell 

Well, proceed. 

*AXX' ^/i€lf Tt TTOTC XPV ^POT- 

TciVy irapeXBdvTOs rjbrj tov x*'- 

fjLo>vos ; 
*Eyo), dfia^ avdovtri toIs avQ^o'i 

TO, Trepi TCLS ^ordvas pckeTat, 
'Ey© 8c Trjv t^s yrjs KaTa<rK€vr)v. 
Kai p.r)v Ta ye fwrra avBrj ttjs 

(nrovb^s d^icDTcpd ttov iariv ^ 

ol ayfrvxoi \i6oi. 
Ov avfi^Tjpf etye drj koi al 

/3i/3Xo( aylrvxoi uev €io"t, a-o(f)S)v 

fie \6y<ov irXrjBvova'i,. 

1l€Tpa 8e drj yvavr] kcli oKapnos 

tI ttot' hv (bairj ; ^ 
Ae^o), et fiovXei irpoo'cxeiv, 

Acyf 8^. 

1 a/ta with the dat. for as soon as. — J. 699. 

« av with opt. expressing possibility.— J. 426 ; F. 177 ; C. 43, b, 2. 



The rook is fiill of stereo- 
type forms from the most 
ancient times. 

What types do you mean ? 
I never saw them. 

If you go into a quarry, 
and cleave the stones, you 
may stumble on them 
without difficulty. 

I never found any in the 
granite quarries at Aber- 

I am not surprised ; there 
are none in granite : but 
what Xenophanes found 
five hundred years before 
Christ in the quarries of 
Syracuse, and in the flags 
of Malta, you may find in 
the coal layers of Scot- 
land — at Dunfermline 
perhaps, or Tranent. Of 
course you have heard of 
the Old Red ? 

yes ; and seen it too ! 

Where ? 

At Thurso. 

Well ; the Thjirso flags are 
full of all sorts of impres- 
sions of strange antedi- 
luvian fish. 

Were they drowned in the 

In the mud certainly ; and 

their bodies remain, like 

a seal stamped in the 


liKr)Bvov(n yap ai nerpai arepe- 
av Tivav TVTTCDv ndvv ioyvyiav. 

Tovs TToiovs \tyeis tvttovs; ov 
yap TTore tpjovyt rfBrj cis rffv 

Ov fiTiv ciXXa eltreXdoDV els to. 
fieraXXa, Kal rovs Xi9ovs Kara- 
o'xlo'as, €vpri<r€is tovs toiov- 
Tovs' irpox^ipoi yap. 

'Ev Tois ye rov ypavirov p^roK- 
Xotff Tois Kara rriv ^Afiep^ovlav 
ovSevl ovbeTTore Touovrorpomt^ 
TTcpUirea'ov rvirc^. 

Ovbkv BavuLaarov cucapTTOs yap 
tS>v ToiovTa>v 6 ypaviTrjs' dXX' 
o/xa>ff dnep 6 Sievofjidvrjs 6 ok- 
jicuras <!> err) irpo rrjs evadpKov 
olKOvop.ias evpev ev rcu.s r&v 
SvpaKova-av Xaropiais Koi rals 
rTJs MeXiTT/ff TrXofl, ravra 8^ 
evpois hv ^ ev rots KaraxBoviois 
rov dvBpaKOs KaraarpoDp^Kn 
irapa r^ Aovp<l)epp.\Lv<o eiKO' 
raSf fj T<5 Tpavepra. 'A/xcXct 
^Kei nov (Toi els rr^v aKo^v rj 
irerpa rj KoXovp-evrj Trdkaiepv 

Tl&s yap ov ; koi eidov irpos, 

Jlov yrjs; 

'Ev Qvpa'Spi. 

Kal yap al nXaKes nappeyeBeis 
ai rov Ovpa-mvos dBpoovs irap- 
exovai rovs rvnovs IxBvcav riv- 
av irdw ILpovitav Koi irpoa'eXrf- 

A/3 ojv eirvlyr) ev r^ KarajcKvo"' 
pS> ra IxBvhia ; 

*Ev T© 7n;X6> fiaXXov § ^^ t«5 
ireXayer rci Be (rcapxira biap^- 
vei, KaBdirep ck <n)pAvrpov rvnoi 
evapyas ea^payi(Tp.ivoi, els r^v 

Opt. with av for licet. 



What kind of fishes are 
found there ? 

Strange creatures with 
wings and bright glano- 
ing scales, whence they 
are called ganoid fishes. 

Are there any other crea- 
tures besides fishes found 
in the rocks ? 

O yes ! In the limestone 
rocks of England all sorts 
of monsters — winged liz- 
ards, crocodiles, all sorts 
of serpents, gigantic toads, 
mammoths, mastodons, 
and what not. I have 
seen them myself. 

Where, I pray ? 

In the Crystal Palace. 

Oh ! mere imitations. 

Yes ; but I have seen the 
real creatures also at 
Lyme Regis, at York, and 
in various parts of Eng- 

Do you mean to make a 
geological tour this sum- 

Certainly ; with hammer 
in hand, from Gretna 
Green to John O'Groat's 
House, I will knock these 
strange monsters out of 
their cofi&ns. 

And when you return will 
you show me the booty ? 

Of course ; and give you 
part of it too — that is, 

. provided you promise 
never again to talk 
against geology. 

Ta iroia evpltrKerai ivravBa l-)(Bv- 

Gpe/i/LUxra hrf c^rjXXayfieva rraw 
Kai Srona, Trrepvyas txovra /cat 
XcTTiSay oTiK^ovcraSf oBtv Srj 
yavo€ib€S ovopd^crai t6 yevos. 

Apa yc napa rovs Ix^vs 5XX' 
arra cvpiaKcrai Bpcp.p4iTa iv 
Tols irerpais ; 

Kai pA\a yc* iv rats it ir pens ttjs 
*AyyXiar reus riTavcibea'i Trav- 
Tooana €vpl(rK€Tcu ^pe/x/uira, 
oiov a-avpcUy KpoKSbttKoi, dpd- 
KovTcs TToXvTpoiroLy (fiVfToKol 
rives yiyavTcioi, ra xmepp^- 
y€0ij pLap,pLO>duif p^ra r&v puaa- 
Tob6vT<av, Koi o<ra roiavra. *Ea)- 

» \ 

paica avTos ra repara ravra. 

TLov' dvTi^oKS (re. 

*Ev Tois v<{kivois PaaikeioLs, 

Miprjp^ra \eyeis, 

Mt/i^/taTa* ov p.r)v aXX' avra 
erv^pv Iboiv ra Brjpiat iv tJ 
TToXfi AaijiprjyiSy iv *E/3opaic^, 
Koi oKKooi Karii ttiv *Ayy\iav. 

Ap' oiv iv vw cx^is fTopeiav wo- 
p€V€ar6ai ycwXoytK^v, Kara t6 
i'inyiyv6p.€vov Bcpos ; 

Uavrdirdtri p^v ovv koi yap r^v 
axjyvpavixtov ivrrj ;(6(pt,paoi^a>v 
dno Tov TpervaKeip&vos p-ixP^ 
npos TO ^latdwov Tpcorov oIki- 
8iov iKKpov<ra> rd irapdbo^a 
ravra Bijpia ck r&v V€KpoBrjKS>v, 

Kai p^v Ka\ iiriarpi'^as e/iotyc 
bti^cias hv rdi\d<bvpa ; 

'A/i6X€( yovvy Kai bfaprjaopai 
irpds' iiri^ roisbe &aT€ imotT' 
xiorBai (re prfnore pr}8apS)S pi)- 
Biv Xeyeti/, (f>av\i^ovra rr^v Fco)- 

1 «rt with dat for conditions of a bargain.— J. 633, 3 ; P. 86 ; C. 83, oba. 
10 b, 93*. 



That I do ; you have 
taught me how to find 
sermons in stones. 

And good in everything, I 
hope. — Farewell ! 

Keto'^o) ravra* kcli yap ihlha^ds 
/x€ KOL iv rots \iuois €vp€lv 

Kai bri koi iv Sirao'iv rh ayadbv, 
CDS eXTTifo) ye, "'Eppoaa-o, 


Agate — axa.Tr)Si -ov, 6. Alkaline, ashes — Kovia, -as, ^. 
Arsenic, red — (ravSapaxfit -fjs, fj. Blood-stone — aifjLarirrjs, 
-ov, 6, Calamy white — iropx^iSkv^, -vyos, ^. Copper, oxide 
of — \en\s x^'^^^* Carbonate of soda — Xlrpov, vlrpov, 
-ov, TO. Litharge — Xi^dpyvpos, -ou, ^. Loadstone— 'HpaiC'^ 
\eia \i6os, 17. Orpiment— apcci/iKW, -ov, t6. Petrifaction-^ 
dnoXiBcDinSt -eas, n. Pumice — KioTipis, -etos, fj, Silex — 
;(aXtJ, -iKOff, 6 and 1;. Foliated sulphate of lime-^(reXi;i/irT;s 
XiBos. Sulphurate of iron — irvplrqs, -ov, 6. Inlaid with 
precious stones — XlOokSKKi^tos, A vein — duL<f>vri, -rjs, rj. 



Well 1 I see you are just 
come from the Chemistry 
class ; what did the Pro- 
fessor say ? 

He said that chemistry 
was the most interesting 
of the sciences. 

This is the old adage ; all 
shopmen praise their own 

Yes ; no doubt he praised 
his subject that the stu- 
dents might take an in- 
terest in it ; but I agree 
with him it is both in- 
teresting and useful. 

Would it were also pleas- Et^c 


'AXXci o-vye &pTi rJKCis ck tov 
aKpoarripiov Trjs ;(i;ft€tar* T* 
8n Xeycav irvyxovev 6 KaBrfyi]- 

Trfv ;(i;/x€tav OTTfC^aivcro Trap' 
^fXXar iirurnifias ex^iv to eVo- 

TovTo 8f} t6 t^s 7rapoip.las' eKaa- 
Tos iyKCDpLid^ei rci iv avrov 
KoarrjKelfo KaTrr/Xos, 

'E7riyi/€t yap roi Trcpi o5 6 \6yos 
^v avT^, Iva hri ol puaQrjrdi 
(nrovbaioas irepl t6 irpaypa 
(nrovba(oi€V Kairoi crvyKoraTl- 
Bejuu avr^ iirayaybv <pdo'KOVTt 
€iv€U T^v eniOTTiiiriv ravrrivl Koi 

fuu cdo-avroDf cu; repmnj. 



ant ! but the smells are 
often hateful; and last 
year I was almost choked 
with chlorine gas, which 
my cousin Tom, dabbling 
in these matters, was 
preparing, — burning my 
finger also at the same 
time severely with phos- 
No doubt great care is 
necessary in performing 
experiments. I observed 
that whenever the Profes- 
sor handled phosphorus 
he was particularly care- 
ful, and sometimes used 
a small pincers. 

I understand chemistry 
is altogether a modern 

Yes ; Empedocles taught 
that there were four 
elements, where now 
chemists number about 
sixty simple bodies. 

What were the elements 
of Empedocles ? 

What every one knows : air, 
fire, earth, and water, — 
which are all compounds. 

Is water not an element ? 

Certainly not; it is com- 
posed of one volume of 
oxygen and two of hydro- 
gen, — a liquid made up 
of two gases. 

ahXa fi^v at ye oafial jSSeXv- 
KTai Twes eltriv xal fi^v Koi 
n€pv(ri irapa fiiKp6v airenviyriv 
ry Tov xK<apiov ar/iidi, rfv 
TrapoKcvdioiv irvyxavt Ga>fia- 
(rioiov 6 dpeylnos fiov, rav roi- 

OVTOiV briTTOV CLKpoBiySiS 47rT<J- 

fi€vos, irp6s di TovTois r^ ^oxr- 
<b6p(a TOV ^aKTvXov Kavadfitvos 

'A/xcXf I ueyioTTiv bei inifUXeua^ 
noie'io'ocu o<roi hv tis bidireipav 
(oxrt T&v OTOixeiav. Ilap€(f)V' 
XoTTOv cyci) t6v KaOrjyrir^v 6<rd' 
Kis TOV ye <l)a><r<l)6pov netpap Xa- 
/3oi^ TTOvra bia aKpT^ovs irpdT- 
TovTa evKa^elaSy kolL br) kcX 
evioT€ iv Tcus X^P^^ fiiKpdv Tiva 
exovra Xa/Stda. 

Trfv XV H^^^'^ <f>€ur\ tS>v ndw 
veoKTiaratv iirumip.&v elvai* 
ovx ovTCDS ; 

OuTQJS' 6 yovi' 'E/xTTcdoicX^ff (jiop- 
TLK&s frov dutrxypitraTO Terrapa 
eivai TO, Tc^v Skav (rToix^la,87rov 
ye TO, vvv ol TexyiKoX cos e^x)- 
KovTa e^apidfiovvTM tcl irpayra 

Ta be TiTTopa TovTa irold Tiva 
^v, TO, TOV E/ATTcdoicXeovff ; 

"Airep brf koi vrprios hv (bait], 
hrjKab^ 6 drip, r6 TTvp, ?/ y^, 
KCU Th vhddp, 

'Eicelvo^ Xeycts, eas ovbe tov vba- 
Tos OToixeiov 6vtos ; 

U&s ydp' elye bri ovvdeTdv eart 
t6 vboDp, eK Ms piev p^eBovs 
TOV ol^vydvoVf bvelv be tov 
vbpoydpovy vyphv brjnov c/c bveiv 
avveoTrjKos aepmv. 

1 A recurrent action, in past time, preceded by ore, oaojcK, of , oorif, etc 
takes the opt— J. 843 ; F. 188 ; C. 40, 1 b. 

* cicctKo like illvd in Latin, often used for r6B€ or ra3c to emphasize what 
is immediately to be mentioued^J. 067 ; F. 101 ; G. SO, c 



But the air we breai^e, I 
presume, is quite simple. 

By no means ; the air is a 
mixture of four-fifths of 
a dull inert gas called 
nitrogen, and one-fifth of 
an active vital element 
called oxygen. 

You astonish me ! Wliat 
do your modern wise 
men make of fire ? 

Fire is not matter ; it is a 
motion. You may pro- 
duce heat by simple fric- 
tion, and elicit sparks by 
striking the pavement 
with your heeL The 
Professor said it was 
necess&ry for so much 
dull nitrogen to be in 
the air in order that the 
energetic oxygen might 
not burn us all up. 

Oh, wonderful ! I shall cer- 
tainly join the (^emistry 
class with you, in spite 
of the sulphuretted hy- 
drogen and the other 
Tartarean exhalations. 

You are wise, A man 
should notbe too sensitive 
about smells, especially 
in Edinburgh. Come 
with me, and I will show 

• you how to prepare oxy- 
gen from black oxide of 

'O he afjp TTOV, a ;(/}a>fi€^a dpa- 
Trv€OVT€S, dTrkovs €v Tcils fm- 


Ov bjjra' avvBerov ydo rot ,6 a^p, 
ola 817^ (Tvyicf ificvof e/c reTrdpiov 
fiev irfUTrrqfiopiav dpyov tivos 
Koi vaopov depos cS rotvofxa vtr- 
poy6vovy €v6s be ncfiTrrrjpxiplov 
OToix^iov fiaXa bpaoTTjpiov Kai 
(fOTiKovy K(iKovp.€vov o^vyovov. 

Oavp.da'ia Xcyeir* drop ntpl rov 
TTvphs ri TTore Xeycrt vp^is, ot 
vvv (Tod}i(rTai ; 

Tdbe Xcyo/xcv, t6 yt rrvp ovbev 
tx€iv vKiKhvy Kivrjo'ip yap eivcu. 
*Ectt* fJLcvToi diroTeKelv t6 Bep- 
pxiv ^(X^ Tji Tpi^lreij koi dfj kcu 
airivOvpas e^cAicciv tJ irrepvrj 
eKKpovovra tovs irXoKas Kara 
T^p 6d6v. Trjs fie roiavrris Kivfj- 
(r€o>s atriov yiyverai to o^vyo- 
vov, ''E<^i; TOiwv 6 Ka6rjyriTT}S o>s 
dvayKcuov etrj SyKOV virpoyovov 
rrjXiKOVTOP €V\mdp\€iv t« aepc, 
Iva hri p,ri Karatpikex^fi t6 tS)v 
oXfi>v arvvraypxi dia t6 \ia» 
ev€pyT]TiK6v rov 6(vy6vov, 

QavpAo'ia Xcycir* fiov\opxiLy rco 
BvTi, avp.<f>iXoa'<Hb€Lv <roi ir^pi 
rr^v xVpeiaPf fiiq, t&v diro- 
rpoTrauov dva-adi&Vf r&v re 3K- 
Xeav, Kal d^ Ka\ rod v8poy6vov 
Tov dnoTedeicDficvov, 

2o<f)6s <rvy€ Tovra Xeyiov ov 
yap Oft TTfpi ras oo' o^v- 
naBearepov ej^ctv^ SKkas re 
Kal iv ^'Edivanikei. Totyapovv 
dKo\ovBr)(Tas pjoi 6yjrfL Tras hti 
fToielp t6 Q(vy6vQv €k tov /xcXa- 
vos 6^€idiov TOV pxiyyavrfo-iov 

1 ola ^, like arc 81} ; alDOve, p. 29. 

s cxeiv, with an adverb, to be in any state or condition of mind or 
body, like fiioucet/Acu.— J. 528 ; C. 74, obs. 


manganese ; and then cVl fie tovtois ^ iTrrorffievos 

your eyes shall be dazzled tovs 6<t)daKftjoifs, vncpXdfiirpas 

with some brilliant com- rivas rciiv 7rvpi<f>k€KT<av aToi^ei- 

bastion. I am a cunning a>i/ fiaofJLapvyas decofievost <tvv- 

old fox, and know how to Bap.firia'eis* Kai yap ttoikIXos 

handle both chlorine and eyo), ev yc tovtois, dAwTn;^ , Ka\ 

oxygen. — Gome along I otor fieraxfiptC^cOcu t6 re x^od- 

piov Koi rh <l}^(r(l>6pav c^ flaKa 


AflBnity — ovyyci/eta, -ay, fj. Alumina — apyiWos, ^. 
Alum — (rrvTmwia, -ay, fj. Carbon — ^ avOpaKiKn vXt;. Car- 
bonic acid — dvopoKLKbv of v. Condensation — cTnirvKPoxTiSy-eoiis, 
Tj, Crucible — p^ojviovj-ovjTo. Decoction — a^c>^/ta, -aror, ro. 
Disengage or Uberate — ckXvciv. Ductility — 6\Kip.6TriSf -i;tos, 
17. To distil — aTTooToXa^o). To dissolve — biaXvo), Expan- 
sion — ZKTaa-is, -€tt)s, ^. Fixed — €p.pjovos. Glass vessel 
shaped like a gourd —ct/cva, -as, ^. Laughing gas— 9rpa>- 
To^fiBiov Tov virpoyovov. Malleability — (rdivprjXarrjpia'p.dst 
-oVf 6. To melt — r^Kopltu. Muriatic acid — vdpoxAoDpiKov 
6^, Nitric acid — virpiKhv o^v. Phosphate of lime — 900-- 
^opiK^ TiravoS' Pneumatic trough — ;(f;/x(K07rvf vfiariK^ crvcr- 
§C€VTi, Precipitate — Kara^vBia-pos. Quartz — xoLKiKfi^ -^s, 17, 
Receiver — do^cioi', -ov, t6. Sulphate of lime — yv^os^ -ov, 
^. Sediment — t^rjiiaf -aroSf t6. To separate — diroxoapl^oi. 
Smelting furnace — x<ov€VTTipiovy -ov, t6. Soda — vdrpov, -ov, 
t6. Common salt — vbpox^apiK^v vdrpov. Test — doKifiaorri' 
ptov. Tube or pipe — o-a>Xf;i', -^vor, 6. To unite — cvoa>. Yo\^ 
tile— 7rn;Ttic(Jff. 




Good morrow, my dear X°^P^ ^ Bavfido-w oKka ri rovro 
fellow ! what is that you ypd<^€is ovrwr iirirpox'^s ; ^ 
are scribbling — poetry ? ttov iroirjfuira ; 

1 hrCf with the dative, expressive of something precedent which stands 
as a necessary foondation for what follows.— J. 084, 2 ; C. 83, oIm. 10, b. 



Yes; some verses to the 

When did you compose 

At twelve o'clock last 

night on the top of 

Arthur Seat. 

folly, instead of lying 
quiet in your bed ! 

1 do not know ; I am so 
disturbed in the day- 
time that I cannot write 

But perhaps it were wiser 
not to write verses at all. 

You might as well com- 
mand the birds not to 
sing, or the springs not 
to run water. Not to 
write verses would be 
contrary to nature with 

Well, you must not be as- 
tonished, if you do not 
find many readers. 

I do not mean to publish ; 
I write only to give mu- 
sical utterance to my feel- 

Wise, wise I What kind 
of poetry do you like 

The drama. 

You are not writing a 
drama to the Moon ? 

No ; this is only a sonnet. 
But I am entitled to ad- 
mire what I cannot 

irphs Tr\v (reX^vriv, 
Ur^viKa drj tnoirfo-as rovs art" 

Kopv<l)ij Bpdvov 'ApTovpoio Ka- 

'O rfjs dvoiaSf deov"^ ye ev t^ 
Kpa^ffdrta r)p€p,€iv, 

OvK otSa* KoX yap Kaff ^p,€pav 
ovTODS iiaK^iTrrovo-i ue, &aT€ 
o-;^oXafftv Tois Movtrais rav 

TTdn; ddwarcDV f (i/at. 

"icrwff be dfj ov x^'P**" p-^ibevas 
dpxTJv ^ avppay^ai arix^vs, 

AiKaios ^ hv etqs opoias drrayo- 
p€V€iv Tols SpptO'i prf * ^beiv, tj 
Tols TTTiyals prj btaa-Kiprdv €K 
tS)v rrerp&v, Ko/x(di) irapa <f>v- 
(Ttv Zpoiye Av €ii; to prj crvp- 
pdiTTtiv otIxov9, 

Eiev pri evp6vTa ye ddpoovs 
Tovs dvayvcDoras ovbev (re 
beri(rei eK7r\ayrjvcu. 

Ov diavoovpai eKtfiepeiv els to 
^©s TCI yeypappeva, rdbe 
pdvov 6ek<av eK^oaveXv ippvO- 
pxos TCI Kivovvra t6v povv, 

2o<])&s (TV ye, Tovro be Xryots 
&v, TToiov eibos T&v Troir^pdrmv 
pdKiora dyan^s ; 

Ta bp&para, 

*H TTOv Tvyxdveis bpdpa ri avy- 
KaTTvav (reXrjviCLKdv ; 

Ov brJTa* TO yovv noirfpariov rvv- 
vovTovl ioTi Tci>v KCLKovpevcuv 
(TOveTTiav, K'dpios pevroi elpl 

1 Seovt part, absol. guum deberes^ and bo i^ov, quum liceret. — J. 700 ; 
P. 245 ; 0. 64, obs. 2, c. 

« apx^Vy omninOf after a negative.— J. 580, 2 ; P. 67 ; 0. 50, b*. 

s 3ucatof , and other a^js. used personally in Greek, for an impersonal or 
adverbial form in English.— J. 677 ; F. 69 ; C. 22, b. 

* /x^ after verbs otforUddvng.-^. 749 ; F. 277 ; C. 48, obs. 4, b. 



achieve. Sliakespeare is 
my favourite poet. 

Do you prefer him to -^s- 
chylus and the great 

Every man of sense does. 

But do you not think 
that the Greek drama was 
one of the noblest public 
amusements ? 

On the contrary, as a 
popular recreation I 
maintain it is superior 
even to our drama, but 
not as a drama. 

How am I to understand 

The Greek tragedy is a 
composite, containing, as 
you are aware, four parts 
— ^poetry, religion, music, 
and dancing. No modern 
drama is so rich. 

K^ligion, for one, is alto- 
gether excluded from the 
modern tragedy. 

From Protestant tragedies 

This seems a strange di- 

Strange indeed ; but there 
are reasons for it, which, 
however, you will not 
understand, unless you 
look a little into the 
history of the old mys- 

Bavfid^eiv airep ovk laxvoa Ka- 
Topdaxrat. *0i/ be brj vnep^ciK- 
\6vTa>s 6avfjLd^a ev oXa> r^ 
Tav iroirjTav XcJ^fi* carlv 6 

'Ap oZv irpoKpiveis rbv^AyyXov 
Tov Al(rxv\ov Koi tS>v ttoKcu 
€v86^<av Tpay<abS>v ; 

Kai yap iravres 7rpoKpivov<ri, ol 
ye vovv expineS' 

*H TTOV e^apvos ei ra rav *EX- 
\riva>v bpAjMiTa fi^ yeveadai 
T&v /uzXtora yevvaifov dycDVfov 
drjfioTiK&v ; 

MaXXov be airo^aivopuai. biappri- 
brfv Koi tS>v Kaff ^fms bpapA- 
Toi>v Kpel(r(rci> yevea-Bax ra tS>v 
*EXKr)vci)v, eh biayaywjp ye brj- 
lioTiKTiVf ov fievToi ye jj bpafiaTa. 

TLcJs ravra \eyeis ; 

Kal yap (rvvBerov ri rvyxcivet 
hv rj rav *EXX^i/fi)V rpay^bla^ 
exovo'a ye, ola-Oa yapy reo"- 
(rapa oroip^eta, rfjv re Troiiyctv 
Kai TO, frepl roifs Beovs, en be 
Kal T^v fiov(nK^v Kal rrjv SpxV 
o'lPf fjv b^ TTOiKiXiav ovbefiia 
ovbap.ov irpooTTOie'iTai r&v ye 
vvv TpayaibiS>v. rrepl rovs Oeoifs Kal 17 KaB' 
r)fids Tpaytabia Kaff-dnavrd eltri 

'AkrjBrj XeyeiSf irepi ye r^s rpa- 
yabias rrjs ev Tois rStv Atafiap- 
Tvpouevatv tottois. 

Uapdoo^ov rt efwiye boKel 6 

X'^pf'O'pbs OVTOO'L 

i7rep(f>vS>s fiev oiv ov firfv dp- 
airiov ye t6 irpdypxi' ras be 
alrias Siroiai rvyxdvovciv o3- 
aai oi/K eoTi biayv&vai rovs p^rj 
irapaKv'^avTas els Tr}v r&v ira- 
\cu&v pvcmipltov laropiav. 



Do you mean the Eleusi- 
nian mysteries ? 

What nonsense you talk ! 
I mean the old ecclesias- 
tical dramas called mir- 
acle-plays and mysteries. 

There are no such plays 

Perhaps in Italy and Spain 
some echoes of them may 
be found; besides, there 
is a famous exhibition of 
a sacred drama every 
ten years at Ammergau, 
in Bavaria. 

When did they cease to 
be common? 

The Reformation put a 
stop to them. 


That is a difficult question. 
Some religious people in 
Scotland object to the 
theatre altogether. 


Well, there are various 
tastes; some people ob- 
ject to wine, some to 
dancing, some to organs. 
The JewS'had no drama : 
the Presbyterians de- 
nounce what they have. 
But I have no time to 
answer all your questions, 
I hear the bell sounding, 
I must hurry to College. 

Go then; and take your 
moon-sonnet with you. 
Yes ; I mean to give it in 

'H iTov Xeyets ra fivarripia ra 

iv 'EXevo-iw ; 
4>Xvap€tff txoiv^ ra TraXaia Xcy© 

bpdyMTa ra €KKKrj(ria(mKa, ra 

Bavfiara npo(rayop€v6fi€va Koi 


Tc5l/ TOIOVTCDV hpapLCLTddV ovx 

evpiWerat, ra vvv yc, ovbcva* 
ovx ovTCDS ; 
'El/ TJ ye 'ItoXi^ koi rfj 'Jffrjpia 
t(r<as dvTrjx^(reis Tives avrSv 
nepnrXavcivTai' nphs 8c rov- 
TOLS bMo'Kova'iv Upov rt hpap.a 8c Ka crrj ol p^eapiToi oi iv 
*AfifjL€pyafiia r&v Ba^apcav^, 

UrjviKa S^ iirava-aro MaxBevra 
ra bpafiara ravra ; 

'^'Enavarcv avra fi fierappvBfiKTis 
TTJs BpritTKelaSf fj koto. Tepfiapiav. 

EIcos ravra iyevero ; 

*AXXA fjLrjv diropias ?x^* rdde 
ovK oXiyas. Kot yap rSv 
ivBdbe ivaefiav eariv oi <njv- 
rdvws ivlaravrai ©9 firf bet 
dpx^v yevia-Bai ra Bear pa, 

Tt 7raB6vres ; 

^AXXot aXXai9 oXXoTt rjbovrcu. 
Tjbovais' ol p.ev yap rhv oivoVy 
oi be rrfv opx^o'iv aTroyiyuoa- 
o-KOvciVy oi be ra opyava ra 
p^va-LKa. Kal fini/ /cal oi 'lov- 
batoi oka>s OVK eixov r^v rpa- 
yablav oi be Upea-fivrepiavoX 
Tjv exova-L biafidKkova'iv. Arap 
ov CYoXafo), ra vvv ye, airoKpi' 
vacuai irp6s o<ra hv 7rpo<bepois 
epoirrip^Lra' aKOva yap rjxovv- 
ros rov KOi)ba>vosi Kal dvdyKrj ew 
elyeo'Bai els ro Haven lOTqpxov, 

"iBi 817, t6 a'overriov ro a-eX^vta- 
k6v npoaXaPav. 

Hpo&XTjylrofJMi yap' btavoovfiai 

1 Superfluous use of ixut.—J. 698 ; F. 244 ; C. 84, a. 



to the Professor, who has 
offered a prize for the 
best sonnet. 
I hope you may get it. A 
night spent on Arthur's 
Seat under the cold sky 
deserves to be rewarded. 

None of your jeering ! I 
shall never repent my 
pious service paid to the 
chaste midnight huntress 
while you were snoring 
in your sheets, and your 
soul juggled by those un- 
reasoned phantasms which 
men call dreams. 

iyX^ipta'ai avrb t« KaBrfyj^rrj 
hs fij) liSkov npovdrjKC t^ n€pi 
t6 (Touemov apiortva'avTi. 

Evxofial (TOL yevetrBai ra apiC' 
Tela' etnep a^iaiTOToi ye are- 
<l)avo)6^vai 01 Kara t6 p.€(TOvv- 
KTiov €7rt TTJs *ApTovpov cbpas 

2v dc 8ri urj roada^c' l/xoiyc oif 

pXTap.€Kr)(T€L€VaV1T0T€ T^S €V(T€- 

^ovs Bcpairelas, t^s npos rrfv 
dyvfjv rfjs p,€<rowicTias &pas 
Kvvrfyeribaf Kaff ov ;(pdvov <rv 
8^ €K€i(ro peyKCiv iv rois arpui' 
fiaa-iy TTiv yvx^v €xo>v ut/iay- 
yav€vp.€vr}v U7r6 Ta>v dkdyap 
(l>a(rpAT<aVy ots oi avOpamoi Ka- 
Xovfrtv ovelpovs* 


Accuracy — aKpt^eia, -as, rf. The argument — imdOkaiSy -cws, 
r). To appear before the public — napieuai els ra nkrjOr}, An 
author — ovyypa^evs, -eaSt o« Composition — <rvvBe<ris, avv- 
To^is, -ea)s, 17. Conciseness — to (TvvTop.ov, Dignity — a-epvo- 
TTis, -rjTos, rf. Edition — ^kBoo-is, -ecus, rj. Eloquence — rj irepl 
Tovs \6yovs beiv6rqs. Emendation — Bi6p3a>a'is, -eoDs, 17. Ex- 
hibition of literary talent — eiridei^is, -eays, fj, A fancy or 
notion — vdrjpia, -aros, t6. Fluency — evpoui, -as, rj, A florid 
writer — 'koyobaiSaXos. Literary man — (j>iK6\oyos, -ov, 6. 
Literary man superficial — (ro^ior^f, -ov, 6, Manuscript — 
X€i'pdypa<l)ov, -ov, t6. Neatness — Kop'^frorrjs, -rjTos, ^. Proof 
— reKpripiov, -ov, t6. Propriety — t6 npenov, -ovtos. A re- 
cension of the text — biaa-Kevr}, -rjs, fj. Simile — eiK<i)v, -6vos, 
^. Sketch — virorvntdo'is, -ecDs, 4- Style — x^P^*^Pt -5po^» 
o. Subject of discourse — rh xmoKeipevov, -ov. Taste — 
tfiCKoKoKia, -as, rf, Turgidity — ^yKos, -ov, 6. Weight— t6 
epfipiBes, -ovs. Wit — evrpairekia, -as, ^. Coarse wit, buf- 
foonery — Ptop4}\oxla9 -as, rf. 




Will you never be done 
bending over these cir- 
cles and triangles, and 
wasting your brain on 
the barren relations of 
space and time ? 

My dear Sir, you talk of 
what you do not under- 
stand. Mathematics is, 
next to poetry, the purest 
element in which the soul 
delights to move. 

What figure is this you 
were looking at so intent- 
ly, and puzzling about ? 

You are an ignoramus. I 
am not puz^ing, only en- 
joying the beautiful de- 
monstration of the fam- 
ous forty-seventh propo- 
sition of the First Book 
of Euclid. 

Bead the proposition. 

In every right-angled trt- 
angle the square of the 
side subtending the right 
angle is equal to the 
squares of the two sides 
containing the right angle. 

Hold ! hold \ I already 


'AXXa (Tvy^ ovK hv 7rav<rai6 wore 
iyKimronv rols kvkKois tovtokti 
Ka\ ToiyoDvotSf KararpvyGuv rbv 

. €yKe<j>d\op irepi roifs aneipovs 
TOTTOvs, t6 k€v6v Kal t6v xP^' 

AoXciff , & Bavfidaiey ircpi Z>v cfvdip 
avvrJKas. Mera ye rriv iroirfO'iv 
OVK dv cvpoi Tis KaBap&TcpSv 
Ti TTJs uauri(r€a>5f iv a 7r€<^viC€ ^ 
Ktveitrom rj ^ux^* 

'not6v Ti t6 cxvH^ TovTi els h 
dTevtiav rjirSpcis ; 

*AiiaBfis Tis^ €1, eyo) ovdfv 
anopS}, /xaXXoi/ Be eari&pMi rrjs 
KOfiyfr^s drro8ei^ea>s rrjs rrepi' 
fioryrov Trpordccws, T^r ev r^ 
frpayrrj rov "EvKkelSov /3i)3X<p. 

^Avayvolrjs ^v rrjv irporatriv, 
'Ei» To7s opOoytoviois rpiyitvoii 
t6 anb rrjs r^v 6p6r)V ya>viav 
wroreivovoTis irkevpds rerpd- 
'ycovov taov earl rois dnb r&v 
T^v opOffv ycDviav irepLexovc&v 
rrXevp&p rerpaya>vois. 
^E^c dri aifTOV' ^Si; yap Svco Ktu 

^ iri^vKo^ to have a natural genius for doing anything.- 
2 Idiomatic use of rif .— J. 659, 4 ; C. 28, a. 




feel quite confused. Bat 
why do you call this 
proposition famous ? 

Because they say Pytha- 
goras first found out the 

Do you believe that ? 

Why not? The Samian was 
unquestionably a great 
that the first principle 
of all things is number. 

What could he mean by 
that ? I hate arithmetic ; 
and, to confess the truth, 
am constantly confound- 
ing addition and subtrac- 
tion in my calculations. 

I am sorry for you ; for 
here you plainly confess 
that you have a weak 
brain, and claim near 
relationship with certain 
savase tribes who cannot 
count above twenty. 

Well ; don't bother me 
about figures : at the 
same time, I should be 
very glad to hear what 
Pythagoras meant by 
making number the first 

He meant, what any man 
of sense may see, that 
all things in the world 
are measured and calcu- 

Is there any calculation in 
the clouds ? 

Yes ; every drop of water, 
as the chemists will tell 
you, is composed of cer- 

KarcD cKkcis fioi to, diavo^/xara. 
Tavnjv fie 5i) rrfp frp6Taa-iv dia 
TL elnes irepifiorjTov ; 
Aiori t6v UvBayopav (pad 
iTpSxTov T^v dnddcL^Lv i^fvpuv, 

M©v (TV ravra numveis ; 

IIiCTTcva) drJTO,' Koi yap rjv 6 2d- 
pAos a>s d\rj3S>s ^eivos nepl t^v 
p-dBrjo'iVy bibd(rKa>v yc ttjv t&v 
oko>v dp^^v clvai t6v dpidpov. 

Tavra 8e rl fiovKop^vos aTre^^- 
varo ; Mrcr^ n^v dpi9ur}TiKrjv 
ijat, iva Xcyo) ra oKriB^,^ \oyi^6- 
p€vos del Xav6dvoi ov htaKpl- 
v<ov T^v T€ d^aip€(riv kcu rqv 

'EXvtt^^i/ QKOfvcov ravra yap 
Xeyciv ^jjkos ci opoKoyovpevos 
irdw pqKaKfj xprifrBcu rfj dta- 
voia. &(rr€ biKaicas dirobi^atrBai. 
aypiciv riv&v (^vXwv r^v (rvy- 
ycveiav, r&v prj Bvvap.€vo)v rrep- 
ird^civ vnep roifs ctKocrt. 

Etifv ipe Be p.r] Kdirre rois dpiB- 
p,ois' oif p,r)v dWd o ye IlvBayO' 
pas ri nore efioiikero Bels dp^^v 
r6v dpiBpbv fjidka rfbeaas bv 

'Eic6(i/o yovv iPovKerOy rots ye 
vovv exovciv 8rj\ov, t6 airavff 
o(Ta iv r€d K6(rpa dpiBpols ri(ri 
Kai p.erpois pvBp.i^eaBai, 

MS)V pvBp^s ris eoTLV iv rals 
ve(j)e\ais ; 

Kal p.aKa ye' (rraywv ykp vba- 
ros froWoarri, a>s bibd(rKov(riv 
ol ;(i7/iiKoi, a^Keirai e^ a>pi(r- 

1 As in Latin ut vera dicam; but the infin. also, with w is used in 
Greek.— J. 893, d. 



tain fixed measures of 
two gases, oxygen and 
hydrogen ; and, in fact, 
the whole of chemistry is 
nicely quantitative, and 
depends on arithmetic. 
And must I then be an 
arithmetician in order to 
study chemistry ? 

Of course. Time and 
Space, which you call 
empty relations, are no 
doubt empty in them- 
selves, but, like bottles, 
can easily be filled with 
good wine. Nothing ex- 
ists which is not con- 
tained by these universal 

What do you say to 
Mind ? 

Well, I grant that thoughts 
cannot be measured by 
inches ; but mind can act 
only through space and 

Then you mean to say 
that unless I study ma- 
thematics and arithmetic 
I must be a fool 7 

I say that without those 
universal measures men 
cannot attain to accuracy 
in science. You may 
float about with our good 
friends the Germans in a 
region of misty metaphy- 

Don't speak against meta- 

fi€V<av Tiva>v fi€Tpo>voviiva€pa>Vy 
dr/Kabri tov o^vyovov Koi tov 
vbpoy6uov' o\fos h€ brj avfi- 
rrdaa ff ^VH'^'^V t^ora to irotrov 
opl^erai aKplfias, kcu i^TiprriTai 
TTjS apiBfirjTiKTJs, 

Eira, vrf Am, kcu cfic fifKkovra 
fjLcXfrav TO. ;(J7/xiKa bei Travrcus 
dianovuo'Bai to. rrepl tovs 
apiBnovs ; 

Ko/iid^ p.€v oZv 6 yhp br^ xpovos 
kal oi idpnTpAvoi r<$9roi ot)s 
Kcvoifs Xtyets, Koff avrovs ra 
6vTi bioKevoi €((riv, pah'uos dc, 
Kaddnep oi do'icoi, ov ttoXX^ 
7r6v<ip ayaBov otvov &v iicirXtf- 
poaBciev. "OXws drj iv rfj r&v 
dXa>v cuorao'ct xmapx^i ovbiv 
o Ti ovx opi^ovtriu 6 t€ )^6vos 

Ka\ o( roTToi. 

Etra, rrepl tov vov ti 7roT€ Xc- 

'Ek€lvo bfj (rvyxo>poii p-ri bvvaar' 
Bai ucTprfBrjvai tqs btavolas 
baKTvXtov ye Xoyifraa' 6v p-^v 
aWa o ye vovs ov)( oios t€ eariv 
evepyiiv x^P^s tov ttoC Kal tov 


ToiydpToi a>s epov rjKiBiov airo- 
PrjaopevoVf prj (r7rovbd<ravTos^ 
nepl TTjv Tc pABria-iu Koi Toxfs 
dpldpXWS, OVTCiS fX^if T^V yvci>' 

'£ic€ij/o briTTOV d7ro<f>alvopaif avev 


irepiexovTfov ov\ olovs re elvai 
TOVS dvBpcdirovs e^aKpifiovv 
67roiavbf}7roT€ efrKTTrjprjv. IIo- 
peoTi bffnovBev peTci t&v 
Xpi^OT&v Veppavav iv p-eTai^v 
(TiKois Ttci K€vci>pa(nv €vBa Koi 
tvBa p€T€<api(€<rB€U, 
2v be /xi) KOKoXoyei to, /xcra- 

1 /xii, With aor. part. =nwi, with perf. subj.— J. 646, 2 ; F. 276 ; C. 48, 1. 



physics ; that is a vulgar 
habitude of the English 

Then don't speak you 
against mathematics. The 
next time I see you I 
hope to find you not 
ignorant of the difference 
between 9 + 2 and 9 — 2, 
and perhaps even ad- 
vanced to the compre- 
hension of the great mys- 

. tery of (a + 6)2=a2 + 62 
+ 2a6. 

avTT] t^stS>v'^ AyyXcav biavoias. 


Kai (TV oxravTODS fi^ KaKo\6y^i 
TTiv fidOrja-iv. 'Arap vtrrcpov 
irfpirvx^iv croi cXTTifo) ov ndw 
aireipov cvp^aeiv ac tov irS>s 
bia<f>€p€i ra 9 + 2 kclI ra 9 — 2, 
Koi firjv Kal i(T(os els rocrovTOV 
TTpoaxOtvra (ro^las &aT€ Kora- 



Angle — yavia, -as, 17. Circumference — 7r€pi(f>€p€uiy -as; rj. 
Circle — kvkXos, -ov, 6. A complement — TrapaTrKrjpoifia, -aros, 
t6. Distance or interval — Bida-Trjfia, -aroy, to. Figure — 
(rx^lJ>^9 'oroSi t6. Line — ypofifirj, -i/y, r}. Magnitude — fieye- 
3os, 'Ovs, t6. a perpendicular — KdOerosy -ov, fj. A plane — 
ijrinfhovj -ov, t6. A point — arjfieloVf -ov, to. A ratio — Xd- 
yos, -ov, 6. Segment-— T/x^/xa, -arosi ''<5> A straight line — 
evOelaf -as, ^. A surface — €7ri<f>dv€ia, -ar, f), A triangle — 

•ov, t6. 



Well, my good friend, in 
what net are you en- 
tangling yourself now? 
You never seem happy 
unless when you have 
lost your way in the 

. clouds or in a bog. 

If I had been a German, I 

.might have lost my way 


Aeyois hv, dvTifio\ci> cr€, S> dai- 
fi6vi€f noit^ Tivl biKTVia vvv 8^ 
Tvyxdveis ifiirkaKels ; Kol yap 
ovScTTOTf €fi<l>aa-iv c^eis evoat- 
fwvovvTos, el fi^ irap€KTpair€is 
ye els to ve<l>e\S>des, ^ t6 tcX- 

*Ey6), el Tepfidvbs e(f>vv, elKdnos 
hv els vTTepve(^ekovs Tonovs 



in the clouds, but being 
as I am, a hard-faced 
utilitarian Scot, there is 
no great risk of any such 
transcendental extrava- 

Of course that is a book 
on metaphysics over 
which you are poring. 
Let me see. Oh, Hegel ! 

Yes, Hegel; and a very 
sensible fellow he is too. 

You pretend to understand 

In this book I have found 
nothing incomprehen- 
sible. The account that 
he gives of the Sophists 
hits the golden mean be- 
tween the Whigutilitarian 
Grote and the old Oxon- 
ian Tories, who loved to 
run down everything 
Athenian that was the 
natural outgrowth of de- 

You say this, who are a 
plain practical Scot ! Who 
would have thought to 
find you ballooning about 
with those transcendental 

I tell you I have plenty of 

But tell me this rather — 
what use can there pos- 
sibly be in metaphysics ? 

Man is a thinking animal. 

I can think without help 
from Kant or HegeL 

dc, Yjokifiovios hv dy^p, crieXi;- 
poii€T4atr6s rtr dujvcKSis rh 
aKfteXifjua btmK&v, ovdcv Kivdv- 
veifio reus roiavrtus vfrcpov^pca- 
iroif €KTotrurBrjvai <f>opais. 
Bipkos lUvToi furadnjautfj avrn 
itrriv «9 ^v cyicvTrrctff' ff>€p 
i3w ca, ?a, rov 'Hy^Xioy. 

K-vrhv TOP 'Hy^Xioy- icoi, et ris 
aXXos tS>v vvv dtikoaxKfxwvTaVf 
fiaka avvrrov opdpcu 

Etra (Tvyc irpoawoui iniarao'- 
6ai rk avTt^ debayftarurp^va ; 

'Ef ravrrf yc rj pifiXa cip ov- 
dev ira> vpotrewrcuaa dKardkrj' 
WTOV. *A yovv ir^pi rStv <ro- 
(hurrmv Xryti doieci 6V(rro;(€iy 
axpifiSts Tov p.ttrov t&v 8v€iv 
axpav, dijkad^ tov BrfpoTUCOv 
TpoTov TOV TO. m<l>€kLpa vp" 

VOVVTOS, Koi T&V €V *O^Vi^ TO. 

t£v dvvarav fbpovovvTonVf tSv 
KpoviKtivj ot drf c^iXovv act ica- 
TaTpi-)(civ Tmv *AOr}vaio>v otra 
Kara <f)va'Uf €K tov b^pav cf • 

Tavra <rv Xeycir, 6 avBtKaaros 
Koi <r<f>6bpa oXi/^cvriicof KaXi;- 
dovios. Tivi b^ emjXBfv &v 
irepareaclv trot *d€poPaTovvTi 
p€Ta TOVTo>v T^v xm^pKOfrpl^v 

'AXX* eya> bua)(ypi(opai 'iKav6v 
6;(€iif t6 €ppa, 

Tovro dc ciTTc /xoXXov, Ti nor 
Stv €X0L ^cXor Ta p€TaKf>va't' 

Ko, ; 

""EoTi b^ 6 avBpomos C£ov dia- 


'AXX^ pjfv €y<ay€, Pov\6p/evos 
nepi Tivos ^povrifciv, ovbtv €v 
berjs €i/u r^r airo rov re Kav- 
rtov K€u TOV 'Hyrjjkiov PoifOtias* 



So you can dance without 
the dancing-master, but 
you will dance better 
with him. 

Have you read Aristotle's 
Metaphysics ? 

Yes ; a little : but it is a 
very tough book. 

Is it true that Aristotle 
was an atheist ? 

Quite the contrary ; in his 
doctrine of the four causes 
he excludes the possibi- 
lity of atheism. 

What are the four causes? 

Well, let us take the ex- 
ample of a sculptor ; the 
first cause ils the mind 
of the sculptor, and his 
determination to make a 
statue. This Aristotle 
calls the beginning of mo- 
tion. The second cause 
is in the purpose for 
which the work is made, 
as to be placed in some 
public street. This he 
calls the cause on account 
of which. The third is 
the matter out of which 
anythiug is made, as the 
statue out of marble ; 
and the fourth cause is 
the idea of the thing it- 
self which the sculptor is 
going to make. This 
Aristotle called the ri Ijv 
ctyoi, which the medisdval 
metaphysicians transla- 
ted qiddditaa, what we 

OTobibao-KaKov opyrja-aiTO clv 

^Aveyvcas rrfv tov 'ApioroTcXovs 
irpayfiaTciav, rrjv irep\ rav fiera 
TO. q)v(ri.Kd ; 

Kai yap iy€va-ap.r}V ttcds' eitrri bi 

OvKovv dXrjO^ Xeyovcri, XeyovTcg 
adeov clvai tov ApioroTtkrjv ; 

'Ef cvavTias' etye "617 c^riyovfic- 
vos ircpl ratv airiSv t^v rerrd- 
p(ov dbvvarov ajro<j>aiv€Tai fi^ 
ov ^ Oeivai t6 detov, 

Ta£ be iroia£ Xeytis alria^ ; 

'Etti dyaXfJMTOTroiov ^ /xoXiora 
Tis hv tSoi Tovra. *H p.kv o^v 
irpoiTq alria 6 vovs xmdp\€i 6 
TOV brjfiiovpyov, koI 17 avTodev 
irpoatpeois tov iroietv ayaiXfid, 
^v b^ alTiav npoa-ayopevu 6 
* ApioTorekqs ttjv Trjs Ktvrj- 
aecas dp^-qv. 'E^€^^ff Xcyci 
t6v o'kottov o5 Tvxelv fiovXeraL 
6 brffuovpy6s, TeXeoOevros tov 
€pyov, oiov t6 ibpvvOrjvai to 
ipyov iv TrXaTcla tivi ottov to2s 
avupayirois ircpi^XcTrrov hv ctrf 
Tavrqv b^ t^v aiTiav KoXei t6 

T ** (tt &> V ' > ' 

pv €V€Ka, a o av TpiTq aiTia 
eoriy 17 vXj/ e$^£ ireiroirjToi to 
epyov, wr e/e Xidov XeuKov t6 
aycLKfia. TcTdprriv be b^ ri- 
Brjaiv cuTiap Ttjv tov irpdyfiaTos 

twOMV, TJTOI, clboS, OlOV n $€0V 

Tivbs ^ OTpaTTjyov S jSovXcrat 
TrXaTTCiv 6 b^fiiovpyds' Tavqj b^ 
rj airta Trpoa-edrjKcv 6 <^«X^(ro- 
d>05 Toiivofia t6 Ti ^v elvai, 
PofjuHarl quidditaSf fi€Ta<f)paa' 

1 fill ov before mflnitive, after certain words implying a negation.— J. 
750 ; F. 293 ; G. 48, 4, c 
» hri with gen. iai the case of.— J. 633 ; C. 83, 10, a. 



might call the whatnesa 
of the thing, or that 
which makes it what it 
is, as distinguished from 
other things. 

All very fine ; but what 
has this to do with the 
theism of Aristotle ? 

Who would have thought 
that you would not see 
that the four causes are 
all contained in the one 
eternal and infinitely wise 
energy which we call 

Indeed ! so metaphysics 
is just another name for 
theology ? 

Just so ; and - every man 
who believes in the doc- 
trine of causes must be 
a theologian, and must 
be a metaphysician. 

What do you say to 
Logic ? 

Logic dissects and lays 
bare the laws of thought, 
and is useful, like any 
other dissection. 

But is it necessary for the 
discovery of trutii ? 

Not absolutely ; it is ex- 
tremely useful however 
for the exposure of fal- 
lacies, besides being, like 
mathematics, a necessary 
and purely intellectusil 

I once imagined that no- 
thing could ever have 
induced me to open a 
book on Logic ; but what 

Okv \mh tS)v Kara t6v fictrcucova 
7rpo(TKeifi€V(av rfj dir6 rov *Apt- 
(TTOTckovg (ro<l>ia' lo-cas de Koi oi 
Kaff fiyuas Xeyoiev hv ^e what- 
neas of the thing, brjXabrj to 
Tov Txmov opi^ov rov ciSovr 17 
yc tS>v aXXaav clb&v SuKpepei, 

Ko/i>|/'a ravra* TCKfirjpiov dt 8^ 
rt ?;(fi rov vo/Lit^civ Otovs t6u 
^ToycipiTTjv ; 

Tis av (orjOrj ovx 6pav ere ras 
alrias ravras avfirrao-as dvay- 
Koiov civai dvayeiv els fiiau 
irnyr^Vy brjkahr] rrfv €V€pyov(rav 
8vvafiiv, TTiv diSiop Koi awepav- 
Tov Koi irdvo'o<l)oVj fju Kcikei 
cKaaros tov QcSv ; 

Eira TavTo. €ivai Tjj BcoXoyia to, 
fieTa(^v(riKd' ovrcaf XtycLs ; 

OvT(os' Koi firjv Koi dvccyK.r\ 
SiravTaSi oaoi Tas Tictrapas 
alTias diro^^xovTai, OeoXSyovs 
T€ ;^p?;/LtaTif€iv, zeal p.€Ta<f)Vfn- 


Utpl be TTJs AoyiK^s Tiva b^ 
€xetff yvcufirjv ; 

*AvaT€fiv€i fi€v ovv rf AoytKfj Koi 
dTToyvfivoi TO, TTtpi TO. biovori- 
fiaTa, o<l>€\os be exet olov SKkr] 
OTroiabriTroTe dvaTopJi ; 

*£ic6ii/o fjLevTOi ipayrS)* p.S>v dvctV' 
Kaia i<rr\v avTrj rj Texvrj irpos 
t6 i^evpeiv to, aKxiOrj ; 

Ovx ^'f^oys' dWa fi^v els t6v 
tS>v frapcCKoyKrfiSiV TKeyxov 
pom^v exei fieyiarrjv npos be 
TovToiSi Kaudnep n fiaBri(riSi 
biavoi^ Xp^rat KoBapq, fxiibev 
evbe^s ovtra tS>v eKTbs. 

*Qri$riv7raK(U eya ovbev, ovbeirore 
iaxvcai hv Tret(rai /ac /3t/3Xoy 
dvayvS>vai nepX Trjs XoyiKtjs' tci 
be vvv V7r6 <rov XexBevra okiyov 



you say almost makes 
me change my mind. 
Change your mind by all 
means. The man who 
never changes his mind 
is either a god or a f ooL 

ficti/ StaTTpaTTcrai OTTcay ficra- 
M€Ta.yva)6i 817* 6 yap fii^bev firj- 
bfiroTc fi€Tayvovs fjroi fuopos 
ioTiv ^ Beds. 


Actuality — cirreXc;^? to, -as, 17. Acquired — iiriKTrjros. Con- 
ception — VTTokrj^fns, -eaSf rj. Experience — ifiireipia, -as, rj. 
Element — aroixe^ovy -ov, to. External objects — ra iv rfj 
ala-Ofia-ci. Effects or results — t6, airo^alvovra. A final 
end — WXoff, -ovy, to. General principles — f] KaBoKov cVi- 
OTYjfirj. The infinite — rb direpavrov. Innate — €p.<^vTos. An 
idea — evi/oia, -as, rj. A Platonic idea — €ibos, -ovs, to. Par- 
ticulars comprehended under a general — ra vnoKtlneva. 
Means to an end — tcl trpos t6 tCKos. Potentiality — 
bvvafiLs. The sentiments and emotions — to iraBriTiKov. 
Relation — to irpos tI. Sensation — ata-Brjais, -eons, r). The 
subject — TO imoK€ifi€vov. The self -identical — to dtl icaTa 
TavTo ov. Absolute being — r^ 6vTa)s 3v. The accidental 
— t6 avfififPriKos. An affection of substance — irdBos, 
-ovs, TO. The possible — to ivbexoiicvov. A first prin- 
ciple— dpxf}' 



What book is that you 

are reading? 
Aristotle's Ethics. 
Oh, vile! 

What do you call vile ? 
Because he is a crabbed 

and thorny old fellow, 


Tiva TTOTc ^l/3Xoy dvayiyvoa"- 

Kets ; 
Ta Tov * ApioTorfkovs ^dtxa. 
Ti TovTO direTTTvaas ; 
T6v 8ri ^ApurroTcXriv* 
Tt iraBoiv ; 

Ai6tI X^^^^^^ '''*^ COTLV Kai 

dKavBti>brfSt oi drf ttjv ofiiXiav 



with whom I will have 
nothing to do. I do not 
care to eat briers. 

I grant he is not without 
thorns ; but as he him-^ 
self said of Virtue, Though 
his roots are* bitter his 
fruit is sweet. 

I prefer the blooming 
garden of Plato, full of 
flowers and fragrance. 

No person denies that 
Plato is magnificent ; but 
Aristotle perhaps is a 
more solid architect and 
a more substantial writer. 
At least I for one should 
think it a disgrace that 
the Ethics of Aristotle 
were not read in the 

Well, for certain hard head s 
— Aberdonians, and such 
like, — he may be better 
adapted than Plato, whom 
Cicero, not without rea- 
son, calls the god of the 

Sense is good for all, not 
for Aberdonians only. 
Aristotle is the perfec- 
tion of sense. 

A great virtue for com- 
mon people ! 

A necessary virtue for all 
people, ^ and an uncom- 
mon virtue sometimes 
with men of genius. 

What is Aristotle's defi- 
nition of Virtue. 

Hear : — By the excellence 

navTcas aneyvfOKa, Ovx fjbeos 
&v eoTUOfirjv rav fidrtov. 

^vyx<opSi ravro* aXX* ofuos, 
Kaddncp avrhs Tkcyc W€p\ r^s 
dptTrjs, niKpas fiev €;(ci ras 
piC^tSt yXvKels Sc roxfs Kap- 


AiperoiTcpos l/iotye 6 rov IlXa- 
Toavos K^os 6 Sakepos, dvBcoav 
V7rep7r\€(os ical ocrft^r. 

Ovdelf hv i^apvovro fiff ovk tivai 
/LtcyoXoTrpcTT^ roV UXdrava' 6 
ficpToi ' AptOToreXi; s apxircKTOv 
irov iari pJaKKov cvirayrjs, 
Koi trvyypa^cvs yovifid>T€pos. 
^"ETroveibiaTov rycaye Av rfyol- 
firjv iirj OVK dvayLyvaxTKco'dcu 
rdfjuiKh €V r» TraveirumffiUo. 

EUv ttrois ye d^ a'K\rjpOK€- 
<f)aKois Turi — toIs *A|3€/38a)via- 

U€V Koi OCrOl TOIOVTOL — 6.pfi6(oi 
hv uJaXKov 6 ^rayeLpirrjs ^ 6 
nXarcDi/, ov brj 6 KiK€pa>v 6c6v 
Tiva €V To2s <l>i\o(r6<f)ois BiKai- 
OS Trpo(rayop€V€i. 
'AXXct fi^v t6 y€ vovv ^x^^v 
Trdciv ox^eXi/xoi', ov rots c^ 
'A^epbcavlas p-ovois* tS>v de 
di7 \iav vovu cxdvrav dvap.^i- 
(r^rjrfjTfos Kopv^aios Tvyxdv€i 
ti)v 6 * ApioTOTcXrjs* 

ToOtO t6 VOVVfX^^i OTTCp VflVOV' 

CIV oi TToXXot, kclK^ orjTTOvdcv 
dp^TT] ioTiv vols Tvxov(ri rS>v 
*KvayKala bt} dperf) oXXoif re 
avp.ndo-i, koi trj kcu. toIs cVi 
r§ €V<f)vLa aefipvvofifvois. 

"Opov be b^ rlva rlBr^o'iv , 6 

'ApioTorfKrjs t^s dper^s ; 
*A#covc* ^ApeTrjv Xeyo/xcy dvQpmy- 



or virtue of man we 
mean that which belongs 
to the soul, and not to 
the borly, and happiness 
we say consists in the 
energizing of the soul. 

That sounds very grand. 

Very true also, if you will 

Can you prove that he is 
right in saying 'that Vir- 
tue lies in the mean be- 
tween two extremes ? 

That is easy; name any 
virtue, and I will give 
you the two extremes 
between which it lies. 

Well, take generosity. 

The excess is prodigality 
or thriftlessness, the de- 
fect stinginess or niggard- 

What say you to truth ? 
Can a person be too 
truthful ? 

O yes ! in many ways ; a 
person may fling pearls 
before swine, and get 
himself hanged by a 
rope of his own making. 
Children should not play 
with knives ; and truth 
to fools is a thorn which, 
runs up into their flesh 
and makes them bleed. 

Who speaks too little 

The very prudent and 
over cautious person, who 
is always afraid of giving 
ofifence, and who habi- 
tually betrays wisdom, 
that he may purchase 
favour from fools. 

irivr}v ov r^v rov (roufwrosy 
dXXa rqv t^s '^v^^s' cvbai- 
fiovlav Sc ^"^XV^ ivepyeiav 

^€fiv6v brjirov ^x^' ravra, 

Kol dkrjOes yc v7rep<l>vS)Si el 

^ovXct (TKOTrelv. 
"E^ois ^v d7ro(l>aLV€tv 6p6S>s 

Xeyeiv rov <j)i.\6(ro<j>ov Xeyovra 

flCOTJV K€l(roai, tS>V iKaT€p<i>6€V 

aKOfov T^v dpcrijv ; 

*Pdotov TovTo ye' crol yap Xcf- 
avri onoiavorfiroTe ap€Trjv €y<o 
wapavTiKa drjkaxroD ra 8vo 
aKpa 2>v Kelrai iv r<» fie(r<o. 

^€pe wv, KOL ireipav XajSc ttjs 

Tavrris yovv r^s dpcr^s rj iiiv 
vTrcppoAri coTiv acrcorta, rj be 
fhXcLyjris dveXevOepia, ^ yXicr- 

n^pi 8c rrjs oKrjdeias rl exeis Xc- 
•y€«/; fiSiv ia^ff 07r<i>s dixapTOi av 
Tis vTrep^dXXcDV r© dXrjBevciv; 

UoWax&s yap' rdxa yap Sv 
6 TrpO€p,€Vos jxapyaptras rois 
valv dndyxoiTO <p avroy 
TrapeaKevaac (mdprcd. Ov 
yap irpoa^K€i rois naibapi- 
ois irai^civ raTs jxaxaipais' fcal 
owravTcaff, rois vovv p.rj exovcrtv 
17 oKrjOeia els r^v (rdpKa dva- 
mp-ova-a cXkci aixpja. 

Hoios rtr iariv 6 ^ttov rot 
beovTOs d\r]6eva>v ; 

'O ayav (^povipjos kcu fr<^6bpa 
cvXa^^Sy ocrjTcp bebie prf Xiyav 
Ti epPpiOcarepov Tvyxavrj 
irpofTKcmTaiV vols a/eovovcrtv, 
&(JT€ irpobovvaL cKaarorc r^v 
O'o<\>iavy OrjpSiV brfTTov rriv X^P'" 
rrjv rSiv poi>paiv6vTa>v, 



I see you liare always an 
answer ready. What is 
Aristotle's favourite vir- 

Greatness of soul. 

I have heard it said that 
he praises men for pride 
and arrogance. 

This is not true ; never- 
theless I cannot deny 
that there is perhaps a 
touch too much of stoical 
avTdpK€ia in his great- 
souled man. 

I once heard a preacher 
maintain in the pulpit 
that the ancients knew 
nothing about humility. 

The preacher was wrong ; 
pride or overweening 
self-estimate is constant- 
ly spoken against by the 
wise Greeks as a great 
sin, and the mother of 
many sin^; the opposite 
virtue which they ap- 
proved being of course 
humility or moderate self - 

I wonder how preachers 
can say these things in 
the pulpit if they are 
not true ! 

They display great folly 
in not studying moral 

But they do attend the 
moral philosophy class. 

True ; but they do not 
thoroughly meditate on 

H irov pqbifos Ikcuttotc caroKpX- 
vci, Z> €Taip€. Uoiav /ioXcara 
rStv aptrSiV cVatvfT 6 ^Apitrro- 

^AK^Koa \eyovTag Q>r iircuvcl 
Tovs dvOpomovs cVt r^ re 
V7reprj<l}avLa ical ra rv^o>. 

^fv85 Tovra* 0X1 fi^v ov8* 
dpvoifirjv hp fi^ ov K€\piapjaeri- 
aOcu Tov avrov 
TJj T&v ^toikS>v avrapKcia 
vnep TO 0€0v, 

^HKOvad TTOTC (vayyeXiOTov 
Sii(r;(vptfo/LtcVoi) cVt rov Pfipxi- 
Tos T0V5 ndXcu "'EXKrjvas irdw 
dyevoTovs elvai r^s raircivo- 

"H/xaprc ravra Xeywy 6 fvayyc- 
\iarris' yfrfyovo't, yap brj rrfv 
/Mev vfipiv oi (To^oi tS>v *EXXn- 
1/0)1/ Koi rbv Tv<j)ov c^s b€ivr}v 
Tiva TTovrjpiaVj Koi 8r} jcal ttoX- 
\&v firjrepa dfiapriav* r^v fie 
Tajrcii/o^pocrvw;!/ ^toi r^v /x€- 
Tpiorqra ci/eorcas eircupovaiv 
oas T^v dvTlaTpo(f)ov oZtrav 

Qavfxd^oi cl^ ra Toiavra Xeyov- 
a-iv oi cvayyeXiaraXf pj) akqOrj 

IIoXX^ avoid ioTiv p^ ov <nrov- 
bd^civ avTovs trepl rd rjOiKd. 

Kairot dnavTcs ye ^oirSifriv els 
TOV KaOnynTTiv tov wapabibovra 
Ta ijUiKa. 

Ov pevToi eyKcivrai ye ratr cv- 

boKipOiS pipXoiS TCOV TToXoi 

1 et for oTi after Oaufid^ia and similar verbs.— J. 804. 9 ; G. 48. 2. 



the great books of the 
ancient moralists, at least 
in Scotland. 

I cannot but say you are 
right, at least up to a cer- 
tain point, but they know 
much more than they usu- 
ally get credit for. 

True ; they cannot afford 
to publish books, and they 
cannot hope for promo- 
tion from a knowledge of 
Greek philosophy. 

You hit the nail on the 
head; if we had only 
bishops ! 

Hush ! I am a good Pres- 

So am 1; but you wish 
impossibilities. We* shall 
never have bishops in this 
part of the world. 

Then I say that we shall 
never have Greek philo- 
sophy wedded to Chris- 
tian wisdom, as we find 
it in the great English 

Perhaps we may stumble 
on some substitute for 

What might that be? 

It is a long story ; at pre- 
sent I am not at leisure. 
To-morrow, if you please, 
we will discuss this sub- 
ject. Meanwhile, adieu! 

ir€p\ TO. riBiKCL <l)iKo<ro<j)ovvTa>Vf 
Kara ye ttjv KaX'qbovLav, 

OvK €(rff oTTcas ov (l)T}fiL CDS Xc- 
ycty TO. oKtjBtj, fMexpt yc rivos' 
ttXtiv TrXcto) yc ta-d(riv ol evay- 
yeXioToi i) oi ttoXXoi tS>v dv- 
upa>7rci>v TriOTevovcriv, 

Ov yap napfiKei avroisj ola d^ 
Xpy]IJ-d.TCi>v <nravL^ov(riVf ckBov- 
vai avyypdfifJLara' ov firju ovS* 
hv ikiTLS vTroXa/xTTci avrols ov- 
bcfiia TrpofiifiaaS^vai iv tols 
TTcpX t6v piov, 6ta TO ifiireipovs 
yfV€<rOaL t^s tS>v '"EWrjvoiv ao 

Nal (Tvycj ravra Xiyonv o^vrd- 
rrjs cTvx^s tov Trpdyfiaros aK- 
fiTis' el ydp ir<as a-vfi^air) fjfiiv 
ev TTJ eKKXr)<ria tvx^^v cVi- 


£v^i7/i€e, S> TTat* (^pova yap cyo) 
TO. T&v UpetrfivrepLavcov. 

Kal cyo) ravrd' dWa o'vye Tvy- 
xdveis ev\6p.evos rd dovvara, 
Ov /xj) yevcavrai oi cVicTKOTroi, 
ev Tols evBdbe ye tottois, 

Kai dKokovBa tovtois prjT&s dno- 
(baivofiai cas ov fierearai irore 
rjfiLV ye t^s tSdv 'EXXiJi'cov 
(ro<f)La5 fiepoSi rfj tS>v Xpiorta- 
vSiv yi'cocrct KeKpdfxevrjs, Kaff ov 
ye Tpdrrov eirl rS>v evhoKlp.tov 
TTjs AyyXlas 6eo\6ya>v evpi- 

IEXkos irepviretTe\o-6ai rjuds evprj- 
fiari TtvL T^v tS>v eiriaKdnayv 
dvvap.iv exovTi, ;^6)pis tov 6v6- 

TovTO be brj ri ttot* hv etrj ; 

MaKpos 6 \6yos' ev ra Be rra- 
povTi ov (Txokd^o), AapioVy ei 
<roi j3ovXo/xci/a> cotI, Kaipos 
hv etri ravra bie^eXOelv, Ta 
vvv eppoixro. 




Approbation, excessive love of — bo^oKoiria, -as, ff. Aban- 
doned — i^akrfs. Affected — jren-XaafUvos, To give one's- 
self airs — a'e/xia;vo/uu, OpvTrrofiai cVi Ttw. A bore — €iraj(B^s 
Kal ^opTucoi, To be arrogant — Kftpovrniari^ofuu. A bully — 
Opaavbeikos. Conceited — rcrv^aiUvos. Choleric — axp6' 
Xokos. Conscience — (rvvcidrja-iSt -ccor, ^. Character, natural 
— if>va-LSj -eas, rf. Character, acquired — rjBoSt -ovs, to. Crot- 
chety and obstinate — Idioyvafuav. Curmudgeon — ieifi/3if, 
'ixos, 6. Determined and firm — larxvpoyvafuav. To be elated 
— iiralpofjuu cVt rivi, A direct blunt fellow — avBeKaaros, 
-ov, 6. Facetious — cvrpaireXos. Forbearance — dve^uctucUL, 
-as, Tf. Free-spoken — wapprja-iaoTqst -ov, 6. Gentlemanly 
— eXcvBepios. A humorous dissembler — etpav, -avos, 6. 
Grave and pompous — a-efivoirpoaonros. To be moderate — 
/tcrpia^o). A niggard — KVfuvoirpLorrjs, -ov, 6. Peevish — 
Xa^cTTos. To be proud of — fieya (fipovat eVi rtw. Pedantic 
— IJUKpoXoyos. Plucky, mettiesome — Bvfiodbrjs. Practical 
matters — to. irpcucrd. Perfect and complete — rerpaytovos 
av€v yltoyov. Purpose — irpoaipeais, -cor, ^. Profligate extrava- 
gance — d(rfi>Tta, -aSt 17. Scurrility — /3a>/ioXo;(ia, -as, 17. Self- 
ish — (jyikauTos. To be in any state of mind or body — 8ta- 
K€tfjuu, or €x^ '"^^^ ^^ adverb expressing condition. Silly 
conduct — a^€\r€pia, -as, 4- To sober down a person — 
a'<a<f)povLCci>. Viciousness — fioxBrfpla, -as, ^. Vulgar display 
— fiavavtrla, -as, rj. 




This is a magnificent halL 
It is the old Parliament 
House, where the great 
council of the nation as- 
sembled, when Scotland 
was a separate kingdom. 

And what use is made of 
it now ? 

MeycikoTTpeirrfs 8ri ^ avXi) avn;. 

^EoTt yap TO ir<iKai6v fiovXcvTrj- 
piov, els t fj ficyakrj arvvodos 
Tov edvovs cn/yeXeyfTo, Kaff tv 
Xpdvov 17 KoXiySovta, oima> ivto 
6€L(ra Trj ^AyyXlq., KVpias elx^ 
Tas dpxciS, 

Ta vvv be els tI XPW^M *<"'*>' »' 



It is the place where the 
lawyers congregate, and 
walk about waiting to 
plead their cases. To- 
morrow, if you come 
here, you will see the 
throng of these learned 
gentlemen with their 
gowns and wigs. 

Where do the judges sit? 

In side-rooms. You may 
see them to-morrow. To- 
day is a holiday. 

What picture is that on 
the great window ? 

Thafc is a painting recently 
executed, representing 
James the Fifth, King of 
Scotland, inaugurating 
the College of Justice. 

Who was the artist ? - 


A German ? 

Yes ; the Germans are the 
greatest artists in Eu- 
rope, at least on the great 
scale, and in the histori- 
cal style. 

They are a wonderful j)eo- 
ple, and whether with 
the pen, the pencil, or 
the sword, they seem to 
give the law to Europe. 

No doubt the advocates 
had recourse to Germany 
from the consideration^ 
that the Germans were 
likely to do the work 
better than any native. 

I am afraid we are behind 
in the arts, though cer- 

'Ei/^iiSc oi avvTjyopOL (rvvayep- 
$€VT€s irepiTraToviTiy ncpifie- 
vovT€s €a>y (iv claKKrjdevrts 
BiKoXoySxrt irapa ToisBLKaoTois* 
Aiipiov, €1 ^oiikei Trapelvai, 

Sp^rjS hvTOVTOVS tovs T€\VIK0VS 

avSpas (Tuppaat Xap.irpvvop.e- 
vovs KOL ^ei^ciKaif. 

T&v be diKaar&v irov eltriv oi 
Opovoi ; 

*Ev irapoLKoboprjpaa-i tktiv^ ov b^ 
ndpea-Tiv adpiov Ibtlv' arip.€pov 
yap dirpa^ia ^pci>VTat. 

Tis iroTc 17 ypa<p7}, 17 els tt)V p.e- 
yaKr)v Bvplha eyKexpoxTpevrj ; 

Avrq 7] ypa<f>7) veoaoTl e^oaypa^rj- 
p.evr] exei 'la/ecajSoi/ rov ttc/a- 
TTTOv Trjs KdXrjbovias ^aaiXea 
KaBiepovvra to arvarrifia rSiV 

Tls ^v 6 ((oy pd(j>os ; 

*0 KavX^dxios. 

*Ap o^v Tepp.dv6s ; 

Teppxipos' rfj yap 8rj KciKKirex' 
via 8ia(f>€pov(riv ol Teppdvol 
Trdvrav rSiv ey "Evpomrjf o(rov 
rrep ye rrpos to peyeBos kcli to 
(repvov T&v ioTopiK&v epycav, 

^A^ioBavpaoTov briirov edvos 
oi Teppdvol, eXre ra KoXa/LMU, 
etre r§ ypa<f>lbi, elre S' a5 T<p 
f i^€i Trpcarevovres ev rols Ev- 

*Avap<l>L(T^i]rqTcii5 oi avvrjyopoi 
erpdinicrav irphs ttjv Teppaviav, 
cas T&v evravBa peyoKorexvcav 
<ivbpS>v TO epyov elKorcDs tc^- 
viKoyrepov epyao'opevoav orroi- 
ovbrjTTOTe tS>v eTrix^P^^^ C^' 

TovTO <f)oPovpai, pri rfj KciKKirex' 
via TS>vak\<ov \evir<apeBa eBvS>v 

1 This often expressed by m; with gen absolute.— Jelf, 701 ; C. 64. 



tainly we have good cause 
to plume ourselves upon 
our landscape - painters. 
But tell me, have you 
passed advocate ? 

No; but I am studying 
for the bar: I pass my 
first examination to-mor- 

On what are you examined? 

Oh ! quite a simple affair : 
the Institutes of Jusfci- 

What have you, a Scot, to 
do with Roman law ? 

The advocates allow no 
one to join their body 
who is ignorant of Latin 
aud Roman law, holding 
that the general princi- 
ples of the science are 
best stated in the Pan- 
dects ; besides, as a mat- 
ter of fact, we actually 
do derive whole sections 
of our law from the Ro- 
man law, as for instance,, 
the doctrine of obliga- 

How came this about ? 

Ancient Rome bequeathed 
her language, her laws, 
and her policy, a wide- 
working legacy to modern 

Don't you think Law a 
very crabbed and thorny 
science ? 

Not at all ; Law is like a 

KaiTOL biKaifos yc trefivvvoficvoi 
cVl rot? rfjp \oipav foxypa^oOcrt, 

KCLi TO. BpT], CTl 8« Koi TCLS TOV 

re ovpavov kcll t&v ve<j)€\S)v 
TTOiKiXiasy Kcu ras rov (bci>T6s 
ififieXcLS iJL€Ta^o\d^. Arap 
€i7r€ fioiy ^ irov iyKarciKcyeis 
fjbrj Tvy\av€is ra tS>v avvr}y6- 
ptav (TvaTTjpMTi ; 
OvK cytoyc ttXi^v aHpiov yc /xcX- 
Xovo'i BoKifiaaiq, doKifta^e ti/ /xe 
rrf 7rp6)Ti/. 

Uoid Tis ^ 8oKifia<ria ; « 

i:,vp,ap€S iraw rh irpayp^i, rj 
elcrayoyy^ rj els rqv tS>v vopxov 
cTnoTTiprjv, rj ra ^IvariTovra 

Tt TTOTe fjLCTeari crot, KaKrj8ovi<^ 
yc dvbpl, rrjs rStv ^VfopAxlfov vo- 
pLiKrjs ; 

*A7rayopfvov(ri yap 817 oi avvr)' 
yopot p.r) eyypaipTjvai t^ arv- 
arripaTi Tovp firj ip.ireipovs rris 
T€ 'PapMiKris yXaTTTjs Ka\ rrjs 
tS>v 'Papaicav ircpt roifs vdfjLOVs 
emaTrjiMrfs, as §17 r&v KaOoXov 
TTcpi Tovs v6p.ovs bia(r€(ra<j>rjvi'- 
(rpLevoav aa<f>€aTaTa iv rois Ylav- 
htKTaiS' KCU prjv Koi, tS>v yc rjfiiv 
vop.ipwv oXoKkrjpa KeidXaia 
dvdyopev els tovs 'Pea/Aoiovy, 
oiov avpmav rh avvraypa rS>v 
irepl evo^&v, 

Tavra de irS>s avvefirj ; 

*H 'PcDjjLrj 7; TTaXaia diedero r^v 
re y\S>TTav avr^s koi rrfv tto- 
XtTiKriv <ro(f>iav kol tovs vofMOvs, 
evpvo'Bevjj KXrjpovofiiav rfj vvv 

OvKovv YoXcTT^y Tiva Koi dKav- 
Qcdbr) rjyel r^v nepl rovs v6- 
povs e'inarTj)priv ; 

Ov drjra' opoia yap S^ eoTiv 17 



garden full of well-flav- 
oured and salubrious 
fruits, but fenced round 
with a hedge of thorns, 
these thorns beiug the 
forms of process, and a cer- 
tain cumbrous phraseolo- 
gy lumbering on through 

And that does not annoy 
you ? 

It would annoy me if I 
did not know that time 
makes all these asperities 
smooth. A workman who 
works diligently everyday 
cannot help knowing the 
names of his tools, be 
they ever so barbarous. 

You take a comfortable 
view of what appears to 
me a very disagreeable 
business. I once thought 
of being a lawyer my- 
self, but gave it up from 
the feeling that I should 
be smothered in the ter- 
rible lumber-room of the 
endless pedantries which 
compose the art of plead- 

You should have gone to 
a writer's (attorney's) 
office to learn the details 
of the forms of process 
by practice. 

So I did ; but I was con- 
stantly brought to a 
stand by their arbitrary 

KOL vyi,€ivS)v KapTToav, 7r€pi<l)pay- 
fi€V^ fievToi ^payiMc^ aKavBSiv. 
^payfiov b^ Xeyo) €K bvclv crvy- 
Kcljievov v6<r(0Pf irpSarov jiev €K 
Tov ODS bel pLeTa\iipii^€(r6ai ttjv 
biKaioKoylav irapa rols BiKa- 
araiSi eireiTa be i^ oyKiabovs 
rivos €pp.rjV€Las, iXKovfrqs to 
Pdpoi <f>opTiKS)s bia tS>v cKa- 
TOVTaerrjp ibav. 


KoTTov brjirov jioi hv Trapc^ot, p.r) 
elboTi ye </)iX€Ti/ tov ypovov to, 
Tpa^ea \eaiveiVy enrep abv- 
vaTa^ brjuiovpyov, Kadrjfiepivfj 
aa-Krja-€i ivTpi^TJ, fxr) ovk 
elbevai^ to. ovofiaTa &V p,€Ta- 
j(^eLpi(€Tai opydpoDV, k&v p.aKi- 
(TTa ^efiap^apcDfieva. 

N17 t6p Kvva, p.aKa €vk6\u>s ex^tv 
boKcls €V TTpdyjxaTL, owep %p.oiye 
eKCLOTOTe drjbis <j)aiv€Tai iv to\s 
fidXioTa. Kat yap avTos irdXai 
€V vat cl^ov yeveaOai (rvvqyo- 
pos* direiprjKa fie, a)S beipffv 
irdw ova-av'^ kclI TTvTyrjpav ttjv 
ypvToboKTjV T7]S direpdvTov fxi- 
KpoXoyias tS>v ttjv biKaviKrjv 
eTrdiovTcav Tcxiniv. 

OvT<»>5 b^ ^XP^^ irapd biKciviKoi 
Tivl cfiTreipla iKfiaoelv ra Kaff 
cKaaTa tS>v TrepX tqs biKaio- 
\oyias TexmjfidTcov. 

Kat fxriv irapd avvbiK<a iirpay- 
fiaT€v6p.r}v — ov p.r)v aXX* els 
aTTOpias c/catrroTc cVejSoXc fie ov 

1 Plural for singular. — C, 65. 6. 

« /Atj ov, before infln., after certain words expressing a negative, supra, 
p. 63. 
> The accus. \nrith part, exactly as the gen., note, p. 71, above. 



formalities paraded with 
such empty gravity. 

Oh, you are too much of a 
philosopher ! you must 
have a reason for every- 

. thing. But what are 
your present studies ? 

T am a medical man. 

Ha ! ha ! and you work 
in that filthy dissecting- 
room, keeping company 
with death and putridity. 
Allow me to prefer the 
forms of process, with 
the quirks and quibbles, 
the subtleties and the 
subterfuges, and the nice 
shavings of the experts 
in the art of pleading. 

Well, it is a strange thing ; 
the entrance to almost 
all studies is disagree- 
able. Aller Anfang iat 
achweVf as the Germans 

Exactly so ; I hope you 
will see me on the bench 
some day soon, having 
triumphantly overleaped 
all that terrible fence of 
prickles. Meanwhile Jus- 
tinian waits for me. I 
have an appointment 
with my grinder, what 
they call a coach in Cam- 

Just so. Good-bye. I go 
to dissect the body of a 
murderer who was hanged 
last week for poisoning 
his wife. 

TO. irpayfiarc^ oKKa to. ircpi ra 
fl-pay/xaro, d^oo'eaxrccDr cvcKa, 
o-cfjivas rerpayoibrjficva, 

'Ei/ TovTOis ovK ev x^P9' '"^ oyov 
<f)i\o(ro(l>€tv' Koi yap ovx Birav- 
ra oixoicos ivh€\€Tcu. Kara t6v 
\6yov i^uKpt^ovv. 'Arap, ra 
vvvj rl p,€\€Tas ; 

*E7rayy«XXojLuw ra larpiKa. 

Bapar ovkovv epyd^ci iv ov;(- 
firjpfo €K6tV^ Koi nivap^ cpya- 
OTrjpi<a, OTTov dvarcfivovo-i rh 
aap^iTa ra vcKpd, 6pIKS>v r<u 
T€ Oavdra kcu. rj aijirebovi. 
'Efioiy€ (TvyyvoDfirj fXrj irapd 


ras BUas TexvrjpxiTd, kqI ras 
arvp.7ra(ras XeirroXoyias koi 
Xvyurp^its Koi (rrpo(f>as koi 
\6ya>v aKpip&v (TKivbcLkdfiovs 
tS>v€vt€xv<»>s biKaioKoyovp.€Vfov.'iov yovv tovto' Trdvrov 
T&v iinTr}b€viJLdT(ov rf €L(ro8os 
XoXcTT^ — aller Anfang int 
schwer — r^ r&v Tcpfidv&v, 

^AXrjdcaTara \cyeis' cftcyc Tkni- 
fft) 6)S oyfrei nore iv fi€<r]j 
T^ avvebpla r&v biKcurr&v, 
irTj8r)p.aTi \m€pin)br](TavTa vikt}- 
(b6p€o eKclvov t6v <l>payft6v 
aKavBSbrj. *Ev rocrovra) bi 
ficv€i fi€ IkO^iv 6 *lovaTiuidv6s' 
Ka\ yap vn€(r\6pirjv avyycvc- 
adcu els \6yovs ra TracdorpijS^ 
fioVf 6v brj oi p.ev iiri,\topLOi 
dKOvqrr^v kclKovo-lVj ol be ev 
Kavra^piyiq dpLa^av. 

EifXoya ravra* epptaco* *Eyd) 
be direpxofiaiy dvarep-av rh 
crcd/MX avrdxeipos nvos, cp Ppd- 
Xos irepieredrj tJ irapeXBovaij 
epbop.dbi, bid t6 (f>apfidKa bia- 
(fiBelpai TTjv yvvaiKa. 



A pleasant occupation ! ILofv^hv to cVir^dcvjLuz* x^^P^* 
Farewell I 


Bring a case into court — €eo-ay€iv biKqv, Burglary — 
roixcapvxla, -aSj rj. The bar — at KiyKXlbes. A bond — 
(rvfiP6kaiov, -ou, t6. Caution-money — Trpuroycio, -coi/, rd. 
Charge or accusation — tyKkriyLa, -arosy to. Consuetudinary 
law — TO. vojiL^ofievcu To be convicted of — d\a>vai tivos. 
Defendant — 6 (pcvycov. Demurrer — 7rap€iypa(l>r}, -^s, rj. Di- 
vorce — dirdTrefiylns, -ccos, 17. Detect — (fxopdca. Equity — t6 
cViecKcr. EmbezzlemeDt^cr<^€T€pia'aos, -oC, 6. A fine — 
iTTiTLfuov, 'ov, to. Floggiug — fjLa(my<o(ri5, -ems, ^. Hang- 
ing — t6 Kp€fid(rai. Indictment — ypcL<t>r), -rjs, rj. Make 
appearance in Court — diravTO) irpos Slktjv. The Commis- 
sioner of Police — d(rTvv6p,0Si -ov, 6. The pursuer — 6 decoKcoi/. 
Preliminary pleadings to settle the issue — dvaKoia-iSy -cws, 17. 
Pillory — KvcfxaPy -(ovos, 6. Prescription — irpovea'pLia, -as, ri. 
Pay a penalty — di/M^i/ blboofiL. Resurrectionist — Tv/xjScopu- 
Xost -ov, 6. Refer a matter to a judge — hravdyaa. To 
sanction — KvpocD. Usufruct — iTriKapirla, -as, rj. "Underlie 
the law — \mix.<a biKqv. Witnesses, to produce — fidpTvpas 




Well, I must say, it is a 
difficult matter to govern 
human beings ! 

What makes you moralize 
in this fashion ? 

I am just returned from 
a public meeting ; and 
there there arose such a 
wretched yelling, scream- 

""EpyoVy OS a\rjBS>Si tovt6 vf , 8to- 
•)(€ipl^€LV to, t&v dv6pim<av 

Tt Traoau rd ToiavTa (rcfivoXo- 
ycTs ; 

"'H.Kco ^817 OTTO avWSyov BrjiJLOTi- 
Kov' oirov bfj iyivcTO fiorj Koi 
Kpavyt) KCLi oyKTjBfjLos ncpl <f>av' 
\r}s Tiv6s ba(rfio\oyias e9rix<0- 



ing, and braying about 
Bome paltry piece of local 
taxation, that I wished 
myself in Bedlam twenty 
times before the meeting 
was dismissed. Verily I 
was ashamed of my 

I have often been in the 
same case ; but can you 
tell me how it comes to 
pass that reasonable 
beings are often so un- 
reasonable ? 

No ! but I know that 
tigers are sometimes more 
pliable than men. 

I will tell you ; the rea- 
son is that man, a com- 
plex animal, is driven by 
many hostile tendencies, 
besides being liable to 
be lifted up and overboil 
with all sorts of heaven - 
scaling aspirations, and 
spurred on by unbridled 
passions, in consequence 
of which weighty matters 
are often handled in the 
manner of a scramble, 
and everything is pushed 
to an extreme. If we 
could be prevailed on to 
take a more modest mea- 
sure of ourselves, we 
should be more easily 

What form of government 
do you think best ? 

Like Aristotle, I wisely 
refuse to answer that 
question in the abstract. 
A monarchy suits a sub- 
missive and passive 
people ; but an energetic 

pias<, €ls Tocrovrov &aT€ riv^d- 
fiTjv clKotraKis els t6 tS>v 
<f>p€vo^\a^S}V vocoKOfieXov fie- 
raaraO^vaij irpiv bi.€iKv6rjvai 
rov trvWoyov. H firfv jjcrxyv- 
6r)v ty€oy€ ircpi tov ytvovs rov 

Tavra tiraOov kcu avrhs ovy 
ctTra^* raOc Oc ^X^*^ evneiv oiro- 
Bev (^a>a Xoyiica ovTas ivioT€ 
TToKirevovrai aXoycos ; 

OvK eyayyc* oTba be to riypeonv 
yevos eoTiv ore fiaXXov ov 


Ac^ca €ya>' <f>€p€Tai 6 avOpcamos 
— aT€ brj TTOiKikov Optfipa kcX 
TTcpiirXoicov — TToWais jcat cVoy- 
Tiais oppms' Koi drj Koi 7r€<f>VK€ 

p.€T€<i)pi^€(r6ai KOL €7n^€lV TTOV- 

Toiais <f)LkoTifiiaLS ovpavofirj- 
K€<ri, Koi ndOtai fivami^cirOai 
dxaXTvciyroiSy &aT€ rd ifi^plBrj 
(pvpbrjv TToaTTciv, Koi cXjcctv 
dnavra €is \nr€p^6kr)v. Et 
hvvarov yc etr) Trclcrai roifs 
dvOpdmovs fierpov iavrols irpo- 
artOevai fierpiaTcpoVy fioKkov 
hv eXrj €iifiap€S to €Vvop.iav vno- 

Tiva be bf) TToXtTctas (rvvra^iv 
vop.i^€is dpiarrfv ; 

Kara rov * ApKTTOTeXrjv (ro<t>6s 
kip.1 dpvovfxfvos fiTi irphs rd 
Toiavra dtroKptvecrBiU dnXSis, 
UpoaTjKti fi€v ^ p.ovap)(la edva 
Xft-poTjBtt Koi r)<rvx<a' bpa(rn)- 
piov be cOvos Koi 6vp.S)0€S brf- 



and .high-spirited people 
demands democracy. 

Then you are a democrat, 
and you would hand us 
over to America to be 
educated ! 

Not at all. The demo- 
cratic element is quite 
strong enough in Great 
Britain already, without 
borrowing from abroad. 

Then you do not advocate 
a pure democracy. 

Of course not. I have 
nothing to say in favour 
of any unmixed form of 
government. All un- 
mixed polities are meagre 
and monotonous com- 
pared with the variety 
and wealth of i^ixed 

I believe Aristotle, Cicero, 
Polybius, and all the 
wisest ancients were in 
favour of the happy tem- 
pering which arises out 
of the mixture of con- 

Yes ; and the greatest 
modem writers to boot. 

I admire an energetic de-' 
mocracy as I do a mettle- 
some steed at full gallop ; 
but the horse requires a 
rein, and democratic vig- 
our without the aristo- 

^cratic check is apt to ran 
into excess. 

fjLOKpaTiK&s fmkXov olKtXo'Oai 

OVKOVV briflOKpOTlKOS €1, Koi 

/SovXoio iip napabovpai rjfias 
naibcveiv^ rots AfiepiKdvois, 

Ov brJTa' iKavas fjbri €7rLX<opid^€i 
ev Tjj yc fieydXrj BptTavvla t6 
brjfjiOKpaTiKbv, &aT€ firibev fxrj- 
bafiSis dvayKoiov elvai f^atBcv 

OvKovv eTraivels aKpdrov t^v 

Ma Ala ovK eyayyt' 7ro)s yap* 
aporiuriTos Ojy, cfiov ye evcKa* 
ccTToi aKpdros fKaarrj TroXtrcia, 
K&v el KaWiarri iariv. At yap 
TOLovrdrpoTTOi aviiirdcraila-xyov 
Ti €\ovcri KCLi yfru\p6v, nods ye 
TTfv TTOiKiXlav Ka\ TTjv dcfyoopiap, 
Tqp ev Tols efifieX&s KeKpdfxe- 
vais TroXiTeLais. 

*0 yovv 'ApiOToreXrfSi <j)aa\t Ka\ 
6 KtK€p<av Kal 6 HoXv^ios Ka\ 
rSiV TraXai avyypa^eoiv oo'oi 
a'o<f)diTaToi eiri^vovv rrjv evKpd- 
a-iav, rrfv ck ttjs tS>p evapriav 

Udw fiev ovv Ka\ oi evboKifiOh- 
raroi npos t&v vvv crvyypa' 

QavfJM^a) ivepyr)TiKriv brjjAOKpa- 
rial/, &awep koi lttttov OvfitoBrj 
bpofuo KCLXnd^ovra evrevel' ov 
fiffv aXXa belrai 6 fiev tinros 
XaXivoVf Tf be dpaa-TrjpidTtjs rj 
brjfWKpaTiKTi, ari Z^ova'a eirox^v 
dpiaroKpaTiKTjv, (l>iXel<f)epe(To(U 
eis t6 ayav. 

1 Verbs of handing over, delivery, etc., which are followed by the par- 
ticiple in du» in Latin, take in Greek the infin. act or passive.— F. 218 ; 
C. 81 c. 

* So far as I am concerned ; for me, p. 34, tupra. 



That is Aristotle's doc- 
trine ; but I am afraid our 
modern Liberals will not 
accept him as a teacher. 

That is just the danger ; 
the mass of the people, 
blown up by windy flat- 
terers, get possessed with 
the conceit that they re- 
quire no check, and so 
they are apt to bubble 
over and to explode, like 
a crazy boiler from too 
much steam. 

You do not fear anything 
of this kind, I hope, in 
reference to the British 
Constitution ? 

I am no prophet ; but I 
should think Great Bri- 
tain just as likely to make 
a great blunder in the 
slippery business of re- 
forming its constitution 
as any other country. 
The results of time have 
given us some very com- 
bustible materials, which 
it is not every man's 
business to deal with. 

Well, not in my day at least ! 

After us the deluge ! a 
most comfortable maxim ; 
and I for one hope to slip 
into my grave in peace, 
crowned with the mossy 
honours of old age, but 
scathed by no whiff of 
gusty revolution. But 
you are a young fellow, 
and when the next B«- 
form Bill comes, some 

thirty years hence — 

TauTtt hi fOTiv CLKpi^Sis &. hiba- 
CKfi 6 'ApiOTOTcXiyy <f)oQovfJuu 
5c brj fi^ ol vvv TO. rov brjfiov 

<f>pOVOVVT€S OVK dfrob€)(<OVTCU 

Trjv avTov aoclyiav. 
'El/ TovTO) brj 6 KivBvvos' 6 yovv 

7r€(f)povTffuiTia6€is KcikaKcav, 
daifiovav ^iXet ra do^apia, as 
fiT}b€v6s firjbafi^ beofxevos X^^~ 
vov, &(rT€ cViff IV bf}, KOI nara- 
yrjirai bia rriv Xidv drfxiba, 
aanpov biicrjv XcjSi/Toy (rLbr)po- 
berov, ev fir^xav^ drfioKivrjTij^, 

H TTov TOLOVTOv TL iXni^cis 
diropT}(r€ar6ai irepl -jijs ivBdbe 
rrdkiTcias ; 

Ov fidvTts cyoyy€' rriv bi brj 
ficyoKrjv Bpcravviav moTevca 
fiTjbev ^TTov fj SKko otiovp 
tBvos qtav dfiapreiv iv ra 
o'^aXfpca €pya tov biop6a>- 
aai T^v nokiTeiav. Ovk oXiya 
ye tS>v Kavarifxatv rrerropiKev 
Tjfiiv 6 noXvs xpovos, dntp ov 
rravTos cotl biax^tpi^civ. 

"Ehv OVK ifiov y€ ((ovtos ; 

TevoiTOf r}p,S)v ol\op.iv€i>Vj 6 Kara- 
KXva-fios' kclXti, vrj Aia, ff yvcD firj 
Kal fidXa fvnaBffS' Koi cyayye 
inibo^ds elfii els tov Td(f)ov 
oXiarOelv, yijpcos p.ev €vpS>Ti Koi 
nd^vT] iarT€(f)ava>fievov, r5>v be 
beivS>v, aw 6e^y dBiKTOs kotcu- 
yi^ovTcav vecorepicrixSiV' ov be 
Train) veos ris el, kol eneibdv, 
Trpos Tols dprt biopOoideXciv 
SKKo Ti d^lKr)T<u TroXirevfjLa 
biop6(OTiKov, rpiaKOvra irepiTTOv 
erq airo rovoe — 



What then ? 

Perhaps you will awake 
some morning sitting on 
the rim of a volcano, 
which will not be favour- 
able for the digestion of 
your breakfast. 

Well, after all, I would 
rather be blown up in a 
popular tumult than rot 
away under the living 
death of an absolute 

So would I perhaps ; but 
the sorrow is that these 
violent outbreaks of popu- 
lar violence are generally 
the prelude to despotism, 
and a despotism which, 
having once obtained a 
footing, may last for 

May God preserve us from 
such a fate ! 

Amen ! say I. 

Erra ti yfVTja-eTai ; 
EIk6s iy€p6T)(r€(rBai ttotc (tc 
KaBrjfxevov cVt tS>v )(€ika)v Kpa- 


ov avp,paK€2Tai irpbs ttjv tov 
cLKpaTLcrp-ov Karepyaa'iav. 

*AXX' cyo) ficvToi airoh€^aip.r)v 
&v iv (TTacfi 8iappi,<f>rjvai brj- 

fl^TLKTJ p,aW0V fj ^LOV ^lOVS 

d^i(0T0P KaTaarrj7r€<r6{u iv i(r- 
Xo^V Tvpavvlbu 

"la-ios Ka\ ipm ravra aipcrd' 
dWa fiTjv iv avT€^ tovtc^ Kflrai 
TO Beivov, Tto rovs toiovtovs 
Plas trjfioTiKTjS pvaKas, a>s 
inl TO TrXcifJTov, to ivbocip.ov 
elvai Tvpawitos, ^ 817, opfxrjrri- 
piov Tvxpvo'at noWds hv dia- 
p,€voi €KaTovTa€Tr)pidas dKpd- 

'AXXa fiffv T&v ToiovTtov bfivoav 
6 0€Off ^/itv akc^rjTTipios yi- 


TivoiTO brj. 


The army — t6 p,dxtfxov. Auditor of public accounts — 
XoyiaTrjs, -ou, 6. Ballot-box — Katia-KOSy -ou, 6. Body- 
guard — ol 8opv(f>6poi, A bill, to bring in — eladyciv ctff 
Povkifv, Bribery — BcKaa-fios, -ov, 6. Club, political — eToipia, 
-aff, T}. Consul, foreign — Trpo^tvosj -ov, 6. Commissioner 
of Public Works — inififXriTriSy -ov, 6. Commissioners of 
Woods and Forests — oi vXcapot. Conservatives — ol Ta 
KaBiOT&Ta fXT) kIvovvt€S. Commons, House of — PovXcvTrj' 
piov, -ov, TO, Canvassing — ipWela, -as, f). A dictator — 
alavfivriTrjs, -ov, 6. Electors, to put one's-self on the roll of 
— dnoypdcjyopai, A resident foreigner — fieToiKos, -ov, 6, 
To job — KaTa\apl(^opxii. Leader of a party — irpooTdTrjs, -ov, 
6. Lords, House of — ycpovtria, -as, rf. Member of Parlia- 
ment — avvcbpos, -ov, 6, Magistrates — oi dpxovr^s. The 
navy — t6 vovtikov, -ov, to. Politic, the body — t6 ttoXi- 
TiKov. To be a place-hunter — (nrovbapxf'dQi), Principle, 



the fundamental of a constitution — virodea-iSy -60)9, ^, 
Public business, to conduct — \p7)iiaTL^<o. To be a public 
man — Trpdrreiv ra rfjs TroXeas. A spy — aTaKovfrrrjs, -ov, 
6. To be a trimmer — enaficfyoTepLCa). Taxes, to pay — 
vTTOTeXciv (f)6povs, or ra TeXrf €lar(f)€p€iv. Treasury — ra- 
p.L€iop, -ov, TO, Upper classes — ol yvapifioi, oi bvvaroi. 



The talk we had yesterday 
about politics made me 
think about the Komans, 
who surely were great 
politicians ; 

** Bomanos rerum dominos 
gentemque togatam." 

Yes ; they understood war 
and discipline. By discip- 
line, Rome, though taken, 
was not conquered by the 
Gauls ; by the want of 
discipline, among other 
causes, France has been 
laid prostrate beneath 
the weighty strategy of 
Moltke, and the well- 
drilled youth of Ger- 
many. Are you fond of 
Latin ? 

Indeed I am ; there is a 
lofty senatorian tread 
about it which I admire ; 
and I confess I like it 


Ta X^^^ W^^ buiKcx^cvTa nepl 
To>v TTokiTiK&v \m€p.vqcr€ ' /i€ 
Tovs * PcD/iaiov; (os ndvu cucpovs 
ovras €V Tois ttoXltikois' 

" Romanos rerum dominos gen- 
temqtie togatam," 

'EfiTreipoTOToi yap ^(rav tov t€ 
TToXcfiov Koi Trjs TTciBapxtO'S, 
Tjj yovv Trjs Treidapxlat Suva* 
fi€i, KaiTTcp alpeOi'ura vrro tS>v 
KfXrSv, rj fi€v *Fa>p,rj rj ira- 
Xaia ovK cviKridf)' ^ fie Opoy- 

Kia T} VVV SKKoiS T€ dpLCLpTTj- 

fiacnv OVK oXiyoi?, koi brj Koi 
TTJ aKocrp-ia, TrprjvTjs KOTa^e^Xr}- 
Tcu xmb Tji TOV MoXticiov €v6yK& 
orpaTrjyia Koi t« evTTct^ct Kai 
Kc^S>s ycyv fjivaa-fieva Kotrfjuo 
tS)v t^s TtppMvias vtavimv, 
^hrap <rvyf ayairas t^v *Pa)fjLai- 
Kqv yXStTTov ; 
Kai o'^obpa ye (refivoTTpeTrcs 
Ti €;(« KCLi p^yctXdyjrvxov j^rjfjuij 
as npos dvbpos ^ovXcvtov koi 
dpxiicovt^ oirep hiKaltos Bav/xd' 

1 irphi with gen., such as becomes; stich as migM be expected frwn. 
638. 2 b. ; C. 13. 4 c. 



even in its modem 
smooth Avatar — 

/ With issTHO and ino, and 
sweet poise 
Of words inflow of plea- 
ant scandalous talk,* 
as Mrs. Browning has it ; 
besides, I must know La- 
tin professionally. 


I am going to the bar. 

Oh then, of course you 
must have a regular de- 
luge of Latin flung over 
your ears. They who con- 
quer the world by the 
sword must rule the world 
by law; and therefore the 
Itomans, being great sol- 
diers, were necessarily also 
great lawyers. And I 
think they seem to have 
been conscious of their 

Yes; hence that line of 


* Tu regere imperio popu- 
los, liomane, memento;^ 

a wise man always knows 

what he can do well. 
Did the Romans excel the 

Greeks in any other thing 

besides war, politics, and 


Scarcely; though as his- 
torians they are by no 
means contemptible. 

Livy, of course, you mean, 
and Tacitus ? 

Yea^ I think the style of 

i<i>' Ka\ firjv Koi 6fio\oy& dya' 
nav jcoi TTiv veorrepav avTrjs 

* With issiMO and ino, and 
sweet poise 
Of words in flow of pleasant 

scandalous talk.* 
t6 TTJs iroirrrpias Bpavviyyos* 
irphs be TOvTois dvayKa^ei fie 
TO fVayyeX/ia iirdiciv ti t&v 

U&s TovTo Xeyeis ; 

MeXXcD yap eiriTrjbfvciv rrjv tS>v 
vofjicav Tcvyrfv, 

OvTOi brj Oft TOVS TOVTfOV cVl- 

fi€\T}Tas oKov KaraKKva-pJbv 
rSiv *Fa>pMiK<i>v KaTovrK^a-ai <roi 
Kara rap atrav, Tovs yovv rm 
$L<f>€t KaTaarpeslraixevovs t^v 
olKOVfievrjv dvdyKrj toXs vojiois 
olKflv TO. Kart<Trpap.p.iva' axrre 
eiKdrms oi *Pa)fia'ioi, dre bia<f)€' 
povres rols nepl t6v TrdXc/ioj/, 

Tjj T€ TToXlTlKJ KOI Tfj VOJUKfj. 

Kai p.^v Ka\ fpaivovrai ev av- 
vcibores Tavrrjv €\€iv r-qv aTTO- 

'Y7r€p(j>va>s p^v oZv TCKprjpiov be 
TO Tov BipyiXiov — 
* Tu regere imperio poptdos, 

Bomane, memento '-i— 
oibe yhp a'o(f)6s dv^p eKaaroTe 
d bvvcuT dv KaTopBSxrai, 

"t/lSiv ol ^FoapMioi xmepel^op rStv 
*E\\rjvcav aXKt^ oraovv rrpay- 
parij x^P^^ y^ f^v irepX row 
re vdpovs mi t6v 7r6kep^v /cat 
T^v noXiTiKrjv ; 

Mdyis' KaiToi rfj ye loropiq. tear 
oifbev ^a-av evKaTa(f>p6injT0u 

Top AijStop, olp^u, \eyeis Ka\ t6v 

TaKiTov ; 
*Ape\er rffv fiev yap rov At- 



Livy is perfect ; bnt Mb 
matter is not always cor- 

Dr. Arnold says that in 
the history of the Panic 
War Polybius is more 
worthy of credit. 

This is generally allowed ; 
but stUl Livy is a first- 
class historian. 

What do you think of the 
Roman poets ? 

Virgil, Horace, Naso, Lu- 
cretius were men of great 
genius ; but they could 
not achieve the highest 


Because they either wasted 
good materials, or lived 
in an age that was defi- 
cient in lefty inspiration. 
Rome was corrupt and 
rotten before her litera- 
ture reached its culmina- 

Some people prefer Virgil 
to Homer. 

Very few now ; neverthe- 
less I myself prefer cer- 
tain books of the ^Sneid 
to the corresponding ones 
in Homer. 

Which books do you mean? 

If I must specify, I will 
say that in my opinion 
the sixth book of the 
i^neid is superior to the 
eleventh book of the 
Odyssey, and the fifth 
book of the ^neid to 
the twenty-third book of 
the niad. 

plov Xcfiy fiovovovxi rcXcioy 
^ovfuw TO. dc avfifiavra ov 

Aeyct yovp 6 'Apv^Kbios iv rots 
KapxH^^f^i^o^^ oiunruTTOT€pop 


TovTo awofiokoyoviTiv airavres' 
KtuToi 6 y€ Aipios €V rois 
lOTopiKois ir/>a>r6vet. 

UcpX dc T&v iroirjTav rav 'Pa>- 
fuuKav riva ex^ts yva>iirjv ; 

"AKpoi d^ov rjo'av irepi rovp 
ippvQyuovi \6yovs 6 re Bipyi' 
\ios Kcu d'Oparios koI 6 'Satrmv 
Koi 6 \ovKpffTios' dXX' Bfuas 
ipLiroht^v Ti ^p avTois rov pjf bv- 
vatrBcu, KOTopSSxrai tcl ueytora. 

Ti TTOT av cm; touto ; 

'YoTeprja-caf yap brjj rj ra 
lifj €X€«/ vkrfv Tjj 7roifi<r€i 

CTTlTTjbelcaf, fj dlCL T^V r6T€ Ka- 

TdoTafriv rSiv frpayp.araVf t<S 
liri ^vvacBcu ixav&s ivOovinnv. 
Kal yap 8ud)6app,€inj ^v 17 
'Poiftrj Koi (raupa, irpXv rris clk- 
firjs €<f)TK€(r6ai r^i/ irtpl ra 
ypdp,pMTa fnrovhr)v, 
EoTti/ ot rhv BipyiKtov irpoKpt- 
vovai TOV 'Oprjpov. 

Ov ir«XXot, tA vvv y€' ov p,^v 
(iXXa Kal avrbs fiaXXov iiraiva 
ivia£ rov BipyiXiov pa^tj^biaSj 
irapa ras dvTt<rTp6<f)ovs9 tcls 
irapa t^ TrotiyrJ. 

Ttvas pAXiara Xeyeis paylr<abias ; 

El xpr) Xeycii/ aKpifiearepov, (bai- 
Tjv hv TT)v ptv cKTTjv Trjs Aipei- 
ados paylrc^blav rrepiylyveo'Bai 
rns Trap* 'Op,r]p(s^ vcKvias, rrfv 
8t 7r€p,irTrjp tS>v ttjs 'iXiadof 



What is your opinion of 
Lucretius ? 

A sublime and fervid gen- 
ius ; but his subject is 
quite unpoeticaL A poem 
in praise of Atheism is a 
poem in praise of non- 
sense ; and I have no 
stomach for nonsense, 
even with the relish of 

Oh ! you are very imperi- 

Yes ! in some things I am 
a dictator. But in the 
meantime I must pack 
off: there is an auction 
at Nisbet's, where I mean 
to buy Heyne's Virgil. 

Yes ; Heyne was a man of 
taste and culture, and 
raised scholarship far 
above the elegant and 
empty verbahsm of his 
predecessors. Farewell ! 

The same to you. 

Htpi be Tov AovKpTiTLOv rlva 
ex^is yvafxriv ; 

'2€fj,voTrp€7rfis tis cds okrfB&s 
ioTiv 6 avr)p KCLi dtdnvpos t^v 
<f)v(nv TO, be irpaypxvra navroos 
Tots Movarais dnabei, crye Troirj' 
pja eyKCDfita^ov r^v dBeoTrjra 
I(r6pp(m6v iart T<p eyKoofiLa^eiv 
droTrlas' droTnip^Ta be ovk hv 
bvvaifirjv eycoye Korane'^cUf k&p 
^yfrov t)(ovTa Trjv €v(bvlav. 

Bo^ar fidka yovp oetnroTiKcis 
exeis rrepl tovto, 

Kat 6p.o\oySi ye Kard riva atcrv- 
fivTfTrjs elvcu. *ATdp vvv brj 
TrdvTcos dvdyKTf dvaaKevd^eiv, 
TiveTCLL dTTOKTjpv^ts rrapd rm 
Nio")3€Ttfi>, OTTov biavoovp^i rhv 
TOV 'Elvlov BipyiKiov rrpiaaOai, 

2o(l>S>s avye' Koi yap brj <f)i\6' 
Kokos ^v dvrfp 6 Etvios, koL ev 
rois fidXttrra 7re7raibevp,evoSj os 
ye^ irporjyaye rffv t&v Tepfid- 
v&VTToXvp.dueujv fVi noXif irepdv 
TTJs Kop,ylrTJs Koi Kev^s fiiKpoko- 
yias T&v irpdrepov Xe^iOrjpav. 

""EppaxTO Koi (TV. 

The additional vocabulary suitable for this dialogue will 
be found in the chapter on Khetobic and Belles Lettres ; 
above, p. 57. 

OS ye, guippe qui, iitpote qui. 




What beasts are these 
with which your room is 
crammed ? 

They are not beasts ; they 
are machines. 

That one is puffing and 
blowing like an infuriated 
animal : I should like to 
know what j^ou call the 

It is a steam-engine. 

Oh, I understand. It is 
very curious; and the 
huge arm goes up and 
down as regularly as the 
pulse of a healthy man. 

Yes ; it is a wonderful 
creation of human wit, 
and a grand triumph 
of Scottish genius. If 
I had time I should 
gladly explain the parts 
to you. Here, for in- 
stance, is the boiler pro- 
ducing the steam, which 
is the moving power. 
The heat, of course, is 
produced by the furnace 
which you see below. 
Then here is the cylinder 
in which the piston moves 
up and down; here the 
beam ; there the wheel 
by which the motion be- 
comes circular ; and there 
a variety of otiier wheels 


Iloia TO. Kvcibdka ravra, ols ^e- 
fiva-fievov excis to btofioTLOv ; 

Ov Kvaddka ravxa' firj^oval 

Kairoi ckcM yc b^\6v earriv 
avairveov kcli ^varS>v dTnjypttO' 
fievov diKrjv Brjpos. '^Ao'fjLcvos 
hv fiddoifu t6 tov reparos 


^ATfioprjxav^ cotlv. 

MavBdvo). Kofxyjrbv t6 T€-)(yr^fia' 
6 be ^pa)(ioiv 6 xmcpixcyeBrjs 
ov^ ^TTov TaXavT€V€Tcu evpvO- 
p.<i)S T&v (r<f>vyp&Vf t&v iv raXs 

AixcXfi BavpMOTOv eori ttjs dv- 
opo)irivr]S imvoias likda-p.ay iv 
^ hri CLKpA^ei TO T&v KaXrjBo- 
vlcav dvbp5>v €v(bv€S. 'Eyo), et 
cxokr} napcLTi, rjbcats hv e^riyr}' 
o'lv TTOirjo'aip.riv t&v p^tpiavj 


Bawep yewa t^v dTp,Lba, oOev 
V ^Pxh '■^^ Kivrjacas' t6 Be 
6ipp.ov (f)av€p6v ioTiv opadi- 

fieVOV €K TTjS KapivOV T^S VTTO- 

KOTta, *E(f)(^ris tov KvXtvdpov 
Spas iv ^ avoi jcai icaro) cXkctoi 
o cpfioXos' cneiTa tov ^paxj-ova* 
npos be TovTois tov Tpo^ov bi 
ov 4 Kwrja-is ficrajSoXXfi els 
TTfv kvkKiktjv. "ETTcrai piya t» 
(TvvTaypa akkcav Tpo^&v Koi 
Tpoxt(TK<i)v obovTaT&v, Kol i(fi' 
€^s raivim Tivest tov peTa- 



with teeth; after that, 
bands to transfer the 
motion to these drums, 
and so canse the spindles 
to revolve. 

Very wonderful I 

In Manchester you may 
see huge palaces full of 
such gigantic spinning 

What do you call this 

Put your hand here, and 
you will feel. 

Ail ! ah ! a spark has come 
out and gone into my 

Yes ! it is electricity. The 
spark is lightning, and 
the crack was thunder. 

Very small thunder. 

Of course ; not the thun- 
der of Jove ; but with a 
big machine I could easily 
kill a mouse, or even a dog. 

Say you so ? 

Yes ; and here is another 
machine with which I 
could kill a mouse, and a 
bird, and an ox too, if I 
could only get it in be- 
neath the receiver. 

What is it? 

It is an air-pump. 

Can one pump out air like 
water ? 

Of course; with this ma- 
chine; and of course 
when the air is out the 
animal dies. 

Are you going to be an 
engineer ? 

crr^cat rrjv Kivr^friv fls ra rvfi* 
nava ravra, koi ovtod rroLelp 
iXiTTCirBai roifs drpaKTOvs. 

QavfJMO'Ui ravra, 

*Ev ra May/covjSi^ eariv IBe'iv 
Pawikcid rSiv roiovrav y€- 
fjLOvra firjxavav drfi,0Kunjr<0Vf 
irdw yiyavrcioav- r6 fifJKos, 

TovTO Be ro drjpiov rlva €\tEi 
irpooTiyopiav ; 

Upodcis rrfv X^^P^ ivBdBe ato"- 
ooio av. 

Ocv, <f)€V' cmivBrip ye eKwqBrjo'as 
elaeBva'aro els r6 acjudriov. 

Kai yap rh rjkeKrpiKdv earr Ka\ 
6 fiev (nrivBfjp darpairrj ervy- 
Xavev oZcra, 6 Be irdrayos 

Udw a-fiLKpd ye ^ ^povrfj, 

Ov fiev oZv r) rov Aids' frtos ydp ; 
Kairoiye p.ei^(a u.erax€tpiC6p^' 
vos iirjxavriv pqBiats &v diroKrei- 
v(up,i fivv j) Ka\ Kvva. 

MStP dXrjBrj ravra Xeyeis ; 

'AXrjBearara ydp' icoi IBov Sk\r} 
irpoa-eri p-rj^avrft ^ep dv Bvvai- 
p.7)v Bia^Belpcu/ T} p.vv ^ ^pviv, 
fj vt} Aia jSovj/ yf, el p,6vov r6 
Kar6pBa>p,a irpoxaprjo'eie kolK&s 
onryicXficrai ro ^OfTKqpu evrhs 
rov vakivov dyyelov, 

T^v noiav Xeyeis p,rixctvriv ; 

*AvrXT}rT)piov ovop-diercu wvev- 

*Apo ye rhv depa e^avrXrjo'eiev 
av riSj KaBdirep ro vBcap ; 

U&s ydp 00* ravrji ye xpdip^vos 
rfj p-rix^v^' Koi eiK6Ta>St dp>a 
eKKev(i)Bevri r^ dyyeitj^ diro- 
Bvr)<rKei rh Brjpiov. 

*H irov av fiovXei yevecBai fit}- 
XavoTTOids ; * 



Yes ; and this is the rea- 
son why I occupy myself 
with these beasts, as you 
call them. 

Would a knowledge of 
these machines be of any 
use to persons who are 
not to be engineers ? 

It is always good to know 
something, as Goethe says; 
and in thiB country above 
all others an educated 
man ought not to be al- 
together ignorant of ma- 
chinery. The British are 

I hate the noise and the 
confusion of so many 
wheels and rollers. 

Well I well I if you prefer 
quiet, go to the primrose 
banks, and write sonnets 
to the spring. I must 
go to the class of en- 
gineering. The Professor 
is a very clever fellow. 

Nar* KCLi huL ravrqv r^v alriav 
KaTayiyvofiai ircpl ra V7r6 avv 
irpotrayopevBcvra icvcadaXa. 

*H TTOV S<t)€\6s ^v ytvoiTO ^ 
TTfpi rag ToiavTas fiTJxa^^S 
iiriarrifiri rots fi^ trrayyeXKo- 
fi€vois ra firixaviKCL ; 

^kyaOhv eKd(rTOT€ clbevai ti, t6 

TOV TocBloV aXXcDS T€ KOl €V 

Tois iv6ah€ T^TTOis ov irphs cv- 
iratbevTov dvbp6s €(m navnos 
&y€V<TTOV civat tS>v nepl ras 
p,rj\avds, Ot yap d^ Bperawoi 
Tji tS>v p.i)xavS>v KaraaKcv^ 
tS>p SKktov (QvSiV <jrvu7rdvTCi>v 
dp.rjxavov ocrovirapaXXaTTOvo'iv, 

'AXXo ftiyv pTfTo y€ t6v tc tto- 
rayov kcu, t7)v rapax^v roaov- 
To>v rpox&v re Kai KvXivbpav. 

"EUv arxf p,€v oZv, ei PovXei rfp€- 
/icii/, Kara<l)x/yoi)v eh rhs r&v'Kav o^^as avOea"!, hrj' 
TTOV €apivois TreTTOtKtX/icvaff, but- 
TeXei ovvrdTTddv TToiripAria, ra 
KOfV^d, 'Eyo) dc p,€T€pxop4U 
aKpddfTiv rrepX tS>v p.rjxo»iKS>v, 
Aeivhs yovv i<m ntpl ravra 
6 KaBrjyijfnis, "Epptoao. 


Attraction— cXf If, -cws, ^. Attraction, to be drawn up 
by capillary — dva(nrcur6ai. Air- tight — (rrcyvds. Bulk — 
SyKoSf -ov, 6. Catapult — opyavov Xi^ojScJXoj/, -t6. Compress 
— TTiX/o). Contraction — (tvotoX^, -rjs, 7. To counterpoise 
— dvTifn)K6<o, Concave — koiKos. Convex — Kvprds, De- 
scribe a circle — kvkKop ypdcjxo. Density — irvKpdrris, -riros, 
^. Exhaust — K€v6oi>, Expel — €KKpov<o. Incline — veCa 
ets. Fitted closely — avpx^vrjs. Force — hvvaius^ -ecus, 17. 
To be borne along by a force— <l>€ Groove — o'oaikrfv, 
-rjvost 6. Lever — /io;(X<$f, -ov, 6. Leyden jar — Xdyvvos 
AovybovviKds, Momentum — poTrrjf rjs, ^. Orbit, career — 
(f)opd, -as, fj. Polish — <rp.r]pv^<a. A press — Truarripiov, -ov, 
t6. Press against — dir€p€i8ofiai cTs n. Pressure — meais. 



-fo>ff, 7], Perforated — avvreTprjiicvos. Pin or wooden nail — 
TvXoff -ov, 6. Propel — TrpoatBeoa, Pulley — Tpo;(iX6a, -as, rj. 
To be at rest — ripcfxclv. Rarity — dpaiorrjs, -i^tos, fj. Revolve 
— i7riaTpt(f)op,ai. Rod — Kavcav, -ovos, 6. Rope — cmdpTov, 
'OV, TO, Screw — KoxKlas, -ov, 6, To solder — areyvooa. To 
nnite together, intrans. — avvrpcxo) cts ak\rj\a. Valve — 
TrkaTvafidrioVf -ov, to. To weigh by a balance — fvyooraTw. 
Windlass — Bvos, -ov, 6, 




Well, of all things in the 
world, I must say I de- 
test metres most ! 

Of all things that might 
have been said by an 
educated man this is per- 
haps the most imreason- 

How so ? 

Because even the wild 
beasts acknowledge the 
power of rhythm and 
music ; and you like a 
perfect barbarian disown 

I was not speaking about 

Nay, but you were. Me- 
tres are a part of music. 

I was never taught that. 

Then you had a bad 
teacher : How were you 
taught ? 

'AXXct v^ Ala TrdvTfop oa-a cvci 
T) tS>v Skcav avarao'is fidtkvT- 

TOfUU iv TOIS TTpCOTa^ TCL fl€- 

*Afrdi/T(ov Ta>p vir dvbpos &v^ 
ovK aTraidevTov XexOevToov 
Td^a TovT &v €trj to akoyd>- 


Aia dc Ti ; 

Aiort Kol TCL &qpia brjXd €(mv 
ata-Brjo'iv txpvra tov t€ pvBfiov 
Kal t^s p.ovaiKTJs, (rv be, cds 
^€^ap^apaip.€vos Trdw, iravTe- 
\S)S aTreyvcDKas, 

'AXX* iyca oifbev Tkeyov wepl Trjg 


*EXey€ff ydp' pjdpiov brjirov Trjs 

fiova-LK^s rj ncpi fierpa trocfyia. 
TavTO OVK iMdx^Briv ttotc eyayyc, 
Kal ydp (jyavka cTvyxoves Y/?©- 
pevos r^ bioacKoKc^' Tts b^ 
ijv 6 TpoTTOs -*-" " *-*- 
(rKCLV ; 

aVT<0 TOV 


1 iv Tots, with irpSmiy and superlatives. — J. 444, 5 ; C. 3. 2. 6. 
« OK, with participle.— J. 429, 4 ; F. 266 ; C. 46 c. 



He made me learn rules 
abont the quantity of 
syllables, and long jaw- 
breaking names, such as 
antispastic and polysche- 
matistic and ischiorrogic- 

Was that all ? 


Of all ways that could 
have been chosen this 
appears to me to be the 

How would you have pro- 
ceeded ? 

I would have sung a 
strophe to a tune, and 
made you feel that it 
was most excellent music. 

But our master knew no 
more about music than a 
braying ass. 

Then he would have done 
wisely to let metres alone ; 
though perhaps he might 
have taught rhythm with- 
out knowing much of 

What do you understand 
by rhythm ? 

T mean what we call in 
English, time or measure ; 
that is, equality of spaces 
in a procession of musi- 
cal notes, or articulate 

Must all music be mea- 

Yes ; not only the march 
of the notes is divided 
into equal spaces, which 
are called feet, or, as we 

'E7roti;(r€ ftc cKfiaBe^p Kav6vas 
Tivas rrepl rrjs tS>p <rvXXaj3©j/ 
Troa-drrfTOs, €ti be Koi ovoyuara 
fivpia frrixcov rivS>v avncnra- 
arriKav kcu. 7roXvo"Xj;/xaTtWa)v, 
KOL l(r\iopporyiKS>Vy kclL ahXas 
Xfjetff fuucpoppvyxovs Koi bva-- 

'Ap* oiv napa ravra ovhiv ; 


Uaaav t&v p,^66h<ov o<rais i^rjv 
Xprj&Bai avrrj yt ip.o\ <f>ai- 
P€Tm irayKaKitrnj, 

OvKovv (rif ri iroT€ hv hrpa^a^ ; 

^Eyo), (rTpo<l)r]VTiva€K Trjs rpayto- 
bias €pp.€\S)S atras, ivtirolria'a 
hv rfj "^^XV ^^"^ aXcdrffui 
rcpirvdrarop pvOaov p.ov<nKov. 

HXrjv o y€ hiba<rKa\os rfpwv 
ro<rovTov irvyxctv^'^'*' ^^^ 
pLOwiKJis oaov ovibiov oyKca- 


OvTca brj <ro<f)&s &v iirpa^ev 

• iSaaS TO. fl€TplKd' KatTOt i^TjV 

ye avT^ irapabovvai rh irepi 
Tovs pv6p,ovs, Kaincp irdw 
dBtKTto T^s peXt^biaf. 

'O be br) pvOp^s ovTOfri ri irore 
bvvarai ; 

'AfieKci T^v avTTjV bvvapiv cyfi 
6 pvdp.6s rrj ^AyyXiKrj Xf^fi, 
tim€y rJToi measure, rjirep arj- 
fiaivei lar&njTa biaarrrjpATKav 
iv orroiabrjirore (f)d6yy(ov fj 
^011/6^1/ avverreia, 

^Apd ye tovto XeyeiSy wff avp.' 
naarav bel p,€Tpe1(T6ai t^i/ fiov- 
a'iKr)v ; 

Uavrdndo'i fiev oZv koi yap ov 
povov f) T&v (f)B6yyoi>P ep^ao'is 
els pdpiA Tiva btaipelrai, tovs 
KoXovpevovs nobas, *AyyXi<rri 



say, bars ; but the notes 
themselves are produced 
by the vibration of strings 
which bear an exact 
arithmetical relation to 
one another. 

This is very strange. 

It ought not to appear so. 
Pythagoras taught the 
world long ago that the 
great principle of the 
cosmos is number. 

Gh ! you are always quot- 
ing these ancients. 

Well, no harm — especially 
in a point of musical 
science, to which the 
Greeks were so devoted. 
I should like to see the 
day when Edinburgh 
will be as ambitious to 
excel in music as Athens 

Edinburgh is the modem 

I am afraid its likeness to 
ancient Athens is a skin- 
deep affair. I am asham- 
ed to think how we have 
neglected our national 
songs, overflowing as they 
do with rich sentiment 
and humour. 

I think there has been a 
revival lately in this 

Yes, in a faint sort of a 
way ; but a Scot, taken 
overhead, is still a some- 
what hard, angular, un- 
graceful and unmusical 

Are the English better ? 

bars; aKKh #cal avrovs rovs 
(l>B6yyovs aTTorcXci iraXivrovos 
V€vpa>v TpdfioSt \6yov irphs 
ahXrjka ixdpToav dpiofirjriKOP, 

Qavfidaia Xcyctr. 

'AXX* oifK ^XPV^ ravra QavpAaia 
(f)aiv€a6cu' ctyc 6 UvBayopas 
iraXai a7r€<f)r)vaT0 cip)(^v tS>v 
oK<ov oi(rav rhv dpiOfidp, 

Nai avy€ rovs'^'EWrivas tovtovs 
Toifs ndkaiovs €\k€IS tKacrroTe 
€is t6 fietrov. 

AiKaiois ydp' a)ik<os re Ka\ dia- 
Xcyofxevtov T)p.S)v rrcpl rrjs p,ov 
aiK^s, rjvTrep ol "EXXjyi/es oaXa 
TrpoBvfjuas cfieXtTcav, Eyca 
fibeas &v tboifxi T^v vvv 'Efiii'a- 

TToXll/ (f)l\oTlflOVp,€VTfV TTf pi TTfV 

fiovaiKriv ovx^ ^TTOV tS>v TToXai 

*E<TTt yovv ff ^"Ebivdnokis ai 
V€a)T€pai 'Adrjvai, 

^o^ovfiai firj irdw eninoXaiov 
TL rj fj ofioidrrfs avrrj, *'Epv- 

. 6piS) TToWdKis, iv6vixovp.€vos 
©9 TvyxdvofjL€v 6\iya>povPT€s 
Twv €yx(opL(ov rip,&v da-fidroyv, 
Kainep tnrapycDVTtov r© tc nepl 
TO. irdBri yewaici koi Beta tiv\ 

AAA ofi<09 eyevfTO €vay2(psj, dva^amvprjo'is ircpl 

"latos dcrOtvr)^ Tiy iyivero els 
rb jScXtioi/ fji€ra^o\rf ov jjltiv 
ak\a KaKrj86vi6s y€ dvrjpt a>s 
iv rvTTOif aKkrjpdv ri 6p€fipM 
€(rri Kai y<oviS>d€s Kal d\api 
jcai ap.ova-ov, 

*H TTOv Kard yc rovTO irpoixov- 
aiv ol *AyyXot ; 



I cannot say; both nations 
are greatly deficient in 
tbe culture of the emo- 
tions. The church-music 
besouth the Tweed is 
certainly superior to ours. 

Well, I perceive I must 
go and take instructions 
from a music-master; 
otherwise I shall never 
cease to be tormented 
with those detestable 
anapaests and antispasts. 

It is neither among things 
that are nor things that 
might be, to understand 
the doctrine of metres 
without music. I never 
knew what a Dochmiac 
verse meant till I read 

Who is Apel ? 

A German. 

Oh ! a German of course ; 
it seems we can do no- 
thing without these Ger- 
mans I 

Wegenerally find them use- 
ful, where either thought 
or learning is required. 
But go you to your music- 
master first, and learn 
the difference between 
march time and triple 

I obey. Adieu ! 

Ovjc (X!^ Xcyctv ifreirrep l(r- 
•vvorepa irov Koi ^avavaiKooTtpa 
an<f)0T€p6i>v tS)v idvS>v iarip ff 
ncudeia iv tois irtpl ra iraQr)' 
ra yovv pikt} ra €KK\rj(riaaTuca 
fTfoav Trjs Tovrfbas irokv dia- 
xfi€p€i, rSiv ivddBe, 

OvKovv brjXd ravra, ois tatye 
Trdvrois bti dni6vTa didcuricf- 
a-Bai TTjv pov(TiKrjv €( fie fiff, 
diriveK&s arptpkixropai vn6 
t5>v TpuTKaTopaToiv TovT&v dva- 
7raiaTo»v koi dvTKnracrriK&v, 

OiJt€ d^ T&V ZvTUiV ioTlP OVT€ 

tS>v y€Vop€Pav &v iiraUiv rh 
TTtpl rd perpa YCDpiaBevra rfjs 
/iovcri/c^f . AvTOS yovv pjtrpov 
doxjJMiKOP o Ti iroT riv ovk ll^fLVt 
TTplv dvayvSivai rhv 'Am^Xtoi^. 

'O be 'Aw^Xtos oZtos voBanSs 
coTt ; 


N^ Ata, Teppavds' inei Bokov- 
p^v bfiirovuev ovbev olol t€ 
elvai biaTrpd^aaBcUt prj fiori' 
BovvTOiV T&v Tcppdp&v, 

Ov ap^Kphv yap o(l)€\os irape- 
XovaiPf 6(rdKis ^ diavoias Tvy- 
vdpopcp bcopevoi ^ TroXvpa- 
o€ias, *hrdp avye irpb ndvTODP 
Kora^vyap irphs ujowik6p rtva, 
€Kpad€ apvcas^ ri dia<^€- 
povtrip 6 T€ ip^aTqpios pvdpbs 
Koi oflapfioi. 

Ueldopcu 617. ""Eppfoao, 

Ariette, or ditty — pekvbpiopy -oVf t6. Castanets — Kpep- 

1 dvviD, after an imperative, to express an eager command, do it, and 
have done toUh it J. 696, 1 ; F. 240 ; C. 46 b. 



PciXa, -©I', rd. Concert — avvavkia, -as, fj. Concord — avfi- 
(fxDvia, -as, rj. The fifth — Bia nevre. The fourth — dia Tea-- 
a-dp&v. A high note — peaTrj. Kettledrum — p&irrpov^ -ov, 
t6. a low note — viraTrj. Major third — birovov. Minor 
third — TpirifUT6viov, Major tone — t6vos. The octave — 8ia 
iraa-Siv. To play an octave higher or lower — fiayabi^a. 
Pitch of a note — racrir, -eos, tj. Prelude — avajSoX^, -^y, rf. 
A rattle — Trkarayri, rjs, tj. A scale — yevos, -ovs, to, A 
tuning-pipe — rovdpiov, -ov, t6. To scan — pv$p.i(oi>. To 
^11 or quaver — repfri^o. A whistle — piykaposj -ov, 6. 



Where have you been? 

I am just come from the 

What doing there ? 

Of course at the Exhibi- 

Are you a connoisseur of 
paintings ? 

I do not pretend to be a 
great critic ; but I know 
a good picture when I 
see it. 

I rather prefer Sculpture ; 
there is a noble simpli- 
city about it which puri- 
fies while it elevates the 

I feel pretty much the 
same ; and if all men 
had the head of Jove, the 
breast of Neptune, and 
the grace of Mercury, I 


^Q /ScXnoTf, iroOev rJKtis ; 
"ApTi rJKO) dirb rov Xafiaros. 

*'EvTav$a 8c ri irore irpd^as ; 
'A/xeXct $€Ci>fi(vos rrjv cVidet^tv. 

*Ap' o^v eTrdieis rffv ypa<f>iKr]v ; 

OvK eirayyiXkofiai t^v nepX 
ifivaKas aKpipeoTepav KpiriK^v 
ofiojs olds T€ €11x1 hiayvavai 
kclK^v ypa<l>riv, cl ye avfipairf 
TOMVTrj Tis iyLireaeiv fioi tls 

*Eya> dyaira fiaWop r^v dyd\'- 
fiaroirouav «;(« yap brj (refivrjv 
Tiva d^cXetav, rjirep &p.a fi€U 
t6 KaOaphv afia 5c t6 vyos 
ip.iToi€L Tjj ylrvxii- 

Tdx Av icro)S ravrd irdaxotfit 
KM €ya>* &aT€, el (rviiPairj 
Trdvras rovs dvdpdmovs cx*'''» 
irpds Tji Tov A(6r K€<l>ciLk{jf rd 
arriBrj rov JlofreibSvos Koi t^v 



should abolisli all por- 
traits, and make only 
statues ; but fine feat- 
ures are rare, and beyond 
the region of pure forms 
sculpture fails. A coarse 
ugly fellow is vile in 
marble, but with the 
attractions of colour may 
be made tolerable, per- 
haps agreeable. 

Then you confess that 
colour is meretricious. 

Not at all ; it is, like 
charity, a beauty which 
covers defects. A stupid 
swineherd overlooking a 
pigstye may be ugly in 
nature, mean in marble, 
but agreeable in paint- 

Then you are an admirer 
of the Dutch school. 

By no means. I hate 
those vulgar stupid Dutch 
boors of Ostade ; but 
some of Teniers I can 
enjoy ; and the sea-pieces 
of Cuyp speak to my 
eyes, like music to my 

Are you fond of land- 
scapes ? 

Yes ; especially the High- 
land landscapes of Mac- 
cuUoch, Peter Graham, 
and MacWhirter. 

What do you think of 
Harvey ? 

He is a true Scot ; he has 

Tov 'Epfiov X^P"^* ovTO> Bn, 
diroyfrrfipia-duevos ra fiwypa^j/- 
ftaTttf Kekcvcmfjn hv irkarTtiv 
fjLovovs Toifs dv8pidvTaS' Nvv 
be oTrdvM fre^uKc irpdaama 
y\a<f>vpa>s y€y\vp.p.€va' ical, 
€Kt6s TTJs ODfifierpov fiop(j>^s, 
oifbev ioTiv rj yXtmriK^* Koi yap 
Tpaxvbcpjidv Tiva Koi wdw 
altrxpdvavOpcDTTOv \t6ayey\vfi' 
p.€Vov ovK hv dTTobexoivTO 61 
y€ xapUvTCS' 6 be roiovrost et 
irpoo'uTjicqv \dpoi to ;(pc3/ia, 
dv€KT6s hu yivoirOj to'cas kcli 

OvKOVv Sfwkoyeis ncTrkaa-ficvov 
Ti ex^iv t6 xP^y-o- 

Ov brira' iiaKKov be, Kaddnep ^ 
aycxTny, KoXdv rt iarrlVf olov irpo- 
TTfTocrat Kakvp.pxi irph Afxap- 
TL&v 7ravrobairS)v, Kat yap elKos 
vcaBpov v^op^ov rh fTV<f>eXov 
eTTia-Koirovvraj Kaiirep €pyc^ 
alo'xp^Vf Ka\ \[6(p raTrewoVf 
ypai^li ye yevecBai enaycyvdv. 

OxfKovv davfid^eis r^v rexprfp 
TTjv ypa<l)iKr)v rr)vra>v Baroovoi/. 

Ma Am OVK cycayc* kcli yap 
fivo'drTOfiai roxfs tov 'Oora- 

bioV X'^P^'^^^ TOV£ <f>OpTlKOVS. 

ov fjLTjv aXkd tS>v ye tov Teviep- 
aiov ypa(bS>v Tpdirov Tivd eari- 
Sifiar ai oe tov Kvlirov ypa<f>ai 
at Bakd(r(riaL dpfioTTovai toIs 
6<l)6a\iwis fiov efjLfieX&s 7ra>r, 
KaOdirep to7s d>a\v rj p.ov(TiKr). 

Apa 7rp6s Tjbovrjv trot cot* to. 
^uyypa<l>r}iJLaTa to, x^P^^^d ; 

^<l>6bpa ye' oXka t€ TroXXa Ka\ 


TLeTpov Tpaip.lov ical tov Ma- 


Tov be br) ^Ap^elov ev Tivi X^P9 

TiOrjs ; 
TovTov bn neol nkeiarov ti- 



done more for our heroic 
old Covenanters than our 
best historians. 

Do you think there is 
much of the poetic ele- 
ment about the Cove- 
nanters ? 

Nobility of character is 
always poeticaL 

What do you think of 
Paton ? 

There are two Fatons, the 
Castor and Pollux of 
Scottish art. I admire 
Waller's landscapes ; he 
is glorious in sunsets. 

It was Noel I meant.. 

Sir Noel is a man of ideas ; 
he might have been a 
great poet if he had not 
chosen to be a great 

Tell me this further — for, 
like Socrates, I seem 
somewhat of a bore ask- 
ing questions — you who 
love sculpture, what is 
your favourite work 
among the glorious mas- 
terpieces of the ancients? 

Well, the choice is diffi- 
cult ; but, on the whole, 
I think I prefer the dying 
gladiator, the sleeping 
satyr, and the boy pulling 
out a thorn from his foot. 

Btfiai cos avbpa KoXi^dovioi/ 
€V irpa>TOis yovifiov kai akrf' 
6iv6v' Koi yap ra vn avrov 
yeypafifieva fici^ca €^€i pon^v 
irpos t6 p>€ya\vvai rovs izpo- 
p.dxovs Trjs o-€fivrjs nepl ra 
ndrpia Uph. awmfiocias rj oca 
oi avyypa(l>€ls ifivi)ii6v€v(rav 
Mwi/ TToXXov Tov noirjTiKOv fiyei 
fi€T€X€iv Toi/s 2vvci>p.6Tas ; 

*H^off brj ycwatov 7ravTa)(ov 
irv€2 t6 noir)riK6v, 

ILepl dc brj tov HaTovos r'lva 
t\<£is yvcifiTjv ; 

^laaovs €i;;(6rat 17 KaXtfbovia 
Haravas, AiocKovpovs Si^ttov 
rrjs f}fjL€T€pas KoKkLTcxvias. To 
p.€v odv TOV OvdWrjpos fwypo- 
d>^/xara ra xcapiKa xmip^vas 
aav/ia^o), ciXa kcli hri kcX 
ijXiov hvcfias irdw Oeias* 

'E-yo) bi cKcyov t6v No^X. 

"EoTiv 6 iTnrevs No^X avrjp 
e\€av vor]pMTa' i^^v avTa 
ivbo^c^ yevea-BaL ttoii^tJ, el p.rj 
€Tvy\av€ yLoKKov dyairSiV t^u 

EtTTC Ka\ Tade — boK& yao, KaTCL 
t6v Scojcpan/i/, iira\&r]s irms 
elvcu, irra(r(ruT€pa iireiydfievos 
TO. €poi)TTjp,aTa — elne brj crv, 6 
<l>i\oK(ikos ^v iT€p\ TO. dyaX- 
/xora, tL KoXXtoT^y trot ^at- 
vtrai tS>v t^s ''EWtjvik^s kolK- 
\iT€)(yuis cpyav, tS>v /xaXtara 
d7njKpipa>p.€vci>v ; 

Oi/K €VKo\os v^ Am ^ alpecLS* 
t6 bi avvokov 80K& irpoKptv€iv 
t6v diroOvrjo'KovTa p,ovofjLdxoVf 
Ka\ TOV xmvdKTfTovTa 2dTvpov, 
Kai t6v naiba e«c tov irob6s 
i^fKKOVTa cbcavday. 



Do you not admire the 
Venus de Medici ? 

No ; there is no dignity 
about the Greek women, 
they are too sensuous ; 
their beauty consists alto- 
gether in delicate feat- 
ures, a certain melting 
softness, and nicely 
rounded limbs. 

I fancy you are pretty 
nearly right there. It is 
to Christianity, I pre- 
sume, that we have to 
attribute the elevation of 
the female sex. 

Yes, and to Christianity 
we owe Raphael 

And to the Greeks Titian. 

So be it. I can look on a 
Titian also with pleasure, 
in a picture gallery ; but 
save me, in the name of 
all the gods and goddesses ! 
from Titian, Epicurus, 
and Jeremy Bentiiam in 
the pulpit ! 

Ov $avfid(€is Trjv * A<l>poBtTfjv, 
T^v rStv McbiKcov Kokovfievriv ; 

Ov $av^Ca' Koi yhp (TCfivbv 
€\ov(nv ovbev al 'EXXj/wSer 
yvvaiKeSt irviovtrai yi6vov rh iv 
Tjj alcBrjO'ci fibv* t6 8c icaXXor 
avT&v avv€aTTjK€ TO irapairav 
€K Trpotrcinov pkv €p.p.e\ovs koi 
raK€p6v TL €\ovTO£i fieXSv be 
fiaka T^-xyiK&s «cat y\a<f)vp&s 

Tax ^^ ravra \eyav \eyois rci 
aXri$rj. T^ Xpiariavurfi^, 
oifjuu, bet dnov€ipMi rhv rov tS>v 
yvvaiKav yevovs irpopipatrfidv. 

Oif ufjv dXKa Koi t6v 'Pa(^a^X 
dvedoiKev 6 XpiaTiapi(rfjL6s, 
*0 8c 'EWrfviCfihs TiTidp6v, 
^EcTTw ravra- rywye kclL Ti- 
nduov ovK 8v€v rjdov^s Ota- 
a-aifirjv hv, €V ye nivaKoBriKrj* 
€ir\ 8c 8i) rov iepov P^p^ros 
tj rov Tiridv6v fj rhv *E7ri- 
Kovpov ^ rhv *l€p€p.iav BcvBd- 
piov r^s rjboviKTJs eiribei^iv 
voiclcOcu (TO<f>ias, rovrov 8^ 
navres oi $€oi dXcfi/r^piot 
yevoivro, irdaai re Beaivcu, 


Artistic — evrexvos. Balance of parts — avrioToivia, -as, ^. 
Bas-relief — dvay\v(l>fi, -rjs, t}. Colouring, bright — av^, -cwi', 
ro. Decline oi art— Trapaic/i^, -^s, tj. Decided, marked — 
tvrovos. Chisel — y\v<f>avov, ov, r6. Etching-tool — a-Kapi- 
(fiost -ov, 6. Easel — oKpiPas, -avros, 6. Forced — j3f/3ia- 
(Tpivos. Flesh colour — dvbpeiKekov, -ov, r6. Ideal — lbaviK6s. 
Laboured — Kardirovos* Outline — viroypa<f>rj, -rjs, rj. Per- 
spective — bio^is, -60)9, ^. Sketch — vTrorviroxrif, -ems, i}. 
Shading oflf — d7r6xpo>o-is rrjs a-Kids. Severe — avaTrip6f. 




How pale you are looking ! 

No wonder ; I have been 
np for a whole week till 
three in the ^morning, 
and had only a scanty 
share of sleep. 

I am surprised that you 
behave so foolishly ; you 
will kill yourself. 

Oh, there is no danger of 
that. I am made of very 
tough materials. I never 
have been a single day 
ill since the time I had 
the measles. 

You are sowing the seeds 
of disease now at a smart 
pace. I have been ob< 
serving you aU winter. 
How changed ! you came 
a rose — ^you are now a 

Do you pretend to under- 
stand medicine, to make 
a diagnosis of disease, to 
bleed, to blister, and to 
administer drugs ? 

I pretend to nothing of 
the kind ; but I can tell 
whether a man is acting 
according to the laws of 

AI N020I. 

Ovhiv uavfiaoTdv' irvy\avov 
yap eypriyopois oKr)v t^v ejSSo- 
fidba <rvv€xSis p-^XP'' ^o^ci^' 

»» c 

vov(n)s rrjs tfpepas, ooot€ naw 
cmaviov dirdkava-ai tov vttvov, 

Oavpd^co el^ ovtcds diairq dvo^' 
Tos. McXXeis pivroi iin<f>€' 
p€iv (TcavrS rov Qdvarov. 

TovTo ye Kivhvvov €;(« ovdcva, 
"AKapTTTOs yap ris ey© ct^^^M^^ 
€Lvai, Ka\ dreip^s to (rSjiat 
8s y€ ptl^f ptav fjpepap 
voce?, d<f>* o^ cKapov tcl i^av- 
BrjpxiTa TCL TOV iraibcav. 

^p6p^ vvv y€ ;(a>p€Tr iroWav 
cnrcipcav (nr€pp,aTa voaiipdTcav. 
^vkdrra brj ere, oXoi* t6v ;(€i- 
pcova, 'Qs /icra/3ej3Xi;Kaf els 
t6 x^^pov, Bs y€ TTpoTcpou pkv 
pobiOf vvu be KiTpoprjkio ^olkus* 

MSv TrpooTTOiet truye iiraieiv t^v 
larpiKTiv, Kal biayvavoA tcls 
vofTovs, ical (f>\€Pas (rxda-ait cri 
8i Kal (bdpfJMKa TptyfrcUf Koi 
€Kb6pui epirKaoTpa irepiBeivat 
T& a-cipMTi ; 

Ovbtv eirayyeKkojuu toiovtov 
€K€ivo be oiba ei tis rvyxdvei 
biaiTOi>p.evos Tjj tov (TcayMTos 
evKOfrpiq. ovppeTpads. Kal yap 

1 tl for ort, after 0av/uia^, and similar verbs, supra, p. 68. 



health or not. Though 
I cannot core disease, 
there is nothing to pre- 
vent me knowing the 
causes of disease. 

What then are the causes ? 

They are many ; but one is 
the most powerful of all. 

Be so good as name it. 


Oh, you are back to your 
great authority, Aristotle, 
again. Of what excess do 
you imagine me guilty? 
Am I a debauchee ? 

No, you neither eat too 
much nor drink too much, 
nor use any bodily func- 
tion immoderately ; but 
you study too much ; 
you lash your brain like 
a jaded hack. If you 
go on at this rate, you 
will produce inflamma- 
tion of the brain. Be- 
sides this, you sit with 
cold feet at night, which 
will cause an excited ac- 
tion of the blood to take 
place in some vital 
organ ; and then neither 
drug nor lancet of wise 
leech may be able to re- 
store the equilibrium of 
the system. All disease 
is a disturbance of equili- 
brium ; and health, as 
the old philosophers 
taught, is a harmony. 

Well, perhaps you are 
right : I sometimes feel 
a headache, which pre- 

yLTi bvvdfi€Pov BcpaTrtveiv ras 
voaovs, ras rav voacav alrias 
ovbiv Ko>\v€i clbcvu. 

Acy€ b^ ras alriaf, 

UoWal wrdpxovo'w iirixparil 

T^i' OTToiop Xe'yfiy ; 

Aeyo) TTfu VTrcpPdkfjV. 

Baj^al- irdikiv cirdysi rov 'Aptoro- 
TcKrfv, t6v irdvrcav cot Kvpiov, 
'Ey© de, dvTL^dkS) (rt, riva ttotc 
virep^ok^v &<^Xoi/,* fiS>v aacaTos 

Ov avye' otJrc yap ca-Oieis virep- 
fierpoosy ovT€ irlvcLS, ovre yc 
7rpd(€i ovb€p.ia acDp^iTLKfj Kara- 
Xpo)fJi.€vos AfxapTdvcLS' dWd fi^v 
Tois ye jSijSXoir iKTcvcarepop 
cyKcurcu' t6v iyK£<l>a\ov, bi- 
KTjv Imraplov KaraircTTOvrjp.ivov 
pxLtrrlyoiS' &<tt€, el rovrc^ t« 
rporra irpopaivcav diareXotf , ei- 
k6s bfivrjv votreiv ae voaov, 
T^p cyjce^oX/rida. Km 8^ Koi 
fjL€Ta t6 fi€(rovvKriov Ka6i(€- 
<r6ai (l)i\€LS, yfrvxpovs €x<ov roifs 
irobas, oScv appvdfios ris ivep' 
ycia ylvcrai €V rols Kcupiois 
Tov <ro>fiaTOS roTroty t6t€ b^ 
ovr hv t6 <f>dppMKov tov ao^ 
<f>ov iarpov, olSrc rb axaar^- 
piov bvvaiTO diroKaTa<rTr}(rcu rrjs 
KoraaKevris t6 laopponov, ^Ecrr* 
yap br} iraa-a voaos ovbev aWo ^ 

TO €^ak\dTT€lV T^V KOTCL ^\)(nV 

TOV (ra>fiaTos Icopponiav (Is 
Tnv irapd <l>va'LV cTcpoppoiriav 
6(ye brjy CDS eblbacKov ol ndXai 
tS>v (T0(l>ciu, dpfjMvla cotIp ff 
Aeyeiv Tt boKels* Kal yap ttrCT 
oT€ aKyS> t^p K€<f>aX^Pf t b^ 
Koikvci fJL€ irpoa-Kela-oai tois 



vents me £rom applying 
80 closely to my books. 

It is the height of folly 
not to discern a salutary 
warning here. 

When these hateful exa- 
jninations are over, I 
shall certainly remit my 
studies ; I shoidd not like 
to be plucked. 


I have known men plucked 
from. too great anxiety to 
pass. Meanwhile, take a 
friend's advice : walk two 
hours in the open air 
every day; and, accord- 
ing to the famous old 
prescription, keep your 
head cool by temperance, 
your feet warm by exer- 
cise, and your bowels 
open without drugs. 

wise JSsculapius ! but I 
must go to cram these 
crabbed Greek metres. — 
Adieu 2 

^ jSijSXotr fi€ro r^y cvvTjdovs Kap- 

IIoXXi^ 3.voia fiTj ovK^ dirobi^e- 
trBai ravra cas irapaivea-iv txov- 
ra ii>(j>ikifjLOV. 

^'Eireibdv yc at i^erdircis avrcu 
al TpicKardparoi TeXea-BaKTi, 
t6t€ 6^ avecis ycvrjafTal fiot 
tS>v irepl pipkovs irdvoov nav- 
reX&s yap 5ta beovs 6;(a> rh 

KaiVoiyc (rvvePrf nalv iiarea-etv 
€K Tov Xiav (1)oP€l{t6(u t6 €K- 
neo'elv. 'Ei/ rS be irapdvn av 
^(Xov dvbp6s povkrjs fi^ Kora- 
<l>p6v€i, tlepiirdrei ircplirarov 
KaBrjuepiov bviiv ap&v vno ttjs 
alOptas' Ka\fT6 ndXaiviro <ro<bov 
Tivos larpov irpoaraxBkv, oia- 
reXet t\(cav rr^v fiev KefjxiKriv 
yfrvxpcLP rfj eyKparda, rovs te 
irobas $€pftovs rj acDfiaaKL^ rnv 
5* ad T&v ivT€p&v Kara<TK€W]V 
€VKivriTOV av€V ff>app.dKidv. 

*P TOV *A(rKkrfTnov tov aoffyov* 
oTCLpi del 7rdvT0>s dnUvai. e/x- 
PvaovTa t6v iyKeKJxiKov to7s 

(TTpV<l>U02s TOVTOIS fUTpOlS Tols, 

*E\krjviKo2t, Xatpe, 


Ague — plyoSy -ovs, to. An aperient — iXaTripiov, -ov, to, 
Appetite---op€^(ff, -cor, fj. Appetite, excessive — PovXlfiiaj 
'OS, ^. Appetite, want of — dvope^ia, -ay, i}. A blister — 
^Xvfrratvo, -i;^, fj. Catheter — KadcTrjp, -rjpos, 6, Cold in 
the head — Kdpv^a^ -rjs, tf, A callosity — rvXiy, -lyj, if. Cor- 
pulent — :7ro\va-apKos, Constipation — yaarpbs areyvorrjs, rj. 
Condition, good — evt^ia, -as, tj. Condition, bad — Kax€$ia^ 
-asj i}. pupping-glass — o-iicva, -as, 17. A decline — <j>6i<riSf 
-€&£, Tf. Diet, strict — dvayKO(l>ayiaj -as, ff. The down of 
puberty — ^'^oOr, 'Ov, 6, Emaciation — Xiiroa-apKia, -as, 7. 

1 ovK, after certain words, negative, or implying a negative,— «itpm 
p. 63. 




Digestion, good — evne^ia, -ay, ^. Digestion, bad — bvairesb'ia, 
-as, 4. Debility, languor — drovia, -as, ^. To be feverisn — 
TTvpcrro). Dislocation — i^dpBpaxns, -ewy, ^. Cet better — pat- 
fo). Get worse — fj vdaos iiriTciverai, Gargle — dvaKoyxy^id(<o, 
Hiccoagb — ^Xvyf, -yyos, rj. Inflammation— <^Xgy/Aoy^, -^y, 
^. Mortiiication-^o-^aiceXof, -ov, 6. Pleurisy — irkeuplriSj 
'LT180S, fi.^ A probe — p-tikrjf -i/s, ^. Puberty — &pa, -as, 17. 
Recovery — dvaktjylns, -ems, i). Short-sighted — /xvco^, Sm-os, 
To fall sick — da-deveia irpocnriirTei rtvL Stout health— 
dbporfjSt 'TJTos, ff. Suckle — BrjkdCo, Quinsy — KwdyxTf, -i;$'f 
fi. Skin disease, dry — ^^opiaa-is, '€»s, 17. Skin disease, 
moist — eK^ep^, -aros, to. Tumour — ic^Xi;, -i;ff, ^. Wean — 
dTToydXcucriia. Visit a sick person — cirto'iccirro/iai. Vomit 




You have come in the very 
nick of time. 

For what ? 

To see my splendid equip- 
ment. I am going to a 
fancy ball, and was just 
mounting the stair to 
dress, when you knocked 
at the door. 

Well, in what character 
are you to appear ? 

In my own character of 

What is your own charac- 
ter, may I ask ? 

"Els KoX^ rJK€lS> 

livos €V€Ka ; 

Ofaadp^vos b^ t^v \ap.irpdv pLOv 
KaTaa-Kevrjv. Kai yhp pcXXa 
pLcde^eiv opx^fJ-enos noiKiXti- 
povos' Koi TjBrf irpo<rav€p(uvov 
lijv KkipaKa, Tov IvbyaatrOaL 
Tr)v ttrorJTaf ore ZKpovtras rriv 

Hoidv Tiva vnoKplvopevos ficX- 

X«ff p€T€X€lV T^S 6pXTfO'€10S S 

Avt6s ipavrhv, cas fucds. 

TA dc " aMs " Tovro, ri fiov- 
Xcrai ; 

1 The tennination -*tk, added to the part affected, gives the technical 
name to the disease which consists in the inflammation of the part 
affected, as BroTi^Uis. 



A Celtic chieftain ; my 
name is Macleod. 

Well, go you np-stairs and 
tag on the philibeg. 
Meanwhile I will peep 
into AthensBUB and see 
if I can find the Greek 
for a kilt. 

You are more likely to find 
the Greek for a French ra- 
gout there. Rather take 
Pollux ; here he is ; you 
will find it in the 
seventh book>— or no> 

Well, this Pollux is a very 
learned fellow, no doubt, 
but extremely dry. Soon- 
er than read such a book 
through I would' stand 
an examination before a 
board of Cambridge Dons 
on Cretic endings, ana- 
paests in quintd aede^ and 
other metrical quiddities 
of that bibulous old ped- 
ant Person. A kilt — ^no 
doubt it must be a ;((rc0i' 
or xiTiidvltTKos of some 
kind ; and here, thank 
Heaven, is a Cimberian 
or Cimbrian x'^rtavifTKOs 
staring me in the face; 
but ^at seems to have 
been one of Sappho's lucid 
vestments, and will not 
do for the loins of 
a brawny mountaineer. 
— Heigh-ho I I wish the 
fellow would be quick 
and come down, for I 

'A/teXei KeXnyy ei/il rav €\ma- 
Tpib&v, KOI Trpoa^rjfia €{i\ofiai 
t6 ^vofia A€Ci>8i8rjv. 

*AvdPrioi fi€V oZv ovye ivSva-o- 
fjLfvos t6 <l>i\iPfiyiov, Mtra^v 
€yo> TrapaKv'^a) fty t6v *AOrj- 
valov, €1 iroT€ irepiireo'ovfiai ra 
nSts ovofia^erai kilt 'EXXi^viort. 

*Pqov €vpois fiv ivTovOa ye oiras 
Xcyf Toi *EXXi;wotI to, ir€piK6fjL' 
para ra rex^^i^^s K€KapvK€v- 
peva, direp 7rpo<rayop€vov<nv ol 
4fpayKoi ragovia, UpovpyiaiTc- 
pov yovv Xa/3e(v t6v Uokvdevicri* 
Tjj' Tvyxov€i brf oZ<ra ^ Xe^is 
€v Tjj ($h6pjj i3i/3X^, fj- ovbaptj. 

*AXXgi P^v iTokvpa6^s pev vnep- 
<f>vii>s €(mv o&ros 6 IloXvdcv- 
Kris, ^nfxpos dc €v toIs irpan'os. 
"Epoiye pakXop fj t^v Toiavrrjv 
pipkov p^XP^ TcKovs dvayv&poif 
axp€royr€oov hv ciri xmoaivtw 
boKipaa-iav irapa avvebpu^ t&v 
a-€pvoirpo<roi>7ra>v yvpvaai.apx&v 
Ta>v iv KavraPpiyiq irepl r&v 
KpriTiKav KokovpcvoDV arixore- 
XeuT&Vy dvairaioTOiV narh irip- 
imjv x^po,v, KOI aX\as XcTrroXo- 
yias peTpi,Khs oaas rjBero i^a- 
KpipStv 6 vTrepbetvos trvpir&njs, 
6 Hopcav. A kiU — ndira yovv 
dvayiai rj x^'T&va eivai ^ ;(iro>- 
vlcKov Tivd' Kal Ibov' X^P^^ 
tx<o T^ '"Eppj}' iv 6<f>6dKpois 
p.01 (fmiverm KipficpiKds rir 17 
KipPpiK^s x^T'o>i'io'icoff* eKclvos 
dc, olpai, T&v bia<l>avS>v tis 
Ijv eoBrjpdr&v rrjs ^oTT^ovSf 
&aT€ p^ dpp6(€iv irore r^ o- 
(r<l>m ddpov Ka\ dv€poTp€^ovs 
dpeiTov. A?, ah etde dff iraptirf 
KOTafids 6 irtupot pov 6 «caX<$£- 


mean to appear at the 
ball myself — ^though he 
shan't know it — in the 
character of Mephisto- 
pheles, all fiery-red, with 
flaming doublet and blaz- 
ing breeches. And now, 
by the way, I recollect 
that the ancient Gauls,and 
other barbarians whom I 
have seen in bas-reliefs, 
wore breeches ; so I need 
not be burrowing longer 
in the molehills of ti^is 
mouldy old pedant for a 
word that cannot pos- 
sibly be there. — ^But here 
he comes ! Magnificent ! 

Well, have you found the 
Greek for a kilt ? 


What 's the matter with 
you ? Why do you look 
so stupid? 

That frosty old pedant 
gives me a headache. 

Oh, you Sassenach milk- 
sops, you always take a 
headache when you take 
a Greek book into your 
hands ! Thank Heaven 
I was brought up in Ox- 
ford, and can mingle Aris- 
totle with my- tea and 
my toddy, feeling not 
a whit uncomfortable. — 
But again I say, have you 
found the Greek for a 

Again I say no ! The 

/ieXXco yap Kai gvrbs fi€$c^€ip' 
rrjs opxtiae^as — \ddpa 8c avrov 
— •\moKpTv6p,€Vos brjkab^ top 
Mf^tOTo^eXj/i', irdw ^Xoyo)- 
iros, <f>K6ywov €x<ov t6v \i- 
TOiva, Kcu (pXoylvas ras dva^pi- 
has. Kai vvv 8^ enepx^fcd p-oi 
irepi T&v 7raXaiS>v Kckrav Koi 
aXkoov Pappdpav ots clbov iv 
CKTuircDp.aa'iv, cas iff>6povv dva- 
^vpibas' &aT€ /xi/JceTi dvay- 
Kalov €Lvai KaTopvTTCiv TO. ajra- 
\aKo\o<f>l8ia Tov fivboKeov rov- 
rov ypa^fULTLOTOVf i^ixvid^ovra 
brfirov Xe^iv p.rj evbexoficvriv 
ivravBd ye evpelv Kat ft^y 
elfrepxerai avros' v^ t6v Kvva 
ficyakoTrpen^ irdw irap€x6fi€- 
vos <l>avTaa'iav. 

'AXXot vvv brj wdrepov irepUirea-es 
T^ oiro^s dci Xeyeiy Hit 'EXXi;- 

viarl 5 oij; 

Ma Am, ovk eyarye, 
T( €Xfi-s; 8ih, ri ovra> /SXeircif 
PXdKiKdv ; 

*0 yltvxp^s ovToa-X Xe^iBripas 
67r«/>ep€i fjLoi K€<l)d\d\yiav. 

Ba^al* del yap vp.€ls ol lEd^aaves 
oi irebuuot fiaXaKicaveSf \afi6v- 
T€S els TO) x^*P* PlpXov *EXXj;- 
vuc^v, napavTiKa Keff^dkcLKyeire'' 
X°-P^v fX® ^yoyye t» Bea enl 
tS TpaQ>rjvai ev ra> *0^oviip, 
a)(rre oios re €ip.L op.i\€iv ra» 
'ApioToreX« irdw exmaBas ft€- 
TO^v^ po<f>Siv T^v T€ Brjav Kai r6 
paKi. *Arap rohe ipcarSi iraKiv 
irorepov evpijKas t6 kilt *£XXi;- 
viari, fj o{i; 

Km cyo) diroKptvopai rh bevrer 

I Iktraiii with part-^. 096, 4 ; F. 246 ; C. 46, a. 


ancient Celts Jiad no kilts ; 
they wore breeches. 

But the modem Greeks 

wear kilts. 
Oh, I forgot ! I saw them 

at Corfu on Easter-day. 

Well ; why should we not 
take the modem Greek 

What is it ? 


That sounds more like 

Why then we must make 
a name ; say, ;(tra)i' pa- 
PboiTos K€\tik6s' 

liather long !— But I say, 
my dear Tom, what a 
wonderful combination 
you have made of it ! 
Tartan hose, a tartan 
kilt, a black waist- 
coat, green doth coat 
bound with golden cord, 
a yellow wig, and a large 
blue bonnet, with a gold 
thread button. Is that 
all right ? 

Quite right. I took it 
from BoswelL I am a 
genteel Highland gentle- 
man of the Tast century. 
Such a fellow with such 
toggery was seen in Skye 
one day more than a 
hundred years ago, and 
shall be seen in Edin- 
burgh to-night. 

Well, I must say fashion 

pov, OTi ov' eiyf b^ dva^vpibas 

iff>6povv ol irakcu, KcXrat, ov <l)aivoPT€s tcl ctjccXi;. 
nXi^i/ Ol ye vvv''l£X\riV€S ^opovo"!, 

TO. kUts, 
Tovrov €7r€\dBofjLriv' koi yap av- 

Tos clbov €V Trj KcpKvpa Kara 

rrjv ioprrfv rov nacp^a. 
Tt odv Ka)Xv€( dirobe^ea'Sai r^v 

V€0''E\krjviKriv Xc^iv 

Tiff bri ear IV ; 


'H;^€t tovt6 y€ p^lKXov rh 

'AjLiAct dvayicrj Kaivokoyiq xpta- 
p,€Vovs irkdrreiv ^vop.a, olov 
j(iTCDV paPboDTos K€\riK6s* 

MaKpOT€pa irov tj irpoai^yopla' 
drap Z> <f>iKrarov QoDfiao'lbioVi 
CDS (rvvcKaTTva'as 6a/icXc5ff r^v 
noiKiKiav t&v eaSrjTcav ire pi- 
(TKeXibas briirovOev pa^boyrast 
\iTSiva KeXriKoy pc^batrhv, fie- 
\ava ;(tTa)j'i(rjicoi', oXXikq irpa- 
fTivr^v fjLrjpivBa XP^^ irapv- 
<l)a(rfjLevr)v, ert be ^evaKtiv ^av- 
6r}v, Koi rrphs tovtois irtkov 
Kvavovv evpvrepov, Kop.^i(o Ke- 
KO<TfjLr}p.evov ;(pvo'o/iir^. Mo>v 
Te)(yiKS>s e^ei t6 <rvaTTjp,a 
Tovro ; 

TexviKODTora yap* eKafiov avros 
rh Kaff eKaara t&v ^opr]p.dT&v 
irapa rov Bocovi^XXiov vnoKpt- 
vop,M yovv avbpa kolKov Koyadbv 
TTJs opeivrjs, jSiv ev rfj irapoi- 
Xop.evTj eKarovraeTqplbi, xapiev- 
Tcav. *AKpTpSis yap b^ roiovro- 
rpoTTCDS rip.ff>iea'p.evov riva ^v 
Ibelv irph eKarhv erav ev rfj 
vr)(T{^ ^Kvia' Kcii dva^avtia-erou, 
(rfjfjLepov 6 avT6s ev tJ 'E^ti^a- 

*AXXoKoroi, v^ Aia, oi rpAnoi 


is a strange thing ; many 
things change to the 
better, but fashion in 
dress, so far as I can see, 
has a strong inclination 
to change for the worst. 
Take, for instance, our 
swallow-tails and the 
chignons of the ladies. 

Bmtal both ; the first 
makes a man like a cock- 
atoo, and the other a 
woman like nothing in 
heaven above, or earth 
below, or the waters im- 
der the earth. 

Why do people not dress 
reasonably ? 

Because they are fools 
and slaves and cowards, 
and go in herds like 

I must confess I am one 
of the number. When I 
go to dine with Lady 
Fineacres in Bandolph 
Crescent, I am sure she 
would faint if I came 
without my swallow-tail, 
and the whole company 
would denounce me, one 
calling me a fool, another 
a boor ; and if I have no 
freedom in these matters, 
much less the young 
ladies, who in obedience 
to the decrees of Parisian 
hairdressers grow those 
ridiculous tumours be- 
hind their cerebellum. 

Oh, yes ! we are all cow- 

TToXXa fi€V els t6 /SeXrtov, r^ 
bi 7r€p\ ras iad^ras boKcl 

d€lV&S TTiOS Tr€<l>VK€V(ll ITOOS TCLS 

eirl t6 \€ipov fierapoXas, olov 
b^ al ak\iK€S fjficov, ai X^^^~ 
bov6a-ovpai, Koi ra reparoibrj 

> / 

\ » > 

oyKCDuara rmv yvvaiKtoVf ra ctti 
Tov oTri(r$oKpaviov, aircp <rx^' 
va>vas irpoaayopevovaip, 

BdfXvpa dp.<l>6Tepa, f tye ^ fuv 
Tovs avbpas ficTo^aXKei els 
■^tTTOKovs, t6 be rhs yvvaiKas 
irapap,op(l>ot els dK\6KOT6v rt, 
(o ovK €\€i ojStc 6 ovpavos oiSre 
Tf y^ SfJLOMv oxfbevy otSt€ oi viro' 
Kara rrjs yrjs r&iroi, 

Aia tI ov, t€\vu xpiip.€voi, kotcl 
\6you Koo'fiovo'L ra (rmfurra ol 
Svapcuroi ; 

"Arc 54 TJkidioi ^VT€S Kcu bov- 
Xo( Koi beCKol kcu crvvayeXa- 
(6p.€Poi, Kaddirep ra irpdpara. 

*0/ioXoyft) avrbs — dvayieri yap — 
els rh irpofiara ev ye rovrt^ 
(rvvrekelv, "Orau yap beiTTvat 
irapa ttj evyevel yvvaiici Kofi- 
yfrojrkeupivrj ev ra tov 'PapboK- 
q>iov fjjjuKvKKi^f ireweia-fjuu 
XiTTO^VYncrai iiu rnv yvvaiKa, 
ct Tvxpip.1 eAofov, fi^ evovKra- 
fjLevos TTjv x^Xibovoo'ovpav' wpos 
be TovTOLs eKOvpiiToiev av fie 
ol bairvfioves, dvorjTov riva 
•^eyovres 17 aypoiKov. Toiyap- 
ovv €ya> ev rots. Toiotrrois el 
Kar ovbev elp.1 ekevBepos, 
TToXX^ ^TTOv al ToXaiir&poi 
irap6evoi, at brff rols r&v Kop.- 
pxorpiSiV b6ypa(n ireMfievai 
T&v ev JlapKriois, e<f>v(rav to. 
yeXola ravra oyncco/iara ev r<u 
^ladev lijs Ke<baXrjs. 

*AXrjBeaTaTa \eyeis' Kal yap. 



ards. Aut]}ority rales 
the world in these mat- 
ters, not reason. At a 
fancy ball, however, and 
in the country of the 
Macleods beyond Dun- 
vegan, I dress like a 
Roman Emperor and a 
reasonable being. Good 
night ! 

iv rois ToiovTois e$€X.6KaKoi 
€(rfi€v ol avfiiravTCs kcu c$€\6' 
dovXoi, TvpavviKois run 80- 
(da-fjuuTiv viroTa(r(r6iJL€voii ov 
\6y<i^, Ov firfv aK\a Kar 
^pxfjo-iv y€ TTOMciXei/iova, Ka\ 
brf KCU tir€K€wa rov Aovi^/Si/ya- 
vos €V TJj tS>v Aeojbib&v ira- 
rpidi, $€fiiT6v <l>opr)fiara <^op^- 
(Tcu, Ota irpo(rrjK€i avTOKparopi 
'PiOfidiK^ KCU ^a>^ Xoyuca, 


Arrange the dress — pv$p.iCio, Badge — yvonpio-fia, -aror, 
t6. Barefoot — apxmoorjros. Boot — Mpofus, -(5off, ^. 
Button on — iyKOfifiovficu. Clout — XaKiSt i^os, rf. Coat, 
a rough warm outer — cmoXds, -dbost v* '^^ embroider — 
TToiKiXAa). A fringe — Kpoa-o-bs, -ov, 6. Feet, reaching to 
the — irodrjprjs* Hair, short-cropped — eV XP^ Kovpd. To 
wear long hair — Kofio, Hat — mraa-ot, -ov, 6. A broad - 
brimmed summer hat — Kava-iot -ast ^. To put on the plaid 
— dvaPdkXoncu, Put on^ clothes — dfiircxofiaii dfjL<l>iPaK\oficu, 
n€piTiBrip.u Plaid or light cloak — xXaiva, -rjs, rj. Shawl — 
dfinexdvioUf -ov, t6. Shoes — vnob^fioTay -mv, rd. To take 
them off — vTTokva, Put them on — imobeoiuu. Dress shoes 
— pXavTTi, -17s, Tj, Summer dress — BeplarpLov, -ov, t6. Soap 
— trfirjfia, -aros, t6. Tassel — 6va'avo£, -ov, 6. Winter cloth- 
ing — ;(€(/ia(rrpoi', -ov, t6. 



Well, gentlemen, the gong 
sounds ; I hope you are 
all appetized ; the dinner 


Nvi/ flip bfj, <l>iKoi avbpts, ^;(C( 
t6 rjxf^ov cXTTt^o) vfjMs bpifielav 
irdw ^x^"^ ''^^ ^pe^iv t6 8^ 

btlTTVOV TJbrf €T0lflOV, 



I am ready. 

Come along then ! 

The table is famished 

Take your seats, gentle- 
men ; Sir George, sit you 
on the right hand of the 
hostess. Is there any 
clergyman here ? 

Yes ; I wear the cloth. 

Then be so kind as say 

"Father of lights, from 
whom Cometh down every 
good and perfect gift, we 
thank Thee for the boun- 
teous supply of things 
needful for our bodily 
wants ; and we pray that 
we may lead lives worthy 
of Thy great goodness, 
and of the most holy 
precepts of the Author 
of our salvation, Jesus 
Christ. Amen," 

Now f aU to ! 

Will you take some of this 
turtle-soup ? 

Certainly ; I do not get 
that every day. 

It is a rare luxury ; it 
flows down richly and 
sweetly like liquid gol^. 

Now we attack the fish ; 
here is whitebait, and 
here is mullet, with oys- 
ter-sauce ; will you have 
some? there is also lob- 


Kal yap cya> eroifjLos- 

"101 vvv avvaas,^ 

''A<I>Bovos brj ij Tov beiiTPOv 

*lbov ras ebpaSi Kvpioi- koSi- 

be, €vy€p€aTaT€ Teopyie, «ViXa- 

deoTToivris. *Apa ickripiKOS ns 
ndpeoTiV ; 

Jldpcariv iya ^opSi rh fieXav. 

Oi/Kovv xapi^oio hv fffiiv €v;(apc 
ar&v eVl r^ deirrvc^, 
Tldrcp <^a>ra>v, o6ev ircura bda-is 
dyaOrj Koi nav Bd>prjfia reXeiov 
KaTapaiv€i, evj(api,aTovp.ev <Toi 
€irl rjj d<l)66v<j^ cjcaorore x^Pl' 
yia T&v npos tcls tov (rc^p^Tos 
XP^ias dvayKaicav, Koi €vx6p.€6a 
piovs Piavai tS>v t€ TrjkiKovrtiv 
cvepycTTjpAToov d^iovs Kai r&v 
iravaepvoDV pxtOrjp^tav rov 
dp\ffyov TTis aanTjplas ^pS>v 
^Irjcov XpioTov. 'A/i^i'.** 

Nvi' 8ri iiriBdipJida r^ ^py^* 
Umpov ' hi,ap.€pi<ro> troi rov 

X€\oi)vo(o>p.ov TovTov TOV wa- 

X^repov ; 
Kal p^ka y€* ov yap b^ tS>v 

TvxovTCiv 6 (cap^s OVTOal. 
7.(l}6bpa ye Oeiov Tpv^rjpa, 6 

icopds' Ka\ yap Tri/xeX^; Korap- 

pel Ka\ y\vK€p6s, xP^^^^o biicrjp 


Nvv brj €ir€xo>p,€P toIs IxOvcw 
Ibov eiravSpaKLliasXevKds' thi 8c 
TrdpcoTi ToiyXq p£Ta oarpeav 
KapVKijs' uikois hv yevo'atrdcu 
TovToov ; wp6s ie tovtois 
doTOKOv t(m,v ex^^v Kapvicrjv. 

1 Idiomatic use of 1 aor. part, of avvta : do it, and he done with it.- 
696, 1 ; C. 46, b. 



Oh, delicious ! send me a 
slice of mullet with oys- 
ter-sauce. I had a glut 
of lobsters last summer 
in lona, and such floun- 
ders ! 

There are very few oysters 
in the sauce. 

Yes ; as Virgil says, " ap- 
parent rari nantea in gur- 
gite vasto,^* 

Ha ! ha ! ha ! But now 
you must have some- 
thing more substantiaL 
Shall I help you to some 
of this roast beef ? 

By all means ; I always 
feel doubly British when 
I eat roast beef. I can- 
not understand the man 
who, instead of a royal 
brown juicy roast, steam- 
ing proudly before him, 
chooses- some of your 
trifling French minces 
and fricassees. 

TheFrench call us savages, 
because, instead of eating 
scientifically elaborated 
food, we devour our meat 
in the crude state, not 
seldom half raw. 

The beef is excellent ; 
Aberdeen beef, I pre- 
sume ? 

Yes ! they have three 

*0 rod Tpv<l>rifj.aros' TrapdSes, 
€t jSoi/Xei, rS>v Tpiy\S>v T€fia)(^i- 
bioVf oi/K &V€V y€ TTJs rStv 6- 
oTpeoDv KapVKTjs' Ka\ yap t&v ye 
doTOKcau tTvyxavov Koptfrdiis, 
Tov irapoixop-^vov Bepovs, iv rfj 
^lavfj' ai be 8tj yjr^TTai at 
ivravda VTrcpfjyvcis nves. 

'OXiya, vrj ^ia, ^arpca v^x^rai 
iv T^ ^p$* 

To yovv TOV OvIpyCKlov <f>cu- 
vovrai awdvioi Kara biv^evra 

ViKola XcycLS. drap vvv hr] 
Kcuphs wpoaxpepcaoal ri tS>v 
dbpoo'dpKcav *Apa ye €KT€p,St 
aoi tS>v Pocicav Kpcav, rS>v 


Havrdirao'i fuv oZv Kai yap d(- 
irkdtriov del rh BperawiKhp fu- 
pos €V rals (pikeyltL fioi oTrapya, 
ocrdxif &v TO, Poeia (rlr&fiai rd 

t oTrrd, ^"EkcIvov de b^ oiro76s 
Tts iarlv ovk iirlurapMi^ oariSf 
i(6v <f>ay€iv oTirdv ri veaviKhv 
Kal fHx^^oVj Kai o-o<j>S>s i^avBt- 
a'p,€voVy odev fj Kvlfra irpoayeXa 
rais purlv, rjbiov brjirov citcZtoi 
rovs ovbcvos d^iovs /ivrrcDTovs 
T&v ^pdyKOiV, KcX Kop.pjdrui K6- 
KOfiylr€vp,€va nepiTT&s, 

Kal fjLTiv rjp.ds ye oi ^pdyKoi 
fiaka KvKKomiKciiS ;(p^o'd<u 
^ovvrai rots ihcablfiois, Bioti, 
beov^ T€xvikS>s Karea-Kevao'p.eva 
(fxjycTv rd ibea-p-ara, ndvra 
KarccBlopev dKaTepyaara^ Kai 
iToKKdKis oKiyov beiv apd. 

*AXXo p.riy Belov ye ri rd fideia 
ravra' K^ephoviqdev yap* ovx 
ovTios ; 
EoTi ravra* et ye em rpialv 

1 Btov, quum debeamus.—J, 700 ; F. 65 ; C. 64, 2, c. 



good things inAberdeen — 
beef, granite, and Latin. 
Bat here comes a diah 
that outshines all — 
•* VehU ifUer ignes 
Luna minores'^ — 
Here ia a haggis I 

A veritable haggis ! 

How large and jolly he 
looks, and how brightly 
the liquid pearls are 
streaming down his man- 
ly cheeks I 

You talk like a French 

No ; I talk like a Scots- 
man. A genuine Scotch 
haggis is a dish that, as 
Christopher North said, 
Ixrould have made Api- 
dus sob with ecstasy I 

Lady B., you are not eat- 
ing. There will be phea- 
sants in the next coarse. 

I am not very hungry; 
but I shall not be able 
to resist the temptation 
of the pheasants. 

You may have ducks also. 
— Ha! here they come, 
with green pease. 

A great luxury. 

While Doctor Schetlius is 
carving the duck per- 
haps you will allow me to 
drink your good health 7 

By all means. 

Your good health, my lady. 

hiKai»s trtiufivovToi ol r^f 
'Afitpbovias iroXf roi, ijyoWf 
cirl rf po€ia, r» \iBm r^ Svi^- 
viTjj, mi TJ v€pi Xcfiv Pcofuzlici^v 
dciyonjrt. Kcu ii^v €l<r€px^' 
luvov 6p» iv rots SXXois cdc- 
(Tfuurw vtr€pkafiirpvv6fi€v6v ri, 
*AaT€pas iks aXXovs a^Miv/fci 
dta (rcX^viy* yturrnp vrf Ato. 

rcHTT^p bjlTa €vapyffs. 

'Qs eUtrapKos vapcpx^rai kcu 
vfcofiK^, its \iirap6» iropej^ci 
TO irp6<ranroVi oBev dtf oi 
paoyapirai vypoi Kara rS>v 
ovopcioy irap€i»y pcovai irora- 

Tavrd y€ Xevov o^olkuibdkii^ 
Tua o/iocor ci furyc^p^, tS>» cjc 

Ma Ata ovk ryo»ye* Xrya» A 
<f>pov€'af dci aydpa &s dkjiB&s 
Kakfidoviop. Koi yap b^ ya- 
OT^p KaXjibopia r€xvuc»f mrc- 
CKevatrpevrj elktrpd eoTi, Kara 
t6v y€ XptaTo<f>6pov Nop^coy, 
oircp ivoiJiaev itv Xv^ctv t6v 
'Airtitcoy r^ xmfpayav ffbopj, 

Tvvai cvycvcorany, ri rovro /3ov- 
XcTOi ; oycvoTor ci Airdimov 
irapartBrja-ovTcu thi ffMCuaml^ 
Kcera t^v imova-av ircpi^opoy. 

Mrrpcor c^o rns oo€^€i»s' jtm- 
rot fi6yis 6v itryvcraifu av^c- 
OTovai ra> 6€\yrjTp^ rS>v <f>ar 

Ilp6s dc rovTois irapareBrfaovrai 
ai v^TTtu, *lov ! lov* fJKOvaxv 
rfbr) perd ye Trla-op P€oBfjk&y. 

Q TTJs o^o^oytar. 

*Ep ^ 6 A6kt<op 2;(crXtor cjcrc- 
pv€i TTJv injTTOPy rdx Av ov 
bva"Xfpaivois cfioiyr irpoirt' 
povTi 0*01 ^iXonjo'toy. 

Ovdccr (f>B6vos. 

Upoiri^o (roi,yvva< cvyeyccrran;. 



Well, what comes next ? 

Oh, a flamiDg pudding, 
burning like BardolplL 
Will you take a slice of 
this glorious plum-pud- 

I am no fire-eater. 

Oh, the brandy will soon 
bum off ; here, taste this 

It is really most substan- 
tial stu£f. No doubt this 
goes along with the roast 
beef, to make the stout 
heart of invincible John 
Bull, the conqueror of 

Of course ; but here is 
something in the more 
exquisite style, Italian 
cream, and OtUea au 

I should like some jelly, 
and cream au naturd. 

Here you have it ; and 
cream such as they never 
see in London. It is from 
my farm in East Lo- 

It is delicious. 

You may well say so ; it 
is, as they say, both 
meat and drink. 

Sir George, will you take 
anything more ? 

No ; I have dined like a 
king, or like a god, as 
Homer w:oidd have said. 

But you cannot end with- 
out — 
A piece of splendid Stilton 

*E<f>€(rjs be rt Traptpxerai ; 

Ba/3ac' iroXcfihs brjTa TrvpiXafnnis 
Bapb6K(f>ov biKTiv, OHkovp yev- 
(raio &» Tov veaviKov tovtov 
irdk(f>OKOKKOfAri\ov ; 

OvK Ifycayt tS>p 7rvpi<j>dyiOP, 
'AXXa fi^u 7rf7rav(r€TCLi napav- 
rUa <f>\€y6p.€vov t6 poKi* AajSc 

8^ TOVTO t6 T€fldxU>V. 

Evjrayts r^ Svn Ka\ €VTpa<l>€s 
t6 eoecfUL Tovto ye dvap.^t' 
a-firjiTiTios avvepyel roey onrois 
fioeiois IT phi rh airoreXelv rhv 
irplvtabri 6vpJ6v rov dvLKrjTov 
eKelvov TavpofjL6p<f)ov ''AyyXoi;, 
rov viKri(rcarros ev Ovarepkov, 

U&s yhp ofi ; arhp irepirrdv n 
ijbri iraparideTOLif brjkabrj jriop 
'iroXiK^v, KoX rrrjyfia paKiov 
TTvprjaiv ^bvcfjievov, 

''Ep,otye fiakXov kgtcl vovv eari 
iriov aKaTcurKevaoTov, 

lOOV — OlOP Orj TTIOV OVK CV€7r€<r€ 

irore els oyfnv vols ev Aovblv^^ 
6yfro<l>dyoiSj dre ck tov X!^?'^^"^ 
fjLov, TOV ep Tfj rrpos e<a Aaoiavfj 

QavpaxTrhv iraw to rpv<f>ep6p 
T^s yev<rea>s. 

AiKotos ei ravra \eyeip — eX ye 
avphvau'pjds ns ewnapxei tov 
Te PpaTov Kcii tov ttotov, 

'EifyevearaTe Teci>pyie, BeXois &p 
Ti Trpocde'ipai r^ eba>8j ; 

OvK eyayye' Ka\ yap ^aciKems 
TTOPV deiTTVop beoeimniKa, fmK- 
\op de BeoVf Kara ye t6p 

KaiToi ov $ep.iT6p ye icoXo<^£va 
eTTiBeivai rj ebcab^ apev ye — 

T6 TToiop Xeyeis ; 

Tep.dxiop Xeyo rvpov ^cyaXo- 



cheese, with a 

glass of 

I cannot refuse that; it 
seems to nail down the 
dinner with the true or- 
thodox emphasis. I al- 
ways finish with cheese. 

Here yon have goat's milk 
cheese from Switzerland. 
I prefer the Stilton. 

Now, gentlemen, the cloth 
is removed. Here yon 
have all sorts of wine, 
— the cool Gladstonian 
claret, the sharp Rhenish, 
and the stont old Port. 

I will never apostatize from 
the Port — at least in 

Here are wahints and al- 
monds and raisins. 

Yon keep a bonntifnl table. 

I do not pamper myself; 
but the man who gives a 
bad dinner to his friends 
deserves to be classed 
among the basest of hu- 
man beings. Meanwhile 
pnsh round the bottle. 

In obedience to the injimc- 
tion of wise old Pho- 
cylides ! 

What doesPhocylides say? 

** Wise is the man at friend- 
ly boardf 
Who site and sips his glass. 
And chirrups o*er his cups 

with glee. 
And bids the bottle pass^ 

Trp€irovSi rov SriXrcovo;, fjLfra 
KvaOov otvov 'Oiro/Trtvov, iv 
irpotrBrfKris iup€i< 

Tovro y€ ovk av JiwcufLrjp cnro- 
yp&vai' 7rp€Mnjkovvyap doxct ra 
€li7j8€a'fi€va yofi(f>aynKJ rivi tv- 
vdfx€i, T^ deiirva iKcurrort 
iiriTiBrifu r€\os,'n'poa<(>€p6fi€vos 
rov rvpov. 

*ldov (Toi dtyctoy rvpov, r6y ck 
rov ''EXovrjrriatv. 

*£/uuMy€ fioKkov TTpbs ^dov^v 
€*c7Tiv 6 SriXrov. 

fivv drf, <f>iKoi tivhpfs, ircpicXi;- 
\v$afi€v els r6 rekos rS>y 
rpaw^Cav. Kai fi^v irapetrri 
7ravroba7rS>v /xprc^civ otvcDV, rov 
yfnjypov T\ab<rravuivm), rov bt 
o^€Os otvov rov card rov P^vov 
rav TepfJidv&v, Kai bfj jcat rov &- 
dpov ir€^<u6<l>povos 'Oiroprivov, 

Ovk avrofwXria'a) nort dnh rov 
'Onoprivov, Kara ye rov x"~ 

*'EvravBd iari Kapva, apvybtiKa, 
Kcu a(rra(f>ib€S. 

Tcfiei r6 heifrvov df^Bovias, 

Ovk €vrpv(t>S> rois ibeafiaciv, 
€V€Kd y€ ya<rr€pos rns eiirjs* ov 
fi^v oAAa otrris av vwofiev^ 
rotr <f>[Kois (l>av\ov napaBeivai 
deiirvov &^i,6s iari owrektlv 

€ls ots X€lpi(TrOVS ?Y€4 ^ *y^ 

dvBpdmovs. *Arhp av yt iroi- 
ricov KvickclaBai rov dcKdv. 
UciBdp^vds y€ ra bdypMri rov 
a'o<f>ov ^a>Kv\ibov. 

Ti d^ Xeyct 6 ^OiKvXibrfs ; 

Xp^ 8* €V avptroaltd KvXiKav 

'Hdea KforcXXovra KaB^fi€vov 




Oil ! I remember it well : 
the motto of the Noctes 
Ambrosianjb ! 

Ladies, you rise too soon. 

Gentlemen enjoy their 
wine best alone ; ladies 
have their own interest- 
ing little matters, which 
are best discussed in the 

Well, if it must be so. 

But remember you must 
not sit long over your 

Oh, never fear ! Deep 
drinking is not in vogue. 
We shall be with you in 
an hour. Gentlemen, fill 
your glasses I 

'AXXo vvv y€ 8ia fivrjfirjs cy© 
Toxfs arixovs' ttju €7riypa^rjv 
t£>v *Afi^poa'iavciiv pvktS>v, 

TvvaiKcsj TTpoSvfidrepou aTTciK- 


Kai yap oi &fbp€s rov otvov 
diraKavovo'i p^XXov xi^piaToL 
o>(ravTCi>s B€ 8ri ai yvvaiKcs 
t6, iavT&v cxovci TrpayfioTia 
Sjrep 7rp€xrriK€i bie^eXoelp cV 
rfi €^€hpa. 

£(€!/* cizrep yc avayicq ovt<os 


11X171/ o.vafiPTjO'SijTe yc v/xcir ms 

OV Xph /*I7KVV€4V T^V olvOIFO- 

Mribev <j>ofifi6rfT^' t6 yap 7rtv€iv 
dfAvari ovKCTi iiriKpaT^l, Mc^ 
&pav ye irpoa-boKare ^fias. 
$tXoi aybp€ff frvKdaaT€ ra 



WaKmAiftti and Oo.'s Classical PuUlcations. 


The Greek Text, with English Notes and English Verse 
Translation, and an Introduction. By Bernard Drake, 
M.A., late Fellow of Eling's College, Cambridge. 8vo, 
ds. 6d. 


With English Notes. By B. Drake, M.A. Fourth 
Edition. To which is prefixed iSSCHINES against 
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classified according to the arrangement of Curtius' Greek 
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a Map. By the Rev. Percival Frost, M. A., late Fellow 
of St. John's College, Cambridge. Fcap. Svo, 5s. 


or, a History of Greece in Greek ; being a first Greek 
Reading Book, with Explanatory Notes. Third Edition, 
with a Vocabulary. By the Rev. J. Wright, M.A. 
Fcap. Svo, 3s. 6d. 


HTfli^i«<iia.n and Oo.'s Classical PnUicationg. 


OBATION. With an Introduction and Notes, trans- 
lated from EARL HALM. Edited by J. R B. Mayor, 
M.A. Third Edition. Fcap. 8vo, 58. 


With Commentary by the Rev J. E. B. Mayor, M.A. 
Second Edition, enlarged. Part L Crown 8vo, 38. 6d. 


With English Notes. By C. Meriyale, KD. Second 
Edition. Fcap. 8vo, 4s. 6d. 

The CATILTNA and JUGURTHA may be had sepa- 
rately, price 2s. 6d. each. 


A Revised Text and English Notes. By A. J. Church 
and W. J. Brodribb. Fcap. 8yo, 3s. 6d. Separately, 
28. each. 


Translated by A. J. Church and W. J. Brodribb. 
Fcap. 8vo, 2s. 6d. 


An Easy Narrative, abridged from the First Book of 
Livy ; a first Latin Reading Book, with Grammatical 
Notes. By the Rev. J. Wright, M.A. Fcap. 8vo, 38. 
Vocabulary and Exercises, 28. 6<1. Fourth Edition. 


POSITION. By A. W. Potts, M.A., Head Master of 
the Fettes College, Edinburgh. Second Edition, revised 
and enlarged. Extra fcap. 8yo, 38. 

TION. A brief Sketch of the Fables of the Ancients, 
prepared to be rendered into Latin Verse for Schools. 
By F. Hodgson, B.D., late Provost of Eton. New 
Edition, revised by F. C. Hodgson, MA. 18mo, 3s. 


March, 1871. 

A Catalogue of Educational Books, 
with a Short Account of their 
Character and Aim^ 

Published by 


16, Bedford Street^ Covent Garden^ London, 


iESCHYLI EUMENIDES. The Greek Text, with English Notes 
and English Verse, Translation, and an Introduction. By Bernard 
Drake, M.A., late Fellow of King's CoUege, Cambridge. 
8vo. 3J. dd. 

The Greek text adopted in this Edition is dosed upon that oj Wellauer^ 
which may be said, in general terms, to represent that of the best manu' 
scripts. But in correcting the Text, and in the Notes, advantage has been 
taken of the suggestions of Hermann^ Foley, Limvood, and other com- 
fnentators. In the Translation, the simple character of the ^schylean 
dialogues has generally enabled the author to render them without any 
material deviation from the construction and idioms of the original Greeks 

°->- A 

2,000. z. 71. 


ELENCHI. With a Translation and Notes by Edward Poste, 
M.A., Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford. 8vo. &f. dd. 

Besides the doctrine of Fallacies, Aristotle offers, either in this treatise 
9r in other passages quoted in the commentary, various glances over the 
world of science and opinion, various suggestions or problems which are 
still agitated, and a vivid picture of the ancient system of dialectics, which 
it is hoped may be found both interesting and instructive, 

Aristotle. — an introduction to aristotle's 

RHETORIC. With Analysis, Notes, and Appendices. By E. 
M. Cope, Senior Fellow and Tutor of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge. 8vo. 145. 
TTiis work is introductory to an editwn of the Greek Text oj ArtstotUs 
Rhetoric, which is in course of preparation. Its object is to render that 
treatise thoroughly intelligible. The author has aimed to illustrate, as 
preparcUory to the detail^ explanation of the work, the general bairings 
and retentions of the Art of Rhetoric in itself, as well as the special mode of 
treating it adopted by Aristotle in his peculiar system. The evidence upon 
obscure or doubtful questions connected with the subject is examined; and 
the relations which Rhetoric bears, in Aristotle's view, to the kindred art 
of Logic are fully considered, A connected Analysis of the work is given, 
sometimes in the form of paraphrase ; and a few important matters are 
separately discussed in Appendices, There is added, as a general Appendix, 
by way 0/ specimen of the antagonistic system of Isocrates and others, a 
complete analysis of the treatise cctlled *'PTrropix^ vpht *AA.^fov8poi', with a 
discussion of its authorship and of the probable results of its teaching, 

Cicero.— THE second philippic ORATION. With a'n 
Introduction and Notes, translated from the German of Karl 
Halm. Edited, with Corrections and Additions, by John E. B. 
MAYOBt, M.A., Fellow and Classical Lecturer of St John's 
Colled, Cambridge. Third Edition, revised. Fcap. 8vo. 5j. 

This volume opens with a List of Books useful to the Student of Cicero, 
including History, Chronology, Lexicons, and some account of various 
editions, mostly German, of the works of Cicero, The Introduction is 


based on licum : -a/here Halm gives a reference to a classic^ the passage has 
bun commonly printed at length ; where the reference is to HalmU notes 
on other Ciceronian speeches^ or to modern books^ the additional matter has 
been ineorporcUed : and the numerous Greek quotations have been rendered 
into English. The English editor has further illustrated the work by 
additions drawn^for the most part, (i) from the ancient authorities; (2) 
from his own private marginal references^ and from collections ; (3) from 
the notes of previous commentators, A coi>ious ^argument"* is also given. 

Notes translated chiefly from^Halm. By A. S. Wilkins, M.A. 
Fcap. 8vo. 3^. 6d?. 

This edition is a reprint of the one prepared by Professor Halm for 
OrelU^s Cicero. The historical introduction of Mr, Wilkins brings 
to ether all the details which are known respecting Catiline and his 
relations with the great orator. A list of passages where conjectures 
have been admitted into the text, and also of all variations from the text 
of Kayser (1862) is added at the end. Finally the English Editor has 
subjmned a large number of notes, both original {distinguished by a 
square bracket) and selected from Curtius, Schleischer, Corssen, and 
other well'known critics, an analysis of the orations, and an index. 

English Notes. By B. Drake, M.A., late Fellow of King's 
College, Cambridge. Fourth Edition, to which is prefixed 
Fcap. 8vo. 5j. 

An Introduction discusses the immediate causes of the two orations, and 
their general character. The Notes contain frequent references to the best 
authorities. Among the appendices at the end is a chronological table oj 
the life and public career of^Eschines and Demosthenes. 

A brief Sketch of the Fables of the Ancients, prepared to be 
rendered into Latin Verse for Schools. By F. Hodgson, B.D., 
late Provost of Eton. New Edition, revised by F. C. Hodgson, 
M.A. i8mo. 3^. 

A 2 


The late Provost of Eton has here supplied a help to the composition q^ 
Latin Verse^ combined with a brief introduction to Classical Mythology, 
In this new edition a few mistakes have been rectified; rules have b^stn 
added to the Prosody ; and a more uniform system has been adopted ivUh 
regard to the help afforded, 

Juvenal.— Thirteen Satires of JUVENAL. With a Commentary. 
By John E. B. Mayor, M.A., Fellow of St John's College, 
Cambridge. Second Edition, enlarged. Part I. Crown 8vo. sewed. 

The text is accompanied by a ccpiot^ Commentary, For various notes 
the author is indebted to Professors Munro and Conington, All the 
citations have been taken anew from the original authors, 

Marshall. — a table of irregular greek verbs 

classified according to the arrangement of Curtius* Greek Grammar. 
By J. M. Marshall, M. A., Fellow and late Lecturer of Brasenose 
College, Oxford ; one of the Masters in Clifton College. 8vo. 
cloth. \s. 
The system of this table hcu been borrowed from the excellent Greek 
Grammar of Dr, Curtius, 

Mayor John E. B.)— first GREEK READER. Edited 

after KLarl Halm, with Corrections and large Additions by John 

E. B. Mayor, M.A. Fellow and Classical Lecturer of St. John's 

College, Cambridge. Second and Cheaper Edition. Fcap. 8vo. 

4J. fid, 

A selection of short passages^ serving to illustrate especially the Greek 

Accidence, A good deal of syntax is inculentally taught^ and Madvi^and 

other books are cited, for the use of masters : but no learner is expected to 

know more of syntax than is contained in the Notes and Vocabulary. 

A preface ** To the Reader,^'* not only explains the aim and method of 

the volume, but also deeds with classical ittstruction generally. The 

extracts are uniformly in the Attic dicUect, and any Hellenistic /amis 

occurring in the original classic authors, such as j/Elian and I^olybiusy 

have been discarded in favour of the corresponding Attic expressions. 

This book may be used in connexion with Mayor's " Greek for Beiginners, " 


Mayor (Joseph B.)— GREEK FOR BEGINNERS. By the 
Rev. J. B. Mayor, M.A., Professor of Classical Literature in 
King's College, London. Part I., with Vocabulary, ij. 6</. ; 
Parts II. and III., with Vocabulary and Index, 3^. dd, ; complete 
in one vol., fcap. 8vo. cloth, 4.r. dd. 

The disHnctwe method oj this book consists in building up a boy's 
kfujwledge of Greek upon the foundation of his knowledge of English and 
Latin, instead of trusting everything to the unassisted memory. The 
forms and constructions of Greek have been thoroughly compared ivith 
those of Latin, and no Greek words have been used in the earlier part of 
the book except such as have connexions either in English or Latin. Each 
Hep leads naturally on to its successor, grammatical forms and rules are 
at once applied in a series of graduated exercises, accompanied by ample 
vocabularies, Tims the book serves as Grammar, Exercise book, and 
Vocabulary, Where possible, the Grammar has been simplified ; the 
ordinary ten declensions are reduced to three, which correspond to the 
first three in Latin ; and the system of stems is adopted, A general 
Vocabulary, and Index of Greek words, completes the work, 

AND LATIN ETYMOLOGY. By John Peile, M.A., FeUow 
and Assistant Tutor of Christ's College, Cambridge, formerly 
Teacher of Sanskrit in the University of Cambridge. 8vo. lor. dd. 

These Philological Lectures are the result of Notes made during the 
author's reading during the last three or four years. These Notes were 
put into the shape of lectures, delivered at Chrisfs College, during the last 
May term, as one set in the " Intercollegiate " list. They are now printed 
with some additions and modifications, but substantially as they were 

Plato.— THE REPUBLIC OF PLATO. Translated into Enghsh, 
with an Analysis and Notes, by J. Ll. Davies, M.A.,and D. J. 
Vaughan, M.A. Third Edition, with Vignette Portraits of Plate 
and Socrates, engraved by Jeens from an Antique Gem. i8mo. 
4r. 6d. 


An introductory notice supplies some account of the life of Plaio^ and 
the translation is preceded by an elaborate analysis, ** The translators 
havcy^ in the judgment of the Saturday Review, ^^ produced a book which 
any reader^ whether acquainted with the original or not, can peruse with 
pleasure as well as profit, " 

Plautus (Ramsay).— THE mostellaria of plau- 

TUS. With Notes Critical and Explanatory, Prol^omena, and 
Excursus. By William Ramsay, M.A., formerly Professor oi 
Humanity in the University of Glasgow. Edited by Professor 
George G. Ramsay, M.A., of the University of Glasgow. 8vo. 

" The/ruits of thai exhaustive research and that ripe and wdl-digested 
scholarship which its author brought to bear upon everything that he 
undertook are visible throughout it. It is furnished with a complete 
apparatus of prolegomena^ notes ^ and excursus; and for the use of veteran 
ichoiars tt probably leaves nothing to be desired," — Pall Mall Gazette. 

Potts (Alex. W., M.A.)— HINTS towards latin 

PROSE COMPOSITION. By Alex. W. Potts, M.A., late 
Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge ; Assistant Master in 
Rugby School ; and Head Master of the Fettes College, Edinburgh. 
Second Edition, enlarged. Extra fcap. 8vo. cloth. 3^. 

Those engaged in Classical teaching seem to be unanimously of the 
opinion that Composition in Latin Prose is not only the most efficient 
method of acquiring a mastery of the Latin language^ but is in itselj 
a valuable means of mental training, and an admirable corrective of some 
of the worst features in English writing. An attempt is here mcuU to 
give students, after they heme mctstered ordinary syntactical rules, some idea 
of the characteristics of Latin Prose and the means to be employed to 
reproduce them. Some notion of the treatment of the subject may be 
gathered Jrom the * Contents.^ Chap. I. — Characteristics of Classical 
Latin, Hints on turning English into Latin ; Chap. II. — ArrangemetU 
of Words in a Sentence; Chap. III. — Unity in Latin Prose, Subject and 
Object; Chap. \N, ^On the Period in Latin Prose ; Chap. V,— On the 
position of the Relative and Rdatvue Clauses, 


Roby .— A LATIN GRAMMAR for the Higher Classes in Grammar 
Schools. By H. J. Roby, M. A. \In the Press. 

THA. For Use in Schools. With copious Notes. By C. 
Merivale, B.D. (In the present Edition the Notes have been 
carefully revised, and a few remarks and explanations added.) 
Second Edition. Fcap. 8vo. 4f. 6df. 

The JUGURTHA and the CATILINA may be had separately, price 
2J. 6^/. each. 
This edition ofSalltut^ prepared by the distinguished historian of Rome^ 
contains an introduction^ concerning the life and works of Sallusty lists 
of the Consuls^ and elaborate notes, 


INTO ENGLISH. By A. J. Church, M.A., and W. J. 

Brodribb, M.A. With Notes and a Map. 8vo. lOf. 6d. 

The translators have endeavoured to adhere as closely to the original as 

ijuas thought consistent with a proper observance of English idiom. At 

the same time, it has been their aim to reproduce the precise expressions oj 

the author. The campaign of Civilis is elucidctted in a note of some length, 

which is illustrated by a map, containing the names of places and of tribes 

occurring in the work. There is also a complete account oj the Roman army 

as it was constituted in the time of Tacitus, This work is characterised 

by the Spectator cu *^ a scholarly and faithful translation,^^ 

Text, English Notes, and Maps. By Alfred J. Church, M.A., 
and W. J. Brodribb, M.A. Fcap. 8vo. 3J. dd. 

" We have endeavoured, with the aid oJ recent editions, thoroughly to 
elucidate the text, explaining the various difficulties, critical and gramma' 
tical, which occur to the student. We have consulted throughout, besides 
the older commentators, the editions of Ritter and Ordli, but we are 
under special obligations to the labours of the recent German editors, Wex 
and UTritz," 7\vo Indexes are appended, (i) of Proper Names, (2) of 
Words and Phrcues explained. 


Tacitus — continued, 

THE AGRICOLA and GERMANIA may be had separately, price 
2s, each. 

THE AGRICOLA AND GERMANIA. Translated into English 
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The translators have sought to produce such a version as may satisfy 
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disfigure translations. The treatises are accompanied by introductions, 
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Theophrastus. — THE characters of theo- 

PHRASTUS. An English Translation from a Revised Text. 
With Introduction and Notes. By R. C. Jebb, M.A., Public 
Orator in the University of Cambridge. Extra fcap. 8vo. dr. 6d, 

To the average English reader Theophrastus is little known. At the 
present time, when there is a general desire to see ancient life more vividly 
on every side from which it can illustrate our own, it seems possible that 
the characters of Theophrastus may possess some potent interest. The text 
has undergone careful revision. An Introduction supplies an account of 
the origin of the book, and of writers who have imitated it: as Hall^ 
Sir Thomas Overbury, and others. The notes are for the most part 
selected from ancient sources, 

Thring.— Works by the Rev. E. THRING, M.A., Head Master 
of Uppingham School 

A LATIN GRADUAL. A First Latin Construing Book for 
Beginners. By Edward Turing, M.A. New Edition, enlarged, 
with Coloured Sentence Maps. Fcap. 8vo. 2f. (mL 

The Head Master of Uppingham has here sought to supply by easy steps 
a knowledge of grammar, combined with a good Vocabulary, Passages 
have been selected from the best Latin authors in prose and verse. These 


Thring — continued, 

passages are gradually built up in their grammatical structure, and 
finally printed in full. A short practical manual of common mood con* 
structionsy with their English equivalents^ forms a second part, 

Treats of the ordinary mood constructions, as found in the Latin, Greek, 
and English languages, 

A CONSTRUING BOOK. Fcap. 8vo. 2j. 6^. 

Thucydides.— THE SICILIAN EXPEDITION. Being Books 

VL and VII. of Thucydides, with Notes. A New Edition, revised 

and enlarged, with a Map. By the Rev. Percival Frost, M. A., 

late Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. Fcap. Svo. 5^. 

This edition is mainly a grammatical one. Attention is called to the 

force of compound verbs, and the exact meaning of the various tenses 


ENGLISH PROSE, with Introductions, Running Analysis, and 
an Index, by James Lonsdale, M. A. and Samuel Lee, M. A. 
Globe Svo. y. 6d.; gilt edges, 4r. 6d, 

The preface of this new volume informs us that " the original has been 
faithfully retidered, and paraphrase altogether avoided. At the same time, 
the translators have endeavoured to adapt the book to the use of the 
English reader. Some amount of rhythm in the structure of the sentence 
has been generally maintained; and, when in the Latin the sound of the 
words is an echo to the sense (as so frequently happens in Virgil), an 
attempt has been made to produce the same result in En^ishP 

The general introduction gives us whatever is known of the poefs life, 
an estimate of his genius, an account of the principal editions and trans- 
lotions of his works, and a brief view of the influence he has had on 
nwdempoets ; special introductory essays are prefixed to the ** Eclogues,** 
*' Georgics," and ** ^neid," The text is divided into sections, each of 
which is headed by a concise analysis of the subject; the index contains 
references to all the characters and events of any importance. 


Wright.— Works by J. WRIGHT, M.A., late Head Master of 
Sutton Coldfield School 

related by Diodoms and Thucydides ; being a First Greek Reading 
Book, with explanatory Notes, Critical and Historical Third 
Edition, with a Vocabulary. i2mo. 3^. 6^. 

In the last twenty chapters of this volume^ Thucydides sketches the rise 
and progress of the Athenian Empire in so clear a style and in such simple 
language^ thai the editor has doubts whether any easier or more instruc- 
tive passages can be selected for the use of the pupU who is commencing 
Greek. This book includes a chronological table of the events recorded. 

A HELP TO LATIN GRAMMAR ; or. The Form and Use of Words 
in Latin, with Progressive Exercises. Crown 8vo. ^. 6d. 

This book is not intended as a rival to any of the excellent Grammars 
now in use ; but as a help to enable the beginner to understand them. 

THE SEVEN KINGS OF ROME, An Easy Narrative, abridged 
from the First Book of Livy by the omission of Difficult Passages; 
being a First Latin Reading Book, with Grammatical Notes. 
With Vocabulary and Exercises. Fourtli Edition. Fcap. 8vo. $s. 

This work is intended to supply the pupil with an easy construing book, 
which may at the same time be made the vehicle for instructing him in the 
rules of grammar and principles of comfwsiHon. The notes profess to 
teach what is commonly taught in grammars. It is conceived that the 
1>upil will learn the rules of construction of the language much more 
easily from separate examples, which are pointed out to him in the course 
of his reading, and which he may himself set down in his note-book ctfter 
some scheme of his own, ■ than from a heap of quotations amassed for him 
by others. 

Or, separately, 


2J. td. 




The following works are, as the heading indicates, 
classic renderings of English books. For scholars, and 
particularly for writers of Latin Verse, the series has a 
special value. The Hymni Ecclesiae are here inserted, as 
partly falling under the same class. 

Church (A. J., A.M.)— HOR^E TENNYSONIANiE, sive 
Eclogae e Tennysono. Latine redditae. Cura A. J. Church, 
A.M. Extra fcap. 8vo. 6j. 

IjUin versions of Selections from Tennyson. Among the authors are 
the Editor^ the late Professor Conington^ Professor Seeley, Dr. Hessey^ 
Mr. Kebbel, and other gentlemen. 

Latham. — SERTUM SHAKSPERIANUM, Subnexis aliquot 
aliunde excerptis floribus. Latine reddidit Rev. H. Latham, M.A. 
Extra fcap. 8vo. 5j. 

Besides versions of Shakspeare this volume contains^ among other pieces ^ 
Gra^s ''Elegy," CamfbelTs *' Hohenlinden,'' Wolffs '' Burial of Sir 
yohn Moorey* and selections from Cowper and George Herbert. 

Lyttelton.— THE COMUS OF MILTON, rendered into Greek 
Verse. By Lord Lyttelton. Extra fcap. 8vo. 5j. 

Verse. By Lord Lyttelton. Extra fcap. 8vo. 6j. 6d. 

Merivale. — KEATS' HYPERION, rendered into Latin Verse. 
By C. Merivale, B.D. Second Edit. Extra fcap. 8vo. jj. 6d. 


Hymni Ecclesiae. — Edited by Rev. Dr. Newman. Extra 
fcap. 8va 7^. 6d. 

Hymns of the Mediaval Church. The first Part contains selections 
from the Parisian Breviary ; the second from those of Rome^ Salisbury^ 
and York. 

Trench (Archbishop). — sacred latin poetry, 

chiefly Lyrical, selected and arranged for Use ; with Notes and 
Introduction. Fcap. Svo. 7x. 

In this work the editor has selected hymns of a catholic religious 
sentiment that are common to Christendom^ while rgecting those of a 
Jistinctifvely Romish character. 



Airy. — Works by G. B. AIRY, Astronomer Royal :— 

EQUATIONS. Designed for the Use of Students in the Univer- 
sities. With Diagrams. Crown 8vo. cloth. 5^. 6</. 

// is hoped that the methods of solution here explained^ and the instances 
exhilnted, will be found sufficient for application to nearly all the important 
problems of Physical Science^ which require for thar complete investigcUion 
the aid of Partial Differential Equations. 

TION OF OBSERVATIONS. Crown 8vo. cloth. 6s. 6d. 

In order to spare astronomers and observers in natural philosophy the 
confusion and loss of time which are produced by referring to the ordinary 
treatises embracing both branches of probabilities {the first relating to 
chances which can be altered only by the changes of entire untis or in" 
tegral multiples of units in the fundamental conditions of the problem ; 
the other concerning those chances which have respect to insensible grada- 
tions in the value of the element measured) the present tract has been drawn 
up. It relates only to errors of observation^ and to the rules, derivablt 
from the consideration of these errors, for the combination of the results 
of observations. 


Airy (G. B.) — continued. 

UNDULATORY THEORY OF OPTICS. Designed for the Use ot 
Students in the University. New Edition. Crown 8vo. cloth. 

The undidatory theory of optics is presented to the reader as having the 
same claims to his attention as the theory of gravitation : namely, that it is 
certainly true, and that, by mathematical operations of general elegance, it 
leads to results of great interest. This theory explains with accuracy a 
vast variety of phenomena of the most complicated kind. The plan of this 
tract has been to include those phenomena only which admit of calculation, 
and the investigations are applied only to phenomena which actually have 
been observed. 

Mathematical Elements of Music. Designed for the Use of Students 
of the University. Crown 8vo. qj. 
This volume consists of sections, which again are divided into numbered 
articles, on the following topics : General recognition of the air as the 
medium which conveys sound; Properties of the air on which the forma- 
tion and transmission of sound depend; Theory of undulations as applied 
to sound, dr*f. ; Investigation of the motion of a wave of air through the 
atmosphere ; Transmission of waves of soniferous vibi-ations through dif- 
ferent gases, solids, and fluids ; Experiments on the velocity of sound, 
<S^'^. ; On musical sounds, and the manner of producing them ; On the 
elements of musical harmony and melody, and of simple musical composi- 
tion ; On instrumental music; On the human organs of speech and 

A TREATISE ON MAGNETISM. Designed for the use of 
Students in the University. Crown 8vo. 9J. 6d. 

Airy (Osmund.) — a treatise on geometrical 

OPTICS. Adapted for the use of the Higher Classes in Schools. 

By Osmund Airy, B.A., one of the Mathematical Masters in 

Wellington College, Extra fcap. Svo. 3J. 6d. 
" This is, I imagine, the first time thcU any attempt has been made to 
adapt the subject of Geometrical Optics, to the raiding of the higher 
classes in our good schools. That this should be so is the more a matter 


tor remark^ since the subject would appear to be peculiarly fitted for such 

an adaptation I have endeavoured^ as much as possible, to avoid 

the example of those popular lecturers who explain difficulties by ignoring 
them. But cts the nature of my design necessitated brevity, I have omitted 
entirely one or two portions of the subject which I considered unnecessary 
to a clear understanding of the rest, and which appear to me better learnt 
at a more advanced stage.^* — Author's Preface. 

NICS. By Joseph Bayma, S. J., Professor of Philosophy, 
Stonyhurst College. Demy 8vo. cloth. lor. 6d. 

Of the twelve Books into which the present treatise is divided, the first 
and second give the demonstration of the principles which bear directly on 
the constitution and the properties of matter. The next three books contain 
a series of theorems and of problems on the laws oj motion of elementary 
substances. In the sixth and seventh, the mechanical constitution of mole- 
cules is investigated and determined : and by it the general properties of 
bodies are explained. The eighth book treats of luminiferous ather. The 
ninth explains some specuU properties of bodies. The tenth and eleventh 
contain a radical and lengthy investigation of chemical principles and 
relations, which may lead to practiced results of high importance. The 
iwdfth and last book treats cf molecular masses, distances, and powers, 

Beasley.— AN elementary treatise on plane 

TRIGONOMETRY. With Examples. By R. D. Beasley, 

M. A., Head Master of Grantham Grammar School. Second 

Edition, revised and enlarged. Crown 8vo. cloth. 3J. (>d. 

This treatise is specially intended for use in schools. The choice of matter 

has been chiefly guided by the requirements of the three days* examination 

at Cambridge. A bout four hundred examples have been added to this edition, 

mainly collected from the Examination Papers of the last ten years, 

Boole. — Works by G. BOOLE, D.C.L., F.R.S., Professor of 
Mathematics in the Queen's University, Ireland. 

Revised Edition. Edited by I. Todhunter. Crown 8vo. cloth. 



Boole (G., D.C.Lr.) — continued. 

Professor Boole has endeavoured in this treatise to convey as complete an 
account of the present stctte ofkncwledge on the subject of Differential Equa- 
tions^ as was consistent with the idea of a work intended^ primarily, for 
elementary instruction. The earlier sections of each chapter contain that 
kind of matter which hcLS usually been thought suitable for the beginner, 
while the latter ones are devoted either to an account of recent discovery, or 
the discussion of such deeper questions of principle cts are likely to present 
themselves to the reflective student in connexion with the methods and 
processes of his preuious course. 

mentary Volume. Edited by I. Todhunter. Crown 8vo. cloth. 

This TMjlume contains all that Professor Boole wrote for the purpose ot 
enlarging his treatise on Differential Equations. 

cloth. \os. 6d. 
In this exposition of the Calculus of Finite Differences, particular attention 
has been paid to the connexion of its methods with those of the Differential 
Calculus — a connexion which in some instances involves far more than a 
merely formal analogy. The work is in some measure designed as a 
sequd to Professor BooUs Treatise on Differential Equations. 

1S48-1851.— PROBLEMS. By Ferrers and Jackson. 8vo. 

doth. 15^. 6d. 
1848-185 1.— RIDERS. By Jameson. 8vo. doth. ls.6d, 
1854. — PROBLEMS AND RIDERS. By Walton and 

Mackenzie. 8va doth. lor. 6d 
1857. — PROBLEMS AND^ RIDERS. By Campion and 

Walton. 8vo. cloth. 8f. 6d. 
i86a— PROBLEMS AND RIDERS. By Watson and Routh. 

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1864.— PROBLEMS AND RIDERS. By Walton and Wil- 
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Boole (G., D.C.Lr.) — continued. 

TJuse volumes will be found oj great value to Teachers and Students, as 
indicating the style and range of mathetncUical study in the University of 

PHILOSOPHY, for the D^ree of B. A. Originally compiled by 
J. C. Snowball, M.A., late Fellow of St John's College. 
Fifth Edition, revised and enlarged, and adapted for the Middle- 
Class Examinations by Thomas Lund, B.D., Late Fellow and 
Lecturer of St John's CoU^e, Editor ot Wood's Algebra, &c. 
Crown 8vo. cloth. 5^. 
77Us work will be found adapted to the wants, not only of University 
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The Complete Work, in Nine Vols. 8vo. cloth, 7/. 4r. 
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Hamilton, De Morgan, Cayley, Sylvester, Jdlett, and other distinguished 

Candler.— HELP TO arithmetic. Designed for the use of 
Schools. By H. Candler, M.A. Mathematical Master of 
Uppingham School. Extra fcap. 8vo. 2j. 6d, 
This work is intended as a companion to any text book that may be 

in use, 

Cheyne.— AN elementary treatise on the 

PLANETARY THEORY. With a Collection of Problems. 

By C. H. H. Cheyne, M. A. , F. R. A. S. Second Edition. Crown 

8vo. clot> 6s. 6d, 

In this volume, an attempt has been made to produce a treatise on the 

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stability of the Planetary System has been more fully treated, and an 



Cheyne (C. H. H., M.A. ¥ .R.Pl.^.)— continued, 

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Cheyne, M. a. , F. R. A. S. Crown 8vo. y. 6d. 

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DEGREE. By the Rev. G. F. Childe, M.A., Author of 
*' Ray Surfaces," " Related Caustics," &c. 8vo. lox. 6^. 
The object of this volume is to develop peculiarities in the Ellipsoid ; 

and, further, to establish analogous properties in the unlimited congeneric 

series of which this remarkable surface is a constituent, 

with Answers and Appendices on Synthetic Division, and on the 
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The series of Mathematical exercises here offerai to the public is collected 
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The object of this book is the introduction of a treatment of Conic 
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MINANTS, with their Application to Simultaneous Linear 
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T%e object of the author is to present the subject as a continuous chain of 
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TIONS. By W. H. Drew, M. A., St. John's College, Cambridge. 
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In this work the subject of Conic Sections has been placed before the student 
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SECTIONS. Crown 8vo. doth. ^s. 6d. 

B 2 


GEOMETRY. Containing Problems with help for Solutions. By 
J. H. Edgar, M.A. Lecturer on Mechanical Drawing at the 
Royal School of Mines. 4to. 2j. 

In teaching a large class, if the method of lecturing and demonstrating 
from the black board only is pursued, the more intelligent students have 
generally to be kept back, from the necessity of frequent repetition, for the 
sake of the less promising; if the plan of setting problems to each pupil is 
adopted, the teacher finds a difficulty in giving to each sufficient attention, 
A judicious combination of both methods is doubtless the best ; and it is 
hoped thai this result may be arrived at in some degree by the use of this 
book, which is simply a collection of examples, with helps for soltUion, 
arranged in progressive sections, 

Ferrers.— AN elementary TREATISE ON TRILINEAR 
CO-ORDINATES, the Method of Reciprocal Polars, and the 
Theory of Projectors. By the Rev. N. M. Ferrers, M. A., Fellow 
and Tutor of Gonville and Caius College^ Cambridge. Second 
Edition. Crown 8vo. dr. 6d, 

The object of the author in writing on this subject has mainly been to 
place it on a bcms altogether independent of the ordinary Cartesian system^ 
instead of regarding it as only a special form of Abridged Notation, 
A short chapter on Determinants has been introduced. 

PRINCIPIA. With Notes and Illustrations. Also a collection of 
Problems, principally intended as Examples of Newton's Methods. 
By Percival Frost, M.A., late Fellow of St. John's College, 
Mathematical Lecturer of King's College^ Cambridge. Second 
Edition. 8vo. cloth. lor. td. 

The author's principal intentum is to explain difficulties which may be 
encountered by the student on first reading the Prindpia, and to illustrate 
the advantages of a careful study of the methods employed by Newton, by 
showing the extent to which they may be applied in the solution of problems ; 



ke has also endeavoured to give assistance to the student who is engaged in 
'the study of the higher branches of mathematics^ by representing in a 
geometrical form several 0/ the processes employed in the Differential ana 
Int^ral Calculus^ and in the analytical investigations of Dynamics, 

Frost and Wolstenholme. — ^a treatise on solid 

GEOMETRY. By Pbrcival Frost, M.A., and the Rev. J. 
Wolstenholme, M.A., Fellow and Assistant Tutor of Chrises 
College. Svo. clotb. i8j. 

7)1/ authors have endeavoured to present before students as comprehensive 
a view of the subject cu possible. Intending to make the subject accessible^ 
at leout in the earlier portion^ to all classes of students^ they have endea^ 
voured to explain completdy all the processes which are most useful in 
dealing with ordinary theorems and problems^ thus directing the student 
to the selection of methods which are best adapted to the exigencies of each 
problem. In the m^fre difficult portums of the subfect, they have considered 
tUhnsdves to be addressing a higher class oj students ; and they have there 
tried to lay a good foundation on which to build, if any reader should 
wish to pursue the science beyond the limits to which the work extends, 

Godfray.— A treatise on astronomy, for the Use of 
Colleges and Schools. By Hugh Godfray, M.A., Mathematical 
Lecturer at Pembroke Collie, Cambridge, Svo. doth. I2j. dd. 

This book embraces all those branches of Astronomy which have, from 
time to time, been recommended by the Cambridge Board of Mathematical 
Studies : but by far the larger and easier portion, culapted to the first three 
days of the Examination, for Honours, may be read by the more 
advanced pupils in many of our schools. The author's aim has been to 
convey clear and distinct ideas of the cdestial phenomena, 

with a Brief Sketch of the Problem up to the time of Newton. 
By Hugh Godfray, M.A. Second Edition, revised. Crown 
Svo. doth. 5^. ()d. 


These pages will, it is hoped, form an introdtiction to more ruondite 
works. Difficulties have been discussed at considerable length. The 
selection of the method followed with regard to analytical solutions^ 
which ,is the same as that of Airy, Herschel, &*c. was made on account 
of its simplicity ; it is, moreover, the method which has obtained in the 
University of Cambridge. 

Hemming.--AN elementary treatise on the 

Use of Colleges and Schools. By G. W. Hemming, M.A., 
Fellow of St, John's College, Cambridge. Second Edition, with 
Corrections and Additions. Svo. cloth. 9^. 

Jones and Cheyne. — algebraical exercises. Pro- 
gressively arranged. By the Rev. C. A. Jones, M. A., and C. H. 
Cheyne, M.A., F.R.A.S., Mathematical Masters of Westminsl^ 
School New Edition. i8mo. doth. zr. td. 

This little book is intended to meet a difficulty which is probably fdt more 
or less by all engaged in teaching Algebra to beginners. It is, that while 
new ideas are being acquired, old ones are forgotten. In the belief that 
constant practice is the only remedy for this, the present series of miscel- 
laneous exercises has been prepared. Their peculiarity consists in this, 
that though miscellaneous they are yet progressive, and may be used by 
the pupil almost from the commencement of his stt^dies. They are not 
intended to supersede the systematically arranged examples to be found in 
ordinary treatises on Algebra, but rather to supplement them. 

The hook being intended chiefly for Schools and Junior Students, the 
higher parts of Algebra have not been included. 

Kitchener.— A geometrical note-book, containing 
Easy Problems in Geometrical Drawing preparatory to the Study 
of Geometry. For the Use of Schools. By F. E. Kitchener, 
M. A., Mathematical Master at Rugby. 4to. 2s. 



// is the object of this book to make someway in overcoming the difficulties 
of Geometrical coneeption, before the mind is called to the attack of 
GeometricaJ theorems. A few simple methods of construction are given ; 
and space is left on each page, in order that the learner may draw in the 


PLES IN MATHEMATICS. With Answers. By H. A. 

Morgan, M.A., Sadlerian and Mathematical Lecturer of Jesus 

College, Cambridge. Crown 8vo. cloth. 6j. 6^. 

This book contains a number of problems, chiefly elementary^ in the 

Mathematical subjects usually read at Cambridge, They have been 

selected from the papers set during late years at Jesus College, Very few 

of them are to be met with in other collections, and by far the larger 

number are dtie to some of the most distinguished Mathematicians in the 


Parkinson.— Works by S. Parkinson, D.D., F.R.S., Fellow and 
Tutor of SL John's College, Cambridge. 

Use of the Junior Classes at the University and the Higher Classes 
in Schools. With a Collection of Examples. Fourth edition, revised. 
Crown 8vo. cloth. 9^. 6d, 

In preparing a fourth edition of this work the author has kept the same 
object in view as he had in the former editions — namely, to include in k 
such portions of Theoretical Mechanics as can be conveniently investigated 
Vfithout the use of the DiJferenticU CcUculus, and so- render tt suitable as 
a manual for the junior classes in the University and the higher classes 
in Schools, With one or two short exceptions, the student is not presumed 
to require a knowledge of any branches of Mathematics beyond the elements 
of Algebra, Geometry, and Trigonometry, Severed additional propositions 
have been incorporated in the work for the purpose of rendering it more 
complete; and the collection of Examples and Problems has been largdy 


Parkinson (S.) — continued, 

A TREATISE ON OPTICS. Third Edition, revised and enlarged. 
Crown 8vo. doUi. lor. 6«/. 

A collection of examples and problems hcu been appended to this work^ 
which are sufficiently numerous and varied in character to afford useful 
exercise for the student. For the greater part of them, recourse has beat 
had to the Examination Papers set in the University and the several 
Collies during the last twenty years, 

Examples. By J. B. Phear, M.A., Fellow and late Assistant 
Tutor of Clare College, Cambridge. Fourth Edition. Crown 
8vo. cloth. 5j. dd, * 

This edition has been carefully revised throughout^ and many neat 
illustrations and examples added^ which it is hoped will increase its 
usefulness to students at the Universities and in Schools, In accordance 
with suggestions from many engaged in tuition^ answers to all the 
Examples have been given at the end of the book, 

By John H. Pratt, M.A., Archdeacon of Calcutta, Author of 
" The Mathematical Principles of Mechanical Philosophy. " Third 
Edition. Crown 8vo. cloth, dr. td. 

The author^ s chief design in this treatise is to give an answer to the 
question^ " Has the Earth acquired its present form from being originally 
in a fluid state ? ** This Edition is a complete revision of the former ones, 

Examples and Hints for their Solution ; especially designed for the 
Use of Beginners. By G. H. Puckle, M.A., Head Master kA 
Windermere College. New Edition, revised and enlarged. Crown 
8vo. cloth, is, 6d, 


Tikis work is recommended by the Syndicate of the Cambridge Local 
ExamincUions, and is the text-book in Harvard University , U.S, 

Rawlinson.— ELEMENTARY STATICS, by the Rev. George 
Rawlinson, M. a. Edited by the Rev. Edward Sturges, M. A. , 
of Emmanuel Collie, Cambridge, and late Professor of the Applied 
Sciences, Elphinstone College, Bombay. Crown 8vo. cloth. 4f. 6d, 

Published under the authority of Her Majesty s Secretary of State for 
India, for use in the Government Schools and Collies in India. 

GEOMETRY. By E. M. Reynolds, M.A., Mathematical 
Master in Clifton Collie. Crown 8vo. 3^. 6^. 

Some change^ it is evident, in our English ways of teaching can new no 
longer be postponed, and this little book, mainly derived from French and 
German sources, hcu been written in the hope of facilitating that change. 
It has been constructed on one plan throughout, that of always giving in 
the simplest possible form the direct proof from the ncUure of the case. The 
axioms necessary to this simplicity have been assumed without hesitation, 
and no scruple has been felt as to the increase of their number, or the 
acceptance of cu many elementary notions as common experience places 
past all doubt. 

The book differs most from established teething in its constructions, and 
in its early application of Arithmetic to Geometry. 

Numerous Examples. By Edward John Routh, M.A., late 
Fellow and Assistant Tutor of St. Peter's Collie, Cambridge; 
Examiner in the University of London. Second Edition, enlarged. 
Crown 8vo. doth. 141. 


In this edition the author has made several additions to each chapter. 
He has tried, even at the risk oj some little repetition, to make each 
chapter, as far as possible, complete in itself, so that all that relates to any 
one part of the subject may be found in the sameplcue. This arrangement 
will enable every student to select his own order in which to read the 
subject. The Examples which will be found at the end of each chapter 
have been chiefly selected from the Examination Papers which have been 
set in the University and the Colleges in the last few years. 

Smith (Barnard).— Works by Barnard smith, m.a., 

Rector of Glaston, Rutlandshire, late FeUow and Senior Bursar 
of St. Peter's College, Cambridge. 

ARITHMETIC AND ALGEBRA, in their Principles and Applica- 
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the Cambridge Examination Papers, with especial reference to the 
Ordinary Examination for the B.A. Degree. Tenth Edition. 
Crown 8vo. cloth. lor. 6^^. 

7%£r manucd is now extensively used in Schools and Colleges, both in 
England and in the Colonies, It has also been found of great service for 
students preparing for the Middle Class and CivU and Military Service 
Examinations, from the care that has been taken to elucidate the principles 
of all the rules. The present edition has been carefully revised, '* 7^o 
all those whose minds are sufficiently developed to comprehend the simplest 
mathematical reasoning, and who have not yet thoroughly mastered the 
principles of Arithmetic and Algebra, it is calculated to be o^ great 
advantage, " — AxHENiEUM. 

Of this work, also, one of the highest possible authorities, the late Dean 
Peacock, writes: "Mr. Smithes work is a most useful publication. The 
rules are stated with great clearness. The examples are well selected, and 
worked out with just sufficient detail, without being encumbered by teo 
minute explafiations ; and there prevails throughout it that just proportion 
oj theory and practice, vthich is the crowning excellence of an elementary 


Smith (Barnard) — contintied, 

ARITHMETIC FOR SCHOOLS, New Edition. Crown 8vo. 
cloth. 4r. 6d, 

Adapted from the author^ s work on ^^ Arithmetic and Algebra^* by the 
omission of the algebraic portion^ and by the introduction of new exercises, 
T^ reason of ectch arithmetical process is fully exhibited. The system of 
Decimal Coinage is explained ; and answers to the exercises are appended 
at the end. This Arithmetic is characterised as " admirably adapted for 
instruction, combining just sufficient theory with a large and well-selected 
collection of exercises for practice.''^ — Journal of Education, • 



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EXERCISES IN ARITHMETIC With Answers. Crown 8vo. Ump 
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Or sold separately, Parts I. and II. tod. each ; Part III. is. 

This manual^ published at the request of many schoolmasters, and 
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the knowledge of such tables, and the mode of applying them, will be of 
great use to the rising generation, 

plete in one volume, i8mo. cloth, 6s. 6d. ; or Parts I. II. and III. 
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Smith (Barnard) — continued. 

ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS. i8mo. cloth. Or separately. 
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THE SAME, with Answers complete. i8mo. cloth, is, 6d, 

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IS, 6d, The same, with Answers, i8mo. is, gd. 
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Smith, M.A. Part I. Crown 8vo. y, 6d, 

The following pages form the first part of a Treatise on Arithmetic, in 
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Tvorked out at lengthy and the best practiced method of operation carefully 
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Snowball.— THE elements of plane and spheri- 

CAL TRIGONOMETRY J with the Construction and Use of 
Tables of Logarithms. By J. C. Snowball, M. A. Tenth Edition. 
Crown 8vo. cloth. *js, 6d, 

In preparing the present edition for the press, the text hcu been 
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considerctble addition of more than two hundred examples, taken princi" 
folly from the questions set of late years in the public examinations of the 
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Examples and Problems for practice, 

Tait and Steele.— a treatise on dynamics of a 

PARTICLE. With numerous Examples. By Professor Tait and 
Mr. Steele. New Edition Enlarged. Crown 8vo. cloth. lor. td. 

In this treatise will be found all the ordinary propositions, connected 
with the Dynamics of Particles, which can be conveniently deduced without 
the use of D^Alembert^s Principle, Throughout the book will be found a 
number of illustrative examples introduced in the text, and for the most 
part completely worked out; others with occasional solutions or hints to 
assist the student are appended to each chapter. For by far the greater 
portion of these, the Cambridge Senate-House and College Examination 
Papers have been applied to, 

Taylor.— GEOMETRICAL CONICS; including Anharmonic 
Ratio and Projection, with numerous Examples. By C. Taylor, 
B. A., Scholar of St John's Collie, Cambridge. Crown 8vo. cloth. 
*js, 6d, 

This work contains elementary proof s of the principal properties of Conic 
Sections, together with chapters on Projection and Anharmonic Ratio, 


With numerous Examples. By Septimus Tebay, B.A., Head 
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fcap. 8vo. 3 J. 6^. 

The object of the present work is to enable boys to acquire a moderate 
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matter has been avoided. The examples for the most part are ectsy^ and 
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Todhunter.— Works by L TODHUNTER, M.A., F.R.S., 
of St John's College, Cambridge. 

THE ELEMENTS OF EUCLID. For the Use of Collies and 
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As the elements of Euclid are usually placed in the hands of young 
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so useful as that of breaking up the demonstrations into their constituent 
parts ; a plan strongly recommended by Professor De Morgan. In the 
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and at the ends of the lines are placed the necessary references to the 
preceding principles on which the assertions depend. The lon^ proposi- 
tions are distributed into subordinate parts j which are distinguished by 
breaks at the beginning of the lines. Notes, appendix, and a collection oj 
exercises are added, 

i8rao. cloth. 2 J. 6^. 
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Rules of Mensuration it has been found practicable to give such explana- 
tions and illustrations as will supply the place of formal mathematical 


Todhunter (I.) — continued, 

demonstrations, which would have been unsuitable to the character of the 

ALGEBRA FOR BEGINNERS. With numerous Examples. New 
Edition. i8mo. cloth. 2x. 6^. 

Great pains have been taken to render this work intelligible to young 
students, by the use of simple language and by copious explanations. In 
determining the subjects to be included and the space to be assigned to each, 
the Author has been guided by the papers given at the various examinations 
in elementary Algebra which are now tarried on in this country. The 
hook may be said to consist of three parts. The first part contains the 
elementary operations in integral and fractional expressions; the second 
the solution of equations and problems ; the third treats of various subjects 
which are introduced but rarely into examination papers, and are more 
briefly discussed. Provision has at the same time been made for the 
introduction of ectsy equations and problems at an early stage— for those 
who prefer such a course, 


TRIGONOMETRY FOR BEGINNERS. With numerous Examples. 

New Edition. i8mo. cloth, is. 6d. 
Intended to serve as an introduction to the larger treatise on Plane 
Trigonometry, published by the Author, The same plan has been adopted 
as in the Algebra for Beginners : the subject is discussed in short chapters, 
and a collection of examples is attached to each chapter. The first fourteen 
chapters present the geometrical part of Plane Trigonometry; and contain 
all that is ftecessary for prc^ctical purposes. The range of matter included 
is such as seems required by the various examinations in elementary Tri- 
gonometry whv'h are now carried on in the country. Answers are appended 
at the end, 
MECHANICS FOR BEGINNERS. With numerous Examples. 

Second Edition. i8mo. cloth. 4;. 6^. 

Intended as a companion to the two preceding books. The work forms 

an elementary treatise on demonstrative mechanics. It may be true that 

this part of mixed mathematics has been sometimes made too abstract and 

fpeculative; but it can hardly he doubted that a knowledge of the elements 


Todhunter (I.) — continued, 

at least of the theory of the subject is extremely valuable even for those 
who are mainly concerned with practical results. The Author has accord- 
in^y endeavoured to provide a suitable introduction to the study of appUed 
as weU as of theoretical mechanics. The work consists of two parts, 
namely. Statics and Dynamics. It will be found to contain all that is 
usually comprised in elementary treatises on Mechanics, together with some 

ALGEBRA. For the Use of Colleges and Schools. Fifth Edition. 
Crown 8vo. cloth. *js, 6d. 
This work contains all the propositions which are usually included in 
elementary treatises on Algebra^ and a large number of Examples for 
Exercise. TTu author has sought to render the work easily intelligible to 
students, withotU impairing the accuracy of the demonstrations, or con- 
tracting the limits of the subject. The Examples, about Sixteen hundred 
and fifty <*» number, have been selected with a view to illustrate every part 
of the subject. Each chapter is complete in itself; and the work imU be 
found peculiarly cuiapted to the wattts of students who are without the aid 
of a teacher. The Answers to the examples, with hints for the solution oj 
some in which assistance may be needed, are given at the end of the book. 
In the present edition two New Chapters and Three hundred miscellaneous 
Examples have been added. The latter are arranged in sets, each set 
containing ten examples, 


SCHOOLS. Crown 8vo. lOf. 6^. 

EQUATIONS. Second Edition, revised. Crown 8vo. cloth. 

This treatise contains cdl the propositions which are usually included 
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for exercise These have been sdected from the College and University 
Examination'' Papers, and the results have been given when it appeared 
necessary. In order to exhibit a comprehensive view of the subject, the 
treatise includes investigations which are not found in all the preceding 
elementary treatises, and also some investigations which are not to be found 
in any of them. For the second edition the work has been revised and 


Todhunter (J..)-— continued, 

some additions have been made, the most important being an account 
the researches of Prcfessor Sylvester respecting Nevstotis Rule, 

PLANE TRIGONOMETRY. For SchooU and CoUeges. Four& 
Edition. Crown Syo. cloth. 5j. 

The design of this work hcts been to render the subject intelligible to 
beginnersy and at the same time to afford the student the opportunity of 
obtaining all the information which he will require on this branch of 
Mathematics, Each chapter is followed by a set of Examples: t/iose 
which are entitled Miscellaneous Examples, together with a few in some 
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after he hets made some progress in the subject. In the Second Edition 
the hints for the solution of the Examples have been considerably increased, 

Edition, enlarged. Crown 8vo. cloth. 41. dd. 

The present work is constructed on the same plan as the treatise on 
Plane Trigonometry, to which it is intended as a sequel. In the account 
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by most modem writers on the subject. Considerable labour has been 
bestowed on the text in order to render it comprehensive and accurate, and 
the Examples {selected chiefly from College Examination Papers) have 
all been carefully verified, 

PLANE CO-ORDINATE GEOMETRY, as applied to the Straight 
Line and the Conic Sections. With numerous Examples. Fourth 
Edition, revised and enlarged. Crown 8vo. cloth, 'js. 6d 
The Author has here endeavoured to exhibit the subject in a simple 
manner for the benefit of beginners, and at the same time to include in one 
volume cdl that students usually require. In addition, therefore, to the 
propositions which have always appeared in such treatises, he has intro- 
duced the methods of abridged notation, which are of more recent origin ; 
these methods, which are of a less elementary character than the rest of the 
work, areplacedi n separate chapters, and may be omitted by the student 



Todhunter (I.) — continued, 

numerous Examples. Fourth Edition. Crown 8vo. cloth. lor. ddT. 

The Author has endeavoured in the {present work to exhibit a compre- 
hensive view of the Differential Calculus on the method of limits. In the 
more elementary portions he has entered into considerable detail in the 
explanations^ with the hope that a recuUr who is without the ctssistance of a 
tutor may be enabled to acquire a competent acquaintance with the subject. 
The method adopted is that of Differential Coefficients, To the different 
chapters are appended examples sufficiently numerous to render another 
book unnecessary ; these examples being mostly selected from College Ex- 
amination Papers, 

APPLICATIONS. With numerous Examples. Third Edition, 
revised and' enlarged. Crown 8vo. cloth. lor. 6^. 

This is designed as a work at once elementary and complete^ adapted 
for the use of beginners^ and sufficient for the wants of advanced students. 
In the selection of the propositions^ and in the mode of establishing them^ 
it has been sought to exhibit the principles clearly, and to illustrate 
all their most important results. The process of summation has been 
repeatedly brought forward, with the view of securing the attention of 
the student to the notions which form the true foundation of the Calculus 
itself cts well as of its most valuable applications. Every attempt has been 
made to explain those difficulties which usually perplex beginners, especially 
with reference to the limits of integrations, A new method has been adopted 
in regard to the transformation of multiple integrals. The last chapter- 
deals with the Calculus of Variations, A large collection of exercises, 
selected from College Examination Paper s^ has been appended to the several 

DIMENSIONS. Second Edition, rtvised. Crown Svo. cloth 4r. 


Todhunter (I.) — continued. 

Examples. Third Edition, revised and enlarged. Crown 8vo. 
cloth, icxr. (id. 

In this work on statics (treating of the laws of the equilibrium of bodies') 
will be found all the propositions which usually appear in treatises on 
Theoretical Statics, To the different chapters examples are appended^ 
which have been principally selected from University Examination Papers, 
In the Third Edition many cutditions have been made^ in order to illus" 
trate the application of the principles of the subject to the solution of 

Wilson (J. M.)— ELEMENTARY GEOMETRY. Angles, 
Parallels, Triangles, Equivalent Figures, th^ Circle, and Propor- 
tion. By J. M. Wilson, M.A., Fellow of St John's College, 
Cambridge, and Mathematical Master in Rugby School. Second 
Edition. Extra fcap. 8vo. 3^. dd. 

The distinctive features of this work are intended to be the following. 
The classification of Theorems according to their subjects ; the separation 
of Theorems and Problems ; the use of hypothetical constructions ; the 
adoption of independent proofs where they are possible and simple ; the 
introduction of the terms locos, projection, &c. ; the importance given to 
the notion of direction as the property of a straight line ; the intermixing 
of exercises, clcusifed according to the methods adopted for their solution ; 
the diminution of the number of Theorems; the compression of proofs, 
especially in the later parts of the book ; the tacit, instecul of the explicit^ 
reference to axioms ; and the treatment of parallels. 

Circle and Proportion. By J. M. Wilson, M.A. Extra fcap. 
8to. 2s, Cd, 

C 2 


IVilson (W. P.) — A 'MtEATISE ON DYNAMICS. By 
W. P. Wilson, M. A., Fdlofw of St. John's College, Cambridge, 
and Pkofeaor of ICathematics in Qaecn's CoDi^c^ Bdfiist. Sto. 
9f. 6d: 

Wolstenholme. — a BOOK OF MATHEMATICAL 
PROBLEMS, on Subjects indnded in the Cambridge Coarse. 
^j Joseph Wolstknholme^ FeQow of Christ's College, some- 
time Fellow of St John's College, and latelj Lectnrer in Mathe- 
matics at Christ's College. Crown Svo. doth. &r. 6m^ 

Contents: — Gamuby {EucM\ — Algdra — FUau Trigomomuby — 
Ganndriad Comic Seciiotu — Analytical Conk SecHtms — Tksary of JEquo' 
iions — Differential Caknba — Inl^ral Caladtu — Solid Gtonuby — Statics 
— EUmentofy Dynamics-^Newton — Dynamics of a J)mU — Dynamics oj 
a Rigid Botfy — Hydrostatics — Geomeirisal Ofhcs — S^kaical Trigonometry 
and Flane Astronomy^ 




The importance of Science as an element of sound educa- 
tion is now generally acknowledged ; and accordingly it 
is obtaining a prominent place in the ordinary course of 
school instruction. It is the intention of the Publishers to 
produce a complete series of Scientific Manuals, affording 
full and accurate elementaty information, conveyed in clear 
and lucid English. The authors are well known as among 
the foremost men of their several departments ; and their 
names form a ready guarantee for the high character of the 
books. Subjoined is a list of those Manuals that have 
already appeared, with a short account of each. Others 
are in active preparation; and the whole will constitute a 
standard series specially adapted to the requirements of be- 
ginners, whether for private study or for school instruction. 

ASTRONOMY, by the Astronomer Royal. 

POPULAR ASTRONOMY. With lUustiations. By G. B. 
Airy, Astronomer Royal. Sixth and cheaper Edition. i8m«. 
cloth. 4r. 6«/. 

' This work consists of six lectures^ which are intended " to explain to 
intelligent persons the principles on which the instruments of an Odsen/a» 
tory are constructed (omitting all details^ so far as they are merely js^- 


Elementary Class-Books — continued. 

sidiaty), and the principles on which the observations made with these 
instruments are treated for deduction of the distances and weights of the 
bodies of the Solar System^ and of a few stars, omitting all minutia of 
formulce^ and all troublesome details of calculation, " The speciaJity of this 
volume is ihe direct reference of every step to the Observatory^ and thejull 
description of the methods and instruments of observation, 


NOMY. With Coloured Diagram ot the Spectra of the Sun, 
Stars, and Nebulae, and numerous Illustrations. By J. No&mam 
LoCKYER, F.R.S. Seventh Thousand* i8mo. $s, 6d, 

The author has here aimed to give a connected view of the whole subject, 
and to supply facts, and ideas founded on the facts, to serve as a basis for 
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Bodies; the Measurement of Time; Light; the Tdescope and Spectroscope; 
Apparent Places of the Heavenly Bodies ; the Real Distances and Dimen- 
sions; Universal Gravitation, The most recent astronomical discoveries 
are incorporated, Mr, Lockyer^s work supplements that of the Astronomer 
Royal mentioned in the previous article. 

IN ASTRONOMY. For the use of Schools. By John Forbes- 
Robertson. i8mo. cloth limp, is, 6d. 


PHYSIOLOGY. With numerous Illustrations. By T. H. 
Huxley, F.R.S. Professor of Natural History in the Royal School 
of Mines. Sixteenth Thousand. i8mo. doth. 4^. 6d, 


Elementary Class-Bpoks — continued. 

TTiis book describes and explains^ in a series of graduated lessons, the 
principles of Human Physiology ; or the Structure and Functions of the 
Human Body, The Urst lesson supplies a general view of the subject, 
T^is is followed by sections on the Vascular or Veinous System^ and the 
Circulation; the Blood and the Lymph; Respiration; Sources of Loss 
and of Gain to the Blood; the Function of Alimentation; Motion and 
Locomotion ; Sensations and Sensory Organs^; the Organ of Sight ; the 
Coalescence, of Sensations with one another and with other States of Cott" 
sciausness ; the Nervous System and Innervation; Histology ^ or the 
Minute Structure of the Tissues, A Table of Anatomical and Physio- 
logical Constants is appended. The lessons are fully illustrated ly 
numerous engravings. The manual is primarily intended to serve as a 
text-hook for teachers and learners in boy^ and girls* schools, 

By T. Alcock^ M.D. iSmo. is, 6d, 

These Questions were arawn up as aids to the instruction of a class of 
young people in Physiology* 


BOTANY. With nearly Two Hundred Illustrations. Tenth 
Thousand. i8mo. cloth. 4r. (>d. 

This booh is designed to teach the Elements of Botany on Professor 
Henslcnids plan of selected Types and by the use of Schedules, The earlier 
chapters, embracing the elements of Structural and PhysiologiccU Botany^ 
introduce us to the methodical study of the Ordinal Types, The con* 
eluding chapters are entitled^ ^* H(nv to dry Plants'*^ and ^^ How to 
describe Plants," A valuctble Glossary is appended to the volume. In 
the preparation of this work free use has been made qf the manuscfipt 
makrials of the late Prof asor Henslow, 


Elementary Class-Books — continued. 

£. RoscoB, F.R.S., Professor of Chemistry in Owens College, 
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the Solar Spectrum, and of the Alkalies and Alkaline Earths, 
New Edition. Twenty-sixth Thousand. i8mo. cloth. 4i-. (id. 

It has been the endeavour of the author to arrange the most important 
facts and principles of Modem Chemistry in a plain hut concise and 
scientific form^ suited to the present requirements of elementary instruction. 
For the purpose of facilitating the cUtainment of exactitude in the knowledge 
of the subject^ a series of exercises and questions upon the lessons have been 
added. The metric system of weights and measures^ and the centigrade 
thermometric sctde^ are used throughout the work. The new Edition^ 
besides new Tvood^cuts, contains many additions and improvements^ and 
includes the most important of the latest discoveries. 


G. Fawcett. i8mo. 2s, 6d, 

The following pages have been written mainly with the hope that a short 
and elementary book might help to make Political Economy a more popular 
study in boyi and girli schools. In order to adapt the book especially for 
school usCy questions have been added at the end of each chapter, 



tive, with copious Questions and Examples, and a Vocabulary oi 

Logical Terms. By W. Stanley Jevons, M.A., Professor of 

Logic in Owens College, Manchester. i8mo. 35. 6^. 

In preparing these Lessons the author has attempted to show that Logic^ 

even in its traditioncU form, can be made a highly tueftU subject of study ^ 

and a powerful means of mental exercise. With this view he has avoided 

the use of superfluous technical terms, and has abstained from entering 


into questions of a purdy speculative or metaphysical character. For the 
puerile illustrations too often found in works on Logic, examples drawn 
from the distinct objects and ideas treated in the natural and experimental 
sciences have been generally substituted. At the end of almost every 
Lesson will be found references to the works in which the student will most 
profitcd>ly continue his reading of the subject treated, so that this little 
volume may serve as a guide to a more extended course of study, 


Stewart, F.R.S., Professor of Natural Philosophy in Owens 
College, Manchester. With numerous Illustrations and Chromo- 
liths of the Spectra of the Sun, Stars, and Nebulae. i8mo. 4r. 6</. 

A description, in an elementary manner, of the most important of those 
laws which regulate the phenomena of nature. The active agents, heat, 
light, electricity, etc,, are regarded as varieties of energy, and the work is 
so arranged that their relation to one another ^ looked at in this light, and 
the paramount importance of the laws of energy are clearly brought out. 
The volume contains all the necessary illustrations, and a plate represent- 
ing the Spectra of Sun, Stars, and Nebula, forms a frontispiece. 

Flower (W. H.)— an introduction to the oste- 

OLOGY OF THE MAMMALIA. Being the substance of 
the Course of Lectures delivered at the Rojral College of Suigeons 
of England in 187a By W. H. Flower, F.R.S., F.R.C.S., 
Hunterian Professor of Comparative Anatomy and Physiology. 
With numerous Illustrations. Globe 8vo. 7^. 6d, 

Although the present work contains the substance of a Course of Lectures, 
the form hcu been changed, so as the better to adapt it as a handbook for 
students. Theoretical views have been almost entirely excluded: and while 


a is impossible in a scientific treatise t$ avoid the employment of technical 
terms, it has been the author's endeavour to use n^ more than absolutely 
necessary, and to exercise due care in selecting only those that seem most 
appropriate, or which have received the sanction of general adoption. With 
a very few exceptions the illustrations have been drawn expressly for this 
work from specimens in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons, 

Hooker (Dr.)— the students flora of the 

BRITISH ISLANDS. By J. D. Hooker, C.B., F.R.S., 
M.D., D.C.L., Director of the Royal Gardens, Kew. Globe 
Svo. lor. 6d. 

The object of this work is to supply students and field-botanists with a 
fuller account of the Plants of the British Islands than the manuals 
hitherto in use aim at grving. The Ordinal, Genericy and Specific 
characters have been re-written, and are to a great extent original, and 
drawn from living or dried specimens, or both. 

Oliver (Professor).— first book of Indian botany. 

By Daniel Oliver, F.R.S., F.L.S., Keeper of the Herbarium 
and Library of the Royal Gardens, Kew, and Professor of Botany 
in University College, London. With niuneioas Illustrations. 
Extra fcap. Svo. 6;. 6d. 

This manual if, in substance, the author's ** Lessons in Elementary 
Botany," adapted for use in India, In preparing it he has had in view 
the want, often fdt, ofsomehartdy risum^ of Indian Botany, which might 
be serviceable not only to residents of India, but also to any one about to 
proceed thither, desirous rf getting some preliminary idea of the Botany oj 
that country. 

Other volumet rf these Manuals will follow. 


Cooke (Josiah P,, Jun.)— first principles of 

Ervine Professor of Chemistry and Mineralogy in Harvard College. 
Crown 8vo. \2s. 

TTie object of the author in this Book is to present the philosophy of 
Chemistry in such a form that it can be made with profit the subject qj 
College recitations^ and furnish the teacher with the means of testing the 
student'^s faithfulness and ability. With this view the subject has been 
developed in a logical order^ and the principles of the science are taught 
independently of the experimented evidence on which they rest. 

Johnson (S. W., M.A.)— HOW CROPS GROW: A 
Treatise on the Chemical Composition, Structure, and Life of the 
Plant, for Agricultural Students. By S. W. Johnson, M.A., 
Professor of Analytical and Agricultural Chemistry in Yale College. 
With Illustrations and Tables of Analyses. Revised, with Nume- 
rous Additions, and adapted for English use by A. H. Church, 
M.A. and W. T. Dyer, B.A., Professors at the Royal Agricultural 
College, Cirencester. Crown 8vo. Zs. 6d, 

In order that thts bo$k may be complete in itself so far ds its special scope 
is concerned, not only have the rudiments of Chemistry and structured 
Botany been introduced, but a series of Experiments has been described, by 
which the student, who has access to chemical apparatus and tests, may 
become conversant with the most salient properties of the elements, and of 
those of their chief natural compounds, which constitute the food or the 
materials of plants. 

It has also been attempted to adapt the work inform and contents to the 
Vfants of the class-room by a strictly systematic arrangement of topics, and 
by division of the matter into convenient paragraphs. 



with Appcndioe^ Engnvings. Maps^ aad C huM Mil nHinsmi l ni . 
Bf H. £. RoscDK, F.ILS., fto fc ss or of 
CoOeg^ ibncfacstec. Royal Stol 21& 

frwm tJU 

Thorpe (T. E.)_a series of chkutcai, problems, 

fcrne m Colkses and Sdfeools. Atfapfrd fcr the ptriwifatiM of 
Scodols fcr the Go wjBtnt , Soacc^ and Sodely 
Witk a Pkcfroc I7 

Age of Larocsiar dowa to the pvcseiBt toK^ By An. WlITCTl. 
Tmsiated by Hkxkx Watt^ F.ILSl Cnma Svo. 6k. 



Abbott. — A SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. An Attempt to 
illustrate some of the Differences between Elizabethan and Modem 
English. By the Rev. E. A. Abbott, M. A., Head Master of the 
City of London School. For the Use of Schools. New and En- 
larged Edition. Extra fcap. 8vo. dr. 

The object of this work is to furnish students of Shakespeare and Bacon 
with a short systematic account of some points of difference between Eliza* 
bethan syntax and our own, A section on Prosody is addedy and Notes 
and Questions, 

ITie success which has attended the First and Second Editions of the 
"Shakespearian Grammar," and the demand for a Third Edition 
within a year of the publication of the First, has encouraged the Author to 
endeavour to make the work somewhat more useful, and to render it, as 
far as possible, a completebookof reference for all difficulties of Shakespear- 
ian syntax or prosody. For this purpose the whole of Shakespeare has 
been re-read, and an attempt has been made to include within this Edition 
the explanation of every idiomatic difficulty {where the text is not con- 
fessedly corrupt) that comes within the province of a grammar cu distinct 
(rem a glossary. 

The great object being to make a useful book of reference for students, 
and especially for classes in schools, several Plays have been indexed so 
fully that with the aid of a glossary and historical notes the r^erences will 
serve for a cemplete commentary,^ 


with Macmillan's Globe Series, containing 45 Coloured Maps, on 
a uniform scale and projection : with Plans of London and Paris, 
and a copious Index. Strongly bound in half-morocco, with flexible 
back, 9J-. 

TTiis Atlas includes all the countries oj Europe in a series of 48 Maps, 
drawn on the same scale^ with an Alphabetical Index to the situcUion of 
more than ten thousand places ; and the relation of the various maps and 
countries to each other is defined in a general Key-map, The identity oJ 
scale in all the maps facilitcUes the comparison of extent and distance, and 
conveys d just impression oJ the magnitude of different countries, JTic 
size suffices to show the provincial divisions, the railways and main roads, 
the principal rivers and mountain ranges, " This Atlas^'* writes the 
British Quarterly, " will he an invaluable boon for the school, the desk, or 
the traveller' s portmanteau^* 


Adapted to the recent Programme of the Royal Geographical 
Society. By IL W. Bates, Assistant Secretary to tlie Royal 
Geographical Society, and J. N. Lockyer, F.R-A.S. 

\In the Press, 

II. By the Author of "The Heir of Redclyffe." Extra fcap. 
8va Second Edition, enlarged. 5j. 

A Second Series nearly ready. 

The endeavour hcu not been to chronicle facts, but to fiui together a series 
of pictures of persons and events, so as to arrest the attention, and give 
some individuality and distinctness to the recollection, by gathering together 
details at the most memorable moments. The " Cameos " are intended as 
a book for young people just beyond the elementary histories of England, 
and able to enter in some degree into the reed spirit of events, and to be 
struck with characters and scenes presented in some relief, ** Instead oJ 
dry details,** setys the Nonconformist, "wr haive living pictures, faithful, 
vivid, and striking,** 


Delamotte.— A beginner's drawing book. By p. h. 

Delamotte, F.S.A. Progressively arranged, with upwards of 
Fifty Plates. Crown 8vo. Stiff covers. 2j. 6</. 

This work is intended to give such instruction to Beginners in Drawing, 
andtoplctce before thetn copies so easvy that they may not find any obstacle 
in making the first step. Thenceforward the lessons are gradually 
progressive. Mechanical improvements too have lent their aid. The whole 
cf tlie Plates have been engraved by a new process^ by means ef which a 
varying depth of tone — up to the present time the distinguishing char cuter- 
istic of pencil drawing — has been imparted to woodcuts, 

D'Oursy and Feillet. — a French grammar at 

SIGHT, on an entirely new method. By A. D'Oursy and 
A. Feillet. Especially adapted for Pupils preparing for Exa- 
mination. Fcap. 8vo. cloth extra. 2j. (id, 

TTu method followed in this volume consists in presenting the grammar 
as much as possible by synoptical tables, which, striking the eye at once, and 
following throughout the same order — " used — not used ; " " changes — 
does not change " — are*easily remembered. The parsing tables will enable 
the pupil to parse easily from the beginning. The exercises consist of 
translations from French into English, and from English into French ; 
and of a number oj grammatical questions, 

EUROPEAN HISTORY. Narrated in a Series of Historical Selec- 
tions from the Best Authorities. Edited and arranged by E. M. 
Sewell and C. M. Yonge. First Series, crown 8yo. 6j'. 
Second Series, 1088 — 1228, Crown 8vo. 6s, 

When young children have acquired the outlines of History from abridg- 
merits and catechisms, and it becomes desirable to give a more enlarged 
view of the subject, in order to render it really useful and iftteresting, a 
difficulty often arises as to the choice of books, Tkvo courses are open, either 
to take a general and consequently dry history of facts, such as Russets 
Modern Europe, or to choose some work treating of a particular period or 
subject, such cu the works of Macaulay and Froude, The former couru 


lutuitfy remUrs histary u niMi er a&m g; tie latter is umsmtisfmeimy^ hecmue 
U U tut tmgu iat iiy cvmprdumsioe, 7> remu^ this ^umity 

tke larger werkt ef FreemaMy MSman, Palgraoe^ mod ethers^ wkkk 
MTDe as distmet landmarke 4tf kisiancal noiliMg. " We ki eem ef searcdy 
ae^tkmgj* says tie Gnaidiaii, of tUs volmmu^ '^wiici is so liUyU raise 
to a iigier leod tie average st a n d ard o/Englisi 

Freeman (Edward A.) — old- ENGLISH history. 

By Edwako a. F&eemah, D.CL^ late Fellow of Trinity 
College, Oxford. With FiTe Coloured M^^is. New Editioii. 
Extra fcap. 8vou lialf-bomidL 6j: 


Its object is to siaw tiat clear^ accurate, and scient^ views ofHstory^ 
or indeed of any snbjedt nu^ he easily ^ven to cUIdrenfrom tie veryjh^t, 
. • • • liave, I iepe, siawn tiai it is perfectly easy to teaci ciildren^ 
from tie very first, to disdngmsi true iistory alike from legend andjrom 
wilful invention, and also to understand tie nature of Ustorical autiori' 
ties andtowdgi one statement against anotier, . . . liave tirougiout 
striven to connect tie iistory of England vnti* tie general iistory of 
civilized Europe, and liave especially tried to make tie hooi serve as an 
incentive to a more accurate study of Ustorical geograpiy/* — ^Prefacx. 

Helfenstein (James) ^a comparative grammar 

OF THE teutonic LANGUAGES. Being at the same 
time a Historical Grammar of the English Lai^nage, and comprisuig 
Gothic, Anglo-Saxon, Eariy English, Modem English, Icelandic 
(Old Noise), Danish, Swedish, Old High Gennan, Middle High 
German, Modem Gemian, Old Saxon, Old Frisian, and Dutch. 
By James Helfenstein, HlD. 8vo. iSx. 

TTiis work traces tke different stages of development sirvugi wiich 
tke various Teutonic languages iave passed, and tie laws tviich iave 
r^ulated tkeir growtk, Tke reader is thus enabled to study tie r datum 
wkick tkese languages bear to one anotker, and to tke Englisi language tn 
particular, to wkick special attention is devoted tirougiout. In tke 
ckapters on Ancient and Middle Teutonic languages no grammatical Jorm 


is omitted the knowledge of which is required for the study 0/ ancient 
literaiurey whether Gothic or Anglo-Saxon or Early English, To each 
chapter is prefixed a sketch showing the relation of the Teutonic to the 
cognate languages^ Greeky Latin, and Sanskrit, TTiose who have mastered 
the hook will be in a position to proceed with intelligence to the more 
elaborate works of Grimm, Bopp, Pott, Schleicher, and others. 

ENGLAND AND FRANCE. By the Rev. C. Hole. On 
Sheet IS, 

The different families are printed in distinguishing colours, thus 
facilitating reference, 

Arranged by Charles Hole, M.A., Trinity College, Cambridge. 
Second Edition, i8mo. neatly and strongly bound in cloth. 4^. dd. 

The inquiry is frequently mcule concerning an eminent man, whcft did 
he live, or for what was he celebrated, or what biographies have we about 
him ? Such information is concisely supplied in this Dictionary, It contains 
more than i8,ooo names. Extreme care has been bestowed on the verifica' 
tion of the dates, and thus numerous errors current in previous works have 
been correct^. Its size adapts it for the desk, portmanteau, or pocket, 

" An invaluable addition to our manuals of reference, and from its 
moderati price cannot fail to become as popular as it is useful^ — Times. 

Jephson.— SHAKESPEARE'S "TEMPEST." With Glossarial 
and Explanatory Note& By the Rev. J. M. Jephson. i8mo. 
IS, 6d, 

It is important to find some substitute for classical study, and it is 
bdieved thcU such a substitute may be found in the Flays of Shakespeare, 
Each sentence of Shakespeare becomes, like a sentence in Thucydides or 
Cicero, a lesson in the origin and derivation of words, and in the funda- 
mental rules of grammatical construction. On this principle the present 
edition of the ^^ Tempest** has been prepared. The text is taken from the 
•* Cambridge Shakespeare** 



M'Cosh (Rev. Principal). — ^the laws OF DISCUR- 
SIVE THOUGHT. Being a Text-Book of Fonnal Logic. By 
James M'Cosh, D.D., LL.D. 8vo. 5j. 
In this treatise the Notion {with the Term and the Relation of Thought 
to Ijanguagej) will be found to occupy a larger relative place than in any 
logical work written since the time of the famous " Art of Thinking^ 

Oppen.— FRENCH READER. For the Use of CoUeges and 
Schools. Containing a graduated Selection from modem Authors 
in Prose and Verse ; and copious Notes, chiefly EtymologicaL By 
Edward A. Oppen. Fcap. 8vo. doth. 4J. dd. 

This is a Selection from the best modem authors of France, Its dis- 
tinctive feature consists in its etymological notes, connecting French Tvith 
the classical and modem languages, including the Celtic, This subject 
Juts hitherto been little discussed even by the best-educated teachers. 

for Schools and General Readers. By the Author of " The Heir 
of ReddyfTe." i8mo. cloth. 

A record of some of the good and great deeds of all time, abridged from 
the larger work of the same author in the Golden Treasury Series, 

Sonnenschein and Meiklejohn: — the ENGLISH 

and J. M. D. Meiklejohn, M. A, Fcap. 8vo. 

The Nursery Book, containing all the Two-Letter Words in the 
Language, id. 

The First Course, consisting of Short Vowels with Single 


Consonants, yl. 

The Second Course, with Combinations and Bridges, con- 
sisting of Short Vowels with Double Consonants. \d. 

The Third and Fourth Courses, consisting of Long 
Vowels, and all the Double Vowels in the Language. 6^ 


A Series of Books in which an attempt is made to place the process ojt 
learning to read English on a sciefitific basis. This has been done by. 
separating the perfectly regular parts of the language from the irregular^ 
and by giving the regular parts to the learner in the exact order of their 
difficulty. The child begins with the smallest possible element^ and adds to 
that element one letter ^in only one of its functions — at one time. Thus 
the sequence is natural and complete, 

Vaughan (C. M.) — a shilling book of words 

FROM THE POETS. By C. M. Vaughan. i8mo. cloth. 

It has been felt of late years that the children of our parochial schools^ 
and those classes of our countrymen which they commonly represent, are 
capable of being interested^ and therefore benefited also^ by something higher 
in the scale of poetical composition than those brief and somewhat puerile 
fragments to which their knowledge wcu formerly restricted. An attempt 
hcu here been made to supply the want by forming a selection at once 
various and unambitious ; healthy in tone^ just in sentiment^ elevating in 
thought^ and beautiful in expression. 

Thring. — Works by Edward Thring, M.A., Head Master of 

with Questions. Fourth Edition. i8mo. 2j. 

This little work ts chiefly intended for teachers and learners. It took its 
rise from questionings in National Schools^ and the whole of the first part 
is merely the writing out in ordet the answers to questions which have been 
used cUready with success, A chapter on Learning Language is especially 
addressed to teachers, 

THE CHILD'S GRAMMAR. Being the Substance of "The 
Elements of Grammar taught in Eng]i>h," adapted for the Use of 
Junior Classes. A New Edition. i8mo. ix. 

D 2 



SCHOOL SONGS. A Collection of Songs for Schools. With the 
Music arranged for four Voices. Edited by the Rev. E. Thring 
and H. Riccius. Folio, "js. 6d. 

There is a Undettcy in schools to stereotype the forms of life. Any genial 
solvent is valuable. Games do much ; but games do not penetrate to 
domestic life, and are much limited by age. Music supplies the want. 
The collection includes the "Agnus Dei,'' Tennyson's ''Light Brigade,'* 
Macaula^s *' Ivry." dr'c, among other pieces. 

Trench (Archbishop).— HOUSEHOLD BOOK OF ENG- 
LISH POETRY. Selected and Arranged, with Notes, by 
R. C. Trench, D.D., Archbishop of Dublin. Extra fcap, 8vo, 
5j. 6d. Second Edtion. 

This volume is called a *' Household Book'' by this name implying thai 
it is a book for all — thai there u nothing in it to prevent it from being 
confidently placed in the hands of every member of the household. Speci- 
mens of all clcuses of poetry are given, including selections from Ivvint^ 
authors. The Editor has aimed to produce a book " which the emigrant, 
findinz room for little not absolutdy necessary, might yet find room far it 
in his trunk, and the traveller in his knapsack, and that on some narrow 
shelves where there are few books this might be one." 

** The Archbishop has conferred in this delightful volume an important 
gift on the whole English-speaking populcUion of theworld^' — Pall Mall 

Yonge (Charlotte M.).— a PARALLEL HISTORY of 

FRANCE AND ENGLAND : consisting of Outlines and Dates. 
By Charlotte M. Yonge, Author of " The Heir of Reddyffe," 
" Cameos of English History," &c., &c Oblong 410. 31. 6k/. 

This tabular history has been drawn up to supply a want felt by many 
teachers of some means of making their pupils realise what events in the 
two countries were contemporary. A skeleton narrative has been con- 
structed of the chirf transactions in either country, placing a column 
between for what ajfected both cUike, by which means it is hoped that young 
people may he assisted in gretsping the mutual relation oj events. 



Abbott (Rev, E. A.)— bible lessons. By the Rev. 
E. A. Abbott, M.A., Head Master of the City of London 
School Second Edition, crown 8yo. 4X. ()d. 

This hook is written in the form of dialogues carried on hetiveen a 
teacher and pupil, and its main object is to make the scholar think for 
himself. The great bulk of the dialogues represents in the spirit, and 
often in the words, the religious instruction which the author has been 
in the habit of giving to the Fifth and Sixth Forms of the City of London 

Cheyne (T. K.)— the book of isaiah chrono- 
logically ARRANGED. An Amended Version, with 
Historical and Critical Introductions and Explanatory Notes. By 
T. K. Cheyne, M.A., Fellow of Balliol College, Oxford. 
Crown 8vo. 'js, 6d. 

The object of this edition is simply to restore the probable meaning •/ 
Isaiah^ so far as this can be expressed in modern English. The basis of 
the version is the revised translation of 161 1, but no scruple has been felt 
in introducing alterations, wherever the true sense of the prophtciu 
appeared to require it, 

Eastwood.— THE BIBLE WORD-BOOK. A Glossary ot 
Old English Bible Words. By J. Eastwood, M. A., of St. John's 
College, and W. Aldis Weight, M.A., Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge. i8mo. 5 J. 6^. 


It is the object of this Glossary to explain and illustrate all such words^ 
phrases^ and constructions, in the Authorized Version of the Old andNeio 
Testaments and the Apocrypha^ and in the Book of Common Prayer^ as 
are either obsolete or archaic. Full explanations are supplied, and these 
illustrated by numerous citations from the elder writers. An index of 
editions quoted is appended. Apart from its immediate subject, this work 
serves to illustrate a well-marked period in the history of the English 
language. It is thus of distinct philological value. 

GOLDEN TREASURY PSALTER. Students' Edition. Being an 
Edition of "The Psalms Chronologically Arranged, by Four 
Friends,'' with briefer Notes. iSmo. 3r. td. 

In making this abridgment of ^ The Psalms Chronologically Arranged^ " 
the editors have endeavoured to meet the rjqutrements of readers of a 
different class from those for whom tie larg^ edition was intended. Some 
who found the large book useful Jar private reading, have asked for an 
edition of a smaller size and at a lower price, for family use, while at the. 
same time some Teachers in Fullic Schools have suggested that it would be 
convenient for them to have a simpler book, which they could put into the 
hands oj younger pupils. 

Hard wick.— A HISTORY OF the christian church. 

Middle Age. From Gregory the Great to the Exconmiunication 
of Luther. By Archdeacon Hardwick. Edited by Francis 
Procter, M.A. With Four Maps constructed for this work by 
A. Keith Johnston'. Second Edition. Crown 8vo. lor. 6^. 

The ground-plan of this treatise coincides in many points with one 
adopted at the close of the last century in the colossal work ofSchrbckh, and 
since that time by others of his thoughtful countrymen ; but in arranging 
the materials a very different course has frequently been pursued. WitA 
regard to the opinions of the author, he is willing to avow distinctly that he 
has construed history with the specific prepossessions of an Englishman and 
a member of the English Church. The reculer is constantly referred to 
the authorities, both original and critical, on which the statements are 


Hardwick. — continued. 

REFORMATION. By Archdeacon Hardwick. Revised by 
Francis Procter, M. A. Second Edition. Crown 8vo. VQs,td. 

This volume is intended as a sequel and companion to the *^ History of 
the Christian Church during the Middle Age^^ The authot^s earnest 
wish has been to give the reader a trustworthy version oj those stirring 
incidents which mark the Reformation period^ without relinquishing his 
former claim to characterise peculiar systems^ persons^ and events cucording 
to the shades and colours they cusume, when contemplated from an English 
point of zdew, and by a member of the Church of England. 

Maclear. — Works by the Rev. G. F. MACLEAR, B.D., Head 
Master of King's Coll^;e School, and Preacher at the Temple 

Edition, with Four Maps. i8mo. doth. 4J. 6^. 

This volume forms a Class-book of Old Testament History from the 
earliest times to those of Ezra and Nehemiah, In its preparation the 
most recent authorities have been consulted, and wherever it has appeared 
useful. Notes have been subjoined illustrative of the Text, and, for tfie sake 
of more advanced students, references added to larger works. The Index 
hcu been so arranged as to form a concise dictionary of the persons and 
places mentioned in the course of the narrative; while the maps, which have 
been prepared with considerable care at Stanford"* s Geographical Establish- 
ment, wtU, it is hoped, materially add to the value and usefulness of the 

the Connexion of the Old and New Testament. With Four Maps. 
Third Edition. i8mo. doth. 5^. 6d, 

A sequel to the author^ s Class^ook of Old Testament History, continuing 
the narrative from the point at which it there ends, and carrying it on to 
the close of St» Pauts second imprisonment at Rome. In its preparation, 
as in that of the former volufne, the most recent and trustworthy authorities 


Maclear (Rev. G. F., B.D.) — continued. 

have been consulted^ notes subjoined^ and references to larger works added. 
It is thus hoped that it may prove at once an. useful class'book and a 
convenient companion to the study of the Greek Testament, 

National and Elementary Schools. With Map. iSmo. cloth. 

National and Elementary Schools. With Map. i8mo. cloth. 

TTuse works have been carefully abridged from the author's larger 

ENGLAND. Second Edition. i8mo. doth. 2j. 6d, 
This may be regarded as a sequd to the Class-books of Old and New 
Testament History. Like them, it is furnished with notes and references 
to larger works, and it is hoped that it may be found, especially in the 
higher forms of our Public Schools, to supply a suitable manual of 
instruction in the chief doctrines of the English Church, and a useful 
help in the preparation of Candidates for Confirmation, 

CHURCH OF ENGLAND, with Scripture Proofs, for Junior 
Classes and Schools. i8mo. 6d, 

Book of the Catechism. For the use of Candidates for Confirma- 
tion. With Prayers and Collects. i8mo. 3^. 

THE COMMANDMENTS. A Manual for Parents and School- 
masters. By the Rev. F. D. Maurice. To which is added the 
Order of the Scriptures. i8mo. is, 

Procter.— A history of the book of common 

PRAYER, with a Rationale of its Offices. By Francis Procter, 
M.A. Ninth Edition, revised and enlarged. Crown 8vo. 
lOr. 6d, 


In the course of the last twenty years the whole question of Liturgical 
knowledge has been reopened with great learning and accurate research ; 
and it is mainly with the view of epitomizing extensive publications^ and 
eorreeting the errors and misconceptions which had (Stained currency y 
that the present volume has been put together, 

Procter and Maclear.-— an elementary intro- 
Re-arranged and supplemented by an Explanation of the Morning 
and Evening Prayer and the Litany. By the Rev. F. Procter 
and the Rev. G. F. Maclear. Fourth Edition. i8mo. 2s, 6d, 

As in the other Class-books of the series, notes have also been subjoined, 
and references given to larger works, and it is hoped that the volume will 
he found cuiaptedfor use in the higher forms of our Public Schools, and a 
suitable manual for those preparing for the Oxford and Cambridge local 
examinations. This new Edition has been considerably altered, and 
several important additions have been made. Besides a re-arrangement 
of the work generally, the Historical Portion has been supplemented by an 
Explanation of the Morning and Evening Prayer and of the Litany, 

BY FOUR FRIENDS. An Amended Version, with Historical 
Introduction and Explanatory Notes. Second Edition, with 
Additions and Corrections. Crown 8vo. &r. 6d, 

To restore the Psalter as far as possible to the order in which the Psalms 
were written, — to give the division of ecuh Psalm into strophes, of each 
strophe into the lines which composed it, — to amend the errors of translation^ 
is the object of the present Edition, Professor Ewalds works, especially 
that on the Psalms, have been extensively consulted. 

This book has been used with satisfaction by mcuters for private work in 
higher classes in schools, 

Ramsay.— THE CATECHISER'S manual; or, the Church 
Catechism illustrated and explained, for the use of Clergymen, 
Sehoolmasters, and Teachers. By the Rev. Arthur Ramsay, 
M.A. Second Edition. i8mo. is, 6d, 

A clear explanation of the Catechism, by way of Question and Answer, 


Simpson,— AN epitome of the history of the 

CHRISTIAN CHURCH. By William Simpson, M.A. 
Fifth Edidozi. Fcap. 8vo. y, 6d, 

A compendious summary of Church Htstorv. 

Swainson,— A handbook to butler'S analogy. By 

C. A. SwAiNSON, D.D., Canon of Chichester. Crown 8vo. is, 6d. 

Thts manual is designed to serve cu a handbook or road-book to the 
Student in reading the Analogy, to give the Student a sketch or outline map 
of the country on which he is entering^ and to point out to him matters of 
interest as he Reuses along, 

COTT, B.D., Canon of Peterborough. Thin' Edition, revised. 
Crown 8vo. lor. dd. 

The Author has endeavoured to connect the history of the New Testament 
Canon with the growth and consolidation of the Churchy and to point out 
the relation existing between the amount of evidence for the authenticity oj 
its component parts, and the whole mass of Christian literature. Such a 
method of inquiry will convey both the truest notion of the connexion of the 
written Word with the living Body of Christ, and the surest conviction of 
its divine authority. 

Of this work the Saturday Review writes : " Theological students, and 
not they only, but the general public, owe a deep debt of gratitude to 
Mr, Westcottfor bringing this subject fairly before them in this candid and 

comprehensive essay As a theological work it is at once perfectly fair 

and impartial, and imbued with a thoroughly religious spirit; and as a 
manual it exhibits, in a lucid form and in a narrow compass, the results 
of extensive research and accurate thought. We corcUatty recofnmend </. " 


Westcott {CBXiOTi)-^onHnued. 

By Brooke Foss Westcott, B.D. Third Edition. Crown 8vo. 
lor. 6d. 

This book is intended to be an Introduction to the Study of the Gospels, 
The author has made it a point carefully to study the researches of the great 
writers^ and consciously to neglect none. There is an elaborate discussion 
appended ** On the Primitive Doctrine of InspireUionJ* 

BIBLE. By B&ooKE Foss Westcott, B.D. Crown 8vo. lor. 6^. 

*' The first trustworthy account we have had of that unique and mar- 
vellous monument of the piety of our ancestors,** — ^Daily News. 

THE BIBLE IN THE CHURCH. A Popular Account of the 
Collection and Reception of the Holy Scriptures in the Christian 
Churches. Third Edition. By Brooke Foss Westcott, B.D, 
iSmo. cloth, 4^. 6^ 

The present book is an exempt to answer a request^ which has been made 
from time to time, to place in a simple form, for the use of general readers^ 
the substance of the authot's '^Historvofthe Canon of the New Testament," 
An elaborate and comprehensive Introduction is followed by chapters on 
the Bible of the Apostolic Age; on the Growth of the New Testament; the 
Apostolic Fathers ; the Age of the Apologists : the First Christian Bible; 
the Bible Proscribed and Restored; the Age of Jerome and Augustine ; 
the Bible of the Middle Ages in the West and in the East, and in the 
Sixteenth Century, Two appendices on the History of the Old Testament 
Canon before the Christian Fro, and on the Contents of the most ancient 
MSS, of the Christian Bible, complete the volume, 

Relation to Reason and History. By Brooke Foss Westcott, 
B.D. New Edition. Fcap. 8vo. 4r. 6d, 


TTiis Essay is an endeavour to consider some of the elementary truths 
of Christianity as a miraculous Revelation^ from the side of History and 
Reason, If the arguments which are here adduced are valid^ they wUt go 
far to prove that the Resurrection^ with all that it includes^ is the key to 
the history ofman^ and the complement oj reason. 

LEXICON AND CONCORDANCE, to the more Correct 
Understanding of the English translation of the Old Testament, 
by reference to the Original Hebrew. By William Wilson, 
D.D., Canon of Winchester, late Fellow of Queen's College, 
Oxford. Second Edition, carefully Revised. 4to. doth. 25J. 

The aim of this work is, that it should be useful to clergymen and all 
persons engaged in the study of the Bible, even when they do not possess a 
kfurwledge of Hebrew ; while able Hebrew scholars have borne testimony to 
the help that they themselves have found in it. 



Fcap. 8vo. cloth. 2j. 6^. 

"^ very interesting dissertation on the system of secondary instruction 
in France^ and on the advisability of copying the system in England^ — 
Saturday Revikw. 

8vo. icxr. td. 

The Author was in 1865 charged by the Schools Inquiry Commissioners 
with the tcuk of investigating the system of education for the middle and 
upper classes in France, Italy, Germany, and Switzerland. In the dis- 
charge of this task he was on the Continent nearly seven months, and 
during that time he visited the four countries named and made a careful 
study of the matters to which the Commissioners hctd directed his attention. 
The present volume contains the report which he made to them. It is here 
cuUtpted to the use of the general reader, 

F. W. Farrar^ M.A., F.R.S., Assistant Master at Harrow, 
late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and Hon. Fellow of 
King's College, London. Second Edition. 8vo. cloth. lor. td. 

Contents i— History of Ckissical Education, by Charles S, Parker ^ 
M,A, ; Theory of Classical Education, by Henry Sedgwick^ M,A, 


Liberal Education in Universiiies, by John Seeley^ M,A, ; Teaching by 
means of Grammar ^ by E, E. Bowen, M.A, ; Greek and Latin Verse- 
Composition, by the Rev, A IV, Farrar ; Natural Science in Schools^ by 
J, M, Wilson, M.A., F.GS.; The Teaching of English, by J, W, Hales, 
M,A, ; Education of the Reckoning Faculties, by fV. Johnson, M,A. ; 
The present Social Results of Clcusical Education, by Lord Houghton. 

The Authors have sought to hasten the expansion and improvement oj 
liberal education by shffwing in what light some of the most interesting 
questions of Educational Reform are viewed by men who have had 
opportunities for forming a judgment respecting them, and several of 
whom have been for some time engaged in the work of education at our 
Universzttes and Schools. 

Farrar.— ON some defects in public school 

EDUCATION. A Lecture delivered at the Royal Institution. 
With Notes and Appendices. Crown 8vo, is. 

AND COLLEGES. By Sophia Jex-Blake. Crown 8vo. cloth. 

" /;; the following pages I have endeavoured to give a simple and accurate 
account of what I saw during a series of visits to some of the Schools and 
Colleges in the United States, . . . I wish simply to give other teachers an 
opportunity of seeing throu^ my eyes whcU th4y cannot perhaps see for 
themselves, and to this end I have recorded just such particulars as I should 
mysdfcare to know.^* — Author's Preface. 

**Miss Blake gives a living picture of the Schools and Colleges them- 
selves in which that education is carried on,^"* — Pall Mall Gazette. 

Quain (Richard, F.R.S.)— ON SOME DEFECTS IN 
GENERAL EDUCATION. By Richard Quain, F.R.S. 
Crown 8vo. 3/. 6</, 


Having been charged by the College of Surgeons with the delivery of the 
Hunterian Oration for 1869, the Author has availed himself of the 
occasion to bring under notice some defects in the general education of the 
country^ which^ in his opinion^ effect injuriously all classes of the people, 
and not least the members of his own profession. The earlier pages of the 
address contain a short notice of the genius and labours of yohn Hunter, 
but the subject of education will be found to occupy the larger part— from 
page twelve to the end, 

Thring.— EDUCATION AND SCHOOL. By the Rev. Edward 
Thring, M.A., Head Master of Uppingham. Second Edition. 
Crown 8yo. cloth. 5j. dd, 

Youmans. — modern culture.- itsTme Aims and Require- 
ments. A Series of Addresses and Arguments on the Claims ot 
Scientific Education. Edited by Edward L. Youmans, M.D. 
Crown 8vo. 8j. 6^. 

Contents : — Professor Tyndcdl on the Study of Physics ; Dr, Daubeny 
on the Study of Chemistry ; Professor Henfrey on the Study of Botany ; 
Professor Huxley on the Study of Zoology ; Dr, y, Paget on the Study oj 
Physiology; Dr, Whewell on the Educational History of Science ; Dr. 
Faraday on the Education 0/ the Judgment; Dr, Hodgson on the Study 
of Economic Science ; Mr, Herbert Spencer on Political Education; 
ProfessorMassonon College Education and Self Education ; Dr. Youmans 
on the Scientific Study of Human NcUure. An Appendix contains extracts 
from distinguished authors, and from the Scientific Evidence given before 
the Public Schools Commission,