(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
See other formats

Full text of "Greek diminutives in -ION; a study in semantics"













The first part of this dissertation is abbreviated from a thesis 
presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Yale University 
in the year 1908. 

On account of their extremely great number I have refrained from 
giving a list of abbreviations used. Most of them will be found self- 
explanatory, and for the rest, I have tried to follow standard works, 
being guided particularly by the following : Liddel and Scott's Greek- 
English Lexicon, the Parisian Stephanus, Herwerden's Lexicon Grae- 
cum suppletorium et dialecticum, and Brugmann's Grundriss. 

The omission of a general bibliography is due to the fact that an 
enumeration of each and every work cited would increase too much 
the already great bulk of the dissertation, while mention of only those 
works which are written on diminutives particularly, would largely 
be a repetition of the list given in Brugmann's Grundriss 2. I 2 . 121 f. 
What has been written since then, has mostly appeared in the pe- 
riodicals, and so can be found without difficulty. I will mention, 
however, Ribezzo, Die Deminutiva der altindischen Sprache, Naples 
1907, and Wrede, Die Dimininutiva im Deutschen, in Deutsche 
Dialektgeographie 1 p. 73 fL, Marburg 1908. 

When not otherwise stated, the references below to modern works 
are to pages of the work cited. An exception is Whitney's Sanskrit 
Grammar, which is cited by paragraphs. 

Ancient authors are cited according to the numbers of the standard 
editions. In case of the Comic fragments, I refer to volumes and 
pages of Meineke. References to spurious works of Greek authors 
are not distinguished from the genuine ones ; for it is the usage of 
the language, and not of the authors, that is of interest for my pur- 
poses, and for purposes of chronology not much can be made even 
of a difference of a century or so in the appearance of a word. 

I desire to express my obligations for valuable counsel and sug- 
gestions to Professor Karl Brugmann, of Leipzig, who suggested the 
subject ; to Professors E. W. Hopkins and E. P. Morris of Yale 
University, and particularly to Professor Hanns Oertel of Yale, whose 
searching criticisms and helpful guidance have been of inestimable 

value to me. 

Walteb Petersen. 


July, 1910. 



I. Introductory Remarks 1 

II. Treatment of Final Suffixes of the Primitives to which 
-10- is added . 8 

III. Accent of Greek Nouns in -iov 10 

IY. -iov from Adverbs and Case-forms in -i . . .14 

V. -iov in Abstracts with Verbal Force 15 

VI. Adjectival Abstracts in -iov expressing an Attribute or 

State 26 

VII. Words in -iov from Adjective Primitives .... 28 

1. Simple Words 29 

2. Compound Words 29 

A. Prepositional Compounds 32 

B. Numeral Compounds and Compounds designating a 
Part of the Simplex 34 

C. Miscellaneous Compounds ..37 

VIII. -iov as a Suffix of Appurtenance 39 

1. Place Names 39 

2. Words designating Games, Festivals, Rites, etc. . . 43 

3. Words designating Fees, Fines, Rewards, or Prizes , . 43 

4. Instrument Nouns 44 

5. Names of Vessels and Utensils that are not Instrument 
Nouns 49 

6. Words designating Ornaments 50 

7. Plant Names ' . . 50 

8. Words designating Herds of Domestic Animals . . 50 

9. Words designating a Cell, Nest, or Web of an Insect . 51 

10. Words designating a Part of the Primitive ... 52 

11. Miscellaneous . "** 

12. Plurals in -ta with Indefinite Meaning .... 54 

IX. -iov in the Meaning 'Coming From' 60 

1. -iov as a Suffix of Descent 61 

2. -iov to designate Origin 62 

X. -iov in the Meaning 'Made of or k Consisting of. 88 
XL -iov as a Suffix of Possession 70 

XII. -iov in the Meaning 'Belonging to the Category of,' 

'Having the Nature of 7H 

1. -iov with Generalizing Meaning . .... 77 

2. -iov with Specializing Meaning W 

yi Contents 


XIII. -iov in the Meaning 'That which is Like, but Not 
Equivalent to the Primitive' , 98 

1. Names of Aminals 104 

2. Names of Plants ........ 104 

3. Parts of Plants and Animals 104 

4. Cups, Vessels, Boxes 105 

5. Articles of Dress and Ornament 106 

6. Statues and Dedicatory Images . . . . .107 

7. Words referring to Building and Architecture . . 109 

8. Words meaning ' Youth ' 110 

9. Parts of. the Human Body . ... ... .111 

10. Miscellaneous . . . 112 

XIV. -iov as a Deteriorative Suffix 113 

1. The Pattern Types 119 

2. The Deteriorative Represents an Object as Despicable 
Compared to Others of its Kind 120 

3. The Deteriorative Represents an Object as one of a 
Despicable Class, or Refers to the Class itself . . 122 

4. -iov in the Meaning 'Merely,' 'Nothing But' . . 125 

5. Secondary Deterioratives ....... 127 

XV. -iov as a Diminutive Suffix 131 

1. The Pattern Types . . . ' 132 

2. The Diminutive Represents an Object as Small Com- 
pared to Others of its Kind 137 

3. The Diminutive Designates an Object as belonging to 

a Small Class, or Refers to the Class itself . . . 153 

4. Associated and Accessory Diminutive Notions . 158 

5. Faded Diminutives 164 

6. Secondary Diminutives 167 

XVI. -iov as a Hypocoristic Suffix . . . . . .169 

1. The Suffix expresses the Idea of Daintiness, Elegance, 

or Nicety 171 

2. The Suffix expresses Endearment . . . . . 173 

3. Modifications of Hypocoristic Meaning .... 178 

4. Faded Hypocorisms 181 

5. Secondary Hypocoristic Words 183 

XVII. Congeneric Classes of -iov Words of Heterogenous Origin 184 
XVIII. The Time of the Origin of the Deteriorative, Diminutive, 

and Hypocoristic Uses of -iov . . . ... 191 

XIX. Conglutinates with -iov as Final Member . . .204 

. XX. The Suffix -(i)6iov (-vdiov, -ovSiov 1 -eidiov) . . .212 

XXI. The Suffix -adiov . . ' . . . . . . .241 

XXIP The Suffix -vdotov 246 











Contents VII 


The Suffix -axiov 249 

The Suffix -tcxiov . . . ; . .251 

The Suffixes -aXQ^iov and -Miov 254 

The Suffix -v'kkiov (-v'kiov) 256 

The Suffix -vviov 259 

The Suffix -{d)aoiov 260 

The So-called Suffix -vqiov 271 

The Suffix -aoiop 272 

Suffixes in -yiov (-a(fwi\ -r^iov^ -iqiov, -vytov) . 276* 



1. The object of this monograph is to trace the development of di- 
minutive and related meanings in case of a suffix which presents the 
most favorable conditions for such an investigation. For, since the 
fact that diminutive formatives are usually the same as those forming 
secondary adjectives 1 argues that the latter developed into the former, it 
is of advantage if, as Greek -to-, the same suffix is at the same time 
both a diminutive and a secondary adjective suffix in the same lan- 
guage. No matter whether -to- is held to have developed its diminutive 
meaning in Indo-European or in Greek times, we can be reasonably 
certain that the transition-types, which give an insight into the process, 
.are extant. 

2. In judging the relations of the different extant meanings we must 
be careful not to be influenced too much by the theories of both an- 
cient and modern grammarians. Since the former knew nothing of 
the historical point of view, it is, for instance, of no importance to 
us that they continually treated the idea of small size as primary, 2 
and considered other meanings as secondary or neglected them al- 
together. Natural as it is for one looking at the fully developed mean- 
ings to view the more tangible idea as most characteristic and there- 
fore primary, this is no criterion for one looking for the origin of a 
phenomenon. The Greek grammarians, however, erred not only in 
their theories, but their facts are often quite untrustworthy, partly 
because they were often describing phenomena which antedated them- 
selves by centuries, and of which they could have no more empirical 
knoAvledge than we have, partly because pre-conceived notions obscured 
their view. Thus they had inherited a certain number of traditional 
st^Y] or derivational classes from Dionysius Thrax, which, though not 
meant to be exhaustive, nevertheless presented themselves t<> certain 
later grammarians as a number of pigeon-holes into which every word 
must fit somehow or other. A glaring example of this is a scholiast 
to Dionysius, AB. p. 793 f., where, after asserting tl derivatives 
are diminutives, he does not hesitate to give as examples among real 

1 Cf. Brugmann, K. Vgl. Gr. 337. 

2 Thus cf. Arist. Rhet. 3.2. 1405b 32: DionysiM Thrax, \W. '•::•»: s.-|,oli..„ 
to Dionysius, AB. 8551; Priscian ap. KHI, (Jram. Lnt. 2. KU. 


Chapter I. 

diminutives such words as spxiov, &rx£ov, (3i(ftiov, crajjivfov, tuu<£iov, Q^pCov, 
Ycopiov, Yjptov, dtrCov, o^otvCov, Xoyiov, 7uapajjU){kov, [jisipaxiov, xspajuov, 
&pytipiov, a^cpiov. Even though all grammarians are not as reckless as 
this one is (cf. e. g. the scholiast to Dionysius, AB. 856, who justly 
declares that tsi^iov, spxiov, 8>Y]piov, [XYjpiov, oyxtov, and t^viov are not 
diminutives, and remarks that the adjective [xsya with Shqpiov and 
rjeiyiov in Homer disproves their diminutive meaning), no faith what- 
ever can be placed in their statement that this or that word is a 
&TCOxopiorix6v. Finally, the confusion of two totally different classes 
of words, the real diminutives and short forms of proper names, as 
is shown by Fick-Bechtel, Griech. Personennamen 36, referring to 
the scholion to Dionysius, AB. 856 f., shows that the term 5:&oxopiaTix6v 
did not always convey to them a distinct meaning. 1 

3. Modern authorities have, in the first place, until recently usually 
accepted without reserve the opinion transmitted to them from the 
Greek grammarians through the Romans, that small size is the original 
of the so-called diminutive meanings. Cf. Schwabe, De Dim. Gr. et 
Lat. 1 ff . ; Kessler, Die Lat. Dim. 2 ff. ; Stolz, Hist. Gram. 575 ; Polzin, 
Stud, zur Gesch. des Dim. im Deutsch. 52 ; Brugmann, K. Vgl. Gr. 
338 f. Of these Stolz actually mentions Priscian as having already 
judged correctly the relation of meanings as a whole. While this 
view may be right for some diminutives, it does not necessarily follow 
that it is so for all others. On the contrary, the case may be differ- 
ent for each suffix, as becomes particularly evident when we examine 
the complex mosaic of meanings in case of suffixes like -iov, where 
we have such a wealth of material before our eyes. The development 
does not take place in a straight line, but is continually checked or 
reinforced by other meanings which also branched out from the vague 
original meaning. Widely different starting-points come to the same 
end, and meanings which are alike to begin with branch out widely 
because of the mere accident of different environment of the words. 
It is, moreover, not true that the usual view of the relation of mean- 
ings of dimutive suffixes is a priori the only plausible one ; G. Miiller, 
De Ling. Lat. Dim. 13 ff., finds it possible to start from the hypo- 

1 The mistake of the Greek grammarians as well as of some moderns 
lay in considering the two as really and necessarily identical. This does 
not hinder ns from admitting that the same suffix could have sometimes 
served both purposes or that diminutives could develop from ' Kosef ormen ' 
and vice versa. Cf. Brugmann, K. Vgl. Gr. 339; Wrede, Die Dim. im 
Deutschen § 87 ff. (= Dialektgeographie p. 132 ff.). 

Introductory Remarks. 3 

coristic use ; Wrede (see foot-note p. 2) insists that Germanic dimin- 
utives developed from ' Koseformen ' ; Belie, Arch. f. Slav. Phil. 23. 
145 f., shows how certain Slavic suffixes which have both diminutive- 
deteriorative and amplificative-deteriorative meaning may start from the 
deteriorative ; and finally, deteriorative expressions can become hypo- 
coristic and vice versa without intermediate diminutive meaning. Cf. 
Wundt, Sprachpsych. 2 2 . 562 f. As to various possibilities of the 
origin of the diminutive meaning cf. § 178 f. ; for the deteriorative* 
§ 151 ff. ; the hypocoristic, § 227. Particularly important is the 
question as to the extent to which faded diminutives should be assumed 
in order to explain words of non-diminutives meaning but diminutive 
form, for which cf. § 135, 219, 248. It has been my purpose to 
interpret every example on its own merits, and I have not deemed it 
my duty to do my best to get a word into the diminutive category 
before allowing a different origin. 

4. In the second place, modern grammarians and lexicographers have 
often confused the formal and the semantic point of view. It is one 
result of this confusion that nearly every diminutive suffix occurring 
in any Indo-European language is pushed back to the mother-tongue, 
as if the faculty of developing diminutives belonged only to that re- 
mote antiquity. From the fact that most of the suffixes go back to 
Indo-European times in some form or other the conclusion can not 
be drawn that all of their meanings are equally old. Yet this is 
exactly what Solmsen x is doing when he argues that Greek proper 
names in -to$, -tu$ etc. are a counterpart to Slavic diminutives in 
-et-, even though no diminutive force has ever been discovered in 
Greek words of these endings. Similar is the identification of the 
suffixes of Lesb. ^acpty^ and Lith. devtizis, 2 or of Gr. -wv with the 
suffix of 0. Icel. kid, 'kid,' fyl, 'foal,' 3 and of the x of d&wrcY)£ 
with the common I. E. -ko- suffix. 4 While words like 0. Icel. fyl 
might be remnants of I. E. diminutive meaning, if that were other- 
wise established, they never can be brought forth as proof of such 
meaning; for I. E. semantics must depend upon comparison of the 
extant meanings in the different languages, and we can not jump at 
I. E. conclusions from one language and then re-apply these to other 
languages as though certain. It is another case of confusion of form 

1 Deutsche Littzt., 1906 col. 1692. 

2 Brugmann, Gr. 2. I 2 . 676. 

3 Kluge, Norn. Stammbild 2 . 33 n. 2. 

4 Schwabe, op. cit. 51. 

4 Chapter I. 

and meaning when dictionaries give words as diminutives of other 
words simply because they end in suffixes which are found with di- 
minutive force, but not in the word in question. When Liddell and 
Scott give xpuoxov as a diminutive of y^uGoc,, we have no information 
whatever of the real meaning of the word, it means no more than 
that it ends in a suffix which may have diminutive force. To avoid 
confusion here I always use the term semantically : it is to designate 
a word which either originally or in the consciousness of the person 
using it, designated a small object or a closely associated or related 
idea like youth, elegance, nicety, and the like. 

5. My material has largely been gathered from Classic Greek 
Literature, and of this I have perused nearly every available example. 
I have also made excursions into the post-Classical literature, follow- 
ing up particularly such words as are mentioned by modern authorities. 
As to the inscriptions, I have not neglected them entirely, particular- 
ly the Attic inscriptions, but have not made such extensive collections 
because their value is chiefly confined to matters of spelling, form, 
or chronology. Their contents is so formal that a word occurring in 
them is usually divested of everything except its bare literal meaning. 
Their value is therefore comparatively small for semantic conclusions 
when, as in case of diminutives, so much depends upon the emotional 
tone of the passage or the particular flavor of a word. 

6. Geographical names I have used only incidentally, as a partic- 
ular one seemed well established, er where it is a question of general- 
ly accepted principles. Usually their semantics are completely beyond 
our ken even if their etymology is clear formally. Thus ©povtov is 
evidently derived from frpovo^, but what connection there was between 
the name and its object can only be a matter of conjecture, and 
often enough one place name is copied from an other, so that, if the 
prototype is unknown, there is no prospect of getting at the reasons 
for the name. On the whole, however, it is perfectly clear that they 
can not have originated from the diminutive use of -tov ; for a geo- 
graphical name necessarily designates something that is high up in 
the scale of size, and it is very rarely that e. g. a small hill or river 
or similar feature in the neighborhood was prominent enough to 
cause the naming of a place near by, or that the diminutive of an 
apellative should be applied to one particular individual when there 
were hosts of others like it. Personal names on the other hand 
present a very simple problem ; for the neuter gender of -tov points 
strongly to a diminutive-hypocoristic origin of all of them. Cf. § 237 b. 

Introductory Remarks. 5 

7. A valuable source for throwing light on semantic development 
is, of course, in general, the parallel development of like ideas in 
different languages. The study of Sanskrit, Latin, Germanic, and 
Slavic diminutives ought to contribute something to the Greek. There 
is, however, the difficulty that we known next to nothing of the 
semantics of Sanskrit diminutives, 1 while for the other languages it 
is a question how far they were influenced by translation. Polzin, 
in his Studien zur Geschichte des Diminutivums im Deutschen, while 
no doubt exaggerating the influence of the Latin on the Germanic, 
has nevertheless shown that in many cases Latin ' pseudo-diminutives ' 
have been translated by Germanic diminutives. The question arises 
whether Latin did not in the same way borrow from the Greek. 
Very probably ranunculus, 'frogwort/ was a mistaken translation of 
Gr. |3aTpa)(iov. 2 Similarly the Slavic in turn may have borrowed from 
the Greek, Latin, and Germanic. It is by no means more strange 
than the false translation of Greek grammatical termini into Latin, 
or the translation of compounds from Greek to Latin to Germanic. 8 
Until this aspect of the diminutives in these three language-groups 
has been thoroughly investigated, comparison will often be unsafe, 
and must be used with care. 

8. Although the ' diminutive ' uses are the center of my dicussion, 
it is necessary also to consider all other suffixal meanings of sub- 
stantives in -toy, not only because a large number of words of the 
most varied classes have at one time or other been called diminutives, 
but also because the latter will not appear in proper perspective un- 
less compared with all other meanings of the suffix, and there is a 
continual interchange of influence between them and attractions of 
words from one class to the other. The diminutive class, however, 
and those more closely related to it, i. e. all classes derived from 
substantives, are treated with more completeness than those derived 
from adjectives or the verbal abstracts. 

9. On the other hand, it would be superfluous continually to bring 
in such substantivized adjectives as are still in touch with the ad- 
jectives themselves, or to quote words of unknown or uncertain ety- 
mology, unless they are valuable for showing congeneric attraction. 
Such words e. g. are p<xMdcvTiov 'purse,' ixpta 'cakes,' fyia 'reins,' 
and icr/iov ' hip-joint.' Moreover, since the diminutive meaning ha- 

1 Eibezzo, Die Dim. der Altind. Sprach., is based purely on dictionaries, 

2 Of. Weise, Characteristik der Lateinischen Sprache 8 p. 7. . 
8 Cf. Brugmann, Gr. 2. I 2 . 77. 

(3 Chapter I. 

attached itself exclusively to historic Greek -iov, and not to pre- 
historic -(i)iom, it would be futile continually to bring in words like 
mXkov <^*cpuXtov, 7us£6v <^*xsBt6v, or (7xacpsTov<^%xacpsTtovor*<7xa<pso-tov. 
Only when such words are chronologically important, or when they 
otherwise help to illustrate the development of historic -tov, will they 
be mentioned. Similarly words like those in -TYjptov, e. g. Bst7uvY)TY)ptov, 
in which the conglutinate has taken upon itself a peculiar meaning 
quite distinct from that of simple -tov, for the greater part come 
outside of the scope of our discussion. 

10. Since diminutives as well as all other substantives in -tov are 
formed with the same -to- that is so common in secondary adjectives, 
it is an important question when and how the different substantive 
categories cut loose from the adjectives. An examination of the vari- 
ous I. E. languages reveals the fact that -(i)iom is used freely in 
substantives of a large number of dialects, e. g. Sanskrit, Greek, 
Latin, Germanic, Lithuanian, and it is therefore necessary to assume 
that such substantives occurred already in I. E., even were it not 
a priori to be expected that every adjective category produces sub- 
stantivized neuters. On the other hand -to- was a living adjective 
suffix all through the history of the Greek language, and continually 
gave rise to new substantives in -tov. These consequently belong to 
most widely distant periods, and each semantic group, each meaning 
the -tov has added to the primitive, must be examined separately, as 
well as the independence of substantive from adjective formation, and 
the result compared with other languages, in order to determine its 
chronology. The question of the time of the origin of the diminutive 
use is best left until all the different substantive categories have been 
brought to view. Of. § 261 ft 

11. As to the manner of substantivation, 1 words in -tov present nothing 
peculiar from any other substantivized neuter adjectives. It may take 
place by ellipsis of a substantive, 2 by the use of the neuter singular 

1 Cf. Delbriick, Gr. 5. 130 ff ., Brugmann, Gr. Gr 3 . 414, K Vgl. Gr. 691 f. 

2 Delbriick objects to the term substantivation in this case because the 
substantive remains in the subconsciousness of the speaker and the adjective 
remains an adjective as before. Thus when the Greek said rj debd, ' the 
right (hand),' he always understood /siq with it. I have nevertheless some- 
times used the objectionable term, and not merely on account of its conven- 
ience, but because for certain classes of frequently used words it can be 
maintained that the consciousness of the word understood is entirely lost, 
even though the very same idea may have been now incorporated in the 
original adjective. This is particularly easy when ellipsis has affected a 

Introductory Remarks. 7 

as an abstract or collective, or by taking up with the neuter adjective 
the general idea of a thing. With the exception of the category of 
abstract nouns, which form a distinct semantic group and have been 
separated from other words, manner of substantivation can not be my 
main principle of division, partly because this would do violence to 
the more important principle of division according to the meaning of 
the suffix, partly because the different ways of substantivation shade 
into each other imperceptibly, and when there is no combination of ad- 
jective and substantive extant we can not tell whether there originally 
was ellipsis or not. Moreover, words which are due to ellipsis give 
rise to other substantives without the intermediate existence of an 
adjective, and so the distinction breaks down entirely: (Txucpiov Bstuocc 
gave rise to cwjcpiov, and this in turn gave rise to words like xu|j.(3iov, 
which can not be classified as substantivized adjectives at all, but 
simply show that -tov has taken upon itself the new function of form- 
ing nouns designating vessels. 

12. In arranging and grouping the different shades of meaning I 
shall have to be largely guided by convenience. The signification of 
a word-forming element is, of course, not only a product of the in- 
herited meaning of the suffix itself, but is also influenced by the 
primitive from which it is a derivative, and by the environment of 
the word, by the whole situation in which it is placed. Consequently 
nearly every occurrence of a suffix is different from every other in 
some respect, and it is necessary to select, arbitrarily sometimes per- 
haps, a few more important points of view for the arrangement. More- 
over, the conflicting and overlapping influences which are at work are 
of varying relative importance, so that it is impossible systematically 
to adhere to a single point of view as the main principle of grouping. 
In general, however, I have made the meaning brought in by the 
suffix itself the main principle of division (cf. however, § 11). In 

group in which an adjective with a generic substantive formed a mere cir- 
cumlocution for the primitive of the adjective. Thus there is no great i>r<'l>- 
ability that the Greeks thought of fcnag every time they heard axxytov (§ L20), 
nor, with a different relation of primitive and derivative, that they thought 
of Uqov when they heard to 'AQit^iaiov (§ 67). Moreover, the lad that such 
words give rise to analogical formations which never had a corresponding 
adjective existing, is complete evidence for their substantivation. Even If 
then, asDelbruck remarks, the finer psychological analysis of such relations 
is impossible in dead languages, I see no reason for dropping the term Bub- 
stantivation altogether for these cases, and would be equally well justified 
in using it where it does not strictly apply as in refusing 11 where it belongs. 

8 Chapter II. 

my subdivisions, on the other hand, I have usually followed the prin- 
ciple of grouping con-generic words together ; for the linguistic material 
lies in the mind in such groups of closely related words, while a 
more minute analysis of the apparent effect of the suffix upon the 
words is of no psychological interest, because that is due entirely to 
accidental circumstances which never had any place in the psychic 
attitude of the speaker. 


13. An attempt to present a complete treatment of the formal 
history of the -to- suffix would clearly be superfluous for the reason 
that this has been often enough done before, and the facts are in 
general quite clear. I may refer to Leo Meyer, Vgl. Gramm. 2, 
399 ff., 440 ff. ; Aly, De Norn, -to- Suffix, op. Form. ; Brugmann, 
Gr. 2. I 2 . 182 ff. ; for the diminutives particularly to Janson, De 
Graec. Serm. Nom. Dim. et Ampl. Flex. Forma atque Usu. All I 
shall attempt is to give a summary and to explain my treatment of 
a few irregularities. 

14. According to Brugmann, op. cit. 187, the suffix -(i)io- is a 
conglutination of the i of i stems or of locatives with the thematic o. 
It is, then, historically unjustifiable to divide words like 7uapBa).tov 
(: rcapBaXts) as roxpBaX-tov or 7uapBaXt-tov, but one should divide 7uapBaXt- 
ov. But if such forms caused the transfer of -to- to other than i 
stems it was interpreted as a single suffix, and was placed on the 
same footing by the speaker as in consonant stems + -to-. The two 
groups therefore belong together semantically, and I have admitted 
such forms from i stems without comment, so e. g. aXuctov : &\ugic 7 
(3oi>(3aXtov : pouj3aXi<;, stoTj^ua-tov : ei<rr{ko<jic, xavva(3ta : xawa(3t£, crapBtov : 

15. The regular phonetic treatment 1 of the other stem-finals would 
be as follows : (1) -o-, -a-(-Y)-) + -to- = -to- ; a/otvtov : c/oTvos, avD-pw- 
tuiov : avfrpco7uo?, apa^vtov : apa/vY)(?), cpwvtov : cptovY). (2) -u- -f- -to- either 
= -to- < -Fto (Cretan aorto? : aaru), or, as usually, the strong form 
in -su- is used, which gives -sto- < -sFto- ; yivziov : ysvus, ^sXstov : 
y£\o$. (3) -so- -f -to- = -sto-, Ionic -*/][5]to-, though the exact phonetic 

1 Cf. Brugmann, 1. c. 

Treatment of Final Suffixes of Primitives. 9 

process is not clear ' ; xoupsTov : xoupsus, xvacpstov : xvacpsuc. (4) Loca- 
tives in -st, -ot, -at + -to- = -sto-, -oio-, -ato-. Cf. Bmgmann, Gr. 
Gr 3 . 181. (5) -so--, -go--, -oca-, + -to- = -sto-, -oio-, -ato- ; ayysTov : ayyo?, 
ysXoTo^ : ystaoc, xvscpaTo? : xvstpa?. (6) -T(oja)- -f -to- sometimes = -<no-, 
as in c-upoo-tov : <7u(36ty];, but oftener, particularly in later words, = 
-no-. Cf. pY][xaxtov : p?j[j.a, vo<7Y)[xaTtov : vo<TY][xa. (7) Combinations with 
all other consonants suffered no change. Cf. 7UTspuytov : rcrspuc, ovu- 
ytov : oW£, 6pvt0-tov : 8pvtg, fryjptov : 9*/jp, rcoCptov : 7:ot(j.vY). 

16. This distribution of the result of combination of -to- with the 
different stemfinals naturally did not remain intact. In the first place, 
-sto- encroached on -to- in certain adjectives derived from names of 
living beings, e. g. ivfrpwrcsios • avfrpto7uos, yovatxsTo? : yuvatx-, atysto? : 
at£, itzkzioc, : wu7uo$, or in neuter substantives denoting a locality or in- 
strument and the like, 2 e. g. XoysTov : Xoyo?, BtBacrxaXsTov : BtBocov.aAor. 
xYjpuxstov : x?jpu c £. There were so many agent nouns in -su$ from which 
words in -stov with these meanings could be formed, that -stov rather 
than -tov, which could no longer be recognized in such conglutinates, 
became their exponent. Conversely, -tov encroached upon -stov in -sy- 
stems. The fact that the realms in which -stov had become pro- 
ductive were such that only very few -sc- stems were affected, led to the 
converse result that the latter changed -stov to -tov, which was the 
easier because they had the same form as the -o- stems in the Nom- 
inative Singular. Thus we find already in Homer t/wov : to lyyoc, 
slptov : to sTpoc, Tstytov : to Tsfyos, spxtov : to spxoc, and later, XVjBtov : 
to XyjBo?, paxtov : to pdcxoc, puy/tov : to py/os, orrjO'tov : to (TTYjfros, 
TS[j.a/tov : to Ts|j.ayo£. In the diminutive, moreover, as well as the 
deteriorative category -tov was supreme, there being no example either 
of -stov or any other conglutinate not ending in -tov of two full syl- 
lables which had these meanings. This is no doubt due to the fact 
that the pattern types, e. g. roxtBtov and avBptov, ended thus. 

17. Occasionally -tov appears substituted for another sul'tix rather 
than added to it. Leaving out of account the inherited elision of o/a, 
this occurs principally in case of -tB- stems, e. g. xaXrctov : xaXrcis, 
Y]Bi>7;6Ttov : f)Bu7U0Tt£, xVjfkov : xy]0^, pacpavtov : (iacpavtr, TpO<p£Xtov : t:o- 
cpaXt?. That these should have been syncopated from forma in 
-totov, as Janson (p. 23, 32) assumes for the last two, would be 
totally contrary to Greek phonetic laws. The substitution rather 
arose because -t$ and -tov were equivalent in many uses: as diminutive 

» id. Gr. Gr 3 . 181. 

2 Cf. Pape, Etym. Worterb. 97, 69. 

10 Chapter III. 

suffixes, as suffixes forming names of plants, vessels, boxes, and the 
like. The resulting feeling of equivalence caused the transfer of words 
from one class to the other, particularly from the less numerous to 
the more numerous class. Strictly speaking poccpaviov is not a deri- 
vate of pacpavt?, but the two are collateral forms. 

18. The substitution of -wv for a stem-suffix in a few cases is 
hard to explain: o^uXiov ' dog-fish ' (: axuloC^ ' puppy ') can not be ex- 
plained in this way because the two words are not equivalent in 
meaning, unless we assume that GKulotf, itself was at one time ap- 
plied to the dog-fish, and then the substitution took place, oropov 
(: otojxoc, ' mouth '), instead of <7TO[xcmov, may have been caused by 
the resemblance of the Nominative to First Declension nominatives like 
yscpupoc. For xupc-iov (: xupauvios) ' youth,' cf.§ 148. 8>£pa7utov (: frspaxwv), 
'wretched servant,' in Lys. ap. Poll. 3. 74, is probably a scribe's 
error ; for frspaxovTiov, which would be regular, has manuscript author- 
ity also. It is a question, however, whether some of these irregular 
forms are not due to collateral ol<x stems which have been lost. Of. 
Idyiov : Xocyoc, not : Icebox; ; and with ot6[j.iov particularly, cra!Xdcy|xiov, 
apparently from o-TdtXay^a, but really from oraXay[Ji6s. 

19. Of the numerous conglutinates in -iov I have separated from 
simple -iov all except -o-tov <^ -t(i)iom, making the latter exception be- 
cause the t has from I. E. times had no appreciable influence on 
the meaning. I have therefore made no comment on words like 
ApTspcriov, (7U[JL7u6(7iov, 7upu[xvYjcrov, etc. Words, however, in which a ap- 
pears before -<jiov are reserved for a future section (§ 369 f£.) on the 
suffix -aoxov, which seems to have attained a certain local productivity. 


20. Before taking up the different -tov nouns in detail it will be 
necessary to inquire whether the variation of accentuation of stem 
and suffix has any relation to the meaning of the words. If not, the 
question of accent can be neglected after this. 

21. The generally accepted rule, both by ancient grammarians 
and modern authorities, is that polysyllabic diminutives follow the 
analogy of other polysyllables and retract their accent : cf. (3aXc-a|xov, 
BtxaoTYJpiov, opvtfkov, cnuafraXtov, etc. But dactylic trisyllabic diminutives, 
whether the first syllable is long by nature or position, accent the t 

Accent. 1 1 

of the suffix, as tuocioiov, Tujipiov, or ^wjjlCov, while tribrach diminutives 
accent the first syllable, as frpoviov, Mtkov, or wr^iov. So for instance 
it is stated in the Scholia to Dionysius Thrax," AB. 856: ca yap 
tie, iov &rcoxopi<ro>ta, Tpta-oXXapa, appixsva axo (3pa/sia? [rcporcxpjopverw, 
<rr6Xiov, tcoBiov, /spiov, crcbuov, ots o^ 5 svo? xaiuxoc ots Bs Bioc ouo, 
wapo^TOVOV, (jaxxtov. xoppiov Bia Buo pp rcapa 'AtuxoTs, xoptov Bs V 
svd? p roxpa t6> OsoxpiTG). Of. also Chandler, Gr. Ace 2 , p. 101 ; Janson, 
op. cit. 4. This canon for the accentuation of diminutives is in con-^ 
trast with that of adjectives in -to?, which, with very few exceptions, 
retract their accent as far as possible: aywvio?, oCho^ Xbiot;. Of. 
Chandler, op. cit. p. 115f. Nouns which but recently were sub- 
stantivized from adjectives of course retain their recessive accent : 
fe&pov, oiquov, etc. Other exceptions are explained on the ground 
of contraction, dactylic words having arisen out of original tetrasyl- 
lables, e. g. (3oiBiov <^ poiBiov, yr^iov < yvjiBiov, voiBiov <[ voi'Biov. 

22. If we state the rule as above, as applying to diminutives, it 
is too narrow ; for there are a large number of words which never 
had any diminutive meaning, old and common words too, which follow 
the rule. I may mention apiov, pij&Cov, icyiov, Y]via, Y]piov, stpiov (later 
for sipiov), foriov, xvjpiov, pjpiov, £W)piov, iviov, ofocCov, &Xxiov, jnjvfov, 
oyoiviov, Tst/iov, cpopTiov, cpuxiov, x w p£° v - For other examples cf. Chand- 
ler, op. cit. p. 105 f. All of these here mentioned except (3i(3)iov, 
6Xxiov, sipiov, oyoiviov, //opiov, possibly apaov, occur as here accented 
in Homer, Hesiod, or Archilochus, before the diminutive meaning of 
-lov had ever been developed. We can not, therefore, satisfy ourselves 
with Janson (1. c.) that these have followed the analogy of the dimin- 
utives. Still less can we join with Chandler and Allinson in trying 
to modify the meaning of the term ' diminutive ' in order to make 
the rule fit. The latter himself (A. J. of Ph. 12. 55) admits that 
"the term 'diminutive' is unsatisfactory. In addition to the three 
meanings of ' something small,' ' pretty,' or ' contemptible,' the term 
is here used as including the idea of 'pertaining to,' 'made of,' or 
'connected with.'" Similarly Chandler speaks of the difficulty of 
applying the rule, "because it is hard to say what constitutes a di- 
minutive of the class in question. It is not the mere external form 
of the word, for auXiov, B&jfuov, 8pxtov stand to adM), Bst;> 
in the same apparent relation that pu(ftiov, tsi/£ov, xpoofov do b 
fiAoc, Tsfyos, and yjpo<j6$, and yet they are not diminutives, nor is il 
signification alone; apxiov is a 'little bear,' bul is nol paroxytona In 
short there are words diminutive, in form and signification winch are 

12 Chapter III 

not paroxytone, while there are others diminutive in form and accent 
though not in meaning." The above is practically another way of 
stating that a diminutive is a word which conforms to the above rule 
for accentuation. Moreover, if we include under the term ' dimin- 
utive ' the ideas 4 pertaining to,' ' made of,' ' connected with,' we have 
an idea that is practically synonymous with a substantivized secondary 
adjective, and the word ' diminutive ' means nothing. It would even 
include such words as still have their adjectival origin in the conscious- 
ness of the speaker, which, as we have seen § 21, naturally follow 
the accentuation of the adjective. We must therefore state our rule 
in a different way: "Trisyllabic substantives in -tov, if all connection 
with the adjectival types from which they are derived has faded from 
the mind, have a tendency to accent the penult if they are dactylic, 
but the antepenult if they are tribrachs." 

23. I have said "have a tendency," for if it is stated as a rule, 
there are numerous exceptions even as it is here formulated. Chandler, 
p. 106 f., gives a long list of "Diminutives in Form and Signification, 1 
but not in Accent.'" i. e., dactylic words accenting the first syllable, 
so e. g. acrxtov, yavBtov, BsvBptov, £o>vtov, XVjBtov, Xuyvtov, vyjttiov, 6<7- 
xptov, Tp6(3Xtov, w[iiov. Altogether there are fifty-seven mentioned ex- 
clusive of compounds, some of which are found with both accentua- 
tions, but most are always accented on the antepenult. We even find 
xaBBtov contrasted to xocBtov. Cf. also Janson, op. cit. 20 f. On the 
other hand, there is a number of tribrach ' diminutives ' which accent 
the penult. Cf. Janson, 21 f . ; Chandler, 104 f. ; Allinson, A.J. of 
Ph. 12. 55. Chandler quotes some thirty different tribrach words 
which accent the penult according to some authorities. Most of 
these are also found with the accent on the antepenult, and so may 
be false forms, though it is at least equally probable that the accent 
varied in actual speech. Such words are fruptov, xtsviov, tutu/iov, pocxtov, 
crcpuptov. Others may be due to an interchange of -tov with -swv, 
as rcuptov for rcupsTov. But two, namely oxacptov and raBtov, are attested 
by a large number of passages. The former, however, may have 
gotten its accent by analogy to xi>[i(3tov or by influence of crxacpstov, 
but the one word rcsBtov, which is as old as Homer, and practically 
free from analogical influences, is enough to show that the accent on 
the penult was not in every case due to the dactylic form of a word. 
For that xsBtov should have been accented in this manner simply to 

1 It really should be observed, however, that not all of the words quoted 
are diminutives in meaning, so e. g. /irjdiov. 

Accent. 13 

distinguish it from tcsBiov, diminutive of 7usBy) (Janson, op. cit. 10), 
is utterly incredible, and not warranted by the passage cited (Etym. 
Mag. 658. 24 ff.). 

24. As to the cause of the prevailing accentuation of the -wv 
nouns, it can not be "that the language strove to accent the first 
syllable of the diminutive suffix," 1 both because of the many non- 
diminutives that follow the rule and the many diminutives, both poly- 
syllabic and trisyllabic, which do not accent the penult (see § 22 f .). 
Nor do the words in -igxq- 2 add great probability to the theory ; for 
the invariability with which these are accented on the penult regard- 
less of meaning marks their accent as old and inherited, quite dis- 
tinct from the wavering of the -tov forms. 

25. The latter has often been attributed to the working of Wheeler's 
" dactylic law," the law that dactylic endings with the accent on the 
ultima become paroxytone, which in spite of the uncertainty of the 
precise conditions under which the change occurred, we may accept 
as a fact. Of. Wheeler, Der Griechische Nominalaccent 60 if. ; Brug- 
mann, Gr. I 2 . 963, Gr. Gr 3 . 153; for words in -tov Wheeler, op. cit. 
95; Hirt, Idg. Ace. 27. Just as *K<x,yjj\6c, (tox/jAw?) is contrasted 
with Bptp-uXo? <^ *Bpt|itA6c, so we get crcpYjxiov from *<7cpY)>u6v. Although 
there is no example of a neuter in -iov, we do find traces of the law 
in masculines in -io$, and in adjectives in -toe, -ia, -iov. Thus yojjL- 
cpio?, xwpios, vL>|x<pto£, and <raop7u£os are opposed to [3o[xj3uXt6s, p)Tputoc, 
TuocTpuio?, 3 or, among adjectives, (3aXi6s, Xccki6$, [xovtos, %sh6$, GY.oh.6c, are 
opposed to avTio?, pptoi, tc>j)<7lo£. 4 It is, then, beyond doubt that the law 
must have had its influence on the neuter substantives also, so as to di- 
minish the number of oxytones and increase the number of paroxytones, 
and thus pave the way for the complete disappearance of the former. 

26. It would, however, be a mistake to conclude that the original 
form was in every case an oxytone or a paroxytone. The three differ- 

1 Allinson, 1. c. 

2 Allinson, ib. p. 56. How the accent of words in -ioxo- is to be explained 
is a question by itself. This much, however, may be said here, that to refer 
their accentuation to the tendency of diminutives to accent the penult, afl 
is done now again by Hatzidakis, Glotta 1. 124, is trying to explain a reg- 
ular phenomenon by an irregular one, a frequent by a rare phenomenon, 
one that is nearly pan-Hellenic by one that is local and dialectic (Hateidakil 
lets -Laxo- be patterned after -vXo- and -//o- rather than after the obviously 
intractable -iov). 

8 Chandler, p. 67 f. 
* id. p. 115 f. 

14 Chapter IV. From Adverbs and Case-forms in -v. 

ent types represented by ?wvtov, tcsBiov, and o-cpvjxiov <[ *<7<pY]xi6v, or 
the adjectives aXiog, avTio^, cntoXios, are all inherited from the Indo- 
European mother-tongue, as is shown by the corresponding variety of 
accent of the Sanskrit words in -(i)ya- : cf. acvya- from acva-, pitrya- 
from pit?-, hrdya- (= hrdiya-) from hrd-, hotriya- from hotra-, somya- 
from soma-, ksetriya- from ksetra-. Cf . Hirt, Idg. Ace. 277 ; Whit- 
ney, Skr. Gr 3 . 1212, 1214. 

27. It would appear then, that the distinction of accent between 
adjectives, which usually have recessive accent, masculine substantives, 
which mostly accent the ultima (Chandler 67 f.), and neuter substantives 
or ' diminutives,' which have a tendency to accent the penult when 
dactylic, otherwise to have recessive accent, is altogether secondary ; 
for a few adjectives have kept the old accent (see § 25), while on 
the other hand a number of substantives with no adjective connections 
retract their accent although dactyls. And to the rule that non- 
dactylic substantives have recessive accent we have the one certain 
exception 7us^iov, which can only be explained by assuming that it 
inherited the old accent, which was kept because the word was used 
frequently and had few congeneric words, so as not to be easily sub- 
ject to analogical influences. 

28. It follows from this that the accent will be of no help what- 
ever in discerning the different strata of -iov substantives in their 
gradual separation from the adjectives. There were the most con- 
flicting analogical influences at work even in later times, as can be 
seen from the varying accentuation of so many words. How much 
more then would this be the case at an earlier period when the new 
tendencies were yet forming ? Adding to this the fact that all our 
knowledge of accent comes from the Alexandrian grammarians and 
their successors, and that we never can be quite sure how old their 
accentuation is, I may well be justified in omitting all reference to 
accent in my treatment of the semantic development of the -iov di- 


29. The first category of I. E. -(i)io- adjectives mentioned by 
Brugmann, Gr. 2. I 2 . 183, is that in which -(i)io- arose from case- 
forms and adverbs in -i, which were extended by -o- for the purpose 
of adjective formation ; cf. Gr. tcpios ' mighty ' : I<pt, avTio? Lat. antiae 

Chapter V. Abstracts with Verbal Force. 15 

0. H. G. andi endi : Skr. anti Gr. avxt ' in front of.' Cf. Brugmann, 
op. cit. 164, Gr. Gr 3 . 180. In -atog we find TuaXaio? : Tud&ai 'old.' 
cf. Prellwitz, Burs. JB. 106. 72. 

To adjectives of this kind a few Greek neuter substantives 
probably owe their origin. Perhaps ocWiov 1 ' liciatorium,' occurring 
Ar. Thes. 822 and Poll. 7. 36— xocvcov feroB to xalou{j.svov avTicv— 
belongs to the adjective avxio?, though the connection of meaning i* 
difficult. More certain is ajxcpiov 1 ; <fy/p£, ' that which is around ' the 
body, i. e. a garment. So Soph. frg. 387, AB. 389. 10, fyupiovl 
svou[xa. ijxaTtov. Like icpio? is the compound s7ut7uaTp6<ptov 'father's 
name,' in the Boeotion inscription of REG. 12. 53 ft 2 . (A 28), which 
originated from the phrase *stui 7uocTp6<pt. Cf. Solmsen, Rh. Mus. 56. 


30. Already in Indo-European times there were in existence a 
number of adjectives in -(i)io- with verbal force, 2 and a number of 
action nouns derived from these by substantivation of the neuter. 2 
Such adjectives with passive meaning are not uncommon in various 
languages, 3 cf. e.g. Skr. yajya-s Gr. ayio-s 'venerandus,' Lat. eximi- 
us (: emo), Goth, bruks, 'useful.' That, however, the passive mean- 
ing was not the only primitive one, is seen by the large number of 
verbal abstracts in different languages which presuppose an adjective 
with active or neutral verbal force. Thus Skr. vidya-m is ' the find- 
ing, ' vacya-m ' the speaking,' Gr. ccpayio-v ' the slaughtering,' Lat. 
studium ' study,' 0. H. G. ga-sprahhi ' discussion.' In Greek, more- 
over, we find adjectives like o-cpayto? ' slaughtering,' with distinct active 

31. To the adjectives and abstracts of the inherited type like <rcpa- 
yiov continually new ones were added at every period by the addition 

1 Cf. Prellwitz, Etym. Worterb 2 . s. v. 

2 Cf. Brugmann, Gr. 2. I 2 . 183 ff. 

3 For our purpose it is important merely to determine that the use of 
-lov in verbals is inherited; whether this -(i)io- was originally primary, Off 
whether the primitive was a root-noun in the pattern types, is a .jurstion 
that does not affect the subsequent history of Gr. -lov in the least. For 
the latter theory cf. Hirt, Idg. Ace. 275; Brugmann, 1. c. Cf. also the dm- 
ilar development of verbal adjectives and action nouns from historical sub- 
stantives in § 31. 


16 Chapter V. 

of denominative -to- to nouns which were themselves either action 
nouns or agent nouns. As Skr. ksatra-m ' rule ' gave rise to ksatriya-s 
' having to do with ruling,' i. e. ' ruling,' so Gr. $6<no$ ' having to do 
with delivery,' ' delivering,' goes back to the verbal abstract puois ' the 
delivering.' From an agent noun comes d&s^TYJpiog (: a^s^TYjp) ; hav- 
ing the qualities of a helper,' helping.' frsoxpomov is 'that which is 
connected with the seer (frso7up67uos),' i. e. ' prophecy.' These diver- 
sities of origin will, however, be disregarded after this because the 
resulting meaning is the same for all of them, and they were un- 
doubtedly soon levelled by the consciousness of the speakers of the 
language. An action noun would necessarily tend to being referred 
to the related verb rather than to another noun, since that is the 
more usual and the simpler relation. As a result new abstracts were 
sometimes made directly from all kinds of verbal roots, even secondary 
ones, as in a[xapTiov ' sin ' from the quasi-root seen in Y]|xapTov, aorist 
of a[iapTavw. The connection of the -tov form with the verb would 
be further facilitated when its primitive becomes concrete, or is lost, 
as in case of TpojydcXiov or T^piov. 

32. According to the form of the primitive the verbal abstracts 
in -tov comprise the following classes: it may be (1) A verbal root 
or root- noun : spsfoutov : epsirco), crcpayiov : crcpa^co. (2) A secondary verbal 
root or tense-stem : a[xapTtov : ap.apTavoj, xup^ia : xupY)(3a£co, y.£gw.qv as 
if : a present *xs<7xto (cf. 0. Big. cesati ' to comb '), goggitiqv : cuo-- 
<7tTso). (3) A noun ending in I. E. -t-, 1 seen in Skr. stutya-s 'to 
be praised,' Gr. Bicpa<7io-? ' double ' : Bicporu-o?, and in neuters like xuvyj- 
yscriov : Y]yso[iat, <7i>pu6(7tov : <tu[jl7u6ty)s, yu[xva<7iov : yupa^co. The -t- from 

1. E. times had no appreciable meaning. (4) A similar noun in -B-, 
which was also meaningless ; Arg. <77iaBiov ' stadium ' : crxaco (Attic crxaBiov 
by popular etymology, cf. Prellwitz, Etym.Worterb 2 . s. v.). Cf. § 321. 
(5) A noun ending in a regular nominal suffix 2 : ptatov : p'j-cvc, <7i»v- 
sBpiov : cuvsB-pa, wvta : w-vyj, vJTpiov : *3]-Tpo-v. 

33. With respect to meaning these verbal abstracts must be dis- 
tinguished from adjectival abstracts expressing an attribute or state, 
for which see Chapter VI. Cf. Brugmann, K. Vgl. Gr. 340 ff„ Gr. 

2. I 2 . 626 ff. The class to be described here comprises those words 

1 Cf. Brugmann, op. cit. 186 f. 

2 When the primitive is a word in -o- or -«- it is often hard to say 
whether it may not just as well have been a root or root-noun, since these 
vowels suffer elision in derivation. Here may belong loyiov : loyog, ui^iov : 
jj,6qos, ayoQQiov : ayoqd. 

Abstracts with Verbal Force. if 


which were originally action nouns. Like all abstracts they coul 
become concrete in a variety of manners, and when there is no pas 
sage extant in which a given word has either abstract force or shows 
the transition from abstract to concrete, there may be doubt whether 
the derivative was not concrete from the beginning. Such words 
have been placed here when they neither have an extant substantive 
to which they could be referred, nor have before their -tov a suffix 
which suggests nominal origin, in which case, unless due to the accident 
of transmission, the speaker must have referred the substantive to the 
verb, though even then the concrete meaning may have been original. 
34. According to whether the idea of action is still dominant or 
concrete meanings of various kinds have been developed, the examples 
can be divided into the following classes, following in the main Brug- 
mann 1. c. The concrete meaning in every case results from an 
originally accessory and subordinate idea becoming dominant. 

A. The idea of action is still dominant: a^ricp-rtov ' transgression, 7 
xuv-Yjyiov ' the hunting,' ' hunt.' ] 

B. The verbal abstract expresses the result of an action. The 
action and its result are practically indistinguishable in ideas like that 
of speaking, where the action of speaking is rarely separated from 
that which is spoken, the spoken word. So e. g. loyiov 'the saying,' 
' oracle,' suayysliov ' good tidings.' When the result of an action is 
a concrete object the difference is more tangible, as in xupYjpia 'bran' : 
xopY)(3o£<o 'to pound.' 2 Similarly Eng. l the shavings' expresses the 
result of the action of shaving. 

C. The verbal abstract designates anything affected by the action. 
It may designate the direct or indirect object of an action, as it did 
the internal object in B. Cf. Eng. wreck, offering, etc., Gr. crcpaytov 
' the slaughtering,' ' sacrificial victim,' aywyiov ' load.' 3 Not all sub- 
stantiations of verbal adjectives which seem to belong here have real- 
ly passed through the abstract stage. From verbal adject iyes with 
passive meaning the neuter could be substantivized by taking up the 

1 Also hdiv.iov, apnhixiov, yto')Qyiov, yvuvuciov, ihapovMov, x«!h' ( oa/or. xwr { - 
yioiov, [uaQrvQiov, {lovoyLaxLov, [xofonotiiov, OQyi«i (>ox(ou6(Tt«. nunupvd-iov, ( 
ovunooiov, ovvtdQioir, ovoalzw, Gtpayiov, zi/m^lov ■, nAtOM*, 7 <"*'«• «/"« , «'".""V; 

For an excursive group consisting of legal terms <•!'. § 86, ttOfc to idltuor, 

2 Also yzwoyiov, device, di«j3ov'Mov, i^ohov, »(fxt(i)Xioy. 
[aoqiov, nhdeaov. 

3 Also aQxvozdoiov, iupdyioy, i()ilm«, fry/ov, > 
ZQCoya'Aiov, yoQrtfiov. 

18 Chapter V. 

general idea of things, so certainly in case of toc wvt« : wvios ' to be 
bought,' then 'wares,' 'merchandise,' as Xen. An. 1. 2. 18, d fa 
tyjs ayopa^ xocTaliTCOVTs^ Ta wvia scpuyov. 

D. TA# verbal abstract designates a place affected by the action : 
yupaarov ' bodily exercises ' or ' gymnasium,' <7uvsBpiov ' council ' or 
' council-chamber.' l Cf. Eng. refuge, both of the action and the place. 
Place names in -tov which have no abstract meaning extant are probably 
in most cases concrete from the beginning. Thus xaTocywytov is ' that 
which is connected with putting in (xaTaywyyj),' 'an inn.' Cf. § 61 f. 

E. The verbal abstract designates the persons appearing as subject 
of the action : xuvyjy&tlov ' hunt ' or ' hunting party,' cdjjwuooxov ' sym- 
posium,' 2 used of the guests of a drinking party. Only a plurality 
of persons is designated by -tov forms because of the neuter gender, 
which does not occur in names denoting single individuals (except 
diminutives). All words belonging here are then also collectives. 

F. The verbal abstract designates a thing appearing as subject 
or instrument of an action, the former certainly in case of intransitive 
verbal ideas, for which the conception of instrumentality is impossible. 
poQiov ' wave ' can only be ' that which roars,' not ' that with which 
one roars.' From such words it is only a small step to Yjpiov ' tomb,' 
either ' that which covers ' or ' that with which one is covered.' Simi- 
larly avTXiov ' bucket ' : avT^sw ' draw water ' may have been vividly 
conceived as 'that which draws the water,' or 'that with which the 
water is drawn,' and so on with all instrument nouns originating as 
verbal abstracts. Nevertheless direct association between the instru- 
ment and the action is at least an equally important factor; for the 
instrument is but one of the things connected with the action. 
o^wvtov, originally ' the buying of provisions,' could come to denote 
that with which the provisions are bought, i. e. provision money, or 
the provisions themselves by an exactly similar process. Since, then, 
a thing as subject of an action is often not to be distinguished from 
an instrument in actual practice, the examples of both will be given 

Instrument nouns of this type have a totally different history from 
those directly formed from an abstract primitive by means of the 
suffixal meaning ' connected with,' and yet can also not always be 
separated in practice. uBpocywyiov ' aqueduct ' is undoubtedly original- 
ly 'that which is connected with the bringing of water (uBpaytoyrj),' 

1 Also avunooiov, avooiziov, ^oqriylov. 

2 Also ayoqqiov, yvpvdaiov, awaycoytov, awidqiov, avaaixiov. 

Abstracts with Verbal Fo 


yet may very well have been referred to the verb 6BpaywY^ by the' 
speaker. The instrument nouns of this type are however so much 
more numerous (cf. § 71 fL), and the path to the designation of in- 
strumentality is so much shorter, that it is safer to refer to it any 
instrument noun with no trace of abstract meaning if a possible 
nominal primitive is in existence, or if, like in Efjufcrtov, the -tov is 
preceded by a suffix that is common in abstract nouns. Wherever 
this is not the case, as e. g. in case of aXstcptov, I have classed the 
word here, although even then the primitive substantive may be ac- 
cidentally not quotable. 1 

G. The verbal abstract is a collective } it brings under one idea 
a number of persons or things or both. All of them are mentioned 
also under some other point of view. A number of persons could 
be designated by the words under E, a number of things by pofrtov 
and &pxu(n:a<7iov, a number of persons and things by %uvY)Y&nov. The 
use of the Neuter Singular as a collective representing things is com- 
paratively rare because of the competition of the closely related 
meaning of the neuter plurals in -toe and the feminine collectives in 
-tec. Since the neuter singular in -tov usually referred to a single 
object, it was convenient to keep the relation of singular and plural 
as nearly intact as possible. In contrast is the number of words in 
-tov designating a number of persons (see sub E) ; for, since the 
neuter singular can hardly refer to a single person, 2 the plural can 
not be used of a number of persons, and there thus was no impulse 
for maintaining the differentiation between the two numbers. 

35. Collection of examples. The words are arranged alphabetic- 
ally, but under each word the different meanings are designated by 
letters referring to the uses described under the corresponding letters 
in § 34. A succession of two or more letters denotes that an example 
is on the border line between the categories represented, or shows 
the development of meaning from one to the other. Thus an A be- 
fore an example means that the idea of action is dominant, A( 1 th.it 
both the idea of action and the place connected are present, \\V that 
a word is on the border line between result of an action and a thing 
affected by it. 

dyayiov fiixfj, see note to aotxtov. ayoqQiov: ayopa, ftyttpu, 'the 
assembling,' 'assembly.' E) Hes., deyopptov hxktpi*. ififfWi 

1 Words under F not before mentioned are tywflt** ip/Mhor, m 

2 Excepting ' diminutives,' which have no influence here. 


20 Chapter V. 

ayo), 'the leading,' ' taking,' 'what is taken,' 'load.' C) Xen. Cyr. 
6. 1. 54, sXa[x(3ocvs tglJ aywyiou xsTpav. adixiov 1 : aBtxoc, aBixsto, 'wrong- 
doing.' A) Herod. 5. 89, iKHjyovTxc, wzb toQ AiyivYjTsow aBi/iou TpiYjxovTa 
sTea. Plut. Per. 32, sits xXo7t% xai Bwptov six dfiSv/ioo (3ouXoito tic 
6vopia£stv ty]v Btoi&v. aleCyiov : alsicpco, ' ointment.' F) Hes., aXsicpiov 
& ^pwvcm oE dcXswurai. afiaguov : a|xapTavo>, 'sin,' 'transgression,' cf. 
<&[jiapTia. A) Aesch, Pers. 676, AiBi>[ia Btayosv apiapTia. id. Ag. 537, 
Ai7uXa B' ztsigccv IIpiocjjiBai frapLapTia. d^mXdxiov : a^xXoc/icrxco, ' error.' 
' offence,' cf. tfcjxxXaxw. A) Pind. P. 11. 26, to Bs (sc. (xoi/stfeiyfrai) 
vsai? akoywe, y E^8t<rtrov apuXcbttov. drdgoXfjipiov, see note to aBixiov. 
dviXiov: avT^sw, 'bucket,' cf. § 34 F. F) Ar. and Epilyc. ap. AB. 
411. 17. aQxvCTaaiov : Strajju; 'stationing of nets,' 'line of nets.' 
C) Xen. Cyn. 6. 6. §qayxia 'gills,' either from a root *$urengh 
' to make a noise with the throat,' or : Skr. brmhati ' bellows; - 
F) Theocr. 11. 54, v Q\)sa, 6t oox stsxsv [x a [xaTYjp (3pay)a' s/ovxa, 
C Q? xoctsBuv t:gti tiv. yewgyiov: yswpyoc, yswpysco, 'the tilling,' 'cul- 
tivation,' ' crop.' A) LXX Sirach 27. 6, yscopyiov %61ou ixcpocivsi 
6 . xap7t6$ auTou. B) Prov. 24. 5, xpsio-c-tov go^oq foyupoo, xod avrjp 
cppov/jGW sp)v yswpyiGu [isyalou. yv/Livdaiov ; yupa^to, ' bodily exer- 
cises,' ' place for exercising ' i. e. ' gymnasium,' also designates the 
youths that attend the training school. A) Pind. frg. 129, xai to\ 
jjlsv toots yupaaiois ts, toi Bs tcs<7<7oT£ . . . TspxovTai. Herod. 9. 33, 
TzpoG&tyz . yupacrioiat w? avoupYjO-ojj.svo? yupixotk ayowa^. AD) Antiph. 

1 It was probably the use of udlxiov in legal phrases like the latter of the 
two examples that gave rise to a group of action nouns in -iov which were 
confined to legal use, mostly, though not always, in certain stereotyped 
phrases with the genitive. So to yaysa) ayauiov dixy, oyiyauiov di/.r n xaxo- 
yaiuiov dixrj, ' a prosecution for failure to marry, for late marriage (i. e. putt- 
ing off marriage beyond the appointed age),' and ' for an ill marriage,' re- 
spectively. Plut. Lys. 30, r\v yctQ, wg t'oixev, eV Succory xai dyapiov dcxrj xai 
oipiyccuiov xai. xaxoya/ulov. Similarly fj.ovoyay.Lov inaifitov ' a penalty for marry- 
ing but once,' Clem. Al. 505 ; to xuxryyoomi xaxrjyooiov dixrj ' an action for 
defamation ' (cf. xaxrjyooiag dixrj), Dem. 21. 93, §£«#« trjv too xax^yogiov dixr t v. 
In the Nominative avdQo),r\\piov : el-Xr^-a, ' seizure of men ' guilty of murdering 
citizens abroad, Dem. 23. 218 ; in the Dat. PI. xpevdoyaqtvoiov : [xdoTvo, [xaQTv- 
Qoyat (of. [xaqTVQLov, which is not a legal term), ' farlse witness,' ' perjury.' 
Plato Theset. 148 B, tvoyog zoTg xpEvdoyaoivqloig. How keenly the legal character 
of these words was felt is seen by the irregular analogical formation kno- 
zai-iov yoa<f>rj,. ' an indictment for leaving one's post,' i. e. for desertion, Dem. 
21. 103. Although the first part of the compound has the verbal meaning, 
yet the resemblance of idea to the other words here discussed led to the 
attaching of their suffix to the noun at the end. 

2 Cf. Prellwitz, Etym. Worterbuch 2 s. v. 

Abstracts with Verbal Force. 

3a 3, [JxXefffiv [isTa twv Y]Xixo)v axovTi^eiv sv tco yu[j-voc(7io) IjiaXs p 
cOBsva ('during their exercising' or 'in the gymnasium'). D) Eur 
Phoen. 368, Xpovio; iBwv piXafrpoc xat [3co[xous (kSv, Ti>[j.vdccria &' sv 
olcriv SvsTfdccpY)V. Plato Criti. 117 C, itolloi Bs xvjrai xat yutj-vacria 
sx£/£tpo6pyY]i:o. E) Epigr. Gr. 252. 6, ouBs lilrfrzv Fupamov Kto<p6% 
Baxpu<7t, pp6[j.£vov. dsfiivia : Bsp), 'that which is built,' a bedstead 
of wood in contrast to a bed made up on the ground. 1 B) t 599, 
cru Bs >i£so TtoB' svt oixto, *H /a[j.dtBt? GTOpscrac, yj toi xa-:a Bepia 
G'Svtcov. 0- 277. dtafiovliov : BiapouXstjo[j.ai, ' deliberation,' • decree.' 
A) Polyb. 3. 20. 1, oi Bs 'PwjjiaToi . . . ou p.a Aia 7uspt t&u TroXqxcj 
t6ts Bia(3ou>,tov vjyov. B) id. 4. 24. 2, oOX y][jlTv jjlsv xa&Tpcsi toTc 
Ypa<p.OUfft Ta? xupoua-a^ Ta Bta[3ouXta yvc6|ioc£ avocTiO'Svai toic 7:pO£a-:w(7i 
twv 6Xwv. BiA§d(ftov\ l[j.[3axTO), 'that into which one dips,' 'a Hat 
vessel,' perhaps originally 'the dipping,' but cf. § 34 C on Ttx wvtoc. 
0) Herod. 2. 62, ua Be Xoyva scrd sjj-[3acpia, l^izkzoi oCKbc, xat, Haiou. 
8{j(36hov : £[xpoly], s[if3aXXco, would seem to have been originally verbal, 
if the meaning ' that which is inlaid,' ' an emblem,' is certain for 
Insc. Olbia 67 (I. R. B. vol. 1), yi6Ckr\ apyupa <7t>v i[j.f3o)i(;) Xpuo&o. 
Aside from this example of the use B), there are others which would 
belong to F). Thus the word designates a hunting net Poll. 5. 35 
(TauToc B v £ Ta Bixtuoc t65v xuvY]y£Tix65v Ttvs? £|j.(36>aa x£x7ofjxa<7tv), and 
a javelin Diod. 1. 35 (£^Y]p£U£TO Bs TauTa Ta ?wa . . . l\$o\iQi$ ciBr r 
poTc.). Perhaps, however, the word belongs to § 71 ff. SQetma: Ipefowo, 
k the falling,' 'ruin,' 'wreck.' BC) 2 Herod. 2. 154, t* JpeCraa tftv 
olxY][j.aTwv to [xsypi £[i£u ?j<7ocv. Aesch. Ag. 660, f ( )po)|j.£v fcv&oBv tt£karft$ 
AtyaTov v£xpoT? 'AvBpwv 'Ayaiwv vaurwtoTs t £p£t7uiot?. Soph. Aj. 308, 
sv B' £p£idot? N£xpwv £p£icpQ«£i£ l£eT apv£iou cpovou. evayysfoov : ayysMco 
(£uayy£^o[j.(xt is a denominative to £uocyy£>^ov), 'good tidings.' B) 
Luc. As. 26, d B v £ xwp^ai, 6? £io&v %£; Sti 7:oppo> r J£v, syvoxrav 
£-jT'j/ouvi:ac, zuxyyiliov atkots s[xoQ xpooyxY]<7a[jivoi>. In the New Test- 
ament of the gospel, e. g. Acts 15. 7, axoucrou ™ lOvr, tov /.oyov toQ 
BdayyeXCoo. r^'ov : Skr. Vvr 'to cover,' 'covering,' i. e. 'mound, 1 
'tomb.' F) W 126: Theocr.' 1. 125. ifaiov* : Skr. Vva 'to weave,' 
'the weaving.' C) 'the woven cloth' in Eur. Ion 142<>. ropY&V [iiv 

1 Cf. Meister, BB. 11. 176. 

2 There is no psychological distinction Involved whether 

considered as the remains of a house resulting from tin- wreck, or aa Its 
parts affected by the wreck. 

3 Iiqlov (Theocr. 18. 83} lor fato* la probably " byperdori 
id. 1. 7. 

22 Chapter V. 

sv jjio-oifftv YjTp^ 01 ? tistu^wv. Otherwise 'that around which is woven,' 
'the warp,' so Plato Phaedr. 268 A, siol xai <j6, si apa xat crot 
^ccivsTai Bisgty)x6£ auT&v to YJTpiov &0Ksp sjjlol tiefieha, d^eineoXta as if : 
•fre|xs(£)XYj (cf. ti-S^-ju), 'the founding,' 'foundation.' B) Arist. Phys. 
2. 8. 200 a 4, oi lib-oi jjlsv xoctw xai Ta frsjjisXia, y] Bs yvj avo). M 28, 
Abzbq B' svvoo-iyaio? spw ydpzcei Tpiatvav 'HysTT, sx B' apa 7tavTa 
0»s[JLSiXia xu|ia<7i xsjitcsv OtTptov xat Xacov, Ta frs<7av [xoysovTS? 'Ayatot. 
^sottqotuov : frzoTzpoizos, ^soTTpoTusco, ' prophecy.' B) A 85, 0>apGiljffa$ 
jxa^a £t7us frsoxpoTuiov oti olofra. Herod. 1. 7, so-yov ty]v ap)(Y]v ix 
frswcponCou. xa&ctQGiov : xa6*ap(Ttoc, -xafrapa-tc, xafratpw, ' purification.' 

A) Herod. 1. 35, xafrapo-tou IBssto iraxup^o-at, KpoT<70? Bs jjliv sxaO'Yjps. 
xaxTjyoQoov Btxv], see note to aBtxtov. xaxoya^uov Bixy], see note to 
aBtxtov. xeaxlov : 0. Big. cesati ' to comb,' ' the combings,' ' tow.' 

B) Hes., xsoxtov gtutousTov, to a7uoxTsvi<7[xa tou Xtvou. xvvrjytciov: 
xuvY]ysTY]^, ' the hunt,' ' hunting party.' A) Eur. Hipp. 224, Tt 
xuvvjysoitov xat <ro\ [^s^sty] ; Xen. Cyn. 6. 11, t6v Bs xuvY]ysTY]v syovTa 
s^tsvat Y][j.sXY)[jivY]v io^TjTa stui to xuvvjysa-tov. EC) Herod. 1. 36, to 
xuvY]y£(7tov tuocv <7L»[j.7r£[j.'j»o). Xen. Cyn. 10. 4, rcp&TOV [isv o5v ypYj 
IXfrovTa? o5 av oto)VTat stvat uTuaystv to xuvY]ys(7tov. xvvtjyiov : xuvvjyso), 
' the hunt.' A) Athen. 677 E, iv xuvY]ytto xaTsjkporjxst 6 'ABptavo? 
(sc. t6v TiovTa). xvQrfiia : xopY)(3a£to, ' the poundings,' ' husks,' ' bran.' 
B) Crat. ap. Etym. Mag. 512. 8, xupy)(3ta yap xuptto? Ta a7uo[3pa<T[j.aTa 
twv xuapw. KpaTtvoc, . . . KupYJPi' scrO-uov. Xoyiov 1 : Xoyo?, Xsyo), ' the 
saying,' ' response,' ' oracle.' B) Probably in the more general 
meaning ' saying ' Thuc. 2. 8. 2, where the Xoyta are contrasted with 
the utterances of the ypr^oXoyot 2 : xat xo)Ckk pv Xoyta DiysTO, tzoIIcc 

1 If, as seems probable, Xoyiov is formed from Xoyog, the latter must at 
one time have designated the action of speaking as well as the spoken word, 
whence an adjective Xoyiog, ' speaking,' and the use of neuter Xoyiov as an 
action noun. The development of the meaning ' oracle ' or ' short saying ' 
from the general idea ' speaking ' is exactly paralleled by the German 
' Spruch ' and the English ' saying,' and it is therefore unnecessary to assume 
with Thayer, Lex. !N. T. s. v., that Xoyiov was a diminutive of Xoyog with 
the original idea ' short saying,' and then ' oracle ' because these were gen- 
erally short. The latter view is particularly hazardous when we consider 
that in the numerous passages in which it occurs there is not one indication 
that it was felt as a diminutive, no accompanying adjective denoting small 
size, no indication of any emotional content of the word. It occurs, more- 
over, already in Herodotus, and that it should have lost its diminutive force 
so early, at a time from which we have no other example extant of a dimin- 
utive of an abstract word, is not conductive to the probability of the theory. 

2 Cf. Passow, Lex. s. v. 

Abstracts ivith Verbal Force. 23 

Bs yyrpixoloyoi Y)Bov. In the Septuagint and New Testament of any 
utterance of God and the prophets, e. g. of the precepts of Moses 
in Acts 7. 38, £Bs£xto Xoyioc ^Svtoc Bouvoct vjpv. Of the substance of 
the Christian religion Hebr. 5. 12, BiBacrmv 6|xa$ Ttva toc ttoi/sToc 
t^c ap/;?js twv XoyCtov tolJ frsoti. In its most frequent meaning ' oracle ' 
already Herod. 4. 178, tocutyiv tyjv vyjsov AaxsBatpvioi(7i cpao-t X6ytOV 
eTvai Jvrfoat. id. 9. 42. paQrvqiov. jjiapTup, [xapTUojxat, 'testimony,' 
•proof.' 1 AF) Herod. 2. 22, d>$ ouosv oixo? dbuo x^vo? jjliv (sc. tov 
NeTXov) pssiv, 7upfi)irov [xsv xai piyiarov [j.apTUpiov o! avspi KStpe^ovrat 
tuvsovts? a7uo twv y^pscov todtswv frspjjioi. fiovoyafiiov emii|UOV, see 
note to aBixtov. ^ovoixa%tov: [xa/Y], [xayo(Jiou, 'a single combat.' A) 
Luc. D. Meretr. 13. 5. fiovojicohov : tcgAsg), 'monopoly.' A) Hyp. 
ap. Poll. 7. 11 (otherwise pvoxcoTia). ^wquov: [j.6po?, jjLstpojxai, 'the 
allotting,' 'allotment,' 'part.' 2 AB) 3 Herod. 7. 23, dbrolayovTss yap 
{jipiov (sc. tou Btwpuyo?) ocrov atkoTs £7usf3aHs. id. 2. 103, aTuoBaa-a^voc 
tyjs sovjTOtj (rrpaTtYJs [xopiov oo-ov By] ocutoO xaTsXtra. B) id. 2. 16, 
<pa(7t TpCa [Jiopta sTvou yvjv 7ua<7av, E5pcoTCY]v ts xai 'A<7iY]v xai Ai(3(jy,v. 
Thuc. 6. 86. 5, sxt (3ou^Y]<7s<7{k xai izoWogzov [xopiov aui^c (sc. "rtfc 
£mxoup£a$) iBsTv. id. 1. 85. 1, sv (3paysT [jiopiw Y][xspa?. Men. frg. 4. 248; 
Diod. 1. 85. t'at'ay^a : ayvujxi, 'shipwreck' (cf. IpeCma). BC) Xen. 
Hell. 1. 7. 29, sxsXsosv avayfrsvxas sm xspcos axavira? avaipsfcO-ai tjc 
vauayia xai tou? vauayou^. hXxtov : 6Xxyj, s^xco, ' that w T hich is drawn 
by the ship,' ' the rudder.' C) Soph. ap. Poll. 10. 134. oQyia : spyw, 
originally ' doings,' then ' rites,' ' secret rites.' A) H. Horn. Ceres 273, 
y Opyta B 5 auTY] sywv (sc. AY]p.Y)v/]p) &7UoB , V]<70fiai, &£ av Irawa, Euay£o>; 
spBorrec, s[j.6v voov IXaeraoKr&s. Aesch. Sept, 179, cptAoO-JTtov Bs TOi 
r/Azor opyttov MvYjdTops? s<7ts [xot. Eur. Bacch. 34; Ar. Ran. 356, 
fori? . . . ysvvaiojv opyia Molxjwv pJT 5 sTBsv {j.y)t' syopsuTsv. oQxo)^ioaia : 
ocxwixotyjC, 'asseverations under oath' (cf. 6pxo)|j.o<7ia). A) Plato 
Phaedr. 241 A, oufr' otuco$ toc t% rcpor£pa$ avor>ou ap/r^ 6pxo)|j.6^a 

1 In a legal sense the feminine fiaQivoia seems to have been used ex- 

2 While the idea 'part' naturally sometimes takes upon itself the im- 
plication of something very slight (cf. the fourth and fifth examples), it by 
no means follows that [xoqiov was a diminutive originally. Wm- th:it t In- 
case such usage as in the third example from Herodotus, where it is applied 
to continents, would be impossible. Secondarily, however, with the gram- 
marians, {iLqlov does seem to have been felt as a diminutive to fioqog. Cf. 
§ 222. 

3 These examples are on the border line, feecaUM //<V'" ° ,,ll(1 ] 

nally interpreted either as cognate accusative or direct obJ( 

24 Chapter V. 

ts xai biztxr/iGtic, i\kizz§M(7zi s/sL diptyaplov Bixy], see note to aBfoaov. 
oipmwv: o^tovsw, 'the buying of provisions,' 'provisions,' 'provision 
money.' ACF) Thugen. frg. 4. 593, "Hity](7£v £i£ otjjtoviov TpitojioAov. 
F) Polyb. 1. 78, 7uapaiT£To-frai pipoc ti toW I? 6[j.o>.6you ftpoa-ocp£i),o|jivo>v 
o^covttov. naqa^v^iov : Tracpajjiufrsoi),'' exhortation,' 'consolation,' 'means 
of consolation.' A) Plato Legg. 880 A, xat lav piv ti; toioutoi; 
7:ocpa[JiofKots sfausiQTjS YtyvYjTat, £OY]viO£ av sly). F) id. Resp. 329 E, 
toT? yap %\ou(jioic, rcoXXa TuapajMjfria (pocrriv sTvat. Epigr. Gr. 298. 7, 
lfjTf\q roxpa[j/J£kov. TiXalatov : Lith. atsiplaitau ' spread myself *Vpela(i) 1 
• broaden,' therefore ' a widening,' i. e. 'rectangle.' B) Thuc. 6. 67. 1. 
§6#tov : poSkos, pofro?. poO^to, ' the roaring,' ' splashing,' ' that which 
roars or splashes,' i. e. a wave. 2 A) A loud shout or tumult Eur. 
Andr. 1096, Kax touB' s/topst po^kov £v %61zi xaxov. Of the splashing 
of oars Aesch. Pr. 1048, K5[j.a Bl tcovtou zpx/zi poCKto T.oyyM<7zizv t&v 
oupavicov "Aorpcov BioBouc. Hyper, ap. Suidas s. v., to jjisv o3v tmv 
IXocuvovtow 7uXyj9*05 xat t6v tou pofriou <|>6<pov zai T0 p-sY £ ^°S tou axacpoos 
£X7U£7uX"/)Y[J.£voi Beivco? 7](7av. Ar. Equ. 546 (metaphorically), AtpsdD' 5 
ocutco tuoXu to potkov, 7uapa7U£p.'j)aT £<p lvB£za xcoroxic, ©opujfov /pv)<7Tov 
>.Y]vaiT7]v. Of the rushing motion of horses Dionys. H. 6. 10, o£Bs 
to po(kov (sc. t?]£ tcov Aoctlvgw liznoo) coovto touc; 'Pcojxaiotj!; focwsTg 
ocvs^sa-frat. AF) Eur. Cycl. 17, IIaTB£? B' £p£T[j.oT? %£voi Y^ a ' JZ V aXa 
c Po^ioi(7i 7»£uxaivovT£?. F) 3 Soph. Phil. 688, a[xcpi7ulaxT(ov poOttov \x6voc, 

1 Cf. Prellwitz, Etym. Worterb 2 . s. v. 

2 The use of qod-iov as referring to a wave does not necessarily in every 
case go back to the abstract use, but may as well be due to the ellipsis of 
a substantive meaning ' wave.' Cf. e 412, c^upi. ds xipa Be@Qv%£p $>.'&ioi>. 

3 By congeneric attraction to qo&iov in the meaning ' wave ' xXvtitoviov : 
xAudW, ' wave,' ' billow,' has gotten its suffix. Its meaning does not differ 
from that of its primitive in the slightest degree, the tendency to meta- 
phorical and collective use being common to both words. That xlvdabviov is a 
diminutive has been erroneously maintained under citation of Eur. Hec. 48, 
tpavrjaoftai yccQ, w? xuyov xlr^Kav rJ^co, z/ovXr t g nodwv naooi&sv iv x'Kvdmvm. To 
interpret the word as diminutive here would give a truly ridiculous aspect 
to the passage, and the same is true of its metaphorical use in Aesch. Sept. 
795, IloXig cf sV evdlcc ze xal xXvdaivLuy IloXXaiai nXrjyctlg aviXov ovx idefcao. Sim- 
ilarly id. Choeph. 183, Kafiol nqoaeaTrj xaqdiav xXvdwviov XoXrjg. In both of 
these passages the implication is the very opposite of small size : the effect 
intended is such that we could translate ' a sea of wrath.' In Thuc. 2. 84. 3, 
where the word appears as a collective, the idea is also the reverse of a 
diminutive idea : tag xconccg ddvvcaoi ovzeg iv xXvdwvUo dvag)iq€iv. Similarly 
Eur. Hel. 1209, 0EOK. tyavduo de noito pr^i MspeUw Vav£ii>; EA. OixTqoicttf 
vyqoloiv ev xXvdoiviotg- uXog. 

Abstracts with Verbal Force. 25 

xX'Jcov. Eur. I. T. 426 (collectively), Flap' o&tov aiyiaXov Src' 'Ajwpt- 
Tpfras f l ) oOuo Bptxp.6vTS£. fii)GLov: pucnos, ptai^, 'the seizing,' i. e. 
• deliverance,' also 'what is seized,' i. e. ' booty ' or ' pledge.' A) Aesch. 
Suppl. 314, "Ercacpos ukfft&q puaitov Itmw^oc. C) A 674, Iv v HXiBi 
vousTaoccxsv, c PuoV s7.auv6[j.svo£. Gnadiov (cradiov) : (jtuocw (cf. § 32. 4). 
'that which is drawn out,' 'a stade.' B) Hes., (jmBiov craBiov. 
Insc. Argos IA. 37, TSTpcfoa ts [<7]rcaBtov vixyj xal 7up6? t6v bizkizw. 
avf-inoaiov: <ju|muoty)s, 'a drinking together,' 'symposium,' 4 drinking- 
room,' 'guests of a drinking party.' A) Theogn. 496, 'IfyisTs B' sl> 
pfrsTcrtk ftocpa xpY)TY]pi pivovTs?, 'AXIyjXow spiBoc? (ty,).') dbcepoK6jJUBVdi, 
'E^ to [jia-ov <ptovsovTs<; o^w? evt xai duvdMuowtv ' Xoutco? <Tupjc6atov yivsTy.-., 
oux a^apt. Herod. 2. 78, TatjTa [Tsv 7uapa Ta cu^oaia 7wOtotj(7t. Plato 
Resp. 363 C, xoctocxXCvovts^ xod ffujwuootov twv ayicov xaTaa-xsuac-avTsc. 
ADE) Phocyl. 11, XpY] B' sv <7i>pi0<7ia) xuXixcov 7uspivi<7<70[Jisvao)v c HBsa 
xmtiT^ovtoc xaG^svov otvo7uoTa?stv. Theogn. 298, avayxaiY) B' s~i[j.s^r 
AvBpo? toioutou aupuofftto TsTifrsi. Xen. Cyr. 8. 8. 10, *Hv B' ccdroT? 
v6[it[j.ov p]B v s TUpo^otBa? sia-cpspsa-frai si? t<x <7U[Mu6<7ia. D) Callix. ap. 
Athen. 196 B, scp' &v ^moruXiov xafrYjp^oo-frY] TSTpaycovov uTuspsTBov tJjv 
crupuacav tou (jujjltcog-io'j orsyYjv. E) Plut. 2. 157 D, &COTT^<ravroc Bs 
to'D Xoyou to <rt>|XTC6<Ttov 6 [j. v sv Oa)vY]£ stckt/Uotutcov so opovslv soy, t&v 
'Em^sviBYjv. avvaywyiov: a-uvayo)yY], cruvayw, 'the bringing together.* 
'guests of a drinking party.' E) Men. frg. 4. 115 (6), 'E^pwcrsv 
ts to (juvocywyiov. awtdqiov : dovsBpa, ' a sitting together,' ' council/ 
' council-chamber,' ' council-board.' A) Plato Protag. 317 D, (TuvsBpiov 
xocTaoxsuao-M^sv, tva %a{k£6[jLSvoi BiaXsyYj^Os ; ADE) Herod. 8. 79. 
o5ro$ covTjp (7Ta? Sm to crovsBpiov s^sxodssTO Bsu-igtoxXsoc. D) Xen. 
Hell. 2. 4. 23, ty) B' 6<rrcpaCa ol [xsv TptaxovTa xavu By) TOfletvol *od 
lpV)[iot <70vexdt8*r)VTO sv tw cruvsBpio). E) Din. 1. 54, foyfosi u-aMov ty,; 
7.),r i 0'£ia? Y] rcapa toutou pY)8^(ro[JLsvY) xaTa toO auvsBpioo (i. e. the Araeo- 
pagus council) BiocjSoXy). avaakwv: <n>awt&», 'a messing together.' 
'a common meal,' 'room in which common meals are held,' occasional- 
ly with the accessory notion of the people assembled. A) Herod. 
1. 65, [xst* Bs Ta ic, rcotepv lypwot, Ivo^oTia? xafc Tpir/.aBa: Kod 
oudoi'na . . . e<ro)<7s Auxoupyoc. Strabo 794, tOv Bs paatteCwv pi| 
|<rd xa\ to MooasTov, s/ov . . . oTxov [jiyav iv o> to rowC'nov t- • 
/ovt(ov too MotxrsCou (pi'XoMywv avBpwv. DE) Eur. Ion 1166, / 
t 5 sv -ji^, ouooi^ KpaTY jP a ? fcmjrf. D ) Plato L '" J ' J - 7620 ' " 
sx^to'jc tooc to-o'-j? sTvai ^o^iTia, h ol; xoivv; t?;/ !5(aiT«V 
&7ca(nv. oy/^aov: (rcpayto?, ffcpa^a), k tli«- daughtering, 1 'whal 
slaughtered,' 'victim,' particularly 'sacrificial victim. * A Kur. 1 1 

26 Chapter VI. 

135, xstfrst crpaTtav My) t6v aptarov AavaSv 7uavTG)v AouXcov crcpaytcav 
stvsx' dwutofrsTv. id. Or. 815, 'Otuots ypuGziac, spi? apv6? "HXufrs TavTa- 
TiBat?, OtxTpoTaTa frotvYjjxaTa xat Z<payta ysvvatow tsxscov. AC) Herod. 
6. 112, Ta cxcpayia sytvsTo xaXa. Xen. An. 1. 8. 15, xat Ta tspa 
xala xat Ta <7<payta xaXa. Aesch. Sept. 230, l 'AvBp&v TaB' s<7Tt, 
<rcpayta xat ^pY)GTY]pta OsoTctv spBstv 7uoXs[itwv 7U£tpw[jivous ; Eur. Suppl. 
1196, 1 'Ev S Bs T£[xv£iv crcpayta ypr\ <r\ C) Soph. Aj. 219, TotauT' 
av iBot? <7XYjv% IvBov XstpoMtxTa crcpayt' atp.o|3acpY]. Eur. Or. 842, 
Xcpaytov s&sto [xaTspa, TCaTpwcov 7uafrscov a[xot(3a'v. Dem. 60. 29, sau- 
t&£ sBocav acpaytov to?£ TuoXtTat? 67usp tyj^ y&pccQ. tsx^itiqlov : Tsxixap, 
Tsx[iatpo[xat, ' sign,' ' token,' ' proof,' cf. (xapTUptov. F) Aesch. Choeph. 
206, Kat [iY)v ortf3ot ys, BsuTspov Tsx^Yjpiov, IIoBSv 6[j.otot zoic, t s[ioT(7tv 
£[jicp£p£T?. Antiph. 2B 10, Ta ts Tsxfj.Y)pta s[j.a, o5 toutwv ovTa sBYj^oxTa. 
Ti&aoiov : Ttfracrsuco, ' taming,' ' domestification,' cf. Ttfrao-sta. A) Theo- 
phr. H. P. 3. 2. 2, t&v ?wwv Ta cruvavfrpto7usu6[j.sva xat Bsyojxsva Ttfra<jtov. 
to/^hov: Toprj, ispw, 'the cutting,' 'slicing,' 'what is sliced,' 'victim.' 
AC) Ar. Lys. 192, 1 st tauxov 7uo0*sv "Itcttov },a(3ou<7at Topov svT£|j.ot[j.£B*a ; 
C) ib. 186, xat [xot Botco Ta Topa Tt£. TQwyaUov 2 : *Tp(6ya);Ov, Tpwyto, 
' that which is to be eaten ' or 'is eaten.' C) Pind. frg. 94, AetTuvou 
Bs MjyovTos y>,uxu Tpwyaltov KatTcsp xsB' acpfrovov (3opav. Ar. Pax 772 ; 
id. PL 798 (see § 175). Ta (fgixla: cppto-<70), ' shiverings.' A) Diosc. 
4. 14, aX£t<p6p.sva Bs (j.st' IXatou sm t&v rcsptoBtxaW Ta cpptxta rcapatTstTat. 
%OQiqyiov : yopr\yo<;, yopY]ysto, ' training of a chorus,' then generally ' the 
supplying,' 'supplies,' also 'training place of a chorus.' C) Polyb. 
1. 17, <7uvY)8>poia-av Ta ts yopvjyta xat Ta^ Buvapxt^. D) Dem. 19. 200, 
Ta TsXsuTaTa B' svayyo? iv yopY)ytotc alXoTptot? sm xw TptTayowtcrstv 
aya^YjTw^ 7uapaTps<p6|j.£vov ; yoQiov : Skr. Vhr, ' that which surrounds ' 
or ' by which something is surrounded,' i. e. the membrane around 
the embryo or inside of egg, intestine, leather, etc. F) Arist. Part. 
An. 2. 7. 745 b 35, p.sTa§j Bs t% uarspa? xat tou i\)fip6oi> to yoptov 
xat ot 6{jivs£ sta-tv. ipevdoficcQTVQiov, sec note to aBtxtov. 


36. Just as the neuter singular of any adjective with verbal mean- 
ing can be substantivized into an action noun, so the neuter of an 

1 For reason for placing these examples on the border line see note to [jloqiov. 

2 Perhaps concrete from the beginning. Cf. ra tovia, § 34 C. 

Adjectival Abstracts. 27 

adjective expressing an attribute or state can also be used as an ab- 
stract, Among words in -tov of this kind we find e. g. to IUv$£qiov 
'freedom': fteu&lpioc 'free,' in Xen. Mem. 3. 10. 5, 'AUa p]v xat 
-6 {xsya^oxpsTus? ts xat Hsufrsptov xat to Tarcstvov ts xat <3fcveXstf8*pov 
xat to crwcppovtxov ts xat cppovtpv xat to &(3pt<7Tixov ts xat dbceipdxaXov 
xat $ta too 7upo<rcorcou xat Bta tSv opi^aTwv xat sctcdtcov xat xivoufjivo>v 
avfrpcoxtov Btacpstvst. Similarly to ^toiov ' moderation ' : jxsrptos ' mod- 
erate,' Soph. Oed. Col. 1212, f/ 0<7Tt£ too tu^sovo? [ispou? xpf^st, -ro8 
jisTptOD xapst?, Zcostv, crxatoauvav cpulaao-wv 'Ev spt xaTaBrjXo? sorat. 
Xen. Mem. 3. 13. 5, to p.sv yap avayxa^safrat xspatTspw too |teTpfou 
jiYjxuvstv Ta? 6Bou<; yulzizov. Such words were naturally always referred 
to their abjectives by the Greeks, for this was a productive method 
of forming abstracts. It is therefore unnecessary to make an extended 
collection of examples. 

37. The line of distinction between these abstracts and those with 
verbal force is by no means sharp ; for an attribute or characteristic 
of an object very easily gets the accessory notion of an activity of 
this characteristic in that to which it belongs. 1 Thus among -tov 
nouns to akiov ' the cause,' with the distinct idea of activity, must 
have been originally conceived as ' the blame-worthiness ' ; for it comes 
from the adjective atTto? ' blame-worthy.' The meaning 'cause' e. g. 
Dem. 8. 56, Tt rcoT ouv to atTtov, 5 avBpss 'A^vaTot, tov [xsv ovto> 
<pavspo)£ aBtxouvTa, tzoKzic, xaTaXa[i(3avovTa, [j.Y]Bsva tootcov tuwtcot st-sTv 
<*)£ 7z6Xz\iov 7uotsT; Plato Phaedo 110 E, to B' atTtov toutou slvat 8ti 
sxstvot ot li&oi sto-t xafrapot. Similarly aBtxtov ' an unjust act ' (§ 35) 
is derived from aBtxos, which originally meant ' not according to 
custom,' and only secondarily became verbal in meaning. 

38. Like abstracts with verbal meaning these could become con- 
crete, though in a different way. That to which an attribute belongs 
is often designated by the attribute designating word itself, 2 e. g. in 
Eng. youth, beauty, divinity. So in Greek to Br^oatov ' the state ' : 
BY][j.6o-to? 'belonging to the state.' Herod. 1. 14, 06 Kopiv&Cwv roQ 
(V^ocrtoo sort 6 O'Yjo-aupo?, aMa Ku<\>£lou too 'I Istuovo;. Andoc. 1. 73, 
ot [jlv apyuptov dcpstlovTS? tw Br^OfTto), bxOGOi soOova? (ocpXov ap;-//?:: 
ap/a?, y} ££otoa$ Y] ypacpa? Y] £7Utpola? &9X0V, f| o>va: -pta[j.svot fee TOO 
fopdCou [J.Y] xaT£|3a),ov Ta XpY][j.aTa, r] syyua? eyyuY^avTO -po: to toy 

to Saiponov 'divinity': fcat[x6vio$ 'divine,' often in the general and 
vague meaning 'divine power,' which suggests its abstract origin: 

1 Cf. Brugmann, Gr. 2. V. 626. 

2 id. ib. 641. 

28 Chapter VII 

Herod. 2. 120, tolJ Baijiovtou 7uapa<7xsua£ovTO£ oxco? ftavoAsfrpiYi a-o'Xo- 
[isvoi xairacpavs^ itoutq toTcti av0pw7rai(7i ,7uoiy)<7G)<71, w? twv |isya),o)v aBi- 
xY][iaTtov [xsya^at st<rl xai at Ti^coptai xapa tgov frswv. id. 5:87; Dem. 
9. 54, %oXk(xyuc, yap IjjLOty ctyjXuGs xai touto <po|3sio-6ai, ^y] ti Bou[j.6vlov 
zoc %p&y\uxx eXauvY). From this vague meaning a personal meaning 
was developed, and Bai[j.6viov was applied also to a single god, 1 e. g. 
to Apollo at Delphi in the inscription CB. 2527. 14 (215-212 B. C), 
Tav xacrav ts GTuouBav 7uoiou[jisvos t#£ s?£ to Bai(x6vt,ov stjcspsiac. 

It is evident that when a word is older than the beginning of the 
transmission and occurs only in a concrete sense, there may often be 
a doubt whether it may not have been originally abstract. Thus Brug- 
mann, Gr. 2. I 2 . 189, derives otxiov ' house ' from an abstract mean- 
ing ' Hauslichkeit,' ' Behausung,' yet it may even better be concrete 
from the beginning (cf. § 88 f.). Since decisive criterions for the 
individual words are usually lacking, it is best to treat them as 
originally concrete if possible. 

39. Sometimes a substantive which has an appearance of being 
originally abstract really arose by ellipsis, to axoltov ' banquet song ' : 
(jyioliot; 2 ' crooked ' was not originally ' crookedness,' but came from 
(jxolibv \k£lo<;, which was a concrete idea before \).zko^ was omitted. 
Similarly when substantivation took place by taking up with the ad 
jective the general idea of a thing or things. xet^hov 'treasure' 
xsT^ou was not 'the lying,' but 'the lying things.' Cf. a 312, Atopov 
sycov . . . Tipjsv, p.ala xaXov, o Tot xstpjliov sarai. 


40. In various languages there exist such pairs of adjectives as 
[xzikiyioc, and \kziliyo^ ' mild,' ' gentle,' ^6y\kio$ and ^oy\k6c, ' oblique,' 
Skr. usriyas and usras ' reddish,' in which the -(i)io- seems to be a 
mere formal extension to the primitive, bringing with it no change 
of meaning. So also compounds like 6|A07:aTpios and 5[io7raTcop ' from 

1 In Attic dcuyLvvLov was applied only to inferior divinities, cf. Plato Symp. 
202 D, xcd yaQ nuv xb dcupoviov ^.eia^v iazi &eov ze xcd &vritov. Probably this 
development is due to the influence of the diminutives in -iov\ 6cu[xovlov : 
docifxcov = nctidlov : nalg. Cf. § 222. 

2 The accent of axofaov on the propenultima instead of ultima must be 
later than its substantivation, and is due to the analogy of other substan- 
tives (§ 20 ff.). 

From Adjective Primitives. 29 

the same father,' Lat. bipedius and bipes 'having two feet.' Accord- 
in- to Brugmann, Gr. 2. I 2 . 193, this use of -to- is secondary and 
in the earliest cases only apparent ; for, on the one hand the primi- 
tive may have been a noun originally, as [xaxap, the primitive of u.a- 
xapio;, originally 'happiness,' but later 'happy'; on the other hand 
the neuter of the primitive adjective was in many cases conceived 
as an adjectival abstract (cf. § 36), so that the derivative in -to- 
originally emphasized the idea of 'having the nature of,' e. g. zb 
;j.siXi/ov ' mildness ' gave rise to \kzikiyioc, ' having mildness as his nature.' 
This fine distinction, however, was. soon effaced, and for all practical 
purposes primitive and derivative can be considered as equivalent. 

We can distinguish two main classes of such words according 
to whether they were simple or compound. 


41. In case of the neuter substantives belonging here the develop- 
ment of meaning is such that in the majority of instances they can 
be traced to the substantivized Neuter of the primitive adjectives, and 
so they have been mentioned in their proper place with substantive 
derivatives. orcraviov 'kitchen' is the place used for roasting (to 
oxtocvov, neuter of otutocvo?),. crs'cpavYjrcXoiua is the place connected with 
the making of Avreaths (<rrs<pavY]7uX6>iov, neuter of orscpavY^loxoc), [xa- 
Xaxia ' mollusks ' are the animals of the soft kind (to [j.ocXaxov, neuter 
of \isx\oLy.6Q). Other -tov derivatives from adjectives are due to con- 
generic attraction, e. g. 7utl>xtiov : tutuxto? 'a folded book, 1 'writing 
tablet,' has followed words like pijftiov and tuu£Cov (§ 101 C). Finally. 
Xsipiov 'lily': Izipiog : Izipot; 1 'thin,' 'pale,' arose by ellipsis, as it 
appears from Pind. N. 7. 79, XsCptov avOspv. Otherwise it appears 
completely substantivized, e. g. H. Horn. Ceres 427, Theophr. H. P. 
6. 6. 9. 


42. When the original fine distinction between -w- words ami 
their adjective primitives had become effaced i^-Hm. tlie existence 
of compound adjectives with and without -'/,- alongside of ea»h other 
in the same meaning allowed the former to be referred directly to 

1 This etymology e. g. in Prellwitz 2 s. v. Ilrlm. Kulturpfl 7 . 260 Mid 
n. 62, believes the word to be borrowed from the Persian l&leh. Cf. also 

it». p. 258 f. 

30 Chapter VII. 

the separate constituents of the compound, and this in turn caused 
the suffix to appear merely as the exponent of its adjectival function ; 
in other words, -(i)io- had from I. E. times become associated with 
the formation of exocentric 1 or transferred adjective compounds. The 
decisive criterion to show that this new function had fully developed 
is the existence of such compound adjectives in -(i)io- as have no 
corresponding form without it, but are formed directly from their 
constituents, e. g. Gr. TptY)|xt7u6Bto? ' a foot and a half long,' without 
a corresponding TptY)[xi7uou£. 

43. Most frequently, since I. E. times, such compounds were 
formed from phrases consisting of a preposition and its governed sub- 
stantive, so e. g. Skr. adhi-gart-ya-s ' being on the seat of the wagon,' 
api-kaks-ya-s ' being near the arm-pit,' Gr. 7uspt-<7cpup-toc ; around the 
ankle,' Lat. e-greg-ius ' outside of the herd,' ' extraordinary,' Goth, 
uf-aip-eis ' under oath ' ; but the same formation was also used in all 
other classes of exocentric compounds, so e. g. Av. hu-raifr-ya- 4 upon 
a beautiful chariot,' Gr. bixo-izfap-ioc, 'from the same father,' rfkio- 
GY.OTZioc, 'looking to the sun,' Lat. bi-ped-ius. Cf. Brugman, Gr. 2 
l 2 . 112, 193; Wackernagel, Ai. Gr. 2. 106 ff. 

44. These adjectives gave rise to a large number of Greek neuter 
substantives, some arising by the various methods of substantiation 
(§ 11), others formed analogically to these. Since, moreover, the -to- 
brought with it no definitive meaning except its adjectival function, 
the substantivized neuters also could stand in a great variety of re- 
lations to their constituents, the only restriction being that the sub- 
stantives, since derived from the exocentric adjectives, must themselves 
be exocentric. 

45. In course of time the use of this compound forming -tov 
was extended from exocentric to certain esocentric compounds 
through a variety of causes. In the first place, the relation between 
the constituents of an exocentric compound in -to- was sometimes 
of such a nature that a meaning was attributed to the suffix which 
was parallel to the meaning of -to- in simple words and esocentric 
compounds. 8[xo-7uaTp-to<; does not owe its meaning ' coming from 
the same father ' to its -to-, but rather to the collocation of the ideas 
; same ' and ' father,' for 8p-7udnrcop has exactly the same meaning ; 
yet it was inevitable that the influence of simple words in which 
-to- was in reality the exponent of the idea of descent (§91 ff.) 

1 For terms esocentric and exocentric cf. Brugmann, Gr. 2. I 2 . 71 ff. 

Compounds. 31 

should cause the suffix of the compound to be interpreted similarly. In 
the same way 7uspt-<7cpop-ta ' that which is around the ankles,' ' anklets.' 
would be felt as having the same suffix as Ppa/tov-tov 'that which 
belongs to ' or ' is around the arm.' In the second place, primitives 
which were themselves compounds gave rise to -tov derivatives on the 
same principles as simple words, and yet their form was such that 
they often looked like exocentric compounds having similar constituents. 
Formally rcspi£cofi.aT-tov suggests 7uspi-(T<p[jp-iov, yet the former is formed 
directly from xsp^w^a with the idea ' a garment of the rapi^a kind,' 
while the latter is 'that which is around the ankle,' and is formed 
directly from its constituents by the compound forming -tov. Similar 
are ^toCx-wv ' metic's tax ' : [xstoixo? ' metic ' and sTt-otx-toc ' buildings 
about the house,' formed by the compound forming -tov. As a result 
of these forces alone, namely, apparent similarity of function in some 
cases, apparent similarity of form in others, the distinction between 
-tov in exocentric and the original esocentric compounds, which latter 
are formed on the same principles as simple words, would tend to 
break down, and thus bring about full assimilation of meanings. 

46. Another important point of contact between exocentric and 
esocentric compounds results from the fact that the two classes are 
indistinguishable in verbal adjectives and abstracts. So e. g. suay- 
ysXtov ' good tidings ' evidently comes from an adjective etjayysXio? 
'reporting good,' but whether this has received its suffix because its 
verbal nature was felt, or because it was felt as an exocentric com- 
pound, is totally uncertain ; for the use of -to- in simple verbal ad- 
jectives like o-cpricytos forbids us to assume that the compound forming 
-tov was responsible for all words of this type. 

47. Finally, compounds in -tov sometimes passed from exocentric 
to esocentric meaning by shift of point of view in the words them- 
selves. &VTt-xvy)[xtov, originally 'that which is in front of the leg,' was 
interpreted as 'the front leg,' and so got the subject within its own 
limits. Similarly 7upo-xop.tov 'that which is in front of the hair' was 
more logically felt as 'the front hair'; ix-otxta, 'the buildings round 
about the house' became 'the houses round about'; Kpo-Amov -that 
which is in front of the city' became 'the front city,' i. e. suburb : 
~po-ot[j.tov 'that which comes before the song' became 'the beginning 
of the song'; fjju-xoTuXiov k a measure consisting of a cup and A half ' 
became 'a cup and a half; dbtpo-O-tvtov 'that wlm-h is at the top of 
the heap' became 'the top of the heap.' That such change of inter- 
pretation really did take place is shown by the large number of eso- 

32 Chapter VII. 

centric compounds beginning with Y)p- and fatpo- in which there 
never could have been an exocentric interpretation, e. g. Y)[j.i-x)a)piov 
' half of the inheritance,' Y]\u-\6yiov ' half a company,' y][xi-ts)tviov ' half 
an art,' i. e. a wretched art, o»tp-a<J6viov 'end of the axle,' axpo- 
<7T6[ua l edge of the lips.' 

48. As a result of these different forces -tov in exocentric and 
esocentric compounds became so thoroughly confused that the suffix 
seemed a fit means of forming nominal compounds of almost any 
kind (cf. e. g. xsvo-oracptov ' an empty tomb,' i. e. cenotaph), and even 
where the primary impulse of adding the -iov was not the fact that 
a word was a compound, we may surmise that the frequency of the 
latter kept old and rare meanings relatively more productive in com- 
pounds than in simple words. Thus almost half of the abstract words 
of § 35 are compounds, and we find such pairs as 7uapoc-|xu£kov : 
{iQfroc, <7uv-sBpiov : IBpa. 

49. No attempt is made to give a complete list of the numerous 
neuter substantives belonging here, nor to subdivide the selection of 
examples given according to the apparent effect of the suffix (§ 45), 
but merely to give a few representative examples, and to discuss a 
few excursive groups. 

A. Prepositional Compounds. 

50. Examples, a) Adjectives are extant : iy-xw^iov (sc. [xsXo?) 
'a panegyric': iyvM^ioc, 'belonging to the celebration of the victor.' 
As an adjective Pind. 0. 2. 52, 'Eyxwpwv ts jxsXswv lopoiv T£ Tuy- 
ycwi\xzv. As a substantive Xen. Ag. 10. 3. ev-T&cpiov ' shroud ' : 
Ivxacpio? ' belonging to burial.' Sim. Ce. 4. 4. sv-vrtnov ' something 
seen in sleep,' 'a dream': sv-tkvio? 'in sleep.' % 495 ; Ar. Vesp. 25. 
sv-dama 'the wall before the eyes' of him who enters from the court- 
yard : svamo? ' before the eyes.' 435. sttl-vimov (sc. jiiXos) ' song 
of victory ': Imvnuos 'belonging to victory.' Aesch. Ag. 174; Athen. 
3 E. eji-taziov ' that which belongs to the hearth, ' ' household ' : 
zkigzioc, 'belonging to the hearth.' Herod. 5. 72. eni-a(fVQia 
'anklet,' ' greave-holder ' : ircwcpupios 'over the ankle.' V 331. fjei- 
aiyj^iiov 'space between two armies': [isTaiy^io? 'between the armies." 
Herod. 6. 77. n£Qi-av%£vLov ' neck-lace ' : Tuspiau/svios ' around the neck.' 
App. Mithr. 85. neqi-noXiov ' guard-house near the city ' : nepuc6Xid$ 
'lying around the city.' Thuc. 6. 45. n£QL-a<pvQLov 'band for the 
ankle': xspto-cpupio? 'around the ankle.' Herod. 4. 176. rrgo-aanov 
'suburb': xpoa<7Tto? 'before the city.' Soph. El. 1431; CIA 4. 2. 

Compounds. 33 

574 e (312 B.C.). nQo-vmma 'front part of house': jupov<&mo$* 'in 
front.' Eur. Bacch. 639. ^no^vytov 'beast of burden': faoCfrpoc 
' under the yoke.' Thuc. 2. 3. 3. 

b) No adjectives are extant (mostly exocentric). am-xrrj^ov 'that 
which is in front of the leg,' 'shin.' Arist. H. A. 1. 15. 494 a 6. 
dia-TivXtov 'toll for passing through the gates.' id. Oec. 2. 1348 a 26. 
sX-Xv%vtov ' that which is in the lamp,' 'wick.' Herod. 2. 62. sv-wtlov 
4 that which is in the ear,' 'ear-ring.' Aesch. frg. 102. en-oixia 
'buildings around the house,' 'minor buildings.' Tab. Her. 1. 146. 
sq-odia 'provisions for the journey.' Herod. 4. 203; Dem. 3. 20. 
ysTa-TivQytov 'space between two towers.' Thuc. 3. 23. 1. iist-6q%iov 
' space between rows of vines.' Ar. Pax 568. fxer-wmov (cf. [*£t-omtov) 
'that which is between the eyes,' 'forehead.' A 95 ; II 739. naqa- 
ocfrivcov : o-cpY)v ' wedge,' a ston-cutter's instrument. Insc. Delos Mich. 
594. 88. nsQc-xdomov, ' that which is around the wrist,' ' a bracelet.' 
Poll. 5. 99. TiQo-avhov l place before a court,' 'vestibule.' Poll. 1. 77. 
noo-xoXmov 'that which is before the breast,' a robe falling over it. 
Luc. Pise. 7. 7iQo-x6 t aiov 'that which is in front of the hair,' 'front 
hair ' of men or horses. Xen. Equ. 5. 6 ; also ' that which takes the 
place of hair,' ' false hair.' Ar. frg. 2. 1078. Trgo-xco/j/ov ' that which 
€omes before the xSp?,' 'prelude of a song.' Pind. N. 4. 11. vttsq- 
tivQiov 'that which is above the door,' 'lintel.' yj 90. vjt-cothov 2 'that 
which is under the eyes,' i. e. a part of the face in M 463, a blow 
under the eyes in Ar. Yesp. 1386. vcp-oXfxwv ' that which is under 
the mortar,' 'mortar-stand.' Ar. ap. Poll. 10. 114. 

51. Among smaller excursive groups of words among those men- 
tioned may be named: (1) Articles of dress or ornament (cf. §260E): 
ivomov, ircwcptipiov, xsptauy^sviov, 7uspixap7uiov, rcspw<ptfptov, xpoxoXmov, ~:o- 
x6\uov. (2) Parts of the body : dcvraivYjjjitov, [jtsTcorciov, 6x(omov, rcpo- 
xopov. (3) Parts of the house or yard: Ivcoma, wpovt&ma, rcpoatiXtov, 
sTTobaoc. (4) Songs etc. : syxcopov, Tupoxojjxtov, £7uivixiov. 

1 Since there is no trace of the idea 'leaning' or 'sloping' In the use 
of the adjective nqoviomog, it seems better to divorce it and the substantive 
nqovamtot. from nqovwny\q and other words mentioned by Prellwitz 1 s. \ . , m. 
and refer to mp. nqo-v-umiog would then be 'before the eyes,' i. e. 'In front.' 
The -v- can be explained as brought in from the congeneric n>-«'mtog and 
av-d)niov. To assume syncope from *nQ06v<Anta^ u Im* been done under 
citation of Eustath. 82. 35, 312. 14, is, of course, unquestionably irroi 

2 The late adjective vnomiog 'with black eye' (Poll. 8. 79) 
derivative from vnaimov; for its meaning could n-.t have devel. 
' under the eye' in the adjective itself. 


34 Chapter VII. 

B. Numeral Compounds and Compounds designating a Part of the 

Simplex. - 
52. a) Integral numeral compounds. While there was nothing in 
the original nature of -(i)iom which should make it unfit for integral 
numeral compounds any more than for any other kinds, this use of 
the suffix has not been productive in Greek, and remained altogether 
in exocentric bounds. I have found only the following, 1 all without 
corresponding adjectives : [xov-rjfiSQiov ' a hunt lasting only one day.' 
Anth. P. 9. 581. fiovo-nvgytov 'a fortress with only one tower.' 
Procopius Aed. 4. 5. St-iSQtov 'that which has seats for two,' 'a 
double seat.' Suid. s. v. dL-XitfivLov ' that which consists of two lem- 
nisci,' ; a double lemniscus.' Insc. Rhod. GIG. 2525 b 56. tqi-xXlvlov 
'a dining room with three couches.' 2 Theopomp. frg. 2. 816 (2). 
tql-Ikxtlov ' a measure of three jxaToci,' perhaps an adjective : Wilcken 
0. G. 752, (j£|xsTpY)xa(7i . . . TpijxaxLo) [isTpw. TQi-yLr\<siov ' a space of three 
months.' PK. 1.73,77. %qi-nodiov 'that which has three feet,' k a 
tripod,' cf. Tpi7uoo£. Antiphan. frg. 3. 146 ; Men. frg. 4. 143 ; Insc. 
Delos Ditt 2 . 588. 39. TQi-yvXfaov ' tre-foil,' ' clover, ' cf. TpicpolXov. 
Schol. Od. B 603; Aretae Cur. M. Diut. 2. 13. TievT-oyxcov 3 'a quan- 
tity of five oyxtat.' Epich. frg. 10. The significance of this small 
list is further increased by the fact that all of these words, with the 
exception of TpircoBiov, which was felt as congeneric to other names 
of vessels in -tov, and perhaps was formed by their influence rather 
than the compound forming -tov, were very rare words. Moreover, 
for the Sicilian rcsvToyxiov (see note) Italic influence is probable, as 
also for the late words TpijxdcTiov (cf. Lat. tri-modium), Tpip.Y]OTov (cf. 
Lat. se-mestrium), TpicpuX},tov (cf. Lat. tri-folium), and BisBpiov (cf. 
Lat. bi-sellium). Certain of direct borrowing from Latin we are in 
case of Tptouyxiov 'ItocXwcov. CIG. 8549. The reason for the differ- 
ence of attitude to these compounds between Latin and Greek is to 
be sought in the fact that in Latin the use of -ium forms as col- 
lectives, with which integral numeral compounds have a certain simi- 
larity, was quite frequent, while in Greek both of these uses were felt 
as somewhat incongruous with certain other meanings of -iov, namely 

1 L. and Sc. also give zqi-wqiov ' three hours ' on the supposition that 
Lat. tri-horium must be a Greek word because its last constituent is Greek. 
The rarity of Greek words of this type in comparison to the Latin is a 
sufficient answer to this. 

2 Perhaps a diminutive, cf. § 211 D s. v. 

3 nevtoyxiov ft a reasonably certain conjecture for the msc. netoyxiov. 

Compounds. 35 

' something like, but not equivalent to the primitive (§ 132 ff.) ' 
and the diminutive meaning. Consequently the feminines in the very 
common collective suffix -10c were preferred for integral numeral com- 
pounds also, so e. g. in Bt-wfkXioc, Tpi-ujfeXCa, Tpi-ariyta, etc. 

53. b) Compounds of %i-. The very same reason which accounts 
for the rarity of the words discussed in the last paragraph also ex- 
plains the frequency of those beginning with %u-. j\\u,-<nijwv ' a half 
line' was also a short line, and so its suffix could suggest the di- 
minutive meaning of -iov, although having nothing to do with it in 
its formation, ^i-ts^viov 'a half art,' i. e. a wretched art, could 
suggest the deteriorative use. Oftener the idea 'something like, but 
not complete' could be attributed to the suffix, e. g. fyu-a»aff>iov 'a 
half, but not a complete sphere,' r^i-xotoliov ' a half, but not a full 
cup.' For this reason, and because the transition to exocentric mean- 
ing was particularly easy in this kind of compound (§ 47), large 
numbers of them were formed directly from their constituents, and 
only in four cases have I found corresponding adjectives : yfitofaov 
(sc. nkoiov) ' a vessel of one and a half banks of oars ' : ^[lioXioc, 
1 consisting of a half and a whole.' Hes. fjfii-xvxhov ' semi-circle ' : 
Y]pxuxXios 'semi-circular.' Hes.; Insc. Delos Ditt 2 . 588. 31. tqi- 
vilii-nodiov ' three half feet ' : TpiY)(j.t7u6Bio£. Xen. Oec. 19.5. Similarly 
7i£v#-r\iii-Tiodtov (1. c.) ' five half feet ' : tusvS^jjlituoBios. In contrast 
to these four words is the large number of compounds of %i- without 
corresponding adjective, largely with esocentric meaning or on the 
border line : ruii-avdqiov ' a half man,' ' eunuch.' cf. Yjvi-avBpo?. 
Theoph. Sim. Ep. 43. ri/jn-afigjoQiov 'a half a[j.<popsuc.' Jos. B. J. 
2. 21. 2. rifxt-aQTiov 'a half loaf.' Sophr. frg. 28; Hes. r^t-aaTqx- 
yafaov *a half astragalus.' Arist. H. A. 2. 1. 499 b 25. fifii-daxtv- 
Xiov 'a half finger's breadth.' Insc. Att. CIG. 123. 25; Insc. An- 
dania Ditt 2 . 653. 21. r^i-d mAold iov 'a woman's dress doubled on top 
so as to fall half-way down the figure.' Ar. Eccl. 318. itfiL-Swoitxt or 
'half -thorax,' i. e. front plate of thorax. Plut. 2. 596 D. fyu-xa&o? 
'a half vMoq: Insc. Sic. CIG. 5641. 94; Poll. 10.71. w <-*).> { nmv 
'half the inheritance.' Isae. 7. 6; Dem. 48. 20. fyu-xoXkov' [jixpov 
olvou. oi Bs %1/oivtxiov, Hes. rftu-xoaiiiov 'half the world. 1 Niceph, 
Blemm. 236. fai-xowfoov ' a half cup.' Arist. H. A. 6. 18. 573 a 7. 
rjfxt-XkQcov 'a half XCxpa.' Epich. frg. 9. fyu-Aox""' * •'••'• t ■' company.' 
Ael. Tact. 5. r](XL-ovyxiov 'half an ounce.' Epich. ap. AB. 98 
fyu-nodiov 'a half foot.' Theophr. H. A. 7. 2. 7 ; Insc. All. Ditt 1 , 
~M7. 72. v\iii-nHv$iov 'a half brick/ because half as long as wide, 

36 Chapter VII. 

according to Stein ad Herod. 1. 50. fifji-QQrjviov 'a half sheep,' i. e., 
according to Dittenberger ad loc, a half-grown sheep. Insc. Delph. 
Ditt 2 . 438. 198. r^ii-adxtov 'a half sack.' Poll. 10. 169. rpi-aUXiov 
1 a half shekel.' Hes. r^xt-(Sii%tov 'a half-line.' Iambi. V. P. 162. 
rilii-GyaiQiov ' hemi-sphere.' Alex. frg. 3. 502 (1. 7) ; Plato Ax. 371 B. 
rj[jii-T6%viov 'half an art,' i. e. a wretched art. AB. 651. 'qfM-TGvtov 
'a half-tone.' Plut. 2. 1020 F. fyu-Tvfaov 'towel,' according to Poll. 
7.21, an Aegyptian word. Sappho frg. 116. r^b-yaqiov 'a half-robe.' 
Suid. r^u-cpaxfcoviov ' a half <pco<ro)v,' a kind of garment. Ar. ap. Poll 
6. 161. i)im-%oivlmov 'a half-/oTviE' Insc. Att. Ditt 2 . 587. 271. Tjfio- 
%6qlov ' a half-chorus.' Poll. 4. 107. fifxt-wfioohov, -fieliov, -di-Xiov, ' a 
half-obol.' Xen.An. 1. 5. 6; Insc. Delph. Ditt 9 . 140. 18. t^u-mqiov 
' a half -hour.' Men. ap. Poll. 1.71; Strabo 133. TQi-r^xtrcXlv^tov 1 ' three 
half bricks.' Insc. in Miiller Mun. Ath. p. 34. tqi-tjilutoviov ' three 
half tones.' Plut. 2. 389 E. TQi-rnxtw^oXtov 'three half-obols.' Ar. 
frg. 2. 963 (15). 

54. How slight was the feeling of relationship between these sub- 
stantive compounds of y)[j.i- and the original adjectival force of their -tov, 
is further seen from the fact that when a corresponding adjective was 
wanted, it was not made by simply treating the stem in -to- as an 
adjectival stem, but by the addition of the denominative suffix -ccio- ; 
so 7]{ii>tOTuXtaTo? : Y)|xtxoTtjXtov, YjjxtXtTptaTos : •fjjxiXiTptov, Y][xippo[x(3tatos : 
Y][xippop.(3iov, Y][xtoTaBta?o£ : Y]fj.iGTaBiov, Y]|itTovia?0£ : y][ut6viov, tyxto$zh- 
ovLoc, : 7][it(oj3sXiov. This method of forming adjectives was used so ex- 
tensively that the conglutinate -tato- was abstracted from them and 
used to form denominative adjectives from such compounds of Y][xt- 
as did not end in -tov : Y]pBpa/jj.tato? : Y][xtBpa/jxov, Y)[xt<77u8 > oc(j.tatO£ : Y][xt- 
GTutfrajj.o?, Y)pTalavTtato£ : YjpTaXavTOv. Cf. also Tpttof3oXta?0£ : Tpico- 
fioXov. In Y]|ii[j.Y]vta?os -tocto- has taken upon itself the function of -to- 
in forming an adjective compound directly from its constituents -?][it- 
and [xy)v. 

55. c) Compounds of axpo-. The same resemblance to the mean- 
ing ' something like, but not equivalent to the primitive,' which caused 
so many -tov compounds with 7)fjit-, led to a corresponding productivity 
of the suffix in other compounds which designated a part of the simplex, 
particularly those beginning with axpo-. In none of the following 
list except axpofrtvtov (cf. its adjectival use in Aesch. Eum. 834, axpo- 
£Kvta frtfY) . . . s/oua-t) is there any trace of adjectival origin, and al- 

1 Words of this type do not owe their -tov to the xqi-\ Tqcrj/uinMi'&iov : 

Compounds. 37 

most all are completely esocentric. dxQ-a£oviov 'end of the axle.' 
Poll. 1. 145. dxQo-tvyiov = &vylri. id. 1. 253. dxqo-Mviov 'the top 
of the heap,' i. e. best part, first fruits etc. Pind. N. 7.41; Thuc. 
1. 132. 2. dxqo-xiovtov 'top or capital of pillar.' Philo 2. 147. dxqo- 
xwXiov ' end of a limb,' ' extremity of body.' Pherecr. frg. 2. 300 
(1. 14); Ar. frg. 2. 945; Stratt. frg. 2. 766 (2). dxq-o^icpdXiov 'top 
i. e. middle of navel.' Poll. 2. 169. dxqo-noa&iov 'fore-skin.' id. 2. 
171. dxqo-qqlviov 'tip of the nose.' id. 2. 80. dxqo-qqv^uov 'fore end 
of pole.' id. 1. 146. dxqo-Gcrftiov '(top of) chest.' Arist. Physiogn. 
6. 810b 17. dxqo-avoXtov 'gunwale of a ship.' Plut. Dem. 43. dxqo- 
aro^iov ' edge of the lips.' Dionys. H. De Comp. 164. dxqo-cfyaiqiov 
'rounded tip of finger.' Ermerius Anec. Med. p. 15. dxqo-cyvqiov 
(exocentric) a sort of woman's shoe. Poll. 7. 94. dxqo-reXevTiov ' tip- 
end,' 'end of poem.' Thuc. 2. 17. 1. dxqo-yvaiov 'snout of a pair 
of bellows.' Soph. ap. AB. 373. 15 ; Hes. dxqwfxiov ' tip of shoulder/ 
Arist. H. A. 8. 28. 606 a 16. 

56. d) Other compounds designating a part of the simplex. omaSo- 
xqaviov ' back part of skull.' Gloss. oTria^o-fxvqiov ' back of the thigh.' 
Melamp. palp. p. 493. /uL6G-ac%[xiov 'middle of spear.' Hes. psco- 
lii\viov ' midmonth.' Gloss. fi eoo-xv ijfMov ' middle of leg.' Strabo734. 
Perhaps also the following : oqqo-nvycov ' the oppo? part of the mrpq,' 
' rump,' ' tail.' Ar. Nub. 158. xvxX-cotuov ' the circle part of the eye,' 
'the white round.' Arist. H. A. 4. 8. 533 a 9. 

57. Smaller excursive groups of words under B. (1) Articles of 
dress, ornament, armor, etc. : Y][j.iBt7uXoiBiov, Y)p.ifrtopribaov, y][xitu(3iov, r t \u- 
cpricpiov, YjpcpwG-wviov, axpoccpupiov. Of. § 51. 1, 260 D, E. (2) Parts 
of the body : axp oxwltov, axpojxcpaXiov, axpOTUoaO-tov, axpoppiviov, &xpo- 
CTY)£kov, axpoaropov, axpwpov, 6pp07uuyiov. Cf. § 51. 2, and the 
following compounds in [jleco- (§ 58) [xecevTspiov, [xscroxapmov, p.s<ro- 
{jidjiov, jjLS(ro(JLY)pia, [jis<ro|Jicpa>.iov, [xs<707u>.supia, ^(joiz^6yioc, \>.s<jotz6yiqv. 
(3) Weights and measures: Y)px[j.<p6ptov, 7)[xtBaxTtj>,iov, YjpxaBiov, f ( ;u- 

XoHlOV, f^tXOTUXtOV, Y][xdtTptOV, r\\Uo6yY.lOV , YilXlftoBlOV, f][J.l<7a>U0V, Y)[xt<7ix}aov, 

Y)p<p6p[xiov, Yjpxoivtxiov, ■Jjjjiitrtpofoov, TptYj^jioXtov. From these again 
those words which are derived from names of vessels, like 4)tuocp$6f»ov 
and Y]pxoirMiov, form a special group which could be connected with 
the simple names of vessels in -iov. Cf. § 260 C. 

0. Miscellaneous Compounds. 

58. A special group is composed of a large number of irorda 

beginning with pro-, which are of a heterogenous semantic character. 

38 Chapter VII. 

The few words which owe their -iov to their designating a part of 
the simplex are mentioned § 56. A larger number is caused by 
the use of {jlscto- in the same sense as the preposition ^stoc 'between,' 
and is thus a group of exocentric compounds. So fiea-aixfMov ' space 
between two armies ' (cf. [xsT-afypov). Hes. ixect-evTbQiov ' mesentery.' 
Arist. H. A. 1. 16. 495b 32. (leGo-yovdriov = fieao-yoviov 'the space 
between two knots or joints.' Theophr. H. P. 4. 11. 6. [Asao-fid&ov 
'space between the breasts.' Diocl. ap. Orib. 109 ed. Mai. fieao- 
p.riQia ' space between the thighs.' Poll. 2. 188. /Lieao-nXevQca 'the part 
between the ribs,' cf. ^zcoitlzopioc. id. 2. 167. /neao-Tivyiov 'the part 
between the buttocks.' Schol. Ar. Plut. 122. ^eoo-nigytov ' space 
between two towers,' cf. [xsTa-7udpytov. Polyb. 9. 41. 1. [xeGo-yXspLov 
' space between two veins.' Gloss. The remaining compounds of ^sco- 
owe their -tov to the analogy of the other groups ; it became the 
habit to attach the suffix to any compound beginning with \lz<jo- 
regardless of meaning. In the following list the first member desig- 
nates simply that the second is in the middle of something, thus 
tiec-o[i(pcdwv (Poll. 2. 169) is 'the navel that is in the middle' of 
the body, fieao-cpaQayyiov (Gloss.) is ' the ravine that is in the middle 
between two hills, etc. All of this group is thus esocentric. Other 
examples are fiea-avXiov ' a piece of flute music played in the inter- 
val' of the choric song. Eust. 862. 19. [isoo-xvviov 'pastern of a 
horse.' Hippiatr. ^eao-xaqmov ' wrist.' Diosc. fieGo-meQvyia ' the 
middle wing-feathers.' Ael. N. A. 7. 17. fjtsa-ovQtov 'boundary.' Dion. 
P. 17. 

58. Of other types of compounds in -tov only a very few examples 
need be mentioned. The final member has verbal force in rffoo- 
tixomov, a plant name : y]Xiog^67uio$ ' looking to the sun.' Arist. De 
Plant. 1. 4. 819b 21. Tcay-xqaxiov (sc. afrXov) 'a contest for victory 
in everything,' i. e. a combination of wrestling and boxing. Xenophan. 
2. 5 ; Herod. 9. 105. The first member has verbal force in xaip- 
i6qcotwv ' that which receives the perspiration,' ' sudarium.' Com. 
ap. Poll. 7. 71. %QV(S-i7i7itov ( : tqvw) 'a mark burned upon a horse 
superannuated in the public service.' Eupol. frg. 2. 555 (17). The 
first member is an adjective modifying the final member in the 
esocentric compounds Xco-ttstqcov' lib>o$ leioq (Hes.) and xevo-rdcfiov 
' an empty tomb,' ' cenotaph.' Xen. An. 6. 4. 9. 

Chapter VIII. 39 


59. Whatever the original meaning of the -(i)io- suffix, and what- 
ever its origin, its sphere was extremely large and perplexing already 
in I. E. times. By abstracting, however, the term of description 
' belonging to ' or l connected with ' for a large group of uses which 
are closely related, a convenient starting point for a system of arrang- 
ing the different meanings presents itself, but it does not follow that 
this is to be regarded as the real " Grundbedeutung." For, on the 
one hand, a very narrow concrete meaning still in existence may 
have given rise to this general meaning; on the other hand, it is 
highly probable that the suffix itself is of composite origin, and partly 
a mere conglutination of the -i- of i stems and the adjective forming 
-o-, in which case there never was a homogeneous sphere of meaning, 
and any concrete usage may have been adapted from the vague ad- 
jectival function of the suffix. Cf. Brugmann, Gr. 2. I 2 . 187; for 
the Sanskrit, Whitney, Skr. Gr 3 . 1210 a. 

60. The meaning ' belonging to,' ' connected with,' is seen in such 
adjectives as Skr. senya-s Av. haenya- 'belonging to the army,' Gr. 
icoiuivto-s 'belonging to the herdsman,' Lat. uxoriu-s 'belonging to 
the wife,' 0. H. G. edeli : adal, ' belonging to the nobility,' 0. Big. 
clovect: clovekx, 'belonging to man,' 'human' (cf. § 108). The 
Greek substantivized neuters of these are of great number and variety, 
differing according to the manner of substantivation, the nature of 
the primitive, and the character of the congeneric words which have 
been influential in their formation. According to this latter point 
of view they largely fall into a number of definite groups, according 
to which they will be classified. 


61. Since the idea of the place connected can also develop from 
original action nouns (§ 34 D), it is sometimes doubtful ho* a 
given word originated.' So cruvocycoytov (§ 35) might hare COIM 
directly from the abstract noun cruvaywyY) as 'that connected with Un- 
assembling,' yswpytov 'field' may as well have developed from the 
action noun y £ o>pytov as have been 'that which belongs to the hus- 
bandman (yso)pyo?),' etc. 

Place names in -tov can be subdivided into several groups of more 

closely related words. 

62. A. The primitive is an action noun, it) <.'>'/./<> v. m l"*i :»!»- 

40 Chapter VIII. 

stract *sBcaX"/], ' that which is connected with the sitting,' ' seat,' 
'abode.' Aesch. Choeph. 71; Soph. El. 1393; 'rowers' seats' or 
designates a part of the deck in Soph. Aj. 1277; 'socket of the 
mast' in Arist. Mech. 6. 851 a 40. xaTaydywv : xaTaywyy], 'that 
which is connected with the turning in,' ' an inn.' Thuc. 3. 68. 3 ; 
Plato Phaedr. 259 A. xHatov : xki(ji$, ' that which is used for sleep- 
ing,' ' a place for sleeping,' especially for servants (w 208), whence in 
Attic the idea 'wretched hut,' as Lys. 12. 18. 1 otttciviov 'kitchen' : 
oxtocvov 'roasting' (neuter of otutocvo?), cf. § 41. Ar. Pax 891, 
Equ. 1033; CIA. 2 add. 834 b 2. 53 (329 B.C.). GTzyavunUxia : 
<3TscpavY)7ul6xov, ' that which is connected with the plaiting of wreaths,' 
the place where wreaths are plaited. Anth. P. 12. 8. 

63. B. The primitive is an agent noun, the place being repre- 
sented as connected with the person. Of this type there are quite a 
number of examples in spite of the encroachment of -siov (§ 16). 
The original distribution is still seen by comparing xio-uyyiov : rao-uyyo-?, 
Tapiyo7U(o>,iov : Tapiyo7U(6),Y)-<:, with xoupsiov : xoupsu?, yalxsTov : yaXxsu?, 
xvacpsTov Ionic xvacpvjiov : xvacpsu?. It is true that forms in -stov often 
occur beside those in -iov where the latter is phonetically justifiable, 
e. g. [lupoxtoXsTov beside [xupoxwXtov : ^upoizoAriq, or TapiyoTucoXsTov be- 
side TapiyoxojXiov ; but this must not lead us to assume that -iov is a 
mere corruption of -siov. This is altogether excluded because those 
words which have -iov are on the whole those in which it is phonet- 
ically justified, and because indisputable inscriptional evidence sup- 
ports it in this use, so e. g. already in the beginning in the fourth 
century B. C, Taptyo7ia>).iov CIA. 2. 821. 14, also fyfruoxooXiov CIG. 
2058 B 4, [xapTUpiov ib. 8616, 7uao"TO<p6piov Ditt 2 . 559. 5. Where -siov 
occurs in place of expected -iov it is due to later encroachment. 
Subsequently it became productive in all classes of place names, and 
we find Mouo-sTov ' haunt of the Muses ' : Mouca, and even w^sTov : the 
action noun coByj, T^oysTov ' speaking-place ' : loyog. 

In giving the examples I begin with those derived from compounds 
of -7uc6>.Y)s, but otherwise the list is alphabetical. aXonwfaov ' salt 
works': uIokmIyiq 'dealer in salt.' Pap. Ber. 9. 1. 14, 4. 17. aqio- 
nwXiov 'bakery': apT07uw)o)£ 'baker.' Ar. Ran. 112, frg. 2. 946. 
e<f&o7icoXiov w a place where cooked meat is sold,' either from a lost 
*scp8'07u<oXY)<; or analogically formed directly from its constituents. 
Posidipp. ap. Athen. 94 C. ix&vonwfoov ' fish market ' : lyfruoxwXiqs 
' fish monger.' Insc. Sarmat. (see above). iivqottwXlov ' perfumer's 

1 Here accented xfoolov. 

As a Suffix of Appurtenance. 41 

shop': ppoTuwXY)? 'perfume seller.' Lys. 24. 20; Dem. 25. 52. ra^- 
Xonwfaov 'salt fish market': zctpiyor^l^ 'salt fish dealer.' Insc. 
Att. (see above). aXoir^yiov 'salt works' : aXoTajyo? 'one who prepares 
salt.' Strabo 312. dazvvofiiov 'court of the acnrovopi.' Plato Legg. 
918 A. yiojQywv 'field': yscopyo? 'husbandman.' Theag. ap. Schol. 
Pind. N. 3. 21. 8^ti6qlov ' trading-place ' : s[urapo$ ' merchant.' Herod. 
1. 165; Time. 7. 50. 2. At Athens to £|xro$ptov was the merchants' 
exchange, so Dem. 35. 1. [mxqtvqiov : jjiapirup, 'the place in which a 
martyr's relics are preserved,' 'a martyr's shrine.' CIGr. 8616. veu'/A- 
xiov 'dry-dock': vstotato? 'ship hauler.' Hes., veffivos* vswv ofccou$. 
vstoXxia. vewqtov ' place where ships are taken care of ' : vsojpo? ' he 
who takes care of the ships,' 'superintendent of the dock-yards.' 
Time. 2. 93. 2. naGuoqtQiov ' residence of the rca<rro<popoi.' Insc. Delos 
(see above), mcvyyiov 'shoe-maker's shop': m^uyyo? w shoe-maker.' 
Poll. 7. 82. Teli/mor ' toll-house ' : ts^covy]^ ' tax-gatherer.' Posidipp. 
frg. 4. 517. (fqovQiov -watch-post,' 'citadel': 1 eppoupoe 'watcher,' 
'guard.' Time. 7. 28. 1 ; Lys. 12. 40. (fovxTwgiov 'light-house,' 'bea- 
con tower ' : cpputtTwpo? ' fire-watcher.' Plut. Pomp. 24. 

64. A spezial group of place names is formed from agent nouns 
in -T/)p, so e. g. afxMrjTiJQiov zoizot; sv & apXXwvTai (Suid.) from 
&\uXkf\Tfipio$ : a[ii>AY]TY)p ' competitor in a race.' dixaavii]Qiov ' court ' : 1 
BixaaTY)p 'judge,' 'juryman.' Herod. 6.72; Ar. Equ. 1317. egyaozr- 
Qtov ' work-shop ' : spyoc<7TY]p ' workman.' Herod. 4. 14 ; Lys. 12. 8. 
Since agent nouns in -ttjs sometimes existed beside those in -T/)p, 
e. g. BtxacTYJ? beside Btxao-TYjp, the place names in -Trrjptov could be 
referred to the former, whence new formations like axQoazi\Qiov b audit- 
orium ' : x axpoonrrjs ' hearer ' (Plut. 2. 45 F), (fQovnaziijQtov ' thinking- 
shop ' : cppovTKTTYJs ' thinker ' (Ar. Nub. 94). 

65. C. The primitive is a name of an animal or thing. dXsx- 
toqiov perhaps ' poultry-shop ' : dcXsxTcop ' cock.' Insc. Cibyra BCH. 2. 
610. avltov 'that which belongs to the ccbU\ or farm-yard,' w a country 
house,' 'stable,' etc. H. Horn. Merc. 102, 106, 134; Theocr. 25. ^>7. 
Xeifiadiov : /series, ' that which is suitable for winter,' ' winter quarters.' 
Dem. 4. 32. 

1 Sometimes the idea of persons connected develops as an accessory notion 
and may become dominant over the place idea (cf. Brngmuui, Gf 2, I -. 021 , 
So pqovqiov, Aesch. Eum. 949, 7/ ratf* dxovere, nSXites vi""''!"'"' • • - ; Thuc. -. 
93. 4. ay.QoazriqLop designates the audience Plut. Cat. Maj. 2L\ <hx«tu> r 
used with the accessory notion of the assembled jurymen Ar. V*\ 
&2iov Pqovtu to 6txuorr\{)tov . 

42 Chapter VIII. 

66. D. Geographical names. Why an extensive study of geo- 
graphical names in -tov is of no purpose here, has been shown § 6. 
There is furthermore uncertainty as to how far the Greek is influenced 
by foreign models. Thus there are in Phrygian a number of words 
like Aoxtpov ' city of Aoxtjxo?,' for which cf. Kretschmer, Einl. 183. 
Nevertheless the derivation of new geographical names in -tov from 
historical Greek words shows that the meaning ' belonging to ' played 
a part in native Greek derivation also. So A-/)[XY]Tptov was ' the city 
of Av]p]TY]p ' (cf. Pape, Lex. Gr. Eig. s. v. 4), IIocrstBcovtov (in Mace- 
donia) was 'the promontory of IIog-siBSv ' (Time. 4. 129. 3), 'AXs^- 
avBptov sc. /wptov (cf. Pape, op. cit. s. v.) was 'the citadel of 'ATi^- 
avBpo^.' Probably a great many words of this kind either arose by 
ellipsis or followed others which arose by ellipsis. Thus the town of 
'ApT£|xi(7tov is named after the sanctuary of Artemis, which in turn 
goes back to to 'ApTsjjiorov tspov (§ 67). 

67. E. Sanctuaries of gods and heroes, a special case of the pre- 
ceding, which in the beginning arose by ellipsis of words like tspov or 
olXgo^ of which we still have a remainder in the use of the phrase 
to (t%) 'ApTspBo? tspov (Pape, op. cit. sub 'ApTspio-tov) instead of 
to 'ApTS|xt(7tov, or Kocpva<7iov oCKgoc, (Paus. 4. 33. 4), a grove with a 
statue of 'ArcoXlcov Kapvstos. However, the great number of such 
formations without trace of a substantive modified shows that usually 
an ellipsis was no longer felt, and the substantivized adjective was 
sufficient both for the idea ' belonging to ' and that of the temple or 
sanctuary. Of the large number of these words I may mention : to 
lAnoXlmuov : 'Axo^cov, Insc. Epidaur. Ditt 2 . 452. 31 ; to 7, Aqt£[aio'iov : 
Y ApT£[xt£, Herod. 4. 34; to Jrj/nrjTQio v : Ayj^yjtyjp, id. 9. 101. to Jlo- 
vvooov : Atovtfo-tos, Plato Gorg. 472 A; to IJooeidcovwv : Iloo-st^wv, Time. 
4. 118. 4. 

68. Analogically to these words, adjectives in -to- derived from 
place names and designating a god or hero as connected with the 
place, could give rise to substantivized neuters designating his sanctuary. 
The -tov, then, changed its character under the influence of the type 
'AxoX^wvtov. So to JelyCviov, ' the temple of 'AtuoXXwv AsXcptvto? ' at 
Athens, Dem. 23. 74 ; to Jr{kiov, ' tempel of 'AtcoUcdv Ay]1io?,' 1 Arist. 
ap. Plut. 2. 254 F ; to ^ElevaCvtov : 'EXeua-tvio?, ' the temple of the 
Eleusinian goddess' 2 i. e. of AYipJTqp. Time. 2. 17. 1. 

1 Also designates towns where such temples are located, e. g. in Boeotia, 
Strabo 403. 

2 Perhaps rather derived from an old name of Jrifurji^o. 

As a Suffix of Appurtenance. 43 

69. This widely productive type probably originated with the el- 
lipsis of a word like ispa 'rites.' Only a few examples of the differ- 
ent groups will be given. 

A. The primitive is an action noun, to, dvaywyta ' festival of the 
departure ' of Aphrodite at Eryx : avaytoyY) ' departure.' Ael. V. H. 

1. 15. to) xazaywyca 'festival of the return' etc.: xaTayojyY) 'return.' 
Athen. 394 F. to. ireoydfiia : yap?, 'festival of the divine marriage.' 
Poll. 1. 37. 

B. The primitive is the name of a god or hero, or person other- 
wise connected. to) dv&eayoQia, the festival in honor of Kopv), who 
was carried off gathering flowers (avfrsccpopo?). Poll. 1. 37. to) *Jqts- 
liiaia 'the festival of y ApT£{i^.' id. 1. c. to) Jruir\TQia 'the festival 
of Av][XY]TY]p.' id. 1. c. to. Jiovvata ' the festival of Ai6vu<ro?.' Aeschin. 

2. 61. to) c ExaTijaia -the festival of c E>uxty).' Poll. 1. c. to) Seafioyo- 
qia ' the festival of Ayjjjiyjtyjp £ko|xocp6pO£.' id. 1. c. to) Kqovia ' the 
festival of Kpovoc.' id. 1. c. to) (nvaT^gta ' secret rites ' as if : *[j.u<7TY;p 
(cf. poTYJs) 'one initiated.' Herod. 2. 51; Ar. Ran. 887. 

C. The primitive is a geographical name. In this case there 
usually is an intermediate adjective in -to- which designates a god as 
connected with the place, e. g. AyjXios applied to Apollo as being 
particularly connected with Delos. That however the interpretation 
e. g. of toc AyjXioc (Xen. Mem. 4. 8. 2) was not 'the festival of the 
Delian god,' but 'the festival at Delos' is shown by the fact that 
the locality of the festival is always the place designated by the prim- 
itive : Tot AyjXioc is not the festival of Apollo at any place, but only 
at Delos, ™ 'EXsuaivia (Schol. Pind. 01. 9. 150) is only the festival 
at Eleusis. So also to) "lairf.ua (Ar. Pax 879) ' the festival at the 
Isthmus,' to) 'Okvfima 'the festival at Olympia' (Herod. 6. 36). 


70. In most cases the primitive is an action noun : barpbfW is 
'that which is connected with transit (Btayo)^),' xott*P»v is Mli.it 
which is connected with the xoTTa(3os game,' i. e. its prize. It may, 
howevever, also be an agent noun, as in case of jirroCxiov ' luetics tax 
jiiTowtos 'metic,' frpsrcTYipia 'rewards to the rearer': Opttwfy. Bon 
far ellipsis of words like t&oc or y£pa? is at the barifl of this group, 
is impossible to decide, perhaps all of the pattern types arose in tbifl 

44 Chapter VIII. 

way. The resulting congeneric group was no doubt associated with 
certain compounds in -tov which were formed directly from their con- 
stituents e. g. Bia-7wXiov (§ 50 b) ' toll for passing through the gates,' 
IX-XtpLsviov ' toll for going into the harbor,' ' harbor dues.' By attraction 
to words of either or both of these classes arose tqxiov 'interest,' 
having the same meaning as its primitive toxo?. 

A. Fees and fines, dfxficviov ' fee for delay,' as if : *a[j.p.ovY) ' de- 
lay,' cf. avapvY) (Hes.). Insc. Delph. CB. 2561 A 50, 54. diayduytov: 
BtaycoyY), ' a transit duty.' Polyb. 4. 52. 5. elaaywyiov ' toll for 
sLGuytoyY).' Insc. Cos Ditt-. 734. 52. elaiq'Avaiov : sictyj^ugts, ' toll for 
entrance.' Insc. Att. Ditt 2 . 737. 37 ; Hes., sigt^o'Jo-lov  TCjjLTjjxa sia-oBou. 
tsXo?. [istoCxiov : piTOtxo?, ' metic's tax.' Insc. Att. Ditt 2 . 118. 53 
(4 th cent. B. C). ^ioi%dyQta : ocypa, ' a fine for being caught in 
adultery.' & 332. Tiaqayooyiov : roxpaywyy], ' toll for passing.' Polyb. 
4. 47. 3 ; Poll. 9. 30. toxiov = Toxog, ' interest ' (see above). Insc. 
Delph. CB. 2561 A 57. 

B. Rewards and prizes, de&faov ' that which belongs to the asO^o?,' 
'a prize.' I 124, 266; X 160; W 537, 823. avSqayqca : aypoc, 'the 
spoils from the slaying of an enemy.' E 509. aqsa^uov as if : *aps(7|x6s 
(cf. Saap.6?, <7p7[j.6s, etc.), a certain ' gift of honor to the priest.' Insc. 
Phoc. CB. 1539 a 25. evayyekiov : suayysXo? 'reward for (the bringer 
of) good news.' \ 152 ; Ar. Equ. 656. Zwaygia : aypoc (cf. dv^paypta), 
' reward for life saved.' 0* 462 ; Z 407 (here close to frpsTUTYJpia in 
meaning). tiqemriQia : frpsTnnrjp, ' rewards to the rearer,' either to the 
nurses by the parents or to the parents by the children. H. Horn. 
Cer. 223; Hes. Op. 188. xoziafiiov 'prize of the xoTTa(3os game.' 
Arist. Ehet. 1. 12. 1373 a 23; Callipp. frg. 4. 561 ; Com. An. frg. 4. 
623(75). vixr[criQLov : vixYjTYJp, 'a prize to the victor.' Eur. Ale. 1028; 
Antiphan. frg. 3. 29. 


71. Besides those instrument nouns in -tov which were originally 
action nouns, the relation of which to the class here described have 
been set forth § 34 F, the earliest stratum is composed of those 
words in which the suffix originally denoted the instrument as be- 
longing to, connected with, or used for a certain action, so e. g. 
6^paywytov : 6Bpaywyy), ' that which is connected with the bringing of 
water,' i. e. ' an aqueduct ' ; ypacpiov : ypacpyj, ' that which is used for 
writing,' i. e. 'a pencil ' ; XouTpiov : XouTpov, ' that which is used for 

As a Suffix of Appurtenance. 45 

bathing,' i. e. ' bath-water.' The early age of this class is attested 
not only by the fact that at least one of these words, viz. &8ftiov, is 
already Homeric, but also by the comparatively large number without 
extant primitive, e. g. apBaviov, tjxcmov, xatyviov, ^BdcXiov, axr^aviov. 

72. In a few cases the idea of instrumentality is derived from 
a primitive that is an agent noun, as in frsXxTYJpiov : fretonr/ip, ' that 
which belongs to the charmer,' 'a means of charming.' Oftener, 
when an instrument noun is derived from a primitive in -TYjp, the 
latter is only formally an agent noun, but semantically an instrument 
noun; for agent suffixes are often applied to inanimate objects by 
vividly conceiving them as the actor. So %OTf\p is literally ' drinker,' 
but applied to that with which one drinks, i. e. designates a cup. 
When -tov is added to this word the real meaning is not changed: 
7UOTY)piov has gotten its suffix merely by congeneric attraction of other 
instrument nouns in which it did have a modifying influence. 

73. Through the same kind of analogy instrument nouns ending 
in any suffix could be extended by -tov without change of meaning: 
xlstBtov ' key ' = xtafe, [jlo/Xiov ' lever ' = \Loy\6q, otuyjtiov ' awl ' = 


74. It is questionable how far -iov acted or was felt as a pri- 
mary instrumental suffix. It was, of course, easy at any time to refer 
a derivative from a verbal abstract to the verb itself, but in case of 
-tov there are almost no certain indications that this was really done ; 
for we are in only one case obliged to assume that it formed an 
instrument noun directly from a verb-stem, namely £<xviov ' a comb ' : 
JocCvto ' I comb,' in Hes. It is, however, possible thatf apXytov ' milk- 
ing-pail' is also verbal; for the abstract a^oVp), which might be its 
primitive, occurs only in the mediaeval Eumathius, and so there is 
no great probability of its existence in Alexandrian times. The con- 
glutinate -T/jpiov, on the other hand, abstracted from words like 7uorr)- 
piov which could be referred directly to s-7u6-Oy)v (aorist of kCv«) in- 
stead of to 7uoTY)p, appears as primary suffix already in Herodotus In 
the word :cspippavTY)piov ' instrument for sprinkling ' : rcepippaCvco. Such 
formations were probably more frequent than would appear al first 
sight; for in some cases where -rnqpiov and -vf\p exist alongside of each 
other, the fact that the latter forms occur only in late writers would 
point to the probability that they were partly due to retrograde 
derivation from the former, to which the -TTQptov would then haw Ixvn 
added as a primary suffix. So <7Y)(j.avTYJp does not occur until Ap..|- 
lonius of Rhodes, while cn^avTYJpiov is found in A.esohylus; fo|ua 

46 Chapter VIII. 

is the usual form from Herodotus on, while frujuaTifip occurs only in 
late ecclesiastical writers. 

75. As in case of place names (§ 63) -siov encroached upon 
-lov in instrument nouns. oxacpsTov 'a digging-tool,' while derived from 
(Txacpsus ' a digger,' could be connected with the abstract oxa<pYJ ' dig- 
ging.' From such words -stov was extended to cases like Xot(3sTov 
'libation cup' : Xoi|3y], instead of the expected ^oiftiov. 1 

76. A. The primitive is an action noun. dt&Xwv : asft^oc, ' that 
which is connected with the contest,' ' instrument of contest.' cp 62, 
117; wl69. CtfioXyiov : fyolyriC!), ' milking- pail.' Theocr. 25. 106. 
dgdavtov : *apBavov (cf. apBw, and for form cxYjrcaviov), ' that which is 
used for watering,' 'watering-pot.' Poll. 8. 66. ygacftov : YpacpV], 'that 
which is used for scratching or writing,' 'a pencil.' Hipp. 261. 
dbCixLov : Bs(7|j.6c, ' that which is used for binding,' ' fetters.' Anth. P. 
9. 479. rftdnov ' sieve ' : *Y]Q>avov ' sieving,' ' that with which one sieves.' 
Hellan. ap. Athen. 470 D. ifxariov : *T[xa, ' that which is used for wind- 
ing about,' or ' for surrounding.' 2 . The general meaning ' clothes ' 
occurs Herod. 1. 9; Dem. 27. 10. 'Pieces of cloth' in Herod. 4. 23. 
Usually specialized into the meaning ' an outer garment ' or ' cloak ' 
worn above the yiToov : Hippon. 83 ; Herod. 2. 47 ; Xen. Hell. 1. 7. 8 ; 
the form sijxaTtov in Tnsc. Cos Roehl IA. 395. 2 (5 th cent. B. C.) ; 
Insc. Andania Mich. 694. 16 (91 B. C). Xovtqlov ' bath- water ' : 
XouTpov 'bath.' Ar. Equ. 1401, frg. 2. 1071. rcaiyvtov perhaps from 
an abstract noun *7uaiyvY), ' that which is used for play,' ' a plaything.' 
Ar. Eccl. 922 ; Plato Legg. 796 B, 803 C. TiQoaaywyiov : xpocra- 
ywyYi, a tool used by carpenters for straightening wood. Plato 
Phileb. 56 C. atvlov 'sieve' as if: *<7ivy) 'sieving.' Hes., civtov 
x6(7xivov. vdQaywyiov : OBpaywyY], that which is used for the bringing 
of water,' ' an aqueduct.' Insc. Lesb. CB. 259. vXIgtqiov : *57.icrpov, 3 
'that which is used for straining,' 'a strainer.' Schol. Nic. Al. 493. 

1 That -lov in this use is always a corruption of -f iov is a proposition as 
incapable of proof as for the place names. Cf. § 63. 

2 i^Lchiov cannot come from £l t ucc, which was * Fec-pct, but is related to 
Lith. vy'stiti 'to wind about.' From this root *uis an abstract *Fl<Tfj.cc'^>*ifxa 
was formed, which gave rise to the Attic l^idxLov. The dialectic et/uduoi/ 
may, of course, have come from elfxa or have been influenced by it, but for the 
Attic the spelling without -e- is uniform in inscriptions. Cf. Meisterhans 3 53, 
Prellwitz 2 s. v., and references there given. 

3 Perhaps the primitive vkiaigov was itself an instrument noun, so that 
vHazQiov belongs to C. 

As a Suffix of Appurtenance. 47 

yegviov : tpepvifj, 1 'that which is used for carrying,' 'a fish-basket.' 
Men. ap. Eustath. 742. 59. 

77. B. The primitive, formally considered, is an agent noun in 
-TY]p. A comparatively large part of these are names of vessels 
(cf. § 129), which are particularly often, though for the most part 
mistakenly, classed as diminutives. In case of xpocTYjpiov and <|>ux,T»jptov 
this interpretation is possible, while it is improbable for repippavrtfjpiov, 
which seems to be a primary formation (§ 74), and impossible for 
7uoTY)piov, which is the generic name for all kinds of drinking cups, 
and for {k>[uocmrjpiov and XouTYjpiov, because modified by pya? and 
\tiyi<ruo<; in the passages quoted below. Examples (with context when 
it has bearing on the question of diminutive usage) : d-vfitav^Qiov : 
(k>pxTY)p, 'vessel for burning incense,' 'censer'. Herod. 4. 162; 
CIA. 2. 678 B 31 (378-366 B. C), fap«rfr[i]ov plyx- l^spov &ufti.]ia- 
TYjpiov [xixpov. xoaTfjotov : xpaxYjp, ' mixing-bowl,' ' mixer.' Insc. Delos 
Mich. 833. 122 f. (279 B. C), xpocTYjpiov TuppY)vutov| ou? oux s/wv 
xpocT/jpiov Xaxwvixov t6jjl 7uu9>[jiva syov afto(xs)ftT(ox6Ta. xpav/jpsc Xaxom- 
xoi TpsTc. Xovttjqlov : XouTY)p, ' bathing tub,' sometimes a kind of cup. 
Aesch. frg. 366, sx [Asyiortov sujiapw^ XouTYjpiwv. Anaxil. frg. 3. 346 
(4) ; Antiphan. frg. 3. 120 (2) ; Epigenes frg. 3. 539 ; CIA. 2. 678 B 36. 
7i6QtoQavT7jQwv : 7uspippaiv(o, k utensil for besprinkling.' Herod. 1. 51. 
ttot^qiov : 7UGTYjp, ' drinking-cup.' Alcaeus 52 ; Sappho 67 ; Herod. 2. 
37 ; Ar. Equ. 120. \pvxTr\qiov : d>uxTY]p, ' vessel for cooling,' ' cooler.' 
Nicostr. frg. 3. 282, Aot7uVj ti$ 6%i$ s<m xai 4>uxTY)ptov T% edrcaptfcpou 
XsxTOTepov. CIA. 2 add. 682 c 14 (ab. 356 B. C), ^uxTYjptojv ptxpov 
otty 6yts?. Other instrument nouns in -TYjpiov which are not names 
of vessels are : &vxTr[Qiov : £suxTY]p, ^suxTYJpto?, ' yoke.' Aesch. Ag. 
529. ttelxrriQiov : frsTjcm/jp, frsXxr/)pioc, ' that which belongs to the 
soother,' his means of soothing. S 215; a 337. xahmrviQiov : xoXu»- 
TY)p, ' covering.' Grloss. xXivt^qiov : xfovnfjp, w couch.' Ar. ap. Poll. 
10. 33. xXvarriQiov : x9o><7TY)p, 'clyster-pipe,' 'syringe.' Zonar. Lex. 
1220. xvr^x)\qiov : xvy]ctty)p, ' scraping-knife.' Gloss, meaxriqtov : 
me<rri)p, l a press.' Synesius 201 C. crtfiavTJQiov : (nr^av^p, 'seal. 1 
Aesch. Ag. 609. vIhsvv$iov : OXicnnqp, ' strainer.' Schol. Nic. Al. 493. 
(fvGrjrriQiov : cpu<7Y)TYjp, 'pipe,' 'blow-hole.' Ar. Lys. 1242. 

78. C. The primitive is itself an instrument noun not ending 
in -TY)p. In this case, as in the preceding, it is sometimes hard to 
decide whether the -tov form of such a pair of instrument noons is 

1 The historical meaning of the primitive, viz. ' wilVs dowry ' 8*0., points 
to an original abstract meaning. Cf. § 34 C. 

48 Chapter VIII. 

a diminutive. Such are certainly Tspstrpiov ' a little gimlet ' : xspsTpov, 
and crcpopiov 'a little hammer': <7<ptfpa ; in Theophr. H. P. 5. 7. 8, as 
is shown by the contrast with the large hammers : oiov cr<pupiov [J-sv 
xat TSpsTpiov apiara [xsv y^ 2 ™ 1 KOTrivoo* . . . toc^ Bs [xsyaXa^ crcpupa^ 
7uiTutva? Tuotouctv. In the majority of instances, however, primitive and 
-tov form do not seem to differ in meaning, as can be seen from the 
passages quoted. deli\Ttov = BsXsap ' means of baiting.' Soph, or 
Sophron ap. Etym. Mag. 254. 52. dqenavCov = BpsxavY) ' scythe ' (cf. 
Bp£7U(o). Seleucus ap. Athen. 155 E. xavoviov — xavwv 'ruler.' Sex. 
Emp. M. 10. 149, 153. xlndiov = xkzis k key.' Arist. Mirab. 32. 
832 b 23 (of an ordinary house-key, and so not diminutive) ; CIA. 2. 
766. 27 (341 B. C). XafiTidSiov = Xa[X7ra? ' torch ' in Plato Resp. 328 A. 
XetOTQtov : *Xs?Grpov = Xiorpov ' a mason's tool for smoothing.' * Insc. 
Lebadea Ditt 2 . 540. 119. \ioy^Kiov = |x6yXo? 'lever.' Com. ap. Poll. 
10. 147. dTcrpLov = otzzolc, 'awl.' Nicochares ap. Poll. 10. 141. oQvytor 
= 6pi>5, 'spade.' Hes., crxa7uocvY]* crxa<ps(T)ov. opuytov. Bixsl(X)a. nXi\ 
tqlov 2 = TrXSJTpov ' rudder.' Cramer Anec. Ox. 1. 343. 11, xoci 7uX^Tpov 
to 7U7]Baltov, xat (WK>xopWTW&$ sItusv 'AXxp.av %\rfrpiov. c>xrjTrdi>iov 3 = 
07tY)7uav7), ' staff.' N 59 ; Q 247. axmafaov = <jxut(£Xy), ' cudgel,' prob- 
ably influenced by <niY)7uaviov, for it can not itself have been associated 
with any verb. Theophr. H. P. 4. 4. 12, axavfra XeoKr\ Tpio£os, i\ r^ 
xai axuTd&ia xat (3a*TY)pia£ xoio0(7tv (its coordination with the non- 
diminutive (3a%TY]pia here precludes a diminutive notion). 

79. A smaller excursive group of late instrument nouns is com- 
posed of names of surgeons ' tools. These were partly patterned 
after the instrument nouns of § 71 ff., partly after [xayjxipiov ' a 
surgeon's knife,' which although it probably got its -tov in a different 
way (§ 150), would naturally exert a strong influences as being the 
oldest and most frequent of the names of these tools to end in -tov. 
A list of surgical instruments is given in Cod. Laur. 74. 2 (11th 

1 Cf. Dittenberger ad loc. 

2 Both nXiq&Qtoi> and nlrJTQov in the passage quoted can not be right, and 
so I assume n'AjjtQcop to be the correct form. The fact that Alcman is men- 
tioned in connection with these words makes Doric origin probable, and so 
nXrJTQoy could come from *nX£Ee-TQov : n'Aea), and was conceived as ' that with 
which one sails.' 

3 The primitive 6xr\nvvr\ occurs only AB. 794 in the meaning ' staff.' 
The classification of <Mr\naviov as a diminutive is erroneous; for it occurs 
only N 59 and Q 247, in the latter passage applied to Priam's scepter, in 
the former to Poseidon's trident, for which the designation ' little staff ' 
would be burlesque, not epic poetry. 

As a Suffix of Appurtenance. 49 

cent.), which is compared by H. Schoene, Hermes 38. 280 ff., with' 
a similar Latin list (Parisianus 11219) of the ninth century. In 
these, according to Schoene's reconstruction of the original Greek 
names, there occur the following words in -tov : cfcptBtov, &cix6mov, Ixt- 

xpoudTtov, [xayatptov, V0Cp8>Y]XtOV, ptVOTOptVtOV, ptvoo7uafrtov, <7XY]V0pp(XCp!,0V, 

Tpu7uaviov, ^aTiBtov. In some cases one list gives an -tov form and 
the other the primitive : thus aptBtov occurs beside apt£, ptvoTOptvtov 
beside ptvoxoptvY], Tpuxavtov beside Tptkocvov, ^aXCBiov beside tyxliq. In 
case of vap^xiov the primitive occurs in neither list, though used 
elsewhere. In no case, however, does one list give both forms, and 
this vouches for the fact that there was no difference in meaning 
between them, as does also the mention of words which occur only 
in the -tov forms, namely, ptvoo-xa^tov and £7utxpou<7Ttov, unless these 
were influenced by the use of -tov in compounds. 


80. These really form one congeneric group with words like dcpX- 
ytov (§ 76), 7uoTYJpiov (§ 77) and various other groups of words 
designating vessels (§ 260 C). dfiviov: Lat. sanguis, 1 'vessel for 
holding the blood,' i. e. in which the blood of the sacrificial victim 
was caught, y 444. Designates the membrane around the foetus 
Empedocles ap. Poll. 2. 223 (accented dcpfov). dv^dxcov ' coal-pan ' : 
avfrpaj ' charcoal.' Alex. frg. 3. 443. sa%aQtov : s<7/apa, £<r/apto$, ' that 
which belongs to the hearth,' ' a pan of coals.' Ar. ap. Poll. 10. 101. 
Xvyyiov : 16yyo<; : ' that which belongs to the lamp,' ' lamp-holder.' 2 
Antiphan. frg. 3. 29. Cf. d§eltaxo-Xv%viov 'a spit used as lamp- 
holder,' Theopomp. Com. frg. 2. 794. oyxtov 'casket for arrows or 
other implements' (cp 61), if: o^oc, 'barb of an arrow,' belongs here, 
but it may be derived from svsyxsTv. 4 yayvfoov jiapoCfltov (Photius) 
seems to be derived from a *cpaytAa 'eatables,' and was 'that which 
belongs to or contains the eatables.' 

1 Cf. Schulze, KZ. 29. 257. 

2 Oftener Iv^vilov in the same sense. Cf. § 63 and note to § 75. 

3 When Xv%vlov designates the whole lamp it is probably a case of using 
the part for the whole. So Theocr. 21. 36; Luc. Symp. 46; ba 

Ditt 2 . 939. 16. That it should be a diminutive of Xvx*oq is clearly unsup- 
ported by the passages. 

4 See Prellwitz 2 sub oyxog II. 


50 Chapter VIII. 


81. The formation of names of ornaments from words which des- 
ignate the part of the body upon which they are worn by means of 
a suffix of appurtenance is known in various I. E. languages. Thus 
-Ino- occurs in 0. H. G. fingeri ' that which belongs to the finger,' 
'finger ring,' -(i)io- in Skr. angullya-m, 1 also 'ring' : angull 'finger,' 
a word exactly parallel to the Gr. masculine BgoctuIio? : Bribrc-tAo?. 
Somewhat similar are words like 0. H. Gr. armilo ' sleeve,' ' that which 
belongs to the arm.' The Gr. masculine in -iqc, and the Skr. word 
in -ya- are sufficient proof that such forms originate in a different 
way than from faded diminutives ; for Skr. -ya- in appellatives and 
Gr. -to- in masculines are not claimed for diminutives by anybody. 
Moreover, it is a highly improbable development of meaning from 
' little finger ' to ' finger ring,' since the later bears no resemblance 
to the former, or from ' little arm ' to ' sleeve,' for the latter surrounds 
the arm and is even a little larger than the arm itself. Neither 
Kluge 2 nor Brugmann 3 offer any explanation for this. 

82. Aside from the obviously closely related exocentric compounds 
like rcspiau^sviov and 7uspixapmov (§ 51. 1) I have found only three 
Greek neuters in -tov which seem to belong here : §qa%i6vtov : (3pa/tcov, 
' that which belongs to the arm,' ' armlet.' Poll. 5. 99. ocdfiiov : 
idfr[i6s, ' that which belongs to the neck,' ; necklace.' <r 300. More 
uncertain is arofiiov (Poll, 5. 98) : orojjia, also designating an orna- 
ment for the neck. Perhaps its primitive, like o-Topia^o?, originally 
could also mean 'throat' or 'neck,' in which case it is just like 


7. PLANT NAMES (see § 257 B). 


83. These are derived from the names of the herdsman, odizoliov: 
cdizokoq ' herd of goats,' was ' that which belongs to the goat-herd,' etc. 
alyovofjtov ' herd of goats ' : odyov6\±oc, ' goat-herd.' Hes., cdizohx * aiyo- 
vopa. alnoXtov ' herd of goats ' : cdizoloc, ' goat-herd.' A 679 ; Herod. 
1. 126. (3ovx6foov ' herd of cattle ' : $00x6X0$ ' cow-herd.' Herod. 1. c. ; 
Theocr. 8. 39. fiovyoQfiiov ' herd of cattle ' : j3oixpop(36? ' cow-herd. y 

1 Ram. 1. 3. 25 ; Sakuntala 1. 38, 17. 3, 108. 7. 

2 Norn. Stammb 2 . 29. 

3 Gr. 2. I 2 . 673. 

As a Suffix of Appurtenance. 51 

Bur. Ale. 1031. Tioifiviov ' herd of sheep ' : xoipjv ' shepherd.' Herod. 
2. 2; Soph. 0. T. 761; Arist. H. A. 8. 10. 596 a 19; Theocr. 6. 6. 
Tioi^iavoQiov ' herd ' : rcoipxvcop 'herdsman.' Aesch. Pers. 75 (meta- 
phorically), avfiooiov ' herd of swine ' : <tu(36ty)£ ' swine-herd.' A 679 ; 
1 101. tvqoQpiov ' herd of swine ' : crucpop(36s ' swine-herd.' Anth. P. 11. 
363. vo(fdq§tov ' herd of swine ' : 6o<pop(36s ' swine-herd.' Strabo 197. 


84. The meaning of the suffix in these words naturally often passes 
from ' belonging to ' to coming from ' (cf. § 92, 96). 

A. Cells or webs of bees and wasps, xriyyviov : xvjcpvjv, ' that which 
belongs to the drone,' ' drone-cell,' and fieXhrcov : \t£hvz», ' cell of a 
bee,' in Arist. H. A. 9. 40. 623 b 34 ff., Uld^ouGi U (sc. at jiiXtTirai) 
XY]pia 7up<oxov sv oXq atkai yivovTai • sTt sv ole, oE xaloojxsvat paaiXsTs, xal 
Ta >a)cpY]via. l Ta [j.sv guv a6Twv asi rcXaTTOuox * Ta Bs tg5v f3a<7i>io)v OTav 
7] 7uoXuyovia * Ta Bs xY)<pY)via lav \l£\izoc, acpfrovia ImoTjjxaCvirj. 7rXaTTOu<7t, Bs 
Ta [isv twv paffiXscov xpo? to?? auTwv • pxpa B' £oti TauTa * Ta Bs xyj- 
cpYjVta izpbc, auTa. HaTTw B' scri TatjTa tw [j.sysQ'St twv [xeXittlcov. cy^- 
xt'ov : <r<pYJ£, 'cell of a wasp's nest.' id. ib. 9. 41. 628a 17, 19, 35, 
b 24. av#qr\vLov : av^pYjVY], 'a wasp's nest.' Ar. Yesp. 1080, 1107. 
Tsv^qrvtov : fsvfrpYJvY], TsvQ'pY]Bwv, ' nest of the T£v9\\ Arist. H. A. 9. 
43. 629 b 1. By congeneric attraction to the first three of these words, 
more particularly [jxXittigv, xvtkxqiov ' cell (of bee or wasp),' which is 
used without distinction from its primitive xuTTapG? (Arist. Gen. An. 3. 
10. 760 b 34, 4.4. 770 a 29), has received its -wv. Cf. also xiqptov 
'that which in made of wax,' and so 'a bee's cell' (§ 101 G). 

B. Webs of insects, aqayyiov : apay/y](s), ' that which belongs to 

1 I translate 'drone-cells' here also. Any attempt to rescue the dimin- 
utive character of the word in this one place by supplying iv olq yhwtw 
with za xwrjvtcc, and thus translating the latter ' drone-grub,' is unallowable 
for several reasons. In the first place, this would be the only example where 
a diminutive was used to designate an insect previous to its metamorphosis 
(cf. § 95). Then, too, in the very same sentence the cells are referred to 
with respect to the working-bees and queens themselves, and why this 
sudden change of point of view to the grubs when it come* to the drones? 
Finally, it is improbable that xr[(pr\viov should here be a drone-grab in I 
doubtful passage, when twice below in the same paragraph it niuef neces- 
sarily be a drone-cell, while there is no good authority for tin- meaning 
' drone-grub ' in any place. 

52 Chapter VIII. 

the spider,' ' spider's webs.' fr 280, % 35 ; Plato Com. frg. 2. 620 ; 
Arist. H. A. 5. 8. 542 a 13; Theocr. 16. 96. Metaphorically of a 
certain web-like parasitic growth upon olive trees, Theophr. H. P. 4. 
14. 10. pofjiflvxoov : [36[i[3u5, ' coccoon of silk-worm.' Arist. H. A. 5. 
19. 551b 14. qaXdyyiov 'web of cpalocy^ (a venomous kind of spider).' 
id. ib 5. 27. 555 b 13. 


85. In this group also the meaning of the suffix sometimes shades 
into designating origin (cf. § 92, 96), while for other words, e. g. 
pivioc, the interpretation ' belonging to ' is the only possible one. 
Although the precise motive of formation is not in every case clear, 
so e. g. Bto[xcraov, it was on the whole a particularly prominent part 
of an object, one which was intimately associated with its name, 
which could be designated in this way. Thus the nostrils are the 
only part of the nose which would ordinarily be noticed apart from 
the nose itself, and the term pivioc 'that which belongs to the nose' 
is perfectly clear. Since these words do not form a particularly 
homogeneous group, the examples are arranged alphabetically without 
subdivision, dw^iduov ' chamber ' : Bwjxa ' house.' Ar. Lys. 160, 
Eccl. 8, frg. 2. 957; Lys. 1. 24; Plato Eesp. 3. 390 C. xalvp- 
[jdiiov : xriclu^a, ' that which belongs to the covering i. e. ceiling,' 
one of the pannels of a ceiling. Ar. frg. 2. 979 (20). xoy%vXtov : 
xoypV/], ' that which belongs to or comes from a mollusk,' ' a mol- 
lusk's shell' (cf. /sXamov). Herod. 2. 12; Arist. De Col. 6. 799 
b 17, De Plant. 2. 829 a 19, H. A. 3. 15. 519 b 21. xqavtov : xapavov, 
' that which belongs to the head,' ' the upper part of the head,' ' skull.' 
% 84; Pind. I. 3. 72; Arist. H. A. 1. 7. 491 a 31. The frequent 
Attic use of xpaviov for the whole head is due to synecdoche (cf . 
note to loyyiov, § 80). So Ar. frg. 2. 1099 (5) ; Sot. frg. 3. 586 
(1. 23); Anaxil. frg. 3. 347; Eubul. frg. 3. 234, 258(1. 4); Amphis 
frg. 3. 307. fyvCa : pi;, ' that which belongs to the nose,' l ' the 
nostrils.' Arist. Physiogn. 3. 808 a 34. m\mov : cr/)ma, ' that which 
belongs to or comes from the cuttle-fish,' its bone. id. H. A. 4. 1. 
524 b 24. ot'Jfov : <tiBy], 'that which belongs to or comes from the 
pomegranate,' 'pomegranate peel.' Ar. Nub. 881; Alciphr. 3. 60. 

1 Declared to have been originally ' little nose ' by Lobeck, ad Pliryn. 211, 
and the lexicons, though without explaining the strange development of 

As a Suffix of Appurtenance. 53 

tnu&filov : orafy6s, 'that which belongs to the balance,' 'weight of 
balance.' CIA. 2. 673. 27 (385-366 B. C). %shanm> 1 : yzlwr h ' that 
which belongs to or comes from the tortoise,' 'tortoise shell' (cf. 
xoy/Miov). Arist. Part. An. 3. 9. 671 a 32. 


86. dgddhov : apBaXo?, ' that which holds the dirt,'  bottom of 
sewer pipe.' Hes., &p$aXioc* zob<; xu^jjiivag twv xspajuBcov. flaaxdviov : 
|3ac7xavoc, ' that which has to do with a malignant person,' ' a charm 
against malignancy.' Ar. ap. Poll. 7. 108. r« §qoy%ia : (3p6y/o?, 'that 
which belongs to the trachea,' 'the bronchial tubes.' Hipp. 386. 
dqdi:i 2 : Ba?, 'that which belongs to the fire-brand,' 'material for 
fire,' 'fire-wood.' Ar. Equ. 921. dtdatixdliov : BiMoxaXos, 'that which 
is connected with the teacher,' ' a lesson.' Herod. 5. 58. s^inoqia : 
sixTOpo;, w that which belongs to or comes from the merchant, ' 
' merchandise.' Xen. Vect. 1. 7. itixiov : foro^, ' that which belongs to 
the mast,' 'a sail.' 3 A 480 f. ; 627; B 578; H. Horn. Apoll. 
487, 503. xriQvxiov : xYJpuJ, 'that which belongs to the herald,' 
'a herald's staff' (cf. xvjptjxsiov). Ar. ap. Poll. 10. 173. odomoQiov : 
6Boi7u6pos, 'that which belongs to the traveller,' 'provisions for the 
journey.' o 506. naiSCov : xoa?, a certain childrens' disease. Hipp. 
281. 4 717JVCOV : 7UYJVY), tcTjvos, 'that which belongs to the web,' 'the 
bobbin.' W 762 5 ; Theophr. H. P. 6. 4. 5 ; Anth. P. 6. 288. nor;, vrpia 
(sc. Bs<7[j.a) : 7upupY)<xios, 7upu[JLVY), ' the ropes belonging to the stern,' 
' stern-cables.' A 436 ; i 137 ; o 286. naoXlov : rcwXos, ' that which 
belongs to the foal,' i. e. the membrane around the foal in the uterus. 
Arist. H. A. 8. 24. 605 a 6. ac6f.iiov : <jzo\mx, ' that which belongs to 

1 That words of this type were not felt as standing in any relation to 
the diminutives, is shown by the use of the conglutinate -etov, which never 
has diminutive meaning (§ 16), in the word xiltiov : /t'Ar?, originally 'tor- 
toise shell,' then also 'crab's shell,' because of its similarity, in Aratu 

2 Only in the passage cited, where Bentley substituted fqdlat* or SaUto* 
for the unmetrical dV/JW of the manuscripts. 

3 The general meaning 'cloth' found in LXX (Exod. 27. 9, 16 Is merely 
a generalization from 'sail,' 'sail-cloth.' 

4 Fasi's conjecture ncudixov for natSiop is due merely to the common de- 
sire to get rid of as many non-diminutive "»■ words as possible 

8 Perhaps nrjvlov here designates the woof. This men probably 

given rise to the analogical formation at r)(x <"'/»,>  warj.; 
Arist. Pol. 2. 6. 1265 b 20. 

54 Chapter VIII. 

the mouth,' 'bit.' Herod. 1. 215, 4. 72; Aesch. Prom. 1009; Soph. 
El. 1462. Gw^iaToa : cra>[xa, ' that which is around the body,' padding 
used by the actors. Plato Com. ap. Photius 563. 22. 


87. It is by no means uncommon for neuter plural adjectives to 
become substantivized by taking up into themselves the idea of things 
in general in a sense closely approaching that of collectives. 1 Ta 
aya^a is ' the good things,' Ta xaxa ' the evil things,' Ta a-cpayia may 
designate the aggregate of everything connected with the slaughtering, 
i. e. the whole ceremony and its concrete belongings. Such words in 
-tov have usually been mentioned in their place according to the func- 
tion of the suffix, but I have reserved for this section a special group 
in which this indefinite force of the Plural was the most important 
semantic factor. There are certain ideas in case of which the sub- 
stantivized Neuter Plural of an adjective of appurtenance is practically 
equivalent to the Singular of the primitive. Thus Ta otxsTa ' everything 
belonging to the house ' may be entirely synonymous with olxoc, ' house,' 
in as much as the latter by itself will often suggest everything con- 
nected with the house in addition to the house itself. In this way 
the meaning ' belonging to ' could cease to be connected with the 
adjectival suffix, and the original distinction between primitive and 
derivative became lost entirely. Finally, such a plural, since it might 
designate a plurality of concepts as well as a single concept, could 
become hypostasized and give rise to a corresponding singular, so that 
the derivative has completely lapsed back into the meaning of the 
primitive in both numbers. In this way there arose a number of 
words in -tov which, since they fail to show any distinction from their 
primitives, have often been forced into the diminutive pigeon-hole, but 
of which the prevailing use of the Plural number 2 really shows their 
true origin. 

88. The whole development of meaning is best illustrated by 
otxtov, which, though as old as Homer, is always found in the Plural 
till Alexandrian times. %a oixCa was ' everything belonging to the 
house,' 'the whole household' (cf. Ta otxsta and the original col- 

1 Cf. Brugmann, Gr. 2. I 2 . 645. 

2 It is also the exclusive use of the plural r« oixlct in Classical times 
which militates against Brugmann's assumption that it was originally ab- 
stract. Cf. § 38 (end). 

As a Suffix of Appurtenance. 55 

lective y] Mot). Sometimes, just as the German Gehoft designates 
a large estate as composed of a complex of different plots of ground, 
so Ta oixia implied the idea c a complex of buildings.' It was con- 
sequently a most fitting term to apply to particularly large or elegant 
houses, and so we find it in Homer and Herodotus as a frequent 
designation of the palaces of gods, kings, and rich men. So it is 
used of the whole realm of AtBwvsu? in T 64, Asfoas B 5 Ix frpovou 
alzo xat lays, [j.yj ol UTUspfrsv Tatav avappr^sts IIoa-siBatov svoatyjkov, 
Olxioc os b^r\zdiGi xa\ &fravairoi<Ti cpavstY) HjxspBaXs' supcosvTa. Of Dawn's 
palace [i 4, 'Hoii; YjpiysvsiY^ Oixioc. Of kings or rich men: Z 15 ; 
II 595, f EX),aoi olvdot vatoov v 01(3co ts 7uXout<«) ts [xsTSTUpsra: Mop{U$6vsa- 
<riv. P 308, sv xXsitw IIavox9ji Owaa vaisTaaaxs %o\£(j(i avBpsT'jiv 
dvaa-a-cov. Particularly often of the palace of Odysseus : (3 335 ; B 555 ; 
7u 385. In Herod. 1. 35, toc Kpoicrou oixia. 1. 98, oixia . . . o^wc ty,; 
PaatXY]LY]?. 1. 122, 1$ tol) Kajxptasco Ta owaa. 3. 41 (of the palace of 
Poly crates) ; 3. 140, toc xpofrupa tcov fWiTio? oixicov. 5. 51 (of the 
palace of Cleomenes) ; 8. 35 (of the palace of Xerxes). While toc 
oixia was thus particularly well adapted for designating palaces, it 
could from the beginning also be applied to any house whatever; for 
even a small house is complex enough to suggest the notion 'everything 
belonging to the house.' So t& ohdot is used of a shoemaker's dwel- 
ling H 221, Skutotoixwv oy' dcptoros, TXyj svi oixia voctwv. Cf. also 
Herod. 1. 199, svfra teav t^r^at yuvY], o5 xpo-rspov aTrocHao-crsrai 2g 
ta ofotCa y) ti? oi Hsivwv . . . [ux&fj* id. 2. 150, sx By] Sv tSv trcpsriptov 
oixicov ap^apxvoi, ol xX&tus? . . . I? ua paa-iMjioe ofoaa wpuereov. id. 3. 150, 
yuvaTxa Ixaoros (sc. twv Ba(3tAcovio)v) [xiav 7upoa-s5aip£STQ Ix twv scoutoU 
oixiwv. id. 4. 103, a7:oTa[xa)v sxaaros xe<paXf)V (sc. toQ r.olz\kiou avBpo?) 
dbro<p£psT<xi s? xa oixia. Frequent usage and failure of the hearer to" 
grasp what was in the speaker's mind when it was practically indif- 
ferent whether the latter used t& oixia or olxo? (cf. e. g. fys ftg 
Ta oixioc, Herod. 5. 51, either 'he went back to his palace' or Mo 
his house' or simply 'home') caused the original fine distinction 
between the two to become lost entirely, so that tA otxia, having be- 
come simply 'house' or 'home,' could be applied even to the haunts 
and dens of animals, where a notion of complexity is usually out of 
the question, as when the nest of a bird is so designated iM 221 I. 

89. In all of the examples so far quoted the plural 
notes a single concept. It could, however, al any time also ded 
a plurality of concepts; for the accustomed force of the plural Dumber 
would necessarily make itself felt just as soon as its original indefinite 

56 Chapter VIII. 

meaning in* this word had faded. This process was further assisted 
by. phrases with Ta otxta and a plural subject, which would sometimes 
leave it undecided whether different individuals are connected with one 
house, or each with his own. In M 168, &<; is c-cpYJxs<; [jio-ov cdoXoi 
y)Bs [xs)a<7Gm Otxta 7TCLY](76wum, it is impossible to say whether the poet 
thought of a single swarm of wasps or bees building a single nest, 
or of different ones each building its own nest. On the other hand, 
a plurality of houses is undoubtedly in mind in the following pas- 
sages : B 750, Ot (' all those who ') rcspt AcoBcovy]v Buoystppov otxt ' 
s^svto. Herod. 3. 24, svtauxov plv Byj iyouai tyjv cttyjXy]v sv toTot ot- 
xCokti ol p,a7aara TrpooTjxovTs?. id. 3. 51, t9) 6 ^sXaafrsts 6ff auTot> 
xaT? BtatTav £7U0ts£T0, s? toutou? 7CS|muo)v ayysXov a77/]y6psus [iyj pv Bs- 
xsfffrat o'txtotcrt. Insc. Teos. Ditt 2 . 177. 72 (ab. 303 B. C), [ocrot |ff 
av Ta] ofttCa p) pO-atpcovTat, toutou? TjproupysTv. After the word was 
once definitely interpreted as a plural referring to a number of sep- 
arate houses, and so put on a line with ot otxoi and at otxtat, it was 
easy to form a corresponding singular, as was done in Alexandrian 
times: Call. frg. 198; Anth. P. 6. 203. 

90. Below are the remaining words which attained to the mean- 
ing of the primitive in the manner described, or had a tendency to 
do so. Under each word, when the different stages are extant, 
I divide the examples as follows : a) plural referring to a single con- 
cept ; b) plural referring to a plurality of concepts ; c) singular. 

Sn^ioata : By)jj.6(710£, Byjjxotyjs, B9j[xos, ' everything belonging to the 
people,' 4 the commonwealth,' ' public property.' Ar. Vesp. 554, 'Ep 
fttiXkzi [iot ty]v yzip a7uaXYjv, twv Byjjjlooxwv xsxXocpuTav. The Singular 
BY)[x6(7tov ' the state ' is probably originally an abstract (§ 38) ; for 
it is earlier and much more frequent than the Plural, and so not 
derived from it. 

la^ixta : to-frps, ' the parts belonging to the neck,' ' the region of 
the neck.' Hipp. 267, IXxsa Ta 7uaXtvBpopr]<7avTa h teapot?. 

Xyyia : lyyoc, ' foot-steps,' ' tracks.' While the two words are syn- 
onymous from the beginning of the transmission, we may surmise that 
the primitive was at one time a verbal abstract with the meaning 
' the stepping,' ' going,' ' gait,' and secondarily came to designate the 
foot-prints, just like the original English abstract foot-step and the 
German Fufstritt. t<x tyvta was ' everything connected with the walk- 
ing,' not only the foot-prints, but also the manner of walking, the 
gait. This general meaning is extant in N 71, where Ebeling trans- 
lates ' ingressus ' : v I^vta yap [j£T6m<r8»s rcoBcov rfih xvY]|xao>v e Ps?' syvcav 

As a Suffix of Appurtenance. 57 

cmoviros • apiyvwToi Bs bzoi 7usp. Later the meaning ' foot-prints ' be- 
came fixed exclusively, because they were the most conspicuous feature 
connected with the gait of a person. Examples: a) 2 321 ,• ITo^a 
Bs t ayxs lizr\\bz (sc. 6 Xt?) ijist avspo? fyvi' spsuvwv. 1* 764, v Iyy»3c 
*&ree noTton. p 406, y 30, s 193, y) 38, [i*T fyvia [Soffve &eoto. 
Theocr. 25. 216, ouBsvo? fyvia toTo (sc. Xsovto?) Opa<T&>Y>oa Bovapjv. 
b) H. Horn. Merc. 218, 220, "I/via [jlv tocBs y lad (3owv 6p0-oxcai- 
patov. ib. 342, toc B' ap' i/via (sc. t<ov (3oSW) toToc 7:slwpa. Ps. Sim. 
Ceos 182. 3, force tuoBo? fyvia TCpa-rov 'Appca^sv. c) only post-Homeric. 
Plato Phaedr. 266 B, toQtov Biojxco xocTomo-frs (jlst tyviov wo-ts (ko?o. 
Quint. Sm. 8. 361, Xa^ojjivoiatv ctovto xoct tyviov. 

jUi^'a : |XY]p6s, ' the parts belonging to or coming from the thigh 7 
(cf. toc iaOpa, toc aiocyovia). If the speaker thought of the thigh as 
a whole, as in case of the human thigh, he would use p)pos (cf. 
A 190, cpricayocvov 6%b £poaaa[i£vo£ roxpa p)poQ). If, on the other hand, 
he thought of the thighs of animals as they were cut up into parts 
for sacrifice, or of their fat and bones that were burnt upon the 
altar, he would use t<x [XYjpfoc. Of. Ebeling, Lex. Horn. s. v. Examples : 
a) A 773, Iliova p)pi' sxats fooq. 373, *H (3o6s y) otoc xa^a rcCova 
p]pisc xocuov. y 456, Atj)' apa jjliv Bis/s'jav, acpap B' lx pipia Taixvov. 
B 764, *H (3o6? yj &o< xocxa dova [XYjpC skyjsv. b) A 40 ; 240, 'An' 
Id rcaai (jocov Byj[i6v xal p)pf IxYja. p 241 ; / 336, (3oo5v Id [XtjpC sxY,av. 
Callinus 2, p)pioc xala f3oSv. Theocr. 17. 126. c) only Posidonius 
ap. Athen. 154 B, 7uapaTs9ȣvirttv xgAyjvwv to [WjpCov 6 xpdfcwros IXdct/.- 

o^a : 6pto<g, opo?, 'what belongs to the boundary,' i. e. boundaries, 
limits, frontier, a) Eur. Tro. 375, y E8vt)<ntov, ofl yTj? opi' dbcoercpotf- 
[xevoi 06B' 6'j»i7utipyou TOnrptBoc. Time. 2. 12. 3, Id toT; 6ptoi? tytvrco. 
Xen. Cyr. 1. 4. 18, zEtfo^zi xd ocot6? Tupo^ tra gpia. b) Plato I 
842 E, p) hivsCtw y% 5'pia [JlyjBs^. c) Hipp. 744, fcwwra Id [xaAAov 

6plOV TOO \kOLklGZ(X, TO Gl>LX<[>aUSlV. 

o^« : opxioc, opxo?, 'the things belonging to the oath,' i. e. the 
offerings, rites, treaties, etc., which were naturally soon confounded 
with the oath itself, a) Of the victims F 245, kr^xsc o" ava &rro 
0-£o>v ospov Spxta mora, v Apv£ B'j&> xai olvov fcfypova. There Ifl also a 
reminiscence of this more concrete meaning in the phi 
Tdtpeiv (B 124; F 105), which originally ivtVnvd to the slaying of the 
victims, 1 but was later understood as designating the irhdle ceremony, 

1 Cf. Ebeling, Lex. Horn. s. v. 

58 Chapter VIII. 

The latter or the oath itself was in the mind from the beginning 
the following passages : F 269, "Opxia mora frs&v o-dvayov. T 280, 
cptAaa-crsTs opxta mcrra. A 157, xaTa B' opxta mora 7uaTY)(7av. H. 69 ; 
t 302, £[X70]? Bs Tot opxta Bwo-fo. a) 546; Herod. 1. 69, 9. 92, ot 
Zap.101 mortv ts xat opxta srcotstivTO cru|X[xa)rtY]£ rcspt 7up6? toi>£ f/ EX7j]va£. 
id. 9. 106, toutou? Bs xaTaXapovTs? opxtota-t sxlsov. Aesch. Ag. 1431 ; 
Soph. Trach. 1223. b) X 262, oox sort Xsoocrt xat avBpacxtv opxta mora. 
Herod. 1. 74, opxta Bs rcotssTat TatiTa Ta sfrvsa Ta 7usp ts "EXXyjvs?. 
id. 4. 70, "Opxta Bs 7uotsiivTat Zxdfrat SBs. id. 4. 172, &pxtot<rt Bs xat 
jxavTtxYJ y^pswvTat (sc. oi Naa-ajxcovs?) toiyjBs. c) A 158, 05 [jiv jr«>£ 
altov ftslst opxtov at[ia ts apvwv. Herod. 1. 143, opxtov 7uoiYjcrajjLsvoi. 
id. 7. 132, Irapv opxtov. 

auayovta : a-tayow, ' the parts belonging to the jaw,' ' the region of 
the jaws ' (cf. Ta to"8|ua, Ta jjLYjpCoc). Hipp. 469, Tupoorifrsa-^ko 7upds 
Ta? yva^ou? xal Ta crtayovta. id. 470, y] cpapoy<£ <pXsy|j.atvst xat Ta 

(foQzta : <popTO£, ' the things belonging to the load,' i. e. the things 
which constitute the load, wares, merchandise, etc. The original 
difference, that the singular primitive represented the load more as 
an entirety, while the plural in -ta called attention to its parts, natur- 
ally soon became effaced, a) Hes. Op. 643, Nvf oltyvjv atvsTv, [xsyaTo) 
B' svt cpopTta frso-Qm id. ib. 693, Astvov B' st x' sV a[xa§xv 67usp(3tov 
ayb-oc, astpa? "AJova xaua£at$, Ta Bs cpopTt' ap.au pwiktY). Simply c pro- 
visions ' Ar. Ran. 573. b) Herod. 1. 1, arcaytvsovTa? ... cpopTta 
AtydrcTta ts xat 'Aa-crdpta ty) ts &7Skr\ so-aTutxvssafrat xat By] xat s? v Apyo£. 
id. 1. 194, axtsTat (sc. Ta tzXoioC) xaTa t6v 7TOTa|j.6v cpspso-frat, cpopTtcov 
xXYja-avTs?. id. 4. 196. c) In contrast to the loads of ships and 
wagons, which would appear as something complex, and would there- 
fore be fittingly designated by the Plural, the load of a single man 
would usually be viewed as something of such unity that the Singular 
would be used, i. e. just a soon as the fading of the original meaning 
of the Plural would allow the creation of a corresponding Singular ; 
for before this any -tov was inadmissable. So Ar. Ach. 214, cpsptov 
avfrpaxwv cpopTtov. Xen. An. 7. 1. 37, cxopoBtov avY]p o<rov IBdvaTO 
(sc. cpspstv) [xsytarov cpopTtov. id. Cyr. 2. 3. 14, wots vuv IjjloI BoxsTv 
to twv otcXwv cpopY][xa rcrspoTs \k8Xkov sotxsvat y) cpopTtco. 

XcoQta : /jopos, ycopa. While in case of the other words grouped 
here the theory that the Plural was the original number has received 
strong support from the fact that in the earliest writers in which they 
occurred they were either altogether or at least in the overwhelming 

As a Suffix of Appurtenance. 59 

majority of instances used in the Plural, such support can not be 
claimed for x w P^v, which frequently occurs in both numbers as soon 
as it appears. But since we can distinguish the same three semantic 
groups as for the other words, and since Ta x<»pia in Herodotus quite 
frequently occurs in the meaning 'regions,' without being a distinct 
plural to /wpiov, we may surmise that the same grammatical trans- 
figuration has taken place here also, though before its first appear- 
ance in literature, i. e. before the time of Herodotus, to whom I will 
consequently confine my examples, particularly since there is in him 
as yet no trace of the later tendency to specialize the word into the 
meaning ' strong-hold,' c fortress.' 1 a) Ta ^wpCa ' what belongs to a 
particular space or country,' 'the regions.' 1.57, tov YjvstxavTO (sc. 
ol KpYjOTMViYJTat) yXoWgtjs yapaxTYJpa [xsTa(3aivovTs; Iq TaoTa Ta y/opia, 
toutov lyouGi sv cpulaxY]. 2. 22, d syiovi^s, usto av TauTa Ta ycopCa 
(viz. Egypt.). 3. Ill, sv toTo-iBs ycopiowi, cpaox Ttv^ auTO cp'Jso-Oat, iv 
toTcti 6 Aiovucro^ sTpriccpv]. 6. 28, sv os toutc/Icti toTct?, y (opioid srjyyavs 
ewv f/ Ap7uayo?. 7. 126, sici os xaTa TatJTa Ta ytopia xai Isovts^ ttoa'Xoi 
xai [36s? aypioi. 7. 127, sarpaT07usBsu ovto jjlsv oy) sv toutokti ToTto 
y (opioid o? (3ricp(3apoi. 7. 188, tov By) (sc. avspv) c EX)or]OTtovTiY)v xa^ioom 
oi Tuspt TauTa Ta yojpia oixyjjxsvoi. 2. 25, of the atmospheric regions, 
s^xsi yap (sc. 6 vjlio?) sV swutov to uo(op, sXxuo-a^ os a^caO'ssi s; tx 
avto ywpia. b) Different regions or individual places are clearly in 
the mind of the writer. Transition from a) to b) e. g. 1. 142, o&rs 
yap Ta avto atJTr^ ywpia twuto ttoissi tyj 'IwvCip ojts tx xarco. Clearly 
to b) belong 2. 10, 13, oixsovts? Trie ts aXla ywpCa xa\ to xx).s6[xsvov 
As^Ta. 3. 106, 4. 28, xsywpt^Tai os dbzoq 6 ysipov too? Tporcous rcaon, 
toTcti sv aX^oior y (opioid yivopivoid ysi^toci. 6. 101, xaTsayov Ta; v£a; 
tyj? 'EpsTptx% /wpv]? xaTa Tsjxsvo? xat Xoipsa? xai AtyiXsa, xaTa- 
o-/6vTs? Bs TauTa Ta ytopia xtX. 6. 137, aMa ts ct/sTv yopia xat or, 
xat A9jpov. c) The singular ycopiov, referring to a particular place, 
1. 11, 98, to y(opiov o"W a // £t xoXwv&s ^o)v. 1. 186, sxTps'Wx rotJ 
jcorapti to pssQ-pov rcav Ic, to (opuses ycopiov. 1. 196, s: sv gupfov 
lerayeoTCOV aXsa? (sc. Ta? 7uap0>svou?). 2. 19, srcspysTai os 6 NtfXc 
xai toO At(3uxoti ts ),syo[j.svofj y/ociou. 2. 29, 75, 3. 86, 4. 92, LIS, 
saOsTv k twuto ywpiov xat sTspov aysiv. 5. 92 ?, 6. 102, / 
6 MapaCkov s7uiTY]BsoTaTOv yopiov t9j$ 'Attixt,; ivMWWJfoai. 7. 9 (S. 

1 This fact makes the attempt of some lexicons to nm i a dimin- 

utive with the original meaning 'a .small piece of ground' appc 
metrically opposed to the transmission, which ihowfl fahftl the BlippOMd 

inal use is really the latest of all. 

60 Chapter IX. 


8. 25, 128, Ito^sdov s? <tjyk£1|xsvov X fi> Pi ov# 9-21. /topiov is 'distance' 
in 3. 5, o5x oTiyov //opiov aXXa ocrov ts sm TpsTi; Y)|jipa£ 6^6v. 


91. The use of the suffix (-i)io- in adjectives of parentage and 
origin is also already an Indo-European development. Not only does 
the Greek Tzlx^omoc, Ata$ ' Ajax son of Telamon ' have its counter- 
part in such patronymics as Skr. Tugrya-s ' descendant of Tugra,' 
or in the Latin and Oscan gentiles like Decimius, originally ' son,' 
later ' descendant of Decimus,' l but also in adjectives derived from 
appellatives is this force of the suffix occasionally apparent : cf . Skr. 
abhriya-s ' from the clouds ' (: abhra-m), Gr. ar,B6vtos vo\)*o$ ' song 
coming from the nightingale ' (Ar. Ran. 684), Lat. uxorius imber 
' tears caused by the wife ' on account of her death (Statius Silvae 
5. 1. 31). 

92. The ease with which this group of ideas can in nearly every 
case be derived from ' belonging to,' would point to the conclusion 
that the former developed from the latter merely by the change of 
point of view of the speaker or by change of some external circum- 
stance. Thus TsXa^wvtos Aia? was ' Ajax who belongs to the family 
of Telamon,' but, since the head of the family was also the father 
of the children, TsXa^wvto? could be interpreted as meaning ' descended 
from Telamon,' and so ho- could become a patronymic suffix. That 
this interpretation was actually made in some sections, is shown by 
the regular use of the conglutinate -sto- to form patronymics in the 
Aeolic dialects : for which cf. Hoffmann, Griech. Dial. 2. 588. On 
the other hand, the meaning ' belonging to ' can become ' coming 
from ' through change of position of the object referred to. Kopiv- 
£ko? referring to a man at Corinth would be 'belonging to Corinth,' 
but when applied to a Corinthian abroad it at once became ' coming 
from Corinth.' The same development takes place in neuter sub- 
stantives : xspdco-iov ' cherry ' was ' that which belongs to the cherry- 
tree ' (xepacoc) ' 2 when growing on the tree, but when picked it was 

1 Cf . Deecke, Die Falisker 275 ff. 

2 Altogether different is the neuter amov ' pear ' : I'mioq ' pear tree.' The 
ending -toy is accidental, being dne entirely to the fact that the Masculine 
had -tog (probably <-tao£, cf. Prellwitz 2 s. anios). In various Indo-European 
languages fruits are sometimes designated by a neuter with the same stem 

In the Meaning " Coming from" 61 

4 that which comes from the cherry-tree'; criotov 'pomegranate peel,' 
when thought of as a part of the intact fruit, was ' that which belongs 
to the pomegranate (ctiBy)),' but when the peel apart from the fruit 
was referred to, it was 'that which comes from the pomegranate'; 
xoyyjftiov (: xoy/Mv)) would be ' that which belongs to the mollusk ' 
when thought of as a part of the living animal, but 'that which 
comes from the mollusk' when the empty shell was seen. 

93. The neuter substantives belonging here can be divided into 
two main classes according to whether they designate an animal or 
thing. In the former case the suffix implies that the animal desig- 
nated by the derivative is descended from that denoted by the prim- 
itive, in the latter it calls attention to the origin of a thing. 


94. The notion of descent as applied to animals usually carries 
with it the idea of youth ; for it is comparatively rarely in ordinary 
speech that there is occasion for indicating the descent of an adult 
animal. In this way patronymic suffixes in general have a tendency 
to become productive in words designating the young of animals, and 
there are also a few words in -iov of this kind : eyjdviov : syiBva, ' a 
young viper' Arist. H. A. 5. 34. 558 a 29, tCxtsi Bs [xixpa SyiBvia. 1 
dgvtd-iov : opvtc, 'a young bird' in Arist. H. A. 4. 9. 536b 14, xal 
tc&v [uxpfiiv opvt&iwv svia 06 tyjv atJTY)v acptY]GT cpwvviv . . . to?£ yswfpaunv, 
TioXviroSiov : 7uoMtuous, 'a young polyp.' id. ib. 9. 37. 622a 23, [xsira 
ty]v y£vs<7iv twv rc<Ai>7uoBC<ov. id. ib. 5. 18. 550 a 4, toc jjlsv o3v tcov 
KoXuftoltov ute(£ Y][jipa£ [xaXiara 7rcvnr)xovTa yivstrai ix twv dwuGppaysvTfov 
^oXi>7:6Bia. rcoQifiqiov : xopcpupa, 'young of purple-fish.' id. ib. 5. 15. 
546 b 32, yivsTat sv tyj y? awtravTa Tuopcpuptoc pxpa, a syoucai a)icxov- 
irat, at 7uop<ptfpai &p a6Twv. GtqovMov : (7xpou0«6c, 'a young sparrow.' 
Ephippus frg. 3. 326, T0?<7t (rrpouO-fois XauvoUc' 6jj.ouo; y;<7s 'like gaping 
young sparrows (when fed).' Cf. also the conglutinate -(i)Biov in igCfeov, 
tyjMBiov, xuvffiiov, and ot)7uiBlov (§ 315. IV). 

95. From the use of a suffix to denote the young of animals a 
diminutive meaning may easily develop; for the young are at the Bame 

as a corresponding masculine name of the tree. So xofAayot is the straw 
berry tree, and x6[x«qop its fruit ; xdatctvoq is a chestnut tree, and xaaravoy a 
chestnut. Similarly Lat. arbutus and arbutum, the straw-berry tree and 

its fruit. 

1 Var. lect. for i^ldia. 

62 Chapter IX. 

time small, and the notion of small size, though at first accessory 
might become dominant. In this way the Germanic diminutives in 
-Ina- largely or entirely orginated. 1 For Greek -wv, however, even 
granting that a word of this kind may have been formed here anc 
there with the idea ' coming from ' in the mind of the speaker, yet 
for the mass of diminutives this origin is impossible ; for there is not 
one word designating a young of an animal in which the idea o 
descent must have been uppermost. In case of insects, whose off- 
spring has at first a different shape from the parents', and reaches it 
only after subsequent metamorphosis, the caterpillars and grubs are 
never designated by diminutives in -iov (for 50]cpYjviov see § 84 A 
note). On the contrary, Aristotle, on whose scientific writings the 
burden of proof must rest in such questions, is careful always to use 
Gx&Xrfe ' worm ' for such animals, e. g. ot (tzcoXtjXs? twv apa/viwv (H. 
A. 5. 27. 555 b 6), twv axpiBcov (ib. 28. 556 a 1), twv [xuiSv (ib. 1 
539 b 11), tow G-cpvpcwv (ib. 19. 551 a 29), tcov [jlsXittwv (An. Gen 
3. 9. 758 b 18). On the other hand the use of the adjective pxpos 
in half the examples quoted above shows how prominent the idea o: 
small size was to the mind of the Greek in the very cases which 
seem to be on the border line. And finally, for such a widely pro- 
ductive class as the diminutive we should expect to find pattern types 
that were constantly in the mouth of everybody, and not a few rare 
words or rare uses of words which were practically confined to special 
circles such as the scientific investigators. The young of the most 
common domestic animals were for the most designated by totally 
different stems than of the words designating the adults ; cf . ti8>\o$ 
and t7U7uoc, ^ouyot; and (3oQ?, apo? and ots, gkuIkc, and xucov, etc. 


96. By far the larger number of examples can also be interpreted 
as ' belonging to,' and have been discussed under that heading. Thus 
the idea ' coming from ' might be present with more or less distinct- 
ness in the following words besides those mentioned in § 92 : 
(1) Words designating cells, nests, or webs of insects (§ 84) : [ie- 

1 Cf. Kluge, Nom. Stammb 2 . 29; Polzin, Stud. z. Gesch. des Dim. im 
Deutsch. 2 ff. Wrede, Die Dim. im Deutschen, p. 140 ff. et al., unaccountably 
assumes that the diminutive meaning must always have come about through 
the hypocoristic, instead of allowing direct development from the idea of 

Chapter X. 53 

Xfonrta, ' honey-comb, 5 ' that which belongs to or comes from the bee,' 
similarly <rcpY]xfov (but not wf)<pfyiov ; for the drone, of course, does not 
make its own cell), av&pY)viov, irev&piijviov, apdcywov, po^xwv, (paXayyiov. 
(2) Words designating a part of the primitive (§ 85): xoy/^ov 
' mollusk's shell,' ' that which belongs to or comes from the mollusk,' 
similarly xpaviov, (tyjtuov, (jffiiov, xsXwviov. (3) i^a 'tracks,' 'that 
which is connected with or comes from the foot-steps ' (§ 90), p)pia 
'the parts belonging to or coming from the thigh' ^§ 90). Like 
xsqdatov (Diph. Siphn. ap. Athen. 51 A) 'cherry' (cf. § 92) is 
xaoxdviov : xa<7Tocvos, ' that which belongs to or comes from the 
chestnut tree,' 'chestnut,' Galen. 6. 426. A group of words with 
the idea ' coming from ' uppermost consists of derivatives of geographical 
names and personal names : xviSia sc. xpojjipa, a species of onions 
' coming from Cnidus.' Theophr. H. P. 7. 4. 7. fivvvaxia : Mtfvvaxo?, 
a kind of shoe ' coming from, i. e. made by Muvvaxos.' Poll. 7. 89. 
mxadtov : laxaBa?, 1 a musical instrument ' coming from, i. e. invented 
by Saxao^.' Hes. o-oocaBiov * slBo? [xouo-txou opyavou. aa^io^Qaxua sc. 
xp6[xpa, a species of onions ' coming from Samothrace.' Theophr. 1. c. 
oaqSua sc. xp6|xpoc, a species of onions ' coming from Sardis.' id. 1. c. 
The singular adqdiov as well as the plural is used of a precious stone, 
' that which comes from Sardis,' ' the Sardian stone.' 2 Plato Phaedo 
110 D; CIA. 2. 708. 7 (after 340 B. C), 835 c-1 13 (320-317 B. C). 
(Stxvama sc. 67uoBYj[xaToc, a kind of women's shoe ' coming from Sicyon.' 
Poll. 7. 93. Other words in which -iov expresses origin are : aeMjviov : 
(ys^YJvY), ' that which comes from the moon,' ' moonlight.' Arist. Mir. 
55. 834 b 4 ; Athen. 276 E. Tqa%riXia : tpayyikoQ, originally ' the parts 
coming from the neck,' then ' scraps,' ' offal.' Ar. Vesp. 968 ; Pherecr. 
frg. 2. 275. 


97. Formatives designating material are usually identical with 
those designating origin. This is true e. g. of the genitive and ab- 
lative case endings as well as of many adjectives of material. Thus, 
to take an example in -(i)io-, Skr. udaniya-s 'consisting of water 1 
suggests abhriya-s 'coming from the clouds,' which had Q01 v.t the 

1 Cf. Albert-Schmidt ad loc. 

2 Cf. Blumner, Tech. 3. 262. 

64 Chapter X. 

idea of material present. There are also certain traces of this usage 
for Greek -to-, even though its place in later times was in mos 
dialects taken by -ivo-, -so-, and the conglutinate -eio-, since th 
sphere of meaning of these suffixes was more unified and less variec 
and complex than of -to-, and thus allowed the signification 'madt 
of to become more vividly attached to themselves, -iov, however 
occurs in certain adjectives of material in the Aeolic dialects, e. g 
/ptato? 'golden,' yjxlxio<; 'of bronze,' Xtfrto? 'of stone,' for which cf 
Hoffmann, Griech. Dial. 2. 317, 385. In Alcman, frg. 75, we fine 
^uavtov 1 ts %okzov, 'porridge made of rctiavos.' The question may 
further be raised how far -so- and -eio- in adjectives of material in 
the Homeric poems were substituted for -to- in the course of trans- 
mission by the scribes, to whom this use of the latter suffix hac 
become a stumbling-block, because otherwise unknown to them. It 
must be born in mind that -so- and -to- are metrically equivalent, 
while for -sio- -to- can often be substituted by making slight textua 
changes, e. g. sVi V atytov sxvy) Tupov for stui B' atystov xvy) Topov 
(A 639). 

98. That neuter substantives in -tov which appear to be derivec 
from adjectives of material are much more numerous than the ad 
jectives themselves, is in this light not surprising. The pattern types 
belong to an early period when the suffix was still productive in the 
adjectives, and they remained and gave rise to analogical formations 
long after the latter had dissappeared. 

99. Brugmann, Gr. 2. I 2 . 665, divides adjectives of material into 
two classes : either the material is something homogeneous as stone or 
wood, or it is complex, as in Lat. caprlnus Gr. atysto? Tupo^ ' cheese 
made of goats ' milk.' In the latter case the conception was more likely 
to remain ' coming from ' the goat, and only after the meaning ' made 
of had become firmly established in other words, could the inter- 
pretation of material find a place in those of this type. The tran- 
sition from one meaning to the other is due to words in which change 
of point of view could cause change of interpretation. Thus c/otviov 
' rope,' ' that which is made of reeds (c^oTvoi),' may have been ' that 
which comes from the reeds' as long as these were thought of as 
they grew in their natural state ; but the speaker would soon think 
of them rather as they were cut and prepared for rope-making, i. e. 
as raw material from which the finished product was made ; for the 

1 It is, of course, uncertain how far Doric words in -to- originally had -so-. 

In the Meaning "Made of" 65 

latter would preferably suggest them in this way. It was then almost 
inevitable to interpret the already existing word as 'made of reed.' 
Similarly pjxriviov 'juice of the poppy' could have been felt as 'that 
which comes from ' or ' is made of the poppy ' according to whether the 
association was with the natural plant or the process of manufacture. 

100. Derivatives with the material idea are particularly often 
partial synonyms of their primitives, the latter then usually including 
the meaning of the derivative as well as other meanings. In most 
cases the cause of this is not the development of the -tov form so 
much as the common metonymy of designating a thing by the material 
out of which it is made. Just as the English sheep-skin is applied 
to the finished parchment no less than to the raw skin, so Greek 
pcpXo? ' papyrus ' came to designate the papyrus roll made of it, and 
so became synonymous with (3i[3}iov 'that which is made of papyrus,' 
i. e. 'papyrus roll' from the beginning. Similar is the relation of 
apyuptov and apyupo?, yptxriov and ypuffos, sipia and slpo?, rc&Cov and 
rc?Xo£, <7iTta and <tTto£, cryoiviov and vypwoc,. 

101. Collection of examples. I subdivide according to congeneric 
groups of associated words. 

A. Words derived from names of metals, aqyvqiov : apyjpo;, 
that which is made of silver,' ' wrought silver,' ' silver money,' then 
' money ' in general, a) ' Wrought silver.' Thuc. 2. 13. 4, y/opt; Ss 
ypuowj olgt^xou xoci apyupiou. Cf. apyopiou hziai^ou ' coined silver ' ib. 
section 3. b) On the border line between 'wrought silver' and 
' silver money ' are phrases like the following : Herod. 3. 13, Ircejjt^av 
. . . TCsvnjxooias [xvsas apyupiou. id. 3. 90, 7upo<7Y)is T£-rpax6<7ta Td&avra 
dpyupiou. id. 7. 28; Timocr. 1. 6. c) 'Silver money' e. g. Ar. Equ. 
472, out' dpyuptov o5ts ypuoxov AiBous dcvowus£<7sis. d) Probably ' money ' 
in general Herod. 7. 214; Insc Boeot CB. 488. 72 (223-197 B. C). 
e) Of a single piece of money Xen. Oec. 19. 16. f) 'A small ooin,' 
if we can trust the grammarian of AB. 1. 442. 10, 'Apyuptov xai to 
Xstct&v vou.ta-u.a xodoua-iv, rf>£ 'ApwrcxpdtvY^ Aavafoiv. He may, however, 
very well have misinterpreted the Aristophanic passage lie cites. Cf. 
§ 2. [xolvfidtov : plu(3Bo?, 'that which is made of lend.' 'a Leaden 
weight.' Hipp. 791. giStjolov : <n&Y)p6s, 'thai which is made of iron,' 
'an iron implement or tool' Herod. 7. 18, 9. 37 (of a knife); Time 
4. 4. 2, <jtBV)pi<x . . . Xifroopydc. Insc. Crete Baunack PhiloL 55. 
481, fspyateTa ertodepta. %aXxiov : ya)ao?, 'thai which is marie of 
copper' (cf. the Aeolic adjective yaXxtos). a) 'A copper vessel' 
Poll. 10. 66; CIA. 2. 678 B 28, 41 (378-366 B. C), ib. & <i89. 2 


66 Chapter X. 

(ab. 350 B. C.). b) 'A cymbal.' Theocr. 2. 36. c) 'A copper coin.' 
Ar. Ran. 725, toutoi? tgT? 7uovY)po?s ycOoiioic, Xfrs? ts xai %pwy]v xorcefot 
tw xaxt(7Tw x6[x[xai:i. d) 'A copper ticket ' given to the dicasts. Dem. 
39. 10, xQvalov : ypucoQ, 'that which is made of gold' (cf. the Aeolic 
adjective /pu<nos). a) 'Wrought gold' 1 in general, 'gold plate,' etc., 
almost synonymous with xpuco?. Herod. 3. 95, 97, 4. 166 ; CIA. 2. 
652 A 26 (398 B. C.) ; Insc. Aeol. CB. 213. 13 (ab. 390 B. C.) ; 
Insc. Delos Mich. 833. 40. b) ' Gold coin,' ' gold money.' Eur. Cycl. 
161 ; Ar. Equ. 472 ; Plato Resp. 336 E. c) 'A golden vessel.' Insc. 
Delos Mich. 833. 38. d) For the hypocoristic use of the word cf. 
§ 251. 

Of these words apyupiov and ypoviov form a particularly closely 
associated pair as being both derived from names of precious metals 
and as designating kinds of money. In this latter meaning these 
words influenced the use of yoCkviov for a copper coin, and, converse- 
ly, xpuciov as applied to a gold vessel was due to the influence 
of jolKkIov ' a copper vessel.' 

B. Vessels made of earthen ware. The earliest and most frequent 
of names of vessels in -tov derived from the material out of which 
they are made is xsqa^iov : x£pajjL0s, ' that which is made of potter's 
clay,' i. e. ' an earthen vessel.' Herod. 3. 6 ; Arist. Categ. 15. 15 
b24; Insc. Att. Ditt 2 . 587. 13, 204 (329-328 B. C). This word 
probably served as pattern type both for yotixiov (see A end) and 
otiToaxiov, which designates an earthen vessel in Arist. H. A. 8. 4. 
594 all. Since its primitive oorpaxov does not occur in the meaning 
' potter's clay,' but always designates something made of it or of some 
similar substance, e. g. vessels, tiles, or castanets, it is probable that 
the meaning ' made of ' was never connected with its suffix, which 
was in that case due to the direct attraction of xspapov. 

C. Books, writing tablets, and the like. ptpMov (pu(3Xtov) : ftifiloc, 
(ptipXos), ' that which is made of papyrus-bark.' In Herodotus it 
designates a letter, 2 e. g. 1. 125, 3. 128, 8. 128. It means 'book' 
e. g. in Plato Com. frg. 2. 672 (1. 2); Xen. Mem. 1. 6. 14; Plato 
Apol. 26 D. It does not at all follow from the usage of Herodotus 
that the word was originally a diminutive ; for there is no evidence 
anywhere that any idea of small size was ever connected with it. 
The difference between him and the Attic writers was probably dia- 
lectical rather than chronological. xtjqIov : xvjpos, ' that which is made 

1 Cf. Bliimner, op. cit. 4. 306. 
1 Cf . Birt, Ant. Buchw. 20 ff . 

In the Meaning " Made of." 67 

ol wax,' 'a waxen tablet.' Anth. P. 9. 190. mvcbuov : tm<xI, 'that 
which is made of flat wood,' ' a small wooden tablet, plate, or dish ' 
(cf. <T<xvffitov). Later the word became generalized so as to include 
the same objects when made of different material, a) 'A writing 
tablet,' put to legal uses of diverse kinds. Ar. Vesp. 167, Av. 450; 
Dem. 8. 28, 39. 12; Plato Legg. 753 C; Arist. Pol. 2. 8.' 1268 a 2. 

b) 'A tablet for painting upon.' Isocr. 15. 2 ; Theophr. H. P. 3. 9. 7. 

c) 'A plate' or 'dish.' 1 Epict. 1. 19.4; CIA. 2.766. 10, 17; ib. 

2. 835 c-1 22 (320-317 B. C.) ; ib. 2. 652 B 7 (after 307 B. C). ttv&ov : 
%6%oc, 'that which is made of box-wood,' 'writing-tablet' or 'tablet 
for painting.' Ar. and Anaxandr. ap. Poll. 10. 59 ; Luc. Indoct. 15. 
aandiov : cravfe, ' that which is made of flat wood ' (cf. Tuivaxtov). 
a) 'A tablet used for recording,' 'a register.' Lys. 16. 6; Aeschin. 

3. 200 f.; Insc. Att. Ditt 2 . 439. 124 (ab. 360 B. C). b) 'A plate' 
or ' trencher.' 1 Ar Pax 202 ; Men. frg. 4. 127 ; CIA. 2. 835 c-1 85, 
87 (320-317 B. B.). (filvqiov : (pilupa, 'that which is made of linden 
wood,' 'a tablet of linden wood.' Ael. V. H. 14. 12. 

By congeneric attraction to these words arose the following ones 
in which there is no idea of material present: deXriov, completely 
equivalent to its primitive BsXto? ' tablet.' Herod. 7. 239. dflaxiur 
shows the source of its suffix by the fact that in its first occurrence 
it designates a reckoning board or tablet covered with sand and 
used by mathematicians 2 (Alex. frg. 3. 389, also Plut. Cato. Min. 70), 
while the primitive a[3a^ occurs not only in this meaning, but has 
a wider sphere of usage. Nevertheless, because the two words were 
equivalent in this one use, the general feeling, of equivalence resulted, 
and by the process of semantic syncretism 3 &j3dbuov could probably 
take the place of its primitive in any of its meanings. At any 
rate it is used of a sort of table or side-board in an inscription 
from Smyrna (Ditt 2 . 2. 583. 11) of the beginning of our era. n / vxrCov 4 * 

1 In this use tuvuxlov and GavLSiov were, of coarse, rather associated with 
words like %ctlxlov (see sub A, end), xfzqayuov (see sub B), and other words 
designating vessels (§ 260 C). 

2 Cf. Pauly-Wissowa s. v. 

3 By semantic syncretism is meant the process which is preparatory to 
real or formal syncretism, the assimilation of meaning which may result if 
two words or formatives have a portion of their sphere of usage in common 
and a consequent feeling of equivalence results, but without the disappear- 
ance of one of the two synonymous expressions. 

4 From nxvxziov comes nvxttop (Anth. P. 1. 84) by 1 li^iu,i!;i«.rv k»s> ..I the 
first t. Cf. Brugmann, Gr. Gr 3 . 134. 

68 Chapter X. 

' a folded tablet ' is the result of the influence of its congeners upoi 
the phrase 7utdxto<; k'wgcE, with the same meaning. The suffix actually 
has taken up into itself the implication of ' tablet.' 

D. Things made of cloth, particularly articles of dress, xavvdfiiov 
xdcvva(3i£, ' that which is made of hemp,' a kind of women's shoe. Poll 
7. 94. mXlov : iziloi;, ' that which is made of felt,' ' a felt cap.' Di- 
minutive interpretation is originally impossible ; for the word is usee 
in a general statement in Arist. frg. 226. 1519 a 14, ^a %ikix frorcrov 
xoisT nolio6<;. For Polyb. 35. 6. 4 see § 167. oSoviov : ofrov/), ' that 
which is made of linen.' a) ' A linen cloth.' Ar. frg. 2. 989 ; CIA. 
2.708. 6 (after 340 B. C). b) 'Linen bandages.' Ar. Ach. 1171 
c) ' Sail-cloths ' (in plural). Dem. 47. 20. ca(x)xiov : crax(x)os, ' that 
which is made of <rax(x)o£,' which is a coarse cloth of hair, craxiov 
accordingly is ' mourners' sack-cloth ' in Men. frg. 4. 102, thoug] 
elsewhere it is also diminutive (§ 185). aivdonov : o-ivBwv, ' that 
which is made of sindon,' a curtain or garment made of a fine kin< 
of cloth. Poll. 7. 73. gtisiqIov, ' that which is made of c-sTpov (a kirn 
of cloth),' ' a light summer garment.' Xen. Hell. 4. 5. 4. ywcGwviov : 
cpc6(7(7Mv, ' that which is made of coarse cloth,' ' a coarse towel.' 
Luc. Lex. 2. 

By congeneric attraction to 60>6vtov in the meaning ' linen band- 
ages ' arose anXrivCov (Philem. frg. 4. 42 [25 b]) ' bandages for wounds ' 
== GTuToqv (in this sense Hipp. 745), and tqv%lov : Tpltyos, ' a rag used 
for bandaging,' Hipp. 595, 813, 837. 

E. Juices of plants, flowers, or fruits. paXdvwv : (3aXavo?, ' that 
which is made of acorns,' ' a decoction to cure drunkenness.' Mco- 
chares frg. 2. 846 (1). Similarly yXavxiov 'juice of the ylccu'E. 1 Diosc. 
3. 100. xgajufiiov : xpa|j.(3Y], ' a decoction of cabbage.' Galen. Lex. Hipp, 
p. 506. In the same sense elsewhere xpa[x(3sTov. fjLtjxwnov : pjxcov, 
'poppy juice.' Hipp. 407; Arist. H. A. 7. 10. 587 a 31 (metaphor- 
ically). of.Kfdxtov : 0[xcpa£, 'juice of unrrpe grapes.' Diosc. 5. 6. avxlov : 
(tuxov, ' a decoction of figs.' Hipp. 470. (fdxcov : (pricxo?, ' a decoction 
of lentils.' Hipp. 474. 

A remarkable case of congeneric attraction by a word of this group 
is ontov 'poppy juice,' 'opium,': oizoc, 'juice' of any plant. It has 
been assimilated to pjxcoviov ' poppy juice ' both in form and meaning. 
So Alex. Trail. 2. 159. 

F. Articles of food, alfxaziov : atjjiaTios, al[j.a, ' that which is made 
of blood,' 'blood-sausage.' Hes., aijJiaTia* aXXavTia. d^vXiov : a[xtAov, 
a cake made of the finest kind of meal. Evangelus frg. 4. 572 (8) ; 

In the Meaning "Made of" 69 

A list. Probl. 4. 21. 879 a 10. yaXaxuov : yc&a, 'a dish made of 
milk.' Alciphr. frg. 10. yattqiov : yowrTn/jp, 'that which is made of 
the paunch,' 'the paunch stuffed with mince-meat,' 'sausage.' An- 
tiunion frg. 4. 558 (28). Probably felt as diminutive-hypocoristic in 
Nicostratus frg. 3. 279; Com. Anon. frg. 4. 608 (27 b), for which 
cf. § 224. xvfitov : xu^o?, ' that which consists of cubes,' ' the flesh 
of the rcaXaps salted.' Alex. frg. 3. 389 (1. 9). ^elkiov %6[j.y. -i 
X/.'jO^/vOv \xiXi~oc, £'j»o[jivou cuv uBocti y.oCi rcoa Tivt Hes. Consequently 
w that which is made of honey.' oqofaov, ' meal made of the opo(3o? 
(a kind of pulse).' Hipp. 576. nvaviov : tcjocvos, ' that which is made 
of beans,' a dish of various kinds of pulse cooked sweet. Sosib. ap. 
Athen. 648 B, son os to 7uuavtov TuocvcTusppia sv yXuxsT y]'|>y][j.£VY]. atria : 
(tltoc, ' that which is made of grain,' originally ' bread,' as in Herod. 
2. 36, a7u6 6),t>p£o>v 7UOtsuvTai oma. Hipp. 404, craa . . . [xaXia-Toc pv 
tojjs sx rcupcov apTou? Xsycov. Cf. also Herod. 1. 188, 2. 37, 8. 137. 
Later the word became generalized so as to mean ' food ' or ' pro- 
visions ' in general, so e.g. Herod. 1. 192, towi yjjg\ ::po<7c:TSTa/s70 
ctiticc Tuapsysiv. id. 4. 152, ovrfa oi sviocutou xaTaXsforooo-i. 

G. Miscellaneous. aXafiaG-uov : &Xapa<rro£, ' that which is made of 
alabaster,' ' an alabaster box.' Eubul. frg. 3. 253 (7). dazqaydXiov : 
acrTpdcyaXo? ' that which is made of knuckle-bones,' ' dice'. CIA. 2. 
766. 32. dooduov 1 : Bopa, 'that which is made of hide,' 'a bag.' 
Xen. An. 6. 4. 23. elqiov, eqiov : stpos, ' that which is made of wool,' 
i. e. woolen thread, cloth, etc., finally, by semantic syncretism with 
its primitive, even sheared wool, a) Singular: M 434; B 124; Herod. 
1. 203, 4. 162. b) Plural (cf. Lat. lanae) : r 388 ; g 316; x 423. 
In Herod. 3. 47, 106, it is used of cotton. xTjqiov : wripoc, 'that which 
is made of bees-wax,' 'honey-comb,' 2 naturally usually in the Plural 
because composed of different cells: Hes. Theog. 597; Herod. 5. 111. 
With distinct notion of individual cells in Arist. H. A. 9. 40. 623 b 33, 
3&dhrT0U<n os xvjpia TupwTOV Iv olc, ocotoc\ yCvovTow. The singular in Theocr. 
19. 2. 6%otviov : cr/oTvoc, 'that which is made of rushes." 'a rush rope. 1 
That it is not a diminutive of its primitive, which sometimes occurs 

1 The form is puzzling; for (foQa is an -«- stem, and we would expect 
Mqiov. It is probably due to a kind of contamination, an already extotmg 
toQdnor, which belongs to <?6 Q v 'spear/ being Interpreted I 

()':(>(< because of similarity of sound. 

2 The honey is, of course, intimately associated with (foe comb, 
become the dominant idea, so e. g. H. Bom. Al- 
and Hipponax 36. 3, catavitag (a kind of cake) uqfioHH* 

70 Chapter XL 

in the same sense, is shown by the fact that Herodotus (1. 26) uses 
it of a rope seven stades long, and that it constantly designates the 
cables of ships, sometimes modified by adjectives indicating great thick- 
ness : Ar. Pax 36, t<x c/oivia Ta 7ua/sa (ju^dXkovzzc, zc, Ta? 6XxaBac. 
Dem. 47. 20; CIA. 2. 807 c 101 (330 B. C), tr/owlx TpiY]pmxa ox- 
TcoBaxTuXa llll, s^BdbraAoc llll. ib. a 114. Other occurrences, all without 
trace of diminutive meaning, are Herod. 5. 85 ; Ar. Ach. 22 ; Arist. 
Mir. 137. 844 b 5. Metaphorically Pind. frg. 248, Wcpopcov g^oiviov 
[jLsptpav. (pvxlov : cpaxos, 'that which is made of the rock-lichen,' 
' rouge.' Luc. Hist. Consc. 8. 

By analogy to ayoiviov aaQSovtov is used for crricptkov ' the rope sus- 
taining the upper end of the hunting net ' in Xen. Cyn. 6. 9. The 
borrowed word ipifi(fi)vd-iov 'white lead,' used as an article of cos- 
metics, probably followed cpuxiov, if the late appearance of the latter 
in this sense is due merely to the accident of transmission. 1 The 
former occurs already in Ar. Eccl. 878, Plut. 1064; Plato Lys. 217 D. 


102. By 'possession' I mean here not only personal ownership, as 
e. g. in otjpavios ' inhabiting or owning heaven ' when applied to the 
gods (Aesch. Pr. 164, BapaTai oupaviav ysvvav), but also ' furnished 
with,' ' provided with,' and the like, as in the adjectives dccrcipios 
'starry' (aorspiY) vd£, Aratus 1. 695), xoviog 'dusty' (sv xovta /spcco, 
Pind. N. 9. 43), or in substantives like oarpribuov ' the animal which 
is provided with a shell (oorpocxov),' i. e. a mollusk, or in Arm. kalin 
' oak,' ' that which is provided with acorns (kalin).' Cf. also Lith. 
masculines like plunksnis ' he who is adorned with feathers (plunksna).' 

103. The rarity of Greek words in which this meaning is alto- 
gether predominant, indicates either that it was a mere remnant of 
an old inherited usage, or an offshoot from other meanings, and more 
probably the latter, because the use of the suffix in this sense is at 
least as rare in most other languages. 2 

1 This is all the more probable on account of Lncian's well known Atti- 
cistic tendencies, which always afford a strong presumption that a word 
occurring in him alone is borrowed from some old Attic source. 

2 The possessive meaning of -(i)io-, however, is frequent in Lithuanian, but 
not in the kindred Balto-Slavic languages. Cf. Leskien, Bild. d. Nom. 304. 
Lithuanian examples ib. 303 f. 

As a Suffix of Possession. 71 

104. Of the functions of -10- so far discussed there are two par- 
ticularly that have points of contact with the idea of possession, namely, 
its use in the meaning < belonging to ' or ' connected with,' and ' made 
of.' Whether a suffix in a given word should be interpreted as ' be- 
longing to ' or ' having,' depends largely upon whether the idea sug- 
gested by the primitive or derivative is the central one to the hearer. 
In case of some words or phrases there is, of course, no doubt possible. 
o6pavto$ &nnf)p (Pincl. P. 3. 135) was interpreted 'the star which 
belongs to heaven ' ; ' the star having heaven ' could hardly occur to 
any one. On the other hand, it would be manifestly absurd to inter- 
pret bizioi avspt (Arist. Probl. 26. 7. 940 b 33) as ' the winds that 
belong to the rain (6sto?) ' rather than ' the winds that are provided 
with' i. e. 'bring rain.' In some words, however, the interpretation 
of the suffix may vary according to which object is the central one 
in the mind. Thus in Goth, hairdeis 'herdsman,' 'he who belongs 
to the herd,' and Gr. (3oux6Xiov : pouxoXos, ' that which belongs to the 
herdsman,' 'herd,' the same suffix expresses directly opposite points 
of view of the same relation, and we might as well translate (3oux6Xiov 
as ' that w T hich is provided with a herdsman.' Also on the border line 
are words like oupavto? when applied to the gods, ol oupdcvioi could be 
either ' those w r ho belong to heaven ' or ' those who have,' ' dwell in,' 
or ' inhabit heaven.' In the oldest examples of this kind appurtenance 
was no doubt the original notion, but it could give way to the idea 
of possession whenever the concept represented or modified by the 
derivative happened to be the central one in the hearer's mind rather 
than the concept of the primitive as in the speaker's mind. 

105. More important for the appellative neuters in -tov is t lie 
connection of meaning between possession and material. A word 
meaning 'made of a certain thing can be interpreted 'provided 
with' it if it is only partly composed of the material in question. 
Thus, while there can be no doubt in the interpretation of* words 
like (Sijftfov as 'made of pCjftos,' 7ui"Xfov 'made of mXo;," xpoofov c made 
of xpwoV since the articles so designated, respectively a papyrus mil. 
a felt cap, a golden vessel, are either altogether or practically BO 
composed of the material in question, there is a possibility of double 
interpretation in certain words designating articles of food, a 

or rcudcvwv (§ 101 F). For \l£1i 'honey' is not the onlj ingredient 
of [xsMrtov, nor is ratevos the only ingredient of iw&tov. This p 
ility becomes still greater when the primitive is not necessarily 00H 
sidered as the one important constituent. We can not be certain how 

72 Chapter XL 

yaorpLov was conceived, whether it was w a dish made of the paunch ' 
or ' a dish which has a paunch ' on the outside of it. In certain 
words of this kind the material idea* must have given way to the 
possessive idea, as can be seen by comparing t<x olX^xol ' salted pro- 
visions,' which could only have been conceived as 'that which is pro- 
vided with salt ' ; for from the stand-point of mass salt is by no means 
one of the important constituents so as to allow the interpretation ' made 
of salt.' A similar transition perhaps in ivlov i neck ' : Ivs? ' sinews.' 
While most naturally interpreted as ' that which has sinews ' i. e. par- 
ticularly strong sinews, it may have been originally conceived as ' that 
which is made of sinews,' since the latter as representing the great power 
of the neck may have suggested themselves as its principal constituent. 

106. Like other formatives denoting possession 1 -10- could occa- 
sionally be used in a pregnant sense, so that we can translate ' full 
of,' 'rich in,' and the like. So e. g. v Apyo? hctcios (Pind. I. 7. 17) 
' Argos rich in horses,' with which we may compare the geographical 
name Aiytov : ai£, probably so named because of the frequency of 
goats in the neighborhood. Similarly lifi&biov ' a meadow ' is ' that 
which is well provided with streams (Xi(3aBss).' 

107. Collection of examples. A. Appellatives. aX/uia ' salted 
provisions ' : o&p) ' brine.' Men. frg. 4. 206 (5). Ivlov ' neck ' : Ivs? 
' sinews.' E 73 ; E 495. lo#p.Lov : taO^cc, ' the vessel which has a 
neck ' i. e. ' a long neck.' Athen. 472 E. xcda^iov : xalap.oc, ' that 
which is covered with reeds,' 'a thicket of reeds.' Thesaur. Paris. 
xaoTtLOv : xaprcoc, 'that which has the fruit upon it,' 'branch.' Hes., 
xocpmor xloovia. 2 xcjuiov : x6[j.y], 'that which is provided with hair,' 
'the scalp.' Schweigh. frg. Pyth. 713, sxBsipa? Ttxv xscpodav to [xsv 
xopov :upo zoo L7U7uou cpspst. Xiftadiov : lt(3a?, ' that which is (well) 
provided with streams,' 'a wet place,' 'meadow.' Hes., lifiofow 
^wpiov PotocvwBsc. oGroaxiov : oarpaxov, ' the animal which has a 
shell,' 'shell-fish.' Arist. Part. An. 1. 4. 644b 10 (only Z, other 
mscs. have oarpsta) ; Strabo 823, ocrpaxioov Bs xo^iat, [xsyalot. 3 

B. Geographical names. Atyiov : atj, ' goat city,' in Achaea ( B 574), 
probably ' that which is frequented by goats.' i Mao/iiagiov : [j.dcp[iapoc, 

1 Cf. Brugmann, Gr. 2. I 2 . 664. 

2 xlwvla is the most satisfactory conjecture made instead of the msc. y.lovla. 

3 The adjective (Aeydloi disproves Liddell and Scott's classification of 
baxqdxLov as a diminutive. 

* The Greeks explained the name from the legend that Zeus was born 
here and nourished by a goat. Cf. Pauly-Wissowa s. v. 

Chapter XII. 73 

' that which is provided with (or consists of) shining rock,' a moun- 
tain in Euboea. Men. ap. Photius 247. 24. nlr^vqiov : Tu^ppa, 
' that which has many floods ' or l is frequented by floods,' a promontory 
in Sicily. Thuc. 7. 4. 4. Tei%i,ov : Tstyos, ' that which has a (good) 
wall' or is 'well walled,' a city in Aetolia. Thuc. 3. 96. 2. For 
the idea of derivation cf. Tzi/iozit;, Tsiyioscw, etc. (Ddxiov : cpaxoc, 
probably ' that which is rich in lentils.' Thuc. 4. 78. 5. 


108. The transition from the meaning ' belonging to ' in a physical 
sense to ' belonging to the category or idea of,' ' having the nature 
of,' is so natural and easy that both meanings are usually found side 
by side in the same formatives and same languages. Thus the latter 
meaning occurs in the following -(i)io- words of different Indo-European 
languages : Skr. narya-s ' manly ' : nr- ' man,' daivya-s l divine ' : deva-s 
' god,' Gr. nuxkioc, ' circular ' : xuxXo? ' circle,' 7uapfrsvto? ' like a maiden ' 
(i. e. ' pure,' ' white,' etc.) : roxpfrsvo? ' maiden ' (cf. roxpQ^via ppTa, 
Ar. Av. 1099), Batpvio? : Bai[xcov, in the meaning ' wonderful, ' Lat. 
nefarius ' impious ' : nefas, Goth, wilpeis 0. H. G. wildi ' wild ' : 0. H. G. 
wild 'wild animals,' 0. Big. cloveci> ' human : clovek-L 'man.' 

109. In Greek adjectives of this kind the use of -10-, just as in 
adjectives of material (§ 97) and various others (§ 16), was already 
in early times restricted by the encroachment of the conglutinate -s'.o- 
in the same sense. By analogy to words like acrsTos 'urbane': 
aoru (§ 15) 'city' arose avBpsTo? 'manly': avBp-, otasTo: 'home- 
like ' : oTxoc. The neuter substantives on the other hand are extremely 
numerous at all periods of the language, and this is to be explained 
by the fact that substantivized adjectives of this type oil account of 
their concrete nature very easily cease to be connected in the mind 
with the adjectival uses of the suffix. Thus supposing an adjective 
fmep6yio<; 'wing-like' had given rise to the neuter Bubstantive x 
ytov 'that which is wing-like,' i. e. 'a I'm «»f a fish,' the latter word 
would soon be interpreted rather as 'a sort of win-' and thus k»6 
all connection with the adjective. In this way -wv was used to form 
other substantives without intervening adjectives, and became primarily 
a substantive formative, as can best be seen by comparing snob 

74 Chapter XII 

as are derived from 'having the nature of,' namely the deteriorative 
and diminutive -meanings, which have no corresponding adjectival uses 
at all. The pattern types of the neuter substantives, however, go back 
to a time when -sio- and -to- in adjectives were used promiscuously in 
all inherited meanings of the latter. Finally a division of labor resulted 
-10- had its principal realm in the meaning ' belonging to,' ' connectec 
with,' while -sio- encroached upon it in most other adjectives. 

110. The prerequisite of the development of the meaning 'belong- 
ing to the category of or ' idea of ' from ' belonging to ' is simply 
that the speaker should become conscious of the word itself rather 
than the object it represents. If we can translate 'belonging to,' 
the object designated by the primitive is suggested in its objective 
reality ; 7uocTpia o<7<7oc, Pind. 0. 6. 106, is the voice which actually be- 
longs to the father, ' the father's voice.' If, on the other hand, we 
can translate ' belonging to the category of ' or ' idea of,' the primitive 
is viewed as a logical or grammatical abstraction ; so e. g. t& 6pvi(ka 
is " the animals belonging to the notion ' bird.' " 

111. This transition is facilitated by words of which the primitive 
always represents an idea or action rather than a physical object, i. e 
by certain abstract nouns, in which case there may be no difference 
involved whether we translate one way or the other. dsttXia (fr 108] 
' athletic games ' (: ocs^KXos) could be indifferently conceived as ' the 
different actions belonging to the notion asS-loc, (prize contest) ' or as 
'the different actions belonging to an asfrXo?.' Similarly ^ta^ta 1 
' laws,' ' customs ' : frsopo?, {kcpSc, either ' the different rules that 
belong to and so compose the frso-pt ' or ' the different rules that 
belong to the notion frsqxo?.' It occurs Herod. 1. 59; Soph. Aj. 712. 

112. The idea 'having the nature of,' which passes over into ' be- 
ing like,' is in part naturally derived from ' belonging to the category 
of,' in as much as the former is always implied by the latter, and 
the two ideas are only two sides of the same thing. For instance 
to frvjpiov ' that which belongs to the category of beast (fryjp) ' is no 
less ' that which has the nature of a beast.' This becomes particularly 
evident, so as to almost force a change of interpretation, when a 
word is used in an unusual or metaphorical sense, as e. g. 0>Y]piov 
when applied to a human being, w BsiXotoctov <tu £hr)ptov (Ar. Plut. 
438) ' you coward who really belong to the category of beast ! ' 
is exactly the same as saying ' you beastly coward ! ' There are 

1 The singular &ia[xiov, probably formed by hypostasis of the plural (cf. 
§ 87 fl), occurs Eur. Tro. 267. 

In the Meaning " Belonging to the Category of." 75 

also direct points of contact between the meaning 'having the nature 
of 1 and 'belonging to,' 'coming from,' 'made of.' An adjective 
meaning 'belonging to' can be applied to something that does not 
physically belong to the object designated by the primitive, but merely 
is a characteristic belonging to it. Thus Anacreon frg. 4, *Q -x? 
TrapOsvtov (3Xs7ucov, was ' boy who lookest (a look) that really belongs 
to a maiden' i. e. 'a look belonging to the characteristics of a 
maiden,' in other words ' boy who hast a maiden-like look.' Some- 
times again the idea of descent, origin, or material will pass over 
into ' having the nature of ' ; for it is but natural to attribute a 
characteristic to inheritance, or to consider it as clinging to an object 
from its place of origin or from the material out of which it is made. 
This development occurs in the adjective Baipvioc, which is ' belong- 
ing to,' 'coming from,' or 'like a divinity' (cf. Baipviov Tspa;, Soph. 
Ant. 376, which is either ' a prodigy coming from a divinity ' or 
' a prodigy having the characteristics of a divinity,' i. e. terrible, 
wonderful). Similarly words derived from proper adjectives may 
develop the notion of a characteristic. HapBtoc sc. xp6[xp.ua 'onions 
coming from Sardis ' can get the accessory notion 'of the Sardian 
kind,' which becomes dominant when the plant is grown in other 
places besides that from which its name is derived. This development 
must have been very frequent in case of articles of commerce. The 
idea of material, moreover, passes over into 'having the nature of, 1 
'being like,' by means of certain metaphorical and poetic conceptions, 
in which something that has the characteristics of an other object 
is conceived as made of it. Cf. S> xpu<riov 'my golden pet' (§ 251). 
Similar are certain color terms like Lat. niveus : nix, ' snowy,' i. e. 
'white,' Gr. xuavso? 'dark as x-javoc,' originally 'made <>»' xdowoc.' 
Cf. Brugmann, Gr. 2. I 2 . 666 f. 

113. In dealing with a group of meanings of such complies nature 
and origin it would be futile to try to follow mil exjictlv the different 
threads of development; for the whole body of usages musl bare 
been completely confused in consciousness, particularly in case of 
adjectives, which, because of their use with a greal wuriety of sub- 
stantives, depend so largely upon their contexi for exaoi interpretation. 
But since an implication of a suffix, though accidental and uncon- 
scious in the adjective, becomes crystallized, as i1 were, in Ci 
substantivation, it is possible roughly to divide the neuter snbstai 
into two groups: The dominant (no1 excto l 'bel 

to the category of,' (2) 'having the nature of,' 'being like.' The 

76 Chapter XII. 

latter, i. e. the one in which -tov has become the exponent of the 
similarity of the derivative to the primitive, will be discussed in the 
next chapter. The first group can be subdivided into two minor 
groups according to whether the -tov derivative was felt as a true 
substantive from the beginning or whether it was at first rather con- 
ceived adjectivally. A substantive is, of course, directly associated 
in the mind with the object it designates. When we hear the word 
1 dog ' we at once think of the animal that bears that name without 
the interposition of the general notion ' animal ' or of any other idea. 
In case of a word, however, which is felt as a substantivized ad- 
jective, some substantival notion must be suggested by the adjective, 
and the substantival notion in turn will call to mind the concept 
which the speaker desires to impart. When we hear some one speak 
of the ' right ' we must first think of the concept 'hand,' and then 
the whole idea c right hand ' will be understood. It is this distinction 
which has given rise to two classes of words in which -tov was an 
exponent of the idea 'belonging to the category of.' Substantival 
from the beginning was e. g. xoyyuXtov : xoypXY], ' that which belongs 
to the category of mollusk,' iw a member of the genus ' mollusk ' ". 
There is here no thought of a substantive that might have been 
originally modified by the -tov word, nor is there the general idea of 
a thing present. The use of the pronoun ' that ' in my translation 
of such words is merely a necessity to bring in the idea of ' belonging 
to the category ' ; in many cases we come nearer to a true translation 
by saying e. g. 'a kind of mollusk,' or, as above, " a member of the 
genus ' mollusk,' " for there is then no suggestion of adjectival force. 
Since, then, xoypXtov was a true substantive from the beginning, it 
suggested its object directly without understanding e. g. the notion 
' animal ' or the like. It follows, in applying to it the translation 
' belonging to the category,' that there are only two terms of classi- 
fication : the single individual mollusk designated by the derivative 
and the category or genus ' mollusk ' which is suggested for the stem 
of the primitive by the suffix -tov. The derivative, in as much as 
it represents an individual or species as belonging to a certain cate- 
gory or genus which is suggested by the stem of the primitive, causes 
the latter to be viewed as a generic term, whence I apply the word 
' generalizing ' to this use of -tov. It must be born in mind, however, 
that this name as well as ' specializing ', as used below, refer to the 
point of view from which the primitive is viewed, and have nothing 
to do with the derivative. From the stand-point of the latter both 


In the Meaning " Belonging to the Category of? 77 

this and the following group are subordinating; for the very idea of 
designating an object or notion as belonging to a certain category 
implies that it is regarded as a more specific term than the category 
to which it belongs. Coming now to the second subdivision, the 
derivative must have been originally felt in an adjectival manner in 
words like 0. H. G. swin 1 (a substantivized neuter of an adjective 
corresponding to Lat. sulnus : sus) ' a being belonging to the category 
of pig,' i. e. ' a pig.' The adjectival nature of the word originally 
required the interposition of some general idea like 'being' or 
' animal ' between the word and its object, and as a result there are 
three terms of classification involved: (1) the vague general notion of 
'being' or 'animal' due to the substantivation of the adjective, 
(2) the class 'pig' suggested by the stem of the primitive, (3) the 
individual pig designated by the finished derivative. The same 
development is more tangible and more frequent when the -tov word 
arose by ellipsis. Thus in the phrase (Txucptov osrax?, ' a vessel belonging 
to the category cnacpo?,' which becomes enojeptov without change of 
semantic content, the three terms were : (1) the genus ' cup ' originally 
expressed in the modified substantive Bsttcc, but embodied in the 
suffix -tov after substantivation, (2) the species oxticpo$ suggested by 
the stem of the primitive, (3) the individual axoyoc, designated by the 
finished derivative. It is to be noticed that in each case the most 
general notion is the one suggested by the adjectival nature of the 
word, while the primitive is indeed a more general idea than the 
derivative, but is itself subordinate to the more general one implied 
by the substantivation, e. g. ' cup ' is the genus and Gxti(po$ the species. 
The effect of the suffix accordingly is to represent the primitive as 
a specific term, and I designate this as the ' specializing ' use of -tov. 

114. In its simplest form and the one in which it is closest t«» 
the idea of appurtenance, generalizing -iov is found when it designates 
an individual or number of individuals as belonging to a genus, e.g. 
Koyx^tov "that which belongs to the category or genus 'mollusk," ! 
Koyytota a certain number of animals "belonging t<> the genus 'mol- 
lusk.'" The only distinction between primitive and derivative is that 
the speaker, in using the latter, is thinking of the animal as one i 

1 Kluge, Etym. Worterb 6 . s. v. Schwein, following I ••alls the 9 

'a diminutive, but without giving any reasons. 

78 Chapter XII 

certain type, but when he uses the former he is usually thinking of 
a concrete example. It is evident that this slight distinction could 
very easily become effaced; for in most cases it would be totally 
indifferent whether an animal is designated as belonging to a genus 
or not, and the hearer would consequently often fail to follow the 
speaker's interpretation. In this way cpaXayytov, originally an animal 
' belonging to the genus cpaXay?,' became completely equivalent to its 
primitive, and even became the preferred form because it had the 
more familiar declensional ending. 

115. A derivative formed with generalizing -tov may not only refer 
to an individual or number of individuals, but may itself be viewed 
as a generic term subordinate to the still more general idea of the 
primitive. By the common metonymy of representing a class by an 
individual xoy/6'kiov can be not only an " individual " but also a 
" species belonging to the genus ' mollusk.' " Similar is BsvBptov in 
the well-known p]Bsv aXko cpinrsucYis xpoTspov BsvBpiov apusXto (Alcaeus 
frg. 44) ' plant no other kind of tree before the vine.' This idea of 
' a species or kind of ' became so definitely attached to the suffix that 
a word in -tov could even designate a single individual or number of 
individuals of a species of the genus designated by the primitive. 
Just as in English we may ask " What kind of an animal is this ? " 
when we see a single specimen before us, so we find e. g. in Herod. 
1. 119, stpsTO B' atjirov Stsu (k)ptot> xpsa (3ij3p(6(Dtoi, 'he asked him of 
what kind of an animal (i. e. of one of what kind of an animal) he 
was eating the flesh.' This use was, of course, not separated in con- 
sciousness from that in which the species as a whole was referred 
to, and often no distinction in this respect can be made at all. In 
Herod. 3. 108, 6 Xayo? &7uo toxvto? O^psusToa b^iou xai opviOos xal 
avfrpwrcou, there is no distinction whether we translate ' by every 
species of animal ' or 'by animals of every species.' 

116. A particularly frequent use of generalizing -tov is the one, 
usually in combination with the generic article or some adjective of 
totality, in which is designated the sum-total of individuals or species 
belonging to a genus, toc apayvtoc denotes all the individuals or all 
the species " belonging to the genus ' spider.' '' Since the important 
point in this case is merely to include everything belonging to the 
category, there will usually be no distinction made as to whether the 
different species or individuals are had in view, and it would be 
futile to try to classify all of the examples on this principle. 

117. Sometimes the use of generalizing -tov gave rise to a deriv- 

In the Meaning "Belonging to the Category o/." 79 

ative with a sphere of application enlarged beyond that of the prim- 
itive, so e. g. &Y)p£ov 'any animal': £M)p 'wild beast.' In as far as 
this is not due to causes affecting the single word, its origin is to be 
sought in the influence of the meaning 'having the nature of etc. 
If Deploy was at any time interpreted as ' something having the nature 
of a wild beast,' there would be implied a comparison with the prim- 
itive in some respects, but not in all. Since now the qualities 
compared, e. g. life, locomotion, etc., are shared by other animals besides 
those that could be designated by (Mjp, the former could just as well 
be included in the designation friqptov, 'that which has the nature of 
OyjP,' as the latter. 

118. Collection of examples. I divide: A. animals, B. plants, 
0. things. Under each word the examples are classified as follows : 
a) Plural, usually with generic article, to designate the sum-total of 
species or individuals belonging to a genus ; b) the idea ' a kind of ' 
or ' species of ' is prominent ; c) individuals are designated as belong- 
ing to a class or genus, though this meaning is often faded, and the 
derivative is then completely equivalent to the primitive. 

A. Animals, ra apa%via : dcpa/vY](s), " the members of the genus 
' spider.' " All certain examples belong to a) Arist H. A. 5. 27. 555a 27, 
toc B' apa/vtoc 6/susTai . . . t6v £ipY)|jivov Tporcov. ib. 9. 38. 622 b 22, sl<rt 
. . . twv apayvitov oly^acpupaWauoi xat XayapokaTGt xai Tsyvixcoirspoi 7uspl 
tov (3Cov. ib. 39. 622 b 27, twv B' apayviwv xod twv cpo&ayyitov iaii jj.sv 
TzoXku ysvv], twv fxsv Bvpurixwv cpodayyuov Buo. ib. 623 a 25, twv B 
apa/vtojv twv ylacpupwv xai 6cpaiv6vTwv &pa/viov jcukv&v B'jo Mi ysvY]. id. 
Mot An. 3. 9. 758 b 9, Ta tSv apa/vicov (sc. wa). t<x fop (lima, 'the 
members of the genus $6\$oV x a) Arist. H. A. 5. 24. 555 a 13, 

"EviOC Bs TCOV [30[J.(3UXIWV TtpO? Xtfkd, Y) TOIO'JTM TlVl, JCQtoO<TlV J^XtVOV 6£J. 

%wv, 'animal species,' 'animal of any kind': Wjp 'wild beast.' 
a) H. Horn. Yen. 4, IBa[j.a<70-aT0 cptJXa xaTO&viQTfcv avD>pa>-o)v, ( )U>vo^ 
ts BiiTusTsa? xai 8-YjpCa rcavra, 'Hplv fo' fyusipo? koXX* Tpl<|* tf> &W 
*6vro£. Arch. 88, r Q ZsO, TuaTsp Zsu, . . . E& B' spy foe' &v&p(faw* 
Aswpya xai ^ucrTdc, dot Bs btftlw Tppig ts xat Buo) piXtt. id. 89. 1, 
[K8*)>to$ fin &Yjpfo>v faoxpite\< MoOvo;. Herod. 2. 68, y),<oa<7av Be pSvoy 
0>Y)piwv o5/w !><7s (sc. 6 xpox6Bs&og), &6Bs xivsX rifcv xktm yvaO-ov, aXXa 
xod toOto (JtotJvov 0»Y]ptcov ty)v avo> yvau-ov -p^ayst ty, xaro>. . . . tv. 

» Since za fhufixia in its only occurrence designates the moth, wt tnujl 

assume that its primitive could also designate the H. M W«U M th, .silk- 
worm, even though the latter is the only meaning extent, 

80 Chapter XII 

[jlsv Byj aXkcc opvsa xat (k]pia cpsuyst pv, 6 Bs zpoyiXoc, £ipY]vaTov ol s\ra. 
Philemon frg. 4. 32 (2), Ti tcote npojjnrjfrstfs, Sv liyouG r\\).5Lc, t:\6lgoli 
Kat TaX^a xavTa ?w«, toT? |xsv frvjpCois v EB(o^' sxaorct) xaTa ysvo? [iiav 
<pu<7tv ; b) x 171 (almost = x 180), ou tcco^ y]sv sV wp.ou Xstpt cpspsiv 
(sc. t6v slacpov) ETspYj • [xd&oc yap [jiya Q^pCov 1 9jsv. Herod. 2. 47, r Tv 
Bs AtyuTUTiot papov YJyY)VTat £hr)piov stvai. id. 2. 66, cpiXoTsxvov yap to 
O^Yjpiov (sc. 6 aisXoupo?). id. 3. 16, Aiyu7UTioto-t Bs vsvojuorai 7uT3p BtjpCov 
sTvat £[rjiu/ov. id. 3. 108, 6 Xayo? U7u6 7uavTO£ Q^jpsusxai frY)pioi> xai 
opvifro? xal av^po)7uou. id. 3. 110, rapt Bs ocuty)v (sc. ty]v Xl|avy]v) xai 
s"v oc(jtyj ocuXi^stoci xou £hr)pta XTspcoTa (' animals of a winged kind '), tyjci 
vu^TspCoi xpoo-sixsXa [xaXtOTa. id. 4. 191, xal oE aypioi avBps? xat yuvaikss 
ayptai xod a^Xa 7uXtqQ»si TuoXXa £Hr)pia dcxaTa<[>si)GTa. Ar. Nub. 1286, AM. 
&X£ si <77uav££si£, Tapyupiou jjloi tov toxov 'AtuoBots. ETP. touto B' lab? 
6 toxos ti £hr]piov ; id. Av. 69, 'ATap gu ti £hr)ptov 7uot st 7up6? t&v frsSv ; 
Antiphan. frg. 3. 87, 06/, scriv ouBsv £hr)piov twv i/jMcov dtTujrsorspov 
(notice plural t/O^cov correlative with (tojptov). Sotades frg. 3. 586 (1. 
26), 'Ajjiav T£ y/jpav O^piov xaXdv acpoBpa. Phil. frg. 4. 3, Oist ti tmv 
a^cov Btacpspsiv 8>Y)p»ov v Av^pco7uov ; ouBs pxpov ScKkoc (7/Yj[iaTi  Illayt' 
sort TaXXa, touto B' opfrov Shqpiov. Men. frg. 4. 214 (8), IToHwv xoctoc 
yyjv xai xaTa O'aXocTTav 0»Y)picov v Ovtcov, [jiytarov sari Q^ptov yuvY). Arist. 
H. A. 8. 27. 605 b 14, <xXko 9>Y)piov olov 6 y]tuioXo<; 6 rcspt tov 'kuyyov tcsto- 
jj.svo$. 2 ib. 9. 40. 625 b 32, Ta Bs ytvop.sva fryjpLa Iv toT? <7[xy)V£<7i 2 

1 I translate : ' It was a large sort of beast.' Owing to the particular 
situation there is almost amplificative force present : " Es war ein grosses 
Untier." Classen, Fleckeisens Jahrb. 1859. 314, on the basis of this passage, 
declares that &r}aiov designated a single animal in opposition to the genus. 
By this he did not mean that it designated a single animal as belonging 
to a genus, which would be correct for some cases (§. 114), but he was 
rather making an attempt to force it into the same pigeon-hole as aaiov, 
XqvgLov, and ctQ-yvqiov, which, as we have seen § 101, were derived from 
the use of -lov in adjectives of material, and ^cu^tW, which is probably 
hypostasized from an indefinite plural (§ 90). Of all these words he says 
that they designate " den einzelnen aus der Masse gesonderten Gegenstand." 
It is evident that this is merely a logical abstraction, and that the point of 
view was the desire to find some thread, no matter how slender, by which 
the whole group could be attached to the diminutive category. A similar 
idea, namely that diminutives are originally strengthened individualizations 
(** verscharfte Individualisierungen "), is now upheld for German diminutives 
by Wrede, Die Dim. im Deutschen p. 135. As to how such a shade of mean- 
ing should have gotten into the suffixes, however, we are left in the dark. 

2 Some have seized upon passages like these or like Arist. H.A. 9. 19. 
552 b 11 {ylvhxcu ^r^lcc iv too nvqi), in which dr^lov is used of insects, and 

In the Meaning " Belonging to the Category ofP 81 

(•animals of the kind that develop in the hives') c) Herod. 6. 44 

ot \klv 6x6 tcov 8*Y)picov Bt£cp(ktpovTo ap7ua£6|i£vot. Ar. Ran. 278, o5to; 
6 T07uo? ecrriv oS Ta &Y)pta Ta BsTv scpaox sxstvo?. id. Lys. 1025, ly<a 
gou xav toBe to 6>Y)ptov Touxi tw dcpfra^w Xa(3otj(7 6£eTXov av. 1 Arist. 
H. A. 9. 37. 621 a 17, owTpEcpovTat Bs xat at apat 6Tav (kjptov Tt towcn. 
Theocr. 25. 181, Efae B' 6xa)£ oXodv toBs B^ptov (i. e. a lion) . . . sxsovsc. 
xoy%vhov : Koyy61r\, ' a species or kind of mollusk ' etc. a) Arist. frg. 
315. 1531 b 9, TpocpY] xpYJ-nxi sortv ots xat toT? twv xoypXtwv crapxtBtot?. 
id. De Plant. 1. 1. 816 a 10, xa\ Ta xoyplta st<rt £wa, yvcorctoc Itts- 
pY][xsva. b) Epich. 42, ayst Bs 7uavToBa7ua 2 xoyxdlta, AsxaBa?, aaxsBoo;, 
xpa(3o?oi>;, xtxtf3aXou?, TYjfruvta xd Sophron 24, gwXyjvss @y)v toutoi 
ya, yk>xuxpsov xoyyjJXtov. c) Arist. H. A. 8. 2. 591 a 1, ot Bs xoXu- 
xoBsc jjiaXiara Ta xoy/tUta cruMiyovTss, s^atpouvTs? Ta crapxta Tps<povTat 
TOUTOt?. ib. 5. 15. 547 b 7, BtaTporca (sc. y] t% xopcpupa? yX&TTa) Ta 
xoyyuXta xat to auTY]£ oarpaxov. %a [laXaxoa : to [xaXaxov (neuter of 
[xa^axo?, cf. § 41), the animals 'of the soft kind,' cf. the German 
' Weichtiere.' a) Arist. H. A. 4. 1. 523 b 2, rapt Be tgjv avaijiwv 

£toO)V VUV ^£XT£OV. £<JTt Bs ySVY] TuXstto, £V [XSV TO TWV XaX0L>[X£V0)V 

u,a7,axtcov. ib. 6. 531 b 18, 7uspt (isv o5v twv [xaXaxtcov xat [xa^axoGTpa- 
xcov xat 6o*TpaxoB£p[icov . . . stpY]Tat. oqvI&iov : opvt£, ' a kind or species 
of bird,' ' member of the bird family,' etc. a) Herod. 2. 77, dpvtO-cov 
Be to*J? T£ opTuya? xai Ta£ VYJao-a? xat Ta <7[uxpa twv opvttMtov <opc ov 
T£0VTat. Cratin. ap. Athen. 373 C, TaXla tuocvt opvtfrta, ' all others 
of the bird tribe.' Arist. H. A. 9. 49. 633 b 6, tBtov V ivtotc <ruu,- 
j3atv£t twv opvtfrtcov to &7uo<|>o<psTv, olov xat toT? Tpuyo<7tv. id. De Spirit. 
6. 484 a 37, twv opvt^tcov y£ xat tsij.vo|xsvcov to ott^o? ty^P> °&x' a V a - 
b) Arist. H. A. 9. 1. 609 a 16, t% Be fyjipac xat Ta alloc tyvC&w 
ty}v yXaQxa xsptxsTaTat, . . . xat xpoo-7U£TO[i£va TtHouGtv. Bt6 ot dpvtO*o- 
^Yjpat ^Y]p£Uouo-tv a&TYJ xavToBaxa dpvtfria. ib. 1, 1. 487 b 25, xat tfflv 
dpvtO>o)v £to"t tivs? xaxoxoBsc, ot Bta touto xalouvTat ocxoBec* la-i Bk 
s5wT£pov toijto to 6pvt0>tov. Combined with deteriorative meaning in 
Nicophr. frg. 2. 848, f/ Ax£p £crO>t£i TauTt Ta jrovi^p 6pvt0«ta. 1, 

have assumed an original diminutive force of the suffix, in spite ol the la.t 
that it is much more frequently applied to large beasts, particularly in its 
earliest occurrences— it designates a deer and is modified by piya in the only 
Homeric examples (see above). This method of procedure needl HO refu- 
tation. For apparent cases of deteriorative use see § IT:;. 

1 See foot-note 2 on p. 80. 

2 As is shown by the adjective navzotictnu, wffjtom ll the generic term, 
and the other nouns are in apposition. The diotfonw* .mtly 
wrong in taking xoyxvfaov as a 'small kind of mollusk.' 


82 Chapter XII. 

lews, (txcoXyjxocc, axpiBa?, rojepvorcas. c) Arist. H. A. 8. 4. 594 a 17, scrfrisi 
yap (sc. 6 ocpi?) xa\ opvifria xai O^pia, xai wa xaTamvsi. ra naQddXut : 
xapBalts, " the members of the genus ■* panther.' " a) Arist. H. A. 
2. 11. 503 b 5, lyzi Bs xai (sc. 6 )(a[xatXscov) piXaivav TauTY]v (sc. ty]v 
^pot&v) ou rcoppto tyjs twv xpoxoBsiXcov, xai wypav xafrribusp oi amipoi (jilavi 
wo"7usp t<x 7capBa>>ia Bia7us7uoixi^|xsvY]v. asXd%tov : a-sXayos, ' a kind or 
species of the cartilaginous fishes ' 1 etc. a) Athen 318 F, jxaXaxia 
Bs xalsTTai Ta tsu^iBwBy). Gzk&yux Bs Ta twv spicov 2 cpuXa. Luc. Lex. 6, 
twv Bs 67uo(3pu)(ia)v Ta G-sXayia 7uoXXa (' in great numbers ') xa v i oa-a 
oarpaxopiva xtX. c) Plato Com. frg. 2. 634, 2s yap ypaS cruyxaTto- 
xktsv <ra7upav 'OpcpoTcri <jsXayioi<; ts cpaypoi? [3opav. Eupolis frg. 2. 428, 
7uptw [iot csXaytov. axcoXfjXiov : o-xcoXyj^, 4 a kind or species of worm or 
grub ' (usually diminutive), b) Arist. H. A. 5. 32. 557 b 13, Son Bs 
ti (txwXyjxiov 6 xa^siTat §A6<p8>opov. ib. 25. 555 a 19, 'OysuovTai Bs 
xai oi pp^xs? xai tixtoucti (TxcoMjxia. xa arQovMa : orpoufro^, " the 
members of the genus 'sparrow.'" Arist. H. A. 9. 7. 613a 29, 33, 
Xsyoudi Be" tivss xa\ twv arpoufriow sviauTdv p5vov ^v tou£ appsvac, . . 
Ta^ Bs frr^siac [xaxpopioTspa? sivai t65v arpoufriwv. ib. 5. 2. 539 b 33, 
6 appY]v £7ui7TY]Bwv oysusi tyjv {HjXsiav, xai auyyivsTai &<nusp xai Ta arpoufria. 
o^sw?. <paXdyyiov ' a kind or species of cpaXay^ (a venomous kind of 
spider),' cf. Ta apayvia. a) Plato Euthyd. 290 E, yj p. v sv yap twv 
stccoBwv syscov ts xai (paXayyitov xai oxopmcov xai twv aXXo^v 0>Y]pia)v ts 
xai vocwv xy))j]c-is lariv. Arist. H. A. 9. 39. 622 b 27, see sub Ta 
apa/vta. ib. 4. 11. 538 a 27, sv Bs toT? wotoxoi? xai toTc oxwXyjxoto- 
xot? . . . oTov ocpsi? xai cpaXayyia xai aaxalapwTat xa\ (3aTpa/oi. ib. 5. 
8. 542 a 12, xoioOvTat Bs Ta cpalayyta ty]v d/siav tovBs t6v Tporcov. ib. 
5. 20. 552 b 26, oi Bs <7cp9jxss ol i/vsupvs? xaXou[xsvot . . . Ta cpa>,ay- 
yia a7coxTsivavTsc cpspouax. c) Arist. H. A. 9. 5. 611 b 21, OTav Bs By;/- 
frwaiv ai slacpoi 6x6 cpaXayyiou. ib. 5. 27. 555 b 16, Iviots Bs to 
Tz7Jr\b>GS yivovTai xai Tpiaxoaxa rcspt sv cpaXayyiov. 

B. Plants. The comparative rarity of these may be due to the 
fact that -lov was so productive in ordinary plant names in which 
it had other functions than the ' generalizing ' (§ 255 ff.). SbvSqiov : 
BsvBpov, 'a kind or species of tree.' b) Alcaeus 44, see § 115. Athen. 
649 F, avs(3Xa<7TY]<7sv sx tou cr^aTo? BsvBpiov, 6 sxsTvot xovvapov Ituovo- 

1 Erotianus Gloss. Hippocr. p. 348 (HeXa^ioiaL' rotg (uxQolg i%frvdioig, rj roig 
oazoaxodeQfxoig, olov zaQcifioig, xaqxlvoig, xriQv£i) is probably trying to interpret a 
word unfamiliar to himself. If lie has good authority for his statement, the 
word must also have been used as a diminutive. 

2 For the unintelligible bqIcop Kaibel suggests ^tw, 

In the Meaning " Belonging of the Category of." 83 

|j.a£oLK7tv. soti Bs to BsvBpiov [xsysfrsi plv wrsX% xai rauxr^ oq&£v ti 
juTov. 1 Thocr. 29. 12, IIoiY)crai xaXiav jxtav sfo svi fcevBpty. oanqiov : 

ooTupos (Hes.), 'the members of the pulse family' etc. a) Plato 
(Vitias 115 A, Iri II t6v YJjxepov xaprcov, tov t£ ?Y]pov, 6? *)[iXv Tpocpr- 
£V£xa Ion, xai ooois yapiv tou oitou 7upooxp<&p£&a— xaXoopev Bs auToQ 
Ta |xspY] orapia. Theophr. H. P. 8. 1. 1, Ta oe x&porca, otov xtiaps, 
lpl|ta&0C mao?, xai oXwc Ta oonpia 7upo<7ayop£t>6|ji£va. Galen. 314. 14, 
oorcpia Ixsiva twv AvjpjTpicov crrap^aTcov s^ 6>v apxo? 06 yiv£Tai, mention- 
ing as examples xua|xoi>s, toctou?, IpepCvfroufc cpaxouc, etc. c) Alexis frg. 
3. 507 (9. 6), ouBsvo? yap xw7U0T£ 'A7us(3a^sv dorxpiou X&co$. §foov : pi£a, 
4 a kind of root.' b) Ar. Av. 654, Ion yap n pi£iov, "0 BiaTpayovT 
Soeofrov £7UT£pw[xsv(o. <pt;x6a i cpoxos, ' (the) plants belonging to the sea- 
weed family,' a wider term than cptixo?, which is distinguished from 
Ppdov Arist. H. A. 8. 20. 603 a 17, Theophr. H. P. 4. 6. 2. a) Theophr. 
H. P. 4. 7. 3, /pw[xa cpao-iv £/£iv o|j.oiov to?? <pox£oi£. cj Archil, frg. 
Argent. 1. 7, lx B v £ too [(3u]i>o3 cpuxia 7U6XX iniyoi. Arist. H. A. 8. 
2. 591 a 22, Tp£<p£Tai B v £ rcac xsorps&g cpoxiotc xai a[X[j.o). ib. 590 b 11, 

CpUXia v£(JLOVT0Cl. 

C. Things, dxovna : ocxojv, 4 everything in the nature of a spear,' 
and SogciTia : Bopu, 'everything in the nature of a javelin,' Herod. 1. 
34, axovTia Be xai BopaTia xai Ta TOiauTa xavTa towt ypfcovTai !$ 
7u6X£[j.ov av8po)7uot. xaTa%vafxdriov : xaTa/uo"[j.a, 4 a kind of sauce.' 
b) Pherecr. frg. 2. 299, Kai p)v 7uaprjv zzydyri [X£v sao-T-^jiva, Ka- 
Ta/uojiaTiota-i 7cavToBoc7uoT<7tv £57up27UYJ. t« xsXwpia : x£Xutpo£, • everything 
in the nature of a shell ' of a crustacean or shell-fish, a) Arist. H. 
A. 8. 37. 622 a 7, otocv Be xaTavaloxTY] (sc. 6 jtoMttoos) ^ Xpt)OttM&TaTa, 
lx(3aH£i Ta oarpaxa xai Ta xs^.u<pta twv xapxtvwv xai xoyyjAio>v xai Ta; 
axavO-a? twv i/O-jBlcov. xa xifiaWia : xificoTOc, " whatever belongs to the 
category ' box ' " (below combined with the idea of small size), a) Arist. 
Probl. 11. 28, 902 a 37, Aia ti £via '|>oo£i xat xivdrai i'faiovr^, olov 
Ta xipokia, ouBevo? aic-O^Toa xivouvtoc ; id. Audib. 802 b 40, -av—: 
yap ot (3iaioi (sc. <[>6<|>ot) yiyvovTai oxXvjpoi, xaO-a^p xai t&v xtpo>Ti(.>v 
xai twv OTpocpfiow, OTav avoiyo>vTai (3iaio>£. xTtvior : xtei;. • ;i kiml «»t 
comb.' b) Poll. 5. 96, Ivtoi B' atk6 (sc. to Jdfcviov) XTivwv £lvat vo- 
[iKoootv. xiamov : xulic, 'a kind of cup.* b) Bpicr. Erg, 9. :>72(2. 1). 
KaTapaXl£ TaxaTta, xai xu)ixia Alpou Ta [ugu ('the larger kinds ol 
(nips'). Theophr. H. P. 5. 9. 8, IpXArnjot . . . £*-' 
T£0'£i(7a xoiTurj £v xYj'Xo). Xsxdnov : }v£xavv. • :i kind of diflh. 3 b) X'll. 

1 The fact that the tree referred to is sai.l to be QO smaller than an elm ox 
fir-tree, makes impossible the common interpn-l jit i«.n diminutive. 

84 Chapter XII. 

Cyr. 1. 3. 4, r Q tzoltztzz, ogol 7ipay[xaTa s)(st£ sv tw ^st7wti>, st avayxY] 
o~ot sVt 7cavTa Ta Xsxavta TaoTa BtaTstvstv Ta? ystpa? (' to apply your 
hand to all this great array of different kinds of dishes'). 1 lonadiov : 
Xqtzolc,, ' a kind of plate.' b) Poll. 10. 107, xat 7uaTavY] xat raxTavtov to 
sxxsTalov Xo7uaBtov. id. 6. 90, siyj B' av y) rcaTavY] 7>07uaBtov sxxsTa^ov. 
pd&ov : [ia£a, ' a kind of barley-bread.' b) Athen. 646 C, EIIIAAl- 
TPON 7ulaxouvT(oBs<; [ia£tov sxt tw Bstrcvco scr8n,6|j.svov. Tie^aTtov : 7us|Ji[xa, 
'a kind of sweet-meats or cake.' b) Athen. 645 E, EHCPIAES 7usp.- 
jxaTtov s^6[xsvov sv sXatco xat [JisTa touto |JisXtTOU[xsvov. nXivtiia : tzKiv- 
fro?, ' the different kinds of brick-ware.' b) Time. 6. 88. 6, xat zocklcc 
ic, t6v xspiT£i/i(7p.6v, Tu^tv^ia xat a-tBYjpov f)TOi[j.a£ov. cyjuimia : ay^a, 
' kinds of figures in the dance.' b) Herod. 6. 129, i<rsX8*otf<n)s Bs 
ttyjS Tpa7us£/]£ TcpwTa [xsv £7U a^TYJc wpyYjo-aTO Aaxo)vixa <7yj][iaTia, [xsTa 
Bs a)J.a 'Attixoc. (pXefiiov : (pXs\J>, ' a kind of vein.' Arist. H. A. 3. 
3. 514 a 19, auT0£ B' 6 syx£cpaXo£ avat[j.o)v rcavTow Icnrt, xai outs pxpov 
outs [liya <pXs(3iov tsXsutS st£ aoTOv. 


119. As was pointed out § 113, the use of 'specializing' -tov 
largely had its roots in adjectival phrases in which a denominative 
adjective with a suffix meaning 'belonging to the category of was used 
with a generic substantive to distinguish one kind of a general con- 
ception from other kinds. Such a phrase, as well as the adjective 
after substantiation, refers to the very same object as the primitive, 
the only difference being that the phrase or substantivized adjective 
represents the object as belonging to a certain category of the general 
idea, and this slight distinction, as in case of the generalizing use, 
and for the same reasons (§ 114), could easily become effaced and 
leave a derivative substantive that does not differ from its primitive 
in any respect. This development is not a peculiarity of -tov, but is 
also found in various other I. E. denominative adjectives. 0. H. G. 
swln, with I. E. -Ino-, was mentioned § 113, but most frequently 
this seems to take place in words with a -k- suffix. Thus in Greek 
the adjective Tuapfrsvtxo? (: xapfrsvo?) is found y) 20 in the phrase 
IlapfrsvixYJ Itxota vsYjvtBt, "like to a young woman belonging to the 
category of ' maiden,' " i. e. ' like to a maiden,' vs?jvt£ being the 
generic name for a young woman, whether married or unmarried. 
After the ellipsis of the accompanying substantive 7uapfrsvtxYJ is used 

1 Possibly with a deteriorative shade of meaning. 

In the Meaning " Belonging to the Category of." 85 

with no distinction from its primitive, so e. g. X 89, Ilapfrevixat t 
oczccloCi vsoTusvfrsa frupv Ixouggci. In a similar way Skr. -ka- came to 
be a regular device for making derivative nouns of the same meaning 
as their primitives, 1 e. g. astaka-m 'home' = asta-m. 

120. Since the modified substantive in the original adjectival 
phrase is usually quite superfluous, it is not surprising that substan- 
tiation of the adjective should take place most rapidly in the speech 
of every-day life, which is always averse to such cumbrous expressions, 
although poets might keep on using them for stylistic reasons. As 
a result it was very rarely that these short-lived combinations hap- 
pened to be imbedded in literature before substantiation had taken 
place, so that we may expect large classes of substantives of this 
origin without direct trace of corresponding adjectives in contrast to 
a few sporadic occurrences of the adjectival phrases. Nevertheless, 
that such combinations with words in -to- also did actually occur, is 
not only made plausible by such related poetic circumlocutions as 
(3tY) HpaxXsiY] (Hes. Theog. 332), but there is at least one passage 
which directly proves their existence: Stesich. 7, Hxucptov 2 Be Xa^wv 
Bs7ra£ s^sTpov a>£ TptXayuvov lit' lm<r/6\i£voq. Athenaeus (499 A), in 
quoting this passage, explains oxucptov by (nuxpos&sc, showing that even 
the later Greeks sometimes felt oxocptov and words like it in an ad- 
jectival manner, and not necessarily as diminutives ; for, if the latter 
were the case, the explanation of Athenaeus would be impossible, 
and he would have conceived of crxucptov as in apposition with h£xu.c. 
Proof that names of vessels were substantivized from adjectives mean- 
ing c of the kind of is further gained by analogous examples of the 
conglutinate -stov, which here as elsewhere encroached upon -tov, and 
consequently always affords the presumption, when occurring in a 
certain use, that -tov must in earlier times have shared the same 
meaning. In case of xsXs(3stov, which is equivalent to its primitive 
xs)if3Y], we have before our eyes the steps of its substantiation in 
two passages from Antimachus of Colophon quoted by Athenaeus 
475 E. In one of them— Kat ypu<7£ta Bsrox<nrpa xa\ &txy)0£os xeTiJktov 
"Ejj^stov [xsltTo?— the adjectival force of xcXlfkcov is distinctly apparent, 
in as much as it is contrasted with the adjective : 'golden 

cups' are contrasted with 'a cup of the xeXe>r kind. 1 En the pre- 
ceding quotation, however, the substantiation is OOmplet ijxcpC- 
frrrov xs/i^siov sVivTes v K|j.7ul£tov jjiXiTos. Pox the adjectival nature 

1 Cf. Whitney, Skr. Gr 3 . 1222. 

2 axvcpiou is a metrically necessary substitution by Be. "gk tort! 

86 Chapter XII 

of these words we may also compare ByjpixXsios sc. y.67,1% (Athen. 
470 E ff.), though the -sio- here had a different meaning. We may, 
then, assume with safety that when we "find a group of words in -iov 
which from the very beginning do not seem to differ from their prim- 
itives, but are related as designating particular kinds of a genus, and 
when alongside of them we find a neuter generic noun which may have 
suffered ellipsis in the pattern types, that substantivation of an original 
adjective in the manner described above has played a part. Thus we 
may account for axariov : axa-ros as originally axoriov 7uXoTov, frspCorpiov : 
frspwrpov as frspiGTpiov sTjjia, ysp[j.aBtov : /sp|xas as y£p[xaBiov (3sXo?, etc. 
121. Between the time of substantivation — no matter whether it is 
due to ellipsis or to taking up with the adjective a vague general 
notion — and the time of complete equivalence of primitive and deriva- 
tive there was a period when the adjectival, i. e. ' specializing ' nature 
of the word in -iov was still felt. As has been indicated above, the 
practical value of the ' specializing ' use was to distinguish one kind 
of a generic conception from other kinds, and consequently the 
feeling for this meaning of the suffix must have been alive when the 
context makes it clear that the writer wished to contrast the species 
designated by the primitive either with the generic term suggested 
by the substantivized adjective, or with an other species of the same 
genus. Though we may not be certain in every individual instance, 
since the force of the suffix may have completely faded before the 
writing of a passage, and the situation in which the word is there 
placed may have been accidental, yet it is safe to say that in pas- 
sages like the following the ' specializing ' use of -iov was originally 
appreciated. Thus in Herod. 1. 73 (SpotAsutravro t&v roxpa a-cpici 
BiBao"xo[xsvtov xaiBtov sva xa?axo<]jai, oxsuaa-avTs? Be ocutov coo-rap ItoQ'soav 
xal Ta 0>Y]pia oxsua^siv, Kua£apY) Bouvai) the way in which the slaughtered 
child is prepared for the banquet is compared with the usual way 
of preparing toc O^pCa, " beings that belong to the category of 
' wild beasts,' " i. e. ' game.' Similar is the contrast between man 
and beast in Herod. 2. 36, toToi jjlsv olXKokji avfrptorcoio-t /topis Q^pCtov 
y] Biai-ra dwuoxsxpiTai, Aiyu7UTioioi Bs 6[xou fr/jpiowi v) BiaiT-a Itro. In 
Arist. A. H. 5. 22. 554 b 1 — xorcpov Bs jcpoffeTai (sc. y] cyaBtov) zone, av 
r\ oxcoXyjxiov — the larva state of an insect is contrasted with its grub 
state : "as long as it is an animal that belongs to the category of 
' grub,' " i. e. as long as it is in the grub state. In the same work 
(5. 19. 550 b 31, yivs^ai Bs ocutcov (sc. twv Ivt6|jl(ov) toc jjIv sx £too)v 
tcov ooyysvcov, otov cpa^ayyia ts xai apayvia sx cpa^ayyitov xai apayvuov) 

In the Meaning " Belonging to the Category of." 87 

the two kinds of spiders are contrasted with other kinds of insects: 
•• insects of the cpalay? and ^dyy^) kind." In A 265— v Eyys* ~ 
aopi zz f«Y<*Xot<rf ts xsp^aBbtaiv— the collocation of three kinds of 
weapons can suggest an interpretation like the following : ' with spear 
and sword and large weapons of the stone (xepfjides) kind.' In Herod- 
otus 7. 61 ff. the fact that he is continually describing the armor of 
different contingents of the army of Xerxes causes the mind to center 
on the idea ' weapon ' etc., and consequently allows axovxiov (: axo>v) 
to be interpreted as 'a weapon or missile of the javelin kind' 
whenever it occurs. Particularly instructive is Thuc. 4. 120. 2, 
6 BpoccriBas BlstcXsucts vuxtos ic, tyjv Hxioovyjv, irpnf)psi jjlv cpiXta Tupocr-WJcrr,, 
atko? Bs fa xsXyjtico owuwfrsv scps7u6p£vos, ckcos, si piv xtvt toU xsXr^o? 
[xs^ovi tuXoio) 7uepiTUYx«vot, y] TpiYJpv]? apvY] ataw. In the principal 
clause the comparison of the trireme with the smaller boat suggests 
the general idea of ' vessel,' and so xsXyjtiov was felt as ' a vessel of 
the xsTorjs type.' The use of (xsv and U shows that the two kinds 
of vessels were strongly associated and contrasted in the mind of the 
writer. Just below, however, when this antithesis is not sought for, 
he uses xs1y]s, not xsXyjtiov. A few more examples will suffice: 
Eubul. frg. 3. 265 (7), KviBioc xspdcjuoc, SixsXtxa paTdcvia, Meyaptxa 
mfraxvia, ' Cnidian vessels of potters' clay, Sicilian vessels of the 
[3ocTavY] type, Megarian vessels of the mfraxvY) type.' Dionys. H. 10. 17. 
9&vb$ axoXouO'WV zoic, <jyjZov<ji t/]v vstov (3oiBioi? <x/ito)v, 7;spi£(oij.a7iov 
I/wv, 'without xitcov, but with a garment of the 7uept£o)[jia kind." 

122. When there was no contrast between different species of the 
same genus, the 'specializing' or adjectival nature of the -wv word 
quickly ceased to be appreciated ; for even if the speaker still had it 
in mind, he would not often be followed by the hearer, since the 
distinction between primitive and derivative had lost all its practical 
value. Primitive and derivative then became totally equivalent : 
cmowsjv ' a missile of the javelin kind ' became simply ' a javelin/ 
After one or more substantives with this meaningless -wv had once 
come into existence, others of congeneric meaning could be attracted 
without themselves going through the same process: Kpoj&Xiov followed 
dbtdvrtov, ttocixviov followed cxiKpiov or some word like it. etc. In mofil 
cases it will be impossible to say whether a word in moanin 
ever had a 'specializing' meaning, or whether i^ L8 merely a product 
of congeneric attraction. In this way -wv, like Ski. k.i mighl have 
become a regular conscious device of poets to coil] new words <•! the 
same meaning with their primitive*, were it oo1 for the Lot thai .ill 

88 Chapter XII 

distinctly secondary derivatives in -tov seem in later Classical times 
to have had a rather vulgar or at least undignified flavor, which 
probably spread to the other classes from the deterioratives and 
diminutives (§ 274). As a result this class of words became con- 
fined to the language of every-day life and to prose, while serious 
poetry avoided them most sedulously. 

123. This is, of course, only one of many ways in which a primi- 
tive and derivative can become identical in meaning. Besides the 
numerous cases of congeneric attraction in which a word took a 
meaningless -tov because attracted by some other word in which it 
did have a meaning (§ 252 ff.), there are words of the o?xiov type 
(§ 87 ff.), those derived from adjectives of material (§ 100), those 
in which -tov has generalizing meaning (§ 114), or is exponent 
of the similarity of the derivative to the primitive (§ 139), and 
faded deterioratives (§ 165), diminutives (§217 ff.), and hypocorisms 
(§ 246 ff.). When a word is never found except in the very 
same meaning as its primitive, we may consequently often be in 
doubt as to how the identity of meaning has come about, and some- 
times several different causes no doubt contributed, as we can say 
with certainty for XorcricBiov = Iotzol^ ' plate,' which was in use both 
with the ' generalizing ' and ' specializing ' meaning. For practical 
purposes, however, it is best to place here all cases of identity of 
primitive and derivative of which the cause is unknown. 

124. Sometimes the influence of congeneric words produced a dis- 
tinction between an -tov word and its primitive in as much as the 
latter had diverse meanings, while the former had only the one which 
is related to the words which have attracted it. Thus xu[j.(3y) is not 
only a certain kind of cup or bowl, but also a knap-sack, wallet, or 
boat, while xu|ji(3iov always designates a kind of cup, evidently being 
influenced by :uoTYJptov, trnxpiov, etc. Similarly the frequency of -iov 
words which designate ornaments gave rise to aXuciov ' a chain ' used 
as an ornament: oduGiq 'a chain' of any kind. Since the derivative 
in such a case is the more precise expression for the object it can 
designate, it easily becomes the preferred form, and the primitive 
may become very rare or even obsolete in the same sense. In this 
case the suffix would apparently have the force of expressing simil- 
arity (§ 132 ff.), even though the development of meaning is quite 
different from those words in which the suffix actually brought with 
it this meaning from the beginning. So xu[x(3iov, winch became the 
current Attic word in the meaning 4 cup,' may have been reinter- 

In the Meaning " Belonging to the Category of." 89 

preted as 'that which is like a boat' (xu|x(3y)). Similarly tc>.6xigv 
1 neck-lace ' : kKokoc,, ' curl,' ' wreath.' 

125. In case both primitive and derivative existed alongside of 
each other with equal right, as e. g. xtAuuov and xflu& they were 
likely to become differentiated so that the -iov form was considered a 
diminutive (cf. § 221 ff.). There is often, of course, no way of telling 
whether the latter ever had any other than the diminutive meaning. 
Thus, while we may be quite sure that the diminutive use of xtAixiov 
was secondary, cptc&tov may very well have been 'a little cup' from 
the beginning. It is impossible to separate diminutives from non- 
diminutives with certainty in every case; for when diminutives are 
applied to such things as cups, the idea of small size enters in its 
most objective manner, and will not often reveal itself by deteriorative 
or hypocoristic effects. A little help is given by inscriptions contain- 
ing inventories of treasures in temples, as in Delos or the temple of 
Asclepius at Athens, where the weight of many individual objects is 
given. It is in this way that we learn that <?iaXiov was carefully 
distinguished from cptaXv); yet this can not be conclusive evidence for 
all occurrences of the word; for the fixing of cpid&iov as 'a small 
cup' in the inscriptions may have been merely a technical trade 
regulation, just as in modern articles of commerce or scientific nomen- 
clature distinctions unrecognized in ordinary speech are established or 
maintained, e. g. the difference between tornado and cyclone. That 
many words wavered between diminutive and non-diminutive inter- 
pretation, is shown e. g. by xtAfoaov, Xsxdcviov, and >£J3y)tiov. It is, then, 
futile to try to reach certain conclusions for every word and every 
example, but in general one thing is clear : there are enough certain ex- 
amples where the -tov word can not possibly have been a diminutive to 
throw utter discredit on the dictionaries and many grammatical author- 
ities who invariably classify all of these words as diminutives. When 
an -tov word occurs in a context which is not decisive as to its mean- 
ing, there should not be the least presumption that is was diminutive. 

126. The examples are divided, as usually, into congeneric groups, 
a division which in this case coincides with a division according to 
the generic idea which underlay the 'specializing' use of the suffix. 
Since the original meaning is apparent in only a small fraction oi the 
passages, and since the more important of these have already been 
quoted above (§ 121), a mere citation will suffice in the list of 
examples below, unless I either quote a passage which oondaifrelj 
proves non-diminutive usage, or give reasons for taking I word M 

90 Chapter XII. 

non-diminutive. The list will no doubt contain something that can 
not be classified with certainty, but indubitable diminutives belonging 
to these congeneric groups have been mentioned with all the other 
diminutives (§ 198 ff.). 

127. A. Words designating missiles. Probably an ellipsis of 
(3sXos ' missile ' is at the basis of this group, a word which in the 
Homeric poems can designate darts, arrows, spears, or stones, dxov- 
%iov : axttv, ' a missile of the javelin kind,' ' a javelin.' The deriva- 
tive completely displaced the primitive except in poetry because the 
suffix -OVT- was an unusual one in words designating things, while 
-lov brought it into the favorite declension. There is not the slightest 
indication that axovxiov was ever a diminutive, in fact in the very 
first passage in which it occurs (H. Horn. Merc. 460), the translation 
' a little javelin ' would be ridiculous : for the great god Apollo is 
giving an oath by his axovTiov : Nod jj.a toBs xpavsivov axovaov. Other 
examples : Herod. 7. 72 ff., Ar. Lys. 563 ; Thuc. 4. 34, 5. 65 ; Xen. 
Cyn. 9. 2 ; Antiph. 3 (3 4 ; Plato Legg. 7. 794 C. dooccTiov : Bopu, ' a 
missile of the spear kind,' k a spear.' While also found in the ' gen- 
eralizing' meaning (§ 118C) and as a diminutive (§ 185), it was 
probably ' specializing ' and certainly not diminutive in Ar. Pax 553 
and Mnesimachus ap. Athen. 421 C, passages which refer to the in- 
struments of war in general. It seems to be completely equivalent 
to its primitive in Thuc. 7. 84. 3. tiqo§6Xlov c a missile of the 7upo- 
QoXoc, kind,' ' a hunting spear.' Xen. Cyn. 10. 3: Hyp. frg. 170 (ap. 
Harpocr.). %SQiia6iov ' a missile of the XW^S kind,' 1 a stone used 
as a missile. Diminutive origin and usage is clearly out of the 
question, not only because the word occurs in Homer, who does not 
yet know any diminutives in -iov, but because the context usually 
shows that it designated particularly large stones : A 265, [xsyaXoi<7t 
ts xspp.aBioi<7Lv. II 774, IloXXa Bs ysp[xaBta [isyaV aa-mBa? sariKpsXi^av. 
E 302, 6 Be ysp^aBtov Xa(3s ysipi TuBsiBy)^, piya spyov, 6 ou Buo y' 
avBps cpspoisv, OIoi vuv (3p0T0i sW. x 121, avBpa/^so-i )(sp[xaBiot(7iv. 
cp 371 ; Tyrtaeus 11. 36, [xsyaXoi? (3aXXsTs xsp[xaBiot?. 

128. B. Words designating boats. An ellipsis of tuXoTov may have 
caused the existence of these words. We may compare iTUTuaywyoi 
(Ar. Equ. 599) ' transport vessels ' beside kroxycoyot vss? (Herod. 6. 

1 That %EQiiudiov was felt adjectivally even by the later Greeks, is shown 
by the phrase fxoXv^dccii^ai xegfuddioL (Luc. Lex. 5). Since there is no evidence 
of the existence of an adjective xegiuddiog between Homer and Lucian, the 
latter derived it from %eQnci<fiov. 

In the Meaning "Belonging to the Category of." 91 

>:>), and r^ioliov (sc. 7&o?ov) ' a vessel with one and a half banks 
»f oars' (§ 53), which is undoubtedly derived from the adjective 
r^xiolioc. The only Avords which belong here are ocxoctiov (Thuc. 1. 
29. 8, 4. 67. 3) 'a boat of the axorcos type,' and xsXyjtiov (Thuc. 1. 
53. 1, 4. 120. 2) 'a boat of the x&iqc type.' The primitive itself 
in both cases designates a small kind of vessel. That similar deriva- 
tives are not found from names of the larger kind of vessels is prob- 
ibly merely accidental, in as much as these are very rare words, 
nd their transmission rather than of others was due merely to the 
fact that Thucydides had used them. It is, however, not impossible 
that the influence of diminutives prevented -wv words designating 
larger vessels from gaining currency. 

129. C. Words designating cups, vases, vessels, etc. The origin 
of (jxucpiov out of the phrase crxucpiov Bsrox^, as attested by Stesichorus 
(ef. § 120), makes it highly probable that many other names of 
vessels in -wv arose in a similar way, and that neuter generic words 
like Bstuocc, ayyoc, ocyyziov, or xoTYjptov were largely the cause of their 
existence. This does not, however, mean that all names of vessels 
in -tov which do not differ from their primitives in meaning arose in 
this way ; for in a large number of those that differ from their prim- 
itives the suffix had various other meanings than the ' specializing ' 
(cf. § 260 C), and it will usually be impossible to decide which of 
the numerous heterogeneous models a word of the same meaning as 
the primitive has followed. For practical reasons it is best to group 
all of these words here, particularly since the ' specializing ' use itself 
most easily resulted in a meaningless suffix, and so was undoubtedly 
the most potent factor in attracting congeneric words. 

a) With primitive in existence, pardviov c a vessel of the (3aTavY) 
kind,' probably <::airaviov. 1 Antiphan. frg. 3. 51 ; Alexis frg. 3. 394 ; 
Eubul. frg. 3. 223, 265 (7). parimuov ' a vessel of the paTicba) kind,' 
a kind of cup. Philemon ap. Athen. 497 F. xaxxdfiiov ' a vessel of 
the xaxxa(3v] type,' ' a three-legged pot.' Eubul. frg. 3. 223. xva&tbv 
' a vessel of the xua&o? type,' a kind of cup. Pherecr. ap. Poll. 6. 
105. xvuPCw 'a cup of the xu[x(3y] or xu[x(3o? type,' a small boat- 
shaped kind of cup, cf. Athen. 481 D, xu|x(3ia toc xoTXa woT^pta xai 
pxpa Ii[xapi<7Toc, . . . cpyjox Bs Aioutxo? 6 ypa^omxos Impjxs? sTvoa t6 
tottrrjpiov xai otsvov tw <7/Y)[xaTi 7uap6[J.otov tcIoio). The conclusion which 
might be drawn from this, namely, that xuu.(3iov was original con- 

1 For the change of the initial voiceless to a voiced explosive of. Vasmer, 
Byz. Zeitschr. 16. 544 ff. 

92 Chapter XII. 

ceived as ' that which is like a boat ' rather than ' a cup of the xujxpY) 
type,' is not at all a probable one ; for xuu,(3y) itself occurs in the 
meaning ' cup ' as well as ' boat ' (cf. Athen. 483 A), and the former 
is shown to be the older meaning by the related Skr. kumbha-s 'jar, 
'funeral urn,' etc. That xu[x(3iov designated a small kind of cup is 
attested by inscriptions no less than by Athenaeus, so e. g. in the 
Delian one of Michel 833, where (1. 107) four xu[x(3ia weigh 158 
drachmas, or have about the same weight as the cptaXta, while the 
cpiaXat each weigh 100 dr. or more. Similarly in CIA. 2. 835 c— 1 64 a 
xujjlPCov of eight drachmas and four obols is mentioned. This does 
not, however, imply that it was originally a diminutive formation, for 
x6\kpr\ when used of cups also designated a small kind, as we know 
from the fact that Hesychius explains it by 6§j(3cx<pov. Moreover, the 
subsequent quotations of Athenaeus show that usage was not at al 
fixed, and Dionysius of Samos used it as synonymous with xi<7(7u(3iov, 
to which Athenaeus objects that the latter was not a small cup ; for 
in the passage referred to (t 346) it designates the cup given by 
Odysseus to the monster Cyclops, and by three doses even he is 
overcome. xu|x(3tov seems to also suggest a large quantity in Anaxandr. 
frg. 3. 162 (2), MsyaV iGoaq. tzott^ioc Ilpomvojxsva xat [liar* axpaTOU 
xt>|x(3ta 'Exapcoasv 6[xa?. Other examples : Ephipp. frg. 3. 328 ; Alexis 
frg. 3. 383; Epigenes frg. 3. 539: Philemon frg. 4. 29; Hipparch. 
Com. frg. 4. 431 ; Dem. 21. 158; CIA. 2. 766. 15 (after 344 B.C.). 
leprJTiov ' a vessel of the \ifir\c, type,' the basin into which the purify- 
ing water was poured ; given as a diminutive by Michael Syngelus 
ap. Cram. Anec. 4. 273. 11 (cf. § 125), but that was probably not 
the usual meaning, as is shown by Poll. 6. 92 and 10. 76 , s£s<tti B* 
ocuto xod* >i(3Y]Ta xai \zfiy\ziov xotkitjca. Other examples : Anaxipp. 4. 
465 (1); CIA. 4. 2. 700 b 29, juxjpifc tapv)iri[a] III, ^[yaXa. ib. 
2 add. 682 c 16 (ab. 356 B. C.) ; Insc. Delos Mich. 833. 124 (279 
B.C.); Insc. Delos Ditt 2 . 588. 167 (ab. 180 B. C). Xexaviov 'a vessel 
of the XsxavY) type.' So Polyzelus ap. Poll. 10. 76, Ar. Ach. 1110. 
Xonadiov ' a vessel of the Xotzolc, kind,' ' a flat earthen vessel,' ' a 
plate.' Ar. Plut. 812; Alexis frg. 3. 470 (1. 7), 430 (i. 22); Axio- 
nicus frg. 3. 535 (3) ; Eubul. frg. 3. 207 (1. 3), 223 ; Men. frg. 4. 206. 
naxaviov 'a vessel of the tuoctocvy) kind,' = (3aTaviov. Eubul. frg. 3. 
223, 228. TtatiXkvov ' a vessel of the izcniXku. « Lat. patella) type.' 
Poll. 6. 90. mdaxviov (Att. yidaxvtov) 1 'a vessel of the rofrdcxvY) (cpt- 

In the Meaning " Belonging to the Category of: 1 93 

oAwq) type.' Eubul. frg. 3. 265; CIA. 2. 807 b 114 ft, StocXow^ Iv 

cptfecxvfap jiiXaiva- kzipx iv ^cpopsT piXaiva- £Tspa Xsoxy] l|x <piBaxv£a>- Iv 
ip^opcD* SuoTv XeoxVj. Since this is a catalogue of naval stores,' 6xa- 
Xo«tf is ' grease,' not ' ointment.' That this should have been kept 
In particularly 'little jars' is, of course, not to be thought of. axayiw 
k a vessel of the <rxa<pY) type.' Since its primitive cxacpY) could also 
designate a boat, there is the possibility, as in case of xujipCov, that 
cntwpCov was conceived as 'that which is like a boat.' A living di- 
minutive function of the -tov is not to be sought for, since raacpiov 
lias almost completely displaced its primitive in Attic inscriptions. 
Nevertheless the vessels so designated, like the xu^ta, were often 
small ones. In the Delos inscription of Ditt 2 . 588 there are men- 
tioned e. g. six <jxa<pta of 60 dr. each (1. 64 ff.). Two in 1. 28 weigh 
90 dr., and one in CIA. 2. 836 c-k 27 weighs 51 dr. Other examples 
in which crxacpiov designates a bowl, basin, or chamber pot are: Ar. 
Thesm. 633; Eupol. frg. 2.441; Theophr. C.P. 4. 16. 3; Lycophr. 
ap. Athen. 501 E ; Athen. 142 D ; Poll. 10. 45 ; Insc. Att. Ditt 2 . 588. 
99, 145. It is used metaphorically of the skull in Ar. frg. 2. 1182 
(24) ; of a certain fashion of hair-cutting Ar. Av. 806, Thesm. 836. 
axv(fuov ' a cup of the crxucpo? kind.' Athen. 477 F. arafivCov ' a 
vessel of the orapo? type,' 'a wine jar.' Ar. Lys. 196, 199; Men. 
frg. 4. 108 (3. 2); Plato Ep. 13. 361 A. %vToidiov 'a vessel of the 
X'jTpic kind,' 'a pot.' Ar. Ach. 1175; Alexis frg. 3. 494; Arist. 
Mir. 141. 845 a 5. %vtqCov 'a vessel of the yjkpa (/jkpos) kind,' a 
variant reading of the Bodleian Msc. for pTp&tov in Ar. Ach. 1175. 
Hesychius has pxpioir tou xpaviou, with which cf. oxacpiov in the 
same sense. 

b) -tov takes the place of an other suffix. The fact that such a 
multitude of names of vessels end in -tov, and that the suffix orig- 
inally had a variety of different meanings in different words of this 
congeneric group, brought about the result that it lost most of the 
color it had when the words were formed, and appeared merely a 
suffix for names of vessels, so that new words of this kind would be 
formed merely by analogy to the older ones without regard to the 
relation of primitive and derivative. As a formal indication tliat this 
stage had been reached, there exist, in the first place, a few words in 
which -tov has displaced -iB- instead of being added to it. Both 
suffixes could form names of vessels and were therefore felt as equiv- 
alent in this use (§ 17). Consequently the more frequent one 
encroached upon the less frequent, and so we find tfivnotiov (Oat. 

94 Chapter XII. ' 

Jun. ap. Athen. 469 C : CIA. 2. 836 c-k 35 (270-262 B. C.) in- 
stead of y)Butcoti£, xakmov (Athen. 475 C) instead of Y.oChzi.q. 1 axaXXlov 
(Athen. 498 A) instead of malic, does not belong here, but rather 
comes from a primitive oxaMov, which is found in Hesychius ; or 
otherwise we must assume a by-form GxctXkic, with double 1. 

c) Words without primitive in existence. There is still further 
evidence of -tov as a vessel-designating suffix in the existence of a 
number of such words of unknown etymology. 2 Some of these, of 
course, may have had a primitive which is accidentally not quotable, 
but there are too many of them to attribute all to this cause, and 
some have a decidedly un-Greek appearance, and were undoubtedly 
foreign words, which were fitted out with -tov because that suffix would 
inevitably suggest itself as the ending to take the place of the un- 
familiar foreign ending in words semantically related to such a large 
group of Greek words. That the suffix here should have had diminutive 
meaning is out of the question ; for there is nothing to diminish when 
the form without the -tov never made its way into the Greek language. 
The oldest of these words, moreover, are much older than the di- 
minutive use of -tov, xio~g-u(3iov already occurring in the Odyssey, and 
xapyao-tov in Sappho. Examples : xaq%vatov :i (xocp/ao-tov), Sappho ap. 
Athen. 475 A ; Callix. ib. 474 E. xavxiov (onomatopoeetic), Schol. 
Theocr. 1. 27, xt<7<7tj(3iov * . . . xauxtov £uXtvov 7uot[xsvtxov. xtfiwQiov, 
Athen. 477 E. xiccvfitov, a kind of rustic cup made of wood, t 346 ; 
I 78: 7u 52; Theocr. 1. 27. xqaxawov, Polemon ap. Athen. 479 F. 
hafiQcoviov, also -to?-, -ta, originally an adjective (sc. %6Xic] etc.). Men. 
ap. Athen. 484 C. t^Xiov, Ar. Equ. 905, Av. 361 ; Crat. frg. 2. 
235 (2) ; Eubul. frg. 3. 223 ; Axionicus frg. 3. 535 (3). 

130. D. Words designating articles of dress or ornament. What 
has been said of the diverse origin of the words in -tov designating 
vessels, may be said of this group also. There is the same variety 
of cause of formation, the same wavering between diminutive and 
non-diminutive meaning, and consequently the same uncertainty as 
to the origin and meaning of many a word. But we may safely as- 
sume that the same principles of ellipsis and subsequent attraction of 

1 Possibly, however, the rare and late xdhnq is the direct primitive of 

2 We may, of course, reject such guesses as that xlaavfiiov is related to 
xiooos, or XafiQioviov to ka^Qozrjg (Athen. 477 D, 484 C). Any credible etymology 
should be able to explain the suffix no less than the root. 

3 The relation to the meaning ' mast-head ' is obscure. 

In the Me< ming " Belonging to the Category of." 95 

congeneric words were at work here also, and so refer many an -tov 
word designating a garment to the ellipsis of generic words like stp.a, 
l^b-r^x, or [jxcfcTtov; or those designating foot-wear to the ellipsis of 
0-oor^a. We may further conclude that the existence of congeneric 
words like l|«fonov, axpoo-cpuptov, etc., with an -tov of originally different 
meaning, was a powerful factor in the spread of the suffix in the group ; 
and finally, we may cite the formation of words of unknown etymology 
like psppsptov and their early occurence as proof that the class did 
not originate as diminutive. 

a) Garments, robes. dXovQylSiov 4 a garment of the aloupyt? kind,' 
'a purple robe.' Insc. Att. CIG. 155. 56. a[i,ne%6viov 'a robe or 
shawl of the a|X7isy6vY] kind.' Poll. 7. 49; Hes., aprs/ovY]* Xstctov 
tjxaxtov. apus/oviov * opiov. peoptgiov (of unknown etymology), 'a shabby 
garment.' Anacr. 21. 3. SmXoidiov c a garment of the &3tXot£ kind,' 
• a double cloak.' Poll. 7. 49. ^eQCaxQtov ' a garment of the frspi<7Tpov 
kind,' ' a light summer garment.' Eubul. frg. 3. 254 (8) ; Theocr. 
15. 69. xqoxwtiov 'a garment of the xpoxorros kind,' 'a saffron-colored 
robe,' mentioned as equivalent to its primitive by Poll. 7. 48. Xrfitov 
k a garment of the XvjBoc kind.' Poll. 7. 56, xotva Bs avBp&v xat 
yuvaixwv Xrfioc XrjBtov >j]Mpiov. Men., see ad Etym. M. 563. 32, 
AyjBiov to Tptpcovtov. MsvocvBpoc. Clearch. ap. Athen. 256 F ; Machon 
ib. 582 D ; CIA. 2. 756. 23 (346-343 B. C.). Xwnwv 'a garment of 
the Iwtcy) kind,' c a cloak.' Aristotle expressly states that it is equiv- 
alent to t[xdc-tov, and thus shows that it is not a diminutive : Topic. 
1. 7. 103 a 10, 6. 11. 149 a 4, Metaphys. 3. 4. 1006 b 26, tou^o yap 
ar^atvst to slvai sv, w? T^wmov xat tjxaTtov, st 6 Xoyo? sic. Of. also 
Insc. Epidaurus Ditt 2 . 803. 127. TraoaXovqyldiov 'a garment of the 
TOxpaXoupyts kind,' 'a robe tinged with purple.' 1 CIA. 2. 756. 31. 
Treoi&fjaTtov l a garment of the 7uspt£a>[m kind,' 'an under garment.' 2 
Dionys. H. 10. 17. §axiov 'a garment of the pdcxo? kind.' Both prim- 
itive and derivative designate a ragged, tattered garment. 3 It is there- 
fore not impossible that paxtov was a deteriorative in origin, although 
an examination of the passages in which it occurs will not show that 
the deteriorative element was any more conspicuous than in the 

1 The primitive in this meaning Poll. 7. 56. 

2 The primitive in this meaning Polyb. 6. 25. 3. 

3 I refer here only to the literary Attic, for the reason that the -,,„■ forma 
which I have found occur in Attic literature, and must be judged from lli«' 
literary Attic primitive. Dialectically and in Attic Inflcriptiona i/uoq is 
sometimes without any deteriorative shade of meaning. 

96 Chapter XII 

primitive. It is also possible that pdbuov was conceived as a garment 
' made of rags ' ; for pdbco? can designate a rag of any kind, not only 
a ragged garment. It occurs Ar. Ach. 412, Vesp. 128, Pax 740, 
Ran. 1063, 1066. TQipwviov ' a garment of the Tpipwv kind,' ' a worn 
garment,' ' a coarse cloak.' As in case of pdbuov there is a deteriorative 
element, which may have been emphasized by the suffix, but more 
probably comes entirely from the primitive. Ar. Vesp. 33, 116, 
Plut. 714, 897, 935; Men. frg. 4. 96(2): Lys. 32. 16; CIA. 2. 754 
22 (349-344 B. C). (pcuvoloov ' a mantle of the cpaivoXv]? kind,' 'paenula.' 
Oxyr. Pap. 3. 531. 14. %Xafj,v6oov 'a robe of the $m\i££ kind,' 
a short kind of mantle. Antidotus frg. 3. 528 (1) ; Men. frg. 4. 200 ; 
Plut. Rom. 8. %Xavldtov ' a garment of the yXowic, kind,' 4 a woolen 
mantle.' Herod. 1. 195; Eur. Or. 42, Suppl. 110; Chaeremon frg. 
14. 9; Trag. Adespot. 7; Ar. Lys. 1190. The fact that Euripides 
twice uses the word in his serious dramas, while on the whole the 
tragic poets are zealously on their guard, not only against real di- 
minutives, but also against words like 8^Y]ptov which seem to have had 
a slight colloquial flavor because of their suffix, shows how remote 
a diminutive idea must have been to him. The attempt to rescue 
the diminutive by declaring it is usually used of women's mantles, is 
also not born out by fact; for in the first three of the six passages 
cited it certainly refers to men's garments. 

b) Foot-wear, fiavxiduov 4 a shoe of the (3auxi£ kind,' a kind of 
woman's shoe. Poll. 7. 94, oti Vz (3auxiBss xat (3ai»dBta IXsyovTO * 
tuoXutsX&s B' ?jv 67u6BY][j.a xpoxosiBs?. ftXavzlov ' a slipper of the j&owtyj 
kind.' Ar. Equ. 889; Aristod. ap. Athen. 338 A. ejufiddoov 'a shoe 
of the i^fkc, kind.' Ar. Vesp. 600, Plut. 847, 941. advSaXtov : 
<7avBa}>ov, ' a shoe of the sandal kind,' ' a sandal.' That it was not 
a diminutive is shown by Herod. 2. 91 (o-ocvBd&iov ts . . . s6v to 
(jiyafros Bi7UY]/u), where the <javBa>,tov is two cubits long, and by Poll. 
7. 87 (y) Bs [3XatjTY] o-avBaXiou ti sTBo?), where it is used as a generic 
term. It also occurs in Cratinus, Cephisodorus, and Menander ap. 
Poll. 7. 86 f. ; Theopomp. Com. ib. 10. 49 ; Antiphan. frg. 3. 103; Insc. 
Pergam. Ditt 2 . 754. 6. 

c) Miscellaneous. The words in -iov which designate smaller ar- 
ticles of dress or ornaments are particularly perplexing : for, on the 
one hand, it is hard to find neuter generic words the ellipsis of 
which could have caused the original -to- adjective to become sub- 
stantivized, on the other hand it is particularly difficult to separate 
diminutives and hypocoristic words from non-diminutives ; for the idea 

In the Meaning "Belonging to the Category o/." 97 

ol nicety, prettiness, and the like is continually associated with 
ornaments even without any diminutive suffix, and could easily be 
emphasized by the addition of -tov. Nevertheless the existence of 
words without primitive, like <|>&iov ' bracelet,' shows that the whole 
category was not diminutive in origin, nor felt as diminutive at the 
time of its formation. It is probable that the -iov spread from larger 
articles of dress, such as robes and shawls, to smaller ones, such as 
girdles, and from these it is a small step to necklaces, bracelets, etc., 
and finally even to small ornaments like rings and jewels. The whole 
group, accordingly, arose by congeneric attraction, and a living 
' specializing ' use of the suffix is not to be sought. aXvdtov : 
alucic, ' a chain.' Men. frg. 4. 145 (3) ; Philipp. frg. 4. 477 ; CIA. 
2. 835 c— 1 18 (320-317 B. C). twiov : £c&vy], ' girdle.' Ar. Lys. 72 ; 
Arist. Mirab. 32. 832 b 23 (of the girdle of a wine-merchant). 
TieqiaxeXCdiov : 7uspt(7X£^, 'anklet.' CIA. 2.835 c— 1 47(320-317 
B. C). nXoxiov : izkoY.0^ ' necklace.' Plut. 2. 141 D ; Poll. 5. 98. 
<ti()6(fiov : orpocpo;, ' a band worn by women around the breast.' 
Pherecr. frg. 2. 296 (1); Ar. Thesm. 251, 638, frg. 2. 1078 (6) ; 
Insc. Att. Ditt 2 . 586. 19 (beginning of fourth century B. C). aqqayidiov : 
<7cppaYt?, ' seal-ring.' Insc. Delos Mich. 833. 43, 49 f. ; CIA. 2. 766. 26. 
ccppayifciov may be a diminutive CIA. 2. 835 c — 1 72, where it is 
distinguished from crcppayts : c-cppayTBs? balivoi III* ccppaytBiov, svt cdsz6$' 
ccppayi; [a](7Y)[j.os xocTsafyuta. For a case of deteriorative use see 
§ 161. x^dunov : ylibwv, 'bracelet' or 'anklet.' CIA. 2. 708. 8 
(after 340 B. C). In addition there are at least two words of unknown 
origin: XvyyovQior, a kind of stone. 1 Theophr. Lap. 31 ; CIA. 2. 835 
c— 1 69 (320-317 B. C); Insc. Delos Mich. 833. 49. ipeX(X)ior, 
'bracelet' or ' anklet.' Herod. 4. 168, 9. 80; Xen. An. 1. 2. 27. 

131. E. Miscellaneous. All other words which might be supposed 
to be an outgrowth of the ' specializing ' use of -tov are more or 
less doubtful, since any word which is equivalent to its primitive 
may have received its suffix by attraction of some other word which 
is lost or has escaped notice. Most could be said for the assumption 
that two names of musical instruments, Xvqcov (Ar. Ran. 1304) 2 = 
lupcc, 'lyre,' and qoivUiov (Arist. Probl. 19. 14. 918 b 8, Ata Tt tacv- 
&d£vst to Btot xao-wv, xa\ BoxsT 6[j,6<p<«>vov slvat olov Iv to> cpotvixu.) xat £v 

1 Cf. BCH. 1882, p. 123. 

2 The word is put into the mouth of Aeschylus, and so can hardly be 
a diminutive, since Aristophanes otherwise represents him as grandiloquent 
and even bombastic. 


98 Chapter XIII. 

tw av9'pw7uco) 1 =■ cpoTvi'£, are due to the ellipsis of the generic word 
opyavov ' (musical) instrument.' It is nevertheless equally probable 
that these words received their suffix 'by the influence of some in- 
strument noun in -iov (§ 71 ff.). Totally uncertain are certain names 
of bags, sacks, baskets, or boxes, which may have been felt as con- 
generic to names of vessels, and so received their suffix. So perhaps 
aaxiov ' sack,' which may have been equivalent to craxos in Ar. frg. 
2. 1083 (Hoouov, Iv olaTusp Tapyupiov TajususTat), but which can 
be interpreted as a diminutive here as elsewhere (§ 185). Similar 
is aaxCov (Hipp. 403, 424, 427, 491): acrxo?, for which the con- 
text is perfectly insufficient to decide whether it was always or 
sometimes or never a diminutive. Since, however, it seems to be a 
deteriorative in Plut. Artax. 12, it seems safer to refer the uncertain 
examples to the diminutive use. Certainly equivalent to their prim- 
itives are xcddtitov : xoCkccboc, 'basket,' (Poll. 10. 125), TaXdgoov : 
TcicXapo? ' basket ' (id. 1. c), and xificorcov : xt^wTo?, ' a box,' in Ar, 
Plut. 711 f.; Xen. An. 7. 5. 14; Arist. Metaphys. 7. 2. 1042 b 18; 
Theophr. H. P. 5. 7. 5. The last may, however, be due to a fading 
of the ' generalizing ' meaning as well as to the analogy of names of 
vessels (§ 118 (T). Finally, the question may be asked how far 
such plant names in -tov as are equivalent to their primitives (§ 258) 
are due to the ellipsis of some generic word like cpuTov 'plant.' 


132. When a derivative designates an object as belonging to a 
certain category, there is the implication that the primitive, which 
designates the category, can be applied to the very same object as 
the derivative, which designates an object as belonging to that category : 
xoyyjjliov " an animal belonging to the category ' mollusk ' " is applied 
to the very same animal as xoyy^Y) 'a mollusk,' the only difference 
being one of point of view. When, however, an object is designated 
as being like another object, it follows that the speaker does not 
conceive of the same word as being applicable to both ; for then 
there would be no sense in making a comparison. He is necessarily 

1 Since this is a general statement of a reflecting philosopher, (/.oivbtwr 
cannot be a diminutive. 

As an Exponent of Similarity. 99 

pointing oul one or more phases of similarity between objects which 
,o him have also very important points of dissimilarity. When now 
,i derivative in -tov is used to designate one object as having a certain 
amount of similarity with another object designated by the primitive, 
the necessary conclusion is that the speaker considered that the 
primitive, though having points of similarity, could not be applied to 
the same object as the derivative. Stating the same thing in a 
different way, we may say that whenever -wv can be translated as 
• that which is like ' the primitive, the speaker must have felt both 
a certain amount of similarity and dissimilarity of the two objects 
compared, there was a negative as well as a positive side to the 
meaning of the suffix. 

133. Although both of these aspects of the meaning of -tov 
must always be present to a certain degree, yet one or the other 
could be particularly prominent according to whether the speaker was 
most impressed by the similarity or dissimilarity between the two 
objects compared. In general we may say that when they are very 
dissimilar on the whole, or belong to widely different categories, -iov 
would call attention to some particular point of resemblance, and 
the similarity would then be the more important psychological factor, 
since the similarity in this one point is, consciously or unconsciously, 
contrasted with the general dissimilarity. 1 Thus, when Tpa7us£tov is 
used of a geometrical figure (trapezium), the attention is called to 
the fact that the figure is shaped like a table (zpoutz^ct), because the 
feature of likeness of shape in objects otherwise not comparable was 
that which impressed the speaker and which he wanted to com- 
municate. Similarly, in raBiov ' a plain ? the suffix calls attention to 
the fact that the plain is like the ground (xsBov) in one respect, that 
is, its flatness, though otherwise the two ideas would hardly suffer 
direct comparison. So 7uXivfrtov, used e. g. of the market place of 
Tegea, designates its shape as being like a brick (tuXivO-oc), though 
otherwise a market place and a brick are as unlike as possible. In 
all such words there is, then, a certain contrast between likeness in 
some respects and general unlikeness. On the other hand, however, 
the idea of likeness can also be contrasted witli complete identity 

1 It is, of course, self-evident that all such statements refer to the time 
when a word was first formed, or when its etymology was still perceived. 
Just as soon as a word had become definitely fixed in some concnt.- mean- 
ing, and the consciousness of its derivation lost, there could be no attitude 
to the suffix at all. 

100 Chapter XIII 

rather than with unlikeness ; an object can be designated by -tov as 
being merely like its primitive, but not the same, and in this case 
it is the point of difference between objects otherwise alike by which the 
speaker is impressed. Thus ^tTcovtov, ' a woman's shift ' worn under 
the x lT( ^ v ) differed but slightly from its primitive and doubtless was 
at one time called by the same name ; but whoever coined the -tov 
word felt that the difference was such that ytTcov would hardly be 
applicable, and so called it a garment ' like a /itwv,' but ' not a real 
Xitwv.' Similarly [xoc^atptov ' a surgeon's knife ' was essentially the 
same instrument as that ordinarily designated by [xdcyatpa, yet the 
emphasis of the differences caused the formation of the -tov word : 
4 not a real dagger,' but ' something that is merely like a dagger.' 
It is in the development of the deteriorative (§ 155) and diminutive 
(§ 180 ff.) meanings that this emphasis of the negative side of the 
idea of similarity has been most productive. 

134. In case of many words it will not be possible to follow the 
mind of the speaker as to whether the positive or negative element 
was uppermost, and often no doubt both ideas were nearly equally 
prominent. We may waver as to his attitude in case of xapxtvtov : 
xapxtvos, ' an animal that is only half-ways a crab ' ; o-apxtov : o-apj, 
applied to the fleshy parts of the crapt plant ; aropov : ar6fjia, applied 
to the mouth of a cave. 

135. It is evident that -tov in the meaning ' that which is like ' 
the primitive can become the exponent of metaphorical use, and 
might then imply that the speaker felt as though the metaphor he 
used was scarcely legitimate and needed apology, just as the English 
phrase ' a kind of ' may be an apology for using a word in a novel 
sense. So, besides the above named TuXtvfrtov, which may refer to 
the market place of Tegea, the oblong formation of an army, the 
squares into which the augurs divided the sky, or the squares of 
checkered cloth, we find e. g. 7uupY)vtov ' button ' : mjpYjv ' fruit-stone,' 
TCTspuytov ' flap of coat of mail ' or 'at bottom of /itcov ' : izTzpol 
' wing,' fiovzptiyiov * vine-tendril ' : fioczpoyoc, ' lock of hair.' The same 
use is also found in other ' diminutive ' suffixes, e. g. -toxo- in words 
like G-<pY)xtffxos : crcp^, w a large piece of wood shaped like a wasp's 
sting.' This is also frequent for Lat. -culo-, e. g. denticulus ' tooth- 
like ornament upon a pillar ' : dens ' tooth,' geniculus ' elbow of a 
water pipe ' : genu ' knee.' In all of these words there is no idea of 
a diminutive force of the suffixes ; for the object designated by the 
derivative is either the larger of the two, as t&ivJKov, or there is no 

As an Exponent of Similarity 101 

essential difference of size, as between TOjpYjv and rcupYJviov. On the 
other band, the use of these 'diminutive' suffixes to designate an 
object like its primitive is so easily and naturally derived from the 
idea ' belonging to the category of ' and other more primitive mean- 
ings (§ 112), that there is no justification for trying to rescue the 
diminutive character of these words by devices like that of Kessler, 
op. cit. 4, who translates denticulus ' kleine Verzierung an den Saulen,' 
although the ornament in question was certainly not small in com- 
parison to a tooth. Moreover, the widely prevalent notion that the 
application of a diminutive to a metaphorical use should have caused 
the fading of the diminutive meaning, 1 explains nothing; for how can 
a word meaning ' little brick ' be applied to a large market place as 
long as the idea ' little ' is connected with the suffix ? It would be 
necessary to assume that the -tov word was first established as a 
diminutive, that the diminutive meaning then faded, and that sub- 
sequently it was applied metaphorically. But this theory not only 
assumes a complicated development which does not find support in 
the transmission, but it is also unable to explain why the metaphorical 
meaning should regularly have been connected with the word in -tov 
rather than the primitive. This latter fact points with certainty to 
the suffix as exponent of the idea of similarity. 

136. To the examples given above there may be added a larger 
number of words in which -tov is also the exponent of metaphorical 
use, but at the same time designates something smaller than the prim- 
itive. I may mention axricvfrtov ' prickle on a certain fish ' : obtocvO>a 
' thorn,' xspdraa ' the antennae of the xapa(3os ' : xspa? ' horn,' xopatov 
' bulbous root of lotus ' : x6p<7Y) ' head,' xTspiiyia ' fins of fish,' ' feelers 
of cuttle-fish ' : Trapu? ' wing,' pa(3Bta ' tendrils in the mouth of certain 
fishes': pdc(3Bo? 'rod,' axocTtov 'a boat-shaped vessel': obwcTOS 'boat,' 
(So&ptov ' a kind of ulcer ' : (36&po? l hole,' vscpsltov ' spot on nail ' : vs<pOif) 
' cloud.' Since the use of -tov to express similarity was the one that 
gave rise to the diminutive meaning (§ 180 ff.), it was older than the 
latter, and we may consequently conclude that these words, which appear 
to be on the border line, belong historically with the rcXivWov type. 
After the diminutive meaning, however, had become well established, 
new words of this kind could be formed with the idea of small Bize 
uppermost, and old ones could be reinterpreted as diminutives, or at 
any rate the diminutive idea could be combined with the notion of 

1 So latest Brugmann, Gr. 2. I 2 . 673. 

102 Chapter XIII. 

similarity. Originally, however, no conscious distinction at all was ma 
between the different offshoots of the meaning ' belonging to the catego 
of ' ; ' generalizing ' and ' specializing ' -tov, -iov as an exponent of si 
larity, deteriorative, and diminutive -tov Avere for a while all included i: 
a general interpretation which may be paraphrased by ' a sort of ' or 
' a kind of.' All the more special meanings were in the beginning 
entirely due to the situation, and were not definitely connected with 
the suffix. Only when in particular words like 7cXivfKov, avBpiov, or 
7uaiBiov the situation had caused the suffix to be charged with the 
special meanings through the habitual use of certain words in such 
a shade, did interpretations such as ' like to,' ' despicable,' or ' little ' 
gain a place in consciousness, and even then the competition of the 
different meanings as well as those cases where no special inter- 
pretation was called for, must have caused the old vague interpreta- 
tion to have been retained part of the time. 

137. The motive which in many cases caused the addition of -iov, 
namely, the doubt whether the primitive could properly be applied 
to a certain object, is naturally often quite subjective; one individual 
may extend the use of a certain word without compunction, another 
may waver as to the propriety of the extension. Thus 7uaT? ' child ' 
was used for a baby in Homeric Greek when an occasion arose, but 
later some one must have felt that a baby was really so unlike to 
what is ordinarily understood by ' child,' that he added an -tov and 
designated it as something ' like a child,' but ' not a real child.' 
Similarly one individual might still be in touch with an obsolete mean- 
ing of a word while another had no longer any idea of it. So fi£Tpa£, 
while originally designating both a boy and a girl in the middle teens, 
had come to be confined to the latter. In the meanwhile there was 
a time when some persons would still have unhesitatingly applied 
[istpaj to a boy, while others felt that the word was not applicable 
and coined jjisipaxiov, a person ' of the same age as a [xstpaj.' 

138. The points of comparison between primitive and derivative 
can be of the greatest variety, without necessarily indicating a differ- 
ence of psychological attitude. Thus there is complete similarity (real 
or supposed) of shape in the words which designate a statue or image 
of something else, e. g. %(xXk<xbiov ' statue of HctXkti.^ Bpaxovxiov ' image 
of a serpent,' xscpdcliov 'image of a head.' There is similarity as to 
shape in general or in some point or other in an extremely large 
number of words, e. g. Bpaxovirtov ' a serpent-shaped fish ' : Bpcfotwv, 
xspcma ' antennae of xapa[3o£ ' : xspas ' horn,' 7UT£puyia ' fins of fish ' : 

As an Exponent of Similarity. 103 

";:•/; ' wing,' xopaiov ('head-like') 'bulb of of lotus root,' kXiv&Cov 
('brick-shaped') 'market place of Tegea.' There is similarity of 
color in T&ppiov 'an ash-colored ointment': Tscppa 'ashes,' jcdcpBwv 
k giraffe': rcopoos 'leopard,' because of the spots in the skin. There 
is similarity of smell in Tpayiov 'goat-plant': Tpdcyos (§ 257 E), 
similarity of relative position in vscpstaov 'a spot on the finger-nail' : 
v«p&v) ' cloud ' ; yXocuxtov, a sort of water bird, got its name because 
il had eyes like an owl (ylau?), [xsipdoctov differs from pfipal accord- 
ing to sex, Tuatoiov from izoaq according to size and age, and wfyiov 
(deteriorative) from avYJp acccording to quality. 

139. Words in -iov which designate something like their primitives 
sometimes become equivalent to the latter, because any word naturally 
may extend its sphere of usage or can be used metaphorically without 
formal characterization. So TUTspu? 'wing' is applied to the flap at 
the bottom of a coat of armor or to the fins of fish, and becomes 
a synonym of rcrcpuyiov; yiy\bi<;, originally 'ballot box', becomes also 
' dice box ' and synonymous with xy)QoBiov. Similarly <tt6^oc becomes 
equivalent to <tt6[j.iov. From this partial similarity there sometimes 
results more complete similarity of meaning through the tendency to 
semantic syncretism, that is, the identity of meaning of primitive and 
derivative in some respects causes the latter to take upon itself the 
original meaning of the primitive also : ^Tspuyiov becomes simply 
' wing,' GTopov ' mouth.' 

140. Sometimes the idea of similarity seems to be combined with 
that of possession, e. g. in the above named yXauxtov, as though ' having 
eyes like an owl,' or £i<piov, a plant 'having leaves like a sword 
(^90?).' This, however, does not mean that the idea of possession 
was really connected with the suffix, but the phenomenon rather rests 
upon the same psychological principle as the exocentric compounds. 

141. As an exponent of similarity -iov came into conflict with 
other suffixes of the same meaning, particularly -tB-, -wxo-, and -tvo-. 
Of these -i<mo- was most productive in the meaning here discussed, 
and consequently there seems to have resulted a tendency to division 
of labor, -tov having as its particular function the formation of real 
diminutives and deterioratives, while as a suffix to denote similarity 
it lost ground to -trao-, with its more numerous words of this type, and 
to -1V0-, which had practically no diminutive function, and thua was 
a suffix of more unified meaning. 

104 Chapter XIII. 


142. acvfzQiov : deonfjp, dcarsptoe, ' an animal which is shaped like a 
star,' a kind of spider. Nieander Th. 725. fiacactQLov ; (3a<7<7apa, prob- 
ably ' an animal like a fox.' It only occurs Herod. 4. 192, and there 
in an enumeration of fierce wild beasts, so that it can not be a di- 
minutive, but must rather have designated a particularly large kind 
of fox, to which the term paco-apa seemed hardly applicable. ykavxiov : 
yXauJ, ' a bird that is somewhat like an owl,' i. e. fc has gray eyes 
like an owl,' a certain water-bird. Athenaeus (395 C) states that it 
is only a little smaller than a duck, and so the word can not be a 
diminutive of ylau^. Sqaxovnov : Bpobaov, ' an animal that is somewhat 
like a dragon or serpent,' a kind of fish in Hipp. 543, a kind of 
worm in Plut. 2. 733 B. xaqxiwov : xapxtvoc, ' an animal some- 
what like a crab ' or ' which is only half-ways a crab.' Cf. Arist. 
H. A. 4. 4. 529 b 20. Xvyxlov : Xuy£, probably ' an animal that is like a 
lynx,' though it may be a diminutive. Callix. ap. Athen. 201 C. 
rcaqdvov : 7uapBo?, ' an animal that is somewhat like a leopard,' prob- 
ably a giraffe, because of its spots. Arist. H. A. 2. 1. 498 b 33. 
aaivQtov : SaTupo?, ' an animal like a satyr,' a certain water rodent. 
Arist. H. A. 8. 5. 594b 31. axvXiov : gx61(xE > , 1 'an animal like a dog,' 
1 a dog-fish.' Arist. H. A. 6. 10. 565 a 26. To these words may be 
added, if Ahrends' conjecture to Epich. frg. 42 should be correct,, 
xrsvtov : xtsis, ' a comb-shaped animal,' a kind of mollusk. 

2. NAMES OF PLANTS (see § 257 E). 


143. The derivative in -iov usually designates a smaller object 
than the primitive, and could therefore in later times often be felt 
as a diminutive, axav&iov : axavfra, 'that which is like a thorn,' one 
of the prickles of certain fish. Arist. H. A. 3. 7. 516 b 19, iBiov Bs 
£v zoi<z iyp>6<Jiv ozi sv svfoi£ sIg\ xocTa ty]v ffdcpxa xs^coptojisva axdv^ia 
ls7UTa. 2 §oacq{%tov : (36<7Tpu/os, 'that which is like a lock of hair,' 
'a vine-tendril.' Arist. H. A. 5. 12. 544 a 9, 18. 549b 33. yovaziov : 
yovu, ' that which is like a knee,' ' a knot or joint of a reed.' Tzetz. 

1 For relation of forms see § 18. 

2 In phrases like this, where the derivative is modified by an adjective 
designating small size, the diminutive meaning was doubtless the one most 
easily suggested to the hearer. 

As an Exponent of Similarity. . 105 

Bist. 7. 741. Svaaviov : frtaocvos, 'that which is like a tassel,' the 
tufts of the xXtf[xevov plant. Diosc. 4. 13. xeqaiia ; xspa?, 'that which 
is shaped like a horn.' a) 'The antennae of the xapapo?.' Arist. 
H. A. 4. 2. 526 a 7. b) ' The tentacles of certain crustaceans and 
mollusks.' id. ib. 4. 4. 528b 24, 529 a 27. c) 'The curved end of 
the womb of mammals,' ' tubae Fallopii.' Arist. H. A. 3. 1. 510 b 19. 
xooaiov : xop<TY), ' that which is shaped like a head,' ' the bulbous root 
of the Egyptian lotus.' Theophr. H. P. 4.8. 11. meqvyiov : rcrepo£," 
w that which is like a wing.' a) ' The fins of fish.' Arist. H. A. 2. 
13. 504b33, Part. An. 4. 13. 695b 21, 23, ib. 12. 694b 10. b) 'Fin- 
like appendages on the tails of crustaceans.' Arist. An. Gen. 1. 14. 
720b 12, H. A. 1. 5. 490a3, 4. 2. 525b27ff. c) 'Fin-like append- 
ages of mollusks.' Arist. H. A. 4. 1. 523 b 25, Part. An. 4. 9 .685 b 16. 
d) 'Feelers of the cuttle-fish.' Alexis frg. 3. 416, 471 (3. 3); 
Sotad. frg. 3. 585 (1. 16). e) 'Horns of the horned owl.' Arist. 
H. A. 8. 12. 597 b 22, frg. 276. 1527 b 31. f) By semantic syncretism 
(cf. § 139) with its primitive TUTspuyiov became simply 'wing.' So 
Arist. H. A. 9. 13. 615 b 30, Ingr. An. 17. 714 a 11. §a$dlov : pa^Boc, 
' that which is like a rod,' the tendrils in the mouth of certain fishes. 
Arist. H. A. 9. 37. 620 b 32. aagxia : (rap?, 'the fleshy parts' of the 
(rdtpi plant. Theophr. H. P. 4. 8. 5. 

144. dxdxiov : axairo?, ' a vessel that is like a boat,' either because 
of its shape (cf. Athen. 782 F, AKATOS Tucmjptov ioixo? j&oty), or 
on account of its small size compared to other cups (Epicr. frg. 3. 
372 (2), KaTfxpocMs T&tdraa, xai wACxw Aipou t& ffce^tt). dv&t[uov : 
Sv&spv, probably a 'flowery' vessel, i. e. a vessel decorated with 
floral patterns (cf. § 140), in CIA. 2. 766. 31, VxyAs £v ^W Ar - 
xri#ldiov, xiftiov 1 : xYj&fe, 'that which is like a ballot box,' 'a dice 
box.' Hermipp. frg. 2. 391 (6); Athen. 477 D; Poll. 10. L50. 
awaxvawv : raucpos, ' a crxucpo^-like cup which is shaped like an egg,' 
the -tov being no less a result of the feeling that <n«5<po€ would strictly 
be inapplicable, than of the word being a compound. It is described 
Athen. 503 E. 

• The form «i/»«w was probably due to retrograde derivation from 
xhMlov. The suffixes -to, and -idiov were interchangeable in manj MM, 
and this could lead to the substitution of either one for the other, even 
when, as here, the -id- of -«JW really belonged to the item ©J the primitive, 

106 Chapter XIII. 


145. A. Garments and shoes, qxdziov : axairo?, ' that which is 
like a boat,' a kind of women's shoe. Ar. ap. Poll. 7. 93. titsqvylov : 
TUTspuJ, ' that which is like a wing,' the flap or skirt at the bottom 
of the yyz&v. Arist. Audib. 802 a 39; Poll. 7. 62. It is a part of 
the helmet in CIA. 2. 678 B 68 (378-366 B. C), TUTspuytoc axo xpocvi- 
Bicov. %iTwviov c a garment that is like a y/owv,' ' a sort of xitwv,' 
4 a women's shift worn under the yiTcov.' Ar. Lys. 48, 150, Eccl. 
268, 374, Plut. 984, frg. 2. 1084 (14), 1194; Plato Ep. 13. 363 A ; 
Theocr. 15. 31 ; CIA. 2. 754. 51 (349-344 B. C), 757. 24 (335 B.C.). 

B. Ornaments. There are a number of words in -tov which des- 
ignate ornaments and are named after some plant or animal or other 
larger object, so e. g. 7uspt<rciptov, Xoyyiov. Since we do not know 
just what kind of an ornament most of these names represent, 1 and 
since some of them are known only from a mere mention of Pollux, 
we can not always be certain about the relation of primitive and 
derivative in such words. But since we know e. g. that golden cicadas 
were worn in the hair, since words like ocpic ' snake ' are used without 
addition of a suffix to designate some ornaments (so Nicostr. frg. 3. 
289 [7]), we may surmise e. g. that Tuspwrspiov was so named because 
it had some resemblance, either in part or as a whole, to a dove or 
part of a dove, and the suffix could thus be translated ' like to ' or 
'having something like to' (cf. § 140). Similarly with all other 
ornaments the names of which are derived in this way. For the 
sake of brevity I translate e. g. (3ou(3d&iov as 'that which is like an 
antelope,' but of course do not mean that the whole bracelet looked like 
an antelope, but merely that it had something about it somewhere 
that suggested an antelope or part of an antelope, or perhaps was 
composed of a chain of little images of antelopes, as is suggested by the 
chain of ' spear-points ' (opp? XoyyiMv) below. Examples : clvSqoxiov : 
av8>pa£, ' that which is like charcoal,' a kind of jewel. Theophr. Lap. 
30, 33. (tovfiafaov : (3ou(3aXt$, ' that which is like an antelope,' a kind 
of bracelets. Nicostr. frg. 3. 289 (7); Diph. frg. 4. 402. Itttto- 
xainuov : i7U7u6xaprc?, ' that which is like a sea-horse ' (?), a kind of 

1 Cf. Poll. 5. 101, xai aXXovg ife xivag xoapovg ovo/ud^ovaiP ol xcou(ododiddaxa'/.oi^ 
/.rJQOi', oxfroLfiovg, oXe&Qov, kXXipoqov, no^oXvyag^ ftdoa&Qov, neQtoZBQta, accfxdxia, 
giov^qlov, aL6ccQiov, 5)v ov Qadiop zdg M&ag avvforjoca did zb y,r^e nqoy^nqov tivai 
ziva xazidelv size Gnovdd^ovzeg sire nal&vxeg %qwvzcci zoig ovc'ucariv. In 5. 97, 
however, he says of a list of ear-rings : dfjXov wg dno zdSv ff/tytmrwy &i{i£vu>v 
avzwv zoig iviazioig zdg nQoarjyoQlag. 

As an Exponent of Similarity. 107 

ear-ring. Poll. 5. 97. X6ypov:\6 m , 'that which is shaped like a 
spear-head,' in 6ppc V,yyfo>v 'a necklace of spear-heads.' Of. BCH. 
6. 123. owyjov.owl, 'that which is like a nail,' 'a gem streaked 
with veins/ 'an onyx.' Theophr. Lap. 31, to o 5 6vfyiov pacta Xsox§ 
xai <pai$ Tcap aXXvila. ttcqiGtsqiov : Tuepwrspa, ' that which is like a 
dove.' Poll. 5. 101. nvQrpvov : 7uopY)v, ' that which is like a fruit-stone,' 
'a button.' Insc. Delos Mich. 833. 116 (279 B. C.) ; Insc. Boeot. 
CB. 714. 6ff. (rcoupeCviov). aa/iaxiov : crajjia?, 'that which is like a 
rush mat'(?), a term of derision (?). Poll. 5. 101. Giaagiov 'that 
which is like or suggests the aidocpov plant.' Poll. 5. 101. gmj^Pqiov 
'that which is like or suggests the cr^Ppov plant.' Poll. 5. 101. 
auddyfiior : TTaXayps, that which is like a drop,' a kind of ear-ring. 
Plaut. Men. 542. (Sigo^hov : <rup6$iko<;, ' that which is shaped like a 
cone/ a kind of ear-ring. Poll. 5. 97. (pvxiov : cpoxos, 'that which is 
like a sea-weed,' a kind of ornament. 1 Insc. Delos Mich. 833. 42, 

S(.rjTdT>irmCCl XOtt (p'JXlOC BUG XOCt TUSplBsiplBlOC XpU(7a, 6>X/)V I TOXVTCOV, CTUV toTc 

^.Cvot? • A H-r UN. ib. 101, cpdxiov ypoc-ouv 7upo? toh <7tuXi[(t]xwi, 6Xxyj ctjv 
Ton ipiavTr r. 


146. We may translate e. g. 'ApTspriov 'a likeness of Artemis,' 
xscpde^iov ' image of a head.' Since most of these images were smaller 
than the object they represent, these words could also be interpreted 
as diminutives, and the more easily because the primitive itself could 
be used to designate its image without formal characterization, as the 
well-known Athenian e Epp.aT ' busts of Hermes.' When both primitive 
and -lov derivative existed alongside of each other as a designation 
for the image, the usual diminutive relation of such pairs could make 
itself felt, and could lead, by a kind of proportional analogy, to the 
reinterpretation of the derivative as a diminutive. 

A. Images of Gods or Men. jiQTSfulaiov 'a likeness (statue) of 
Artemis.' Diph. frg. 4. 427 (42), 'Avtara^at Kscpalac ey/ov Tpdfc 
&<nusp 5 Api:£[j.i(7iov. Hyper, ap. Harpocr., 'ApTspriov • 2Bio>? to ty^ 'Ap- 

1 Homolle, BCH. 6. 125, would interpret the word as ' rouge-l«»x.' l»ut 
the slight weight of the articles enumerated, especially since they were of 
gold, would make this meaning impossible. Moreover, the fact that <pvxi« 
is in the first passage mentioned just between the shield-shaped ornaments 
and necklaces would point to a word of congeneric meaning, «unl for tin- 
manner of derivation in the sense in which I have taken it there arc the 
parallels Gidaqtov and aiavfi^qvov. 

108 Chapter XIII. 

TepBo? ayaXjxa • Yiz. AyjX. Insc. Delos Mich. 833. 46, BocxtuXios )(pu- 

(70u[<;] 'ApTS[j.i(7tov s^wv s7ut<7Y)[j.ov. ^Eqwtiov ' a likeness or image of y Ep&)£ 
(love).' Luc. Philops. 14, sx 7UY]Xotl spwTiov ti avaTuXdcda?. Insc. Delos 
Mich. 833. 118, IpwTiwy xal poopaTiwv £st>yo? xpo? %dkm. IlaXXadiov 
' a likeness (statue) of UaXku,^ Herod. 4. 189 ; Ar. Ach. 547 ; 
CIA. 2. 652 B 17, 678 B 66 (378-366 B. C). More uncertain is 
'ExctTiov ' a likeness (statue) of c Ex<xty].' In the obviously corrupt 
form t&xoctiov it occurs in Ar. Lys. 64, to which the scholiast notes : 
axocTiov • to f ExdcTY]^ '£6avov. Accordingly the text is emended to 
^ouxoctslov (= to 'Exoctsiov), the -et- being required by the meter and 
occurring Ar.Vesp. 804. The reading of the scholion, however, would 
point to the existence of a form with -i- somewhere, though not in 
Aristophanes. Qdcauov (CIA. 2. 836 c-k 43 (270-262 B. C), (rSpc, 
Ot^dcxiov * V •) is the only probable example I have found of similar images 
of men. It is however, quite doubtful, on the one hand, because the 
extremely small weight of the image would point to its being felt as 
a real diminutive, on the other hand <7c5jj.a Oi),axtov may be an ad- 
jectival combination parallel to <7W[ia avBpstov or cw^a yuvawtsTov 
(1. 82). 

B. Images of Animals, dqaxovnov : Bpaxcov, ' an image of a serpent.' 
CIA. 2. 836 c-k 15, 73, 99 (270-262 B. C). xeo%vLov : x^vy], ' an 
image of a hawk.' CIA. 2. 766. 19, 23. Xayiov : Xayo? (= Xocywc), 
' an image of a hare.' Insc. Delos Ditt 2 . 588. 207. 

C. Other Images, xfyvhov : xscpaXv], 'an image of a head.' CIA. 
2. 733 A 21 (ab. 306 B. C), 836 c-k 3 (270-262 B. C). xXifud- 
xiov : x>3jia<£, ' an image of a ladder.' Insc. Delos Mich. 833. 35, 
xli|xaxiov §^tvojj. nspfypucov ocpsdiv apyopoTs B[ts]£co(o-)|[iivov. Xoy%iov : 
16y/Y], probably 'an image of a spear.' CIA. 2 add. 682 c 17 
(ab. 356 B. C), orupaxtov Xoy^/io(u). Xvqiov : Xupa, ' an image of 
a lyre.' CIA. 2. 652 B 30, Xtipiov HscpavTivov xai rcTajxTpov. acecfd- 
viov : arscpavos, ' an image of a crown or garland.' Insc. Delos Ditt 2 . 
588. 5, 147, (TTscpavov / a pu<70ov smypacpYjv s^ovtoc, . . . aXXo arscpaviov, 
. . . aXko (jTscpaviov. That the diminutive meaning was not prominent 
in this word is shown by the use of orscpaviov as equivalent to 
orstpavo? in the example quoted, and by the fact that when the weight 
of such articles is given, no distinction is made between primitive and 
derivative. Homolle, BCH. 6. 120, calls attention to three orscpavioc 
which weigh 63 drachmas, while a crown of two obols is called crs- 
cpavo?. Gxvodxiov : arupa^, ' an image of the spike ' at the end of the 
spear-shaft, see sub Xoy/iov. titMov : tit^os, ' an image of the nipple 

As an Exponent of Similarity. 109 

of the breast,' among the offerings in the temple of Asclepius in CIA. 
2. *te c-1 34 (320-317 B. C), w&Cov w[p& s atvoxfy]. Cf. 1. 35, 
TtfW$ Wp6{ 7Utvaxio). 


147. While in most of the preceding groups the derivative usual- 
ly designated a smaller object than the primitive, the reverse is true 
here: wwp^YWv 'the battlements of a building' refers to a larger 
object than %r£po% ' wing,' and so can not be its diminutive ; av&spov 
' flower pattern on a column ' can not be a diminutive to avfrspv 
' flower.' 

A. Architectural Ornaments, dv&efiwv : avfrspv, ' that which is 
like a flower,' the honey-suckle pattern on a column. Insc. Att. 
CIG. 160. 47, dtvOsjjiou sxdc<7Tou tou xiovo? Tpioc 7][ii7u6Bia. Of. Boeckh 
ad loc. (p. 277). dorocov : aonfjp, 'that which is like a star,' a kind 
of architectural ornament. 1 IGPIV. 1. 1495. 61. povxeydfaov ; xs<pa)jj, 
' an ornament in the shape of an ox-head.' Insc. Magnes. Ditt' 2 . 552. 
70 (second cent. B. C.) ; Insc. Delos ib. 588. 199, ftouxscpaXta ypu<jot. 
In Lys. frg. 34 the (3ouxscpa7aa were ornaments of a chest, xvparia : 
xO [xoc, ' that which is like a wave,' ' a wave-pattern.' Insc. Att. Ditt 2 . 
587. 186, 187 (329 B. C). 

B. Miscellaneous, lxqi>a, according to Bezzenberger, BB. 27. 162, : 
Russ. ikra ' calf of leg,' and would then be ' that which is like the 
leg,' i. e. the planks of a ship, either the deck or ribs. Bezzenberger 
compares the use of Gr. xvy||xy) and French jambe in a similar sense. 
O 685 ; s 252 ; \k 229, 414 ; v 74. m^vyiov : 7UTspu£, ; that which 
is like a wing,' either ' a turret ' or ' the battlements ' or ' a pointed 
roof.' Gosp. Luk. 4. 9. T£i%lov : Tefyog. The primitive designated 
a city wall 2 par excellence, and seemed inapplicable to the walls of 
houses or other private walls, for which was coined the derivative 
Tstyiov 'something quite like a Tsfyos, but not the same thing.' 
Original diminutive meaning is excluded; for it occurs already in 
Homer, and modified by the adjective (jiya 3 : tu 165 = 343, 'Ex B' r[k- 
frev [xsyapoto 7uapsx [xsya tsi/iov ad^fe. Other examples : Thuc. 6. 66. 

1 Cf. Fraenkel ad loc. : aaiqia stellulae ut ornamentum. 

2 For. the distinction between xe^os and zeixiov cf. Schol. ad Dionys. 
AB. 856. 

3 " nwg de (*d(06ig, onov tl peya" ; remarks the scholiast of AB. 856 in quot- 
ing the Homeric passage. 

110 Chapter XIII. 

1, 7. 81. 4, x w p^ ov $ xuxlco fxsv zziyiov 7uepiY]v. Xen. Equ. 3. 7, toc- 
cppou? Bia^Y]Bav, zzv/icc 67U£p(3aiv£iv. id. Hipparch. 8. 3 ; Insc. Amorgos 
Ditt 2 . 531. 17, 19 (third cent. B. C). 

C. By congeneric attraction to tsi/iov were formed the following 
words meaning ' wall,' both of which are equivalent to their primitives : 
£qxlov = zpyioQ. 1476, 6ftspfropov spxiov ccoXr^. <j 102. tov%Cov = Totj^o^. 
IGSI. 894. 


148. The commonest of these words, and the one after which the 
others were patterned, is yeiQaxiov ' a boy ' of about fourteen years : 
[jisTpa? ' a girl ' of the same age. The -tov of the derivative either 
conveys the notion c of the same age as a [jisTpa<£,' or goes back to an 
adjective *{j.sipaxio£ ' youthful,' which may possibly have been formed in 
prehistoric times when (isTpa^ could refer to boys as well as girls, 
and of which the Neuter was later substantivized under the influence 
of words like roxtBiov. The common assertion that ^sipribciov is a di- 
minutive, is impossible for several reasons. To call a boy of fourteen 
years ' a litte girl ' of the same age is, of course, too absurd to be 
attempted by anybody, but the diminutive character of jjistpdexiov has 
been maintained on the grounds that p.s?pa£ could refer to a boy as 
well as a girl, and the diminutive was formed with reference to the 
former meaning. This assumption, however, is squarely opposed to 
the statement of Philetaerus Vat. (Colin Rh. Mus. 1888 p. 415), 
[xstpribtiov xod jj£ipa<£ Btacpspsr jjisipdfouov [jlsv yap 6 appYjv sort Bs Yjltxia? 
ovo\L(x,, &c, 7uou hiocG^zkXzi MsvavBpo? Tiytov scpY](3o£, pLsipdbttov, avY]p, 
yspwv. si Bs 7TOTS Xs/Btj im tou avBpo? sv tyj >«o[xcoBia to zoo [isipaxo? 
avowee, Byj^qv ok xo^coBsiToa dc, xivaiBiav 6 appY]v. This distinction is 
absolutely in harmony with the transmission. The few late passages 
where [xstpa^ is applied to a male are so obviously devices for scoffing 
by giving a female name to him, that it is correct to say that there 
is no authority whatever for it in the bona fide meaning ' boy.' Even 
though comparison of the Skr. maryaka-s w mannikin ' would point to 
it for prehistoric times, this is of no importance for the Classical 
period, since [xsipaxtov does not occur until Aristophanes, i. e. long 
after jjisTpa£ had ceased being applied to boys. But, even if we assume 
that this is due to the accident of transmission, there remains the 
greater difficulty of explaining why in this one case the diminutive 
of a word of common gender should have been limited to the male 

Aa an Exponent of Similarity. Ill 

sex. although otherwise it is always the female which usurps the 
diminutive designations. And finally, leaving out of account a few 
apparent cases of deteriorative usage, which, however, are entirely 
due to the situation (§ 171), there is no indication in the use 
of the word that any 'diminutive' idea was connected with it, no 
tendency to confine it to hypocoristic situations. It is from the 
beginning a mere objective designation for a boy of a certain age, 
as becomes particularly evident by comparing phrases lihe 1% jjtstpocxiou 
from boyhood days' or jjisipaxiov gov 'being a lad as to age,' or by 
general statements which apply to all lads, e. g. Ar. Equ. 556, 
MsipoxCcov 0«' &\uXk<x, Xapupuvo[j[ivtov sv app.a<7iv. id. Nub. 917, Ata ai 
5s cpotTSv ('go to school') OuM? sfrsXet twv p-sipaxiwv. Cf. also id. 
ib. 990, Plut. 88 ; Theopomp. Com. frg. 2. 803 ; Ephipp. frg. 3. 336, 
2^| Hocu[j.!x£6|xsvos [jxtoc [jisipaxiwv. Apollod. frg. 4. 451 (1), "Oxs ]xzi- 
pdfotiov Y]v to*j£ &<6pou£ r\k£ow. Xen. An. 2. 6. 16; Ant. 3 a 1 ; Andoc. 
1. 12; Lys. 3. 5; Isae. 5. 40, sx. jjistpaxfou epilog ^v. Isocr. 12. 200; 
Hyp. 1. 19. 21 ; Aeschin. 1. 49, r$r\ [jisipaxuo ovti ocutco £7&Y](7ia£sv. 
Plato Charm. 154 B, vuv B' ... su \i6tX av yJ5y] jjisipaxiov siy). 

By congeneric attraction to [jxtpbbuov or the diminutive 7uatBiov arose 
naUdxtov = %oCKk&, ' boy ' (Plato Com. ap. Poll. 2. 9 ; Eustath. 1419. 
50, TOxUdbuoc ... ol tuolBsc), and xvqgiov 1 [jisipdbuov Hes. We are 
ignorant of the precise aspect of its primitive, which can not have been 
(nwpfroc? or <7xupfraXioc, since the loss of initial <x- on Greek soil is 
inexplicable. It is necessary either to derive it from a lost primitive 
*xup0«6$, *xi>po-6c, or to assume that it was shortened from xup<ravK>£ 
through the attraction of tuociBiov. 


149. yovecTtov : yovD, that which is like the knee,' ' the hip-joint.' 
Luc. Asin. 10. Ifidvriov : Ep/xg, 'that which is like a strap,' 'prolon- 
gation of the uvula.' Hipp. 868. meqvyiov : wr£po|, that which is 
like a wing.' a) A part of the shoulder-blade. Poll. 2. 177 (Plural). 
b) 'The parts of the ear adjoining the temples.' id. 2. 85. c) 'The 
parts of the nose adjoining the cheeks.' id. 2. 80 (Plural). cyaiQtov : 
(KpocTpa, ' that which is like a ball,' ' the tip of the nose.' Poll. 2. 80. 
XovSqlov : /ovBpo?, 'that which is like groats,' 'cartilage.' Hipp. 810. 

1 The *<# shows the word to be Lacoiii;ni. 

112 Chapter XIII. 


150. dv&efxiov : avfrs[xov, 'that which is like a flower,' 'a tattooed 
flower pattern ' in Xen. An. 5. 4. 32, where the Mossynoeci are said 
to have been avO^pov lariy|j[ivoi. avfoov ' cave ' : cculoc, ' tube,' per- 
haps 'that which is tube-like,' though it may be a mere extension 
of the meaning 'house,' 'cottage' (§ 65). Soph. Phil. 19, Ai 5 
a|xcpiTp?jTos afjlioo. ib. 954, 1087. fio&qiov : (Bofrpo?, that which is like 
a hole,' a kind of ulcer (cf. (rupiyyiov). Hipp. 427. yoyyvXtdwv : 
yoyyu^i?, 'that which is like a (little) turnip,' explained by Gral. Lex. 
Hipp. 454, t<x [xtxpot <7<poupioc 6(77uspst xaTaxoTia (' pills '). S^qe^axiov : 
frp£[x^a, 'a sort of nursling, but not a real nursling,' applied to 
slaves which were reared in the house. Insc. Calymna Ditt 2 . 865. 
15, 866, 2, 868. 18. For the incidental deteriorative shade of mean- 
ing cf . xatBiov below, xiftcoriov : xi(3on-o£, ' that which is like a box,' 
' the treasury of the temple at Delphi.' Insc. Delph. CB. 2516. 7. 
xoXXvqiov : xoXXupoc, 'that which is like a cake,' 'eye-salve,' because 
put up in small cakes. Hipp. 609. xotiqiov (: xorcpo?) seems to be 
a substantivized neuter of an adjective xorcpios 'filthy' (cf. xoxpsio? 
in the same sense), and thus to have been conceived as ' the filthy 
stuff.' So Hipp. 176, though otherwise also deteriorative (§ 166). 
xTevta : xtsi?, that which is like a comb,' ' the horns of a lyre.' Hes., 
xtsvloc* twv xdkcpwv oi Orcsp^ovrcs ayxwvs? Tiyovirai. xvipsXwv : xu^sXy], 
' that which is like a box,' ' a bee-hive.' Arist. H. A. 9. 40. 627 b 2. 
Later (Plut. 2. 601 C) the primitive occurs in the same sense. 
Xafinadiov : Xocpras, ' that which is like a torch.' a) 'A bandage for 
wounds' (cf. XuyvcojxaToc, Schol. Ar. Ach. 1177, in the same sense). 
Ar. Ach. 1177. b) 'Braid of Theban women.' Dicaearch. 313 ed. 
Fuhr. f.ia%aiQiov : [idc/atpa, ' a sort of dagger, but not a real dagger.' 
a) A kind of dagger of the Chalybes. Xen. An. 4. 7. 16, [ia/aiptov 
ocov £uy)Xy]v AocxwvtxYjv. b) 'A surgeon's knife.' Arist. Metaph. 10. 3. 
1061 a 4, Eth. M. 2. 11. 1209 a 23, Gen. An. 5. 8. 789 b 13. vsye- 
Xiov : vscps^Y], ' that which is cloudy.' a) Clouds in the urine.' Hipp. 
213. b) ' A spot on the nails.' Poll. 2. 146, xal tol jjlsv sxt(patv6[j.sva 
tote, ovu^i vscpsXia. naidiov : tzoRc,, 'something like a son 1 , but no real 
son,' i. e. either a bastard or a son born of a foreign wife ; for the 
latter were called voboi ' bastards ' at Athens and apparently at Cos. 
From the latter is found an inscription (CB. 3624) in which these 

1 The primitive could refer to descent as well as to age. Cf. B 205, where 
Zeus is called Kqovov ncug ayxv'Ac^Yizeoo. 

Chapter XIV. 113 

in contrast to the full citizens and foreigners, were designated 
as -x'Mot. Cf. CB. 3. 1 p. 345. For the incidental deteriorative 
shade cf. ffye^aTiov above, neduov : rcsBov, ' that which is like the 
ground' i. e. -fiat as the ground,' 'a plain.' B 465; Z2;B 602; 
Xen. An. 1. 2. 11. nlivttiov : tuXiv&o?, 'that which is like a brick.' 

a) 'The market place of Tegea.' Pausan. 8. 48. 1. b) 'The oblong 
formation of an army.' Plut. Crass. 23. c) The square into which 
the augurs divided the sky with the lituus.' Plut. Rom. 22. d) A 
kind of chess board. Poll. 9. 98. e) ' Squares on cloth.' Diod. 5. 30. 
Qonafaov : po~aAov, ' that which is like a staff,' ' the foot of a vase.' 
Athen 489 B : Insc. Delos Ditt 2 . 588. 146, poTralia II too x&woc 
anoyyiov : G-^oyyo;, ' that which is like a sponge,' ' a spongy substance.' 
His.. anoyyta- o-TuoyytoBY). The primitive itself could also designate 
a spongy substance (§ 139), and this partial equivalence caused 
semantic syncretism, so that any sponge could be designated by the 
derivative. Cf. Hes., a^oyy ?' ffTCoyyiov. gt6[iiov : <rro|Jia, ' that which 
is like a mouth,' the primitive being thought of as the mouth of men 
or animals. The primitive itself being frequently used in an extended 
meaning, it was largely equivalent to the derivative, a) ' Mouth of 
a vessel.' Aesch. ap. Athen. 476 C ; Arist. Probl. 25. 2. 938 a 9. 

b) 'Mouth of a cave' used as grave. Soph. Ant. 1217. c) 'A 
cave,' as the entrance to the lower world. Plato Resp. 10. 615 D, F. 
d) 'Opening' in general. Arist. H. A. 9. 39. 623 a 4. e) 'End 
of the crocpxwv otipiYY 2 ?' °f Empedocles ap. Arist. De Resp. 7. 473 b 11. 
f) = <jr6[xa, by semantic syncretism (§ 139). Posid. frg. 4. 521 
(16), Ta ar6pa yiyvoxTxs twv xs>c1y]|xsvcov ('of the invited guests'). 
avQtyyiov : fftiptY?, ' that which is like a pipe.' a) A kind of sore or 
ulcer (cf. (So&pCov). Hipp. 1201. b) 'The hole in a wheel' Hes., 
<rupiyyiov -po/oD yivcoixa, Bi' oO svistoci 6 a£o>v. aqaiQiov : <7?a?pa, 
'that which is like a ball.' a) 'A cotton-like ball' on certain trees. 
Theophr. H. P. 3. 7. 4. b) 'A globe or ball of flowers.' Diosc. 
ap. Gloss. Thqqiov : Tscppa, 'that which is ash-colored,' an ointment 
Cels. 6. 6. 7. vqan&iov : Tpa~s£a, 'that which is shaped like ;i table,' 
'a trapezium.' Arist. Probl. 25. 4. 911 a 7. 


151. It has been the all but universally accepted theorj th.it when 
a certain 'diminutive' suffix was also used to express contempt, L ft 

114 Chapter XIV. 

when diminutive and deteriorative meaning occurred alongside of eacli 
other in the same suffix, the deteriorative meaning was in every case 
a secondary phenomenon to the diminutive, 1 and due to the contempt 
which is naturally associated with small size or kindred ideas in case 
of objects which are less valuable or in any way inferior when small. 
Thus in a martial community, in which bodily strength is the highest 
ideal, a small man is naturally an object of disdain because he is 
thought of as lacking one of the qualities a man ought to have. It 
can not be disputed that any diminutive suffix may occasionally get 
an accessory deteriorative notion in this way, and that it is at least 
a possibility that the fully developed deteriorative meaning of some 
suffixes arose through this accessory idea becoming dominant. For 
Greek -tov I may mention the following examples in which the con- 
tempt which is associated with the suffix is directed against an object 
because of its small size, youth, and the like. The quality of sheep- 
ishness is considered as still greater in a little lamb that in a full 
grown sheep, and this has led to the diminutive dyvoov ' little lamb ' 
getting the additional implication of cowardice inPhilipp. frg. 4. 476 (7), 
r O TpapTOCTO^ Bs G"U>to<pavTY]s pac Buo Aa|3wv owusictiv apviou [xaXaxcS)- 
Tspo?. Since a child is both little and below the adult in intelligence, 
the diminutive naidCov 4 little child ' could get the accessory idea of 
stupidity, and so become deteriorative : Eupolis frg. 2. 521 (2), f Hpoc- 
xXet<;, tout' Ion ffot To Tz6)[xu.a aa-sXys? xa\ Msyapixov xat crcpoBpoc 
Tu/pov. ysXSc-tv, w£ 6pac, zoc 7uatBia. Plato Grorg. 521 E, xpivoujjiai yap. 
&<; sv iztxibioic taTpoc av xpivotTO xaT^yopouTOc 6'j»o7uotOL). To the inhab- 
itants of great cities like Athens it naturally seemed something con- 
temptible to belong to a little city, whence the deteriorative shade 
in 7ioM%viov *• little city' in Isocr. 12. 89, Toic, yap 6vsiBt£ou<7iv r^&v 
T7j tuoXsi Ta? My]Xio)v xai T&s twv TOiouTwv TtoXv/ymv c(j|xcpopac avTstayov 
. . . £7ttBsixvU(ov toi>£ aya7uo)|jivoi>£ ok auirwv 7uo)a> nXeiouc, 7u6Xst£ x-al 
[jlsi^ou? Y]pw avaa-TotTouc Tus^oiYjxoTac. There are similar combinations 
of deteriorative and diminutive meaning in certain words ending in 
conglutinates of -iov, e. g. xw(3iBtov (§ 315. X. A), ofodBiov (§ 315. 
X. A.), Tuaioaptov (§ 366. VIII. B), vy]ct%iov (§ 328. III). Aside 
from passages like the above it is very probable that those cases of 
deteriorative meaning in which we can translate the suffix ' insignifi- 
cant ' are largely offshoots of the diminutive meaning ; for small size 
often carries with it that idea, e. g. 'a small affair,' 'a little piece 

1 So Schwabe, De Dim. Gr. et Lat. 17 ; Stolz, Hist. Gram. 575 ; Brugmann, 
Gr. 2. 1*. 681 ff. 

Deterioratives. 115 

of work/ etc. So Gr. nQayfiduw 'an insignificant little affair.' Ar. 
Nub. 1004, 06 (XTco^XXwv xa™ ty]v * Y op*v Tpt^XexTp**** 5 , ola rap 
oi tffv, Odtf ftx6(tevos rcspl Tcpa-ftwerfou Y^xpavTaoys^mTpLTUTou. Epi- 
nicus frg. 4. 505, 'Etu' aXcpiTou tuGvovtoc toQ 0>£pou$ tuots 'IBtbv S&smtov 
f)Bs« s t6v paadsa v Eypa^a, xoci 7uapsBsi§x toT? ftoMoTc oti, K&v to 
TL./OV y) 7upaY(xcmov^Y] crcpoBp 5 eutsXs?, V £[xv ^v Bavamt tou8> 5 ^ Buvaps 
Y) '[xy] xoistv. QiqiMttia k insignificant words.' Ar. Vesp. 668, <j& y«p, 
co rc*rtp, owtooc 'Apxsiv atpsT o-auTou, totfoic to% pyjixaTtoic 7uspirecp0<si ? . 
Lucian De Merc. Cond. 17, ou phobia Btfcmjva TiyovTsc ofovnxC -a 
Tua^sysO'S? oxpeXsTv ; 

152. From the fact that diminutive meaning can develop into de- 
teriorative meaning, the conclusion can not be drawn- that the latter 
is always to be derived from the former, since other methods of origin 
are also possible. Leaving out of account those cases in which de- 
teriorative meaning is shifted from the stem to the ending (cf.Brugmann, 
Gr. 2. I 2 . 688), a method of development which is out of the question 
for -tov, there is the possibility that its deteriorative meaning devel- 
oped from its use to designate similarity and from its hypocoristic 
meaning. The latter is certainly the case when a term of endearment 
is applied to a person of such diginity that the hypocorism is an 
expression of undue familiarity, and so causes endearment to turn 
into contempt. So dv&Qwmov ' a dear little chap ' has an ironical 
ring as applied to the hero Menelaus in Eur. Cycl. 185 (§ 237 a), 
naziQiW) the German c Vaterchen,' is really a term of derision when 
the dignified blind old seer Tiresias is so addressed in Lucian Menipp. 21 
(§ 236 a).. A somewhat similar ironical turn is given to a hypo- 
corism when it is applied to a person of huge or uncouth appearance, 
so that this use of the suffix comes into conflict with the meaning 
i small,' i neat, 1 ' pretty,' etc. Although the speaker need not always 
feel such incongruousness, there will come times when some one while 
hearing an expression of endearment will think of the diminutive use 
of the same suffix, and so think of the hypocorism as ironical. Thus 
when Silanus is beseeching the one-eyed monster Polyphemus in Km. 
Cycl. 266, to xdcXXwrov to Kiodtomov, the poet and bearer think of 
the immense size and uncouth form of the Cyclops, and the term of 
endearment becomes a term of derision. Occasionally the idea of 
luxuriousness, which is derived either from the diminutive OX hypo- 
coristic meaning of the suffix (§ 211 D), may result in deteriorative 
meaning; for luxury is viewed either with admiration or contempt 
according to the individual's taste or circumstances. So besides 

116 Chapter XIV. 

okYijJLdcTtov, 'luxuriantly decorated chamber' (§ 161), the conglutinate 
-aptov in oxuTaptov : (txOtos 'leather' etc. Anaxil. frg. 3. 345(1.6), 
'Ev axuTOcpfois paxTOtcn, cpopwv 'E<ps<njl"a ypatj.tj.aTa xaXa. 

153. Since, then, various ways of origin of the deteriorative use 
of -tov are not only possible, but have actual support for a small 
number of passages, it will be necessary to examine on its own 
merits and without prejudice the proposition that the diminutive meaning 
is the sole or the preponderingly paramount origin of the deteriorative 
usage. The only reason which seems to be advanced is that of Schwabe 
(op. cit. 48), namely, that the diminutive idea is concrete, while the 
deteriorative as well as the hypocoristic meanings are abstract, and 
consequently the latter must have been developed from the former ; for 
abstract ideas are undoubtedly later than concrete ideas. This proposi- 
tion, however, is glaringly at fault in two respects. In the first place, 
contempt and endearment are not to be contrasted with concrete ideas 
as being abstract, but they are emotions and are to be contrasted with 
intellectual ideas like small size. Since, now, emotional expressions 
antedate intellectual ones, we would have the better right to conclude that 
the diminutive meaning must needs be secondary to the deteriorative and 
hypocoristic meanings. But we have no right to interpret a number 
of individual phenomena by a-prioristically applying general statements 
of any kind. No matter how similar these phenomena may be, 
there is dissimilarity underneath, and every suffix must be examined 
on its own merits. Only if it were proven that all ' diminutives ' 
developed in Indo-European times, and that at this early date either 
no abstract or no intellectual ideas had as yet been developed, would 
it be allowable to reason from general statements like the above to 
single instances. A glance, however, e. g. over Brugmann, Gr. 2. 
I 2 . 582—685, will convince anyone that abstract ideas as well as 
concrete, intellectual as well as emotional ideas, were completely 
developed in Indo-European times. Transition from abstract to con- 
crete meaning is as well authenticated as the reverse at all periods 
which have come under linguistic observation, and we must give up all 
attempts to decide individual questions by reference to general tendencies. 

154. The assumption that the deteriorative meaning of -tov is 
mainly an offshoot of the diminutive, is further weakened by the fact 
that combinations of the two are really very rare compared to the 
numerous passages in which the deteriorative meaning is altogether 
independent of any idea of small size, as can be seen by examining 
the collection of examples in the different parts of this chapter. 

Deterioratives. 117 

Moreover, there are in existence some words, e.g. ivBpCov and yspovnov, 
which are found only in deteriorative, but never in diminutive meaning. 

155, I have already referred to the fact that the deteriorative as 
well as diminutive meanings are easily explained as specializations of 
-wv as an exponent of similarity (§ 136) i. e. of that kind of 
similarity which is contrasted with complete identity and which 
emphasizes its negative side (§ 133). In the pattern types of the 
-wv deterioratives the speaker intimated that a certain object was 
lacking in some quality or qualities which a perfect specimen of its 
kind should have. Thus avBptov was ' something like a man, but not 
a real man,' because the speaker felt that a perfect man must be 
brave, honest, and good, while a coward, a dishonest, or wicked man 
was not one that really deserved the name avY)p, honorable address 
as it was among the Greeks. Similarly ziyyr) ' a trade ' really brought 
with it the idea of usefulness and dignity. When an undignified, 
useless, or debased trade like that of the panderer or parasite was 
to be designated, some one coined ts^vCov 'not a real trade, but 
only something like a trade,' 'a poor excuse for a trade.' A part 
of the idea of cpapjxaxov ' a remedy ' was its effectiveness, and when 
the inefficient drugs of some quack or amateur called for a special 
designation, there resulted cpoeppbuov ' not a real remedy, only a poor 
excuse for a remedy,' i. e. 'a worthless drug.' Similarly KOGyxov 
k something like an ornament, but no real ornament,' ' an ornament 
that isn't worth the name,' 'a wretched trinket.' The whole devel- 
opment may be compared with that of the German prefix un- in 
words like Unmensch, or the Skr. -ka- in rajaka-s ' kingling,' ' not 
a real king.' 1 Though in all of these examples there is no need of 
the development being assisted by the idea of small size, it might 
occasionally happen that littleness was one of the points of inferiority 
of the primitive and derivative, e. g. avBpiov might be ' a little wretch,' 
etc. In such cases the two ideas grew up side by side, and there is 
no justification for saying that one is secondary to the other. 

156. The principal reason for believing that the mass of dete- 
riorative* in -wv arose in this way rather than from the diminutive 
meaning, is the fact that both are equidistant from the older meaning 
of similarity, and that certain words with the latter meaning of the 
suffix, e.g. na&fov in the meaning 'bastard son' (§ l-"><>>. immistak- 

1 Primitive and derivative are actually contrasted in this manner l: 
21. 18, citra id ra'ja, rajakii Id anyakS, 'you are an lllnatriona 
others are mere kinglings ', i. e. 'nor, worthy <>!' the ai m*,' 

118 Chapter XIV. 

ably point to the possibility of deterioratives developing on these 
lines. It is highly improbable that this short, straight cut to the idea 
of contempt should have been passed over, and that subsequently the 
circuitous path over diminutive or even hypocoristic usage should 
have been followed exclusively. It is also of importance that at least 
two of the words mentioned above, namely av^piov and ts/viov, were 
doubtless common words in every-day speech, and so well fitted to 
give rise to a larger category, though doubtless those in which the 
deteriorative meaning arises out of the diminutive also had their in- 

157. The gender of words in -tov must also have been a strong 
factor in the development of deteriorative meaning in personal 
names. Brugmann, Gr. 2, l 2 . 670, points out that the Neuter 
was particularly well fitted for diminutives of living beings, because it 
represents them as being lifeless and rather thing- like (cf . ' the little 
thing,' German ' das kleine Ding,' as a designation of a very small 
child). Often, however, the designation of a human being by a 
word of the Neuter gender causes a deteriorative shade of meaning : 
for the reason for representing a person as a lifeless creature would 
frequently be some thrust at his want of intelligence, cold-heartedness, 
or other feature which he is thought of as sharing with inanimate 
things. Very probably the secondary deteriorative shade of words 
like the German ' das Mensch ' and ' das Weib ' was largely due to 
the gradual assertion of the force of the gender, and the same may 
be said of Gr. to yvvaiov L woman,' which was evidently substantivized 
from the adjective yovaio? in historical times. Since the conglutinate 
-ociov did not take part in the development of diminutive and deterior- 
ative meanings (cf. § 16, end), there was no idea of contempt in 
the word when first formed, as can be seen by the following passages 
in which there is no such suggestion: Ar. Vesp. 610, e O Bs y f^iaTov 
toijtmv soriv 7rdcvTwv . . . ^Otocv ... to yuvoaov \L 67U0D>G)7USU<7aV <pUCTY]V 
|x<x£av TCpoo-svsyxY). id. Thesm. 792, Kav z££kb>r\ to yuvouov tcoi x$fr v e5pY)T 
oc6t6 frtfpaciv, Maviac [xatvsa-fr', ouc, ^p9]v ctusvBsiv xat yatpstv. The de- 
teriorative meaning is already developed in Plato Theaet. 171 E, el Bs 
7uoo sv tiot GoyytoprpezM Bwccpspsiv aX^ov aHou, rapt -zoc 6ytstva xai vo- 
o-coBy) e&eXrpca av cpavou p] ::av yuvaiov xai rcaiBiov, xai frvjpiov Bs, Ixavdv 
slvai lao&ai a&Tp yiyvwoy.ov socoto) to 6yisivov, alia svTaufra By] aXkov 
ixklou Btacpspsiv, si7usp noo. Dem. 25. 57, yuvaioo xpayjjL egoist. Arist. 
Eth. N. 9. 12. 1171 b 10, yuvata Bs xat gi toloutoi avBps? toT$ cixttsvoug-i 
yaipooffi, xat cpt^ouci d)£ cpitauc >tai cruvaXyouvTa?. 

Deteriorative^. 119 


168. The words which were the earliest deterioratives must have 
been of such a nature that the idea of inferiority to the primitive is 
in their case most easily derived from the older idea 'that which is 
like the primitive, but not the same.' The four best examples have 
already been mentioned above (§ 155). Less certain is avtj'poktov, 
perhaps originally just like avoptov 'a poor excuse for a man,' and 
so l a paltry fellow,' 'knave,- 'wretch. 1 It is, however, at least equally 
probable that this word merely followed avoptov ; for its primitive av- 
0>p(o:;oc, in contrast to avyjp, and like the German Mensch opposed 
to Mann, could itself be used with a shade of contempt, and if the 
originator of the derivative happened to think of the primitive in this 
light, lie could not have thought of avfrpcorcos as not really applicable, 
but rather as the very best word for the occasion, and the suffix 
then merely emphasized the contempt. We may still further 
reduce the number of probable patterns by considering that xocp.tov 
is only a very late word, and that cpap[xaxtov was evidently a rare 
word, being found in a deteriorative sense only in Plato. This leaves 
avoptov and Ts/vtov as the earliest and most influential of the dete- 
rioratives in -lov, the patterns of most of the group. 

159. Collection of examples, avdqiov : avYjp, Eupol. frg. 2. 554 
(15), *Q Batpvi' avBpwv, p) cpfrovspov W avBptov. Ar. Pax 51, 'Eyw Bs 
tov Xoyov ys ToT<7t TOXtotot? Kat T0?(7tv avoptoto-t 1 xat to?<; avopao-tv Rat toT? 
teptaTOKTiv avBpa<7tv eppaaw Kat zoic, &7UspY)vop£oufftv sti toutoi; [j.a).a. 
Theocr. 5. 40, w cpfrovspov zb xat a7UpS7&$ avoptov afows. dvl/Qtomov : 
av^pwTuoc. Ar. Pax 263, v Ays BVj, -d opw^sv, w jcovfy' avO-pokta ; Xen. 
Cyr. 5. 1. 14, alloc -zee p/^pa avfrpama juoktSv, qIji«, tSv im&oiuffiv 
axpaTY] £(7Ti, xobustTa spcoira akiwvirai. id. Mem. 2. 3. 16, t<x [xsv yap 
pvYjpa avfrpama oux av aMxos jjiaMov iXoig y) s? ootys Ti. Dem. 18. 
242, toOto Bs xat cpuast xtvaoos Tav8>pca7Ui6v (sc. Afcx/Ms) £<r™, ouoev £? 
ap/yjc uytsc TusxotYjxos ouB' IXsufrspov, aikoTpaytxoc irf&tjxo;. nwtfuw : 
a6<xps. Plut. 2. 141 E, TaT? Au<xavopou O-uya^pacrtv 6 -ripawos 6 
XizsXtxo? E[xaTta xat 7;7,6xta twv 7uoXuts),o>v gfle^tv ' 6 Be Atkavopo? 
O&x IXapov skwv "Tathra Ta xo<7[j.ta xa-rawpve? (j.o;j u.aAAov y, xoqxv 
ost Ta? 0>uyaTspa?." «?xwbv : t^vy]. Plato Resp. 6. 495 D, KO 
yap aMot avfrpwmdxot xsvyjv tyjv ywpav Tatf-nqv ytyvojjiv^v, xaXfi 

» At first thought c^or might here seem to be a dlmfeutt* 
fcto* is placed between natdioiat and «^a'«, but fche folio* 
etc. shows the climax to be that of manliness, not of size. The poet is 
playing upon the double nature of the suffix 

120 Chapter XIV. 

6vo[j.aT(ov xa\ 7rpocy;ir)[j.aT(ov jjlsotyjv, wo-rcsp 01 £x twv sipy(j.6W si? Ttx 
tspa a7uoBtBpa<7xovTS£, ao^svot xai oStoi &x twv Tsyvaw IxTur^oxjiv st$ tyjv 
cptXococpiav, 01 av xo^otoctoi ovts? Tuyyavwo-i 7uspi to a6Twv ts/viov. 
Diphil. frg. 4. 415 (2. 1), 05x soriv ouBsv Te/vfov s^oAsorspov Tou 
7uopvo(3o<7xou. Antid. frg. 3. 528, ITspt tou xapao-tTstv si tic £|j.7rso-ot, 
loyoc, To ts^viov 1 ast touto [xoi xoctstcivsto, Kat xaiBo[xa^Y]? 7:p6c auTo 
ty]v Btavoiav ^v. (fagixaxiov : cpap}j.axov. Plato Phaedr. 286 C, Efouoisv 
av, otp.ai, OTt [xaivsTai ocv6*pco7uo^, xai Ix pi(3Xiou tuo^sv axoucras if) mpnuyj*. 
<pap[jLaxCoi? laTpo? oisirai ysyovsvai, ouBsv stcocuov tyjs ts/vy]?. 


160. The deteriorative meaning has developed a step further when 
the -lov represents an object as a despicable one of its kind, without 
the implication that the primitive would really be inapplicable. This 
is a natural extension of meaning which can not exactly be separated 
from the preceding group ; the different attitudes of the speaker 
shade into each other imperceptibly, and there was no doubt a waver- 
ing attitude to many a word. The interpretation ' a poor excuse for,.' 
4 a kind of, but not worth the name,' etc., while it could only orig- 
inate in a few ideas where it could naturally and easily be derived 
from the notion of similarity, can be extended to words in which it 
could not have originated. Thus atojidcTtov ' a weak body ' could still 
be felt as ' a poor excuse for a body,' since it is lacking in some- 
thing which it is very desirable for a body to have ; yet it can not very 
well have been a pattern type of the deteriorative use, because no one 
would ordinarily think of strength as a necessary attribute of a body 
in the same way as manliness is a necessary attribute of avvjp. 
Similarly frspcicraov ' ignoble servant ' can only have followed words 
like avBpiov if interpreted ' a poor excuse for a servant ' ; for the 
idea of nobleness, no matter how desirable, is not something that 
necessarily enters into the later Greek conception of frspribucov. This 
becomes still more evident in case of aoTxiBiov 4 a cheap shield ' and 
yspovTiov, used of a drowsy or forgetful old man ; for costliness is 
certainly no essential characteristic of a shield, nor is wakefulness 
or a strong memory considered especially characteristic of old age. 
Just when and where the change from the old to the new inter- 
pretation was made, is totally indifferent, because it was made again 

1 The parasite probably means by ze^viov ' that so-called vulgar trade.' 

Deterioratives. 121 

and again by different persons and at different times; but it is of 
importance merely to determine that the increasing freedom with 
which deterioratives of this type were formed, shows that sometimes 
and by some persons the old interpretation 'a poor excuse for' etc. 
gave way to the simpler one 'despicable,' 'wretched,' and the like. 
161. Collection of examples, aanldvov : dancfe, ' worthless shield,' 
because cheap. Mamercus (Bergk Poet. Lyr.), TaB' 6<7Tp£toypa<p£?s xai 
XpUffeXecpavTY)>i>tTpou£ 'AcTiiBa? &jtoBiol$ siXojjlsv siksXscriv. atixiov : acrxoc, 
•worthless bag.' Plut. Artox. 12, smTuy^avsi t6W Kaoviow £X£ivo>v 
7(ov xaxopioiv £v6c; £v acrxtw cpau^w Bt£cp9*ap|jivov 5B(op xa\ 7uovYjpov l/ov- 
toc, 5ffov oxtco xoTutacc. yzoovviov : yspow, ' contemptible old man.' 
Ar. Nub. 790 (Socrates to Strepsiades), oux s? xopaxa^ aiKxpfkpst, 
'Em>,Y)ff|j.6TaT0v xai oxaiOTaTov yEpovTiov ; id. Equ. 42, v&v yap ^ Tl 
B£<7-6ty]£ v Aypoixo£ opyYjv, *ua[i.oirp<*><£, axpapXoc, Ayj|xos tcuxvityjc, B'jgxo- 
Xov yeptfvuov Trcoxtocpov. Com. xAnon. frg. 4. 614 (43), NycrraXov 
yspovTiov. ecfSGTQidiov : £cp£orpi£, ' a wretched cloak.' Luc. De Merc. 
( end. 37, £7:stBav B£ tcote Bia [xaxpoS tou /povou Kpovioiv y) IlavafrYjvaitov 

£7ttCTaVT(0V 7u£[J.7:£Tai TC CTOl £Cp£OTplBlQV a^XlGV Y] /ITCOVIOV Orcocrafrpov, 

ivTaSG'a [xaXiara tuoXXyjv Be? xat pxyalYjv y£V£<78>ai ty)v TTOjiWrjv. ftsoaniov 
or SeQanovinw : frsparccov, ignoble servant.' Hyp. ap. Poll. 3. 74, 
wa^£p to aTijxoTaTOv O^pribuov. 1 ttvAaxiov : 9»tfXaxo$, 'wretched bag.' 
Ar. Vesp. 314, 'Avovyjtov ap' w fruXaxtov <y tfyov ayal^a. Svoiov : 
Bkjpa, fc plagued door.' Ar. Plut. 1098, Tie z<7& 6 xoxtcov ty> Q-upav ; 
tout\ ti y)v ; OjBfii? soixsv aXXa B?]Ta to frupiov O(kyy6|j.£vov aXXw; 
xXa-j<7ia (' will be sorry for it '). xAsidwv : xXsfe, ' wretched key.' Ar. 
Thesm. 421, oi yap avBpE? yjByj xtatBia Auto! <popou<7i xpi>7UTa, xaxoY/js- 
(TTaTa, Aaxuvix' arTa, Tp£?c I/ovTa yofxcpiouc. . . . Ntlv B' outoc atkou? 
wxoTp'/^ Eupi7TiBY]£ , EBiBa££ frpwuY)Bs<n: £/ v £iv <7<ppayiBia 'E'fa^apivouc. xdipfW 
(xwqiov) : xopY], 'worthless maiden.' Ar. Ach. 731, w KOVYjpa Jt6p«fc a 
y &&kiou izol^oc. xvUxiov : xuXi£, 'insipid cup,' referring to the wine, 
because watery. Lycophron ap. Athen. 420 B, xtACxwv 'TBapes 6 jwflfc 
rapiYJyE. Xenvoiov : Tircupov, 'rough or tough rind.' Theocr. 5. 95, 
O&Bs yap o6# axtooi? opo^aXiB^ (sc. <ru|i.(3)or)Tai) • ai [X£v £/ovti Aowp&v 
M rcpCvoto >,£7uupiov, ai B v £ pXtxpaC ohhyt&nw : ofcajfia, l a chamber 
fitted 'out with contemptible luxury' (§ 152, end). Plut. 2. 145 A, 
uri] v6[«£s 7U£pt£pyia? acp^aO'ai ty]v yuvatxa xai TcoluTE^Etac, av 6pS <re 
p] xaTacppovoQvTa toutwv Iv £T£poi? aUa xat /atpovra xpt>«&aww 

1 The manuscript F here lias OeQanwiiw. 

2 This, the only metrically possible mSC. reading, is often changed bo 
xw^' d&Xiov etc. because xwqiov is the Dori<- form, 

122 Chapter XIV. 

[xdcTtov xat ypacpat? otxY)[xaTrtcov xat /^Bojaiv $)pit6vcov xat tawv xspiBspatot?. 
QYifjcuwv : p9j|xa, * worthless phrasicles,' ' empty words.' Ar. Pax 534, ou 
yap Y^BsTat Autyj 7coiy]ty] pY]|xaTtcov Btxavtxwv. Luc. Philops. 8, rciOTetitw 
Ta s'£(o xat |iY]Bsv xotvovouvira toT<; svBoQ'Sv sftsystpoocrt -ra voa7][xaTa [isxa 
pY)p.ocTio)v. av) f Yqaf.i^aTiov : <7(jyypa[X[j,a, ' worthless composition.' Luc. 
Herod. 1, IgxotusTto (sc. 6 c Hp6BoTO?) 7upo£ sauTov o7uco£ av Tayiara xat 
a7upay(j.ovsoTaTa s7tt(7Y)[xos xat 7tspt[36Y)TO£ ysvotTO xat atao? xat toc 
a-uyypap^aTta. ocp^aytdiov : crcppayts, ' wretched seal.' Ar. Thesm. 427, 
see sub xXstBtov. aw^dnov : o-c5[xa, ' weak body.' Isocr. Ep. 4. 11, 
to GxojxaTtov o5x sftxpivsg 6v a^X' lyov olttcc crtvY) vojji^stv sjjjroBtstv auTov 
xpo? rcoXXa twv 7upay[xaTtov. Very doubtful is Arist. Probl. 24. 14. 
937 a 36, where it is said of water which has been warmed in the 
sun : to gm\l&ziqv cpptTTstv rcoteT. Did he mean that it only made 
weak bodies shiver, or is the derivative here equivalent to the prim- 
itive for some obscure reason ? iaQi%iov : Tapt/oc, ' a wretched piece 
of salt meat.' Cephisod. frg. 2. 885 (2), KpsaBtov ti cpauXov v\ zxpiyyjv. 
TMvcor : tsxvov, 'hateful child'. Anth. P. 11. 402, "Ec-frow £XTpa~s).o)C 
orojxaytov xaxa, ystpova Xi[Xoti, Ota cpayotsv s k acov avTtBtxow Tsxvta. yidhov 
' miserable cptaXv).' Eubul. frg. 3. 239, Mta-6) xaxtcrov ypa^aTtxov 
sx7uo)p.' ast, 'ATap 6? ojxotov ou\xoq ut6? w/sto v Eycov cptaXtov. 



162. When the meaning of the -tov suffix had once developed 
so far that it was interpreted simply * despicable ' and the like, and 
no feeling for the original ' that which is like ' the primitive, l a sort ' 
or ' kind of ' remained, it was a very easy step to extend the use of 
the suffix to cases where it did not limit the application of the prim- 
itive by representing an object as despicable in comparison with others 
of its kind, but referred to the whole class as despicable. 1 Just as 
we do not feel any real difference in the use of the adjective ' wretched ' 
whether we speak of a ' wretched man,' meaning one that is despi- 
cable compared to his fellowmen. or whether we speak of 'wretched 
trinkets,' with the idea either that all trinkets are despicable, or those 
before us as representing a despicable class, so the Greek would not 
notice any great difference between the use of -tov in o-uyypa^aTtov 
as used above of the compositions of Herodotus, with the thrust that 

1 Cf. Brugmann, Or 2. I 2 . 682. 

Deterioratives. . 123 

fchey were particularly poor ones, and its use in tro^anov in a 
sentence like the following: xolu y&p ocutw (sc. tco Swxpdba) 
&rwi6Tepov &6xei [xstgc twv [isipaxuMtcov xa0<6}j.svov oapKsiv xat <ro- 
^wrjxaTia rcpopaMetv to% ivTuy/avouffiv yj avBpi SxapTidhrfl [xa/sff^ai (Luc. 
Paras. 43). Here the 'worthless sophistries' are contrasted with such 
worthy pursuits as fighting a Spartan warrior, but the idea is by no 
means that the sophistries of Socrates were any worse than those of 
other people, the contrast applies to all sophistries. 

163. The use of deterioratives referring to a class is absolutely 
conclusive evidence that the old interpretation 'a poor excuse for' 
such or such an object, but 'not the real thing', has completely faded 
from the mind for some of the words of the last section; for with 
a psychological attitude of this kind there is always an implied com- 
parison with the normal or ideal of the class below which the de- 
teriorative concept falls: but any such comparison is clearly out of the 
question when the deteriorative refers to the whole class, and con- 
sequently is not contrasted with its primitive, but with totally different 

164. The occasion for the use of deterioratives referring to a class 
is. of course, to begin with, purely individual and subjective, depend- 
ing entirely upon the situation in which a given idea is placed. Thus 
when Lucian, Paras. 42, says : " xod TTuspiBv)? \lIv xat AuxoQpyo? ouBe 
fejXB'OV (sc. sic tov rcoXspv), fckX ouBs olwc srolpjaav [iixpov e£a> 
BapaxEtyat t&v xtAwv, oOOt hvzziypHoi sxocO^vto Tuap' atkoTc yJBy) rcoXtop- 
xo-j^svoi yvwpBta xai :upopoiAsu|jLcraa ctuvti&svtsc," he uses the deteri- 
orative 7;po(3otAsu[xcma not because they are something contemptible 
under all circumstances, but rather because they appeared to him an 
unworthy occupation for loudly shouting orators who, when the test 
came, would not go into the field, but chose rather to skulk behind 
the walls and give good advice to the others. 

165. There are only very few things that are so habitually looked 
upon with contempt in so many different circumstances that the use 
of a deteriorative becomes habitual and an always applicable designa- 
tion, as happens so much more frequently in case of diminutives 
(§ 217 ft.) and hypocoristic words (§ 246 ff.). Yet when the 
circumstances are favorable, this is altogether possible, and then the 
deteriorative force may easily weaken and fade out like all other he 
quently used emotional expressions. A certain example of thil ia 
hgovuov, deteriorative to yipon 'old man/ Old men Bo frequently 
got into situations which appeared contemptible to the Athenians, that 

124 Chapter XIV. 

yspovTiov became a regular part pf the vocabulary of many people, 
particularly young men and subordinates, who, of course, delighted 
in speaking of their superiors in a mocking and contemptuous tone. 
Just as the employed now frequently speak of the employer as ' the 
old man,' German ' der Alte,' so in Theocr. 4. 58 one shepherd 
speaking to another of the owner of the flock calls the latter yspov- 
TTiov : Eitc ays [x a> KopuBwv, to yspovTiov 3j p sti [j.uXXsi Tvjvav tocv 
xuavocppuv 'EpcoTiBa, tocs 7uox' Ixvio-frY] ; In the vocabulary of such people 
the deteriorative soon took the place of the primitive, and the only 
remnant of the original contempt connected with the word was a 
certain slangy flavor. Cf. Eubul. frg. 3. 258 (2), c Qc, yap sStnjXfk Ta 
yspovTia tot d$ B6[j.ouc, E50>l>£ avsxTivsTo. Other cases of faded de- 
terioratives are decidedly uncertain. Perhaps avdoaTrodiov : avBpaTuo^ov 
'slave' is an example; for slaves are frequently enough the object o1 
the ire and contempt of their masters to allow the use of a deteriorative 
to become habitual. There is, however, no extant passage in which 
it is used with living deteriorative force. Aside from the mere mention 
of the word by Pollux 3. 77 as used by Hyperides, it occurs equiv- 
alent to its primitive in Diph. frg. 4. 414, where one speaker mentions 
a list of outlandish cup names, and the other does not appear to under- 
stand and says they are names of slaves 1 : avBpaxoBi tJBs Taufr', opa?. 
It is also totally uncertain whether &?jtiov : br\$, ' servulus,' mentionec 
by Athen. 175 C as the title of a play, is a faded deteriorative or 
an originally hypocoristic word. 

166. Examples of deteriorate es referring to a class, yzgovciov : 
ysptov, ' feeble old man.' Ar. Ach. 993, *H 7iricvu yspovTiov igok vsvojjiixas 
[jls (ju ; exTTcofidnov : sx7uo>p»a, ' wretched beaker.' Diph. frg. 4. 384, ETtoc 
[xaXaxov, w Buo"ty]v', s^sig, Hxsuaptov, syjrco^aTLov, apyupiBiov. frvXcauowt 
8»u7.axoc, 'contemptible bag.' Ar. Ran. 1203, 'Arco XvptufKou god tol)£ 
xpo>v6yot>£ BiacpO'spw. ETP. 'Axo >,Y)xufrCou <tu toij? 1\jjq6c, ; AH. sv6? jxovou. 
Yloizic, yap outm? wct' lvap[j.6TT£iv aroxv, Kai xtoBapiov xat Xrjxtifrtov xal 
bvk&xiov 'Ev toT? ia^(3stoto-L ' You let any old thing, a contemptible 
sheepskin, bottle, or bag, fit in your iambics.' la%ddiov : toyac, ' paltry 
fig.' Ar. Plut. 798, Ou yap 7upsxGJBs£ sort, tw ?k?>a(7xa^a) 'IcyaBia xal 
TpwyaXia zoic, ^swjjlsvoi? npojBaXovT' sra toutoic sIt' avayxa^stv ysXav 
xottqiop : xoxpos, 'filthy refuse.' Anth. P. 12. 234, "El xaXXsi xauya, 
yiyvwcy 5 oti xal poBov devest. 'AXXa [xapavfrsv acpvco ow xoxpioic IpicpY]. 
xooxidpavia as if : *x6(r>uA[j.a, 'wretched scraps of leather.' Ar. Equ 

1 Similarly Hipparch. ap. Athen 484 D lets a character ask whether A«- 
fl^wi'iog, a name of a cup, is a bird. 

Deterioratives. 125 

6'0^£G-(OV TOV 0'£<Jtc6tY]V "'HlXaXTv', Sfkonsu', £XoXaX£L>', S^TraTa KoCXtiX- 

tj.arioi; axpoiTi, xoiauTt Tiycov ^2 Ayj^s, XoO<rai TrpG^ov IxBixac-a? [xiav, 
'Kv&oO, po^Tov, svTpay', £/£ Tpico(3oXov. Arjxv&iov : Xy)xoQ>o;, 'worthless 
bottle' Ar. Ran. 1200, see sub. frtAaxiov. Dem. 24. 114, xai si tic y fee 
Voxefou r, £'; 'AxaBa^ia? yj Ix Kovocrapyous i[xaTiov yj XYix-Jfriov yj aHo ti 
oauXoraTov . . . 6<p£loi7o, . . . xai 706701? frava7ov SvojJLo6^T»)<Toev etvoti tyjv 
£y)p£av. [uaihofidttov : pia^o^a, ' wretched hire,' contrasted to income 
from property or mines. Alciphr. 1. 36, Oux sgtiv £v MuppivouvTi rcxTp&ov 
IjjloI XTYjjJidC'UOV, ouB' lv toT? apyupioii; £|j.oi [X£TaXXov, a).},a {j.io-(ko[j.a7ia 
xai ai Buar'j/sTc, auTai xai xaT£<7T£vay[jivai 7o>v avorTtov IpaoT&v yapiT£;. 
3£vfta<piov : d^acpov, 'wretched saucer.' Antiphan. frg. 3.89(1.5), 
Z& B' a)^a mO'i. B. touto [iiv <jot Tueiffopiai * Kai yap iroxycoyov, w frsoC, 

TO T/Ti[J-dc TTfOC TYjC XtjXlXOC £0"7tV a£lOV 7£ 70U xXeOUC, ToU 7YJC, SOfTY,?. 

oS jj.sv t ( [jxv ap7i yap 'E'£ o£o(3acpio)v x£pajjicov £t:ivo[X£v. ' We drank 
out of wretched saucers, and clay ones too.' oQTvytov : op7t)£, l cow- 
ardly quail.' Antiphan. frg. 3. 4 (3), C Q$ Byj cru tC IIoi£iv fcuvajxevoc 
dpiruyio'j 'l»'jyr,v s^wv ; Tigofiaiiov : 7up6(3a70v, ' lazy sheep.' Ar. Plut. 
922, 'Exavo B' oo $06X01 av, r^/iav £/uv, Zr> apyo?; 21'K. «Ua 
jBpoPaTCou j3iov >iy£i? Ei p) cpavsTrai BiaTp^Y) tic, tw (3io>. The 
scholiast remarks : Ta yap 7tp6(3a7a \m\Vs» £pya£6[i£va £?j. Plato Phaedr. 
259 A, £i ouv iBoisv xai vu xa8>ax£p tgu? %oXkobc iv [j.£0Yj[x(3pia [J.Y) 
BtaAsyoijivou?, alXa vuora^ovTa? xai xyjIou^Ivooc &cp' a67wv oY apyiav 
-r^ Biavoiac, Bwiaicoc av xa7ay£lw£V, Yjyouuxvoi avBpcbuoB' Sttoc toitiv 
I18>6v7a £ic to xa7aytoyiov, wo-rap Tupopcma [i£<7Y)|j.j3pia£ov7a nsp\ tt,v xp^vr^v 
£u^£iv. 7iQOpovXevfidi;iov : xpopoutao^a, 'inane decree.' Luc. Paras. 
42, see § 164. tyipmiov : £%.a, see § 151. (txvXcauw : oxtft«$, 'con- 
temptible puppy.' Plato Resp. 7. 539 B, /aipov-? fioxep oxoXAaa 
tco £Ax£iv T£ xai c--apaTTT£iv Tffi loyM tol>? xXy]<7iov a£i. ttwpifSpaxw, 
o&pique, 'worthless sophistry.' Luc. Paras. 43, see § 162. t^«- 
7rfc>^ : TpaTTs'Ca, 'contemptible table (of money-changer).' Lys. frg. 
50, IVW apaxiOD Bs xai TpaTO?Cou 7UoAa>v lau^ov. i^tynhor : Tpi/i;, 
'wretched anchovy.' Alex. frg. 3. 455(2.3), Kai tol>c aXi£a; £^ to 
papaO«pov I[j.[3alw. 'Aro^soD^pwv 6'iapia 0>Yip£Uoucri (xoi, Tpi/iBia xai atpcCBia 
xai cppuxTOU? Tivac. 

167. When a deteriorative refers to a claw, the uppermost ele- 
ment to begin with is, of course, an emotion;,! our: oontempl for fee 

126 Chapter XIV. 

class designated by the primitive. Since contempt for one class 
implies a judgment of inferiority of that class to other classes or 
a certain other class, there is present in the deteriorative also a cer- 
tain intellectual element, namely the belief that the object for which 
the contempt is expressed is inferior in some way to other categories 
associated with the primitive. Thus in the word opTuyiov ' cowardly 
quail ' is contained the judgment that a quail is more cowardly than 
most other animals ; in TpiytBiov ' wretched anchovy ' there is the im- 
plication that other kinds of fish are more desirable as articles of 
food than the anchovy. Though this feature of the meaning of 
deterioratives is in the beginning strictly incidental and subordinate, 
it may in course of time become the dominant and even exclusive 
meaning of the suffix, while the original emotional element of contempt 
has dissappeared, and we may then translate the -iov by 'merely,' 
c nothing but,' etc., but not l despicable ' or in any way that would 
suggest the emotion of disdain. There are, of course, all kinds of 
gradations as to the relative prominence of the two elements, and 
often we may waver as to which was uppermost. Thus in the passage 
quoted under icyricBiov in the last paragraph I have translated ' paltry 
figs ' because I supposed that the idea of playwrights throwing out 
to the audience a few eatables and expecting to be rewarded with 
laughter filled the poet with disgust, and that he gave vent to his 
disdain through the deteriorative ta^aBiov. If, on the other hand, he 
is conceived as calmly giving to the audience a lecture as to what is 
right and proper, we must rather translate ' by merely throwing out 
to the audience some figs ' etc. When the play was presented 
everything, of course, depended on the actor's expression. A similar 
example is Gteydviov : crcicpocvos in Alciphr. 1. 36, 'Eyw Bs y] ^a^atvoc 
O'pYjvwBov oux spaoTY]v I)(co, ars<pavia [lot xod poBa wcrcsp awpw Taoo) 
7us[Mrct, xai xXastv Bt' ofo\$ <pY)ox ty]£ vuxto£. If we imagine that the 
hetaera adds disdain to her complaint we can translate ' he sends 
wretched garlands and roses ' ; if, on the other hand, there is no disdain, 
but only plaintiveness in the passage, she only meant * he sends 
nothing but garlands and roses.' We can be certain that the emotional 
element is very slight or altogether absent in the following passages : 
acr/uov c merely a bag,' i. e. something empty, in Crates frg. 2. 235, 


' merely old men ' in Xen. An. 6. 3. 22, xat ofy 6pw<7tv outs cpiXicv 

1 About this phrase Hesychius remarks : nctyoifxia inl t6h> xai r« xtva 6e- 
doixotcav knel xevoq b acxoq. 

Deter ioratives. 127 

arp*F*U[Me outs xoXspov, . . . yp^ota ft xat y £ p6vTta xat :up6(3aTa ftfyjc 
m\ :oDc XBrafctappivouc. 'They see neither a friendly nor a hostile 
army, but merely old women and old men.' eqvfidrwp : spup.a 'fort'. 
Luc 1). Mnetr. 9. 5, <ju yap aXsxTpuova tuwtcots aTusxTstva? Y] tc6Xs[xov 
st&s; ; ipufufcTtov l<ppotfpsi$ Ta/a (' merely a fort perhaps you helped to 
defend,' in contrast to more dangerous activities) BtptptTYjs &v, tva 
xat TOtko TipoTxapicrojp.ai crot. j^tuV : xyjtuo?, ' merely as a garden (i. e. 
appendage).' Time. 2. 62. 3, wcra ou xaxa tyjv twv otxtwv xat tt ( c 
T% ZP £ ^, wv ^syaXwv vo^sts Icrapr^at, auTY) y] ouvapc oatv—ar 
ofo dy.be ycckzizox: cpspeiv atk&v ".aXlov y) ou kiqtcCov xat syxaXXw-icrixa 
tzXoutod 7ipd$ Ta!JTY]v vo[xicavT£? 6>.iyo)pYJ(7at. niHov : raXos, 'merely 
a cap.' Polyb. 35. 6. 4. (totosfffrai rcaXiv £t<; to tou KuxXgotos cr7UY)Xatov 
ciTsXO'sTv, to rctXtov exs? xal tyjv ^covyjv stu^sXyjCT^svov. (paQfjaxiov :.<pap- 
p.axov, ' nothing but drugs.' Plato Theaet. 149 C, xat pjv xat BiBoua-at 
ys at [xatat cpappxxta (' by merely giving drugs ') xal sroxBoucrat B-JvavTai 
lystpstv ts Tac a><Vtva£ xat |xaXfraxt.>T£pac, av (3ou^o)VTat, 7uot£tv, xat 
TtxT£tv T£ W) Tac BuGTOXoua-as, xat lav veov ov B6£/) a[x(3Xtox£tv, ap.(&t- 


168. The same development of the suffix to the meaning 'merely 1 
also occasionally results from its diminutive meaning (cf. § 216). 
It is often not possible, therefore, to distinguish between original di- 
minutives and deterioratives, and really not necessary ; for the two 
grew up side by side, and sometimes no doubt both elements were 
present in one and the same word, and so not separated in the con- 
sciousness of the speaker. 


169. By this I mean words in which -tov is originally attached 
with a meaning totally different from the deteriorative, but which in 
certain situations or combinations with other words have for the time 
being taken upon themselves a deteriorative character. This ^inter- 
pretation is made possible by the same mental process by which is 
recognized the precise meaning of any suffix of extended application. 
Thus the English suffix -y has a variety of meanings like ' full of,' 
'like,' and is also a hypocoristic ending. 1 But when we hear it in 
connected discourse, we can at once grasp its shade of meaning either 
by the stem to which it is attached or by the context. When we 

1 I am speaking with reference to the spoken language of bo-da} 
which the origin as well as the former spelling is in this ratped Immafc 

128 Chapter XIV. 

hear the 1 sound at the end of Johnny we immediately recognize it 
as an expression of endearment. When it is heard in ' starry ' it is 
impossible to decide until after hearing further portions of its envi- 
ronment, but then it at once becomes clear. The ' starry sky ' is the 
sky that is abounding in stars, the c starry light ' is the light coming 
from the stars, ; starry eyes ' are eyes that shine like stars. Simi- 
larly Greek -tov has a tangible meaning only in the individual word 
or even in a particular environment of a certain word. Thus (3ou- 
v.6\iov ' herd of cows ' is c that which belongs to ' the cow-herd, xvjpiov 
is ' that which is made of ' wax, avBpiov is a deteriorative, ^aiBiov 
usually a diminutive. On the other hand, go^ocziov had a variety of 
meanings. The comedian Plato (§ 86) used it in the plural of the 
padding of the actors, and it was then 'that which is around' the 
body. Aristotle (§ 194 a) applies it to the body of cuttle-fish, and 
thus causes diminutive interpretation, while Isocrates so designated 
his own body because of its weakness (§ 161), and consequently 
requires deteriorative interpretation. 

170. It is by an exactly similar process that suffixal meanings which 
do not belong to a given word at all can be temporarily suggested by it 
in a certain environment or situation. Thus -ia is an abstract or 
collective suffix, and the fact that by dXiyap)rioc and Br^oxpsrax forms 
of government are designated is merely incidental. Yet in Time. 8. 
47. 2 there occurs the following sentence : sV 6>,tyapyia potfXsf at (sc. 
6 'AXxtptaBvjs) xat ou 7uovY]pta [ouBs o^uoxporrfa] tyj sauxov ixpaXouaif) 
xxtsX^wv xai 7uapacr^wv TtcrtfacpspvY] . cp&ov aOTOt£ (7U[xt:oXlts!Jslv. Here 
the -ta of rcovYjpia suggests a form of government merely on account 
of the contrast and rhyme with oXiytxpyicc, although by itself 7tovY)p£a 
is an ordinary abstract noun with the meaning ' wickedness.' 

171. In this manner -tov words of all kinds may for the time be- 
ing be reinterpreted as deterioratives. There are several different 
factors which may or must be present if such revaluation takes place. 
In the first place, the situation must always be one of contempt ; for 
that is, of course, the prerequisite of intelligibility of any deteriorative, 
whether original or secondary. A probable instance in which this factor 
alone was strong enough to cause reinterpretation is the use of nirdxwv 
inlsocr. 15. 2, 'Eyco yap siBw? hiouc, twv crwptor&v pXowcprjjjiouvTas 7uspt t% 
sp% BiaTpt(3% xai XsyovTa?, o)£ sort JCspl Bixoypacpiav, xat xzpxzlrpiov 
7uotouvxa£, waTusp av si t is . . . ZsQ^tv xai IlappacTov ty]v ocutyjv l^etv cpaCt] 
ts^vyjv zoic, toc 7Utvaxta ypdecpouctv. Since the tone of the whole passage 
is one of contempt, which is centered on the ravaxta in the latter part, 

Deterioratives. 129 

the reader is in a receptive mood for a deteriorative ending; for con- 
tempt and the suffix -lov are closely associated with one another, and 
one may suggest the other. No matter whether the effect was intend- 
ed or not, a certain number of readers or hearers would become 
conscious of the fact that mvaxiov, though by itself having no relation 
to any deteriorative force of -tov, has the same ending so often asso- 
ciated witn contempt. In spoken language this would be much easier 
than in writing ; for the proper constellation of thought or feeling can 
be produced by a mere gesture or facial expression or intonation of 
the voice, so that almost any denominative -iov word could thus be 
suggested as a deteriorative. Such interpretation, however, would 
never be certain for everybody that listens ; one might be in the proper 
mood and the other not, the speaker may intend such an effect and 
never be understood at all, and conversely, he may not have intended 
it, and still the hearer interpreted it in that way. It would, there- 
fore, be futile to be dogmatic about this or that example and to say 
there was or was not deteriorative force imputed to the -iov. I can 
only mention such passages as seem to me to allow the possibility 
of such revaluation : xvfipfov (§ 129 a) in Dem. 21. 158, Bta t?]c 
ayopa? o-opsT (sc. 6 MsiBCac), puT& xai xu{j.[3ia xai cpiaXag 6vo[j.a£o>v o*jto>; 
were tou? xaptovTac axofoiv. [LieiQaxiov (§ 148) in Ar. Equ. 1375, 
Ta jjistpaxia tcxuti Isyw, Ttxv tw [xupco, °A oroipXsT-um TotaBi xafrif)(X£va. 
id. Kan. 1071, EIt au Xa)aav liuiT7]Bsti(rat xai crTG)p}.iav !BiBa?a$, f H 
<£sxsvw<7sv toc? ts rcalaiGTpas xai toc? Tuuyas £V£Tpi'^£V Tow [i£tpaxio>v 
<nr(opXXo[A.£vo>v. oxvicdtop (§ 78) in Ar. Av. 1283, IIpiv p&v y«P 
oixicai cs vfyihs t/)V rc6Xiv 'EXaxcovo^avouv a7uavT££ avfrpco^oi tots, Ex6- 

[XOUV, £7i£lVC0V, SppUfttoV, IffCOXpOCTGUV, SxUT^Xt £<p6pOUV. 

172. When a word in -iov as well as its primitive designates 
something that is in itself of inferior worth, it is hardly possible to 
say whether the suffix had to begin with a deteriorative meaning 
which was worn off by frequent use, or whether the passages where 
contempt is prominent are of the same character as those last men- 
tioned. Thus Qcauw is always a ragged or tattered garment in the 
Attic, and TQifaviov is a coarse or shabby cloak, but both of these 
words are equivalent to their primitives. Most probably th< 
arose through the influence of other words of this ending which 
designated articles of dress (§130), but where the situation called 
forth particular contempt for these objects, that could be easily attrib- 
uted to the suffix. So Ar. Ran. 1063, ML flpfcrov |ito tou; pa<n- 
Xsuovtk? £axi' &|ucKr£6v> *» &«vo\ ToT? ™W™* yaCvoivT elvai. ETP. 

130 Chapter XIV, 

tout' ouv s[3Xa<j>a tC Bpaca? ; AIH. 05xouv sO'sXst, ys TpwjpapyrsTv tuXodtcov 
ouM? Bia TrocuTa, 'A>>Xa paxtois 7uspisiXa|ji.svos x^asi xod cpr^i tusvscO'OU. 
Lys. 32. 16, xal IxpaleTv toutoi>£ Y]'£itoxa£ fruyaTptBotis ovtocc sx tyjs 
otxia? tyj? oc6t65v sv Tpipwviois, avurcoBY)TOU<:, xtX. 

173. There is a particular kind of situation when a word in -tov 
is used metaphorically in such a way that the object to which the word 
is transferred is represented as despicable by the comparison. Thus 
although tiptop is not at all a deteriorative in itself, yet when it is applied 
to a human being, contempt is the very reason for the comparison. 
The -lov, however, has nothing to do with the application of the word 
in this sense ; for words without deteriorative ending (cf . Engl. ' beast ') 
can be used in the same way. Nevertheless the speaker or hearer 
may have occasionally become conscious of the fact that this word 
had the same -iov which is elsewhere deteriorative, particularly when, 
as in Dem. 25. 95, the orator's resources of expression could rein- 
force the idea itself : BsT By] 7uavTa?, wcTusp oi tacTpoi, otocv xocpxivov yj 
cpocysBaivocv r\ tSv avidhrwv ti xaxwv iBcocriv, aftsxaucrav r\ oXoic, a7csxo r j>av, 
g'jtw touto to D'Yjptov ()\kac s^opiom, pityai sx t% tuo^so)?, avslsTv. 

174. In addition to these wholly semantic factors there may be 
certain external ones, which can make the reinterpretation of a word as 
a deteriorative more certain, though even then there would be something 
of the same variety of attitude possible. In the first place, certain 
adjectives like rcovrjpos, cpauloc, and xaxo? are so frequently used with 
-to v derivatives to emphasize or modify the idea of contempt, that 
there is created an association between deteriorative ideas and the 
combination of one of these adjectives with -tov words. When the 
same collocation occurs where the -tov has no such function historic- 
ally, it may nevertheless easily be attributed to it ; for of the 
four elements in question, viz. contemptuous tone of passage, deteri- 
orative adjective, -tov form, and deteriorative meaning of -tov, all but 
the last are already present, and that will be associated with com- 
parative ease. So Sr^iov in Ar. Plut. 439, w BsiXotoctov ab Brjptov. 
id. Vesp. 448, £ xaxtorov 8-rjptov. oQVii>iov (§ 118 A) in Nicoph. 
frg. 2. 848, f/ A7i£p ivbizi tocuti toc tuovyjo' 6pvt£ha, Zspcpou? to-(0£, cr/MXr r 
xac, axptBa?, 7sapvo7uac. arraQTtop (§ 211 E) in Philipp. frg. 2. 470. 
aypYja-Ta icavirsXtos Ta orcapTia * "Exspov Bs xatvdv s|x(3a);sTv auTw ^ow/. 
yuXxiov, see § 101 A, s. v. c). 

175. Finally, the revaluation of an -tov word as a deteriorative 
may be caused or helped by collocation with other words in which 
it is a genuine deteriorative suffix. This would be particularly easy 

Deterioratives. 131 

when the real deteriorative precedes, as in Ar. Plut. 798 (§ 166), 
where \trtffovx. causes the revaluation of TQuyaJiia, but it is also pos- 
sible when the real deteriorative follows, as in Lys. frg. 50, Mst 
dfktxiov os xa\ Tpa7us£iou nukw socutov ; for the first -tov form will still 
be in the niomory when the second one comes. Another example of 
the latter is ptftiiov in Plato Phaedr. 286 C (§ 159). where cpocp- 
[AOXfoic assists in giving a contemptuous ring to pi(ft£ou. 

176. In one case, at least, a deteriorative adjective and collocation 
with a real deteriorative in -wv combine to cause the reinterpretation 
of another word. In Luc. Merc. Cond. 87 (§ 161) inmviov gets 
a deteriorative force from the neighborhood of Icpsorpioiov as well as 
from the adjective &7u6<xa8*pov. The same could be said of tphnov in 
Dem. 24. 114 (§ 166), where the neighborhood of XTJptd&iov as well 
as the adjective (paiAoTorrev could have assisted in the temporary re- 
valution of [[jloctiov. 

177. These words can obviously often not be separated from those 
in which a speaker produced an -tov word with the conscious intention 
of producing a deteriorative to a certain primitive, but without thinking 
of the fact that the same word already existed in other meanings. 
Certain words like Xyjxu^iov and o-cppocy^Hov, which I have placed among 
the real deterioratives, with the understanding that they originated in 
this way, may just as well have arisen by the process of revaluation. 


178. Of the various ways of origin which at different times have 
been suggested for the diminutive meaning of suffixes, most are clearly 
impossible for -tov. Thus the old idea that diminutive suffixes meant 
'little' from the beginning, or were perhaps originally independent 
words with that meaning, is untenable for Indo-European diminutives 
because their suffixes are identical with the secondary adjective suf- 
fixes (cf. § 1). That the diminutive meaning of -tov could hardly 
have been derived from the meaning 'descended from,' has been shown 
§ 95. It is furthermore incredible that -tov diminutives should be 
in the main derived from the deteriorative or hyppcoristic use 1 of the 

1 Wrede, Die Dim. im Deutschen, 132 ff., supports his contention thai 
Germanic diminutives originated from ' Kose-formen ' by the fact that proper 
names in diminutive suffixes appear before appellatives. It Ifl to be noticed 
that for Greek -lov this condition is reversed, and thai prop* 
names appear only. secondarily, and then for a while aot will, great freedom, 

132 Chapter XV. 

suffix ; for neither of these is nearer to its original adjectival mean- 
ing than the diminutive use. Altogether impossible for all diminutives 
is the idea suggested by Bibezzo for the Sanskrit -ka- diminutives, 
namely, that words which designated small objects and accidentally 
ended in a certain suffix, could cause the latter to become charged 
with the diminutive meaning by the same shifting of semantic ele- 
ments as is seen e. g. in the genesis of the inchoative verb suffix 
-sko-. The idea of small size is not an absolute but a relative idea, 
and the consciousness of the small size of an object does not, there- 
fore, follow up a word in all situations. Only when there is com- 
parison implied between objects of the' same or different classes, will 
any one think of anything as small. In order that this comparison 
may be transmitted from the speaker to the hearer, there is need of 
some linguistic means with which this idea of minuteness is associated. 
Bibezzo's view consequently presupposes the existence of one of these 
means, to account for which is the very object of his theory. Its 
impossibility becomes still more evident by taking a concrete example. 
Because a few English words in -er, like finger or washer, designate 
small objects, would it be possible for -er to become a diminutive suffix? 
179. There remains only one jH'o-bable wav { n w hich -iov diminu- 
tives can have developed, the one mentioned § 136, and suggested for 
I. E. -ko- by Brugmann, Gr. 2. I 2 . 504, namely, that the diminutive, 
like the deteriorative (§ 155) use of -tov, is derived from its function 
of designating l something like, but not the same ' as the primitive. 
If it is possible to determine the exact process and to find suitable 
pattern types, in which this transition of meaning could take place 
naturally, there will be no doubt that -tov diminutives actually did 
originate in this way. 


180. The pattern types of the diminutives must be words in which 
the principal reason for designating an object as ' not quite the same 
as the primitive, though like it ' is inferiority of size. Those words 
in which the prime motive of comparison is something else than size, 
but inferiority of size of the derivative is a mere incident, can not 
have given rise to the diminutive category. Thus xspaTta 'the an- 
tennae of the xapa(3o?' does indeed designate objects that are smaller 

Cf. § 237 b. The neuters in -tov were not used in proper names till the 
diminutive-hypocoristic use had been firmly established in the appellatives. 

Diminutives. 133 

than horns (xepaxa), but the reason for the comparison is the similarity 
of shape or position. As long as there were no other real diminutives 
which could cause reinterpretation of such words by analogy, there 
is no prospect of the incidental inferiority of size taking the place 
of the real motive of comparison, particularly since the proportion of 
size between primitive and derivative was reversed in other words of 
the same kind (§ 135). 

181. When one object which is substantially like another except 
in being smaller is spoken of as ' like ' the latter, but ' not the same,' 
the speaker implies that the element of size is to him an important 
quality of the object to which the smaller one is compared, i. e. if 
diminutives actually originate from the idea of similarity, there must 
be words which by some of the persons using them are considered 
to be strictly applicable only to an object which reaches a certain 
normal of size, while other objects, which are in every other respect 
similar, but fall below this normal, can not really be so designated. 
That size can really be such an important element in the meaning 
of a word, can be seen e. g. by the English 'mountain,' which des- 
ignates an elevation upon the earth's surface of immense size, while 
a smaller elevation of exactly the same kind is not a ' mountain, 1 but 
a 'hill,' and a still smaller one is a 'hillock,' 'mound,' etc. Similar 
is the difference between 'lake' and 'pond,' fc river' and 'creek,' 
'city' and 'village,' 'spear' and 'javelin,' 'flute' and 'piccolo.' It 
matters little that these relations are often judged differently by 
different individuals and nations ; thus the German ' Berg ' is collo- 
quially applied to a small artificial mound of less than twenty feet 
height as well as to the highest mountain. The important thing is 
merely that there are words which in the view of some of the com- 
munity using them have the idea of size as a very important con- 
stituent of their meaning. 

182. For similar cases in Greek the -wv which designated 'some- 
thing like 1 the primitive was a very convenient resource when the 
speaker felt and wished to indicate the similarity between the larger 
and the smaller object, and yet was aware that he could not use the 
primitive for the latter without violating usage. Here too individuals 
would naturally vary in the conception of many a word (. t. g L85 
for roxtfcCov) without affecting the principle as a whole. Words in 
which -lov may with more or less probability have been added with 
this motive are e. g. &pi&ov 'a little wagon,' originally k that which 
is like, but not the same as a apc&x, 1 the latin- term being Bpplied 

134 Chapter XV. 

only to heavy wagons l ; BopotTiov : Bopu, ' that which is like a spear, 
but no real spear," 4 a peltast's spear,' because it was too light for 
the designation ^opu, which carried with it the implication of such 
size and weight as those of the hoplites had ; xocpxmov : xocpxivoc, 
i that which is like a crab, but not a real crab,' a very small species 
of hermit-crab to which xocpxivo? seemed inapplicable ; rcoXto-p-aTiov : 
7u6Xiqxa, ' that which is like a city, but hardly large enough for such 
a designation,' a little fortified place ; craxiov : craxo?, ' that which is 
like a sack, but not a real sack, 1 a little bag tied around horses ' feet ; 
orupaxiov : orupa£, ' that which is like a spear-spike, though not a real 
one,' because part of a javelin and not of a spear ; cp>i(3iov : cpX&|>, 
' that which is like a vein, but not a real vein,' i. e. a smaller blood- 
vessel than was ordinarily denoted by the word (p7i<|>. Any or all 
of these words which existed before the diminutive meaning was 
established, 2 may very well have assisted in causing the idea of small 
size to be connected with their suffix, and have been of influence in 
causing the spread of this usage to their own congeners, but they 
are all comparatively rare words, and we may conclude that all of 
them together were a slight force in comparison with the one word 
tcociBiov, which became the regular word for 'baby,' and so was in- 
cessantly in the mouth of every speaker of the language, and con- 
sequently afforded immense opportunities for the spread of the di- 
minutive meaning. To assume that TuaiBiov was the chief pattern type 
of this category presupposes that it was derived from noKc, with the 
original conception ; that which is like a child, 3 but not a real child,' 
because a baby was too small and too young to be properly called 
7uat£. It is no objection to this view that the primitive itself could 
occasionally designate an infant even when there is no reference to 
descent, as e. g. H. Horn. Ceres 141, Koci xsv 7uaTBa vsoyvov sv ay- 
xolvy](71v lyooGct, KaXa Ti^Yjvoipjv, where Demeter is speaking in the 
character of a nurse, or in Herod. 1. 109. Aside from the fact that 
different individuals must have differed in their conception of the 
same word (cf. § 137), it is of importance to consider that the 
designation of an infant as toxTs was only an occasional one, and very 

1 Cf. Liddell and Scott s. v. 

2 The fact that nofooudxiov does not occur before Polybius would seem 
to exclude it from the number of probable diminutive pattern tj^pes. 

3 Those who first formed naidiw in the meaning ' baby ' must have thought 
of naXg as referring to size and age, not descent. With the latter idea in 
mind arose the Trcti&iov of § 150. 

Diminutives. 135 

race in comparison with the number of instances in which an older 
Child is so designated. In situations which did not distinctly point 
th.it way, no Greek upon hearing %<£<; would think of a baby any 
more than we do upon hearing 'child.' 'He is a mere child' means 
that he is not old enough to be called a young man, but would never 
imply th.it he was yet an infant, and yet 'child' could be used in 
such a situation that it really did refer to a baby. That consequently 
the feeling of a number of individuals should have induced them to 
believe that xoac ought really not to be applied to an infant, and so 
to form for it xaiBiov ' that which is like a child, but not a real 
child/ is not at all remarkable. That this was really the original 
attitude to the suffix is made all the more probable by the fact that 
Herodotus, when the exact meaning of TuaiBiov can be determined, 
almost always refers to a baby, and to a little child beyond the infant 
age in only two instances : 4. 187, where children of four years are 
called TOXiBta, and 5. 51, where it designates the eight year old 
daughter of the king of Sparta. After ttociBiov had once taken root, 
it spread with great rapidity over nearly the whole of Greece for the 
reason that its creation filled a gap similar to the one existing in 
German at the present day. Just as there is no native German 
word corresponding to English ' baby ' (words like ' Saugling ' are, of 
course, not conversational words), so the Homeric Greek had nothing 
except words of such wide meaning as roxTs and tsxvgv. 1 The new 
twciBiov was therefore a distinct linguistic gain, and became a house- 
hold word in a short time. 

183. In addition to the words so far mentioned there may have 
been among the pattern types of the -wv diminutives some of the 
words designating the young of animals (cf. Brugmann, Gr. 2. I 2 . 504, 
for the same possibility for I. E. -ko-). Thus one of the characteristics 
often associated with the idea ' bird ' is the capability of flying, and 
consequently a young bird (6pvifriov), which has not yet learned th.it 
accomplishment, may have been thought of as 'not a real bird* as 
yet, but 'something like a bird,' or 'something which is yet to become 
a bird.' Similarly a hare is associated with swift running, and one 
of its young, which was as yet deficient in this respect, could be 
designated Tvayiov 'not a real hare yet/ The sum-tot : .l of the in- 
fluence of all of such words also must, however, lmve been o.mpan.tivrh 
slight, since there do not seem to be among then, words "I frequent 
occurrence in this meaning (cf. § 94 f.). 

1 PQttpos designates only the newly born babe. 

136 Chapter XV. 

184. Besides the idea of similarity the Neuter gender may also 
have had its influence in the development of diminutive meaning of 
-tov in words designating living beings. Of. § 157. 

185. Collection of examples (except of words designating the 
young of animals, for which see § 94). The most conclusive ex- 
ample to show how similar was the feeling for the diminutive use 
and for the meaning 'a sort of,' 'a kind of is Arist. H. A. 3. 3. 
514 a 19 ff., [xta B' srspa (sc. cp)i(J>) . . . s7:t t6v syxscpaXov xsCvst, xat 
oyJ^STat si? izoXku xat Xs7UT« cpXspta st? ty)v xaXouuivYjv pjvtyya ty)v rapt 
tov syxscpa^ov. auTO£ B' 6 syxscpalo? <*vaiu.cov TuavTwv sVrf, xai outs 
[itxpov outs [xsya cplsptov TsXsuTa si? auTov. The use of <pXs(3tov first 
as a diminutive and then in the generalizing sense in virtually the 
same breath can only be explained by assuming that the two uses 
of the suffix appeared so similar to the writer, that he was not con- 
scious of using the word in two different meanings. In the first 
sentence ' a sort of vein ' was a ' vein-like thing ' that was not 
large enough to be called ' vein,' in the second ' a sort of vein ' had 
its literal signification, without addition of secondary elements. The 
remaining examples will be arranged as usually, a/jagior. Arist. De 
Mot. An. 7. 701b 4. doqmiov. Thuc. 3. 22. 3, stusitoc <|>iXo\ BtoBsxa 
Huv '^icptBtco xat (kopaxt avspatvov, . . . CTstTa <\>iko\ aXkoi (xsTa toutous 
§jv BopaTtot? s/wpouv. xaqxtviov. Arist. H. A. 5. 15. 547 b 17, s/ouox 
B' (sc. at xtvvat) sv aOTaT? rctwocpoXaxa, at jjisv xaptBtov, at Bs xapxtvtov 
o5 a-Tspicxo^svot BtacpfrstpovTat ^ottov. naidiov (in the meaning i baby '). 
Herod. 1. Ill, 6psco roxtBtov xpoxstuxvov aoTuatpov ts xat xpauyavcouxvov. 
id. 1, 113, 2. 2, TuatBta Bug vsoyva. id. 4. 180, sxsav Bs yovatxt to 
rcatBtov aBpov ysV/)Tat, o"uu.cpotTsou(7i I? t&oto ot avBps? Tpurou pjvoc, xat 
to) av oixy) twv avBpwv to xatBtov, toutoo ^aT? voui^STat. id. 5. 92 y, 6. 
61, sTusipscfrai [jliv oti cpspst sv tyj ayxaXY), xal ty]v cppaaat w? rcatBtov cpopsst.- 
Ar. Av. 923, touvojj. 5 wcnusp 7uaiBiw vuv By] 'frspjv. id. Lys. 18, Y] Bs 
xatBtov KaTsxXtvsv, Y) B' s^oucsv, y] B' s^oifxtasv. id. Thesm. 339, 
rcatBtov e r:to(3aXXouivY]£ xaTstrcsv. id. Eccl. 549, appsv yap stsxs rcatBtov. 
Antiphan. frg. 3. 85, ot Zxufrat . . . ysvouivotctv suO'stoc toT^ rcaiBtot? 
AtBoaa-tv trcrcojv xal (3owv rctvstv ya^a. Diph. frg. 4. 412 (2. 3), "Qorcsp 
Ta rcatBt' a&Tdv arcoyaXaxTist. Xen. Oec. 3. 10; Lys. 1. 10, yj yuvY) 
arcYjst ... foe, to rcatBtov, tva t6v titQ^ov auTw BtBw xat [j.y] (3oa. Isae. 
2. 36, tw sp.6) rcatBto) I9-s[xy]v to ovou.a to sxstvou. Uem. 57, 42, rcatBtcov 
aoTY] BuoTv y]By] ysysvY)(jivcov. Hyp. 2. 45. 12, si uiv ti srcaO'Ov to 
rcatBtov Y] ytyvou.svov yj xat uarspov. Critias frg. 32 (Diels), y] [iyjt^p 
too rcatBtoo too [xsXXovtoc scscOat. Plato Lys. 212 E, Ta vscoort ys- 

Diminutives. 137 

yovoTa jwcdtfa. Arist. H. A. 8. 10. 587 b 14, Ta Bs TcatBta £(}B6p.o> 
[j.Yjvt apyovTat foovTocpostv. Legg. Gortyn. 4. 5, at Bs T?t auT^t k3 tiv 
orcototTO ffpi to 4viocut||o, to rcatBtov ixt tSi 7ua<7Tat| £{jlsv toi t£ 5 otxso;. 
I use. Cos Ditt 2 . 734. 52, &t xa y£vv]Tat xatBtov. From the meaning 
'baby 5 is derived on the one hand l human embryo' (Arist. H. A. 
S. 5. 586 a* 80, a[j.a Ta ts rcatBta y6vi|xa xat to yaXa ypy](7t|j.ov), on 
the other hand the application of rcatBtov to the young of animals 
(id. An. Gen. 5. 1. 778 b 21, otocv ysvwvTat Ta xatBta xavTwv sc. twv 
£(j>o>v xat t&v av0>pw7uo)v). TiofoG{iaciov. Polyb. 1. 24. 12. tTjV Bs Ka[xa- 
pivaCttV ~6),tv . . . xaTsoyov 6[j.otco£ Bs xat tyjv "Evvav xat srspa xlsto) 
~oAiG-[j.aTL« twv Kapyr,Bovt(ov. aaxtov. Xen. An. 4. 5. 36, sVc-aufra By) 
xat BtBaoxst 6 x(o[j.apyYj£ Tuspt too? rcoBa? t&v itouwv xat u7uo£uyttov craxta 
rcsptsXsTv, OTav Bta tou ytovo? ayaxrtv avso yap twv a-axtwv xaTsB'JovTO 
[ji/pt t% yao~Tpoc. Cxv^axiov. Thuc. 2. 4. 3, Ta? rca^a? . . . zvCkrpz 
orupaxtco axovTtou avTt jialavou ypY)C7ap.svo£ s? t6v [xoylov. (f'lifiior. 
Plato Timae. 65 C, D ; Arist. Part. An. 3. 5. 668 a 34, xatTot. avsu p&v 
cpXs(36c oGx £<7Ttv al|xa, cpTiptov B' ouBsv ByjXov. id. Probl. 9. 14. 891 a 4, 
sav Bs xat <pXs(3ia Ttva pay9], Scpatp? Y] cuvBpop) ytvsTat. id. H. A. 
3. 4. 514 a 26, ilaTTOu? ol rcopot xat Ta cp'Xspta xolXw slaTTto TaoT 
sort twv tyjc [xsyaXY]? cpXs(36?. ib. 514 b 5, acpavt^ovTat Ta toz auTf^ 
(sc. t% [uxp&g xat 7ua/sta? <pls(36s) cpXs(3ia. id. De Spir. 5. 483 b 29, 
arcoTstvst yap sx twv xXaytcov (pXsj3wv cpXspia Xs7UTa. id. H. A. 3. 1. 
509 b 27, XsxtoTs rcapuav cpXspCoi? xsptsppvou?. ib. 4. 514 b 27, Xs7utoT? 
yap xat xotXotc xa\ tvwBsat tsXsot&ot cpXeptot?. 

186. It was a very easy matter e. g. for the conception of JWtt- 
Btov as c that which is like a child, but not a real child ' to give way 
to the simpler one 'a little' or ' young child,' since inferiority of 
size and age was the very point of the comparison from the begin- 
ning. Whenever a situation occurred in which the small size ol the 
derivative was particularly vividly contrasted with the larger size of 
the primitive, the new interpretation was virtually thrust upon the 
word, so e, g. in Andoc. 1. 127, where, after a baby had been re- 
peatedly called xatBtov, occurs the sentence: tov -aTBa t,By) ;■ 
ovTa slsayst si? K^puxa?. Similar is the contrast between -Sti\ "" l 
<ptepiov in Arist. De Spir. 5. 483 b 29 (§ 185). Tl,<- (tenge ol inter- 
pretation must also have been helped by the differed oonceptaon oi 
the same primitive by different individuals (§ 187). Thui wken 

138 Chapter XV. 

the speaker used xatBiov ' that which is like a child etc' with the 
feeling that noac, was really inapplicable, the hearer might have no 
such feeling about the primitive at all, and, if the situation neverthe- 
less made it clear that 7uaiBiov designated a baby, he could not inter- 
pret it otherwise than ' a little or young child.' Moreover, sometimes 
the primitive could suffer universal extension of usage in course of 
time, and then the interpretation 'a kind of but 'not the same as' 
would be impossible for everybody. 

187. After this change of interpretation had once gained an actual 
foothold, the diminutive development was complete. That this stage 
had actually been reached, in other words, that the formation of di- 
minutives had gained complete independence of the idea of similarity, 
is shown by the formation of new diminutives in which the latter is 
impossible because size is not a constituent of the meaning of the 
primitive. Thus fruyaTYjp c daughter ' is a concept that has to do with 
descent only, and the idea of size has no place in it. A newly born 
babe is the daughter of its parents as truly as an adult person, and 
therefore O^ydtTpiov must have been from the beginning ' a little 
daughter,' not ' no real daughter.' Similar is vyjciov ' a little island ' ; 
for v?]<7os ' an island ' designates any piece of land surrounded by 
water, and it must not necessarily be of a certain size. On the 
contrary, the smaller islands which are readily perceived as enclosed 
by water are the ones to which the name must have been first ap- 
plied, and only with the increase of geographical knowledge would 
a large island like Euboea be thought of as surrounded by water. 

188. As in case of the corresponding change of interpretation of 
the deterioratives, the old interpretation here did not at once or al- 
together give way to the new one, but cropped out again and again 
at different times and with different individuals (cf. § 160). As was 
seen from the first example of § 185, even as late a writer as 
Aristotle could still feel the relation of the diminutive to the gener- 
alizing meaning. This is as may be expected, since the development 
of a new meaning never in itself means that it takes the place of 
the old, but is rather an additional one. 

189. In § 136 it was pointed out that words of the xspcraov 
type, though originally non-diminutive, could be interpreted as dimin- 
utives or not according to circumstances and individuals. Since words 
of this kind which were formed after the diminutive meaning had been 
established, could be formed indifferently with the idea of small size 
uppermost or the idea of similarity, it is evident that no sharp line 

Diminutives. 139 

of distinction between diminutives and words in which -tov is an ex- 
ponent of the similarity of a smaller to a larger object can be drawn. 
Though the continually increasing number of indisputable diminutives 
probably caused the diminutive interpretation of these words gradually 
to become the usual one, nothing definite can often be maintained 
about the single words, and there must have been all kinds of 
gradations of the relative prominence of the two ideas. 

190. In determining the causes of the sudden productivity of -tov 
as a diminutive suffix there are at least three things to be con- 
sidered : (1) the extremely frequent use of the pattern tuociBiov (§ 182, 
end) and its consequent influence upon new formations ; (2) the number 
of words like xepdhrtov, which could be easily reinterpreted as diminu- 
tives as soon as a pattern existed ; (3) the clearness with which any 
suflixal meaning like the diminutive is perceived, and consequently 
allows new words to be formed without the influence of congeneric 
words. We may set it down as a rule that the vaguer and more 
indistinct the force of a suffix is, the less easily will it be trans- 
ferred to other words because of its meaning, and the more readily 
will it yield to the process of congeneric attraction or mechanical 
assimilation to the suffixes of related words. Thus the vague ad- 
jectival meanings of -tov, e. g. 'belonging to,' 'made of,' are usually 
not so vividly appreciated, and consequently words with these original 
meanings usually form one unanalyzed concept, and so often attract 
congeners either with or without the same suffixal meaning (cf. § 252ff.\ 
but there are comparatively few isolated words which have gotten the 
suffix because of the undoubted perception of these meanings. The 
diminutive meaning, on the other hand, is almost as vividly perceived 
as a separate word; for the idea 'little' is as definite and concrete 
an idea whether it is found in an adjective or in a suffix. The 
speaker, therefore, often formed an -iov word with the conscious 
intention of designating a small object of the same kind as the prim- 
itive designates. There was, therefore, continual analysis of the -tov 
word, continual reference to the primitive, continual appreciation of 
the definite meaning of the suffix. As a result, diminutive, could 
be formed ad libitum as occasion demanded, and often one word 
would be coined independently by different speakers, in as much as 
each one formed it with reference to its primitive, and did Q01 kno* 
whether he was using an established word. In this light, then, the 
rapid spread of diminutive -tov is no more remarkable than the Midden 
appearance of many a common individual word. 

140 Chapter XV. 

191. The precise shading of the diminutive idea depends largely 
upon the nature of the primitive ; a diminutive of a name of an animal 
is different from one of a thing, a diminutive of an abstract noun 
different from one of a concrete noun, a diminutive of an indefinite 
idea different from one of a definite idea. I consequently divide my 
examples, as usually, into congeneric groups, which will largely bring out 
these differences. Variations of meaning, however, which are not con- 
veniently discussed under these headings, are reserved for a future 

192. A. Names of persons. These were in the main modelled 
upon 7uaiBiov, and consequently the idea of small size was combined 
with that of youth (except in case of dcv&pc&roov) from the beginning, 
without our being justified in saying that the latter is secondary to 
the former, since rcaiBiov was no less a creature that was too young 
to be called %cac than one that was too small (§ 182). av&qixmiov : 
avfrptoTUO?, 'a little fellow.' Anaxandr. frg. 3. 177, TjxsTs yap oOOcf r 
\qu$ ast )(Xsua££T, olo' axpi[3a)c/ *Av plv yap yj Ttc. £07ups7tY)c, ispov ya(j.ov 
xaXs?TS • 'Eav Bs pxpov TuavTsXffig avO'pomov, oraXay[j.6v. tivydioiov : 
£k>yaTY]p, 'little daughter,' 'infant daughter.' Ar. Thesm. 565, 05B' 
wc. <7u t% BooXyjc, tsxotfsyjs appsv slra <7auTYJ Toufr' urcsppaXou, to gov 
Vz fruyaTpiov 7uap?]xac, aoTY]. Dem. 40. 13, sxstvo? \lzv to froyaTptov 
[j-oi s7uiBwv ysv6[isvov . . . sts^sutyjcsv. xoqiov : xopY), 'little maiden.' 
Lys. frg. 1. 5, outmc. spcoTtx&c, to xopiov [xsTs/sipt£sTO, tyj? fjXtxiac atJTYJ? 
axoXautov, yJ? paov too? oBovTa? api9|LY]<7ai r\ tyj? ^sipd? too? oaxTJXoo?. 
jiaidtov : rcatc, a) ' little child.' 1 Sophron frg. 14, apTOv yap tic tu- 
pwvTa toT? 7uaiBiot£ Ta^s. Herod. 4. 187, twv xaiBiwv twv o-cpeTspcov, 
£7usav TSTpasTsa ysvYTai. id. 5. 51, s7uaxou(7at, sxstaus t6v KXso|X£Vsa 
aTUorcsjrjiavTa to xaiBiov. . . . touto Bs ol xai [xoovov tsxvov iToyyavs 
I6v Itscov oxtw y) swsa yjXixiyjv. Ar. Equ. 412, "Eycoys vy] too? xov- 
BuXouc, oS? 7uo7.Xa oy) Vt rco^XoTc, 'Hvsayo^Yjv Ix 7uatBiou. id. frg. 2. 
1175, Tyjv yovatxa Bs Aioyovojxat tco t oo (ppovouvTs xaiBtto. Xen. 
Cyr. 2. 3. 10, ix roxtBiou eufruc. 7upoj3aXXs<jO>ai Y)::ioTa[j.Y)v rcpo tootcov o 
Tt &{JiY]V ftXYjyiqo-sG-frai . . . [xayaipav ys [jly]v sofruc. 7uaiBiov a>v YJpxa^ov otzou 
iBoip. Aeschin. 2. 179, xa[xoi jxsv oi a-ovB£Y]<r6|j*svot 7uapsi<7iv . . . xal 
TauTa Ta pxpa 7uatBia xal too? [xsv xivBovooc, ou^to cruvisvTa. Plato 
Cratyl. 392 C, f 'Op)poc, to 7uatBiov to too "ExTwpo? 6tc6 tcov Tpwwv (pvjoiv 
xaXstcrfrai 'AaruavaxTa. Theocr. 1. 50, rcatBiov designates a little boy 
who was called dTiyo? Tt? xwpoc, a few lines above, b) ' little servant 

1 When iiaidUv designates a child that is much beyond the infant age, 
the idea ' not a real child ' is no longer possible. 

Diminutives. 141 

or slave.' l Men. frg. 4. 188 (6), To rcaioiov o' eio^X&ev s^tou? 
ospov. Insc. Att. Ditt 2 . 38. 27 (414-413 B. C. ), in a list of con- 
fiscations, tt H PA AHH- Kap 7uaT?| t-PAAtt Kapixov TuaiBiov. Insc. 
Amphissa Ditt 5 . 844. 8, Botteav '0[v]a<ji<p6pw Ntxwvo? Tuaioia B'jo 
[sfae I i]£ a{% sits ayopa<7a<7a p] sXaroov twv Buo. Insc. Calymna 
Ditt 2 . 868. 9, Y)lsu0'£pto<7sv 7uaiBiov 'AyafrorcoBa. 

193. B. Names of animals. As in case of diminutives of per- 
sonal names, the idea of youth is sometimes combined with that of 
small size ; for when animals of the same species are compared, the 
small ones are also the young ones, and the two ideas were no doubt 
often present from the beginning, as in the pattern type rcaiBiov. In 
addition the notion of descent, whether original and the cause of the 
diminutive meaning, or secondary to the latter (cf. § 95), may have 
played a part in words designating the young of animals. From the 
idea of youth again is derived the idea of deliciousness or tenderness 
as articles of food ; for the younger animals are naturally more esteemed 
for these qualities. This is present as an accessory notion in passages 
like Antiphan. frg. 3. 39 (1), Koyyiov ts pxpov aXkoivzoc, ts rcpoors- 
T|iY]|jivov. The idea of deliciousness, on the other hand, has become 
the dominant if not the exclusive element in the meaning of xevtitdiov 
in Pherecr. frg. 2. 316, Ta os By) BsvBpr, iav toT? Specnv yoficac, 6r.-yXc 
sptcpsiot? QoXkoporpzi, xai TsufriBioi? to&oTs xiylai? t avappaiToic. It 
is evident that this use of the suffix borders closely upon the hypo- 
coristic use, and under that heading are placed those examples in which 
the idea of daintiness has proceded so far that it is found in words 
where it could not originate (§ 231). In the names of animals, 
however, this use is so closely associated with the real diminutive use, 
that it is inpracticable to separate the two. The examples are divided 
according to whether the animal is thought of as an article of food 
and so allows the notion of deliciousness to be connected with the 

a) The animal is not considered an article of food, faqtfwv : ax:-;, 
'a little locust.' Diosc. 2. 116, xaprcov Bs lyzi 1% axpw, wraep axpioia 
BixoAa. eAfiurViov : iXpivc, ' a little worm.' Arist. H. A. 6. 16. 57< >.i 1 4. 
fcoxoOm U (sc. at lyietefy ™n ysvvav, Sti £v Met* tow syy/AJov &- 
fiivIHa EyyiyvovTar sx toutwv yap oiovirai yivesO-ai lyyil'jc. iyi<)rn>v : 
i^Bva, ' a little or young viper.' See § 94. naqtitw 
small crustacean,' Shrimp.' Arist. H. A. 5. 16. 547 b 17, see g 186 

1 This meaning comes from the tendency to use nat< of h M-rvunt boy 

142 Chapter XV. 

sub xapxiviov. xaqxivtov : xapxivos, ' a little crab.' Hipp. 472, cpusTai 
sx Ttlxyioo tou /ovBpo'j sv axpco olov xapxmoc. /a^ov : Xayo?, ' a little 
or young hare.' Xen. Cyn. 5. 13, twv Bs pxp&v Xayio>v o£si {j.aXXov 
y) tSv pisyaXow. [icuvidiov : [jiaivis, c a little sprat.' Arist. H. A. 6. 
15. 569a 18, [xsysfro? YjXtxa (xouviBia pxpa. ogvCfriov : opvtc, 'a little 
bird.' Strattis frg. 2. 784, Ai B' alsxTpuovsc obuacai Kal Ta yoiptBia 
ts&vy)xs Kal Ta [nxp' opvftka. Arist. H. A. 9. 36. 620 a 34, b 1, sv 
too sXet S'YjpstfouG-tv oi &v$pGWCOt ^a 6pvi8>ia xoivyj [^sTa twv ispaxtov. 
ot [jlsv yap s)tovts£ §jXa (7o(3ou(7i t6v xa}.a|j.ov xat tyjv uXyjv, iva xstcov- 
Tat Ta opvifria, ol B J tspaxsc avtofrsv 5ftsp<paiv6[JLSvGi xaTaBitoxoiKTiv. ib. 
9. 17. 616 b 28, 6pvt(kov juxpdv 6 xaXstrai xspQaos. ooTvyiov : opzuc^ 
4 a little quail.' Eupol. frg. 2. 512, "OpToya? sfrps^a? <j6 Tiva? yjBy) 
tuwtuots ; B. "Eytoys jxtxp' m opTtjyta. nokvnoSiov : tuoXutcoos, ' a little 
or young purple-fish.' See § 94. nqofimiov : xpopaTov, ' a little sheep.' 
Men. frg. 4. 161, ETt otfy' op.owc 7upaTT0[j.sv xat fruo|j.sv ; f/ 07uou ys toT? 8>so?<; 
[j.sv Y)yopao]jivov Apa/|j.a)v ayw rcpopaTiov * aya7UY)Tov Bsxa. Gxw'lrjxior : 
ay.(o>,Yi5, ' a little or young worm or grub.' Arist. H. A. 5. 19. 553 a 1, 
25. 555 a 19, 'OvsuovTai Bs xai oi p.tjp[XY)xs£ xai tixtoikti (TxaAYJxta, ib. 
27. 555 a 28, ysvva Bs (sc. Ta apayvta) (jxwX^xia pxpa xpwTOv. ib. 
6. 15. 569 b 18, olov sv tw xoxpco Ta crxcolYjxta |j.ixpa. avgovMor : 
a-TpouG-os, ' a little or young sparrow.' Ephipp. frg. 3. 326, see § 94. 
b) The animal is thought of as an article of food. alextqvoviov : 
a^sxTpuoW, ; tender little rooster.' Ephipp. frg. 3. 334, which I quote 
entire because of its many words of this kind: 'AM? ayopao-ov stksXws* 
r A:uav yap ixavov sort. B. (ppa£s By] tcots. A. My) TzoXuTsk&c, ocX>& 
xafrapsuo^ 6 ti av Y], c ()<7iac svsx', apxsT tsi>8>iBi' r\ CYimBia* Kav xapa(3o£ 
Tig Y) Xa(3sTv, sic apxscst *H Bu' Ira, ty]v Tparcs^av. sy/sMBia ©yj^yjO-sv 
sviot spjrsTat, toutcov Xa(3s. AlsxTpuoviov, cpaTTiov, xspBixtov, TotauTa. 
BaG-U7uouc av stus^y) tic, cpsps. B. 'ilc pxpo^oyo? si. A. <7L> Bs Xiav 
tcoIutsXyjc. IIavTG)£ xps' Y]|j.Tv sgtl B. 7U0Tsp' S7us|ji<j>s tic 5 A. Oux alX 
sO'UG-sv y] yuvYj. B. to \)<o(jyiov To tyj? KopwvY]? a5ptov Bsi7uvyjc70[j.sv. 
xoyxi'or : xoy/Y], 'a little muscle.' Antiphan. frg. 3. 39 (1), see be- 
ginning of paragraph, kafiqaxiov ' a little "Xappa^ (fish).' Antiphan. 
frg. 3. 130, OuxoQv to [jlsv y^auxtBiov &Gizzp vXko^z "Edisiv sv oCky.r { ; 
B. cpY]{ji. A. to Bs Xappaxiov ; B. 'Oxtocv oXov. Ampins frg. 3. 316, 
y E/siv xafrapioK sy/sXuBtov Tt xal rXauxtviBioi) xscpalaia xat XotppootCoo 
Ts[j.a/ia. [xcuvlSiov : p,aivic, ' a little sprat.' Ar. frg. 2. 1050, Tpa- 

1 That the diminutive refers to small size, is made evident by the small 
price, a full-grown sheep being worth twenty drachmas. Cf. Bockh, Staats- 
haushalt 3 . 1. 96. 

Diminutives. 143 

-oij.svov zlc toS^ov taefkTv 'OcrpXia xat [j.atvftka xai cnpcCBia. vagxtov : 
vefcpxiQ, * a little torpedo.' Philoxenus 2. 12, Mixpa Bs fcaxxdcfk' fo s/ovtx 
to [jiv Y*X«oO Tt, Napxfov %Xko. prjTTiov : v?JTTa, 'a little cluck,' ' duck- 
ling. 5 Nicostratus frg. 3. 280, ayopac-ov xat vY,TTia, 'O^oc-a ao (Sotitei, 
xal vx/lxc xa\ xo'la/o-j?, 'Opvifrapia ts tow aypicov toutwv cruyva- Xapisv 
yap. oapvfoov 4 a little 8<y[JuAos (fish).' Ar. frg. 2. 1050, see sub 
[xaivfoiov. nsydtxiov : rcspBi<£, ' a little partridge.' Eubul. frg. 3. 268 
(14), JlspBbua Xoc(& TsTTap' y) xai tosvts, AaatkoBa? TpsTc, arpoufrdeptdc 
? otov 'EvrpaysTv, axavfruMiBac, (3tTTaxouc, EwCvia, y.sp/vY,Ba?, Ta t 
; 1W% 4tt av £-'--J/;^. Ephipp. frg. 3. 334, see sub a^sxTpuoviov. 
.Tioiaiboiov : rcepwrcipa, u a little dove.' Com. ap. Athen. 654 B, 
[IEPISTEPION o5t(o? sgtiv s&psiv £?pY]L)ivov rcapa MsvavBpto sv IlaMax^ • 
" (j.izpov s::i[j.£ivac TUpocrp^ei, 'Hyopaxa <roi 7Uspi<TT£pia <^TaBt^> Xsywv". 
6[j.o»o£ Ni/.OTTpairoc Aj3pa* " TauT a£ior Toopvifrapiov, to rcspwr^plov, 
to yaarpiov." 'Ava'^avBpiBY); Iv 'AvTspcoTr " IIspwrTspia yap staaytov xal 
GTpOufrCa." ( l ) p'Jvt/o?TpaycoBoTc' " IIsptc-Tspiov B' ocutwti laps TpiwpoXoo. 1 ' 
anmov : oicCvos, w a little siskin(?).' Eubul. frg. 3. 268 (14), see sub 
sspBCxiov. oioov'JCov : orpoofro? 'a little sparrow.' Anaxandr. frg. 3. 
164, see sub ^spio-Tsptov. Tev#idiov : tsoOic, ' a little cuttle-fish.' 
Pherecr. frg. 2. 316, see beginning of paragraph. Eubul. frg. 3. 258, 
My] rcotarsXffig, alXa xafrapsiwc o ti av y], f Oo-ta? Ivsza, (tyjtciBi' r\ TeofriBia, 
[IXsxTavta pxpa iroMrcoooc, vyjcttiv Tiva. Ephipp. frg. 3. 334, see sub 
aXs/.TpLioviov. (fdvxiov : cpaTTa, ' a little ringdove.' id. 1. c. 

194. C. The body or parts of the body. For the parts of 
animals the same distinction can be made as for the names of the 
animals themselves: they can be thought of as articles of food or 
not, and if so, the idea of tenderness, deliciousness, etc., may be 
present or even dominant. I consequently divide : a) the human body 
or its parts, or of animals when not thought of as articles of food : 
b) the latter conceived of as food. 

a) typavtov : fyxfxa, c a little eye.' Arist. Physiogn. 3. 807 b 29, 
avaiBotic ^pia 6>-j.aTiov avsxToypivov xai Xa[j.7upov. lb. 85, *©<J|iiou 
(TY^sTa . . o>»xaTiov alapus^ \>£kxv xat jj.y)ts )iav av£~T'jy[jivov u.y> -avTa- 
jcaai o-Li-j^spxoc, crxapoapxTtxov ppaBs&>;. ib. 808 b 6, 7>ayvo«j irqpifa 
. . Xtwapov to d-j^dcTiov xai [xapyov. 6vv%w.Ml, 'a little nail, 5 of 
a chameleon. Arist. H. A. 2. 11. 503 a 29, fyet &« *a\ (so. 6 / 
tewv) ovo/ia faC TO-JTov 6|j.oia toT? Tfcv ya-j^ovj/ov. tt^V^^OJ 
•a little rib.' Hi])]). 261, TcXsupCa of a baby's ribs. o'V/'" 
•a little snout.' Ar. Ach. 744 (the Megarian to Ins two litUe 
who are to be sold as pigs),' 'kit a-j/^O-s^e xa\ ^\ Ta p u 

144 Chapter XT. 

ocofMxnop : cw^a, l a little body.' Hipp. 261, of a baby's body. Arist. 
frg. 318. 1532 a 9, of the body of the TsuQas, to 6\ov co)[xaTiov Tpu- 
cpspov xat &7uop)X£aTEpov. vfieviov : Ojjltjv, 4 a little membrane.' Arist. 
H. A. 1. 17. 497 a 21, xat g^eBov 7uavTY) xuxXco 'Xs^toT? xat tvo)B£<jtv 
6[X£vtot£ scTt 7upo<7£i^Y)[X[xsvY] (sc. Y] wjgtis). ib. 4. 4. 529 a 17, rcapucpavTat 
B' arcd zr\<; xotTias iw aro^ayto £v zoic, [X£yaXot£ xo/Xot? Guvzy6\kzvoc, 
6[X£vio> [xaxpds rcopo? xat tauxo?. waw : o5s, ' little ear.' Diosc. 2. 
214, I/£tv [jlu6? wTtot? o|iota Ta cpuXXa. 

b) ^naiiov : fyuap, ' delicious (little) liver,' the idea of small size 
being entirely subordinate, if present at all. Ar. frg. 2. 1151 (9), 
f AXt£ a<puY)£ [JLOt. 7uapaTETap*at yap Ta ^txapa xcottow. 'AXXa cpspsO* 3 
Y]7uaTiov, ^ xaxptBtou v£OU KoXXoxa Ttva. Eubul. frg. 3. 217, c H:uaTta, 
vYJari?, 7uXstf[Ji.ovss, [XYJTpa. Aristophon frg. 3. 356, "EratO* 5 Y]7:aTta xat 
vYjcrtv Ttva npo(7£9^x£v. Alexis frg. 3. 397 (1. 7), c H7uaTtov oxtov 
7upoa-£>.a(3ov. id. ib. 429 (1. 16), Kp£aBt' aTTa, TtoBapta, p'jyyv] Ttva, 
'Qirapi Sei', $)TOXTtov £yx£xaXu|X[jivov. nkexiaviov : tu^sxtocvt), ' a little 
polyp's arm.' Eubul. frg. 3. 258, see § 193 b sub TEuQ-tBtov. 
nvevptoviov : ftvetfjuov, ' a little lung.' Hegesander ap. Athen. 107 E, 

£V TOT? XEXa^UJl^ivOt? Y]TOXTtOt£ atJTY] 77VEU[x6vtOV eXa^S, Xat 0>£ 7U£pl£X0L)(ja 

to (7T£!xp eTBsv, IxpayEv. noSiop : tuou?, ' a little foot.' Epich. frg. 57, 
'Evti B' aoraxot xo7^f3Batvat ts yd)$ Ta TuoBt' 1 syst Mtxpa, t&£ yslpas 
Be [xaxpa?, xapajBo? Be To5vop.a. 

195. D. Plants or parts of plants. The accessory elements in 
the meaning of the suffix are largely the same as for names of 
animals. A small plant or part of a plant is also usually young and 
tender, and consequently these two ideas may be combined with that 
of small size. The adjective vso; in the first example quoted shows 
that ' young ' may be the dominant idea in the use of the diminutive. 
dfiTteXwv : apusXos, c a young vine.' Ar. Pax 596, f 'QaTs <jz toc 
t' apjtsXta Ka\ Ta vsa cuxtBta TcxlX fr' b%6<j i<ru <puTa UpoGyzlxczztxi 
\v$6yz aa-[j,£va. fioianov : |3oTavY), c a little plant.' Theophr. C. P. 
2. 17. 3, sti Bs to cuptaxov (3oTavtov 6 xaXou|j,svo£ xaBuTa? xai BsvBpot? 
xat axavfrat? i[j.cpu£Tai xat aXXot? twxC. xavliov : xauXos, ' a slender 
stalk.' Diosc. 2. 214, sxcpusTat T£ XsrcTa xatAta sx twv [.LaayaXcov, scp' 
&v av9'Y)Xta xuavtJovTa pxpa. xlwrtor : xXtov, 'a very young shoot.' 
While the diminutive sometimes refers to the whole class (§ 208 D), 
it seems to designate particularly young or tender shoots in the fol- 

1 The adjective [mxqk shows that the idea of small size was uppermost 
in the mind of the writer, and that he did not conceive nodiov as ' a foot- 
like thing, but not a real foot.' 


Diminutives. 145 

lowing passages: Theophr. H. P. 9. 16. 1, 2, lyzi U (sc. t6 BtxTapov) 
Ti xat xaTa tov x^Xov e><psp^, T a Be xXavCa X£XTOT£pa. ... 4 B £ 
^•jBoBtxTapov Ttt [xsv cpuXXo> 6[xotov, to?s Bs xXcovtot<; B' SXafW. id. 
0. P. 5. 13, 4, XsxTa yap xat auTa Ta xXowta xat arcaXa ty, cpucst, xat 
8Xov to BsvBpov 06 frsppv. Xenvowv : Tixopov, ' a small husk.' Arist. 
H. A. 5. 15. 546 b 20, ToQxo B' (sc. Ta t% rcopcpupag |X£Xtxr,pa) scttiv 

OIOV XY]plOV, JtXty O'J/ OUTW yXacpUpOV, aXX' 6<77USp av st fee AS-'JGLCOV 

sp£(3ivOivo)v Xeuxwv 7:oXXa cuprayaY). oqopiov : opo^o?, ' a little chick- 
pea.' Hipp. 5$, xat sv t§> oSpw 6<pt(7TaTat oiov opo[3tov ^appov. §afidlov : 
£a(3Bo<;, 'a little twig. 1 Theophr. H. P. 3. 15. 2, xat Ta Xetttoc -%vj 
pa(3Bta rapiXowCaavres xav£a juoiotto. ib. 17. 6, Ion Bs (sc. y) fywaXos) 
OapwB£? £a(3Btot; pxpoTs. {tayavidiov : pa9avts, ' a little radish,' see 
sub cpuXltov. $#&W : pi£a, ' a little root.' Antiphan. frg. 3. 23, c Pt£tov 
Tptyas Tt pxpov. (pvlliov : cpuTAov, 'a little leaf or herb.' Plato Com. 
ap. Athen. 56 F, 6x0x0 ptoTtxws B' sipvjxs IIXaTG)v Iv f Yftepj&Xte * "cpuXXtov 
y) jiacpavtBtov." 

196. E. Natural phenomena, geographical conceptions, etc. The 
diminutive idea is comparatively free from accessory notions. XtavCov, 
however, ' a little pond,' being applied to one not larger than a shield, 
may have been interpreted as 4 not a real pond,' but only c like a pond.' 
y.v\tiLo\> : x9J7UOC, 'a little garden.' Insc. Halicarnassus Ditt 2 . 11. 15 
(end of 5 th cent. B. C), otxirjv . . . xat to xY)7ttov to 7up6; TTjt oixir/. 
Bpa(/^£tov) XHHFAAAA (sc. IxptaTo). xtofuov : xwjjiy], ' a little village.' 
Plut. 2. 773 B, £GTt Be (sc. A£0XTpa) xwpov tyj^ twv ®s<n:i£0)v /o>pa;. 
fafiviop : XCfJLVt), w a little lake or pond.' Arist. Mirab. 112. 8401)33, 
Xtptov Tt £/ov oo-ov acrxtBo? to x£pt[j.£Tpov. va{icmov : va[j.a, ' a little 
stream.' Theophr. Ign. 29, Bta toSto xaTayvuvT£? tou? avupaxa; fcvCoTC 
xat xpoa-ayovT£? dcXXyjXoi? <pu<yS)<nv. Ix [xtxpwv yap suvtoVruv rifoncp va- 
(wctCwv xat r, 0A0'; ytvsTat. veyiXiov : vs<psXv), ' a little cloud.' Arist. 
Meteor. 2. 8. 367 b 9, *| yap fiefr' %ipav ■*, p.txpov ;j.£Ta Bu^a-, atv:--/.: 
&5<n)S, vs<p£Xtov Xsxt6v cpatvsTat BiaTsTvov xat u.axpov. ri^or : vtto:, 
'a little island.' Strabo 160, coxoov B' ot 'EuxopTTat scpfopov vr^tov 
Tt xpox£t[j.£vov, 6 v3v xaXsTirat xaXata %61u;. nAaxia (to) : x).af. probably 
* little pieces of flat land,' or else a plural like Ta otxta | § 87 I'l '. . 
Insc. Troez. IGPIV. 1. 823. 61. noUinov : TuoXtyvY), k n Small town.' 
Plato Resp. 2. 370 D, Textove? B v £ xat /aXx% xat TOtothoC w 
Br^ito-jpyot, xotvtovot %Tv toQ xolt/vtou ytyvo^svot, ou/vov K^ KOU 
For Isocr. 12. 89 see § 151. nordfitov : -oraao.;. • ;i little C 
Metagenes frg. 2. 753, Ta Bs [J.txpa Ta-jTt mttyx P 

T£'jO>tortv 67craT<; xat oaypotc xat xapa^ot:. 'EvrsuOtvl 5' iXX*n x'/t rcepi- 


146 Chapter XV. 

x6|x(xa<7iv. Strabo 8. 342, Igto yap xai 7uotoc|j.iov 1 tuXyjoCgv. Qevfiactov : 
pso^a, ' a little stream,' 4 rivulet.' Plut. Thes. 27, to psu[j.cmov 6 rcaXoa 
|jlsv, <*>? sotxs, 0£p[j.c6Bo)v, Aijjkov Bs vuv xals?Toa. Metaphorically in 
Arist. Probl. 11. 18. 901 a 3. ov<fTQ€[i(iaTiov : <ru<rc-ps[X|j.a, 4 a little pool.' 
Arist. Mirab. 29. 832 b 4. vdfaiov : oBcop, 'a little stream. 1 Plato 
Phaedr. 229 A, B, paorov o5v Y)[uv xoctoc to 6B<xtiov (sc. t6v 'IXioa&v) 
pp^ouoi too? 7t6Bas tsvai, xai o6x aY]Bs?, . . . /apisvTa yotiv xai xaQ-apa 
xai Biacpav?) Ta uBaTia 2 cpaivsTat, xai smTYjBsia xopai£ xai^siv Tuap' auTa. 
Arist. H. A. 8. 28. 606 b 21, Bia yap ty)v avoji.{3piav [xia-ysa-frai Boxs? 
dwuavTtovTa 7up6c. Ta 6BaTta xai Ta p) 6[xocpuXa. 

197. F. Words designating statues. The diminutive refers to 
small size exclusively. dyaA^dnor : ayaXjxa, ' a little statue.' Luc.Somn. 
3, <xyaX[j.aTia Tiva [xixpa xaTa<7xsua£tov. Athen. 676 A, ayal|j.aTiov 
'AcppoBiTY)? (T7ui8»ajJLtaTov, ap^atov tyj ts^vyj. avdoiavuov : avBpia<;, ' a little 
statue. 1 Insc. Delos Mich. 833. 119 (279 B. C), AaxTtACBiov xp^o-ouv, 
avBpiavTiov, tuxiov, /puffa* 67vXY]v tuocvtow J-h elxovtov : et)«*>v, ' a little 
image.' Polemon ap. Athen. 574 D, xa\ to KoTTivac, Bs tyjc sTaipac 
sixoviov. . . . ava£hr)[j.a B' auTYJ? sariv 67usp to tyjc Xalxiotxou [3oiBi6v ti 
/aXxouv xai to 7upo<7sipY][jivov sixoviov. %oaviov : <£6avov, 4 a little wooden 
image.' Insc. Anaphe CB. 3430. 12. Tim lav : tutuo?, ' a little image.' 
CIA. 2. 836 c— k 15 (270-262 B. C), tuxiov xai BpaxovTia TsVirapa A-. 
1. 19, Tuma Buo Navviou. 1.30, tutciov KpaTivou [l]h TU7uoc 'AvBp[oxV]s[Guc 
h] 111. tutcoc AapBiou Ml. 1. 39, Toraa tcsvts ' Apxi7U7tY)c rHII. Insc. Delos 
Mich. 833. 119, Tuxfov apyupotiv, 6^xy]v H*. 

198. G. Vases, vessels, bags, boxes, etc. As in the two preced- 
ing groups the diminutive refers to size exlusively. As was remarked 
§ 125, it is extremely difficult to separate diminutives of this group 
from congeneric words which are equivalent to their primitives. With 
more or less probability the following words seem to be diminutives : 
aGxtor : a<7xo?, "a little bag.' Hipp. 261, aoxia Buo s£suy[jiva 5BaTO£ 
[xsara. Iroxvco Be tcov acxitov slpia. sTuavco Bs toutwv to s[j.(3puov. #vXd- 
xiov : 9>6Xaxoc, probably a 'little bag' in Herod. 3. 105, because filled 
with heavy gold dust and carried away : srcsav Bs sXfrcoo-i sc. tov /wpov 
pi "IvBoi lyovTS$ OnAaxia, s|j.7u}j]<7avTsc TauTa tyjc ^ajjLpiou tyjv Ta/wxTYjv 
s^aovouo-i 6m<7co. xaxxapiov, 'a little xaxxa(3Y].' Philoxenus frg. 2. 11, 

1 Cf. § 200, note to yeyvyiov. 

2 The plural here because the stream is thought of as a mass of water, 
though the diminutive logically requires the singular when applied to a 
single stream. In other words, ta vdaita arose by contamination of ra vd«z<c 
and zb vdaziov. 

Diminutives. 147 

sco § 103 b sub vapxfov. xtpmtop : w.^z6^ < a little box,' if di- 
minutive, as is possible in the following passages because it seems to 
refer to small specimens: Dem. 25. 61, Sorepov V ripfatQUCt to ypap.- 
lurctfov sv xtpwrfw wC. CIA. 2. 652 B 25 f. (beg, of 4th cent. B. C.), 

J[V ET| ;spw Xl(3(OTl(0- tfUpYjVY] IXs<paVT£vY) XOCTdcXpU(70G * £v Xtj3(0Tl[t0' 6p{J.]|(0 

Buo, UTuoBsptc, BtoTutov Bdo £euyei. 1. 30, sy xt(Wco • Xdptov &e<pavrivov 
xai rcXvjxirpov. Insc. Delos Ditt 2 . 588. 187 (180 B. C), /puofcv ey 
Kip&mwi jc«vto&omc6v. 1. 197, drscpavwv x^a^a™ xat aMa xpucrfa 
^avToBa:ua sv xtftaTtw. Insc. Caryanda BCH. 1884 p. 219. 12 ff., 
fcapaxeTdBw [&c£]<tt<o xtpamov scrcppayto]xsvov b%b t&v rcpoaraTfiiv, Syov 
. . . pjxo; BiBctonruXov. xvttxiov : xt>Xt£, ' a little cup. 7 Insc. Delos 
Mich. 833. 102, [xujXtxtov apyupouv, 8>x/]v III. Contrast 1. 27, xtfti? 
. . . 61xy] HHAAAi>. Ditt 2 . 588. 14, xtAtxtov xat arraptov. 1. 41, xtAi- 
xtov [xovwtov. hfpvSiov : XyjxuO'O?, perhaps ' a little flask, 1 CIA. 2. 
835 c-1 85 (320—317 B. C), Toqxufrtov apyupouv sm o-avtBto>. {.layGLTiiov ; 
p.ap<7t7cos, 'a little pouch.' Apollodorus Carystus ap. Poll. 10. 152, 
[xapo-foiov ti pxpov. (fialiov ' a little cptaXv] ' (cf. § 125). There 
is nothing to show whether the word is a diminutive in Arist. Mir. 
33. 832 b 26, but a comparison of the weight of the cptaXta and the 
cptalat in inscriptions shows that the former word designates the smaller 
vessels. Thus in Mich. 833 the cptci&at are registered as follows : 70 
dr. (1. 25), 146 dr. (28), two of 142 dr. each (28), 140 dr. (29), 
139 dr. (29), 149 dr. (29), 138 dr. (29), 202 dr. (30), 204 dr. (30), 
195 dr. (30), 193 (30), 201 dr. (30), 196 dr. (30), 201 dr. (30), 100 
dr. (64), 96 dr. (65), 72 dr. (115), thirty <?to&at in 1. 106 f. weigh 
2519 dr. The cptaXta on the other hand do not weigh over 55 dr. 
(1. 31), while two weigh only 28 dr. (27, 31), and another 50 dr. (31). 
Cf. also the compound j>UTO<piaXtov, CIA. 836 c-k 10 (270-262 B.C.). 
199. H. Instruments and similar utensils. It is sometimes dif- 
ficult to distinguish between diminutives of this kind and instrument 
nouns which are equivalent to their primitives (§ 77 ff.). The 
following, however, are with more or less certainty diminutives: 
atmlbiov : asm?, " a little shield.' Hermipp. frg. 2. 386, "E/ovirsc feoy 
acrrciBiov oyxio). Men. frg. 4. 284 (227), '/Wfttov ^piaj^v ft xat 
(xa/atptov. CIA. 2. 678 B 66 (378-366 B. C). fyqto ; J%OC, '« 
little chair or stool.' Timaeus Lex. Plat. 233, IxoMO-pta, ramtvA 
5t<ppta rcapa toT? 0so-(7aV^. id. ib. 273, XafM#T)Xo;, Stcppfov pxr t y 
xaxsivov crxtpuoBtov. sc%a()iov : : £oyapa, ' a little hearth.' Insc. Delos 
Mich. 833. 129 (279 B. C), £<r/apa o-tB^po? • . . . [kx«]pku W>* 
%U(7L» xaireayos, 5rc6<nrairov s/ov. x/jfutxior : xtt^a;, • ;i little ladder,' 

148 Chapter XV. 

i. e. one that is slender in structure, though not necessarily short 
(§ 211 E.). Ar. Pax 69, scpa<7xs yap 7up6; oc6tov sv9>aBt # ITS? av 
xot acptxoipjv av zhbu toU Ato? ; v E;ustTa XsxTa xltpcxta 7rotou|xsvo£ 
Hpo? TatiT avsppt)raT av st? t6v oupavov, "Ew^ £uvsTpt(3Yj tt)5 xscpa>% 
xaTappost^. Aristophon frg. 3. 357, ava(3Y)vat ti 7upo£ K},ip.axtov. {ja%ai- 
qiov : [xayatpa, ' a little dagger.' Men. frg. 4. 284 (227), see sub 
aomBtov. TiAey^idnov : Tzkiy^cc^ ' a little plait.' Arist. Part. An. 4. 
9. 685 b 5, Ta 7uXsyp.aTta ol? ot taTpot ot apyatot toi>£ BaxT'Jlous svspaXXov. 
(fxifjjTodiov : ffxtjjuuous, ' a little pallet.' Phil. frg. 4. 10 (1), XxtpuoBtov 
lv xat xwBtov xat ^tafrCov lews 7uaXat<7TYJ£. CTXeyYtSiov : otXsyY^i ' a 
little scraper.' CIA. 2. 836 c-k 22 ^270-262 B. C), [^Xsyytotov 
ypixrouv A7)[i.o(r:paTOu rHI. ayvyioriGyopa,, 'a little hammer.' Theophr. 
H. P. 5. 7. 8, see § 78. tsq8tqiov : TspsTpov, ' a little gimlet, id. 
1. c. cpaQSTQtov : cpapsTpa, 'a little quiver.' Mosch. 2. 20, Kai /p'jo-sov 
7uspt v&Ta cpapsTptov (sc. syst 6 v Epco?). 

200. I. Words applying to building or architecture, yeqvqiov : 
yscpupa, ' a little bridge.' Ael. V. H. 8. 14, sauTov cpspcov jjl6vov sp- 
pujjs xaTa tivo£ yscpuptou x 7upo? yi>[xvaG"io) ovto?. doxlov : ^oy.6^ ' a little 
beam.' Arist. H. A. 4. 7. 532 b 21, cpaox . . . swpaxsvat sv tyj fra- 
XaTTY] (sc. ?wa) 6[j.ota Boxtot£, [xs^ava, arpoyytj^a ts xa\ foozccyr^ 
dwfi&Ttov : Bo>[xa, ' a little dwelling.' Ar. Ran. 100 (merely for the 
purpose of ridiculing him Euripides is reported to have used the ex- 
pression Atfrspa Ato£ Bwp.aTiov. What he really did use is otxY]<7tv 
Aios). &vqiov : fropa, ' a little door.' Ar. Nub. 92, c Opa? to froptov 
touto xat TwxtBtov ; id. Thesm. 26 ff. olxrjfiaTiov : oixYjpc, ' a little 
dwelling.' Insc. Att. Ditt-. 834. 11 (Macedonian age), xat to otxr r 
[j.aTiov to sVt tou xoxpSvo? st? tov a7uavTJa ypovov EuxpaTst 'E^xiou 
'AcptBvatco BpayjiaJv PhU-h to|u svtauToo sxaaTOU aTslss obuavTtov. 7rr<- 
Qa&vadiov : rcapaoras, 'a little pillar.' Insc. Att. Ditt 2 . 537. 70 
(347—346 B. C), 7uapa Bs tov x||tova 7tapaaTaBta imf)<7Si XtS-tva. TrAjy- 
#tov : xXivfros, perhaps ' a little brick ' in CIA. 2. 656. 3—4, ypuo-tBta 
BtaXtfra <7Ufi[[j.txTa rcXtv]|Dttov xat TSTTtytov. According to Liddell and 
Scott x^tvfrtov is also a diminutive in Xen. Cyr. 7. 1. 24, &<rxtp 
yap pxpov xltvB'tov sv [xsyatao Tsfrsv, o'jtco xat to Ktfpou crpaTsujJia 
7uavTo8^sv TOptstysTO utco twv 7uoXs[xtwv. The fact that one brick is con- 
ceived as placed within the other, shows that it was ' not a real 

1 In passages like this one the indefinite pronoun Tig shows that the -tov 
word refers to a particularly small specimen. A large bridge is a well 
known feature of a neighborhood, and would oftener be referred to by the 
aid of the definite article than the indefinite pronoun. 

Diminutives. 149 

brick,' but only 'something like a brick,' i. e. a box or square (cf. 
§ 160 b. v.). 

201. J. Miscellaneous concrete objects, fiwtiov : (taXo?, 'a little 
lump/ Ar. Vesp. 203, EQ. 04x01 BeCXocios" n6S>£v tuot I^tutwxs 
[*ot to [3(oAiov ; BAE. V I<7(0<; avto8«£v uU; sv£(3aXs <joi rco&sv. Arist. Mir. 
And. 4(3. 833 b 14, cpa<rt os xat sv BaxTpots tov r Q£ov Tuo-rajjiov xoctoc- 
(pepstv [JcoXCa xpudoo rcMjO-si rcoMa. frwQ&uov : frcopa?, probably ' a little 
breast-plate' in CIA. 2. 826. 17. xla^dxiov : xXa<7|xa, 'a little 
fragment.' Insc. Delos Mich. 833. 34, aamBiray^ xWjxcxtiov. vofiic- 
[xartov : v6[u<T[A.a, 'a little coin,' i. e. one of slight value as well as of 
small size (§ 2111). Schol. Ar. Vesp. 213, foov <n(X*}v» "Otl 
(jY}{Jia£v«l to sXa/icrov. KaTJiarpairos B£, vop7[j.aTt6v ti IXayicrov. Poll. 
9. 92, 01 [Jlsv o3v ytxlvM vop7[i.ai:iov 3)v Xsxtov. nAaxoi'vuov : xXaxouc, 
4 a little flat-cake.' Athen. 645 D, apiro? xoTXo? xat otjpptrrpoc, o^oioc, 
zou$ ^syo^svaic xpYjTOCiv, si? a£ IvTi9>£irat toc Bta [too] Tupou <7X£ua£6[i.£vot 
x^axoovcm. oyafQcov : ccpaTpa, ' a little globe or sphere.' The dimin- 
utive meaning is intimately associated with the idea of similarity 
(§ 150 s. v.), but the former seems to be dominant in Plato Ep. 2. 
312 D and in Arist. De An. 1. 4. 409 a 12, where it is used of the 
molecules of Democritus : ix t&v AY)|j,oxpiiroo crcpoapuov. acofxanor : g&[lcc, 
' corpuscle.' Arist. De An. 1.4. 409 a 11, B6c£i£ B' av od&b Bioq>£psiv 
[xovaBa? TiyEtv r\ crto[j.aTia [-uxpa. id. H. A. 4. 1. 525 a 2, a[xcpoT£poi? 
(both sexes of the polyp) B' 6x6 ToeuTa ipufrpa frcra o-cojjiaTia 7up6a-£o--tv. 
tamywr : T&piyog, ' a little dried fish.' Pherecr. frg. 2. 263 (4), o\u- 
xp6v otutwo-' 6p<pav6v Taptyiov. tefj dyjov : T£p.ayoc, ' a little slice.' Ar- 
chedicus frg. 4. 436 (2. 2), Apa/jj.ow Tptwv yXauxtaxov, . . . Foyypou 
x£(palv]v xai Ta 7UpwTa T£[xa/toc Apa/jxcov fta)av tovte. ipmttiov : <J>ia8*o§, 
'a little rush mat.' Phil. frg. 4. 10(1), tytxxMw "Io-w? mxXaKrrSfc. 

202. K. Diminutives of ivords designating a material or any 
indeterminate mass. The diminutive in this case designates a small 
piece or quantity of the mass. 1 This usage must have arisen when 
the primitive itself was viewed as designating a piece of the material 
or something consisting of it. Thus B^a is not only 'skin' 
general indeterminate idea, but also may refer to a particular piece 
of skin. With the latter meaning in mind there is nothing unusual 
in forming the diminutive oepfjuxnov 'a little piece of skin.' 
'flesh' was already in Homer (t450) used of a particular musele, 
and so could be thought of as 'a piece of ftesh,' whence later 
ewpxCov 'a little piece of flesh; i. e. sometimes 'a small quantity 

1 Cf. Kessler, Die lat. Dim. p. 1. 

150 Chapter XV. 

of flesh.' Since these diminutives could be referred equally well 
to the primitive in its usual indetermined sense, it became possible 
by analogy to such patterns to form new diminutives of this 
kind without reference to the previous existence of the primitive in 
a determined sense; orscraov 'a little bit of dough,' could be formed 
from o-Tsap c dough ' without thinking of the latter as ' a piece of 
dough.' Examples : deq^aTiov : Bsp[xa, ' a little piece of skin.' Plato 
Eryx. 400 A, Iv BspjxocTiw ojitxpo) (xtuoBsBstou qgov ys araTYJpos to pi- 
ye&o? |xalicra. xohoxtVTiov : xo^oxu vty], ' a little piece of gourd.' 
Phryn. Com. frg. 2. 604, *H [xa^tou ti [itxpdv $\ xoT/ixuvTtou, 1 'a little 
bit of a [piece either of barley bread or gourd.' fia&ov : [xa£oc, ' a 
little bit of barley bread.' id. 1. c. naa^axiov : 7uaqj.oc, ' a little 
sprinkling.' Insc. Att. Ecpv)[x. Ap^. 2. 424 (p. 407), 7u]a<3]xcma [s^ovxa 
/puca (of some articles of dress), ttvqlov : 7uup, ' a little fire.' Cf. 
the use of the Engl. ' fire ' either to designate the phenomenon in 
general or a particular manifestation of it. Xenophanes ap. Plut. 
Strom. 4, cpiqo-t Be xat t6v vjltov ix pxpSv xat xlsiovwv 7uoptcov afrpot- 
££0 , 8 > at. GctQxLov : cape, ' a little piece of flesh.' Hipp. 774, yjv ts acTjpov 
fj xat frpatiov Tt to>v capxtcov xat BiKratc-O'Yjo-tv %y.p£yv\, c[>t!6v Bs TuyyavY) 
I6v, xai to toiodtov acpatpsstv ypY). Arist. Part. An. 4. 9. 685 b 7, 
out(0£ xat sx tgov tvcov 7U£7uX£y|X£vat (sc. at xXsxTavat twv 7UoXu7u6Btov) 
ate sXxouci Ta sapxta xat Ta IvBtBovTa. id. Mirab. 7. 831 a 13, tou$ 
Tpoyt^ou? cpa<7tv £t(77:eTO[j.£vou? £?? Ta cr6p.aTa twv xpoxoB£tXwv xafratp£tv 
auTwv tou? 6B6vTa?, Ta capxta Ta iv£^6[j.£va toT? poyy£(7tv E^XxovTa;. 
id. H. A. 2. 11. 503 b 13, aapxa B' o5Ba|xou lyti (sc. 6 /a{j.atX£0)v) 
7uXy]v 7up6? ty] X£(pa7v7] xat TaT? ctayoo-tv oXtya a-apxta. ib. 4. 2. 527 a 3, 
ot [xlv ouv xapa[3ot . . . iyouciv . . . {j.£Ta^i» . . . twv o^ovtwv c-apxtov ylwT- 
T0£t^£?. ib. 8. 2. 591 a 2, ot ?>£ %o\6%ohs,s jj.aXtora xoy/uXta crtA}iyovT£S, 
l£atpouvT££ Ta a-apxta Tp£cpovTat toutoi?. GiectTiov : (rciap, ' a little dough.' 
Alexis frg. 3. 416, alia Ta^ [xlv T£ufrtBa?, Ta ^T£puyt' auT&v ot>vT£[X(ov, 
(7T£aTtou Mtxpov 7uapa(j.t5a?, 7U£pt7uao-ac Yjo^G|La<7tv A£7UToT(7t y^topoTs, wvfru- 
Xeofra. tvqiov : Tupoc, probably ' a little cheese.' Telecl. frg. 2. 368 (3), 
Tuptov £7U£<rfrtovTa. vdanov : SBcop, ' a little bit of water.' Arist. De 

1 In a combination of this kind the idea of small quantity pleonastically 
has a double expression in the adjective and the diminutive suffix. Though 
this really is an illogical combination, this interpretation is preferable to 
taking xo'Aoxvvtlov e. g. as ' delicious gourd ' (§ 195) ; for the phrase /uixqov xt 
with the Genetive produces a constellation of thought that is favorable to 
the interpretation of the diminutive as referring to quantity, and this could 
not very well be neutralized by logical scruples. 

Diminutives. 15* 

Gen. et Cor. 1. 2. 317 a 28, fa ^ y * p d g IU™ m. W W>sH 
BtfTtOV (XYip yivexat, £av os cruyxp^YJ, (3paBtkepov. 

20a L. Diminutives of abstract nouns. The Greeks did not. at 
least in the classical times, form diminutives of abstract nouns unless 
they were distinctly sensualized. There is no counterpart to the 
Latin animula 'a little courage' as found in Gicero ad Att. 9. 7. 1 • 
• Attulit uberrimas tuas litteras; quae mihi quiddam quasi animulae 
instillarunt." When diminutive -tov was added to a noun that was 
originally abstract, the latter seems always to have been conceived 
in a concrete aspect. Thus Bpafjufcuov is not ' a little action,' but 
'a little drama'; cpwvCov is not "a little sounding,' but 'a slender 
sound. 1 Even those cases which seem to be closest to a diminution 
of abstract ideas, are not so when more carefully considered. fruxeo- 
[j.cmov ' a little piece of flattery ' is shown by the context to refer to 
the concrete donations with which the sausage maker cajoled Demos. 
<7xcop.[xaTiov 'a little jest' and taiBopyip/mov 'a little piece of calumny. ' 
like every other word of speaking, have a concrete as well as an 
abstract aspect. The same can be said' of names of diseases like 
vo<7Y)|j.aTiov k a little disease,' xupsxtov ' a little spell of fever,' ptytfm 
'a little coughing fit.' A disease always has its external features, 
and it is these which were grasped by the speaker in using the 
diminutives. That this was actually the case, can be seen from the 
fact that pYi/wv is best translated as 'a (little) coughing fit,' and 
3Sup£uov as ' a (little) fever spell,' i. e. these words refer to the length 
of the individual outward manifestations of the diseases. If the 
speaker had really thought of the diseases in the abstract way when 
using the diminutives, the latter could mean nothing else than • a slight 
cough' or 'a slight fever,' referring to the vehemence or duration of 
the whole disease. Very similar also is IBpamov * a partial sweat,' 
not 'a slight sweat.' The words included in this paragraph are, 
then, those of which the primitive may be conceived either in an abstract 
or concrete manner, but since the diminutive is always formed with 
the latter point of view, there really is no different principle involved 
than in the formation of a diminutive of which the primitive js 
always concrete. The examples may be divided into the following groups 

a) Words designating spoken or written utterances or compositions. 
The diminutive signifies that the utterance is short, i. • •. requires little 
time: iroi^fwcTtov diminutive of 7uoiY)p.a, can be nothing else than 
'a short poem,' unless there are deteriorati\<- <>r bypoooristic elements 
present, qa^anov : &7jwc, perhaps -a short son-.' Plato Oom. ap. 

152 Chapter XV. 

Poll. 4. 64 (without context), dqafxariov : Bpajj.cc, ' a little play.' Plut. 
Dem. 4, *Hv os 6 BaTa^.o£, foe, [isv svioC cpaciv, au)or]TY)£ t&v xaTsay6TWv, 
xai opajjiartov slg touto xtopoo&v auTOv 'AvTicpavYj^ tiexoiyjxev. eniYQ(t[t- 
fiaviov : £7uiypa|x|j.a, ' a short epigram.' Plut. Cato Maj. l/Hv os to jjlsv 
sloo? u7u67iL»ppo? xat yXauxoc, <*>? 6 7uotY]G-a? TOU7utypa(j.[j.aTiov oux £U[j.£v&£ 
7uap£[A<paiv£i • "Efoppov, 7uavoax£TY]v, yAaux6|xu.aT0v, o5B v £ 8>avovTa Ilopxtov 
et$ &ioy)v risp(7£(povY] os/sTai." id. 2. 785 B, TOira o' 6|AoXoyot>[jivtoc 
XlotpoxTious lart TOumypa[X|j.aTiov " "Qloyjv 'HpoBoTw T£if££v Zo^poxX9j$ 
£T£ojv wv Hzvz' lm 7U£VTY)xovTa. smacoAiov : stuctcAy], 4 a short letter.' 
Plut. Ages. 13, cp£p£Ttxi youv ImardXiov atjToD* Tupo? c IBpi£a tov Kapa 
toiouto* "NixCa? £i [j.£v [xy] aotxa, &pe$' s? 0£ dcoixsT, yj[j.Tv a<p£c, tuocvtw^ 
Be acp££." xo^ficcTiop : x6[x[ia, l a short quotation.' Eupol. frg. 2. 
559 (31), Eitofro? to xo{j.[xotiov touto. AoiSoQTjfjaTiop : ^oioopY^a, 
'a little piece of raillery.' Ar. ap. Arist. Rhet. 3. 2. 1405b 32. 
Since there is no context, the word may just as well be a deteriorative. 
Tioiriixaxiov : 7coiY)[j.a, 4 a short poem.' Plut. Cic. 2, xai ti xai 7uoiyj- 
|j.aTtov Iti 7uaio6? aoToti oiadco^ETai, IIovtio? rXauxoc, iv TSTpajJisTpo) 
7us7uotrj[jiivov. Athen. 283 D, "Hpivva T£ y] 6 tuetuoiyjXwc to stg ai>TY]v 
avacp£p6[j.£vov 7uoiYj[X(XTtov. id. 685 B, xai yap zlc, AY){iap£TY]v avacp£p£TaC 
ti 7rotY][j.aTtov 6 smypa<p£Tai TpicpuXXov. axaXa&VQfiaTiov : axaXafrupfJia, 
' a little quibble.' Ar. Nub. 630, <7xaXa9'Upu.aTi' 1 arTa [xixpa u.av9>avtov, 
TauT' SmXsXYjarat rcpiv [JiafrsTv. cvyyq^^clciov : 0-tjyypau.u.a, ' a short 
composition.' Athen. 673 D, to tou Myjvoootou 0-uyypap.p.aTtov. 

b) Diseases, fir^lov : firfe, ' a little cough,' i. e. l a coughing spell.' 
Hipp. 1201, r Qi to crupiyyiov £roxv£ppYjyvuTO, (3v]/ia £x<oXu£ oiaijivav. 
Ar^iov : XtiJjly), l a little humour' in the eye. Hipp. 153, xai to zccc 
&|rtO£ 7uuxva oiappi7n:£iv, r\ Xr^iix u.ixpa rapt auTa? y) a'j>iBa Xs7uty]v tcr/siv. 
voarjfiavwv : v6c7][xa, perhaps ' a slight disease,' but since it only occurs 
once (Ar. ap. Arist. Rhet. 3. 2. 1405 b 32) and without context, it 
may just as well be a deteriorative, nvqiviov : xupsTO?, 'a fever spell.' 
Hipp. 1093, TrupsTta §jvs/sa. 

c) Miscellaneous, ttume v^Atiov : 8'coratjp.a, l a little piece of flattery.' 
Ar. Equ. 788, KA. c Q.c, oltzq pxpcov s5vou? auTw Q^co7U£U[j.aTuov ysysvYja-ai. 
AAA. Kai cu yap aaTov TZo\b pxpOTspot? toutwv BsXsaa-u-aa-iv elXs^. 
16 q cot wp : topw£, l a little sweat,' i. e. 'a partial sweat.' Hipp. 1210, 
Tea-a-apsoxatosxaTY) ap'£a[j.£vot acp' IwB'ivoL) fjiy^pi ^ [j-so-ov Y]|j.£pY]c, i'opo'j 

1 The adjective pixqa as well as the fact that Socrates is speaking of 
his own teachings, shows that axetXa&vQuccncv, from the stand-point of the 
speaker, is strictly a diminutive. Seen through the spectacles of the poet r 
however, there is a deteriorative element present. 

Diminutives. 153 

6l0V TO <TCO[J.a. . . . TCpWTY) XOCl £tX0<7TYJ XOCt l^pWTtOV ftEpfc 7u),£Up6v B£?lOV X(Xl 

cnr/^tia xod xecpaXV)v. x(3 tBparaov rcspi to [i£ira)7uov ?jv. xXrjQiov : xX^pog, 

• a little inheritance.' Anth. P. 6. 98, 7U£7uocto yap ou uiya touto KXYjpiov 
iv XuTrpfi Tf|B£ yetoT/xpty. 7ivEV[id%iov : 7uv£U[ia, c a little wind,' i. e. 

• flatulence. 5 I >amoxen. frg. 4. 531 (26). tpcoviov : cpcovV], ' a thin slender 
sound.' Arist. Audib. 803 b 24, By]Xov £' S<ru xod Im twv xopB&v dbcd 
yap twv X£XT(ov xal Ta cptovia yiyv£Ttxi tarcrfc >tat (TTtvdfc xat TpiywBY]. 


204. When a diminutive refers to a whole class as small in com- 
parison with other classes, the final step in the development of the 
diminutive meaning has been taken. While the use of diminutive's 
to designate an object as smaller than the normal of its class is 
divided from the function of the suffix to designate similarity by 
a neutral belt, and the two interpretations shade into each other 
imperceptibly and with many variations between individuals (§ 186ff.), 
the interpretation of -iov as ' that which is like the primitive ' is ab- 
solutely impossible in any diminutive like tuwXigv w a little foal,' i. e. 
not always one which is smaller than other foals, but small compared to 
a full grown horse. Small size and youth are the very essence of the 
meaning of a word for ' foal,' and the smaller or younger an individual 
foal, the more in point is the meaning of the primitive, so that even 
when a particularly young foal should be referred to by the diminutive 
jkoXCov, the interpretation 'like a foal, but not a real foal' is out of 
the question. Similarly rcx&Cov ' a little child,' when the idea ' little ' 
is not limiting but descriptive, i. e. when a little child is not con- 
trasted with a larger child, but when any child as being little is 
contrasted with adults, can not be thought of as 'not a real child.' 
since in the situation in which the idea 'child' is placed when thus 
contrasted, small size or youth is considered as the distinguishing 
characteristic of everything which belongs to the class - child/ So 
roxifcCa 'little children' are contrasted to y£pov~£? 'old men' in the 
Rhodian Swallow Song 20, Ofi yap y£>ovT^ £<7[X£V, tote. *oaBia, 'we 
are not old men but little (i. e. mere) children.' 

205. Since 'little' and 'large' are altogether relative terms, the 
use of a diminutive referring to a class ami always imply oompi 
with other things which do not belong to thai class. Sometime* H 
refers to objects which are so very much smaller thai. tta 

154 Chapter XV. 

majority of things which come under observation, that the general 
comparison with this average is sufficient to suggest small size, without 
conscious comparison with any distinct individual concepts. This is 
the case with German words like Spanchen ' chip,' Spinnlein, poetical 
for ' spider,' or Kornchen l granule.' With the latter may be com- 
pared Gr. <77U£p|xaTiov k seed.' Sometimes, on the other hand, any 
concept, no matter how far above the average in size, can be thought 
of as small by comparison with certain other definite objects. Thus 
while a man would not by any means seem a small affair under 
ordinary circumstances, he does appear so in contrast to a monster 
like the giant Polyphemus, and the latter in Euripides Cycl. 316 
therefore addresses Odysseus as avfrpcomoxs ' mannikin,' not meaning, 
of course, that Odysseus was a particularly small man, but that he 
considered any human being as small and insignificant compared 
to his own size and power. Analagous is the situation of roxiBia in 
the passage quoted § 204, where children are thought of as small 
or young in comparison with old men, while at other times a child 
is considered as large compared to a baby, which was designated rcai- 
Btov because too small to be called rcocTs (§ 182). Sometimes again 
an occasion for the use of a diminutive may be given by a word 
which contains within itself a suggestion of relative small size or youth. 
The Engl. ' lamb ' contains a comparison with the greater size and 
age of a full grown sheep, and the diminutive c lambkin ' only em- 
phasizes this relation. Similar is the German ' Lammlein ' or the 
Greek [xooy^iov ' a little calf,' in contrast to fiouq ' cow ' ; vsottiov ' a 
little nestling,' in comparison with opvt? ' bird ' ; xwliov ' a little foal,' 
with reference to itztzoc, ' horse ' ; xepjiaTiov ' a little xsp|xa,' in contrast to 
larger kinds of coin ; xtaoviov ' a little twig,' contrasted with o^oc, ' branch.' 
206. When it comes to applying these principles in detail, and 
to determining which words actually got their -iov in this way, we 
are beset with great difficulties. On the one hand, the speaker or 
writer may have had in mind a contrast as to size between different 
ideas even when there is no linguistic indication of it ; on the other 
hand, a word which was formed as a diminutive of this kind may 
become equivalent to its primitive secondarily (§ 220), and it is 
then often impossible to distinguish these from other cases of equiva- 
lence of primitive and -iov derivative. To judge correctly all of the 
different words would require a most intimate knowledge of the mental 
habits of the ordinary Greek people. It would be necessary to deter- 
mine which objects could appear to them as relatively small, or with 

Diminutives. 155 

whieh other objects a certain object was habitually associated, so that 
the contrast of the two ideas with respect to size could give rise to 
a diminutive. When, therefore, some one insists that all names of 
vessels or of articles of dress and ornament which end in -tov are 
diminutives referring to a class, it is evident that we can not for 
every word disprove his theory any more than he can prove it. On 
the whole, however, it is perfectly clear that this is the wrong method 
of procedure. Since there are over a half-dozen ways in which an 
-lov derivative can become equivalent to its primitive, and since the 
suffix had, roughly speaking, at least a dozen living functions, it is 
manifestly unsafe to classify all possible cases as diminutives, and 
when there does not seem to be a difference in usage between prim- 
itive and derivative, the burden of proof rests upon him who claims 
diminutive origin. He must be able at least to suggest a plausible 
association between a comparatively large and small object, in order 
that the latter may call to mind its relatively small size by comparison 
with the other. That it will be impossible to find such a point of 
view, from which most names of vessels and the larger articles of 
dress in -tov are diminutives, is self-evident. 

207. Diminutives referring to a class naturally presuppose an 
attitude of the speaker which is as different from that to diminutives 
designating an object as small in comparison with others of the same 
class, as the attitude to a descriptive adjective is different from that 
to a limiting adjective. The hearer, however, and still more the 
reader, will often not be able to follow what was in the mind of the 
speaker or writer, and consequently the two classes of diminutives 
can not always be sharply distinguished in actual interpretation. This 
is particularly true for those words of which the primitives may con- 
tain within themselves a comparison as to size with a larger class 
(§ 205, end). We can not always tell whether the speaker had in 
mind a particularly small calf when using u.o<r/tov, or a particularly 
small child when using 7uaiBiov ; c-xuXdbuov designates a particularly 
young puppy, i. e. one just born, in two passages, and yet we can 
not be sure of the attitude of the writer, since this may be merely 
incidental, and he may just as well and better have compare! them 
with full grown dogs as with larger puppies. 

208. Collection of examples. The different letters under which 
these are classified refer to the same congeneric classes as in the 
second section, with the understanding that the precise shading and 
the accessory ideas are exactly parallel. There are anion- diminutives 


156 Chapter XV. 

referring to a class no words of which the primitive designates an 
indeterminate mass, since size or extent can never be a characteristic 
of one such class in comparison with another. 

A. naidlov : roxT?, ' a (little) child.' Ar. Pax 50 (in contrast to 
avBpiov and dcvvjp), see § 159 sub avBpiov. id. Plut. 1104 (in con- 
trast to yuvYJ), 'AXX' sxxaXst t6v Beotuotyjv Tp^tov Tayu, "EraiTa tt ( v 
yuvaTxa xal Ta xatBia, "EraiTa toi>£ frspdtouovTas, sura tyjv xtfva, "Eranra 
oauTov, s7usitoc ty]v 5v. Alexis frg. 3. 439 (3. 9) (in contrast to ypaG? 
and yspcov), KavTaufra xal ypau? xal ylpcov xal 7:aiBiov IIsjj-cpB-st^ arcav- 
ts? ayopaaouoi xaTa Tporcov. Lys. 32. 20, slg o^ov [xsv BuoTv raciBioiv 
xal aBsXcpY] tusvts 6[3o>,oi>s tyj? Yjpipa? lloy^sTO. Hyp. 3. 49. 21, Jmzov 
B' Ion BsMhxi tg5v BixaoTwv xal tou<; cpCXous TuapaxocXeTv xal Ta rcaiBia 
ava(3i(3a££ofrai. Plato Legg. 10. 910 C (in contrast to avyjp), ao£pY]oas 
[J.Y] 7uaiBi(ov aXX' avBpwv ao£J3Y][xa. id. Apol. 34 D (in contrast to 
[xsipribuov), otxsToi [xoi £ioi xal oleic, . . . TpsT?, eT$ jjlsv [jxtpaxiov YjByj, Buo 
Bs xaiBia. Phodian Swallow Song 20 (in contrast to yspojv), see 
§ 204. 

B. a) dAwn&uop : aXcoTUY)?, 'a (little) fox.' Ar. Equ. 1076, 1078, 

AH. II&S By] TplYjpY)? £OTL XUVaX(67UY]J 5 AAA. OTUO)? ; "On Y] TplY)pY)£ Ion 
/0) XUCOV Ta/U. AH. 11(0? o5v aXa)7UTj^ 7UpOO£T£^Y) Ttpd? T& xuvi ; AAA. 
AXto7U£Xioi(7t 1 tooc, orpanoVras Y)xao£v 'Otiy] (3oTpt>£ TptoyOUOLV £V tci? 
ycopioi?. AH. ETev. Tot$TOt$ 6 [xio , B*6s toT? aXcoraxtoioi, xou ; aQpiov : 
apvos (Gen.), ' a (little) lamb,' in contrast to the large price charged 
for it: Lys. 32. 21, IxxaiBfixa Bpa/[jiov a7U£<paiv£v £a)VY]|jivov apviov 
xwvwTiiov : x6)vo)^, ' a (little) gnat.' Geopon. 2. 5. 12, SuvnqpeC B v £ £v 
tyj xpcoTY] t6v YJXtov Xa[j.^£i xtovwma, avax£T6|j.£va slg opfrpov avw xal 
ouoTp£cpop.£va. fxoo%iov : \k6<r/og, L sl (little) calf.' Theocr. 4. 4, 'AXX' 
6 ylpwv 6cptY]Tt Ta [j.ooyia xy]|X£ cpuXaocsi. id. ib. 44. vecxxiov : veotto?, 
4 a (little) nestling.' Ar. Av. 547, 767^ rcspBi? ysvEo^w, tou 7uaTp6? 
veottiov. Arist. H. A. 4. 9. 536 a 30, ayjBwv aB£t xal 6 ocppyjv xai y) 
frVjXeta, tcXyjv y) 8^/jXsta xatkTai OTav ETUwa^Yi xal Ta vsottioc l/Y}. id. ib. 
5. 8. 542 b 13, l£y£Tat, B' £v ... £7:Ta fy>ipai£ nVretv Ta veoTna xal 
sxTpscpstv. ib. 9. 29. 618 a 22, oi (jiv cpaatv . . . tov xoxxuya xaTEG-frfeiv 
Ta t% 67uoB£^a[j.£VT^ opvtQ^o? v£OTTia. Secondary is the use of the word 
for the yolk of eggs. So Diph. frg. 4. 427 (40), 'Qiwv B' h auT?j 
Bi£Tp£/£v v£0TTta. nQofictTiov \ 7ipo(3aTOv, ' a (little) sheep,' in contrast 
to the larger domestic animals. Ar. Yesp. 955, apiaro? Son twv vuvl 
xuvwv, 016? T£ izoXkoic, 7upo[3anoi£ icpeoravat. id. Pax. 535, rcpo(3ano)v 

1 The diminutive perhaps because of ; the petty raids in which the sol- 
diers were engaged, and consequently with a deteriorative shade. 

Diminutives. 157 

^/oijivov. id. Plut. 299, £y)ty)<to[xsv ... tov KuxXwxa . . . c Hyo'J[xsvov 
-rKc jcpop«TCoi$. Straton frg. 4. 545(22), "Mvjk bom£&4 Spa" ; [xa 
At' iyo> [xsv o5, . . . 7tpo(3aTtov B\ " ouxouv," scpY], " Ta [x9j),a zp6fa-%. 
[xavO-avsi; " ; ircoAiov : xwlo?, ' a (little) foal.' Ar. Vesp. 189, Pax. 75, 
VAariyoLy AtTvaTov {xsytcrov xavfrapov, KobustTa toutov t7raoxo|X£tv |x' 
TjvayxaToV, KauTo; xaTa'|>65v aikov warap xwliov, "*Q IlTjYao-siov," 
or,c7t, u ysvvaTov TCTspov." Andoc. 1. 61, s:ut tcoAiov 6 [xot fy ava(3as 
s7i£C70v. Arist. An. Gen. 2. 8. 748 a 29, oitox; sv aXsetv?) ytvv]Tat wpa 
-% ~(o7ia. tfxr/ax/oy : crxuXa^, ' a (little) puppy.' Xen. Cyn. 7. 3, 
i^stBav Bs y£vY)Tat T ^ <rau7,axta. ib. 7. 4, ircsiBav B' y]By] ft},avaTat Ta 
axiAaxia, BtBovat ya^a l^XP 1 svtauToti. . . . at yap (Sapstat 7w>or ( <7|xovat 
twv crxtAaxttov Btaorpscpoucrt Ta <txs>.y]. Arist. H. A. 6. 20. 574 a 23, 
vjdfkbi Bs ytvsTat a'jTT] (sc. tyj xuvt tyj Aoouovitoj) Ta (TxtAaxta. Gxvfjviov : 
axupos, 'a (little) whelp.' Arist. H. A. 9. 1. 608 b 25, Ta; cpwxa; 
(pad wotajxsTv, . . . xat xa axopta wo-auTco?. ib. 6. 61 lb 32, At B 
aoxTOt, OTav cpsuytoa-t, xa axupta rcpotofroBcri xat avala(3ot>(7ai cpspoixxtv. 
XO#^v : /oipos, k a (little) pigling,' ' a porker.' Ar. Ach. 740 ff., ITspi- 
O'EdQ'S TOCdBs Ta? 67uXa; tmv /otptcov. . . . e '0%M$ Bs yptAlt£s?Ts xat xoi'£sts 
XtjosTts ©tovav )rotpttov [xixrnjpixoiv. 'Eywv Bs xapuHw AixaioTwc/Xiv 6~a* 
Aaeai&coXi, ?) X$S rcptac^at /otpta ; ib. 808, 7:oBa7ua Ta /oipt' ; 

B. b) ctQviov. Eubul. frg. 3. 212 (9), IlapsyxsxaTCTai t apvf 1 svvs° 
*) Bsxa. "Qcr st Tt pouXst twv XsXstpLjjivwv cpaystv, "Emy 5 Entyv, id. 
frg. 3. 268 (15 a 4), ITvtystv ts %u.yiw apvtcov GTY)8ijvta. (te/^ttfc/or : 
B%a?, c a (little) pigling.' Ar. Thesm. 237, ETP. *AvC<rraff, Cva 
acpsikco crs, xayx(jcj>a? lyz. MNH. Otpt xaxoBatpov, BsXcpaxtov -zvr r 
GOfxai. id. Lys. 1061, xat BsXcpaxtov fy Tt pi, Kat toOto tst-j/\ torn 
x f r Sfcs<j8»' a-aXa xat xa),a. icl. frg. 2. 1026, Kat Bs^axtcov a^aXoW 
xoAaT xat xvau|xaTta 7UTsp6svTa. Eubul. frg. 3. 234, 0tfwou rsixayoc, 
xpsa BsXcpaxto^v. id. frg. 3. 205 (9), 6::Ta BsXcpaxta A^atfTa rpte. 
^/g,ov : Iptcpo?, ' a (little) kid.' Athenion frg. 4. 558 (30), 'Epfcpiov 
iTaxsoo)^, T^vtxTov BilXapsv, nsptxo[x[xaTto) Btsytyypad' 6*oxpod<ra« yAr/.sT. 
jW(y x ^. Ephipp. frg. 3. 334 (1. 12), see § 193 b sub &**rpo6vwv. 
XOao/o^. Antiphan. frg. 3. 100, /otptow Sx^y] xaxup'. 

" D. xatiwov : xal?, l a (little) calyx.' Hes., xaW'^tr ^6W aaMxia. 
^aJ,W : k^oc, 'a young shoot.' Anth. P. 9. 78, X)*k6** ya: k^x- 
Btot^t imxCvoiuv, *Uo € scpslxst. ^o,Wav : x*o>v, ' a (litth) twig. Theophr. 

H P 3 13 5 TO p\ iva pcr/ov 7ua/>v xal IvwBy) d>? av x7,(ov^ov T* [jxv 

Iv^sv Ta Bs IvO^sv . . . ^ ? uxa^t. id. ib. 4. 3. 11, OTav S£ Tt; a 

« The idea of small size has here given way altogether to that of .1,- 



158 Chapter XV. 

twv x^wvicov, wc77uep acpauaiv6[j.sva Ta cpu>.Xa (7U|jjui7utsiv cpaa-iv. Xstivqioi 
Xsrcupov, ' a (little) peel or husk.' Hipp. 242, 6xoTav Bs xaTw (3s(3ai(0£ 
£i?g>8*9j to cpusv, xai ty)v Tpocpy)v arco ty)? y?j<; 7Uotsv]Tai, tots yjByj xav xai 


to >.s7uuptov carcsv sv tyj y?) aByjXov ytvsTai XP ^ ^- cnegfidtior : 
07xspu.a, 'a (little) seed.' Theophr. ap. Athen. 66 E, to [xsv (sc. ysvog 

TOO 7TS7USplO?) (7Tp0Yy!JX0V, ... TO Bs 7tp6[XY]XS£, [xs^av, aTusp^cma |J.Y]X(OVlXa 

s^ov. Diosc. 2. 211, xaprco? Bs (sc. too ysXiBovioo) . . . 'Xstctos, fxaxpo? 
a>£ xfivos, sv & 07usp[xaTia [xsi£ova [xyjxwvos. 

E. ipaxadwv : cjjaxas, ' a (slight) dripping rain.' Poliochus frg. 
4. 590 (5), ysvouivou <j;axaBioo. Theophr. C. P. 2. 9. 3, 6rav 'jiaxaBta 
xai Bpoaot, 7u£(T(oaiv stdBuou-sva xaTa to avfro? avoypaivsi. 

H. ttqavLov : frpavo;, ' a (little) foot-stool,' probably by contrast 
to the greater size of chairs and the like. Ar. Ran. 121. Gxipnodtov : 
cjxijmuous, ' a (little) pallet bed,' in contrast to the larger and higher 
beds. Luc. Asin. 3, So uiv, scpv), sVi tocuty]c t% x)ivY)c xoi[j.yj<ty), tS> 
Bs TuatBi <70u ctxijjjuoBiov aoToo ^apac^/jcto xai TCpoaxscpaXatov smQ^crw. 
GxoXvtiqiov : crxo^ofrpov, ' a (little) foot-stool,' cf. frpaviov. Plato Euthyd. 
278 B, ot Ta oxoXoo^pia t&v jjxXXovtcov xaoH^Yjo-so-frai 6tco(77u6)vts£ yaipoo<7i 
xai ys>,c5<7tv, srcsiBav iBcoorv "utttiov avaTSTpajJipivov. %a^xBvviov : yajjisdvY], 
' a (little) pallet bed,' cf. (dclujtoBiov. Plato Symp. 220 D, yap.sovia 
s£svsyxafj.svoi a|xa [jlsv sv tyj (jtifysi ^aO^QBov. Luc. Asin. 51. 

J. dyxlGiQiov : ayxiarpov, l a (little) hook.' Theocr. 21. 57, 'Hps[J.a 
B' auTov (sc. tov iy&bv) £x Twyxtarpco a7usXoa-a, Myj xots t$ arofJiaTOs 
Tayxiorpia 1 XP U(70V £/^ tsv - dQa%fjLov : Bpa/^Yj, ' a (little) drachma,' in 
contrast to larger values. Aristeas de LXX Interpr. p. 241, sixocri 
Bpa/jj.ta BoO^o-stou. xeQfiazwv ' a (little) xspu.a,' in contrast to larger 
coins. Men. Her. 26, xspjxaTiov si crovY)y^svov v EvBov ti xporcTsi£. Philipp. 
ap. Poll. 9. 88. Xstttlov ' a (little) Xstctov,' in contrast to larger coins. 
Pap. Berol. 14. 4. 18. %B\ia%iov : TS[iayoc, c a (little) slice or part,' in 
contrast to the whole. Plato Symp. 191 E, 6W Bs appsvo? Tpju.a 
sia-t, Ta appsva Bi(oxoo<rt, xat tsco? [xsv av TuaTBs? waiv, ars TS[xayia ovTa 
too appsvo?, yikooGi too? avBpa^ xat yjxipoixyi (7oyxaTaxst[xsvot. 


209. The term ' diminutive,' even as used here, does not desig- 
nate an absolutely homogenous body of usages, but it is the most 

1 The text is probably corrupt. At any rate .the Plural causes trouble 
for the usual diminutive interpretation. 

Diminutives. 159 

frequent and representative use which has given rise to the name, 
while other related meanings are frequently combined with the idea 
of small size or even take its place. These are partly present from 
the very beginning, because the pattern types had other elements in 
their meaning in addition to that of small size. So the idea of youth 
came from the pattern roxtBiov (§ 192) or words designating the 
young of animals (§ 183), and in the same way other associated 
diminutive ideas may be derived from other pattern types, even though 
the latter should happen to be lost, and thus do not allow us to judge 
with certainty whether a given shade of meaning was present from 
the beginning or was secondary. Other variations of the diminutive 
meaning are due to the influence of the stem meanings of certain 
words upon the idea of small size (§ 191). Thus a little poem is 
a short one, i. e. one that requires a short space of time for perusal, 
a small coin is one of slight value, a little roast chicken is one that 
is tender and delicious, etc. These accessory elements may then be 
transferred with the idea of small size to words where they could 
not originate, or after the accessory element becomes dominant, it 
may develop further on independent lines without the slightest ref- 
erence to the original diminutive notion. So /vau^ricTtov w a delicious 
(little) slice,' although a little slice is not in itself more delicious 
than a large one ; rcsptxojJijJiaTiov ' delicious mince-meat ' ; etc. 

210. Other variations of the diminutive idea arise by semantic 
syncretism. In the first place the older diminutive suffix -ktxo- prob- 
ably thrust upon the later -iov some of its own uses : but which they 
were is totally uncertain, because the same uses may in every case 
be due to the independent development of -iov itself. As a desig- 
nation of small size or youth -iov was also equivalent to certain adjec- 
tives meaning 'small' or 'young,' notably [xixpo?, Xewroc, *»d vsor. 
In addition there was a formal bond of association between such 
adjectives and diminutive suffixes, since the former often modified 
diminutives in order to emphasize or direct their meaning. The 
resulting feeling of equivalence allowed any meaning of these adjec- 
tives to be transferred to the diminutive suffix, even when the latter 
could not have developed the same meaning independently. For 
[ttxp<$$ and vsoc this is of less importance, because their meaning 1- quite 
narrow, and their development of accessory notions was DO* different 
from those through which the diminutive suffix must bare passed on 
its own accord. The adjective Xstut6c, on the other band, had a 
much wider sphere of meaning than can be expressed by the " 

160 Chapter XV. 

lation ' little.' Originally it was f peeled,' k husked,' and ' little ' was 
only one of the many secondary developments, though the very one 
which caused the feeling of equivalence with the diminutive suffix. 
The latter consequently took upon itself such divergent uses as in 
the following phrases: Xstctov Bsp^aTtov 'a delicate skin' (§ 211 D), 
Isxtov (pwvtov ' a thin delicate sound ' (§ 203 c), Xstctov xli[Xaxiov ' a 
thin ladder' (§ 199). So also the conglutinate -iBiov in 7uupiBia Imzx 
'fine wheat' (§ 315. XL 3C). 

211. Below is given a sketch of the principal associated and ac- 
cessory diminutive notions without paying attention to the distinction 
as to whether the diminutive refers to an individual or to a class, 
since this is unimportant from our present point of view. Such 
variations of meaning as have been treated in the discussion of the 
different congeneric groups (§ 191), will receive mere mention here. 

A. The idea of descent, probably derived from the diminutive 
meaning in words designating the young of animals, though otherwise 
a much older meaning than the diminutive (§ 94 f.). 

B. The idea of youth, inherent in the beginning in some of the 
pattern types (§ 182 f.), and productive in names of animals and 
plants (§ 193 fL). 

0. ' Tender,' ' delicious,' derived from the use of young animals 
and plants as articles of diet (§ 193 fL), productive not only in words 
designating these, but other articles of diet as well (§ 231). 

D. ' Soft,' ' delicate,' ' luxuriant,' ' elegant ' ; due partly to the 
development of hypocoristic notions (§ 240), partly perhaps to the 
use of -lov in the meaning 'thin,' 'slender' (E), partly to the in- 
fluence of the adjective \zizzoc, (§ 210). Examples: darridiov : 5cbtt£, 
4 a soft, luxuriant carpet.' Hipparch. frg. 4. 431 (3), BamBiov sv 
ayarcYjTov 7uoixiXov. Seq^anor : Bsp|ia, ' delicate skin. 1 Arist. Physiogn. 
3. 807 b 18, sucpuou? arista crap^ 6ypOTspa, ... to BspixaTtov Xzxzov. 
Xwpana : lc5|xa, ' delicate fringe of a robe.' Anth.P. 1 1. 210, v Avfrpaxa 
xat Bacpvv]v 7uapaf3!jsTai 8 arpaTM&Tirjs A3Xo$, dwuoo^iy^as [nrjXiva ^wjxaTia. 
TanrjTiov : Ta7UY]c, 'a soft luxuriant carpet.' Alciphr. frg. 18, 'Era 
auTYJs potAo£[JiY]v av tyjs tzovlc, xaTaxXiQ-YJvai, r\ sm twv toctuyjtiojv Sxsivtov, 
xal twv [xa^fraxcov &7TO<TTpto|jjdCTtoV, vy; Aia. tqixXiviov : Tp£xXivo$, ' luxuriant 
dining-room ' (? see § 52). Theopomp. Com. frg. 2. 816 (2), 'Ettivo^sv 
[j.sTa TocuTa . . . KocTaxsi[xsvoL \fjo£kx&&T(XX M TptxXtvCco. TQiywpfoiw : 
Tpi/w[xa, ' a soft luxurious growth of hair.' Arist. Physiogn. 3. 807 b 5, 
BstXou crista Tpt/w[xaTtov p,a),ax6v xtX. ib. 18, to Bsp[j.craov Xexr6v, 
Tpi/o)[xaTiov [XY] Xiav crxXYjpov jxyjBs Xiav [jiXav. 

Diminutives. Igl 

E. 'Thin,' 'slender' ; due to the nature of the object to which 
the diminutive is applied, and to the adjective Xs;ut6 ? . For xXqumov 
see § 199. Similarly anaqriov : axapTov, 'a thin rope,' 'chord.' 
Ar. Pax. 1247 ; Arist. Probl. 7. 9. 888 a 21, Mech. 2. 850 a 3. More 
uncertain is t^iov : &p££, which, if it belongs here at all, must refer 
to hair in general ; for it is applied to curly hair (Arist. Prob. 33. 
18. 963 b 10, Aia ti oE ouXoTp^ss, xat olc, IxsaTpaxTai to Tpfytov, d>? 
stci to TuoXtj o^OTspoi ;), of which neither softness nor thinness is a 
particular characteristic. 

F. ' Short,' i. e. requiring little time, or taking up little space on 
paper, the natural development of the diminutive meaning in names 
of poems etc. (§ 203a). Similarly |3y]xiov 'a coughing fit' may be 
thought of as ' a short cough,' xopsTiov ' a fever-spell ' as ' a short 
fever' (§ 203b). 

G. The diminutive designates a part of a larger phenomenon, due 
entirely to the nature of the primitive. So |3y)xiov 'a coughing fit' 
and xupsTiov ' a fever spell ' (§ 203 b) ; also iBpamov ' a partial sweat ' 
(§ 203 c). 

H. ' Small in quantity,' when the primitive designates a material 
or an indeterminate mass (§ 202). 

I. ' Of little value,' due to the application of diminutives to 
words designating coins. vo[xlo}i<xtlov, originally 'a little coin/ was 
usually also one of small value. When the latter idea became dominant, 
the word could designate a coin of little value even if it was made 
of base metal, and so larger in size than more valuable gold coins. 
Similarly Bpa)Qxiov, xsp^aTiov, and Xstctlov (§ 208 J). 

J. 'Thin,' 'slender,' referring to sound, in cpomov ($ 2" 
It is due entirely to the influence of the adjective Xs7uto? ^§ 210). 

212. Combinations of deteriorative and diminutive meaning, which 
may result either from a secondary deteriorative shade in diminutives, 
or from a pattern type in which the idea 'that which is like tin- 
primitive' had reference both to inferiority of size and other qualities, 
are mentioned § 151, 168, and 213. The developinmt of the 
hypocoristic use will be discussed in the next chapter. There remain 
a few modifications of the diminutive meaning which are caused DOl 
by a single word or group of words, but by the general situation which 
belongs to the whole sentence. 

213. In the first place, a speaker will often represent something 
with which he himself is connected as a little thin- In order to give 
the impression of modesty, and the same motive frequently CM8M 


162 Chapter XV. 

the use of a diminutive. Just as in English people speak of their 
' little home ' or their ' little city,' so the Greek could use a diminutive 
in the same situation. As long as the object referred to really is 
a small one, the impression of modesty gained by the use of the di- 
minutive is quite secondary, so e. g. in the use of xoXiyyiov y][j.wv 
'our little city' in Plato (§ 196), or of acmBtov and ^.ayaiptov in 
Menander (§ 199). It becomes the primary factor, however, when 
the object is not in itself comparatively small, but the speaker uses 
the diminutive to represent it as small in his own estimation. In 
this case he may sometimes profess a slight contempt for the object 
mentioned, 1 which seems, however, to be altogether incidental and 
secondary to the diminutive idea. Cf. the Latin judiciolum nostrum 
4 our humble judgment.' Of Greek -tov in this use I have found the 
following examples : dyaAfiduov : ayaX|ia, ' a little gift.' Theopomp. 
Com. frg. 2. 810, Kai as ty} voupjvia Aya^a^-foi^ ayaXoQ|xsv as! xal 
BacpvY] (' we honor you with our little gifts '). djuTrthov : ol\ltzzXoc, 
'a little vine.' Ar. Ach. 512, 6 IIoo-siBwv, o6m Taivapw 6>s6c, Hsi<7a£ 
axaa-iv (sc. toT? AaxsBat[j.ovtoic) s[i(3aXot, toc? otata?' Kajxo! yap soriv 
&[j.7usXioc xsxofxjjiva ('my few little vines have been cut down'). 2 
Trqayiimiov : 7upay[j.a, ' a little affair.' Ar. Nub. 197, Myjtug) ye, [rrjTCto 
y' * aXk l7ui[jLsivavT(ov, iva AutoTcn xoivwa-co Tt 7upay[xaTtov s[j.6v ('that I 
may impart to them a little business affair of mine '). ^r^idtiov : 
pYJ|j.a, ' a little phrase.' Ar. Ach. 444, As? yap . . . Tobc, jj.sv OsaTac 
si^svai \l be sijx iyw, Touc B' aa yopsinra; YjXifriou? 7uapsoravat, "Okmc, av 
auxou? pY)p.aTioi£ crxi[j.a}a<7(o. 

214. Such expressions with a show of modesty may become ha- 
bitual, and consequently lose their original meaning. After the last 
suggestion of this is effaced, such a word can also be used by the 
speaker to refer to something belonging to a different person, and then 
the diminutive differs from the primitive only in having a certain 
colloquial flavor, which clings to it from the original idea. So fiwuor 
(: (3£otos), doubtless originally ' this scant means of sustenance ' of 
mine, has become a mere colloquialism for [3loto? in Ar. Plut. 1165, 
EPMHU. 'Evaycovto? tolvuv s<jou.at. xai tC It spsT? ; IIXou^co yap $art 
'zouto <7U[xcpop(i)TaTOv, IIoisTv aywva^ \LOOGixouq xai yupixotk. KAP. e Q$ 
ayafrov sot' £7ucovu[ita? izoXk^c, lyzw Obzoc, yap s^supYjXsv auTto j&drtov. 

1 Cf. Schwabe, De Dim. Graec. et Lat. 20. 

a One might be tempted to take aunehov as used hypocoristically, with 
a force of the suffix like the adjective yi'Aog in Homer, or the German 'liel> r 
in ' das liebe Brot ' etc., but there are no parallels for -lov in this meaning. 

Dim inutives. \ 63 

215. ( Hosely related to the use of a diminutive because of modesty 
is the use of one designating an object of which the speaker asks that it 
shall be given to him. This is already repeatedly mentioned by the 
Greek grammarians, e. g. in the scholia to Dionysius Thrax AB. 855, 

tarcapiov [J.oi x&pwoa' [xstto yap to ?y)tou[xsvov, iva fctoqafrrepov npbc, to 
feoDvM tovfyn* t6v syovTa. Similarly Michael Syngelus ap. Cram. 
A need. 4. 273. 9, yiveTat, Be Ta uTOxopicrTixa . . . oV avocyxaiOTotTa, w? 
6&V 6 aiTY] Ti£ (ypxpyvirj, iva jj.y] [isyaXY]v juonfjcrfl ty]v /apiv  & xsypyjvTat 
oi >tfi)(MX0C, wc sysi ^6 7uapa MsvavBpw XsPyjtiov. The motive, then, as 
understood by the Greek grammarians, was the desire to appear 
modest in asking. This is, however, combined with a certain hypo- 
poristic element, which may partly be secondary to the diminutive, 
in as much as a situation in which one asks for a favor is necessarily 
one in which a coaxing tone is employed, and this endearment may 
easily become centered upon the diminutive as designating the object of 
the entreaty, and so the most important word in the sentence. Some- 
times, on the other hand, the hypocorism may be due to the use of 
46v as an exponent of the mood of the speaker, without necessarily 
being attached to the word which is the logical object of the endear- 
ment (§ 244 f.), and then the hypocoristic is the principal element. 
So certainly in the second example of orojptBiov (below), where the 
speaker is not asking for a basket, but for something to put into 
the basket he already has. The best examples occur in the begging 
scene of Ar. Ach. 404 ff., where are found the following diminutives 
of this kind : ^aTnr^iov : (kxTYjptoc, ' a little beggar's staff ' (1. 448, 
'Arap osojxai ys zzor/Mou (3axTY)piou), §axio) f 1 : paxoc, ' a little rag or 
fragment 1 (1. 415, all avTi(3o"Xo> rcpdc twv yovaTwv ar EopweCot), Ao: 
pi pdbuov ti toO tzoCKwJj Bpa[j.aTOC. tfnoyyiw : o-xoyyoc, ' a little Bponge 
(1. 463, 'AH' w ykwfaan -EupwutoY), toutL [j.6vov, A6? [ioe /uTpioiov 
(TTuoyyuo (3sJ3l>c7 (livov), anvqidiov : <j7wpfe, 'a little basket 1 (1. 453. Ivj- 
pi^oTj, Aoc [xoi <T7Uupiotov otocxsxoeupivov Myvo>. 1. 469, (o yTwWWt 
EopiTutov], Tourl Xa(3wv axst^t xou Tupo-rajx' fa • 'E* to aropfciov top* 
(j.ot cptAXeTa oo ? ), %vrqiSiov : yuTpfe c a little jar ' (I. I«'»3. see Bub 
(7-oyyiov). In the same passage occur two words ending m congta- 
tinates of -lov : Tudioiov (§ 315. XL 3 E), and xoroMnuw (| 

216. A diminutive referring to a diss, when there ia a partic- 
ularly vivid comparison between the relative size or extent ol th< 
ject designated by the diminutive and other object*, maj B I 

1 Perhaps the apparent diminutive force of 
Eor it is oftener used with non-diminutive force (§ L30 

164 Chapter XV. 

be translated ' nothing greater than,' ' merely,' and the like. This 
may or may not be combined with a judgment of inferiority, and in 
the latter case the development is totally independent of the deterior- 
ative use of the suffix. Thus there is no idea of intimating that 
life is an undesirable thing in the use of nvevitdiiov : xvsu^a, ' mere 
life,' in Polyb. 15. 31. 5, sBsovto tc&v <7G)|xaTocptAaxo)v TCpsa-jkuam xsp\ 
a6Twv xpd? tou? Maxs3>6vas, By^ouvtocs 8to tt^ ImTporcsCas IxytopoUcri xai 
t% (xXkyc, IZpoaioiQ xai twv Tip.wv, sti Bs twv ^opr i yio)v &v I/oust, rcavT(ov 
ocuto Bs to 7uv£i>{JiaTiov ! Bsovtou a-uyyojpYi^YJvat o-cptoi [xsTa t% avayxaia? 
Tpo<p?J£. Similarly axcofj/jdjiov : oxw^a, ' merely a jest.' Af. Vesp 
1289, xafr' 6t' axsBsipopjv, 06xto; sysXwv [jiya xsxpayora frswjjisvoi 
OuBsv ap' Ijxou [is^ov, 8(tov Bs \lovov stBsvat, 2xa)|X[j.aTiov situots ti fr^ipo 
[xsvo? sx(3a>,w. When there is a judgment of inferiority combined with 
the diminutive idea, there is no way of telling whether the notion ' merely 
originated from that of small size as above, or from the deteriorative 
use of the suffix (§ 167 f.). An example in which the two have 
coalesced so as to be undistinguishable is nlaxovvxiov : TuXaxoS? 
'merely a flat-cake,' Epict. 2. 16. 25, t<x youv xai^ia sofru?, oxav 
x^au<7Y) pxpa t% ziz&r& (XtusX^ouot^, T&axotfvTiov ^a(36vTa smXsXiqaTat, 
frsXsts oIjv xai ^\i£i^ nccibioic, 6(j.otw|xsv ; ou, vy] tov Aia. ou yap rc^a- 
xouvtiou touto %0L(jfziv a?t&, alV 6tuo Boy[j.aTOJV dpQ^Jov. 


217. Diminutives properly so called can lose their character in 
two different ways. When they designate an object as smaller than 
others of its class, the meaning can fade only if the diminutive 
designates something which comes to be looked upon as a differen 
concept from the primitive. Thus when rcaiBiov ' baby ' was though 
of as 'a little child,' there was involved a reference to the primitive 
which necessarily kept the diminutive force intact ; but, since th< 
idea ' baby ' is one of a series referring to ages, xatBiov could stanc 
for the conception of a person of the requisite size and age withoul 
reference to the primitive, i. e. without any analysis at all, just as 
yspcov designates an old man and yet is one unanalyzed idea. When 
a word is thus interpreted as a whole, the suffixal meaning has 
faded, at least for the time being. Frequent usage is all that is 

1 The pronoun avzi shows that nvev^dnov must have been understood as 
' bare life,' and that its suffix was not due to the entreaty, as in the words 
of § 215. 

Diminutives. 165 

needed to convert this into permanent obliteration of the diminutive 
meaning. Similar fading of the idea of small size may take place in 
words like wpupfov ' a small kind of hammer,' and Tspsxptov ' a small kind 
of gimlet' (§ 199); for the carpenter may think of the larger and 
smaller kinds of the same instruments as quite distinct from each 
other, just as a musician thinks of a flute and piccolo as different. 
So roxpocaTtxBiov l a small kind of pillar' (§ 200) was probably 
a different architectural concept than its primitive, and frupiov 'a little 
door,' ' wicket 1 different from 0>opa 'a door' of the ordinary size. 

2 IS. When the idea of small size in a particular word has once 
faded, it does not by any means follow that all speakers at all times 
will henceforth lose sight of its diminutive character. The latter may 
crop out again and again as long as there are no such phonetic or 
semantic changes developed that connection of the diminutive with 
the primitive can not occur spontaneously. 1 Thus the German Plattchen 
1 cooky,' originally 'little plate,' is usually thought of without analysis, 
because the concept suggested by the diminutive is of such a distinct 
nature that no reference to the more general Platte 'plate' would 
ordinarily be made ; yet situations occur in which e. g. the analogy 
of other diminutives can bring back the consciousness of the structure 
of the word to the speaker's mind. On the whole it may be said 
that the oftener a word is used, the less likely will it be to suffer 
analysis, and words like xatBiov, which were in daily or hourly use, 
would be analysed most rarely and fade most easily. 

219. A particular kind of fading of diminutive meaning may oc- 
cur when the diminutive is used metaphorically, i. e. is applied to an 
object different from the primitive in addition to being smaller, 2 e. g. 
fruXdcxiov ' little bag ' applied to a seed capsule, or the German Schnee- 
glockchen. When the supposed diminutive of this kind designates 
a larger object than the primitive, this view can not be ma i nt a in ed 
(§ 135, end); but for some words like the above mentioned &o- 
Xaxiov it is not impossible that the speaker formed them with no 
other idea than 'little,' while its metaphorical use was merely in- 

1 One of these developments may be the loss of the primitive, in which 
case the diminutive meaning must necessarily be lost forever. It muel be 
born in mind, however, that the loss of the primitive can no1 be the effi- 
cient cause of the fading of diminutives, but merely the cause of the per- 
manency of such fading. If the primitive to a living diminutive » lost, the 
diminutive is also lost, because it has no word to whirl, it can h<» rclerrcl. 

" Of. Brugmann, Or. 2. I 2 . 073. 

166 Chapter XV. 

cidental. The extent, however, to which this process is assumed is 
certainly not justifiable ; the whole xepcraov type has its root in the | 
function of -tov to designate similarity (§ 136), which was an older 
use than the diminutive, and so furnished the models for most of 
these words. Absolutely beyond the realm of possibility is a number 
of words which are supposed to be faded diminutives of this kind by 
Janson, op. cit. p. 24 ff. It contains even words like apytjpiov and 
yjxlxiov, in which the -iov meant ' made of,' and which do not show 
the slightest suggestion of diminutive meaning. 

220. The second method by which diminutives can lose their 
character concerns those which refer to a class. Unless the situation 
points to a very strong contrast of size between the diminutive and 
other classes, there is continual probability that the hearer will not 
coincide with the speaker. Thus when the latter used xa&iov 4 a 
little child,' he may have referred even to a child of twelve or fourteen 
years of age, because he thought of the size of any child as small com- 
pared to that of an adult. The hearer, however, when there were no 
strong indications of this in the situation, would usually not be able 
to follow the speaker, and would perceive 7caiBCov as used exactly 
like 7uaT?. He could then himself go on and use the diminutive in 
place of the primitive without qualification. It is evident that any 
diminutive referring to a class and suffering a more than occasional 
usage, may fade in this manner : the difficulty is merely to determine 
which words were diminutives to begin with (cf. § 206), and when 
the diminutive meaning has ceased to be felt. Examples for the 
probable fading of this kind of diminutive may be found under most 
words of § 208. I may mention jcpo(3drctov = 7upo(3aTov ' sheep ' (last 
example), xaXuxiov = xaXu'£ c calyx,' Xs:wpiov — Xiizopov ' husk,' crap- 
p.dcTiov = (7xsp[xa 'seed 1 (cf. Diosc. 2. 211, cxsp^dcTia [xst^ova ppccovo?), 
yap-suviov = /apxuvYj c pallet bed.' Most easily those words become 
equivalent to their primitive, of which the root part already carried 
with it the idea of small size or youth as compared to something 
else. Since rctoXCov ' a (little) foal ' does not contrast its size and 
age with a full-grown horse merely by means of its suffix, but the 
primitive 7u6>Xo£ contains within itself the same suggestion, the suffix 
-tov had from the beginning no other function than to emphasize this 
relation, and only frequent usage of the diminutive was required to 
efface this slight difference. 

Diminutives. 167 


221. In order that a given -tov word of non-diminutive meaning 
should he reinterpreted as a diminutive, there must be stronger in- 
fluences at work than the mere incidental application of the word 
to a small object. Large and small things are ever present to the 
eye, and oftener than not we refer to something without thinking 
anything .about its size. When, therefore, Q^piov, the generic term 
for 'animal,' is used of a small animal like an insect (§ 118 A, 
second note to ->Y]piov), it does not by any means follow that it was 
net ually interpreted as a diminutive. This is only possible when 
there is something to show that the idea, of small size was really a 
part of the conception of the speaker. 

222. The prime requisite for the reinterpretation of an old -iov 
word as a diminutive is that it should not differ materially from the 
primitive in meaning, so that there exists a pair of a word with 
and one without -iov which are virtually equivalent. The suffix then, 
because not charged with any definite meaning, is ready to receive 
a new interpretation. Since the diminutive relation is by far the 
most frequent for such words, other pairs which are not preempted 
by other distinct meanings of -iov can be attracted so as to be in 
the same relation to each other. The less often an -iov word of 
this kind is used, the less definite and strong its semantic picture 
exists in the mind, the more easily can the diminutive meaning be 
thrust upon it. More or less probable examples are apyupiov : ac- 
ppo?, originally 'anything made of silver,' 'silver money.' but once 
perhaps 'a little silver coin' (§ 101 A sub apyupiov, last example); 
Baipviov : Bodrov, originally an adjectival abstract with the meaning 
' divinity, 1 then equivalent to its primitive, and finally limited to the 
lesser divinities (§ 38. last note); c|jt>XTr)piov : ^uxnfjp, 'wine-cool. a-, 
originally identical with primitive, but apparently a diminutive twice 
(§ 77). The influence of the diminutives also seems to have caused 
the distinction between T*rn$ and TSTTiyoviov, 'locust* and 'small 
kind of locust.' Of. Arist. H. A. 5. 30. 556 a 20. KaXofcn U nv* 

piv [xz^oCkouc xai aoovTa? (sc. tSv trrri^wv) a/sTa?, T0&< » ;r 
TSTTiyovia. A most striking example of the influence of diminu- 
tives, probably a case of intentional regulation bj fche grammarians, 
is prfpiov, usually equivalent to (J.6>o? or |iipo« 'part' (§ 8(5 but 
designating prefixes and the suffixed particle -to in contrail bo 
'a part of speech' in the Etymologicum Magnum, and 10 consi 

168 Chapter XV. 

a diminutive to the latter. Cf. op. cit. 141. 47, 51, To oCkya. oux 
sort pipo? Xoyoo, otXka. (xoptov. . . . o5tg> xat twv [ispwv tou Xoyou [xspY] 
stct Ta (xopia. ib. 142. 4 XTspYjTtxa p.6pta 7usvt£* A, . . . NE, . . . NH, 
... NQ, ... NO. ib. 808. 9, 'fttovBs. To AE oux hm [xspoc Xoyou, 
a>Aa [xopiov. 

223. Occasion for the reinterpretation of -tov words as diminutives 
can also be given by certain external iufluences, just as in case of 
the corresponding deterioratives (§ 174 ff.). In the first place, the 
frequent use of adjectives like pxpo? and Izizioc, with -tov diminutives 
could cause non -diminutives in -tov to become interpreted as dimin- 
utives if modified by the same adjectives ; for the adjective will then 
call attention to the small size of an object and allows 1 the suffix to 
be connected with that idea, and so to be recognized as the same 
which is so often a diminutive suffix. The best example of this is 
tiipccxiop (§ 101 C) in Dem. 8. 28, si yap Bstva tuoisT Ato7U3i8*Y]£ xal 
xaTayst Ta xloTa, [itxpov, w avBps? 'ASirjvaToi, pxpov xtvaxtov tocStoc 7uavT 5 
sTutc^eTv Buvocit' av. So also TQifiwviov (§ 130 a) in Ar. Lys. 278, 
2[jiixp6v sywv 7uavu Tpt(3(6vtov, and ipvxii^ov in the first two examples 
of § 77. 

224. In the second place, the collocation of a non-diminutive -tov 
word with real diminutives may call attention to the fact that the 
former has the same suffix as the latter, and so cause it to be rein- 
terpreted as a diminutive. So dxovnov (§ 127) in Thuc. 2. 4. 3, 
arupaxtw axovTtou. yaCTQiov (§ 101 F) in Nicostratus frg. 3. 279, EtT* 
opvtO-aptov, to 7uspioTspiov, to yaorpiov. Com. Anon. frg. 4. 608 (27 b), 
Ileptcpspstv [j.aTTtjY]v xat xoBaptov, Kat yacrptov Taxspov ti xat |r/]Tpa£ 
taw?. aavlSiov (§ 101 C) in CIA. 2. 835 c-1 87, zwk[i\Iiol hizi gol- 
vtBtou Buo. 

225. In how far these processes were really operative in causing 
the reinterpretation of -tov words as diminutives in post-Classical times, 
can not, of course, be determined except by extended research in the 
late literature. For the Classical period, however, there are no indi- 
cations that this has taken place to any very great extent, not even 
for words which might be taken as diminutives referring to a class, 
e. g. axovTtov 'javelin,' which, as designating a missile of small size 
compared to a spear, might be supposed to have taken upon itself a 
diminutive meaning with this relation in view, which would be all the 
easier because any diminutive referring to a class has exactly the 

1 Such reinterpretation is, of course, as uncertain and varies as much as 
for deterioratives. Cf. § 171. 

Chapter XVI. 169 

sane breadth of application as the primitive, and consequently, when 
a word is thus reinterpreted, no change in its sphere of application 
results. Aside from the fact, however, that there is scarcely any 
indication that such words secondarily came to be felt that way, 
many of the same type, e. g. those designating the larger vessels and 
articles of dress, were kept from reinterpretation by the same limitations 
which prevent our presuming them to be diminutives at their first 
formation ( g 205 f.). On the other hand, words in -iov which designated 
something ' like ' their primitive, but smaller, were very probably 
largely reinterpreted as diminutives (§ 136, 189). 

22<i. As in case of deterioratives (§ 177), words which have 
been reinterpreted as diminutives can not be separated sharply from 
those of which the diminutive meaning is rather due to reformation, 
i. e. the speaker consciously coins a new diminutive, but is uncon- 
scious, at least for the time being, of the fact that the same word 
already exists in a non-diminutive meaning. The latter process is 
not different from the formation of any other new diminutives, and 
words which seemed to me probably to have gotten their diminutive 
meaning in this way, have been placed among the original diminutives, 
so.e. g. xi(3c6tiov, KuXfoaov, XYjxufrtov, paxiov. 


227. Whereas the deteriorative use of -iov was, as we have seen, 
as old as the diminutive, and not derived from it, its hypocoristic 
function must rather have taken its origin from its diminutive use. 
Not that this is the only possible way by which endearment can be 
connected with a suffix, but rather because it is the only one which 
meets the conditions presupposed by -tov particularly. That other 
sources of this meaning are also possible, can be seen from the exist- 
ence of hypocoristic suffixes which are uncombined with diminutive 
meaning, e. g. the English -y in personal names like Willy and 
Johnny, or in names of animals in the nursery, such as 'doggj ' or 
'horsy.' 1 These words have no tendency whatever to be restricted 
to particularly small dogs or horses, but are used of all sizes indiffer- 
ently while speaking to children in a coaxing or endearing ton< 
§ 244). Another example of a hypocoristic suftix which is not at 

1 Cf. Cent. Diet, and Cyel. sub -y. 

170 Chapter XVI. 

the same time a diminutive suffix is the so-called diminutive -1- of 
the Gothic bible, which is used for translating the Greek -iov only 
in hypocoristic address, not when it refers to small size ; xoaBiov is 
translated barn except in the Vocative, which is barnilo. 1 It is, then, 
possible that the hypocoristic use of a suffix arises differently than 
from the idea of small size, e. g. directly from the meaning ' de- 
scended from.' Just as the words child, son, and daughter may have 
an affectionate ring in address, so a suffix of descent may develop 
into a hypocoristic suffix without interposition of diminutive meaning, 
and it is highly probable that the Germanic -l-, 2 if not I. E. -lo-, 
came to its function in this manner. For Greek -iov, however, this 
is impossible for the same reason that its diminutive use can not 
have originated in this way (§ 95). namely, that its use in the 
meaning ' descended from ' was limited to so few and rare words that 
it could hardly have given rise to as frequent functions as those of 
designating small size and endearment. Moreover, the majority of 
these words designate animals of such a kind that no one could think 
of them with affection : a young viper (s/iBvtov), a young polyp (%o- 
XutuoBiov), a young purple-fish (rcopcpupiov). Since there also is no 
evidence that the hypocoristic use of -iov could have developed from the 
deteriorative use (§ 3), we must look for its origin in diminutive -tov. 

228. The whole mass of hypocoristic words may be roughly divided 
into two groups. In the one the idea is ' dainty,' ' nice,' k elegant, 1 
and this largely originated in the use of diminutives designating young 
animals or plants when used as articles of food (§ 193 ff.). After the 
originally accessory idea of deliciousness had once become dominant 
in some of these words, the new meaning was extended to other 
words where it could not originate, i. e. to words in which the idea 
of daintiness never could have been associated with small size or youth, 
e. g. 7uoda<nov ' fine cake ' of preserved fruit, yvoa>p.cmov l delicious slice. 1 

229. In the second group the suffix is an exponent of endear- 
ment, and expresses affection for a person or object. The over- 
whelming majority of examples of this kind refer to living beings, 
particularly to human beings, and it is in designations of such that 
the origin of the use is to be sought. The ease with which endearment 
is associated with small size in case of a child or pet animal is too 

1 Cf. Polzin, Stud. z. Gesch. des Dem. im Deutsch. 1. 

2 Cf. Wrede, Die Dim. im Deutsch. 132 ff., who, however, unnecessarily 
insists that proper names (Kose-formen) must have antedated appellative 

Hypocoristic Words. 171 

familiar in all languages to need illustration. The English adjective 
* little* has proceeded so far in this respect that it is used by some 
persons even where there is no idea of small size, as when the lover 
speaks of his 'little girl' even when she is six feet tall. In case of 
Greek -tov this development of the diminutive idea may have been 
assisted by another factor. The most frequent of diminutives, namely 
Tuattuov, in as much as it could mean 'little son or daughter,' i. e. 
could refer to descent as well as size and age, contained within its 
root part the germs of a hypocoristic development (cf. § 227), and 
this could easily emphasize and hasten the tendency of the endearment 
to connect itself with the suffix; for xaiBiov 'dear little son 1 could 
be analyzed so that the idea ' dear ' as well as ' little ' was lodged in 
the suffix. 

230. The examples will be divided into the two groups just men- 
tioned, without paying attention to the distinction whether the hypo- 
corism is directed to an individual or a class. Since these meanings 
are an off-shoot of the fully developed diminutive meaning, and since 
there never could have existed the idea of similarity in a hypocoristi- 
eallv used suffix, the distinction is of no historical value here. As 
a matter of fact, it may be said that when the meaning is ' dainty,' 
' elegant, 1 etc., the hypocorism may be directed either to an individual 
or a class, but real endearment is necessarily nearly always addressed 
to concrete individuals, and not to abstract classes. 


231. By far the larger number of examples designate articles of 
food, and of these those which are names of animals or plants or 
their parts have already been mentioned (§ 193 ff.). It remain- to 
give the words which could not themselves have been instrumental in 
the development of this meaning. Semviov : Mtuvov. ' delieiou> dinner. 1 
Hes., g5 yap axavfrar ^apoi[j.ta. Apwro<pdevYK axtjvfc xafatajJ 
obV W avTsXsys? to^tco to) osittvio)- 1 ou yap axavO-oa. 6etea<JU&iM \ 
BsXsaqxa, 'dainty enticement. 1 Philoxenus 2. 5, (so. xpa- 

xtgoa) rcpo? btyikuyyouc, s<roXpov auya? E&rrf<pavbi 
T, 6&pa<po>v lAqpctfc <riv ts x>M<m MavTOoazoi/Ti ts/v-/: 

1 The text is sometimes emended to tunviiq. 

172 Chapter XVI 

Anaxipp. ap. Athen. 404 C, Toutco TOcpEGrjxa ffYjmas xai TsuG'iBa^ Kal 
twv TOTpaicov fyfrutov t&v toixlXcov, 'E[i[3a{j.[j.aTiot? yXacpopoT(7i xsyopYjypiva. 
ildvofiaziov : YJBi>qj.<x, 'fine sauce or relish.' Telecl. frg. 2. 362(11) 
(I quote a longer passage as a good example of how freely such 
hypocorisms were used by some persons. It is a description of the 
former blissful state of man), Zwjjlou B' sppsi xocpa Ta? yikivccc, 7uotoc[j.6s 
xp£a 6>ep[xa xu)avBcov, f r7UOTpi[X[xaTt(ov B' oyzzol toutwv zoiq (3ouXojx£voun 
TOcpYJaav, "QaV acpO'Ovia ty)v svfrsa-iv ?jv apBovfr' a7ua^Y]v xaTocmvsiv. As- 
xavCcrxaiaw B' dtvdwuaiora 7uap?jv Y]Buo|i.aTioi£ xaTaTuaara. 'Otutoi Ss xi/Xoa 

|XSt' ap)Tl(7X(OV Sl£ TOV CpapUy' SL(7£TOT0VT0 * TSv Bs 7uXaX0[JVTG)V (ooti^o- 

jxsvcov to pi ty)v yvafrov 9jv aXaX^TO?. MyJTpa? Bs t6|j.oic xai /vocu[j.(xtiols 
ol rcaiBsg av Y]<7Tpayo&i£ov. naAaOiov, nakaciov : rcaXaBir], ' fine cake 
of preserved fruit.' Ar. Pax. 574, 'AXX' dcvapYjafrsvTsc, wvBpsc, T% 
BtaiTY]? 1% 7ualaia?, °Hv TuapeT/' gcoty] (sc. Y] EipYjvY)) toQ*' y][j.Tv, Twv ts 
xaXaa-iwv sxstvtov, TSv ts cuxwv, tg>v ts jxtjpTcov. Tiakri^wtiov : 7u<x).Yj|xk, 
'fine meal.' 1 Ar. frg. 2. 1184(33), IL%oi> ? B' 06/' %v 6pu po>.- 
Pdtg, . . . "lv £7uayXat(7Y] to rca)or)[j.aTtov xal [j.yj (3yjtt(j)v xoctoctuivyj. 7r££/- 
xo^fjctTiop : TOpixo{x(j.a, 'fine mince-meat/ l Ar. Equ. 770, Kaycoy', a> 

AyJJJl', £1 |XY) (7£ CplXw XOCt |XY] CTTSpyto, XaTaTp)0>£l£ f E^»0t[XY]V £V TOpLXO|X|J.a- 

Tiot?. 2 Athenion frg. 4.558 (31), see § 208 Bb sub ipicpiov. aaQxiov : 
cap?, ' tender delicious meat.' Diph. frg. 4. 380, crapxioc AjcaXtoTaT.' 
tciqIxiop : Tapiyo?, ' fine salted fish.' Ar. Pax 563, 'EpuoXYjo-avTs? ti 
^PYjctov elf aypdv Tapiyiov. [e^a%iov : T£[xayos, ' delicious slice.' Amphis 
frg. 3. 316, see § 193 b sub Xa(3pdbaov. Crobyl. frg. 4. 568 (1), 
tov ^apuyy' YJBiara 7uupia> TS[xayioi£. TQififiaTiov : Tpip.[xa, ' fine spiced 
drink.' Sotad. frg. 3. 585 (1. 17), Tpi^aTiov (oxsicoo-oc toutoi? avfrivov 
riavToBarcov. s'Jiyjtov Bs [j.et& too)toc£ Tiva, 'O^uXiTOcpov toutoi? IBwxs 
yopiov. Diph. frg. 4. 394 (1. 5), 'Otutwv £7rtjys a-copd? axo tou TYjyavou, 
Tpi[i[xaTta toutoi? iv £k)£iat£ apyupat^. TqoyvMov : Tpocpali?, ' fine fresh 
cheese.' Alexis frg. 3. 462 (1. 12), Tupou zpoy&kvx. /^wpa Kufrvioo 
7utxpaT£[j.(6v, BoTpuBiov xi| /optov, Iv xoTYjpia) Da>xuv. vnoTQifi/jHXTior : 
67r6Tpip.[xa, 'fine herb-sauce.' Telecl. frg. 2.361, see sub Y]Bo<7fxaTiov. 
Poll. 6. 68, £tY) B' ocv twv Y]Bu<7|j.aTa)v xal Ta u7UOTpi[j.|iaTta, 3 a xal 

1 These' words may also have a true diminutive element in them, in as 
much as the suffix may have carried with it the idea ' ground fine,' another 
case of the influence of the adjective Xtnrif (§ 210). 

2 Here the force of the suffix seems to have faded, unless the purpose 
of the hypocorism was to raise a laugh on account of its ridiculous incongruity 
with the situation. 

3 Here perhaps ' generalizing-.' Cf. xarff/vojUfmw (§ 118 C). 

Hypocoristic Words. 173 

xa-apd^aria. xvavpariov : yyovjy.v., ' delicious slice.' Ar. frg. 2. 
1026(1), see § 208 Bb sub Bslcpdbaov. Telecl. frg. 2. 362 (1. 14), 
see sub f)W[j.aTiov. /v/i/ov : yo\Loq, ' fine sauce.' Sotad. frg. 3. 585 
(1. 19), see sub Tpi^aTiov. 

232. Closely related to the above words are those in which -tov 
means 'soft,' 'delicate,' 'luxuriant,' 'elegant' (§ 211 D). It must 
be by the extension of these ideas or the meaning 'delicious' or both 1 
that hypocoristic -iov has come to be added to a few originally ab- 
stract words : axou<7|j.aTtov ' elegant (little) strain of music,' fioulzu- 
[idcTiov ' nice (little) plan,' pY)[j.craov ' neat (little) phrase.' For the 
last, however, the idea of endearment also may have had its influence, 
in as much as the words were thought of as used for coaxing some 
one into aquiescence (cf. § 242). We may translate 'pet phrases,' 
b coaxing words,' or the like. Examples : dxovaiidxiov : obtoo<T|xa. Luc. 
Philopatr. 18, &XX ays Byj to fraop.a<7iov sxsitvo dcxouqjiaTtov aswov, 
6tu6>S xayco xairwxptaa-o) xai 6\mq a^lotwfrw, xat . . . foe, aY)^wv opvsov 
ysvYjcro^ai xai ty]v 0>oa>[xa<7iav crou sxtuXyj^iv xafr' av&Y)p6v Xst[x&va sxTpa- 
ytoBf^o. povfavfJHXTiov : (3o(jXsu^a. Ar. Equ. 100, *Hv yap [xefronfrco, 
^avxa Towd xaTarc&xco BotAsu^ordcov xat yvco^iBitov xai voioio>v. $i^««- 
r#W : pTjixa. Ar. Ach. 447, Eu y otov yJoy] pr^a^iojv g[«uC[«&a[i.at. id. 
Equ. 216, t6v Bvjpv ast 7:po<77uoiou, e T7uoyluxatvow pr^aTiois {j.aysipixo>£. 
id. Nub. 943, K&t sx Toikcov wv av )i£f] TY)|xaTioi<7tv xaivoTs atkov 
Kai Btavoiai? xaT0CTO^£UO"w. 

233. As an example of the combination of diminutive and hypo- 
coristic meaning, which is presupposed to have existed if the latter 
is derived from the former, I may mention Gnjyaxpiov 'dear little 
daughter' in Men. frg. 4. 198, Toupv fruya^ptov ; rcavu yap lm t?. 
cpucrsi . . . cpiXav&pwTUOv to waiBdcpiov ccpoopa. The same combination 
can occur at any time when rcxt&Cov is used hypocoristicallv ; for a 
speaker may always think of any child as small at the samo time 
when he is using tuociBiov with endearment. Since this word also allows 
such a development particularly easily because of its root meaning 
(§ 229), and since it was the most frequent of all hypocoristic 
words in -lov, we may conclude that it was the principal patten for 
this group of hypocoristic words, just as it was for the diminttthrefl 

* It is also not impossible that this is due to semantic syncretism oi 
with -wo-. Cf. Alcman frg. 65, U &f*k ** *«*** 

174 Chapter XVI. 

(§ 182), and this all the more so because it is generally true that 
endearment is oftenest and most evidently associated with small size 
in case of children. 

234. This accessory notion of endearment could gradually become 
dominant over that of small size in any word, but most easily this 
took place when the diminutive referred to a class. If the speaker 
used rcoctBiov f dear little child ' because thinking of a child as small 
in comparison with adults, the hearer would usually not follow him 
and perceive only the hypocorism, which always reveals itself easily 
in the spoken language. After the diminutive idea had altogether 
faded from certain words in certain situations, it became possible to 
use words like KuxXwmov ' dear Cyclops,' and EopimBiov ' dear Euri- 
pides ' (§ 236 b). 

235. By far the larger number of occasions for endearing expres- 
sions arise in address of the second person : the mother to her child, 
the lover to his love, etc. As a result the large majority of examples 
of the hypocoristic use of -tov words are in the Vocative case. This 
fact has born fruit in new formations on the basis of the Vocative 
in several instances. Thus Tua^spiov ' dear father ' shows its hypo- 
coristic origin by the strong stem Tuaxsp-, which occurs in the Vocative 
of its primitive (rarc-sp), while otherwise the weak stem rcaTp- is used 
as the basis of derivation and composition. From the relation of the 
vocatives rcaf : rcatBiov the suffix -Btov was abstracted, e. g. in po'JBiov 
(§ 304). 

236. Examples of hypocorisms in address, mostly the Vocative 
case. I will subdivide : a) the term of endearment is an appellative 
designating a person, b) a proper name, c) a name of an animal 
hypocoristically used of a person, d) a name of an animal referring 
to an animal. 

a) eouuwp : sptoc ' love. 1 Hes., spw^tov  sptopxvov TapavTioi? #v- 
ydcoiop : £k>yaTY)p, ' dear daughter.' Ar. Thesm. 1184, Koctyjo-o, 1 KCCTYjao, 
voukt vat, TuytxTpiov. 1 Men. frg. 4. 327, 0uyaTpiov, y) vuv ^(Jiipa BtBwcri 
[jloi *H B6£av 7]Tot Hixfiolrp. xoowr : xopr h ' dear maiden. 1 Theocr. 11. 
60, Nuv [j.dcv, w xopiov, vl>v a5 to y a v£ ^ v ^sjxaQ'sti^at, . . . Qc, slBco 
ti %o& aBi> xoctoixsTv t6v fiub-ov 5[ipv. naidlov : 7uat£, ' dear child ' or 
'dear servant.' Ar. Nub. 132, 'AlH ouyi xo7uto) tJjv frupocv ; xaT, rcai- 
Biov. id. Vesp. 408, 'Alloc t>attxdhria paX6vrs£ wc ^ol/kj™, rccaBta, 
©sTts xal [3oai:s, xat KXswvi tocut' ayysXsTs. id. Pax 111, Q xaiBi , 

1 Barbarisms for xa&r t oo and d-vydzqtuy. 

Hypocoristic Words. 175 

6 rcXTilp foroXwc&v A^pxerixi ')>a ? lp%o^ | 5 tov o^pavov Xafrpa. ib. 
1268, !AXtf 6 Tt ?usp aBeiv imvodfc, S rcatbwv, Afoot) reap' ip* ^av *p6- 
rspov ftvapaXoO \fraot id. Vesp. 293, 5 EQ^<xei ? 4 pi o5v, & Ilarsp, 
r;/ rod Ti osy)0-w ; XOP. llavu y , & rca&Cov. id. Thesm. 731, xoO 8*a- 
vcfcrou o 1 5 -atBiov, M6vy)v yuvaixwv aiTtw tyjv ppspa. Phil. frg. 4. 
16 (1), KaOTOv ti Tupa^xetv, 06 [j.6vov toc? sXmoa? 'Em t$ tu/yj /pr n 
-aioiov, 7uavT(o ? s/siv. Traieowv : Tuainrjp, ' dear father.' Luc. Menipp. 
21 (to the blind seer Teiresias, after the latter had declared that he 
must not answer the speaker's request for information), MY)Bap>c, 

SfTJV, W -OCTSpiOV, aXX' stag Xal [JJ] X£pllBY]? (XS (JOU TUCp^OTSpOV rapilOVT* 

h -m jjuo. */*>w : -sxvov, ^dear child.' 1 Ep. Jo. 3. 7, Tsxvia, 
ar,oYic 7:AocvaTO) 0[j.ac. 

b) r'Mwoiov : FXuxspa. Men. frg. 4. 167 (9), Xoffp & nuxspiov. 1 
EvQtnldtov : EOpimBY]?. Ar. Ach. 404, EupwuoY), EuptmBiov, 'Vxaxou- 
arov, efaep jw«wuot avO'pdkow tivi. ib. 475, EuptmBiov co yXuxuTaTov xai 
^CXtoctov, KaxwT a7toXo([j.Y]v, si tC a - ' aiTYjamp' Iti, IIXyjV sv [i6vov. 
KvxAwTriov : KtixX(o<|>. Eur. Cycl. 266, 'Atcg)[W, w xaXXurrov w Kux- 
Xwmov, '12 Bs(77ugti(Txs, [J.Y] Ta a? s£oBav syto Esvowi /pYj|j.aT. AayLayiTi- 
rcior as if: Aa[j.a/i-7:oc, but really acting as a humorous ' diminutive ' 
to Aa[j.ayo£ in Ar. Ach. 1206, unless Aajxay/Biov is to be substituted 
(cf. $ 300): 'Iy] iy] yaTps Aa[j.ayi7umov. MvqqLviov : MuppivY). Ar. 
Lys. 906, cptXsTc ; . . . w Muppiviov. 2 (JieidinnLdiov : OsiBitttuiBt^. Ar. 
Nub. 80, OsiBitutuBy], <I>siBi7umoiov. OKI. ti, w rca-rep ; 2TP. K-J^ov |ts 
xai ty]v ystpa Boc ty]v oV£iav. 

c) fiaxiov, an uncertain hypocristic word for which Bentley sub- 
stituted <pdfonov. Ar. Plut. 1011, Kal vy] AC e2 lu-ryj^ivr^ afcrfrovco* 
[xs, Nrjinrdcpiov av xai (SaTiov 6tcsxopl£sto. s/.a<fioi> : sAaoo:, ' dear little 
roe/ Ar. Thesm. 1172, 'Epv Ipyov Itrdv xai <t6v, S&dtytov, 1 a 001 
Ka6' 6B6v e<ppa£ov, TatjTa [xsprjafrai xotstv. {jsUttwv : [xsXiTTa, 'dear 
little bee.' Ar. Vesp. 367, XOP. 'Alloc xai v3v feca6pigs M^/avr;/ 
07:0^ Ta/icrT- £(o^ yap, w pXtirTiov. %qv(So-^oA6viho):\):Os:f/jYr( r 
'dear little golden beetle.' Ar. Vesp. 1342, 'Avajiaivs fttOpo, XP ^ " 

1 rivxtQiw, a metrically necessary conjecture of Bentley tor / 
attested for Menander by Philostratus. 

2 *& Mvi^linov is the reading of R, wliile T has & ,at'.> c >/or, and BOme ed- 
itors emend to <>> uy^nW, MvyyividLoi', or to Mvoniri r 

3 *Ei«yiw is here often taken as a proper noun, bul aince \ " "!<I 
comedy no other examples of such a name becoming pennanentl: 

to a person (cf. § 237 b), it seems safer to coiim*!.-. it as appellative like 

176 . Chapter XVI, 

d) 7T6QIGT&Q10P : 7uspio:rspa, • dear little dove.' Pherecr. frg. 2. 322, 
''ATX w xspioTspiov ojjioiov Klsiofrsvsi, IIstou, x6\u<7qv Bs |x s?$ KuO^Y]pa 
xod Kurcpov. 

237. When a person expresses his feeling of endearment for a 
-third person, and particularly for someone who is not present, the 
intensity of his feeling is naturally usually less than in the con- 
trary case, and will diminish in accordance with the remoteness of 
his connection with the person. In this way the use of hypocorisms 
can descend step by step to a condition in which such a slight degree 
of emotion is felt that the -iov derivative is virtually equivalent to 
the primitive, a state of affairs which is further hastened by the many 
cases in which the hearer can not understand the speaker's endearment. 
Although this latter factor often makes it still more difficult for us, 
who are so far removed from the Greek manner of thought, to judge 
with certainty whether a certain word could have been used hypo- 
coristically, there are enough certain passages to show that this use 
of -iov was not confined to the second person. The examples are 
arranged as in the last paragraph. 

a) dv#QW7Tiov : avfrpo)7uo£, 'a dear little chap' (ironical). Eur. Cycl. 
185, tous frtAaxoo? tou? izowxkouc, Ilspt to?v oxsloTv iBouooc xai tqv 
Xpuosov KXwov cpopouvTa 7uepi [jioov tov atfysva s£s7utoy]6>y) (sc. yj e EXsV/)), 
Msvslswv avfrpcoTciov A&otov Xircotjoa. ttvyaTQiov Ar. Thesm. 1210, 
V Q ypaBi, &S xapisvTO 1 ooi to TuyaTpiov. 1 Strattis frg. 2. 788(5), Ta 
froyarpia IIspi tyjv taxav^v obuavTa rapiTusftXiypiva. Xenarch. frg. 3. 624 
(1), Touti to xaxov oux sot' sti xaxov, T6 fruyaTpiov ts jxou osoivarcixs 
Bia tyjc Hsvy]?. Men. frg. 4. 198 (5), see § 233. naidiov. Ar 
Ach. 132, 'E[j.oi ou TauTaot Xa(3wv oxto) Bpayjj.a$ SxovBa? Tuoirjoai 7cp6c 
AaxsBat|j.ovious {j.6vw Kai toToi xaiBioioi xai tyj rclaTiBi. id. Lys. 99, Too? 
7uaTspa? ou 7uo8>s?ts tou^ twv rcaiBitov 'Em OTpaTiac dbuovTa^ ; ib. 880, 
ouB' s^ssT? to rcaiBiov "AXoutov Sv xa8>Y]lov sxtyjv ^pipav ; id. Thesm. 
690, TaXaiv syco, TaXaiva, xai to 7:aiBiov 'E'^aprcaoas [jioi (ppouBo? arco 
too irrfKou. id. Eccl. 92, yup.va B' soti p.oi Ta rcaiBia. 

b) While the proper names of § 236 b were occasional for 
mations which were used in affectionate address only, and alongside of 
them the primitives were in regular use for the very same individuals, 
all extant examples which belong here are of such a nature as to 
show that the hypocoristic force of the suffix lias faded ; for the -iov 
form has taken the place of its primitive as the regular name of 

1 Barbarisms for %ctquv and tivyaxqiov. 

Hypocoristic Words. 177 

certain women, particularly hetaerae. These proper names in -urn. 
became very frequent in later times, and seem then to have been 
confined to women, while in the time of the Old Comedy, when the 
hypocoristic force of the suffix was yet living, they could just as well 
be used in endearing address to men (cf. the examples of § 236 b). 
A longer list of these permanent names in -tov has been collected by 
Zimmerman, Die Griech. Personennamen auf -ov und ihre Ent- 
sprechungen im Lateinischen, Philol. 64. 499 ff. Many examples are 
also scattered through Bechtel, Die Attischen Frauennamen. Here 
will be given only a few words from the Middle Comedy, in order 
to show that already at that time (but not earlier) such names in 
-io v had become permanently attached to certain individuals ; for they 
occur as their ordinary names alongside of names of other individuals 
without hypocoristic suffixes. Navnov : Navva, Amphis frg. 3. 310, 
llapa Bs XtvtoTTf] xai Auxa xai Navviw 'ETspat? ts -zoiwjzoavi mxrtfm tou 
|3iou "EvBov xaO-TjT (sc. 6 IIXoutos) axoTuTjjxTO?. Timocl. frg. 3. 608(1), 
llspi Bs tov Tuavdt&Odov E*jBoik71 ypa£$, Navviov, HXayyow, Auxa, TvaOaiva, 
<I>p:jva, lIu8iovixr„ MuppCvY), Xpu<rfs, KovaXTic, e l£poxX£ia, Ao~aBiov. 
Anaxil. frg. 3. 348 (15), yj Ss Navviov tC vuvi Biacpspsiv Ew5XXi)$ Box£i ; 
Alexis frg. 3. 486, Navviov Bs [xaiv£Tai IrX tw Aiovuco). Aonddiov, 
see sub Navviov. 

d) dondtov : opvi? ' bird.' Ar. A v. 223, %2 Zzu (kcnteS, tou cpO-sy- 
\m-oc ToupviS^ioD * ( )iov xaT£[xs>viT(0(7s ty)v X6yji.ijv oXijv. ib. 662, 'Expi- 
(3a<rov sx toO $cjuz6\koo Toupvifrtov. ib. 667, *Q Zzu tuoX-jtiij.t/j-, (o; xaX&v 
To5pvi6kov, c Qc, B' a^alov, 6? Bs Xeuxov. 

238. It is quite common in various languages, e. g. Latin and 
Middle High German, to use hypocorisms for everything connected 
with the person of one's mistress, particularly parts of her body, oi- 
lier dress and her ornaments, and the same is often done when 
speaking of children, then with the diminutive idea as well as en- 
dearment. As far as articles of dress and ornament are concerned, 
there is not the slightest indication that the -iov words of g L80 had 
the remotest tendency to be used oftener in hypocoristic situations, 
as when the lover is speaking to his love, or the parent to the child, 
and we must consequently conclude that this kind of hypocorism was 
foreign to the Greek language, probably fur the v.-.v reason ft 
many words of this kind in meaningless -tov had been formed before 
the full development of the hypocoristic use, that the BUffii could 
not be easily recognized as a means of expressing endearment in this 
congeneric group. There is, however, some evidence tor tin- o 

178 Chapter XVI. 

hypocoristic -iov in words designating parts of the body. The best 
example is post-Classic : oy^dxiov : 6[X|xa, ' dear little eye,' Anth. P. 
5. 132, w ToQ paBivoto Tpa^Y)>,OL>, *Q /sipfiv, w t&v }i.aivo[iai d[j.[j.aTicov, 
Q xaTtXTS^voTaTOU xivy)|xocto£, & 7uspia^Atov rXxoTTicrp-wv, w twv 8'ocu^ 
s^s cpwvapiwv. That the same usage existed already in the time of 
the Old Comedy, is shown by the following words : noa&iov : xoofrYj, 
Ar. Thesm. 1188, xocXy) to (Txyj^oc 1 rcspi to tuootiov. 1 tit&iqv : titO-oc. 
Crates frg. 2. 248 (4), ITavu yap Igtiv obpixoWaTa Ta mbC &owsp 
pj^ov y] pjxaixula. Ar. Ach. 1199, aTTocTai, T&v tit^iwv, &>q axXY)pa 
xai xuBama. OtTorjcaTOv [j.s |j.aXfrax6)c, w /puaico. id. Lys. 83, f Qc ^y) 
xaldv to XP^P-' ^si? ™ v ™^o)v. id. Ran. 412, Koci yap TuapapXs'Jiag 
ti |xsipaxiaxY]c, NBv By) xocTstbov, xai jxaV £07tpoo-a)7uou, Zu[McawrpCa£ 
Xitwviou HapappaysvTO? tit&iov rcpoxu^av. Cf. also the following words 
in conglutinates : BocxtuXiBiov (§ 315. XII. C), 6cpQ>aX[jiBiov (1. c), 
titQiBiov (1. c), and cpwvapiov (see sub 6[X[xaTiov). 

239. There is not a single probable example extant in which 
a hypocoristic word in -iov is used to express endearment for a lifeless 
thing itself. Apparent cases of this kind are either such that the 
endearment is directed to something else than is designated by the 
word in -iov (cf. § 244 f.), or the idea is 'neat,' 'pretty, 1 'elegant.' 
etc., i. e. there really is no affection present at all (cf. § 240). 
For an apparent exception in -iBiov see § 315. XII. E. 


240. Since endearment often results from an appreciation of 
beauty, the two ideas are intimately associated, and the latter may 
become dominant in situations where the emotional element is less 
keenly felt, e. g. when the endearment is directed to an absent person. 
Thus fruyaTpiov is used particularly with reference to beauty in Ai\ 
Thesm. 1210 (§ 237 a), and so is opvtfkov in the examples of 
§ 237 d, i. e. either because of appreciation of the beauty of the bird 
itself or of its song. The endearing use of -iov has thus developed 
a meaning that is quite similar to that in words like TaTUYJTiov (§ 211 D) r 
or axouqxaTiov (§ 232), which are largely due to other causes. 

241. Sometimes the use of a term of endearment results from 
pity, from the desire to console, etc., so e. g. tugciBiov in Ar. Pax. 
Ill, Thesm. 731 (§ 236 a); id. Lys. 880, Eccl. 92 (§ 237 a). 

1 Barbarisms for axVH tt and noa&iov. 

Hypocoristic Words. 179 

Similarly (iccTiov and vY]TTapiov in Ar. Plut. 1011 (§ 236c). The 
use oi bypocorisms from such motives is too natural and common 
to lei us suppose that this usage as a whole goes back directly to 
the diminutive meaning, on the ground that weakness became as- 
sociated with small size, and pity with weakness. It would be wrong, 
moreover, to say that the emotion of pity was really connected with 
the suffix, but it rather belonged to the whole situation, while the 
suffix, as otherwise, was simply the exponent of endearment. 

242. The same can be said of the use of hypocorisms in entrea- 
ties, e. g. xoptov, Theocr. 11. 60 (§ 236 a); TOXTsptov, Luc. Menipp. 
21 (1. c); EftptTctoiov, Ar. Ach. 404, 475 (§ 236 b); Koxtoroov, Eur. 
Oycl. 266 (1. c). The position of one asking a favor is one in which 
it is natural to adopt an affectionate and coaxing tone. 

243. It is ordinarily also indifferent, except for stylistic reasons, 
that there may be a certain dramatic irony displayed in the use of 
a hypocorism in comedy, i. e. the speaker is supposed to use a term 
of endearment in a perfectly sincere manner, but the poet and spec- 
tator have a laugh on the side when the object of the endearment is 
a particularly large or uncouth or dignified person, so e. g. Kux^aktov 
in Euripides (§ 236 b), E6pwcCo*tov in Aristophanes (I. c), waT^ptov 
addressed to the blind old seer Tiresias in Lucian (§ 236 a), 
jjxTiTTiov c sweet little bee,' addressed to the uncouth juryman in Ar. 
Vesp. 367 (§ 236c), or v/jinrapiov 'dear little duckling, 1 supposrd 
to be addressed to a hideous old woman in Ar. Plut. 1011 (1. c). 
Sometimes, however, such irony may result in deteriorative meaning. 
Cf. § 152. 

244. Sometimes hypocoristic suffixes are used not so much to 
indicate affection for a certain object or to designate it as beautiful 
or delicate, but rather because the speaker is in a sympathetic or 
hypocoristic mood. 1 After these meanings had once developed in 
certain words which designated the object of the emotion or the 
possessor of the admired qualities, the suffix could also he iUogically 
added to words which did not themselves designate an object viewed 
with affection. Thus, when a child is told to Bee the 'horsj ' or to 
take care of the 'doggy,' the endearment expressed by tin- suffix j 
is really directed to the child and not to the horse or dog. in 
emotion will not necessarily wait for its expression until the word 

« Cf. Belie, Arch. f. Slav. Phil. 23. 148. Recently fchil l„ 
"Enallage der Diminution " or " infekti»se Ubertragnng -In- Diminution 
by Skutsch, ALL. 15. 37 f. 

180 Chapter XVL 

which designates the object to which it is directed is uttered, but 
may cause the addition of its linguistic exponent to any word whatever, 
provided only that the addition of a certain suffix to a certain kind 
of word is in harmony with the habits of the language. When a person 
is speaking with a child or lover, when he is addressing an entreaty 
to someone, in some languages, e. g. Lithuanian, 1 even when he 
desires to express himself in a neat or elegant fashion, he can use 
hypocoristic suffixes and attach them to any word which strikes his 
fancy. How small a part logic plays in this, may be seen e. g. from 
the Lithuanian dainos. In a little song a lover bewails to his love 
the necessity of his going to war, and uses a ' diminutive ' of the 
word for 4 war ' : "i krygele jojau," although a man who is so reluctant 
to go can neither think of a war as a small affair nor look upon it 
with affection. It is very plainly the fact that he is speaking with 
his love that produces in him a hypocoristic mood, and induces him 
to give vent to it by adding the suffix to the nearest word which 
can take it, the only substantive of the clause. Similar things occur 
in the German dialects of East Prussia. When some one has failed 
to understand the speaker and asks for a repetition, it is a mark of 
politeness to say ' Was-che ?,' or, when speaking to children affec- 
tionately, one may ask ' Was-sagst-du-che?' The same tendency in 
some languages has caused the addition of hypocoristic endings to 
adjectives, although the proper object of the endearment is really the 
modified substantive. So frequently in Latin, e. g. Catullus 3. 18, 
Flendo turgiduli rubent ocelli, id. 69. 4, perluciduli deliciis lapidis. 
id. 17. 15, puella tenellulo delicatior haedo. id. 61. 193, Uxor in 
thalamo tibi est Ore floridulo nitens. 2 

245. Although Greek -tov has certainly not progressed as far in 
this line, at least in the Classical period, as the Balto-Slavic lan- 
guages, or even the Latin, there are a few passages which show that 
even in the time of Aristophanes this usage must have had a place 
in the language of every-day life. On the one hand, the use of -iov 
diminutives to designate objects of which the speaker desires that they 
shall be given to him, may partially have its root in this illogical use of 
hypocoristic -tov (cf. § 215). There is also, however, at least one 
passage in which this is the only possible interpretation, namely, Ar. 

1 Cf. Jurkschat, Lit. Erzahlungen 102. 

2 Other examples from Catullus, though interpreted in a different way. 
will be found in Platner, A. J. of Phil. 16. 186 ff. Cf. also Kessler, Die 
Lat. Dim. 3 f. 

Hypocoristic Words. 181 

Equ, 906, where Cleon and the sausage maker are vying with each 
other in making promises in order to gain the favor of Demos: AAA. 
'Ey& » xuXCxvmSv y£ <rot xoct cpaptxocxov S(B«(« Tav Ttfeiv avTtxvvjpot- 
£Xxt%ta xsptaXeicpetv. KA. 'Ey^ Bs xa? Tzokvkc, ys sofoasywv vsov *ot- 
r,™. AAA. 'IBou fcfyou xspxov lay<S Tw<p&<xX[uBCw jcspw^v. Here xi>- 
XCxvwv can not have been thought of as really designating a small 
object ; for that would be contrary to the pretence of the giver, who 
would want to appear to be giving as much as possible. It is rather 
the coaxing tone of the whole passage that has caused the l diminu- 
tive, 1 the sausage maker is speaking to Demos as he would to a child. 
In the same way is to be understood slxuBpta with the conglutinate 
-u^ptov, and to translate as a deteriorative ( k nasty little sores '), as 
one editor does, is hardly in accord with the tone of the passage. 
For T&cpfraXpufcCto, however, is possible the translation ' your dear little 
eyes' (§ 238). Other examples of this usage of simple -tov are 
doubtful. Perhaps xo)::tov (: xwx/] ' oar ') is used in this way in Ar. 
Ran. 269, where Charon shouts to Dionysius to quit rowing : V Q. rcaus 
Tuoeue, raxpocpaloii tw xtoxtto. The grim old ferryman must then be 
understood to have entreated Dionysius, not commanded him to stop. 
It is, however, not impossible that xwmov followed the analogy of in- 
strument nouns in -tov (§ 78). Perhaps the amorous tone of the 
passage caused etxovtov (: stxcov ' image ') in Plut. 2. 753 B, Ipfiroi 
yocp auTou vy) At' xoct xasTtxt  ti? o5v 6 xoA'Jtov sort xoj[xa^etv Im 9*'jpa^, 
aBstv to TOXpax^auo-tfrupov, avaBstv t<x stxovta, 7rayxpaTta£stv ~po? to-j? 
avTspaara? ; TauTa yap IpwTtxa. There are also a few certain ex- 
amples of conglutinates in -tov used with ' Enallage of Diminution': 
(3otoaptov (§ 366. X. D.), (foffiiov and /otptBtov (§ 315, XII. P.). 


246. Since an -tov word with the idea of daintiness in the suffix 
could refer to a class as well as an individual, the hypocoristic mean- 
ing could fade in exactly the same way as that of diminutives 
referring to a class (§ 220). An example <>f this is nctkx#un>, 
originally 'fine cake' of preserved fruit, but totally equivalent bo its 
primitive in Polemon ap. Athen. 478 D, xdaji/H, £etat, pp6[w?, 

[liXt, IXatov. ' 

247. As to terms of endearment, it is an often mentioned bet 1 
that they are prone to lose their color merely by frequent use. In the 

» So e. g. W. Schulze, Graeco-Latina 20"; Brugmann, Or. 2, 

182 Chapter XVI. 

language of lovers and the family such hypocorisms are so frequent 
that they may become habitual, and will then be used also without 
the emotion which accompanied their use in the beginning, and this 
the more easily when directed to the third person instead of the 
second (§ 237). In this case the fading will be assisted by the 
frequent failure of the hearer to understand the speaker's affection. 
Moreover, words which are used only as a result of the speaker's 
hypocoristic mood (§ 244 f.), are very nearly equivalent to their 
primitives from tho beginning, 1 and may also easily lose their hypo- 
coristic flavor in the course of transmission. 

248. It is possible that many certain examples of these processes 
could be found by a detailed study of post-Classical literature, but 
for Classical times their importance has certainly been much over- 
estimated. In order to establish such a faded hypocorism it is, of 
course, not sufficient to point to a case where -tov derivative and 
primitive are equivalent ; for this sameness of meaning can have a 
variety of different causes. It is necessary either to show that the 
very same word actually existed in a living hypocoristic usage, or at 
least that it belongs to such a category that the analogy of other Greek 
words makes it probable that this one should have been used as a 
term of endearment. Thus, while the many extant hypocoristic proper 
names make it certain that names of women like Kcovomov or As.ov- 
tiov originate from the hypocoristic use of -tov, it would be diametri- 
cally opposed to the spirit and usage of the Greek language to as- 
sume that names of vessels, like xu[x(Mov, or of missiles, like yspjidcBiov 
or axovxiov, originated in the same way, since there are almost no 
examples extant in which words of this category are used with living 
hypocoristic meaning. According to this criterion, the number of 
faded hypocorisms in the Classical period is exceedingly small, and 
this is really what might be expected from the comparatively recent 
origin of the usage (§ 261 ff.), and from the fact that the Greek 
language had not gone far in the application of hypocorisms to in- 
animate objects (§ 239), nor used them to a very great extent merely 
because of the hypocoristic mood of the speaker (§ 245). 

249. A certain example of the fading of the idea of endearment 
in Classical times is rtaidiov. In the meaning ' child, 1 referring to 
size or youth, it seems to be completely equivalent to its primitive in 
passages like Ar. Av. 131, "Oxco? 7uapsa-si pt xai vb xal Ta xaiBia 

1 Cf. Belie, 1. c. 

Hypocoristic Words. 183 

Aoucrajisya jcpw. id. Lys. 1065, rcp& Bs y^ ToTto Bpav Xs^oojiivo^ 
Alitor ts xai Ta raxtBia. In this meaning, however, the equivalence 
of primitive and derivative may as well be due to the fading of the  
diminutive idea (§ 220); but when TuatBiov refers to descent, and 
is simply -son,' not 'little son' or * dear son,' there must have oc- 
curred fading of the hypocoristic meaning. So in the phrase "Apto* 
-aioiov w son of Ares' used of daring men in Anaxandr. frg. 3. 181 (2). 
Similarly frvyctzQiov later becomes equivalent to £k»yairY]p, as is shown 
by its being parallel to aBsXcpV) in an inscription of legal contents 
from Ephesus ap. Ditt 2 . 510. 55, oom Bs cpspva? ocpstXouct S-irptTpioi; 
r, | a ] (SsXcpaT? TaTg a&T&v, . . . toutou? a7uoBiB6vat| xa? cpspvas xai -zo'jc 
-oyj/jc xa-a -ocq Trpa^sic. According to Schulze (1. c.) on lor (: toTor. 
Gen.) ' ear ' is also a faded hypocorism, and passed from the lan- 
guage of nurses and lovers into universal use. While this view has 
support in the existence of words like o^cmov (§ 238), it seems 
significant that both this word and the equivalent wTaptov (§ 366. X.E) 
are never used when the ear is thought of as an organ of hearing, nor 
in a figurative sense, but only when the outer ear is distinctly in mind. 
And since there is no example extant of hypocoristic use of either 
of these words, though both not very rare, it seems as though drrCov 
and w^aptov were rather thought of as 'that which belongs to the 
ear,' i. e. 'the ear lap.' Cf. Anth. P. 11. 81, "E^ov tf £v UtTfi pb 
sv omov sv Bs ITXaTaiaT? °Ev (3>i<papov. Ev. Matth. 26. 51, -7.77.:>: 
tov BoSXov toO ap)(isp£to£ acpsTXsv gcuzou to wtlov. 

250. The fading of the hypocoristic meaning of -iov in proper 
names and the consequent use of the suffix in permanent names 
(§ 237 b) left it the new function of forming names of women, 
particularly courtezans, and in this use it was extended regardle- oi 
the relation of primitive and derivative. Thus while Navvtov is derived 
from Navva, which is itself a proper name, and thus might have origi- 
nally been a hypocoristic form of the latter, this is impossible far other 
names of this kind which are derived from appellatives or adjective, 
e. g. Asovtlov : Xswv, AotoxBiov : Xorcxs, 'EXwWpu* : Zf&$ '&ta£tfpto< Of : 
x* ftfeuMpuc, Nivvtov : vCwy). Different again is 'AW.v//, \ . .-,. not 
a 'little Athena, 1 but 'she who belongs to Athena,' a priestess, 


251. Old -tov words which are not originally hypoooristio, if 
used in hypocoristic situations. BO thai it ll oleM that the; 

184 Chapter XVII. 

designate the object of endearment, could be analyzed so as to lodge 
the source of the hypocorism in the suffix. Thus %qvcIov ($101 A), 
originally designating anything made of gold, could be used meta- 
phorically as a term of endearment, but its source would be in the 
metaphor, not the suffix ; for the hypocorism is present just the same 
when there is no ' diminutive ' suffix attached (cf. e. g. the Latin 
' ille aureus puer ' (Priapea 83. 40). Yet the speaker or hearer might 
become conscious of the fact that ypuciov ended in the same suffix 
which is so frequently associated with endearment. So Ar. Lys. 930, 
Ssupo vuv, w /puo-iov, ' come hither now, my golden pet.' id. Ach. 
1200, see § 238 sub Ttr&fov. 


252. The influence of congeneric words 1 in causing other words 
to receive the same suffix, even though in the latter it brings with it 
no change of meaning, has been mentioned in many instances, e. g. 
xuTTdtpiov = xuTTapo? ' cell ' of bee or wasp, after ^sXittiov ' that which 
belongs to the bee,' ' bee's cell ' (§ 84 A) ; BsVc-iov == BsXxo? ' writing- 
tablet,' after pij&fov ' that which is made of papyrus,' ' a book ' 
(§ 101 C) ; spxtov = spxoc, after tsi/igv (§ 147 C). The only pre- 
requisite is that the original meaning of a suffix should at least tempo- 
rarily be forgotten, be it that the word has become so frequently 
used that it is no longer analyzed, but recalls its concept as a whole 
(§ 133 note), or be it that primitive and derivative have for some 
reason become equivalent, and the old meaning of the suffix is per- 
manently obscured ; and in either case a word can cause other words 
of kindred meaning to be assimilated to it as far as their ending is 
concerned, i. e. the speaker, consciously or unconsciously, now as- 
sumes the suffix to be the exponent of the category to which these 
words belong. Thus, when BsVriov was modelled after (StpXCov, the 
speaker could not have felt the latter as ' that which is made of 
papyrus' but simply as ' book,' and then the suffix was free for a new 
interpretation, and could be thought of as a means of forming words 
designating writing-materials. 

1 Cf. Bloomfield, A. J. of Phil. 12. 1 ff., 16. 409 ff. 

Groups of Heterogeneous Origin. 185 

- r>:i - S,mi( ' nt these congeneric groups of words in -iov are due 
to a convergence of different original meanings of the suffix, e. g. 
articles of dress and ornament, a class which contains words in which 
-tov was a compound forming suffix, meant 'belonging to 1 or 'con- 
nected with; 'made of,' 'belonging to the category of,' 'like to' 
(§ 260 I), E). It is evident that wherever the nucleus of words 
in such a group is of heterogeneous origin, there is a particularly 
powerful influence to break down the original meanings of the suffix 
and to impute to it the new one, in this case the function of forming 
words designating articles of dress and ornament, which is distinctly 
more tangible and has the advantage of causing to appear as se- 
mantically related words which are identical in structure. 

2f)4. We can be sure that this reinterpretation of the suffix has 
actually taken place only when it results in the formation of words 
like BsXtiov, which are equivalent to their primitives from the begin- 
ning. Sometimes it happened that the same sufhx in different meanings 
accidentally formed words of the same congeneric group, and yet the 
relation of these words was never felt, nor did they converge into 
a homogenous group. Thus names of animals were formed with an 
-tov of generalizing meaning (§ 118 A), one which designated 
similarity (§ 142). and were sometimes faded diminutives (§208fia, 
220), and yet there is no evidence that -tov was ever thought of as 
merely an animal designating suffix, though that does not prevent us 
from assuming that names of animals mutually influenced one another 
within the bounds of a certain suffixal meaning. The same is true 
of the following groups: words designating parts of the body, which 
may have a compound forming -iov (§ 51. 2, 57. 2), one which 
means l belonging to ' or ' connected with ' (xpaviov, pivta, § 85 ; 
Ppoy/ia, § 86; fofrpa, pipfcx, o-iayovia, § 90), 'provided with' (tvfov, 
§ 107 A), 'like' the primitive (§ 149), or they may be hypocorisms 
(§ 238) ; place names, which may be originally abstract nouns (§ 84D 
and note), their suffix may have meant 'belonging to' or 'connected 
with 1 (§ 61 ft.), 'provided with' O|3a$iov, § 107 A): words de- 
signating poems, songs, etc., either compounds (§ 51. 4) of bypo- 
coristic words (§ 232); words designating articles of food, which 
may be original abstract nouns (tyc&vtov, § 35), may bave an -•/// 
that means 'made of (§ 101 F), a generalizing -iov | 
pu*Ttov, [jus^tov, ftcppdfoov, § H«C), or my be bypooorwtic word* 
(§ 231). 

255. On the other hand, we can be certain that -tov wai reil 

186 Chapter XVII. 

preted as a suffix forming plant names in a large number of words, 
because its use bere did not remain witbin tbe bounds prescribed 
by the older meanings of the suffix, but words of this kind w r ere 
formed regardless of the relation of primitive and derivative. I have 
omitted discussion of nearly all plant names up to this point for the 
reason that they afford one of the best examples of the unification 
of an originally heterogeneous group, and, even if an extremely large 
number of them are semantically obscure, and they have not as 
a whole been sufficiently investigated to be available for detailed 
etymological work, yet the general lines along which they have 
developed would seem to be perfectly clear, both from certain plant 
names for which the Greeks themselves gave the reasons, which, even 
if they are not historically correct in every instance, nevertheless are 
instructive in showing their general attitude toward the suffix, and 
also from a few T w r ords which are so clear as to be self-explanatory, 
and from the analogy of modern methods of naming plants. 

256. By the examination of those plant names which will in this 
manner show the cause of their existence, two things become clear : 
in the first place, as would be expected even by a-prioristic con- 
clusions, almost any function of -tov which is found in substantives 
of a different kind can also be found in plant names ; in the second 
place, these are not primarily, if at all, a diminutive or hypocoristic 
category. There is not the slightest indication that the Greeks 
habitually thought of plants as something little (cf. § 206) or 
delicate. There are, moreover, a number of words for which the 
assumption of a faded diminutive of the frtAdfouov kind (§ 219) 
would be absurd. Who could suppose that PvJX l0V > a remedy for cough 
((3yj5), was originally ' a little cough,' or that ^sXtBovtov, so named 
because it sprouted when the swallows (/sXtBoov) appeared, was 
originally c a little swallow ? ' If this objection were to be answered 
by the possibility that the whole category started as a diminutive 
category, and that only after the fading of the original meaning -tov 
became a suffix for plant names, as it did for women's names (§ 250), 
it would be necessary to show that a nucleus of words actually is 
found with diminutive or hypocoristic meanings ; but in reality, when 
both primitive and derivative designate the same plant, e. g. o-tco^ppov 
and <7tcnj[x(3ptov, there is not the slightest indication that the -tov form 
was preferred in a situation which points to the idea ' small,' ' de- 
licate,' or 'beautiful.' And finally, the use of atAcptov in Sophocles 
(frg. 546, ctlcptou Xst[j.cov) shows that the tragedians felt no relation 

Groups of Heterogeneous Origin. 187 

between 'diminutive' -tov and these plant names; for the former was 
most carefully avoided (cf. § 274). 

267. The following is a list of etymologically clear plant names 
classified according to the function of the suffix. 

A. Compounds, ent-^Siov 'barren-wort.' Diosc. 4. 19. y./o- 
tixomov ' looking-to-the-sun.' Arist. De Plant. 1.4. 819b 21. r ( ho- 
vqomov ' turning-toward-the-sun.' Theophr. H. P. 7. 15. 1, "O^a Be 

Tac avGv^eis Xa[x(3avoucri axoXoufrouvTa toT$ a<7Tpoi£ olov to *)Xw)Tp6mov 
xa)/yJ[i£vov. xvvo-xzqdfaov ' having-a-dog"s-head.' Diosc. 4. 70. /r<7/- 
/mX'<»' k loose-strife.' id. 4. 3. iqi-yvlliox ' having-three-leaves, 1 ' clover/ 
Schol. Od. B 603. (pev^-aonldiov. i. 3. 124. 

B. -lov in the meaning ' belonging to," ' connected with.' povpw- 
vior -that which has to do with (BouPojv, 1 a plant acting as remedy 
for it, Diosc. 4. 120, rcepiacpO'sv t& (3ou(3wvi a7uaMa<7<7£t tyjc dB-Jvr,;. 
fhvvtov : pouvo?, ' that which belongs to i. e. grows upon a hill* id. 
4. 124. £%' <w ' : pife, a remedy for cough. Diosc. 3. 126, too? fab cr.zxc 
pr t yoc xat opfroTivoia? 6/Xoo|jivous b-zptxizzuzi eaqiov poBov Hes. (' the 
spring-flower '). xoqccxiov : xopaj, ' the raven's plant. 1 Arist. Mirab. 
cS(i 837 a 20, yuXkov 6 xoLkouui xopaxiov Bia to xocTocvoYj^Yivai 67: ocjtcov 
xopaxa, ysua-a^svov tou cpappxxou xat xaxa>£ BtaTtS>£[j.£vov, Im to ©tftXov 
6p[j.Y](7avTa touto xat xaTaxtovTa 7uaua-a<7^at tyjs aXyY)B6vo;. Xetpwnop : 
X£L|j.(ov, ' that which grows upon or comes from the meadow,' sea- 
lavender. Diosc. 4. 16, cpueTou B v £ £v Xeijjlwo-i xat HmZzgi totoi;. (fa'ldy- 
yior : cpaXay^, ' that which is connected with a (poisonous) spider,' a 
remedy against its bite. id. 3. 122, Toctkirjc Ta y6Xkx xat to <n:sp;j.a 
xat to avfro? 7utv6[X£vov jjxt' otvou <7xop7uto7u)arjXTOis Poy)8»sT xat cpaXayyto- 
jWjxTOi;. lehdoviov : y^tBtov, ' that which is connected with the swallow." 
' swallow- wort.' id. 2. 211, Aox£t Be G>v6|ia<7frai /^iBovtov, tetBr, 5[xa 
tocT? y^tBoct cpatvopsvat? avacpu£Tat, ^yotkat? Be aopKapaxp^Cl' -v/tz 
Be bTOpTia-av, (x>? lav Tt£ TUCpXo>8*YJ twv tyj? yfiXtBovos veodawv, at p ( T£:£:. 

TUpOffCpspOUCai TY)V TSOaV, tCOVTat TY]V 7UYjpCO(7lV atJTOU. 

C. -tov as a suffix oi possession, tfvifiuov : focpc (cf. y ( v£;j 

4 wind-flower,' because growing in windy places. Diosc. 2. 207. Mos1 
words in which the suffix could logically be a suffix of possession, 
e. g. ?tcptov, as though a plant which 'has swords' for leaves, are 
really formed with the idea of similarity (§ 140). Of. the English 
'lady finger,' 'bear's foot,' etc., which have ac possible lingUIlti< 
ponent of the possessive idea. The resemblance of one part of a plant 
to some other object is sufficient for the imagination to either think 

188 Chapter XVII. 

of the whole plant as like it, or even actually to apply to the plant 
metaphorically the name of the object compared. 

D. Generalizing -iov. oanqiov ' pulse ' and yvxiov L sea-weed ' 
(§ 118B.). 

E. -iov as an exponent of similarity. Similarity of plants to other 
objects was probably the most important source for plant names then 
as now, and when a linguistic exponent of it was desired, -iov was a 
most convenient suffix (§ 132 ff.). It is obvious that a plant usually 
will not suffer comparison with other objects as a whole, and so the 
comparison will apply only to a part, e. g. leaves, flowers, stalk, or 
roots (cf. C). Such parts are naturally often smaller than the ob- 
jects compared, and so, as in all words of the xspariov type (§ 136, 
189), there may have occasionally existed a diminutive interpretation, 
but they could not have originated as diminutives, since this is a 
much later use of -iov than that of designating similarity, nor could 
this interpretation have been very common without leaving more 
distinct traces than is actually the case. Moreover, words like yau.ai- 
Tiwv and vywoc, show that in Greek also such plant names were given 
without reference to small size. Examples are : ysQavwv : yspavos, 
'that which is like (the head of) a crane.' Diosc. 3. 131, KataTrai 
uk sviwv xai srspov yspaviov, . . . syov . . . cpuXXa jJwOcXayj) sp.<pspYJ, xai 
eV axpwv tSv [xaayaXtov z£oy&c, Tiva^ avavsvsuxuiac, &£ yspavwv xscpa^as 
cuv to?? pau.cp£*7iv r\ xuv&v 6B6vTa?. deXtyiviov : BsXcpt?, because of the 
flowers that look like a dolphin's head, id.^ 3. 84, cptAXapia iizzi- 
yio~[jiva, \zTZ-&, £7tt(j.YJxr J , Bs^cpivosiBvj, §8»ev xa\ wvojxaorai. e%iov : syi?, 
because of the resemblance of the fruit to a viper's head. id. 4. 27, 
Ta Bs avQ'Y) xapa Ta ybXkot. xopcpupoeiBYJ, sv ot? £<m xal 6 xap7u6?, xscpaTa] 
syios 6\loio$. xfovonodiov : yCkwoKous, because of the resemblance of 
the flowers to the feet of a bed. id. 3. 109, xai -a avfrv) 6[j.oia foe, 
xXivyjc tuoctCv. xQOxodettwv : xpoxoBstlo?, according to Passow so named 
because of the rough crocodile-like surface of the stalk, id. 3. 12. 
fyyiov : <£icpo£, because of the sword-like shape of the leaves, id. 4. 20, 
Aia to t60 yuWou ff^YJjxa tovo^aarai ^icpiov. Tiolimodiov : Tzoluizoog, 
because of the resemblance of its root to the polyp, id. 4. 188, pi£a 
B 5 57uscti BacsTa, 7uXsxTava?, wa-Tusp tco}>U7uou£, syoua-a. aatvQtov (: Sdc- 
Tupo?) is explained by the alternative name opyic, Sairtfpou in Diosc. 
3. 143. TQaywv : Tpayo?, because the plant smelled like a he-goat, 
id. 4. 50, ftpo[3aXXsi Bs xaTa to cpfrivorccopov Ta cpuX^a Tpayou 6(tjjlt 4 v, 
6frsv xai a)v6[xaaTai Tpayiov. ipvXhov : tyuXka, because of the resem- 
blance of the seed to fleas, id. 4. 70, sv 61c Giz£p\icc <\>6Xkoic o[xoiov, 

Groups of Heterogeneous Origin. 189 

(jiXav, nvXr^ov. Sometimes a name of a plant is derived from that 
of a similar, but not identical species, e. g. dxdvtiiov 'a plant like 
the axavO-a (thistle), but not the real one ' (Diosc. 3. 18). There is 
no evidence in the description of Dioscorides that the axavfriov was 
the smaller of the two. Similarly xiaalov (Diosc. 3. 106) is not the 
same as xtroos (ivy), but another name for the 'Arabia?, because it 
had leaves like ivy, and xqa^iov (id. 4. 166) = rcnrtfouffoc, not = xpap.pY). 
258. From a nucleus of such words, which, though their suffix 
had widely divergent meanings in the different words, yet all were 
plant names, the development of -iov as a plant suffix took place. 
After the old meanings had faded in a number of words, the idea 
'plant' was definitely connected with the suffix, and there resulted 
a large number of new formations which do not show any trace of 
its original meanings. Thus several plant names in -iov are derived 
from adjectives, e. g. iielav&iov (Diosc. 3. 93) : [xslav^Y)?, the reason 
for the name being shown by the alternative jj.sT.av^io? xoa. 
Similarly nohov 'gray-plant 1 is merely the Neuter of the adjective 
izoXioc, 'gray.' Cf. Diosc. 3. 124, s^ov KscpaXtov hz ocxpou xopu[x- 
posiBs?, juxpov, foe, 7uo>,iav Tpiya. %dvf)tov ' yellow-plant ' is so named 
because is it used to dye the hair yellow (Diosc. 4. 138). Other 
plant names appear to be derived from proper names (sometimes no 
doubt with the idea of appurtenance), e. g. dbufliadiov (Diosc. 4. 23), 
xvpiXtov (id. 4. 122), noXefJcovtov (id. 4. 8), tsvxqwv (id. 3. Ill), 
rri'li-yiov (id. 4. 91). The best evidence, however, of the complete 
independence which the plant-designating use of -iov had attained, is 
to be gathered from a number of words to which the suffix was 
added without causing the slightest change of application and without 
adding a hypocoristic shade of meaning. Thus the following pairs 
are perfectly equivalent: otyivfros and aiplv&w (Hipp. 491, Xen. An. 

1. 5. 1), 'worm-wood' ; xawa(3i? and xavvdpiov (Diosc. 3. 165, Kavva(3i? 
%spo?, ol os xawa(3iov), 'hemp'; xspacro? and xsQccatov (id, 1. 158), 
'cherry-tree 1 ; x.t/6pv] and xijooiov (Theophr. H. P. 1. 10. 7) • suc- 
cory'; kMjjxvov and xXvfiinov (Diosc. 4. 13, K&Jjisvov, ... ol Be 
*Xtfj*iviov) ; xpdc(7ov and ngfaiop (Arist. H. A. 8.2.591a 16), a leek- 
like seaweed 1 ; (rfoo^pov and atavfi^oiov (Ar. Av. L60 ; (Yatin. Erg. 

2. 72, 82; Pherecr. frg. 2. 253; Arist. De Plant. I. 7. 821 B W }, 
a certain sweetly smelling plant; raopooov and tmQoStov (Ar. Plttt 

 Since jEQciaor also designated a leek, it is possiM,- th.v 
formed with this meaning in view, and WOtlld 11m-i. l.:m- I.,-,,, 
as ' that which is like a leek.' 

190 Chapter XVII. 

818), 'garlic'; tsut^ov, cdrrXov and tbvtHov (Ar. Ran. 942, frg. 2. 
1000 (17), Alexis frg. 3. 448, 'Eav fanx<6pioe % 'Iorcpdg sltuy) " zpufiliov 
TGtJTw Bots nTtcavY)? £coQ>£v," xaTacppovoQp.£v s59>so)£ • *Av Bs " XTta-avav " 
xa\ " Tpupiov," 0*au|Jia£ofi£v. Kai 7ua>xv lav [xsv " tsutXiov," 7uap£iBo[j.£v • 
'Eav Be " g-£l>tXov," acjiivto? Y]xoua-a^£v  c Qc, ou to (teUtXov tocutov 6v 
tw teutXud), ' beet ' ; TQpBuXov and toqSvMov (Diosc. 3. 63, TopBuXt-ov, 

Gt ^£ TOpBtAov). 

259. Just as an indication of the great extent to which the use 
of -tov in plant names had developed, I will give the following se- 
lected list from those not mentioned before, without attempt at classi- 
fication : aXxuoviov, apxiriov, dcarspiov, paxpa^iov, ftbiWiov, j3ou(3aXiov, ya- 
Xiov, ytyyiBiov, Bopuxvtov, BpaxovTiov, iTiviov, IpuO-povtov, £U7uaTc6piov, 
s6cp6pj3tov, Yjpuyyiov, fepaxiov, xEvxa'Jpiov, xopaXXiov, xoptov, xpuaraXTvtov, 
XsttiBiov, Xuxiov, [XYjBtov, |xva<7iov, v/jptov, 7uayxpaTtov, rcaplHviov, 7U£7U>;tov, 
7U£pBixtov, TUOTYipiov, 7up^(7ca7uiov, (TsMjviov, (Ti^cptov, o-wupiyy^ov, crxoXo- 
xsvBpiov, (TxopBtov, (TxuXXiov, Gjrjpviov, G"7uapyavtov, cxapTiov, crpoufrCov, 
a-cpovBuXtov, TpixoXtov, Tpuyovtov. 

260. The individual cases of congeneric attraction in other groups 
tjhan plant names, and those in which it took place between a few 
isolated words, have been mentioned under the different words or 
meanings which caused the attraction. Here it remains merely to 
give a summary of the larger and more heterogeneous groups. 

A. Instrument nonns. a) Abstract nouns, e. g. 6'jicovtov (§ 34 F 
and note), b) ' connected with ' an action, e. g. &£6>Xi0Vj XouTptov 
(§ 76). c) ' belonging to ' an agent, e. g. £suxinr]piov, aY^avT/ipiov 
(§ 77). a) analogical extensions of old instrument nouns, e. g. 
xXsiBiov, opuyiov (§ 78 f.). 

B. Tools and similar utensils, a) Instrument nouns, see sub A. 
b) compounds, 6cp6Xpov (§ 50b), axpocpucnov (§ 55). c) ' belonging to ' 
or ' connected with,' Xuyyiov (§ 80). d) ' made of,' [xoXu(3Btov, criBrjpiov, 
yaXxiov (§ 101 A), e) faded diminutives, crcpupiov, Tspsrpiov (§ 217). 
f) analogical extensions, see sub Ad. 

C. Vases, vessels, bags, boxes, a) Instrument nouns, see sub A. 
b) 'made of,' aXaf3a(mov (§ 101 G), xspa[j.tov (§ 101 B), yaXxiov, 
jCpy'arfov (§ 101 A). c) 'generalizing,' xipomov, xtAixiov, Xsxaviov, 
lo7uaBwv (§ 118 C). d) ' specializing,' e. g. (3aTavtov, mfraxviov (§129 a), 
e) ' like the primitive,' e. g. axa-riov (§ 144). f) analogical extensions, 
e. g. y]Bl>x6tiov (§ 129 b), Tpti|3Xiov' (§ 129 c). Also doubtless some 
classified as ' specializing.' 

Groups of Heterogeneous Origin. 191 

I). Articles of dress, a) From a preposition, Au*Cov (8 30) 
impounds, e. g. tu P ox6W(§ 51. 1), ^tuVAov (§ 57 1) ' c ) in- 
strument noun, ^cmov (§ 76). d) 'made of,' xavvdc(3tov, ^tov, a*apkv 
(§ L01D). e) 'specializing,' e. g. rcsp&^draov (§ 130 a\ oovto&iov 
(§ 130 b). f) 'like' the primitive, fedfaov, X iTtfvwv '(§ 146 A) 
g) analogical extensions, usually not to be distinguished from those 
originally ' specializing. 1 

E. Jewels and other ornaments, a) Compounds, *sp««© X *vtoy, iwpt- 
xtfpnov, £vomov (§ 51. 1). b) 'belonging to,' (3pa X t6viov, fefytov (§ 82). 
c) 'like' the primitive, e.g. avfrpaxiov, (3ou(3atov, Tuupvjviov (§ 145 B). 
(1) analogical extensions, following either the words just mentioned or 
the smaller articles of dress (§ 130 c), e. g. crcppayiBtov. 

P. Juices, powders, and similar words designating an indetermi- 
nate mass, a) Instrument noun, dtXstcpiov (§ 35). b) ' made of,' e. g. 
(kXaviov, pa)*u&vtov (§ 101 E), 6po(k>v, roiavtov(§ 101 F), cpuxtov (§1010"). 
c) 'like' the primitive, xoMtipwv, ^ptov (§ 150). d) analogical 
extensions, oiziov •(§ 101 E), ^t^^ov (§ 101 G). Also docevixioi 
(Arist. De Plant. 2. 4. 826 a 6) = apcrevtxov 'yellow orpiment/ &e(t)- 
cc(fiov (Hes. sub freTov) = frsacpos (Eustath. 1935. 23) ' sulphur/ ^oKw 
(Aet. 6. 92) = 3J»)pov cpapjjLaxov, a clesiccative powder. 


USES OF -lov. 

261. After gaining a complete picture of the diversity and com- 
plicated development of the different meanings of the suffix -wv it is 
at length possible to form an estimate upon the disputed question 
whether those of its uses which are usually grouped together as •di- 
minutive,' viz. the deteriorative, diminutive, andhypocoristie timet ions, arc 
inherited from the Indo-European mother tongue or arc purely a 1 Ireei 
development. To avoid incessant confusion as to what really is meant 
by the terms employed, I will say here thai tor the sake of brevity 
I use the term 'diminutive,' when enclosed in quotation marks, m 
the usual sense, so as to include the commonly associated deterior- 
ative and hypocoristic uses, but do not include timet ions like \\, 
designating similarity or descent. Although the latter ma] 
to 'diminutive' meanings, it does not by any meant folio* that the} 

192 Chapter XV III. 

must always develop in this way, nor is it allowable to directly 
compare a certain formative which is a diminutive suffix in one language 
and cite as a proof of the same meaning in other languages words 
in which it really means ' descended from ' or ' like ' the primitive. 
To avoid such misunderstanding, then, it is necessary to distinguish 
between the terms referring to the different related meanings most 

262. Since the suffix -tov is found in such a number of different 
meanings, and several of these may develop into ' diminutive ' mean- 
ings, it is evident that the latter, even if found in several different 
languages, may have reached the same end by different roads, and 
then no conclusion as to the age of the usage would be gained by 
comparison. In order to be sure of the identity of origin of a ' di 
minutive ' use of a suffix in different languages, each must first be 
examined on its own merits as far as possible, and only when the 
actual usage as well as the nature of the transition types coincides, is 
it possible to maintain connection of origin. 

263. A number of attempts have been made to connect the ' di- 
minutive' uses of Greek -tov with kindred uses in related languages, 
e. g. by Kluge, Nom. Stammbilcl. 2 33 note 2 ; Schwabe, De Dim. 
Graec. et Lat. 53 ; and now Brugmann, Gr. 2. I 2 . 676, who actu- 
ally states that -(i)io- formed diminutives already in Indo-European 
times (p. 669). Against this view is that of Leo Meyer, Vgl. Gramm. 
2. 479, and formerly Brugmann, Gr. Gr 3 . 180, who held that the 
diminutive development w 7 as post-Homeric. It will be of advantage to 
clear the ground by first examining the reasons for the former view. 
If they are such that they inevitably point to an Indo-European 
origin, we must do our best to bring the Greek into harmony; if, 
on the other hand, the arguments adduced are such as to merely bring 
forth ambiguous phenomena to support an a-prioristic theory, they 
may be neglected, and the burden of proof rests on the Greek. 

264. The attempts of Schwabe to find cognates for the ' diminu- 
tive' uses of -tov need hardly be taken seriously today. When he 
brought forth Sanskrit patronymic formations like deviya-s and sihiya-s, 
he could very well have compared Ts^a^oSvtos Atac, but in comparing 
the Greek diminutives in -tov he commits not only the fatal mistake 
of comparing similar but by no means identical phenomena (§ 261), 
but fails to explain the discrepancy in gender. It is true that he 
claims that this is of no import, and that Greek secondarily changed 
its diminutives to the Neuter gender, whereas the Indo-European method 

Time of Origin. 193 

was to form them all of the same gender as their primitives, but he 
here assumes an unproven premise. Osthoff, Patrubany Spr. Abh. 
2, 98 ff., had as much right to assume that the Neuter was the 
original gender, and Brugmann now (IP. 19. 215 f., Gr. 2. I 2 . 669 f.) 
explains the discrepancies in gender by distinguishing between dimin- 
utives derived by means of substantive and adjective formatives. This 
shows that the gender of diminutives was not at all well understood 
by Schwabe, and that it really is a most important factor to be con- 
sidered. Any comparisons between the Sanskrit masculines and the 
Greek neuters are therefore out of place until a rational cause for 
the difference is brought forth. That the tendency of Greek to 
change diminutives to neuters can not really have existed, is also 
shown by those in -ktko-, -ktxy), which have no inclination whatever 
to so change. 

265. Schwabe's comparison of Germanic forms are likewise irrel- 
evant. The suffix of the Swiss diminutives in -i, e. g. augi, fiieszi, 
does not come from I. E. -(i)io-m but from -Ino-m, 1 and the Dutch 
diminutives in -(p)je like schaapje, kalfje, bloempje, do not end in 
a suffix representing -(i)io-m, but -kino ]> -kin. 2 It is totally in- 
different in this respect that I. E. -(i)io and -Ino- may be ultimately 
related. 3 Whatever their origin, these two suffixes were completely 
developed in I. E. times, and it is necessary to determine the semantic 
history of each one separately. Only after I. E. ' diminutive ' meaning 
has been proven for both suffixes independently, can there be any 
justifiable speculation as to the ultimate identity of the uses of Greek 
-lov and Germanic -Ina-. Schwabe's contention, therefore, that since 
i is the characteristic letter of -tov, all other suffixes which contain 
i must be related, lacks all support. This sound, as well as all other 
sounds, originated in more than one way, and aside from this, semantic 
identity does not follow from ultimate formal identity. 

266. Brugmann discards the comparisons of Schwabe, but brings 
forth different ones. In the first place, like Kluge, 4 he finds an L E. 
\ diminutive ' -(i)io-m in 0. Icel. fyl ' foal ' and kid ' kid.' Both wordi 
are neuters, end in the -(i)io suffix, and designate young animals; 
and the former has a striking cognate in Gr. tuoAiov (though A\ith 

1 Cf. Old High German words like zicchl 'little goat,' Kluge, Nom. 
Stammbild 2 . 29. 

2 Cf. Wrede, op. cit. 81 ff. Otherwise Jan Te Winkel, Gr. Ger. Phil. 1. 874. 

3 Cf. Brugmann, K. Vgl. Gr. 435 note. 

4 Nom. Stammbild 2 . 33 note 2. 


194 Chapter XVIII. 

a different grade of the root-vowel), an undoubted diminutive. If the 
I. E. origin of the diminutive use of -(i)io-m were actually established 
it would be a safe inference to regard these words as Germanic 
remnants of it ; but they can not be used as a proof ; for the primitives 
themselves have the very same meaning (cf. Gr. 7u&Xo$, Goth, fula, 
0. Icel. fole, etc.). The large number of -tov words even in Greek 
where it was a living diminutive suffix, which have attained to 
complete equivalence with their primitives in a multitude of different 
ways, forbid us to assume that fyl and kid were certainly ' dimin 
utives ' in origin. Just as well their suffix could have meant ' belonging 
to the category of (cf. 0. H. G. swln (§ 113), which does not 
designate a young animal), or have been attracted by some congeneric 
word. In addition to these two words Kluge (1. c.) suggests a few 
other possible Germanic -(i)io-m diminutives, which, however, are 
much farther removed from the limits of probability. Neither Goth, 
nati ' net ' nor 0. Nor. eple ' apple,' nor 0. H. G. kinni ' chin, 
bini 'bee' could ever have been taken as diminutives on their own 
account, and 0. H. G. fingiri ' finger ring ' is, of course, not ' a 
little finger,' but 'that which belongs to the finger.' Precisely like 
the Germanic fyl is the Prussian maldian 1 'foal.' The suffix is here 
also not the exponent of small size, but that idea is already an ele- 
ment in the meaning of the primitive ; for maldian is related to 
maldai 2 'young.' It is, therefore, a petitio principii to assume that 
it must have originated as a diminutive. 

267. From the Latin Brugmann 3 doubtfully brings forth senium 
usually an abstract noun with the meaning ' old age,' but also applied 
to an old man with a deteriorative shade. He suggests that this- 
latter use might be a remnant of I. E. diminutive -(i)io-m, but admits 
that the concrete meaning may have developed from the abstract 
Since the latter is actually extant, and by far the more common use, 
this would seem to be much preferable. Brugmann further surmises 
that Latin 'diminutives' in -ion-, 4 like senecio, homuncio, pusio, and 
pumilio, contain old -(i)io- remodelled by an -n- suffix. This ex- 
planation is again not impossible, but rather a violent one when we 
consider how much more easily the Latin words are explained on the 
basis of the Latin uses of the suffix -ion-. It was used to form de- 

1 See Brugmann, Gr. 2. I 2 . 676. 

2 Cf. Berneker, Die Preussische Sprache p. 306, s. v. 
8 Gr. 2. I 2 . 676 note. 
* Cf. W. Meyer, ALL. 5. 230; Stolz, Hist. Gr. 492 f. 

Time of Origin. 195 

nominative masculine personal names, and these could often get a 
humorous tinge when its addition lent a mock aspect of dignity to 
a concept which was considered undignified. Thus while there is no 
humorous element in centurio ' centurion,' curio ' priest of a curia,' 
and histrio 'actor,' the addition of this personal suffix is the very 
Bource of \\\v. humor in words like curio 'sorrowful specimen of hu- 
manity,' essurio 'ravenous fellow,' tenebrio 'swindler,' vulpio 'foxy 
fellow,' toculio 'usurer,' longurio 'bean-pole.' It is only a slightly 
different form of humor when pusus 'a little boy' becomes pusio, 
pumilo ' dwarf ' becomes pumilio, and senex ' old man ' becomes senecio. 1 
That such formations were oftener prompted by damaging wit than 
by playful humor, is as might be expected, and consequently the 
deteriorative shade became most prominent, e. g. in senecio and ho- 
muncio. Nevertheless a formation of this kind might also be used 
in a good-humored sportive mood, and then the suffix would some- 
times appear as though it was charged with hypocoristic meaning, 
e. g. occasionally in pusio. Real diminutive meaning, however, does 
not seem to occur except as secondary to the deteriorative. 2 It must 
be borne in mind, of course, that the source of the idea of small 
size in pusio and pumilio is not the suffix, but the root ideas ' boy ' 
and ' dwarf.' On the other hand, the diminutive idea in homuncio 
is quite subordinate and incidental to the deteriorative. It is re- 
peatedly (Ter. Eun. 591, Cic. Ac. 2. 134, Sen. Ep. 116. 6, Juv. 
5. 133) applied to man in contrast to the gods, but not because he 
was thought of primarily as smaller, but as weaker and compara- 
tively powerless. 3 It is, then, totally unnecessary to go beyond the 
Latin to explain the uses of the ' diminutive ' -ion- ; but even if 

1 By analogy to senec-io arose homun-c-io, the latter word taking over 
not only the suffix of the former, but also the c of the stem. This was 
the easier because the oblique cases of senex were formed from the stem 
sen-, and in comparison with these the c of senecio could appear to belong 
to the suffix. That the c of homuncio should have been a solitary remnant 
of I. E. diminutive -ko- (Brugmann, Gr. 2. I 2 . 676) does not seem particu- 
larly probable. 

2 Homuncio is also not a pure diminutive in Sueton. Vit. Bar., where 
Augustus calls Horace " purissimum penem et homuncionem lepidis.sinunn." 
There is no point to the latter oxymoron unless homunojo is hal.it nally 
thought of as a deteriorative. 

3 Homuncio is consequently slightly different from <'>;>QU)m<jxoe in Borip 
ides (§ 205). Since the latter is put into the month of the gianl I 

a term of address to Odysseus, the diminutive idea ll in this case the more 
prominent, while the deteriorative element follows lien. it. 

196 Chapter XVIII. 

it is preferred to find cognates outside of the Latin, why is it neces- 
sary to go so far as to assume a remodelling of a diminutive suf- 
fix of which the existence is unproven for Latin, when there are 
close at hand words wmich are both formally and semantically related ? 
Greek [xa^axuov ' tender-foot,' ^silaxpiwv ' unfortunate wretch,' and 
'AttmCcdv, a contemptuous name for an Athenian, end in the same suffix 
as Lat. senecio, and have the same deteriorative shade of meaning, 
and yet Brugmann 1 admits that they were purely a Greek devel- 
opment, and that 'Attducov, whose the root-meaning will not ac- 
count for its deteriorative shade, was modelled upon [locXa/iov and 
Bstlaxpicov. That these can not have been due to an extension 
of old -lov is self-evident ; for the latter was a living diminutive 
suffix in Greek, and there could be no impulse to change the 
common formation to a new one which was otherwise free from 
' diminutive ' meaning. If, then, the deteriorative meaning of -ion- 
can develop in Greek alone, it can do so in Latin, and we may 
conclude that similar causes produced similar results in the two 
languages independently of each other. It is, however, also possible 
to assume direct connection of the Greek and Latin uses ; but 
to let the former develop the deteriorative meaning from old -ion-, 
and to divorce the latter from it in order to establish a second- 
cousinship with an Indo-European phantom, is not a convincing 
method of procedure. 

268. Finally, Brugmann compares with Greek -iov a number of 
Balto-Slavic diminutive conglutinates ending in I. E. -(f)io-, e. g. 
Lith. -ytis, 0. Big. -istt, Lith. -elis, -elis, -uzis, -isztis Pruss. -istian. 
While admitting that at present the suffixal element preceding the 
-is has become the exponent of the diminutive meaning, 2 he appears 
to base his opinion of the relation of these words to -tov on a course 
of reason like the following. The formation of neuter derivatives 
from masculine and feminine primitives is something that belongs pe- 
culiarly to ' diminutives,' and consequently if this gender is established 
as used in derivation from other genders, this is a strong indication 
that the suffix which takes the neuter is originally a diminutive suffix, 
and this all the more so when it occurs as the final member of con- 
glutinates of undoubted ' diminutive ' meaning. Of the latter there 
can be no doubt for the conglutinates mentioned above, and as to 
the Neuter gender, it is an established fact for Prussian words like 

1 Gr. 2. I 2 . 316, 685. 

2 Gr. 2. I 2 . 675 note. 

Time of Origin. 197 

wos-istian 'kid':wosee 'goat,' gert-istian ' chicken ': gerto 'hen.' 
Original neuters are also made probable for the Lithuanian by certain 
discrepancies of gender, in as much as masculine diminutives are 
formed from feminine primitives, e. g. upelis m. 'little river' : tipe 
f. 'river.' 1 Since the Lithuanian Neuter gender has merged into 
the Masculine, words like upelis may very well represent original 
neuters, and thus is gained at the same time an explanation of these 
discrepancies of gender and a proof for the existence of 'diminutive' 
-(i)io-m in Lithuanian. 

269. Ingenious as this chain of argument is, it repeatedly oper- 
ates with unproven premises. In the first place, the discrepancies of 
gender between primitive and derivative in Lithuanian do not neces- 
sarily prove an original Neuter gender. Similar abnormalities occur 
not only between Lith. -ka-s, -ke and their diminutives, e. g. visztii- 
kas m. 'little chicken' : viszta f., which are explained by Brugmann 
as following the analogy of those ending in -is, 2 but also for I. E. 
-ko- and -lo- diminutives 3 and the Greek ones in -t<rxo-, 4 which can 
not be explained in any such way. If such discrepancies can be 
secondary for all other languages, they may be in Lithuanian, 5 unless 
it has been shown that the usual forces which cause aberrations of 
gender, e. g. the influence of congeneric words, are insufficient for it. 
Nevertheless, the question is not of much importance for our point 
of view, since the neuters actually existed in the Prussian, and that 
would be sufficient to establish 'diminutive' -(i)io-m in Balto-Slavic 
territory if the rest of the argument were valid. 

1 Gr. 2. I 2 . 671 f. Cf. also Osthoff, Patrubany Spr. Abh. 2. 100 f. 

2 1. c. 

3 Cf. Brugmann, IF. 19. 216 note 1. 

4 Cf. Janson, De Graec. Serm. Dim. in -icxcg -taxi] 7 f., De Graec. Serm, 
Norn. Dim. et Ampl. 67 f. 

5 At first sight the absence of feminine diminutives to masculine primitives 
(cf. Osthoff, 1. c.) would seem to be a point in Osthoff s and Brugmann'a 
favor for establishing an original neuter -iiom in the Lithuanian, it' that 
needs any more proof than the existence of the Prussian neuters. Yet it 
would be too much to say that the original Neuter gender Ifl the only con- 
ceivable cause for the predominance of the masculines. It is at least equally 
probable that it started from the use of the Masculine wrhere both male and 
female were designated, i. e. by its use as common gender, Since wt com 
paratively rarely think of the sex of young animals, the aCaacuU 
common gender, was used for the diminutive designating them, and 

find masculine diminutives corresponding to feminine primil 

masculines. From these patterns the usage spread to n thing! also. 

198 Chapter XV III. 

270. It is, however, a perfectly untenable theory that either-(i)iom 
or the Neuter gender of derivatives from masculine and feminine primitives 
had the slightest tendency to be confined to diminutives. It was the fa- 
vorite gender for all kinds of substantivations from -(i)io- adjectives from 
Indo-European times, no matter whether the suffix meant ' belonging to,' 
' coming from,' ' made of,' etc. Thus Skr. gavya-m ' that which comes 
from the cow,' ' cow's milk ' has the feminine primitive gaii-s ' cow,' 
and even in the Greek non-diminutive neuters in -tov are at least 
as frequent as ' diminutives,' cf. e. g. <T(pY)xiov ' cell of wasps ' nest ' : 
<7cpy)5 ni-j (3oux67.iov 'herd of cows' : |3oux6Xo? m., xspapov 'earthen- 
ware vessel ' : xspap? m., criBYjpiov ' iron tool ' : <7iBY]po? m., ivtov f neck ' : 
Tvss f ., 9^]ptov : fryjp m. Nor is Prussian -ian confined to ' diminutives ' : 
cf. camstian l sheep,' kelian ' spear,' kalabian ' sword,' laitian ' sausage.' 

271. And finally, the mere fact that -(i)io- existed as the final 
member of certain Balto-Slavic ' diminutive ' conglutinates is not the 
slightest indication that the ' diminutive ' force was ever perceived to 
have been connected with that part of the word. The suffix -ia- 
occurs in so many conglutinates without ' diminutive ' meaning, that 
it would be as rash to assume that the latter was ever lodged in the 
-is of -elis or -ytis, as that the agent idea of the conglutinate -tojis 
originally belonged to its final member. The -ia- had merely become 
a favorite declensional ending with no more of a tangible meaning 
than the n-suffix of the Germanic weak declension. No one could 
think of saying that the 'diminutive' meaning of the Gothic -ilon- 1 
(= -ilo- 4- weak declension) in words like mawilo ' little maiden ' or 
barnilo 'little child' was ever lodged in the -n-, and yet the case is 
exactly parallel to the Lithuanian -elis and -uzis. Just to show that 
these need not have anything to do with any inherited meaning of 
-(i)io-, I will call attention to the following possible origin. The suffix 
-ie- was widely used to form feminines not only from masculines in 
-(i)io-, but also from other classes. 2 Thus the feminine to Lith. 
vilka-s m. 'wolf is vilke, and to deva-s m. 'god' it is deive. Reg- 
ularly a masculine agent noun in -ika-s has a feminine counterpart in 
-ike. 3 Similarly Balto-Slavic -ela- in masculine diminutives could 
have formed a feminine in -elie- Lith. -ele. But since these feminines 
in -ie could also be formed from masculines in -ia- (Lith. N. S. -is), 
a feeling of uncertainty as to what was the corresponding masculine 

1 Cf. Polzin, op. cit. 2; Brugmann, Or. 2. I 2 . 375. 

2 Cf. Leskien, Bildung der Norn. 281 f. ; Brugmann, Gr. 2. I 2 . 220 ff. 
■•Cf. Leskien, 1. c. 

Time of Origin. 199 

to a certain feminine could result in forming a new masculine in -ia- 
i 1 1st. .id of the original -a-, -elia- Lith. -elis instead of -ela-. In 
this way the -ia- lost all meaning except that of gender, and could 
be attached to any masculine word as a counterpart to feminine -ie-. 

272. Since, then, the Balto-Slavic has also failed to give certain 
indication of a ' diminutive ' use of -(i)io-m, we may sum up our 
result up to this point as follows. Every comparison of non-Greek 
suffixes with diminutive -iov arose rather from a search to find cognates 
for the latter than from an unbiased examination of the usage of the 
languages compared. While these comparisons may strengthen the 
assumption of an I. E. origin if that is otherwise established, they 
are in themselves no indication whatever, because all of these phenomena 
can also be explained differently, and the explanations given for some 
are even intrinsically improbable. The burden of proof thus rests on 
the Greek (§ 263) ; if it points to a prehistoric origin, it is possible 
that the diminutive use of -iov dates back to the parent language ; 
if, however, it points to origin in historical or even purely Greek 
times, the final word has been spoken. 

273. It is a fact commented upon by both ancient and modern 
grammarians that the Homeric poems do not contain any diminutives. 
Cf. Schol. ad Dionys. Thr. AB. 856, Janson, op. cit. 4 ff., Leo Meyer, 
Vgl. Gram. 2. 478. As to the reason for this absence there has been 
diversity of opinion, and we may distinguish three different possible 
causes in which the explanation may be sought. It may be due: 

(1) to individual reasons, 'because the poet or class of poets had 
a repugnance to diminutives either because they had a vulgar flavor 
or because they considered them out of place in elevated style; 

(2) for dialectical reasons, because the poets' dialect did not know 
them; or (3) for chronological reasons, because the Greek language 
of their time had not yet developed this meaning. 

274. It is the first which has usually been deemed the cause of 
the lack of Homeric diminutives, both in ancient and modern times, 
and it has been laid down as a general precept that elevated language 
avoided diminutives. Cf. Schol. ad Dionys. 1. c. ; G. Mueller. De 
Ling. Lat. Dim. 15; Janson, 1. c. While there can be DO doubl 
that language in its higher flights can not revel in diminutives like 
some popular dialects, it does not necessarily folio* that it musl avoid 
them altogether, and Ryhiner, De Dim. Plant. Terent 8, has pointed 
out that Lucretius has used them repeatedly, in spite of the elevation of 
his style, e. g. angellus (2. 428), and crepitacillum (6. 229), At times 

200 Chapter XVIIL 

diminutives, like many other effects borrowed by poets from daily 
speech, could even become a valuable resource of expression, and it 
does not seem possible that Homer, who usually did not at all dis- 
dain grotesque effects of language, who does not hesitate to use such 
rude warriors' jests as speaking of the dying as ' biting the dust with 
their teeth,' who lets Achilles and Agamemnon shout against each 
other an array of the most vulgar abusive names, 1 would suddenly 
have had compunctions to use the powerfully derisive effect to be 
gained by an -tov deteriorative any more than the orators found it 
opposed to their dignity to employ such words in their most exalted 
orations. An other objection to this view is the total absence in 
Homer of faded diminutives, which can not be distinguished by the 
speaker from words in the same suffix which never did have dimin- 
utive meaning, and thus could not meet with any more objection than 
the latter. What German poet would care, or even be able to avoid 
the use of the faded diminutive c Madchen,' no matter how exalted 
his style? Theognis, who also seems to have avoided diminutives on 
the whole, let odfkiaKOQ slip in once. Yet of all Homeric words in 
-tov there is only one which could even be pressed into service as an 
original diminutive, and this one (Tst^tov) 2 is better explained other- 
wise (§ 147 B) ; and yet, if the 'diminutive' use of -tov was really 
already Indo-European, it must have existed many centuries before 
Homer. This objection can not be met on the grounds that the ill 
flavor of these -tov ' diminutives ' had already spread to non-diminutive 
-tov words, and that the poet therefore avoided all words with this 
suffix. On the contrary, the Homeric poets had no objection to use 
such -tov words as later became tabooed for tragedy. Thus apayvtov, 
Oirjpiov, tartov, td/tov, pjptov, otxtov, and Tstytov are all Homeric, though 
not allowed in tragedy ; dbtovxtov occurs in the Homeric hymn to 
Hermes, and cpopxtov in Hesiod, but both are put on the blacklist by 
the tragedians. The inference, then, is not that Homer and the early 
Epic poets objected to any -tov word, but that they were much less 

1 Cf. e. g. ttvaideiriv miei^iivB^ xeq^uXeu^qov (A 149), (b fxey' avaiStq (A 158), 
xvvwnu (A 159), oii>o§a(itg, xvvog o/ufxat* £X coy i ^Q"^^ d* iMcpoio (A 225), dr lt uo- 
pogog ftaoiUvg (A 231). 

2 The diminutive idea has been sought in this word by Buttmann because 
it designates e. g. the wall of a court-yard, which is smaller than a city 
wall (zel%og). The mere fact that the derivative designates a smaller object 
than the primitive does not make the former a diminutive here any more 
than O.H.G-. fingirT ' finger-ring ' is a diminutive because it designates a 
smaller object than a finger. 

Time of Origin. 201 


erse to them than the tragedians, and we may consequently con- 
clude that something took place in the interval to bring about this 
change. Only through the development of the 'diminutive' meaning 
of -tov iii the meantime can the change of attitude of the poets be 
explained. The question now arises in what way the development of 
'diminutive' -tov could have caused the general proscription of words 
in that suffix. Partially, perhaps, this was due to the colloquial flavor 
which arose in 'diminutives ' and spread to other words in the same 
suffix; but a much more powerful influence in their avoidance was 
undoubtedly the example of Homer. It is those kinds of poetry which 
are most thoroughly influenced by the early Epic diction, i. e. the later 
Epic as well as all the Tragic, Elegiac, and later Choric poetry, e. g. 
Pindar and Bacchylides, that go farthest in the avoidance of ' dimin- 
utives,' and after the tradition had once been built up, Homer was out- 
Homered, and nearly every denominative -tov word was ousted from 
the list. That the objection to diminutives can not entirely or even 
mainly be due to their ill flavor, is seen from the early Choric poet 
Alcman, who wrote in the Doric dialect and was not strongly in- 
fluenced by Homer, and so used diminutives in -unto- without hesi- 
tation, in spite of the fact that even his Choric poetry could certainly 
not have stooped to use words of a really undignified flavor. Moreover, 
since Euripides in his Cyclops and Sophocles in his satyric plays l 
also used ' diminutives,' it would seem to be reasonably clear that the 
cause of their total avoidance in tragedy was chiefly the influence of 
the Epic tradition. And since the latter can only be explained by 
the assumption that the earlier Epic poets did not know them (see 
above), the theory that diminutives were avoided because of the 
repugnance of the Epic poets to them is totally untenable. 

275. To the question whether the absence of -tov 'diminutives' 
in Homer is due to their absence in his dialect, although they were 
known in Greece generally at his time, the Homeric poems themselves 
do not give a decisive answer. This proposition would seem to derive 
some support from the fact that Homer also did not use 'diminu- 
tives' in -wxo-, which was certainly a dialectic peculiarity due to the 
Aeolic ground-work of the poems, since there is not a single example of 
the suffix in any meaning either in Homer or the Aeolic lyrics or the 
Aeolic 2 inscriptions, not even in proper names. 3 As far as -tov is con- 

1 Cf. Janson, op. cit. 7. 

2 By Aeolic I mean the Aeolic of Lesbos and Asia Minor. 

3 The &diaxog of CB. 306. 2 is a Bhodian. 

202 Chapter XVIII. 

cerned, it does indeed occur in all of these sources, but not in ' dimin- 
utive' meaning. It is uncertain, however, whether this is due to the 
meagerness of the sources, or whether it was also a dialectic peculiarity. 
276. The question, then, is thrown upon the few fragments of 
lyric poetry antedating the fifth century B. C, and of these again 
almost entirely upon the Iambic and Melic poetry, since the Elegiac 
poets were also strongly influenced by the Epic, and again upon those 
which were not written in the Aeolic dialect (cf. § 275). It would 
seem at first sight that the fact that the decision lies with such a 
very few short fragments would make a negative decision perfectly 
worthless because liable to be due to the accident of transmission. 
Fortunately, however, comparison with the ' diminutives ' in -wnto- will 
yield a wellnigh certain conclusion. Although in later times dimin- 
utives in -lov were many times more numerous that those in -toxo-, 
yet in these few lyric fragments the total absence of anything that 
could reasonably be taken as an -tov diminutive is in contrast with 
ten clear cases of -kjxo-, mostly in deteriorative and hypocoristic 
functions. These are as follows: axsptoxov 1 (Hippon. 18), cnuhitmoc, 
(Theogn. 241), frptBaxiraa (Alcm. 20), xo|xi(jxa (id. 23. 101), xutuoci- 
ptoxo? (id. 38), xuxa<j<7i<7xo£ (Hippon. 18), [jlsMtxov (Alcm. 65), cra[j.(3a- 
Xtoxov (Hippon. 18), crxtaBtax/) (Anacr. 21. 13), and cnrscpavicTxos (id. 
54). Since these words come from both Ionic and Doric dialects, 
it is highly improbable that -tov should have existed in ' diminutive ' 
meaning in these same dialects at that time ; and since there also 
is no evidence for the latter in the Aeolic dialect (§ 275), it is a 
nearly certain conclusion that the ' diminutive ' uses of -tov could not 
have existed in Greece at that time except in the merest beginnings, 
and certainly could not have had behind it thousands of years of 
development, as is presupposed by the supposition of Indo-European 
origin. Just when the origin of the ' diminutive ' use is to be placed, 
it would be futile to ask. The earliest example is 7u6Btov ' a little 
foot' in .the "Hfag Taps of Epicharmus, 2 and thus there is no case 
of a clear -tov diminutive before the fifth century B. C, and in the 
interval between this period and the time of the lyric poets the de- 
velopment must probably have taken place. On the one hand, how- 

1 One would expect a feminine aaxeqiaxri (: aoxEQct), but the analogy and 
contact of the neuter ca^aUoxov (: cd^aXov) caused the change: xal aa/u^a- 
'/.iaxcc xal aaxeqiaxa. 

2 For the obscure 6xujvd{>Lov (in the conglutinate -vSqtov) of the same work 
see § 328. I. For IlQia { uiMv<?Qtov, also in Epicharmus, see § 328. II. 

Time of Origin. 203 

ever, the popular language may have been ahead of the literary lan- 
guage, and at any rate the preliminary steps in the development of 
the ' diminutive ' ideas must have been taken some time previous ; on 
the other hand, however, the rarity of 'diminutives' in Epicharmus 
in comparison with their extreme frequency in Aristophanes and the 
fragments of the later Attic comedy shows that the usage can not 
yet have progressed very far in his time. 

277. The result thus gained from examining the occurrence of 
'diminutives' in literature is roughly confirmed by phonological con- 
siderations. As was pointed out § 16, the 'diminutive' meanings 
are found only in the historic Greek -tov. Whenever I. E. -iio-m 
was so changed by phonetic processes that it could not be recognized 
as two distinct syllables, or when the suffix had the form -io-m from 
the beginning, no diminutive force could be attached to it. Thus 
no word like tcs^ov <[*ra:B]ov, nor one which ended in the conglutinates 
-atov, -stov, or -otov, in which the t formed part of a diphthong, is 
ever a ' diminutive.' The only disputed word is lyyiltw ' eel ' (: sy- 
/sXuc), which Liddell and Scott doubtfully so classify ; but aside from 
the fact that no ' diminutive ' meaning is apparent in any passage 
where it occurs (Pherecr. frg. frg. 2. 300; Callias frg. 2. 735; Ar. 
frg. 2. 1077; Antiphan. frg. 3. 21, 71, 130; Alexis frg. 3. 455; 
Theophil. frg. 3. 627; Poseidipp. frg. 4. 517), its adjectival origin is 
plainly shown by Pherecr. 2. 269, bn&pyei ispp? lyy&stov SjiZv. The 
reason for this limitation of 'diminutive' meaning to disyllabic -tov 
can be only that this function had developed in -tov after all of these 
phonetic changes had taken place, e. g. after -Bj- had become -£-, 
and -aat-, -eat-, -oat- had become -oci-, -si-, -ot-, i. e. after the separate 
existence of the Greek language. It might be argued Hint diminu- 
tives e. g. in these conglutinates could have existed originally, but 
were latter changed to end in -tov because of the much greater fre- 
quency of the latter. If such were the case, however, we would ex- 
pect that the many centuries between the I.E. time of development 
and these Greek phonetic changes would have produced al Lead one 
solitary faded 'diminutive' which was no longer recognized M such 
at the latter period, and would consequently reveal the earl] age oi 
the 'diminutive' development to us by escaping the influenoe oi an- 
alogy in levelling these phonetic changes, bu1 nol one plausible ex- 
ample of this kind is forthcoming. 

278. Another indication of the post-Homeric origin oi tov roth 
'diminutive' force is the accentuation of wxafov, whicl have 

204 Chapter XIX. 

seen § 182, was the principal pattern type of the diminutives, and so 
one of the very oldest. Since izcac, <^ iz<kFi$ was often still dissyllabic z&ic, 
in Homer, the diminutive, if formed in early Homeric times, would 
have accented the penultima, for it would have been contracted from 
7uatBtov, and the accent is never shifted after such a contraction (§21, 
end). Consequently xoaBiov must have originated afer %6ti<; had be- 
come 7uaT?, i. e. later than the earlier portions of Homer, and thus 
shows that all of the words modelled upon it, i. e. nearly the whole 
diminutive category, also .can not antedate the Epic. 

279. We may state our final conclusion as follows. Over against 
the failure of those who believe in the I. E. origin of the ' diminu- 
tive ' uses of -tov to bring forth a single convincing proof or inevitable 
comparison, the direct evidence of Greek Literature and phonetic 
changes shows the development not only to have been a purely Greek 
one, but even post-Homeric, and the evidence of the Lyric poets 
shows that the usage could not have exceeded the smallest beginnings 
in the sixth and fifth centuries B. C. 


280. For ' diminutive ' conglutinates with -iov as final nember 
there are to be considered three main possibilities of origin. 1 Some- 
times the first part of the conglutinate is not a diminutive suffix 
at all, and the -iov coalesced with it because a certain word was 
analyzed wrongly for some reason or other, so that a part of the 
primitive was supposed to be a part of the diminutive ending. Thus 
oivap-iov : olvapov was analyzed otv-apiov because referred to olvos, and 
gave rise to the conglutinate -apiov in words like avBp-apiov. So xatB- 
iov was divided xai-Biov and gave rise to (3ou-Biov and yYj-Biov; av^p- 
iov imposed its -Bp- upon its opposite ^O^Xtj-Bpiov, which in turn was 
analyzed *&Y)X-uBptov and created the suffix -uBpiov in Jsv-oBptov ; 
sptcp-tov, analyzed spi-cpiov or sp-icpiov, gave rise to opvi-cpiov or 6pv- 
frptov ; IXdccp-tov : sXacpo?, analyzed !X-a<ptov, to Brrjp-cKpiov ; ysXuv-iov : 
yzk6vr\ gave rise to <7ty]^-uviov. 

281. Similar to these words is the second group of conglutinates, 
of which the first part occurs as a ' diminutive ' suffix elsewhere, but 
not in the words which gave rise to the conglutinates. Thus -iB- 

1 Cf . Belie, Arch, f . si. Phil. 23. 138 ff . 

Conglutinates with -iov as Final Member. 205 

tonus a lew diminutives from early times, but the suffix -iBiov 1 mostly 
did not originate in words which already had a diminutive -&-, but 
rather in words like frspa7uatv&-tov, which, though coming from the 
primitive 0>spa:raivt?, yet could be referred to the equivalent frsparoxtva 
and so analyzed frsparactv-iBtov. Similarly -ax- is a rare diminutive 
suffix e. g. in XCfroc? 'jewel,' but the conglutinate -oxtov arose from 
words in which -ax- either never had 'diminutive' force or in which 
it was faded. Thus xXi|j,ax-iov : xXT[j.a'£ , ladder' seems to have given 
rise to xXkt^-oxiov, and tovocx-iov (: mva£ ' writing-tablet ') to 7:tTT-axiov. 
The suffix -toxo- f. -itxy] was both a ' diminutive ' and non-diminu- 
tive suffix, and some words in -tcrxtov follow patterns in which -ktxg- 
did not have ' diminutive ' meaning, e. g. ynwiaxoc ' a tunic ' formed 
a diminutive /itwvictx-iov, which was analyzed /ltcov-ictxiov and gave 
rise to y}.av-i<7xiov. 

282. The third class of diminutive conglutinates consists of those 
of which both parts are living diminutive suffixes in the Aery words 
in which the conglutinates came into existence, i. e. a diminutive 
suffix was added to a word which was already a ' diminutive' in form 
and meaning. So vY]<r-ts (gen. -1B0?) ' a little island ' became vy]<7-iB- 
tov, cpXintTociv-is ' a little blister ' became cp^uxTatv-iB-iov. Similarly 
[istpax-uXXiov ' contemptible youth ' probably goes back to *^sipax-uXXo-<; 
with the same meaning, and u.sVi(7x-tov 'little song' takes the place 
of the earlier p.sX-i<jxov, which, is itself a diminutive. A word of 
this kind with a double 'diminutive' suffix could easily be referred 
to the first primitive, e. g. [xs)i<7xiov to \j£ko<;, and then the two suffixes 
appeared as one, and consequently u.sX-i<tx-iov gave rise to pY)u.aT-icrxiov, 
without interposition of *pY][xaT-i<rxov. The motive of this kind of con- 
glutination usually is to give more than the usual force to the ex- 
pression of small size, contempt, or endearment, e. g. XtO-apt-Biov 
'tiny little bit of a jewel.' Often words with two or more living 
'diminutive' suffixes have a humorous tinge, particularly those .aid- 
ing in the more complex suffixes, which are often of such a nature 
as to raise a laugh by their very appearance. Thus Aristotle m 
from Aristophanes as used while joking (<Txok™v) the WOfda /?u«&- 
apiov and ^axiMpiov. As to the frequency of this manner of oon- 
glutination for emphasis, an inspection of the following pages will 
show that it was very much rarer than that by the mechanical proc 
ess of wrong division of words of the first two groups. The impor 
tance which is often attached to the intensive do,. b 

i Cf . § 306 ff . 

206 Chapter XIX. 

not at all justified, and least of all the attitude of Schwabe, who felt 
at liberty to assume that both parts of any conglutinate were origin- 
ally independent ' diminutive ' suffixes. 

283. There are still other methods by which ' diminutive ' con- 
glutinates arise, but they hardly much affect Greek -tov. Thus in 
the Gothic -ilon- the source of the ' diminutive ' force was in the 
first part from the beginning, and the -n- suffix was merely a forma 
addition for the purpose of bringing the words into the favorite system 
of declension, and so was the -is of Lith. -elis, -uzis, etc. (§ 271). 
A somewhat similar part is played in certain dialects by Greek -iov 
in -KTxtov derived from neuter primitives. The expected -uraov became 
so rare^e. g. in the Attic dialect, that people welcomed the oppor- 
tunity given by the 'diminutive' -tov to bring all neuters in -igxo- into 
the familiar -iov category, and consequently was formed xocvfaxiov : 
xavsov, not xocvigtcov. 

284. Conglutination of suffixes is only apparent when a ' dimin 
utive' suffix is added to a permanently faded diminutive. Thus 
6<]>apiov, originally a hypocoristic form for ofyov, became the ordinary 
word for ' fish ' as food, and consequently, when the diminutive 6'J>ocpi- 
Siov was formed from it, the -api- necessarily remained intimately 
connected with the root 6<J>- as part of one and the same idea, and there 
is no necessity of the diminutive force being sought in -aptBiov and 
the consequent abstraction of such a suffix. When, however, the 
' diminutive ' force of a certain primitive was felt by some and not 
by others, the transmission of its ' diminutive ' derivative from a speaker 
to whom the primitive had no ' diminutive ' force to a hearer who 
did feel it in that way, could cause the latter to abstract a complex 
conglutinate from a word like o^apiBiov. 

285. The efficient causes for the creation of conglutinates have 
already been touched upon, and sufficiently discussed for the inten- 
sive doubling of suffixes. For conglutinates of which the first part 
is non-diminutive, two forces are of the greatest importance, the exis- 
tence of a simpler by-form to which the ' diminutive ' can *be referred 
rather than to the real primitive, and the direct influence of re- 
lated or congeneric words. As examples of the former I have already 
mentioned the existence of oTvo?, to which olvapiov could be referred, 
alongside of oivapov, and frspdwuociva, to which frspowuaivCBtov could be 
referred instead of frspa7uaivi£. Similarly ytnrpiBtov : x UT p^ X^ T P a '■> 
[xatviBtov : \LCcmq, [xouvy] ; ^pua-iBiov : ^puoiov, Xpucoc, j kotoUgxiqv : xotu- 
>iaxos, xotuXos. In every case, after a compound suffix like -tBiov 

Conglutinates with -iov as Final Member. 207 

was once abstracted, it could be felt as a single diminutive suffix and 
beoome productive on its own account, without necessarily remaining 
within the bounds prescribed by its origin or the laws of congeneric 

286. The second cause for the mechanical abstraction of conglu- 
tinates is the tendency to make words which are particularly closely 
associated with one another take the same endings, since the latter 
were easily felt as designating the class to which an object belonged 
(§ 252 f.). Thus the fact that tclvocxiov was 'a writing-tablet' 
caused tottoxiov (: Tuixira), designating a different kind of a tablet, to 
get its -ocxlov, although it did not have a primitive in -a£, and so 
probably jxocvvcbuov ' a neck-lace ' (: p.avvoc) after cra^ribuov (: <ra[j.a;), 
another kind of women's ornament. y^Xuvtov 'lip,' 'jaw' influenced 
GVtfi -uviov (: <7T?j8>os), since both were parts of the body ; <7i<rapiov (: ai- 
capov), a certain woman's ornament, gave rise to £v-a>T-ricptov instead 
of svoktov ' ear-ring,' although otherwise -apiov does not take the place 
of the compound forming -iov ; sXacptov (: sXacpoc) ' little deer,' as being 
a name of an animal, gave its -acptov to S^pacptov ' little animal ' ; and 
spbiov (: spicpo?) ' little kid ' gave its -(i)cpiov to opvicpiov ' little bird. 7 
The association of opposites gave rise to a conglutinate in case of 
*6>Y)XuBpiov (: O'YjXu) after avBpiov (§ 325), the association of etymo- 
logically related words caused zTaapxxiov (: KkiG^oc,) ' little couch, 7 
after x)a[xribaov ' little ladder.' In all of these cases in which a con- 
glutinate arose because of association with another word, the new 
word, when thought of in connection with its primitive rather than 
the associated word, revealed the existence of the new suffix; ia> 
tocxlov, when referred to 7ulttoc, xli<7|xaxtov, when referred to xXi^j.o:. 
necessarily caused a consciousness of the suffix -axiov, which could 
then give rise to new formations. 

287. An altogether singular cause of conglutination gave rise to 
the suffix -Btov. The accident that the Vocative of izoac, viz. ~a~. did 
not have -B-, together with the frequency of that case in hypocoriama 
(§ 235), caused roxiB-iov to be referred to roxT and BO analyzed --/i-BCov. 

288. The causes of the spread of the different Individual raffixea 
can, of course, not be accurately determined, since individual pi 
ences for one suffix or the other or peculiar external cim.iustamvs 
largely governed their use. Largely, of course, attraction 

neric words caused their spread in one line <>r other. Bometimea cer- 
tain formal categories have a predilection lm n *ul'ii\. v. ir. 
the late 'diminutives' in -txtoov are largely derived from -'- itttil 

208 Chapter XIX. 

{§ 323). The suffix -Biov again had a tendency to be attached t 
monosyllabic bases, e. g. pouBiov : [3ou^, yv^iov : yvj, £coBiov : £wov 
The reason why so many c diminutives ' retained -iov, while man 
others preferred conglutinates, is largely the motive of clearness. 1 
A certain diminutive in -iov would not be satisfactory if the same 
form existed as the neuter of an adjective, and the resulting obscurity 
was avoided by a conglutinate, as e. g. rocTpiBiov ' dear father ' instead 
of 7uaTpiov, which was neuter of the adjective xaTpio?. For other 
examples see § 310. Sometimes simple -iov could not be attached 
to a word without causing either obscuring phonetic changes or ab- 
horrent combinations of sounds. Thus *yY)iov would almost immedi- 
ately become *yYJov an( ^ could not then be felt as a diminutive, 
whence yyjBiov ; ypauiov would be a monstrosity and so ypa-iBiov was 
used instead. On the other hand, words in -an-, like cr6)[xa, usually took 
only a simple -iov because diminutives like o~o)[iaTiov were both perfectly 
clear and unobjectionable phonetically. From the fact, however, that 
the conglutinates were more serviceable and so preferred in many in- 
stances, one must not conclude that -iov had its regime only in the 
very earliest period and was soon ousted by the longer suffixes. 
This may be true for the very latest periods, but in the Classical 
and Alexandrian epochs -iov increased in frequency of use no less 
than the conglutinates. It was not the vast array of meanings which 
it carried with it in different words which was objectionable ; for the 
speaker is only conscious of its use in one word at a time, and the 
complexity of its sphere of usage was largely shared by the conglu- 
tinates. Only when ambiguity arose in a particular word was there 
any reason for preferring a different suffix. 

289. The meaning of the finished conglutinates can be of the ut- 
most variety, almost as great as of simple -iov, as can be seen from 
the classified lists under the individual suffixes. For, in the first 
place, the more widely used conglutinates have more than one pattern 
type, and the conditions may be different for each one. The process 
of conglutination was not patented by the diminutive, deteriorative, 
and hypocoristic meanings, but was applied to all other kinds of 
denominative words just as well. Thus TuoXT-dcptov 'porridge' was 
completely equivalent to tcoXtos and never had diminutive meaning, 
and from it is made, with the idea of appurtenance, rcoXTapi-Biov 'a 
vessel for holding porridge,' also not a c diminutive*' and yet it ends 
in a double conglutinate of two members each, a combination which 

1 Cf. Brugmann, Or. 2. I 2 . 675 note 1. 

Conglutinates with -iov as Final Member. 209 

according to the ordinary view would lead us to expect the utmost 
intensity of feeling. The meanings 'belonging to,' 'made of,' 'be- 
longing to the category of,' 'like' the primitive, etc., are all 'repre- 
sented in the different conglutinates. An exception is made by the 
words witli verbal force, which have a nature so widely different from 
the denominatives as not to have been felt in any "relation to the 
latter, as can be seen from the occurrence of such verbal abstracts, 
e. g. fyapTiov, ipcCmov, and scpayiov, even in the tragedians, who care- 
fully avoided denominative -iov words. There is, however, one word 
which seems to have crossed the border line, namely, toc xpsxd&ia 
'fine tapestry' in Aristophanes, which is probably derived directly 
from the verb xpsxo^ by means of the suffix -aBiov. This word prob- 
ably followed certain adjectives in -aBios, which were derived from 
adverbs in -Bov (§ 321), and had verbal meaning, e. g. dt[M>i(3aBios 
' exchanging,' i. e. ' alternate,' sxtocoios ' stretched out.' On the whole, 
the exocentric compounds in -iov were also not felt as ending in the 
same suffix as other -iov words, but aside from the solitary £vw- 
Ttxpiov, which is clue to congeneric attraction (§ 286), there is one 
compound in -aBiov (§ 324. II) and quite a number in -iBiov (§ 315. I), 
of which the oldest arose by substantivation from adjectives in -iBioc, 
which were largely compounds from early times (§ 306 f.). 

290. If the nature of the pattern types were the only factor to 
be considered in the spread of meanings of conglutinates, those groups 
which have only one pattern should have a homogeneous meaning, 
but in reality the influence of the pattern types is continually counter- 
acted by the tendency to syncretism of the meaning of the suffixes. 
Thus, if sXacp-iov referred to small size, 8«Y)p-a<piov and all other words 
directly or indirectly patterned after SXacpiov would also be diminutives, 
were it not for the fact that since -acpiov has here assumed the same 
function which -iov has in other words, e. g. 6"pv£0-iov 'little bird,' 
a feeling of equivalence of the two suffixes resulted. Consequently 
-acpiov could also be used in other meanings of -iov than th.it tumid 
in the pattern type. This assimilation of meanings naturally takes 
place most easily between the diminutive, deteriorative, and bypo- 
coristic meanings, but other functions can also be imparted to the 
conglutinate in this way. On the other hand, the pattern type will 
also have its influence, and there is a continual struggle between the 
two forces, the one tending to diversification of meaning, the other 
to keep it in narrow bounds, and the resulting aggregate of 08< 
a suffix is sometimes a compromise between the two lore.-. snIllr . 


210 Chapter XIX. 

times one or the other is victorious. Thus in case of -tBtov, -aptov y 
and -Kjxiov the fact that there were several pattern types paved the 
way for almost complete assimilation to -tov, and similar is the late 
-aBtov. On the other hand, -uXhov is in the Classical period found 
only in deteriorative and hypocoristic meaning, because its pattern 
jxstpocxu^tov (§ 352) had those meanings. Later, however, we find 
the diminutive function in X.mXhov ' a little animal,' and perhaps the 
meaning ' made of ' in xspapHtov ' an (earthen-ware) jar.' l It has 
become an instrument suffix in pocpuXXtov : (3apo£, an instrument for 
determining the weight of liquids. Similarly -occptov and -ucptov refer 
to small size in the large majority of examples, but the same process 
of syncretism has caused a hypocoristic meaning in BsvBpocptov ' beau- 
tiful tree,' and in <£upacpiov 'razor' it appears as an instrumental 
suffix. The uses of -uBptov distinctly show a compromise between 
the two forces. Its origin is deteriorative, and this is its prevailing use 
in the Classical period, but from the beginning other meanings also 
occur, and in post-Classical times the deteriorative predilection is lost. 
Nevertheless assimilation of meanings to -iov did not go beyond the 
diminutive and hypocoristic meanings, except in case of the obscure 
(TxtcptjBpiov of Epicharmus, in which it seems to designate similarity 
(cf. § 328. I). In every case of semantic syncretism, after the 
sphere of usage demarcated by the original pattern type has once 
been exceeded, the way is paved for a more rapid extension of mean- 
ing, since the word with the new meaning will at once become a 
new pattern for other words. 

291. When a certain suffix spreads because of semantic syncre- 
tism with another suffix, the feeling of equivalence of the two suffixes 
allows one to be directly substituted for the other in a certain 
existing word without reference to the primitive. Just as -tov could 
take the place of -iB- in certain words whose meaning allowed them 
to take either suffix (§ 17), so any conglutinate in -tov could take 
the place of simple -tov in any word just as soon as a general feeling 
of equivalence had been developed. Thus when luyyiov 'lampholder' 
became XuyvtBtov (without diminntive meaning), the -tBtov was not 
added to the stem of the latter, but took the place of -tov because 
the feeling of equivalence of the two suffixes allowed one to be sub- 
stituted for the other even where -tov was a suffix of appurtenance. 
Though we can not be sure in the individual example whether a given 

1 The passage where it occurs is insufficient to decide whether it desig- 
nates any jar or only small ones and so is a diminutive. 

Conglutinates with -iov as Final Member. 211 

word has received its suffix by substitution for an equivalent suffix 
or by being formed independently from the common primitive, yet 
there is always the possibility that one of two equivalent words dif- 
fering only as to their suffix arose in this way. So perhaps were made 
auSBtov 'box-wood tablet' = tuu^ov, tutu&lov 'little image' = tuttiov, 
XOipfotov 'little pigling' = /oiptov, tsxv&iov 'dear child' _ Texvtov| 
7s/v%iov -wretched trade' = ts X viov, ptpXdcptov 'book' = (3t(ftiov! 
oeXT<*piov ' writing-tablet ' = Bs^tiov, cpuxocpiov ' rouge ' = cpuxiov, y/-(o- 
vrfpiov -woman's shift' = x^vtov, etc. This substitution of suffixes 
is most evident when there is no primitive without -iov in existence, 
e. g. [p,orc$tov ' cloak ' = [jwctiov, p<xXXavirffiiov ' purse ' = paMwraov. 
When such words are equivalent from the beginning, the addition 
of one suffix to another is clearly out of the question except by 
congeneric attraction, and most of them arose by substitution of 
suffixes. The same thing can, of course, just as well occur between 
two different conglutinates of -iov or any other two suffixes. Thus 
vY]C7i$tov ' little island ' = vYjaoBptov, '^svtJXXtov ' contemptible stranger ' 
= csvuBpiov, xuviBiov ' young dog ' = xuvapiov, etc. Certain again are 
words of which there was no possible common primitive in ex- 
istence, e. g. 7upo<7xscpodaBiov 'pillow' = 7cpO(7xscpaXoctov (§ 318), and 
^XavBiov c mantle ' = yXaviBiov (§ 315. VIII. B). In every case this 
process results in a pair of equivalent words, and consequently sub- 
stitution of suffixes is out of the question in words like Xoyapia 
' contemptible words,' which can not have had anything to do with 
^oyiov ' oracle,' but must have been formed directly from Xoyos. It 
is evident that this point of view complicates still more the question 
as to the precise motive of formation of many a word, and often 
makes a classification according to the psychic attitude an impos- 
sibility, so that in the list of uses of the individual suffixes a word 
has often been classified according to the original meaning of the -•/// 
whose place is taken by the conglutinate. Thus pijftapiov is placed 
under the heading 'made of,' because the -iov of jfcjftfov originally 
had that meaning, although it had long since faded, and probably 
never entered into the meaning of (3t(ftapiov. Frequently, in hot, the 
creator of the word with the substituted suffix could ool bare had 
any definite attitude to it at all, and the Tague feeling of general 
equivalence of the two formatives was sufficient to oauM the un- 
conscious substitution of one for the other without tin- slighted 
analysis of the word, and so without connecting an; meaning with 
its suffix. In no other way could have arisen words like /Xav&iov, 

212 Chapter XX. 

which substituted -Btov for the -iBiov of ^aviB-tov although the -iB- 
belonged to the stem of the primitive. 

292. Since the meanings of the different conglutinates were de- 
termined by the influence of the pattern types and of simple -tov, the 
development of their uses did not take place within the conglutinates 
themselves, but they were thrust upon them ready-made. Consequently 
the important thing to investigate is merely the extent of their usage, 
while the different examples which should happen to be on the border- 
line between different meanings are usually of no significance and 
entirely accidental. It is this consideration which justifies my roughly 
dividing the material according to convenience into the larger semantic 
groups, without paying much attention to the transition types, which 
must as a matter of course exist anywhere in such a large body of 
interrelated meanings. 

XX. THE SUFFIX -(i)Biov (-uBwv, -ooliov, -sttoov). 

293. The suffixes -Btov and -tBiov will be treated as one because 
often difficult to distinguish formally, and because semantically iden- 
tical. This does not, however, mean that -Btov is to be ignored, or 
that it is even to be denied existence except as an illusion to our 
eyes which is due to the -i- of -iBiov coalescing with the root-vowel 
in words like tyfruBvov or ypocyzibiov. The form ^dcv-Biov in inscrip- 
tions from Teos and Samos (Hoffmann Gr. Dial. 3. 106. 16, 169. 30) 
of the middle of the fourth century B. 0. is sufficient evidence that 
-Biov existed as a real suffix to the Greek mind as well as to our 
eyes, and that at a comparatively early date. 

294. Among other words in -Biov the most satisfactory is ftoti- 
Biov : (Sous, occurring already in old comedy (Hermipp. frg. 2. 393 (1)). 
This form is attested for Hermippus in Antiattic. AB. 85. 29, (3ouBia, 
ou \kovov (3oiBia. "Epjjurauos Kspxtom. It is therefore a matter of in- 
difference that Phrynichus (p. 86) condemns the form, and that 
Meineke reinstated poiBta for (3ouBia in Hermippus. The very mention 
of (tatiBiov by Phrynichus is another proof of its existence, and the 
objection of Meineke that it is without parallel, and that pouBiov, 
cplouBiov, and pouBiov, which might be cited as such, are very late 
forms, is without bearing on the question ; for pouBtov : poia ' pome- 
granate ' does not have an -ou- in the stem, but received it analogically 
(cf. voevouBiov : vavos), while (jAooBiov and [xvouBiov come from contracted 

The Suffix -(i)diov. 213 

primitives, ytaBc < cpX6o ? , and pou ? < p6o ? . In these words the 
influence of those cases in which the product of contraction was not 
-00-, or where -ou- appeared as belonging to the case ending (e. g. 
in <pXou), would make a formation with -ou- from the Nominative 
Singular much more difficult that if the diphthong was without doubt 
felt as the stem-final. Thus the stem (3ou- occurs in the Norn. Ace. 
Yoc. Sing, and Dat. Ace. Plur., and there is no reason why a deri- 
vative (3ou-oiov should not have been formed at the very earliest time. 
Meineke's search for analogies is altogether superfluous, because potig 
is the only word which has an old stem in -ou-, and he might with 
as good a right have denied the existence of the Dat. PL (3oi><7t be- 
cause there is no other example of such a form ending in -oust. 
The other forms in -ouBtov, while thus not contradicting the early 
existence of (3ouBtov, are themselves good evidence that -Biov existed 
as a distinct suffix in later times ; for a contraction of -ouiowv > 
-ouBiov is out of the question. Other words in -ovibiov from contracted 
primitives in -ou- are 7upo)(ouBtov : %poyovc, and vo6?>iov : voti;. Cf. 
Phryn. 86, T^oiBiov yioci (3oCBiov ap^aTa xal B6xi[ia, ouyi vouBiov xat po'JB'.ov. 

295. The suffix -Btov is further attested by xpsaBiov, which usually 
has a short penult, so Ar. Plut. 227, frg. 2. 1185(36); Alexis frg. 
3. 416, 440 (5. 11), 466 (4). Cf. Janson, op. cit. 48. It is no ob- 
jection to the analysis xpsa-Biov 1 that the word also occurs with a long 
penult, 2 e. g. Alexis frg. 3. 396(1. 5); for it is the latter which 
needs explanation. The primitive xpsa? has short a, and -a- -f- -toiov 
would give -atBiov, not -aBiov. When -aBiov occurs it is probably 
due to the analogy of the varying quantity of the irin tyO-JBiov (§ 296). 

296. Brugmann, Gr. 2. I 2 . 194, also gives as an example of -Biov 
ty&d-owv : lybvs, and similar are (3oirpuoiov : (3oTpu?, and lyy/ku^iov : 
zyyzlix;. The earlier scholars, however, who were bent on not ad- 
mitting the existence of -Biov except as a late vulgar error, 8 building 
upon the fact that these words usually have a long -0- when their 
quantity is determinable with certainty, 4 declared that -uowv every-? 

1 The <r of the stem xqiag wat not felt as a part of the stem because it 
had disappeared by phonetic processes in most cases. The tnalogj 

like X swcid-ior : x£QP«s, -«'<H musfc also haVr li; "' Lta i,lfluence in ,! ' 
mation of XQtd-diov. 

2 Cf. Meineke ad Men. 180, Var. Not. ad Ar. Pint. 227. Mo 
passages for which -adiov is claimed are corrupt, 

(1. 15), Men. frg. 4. 223 (1. 13). 

3 So e. g. Lobeck, ad Phryn. 83, in Lis diSCUMiOU OJ 

4 Cf. Janson, op. cit. 57. 

214 Chapter XX. 

where was contracted from -tn'Btov. 1 Since the contraction of -ut-> 
-U- before consonants is well authenticated, 2 this force must certainly 
be allowed as a probable factor, but to assume that every -uBiov comes 
from -ul'Btov is unnecessary and even impossible. On the one hand, 
tyfrtiSj the primitive of tyfruBtov, had a long -0- in the Nom. Ace. 
Yoc. Sing., and these forms could have been used as the basis of 
derivation, and in the same way the adverb ftoTpUBov shows the 
existence of -0- in the stem (3oirpu-. Moreover, one derivative in 
-UBiov could have attracted the others by analogy, and in case of 
a long succession of short syllables the form with the o was naturally 
preferred for the sake of the rhythm. And finally, ty9"JBLov, with 
short -£-, occurs in dactylic poetry, where iypubiov would be less 
useful, e. g. Anth. P. 11. 405, Archestr. ap. Athen. 311 C. Leav- 
ing out of account certain passages in Comedy where -u- is possible, 
though not necessary, there is at least one Comic passage in which 
it is tolerably certain, namely Cratin. Jun. frg. 3. 379 (2), where 
some would change xoci tyfruBia to xfyfruBia, 3 which would, however, 
be just as suspicious on account of the rare crasis as the manuscript 
reading because of the synizesis. It is, then, certain than -Biov was 
also used to form derivatives from -u stems, though it is usually im- 
possible in the individual word to distinguish it from -iBtov. Other 
words ending in -uBtov are : acpuBtov : acpuY), (3aptjBiov : |3apus, BaxpuBiov : 
Baxpu, BtxTuBiov : Bixtuov, BopuBiov : Bopu, xaptfBiov : xapuov, xaypoBiov : 
xaypuc, [xuBiov : jxug, occpuBtov : occpus, ocpp'JBiov : 6cppu£, 7usXsxuBiov : xsXs- 

XU£, 7UtTtjBlOV : 7UITU£, (TlXtjBlOV '. (71X0 0C, GjUvtfBtOV I <7[XIVUY). 

297. All other possible occurrences of -Btov are more or less un- 
certain, and can not be distinguished from -tBiov. Thus the diphthongs 
a and to are pronounced and sometimes written 6c and w after the 
second century B. C., 4 and this led to a complete confusion of -Biov 
and -iBtov in words of which the basis of derivation ended thus, and 
only inscriptions which antedate this period could be of much service 
in establishing certain conclusions, though when the spelling of a 
certain word in the manuscripts is nearly uniform, it would point to 
a tradition which may be derived from earlier times. Thus the uni- 
formity with which IXaBiov (: zk&oC) is spelled without i subscript in 
the manuscripts, points to the suffix -Biov, while "XaywBiov (: Xayws) is 

2 Cf. Brugmann, Gr. Gr 3 . 49. 

3 Cf. Meineke ad loc. 

4 Cf. Brugmann, Gr. Gr 3 . 54. 

The Suffix -{i)6iov. 215 

spelled with it, and must therefore have had -iBtov ; xOtov (: xS>a ? ) 
is without it in the manuscripts, and this would lead to the analysis 
xw-Btov, but kc£Biov, i. e. xg)-£Biov, has inscriptional evidence from Hali- 
carnassus (Ditt 2 . 641. 45, end of 3d cent. B. C.) ; and xocXo^Bigv 
(: xaXwc) occurs beside xaXwBiov in the manuscripts, but only the latter 
in inscriptions, and this would point to the suffix -tBiov. When the 
basis of derivation ends in yj there is the same ambiguity ; for already 
in the second century A. D., i. e. also before the date of our manu- 
scripts, both Y) and Y|(et) were pronounced i. 1 Since, however, yr^tov 
(: yvj) is spelled without t subscript in the large majority of instances, 
and since the dropping of the i was by no means usual in all oc- 
currences of that diphthong, we may conclude that yyjBlov had -Biov. 
Less certain is izriyrfiiov : 7UY]yY) in Suidas. 

298. The question further arises how far words in -iBiov which 
have a primitive in -t-, -to-, or -ia- really have the suffix -Biov. Thus 
is xu|i(3iBiov (: %6\i$v\, yiu\$iov) to be analyzed xu^(3-lBiov or xu|x(3i-Biov ? 
As long as the existence of -Biov was denied the question was com- 
paratively simple. i-iBiov was contracted to -TBtov, and consequently 
words in -iBiov could have primitives in -i- -10- -ia- only when the 
antepenult was long. All words in -iBiov were therefore to be refer- 
red to primitives without an i in the suffix, and conversely, -TBtov 
always presupposed such a primitive. When the facts would not fit 
in with the hypothesis, the text was suspected rather than theory. 
An extensive discussion of the question is found in Janson, op. cit. 
52 ff. It is evident that if the distribution of -IBiov and -"iBiov really 
is such as is claimed by him, no suffix -Biov is to be recognized in 
these words ; but in reality there are numerous exceptions to the rule 
in two ways. In the first place, there exist words in -iBiov from 
primitives without an t in the suffix. Thus BoiomBiov (Ar. Ach. 872) 
is a 'diminutive of Boio>to?, Bax-ttAfBiov (id. Lys. 417) refers to ;i 
toe, and so can not come from BocxtMios ' finger-ring,' but from Bax- 
TtAo? ' finger,' ' toe.' 'EppBiov (Ar. Pax. 382, 924) : 'Epp% has been 
removed by some editors in the interests of the theory; TuopvtBtov, 
while usually with -iBiov, has -"iBiov in Ar. Ran. 1301, and of oonrse 
the text is suspected of being corrupt; crxafy/Biov (Com. Anon, frg, 
4. 696 [366]) comes from axatyos ; Teu&fotov (Ephipp. frg. :> 
[1.4.]): Tsufrts is declared by Meineke (adloc.) to have gotten it- \ 
from a primitive TW&fa though admitting thai the An..- always 
used the word with a short I; titO-l'Biov can be rescued bj referring 

1 Cf. Brugmann, op. cit. 29, 53. 

216 Chapter XX. 

it to titIKov rather than to TtTfros, although the addition of -iBtov 
to a living ' diminutive ' in -wv is not otherwise known. On the 
other hand, the following words in -tBiov come from primitives in -i-, 
-to-, or -ta- : xco^Btov (Anaxandr. frg. 3. 172) : xo)f3ioc, suspected by 
Meineke; Xuyyibiov c lamp-holder ' : Xoyyiov, though usually with -iBiov, 
has -iBtov in Hermipp. frg. 2. 41 1, 1 suspected by Meineke ; EavfrifBiov 
(Ar. Ran. 582) : Eavfria?, which Janson wrongly declares to have -tBtov, 
a measurement manifestly impossible, since w Eav£KBtov stands at the 
beginning of a trimeter ; xoTYjptfBiov : TuoxYjpiov, in a corrupt verse of 
Menander frg. 4. 74 (4), where, however, the text seems beyond 
suspicion to the end of ftOT/jpio^oc ; 6xoyaGTpi^Hov (Eubul. frg. 3. 269 
[16]; Philoxenus 2. 23): 67uoyaarpiov. This list of exceptions is the 
more significant when we consider that many other words in -iBiov 
can come from a primitive with an t in the suffix, although they 
must not. Thus &mBiov can come from a<7xiov as well as from 
dconos, xpoxamBiov from xpoxco^iov or xpoxcoTO?, ^ocpxifBiov from l&pxiov 
or \&pxo$, (xoo-/^Biov from \ko<jyiov or [xooyo^, 7uoc7mBiov from tuoctutuiocs 
or 7ua7U7uoc?, 7uiXtfBiov from xiTiov or mXog, ^oipifBiov from yoipiov or 
yoipoc, ^uxttjp^Biov from cjjuxTYjpiov or cjjuxTYJp. On the other hand, 
words in -tBiov which may have come from primitives with an t in 
the suffix are not necessarily referred to them ; apyuptfBiov can come 
from apyupo? as well as from apyupiov, ofoaBiov from otxo? or ofoua. 

299. It is evident, then, that the exposition of Janson is either 
not true or does not contain the whole truth. It is not impossible 
that a formation like *apyupi(1>iov occasionally did come into being, 
and it may even be conceded that certain people used it long enough 
to allow it to suffer contraction and thus to give it a chance to in- 
fluence other words analogically ; but that this should have been the 
regular method of formation is contradicted both by the failure of 
the facts to correspond to the distribution of -iBiov and -iBtov as 
claimed by Janson, and by the intrinsic improbability of the assump- 
tion that the Attic dialect, sensitive as it was to all kinds of hiatus, 
should have at any time regularly used formations in -uBiov when 
there was at hand the suffix -Biov which would result in an unob- 
jectionable -i-Biov. 

1 In the light of § 291, such examples have no value in this question ; 
1v%vl$lov probably got its -idtov by substitution for -tov, and thus need not 
be derived from \v%viov by the addition of {-i)^iov. On the other hand, 
Xv%vi$iov originated in the same way, and is no argument for *Xv%vl-LSiov, 
since it is equivalent to Xv%vlov, not a ' diminutive ' of the latter. 

The Suffix ~(t)diov. 217 

300. A different cause for the length of the l must then at least 
have assisted the contraction of -uBtov, and more probably have been 
the chief cause. The hint is given by rcopviBtov (: TuopvY)), which, 
though usually with short antepenult, has a long one in Ar. Ran. 
1301, where xopviBicov closes a trimeter and the i has tfce verse-ictus, 
while otherwise it is in the thesis of a foot, e. g. in Ar. Nub. 997 : 
p^o) (ftY)0-sts U7u6 7uopviBiou, at the beginning of an anapaestic tetram- 
eter. An examination of all other cases of -"iBtov reveals the fact 
that i is lengthened only when it receives the ictus, and the large 
majority of examples come at the end of the Iambic Trimeter, where 
a succession of three short syllables or an anapaestic succession could 
not occur: apyupfBiov (Ar. Plut. 147, 240, frg. 2. 1164(4); Eupol. 
frg. 2. 479 (42) ; Diph. frg. 4. 384), Boiam&iov (Ar. Ach. 872), 
'EppBiov (Ar. Pax 382, 924), t[«mBiov (Ar. Plut. 985), xaXtfcCois 
(Eupol. frg. 2. 442 (5)), loxvtliov (Crates frg. 2. 234 (5)), toyvt&foiv 
(Ar. frg. 2. 949 (15), 1059 (5)), ofctiBtov (Ar. Nub. 92), <n\tifaw (Ar. 
frg. 2. 1076 (3. 1)), <7Y]7utfBia (Ar. frg. 2. 1050 (9); Eubul. frg. 3. 268 
(15a 6); Ephipp. frg. 3. 325 (2. 9), 334. (1. 4)), (jxaXpBia (Com. 
Anon. frg. 4. 696(366)), irsu&foux (Eubul. frg. 3. 258 (1)), titO^ioc 
(Ar. frg. 2. 1084 (14)). In a different position or (once) in a different 
meter, but also with an ictus, are apyupfBiov (Ar. Av. 1622, Lys. 
1050, in a choral ode), (3t(3XiBioi> (perhaps in Antiphan. ap. Poll. 7. 211, 
though it may as well have -iBiov), BaxTtAftkov (Ar. Lys. 417), tatocam)- 
pfBiov (Ar. Vesp. 803), t[xair'tBCoi? (Ar. Lys. 470), xwjtfBia (Sotad. frg. 
3. 586 (22)), ofio-TBiov (Nicomach. frg. 4. 587 (1)), enjiuiV (Eubul. frg. 
3 258 (1)), <7Y)m£ia (perhaps Alexis frg. 8. 455, though -ifcov is also 
possible). The consensus of such a large number of passages without 
one exception proves conclusively that, whatever the origin of the long 
i of iliov in its earliest patterns, there was a complete redistribution 
of -iBiov and iBtov according to rhythmical laws. 

301. The bearing of all of this on the existence of the Hlffb 
-Biov is evident. If words in -tBiov can come from primitive without I 
in the final syllable of the suffix, no conclusion is allowed as to the 
origin of -tBtov in words from primitives in -i-, -io-, and -ix- 

the i undoubtedly must have at least partially originated l>\ the rerj 
same forces in the latter class as the former. Consequent!} 
word in -tfctov which has a primitive with an i in the final Buffo 
may have the suffix -oiov ; [[uxirfaov : tpirtov can be tpawi-foov just 
as well as rcopvlBiov : Tuopvv) is rcopv-fowv. When, howefi 
this kind hat -iBiov the suffix -toov is a certainty ; xcopftiov (: xa>pi6«) 

218 Chapter XX. 

must be xw|3i-Biov, and similarly EocvDvBtov (: Eocvfrtas), &7uoyaaTpif-Btov 
(: 57uoyaarptov), etc. When a word in -tBiov occurs only in prose, there 
is consequently no conclusion possible as to the quantity of the ante- 
penult, and if it were, it would be immaterial because quantity need 
have nothing to do with the nature of the primitive. Consequently 
any of the following words in -10- (-toe) with indeterminable quan- 
tity may have been, and many doubtless were formed with the suffix 
-Btov : (3aXocvTiBtov : (3a>.avTtov, yup-ao-iBtov : yupaa-tov, ywviBtov : ycovta, 
BocxtuXiBiov 4 ring ' : BocxtuXio?, Bsa-pBtov : Bsqiiov or Bsqjios, ^YjpiBiov : 
fr^piov or O^Yjp, frpaviBiov : Q^paviov or frpavoc, xlivTYjpiBiov : xXivnfjpiov or 
xlivTYjp, xotTiBiov : xoiXia, xopaaxBiov : xopacriov, xpavtBiov : xpaviov, xpaTY)- 
piBiov : xpaTYjptov or xpaTYjp, xpiBtov : xpto^, ^ouTYjpiBiov : XouTYjpiov or 
louT-Yjp, [xccyatpiBiov : [xayaiptov or [xayaipa, ocjjapiBiov : 6'jiaptov, mvocxiBiov : 
xtvaxiov or 7uiva?, 7ui>£iBiov : xu^tov or 7flj£os, crxopmBiov : crxoprcioc, toci- 
viBiov : Tatvta, 6BpiBiov : 6Bpia, ypua-iBiov : ^puciov or ypLxro?, ycopiBtov : 
//optov or /wpos or ywpa. Similarly from primitives in -t- : aTuoXu- 
<7iBtov : ockoXogi^, BsppiBiov : Bsppic, s^Biov : i£i£, IsHBiov : \££,ic, opyiBiov : 
opyi£, ocpiBiov : o<pi$, 7uo)iBtov : %6\i$, pY)<7tBiov : pYJo-ts. 

302. Altogether indistinguishable -Biov and -iBiov are when the basis 
of derivation ends in an 1 diphthong. From £coov comes £toBiov, which 
may be either £co-Biov or originally *£o>-CBiov ; ayysiBtov : ayysTov was 
either ayysi-Btov or *ayys.i-iBiov. Similarly ypoc|X[j.airsLBiov : ypajjLjjLaxsTov, 
frustBtov : frusta, axacpsiBtov : crxacpsTov, Ta k msiBtov : Tapsia. When, how- 
ever, the primitive has a stem in -eu- or -t-, derivatives in -stBtov 
are formed by means of -tBiov. Thus ajxcpopstBiov : dt[jL<popsu^ is a[xcpops- 
(Biov, being formed upon the oblique cases, 1 e. g. Gen. PI. dcjjKpop&ov ; 
and sysiBtov is eys-iBtov, being formed from the oblique cases of lyic,, 
e. g. syswv. Similarly pao-tlsiBiov : (3a(7iX£U£, xtyjctsiBiov : xtyjo-i^, 
Is^siBiov : ^i£i$, opysiBtov : opyic, ocpstBiov : ocpt?, toc^siBlov : Tdc<£i£. Prob- 
ably the Sicilian posiBtov also belongs here, and came from a primitive 
*postk. To assume a conglutinate -stBiov for this one word hardly 
seems necessary. 

303. We may summarize our conclusions as to -Biov as follows. 
That it was one of the oldest conglutinates of -iov is shown by the 
(Bou-Btov of Hermippus of the age of Pericles. Since it was more 
convenient than -tBiov when the basis of derivation of the primitive 
ended in a vowel, it doubtless was used at least as much, if not 
more than the latter, under these circumstances, as is seen by quite 

1 Cf. Schwabe, opt. cit. 67, who cites Etym. Mag. 347. 54 for the differ- 
ence between t&diov and e&t'cJW, ib. 560. 12 for tel-idiov and Xeieidtov. 

The Suffix -{i)Siov. 219 

a number of words for which it is more probable than -tfcov, and 
by very many words where it is possible. That -Biov was not much 
in use after consonant stems is due to the unendurable combinations 
of sounds which would often have resulted. The form /Xav-Biov, 
from inscriptions of the fourth century B. C, nevertheless shows 
that a beginning was made in this direction. In later times -iBiov 
encroached upon -Biov, as is shown e. g. by xaXcoBiov, but the latter 
also kept on existing, e. g. in words like cplouBiov and u.vo*JBiov. 

303. There are diverse possibilities of origin of the suffix -fctov. 
In the first place it might come from adjectives in -Bios, e. g. 
ajxcpaBioc, which were formed from adverbs like a|x<paB6v (§ 321). 
These adjectives could then be referred directly to the root, and thus 
the appearance of an adjective suffix -Bio- was created, which was 
exactly equivalent to -to-. The B thus could take upon itself the 
function of an hiatus-avoiding device and be transferred to substan- 
tives in -tov. Thus if some one wished to form an -iov diminutive to 
yv], he would eagerly seize upon some device like the B for avoiding 
the awkward *yr$ov, which would scarcely be intelligible because of 
the difficulty with which kindred vowels are distinguished acoustically 
and in pronunciation. The objection to this view is the fact that 
-Bio- occurs in so very few adjectives, and that these have suffixal 
meanings so widely different from those of the extant -Biov substantives 
that it is difficult to see by what lines of association the B was 
transferred from one to the other. 

304. For words in -uBiov the analogy of ylapB-iov (: />>apc, 
-uBos) must undoubtedly have played a part, as is pointed out by 
Brugmann, Gr. 2. I 2 . 471. Since -u- stems as well as -uB- stems 
had a Norn. Sing, in -u?, proportional analogies like the following 
could arise: y^apB-iov : yXoupbc, = i/W-Biov : iyf>6<;. By a similar 
analogy could arise -Biov in derivatives from -i- stems: teffi-tov : 
fencfe = sx^ l0V : h l $- Another stratum of words in -Biov probably 
followed the model TuaiBiov. Since this was largely a hypocoristic 
word, it was much used in the Vocative case (§ 286), and was often 
brought into association with the Vocative of Its primitive, particularly 
since it was a habit in calling the same person twioe to use a bypo- 
corism once, preceded or followed by fche primitive. Of. Ar. Nub. 
132, TuaT, :uaiBiov; id. Ran. 37, TuaiBiov, roxT. As a result of the as- 
sociation of TuaiBiov with ra, which bad .... 5, the raffii -•>•//, wai 
abstracted, and this spread most easily to other words with monotyl- 
labic base, e. g. pouBiov, tftoov, (JcoBiov, xcoBiov. Again* the as- 

220 Chapter XX. 

sumption that these latter words were influenced by 7uatBtov the dif- 
ference of accentuation can not be used as argument ; for they may 
very well have been accented on the penult when first formed. But 
since -tBtov and -Btov could not be distinguished in so many words, 
and the former always accented the antepenult, it was natural that 
words in -Btov should follow, while xatBtov retained its accent because 
it was not always, but only occasionally associated with the Vocative 
7uaT, and otherwise with the real stem tuociB-. After the suffix -Btov had 
thus gained existence in derivatives from monosyllabic bases as well 
as in -u- and -t- stems, it was comparatively easy to extend it to other 
formations also, e. g. the -to- and -ta- stems followed the -t- stems, etc. 

305. The suffix -tBtov, as far as it came in contact with -Btov, has 
been treated in the preceding paragraphs. With this exception an ex- 
position of its formal history is unnecessary, because it has been done 
by Schwabe (op. cit. 65 ft.) and Janson (op. cit. 46 ff.). It remains to 
discuss its origin, and to determine, if possible, the cause of its spread. 
As to the age of -tBtov, it appears already in Epicharmus to denote 
similarity in irautBiov, and so is one of the oldest -tov conglutinates. 

306. The first possibility of the origin of -tBtov is from the old 
adjectives in -iBto-, which are already Homeric, and are more or 
less productive in the whole Classical period. They can not, how- 
ever, account for the whole mass of words in -tBtov ; for they do not 
keep pace with the development of the -to- adjectives so as to allow 
substantivation with as great a variety of meanings as simple -to-, 
but -iBto- is on the whole confined to certain kinds of adjectives. 
The largest group is composed of words designating an object as 
being in a certain place, 1 and of these the compounds are the most 
frequent. So iyysipiHioc, 'in the hand,' ImQ'aXao-oiBiog 'at the sea,' 
s7utyouvtBtO£ ' upon the knees,' £7utTt>[xf3tBtO£ ' over a tomb,' i^tcpaTvtBto? 
' at the manger,' xapocfrodaa-a'tBto? ' beside the sea,' 7upo<7TspvtBtos * in 
front of the breast,' 67usp{kcXa<7<7tBto£ 'above the sea' (of coast-land). 
Among simple words : svToo-^tBto? ' in the inside,' [jisoxBios ' in the 
middle,' voo-cptBto? ' removed,' ' secret,' oTutG-frtBto? ' in the rear.' The 
large number of the words of this kind point to an origin from a 
Locative Dative or local adverb, and so sy/stptBto?, probably the 
pattern type of the compounds, is to be analyzed sy-^stpt-Btoc, the B 
being the same as in adjectives like a|xcpaBto? (§ 321). Similarly 
vo<Tcpt-Bio£ : v6c<pt ' aside,' 2 svBofrtBto? : IvBoQ't ' inside.' To the related 

1 Cf. Pape, Etym. Worterb. 97. 

2 Cf. Brugmann, IF. 16. 494. 

The Suffix -(i)6iov. 221 

idea of time -ilio- spread from words like at-Bto? 1 'everlasting' (: da). 
The t as a part of the suffix in atyv-ffitos 'sudden,' raxup-toios in jcocu- 
p&tov /povov ' for a short time.' Moreover, since words like iyysipioio; 
were compounds, the suffix spread to other compounds which did not 
designate a locality, e. g. IZctpyllios 'coming from the apyr,' (Insc. 
Delos Ditt 2 . 514. 3), 67uo7usTpiBtos 'winged' (Alcm. Parthen. 49), 
uTCO/aXtviBia 'lower parts of the bridle.' Then again, some of the 
compounds designating position could pass to the meaning 'coming 
from' (cf. § 92), and hlccpyfoioc, had that meaning from the be- 
ginning. This meaning then spread to words like [xoi/iBioc 'born 
from adultery,' 6v/]<r£to^os ' coming from a dead body.' There remains 
the obscure xooptBio;* 2 in Homeric phrases like xoupiBiY) aXoyo?. Perhaps 
-iBio- here originally meant 'belonging to the category of,' and the 
phrase was equivalent to ' my girl (i. e. young) wife,' as a term of 
endearment, but became used so frequently that it became a compound, 
and the adjective was then practically meaningless. 

307. Quite a number of words in -iBiov are substantivations from 
these adjectives, or were formed analogically to others that were so 
substantivized, e. g. sy-ysipiBtov ' a dagger ' : sy-ystpiBio? ' in the hand,' 
Kpo-OTEpvfoiov ' a covering for the breast,' ' that which is over the 
breast.' Other compounds of this kind are given § 315. I. Among 
simple words perhaps the dialectic xopiBtov ' maiden ' was substanti- 
vized from the adjective xopiBtos, which must then have retained 
its original idea of appurtenance to a category at the time and in 
the dialect where xopfttov first arose. The word may, however, also 
be a faded diminutive or hypocorism. 

308. A second group of words in -iBiov probably came from words 
in which -Siov was preceded by an i as the basis of derivation of the 
primitive. From the list of words given § 301 those are most 
favorable for the production of a suffix -iBtov, which have a primitive 
in -to- -loc- alongside of which there was in existence a ampler word 
with the same meaning, but not with the t suffix. Thus the tad that 
p>poc and yfflpos existed alongside of yopiov could cause p which 
came from" the latter, to be reanalyzed ywp-iSiov and so P 

Xt&pa or x&poc. Other possibilities of this land are: xujxptoiov : xuy.- 
PCov or x^(3y), frY]pt£iov : G^ov or Wjp, frpavfoiov : Q or J>p«vo«, 

K^vnjpffiwv : xtovrijpwv or xtovnfjp, mvaxfoiov : mvaxiov or rcCva?, icuQ- 
Btov : tuu^iov or izdloq, -tfwfowi : /puafov or XP«^«- 

1 Cf. Brugmann, IF. 16. 494. 

 For other interpretations cf. Ebeling, Lex. Horn, sub xovQidiog. 

222 Chapter XX. 

309. The third and probably the most important source of -tBtov 
is from nouns in -ig, -tBo?. The conglutinate could be transferred 
directly from one congeneric word to another, e. g. acraB-tov 'little 
shield ' could give rise to ^-tBtov ' little sword,' even though no conglu- 
tinate -tBtov existed before this (§ 286). The most potent influence 
in its separation, however, must have been the existence of equiv- 
alent words in -tB-, which were the primitives, and without it, to which 
the words in -tBtov could be referred. This happened most frequently 
with -tB- and -a-, since -fB- had taken the place of I. E. -I- as 
a feminine formative, 1 and this led to the existence of diverse words 
in -ig and -a with virtually the same meaning, e. g. among names 
of women : 0>£poc7uatvts and frspdtouatva, sxatpt? and sTaipa, koCKKvlyxc, and 
KoCKkowi]. The same thing in case of names of animals or things : 
x^tvt? and xTivv), xpvjvts and xpvjvY), [jlouvi? and (jlocCvy), crxoccpts and crxacpY) 
(' boat '), x UT P^ an d X^ T P a - C^* a ^ so ¥ ux k = (pti)Oj-s, xXv)[jiairts = 
xXr\\Loc (t stem). A derivative from a word with the -iB- suffix could 
easily be referred to the by-form without it, e. g. yuTptBtov to yutpx, 
instead of pfpis, which would then serve as pattern for new for- 
mations in -tBtov. Very rarely -tBtov seems to be composed of diminu- 
tive -tB- -{- diminutive -tov (§ 282), though it is not impossible 
that e. g. vyjo-CBiov ' little island ' was formed by means of the suffix 
-tBtov directly from vyjcos, with no thought of the existing diminutive 


310. While the spread of the conglutinate -Btov was largely due 
to the fact that the initial B of this suffix avoided hiatus with a 
vocalic final of the basis of derivation (cf. § 288), in contrast to 
-tov, which was unserviceable in such a position, -tBtov was no better 
than -tov in this respect. Its advantage, however, was the opportunity 
afforded for forming a diminutive or deteriorative suffix for a word 
of which the -tov derivative was preempted by other meanings. Thus, 
besides xocTptBtov, which was mentioned above (§ 288), such a word 
is ^tcptBtov 'little sword,' instead of Jtcptov, which was a plant name 
('gladiola'), and so would not be readily understood as a diminutive. 
Similar yoccrptBtov ' a little belly ' owes its -tBtov to the fact that 
yacrptov designated a kind of sausage ; yXocoxtBtov, diminutive of 
yXoeuxo? (a fish) has -tBtov because yXocuxtov is the juice of a certain 
plant, and yXocuxtov (with different accent) a certain gray-eyed water 
bird, but can not refer to the fish ; foytBtov ' oratiuncula ' because 

1 Cf. Brugmann, Gr. Gr 3 . 182. 

The Suffix -(/)Siov. 223 

Xfyov is ' an oracle.' It must not, however, be supposed that h&ov 
was rxclusively used for forming real 'diminutives.' The reverse, 
namely, that -tBtov is used to express a non-diminutive idea because 
the -lov word is a diminutive, occurs in xscpodtBtov 'a covering for 
the head,' while xscpaXiov is 'a little head.' 

311. Whether other vowels than t and a (§ 316 ff.) coalesced 
with -Btov into a single conglutinate, is hard to decide. There are 
apparent examples of a suffix -uBiov, but all of a more or less doubt- 
ful nature. Cf. Lobeck, Proll. 401. Of these ToxapoBiov is certainly 
corrupt ; for it occurs only in Stephanus alongside of ToxapiBiov, which 
is clearly the only possible -Btov diminutive of Toxapiov. A substitu- 
tion of u for t when the latter is a part of the primitive stem is not 
to be expected, except after both letters were pronounced alike. 
sXxtfBiov (Plut. 2. 300 A) (: £k/.os) looks suspiciously like the common 
IXxuBpiov, and is probably also corrupt. BsvBpuBtov (Gloss.) : BsvBpov, 
if authentic, is probably dissimilated from BsvBp-uBptov by loss of one 
of the two r sounds in the repeated group -Bp- (§ 329), or the t> 
may belong to the stem : BsvBpu-Biov (cf. Brugmann, Gr. 2. I 2 . 387). 
And finally, (tapuBiov (Hero Spir. 197. 2) : (3apo$ is most probably 
influenced by the adjective (3apu$ or formed from it in the beginning. 

312. A conglutinate -ouhiov seems to occur in the late vavo^Btov 
(Schol. Clem. Alex. 271) : vavo? 'dwarf.' None of the words in 
-ouBiov (§ 294) with an ou belonging to the stem seem to be suf- 
ficiently related to have caused an analogical exchange of endings. 

313. Apparent cases of further conglutinations of other suffixes 
with -(i)Biov are usually due to the fact that the so-called diminutive 
suffix of the first part has really a different use or at least does not 
have living diminutive force. So xopadBtov apparently lias -oovftiov, 
but it really is a simple 'diminutive' to xop&nov, which usually is 
completely equivalent to xopv). Similar and more frequent is -ocptBiov, 
e. g. in fiifilocpiliov : (3t(3Xapiov, which is not a diminutive, and >/ 
Skov, which is a diminutive to the faded 'diminutive' tytfpwv. In 
rcoXTapCBtov, on the other hand, -8iov means 'belonging t<>" and 
again belongs to the non-diminutive xotoapiov. Due to real intensive 
accumulation of suffixes are probably Xifropfcwv, >/,yap'< 

jfcov, and 'AcppoBixapiBiov. -ax-ifciov occurs in the by] 

iMBtfctov, which is a humorous formation, and took its -ax- from ' Kose- 

formen' like Tula?. 1 

1 Cf. Fick-Bechtel, Die Griech. Personennamen 27, 

224 Chapter XX. 

314. It remains to give a survey of the different uses in which 
-(t)Biov occurs. It is of importance particularly for -tBtov that its 
origin is of an extremely heterogeneous kind, that it has all sorts of 
pattern types, and that in a large group of words it is from the be- 
ginning the neuter of adjectives in -toto-, particularly in compounds. 
Since the latter have connections with simple words on every hand, 
it is only natural that the gap between their meaning and that of 
those words in which the function of the suffix is no longer associated 
with adjectival origin should be filled out. Consequently -tBtov occurs 
in more different uses than any other -tov conglutinate, and closely 
approaches the complexity of the use of simple -tov. Like -ocptov 
(§ 362), however, it does not occur in abstract or verbal forma- 

315. Collection of Examples. The same classification as for 
simple -tov is usually followed, though I have not hesitated to de- 
part from it for the sake of convenience. 

I. Compounds. sy-xkatiTQ-idia, a sort of ear-rings. Poll. 5. 97. 
sy-%eiqi-diov ' that which is in the hand,' ' a hand-knife,' ' dagger.' 
Herod. 1. 12, 214; Hermipp. frg. 2. 395 (1. 5). ev-aSwv 1 'that 
which is in the ears,' 'ear-ring.' CIA. 2. 652 B 10 (398 B. C). 
€v-cot-16wp = the above. Insc. Delos BCH. 6. 125. sni-rawl-diov 
' that which is upon a fillet.' Insc. Delos Ditt 2 . 588. 188 (ab. 180 B. C). 
TiaQa-yvatt-idiov ' that which is over the jaw,' ' cheek-piece.' Schol. 
A 142. Tzaqa-^wv-ldiov ' that which is at the girdle,' ' a dagger.' 
Posidon. ap. Athen. 176 B. 7T<XQa-[j<7]0-ldiov 'that which is along the 
thighs,' 'thigh-armor.' Xen. An. 1. 8. 6. naqa-nlevQ-idiov, cover 
'over the sides' of war horses. Xen. Cyr. 6. 4. 1. naq-onl-idiov 
jxtxpa [xayatpa Hes. TreQi-SeiQ-ldiov , that which is around the neck,' 
' necklace.' Insc. Delos Mich. 833. 42 (279 B. C). neQi-TQaxrjX- 
CSiov = preceding. Pap. Magdol. ap. Melanges Nicole 282. 5. ttqo- 
fieT007i~l6tov ' that which is in front of the forehead,' ' the skin of 
the forehead' in Herod. 6. 70, 'frontlet' in Xen. An. 1. 8. 7 (PL). 
TtQo-CTSov-idiov 'that which is in front of the breast,' a covering for 
the breast of horses. Xen. An. 1. 8. 7, Equ. 12. 8. nqo-aT^-idiov 
' that which is in front of the breast,' an ornament for the breast. 
Polyb. 22. 20. 6. nQo-%eil-iSiov 1 the projecting part of the lip. Poll. 

1 Just how this form is related to evmldiov is doubtful. Perhaps we may 
assume that kviiniov and eV&m'cJW "were contaminated to ivajdiov, and that this 
form received an iota subscript by the influence of the suffix -Idiov in words 
like xaXcodiop. 

The Suffix -{i)Siov. 225 

2, 90. toBQ-ta-diov = Orapwov. 1 Insc. Delos BCH. 6. 63. iWx^r^- 

/()/or 'that which is under the mixing-bowl,' its stand. Not a di- 
minutive, as is shown by Herod. 1. 25, avsS^xs . . . xfYfrtjpdt ts apy-jpeov 
piyav xa\ 6rcoxpY)TY]piBiov <7iBy)psov xoMttov. Ijzo-xQovv-idia' O-ixrta tt^ 
^apa kviHot; Hes. Closely related to these compounds, but really 
belonging to II., are substantivations from simple adjectives denoting 
position, e. g. rd evdoaMdia sc. tou yoipou, 'the interior parts of a 
pig,' Athen. 381 B. 

II. ' Belonging to" 1 or ' connected with.'' d7ro/.val6iov : olt/Augi^ 
a certain vessel or measure. FGrH. 133. 14 (343-344 A. D.), hxpfy* 
()£ ffOi xal a^oAjTiBiov oivou. ftagvdiov : papo?, (3ap$g, 'that which has 
to do with weight,' k a weight.' Hero Spir. 197. 2. ra ^EowTiSia 2 
' festivel of v Epo>£.' Athen. 561 E. t« @£oa7cv[aT]idia ' festival of 
Ospdbvr,. 1 Hes. #SQodiov : frspo?, ' domicilium aestivum.' Juliani epist. 
46 C. xecja/Jdiop : xecpaMj, 'a covering for the head' (cf. Lat. 
capitulum). Isid. Orig. 19. 31. 3; Poll. 2.42. xqzddiov : y.ziv.:. 
a pot which contains meat. Ar. Plut. 227. Cf. Schol. ad 1., xps- 
aBiov ty;v /ji'pav Tiysi sv 7] toc xpsoc sBovtocl Ivyyidiov : luyviov, A'j/- 
vo?, ' that which belongs to the lamp,' ' lamp-holder.' 3 Ar. and Crates 
ap. Poll. 10. 118 f., Hermipp. frg. 2. 411 (3). ixsTstoqidiov : Ta jj.s- 
Tswpa, ' that which has to do with things aloft,' ' a horoscope ' accord- 
ing to Grenfell and Hunt, Pap. Oxyr. 117, in a letter of the second 
or third cent. A. D., to sv tyj ^Xiob^r\ [xsTsojptBiov. nolxaQidiov : -o/.- 
Tdcpiov, a jar for cooking porridge. Galen, vol. 14. p. 422. 6, 469. 

17, TO TCOlTOCpLBlOV SV S S<|>£1? TO Y]BU0<7[J.0V. 7T QOO(07l IS I OV \ KpfowTOV 

(cf. rcpo<xc»wuC$), 'that which belongs to the face,' 'a mask.' Ar. ap. 
Poll. 10. 127. rafiueidwv : Tajusta, 'that which is connected with 
the office of pay-master,' 'the treasury.' Suid. %eiQldio>> : /sip (cf. 
Xstpi?), 'that which belongs to the hand,' 'a glove' for rubbing the 
body. Antyll. ap. Oribas. 1. 494. 10. 

Particularly noteworthy are several indefinite plurals in -toV; 
§ 87 ff.). rd aqxidia : ap/j], 'the parts belonging to the foundation,' 
i. e. the foundation. See Herwerden, Lex. Suppl. 8. v.. who rites a 
late inscription from Africa. xaUSta' svTspa. Ktfcpwi II-. The word 
is related to xoXov, the meaning being ' the regions of or parte belonging 

* If the -<o- is merely a suffix, the word, of course, does not belong here. 
Cf. Prellwitz 2 s. v. vne^cArj. 

2 Kaibel unnecessarily emends to 'Eqmldtn . 

3 Not a diminutive to I**** Cf. Ar. 1. C, X«« 0(^1 
xad-hvd' inl iov XvvviSiov. 

226 Chapter XX. 

to the intestines.' ra 7ivylSia : ^uyvj, ' the region of the buttocks 
Ar. Ach. 638, In axpwv twv 7wyiBi(ov IxaQ^a-frs. The plural is equi- 
valent to that of the primitive in Ar. Equ. 1368, YloXkoic, y (jizoHgtzoi^ 
%oyi6ioiGiy s^apio-co. %a axo'idia : oroa, ' the parts belonging to the 
colonnade.' Strab. 396, tou Bs tepoQ Ta plv crroiBia sysi mvaxas Qm>- 
{xaarous. The derivative has become completely equivalent to the 
primitive in the form o-tgh'Blov, Diog. Laert. 5. 51. 

III. Instrument nouns and names of tools which are equivalent 
to their primitives (§ 73). yQayeidiov = ypacpsTov, ' pencil.' Suid. ; 
Etym. Mag. 240. 16. dixrvfoov = Blxtuov, ' net.' Poll. 7. 179. dqavidiov 
= frpocviov : frpavos, ' bench,' ' stool ' (cf. (ntoMfrpiov). Ar. ap. Poll. 
10. 47; Etym. Mag. 454. 13. l/^azlSiop = i^octigv, 'cloak' etc. Ar. 
Lys. 401, 470, Plut. 985 ; Lys. ap. Poll. 7. 42. xXivtSiov = xlivr ly 
x^tvCg, 'couch.' Ar. Lys. 916. xXivtt^qIS/ov = x^ivT/jptov, xXivnljp, 
'couch.' Phot. Lex. 171. 12. fyyidiov = ££cpo$, 'sword.' Ar. Lys. 
53, otherwise diminutive. ^vaxriqiSiov = £u<mf)p, ' scraper.' Phryn. 
AB. 51. 6£vXa(ttdiov = 6%Aa(3Y), a kind of tongs, among the surgical 
instruments of Cod. Laur. 74. 2 ap. Herm. 38. 282. neXexvdiov per- 
haps = Kzkzxos, ' ax.' Only in Schneider, and so perhaps diminutive. 
axaXpldiov = crxafyios, the pin in which the Greek oar was fastened. 
Com. Anon. frg. 4. 696 (366). axayeidiov = (jxacpstov, ' a digging-tool.' 
Herodian Epim. 239. a^ivvdiov = quvuv), ' a two-pronged hoe or 
mattock.' Ar. ap. Poll. 7. 148. 

IV. ' Coming-from. 1 tivrfieldiov as if : Q>vyjo-L£ ' death,' ' that 
which comes from a dead body,' the skin of a beast that died. 
Philostr. 333, zG&r^x^oi . . . sx 6>vy)<7siBicov. xa%qvSiov : xa/pu?, ' that, 
which comes from the barley corn,' its husk. Arist. Probl. 20. 8. 
923b 11, 13. XifiavlSiov : >i(3avos, 'that which comes from the frankin- 
cense tree,' ' frankincense.' A conjecture of Bentley for iBiov, Men. 
frg. 4. 145(1). TaqavTivLSiov 'that which comes from Tarentum,' 
a kind of fine garment. Poll. 7. 76 ; Luc. D. Mer. 7. 2. <poivixtdiov : 
cpoTvi£, l that which comes from the palm,' ' a palm-leaf.' Insc. Delos 
Ditt 2 . 588. 200, %6(j\ko^ y^ixjouc, em cpotvixtBiou. 

To these words may be added a few others designating the young 
of animals, which are, however, at least with equal probability dimin- 
utives in origin (§ 95). s%lSiov : lyiq, ' a young viper.' Arist. H. A. 
5. 34. 558 a 29. lyftvdiov : tytkfe, 'a young fish.' Arist. H. A. 6. 14. 
568 b 10, 20. xvvldiov : xuwv, l a young dog.' Plato Euthyd. 298 D : 
Arist. Probl. 10. 12. 892 all. arjicldiov : cn)7uCa, 'a young cuttle-fish.' 
Arist. H. A. 5. 18. 550 a 16. 

The Suffix -(i)diov. 227 

V. 'Made o/,' 'consisting of dqyvqfdiov : dcpydpiov, apyupoc, 
•;i silver vessel.' Diph. frg. 4. 384 (3). * ^Xaqidmv « pijftdfcpiov = 
pipMov : j3(pXo?, 'book' (§ 101 C). Apocalyps. 10. 2. /fc/MMov = 
pipXCov : pcpXo?, ' book.' Antiphan. ap. Poll. 7. 211, p t pXtBCou xoMv^a. 
Insc. Rom. IGSI. 1072, £tui (3i(fts&ico[v]. 6bqqLSiov axiaBswv BspjidtTivov, 
Suid. ikafoov : sXaa, 'that which is made of the olive,' 'olive oil.' 
Sotad. frg. 3. 585 (1. 7), 586 (27) ; Archedic. frg. 4. 436 (1. 11). 
nQ&tfiov : Kpi&V), 'a decoction of barley.' Hipp. 580. naidiov = 
jrXCov : tuUoc, ' a felt cap.' Plato Resp. 3. 406 D (otherwise deterior- 
ative or diminutive), nwaxldiov = mvdcxiov, mvaxi? : mva£, ' a (board) 
tablet. 1 Arist. Mirab. 57. 834 b 12 ; CIA. 2. 766. 6. nv£Mtov = aogov : 
jw£os, 'a boxwood tablet.' Ar. ap. Poll. 4. 18; Insc. Delph. CB. 
2275. 17 (150-140 B. C). 

VI. Words designating an indeterminate mass, by analogy to the 
preceding group, among which cf. s^aBtov and xpifrtBiov. [ivqidiov = 
ppov, 'ointment.' Ar. ap. Poll. 10. 119. o&idwv = o^ (. £(7 . stem), 
' vinegar. 1 Suid. sub. 8|st; Pap. Berol. 417.31. 

VII. 'Generalizing' (§ 114ff.). %a fioidia : (SoSs, the members 
of the cattle tribe.' Plato Euthydem. 298 D, see § 366. V sub 
Kuvdcpia. l%i>vdiov : tyfrus, 'a kind of fish' etc. Theopomp. frg. 2. 812, 
Ta 7;sTpaTa tcov iypohitov. Xenarch. frg. 3. 622, ETt' alizijc, <*>v axpo; 
(jocpiav 'Ev xayoupoi? [xsv 8>£oT^ IfflpoXoi xai 'ryfruBioic sSpvjxa TravTo^a-a; 
Tsyva;. Arist. Mirab. 71. 835 b 5, sv 'IvBoT? . . . Eyfr'JBia cpa<n yiveo&ai 
a sv tco Hvjpw xXavaTai xai 7uaXiv arcoxpsysTai sfe tgv 7UOTa[x6v. id. H. A. 
9. 37. 622 a 2, Q^peusi . . . o5 pvov Ta [xixpa twv fyfroftCttv, aX?*a xxl 
xs<rrp£0C£ 7uo)Aaxi;. xaXwSiov (xaXwSiov) 'anything in the nature of 
a rope 1 : x£k<d$ 'funis nauticus' (cf. § 117). Primitive and deriv- 
ative are equally applicable to the nautic cables designated by the 
latter in CIA. 2. 807 a 63, 75, 142, 159 (330 B. C.) ; ib. 2. 812 a8 1 
(ab. 323B. C); Poll. 1. 93. The derivative alone could be used in 
the remaining examples : Ar. Vesp. 379, 'AXV £&fc|>as Bia ty 

to xaXoiBiov ska xafri[xa AVjcra? crainrov. Eupol. frg. i J . 566 I 18), Ed N 
toc xa)i<5ia TaSfr' apxuupsi. Thuc. 4. 26. 8, £<r£veov & xoctoc t6v ^va 
xoXu[xpY)Tai ucpuBpoi, xaTuoBiw sv acrxoT? fy&xovires [j.r>ova ^{JxXtTtojjiv^v. 
Arist. Mech. 18. 853a34. xa xvvldta : xtfov, probably 'the members 
of the dog tribe' in Xen. Oec. 13. 8, tlmu-li it mighl be taken as a 
deteriorative : xai Ta xuviBia ft tcoX& tg>v *v&p<fo»v Kod t$ y^M * al *? 
yXwTTYj Ovroosscnrspa ovira 6(j.w? xai rceptTpfyttv xai xopurr&v xa\ <XUa ttoXU 

i The passage implies contempt (see § 166 sub btn 
have been associated with -«JVc*> in addition to the arterial idea. 

228 Chapter XX. 

{xavfrdcvsi. iia%cuQidiov : ^ayaiptov, px/aipa. Luc. Pise. 45, (j.a/aip&tov 
frtmxov 'the sort of dagger used for sacrifice.' nxvidiov : tutuov, 
' a short of winnowing shovel,' perhaps with the implication k not 
a real one.' Schol. Ar. Av. 1250, 6 Bs OTOytoysu?, &c, tivsc, <7iBY]potiv 
Tt olov TCTut'Btov, w ypw^Tat ol xoviocTai. t« yoiQidia : /oTpo?, ' the 
members of the pig tribe.' Plato Euthydem. 2981), see § 366. V 
sub. xuvapiov. 

VIII. Words ivhich are equivalent to their primitives^ including 
those originally 'specializing' (§ 122) (excluding those of III and 

A. Vases, vessels, boxes, etc. dyyelSiov = ayysTov, 'a vessel,' 'jar.' 
Poll. 10. 30. <x[j<(j:oQ6idiov = dep/popsu?. Ar. Pax. 202, Eccl. 1119, toc 
Solgi a[xcpop£iBia. ttoeidiov, SvelStov = Ck>£ia, 'mortar.' Hes., froEiBta* 
tyBia. Ku7:ptot. Ar. Plut. 710, TiOwov O^uslBiov Ilaps^xs xat BoiBuxa 
xod xt(3amov. XexaviSiov = Isxaviov, XsxavY], ' dish,' ' pan.' Poll. 10. 84. 
xoixldiov — xoitis, xoity], 'box,' 'casket.' Schol. Luc. Gall. 21. 
lovxriQldiov ==s "XouTYipiov, ' wash-tub.' Schol. Luc. Lex. 3, ayysTov ti 

7vOUT7]ptBtW loiXO? 7uX9jpS£ 8BaT0£ STlO'STO, O^UpdtCptOV X£VWV STUlxXsOVTCOV, 

arcsp 3jv xaTaBusiv tocT? . . . XaTa^iv. olvoyoidiov = oivo/6o?, ' can for 
ladling wine.' CIA. 2. 778 C 11 (350-300 B. C). 'noxrftifrov = 
7uoT/)piov, ' drinking-cup.' Men. frg. 4. 74 (4) ; CIA. 2. 836 c— k 86 
(270-262 B. C). nQoyoldiov (xpoxotBtov CIA. 2. 778 C 11) - 7up6xoo$, 
'a jug for pouring.' Cratin. frg. 2. 127 (16); Stratt. frg. 2. 771(1); 
Insc. Delos Mich. 833. 18. rcooyovdiov = zpoyouc, — 7cp6)(oo$. Etym. 
Mag. 563. 39. Gnovdoypidiov (cf. oivo/oiBigv) 'a vessel for pouring 
libations.' Insc. Delos Ditt 2 . 588. 206. vdqidiov = 6Bpta, 'a water 
pot.' CIA. 4. 700 B. 31, 36. yoldiov (Insc. Delos BCH. 1882 p. 117) 
is probably an abbreviation of some word like xpo/otBtov. Cf. j3dccptov 
(Hes. s. v.) for 6£uf3ric<ptov. %vtq16iov = pxpis, x^pa. Ar. Ach. 1175. 

B. Articles of dress and ornament, djuyideidiov = a^cpi^soc ' brace- 
let.' CIA. 2. 698 II 25 (350 B. C). xgoxcoxidiov = xpoxc&mov, 
xpoxojTO?, ' a saffron-colored frock.' Ar. Eccl. 332, Lys. 47. ykdvdiov 
— x^avtBtov, ylcwis, 'mantle.' The feeling of equivalence for -Biov 
and -tBiov caused the former to take the place of the latter in yXccvi- 
Btov even though there is no *y(k<x,w\ to which ylocv-ibiov could be refer- 
red, and y'k&v'hiov is thus without direct primitive. Insc. Teos ap. 
Hoffmann Gr. Dial. 3. 106. 16 (370-350 B. C.) ; Insc. Samos ib. 
169. 30 (346-345 B. C). 

C. Miscellaneous (mostly by congeneric attraction). fiaXavvidiov = 
(3aX(X)avTiov ' purse.' The general feeling of equivalence of -Btov and 

The Suffix -(i)diov. 229 

-i&tov caused the latter to take the place of the former even though 
DO definite meaning could have been connected with it in (SaXXavTiov, 
which is without known primitive. Eupol. ap. Poll. 10. 151. you^i- 
lua tidiov = ypa^ocTsTov, 'tablet' (cf. (3i(ftiBiov, mvaxiBiov, and ttjHBigv 
sub V). Men. frg. 4. 166 (7). xooldiov : x6pv], ' maiden,' ' girl.' Con- 
demned as zuzzlis by Phrynichus 73, but frequently used in inscriptions 
from Delphi. That it is probably ' specializing,' i. e. adjectival, in origin 
can be seen from collocations like <j&[m YuvautsTov xopi£tov(CB. 1699. 5), 
though it is not impossible that this is due to the analogy of g&\>.x 
xopcwjtov (§ 377), which is certainly an adjectival phrase. In this 
case xopftkov would have to be explained as a faded hypocorism or 
a diminutive referring to a class, xqavvdiov = xpocvoc, ' helmet,' by 
analogy fco articles of dress, e. g. tu&lBiov. CIA. 2. 678 B 4, 69 
(378—366 B. C). xwdiov — xwa? 'fleece,' and has taken the place 
of the latter in Attic prose and comedy, evidently because the word 
was thus brought into the favorite declension and uncouth forms like 
the genitive xoko? were thus avoided. As to its origin, it may have 
been ' specializing, 1 in which case some generic idea like <rrp$[xa was 
taken up by the original adjective ; or else it followed some word 
like the faded diminutive /apxtjviov 'bed on the ground' (§ 208 H). 
xwfciov occurs Ar. Ban. 1478, Pax 1122, 1124, Equ. 400, Thesm. 
1180, Plut. 166; Phil. frg. 4. 10; Plato Protag. 315 D; Arist. H. A. 
8. 10. 596b 8; in the form xcoiBiov Insc. Halicarnas. Ditt 2 . 641. 146. 
TiriQidiov — 7:Y)pa, ' wallet,' probably following (3odavTiBiov (above). Ar. 
ap. Poll. 10. 172. avUiov = crSc, 'pig,' in Marc. Anton. 10. 10. Like 
others of his 'diminutives' it is probably a translation of a faded 
Latin diminutive, in this case porcellus. xaividiov = Toeivta ' fillet,' 
'strip of linen,' probably following articles of dress and ornament, 
though it might be a diminutive referring to a class. Hipp. 388; 
CIA. 2. 835 c— 1 70 (320-317 B. C), 2. 766. 16; Insc. Delos. Ditt*. 
588. 20, ap. Mich. 833. 51, 119. Ta&ldu>v = toffe, 'a Bquadron of 
soldiers,' for obscure reasons. Agath. Diaconus de Actis VI Synodi : 
Anon. Combefis. in Porphyrog. n. 29; Suid. 

IX. 'Like, but not equivalent to the primitive: (hrqvdtw 
'an ear-ring like a grape.' Com. ap. Poll. 6. 97. ytomUM* 
'that which has the nature of Bweetness,' 'something Bwe< 
Y^xdcBiov, § 324. VIII). Pap. IVrol. 1 17. s (in b letter ol the 
2d or 3d century A. D.) ; Theodos. 65. 29. taMQvSw ' thai 

which is like tears,' a kind of scammony, because i( emita a thud 
from its roots when they are cut. Late medical Wli1 

230 Chapter XX. 

?<*>ov, ' that which is like an animal,' originally ' a figure of an animal,' 
but generalized so as to designate any painted, carved, or embroidered 
figures. Thus it is used of figures upon a bronze xpaxYjp in Herod. 
1. 70, of woven figures Arist. Mirab. 96. 838 a 22, of figures carved 
upon stone id. ib. 134. 844 a 16. The word is also used of metal 
and wooden figures in inscriptions : CIA. 2. 678 B 59 (378-366 B. C), 
?coBta x«[»& ib - 714 - 24 ( 330 B - 0.), ?*>Bia §5Xi[va. Insc. Delos 
Mich. 833. 11, £coiBta apyupa Buo. Since £coBiov was used of the 
signs of the zodiac (Arist. Metaphys. 11. 1073 b 20, Meteorol. 1. 6. 
343 a 24) and once of figures sixteen ells long (Diod. Sic. 1. 47, 
67UY]psT(7£ktt B' avTi twv xiovojv £coBia 7i^swv sxxaiBsxa [j.ov6Xi8^a), no di- 
minutive force could have been felt in it. ^eaxqldiov : frsaTpov, 
' that which is like a (little) theater,' ' a bird cage.' Varro RR, 3. 
5. 13, theatridion avium. Innidiov : tju7uos, that which is like a horse,' 
a kind of fish. Epich. frg. 44 (ap. A then. 304 E.). TivQrjviSior : 
TuupYjv, 'that which is like a kernel,' fc a button,' 'knob,' etc. (cf. xu- 
pYjviov). Pap. Berol. 781 III 8, rcoipYjvtBiois (cf. Herwerden App. Lex. 
Suppl. sub. BioCTYJytov). czoQiridiov : oxopmo?, ' that which is like a 
scorpion,' an engine of war for discharging arrows. Polyb. 8. 7. 
6; LXX I Mace. 6. 51. 

A special group of words in -iBiov is composed of those designat- 
ing an image or likeness, which, since usually smaller than the object 
represented, are largely on the border line between this class and the 
diminutives, jiotdiov : (3ous, ' an image of a cow.' Insc. Att. Ditt 2 . 
586. 54 (beg. of 4th cent. B. C), (3o?Btov sXscpdcvTtvfov. Ps. Plato 
Epigr. 21. 3; Ps. Anacr. 115, 116; Ps. Simon. Ceos 178. 'Eqiildiov 
'an image of Hermes.' Ar. Pax 924. xovgidwr i. e. xcopiBiov : xwpos, 
' an image of the youth ' Apollo. Hes. sub xoupiBtov, Aaxcovs? Bs xou- 
piBtov xaXoUa-t [t6v 7uap' aftiroTs] TSTpdfystpov 'AtuoXXowoc. vixidiov : 
vtxY), 'an image of victory.' CIA. 2. 766. 15, 4. 845c 3. Iffvdtw : 
ocpt?, 'an image of a serpent,' CIA. 2. 766. 16 (340-337 B.C.), 
722 A 17 (319 B. C), 835 c-1 6, 52, 62 (320-317 B. C.) ; Insc. 
Delos Mich. 833. 50. 

X. Deteriorate es. A. Referring to an individual as compared 
to its class, dqxidiov : ap/vj 'office.' Dem. 18. 261, su&sco? to xaX- 
^tcrov s£s)i5 w ™v spyow (sc. toO Ai<7/ivou), ypoc|i|X(rususiv xoci 67UY)psTS?v 
to?S ap/iBiot?. dixidiov : Bba] ' trial.' Ar. Equ. 347, EI tuoo BduBiov 
stjuoc^ s5 xaTa ^svou [xstoixou, . . . v Qiou Buvoctos stvoa Xsysiv. Sv^iidiov: 
frup; ' anger.' Ar. Vesp. 878, IlaSa-ov t oc5t:ou touto to Xiav arpuepvov 
xai 7upivivov YJfros, 'Avti o-tpaiou [liXixo? pxpov iw frup-iBito 7uapa[ii£ac. £/- 

The Suffix -(i)diov. 23i 

O^or:lyb^ 'fish.' Ar. frg. 2. 1108 (1. 8), Kai tf *spi^vsiv % 
*Yop«< i/>oia Tpiiraia, rcoXuTCppra, ^adav^sva 'Etu' fy&uow&ou ysipl 
JcapavofxcoT^. xodidtop : xoiXia < belly.' Strabo 675. *^«<W : J** 
• meat/ Cephisod. frg. 2. 885, see § 161 sub Tapi X iov. Alexis 
Erg. 3. 466 (4. 2), f H^07u™ fxsv Ta xpsaoi' lor(. xwldw : x-jow ' dog.' 
Ar. frg. 2. 1030 (12) (a corrupt passage variously emended, cf. Meineke 
ad Loc.> xupidiov : xw[3i6 ? (kind of fish). Arist. frg. 292. 1529 a 4, 
YtveTCtt o 5 a-jTY) sx twv pxpffiv xai <paMwv . . . xo>{3iBicov. /o^<W: Aoyo:: 
1 argument/ Isocr. 13. 20, Toiatka Xoyioia Bis?i6v-ss, o% d t^ id 4v 
^pa';s(ov Sjxpiveiev, s5Q>o; av sv Tuacriv siy] xaxoTc. ^v^Ldiov : pfro? ' story.' 
Luc. Philops. 2, xavu aMoxo^a xai Tspaaw pfrioia xaiowv 6o/a; 
xyjIsTv Buva|j.sva sti tyjv Mop(xw xai ty]v Aajxtav osoiotwv. olxidiov : 
olxia, olxo? ' house. 1 Plato Eryx. 394 D, sv (jpxpw xai cpaMw olxt- 
Buo. §rpldwv : pvjcris ' speech.' Cyrill. Al. in Micheae c. 7 p. 456, 

A-J^SCplXTOV XOJJ.lB?) TO pY)<7lBlOV. 

B. Eeferring to a class, alyidiov : vx\ ' goat.' Pherecr. frg. 2. 
264(7), f/ <.2crxsp twv aiyiBiwv 1 o£siv sx too <7T0[AaT0$ [j.sXixY)pa£. a^u- 
^'(W : apyuptov, apyjpo? ' silver,' ' money.' Ar. Av. 1622, T)Tav Bia- 
ptO>[jiov apyupiBiov tu/Y) f Av^po)xo? o6to£, . . . KaTarcrajJisvos bti£vo$ avap- 
xaa-a? XaQ>pa, IIpopaTotv BuoTv Tipjv avoio-si t6> (kw. Isocr. 13. 4, xai 
TiyouG-i [xev (sc. oi crocpiarai) w? ouBsv Bsovcm ypv)[j.aTcov, apyopiBiov xai 
/puaiBiov t6v tuIoutov a7uoxaXouvir£^. Yqqdiov : ypaUs ' old woman.' Ar. 
Eccl. 949, 'E|Y)7waTY]0"a to xaxapaxov ypaBiov. id. ib. 1000, fcapaapov&g, 
to ypaBiov. id. Plut. 536, Z6 yap av 7uopt<7ai ti B'jvai' ayaO-ov, jcX^v 
cptoBtov sx j3alavsioi>, Kai rcaiBapiojv 6xo7usivc6vtojv xai ypaiBttov xoXog-jctov ; 
Dem. 18. 260, Toiau^' uizb ypaBiow 7upo<7ayopso6u.svo£. yvpvaolfow : 
yopacriov ' gymnastic school.' Epict. 2. 16. 29, ti xpsiTTcov si toO 
Bta xopacriov x),aovi:o^, si Bta yupaciBiov xai oronBia xai vsavisxapia 
xai Toia'JTY]v Btairpij3Y)v tcsvO^sT? ; hcuqidiov : iTOtpfe, sraipa 'courtezan.' 
Plut. 2. 808 E, sTaipiBioi?, oo (7TpaTY)yoT? wplirov sttiv. toqancuvldiWi 
frsparcaivis, O-spowuatva 'servant.' Plut. Anton. 29, (TUVYjXue, Ospa-aivi- 
Biou (ttoXy]v Xa^pa'vouo-a. xoqacidiov : xopowtov • maiden. ' Epict l. 18. 
22, av apyupiBtov ::po(3a^, xaTacppovYJTsi. t( gov av xopacriBiov ; M^eodioy ! 
xpsas 'meat.' Xen. Cyr. 1. 4. 13, /apisv yap, tyv), s? I toMuv 

t^ 8>uya^p\ tov TuaTBa aTuopouxo^craip. mq$&IA*W ' barley. 1 

Luc. Asin. 46, toT? ;:apaxsi[jivoi? xptOaBioi: [J.axpa /v 
osldtov : XT9j<n5 'property.' Epict. 1. i. 10, !A 
'Ettixtt^s, si olov ts Yjv, xai to <70)[xaTiov av crou /v tsCBiov lm 

1 Cf., however, Meineke ad loc. 

232 Chapter XX. 

Heufrspov xat dbuapaxoBiaTov. avvidiov : xoo>v, ' dog.' Ar. Pax. 482, 
rXia^poTonra aapxa^ovTS^ &Gizzp xovtBta. id. ib. 641, ETt' av 6p.s?£ 
toutov t6<77tep xuvtBt' laTuapaVrcTs. Eupol. frg. 2. 511, Zopaxoc-to? B' 
sotxsv, ^vtx' av ^syf), ToT? xuvtBtotat toTctiv sm tSv Tstytow * 5 Ava[3a£ yap 
sVt to j39jjjl' 61axTst xspiTps/tov. Arist. Rhet. 3. 4. 1406 b 28, otj.oio? 
toXc, lx twv Bso"|xa>v xuvtBtot^. Ae'geidtov : Xihc, 'speech.' Epict. 2. 1. 
30. ovidiov : ovo? 'ass.' Ar. Vesp. 1306, 5 Evy)Xoct 5 , soxtpTa, 7U£7uopBsi, 
xaTsysXa, f/ Q<77usp xa^puow ovtBtov stkov^jjivov. naXlaxldiov : TtaXXoextg, 
xaX^axy] ' concubiue.' Plut. 2. 789 B, 7uaXXaxtBtov avTt t?j£ yaixsTr^ 
emaTua'a-ao-frat. Tnqqidiov : 7UYjpa ' wallet.' Ar. Nub. 923, 'Ex 77/]ptBtoo 
Tv(6[jia£ Tpcoytov IIavBs).sT£too£. ni'lidiov : %ikiov, izXXoc, ' felt cap.' Dem. 
19. 255, xav 7ut)aBiov la[3wv 7uspt tyjv xscpaXvjv TuspivoarYfe xat s(j.o\ }.oiBop"?i. 
Ttoqvidiov : 7u6pvv) ' harlot.' Ar. Nub. 997, tva [J.Y] 7up6c TauTa xe/;/]vwc, 
MyjXw pXYjfrst? 5x6 xopvtBtoo, tyj? sux^sta? dwuofrpaixjQTfe. id. Ran. 1301 ; 
Antiphan. frg. 3. 156(71); Men. frg. 4. 223(2)'; Com. Anon. frg. 
4. 601 (6. 3), TuopviBiw TpuyafrXiw c EauTov o5tw rcapaBsBcoxsv. nvQyidiov : 
7udpyos ' tower.' Ar. Equ. 793, toutov 6pwv oixouvt' sv TaT? mfra'xvatcrt 
Kat yu7uaptot£ xai 7uupytBtot£ Iro? oyBoov oux IXsaipstg. tirpildiov : 07)ma 
' cuttle-fish.' Alexis frg. 3. 455, see § 166 sub TptyJBtov. axryl- 
diov : (7xy]vy) ' tent.' Time. 6. 37. 2, <ru"p<xT07u£Bft> ts sx vsaw tBpu^svTt 
xat sx crxiqviBtcov xat avayxata^ Tuapaaxsur^. avtdiov : guc, ' pig.' Etym. 
Mag. 349. 29, npo(3aTtot£ xat o-otBtots opXwv, out' av ty]v <|>U)$v (3sX- 
ticov sysvsTO. v&oi> : be, 'pig.' Xen. Mem. 1. 2. 30, smfropW Eu- 
^uByj^co 7upo<7xv9jo-Q>ai Scrap Ta oBta toT? 7ifrot£. t^/o^ : uio's ' son.' 
Ar. Vesp. 1356, To yap otBtov TY]psT p.s, xacTt ?!>6<7xo'kov. 

C. ' Merely,' ' nothing but,' etc. yQqdm ' merely old women.' 
Xen. An. 6. 3. 22, see § 167 sub yspovTtov. 

D. A faded deteriorative probably is yqqdiov in the following pas- 
sages : Ar. Plut. 674, 'O^tyov arccofrsv t% xscpaXvfe too ypaBtoo. ib. 688, 
To ypaBtov B' o)£ yjc^sto rao [xou t6v 'j>6cpov, Tyjv ystp' 6rap?jps. The 
word passed through the same development as yspovTtov (§ 165). 

XI. Diminutives. (1) Referring to an individual as compared to 
a class. The letters of the subdivisions here and under 2) correspond 
to those used under simple -tov, except that words in which the suffix 
means 'dainty' rather than 'small' (§ 193 ff.) are all grouped 
under the hypocoristic use. A. fiaaiXeidiov : (3ac"t^so£, ' a small king,' 
not (like the Latin regulus) ' a petty king.' Plut. Ages. 2, tov 
'Ap^tBajxov s£/)[xttoo-av 61 ecpopot yrj^avTa yovaTxa pxpaV "05 yap (jaov 
Xstc," scpacav " a[j.[xtv, a^Xa (3ao-tX£tBia ysvva'o-st." 2xv{Hdtov : Hxufrv)? 'a 
Scythian.' Anna Oomn. p. 394 C, ytyavTa . . . 6tu6 7:uy[j.atoo xaTacr/s^vTa 

The Suffix -(i)diov. 233. 

Ix-jlhBiou. B. a9>v<W : &pfr] 'anchovy or sardine.' Ar. frg. 2. 
L162 (10) probably combined with the idea of deliciousness)T t* 
$aXiqpttt$ Ta [xtxpa TaV acpuBia. 0omW : (3ol»s ' cow.' Arist. H. A. 
3. 21. 522 b 14, |3otBia pxpa, &v sxaaTov (fcaMsrat ya'Xa w>M. 0cw- 
<?/or : poO;. Hermipp. frg. 2. 393 (1) (combined with contempt), 01 
Y&p JWv4|UV0i 'AvaV/jpa <70t &tSouoiv y]By) (SooBia, AscoTpocp&ou As-tots:* 
xai Oou^avTtBo?. Vriqidiov : Q^piov ' animal.' Theophr. H. P. 2. 8. 3, 
syytvsTai yap xai sv toutoi? &Y)pflw' aTTa. lytivdiov : lyj>6c ' fish.* 
Alexis frg. 3. 429 (1. 5), tyfruBicov Mtxpfiv. Arist. H. A. 5. 16. 548 a 30, 
fypetioom t<x i/frtJBia Ta p.txpa. ib. 6. 15. 569 a 20, lypfoin pxxpA *)Xbta 
£<|«)to(. xQldtw 6 pxp6? xpioc, Hes. wW<W : xtkov 'dog.' Arist, 
Probl. 10. 12. 892 a 21, sviou? iBsTv son |j.ixpous p. v sv <j<p6Bpa, aup(i£tpou$ 
Bs, (ocTisp Ta MsXiTaTa xuviBia. xu/SfAW, see sub X. A. d<feidiov : 
ocpL? ' serpent.' Arist. H. A. 8. 29. 607 a 30, 33, tvn U ti tyefficov 
[uxp6v, 6 xa>,o3a-i tivs? ispov, 6 oE toxvu jjisyaXoi ocpstc tpsuyotxrtv. Strabo 
706, Ta XsxTa ocpsiBia. It is impossible to decide whether the word 
is diminutive or 'generalizing* in passages like Arist. H. A. 4. 29. 
607 a 24, yivsTai Bs xat sv tw (TtXcpto) ti ocpstBtov. dipaqidtov : o6aciov 
' fish.' Geopon. 20. 46, IsxTa o^aptBta. oiaXldwv : a-ia^o? ' fat hog.' 
Insc. Cos Ditt 2 . 621, G'Ustco . . . alya . . . xat a-(t)aX(a)tBta. C. k€- 
Qatdiov : xspa? ' horn.' CIA. 2. 826. 22 (precise force doubtful). 
oQx(s)idiov : opyic, ' testicle.' Diosc. 3. 142, pt£a Bs teartv opy/.Btoi; 
6{JioCa. Cf. Suid. sub op/stc, xat opystBtov. 67coxopw*U)tdv. dty wfooy : 
occpu? 'hip.' Precise force uncertain, only Theognost. Can. 125. 10. 
XeiQidiov : /sip, ' a little (image of a) haud.' CIA. 2. 836 c-k (270- 
262 B. 0.), [/stJptBtov xatBtxov. D. eladiov : i^aa ' olive tree.' Alciphr. 
3. 13, ItaeBia s^cpuTsustv. nnvdiov : izituc, 'pine-tree.' Only Theognoet 
Can. 125. 9, precise force therefore uncertain. nqtvUkw : x\ 
Ar. Av. 615, IIptoTOv fiiv y ou^t vsw? r^a? OtxoBo|Jxtv Bs? >*&Cvoo$ y. 
. . . 'AH' 6x6 fra'pot? xa v t rcptvtBtot$ Otxr^oixrtv. toTc B' a5 a«|JLVGffig 
dpvtfrcov BsvBpov lloiou; f O vsw? s<7Tat (The olive trees are contra 
with. the shrubbery with which the lesser gods among the birds will 
be content, cf. Koch ad L). avxidiov : crux?] 'fig-tree.' Ar. Pta 597, 
see § 195 sub apusXtov. E. dyqidiov : aypo? • field." Bpict, 2. 2, 
17, Tuspt ayptBtou 7upayfj.aTiov s/wv. Marc. Anton. 4. 3, pip 
&7uo/MpV)<rstos ty]? si? TOUTQ to ayptBtov iouroO. Hes., aypi.v 
//opiov, [xapa AIto^oT?]. xQ^vldtop ; xpiqvY) ' Bpring.' A risi . Mirab. I 1 7. 
841b 10, xpv)vffit6v Tt pxpov. vrjaidtw : virjcrt n.uc 

6. 2. 6, wxouv Bs xat OoCvixs? rcepl wfioav [J.sv ty ( v Smt' 
S7u\ t^ O-alaWfi iiuoXap6vTS€ xal Ta ImtCpfva vtjoC^WC id. 

234 Chapter XX. 

8. 11. 1 ; Arist. Mirab. 26. 832 a 24, sv tivi fouspxeipivcp . . . vyjO-iBuo. 
TTrjyvdiov y] pxpa 7CY]yYj, Suid. nokidiov : izofoq 'city.' Strabo 344, 
Ilpo? apxxov B' ojjiopa 3jv tw IMXcp Buo 7uo^iBia TpuptAixa, Txava [xsv xa\ 
Tu(X7uavsat. Cf. 7uoX£iBiov. Etym. Mag. 147. 22. Qoeldiov : poo? ' stream ' 
(see § 302 end). IGSI. 352 I 27. ywqldiov : /o)piov, /wpos, /wpa 
'land,' 'place.' etc. Lys. 19. 28, yvj [jlv o5x vjv aXX' yj y/opiBiov 
[xixpov 'PajjivouvTt. Cf. //opsiBtov Insc. Boeot. Ditt 2 . 740. 8. F. dvdqi- 
avuov : avBpia's 'statue.' Insc. Delos Ditt 2 . 588. 167, 171. Timidiov 
(cf. Tumov) : tutuo? ' image.' CIA. 2. 835 c-1 73, 87 (320-317 B. C), 
TU7u[i]Bia £7u\ (raviBiou Buo. G. daxldiov : deaxiov, arrxo? 'bag.' Ar. 
Eccl. 306, YJxsv sxocoros sv aoxiBiw cpepo)v IltsTv aixa t' apxov ocoov xat 
Buo xpo[ip.uco Kat TpsT? av zkolocq. xqaxviQidiov : xpaTvfpiov, xpocnfjp ' mix- 
ing-bowl.' Joseph. A. J. 3. 6. 7, a-cpaipia xai xpiva cruv po'ia-xot? xat 
xpaTY)piBioi£. xvpftLdiov : xu|xj3iov, xujjlPoc, x'Jjjl(3y) ' cup.' CIA. 2. 835 
c-1 88, [x]u[x(3iBtov [uxp[6v. juvaxidiov : mvaxtov, ttivoc^ ' trencher.' 
Hipp. 1199, sx ffjxtxpoO mvaxiBiou. %vtqidiov : p T pfe X^ T P a 'P°t-' 
CIA. 2. add. 682 c 10, yuxpiBia [iixpoc. ipvxTTjQidiov : <]>uxTYJpiov, (jiuxTtjp 
' wine-cooler.' Alexis frg. 3. 383 (2. 7), <|>uxTY]pCBiov Be (sc. %s) Bex' 
6(3oXous, Oi^XirciBoo AsTTTOTspov. H. agividiov : a^ivY] ' ax.' Joseph. 
B. J. 2. 8. 9. Sk/qISiop : Bicppos 'seat.' Etym. Mag. 718, 44, twv 
jjLixpwv BicppiBicov. doqvdiov : B6pi> ' spear- shaft.' Oribas. p. 161. 18 
(ed. Cocch.), AopuBtov to tou TucpXayxiorpou (a surgical instrument). 
l^avrldiov : {[xoic, 'strap.' Etym. Mag. 671. 9, [xtxpov tp.avTiBtov. xlv- 
GiriQLdiov : xXuo-TYjpiov, xXiKmfjp ' clyster-pipe.' Paul. Aeg. p. 79. 
19, iyxXu^oftw Ta oi^a Bta xXuaTY]piBiou. 'gK/idiov.fyyoc, 'sword.' 
Thuc. 3. 22. 3, fyiXoi BcaBsxa H>v <*i<piBia>. id. 8. 69. 4, [xstoc 'JicptBtou 
acpavou? exa<TT0£. Xen. Hell. 2. 3. 23, <£up£Bia 67uo (xocXyjs s^ovto£. id. 
ib. 5. 4. 3, <£icpiBia Iyovt-oc? xai aXXo otuXov o5Bsv. tt€AtISiop : toXty) 
' shield.' Schol. Luc. D. Mort. 14. 2, raVc-iBta, . . . pxpa ao-TutBicrxta. 
GVQiyyidiov (cf. aupiyytov) : <njpty'£ 'pipe.' Hero Spir. 170 A. I. toa- 
axriQidiov : Bixao-TYjptov ' court room.' Ar. Vesp. 803, Kav toT? T^po- 
0>upot? £voixoBo|xyjg-oi izotc, avY]p Autw BtxaorYjpiBtov pxpov tuocvu. xaXidiov : 
xalta ' hut.' Eupol. frg. 2. 442 (5), OlxoOoi B' IvfraB' lv Tptcrlv xa^i- 
Bioi?. vatdiop : vao? ' temple.' Polyb. 6. 53. 4, TiQ^acn tt]v £txova tou 
jjisTaXXoc^avTO^ £i? tov £7uicpav£0-TaT0v -zokov tyj^ olxia?, 5^ lva vaiBta 
7U£ptTi9 > £VT£?. Strabo 379, y) [j.£v o5v xopu(pv] vatBiov £)(£t 'AcppoBi^r^. 
olxidiov : oixia etc. ' house.' Ar. Nub. 92, f Opa$ to S^uptov tolJto xal 
TwxiBtov ; Isae. 2. 35, oixtBtov o £(7Ttv oox a^iov Tpiwv [xvwv. id. 5. 
22: Dem. 57. 65, 59. 39; Plato ,Eryx. 394 D (see sub X. A). 
tfxa<pidiov : oxacpt?, cxacpv) ' boat.' Polyb. 34. 3. 2, axo7uo? yap S<ps<mr)xs 

The Suffix -{i)diov. 235 

Sjcootov o-xa- 

xotvd; &<pop|xo0<nv £v Bixwtuoi? crxa<piBioi£ tuoXXoTs, B-jo xa$ 
oiBiov. i rm,/<W : Tuppi? < tower.' IGSI. 352. II. 65, 77. J. ffc/Jjtf- 
<W : pipXCov, pcp^os ' book.' Dem. 56. 1, Xa(3(bv yap ip^pwv tpavspto 
xai 6pXoYOt5pvov, £v ypa W J.aT£iBiG> BuoTv y^xoTv iwvr^jivo) xai (^BCco 
p.ixp$ rcavu ty;v 6pXoyiav xaTaTiXotra tou tuoiyjcteiv Ta Bixaia. j^«^'- 
yan /(),(»' : Ypa^axsTov ' tablet,' see preceding. rqa^iaTidiov : YPW* 
' letter. 1 Etym. Mag. 241. 6. ywidwv : ywvia ' corner.' Luc. Xecyom. 
17, llzi/J>r\ B£ pi (sc. $ai7U7uo? 6 MaxsBwv) sv ytoviBico tivi [uafroS 
axoupvo? Ta <7a:upa toW OxoBY^aW. Marc. Anton. 3. 10, p.ixp6v Be 
to tyjc y% yomBiov, 6%ou £ei. defyddwr : B£<7p] ' bundle.' Diosc. 
Parab. 2. 64, xpuo-ox6[r^ Bs^iBtov. Matth. Med. p. 84, v Iwv BsdpBta. 
foSidiov : X(&o$, ' a little stone,' i. e. ' pebble.' The diminutive origin 
was forgotten occasionally, as is shown by Arist, Probl. 23. 29. 
934 b 22, Y] B v s 7uopp(o (sc. yvj) £y]pa' T£ ouo-a Bii<7TaTai, xai Ix [ji£i£6vo)v 
£ori Xt&iBuov xai avsBacpi(7To?. In Plato Phaedo 110 D Xi&tBia are 
'jewels. 1 xezQidiov : TzzTpx 'rock.' Arist. frg. 317. 1531 b 40, twv 
TOTpiBuov wo-Tusp apwpa? TaT^ xpo(3oo-xi<7i Xajxpa'vouo-ai (sc. at avpcCai) 
6p[j.oSo-i. aT7]lidior : <7ty)Xy] 'grave-stone.' Theophr. Char. 21. xovapCou 
. . . TsXs'JTYjrravTO? auTco pr^a 7uoiYJo-ai xai otyjXiBiov TSA'f t r>y.c £~iypa6ai. 
Hes., arvjXiBia * Ta Ts8>£|Jtivoi opoi. (fdvxTaividiov : cpXuxTaivir, yX&craiva 
' blister. 1 Hipp. 985, cpXuxTaiviBia [xsXava. xXanaxldtor : /AaviTxiov : 
yXavi? ' cloak.' Ar. Pax 1002, yXavKTxiBicov [xcxpffiv. K. dqyvoidiov \ y.z- 
yupiov, ' a small sum of money.' Ar. Plut. 147, v Ey(oys toi Bia |uxp&v ->.:- 
yupiBiov AoQXo? ysysvY][iai. yijdiov : yvj, 'a little piece of land, 1 i. e. 'a {arm/ 
Ar. Pax 570, Tpiaivouv tyj BixsTAy] ... to yv)Biov. id. frg. 2. 1108 (1.2); 
Xen. Cyr. 8. 3. 38, xai p.ala [iixpov yvfBiov, o5 pivrot rcovijpdv ys, a)//.a 
Tuavrwv BixaioTaTov. Arist. Pol. 6.5. 1320 a 39, £i ti? By/arai roadD- 
tov afrpoi^cov oo-ov si? yvjBiou xtyjctiv. faiddiov : £o>[j.6c, 'a little bit 
of soup. 1 Ar. Nub. 389, Xwarap j3povr*) to ^jjl^iov nxxtrfit xod 
x£xpay£v. aaqyJdiov (cf. o-apxiov) : <rap|, ' a little piece of flesh.' A rial . 
Gen. An. 2. 7. 746 a 20, XsyovTS? Tpscpsfffrai t<x xatBia . . Bia to'S ntpxffitdv 
ti (3Ba'XX£iv. id. frg. 315. 1531 b 9, Tpo<pfl Bs /py-ai (sc. 6 rofcfoot*) 
so-tiv ots xai toT? twv Koyyuliow crapxiBioir. KQ*$ld«>V : xptH 'a little 
barley.' Luc. Asin. 3, <*7r/jst[xev Vvotoixsvoi Bovt 
si- tov kxov. xqvcldiov : /puo-iov, /puTO?, ' :i little ir«,ld.' I 
Ta xpocriBia a fjv BiBo^iv a^. 'A little piece of gold' in HA. 2, 
656.X XP^iBia BiaXiOa. ib. 652 A IS, /p-jTiBi* F /;. - L ^^<^- 
Bixy) 'trial.' Ar. Vesp. 511, «n' fjtof &v AtxOwv tf|*J 
av iv XoTraBi ^Tuviy-Jivov. fe/^/or : Sa/.o: -mv.' IMut. 2. BOO \. 
tou to Z 6vto ? sXxoBiou vooi*a ? . ft(^ w ' "" ((1 - ,;,m ^I'l'l"^'-'- 

236 Chapter XX. 

only in Etym. Mag. 347. 54. Xoyidiov : Xoyo?, ' short argument.' 
Plato Eryx. 401 E, luvscpy) |xsv, . . . 06 [xyjv &1V sTa'paTTs ys a&Tov 
crcpoBpa to XoyiBiov. GxiyLdiov : orfyog, ' a short line of poetry.' Pint. 
Pericl. 30; Athen. 4 A. 

2. Referring to a class. B. dap ale idwv : BajxaXi? ' heifer.' Philem. 
Lex. 96. Xx&vdiov : E/frtfs ' fish.' Mnesimach. frg. 3. 568 (6), to&$ 
[j.sv tyfrtis [j-oi xaXsi 'Iy^'JBiov * o'|>ov B' av X£yr\<; STSpov, xa^si 'O^apiov. 
vjBtov yap a7roXoii[xai tuo^u. fJvtSwv : p? ' mouse.' Marc. Anton. 7. 3, 
[xui'Bicov s::TGY][jivwv BiaBpo|j.ai. Cf. [wBiov, Theogn. Can. 121. 24. 
vavovdiov : vavo?. Schol. Clement. Al. Paed. 3. 4, MsXitocTov xuvi- 
Biov pxpov, o vavouBiov xaXotiffi xaTa orspYjcriv tou avo) isvai* son yap 
uftoxopiarixov tou vavo^ * vavov Bs [iixpov cpacriv avfrpwTuov. otdiov : oTg 
'sheep.' Cf. :;po(3aTiov, § 208 Ba. Phot., OiBia* TrpopaTia. Theogn. 
Can. 121. 29. %oiQidiov (cf. pipiov) : yoipo? 'young pig.' Ar. Ach. 
806, 'Evsyxorto V14 svBofrsv tmv loyaBcov ToT? yoipiBioiTiv. id. ib. 812. 
830, Vesp. 573; Strattis frg. 2. 784 (2), see § 193 a sub 6pv£8tov. 
C. yatiiQidiov : yaorYjp ' belly.' Ar. Nub. 392, Hxs'|>ai toivuv ax6 
yaarpiBiou tovvootoui 01a TCS7uopBa£ • Tdv B' aepa tovB ovt' arcspavTOv, n&c, 
oux six6? |iiya (3povTav ; 6<pgvdiov : ocpp'j? ' eye-brow.' Hes., imaxdviov ' 
to £7ravco tcov ocpfra^Sv ocppuBiov. Nicetas in Isaac, et Alex. n. 3, 
Ta ocpp'JBia sysiv Baoia xai Y)vco[x£va, s^avco tcov 6<pfraX|i.cov atjToU xps- 
|j.a^sva. D. xhj/LiaTldia : xlY]|xaTi£, xX?j[xa ' brush-wood.' Vita Sim. Sali 
Actt. SS. Jul. t. 1 p. 166. 14, 168. 8. fioa%L6iov : ^ogjoc, 'a young 
shoot.' Ar. Ach. 996, vsa [xocryiBia cruxiBtov. J. yQajj^aTeidiov : 
ypa^aTsTov ; tablet.' Isocr. 17. 34, xaiToi oaro? [xixptov svsxa xai Tcspt 
toU coS^aTO? xivBovsutov TatjTa? (sc. Tas uBpia^) uroxvoiysiv sto^yjctsv, 
ai (7£crY][ia(7|jivoi [isv 3)crav &7u6 tcov TupuTavswv, xaTscrcppayiOjjivoi B' 67:6 
twv yopY)ytov, IcpuXaTTovTO B' 6tco tcov Taptov, sxstvro B' sv xxpoizoXzi, 
t{ BsT frau|Jia£siv si ypa^aTsiBiov 7uap' avfrpcarcw £svto xsipxvov TocrauTa jiiX- 
TvOvtss )rpY)[j.aTa xspBaivsiv [i£T£ypat|»av. Dem. 54. 37, Toi/ouc, toivuv 
BtopUTTOVTs^ xai TuaiovTS^ tou? a7uavTwvTa?, ap' av 6[j.Tv oxvYjcat Boxoucriv 
£v ypa[i[iax£iBito Ta cj;£uB^ [xapTupsTv ocXkf{koiq ot xsxoivcovyjxots^ Toa-auTY]? 
xai TOiauTY]? cpt>,a7usy^Y][xo(7UVY]^ xai 7iOVY]pta^ xai avaiBsia^ xai Sppsw^ ; 
daxrvXldiov : Baxxu^io? 'finger-ring.' Insc. Delos Mich. 833. 119, 
BaxTtAiBiov ypua-oDv, . . . BaxTuXiBiov BialtQ'Ov. [ivovdiov : [xvoti? ' fine 
feathers.' Gloss. fotictQidwv : Xifrapiov ' pebble.' Gl. Alex. Trail. 3 
p. 61, Wv](piov, to XiO^apiBiov. L. dixidiov : Bixy] 'law-suit.' Ar. Nub. 
1109, [ii|xvY]<7 07uto^ Eu [101 0"T0[X(t)(7£i? aoTOv, £7ii [jiv Q^aT£pa Oiav 
BixiBioi?, ty)v B* sTspav auTOu yva'O^ov Uto^ojg-ov oiav Ic, Ta [isi^co xpa'y- 

The Suffix -(*)<W. 237 

8. Among peculiar modifications of the diminutive meaning which 
do not follow from the classification may be mentioned the following: 

A. The meaning 'soft,' 'elegant' (§ 211 D). mklSiw : w&lov, 
jeCXo«, 'soft felt cap.' Antiphan. frg. 3. 17, nOCBtov &ratX6v. x^w- 
lidior : ypo'>£ 'soft, delicate skin.' Cratin. frg. 2. 183 (23) = Crates 
frg. 2. 248 (3), v Qc Bs [xaXocx&v xai Tspsv to /ptoTiBiov zctt, w &eoC 

B. 'Thin,' 'slender' (§ 211 E). aXvrtidtov : <&txjis, 'a thin 
chain.' Hes., Trapvi? • t& tuu^svioc twv forrpixffiv foxaviBcov, a pi^pi 
vuv Tupoa-BsouTiv aXu(TsiBioi£ {j.axpoT$ sv to?? laTp(s)iGic. 

C. 'Fine,' 'ground fine' (cf. note to rcaXv)|Mraov in § 231), 
probably due to the influence of the adjective as— 6; (§ 210). 
jjvQidia : rcupo?, 'finely ground wheat.' Ar. Lys. 1206, nupffiia Xewra. 

D. The use of a diminutive to give an impression of modesty 
(§ 213). <xqyvql<5iop 'my little bit of money.' Eupol. frg. 2. 479 
(42), 'Eyw Bs GU^rpciGct TapyupiBtov. Aoyidwv : Xoyoc, 'little story of 
ours.' Ar. Vesp. 64, 'AXX' iartv yjjuv XoyCfctov yvG>[j.Y]v sywv. oixidiov 
'my little house.' Lys. 1. 9, oixiBlov sgti [xot BlttXoDv. ovaidiov : 060(0, 
c a little wealth.' Nicomachus frg. 4. 587 (1), Odtfffitov yap xarata- 
jc6vto£ [j.oi 7uaTp6?, Outw <7UvsarpoyydXixa xa£sx6xxi<7a 'Ev pnrjoiv oX'/v.: 

MTTTSp (OOV Tt£ pOCp&V. 

E. The use of diminutives for objects for which the speaker asks 
as a favor (§ 215). dgyvQldiov 'a little money.' Ar. Plut. 240, 
kav Ti? xpocsXiW] xpYjcros avO-pwrcos cpCXo? Afc&v XafkTv ti ouixpov xp- 
yupiBiov. id. frg. 2. 1164 (4), "Hitouv in toc? yuvaTxa? xpyupiBiov. 
ntUdtov ' a little felt cap.' Ar. Ach. 439, ESpwcflty, 'radWpop i/y.zi<7o> 
tocBi, KaxsTva pi B6? TaxoXoufra twv paxwv, T6 n&ftiov rcep\ ty,v xs- 
cpaXrjv to Mfoiov. %oiQidiov 'a little porker.' Ar. Pax 374, K: /;>•.- 
piBiov p.oC vuv Bavswrov TpsT? Bpa/jxa?. For xvrqidiov see § 215. 

F. Closely related to the preceding is the use of a diminutive to 
make a thing appear small so as to excuse the speaker for Borne 
transgression. Cf. oxeooptov (§ 366. IX. 3) and Kock ad Ar. 
Av. 1111, Kav Xa/ovTs? apy&iov sTO' (*p*a<rai poo*to)<x&< n, '0 

xicrxov s? Ta? /sipas &P V ^°' ),70 F V - 

G. The use of diminutives in the sense 'merely,' 'nothing but' 
(§ 216). aqrldtw : fym* 'loaf of bread/ Diog. Laert 7. 18, 
fyj&e Bs apiriBia xai piXi, xat 6)iyov efi^oo; olvapCow Wwvt. / 

Xayc^ 'hare.' Ar. Ach. 520, Kel *ou fffewov fcoitv v H 
XOtpCBtov *) *x6pooov rj X 6vBpouc o^, Tattf 7,v \Uya: 

oel^upov. <sn%tdiov : vdyot 'line of poetry.' Plut. 2. 80 A, xtpl 

YtornK xat <m X ^ u.a X ^oi xa\ {<mp(ac pi/pi jiiawv vuxtflv **£- 

238 Chapter XX. 

tsivov. %oioidiov, see sub ^aywBtov. xqvGidiov : ^puoiov, yfiococ, ' gold.' 
Dem. 27. 15, a>|Jio7;6y£i xai ti pxpov scpv) xpo? ty]v £p)v |r/)Tspa xepl 
/pu<7iBtcov avTtXsysa-^ai (' he agreed, but was only going to oppose ' etc.). 
XII. Hypocoristic Words. A. Articles of diet, including animals 
and plants, alyldwv : ol(% ' goat.' Antiphan. frg. 3. 9 (1. 4). fioiovdiov : 
(36Tpt>£ 'grape.' Alexis frg. 3. 462 (1. 13), BoTp'JBtov -u, /optov, sv 
7U0TY]piw riuxuv. yXavzidwr : yXatixo? (a kind of fish). Antiphan. frg. 
3. 130 (1), Ouxouv to [isv y^auxtBtov Scrap ocXXots sc|>stv sv ocXjjlt) ; 
yXavxividiov : ylauxTvo? (a kind of fish). Amphis frg. 3. 316, see 
§ 193 b sub tacppaxiov. sy%ekvdiov : lyy/kuc 'eel.' Amphis 1. c. 
Ephipp. frg. 3. 334 (1. 6), see § 193 b sub aXsxTpuoviov. hieqidia : 
xa svTspa ' the inward parts.' Alexis frg. 3. 416, Byj^oc, acpuai, KpsaBi' 
svTspCBi'. ttoyzTidiop : frpaTTa (a kind of fish). Anaxandr. frg. 3. 172 
(a good example of the extravagance in the use of such ' diminutives ' 
by certain dandies and gluttons), Kai cu[Ji7uai£st xapiBapioi? Msxa rap- 
xiBitov xal ^paTTtBtojv, Kat '\>r\zT!x6ioig p.£Ta xtofrapicov, Kai cxivBapioi£ 
[xsTa xwj3tBitov. lyftvdiov : tyfrds ' fish.' Anaxil. frg. 3. 346, 'fyfrdB*/ 
07UTav. Sotad. frg. 3. 586 (1. 23), D Iy>uBta . . . i\xokw aXstfpto. Men. 
frg. 4. 206, 'Ev Kpoeyoizoic, i/^uBtot? TsO'pajjLjJisva. xcmqLdiov : xa'raos 
'wild-boar.' Ar. frg. 2. 2. 1151 (9. 2), see § 194b sub yjtox'tiov. 
xanvqidia 1 : xarcupov, a kind of cake. Athen. 113D. xaqvdiov : 
xa'puov 'nut.' Philyll. frg. 2. 864 (3), apyBaXa, KapijoY, smcpopYj^axa. 
xooaxividiov : xopaxivo? (a kind of fish). Pherecr. frg. 2. 274 (2) 7 
To?? coTci cuvwv xopaxtviBioi? 2 Kat jxaiviBiotc. 2 xoafjfiidiop : xpa'jxpY] ' cab- 
bage/ Antiphan. frg. 3. 5 (6), Kpa[j.(3iBiov scpfrov ^a'ptsv aareTov xa'vu. 
xoeadtov : xpsa^ 'meat.' Ar. frg. 2. 1185, ty)v pTpav 'Ev t] xa xp£a'oY 
fy|>££ £^topxu[jiva. Alexis frg. 3. 396 (1. 5), xpsa'Bt' apvo? Icri tulovg?. 
id. frg. 3. 416, 429 (1. 15) ; Men. frg. 4. 223 (1. 13), KpsaV 
07UTa. xoof}idioi> : xco(3t6c, (a kind of fish). Anaxandr. frg. 3. 172, see 
sub frpaTTiBtov. Sotad. frg. 3. 586 (22). [xaivldiov : jiaivic, [xaivv] ' sprat,' 
see § 193b. Treoxidwp : rapxY) 'perch,' see sub 9'paTTiBiov. Qoidior : 
poa 'pomegranate.' Men. frg. 4. 112 (7), tow poiBiow sTpwyop-sv. 
aiqnidiov : cnqma 'cuttle-fish.' Ar. frg. 2. 1050 (see § 193b sub 
oqrJTaov), 1076, 'I/frus sc6vY]TaL ti$ y) CY)7tiBtov, . . . *H vyjong SrcraV. 
Eubul. frg. 3. 258 "(1) (see § 193 b sub TsofrCBiov), 268 (15 a 6), 
f Op.oi) ts yyxuzw [xaiviciv c/)mBta. Ephipp. frg. 3. 334 (1. 4), see 
§ 193 b sub aXsxTpuovtov. ancvdiov : cixo a ' cucumber.' Phryn. Com. 
frg. 2. 590 (7), xavT-paysTv cixuBiov. ajtivldiov : cmvo$ ' siskin.' Ar. frg. 

1 Var. lect. xcctivqlu. 

2 Probably some one is scoffed at for using ' diminutives ' of this kind. 

The Suffix -{i)dvov. 239 

2, 1108, v O<]><0 ts X p9jcr0;at cnutvtofot ? i ^ *<& x ^ ai? . C7zi.a n vidia : 

{ncXavxva ' the inward parts ' (cf. svTsptota). Diph. frg. 4. 380 (4), 
•Haw <pcp6^ aOTojwtTa Tcavra Tayafra, c Pa ? avo ? Xwwpa', (TTuXayyv&ta 
jroXXa, <rapxta f AxaXwTaT. vTuoyaauQldiov : 6:uoya<7Tpiov ' paunch.' Eubul. 
frg. 3. 269 (16), Xapuyys ? , . . . >maoay X at AsoxSW 67uoya<7Tptotcov. 
Philoxenus 2. 23, ToO B' 67uoya<7Tptotot£ otavsxso^ Ixapvstv, Efosp e>tv 
ts \x£loi xat tCv, (J.a),a xsv xsyapot(xsfr\ yvxidiov : cpuxtc, cpoxYj? (a kind 
of Bsh). Anth. P. 5. 185, E't ? ayopav (3oc^ac, A^Tpte, rpdfc *ap s 
'AfuSvrou rXauxtexou? aim, xat Bsxa cpoxtBta. loiqldiov : yotptov, yo~:o; 
•porker; Men. frg. 4. 222 (1. 3), yotptBtov lv 6-Jo[*ev." Diph." frg. 
I. 119 (7), XotptBta rcsptcpoptva xpo[xp<o(ras oXa. 

B. Human beings (also gods in comedy, cf. § 243). a) Apel- 
latives. ddzhfldiov : a^sXcpo? 'brother.' Ar. Kan. 60, &$eX?C5iov. 
YQqdiov : ypaii; 'old woman.' Ar. Thesm. 1194, vat vat, ypaBto, 
'E[j.oi xa'ptao 2 <7u touto. ib. 1210, *Q ypt^Bt', w? xaptsvTO 2 cot to to- 
yaTptov. 2 Dzmmaividtov : frsparcxLvfe, frspa'xatva 'hand-maid. 1 Luc. 
Pise. 17, Ouxoiiv £7ua'yo)[xat xat to) frspowuatvtBtM touto> ffUvotxoraTM [J.ot 
ovts ; dvyctTQidioi' : fruyarYjp ' daughter.' Pletho Laudat. Cleopae § 21 
p. 14, em fruyaTptBuo xala> ts xayafrco xat tow yovswv a^tq). nannidiov : 
7U0C7T7uiac, TtdTvizois 'papa.' Ar. Equ. 1215, 00/' 6pac xsvyjv (sc. ty ( v 
sp]v xtonrjv) 'Q 7ia7U7uiBiov ; Ar. Yesp. 655, 'Axpoaom vuv, 5 Tra'-tBtov, 
yjxkdGocc, oXtyov to [istwtuov. JtarQidiov : 7uaTvjp ' father.' Ar. Vesp. 986, 
"ffi w roxTptBtov, sm Ta (k^Ttta Tpsxou. Xenarch. frg. 3. 617, Afoot 
(sc. at rcopvat) [3ia'£ovTat yap sta-s),xou<7t ts, Toti? plv yepovTa: ovt-/: 
sxtxaXoupvat IlaTptota, to&s B' obucpa'pta, tol>£ vso)Tspouc. Theophil. Erg, 

3. 627 (3), TsuBas ^v /pY)<mfj, rcaTptBtov, %&$ lytic, rcpo? xa'pa(3ov ; ih'/.iiiiior : 
tsxvov ' child.' Ar. Lys. 889, V Q yluxtkaTOv ab tsxviSiov xaxotJ -7.7:0:. 
Xoiqidiov 'little pigling.' Ar. Ach. 834 (the Megarian to bis two 
little girls, who are to be sold as pigs), *Q yotptota, roipfyrtk »tavi 
7uaTp6? Ilatstv scp' aXt Tav [xa'BBav, at xa' Tt$ BtBft. 

b) Proper names. Those occurring in Old Comedy are all 00-. 
casional formations occurring beside the regular name, ju>t as die 
corresponding names in simple -tov (§ 237 b). The latex examples 
e. g. BotBtov, are mostly permanent names, sometimes even formed 
from primitives which are not themselves proper names (of, g l >_ ' m 
Alyidiov : at?, Eubul. frg. 3. 252 (3. 1). fy***&d#W fy 0OUT- 

tezan in Luc. D. Mer. 8. 2. ^Qodna^idior, Plato Com. L lex 
Sabbaitico p. 3. 1. Botdiov : (3ou;. Anth. P. 9.718. Bum**** 1 1 

1 The mscs. have nY\vidioiq. 

2 Barbarisms for x c *9 iGO i % a ^ v ^ an(1 ^ l, > / ' < ' r (" ,, '• 

240 Chapter XX. The Suffix -(j)diw. 

i a Boeotian.' Ar. Ach. 872, V Q )raTps, xoXXtxocpays BoiomBiov. Jr\iia- 
xidiov as if : *Ayj|jia£ : Ar^o?. Ar. Equ. 823, w Av][xaxiBtov. Jr\iii6iov : 
A?jp$. Ar. Equ. 726, to Ay][iiBigv to cpCXxaxov. ib. 1199, *Q Ay][j.iBiov, 
6pa£ Ta Xayfi)' a croi cpepto. *EQ[iidiov : f EppJ£. Ar. Pax. 382, My] vuv 
XaxY)<7Y]c, Xi0"(70[j.ai (T s , wppiBiov. Mvqqividiov : Mupptvv]. Ar. Lys. 872 
V Q yXuxuTocirov MuppiviBiov. Bavtiidiov : Eav(Has. Ar. Ran. 582, p)Ba[j.(os 
V Q EavfriBtov. 2aTVQidiov : Zarupos. Stratt. frg. 2. 787 (1. 4), ftoBoTv 
<7aTupiBio^v [xaxpoxspxwv. It is not impossible that the word designates 
some kind of animal, in which case the suffix is an exponent of 
similarity. Cf. Meineke ad loc. ZooxQaTidiov : HcoxpaTY)?. Ar. Nub. 223, 
<o HwxpocTs^, V Q SwxpaxiBiov. ib. 237, v Ilk vuv, xaTapY]8»', w IcoxpaTiBiov, 
<*)? £[is. ib. 746, *Q ZoaxpaTiBiov cpiXTairov. 0oivizldtov : OoTvt?. Diog. 
Laert. 7. 3, ti <psuysi<;, <I>otvixiBiov ; ouBsv Bsivov 7us7uov8>a£. 

C. Parts of the body (cf. § 238). daxivUSiov : Boc'xtuXo? ' finger,' 
'toe.' Ar. Lys. 417, *Q (7xotot6|j.£, tyj£ p.ou yuvaixo? toi>£ 7:6Ba? To 
BaxTuXiBiov tuls^si to £uyov, "Afr 5 aroxXov ov. 6(f&aAiJidiop : 6cp8>aX[j.6c 
' eye.' Ar. Equ. 909, see § 245. wtHdiov (cf. wfrfov) : Ttirfros 
'nipple of breast.' Ar. frg. 2. 1084(14). 

D. Like axouopx-uov (§ 232) are: ymiiLdiov : yv<a[JiY] 'judgment.' 
Ar. Nub. 321, yj ^upj [iou 7U£ro5TY]Tat, Kal XsrcToXoysTv yjByj £/)teT xai 
rapt xa7rvou ffTSVoXea^eTVj Kal yvtopBico yvo':>p)v vujacr' sTspw Xoyto 
avxtloyvjom. For Ar. Equ. 100, where is also found voldiov : vooc, 
' thought,' see § 232 sub (3otAsi>[xaTiov. ^aelSiov ; pYJcris ' tale.' 
Anon. Cat. in Psalm, t. 1. p. 61. 34, to aoiBi|j.ov pY)<7siBtov. 

E. An apparent case of hypocoristic -iBiov to express endearment 
for a thing is XaqaLdiov : Xocpxog ' char-coal basket ' in Ar. Ach. 340, 
toBs to XapxiBiov ou 7upoBc6(rco xots. This is due altogether to the 
humorous personification of the basket. Cf. § 239. 

F. The use of hypocoristic words merely to voice the mood of 
the speaker (§ 244 f.) even when the object designated by him 
is not the one to which the endearment is directed, is represented 
by Ar. Ach. 1036, where the farmer, when refused a drop of peace 
for help to get back his oxen, exclaims : Oi[xot xaxoBocijicov toTv ysoip- 
yotv j3oiBioiv. The motive is, of course, pity for himself, not for the 
oxen, as is shown by the Nominative case of xaxoBoct|X(ov. Less certain 
is Ar. Pax 387, where the chorus is pleading with Hermes : MY]Ba|xS)?, 
w Z£<jko& c Eppj, p]Ba|xo)£, [XY]Ba[xa)c, El it xsyapiapivov XoipiBiov olafra 
xap' l[xot> ys xoctsByjBoxws, ToOto p] cpaoXov vop.i£' sv twBs tw TupayfJiaTt. 
The suffix of yoipiBtov may be caused by the entreating tone of the pas- 
sage, but it is not impossible that the idea is ' delicious little porker/ 

Chapter XXL The Suffix -adiov. 241 

XXI. THE SUFFIX -otoov. 

316. Concerning this (mostly late) conglutinate cf. Lobeck, ad Phryn. 
74, Proll. 351 ff. ; Schwabe, op. cit. 67 i. ; Janson, op. cit. 46 ff. 
The earlier scholars largely doubted the existence of a suffix -aBiov, 
and wanted to refer all apparent cases to -iBiov by assuming contrac- 
tion of an a of the stem with the i of the suffix. Gf. Buttmann, Ausf. 
Gr. Spr. 2. 443 n. ; Janson, 1. c. Lobeck, Proll. 353 f., suspects all 
occurrences of -aBiov 1 which are not adjectival and can not be ex- 
plained in this way, i. e. all except those which have a primitive in 
-a or -aiov, from which he believes that a diminutive in -iBiov would 
give -aBiov, following Eustath. 1552. 31, "Oti Bs co<x:usp oTn)latou xai 
flpOffxecpo&aCou xai Tu^aiou 67uoxoptGTixa GirrfkGfoiov TCpoo-xscpatacBiov to- 
yaBiov, o'jtw xai slaiou sXa'Biov, ByjXouo-iv oi ts/vixoi. Schwabe (1. c), 
on the other hand, unreservedly admits the existence of -aBiov, refer- 
ring it to primitives in -aB-. He assumes, as is his wont, that both 
parts of the conglutinate were independent diminutive suffixes. 

317. The explanation of -aBiov from -iBiov can not be upheld for 
several reasons. In the first place, it is not probable that an -aBiov 
<< -ai'Biov should have regularly been written without i subscript. 
Although a and a were pronounced alike at the end of the Alexandrian 
period, and consequent confusion of orthography resulted in many 
cases, yet the scribes tried to distinguish between the two, and no 
doubt followed certain traditions of spelling which must usually have 
had a historical foundation; and the fact that the suffix -aBiov was 
regularly spelled without the i, while ypaBiov was spelled with it, points 
to an original difference and discountenances the derivation of -aBiov 
from -a-iBiov. It is also improbable that the a of -a- stems should 
suddenly have been habitually retained before an initial vowel of a 
suffix, although it is otherwise a firmly established habit of the 
language that a as well as the thematic vowel was dropped before a 
following suffixal vowel. 

318. As regards the contention that -aBiov can be the result of 
the formation of a diminutive in -iBiov from a word m --/•///. it ma] 
be said that this is phonetically impossible, -ai- + -ifctov 080 not 

give -aBiov > -aBiov, but -aiBiov ; from <nri)tawv CAD « ie oply 

7,aiBiov; for if the a of ai is short before contraction with another 

i I. e. -aSiov as areal conglutinate, not when de.ivr.l Erom  primittt* in -mf-. 


242 Chapter XXI. 

i, it must be short after it. The opinion of Eustathius is with 
the slightest value in this respect, because he, and doubtless his sou: 
belonged to such a late period that they had no direct knowledge of 
anything concerning quantity. If all of the words quoted by him 
really have -aBiov, the reason must be sought in the analogy of 
l>.aBtov, which comes from a primitive sXaoc, not iXaibv, but could be 
referred to the latter, and then caused e. g. oror^aBiov : cxrjXouov. 
There is, however, not the slightest indication that the -o&iov, even 
if these words should go back to a period when the original quan- 
tities were still observed, ever did have a long a, and the formation 
of derivatives in -aBiov from primitives in -ociov can be much more 
easily explained in a different way. Those neuters in -aBiov which 
belonged to adjectives in -ocBio?, were semantically related to those in 
-atov from adjectives in -octos, e. g. t& oflpaBia 'the tail parts' was 
equivalent to t& oupatoc, although one was not derived from the other, 
but both independently from the substantive oupa 'tail.' In such 
words the feeling of equivalence of -ocBiov and -ociov developed, and 
consequently, when the former gained currency, it could take the 
place of the latter in the words discussed, <jnr{kdfoiov for a-T^fjlaiov, 
TCpOGXscpaXoeBiov for rcpooTiscpaXaiov, xo7uafciov for xoroxtov, probably yXi>- 
xaBiov for the neuter of yXuxaToc, and perhaps -ruyalnov for the neuter 
of Tu/aTo?, although it may have been formed from tu^y). 

319. Since, then, these words may as well be explained with a 
short a, it may well be asked what evidence there is in the poets 
for either -aBtov or -aBiov. Leaving out of account xpsxcxBi' of Ar. 
Yesp. 1215, which is plainly adjectival, and so could not have been 
admitted as evidence by Lobeck, there is only one passage which 
gives any cue as to the quantity of the a, and in that one (Anaxandr. 
frg. 3. 172) it is short in the word cJjyjttocBiov. Lobeck (Proll. 354), 
however, since the short a made untenable his explanation that -aBtov 
was contracted from -a-tBtov, emended in the interests of his theory. 
The verse in question runs thus : Kai ^Y)TTaBiot? [xsira xtofkcpiwv (mscs. 
xw(3tBapitov), and the change to ^TTapiot? is all the worse because it 
assumes that a scribe would change from the more familiar -apiov 
to the less familiar -aBiov, even though another word in -aptov occurred 
in the very same line, a condition which would lead us to rather 
expect -aBtov to be changed to -aptov. In want of more evidence, 
then, we may conclude that -aBtov had short a in a number of words, 
and probably in all, unless the analogy of sXaBiov had some influ- 

The Suffix -adiov. 243 

820. As to the origin of the suffix, it will be seen that there is 
a close analogy to -tBtov. There are several different strata, and the 
whole number of words may be roughly divided according to whether 
they come from adjectives in -ocbioq or are patterned after substantives 
in -ao-tov, although these classes can not be separated with precision 
because the -tov of the latter often has an adjectival meaning. 

321. That there was a number of adjectives in -aBios which were 
largely to be referred to adverbs in -Bov, was already pointed out by 
Lobeck, op. cit. 351. So dcu/po&tog : dc^cpaBov, xoiTC0u,aBiO€ : xoctco- 
p-aB6v, Ix^aBtos : sxto&ov. From verbal adjectives like dt|xoi(3aBto? 
' answering ' i. e. ' alternate ' : apt(3aB6v the suffix was transferred to 
others like O^To&tos 'deathly,' xXs[X[j.aBio? : x)i[j.[xa, 'clandestine' 
(Plato), xpi>7n;a1kos : xptkxco ' secret ' (iEschylus). It is by substanti- 
vation of such adjectives that there came into existence words like 
7:po<7X£<paXaBiov ' that which is placed close to the head,' i. e. 'a 
pillow, 1 ^pocrsD/aSiov : 7upo(7su)(Yi, 'a place for prayer,' -ra o5paBia (§318), 
toc xpsxalnoc ' woven things,' i. e. ' tapestry ' : xpexo) ' I weave.' Sub- 
stantives of this kind came into contact with similar ones in simple 
-tov on every hand, and thus prepared the way for complete semantic 
syncretism of the two suffixes. 

322. On the other hand, substantives in -aBiov which were derived 
from primitives in -a? -a^o? occur from the earliest times and with 
a large diversity of meaning of -tov. Thus XajxroxBtov : Xocpia's is an 
instrument noun, ysi^tov : /sipc's is 'that which is connected with 
winter,' 'winter quarters,' Xtpo&tov : 7u(3a's is a place k well supplied 
with moisture,' i. e. 'a meadow,' /spjJiaBiov : /sp^a? is 'a missile of 
the stone kind,' i. e. a stone used as missile, similarly loxofoiov : 
Xorox'c ' plate,' s>(3oBiov : shoe's ' a kind of shoe,' and ^ocxofciov : '-W; 
'drizzling rain' is probably a diminutive. These words could give 
rise to a conglutinate -aoiov in the usual ways (§ 285 f.). In the 
first place, some of them could be referred to other words than their 
real primitive in -a? -aBog, e. g. alongside of ya^ there exists /sT-j.a 
(to), to which xsttwfciov could be referred when the Nominative yfi\ut, 
but not the oblique cases were thought of. A> 8 result there occur 
analogical formations like W o?hov : to ^jxa, oupjiaotov : 
oWBiov : to <rtj[i*. The rationale of the latter form was alreadj partly 
understood by Eustathius 1675. 46, o^imc . . • &*» 

boWi (nuufriov- . . . ennwotov » *** ^oXooOsT ^v avaXoyia 
muocotov, ooxsT oe 6p>c JWx^epov elvat. Similarly ^«wV,v • torch 
could be referred to ^ as well as to X« F «V and then oamed the 

244 Chapter XXL 

transfer of -ocBtov to other a stems, e. g. ^yjttocBlov : f |>YJTTa, xopaBtov : 
xopY], 7UYiyaBiov : 7UY)yY), etc. Words in -aB-tov or -aBtov from adjectives 
could, of course, also exert a direct influence upon congeneric words 
in causing their whole ending to be transferred. Thus la^oB-tov, an in- 
strument noun, could cause axov-ocBiov, y£p|xaB-iov as a name of a mis- 
sile could influence sxirop,-aBiov, s[x(3a'B-tov as an article of dress could 
give rise to mX-aBiov and ava(3oX-aBiov, and Ta xpsx-a'Bia ' a kind of 
tapestry ' evidently was the cause of t<x ucpaBta : 6cpvj. 

323. The spread of -aBtov was largely determined by formal anal- 
ogy. Those words which have a primitive in -aiov or -<xt- have been 
mentioned above. The largest number, however, comes from a stems 1 : 
axovalnov : axovv], avapo^aBtov : dcvapoXyj, similarly IxTop-aBiov, c Ep[ioBiov, 
xopaBiov, vsixoBiov, OG-cppaBiov, oupa'Bta, KpoGzuyofoiov, csipaBiov, <jxT|VaBiov, 
td/oc'Blov, 6<pa'Btov, cJ»y]ttoBigv. There are also a few words which come 
from primitives in -o-: (3afrpaBiov : J3a0*pov, ysppa'Biov : ysppov, spufrpa'Biov : 
spufrpo? (adj.), >.£[i(3aBiov : Xs^oc, 7uiXaBiov : %ilo<;. From indeclinables 
in -a come a^cpaBtov : o&cpa and ya[i[xa'Btov : ya'[X[j,a. 

324. As may be expected from its heterogeneous origin, -aBtov, 
even though always' one of the rarer suffixes, nevertheless is found 
in a great variety of uses. There is no tendency whatever to con- 
fine it to ' diminutives,' in fact the latter uses are found only in 
about one third of its occurrences. I subjoin a list of these words 
classified according to meaning. 

I. With verbal force, xoexddia : xpsxoa, 'the weavings,' i. e. 
' tapestry.' Ar. Vesp. 1215, 'OpocpY)v frlacai, xpsxa'Bt' a5)% frati|jiaa , ov. 

II. Compound. nqoGxstyaXddiov : xscpa>j), 7upoo~xscpa'Xaiov, ' pillow.' 
Eustath. 1552. 32. 

III. 'Belonging toJ ' connected with? exTO(jdd[i]a' slBo? B6paT0£. 
Hes. (: sxTopj). Jioocfevzddior : ftpoo-suyj], ' that which is used for 
prayer,' "locus in ecclesia ubi quis orans constitit, paullo elevatior." 
Ap. Leon, grammat. in Leone sapiente p. 480. id ovqddua (cf. Ta 
oupaTa) : otjpa, ' the parts belonging to the tail.' Geopon. 20. 27, 
xoyXwv ty]v (japxa Xa(3wv y/op\s twv oupaBitov, sv auToT? Bs>ia£s. 

IY. Instrument nouns, dxovddiov : axovv), a surgical instrument. 
Cod. Laur. 74. 2 Herm. 38. 281. fiaitoddiov = (3afrpov 'step.' Ar. 
ap. Poll. 10. 47. 

V. ' Made of.' ysooddiov : ysppov, ' that which is made of plaited 
work,' ' mats ' of plaited work. Hes., ysppaBia • crpcoxY]piBia. 

1 Cf. Schwabe, 1. c. 

The Suffix -adiov. 245 

V I . 'Provided with: ooyqadwv : focppoc, ' that which has a (strong) 
mii.11; a scent used to revive fainting persons. Eustath. 46.3; 
Xicct.-is in Isaacio 1 n. 9. 

VII. Words which are equivalent to their primitives, including some 
which might have been originally ' specializing.' dvafiolddiov (cf. &vo#6- 
7,atov) — avapotof, ' a mantle, cloak.' Eccl. xoxddiov = xotoxiov, ' a piece.' 
A p. 1 hicang. Xeppddiov = M\$os, ' boat/ Const. Manass. Chron. 3766, 
-oTc Xs[x(3aBiot? toT? 7iuxvo?s. nilddiov = tSIoc, 'felt cap.' Poll. 10. 168. 
aHoudior = (xstpa, 'chord.' Eustath. 1291. 31, 1923. 55. mitfuotdwv = 
oxirfXaiov, ' cave.' Theopomp. Com. ap. Poll. 9. 16. vyddiov = 6«wj ' web.' 
Scliol. Eur. Hec. 463, xpoxv] to iBkotixw? xodo f j[j.svov fypofotov. 

VIII. 'Like' the primitive, alyddiov 'that which is like the 
letter aXcpoc,' ' a rule.' Eustrat. Comm. ad. Arist. Eth. 6. 7. y/.vxudiov : 
yMxociov 1 (see $ 318, end), probably originally 'that which has the 
nature of sweetness ' (cf. y^uxsiBiov § 315. IX), but euphemistically ap- 
plied to vinegar. Etym. Mag. 626. 58, ol Vz KupY]voc?oi to o£o; Jfio$ oa<7i, 
xai aXXoi yluxaBiov. axrjrddtop : <txy]vy], ' not a real tent, but something 
like a tent,' ' tegumentum.' Anon, in Maji Spicil. Rom. vol. 2 p. 322. 

IX. Diminutives, xoqudiov : xopY], 'a little girl.' Hes.. xopptov 
pxpov xopo&iov. pvr^iddiov : [xv9j[j.a, ' a little monument/ Insc. 
Mapsuci ap. Lebas et Waddington 1499. veixudtov : vsfco] (= vtxr,), 
' a little statue of victory.' Insc. Palaestin. CIG. 4558, g-jv vetitaftCotc 
xai [xsyaXY] Nsfoa] xat Xsovxapfois. Jiijyddior : rcYjyY), * a little fountain.' 
Joann. Mosch. Prat. Spir. in Cotel. Monum. vol. 2 p. 429 A, ranfofciov 
7uocvu [xixpov. arifiddtov : crfyxa, probably 'a little tomb.' Eustath. 
1675. 46, see § 322. 

X. Hypocoristic words. 'Eqiiddiov : 'Eppjc. Luc. Char. 1, x/lx 
7up6? toQ Tua^po?, w cpifaraTOv 'Epjjiaotov, p) xa^a^s p.s. tp^Ttadmr \ 
^9JTTa, 'delicious little flat-fish.' Anaxandr. frg. 3. 172, see § 816. 

XII. A sub frpOCTTlBtOV. 

XI. Plant names. tQvSoddiov ' madder,' ' rubia tinct«»ria ' 

'red.' Schol. Nicandr. Th. 74. Perhaps xoxxtxpddtoy, of totally ob- 
scure meaning and derivation, is also a plant name. I '!• Berwerden, 
Lex. Suppl. s. v. 

XII. Obscure as to usage are ya^aStov (: yaj^we) and (tv^fn 
(iodp|w), Salmasius ad Vopisc. Auivl. 46. 548. n>*«M#oi 
'fortune.' Eustath. 1552. 31, see § 816, 818. ■/ m 
'seal.' Lobeck ad Phryn. 74. 

* Janson, op. cit. 47, wrongly derives the ending bom Doric M*. 

246 Chapter XXII. 

XXII. THE SUFFIX -uopcov. 

325. The origin of this conglutinate has not so far been satis- 
factorily explained. The suggestion of Schwabe, op. cit. 68, that it 
is a conglutination of -uB-ap-tov, can not possibly be correct because 
of the unwarranted assumption of syncope of the a. Brugmann, Gr. 
2. I 2 . 471, likewise maintains that the B of -uBptov is the same as 
e. g. in yXa\k,6^iov, ^XaviBiov, or (3ouBiov, but he makes no attempt to 
explain the origin of the p. Nevertheless it can be shown that in 
all probability the B of -uBpiov has nothing to do with any other suf- 
fixal B in the Greek language. On the other hand, Brugmann is 
undoubtedly right in saying that the i> of this conglutinate must be 
derived from some u stem, and, it may be added, the earlier a word 
which fulfills this condition occurs, the more likely is it to be the 
right pattern type ; for -uBptov occurs already in Epicharmus, and so, 
together with -(t)Biov, is the very oldest of -tov conglutinates. While 
now there is extant not a single word in actual -uBptov which has a 
primitive in -t>, yet there is in existence a word which can not be 
separated in origin from this suffix, namely, the deteriorative 0*y]1u- 
Bpia? ' a woman-like fellow,' ' a sissy,' which has for its primitive the 
-u- stem O^Ypvu-s 'feminine,' and occurs already in Herodotus x (7. 153, 
G'Y)XuBpiY]£ ts xai [xaXaxwTspo? dcvvjp). This word most probably took 
the place of an original *"£h)XuBpiov with the same meaning, the change 
of -lov to -iocs being an example of a similar kind of humor as in 
Latin pusio or senecio (§ 267), in this case because of the addit- 
ional sarcasm given to a deteriorative like *0^tJBptov by fitting it out 
with a masculine ending. If, then, the pattern type of -uBpcov has left 
any trace of its existence, it was *^Y]XuBpiov, and this form may be 
explained by the influence of the congeneric word avBpiov. After the 
latter, ' a being like a man,' but ' not a real man,' had come into 
use for designating an effeminate person, some one made a similar 
formation from the stem §r\ku- ' feminine,' which then had a double ex- 
pression of the idea of effeminacy, and in forming this word he must 
necessarily have thought of avBpiov, with the result that he made the 
two words end similarly, i. e. he transferred to *&Y]MBpLov not only 
the suffix -tov but also the preceding -Bp-, which was the easier be- 
cause the Nominative Singular of the primitive avvjp was also without 

1 The word also occurs Luc. D. Deor. 5. 3, and of animals in Arist. H. A. 
9. 49. 631b 17, Probl. 4. 26. 879 b 21. 

The Suffix -vSqiov. 247 

the -B-. This *0*Y)Xu-Bpiov could then be analyzed ♦fyX-fopiov and give 
rise to other words like ?sv-uBpiov : ££vo S . The B of the suffix -uBpiov 
is consequently nothing more than the inorganic £ of the oblique 
cases of avvip which was purely a phonetic development. 

326. On the formal side it may be noticed that -uBpiov was in 
( Hassical times a particular favorite for -so stems, four out of eight 
words in this suffix having primitives in -e<x-: s)a%iov : eXxo;, \xz'/:j- 
fcpiov : [x£\oc, crxio»JBptov : <yxCcpos, myuBpiov : tsT/os In Herondas also 
GY.zk6fyiov : <n£XoQ. 

327. As might be expected from its origin, the deteriorative shade 
of meaning is most frequent for -u^piov in Classical times, but the 
tendency to semantic syncretism with other ' diminutive ' suffixes later 
effaced this, and from the beginning of the transmission diminutive and 
hypocoristic uses occur occasionally. Perhaps it is significant, however, 
lh.it personal names in -uBptov are always deteriorative, for when using 
these the speaker was most liable to think of *frY)luBptov or Efo)>jf>$p(occ. 

328. Collection of examples, classified according to meaning. 

I. ' Like ' the primitive, only in Gzityvdoiov : cr/i'po;, ' that which 
is like a sword,' mentioned by Epicharmus frg. 42. 5 among ::av7o- 
BaTua /woy/jjlta, and explained by Hesychius as sT^o? xoy//j)io'j (id., 
HicpuBpioc • xo/JXCai). Since this is the only occurrence of this suffix 
in other than deteriorative, diminutive, and hypocoristic meanings, 
the above etymology would appear somewhat doubtful. Perhaps it 
was a remodelling of an old (TztcpiBtov through popular etymology, 
which fancied it heard uBcop 'water' (cf. the proper names MeG-'Jft:- 
tov and Asu|>-uBp-iov) in -uBptov, and considered it a fit suffix for a 
word designating a water animal. 

II. Deterioratives. vqavdoior : vYjcro? ' island.' Xen. Hell. 6. 1. 12, 
xod /prised ys skd? By]xou fya? acpOovcoTspoic yp^J'U |ri) ifc vtptity* 
(j)i-ovTac, MX r^sipwTixa s8«vy] xapwoofjivoo?. Isocr. 12. 70, fyrtv [xev 
yap g-uv£t:£(7£ tusdi vYiauBpia TGiocDTa xai TTqtoxaOra to piyeO<o 

tsTv, a nottol tSW 'EMqvwv o5B' tdowiv. gew'tyw • #* !, - r, ' ; 

Men. frg. 4. 206 (1. 3), OTov t& vY)<na>ra* tocutI £ev%ta. JJ^#a- 

frtU-vdqiov : IlpCapoc. Epich. ap. Cram. Anecd. Ox. 4. 273. 9. 0*f- 

%<^:a^ 'leg.' Epict. 1. 12. 24, ftvftpd 

MBpiov tS xocrp) iyxalsT?; mpwdQW : VM? I '""• ^ut 

Mar. 37, 'avaTuau^at [Tsv S<p) fcc^ rt (Wivt&pwi 

oW:^ 'trade,' cf. ts X vCov. Plato Reap. IS « oov 

wocvra? xa\ fcttous TOiotktov twOv p/xfoijirtxc «*pkv 

cpt^oa-ocpou? cpiQcrofJisv. 

248 Chapter XXII. The Suffix -vSqiop. 

III. Diminutives. eXxvdQiov : sXxo?, ' a slight sore.' Hipp. 829, 
s)oct>Bpiov syxaTaXsicp8 > ?jvai xiv^uvo? avails?. xwjjvSqwp  to |j.ixp6v ^wpCov 
Suid. (: xwp]). {jeXvdQior : plloc, ' song.' Used because of modesty (§213) 
in Theocr. 7. 51, opY) cpiXo?, si toi aps<rxsi TouO*' oti rcpav sv opsi to 
[xsXuBptov !<£s7TOva<7a. vK]avdqiov : vyjco? ' island.' Isocr. 5. 145 (with 
accessory deteriorative idea), xaiTOt too? 6vo|j.a<7TOTa'TOUs xai too? api- 
<rroug aoTaW i(7[X£v sv jxtxpoT^ izoXiyyioic, xai vY)at>Bpioi$ Ta? apya? xa- 
Taa)(6vTa£. noXvdqiov : 7u6Xt£ ' city.' Hes., 7uoXi/via • 7UoXtjBp[s]ia. t:6Xic. 
GyoXvdqiov : (jyoXiov 1 ' scholium.' Tzetz. Lye. 1414, situsTv Ta |j.ixpa 
TauTa 7uavra rcspl too Esp^ou cr^oXuBpta. tsi/vSqiov : tsT^o? ' castellum.' 
Xen. Hell. 2. 1. 28, scpuyov si? Ta TstyuBpia, an emendation for ysi- 
Bpia. xtQvdgtov ' /sip ' hand.' Mosch. 2. 13, MixxuXa jjlsv ty[vo) Ta 
yspuBpia, [xaxpa Bs fioiXksi. 

TV. Hijpocoristic words. With the idea ; delicious ' is found ax€- 
Xvdqiov, referring to a roast leg of chicken in Herond. 4. 89, KoxxocXyj 
xaXw?, Ts[xsuo-a [xspso to crxsluBpiov Boovai Tw vstoxopq) Toupvtfro?. 
With the meaning ' fine,' ' elegant ' (like &touqjiaTiov, § 232) occurs 
[lelvdoiov : [xsXo? ' song.' Ar. Eccl. 883, MoO<rai, Bsup' it era to5[j.6v 
orojxa, Ms),oBpiov supouo-ai ti twv 'Icovlxwv. Bion 5. 2, Ei [xso xa);a 
7us>xt Ta [xsMBpia. For eXxvdqiov in Ar. Equ. 907 cf. § 245. 

Y. The following words in -uBpiov either are merely mentioned by 
grammarians or are used in such a way that the precise force of the 
suffix can not be determined : avXvdoiov (Arch. f. Pap. 1. 298 col. 
1.5ff., cf. Herwerden sub xapapTiBiov), eXvdqiov (Pap. Leyd. 10. 9. 26, 
see Herwerden s. v.), Xe'^vdoiov (Schol. ad Dionys. AB. 857) : Xs&c, 
Xoyvdoiov (AB. 1395) : ^oyoc, veanaxvdoiov (Theognost. Can. 126. 28) : 
vsavi<7xo?, TQwyXvdQiov (Theognost. AB. 1425) : Tpcoy}j]. %aXv.vdoiov 
(id. ib. 1430) : /atafe 

329. According to Schwabe, 1. c, BsvBpuBiov : BsvBpov, paptiBiov : 
(3a'pos, and ToxapuBiov ' usurula,' also had -uBpiov, but lost one p of 
the two by dissimilation. While this is possible for the first, because 
of the repetition of the group -Bp- in *BsvBp6Bptov, the form ysp'JBpiov 
makes the last two exceedingly doubtful. Cf. § 311. 

1 For the loss of the t of <s%oKlov cf. § 352 n. 

Chapter XXI1L The Suffix -axiov. 249 


830. The very common modern Greek diminutive suffix -axi in 
words like aos^axi and Tuaioaxi l has its roots as far back as the 
Classical period, but it was no more than a mere beginning. 

331. The origin of this conglutinate, like that of -iBiov, is hardly 
to be sought in the addition of one living diminutive suffix to an- 
other ; for the real diminutive -ax- is exceedingly rare, and mostly 
found only in petrified remnants, in which it could no longer have 
been felt as a diminutive suffix at the very beginning of the trans- 
mission. And aside from this, the fact that most early words in 
-axiov have non-diminutive meaning points to at least a partial origin 
from other words than diminutives. 

332. Derivatives in -ax-iov from primitives in -oc<£ were found from 
early times, and in these -tov could have any meaning which it had 
in other words. Several of these primitives are indeed prehistoric 
' diminutives,' e. g. [X£ipa<; : [xsipa'xiov, BsXcpa'£ : bs^cpocxiov, and rr/Siir/.i : 
(TxuXaxiov ; but since no primitive without -ax- existed beside these 
forms, and these must therefore have been faded 'diminutives' already 
at the very earliest stage of the language, -wv derivatives like uxoXox-tov 
could not have been felt any differently than xXtjJuxx-tov ' little ladder ' : 
xkX\koCE, or <T(OfJuxT-iov : crco^a. Consequently -tov after -ax- stems was 
no more confined to 'diminutive' uses than after any other suffix. 
It is a suffix of appurtenance in xopaxiov : xopa'f, the name of a 
plant (§ 257 B) ; it means 'made of in ravoauov : ~iva'£ (§101 0) ; it 
designates similarity of age in p,sip<xxiov : (liipa? (§ 148). Primitive 
and derivative were also sometimes equivalent: poouov = pa£ cf, 
Hes., ocrrpsov paxiov fralaWov. ow'xtov = <7'Jat, ;i kind of ash. 
<j>uopaxiov = <]juopa?, ' blister,' 2 cf . Diosc. 5. 126, ^pawa t* sv x- 
From words of this kind as well as 'diminutives' the separation of 
-axtov as an independent suffix could take place. 

333. The earliest word in -axiov is x$vr-qmw in Dinolochufl ap. 
AB. 112. It comes from m^Ta and probably designates b kind of 
writing-tablet, so that it must have received Its Hiffil from 

which had an -tov meaning 'made of" flat-wood (flM 

334. The next word in -axiov is a real diminnti?e from the end 
of the Classical period: xXrfpaiuw : xto^, l a little couol 

1 Cf. Scliwabe, op. cit. 63. 

* It is possible to take ^v^xlop as a diminutive referring to a class. 

250 Chapter XXIII. The Suffix -axiov. 

CIA. 4. 682 c 28 (4 th cent. B. C), xXic7|xaxiov pxpov. The cause 
the abstraction of the conglutinate in this case probably was i 
etymologically related xXi|xa'x-iov ' a little ladder,' which could eas 
suggest itself when the speaker was seeking for a diminutive of t 
associated yXig^M- 

335. Patterned after (JjuBp-ax-iov 'blister' were two words which 
seem to have been formed directly from a verb : <fAv£-dxiov ' blister ' : 
<pM£co, inHipp. 133, and ylv-dxiov i blister' : cpXuw. Cf. Hes., yhidLw.%- 
Ta cJ>uBpocxia. 

336. Athenaeus 497 F quotes Crates and Philemon as authorities 
for a certain Persian cup called aavmxior, beside which occurs the 
form cocvvaxpov (Athen. 1. c). Probably, unless one of the two is 
corrupt, cravvaxiov was remodelled from ovxvvaxpov through the influence 
of the congeneric paTia'xiov (§ 129 a): Poctiocxy], and stands beside it 
in the passage from Philemon as quoted by Athenaeus. 

337. Another late example of -axiov is xaxpdxiov y^oxtcoxojjiov 
Hes. This is, however, probably not formed directly from xofyoc, but 
is more closely related to the xa[X'|)oc'xY)£ of the Septuagint, in as 
much as there either existed a by-form xocJjocxyjs to xa|i/j>axY)c, as 
xacfioc to xa'[i^a, or xa' f j»a and xa[rj>oc'xYj£ were contaminated in the 
formation of xocjiaxiov. The -tov was added by analogy to xi(3amov 
or some other -iov word designating boxes. 

338. navv-dxiov : [xavvo?, ' necklace,' is equivalent to its primitive, 
like most names of ornaments in -tov. Cf. Schol. Theocr. 11. 40, 
MANNOE Bs soriv 6 TtspiTpapjXios x6o , [jlo?, to Xsyojxsvov jxavvaxiov. It 
was probably patterned after ca^ocx-iov (§ 145 B) or some word like it. 

339. GJtivtiriQaxiov (Greg. Nyss. vol. 3. p. 142, crmvO^paxiov jxixpdv) : 
crov&Tfp ' spark ' is a diminutive, but it is not so certain that it is 
a real case of the conglutinate -ocxiov, for there are in existence the 
derivatives oTuivQ^pax-iajxa and o-7uiv^Y]pax-coBY]£, which point to the 
existence of a *0TuivD^pa^ which may be the primitive of OTuiv^vjpaxiov. 
On the other hand, these may be due to retrograde derivation from 
the latter. 

340. Our conclusions may be summed up as follows : -axiov had 
indeed begun to exist as an independent conglutinate in Classical 
times, but its productivity was very small, and, like -aBiov, it was 
not par excellence a deteriorative, diminutive, and hypocoristic suffix, 
thus differing from most other -iov conglutinates. How the transfor- 
mation to a living ' diminutive ' suffix was accomplished, remains to be 
investigated on the basis of the latest periods of the Creek language. 

Chapter XXIV. The Suffix -icxwv. 251 

XXIV. THE SUFFIX -unccov. 

341. Since -unco- occurs in a large variety of uses, both diminutive 
and non-diminutive, it is to be expected that the conglutinate -wntiov 
is also not a unit semantically, but all sorts of relations between its 
components are possible. It is, therefore, not at all certain that it 
is always due to an intensive accumulation of 'diminutive' suffixes, 
but other forces must also have played a part. We may divide the 
comparatively numerous words in -unccov which have both a primitive 
with and without -unco-, and so may have been among the pattern 
types, into two groups, according to whether the word in -wxo- -iokij- 
is itself a ' diminutive,' or is not felt as such, whatever its origin. 

342. When the primitive in -unco- is not felt as a ' diminutive, 1 
the formation of an -tov ' diminutive ' is not different from that of 
any other 'diminutive' in the same suffix, and the fact that the 
derivative ends in -unuov is merely accidental. Strictly speaking,, 
the suffix can not be called a conglutinate unless analogical for- 
mations from primitives without -unco- show that it was felt as a single 
suffix. The most conspicuous non-diminutive use of -wxo- was the 
function of designating a primitive as 'like' the derivative, and from 
such words quite a number of real 'diminutives' in -unc-cov were 
formed. Thus from ayxcov ' elbow ' comes dcyxomoxos ' that which is 
like an elbow,' e. g. a bend in the pillar (LXX Ex. 26. 17), and 
from this is formed the simple diminutive iyxtovwx-tov, designating 
the ' little elbow-like bend ' on the flute. From xoxXoc ' circle ' comes 
xoxXunco$ 'that which is circular,' whence the diminutive xuxAunc-tov, 
e. g ' fine little round cake.' /itcovict/coc is not a ' little /itcov,' but 
a short frock which differs so much from the ordinary //^oV/ thai the 
latter name would not be applicable, and this word forms ywwvfcnwov 
'a little /movi/ncos.' In other words -unco-, like -tov, had become B 
suffix for" forming names of vessels, usually without difference in 
meaning from the primitive. Thus xoMmi] (PolL 6, 96, 10. 66; 
Dionys. H. 2. 23) is equivalent to yMiS, 'nip/ whence wk 

little cup.' Similarly Xtxfoxoc (Hipp. ap. Poll. 10. 8S the same 

as X6tos 'plate,' and formed the simple diminutive 
little' plate. From xo&uncos, which when meaning 'jar 1 La equi- 
valent to its primitive xooos, comes xot&Ccx-wv, which d< 
part of a spice-box, the -tov being an exponent of the idea ol simi- 
larity in addition to small size. From faded ' diminutives ' ... 

252 Chapter XXIV. 

come xopic-xiov : xopioxv), 'little maiden,' [xetpcodcrxiov : [xstpaxtexOfc 
' puerulus,' also proper names like Bo'icrxiov (Anth. P. 6. 289) : Bofoxb$ 
Any of the words so far mentioned could be referred to the word 
without -t<7xo- instead of to the immediate primitive with that suffix, 
and then gave existence to a conglutinate kjxiov which was no more 
emphatic than simple -tov. 

343. When the primitive in -tcxo- of a ' diminutive ' in -tcrxtov is 
itself a ' diminutive,' various causes may be operative. On the one 
hand -to-xo- may be changed to -writiov by the attraction of some as- 
sociated word of the preceding group, e. g. Tpoyi(7>uov ' little wheel ' 
instead of the equivalent Tpo^fcxo? (Arist. Mech. 848 a 25) because 
of xdxXictxiov. There are a few cases of real intensive accumulation 
of ' diminutive ' suffixes. So certainly xoxuTicxtov : xotuIithoc ' little 
cup,' in Ar. Ach. 459 (in the begging scene, cf. § 215), ^.oOXd 
[xoi B6? Iv \x6vov KotuXigxiov to yzikoc, aTuoxsxpoupivov, 'just one least 
little bit of a cuplet.' Similarly 7ttvaxi<7xiov : 7ttvaxi<7xoc ' a little 
trencher,' in Antiphan. frg. 3 29 (1. 8), touzo Totkixsipxvov "Avco to 
{xtxpov, to Tiivaxio^ttov. Other ' diminutives ' in -wxiov from ' diminu- 
tives ' in -i(7xo- are aoTiiBio-xiov ' little 'shield ' (= dcaroBidXY], cf. Hes., 
aa-xi^iaxa? • xeXTapia), [3co[xicrxiov ' littlp altar' (= (3w[ji(7xos Hero Spir. 
191), >.t[i£viaxiov 'little harbor' (= li[j.svicrxos Gloss.), ^slicrxiov 
'fine little song' (= [xsXicrxov Alcm. frg. 65), vaurxiov 'little temple' 
(== vaidxo^ Hero Spir. 191), Tpayioxtov, a childish hypocorism for 
Tpocyo? 'hircus' (= Tpayfoxo? Theocr. 5. 141). Perhaps ^upytcrxtov 
' a little turret ' also belongs here, in as much as the meaning ' little 
tower ' rather than ' that which is like a tower ' may be accidentally 
not quotable for 7uupyi<7xo£. If this is not the case, mjpyioxtov must 
be referred directly to Tutipyos instead of to 7uupyu7xo£. 

344. The suffix -umiov, abstracted from the words of the preced- 
ing two groups, had only a very limited productivity in forming words 
without intermediate form in -i<txo-, but there are a few examples. 
By congeneric attraction to ytTwvia-xiov is to be explained ylavicrxiov, 
diminutive of ylxvic, ' cloak.' The four remaining words are all 
formed from neuter primitives : xocvisxiov ' (fine) little basket ' : xavsov, 
p.alaxi(7xiov ' little basket ' : [m^ocxiov (see Gloss, s. v.), pYjjjiaTCaxiov ' petty 
phrasicle ' : pr^a, crxi>(3a>i<7xiov ' worthless dung ' : (TxupaXov. This is due 
to the fact that neuters in -toxov were avoided in the Attic dialect 1 

1 This fact led earlier scholars unreasonably to doubt the existence of 
-ioxov altogether, and the texts were emended accordingly. Cf. Janson, De 
Graec. Ling. Dim. in -ioxog 3 f., De Graec. Serm. Nom. Dim. et Ampl. 65. 

The Suffix -iGxiov. 253 

after -tov had been established as the neuter diminutive suffix par ex- 
cellence. Thus [j.sXi<txov in Alcman became pXiraiov in Antiphanes. 
Probably the consciousness of the existence of the suffix -wxwv together 
with the great similarity of -traov and -wnuov caused incipient for- 
mations of the former rarer kind to become the latter as the more 
frequent in the course of utterance. 

345. Since many words in -wnttov arose by the formation of a 
diminutive in -tov to a non-diminutive in -toxo-, the pattern types of 
the former largely had a diminutive meaning, and this is by far the 
commonest function of the conglutinate. At the same time there are 
also a few examples with hypocoristic and still fewer with deteriorative 
meaning, but there is no tendency whatever to extend the use of 
-wxiov beyond this to the more adjectival uses of -wv. When, 
therefore, xoeBwmov ' part of a spicebox ' seems to be ' that which is 
like a jar,' this is incidental and accessory to the diminutive idea, 
as is shown by the use of the modifying adjective Xzzzot; in the only 
passage where it occurs. There follows a list of examples classified 
according to meaning. 

I. Deterioratives. ^rj^arlaxiov. Plato Theaet. 180 A, worap ex 
cpapsrpas pY][iaxi<7Kta atviy^aTwBY) (Scva<wuSvrs$ tfcxoro^stiooGt. 0xv(i<tXi&uov, 
a very uncertain conjecture of Ahrens for Timocr. of Rhodes frg. 1. 
6, apyupioi<7i <7xo(3a)a<7xioi(7i xswfrst£. xXavlaxiov. Aeschin. 1. 131, si 
yap ti? gov toc xop/jja: TauTa ylaviaxta rcspisX6[tevos xai to-j; [j.aAaxvj: 
yiT(ttvC<JXOt>s, . . . otjiat av oakoij? . . . axopYJcrai, sits &v$p6{ zl" yovai- 
yjjc s?XY]cpa(7iv IcBrjTa. 

II. Diminutives, dyxiovidxiov. Hero Spir. 229 C, '< kav V//a(o- 
\jjzbdi Tiva? tcov aulwv cp&syysc-frat, xaTa?o[j.£v toTc BaxrJAot; ra xat 
sxsivous ayxcoviraia. damdiaxiov. Diosc. 3. 105, rcap ol; 6 ko 

6- tatBCaxta W5w&a. pwpUsxwv. Pap. Berol. 162. 12 (2d o 
cent. B. C.), papfauov apyupouv ptpov TSTpayowov. xadnixmr. 
chares frg. 2. 842 (1), nfltf sv oc6™ tori i^ov KcfcCoxja Ku|J 
*<m(rx^. Ar. ap. Poll. 10. 91, alio? B' sleeps i&exTfc xav 
<*p<ufcv mpOoum ^pora. Ptol. ap. Athen. 2290, *» » wevk* 
tav™ xptKrA. xor^feSf*ov, see §343. xmOJamw. DioBC. 2. 105, 
Mm Sia'pa? t& xuxtoxux (sc toO xY)poO). Damocr. ftp. GW. foL 14. 
p. 95. 9, *o£y)<xov o5™ Xstut* wxvu xuxMma. xr//o-x/«r. I'oll. <>. 
98, xuWoxwv oM apup* xaXi?. te*U*m. ffipp. 107, 

ft* pfxuvoc -rife l£»x% fouorpl'K 6x6 * ov ^™ ov ' °* aTt **" 
*#w. Synes. 165, tyJv ts vauv evop^et tyfvwxl* gapfe* \ 
djiMKaXotkiwaM). ^atetoav. Theod. Stud. 2900, A*.™Wtv 

254 Chapter XXV. 

. . . tocBs ia Buo fxa),axi<7xia zlc, 67u6[r//)[j.a cpOaac. vcligxiov. Pap. Ox. 
521. 4 (2d cent. A. D.), xs)rpu<7co[xsvov va'icxtov. Cf. also %j]),ovcct- 
oxiov, ib. 7. nivaxLcxiov, see § 343. nvgytoxiov. Schol. Aesch. Sept. 
158, lifrdc, vjiot <7cop6? XCfrwv, Ip^eiai sm i&v sroxX^ecov, vjiot ioW pxpwv 
rcupyicTxicov twv axpo(36).o)v xiX. tqoxIgxiov. Schol. Appol. Rhod. 1. 
144, to xivoujxsvov TpoyiGKiov bno twv cpapp.axi?kov pi>[x[3tov xa>.sTiai. 
XMtovLtixiov. CIA. 2. 754. 28 (349-344 B. C), yiTomcxiov xapiov 
toxlBsTov. xlavltixiov. Ar. Ach. 519, avBpa'pta |xoyQ*Y]pa . . . 'Eduxo 
cpa'via Msyapscov ia ^Xavicrxia ('the very coats of the Megarians,' cf. 
§ 216). CIA. 2, 754. 40, xaiBiou yJXavt<7xiov Xsuxov xapiov. 

III. Hypocoristic words. The idea ' fine,' ' elegant,' as in axouo- 
[xoctiov (§ 232), is found in (isMoxiov, Antiphan. frg. 3. 119, o&Ik 
xa\ loyicjios zlc, \kzGov IIaia|ai(o Tt£ xai it xat p.s)i<7xtov, EipocpY) 7.6y(ov 
rcapsXfrsito it?. Due to endearment are probably, besides proper names 
like Bo'icrxiov, xoqlGxiov, Poll. 2. 17, and the childish Tqayioxiov in 
Hesychius, if the text is correct : s^a'yco yalbv ipayi<rx[t]ov, rcaiBtas 
sTBo? roxpa Tapaviivoi?. 


346. Of the former Schwabe (op. cit. 85) brings forth only xo- 
pocX(X)iov, xoupa'Xiov, xopa'Xiov, for which he quotes three passages from 
Hesychius : xtopa'Xiov • rcaiBa'piov, xopiov. Bayu? • noupoilliov, vt>p.<pY] Xsu- 
xoxrjpo?. ysXyia * tcyJvy), cnuafrai, xoupa'Xta. Also Alciphr. 1.39, "Otuws 
B 5 Yj^si^ cpspouaa xy]iiov xal xopa'XXiov, xai iov aov "ABwvtv, 6v vUv rcspi- 
cjxj/s^* [isia yap i&v epaarGW xpawuaXYJ<TO[jisv. Here he translates xo- 
pdlliov ' imagunculam Adonidis.' The same word elsewhere repeatedly 
designates a coral : Theophr. Lap. 38 ; Luc. Pro Merc. Cond. 1 ; 
Diosc. 5. 139. While the origin of the latter meaning is obscure, 
the former seems to point to xopa'X(X)tov etc. as a diminutive or hypo- 
corism to xopo? (xoupos, xwpo?), and since there is no primitive in 
-gc1(1)o- to be found, it makes probable the existence of a real di- 
minutive conglutinate -aX(X)iov, which is also found in cTrupiBaXiov 
'a little basket' : (nuupts. Cf. Pallad. Laus. p. 93, "Alloc, xXsxcov 
cTcupiBa? iocs fJLsyocXa?, alloc, ia Xsy6[xsva [jiaXaxia, ia G-TCUpiBa'Xia ia. 

347. With such a meager material it is, of course, impossible to 
determine with accuracy the starting-point of the suffix, but it cer- 

The Suffixes -ak(l)iov and -eXhov. 255 

tainly can not be a conglutination of diminutive -o&o-4-*tov, as is 
Claimed by Schwabe (op. cit. 62); for there is not the slightest trace 
.»t r diminutive -vlo- in the Greek language, and the words given 
l>\ him as examples are either not diminutives at all, or, if so orig- 
inally, had lost that meaning before their first appearance; so e. g. 
he mentions as diminutives (p. 82 ff.) yiowodo^ xpudTaXXoc, vsx'JBa)^, 
oxtocMos, cra'vBodov. Even if a word of this kind should be a remnant 
of I. E. diminutive -1-, this would not affect the origin of the post- 
Classical Greek -otkiov. This must have been abstracted by the process 
of wrong analysis from words like o-avBo&iov : crocvBodov, axowXiov : 
(tkutocXy), xscpa'Xiov : xscpaXv], porcocXtov : poradov, cptaXiov : (ptaXt). Since 
there are extant no collateral forms of any one word with and without 
-ocXo-, it can not be decided which word or words were the real 
patterns ; for there is not one among them that would seem suf- 
ficiently associated with xopa'X(X)iov or trjcupi&oXtov to cause direct 
transfer of endings, unless cpw&iov ' a little bowl ' influenced oroptftocXiov 
1 a little basket.' 

348. The evidence for the conglutinate -zlliov, which Schwabe 
also considers to be derived from two independent diminutive suffixes, 
is so doubtful that its existence may with great probability be denied. 
In the first place, a few Latin loan-words must be removed from the List 
When Latin words in -ello- or -ella- were admitted into Greek, it was 
natural that they should often be remodelled by the influence of some 
congeneric Greek word or, if they were 'diminutives,' by the addition 
of a suffix that would be recognized as ' diminutive ' in Greek. Thus the 
Latin flabellum 'fan' became Gr. cpXa(3sMtov through the influence 
of Greek instrument nouns in -tov, and similarly flagellum 'whip' be- 
came (pXaysMiov. Through association with other names of vessels in 
-tov Lat. patella sometimes became raxT&Xtov, though wrriXXa also occurs. 

349. It is not impossible that -sMiov should have been transferred 
from such words to congeneric native Greek words, and thus caused 
the abstraction of a suffix -sXXiov, but there is no decisis evidence 
that this was really ever done. Thus Schwabe mentions / 

as a diminutive of xpixo? 'circle' in Alex. Trail. Cft] 
Colico 9 p. 165, Aa(3wv BaxmUiov <nto)pot>v wofopov ysvi^ai s 
Xtov aSrotl oxTa'yowov. But the primitive xpCxe/./.o: also, and 

not in diminutive meaning. Cf. Gl. ex Actis Sylvestri hip ;.e ,.. 271. 
izuloCi yoCkyioTi iywwi xptxav,^. Similarly (WotlXiov 1 is aol 
from <ra'xoc, but from <rax&a. Cf. Hes., 1**11%' faotl rt 
1 Spelled with -tt- Photius 496. 20. 

256 Chapter XXVI. 

TtfrsTat. a-axsXiov 6[xoico£. Since, then, these two words are also no 
evidence for a conglutinate -sl(X)iov, there is but one very doubtful 
word left : toc [xapysX^ta ' a kind of palm-tree with fruit like a pearl,' 
which is a conjecture for the msc. apysXXtoc in Cosmas Indicop. 11 
c. 9. Passow also has [xapysX^tov ' a pearl,' but gives no citation. 
Of this word there exists a Greek primitive neither with nor without 
-sk(X)o-, so that it is much safer to reconstruct a primitive *[j.apysXXa 
than *[jLapya, and then to argue the existence of a conglutinate -slXtov 
merely on the basis of a hypothetical word. Much more probably, 
however, jxapysXXiov, if it actually existed, was a borrowed word, 
perhaps also from the Latin, since margella, though with the meaning 
' coral,' occurs in the Gloss. Gr. Lat. 

350. Unless better evidence is brought forth, the conglutinate 
-sX(X)tov was consequently a non-entity, but even if we admit its 
existence, its origin from Latin loan-words is much more probable 
than the assumption of a double diminutive suffix (Schwabe p. 62). 
This is impossible for the same reason as for -aX(X)iov, namely, that 
-ek(X)o- does not occur as a living diminutive suffix at any period of 
the Greek language. Schwabe (p. 39) could only quote xfelXov ' cup,' 
vscpsXr) ' cloud,' GKOTzzkoc, ' rock,' the proper names ^Q^tKkoc, and M6g- 
xsXo£, and even %£\)jzz\oc, and (doubtfully) ocyyslo^ ' messenger ! ' For 
the whole question of Greek diminutives in 1 suffixes other than 
with o see Janson, op. cit. 83. 

XXVI. THE SUFFIX -tAXiov (-uXtov). 

351. With the above explanation of the origin of the suffix 
-uBpiov (§ 325) Brugmann's suggestion (Gr. 2. I 2 . 376, 471) that 
the -oXkiov in words like ^svuXliov is derived from -*uBXiov loses its 
only support : for, if the B of -uBpiov comes from the inorganic B in 
avBpiov, it is impossible to use it as an analogical support for -*uB),tov, 
which presupposes a suffixal -uB-. We may then return to the usual 
explanation that -uXXtov = -uXko- -f- -tov, and that -uXko- comes from 
-u\o- by the same doubling of consonants as in the hypocoristic forms 
of proper names. 1 Those appellatives which are used like proper 
names in address, e. g. tit^y) 'nurse,' or yuvvt? 'effeminate person,' 2 
point out the way by which -uXko- <^ -ulo- was transferred from 

1 Cf. Brugmann, Gr. 2. I 2 . 44. 

2 Cf. Brugmann, 1. c. 

The Suffix -vXfaov. 257 

proper names like Boc&tAXog to personal appellatives, and it is by the 
addition of -iov to one of these that the suffix -otttov must have 

arisen. After it had once grown into a single 'diminutive' suffix in 
these personal names, it would naturally be put on a par with other 
1 diminutive ' suffixes, with the result that its use was extended to 
words designating things, e. g. avWMiov : avB>o? 'flower/ 

352. In no case does there exist a primitive in -ullo- beside the 
word in -oMiov, and consequently the primitive of the pattern type 
is lost. The pattern itself, however, can be determined with some 
certainty. It appears from above that it must be a personal appel- 
lative, and of these there are found only three: fJieipaxdXXtov : [Lttpaxiov 
• youth/ uvjXkiov : %£voc, ' stranger,' and the late ppscp'JXAiov : Jipeoo; 
' infant/ A further indication is given by the fact that the suffix is 
used in deteriorative meaning in the great majority of passages, and 
aside from it only the hypocoristic use is found in the Classical period. 
This points to a pattern type in which the deteriorative use be- 
came in the nature of the case the usual one, and one in which it 
was intimately associated with hypocoristic meaning. This can only 
be ^sipocx'JXXiov, which, though hypocoristic in origin, naturally became 
deteriorative in most cases, because the idea of effeminacy easily at- 
taches itself to any term of endearment addressed to males win n 
older than mere children. This [xstpa/JMiov was derived from a 
primitive *p&ipcau)Xko<; which had within it already the same meaning 
and the addition of -iov was a case of emphatic doubling of suffixes. 
The existence of a primitive *u;sipaxuMos is further made probable 
by the fact that pxipax-JMiov has no direct primitive to which it could 
be referred: uxipaxiov -f -uMtov would give *[jisipaxi , J>.>«iov. 1 and it can 
not come from jxsTpaH, because that only refers to girl- (§ 148), 
Even the assumption that -ulliov was substituted for the -iov of 
[xstpaxiov because the two suffixes were felt to be equivalent i- oul 
of place here because -iov in [xsipaxiov does not convey ;my meaning 
that is ever found in -ulliov. 

353. Of the prevailing deteriorative use of -tA).iov I have found 
the following examples: pqeyvXhw : |3ptyo$ ' l>.«l>y." Luc l> M 
5, o c ) ? fy&yoMlou; ™u™, o) pr&o<?6pe, t j{ j.Tv )iy £t ? ** 1 WK*M 
Fug. 19, to B' oioyolov xoci [xixpceixiov xai rcpo? dpyr,v ^&0\ 

» After *u6iQ«xvttos was lost, puoaxvUM musl bavs be€ 
wr, and it is probably by analogy to this word th,t formation, hi. 
ho* (Theognost. Can. 126. 26): naitioio* were made. BimlUrlj 


258 Chapter XXVI. 

(3pecpuXXta Ta veoyva'. envAltov : l%oc ' poem.' Ar. Ach. 398, f O voO^ 
(sc. too EuptrciBou) [xsv s£o) '^tAXsywv ^TuuHta Oux svBov, atjTo? V svBov 
avaj3aBY)v 7uois? TpaywBtav. id. Ran. 942, v Ioyvava (sc. EupimBr^) [xsv 
7upamoTov auTYjv (sc. ty]v TpaywBiav) xal to (3apos acpsTXov, 'EroAXioic 
xal 7uspt7uaTois xai tsotXiokk ^euxoTc. id. Pax 532, o£st, . . . stuuMiwv E5pi- 
raBou. xqevXhov : xpsa? ' flesh.' Synes. 268 C, p]Bsv Y)ysTo-8'ai Beivov 
ava^copYJam tou 9nAaxiou tcov xpsu7.Xto>v. (ieiQCtxvk/.iov : |j.st,pa'xiov ' youth. 7 
Ar. Ran. 89, Ouxouv sTsp' lor' svTaufra [xstpaxu^Xta, Tpayw^iac rcoiouvTa 
xXsTv r\ [jujpia, EupimBou tuXsTv y] araBia) XaXtarspa ; Epicr. frg. 3. 368 (3), 
Ti yap v EyJkov y] " toxT xaT" xaXsTc^at rcapa tcotov, Kal TauV aysv£io> 
jxsipaxuXTico tlvi. Eubul. frg. 3. 242 (1. 3), Tpipa>.^o7uoxav68»ps7CTa 
[xstpaxuXXia. 'Merely a youth' (§ 167 f.) in Dem. 21. 78, jxsipa- 
xuXXiov a>v xo{j.iBy]. id. 23. 163, 6 ^s Kspa-o[3}i7UTY)c 6 vuv fiacikzuMv 
[xsipaxo^Xtov y]v. ^vvXXiov : £svoc ' stranger.' Plut. 2. 229 E, AoiBo- 
poujiivou Bs Ttvo'£ aft™, S17US* Xsys 7uuxvw£, a> <JsvuXXiov, Xsye [T/jBsV sX- 
Xsfaucov, av <jou Buvrj Tav ^u/av xsvwam xaxwv, &v sotxa^ x)a)'pY)c stvai. 
id. 2. 240 E, xaTacpO-eps? crs, scpY), w 7uarsp, to '^svuXXiov, lav |xy) Ta'^iov 
atkdv tyjc otxia? sx(3a'XY)c. areyvAAior : arsyY], ' wretched hovel.' He- 
rondas 7. 83, MaT sixotw^ ctsu to orsyul^iov, KspBcov, IIsx^yjOs Ba^iXso>v 
ts xat xalwv spycov. It is to be noticed particularly that the dete- 
riorative-hypocoristic origin presupposed for the suffix above finds sup- 
port by the large percent of examples where these two ideas are 
really both present. Thus the ironical use of a hypot orism is not 
only represented in some of the examples of [istpaxuTJiov just quoted, 
but also in the first example of %zv6Xkiov. The examples of tatfXXiov, 
on the other hand, are cases of dramatic irony. It is supposed to be 
' fine little poem ' in the mouth of the speaker, but ' worthless poem * 
through the intrusion of the poet's personality. (Jf. § 152, 243. 

354. Alongside of the deteriorative and deteriorative-hypocoristic 
functions of the suffix the purely hypocoristic had not been given up 
entirely. So with endearment fietQaxvXAwv in Anaxandr. frg. 3. 
175 (12), wpaTov Bs jxsipaxuXTaov Iloiatc sxwBaTc yj loyoic aXtoxsTai Tio"iv ; 
Com. Anon. frg. 4. 651 (188), v Evfra Gratktc cpps? jji wc to [jxipaxu);- 
Xiov. The Scholia to Dionysius (AB. 857 j give IlQm^vkhov : ITpiap.0? 
as an example of using diminutives " 67uo0>o:>7usuovts<:. 11 The meaning 
'neat,' 'elegant' (§ 232) is probably found in eldvXXtov : sTBo?, 'idyl T 
(Pliny Ep. 4. 14), and certainly in civSvlXiov : avfroc, ' beautiful flower/ 
Marc. Ant. 4. 20, a^apa'yBiov yap saoTOU /sTpov ytvsTai sav [xyj ircaivYjTai ; 
ti Bs ^puo"6g, Dicpa?, 7Uopcpt5pa, >,upa, [Jia^aipiov, av^'J^Xiov, BsvBp'Jcpiov. 

355. After the Classical period the process of semantic syncretism 

The Suffix -vXhoy. 259 

with simple -wv caused the sphere of usage of -oMwv to be extended 
beyond the hypocoristic and deteriorative uses. In an inscription from 
Deles of the year 179 B. C. occurs xsQccfivVUw : vipoma;, xepoc>wv. 
Of. Ditt"-'. 588. 179, xepapMtov apyupouv XTov. This word must he 
either a diminutive meaning a 'little vessel,' or the -oXXwv has taken 
the place of the -wv of xspocjuov, which originally meant 'made of/ 
A certain example of diminutive meaning is favMiov : £6>ov, ' a little 
animal/ e. g. in Tzetz. Hist. 9. 957, v Ectti xocl tt £»fl&tov cpa'Xatva 
xaV^ivr,, e O Tate luyyioaQ fazonca. In one word -oXXtov has even 
taken the place of -wv as an instrumental suffix, viz. fiuQvXJLiov : 
(3apos, an instrument for finding the weight of liquids, Synes. 175 A. 
356. -tAwv with one 1 seems never to have gained independence 
as a ' diminutive ' conglutinate. 'HBMtov (Plaut. Pseud. 187) is formed 
from an extant 'HBMy], which has become a permanent personal name, 
and xoyy;JXiov, of course, comes from xoypTj) ' mollusk/ For (payJXiov 
see § 80. There remains xovBMiov, which designates a cup, and 
which Homolle, BCH. 6. 116, surmises to be a diminutive to xovoj. 
This is hazardous, however, not only because it would be the only 
example of a conglutinate -(Vpaov, but also because there exists as a 
possible primitive xovBulo?. Just what the relation of primitive and 
derivative would be it would be useless to ask, but the latter, of 
course, could not be a diminutive to the former. 


357. A conglutinate -Uvwv seems to occur in the one word ai i r 
Svviov : <7TYJfroc, ' delicious tittle breast. 1 Cf. Eubul. frg. 3. 268 15a I 
= Ephipp. frg. 3. 325 (2. 7), Hviyeiv ts tox/scov apvtcov -mrjMvia. 
Phryn. 384, ottjO'Uvwv opvifriou Tiyotxrf tivsc o6x 6fitic. The hypo- 
coristic meaning appears faded in Poll. 2. 162. xb 51 ttt/Jwv pioov 
cttt/j.'Jvwv. Also Insc. Att. Ditt 2 . 633. 10, Tcape/etv ftl xa\ t? frc$ to 
xadfytov, $e&Gv||<m£Xo« xai Bopav xai xs'^a^v xai x6l*s xai crnjWvwv. 

358. Unless a primitive *<rn)8i5vY) is accidentally not quotable, 
<7ty)8wov must have gotten its suffix by analogy to wrordfl I 
vwvrXaytJvY] 'flask,' xeMvwv : x^vt) 'lip,' '>w/ more particularly 
the latter, because, like <rri)Wvwv, it designates a pari of the b 

If Meineke's conjecture for Epich. frg. 42. 2 la correct, then 

a form tyjWvwv ' a kind of mollusk,' which would pom1 toa primitive *rr ( - 

8>uvy] beside tVJ&uov. In that case <rnjWvwv could have rec 

because of the great similarity of its root tmfr to th« 

260 Chapter XXVIII. 


359. As pattern types of the suffix -aptov the following words are 
a possibility : paccapiov : (Sao-capa, c a kind of fox' (§ 142), scrva- 
ptov : soy^a'pa, c a pan of coals' (§ 80) or 'a little hearth' (§ 199), 
xowntapiov (ap. Plut. 2. 668 B) deteriorative to xowuruapis l caper plant,' 
xuTTOcpiov = xuTTapo^ ' cell of a comb ' (§ 84 A), otva'ptov ' wine,' 
; poor wine,' etc. : otvapov ' vine,' cwaptov ' a certain women's orna- 
ment': <7i(7apov a certain plant (§ 145 B), TocXaptov = TocXapo^ 'bas- 
ket' (§ 131). Any of these words could give their -aptov to associated 
words by the force of congeneric attraction, e. g. soya'p-tov ' a pan of 
coals ' could cause Xs(3Y]T-a'ptov  a caldron,' Y)Q*[x-a'piov c sieve,' etc. ; dtda'p- 
tov, a name of a women's ornament, could give rise to svwT-a'ptov ' ear-ring,' 
or xoqj.a'ptov ' ornament.' Probably the greatest part, however, in the 
creation of the new suffix was played by oivaptov. Originally it must 
have been ' a little vine ' or merely ' wine,' being formed from otvapov 
with the idea ' that which comes from the vine.' This double nature 
as a diminutive to otvapov and as a synonym to olvoc could cause 
contamination of the two meanings, so that otva'ptov was felt as a 
4 diminutive ' to olvoc L wine,' and then the abstraction of the suffix 
-aptov was inevitable. The original adjectival nature of otva'ptov pre- 
supposed by its derivation as ' that which comes from the vine ' re- 
ceives support from its use as a real adjective in Antiphanes frg. 3. 
75 (2. 4), £7ut Bs toutoic 7utvo[j.sv Otva'ptov sTBoc. Whether the last word 
is retained, so that we may translate otva'ptov stBoc as ' a kind of wine,' 
i. e. 'a poor excuse for wine,' or whether t]Bo? is substituted with the 
idea ' vinegar belonging to the category of wine,' the adjectival nature 
of otva'ptov remains the same. 

360. Adjectival in origin was also soya'ptov ' a pan of coals,' clear- 
ly a substantiation from the adjective Sa^apioe. ' belonging to the 
hearth.' This feeling for the connection between adjective and the 
suffix -aptov could crop out again and again in later times, and no 
doubt had some influence in giving to the latter its large sphere of 
meaning. We have actual late evidence of the feeling for this re- 
lation in the use of the phrase 0-Sp.a roxtBa'ptov exactly parallel to c-cojxa 
avBpstov and o-&|ia yuvatzstov in inscriptions from Delphi CB. 1703. 2, 
cco|j.aTa Buo 7:atBa'pia sv^oyev?]. ib. 1898. 2, o-w[j.a ;uat|Ba'pto[v]. In a 
late Boeotian inscription (after 212 A. D.) ap. Ditt 2 . 740. 8 -apto- 
is actually considered an adjectival suffix, and forms the secondary 

The Suffix -{d)aqwv, 261 

adjective oropto'pioc 'rough,' perhaps because of the deteriorative 
dement in the primitive <rro<pX6 € : exopfaorro Bta toO|8*oO <rfj yepo^a 
/copsioiov <jTt><pX[a]|piov 7uX(£8>pa>v) 6*n&. Cf. also TuXaxouvTapioc' a maker 
of pastry cakes' (CIG. 9311): xXaxouvTocptov = rcXotxoOc. 

361. With the -aptov originating as above must not be confounded 
the late suffix which is the representative of Lat. -arium or -anus. 
Thus (TouBocpiov (ffwBapiov) comes from the Lat. sudarium, supapiov 
(Arch. f. Pap. 1. 129 n. 2) from pomarium, <rtYiXXaptov (Marc. Ant. 
7. 3) from sigillarium, BYjvaptov is adapted from Lat. denarius, tarepiov 
(Insc. Calymna Ditt 2 . 869. 6, Smyrna ib. 871. 6) from assarius = as. 

362. It is to be expected even a priori that a suffix which sep- 
arated from a variety of prototypes in which -tov had a large di- 
versity of meaning, will carry with it a corresponding variety of 
significations. The meaning 'belonging to' in fer/aptov, 'like the 
primitive' in (3ao-o-apiov, the use of xuTra'piov, swapcov, and TOXoeptev 
in meanings which do not differ from those of their primitives, the 
diminutive use of soyapiov, and the deteriorative use of oivopiov would 
all be of influence in extending the function of the suffix as found 
in themselves. Other meanings which did not happen to be representee! 
among the pattern types could follow because of semantic syncretism 
with other suffixes, and so -apiov became equivalent to -tov in practi- 
cally all of those denominative uses which were felt as being related 
to each other. This excludes, of course, the abstract and verbal 
formations, and on the whole the compounds, though the attraction 
of congeneric words is a bridge to the latter which has been CB 

by at least one word : iv-wT-opiov ' ear-ring/ Of. Hes., po-rp-JBta  £vc>- 

TOCpiWV slBo£. 

363. While -apiov is thus far from being strictly a 'diminutive 5 
suffix, yet the deteriorative, diminutive, and hypocoristic uses, as also 
in case of -iBiov, are comparatively more strongly represented than in 
simple -tov, particularly in earlier times, for it is natural thai the 
assimilation of meanings should progress further in course ol time. 
H. Stephanus, and later Janson (op. cit. 7»i). maintained thai Hie 
suffix had a special predilection for the deteriorative ase. and there 
is some truth in this when compared to -tBwv or simple -•//,. While 
the diminutive use of the latter suffixes is found v,n much more 
frequently than the deteriorative, the two meftningB are aearlj 

in the examples of -apiov. There is, Low,.,,-, no tend 

the latter to such proportion, as to outweigh all others pul together, 

as was the case with -uBpiov and -ottwv ... the Clawioal period. 

262 Chapter XXVIII. 

364. Instead of -apiov -yjpiov is occasionally written in one word, 
viz. ctAvjpiov, e. g. Hes. sub. p6[j.[J0£. Since this spelling occurs 
a number of times, it was probably an actual form, which was con- 
taminated from ^Aa'piov and ^tAvfyiov (§ 380). 

365. Like -aptov in meaning is the conglutinate -Bapiov, which 
arose in words like potBa'piov : (3oiBiov. The habit of considering -apiov 
as equivalent to -iov and of substituting the former for the latter 
could also be applied to words in -(i)Biov ; for the popular conscious- 
ness would often not distinguish whether the B belonged to the stem, 
as in TuaiBiov, or to the suffix, as in (3oiBiov. Consequently there occur 
(3oiBa'piov for potBiov, £wBapiov for JwBtov, xcoBa'piov for xwBiov, poiBa'piov 
for potBiov. In the same way -ocptov could be substituted for the -iov 
of -iBiov after consonants, and so we find (3i(3XiBa'ptov for pt^XCBiov, 
ijxaTiBa'piov for t|jiaTiBtov, xto(3iBa'piov for xco[3iBiov, cnjTuiBapiov for or^iBiov, 
ypua-iBa'piov for ypua-iBiov. Since no words in -iBa'ptov are found except 
beside -iBiov, there is no evidence that a consciousness for a suffix 
-iBapiov was ever developed, but an unmistakable -Bapiov without 
preceding I is found in pa-Ba'piov : pa. 

366. Collection of Examples, classified according to meaning. 
For a few examples which are classified according to the original 
meaning of the -tov of which the place is taken by -apiov rather than 
by the actual attitude of the speaker, see § 291. 

I. ' Belonging to,' ' connected with.'' sometimes approaching the 
possessive idea. xcdctfiaQiop : xa'Xa^o?, ' reed-case,' either ' that which 
belongs to the reeds 1 or 'that which holds the reeds.' Jo. Lyd. de 
Magistr. 2. 14. "kvxpixdqiop, Suid. without gloss, but cf. the following 
Xuyvityjs Xib'og. fyvaqiov : pivos, ' skin-salve.' Paul. Aeg. 3. 22. topccqiop : 
t6vo£, 'pitch-pipe.' Quint. 1. 10. 27. yahvaqiov : yaXivo?, 'the cheek- 
ornament of a bridle. 1 Schol. A 142, TOXpayvaO-iBiov to vuv yaTava'piov 

II. Names of instruments and tools, particularly those which are 
equivalent to their primitives, fofjaotov BiuXi(7TY]piov Hes., = y]8|».6s 
' strainer.' Igtccqiop ' loom ' = tartff Men. frg. 4. 111. (3), 'E£ iGrapioo 
B' sxps[j.aT0 <piXo7u6vco£ Tua'vu. xfavdoiov ' couch ' = xXivy]. Ar. ap. Poll. 
10. 32. xovxdqiov ' pole ' = xovto?. Eustath. 1641. 8, A?jXov Be 6n tov 
pYjfrsvTa f Op]pix6v xovtov to 7uap' 7][xTv xovTa'piov &7uex6pws. This shows 
that the primitive was not known later except in literature, and that 
no diminutive force could then have been felt in the derivative. 
(jtovaQiov & ypwvTai iaTpot sv TaT? TcXYjyaTs, rcpo? to p] ctovto^o)? s[i- 
(ppaVreafrai auTa'? Suid. (relation to the primitive fjorog obscure). 

The Suffix -(d)aqiov. 263 

[, run '/mo, or < spoon ' = poTt^ (cf. xoxXtapiov sub VII). Poll. I 

to *£ jcoxXtapiov xaV% av pcmXaptov ^ xo/>6po X ov. cr^o/or 

'seat' ^oitta. AB. 469. 23. 07^,0*, < knife ' = cuiX* Paul. 

Aeg. (i. 7;*, AtsXsTv to a7u6arY]p.a ojiAapCw. 

III. ' J/acfe o/,' ' consisting of: pip)Aqiov ' book ' = ^Xiov : p$Xo& 
Anth. P. 11. 78.^ Am^toi; ' net ' : XCvov ' flax.' Eustath. 1452. 61. Xtvopta 
T£ xaXoucrt Ta &Y]paTixa BtxTua. xcx;ra^i« a certain spice : xoo^or the 
root from which it is made. Strabo 784. (fvxdqwv 'rouge' = aoxioy 
: cpuxo?. Hes., acpuxa- axaMwTutoTa- roxpa to p) s/siv cpoxa'ptov, o f&X- 
loo<7tv at yova?x£c 7up6? cptXoxa)aav. 

IV. IFords designating an indeterminate mass, largely by analogy 
to some of the preceding group, e. g. xocrTa'ptov and cpoxopiov. *w- 
<r<^/or = xvToa 'fat.' Etym. Mag. 522. 26, xvtoa . . . axe/ too xvC>> 

6 07)|J.atV£t TO XSTUTJVO) • XsTUTOTaTO? yap StfTtV 6 ilZlxlouc, TOOT£TTl to 7.£yo- 

jxsvov xvtcraptov. // tlxaqiov = ^to? ' red earth,' ' red lead,' etc. Pap. mag. 
bibl. nat. Par. (W.) 2220. nv&qiov = p§x ' discharge from the nose,' 
; mucus.' Marc. Ant. 4. 48, 6. 13. xvldqiov = yulo<; 'juice.' Marc. 
Ant. 6. 13, 6 <f>alspvoc ytAapiov Son oTacpoXtou. Cf. also oxoyya'ptov 
sub VII. 

V. Generalizing, xoy xaq iov : xoy/Y], 'a kind of muscle.' Diosc. 
2. 9, Kai 6 sx t&v /y][X(ov ts xat twv aXXwv xoyyapuov £o>[j.oc KOiWocv 
xivsT £(j>6p.svoc [J.£Ta oXtyoo o^aTO?. xoG/uccqiov : xoop.0::, 'a kind of orna- 
ment.' Hes., xajxaxtc - xoajxa'ptov 6 to6c xloxapuc r.z^i/zi. Atlini. 
474 E, yuvatxaov xoajia'ptov lonv xavoNxpo?. xvvagia : xuo>v, 'the 
members of the dog tribe.' Plato Euthyd. 298 D, 1 xat on apa aBsV 
<p6? si twv j3otBttov xat xuvaptow xai /oipiBCwv. Kai yap ^i ^? r r Kak 
7:poc apa opt tuoctyJp Io-ti xat xuwv. oqntiaoiov : opvt£, ' ;i member of the 
bird tribe.' Anaxandr. frg. 3. 184 (1. 62), xat npbc to'Jtoi; *i » 
acpaTcov 7uXyjD>oc, Nyjttwv, cpaTTow yrpzQ, crTpouO-ot, Kt/Xat, xApufol, xCttqo, 
xoxvot, IkXfixav, Ktyxlot, y£pavoc. oipdqiov : etyov, 'a kind of meat or 
fish.' Lync. frg. 4. 433 (21), 'Ctya'ptov auTo tooto gftpafajmc ;j/>,v. 
"Iva TauTa 7wa'vT£C, u,Y) to p.£v iyw, to B 5 £T£pO£. xo'/.ikuhh 

1 a kind of porridge.' Diosc. 2. 114, soti Bs $6yi\\ut w? xoXTa: 
xaiBtot? appBtov. qi&oiov : pi?a, probably '.m kind <>f root, 1 though 
possibly a diminutive. Hes., ppsvfrtva- fi^apta Tiva, ot? ipi. 1 . 
at yuvaTx£? Ta? 7uap£ta'?. ow va^#ov : axs0O{. a) ' <'v<t\ 'thing beloi 
to one's equipment' (in Plural). Ar. Thesm. 788, 

1 That xvvhqwv was used as a diminutive In the following led 

not prove that it needs must he one here, but Onlj 
the attitude toward diminutive and general! 

264 Chapter XXVIII. 

ayaOov, y)[kv B' a5 xaxo'v, Kaxov Bs xai toi? <7X£»japioi£ xai t9| xpoxr,. 
b) 'a kind of vessel or implement.' Ar. Ach. 451, V Q 8-up.', 6pa? yap 
(Si)? arcwfrotj^ai Bo[xwv, IloX),S>v $60(J£V0£ oxsuaptoav. id. Pax. 201, Ta 
loi7ua TYjpw (Txsua'pia Ta twv 8>sa>v, XuTpiBia xai craviBia xa^cpopsiBia. 
Alcaeus frg. 2. 832 (2), olXKol axsuopi 5 obnynjpioc. Combined with 
deteriorative meaning in Diph. frg. 4. 384 (3. 2), see § 166 sub 
ex7uw[xaTiov. c) equivalent to the primitive in Ar. Ran. 172, v Avi>po)7us, 
poo^st crxeua'pt' dc, "AiBou cpspstv ; </ vtccqwp : <puro'v, either ' a kind of 
plant ' or ' a little plant.' Schol. Ar. Av. 662, sx zoo (3o'jto'[j.gu  
cpuxapiov 7uapa7uXYJ<7iov xa^a'ixco, 6 £<y{Kou<nv _ ot (3osc. v AXko)c. cpUTotpiov 

VI. Words which are equivalent to their primitives, exclud- 
ing those of II and IV, but including those which were originally 
' specializing.' fioidaqiov = (3oCBtov, fiooc, l ox,' perhaps originally some 
generic idea like 'animal' was understood. Ar. frg. 2. 982 (27), 
PotBapicov Ti£ a7U£XTsivs ^suyos. delraoiov = BsVrfov = B£Xto? ' tablet ' 
(§ 101 C). Polyb. 29. 11. 2. levyaoiov = ^siiyoc 'team,' originally 
with the idea ' animals of the kind for a team,' as is still possible 
Ar. Av. 582, OE B' au xopaxs? twv £suyapitov, olo-tv tyjv yvjv xaTapouarv, 
Kai t&v 7ipo(3aT(ov to*j£ 6cp9>aXp.ou? sxxo'jia'vTwv &A 7csipa. Later the 
fine distinction was lost, and ^suya'piov = Jsuyo?. So Ar. frg. 2. 987 (8), 
^euyapiov [3ostx6v. id. frg. 1108 (1. 4), KsxTY)[jivov £suya'piov oixsTov [3ooTv. 
t^wvccQiop = £<6viov = £covy] ' girdle.' Etym. Mag. 730. 57. Irpocptov, to 
orpoyyulov frova'piov. xwddoiop == xcoBiov = xwa? 'fleece' (§ 315 
VIII C) Cratin. frg. 2. 41 (8), NocxgtiXtoc dxnsepe\ xcoBa'ptov £<paiv6[rr|V. 
'A&^rjTaQior = XspYJTiov = l£fir\c, ' caldron.' Poll. 10. 66, 95. ?^ddowr 
= Irfiiov = 'XtjBo? ' light dress.' Ar. Av. 915. ozvxdqiov = Lat. scutum 
' shield.' Cf. words in -toy like axovTtov and SopaViov (§ 127). 
Hes., ao-xiBa* <rxi>Tapiov yj otzXov. gilxccqiov (cf. Lat. stica), whatever 
its origin, owes its suffix to words like XrjBa'piov. Liturgia Chrysostomi 
p. 70. 

VII. ' Like, but not equivalent to the primitive? dyMvaoiov : 
aycov, ' something like an athletic contest, but not a real one.' Ac- 
cording to Paton and Hicks IC. 43 it designates a kind of college 
examination or competition. Insc. Cos Ditt 2 . 619. 25, 31, 35 = IC. 43. 
dioxdqiov : Bi(7X0£, ' that which is quoit-shaped,' ' a kind of basket.' 
Hes., xavotiv xavtfjxiov. Bi<7xapiov. dqvdoiov : Bpu£, 'a plant somewhat 
like an oak.' Eustath. 1715. 52, 6>uvvoi yap icrTopouvrai ircsxsiva 
Zix£^ia<; (3aXavY](pay£tv oltzq Bpuaptcov cpoojjiivcov xaxa Q'a'XaTTav. ifjav- 
tccqiov : tjjuxg, something that corresponds in some way to a strap or 

The Suffix -{d)aqiov. 265 

reins: a naval term, and so hardly a diminutive. Hes., tpovtripur 
£v T*r_ : vaudv o5tw xaXsiTai Tiva. Jtttt^^ : feoc, 'that which is like 
a horse,' -a kind of bird.' Hes., bnuapiov- gpvsov ko«$v, JKpoc^ipw 
pjvaX&wxi. *^ar«^o>' : xipag, ' that which is like a horn,' ' the yard- 
arm of a ship.' Eustath. 1037. 35, gjcfotptov to xspa; xoO broO, 8 
KOtvdrtpov KspaTa'piov xodstTou. xoylidoiov : xlxtafc 'that which is like 
a shell,' 'a spoon.' Poll. 6. 87, see II sub p^iXaptov. Diosc. 2. 50, 
6Bpo[iiXiToc KOX^iapCwv BuoTv tu^^o?. xi-t-oqiov :.*£, 'a figure like the 
Letter 1L' For the t cf. fa-waaapk and diYH«-^». Math. V.-tt. 
p. 116, 117. jrXomQiop : xXoTov, w that which is like a boat,' a sort 
of women's shoe (cf. axaTiov, § 145 A). Poll. Ar. ap.7. 93. ojioyyctQiov : 
ffiro'YYOS, a ' spongy ' substance, i. e. a kind of eye-salve. Alex. Trail. 
2. 127. yiTwvdoiov = yizwiov (cf. § 145 A). Men. frg. 4. 287(241), 
fcia<povfc$ XtTtovaptov zyoixjK. Eustath. 1166. 52, /itcoviov xoci pTwvapwv 
Xsrcrdv svBi>[j.a yuvaixslov tcoTwtsXss. yjTwnOxdQiov, k a garment like B 
/itcovltxoc, but not a real one' because shorter. Eustath. 1166. 52, 
6 Bs avBpsTo?, yiTcoviaxoc, o tivs? stusvB'Jtyjv * to Bs ppcc/;j y^Towrxxpiov. 
utTctQiov : o5?, ojtoc, 'that which is like an ear,' ' a handle of a vase/ 
Insc. Delos Ditt 2 . 588. 27, wTapicov xXoc<7[j.aTa xat ku&jjuIvwv. ib. 147. 
wTapCoov xXaa-p.aTa. It designates a shell-fish in Athen. 87 F. An 
alternate name is oS? 'A<ppoBiT7)$. 

A special group of words in -aptov also is composed of words des- 
ignating an image or likeness, which are often on the border line 
between this class and diminutives (cf. § 146). No idea of email 
size, however, could be connected with c Eq(ju()iov (Etym. Mag. 148. 
o7) when referring to the ordinary busts of Hermes. On the other 
hand, the following words may have been partially felt as diminotivefl : 
y/M)6r>ccQioi> : yXwroa, 'an image of a tongue.' Pap. Berol. 162. 2 
(2d or 3d cent. A. D.\ y^oxrcrapia yptxra, among gifts in a temple. 
Uovidoiov : "Ascov, ' statue of a lion.' Insc. Palest. CIG. 455 v 
rdoiov : <jeXt)VY), 'an image of the moon.' Pap. Berol. 162. I (2d or 
3d cent. A. D.), among gifts in a temple, umaj.or -an image of ail 
ear. 1 CIA. 2.836 c-k 48 (270-262 B. C.). Mp* Wo Vxr,? |r|lll. 
ib. 54, wirapia 0sp7Tio(u) III. 

VIII. Deteriorative*. A. Referring to an individual as romp;i 
to a class, dvdodqiov : dtvYjp 'man,' cf. ivBptov. Ar, AH.. 517, 
ty)v ttoXiv Xsyw, 'An' avBpapia px^prf, wpooiw 
paffYjpc xat wapaSeva. dv&QUXaQW : to&p*W«Ki ' m.-m." 
Ar. Plut. 416. *Q fop|&ov Ipyov juivomov xat aapavofi &p*v 

MpcMnpCtt xaxooaC^ovs. Demad. I:;. 

266 Chapter XXV1IL 

GuXkotfiw xai yXc6(j(77]c <7uyx£ip.svov. do'gccQiov : B6£a % fame.' Luc. D. 
Mort. 15. 2, ayvoSv to Buctyjvov IxsTvo Bo%x'piov 7uposTi[xcov (sc. 'Ay^lso?) 
too (3iou. Hes., Bo^apioi? • sotsXsgv Boy^ao-iv, 6tc svicov 67:0x0 piarixoK. 
kjnra^oy: wctuos 'horse.' Xen. Cyr. 1. 4. 19, a)^' oov xov^poi ye 
cpatv6[JL£vot xai sxi 7UovY)pcov t7U7uapio)v ayooc-iv y][xwv Ta ypYj[xaTa. Xoydyior : 
7,6yos ' word. 1 Theogn. frg. 4. 548 (2), v Avfrpo)7u , axoXsts jjls * tSv yap 
sx tyjc izowiXr^ lizootc, Xoyapicov avax>or)a-[jivo£ vog-s??. Dem. 19. 255, vb 
Bs . . . Xoya'pia B'JorYjva [xsXstyjW? xai cpcovaoxYJcra^, o5x oiei Bix^v Bo'jtsiv 
tyjXixoutow xai toctootow aBix^jjiaTtov ; XoyxaQioi' : ^oyv^Y) ' spearhead.' 
Posid. Phil. ap. Athen. 176 B, xapa^wviBia xai Xoyya'pi' dcvsiXvjcpoTss 
16) xai pU7uw xsxpL>[j.[xsva. pv&aqiov : [j.oO*os 'talk.' Strabo 616, a)Aa 
xai 01 ypa|j.[xaTixoi [xufra'pia 7uapa(3a'X}>ovTS£ sOpso-iXoyotio-i [xaXXov y) Xtfouox 
Ta Jy]TOU[jL£va. olvaqiov : oTvo?, ' thin or poor wine. 1 Apollodor. Caryst. 
frg. 4. 448 (1), to y' oiva'piov 7ua'vo *Hv 6%b xai xovYjpov, mot Yio"pv6[XYjv. 
Polioch. frg. 4. 590 (7), JUtcTv oiva'piov 9jv a|x<pi(3o),ov (doubtful whether 
wine or water). Dem. 35. 32, to t oiva'piov to K&ov 6yBoY/.ovTa 
ora'poi sJsotyjxqto? oivou. oipdqiov : otyov ' fish. 1 Alexis frg. 3. 455 (2), 
see §166 sub TpiyiBiov. Phil. frg. 4. 38 (12), Ta xsTpala tocOt 
6'j>a'pia. Com. Anon. frg. 4. 670 (288), Ta xavotipya toOt 6'jia'pia 
/U7U0Tpi[X[j.aTa. JtaidccQiov : TuaT? ' child,' cf. xaiBiov. Ar. Pax 1288, 
KaxioV axoXoio, xatBa'ptov, aoTalc [J.a'yai£ • OuBsv yap aBsi£ xXy]v %oXz- 
[1.005. Ps. Plato Epigr. 31. 4, v Apsi Ta crTtopXa TauTa* f H[jJv B' ou 
TusTSTai tooto to xaiBa'piov (sc. 6 v Epojc). oivaqiov : otto? ' food.' 
Hipp. 1093, o-iTapioiax ts tzoWoigi xai cpauXoia-i xpoa-£/p9]TO. Gxevaqiov : 
crxsuo?, ' paltry garment, 1 ' wretched stuff,' etc. Ar. Yesp. 1313, avT- 
Yjxao"' auTOv xa'pvoTui Ta frpTa too Tpipcovo? dbi:o(3s(3XY)x6Ti, SfrsvsXw ts 
Ta <7xeua'pia Biaxsxapjjivw. id. Eccl. 753, Outoc, ti Ta crxsua'pia TaoTi 
pouXsTai; Plato Ale. 1. 113 E, sxsuapicov xaTaTSTpi[j.[jivG)v. (jxvtccqiov : 
txOto? 'leather.' Anaxil. frg. 3. 345 (1. 6), Ev o-xuTapiois paxToTc-i 
cpopwv 'EcpsaTJia ypa'[i[j.aTa xaXa'. ipvxaQiov : ^/J] ' soul.' Plato Resp. 
7. 519 A, y) o57uw IvvsvoYjxa^, twv Xsyo^svwv xovYjp&v [jiv, <70<paW Bs, 65 
Bpip.t> jjlsv (3Xs7U£i to <}iuya'piov ; 

B. Referring to a class. yvvcuxdgiov : yuvY] ' woman.' Marc. Ant. 
5. 11, xai tivo^ apa vov iyu ^o/y]'v ; {j.y,ti TuaiBioo ; [xy[ti [xsipaxiou ; [xyj'ti 
yuvaixapioo ; yvjuxqiov: y6%r\, ' wretched nest.' Ar. Equ. 793, see g 315. 
X. B sub 7UupyiBiov. xrj&aQiov : xyJ^iov, xyj8^ ' ballot-box. 1 Ar. Vesp. 
674, YJc-^YjVTai tov jxsv <rupcpaxa t6v aXKov 'Ex xYj^apiou Xayapo£6(isvov xai 
TpayaXi^ovTa to [j.y]5sv. xvvccqwv : xuojv ' dog.' Xen. Cyr. 8. 4. 20, 
xpocra'Xlsa'frai ere B£^a"st wa"7usp Ta xova'pta. xwddqiov : xwBiov, xwa^ ' fleece.' 
Ar. Ran. 1203, see § 166 sub OoXa'xiov. veaviGxaqiov : vsaviaxo? 

The Suffix -{6)aQ,ov. 267 

'•youth.' Epict. 2. 16. 29, see § 315. X. B sub W v<wfcwv. <5,«- 

o/o/'iovo; -ass. 1 Epict. 4. 1. 79 f. SXov to stop* ofrro* ggeev re 

ft* (,k ovapiov Imosowyuivov. . . orav fctfto dvaptov f„ T #Oa ytvs-rat 
yaAtvapta toO ovaptou, crayjxaTta, &TO&f]|MCTia, xptfraC, /opTo;. xaufctpoy : 
-ale 'child.' Ar. Nub. 821, xatBa'ptov st xat (ppovsts ap/attxa. Men. 

frg. 4. 249 (49), 7uavT0Mua(Ti roxtBaptou yvwpjv sycov. JreXiaQiov : -f/.rr 
' light shield,' and to&qwv : to^ov ' bow ' in Luc. D. Mort. 14. 2. TCvwv 
os ixporopoc otj ys ^wfjux/wv avBpwv, be IziXoiq aet ^ryiyyr,; 
TO&c'pwe xal jusX-rapta xat ysppa ototftva 7upo[3s(3)a)|jivots ; TQifiwn'wiov : t:-:>>v 
w worn garment/ Clearch. ap. Athen. 258 A, zfoe yap t$ towinp 
xoXaxsustv xat to T/y^a twv xolaxsuopvow ^caxoXou&Sv awMuXaTrcrat 
7:apayx(ovi^(ov xat a^ocpyavwv sau^ov toT? Tptjjcovaptotc. yuhvuoiov \ ya- 
Xtvoc 'bridle.' Epict. 4. 1. 80, see sub ovaptov. 

( J. ' Merely/ dxlagiotg (Dat. PI.) : w&ov, ' merely by means of 
their arms/ Plut. 2. 197 D, pi; tgivuv p;Bs 6[j.sTc, IcpY], O'aujxoTsTs Tr;v 
^aa-t/Ux^v Buvapv, ^oyyocpopouc xal xa^acppaxTCJC xat r.zCzzy.iz r sjc xai 
ajxcpiTUTCGTo'foTa? axouovTsc" tcovtsc ya'p stow oOtoi Hupot, 6::Xapiot; otl- 

Xy)Xwv ?JLOCO£pOVTrS?. 

IX. Diminutives. 1. Referring to an individual as compared to 
a class. For the subdivisions cf. § 315. XI. 1. A. xaiduoioi : 
TuaT? ' child, 1 cf. TuatBtov. Ar. Nub. 878, EuW? ys zoi xoafcaptov ftv 
TUvvouTovt v E7&XaTTCv sv^ov otxtas, vao? T syXucpsv. Andoc. 1. 130. -y.:->. 
tgT? TiatBapLotc toT? [xtxpoTarotc. Arist. Oec. 2. 1347 a 17, oto> fa ~y.- 
Baptov ysvYi^ai. Insc. Delph. CB. 1954. 7, xat ™6~ccc\r.%<Mz<ss, 
Tt~frt<3tov. TraidicxccQiop : TiaiBtdXY] 'girl/ Callix. ap. Athen. 200 F, 
Tuapavspsprjxsi Bs xatBtcxapta Btsoxsuaopiva 7;s/V:aptotc xal o-jcto/.v;/;/.:. 
B. &pae*0j> : £wov 'animal/ Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1. 1265, 6 51 
<7-po? (sc. axoyswarai) sx twv sv zoic. :uoira[xotc eTrt-AsovTor/ (qiapfov. 
tyddywv : ?(ootov, £wov. a) 'a little animal/ Arist. H. A. 5. 82. 
557 b 1, HvsTai Bs xat aMa £o)Bapta, . . . ?a p.sv Iv Ipiot?. id. ib. &. 
34. 619b 22, ©Yjpsust <5 v s xat p? xat <ra6pa? xat KMrikftac /. 
ak ?a)Bapta. id. ib. 5. 19. 551 b 21, Part. An. & I. 888b 1 
12. 693a 22. b) 'a little figure/ CIA. 2. 7:5<i A 1 (after :><>7 B. C). 
rtouapta -j.tx|pa. Insc. Delos Ditf 2 . 588. 31, (ttOM 
xfoxtol ?uXtvo)t. OQViitdfjwr : op Vl? 'bird.' AnM. Mir;i!». L 18. 841b L8, 
sVt G^pav twv opvtO-aptojv cruvO^pe'Jstv ffOpCt) 
^«w : rcSXoc, 'a newly-born foal/ Plato ap. I 1 
fcaXo6m<JS, xaO-aTUspst xa 7U0)Xapta ysvvr/.'fvTa tyv ;j.YTi;v.. 
( ;i^ : dor^ov 'bone/ A nth. P. 11. 96. 1). *> 
cf. xXowtov. Geopon. 12. 19. 9, od '>^^ 

268 Chapter XXVIII. 

lav xXtova'pia opiya'vou [j.txpoT£ Iri ooct, toutoi? 7uapa7UYJ5r,c. </i> 
Xccqiop : cptfXXov, 'a little leaf.' Diosc. 3. 176, (3oTa'vtov I/ov cpuXXapioc 
Iztztgc. (fmaqiov \ cpuTov 'plant.' Athen. 210 G, see § 385 sub 
£(oucptov. F. avdQiav%a{)iov (Schol. Luc. Lex. 3) k seal,' originally a di- 
minutive of avBpia's 'statue. 1 G. AexccQwv : Xsxoc 'plate.' Herm. ap. 
Athen. 149 F, £7usltoc Exa'arco 7uapaTi&£Tai apToc xaChxpo? eig izkd'zoc, 

TC£7TOlY][Jl£VO£, £Cp' § £7UlX£lTat OCpTO? £T£pO£ . . . Xai Xp£a£ U£lOV Xai >,£- 

xa'piov TurwravYjg yj Xayavou. GiccfivccQiov : arapoc 4 wine-jar.' Ephipp. 
frg. 3. 340 (3), Ir-ap'a'pta t oivou [xtxpa tou cpotvtxCvou. Eupol. ap. 
Poll. 10. 73. H. JtelTccQiov : Kzktri 'light shield.' Callix. ap. Athen. 
200 F, see A sub 7raiBi<7xa'piov. I. olxagiov : oTxo? ' chamber.' Lys. 
ap. Poll. 10. 39, -to otxa'piov to 07uta-8>£ tyj? yuvaixcoviTiBoc. x'Aoiuqiov : 
rcloTov 'boat,' 'vessel.' Ar. Ran. 139, 'Ev xXoiapuo tovvoutoh <y avr ; p 
yspwv NauTYj? Bta'^Ei, Bu' opoXw jjlktQ»6v Xa[3(6v. Xen. Hell. 4. 5. 17. 
J. (IwXccQiov : fi&Xos b clod,' cf. (3to)iov. Strabo 777, |3coXapicov )(pu<70t>, . . . 
piysO-o? B' sy/ovtcov s^a'/iorov [i£v rajpfljvos, piaov Bs jjlsotcCXou, {jiytGrcv 
Be xap'iou. dektaqiov : BsXto? ' writing-tablet.' Plut. Anton. 58, Asl- 
Tapioc t&v spomx&v dvjyiva xai xpuara'XXiva. "kitiaqiov : )iO*oc, ' a little 
stone,' i. e. 'jewel' CIA. 2. 835 c-1 67 (320-317 B. C.) Xi&apiov 
GTpoyyMov Bta'Xs'jxov Tpiwv BaxTutaov to [xsysfro?. Insc. Delos Mich. 
833. 117 (279 B. C), BaxTU>.toi Buo, 6 sic Xt8*aptov syov xai sva)Ti(a) • 
6Xxy]v * rn-h. K. gv'AccQior : §;Xov, 'a little piece of wood.' Diosc. 
1. 89, Ta Be '£tAa'pia )Ac»>pa avTi xa^apiBwv 7uapaTpij36|xsva to?? 6Bou<7i. 
^vh)qiov (§ 364) = <£uXapiov. Hes., p6|x(3o? "... %AY)piov, o£i z^t\%- 
Tai ayoiviov, xai Iv TaT? tsXstois BivsTrai. olvdqiov : otvoc, ' a little 
wine.' Diph. frg. 4. 403, l^poctaTs . . . Oiva'piov si£ Xa'yuvov, oOO\ ou xa- 
pa(3ov, 'but into the stomach all things go.' Anth. P. 11. 189, Ei? 
Ppa/u ovrapfou xspjxa xai oivapiou. gitccqwp : cfi-zoq. a) ' a little food.' 
Ant. P. 11. 189, see sub oiva'piov. b) 'a little loaf of bread.' 
Phil. frg. 4. 38 (12. 3), ciTa'pia pxpa rcpcxrcpspwv. Polyb. 26. 24. 5, 
7COT£ [Ji£v scitsito xpsa, tcots Bs cruxa, xots Be aiTa'pia j3paysa TuavrsXwc. 
L. • ^vtiaqiov : pfroc, l a short tale.' Plut. 2. 14 E, tcc AIg&tzzux, jjlu- 
Q^a'pta. fiiad-ciQiop : \lio&6s, ' a little or scanty pay.' Ar. Vesp. 300, 
'Axo yap toQBe ]xz tou jjLtcO'apiou TptT&v aui:6v £/^iv aXcptTa BeT xai 
^uXa xw^ov • -6 B v £ (TiSxa p.' akac. Diph. frg. 4. 395 (2. 34), To 
[xtcO-a'ptov yap av axaiT^, apBa jjloi v Ev£yx£ TupwTOv, cpY](7iv. ipv/ccQiov- 
^/y], 'a little soul' (cf. § 203). Plato Theaet. 195 A, lav B N £ 
7up6? 7ua<7i 'zofcoiq £7U &Xkr[kw G-L>[.i^£7UTwx6Ta r\ 6tuo <7T£vop)pta£, lav tou 

(7[J.l,Xp6v Y] TO cj>'J)(aptOV, £Tt a(7acp£(7T£pa £X£lV(OV. 

2. Referring to a class. A) naiddqiov : xaTc ' child.' Ar. Vesp. 

The Suffix -(d)aqiov. 269 

fx;s, Ta xatBapt 5 e6&*c av^xet, Ta ? Q^sta? xat iofc ufcfc tt ( c X «p<fc, 
syo> ff fctpofipai. id. Av. 607, *) TuatBapt' oW aTuoQ^axstv &T; Plato 
Gorg. 485 B, otocv & <ra<pa s BtaXsyo[xsvou TuatBaptou dcxoti™, jrotfov ri 
[j.oi ooxs? xpYJ|j.a slvat, contrasted with avBpo? ^sM^ovtoc. J) Irflayov : 
},y]Boc. ' Light summer garment.' Ar. Av. 715, xpyj y^Tvocv ™>teiv jjfej 
xat tojBapiov Tt rcpCaafrat. Probably [ivadccQiov : jivSJ ' mina/ Diph. 
frg. 4. 385 (2). JtXaxovvtdqiov : rcXaxoQ? ' a flat cake, 1 cf. xtoxcrfvcto* 
Strabo 812, xojxC^wv arco tou Bsuwou 7uXaxouvTa'pto'v Tt xat xpsa; o-tov 
xat Jtpoxo^wv Tt p.sXtxpaTou. Epict. 3. 12. 11, combined with contempt : 
xat xopa<7tBtoo arcs^sa-frat xat TuXaxouvTaptou. 

3. Among peculiar modifications of the diminutive meaning in 
-aptov may be mentioned in the first place the use of oxevdqiov ' little 
utensil' to make its theft appear small (cf. §315. XL 3F). So 
in Ar. Plut. 1139, Kat p)v 6:uots Tt oxsuapiov toS Jtancorou c Vos>.ot\ 
syco (sc. 6 f Epp;$) o-' av Xavfra'vstv sTuotouv ast. 

The use of diminutives in the meaning ' merely,' ' nothing but,' etc. 
(§ 216) is represented by iv ovdoiov 'only one ass 1 in Diph. frg. 
4. 417 (4), °Ev ova'ptov 1% aypou [xot xaTa|3atvsi Kafr' Ixaorov Svwjtov 
ayaxYjTcoc f/ L2a-7;sp txavotiv jj.ot xaW avscrxsoaapivov, ItuovByjv, 6Xa';, s/.atov. 
to-ya^a?, [JisXt. Similarly Tpta xXouxqw 'only three vessels' in Men. 
frg. 4. 88 (1. 9), 05 tojv Tpta'xovT* oux arco'XXuTat Tpta ID.otapia* yv^j.a: 
B 3 ouBs si? atouoQ'' oXo)£. nuidiGxaqiov ' a mere girl ' in Men. frg. 
4. 169, IlatBtcrxaptov [is xaTaBsBouXtox' s5tsXs£, *0v ouBs si? toW ttoas- 


X. Hypocoristic words. A. Articles of diet, demriwior : ft&cvov 
' dinner. 1 Diph. frg. 4. 406(1), To Bst7uvaptov avO^pov y ( v, yAa^-jpov 7oo5:a. 
xagMqio)' : xapt? 'shrimp.' Anaxandr. frg. 3. 172, see § 315. XII. 
A sub frparTtBtov. xoo&aQiov : xwO-o?, substituted for x«>j3t&ocptov in 
Anaxandr. 1. c. by Schweighauser. olvdqior : olvo? 'wine. 1 Alexis Erg. 
3. 505 (5), @<x<Tiois otvaptot$ xat Asa-pCotg Trjc %spac to Xotx&v foco|3 
jxspo? Kat vcoyaXt^st. dqvitiuQiov : opvt? 'bird.' NiCOfitr. ap« Atlirn. 
654 B, see § 193 b sub luspiorsptov. id. frg. 3. 280, 'Op* 
ayptow toutmv (ju/va (sc. ayo'paaov)' XApwv yap. difHwim- : tyw • fob ' 
etc. Ar. frg. 2. 962 (9), E? pri) rcapap&eT ^ ' 
Anaxil. frg. 3. 352 (3), Exedofo r.oTu tod^wv %Afc wdc^ 
'foot.' Alexis frg.' 3. 429, see § 194 b sub fpj&nov. Oom, An..,,. 
frg. 4. 608 (27 b), IIspupspsiv \Lom6rp xat TuoBapiov, Kat yv 
ti xat [rr^pa? tO"o>?. orpiduinov : or^ta w cnttlr-lisli.' IMnlvll. b 
861 (1. 1), TCOtAwcdfcetov, ^TutBaptov, xapapov xt'a. Cmvda^ 
unknown), a kind of fish. Anaxandr, frg. 8, 172, M6 KH A 

270 Chapter XXVIII 

sub 0>paTTtBiov. gtqovDuqiov : orpouOo'c ' sparrow.' Eubul. frg. 3. 2* 
(14), see § 193b sub xspBixiov. gvxccqwp : crtixov 'fig,' doubtful : 
Eupol. frg. 2. 498, Ta cuxapi' s7uoiyj<7£ [tjttg)t6v tcoXuv. xoq6c((jiop : 
XopBv) 'sausage.' Alexis frg. 3. 442(1), XopBocpiou tojjlo? y;xs xa\ -spi- 
xo[i[xa Tt. muqiov : wov 'egg.' Ephipp. frg. 3. 340(3), Kapua, po'ac, 
cpoivixa?, srspa vcoyaXa, . . . 'Qiapia, TOiaufr' srspa xo'Xla 7uaiyvia. 
wtccqiop : out;, wto'c ' ear, 1 see sub 7uoMptov. 

B. Human beings, a) Appellatives, dxydgiop : a7ucpa. Xenarch. 
frg. 3. 617, see § 315. XII. Ba sub TuctTpiBtov. ij^tqccqiop : [r/]TY)p, 
1 matercula. 1 Grloss. pijttccqwp : vyJttoc, 'duckling.' Ar. Plut. 1011, 
see § 236 c sub paTiov. naidaqiov : 7uocTc ' child,' ' servant.' Ar. 
Thesm. 447, 'Ejxoi yap avvjp arcsfravsv jjlsv sv KuTupw, IlaiMpia tcvts 
xaTali7uo)v. ib. 1203, cru [xsv o5v axoTps/s, xaiBaptov. id. Plut. 823, 
"Etcou [xst' spiotj, raxiBapiov. Xenarch. frg. 3. 623, Zu Bs [xtjxsti sy/si, 
raaMpiov, sic Tapyupouv, E2c to (3a(k> Bs roxltv aywjxsv. etc t6v xavfrapov, 
NouBaptov, ly/et vy) Aia, vyj t6v xavfrapov. jraidfOxaqiop : xaiBi<7XY] ' girl.' 
Posid. ap. Athen. 211 F, yvj|j.ac ts roxiBto-xaptov su^opcpov. (jiXottccqiop : 
cpt^oV/jc ' love.' with hypocoristic doubling of consonant. Ar. Eccl. 
891, go Bs, OiXoTTapiov au)vY]Ta, touc auXouc Xoc(3(6v, "A&ov i[xou xal 
crou Tupoa-aMYjffov [jiXoc. 

b) Proper names. KAwpdywp, Luc. D. Mer. 5. MafifiaQiop, CIA. 
2. 835 ab 26. Nccppccqiop, Men. frg. 4. 154 (4), Navvdcpiov l<jyy\Y.0Lc 
wpatav xdvD. XqvGccqiop, Luc. D. Mer. 1. 2. Cf. § 237 b. 

C. In a sense somewhat approaching that of axouqmTiov (§ 232) 
is used (/o)PUQiop : cp«Wj, ' delicate or beautiful voice. 1 So Ar. ap. 
Poll. 4. 64, cpwvapiov a>Btx6v xai xa|ji7n:txov. Humorously in Clearch. 
frg. 4. 563 (2), To'yypcov ts >,suxcov Tuacrt toTc xo^XwBso-i Bpo'yjk^s. 
Toutoic. yap TpscpsTat to xveufjia xai To cpwvapiov yjjjlwv 7Uspi(7apxov yty- 
vsTai. For Anth. P. 5. 132 see § 238. 

I). Due to the hypocoristic mood of the speaker (cf. § 244 1), 
who is pleading with his companion, rather than to endearment for 
the oxen, is the use of (ioidaQiop in Ar. Av. 585, My] rcpiv y' av syo> 

TO) PotBaptG) TW SJJ.W TUptoTlOr' aTro'Btojj.ai. 

E. Faded hypocorisms. Because of the general use of ' diminu- 
tives ' to designate favorite articles of diet, the originally hypocoristic 
word iipafjvop came to be equivalent to its primitive ocjjov, and largely 
took its place, particularly in the meaning ' fish,' since this was the 
most common of delicacies at Athens. Already in Alexis frg. 3. 
464 (2. 2) the hypororistic force of 6<|>ocptov must have been very 
slight, if it existed at all: ©sppTspoic yjxipsi? ast ToT? o^aptoic, yj to 

Chapter XXIX. 271 

piffov J) xa-orrspco; Similarly Men. frg. 4. 125 (2), Etc 5 ftpfcrcp Xoj&v 
'Ctyapiov. In the New Testament tyapwv is the regular word for 
 tish," and S4*ov does not occur at all. A similar development must 
have taken place in two names of birds, viz. (krapivapiov and /Yjva'piov. 
which took the place of their primitives; for the birds designated 
were used as articles of diet. Cf. AB. 1186, aTTayac l os itm to 
aTTayTjva'piov. Suid., yyjv, /Y]voc. to ^va'piov. 

Fading of endearment occurred in the occasional use of xcudaqiov 
as equivalent to tuoic 'child, 1 though the loss of original diminutive 
force must also have contributed to this. Cf. rcatoiov (§ 220). 
dovkdyiov ' slave, 1 used as equivalent to Bo^Y] already in Ar. Thesm. 
537, might as well be a faded deteriorative (cf. dcvoparcofctov § 165), 
were it not that Lucian (Lex. 25) states that it was properly used 
only for women, which points to hypocoristic origin. 2 wtuqiov is 
equivalent to o5? 'ear 1 already in Arist. frg. 228. 1519 a 40, 6 pu7coe. 
<pY]<7iv, sv -zoic o')-apioic Yiyvajjisvog. Like amov it is specialized so as 
to refer only to the outer ear, and so was probably not a faded 
hypocorism', but formed with the idea of appurtenance. Cf. 8 249. 

XI. The following words in -(B)apiov are either of obscure deri- 
vation or their occurrence without context makes their precise meaning 
uncertain: fiifihdagiov : (3i(3Xiov, [3i[3Xoc 'book, 1 Ar. ap. Poll. 7. 21<>. 
YQccfi^aQiov 'a weight of three obols, 1 Ducang. App. Gloss, p. 51. 
l^ccTidctQwi' : {\lxziqv ' dress.' ' cloak, 1 Ar. ap. Arist. Rhet. 3. 2. 1405 b 31. 
xaQvaQioi' : xapuov ' nut, 1 Gloss, xeyddqior : xspBoc ' gain, 1 Gloss, oot- 
dctQiov, Hes. s. v. acpuxa. yyvtodaqiw : ffluaiw, /p' 70 ? 'gold.' Ar. 
ap. Arist. 1. c. 


367. Schwabe, op. cit. 70, brought forth three words to establif 
a conglutinate -upiov, which he considered to be compounded of a 
diminutive suffix -upo- + -wv, citing Etym. Mag. L60. 82 
xocpa to a<7iru 67uoxopwnrixfi)€, acnrupov) to establish the former. The 
authority of the grammarians may very well be neglected in this 
matter because of their confused notion of wh.it diminutives reallj 
and their tendency to so classify every word which is equbalenl to 

1 The real primitive is, of course, attctytj*. 

2 Cf. Brugmann, Gr 2. I 2 . 678. 


272 Chapter XXX. 

its primitive (§ 2). We may consequently dismiss the idea that 
-upiov was a conglutination of two living diminutive suffixes. 

368. Of the three words given by Schwabe as evidence of the 
existence of -uptov two must be removed because primitives in -upo- 
exist alongside of the ' diminutive ' in -upiov. From an unknown 
source he quotes aorupiov : dcorupo'v ' city,' and in Hesychius, if the 
text is correct, 1 occurs vdcxupov. vocxupiov Bspu.a (: vdbaj). There con- 
sequently remains only one word without a collateral form in -upo-, 
and that is xodupiov : xaXov, ' a little piece of wood,' in Hesychius : 
xoclupiov * %Ayj<piov. The word has been variously emended to xocluBpiov 
or xoclucpiov, and, to say the least, it would be very hazardous to rely 
upon a single occurrence in an author whose text is in as bad a 
shape as Hesychius to prove the existence of a suffix. Moreover, 
even if the text is correct, it would be better to assume a lost prim- 
itive *xocXupov than to take one word as proof for the existence of 
an otherwise unproven conglutinate. The evidence for -upiov is thus 
of the very weakest kind. 

XXX. THE SUFFIX -aoiov. 

369. The conglutinate -oco-iov has been treated in a series of ar- 
ticles by Solmsen : Eh. M. 59. 503 f., 60. 636 f., D. Littzt. 1906 col. 
1692, Rh. M. 62. 636 ff. In these, besides giving the material, he 
has shown that it probably had attained a certain local productivity 
in the Northwest of Greece, and in the third article he connects the 
-occr- < -air- with the Slavic diminutive -et- in words like ovicet- ' lamb.' 
It remains to reconsider the problem of the origin of the suffix in 
connection with its extant meanings and in the light of the analogy 
of simple -iov. 

370. To begin with, mere mention might be made of the old 
theory of Buttmann, Ausf. Gr. Spr. 2. 442, that xopaorov came from 
*xopapiov by dissimilation. This is, of course, impossible because of 
the want of support for such a change ; because, as Schwabe (op. 
cit. 69 f.) has pointed out, there was no objection to forms like 
av^papiov ; and because -ocotov occurs oftener in words without p in 
the preceding syllable. 

371. That the -t- of Slavic -et- and Greek -a<nov, as Solmsen 
assumes, were ultimately identical, is a proposition that can not, of 

1 Cf. Albert-Schmidt ad loc. 

The Sujfix -aoiov. 273 

OOUrse, be refuted, and may very well be true ; but the real question 
is whether we are entitled to assume direct semantic connection 
between the Slavic diminutives in -et- and the Greek ones in -amov. 
Did this meaning really go back to a period when linguistic innova- 
tions found no barrier in the difference between the two languages? 
In answering this question we may waive for the moment the fact 
that it is in itself exceedingly suspicious that there is no other evi- 
dence of an old diminutive -t- suffix either in Greek or any other 
I. E. language except those of the Balto-Slavic branch (vr,->7-'.o_;. 
e H&J-T-tov, Eupu-T-oc, etc., quoted in D. Littzt. 1. c., even if ' Kose- 
formen,' would not necessarily have anything to do with real dimin- 
utive meaning, cf. § 2 end). An examination of the extant Greek 
meanings of -adtov and a comparison with related Greek suffixes will 
show whether it is really more naturally connected with a distant 
Slavic suffix. 

372. The Greek suffix -trio- I. E. < -t(i)io- x occurs in adjec- 
tives as completely equivalent to -to- from I. E. times. This 
-a-LO-, which is sometimes derived from I. E. -t- + -io-, e. g. in 
fcvtotiotos : Iviocutos, sometimes from -ti- -f- -(i)o-, e. g. Iugioc, : Xfat£ 
Bi*jTa<7ioc : gt&gic, occurs in verbal as well as denominative adjectives 
after every sort of vowel. Cf. e. g. acppoBi-<7ioc, By)[x6-gtoc, itt(-atoc, 
&zg%£-gios, ixsty]-(71oc, smvau-o-Los. After a the same -gig- occurs in 
ac-;ua<7ioc, IXdtotos, frautxdffios, Bi7uXaaros, Tpicpao-ioc, etc. From the*se 
adjectives in -<no- substantivized neuters are found with the same 
meanings as in -tov (cf. § 19). Thus -ciov forms verbal abstracts 
like oT>[jju6<jtov or wjvyjy&tiov, to Byj^oo-iov in an adjectival abstract, -y. 
rcpupt)<na 'stern-cables' : 7uptf[xvY) 'stern' shows the meaning 'belong- 
ing to,' as does also 'ApTs^tov 'temple of Artemis." oupootov 'herd 
of swine': o-u(36ty)s 'swine-herd.' In 'ApTepriov 'image of Artemis 1 
-gwv denotes* likeness. 

373. Since, then, there is no doubt that substantia- in - 
-otiov, etc. are exactly like those in -tov, and sine.- -owio- [a found 
in adjectives just like -ww-, we would a priori expect Bubstantivea in 
which -criov is preceded by an a which are also exactly like -10V sub- 
stantives, and thus there can be no doubt of the history ol the abet 
Yop&rtov (: yupa^o). It would follow that when we find rabstai 

w -<*nov with more developed meanings, we should be rery oiroom 
about divorcing them from others like yuyxfos*. which end in thesame 

1 Cf. Brugmann, Gr. 2. 1". 186. 

274 Chapter XXX. 

suffix, and from words of related meaning like 'ApTs^iTiov c image of 
temis,' in order to find a far-off Slavic cognate which otherwise has no 
support as an I. E. phenomenon. Unless striking proof to the contrary 
is brought forth, we must assume that words in -aonov are exactly like 
other words in -iov, that the -t- which in Indo-European times added 
nothing to the meaning of a word added no more in Greek -aciov 
than in -vjfftov, -wtov, -ocrov, etc. Only on the assumption that the 
diminutive meaning has nothing to do with the adjectival use can 
Solmsen's separation of words like xopacriov from other -<no- forms, 
from adjectives in -acjio?, and even from other substantives in -a<riov 
be justified, and this assumption is untenable in view of the fact that 
the ' diminutive ' uses of -iov developed from its adjectival uses in 
purely Greek times (cf. § 261 fL). 

374. An examination of the examples of the suffix -ac-iov reveals 
the fact that the diminutive use is comparatively rare even among 
the words given by Solmsen. Four of them are geographical names, 
a category which, though it may contain a late diminutive here and 
there, is certainly not diminutive in origin (cf. § 6) as far as simple 
-iov is concerned, and why then should similar words in -ocoxov be 
diminutives ? Of these Ehrstaao-iov (Strabo 350) is so impossibly a 
diminutive that Solmsen himself suggests the possibility of adjectival 
origin, comparing 7usBia<7io<:. ' A little elm ' (%-zkioi) would certainly 
be a ridiculous designation for a Spi>[xwBsc Jtopiov aofoa)Tov ; it must 
be ' that which is provided with elms.' Similarly IIpupdc7iov (Schol. X 
404) can not have been ' a little prow ' or ' a little foot of a mountain,' 
but 'that which is situated at the foot of the mountain. 1 Kopucpao-iov 
(Thuc. 4. 3. 2) : xopucpY) is in all probability not ' the summit of a hill,' 
but ' that which is situated on the summit,' as can be seen by the 
designation of Athena as Kopocpooia as connected with a certain hill 
upon which a temple was dedicated to her (Pausan. 4'. 36). And 
finally, IloXidcrtov (Polyb. 16. 16. 2) : %oh$ may be a diminutive, but 
there is no evidence that it was one. and more probably it shows 
that -oKTtov had become a suffix for geographical names without regard 
to the relation between the primitive and derivative. 

375. In a similar way most of the appellatives in -occriov origi- 
nated. Just as words designating articles of dress had largely come 
to end in -iov through the original meaning ' belonging to the cate- 
gory of (§ 130), so <paixa<7iov was 'a shoe of the cpaixa^ kind,' 
and then became equivalent to its primitive. Cf. App. Bell. Civ. 5. 
11, &7u6By][xoc 3jv oc6tS) Xsuxov 'Attixov, ... xoci xa),ou<7i cpaotaortov. The 

The Suffix -uu i or. 275 

primitive put* here shows where the a comes from, and it is not 
necessary to resort to Slavic -et-. With ? ar,aW, is to be compared 
*x*(*)a<xiov (Nicetas in Manuele lib. 4 num. 2) 'felt cap/ also without 
diminutive idea. In the same way -iov had come to form many word. 
designating cups (§ 129), and this use would be paralleled by , 
aW, (Athen. 486 A), if, as Solmsen (Rh. M. 62. 638) thinks, it came 
Iron, a primitive *Xoipo ? or *Xotpwv with the same meaning. Since 
these do not exist, however, it is better to refer Xoipawov to an extant 
Aotf:r; as ' that which is used for libation,' and the -cwtov is thna a 
suffix of appurtenance. Less certain is OTcapofftov • opveov Ipx? 
<rrpou&$, Hes. Hoffmann, BB. 21. 140, connects it with Goth, sparwa 
0. II. Gk sparo 'sparrow,' and it thus probably was conceived as a 
bird -like a sparrow, but not a real one' (§ 132 ff.), though it 
is barely possible that it was a diminutive referring to a class. Hope- 
lessly obscure is <pe<Jxoc<nov • |xccyyccvtov ttao'i'xov, Phot. If ^ayyaW/ is 
a ' machine,' however, it would seem that -ociiov bad, like -tov (i< 71 ff.'), 
become a sort of instrumental suffix. 

376. There remain three words which show that -acriov was oc- 
casionally a diminutive-hypocoristic suffix. Of these two are proper 
names, viz., Adelphasium (Plaut. Poen. 154, 203, 757, 894) and 
Philocomasium (Plaut. Mil. 417), which show that -ootov has taken 
part in the function of -iov of forming permanent names of women 
(§ 237 b ). The only probable appellative k diminutive ' is xopaiiov : 
xopt] ; maiden.' Some support for taking this as a 'little maiden" i^ 
gained from the inscriptions from Delphi, in which a xopAotov liberated 
from slavery was not on the average rated as high as ;i roll-grown 
slave. While the latter were usually worth from three to ten 
minas, sometimes more, but rarely less, a xopa^iov is rated at 
staters in OB. 1705. 4; 2 minas, 1708. 6; 1 m., 1714.4; 2 m.. 
1751. 2; 1 m., 2144. 8; 3 m., 2151. 5; 6 m., 2204. 5; l<> staters, 
2213. 6; 10 st., 2219. 14; 3 m. ; 2249. 7; 15 st, 2264. A ; I m.. 
2259.5; 3 m., 2267.5; 2 m., 22(59.9; 8 m., 2800.6; 2 m., 
2816. 6; 3 m., 2324. 6. Much can not be made out of the individ 
ual case, however, because of other features which help to determine 
the value. Thus while the highest valuation for ;i was six 

minas, a full-grown slave was repeatedly rat.-d .-is Lou as two m 
At Phocis (CB. 1555 c 7) a ten year old xop&tov is worth efen ten 
minas in contrast to five minas for a man ib. b 8. It must 
be borne in mind that the primitive xo'pi), like fch 
could indeed refer to a full-grown person at times, but would oft 

276 Chapter XXXI. 

not do so, and consequently the apparent diminutive force of the 
suffix of xopa<7iov comes mainly from the root. There is, however, 
just one passage which shows that xopactov was sometimes used 
hypocoristically, namely Ps. Plato Epigr. 31, A Ku7upi? Moucawr 
" xop&yia, 1 t&v 'A<ppoBtTav Ti^oct', y) t6v "Eporr 5[x[jiiv £cpO7U>i<7O|JL0tt w . 
Tlie humorous mixture of mock tenderness and contempt is entirely 
due to the irony of the situation (cf. § 152), while the force of the 
suffix itself is hypocoristic. 

377. As to the origin of the ' diminutive ' use of -occnov, it seems 
quite certain, in view of the more frequent words with non-dimin- 
utive meaning, that it is altogether due to semantic syncretism with 
-lov. The two suffixes were parallel in so many uses that it was 
possible in some dialects to extend the equivalence to the ' diminutive ' 
functions, while others did not go so far. Probably xopao-iov was the 
pattern type for the hypocoristic use, and the proper names followed. 
It was originally a substantivation from an adjective meaning 'be- 
longing to the category of maiden,' and became equivalent to xopY), 
without implication of small size or endearment. Remnants of the 
feeling for the relation of this word to the adjectival -iov are seen in 
collocations like crw|xa xopaciov (Insc. Phocis GB. 1555 c 5), which is 
exactly parallel to the frequent g-wjjloc av<5psTov or (7&\kcc yuvaixsTov (cf. 
xopiBiov, § 315. YIII. C, 7uatBaptov § 360). Into this xopao-iov - xopr, 
diminutive or hypocoristic meaning was secondarily infused through 
the influence of congeneric words in simple -tov, e. g. xo'piov 'little 

XXXI. SUFFIXES IN -cptov (-occptov, -vjcptov, -fcpiov, -ucpiov). 

378. The suffix -acpiov must have taken its origin from primitives 
in -occpo-, most probably from names of animals in -acpog, in which 
the latter was quite productive. 2 From these there is extant only 
one ' diminutive ' in -tov, namely s^dcpiov ' little deer ' : IXacpos, used 
as a term of endearment in addressing a dancing-girl in Ar. Thesm. 
1172, and so sometimes, though I believe wrongly (cf. § 236 c, note 
to 5Xot<piov), taken as a proper name. It occurs again, and indispu- 

1 The long « of koquolcv is the result of metrical lengthening according 
to Bechtel, Att. Frauennam. 67 n. 1 ; Solmsen, Kh. M. 59. 503. 

2 Cf. Brngmann, Or. Gr 3 . 197. 

Suffixes in -(piov. 277 

tably as an appellative, in Geopon. 2. 18. 5, itapfou xspa ? . . . fa'vavT- 
This word, from the primitive &*po € , which is the most common of 
words in -a<po«, was, then, probably the pattern type of the dimin- 
utives in -acptov. From it the suffix could spread * directly to other 
Dames of animals by congeneric attraction, e. g. to O^p-dccptov 'little 
animal: After the relation e. g. of frfy to ^pacpiov had caused 
H*pwv to appear as a single suffix, it could -spread to words of any 
kind: apyupacpiov, soacpiov, [ivy^acpiov, pipacpiov, ppacpiov, frtapwv, 
uiacptov, xpucacpiov, /^copacptov. 

379. For the frequent diminutive use of -acptov no other extant 
pattern type can come in question, but in other meanings there is 
at least one word which had a limited influence. Thus frtdcptov 
'sulphur' = O'sacpos (§ 260 F), and this, as a word designating a 
powder-like substance, probably caused £/)pacptov ' a desiccative powder 
for wounds 1 : £v]pos 'dry' (cf. fcqpiov § 260 F). dxipAtpiov, a mac 
variant for cxipacpsTov x k gambling-house ' : crxipacpos 'dice-box,' is 
not a possible pattern, because -acptov is never a suffix of appur- 

380. In the one word %AYJcpiov 2 ' a little piece of wood* (: pXov) 
-Yjcptov seems to occur instead of -acpiov. This form is guarantied by 
the length of the vowel in Alexis frg. 3. 423 (1. 24), and its early 
age both by the same passage and by Hipp. 682 f. It may be ex- 
plained by assuming that the a of -acpiov was lengthened somewhere 
because connected in the mind with the first declension in words 
like /copacpiov : //opcx, and that -Yjcptov resulted analogically from some 
other word in -y], either the by-form §Ayj, or, if the late appearance 
of this word is not accidental, some other word which attracted 
l£uXYJ<ptov. There was involved the abstraction of a Bttffb -o-ov "instead 
of -acptov. 

381. There also occurs a suffix -icpiov in a tew Isolated instan 
opvicpiov 'a young bird':opvi£ is found in Ael. An. Nat 1. 41, and 
$>>X<piov is a variant msc. reading for '^Avjcptov in diverse pa« 
While the custom is to change $uM<pwv everywhere to and 
opvicpiov to dpvucpiov, it would seem that the rery fact tliat the forma 
in -icpiov were intermingled by the scribes is testimony to their i 
ence somewhere. To assume that the Identical pronunciation ol f] 

1 That the form in -toy is not necessarily I Corruption  
seen from words like movyyiov : niavyyx > 

2 For Lobeek's opinion that SvXvyio* should be substit Qtod for <•/•/ 
wherever it occurs cf. § 384. 

278 Chapter XXXI. 

and t in later times caused the confusion does not take account of the fact 
that it occurs particularly in certain words, but not everywhere alike. 

382. As to the explanation of opvicpiov, it is impossible to assume 
with Janson (op. cit. 85) that it is syncopated from "^pvifrucptov ; for 
there is no evidence of any syncope of that kind in the Greek 
language. The real cause of formation lies close at hand. Just as 
sXacpoc forms a diminutive sXacpiov, so Spi^oc ' kid ' forms £p£<piov, and 
after this was patterned the congeneric opvicpiov, a formation which 
allowed the word to retain the stem-vowel of its primitive. The in- 
fluence of this word in turn may have caused $A£<ptov as a by-form 
to £u)ojcpiov, particularly since a feeling of uncertainty as to the vowel 
preceding the <p must have already arisen in the latter through the 
variation of forms in -acpiov and -Y)<piov. 

383. The suffix -ucpiov, occurring in BsvBpucpiov, ttoucpiov, xsp^cpiov, 
xtoXucpiov, (jxsuucpiov, and wucpiov, may have originated in two different 
ways without the extant words allowing a decision. On the one hand, 
-ocpiov may have been directly transferred from some -iov derivative from 
a primitive in -ucpo- -ucpa- or -ocpeo'-, e. g. *xop6cpiov from xopucpirj. There 
is, however, extant not a single word in -ucpiov from such a primitive, 
unless the suffix had a long 0, in which case there exists xsXucpiov : 
to xs^ocpoc, though not in 'diminutive' meaning (§ 118 C). If the 
u of -iKpiov was short, we may assume a lost pattern like *xop 'jcpiov, 
certainly not an improbable conjecture. Another explanation is given 
by Brugmann, Gr. 2. I 2 . 387, who assumes BsvBpucpiov or some word 
like it as the pattern. This would presuppose the existence of a stem- 
form BsvBpu- in 'Ablaut' with BsvBps[f"]-ov, or = BsvbpfTJ-ov minus the 
thematic vowel, for which Brugmann compares Hes., BsvBpua^siv 
Tarawa)? b%b tcx^ Hpuc, roxpacps'jysiv. In this case a suffix -cpiov had 
been abstracted from some word like opvicpiov : opvi-s (stem opviO*-), and 
this -cpiov in turn coalesced with the u of the -u- stem. 

384. There seems to be no difference of meaning between the 
various -cpiov suffixes, but there was a distinction in so far as -ucpiov 
was avoided after stems containing an u for euphonic reasons. Of. 
Schwabe, op. cit. 68, who refutes the untenable statement of Theo- 
gnostus 126. There is thus weak support for the ?tAd<ptov which Lobeck 
(ad Phryn. 78) would substitute everywhere for ^Avjcpiov. While it 
is not impossible that %Aucpiov, which is actually found e. g. in Suidas, 
actually existed in the speech of some individuals who were less sen- 
sible to euphony, it is not allowable to attribute the form to the whole 

Suffixes in -tpiov, 279 

886. As far as the few examples with sufficient context can 
determine, words in the -cpiov suffixes were almost, though not 
quite, exclusively a diminutive category, i. e. referring to small - 
as can be seen from the following examples: devdqvvtoy : tevftpov, 
• a little tree or tree-like plant.' Theophr. H. P. 4. 7. 3, pjxv) ft 
tOv osvof -jouov og-ov d$ Tps% tuy]/^. tyvyiov : £oov, ' a little animal 
or figure. Athen. 210 C, Ta sv auTu (sc. tw 67uoxpY]TY)p&io>) svtst 
jjiva ^wBa'pia xai aX)>a Tiva £(oo<pta xai cpuTa'pia. Hes., ^wocpioi; • [xt- 
xpo?? £c&oi$ Y] xvooa'Xoi?. y) tutyjvoT?. y) <T<p7$v. ^oamov. fhjp, • ;i little 
beast." Damocrates ap. Gal. vol. 14 p. 91 ed. Kiihn, Kat tcov — /.£-- 
tmv Xsyo[X£vo>v (typacpCwv, 2<pY}x6)v, [xs^ittSW. xcdixpwv : xaXov, ' a little 
piece of wood.' A conjecture for xaXupiov (§ 368) in Hes., xa/zj- 
epwv c'jXt^iov. iivr\w<piov : p9j(ia, ' a little monument. 1 Insc. Rom. 
CIG. 6707 (224 A. D.), totuov Sv TrapsxaXecfas] sv to?? xy^toi; [too, 
fva 01x000^0"/]? [iv^jxa'cpiov Ixsi, . . . Byj^ov <toi t:oiS>. {tvycufiur : uuipov, 
' a little ointment/ referring to quantity (§ 202), combined with 
deteriorative force. Epict. 4. 9. 7, xalos slvoi frsAsic xai xkttaa&t 
<7sat)Tov [J.Y] cov xai lab^zoL ItuiBsixvusiv frsXsig otiXevtijv, iva Tar yr/xixa; 
s-iTTpscpYjC, xav tuou [xupacpiou stuituyt,?, u.axa'pioc slvai BoxsT?. ir'/.iof %w : 
culov, c a little piece of wood.' Philem. Lex. Techn. 116, Z'/axoiov 
6;:. to pxpov ^Aa'piov xai ftAyfcpiov. gvXfaiov =* preceding. Alt wis 
frg. 3. 423 (1. 24), ^AVjcpiov MupptvY)? syoua-a Xstctov dp^ov iv toT; 
yzilzviv. Hipp. 683, sp^ov ^uXir)<pia opiya'vou B-Jo jronjbac Asia. Eotm 
Bs I; BaxTtAa. Polyb. 6. 35. 7, 6 Bs BiWi tootoi? jcto r/Ar^ia xxTa 
cpuXaxYJv, (3pa/sa tsXsok, s/ovTa /apaxT^pa. £vU<i iov = preceding. 
Hes., cppuysTpov £u>i<piov, a> xivoSti Ta$ Tuscppuypva; xpiOar. 6jpiq>*W 
(oQVV(flop) : opvic, 'a young bird.' Ael. An. Nat. 4. 41, xai s<tti to 
[jiysfro? Ta opvicpia ocovTUSp a>6v xspBixoc. ib. 7. 47, Ta Bs jepefay xta 
cpta dpT^)ixou?(sc. xaXoucriv). axevH^v : crxsuoc. ' vasculum/ Ja Laur. 
I)e Magistr. Rom. p. 104 (with deteriorative shade), oxtOo* [lilfUJW, 
I? apyupioo tusiuoiyj^vov, ... £x Tupcyovwv s/si xexty^sV,? • dfe* 
rcevCav 5iuo<rupo>svos xaTaMsi [jiv to txsOoc, . . . woXXA Bs xai ac 
s5 (XOtoO rasuucpia xaTa^xsua^ov, jcoX^v apyupov s; sO: 
I? svoc xat ap/aTov s/av (pavTa'CsTai. y^vuiiiiitn- \ inall 

quantitv of gold.' Anna Comn. 3 p. 94, &nrp©*tt»wv 5 ;^*« 

Xp-jo-a ? iou. zuQUiftov :y«pa, 'a little spot/ Theophr. 
YCvovtow |J.sv (sc. oi dpwTOi t^v i/;j-Jo>v) xai sap* tv 
svjopa p>pacpia. 

386. 'Other uses than the prevailing diminutive usi 
ingly rare.- Jt^ov (Aet. 6. 92; Paul. Aeg. 7. L8), l a .1 

280 Chapter XXXI. Suffixes in -qior. 

powder for wounds,' which followed frsoccpiov : O'soccpo?, has been mei 
tioned above (§ 379). As an instrument suffix -acptov appears in 
one word, viz. ^vqcc(/wp ' razor ' == £upov. . Cf. Schol. Ar. Ach. 849, 
[not Bs [xa^aipoc sTtcsv 6 xaloo|xsv y]jjlsT<; %jpacpiov. Gl. Lex. Gr. ms. 
Reg. cod. 2062, Eupd? to §jpacpiov yj to Y)xovY)pivov £icpo<;. This word 
is probably due to the fact that §Aa<piov, which is so much like 
£uXv)<piov, could designate a small wooden instrument, whence %jpoc<piov 
by congeneric attraction. Of semantic syncretism with other -iov 
suffixes there is very slight evidence. Deteriorative meaning is only 
found in combination with the diminutive (cf. ppoc'cptov and <nteutf«ptov 
§ 385). There is one passage, however, in which devdqixptov is 
used hypocoristically as 'beautiful tree,' namely Marc. Ant. 4. 20, 
for which see § 354. Perhaps xwlvyiov : xcoXy), ' ham,' also belongs 
here, in as much as it may have meant ' delicious ham.' Cf. Phryn. 
77, xcoXucptov (Jly] Tiys, xoAyjvoc Be. 

387. The precise meaning of the following words in -cpiov can not 
be determined because of lack of proper context : (XQyvQcccpiov : apyupoc 
' silver,' Theogn. Can. 126. 34. eddcpwp : sBo? ' seat,' Eustath. 492. 36. 
xeqdvipiov : xspBo? 'gain,' Gloss. (ioiQ<x<f.iov : [xoTpa 'fate,' 'lot,' Theogn. 
1. c. vldipvov : oio's ' son,' Gloss., Hipp. De Aere p. 179. mx/jov : 
$dv 'egg,' Theogn. Can. 127. 2. 


*P<*XtOV 67, 131 

ayy.'ja, ~ol 54 

ay*A;j.aTiov 146, 162 

ayatjiou Bixy) .... 19 f. 

ayysiotov . ... 218, 228 

&YY S ^ 0V 9 

ayysAo; . . 256 

*Y«>$ 15 

ayxiorptov 158 

ayxomdxiov 251, 253 

ayxama-xoc 251 

ayoppiov 16, 19 

aypiBiov 233 

ayo>yiov 17, 19 

aycovaptov 264 

ayojvioc . 11 

aBsXcpaxt, 249 

aBsXcpitkov 239 

aBixiov . . . . . 17, 20, 27 

(kibliov 44 tf., 74 

urfiovioc, v6p.o? . . . .60 

'AO^VtOV 183 

afyeios . . . . . . . 9, 64 

aiyioiov . 




ataoXiov . 
aiTiov, TO 




a?cpviBio£ 221 

axavihov ... 101, 104, 189 
. . 86, 91, 101, 105 f. 


83, 87, 90, 168, 182, 200 
axc/UGjiaTiov .... 173, 178 

axpa^oviov 32, 37 

axp&tov 141 



axpofrtviov 31, 36f. 


icxpoxooXiov 37 

axpoij/pdcXiov 37 

axporcoa^kov 37 

axpopptvtov 37 

axpoppufxtov 37 

axpoo-TYjO'tov '37 

axpoaroAiov 37 

axpocropov .... 32. 37 

axpOT'^aipiov :;t 

axpoG-cpoptov :;t 

axp OTsXstmov 37 

axpocp'J(7tov 37 

ixpwjxtov 37 

dtXapaortov 69 

aXsicptov 19 f. 

aXsxToptov 41 

aXsxTp'jovtov 142 

'AXscavBpiov 42 

aXs^TYjpio? 16 

&foo<; 11, 14 

aXxipiaBtov 189 

a)auoviov 190 

cxl[U%. Ta 72 

aXo7UY)ytov 11 

a).o-(oAtov 40 

d&oupyi&iov 96 


&M<nov 8, 88, 97 

&),cpaBiov M I I • 

&X<MC£tlOV 106 


a;i.a£iov 18 

fyldfcpTtOV . . . . 16f.,8 

ajj/AA^TYjptOV 41 

«|j.[xovtov 44 

ajj.viov II. l'' 


7J)/a[j7.^: .... 

a;j.o/.y.ov .... 

axpoaTYjptov 41 

axpo^uyiov 37 

1 Differences of accentuation are disregarded in the index. The numbers 

refer to pages. 



'ApwM&tOV ...... 239 

ap^axLOv 17, 20 

ajj^sliov 144, 162 

a^'Xtov 68 

a(j.cpaBio; .... 219 f. 243 

ap/pBsiBiov 228 

ap.cpiov 2, 15 

ap.cpopsiBiov 218, 228 

avapo'XaBtov 244 f. 

avaycoyta, toc 43 

avBpocypia 44 

avBpa7u6Btov 124 

avBpapiov 204, 265 

avBpsTo? 73 

avBpiavTaptov 268 

avBpLavTiBiov 234 

avBpidvTtov 146 

avBpiov 9, 102f.,117ff.,128, 207, 246, 256 

avBpolr/jrtOV 20 

avfrspov 109, 112 

avQ'Sccpopta, t« 43 

av&pobuov 49, 106 

avfrpYjviov 51, 63 

avQ>po)7iapiov 265 

ivfrpawretos 9 

avfrpcoraov . 8, 115, 119, 140, 176 
avfrpomov.oc .... 154, 195 

dtVWJXXtOV 257 f. 

&vtwtVT/j|UOV . . . . . 31, 33 

avTtov 15 

avTios 13 ff. 

dtvrXfov 18, 20 

a^tviBiov ....... 234 


ajutos 60 

AxoXXomov ...... 42 

a7uoXi><7iBiov 218, 225 

dbucpapiov 270 

apayvtov . . 8, 51, 63, 78 f., 86, 200 

apyopacpiov 277, 280 

apyupiBtov 216 f., 227, 231, 235, 237 
apyupiov . . . 2, 65 f., 80, 166 f. 

apBaXiov 53 

apBavtov 45 f. 

aps<7[xiov 44 

apiBiov 49 

apx(r)tov ... . . . 11, 190 

apxuaraa-Lov . . . . 17, 19 f. 

apviov 114, 156 f. 

apcrsvfoaov 191 

'ApTSfjicriov . 7, 10, 42, 107, 273 f. 

apTiBiov 237 

apT07Uco>,iov ...... 40 

apyiBiov .... 225, 230, 237 

a<7Xspi<7X0v 202 

acriBtov 216, 234 

dccxiov . 2, 12, 98, 121, 126, 146 
a<7[j.airiov 151 


arrx&iov 120 f., 147, 162, 219. 222 
aoTttBtcTXiov 252 f. 

a<777tBl(7XY] 252 

aa-capiov 261 

a<7TsToc 73 

acnrsptov 104, 190 


aarios ....... 8 

acTpayaXiov 69 

aarpiov 109 

a(7TL»v6[j.iov ...... 41 

acruptov ....... 272 

aorupov ....... 271 

a^Tayv]vaptov 271 

'Attmiwv 196 

a5Xtov 11, 41, 112 

a6Xi(7XO? 200, 202 

au^Bptov 248 

&ppoBi<Jio$ 273 

'AcppoBurapiBiov , . . . 223, 239 

acpuBiov 214, 233 

&j>£vfriov 189 

(3aO'paBiov 244 

BafruMo? 257 

(3axTY)piov 163 

(3alaviov 68 

palto? 13 

(3od(X)aviriBiov . . 211, 218, 228 

PaXXavriov 5, 211 

pala-ajiov 10 

(kpyBiov . . 214, 223, 225, 248 

(kpuMwv 210, 259 

Pa(7iXsCBtov ..... 218, 232 

|3a<7xavtov 53 

(kcroaptov .... 104, 260 f. 
jiaTaviov 87, 91 




91, 250 


• • . . 175, 179 


5, 190 





B«XXwv . 





. . 151 f., 161, 186 


. . . . 223, 227 

/ y.ciov 

• i . . 211,263 




. . • . 227, 235 

StjftCov . 

2, 11, 65 f., 71, 131, 211 

P'.OTLOV . . 




poO-piov . 

. . . . 101, 112 


. 181, 262, 264, 270 

BofBiov . . 

, 212f., 227, 230, 233, 240 


Boiaxiov . 


Ho'lT/vOC . 


Bomot&iov . 

. . 215, 217. 239 


. . . 52, 63, 79 


. . . . 100, 104 


. . . 213, 229, 238 




. . . 8, 106, 190 

PotJBtOV 174, 

204, 208, 212, 218 f., 233 

po'jxs^aliov . 



. . 50, 71, 128, 198 



poucp6pPtov . 


ppay/ia . . 

19 f. 


.... 31, 50 

(3pscpoc . . 


pps<ptiXXiov . 


(3p6y/^a, Ta . 

. . . . . 53 

ppuov . . . 


P'jj&iov etc., 

see pt(3Xiov. 
















. . . . 222. 286 

yaorpCov 69, 72, 168 

ysXoTos 9 

ysvstov g 

Tfepavtov i 88 

yspovTtov 117, 120 f., 123 f., 126 f. 

ysppaBtov 244 

yecpripiov uh 

yscopyiov .... 17, 20, 39, 41 
YV)Biov 11, 204, 208, 215, 219, 286 

yiyytBiov 190 

yXauxiBtov 288 

yXauxiviBiov 238 

yXauxiov 68. 103 f. 

yXuxaBtov 242, 245 

yXuxsiBiov 22! • 

rXuxspiov 175 

ylcoowptov 265 

yvo)|jiBiov 240 

yoyyu TiBiov 112 

yo[j.cpioc 13 

yovocTiov 104, 111 

ypdffitOV . . 208, 231 f., 28! 

ypa[x[j.ocpiov 271 

YpapjjuxTsflkov . . 218, 229. 286 F. 

ypa[j.[j.3CTiBiov 235 

ypacpsQxov 212, 226 

ypacpiov 14,46 

yuparrtBtov 21; s. 281 

yu[j.votc7tGv ... 16 IT.. 20, 27:; 

yuvaixapiov 266 


yuvouov 118 

yjvvi£ 2S6 

yuxapiov 266 

ywviBiov 21 


Bai(ju6vwv 27 f., 161 


fcaxpritoov .... 
&a*rtAfl*WV . 216, 217 f, 281 

BaXT'J/.lOC 60 


Bawfctov L«0 

fceiXaxpCwv |,,,; 

?>3'-vav/// .... 


folftvioV ,T1 





BsAtiov . 
BsA<pa'£ . 

BsvBpiov . 




Bs^ia, y] . 




Bs<7|XlOV . 

AyjAioc, t<x 
AvjpjTpia, Ta 


Atj piBiov . 
BY)|xoom, Ta 

BY)|x6<7LOV, to 

BYjvaptov . 






BisBpiov . 



BixiBtov . 


B I AY) [XV 10 V 

Atov&cia, Ta 




Bi<pa<7i0£ . 

BtCpplBtOV . 

. 171 


. . . 48 

WoisAta . . 

211, 264, 268 

Aoxtjxiov . 

67, 184 f., 211 


. . 157, 249 

BoHaptov . . 

. . 249 

BopaTiov . 

. 188 

BopuBiov . 

. . 42 


17, 21 

Bo/jito? . . 

12, 78, 82 

BpaxovTiov . 

. . 278 


223, 248 

Bpaypiov . 

210. 278 ft'. 


. . 6 

BpliXUAO? . 


Bpuapiov . 

149 f., 160 


218, 227 

218, 235 


11, 46 

syxtojxiov . 

. 43 



iy/xipiBtos . 

223, 240 



syysA'JBiov . 


sBa^Lov . 

. 240 

sBwAiov . 

. 128 



sbt6vwv . 

27, 273 

sijjloctiov . 

. 261 

sTpiov . 

17, 21 

staaycoyiov . 

. 43 f. 



'Exoctyjoxoc, Ta 

. . 9 

'ExaTtov . 


£X7U(0|XaTlOV . 


SXTaBlO? . 

217, 234 

i*To;xaBtov . 

10, 41 

sAaBiov . 

230, 235 f. 

sAaTio? . 

214, 226 

sAaoiov 175, 

. 34 


. 43 


. 42 

'EAsufrspiov . 

. 273 

'EtaoaCvta, to: 


' E A£LK7tVlOV . 

. 264 

£ax*JBiov . 

. 273 




. 234 



204. 207 

83, 90 

214, 227 



, 134, 136 

. 190 

104. 108, 190 
. 152 
158, 161 
. 264 
52. 148 


. 32 f. 

221, 224 

. 220 f. 

. 203 

213. 238 

277, 280 


. 258 



65, 69 


. 8. 44 


. 108 

. 124 

209, 243 

. 244 

233, 241 f. 


209. 276, 278 
. 190 
. 183 
223, 235 
181, 247 f. 




. 141 


. . . . 127 

IMBplOV . 

. . 248 

EpomBia, t& 

2 J 5 

sjj.Jsaftiov . 

. 96, 243 f. 


. . . 108 


. 171 

£p<*raov . 


ijxfiacpiov . . 

17, 21 

ioyapiov . 

. 49, 147, 260 f. 

£(Jy6)<',OV . 

17, 19, 21 

ZGJ&plOQ . 

• • . . 260 

£(J-6p'.OV . 

41, 53 

• Iraipa 


&v$o<x&&ta, toc 

. 225 


. . . . 231 

$v&o<rdtotO£ . 

. 220 


. . . . -Ill 

SVt^'JTlOC . 

. 273 

izrpioq . 

. . . . 273 

Ivracpiov . 



. 17, 21, 31. 44 

Ivxspftka . 

. 238 


. . . . 31 


. 220 


. . . . 190 

IvjTTVlOV . 



174 f.. 179 

£VG)BlOV . 

. 224 

EupuTO? . 

. . . . 27:5 




... 190 


. 207, 

209, 260 f. 


. . . . 121 

Ivorrtov . 

33, 224 


... 40 


. 221 


... 33 



£/£tBtOV . 

. . . . 218 

£7ityOL»VLBlO; . 



. . . 219, 226 



i/jBviov . 

. 61, 141, 170 



lytov . 

... 188 



iroxpotftrctov . 



. . . 864 




. . . 47 



^waypia . 

... 44 

imvCxtov . 

32 f. 

£q>apiov . 

. . . 967 



£w$aptov . 

. . 262, 967 

$7C£<7T10V . 



. 218 P., 229 r. 



?oj(xiBtov . 

. . . 980 


32 f. 

£o)vapiov . 

. . . 964 

$rctTaiv(&tcv . 



12, I i. 97 




. . 910 

lm<patrvCBtog . 


. . . 978f, 


81, 33 

IfttfXXtov . 


'H&ftxov . 

. . . 

ipyaanqptov . 



. . . 

IpeCmov . 

16 f" 21, 209 


. . . IT'-' 

IptOv, see stptov. 

f HBuTtov . 

. . . 978 


157, 204, 207, 278 

r/j-aviov . 



. 2, 9, 110, 184 


. . 

c Epaa$iov 

. . . 244 f. 


. . M 


. . . 265 



|Ep|ri|£ . . 

. . . 107 


. . 187 


215, 230, 240 


. . 

sp'jjpaBiov . 

. . . 244 f. 


. . . 










35, 37 


35, 37 

Y)[xtBpay(j.i(xTo£ . 



35, 37 


35, 37 


32, 35. 

Y][xix67.Xiov . 

35, 37 

"?][Ux6c|J.lOV . . 




Y]|XlXOT!jXlOV . 

31, 35, 37 



•JjjjitXtTpiaTog . 

. . 36 


35, 37 


32, 35 

Y)[JLl[JLY)Viai05 . 


■f)[j.t6Xiov . 

35, 91 

Yj^ouyxtov . 

35, 37 

Y]|J.lTC)iv{koV . 

. 35 f. 


35, 37 






36 f. 


. 36 f. 

^|uaxi8 , a[uoSb< . 





35 f. 

Yjputrcpaiptov . 

. 35 f. 

Yj^tTaXavTiaTo^ . 




2, 35 f. 

TfjpLtTOVtatO^ . 



36 f. 


36 f. 

Y)[U<pop[UOV . 




Y][XtyOlVlXlOV . 

36 f. 



Y]p(OJ3sXlOV, -(36>;lOV 

36 f. 

TjJJLtwpiOV . 


Y]V£[XlOV . 


Y]vta .... 

. 5. 11 

Y]XaTlOV . 

. 144 

Hpax^siY], (3iy) . 


7)plOV . ... 


11, 18, 21 

Yjpuyyiov . 

. . 190 

YJTpLOV 16 f., 21 


. 273 


frsairpiBiov 230 

fkacplOV .... 191, 277, 280 

ik),XTYjplov 45, 47 

6'£[J.£(t)ilOV 17, 22 

Ssoyapa, toc 43 

sko7up67Utov 16 f., 22 

frspdwuaiva 222 

frsparcaiviBiov . . 205 f., 231, 239 

frspa7uaivi£ 222 

fkpdbuiov 10, 120 f. 

@spa7UvaTiBta, Ta . 225 

fr£pa7rcvTiov 10, 121 


pCtrcpiOV 86, 95 

^£(7[J.10V 74 

vkojiocpopia, Ta .... 43 

§z<7%£<no$ 273 

frqXuBpias 246 f. 

*&Y)MBpiov . . . 204, 207, 246 f. 
8n)pa'<piOV . 204, 207, 209, 277, 279 
8'YjpiBiov .... 218, 221, 233 

8*Y]putXsiGS 86 

8>Y)ptav 2, 9, 11, 74, 78 ff., 86, 130, 

167, 198, 200. 
£hr]Tiov 124 

0'VY](T£tBtOV 226 

frwrraftioc 243 

^G£iBiov, see 8>u£iBiov. 

8-paviBiov . . . 218, 221, 226 

frpaviov 158 

frpafuBiov 238 


frpsrcTifjpia 43 f. 

frptBaxicrxa 202 

frpoviov . 11 

OpovLOV 4 

fruyar/jp 138 

fruyaTpiBiov 239 

fruyaTpiov 138, 140, 173 f., 176, 178. 

8>U£iBiov 218, 228 

9-uXaxiov . 121, 124, 146, 165, 186 
v>i>|xia*TY)piov . % . . . 45, 47 
i>u|jiBtov ....... 230 

fruptov ... 12, 121, 148, 165 

IWavtov 105 

{korcsujJiaTiov 151 f. 

Ikopaxiov 149 



t^toc 11 

fopt&TlOV 151 f., 161 

Upaxiov 190 

ixsTT^to; 273 

[[J.avTapiov 264 

fcjXOVTtotOV 234 

tjxavTtov ill 

(juXT&aptQV . . . 205, 262, 271 
[fMCTCfctOV . . . 211, 217, 226 
[(JUXTtOV . . . 19, 45 f., 131, 211 

hiov 11, 72, 198 

iRKxytoyoi 90 

fcwraplOV 163, 265 f. 

fewsetos 9 

feiBlov 220, 230 

&cmo{ 72 

bncoxdqmov 106 

v la-0>[j.ia, Ta 43 

ltj^lov . . . . 11, 50, 56, 72 

i(7Taptov 262 

iTTiov 11, 53, 200 

i<7/a(^ov 124, 126 

laylov 5, n, 200 

iTpta 5 

t/ptoc 14 f. 

i/;0 oBtov 212 ff., 219, 226 f., 230 f.. 
233, 236, 238 

iy$oo%d)\iov 40 

i/viov 2, 9, 56, 63 

xa^Btov 12 

xcx^tov 12 

xaBiaxiov 251, 253 

xaBiaxo? ....... 251 

xafrapcnov . . . . . 17, 22 

xaxa, Ta 54 

xaxYjyopiou Blxy) ... 20, 22 

xaxxapiov 91, 146 

xaxoya[xiou Bixy] ... 20, 22 
xccXa£kov ...... 98 

xaAajxapiov . . ... . . 262 

xaAa|itov 72 

xaXCBta, ~a 225 

xaTaBiov ...... 217, 234 

xaXmov 9, 94 

xaAijBpiov 272 

xaAuxiov 157, 166 



• . . 47 

xaXupiov . 

• . . 272 

xotAu cpiov 

• . . 279 


215, 219, 227 


. 206. 252 f. 


8, 68, 189 

xtxvoviov . 

. . 48 


. . 200 

xaxxaa-tov . 

. . l'7:, 


. . 288 


. . 288 

xapiBocpiov . 

. . 269 

xocptBiov . . 

. . 141 

xapxmov . ic 

0, ] 


134. 136, 142 

Kapvacrto^ . 

. . 42 

xapxiov . . 

. . 72 


. . 271 

xapuBtov . . 

. 214,238 

xap/r i o , iov, -aerw 

/ . 

. . 94 


. . 63 

xaaravov, -oc 

. . 61 

xaTayoSyta, Ta 

. . 43 

xaTaycoyiov . 



. . 

xaTwp.aoto$ . 

. . 248 

XOOXfov . . 

. . 94 

xauAtov . 

. . 144 


. 214. 226 


. . 


. . 


. . 28 


. . 

XSAYjTlOV . . 


xsAucpiov . 

88, 278 

xevoTa^wv . 

. . 82 

xsvTaupiov . . 



. . 

xspajxiov . . 


. 81 

xepao-tov . . 

;. L88 

xepaTapiov . 

. . 

jtcpawv ioi f.. 106, L88, L88f., L66, 



xspBu<piov . . 

. . . 


i:.i. L68, i'-i 

xep/viov . . . 


xcoxfov . 

. LI 



X£<?aX&iov 223, 225 

xscpaXtov . . . 102, 107 f., 255 

XY]i>apiov 266 

xyj&iBiov 103, 105 

XY)£kov ...... 9, 105 

XY)QtC 103 

xy)7u£ov 127, 145 

xvjpiov ... 11, 51, 66, 69, 128 


XYjpUXlOV 53 

x^cpYjVtov 51, 63 

xipVmov 83, 98, 112, 147, 169, 250 

xigytigv 189 

xiffdupiov 94 

xi/opiov 189 

xlaBiov 157 

xlao-ij-tXTtov 149 

xlsiBiov 45, 48, 121 

xXs[j.|xa?HOS 243 

xkr^OL 222 

x)or;|j.aTfika 236 

xXv)[j.aTi£ . . . . . . 222 

xTorjpiov 153 

xXt|j.axiov 108, 147, 160 1'., 205, 207, 

249 f . 
xltvapiov . . . . . . 262 

xXivy, 222 

x)dviBiov 226 

xXtvic . . . \ . . . 222 

xXlvottoBiov 188 

xXtvv/]ptBlov . . . 218, 221, 226 


X>i(7lOV 40 

xltap.axtov . . . 205, 207, 249 f . 

xXkBwvlov 24 

x^*j[xsviov 189 

xXucTTipiBiov 234 

xXuO-TYjplOV 47 

xlcovapiov 267 

Klcovaptov 270 

xXwviov .... 144, 154, 157 

xvacpsTov 9, 40 

xvscpaio? 9 


xviBia 63 

xvia-apiov 263 

xoy/apiov 263 

xoy/iov 141 f. 

Y.oyy6\iov 52, 

Bl, 76 if., i 


98, 259 

xotjGfctov i 

XOlTlBtOV . 








XoXoxtfvTlOV . 


xo[j.apov, -oc 




xojxioxa . 










xoroxBiov . 

242, 245 

xoxpiov . 

112, 124 

xopaBiov . 

. 244 f. 

xopaxiviBiov . 

. 238 

xopaxiov . 

 • . . 

187, 249 

xopaX(T)iov . 

. . 190, 254 f. 

xopactBiov . 

218, 223, 231 

xopactov . 

. . . 272, 274 if. 

XOpY] . 

. . . . 275 

xopi^iov . 

221, 229, 276 

xopiBio? . 

.... 221 



xopiov 11, 121, 1 

40, 174, 179, 190, 276 

XOpi<7XY] . 

.... 252 


. . . 252, 254 


. ... 11 

xopaiov . 

. . 101, 103, 105 

Kopucpacia . 

. . . . 274 

Kopucpa(7iov . 

.... 274 


. . . . 278 


. . . . 124 


. . . 260, 263 

xogjuov . 

. . . 117, 119 


. . . . 263 


.... 43 f. 

XOTU>i<7XlOV . 

. 163, 206, 252 f. 

X0Tl>)i<7X0S . 

. . . . 252 

xoupaXiov, see > 


xoupsiov . 

9, 40 

xoupiBtov . 

. . . . 230 


.... 221 


.... 265 


. . . . 68 

xpa[j.[3iBiov . . 




xpajJipCov 68, 189 

xpKV&tOV 218, 229 

xpaviov 52, 63 

xpotTavtov 94 

KpaTYjptBiov 218, 234 

XpOCTTjplOV 47 

xpsd&tov . . . 213, 225, 231, 238 
xpsxaBia .... 209, 242 ff. 

xpedXXtov 258 

xpTjVY) 222 

xpiqvCBtov 233 

xpY]vi? 222 

xpCBiov 218, 233 

xpifriBtov . . . 227, 231, 235 

xpixsXTaov 255 

xpixsAvXo? 255 

xpoxoBsiXiov 188 

XfOXfttt&lOV 216, 228 

xpoxomov 95 

Kp6vta, Ta 43 

xpuxTaBto^ 243 

xpu<7TaAvXiov 190 

xpuoraXXog 255 

xttsviov . . . .12, 83, 104, 112 

xty^siBiov 218, 231 

Kua&iov 91 

xuavso? 75 

xupsXiov 189 

x-jpiov 69 

x'JxXio? 73 

xuxXi<mov 251 ff. 

y.u-AkiGXOC, ...... 251 

xuxXtomov 37 

KuxXwtuiov . . . 115, 174 f., 179 
xuXixiov . . 83, 89, 121, 147, 169 

xuXi(7Xiov 251, 253 

X'jXl<txo£ 251 

xuJdyyiov 181 

XD[iaTia 109 

Xt>p£l&lOV . . . 215, 221, 234 
. 7, 12, 88, 91, 129, 182 


xuvapiov . 


xuvYjyiov . 



X'j7uaipi<7X0S 202 


211, 263, 266 

. 16 ff., 22, 273 

. . . 17,22 

211, 226 f., 231 ff. 

. . 187 


xtirceXXov 956 

xupinPta 16f., 22 

xupaxov m 

xuTTapiov . . . 51, 184, 260 f. 

xu^sXiov 112 

XG)(3iBapiov 262 

xco^iBlov 114, 216 f., 231, 233, 238 

H&os 13 

xtoMptov . . . 262, 264, 266 
xc&Biov .... 215, 219, 229 

xwfrapiov 269 

xwXocpiov 278. 280 

X(6[J.10V .145 

xca[j;JBptov SAB 

Kcovcomov 182 

X(j)7ttGV 181 

xtopaX(X)iov, see xopaXXiov. 
xcoptov, see xopiov. 


. . . 142 


... 04 


. . . 124 

Xdcyiov . . 

10, 108, 135. 1 12 

Xocyuvtov . 

. . . 2.")!* 


. . 214. 287 

XaXio? . . 

. . . 13 


. . . 176 

XapuaBtov . 

48, 112, 243 f. 


. . 816, -mm 

Xs(3Y]Tapiov . 

. . . MO 


. 89, 99, 168 


. . . 187 


. . . W 


. . . W 

Asi^uBpiov . 

. . . 217 


. . . 998 

Xsxavtov . 

83. - 

Xsxapiov . 

. . . 




. . . 


. . . 211 f. 


. . '_' 1 - 


. . . '-Ms 


. . . 265 

Asovtiov . 

. . • • 

Xtft&tov . 


as-tiov . 

. . . 1 • 



IT.. 1'. 




>»S7W)plOV . 



145, 158, 166 

[j-a^tov . . . 

• . 


34, 150 


. . . . 269 


.... 222 

IyjBiov  . 

9, 12, 95 

[xoaviBiov . 

142, 206, 238 





1, 147, 169 

(j.aivi£ . . 


Xy)[X10V . . . 

. 152 



}a(3aBtov . . 

72, 243 

[xalribua, Ta 

. . . 29, 81 


. 226 


.... 252 f. 

M&a? • . • 

. 205 


. . . . 196 



5, 223, 236 

Ma[x[xaptov . 

. . . . 270 

fofrapiov . 

. 268 


. . . 207, 250 

MKBtov . 

. 235 

[xapysXXiov . 

.... 256 

Xifrtov . . . 


MapjJiaptov . 

. . . . 72 

'Xi^to? . . 



. . . 17, 23, 40 f. 

7d[X£Vl(TXtOV . 

. 252 f. 

p-ayatptBiov . 

. . . . 218, 228 


. . 252 

[j.ayaipiov 48 

f., 100, 112, 148, 162 


. 145 

Ms&tfBptov . 

. . . . 247 

Tavapiov . 

. 263 


.... 28 f. 



[xeiprioaov 2, 102 f., 110 f., 129, 249, 

Xi7uoTaJiou ypacp' 




XoyapiBiov . 

. 223 

[jisipaxioxiov 252 

7.oyapiov . 

211, 266 

[jistpaxfoxos . 

. . . . 252 

XoysTov . 

. 9, 40 


. 205, 210, 257 f. 

^oyiBtov . . 

222, 231, 236 f. 


.'.... 257 

^oytov . . . 

2, 16 f., 22, 211 


102, 110, 249 


. . . 248 



^oyyapiov . . 

. . 266 


. . 205, 252 ff. 

loyyiov . . . 

106 ff. 


173, 202, 205, 252 


. . 275 

[JLsXtTlOV . 

. . . 69, 71 

Xoi(3sTov . 



. 51, 62, 175, 179 


. . 151 f. 


. . . .2471 



88, 92, 243 

(J.£(70tty|UOV . 

37 f. 


. 177, 183 



'XoUTYjplBlOV . 

. 218, 228 

[J.£(7£VT£pL0V . 

37 f. 


. . 47 

[J.£<7lBlO£ . 


XoUTptOV . -. 

44, 46 



luyyoupiov . 

. . 97 

{j.£(7oyoviov . 


Xuyxiov . 

. . 104 


37 f. 


. . 190 




. 97, 108 

fJLS(70xtiviOV . 


Taxnfiaytov . 

. . 187 

{j.£a-o{Jia?tov . 

37 f. 

7.6<7lO£ . . 

. . 273 

{J.£<70|J.YjVlOV . 


^.u/vsTov . 

. . 49 


37 f. 


216 f., 225 


. 37 f. 

7;UyVlOV . 

12, 49 


. 37 f. 

Xl>/VlTapiOV . 

. . 262 


37 f. 


. . 160 

pxa-07uuyiov . 

37 f. 


. . 95 






[*.so-0(papaYYiov ..... 38 

(J.£<70<pX£|blOV 38 

[icroeCmiov 32 


[irretopCfctov 225 

[UTOCxiOV 31, 43f. 

[j.£-6p/tov 33 

[XST-piov, to ..... 27 

|J.£T(07U10V 33 

[XYJBiov 190 

pjxcovtov 65, 68 

piptov 2, 11, 57, 63 

;j.Y]Tpapiov 270 

[xtxpo? 159, 168 

juXTapiov 263 

(jLtcO^apLOv 268 

[xta-O'wp.aTtov 125 

pocBapiov 262, 269 

!j.va(7iov 190 

pY)[xaBiov 243, 245 

py^acptov 277, 279 

pouSiov . . . 212, 219, 236 
[jiGtpacptov . . . . . 277, 280 

^OiJOL^iOL 44 

\kOiyibioc, 221 

pXupBtov 65 

[JLOVY^iplOV 34 


[XOVO[xa/iov 17, 23 

[jiovoTttjpYiov 34 

|X0V07UW>.10V 17, 23 

[xoptov 16 f., 23, 167 

\kOGyp)iGv 216 

[kocyiov 154 if'. 

\k6<ryoc, 62 

{JLOTOCplOV 262 

MoucsTov 40 

\koy\iov 45, 48 

pdbuov 249 

[jluBiov 214 

pfrapiov  . . . . 266, 268 

[jluBiBiov 231 

[jiuiBiov 236 

pvvaxia 63 

[Xt/^aptov 263 

ppacpiov .... 277, 27!) t. 

[JLOp^HOV 827 

[JLUplOt ,:; 

[AupoTccoXeTov 40 

pp07U(/AlOV 40 

MupptviBiov 240 

MuppCvtov 175 

Mu<txs}.os 866 

p<rrVjpia, Ta 43 

portiapiov 868 

vaftkov 234 

va'fexiov 254 

vaxuptov 272 

vajjidtTtov 145 

Nawaptov 270 

Navviov 177. [88 

vavooBiov . . . 212, 828, 886 

vapSrjXiov 49 

vapxiov 143 

vauaYia 17, 23 

V£0CVt<TXaplOV 2H6 

v£avt(7x6Bpiov 818 

v£txaBtov 244 f. 

v£xuBaXo? 856 

V£GC ......... 168 

VS<$TTtOV 154, 156 

vscpsXv] 256 

VE<p&lOV . . .101, 103, 118, 146 

V£(0)vXl0V 41 

V£0)ptOV 41 

VY]7UUTtG? 273 

VY)plOV 180 

VY)<7tBiov . . . 205, 211, 888, 888 

VY](7tov 138, 145 

VY)<71£ 205 

vnqenfofHOV . . . 114,911,841 

vYjTraptov 178, 870 

VY]TT10V 18, 148 

VtXY)TY]plOV 44 

vtxiBtov 880 

NCwwv 188 

voV,? IM 

voffiiov 1 

vofJiwr^aTiov 148, 161 

vofTT^-aTiov 8, 161 f. 

vo<T(piBto? ...... ~-° 


vup/pCo? W 

EavWtoov . . 




5avfrtov 189 

?aviov 45 

?svtfBpiov . . . 204, 211, 247 
£evdX?uov . . . . 211, 256 ff. 

iTjpa'-piov 277, 279 

^Yjpiov 191 

^C&OV .... 222, 226, 234 

gtqffov 103, 187 f. 

'4oaviov 146 

HtAaptov 262, 268 

$Aa(piov 277, 279 

'luXvjpiov 262, 268 

ZolrtQiov 262, 277 ff. 

^Atcpiov 277 ff. 

%A'Jcpiov 277 ff. 

Hupacpiov 210, 280 

%j<r:Y]pftkov 226 

Ops'XKJXO'XtfyvtOV 49 

oyxiov . 2, 49 

btonzopiov 53 

dfroviov 68 

oiBiov 236 

ofctaptov 268 

oixsTa, Ta 54 

O^tsCo? . 73 

oiXY)[j,aTiov . . . 116, 121, 148 
cftcCftlGV . 114, 217, 231, 234, 237 

Oixiov 11, 28, 54 ff. 

otvapiov 204, 206, 260 f., 266, 268 f. 

oivo/oiBiov 228 

OY.~<xXko$ 255 

oXiyapyia 128 

6Xxiov * 11, 17, 23 

'OXuputa, Ta 43 

0|J.[xdbtov . . . 143, 178, 183 

b^oxfapioc 28, 30 

O'j/pdbuov 68 

owpiov 267, 269 

6vC5iov 232 

ovj/iov ..... 9, 107, 143 

6£s&iov 227 

6§j(3acpiov 125 

S^AapCfcipv ....... 226 

OTUYjTIOV 45, 48 

OftlGV 68 

OTTLO-Q'tBlOS ...... 220 

d^to-froxpavtov 37 


. . 37 


. . 267 


29, 40 


17, 23 


. . 57 

opxtov . . . 

11, 57 

6px(op.6(7ia . 

17, 23 


263, 267, 269 

OpviO-iov 9 f., 61, 74, 81. 

130, 135, 142, 

177 f., 209 

dpvicpiov . 2( 

)4, 207, 277 ff. 

opvucpiov .... 

. 277, 279 

dp6(3tov .... 

. 69, 145 


. . 37 

opTuytov .... 

. . 125 f. 

opuyiov .... 

. . 48 

6p/(s)iBiov . 

. 218, 233 

&qjt&UQv .... 

. . . 143 

OOTCplOV . . .■ . 

12, 83, 188 

darapiov .... 

. . . 267 


66, 70, 72 


. . 244 f. 

OTCpU^tOV .... 

. 214, 233 

oupaBia, Ta . 

. . 242 ff . 

oupavwc .... 

. . . 70 f. 

od<7lBlOV .... 

. . 217, 237 

dcpsiBtov .... 

. . 218, 230 


178, 181, 240 

ocpCBiov . . 

. 218, 233 

6<pptiBiov . . 

. . 214, 236 


206, 218, 233 

d'Jjapiov . . 206, 2 

63, 266, 269 f. 

6cJ>iya|jioD Bixy) . 

. . 20, 24 

6'jxovtov .... 

. . 18, 24 

roxyxpcmov . 

. . 38, 190 

7uaiyvtov .... 

. . . 451*. 

xaiSdba .... 

. . . 249 

rcaiBapiov . 114, 2( 

>0, 266 ff., 276 


. . . 257 

toxiBiov 9, 11, 53, 1£ 

12 f., 112, 114, 

128, 134 ff., 139 f. 

, 153 ff., 159, 

164 ff., 171, 173 

ff., 178, 182, 

203 f., 207, 219 f. 


267, 269 f. 

Trcac . . 112, 134 f., 140, 204, 207 
7ua*XaO-tov 172, 181 

TZxkOLlQC 15 






xapaywytov . 
xa p aO'aXaomB to £ 

Tuapap-'jO'tov . 
xapBtov . 








7uaTavtov . 


xaxsptov . 


TCOCTptO? . 

















170, 172 
. 172 
102, 108 
216, 239 
24, 32- 
148, 165 
8, 82 
103 f. 
73, 75 
40 f. 
92, 255 
115, 174 f., 179 
208, 222, 239 
74, 208 
. 221 
. 274 
14, 99, 113 
6, 203 
214, 226 
267 C 

143, 190 


7t£ptaO^£VtOV . 


7U£ptXap7UtOV . 





X£pt(7T£ptOV . 

XEptccpuptov . 

TOptdCpUptG? . 





7UY]ptBlOV . 


mXaBtov . 

7tt)iBtOV . 

xtvdxtov 67, 

7UlV!X/i(7XlOV . 


7UtTuBlOV . 
7U},at(7lOV . . 


7c^£y|JiaTtov . 

7ul£%Tavtov . 

7wX£UptOV . 

jcXifj&ptov (-TptOV 

II^TjpptOV . 

rcltvWov . 84, 
jcX6xwv . . 



163, 216 

106 f, 

32 f.. 50 


31, 87. 
33. 50 
159. 172 

45, 47 


, 143. L76 

31 f., 33 


. 224 

. 235 

. 244 f. 

215. 884 


11. 53 

221). 838 


87, 92 

. 244 


. 65, 68, 71. 127 

218,221. 227. 884 

, 168, 205, 207. 848 

. 852, 251 

. . 2.V2 

. 40 t.. 277 

. . 868 
805, 807, 849 
. 814 

17. 21 
. . 1 US 

. . 888 

. . 

. I ! 

i 18 

1 11 

. . l 18 


. 101 

. 868 f, 

Ml I' I 



xoBapiov * 

. . . 269 

7u6BlOV . . 

. 11, 144, 202 


. . . 151 f. 


. . . 51 

xoipivtov . t 

. . . 9, 51 


. . . 189 


. . . 274 

TCollBtOV . 

. . 218, 234 


. . . 189 


. . 134, 137 


114, 145, 162 


208, 223, 225 


. . . 208, 263 


. . . 248 



142, 170, 188 

7UOVY]pta . 

. . . 128 

7UOVY]pO£ . 

. . . 130 


. 215, 217, 232 


. . 61, 170 

7U0G"£k0V . 

. . . 178 


. . . 42 

7UOT0C[JllOV . 

. . 145 


. . . 45 


. 216, 228 

7UOTY]piOV . 

. 4 

L5, 47, 49, 190 


. 115, 162 

xpaa-tov . 

. . 189 


. . 247 


. . 258 

7uptviBtov . 

. . 233 


. . 31 f. 


. . 33 



142, 156, 166 


87, 90 


. 123, 125 

KpoxoTjziov . 

. . 33 


31, 33 


. . 33 


. . 224 


. . 33 


. . 33 


. . 31 


. . 46 


. . 243 f. 


211, 241 ft 

7upo(7X£<paXaiov . 

. . 211 


. 221, 224 


. . 220 f. 

7UpOGTY]*!M5lOV 2 

xpoa-omBtov 225 

xpoa-comov 190 

7UpO/£tllBlOV ...... 224 

7upo/oiBiov, -ouBiov . . . 213, 228 

npi>pa<7tov 274 

xpu(j.vY)ara, Ta . 10, 53, 273 

Rzzls&cnov 274 

7UT£puytov 9, 73, 100 If., 105 f., 109, 111 

7UT£pu£ 103 

tctuiBiov 228 

7UTUXTIOV 29, 67 

irzuyiov 11 f. 

7Uuavtov 69, 71 

rcuavios 64 

7UuyiBt(X, Ta 226 

JTOXtCoV 67 

tojHBiov . . . 211, 218, 221, 227 

%u%iov 2, 67 

TCUpyQkov 232 

7Uupyi(TXiov 252, 254 

TCupytTxos 252 

xupslov 12 

TOJpSTlOV 151 f., 161 

TtUpYjVlBlOV 230 

XUpY)VtOV 100 f., 107 

7wUpiBia 160, 237 

TOjptov 12, 150 

TCwXapiov 267 

7U(o)iov . 53, 153 f., 157, 166, 193 

nulos 62, 194 

7Uto|xaptov 261 

pajJBiov .... 101, 105, 145 
paxiov . 9, 12, 95, 129, 163, 169 

paxos 95 

pacpaviBtov . . . . . . 145 

pacpaviov ..;.... 9 f . 

p£U[xa^iov 146 

pv)[j.aTiov 9, 115, 122, 125, 162, 173 
pY][j.aTi(7Xiov .... 205, 252 J". 
pY]d£tBtov . . ' . . . . 240 

pY]<nBiov 218, 231 

pitapiov . . 263 

pt£tov 83, 145 

pivapiov 262 

pivia 52 

ptvo<77ua9»iov 49 




SlVOTOpCviOV 49 

posifciov 218, 234 

p6frlOV 17, 24 

fotSa'piOV • 262, 271 

pol?>iov 238 

^wracXtov 113, 255 

pOL>5tov 212 

puy/iov 9, 143 

ptifflOV 16 f., 25 

P'JO-lo; 16 

p-jTO'i>ia)aov 147 








11, 68. 


. 255 f. 

134, 137 

. . . . 202 

. . . . 63 

... 96, 255 

. . . . 255 

<ravi5iov ...... 67, 168 

cravvaxiov 250 

capBiov 8, 63, 75 



100, 105, 149 f., 172 

cap? 149 

I'aT'jp^LOV 240 

cirnSptov 104, 188 

(jcipaBiov . . . . . . 244 f. 

<js).ayiov ....... 82 

<7£lY]vaptov 265 

aeX^vtov 63, 190 

osXXapiov 263 

<7Y][iaBiov 243, 245 

CTJJJLOVT^ptOV 45, 47 

<TY)7:iBapiov 262, 269 

cyjtuiBiov . . . 217, 226, 232, 238 

(TYj^iov 52, 63 

<7ia)iBiov ...... 233 

<nayovia, xa 58 

myiXXapiov 261 

TiBvjpiov 65, 198 

tfffiiov 52,61,68 

mwfotov 214. 388 

<nx,uwvta 68 

dOuptov 186, 190 

ctvBoviov 68 ***>3 

itvtov .... 


OTTapiov . . . . l 

07, 207, 260 f. 

Cl(7tJ[JL[3piOV . . . 

107, 186. 189 

Gt<7upiYy v iov . 

. . 190 


. 966, 268 

crtTiov .... 

2, 65, 69, 80 


. . 152 


. . 94 

axaXjx&iov . . . 

215, 217. 296 


. 21 s. 226 

crxacpstov .... 

. 6, 12, 4»i 

cxacpY] .... 


cxacpiBiov . . . 

. . 234 

(Txacpiov .... 

12. 98 

<rxa<pi£ .... 

. . 222 

<7X£>»tJBplOV '. . . 

. . 247 f. 

(rasuapiov . . . 

263, 266, 269 

(TXSUOCplOV . . . 

. 278 tr. 


. . 244 f. 

<7XY]vCBtOV . . . 

. . 282 

axYjvoppacpiov . . 

. . 49 

<7XY]VJjBptOV . . . 

. . 247 


. . 48 

axtaBiaxY) . . . 

. . 202 

<7Xt[J.7u6BlOV . . . 

. 14*. 158 


. . 269 

(Txipacpstov, -acpiov . 

. . 277 

axicpcjBpiov . . . 

202, 210,241 

(TXoXlOV .... 

. . 28 

crxoXio? .... 

. . 13 f. 

(TXoXoTUSvBplOV . . 

. . 190 

OXoM&plOV . . . 

. . 1 58 


. . 266 

(TXOpBlOV .... 

. . 190 

(7XOp6BtOV . . . 

. . L89 

(TxopmBiov . . . 

. •_']- 

(jxopxCog .... 

. . 19 

CTXUpaTiTXlOV . . 

. . 282 t. 

IxuCKBtov . . . 


TX'j)>axtov . . 125. 

L65, i 

(TxoXa'c .... 

. 8 

(JKUXtOV .... 

10, l"l 

uxuXXtov .... 

. . 190 

(T)CU[XV{0V .... 

. . I 01 

oTtuTaXiov . . . 

18, i 

OTct/raptov . . . 

. ! | 

irxdcpwv, 4ov . 7, 



txo'Ay]'! . 




(T/.(0[J-[J.aTlOV . 

151, 164 


108, 134, 137 


. 263 

arucpXapios . 

.... 261 

OjJltVUBlOV . . 

214, 226 

OTO/tBlOV . 

. . . . 226 

<7|XUpVlOV . 

. 190 

ow'xiov . 

.... 249 


. 261 

<71>[36(710V . 

. . 9, 51, 273 

(jo^pwrjJLaTtov . 

123, 125 


. . . 122, 152 

GTraBiov . 

16, 25 


. . . 229, 232 

oxafraXtov . 


ffiwcapwv . 

. . . . 270 



owiBiov . 

. . . . 233 

(77uapyavtov . 

. 190 


.... 68 

GTuapTiov . 

130, 161, 190 


10, 16 ff., 25, 273 

<77T£ipiOV . 

... 68 

G-uvaycaytov . 

. . 18, 25, 39 

OTUSpjJiaTlOV . 

154, 158, 166 


. . 16 ff., 25, 32 


. 241 f., 245 

<7upiyyiBiov . 

. . . . 234 


. . . 250 


. . . . 113 


. 238 


. . . 243, 245 


. 143 


... 16 ff., 25 


. 239 


.... 146 




. . . . 51 

o-Tuoyyapiov . 

. 265 

ffcpayiov . 

15 ff., 25, 54, 209 

<77toyyiov . . 

113, 163 

(jcpayto^ . 

. . . 15, 31 


. 228 

atpaipfov . 

111, 113, 149 

(rrcupiBaXiov . 

254 f. 

o-cpvpaov . 

13 f., 51, 63, 198 


. 163 


. . . . 100 

araBiov . 



. . . . 190 



(rcppayiBtov . 

. . 97, 122, 131 

a-TaXaypov . 

. 10, 107 

(7CpupiOV . 

. 12, 48, 148, 165 

crapapiov . 

. 268 


. . . . 84 

(TTapLVtOV . 

. 2, 87, 93 


. . . . 188 


. 150 


. 2, 8, 11, 64 f., 69 

areytfXXiov . 

, 258 

<jyol6Zpioy . 

. . . . 248, 257 


29, 40 




108, 126 

U<j)(xaTtov 54, IS 

JO, 122, 128, 144, 149 

CT£CpaVl<7X0£ . 

. . 202 
. . . 9 

208, 249 



1, 207, 259 

ToaviBiov . 

. . . 218, 229 


. . 235 


. . . 98, 260 1*. 


. . 53 


. . . . 218, 225 


. . 264 


. . . 218, 229 

<rn$&tov . 

. 236 f. 


. . . . 160, 178 

(rrXsyyiBiov . 

. 148 

Tapi/iov . 

. . 122, 149, 172 

oroffcta, Ta . 

. . 226 


. . . . . 40 

OToXtOV . 

. . 11 


40 f. 

<TTO[JLtOV . 10, 


53, 10< 

), 103, 113 


. 2, 9, 11, 109, 200 


. 107 

TsiyflOV . 

. . . . 73 

TTpoi»0 > aptov 

. . 270 


. . . . 247 f. 



81, 82, 

142 f., 190 


17, 26 




. 211, 239 

Tpicpaaios • . 

. . 273 


. . 122 

TptcpoX'Xtov . . 

. . 34 


. . 135 

Tpl/lBlOV . . . 

. . 125 f. 

TtXao£&vto£ 7 


. 60, 192 

TpfylOV . . . 

. . 161 

TsXoMOV . 

. . 41 


. 160 



149, 158, 172 

Tpttof3e)ia . . 

. . 35 


. . 51 


. . 36 


48, 148, 165 

TpttopiQV . 

. . 34 


. . 167 

Tpocpaliov . . 

9, 172 



143, 215, 217 


. 252, 254 

TS&tptOV . 

. . 189 

TpO^CtJXOS . . 

. . 252 

tsdtXiov . 

. . 190 

Tp'jj3>.tOV . . 

. . 12, 94 

T&pptOV . 

. 103, 113 


. . 190 


117 ff., 211 


. . 49 

TS/VuBplGV . 

. 211, 247 

Tputrirauiov . . 

. . 38 


. . 259 

tpuyiov . . 

. . 68 


. . 189 

Tpcoyd&iov . , 

16 f., 26, 131 

Ttfraatov . 

17, 26 


. . 248 

t£tQ>y] . 

. . 256 

17U[x(3lOV . . 

. . 11 




215, 217, 240 


. 811, 884 


. 108, 178 


. 14H. 211 


. . 110 


. . L60 

TOxapiBtov, -i 



. 223, 248 


. . 235 


. . 44 

uu/aBtov . . 

241 f., 244 f. 


. . 17, 26 

TOyaptov . 

. . 262 

6BaTiov . 

. 146, 150 

TO^aptov . 

. . . 267 

uhiov . 

. . 232 


. . . 190 

6Bpay(oyiov . 

18. 11. 16 

Tpofyiov . 

. 103, 188 

6BpiBiov . 

. 918, 886 


. 252, 254 

LISTW? . . 

. . 71 


. . 252 

uCacpiov . . 

. 877, 280 


99, 113, 125 

uiBiov . . 

. . 232 


. . . 63 

6>aaTY)ptov . 

. . 47 

Tpi ( 3o)vapiov 

. . .267 

6XlTTptOV, -TpOV 

. . . 46 


96, 1291'., 168 

6pivto.v . 

. . 1 1 1 


. . . 36 


. . . 51 


. . . 35 


. . 220 


. . . 30 

67U£pO>6plOV . 

. . 33 

TpW)[UT6vtOV . 

. . . 36 


. . . 890 


. . . 36 f. 


816, 81 


. . 34, 160 


. . . 1 1 


. . . 34 



. . . 34 


. . . 


. . . 172 


. . 


. . . 34 


l . • 


. . . 84 

•j-f-') -•///. -■/>- 


. . . 190 


. . . 




^ocyuXiov 49 

<poaxa<7tov 274 f. 

cpaivoltov 96 

cpaxtov 68 

Oaxiov 73 

cpalayytov . 52, 63, 78, 82, 86, 187 
cpap&vpiov ...... 148 

cpapp.axiov . . . 117, 119 f., 127 

cpaTTiov 143 

cpau^o? 130 

^StBlTU^lBtOV 175 

cpspviov 47 

cps<7xaa-iov 275 

cpsu£a<77rfBiov 187 

(ptaXiov . . 89, 92, 122, 147, 255 
cptfcaxvtov, see m^axviov. 

<i>daxiov 108 

<I>i)i<7X0£ 201 

(piloTTaptov 270 

cpiXuptOV ....... 67 

cplapsXltov 255 

^XaysXXiov 255 

cpXspiov 84, 134, 136 

<p),ouBiov 212, 219 

cpXuaxiov 250 

<pXu£axiov . . . . . . 250 

<pXi»rcmv£Biov .... 205, 235 

yluKTcaviQ 205 

(potvtxtBiGV 226 

(f>OLVtyiBtov 240 

cpoivixiov . . . . . . . 97 f. 

cpopTiov 11, 58, 200 

cpptxia 17, 26 

<ppOVTl<mf]plOV 41 

cppoupiov 41 

(ppUXTWptOV 41 

cpuxapiov 211, 263 

cpUXY)£ ........ 222 

cpuxiBiov 239 

cpoxiov . 11, 70, 83, 107, 188, 211 
cpuxi<; ......... 222 

cptixos 83 

cptAXapiov 268 

(p'JXXtov 145 

cpuXXov 6 

(pUG7]TY)ptOV 47 

cpinraptov 264, 268 

cpwxaBiov 245 



86 f, 

yjxtoiiov . 
yaTaio? . 

ystptBtov . 
/sis to v 
ysXuviov . 
'/z)mwjv . 
/Yjvapiov . 



yXsc'vBiov . 


y a Xavt<7XiBiov 







yovBpiov . 


Xopfjytov . 






ypuaiov 4 

XPU(710C . . . 



. 178. 27( 
8, 151, 153, 160 
. . 6* 



. 262, 267 
. . 40 
65 f., 130, 166 
. . 64 

. . 248 
. . 188 

206, 218 
, 11, 65 f., 

. 41. 243 

. 225, 233 

. . 8, 53 

. . 186 f.. 

204, 207, 259 

53, 63 

. . 11 

182, 213, 243 f. 

. . 90 

. . 248 

. . 271 

. 211, 265 

100, 106, 211 

. . 265 

, 251 f'., 254 

. 251 

96. 219 



f'., 219, 228 

205, 252 ff. 
. . 97 

159, 170, 173 


. . 228 

, 228, 236 ff. 

. 157, 211 

. Ill 
. 270 
17 f., 26 



221, 235, 238 
, 75, 80, 184 
. . 64 
. . 175 



ypftrrftkov 237 

YtAaplOV 263 

y/J'jiov 173 

ypzpcc 222 

YOTpfclOV 93, 163, 206, 222, 228, 234 

YUTpfov 93 

XUTpfc 222 

VWpacptOV 277, 279 

YWpC&OV .... 218, 221, 234 
yVpiov .... 2, 11, 58 ff., 80 

'jiaxaStov . . . . . 158, 243 

'j»a>iBiov 49 

'jjacpty? 3 

<\>£l(X)iQv 97 

']>suBo[iapT!jpiov . . 17, 20, 26 
<j;Y]TTaBtOV .... 242, 244 f. 

^lafrtov 149 

cj>t|l(|J.)uO*lOV 70 

4>uBpaxtov 249 f. 

4>oxTY)pQkov 216, 234 

^>UXTY]ptov 47, 167 f. 

<|>ti)JXiov 188 

^u/aptov 266, 268 

cj;o)^iov 11 

coapiov 270 

wBstov 40 

y Qy.z\'koc, 266 

wjxtov 12 

wvia 16, 18 

(00<7XU(pLOV . . . . . . 105 

(Wpiov .... 183, 265, 271 

amov 144, 183 

wucpiov 278, 280 

1404 4 

mvmczzZT. JUN 19m 

PA Petersen, Walter 

427 Greek diminutives in -ION 

i J 4 

Urriversity-of Toronto 
Robarts Library