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.U* VJ » . ^—^ • 

.£5.£ Lr-^-^Rv ^^ i ill 

















&c. &c. &c. 

My Dear Sir, 

I beg leave to inscribe the following pages 
to you, the friend of Porson, and the favourer of every 
undertaking, which is intended to guide and to assist the 
labours of the classical student. 

In the course of a most interesting, and to me a most 
instructive conversation, which I had the pleasure of holding 
with you some years ago, you first suggested to me the 
expediency of translating into English the work, by which 
the name of Thiersch has been raised to deserved eminence 
among the scholars of Germany. 

Had I adhered to my primary design of abridging the 
original, the translation now offered to the public might have 
been much earlier accomplished. But 1 soon found that any 
considerable curtailment of the matter given by the author, 
must have at once obscured its plainness, and injured the 
coherence of its several parts. In a few places only have I 
shortened an expression, or suppressed a superfluous reference. 

Trusting that an examination of this volume will not cause 
you to regret the advice which has led to its appearance, 

I have the honour to be, 

My dear Sir, 
Very faithfully yours, 


May 20, 1830. 



If that be the best Grammar which will answer most of 
those questions likely to be put by an intelligent and inqui- 
sitive student, the Greek Grammar of Thiersch need not fear 
a comparison with any work of the same nature hitherto pub- 
lished. Nor is it only a copious book of reference on gram- 
matical points, but it embraces likewise a minute and compre- 
hensive view of the whole growth and texture of the Grecian 
language. The philosophic principles of speech which it 
unfolds, are for the most part at once simple and ingenious, 
while the laborious accumulation of facts and examples, on 
which the author has bestowed unsparing efforts, sets in a 
strong light the true groundwork of all sound and useful 
scholarship. It were well for philology if speculation would 
always be content to proceed upon a method of induction, 
equally extensive and elaborate with that which is here ob- 

The translator of Biittmann^s Grammar, while he allows 
that, " considered as an historical analysis of the language, 
the Grammar of Professor Thiersch may be thought to de- 
serve the preference,'* remarks, at the same time, that it is, 
as the title of the original indicates,* " a Grammar not so 
much of the classical language, as it appears in the mass 
of writers, as of that earlier form of it which is called the 
elder, the Homeric, or the Epic dialect." An extract from 
the preface of Thiersch will show, however, — what a single 
glance at the table of contents will confirm, — that the scope 
of his work is by no means, in reality, so confined : " This 
Grammar treats, like all that are meant for elementary in- 
struction, of the Common Dialect, — in the next place, 

* Gnecliische Granimatik vorzilglivh des Homerischen Dialects. 

viii PREFACE. 

somewhat largely (for reasons which the book itself will 
explain) of the Homeric. All that remains to be said of 
the OTHER DIALECTS IS comprised in an Appendix." 

But, while the information conveyed by this work, con- 
cerning all the principal forms of the Greek tongue, is un- 
commonly full and accurate, the author has wisely bestowed 
a singular degree of care upon the language of Homer. Not 
because Homer should be studied, as Buttmann's translator 
affirms, " almost as a ivork of another language" but be- 
cause, on the contrary, a thorough knowledge of the Homeric 
dialect is indispensably necessary for those, who desire to 
comprehend, in their whole depth and compass, the Grecian 
tongue and literature. And, although a superficial acquaint- 
ance with the productions of the poet is no rare attainment, 
there is little reason to doubt the correctness with which the 
eminent Dean Cyril Jackson, in a letter to Professor Dalzel, 
speaks of " the^^^; men who understand Homer." 

It must be allowed that, in that part of his work which 
treats of Construction, the author has drawn his examples too 
exclusively from the Homeric poems. But this defect will 
be remedied in the translation, in which I shall endeavour to 
comprise a complete system of Grecian syntax, from the 
Homeric down to the Hellenistic dialect. 

Subjoined to the Appendix are such remarks, as I judged 
it right to make, either for the further elucidation of impor- 
tant topics, or for the correction of that which seemed to be 

I have to acknowledge the liberal conduct of the Rev. 
William Foster Barham, Fellow of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, who, after having commenced and announced a trans- 
lation of Thiersch's Grammar, immediately gave up his de- 
sign, on being informed that I had made some progress in 
the same undertaking. His kind and courteous manner of 
doing so was worthy of the distinguished Body to which he 
has the honour to belong. 




$ I, Of Speech generally, and the Signs of Speech, . . i 

II. Of the Kinds of Words, "i 

III. Of Language, Discourse, Dialects, and the Affinity of Languages, v 


Of the Greek Language, and its Dialects. 

TV. Of the Origin of the Greek Tongue, its Affinity with other Tongues, 

and its first Improvement, . . . . vii 

V. Of the Origin and the Peculiarities of the Doric and ^olic Dialects, xi 

VI. Of the Origin and the Peculiarities of the Ionic and Attic Dialects, xiii 

VII. Of the Use of the Dialects, . . . . xv 
VIIL Of the Decline of the Dialects, .... xyi 

IX. Recapitulation, ...... xix 

X. Of the Plan of this Grammar, .... xix 





Of the Letters used by the Greeks. 

XI. The Alphabet, 21 

XII. Of the History of the Greek Alphabet and Orthography, . 22 

Of the Vowels. 

XIII. Of the Measurement of the Vowels in respect of Time, . 30 

XIV. Of the Pronunciation of the Vowels, . . . 31 

XV. Of the Diphthongs, 3* 

XVI. Of the Pronunciation of the Diphthongs, ... 37 

XVII. Of the present modes of Pronouncing the Greek Vowels, 40 
XNlll. OiihQ'&vea.thmys, fSpiritus,) .... 43 

XIX. Of the iEolic Digamma, ..... 46 

Of the Consonants. 

XX. Division of the Consonants, ..... 47 

XXI. Of the Mute Consonants, ..... 48 



XXII. The Mutes before 2, . • • • • 

XXIII. The Mutes before M, 

XXIV Of the Letter N, 

XXV. Of the Letter 2, • • •  ' ' 

Of Syllables. 

XXVI. Of the Origin and Extent of Syllables, ' * ' ^f 
XXVn. Of the Collocation of Syllables, • ^ •. ,' ' „ 

XXVIII. Of the Measurement of Syllables, ( Quantity,; . oi 

XXIX. Of the Shortening of Long Syllables, . . . &» 

Of Words. 

XXX. Of the Origin and Extent of Words, * * ' «n 

XXXI. Of the Roots of Words, • • ' ' ' ^? 
XXXIL Of Multifarious Roots, . . • • • ^| 

XXXIII. Of the Change of Long Roots into Short, . . 61 

XXXIV. Of the Termination of Words, . • . ' ^ ,, ' , ^^ 

XXXV. Of the Changes on Words through the CoUision ot Vowels— 

(Contraction; Crasis ; Elision; Aphceresis,) . 64- 

XXXVI. Of Contraction, ^^ 

XXXVII. Table of Contractions usual in the Common Dialect, 66 

XXXVIII. Of Crasis, 67 

XXXIX. Of Elision, or Apostrophe, ••'•$, 
XL. The Inscriptions of Melos and Elis, . . • ,* n„ 
XLI. The Inscription of Sigeum, and that upon the Athenians who fell 

at Potidea, ...•••'* 

Of the Accentuation of Words. 

XL IL Of the Nature and Essence of the Accent, . . 77 

XLIII. Of the Accentuated Syllable, .... 80 

X LI V. Of the Imposition of the Accent, . . • • 81 

XLV. Of the Shifting of the Accent, .... 83 

XL VI. Of the throwing back of the Accent on the preceding Word, 

f Enclitics, J ....•• 8* 

XL VII. Real Nature and Rhythmical Properties of the Greek Accent, 

and Comparison of it with the German, . . 86 

XL VIII. Of Punctuation, 90 

Of Declension. 
XLIX. Of the Properties of the 'Noun— f Genus, Numerus, Casus, 

Declinatio,) ...... 92 

Of the Declensions of the Substantive. 

L. Declension generally. Declension of the Article, . . 96 

LI. First Declension, ...... 99 

LII. Second Declension, ' . . . . . • 104? 

LIII. Of the Contractions of the Second Declension, (Attic Declension,) 107 

Third Declension. 

LIV. General Remarks, . . . . . . HI 

LV. Paradigms and Examples of the Third Declension, . 112 

LVI. Contractions of the Third Declension, . . . 115 

LVII. Peculiarities in the Formation of the Cases, . . 117 

LVIII. Double Forms from a Short Vowel in the Root, (in some Nouns 

in 5,^,) 120 



LIX. Of the Anomalous Forms of the Third Declension, 
LX. Gender and Accent of Words in the Third Declension, 

Of Adjectives. 

LXI. Of the Properties of the Adjective, 

LXII. Table of the Different Terminations of Adjectives, 

LXIII. Of the Terminations, 

LXIV. Contracted Adjectives, 

LXV. Anomalies, 

LXVI. Paradigms of Adjectives, 

LXVII. Of Adverbs, 

Degrees of Comparison in Adjectives and Adverbs. 

LXVIII. Of Comparison in general, 

LXIX. Of the possible Degrees of Comparison, 

LXX. Of the Formation of the Degrees of Comparison, 

LXXI. Formation of the Degrees in Adverbs, 

LXXII. Anomalies, ..... 




Of Numerals. 

LXXIII. Of the Kinds of Numerals, (Mai-ks of Number, Athenian 

Method of Notation,) . . . . 152 

LXXI V. Table of the Chief Classes of Numerals, . . 154 

LXXV. Declension of the First Four Numerals, . . 156 

LXXVI. Formation of the other Numerals, . . . 156 

The Pronouns. 

LXXVII. Origin of the Pronouns, (Substantive Pronouns,) 
LXXVIII. Adjective Pronouns, .... 

LXXIX. Of Words allied to the Pronouns, ( Demonstrativay Indeji- 
nita, Definitum, InteyTogativum, Relativum, Negativa,) 
LXXX. Of the Definite Pronoun, iaxiTog,) 
LXXXI. Reciprocal Pronoun, {^ahXrikm,) 
LXXXII. Declension of the Adjective Pronouns, 
LXXXIII. Correlatives, and Appended Syllables, 







Of the Properties of the Verb. 

LXXXIV. Of the Different Kinds of Verbs, (Intransitive or Neuter, 

Transitive or Active, Reflexive or Middle, Passive,) 
LXXXV. Of the Tenses of Verbs, 
LXXXVI. Of the Moods of the Verb, 
LXXXVII. Of the Numbers and Persons of the Verb, 
LXXXVIII. Of Conjugation generally, 
LXXXIX. Greek Conjugation, 


Formation of Tenses. 
XC. Of the Root and the Classes of Verbs, (Mute, Pure, and Liquid,) 175 



XCI. Anomalous Verbs, ...... 

XCII. Of the Augment, 

XCIII. Use of the Augment, (Reduplication, Attic Reduplication,) 

XCIV. Of the Terminations of the Tenses, 

Examples, and Peculiarities in the Formation of Tenses. 

XCV. Mute Verbs, ...... 

XCVI. Pure Verbs, ...... 

XCVir. Liquid Verbs, ...... 

XCVIII. Of the Three Forms of the Perfect, f Active Voice,) 
XCIX. Of the Form of the Future Preterite, (Futurum Exactum,) 

Of the Active Conjugation. 

C. General Remarks, (Tense-root, Mood-vowel, Termination,) 

CI. The Mood-vowel, .... 

CIl. Terminations, .... 

cm. Conjugation of the Indicative, 

CIV. Conjugation of the other Moods, 

CV. Full Paradigm of the Active, 

Of the Passive Conjugation. 

CVI. Preliminary Remarks, 

CVII. Terminations, .... 

CVIII. Conjugation of the Indicative, 

CIX. Conjugation of the Perfect and Pluperfect, 

ex. Conjugation of the other Moods, 

CXI. FuU Paradigm of the Passive, 

Of Contraction in the Conjugation of Verbs. 

CXII. Of the Possible Cases of Contraction, 

CXIII. Rules of Contraction, .... 

CXIV. Active of the Contracted Verbs, . . 

CXV. Passive of the Contracted Verbs, . 

CXVI. Of the Combination and Analysis of Verbal Forms, 

Of the Anomalies in Verbs. 

CXXIII. Definition of Anomaly in Verbs, 

CXXIV. Of a and the Letters added to it, . . . 

CXXV. Of s and the Letters added to it, ... 

CXXVI. Of the Consonants that are added, 

CXXVII. Transposition of Letters, and Mixture of the Coniujrations, 

CXXVIIL Defective Verbs, . . . . . 

CXXIX Catalogue of Anomalous and Defective Verbs, 







Of the Conjugation without Mood-vowels, (Verbs in jj,i). 

CXVII. General Remarks, . . . . . 213 

CXVIII. Active Conjugation, . . . . . 2lG 
CXIX. Paradigm of the Active of Verbs without a Mood-vowel, 

(/Vtjj/a;, rldr}//,!, didu/Mi,) ..... 220 

CXX. Passive Conjugation, . . , . . 222 

CXXI. Observations, . . .... 223 

CXXIl. Of certain Small Verbs, (e/^;, jf^,, 'In/M,, iha, rifMai, mvfM, 

(pyi/ii, oJda,) ....... 225 



Of the Particles, 

CXXX. Definitions, (Prepositions ; Particles of Time, Cause, Place, 

and Mode ; Conjunctions,) .... 24G 

CXXXI. List of Particles, 2^7 

Of the Deiivation of Words. 

CXXXIL Of the Radical Parts of the Language, . . 249 

CXXXIIL Formation of Words from their Roots, . . 250 

CXXXI V. Substantives from Verbs, . . . . 231 

CXXXV. Substantives from Adjectives, . . . 253 

CXXXVI. Verbs from Substantives and Adjectives, . . 254- 

CXXX VI I. Adjectives from Substantives, Verbs, and other Adjectives, 253 

CXXXVIII. Formation of Adverbs from diflferent Words, . 233 

CXXXIX. Particular Classes of Substantives and Adjectives, ( Dimi- 

niitiva, Amplificativa, Gentilia, Patronymica,) . 236 

CXL. Of the Manner of Compounding Words in Greek, . 237 

CXLI. Of the Meaning and Derivation of Compound Words, . 260 

Of the Versification and Dialect of Homer. 
CXLII. Introduction, ...... 263 

Of the Homeric Versification. 

CXLIII. Origin of the Homeric or Epic Verse, (Arsis; Thesis; 

Catalexis,) ...... 263 

CXLIV, Of the Combination and Separation of the Series, ( CcBSura,) 263 
CXLV. Epic Periods, ...... 269 

CXLVI. Of the Quantity of Syllables in Homeric Verse, (of Position, 
and the Violation of the same ; of the Rhythmical placing' 
of Words,) .... 271 

CXLVII. Of Short Syllables in the Arsis, • . * 273 

CXL VIII. Of Short Syllables in the Thesis, • . ' 279 

CXL IX, Of Synizesis in Homer, . • . ' 280 

CL. Of Hiatus, ...... | 283 

CLL Of the Hiatus of Short Vowels, • • . . 284 

CLII. Of Gutturals and Labials in the Old Languaoe, and their Chang-es 

generally considered, (Digamma; its original force, &c.) 286 
CLIII. Catalogue of the Words which begin with Digamma, or the 

Sounds derived from it, ... • 290 

CLIV. Of the Digamma in Homer, generally considered, • 294 

CLV. Digammas which have maintained their place at the beginning of 

words in the Poems of Homer, . . . 297 

CLVI. Of the Digamma at the beginning- of words, which has disap- 
peared from the text of Homer, but is still visible in its 
effects, (^fio, fskv, fo7, A) • • • 297 

CLVIL Of other Words besides fio, f'idiv, &c. which had, in Homer, 

the Digamma in their beginning, . . . 299 

CLVIIL Of Inconsistencies in the Homeric use of the Digamma, (Ab- 
jection of the initial Consonant in some woi'ds,) . 301 
CLIX" Of the Results of the foregoing Investigations with regard to 

the Treatment of the Homeric Text, . • 307 

CLX. Of the Digamma in the Middle of Words, generally considered, 308 
CLXI. Of the Digamma in the Middle of Words in Homer, (Change 

of the Digamma to u.) . . . . 310 

CLXII. History of the Digamma in Homeric Criticism, . 312 



CLXIII. Hiatus before Words not Digammated, 
CLXIV- Of the Apostrophe in Homeric Verse, 
CLXV. Of Crasis, Aphseresis, Apocope, in Homer, 



Preliminary, . . . • • • 321 
CLXVI. Change, Duplication, and Extension of the Vowels, . 322 
CLXVII. Of the Exchange of Vowels. • . . 329 
CLXVIII. Abbreviation of Long- Vowels and Diphthongs, (Abbrevia- 
tion of the Conjunctive Vowels jj and w,) . 329 
CLXIX. Of the Rejection of Vowels, .... 338 
CLXX. Of the Separation of Vowels, .... 339 
CLXXL Of the Change of the Rough Breathing into the Smooth, 342 

Of the Consonants. 
CLXXII. Consonants remaining unaltered (5, ^, y^, before^; i/ before a,) 314' 

CLXXIII. Consonants Inserted and Transposed, • . 344 

CLXXIV. Of the Doubling of Consonants, • . . 345 

CLXXV. Of the Rejection of Consonants, • . • 347 


First Declension' 

CLXXVI. Terminations, (?;, «, and a,) . 
CLXXVII. Of the Singular of Feminine Words, 
CLXXVIII. Of the Singular of Masculine Words, 
CLXXIX. Declension of the Dual and Plural, 
CLXXX. Of the Contractions of the First Declension, 
CLXXXI. Different Fonns of the same word in the First Dede 

Second Declension. 
CLXXXII. Of the Forms in (piv, 
CLXXXIII. Remarks upon Particular Cases, 
CLXXXIV. Contractions, 
CLXXX V. Various Forms, 

Third Declension. 

CLXXXVL Of the Suffix 9/v, • 

CLXXXVH. Of the Dative Plural, 

CLXXXVIIL Nouns— Mute and Liquid, 

CLXXXIX. Of Pure Words in «, 

CXC. Pure Words in Iota, 

CXCL Of Pure Words in u, 

CXCII. Pure Words in s, with a Consonant before g, 







and £0$ in the 

Genitive, (Nouns in og — iog, r]g — eo;, vg — £oc,) • 383 
CXCIII. Pure Words in j, with a and g before g, (nouns in a^j, gog, 

and irig^) ...... 385 

CXCIV, Pure Words in g, with the Termination gug in the Nominative, 387 

CXCV. Pure Words in o, (Nouns in w, wg, gen- oog,) • • 390 

CXCVI. Pure Words in w, (Nouns in wg—woj,) • • 390 







CXC VII. Words of Various Forms, (and those of which the Nomina- 
tive does not appear,) .... 

Of Adverbs, Adjectives, and Numerals. 

CXCVIII. Adverbs, . • • • 

CXCIX, Formation of Adjectives in Homer, 

CC. Various Foi'ms of Adjectives, 

CCI. Feminine Form, and Gender of Adjectives, 

ecu. Degrees of Comparison in Adjectives and Adverbs, 

CCIII. Numerals, ..... 


CCIV. Substantive Pronouns, .... 
CCV. Of the Enclisis and Orthotonesis of the Pronouns, 
CCVI. Of the Adjective and other Pronouns, 

The Verb. 

CCVII. Origin of the Forms of Tense and Person, • 424 

CCVIII. Reduplication, ••..•*, 426 

CCIX. Of the Augment, • • • * . 429 

CCX. Of the Forms with 2K, • • . • . 432 
CCXI. Of the Formation of the Present, Perfect, and Pluperfect in the 

Active, ...... 434 

CCXII. Formation of the Passive Perfect, and Pluperfect, . 439 
CCXIII. Of the Formation of the First Future and Aorist, in the Ac- 
tive and Middle, ..... 442 

CCXIV. Of the Formation of the Second Aorist and Futui'e, • 446 

CCXV. Of the Formation of the Passive Aorist, . • 447 

CCXVI. Of the Personal Terminations, ... 447 

CCXVII. Of the Infinitive, ..... 450 

CCXVIII. Of Forms which want the Modal Vowel, or Reduplication, 

in the Common Conjugation, . . . 451 

Of the Contraction of Verbs, 
CCXIX. General Remarks, 
CCXX. Contraction of Verbs in Ail, 
CCXXI. Ofthe VerbsinEn, . 
CCXXII. Of Verbs in On, 

Verbs without the Modal Vowel. 

CCXXIII. Forms of larnfM, 

CCXXIV. Forms of r/^,j^/, 

CCXXV. Forms of iifii, 

CCXXVI. Forms of "rjfii and its Compounds, 

CCXXVII. Forms of sTtfa, D/^a/, 

CCXXVIII. Forms of 'iaco, gVa, tJf^a,, . 

CCXXIX. Forms of s7^/, 

CCXXX. Forms of 3/3w^/, 

CCXXXI, Forms in o and /, 

CCXXXII. Catalogue of Various Forms of Verbs, 


• • 




• • 




• , 


» • 


* * I 

















The New Ionic Dialect of Herodotus. 

CCXXXIII- Of the Dialect of Herodotus, considered generally, 
CCXXXIV, Apostrophe, Crasis, &c. . • • . 

CCXXXV. Of the Difference of Vowels and Consonants, 
CCXXXVI. Of the Abjection and Insertion of Vowels, 

The Doric Dialect. 

CCXXXVII. Of Crasis, Elision, Aphisresis, (Violation of Position,) 

and Synizesis in Pindar and Theocritus, 
CCXXXVIIL Of the Difference of Vowels, ( PlateiasnmsJ 
CCXXXIX. Of the Difference of Consonants, of Accent, and of Quan- 
tity, ....•• 
CCXL. Of the Forms of Nouns, Pronouns, and Verbs, 
CCXLI. Comparison of the Dorism of Pindar with that of Theocritus, 

and Peculiarities of the latter, 
CCXLI I. Dorism of Theocritus, 



CCXLIII. Of the Attic Dialect, . 

General Remarks, 

Use of the Letters, 

Quantity of Syllables, 

Position and Violation of the same. 

Hiatus, Synizesis, Crasis, 

Elision, . . . • 

Aphaeresis, . . . • 

Syncope, Tmesis, Epic and Doric Forms, 

Declension, Numerals, Pronouns, 

Verbs, Augment, Tenses, Conjugation, 

Contraction, Irregulai* Verbs, 











xxiii — xxviii 







.61 addition to this table a complete index will be given at the end of the Si/ntax, 


The following are the most important errors of the press. 

P. vii, 1. 1 1, 
XV, 1. 24, 
29, I. 8, 
39, 1. 15, 
ib., n. f , 1. 2, 
66, 1. 12, 
75, 1. 13, 
96, 1. 2 from end, 
103, 1. 6, 
108, 1. 23, 
114, 1. 15, 
123, 1. 6 from end, 
139, 1. 2 from end, 
187, 1. 16, . 
441, 1. 15, . 
498, note, 1. 2, 
Remarks, p. 7, 1. 8, 

for ( Zena) 

— is 

— Junta . 

— £u and au 

— Phalerous 

— Xg^akc, 

— XayiliOy "kayijj, 

— Kayw 

— Mou<r>j 

— avuiyBug 

— oieg 

— Ace. 

— from their cases 

— irrj^ca 

— augment 

— Pausanius 

read (Zend). 

— are. 

— Juntas. 

— eo and av ore^and af. 

— Phalereus. 

— XiSUCsos. 

— "kaymg, "Kayuig. 
— • Kayw. 

— Mo!;<r?j. 

— hyiSiai. 

— dvu)'ys(f)g. 

— Ace. plur. 

form — form their cases from, 

— dxYj-^sdar. 

— argument. 

— Pausanias. 




1. Speech, in its widest sense, is the expression of that, 
which passes in the mind, through means of external signs, (i*) 
In a closer sense, it is the expression of that, which passes 
in the mind, through means of open and of articulate sounds 
(soni articulati). 

2. Sounds are articulate, when they do not, like the notes 
of hirds, come freely from the breast, but must pass through 
the compression of the vocal organs. 

3. The free-coming or open sounds are called vowels 
( (pcovT^ivTccy scil. ypcc[^>[j!jccra, vocales scil. literce), the sounds 
produced by compression of the organs are called consonants 
(^av[jj<pcova)j the signs of both are letters (yodyjiMccru, literce, 
(Troiyj7ci, elementa) ; the whole body of letters is the alpha- 
bet (litteratura). 

Ohs. — The letters also are termed vowels or consonants, as they denote 
a free-coming sound, or a sound produced by compression of the 
organs. Hence we are accustomed to understand by the word 
vowel, something twofold ; first, the sou7ids, and then their signs : 
so, by the word consonant, not only the sounds so called, but also 
their signs. No consonant can be spoken or heard without some 
auxiliary sound, though this auxiliary may be only a kind of hiss, 
hum, or breathing, perceptible in the enunciation of the consonant. 


4. The vowels are formed, in diftigrent parts of the mouth 
and throat, in the following order : a, e, o, u, i, so that a is 
sounded deepest in the throat, i (Euqlish e) most outwardly 
upon the lips : a, e, o, may be called the posterior vowels, 
u, i, the anterior. 

5. The consonants are formed either between the lips; 
p, b, ph (p sounds) : or between the tongue and the palate ; 
k, g, ch (k sounds) : or between the point of the tongue and 
the teeth ; t, d, th, (t sounds). — Besides these there are the 
separate sounds, 1, m, n, r, s. 

Obs. 1. — The above mentioned consonants are termed p, k, and t 
sounds, because the sound, heard in their enunciation, is mixed 
with one or other of these. Former Grammarians have named, 
according to the organ employed in their formation, the p sounds 
labials ( labiates), the k sounds palatals (palatincB)., the t sounds 
dentals or Unguals (linguales), and have joined with these last the 
letters 1, n, r, s, but m with the labials. These appellations, how- 
ever, are inaccurate, and combine things heterogenous in their nature. 

Obs. 2. — L, m, n, r, s, are called semivowels (riiii<pma, semivocalesj, 
because their sound is less perfect than that of the vowels ; and the 
p, k, and t sounds are called mutes Ccitpuva, mutcej, because they 
are more tuneless and disagreeable in sound than the semivowels.* 

6. Vowels, pronounced by themselves or in combination 
with consonants, create syllables (jrvKhM^ui). Syllables by 
themselves or in connection with other syllables, produce words 
(ov6(/jcctoc, Xi^itg, nomina). Words are tlie audible signs of 
ideas ; an idea is a mental image of that which is the subject 
of perception or of thought. 

Obs. — These signs, in the primitive language of man, were not arbi- 
trary, but tlie forme of embodied emotion — the mind's feelings incor- 

* So Dionysius the Thracian, p. 631, Bekker., 1. 20, wffTs? u(pum 
Xsyo/xsv T^aywhhv tov Kaz6<pc>jvov. — The matter is otherwise explained by 
Dionysius Halicarn. dc Comp. Verb., §. XIV, p. 138, Schaefer.'^' 


porate in sound. Thus, in German, compare the sound and meaning 
of such worils as schweben (wave, fluctuate), sehnen (long for), witli 
Klang (a sound), Sttirm (a storm), Donner (thunder); or Weh 
(woe), Leben (life), Liebe (love), and Schleiehen (slink), Schlange 
(snake), steigen (rise, soar), Stange (pole, stake). '^^ 

§ II- 


1. The first thing's, which the human mind observes in 
the external workl, are substances : heaven^ sim, mountain^ 
fields 6^c. The words, employed to denote these, are called 
nouns substantive (hvoiJjuroc ov/naariKa,, iiomina substantiva) 
— substantive as the signs of independent ideas. 

Obs. — The substantive serves to denote either a single object : Crcesus, 
Bucephalus, Italy, yEtna, the Rhine, &c. ; or a whole class of 
objects, rose, floioer, horse, beast, animal, 8fc. 

2. The next things, observed in the external world, are 
properties in substances, e. g. in the rose, that it is red^ fra- 
grant^ fresh, full ; in the horse, that it is tvild, swift, strong, 
Sfc. The words, which denote these properties, are called 
names of property or quality. 

3. In order to ascribe a property to a substance, i. e. 
to express that a property is found in a substance, use is 
made of a peculiar mark of connection (copula), viz. the 
word to be — the rose is red, is fresh, is blooming — the horse 
is wild, is strong, is swift. 

4. In these expressions is contained the first act of the 
understaufhng, a simple judgment. If the property, thus 
ascribed to a substance, be united in expression to the sub- 
stance, it is called an adjective or epithet (oi/o[jijcc sTiOsrov, or 
I'Tn&iriKw, nomen adjectivum). The horse is strong, hence 
the strong horse. The day is hot, hence the hot day. 

5. The properties, however, are not necessary and pe?'- 
manent in the substance, but subject to perpetual change. 


That rose was once bloominy ; it is now faded ; and will 
soon be withered. 

6. The copula, therefore, must determine whether a pro- 
iierty once existed in a substance, now exists, or will hereafter 
exist in it ; that is, the copula expresses time, is a time-word, 
e. g. the horse was strong, is strong, ivill be strong. 

7. The transition of a substance from one property to 
anotlier is marked by a second copula, to become (^Germ. 
werden). The rose becomes faded, has become faded, urill 
become faded. — Thus to be and to become denote the contin- 
uance of a substance in connection with a property, or its 
transition into another. 

8. When the copula and the name of property are 
combined in one word, the verb (p^JiJjcc, verbiim) is formed. 
E. g. Gains is alive becomes Cains lives. 

Ohs. Thus the verb always includes two things — the expression of a 
property, and the expression of time^ combining the meanings of the 
name of property and the copula. 1 he copula is also sometimes 
called the substantive verb (pyjfJ'a vira^Kmov). 

\). To a word, whether adjective or verb, expressive of a 
property, other proj)erties may be ascribed, e. g. the swift 
horse, the very sivift horse, the tvind blows, the wind fiercely 
blow'S. The words, thus employed to denote the properties 
of adjectives and verbs, are called adverbs (i'7nppr][juurc(,'), — a 
name which expresses only their connection with verbs. 

Obs. Thus the adjective and the adverb are essentially the same, both 
\iG\n^ immes of property. Hence, in German, they take the same 
form in a simple sentence : die Bluetlie ist weiss, (" the blossom is 
white") and der Baum blueth weiss ("the tree blossoms white"); 
whereas, m sentences like the first of these, the ancient languages 
regard llie name of property as already united to the substantive ; 
av()o; Igti Xiuxov^ Jlos albus est (die Bluetlie ist eine weissej. 

10. Every pro]jerty can also become of itself an object of 
our consideration, i. e. an independent idea or substantive: e.g. 
the red rose — the redness of the rose. Hence substantives 


arise, wliich are derived from adjectives or verbs (uhstract 

Ohs. 1. Recapitulation. — On reviewing what has been here stated, we 
perceive the human mind employed in observing substances and 
their properties — in combining these together — and in distingnisliing 
new properties as attached to the properties themselves. 

Ohs. y. — Thus the necessary and essential parts of speech appear to 
be the substantive, the name of property under its two forms (ad- 
jective and adverb), and the copula. The verb is a combination of 
the two last. ('^'' 

Ohs. 3. — All other sorts of words, tlie article, mimeral, pronotm, 
preposition, particle, interjection, are more or less convenient in 
language, and will be explained in their proper places. 

TJic Substantive and the Adjective, with the suhdivisions of words 
attached to them, may he included under the commo7i appellation of 
noun (name). 

§ ni. 


1. All the words, invented or adopted by a people for the 
expression of thouglit, in their various forms and combinations, 
compose the tonijue or language (ykuaaa^ lingua) of that 

2. Out of the combination of words arise propositions 
(^i(Tsig, sentcnfia'), out of the combination of propositions 
arises speech or discourse (Xo'/oc, sermo, oratio). Thus 
the parts of discourse are propositions, and, to go farther 
back, the different sorts of words, which, in this relation, are 
c?\\q<\. parts of speech ((M^n rov Xoyov, partes orationis), 

Ohs. — Thus it appears that speech or discourse is language applied to 
use : this is the universal form, which lies at the basis of all lang- 
uages, and its laws are those of the human understanding. It is, 
therefore, in all nations, substantially the same, however much their 
languages may differ. 


3. Lan^uag-e, as the immediate expression of the concep- 
tions and emotions of the mind, will manifest the different 
dispositions, not only of whole nations, but even of individuals, 
by its hardness and softness, its roughness and smoothness, 
nay by the use of words and turns of phraseology for particu- 
lar ideas and perceptions. We may thus conclude, that with 
the origin of a language its intrinsic difference from other 
tongues Avould arise ; since not even any two individuals 
view things exactly in the same way. 

4. This difference must be yet more developed, when 
families grow into tribes — when these separate, and the 
language of each tribe is subject to the influence of habitation, 
bodily constitution, mode of life, and intercourse with 
strangers. Through the combined operation of these causes, 
the tongue of a people acquires, in the mouth of its different 
tribes, a chfferent character, which displays itself in tone, 
in formation, in the connection and use of words, in the 
richness or poverty, force or iveakness of expression. The 
peculiarities of this character, taken together, compose the 
dialect (^haXizrog) of the tribe. The dialects will be as 
numerous as the different tribes : and, again, each chalect 
may have its subdivisions. 

5. Wlien the differences of the dialects are so wide, that 
the tribes no longer understand one another, their (halects 
rank as different languages, which have more or less in 
common among them — are related in a nearer or more 
distant degree. Modern inquiries have made it manifest that 
the countless diversities of dialect and language may be 
reduced to a few primitive tongues, which came, with man- 
kind, out of the cradle of the human race, and have 
multiplied in proportion to the diffusion of the species. 






1. From the original seat of the human species amid the 
mountains of Asia, the primitive tribes, with a language 
radically one and the same, migrated in all directions. They 
brought this language, under different shapes, to India 
(Sanscrit), to Persia (Zena), and to Colchis. The Col- 
chian branch of the still increasing population separated, like 
the others, into many lesser branches, which spread through 
Asia Minor, on to Germany, Thrace, and Greece, and were, 
from many quarters, re-united in Italy. 

2. From the common origin of these tribes the affinity of 
their tongues is derived — an affinity more remote between 
Sanscrit, Zend, and the languages of the Colchian branch, 
more near among these tongues themselves, the Armenian, 
German, Greek, and Latin. 

3. The Greek tongue (jpoov^ or yXuaaci 'Y^O\yivix,ri) was 
spoken by those families, which, having wandered through 
Thrace into Greece, united with others, which passed over 
from Asia, — formed the Greek nation ("Y^hXrivig, Grceci)^ 
and spread, in colonies from the mother-country, over nearly 
all the coasts of the Mediterranean sea. 

4. The Grecian people, although composed of very differ- 
ent elements, early acquired a remarkable unity. The 
national character and mental improvement which Asiatic 
settlers, and especially those comprised under the Pelasgian 


name (HeXafryoi, "those come over the sea "(«)), introduced 
into their country, took a deep root by the aid of reHgious 
observances, particularly at Delphi and Dodona, and were 
widely and impartially diffused through means of Epic song-. — 
Of Pelasgian orig-in were the states in the north of the 
Peloponnesus (IliXcKTyoi ulyiaXsig*), Argfos,! Athens, t Boe- 
otia, Phocis, Euboea, || Dodona,^ &c. Under Ion the name 
of the Pelasgians on the coast passed into that of lonians 
(loiovsg, "luvzg), under Cecrops the name of the inhabitants of 
Attica into that of Athenians. As these tribes had a common 
origin, so they had at first a common language, — for instance 
the language of Attica and Argos was once the same.** 
Out of this original tongue the language of Epic poetry next 
arose. No wonder that the Epic language, thus sprung fi-om 
a root so widely extended, and enlarged under the control 
of uniform principles, raised itself early to the rank of a 
tongue, in a certain sense universal and national, and that 
Epic poetry was composed in it by the most distinct branches of 
the Grecian people. — In order to avoid mistake, it is best to 
name that first matured dialect the Epic, also the Homeric 
after the Poet, whom the Greeks esteemed the greatest in 
heroic song, and whom they frequently term the Poet without 
any further appellation. 

5. When the Dorians (A^y^/ss?, Acy^/gic) — equally of 
Pelasgian descent tt — under the leading of the Heraclida^, 
poured down from the mountainous regions of Thessaly, and 
seized upon the Peloponnesus, the lonians, in the general 
revolution, were driven from their seats. They at first 
united themselves, together with other fugitives from the 

* Herod., VII, 94. 

f HiKaeym 'A^ysmv Uog. Eur. Orest., 1246. 
t Herod., I, 57. UsXaayol K^amoi. Herod., VIII, 44. 
1! Dion. Hal. Archseol., I, 18, compare Apoll. Rhod., 1, 1024, and the 
Scholiast on that line, 
f Strabo, VII, p. 327. 

^ ** Pausanias, II, 37. Before the descent of the Heraciidse rriv aurnv 
afkeccv ' A(jy\va.ioii o'l 'A^ysToi <puvr}v. 
tt Herod., I, 56- 


Peloponnesus, to the kindred people of Attica, and passed 
thence across the sea to Asia, where they combined with 
other Pelasgian tribes,* and founded the Ionian states. — Even 
before this period migrations by land from Greece into the 
Northern parts of Asia Minor had commenced. The emi- 
g-rants found Pelasgian inhabitants in that region also ; and 
coalescing with them assumed the name of iEolians (^AioXkg, 
AioXs7g)A — At a later date Dorians from the Peloponnesus 
spread over the islands to the southern coasts of Asia, where 
their colonies grew up beside the rest. 

6. Epic song continued to flourish among the se])arated 
tribes of the Greek nation. In Europe, in addition to the 
poems of Hesiod, and those which pass under his name, 
appeared the numerous rhapsodies of the Thebais, Atthis, 
MiNYAS, &c. In Ionia, whither it had accompanied the 
emigrants. Homer attained the chief reno^^^l ; but, besides 
the Iliad and the Odyssey ^ later, although still very early 
times, beheld the production of the Cyprian verses, the lay 
of the fall of Troy, the return of the Heroes, &c. In all 
of these, the old national language, and that form of it which 
was moulded to the behests of Epic song, prevailed. 

7. The young nation, thus descended from a mixture of 
barbarous and Pelasgian families, had now separated itself 
from those Pelasgians who remained free from intermixture, 
and did not keep pace with the progress of civilization.! 
These were even, after the lapse of some centuries, described 
as a foreign people with a pecuhar language, 1 1 while the other 
tribes (in the time of Homer still without a common name,) 
were at last included under the denomination of Hellenes 
("EXX^jvsg, TO 'EXX'/jvizov Uvog). Among these the Dorian tribe 
{to Am^ikov) was distinguished from the Ionian ('l(uviKoi>), 
and the whole of the rest of the population was comprised 

* Menecrates in Strabo, XIII, p. 922. 
t Herod., VII, 95. 

j: Herod., I, 38. To 'EXXjjwxo'; — a'X0(J')(^is9h a<7ro rou UiXaffyiJioy. 
II Herod., I, 58. To JhXagyaw sOvoc Vov /SagCagov, and 57, rigav 0/ 
risXacTyo? j3d,pQa^ov yXutraav 'ikmc. 


under the name of ^olian (^AiojUkov). To the Ionian tribe 
helonocd, besides the lonians in Asia Minor, the inliabitants 
of Attica as far as Megara, of Euboea and the surrounding 
islands, together with the colonies of this race, which extended 
chiefly in an Eastern direction, even to the other side of the 
Euxine sea ; to the Dorian those states, which the Dorians 
had founded in their mother country, in the Peloponnesus, 
and thence over the islands as far as the South of Asia Minor, 
but more especially towards the West on the shores of Italy 
and Sicily. — Besides the original iEolians in Asia Minor, 
most of the dwellers in Thessaly, Phocis, Bceotia, and 
Northwards as far as Dodona, — also those parts of the 
Peloponnesus not occupied by the Doric race, as Elis, Arca- 
dia, Achaia, — and, in short, whatever helonged not to the 
two other tribes, were ^Eolian. It must be observed, how- 
ever, that this inclusion of so many different branches under 
the j35olic name did not universally jjrevail until after the 
epoch of Alexander, and that, even then, the name of the 
Dorians still frequently extended itself at the expense of the 
Cohans. As long as the Doric race maintained a decided 
political superiority, such states as were under their authority 
or influence, were, together with their language, frequently 
denominated Dorian.* 

8. The universal dominion of the Epic dialect over com- 
position declined, together with that of the Epos itself, in the 
age when the several states of Greece acquired independence ; 
yet it continued to influence all the dialects which, after it, 
were employed as wi'itten language, and in the production 
of new kinds of poetry. Up to this period the other dialects 
had remained without cultivation ; now, however, they ad- 
vanced their several pretensions, while an active spirit of 
improvement awoke in the young states, and it was esteemed 
a token of freedom to make use of that form of speech, which 
the national descent, or union with others, had naturalised in 
each, not only for familiar intercourse, but also in written 

Stralx), VIII, J). 514', C, hoxovni 6s du^i^uv ci'javric. bia rriv gvfiQauai 


monuments. — Of such dialects tliere was a prodigious number. 
Herodotus enumerates four of tliem among the Asiatic 
lonians,* and Strabo asserts, that, even in his time, tlie 
language of each settlement was distinct from that of the 
others.t Hence it cannot be asked hoic many dialects of 
the Greek tongue there were, but how many, after the 
Epic, acquired, by means of ivritten works, a permanent 
existence, and have thus come to our knowledge. 




1. The most ancient forms of the Pelasgic-Greek language 
are preserved in the Latin, and in certain words and phrases 
of the Spartan tongue. The ancestors of the Spartans, Pe- 
lasgic Dorians, disdained the improvement of their language,^ 
as much as they prevented the mixture of their population, 
by expelling or reducing to slavery the inhabitants of the 
country, of which they had taken forcible possession. Their 
language, likewise, was not that form, that had been already 
polished in the service of poetry, although derived from the 
Pelasgian root, but the crude speech of their progenitors, 
which maintained its place in their territory, although the Epic 
dialect was as little unknown to them, as to any other race of 

* B. I, 142. He calls them ya^axTrig'^i y'KojSSrii. 

■\ B. Vlil, p. 514, C. ff^idbv d' sri %a) vZv nara, voKng ciXkot aXkoig 

:}: How closely the Spartan tongue adhered to the PeldSgic may be 
perceived even in the few monuments of that dialect still extant. E. g. 
the use of the R in the decree of the Lacedaemonians against Timotlieus, 
( Boethius de Musica I, 1). Tiniotkeor ho Milesior paraginomenor — 
lymaenetae tar akoar ton neon dia te tar polychordar kae tar kaenotatar 
ton meteor, agrees with the same use in the Latin-Pelasgic Inscription in 
Spon. Miscell, p. 87. Lepirior Santirpior Duir Jor Joufer Dertier 
Dierier Votir Jarer 8fc. 


Greeks. The rest of the Dorians preserved tlieir primitive 
tongue less pure, and approached more nearly to the Epic 
form, in proportion as they receded from their own. There 
remained to them, at least in their written productions, much 
in common with Epic Greek, and much in common among 
themselves, gradually developed in composition, and consti- 
tuting the character of the Dorian dialect (jj A^y^/?, -/j A^^;;^;; 
haKzzrog). In this there were displayed the peculiarities of 
a bold, and originally a mountain race, incited by their earnest 
temperament and deep feelings, to the creation of the higher 
kind of lyric poetry, and of a serious and manly philosophy. 
Peculiar to this dialect is the frequent use of the vowel A 
(jTrXariiaGiMog). The songs of several lyric bards, the writ- 
ings of the Pythagorean philosophy, and the old Sicilian 
Comedy were composed in it. The Attic lyric poetry, also, 
in the tragic dramas, assumed several of its full-toned and 
sonorous forms. 

Ohs. — Even in common discourse the strength and weight of the 
platiasmus induced the Athenians to retain, in certain instances, the 
sound of A : e, g when the name of Ceres was employed as an 
exclamation of astonishment : c3 Aa/>t.arsg for w ^Tuirin^. * 

2. Like the Spartans, the ^olians kept the old language 
pretty close to its primitive form, and thus, in many points, 
their dialect concurred with the Doric ; indeed, so much so, 
that many considered the iEolian dialect (ji Aldkig, yj Alokw^ 
hakzKrog) identical with the Doric.t There exists, however, 
not identity, but a strong affinity between them. The iEolic 
was almost confined, in use, to the lyric poetry of the iEolians, 
and has come to our knowledge only in some fragments of 
this poetry, in a few inscriptions, and in the observations of 
Grammarians. From these we perceive that it varied, like 
the Doric, according to the age and country of the poet, e. g. 
it was different in the songs of Alcseus and Sappho of Lesbos, 
and of Corinna the Boeotian, — and must, indeed, have been 

* Comp. Eustath. ad. II., p. 12, 1. 8. 

■\ Strabo, VIII, p. 333. T'/^v Awj/oa rf, AioXiSi rrni axjrriv (pafji,h. 


as dirt'eieiit as the extraction of the Boeotians, ThessaHans, 
^tolians, and others, who were inckided, by the later Greeks, 
under the iEoHc name. — The strangeness of its forms, and 
its wide departure from the universally-understood Epic dia- 
lect, made it scarcely intelligible to those of the Grecians who 
were not iEolian. * Such was the ground upon which 
Pindar, the poet of all Greece, sacrificed most of its pecu- 
liarities, and retained only those which were common to the 
Dorians also,("' while, on the other hand, he adhered, in many 
particulars, to the Epic dialect. 




1. The lonians, in the formation of their dialect, kept 
more closely than the other Greeks to the language of the 
Epos, so that the Epic language itself has been taken for 
Ionic. For this a handle was given also by the fact, that 
Epic song was cultivated with the greatest success in the 
bosom of the Ionian states, and that the sort of poetry, which 
owed its birth to the lonians, namely the Elegy (which 
passed from them into the compositions of Tyrtaeus, Callinus, 
Solon, Mimnermus and others), remained faitliful to Epic 
forms, as well as the philosophic Epos, which after the He- 
roic of Homer and the Ethic of Hesiod, was produced in 
the first schools of philosophy. That only, however, can be 
properly termed Ionic, which was included under one of the 
four Ionian dialects enumerated by Herodotus. In one of 
these Herodotus himself and Hippocrates composed ; t whose 

* Thus Dionysius Halicar., in his tuv agya'tm -/.^iGig, 0pp. Tom., V, 
p. 421, § 8. Ed. Ileiske, praises in Alcseus the clearness of his forms 
of speech, so far as it is not obscured hy his dialect [Gyr^iharKSihrnic, (/.iru, 
(lafriviiag — oSov ahrrig ijj7\ rfj 3iaXr/tru) /H^dKOOTai). 

f Very probably in that of the Carian lonians of Miletus, Myus, and 
Prieni', since both these writers spranfj from Dorian settlements in 


dialect, in conformity witli the above-mentioned view of the 
subject, has been characterised as New Ionic in opposition to 
the Epic lang-uag-e as Old Ionic. — In the Epic language there 
is visibly a strong endeavour to make the primitive forms of 
the ancient tongue sonorous by the use of vowels and rhyth- 
mical by the aid of peculiar inflections, without, however, 
deviating from a moderate degree of strength, and becoming 
too effeminate. Thus it frequently contracts concurring 
vowels, and strengthens feeble syllables by the assumption of 
consonants. Through these tendencies, taken together, was 
attained that powerful fulness of tone, which constitutes the 
characteristic of this dialect, created and matured by the 
exigencies of heroic song\ 

2. The genuine Ionic (new Ionic) dialect so far trans- 
gressed the rule of the Epic language, that, avoiding strength 
of sound, it accumulated without contraction, in its forms of 
words, the greatest possible number of vowels, it weakened 
the force of syllables by the insertion of fresh sounds, and it 
terminated words as much as possible in soft and feeble 
syllables ; so that, in its musical richness and mellowness of 
tone, it bears the true impress of a people, who, under the 
mildest of all climates, abandoned themselves to a life of 
voluptuous enjoyment. 

S. Very chfterent from this was the formation of a dialect, 
originally resembling the Epic language — that of the Athe- 
nians (;; 'Ar^/c, ^ ' AmzTj oiaKzy^rog). Their ruder soil, aiul 
less favourable skies, which guarded against effeminacy, — 
the union of all the Attic tribes under the constitution of one 
city, — the influx of foreigners, who, from the earliest times, 
were brought, by political revolutions, to Athens, or were 
attracted thither by the intercourse of trade, — all these 
circumstances wrought a mighty effect upon the growth and 
genius of their language. They acquired, in this also, an 
independent character of solidity relieved by grace, both in 

Cnria, since the kind of composition (Logography), in wliich Herodotus 
wrote, was formed by Milesians (Cadmus, Hecatams), and lastly since 
much that was peculiar to the Carians has passed into their dialect, e. g. 
tlie forms =wuroD, r^oj/j.a. Comp, Mattaire, Ititrod-, p. xxxvi. 


the forms of words uiul the structure of discourse, equally 
remote from the antique stiffness of the strong Doric, and 
from the effeminacy of the Ionian. Many traces of the 
Epic (halect still appear in the oldest Attic writers, for 
instance in tEschyluSjCR) which, however, soon gave way in 
order to make room for that peculiar character of speech, 
which we find in Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophanes, 
Thucydides, Plato, and other authors. 

4. The Dialects, thus formed, varied, in the progress of 
time, in many respects, so that almost every age has its own 
peculiarities in the language of each race. The Dorism of 
Theocritus is (hfferent from that of the older Doric compo- 
sitions : in Attic there is a distinction drawn between the 
form above described, as the Old Atticy and the New Attic 
of the orators and the authors of the new Comedy. — It is 
proper to treat these varieties, not as separate dialects, but as 
(hfferent ages of the same dialect.* 

§ VII. 


1. The difference of the Greek dialects lay not merely in 
occasional forms and sounds of words, but penetrated to the 
very core of the language ; so that even the structure and 
connection of sentences and the whole character of expression 
is various, although the same fundamental rules of speech 
prevail in all the dialects. A marked difference in the modes 
of thinking and of feeling could alone produce this discrepance; 
while that strong direction, which the improvement of the 
nation by means of Epic poetry had impressed u))on the 
national mind, and that permanent influence, which the Epic 
dialect maintained over the language, could alone preserve, 
notwithstanding the wide chvergence of its several branches, 
the unity of the Grecian genius in the most opposite produc- 
tions, through which, in them, as in the productions of nature. 

* Sturz on Mattaire, Iiitrod., p. xxxv, note 2. 

xvi INTUODl/CnON. 

(Ik; gi(!; Ii;irrri<>iiy and tli(! grwitest (liiTerciice art; at once 
perceptible. — It would liuv«! been inij)ossibl(! to copy the 
peculiar style of Epic uaiiation in the Attic dialect. The 
agreeable style, copious in expression, and loose in the 
coiniection ot" parts and sentiMiccs, in which the work of 
Herodotus is written, harmonises as exactly with th(! i»<;uius 
of tlu! Ionic (lial('(^t, as tlx; <toncise, sententious, and doscly- 
coiuiccted styl«; of Tfnicydides with that of the Attic. The 
Dotic dialect is as essential to the jj^ravity and dignity of the 
lijoiicr lyri<- po(!try, as is tlu; milder Epic to the soft and 
sootliiui;- strain of the elegy. 

ti. As each tribe had moulded, after a peculiar fashion, its 
nuiutal charact(!r and its language, so also did it regulate its 
favourite m<Kle of Poetry, of Philosophy, and of Historical 
narration. The diahict, in which this was composed, became 
tlu; standard fonu for this kind of com])ositiou, — since, in- 
d(!ed, the one was essentially related to the other. Hence it 
came to pass, that Hc^rodotus, a Dorian, wrote in Ionic, that 
Pythagoras, an Ionian, wrote in Doric — the genius of the 
Dorics dialect agreeing with the depth and gravity of his 
pliiloso|»hy ; — farther, that Solon, although an Athenian,'") in 
tlur (•(imposition of his elegies employs the Ionic dialect; that 
the tragic authors of Athens, in th(>ir lyric songs, incline to 
Doric ; that all poems of an E|)ic character, down to a late 
age, follow, in most respects, the dialect of Homer. Although 
every stat(! and every citizen asserted the right to make an 
univ(!rsal use of their own dialect, y(!t this was abandoned in 
writing, as soon as another dialtict had become peculiarly 
allotted to that kind of coinp(»sition, whii^h a writer ha))pened 
f(» cultivate. 



1 . As long as liberty (^nduitnl, each state employed its 
native dialect. The Attic, raised to the highest rank by the 
greatest number of eminent writers, was the language of the; 
Maee(l(»iiiau court, and hence it spread over the Macedonian 



conquests in Syria and Egypt. This ciiciunstance — and 
still more its extreme refinement, and the renown of Athens, 
which long continued, with her schools of philosophy and 
rhetoric, to be the capital of Grecian cultivation — gave to it, 
from the era of Alexander the Great, the predominance over 
the other dialects. The other dialects, in process of time, 
under the Roman dominion, were gradually dropped by the 
educated classes, and confined to the use of the common 
people. In the second and third centuries they disappeared 
entirely from wi'iting — even upon monuments and coins. 

2. In the universal language, to which the Attic dialect 
was raised, a distinction was however drawn between some 
forms peculiar to Attica and others in general usage. Hence 
the opposition of one part as Attic (^' Arrizov), to the other 
as common (JLomv). The universal language — or common 
dialect — is assumed as the basis of Greek grammars. 

3. Through the Macedonian conquests in Asia, the Greek 
tongue was forced upon the attention of some nations that 
had formerly spoken oriental languages. Induced to write 
in Greek, while they thought in their native tongues, they 
created a Greek dialect, with Hebrew, Syriac, and Chaldaic 
turns of expression, and many peculiarities, which proceeded 
partly from the Macedonian mode of speech. In this dialect 
were the documents of the Jewish religion translated, and 
those of the Christian faith composed, so that it may be 
conveniently termed the Ecclesiastical dialect. 

4. While the other dialects disappeared from written com- 
position, the common dialect continued, down to the fifteenth 
century, especially at the court of Constantinople, to be the 
language of the learned, although the common people, from 
the date of the introduction of Christianity, gradually lost the 
use of the ancient Greek. During that period the learned 
(that is to say, the Sophists, Rhetoricians, Grammarians, and 
even the fathers of the Church) were busily endeavouring, 
by the continual perusal and imitation of the Attics, to defend 
the purity of the language against those inroads, which the 
ecclesiastical Greek was continually making. 

5. When, however, after the ruin of the empire in the 
fifteenth century, together with the existence of the national 



speech expired also the care and discipHne, by which that 
existence had been prolonged, and when the Church became 
the only bond that kept the enslaved people in a state of 
union, the influence of the ecclesiastical dialect spread uncon- 
trolled over all classes. As formerly the Homeric language 
had arisen, so now there appeared a tongue, fundamentally 
uniform — intelligible to the clergy, and even to the laity, w^ho 
were accustomed to its use in public instruction, and in the 
services of religion — to which the different tribes and pro- 
vinces attached many words, preserved from the earliest times 
in the mouths of the vulgar, though never employed in writ- 
ing, and many peculiarities, which the influence of foreign 
tongues, particularly the Latin, and more recently the Turkish 
and Italian, had introduced. 

6. Out of these elements, then, arose that peculiar dialect 
— the Romaic or Modern Greek * — which is indeed far re- 
moved from the old language, but not far enough to rank as 
a separate tongue. Throughout the much-divided people of 
Greece — and in spite of their numberless dialects — this lang- 
uage is essentially uniform, having, in the ecclesiastical dialect, 
an universal basis. As early as the sixteenth century it was 
employed as a written tongue, and has acquired, in our times, 
no slight degree of copiousness and cultivation by means of 
numerous works in all departments of literature. 

7. Meanwhile, the ancient Greek, although lost as a na- 
tional language, was understood and written by some of the 
learned in all succeechng ages. Handed down by the schools 
of Athos, Naxos, Chios, and others that were never wholly 
suppressed, it has appeared, in more recent days (like Latin 
among the western nations), as the learned tongue of the 
Greeks. And thus, to compute from the date of the Homeric 
poems, in w^hich it first acquired a stable form, this language 
has been employed for the written productions of human 
genius, during a space of nearly three thousand years. 

* Called Via, /laOofjbiXovfjbsvy}, also y^aiTiixri hakixrog, and cco/xa/ka, scil. 
7^a//,/i,aTa, as the peoj)le froiu being subject to the Roman- Byxanline 
Gm])iie were named ooiijjomi. 




1. In the Greek tongue, the Epic or Homeric dialect 
was first matured. AlHed to this, the Ionic afterwards was 
formed ; the two being frequently contrasted as old and new 
Ionic, To this branch belongs also the Attic in its several 

2. Next to the lonians the tEolians formed their dialect in 
Asia (Sappho, Alcteus), then in Boeotia (Pindar, c^) Corinna); 
the Dorians also acquired a written dialect, especially those 
of the colonies (the Pythagoreans, Theocritus). 

3. The selection of that which is common to the Attic and 
the other Dialects constitutes the Common dialect. 

4. Next in order stands the Ecclesiastical (Halect, from 
which, in the last place, the Romaic is derived. 

5. Order of the Dialects : 

Ionic, Attic, 

in Asia, in Boeotia, 

of the Pythagoreans, of Theocritus, 

Common, Ecclesiastical, Romaic. 



1 . We have explained the nature of language and of discourse 
in general — the rise of cognate languages — and the origin of 
dialects. It was next shown whence the Greek tongue arose 
— with what other tongues it is connected — and how, in the 
course of its existence, it gave birth to a series of dialects, 
and has reached our knowledge in written works. 

'2. In entering u})on the study of any language, the whole 

15 2 


body of its sio^ns for ideas, — the department of the Lexicon, — 
is, in a certain sense, taken for granted : not as if it were 
already impressed npon the mind, but merely as an object not 
properly belonging to grammar, — from which, however, 
grammar borrows, as occasion may demand, so much as is 
necessary for the understanding of her rules, or as stands in 
need of her assistance. 

3. The words being taken for granted, grammar will 
enquire according to what laws they are formed and subjected 
to those inflections, which speech requires, in order to betoken 
all relations, in which a word can stand. 

4. This done, grammar will next teach the rules, accord- 
ing to which the words of any given tongue are combined 
together, for the expression of perceptions, thoughts, and 

5. On these principles, this grammar is composed of two 
parts, or books, the first of which treats of tlie forms ofwordsy 
the second of Syntax. 

6. At the foundation of both of these parts lies the know- 
ledge of those symbols, by which the sound of words, the 
manner of intonation, and the division of sentences are 
represented (letters^ accents^ marks of punctuation) ; — 
which will, therefore, be considered, in their proper places, 
in the first Book. 

7. In explaining the forms of words, this grammar will 
confine itself, for the sake of simplicity, in the first place, to 
the Common dialect, since this cannot conveniently be 
deprived of its right to constitute the groundwork in the 
acquisition of the Greek tongue. The Homeric dialect will 
next be examined, and then those forms, in which the other 
dialects differ from the language of Homer. 









1. Tlie characters now commonly used in Greek ortho- 
graphy ai'e, according- to their forms, order, and power, the 
following four-and-twenty :— 





En:,dish Name. 













g hard. 











^'E ^|.A0.,* 




z (sd), 


Sdeta. (R) 













i (English e)^ 



* Single or smooth E. f Pronounced like a in Am'e, 





Sound. Name. 

English Name. 



k, KciTTa, 




1, AuimQcc, 




m, Mu, 




n, Ny, 




X, Er, 




o, O ^iz^ov,* 




p, n?, 




r, P^, 


X C, («) 


s, 2/yjM-a, 




t, T«y, 




u, "T -^ikov^i 




ph, or, 




ch, X?, 




ps, jr, 




6, "n jOO£ya,t 


2. 2 at the end of words, or in composition, takes the 
form of g ; t^o?, '7r^og(pz^co ; (^^ thus too, ^yjcsSs/a, but T^acfrs/v, 
where both sigmas belong to an uncompounded word. 

3. The follo^ving characters are hkewise occasionally used, 
especially in the older editions : €, /^ ^, tc, p, 7, ?, i. e. j(3, y, ^, 


r. ar. 

4. Even in recent editions we find the combination of o 
and y into s?, and of cr into ?, which latter character is called, 
on account of its sound, sti or stigma, and is even used as a 
mark of number for 6, because a letter not altogether unlike 
it in form, once stood in the sixth place of the alphabet, — of 
which hereafter. 



1. An ancient Grecian tradition declared, that an oriental 
settler (Cadmus) from Phoenicia introduced the knowledge of 

* Little O. 

-j- Smooth LI. 

:j; Large O. 


letters into Greece.* The Phoenician alphabet was, with 
slight variations, that of the Samaritans and Jews. The 
circumstance that these three alphabets agree with the Gre- 
cian in the names, order, and to a remarkable degree also 
in the shapes of the letters, bestows on the traditional 
derivation of the latter from the east the certainty of a 
historical fact. 

2. The primeval or Cachnean alphabet of the Greeks 
wanted these nine letters, Z, H, 0, H, T, O, X, "^F, H, so 
that it consisted of only fifteen characters, an equal number 
with that of the old Hebrew, t and old Latin,! — all these 
coinciding in the following order : — 


Hebrew Names. 
































































* Hence they are called y^a/A,«,ara (pomxri'ia, by Herod., V. 58, and 
KahiJjri'ia, ib. 59. Otherwise (poivixia, foivi/ii/id, and even rtikacyiy.a, since 
the Pelasgians first received them from the Phoenicians.*^^ 

-|- Hug on the invention of alphabetical writing, p. 38. 

% Montfaucon in Dissert, de Uteris Greeds et Latinis, § 85, in his 
Palseography, p. 561. 


3. These fifteen letters served, in the East, only as conso- 
nants and marks of aspiration; but Aleph, He, Jod, Ain 
(Oin), i. e. Alpha, Epsilon, Iota, Omicron, were unsuited 
to the Greek tongue as marks of aspiration, and therefore 
furnished a mode of designating the sounds perceptible in 
their names (a, e, i, o), by which means the Greek alpliabet, 
in its very commencement, obtained a marked advantage over 
the oriental. 

4i. Meanwliile, after the introduction of the alphabet into 
Greece, its limits were extended in the East : the seven 
Vau, Zain, Cheth, Teth, Samech, Tzade, Koph, 

^ r n ^ d ^ P 

were formed, through which the oriental alphabet was 
increased to the number of twenty-two characters. 

6. Out of this additional number the Vau was first adopted 
by the Greeks. As a new comer it was placed at the end,'"^' 
originally as an aspirated consonant, which force it has re- 
tained in Latin, Vidi, AivOxM, &c.; also in the name of the 
Ionic colony Elea (V^elia) in Lucania, which is ^vritten, on 
coins, TEAH, and by Herodotus* 'Tikri (better with v than 
v). The pronunciation was then weakened into that of u 
(y -^ikov), lat. u, and thus the aspirated consonant passed 
into a vowel. 

6. After the T, the letters Z, H, 0, wandered into Greece. 
With a trivial alteration of the names, Tzade, Cheth, Teth, 
into Zeta, Eta, Theta, they were arranged, in the Greek 
alphabet, according to the same order, which had been ob- 
served in the oriental. 

Ohs. — H perhaps originally approximated, in pronunciation also, to 
Cheih, and liad the sound of ch. Thus the liver is named in 
Hebrew, Chapar, Greek ^-ra^, which was written HEIIAP (HA- 

* B. I, 167. The name TEAH upon some coins, compared with the 
fuller TEAHTflN upon others, may perhaps be the beginning of the 
appellative TEAHTH5 ; however, the name of the town is certain from 
Herodotus. In Stephanus Byz. under EAEA it is corrupted into BY AH. 


nAP). Next it was weakened into the aspirate h, which force 
it continued always to possess in Latin, and in Greek for many 

7. To the letters thus introduced, the Greeks added, at a 
later period, and from their own invention, first O and X. 
The precise time and manner of this addition are not known, 
but it must have been in a remote age, since both are found in 
the oldest inscriptions.* Indeed, of the alphabet, to which <I> 
and X were wanting, only a single monument remains in an 
inscription, brought from the island Melon to Venice, and 
added to the collection of the family of Nani (cohimna 
Naniana).\ It gives EKIIHANTOI, i. e. 'E;c^avr^, A- 
MENnHE2, a>g^(psc, and EHEVKHOMENOS, \i:ivy}- 
fjijsvog, thus IIH for (p and KH for %, like ph and c/i in Latin ; 
yet it does not necessarily follow, that this must be older than 
all which have O and X, since it is possible that the Melians, 
a Spartan colony, and as such faithful to ancient usages, 
retained the simplest alphabet, after it had been already 
increased elsewhere. 

8. The alphabet received its final completion from Simon- 
ides of Chios about the time of the Persian war. He added 
E, ^, and O, and gave to H its present destination. Thus 
the alphabet was increased by him to the number of tAventy- 
four letters. 

9. The full alphabet of Simonides was adopted by the 
lonians, and, among them, probably first by the Samians. 

* E.G. in the incription of Sigeum, <DANOAIKO, HA^XO,— of Delos, 
2^EAA2,— of Petilia, TYXA, ArA0APXO2,— of Elis, APXOI, ENE- 
XOITO, rPAt&EA. In the tales of later days, the early extension of the 
alphabet was ascribed to Palamedes. 

■j- Having personally inspected this inscription, in the close of the year 
1822, at Venice, in the Palaz. Tiepolo, to which the greater part of the 
antiquities of the Nanian collection has been transferred, I retract the 
doubt, expressed in the second edition of this Grammar, as to its 
genuineness, and give it hereafter according to my copy. 


At Athens it was admitted into public monuments, for the 
first time, in the ("> second year after the Peloponnessian war, 
mider the Archon EucHdes, B.C. 403, Ol. 94, 2.*— Thus 
the Greek alphabet had, at different periods, fifteen, sixteen, 
nineteen, twenty-one, and twenty-four of the characters still 

* That Simonides completed the alphabet is affirmed by Suidas, art. 
"Si/jjomdyig, and by Pliny, H. JV., c. 56, 8^c. Comp. Valcken. ad Schol. 
Eur. Phoen., p- 687. Only Andron in Suidas^ v. laii'im b hriiMg, T. Ill, 
p. 279 (perhaps the Alexandrian, of whom Atheneeus, IV, c. 25, p. 184, 
15., mentions the X^ov/xd), pronounces otherwise : Ta^a. l.aijuioig iVQiQri 
rrpdJTOig ra xb' y^d/j^/Jbarot, utto KaXX/oTgdrou ug " Avd^uv Iv r^ivodi. Of the 
men who, under the name of Callistratus, have reached our knowledge, 
that one only is of sufficient antiquity who, according to Hesychius, v. 
'Af/xo3/oy f/^'sXog, composed the famous Scolion in praise of Harraodius 
and Aristogiton (to which even Aristophanes alludes in his Acharnians, 
V. 980), but not the Alexandrian Grammarian, to whom Tzetzes, ChiL, 
XI., 6, ascribes the invention : 'ra^a 'S.afiioig suorjTia w^Zjtov a\a,y\(ii(S&r\vai 
dia y^a/j^fiarixov rivof r^v %h^(Siv KaXkiffT^drou. Did this elder Callistratus, 
probably a Samian, but attached, as his Scolion shows, to the Attic 
interest, first bring the full alphabet into use among the Athenians ? In 
the same place of Suidas it is mentioned out of Theopompus, that Archi- 
nus, under the archonship of Euclides, persuaded the Athenians to make 
use of the Ionic letters: roug hi ' h&'^vaiovg sTsias j/g^c^a/ rcHiv '\wvoiv y^dfL- 
l^aoiv ' A^^hovg 6 'A6rivaiog Iff/ a^'^ovrog EuxXs/Sou . . . 'Ts^i rou mtcavrog 
igTO^sT ©soVo/ATo;. Other writers also mention the archon Euclides 
in relation to this subject. Compare Corsini Fasti Attici Olymp.y 
CLXXXXIV. And that this, and not a more ancient Euclides, the son 
of Molon, Olymp. 88, 1, is meant, may be proved from inscriptions of 
later date than Olymp. 88, 1, which retain the old Attic alphabet. The 
latest of this description with a certain date, is, so far as I know, that 
from the Erectbeum ( Walpoles Memoirs relating to Turkey, p, 580 J, 
during the archonship of Diodes, 01. 92, 4, (^' that is twenty-three 
years after the elder Euclides, and only five years before the younger. — 
With regard to the transaction alluded to by Theopompus, the term 
persuasion (sffs/c?) can scarcely refer to any thing but a public proposal 
(•4/^p<(T//,a), and we may suppose, that, by a decree of the people, the full 
alphabet was thenceforward admitted into public acts and monuments, 
having previously gained admission into ordinary use. 


Obs. 1. — Among these letters are not reckoned those, which retained 
their places only as marks of number (yga^/x.ara smarifMa)'. the 
BaD ('^' in the sixth place between E and Z, answering to the Latin 
F, and afterwards called the Digararaa — to be seen on the Elean 
tablet and other monuments, — the KoVcra or Koph, between n and 
P, answering to the Latin Q — to be seen upon the coins of Crotona, 
Corinth, &c., — lastly the 2ai/ or Sa/xw?; a hissing sound, answering 
to the Hebrew Schin, but removed in Greek to the end of the 
alphabet.* The forms of the Digamma and Koppa in inscriptions 
are f or £/ ^^^ 9 o^' Q ; of Sampi the form is •>) . 

Obs. 2. — The old Attic alphabet, which is preserved in a very con- 
siderable number of inscriptions, J thus comprised the following 
twenty-one letters, H included as a mark of aspiration : — 

A, B, r, A, E, Z, H, 0, I, K, A, M, N, O, H, P, 2, T, T, *, X. 

It wanted characters for the long vowels H and Xl, instead of which 
E O were used, and for the double consonants Y and 3, the place 
of which was supplied always by * 2 and X 2 (not B 2, T 2, or the 
like).^^^ Also it was not yet common to employ the dipthong oo in 
writing, so that simple O stood for the sounds O, OX, H, e. g. in the 
Potidean inscription : — -^ 

MEN EX02I TAcE)0 MEP02 . . . ANAPA2 MEM nOAI2 

i. e. ai6rj^ (mIv -^v/ag h'Tids^aro . . . sx^^^v 5' o/ fih 's)(oiiffi Td<pov fis^og 
. . . avb^ag (Miv mXig rids mdsT . . . 

* Compare Boeckh's Public Economy of Athens, Pait II, p. 384 fof 
the original J. 

f Compare the Collection of Boeckh for the Public Economy of Athens, 
and in the Sylloge Inscriptionum of Osann, Jena, 1822. 

X p. 18 of Osann. 


10. Tlie Orientals wrote, as is well known, from rig-lit to 
left ; with the Greeks the direction from left to right (Itt/ 
h'^iccv, I'Tnli^icc) obtained the preference, clearly for the sake 
of a propitious direction (ominis causa). In this manner 
we find very ancient inscriptions, as the Melian and the 
Elean,* ^vritten, after it had been long the fashion to write 
Avith both directions alternately, or ^ovt^r^ocpribov (turning like 
oxen in the process of ploughing). Specimens of the last- 
mentioned mode of writing are found in both tlie Sigean 
inscriptions ;t and thus too were the laws of Solon written. 
Coins, and the oldest works of art, e. g. the Scarabseus with 
the heroes before Thebes in the collection of Stosch, have 
often the alternate mode of writing, t^^' 

11. The characters have undergone considerable changes 
since their introduction into Greece. The most ancient upon 
the inscriptions of Sigeum, Melos, and Elis, and upon many 
coins, correspond almost entirely with the Etruscan, and with 
those which have been recently discovered upon a Phrygian 
monument ; but their forms vary in different states, and even 
sometimes in the same state. The medals of Agiigeutum 
alone display eight (hlferent forms of the letter A, from which 
again several on the medals of Laus, Metapont, and Cau- 
lonia differ. 

12. Greek writing acquired a greater degree of uniformity 
in the Attic alphabet, and transmitted the characters, established 
during the time of the Peloponnesian war, without any re- 
markable changes, do\\ii to the manuscripts of the Christian 
centuries. But together with the erect characters used upon 
stone and in the more careful MSS., there was formed for 
ordinary use a cursive X character, the influence of which, 
during the time of the Romans, affected the form of many 
letters even in the monumental writings of the Greeks, || 

* Class. Journ., Vol. XIII, p. 113. 

■\ Now in the British Museum. 

X Several documents written in this character upon papyrus have been 
found in Egypt. Comp. Boeckh's Illustration of an Egyptian document 
on papyrus in the Greek cursive character. Berlin, 1821. 

II In many inscriptions. For example one in the court of the Hondamni 


and, towards the eighth century, expelled the erect characters 
almost entirely from MSS. The most uniform and elegant 
shape of the cursive characters is found in the MSS. of the 
eleventh and twelfth centuries ; but this afterwards passed, 
especially in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, into the more 
convenient but less sightly form of the Greek writing at the 
present day. In the commencement of Greek printing some 
felicitous endeavours were made, particularly by the Junta 
in Florence, to imitate the beautiful manuscript of earlier 
ages ; Aldus and his followers, however, who took the later 
MSS. as their model, obtained the mastery, and after their 
example the characters of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries 
were universally recognised as the basis of Greek typography. 
13. Like the characters, the orthography of the earliest 
monuments is uncertain and defective. Upon the Scara- 
bseus, * with the heroes before Thebes, the name Tydeiis is 
written TTTE ; Polynices, OTANIFES ; Ainphiaraus^ 
AMOTIAPE ; Adrastus, ATPE20E; ParthenopcEus, 
nAP0ANAniAE. Elsewhere we find AXEAE, EAINA, 
for Achilles^ Helena, E for EI, as still later O for OT, upon 
coins. Thus too AANKAE for Zancle^ for Gelas some- 
times rEAA2, sometimes EAA2, and according to the 
Ionic alphabet, before its complete diffusion, PHFINON, 
KHON. The name oiAcragas varies between AKPAFA2 
and AKPAIA2, that of Temessa between GEM and TEM; 
the name of the Naxians in Sicily is NAXION for NA- 
X2ION, as the Latins have continued to use X for CS, 
GS (DIXIT, AUXIT). Much of this variety indicates a 
difference of pronunciation, but on the whole it proves that 
orthography, among the Greeks, as with other nations, 
acquired fulness and certainty only in process of time, t^' 

palace, has in the upper half, containing the enumeration of names, the 
ancient forms, but in the lower, containing a distich, the forms altered 
by the cursive character, especially ^ _)»^ (^ 

* According to the engraving given in Fea's translation of Winckel- 
mann's History of Ait, Part I, p. 163. ("^ 




§ XIII. 



1. The shortest portion of time, which serves for the | 
enunciation of a sound, is called a time (x^ovog, tempus^ 

2. A short vowel is that for the enunciation of which the 
shortest portion of time is sufficient, as e in men^ or i in thin ; 
a long vowel is that, which requires twice as much time, or 
more, in the enunciation, as e in scene^ i mjine. 

3. Every sound can be enounced in single or double time, 
i. e. as short or long : thus, a in glass and grarn^ e in men 
and scene., i in thin and jine., o in shot and stone^ u in tun 
and tune (better shown in the German umher and BlUt). 
One time or the short sound is marked by " , two times or 
the long by ~ . 

A perfect alphabet should have different characters for the 
long and short vowels. 

4. The characters of the short vowels ((psovrjivroc (ogay^iu, 
vocales breves) in Greek are g', o", a, <", u, of the long ([/jUK^d, 
longaji rj, u>, a, f, v. 

5. Hence it appears that the Greek tongue has for the e 
and o sounds alone, specific marks to betoken when they are 
short or in single time (s, o), and when long or in double 
time (t], oj). A, /, y, serve to mark both the short and the 
long sounds appertaining to these characters. They are I 
called twofold (mx^om, i. e. double with regard to time, \ 
ancipitesjf and it must be determined in some other way 
than by their figure whether they mark the long or short 
sound in a word, e. g. in lardai and hUvvai a and v are long; 
but in l'(TTd[Mv, ^iiKvviLZv., short, upon grounds to be explained 
in the sequel.* 

* VVc iDust guard jigainst tlic notion, that the ancipites arc doubtful 


Obs. — Long vowels may be regarded as the double of short. Thus 
from osiXog came hrikog, from %"05» yjoi, from A//, A/. (See 
Hermann de Emend, rat. Grcec. grammat. p. i9.J ^'^'> 

§ XIV. 


1 . Tlie pronunciation of the Greek tongue may be learned 
partly from the comparison of words which languages yet 
living have in common with Greek, partly through Greek 
words, which appear in Latin, and Latin words wliich 

vowels — a notion arising from confounding the signs A, T, T, with their 
sounds. A want of accuracy and of clearness in our first conceptions 
easily introduces errors into the exposition of language. The notion alluded 
to has even found its way into Wolf's Prcefatio nova Editionis Iliad., 
1804, />. LXIX: " Etenim sunt, qui ne distinguere quidem sciant, quae 
mensurse syllabarum ex natura vocalium nascantur, quse accrescant adven- 
titiis causis. Alii scire non videntur, quam vim haheant vocales ancipites, 
quihus maximum libertatem tenera lingua ad facilitatem versus pangendi 
concessit^ (We cannot properly talk of ancipites before the invention of 
signs for long e and o, and after that invention the language was no 
longer tenera). " Ita, sicut semper corripitur a in ayw, / in ha, u in ucrsg, 
contra producuntur eaedem in Bacuv, vlzri, ^u/ids" (bat the a, i, and u 
sounds are here quite as different as e in s/ji,oi and 7j,(i7v, o in s/mqi and sfiSJ, 
only that there is a want of separate marks to discriminate them), *' sic in 
vocabulis permultis hse vocales variant mensuram : ■Trav, rrd/^'xav ; -/.ovlr], 
zovr^di ; <piXaa6ai et fiXsTv; 'io^vOiv, 'id^us." (The vowel- characters fh(E 
vocales J do not, however, alter their quantity, but the sound expressed 
by them is sometimes long, sometimes short, is as different in i'Sguffs and 
'id^ue as the o in sy^s.^auuss and s-(_^u(Sos ; only the deficiency of alphabetic 
signs necessitates us to express the two different vowels by the same 
character, and xowtj stands related to zovij^ai exactly as d^y^r/ xi^avvip to 
d^ysTi h'i]fLw, where the difference of the marks for the long sound of e and 
the short sound excludes all doubt and indistinctness. Thus, then, a and 
a, /and r, u and ii differ neither in kind nor use, from I and ?), o and w, 
and what the language allows to the one sound, it allows also to the rest.) 


appear in Greek, j)artly through imitations of natural sounds 
left us by the ancients, <«> together with plai/s upon words 
and other hints; and, lastly, that of the consonants may be 
gathered from the modes in which the modern Greeks pro- 
nounce them. 

2. A may be observed to agree in many words of the 
three tongues (Greek, Latin, English), as itccrn^, pater, 
father, \(kx,av, draco, dragon, Kkayyri^ clangor, clang, a|^j/, 
axis, axle. Compare also cc^iv/j, with axe, tfrrami with stand, 
&c. E is our e, as g-rra, septem, seven. O is our 6, as 
o^yavov, organum, organ. I is pronounced sometimes as i 
in English, thus Xivov, linen, but, when long, as e in English. 
T resembles the German ue, as Kvaai, kuessen, |W,yX?7,muehle. (^' 
The Latins made it y in their words of later adoption, as 
Tvliq, pyxis, "kv^cc, lyra ; but in those which were originally 
common to both tongues, it is u, as ^vo, duo, Tiv^og, cubns, 
avg, siis, (jbug, mus. In the pronunciation of the modern 
Greeks it sounds like e. 

3. The n of the Greek answers to our 6, as in alone ; but 
the pronunciation of H involves considerable difficulty. 
As a sign for double E it should correspond exactly with the 
long e of Latin and German, and the ae of the latter tongue. 
Thus it appears in ^g^jvog (lamentation). Germ, thraene 
(tear), '/crj^og, hat. cera, Tcc'XTirig, Germ, tapeten ; and short- 
ened in yAarri, Germ, kiste, oijhri, Germ, ode, ahyn (beam of 
light). Germ, auge (the eye). Cratinus expressed the cry of 
sheep by |S^, j(3^,* and Plato says, that anciently £ t was used 
instead of ;;. Thus, in the Potidean inscription of 432, B. C. 
al&y}^, -Tnarordr^v, j^hs, ' Ad'^vocfajv. The Romans wrote in all 

* In a verse preserved by ^Hus Dionysius, which Eustathius quotes, 
p. 1721, 1. 16, 'Utsov 8i, on fcdXisra to 3ri foivr^g vgoQdruv kri cuiiJ^avrixw 
'/.ai (p'i^irai Ta^u, AiXiuj A/rji/uff/w xai "/fhstc, K^arhov roiavrri' 
'O S 'viXiSiog ojaTsg rr^oZarov l3ri (37i Xsycjov (Sadi^ft. 
Comp. p, 768, 13, where it is remarked in addition that the word is to 
be written ^ti, not /Sa/ (j3ri, ov /j^riv ^ai). So also, ibid. p. 592, 18. 

f In the Cratyhis, p. 126, c. ov yde r) h/^^uif/^i&a. cuO.d i to 'K(i>Mim. 


cases € for tj, having no separate character for long e, A^jfjuo- 
<T0iV)^g, Demosthenes^ "HS;?, Hebe, &c. In the time of Dionysius 
of HaHcarnassus the pronunciation of pj was still undisturbed, 
since he teaches* to form its sound at the root of the tongue 
(■rg^i rriv (^dffiv rijg 'y'kcuffffrjg\ whereas he directs the sound of 
i to be formed outwards about the teeth {'ttz^i rovg obovrag'). 
Lastly, Plutarch expresses the long e of Latin by ??, as, 'P^| 
for rex, in the life of Cicero ; ^yjyag for reges, in that of 
Numa; '^oryjvg iov potens ; ffaTrr/jvg, sapiens ; (Jbuia^'/ig and lovvi- 
M^rjg for major es and juniores, &c.t 

4. On the other hand, it must not be overlooked, that 
in the same word, E and I are frequently exchanged by 
different tribes or in different provinces; thus, i^nWe, Thuring. 
Freede; stehn, gehn, Thuring. stih, gih; Helena is EAINA 
upon a stone cut in the oldest style of engraving,! and the 
town Teanum is TIANO on its medals. || Lastly, Plato^ 
expressly asserts that the early Greeks made copious use of I, 
and that the ivomen also employed it much, " who, for the 
most part, remained faithful to the ancient pronunciation." 
He quotes, as an example, '^[/jZ^ccv, which the ancients pro- 
nounced If/bigocv and i[jjSociv. Li his own time, however, the 
sound of s or ;j had supplanted the early I, as being more 
weighty and sonorous (^cug ^-^ ^iyah^oTr^z'Triari^u ovroc). We 
perceive from this, that, in the earliest times, the I sound 

* De Compos. Verb , C. 14, p. 76, Reiske. 

f However, Scipio is written Sxtjt/wv, Fab. 25 (but 'S.xmeAjv, Sylla 28), 
and Numitor is written No/i^7wg, Rom. 3, but evidently only for the sake 
of bringing the names nearer to the Greek analogy ; so Palilia is made 
YiaKrfkicc, on account of its derivation from Pales. On the other hand, 
the Latin I is always rendered by the Greek I : Kg/trcTi'og, ' AXOi^og, viyeovg, 
nigros, (ps^7§s,ferire, &c. 

j^ In EckheV s Choix de pierres ffravees, PL XL. Eckhel there adduces 
from old Italian monuments, Age/e {AgWe, AgWes), Alixander, Mircurius. 
Comp. Plutarch. Ant., 59, ^in.M-A.ia. — IloTid7-.o\Ji, Puteolos. Acta Apost, 

28, 13 'iXiKiov, Elicium. Plutarch. Num. 15. — Ow'vS/^, 'z^iyxi-^, i.e. 

vindex, princeps. 

II Mionnet Description des Medaillcs antiques, T. I, p. 126. 

^ Cratylus, p. 418, IJ. 



was originally heard in words with 7^, in the place of which 
the E sound entered into the pronunciation when fully matured. 
Hence probably it comes that Plautus, * imitating the common 
pronunciation, expresses KTJgoi by liroe. The I sound, in a 
later age, not only maintained its right, but even spread 
universally over the whole province of H, so that in the 
present pronunciation of the Greeks no long E is any more 
heard. How soon after Plutarch this change of pronunciation 
occurred, can scarcely be determined. Even in the Copto- 
Greek alphabet, made up out of the Coptic at Alexandria, 
the letters Beta, Zeta, Eta, Theta, are named Bida, Zida, 
Chida, Thida, and IXsj^ffov must have been already pronounced 
eleison, when the nO^tz ihk'/iaov (kyrie eleison) came into the 
service of the Latin church. 

§ XV. 


1 . A diphthong is formed when one of the posterior vow- 
els, a, £, (§ I, 4), is blended in pronunciation with one of 
the anterior, /, y, or v with /, so as to produce a single sound. 
— The posterior vowels of the Greek alphabet are, a, a, g, 
Tj, 0^ a)\ the anterior, u, i. Hence are formed. 

g, £/, sv 
with E long 

0, 0/, ov 
with O long 





th A 





y, VI 
with T long 

V VI. 

2. Whether the second or subjunctive sound in a diph- 
thong (/, y) be long or short is not considered. But if the 
first or prepositive vowel be short, the diphthongs are called 
proper or pure (za^oc^df puree), if it be long, improper or 

Proper, ay, a/, gy, g/, oy, 0/, y/. 
Improper, ay, a/, if\v, rjt, ojv, ooi, vi. 
Examples, avru§, i[/jdii, (pzvyzi, ovroi, viog. — 

Nay?, Tif/jol, xrjv^, ^mv[^cc^ '^[^^^ ^vloc. — 

* Poen. Act., I, seen. I, v. 9. 


Obs. 1. — Two vowels pronounced separately, as in j3or,, do not con- 
stitute a diphthong; and if the latter vowel be ; or u, its separation 
from the former is marked by points over it fdial^ssig, puncta dice- 
reseosj, as 0/5, uij-mog. 

Obs. 2. — A diphthong, as well as a single vowel, is also called pure, 
when no preceding consonant adheres to it (zada^a. & Xeyo/Aei/ oVai' 
b'jo (pwjrjsvTuv iv dvffi CvXXaZaTg //,fidsv fisffoffvXXaQfj o-jim^uvov, Theodos. 
T. ygafi/M. p. 109, I. 6, Goettling), e.g. t] in ^orj, a in «£/'; other- 
wise it is called impure: a in (pdo~^d, w in s-/aw — denominations 
which have been transferred to words, so that we call those pure 
CxaSa^ov, purumj, before the termination of which a vowel stands, 
as, Ti[ia-u, <piXs—u, the rest impure, as, Xs/V-w, Xoy-oc. 

Obs- 3. — Diphthongs arise in language by various processes. Some- 
times consonants are attenuated into vowels, as rivog fLat. vinumj 
into oJvog, TiXdracd into 7t}Mv<(u, ziXsfaitJ into xsXsveu {so, in German, 
Fravven becomes Frauen) ; sometimes they entirely disappear between 
two vowels, as or/o'/xa/, oio(Mai (compare opig, oig, ovis), and hence 
o/'o/z-a/, — and thus ^asiXririov, jSaC/Xjj/oi/, /SaC/Xs/bv, &c. Sometimes 
the radical vowel, a, $, 0, is dwelt upon, extended, so that the sound 
of / or u has time to be heard after it, as, rvpdssi, ■rijf>6s7<ri, vosog, 
vouffog, rra^d, va^ai, -/.Xdu, xXa/w. In the same manner in the German 
words, klein. Stein, Neige, gemein, S^c., the dialect of Thuringia 
retains the e, Men, Sten, Nege, gemen. One branch of the Bava- 
rian dialect has kldn, Stan, another Main, Stain, like ru%j/ac, y^d-^ag, 
Doric, rii-^atg, y^d-^aig, &c. — On the other hand the German wo, 
so, froh, retaining the o, become in Thuringish, wii, su, fruh, as 
hrog {afrri), roro, are changed into ourog (avry]), rouro. — Sometimes, to 
the original sound of /, fulness is given by the insertion of i, thus 
compare the old imperf. 'iXivov with iKwTTov, CTi-^og, 'iGTZiyov, kc, (in the 
same way as the Latin vinum, scribere, benedictus, are in German 
Wein, schreiben, gebenedeiet ; while, on the contrary, mein, dein, 
Zeit, have retained in Suabia the primitive sounds, min, din, Zit, — 
Thus, too, I has extended itself into a/ and 01, in the old pronominal 
f<n-m8, /Jbi, ei, 1 [ri), which changed into/^a/, ffai, {r)ai, are the termina- 


tioiis of vorhs, and changed into (loi, coi, o'i, are parts of later pronouns. 

Obs. 4 Wlietlier, after these remarks, any diphthongs remain which 

belonged to the primitive form of the language, the previous obser- 
vations may determine. So much is certain, that, when both 
diphthongs and simple vowels are found, as 'i(pamv, j'pavov, udov, 'idov, 
the latter are the original forms and the former derived from them. 

Obs. 5 We must carefully distinguish the extension of the vowels, a, 

i, 0, in ai, it, 01, or ov, from their duplication in ?j, u, which e.g. takes 
place when civaeaov, su, AwvuCog, pass into yivaffffov, riv, Aiwvvffog. 

3. The ground upon which proper and improper diph- 
thongs were distinguished is, because in the former both 
sounds were clearly discernible, but in the latter the / or y, 
especially / after a long vowel, remained quite imperceptible, 
— of which hereafter. Hence even in Strabo's time this iota 
was omitted by many, and, together with the forms in riv and 
a;y, stood those in ri and (sy, ;sJ?y|, ;i^|, ^uvjJjCC^ ^o^jM-a, in which 
the common pronunciation allowed the v to disappear. Be- 
sides, the diphthong uv belongs to the Ionic dialect alone. 

4. In order to mark the weakness of the I in the improper 
diphthongs, it is, in the cursive character, written as a point 
under a, ?j, u (ro laiTcc vxozdrco 'y§cc(p6(Jbivov, or '7r§o(T'/^(x,<pd[/jivov 
Karcokv^Theodosius -r. y^aiJj[jj(xr. p. 108, 8, />. 158, with the 
remarks of Goettling^ p. 1241, iota siibscriptiim)^ a, ??, u, 
instead of a;, ;;/, ai^ a practice which was first introduced in 
the MSS. of the thirteenth century (Porson ad Eurip. Med.., 
V. 6J. This subscription is quite inadmissible with short a, 
y^^ai", y%a, write y'/i^ai. With vi the same practice (y,) has 
never been attempted ; yet perhaps it had been better, in 
removing the old contracted form.s of Greek typography, to 
have retained the compendious mark for vi (Hermann ad 
Pind., 01. 11^ 70'^''^, in order to discriminate w, e.g. in 
v'iKvi from VI in ^y/aj, &c. 

5. The marks of diceresis (piincta dia^rcseos, 2, obs. 1) 
are used with all collocations of vowels, that might constitute 
a diphthong, except cuv and vi : cc,v'7n>og, ocyXoc'ici, oc,, Iv- 
Kri[JbiV]^y KT£^&i^iu, TToX'/j'i^ 'TT^ovTrK^o), 0i0[jj0ciy oji^iv, vrihv't\ &c. 
They are unnecessary in 'A)^a//a and the like, since here 


there is no combination to guard against, in icovrov, ^c!jv(/jcc, 
since here the combination takes place, and ought to do so 
(^i&jurou, ^afV(Mcc), still more in iuy[Ji>og, lu^co, &c., since the 
sequence iv can no more create a diphthong than that of ga, 
oa, &c. When / is to coalesce with following v it must take 
the form of Jod, as in the Jewish tongue, a sound which 
remained foreign to Grecian organs. 

§ XVI. 


1. As the diphthongs were gradually formed during the 
evolution and progress of the tongue, so their pronunciation 
was subject, in the course of centuries, to many changes, of 
which examples may be found in living languages as well as 
in the Grecian. Each diphthong runs through its own 
changes, until it is either resolved or blended into a simple 

2. A/ was originally pronounced as ai in the Germ, hain 
(Eng. i mjire). Thus ai(}yj^, haitre (heitre). Thus, too, -rai'?, 
vraig, and in old Latin, Moyo-a/ is Miisai^ similar to A.wiilius 
found on medals, and to the Albai rex loiigai of Ennius. 
But the oOth (29th Ed. Blom.) epigram of Callimachus * 
demonstrates that a change had taken place as early as the 
third century B. C, since 'i%u there forms the echo of vaiyj. 
Hence the Romans, when they became acquainted with the 
Greeks, expressed a; by ae ; <"*' Alazoc^ A'irvyj, ciiOr;^, ^Eacus, 
iEtna, sether. Traces, however, of the original pronunciation are 
still exhibited in Ajax^ Acliaia^ Maia, i.e. Ai'a?, 'A)^a/a, 
Ma/a ; since the old sound in several words retains its place 
lone-est between vowels. Chang^e in such matters does not 

* VV. 5, 6. 

Aucuvia, au ds vai^i zaXog y.aXog' dXXa T^iv imuv 
'^D.ds (!a<pug, riyi) (fi^fft Tig, uXKog iyji. 


happen all at once.t The improper diphthong a gives only 
a, as Q§ax,sc, Lat. Thraces, to show that the / is here lost 
in pronunciation. 

3. Et had originally the sound of both letters as in stg 
(German ems) ; this is clearly shown by the interjection sTa, 
u Bid, which has been preserved in the Latin eia, and the 
German ei (like English i in Jine). Still it seems that 
another mode of pronunciation, in which sometimes s, some- 
times /, predominated, afterwards prevailed, since, by the 
Latins, it is changed sometimes into e, sometimes into i; thus, 
UoXvzAsiTog, Avziiov, Polydetus, Lyceum, but I(p/ygv£/a, l^&iXog, 
Iphigenia, Nilus,* &c. The change into I had occurred so 
early as the 3d century before Christ. Thus Callimachus 
(as quoted above) makes g%g; the echo of vuiy^i. In the time 
of Augustus, TIMAI is written upon medals TEIMAI, and 
Isocrates is EI20KPATH2 upon a bust, of which the date 
cannot be much lower.! Hence Plutarch writes Papirius, 
UccTTSi^iog, vit. Camill. but Tla'Tri^iog, vit. ^m., idus^ silovg, 
vit. Cam. and elsewhere. So the names of Faustina^ Sa- 
bina, Antoninus, are generally ^^Titten upon medals with EL 
In several words £< is preserved as ej, again between vowels, 
Ks7i9?, Cejus, Tiiog, tejiis, to show that the true sound still 
remained in the 

The improper diphthong ;?/ was expressed by the Latins 

* Thus, even in the time of Louis XIV, Francois, Anglois, Suedois, 
Danois, 8ic , were pronounced oa. Custom has changed the first two 
into Frari^ais, Anglais (ae), but left the others still with the sound of 
oa. That, however, the pronunciation o^, according to the letters, was 
still more ancient, is clear from this, that the Germans have taken Franzos 
from the Frr-nch form. We may conclude that, upon the whole, the 
French tongue, like the English, originally was pronounced according to 
the import of its Latin characters. 

■j- So in Suabibch ei is pronounced with the sound of e before i in those 
words, whicli v.\ ihuringian have e instead of ei, as kUiii, JBein, Stein, 
but with the sound of i first, where ei is found in Thuringian also, fein, 
mein, Schem. 

I Visconti Iconographie grecque, T- /, p. 48, n, 2. 


through means of e without i, as ©^jjcca, Thressa, Ovid. 
Her. 19, 100 ; but through means of ei where both sounds 
were separately heard, as 0^^i"<r<7a, Threissa., Virg. ^En. I, 
316. In this instance the diphthong is resolved. 

4. The Diphthongs, gy, ;jy, ay, cjy, arose out of iA, hf-^ a/^, 
ap, by the attenuation of the F sound, and were, therefore, 
gently sounded as in ahyri^ Germ, aiifje (sound of ou in Eng. 
our). Even in the time of the Romans the sound remained 
open, as in gy^o?, Ewus, va,uzX?i§oc, nauclerusy Augustus^ 
AvyovdTog, Claudius, KXccv^iog ; but with some traces of the 
shut sound, where the v stood between vowels, as Eva, 
Evander, Evangelium for gya, YJJ(iv\oq, zvciyyikiov. So we 
find ho^faveo and fautor, lavo and lautus, navarchus and 
nauta (j/avoc^xoc, vauryig). In a later age — the exact date is 
not ascertained — the original pronunciation gy and ay returned 
universally, so that the sounds eu and an, as diphthongs, have 
disappeared from the speech of the modern Greeks. 

5. That 01 was originally pronounced oi seems to be shewn 
by its formation out of ofi, since, after the ejection of p, both 
letters must probably have been heard, although blended into 
one sound, ofio[/jai, oto[jjai, oi[j!joci. It was only by degrees 
that ofiomai could pass through oimai into oemae or imae. 
Oixog, " house," has retained its sound in woik, " roof," a 
word found amid the valleys of the Alps, and especially at 
Ziller. With the Romans ot was sounded oe, thus svo7, evoe, 
^oiyJ)g, moechiis, Oivevg, Qilneus, axpivog, schoenus, &c. ; but 
the sound of oe must have been clear, and similar to the I 
sound, as appears from the well-known confusion of Xoi^og 
with Xiujog* and from the final change of oi into / in the 
modern Greek.fii^' 

* Thucyd., II, 54. 

■\ At what period this took place is scarcely ascertained. Demetrius 
Phalerous, 'xs^i i^/Mrivslag, § 73. distinguishes in o/jji/ not only the characters, 
but also the sounds [sv rw o'irjv ou fi-ovov diapi^ovTa m y^d/Ji,/Ji,ara seriv, d>.Xa 
xai oi r^-yoi), only, however, on account of the breathings (6 /ib Saffus, 6 6js 
•\I//Xo$), and in the 5th century after Christ, Cqjus Solinus expresses 
/io/^av by miram. Comp. Anastas, Gregor. de Grsec, pronunc. p. 147, 


Tliat ov was ever sounded separately, like uv (^' in Icoxjrov^ 
(7ZS0VT0V, can scarcely be supposed. In the old Attic alphabet 
its sound is marked by simple o, as, in the Potidean inscrip- 
tion, EX02I TAOO MEP02, i. e. exovtri ra,<pov (ju2§og, 
yet there is no ground for considering it other than a diph- 
thong, since it has a sure analogy in the series, av, sy, tju, and 
MV, and since there is fair room for its sound in the progress 
of intonation from o to u. 

Oy is related to ov as t^v to sv, and was perhaps sounded 
like ou in the English word house. 

In u the sound of / was not altogether lost ; since, although 
uhrj becomes ode, Eng. ode, yet r^oi^yo^ia^ Kca^oohio;,, m&ctou- 
Vog, and similar words were expressed by traycedia, comwdia, 
citharcedus, Sec. 

6. In vt both sounds were clearly heard, and even in vi the 


iota was not wholly suppressed, as appears from the Latin 
orthography in " A^-ry/a/, Harpyice, &c. ; however, the diph- 
thong VI never stood before consonants. Hence forms which 
would have required vt before a consonant, as or/rviGco from 
o'TTVid}, were not in use. (Etistath. ad II. p. 9-38, /. 43r 
Comp.p. 1047, I' 54, and}}. 1224, /. 58. j 

§ XVII. 


1 . When the knowledge of Greek was spread, by means of 
Grecian emigrants, over the western countries of Europe, 
their pronunciation was universally adopted, since they were 
at once the descendants of the ancient Greeks, and the teach- 
ers of the Greek language. After their example ai was 
pronounced as ae (like the English a in ale), sv, ocv received 
the sound of ef, af, and tj, s/, oi, v, vi, that of i (the English 

2. It was, however, soon observed that this mode of 
pronunciation militated against the directions of the ancients 
and the nature of orthography ; hence, at the instigation of 


Erasmus, a return was made to the more ancient method of 
pronomicing j^ as e long (Hke the Enghsh a in hare), y as y 
(like u in the French tu), and the diphthongs ope?i as at, eu, 
au, eiy oi ; while others, after the example of Reuchlin, 
adhered to the pronunciation of the modern Greeks. These 
two modes were distinguished as Erasmian and Reuclilinian, 
also as Etacism and lotacism, according to the predominant 
sound in each. 

Obs. — The French and English follow in most particulars the Erasmian 
method ; yet they mix with it many sounds of their own languages. 
E. g. gu^^offuvjj is pronounced in France, oephrosine ; in England, 
iuphrosune ; in Germany, Reuchlin. evrosini, Erasm. euphrosyne. 

3. From the preceding observations it is evident, that the 
change of double into single sounds began very early, but 
was completed only by degrees and by different people at 
different times. Hence the constantly recurring question as 
to the genuine pronunciation of Greek has no sense, unless it 
be put definitely with regard to place and time ; e. g. what 
was the pronunciation of Greek at Athens in the time of 
Pericles f 

Those who follow Etacism in all respects run some hazard 
of speaking Greek after a fashion, which never wholly pre- 
vailed in any age ; whereas, lotacism has at least the warrant 
of a thousand years in its favour, and the example of the 
surviving descendants of the ancient Greeks. Agreeahleness 
of sound cannot be adduced as a ground of decision, since to 
any one, accustomed to one of the two modes of pronouncing, 
the other appears ludicrous and offensive, and a modern 
Greek, with whom one should speak after the rule of Etacism, 
would be no less embarrassed than a Frenchman, who should 
hear his language spoken according to the power of the 
individual letters, as Mon-si-eur est de Bor-de-aux. 

4. On the other hand it must not be overlooked, that 
lotacism adds difficulty to elementary instruction, since it 
includes the most different letters and syllables under the 
single I sound. Perhaps the safest mode of pronunciation 


would be not to wander, with Erasmus, into the indefinite 
region of the best and the true pronunciation, but to adhere 
to that, wliich prevailed during- the time of the first Roman 
Emperors, and which may be learned, as we have seen, from 
the writings of that period : the more so because we are 
assured by Pliny that the Romans felt and expressed with 
accuracy the power of the Greek letters.* For farther con- 
firmation of this method it would be necessary to make a 
complete collection of all the Greek words, written in Latin, 
and all the Latin words, wTitten in Greek, to be found in the 
works of that epoch. Meanwhile let it suffice to subjoin a 
passage from Homer according to these three different modes 
of pronunciation. 

II. a, 605. 

O/ (jjh KUKyMovng l^ocv oiKovhs SKUtrrog, 
'H/%/ SKaffTco })u^cc -TTSoiKKvTog A(jij<pi'yv'/i&fg 
"}i(pai(T7og 'TrotrjfT sl^virjfTi Tr^u-yrihiffffiv. 

(^^' Aftar epi katedi lampron faos ieliio, 
Hi men kakkiontes eban ikonde hekastos, 
Hichi hekasto doma periklitos Amphigiiis 
Hifaestos piis' idiiisi prapidessin. 

Autar epit catedy lampron phaos eeliooe, 
Hi men cakkiontes eban oeconde hecastos, 
Hechi hecasto doma periclytos Amphigyeis 
Hiphaestos poees' idyiesi prapidessin. 

* Plin. H. N., VII, c. LVI, where after an enumeration of the Greek 
letters he says, quarum omnium vis in nostris recognoscitur. 

f Also the modern Greek pronunciation ; except that then, dropping 
the rough breathing, pronounce ^ for Hi, ichi, ekastos. 

:};' Ets/ sounded, in the Roman method, epi as related to Ivi, So t/ 
sounded i, compare si, o'l, hi, as a), hce. 


Autar epei katedy lampron faos eelioio, 
Hoi men kakkeiontes eban oikonde hekastos, 
Hechi hekasto doma periklytos Amfigyeeis 
Hefaistos poies' eidyiesi prapidessin. 

Obs — The execution of the plan above proposed has certainly its 
difficulties, since, according to the present condition of these studies, 
it could not become universal, nor entirely suppress the Etacismus, 
and thus might only increase confusion. If it remain, therefore, to 
choose between the other two, the author, accustomed to both, 
readily acknowledges that he should give the preference by far, as 
an entire system, to the Reuchlinian or modern Greek method of 
pronunciation ; not merely upon the grounds already stated, but also 
because in the dialect of Greek now extant, especially in the mouths 
of the educated, it gives to the language a clear and delightful har- 
mony. Even in the best days of Greece, likewise, the pronunciation 
must have tended strongly to lotacism, since this so early obtained 
an universal prevalence that H inclined to the sound of Iota, and 
though in o; and u the o and % were heard so far as to distinguish the 
diphthong sound from I, all the others were early reduced to the 
shut sound. 



1. No vowel can be pronounced without the aid of some 
breathing- (tv^vi/^cc, 'tt^ogcoIio,^ spiritus^ aspiratio)^ more or 
less strong. 

'-1. One breathing, marked thus ('), attaches itself, as if 
spontaneously, without any exertion of the lungs, to the sound 
pronounced, as in the enunciation of as/, oijcolh^ oVoilou. On 
this account it is called the smooth (spiritus lenis^ "TrviviLoc 
'>^iXov, 'x^o&uVia '4'(>^^), the word marked by it is called in 
Greek -^iKoviMiivov (^^iXovfrdcci). 


3. Altliougli this breathing belongs to vowels in the other 
parts of words as well as at their beginning, its symbol is 
placed only above initial vowels, as as/, aya,X(JijCcru. 

4. The other breathing, marked thus ('), is breathed out 
from the chest itself at the beginning of words, resembling 
our h in force and use, and is called the hard or rough (})a(sv^ 
asper, '^r^oGcohia ^amoc), and the word marked by it is named 
in Greek ^ufrvvo^zvov (^uavna&ai). 

Obs. — The consonant g likewise cannot be pronounced without a strong 
breathing, and receives therefore in Greek the spiritus asper at the 
beginning of words, as gsw, guroj, which in Latin is placed after R, 
g)57-wg, rhetor. In the case of a g, prefixed to another, the breathing 
is softened and becomes the lenis, a^prixrog, sggsov. The older 
Grammarians likewise placed the lenis over g after a smooth or 
middle mute, 'Ar^isig, xa-rgoj, XaCgoc, — as well as in the collocation 
of vowels, v'l'og, Xaog ( Villoisoii Prolegg. ad II., p. IF J, but the 
asper after an aspirate, ^gaxog, '^^rjvsTv, ^l^ff'j, to betoken the strength- 
ened breathing of the g in this case. 

5. T at the beginning of words has always the rough 
breathing, vdzivOog^ vukog, v^^ig, vyiTig, vy^og, viog, vXtj, v[Jbvog^ 

V'TTSg, &C. 

Obs. 1. — The /Eolic dialect forms an exception from the above remark, 
and, in the Homeric, the words i;/x,a/, v/x/is, ufifLsg. 

Obs.2. — The old Grammarians marked this breathing also in compound 
words; thus, not only s'tjxe, 'isTriiii, as we write them, but also Ip/V- 
T>3^/, /xiXtridiog o/'fou, dixuv, 8ic.; so they wrote rjpuaXog, wxvaJKog, 
(p'lX'mvog as adjectives, but EugiaXo?, 'flxiaXog, ^/X/Vtoj as proper 
names, since in the latter the breathing was softened.* 

0. In diphthongs the breathings are marked over the 

* Villoison iit sitp , p. II, I. 4-5. Scliol. Venet., II. «, 1 64', 289, 
333, ^c. 


second vowel, thus zv^ov, o'i'o[jj(x,i (but ofo{jijcci\ except when an 
improper diphthong has the iota adscribed, thus, "Aihrjg as 
well as ahrig. 

Obs. 1. — Originally the rough breathing alone was marked, and even 
this not always, e. g. AOI for AHOI, nor before T : thus TIIE- 
AEXSATOin the Potidean inscription. After another use was found, 
in the Ionic alphabet, for its first symbol (H), even the rough 
breathing had no mark. On the monuments of later date we find 
O, 01, innAPXOT, XnO, HMIST,* &c. On the other hand, 
upon vases of magna Grcecia are seen J-HPA, I-HPAKAEII2, and 
so FHPAKAEIAA2 H2TIEin in an inscription discovered in Ca- 
labria.f Hence it appears, that, by the Italian Greeks, V, the half 
H, was used as the mark of the aspirate. The Grammarians added 
the other half ^ as a mark of the smooth breathing, and \ ^ passed 
through the forms, L J into ' ', after the twelfth century. 

Ohs. 2. — The oldest form of the language seems, instead of the aspirate, 
to have had universally the sounds f, qti, w, v, ch, &c., which 
gradually, in the popular dialects, passed into the rough breatliing, 
and through it into the smooth. Hence, on the most ancient 
monuments, H is prefixed to some words, which, more recently, had 
only the spiritus lenis : HEAIIIS, i. e. IXcr/j in the Potidean in- 
scription, and HE0MON, i. e. ri&iLov, in the Sigean. In the verb 'i-)(u> 
the aspirate has remained only in the future e'^w and parts allied to 
it ; and so in the forms sffrrixa, ueTrjxuv, from the root ffra (tfT^i/a;). 
By degrees all Greek words, like those above quoted, have lost the 
rough breathing, so that it has entirely disappeared from the speech 
of the modern Greeks, as h from Italian. 

* Spon Liscriptt., p. 86, of the German edition oj his Journey. 
t Fischer on Waller, I, p. 239. 




1. Besides the rough breathing- there was in several dia- 
lects another sound, somewhat similar in nature, formed 
between the lips, and having the same relation to f^ ph, v, 
that the aspirate bears to ch, (/, k ; and which, from its in- 
fluence on the formation of words, must be treated of even in 
an examination of the common dialect. 

2. It was originally a full and strong consonant, and its 
symbols (/■, F) called Digamma, or ^Eolic Digamma in Greek, 
and Efm Latin, occupied the sixth place in either alphabet. 
The pronunciation retained in Latin evinces with what power 
it was originally endowed in Greek, in fk^yov^ firog, /-dva'^, &c. 

Obs. — It was called digamma (also digamm,um or digammos), because 
its character resembles a double gamma, jEolic because it was 
retained in the alphabet principally by those branches, which are 
considered of ji^olic descent. This name was invented by the 
grammarians : the proper name, as before stated, was Bau. 

3. In the dialects which retained the digamma, its sound 
was soon softened down, and Dionysius of Halicarnassus calls 
it the syllable ov written with a single letter.* In Iiis time, 
therefore, it answered to the Latin V, which is expressed by 
ov, OviKiu, V^elia, Ovkrj^iog Valerius^ or to the English wh^ 
sounded like uli. Compare /^sa^, ver, fig, vis, f'l^yov. Germ. 
werk, Eng. work. 

4. Between two vowels the digamma was still more at- 
tenuated, and passed, even with the jEolians, into y ; thus, 
ay^^, oAjug, common kri^, r^ugA Conv^iAxe faveo^fautor, lavo, 
lautus, &c. 

* Antiqq. Rom. B. I. p. 52, Ed. JReiske, rnv ou evKhaC^v hi eroi^iltfj 

f ScJiol. ad Pind. Pyth., 2, 52, 'Exsmi (the wiEolians) yd^, eav Sxsi 
duo (pmr^iVTay /isra^u svTidiairi rh v, ui Iff/ roD djjg Kai due. 


Obs. 1 Originally this letter seems to have been universal between 

two vowels, and remained in many words even of the Attic and 
common dialects as v, especially where followed by a consonant. 
Thus from yiu}, yihau, from xXaw, ■/XauSoiM/.i, from vntg (fccsj), i/auc/, 
&c. Compare in Latin, amaverunt, i.e. amarerunt, amaerunty 
amarunt, &c, like ^srw, %£iJ«, x^w. 

In iEolic the digamma served also for the rough breathing, which 
had no place in that dialect. 

Obs. 2. — How this labial sound appeared also as /3 and f, e.g. 
aZri^ova, (3^6da, for an^om, ^66a, — gi/^Co; from guw (traces of which 
remain in ya/^Cgec, fisff'/iiJjQ^ia of the Attic and common dialects); 
how it was dropped in the shape of <p, e. g. ^Xacag from (pdXdffug (also, 
with^ dropped (pXdsag) — compare S/^jjg, Sjj^, ^% (fera), and /Sjjg — 
these, and other topics relating to the same subject, will be fully 
discussed under the Homeric Dialect. 



The consonants in the full Greek Alphabet are 17j and, 

1. In the alphabetic order, ^, 7, I, (^, ^, z, X, |t*, v, |, t, g>, 

0-, r, (p, ;^, -4/. _ 

2. According to their power, 

a. The mutes, ^, y, ^, ^, «, ^, t, <p, x- 

In separate order. 

p sound, r, |3, <p. 

k sound, «, y, %. 

t sound, r, ^, ^. 


b. The semi-vowels, X, {i, v, g-, c. 

( TakiiKj away <r, the liquids f yy^a, liquidcE) are K, (/j, v, §).* 

c. The douhle consonants, (^, |, -4/ (called double because 
they combine two consonants in one, — a j», A:, or #, sound 
wither: SD, KS, PS). 

3. Recapitulation : 


T, f3, (p, ;«, 7, %, r, \ ^, 

p sound, k sound, t sound. 


A, ^, I', ^ (liquids), and <7. 


?5 tj '4^- 



1. The three elementary mute sounds, viz. -r, ;«, r, were 
pronounced without any sensible aspiration, and hence called 
smooth (-^ika, tenues). When their short and abrupt enun- 
ciation is softened by a gentle breathing, the middle mutes 
(fjbiffa, mediae) (o, y, ^ are formed : and when this breathing 
is strengthened the aspirate (luazcc, asperos or aspiratoe) (p, 

Y, ^ are produced. 


2. The smooth may be marked thus, -r, k, t, the middle 

2 2? 333 

thus, j3, y, ^, and the aspirate thus, (p, ^i, 6. 

3. Thus the mutes are related, 

according to sound : 

according to breathing : 


p sound ; -tt, /3, ^, 


smooth ; -^r, z, r, 

Q Q Q 

k sound ; %, y, %, 

4, ^ d, 

middle ; i3, y, ^, 

3 3 3 

t sound ; r, §, ^. 

aspirate ; <p, %, ^. 

* Called also immutable ( dinrdZoKa, immutabiles ) ^ since they are not 
altered in the formation of cases and tenses. 



4. When a p sound or a k sound comes before a t sound, 

it must be of the same order as to the breathing, e. g. rirv- 
11 II '.'a i2 '2  So So 

'Trroii, 'TTZ'TfkzKrKi^ paS^oj, (jvXkrj^^riv, lyga(p0}]v, sruy^driv. Hence 
the following changes take place : 

21 11 

TBT^iQrai into nr^iTrrai, 

3 1 11 


3 2 
2 3 



o 3 
3 3 



XiXsyrai into "keXszTcctf 

3 1 11 


oz^oog — 

3 2 

k7riQ§sy^7]v — 


iTrXsKOyjv — 


XzyG'/lGoiJbai — 


2 2 


3 3 

3 3 


Ohs. — 'Uy., " out of," forms an exception in compound words, thus, 

5. One t sound before another is commonly changed into 
c, thus, not STTziddi^u but iTiifrO'/jv, not '^i<p^cc6ra,i but 'Trep^ocffrat. 

Ohs. 1. — A t sound before a p or k sound is unknown to the Greek 
tongue ; so also a k sound before a p, or a p sound before a k. 
Hence the followins; collocations never occur: 

r-T, rS, rf, rx, ry, r;^, 
5ff, bZ, 8ip, dK) dy, d^, 
a-Tr, ae, ?i<p, ^jc, ^7, a^, 

XT, x£, xp, TX, cry, t;^/, 

yTT, yZ, yf, /3x, /Sy, ^x^ 

X^^ X^y Xh ?"> P7» PPC- 
The only exception is x of the preposition Ix, in compound words, 

as, I'Kiri'jrroi, lxCa/i/a>, sx(ps^M, &c. 

Oi*'. 2 In 'AyCarara a k sound and p sound come together, but this 

is a Persian word, and on account of the harsh sound is usually 

written, 'ExSctrai'a,* after the analogy of sxQaivoj. 

* From Herodian, h rui 'XiPi avvrd^icag (Tro/p/s/wv, ace. to Stcph. Byz.y. 
V. ' A yCccT-ara. Comp. Lobech ad Phrynich., p. iS^. 



6. A mute may be doubled, e. g. iWo?, raodrrco, ;faSSaXs, 
Homeric ; [juahla, Doric ; but, if it be an aspirate, the first is 
changed into its own smooth ; thus, not 

1^(x,<p(poj, Ba%%o?, ' A6dig^ but 
'2iCi'7r(pco, ^uK^o?, 'Ar^ig. 

7. The same change takes place when two aspirates stand 
alone in two consecutive syllables ; thus, 

not (ps(ptXy!Kcc but ^^(ptXT^Kcc, 
not ccy^dcyy^f/jai but kx,6.yri^ai, 
not ^a(poj but rd(pog. 

Obs. 1. — Thus the rule does not include those forms, in which one of 
the aspirates is united with another consonant : WikySriv, 'TruSiaSai, 
u^6u)&nv, '^afhlg, a'7rsip6i6ov, ko^ivSoSi, aiJ,(piipoP£-jg, and the separated by 
iv in vodrj^i^vai ; but it does include those with P after the aspirate 
in the former syllable : rgs;)^w, r^a^rjvai, T^i(pu, rpy^ig, 'TTiip^iKa, xi- 
pj^guffwxa, and with 0N, rsdvrixa, 

Obs. 2. — The change does not occur in the case of * and X before &: 
fd6i, yrjdi^vai, Tavru^okv, &c., nor in compound words, as o^vidodrj^ag, 
a bird-catcher, I^u^jj, a woof (so l(pupaiv(j)), av&ofo^og, flower-bearing, 
except in szi^si^ia, an armistice, from i^u and ^u^. 

8. If the latter aspirate, which caused the change, disap- 
pear, the former resumes its proper shape : ^dpog becomes 
7cc(pog, a grave, but ^dTTaj, I bury. So T§i(pc<j, ^^s-^pco^^^s^pcci, 
^§i(jj[jjocTCi, and thus we find T^ixcv^ r^oyjig., together with 
^§i^siv, ^^i^ai ; r^ix^g with ^§t%, %/i/. 

Obs. 1. — Of three aspirates thus placed consecutively the first only is 
changed, as Ts6a(pa for ^idccfa, ; and, when the syllable ^/ is added 
in inflection, the last : Tu:pdrjTi, y^u(p6yiTi, for T\j(fi6r^8i, y^df&n&i. 

Obs. 2. — Likewise the spiritus asper disappears in the first syllable, 
when X stands in the next : thus not in okv, odi, 'ikv, but for 'iy^u, 
£;^w, and re-appears when X is changed : s'^w, £^w. 


§ XXII. 


1. When a p sound comes before c, the two produce \]/. 
Hence -^ may contain the sounds, 

'^rff, (otT, or (p/T. 

For (iXi'^r/Tco, r^i^nco^ yoapffa, 

write /3?i£\^:y, roi-ipcu, y^d-^co. 

2. When a k sound comes before c, the two produce i. 
Hence | may contain the sounds, 

K(r, y(T, or yjr. 

For TTjiKffco^ "hkysoj, ^^zyjroj^ 
write '7fhkz,oj, 'hk^co,, ^^i^oj. 

3. When a t sound comes before o-, it is thrown awa}'. 

for avvrffoj, l^zihffoo, 'Tnidaat, 

write avvffo), k^siffco, TUffo). 

Obs The coalition of letters in N. 1, 2, is grounded partly on the 

ejection of the breathing, as the pronunciation, a comparison with 
the Latin mode of writing scrib-o, scripsi, and the old Greek 
orthography, e.g. diKdai from hi-/o[x,ai in the Melian inscription, 



1. When a p sound comes before /oo, it is changed into ^. 

for TirvTrfjuaiy rzT^i^^aiy yiy^Gc(p^ai, 

Avrite TiTU[jjiJjCii^ rir§i[jtj(jijcci, yiy^cc[jj[jijOii. 

2. When a k sound comes before a [Jj, it is changed into 
y. Thus, 

for '7rk'7r\zx,^(x,i^ ^z^^zyj/jUi, 

write 'Tri'TrXsyf/jCti, ^i^^zy^ui. 

Hence, KkKiy(jbOii, from Xiy&iy remains unchanged* 

D 2 


3. When a t sound comes before a ^, it is changed into <r. 


for rji/vr(/jCii, '/j§sih(/jcc(, '^S'Tr&i^iJLicct, 

write 7]vva^at, ^^iKT(Jboii, '7ri'7ret(r(^ui. 

Obs. These rules have some exceptions in substantive forms, e. g. 

aK[iri, point, 'KoriJjog, fate. 

§ XXIV. 


1. N before a p sound, and likewise before -^z, takes the 
shape of [Jj. Thus, 

for 'kivTocvco^ \av^a\)oo, h<pvg^ h-^pv^og, 

write XiiJjTrdvo}, Xa^ooSavo;, i(Jj<pvQ, 'if/jipux.og- 
Q,. N before a k sound, and Hkewise before ?, is changed 
into y, and pronounced as n^ in the syllables an^, ung^ ^c. 

for si/Kii(/jO(,i, (pvvydvM, rvv)(avoo, ', 
write 'iyKStfJijUi, (puyyccvaj, ruyxavco, ifkaytpt). 

3. N before a t sound remains unaltered : \vrog^ cruvhioj, 

4. N before another liquid is changed into the same. Thus, 

for h(/jSVi>j, ffvvka^^dvM, Gw^dTrroi), 

write l[/j(MVM, (TuXXc(,[jj^a,vc>j, (TU()pdi'7rraj. 

5. The same pronunciation appears to be proper, where v 
stands at the end of a word : thus, 

Tov t6Xs(JIjOv kou rrjv {JjOfx/jv (p&vysiv, 
should probably be pronounced as if written, 

To(jj -Ttokzihoy zee) r^[jj (j^dyy^yj (psvysiv. 

Obs. — On the old Attic monuments even the writing corresponds with 
this pronunciation. Thus, in the Potidean inscription, MEM <E>2T- 
XA2, i.e. /M/j, (fAv) ■^u'^^dg, and MEM IIOAIS, i.e. f^sf/, {/xh) •TroXig. 
So also in the most ancient MSS., as l^a /asffw in the Codex Alexan- 
drinus (Valck. ad Phoeniss., p. 222). On the other hand, the Elean 
inscription exhibits N retained, even in the middle of words, before 


Hand M: TOI AI OATNniOI, for tui Aii' 'OXu/at/w, and 2TN- 
MAXIA, for Gufj./ia'^ia. 

6. N before 2 or Z is usually thrown away. Thus, not 
^cci(/jOPffi, (Tuv^vyia, but ^ai^om^ av^vyia. 

Obs. 1. — N is retained before a only in a few words, as, Ti^vvg, iXfiivg, 
'7ri(pay(Sai. In tfui/ it is ejected only when another consonant after a 
follows it, e. g. <^ (i. e. <sb) e-o^oyia, g {ffr) in e-jGrgifoi. Otherwise it 
passes into 2, cvasidu, cvGairia. 

Obs. 2 — P at the beginning of a word is doubled, when a short vowel 
is prefixed : g»j/cro$, aggjjxrog ; glw, ggggof. 



1. When or would stand between two consonants, it is 
ejected. Thus, 

from Xskei'Trffdcov, rsr^iQudai, Xsksyerdcoffuv, 

come Xsksi7r0a>v, rsr§iQ,dcii, XsksydMcrciv, 

that is, XsXsi(p0cov, rsT§7<p0cci, \€hJiy^&waoLV. 

And so from ^yysAcr^a/, Tiyy'ik&cci^ from '7:i(^(iv(}&ov^ '7re(pKvdov, 
or '^i<pu(j&ov. 

2. Wlien a single t sound, or v by itself, is ejected before 
ff, the vowel remaining suffers no alteration. Thus, 

ikTTi^ffi, Ko^udffi, iJbzi^ovGi, hai[Jbov(ji, give 

IXx^cri, zooijffi, [Jbii^OfTi, ^ui[/jOfft. 

3. But ivhen a t sound and v together are ejected befm'e 
ff, the vowel remainimj^ if shorty is changed into a diphthong 
(g into ii and o into ov), and, if an anceps, is lengthened. 
The long vowels (t^, oj,) are left unchanged. Thus, 
rv(pkvr(n becomes rv(pdi7'ji, 
(TXSvh(TC(j a'TTiiffajj 

rwxrovTGi Tv-TrrovfTi. 

Tv^ciVTfTi, becomes rv-^dai, 
yiyavrm, y/yac/, 

TUTToji/TO'i. rv7rroj(Tt. 


QlfS. In some instances this alteration takes place when t only has 

been ejected; thus, kvg (Germ, eins), sig, raXdvg, fjjikavg, rdXaf, 
fiiKag. ^^^ Thus too in Iswivd'/Mai, h'TrmfffMai, iSvuaiJ^ai, from dvivbu, 
I pour out, where v is dropped, and d is changed into ff. 




1 . A syllable is formed of a vowel, single or double, sim- 
ple or diphthong, pronounced either alone or in connection 
with consonants. 

2. The essence, and as it were the soul of the syllable, is 
the vowel sound, which, when consonants precede it, breaks 
out from the compression of the organs, and merges in the 
same, when consonants follow it. 

3. The consonant before the vowel is either single, as in 
yg, <rg, ra, &c., or compound. In the latter case there must 
be (a.) a p or k sound before a t sound, (b.) a a before a 
mute, (c.) a mute before a liquid, (d.) a c before a mute 
together with a liquid. 

a. -rr. 


b, cor, (tS, <r^, 

<r», . . ox, 

CT, (^, a&, with -(^ and |: as, 

•rrg-pot, jS^g-Xt'g'o?, (p^o-vog, zrfj-fj^cc, x,^o-vo?, c-rg-og, (T^iv-vvf^t, 
(TpO'Ofa, (TKci'ipog^ <TX^-(^oi, ari-vco^ (^(W-^, ff^B'Vog, -^^i-Ov^'i^co, |£-w?, 



c. d, XXy 

TV, Tg), 

«X, ;f;7/, XV, 


/3X, . 

• •' fe 


<pK, . 

• • • ®f 1 

yX, . . yv, 



X^. • • X"' 


rX, T^, 

• • 




»jA, . . 


^^ : as, 

TXs-fiy, "TTVo-r!, -^rpa-vg, ^Xi-Trco, ^^o-rog, <pXo-y6g, (p§K-^a;, atp^oc-yitfa^ 
K\o!,i-oj, (TxX'/i-gog, x,ii>7j-rog* zvi-^co, xgcc-^co, yAv-(pco, 'yvco-ffig, y^a- 
<p(W, y^ou-vot,, yyo-og, %pjj-/->t'a, rkn-rog, r[M}j-[jyCc, rgz-co, (rr^a-rog, 
'b(jb'/]-r6g, luo-(ps§6g, loci-cu, ^Xt-Qnj, ^urj-rog, '^go-og. Add the 
combination, (j[a, as in (T[jbifc§6g, (r^iivyjo, &c., and i^v, as in 
ybvr^^rj. See. 

Obs The collocations, of which the places are marked by dots, viz. 

yB, ffy, <r/jj, /3/a, (Sv, tpfi, <pv, y/ji,, ^, rv, 6X, ^/«/, are not used at the 
beginning of a word. 



1. When several syllables come together, they are either 
open, i.e. without any consonant interposed between their 

* The collocation x^ at the beginning of a word belongs to x/xs^roj and 
x.fis'Ksd^a. The latter, according to Herodian in the E. M., v. %iMiXiQ^(x, 
was adduced by Pamphilus h ra7g y\i^s<saig, and explained by Boxoi; 
thus, x/MiXid^ov, same as fZiXad^ov, from ancient or foreign usage. In 
Schneider, v. x/mXiS^ov, it is caWed pamp/ii/lian. Is this not from that Pam- 
philus, who was the scholar of Aristarcbus? — K/jz/jra is found in Hesychius, 
T. II, p. 283, explained by c=To/rj/xiva, vi'Trovrj/Msm, but condemned by the 
E. M., V. -/./MsXsd^ov, where the collocation x^u, at the beginning of a word, 
and the use of the simple form of 'jroXvxi/.nrog are denied. The x/xw, x/iuv 
of the Grammarians are arbitrary assumptions of an obsolete foim. 


vowels, or connected by consonants, either single, or combined 
in the modes above described. 

2. The consonants, single or combined, belong to the 
latter syllable, and are, therefore, joined with it in the th vision 
of the word. Thus, Xa,-Q6v, T'hk-zco^ ccvv-ra, a-zrrj^ c^^-yjoc, 
d-GTV, o-'ttXcc, &c. 

3. In the collocation of syllables, other consonants also, 
tvhich are never found at the beginning of a wordy although 
they belong to the classes above enumerated, stand at the 
bef/inning of a syUahle. Thus, 

In class «, 7^. o-yhooc, l^i'-yhovTog. — In class c, p, y^U/, %f.«/, 
Tf, ^|M/, ^fjj, oii-pihog, <Trsvcc-y[Jtj6g, o-x[J^'/j, (pd-TV/j, 'i-'h[/jsv, ci^i- 
0(jbog. — In class d, (Ttto, ayv^ ay^^, c^X, c^/x, o-ffTT^ia, l-ffyvog, 
at-erygog, k-(T0X6g, l-G&iMog. Add ^ after a k and t sound 
together, zr^, %%, in (ioi-zr§ov, i-yj§6g (and after a p 
and t sound in zocto-ttt^ov^ 

4. Syllables, however, are sometimes so divided, that the 
first consonant in the divison, belongs to the former syllable. 

a. When the same consonant is doubled : 

TTT, ^/3, (p(p, (i. e. T^) 

««5 77^ XX^ (i- e. ^%) 

rr, II, &^ (i. e. rd) 

Tik, [X)(Jij, vv, ^f, ffc, as, 

TCi'ff-'Trog, zoc^-^otkzv, oV-(p/j, 

'/caz-yMoo, zay-yovv, oz-ypg^ 

'TT^ar-roj, a^-^^jv, 'Ar-^/c, 

dX-Xog, (iXi[jj-{/jOc, h-w[jji, dp-p'/jp, Ta^m-aoj. 

b. When a mute follows the liquid X, v, or ^: 

X, Xt, x€, \(p, "kKy Xy, Xy, Xr, Xl, Xd. 
V, VT, v€, t/cp, VK, uy, py, vr, i*^, vd. 

/' ,, ^'^' c5' ^^' ^^' ^7' F' ^^' ^^' 1^' T' 

'iX-Tig, oX-^og, dX-prcc, ccX-ztj, uX-yog, rs.X-yjng, dX-rig, 'iX- 
^t»§, SX-0COV. — ' OXvv-'Ziog, h-Q,oXog, 'iv-(pvrogy dvav-zyi, 
(Tvv-yovoVy dv-yi (which words, according to the laws 
already delivered for the change of consonants, become 

' OXviM-Trtog, s[jj^oXog, 'i[jb(pvrog, dvdyx,'/], avyyomv, ^VxO? 
h-rog, gV-Bof, h-Oa. — "'E^-'Trcu, (oog-^o^og.^ za,^-(pct), sg-zog, 


c. When a follows the liquid X, v* or ^: 

dXdog, '7r2(pKi>-(Tai, ao-nriv ; or where it follows a mute ^vith a 
liquid in \yx^ ^yj;^ vyq (y;); as, 'irak-lig, tJp-^ccto, 

d. When a liquid comes after a liquid in the following 
collocations: a, XX, "kytj., Xv, . . 

(odX-Xco, aX-jO-a, '?riK-i'aijba,i, (oXifJij-f/jOc, ffuv-Xcc^'/] (jJvX-Xot^rj), 
h-[Mvco (i|0&-|O0£Viy), h-vvytji^ (Jw-^dTrrco (jrv^-^dTtTCij), s§-(/jOc, 
s^-vog, olp-p'/ji'. 

e. When a mute stands between liquids in the following 
collocations : 

p, [/jTr^, ^gf, . . . 

XVa ••• ••• ••» 

t, i/T^, vh§, ud^, and gd§, 
Xcc[/j-7r§oc, 'yoc[/j-Q,^oc, -Av-t^ov, av-^^og^ dv-O^co'Trog^ do-d^ov. 
5. In the ancient inscriptions upon stone, the words were 
divided merely according to the convenience of space, without 
regard to syllables and letters ; so that, e. g. in the Sigean, even 
the aspirate is divided from its word, H-EPMOKPATOX 
The later Grammarians, observing the manner in which 
consonants unite themselves with vowels, laid down the 
following universal rule : — All consonants, which can be 
pronounced together, belong to the vowel which they precede, 
and compose with it one syllable ; but those which cannot 
be pronounced together, are distributed between the syllables, 
according to the division required by the pronunciation ; 
hence o-yhoog, i-h[i>zv, (od-KT^ou, but instead of d-XXog, ts-^to;, 
ya-jOo€^o?, — dX-Xog, ri§-'?rco, 'ya(/j-^^og. (^^ 


1. In the measurement of a syllable regard is had to Its 

* In the few forms in wiiich v is retained before o. 


vowel and to the following- consonant or consonants. Thus, 
in l-%%(5?, in the measurement of the syllable -x^^og, only the 
and the g are regarded: the initial letters x^§ affect the 
preceding syllable g- : in the measurement, of ^^ov in x^oi^o?, 
only and v. 

Obs The nature of syllables in respect of length or shortness, is called 

their quantity f'^offSTTic, quantitasj. 

2. A syllable is short, when its vowel is single or short 
(g, 0, a /, J,) and has a single consonant, or no consonant, 
following it: I'ki'Trov^ o^ev, o, '?roXv<parog. 

3. A syllable is long bg nature^ when its vowel is double, 
i.e. either a long vowel (ji^ co, a, T, y,) or a diphthong: -ro/ai' 
71 Tccvrav rt znvoiv (ttss-)(co. 

4. It is long hy posit ion f M^hen it has a short vowel, but 
followed by more than one consonant : (raXT/yg, oy^^og^ ^%^^oj. 
Thus a syllable acquires length always by means of some- 
thing double or two-fold. 

Ohs. — The cases, in which two consonants (a mute and liquid,) do 
not produce position, belong rather to the constitution of verse than 
of speech. They vaiy according to age and dialect, and, for this 
reason, appertain to the usage of the Poets in respect of quantity 
and language. 

§ XXIX. 


1. If a long syllable be to be shortened, it must have 
been short originally, so that its double or long vowel is 
re-changed into the single or short. 

2. Thus, in the case of a long vowel, or doubled consonant, 

n^ikov, 'ixov, (ixXkov, O'TT'TTOTe, becomc 

OF WORDS. .59 

3. If 71 has arisen out of a, then, in the process of abbre- 
viation, a re-appears: 

'/jh, [jj'/]0, (TTTi, |8;?, <prj, become 
ah, [jj(z0, era, (oa, (pec. 

4. Wlien, in other cases, abbreviation is possible, then of 
the double letters the last — but of ^ (i. e. <r^), g< before a 
mute, and sy, the first — is thrown away. 

The syllables marked with a stroke in 
TvTtu^ rfiv, 'TTVoi^, oiKOv, ai^, >tz^^cciv, rs[jjv, ryTr, become shortened, 
I'na, Tiv, Tvorj, a;co, a^, -/ti^clv, rs^, rv-r. But 

Xg/V, (TTSix, "^s''^, ■TTzvd, (psvy, (pgd^, become shortened, 

X/^, (TTix, "^i^-, '^^^•> 'P^y, <p§och. 



1 . When a syllable is used for the expression of a thought, 
or when several syllables are combined for this purpose, a 
word is formed. A word is, 

a. Monosyllabic : '/?, strength, zoii\ and, ^^|>, beast, 
'Tovg, foot. 

b. Dissyllabic, through inflection or derivation from one of 
the former: ^ri§6g, "Troaiv, cro^aj, by iiiflection; /ff^^y?, 
strength, ^^^a, chase, by derivation (-^ragaycoyfi). 

c. Polysyllabic, through the same means : IffyjJ^og, strong, 
ItJXvoow^ai, to make one's self strong, laxv^i^zG&ai, 
to display strength, &c. 

2. Since, in expression, several thoughts are often blended 
into one, the same thing happens towords as the signs of thought, 
and hence arise compound ivords. Aeofjfjog, a running, 


and (Tvv^ together, give for running togetlwr, avvh^o^hri. 
'NoiJbog, law, and '^i(T0oci, to give (to ordain), produce vo[j!jodir'/ig, 
a lawgiver, &c. 

Obs. — How language proceeds in the derivation of words from one 
another, and in their combination, will be shown hereafter in a 
separate section. 

§ XXXI. 


1. Since no thought stands independently, but always in 
some sort of relation, or, according to the phrase of grammar, 
always in some case, in some person, and the like, hence to 
the original basis of the word, letters and syllables are added, 
in order to represent these cases, persons, 8)C. 

2. Thus the word is subject to certain alterations, and its 
root is that part which lies as the basis of these alterations. 
E.g. we find ^;?g'Oc, ^;j^(t/, ^%2c, S^;j^/, &c. At the bottom of all 
these forms lies ^j;^, which is, therefore, the root of the word. 

Obs. 1. — The syllables which remain, after taking away the mutable 
portion of the word, are called the radical syllables, the others may 
be called the formal syllables, i. e. those which are used for the 
alterations of the word, and the production of the necessary forms. 

Obs. 2 — Thus from sX'^ridog, sk'xiha, sXrribuv, we extract sXTid as the 
root. Since, then, we find JX-r/g, skviei, we must conclude that 
the b has been expelled by a, and that these forms were once sXmdg, 

Obs. 3. — Even from this, it is apparent that the root of a word is 
scarcely ever found pure, but must be almost always separated 
from some appended letters or syllables. It is not, therefore, to 
be treated as something existing independently, nor should forms, 
such as sX-TTid, Xe/tt, be considered as integral, but we should ac- 
custom ourselves to extract, from the difterent shapes of a word. 


that part which is common to all, as the root, and steadily to 
contemplate it in this light, provided that, at the same lime, the 
mutable part, in all its peculiarities, and under all tlie laws of its 
combination and its changes — i.e. the formal part of grammar — be 
thoroughly conceived and understood. 



1. We must often assume a double root. We find, for 
example, xz^k-, xk'^^ ^^^ likewise %g/^/, ^s^^a? ; hence the 
roots are %g^ and yjip. — In the same way, when we compare 
the forms vrjog, (paivcou, ax.oucov, Kiphatmv, with vkfrai, (pavsTv^ 
azoziv^ zz^ccvilv, we thus discover double roots, vyj and cs, (p(yjv 
and (pav, c(,kov and kx,o, zz^aiv and r.i^av. 

2. When two roots are thus apparent, we may call, for 
the sake of distinction, that of which the final syllable is lono-, 
the long root, and the other, the short root, thus (pociv, kkou, 
jcsg'huiv, are long, (pocv, kx,o, zz^^av, are short. 

S, As the short syllables, so also the short 7'oots are the 
original, and the long have been formed out of them by the 
addition or elongation of vowels, and by the insertion of 
consonants, e.g. from %s^ (whence the old nominative,* %%?), 
the hand, comes x^i^ ^y the extension of s; from rsjoo comes 
rsjooj' by the insertion of v, and so on. 



A long root may be changed into a short one when the 
final syllable is capable of abbreviation, and, according to 

§ XXIX, 

* Timocreon in Hephtestion, p. 4, Gaisf., where we should probably 
read rw GufiZouXi\jiiv ^i^g airo, voDj hi Tu^a. 


'Eo|M/e/, ayysXX, ^kw^ (iocffiKt], ccstP^ as/t, become 



1. The syllables, which, for the expression of an idea, are 
combined in the roots of words, sometimes through accidental 
circumstances remain unaltered, but generally undergo, in 
order to assume the shape of perfect words, manifold changes 
in the termination, according to their ending in a vow^el, a 
mute, or a liquid. 

2. Those roots, which end in a short vowel, double it in 
feminine words, ri(jbcc, ri[jij'^, honour, a^ircc^* k^zrri, virtue, ^)^o, 
;j%^, sound. In masculine words they assume a c, viotvioc^ 
veavicig, a youth, '7r§o<p}]rcc, 'Trpop'/jrrig, a prophet ; &fg is weak- 
ened into eug, thus (ouaiXi, (occfftXifg, (ouffiAivg, a king, /s^g, 
/s^s/V, k§svg, a priest. 

S. Those, which end in a mute, lose it in the denomination 
of neuters, acoiMocr, ^ikir^ become ro aoojJM^ body, to \tJiki^ 

Ohs. 1. — The reason is, because every mute attaches itself to the 
syllable following (^ xxvii, 2); hence it is unsupported, and must be 
thrown away when nothing follows it. 

Ohs. 2. — Some of this sort take g into the root, before which r is 
equally ejected, j^/iar, J5/xaTg, rb 7i>j,a^, day, hvnar, rh oaia^, benefit, 
Tu hvi'iara, refreshments. — If we compare yga, the root of y^aZg, 
with the Germ, grau, originally grav, Lat. gravis, it will appear 
that the v sound once belonged to the root. 

4. But, in the denomination of masculines or feminines, a 
root so ending assumes ff, before which the t sounds are 

 As perceived e. g. in the Homeric edx agsrijt xaxa sgya, i. e. i^irdu, 
Od., S, 329. CO 



ejected, the p and k sounds coalesce \vith it into -v^, 5 
(§ xxii), IgcoT, k^arg, 6 'i^ojg^ love, IXt;^, Vk'Ti^g, ri ik-zig, hope, 
xo^y^, zo§u6g, '/] x,6^vg, helmet, XaiXa'Tr, KaiXccxg, ri XcuXa-^y 
tempest, Trrs^uY, 'zn^vyg, n 'rrg^y|, wing. 

5. When the root ends in ^ or c, it doubles the vowel 
before either of these letters, if short, except in most neuters^ 
^rjTo^^ prjTctjgj orator, ^octfjijov, 6 'haiftjuv, divinity, (p^sv^ 7} (p^yiv, 
mind, but ccXKu^y ro olljca^, defence, yet -ry^, ro -ry^, fire, 
gen. Tv^og. 

Obs. — N after / is generally suppressed by ff : ^iv, ri S/f, sbore, also ^ ^/'s 

6. In the yb;'m«/ syllables (§ xxxi. % obs. 1), giv, cpiv, zv, 
in the particles ziv, vvv, and in ^sv also with the poets for the 
sake of the verse, the u is thrown away before a following 
consonant, except when a break in the sense, marked by a 
point or pause, occurs : (posffh uyc/Jaig and (pgeffi KUKoag^ sixiv 
avroig and ii'Trz roiiroig, voGpiv irai^cov and vo(T(pi (piKaov, uKKods ^' 
aKkog and a}Jvodiv aXkog. This inconstant letter was called 
the V Tra^ccyojYiKoy or IpzhcvariKov^ because it was the general 
opinion, that it did not properly belong to the syllables, at the 
end of which it is found, but was placed there in order to 
draw together (\(pzkKViiv^ Tra^ays/v,) the vowels of two words, 
and so to connect the words. ^^^ 

Obs. 1. — This V is not found in the demonstrative termination <si or / of 
the pronouns : ouroff/, not obrosiv, this here, ourusi, rodi, avTTjt, &c., 
nor in lasl, thou art, although in hriv, he is, e/V/v, they are, nor in the 
lengthened forms, oup^/, vai-^i. 

Obs. 2. — Ourwc loses its final consonant, in like manner, before conso- 
nants, durug iXsysv and outoj Xsyn, but Xsyu ouTujg before the greater 
stops. Thus too, 1^ ; J^ s/mou, and Ix tfoiJ, but after its case, l/iotJ e^. 
In a%f'5 and (J^ix^tg the practice varies, even before vowels : fiixS'^ 
iXdrj, a%f/5 o5, and cix^i o5. 

Obs. 3. — M'/i, not, before in, still, and ov, not, before every vowel, 
assume a x; /Mri-x-sri, always as one word, fin'^in, no longer, ovxirt or 
oux 'in, ovx efioi aXkd ffoi, o'j tsoi a}X s/moI. Not at the end of a sen- 
tence : i/ii,oi fuv, 601 d' (lu, '^' 


§ XXXV. 


1. When open syllables (§ xxvii. 1,) collide, — whether in 
the middle of words, through the ejection of breathings and 
consonants, which stood between the vowels, or at the end 
and beginning of words in their collocation, — the sej3arate 
vowels are reduced to one sound, and that in various modes. 

2. When two open sounds are thus combined in the 7md- 
dle of a word^ it is called contraction (ffui/ai^img, contractioj, 
e.g. ocothfi^ cohyi; y^^mooc^ jgvaovq. 

3. Wlien of two words which stand open together, the 
open vowels are reduced to one sound, and thus the words are 
more closely connected, this is called synalcephe (avvuXoKpji). 
It embraces three kinds : 

a. Crasis (jc^\ when both vowels are mixed (ks^kv- 
vvvrai,') in one sound; e.g. rot dv in rdv, ro lijbov in 
7ov[Jj6v, &c. The coalition is marked by a sign similar 
to the soft breathing (coronis,) over the new syllable 
thus produced: ra lyba, raybd; ro ovoijua, rovvo[jijCc; which 
sign, however, may be omitted, where it would conflict 
with the rough breathing; a lya;, kyoi)\ o \[jj()q^ ov(Jbog\ 6 

Obs. — Crasis produces always a long sound, and causes the aspiration 
of a mute, which stands before an aspirated vowel : tou vdarog, 
^crobaTog ; to ifidriov, ^oifidriov. 

b. Elision (JyJ}j'^ig\ when the first vowel is entirely 
suppressed. Its sign is the coronis in place of the 
ejected sound, ipovkoybai lyoj^ (d6vXo(jJ lyoj; yiv })\ ovrog, j]u 
^' ovrog, — called the apostrophe. 

Obs. 1. — Here also an aspirated vowel affects a preceding mute: s^jjxe 

olni, idriy^ ouroc ; vmra oXjjc [vmt oMv, vux.6' oXj)!/), vv^d^ oXriv, 


Obs. 2 The middle mutes, /3, 7, d, resist aspiration .- thus, da and ys 

are not altered on account of a following aspirate ; iyu 6' ogw, lyuy 
6ou>. They had the power o( suppressing the aspirate following them ; 
hence it comes, that in the Potidean inscription, 1. 7, we find 
3EX0PON A 01 MEN, i. e. s^i^f^" ^ "' l^^^'^ whereas, out of con- 
nection with hi, the rough breathing in HOIAE, i. e. o/5s, keeps its 
place, and that, with the z^olians, even the digamma was suppressed 
after hi. When ^' and ;^' are found, they come from rs and xl, 
which aspiration aifects also oux : ouy^ avhavu, but not Ik,, since this 
before a vowel retains |, It, aXog. 

c. Aphceresis, when the second vowel is taken away (a;pa;- 
^ilrai). This also is marked by the apostrophe in the 
place of the banished vowel: (^ouXofLui gy«y, ^ovXo(jijat 
'ysy, and is often found instead of elision. 



1. The contraction ((jvi/ccf§sffig^ contraction) isprope?\ when 
two open sounds coalesce into one, which contains both, e. g. 

rs/^gi', rsix^i ; y%a/', yij^a (y^a/) ; ^%oi", nxor, and so IkXog, 

2. It is imp7'ope7% when one of the combined vowels 
overpowers the sound of the other, in which case it often 
chan2;"es its own sound and quantity. In (piXknv, (piXslv, h~ 
'ttXooi, IitXoT, the letters g, 0, are suppressed by the more 
powerful tones of g;, 0;, without an alteration of tone iji the 
latter. The same thing happens to a, g, 0, in 'TToXsotg, roXzig ; 
tiuj^hv^ rv/xav ; wvoov, svvouv ; yet so that in consequence of the 
ejection of these sounds the remaining g is extended into g/, 
into ou, and the cc is doubled, ri[jjdiiv, ri^av. («) A like 
duplication occurs jn the case of after the ejection of a in 

Obs. 1. — It is of importance, with respect to the formation of words, 
clearly to understand this diflerence between proper and improper 
contraction, and to distingtiish from both the ejection of vowels. 




The one difference is as certain as the other ; since in the n of To'Xs/jy 
from 'ffS'kiag, how could the a be included as well as the £ and /, or 
a double o in ou ? or in ' AiroKKu, what becomes of the a of ' A-To'XXwa, 
if it be not ejected ? 
Ohs. 2. — Contractions differ not only among themselves, but likewise 
according to the dialects. Thus, Movedm becomes in the common 
dialect, Mouduv; in Homeric, Mova'iuv; in the Doric, Mouffai/ ; l^iXiov in 
the common, spiXovv ; Dor. Jp/'Xgyk. 

3. If a short vowel, a, s, o, come after a long, especially 
^, a, it is frequently ejected without causing any change in 
the preceding long, t^^cooc^ jj^<y ; ' A-TroKKcova, (^ A'7rok\caoc\ ' A-roX- 
"Ku ; Xdyooo^ Xayoo ; Hccvids, vsccvia,. 











aa a 

ae a, 

an a 

ao u, 

aoi (ti 


a/, di a 

aai a 


ay\ a, 

afi a 

aou cu, 

au u 


au, d'u du 


to, 7} a 

a r] 

il, HI il 

£0 on, 

iOI 01 



iai jj ti 

iig rig 


iOU ov 

tag fig 

in n, 

ip ri 

iU u, 





oa OU u a 

Oi OU 

Oil OU 


00 OU 

001 01 



OTj U 



oai ai 

op (fj 



OU (fJ 


mi ?! 






wa w 





lag ig 

ng ig 




uac ug 

■Jig ug 


2. From this table it appears g'enerally, 

a. That in the colHsion of A and E sounds, the vowel 
which precedes the other, remains predominant in the 
contracted syllable, although its shape may be modified 

e. g". Xsma/, Xs/tt?; or Xsm; ; ri[/jKS, ri(/jci ; ToXzug, 
'TToXsig ; except in sec, which, in the first two declensions, 
is contracted into a ; offrsa, hara, ; jSoppsa?, (Soppa?. 

b. That, where an O sound appears, it maintains itself, 
in contraction, against all A and E sounds, voz, vou; 
hffr'iov, oarouv ; (ioag, ^ovg ; ri[JMOiiMi, ri(jji^[/ji ; (pikiovai^ 
(ptXoviTf ; except that, in adjectives, 0?; becomes r; ; ocrXor;, 
a^X^, and occ sometimes a ; UTrXocc, kifka. ; also ci'ifkmi^ 



1. Crasis, like synseresis, is proper ^ when the two open 
sounds are by it combined into one, e. g'. ra kyoc^a,, rk'yot,6(x, 
(where a oi=^a,\ or ro vbcop^ ^ov})oj^, ro luAriov, ^oi[jjarioi/ ; it is 
improper, when one of the colliding vowels overpowers the 
other. The remaining vowel, in this case, either changes 
its sound by elongation, as rd z[jja,, rd[jjcc, and extension, as 
TO ovo(jtjcc, rovvoihoi, or the prevailing sound continues unal- 
tered ; Kou sudug, zzv^vg ; za,] ov, zov. 

2. Crasis, in prose, is confined to very few examples ; but 
in the poets it has ampler limits, though it varies according 
to the different kinds and ages of their poetry, and may 
therefore, ^vith reference to them, be better discussed under 
the dialects. 

3. Crasis, in prose, is most usually found with forms of 
the article 0, ^, ro, especially those which have a short vowel, 
and it unites aoc into a : ra ccyada,, rkya&k ; ru, avocyKcuK, 
rkvayKouot, ; ra avroL, rocvTci : as into a ; roc iKzi, rkzii; m 
huvria, ravavTia : 00c into a ; avr]^, kvrj^ ; so ai^DpojTrog, 
ahiXtpSg ; 70 ccvto, rahro : 02 into oy ; to \[lw, tov^ov ; to 
huvriov, TovvavTiov ; 70 's[M-7raXtv, rov^-zoCkiv ; ro 'iayjx.rov, 
rovayarov ; an exception is found in srs^og, ars^og, since 
this word maintains it old form, clrzoog, in crasis : '^ar'ioov, 

E 2 

6*8 OF WORDS. 

SaVe^a, &c. ; oo into ov ; rh ovo[/jCi, tovvoilk ; to otI&co^ rovtiau* 
4. A diphthong or long voivel tvith a short : thus, oci in 
the conjunction icou with a, Tcaya&og^ xoi^iKog^ jcav ; with s, 
Kou lycu, zdyco ; fcccKuSiv, ku,v7uv6(x, ; before g/, kcItu, for ;£«/ 
sTra ; before oy, ;'io^^2J', ;£oJ ; '^ before a in g'rg/^?; aV 
g^rs/^aj' ; o; before a in (Jbsvrot av, (CAgvraf, a^gX(po/ for 0/ 
ahsX(poi in the Sigean inscription ; oy before a and ay, 
TovyocXfj^ciToc,* TKu0PM'7rou,f TctvroiMciTov ; t before g, in roy- 
^oy ; II iw before u and 0/ ; before a, in uyoAk for &/ ay ads ; 
before 0/, in kydifjucii for gy^y oi///a;,^ 

Obs. 1. — This list shows that here, besides proper and improper crasis, 
also ectfilipsis, e. g. y-ouhh, xov, ravTOfj^drou, rac^gwcrou, and aphceresisr 
in TolifMoZ for roZ sfji,ov, uyad's for w dya^s are included. The mixture 
of crasis and ecthlipsis is seen likewise in tov/mov and rd/ji^d, for rh 
s/x6v and rd s/j,d, since in both instances the vowel s is ejected, and 
the remaining vowels, 0, a, are lengthened into ov, d. Even a mix- 
ture of crasis and aphaeresis is observable in lywwai, where the w of 
the former word is extended, u, and the of the latter oificci is taken 
away. Nor is it less clear that there is no essential difference 
between synceresis and synalcephe, since in both the same appear- 
ances of the combination, extension, and ejection of colliding open 
sounds display themselves. 

Obs. 2. — After the example of several inscriptions, e.g. the Sigean, 
which has KAm, KAIIISTATON, for xai syui, -/.ai ivisrarov, and 
HAAEAOOI for 0/ dhikfoi, but HAI20n02, i.e. aGumg for 6 A/'- 
eu-rog, receu^t critics, especially Dawes** and Porson, have revived 

* nP02 TOrAAMATOS according to the old Attic orthography in 
the inscription from the Pandrosium, 1. 75, in Walpole, p. 585. 

f Demosthen., p. 450, B. Wolf. 

\ Thucyd., II, 77 ; but there two of Bekker's MSS. give rou auro/xdroyi 

II Isocrates, p. 838. Ed. Wolf. 

f Plato Euthyphr., p. 2, B. 

** Dawes 3Iiscell. Crit, p. 123. "Ex scriptura ista . . . discant 
velim futuri scriptorum Atiicorum " (why this expression ? Is the in- 
scription Atfic?) " editores xdyu xavura, he. repraesentare," 

or WORDS. 69 

the practice of omitting in ciasis a single iota, wlien it stands in 

the former word, %a] ayaUv, y.aya86v, xa/ lyu, -/.ayuj, so that here 

also crasls and ecthlipsis are blended, and of writing it when found 

in the latter, syoj oiiMai, sywiJ^ai ; of course also when it is in both 

words, xa/ ura, xara. Yet there are reasons of doubt as to the 

soundness of this rule. To the Sigean inscription some others are 

opposed, e.g. the Elean, at least its equal in antiquity, which 

combines ruj hrauda., by crasis, TOINTAT, i.e. rmrav. ^'^^ Likewise 

the modern Greeks in the crasis of xa/, write / alone and allow a 

to disappear, e. g. xa/ avQra y-ioLv&'n, to show that the iota continues 

to be sounded. Lastly, there is no natural ground for the ecthlipsis, 

since the supposition, that, e. g. in KAI Em, AE, could not be 

blended by crasis, unless / were previously ejected, depends upon 

an inaccurate view of the crasis, which iu this instance is evidently 

improper, not combining AE, above shown to be impossible, but 

expunging E, and extending A. 

Ohs. 3. — The use of crasis in prose is extremely fluctuating, so that 

there is scarcely au instance in which it is constant (except perhaps 

(ihrav and liruhdv, for liruhri av, in the latter of which words even the 

mark of crasis has gone out of use as unnecessary). Hence there 

is a variation in the case of os in the verbs compounded with rr^o, 

'ir^os^M and TgoiJ^wf, rr^osy^uiPriSi and crgoup^w|)j(r£, 'X^osdufiouvro and 

v^ovdvfiovvTo in Thucydides. * 



1. Elision unites two open words, by taking away the 
final syllable of the first. Thus, aXkoi ovk, aXh! ovk. 

^. The preceding and elided vowel is in prose always a 
short vowel : a, s, 0, i,f not v. Thus, 

* Poppo de elocutione Thucyd., Part I of his edit., p. 216. 
f I'oppo, p. 418, he. 


a, ill the pre])ositions ava, ^/a, «ar4 jW/gra, 'Tra^a ; the par- 
ticles and adverhs a/iXa, a^a, a/^a, glra, gVs/ra, jM/aAor, 
(MuXiffra, 7vcc ; in the case-termination a, as, ravrcc, rotauTcc, 
'Trdvra,, aXXa, r/va ; and in the verbal-forms in a, as, 
'^yov[jji0cc, oh0ci, &c., e.g. ^ar ccvrov, 7tcc§ riavyjnv^ dXk' cog, 
(jjoCkiffT dv, riyov^id av. 
g, in the particles rg, yg, ^g, and the words compounded of 

them, coGTZ, oh, ours, lywyz, &c. 

0, in the prepositions k'TCo, v'jto, not in 1:^0, in rovro, avro, 

and verbal-forms, as, acr' g|a/oi), rour' glva/,* ayooviaair oivA 

t, in the prepositions avr/, a|f>(/^/, 1^/, not in -rg^/, in gV/, ovkWi, 

(py][jji, Irrri, e.g. W dizov, ovx, gV gWa/, ^^jM;' gyo;, gc^' org. 

3. Elision, by the suppression of vowels, evidently hurts 

in some degree distinctness of expression. Hence, it is 

generally avoided in prose, so that even the slenderest sounds 

remain open: e.g. in Attic inscriptions ;t gm ccTrohowoci, 

rcjv rg ovrcov, Is kito, 5g ti^yjivriq, l-Trt agy^ovrog, Itt) d^yjivruv, and 

suffer apostrophe only then, when constant use or the nature 

of the expression preclude all obscurity: e.g. in prepositions 

before the relative og; i(p f,, kv§ &;v,|| and in the case of the 

particle aV, in rcc^ dv, 'Tfkmr dv, ikuovr dv, dymiaour dv, &c. 

in Thucydides.^ 

Ohs. — The discussion of apocope, apliseresis, and synizesis, is referred 
to the head of dialects and poetical usage. Copies of some of the 
oldest Greek inscriptions, to which frequent allusion has been made, 
will now be given, at once for the sake of exercise in the rudiments 
of Greek writing and language, and for the farther elucidation of 
what has been already stated. 

* Thuc , I, 84. 

f Comp. Poppo, ut sup. p. 218. 

X Boeckh appendix to the public Economy of Athens (in the original). 
II Ibid, XIII, XI. Yet it stands there ANTON, i.e. avr uiv, without 
aspiration of the r. 
«[| Poppo, ut atip. 




1. The inscription of Melos (§ xii. 7j) consists of a di- 
stich, written longitudinally in the flutings of a marble column. 
It stands thus upon the marble : <-^'> 

A\0^ m 1t>^r^\/K H 0/Al^y\/OM TOVT 

That is, 


Or, according to our orthography, 
Hca A(og 'Y.K<puvra) li^cci roh' a[jijS(J!j(pig* ayaXiJija, 
2o/ ya^ iTfzvxo^zvog rovr\ Irikzacn r^o<povS^) 
*' Son of Jove, from Ecphantus receive this faultless image ; 
For, having vowed such a one to thee, he has finished (the 
likeness of) thy nurse." c^' 

Obs. — In spite of some trifling damages of the marble, the whole in- 
scription is certainly ascertained, except the first letter of rgo^oi', 
which has been almost lost by a fracture of the stone. Ecphantus 
appears to have vowed to Bacchus {TLaTg A/o?,) the image of his 
nurse (r^6(pog), — perhaps Leucothea. Now, in compliance with his 
vow [l'7riv)(o[iivog toZto), he has had it completed (IreXeCffs), and con- 
secrated, upon this pillar, to the god in his temple. The pillai* is 
of small dimensions, scarcely half a span in diameter, and about 5 
feet long.^'*^ The image itself, therefore, mu?t iiave been of no great 
size. Construe, 'Ex^cci/t-w U^ai roS ayakjj^a, \. e. from Ecphantus, 
as wg aga <pcijv7}gas 0/ sd'i^aro yaXmw 'iy/pi. Hom. Od., 0. 282, t. 40.-}- 

* Properly u/j,iv(pig, as in the following oXumw. Comp. § xxiv, 5, obs. 
■f 1 his inscription has lately been examined by Welcker, Epigrain- 
matum Grcecorum Spicilegium, II, Bon(Cf 1822. 



CO '^ 

00 -S 

OF WORDS. 7'^ 

That is, 



According to our orthography : 

''A f^dr^a,'^ Toio fuKiioig ^ kcu roig Yjvfccoioig ■^ (rvv^ocyjcc k icc "^ 
iKot/rhv f'lTict,^ ^ ^^XP^ ^s x,cc roj,^ a\ ^s ri ^20/ airs fkivoq ccin fd^- 
yov, '^ Gvnotv yJ ccKkd'koig ^ ra r olKkoc, kcci -Tragd, 'TroXzfjbov : ai ^s ///a 
Gvvzccv^ rakavTOV k d^yvoov octtotivoiccv^^ rcu A/ oXw^rico tco 
/carcihi^XyjlLivco Xar^no^Avov}^ A; ^s r/^ ra y^acpga ra kk 
^aXsojro,^" airs fkrag^ airs rg^iscra, airs 'hd[Mog,^^ h rl'jrid^co kzv 

Boeckh in the Pub. Econ. of Athens. Vol. II, p. 390 (original edition), 
^'H gjjrga, i.e. tfui/^^jXTj. — ^ToTg^UXmig ^'E^jaomg points to a city- 
named Euraw or Euaw, and with w cut off, Eua, which Theopompus, in 
Stephanus, calls an Arcadian town : Eua Trokig 'A^zadlag' Qso'XOfi'Trog sWry* 
rb idviMv (from the shortened form) EvaTbg. — ^K' Jjj or av uri for scrw. — 
^"Ersa, iTr\ — '^So it appears proper to divide the words, ai;xf>i 6s xa (i.e. 
civ) tSj, i.e. aoytrtti ds raids, viz. srii. "Let there be a league for a 
hundred years, and let it begin with this year." In like manner we find 
ufioXoyrjSav ev rw dr,fji,uj r^v sxs^n^iav thai hiaurov a.P'^iiv ts rrivds t^v ri[is^av, 
Thucyd. IV, c. 118. As long as ag%w dsxdruj was read, all full explana- 
tion was impossible. — ''E/ 8s ti b'm i'ln 'img I'ln 'i^yov. — ^1wiiy\cc/!,v av (for 
the imperative swiovruv) aXKrjXoig — ^Mri ffuvsiriffav. — '^^ Ks . . dmrlvoiav, for 
the imper. dvormvruv. — ^^ Tw xaTadidrjXrifjjhuj Xar^zuofizvov. — '^^Ei bs rig rd 
{roiavra) yga^s/?), fi civ orfksoiro, to wit, the god. T^dpiv, here must be 
understood of a public decree. — ^^ Em 'kng (probably one entitled to civic 
privileges, one of the governing tribe ; the 'irai of Menelaus are known 



" The convention between the Eleans and Evaoeans. 
There shall be an alliance for an hundred years, to commence 
with this year. If any need of assistance, by word or deed, 
occur, they shall repair to each others aid, as well for other 
matters as on account of war. But if they do not come to 
aid, the party failing shall pay a talent of silver as penalty to 
the violated majesty of Olympic Jove. Moreover, if any 
one — whether citizen, magistrate, or people — propose a 
decree by which this sanction may be violated, he shall be 
bound in the sacred penalty herein stated." 



1. The Sigean inscription upon a marble pillar, which, as 
it seems, once supported the bust or statue of the person 
named in the inscription, and still exhibits a place hollowed 
out in the top for its reception, was found in the vicinity of 
the promontory of Sigeum, before the doors of a church, 
where the stone served as a seat. It has been recently brought 
to England by Lord Elgin, and deposited with the rest of 
his collection in the British Museum.* Over the chief 
incription, which occupies the lower part of the stone, there 
is engraved a shorter one, a brief repetition of the one 
below, and of later date, since it has H as a vowel, and also 
n, but still with several dialectic peculiarities. Both are 
wi'itten (Bov(Tr^o(p7ih6v. The lower one runs : 

from the Odyssey) ; i'lrs riXsarrig (6 sv rikii, " one in office, a magistrate'*), 
i'ln briiMog, — '^'Ei* rui I'Xia^u) (i. e. s^'sgw) av 'iyfiiro^ for l')(t6&(ji. — ^^ Tw hraZ&a. 

♦Published by ChishuU, in the Antiguitates Asiaticce, 1728; after- 
wards by Lauzi, Payne Knight, &c. 


(i>Ayo^ff<o:^/M\:ro H 

OfO^IOT :^CT/<)4>?0^</5 
A-f ^/O : K ^/\0 : K P> AT£PA 

o/^r ^^ nt>yrM^^ lot^ .• k 

That is, 

<I>afOo/;ioy £/|W// roi) 'K^fjtjOK^urovg rov Yl^ozovvritrlov. Kocyoj 

l/iy&v&vffL^ 'Eav he ti 'Trurry^u) '^ (JuiXihaimv zoj '^lystsg.^ Kcti 
f/j S'TTouasv^ Kiau'TCog'^ zui abiX(pot. 

"I am (the statue) of Phaiiodicus, son of Hermocrates the 
Procoiinesian. And I have given a goblet and stand, with 

1 The gift of Phanodicus to the Town-house, consisted of a goblet for 
mixing wine in (xe^r?;^), a stand for the same (IT/Vrarov, called i/Toxg'/jrjjg/ov 
in the other inscription), and a strainer {^O/mg), in short, a drinking ap- 
paratus, probably reserved for festivals held in the Prytaneum ; e. g. 
when new Prytanes {'Tr^uraviuovTsg) entered on their office. — ^Xhe stone 
has -/.huixa for 'ihui/ia, probably from negligence. — 3 The form with a trace 
of the digamma, S/yeusutr/, ItyipixxSi^ commonly liyiixici, and with g ex- 
tended, "Siyinudi. So Steph. Byzant. liynov 'ttoKic T^uddog. 'O To^jTrig 
"Ziyiivlig, — *'* If I suflfer anything," a milder expression for death. "If I 
die," says Phanodicus, "the Sigeans must take care," to wit, of the pre- 
servation of the statue, — ^'S.iying, a peculiar contraction of the open 
syllables, S/yereag, ^lyiiag. The ordinary contraction would have been 
l.iyizTg. — *J'E'Toe/(r«i', from ttosw for To/sw, with i extended, instead of I'XoriSi'j 
or i-rroiriSiv. — 7 Compare § xxxviii, 1, obs. 2. 


a strainer, for the Town-house, as a memorial to the Sigeans. 
But if any thing- befall me, I leave it to the Sigeans to take 
charge. And ^Esopus and his brethren made me." (^) 
2. The shorter inscription above, runs thus: 





That is, 
^avohiKOV l[jji'^ Tov^fjjozodrzog ^ rov U^OKOwriffiov. K^^jr^^a hi 
XDci vxoK^Yjrrjoiov zki yjdjjbov Ig Ylpvravriiov ehco/Civ '^vKHvaiv. ^ 

S. As a specimen of the old Attic alphabet and orthogra- 
phy, here follows the monumental inscription upon those 
Athenians who fell in the fight at Potidea, 01. 86, 4, B. C. 
432, dedicated to their memory by the State, after a public 
interment. It was brought to England by Lord Elgin, and 
is now in the British Museum. The first verses are almost 
entirely obliterated, and the terminations of the rest. The 
letters of the separate lines stand directly under one 
another.* (R) 

i'E//U./. — 2ToD 'E^fMo^drovg. Crasis without aspiration of the T. — 
2 The common form, only written with v, and x for y. 

* The parts wanting have been supplied by Visconti, and by the 
author of this Grammar, and last by Osann, in his Sylloge. 


i. e. with the hues from the fifth completed : 

'A^afar . . . (j7^ilocivzi . . . zat T^oycvojv . . , 
^iy^riv ihi:oki[jjnv . . . 

T^v^g riors/^a/a^ a[jj(pi 'TrvXag I'kayjiv. 
'YiX&^MV V 01 [jjh 'ixouffi Tcx,(pov [jj&^og, ol ^s (pvyovng 

Tiiyj)g 'TTiffrordr'/jv sXt/^' 'ihvro (oiov. 
"Aiihpccg yjl[Jb itokig 7]hi 'xo&ii y.fu ^mi-^og Yiozypkcog 

n^oc^s UoTsihatocg oi ^dvov \[Jj '7:^o^ayj>ig 
VLoCihig ^ h&rivaim' -^vyjj.g ^ avrippoTrcc ^svng, 

"HXkcc^oivr cc^zr^v kou Tcar^iS zvySkiiaav. 


§ XLII. 


1. The radical syllables of speech, when by the aid of 
formal syllables they were expanded into words of greater 


compass, would, as the distinctive and essential part of the 
word, originally stand in a superior relation to these subsidiary- 

2. This superiority would be marked to the ear by a 
stronger emphasis or dwelling of the voice on that part of 
the word, which contained the root, as u^on friend mfriend- 
shipy love in love-ly, zrjT in zjJTTog. 

3. In comparison with this toJie ('Tf^ocooVioe,, accentus)^ 
that of the other syllables would appear weaker, whether 
preceding it (anacrusis)^ as in relief, or following it (the- 
sis), as in lovely, or both together, as in rebellion, be-lov-ed, 
eXsmrg, "hihaGzoo, &c. 

4. Thus it is the tone that combines, and as it were 
atmuates the word. IVitlumt it there is a mere accumulation 
of syllables, hy it they are brought into mutual relation and 
make up a whole.* 

5. In every word there can be but one predominant tone, 
to which all the rest are subordinate. This is the sharp or 
acute accent ( '7r^o(rcohi(x, o?s?«, accentus acutus), and has as its 
spnbol a stroke di'awai to the left, as in x.6[jtj[jboc, ; in comparison 
with it the other syllables of a word have a depressed tone, 
the grave accent ('K^oaoohioL (irx^iioc, accentus gravis), marked 
by a stroke drawn to the right ; now, however, this is not used 
in writing, (pvXoc^ not (puXag, Qioho^^og not Qloh&i^og. The 
distinction between the sharp and grave tones shows itself in 
Tig, some one, and rig, who ? e. g. who (rig) is there ? and, 
there is some one (r/V) there. So also in, there is (eW/) a 
God, and, God is (Iffri) almighty.! 

* When a people begin to weau themselves from the impulses of feel- 
ing and of nature, and instead of thinking with the heart, as Homer 
expresses it (xara (p^sva xa/ xara ^v/j!,6v), to limit their mental activity by 
the strict method and order of ideas, or the laws of pure understanding, 
this relation gradually disappears, and tone is at last entirely lost in their 
language. Such is the case in French, where it is even considered 
faulty to speak with accent, and in the so-called Jewish- German, which 
is pronounced, in its own department, like the French. 

f Compare, upon the fundamental principles of the Greek accent. 


6. If a tone-syllable have a long- vowel or diphthong, it is 
regarded as made up of two, of which the one has tlie acute 
and the other the grave accent. Thus, ^;jXo?, considered as 
^ggXo?, and Kriivoq accented ;«^9ro?, as Germ, schweben, geben. 

7. These two tones unite in one extended tone ('K^oac^ia 
'^B§i(T-^co(jijivri, accentus circumjlexus)^ the symbol of which 
(^) is now converted into one wavy line, KTJ'Trog, hyjXog. 

Obs. 1. — If a syllable long by nature has the acute, this stood origi- 
nally over the latter of these two syllables, out of which the long 
arose, and the grave upon the other syllable preceding it, ^ri^cx,, ^sj^a, 
80 that, in the coalition of sounds, the grave vanished, and the acute 
alone remained, Sjj^a; hence sarajjg, ^wo'g, become, after contrac- 
tion, not iSTug, ^wg, but stfrwf, ^wg. 
Obs. 2. — In Greek, words are named, with respect to the accent, 
according to their last syllable; as this has the acute tone, the 
circumflex, or the grave (i. e. no mark of accent), so are they called 
acute, circumjlexed, and grave, or in Greek, 
o^vrovoc, oc, xaXog, 
'TTs^idTUfisva, o5, xaKov, 
^asyrova, xri'Tog, xdXXog, T^dy/jjura, 
Obs. 3. — Further, grave or baryton words with the acute on the penult 
are called paroxytons {'7ra^oS,vro\ia), and with the acute on the ante- 
penult, proparoxytons (TgoTrago^urova), with the circumflex on the 
penult, properispomenons [v^o'XiOKi'XWfiim) : thus, 

rra^o^uTova, (piXog, aXXog, 
T^ova^o^vrova, avd^wrog, 
v^o'TTs^Kfrufiiva, ffojfia, Xs?re. 
Obs. 4. — Like the breathing, the accent stands only over vowels, in 
diphthongs over the second vowel. If a breathing be also over the 

Ilogpyg/oe Tsg/ v^osujbiag in Villoison. Anecdot., T. II, p. 105, sqq., and 
the learned reviews in the Univ. Jen. L. Gaz,, 1816, n. 155, p. 303. 

80 or WORDS. 

vowel, tl»e acute accent stands after it, the circumflex over it, S.'kXoi, 
o'l'xov, ofyxv. 

Obs. .5. — If an oxyton stand between other words of a sentence, its 
tone, in the close combination of the words, is weakened and becomes 
grave, e. g. Amy^' l^of Tra/g O/5/Vous Icpiyyog ixaQuiv. — Since this 
change into the grave is produced by the close union of the words, 
it follows that it cannot take place at the end of a sentence, nor 
before a stop, which dissolves that immediate connection, thm av 
dXXa TouTo — TO yag ffdivog l^^a^u. But it takes place in KaXtyvl/w, 
dtbc '^sdm, where the ancients put no stop. 

Obs. 6 — Since, also, a tone is found in words, where the radical 
syllable alone appears, as in stand, quick, even monosyllabic words 
have their accentuation — acute, ^i^g, fiyjv; circumflex, sS, ^eu; grave, 

OX), II, 

8. Monosyllabic harytons of this sort, which, having" no 
mark of accent, have been falsely named toneless {arovcc\ 
are found in Greek to the number of ten : 
0, 7] (article), and in the plur. o/, «/ ; oy, ovpc, ov% (but ovyj)^ 

ojg^ as, g/, if, but combined., ami. 
h (but hi), ni, and ig, sig, into. 
BK, and before a vowel, l|, out of. 

Obs — These barytons sharpen their tone, when they stand at the end 
of a sentence, or after the cJiiefword: Tug yd^ ou ; ^ehg ws omirord- 
^u, Tuiv ijI ex (patsi yivsgdai; according to the old Grammarians the 
article 6 does the same, when it has the meaning of a demonstrative 
pronoun, this, o yd^ ^X6i. (^^ 



1. Since that syllable is marked by the tone or accent, in 
which lies the essence of the word (§ xlii, l), in primitive 
words the radical syllable will also be the accentuated syl- 
lable : (pCK, (piXoc; \zy, "kz^ic; (few, Guyboi,', Xei'X; XsItoj. 


Q. When a syllable is prefixed to a word, it restricts its 
gfeneral meaning" to a particular sort of meaning-, and hence 
the accent falls back upon the prefixed syllable, as that which 
determines the signification : thus, (p/Xog, aipiXog ; ho6[jjog, -tt^o- 
hoo[j(jog ; and, in like manner, hsvl^ov, ayKocohvh^og. (So in 
£Jn(/lishj land, woodland ; dog, house-dog, &c.) 

3. Since, in Greek, in derived words, the final syllable 
commonly determines the meaning, this syllable receives the 
accent: e.g. in adjectives derived from other words, to cchxog, 
disgrace, alax^og^ disgraceful, Xsy^;, I say, I speak, Xs«ro?, 
said, spoken. 

4. Besides this, in the Greek tongue, in which the accent 
is very moveable, following all the inflections of discourse, 
the place of the accent is often altered and determined in 
other ways; e.g. Xs/Vo;, 'ki'tcoov^ hzXfWTrzvat, XzKoi'Trug^ — a fact 
which can here be only generally declared. More minute 
observations as to the accentuated syllahle, will be more 
suitably inserted in the proper places. 

§ XLIV. 


1. Let it now be taken for granted that the syllable of a 
word, proper to receive the accent, is kno\'ni ; the next 
question is, tvhich accent is to be placed over it ? 

2. To assist in the solution of this question, we must 
observe : 

a. The Greek tongue places the acute only over one of the 
three last syllal)les, the circumflex only over one of the 
two last. 

h. The circumflex requires a syllable low/ by nature 
(§ XLii, 6) : Kuhov, (pzvys. The acute can stand, 
according to circumstances, over either a long or a short 
syllable : zaXog, (psvyoj, zi)(jbOP<pog ; but over the ante- 
pemdt only when tlie final syllable is short ; thus, on 
that of (2vfioco-rog, not on that of av^ou/'n'ovg. 


8i^ OF WORDS. 

S. If the antepeTiult he the accent-syllable, it has always 
tlie acute (2, «) ; thus, av&^wrog, '7n/sv(/jurog, rvTrrovffi. 

4. The penult syllable, when it is the accent-syllable, 
has the circuniflex only when it is naturally long, and when 
the final syllable is not naturally long. In every other case 
it has the acute. Thus, 

(pzvjctiv, (piXz, on, ^XsTg, XsiTst, x^tov, but 
(pivys, rVkov, [jusi^ou, a-fcooXo-^, Xs^rg, K^'zog. 

Obs. — Except uk, would that; va'r/j, yes. 

5. The final syllable, as accent-syllable, has always the 
acute, except in genitives and datives of the first two declen- 
sions, in contracted syllables, and in adverbs in ri, oi, ou, cug : 

zciXog, TocTrj^, Tcdkvg, rv(p6iig, 'ttoKKoi, Kokovg, but 
jcaXov, KOiXo^, zoik?jg, KoiXri, Ttcckm, y.oikoug. Thus, too, 

(pCkoov, ri[L3.g, <pCkiig, from 

(pChkcov, 7i(/jKSig, (piXssig, and 

KocX&ig, yMyuOog, ■ravra;^^, '7rv6oi, rrfkov, &c., adverbs. 

Obs. 1. — Likewise over the voc. Sd dec. in eu and o/, when it is the 
accent- syllable, and over many monosyllabic words, the circumflex 
stands : S> iSadiXiv, KaXv-^oT, rrv^, irag, vZv, fiuv, &c. 

Obs. 2. — In syllables produced by crasis, the circumflex, under the 
above-mentioned conditions, stands where the crasis has created a 
diphthong; thus, rhi^yov,70\}oyov; xai iira, y.5,Ta', \m.t Tcchhov, Tavhov; 
TO, oirka, ^wvrXa, he. (\^o\i de Orthographicis quibusdam Grcec. 
in Analects 2 B, ji. 431, sqq.) 

6. The diphthongs a; and o/ at the end of a word, without 
a consonant attached, are considered as short with regard to 
the position of the accent. Hence, xfj-^oi, ovacci, and hence 
uv&^co'Troi has the accent undisturbed over the antepenult. 

Obs. 1. — The Sd pers. optat. in c/ and ai is excepted, Xti-^oi, Xi/'-v^ai 
(on the other hand, XiT^ai as infin. 1st aor. act.) ; the adverb o'txot, 
a relic of the ancient orthography for ci'xw, at home (on the other 

band dlxoi, houses). 

OF WORDS. . 83 

Obs. 2. — The i before w in Attic inflection is not reckoned as a 
syllable ; hence the accent iu voXiug, avuiyscav, &c., is not cast away 
(in spite of § xliv, 2, b), since it really stands over the penult 
s}'^llable. In some similar forms the £ belongs however to the root, 
and is separated by a liquid from u : (piX6'yiXug, axs^wc. In such 
instances the whole middle syllable, as being weak in sound, is not 
regarded in the measurement of the word. 

7. For exercise in the placing of the accent (the accent- 
syllable is marked hy a dot over it): ' AlhszpLvhpoq iTnaroXriv 
Ta^a ri^g (Jjfjr^og kvccyiyvucKuv a'roppTjroug Xoyovg zocrcc 'Avrt- 
"TruT^ov xoii oioc^oXag ly^ovuav, a^a, rov 'Yi<pocifjrico\)Og, ug sicod&i, 
(Twuvocyr/vcoafcovrog, oitz kzco'Kvffiv. 'Clg hi avsyva/, rov hocKrvKiov 
cc^iko^ivog rov zccvrov^ rco Gro[jjOLri rcu l^ceivov rrjv atp^ayihoc 

§ XLV. 


1. The accent shifts, when it is possible, to the beginning* 
of the word, when the word is increased at the beginning. 

O/Xoj, a(piKog ; rvTrn, 'irwTrrov ; ohog, Gvvohog. 
( Quest. Why must it remain in i(p//,g/, l>ck^l(/,vov, l<pi\ov^ which 
are equally increased, by means of g, at the beginning "^J 

Obs. — When the accent-syllable is elided, the accent, is thrown back, 
as an acute, upon the preceding syllable ; e. g. (pri/j^l syu, (p^/j^' syii'j 
biivu 'i^m, hm 'lyjji'j; %a.%a ^>Jtg, xax' ^Xhg ; except in prepositions 
and particles, aero s/loZ, av s/xoD ; a,}.Xa ouBi ourcog, aXX' ov^ o'liTug. 

2. The accent moves towards the end of a word, so far as 
the prefixed syllables force it to go. When l(pt\sov becomes 
i(piXiovTo, it cannot remain over ^;, but over Ks; l(piXiovro. 
When it becomes spXsitrd/iv, the penult syllable is the first 
over which it can rest ; i(pi,'kiiad'/iv. 


84 or wouDS. 

3. In verbs, tlie first syllable of the present is always the 
original accenf-syUahle, and remains so, as long as causes 
already specified occasion no removal of the accent. 
^zvyoi)^ (piASio, (psvye, (piXsi, 'i(piu'ys, IpiXsi, Tgipsyya, \<pikilrrjv, 

Obs. — The student may proceed to accent ^siiywtf/, <piXsuffi, (pivyoJsdriv, 
(piXioiaro, virayarai, 'Kikii-i^ois&'fiV, and to ascertain the reason of each 
accentuation. E. g. Xikit-^me^w : Where is the original accent- 
syllable ? Will the accent move back to the beginning of the word ? 
Why not ill the present instance ? Can it rest upon Xii-^ ? Why 
not ? Will it be placed over the penult syllable, XeXsi-^olo^rjv ? 
Wherefore? Why is it Aere acute — 7io^ circumflex ? And so on 
with the other words. 

§ XLVI. 


1 . Sometimes a vrord occurs in such close connection with 
a little word following it, that both are pronounced as one : 
Tar^f (JjOv, pronounced "^roir^^ijjov ^ ircupog rig, pronounced 
iroii^oarig. By this circumstance various changes in ac- 
centuation are occasioned. 

2. In order better to comprehend these changes, let us 
denominate the acute and circumflex over the foremost 
syllables on which they can rest, the Jo}'e-acce?it, — over the 
final syllable, the hind-accent. The acute over the penult 
may, therefore, be named the middle-accent. 

Fore-accent, Middle-accent, Hind-accent. 

avKKoyog, avXkoyoVy KoCkog^ 

KTiTCog, }cr]TOv, zccXov. 

3. The little words alluded to, are the following pronouns : 
fjbov, (Moi, (MS, aov, (TOi, eg, ov, ol, g, [Jtji\ viv, G(poj, (r(pcii)i, (T(pcu'iVy 
a(picov, (T<pi(Tii/, ffCptVy ffipiccg ; the indefinite pronoun rig, rt, some 
one (always written with the grave accent to distinguish 
it from rig, ri, who?), the present indie, of zlfii and (pf](M 


(except s)?, thou art, and <p7]g, thou sayest); lastly, the adverbs 
and particles T&tgf ttcu, ttt;, toi, -ttov, -^odi, 'Trodiv, Tore, ts, to/, 
ys, Kiv, vuv, TTSg, pa. 

4. These words throw back their accent, as an acute, 
upon the preceding^ word (lyKkivovaj, (mo^io, lyzkiri/ca, parti- 
cuIcE encUticce\ when this word is marked by the, fore-accent: 
av&^oo'Trog rig, Gco^d [JjOv ; except when it ends with a double 
consonant : o^fiKi^ (juov, /carfiKi-^ kffri. '-^^ 

5. They lose it altogether, when the preceding word has 
the hinder-accent. Instead of KocXog r<V, kocKov rivog, write 
zecXog rig, kccKov rivog. 

Obs. — The accent upon -/.oKog cannot remain grave, since ^akoc, rig is 
to be pronounced as one word {■KoKoerig), Hence, also, euiJjd fiou 
(properly eu/xd/MO'j) and af^gwTos rig. 

6. If a word with the middle-accent precede, the enclitics 
equally lose their accent, except when they are dissyllabic : 

oivh^a, n, <piXog [^ov ; but y]v Xoyog -ttoti, Imvriog a(pi(riv. 

Obs The syllables -hi (different from hi, but) and -^ occur only 

in composition, and always as enclitic, oh, n^i, i'ik. Similar to the 
accent of these words is that of ouns, un, warz, where the accent of 
the enclitic falls back upon the monosyllabic barytou {§ xlii, 8). 
Compare also osrig, roivuv, ^toi, &c. 

7. The personal pronouns lose the nature of enclitics after 
a preposition : ccvt] aov, -Tr^og ai ; and instead of {JjOv^ (Loi, (jA, 
we must then write g|W/oy, i/ooo/, i(jA. Also, hr) merely draws 
back its accent, sW/, when it expresses more than the simple 
copula, and answers to the Latin existere : ^zog hriv, 'iarif 
ovrcug ; this occurs even after toneless particles, s/, ovx,, ug, 
with which it is joined in that signification, ovk hriv ovrcog, si 
hriv KOL&oog Xiyug, and after the apostrophized rovro and ccKIm, 
70VT 'iffriv, a/ihX 'iffTiv. 

8. When several enclitics stand together, each throws its 
accent back on the preceding : ii rig rim (pyiai (/jOi 'Trcc^iimi, 

9. Exemplification of the foregoing remarks : 

'Et/ (tov, iig (72, ipiXog rivoov. KaAa5 rivd y^oi avvioyov (piXov rs, 


aXX' oux, lyjc^w Tivcc, To c^y/ooa (JjOV koCkkigt'ov toi "hai^Jbovog rivog 



1. Accentuation, In its own nature, is coeval with speech, 
and grows together with it. Existing, however, only on the 
lips, and addressed to the ears of a people, it is not originally- 
denoted hy marks. In the monumental writings of the Greeks 
there is as little appearance of accents, as of the German 
accents in German writing, in which, for instance, no sign 
is used to show that we should pronounce etiterbeten and not 
enterbeten, or that we should accentuate umfahren and urn- 

fdhreri differently according to the meaning. 

2. The marking of the accent is therefore a consequence 
of refinement in grammar and orthography, as for example 
in the French tongue, and is especially useful when, as in 
the case of the Greek language, the original fonn of the 
tongue is extinct among the people. 

3. The Greek accent is mentioned even by Aristotle, and 
it seems, that so early as his time the works of Homer began 
to be thus * marked. Method and exactness in applying the 
marks were introduced by the Grammarian Aristophanes at 
Alexandria about two hundred years B.C. ;t the use of them, 
however, did not become general, nor were they adopted in 
writing upon stone, t although they appear in the earliest 
MSS., probably of the fourth and fifth centuries after Christ.<''' 

* Aristot. Sophist. Elench., c. 3, Comp. Villoison Anecdot., T. 11, 
p. 130. 

f He was a native of Byzantium, a scholar of Callimachus and l^ia- 
tosthenes, librarian at Alexandria, and teacher of Aristarchus. 

X They are not even found in the cursive writing of tiie papyrus-roll 
of 104 B.C., of which Boeckh made known the explanation in 1821, nor 


4. The rhythmical import and power of the accent may be 
gathered partly from what has been already stated, partly 
from the almost complete analogy of the German accent, the 
chief peculiarities of which are therefore here subjoined. 

5. German, like Greek, admits the acute upon one of the 
three last, the circumflex upon one of the two last syllables : 

Lieblicher, umfahren, freuete, 
Freyheit, furchtbar, huelflos, 
gewiss, dabey, hinaus, 
lieben, umfahren, Nebel, 
vergehn, stehn, verbliiehn. 

6. The final syllables in lieben, Nebel, Bluethe, &c., which 
are altogether feeble, and nearly lost in pronunciation, acquire 
more force and a sharper tone^ as soon as another syllable is 
added to them : UebevoU, Neheltlial, Blucthenduft. — The 
Greek Grammarians marked this strengthening of the syl- 
lable previously weak by means of the acute accent, and 

aufjjcc^ rvTTS, stand towaids 

aciotjMruv, rvTrrircj, in the same relation, as 

Freude, Seele, towar;- - 

freudenreich, seelerivoll. Only we must take 
care to show distinctly the sharpened tone of -en in such 
words. — In Greek this is most clearly evinced in the case of 
hdcc, the feeble final syllable of which is enlivened by the 
addition of h, and therefore marked with the accent ; bdoih. 

7. In the same way the principle of eiiclisis obtains in 
German, when for instance eiie, sajje, schweige, are connected 
with niu\ mir^ doch ; eiU nai\ sdye mir, schiveh/e dock. 

8. Not less do we perceive the transition of the circumflex 
into the acute, and the removal of the accent in Leiden, leid- 
voUy leidenreich, Sfc. 

9. With regard to readhu/ by accent, the greatest obstacle 
to this practice appears, when the acute, by the increase of a 
word, is shifted from its place, and transfers the tone marked 

in any one Greek inscription. The trick played with a verse of Euri- 
pides, written and accented, on a pillar at Pompeii, will not now be 
adduced by any one as a proof of the earlier use of the accents. 


by it to a short syllable, so that the proiiuiiciatioii would 
opj)ose the rhythm both of the Roman tongue and of poetry. 
Can we believe that the Greeks ]>rononnced Socrates, De- 
mosthenes, Cicero (y^cuK^arm^ ATji/joafiir/ig, KiKi^ofv), while 
the Romans certainly said Socrates, Demosthenes, and Ci- 
cero f Moreover, it seems quite impossible to preserve 
quantity according- to this method, as in 

YVkdyx&rj Irsi T^oirjg Iz^ov 'zrokk&^v 'i'TTS^asv, Od., a, 2, 
where in the first half of the line indeed the rhythm of accent 
coincides with the rhythm of the verse, but in the latter 
position just as far recedes from it, giving the tone ptoliethron 
epersen, whereas the verse requires ptoliethron epersen. This 
difficulty brought even Valckenaer,* who was fre(piently 
partial in his views and opinions on elementary subjects^ to 
the judgment, that, though accents must be retained on 
account of their usefulness in discriminating the meanings of 
words, not a single verse of a poet, nor a single sentence of 
an orator could be read according to them. 

10. In the first place, however, — as far as concerns the 
Roman pronunciation, — no sure conclusion can be drawn 
from this respecting the Greek. Just as the Greeks changed 
the forms of Roman names, in order to assimilate them to 
their own forms and sounds, e. g. Scipio into '^x.riTrioov, and 
even Cicero into KiyJ^uv, so might they also give to the 
transformed words that accent which agreed with the laws of 
their ovni pronunciation. The same rule might be followed 
by the Romans, who would therefore pronounce Socrates, 
Demosthenes, because accustomed in their own tongue to 
such an accentuation of Avords of the same quantity, as 
Pdrticeps, Principiun, d^c. Thus they also pronounced 
'Atticus, while in Greek no one accented this word otherwise 
than Atticus QArrrKog). Then again, with regard to poetical 
rhythm, there seems no reason why e. g. krui^og in voarov 
irai^ojv, Od., a, 5, when it recurs in another form, aXk ovh' 
ug iroi^ovg Ippvaccro, v, J, should alter the place of its accent 
together with the middle vowel, especially since avrccp changed 

* Diatribtj du Eurip. Fiagm., p. 247, 


into arac, and the like, retain it in a similar case.'"' Hence the 
poetical rhythm of the ancients must have been something 
quite different from that of accentuation. No one, for ex- 
ample, believes that, since the Romans pronounced Italiam, 
fato, and profug-us, they could have pronounced the same 
words with a (hfferent accent in the flow of hexameter verse, 
'Italiam, fato profugus Lavinaque venit 

Littora . 

A practised ear, accustomed to the rhythm of verse, will 
catch it in spite of the accentuation in 

Italiam fato profugus, 
just as precisely as in 

Justum et tenacem propositi virum 

Non vultus instantis tyraimi 

Mente qudtit solida, 
and it is an utter abomination to hear the true rhythm of the 
Latin tongue so frequently sacrificed, in these cases, to the 
convenience of a scholastic system of scansion. 

11. The right rule, then, is always to pay due deference 
to the tone marked by accent, — thus to acquire the habit of 
reading og (/jCcXcc ttoKKk . . . xui voov 'iyvco . . .ov x,ara. ^v[/j6v 
at the end of the verse, Od., «, 1 , % 3, according to their 
tones, has mala polld — kae noon eynO' — lion katd thymon — 
and yet to make the dactylic rhythm perceptible at the same 
time. Once habituated to this, the reader will treat in like 
manner the more difficult examples, k^ov 'zroXkd^ov STTi^fTiv 
. . . akK ovK cog ird^ovg Ippvcocro, is[Jbiv6g ttzo, | avruv yot^ 
ff(psri^'/l(Ttv arocaSakiriGiv o'aovto, ib., v. 6, 7« If its OAvn 
natural force be thus given to every syllable, and e. g. avdgcoTog 
be pronounced not cmthropos, but dnthropos, and the acute 
in such words as ^coKPdTrjg^ A7j[JijO(T0svyig, be not di'awn out 
into a circumflex, Socrates, Demosthenes, as in the French 
Demosthene, but only sharpened in sound as it ought to be 
(n. 6 of this §J, we should soon, by such a practice, be able 
to distinguish the poetical rhythm through the accentuation 
proper to the language, and to approach as near, as it is 
possible for moderns, to the method of the ancients. Who- 
ever cannot accomplish this, should rather read verse after 
the metrical rhythm, and prose according to the accentuation, 


than sacrifice the natural tones of the language in prose also 
to his o\Mi incapacity. 

Obs. — TLe opinion, that the pronunciation of the modern Greeks is 
altogether corrupt, cannot be supported by proof, and the suppo- 
sition, that it became so in consequence of the written accents, is 
extremely rash. No people accommodates the mouth and ear to 
the requisitions of the eye, at least to such a degree as this would 
infer. Besides, the present pronunciation is universal even among 
the wildest mountain-clans of Greece, who have perhaps not seen 
any thing in a written shape for a period of two thousand years. 
When the nicer distinctions of the poetical rhythm and accentuation 
disappeared, there arose that species of Iambic versus politici [rroki- 
TiKoi CTi^oi) in which both coincided, e. g. 

'O 8' "O/MTj^og f/,ova6Xri'7rTog rronTrriv 'iXidda, 
and the Greeks came round to the point, from which the Latins 
started, in whose dramatic versification the two rhythms harmonized 
until a closer imitation of the Greeks caused their separation. The 
pronunciation of the modern Greeks, which in those points, concerning 
which we have no doubt, e. g. in the whole province of E7iclisis, 
has remained true to the most refined laws of antiquity, or rather to 
the intonations upon which they were grounded, has in other 
respects also maintained a correct accentuation, at least in essential 
particulars, and is faulty only in so far as it does not preserve 
the true length of other syllables together with the acute, e. g. in 
av&^wKog, 'ikimov, and rather extends than sharpens a short syllable 
marked by the acute, although even in this point the educated 
endeavour to attain correctness. 


1. The simple sentences, which contribute as parts to the 


full exposition of a compound thought, are divided, as in 
other tongues, by the comma (,) (y'TTOGrr/iMrj). 

2. When, however, a sentence involves a complete mean- 
in2f, but yet is to be brought into close connection with that 
which follows, it is divided by means of a small point QjAnri 
(7Tiy(/jy],) placed at the top of the line (oy ^ivrof aXXa), and 
answering to our colon and semi-colon. 

o. The question is marked by a comma with a point over 
it (;), and the complete proposition by a point (.) (^arr/yj'^). 

4. Like the comma, is a mark (^VTrohioctrroX'/i) occasionally 
used in order to distinguish between two words of the same 
form, as, o, r/, the neut. of offrtg, and on, conjunc, that. 
Some, however, only leave a space between the letters o ri, &c. 
The ancients employed it in many other cases, e. g. between 
gW/, Nai/og, in order to distinguish from sartv cl'i,iog ; in gVr/, 
vovg, to distinguish from eariv ovg. 

Obs. 1. — By means of a mark of union (u^iv), wbich has altogether van- 
islied from our typography, the ancients used to bring the parts of a 
compound word into closer connection : Ko^vdaioXog, oms^o-zokog ( Vil- 
lois. proleg. in Horn. II. p. \). Thus, too, where two words stood 
in strict combination, To^oTokoiZriTT^^^ II. \, 385, injurer-with-the- 
bow;^^) -rvxaToiriToTo, 11. ff, 607, of the close-wrought. Other 
marks, Ti hi'x'kri, dsn^iezog, bZiXog, &c. had a critical use for the 
designation of difficult, spurious, or otherwise remarkable passages. 

Obs. 2* — Recapitulation — We have hitherto inquired into the nature 
of the several letters, — have considered how, and under what limita- 
tions as to the juxta-position of sounds, syllables are formed from 
them, — how the syllables, as radical parts of words, were formed into 
words, — and how these, by the addition of vowels and consonants, 
are terminated, rounded, and accented. After the word has been 
thus created out of its simplest elements, we proceed to its variations, 
by which the relations, in which it can stand, are expressed ; treating, 
first, of the inflections of nouns, that is, of the Declensions. 



§ XLIX. 


1. No object appears alone, but always" in connection with, 
or relation to, other objects : the leaf in the book, the leaf on 
the tree, the book in the hand, the hand on the arm, the arm 
on the body, the body on the seat, &c. Further : the life of 
the children, the tree puts forth blossoms, &c. To betoken 
these relations, a change takes place upon the form of the 
noun : rii^-/], ri[Jij^g, riiL/i, ri[jij'/;v ; that is, it is declined (nXivirui, 
declinature Jlectitur) — stands in a case (irTcoaic^ casus). 
Declension (yJkicng, declination) in its different branches 
(zkiffBig, declinatio7ies), points out the kind of inflection, by 
means of rules (Kuvonc^^ and examples (jra^K6iiyiJb(x,T0(,\ 

2. It is reserved for the Syntax to ascertain what inflections 
or cases are necessary in language. Here, it is sufficient to 
mark the names of these, with the questions to which they 
belong : 

Nominative, xXiffig 6vo[jjcc(TriH,ri, casus nominativus. 

Who ? The father. 








Whose ? The father's. 


To whom? To the father. 


Whom? The father. 


From whom ? From the father. 

3. The Greek name of the ablative would be a(pa/^£r/«^ ; 
but the national Grammarians of Greece do not make mention 
of this case, because^ in Greek its form is in every instance 
the same with the dative. 

4. To denote, likewise, the munber (api0[jtj6g, Humerus,) 
in which an object is thought of at the time, there must be 
an alteration on the form of the word: (S/CXo?, is the book 
thought of only once (^a^i&iLog ivizog, nmnerus singularisy 
singular number) j (Si^Kco, the same thought of twice (a§i0(juog 


'hv'ixog^ numeris daalis^ dual number); (3i^Xot, the book 
thought of three, four, and generally more times (k^i^iLog 
'Tir'kTj&vvriKog, numerus pluralis, plural number). 

5. Thus it is only for the designation of one and two that 
peculiar forms are adopted, all other numbers being marked 
by the common form of the plural. But to determine how 
often a subject standing in the plural is thought of, the 
numerals (o(,^id[jjr]rtxa, ovof/bccroc, uumeralia nominal) were 

6. In each number the six cases or inflections recur, so 
that a full Greek declension, to answer the demands of these, 
would have to give eighteen forms of every noun. But, 
besides that the ablative and dative have universally the same 
form, in the dual, also, the nom., accus., and voc. agree in 
one termination, likewise, the gen. and dat, so that the dual 
has only two forms ; moreover, the nom. and voc. are always 
the same in the plural, and often in the singular; and in 
neuters the nom., accus., and voc. of each number are 
identical. Thus the actual forms never exceed eleven, and 
in many instances are only ten or eight. 

7. Further, it is a property of almost all languages, with 
regard to many objects, to express by the form, whether they 
have the masculine or feminine gender (yivog ot^^sivipcov, ^tjXvkov, 
genus masculimmi, femininwn). Those words, of which 
the sex is not marked, are of ?io sex (ykvovg ol^iTi^ov, generis 
neutrius), neither of the masculine nor of the feminine. 
The remarks at the close of this section contain the general 
rules for the gender of substantives. 

8. For the more close and pointed designation of an object, 
use is made of the article (ap0^ov, articulus), 0, this, he, 
the, 7j, this, she, the, ro, this or that, it, the, — which, as 
combined with the noun, partakes of its case, number, and 
gender : e. g. Father's virtue is often son's fortune : the 
virtue of the father is often the fortune of the son; n cc^irn 
Tou 'xar^og, K.r.X, 

9. Recapitulation. — Thus every noun must be considered 
as an aggregate of several conceptions ; to wit, of a particular 
gender, number, and case, and, with reference to inflection, 
also of a particular declension. 


srai^oc, tlie friend. 

yevoc, uoiffyjoc, -zritiffic, jckiaig, 

aoGiviKov, ivtxog, ovof/jOitrm'/i, ^ivre^a, 

ge?ius, mimeruSy casiis^ declinatio, 

mascuL, singuL, nomin., seminda. 

rSv yovoircov, of the knees. 

t ^ ^ , 

yzvog, ci§i0(jij6g, 'TrroHatg, zXi/ng, 

ovhWz^ov, 7rX7i0uvri;c6g, y&i/ixr;^ rgirrj, 
qeuusy numeruSy casus, declinatio, 
neutr.f plural., (/enit., tertia. 

Obs. 1. — Masculine are the names of 7nen and of most male animals: 
6 avri^, the man, o ri^oig, the hero, 6 hoZXoc., the slave, 6 /SoSg, the ox, 
6 aXixr^uuv, the cock ; — of the months, with which 6 .ajjc is under- 
stood, as 6 li-oavs-^im (October ^^'); — of rivers, with which ocro^-a/Aos 
is understood, as 6 ^.iiMotic. 

Obs. 2 Feminine are the names of women, oi female animals, of trees 

(as things which bear fruit), (^' oi plants (with /Sordvj] understood), of 
countries, with which 57 7^, and of towns, with whicli 5^ -riJX/s is 
understood : n ywrj, the woman, i] ^uyarr^^, the daughter, 35 /SoDg, the 
cow, 71 iXaia, the olive tree, 57 xuTcc^/crcog, the cypress, jJ a/MTiXog, the 
vine, ^ (j;a/Xa^, the yew-tree, 55 v^trog, the island, i^ A/'yuTrog, Egypt 
(6 A'/'y-j'TTog in Homer is the name of the Nile, with 'xordfiog under- 
stood), 71 'EXXag, Greece, tj Kvv^og, t^ 'Podog, tj Ko^ivdog. 

Obs. 3. — Neuter are the names of the letters, with y^dfjufia understood,. 
infinitives taken as substantive objects, and expressions with the 
irifinitive, and all nouns taken merely as such, with m/jba understood: 
TO aXpa, TO 6 firA.^hv, rh -TronTv, ro tu xa/ xaXug 'jronlv, to ^cKfiXsug, 
the word (SaffiXivg, to (ivolB,, the word dvoB,. So also the productions 
of a tree, like the child (ro Tiwm,) of this mother, e.g. jj /iogea, the 
mulberry tree, to fiooov, its fruit, ri xib^og, the cedar, to x'iboov. Thus 
too those diminutives which fall under the province of t6 tvavov. to 


fiii^dxiov or TaiBdmv, &c.; and to avd^ocroBov, the slave, represented 
by the use of this gender as a thing. 

Obs. 4. — Exceptions from the rule for the museuline are several names 
even of male animals, e. g. n aXdovri^, the fox, tj yaX^, the vs^easel ; 
and some names of rivers in -ri, e. g. v A^iJ?^, Lethe (properly 
oblivion) ; — from that for the feminine, several names of frees in -og 
and g, e. g. 6 xorivog, the wild olive-tree, 6 Xourog, the lotus-tree, 
xe^adog, cherry-tree, <poivi^, palm-tree, and those of the nature of 
shrubs, with which is understood 6 ^d/xvog (shrub), 6 xirroc, the ivy, 
fiv^^mg, the myrtle: — most names of places in -ovg, 6 Fa/Mvoug, n 
"SiXivoug, — in the same way, 6 Ma^aduv, 6 Tdgag, 6 'O^^o/j,sv6g (properly 
adjectives, with di^fiog or %%os understood). Some likewise are 
neuter, rb "A^yog, rb ArjXiov. In the names of towns, which have 
only the plural number, all these genders occur, oi <i>iXi'XToi, a'l 
'A6r^vai, rd Msyaga. 

Obs. 5. — Some words have a double gender with different meanings : 
6 TaTg, the boy, i] vaTg, the girl, b ^sog, the god, r, "^sog, the goddess. 
So 6 T^ofog and tj T^6(pog, b and '/j yiWrn, b and ri (phXat., b and ri 
/Sous, ox and cow, o and rj dgXTog, he and she-bear, 6 and ri av&^wtoi, 
man and woman. Others have a double gender from their indeter- 
minate nature, or on account of words understood : 6 and ^ daZokoc^ 
soot, 6 bdxiv&og, the hyacinth, n idxivdog [jSordvri), the hyacinth-plant. 
This double gender is called xomv, commune. As a subdivision of 
this, we must remark rb I'xixoivov ymg (epiccenum), in which animals 
of both sexes are comprehended under one form, as tlie above- 
quoted /SoDs, agXTOS, aXwTJ)^, &c. 






1. Declension, or the change of the final syllables for the 
different cases, may be reduced in Greek to three kinds, 
M'hich differ through the combination of the end of the root 
M ith the genitive termination. 

2. The old Grammarians admitted five and even more 
declensions, since they treated the more peculiar forms under 
each as separate kinds of declension ; these however are not 
sufficiently determinate for such an arrangement, and even 
the three kinds of inflection still separated are so nearly 
allied, that we can easily detect an universal form, lying at 
the basis of all of them. 

8. The f 

mal s\ 

'^llables, which 

indicate the 

different cases, H 

are the following 

in the common 

dialect : 





• • • • 1 

no addition) or ?, v, g, 



oc, 0, 







ZfTtV, fTtV, (T/, ?, 


a, V, 




.... or g, 


£?, h 




iffiv, ffiv, ffi, g. 

4. Examples. 



Moy^a, . . , 

Xoyo, . . * 

(jbyiv, . . . 







month, j 




[^fiv-6g, J 



[/.'/ivi, 1 




fb^m, , i I 









N. A. V. 






G. D. A. 











































It is evident that the difference of the terminations is 

a. By contraction of the open vowels : Koyoo, koyou ; Xo~ 
youg, Koyovg. 

/). By throwing- out or away a vowel or consonant : (Ji>'/ivi- 
(7iv, (Jb'/ivfftv, [LTjniv ; "koyo-cov, Xoym ; "koyo-Zy "koyz ; by which 
the remaining vowels are sometimes doubled : Moycas, 
M.ovffu, ; Xoyo-s, Xoycj ; sometimes extended : Moyo-a-sc, 
M.ou(Tui (modern Greek, ai Mot)c£g);('^' }\oyo-sg, Koyoi. 

c. By lengthening of the radical vowel when the termina- 
tion is added : Movtrot-g, M.ov<Tyig ; Xoyo-i, 'koyco. 

d. By extension of the weak syllable in [jj-ziv-tv, ^rjvoiv^ in 
the same manner as from m came aoi, and from |M//, ^o/. 
That which lies beyond these remarks, and is peculiar 
to the different classes, belongs to the more minute 
explanation of the declensions. To which of the three 





a word appertains, may be determined from the end of 

the radical part, together with the genitive. 
1st decl. Root a, gen. ^ ; e.g. lof^sd, gift; root Ico^ia, 

gen. ^cogiag. 
2d decl. Root o, gen. o ; e. g. Xoyog, speech ; root Xoyo, 

gen. (Xoyoo), Koyov. 
3d decl. Root s, o, a, i, v, or a consonant, gen. og ; e. g. 

^% (^Germ. t/iier), wild beast ; root ^?7^, gen. ^;;^o?. 
6. The introduction to the three declensions may be con- 
cluded by the declension of the article. 






0, the, 



70V, of the, 




roJ, to the, 




Tov, the, 




&/,* oh ! 





Tcj, with the 




roj, the two, 

&c. ra, 
























01, the, &c. 























* ^fl is properly, like oh ! in modern tongues, an independent inter- 
jection, but as such it is often joined with the vocative case. 








nations alone. 

Singular. Dual. 



• (,' * •^' 

«, d, yi, a?, Tig, cc-s, a, 

oc-sg, at. 



, '/]g, ac, rig, ov, ov, awv, cciv, 

a-cov, cUv, 



71, a, 71, a, ri, cc-iv, uiv. 

a-tcriv, uiffiv, aig. 



. av, dv, riVf av, riv, cc-s, a, 

a-ccg, a?, 


v.* • v> 

a, a, 9], a, a, cc-s, cc, 

a-zg, at. 



71, a, 71, cc, 71, a-iv, utv, 

oc-i(Tiv, ocifftv, atg. 


Examples. Singular. 

71, queen, ti, hunt, 7i, pi 

ice or honour, 


;; (oaaiKstcc, S-^^a, 



rrjg ^ccaiXzlag, S^%a?, 




771 ^ccffiXucc, ^%a, 



TJ^V ^OitTlKBiOiV, ^71§CCV, 






A. V. 

ra (icc(TiXsioi, ^jj^a, 




7a7u (BccaiXstoitf, '^tipcciv. 





«/ (iocffiXitoti, ^ij^ai. 



7m ^CtClkZlCOV, ^Tl^OJV, 




7cc7g (^cKTiKitccig, ^Ti^osig, 



7oig (iafftXsicig, ^^i^ccg, 



0) (BccfftXsioci, '^^^Ul, 


71, Muse, 0, youth, 

0, prophet. 


;; Movffcc, 6 vsaviug. 



7yig MovcTTig, rov vsuvtov. 




771 yioixTTl, 7U VSCCVtCC, 



771V Mov(rc(,v, 70V vsuviccv. 



Of M.OV(TU, M ViCCVlOi, 




A. V. 

7ci Wov(Ta, 7u veavici, 



D. A. 

70UV M.oOffa(v, 7oiv v^oiviaiv, 
G 2 






at Moyca/, 

01 ViCCVlUl, 



TMV M.ov(roiv, 

rm viuuicov. 




roue Moy(ra<?, 

To7g vguviocig, 



rocg Mo6ffa?, 

Tovg na,viag^ 




df naviai, 


8. Examples for exercise in declining. 

ri ayo^a, the assembly, ^ «?%>?, the beginning, 

ri Tsiga, the experiment, ;? h'x)], the right, 

^ cikTihici, truth, yj zofMri, the hair, 

'/j iiPSia, the priestess, ^ (pcov/j, the voice, 

yj ' AosdovtTCi, Arethusa, o TargccXoicig, the parricide, 

^ yAftJcca, the tongue, o o§vi0o0ri§ag, the bird-catcher, 

j5 p/(^a, the root, o §£(7'^or;jj, the master, 

'^ ^Xi^vci, the viper, 6 olTcirrjg, the domestic. 

4. Terminations of the riominative without a consonant. 
Since the short vowels are always the original, the words in 
short a, must be considered those which have preserved the 
termination pure, as, lAovGoi, ^/a, &c. This a passes into 
a : n ^'/]occ, the chace, 7i ikccta, the olive tree, and into 7^ : ^ 
(pfifjtj'/], the rumour (Lat. famaj, ^ crrikyj^ the pillar, concerning 
which we must now remark more closely. 

5. Short a is retained by nouns, 

a. Of two syllables in -uicc and -la: MaZce, Maia, the 
mother of Mercury, r; yoaia^ the old woman, §/a (fern, 
of ^0?), divine ; polysyllables of this termination have 
long a : vi iXaioc^ the olive-tree, kvciyTcaioi, (fern, of 
avayK(uog\ necessary, tj ccrt^jjia, disgrace, ;j rfkiyJa^ age, 
except -^oiXr^ia, and Torvicc, fern, of 'TTOTViog (not used 
except in the fern.), and some proper names, 'Icr/a/a, 

b. In -hoc: 7i aXTjdsta, truth, ^ avaAs/a, impudence, ;j |3aff/- 
Xg/a, the queen, ykorSio, (fern, of y\vKvg\ sweet ; those, 
however, have long a, which come from verbs in -svco, 
and those in -sa : -/j (^ocaiXsioc, sovereignty, from (BuaiXsua), 
I reign, ^ hpitoc, priesthood, from i&^ivuj^ tj 'jrocihiioc, edu- 
cation, from 'TTocibivcio, r, ymsoc, tj hojgsoi, tj ^sa, spectacle, 
>! ^ga, goddess, and the fern, of adj. in -nog: rgXg/a, &c. 
Add Tgyga, Mavrmd, cities in Arcadia. 


c. Li -oicc^ if derived from |3oy?, e. g. the names Ei5€o/a, 

MsX/So/a ; the rest have long- a: T^o/a, zlivoia, <•*' alloicc, 
fern, of aihoiog^ oicc^ fern, of moq^ and those in -oa: (3oa, 
o'Toa, S^oa, fern, of %ooc. 

d. Ill -vice'. [jijv7oc,"Ao'7ruioc, E/W^y/a, ayvioc, rsdvT^KvToc, fern, 
of TzhriKOjg. 

e. In -ca, -Gaa,^ -|a, -•^'a, -(^a, -Goc : Moi;(ra, ykooaaa,^ ^^a^/gcfl'a, 
fern, of xpt^kig^ ^o^oc, Vi-^cc^ r^d'Tri^oc, ciKavdoc. 

f. In -7m, -vex,, of more than two syllables • ^ygXAa, ^g- 
(TToivci, Kicciva, T^iaivu. 

g. In -gcc with at, si, oi, ou, v, pp, in the penult: (T(pou^cc, 
^ayjii^a, 'Trzi^a and ^/a-^rg/ca, (m7§(x, lorsiga, aoou^oc, 
(r<pv^ci, yk(pvQcc, ayKv^a, Ilvppot, Kippa, except AW§oc, 

 OaA^a, TaXaiar^ot, irai'occ, fern, of ircd^og. Lonq a 
belongs to the rest, in the penult of which appears a 
short vowel, or ??, o), av: 'ihoa, ttW^o,, dy^a,, (Lccvh^oi, 
'/ioOJjTTT^a, Xv^oi, 'rop(pvPcc, '^rrj^cc, yjioa, (w^ol; and the 
oxytons : (pdogd, x^od, &c. 

Xybs, 1 — Pure words (nomina pura, $ xv, 2, ohs. 2,) retain the a 
throughout the whole inflection of the singular, without reference to 
its quantity in the nominative, as likewise those in -ga, e. g. ^aelXsia, 
jSaff/Xs/ag; Tgo/a, Tgoiag; "ffj/ga, mi^ag, &c., in which the gen. and 
dat. are always long, but the quantity of the accus. and voc. follows 
that of the nominative : ace. jBafflXuav, queen, but jSaffiXsidv, sove- 
reignty, 'TTiT^av but '^rj^dv. Compare the paradigms of jSaGiXsia and 

Obs. 2. — On the other hand, the gen. and dat. singular of words 
impure, change their short « into tj : -/j r^jaiva, gen. Tgiaivr\g, dat. 
T^iaivfi, but ace. and voc. r^iaivdv, r^iaivd. So, likewise, axavda, gen. 
uKavSrig, &c. Compare the paradigm of MoDffa. Those in -ga have 
been already excepted in obs. 1. 

6. ^n 7j is found in the nom. termination of most 
oxytons with a consonant, or o, v, sv, co, before the termina- 
tion: n aV/^ri, n zipakYj, jj <pvy7i, ij d,Kori, ri (pvri, tj aKivrj, ij ^cjyj, 
and the most of impure dissyllabic paroxytons : 7\ h'%,ri, uX'/jy 


Tg^j^;?, ^ojv'/i, Tvyji ; a few have -^ri instead of -^a : zo^-^^ zoppr;, 

Obs. — This 7] remains in the sing, throughout the cases: ^wjj, ^mg, 
he. Compare the paradigm of tz/ajj. The terminations of the dual 
and plural are alike in all words of this declension. 

7. Termination in -cic, -m- Many words add to the final 
vowel a 2 as mark of the masculine gender, making the 
termination -otg after a vowel, or ^, and in many proper 
names, but -rig after a consonant, e. g. vsaviocg^ 6 H^urccyo^Kgy 
"XXug, 6 -TT^o^firrig. Some names have the circumflex over 
the termination : O/Xjjrac, TovvocToig. In the genitive they 
have retained from the full form in -og, which, in the Attic 
and Common dialects, after the ejection of a, was extended 
into -ov: gen. vzavicto, vzaviov; YL^orayo^ov, &c. 

Obs. — In strict usage some forms appear with thrown away : ^KoTag, 
gen. l.M'xa-o, '^KO'Tra ; o^viMri^ug, o^viM^^a; and in some proper names 
we find the contraction of -ao into -w with £ inserted before it : 

8. The vocative of these masculines in -ag has -a, but of 
those in -yjg, oc, e.g. d) viuuid, &/ 7r§o(ptjroi ; OiO(pKTrr]g^ (TOipiara ; 
>y&co[Mr^)jg, yiooijJir^oi. The termination -z^;??, and some other 
names, have -ri in the vocative : 'Ar^g/^???, 'Ar^g/^^, a^;?, 
'Ay%/<7?;, XXi^pn (as name of a person, but Ilg^ffa from the 
name of the people). 

Obs. — Since the termination -rig belongs also to the 3d declension, we 
must observe, that to the 1st pertain the nouns in -/^>]$, -adyig; 
&ovx,vd!dr]g, ' AXziQiddrjg ; the names of nations : ' AQdri^irrig, lixiXiurrig : 
nouns in -rrig, derived from verbs, e. g. 6 mi^r^g from to/sw, 6 86Tr,g 
from didufji,!, 6 a^fioSTrig from apfio^u; compounds from iivovfiai, I buy, 
fj,ir^u, I measure, r^iCu, I rub, wear, train, 'ttuXSj, I sell : nXuivrig, 
tax-gatherer, one loho farms the taxes, yioj/isr^rig, 'zaibor^/Qrig, <pa§- 
jU,a/co7rwX?3s ; and from words pf this declension, e. g. 'OXu/at/ow'xjjs 
from wx>), d^-)(^idixrig from dixi^. 


9. Plural. The genitive plural is contracted from -um^ 
and therefore has the circumflex : M.ov(Tcca)v, Wouaaju ; T^oipy]- 
TMv, 'Ar§S(hiiju. Except the genitive plural of x^^iffryig, the 
creditor, %o^c-ra;j', a(pv)j (an anchovy), a^vojv (by which they 
are distinguished from the gen. of x^riffrog, useful, good, and 
of cc<pvrig, without natural ability), and 01 irf}(Tioc(, the Etesian 
winds. ^''^ 

Obs. — The dative plural has in its full form -aKftv: Movffaiffiv, dugsouffiv. 
An Ionic form changes the a of this into v : ri/j,figi, rifijig. This has 
been retained by the common dialect in some names of towns: * Adr^vai, 

10. Contraction in this declension is universally made 
known by the circumflex in the nominative. We find 

'A0f]voi (Minerva) from the form 'AOf^uza, gen. ' A6rivoig. 

The form ' AQ^mcc is lengthened from the Epic 'Adrjufi, 

as avccyyMia, from oLvdyKTj. 
(ioppxg from (^o^iag, the north-\vind, gen. (Boppa, and ^o^zov. 

When ^o^iccg is contracted to ^o§Kg, the p is strengthened 

by doubling. 
yjj from 75;;, earth, gen. y^g. Lengthened form yaTct. 
'K^yjfjg (Mercury) from 'Fipfjus^g, gen. 'K^(JjOv, pi. 'K^(jbci7. 
ScxX^g from SaXit^g (name of an Ionic sage), gen. QaXstu 

(QocXsM would be more correct), dat. ©aXjj, ace. QuXi^v. 
Mfa from (jj/ia (a sum of 100 drachmas), gen. [jijva,g, nom. 

plur. (JjVu7. 
Xzovrrj from AsovTiyj, lion-skin, gen. Xzovrj^g (fem. of Ksovrsog, 

belonging to a lion, with ellipse of hogdi, the skin). 
So also k\oi)'7:iyJ\^ fox-skin, Tu^huKrj, panther-skin, aSsXcp/S^, 
brother's-daughter, yccXj], weasel, avz^, fig-tree. 

Obs. 1 The forms fio^ea, mulberry tree, and oyoo?), fem. of oydoog, 

eighth, do not occur contracted. 
Obs. 2. — Where the contracted form has -rj, the Ionic form in -»j (as 

in 'Adrjvyisi, n. 9, Obs.), not the common in -a, is its basis, and 'Eg/A^g 

can as little be contracted from 'E^/Msag as Xsovr?) from Xsoma, or yr, 

from yja;(") still less 'Adtiva, from ' A&rivaia. 

1 1 . Gender. The sex of words in this declension is 


masculine in those in -a?, -rig, feminine in all others. Neuter 
words are not found in it. 

12. Accent. The accent stands in primitive words of 
this declension upon the radical syllable, so long as the 
meaning of the radical word is not altered, or more closely- 
defined, by preceding or succeeding syllables ; e. g. 'rsT^a^ 
(pri[jb'/j, ItK'/j. It then obeys its own laws in the forms altered 
by inflection : nom. ■rs^^cc, gen. Tsi^ocg, ntpdajv, 'ttsi^ojv. Thus 
too, (p^^i^-?;, (p^fijOii^ (pyjfjijaiv ; lUri, hzoci, hK&iv. It endeavours to 
maintain its place upon the same syllable also, in the deriva- 
tives in -la, -HOC, -oiu, -vice, &c., as long as the succeeding 
syllables permit ; thus cAkrikid, "A^Trvia, EySo/a ; but co^/a, 
/s^g/a, aihid. Comp. n. 5, for the rules concerning long 
and short -a in this declension. 

13. When the root is changed in the formation of the 
noun, the accent moves to the syllable added for this purpose. 
Hence, although from lu in hua/, we have the nom. ^ Ivr;, yet 
from 71 in tico, comes Ti[jjf], (-i^u-oj) -^'Vy^^, {yjii^-ca) xa^[hovyi, 
(^y§a,(p-co) y^uiJjijjYi ; so criy^jyiy and after this analogy, cc^X^-, 
(puyri, olKk^, hlaxri, ra^ccx/j, &c., to wliich the language seems 
to have proceeded through shorter forms ; e. g. aX|, whence 
ahjci ; <pv^, whence ^vya, in the Homeric dialect ; a^Tay^, 
through jj cl^-TTcii,, in Hesiod. 

14. The same laws regulate also the accentuation of those 
in -ac, 7]g. Paroxytons are those in -^rig, -u6rig : ' Ar^si'hrig, 
TsXu[jjOi}viuh'/]g,oxytons most of those in -rrig from verbs: (•ro/s^y) 
'Tror/jTTig, (zTi^co) KTtffTT^g, fcgirfig, oLx.^oarr}g, with the exception of 
those which, in the poets, appear likewise with the termina- 
tion 7)^ in the 3d declension: -^aXTrig, zv^ie^yjTrig, TKoiffTrig, 
zXi-TTTrig, -^zvfiTrig. 

§ LH. 


1. The roots of the words end in o, and assume in the 
nom. sing., for the masc. and fem. 2 ; for the neuter, N, so that 
the terminations are -og, and -ov. ' O Xoyog, the speech, ^ vijffogy 
the island, to cvkov, the fig. 



^. The terminations, arising from the combination of o 
with the forms for inflection, are accor dinar to the following 

scheme : 






— c, oc. 

£, OJ, 

— sc. 


n. — 1', ov^ 

n. — a, 



— 0, oy. 

/!/, O/V, 

— jyv, 


Dat. Abl 

/, CO, 

/V, 0/V, 

0— /C/f, 

o/ff/y, o/c. 


— y, 01/, 

— s, fiy, 

— ccg, 
11. — a, 



— s, s, 

£, 0/, 

— s?, 


n. — c, ov, 

n. — a, 


Obs Besides the peculiarities already remarked in the general scheme, 

§ L, 5, v\'e observe that the a of neuters suppresses the radical 
: (Tuxo-a, ffuxa; and the dat. plur. abbreviates its termination ; Xd- 

yoiOiv, Xoyoi^. 

3. Examples. 

0, speech, 
Nom. Xoyog, 
Gen. rov Xoyov, 

Dat. Abl. ru Koyco, 
Ace. rov Xoyov, 

Voc. otJ Xoys, 

N. Ac. V. TM Xoyco, 
G. D. A. ro7v Xoyoiv, 

Nom. o/ Aoyo/, 

Gen. Tiiv "kSyajy, 

Dat. Abl. To7g koyoig. 

Ace. Toyj Koyoug, 

Voc. &» Xoyoi, 

4. Examples, for exercise. 
r^oxog, the turn, 
yJj'^og, the garden, 
y/oj, the son, 
'b^ovog^ the seat, 

^, way, 
^ oooc, 
rrig o^oD, 

rrjv ooou, 

u oos. 

ra oooj, 

rulv oholv. 

a/ 000/, 




ruig obolg. 


oj odo(, 

ro, fig, 


rov avaov, 


ro ffuKov, 
(t) avKOv. 

roj crvKM, 
rdiv (Tvxoiv. 

ra (TVKU, 
raiv GVKcov, 
ro7g avKoig. 
roi (Tv/cu, 
0) av'ita. 

rj voaog, the sickness, 
ri vr,Gog, the island, 
71 ^^ofTog, the dew, 
rj (Bi^Xog, the book. 


TO fjijoc^rv^iov, the evidence, 
TO Dcyyiiov, the vessel, 
TO 'TT^o^ccrou, the sheep, 
TO (oi^Kiov, the Httle book. 

5. Tlie termination og is regularly masculirie : it becomes 
feminine in general by some reference to a feminine word 
understood or related, such as yyj, -TTokig, (Bordvrj, of which 
examples are given, § XLix, 9? obs. 2, 5. Thus, also, Xi0og is 
understood with ^ rr^d^ayhog, rj K^vffraKKog, and ^ ohog with 
^ r^i^og and oi[Jbog, ^v^cc with ai^Xs/o?, <pcoprj with hdXexrog, vhj 
with ^ ^vKo^og, Y§a(jtj[jb'/} with li(x,(/j&r§og. In several words, 
however, such a reference is no longer discernible; as, ^ 
fyvd^og, ^ (ivtraog, and others among the examples, n. 4. 

6. Observations on the variation of sex. 

a. Many \vords of this declension have a double sex, as 
something" masculine or feminine is designated by them. 
Examples, § xlix, 9, obs. .5. Others without such 
ground ; as, 

0, '/j pivog, the skin, 
0, ;; ^d(JijVog, the shrub, 
0, jj (od^^trog, the lyre, 
0, '^ oi(jbog, the path, 
0, ;;j a/(?o?, the stone. 

b. Some with the gender alter likewise the meaning: 
Zvyog, the yoke, jj Zpyog^ the balance, 

/Vtoc, the horse, ri 'i'Tcxog^ the cavalry — and the mare, 

\zH,i6og, pulse-broth, tj XsKtdog, the yolk of an egg. 

c. The following become neuter in the plural : 

^oar^vyj)g^ the curl, ra ^cxTr^vyjx, 

6 ^&ci(/j6g, the chain, rcc ^za^d, 

6 ^S(T[/j6g, the law, ra ^sfff/bd, 

6 h'(p§og, the chariot-seat, ra ^/(p^a, 

^ ;5sX2u^o?, the way, ra zikivSuy 

6 Xuyvog, the torch, ra Xux^oc, 

6 (TiTog, the corn, ra c/ra, &c. 

7. The termination -ov is neuter ; yet the diminutives of 
female names remain feminine ; e. g. ^ Tkvas^tov from TKu- 
xs^dci Lat. mea Glycerium, 7} AUvnov, &c. 

8, Observations upon some of the cases. 


«. The vocative sing, has not only s, hut Hkewise oc ; as, 
nom. ^£oc, voc. oj "^sog. So also, d) p\og, &c. 

b. The dative plur. has here also in its full termination (nv, 
at ; thus, rohi^ ^so7ffi, like ra/ir/, ^soiiai, or with the u, 
ToiffiVy \a&\ot6iv. The common form is abbreviated from 



1. Contraction takes place in this declension, when before 
the last vowel of the root occurs an a, g, or o. E. g-. Xaoc, 
hariov^ voog. 

2. Contractions of cc o. Since both vowels are in the 
root itself, their contraction takes place without reference to 
the syllables of inflection, which attach themselves to the con- 
tracted part, or fall off from it. A and o are always in this 
declension contracted into a/, before whicli, in some words an 
£ is introduced; e.g. mog, root Nao, contracted ua>, vzoj^ nom. 


3. Inflection of the contracted forms with s inserted : 

• Dual. Plural. 

ao — £, £sy — £, ceo — ;, £<y, 

ioj, n. ao — a, ico — a, 

-0, ao — IV, zm, ao — a)V, ioo — cov, 

£(S;, iOJV, 

ao — ig, £^c, 
ao — a?, io) — ag. 

n. ao — a, lu — a, £&;, 
ao — /, £&;, 

n. 050 — a, ioi) — a, ica. 

4. We perceive from this, that this declension, known 
under the name of the Attic^ is not an ancient and peculiar 



ao — g, zcog. 

n. ao — v^ sctiv, 


ao — 0, w— 



ao — /, £<y, 


ao — v, ioov. 



ao — ?, wg^ 

n. ao — V, icov^ 


method of inflection,* but entirely follows the second, mi\\ 
those peculiarities, which were introduced by the contraction 
of a in the ordinary way. And these are no other than the 
rejection of the /orm«/ letters 0, g, a, after the vowels con- 
tracted into -ZM ; e. g. (mog,) viuc, temple, (ro avuyccov, avu- 
yaiov,) avojyicov, dining-room, — gen., (yzco-o,) h&/, (ccvojyiaj-o,) 
avMyzco. Dual nom., (vs^y-s,) noj, {kvc^yica-z^ ccvajyico. Plur. 
nom. {avMyioj-ot,), kvojyico, — even cov drops oft' from avuyzm in 
the gen. plur., raJv (J)t.vojyza}-&)v,^ ccvuyzco \'^^^ while in vzug the 
syllables coalesce, (yzco-cov,) vzuv, and v is dropped by several 
in the accus., (yciov,') vzoj and vzojv, {\ayccoq^ Xayug, a hare ; 
accus., "kocyoj. The voc. is the same as the nom. 

Ohs. The accent of the oxytons, e.g. in vit^g, must, according to 

§ XLii, n. 7, obs., be acute in the nom., (vao's,) cswg,— gen., {vM-o,) 
vsw ; whence it follows that it does not deviate from rule.f It 
maintains itself as acute against the weakness of the ; in the nom. 
plur., 01 \iiui; but in the dat. sing., as well as the gen. and dat. dual 
and plural, the acute over the radical o coalesces with the grave of 
the formal vowel in the circumflex: roTv (vao-iv) vsSJv, — gen., ruv 
Ivao-m) viuv, — dat., roTg (va6-!g) viipi. The accentuation of the accus. 
vao-ug not vsug, but vswc, shows that a in the final syllable was thrown 
out (vao-g), vswg. The s is without force, as an inserted letter, and 
has no effect upon the accent, whence, e. g. in dvwysw, avuyiug, the 
acute in spite of the final long vowel stands over the ante-penult. 

5. Examples. 


0, hare, o, temple, ro\ chning-room, 

N. Xayiug, vzug, amyzm, 

G. Xay4 noo, ccvuyzo), 

D. A. Xayo^, VSM, kva)yic>)., 

A. Xay4 viojv, " kvuyicov, 

V. "kayajg, nag, kmyzm. 

* Buttm. copious Gr. Grammar, p. 137. 
-j- Buttm. ut sup., p. 158, oba. 3. 




N. A. 




G. D. 











D. A. 















Obs. 1 To this class belong also a considerable number of proper 

names : Twoaoiuc, B^idpiuc, TaXug, &c., likewise some adjectives : 
'IXsojg, propitious; dyri^Mg, without old age; to which also properly 
pertains avuyiuv (avu, above, and ysa), uTiderstand o'txrifLa, lit. upper 

Obs. 2. — The ace. in u is prevalent in ri sue, the dawn; ace. rriv su, 
and commonly alone in names of places, "A^wg, Kwc, Ksug, Tsug. 
So also, ace. dyyj^co, It/VXsw- 

Obs. 3. — Many vary into the third declension, e. g. xaXwg, sail-rope ; 
gen. xaXw and -/.akuiog ; and nom. rauig, peacock, gen. raw, which 
has also in the nom. ram, gen. ramog. Into the plural of some 
the formation without a enters, e.g. yMXoi, -/.aXovg, not '/.dXtfj, jtaXug. 

6. Contractions of g and of o. — For so, os, and oo, was 
pronounced ov ; g and o disappear before the other vowels in 
this kind of inflection : harkov, oarouv ; vos, voO ; voog, vovg ; 
yoco, vu ; ocrga, htrroi, &c. 

7. Examples. 


0, mind, 

TO, bone, 














































vo6<, m. 




vouv^ vcuv. 





vooig, voig. 




voovg, vovg. 




vooi, m. 



Obs. J. — The nom. dual shows by its accent, that it is formed not by 
contraction, but by doubling of the radical o, before and after which 
the weaker sounds were dropped {vo-o-z, vo-w-g), i/w, (offrs-o-i, oan- 
u~i) ogTU). Here therefore is nothing opposed to fundamental rules,* 
and no contraction. 

Obs. 2. — Since the Greeks were accustomed to such words only in their 
contracted shape, they usually, in the formation of their parts, 
thought no more of the original uncontracted form. Hence the 
compounds of voog and rrXooi throw back the accent, ivvoog, m^irrXoog ; 
contr. ixjvovg, Ti^iTXovc, gen. suvou, crs^i'TrXou, where shvoov, »mou; ingi- 
i-Xoov, ts^/tXoS would be ace. to analogy, svwi instead of ivvoT, except 
that the accent does not fall back on the antepenult; in^i'xXoi, not 
rr'spt'r'Koi, aaMvoug, -/.aKovoi. 

Obs. 3. — In like manner some lose the radical o, e. g. do^v^oog, voc. 
do^v^os, do^v^s, and the names compounded of voog, coiJ?, Uacmg, 
KaXXivog, K^armg, Ev6mog for Haoivovg from Hae'mog, &c. 

Obs. 4). — To xdveov, the basket, and the adj. in -iog remove in contrac- 
tion the accent to the contracted syllable, xavsov, xctnZv; ^guffsos, 
^gutfoug, &c. 

Obs. 5 Accent. In this declension also, words formed directly from 

the root are paroxytons, Xeyog, vfivog, o^x.og, (piXog, Todog, except ffo(p6g, 
xaXog, 7i.a?t6g, he, but those with peculiar syllables of formation arc 
oxytons, apaviff/iog, ^adfiog, eradfiog, TiXavd/^og, xwxuto'j, and those in 
-aog and -(«g, Xaog, Sso'e, xovXiog. In some the meaning changes with 
the accent, vofiog, law ; vo/jbog, pasture-ground ; Xovt^ov, bath ; Xovr^ov, 
water for washing. 

* Buttmann ut sup., p. 155, obs. 2. 






1. The root of the words in this declension is generally 
disguised in the nominative by added vowels and consonants, 
but is to be discovered by taking away og from the genitive. 
E.g. nom. yj 'Trri^u^, the wing; o ^oci^cov^ the deity; o yiydg, the 
giant ; o ^uaiKsug, the king ; gen. -^ri^vy-og, haif/jov-og, yi- 
yavr-og^ ^uaiXs-og, hence roots '^rn^vy, ^oc,i(/jOv, yiyccur, (occfTiXs. 
Thus in order to ascertain the root, we must consider the 
nom. and gen. 

2. We may name the words of the third declension, mute^ 
liquid) pur 6) as their root ends in one of the nine mutes, in 
one of the liquids, ?l, i^, f, or in a vowel, short or anceps (s, 
0, a, /, v). 

3. Examples. 




Tj KocTXcc-^, 

6 l/jTlV, 





the storm. 

the month. 

the priest. 

'/I [Jiici(Trt^f 


'/I odOMg, 




the whip. 

the preserver. 

the shame. 

^ iX'TTig, 

Yl ccAg, 

TO ^dx^Vy 




the hope. 

the sea. 

the tear. 

Obs. 1. — Some roots end in a mute and liquid together, viz. in gx, vr, 
yy (i. e. \)y\ and in %r. See the examples of declension. 

Obs. 2. — The declension is managed here also, by attaching the 
proper termination to the roots of words. 



4. Terminations alone. 




N. commonly g, 


gf, neuter a, 

G. ' og, 



D. A. /, 



A. a, V, 


a?, neuter a, 

V. often as N. 


£C, neuter a. 

Ofo. — It is in this declension that the extension of iv into oiv in the 
dual, marked in the general scheme, takes place. 



1. Paradigms of mutes. 


;j, storm, 

0, love, 

ro^ body, 

n, wmg. 




























A. V. 






D. A. 


' Plural. 
















S^MfflV * ), 

(TCO[JtjCC(TlV * ), 

xrs^v^iv * ), 











*) Obs The dative XaiXa-^iv, s^usiv, cuifLaeiv, Trs^u^/i/, from Xa/Xa- 

'jTCiv, s^carSiVf Cw/AaTC/v, vn^vyG/v, by a known analogy, § xxii. 

2. Paradigms of mutes with liquids, and of those in /cr. 



0, thong, ^, phalanx, 
N. i(jtjug, (pocKccy^f 

G. i(jijcivTog, (pcckccyyoSf 

D. A. IfjijcivTt, (puXocyyiy 
A. tftjoivTUi (paXayyUy 

V. {(jijdcv, (pocXocy^, 

N. A. V. l^dvTiy (pxkccyyz^ 
G. D. A, ifMavTOiv, (poCkayyoiVy 



D. A. 



V/W * 


ri, night, 








* Obs.-^'l/xasiv, ^Xay^iv, vv^iv, fi-om '//lavrffiv, (paXayyeiv, tiuxrm, ac- 
cording to § XXV, 2, 3. 

3, Paradigms of the liquids. 


0, deity. 

ro, fire, 

0, age. 

0, beast. 


h(x,i(jtMVy ' 

' ^i^^» 








D. A. 















N. A. 

V. ^0ii(jj0vSf 




G. D. 

A. hcct(jij6votv, 














D. A. 















* Obs. — Aai/ioen and aiuxfiv instead of 

XXIV, 6. 


bai/ioveiv, aiuvffiv, ace. to ^ 



4. Paradigms of the pure in an anceps. 


ri, sheep, 

^, city, 

6, corpse, 

ro, horn. 


oi?, oig, 





oi'og, oiog. 



nk^oiog, ug. 


OH, on. 


VlKVi, vt, 

Ki^Oi'i, Ul, 


oiv, oh. 











oiz, oh, 



tti^az, d. 


otoiv, oloHv, 




Ki^doiv, av. 


oizg, ohg, oig. 

ToXsg?, iig. 

vzKVig, vg. 

Ki^au, a, 


him, olm. 



ZBgdciJv, Siv, 


oiffiv, Oiffiv, 





oiag, olug, oig, 

'TToKzag, ug. 

viKvag, vg, 

Ki^au, a, 


ohg, ohg, oig. 

ToXseg, stg, 

viy,vig, vg. 

Ki^OiOC, d. 

5. Paradigms of the pure in a short vowel, with contrac- 

6, king, ^, trireme, to, wall, ^, sound, 

^aaikzvg, r§iy]§rig, 727xog, hx'^, 

(oaffiliog, lag, r^in^iog, ovg, rzi%iog, ovg, hx^og, ovg. 



D. A. 

^ciffiXiOi, T§iri§Ba, rj, TiT^og, 

^affiXiv, T-^'^sc, 7&7xog, 

r^;%g£, f}, rsixss, ri, 
rgr/jgioiv, oiv, rzr/joiv, olv. 
jSctc/^ig?, zig, r^t>]§isg, eig, T£/%sa, rj, 
(ioiffiXiojv, r^in^iuv, MV, tuxsojv, 

(5oi(rtAiv(riv, r^r/i^iffiv, nix^div, 
(ooifrr/doig, iig, T^iri^zag, ug,, >?, 
jSaff/Assc, ug, r^i^^&ig, &ig, rzix^fx,, jj, 
6. Examples for exercise in declension. 
a. Mutes. 4. Mutes with liquids. 

1. With p sounds. (f«, vr, and yy, i. e. vy,) 

^ o-v]/, QTog, ■/} <Tu§^, ffcc^xog, 6 ffcorrj^, rrj^og, 

the voice, the flesh, the preserver, 

N. A. V. ^ccfftXk, 
G. D. A. (ouffiXzoiv, 


D. A. 

rixoi, 01, 
vjXOcc, u. 

2d decl. 

2d decl. 



71 Xi^vl'^, i^og, 

yiyag, avrog^ 

the lustral water, 

the giant, 

'^ Kur^ki-^, upog^ 

oihovg, ovTog^ 

the roof. 

the tooth. 

2. With k sounds. 

XaiyI, /yyo?, 

Kri^i)^, VKog, 

the pebble. 

the herald, 

ri mX'Triy^, lyyog. 

71 (pXo^, oyog. 

the trumpet. 

the flame. 

With KT. 

71 %/;, TPi^og, 

6 olvcc^, CCKTOg^ 

the hair. 

the sovereign. 

3. With t sounds. 

b. Liquids. 

TO (poUg, (purog. 

With X, f, f. 

the h^ht, 

7} (pfXorrjg, Tjrog, 

the sea, 

the friendship. 

^^CcXT7]§, %0?, 

ro (SoyXgyjOoa, arog^ 

the harper. 

the counsel, 

;5 p/-^, p/"{^o?, 

TO (/jiXt, irog, 

the nose. 

the honey, 

XSi[J(j&>v, cuvog, 

;j 'TTiKsiocg, cc^og, 

the storm. 

the dove. 

'4'^^, -^d^og, 

;5 ^o^yg, y^oj, 

the starling. 

the helmet, 

"kii/jTiv, hog, 
the harbour, 
ax[/ja)V, ovog, 
the anvil. 

c. Pure. 
1. With an anceps. 
TO ffiXug, ccog, 
the lustre, 
TO yij^ag, uog, 
the old age, 
(AavTig, log, 
the prophet, 
^ "TTiTvg, vog, 
the pine tree. 

2. With £, 0. 
IXzyx^g, sog, 
the infamous, 
'y§ci(pwgy iog, 
the writer, 
TO svxog, sog, 
the wish, 
^ cci^cog, oog, 
the modesty. 



1. Contraction in this declension occurs either in the two 
last syllables of the root, e. g. Tsr'kaKozvT, nom. ifku-KOiig, ifka,' 
Ttovg, gen. irXaKOiVTog, 'jr'kuKovvTog, as in vot.o-g, voco-o of the 
second decl., or in the last radical syllable and the attached 
sounds (%2), k^kocg, kofig. 

2. The contraction in the root maintains itself under the 
form., which it has assumed in the genitive, through the rest 
of the cases : tKoczovvti, TrXaxovncc ; Tii/jTing, Tifij^g, gen. 
TiybnzvTog, Ti[jij7JvTogi ti^^vti; {cpikiovT,^ (pihkuv, (pikuv; (ptXsovTog, 
(piXouvToc, ipiKovvTi ; since it occurs in no pure, and thus the 

H 2 


root, discovered and contracted in the genitive, is always 
protected by its final letters against the influence of the formal 
syllables. Here then there is no need of particular paradigms. 
This contraction occurs in ceo (Ssi^ofpaovr), Hsvo^aJv, Hsvo^^yj'roj, 
in «}■ in &§a('i, 0^af, Q^cczog, in sa in ro la,^, the spring, ^^, 
gen. 'i^^og (with the accent continuing over ;j) ; ^eXsag' (in the 
nom. always open), gen. ^^zhkarog, Viki^Tog; to ffreu^, (Tttj^, 
gen. (TTiaTog, arrjTog ; ro <p?£^f> g^^n. <p^ia,rog, (p^TJTog ; in og in 
T/Va^og/c, 'TchMKOvg (thus formed from the radical sounds ogvr 
before g was extended into gi), gen. ifkot^Kovvrog^ ' A(^udovgy 
'Avh[jtjOvg, 'SfSXivovg, 'Fcci^jvovg, ''Poc^vovvrog ; lastly in rii and eo 
of adj. and part, (pmt^ngy (pmng^ gen. (poov^ivrogy (pChkcav^ (piXiovrogy 
(piXojv, (pikovvrog. 

3. Contraction of the other kind unites. 

ojg, aa, m a, 


oico, m Uy 

iu, gg, — ??, 


iccg, — stg. 

go, OV, 

iCOy eOy 

60/, 0/, 

oUf — a. 

og, — oy, 

/g?, /a?, — /"f , yg?, ya?, — y?, 
in the forms shown by the paradigms, and removes the diae- 
resis of the dat. sing. : o7/, oli ; vzKvi, v'zkvi ; ^ufTiKit, ^aaiXzi. 

Obs. 1. — The contraction sa, £?, — ?j, is found in those in rig, with a 
consonant before tj, and in the neuters in og: r^iTj^rjg, r^irj^sa, r^irj^rj; 
aXridrjg, ra aX'/]6ia, dX»j^^ ; to, n'r/ta, ni^rj; fs — rj fluctuates in 
these last, appearing also in the shape of si : ru yiva from yhog 
becomes rw y£i/»j, but tw cxsAs/^^^ from ro ffzsXog. It is suppressed in 
those in £uc, vc, with s in their inflection : (SaffiXtvg, ^aaiXsd ; yXuKug, 
gen. yXuxsos, ace. yXujcsa with long a, plural, tcc yXyxsa with short 
a ; ^adiXis, yXv/.k. — If a vowel stand before sa, it is contracted into 
a : vyiTjg, byi'sa, uyia. ; ivipv^g, iutpusa,, iv<f)va ; Ils/ga/sug, TLii^aiia, 
Usi^aTa ; ;»;^o£u; (a measure for liquids), ;(;oa, and in the plural sag 
— -Sg : EuCoeuc, EiQosag, EvZoag (Apoll. Alex., ff. 'Avtuv. p. 386, c), 
ayvifvg (pillar or altar sacred to Apollo in the streets), ayvi'sag, ayviag. 

Obs. 2 — Likewise the contraction of «w — u, hi — 07, is limited to the 
above-mentioned words in »is and og: r^i^suv, r^iri^uv (yet auvrjdrig 


has commonly gvvi^dsm afld euvf,6aiv with accent thrown back) ; rn^uv, 
Tiiyoiv, and is suppressed in the rest : (SasiXivg, (SccffiXioov, jSadiXsoiv. 
Even the neuters in 05 frequently omit this contraction: av6og, av- 
6iuv; and so o^suv, ks^Bsuv, &c. But it prevails in the words noticed 
in obs. 1 with a vowel before E: 'E^sr^isvg, gen. 'Egsrg/sws, 'Egerg/ws; 
voKiivg (name of the state -protecting Jove), gen. mXiug ; Usi^anvg, 
gen. Tlsi^aiuc, &c. ' AXiivg, fisherman, maintains its open form, 
aX/sa, aXisocg. 

Obs. 3. Eo remains open in those which have / or u in the nom. : rh 

aOTV, asnog; rrsvs^i, pepper, Tsv^sog; rjdug, fidsog; yXmvg, yXv/iog. 

Obs»^. Oa — u in aidug, aidoa, aidu; ^wg, vjoa, ijco; but perhaps it 

would be more correct to form alUa, aldu ; ^da, ^w, with doubled 
and a thrown away, as is usual in the forms without 2 in the nom- 
inative : ri'^uj, ace. ri^oa, rr/jl) ; ^s/ow, ace. (pudoa, (pii8u>. 

Obs. 5. — In iig, lag, vig, ua$, — ig, us, we must understand an ejection 
of £ and a and an elongation of 1, u. 

§ LVII. 


1. Nominative of mutes. This is formed by the addition 
of 2 to the root in masculine and feminine nouns, with those 
alterations and ejections of mute letters which are thereby- 
occasioned : (oT-?,) o-^ ; (J^oj'Kccz-g,) ^uXal ; (iXx^^-?,) sXtt/? ; 
{yvKT-g, vvz-g,) vv^, vvKrog. The neuters, wanting- this 2, 
suffer the mute to drop oft": (ji^sKir, ro (jbsKi. Comp. the ex- 
amples for declension. The short vowels before the mutes 
remain unaltered : ((pXoy-g,) (pKo^, <p\oyoq ; ((pXsS-c,) (pX^ ; 
except g in {akwrczz-g^^ akuTrii, akuTiKog., a fox. So also 
the ancipites : (ikTio-g,) eX^/V, gen. IXTilog ; ^oJacc?, ^u- 
KoiKog, and hence KaT^Ai-^, not zcir'/jXi'^y, gen. H.aT'/!Xi<pog ; 
many however have already in the root the vowel naturally 
long : /soa|, li^dzog ; ^co§a,^, '^oj^dx.og ; ola§, o'iccKog ; Oa/a^, 
(Paidxog ; pi-^, pi-rog ; ^^/?, (poix.og ; •r&^'hi^, "Tti^Uog ; <^oml^ 
^oivifcog; rirrt^,Tir7i'yog; [JMffTi'^, (^dariyog ; -d^Tz, ■<^rxflg ', and 


many with t sounds which are almost universally oxyton and 
feminine : (iccX^ig, -I'^og ; KrjXig, -7'6og ; !cvyj(i>Ig, -7log, &c. The 
following alone are accented on the penult : o^vig, -i0og ; 
ayXtg, -ihg ; [MoijbTg, -idog. — Also v in f3o/oo€u?, -vx,og ; ^o/^t)?, 
-v>cog; z'/i§v^, -vzogy zokzu^, -vyog* 

Obs. — From the collision of vrg the following necessary alterations 
arose: [yiyoivr-g, yiyavg,) y'lyag, yiyavrog; (oSoir-g,) odo\Ji, odovTog; 
{ruipdivT-g, Tu<p6iig,) TV(pdsvrog; [bsixvuvr-g,) dn'Mug, -vvrog. Aswi/, Xsovrog, 
lion, varying from this, has in the nom. a root without t as the basis : 
Ksov, Xiuv, like {dai//,ov,) daifx,ui/, corap. Lat. leo, leonis. N maintains 
its place before 2 in (iK(jjivd-g,) sXfiivg, sX/iivdog ; Ti^uvg, Ti^uvdog. 

2. Nominative of liquids. Only in neuters does the short 
vowel of the root remain unaltered : ro i^ro^, to olppeu, and 
doubles itself in the rest: (^toijmv,) iroi^rjv^ -mg; (bcx,i(j!jOv,') 
^ai(Jboov, -ovog. Elongation of the ancipites occurs only in 
(^(jijiXav,') ^AXdg, [MXa.vog ; ruXoig, rakolvog; tD^, irv^og^ since 
in the rest they are raidically long : -v^a^, -^oi^^og ; Kct^, Ka^oc, 
Carian ; Uaidv, Uaiavog ; Uuv, Ilccvog. Into those in Tv, vv, 2 
generally enters: uzrig, -hog, "ig^ 'ivog; ^Ig, ^Tvog; 'EXsyc;"?, 
^aXa[Mlgy ^o^Kvg, ^o^Kvvog, To^rug, -vvog. Of Jv without 2 
some traces appear in the latter use of S^/v, hx<pii/. In Roman 
names, s of the syllable ENS, passes into H: (^KX&iJbsiig,) 
KXifjuT^g, KXifjtjZvrog, Clemens, OboCXrig, OvdXivrog, Valens. 

Obs. — I remains unaltered in r/, rig, rivog, under its several meanings. 
E passes into s/ in the monosyllables ; (iv,) ilg, hog, xnig, xrsvog. 

3. Nominative of pures. The termination of these is 

* Concerning the accent of ytyi^d'^, <pohT^, &c., see Schaefer ad Soph. 
Philoct., p. 347. Since the old Grammarians, in the face of analogy, 
reckoned the vowel of these nominatives short, notwithstanding its length 
in the other cases, and so wrote ?c5jgu^, pom^, they could do so only in 
consequence of a vicious pronunciation, already introduced in their days. 
Still later, the oblique cases were pronounced XTj^vxog, kc, like av&^u'wog, 


-sometimes in one of the ancipites. E 
assumes 2 and doubles itself: (r^r/ios,) T^i^^'/jg, -iog; {aXyi&z,^ 
6 oCKriOrig ; except in the neuter of adjectives, to aX/i0ig, to 
ciff^ccXig, &c. O passes into Cl : rixoj, KXhoj, tsi^m ; gen., 
'/JXo-og, vjxpvg, Ky.siovg, Iliidovg ; and assumes 2 in ^ cci^cug ; 
gen., uthoog, uihovg. Anomalous is ((3o,) j8oD?, ^oog. A 
appears unaltered in neuters with 2 added to it : to a'lkccg^ 
(TiKccog ; I, lengthened with 2 in %Ig, Kiog, ace, fcIVy the corn- 
weevil ; short in pollysyllables, ToXig, 'lOPtg. T is long in 
h§vg, ^ovog ; (Jtjvg, (Jjvog; lyjvg, lyjijog ; 'E^;vvi)?, -vog^ &c.: in 
neuters it has no 2, and is short ; e. g. to ^dx,§v, 'hdz^uog. 

Obs The neuter substantives in £, T£/p^of, rs/j^soj, rj^og, iZ-/jocy &c. are 

formed anomalously, inasmuch as their nominative changes the weak 
syllable s; {rir/i-i;), into og {riiyjtg). Those in sus and aug have been 
introduced among the pure roots only by the attenuation of the r: 

(iSaSiXifg, vafg,) (SaGiXsvg, vauj. 

4. Genitive. The / of most pures in /c, as well as the 
V of many in vg and v, passes into s, in the gen. and dat. 
singular, dual, and plural : 'TroXig, itoXzog^ -TtoXii; irnyygt '^^- 
X^^'it "^hx^i ; and so "TToXioiVy xrjy^ioiv, ttoKscov, 'xokiai, &c. 
The of this form is by the Attics doubled into cn)'. 'irokiug^ 
dual, ToKzojv, and also that of nouns in ivg ; (iufftXsug, (ooctri- 
Ascog ; h^svg, h^'icog ; in some of which the g is dropped ; yoivgy 
X'Jicog, xooog ; Hsi^aizug, Yln^aioog. This s is also properly 
mute, even in the plural, and not accounted a syllable : 'jroXicov, 
'Tryj'/iojv ; TroXzcog, 'irriyjoog. 

5. Accusative, Tlie pures, of which the nominatives are 
/c, vg^ avg, and oug, end the accus. sing, in v ; those in ig at 
the same time resuming their / : xoKig, (ooT^ug, vccvg, ^ovg ; 
gen. TToXsoi/g, (ooTovog, vaog, (Soog ; ace. voKtv, (ioT^uu, vccvv, 

Obs. — Paroxytons in ir, iS, td, v&, have both forms : 'h xa-^ii, ace. %af/i/ 
and "^a^ira ; 'i^ig, ace. 'ipha, and 'i^iv ; o^wg, ace. o^vtv and oovi&a, ; xo^yj, 
ace. Ko^uda and xo^uv. So also rroXuToug, rrdkiinrow, and ToXucroSa, the 
form in a being the poetic. Xao/$, as " one of the Graces," has 
always Xa»/7-K, 


6. The vocative is commonly like the root; e. g. ^yyctTiij^, 
loci[/jm, pyiroo^, (ior§vg, 'ZoXig ; gen. ^yyarg^oj, loii(jt,ovog, pyiro§og^ 
(ior^og^ '?r6}jog ; voc. ^vyccrs^y p^T-o^, laTjjjOVy j^or^Vy 'ttoKi. So 
NgjM/Sc/, ^vvioi (Porson ad Eur. Phceniss.^ 187 J- The r after 
V di'ops off' from the root : KaX%a?, KaX^avroj, KaX^^av ; 
0oa?, ©oaf ; Aia?, ATav ; %af /£/?, ^a^/svro?, xa^^sv f Venet. 
Schol., ad Il.y cif S6). Some suffer the {/ likewise to drop, 
and lengthen the u: "ArXag, "ArXocvrog, "Arka ; lloXvla,(Jbcigy 
TloXvhdi/jOi ; as also § in 'irocTg, 'Tratbog, Ta7; "A§rs[/jig, A^Tk^/ji- 
^0?, "A^nybi ; Aa;^/, rv^avvi^ and even ;t ; yy>^, yvvcciKog, yvmiy 
and aval, oivccKTog, civa, as well as aVa|. In the rest the 
mutes retain the g added to the nom., and the pures in s (gy?,) 
and y lose it: 'i^ug, ^OKTiX&vg, vavg ; voc. 'i^atgy ^ocffiXsvy vccv. 
O passes into oi : cclhajg^ cci^6-og, oclhoi ; h%^^ W/P' 

Obs. — A vowel originally long, remains long also in the vocative : w 
lYKdrm, oi fiXorrii, &c. The vowel that is made long remains so in 
oxytou substantives ; as, vot/xyiv, -mg, u rroifiTjv. On the contrary, it 
is shortened in 'AtoXXwi/, Uofuduv^ auryj^, voc. "AffoXXoi', TlodBidov, 
ffuTi^, both the last with the accent thrown back, as likewise w -rargg, 
avip, 8agg, from Tarri^, dvrj^, 8ar]^. 

7. The dative plural retains v in those in evg, avg, ovg : 
^oiffiXivg, (ici(TiX&v(Ti ; mvg, vavffi; (Bovg^ ^ovai; and undergoes 
the alterations required by the admission of <r in ff/ ; vy^, vu- 
KTog {vvKr(ji\ vv^t; ohoOg, ohovTog (o^ovT<r<), ohovffi. 



1 . Some words in ;j^, -a^oj, throw away the g before the f , 
in the gen. and dat.,(^' and so exhibit a double form : root, 
Targ^, nom. Tar^g", gen. -rarg^o? and Turgog ; so that now the 
one, now the other, appears in the common dialect. After 
the letter v, when it is brought into collision with ^ in such 
forms, a ^ is added in order to soften the sound : ccne, nom. 



ai'%, gen, (av^o?,) ccvhoog. 

and in the 

dat, plur. a, after the 

abbreviated root (■rafs^fl'/, 

Tocr^fft), 'TTOir^dai. So also {ocn^at. 

awS^ffi,) avh^dai. 

^2. Paradigms. 


0, father. 

0, man, 





TOtTS^g^ TOiT^Ogy 

avs^og, ocvl^og, 

D. A. 

TOiTSPl, 'TFCCr^i, 

oui'i^iy avh^iy 



a/s§Dc, avhgUy 





N. A. V. 


afgfg, oivh^i, 

G. D. A. 



avi^oiv, a,vh^6ivy 



oivs^&g, oivh^zg. 


Tccrk^ajv, irocr^oivy 

cc'A^coVy avlouv, 

D. A. 


(afS^Ci) ccvh^atTi, 



avk^ccg^ avh^ocgy 



ccvsgsgy oivh^sg. 

Obs. — ArifirjTTj^, the uanie of Ceres, has the accus. also without i, 
A^//,93rga. Here the accent moves back, although in other instances 
it stands universally over the last syllable of the abbreviated form : 
■jraTgds, -jrarg/, 'xar^uv ; except in the dat. plur., where it stands over 
the penult: 'zar^dffi, dvd^dffi, &c. 

3. Examples: 

ccffrri^y acrr^ogy the star, dat. plur. anr^fkai ; AT^ffj^rrjo, 
ArifjtjriT^og, Ceres, ^ (Ji^rirrig, [Jb/jT^ogy the mother, ;; ^yoir'/igy 
^vyoiT^og, the daughter, (a^^jJ',) agvog, a lamb, ^ yacr^^, 
the belly, ynar^og. 



1. That is called anomalous^ which is inconsistent with 



the prescribed laws of formation ; e. g. when from x^i'^f 
nom. %a^/?, not xd^ihog but %a^/rof appears in the genitive ; 
when roots end in a long vowel, gen. T^oj-og, '^[jjco-og, and the 

2. The anomaly is analogous^ or has analogy^ when it 
recurs in several forms. Examples will appear as we proceed. 

3. JVords u'hich are injlected according to two declen- 
sions. (The numbers designate the declension.) 

Nom. 3, Ol^Tovg and 1, OihiTrohrig. Gen. 3, Olhi'Trohog 
and 1, O/^/To^ou, &c. 

^MK^uT'/ig, gen. 3, 2(i;;i^aroy?. Ace. 3, 1<coK^dr'/i, 1, Ssy^g-a- 
r;jv. So Ayi[MO(rdiV'/ig, &c. ^r^s-^/za^^jc, voc. Sr^s-v^/a^s?.* The 
same variations in the pi. 1, ' A^i<Tro(pccvcci, rovg ^.M^c^urug, 
3, KXii(T0smg. 

Nom. 3, "Krzozkrjg. Dat. 2, 'Er2o;^X(i^. Ace. 3, 'Erso- 
;cX^, &c. 

Nom. 2, ^ TT^oxoog^ ovg, the ewer. Dat. plur. 3, ivQpxovGiv. 

Nom. 3, ro -rj}^, the fire. Dat. pi. 2, itvQ^olg^ watch-fires. 

Nom. 2, ro '^d/i^uoi/, 3, ro ^d^^v, the tear. Gen. Icck^vov 
and ^u,K^vog. So o (TKupog, oy, and ro CKv^pog, 5og, the cup. 
So also (TKorog, darkness, o;^o?, a chariot, &c. To /C^ivov, the lily, 
ra zoivza, ro Vzv^^ov, the tree, Tot ^sf^^sa, Vivh^zcti. 

Nom. 3, ©aX^?. Gen. 1, QaXzoo, later, 1, QocXov, and 
3, &oiX'/iTog. Dat. 1, ©aA?;, later, 3, QdX'/jri. Ace. 1, 0a- 
X^j/, later, &dXrjru. 
Nom. 3, "A^^^i:, Mars, 3, "A§iog. Ace. 1, "A^pjy.t 

4. The root ^ot^rv^ exchanges its ^ for g in the nominative : 
f/joi^Tvg, the \vitness, y^oj, y^;, yv. Dat. pi. i/jd^rv(Ji. 

5. The following roots extend their short vowel when g 
is added to the nominative : 

6 KTitg, '/cnvog, 
the comb. 

'7ro\ (to^j,) 
'TTOVg, -TTO^og, 

the foot. 

%o, (%oc,) 
the measure. 

|3o, (3o?>|^«^. bos,) 

6 (iovg, (ooog, ace. 
jSoyf, the ox, pi. 

* In Aristoph. Nub., 1208. (1206. W.) 

f Bruvick ad .^scli. Pers., 84 (86, W.), and ad Eur. Phoeniss , 133, 
947. (134, 933, 1006, W.). 


(3o£?, (iovc, ^ou(Ji, ^oag, (^ovg. So also x^vg (measure for 
liquids), x^'^g, xo'i', %ouv. Plur. %o£j, x^^'^'i X^^^-> together with 
the forms from %02yc. Gen. ^oixJ?, ace. %oa, xoag. 
6. Roots, which end with a long vowel : 

a. 6 T^cijg^ T^co-og, ^(Jbijg, ^[jm-oc, 6 [jtjr]r^!>jg, [jj^ir^aj-og^ mother's 
brother, 'jra.rocog, father's brother, j^^mc, n^coog, &c., end 
their roots with m : Tpo;, (Jji^rcco, &c. Af/Jjg, which 
arises out of ^(Laog (B^ooaa;, I subdue) ; and T^oo from 
Tgifl ill Tg^o/c^, evince that we should consider these roots 
not as original, but as contracted or elongated. 

b. Yi y^Kug (^Germ. die Grcme), the old woman, and tj vavg, 
the ship, gen. yodog, vdog, close their roots, ygd, vd, with 
long a, which arises from the Ionic tj, ygrj, v/j (y^Jjyc, 
vriiig), which, again, springs from s, y^s and vs. The 
primitive root y§& displays itself in the Germ, greis^ the 
root n in the Ionic gen. vzog^ ace. v'zcc, he. 


^, ship, ^, old woman, 

N. vDcvg^ ygoivg, 

G. vocog and viojg, y^ocog, 

D. A. vyi's, y^oii\ 

A. vavv, ygocvv, 

V. vav, 7i<^^i 


N. vrjzg, yocizgy y^ocvg, 

G. vioiv, yoocaJv, 

D. A. 



A. vcivg, y^clccg, y^ocvg. 

Obs. — From •)(ga. in %gaw, %g^^/, I want, is formed, %^ao5, %^£W5, as 
from Xads, Xsw^. Gen. again (phases) %g£w$. Ace. (j^gaea) %jsa. 

7. Words with roots of different forms. 
P f oar, nom. ou?, an ear. 

I oiT^ gen. lairo?. 
p. f Kvov, nom. ;£yiyj', a dog. 
I Kvv^ gen. Kvvog. 


T-, iyvvcc, nom. ^ yvvri, the woman, 
rrom i ' 

iyuvonK, gen. yvvaizog. 

■r. (yccXoc, nom. ro ydXcc, the milk. 
From -! ' - /. 

lyaAocKT, gen. yccXaKTog. 

j^ i^opv, nom. ro ^o^y, the spear, 
rrom ^ v, v/ 

loo^ccT, gen. oo^arog. 

jj Jt^^oo, nom. TO vhcog, the water, 
x^rom "i fv r/v. 

(yoar, gen. voccrog. 

Obs. 1. — We perceive that the forms olg and urog proceed from the 
different contractions of the root oar. The first is seen in the Epic 
form ra (Aiara,. The root of the nom. occurs again only in the voc. 
and in neuters also in the ace. sing. : c5 xjov, S) yhvai (as before w 
a/6o? from the root ouho). However yw^i and yaka, may be explained 
likewise by the abjection of the consonants x, xr. — Like S^wg is cxoi^ 
gen. gKccTog fLat. scaturire), dung. 

Obs. 2. — The neuters in og appear also to have double roots : ro nT/og, 
gen. rii-)(iog, the wall ; ro rsZ-xog, rsv^iog, the tool ; ro ii)y(^og, tv^eog, 
the wish, &c. ; but this is only apparent. The roots rsf^s, riv)(i, 
i-j^i, assumed, like those in a (e. g. rh dXag) the g : rnyjg, rsv^ig, 
iv-Xig, and the more slender sound of s was raised to that of o : rt7- 
Xog, &c. 

8. We must particularly observe, in addition : vlog., 'Lzvg, 
Xii§- These were declined from the roots : 

Zs, Z;jv, and A/. x^f ^^^^ %^'f- 

Jupiter, h-> hand, 

Zgy?, ^ %g/f^, 

A/-<5? and Z^voc, xz^og and %£/fo?, 
A;'/' and Z^v/, %2^/ and ^s/^/, 
A/a and Z^va, %2^a and X2<fa, 
Zsy, ^g/^, 

wanting, )^s^g and yji^i. 


N. y/o/and y/gi? (y/ggc), wanting, -^gfg? and 'x;g/fg?, 

VI and y/g. 

0, son. 




y/-oy and y/g-o?, 


A. y/-aJ and y/g?, 


yZ-ev and y/ga. 








G. uiaf, wanting', %Sf^J' iH'fl yj^^^^v^ 

D. A. vloig and y/s(T/, /C^f^r/, 

A. vlovq, Xfi^^^^ 

V. y/o/ and y/s/?, PC^^^g and yji^zg. 

9. A at the close of the root passes sometimes into r : 
Xoi>^i^i nom. %a^/?, gen. )^a^;^o? and ^tk^iTog. So Sirtg, gen. 
Qirihog and Qirirog. 

10. The # sounds and v at the end of the root are fre- 
quently thrown away, whence arise contractions according to 
the rules formerly given, or the ace. ends in v. Thus are 

a. r. Dat. xd^iri, %a^"5 X'^^^^ ^^^^ X'^f'^j 0sr;i/. Also, 
'I'h^ojg, sweat, dat. 'i^q^oiti and 'i'h^coi, J'^f^, ace. 'i})^cora, 
(J'^^sya), 'i^^co, with cc thrown away, 70 yJz^ag^ the horn, 
gen. Ki^oiTog, ^ci^ocog^ KZ^ojg, &c. 

b. §. r, ^?.g/c, the key, gen. zXzihog., ace. kKzIv, as if the 
root were xXzi, not ;«X£/^. So 71 (Jj^rig^ wisdom, gen. 
(jj^irthog and jM/^r/oc, ace. [/j^rtv, &c. 

c. S^. o^f/g, a bird, o^vidog, ace. o^v/^a and o^wi', and as 
accessory forms in the pi. o^vs/^ and o§vim. Ko^yj, a 
helmet, gen. zo^udog., ace. kopv^oc and «o^yv. 

<^. V. ' AToKkcovoi, (JAi^ovK (^' AToXkcooc, (Jjii^ooc), ' AxoXkof, 
fjbit^co. Several lose 1/ in the nom. : ;; urihajv and o(,rih&>, 
the nightingale, gen. arj^ouog and (ayjhoog) a^houg, ace. 
a'/jhovcc, and a?j^^. So eiKiu, an image, xzhihu., a swallow, 
Fo^yiy, prop. name. 

Ofe. — TloCithuv (from -aoji/) has ace. Uosud&i, and voc. IIoVs/Soi', for 

1 1 . The roots, which end in two separate vowels, e. g. 
kKsz in 'UpoizXiTig, contracted 'H^cczXijg, Us^ixXii^g, Us§iPik>jgy 
&c., fall under the common contraction of those in g, and in 
some instances admit of a twofold contraction. 

N. Ue^izkirig^ YlBgizXfjg, 

G. Ili§iKkh-og, Yli^iKhkovg, 

D. A. lis^iKkk-i, Ils^t/iKki, Us^ixXsi, 

A. rig^/^Xes-a, Hs§ix,Xicc, and (crs^/^X-gs-a) TlsgixX>j, 

V. Hs^UXszg, Hs^i/cXstg. 

So also roV 'H^a«X^ and voc. w "H^a;cXgf, but only in vulgar 




1. The gender, as has been ah*eady shown in the second 
declension, is not determined by particular terminations, 
since words of the same termination are frequently of dif- 
ferent sexes. We subjoin a list of words according to their 
terminations in the order previously observed, noticing at the 
same time that which is necessary for ascertaining the gender. 

a. Mutes. 

2. Those are masculine or feminine, of wliich the roots 
end in a p sound. 

T, f3, (p. 
Masculine. Feminine. 

y^^dy-v]/, TO?, dropsy, ;; XcxjXcc-^, to?, tempest, 

6 xocXv*^, (oog, steel, ^ o-x^, orog^ voice, 

6 y^y-^, y^vTrog, griffin, -Jj %sfw-v^, ^og, lustraJ water, 

&c. jj (pXi-^, (iog, vein, 

jj KcxXccv^o-^^ TO?, shepherd's crook. 

3. Masculine or feminine, or both, are those in a A: sound. 

^. 7^ X- 
Masculine. Feminine. 

o' av^pai, Kog, coal, tj (oojXu^, «o?, clod, 

T/vai, «o?, tablet, ;j hCkuitrit,^ nog, fox, 

o^rv^^ yog, quail, 7} jW/acr/f, yog, whip, 

[jbv§[jj'/i^, Kog, ant, vj (pXo^, yog, flame, 

o' (po/v/|, iKog, palm-tree, h ^^/1, t^iyog, hair, 

&c. 71 ^iS)^v\, xog, canal, 


Both together. 

yj ai'l, alyoc, goat, 6 rj avkat,, zog, furrow, 

ri (pvXoi^, Kog, guard, o r} |8jj?, /3?j)^o?, cough, 


4. Of those in a # sound are, 
a. Masculine, those in ur'. 



6 yiXug, eorog^ laughter, Except two: 

locog, curog, love, ro oug, corog, ear, 

(pug, (poorog, man, &;c. to (p£g, pajTog, light 

b. Feminine, those in ;jr, h, and S^: 

^ Iffdfig, /JTog, clothing, 
^ Tccyjjrrig^ i^rog, celerity, 
^ (piAor^g, '/jrog, friendship, 

XsS^?, pjro?, caldron. 

^ o^vig, i&og, bird, 
^ ;co^y?, v6og^ helmet. 

7} Xa^'TTag, ccdog, torch, 
^ "Trzkiiag, dhog, dove, 
71 'i^ig^ i%g^ strife, 
^ kX-TTig, ihog^ hope, 
^ y)\OL^vg^ vbog^ cloak. 

Tou?, ^o§of, foot, ;; 'Tcaig^ 'zaihog, child. 

c. Neuter, those in ar, /r : 
TO aoiiLoc, arog, body, to ic^icng, arog, flesh, 

ro ^jM/Oco, ccrog^ day, ro ;^2oa?, aro?, horn, 

70 yovv, arog, knee, to [jij'sXt, iTog, honey. 

TO ^o^y, aroc, lance. 

Obs. — It appears then, that in mutes the neuter gender is excluded 
from the p and k sounds, and that the t sounds are masculine, 
feminine, or neuter, as they end in wr, or tjt, d, S, or ar, it. 

b. Liquids. 
5. M is never found at the end of the root, and X only in 
ciXg (o oiXg, salt, ;; ciXg, the sea), so that v and ^ alone remain 
to be distinguished. 

6. Of those in v are, 
a. Masculine, sj-, -/jv. 

6 avxhi s*'o?, neck, 
A/ja/^y, ivog, harbour, 
6 ToiiJjrjv, ivog, shepherd, 
TvdiJjriv, evogy bottom, 
6 xTsig., KTZvog^ comb, &c. 

yb'/iv, (Jij^ivog, month, 


^ X'Ji', X^JJ^o?, goose, 

^ vio(Lyjv^ rjvog, new moon. 



Ti (p^^v, ivog^ mind, 

b. Masculine or feminine, or both, those in ov and m. 

Masc. Fem. 

'bccif/jcov, ovog, deity, ^ ^/^yv, ovog^ snow, 

ax[jijai>, ovog, anvil, ^ ax^yjluv, ovog, grief, 

^ysfijcuv, ovog, leader. ^ )|^jK/^ftli', oi^oj, swallow, 

Masc. and fem. 
^ a?j^<s)v, ow?, nightingale, o ^ ccXizr^VMV, ovog, fowl. 

Masc. Fem. 

yj^i^jojv, ojvog, storm, ti aXcov, avog, threshing-floor, 

rikot,^cov, oivog, belt, tj ykj^yjuv, avog, penny-royal, 

ayojv, mog, contest, jj f/jrjKuv, covog, poppy, 

iruyuv, mog, beard, t] t^'/j^cuv, uvog, dove. 


Masc. and fem. 
^ oclojv, ojvog, life, o ^ zuhoov, mog, bell. 

^ avkav, mog, defile, 

c. Feminine, those in iv : 

7} pig, ivog, nose, Except, 

Tj &)hlg, Ivog, birth-pain, o 'hi\(pig, Ivog, dolphin. 

^ (x,x.rig^ 7vog, ray, &c. 

Masc. and fem. 
^ '^ig, '^mg, heap, shore. 
7. Of those with ^ are, 

a. Masculine, those in ^f, 0^, la;^, v^i 

6 ffcury;^, rj^og, preserver, p^ra^, ogog, orator, 
^noffTrjg, jj§og, girdle, TravToz^droj^, o§og, supreme ruler, 

ff-TTtv^rj^, ^gog, spark, yjyrjTco^, o§og, leader, 

&c. &c. 

Except, Except, 

^ KTj^, KTj^og, fate, tj ccXszrco^, o^og, wife, 

^ clci>§, o^og, wife, 
TO do^, do^ogy sword, 
TO rjro^, o^og, heart. 



jM/ag^y?, v^og, witness, 

-v^/^yg-, v^og, whisper, 

"IXXyg-, y^o?, Illyrian, &c. 

TO Tryg", "TTv^og, fire. 


;; ui0'/i§, i^og, ether, 
;; a^g", g^o^, darkness, 
-TTurrj^y §6g, father, 
acr^^, g'O^', star. 


-v^a^, -^oc^ogf starUng, 
i/ju^oc^^ ^og, fool, 
;5 oag', oa^oj, wife. 

/%4»f, a/fio?, ichor, 
(pa/g, (pcij§6g, thief, 
ap(^iy^, %o?, ulcer. 

ro g'Xijy^, oogog, prey, 
ro g?i^<s;^, ty^o?, wish, 
TO -TTsXcug, oj^og, monster. 

b. Feminine, those in g^ 

57 yj'S^ %s?«'^; hand, 
;7 Yacrrjp, ^oc, belly, 
)5 (^riT'/j^, §Gg, mother, 
yj ^v/aTTj^i §6g, daughter. 

c. Neuter, those in cc§ : 

ro vixra^, ocgog, nectar, 
TO ovoi§ (indecl.), dream, 

TO 'iccp, rjg, ^og, spring, 
TO Kia^, x,7i^i §og, heart. 

Obs Among tbe liquids the neuter is restricted to the roots in ^. 

Those in v are masculine or feminine, those in g are masculine, 
feminine, or neuter, as they end in ?5g, o^, ug, vg, or 5j or ct^. 

8. Those in a mute with a liquid are, 

a. Masculine in ur: 
6 ii/jccgy avTog, thong, 
avh^icigf dvrog, statue, 
^^dfccov, ovTog, serpent, 
ohovg, ohovTog, tooth. 


b. Feminine in vy: 
vj (pd^ocy^^ yyog, ravine, 
ri (pS^^iyl, lyyog, lyre, 
ri "kvyl, vyyog^ lynx, &c. 

ri Ta^af, ccvTog^ Tarentum, 
;; ' Az^dyocg^ a^ro?, Agrigentum. 

7j (pd^vyl, yyog, throat, 
ri Kcc^vy^, yyog, throat, 
........ . ^ ^ (paXccyt,, yyog^ phalanx. 

Add n hoi(Jba§, a^Tog, spouse, and with ;tr, to ydKa, yaXa- 
KTog, milk, ^ i/y|, vvKTog, the night. 

c, Pures. 
9. Masculine, are those in in s, nom, syj, and co : 



j^occtXivg, za^g^ king", o ^jO/oig, is;o?, slave, 

h^ivg, ieog, priest, 6 t^^&ic, uog, hero. 

cc§i(TT&vg, ecog, chief. 

10. Feminine, are those in /, o, a : 


?j 'TToXig, scog, city, Except, 

y; hvvci[jtjig, sag, power, o pcig, Kiog, corn weevil, 

^ '7r^oit,tg, sag, action, o Xig (Xtg, "kiog), lion, 

^ STihsi^ig, 2cog, exhibition. o ^ 0(^/j, s^?, serpent, 

^ TT^oiJbuvrig, ecog, prophet, 

^ alhojg, oog, shame, ri rf/Jj, oog, echo. 

^ vaCij, f«o^, ship, ^ ygavg, y^aog, old woman. 

11. Neuter, those in a and g, nom. o? : 

ro y^giag, uog, old age, ro Tzt^fig, sog, wall, 

ro csTiag, aoj, lustre, ro revxpg, eog, vessel, 

TO liTag, aog, cup. ro zv^og, sog, wish. 

1 2. MascuHne, feminine, or neuter, those in v : 

Masc. Fern. 

l-x^dvg, vog, fish, ;j yyjgvg, vog, voice, 

arayjjg, vog, ear of corn, jJ uTjlvg, vog, belly, 
i/£«y^, vog, corpse, ^ 'iyyfkvg, vog, eel, 

(i6r§vg, vog, bunch of grapes. ^ zida^iffrvg, vog, art of play- 

[ing on the harp. 
Masc. and fern. 
0, ^, vg, vog, swine, &c. 
TO Tcuv, zog, flock, ro aGrv, iog, city, 

ro yovv, ccrog, knee, ro vd^rv, vog, mustard. 

13. Accent of this Declension. The words with a mono- 
syllabic root, and hence monosyllabic in the nominative itself, 
are always oxyton, with the exception of those which have 
doubled the vowel in their nominative, (Jjrjv, ^%, <p^2/f , %i/f, ^4» 
'ig. Sec, but TTy^, avg, (Lvg, &c. Also the contracted ((pao,) 
<p&>g, light, (oar-?,) ovg, (voi'ig,) raig, have the circumflex. 


14. These words remove, in the gen. and dat., their accent 
to the final syllable, where, as circumstances may require, it 
is sharp or circumflex : (jjrjv, (JjTjVoc, (M'/jvi, (mj^voTv, (Jj)^vm</^ /^--Wj 
but ftjjjvcc and [jj^vag ; (pojg, <purog, (puToov, &c. Except the 
following genitives plural : 'ha^cov from ^aj, ^a^og, torch, 
^ojuv from '^ojg^ '^mg^ jackal, 'zai'hoov from TTulg, 'xdvrojv from 
Toig, T^uoov from T^ojg, (pojrcov from <^Zg (but (pcuraiv from (pojg, 
(purog, a man), arcov from ovg, urog. 

15. With regard to words of a polysyllabic root, all the 
neuter substanstives are accented on the first syllable, as long 
as the nature of the syllables permits : ffaJjC/za, fTiofjuarog, Gco[jj(i- 
ruv ; ccyyzk^a, kyyiki^ccrog ; p/yoj, gen. piyovg, cold, &c. 
Farther remarks are required, therefore, only for masculines 
and feminines. 

16. Mutes of this kind in p and k sounds are always 
accented on the penultimate : %a|, auXaf , x'^gv^, 'poivi'i, 
"A^ci-^, XaiKu-^p, Al0io-\p. Of those in t sounds the words in 
r and ^ have commonly the same accentuation : o§vig, o^vidog ; 
X^§i?i %ac/roj ; ipiXor'/jg^ (piXorrjTog ; spcog^ spcurog. Some in T'/;g 
vary : rccxOr/jg and rccypTYig ; or are accented only on the last 
syllable : ^riiorrig, hostility, -TTorrjg, di'ink, '^OTtjrog (different 
from nt'orrig^ -ov, a drinker); so also l^pojg^ ll^curog^ sweat. 
Those in h have the last syllable accented : 'TrsXsia.g, -cchogy 
dove, Xci(Jb'^a,g, -uhog, torch, g/\.9r4, IhTrihog ; KVJ^iJbtg, Kvyjiuhog; 
except e^<?, 'i^i^og, strife, and the feminine words derived from 
masculines by a change of termination, which keep the accent 
of their primitive : litT'Trorigy mistress, from hcrTOTfigy '^ttcc^ti- 
drig from 'l.'TrapriKrrjg. 

17- The liquids of this kind are generally accented on the 
end of the root : toiijj^v, svog, uKrig, 7vog, aXyyih&jv, ovog^ grief, 
aojryjp, rj^og, preserver, /%i^^, oo^og. Except "Y.h\riv, and in the 
nominative Suyar;;^, jV^t?;^* iivdrrj^, of which the other cases 
are marked ^vyccrigog, (j^'/iTi^og, except the vocative, M'hich has, 
following the analogy of the nominative, ^vyars^^ (^>J7Z§, 
iivuTi^. Also those in icov^ a^, v^ ; as, K^oviouVf ou^avicuvsg, 
(/ja§7ug, v^og, and several of those in m and ug. Comp. n. 6 
and 7 in this §. 

18. The pures of this kind are variously accented, and 
have the tone, 

I 2 


a. Upon the last syllable of those in gy?, &;?, <y, and many 

layjjg^ ya&ao^arvg^ &c. 
h. Upon the penultimate of those in ig and some in vg : 
TvKig, ilptg, r^a^ig^ y'ivug, ar6i,-)Q)g ; or the antepenult, as 
^um(jijigy "TiXiKugy &c. 

§ LXI. 


1. The adjective (^ovofjucc IxidsTtKov, i'Trtdsrovy nomen adjec' 
tivum,) is so closely connected with the substantive {'TT^oari- 
yo^iKov\ that both may be conceived as forming- one idea ; 
e. g. the green ivood^ the greenwood, 

2. Hence the adjective has all peculiarities of form, 
namely, gender, number, case, in common with the substan- 
tive, and must, in order to betoken the different sexes, have 
different terminations ; e. g. o yM^og KJ^Trog, the beautiful 
garden, jj xaX^ ohog, the beautiful way, ro xaXov (roj[/ja, the 
beautiful body. 

3. When time as well as property is expressed by the 
adjective, it is called participle {[JijiTO-x/], participium)^ i. e. 
an adjective which has a share in the time-word {^yuZTiy^i 
rov pyiiJjccTog, particeps est verbi\ and, like it, includes the 
notion of time ; e. g. ccv/jo rig (pi^J^aagy a man having-loved 
(a man who has loved)^ where (piknaotg not only expresses a 
property of avri^y but also that this property no more belongs 
to him. 

4. Participles have a separate form to denote each separate 
gender, — are adjectives of three terminations. Such likewise 
are many other adjectives. The termination for the feminine 
is always declined according to the first declension ; that for 



the masculine according to the second or third; and that for 
the neuter is determined by the masculine. E. g. 





5. Other adjectives have a single termination for the masc. 
and fern., and another for the neuter, — are adjectives of two 
terminations (communia). There are also some adjectives 
of one termination. 

§ LXIl. 


(A. denotes adjective, P. participle.) 
1 . Of three terminations. 

N. ^zkag, [MAKim, (/jiKuv, black. 
TA. dg, ccivcc, ccv, G. (Mka^vog, [MXoiivrig, (jbiXuvog. 

<i N. Xii-i^ug, Xii-<pcc(Ta, Xii-^uv, having 

^G. ASi'd/ui'Tog, kii-\pa(Tr]g, Asi-i^avrog. 
fN. yjiokig^ ya.^kaact^ ;)(^a^/£v, graceful. 
G. ya^iivrog^ yji^ikaavig^ yjx^kvrog. 



3. A. 




6. P. 

ag, aivcc, ccv, 
dg, dffoi, dv. 

fA. s/?, gffffa, sv, I 


og, 7], ov, 
og^ a, Of, 
iJj, {Id, y, 

ovg, ovffci^ 6v, 

1 N. XiKpdiig, Xii<pdii(Toi, Xii(p&kv, left. 
[G. \fA(p6yrog, Xn(phi(T}^g, Ku(p0ivrog. 
(N. Tioriv, Ti^sivoi^ Tifiv, tender. 

iG. Ti§SVOg, TSgSiUTjg, TZ^iVOg. 

fN. dy(x,&og, dyu&rj, dyaSov, good. 

J G. kya&ov, dyoL&riQ-, dyccdov. 

I N. g%^fo?, ix^^a, s^^oi', hateful. 

LG. Ix&^ov, g%%a?, £:;C%oy. 

fN. yXvpcvg, yXvKslcc, yXvKv, sweet. 

j G. yXvzsog, yXvziiug, yXvz,iog. 


N. hix,vvg, ht/cvvaoc, htzvvv, showing. 

\G. hiavvvTog, ^ztKvvarig, 'heiKVvvrog. 
fN. ^ihovg, hhovffoc,, lihov, givii 
iG. h^ovrog, hlov(T)ig, dthovrog. 


, „ f N. Xit'zctfv, Xg/Voyffa, KiT-zov, leaving', 

• \\y. kH'XovToc^ kii'TTovarig, Kii'Trovrog. 

'* ; . , ^ ^ 1 N. ZKuv. ixovffu, iKov. willing". 

I A. uv, OVGOC. ot*, ■. ^ r , , , , , » 

^^ {.yjf. szovrog, iKOVffj^g, szovroc. 

fN. Tirv(pojg^ rsTu(pv7a, nrvcpog, hav- 

8. P. ojg, via, og, s ing struck. 

l^G. rsTV(p67og, 7iTv(puiocg, 7S7u<p6rog. . 
2. Of two terminations. 

fN. KOfffjjiog, r; zoG^iog, to KOffiJUiov, 

„ A elegant. 

9. A. og, ov, i ^, ^ ^ , 

l_ PCOfffljlOV. 

fN. T&'Z'oijv, 7j -TTSTrm, 70 'Triitov^ ripe. 

10. A. m^ ov, <1 G. 70V 'TCiTTOvog, 77ig Trk'TTovog, 70V org- 

\^ Tcovog. 

fN. aki^&rjg, tj aX'/]0rig, 70 a>i;j^g?,true. 

<j G. 70V okTi&iog, 7}jg aX^j^gog, 70v akri- 

'(_ &zog. 

fN. d^ariv, '/; a^ffrju, 70 a^ffzv, mas- 

J culine. 

I G. 70V aoffsvog, 7fjg cl^ffsvog, 70v cc^- 

l (Jivog. 

f N. i'^^/g, ^ 'ih^ig^ 7o 'ih^i, knowing. 

(.G. 70V 'i\iog^ 7fjg i^tog, 7ov 'il^iog. 



1. The termination of the fern, in a instead of yj occurs 
according to the rules already given for the first declension : 

(pccvs^og, <pai/B§d, evident, (plXiog, (plXta, friendly, Xu(phig, Xsi(p- 
^g/ca, left. — In the terminations &og and oog, tj rem.ains : 
X^vsiog, y^^vakri^ golden, oyhoog, oyhfr/]^ eighth ; except in viog. 
Via, young, and where a § stands before the vowel : ccoyvgiog, 
tt^yvgsu, silver. 

2. Five have no v in the neuter : aKkog, oIXXj^, aXXo, an- 
other, oV, ^', 0, who, which, uv76g, ciV7fi, kv76, self, SKSivog^ 
hciivri, lx,uvo, that, ovTog, av7-/i, Tovro^ this, with its compounds 
TOiovTog and rotrovrog. (f" 

11. A. 



12. A. 



13. A. 




3. The foregoing table shows what adjectives are of three 
or two terminations. The termination og appears there first 
as masc, e. g. 4, ocyadog, and then as masc. and fem., 9, o 
xofffjtjtog, ri 'Koayjiog (Imkrov zoivov, adjectivum co7nmune). 

4. Of three terminations in oj, ;;, ov, or og, a, ov, are all 
those derived from verbs, in rog, &og, zog : XsKrog, ^, ov, said, 
TvSXTiog, ga, sov, to be said, SKksKTizog, ri, 6v, selecting, eclecticy 
from Xkyco, SKkiycu ; in the same way the derived in ^og, vog, 
Xog : ccifTx^og, disgraceful, from to cch-x^og, disgrace, r^o[jbs^6g, 
trembling, hmg, dreadful, <§og, evident, "huXog, fearful, but 
^ aiyrikog, silent. 

Ohs. Also comparatives and superlatives have three terminations 

with only a few exceptions : hucaciZokiJiTaro!; i) AoK^ig, Thucyd., 3, 
101, rrjv u'rrcx.Tov d^-x/jv, Dionys. Halicarn., Rom. Ar., 6, 1, in which 
Homer has led the way, oXouTaroc oS/xs^, Od., d, 442. 

5. Of two terminations are, 
a. Those in 

tog. siog. 

dyiog, holy, uuXziog, belonging to the open 

agyiog, white, court, 

y&vsffiog, belonging to birth, QuaiXziog, kinglike, 
hui[jt^oviog, godlike, r'iXetog, perfect, 

lri(jbiog, public, odviTog, foreign, 

hoXiog, deceitful, oguog, mountainous. 

iT7](Tiog, annual, &c. 

uiog. i[Jjog. 

uvayKuyog, necessary, k\uai\jjog, takeable, 

f^i^oiiog, secure, avv(Ti{jjog, profitable, 

yrj^cciog, aged, aoiliyjog, sung of, 

lgo[jjK7og, running, (^(x,(Ti(jbog, fit for walking, 

^v^aTog, out of doors, y6vi[jjog, able to beget, 

(jbdroiiog, vain. yvoj^i^oc, knowable, 

^izcc(jif/jog, fit for judging, 
^6zt[jjog, honourable, 
ilcohifjbog, eatable. 

Obs. 1. — In all these classes, however, examples may be found of the 
feminine termination. Thus in words, which elsewhere have it not ; 


f/X/aj, Tbucyd., 6, 34, otl^s/a/ axomal, Eurip. Phoenisa., 240, e/jJi"*) 
^iQa!u, Xenoph. Cyr., 3, 2, 23, &c. ; but such examples are very 
rare, and therefore to be treated as exceptions. 

Obs. 2. — A number of adjectives of other terminations liiiewise are 
common : 6 ri aZ^og, delicate ; ^d^Qa^og, foreign ; eXivds^cg, free ; 
i^iTri}.og, evanescent; i^yifiog, desert; ^ev^pg, quiet; rifn^og, tame, 
&c., although here too the feminine termination is occasionally 
found in some of them: lf^/A>] duri, Thucyd., 6, 61 (but Ig^^aou; 
8/xaj, Theophr. Charact., 8, 4), vfjbs^rig iXairjg, Herod., 5, 82, &c. 

b. All compounds : o ;; uXoyog, irrational, afyo?, idle (from 
a'g^yo?), hd^o^og, gnawed through, (BotdOKoXTog, deep- 
bosomed, yicoygd^og, earth-describing, 'ii/^o'^og, renowned, 
&c. Likewise those in vg : 6 ^ cchw/t^vg^ ro ahotz^v^ 

Obs. 1. — Except the compounds of verbal adjectives in xog : hXiXTiMg, 

ri, 6v, itibuxTrMg, rj, 6v, &c. 
Obs. 2. — The poets also use a feminine termination in several of the 

words under this rule ; as, a^avdrrj, "brj^oipovTi, 'JToXvTifi^ri^, &c. 

c. Those contracted from aog : 6 ri 'iXzcog^ propitious, ccytj^cag^ 
not growing old, and these, in the ace, like some of 
the substantives of the 2d declension, throw away the 

Obs. — Several other adjectives compounded of substantives have two 
terminations: ^d^ig, iu^a^ig, and iu'^i^ct^r, ddx^v, adax^vg, uBaxgu. So 
also, ffoXuTous, 'JToXuvouv, gen. rroXv'roBog ; xa^^a^odovg, ovv, gen. ovrog, 

6. Adjectives of one termination are, 

a. The cardinal numbers from 'Zivrs, five, to ifcocrov^ a 
hundred; e.g. oi'TTivrs dvh^zg^al 'Trivn yvvoCiKig^rot, 'Trkvrz ^uot,. 

b. Those which end in a substantive incapable of change : 
aVa<g, [LdK^oxii^i D(,vro')(^u^, i/jCck^uicov, ^otKoav'^riv, from 
^^g/gi, alm^ oLvxh^- They follow the inflection of their 
primitives : gen. aVa/^oj, [httK^(iv%ivog^ &c. 

c. Those in aj, a^o^, r^g^ yjTog, /j, thog, aig, <yroj, &>f^ o^og, | and 


\^ ; e. g. (pvyac, (pvycchogy civa}jcig, cc^y^g, /jrog, uyvcog, urog, 
(pi^OTOLTco^^ ogog, (piKo[MriTM§, ooog, 6(jj)jXi^, ix,og, (Jjojvv'^, vyj)g. 
7. Except the numerals, all these adjectives are of only 
the masc. and fern, genders, and are only occasionally by the 
poets joined with neuter substantives, in those cases in which 
the masc. and neut. termhiations are the same ; e. g. (poirccfxi 
vTz^oig^ Eur. Phceniss., 1038 (see Porson ad Eu7\ Orest,., 
264f)y but never (potrcchsg 'Trn^oi or the like. Some are masc. 
alone, as Tivi^g^ poor, yevmlag, noble, khXovr/jg, Avilling, of 
which the two last belong to the first declension. 

Obs. — The word Ss/Va, a certain one, is used for all genders : 6 dsTva, 
^ 8t7va, rh diTva, roD, r^g, rou dimg, rip, rjj, tuj dim, rhv, rriv, rh dsTva. 

§ LXIV. 


Contraction occurs, as in substantives, when a vowel 
stands before the terminations ; thus, 

1. In £<?, g«7(ra, sv, wdien it follows, 

a. After ?j : 

Tiiig, riZ(T(Tcc, Tjiv, (r/|M/^si?, ri[jjy]S(T(TDi, ri[/jrjiv, contr. 
^g, rjaaa, tjv^ ir/^>j?, rifLyjffffOi, rtfjbrji', honoured. 

b. After o : 

oug, oiffffcc^ osv, ( [jijsktrosig, (jbiXiTosffffa, (jusKirosv, made of honey. 
ovg^ ovGGcCy ovv, {(jtjiXiroug, iLzkirovaffa^ [/jsXitovv. 

2. In og, ;;, ou, when it follows, 

a. After s : 

60?, e?7, sof, f^^fy^yso?, Xfyo'S'?) X^vffiouy golden. 

ovg, r„ ovv. Xx^vaovg, x^vGri, ^^yo-oyy. 

b. After o : 

oogi or}, ooVf f cctXooc, ocrXori^ ^tcKoov^ simple, 
oy?, r\^ ovVf \aT\ovg, cctX^, ccTrXovv. 

c. After a, in adjectives of two terminations : 
ao?, aov, (iVKs^oiog, ivKz^ccov^ well-horned. 
<yj, coVy livxigojg, sv/C&§cov. 

S'lKoiog, 'iKaoVf propitious. 
(iKiugf iX&MV. 


3. Besides these there are many cases contracted of adjec- 
tives in vg, sici, v, and in j^g, sj, of the 3d declension ; e.g. 

ykvKvg^ bXridrig^ nom. pi. ykv/Jizg^ aX'/^^kg, yXvx.£7g, dX'/]0s7gy 
akridiu, akri6n-> but yXvyJioc, not ykvy.n- — All these contractions 
follow the rules given under the declensions. 

Ohs. — As many geographical names belong to the termination os/;: 
'Pa/icoDs, SeX/i/ol/?; so also to the feminine keaa, (K)SGa\ QmZsea., 
HiTuoveaa, A^voZaffoc, UidrixouffSai ; sometimes with a single c ; II167]- 
xousai. (Valch ad Eur. Phceniss., 1026, Ed. Pors., 1033.^ 

4. Compound adjectives frequently deviate from the inflec- 
tions proper to their primitives into other forms ; e. g. aVoX/?, 
a-xoXihog, like svsX'Trig, zvs.X'Trilog, ^iKZ^cog (from KS^ccog, horned), 
gen. }tix,i^oj and ^iKZ^corog^ like hu(TSg&jg, gen. ^vffBgcorog, and this 
again in the gen., also, 'bm&^co. Thus too there are forms of 
those from zsgccog with a ejected : azs^u, 'hUz^ov, &c. 

Ols. — Several have a double form for the feminine: 6, ^ tIuv and ?j 
irhi^af 6, 7j [idxa^ and i] fidzai^a. In like manner, 6 rr^sffQvg, r] T^saQupa,. 

5. Accent. — According to the general laws of accentua- 
tion, the radical syllable, in these words also, had originally 
the accent : (plXog, (ptXiog, lijXog, 'i^^ig ; yet so that the kind 
and place of the accent are changed as necessity dictates : 
^f/jiregog, a^yv^zog^ a(piXog, a^rjXov. The same accent prevails 
although the root be increased by the final syllables, chiefly 
in /o?, uog, i[Jbog, ivog, vvog : d^tog, avXuog, ^ai%[jbog, av^^uTivog, 

6. The accent rests on the penultimate of those marking 
size in Uog : ^XUog, of such size, r'/]XUog, rrjXizovTog ; of most 
diminutives and others in tXog, vXog, Xsog : TTotztXog, dyKuXog, 
cc^yaXiog, and in the names, AlayJuXog^ Xoi^iXog, &c.; of those 
in aiog, which spring from substantives of the 1st declension, 
and those in uhotgy sig : hvayx-wiog from kvdyzyi^ ^v§cc7og from 
^u^a, yswaiog from yivvcc (except hUociog, (5iaiog, from hix.-/^, 
(iiu), "x^ttgkig, rt(/jfjsig, yivvabccg, noble : of those in eog derived 
from verbs : XiKriog from Xsy<a;, y^aTrzog from y§a,<pco. 

7. The last syllable has the accent in most of those in ccg. 


>jg, vg, in those in ^og, and in those derived from verbs in rog, 
also in derivatives in Kog : (pvyocg, ccXri&Tig, yXvKvg, iyjd^og^ 
Xszrog, (ocx,fTi\ix,6g. These are followed by several in og, tog^ 
ociog : ao(pog, aaXog^ oi,ya,6og, "xokiog, ^£|/o?, afcokiog, ys^cciog. 

Obs. 1. — When a preposition or a single syllable, such as a, sy, b\jg, is 
prefixed, the accent, according to the general rule, is thrown back : 
yvuerog, clyi/uffrog, WiG'/.o'Trog, acroSXjjrog. 

Obs. 2. — In adjectives compounded of several words, that word is 
accented which expresses the act or agent : Orestes is /i^jrgoxroi/of, 
he slew his mother ; — the children of Medea are ,u,rjT^67irovoi, slain by 
their mother. The mot/ier is here the agent, whence /ji,rir^6-/,rovoi, 
since fi^T^oxrom would violate the laws of accentuation. So Ssoroxo?, 
god- bearing, ^soroxog, god-born ; altokog, goat-tender, (3ov/,6Xog, 
cattle-feeder, odoi'rooog, way- wanderer, i^duo(pdyog, fish- eater, o/'weo- 
GKoirog, bird-seer (auspex), &c. Except those from h/o) : ar/io^og, 
xdroyoig, also /Vt&Cotoj, and some more. There is a similar difference 
in those in og : ^akiog (active), nimble (one who nimbly plies {(3aXXBi,) 
his limbs), and (SaXtog (passive), spotted, like lx^^°^, hated, Xa/x'Tr^og, 

Obs. 3. — Others expressing an employment, especially those com- 
pounded of verbs in sw, have the accent on the last syllable : 
gT^arrjyog, '^raidayuyog, si^i^voTowg; also those compounded of diiduy 
and the roots sgy, cojy : zida^wdog, r^aywdog, apfjuaroTriyog. 

Obs. 4. — From the mutability of the Greek accent according to age 
and dialect, there will be found much that opposes the rules delivered 
for accentuation, and that must be left to the observation of the 



1. The two adjectives, iLzyoig, ^zyaki^f [ikya., great, and 
ToXyj, 'XoKKyi, 'TToXvy much, from their cases form the nomina- 
tives, obsolete in the common dialect, (MyoiXog, roXkogy gen. 


(ijiyoCkov, Itjiyakrig, [/jiyoiXov ; '^oKkovy ToKkTJg, 'TroXkov ; except 
the ace. (jjiyav, toXvv, neut. (/jiya, -roXy, and voc. 

2. '^ojg, safe, from (raog, make many forms with o, as from 
(Tojog, gen. ffcoov, ace. (tcoov, &c. 

3. Yi^oiog or -Tr^aog, mild, takes many of its forms from the 
kindred word -TT^aug ; all the feminine, 'Tr^cciia,, stag, &e. ; all 
the neuter plural, thus, x^aga, •r^ag^vj', &c. For the mas- 
culine plural we find together with -Tr^aoi also T^as^c, from 
T^akg, and in the gen. 'Trguzcov alone. 

4. "A^(pio, both, naturally appears only in the dual, in the 
gen. as a perispomenon a[jb(po7v: <p^ovhog (from t^o, 6^6g)y 
vanished on the way, has only the nine nominatives of the 
three genders. 

§ LXVI. 


1 . Adjectives of three terminations. 

a. According to the first and second declensions. 


N. aya&og^ kyci&n-, ccyaSov^ hcH^^^ ^^XH^^ '^xH'^^i 

G. a.y(x,&ov, aya,&^g, ccyaQoVy hcH^^'^ ^%%^?» '^X^^^^y 

D. A. aya^oj, ayci&n^ ayu&Z, iyj^^, £);:%«? %%^» 

A. aya&ov, kya&'^v^ kyoL&ov^ s%^?flf> s^^a", V/Q^ov, 

V. aya^g, kycc&T}, kyd&ov. g%%s, £%%«, h(jH^^- 


N. A. V. kya&oj, kyoc&ky kycc&Uy £>::%4 %%«> hcH^i 

G. D. A. kya^olv^ kyct&ouv^kya&oiv. sxd^oJv, g%%arv, iyj^oiv. 


N. kya,6oiy kycc&uiy kya&a^ SX^^O'', 2%^^a/, £%%«, 

G. kya&aJv, kyaGoov^ kya&m^ ^X^^^^, hc^i^^i ^^^^Jf, 

D. A. kya^&olgy kya6ougy kyuOoig, sx^o/?, '^yj^oug^ exj^o/c, 

A. aya^oOg, kya&kg, kyaOd^ £%%«?> 2)C%oi^?, 2);;;^^a, 

V. kyci&oiy kycc&cci^ dyadx. ex%«''> '^X^iot, \x&^k. 



;)^ag/svr£, p^a^/iffffa, ^ag/svrs, 

b. Accordina" to the first and third declensions. 


G. XiKpS'svTog, XiKphiffriC, Xit(p6h7og, ;)/awsvros, p/aj/scrff?!?, p^ag/sfTOS, 

D. A. Xu(p6hTi, "kupdilep, XiKpd'svTi, 
A. Xii^dsvTUf Xsi(pkT<Jav, Xsi(p6sv, 

V. XsKpkig, \ii(pk7(Sa, "ksKpdsv. 

N.A.V. Xs/p^EiTs, Xupkiffa, XsKpkvrs, 
GJy.A.'KsKpdivTOiv, Xsi<p6ii(faiv,\ii(p6sv70iv. ;;^ag<si'ro/v, p(;ag/s(r(ra/v, p/ac/sf-ro/v. 


N. Xsi<pdsvTtg, Xu(pdsTgui, Xsi<p6svTa, p/ag/si'rjs, p/a^/stftfa/, j^a^/si/ra, 

G. X£;p^£vru;v, Xsipkiduv, XsKpSivrojv, -^a^/=!/rwv, yjxonCGMV, p/ae/si'-rwi/, 

D. A. Xufkldi, 7^i<pkiaaig,Xii(pk7(Si, p^ag/s/ff/, x"'^''-'^'^"-'-' yiH'^"^'j 

A. Xiipdsvrag, Xsi(phi(Jag, Xupkvra, yjjyuwoLg, p^awsffCaj, ya^nvTo., 

V. Xii(pdivr!g, Xii<pk7aai, Xu^kvra. p^jag/svrss, p/aff/scca/, p(^ao/^^7-a. 


Xmi/, XiXiiipuig, XiXsif>u7a,, XiXii<p6g, 

XiXiiipoTog, XiXsi<pviag, XsXs/poVoj, 
XsXs/^&V/, XiXsifvicc, XsXii^orif 
XiXsKpoTa, XiXsicpv7av, XiXii(p6g, 
XsXiKpojg, XsX£i(pv7a, XsXnipog, 


D. A. 


X/Twi', XiTTousa, 

XinrovToc, Xi'zovsrig, XiTovrog, 

XnovTi, X/Touff/j, Xirro'JTi, 

Xl-TFOVIfaV, XllTbV, 

Xi'xovea, Xirrov. 


XlTOXlffa, XlTOiTi, 

G. D. A . X/crovro/i/, XfitoliGaiv, Xi<r6v70iv, 


Xl'TTOVTSg, XlToZffai, y.l'XOVTCC, 

Ximv7i>jv, y.iTovauiv, Xi-~6vtuv, 

XiTbuffi, Xi-rrousaig, XiTTouffi, 

yjiTovTCcgy Xi'Tovffa.g, Xiitmra,, 

X/TToiTsj, Xi'TaZcaif Xi'^mTo., 



D. A 

Xs}.ii(p6Ts, XiXsKpuioc, XfXsKpoTs, 
XiXiiipoToiv, XiXsup-jiaiv, XiXsi^oToiv, 

XiXst(p6rig, XiXtifmai, XiXsupSra, 
XiXsi(p6rojv, XiXii(pu7ciiv, XiXn^oruv, 
XiXiifoGi, XsXsKpulaig, XiXinpoGi, 
XiXiKporag, XsXsKpviag, XsXu<p6ra, 
XeXiKpong, X'.Xsiifiu7ai, XiXsupora. 


N. Xsi-^ag, Xs/-v|/affa, Xi7-^aVf fiAXag, i^iXaiva, iMiXa,v, 

G. Xi'f^avTogy Xsi-^dffrig, Xsl-^avrog, (jJiXavog, fiiXahi^g, fjt.;Xavog, 

D. A. Xsl-^avri, Xii-\/d(Sr\, Xu-^avri, itisXav/, fi^Xaivrj, fMsXavt, 

A. X£/-v|/avra, Xii'\/aGav, Xs7'^av, (jAXava, fuXaivav, [isXaii, 

V. Xu-^u-g, Xii-^uea, Xi7-^av, i^iXav, n,i7.a.iva, (isXav, 


N. A.V. X£/-\J/a>7'£^ Xsi-^dsa, X-l-^avrs, fi'sXavs, /jjiXaiva, (jb'iXavi, 

G.D.A. X£/'\|/«vro/i', X£/'v|/a(ra/i', X£/'vj^ai/T'o;i'. fj^iXdvoiv, fiiXaivaiv, /ziXdvoiv. 




N. Xil-^avTic, Xii-\/aaai, "ksi-^avTa, /xeXai/sg, /MiXaivai, jj^iXava, 

G. Xsi-^dvTuv, Xsi-^aga/ii, Xn-^avrMv, fx^sXavuv, /iiXaivZv, (MiKavuv, 

D. A. Xsl-^dSi, Aii-^dffaig, Xii-^dffi, iisXaSi, /MsXa,ivaig, fj/iXadi, 

A. Xii-^a]irag,Xii-^daag, Xs/^J/ai/ra, tisXavag, fji^iXaivag, fiiXava, 

V. Xsi-^aiiTsg, Xii-^adai, Xu-^ana. ij/iXang, iikXaivai, ^sXava. 

^. Adjectives of two terminations. 


N, 6, ri Tidsiiiog, to xoGfiiov, 

G. Tov, Trig xoff/A/ou, tov zofffj^iou, 

D. A. Tujy Tft XOC/i/W, TIJ) KOfffllu), 
A. Thv, TYiV X.6G/JjI0V, to ZOfffJljIOV, 

V. u Kos/Mii, S) x6en,mv. 


N.A.V.TW, TO. XOgfliu, TU XDSfJblU, T^), TU, Sudui/MVS, TU iudai/jLOVlt 

G.D.A.TolP, Touv xoff/jjioiv, ToTv xoff,u,ioiv, To7v, TuTv Bvdai/xovoiv, ToTv iudaifJ^OiOltl, 


6, ri iuda/f/jUVy tI iiidai/j^ov. 

TOV, Trig ivdai/jbovog, tov suBaifiovog, 

TuJ, Trj svdaj/Movi, tQj sldaifjijovi, 

TOV, Triv ihhaiijjova, to sudaifiov, 

u iuhatiiov, w sudai/MV, 


01, a/ xoff/xioi, 
TUiv xoS/J^iuv, 

ra xoff'xia, 
Tuv xoff/, 

D. A. ToTg,TaTg xos/Mioig, ToTg xofffjbioig, 


TOvg,Tag xofffMiovg,Tu xos/j^ia, 
u xoff/Aioi, u x.6fffiia. 

01, a/ ivdai/jjong, tu ludai/iova, 
Tuv, ihhaiiMvuv, tuv eudaifiovuvy 
ToTg, Ta7g ivdaifioffi, ToTg sudaifjboei, 
Tovg,Tug ivdaifiovag, rcb ivbaifj^ova, 
oj tuduifiovsg, S) iudai/Mom. 

3. Contracted adjectives. 


X^vGioq, x^vakn, X^vaiov, 
ovg, fj, ovv^ 

■X^vffiov, x§vffiy]g, Xi'^aiov^ 









%^y<rs^, x^v(T&rj, xei^rs^, 




X§v<Tsov, %py<T£;j{/, %^yo-gov, 




X§v(Tss, %fy<rs;?, %fy(r£ov, 

N. A. V. y^pvaka^ X^wsa, x^"^^'^"-* 

k'Kkooq^ ccTTkori^ a'Trkoov, 
ovg, 7J, ovv, 

(fTfkoov, k'fKorig, axXoov, 
oD, m^ oy, 

a'TrXoco, a-TrXori, cctKou, 

^i ^, ^» 

ttTrXoov, ccTrXoj^u, uttKoov, 


ccxXoi, a.'x'kori, a'Tckoov, 





cj, a, fit/, 

%^U(rgo/i', x^vaiaiVy xi^o^'^otv, 
div, ulv, olv. 

a'Tf'kocii), ccxKoa, k'TcKoci), 
a;, a, &/, 

a-xXootv, ci'?rX6cciv, acrXoo/f, 







N" Xfy<''£o;, %^6<r£a/, y^^vszoc^ k'fkooi^ a-rXoa/, axXoa, 

0/, a?, a, o7, a?, a, 

G. %^yffs^{', cfjfkmv^ 

D. A. ;)(^^y(rgo/c, y^guffioctgy x^va'ioig^ kntkooiq^ k'Tfkmiq^ ccTtkooit;, 
olg, ar?, oig, dig, aig, oTg, 

A. XJ^vffiovg, x^uffsocg, x^vaza^ aTrXoovg, ocvkoag, ocTrkoot,, 

ovgy ag, a, ovg, aj, a, 

V. j^^ycso/, %;fy<rga/, y^^Offsu, KTrXooty axXoai, WTrXoa, 



a. 0/, 

Oil, a. 





























N. A.V. 

. IXcccOf 



. ikdoiv, 








\ozg, Ipvg, 

locc, PfO, 




D. A. 










^occg, ^oug, 

loa, ^oj. 







losg, ^ovg, 

loot, ^OJ. 


N. y>.x«ES4c, yXaacam^ yr^acfy *, n «AJ|i|^ t» aijifie^ 

G. yAi2S«c. ytsjocaaz, y'fjixaac. rvo. ri^ aAj;#|gc, 

D. A- '/'fjJXzL y'f:uz,i^z. y'tjJxzL, riy tt, oAj^fia, 
a, a, a; 

A- yJL5x», 7>.araa>. y'/saa. rit. nji ae/js^o. ri d'/^ci^. 


N. A-^ . y'fjjizsa. y'/^z^^z. //^zii. r*. rs a>^:%£, ri* aitju^e^ 

N. y'noG&Zy y'tsjzzuu, yt^xaaL^ oi, at djjj&^c, ri. ojjsB^ 

G. y'rs/xeae%. y'/^jixiistt, y'tjizkiM, r^ tuj0sam^ 

A. -y/^z^ar, y/^rsAZC. y/^rr- - .r.Tora/j'^a^raa/JSi^^ 

2«?r sir, ^ 

v. y'tjuzksc. y'fsjz£iai. y'luzio^ U, ul a/^trssr, r« a>j;i^a, 

4. Anomaloos ac^ecdres. 

G. a«>jK/.K/. xsyz/j^c. a5ya/.«>, tOjsiC. rcr^'ij?/:^ 'zOJMJ^ 

D. A- a€y!z/^. 'j^/i'ij. o^yz/jv, TiOSi, tc'/j^,, ^o/j^, 
A- ueyaa, u^/'z/jrt, 'M^yn^ TOi/t, tOj^. tOjj, 

X.A-^ . jJiT/'ztst. :i,:/2/^ •jAr/i'm. t'J/j^. tOJjXy -zOjjs. 
G-D.A- Xff7'2/.',w.xf/a>-5a>.a*ya/j6o. 'rOjjAt. TrOjjojty tOjm*. 

N. aerfi/M. 'juir/'i'nu. uJir/i'tXL, 'Z'JtJM, TrJtJuii, TOjxt. 

G. tt£y)Z/.»». 76/y^9, 

D. A. itif^ ^-M^ a«yay jwr. a€ya/.«c. TOJJiig. T'JtJxu;. tOjiTv;. 
A- i4«ya/jsvc.;i.«y^.^-x57a>^ T4»,fii?, xs/^^, xo/v^ 

V. a«ya>^M, UKTyVJIU, 'JJirfZ*!!^ TrJtJM, "rOJIU, TCfJM. 




1 . The adverb has but a single teniiiiiatioD, which is ool 

declinable : e.g"- 

'j.a/jx. zifjic cL.iTi^, the very dear man. 

ToC uA'/jjc tCtjj'j asoccc, of the Yoy dear man. 

2. It is sometimes formed firom a root of its own, inde- 
pendent of other words: e.g. ar=^, apart, ^ a y^-;, near, to/^j, 
again ; or has the same root with that of a prefH^sition allied 
to it : dtcu. above, with ccsa^ zdm, below, with zara, eem, 
within, with 'ic, Iz^i, without, with il, T^st^ fnivar^, with 
T^. We may name these two sorts the indtpemdemt 

S. Besides the independent advertis, there ^ a great num- 
ber of those which belong to odier words or are darived firom 
them. Tliose belonging to adjectives are either identical with 
their neuter gender : zoum osi^j, to sing beautifbDy, rat^w 
rjs^s/?, to run qnickly ; or are formed by adding *c to the 
root of the adjective : from za}.6c, root zccXo, adverb (zoXovc) 
za/Sic : Toc(vc, gen. rar/joc, root rcr/s, adverb nz^sac. 

4. From mhstanfipes adverbs are formed bv the addition 
of different syUables : from Sot^vc (root ^ot^i>\ loor^uic. cluster 
of grapes, ^3<«^t»o», duster-wise, zCx/jsc^ cirde (root zwuji), 
adv. z'jz7Ja(t% in a circle. To this class bdono- especially ^e 
adverbs of place, a. m a j^ace^ with the terminati<m hz 
clzo&i, in the hoose^ moom^ in heaven ; L from a plaee^ 
with hf : tSzo^, mooow^ from the house, from ht^ven ; 
fo a place, with cs, which is added to the acneative : mbm^ 
o'j^ioii^ (^jfa-Tos) '^jca^i, to the house, to heaven, out of 
doors (fo beyond the dx^rs). Also in gen«ai desicrnatians 
of place : teun^i, in that very place, niki^ firom aiar, &c., 
and the adverbs of number, c^' which hereafter. 

o. In the same way they are formed from verbs: avaa-- 
rabif, standing up, from a-'iynr/jui, «--^^?;v, secrethr, from 
«go^ in zfjTTity I conceal, ^SfXj^^jpt^ taken together, frtm 



6. Finally, many fo7'ms of substantives and adjectives are 
used as adverbs : ff'Trovhfj, with zeal, trouble, scarcely^ Kojjji^n^ 
with care, very much, ao^^^v, from the beginning, entirely, 
a^jj-ojjv (aKfj^ri, the point or height), ardently, &c. — The 
adjectives appear in the dative : Ihicc^ privately, ^yifMOffiKj 
publicly, KOiv^, in common, rccvrri, in this way, thus, &c. 





1. To compare (avyK^ivziv^ comparare^) two objects, is to 
observe that a quality is found in them either in the same or 
in a different degree : e.g. 

The night is as pleasant as the day. 

The spring is more pleasant than the autumn. 

The moon shines less brightly than the sun. 
In one instance we observe the pleasantness of the spring 
and the autumn, and thus a quality, which is common to 
both, but find that of the spring greater than that of the 
autumn. In another we contrast the shining of the moon 
with that of the sun, — again a quality common to both, — and 
ascribe it in a less degree to the moon. 

2. Hence comparison does not contrast entire objects, but 
only one of their qualities. 

3. Two objects, which are compared with respect to their 
qualities, are thus placed in a mutual relation. The words 
employed to mark the relation, here between ideas, as here- 
after between propositions, are called relative particles (par- 
ticulce^ (jjo^toc), so, as, than, ^c. 

4. When the similarity of the qualities in two objects is to 
be expressed, language employs the aid of such particles : the 


son is as rich as the father (tarn dives qiiam pateVt roaov 
•rrXovGiog offov 6 '^p). 

5. But when the dissimilarity of the quahties in two 
objects is to be expressed, many languages are not satisfied 
with particles, but admit variations in the names of quality 
(the adjective and adverb) : 

The day is longer than the night, is the longest of all. 

§ LXIX. 


1. If only two objects be compared with respect to their 
difference, we can express merely whether a quality appear 
in a greater or less degree in one than in the other. The 
form of the word which denotes this, is called the compa- 
rative ( Gvyz^imov ovo^m, nomen comparativum^ more usually 
gradus comparativus) : the day is still longer than the night ; 
longer, comparative of long. 

^. When to the two objects a third is added, or more are 
added, in which the same quality appears, we can express to 
which the quality belongs in a higher degree than to the rest 
taken together, or to which of them it belongs in the highest 

Caius is more learned than Sempronius. 

Caius is more learned than Titus. 

Caius is more learned than Marcus. 
Hence is Caius more learned than all three, or is the most 
learned of the four. 

3. The form of word which designates this highest degree, 
is called the superlative (ovoyboc v'TTi^&iriJcov, gradus super- 
lativus,) of the word. 

4. Thus we arrive at the superlative through a conclusion 
drawn from several comparatives, or through the setting of 
these together : Since Caius is more learned than Sempro- 
nius, than Titus, than Marcus, and so on, so is he the most 
learned among them all. — Among how many he is the most 
learned, whether among three, or three thousand, or all 


mankind, makes no difference, and hence a furtlier degree is 

.5. With reference to the two degrees of comparison, we 
give the name of positive (ovo^cx, '^ztikov or k'Trokvrov^ olt'Kovv, 
uToKikviMvov, (/radus positivits^) to that form of the adjective, 
by which a quality is ascribed to an object, either simply, or 
by help of a relative particle in like degree with another 
object : the /ow</ day, the cold air. 

f). Questions : — Why have verbs and substantives no de- 
grees of comparison ? Why only adjectives and adverbs ? 
Why are there not ten or a hundred degrees of comparison ? 
Why only two ? — Tliese questions the student must cUstinctly 
answer, in order to be convinced that he has fully com- 
prehended the subject. 

§ LXX. 


1. The comparative is formed most simply by adding rs^o?, 
and the superlative by adding rocroc, to the root of the word. 
From Kkzmg, (JbiXag, arif/jog, ^olkoco, roots kKhvo, (/jsXkv, uriybo^ 

Comparative, zXzmrz^og, ^zKavTZ^og, a7i[jjor£oog, f/joczcc^rs^og. 
Superlative, KXsivorccTog, ^sXavraroj, ccriyjOTocToc, (jbUKa,§- 


Ey^y, -r^scSy, as roots of the nom. sl'^^c, 'TTPza^vg, give the 
compar. Bv^vTZ^og, -Tr^sff^vTSPog, superl. iv^OraTog, Tr^sa^urccTog. 

2. O preceded by a short syllable is changed into a;, sksu- 
05^0, compar. IXsv^e^coTe^og, super. IXsvhgMTCiTog. 

Go(po, (To(paj7S§og, ao(pajTa.Tog. The tone is laid upon o, and 
strengthens it between two short syllables. 

Obs. 1. — The remains even when a mute and liquid make the pre- 
ceding syllable long by position: ^uCTror/iorEoo?, ihoirXoraroi. The 
poets however allow themselves to vary their practice in compliance 
with the verse.* 

* But see Person ad Eur. Phren., 1367. 


06*. 2. — Even in the comparative and superlative open syllables are 
contracted : '7:oo<p{j^sog, crecpn^swrego?, croppv^ojrsPOCf arog, aTXosdri^oi, 

3. With roots in g there is a c inserted before the termi- 
nation : dXrjdrig, root dXri^s, comparative dK'/j0i(T7S§og, superlative 
ak^&iaTUTOc, vyr/ig, compar. vyiiffTS^oc, super. vyizaTccrog, since 
the forms uK'/i^sreoog, vyisrzoog, would have too many feeble 
syllables together, which are strengthened by the insertion of 
G. We shall observe the same (t inserted in several forms of 
verbs : e. g. reXj, TinKsfJbai, TZTzXifff/tjoci, l^i, ladt, i(T0i, &c. 

4. The terminations CTS^og, sraTog, thus acquired, are next 
applied to other roots also, viz. to those in of, which likewise 
prefix an g to cngog, (TTocrog, and to those in a k sound, which 
prefix an i, 

Nom. svhtti[yj0jv, rXriUiav, a^Ta^, 

Root, zvhui(JjOv, rX7^[jbov, a^-ray, 

Compar. svhcci[jtjO'A(TTSDog, TX'/iiJjoAarspog, doxayiffTZPog, 

Superl. ivhoLii/jOViaTarog^ Tkri^oviarccTog, a^'TcayiaTdrog, 

Obs. — The / appears to have arisen from i by a change common in 
Greek: sVexov, trixrov, sysv6fjt,i^Vy syiyvofiriv, Sec. (so, in German, Oberst, 
Obrist, ich sterbe, du stirbst). 

5. Examples for exercise : 

'il'iXog, smooth, ^^acrvg, bold, dvuihrjg, shameless, 
ro^og, piercing, ri^vg, agreeable, <rctj(pPiov, prudent. 

6. Another mode of forming the degrees of comparison 
finds place in many dissyllabic adjectives in gog and vg. 

Tliis consists in throwing away the terminations specified, 
and adding for the compar. injv, for the superl. iffTog, to the 
original root of the word. 

a\(jyj>og, base, lyjoig^ hated, yXvKvg, sweet, rayjjg, fleet. 

Root, a/o-%, zx^^ 7^^^' "^^X^^ 

Comp. uirryjouv, '^yji^v, y'XvKicov, Tw^yjuv, 

Super. ai(r/jG7og, 'iyPiarog^ y'LvKiaTog, rdxiGTog. 

7. Examples for exercise : 

Kvh^og^ renowned, h^vg-, agreeable, 

oUrPog, miserable, fta^vg, deep. 


8. Several have both forms : e.g. 

oizrpog, compar. < , ^ ^ super. -\ „ " 

r, v/ ( Bpoihvrspog, { (ipaVjrarog, 

bpoiovg, comp. Vr>^' super. VrT ^\ 

"^ ^ Ip^ao/fiyf, ^ {(6gaoi(TTog. 

Most of those in vg, however, form their degrees in rs^og and 


Obs. — Ta-)(j>i, fleet (root ra;^ from Sa;^), has together with ra.'/jMv also 
Satfffwi', neut. Satfffoi/. 

§ LXXI. 


The comparative and superlative of adverbs are either like 
the neuter of the adjectives : e.g. r^iov yi\S,v, to smile more 
sweetly ; or end in ^u and too instead of the adjective-termi- 
nations ^og and rog : aW, dvcjrs^og^ adv. dvcors^oj, hyyvg, 
lyyvrsgog, adv. iyyurs^co, superl. lyyvrdirco, sW, comp. sffare^ajj 
superl. Iffurccrct), &c. Prepositions are also compared : Ctts^, 
above, VTri^rocrog, highest, -pr^Oy before, ■rg'ors^o?, anterior. 



1. In the use of the terminations n^og, (rri^og, sffngog, 
iffTigog, tuv, and the superlatives belonging to each, there 
prevails a considerable license, since the language not unfre- 
quently admits one form instead of another : e. g. oXtyog, 
little, sup. oXtyitTTog, vicov, fat, rjonpog^ TCiorciTog. Further : 
it'Tt'Koog^ simple, not c. kifkouri^og^ but knfko'iariq^og^ &c. 

v^^iffryig, insolent, — c. v^^Krriffrs^og^ — v^^iffrore^og, 
"kdXog, loquacious, — c. XocXajTZ^og, — "kctkiarz^og, 

rs^Tvog, agreeable, not only rigwoTi^og, but also re^wiuv, sup. 


a(p^ovog, abundant, not c cx,<pdovMTe§og, but d(pdovi(m§og, 
xoiKog, bad, both c, zccfcurs^og and zukicov, s. za^Kiarog, &c. 

2. Those in g/j, gen. zvTog^ are formed as if their roots 
ended not in gi^r, but in s, by adding atz^og^ arccrog^ to this s 
(§ Lxx, 3), xf^^kig, svTog, not c. %a^/2VT£^o?, but %a^/£(rTg^o?, 
s. %a^/g(rraro?. — Tz/A^g/?, niJjfjiffregogy 7t(jj7ii(Tra7og, &c. 

3. Forms from shorter roots, or roots differently ternii 
nated from those which the positive would imply : 

<p/XTg^oc, (piXroirog, instead of (ptXcongog, <pCkojrctrog (from (^/X.)- 
y&guirs^og, ys^utruTog, instead of ysgcciors^og, yg^a/oraroj(from 

TraXuiog, old, 'TrciXcciTs^og (from ^aXa/), 

(TXfikouog, quiet, ayjtXccin^og^ 

-TTS^aTog, on the other side, 'XsguiTSgog, 

^ffvy^og, tranquil, ^cy^a/rg^o?, 

<p/Xo?, dear, (DtXccirzgog, 

(jbsffog, in the midst, [Mffccirs^og^ 

'TTi'Xcov, ripe, 'Trs-^octTi^og. 

4. Degrees are formed also from, 

«. Some substantives : ^Xstt;??, a thief, xXs'TrTiffTarog, 
srat^og, an associate, irai^orocrog. 

b. Adverbs : tXyi&Iov^ near, 'TvXi^friairz^og, utrurog, avaj, above, 
dvcore^og, 'ivhov, within, ivhorccrog. 

c. Prepositions : -x^o^ before, 'Tr^or&^og, vm^, over, v'xsgrs^og, 
7ccrog^ and vTccrog. — "F.(jxoiTog, extreme, and vcrrs^og, later, 
vcrrccTog, are from unknown roots. ("' 

5. Several comparatives and superlatives, the positives of 
which are obsolete, have been arranged together under the 
surviving positive of some adjective, with which they agree 
in meaning. 

1, uyccdog, good, c. d[jbsimvy better, s. u^tffTog^ best, 

(SgXr/fyi', ^iXTiarog^ 

fc^iiff&m, z^aTK^Tog^ 

XoJ'im or Xcouv, Xaihrog or Xmrog^ 

% aXyzivog^ painful, c. dXyiuv^ s. cLXyiarog^ 

3, KccKog, bad, c. x^k^^-> > ^* X^'f'^*^"?* 

4, KaXog, beautiful, c. KaXXiojVy s. KocXXiffTog, 


5, (JijCixgog, long, c. (/jdffffofv, s. ^riKiarog, 

6, i^/gya?, large, c {/jzitcav, s. (^iyiffrog, 

7, p'^^o?, little, c. Ixdaaav, s. ikdyjarog^ 

IMtPc^oregog, (jbiKgorocrogy 

8, "ffoKOg, much, c. crXgia^v, s. 'TrXiicTog^ 


9, poihog, easy, c. paia^v, s. pxarog. 


1, ay^/, near, c. dffffov, s. ay%/(rra, 

2, (jboiXUf very, c. [JbaXKoVy s. (jbukKxrccy 

3, ijjtz^ovy little, c. ^ffo'oi', s. '^kigto,. 

Obs. 1. — rrXiic^jv, neut. vXiTov, is in Attic sometimes with o ejected, -rXen'. 
06*. 2. — We must still remark of this kind, 

1, weak, c. ^'ffcrw;/. 

2, terrific, c ^lyluv. 

3, gainful, c. xi^Biuv, s. xs^Bidroc. 

4, shameful, s. IXsyj^/tfrog, and, with the poets, 

5, strong, c. (ps^rs^og, s. ps^raroj and (p'spcroi. 

6, kingly, s. ^aciXi-jTarog, &c. 




1. Numerals denote the quantity of objects. 

2. They are substantives, when they express the notion 
of quantity without relation to particular objects : ^ (juovdig, 
unity, ;; r^iug, &c. 

3. Adjectives^ when combined with objects, and, a. such 


as answer to the question^ How many ? Cardinals : elg 
uv7i§, one man, Tr'ivrg dvb^zg^ five men. — From five to a hundred 
they are of one termination^ the rest of three terminations. 
h. Ordinals : 6 TC^wTog kv&^u'xm^ o rokog ruv a^ihjpm. These 
are all of three terminations, c. Multiple numbers : a-TrXoogj 
ovg, single, hiKccTrXovg, tenfold. 

4. Adverbs : a. answering to the questiaJh How often ? 
cc'Tta^, once, ^4, twice, i^ccxig, six times, b. The neuters of 
the ordinals : "tt^Stov, or ro x^iorov, for the first time, r^irov, 
TO rgiTOv, for the third time. 

5. The marks of number are the letters of the alphabet in 
their order : 1 cc\ 2 ^% 3 y , 4 ^', 5 s, 6,* 7 C' § '^'^ 
9 ^', 10 /. Then combined : 11 ioc\ 12 /g', 13 // , 14 il' 
to 19 t^'- Tlien 20 ;c', 21 za, and so on. 30 X', 31 Xa', 
40 (/, 50 /, 60 ?', 70 0, 80 ^', 90,* 100 p', 120 p , 145 
p(jus, 200 ff\ 266 (x^g, 300 r , 400 v, 500 (p\ 600 % , 700 
•v)/', 800 a;', 900.* Thousand is again a, but with a stroke 
below it : a, 2000 |3, 10,000 /, 1811 aojic/, 1829 aa;;^^, &c. 

Obs.* — The marks for 6, 90, auil 900, no longer appear as letters 
in the Greek alphabet. They were, however, ancient alphabetic 
characters, 6 f Vau or Digarama after E, 90 ^ Sampi after v, 
900 Q Koppa or Q after fl, which as we saw (§ xii), were dropped 
in the Attic and Ionic alphabets, and served only as marks of num- 
ber, whence they are called iT/Vjj^a-a. Instead of the Digamma use 
was made of ?, i. e. tfr, from its similarity, which was called ST/^a : 
6 S"'. 

6. In place of this mode of notation the Athenians had 
another more striking to the eye, composed of strokes, as 
marks of the numbers, from one to four, and then the initial 
letters of five IT ^svrg, ten A ^ixa, a hundred H izccrov from 
the old orthography, a thousand X %/?i/o/, ten thousand M 
(Mv^ioi. Tlie numbers between these are denoted partly by 
the combination of the above marks, e.g. 12 All, 20 A A, 
49 AAAAITIIII, partly by the multipHcation of A, H, X, 
M, into five IT, these marks being placed within the TI, e. g. 
jAj i.e. 'TTivraKig lUcc, five times ten or fifty, 60 |A| A, 500 |H|, 



5000 1X1^0,000 |M1. So 350 HHH|A|, 56? jH|i AjAnil, 
1824 X|H|HHHAAIIII.* This manner of notation is par- 
ticularly to be marked, since it has been preserved in many 
and important Attic inscriptions. (") 





1 a 

gf?, f/;/a, iV, 


v^urog, 7], ov, 

9, ^ 



6 hvrs^og, a, ovy 

3 7 

r^iig, r^ia, 


6 rgtrog, }], ov, 

4 I' 

TSffffcc^eg, T2(T(Tcc^a, 


6 Tiru^Tog, ?7, of, 

5 I 



'7rs(jb'7rTog^ <kc. 

6 / 



7 K 




8 'i{ 



r J/ V 


9 ^' 



6 hvocrog^ 

10 /' 



6 ViKocrog, 

11 /a 



6 ivhi}co(.Tog, 

12 i^ 




13 ly 



6 r^fffzoiihsKccrog, 

14 ^' 



6 riaaa^iaKcc^ZKCcTog^ 

15 // 




16 // 



6 iKKUibizccrog, 

17 /r 



6 i'TTTccKccihiKccrog, 

18 ;;;' 



6 oxTcuxccthiKarogy 

19 i&' 



6 bviKKUlhiKCCTOg, 

20 ;f' 



6 ilzoarog^ 

21 TCCt 

s'Uoffiv eig, [JjIcc, gV, 


6 ziKoarog T^MTog, 

22 ;ig' 

&IK0(TI IvO, 


6 zlKOGTOg ^guTSgog, 

23 «/ 

UK,QGi rgsTg, rgicc, 


6 il/coarog r^irog, 

* Comp. Heioclian Tsg/ ruv a^id/jiuv in Stepli. Thes, Ling. Gr., v. 4, p. 
205 (Gloss., p. 689. Ed. Valp.). 





ziKOGi ri(T(ra§ig, 

§a, 24 










eiKOfftv STrra, 




i'lKOGlV OKTO)^ 




UKOaiV IvViOi, 








r^iaKovra, sfc, 




r^Kx,Kovra ^6o, 







rgiKKOvrcc mice, 











60 r 



















^id/c6(Tioi, a/, a, 




















700 -4/' 












X'KfOh (^h «j 















































ziKOffTog riroc^rog, 
6 ziKOGTog ■rs^'XTrof, 
suoffTog 'izrog, 
6 eiKOCirog K^offjog, 
6 ZiKOtrrog oyhoog, 
6 ilKoarog hvarog^ 


rgtazo(TTog "hzure^og, 

r^KXKOGTog hmrog, 


















Cardinals. Ordinals. 

100,000 a ^iKCi%,i(j[jijV§ioi, 100,000 })iyMzicybv^ioc>ro(;. 

Ohs. — We may also combine 13 biTLar^itg, 14 dixarsaaa^i;, 15 dinarrivTi, 
&c. and decline these combinations : risdaooixaidixa, dixurpuv. — 
Audsxa arose out of hodsxa. 

§ LXXV. 




glc, [jJoi, gV, 

2 lOo, 



hog, (Jjiag, mg. 

2 ^voTv, 



ivi, fjuta, ivi. 

2 hvolv. 



sm, (Jbiuv, h, 

2 hvo. 



r§sig, r^icc, 

4 ri(7(Taoig^ u, 




4 TS<T/7dgC0U, 




4 riCTcrccofft, 




4 TiaffUDug, a. 


1. The substantive numerals end in ac, gen. cchog : jj [Aomg, 

unity, ^ ^vccg, rgioig, rsr^dg, Trsvrdcg, l?a?, iOtofiidg, oyhodc, hndg, 
hsKKg, sixDcg, rgiccKoig, ncraz^aKOVTag, 'TnvrriKovTdg, iKOcrovrdig, hrj- 
KOGiug, %/X/ag, (JtjVgiug, &c. 

2. The adverbial numerals run : aVa|, once, ^tg, tAvice, 
T^ig, TST^d^ig, Tzvrcczig,^ig, iTrruztg, ozruKig, Ivm^tg, ^SKUKig, 
ixocTovruKig, ^jv^idzig, &c. 

3. The multiple numbers are formed as adjectives in '^rXoog 
— TrXovg from the adverbial : uTrXovg, liTrXovg, rgfTrKoug, rer^oc- 
"TrXovg, iMVPiaTKovg. 

4. The distributives, answering to the question in how 
many parts, are formed in -/jx, : Viyjx,, T^/%a, rir^oq(ot, 'zhrocyjz^ 
and connected with these are such as r^tyri and r^r/Jjg, trebly, 
7^iyj)v, in three places, and the like. 

OF PRONOUNS. * 1,57 

5. To answer the question, on what day, adjectives in 
diiog are formed from tlie ordinals : r^irccTog, on the third day, 
^suTS^uTog, on the second day, &c. 

6. In the expression of compound numbers not only the 
less number may be placed last without a copulative, as in 
the table, but also first, in which case xcci must necessarily 
connect the two, exactly according to the German and Eng- 
lish idiom : '7r&vT& x,od ziy.oai^jive and twenty. 

7. To express the higher numbers the substantive numerals 
are commonly employed : 10(),()UU, })iKoi, ^jv^iabzg ; a million, 
iKccrov (jbu^sdhg ; and sometimes the smaller numbers, added 
to the large, are likewise expressed by substantives : e.g. 
517,610, rrevrfiKovra, (Jijv^iahsg zai (juia, x^Xidchig rs l-TCra kou 
•r^og izarovrcihsg g? kcci hzKocg. 



1. Among the objects which environ us, every one sepa- 
rates himself from that which is around him (the first person, 
I, 'TtQ^uTOv 'XPoaooitov, priina persona). Every other object he 
sets, as it were, over against himself, in order either to 
address himself, his speech, wishes, or commands, to that 
object (the second person., thou, ^ivrz^ov x^orrooxov, secunda 
persona), or merely to direct his attention to it (the third 
person, he, she, it, r^irov 'Tr^oacoTrov, tertia persona). 

2. When I, as the first person, set myself together with 
another, i and thou, i and he, the first person of the 
dual number is formed in those languages which possess a 
dual: WE both. In the same way, when I combine together 
two external objects, in order to addi'ess myself to them, 
the second person of the dual is formed : ye both. If 
we combine two objects, merely in order to contemplate them 
together, the third person of the dual is formed : they both. 

3. In the same way the three persons of the plural arise, 
when I bring those of the singular number into combination 


not witli one but with more objects in the modes above 
described : we, ye, they. 

4. Tlie words, which denote these persons, are substan- 
tives, since they denote substantive objects ; but they are 
not of themselves intelligible. In hearing i or thou we 
have no distinct conception of that, which these words de- 
signate, as we have in hearing father, flower ; the 
words have no meaning for our apprehension, until we know 
the objects themselves, to which they refer. — They are the 
mere signs of personality, consequently they are universal, 
tliey can stand for every object. 

These words, then, stand in place of a noun (avr ovofjbccrog, 
jwo nomine), hence their name, substantive pronouns 
(dvrmufjjiai ovffiatrmui, pronomina substantiva), and their 
definition, words, which in the place of nouns represent 
particular j->e7'sons.* 

5. In both the first and second person they are oj" all 
genders in most languages, and in the third also in Greek 
(resembling in this respect many of the cardinal numbers). 
Tlieir forms are taken from various roots, e. g. i, gen. of 
me, pi. we, us, &c., and were arranged under a common 
nominative, as the irregular degrees of comparison in adjectives 
under one positive in use: rj[Mug under iyco, as ^skriatv under 

6. The forms of the third person, in Greek, want the nom. 
sing, neuter, since the use of '/, which answered to the Latin 
is, was dropped.^**) To compensate for this, use was made 
of the adjective forms, avrog, '/j, 6, ovrog, this, and the like. 
In the plural the pronoun of the third person has a separate 
termination for the neuter.e^J 

7. Declension of the substantive pronouns. 


N. \yu, I, (ry, thou, he, 

G. g|W/£0, \^Qv, [Jbou, of me, cao, irov, of thee, so, ou, of himself, &c. 

* ' AvToovv/jjia — XeH'5 avr ovo/Marog Tgoffwcrwii rra^aeTarixrj u^iS/jbhuv. A- 
pollon. Alexandr. ts^/ 'Avtwc, p. 270, A. ' AvTOjrj/j,la romv iCri fMSgog 
Xoyou 'xrojTixov avrl IwfiaTog '7ra^rjCKa[iZav6iJ^i\iov. I/dscaris. Gr. Gram., L. 
Ill, p. 565. Ed. Bas. 




. s(Jboi and jM/o/, 

to me, (Toly to thee, 

oiy to himself^ &e. 


gjoog and (jbi, 

me, fl-s, thee, 

s, himself, &c. 


VSi, VMy 

a(puiy a(paj. 

G(pCii)iy G(pUy 

we both. 

ye both. 

they both. 


vS'ivy vSvf 

(T(pa)'iVy (r(poJVy 


of us both. 

of you both. 

of them both. 


. vco'ivy VMV, 

(r(paiivy ffipmy 


to us both. 

to you both. 

to them both. 


voUif vojy 

(T(pcoiy (T(pa>, 


us both. 

you both. 

them both. 


nijjkg, rj(/jiig, 

v(Jbkgy v[Jbs7gy 

ffipkgy cips/?, n. <T<psa, 


. r* , . 



rj^zcoVy Ti^jboiVy 

Vf/jiCOVy V(JjaJVy 

ff(piciJV, (T^aJUy 

of us. 

of you. 

of them. 


.ri'MVy riiLiv, 

Vf/jlVy V(JjlVy 


to us. 

to you. 

to them. 


pj^ga?, riiLo.;, 

v(jtjsagy vyboigy 

a(piagy()(pagy n. Cipsa, 





1. In order to express that something- is the possession of 
a person, use is made of certain adjectives, formed from the 
roots of the substantive pronouns, with the rejection of g in 
the singular, and called possessive pronouns (avTajvv(ju{a{ 
KrriTiKcciy pronomina possessiva). Their terminations are 
sing", og, dual and plur. n^og. 

l|M/g, eg, g, voSi, apoo'iy ^(JjB, v[Jbs, G(pz. 
Possessive Pronouns. 
g/Ao?, Gogy ogy vcom^ogy (T(pcom§ogy Tj^Wz^ogy v^ztz^og, (T(pzrz§og, 
mine,thine,his,of ustwo, ofyoutwo, our, your, their. 

2. They are of three regular terminations : 

i(^6g, rjy ovy '/jf^ks^og, oc, oi>. "O?, ?? oV, is distinguished in the 
neut. from oV, ??, o, the relative pronoun. 


Ohs. — To this class beloug also yifjbidwTrog, one of our country (nostras J, 
vfMida'ffog, one of ?/our country, since tliey contain the expression of 
person four, your); but not dXXo^acros, in which there is no refer- 
ence to person (Apollon. Alex. v. 'Avrwv, p. 298, 9). 



1 . One peculiarity of the pronouns is, that they, as univer- 
sal marks of personality, contain no sign of any one particular 

2. Viewing this as the essence of the pronoun. Grammarians 
have ascribed to the pronominal class all words which, although 
containing no expression of a distinct person, are however uni- 
versal signs without a particular designation, and stand in 
some relation to person. 

3. Of this kind are, 

a. The demonstrative (^zr/cmd^ demonstrativa)^ which 
point to a person already known : 

0, 71, TO, this man (he), this woman (she), this thing (it). 
ovTog, avT'/j, Tovro,\ ■,. 

ff\ r/V XV I tins. 

002, ^0£, rooB, ) 
lyMvoc, iyMvTj, s^ciivo, that. 

^iivci, '/} ^£/Va, ro ^s/Va, such an one (known and de- 
signated, but whom the speaker does not wish to name). 
h. The indefinite (indefinita): 
aKkog, aKkri, aKko, another. 
sTi^og, irs^Di, srs§ov, the other of two. 
Tig, rig, ri, some one. 

c. The definite (dejimtum): 
avTog, avrri, avro, he, he himself. 

d. The interrogative ( interrogatiimm) : 
rig, ri, who ? what ? 

e. The relative ( ava(po^izov, relatwum) : 

6g, Y\, 0, who, which ; and the compound rekitive offrtc^ 
ring, o, ri, whosoever. 



f. The negatives (negativa) : 

ovrig, ovng, ovrt, 

ovhiig, ovhz[jb(Oi, ovhsv, 

(J^rjrig, yjririg, (juiiTi, 

> no one. 

§ LXXX. 


1. The definite is used for the closer designation of the 
persons: lyoo ahrog or ahrog ly&f, I myself; (rv uvrog, thou 
thyself; avrog, he himself. 

2. In the rest of the cases of the singular the roots of 
the personal pronouns are blended with avrog^ and produce a 
compound (jsvvkrog') pronoun. Thus 

I myself, 
Nom. lyu avTog^ 


thou thyself, 
Gv avTog, 
of thyself, 


to thyself, 





3. In the other numbers this coalition does not take place : 
^[/jzig avToi, rifLuv avrm, &c. ; except in avTov, pL avTm, avroig^ 

4. Instead of gccvtov, avrov, we find also GsavroVf iuvroVf 
GsuvrS, &c. 





of myself, 




to myself, 



he himself, &c. 



of himself, 



to himself, 












When there is a mutual relation between several persons — - 
e. g. they loved one another^ i. e. one the other — use is made 
of aXKoi^ aXKoci, oKka, with the insertion of the syllable viK 
(lengthened out of aX) in the gen. dat. ace. : e. g. aXkriKovg 
(as it were d'hXoi clKkoug). 


aXkrikaig, akXriKoig, 

aKkrjXug, aihXrika. 


aXk'/]XuiVf aKkyjXoiv, 

Gen. kXkrfkcov, 

Dat. Abl. aXX^Xoig, 
Ace. DiXXyiXoug, 

Gen. Dat. ccXX^Xoiv, 
Ace. aXX'^Xco, 



The adjective pronouns, enumerated in § lxxix, are for 
the most part declined regularly: e.g. Izzivog, t^, o ; where, 
however, we must observe that v is dropped in the neuter. 
For exercise, and on account of some peculiarities, here follow : 




tl <•/ 



ff' ^^' 

Dat. Abl. 


?» ^» 



CI tl 

71V, 0. 


Nom. Ace. 


tl tl 
cc, u. 

G. D. Abl. 


ouv, o7v. 



tl tl 



ai, a. 



CUV, uv. 

Dat. Abl. 


ccig, o'ig. 



tl tl 
ag, a. 







roh, and ovrog, 


rovro, this. 




rovh, rovrov, 

, ravrrig. 


D. Abl. 



rioh, rouroj. 






rohi, rovrov. 



N. Ace. 



ruh, rovrco. 




. rolvhs. 


rolvhs, rovroiv. 






rdh, ovroi, 






rHjws, rovruv. 



D. Abl. 



rolrrhz, rovroig, 





, riiahz, 

ruhs, rourovg 

, ra,vrag. 



rig, Ti, some one, 

rig, ri, who? what? 


Tivog, '. 

r'lo, rov, 

rivog, rso. 


D. Abl. 

rivi, Tico, ra> 


rivi, rso;, 



Tim, ri, 

rivoi, ri. 


N. Ace. 




. rivolv, 




rivsg, rivd (urroi). 

rivsg, rim, 




D. Abl. 





rivtt, (oirroi). 

rimg, rivoc* 



0, ri. 


h7m, a certain one. 


rov, Tfjg, rov, 


D. Abl. 




N. Ace. 


G. D. Abl. 







D. Abl. 










0, ri, whosoever. 









D. Abl. 












N. Ace. 





, ohrivoiu, 






arivct {juTTO,), 

D. Abl. 







anva, [arTaj. 

D. Abl. 

ovrig, ovrt, 


ovriva,, ovri. 

and ovhsig, 


ouh[jjicc, ovUv, no one 
ovhsfMag ovhsvog, 
ovhfJbia, ovhsi/i, 
ovhsfjbiccv, ovhh. 

N. Ace. ourivs, 
G.D.Ab. ovrivoiv. 

Nom. ovrivzg, ouriva. 

Gen. ovrivcov, 

D. Abl. ovriai. 

Ace. ovnvocg, ovrivu. 


Plural. (R) 



1 . The Greek language has likewise correlative pronouns, 
each pair of which has a mutual relation. The latter of the 


two Is expressed in English by as : e. g. roaoq^ oao^i tantusy 
quantusy so great as, &c. 

TOGog^ offog, so great as, so much as (tantits, quantuSj 

and tot, qiiot). 
ro7og, oioc, such as (Lat. talis, qualis). 
T'/^kiKog, TikiKog, of the same age, of the same size as. 
2. When the correlation is more expressly designated — 
just as great as, exacthj as great as, &c. — the former pronoun 
(roffog, roiog, r-/i\izog^ has %z or ovrog attached to it, and the 
latter has oV (from oVpj, as,) prefixed. 

ToaovTog, f r / roiovTog, f r ^ rriXifcouTog, f r , , 

, V OTioffog. , V oitoiog. . , ' > oitriKizog, 

S. In putting a question the latter pronouns prefix tt (from 
xoijg) : 'TTOGog, how great ? how much ? Tfoiog, of what sort ? 
"TTrfKiKog, of what age ? of what stature ? and, if these expres- 
sions be to be made indefinite, — of some number, sort, age, 
&c., — the accent of two of them is moved to the final syllable, 
-zoaog, 'TTOiog, but remains in 'xrikUog. 

4. Recapitulation : 

Toaog, offog, 'Tcoaog^ 'Tcoaog, 

roTog^ oioc^ ttoTo^, -Tcoiog, 

Tii^jKog, TikiKog, irrikiKog, 'TCTikizog. 

5. Several little words which are placed after the pronouns 
in order to strengthen their expression, or mark their relation 
more distinctly, have been by use as it were incorporated with 
them: ^s in o^s ; also ys, 'iyojyz (equidem); TTio^ OfXTrsg; n, 
offTS ; 0?;, oaomy], oaovhrjTroTZ ; ovv in mriaovv and oa'Trz^ovv, 
These may be also written separate : ogttzo ouv, &c. 

6. The addition of / serves for a stronaer desig-nation of 
the persons : ovrocri (hic-ce), avTrj'i, and with ejection of o, 
a, s: TovTi, TuvTi, oot, rohi, rovroyi; even with v. ovToaiv, 
rovTovaiv ; and so from ouTcog : ovTcoai and ovTcuaiv. 





The property, wliich a verb ascribes to any subject (§ ii, 
8), must be understood in the widest sense, as all that is 
affirmed to belong to that subject, as all that exists, acts, or 
is felt in it. 

1. Tliis property is considered either as contained in the 
subject, without imparting- itself to any other, as an inopera- 
tive state or condition (p^[Jtj(x, or ysvog pj]iJbarog a^iroc^arov, 
ovhiTS^ov, verbiim intransitivum or neutrum) : the tree blos- 
soms, the man lives, the man prospers; or as a state of 
operating upon some external object, passing over to that 
object (pni^os, [jbzroi^ocTov, hzpyririKov, verbiim transitivum or 
activum) : the rain fertilizes the soil ; where the fertilizing 
is considered as something communicated to the soil, some- 
thing passing over to it. 

2. The subject, however, not only itself exerts activity, 
but is also susceptible ('7ra07]7i%.6g, passivus,) of the operations 
of any agency, is exposed to them, is affected by them. 

3. This agency, by which it is affected, sometimes proceeds 
from itself, and retro-acts upon itself (p^fJ^a avTi(jT^o(pov, lOogo-ov, 
verbum reciprocum or medium) : e. g. the herd of deer 
brings itself near, approaches. Here the approaching is 

OF VERBS. 167 

remarked as a property, as an operation in the herd, which 
exerts itself, however, not upon any other object, but upon 
the herd itself. So also, — the tree raises itself towards the 
skies : thou pleasest thyself truly, only when thou busiest 
thyself in good deeds. 

4. Lastly, the agency, by which an object is affected, may 
proceed not from itself but from something else ('^yji^of, tccOt^- 
riKov, verhuiii passiimm) : the earth is illumined by the sun, 
the town is destroyed. 

These differences among verbs are called lands (yhf], 
genera). We rank as such the neuter^ active, middle, 



1. We consider objects either as now being, or as having 
been, or as hereafter to be affected by their properties, and 
hence divide time itself into three parts, the present, past, 


2. If we consider the three times (x^^^f>h tempora,) in 
relation to one another, other distinctions of time appear to 
attach themselves to those above enumerated, and we may, 
putting all together, discriminate each particular time as 
incomplete, complete, or about to be completed. 

3. Hence we may distinguish, 

a. Present time, 
incomplete, 1, / ain writing (at this moment, the action 

going on, y^^ovog Ivzarug, prcEsens). 
complete, 2, / have written (have just finished, ttcc^ukU' 

[jjsvog, perfectum). 
about to be 
completed, o, / am about to ivrite (immediately, futurum 


b. Past time, 
incomplete, 4, I ivas writing, e.g. Avhen he came (had at 

that time not yet finished, 'ZoiQ^arurizog^ im- 


168 OF VERBS. 

complete, 5, / had written, when, &c. (had then finished, 

v^i^vvTekix£g, plusquamperfectum). 

about to be 

completed, 6, / was about to write, when, &c. (was then 

on the point of commencing). 
c. Future time, 
incomplete, 7* I shall ox will write, e.g. when he comes 

(shall then be about to write, \i!iKhMv, 
complete, 8, / shall have written, when, &c. (shall then 

have completed my writing, futurum 

about to be 
completed, 9j / shall be about to write, when, &c. (shall 

then be upon the point of commencing). 

Ohs. 1. — It 13 sufficient to designate these nine tenses by the English 
names above given, e.g. incomplete present, complete past, &c. The 
Greek and Latin names are those usually employed in grammars. 
It is evident that these nine tenses must appear in every genus of 
the verb. 

Obs. 2. — Besides these nine distinctions of time, still other differences 
may be conceived, the number and nature of which need not here 
be specified. Thus the Greek tongue has peculiar forms to express 
a past event, on which the mind does not dwell for any continuance, 
but which it merely regards as in itself absolutely past (x^wac, ao^iarog, 



1. Existence may be ascribed to an object by means of 
the verb in different ways (lyzkiaug, modi). 

a. As actually observable in it, and simply pointed out 
('iyKkiGig 6gi(TTiZ7], modus indicativus): the tree blossoms. 

b. As only thought of with regard to it, as a wish, a con- 
ception : may the tree blossom ! (iVKrixri, optativus). 

OF VERBS. 169 

c. As ready to befall it, in case something else happen : 
/ eat that I may live., hence do not live in case I do 
not eat. Thus the two verbs to eat and to live are 
brought into closer relation (v'^rorcocnKT!, relativus or 

2. The first person, with reference to another, can desire 
that that other should pass into some state of being f ■r^oc- 
raxri'/crj, imperativus) : be happy , be active^ &c. 

Obs. — The moods also appear in all different genera of the verb, and 
enter into the several tenses, but under some limitations in the latter 
respect, of which we shall speak hereafter. 

3. The moods already enumerated express existence always 
in connection with one of the three persons. If the expres- 
sion be without reference or limitation to one of the persons, 
e. g. to live^ to blossom^ it is characterized in grammar as the 
indefinite mood (a'7rcc^i[jij(pa,7og, modus injinitivus). 



1. Since the verb, according to its nature, pre-supposes a 
subject, of which it expresses a property, and with which it 
stands in very close connection, it therefore alters its form, 

a. When the substantive alters its number : e. g. the tree 
yrows^ the trees (no longer grows but) grow. Hence 
we find in the verb, as in the noun, the singular, dual, 
and plural numbers. 

b. According to the person denoted by the subject : e. g. 
/, Sempronius, acquire ; thou, Caius, acquirest ; he, 
Gracchus, acquires (persons of the verb). 

2. The numbers naturally repeat themselves in every 
mood, except the infinitive, which has no definite relation. 
If a language have three numbers, it must need nine persons 
of the verb, since the persons also are repeated in each num- 
ber throughout the moods (e. g. prima persona pluralis 
numeriy optativi modi, futuri temporis, passim generis). 


3. The imperative mood, however, must have only the 
second and third persons. It expresses always a demand of 
the intellig-ence upon the will. Hence it is clear, that, when 
I give an order to myself, I distinguish in myself between 
the intelligence and the will. The one commands the other 
as a second person — comfort thyself; so that the first person 
does not appear in the imperative. 

Obs. — Since the participles are to be considered as adjectives, which 
contain an expression of lime, they appear in company with most 
of the tenses, are formed in analogy with them, and will be given 
together with them. 

4. It appears from what has been already stated, that 
under the few limitations above noticed, every person should 
appear in every number, every number in every mood, every 
mood in every tense, and every tense in every genus of the 

5. Thus in the verb, as in the substantive, each part is 
constituted not of a single conception, but of an aggregation 
of several conceptions : e. g. 

(I strike) 

persona^ numerus^ modus^ tempus, (/emiSy 

prima, sin//ularis, indicativuSy pra'sois, activum. 

Obs. — It is necessary to understand these preliminary remarks as 
clearly as possible in order to proceed, with knowledge and intelli- 
gence in mastering the difficulties of the verb. 



1. As numbers and cases in the noun, so genera^ tenses, 
moods, numbers, and persons, in the verb, will be designated 
by certain letters and syllables, and these Mill be added to the 

OF VERBS. 171 

root according" to certain laws, so that a special verbal-form 
will be obtained for each person. 

2. Conjugation ((Tv^uyiu, conjngatio from conjngare^ to 
yoke together,) teaches how to add to the root these letters 
and syllables under the control of the established rules, and 
to lav down the series of forms thence resulting according to 

4. If we assume for the exigencies of language, according 
to our foregoing observations, 4 genera of the verb, in each 
genus 9 tenses, in each tense 4 moods, in three of these 9 
persons, and in one of them 6, in all 33 persons, and an 
infinitive form besides for each tense, it will appear that a 
fully developed tongue must have in its conjugation 4 forms 
of genus, 4 X 9 =36 forms of tense, ^^ ><! 4 = 144 forms of 
moods, and in these 144 X 33=4752 forms of person, add 
to which 9 forms of the infinitve, which would make up 476 1 
verbal forms, without reckoning the participles, whereas the 
forms of the noun reach only to 3x6=18. 

4. Such an exuberance of forms, however, no human 
tongue has ever yet attained, since the developement of 
language has suffered many lets and limitations from accident, 
the destiny of nations, and the insufficiency of the foundations 

o. Nevertheless, the conjugation of Greek verbs comes 
near, in many points, even to this exuberance, and from the 
fulness and beauty of its forms, as well as the certainty and 
regularity of its developement, it constitutes the basis of that 
excellence which distinguishes the noblest and richest of all 
human languages. 

6. Next in rank, in the circle of well known tongues, 
come ilie Latin and the languages derived from it. But the 
tonofues of the Teutonic branch, such as the German, Eng- 
lish, &c., are extremely deficient in this respect. 

7. Such of the above-mentioned forms as have not been 
developed, language is forced to supply by means of some 
existing form combined with an auxiliary verb. Of this 
auxiliary character are sTva;, to be, yiynd&ai^ to become, 
opiXkeiv, to owe ; in Greek also [jA/J^hv, to be about to, in 
English to have, will, shall, &c. 

172 OF VERBS. 



A.. Genera. 

1. To express the four genera there are in Greek, as in 
most other languages, only two forms, distinguished as active 
and passive, or as active and passive conjugation : 'kzi'Troj, I 
leave, KzixofLas, I am left. Neuter and middle are expressed, 
now by parts of the one form, now of the other. 

2. For future and aorist middle, however, there are special 
forms in the passive conjugation (futura and aoristi medii). 

Obs. — The English tongue, like the German, has no passive formation. 
It has, however, a participle, which taken alone is of passive signi- 
fication : beloved, left ('Germ, geliebt, verlassen ) . This is joined 
with auxiliary verbs, in order to meJie passive forms : / am beloved, 
might I be seen, &c. 

B. Tenses. 

3. To express time the Greek tongue has forms for six of 
these tenses, which were enumerated § Lxxxv, 2, and obs. 2. 

a, b. c. 

(1) Present. (2) Perfect. (3) Future. 

'kzi'Trco, 'kiXoi'Tra, Xzi-^^oi), 

I leave. I have left. I shall or will leave. 

(4) Imperfect. (5) Pluperfect. (6) Aorist. 

ikn'Trov, iXiXoi'Triiv, 'iXsi-^pcc, 

I was leaving. I had left. I left. 

Thus there are wanting three of the forms above alluded to, 
which must, when necessary, be expressed by periphrasis. 

4. The tenses here united under «, b, c, are connected 
together in pairs by their formation, and will therefore be 
distinguished as chief tenses, Xii'Trco, KiXoi'Trcc, Xii-^o), and *^- 
condary tenses, sKuttov, kXiXoi'^eiv, tkzii^tt,, a denomination 
which refers solely to their form. 

5. For the future and aorist the Greek tongue has two 
forms, distinguished as first and second future,'^' first and 

OF VERBS. 173 

second aorist. In this respect it exceeds that which is 
necessary, but not that which is desirable. The greater the 
number of forms, the more variety is there in a language. 

6. Thus the series of Greek tenses is, 

Chief. Secondary, 

present, imperfect, 

perfect, pluperfect, 

future 1, aorist 1, 

future 2. aorist 2. 

Obs. 1. — These tenses occur in the passive voice as well as the active, 
and in the former with the addition of a third form for the future 
preterite (Jutiirum exactum, ysy^d-^o/MaiJ, I shall have been written, 
as in Latin in the active scripsero, I shall have written. The forma- 
tion of the future and aorist middle {§ lxxxix, 1, 2,) is also twofold. 

Obs. 2. — No verb, however, possesses all these tenses, but only a 
greater or less number of the possible forms, as the nature of its 
root may allow. 

Obs. 3. — The English and German tongties have only the aorist form 
together with the present, I run, ran, I see, saw ^Germ. ich laufe, 
lief, sehe, sahj. — For all the other forms auxiliary verbs are joined 
with the infinitive or participle: I shall love, I have loved, I am 
come, I shall have been heard (Germ, ich werde lieben^ habe geliebt, 

a Moods. 

7. The imperfect and pluperfect have no mood but the 
indicative ; other tenses supply what is wanting to these forms. 

8. The futures want the imperative ; here the aorists 
supply the deficiency. 

9. In the perfect passive the formation of the conjunctive 
and optative is limited, and even the Greek tongue here 
resorts to the use of an auxiliary : yiy^ccfjbfMvog m, and sr/ju. 

10. In the other tenses the moods are complete, and 
formed with great care. 

D. Numbers and Persons. 

11. Since the Greek tongue has a dual, it has consequently 
all nine persons, of which, however, many are formed alike. 

174 OF VERBS. 

12. In some verbs the formation of two persons in the 
extant moods is circumscribed, viz. the 3 pi. perf. and plu- 
perf. pass. 

£J. Review. 

13. Not\vithstanding the above mentioned limitations, there 
still remains for the Greek verb a great affluence of forms, 
augmented by the various forms of the same tense (3 futures, 
2 aorists). 

14. Table of the persons : 

Conj. 9. Opt. 9. Imper. 6. Inf. 1. Part. 1. 

Pies. Ind 








Put. 1. 


Aor. 1. 


Fut. 2. 


Aor. 2. 










Fut. 1. 


Aor. 1. 


Fut. 2. 


Aor. 2. 


Fut. 3. 


Fut. 1. 


Aor. I. 


Fut. 2. 


Aor. 2. 



9 6 11 

9 6 11 

9 9 

9 6 11 

9 6 1 1 


9 6 11 

9 6 11 

21>^9 9)^9 16X9 10X6 17 17 

15. All the possible formations of the Greek verb are thus, 
21 X 9 for the indicative, 9 1^ 9 for the conjunctive, 16 ><) 9 for 
the optative, 10X6 for the imperative, to which are to be 
added 17 infinitive forms and as many participles j which 


having each 3 terminatioTis and 18 cases make up a sum of 
3><J l?*^ 18« The sum of the whole without the participles 
is 49 1; observing, however, that since no verb possesses all 
the tenses, every verb is limited to a smaller or greater num- 
ber of these forms : nevertheless, we may ascribe the whole 
to the verb Xs/ro; — >\.£<Vo|Ooa;, in order to trace out the verbal 
formation in a perfect paradigm. 

16. In order to understand the formation of all those parts, 
of which the number and distribution have been described, it 
is necessary to divide our subject-matter, and to treat first of 
the formation of the 1st pers. sing, indicative (formation of 
tense), which includes that of the genera. After this, the laws 
may be explained, which regulate the formation of the other 
moods, numbers, and persons, according to the 1st pers. 
indicative (conjm/ation). With regard to the formation of 
tense, it is especially requisite to reduce the verbs to classes 
according to the nature of their roots, and to separate all that 
is anomalous. 

17. Since, moreover, the Greek conjugation endured in 
process of time great changes, and much of the ancient 
method was retained together with the more recent form, it 
is convenient, for the sake of clearness, to keep back that 
which is ancient, and to consider first the common shape of 
the most numerous class of verbs in a. 



1. The root of a verb in u is found by throwing away ai 
from the first person of the present. 

roots, Xg/T, pXi,^^^ vs(ji,. 



2. Verbs are divided into mute, pure, and liquid, as the 
root ends in a mute, a vowel, or a liquid. 

Verbs mute, 















1 . Verbs, of which the roots end in two consonants (unless 
these be a mute with a liquid, such as g")^, Xz, fjbT, &c.), have 
altered their original root, and belong to the class of anomalous. 

Thus the following are regular 









but the following are anomalous 









sing, &c.; 

grow old, 

yrj^oiffx-cUf since not 
yyi^uGz, but 

do, beat, bear, 

'^gdrrff-coj rv'xr-u^ TiKr-oo, 

TT^acfl-, rvTrr^ tikt, 

^^ay, ruTT, rs«, 

are the original roots. 

2. Even verbs of this sort, in order to lessen for use the 
number of the anomalous, may be reckoned among the 
regular, when the original root is recovered by the reduction 
of a double consonant to a single according to the general 
law of abbreviation (§ xxix). 


OF VERBS. 177 

abbreviated : 

ry-r, ayyik, rsfA, (p^oih, which are likewise 

the original roots. 

3. Some other cases of anomaly will be noticed hereafter, 
in the list of anomalous verbs. 

4. Verbal forms are produced by the addition to the root 
of prefixtures (^ccu^r]/Tsig, augmenta,) and terminations (rMra.- 
Krj^eig, terminationes). 

§ XCII. 


1. The root receives an augment, or prefixture, 

a. When it begins \n\\\ a consonant, by the prefixture of s; 

b. When it begins with a short vowel, by the doubling of 
the vowel. 

Hence we have from 

IXsy, k-<puXX, 
from IK, V, dig, 

avx, si, 



r«, V, jj^, 

V^x, ri, 




2. The first augment is called the syllabic (av^. ffvXXa^iKri, 
augm. syllahicum), since it increases the w^ord by one syl- 
lable, the other the temporal ((wi,. %poj'/;^^, augm. temporale), 
since it lengthens the vowel by one time (tempus, mora, 
§ xiii). 

Obs. 1 — Those which begin with w, jj, and ov, also four with a, admit 
110 augment: c/m, breathe, oum, hear, ari&saau, am unaccustomed to, 
arihi^nij^at, am disgusted. Likewise with s/: s/V.w, yield, ilxov; so 
svgov instead of tjI^o'J, from ib^igxoi ; and some with 0/ : ohou^su, keep 
the house, o/i/ow, intoxicate, o/Vr^sw, madden. (^^ 

Obs. 2 — The following change s into u : 'iyjji, have, uy^m, not ^%oi/, 
ifuw, draw, iigMov^ idu, permit, i'laov, l^iu, say, I'l'^Yixa, 'i&u, am accus- 


178 OF VERBS. 

tomed to, s'Juda, sTo/i.a/, follow, iivo/ji/riv, and slXov, took, from the 
root sX, to which add four with a double consonant after i: kXxvu, 
s^'TTCt), s^ydZ^ofiai, hgridoj. 

Obs. 3. — The following take the syllabic augment instead of the tem- 
poral : dX/Vxw, iokm (throwing back the spiritus asper), was taken, 
ciym^i^ sdyrjv, was broken, u&su, sudsov, &c. ; likewise the perfect 'eoix,a, 
am like, from elxu, io^ya from 'i^yu, do, hX'jra, hope, from eX-rw, cause 
to hope. Add ojvBOfiai, ougew. 

Obs. 4. — The augment of the second syllable belongs to iogra^w, make 
a festival, sugra^oi>, and the pluperf. of the above-mentioned verb 
with io: ioixa, ewxuv. 

Obs. 5. — Both augments united belong to sui^cmv from o^du, see, ridvvd/iriv 
for sduva/jLTjv from dvvafiai, am able, ^(nXKov for s/msXXov from fiiXku, 
am about to. Likewise diaxonTv, to administer, and diairav, to feed, 
have besides the s an augment upon a : didiriKovi^xa, ■/carsdi^rrjea. 

Obs. 6. — P is doubled after the augment : gsw, flow, 'sg|£ov, guo/ia/, save, 
Iggutfaro, &c. 

3. In the case of compounds, the following rules with 
regard to the augment must be observed : 

a. Those compounded with a noun, or a (negative or 

connective)^ take the augment at the beginning : (ptXo- 

(To(pico, l(piXo(T6(psov, a(p^ovico, ri(pponov. 
h. Those compounded ^vith a preposition, or with ^vg, sy, 

take the augment to the verb, and the prepositions 

suffer elision : '^a^a,Xa[/j^ccvoi), itdgika^^civov, k'Xo-O'zXi^co, 

u^O'TrXi^co, a(pco'7rX{^ov. 

Obs. 1. — IIco and TEg/ are not elided : ts^is^u, -rEg/s/^oi/; T^odyu, v^o- 
Tjyov ; so also dfM(pi in d/Mpmufii, and dfKptikiesu, but o of ir^o is 
often contracted together with the following vowel : e. g. crgosXsyov, 
ffgouXsyov ; T^osdcoxa, ir^oudojxa. 

Obs. 2 — Of class b some have the augment before Bug and su, when 
the verb begins with w, >j, or a consonant: as, dugu-zsTv, sdvffu':riov. 
So Sutfru^sTi/, iudoxifisTv, &c. Likewise several, in which the prepo- 

OF VERBS. 179 

sition is closely combiued with the verb by elision, or the simple 
verb is out of use: xaSivbu, hdhudov, but also zadrivHov ; xaSi^M, 
hddii^ov; avviZoKiu, ^vtiZoXsov; dfj^piaQ'/jTSU, <p^oifji,id^u, &c. 'Hvu^Soov 
from dvo^Qoo), and rim-)(\iov from ivoyXiU), are augmented in both places. 
Obs. 3. — In compounds, the accent, according to the general rule, 
falls back: psgw, T^offps^s ; d-Topsiiyw, dcropsyys; but the temporal aug- 
ment retains it over its long vowel : 'xooaayi and cr^off^ys ; am^yi, 
a'TTiT^ys, &c. 



1. The augmeat precedes the radical part of the verb, but 
only in the indicative, when a secondary tense is to be formed. 

^. Of the chief tenses the perfect takes the augment in all 
its moods, and when it begins with a consonant it repeats the 
same before the augment (^iTfLaamaij/oq^ redupUcatio). 

olzi, perf. uKi ; ri^cc, perf, 7sri[jjCi ; (psvy, perf. -Trz^pivy. 

3. In this case the pluperfect also receives the reduplication, 
before which a new temporal augment is placed: ti[Jjoc, for 
the pluperf. ysTifjjCc, ; (p&vy, pluperf. g9rs(p£uy. 

4. The reduplication does not occur, when the root of the 
verb begins with two consonants without a liquid, or with 
yv : yvoj -ipccXk, perf. and pluperf. only gyvo, k^l/ocX. 

Obs. — Several also with yX take only s: syX-jTrai, xariyXcLrriff/ji^ai from 
yX\j<pu, '/MTayXarri^u. Some with a single liquid lengthen g into £/, 
instead of reduplication: >.>]£, s'lXyi^a; ^as/g, s/'/xag/xa/, — but ^s^v-o in 
^s^vvufMai from ^wxooj, ^s^uaau/xai from ^vaaou, &c. ( Schaefer in 
Excerpt. Cod. Paris, ad Arisioph. Plut.,p. 503 ^.C'' 

5. In verbs which begin with a vowel, the first vowel with 
the following consonant are sometimes repeated before the 
temporal augment (redupUcatio Attica). 

180 OF VERBS. 

Perf. %, 7}xo, rfktp, 

and a^;?^, ccKriKO, ak)iki<p. 

Obs. — The Attic reduplication causes the roots to shorten their long 
vowel ; hence ax^jxo, iXrikitp, instead of dx?jxoii, aX9]Xg/p, from dxouw, 

6. We may henceforth consider it as known, what altera- 
tion through prejixture the root undergoes in each tense. 

§ XCIV. 


1 . The terminations which are added to the roots, in order 
to form the tenses, are the following: 
















jFut. 1, 

(Aor. 1, 







jFut. % 
lAor. % 












1. Concerning- the changes which arise when the mutes 
are combined with c, pb, ^, in the termination, see § xxi, &c. 

2. The perfect changes sometimes in the active s into o, 
and in the passive sv into v. 

3. The 2nd futures and aorists are formed from the short 

4. Examples. 

Pres. Xs/V-<a>, 
Imperf. 'i-XstT-ov, 
Perf. Ks-XoiTT-cc, 
Pluperf. kXs-Xol'Tr-siv, 

Fut. 1, Xil-^-OJ, 

Aor. 1, 'i-Xzi-^-u, 
Fut. 2, XiT-sst/, 
Aor. 2, 'i-XiT-op, 










Mixed forms from nvx^o), prepare, i^itla, fix on, vofjui^oj, think, 
(p^a^^, say. 


Pres. T&vxco, 
Imperf. r^sthof, 
Perf. TiTsvy^u, 
Pluperf. Irsrsu^g/v, 

Fut. 1 , l^glffO), 

Aor. 1, srev^cc, 
Fut. 2, vO(Jjihsa;, 
Aor. 2, 'i(p§ulou. 







18!2 OF VERBS. 

5. Tlie passive perfect takes sometimes a instead of £ into 
the root : 

r^sTit/, turn, rir^a[jij(Jijcc{, r^i(poo (root properly ^^s^), nourish, 

Ti&POi^lJbai, (TT^i(pCiJ, turn, S(TT§CC[Jb[JjOil. 

6. The active perfect generally aspirates the p and k 
sounds, and after a t sound it takes %. into the termination 
(ku, x,uv\ before which the t sound is ejected : 

r^i^co, rub, ifhkTtoo^ weave, (p^a,^(») (root <pfa^), say, 'Tcii^co^ 
persuade ; perf. rsr§i(pa, TSTrKzy^oi, 'Tr'ippax.a, 'xkicuKa, ; pluperf. 
£T£r^/<p£/i', gTSTrXs^s/i^, l-7rs(p^oi^2iv, i'ln'Tnix.ziv. 

Ohs — With the Attics o also is taken into the aspirated perfects : ffi/X'irw, 
send, Tscro/i^a, xXs-rrw, steal, xsxXofa, suXX'syu, collect, Cuvs/Xo^a, 
rgsTw, turn, rsrgo^a, &c. 

7. The roots in ^, with the Attics, commonly lose the 
consonant in the 2nd future active and middle (futuriim 
A-tticwni) : vo[jJ^co (root vo^jaV), fut. 2nd, voi/jibzoj, uo[j!j{hso[jijcn, 
vo^iici)^ vof/jiio^cii ; contracted vo(Jjico, vo[jjsov(/jUt. So also To^i^oj^ 

Obs. 1.— Except in these examples the 2nd fut. act. and mid. is not found 
in mute verbs, — or only in a few poetic forms : from /MavSam (root 
fiad), [/,a(jsvf/jai for [jja&ioiMat or fiadov/Mui, Theoc. 11, 60 ; and nxusdai, 
Horn. hymn. 1, 127. ni6ovfjt,ai, which once stood in Aristoph. Nub. 
88, is now changed into 'rldufia/. 

Obs. 2. — The 2nd aorist and the imperfect are entirely of the same 
character, the one being formed from the old root, the other from 
the later and extended root: 'iXiirov from ?w'ff, as 'iXiivov from "kiiir in 
Xs/Vw ; s'lpgaSov from f^ab, as 'ifq^a^ov from pga^ in pga^w. While the 
original root maintained itself in these aorist forms, it was expanded 
in various ways in the present and imperfect in order to designate a 
more abiding presence, and a more abiding contemplation of the 
past ; both which kinds of designation, together with the fuller forms 
belonging to them, came later into use as required by the develope- 
ment of the language Hence those appear to err, who consider the 

OF VERBS. 183 

2nd aorist as a shortened form of the imperfect, and thus subject the 
earlier to the later form : whereas, on the contrary, the imperfects 
must be considered as extended forms of the aorist indicative, created 
more recently for a particular purpose. — These ancient aorists, pre- 
cisely because they are original and unchanged, appear now in only 
a few mute verbs, but in most were suppressed after the form- 
ation of the first aorist. 

§ XCVI. 


1. These take in the perf. and pluperf. act. a before the 
termination (%a, tchv)^ and generally want the 2nd future and 
aorist. ("^^ 

2. When a consonant is admitted, the last vowel of the 
root is usually doubled. 

3. Mixed forms of to^Siw, desire, ri[jb(ia/, honour, -^gvam^ 
gild, \vo}^ loose, (p/Xsiy, love, ga^-^, permit, "Traihivco, instruct : 

Active. Middle. Passive. 

Pres. 'Tro&'ia), Xvofjbut, 

Imperf. Wif/Mov, siaof/j'/]!/, 

Perf. 7STi(^'/i;coc, 7ri7rcci^iV[/jocif 

Pluperf. Ifciy^^uaajziiv, lXiXv[M'/]v, 

Fut. 1, Xvffcu, edffofjjoit, (ptKri^^aof/jOii, 

Aor. 1, iTodsircc, ly^PUffauirdi/jriv, IpiKri&^v. 

4. Many, in their passive forms, add c to the root when 
a consonant follows : 

Tikico (finish), TiTiXi(r(Jbui, ccKOvcj (hear), 7]'/cov(T[jijUty aaovff^ri' 

5. Many lose the a in their first future : Tihksco^ nXzcoiMat, 
Tiksco, rsXiO(jijai, Tikoj, 7&kov(/jai. This is also called the Attic 

Obs. 1. — The verbs, of which the vowel remains short before c, are 
the following : in, 

184 OF VERBS. 

a. yikau, laugh (ysXdtfw, syiXada,), ^Xdoi, break, 'Xi^du, cause to 

pass, C'Tuu, draw. 
i. aibioniO.!, venerate, dxs&^a/, heal, aoxio), suffice, ^sw, boil, s/^sw, 

vomit, /CkXew, call, xotsw, rage,, quarrel, pw, polish, rsXioo, 

finish, r^BO), tremble. 
0. dgow, plough (doo(?w). So o/ioSCa), will swear, ovoVw, will profit. 
y. di/yw, end (dfjffw, ^Vyca), dguw, drain, /3iw, stuff, 1^6 w, draw, sXxuaj, 

trail, fi^sduca, intoxicate, vrvoo, spit, ravjuj, stretch out. 
Obs. 2. — Forms with long and short vowel belong to,* 
s. aiv'su, praise, ahsffu, pviSa, fivriiiai, fiv's&riv, 

a'l^su, take, a/gjjtrw, j?g;j,aa/, fi^sdriv 

dsu, bind, Secw and 6jj(r&j, 6;o£xa, d'sdz/j^ai, sd'sd7}\/. 

•KO&iw, desire, md'ssofiai and 'XoSrisoixai, iTrokffa, 'Trs'^oSriza, 'Xi-7:6dri/J,ai, 

I'XO&iS&T^V . 

XI. dvM, sink, SUirw, s^Uca, sduSriv* 
Sijw, sacrifice, ^uCw, l^uca, irjDrjv, 
Xuw, loose, XutfiiJ, sXuCa, XsXufJLai, sXv6riv. 



1 . These form all their tenses, except the pres. and imperf., 
from the short root. 

2. They take, in the perf. and pluperf. act, o instead of s 
into the root, and double the other short vowels : zTiivoo (zrzv) 

rirT}M, Inrikziv. 

3. They want the 1st fut. act. and mid., and form tlie 
aorists belonging to them without a (a, uyjrjv), with duplica- 
tion of the short vowel (jp(x,iva}, g^p^jva, l(privd^riv)^ and extension 
of £ to £/ : v'i^ci), hii(Jbu, evii[/jci[jj'/iv. 

* Comp. Eustath. ad II., p. 106. 



4. Some tenses of (paipa>, ccva-rsKkM, cause to rise, ay- 
yiXkco, announce, ri(/jvctj, cut, "TrXvuM, wash, tiKKm, pluck out: 




Put. 1, 
Aor. 1, 







'irlXa, STSi[jjCi(X'/iUj 

^'yysiXu, l(p'/im[/j'/jv, 

avsrsiXcc, avznikdiJj'/^v, 

Put. 2, uyyzhJioo, kyyzhsoiMcci, 

(pavioD, (pu/iO(jjU{, 

Aor. 2, srci[jjOv, l(pccvo[jj'/^v, 

'iriKou, riyysK6(J!jr]v, 

5. In the aor. 1st, several change a into a instead of ;?, as : 
a/^o), raise, d§cc( (in£), Iva^^spccim, am displeased, y.z^aivoj, 
gain, l^so^ava, zoCkaivoj^ hollow, Xzvzaivoj, whiten, o^yocivoj, 
whence o^yumug, Soph.QEd.Tyr., 335, Br., 'Trsruivco, ripen, &;c. 

6. Those with g in the root often change it in the aor. and 
fut. to a : KTitvoj, kill, ^ra'Aco and Knvkco (wliich, as analogous, is 
preferred to the former *), tzimoj^ cut, r£/>t-siy and srccijuov, 
(TTiKko), hffTuX'/iv, TTs/^iy, 67rccp'/]v. The same takes place when 
the liquid stands before g, in 

'TrXiKco, weave, 'ttXccxso/, 

/cXsTTTcij, steal, ySka.itkoo^ 

or when another consonant follows the liquid : 

'TT^&a), destroy, 'Xix^Qio), 

as in German, verderbe, verdarb, erwerbe, erwarb. 

7. Here also the perf. has often k : (jTiKXaj, send, Tg/^o/, 
'TCixotoKoc ; and change g into a even in other tenses besides the 
perf. : (rriXXoi)^ gtzX, 'iffraXy.u, 'i(TrccX[jjCit, IgtuXyiv^ zGruX&riv, ara,- 
Xriaoi/jcci, GTaX^7](jo^ai. 

* Person ad Eur. Orest., 929. 

186 OF VERBS. 

8. The verbs zgivtu, judge, xkiv&f, bend, r&iv&j, stretch, xreivco^ 
kill, TrXvvo), wash, make several forms from the roots z^t, zki, 
ru, KTU, tXv, from which they themselves arose : namely, 

T&'TrXvzcc, '7ri7rXu[jj(x,i, IrXudj^v. 
With the poets, however, the aorists have f, in order to 
lengthen the syllable : IxkivdrjVy Krccv&iig, &c. 



1 . If we combine together the several remarks already made 
upon the perfect, it will appear that there is a threefold variety 
in this form of the verb : the simple perf. and pluperf. in «, 
ziv of mutes and liquids, the aspirated perfect of mutes, and 
the perfect with k, of mute and pure verbs and several liquids : 
1, XsXo/'ra, r'iTOiJba, 2, ■r£9rX£%a, rir^Kpa, 3, 'ttsttziku, •7rz(pi'ki^z(x,, 

2. If, then, we would divide this tense according to its 
different forms, there might be reckoned three distinct perfects 
in the active voice. But since these forms are not at all 
different in inflection, and not essentially different in meaning, 
they may conveniently be classed under one perfect and plu- 
perfect, just as 'i<p-i^vu, and 'irv-^cc belong to one and the same 
aorist, although their internal formation is not the same. 

Obs» — The early grammars divide these forms, 

a. Into tlie perfect of the active, comprising all perfect forms with 
aspiration, and with x : r'ervipa, 'ri(piXYixa, sCraXjcoc. 

b. The perfect of the middle, to which were ascribed the forms 
without aspiration or % in their ending : XsXoi'Tra, dx^Koa, f/sfirjva, 
so called, because these forms have frequently a middle or reflexive 

OF VERBS. 187 

signification ; yet they have it not all, nor uniformly, so that the 
reason of this name is insufficient. 

§ XCIX. 


1. Several verbs have likewise a form of future preterite, 
or futurum exactum : XiXsi-^^ofjijon, I shall have been left. 
Since tliis represents a future time (futurum) as accomplished 
(perfectmn)^ it is formed by prefixing to the root the redu- 
plication of the perfect, and appending- to it the termination 
of the future (ffO(Mui) : y^a.(pa)^ yiygrx-^oiJijCii, rvTrrco, nru-^oybai. 
Sec. Naturally those vowels are admitted, which the perf. 
has assumed : rozTrco, rkr^cc[Ji>iJbcct, rsr§di'<^o(jijcci. Agreeing in 
inflection with the form of the fut. 1, mid., it need not be 
particularly given in conjugation. 

2. In the active there are only two examples of this form, 
from hrriKDi, ir^i^co, as well as sarrj'ioiJijoci, I shall have arisen, 
or shall stand, and from redv/jzcc, n^vrj^o), I shall have died, or 
shall be dead. 




1. When a tense is completely formed, in order to inflect 
it by moods and persons, changes take place in its final 

2. In the mutable part we must distinguish between the 
mood-voivel and the termination : e. g. in Xu(p()fifro(i>oci the 
syllables o[jijUi, in ikzi-^a^i^v the syllables ajM/;jv, are changed 

188 OF VERBS. 

by inflection. Of these ^a/ and (jurjv are the terminations, 
and 0, a, the mood-vowels, so called because they differ 
according to the moods, and make them cognoscible. The 
remaining part, XaOdriff, sXn^p, may be named the tense-rooti 
since it lies unalterable (^' at the basis of the whole moods and 
persons of the tense. It must not be confounded with the 
verb-root^ which lies at the basis of all forms, and not merely 
of those of a single tense, and which we extract from the 
tense-root by throwing away those sounds that were added to 
it together with the final syllables : thus by throwing from 
Xzi(pdrj(r the ^;}<r, from Xu-^p the cr. 

3. Mood-vowel and termination are frequently blended 
together : e.g. Xsi-^^g, that is Xii-^-n-ig^ when divided into 
tense-7'ooti inood-vowel, and termination. 

4. Hence we should accustom ourselves to discriminate 
accurately these three parts : the tense-root, which designates 
the time, the mood-vowel, which marks the mood, and the 
termination, which commonly marks the person. The three 
taken together are sufficient, in most cases, for the analysis 
and explication of the whole form. 

§ CI. 


1. The mood-vowels are, for the active and passive conju- 
gation, with a few exceptions, in the inthcative first persons 
and third plural o,(^) in the other persons s, in the conjunctive 
the same sounds, only doubled, u^ t^, in the optative ot, in the 
imperative and infinitive g, in the participle, o. 

2. Plan of the vowels. 

Sing. 1, 















Dual, 1, 












































§ cii. 


1. The terminations, which are added to the mood- vowels, 
are, with exceptions stated below, in the indicative: 

a. For the chief tenses : 

Sing. 1, 0, 2, tg, 

D. 1, (JIjSV, % rov, 

P. 1, (jusv, 2, rg, 

b. For the secondary tenses : 

Sing. 1, V, 2, ?, 

D. 1, f/jsv, 2, roi', 

P. 1, (jbsv, % rs, 

2. In the conjunctive the terminations of the chief tenses 
are repeated, and in the optative those of the secondary tenses. 

3. Terminations : 

a. Imper. b. Infin. c. Particip. 

Sing. 2, ^/, 3, rat, iv, ov, vrffa, p. 

D. 2, rov, 3, Tct)v, 
P. 2, T£, 3, ra;5'ai'. 

4. Out of these elements of conjugation all forms of the 
verb, with a few exceptions, are compounded. 

§ cm. 


1 . Chief tenses. 

a. Mood-vowels and terminations divided. 

190 OF VERBS. 

Sing-. 1, 0-0, % i-ig, 3, s-/, 

D. 1, O-^vOSV, 2, Z-TOVy 3, i-70\>, 

P. 1, 0-(JbiV, % S-TB, 3, 0-P7(Tl. 

h. Mood-vowels and terminations combined. 

Sing-. 1, o/, ^, g/?, 3, £/, 

D. 1, OjM/Si', 2, 2T0J^, 3, srov, 

p. 1, OjM/£v, ^, grs, 3, ouo-;.* 

Thus are conjugated pres. Xs/V-fw, s;?, g/, &c., fut. 1, Ag/^'o/, 

fut. 2, X/TTg^y. 

2. Secondary tenses. 

a. Mood-vowels and terminations divided. 
Sing. 1, o-v, % s-g, 3, g-, 

D. 1, o-iO-gv, % s-TOv, 3, g-r;;;', 
P. 1, o-jOC/gf. '2, g-rg, 3, o-f. 

&. Mood vowels and terminations combined. 
Sing. 1, ov, 2, ig, 3, g, 

D. 1, OjM,gy, 2, grov, 3, gr;?v, 
P. 1, o/xgi', 2, srg, 3, Of. 

Thus are conjugated, imp. gXg<Tov, aor. 2, g'X/Trof. 

3. Paradigm of the regular indicative. 
a. Chief tenses. 

Pres. Xg/V-" 














Fut. 1, Xsi-^-^r 0[MU, 
Fut. 2, "klTTi-J OfJbSV, 

b. Secondary tenses. 

Imp. 'ikzi'!r-'\ oi>, 

> 0(JIjSV, 

Aor. 2, sAi'Tr-J o^g^, 

4. Exceptions. Of the chief tenses the ])erf., and of the 
secondary tenses the 1st aor., have as mood-vowel a; both 
are declined in the sing, irregularly, but like each other : 1 , a, 
2, ccg, 3, g, — in the other numbers without variation from 
their respective standards. — The pluperf. has as mood-vowel 
g<, and ends the 3rd plur. in aav. 

5. Paradigm of the exceptions. 

* Softened out of ovrsi. § xxv, 3. 

OF VERBS. 191 

Perf. Aor. 1. 

J a, a?, g, \ oc, ag, g, 

XsKotTT- y cc^/jSv, aTov, ccrov, gXg/-^'- r a/^si', ccrov, ocrrji/, 


■^ iiv, e(g, SI, 

Vkikoi'Tr- V sifLsv, siTov, iirnv, 

J stfjbsv, sirs, siaav or saav. 

§ CIV. 


1. Concerning the moods that are wanting, see § lxxxix, C. 

2. Conjunctive. 

a. Mood-vowel and termination divided. 

Sing. 1, co-o, % fj-ig, 3, tj-i, 
D. 1, cd-iJijSi', 2, 7^-rov, S, ri-rov, 
P. 1, co'iLSv, 2, ?i-rs, 3, oj-vrffi. 

b. Mood-vowel and termination combined. 

Sing. 1, ^, 2, rig, 3, ??, 

D. 1, ooijtjsv, 2, i^TOV, 3, rirov, 
P. 1, oo^zv, 2, ^rg, 3, 6;(r;. 

So are all conjunctives conjugated. 

3. Paradigm of the conjunctive. 

Pres. Xg/V-^ <y, ???, ^, 

j> a)jW;£v, ;jrov, ^jrot", 

Perf. XsXo/V-J <i^^xgj', j;rg, ^(t;. 

Aor. 1, Xg/'4/--| a;, /J?, ?7, 

.Ar-J iy«;g;', 

??rov, ^jrof, 



Aor. 2, XAr-J ojijijSv, ?irs, 
4. Optative, 

The 1st person ends in ^/ji, the last in sv, the rest like the 
secondary tenses. The aor. 1st has cci for 0/, as niood- vowel. 
a. Mood-vowel and termination divided. 

* For XiXoiTanci, § xxv, 3. 






b. Combined. 

1, 0/-/^/, 2, 

1, Ot-ILZV, 2, 

1, oz-jjASv, 2, 










1, o/jO//, 2, 
1, o/jW-sv, 2, 
1, o/iO-sv, 2, 






5. Paradigm 

of the c 




Fut. 1, 
Fut. 2, 
Aor. 2, 







Aor. 1, 








6. Imperative. 

The termination 0i of the 2nd pers. commonly drops off: 
not XziTredi but XsT'tts. The aor. 1st has here also a as mood- 
vowel, and in the 2nd pers. sing. ov. 

a. Mood-vowel and termination divided. 

6. Combined. 




2, £-, 

2, e-rov, 

2, s-rs, 

2, groj', 

2, srs, 

3, £-r<a;, 
3, g-ro'O'af. 


3, ^ - 

3, gTiy;', 

3, grsycav. 

7- Paradigm of the imperative. 
Pres. Xg?r-^ g, 

Perf. XgXo/TT- !> erov, 
Aor. 2, X/t-J grg, 
1 Of, 
Aor. 1, Xu-^- } OiTOV, 
-" arg, 

The last person ends also in o-vtcov, aor. cc-vTav: Xsittovtuv, 
Xzly^ittVTm, 8cc. 

8. Infinitive. » 






OF VERBS. 19s 

Mood-vowel s, termination iv, together ut>: pres. Xshziv, 
fut. 1, XsA^s/v, fut. 2, X/T££/f, aor. 2, Xf?r&7v. 

Exceptions. Perf. e-mi, aor. 1, cc-r. XsKotTivat, Xil-^oci. 

9. Participle. 

Mood-vowel and termination, M. o-ov^ F. o-vraa^ N. o-t', 
together cov^ ovaa, ov. So pres. "kzi-Trojv, XstTrouffaj XsT'Tov, fut. 1, 
Xet-i^ojy, fut. 2, X/tso;}', aor. 2, XcTraiv. 

Exceptions. Perf. a;?, vice, og : Xikoi'iriijg, XskoiTrvToc, Xs.Xoi'Trog, 
aor. 1, Xil-\^dg, XsAJ/acos, ^tsT'-v^ap. 

Ois. 1. — Accent. The perf. in the infin. and participle, XiXoivsvai, 
KiKoiirtiig, and the aor. 2nd infin. and participle, throw the accent to the 
end: XiinTv, and >J7r6JV, oZsa, ov; also in the imperative, but only in 
the 2nd pers. sing, of £/Vg, ei/gs, eXd'i ; with the Attics likewise in 
>.«?£, 'ids, A preposition prefixed draws the accent back : Xats, 
TcaraXaCs, id's, ir^oSthi. 

Obs. 2. — The aor. 1 st infinitive has the accent on the penultimate : 
(pvXd^ai, 'xoiriisai. The ai of the optat. with regard to accent is 
reckoned long; hence not ?.£?4/a/, (puXa^ai, 'ffoirjSai, but As/vj/a/, 
(pvXd^ai, mirisai, 

Obs. 3 In participles the accent syllable is the same for all three 

genders : puXarrw*, ipuXdrrouffa, (pvXaTTOv. So rroiyjffc/iv, Tor/idovffaf 








Present, I leave. 

S. Xs/Vw, £/$, it, 

Xs/Vw, >)S, 95, 



D. Xll'XO/MlV,^^'^ STOV, iTOV, 

XsiTUf/^SV, T^TOV, riTOV, 



p. Xil'TTOfMSV, STif OV(fl. 

Xsi'TTUfisv, »]«, WfT/. 



Imperfect, was leaving. 

S. sXsi'Trov, ig, s, 

D. sXihofiBV, erov, srrjVf 

P. skii'-oijjii, in, ov. 

Perfect, have left. 

S. XsXotira, ag, s, 

XsXoivu, rig, tj. 



D. XsXo/Va^Ei/, arov, arov, 

XsXoi'ffufisv, 7]Tov, r^Tov, 



P. XsXoiTa/Msv, an, affi. 

XsXoi'rrufisv, tjts, mi. 



Pluperfect, bad left. 

S. iXiXoiitiiv, iig, ii, 

D. sXi7xhii/Mv, sirov, ilrriv, 

P. eXsXoi'Xiifisv, iin, ntfav. 

Fut. 1, shall or will leave. 

S. Xs/%Iyw, iig, it, 

D. "kii-^OlliV, STOV, iTOV, 



P. Xs/'-^/o/igi^j en, ouei. 

Aor. 1, left. 

S. sXsi'^a, ag, t, 

Xsi-^u, pg, 7), 



D. I'kii'^aniiv, arov, ar^jv, 

Xii-^(t)[jjSV, TiTov, riTov, 



P. ikii-^aiJjiv, an, av. 

Xsi-^cu/zsv, rjTS, uci. 



Fut. 2, shall or will leave. 

S. Xmw, iig, il, 

D. Xl-r'sOfMiV, iTOV, STOV, 



p. Xivio/Miv, in, o'jdi. 

Aor. 2, left. 

S. iXlTOV, ig, s, 

X/Vw, fig, p, 



D. sXho/J^iv, STOV, srriv, 

Xj-TTUfLSV, TjTOV, riTov, 



P. IX/Vo/i£v, STS, ov. 

Xi'TtM/MSV, TjTS, Ul6U 



Ohs. — The forms of the 2ud future Xirr'su, X/^so/i/, are 

of which more fully un- 










oig, 01, 
oiTov, oirriv, 



always contracted in the common dialect, Xiitoj, Xi-ro//jt,i, kc, 
der the contracted verbs. 
























































1. Both the passive aorists belong to an old form of con- 
jugation without mood-vowels. They are therefore not in- 
cluded in the derivation of the passive forms, and will be 
explained hereafter. Meanwhile, for the sake of fulness, 
they are allowed to stand in the paradigm. 

2. On the other hand the futures and aorists middle have 
complete passive forms, and are therefore included in the 
passive conjugation. 

3. The mood-vowels are universally the same as in the 
active, only the exceptions find no place here, save in the aor, 
1st mid., which retains its a in all moods but the conjunctive. 

4. The perf. and pluperf. want the mood-vowel ; hence 
their terminations are affixed immediately to the tense-root, 

§ CVII. 


1 . a. Chief tenses in the indicative. 

Sing. 1, (JiMi, % (Tai, 3, ra/, 

D* 1, (JlyiOoV, 2, (T0OV, 3, (T0OV, 

P. 1, (/js^ocy 2, ffOe, 3, PToct. 
b. Secondary tenses in the indicative. 
Sing. 1, ^riv^ % (TO, 3, ro, 
D. 1, (juedov, % ffdov, 3, (Tdrjv, 

P. 1, (jjedci, 


ah, 3, vro. 

c. The imperative. 

Sing. 2, <rO) 



D. % ffdov. 



P. 2, ah, 



d. The infinitive. 

e. The Participles. 


(jusvog, (Msuyi, 


OF VERBS. 197 

2. A main difference between the terminations of the chief 
and secondary tenses is, that those of tlie former have the 
3rd person dual always short (rov, crOov), those of the latter 
always long (rrjv, aOriv). The 3rd persons plural also differ : 
chief tenses vreri, vraiy secondary v, vro. 

3. The passive conjugation is more regular than the active, 
and extremely simple. On this account, and by reason of 
the fulness and euphony of its forms, it must be considered 
the best example of the developement of the language. 



1 . Chief tenses. 

a. Mood-vowel and terminations divided. 

Sing. 1, O'lLai, 2, g-ffce;, 3, s-ra/, 

D. 1, o-[jijS0ov, ^, s-ffOov, 3, s-ffdov, 

P. 1, O'lLzOa, 2, s-ff^s, 3, o-vroci. 

b. Combined. 

Sing. 1, ofjtjcci, 2, ioci^* 3, sra/, 
D, 1, 6[Jj50ov, 2, sffOou, 3, sffOov, 
P. 1, 6fjui0ci, 2, sffOs, 3, ovroct. 

Obs. — * The a of tlie 2nd pers. sing, is dropped througliout the passive 
conjugation, when it follows a mood-vowel ; £«/ is then, in the com- 
mon dialect, contracted into >j : Xi'f>\/i<sa.i, Xii-^sai, Xs/'-vj/jj. 

S. Secondary tenses. 

a. Mood-vowel and terminations divided. 

Sing. 1, o-(jij'/jt/, 2, i-ffo, 3, g-ro, 

D. 1, 0-[/jiOoV, 2, &-(T0OV, 3, S-(T0f]V, 

P. 1, o-[jbi0a, 2, s-(tOs, 3, o-vTO. 

b. Combined. 

Sing. 1, oii>yjv, 2, so,* 3, sro, 
D. 1, ofjj&Oou, 2, sffOou, 3, iff()riv, 
P. 1, 6[jtjzOa, 2, sffh, 3, ovro. 

Obs.* — Contracted into o-j: sXemffo, iXuvio, iXu'xov — in aor. Ist, a-tfo, 
ao, u '• £X£/v|>a(ro, iXu-^ao, iXsZ-vj/w. 



3. In this way are all passive forms in the indicative con- 
jugated, except the perf. and pluperf., from their want of a 

4. Paradigm of the chief tenses. 

Pres. Xzi'TT- 

Fut. 1, m. Xsi-^- 

Fut. 2, m. Xi-TTs- 

Fut. 1, p. \Zl<P&7jG- 

Fut. 2, p. 'KiitTia- 

mi (>?), era/, 

Z(T0OV, SffdoV, 

z(Th, onui. 

5. Paradigm of the secondary tenses. 

Imperf. IXut- ^ 6[jty'/^v, so {ov\ sro, 

[ 6(JjZ0ov, Z(T0ov, s(j0yii>, 

Aor. 2, m. IXi'TT- J 6(jjsdoc, sffOs, ovro, 

'] d[/jrjV, uo (iy), ccro, 

Aor. 1, m. IXei-^p- > k^aCov, (x.(t0ov, d(T0}]v, 

J cc[Jbz6a, ocffh, avro. 

§ cix. 


1. In pure verbs the terminations are added without dif- 
ficulty to the vowel which ends the root ; in mute and liquid 
verbs the consonants collide, but are easily ejected and altered 
according to known rules. (Comp. § xxi, &c.) 

A. Pure Verbs. 





























B. Mute Verbs. 

1. With p 





















b. Pluperfect. 

















2. With k sounds. 

a. Perfect. 

(of ^^zyju, wet.) 





^ 7i^cci, 

















b. Pluperfect. 


(of "hkycj, say.) 

















3. With t sounds. 

a. Perfect. 


avuTco, finish.) 



















P. TjvO-TfJbsOoi, 






b. Pluperfect. 


(of g^g/^iy, fix on.) 

Sing-^ l^n^si-hfjuTiv, 






D. l§7]^zl-hlJljS60Vf 






p. i§7l§zl-h(J!jBda, 






a TO. 

C. Liquid Verbs. 

a. Perfect. 

(of o'ipaXXa', shake.) 
Sing. gVipa-XiJAa;, 
D. lff(pa,-K[JbS0ov, 













h. Pluperfect. 

(of zTsivit), kill, with p ejected.) 
Sing. l/CTu-fijriv, ffo, 

D. 2KTCC-(Jtjid0V, G&OVy 

p. lK7oi-[Jbsda, ffds, 



* Ohs. 1 — The Srd persons plur. of the mutes and liquids, marked with 
asterisks, become by the ejection of the colliding consonants identical 
with the 3rd pers. sing. ; hence they are not used. To obtain 
special forms for them, either the v of the termination is changed 
into a, and the^ and k sounds are aspirated: Xikuvnai, \ikufaraty 
rirdyjxTai, e(pdd^arai, TBr^dfarai, &c. — or a periphrasis is employed, 
as in Latin : XsXv/jjf/ymi ilsi, relicti sunt, he. When, however, the 
position of words, and presence of a plural subject, leave no doubt, 
these forms may be used : a'l a'l x'sx^avrai t,v!Jy<pogoci, Eur. Hip. 1253. (^^ 

Obs. 2. — The liquids in v treat this letter, 
a. According to the rule : 

whence it is retained in the 2nd pers. before e in <paivu crspavffai. 



h. While they also make the form from the root without v, and 
assume ff : (pahoj, fjbiaivoj, imX\jvu. Primitive roots : fa, fiia, fMXu. 
Perfects : Teipaff/iai, (lifiiaafiai, fMifi6XvCfji/ai. 



1. Conjunctive. 

a. Mood-vowel and terminations divided. 

Sing. 1, oj-fjbcci, 2, yj-ffcci, 3, f]-rcci, 

D. 1, a)-[jbzdou, 

2, yj-ffOov, 



P. 1, Of'lJjSdoC, 

2, rj-ffOs, 





Sing. 1, a)[Jbaf, 

2, ;ja/(?7), 



D. 1, aiiMsdov, 

2, ;jo'^o{', 



P. 1, aifjijiSoc,. 

2, i^frOs, 






Mood-vowel and terminations divided. 

Sing. 1, oz-jO/Pjv, 

2, o;-(ro, 



D. 1, oiyiizdov. 

2, oi-(tOov, 



P. 1, otfjbida, 

2, o;-o-^g, 





Sing. 1, oi[Jij}]v, 

2, 0/0, 



D. 1, oi(/jS0ov, 

2, oktOov, 



P. 1, o/jW/£^a, 

2, 0/(7^£, 






Pres. XziTT- 


^a; (?j), i^roci, 

Aor. 1, m. Xsz-v^- 

> OJ^i&OV, 



Aor. 2, m. ?i/t- 





Pres. Xsz-r- 


Fut. 1, m. Xet-^- 




Aor. 1, m.* 

Fut. 2, m. X/T2- 

> oif/j^Oov, 


, oiffOriv 

Aor. 2, m. XiT- 

Fut. 1, p. XiKpOrjff- 
Fut. 2, p. Xi-Tr'/itT- 






a/0, airo, 

aiadov, aiadyjv, 
atffds, aivTO. 

3. Imperative. 

a. Mood-vowel and terminations divided. 

3, s-ff^cif, 

3, e-ff0cov, 

3, s-ffOaxruv, 

3, iffd&ff 

3, e<r^&>i', 

3, iffdojffav. 

Sing. 2, g-co, 

D. 2, g-c^oi', 

S. 2, £-(r^£, 
b. Combined. 

Sing-. 2, go (ou), 

D. 2, gfl'^oj', 

P. 2, so-^g, 
4. Infinitive and participle. 
Infinitive mood - vowel and termination : B-ff0ai, Zffdai. 
Partic. 6-(jbivog, o-[ji>ivyj, o-^zvov. The aorist 1st mid. has here 
also universally a, and ends the 2nd pers. imperative in ai. 

a. Imperative. 

Pres. Xg/V- » go (oy), iGQo), 

Aor. 1, m.* ^ sffOov, iff dm, 

Aor. 2, m. X/t- 3 gc^g, za&axrav, 




AsAp- } aedov, 




^. Infinitive. 

c. Participle. 



XilTTOlJjSVOg, 7J, OV, 

Fut. 1, m. 



Aor. 1, m. 



Fut. 2, m. 



Aor. 2, m. 



Fut. 1, p. 



Fut. 2, p. 



5. Perfect. 


1, In the conjunctive and optative there are no proper 

forms on account of the want of a 

L mood-vowel ; cn'cumlocu- 

tion is therefore resorted to : KzXei[A>[jAvog d>, relictus sim. Op- 

tative : XiXuiMivog iiriv. 

OF VERBS. 203 

Obs There is an exception in the case of pure verbs, the optatives 

of wliich are contracted, but easily recognised by the subscribed / : 
[Mva, lUfj^vaoiTo, (himvwto, Xen. Cyrop., 1 , 6, 3 ; in Homer with t 
prefixed: fji,i/ji,vs(jjTo, II., -v]/, 361, like Xaog, Xswg. — In other forms 
only / of the mood-vowel oi is added to the lengthened vowel of the 
root: f/^s/jjvfjTo, Aristoph. Plut., 992, though there another reading 
is fMSfMVT^To; likewise Plat. Repub., VII, p. 517, fisfivfjr av; so 
'KV/Ckfl' (ilia, i. e. xv/iXfio ccfia, Soph. Phil., 119, and Brunck ad. loc. 
"KikZro, Od., tf, 238, as optative would be better written XiXvTro, only 
that it is an old rule of the grammarians, that vi must be changed 
to t; before a consonant. — Of the still rarer conjunctive there are 
examples : (fii/ivaufisda) fisfivu){Mi6a, Plat. Politicus, p. 285, c, and 
xsxrrirai, Xen. Cyrop., 1, 8, which Matthiaj (Gr. Gr., p. 204<, orig.) 
gives instead of xspcTjjra/. 

2. In the imperative, infinitive, and participle, the forms 
are produced, as in the indicative, by the ejection or change 
of consonants : imp. (jABXsiT-ffo) XsXs/t^o, from 'ttbiOm (jri'TTuO- 
Gco\ 'TTB'Tt&KTco, TTi'TiiffOcij, &c. ; infinitive (XeXsiTrffdat) XsKsT^doci ; 
part. (XeXs/T-^svog) "kiXzi^^kvog^ '/], ov. 

Obs. 1. — Accent. The accent, in the passive conjugation, inclines to 
the end, 

a. In the infin. and part, of the perf. : 

XiXiT'pdai, rirv(pdaif 'npiXl^ffSai, 
XsXsifLfiBvoc, Tirvfi/Msvog, ':ri(piXrifLhog. 

b. In the sing, of the imperat., aor. let mid., Xcttov, y^vou, ys/ieDu; 
but ymeh, Tldseh. 

Obs. 2. — In compounds the general rule prevails : sTiymv, I'XiKdOo-j. 

Obs. 3. — The imper. aor. 1 st mid. has at sliort for the accent: }.i7-\/at, and 
takes the accent according to the general rule on the radical syllable: 
(puXa^ai, -roiriaai, by which it is distinguished from the optat. act. 
(pvXd^ai, '7!oi7]Sai, and the infin. (puXu^at, cro/^ca/. 







Present, I am left. 
S. Xii'Xbixai, ri, era/, 
D. XiiTTOfLsdov, effSoVf edQoVf 

P. \iiv6fii6a, es6s, ovrai. 

Xii'TTufiat, 7j, Tjrai, 
XeiTu/Msda, riffds, ojvrai. 

Xe/Vou, ieQo), 





Imperf., I was being left. 

S. sKinofJuriv, ou, £ro, 

D. sXiiTofiidov, effdov, effSrjv, 

P. eXeivof/jida, eedi, ovro. 

Perfect, I have been left. 

S. XsXiifjb/Mai, -vj/a/, "ffra/, 
D. "hiXilfifiidov, (pdov, ipdov, 

P. XiXeififieda, <pds* 


XeXsi-^o, (pdoi, 



Pluperfect, I had been left. 

S. sXiXsi/jjfLYiv, -vjyo, "jrro, 
D. eXiXi/fi/isdov, (p&ov, (pdriv, 
P. sXiXii/jbfis6a, fk.* 

Fut. 1, mid., I shall leave raj 

S. Xsi-^o/Mai, 71, era/, 

D. Xii-^S/Mikv, esdov, effdov, 

P. Xii-^6fji,i6a, ss6s, ovrai. 




Aor. 1, mid., I left myself. 

S. IXii'^d/JLrjv, u, aro, 

D. IXu-^d/j^idoVy aedov, dadriv, 

P. iXii-^diMi&a, aek, avro. 

Xu-^ai/Mai, 71, Tjrai, 
Xsi-^u;j,i6a, TiCk, uvrai. 

Xir^ai, dffdoj, 



Fut. 2, mid., I shall leave my 
S. XfiTioiiai, p, irai, &c. 




Aor. 2, mid., I left myself. 

S. sXi'Xo/xriV, o-j, iTO, 

XlTTU/iai, 7], 7^70.1, 


Ximv, sedo), 








XsifroifLfjv, 010, oiro, 
"KwxoitJjidov, oidkv, oia&nv, 

XeiToi/Mida, oiffds, oivto. 


XwrrSfAsvog, r\, ov. 



XiXiifMfimi, 71, ov. 

7^i-<^oifir}v, 010, oiTO, 



Xei-^l/ai/MTiv, aw, am, 



Xivsoifirjv, 010, oiro, &c. 



XimifjiiTiv, 010, oiro, 








Fut. 1, pass., I shall be left. 

S. Xii(pdri(SoiMai, rj, erat, 



Aor. 1, pass., I was left. 

S. iXi'icpdriv, &ric, 071, 

P. i\ii(p&ri(MV, dyjrs, drjdav. 

Xsi^peui, fig, fi, 

TOV, rm, 
T£, rugav. 

Fut. 2, pass,, I shall be left. 
S. Xi'TTTigoft^ai, ri, iTcci, 



Aor. 2, pass., I was left. 

S. ikiirriv, rig, ri, 

D. IX/Vji/z-sc, Tprov, 7}Triv, 

P. sXiTyifjjiv, rjTi, riiJav. 

X/Tw, fig, fi, 
Xi'Xojfisv, TjTov, r^rov, 
Xr7ru<iiv, TjTS, uffi. 


Ts, rueav. 






Xsifdrjeoi/XTiv, 010, oiro, 







Xi'ffriaoi/iriv, 010, oiro, 



'kivsirjv, iiT}s, iiri, 
Xi'TTsirifisv, iir]TOv, nrjTYiv, 
Xiviiriix,iv, iiriTi, sir}gav. 




208 OF VERBS. 



§ CXII. 


1. Contraction, in verbs as in substantives, unites the 
final vowel of the root with the following vowel, which, in 
the case of verbs, is the mood- vowel, either alone or blended 
with the termination. 

2. Hence these are subjected to contraction, «, verbs pure, 
and commonly only such of them as end a root of more than 
one syllable in a, s, o; b, the 2nd fut. act. and mid. of other 
verbs : e. g. rtfjuoi-co, (piki-co, yovao-co^ and fut. 2nd, Xiicica^ 

3. Further, in the pure verbs contraction enters only into 
the present and imperfect, since in all the other tenses con- 
sonants succeed the radical vowel, whence contraction is 

4. In the verbs in a^y, say, oa>, the vowels a, g, o, unite, in 
the pres. and imperf. indicative, with the mood-vowels o, g, 
from which we perceived to arise, by the addition of the 
terminations, in the active co^ g/, oy, and in the passive ??. 
The conjunctive gave a;, ??, and jj, the optative o;, the imper- 
ative g, 0, oy, the infinitive s and g/, the participle a;, ov^ o, 
thus the whole series is : 

0, g, jy, g/, oy, ?5, — CO.) ri, ??,- — ot, — g, o, oy, — g, gi, — cj, o, ov. 

5. The I in g/ and tj suffers, except in a few cases marked 
below, no change through contraction, but is, where it is 
possible, only subscribed : r/jooagi?, T/^M/a?, and 7i(x^d^g, 7i^S,g : 
21 and 7i having here no more effect than g, rj. 

6. If then we except g; and ?j, take no notice of repetitions, 
and arrange the other vowels in proper order, we have 

g, 0, '/j, oj.) 01, ov, 


OF VEllBg, 209 

i. e. the two short vowels, the two long, and the two diph- 
thongs of (0/, oy). 

7. With these a, g, collide ; so that there are to he 
contracted : 


a- ag. 

ao, ari, uu. 




g- S£, 

SO, Sf], s&>. 




0- 0£, 

00, orj, oca, 




1. For a with an e sound (g, ^,) long a is pronounced, 
for a with an o sound (0, 6^, 0/, oy,) is pronounced a : e. g. 

for rifjjccs, 7i[jijd'/^g,r([jju6iJtjsOoi,Tiyjdcijvrcii,ri[itCiotiJji, Iriyijdov, 
pronounce T/'jw/a, Tifx^ag, Tiyjco[jjsOoi, Ti^jbuvTai, t^JjCu^i, WiiMca. 

2. For gg is pronounced g/, for so, ov. E before the long 
vowels and diphthongs disappears : 

(piXkrs, (piXsofjbsy, (piXr/jrai, <PiXscu[mO(x, <piXso(V7o, (piXsov, 
(piKslrs, <pi\ovybSv, (piKrJTCii, (piXcofMda, (ptXolvTO, (ptXov. 

3. For with a short vowel (g, 0) is pronounced ov, but 
for with a long (??, ai) m. O before the diphthongs (0/, ov) 
disappears : 

X^vffozdOov, lx§0(Toov, ')(pyaoriTZ, "y^vamsi, ypvaooizv, ymjaoov. 
X^vffovaOov, lyj^vGovv, x^vguts, x^ovauGi, jovgoIsv, x^vgov. 

Obs. 1. — For with e; of the indicative or with t] ^7\ with 1 subscribed, J 
the contraction is 01 : 

X^'J'^osig, %gu(ro£/, Xi^'^^V^i 

^gyffoTg, x^vaoT, ^^gfCo/s ; but ;:^^u(r&e/i', x^vffouv, 
as if contracted from x^vamJ^'^ 
Obs. 2. — In the optative, besides the common terminations, the fol- 
lowing appear: sing. r,v, rig, ri, du. Jj^asv, r\TOv, rirriv, pi. rj/iev, he, being 
the termination of the secondary tenses united with tj, — called the 
Attic optative : e. g. Ti/j,doifii, rifi,(piMi, and n/Maoirjv, ri'Mwriv, he. 
Obs. 3. — When the accent is upon one of the open syllables, it adheres 


210 OF VERBS. 

to that wliicli 18 formed by contraction : tz/akw, rz/Aw, not t//aw, but 

T//ia8, r//A«; ri/Mdoig, rifi'Sji, but IrZ/iaef, erifiag. 
Obs. 4 The V ItpiT^xvarixov is dropped in contraction : l(piXisv avThv, 

IfiXu altrov. 
Obs. 5. — The Attic optative forms with the terminations tjv, rig, &c., 

are usual in the singular, and also in the plural of those in a ; but 

the 3rd pers. plur. is not thus used, not ri/iwsav, (piXoTgav, but rifiuiiv, 

Obs. 6. — The following contract as into jj : ^du, live, di-<\/du, thirst, 

rrsivdw, hunger, ^^dofiai, use; thus, t,fig, Z,fi, ^g^T'a/, ^fjv, 8i->]/fiv, mivfiv, 

y^a&ai^ &c., with the Attics also xfccw, scrape, c/iaw, wipe, -\}/aw 

Obs. 7. — Pure verbs with a monosyllabic root, as Ssw, ti/ew, &c., contract 

only the vowels before e and n'. tv'sh, 'xviT; 'ttvUiv, <rrvi7v', but -TrvsofLiv, 

rrmvffi, 'ffvsrj. Except deu, when it signifies bind: dsoov, dm; dsov, 

douv; fieo/Att/, dovfiai, 
Obs. 8. — 'PiyoM has in its contractions w, w, instead of ov, o/: ^lyuv for 

giyiiiv, giyoZv; ''^'g/ywvr/ for g/yoDvr/; g/yoJjj for ^lyoivj, (Buttmann 

de rarioribus quibusdam verborum forms in Museo Antiqq. Sttidd. 

p. 237. J 





















• arov, 












































































- ur Sy 










































































, -druffav. 


, -iirwSav. 

osrujffav, -ouruffav. 















• ZiCa, 



































• arov. 
































§ cxv. 































































































































































































































liG&ctisav, -sisOcfigav. 







































• w//jriv. 
























































§ CXVI. 


1. For the sake of completely mastering the difficulties of 
Greek conjugation, it is an useful exercise to combine out of 
their elements single and unconnected parts of different tenses 
and moods; or, such parts being given, to analyse and re- 
solve them into these elements. 

2. Take, for example, to be formed, the 1st aor. mid., 
3rd pers. plur. optat. of Xzircj. At the mention of the tense, 
we combine this out of the verb-root (Xs/t,) and the termina- 
tion ffcc(Jb'/iv, lKii-4ycc[j(j>]v, then alter the changeable parts of the 
ending; viz. the mood-vowel (a,) and termination ((Jbyjv), as 
soon as the mood and person are named. Here it is the 
optative, therefore a/, and the 3rd pers. plural, therefore vrOf 
consequently \ii-^atv70. The same person in the conjunctive. 

214 OF VERBS. 

Xii-ip-sj-vTui. Of reXkco: 7ztk-co-v7ai — in the dual, rsiX-rj-ffhi' ; 
in the 2nd aorist, Xt'TTcovToti, XiTotvTO ; in the dual, XiTtoiaOnVi 
&c. The combination of the forms thus proceeds from the 
tense to the mood, and from the mood to the person. 

S. The analysis of the forms, on the contrary, begins with 
the person, then proceeds to the designation of mood, and 
thence to that of tense ; the conjugation is generally recog- 
nised at sight of the termination. Given, for example, Xs/^- 
GriGoia&yiv. the division into XzKpdriff-oi-a&riv is self-evident j (rO)^u 
points to the 3rd pers. of the dual, oi to the optative ; the 
remaining part, "ksKpdriff, will immediately suggest the ending 
071ffO(JbKi {Xsi(p6yiciO[jijOci\ and thus Kei(p0ri(joi(T0yii) be known as the 
3rd pers. dual opt. fut. 1st, pass, of Xs/Va;. 

4. It is not always possible to reach by analysis the real 
root of the verb. Thus when (pvyrig, i. e. (pvy-rj-ig, is recognised 
as the 2nd pers. conjunctive, 2nd aor. active, we can from (pvy, 
according to the rules of abbreviation, recover the long root 
(pgyy, and hence (pzvyoj, but even this (pvyrig would be a 
present, if the verb were (pvyoj. So likewise when stzv^cc is 
given to analyse, it can be ascertained only that the root ends 
in a k sound, without determining whether it be r&vx, rgyy, 
7SV)Q. Thus from yizovcr^ai we arrive as well at ItcovO as at 
aKov. These are limits to rule, which the very nature of the 
language prescribes. — It is, therefore, the teacher's part to 
assist in such analysis, until it becomes easy from an extended 
acquaintance with words. When hitovco^ arzivu are once 
known to the learner, he will have no difficulty in analysing 

TJftOVffl/jCCl, 'iK70l[Jja,l. 

5. Finally, in spite of the variety of the Greek conjugation, 
the persons of different moods and tenses are often alike: 
Xu-^potf may be fut. 1st, ind. act., and aor. 1, conj. active. In 
such cases the context and sense of a passage must determine 
concerning the formj frequently also the accent will do so. 

OF VERBS. 215 




1. Besides the conjugation already explained, there is found 
in some verbs another method of conjugating, which, princi- 
pally because the mood-vowel is almost entirely wanting in 
many tenses, exhibits peculiar forms arising from the com- 
bination of the radical part with the terminations. 

2. This is found in many pure verbs of a monosyllabic 
root in a, g, o, and in others to the roots of which the syllable 
vw is attached: cr;s£^a, (Tzshavvv (in mute and liquid verbs 
only vv: {Jbiy, f/jiyvv, ^ujc, ^&ixwy a^, agw). 

3. It comprises pres. and imp. act. and pass., and aor. 
2nd act. and mid. 

4. Thus: roots <pa, (ttu, 6, 0s, ^o, from which <Pj?/a/, say, 
7(TTi^[jut, set, l'}^(Jbt, send, Ti0r][M, place, h'h^fjtji, give. 

5. Many roots of this conjugation are increased in the 
present and imperfect by the prefixture of /, before which, 
where it is possible, the initial consonant is repeated: 

<pa, hra, is, rids, hiho. (The student will perceive why 
not (TiffTcc and ^ids.) 

6. Peculiar are ^r/jC^-rXs from 'ttXs, TriiJijTr^oc from 'Z'^oc with 
(j^ taken in. 

7. The terminations are, with a few exceptions, the com- 
mon. The conjunctive has the mood-vowel of ordinary verbs 
(iw, ri), and the optative has as mood-vowel / after the radical 
vowel: 'iffTU, hrai^ J'g, i'g/, &c. 

216 OF VERBS. 



1. Indicative. 

The radical vowels are always doubled in the singular 
before the terminations : h^o, lihu ; is, 5?? ; <pot, <pi^. 

2. Present. 

The terminations of the present are in the singular irre- 
gular, 1, jM//, 2, ff, 3, Gi: e.g. (p^jjo-/, (png, (pfiTr, in the other 
numbers as usual: dual, y^zv, rov, rov, plural, /xsv, rs, vrct. 
Thus ^0, ^/^o, ^iho), in the 

Sing. hthcoiJUf, hi^a^g, h'^coffi, 

D. ^l^O[JbZV, ^lloTOV, ^i^OTOV, 

So also (Pt^iO;/, i(Tr'/i[/ji, 'iyi(Jbi, ri&rii/ji, ^zUvvpui, (TKi6(x,uvv(/ji, &c. 

3. The last persons are properly (pocvTai, iffrccvrffi, kvTffi, 
rt^svrffi, h^ovTffi, ^ziKvvnai, from which, according to the 
general rule, the forms, 

(pcEff/, iffrdfft, kJffi, ridiicri, h^ovui, ^u^cvvGif 
proceed, or also, 

/sac/, 7I0&OC(TI, "^ihoOCtTl, ^itKVVOCfftf 

where v is exchanged for a, and r ejected before <r. The 
accent upon the former shows, that they were considered to 
be contracted from the latter, k7(Ti from /sac/, &c. 

4. Imperfect and aor. 2nd. 
The terminations are as usual, 

Singa V, g (-). Dual, (Jbsv, rov, rtju. 

Plural, (/jZv, 7s, Vf 

and the difference between these two forms then lies merely in 

the prefixture of the /. Both are found in the same verb only 

when it has this prefixture : 

Imp. iffTrjv, Aor. gW;jf, Imp. ir/^^jj', Aor. 'iOyjVf 

OF VERBS. 217 

Sing". Karriv^ '/ar/ig, ^^rr}, 

D. i(rrcc(jbzv, iffrocrov^ hrDcrriv, 

P. iffrccpbsv, iffrars, llarav. 

The last person may end also in golv : "arciGav^ erlOsffav, as in 

the plup. active. 

Obs. — The same forms are observable in the pass, aorists of the other 
conjugations, as : skiiip&riv, iXi'!rr]v, from the tense-roots XsupSs, X/tts ; 
but so that the duplication of the vowel runs here through all the 
numbers, and recurs even in the imperative and infinitive. So like- 
vs^ise in the 2nd aor. of hrr}/Mt, 'sffrrjv to ecrriaav, and sdvv to 'iduaav. 

5. Conjugation of the other moods. 

Since the imperfect wants all moods but the indicative, we 
find these only in the pres. and aor. 2nd, distinguished merely 
by the prefixture. 

6. Conjunctive. 

a. The conjunctive has, as before mentioned, its own 
mood-vowel, and always appears contracted. 

Pres. IffTcca/, igtu, Aor. 2, Grdu^ aru^ 

h. The following contractions are peculiar, s/ (not 0/) for 
orj^ and '/} (not a) for a;?. 


S. "ti^oH, ^ibug, ^ih^, GToJ (TTTJg, ffr>i, 

D. ^ihufiiv, ^ihioTOP, ^ihajTOU, aruijbzv, (TTt^tov, (XTfjrov, 
P. h^iui/jiu, "hihairSf ^ihcoffi, aroiji/jzv, GTfjrs, GTioai. 
S. ^oS, ^Jj?, ^^, 

D. ^SiJbSi/, '^^rov, ^^Tov, 
P. ^ajfijSP, ^^rg, ^cuffi. 

So also the pass, aorists, Xsi(pdaj and Kirco, ^g, yj, &c. 

7. Optative. 

The terminations of the secondary tenses are here combined 
with rji 

S. ?jf, ;jc, rj. D. j^iJbiv, n^ov^ '/trriv. P. t][jbii', tjTS, f]<rav. 

218 OF VERBS. 

Tlie optative is compose<l of these terminations, the tense-root, 
and / between them : 

tTra-i-7]Vy Aor. trraiyiv^ Pres. larakv, ^g, Aor. '^zii^v, 
Pres. Tikinv. 












Aor. 2. 













In the dual and plural ri may be dropped before the ter- 
mination, and the last person ended in zvi ei[Mv, sitb, zhv. 

8. The imperative has the full terminations (^/, rev, rov, 
rcov, rs, TuaoLv). 

Pres. hr(x,6i, Aor. arriSi, Pr. rikri, Aor. ^gr;, 

(TTJ^dt with the long' vowel, r/^sr; for riredt (from riMi)y — the 
first ^ maintains itself according to the general rule, since it 
belongs to the root. So also aor. 1st pass., Ksicp^rirt for Xsi- 
(p&n&i. The stronger aspiration destroys the weaker. The 
forms ^sr;, Bo^/, e^/, were shortened into "^zg, ^o?, eV? as the 
preposition 'ff^ori into T^^og. 

S. 'iaTct&i, laTKTOt), S. "^kg, ^grty, 

D. 'iGTdTOV, ifyrocrajv, D. ^irov, ^srcov, 

P. Itffrocrej Idrdruaav. P. ^gre, '^iruaui/. 

9. Infinitive. 

The termination is in the common dialect mi^ before which 
in the 2nd aor. a, of aravai was doubled, arnmi, and the vowels 
in ^ofa/, S^gvoj/, g'va/, were extended: ^ovvai, ^iivui, uvai, 

Pr. tffrdvai, Aor. 2, (rr^mt. Pr. riOivcci, Aor. 2, ^s7mi. 

Pr. ^/^ova;, Aor. 2, hovvui. Pr. /gfa/, Aor. 2, Bimi. 

10. Participles. 

The terminations are in the nom. ng^ naa, vr, where from 
vr^the T is dropped. 



Pres. IffTung, 

Nom. ifTToig, 

Gen. i(TTocvrog, 

Pres. riOzvrg, 

Nom. TtOiig, 

Gen. ri&ivTog, 







Aor. % Grdg, 
Pres. kig, 



ardv, Aor. 2, ^s/?, S^siira, "^v. 









The formation of the passive aorists will be found, on 
comparison with the paradigm, in all respects agreeable to 
the rules of this conjugation. 

Obs. — With regard to the other tenses, which belong not to the con- 
jugation without mood-vowel, it is to be remarked only, that their 
vowels are doubled before the termination in the active, but remain 
short in the passive : S?3<rw, sriCrjv, errisu, iardOi^v, &c. 



"IffrriiJijt, I set, root (rra. 

TtOrii/jt, I place, 





















£(Try]ffa,v or 





































i(TTar/iffocv or 

Grocr/](Tccp or 











































't(TTU(/jSV, to 

ZTl0ZfJbZVi to 







root ^s. Ailojfjbi, I give, root ho. 

























































































ihihoi/jZVf to 


222 OF VERBS. 



1. The terminations here exactly resemble those of the 
common conjugation ; a in the second person singular, being 
disturbed by no mood-vowel, generally remains : /Vra/y-a/, 
'iffTDcaai ; except in the optative : iffraif/jriVf larcnOf and in some 
forms : {ffra,[jb7iv, 'laraffo, tffrao, 'iaru. 

2. Paradigm. 


Sing. ri%[jijOHf ri&zaaiy Tidsrai, 

Dual, Tid&yjsOoVi rikff&ov, riktyOov, 

Plur. Tt&k^z&oi, Tidsffh, riOsvTocf. 


Sing. Iridii/jTiPf lrih(TO, Irtdsro, 

Dual, eridi[jbiOof, irikaOov, IriOiffOT^u, 

Plur. Iri0z[jbi6cc, IriOzcQi, eridsvro. 

Aor. 2. 

Sing. IdifjuTjUy sdsffo, shrOf 

Dual, Idsfjbidov, 'ihcrdovj Wia&Tjv, 

Plur. Wi(jtj&da, sh(T0s, sOzvro. 

3. So also the other moods in their proper order. 

Present. Aor. 2, M. 

Conj. Ti^SfJUUif ^o!/(Jbaif 

Tt&rj, &c. ^j?, &c. 

Opt. TI0Sl[JtjriV, ^&l(Jb71V, 

T10SIO, &c. ^s7o, &c. 

Imper. rtd&ffo or rlOou, ^sffo or 3^oy,('*J 

ri&i(T0a)i &c. ^sffOof, &c. 

Infin. rika&ai, ^iaOai, 

Partic. TidiiMvog, S^s/asi/o?. 

4. On account of this great regularity no full paradigm is 
required, only a list of the first persons. 


Pres. (pccjU/a/, lo-ra^a/, riOsfMut, Jspa/, ht^o[Mui, 

Imperf. l<pd(Jijriv, lara^'/iv^ iriOif/jyiv, is(/j}^v, khl6(/jt]v, 

A. 2, m. k(Trd(j^i]Vj lOiiLriv, vi^rjv, I'^of/.rjv. 

OF VERBS. 223 


Pres. (pSiMOii, ttrTS(Jijai^ rtOaJi/^cct, la)(JMi^ ^i^oH^oii^ 

A. 2, m. (TTcof/joii, ^oSfjucci, d)(jja(, hajijuoci. 


Pres. (pon[//j^v, Iffraiybriv, TiOii[/jr}v, ki(/j7]v, hi^oi[jjr]v, 

A. 2, m. GToci^nv, ^iifjtj^v, s7[Jbf]Vy hoifjbrjv. 


Pres. (puffo, "(TTuffo, ridiaro, JWo, h%c>o, 

A. % m. <rra(7o, ^sco, eVo, hojo. 


Pres. <pd(T0oci, 'tffrccffdai, riOiaOcci, haOai, hihoffOon, 

A. 2, m. arda&at, S^gc^ai, gV^a/, ^offOai. 


Pres. (pu[JbZvog, lard^zvog^ r/^g^svoj, ti(hgvog, hlof/bzvog, 

A. 2, m. ffTd[/j&vog, ^[Jbsvog, 'i^zvogy ^6(jijBvog. 

§ CXXI. 


1. Several persons in the active conjugation of these verbs 
are formed with mood-vowels : 

1, riOsdf, % rtdktg, riklg, S, ri&ki, 7th7. 
So iffTx, h^o7f &c., from /Was/, hlost, imperat. riOit, h%v, 
from Tides, hi%s, imperf. kridovv from eriOeoVi gh%vv from 

6^/^OOV, &c. 

2. In the 2nd pers. of the imperf. and imperat. the ff is 
often ejected : '^thov for lih/ro, ridov for TiOicro, iffrco for tffTciffo. 
— Likewise 0t is dropped from (rrtjdi in compounds : 'TrugoiaTa, 


3. The perfect makes its forms from the root (Ttcc with g 
prefixed, i. e. iaroc, e. g. iffrccfft, kaTavut, and similarly rzOvoiGiy 
TsOvoivai, &c. ; so the participles (TiOmojg) 7i6vzcog, iffTo/g ; 
opt. TiGmtyiv, &c. ; and in the pluperf. '((rraaav together with 
slaTTiKZiaocv, WiOvaaav, &c. 

4. Several verbs form only the 2nd aorist according to 
this conjugation : e. g. ^divcj, I go, root |8a, aor. 2, l^nv like 
'iaTnv J yiyvuGKu, root yvo, aor. 2, 'iymv like i^tyf ; ^y<y, llw^ 

224- OF VERBS. 

infin. hvvai, part. ^Og, huffu, hvv. In these ?;, m, and v remain 
throughout the numbers : eSpjcav, syvcoffccv^ 'ilutrav. 

5. Some of these aorists take a middle or neuter signifi- 
cation : 'iffTT^v, set myself, stood, 'ihw, sank myself, sank, g€;?j', 
caused myself to go, went. 

6. Several verbs, which follow this conjugation, appear 
only in the passive, and sometimes with a long vowel : luvcc- 
fhat, acci, rai, can, xzifijCii, lie, imperf. IxsifJUT^i/, ^i^j^[/jai, h'^)j(T0oii, 
&c., seek, oi/^a;, think. The termination atrai loses its cr in 
hvvafjtjDii, "hvvuffoii, ^vm ; WiGTaaai, I'Triara ( Schaefer ad Soph, 
Philoct. MatthicB ad Eur. Hecuh., 798 J. 

7. Other verbs, which in the pres. and imperf. have 
attached w or vvu to their roots, form the other tenses from 
the original root : 

^s/;c, ^&iKvv(/jt, imperf. IhUvvv, fut. hi^M, g'^s/fa, &c. 

8. The Attics form the moods of rih[Jbcci, tifMui, ^i^oyjcti, 
entirely after the analogy of common verbs with accent draAvn 
back, and 01 in the optative : 

^ihcurai, a'TTohoivro, 

an analogy which, as far as regards the position of the accent, 
is followed by the other verbs without mood- vowel also : 

hvmf/jcci, ^vvso[jjCct, ^yf;jra;, ^vvccito, &c. 

9. The other tenses of these verbs are formed according 
to the ordinary verbs ; only that the aor. 1, act. and mid. of 
Ttdyjf/bi, 'irji^i, hi^i>j[jbi, has a z : 'i&'/iKa,, l&y]>coi(/jr]v, &c ; the perf. 
of r/^;?^/ and r/j(jtji has £/ : rehuct) pass, 7&0&((^m, &c. and that 
of tarrifjijt also g; as augment. 

Active. Middle. Passive. 
Perf. {{cTyi'/cocy 

Pluperf. dffT^KSiv, 

Fut. 1, fTTriccif, ST^aoiMUi, fTTaOriaoybuiy 

Aor. 1, 








1. The radical sound of s serves as a form to express the 
ideas of existence, motion, and impulse. (K) Originally, in 
order to denote the difference between them, it must have 
stood in connection with consonants, afterwards dropped. 
Thus iivKi compared with Germ, seyii (to be), and Izvoci with 
eo and Germ, gehn (to go), show that with the former c, 
with the latter a guttural was associated. — Together with s 
another analogy had /, whence 'ioj, comp. gi (go), in Thuring. 
for geh, and si in c/esi (been), Schwab, for (jewesen^ which 
point to a similar original formation. 

2. E is extended when the personal syllable ^i is attached: 
s/jO//', I am, sT|C-o/, I am going; and takes, to express the tran- 
sitive nature of motion, the prefixture of/: Jijp (hke ri&rijjji\ 
set in motion, send. Thus first : 

3. E/jO//, I am, 

the oldest, and therefore in all languages an irregular verb. 
In Greek it is also extremely defective, because it was not 
used, as in other tongues, for the formation of tenses and 
persons, which proceed almost entirely from the root. ^^) 

4. Paradigm. 

Pres. I r 




i. -^D. coijjv. 



C S. s/jW//, 

< D. lankv^ 
(.P. \a[jyiv^ 

sig or si, Iffriy 


sere, zliri. 

r,ri, d>(jt. 

Opt. -j g^ygf, 

or ilyjzv, 

ir/,';, sir,, 
si'/jrov, sirjTrjv, 

iirov, &c. 

226 OF VERBS. 

rS. i'<r^/, sffTof, Inf. eimt. Part, o/j', ovffu, 

Imper. •< D. eWov, 'iffrav, ov. 


gWs, g(7r<w(rav. 

r S. ^J', ^?, ^ (or % yi(T0a, 3, ^v), 

Imperf. ■< D. ^/oogv, ^rov, rjrriv (or ^crov, ^W?jv), 

(p. ^/tAsv, ^rs, ^(rav (or 2, Tjffre). 

Fut. effof/bui, 'iffrif 'iffercci or sWa/. 

Opt. yot[Jbf]v. Inf. hs(T0cx,i, P. l()6iJbsvog. 

Obs. 1. — The tf occurs in the forms lor/, Iffroi/, &c. for Iri, stov, just as 
in TiTsXse/iai for rsrsXifcai, TJxovSfLai, &c. Further, /V^/ from £^;, is 
formed as, 

fdu, icdu, l^ui, 
%6iy S60I, 7eSi. 

Obs. 2. — Of the imperf. appears also in mid. 7]/i7iv,zTid of the imperat. sVo. 

5. "Elf/ji, am going-, 

makes its forms from / as well as from the root g, and from 

/ with as well as without mood-vowel. 

^ r S. gloo/, sig or gl, (^> gT(r/, 

from g \ TA >, ,- 

■o f from g \ yx „ '^ „ 
Pres. -J « } ^' 'i"*^"' ''^^*'' 

t P. iujZv, irg, 


ilM/Sr, /Tg, ta,(Tl. 

— Conj. 'ict>, 'irig, &c icoffi, 

— Opt. loif/jf, toig, i'o/gv or tor/jv, loi'i^g, &c. 

— Imper. Ui, 'iroo^ 'kooaciy or Vovrav^ 

— Inf. /gva;, 

— Part, luv^ lovffcc, lov. 

Pluperf. from g/, j >!"'^ ^ ' ./ 

^ -^ ^g/j*, )jg/?, jjg/, r/iiiJbSV, yjSiTSf 

Pres. 'kyijccii kffui. Imperf. ii(jj7]v, 'kao. 

Obs. — "laGi from ivrei, whence also hi, Theogn., 536. — 'ihai from s 
with / prefixed, as in '/s/Aa/, g hfiai — -"H/'a refers to £, extended u, 
where s passes into ti, like ^asiXiTog, Ionic ^aaiXnio';, &c. From the 
Homeric termination of the pluperf. tax e.g. end^'iriUf &c. we may 

OF VERBS. ' 227 

infer, that these forms arose out of ritsa, with s ejected after /, while 

it contributed to the formation of finv, like hiQri'Tria, InQriviiv Of 

the imperative appears likewise a form e7 in compounds : Tags/, vs^ocsu 

6. The meaning is, to set oneself in motion, to be in the 
act of going, hence to be about to go, so that the perf. would 
mean, I have set myself in motion, I (j/o, and the pluperf. 
means, I had set myself, &c. / was going or / went. 

7. "I??jW//, send, 

is inflected like r/^pj/A/, thus pres. Itj^M;/, T;??, .... /gojc/, laai or 
iCiai, both from kvrai, w, ki^v, 'k6i and ki from Js, 
like ridzi. 

Imperf. 'I'riv and Isov, 'lovv, and compounded l(piovv, a.(piovv and 

Perf. ziKOi. Pluperf. g'Um. 

Fut. riSQo. Aor. 1, riKa. 

Aor. 2, 'iuiZv, sT/o-sy, ers, gfrs, gVav, g/cay. 

Conj. (iJ. 

Opt. gJV> Sl?7?, . . . ilTJlLZV, Ul/jiV, . . . s7iV. 

Imp. gj, gra;. Inf. ihoci. 

Pres. hfjtjui. Imperf. ti(jb}^v. Perf. sJfMui. Pluperf. g/j^o^jy. 
Aor. 1, 'i^rjUy ii0r]Vy a<pitd}]v, a(psds/g. 

Aor. 1, ^x.oi(Jjriv.^ % spui^t/, u^riv. Conj. ^^a/. Opt. ii^jj-^v. 
Imp. ovy hence g^poiJ, k(pov. Inf. gV^a/. P. g^o/Sfo?. 
8. Together with 'irji^i there come from the same as})irated 
root, forms with the cognate meaning of set : Biffa, I set, 
mdiM'/iv, I set myself. This meaning appears especially in 
the real perfect pass. 

'li(jjcci, have set myself, sit. 
Pres. ^[/jOii, 71(7X1, 'hrui, ^arrcci, . . . rjt/roci. 
Imperf. ?j|a,;7v, mo, riro, i](rro, . . , i]vro. 
Inf. ria&oLi. Imper. 7\go, ria^u, . . . riaOojauv. 

Obs. 1. — In compounds the accent is thrown back, and the formation 
of the moods is as in verbs with a mood- vowel. 

}id&ri/ji,ai, xa^w/Aa;, ■Aadoift.riv, Kudou, 

228 OF VERBS. 

Obs. 2. — With the addition of vrji^i, inv/ii, it means clothe, and is then 
in prose, always compounded with It/ or dfi(pii e. g. a/jL^isau, ri/xtphda^ 
^fiflsff/jjai, idai, sarai, afi(pisaaG&ai, &c. 

9. 0;7jM//, say. 
Pres. (prjfiji, <p^? (not <?>??), '^'^ <pW> . • . . (poiai. 
Conj. (poi, (pyjg, . . . (pSai. Opt. (pa/jjv, -?;?, . . . (pa/sv. 
Imp. (pu^i, (pocraj, . . . -rcoaccv. Inf. (puvai. P. (pdg. 
Imperf. gip;;^, g^;?? and 'i(priffdciy . . 'i<paaav, 
Fut. (pYi(yojf . . . -ovffi. Aor. 1, 'icpi^aoc. 


Aor. 2, i(pd(j!jyiVy . . . epavro. 

Perf. Imper. ^^(pda&oo. Part. ^^(pccffiJbmg. 

Obs, — The imperf. f'pr/c has the meaning of the aorist, and where the 
aor. infin. is necessary, (pdvai is taken. In connection with 6' Jyw, 
6' og (he), it stands without (p: rjv ^' lyw, said I, ri d' og, said he. 

10. Ei'^iy, I see, in perf. ol^cc, have seen, know, plup. tj^nv, 
knew, makes the forms belonging to both tenses from g/^, 
oih, and the abbreviated th : viz. 

Perf. Indie, ollocj oi/t0cc, oT^s, 

i(T(/j2Vf tffToVf hrou, 

Conj. g/^o/, jj? — uai. Opt. siliifjv. Imperat. 'iffdt. 
Inf. iiUvai. Part. g/^o;?. 

Pluperf. S. jj'^g/v and Att. yj^'/j from ^'^ga, 
fihstg, 7^^zi(j6ocy yjl'/iffdcc, 

>/S J/V J/V 

P. rjbillJAV, fjCTf/jSVy 

Obs — The forms /V/isv, /Vrov, /tfrs, and /V^/ may be derived from the 
root Ih as well as i6. In support of the first we find the analogy of 
f,hi(jiiv passing through jjiS/asi/ into fajxiv, and fihsav llirougli -fihcav 

OF VERBS. 229 

into fisav, in support of is there is the 3rd pers. plur. 'i(SaSi, as well 
as the fact that the Homeric and Doric forms 'i6av, "i<sa,[iiy &c., 
together with the German wissen (to know), from the root /V, bear 
the same meaning. 



1. Anomaly in verbs arises, when the root is altered by 
the addition of new letters, or by the transposition and change 
of the original elements. 

2. The added letters are sometimes vowels, sometimes 
consonants, sometimes single, sometimes several. They 
either extend the syllables of the root or add to their number. 

Ohs — Originally the alteration of the word through such additions 
must have likewise altered the meaning, as a comparison with other 
languages, especially the Oriental, and some surviving traces in the 
Greek tongue itself demonstrate. In the case of y^a'im, ^a'lvai, (paivu, 
the old forms from y^a, 8a, <pa, have disappeared, but in the instance 
of d^du, d^aim from d^a, both the primitive {B^du) and the derived 
{doalvoi) are found, the former signifying to do, the latter to desire to 
do (Germ, draeuen), II., x, 96. The approximation is closer between 
f)^fidoo, rouse myself, and o^/jjalvu, properly desire to rouse myself, 
then also rouse myself. The insertion of ex still changes the meaning 
in many words: ^a, fag, saying, <pd(S%(jiv, giving out, pretending, 
from /3a, ^dsxM, I cause myself to go, hence connected with /^/ in 

230 OF VERBS. 

tlie phrase (Sdax 'I'du Elsewhere (r>c denotes continuance or repetition : 
aWoT I'TTat^aaKt ■x.ccrdL fi,6Sov, aXXors 5' avre Irasxi (liyot. tayuv, II., (S, 
159. Likewise when the root is increased by the addition of s, a, 
/a, av, s&, Ci, 6&, &c., we may recognise an increase of weight or 
intensity in the meaning. Thus (p'^uv is simply to bear, to bring, 
but (po^iiiv, to carry up and down, to carry about, as ornament, 
finery, emblems of dignity, and the like: ayXatccg . . . Tag vvv 
vQ^i^uv (poking, Od., g, 245, (rx^TrgOf . . . vhg ' A-^aioov 'Ev '!raXd/i,y}g 
(po^iouGi, II., a, 238, not Iv 'xaXd/^riffi (pi^ouei, although in many 
instances the meaning of the two forms is identical. Ns/iw, / cause 
to take (Germ, nehmen), divide, pasture, vs/j^sdu, I feed with eager- 
ness, II., X, 635, vM/Maoj, I divide, manage, observe, (ivith attention, 
application) : fffw^j^sro (laK^d fSiCdeduv (strengthening of /S/Cag by 
addition of ad jSiQdffSctj) Nw^a ds ^vdTOv fjjsya, vav/Ma^ov sv TaXa/iJjo'/i', 
II., 0, 676. In the same relation stand tfrgspw and gr^updu, r^svu 
and r^wTccw, he. 'Aiidu, I sing, doiBidu, I sing loud and clear : 
xaXhv doihdii, bdvihov d' d'Trav d[i<pt[jJk(i,\j%iv, Od., 5C, 227. Comp. 
Od., s, 6 1 . Miihdoi, I smile, fMididu in /Jt,e/di6uv ^Xotfv^oTffi rr^oei^'JTaci, 
II., ri, 212, to designate the glance of the dreadful eyes lightening 
with the joy that inspires Ajax as he advances to the combat against 
Hector, in aid of which also the form of 'xs^oauira is increased by the 
fuller termination T^oaui'iragi, instead of v^oguiToig, — OXsys/i/, to burn, 
(pXiyidiiv denotes the might and fierceness of the flame; so likewise 
for ward off we find dfi'jntv and d/xwd6eiv, s^mnv and i^uxdvuv, for 
fiee, (juityiiv, (puyydviiv, for sle^, dsgdsiv, da^Skiv, da^ddmv. — It were 
worth while to follow out these traces in a treatise expressly devoted 
to the subject, and thus to revive an almost forgotten trait of the 
variety and precision of the Greek tongue. In the case of many 
such alterations, however, no difference of meaning is any longer 
visible, and while other languages have carefully observed to give a 
different sense to different shapes of a word, the lively volubility 
of the Greek has frequently interchanged these as various forms for 
one and the same signification. 


OF VERBS. 231 



3. A is increased to ai in jckaoi)^ Kkain), weep, kkco, Kccica, 
burn, to j'a, a'Trovoiio), lead out a colony. 

4. To this Oil is added also v, in §^a, ^^du, do, ^^uivoo, 
desire to do, yoa/W, gnaw, |8a, (duivco, go, (^a, (pa;W, fut. 
ogccffoj, y^ccacO) (Byjffoj. 

5. N without / appears in (p^cc, (p^uvco, anticipate. 

6. Sometimes the whole syllable aii/ is added to the root : 
oi^M and a^oitvci), dry, aX(pctj and ak(puivoo^ discover, g;^^^^ (in 
Ix^^og) ix^gccim, rs^ffco and TB^ffcctva/, dry, ;ig^^ (in zi^hog, gain), 

7. Forms thus produced derive from themselves particular 
tenses: e.g. fut. 2nd, KZ^avu, aor. 1st, iri^G^va. 

8. Or the syllable dv without / is added: a/V^, ciiff0oim(jbcci, 
perceive, aybot^r^ d[Mct§Tdva}, err, ccv^, uv^dvao, increase, (^XocffT, 
^XoiffTccvotj, sprout, ^cc^d, lu^Mvco, sleep, louKij and l^vKdvu, 
keep off, h)(P in to £%^o?, hate, ccTrzyPdvoiiioci^ am hated, /;s, 
ixdvao, come, ^/%, y^iyoD/u^ reach. The old roots still reveal 
themselves in the 2nd aor. : 7iad6(/jriv, r.fijagrov, tjv^ov, 'iQXccffroVj 

9. Both forms are found in oXia&dvo) (from okiaf), okia&oi,im, 
slip. Aor. 2nd, ookta^ov. 

10. In not a few short roots ending in a mute, there 
appears an addition of a with v repeated (v-oi,v), of which one 
V is placed before the final mute, and the other behind the a: 
^gy^, '7rv& ^'KvQce.v^ Twddvco, '^rvv&dvoyjui, I enquire, X?j^, Xa^, Xccv- 
0KVCO, am concealed : so, 

short roots, [JjCc0, aS, (pvy, rvy^, Xfpr. 

, , ^ (jbci-vd-ccv^ d-vhav, (pv-vyccv, ry-v^av, Xi-utt-ocv. 
extencleu, "\ a ^ ' \ ^ ^ ' ' •, ' 

[ [jjUvOavctjy amccvcij, (pvyyavcu, rvyy^ocvoj, XijJjTavaj. 


forms, Qjy/iOaj,') rihoj^ cpiuyiu, 7Zvyjo^ Xs/V&>, 

learn, please, flee, make, leave, 

11. Further, a is combined with v (Xu, aToXccvaj^ enjoy), 
which was the ffiolic digamma {kntoXdfcS). 

232 OF VERBS. 

12. Sometimes this v appears no longer in the present, 
but in other parts of the verb, as in fut. and aor. zdaj (jcdFu, 
afterwards Ttaiu)^ Kocvaco, s/cccvffoc, ySkdoo, weep, complain 
( Germ, klage), xXocio), yXdvau^ X^ao/, graze, y^avaca. 

13. T is combined with v in iXa, IXayv^y, diive. Fut. 1st, 
eXaffijy. Aor. 1st, nkcx^ffcc. 


14. Besides a, likewise s, /, and v assume v, ktol (szraiJbui), 
x,rs (in xno)): ktsv, zriivu, kill, zrocv^ zktuuov, rs and rcc (in 
rsra/Aa/) : rev, rzim, stretch, ricu, rivu, pay, fut. r/W, t;, 'zivMy 
drink, aor. Snd, sV/ov, '7rkvvc>j, wash, fut. 1st, nfkvaoi). 

15. T is interchanged with o\>\ XvfijK, filth washed off, Xou^y, 
wash, (T'Tvh, (TTrsv^ci), hasten, a'xovh'/iy haste, zeal, TcoSkxjca and 
KoXovu, weaken, hinder. 

16. The inserted a assumes also 6 in 

a^jvvooy ha;zco, sikoj, jcico^ &c. 

ward off, pursue, yield, go. 

17- A is sometimes added to the root of mute and liquid 

verbs, the s of which then commonly passes into oj: pjvx,, 

y^v-ycau, roar, ^^z^jm and (o^oij[jjdccoy roar, bray, rgiy^co and r^Myjiot)^ 

run, ar^i(^u and ffT^cij(pdico, turn. — E remains in -ygr, ^rsra, 

'TTiTOC^ai, fly. 

§ cxxv. 


18. E passes into g; in ;ts: zB7[/jOii, lie, fut. miffoi/jcci, conj. 
}ci&)[/jcci. T&hizDi and Ti0si(jbai, from ^g, have been already 
noticed. This is still more frequent with the poets : TrvSy 

19. It unites with y, which here also was the digamma : 

zyj^e (in }cy]hog, zog, care), K'/ihiucj ; %ars, xanvco, crave ; (Tri^ico, 
cri^svcij, tread; (Jbiaioj and ybiazvoj^ hate; IriTW, ^titzvoi), seek. 

20. This V remains, though not in the present, in the fut. 

OF VERBS. ^33 

and aor. 1st, in xXzm, TXzvffoyMi, i'TrXzv/roi, sail ; psii/, flow, 
psvffofjbui, sppsvffu ; ^ico, run, ^zvGoyjCci ; y^ioo^ xzuaco, pour ; 
•xvico, breathe, xvzvcro^Dit, iTTVivaOriv. 

21. And remains alone when the syllable is shortened: 
zz')(viLDci, lx66riv. So Khkoj, celebrate, Isckv^yiVf rXvroq^ re- 
nowned, &c. 

22. E is added to the root of mute and liquid verbs, the 
£ of which then passes into o : (pg^o;, (po^s«y; r^ifjjof, T§o[jAa)f 
tremble. The verbs thus formed are regular, and have their 
proper tenses : (po^rjffo), h(p6§'/i(Tcc, &c. 

23. E like cc is added together with ^ to the root : ccysi^of, 
ays^idci), assemble, (pXiyou, (pXsyidoj, &c. 

24. E is often added to the roots of verbs of all kinds for 
the more convenient formation of the tenses : ccvm, blow, dry, 
from the root cc, as, fut. a^trco ; ev§, gy^s, sv§y](Tco ; ^sX&i, will, 
^gXs, ^sKyiffcif ; ru'TTTco, strike, rvyrre, rvTrrj^co ; (jbdi-x,o[J^on, fight, 
fut. ^oq(/i(roiJjOci ; o(pziXa, owe, hpzikriaco ; otpj, smell, h^Tjffco ; 
oixo(^ai, depart, olxmoihai ; rivyj^, t^^^s, rzTvxn''<-o^-, Tzrvx/jzcog ; 
'y§d(psu, y§a(ps, ysy§a(p'^Ka)g; xcti^u, rejoice, xai^rjGCfJx avocivoiLui, 
refuse, avf,vrincci ; especially in liquids : (/jSvoi, ^zybzvT^za ; vz^Jjo;^ 
v&A[/jriKCi ; (i§&(jjoj, l^s^^iUjrjzoc, Sec. c^' 

25. E is not unfrequently changed into other vowels: into 
a, (3gX in (iiKog, dart, (^ccX in 'i^scXov, I darted ; zrsv and x.rocii' 
in 'izrzivci and 'izravov ; Kivrsa/ and tczvrdoj, goad ; l^'rokicoy 
traffic, and lyij'xokdoi) ; -rocrioj, tread a path, aitaraoo, beguile 
from the way, deceive. 

26. Into : pyg^y and 'piym, shiver ; aci&zvioi and kakvooj, 
am weak. 

0Z»5. — We must remark also the ejection of several radical vowels: 
ikvQ, 'skd; 'Xcta, Tra; xsga, xga; in ^'Xu^ov and ^X^oi/, itiraiiai and 



Preliminary Remarks. 

27. When a consonant is added, g generally passes into t : 

234 OF VERBS. 

shog, '{(rhco, 'iZoo^ set ; <rrs^sa;, ffn^iZfit, bereave ; nx, tiztcu, give 
birth to. 

28. Not unfrequently / with the initial consonant is pre- 
fixed to the root : r^o, rir^o, tit^ugku^ wound ; yvo, yiyvo, 
yiyvojazco, know, &c. 

29. Or the radical syllable is repeated vidth or without 
extension : ^a^, /w-a/^, [jbcc^(Jbcci§ct), gleam ; (jbcc, {juatoj, yboci^aoo, 

30. As h'la)[jtjt, ri&riiiii prefix / together with the initial 
consonant, so does also ^a, 'hihatrKco, and, with ejection of the 
feeble s, yzv {yiyzvoiMcci), yiyvoihcci ; ^sr (yriTzroi))^ iti'Ttra ; \ijiv 
(J!j{[jbsvcii), (jbi(Jbva/. As in these, so in other forms the s disap- 
pears : (^Tsvi0cu) Tivdoj. Similar, only with rs, is r^s, r^av, 
7guiv, riT^uim, bore. 

31. If the final consonant of the root cannot unite with 
the added sound, it is dropped: ^/^a%, ^/^a%(r^, hluazaj, teach; 
"TT^uy, "Tr^txyafff 'Tt^dacfo}, do. 

Added Consonants. 

32. 2 is usually prefixed to \ which closes the root : <p^aS, 
(p^d^oo, tell ; KXuh (in zkvlcov, billow), fckv^oj, wash ; 0"%/$, 
cyjZpi)^ cleave ; s^, 'iZc>}^ and, 

QS. In several hundred other verbs in iZ(>) : as, ccyi^oo, con- 
secrate, ayvi^co^ purify ; kymiZfo^ contend ; a0^ot^a}, collect ; 
ai(jjccrilfii}, make bloody, &c., fut. 1st, ayviffoo, kyuviaco, &c. 

34. It appears also in certain forms of other mute verbs : 
l/.iy, ijJay ; g%, hxj eV, 'iaTT. 

35. Z is added in the root to vowels : (ttccco, draw, ka'xa- 
(^o^a/, draw to myself, embrace ; jS/ao;, (Bioi^M, force ; ffrs^sot/, 
(TTSgi^co^ bereave ; avdzoj, bloom, avdi^o), cause to bloom ; a^fjt^oa, 
u^(/j6lco, fit ; iSf/, ^S'Z^i sleep ; kvv, kvv^m, scrape ; fut. 1st, 

(TTTOCffCU, jotUffd), &C. 

36. Z is added in the root to y and %, which drop out : 

ciKccy (in axuyf], point), kzd^oj, z^uy (in z^avyri, cry), z^cc^cu, 
aPTay (in a^Trayyj, robbery), ccpxcc^co, (rrsvoiy^ (in arovur/ji^ 
sigh), GTZvtcZfo^ zDiy (perf. xiz^iycc), z^i^co, creak, fut. zgoc'^oj, 
a^Ta^sy, &c. 

37. T is added in the root to the p sounds. 
a. To T, zXiTT (in xXi'TTog, theft), zX^'TrTcj. 


OF VERBS. ^35 

Kdic (in ^KT??, manger), x.d'Trrco, devour. 
TWT (in rv-TTog, stamp), rii'Trrcj, strike, &c. 

38. h. To |8, zaXv^ (in Kr/kv^v}^ hut), zaXmro). 

|3Xa€ (in jSXaS;?, hurt, jS^ceTro;, &c. 

39. c. To ^, a<p (in asp;^, touch), aVr(W, fasten. 

S^a(p (in rcci^o?, grave), ^a.'xru. 
pa(p (in paipj?, seam), paTro). 

40. The tenses of such verbs are naturally formed from 
the original root. Fut. 1st, Khk-^co, zaXv^pco, cl-^pcu, aor. 2nd, 
s^Xcc^ov, 'ir(x.(pov, fut. 2nd, pass., Ta,(p7}(T0[Jbcci, &c. 

41. Tr or CO- are taken into the root, especially to the k 
sounds, which are then dropped : 

a. To K, iXtz (in sX/f, 'iXiKog, coil), iXiffffo) or zkirraf. 

%,r]^vK (in }c^§v^, fcog, herald), zTj^OffffM or Ttyi^vrra. 
<p^iK (in (p^iKri, fright), (p^iffaoj, &c. 

42. b. To y, -r^ay (in v^ayog, fact), Tt^dffffM and ^^arra;. 

ocTJ^ocy (in ccKkay^, exchange), aXhAaau. 
'ttX^Y (in 'TrXriyri, blow), '7r'ki^S(rco^ &c. 

43. c. To %, fAsX/x; (in ps/X/%0?, sweet), i/jzXiaaco. 

Ta^a^x (iu ru^^ciyji^ confusion), Ta,^dG(ra). 
ogvy^ (in ^/(^i^y?, y;)^o^, trench), o^uffffco, &c. 

44. Here also the tenses are formed from the original 
roots : eXi%cj, B(p§t^a, W^ax^nh '^e<pf'«a, ri>^'^Myf]v, &c. 

45. Besides these the double <r is added to some t sounds: 
Xir (in XiTri, prayer), Xi(T(TO[jboci ; ^o^y^ (in Kopvg, Kogvdog, 
helmet), Ko^vaooj ; -rXar {jfkccrvg, broad), itkoiaGoo, press out, 
form ; g^sr (in l^ZTfLog^ oar), kgiffffco ; and the single c to other 
mutes : aXsz, aXs^af, avert ; avy, ai»|. 

46. Also to some pure verbs : 

m[jija,i, vi(Tiro[Jbai, go ; Xgy, \ivaaco^ look ; a(py, cc(pv(TGco^ drain, 
&c. ; and single r to ;& in re;«, T2;tr, r(x,rco. 

47. 2;i enters into a considerable number of roots ; es- 
pecially of pure : 

yrieaoj, yrj^affzco, grow old, tXaog, cheerful, i'ka.ff}co(jijOH, pro- 
pitiate, ciXvof, aXvffKo;, wander, hlcc-x,^ lihdsKu, teach, crg^go/, 
GTi^iffKco^ bereave, guf, gy^g, evgiffKM, find. 

48. In which passes into a : |SXo, (oXa/ffKco, come forth, 
yj^o, yiymaaoo^ know ; a into ?? in S^va, ^v?;(T;ciy, die. Lastly y^ 
is aspirated in ito^Q (jxahK<ti).> -Trdaxu, suffer. 

^36 OF VERBS. 

49. N appears, besides in the case of vowels already- 
mentioned, also in liquids : 

rs[jbf riiMu, cut ; zuii, x,an,vu, labour. In mutes : Sa;e, 
^dzvo}, bite ; 7m^, XavS, XdiM^co, Ionic for Xoi[Jb^apaji take ; 
likewise combined with s in Ik, iKViOf/bcci, come, fut. i%o[jba,i. 

50. We find also the duplication of X : e. g. (Beck, (ooiXkcOf 
ccyyiX, ayyiXKoff like that of vowels, Xa€, Xrj^ ; ^azy ^rj/C ; or 
their chang^e into diphthongs (n. 13, 18, and 48), ktzv^ 
zTiiP'f (pan, (paiVy X/t, Xs/t ; later departures from the original 

51. N appears combined with y, — single after consonants, 
double after vowels, and, 

5'2. The forms thus produced belong to the conjugation 
without mood-vowels : 

ay, break, ayvvfjiji ; otyoj, open, oiyuvfjui ; ooiyuf, stretch, 
opzyvviJji ; }>ii7c, show, ^iizw[jui, &c. 'O^, swear, oiJbuv[M ; a^cu, 
fit, a^vuf/ji ; Trratgo}, {"Trrag,) 'Trroi^vviMi, sneeze, &c. 2;je- 
Saa;, scatter, ffzshdvvu(jji ; Kr&, kill, Krmu[jji ; cSs, extinguish, 
(7^mvf/ji ; Zp, gird, ZJovvvfjji, &c. The becomes a, as in n. 
48. — "OKKv(Jtji from oX takes XvfJbiy thus Xv instead of vv to the 




53. The second source of anomaly is the transposition of 
letters in the root : (^uX in e^uXov, (iXa, in ^'i^XTixoc, — &§h in 
sphcj, pih in pg^^ (p'ihcti with c), do, — ^ccv in 'idccvoi^, ^vcc in r&- 
Gvyi'Koc, — ViP&o), sleep, ^zod, hgad, aor. 2, 'zh^ocdov, — TTi^dco, destroy, 

54. As another source of anomaly may still be named the 
want of mood-vowels : IvvociJbcci, am able, KSi[jijai, lie, — or, M 

55. The formation of the aorist according to the conjuga- 
tion which wants these vowels : ^loctf, live, aor. l^iaui' j yiyvojaKu^ 
syviov'f (phoj, 'i(pvvy ^aivo), 'i^riv. A 

OF VERBS. 237 



56. Quite distinct from the anomalous, and only acci- 
dentally mixed with them, are the defective. In their forms 
there is nothing opposed to the general rules of formation ; 
but the forms of their present are obsolete, and their other tenses 
are, therefore, arranged under an existing present of the 
same meaning. Thus with z^y^oyjoci, I come, we find fut. 1, 
iXsu(TO{jjCci, which belonged to the obsolete IXivdoj; with al^'ico, 
take, aor. % ziXov, from the obsolete sKco, &c. Here, then, 
is a repetition of the same circumstances, which affected the 
irregular degrees of comparison, and the pronouns. 

Obs. — The meaning of these verbs does not always coincide with their 
form, but active forms have sometimes a passive meaning, and vice 
versa, as the following list will show. 

57. When a verb is anomalous in one only of the points 
already discussed, it may be analysed according to our pre- 
vious observations. 

58. But we require an alphabetic catalogue of those verbs 
in which a manifold anomaly appears, — a catalogue that 
will include also the defective verbs. — The numbers attached 
to the forms, refer to this and the foregoing sections, in which 
the §§ run from 1 to 58. 

Obs — Since it is not easy to give all the existing tenses in the catalo"^ue, 
it must be remarked generally, that the tenses not given are either 
regular, — e.g. perf. pass, ^y/^a/ from ayw, perf. act. tstsv^oc from 
TtbyMy fut. a/P^ffw from a/gsw, — or irregularly formed according to the 
analogy of the tenses given : e. g. (S'iQXrifMoct as jSsCX^m, Oidfiri/j^ai as 
dibfj!,rix,a, &c. 

238 OF VERBS. 



1. "Ayvv^i, break. 

ay, ayvv, n. 51. — "Ayvv(M, perf. g'aya, with pass, meaning, 
am broken, fut. a;^, aor. gaga, layr/V, Horn. ^|a. 

2. "Ayco, lead. 

ay, ays, n. 24. — ayay, n. 29. — "Ayco, perf. (ay,) J5X;a, ays, 
riyzza, kyriyi'Ka,^ Doric ayjjo)(^a, aor. {kyocy^ jjyayou, '}iyayo[Jby}v. 

3. A/^S(W, take. 

a/i'g, sX, n. 56. — A/^g^, perf. n^YiKo., aor. ?;^g^;j{' and (g'X,) 
glXov, iiXoyjjjv. 

4. Ahdoivofjjoci, perceive. 

a/(T^, aiads, n. 24. — cchdccv, n. 8. — AlffOccvof/jKi, perf. (^ahds,} 
ji(T6'/][i>ccii fut. ai(T0^(TO(JbOii, aor. (a/c^,) riffdoffjrjv. 

5. 'AXg|<y, ward off. 

aXg;?, aXg|, n. 45. — aXg|, aXg|g, n. 24. — pres. aXg^ty, fut. 
(aXgfs,) aXg^^ffiy, aor. (aX£;t,) aXglac^a/. 

6. ' AXi(rKO(jba,i, am taken. 

aX, aXg, n. 24. — aXo, n. 26. — aXg, aXiffz, n. 27, 47- — 'AXtff- 
zofjbcii, perf. aXo, idXcoxcc, have been taken, fut. aXajcoiLoti^ aor. 
laXcyv or jjX(i;j', was taken (iocXcov from aXo hke kXu(pdf]v from 
}\.u(p0&), conj. aXo/, opt. akoii^v, inf. oCkuvcci^ part. aXovg. 

7. ' Afijcc^rdvcij, err. 

ai/ju^r^ a^a^rg, n. 24, a^ot^Tccv, n. 8. — ' A(/joc§rcx,m, perf 
^{/jd^rripcoi, fut aii>a^Tri(70^a,i^ aor. 2, '/^(Jboc^rov. 

8. At'iaj'a;, increase. 

agy, ag|, n. 45. — agy, contracted ay, — ay, ayy, n. 11. — 
ayy, ay^, n. 45. — a^-f, ayfg, n. 24. — at'^av, n. 18. — pres. aefii;, 
aJ|(W, avt,ccvcoy fut. aL'^^c^;, ccv^ricro(jbai, perf (ay|g,) 7ivy^n>ui, 
aor. (ag;£,) as|g, asgaro, Horn., (ay|g,) i^v^^0)^v. 

9. Ba<W, go. 

)8g, |Sa, n. 25. — |3;Sa, n. 28. — |3a, |3a/v, n. 3, 4. — Ba/W, 
perf (|3a,) |3gS;j«a, fut. /S^Cit^, will cause to go, ^naofiai, will 
go, aor. 'i^TiGUj have caused to go, g^^jv, went. 

10. BaXXiw, throw. 

/SgX, |3aX, n. 25. — |3X£, |3Xa, n. 53. — (3gX /3oXg, n. 22 — 

OF VERBS. 239 

j8aX, jSaXX, n. SO.-jioiKks, n. Q4f.-BdXku, perf. (|3Xa,) (^i^Xrizoc, 
((ooKs,) (oi^oXfiiJboii, Horn., fut. f^l^ocKkz and j8aX,) ^ocKk'/iffoo, 
(3aX(y, aor. eSaXov, (j3?ia), k^Xn&riVy opt. in Homer, (^Xs,) 
BXsi(jj7lVf (oXzio. 

11. IBiQ^MffKoj, eat. 

|S^o, jG/S^o, n. 28. — (^iQ^cuffKy n. 24 and 48. — pres. "RiQ^cj- 
ffzcOf fut. (i^cuffajy aor. gS^a;^. 

12. BXacraj'a;, sprout. 

iSXacr, (iXoctTTSf n. 24. — ^Xocffrccv, n. 8. — pres. BXafrrav^y, 
fut. (iXccarriffii;, aor. g'SXacrot'. 

13. TiyvoiJtjocif become. 

ys, ya, n. 25. — ys, ys;', n. 14. — ysf, ysygv, ysyv, yiyv, n. 30. 
— ysv, ygvs, n. 24. — TiyvoiJijoci, perf. (ya,) yiyccKOi in the 
poets, (ygf,) ygyoi'a, Cyst's)) ysysf;jjM;a/, fut. yiv/id'/jaoptjutf aor. 
lyivo^riv, lyiV7]&riv. 

15. r/yv<i'0';»ifit;, know. 

yvo, y/yvo, n. 28. — yiyvudK^ n. 47) 48. — r/yi'ii;(r;ja;, perf. 
{yvo,^ iyvooza, 'iyvtjt)(r[/jcci, yvajffoiiKi, aor. 'iyvaov^'iyvojg^ — lyvcoaavy 
imp. yvoo&i, inf. yvcovui, part, yt'oyj. 

15. Aoi/CVM, bite. 

^a;K, §pj;k, n. 50. — ^a;i, ^a;t;', n. 48. — ^pres. ^kkvoj, perf. ^g^^yp^a, 
fut. "hrj^oijjcci, aor. g'^a;^^)^. 

16. Aa[Jboi&)f subdue. 

^a^, ^(x,(jbv, n. 49. — ^aiW*, ^a[/jCi, and Sa^j/W', ^a[/jva, n. I7. — 
— Sa^, ^j!//a, n. 53. — pres. h<z[/joiay ha^Jbt/aa), ^u[/jV'/;[/jI, perf. (^/-&a,) 
^i6[jtj7iKcc, ^ih^ri^oci, aor. (^/acu,) l^i/j^6}]Vf (^a^,) ^^d^rjv. 

17. Aa^ddvco, sleep. 

^a^^, ^^a^, n. 53. — ^a^^g, n. 24. — 'ha^davy n. 8. — Acc^ddvcj, 

perf. ^g^a^^;;^a, fut. ^ocgdriffoiJbui, aor. 'iba^Oov, and in the poets 
g^^a^ov, aor. iha,^6rjVy ^a§hig. 

18. Ai(Jbi>j, build. 

^g^, ^g//jO, n. 13. — ^gjM/, ^^g, n. 53. — pres. ^g^O/it;, ^g/^ii^, perf. 
(^^g,) ^shi^rizcc, aor. g^g//Aa, g^g/jooa^^jv. 

19. Ai^dffzuj, teach. 

^a)/, ^/^a%, n. 28. — li^cny/TXy ^ihaffz, n. 31. — h^acrxs, n. 24. 
— Ai^c(,(T}c&), teach, perf. "hihihccy^oc, fut. tihoc^ajy h^cc^o(/jui, aor. 
s^/^aia and (hihdffKZ,) hlafffcrjffiu, Hesiod. 

20. Aih^ocffKo), run away. 

^^a, ^;^^a, n. 28. — h^^ccax, n. 47. — Aib^ddKu, perf, hgh^dKa, 


fut ^^affOfJMi, aor. z^^ccv, imper. ^§a0i, inf. ^^olvui, part, ^^a^ 

21. 'Eys/^fiy, wake. 

lys^, gys/^, n. 18. — gygo, gy^, n. 26. — gyg^, gy^g, n. 53. — 
'Eyg/^o', perf. (gy^ — £y£^??) ly^r/yogcc, according to n. 29, 
gy^yg^;^a, aor. (gy^,) yiygoiMrji/. 

22. "E^co, eat. 

g^, g^g, n. 24. — go-^;, n. 56. — "I2ct) and g<r^/iy, perf. (g^g, 
ihyjhsKcc,) eb'/jhoKK, ihrjlsffi/jui^ aor. rih'iG&'/jv. 

22. * Elrov, I said. 

It, s/V, n. 18 — Present in composition gt'gr<y, aor. (g;T,) 
slTOf, g/Vg, g'/To/jCA/, gi'TTfi;, g/Vgrf, g/'Tiyj', &c. Forms with a : g/Taj 
for glTg?, si'Trdrco. — imp. g/Vs and sl'rov* 

23. "Et^, am busied with. 

gV, gVT, n. 34. — -"ETia;, S'7ro(Jbcci, follow, aor. sWof (where g 
is treated as an augment, and hence rejected in the moods, 
and compounded hsiTov), inf. (j-TnTv, aTm in the poets, m. 

24. "'K§x°[JjCii, come. 

e^s and hXsvd, n. 56. — lXsv0, ikv0, IXd^ n. 26. — ekvd, iXovd, 
n. 15. — 'Ta§x^[jmj, perf. kX^Xvdcc and in Homer also g/X^Xoy^a,(i') 
fut. lXsv(TO(Mui, aor. nkv6ov and ^X^of. 

25. Ey^/o';j&;, find. 

gu^ gy^g, n. 24. — sv^iffz, n. 27, 47. — Y^v^iazco, perf. su^^kcc, 
evgrifjijai, fut. gy^^c^, aor. gy^oi/, iv^o^i^v, &v^id'/iv. 

26. ' E%a;, have, hold. 

g)^, gcx, n. 34, and <V%, n. 27. — gff%, g<r)^g, n. 24. — Itrx, 
(T/ji, n. 53, <rp^g, c^g^, n. 23. — -'E^a;, i'o-^fit;, imp. gl^o^ perf. 
'iayrina, fut. gi<w and (ry/iau, aor. gV^^^ov, \ayj)^7iv, conj. <r;^aJ, opt. 
ajo'^Tiv, imp. (ox^^O ^X^^» i" composition also c^g, rfira^aay^y 
yMTotaxz, idx^^nv ; (and o-%g^) ay^zklv, ayj.&uv, not o'%g^g<j', &c.t 

27. "E-v^o;, boil. 

gT, g-v//, n. 45. — g-^/, g'-v^g, n. 24. — "Ya-^oo, fut. i-^^^riaco and 
the adj. g'^^o? and g'\^?jroj, i-ipriTiog. 

28. 0vjj(r;»iiy, die. 

^av, ^fa, n. 53. — ?>v^(rH., n. 47- — Qii'/ierz^j, perf. ^m, rg^- 
fpj^a, fut. ^aj', ^ccvou[Jba{, aor. Uavov. 

*Boeckh. ad Find. Not. Crit., p. 381. 

-|- Hermann ad Soph. Elcctr., ed. min. Erf., 1^4}. 

OV VERBS. 241 

29. "I^fi/, set. 

1$, g^, n. 32.—/^ n. 27.— /^g, n. 24.—/'^, /^av, n. 8.— 
pres. g^is/, seat, 7^&), sit, /^a^'^y, seat, and sit, fut. IZ^^aojy — 
with zard, KccOi^oj, fut. kocOioo, aor. iKoi^iffa, kzDc0i(Td(//r;u. 

30. 'I;ia!^a^, come. 

i/if Izocv, 11. 8. — Ik, mg, n. 49. — 'Ikuvm and ixv50(/jut, perf. 
Jyiujui, fut. t%o[jjUi, aor. /|a, iKoybriv. 

31. Ka/(y, burn. 

^a, ;iJ05/, n. S.-"— «at/j n. 12. — Kao/, ««/<*;, burn, perf. Kzzocv^ai, 
fut. zotixrco, Kccvaoyijai, aor. I«>ja, kzuriv^ kzauO/jv. 

32. KaXsii;, call. 

«aX, «aX£, n. 24. — zcck, zKa, ii. 53. — KaXfa, perf. (xAa,) 
Kizk'/iza, fut. ;taXg(Tii;, Attic kclKoo, KakoviLOii, aor. izuXeffa, 

33. Koi(jjva}, labour. 

«05jM/, ;£jW-05, n. 53. — ^ajM/f, n. 49. — ¥%.d^voj, perf. (^zfLu,') zzz- 
(/jrjzci, fut. za[j!jOv[jjUi, aor. 'iza^iiov. 

34. ILz^doj, mix. 

«g^, ;£g^a, n. I7. — zb^vcc, zi^voi, n. 49, 27. — «g^a, zsgawu, n. 
52. — ^g^a, «g'a, n. 26. — Ks^occo, zz^dvt>v[jji and zigvdo), perf.(;K^a,) 
zsz^uzci, zizpa[jjixi, (zzoa,^ zzzz^otaiLai, fut. zsgccffco, aor. Izz^aaa, 
hzi^uffO'/jv, (_zg(x,) Iz^affdfJbf^v, \z^d&nVi (^so,) Izz^oybyjv, conj. ;cg- 
^covTCii in Homer. 

35. KgiiJjdivwiJbi, hang. 

;«og/A, zgs(jtjOc, n. 17^ — zoi^Mavvv, n. 52. — IL^z^jbavvviM, hang, 
z^S[jja,vi/, am hanged and hang myself, zoz^ocfjuaiy hang 
(intransit), fut. z^i^drroj, zpb[/jSj, z^B(/jcc(T0'/i(TO(jtjai, mil be, &c. 
{zPS[Jb,) z^zfjj^ffoiJjat (will hang) (intransit.), aor. kz^zyjda&i^v, 
aor. 2, m. conj. z^i[jijco(jtjoci. 

36. KvviM, kiss. 

;iy, ^w, n. 13. — ^wg, n. 24. — pres. YLvvzoo, fut. %y<r^ (y), 
zvr/jao^Mi (will kiss), aor. g/ju/ra. 

37. Kayxdvoj, get by lot. 

?.gX, Aa%, n. 25.— Xa;^, X;j%, n. 50.™Xg>^, Xg% Xsy)^, n. 49. 
— Xa)/, 'kay'xjy.v, 11. 10. — Kccyyjivoi), perf. (?t?JXi') ^'^^X'^^ giX^jy- 
(O&a;, Xgy%, TskXayy/x,, fut. A'/i'^oyjUi, aor. gXa^oi*. 

38. Aa|t//€av<i;, take. 

XaS, X;jS, n. 50. — ?.aS, XaSg, n. 24. — XaS, ?y.aja/€, n. 49. — 
Ka€, XdcvQocy, ^^(jtjQap, n. 10. — AccfjbQdvc'j, perf. (?^?jC,) g'/A;;^a, 


242 OF VERBS. 

fut. 'K^-ipoiJucn, aor. sXaSov. Ionic forms of Koi(/j^ are, "kiXufjuiJtjUff 
K(x,[/j'^oiJuon, IkKfJucpdj^v, and Kskci^7]xcc from XaSs. 

39. AcivOoiVM, am concealed. 

Xa^, Aj?^, n. 50. — "kady Xccv&m^ n. 10. — KKvddva and Xjj^a;, 
m. XavddvoiJjai, forget, perf. XsXjj^a, Isk'knaytjKi, have forgotten, 
aor. 'iX(/JoVf iXa&ofMjv. 

40. Aovcj, wash. 

Xo, Xo£, n. 24, contracted Xov. — Aosof, Xova;, inf. Xovsffdat, 
Xovffdai, "kovoiMvog^ "kovybzvog, &c. fut. Xoiaa/, Kovaco, aor. gXosca, 

41. Mav^avisy, learn. 

(!//a^, [J!jrj0, 11. 50. — jOoa^, (JjU^s, n. 24. — pa^, (lccvSccv^ n. 10. — 
Mav^aciy, perf. ^i^ddYiKU^ fut. [/jad'/iciO(jjO!,t, aor. 'ifjbudov. 

42. Ms/^o^a/, 

|a.£^, ^ao, n. 25. — ^O/O^, n. 26. — /ooso, jM-s/^, n. 18. — Ms/fo/Aa/, 
perf. s(jij(/jO§cc, s7[Jjcc^(J!jch, zl^a^roci, is destined, aor. 'i[Jb[jtjO§ov, Hom. 

43. M/yj'yjM//, mix. 

fjjiy, /^/cy, n. 34. (/jty, (jbtyw, n. 51. — M/yfy^M//, [/jiffycti, 

perf. ^A(/jiy(jj(x,i, fut. jW/Zf^y, aor. e[/ji^0Cf sf/biyi^v, lyjly^drjp^ &c. 

44. M.i[/jvy;(TKco, remind. 

joova, [/jvriffx, n. 47- — [JLt[jbvrifTK, n. 28. — MjfJbvriffKa;, (JbifJbv^ffxo- 
(juai ((j!jva)(jjoci\ remember, mention, perf. (/js^juvrifijon, am mindful 
of, fut. i^vrjffcij, fJbi/'/^ijO^ffoiJbui, [Jbi[jtjvfi(70[jtjut (shall be mindful of). 

45. ' O^M, smell. 

o6f oZfl n. 32. — 0^, o^g, n. 24. — -"O^iy, perf. (0^,) o^<y^a, 
fut. o^iffco and o^rjffcij. 

46. Oio(/jCii, think. 

oi', contracted 0/. — 0/, o/s, n. 24. — 'O/iy, oto(Jbuiy o'loj, o'io^oci, 
oif/jui (n. 54), imperf. c^6(/jijVy ^(J^^iv, fut. oi7](rof/jcn, aor. co-^driVy 
inf. olrjdfjvcci. 

47. O'ix,o(jtjaiy have departed. 

o'X' o'X^j n, 24. — o/^o, n. 26. — Oixo[J^oci, perf. (o/^eO TO- 
jE//a/, (oixo,) oh/^a'/^ct, fut. {oly^^ o\%nao[j^m. 

48. ' OXia6aivoi)y glide. 

oX/c^, oXiffds, n. 24. — 6X/ff^, oXicrdocv and okiS&aiVy n. 8, 6, 9* 
— 'OXiffdaivco and oXtffddw, perf. &)'k!a0-/]fccc, fut. okiG&riacoy aor. 
otikia&riGa, SXiffdof. 

49. "OXkv[jui, destroy. 

oX, oXs, n. 24. — oAXy, n. 52. — "OXkvfAi, perf. (oXg,) oXduXsxoc 

OF VERBS. 243 

and oK oXuXcc, fut. okiaco, oXa/y 6Xou(j!jO!,t, aor. uXsffa, coXo^riv^ 

50. "0[jjvv(jbiy swear. 

o[jj, ofiis, n. 24. — o[M, o(JtjO, n. 26. — o(ju, 0(jbvVi n. 51. — "0(jij- 
vufAty perf. {o(Jbo,) oiJUAif/jOzcc, oyLiu^o&iJjOciy fut. 6uj6(Tm, o^Jbovybui, 
aor. oj^oaoc. 

51. 'Oviv^iLii profit. 

Of, ofa, 11. 17. — owt'a, with reduplication (o-w-j'a). — ' Ovit>'/i(jtjt 
and ov}^(Mai, imperf. coi/-/j(jb'/iv, fut. o^^ffis;, aor. uvyjaa, aor. 2, mid. 
(ovcc,^ ajvoc[jU}ju, opt. ovuifiiriv, inf. ovuffdai. 

52. 'O^aijy, see. 

o^a and ot (in oij/, O'T-o?), n. 56. — 'O^ccco, imp. ^§oov, 
iofgav, perf. o'7rct)'7rccy cu[ji>[jjai, ioj^d^cciy fut. o-^o^on, aor. u<p&i^v. 

53. ' 0(T(p^aivo[/j(x,t, smell. 

0(r(p^, oo'^g'S, n. 21. — 6ff(p§a, n. 24. — oatp^atv, n. 6. — 'Off- 
(p^ocivouiOLi, o(T(p§iio[jjUiy fut 0(7<pg'^(T0[Jijcc(y aor. oj(j(p^(x,^^v, cuG(p^oyij7iv, 

54. 'OipiiXco, owe, must. 

oipsX, o<p£/X, n. 18. — 6(pnXs, n. 24. 'O^s/Xo/, fut. 6(peiXfi(Tco, 

aor. (>j(piXov. With this, 

55. '0^sX>>.<y and "O^X^y, owe. 

o(p2X, o(pX, n. 26. — 0(pX, o^Xs, n. 24. — o<psX, oipXiffx, n. 47, 
27. — o(pXiff}cav, n. 8. — ^"0(p?uy and hipXia/tdvoo, fut. o(pX7iaa. 

56. UoiiZjiJ, sport. 

^a/7, ^a;^, n. 56 (like psy, pg§). 'Truth, ^roii^, n. 32. — 

Ha,tZfA)y perf. (ora/^,) ':ri7rccKT(jij(x,f, fut. (^raiy,^ 'prcit%o[jijUif aor. 

57. nac^o;, suffer. 

-ra^ and -ttsv. — tsv, ■rsj'S^, n. 23. — tsvs^, -rsv^, n. 30. — -ra^, 
rT>?^, n. 50. — '7rcc0, -ra^o^ •^ao'x;, n. 48. — riao-^^j^;, perf. (jczv&,') 
vk'xovSu, 7rs'7ro<T[Jjai (from -Tre-TTovd-iJUCit), and (yrrid,) -TriTrrida, fut. 
'ttzIgo^oci {yrzv6-G0(JMi\ {^yi&,^ 'TcriGo^ai, aor. gV^yca, commonly 


58. ITsro/Z/a/, fly. 

<;r£r, -rgra, n. I7. — '^st, stt, n. 53. — /Vr, n. 27. — Tsra, 
wra, n. 26. — -^rgr, ^org, n. 24. — IlgrOjOoa/, Tgra|M/a/, -rgra- 
o/Aa/, <Wa/xa/, Tgracr^a/ and Tr&Tatrdai, fut. Trrjcrof/jUi, aor. (rra,) 
IVr/jv, opt. 'TTTuinv, inf. TTrjvoiff part, ^ra? ; also i'?rTuii'))Vi 


Tra,<T(^ai, 'ffTK(Mivog, (e'^^'O S'^rroiJb^v, WiffSai, Trropijzvog, aor. 1, 
(Tgra,) TrsrocfjO&ig. (Comp. zaToiLTiv, ffrnfjOai.) 

59' TiigOcifi waste. 

Tsg^f '^a,§0, n. 25. — ■r^a^, n. 53. — Trz^d, topOz, n. 22. — 
U'soOoj, TogdsaOf Horn., fut. -TTo^^riffco, Horn., aor. eVs^cs, Horn., 
(^rgaO,) z'TT^ciOov. 

60. YlTiyvv'jji^ make fast, hard. 
•ray, 'TT'/jY, w. 50. — TPjy, T'/iyvv, n. 51. U'^ywfjji, perf. 

^sT^jya, am made fast, fut. Tr^i^;, aor. 2, pass. Wayriv. 

61. n/j'iy, drink. 
T/, 'T/;', n. 14. — TO, n. 56.— FLW, perf. (to,) -riTinza, ts- 

toi/jOci, fut. 'ttwijijCci, aor. gV/oi', l'7r6t)f]v. 

.62. UcprgdaKtA), sell. 

T^a, T/T^a, 11. 28. — TiT^affK, ii. 47. — n/T^aff^^y, perf. 
'r£'rg'«;ia, aor. iT^dOriv. 

63. Tis'7rroi)y fall. 
•rer, tsc, n. 56. — Tgr, t/tst, t/tt, n. 30. — Tsr, "ttts^ 'Zto, 

n. 53, 26. — Ili'Tcrco, perf. (tto,) 'XiitraKOL, fut. 'TfZGov^ai^ aor. 

64. Ilk7j(j(jco, strike. 
'Tfkciy^ 'TfkTj'Y^ n. 50. — 'rX'/jffff, n. 42. — Tlk^affM, perf. Tg^Tt^j/a, 

aor. g'rX?j7;jv and gTXay;jv (was dismayed). 

65. Tlvv&dvoiJjDci, enquire. 
-ry^, Tgy^, n. 50. — Ty^, tuvOuv, n. 10. — UvvOccvo[jj(x,if ttzv- 

0o[Jjoh, Hom., perf. 'TTi'TrvG^aij fut. Tsva-ofijut, aor. i'?rv06[jb7jv. 

66. 'Fi^co, do (in the poets). 
p£§ and pgy, n. 56. — I^S and i^y, n. 53. — pgS, p'g^, n. 32. — 

'Pg^^y, g^^^^, perf. (gg'y,) g'o^ya, s^yf/Mi, fut. pg|ia;, g^g(i», aor. 

67. 'Psfl'A flow, 
pg, pgy, n. 19. — pf) n« 21. — pyg, n. 24. — 'Vkco, perf. (pyg,) 

Ippvyixci, fut. l)BV(TOf/jCi(, pvmofjjCK, aor. 1, fpp&vffo, and Ippvyjv. 

68. 'P^jyfyp, break. ^ 
pay, p??7, n. 50. — priyvv, n. 51. — p'ay, puy^ n. 56 (like 

rpay, T'^^y)- — '¥7jyvv(jiji, })erf. sppcoya, am broken, fut. p^fiy, 
aor. 'ippri^a and hppciyrjv. 

69. '^^ivvv[Jbi, extinguish. 
ffSg, cSgffy, 11. 52. — ^^mufjbi, perf. h^t^zcc, ea^sffyjaiy fut. 

ffSsffiy, aor. sVS??!', gVC^jircj?', imper. tr^^mi, l/rUffOyjp. 

OF VERBS. 24^ 

70. ^iJboiaf, smear. 

(TfJba, fffjij?], n. 50. — ff(Jy7lXi n. 56. — ^(Jboia), 2nd pers. <T(JtjUStg, 
fr[jb7Jg, fut. GiM'/jGco, aor. kfffjjyiy^^nv. 

71. Sro^swy^/, strew. 

(xro^, (jro§s, n. 24. — ffrog, (rrgo, n. 53. — (TTo^, aro^vv, (tto^b, 
(frogzi/vv, ffr^o, (tt^ojvw, 11. 51, 52. — ^ro^vuf/ji, GropmviJji, ar^av- 
i>v[jbi, perf. sffrgoj[jbaiy fut. (rro^6<r<a;, Gr^ooao), aor. gcro^sca, sW^fyira, 

72. Ts[JjVco, cut. 

rSjM;, ra/O/, n. 25. — Tg|«»J', ra^>ov, 11. 49. — t£jM*, r/O/S, n. 53. — 
perf. r5T[/jr]Koi, ririJjrjfjboci, fut. rsf/jSy rcc(/j&>f aor. sts[JjOv, 'ircc(jijOv, 

73. T/;Kr(i/, give birth to. 

riz, Tzzr^ TiKT, n. 46, 27. — perf. rero;ca, fut. r&lco, rg|o^a/, 
T&%ov[Lai, aor. ersxov, Itzko^'/iv. 

74. Tirguii), bore. 

r^a, TiT^oc, n. 28. — r^a, rgiaf, n. 5. — r^a/f, n. 3. — rBT^aiP, 
n. 30. — T^ccivoj, T&r^Dcim, perf. (r^a?) rsr^pj;i!;a, rir§ri(jbcctf fut. 
r^'/l(r&), aor. (rsr^a/v,) kr&r^rii>oc 

75. T^s%^, run. 

%2Xi» S^£|W/, n. 56. — ^^S|7/, h§a[ji^, n. 25. — ^pa|f*, ^§a[M, n. 24. 
— T^£5(;;(a>, perf. (^^a^s,) ^^^d^hriza, and (^^s^oo,) ^g^^o^^a, fut. 
^|'s|o|Ooa/ and ^oa[/jov(jj0iii aor. g^^gga and eh^a[Mov. 

76. T^<iiy<y, eat. 

r^^yy and Tg'a/, n. 56. — T^iyya>, fut. 7^aj5,0[jucn, aor, 'irgccyov, 
77' Ty/x^afiy, chance upon. 

ryy, ry;:^^g, n. 24. — ry^, ryy^af, n. 10. — ry%, 'rgy;;^;, n. 50. — 
Tyy%av<i;, perf. rirvyjirM^ fut. rev^ofjijai, aor. gVy;^o{'. 

78. TuTTiy, strike. 

ryr, ryrr, n. 37- — tvttts, n. 24.— TyTTo;, fut. 1, (ryrrg,) 
Tv^Tfjffc^, rvTrrrjaoyjCci, aor. (ryr,) eTv-^pa, IrvTr-^v. 

79. OaiW, cause to appear. 

(^a, (pocv, n. 5. — (pa, (paiv, n. 34. — Oa/y^y, perf. (^(pav,) crsvp^jva, 
(<p«,) 'ir&(pa(T[jjca, fut. (pav'/i(TO[jjOci, aor. 'i(pavov, &c. 

8U. tI>go^, bear. 

(pg^, 0/ and g>'g;f, n. 56. — gyg;c, hzvx^ n. 49. — Ospo;, j)erf. 
(gj/g;^,) gj'jji'O^a, ir/jviyiMai, fut. oi'tTiry, hz-^/^Oriao^oci^ oiaOrjfrofjtjai, 
aor. ?iviyH.oc, mifca (formed hke that of liquids), ^vsyzov, 


81. ^ddm, anticipate. 

Odu, (p0KV, II. 5. — ^Mm, perf. g<^^a;ca, fut. (p^mco^ (pdfjffO(/jai, 
aor. s(p0u<Tu, e(pCrjv, opt. (p&ociriv^ imper. (pOrjvui, part. (p$a,g, 

82. Xa/^fiy, rejoice. 

%a^, >^a/^, 11. 3.— %a^g, %a/^s, n. 24.— Xa/^^;, perf. zix^^^'^cc, 
xixd^yi(j!j(x,iy zir)(/x,^l^f^h fut. yjn^'^Gu^ aor. ly^a^rjv. 

83. Xga;, pour. 

%s, %gy, %u, n. 20, 21. — Xso;, perf. z&yyfca, Ki^^^f^h f^t. 
y^vGu, aor. e;;(^sya or e%ga (without <r), g^jy^jj^.C"-' 

§ CXXX. 


1. Under the name of particles {^o^iot, Xoyov,) may be 
conveniently comprised those words, which are employed for 
the closer designation of certain relations between ideas or 
propositions : e. g. &^za&(x,i rivog^ to come from some one, — 
more closely expressed, 'i^yj.a&cci a'jco rivog. Tovro zyivzro, sfjboii 
ou Tu^ovTog, — more closely, rovro lyivzro^ ag Sf/jov ov vu^ovTog. 

2. They may be divided into, 1, Prepositions (v^oDkazig); 

2, Particles expressive of time^ causey place^ and mode; 

3, Conjunctions {avvhits^oi)^ which show that several parts 
of speech are to be considered as making up a whole, or 
that single ideas are to be viewed in certain connections. 

3. We reckon not with these the words which denote an 
emotion of the mind, — e. g. woe, g g, 'XOToiy o'i (Ji/oty (pgy, ovki, 
cci'f Uy <yg, /<w ; joy, /oy, gyo/, gyav; astonishment, a, — since 
these, as natural sounds, are the immediate signs of inward 
affections, and therefore independent words, the most ancient 
in all languages, — expressing, however, notideas, butfeelings.^^^ 


4. The adverbs, also, do not appertain to this class, but, 
as a principal part of speech, take their place with the 
adjectives allied to them; yet many words indicative of time, 
cause, place, mode, and therefore properly particles, have 
been classed with the adverbs. 

5. All particles have originally a definite sense, and belong 
to the root of some word, wliich represents a definite idea. 
This root, however, is often lost, or must be sought for in one 
of the tongues allied to the Greek : e. g. [isrcc, with, amon^y 
Germ, mtty is from (jus, which has remained in the Romaic, 
the root of (Jbsffog, medius (Germ, mitteii). The syllable ra 
is still shown in the Homeric (j^sraaaog. Tlie derivation 
of ^vv, withy from ^vvogy zomg, is quite as clear ; a-ro, from, 
that which proceeds from something^ and -ra^a, from, that 
which is produced by somethingy have their roots in the 
Oriental ahhy father, hary son. ITs^ belongs to ffs^/, ntzoiaaogy 
over and above, and denotes something that is still to he added. 
In the same way yg is the root of ysv, yiyvMy Doric ya (the 
root of ycciy), as rs is that of t'lmy rs/W, which is perceived 
also by comparing oajti Avith autem. Hence yg also denotes 
something additional; -ttz^ and yg are, consequently, in con- 
formity to their inward and original force and meaning, 
strengthening particleSy added to an idea in order to raise it, 
to distinguish it above others, — the truth of which observation 
will be confirmed by the Syntax. — These remarks are given for 
the sake of pointing out, that nothing in the Greek tongue 
is a dead and empty sign, but that life and meaning extend 
themselves into the minutest of its ramifications.'^^ 



1. The prepositions. 

a. For the genitive : avri, avo, \x (or g| before a vowel), 
cr^o, hiZK (or ivzxzv). 

b. For the accusative: ava, g/V, cug. 

c. For the ablative: h and (tvv. 


d. For tlio genitive and accusative: S<a, ;iara, [Jj^tk, v-ti^. 

e. For the gen., accus., and ablative: a^^/, g^r/, -rs^/, -r^o?, 

The meaning of these in construction is treated of in the 


2. Particles. 

a. Of tiine : scog, so long, rscog, until, ^j'/^a, when, rnvUa, 
then, org, as soon as, rcirs, then, o'lp^a, while, 7o(p^o(,^ the 
while ; and the interrogatives, -Trj^viKoc, at what time ? 
5rors, when? — as/, a/s/, a/sv, always, sira, sVg/ra, jU-srs- 
'^ruTcc, afterwards, s^s/, after that, '/jhyj, already, 'Trockui, 
formerly, Tors, once, ■r^/V, before. With av there are 
compounded out of these particles, (oVs,) orav, oTorav; 
(I'TTii from Its) ZTzdv^ Itt^jV) or gTaf; iTg/^av; ivr dv. 
Instead of ccv the non-Attic writers have often zev. 

h. Of cause : s/, if (non- Attic a;), properly s, and hence 
with av, lav, also ^V and aV, siys and siTS^, if then ; or^ 
and oV/;^, because, ovvskcc, (from oy gi's;^^), wherefore, 
since, ya^, for, Itts/, since, g-rs/ ro/, since indeed, g^g/ 
yg, since however, g-rg/ Tg^, since then, g^g/ to/ yg, since 
then at least. 

c. Of purpose : Jva, oipgia, a/g, oVo;?, in order that. "Av is 
combined only with ciig and oV^yj, cy? av, oV^g aV, not JV 

«?. Of placet '^oOsvy whence? 'TroOiVy from someplace, o^gf, 
oVoJgv (^7w># direct interrogatives)., from what place, 
oy, where, -roy, where? Toy, somewhere, to?, whither? 
to/, to some place, of, oVo/, to what place, gWa, g^rav^cc, 
here, gf^gv, IvTivOzv, hence. 

e. Of 9W0c/e and way: icoog, itrj, how? Tii/j, t^, somehow 
(qua), ro;?, r^, cag, cohz, ovrojg, ovtco, thus, ug, OTTcog, oV;?, 
how ; and compounded, O'^cjcrovv, howsoever, oV^^t^c^^Torg 
and oVo^c^jjTOToyf, in whatsoever way, kiMnyi'Troog, a^;?ysT;»7, 
in some one way, from aiLog, one. So also zaOoi (kci(^ 
a), as, zoiM'Trsg, ciff'rzg. 

f. For affirmation : vai, voLiyj, yes, certainly ; — for assev- 
eration : '/j, ^^, lyjTrcOi ^yi'TTOTZ^ indeed, (JjYiv, verily, zoc) (jbyj)/, 
aXKci (Jb'/iv ; — for strengthening: Tg^, yg; — iov illation : 
a^«, ovvy therefore, then ; — for exposition : htfKcihrif 


'h/jkoi/ori (l?jXop ori\ evidently, consequently ; — continua- 
tion : aXkci, ^s, but, zat rot, however, ys roi, yet at 
least; — ye ^% surely, 7s (juriv, but yet ; — for limitation: 
aXkoi jO/jjf, but verily, aXkcc rot, but yet, (Jbevovvys, how- 
soever; — for division: tJ, or, ^jyovv, or also; — for negation: 
oh, and before vowels ohy. (before an aspirate oy%), [lti, 
ohyj, not, ov'Ttotz^ [jj-ziTTOv, (JU'/i'TTOTZ, uever, ovboc^ov, no- 
where, ovhccfjbrj, in no way, ovz a^cc, ovzovv, not therefore, 
and interrogatively ovkovv ^S^'^ — for wishing : zik, si yaf, 
if then. 
g. For marking" opposition : [jIiv — ^s, ^-— ^', hy^iv — ^Bs, sirs 
— sirs, either — or, ^ot-^rs — [lA'^z-, neither — nor, tot'i — oVs, of 
'wor'i — -rors, at one time — at another time ; — for simple 
connection: H,aiy rs, and. 




1. Tlie radical parts of the language are monosyllabic, and 
have their vowel, and when a consonant follows it, tliis con^ 
sonant also, short or single : ^s, ^y, X/t, (pa, era. (^^' 

2. In many polysyllabic roots their derivation from mono- 
syllabic elements is still discernible : ukicrzoj, (po^icj, (TT&^t^&f, 
are derived, according to a known analogy, from aX, <pz^, 
ffrs^l ayyiXXcj, root ysX, ysXX, preserved in the German gellen, 
to sound, to echo ; av&ku^ to bloom, from ai/a-^s<s>, to run up, 
to sprout up, root ^s; ^^dazu is traced through ^ihccy/i to 
^;^ci%, ^a%, and this to ^o>^, })0k, doceo; ayzi^ca, from «, i, e., 
cl(jija and ys^, Latin gerOy to bring together, &c. 




1 . Out of many either primitive or already extended roots, 
substantives of all declensions are formed by the addition of 
a termination, out of these substantives new verbs, out of 
these again other substantives and adjectives : e. g. ky in 
iLyco^ ky-ogy or ayay^ ayuyog, leader, hence adj. ayuyi^og ; 
and, in another series, ccy, aayz (i.e. ai/jot ays), ^ys, Tiyso^jjuif 
lead on, hence ^yz[McoVy leader, riyziJbovizogy ^yi[jboviay leading, 
rjyzH>ovzvot}y am a leader, ^yBfLOi/&vg, leader, and yjyz(jijOvzia,y 

2. The substantives, that are formed from the root, with- 
out passing through another formation, are very few in 
comparison with the rest. To this class belong several names 
of the limbs : 'n'ovg from Trob, %s/^ from )^£^, the ancient aa^^ 
head, and in an extended form, zi^-ag^ horn, p4 pvoj, nose 
(comp. Germ, rtiessel); whereas ovg compared with the root 
oar, and 6(p0cckfb6g with the root '^uX in the middle, point to 
roots taken from verbs. — There are also several original 
substantives, that denote a simple sensation, expressed by 
their root : K^vog, cold, ^i^og, heat, root ^g^. Germ, duerr^ 
Thuring. derr (in the same way, aya&og from ya^. Germ. 
guty Eng. (/oody and aylAog from yaX, bright, old Germ. 
chally ayaXfjija, KoCkoCy xuXXog, &c.), also several names of 
animals, fruits, liquids, and the like : 67?, sheep, to z§7f later 
xoidov, barley, yaXcc, milk, [jbiXiy honey, &c. — (unless some of 
these had already passed through verbs, and in z^7 we trace 
the root of z^ivof, *' the separated, the cleaned grain," in ydXoc 
the root of ayaXXo), " the shining" in jOOsX/ that of ^sXo/, the 
desired, cared for, 

S. All other names of persons and things, as well as those 
which express a circumstance or quality, are derived from 
verbs as their basis : thus ^ovg, ox, root j(3o in (ooffxco, " that 
is fed," T^oSara from ^^o and /3a in ^ocivu, r&yog, roof, from 
rey (Eng. deck, and Germ, dek in Decke, deckeii). So 
proceed Xoyog, (pS^og, %ovog, from Xiy, (pg€, "TTiv, in Xhyco, I say. 


<p&^&), I fear, t^vm, I cause to labour, which words supply the 
analogy for such lost roots as (phv^ (Ts(Py in ipdovog, ao(pog (comp. 
Gi^co). Thus (pri^Tj is from (pa in (pdvaiy ^iog from ^s in the 
Homeric |3g£/v, to live, or to move, and ^ori or ^oori from Zee, 
in ^diiVi ^rjVf (pOffig and <pu7^ from <pv in ^yg/;', to beget, (pvyr] 
from ipuy in (pvy&Tv. 

4. Verbs proceed sometimes directly from their roots : Xsy, 
Xeyck) ; (^ou, podco ; sometimes they assume the consonants, 
vowels, and whole syllables already pointed out : [juad^ (juav- 
Mva; T^Of riT^uGzcot &c. 



1. The meaning of the verb is raised to that of a substan- 
tive expressive of a person, by the addition of zvgy rrig (gen. 
70v)^ T&)§, to its root. From y^d(pm, hzci^stv (root hzocb)y 
to judge, (MOivdoivziv (^(haOz), IXavmv (gXa), aco^siv {aaoy contr. 
(scS)t pkiv, to speak, come as substantives: y^ocipsug, the scribe, 
hpccc(T7r]g, hx.aarov (hizuh-rrjg')^ the judge, ^a^rirrig, the scholar, 
ikoirrj§, the driver, ccoTn^, the preserver, pro;^, the speaker, 

2. The feminine terminations are from ey?, sioc and Kfffocj 
from rrig, rig and r^/a, from rri^ and r^^, ru^u^ Tgiot and 
7§ig : e. g. /s^gy?, is^sicc, priestess, ^(XGikzvg, ^ccfriXitrffa, 'Troirj- 
7^g, ToirjT^icc, poetess, -^dXTrig, n -^pdXr^ta, female player on 
the harp, ocuXrir^g, avXririg, thog, female player on the pipe, 
acoTTj^i GojTZi^a, 6 '7r^o<pi^rrig, rj '7r^o<p7irigy 6 TgoffrccTyjg, ?i -TrgoffTocTig. 

3. The signification of the verb is changed to that of a 
substantive without personal meaning, by the addition of rj^ 
og, (juTj, [Jbogt rogy to the root (^(i>og generally becoming sybog 
when added to pures): e.g. (pzvyco (jpvy), ItccT^i^&f, delay, 
IX&yX^' confute, rv'xru {tutt), yiyv(ii(Txco (yvo), Ivco, sink, 
'^Xzovd^ooy have superfluity {jXiovoe^), ^go;, bind, Xv^oo (Xvy), 
hiccup, ohv§o[/jcct, lament, -r/W (^o), hence the substantives : 
(pvyrj, flight, hccr^i^'/j, delay, eXsyxog, confutation, rv'TTog, stamp, 
yvu^jjrj, opinion, })va[iog, setting, '7rXiom(T(Jb6g {rXiomh-f/ijog), 


superfluity, h<T[jb6g, chain, Xvyf/jo^, hiccup, ohu^fjjog, lamentation, 
-TTorog, drink. 

Obs. — Another substantive termination is via : dyca, lead, dyuid ; /iuw, 
/ttwa; dgTa^w, ag'Twa; a/t'w, aldvia, 8sc. 

4. In this process the s passes into o : Xsyco, tz^jliVco (tziju), 
<p&zi^oj (jpd&^\ destroy, pg^y, flow, subst. \oyog^ rof/bTj, (p0o^d, 
poog, which points to a connection with the perfect: Xoyog, 
that which has been said, ro^y/i, that ivJiich has been cut, 
poog, that which has been caused tojloic, &c. 

5. Very rich is the class of those in ffig and fficc (corres- 
ponding- to the German un^\ which proceed from verbs of 
all kinds. 

6. The monosyllabic pures make them Tvithout lengthening 
the radical vowel: trrcc, ffruffig; (ou, ^uffsg; ^s, ^strig; (pa, 
(puffig; ho,l6(rig; (pv,^v/Tig; Xv,Xvffig. Those compounded with 
prepositions have usually both terminations : avv&i(ng and avv- 
Oifficc, I'TTitTrocaig and e-Triffraffia,, Wi^acig and i7r;€ciO'/a ; but from 
£ come both forms without a preposition, 'iaig and sV/a (Lobech 
ad Phrynich.i p. dOTjl ). — In the case of pollysyllabic roots 
the vowel is generally lengthened, as in the formation of 
tenses: jOo;|M/S, iJtji[jb}](Tig, but ai^so'igy (ncehaffig, scattering, but 

Obs. — Verbs in £uw make this form in /a with ejection of u i hgsuuy 
h^iia; /xsrsil/w, /xsre/a. 

7. The formations from the roots of mutes exliibit like 
appearances: Kzy, Xg|/c; (jjiy, (Mi%igy ZTriiJji'iig and W;[jbi^iOi, 
mixing, ot, o-^ig, v'Tro'^ia. Those in ^ (^) have often both 
forms: dKoZco {ilzci^, itzcih-(Ticc), dzaaia, k^yah in l^ydZp), 
k^yoiffici, labour, ovo[Jbix^co, ovojjjOiffig and 6vo[jja(ricc; yu[jijVccZft>, yu[jb- 
vccffig and yvfjijvaffici, exercise, with yu^maiov, the place of 

8. The formations from liquid roots ai'e few in number : 
aX, clXoig, leaping, a^, cl^aig, raising. N is often dropped in 
these formations: i^j^av, ^^^avrrtg and 'in^aaia di'ying, ^i^fjuocv, 
^&§[jij0iv(ng and ^s^f/bufficc, warming'. 

9. Together with these in aig are generally associated those 


in (JLK, which denote the thing produced by that act, which is 
expressed by (rig: e.g. [jAiMo^Jbai^ I imitate, n (Jji[jjyi(r(gy the act of 
imitating, ^Jbii^riiMa, the thing produced by imitation, 'Tr^ccffffco 
iyr^ny)-, ^^a^/c, the act of doing, actio, -^-^ayf^a, the thing 
^Qwe^factmih 'A-a^aMzvviJiji {xocoaliiz), show forth, 'Tra^a.hi'^ic, 
shewing forth, '7ra§cihiy[jijK, the thing shewn, submitted to 


§ cxxxv. 


1 . The substantives derived from adjectives agree with the 
German substantives in licit, keit, (the Enghsh in dom, hoody 
nesSf ity, &c.), that are derived in the same way, and end in 
<a, rr\z (gen. rrjrog\ and (ruvri : e. g. (ro<p6g, zazog, cck?]0^]g (root 
aXrjh), Go^pla, zazioiy akTikicc, wisdom, badness, truth ; from 
hog, })riiog, Vizaiog, come laorng, ^n'io'^mi hzaioffvvri, equality, 
enmity, justice. 

2. The compound verbals in rog form their substantives also 
in /a, but before la the r commonly passes into c: azodrog, 
unmixed, kz^drla, and az^acria,, azivritog, cizivrifTia,, unmov- 
ableness, avo'/jrog, ccvo'/jo'ia, unthinkingness, aOgvTrrog, adpv-^pia'f 
ahvi^arog, abvvuffiu ; and after this analogy ccOdvccrog, a6a,vcc(rici, 
immortality. T maintains itself in those in cr: aygXacroc, 
ayzkaaria'y oiysvffrog, aysvffria,: and in c6ra/(T%,yi"r/c6, shame- 

Obs. The substantives from adjectives and verbals are generally found 

together : l^y/j duffo^yog, dugo^yia, and duao^yrirog, h-jeo^J'^'"^ > «g'<^''oi', 
breakfast, avd^i<frog, ava^iuria, a,va^isrr)rog, dva^iffrriCia ; — even when 
both the fundamental forms are not in use: doxiu, svdozla (without 
svooKog), and iutoKriTo;, eud6y.i^sig ; and on the other hand, 6^-jh>Mg, 
oi^uOu/j^la, and o'6,vdv/Myiffig (without o^vdv/J^^rog) ; dfJiO.rig, dfisXsia, care- 
lessness, and dfisXri<sia (without d/xsXjjros); d'ro^la and diropriaia, 
where only affog 05 is extant.* The exigencies of language produced 

*Lobeck ad Phryn., p. 514'. 


the one form as well as the other: e.g. from affogew, am^risia, according 
to the same analogy which would have given affo^jjrog if required. 
Since the substantive expresses the abstract state or condition an- 
nounced by the verbal as effected, grammar, according to its method 
of joining together cognate things, derives it from the verbal. 



1. Verbs derived from substantives and adjectives add to 
these the notions of bei?i(/ or making, 

a. Of being, especially those in doj, zu, zvco : e. g. zo^ri, 
hair, zo(jjaco, am long-haired; X/t;?, fat, Xi'Tracoy am fatj 
'TToi/j'TTivg, one who escorts, To^'Triviiv, to act as escort; 
Tirot^&ivog, virgin, Tra^dsvsvsiv ; ^dXocrroc, sea, ^aXarrsueiv, 
to be on the sea, to live on the sea;* ftoigccvog, master, 
zoi^avkiv, to be master, to rule ; (ponvg, murderer, 
(poi/svsiv, to be a murderer, to murder. 

b. Of making, especially those in i^oj and 6a> : e. g. aJ^a, 
blood, ai(JbDCTi^iij, make bloody ; yoriixiarcc, riches, x^yiybK^ 
ri^iffOcci, to make riches, to enrich oneself; ayvog, pure, 
ayvil^iv, to make pure, to purify ; nm^ov, wing, ictz^ohv, 

. to make wings for, to bewing ; x,^vGiog, golden, y^^vaonv, 
to make golden, to gild ; ^ovkog, slave, ^ovkmv, to make 
a slave, to enslave, but ^ovkivnv, to be a slave. 

2. Between both meanings vary those in uaaa or urroj : 
vkog, young, no, viuaau, make young ; vy^og, moist, vy^axrffcof 
make moist, moisten ; rvpkog, rv(pXco(Tffco ; but from the subst. 
Xifjuog, hunger, Ki{JbcuTTM, am hungry ; v-TTVog, sleep, vtvoijggqj, 
am sleeping. 

* Schol. ad Eurip. Phoen., 1271. 




1 . The terminations are : 

a. lo?, Germ. licJh Eng. like or ly : (piXog, friend, (plXiog^ 
friendly ; ^zvog, ^zvtog j iffTrs^oc, icm^iog ; zoc0cc§6g, za^cc- 

b. E/o?, Germ, isch, Eng. tc, ean, &c., of persons : 'OjM/^- 
^s/o?, Homeric, 'Y.'Tnzougsiog, Epicurean, i.e. belonging- 
to Homer, &c. So acog, of things : y^cc^ixog, cu^ariKog, 
ev^rjTiKog, &c. 

c. Pog, e^og, Tjgog, aXsog, sig, osig, Germ, voll, reich, ig, Eng. 
ful^ ouSy ?/, &c. : ce.l(r)(oog^ shameful ; (pdovigog, envious ; 

^oXi§6g, deceitful ; XvTrrj^og, distressful ; ^ugcroiXsog, cou- 
rageous ; Yjx^izig, gracious ; vX^zig, woody ; -ru^os/j, fiery. 

d. hog, Germ, erriy Eng. en, &;c., uhrjg, Germ, artig, Eng. 
7/, ly : ^vXivog, wooden ; (TKvrivog, leathern ; (pKoyouhy^g, 
flamy ; avh^oj^i^g, manly ; -Troicoh'/jg, grassy ; l-)(J}vMbrig, &c. 

e. IjM/Oj, Germ. baVi Eng. fal, able : pc;;^ ^<r/jM»of, useful j 
ibojhiJjogy eatable ; Troriybog, drinkable. 

f. Tiog, rog. These are derived together from verbal roots: 
"hkyca (Xsy-rso?), XiKr'iog, XzTcrog ; ariKkca (aToOC), arakriog, 
GToXrog ; zv^z, ev^irkog, su^srog ; Tavoftjui (with c), Tay- 
(TTSog ; (p/Xg (with s doubled), pXj^r'iog. Those in r&og 
express the part. fut. pass, of Latin, amandus, invenien- 
dus, those in rog the part. perf. pass., amatuSy inventus : 
pX'/^Tiog, amajidusy <ptX7]r6g, atJiatus; 'Ttoirir'iog, facienduSy 
'TToi^Tog, factus. ('^^ 

^. The correspondent terminations are often wanting both 
in German and English, in which case the Greek adjective 
must be translated by a periphrasis. 



1. Besides the modes of forming adverbs already described, 


there are others expressive of circumstance, chiefly with the ter- 
minations : /, s/, rt, TBt, lr;v, hg, ^oti : e. g. avroxzi^i, witli one's 
own liand, k^ar/^ii^ without a struggle, ^zyaKcoari, at great 
length, avib^aori, without sweat, aarj^uzTSi^ without proclama- 
tion, [MTUffroix^i, in a row, (TuXk?]^^?jv, taken together, sTa^o;- 
€a^;V, alternately, g/>t/€a^ov, on foot, hiaz^ihov, distinctly. 

Q. Of the same kind are those in ffrt from national names : 
"EXk'/!V, e}J^'/]vi(Tri, ffvgi(TTi, pco[jjUi(Trfy (p^vyiarL 



1. Dhninutwes. Terminations : lov^ hov, tliov^ a^iov, ccffiov^ 
vbgsov, vXkiov, vXkig^ tc, lazog, ktz'/j, &c. : 

'TvaiViov, little boy, lypbhov, little fish, vriGihiov, islet, Traihu^iovy 
zo^Kffsov (from zoga, maiden), v/jcvhoiov ; from sthog, si^vXkiov ; 
from cL'/MV&ci^ kzctvSvKkig, little thorn ; from vr,aog also vi^aig j 
from vzog (through vic(,v\ vzccviazog^ Vtctvtffzrj, &c. 

2. uflm])lijicatives. Terminations : m^ a|, ydar^aov^ big- 
bellied, zsipoiXcijy, big-headed, 'TrXovrat,, over-rich ; from poog, 
pya|, a current, especially of lava. 

S. Gentiles. Terminations : og, log, tvog, avog, rjvog, irrig, 
tccryig, ofTrig, zvg, &c. : 'IrvXog, KogivCtog, ' AdrjixzTog, 'Bu^amuog, 
* K&iotvog, ^v^izrjvog, ' AQhrj^iT?ig, ^"Trcc^Tiarrjg, 'lraXiMrr;g, Aio- 
Xsvg, &c. 

4. Patronymics. a. Terminations : ih'/jg (gen. ov\ icov 
(gen. lovog') : e. g. IL^ovog, root IL^ov, K^opihyig, K^ovioju, 
son of Cronos ; HyjXwg, root U'/jXs, UriXsih'/ig, ll'/]XsiajV) 
son of Peleus ; ' Ar^suc, root Ar^s, 'Ar^s/^;?^, 'Ar^iicov, 
son of Atreus. 
b. To the roots in a of the first declension only I'/^g is 
added: 'Itttotjj?, root 'iT-Trora, 'I'^'TTorkhrig ', 'AXsuac, 
' AKivd^rig 'y AiViag, Aivid^Tig ; so also to those in /oof 
the 2nd : TakOu^wg, TaXdu^iochrig ; 'Akzt^wg, 'AXzi^idi- 
'^yjg ; ' Ox6|W-t/o?, ' OXv^jj^nah'/jg. 

Obs. — From a patronymic so formed, no new forms of the same kind 
are deduced, when it is ysed as a proper name ; but either a 


ppriphrask is employed, e.g. 'H^axXeidov v'log, son of Heraclides, or 
the same word in the plural is taken as the patronymic of the singular ; 
thus 'Hsar.Xvdai stands either for the Heraclidce or the sons of 
Heraclides, — also fov Hercules and his sons,as<^mT6ai means Phineus 
and his children, Usiaie-^aTidai, Pisistratus with his family/, in 
Herodotus, f Valck. diatribe de Eurip. fragm., p. 196.^ 

5. The feminine terminations of these are : ;?, aj, oor/j, iv'/j: 
TdvTDcX-og, TuvTuX-ig ; ' OKvf/jTrici^ric, ' OXvi/jTiug ; N^j^gy?, 
N;7o^-oc, 'N'/jP'^iCi daughter of Nereus ; "ArXag, 'ArXavrig ; 
' Ajco{(Tiajv'/j, ' Ab^aariV/], daughter of Acrisius, Adrastus. 

Obs. — The derived names were called 'ra^dyuya, derivata, or 'rra^, 
denominativa, — even those proper names which have a simpler word 
as their root, so that Yikdrcav is the nca^mMiijW of wXaruj, (]?iXu)v of 

§ CXL. 


1 . In order to designate two ideas combined in one image, 
the one of which, as the fundamental idea, is more closely 
defined or limited by the other, the chief word is, in Greek, 

a. With prepositions : (JTUfftg, dvaaTamg, (pvyri^ kito'pvy^. 

h. With adverbs : -TrdXaii ToXaiyzvyig, long ago born, clyxi, 
ayyjiJjo7vog^ coming near. To this class belong also words 
com])ounded with ^yc, sy, as hv(j(p'/i[M7v, to speak ill of, 
iv<p'/]lM7v, to speak well of, cc negative, intensive, and 
connective, and o connective, of which hereafter. 

c. With a noun : iy^^voTraX'/jg, fish-seller, fish-monger, (pi- 
Xuvd^aj'Tog, philantliropic. In the former, selle?' is the 
chief idea, and is limited by I'/^Ovg, — in the latter, the idea 
of love {(pfX) is limited by dv&^ui:og to the particular 
class, mankind. 

2. When a verb is found in the composition, it always 



marks the chief idea, which is more closely defined by the 
other, whether it stand first in the composition, as ^dzvco^ 
bite, in ^ayMvi^og^ heart-gnawing, \vaiiLaxpg, battle-ending, 
Tavaiyftkoq^ rage-allaying ; or stand second : aKicciJjccYfiv, to 
fight with a shadow. 

Ohs. 1. — The simple word is called a-rXoDi/, simplex, as /o-'Toj, the 
compound, obyhrov, compositum, as (plXiVTrog, that derived from a 
compound Ta^asvvdsrov, decompositum. If the first word be altered, 
e. g. vavg in fa^aa^j^/a, it is a proper composition [svvkaig, compositio), 
if it remain unaltered, it is merely a juxta-position {^a^ddsdi;), e. g. 
su^uK^siuv from fugu and x^iluv, 

Obs. 2. — When there is merely a parathesis, the accent remains 
unaltered : /x^ r/^, (Joying, ri roi, viroi, s'l'ds, ^Vs^, not where crasis occurs : 
rb s^yov, rov^yov, xa'i oga, pi^wca, &c. ( GoettUng Animadvers . ad 
TJieodos. Gramm., p. 222. J 

Obs. 3. — A in composition has the three meanings alluded to in n. 1, 
b, according as it is derived from avsu, without, ciyav, very much, 
or a^a, together. 

a. A from civsv, without, is equivalent to the English un, in, less fee 
privativum ) : e. g. ciffopog, unwise, ax,axog, harmless, a-iraig, childless. 
Before a vowel v is inserted : uvamog from a'lriog, guiltless. 

b. A from ayav, very much, strengthens the meaning of the word 
before which it stands ; drevfig, much strained, ci^uXog, abounding in 
wood, affra-^vg from drdynjg, a large ear of corn. 

c. A from a,aa, together, at the same time, expresses the connection 
between two objects : dhik<p6g, born from the same womb {bsXiflig), 
brothei", dxoXoudog from x'sXsudog, one who goes on the same road, an 
attendant, ciXo^og, dxoirig (from Xiyog, xokri, bed), the sharer of the 
bed, wife. 

Obs. 4. — The derivation of the connective a from d/xa is proved, both 
by the meaning and l)y the analogy of the similar o, together, from 
ofiou, in the Homeric words, or^i^ig, like-haired, oVar^og, from the 
same father, oa^oi, united together {ofji^ov, agw), consorts. 

Obs. 5. — Prepositions are united to other words without any alteration 


except that which the collocation of letters may require : d(i(pi mXig, 
* Afi(pi'7roXig, chv iMayr^ <Su[jj(iccyja, ffuagiria, 'vjsyj^, Ops^w, lip's^'KO}, 8ec. 
The same rule is observed by b\Ji, sS, and several other adverbs, as 
<!rakiv in rraXlvrovog, bent-back, TraX/^CoXof, hacknied knave, vaXlX- 
XuTog, loosed again, 'TruXiar^S'Trrog, turned back, TaXa/ in Hakaifarogy 
ayxj ay^ivoia, presence of mind, 'i)-^i 'T^'/tuXjj, and l(pi in 'Ip/ysve/a, 
&c.; and by some nouns : e. g. ^ot] (Soridiuj, run to the cry (/Soj^), to 
help, and in poetic expression 8o^u 5o^u^£i/o5, spear-friend, ally, ^axgu 

Obs. 6. — In other compounds, however, the first word, whether noun 
or verb, is altered, and so that, 

a. The noun returns to its root: vaxjg vauniuyja, sea-fight, 'jav TavwXTjf, 
all-destroyed, Tai/uTsgrarog, the all-highest, iroXig ToXi'Tro^dog, and so 

ayav ' Aya/isfLvuv. Thus also those in og'- bhaiog h-Aaio'TroXig, aya^o- 
daifiuv, }iax.6g, xccxdyyiXog, evil messenger, 6 mvrog, the sea, "^rovTOfisduv. 
The analogy thus founded is followed by other words also, which 
take from these forms as the combining sound : to ci'^dog, root a%^s, 
d,')i^do(p6^og, hi%ri dixoy^dpog. Many, which retain the proper termina- 
tion of their roots, assume ff with a short vowel, to strengthen the 
syllable: rh rsXog, the end, root rsX;, reXsapo^og, end-bringing; x's^ag, 
root x£ga, %i^a(S(pd^og, horn- bearing, and in Homer from edxog, root 
tfaxs, (Taxsg'TraXog and ffoc-/.sg(p6^og ; others take / : xdXXog, gen. xdXXsog, 
beauty, root xaXXs, KaXX/VoX/5, xaXXiy^d,pog ; a/'^, root aty, aiyi- 

b. The verbal roots assume, when they make the first part of a com- 
pound word, i or 61: hdxvia dax daxidu/Mog, iX sXstoX/j, (isv MsfsXao^, 
except where the combining vowel 0, already mentioned, occurs, or 
the lengthening of the root is altogether avoided: (puy (puy6(Ma')(^oc, 
battle-fleeing, Xi-TrS'irar^ig, country-leaving, Xrjd Xri&aoyog, lethargy, 
Xiie Xiiv Xsimdu/JLog, in a swoon. — The inserted syllable ai is found as 
well in pures : Xv Xugi/x^a-^og, battle-ending, 'xavciirovog, toil-appeasing, 
as in mutes : rsg'ff r£|'v|/;;)^oo;j, rejoicing in the dance, re^-^mog and 
^iXy ^iXt,mog, heart-soothing, and in Epic forms with /i, before j3§ : 
paselfiQ^OTog, rs^-^lfiQ^oTog. Many of this sort, as e.g. Xt^drj^ag 


word-hunter, have for their immediate root a substantive in ig. 

Obs. 7. The root, as shown in the genitive, with o, lies at the basis 

of many forms : avri^ dvd^oyovog, man-begetting, /%5u? 'X^wg i^Sm- 
TuiXrig, fish-monger, i^pmipayog, fish-eater, adfridoipo^uvf to bear a 
shield ; some have the dative : vuvdi^o^yirog, ship-borne ; or even the 
accusative : do^uOa^ff^g, bold with the lance, dax^vx^ovsa, tear-shedding. 

Obs. 8 Finally, i in the middle belongs to the infinitive, and IXs in 

VksiroKig bears the same relation to sKiiv, which ^y/io in Su/iop^ogo$ 
does to ^ufiog : moreover c in the verbal roots above-mentioned : 
e. g. in Xvffi — 'Travffi — proceeds from the same tendency, which 
produced XUig, Tsg-^ig. ^^'> 

§ CXLI. 


1. When two nouns are combined in the mode described, 
the ideas represented by them are no longer thought of apart, 
but blended together in one image and expression: f/bsyak'/] 
ToXig, [Myocko-TToXig; zuTJi "TroXtg, KCcXXtTroXtg; ccvh^OTrocig, avb^oyvvrig, 
man woman, alvoyiyug^ &c. When in this way a verb is 
raised to a noun, its signification remains even in the com- 
pound: ^iKaioz^iTyig is not equivalent to hizociog z^irrig, but is 
one who judges right , og hKaiaog xgivsi; 'YXkyivoVtfCTjg, oghicoc^n 
rovg "YXk'^vag. 

Obs. 1. — When in the name of a city a proper name stands first, the 
connection may be dissolved in its derivatives. From 'NsdvoXig the 
paronym is only NsaToX/r^jg, but from 'E^fi6<7ro\ig both 'E^fiomTdTyjg 
and 'E^fJjOvvoXirrig. So ^iXi'X'jToirokirrig and Q>iXi'7r'7roii'XoXirrig, 

Obs. 2. — Many roots are changed, in the synthesis, to adjectives, by the 
mere addition of <r: ym, uyvug, unknown, a>.\6ymg, strange, gen. 
dXk6yvuTog\ /3aX, /3Xa,, unthrown, gen. aO^n^og. So kbiini, 
untamed, «v5fo€goilg, man - eating, gen, ai/5go£f wroe, aiyiXi-^y goat- 
deserted, high, oiKOT^i-^f born in the house. 


Obs. 3. — Nothing hinders to combine several, and even many words, 
prepared in the way which the foregoing section points out, into 
one expression, — as is especially practised in comic poetry: /3a- 
r^a^ofjbvofia^ia, i. e. 7} ruv ^arqojyjjii 'jr^og rovg fiug (Jt'd^j], battle- 
of-frogs-and-mice; etp^ctyidovvy^a^yoxo/Mi^Tai, Aris. Nub., 331, idler 
(«^yos) with long hair (xo/i^r^jg) having rings {sf^ccyidag) to the very 
nails (ow^ee), i. e. having the whole fingers covered with rings. 
Compounded out of whole parts of speech are aXKoTrgoeaXkog, who 
goes from one to another, unstable, aiee^oshdvuGog, which has nothing 
in reference to Bacchus, irrelevant. 

2. Verbs (not verbal roots) refuse to combine except with 
prepositions, of wliich several are often compounded together : 
Koti/j-Tr&iv, h/cXci[Jb'?r£iv, hzHXai/jTrstv, to shine out through all. 
Ulysses strikes Thersites with his staff (II., j8, 2(37,) and 
c^Lohi^ .... [/jsraip^mv i^vTrccnffrri, the wheal stood (s(tt}]) or 
raised itself up (avd) out of the, back (i%) under the staff' 

3, Consequently, if a compounded verb be necessary, it must 
be formed from a compound noun: not zvayyiXKoj, but from 
suoiyyiXog, iuwyyiXS; not ccikTciX^oo^ but from aikituq^ azXTrcij; 
not ^vffiTi^it;, but from ^uffCsSjj?, ^uff/nQaJ; not zui^o(pv7Mrrziv, 
but from zai^o<pvkoL^y '/Miq^o^pvkdTtuv \ or from za,i^o(pv7MKrog, 
xcci^ocpuKaKTSiv ; not y^^vaoyj-iiv^ but from x^vaoxoog^ %PV(ro-)(jiiiv\ 
and so, according to this analogy once established, always in 
case of paragoge, even when the word, from which the verb 
is to be derived, is not exactly in use : not ii>v^ocKu(pziv^ but 

Obs. — Many poetical participles form an exception to this rule: 'Agyw 
'7ra<SiiJ,iko\i<jay ' A^ri'/Krdfiivog, w^v^sovra, where the combination of the 
words is only external ; also those words which are created by the 
negation of a positive meaning ; dvofMioucai from o/Miouffai (Plato 

* Comp. Scalig. ad Phryn. Eclog., p. 266 of Lobeck's edition, and 
Lobeck, ib., p. 560, sqq. 


Parmenid., p. 156, B.) ; eras Tig 'xkoitGiov avS^a, tisi, arisi Si 'jnviy^^ov, 
Theogn. 621 ;* some which have become current from frequent use : 
^igvi'n'Tiiv, and that which Euripides has hazarded, dueSvyjaKu instead of 
BudSamTclJ from dudSdvarog, but only in the participle, Electr. 843, 
Ehesns, 791 ; lastly, from Tr^^trcw, suT^riffffiffKov sjtaffra, Od. 6, 259, but 
in the sense of order, arrange. Less remarkable are several derived 
verbs which appear in the simple state, and with dug, a, sZ, in similar 
forms: hrikou, adrjXou; '^Slt^ofUMi, di^6i^o/Mai, and eujj^/^o^a/; ayosu, 
duffay^si), and ivay^sca ; fj^iviahu and dvaf/jsvsaivo} ; ^u/ia/cw, h\)6&u(iM\i(a; 

* "Per antimetabokn quandam" Lobeck, ut supra, p. 663. 







. . . . oj^oCiog [jjd^s rd^tu '0[Jj'/i^ou, 

Oh tJie Iliac Table. 

After learning the rudiments of the Greek language, when 
we have acquired a sufficient familiarity with the common 
forms, and a knowledge of the most necessary words, the 
next step properly conducts to Homer. In order to facilitate 
this step, a treatise upon the Homeric versification, and another 
upon the Homeric dialect, are here subjoined. For the same 
reason, and after the example of the ancient Grammarians, 
the syntax is grounded, to a great extent, upon examples taken 
out of Homer ; from an accurate acquaintance with whose 
writings, all investigations into the language, the manners, 
and the knowledge of the Greeks, must proceed. 




1. The Homeric verse arises out of the following series or 
combination of syllables : 


-"-'- or --- 

as, for example, in ccvtWzm, ^vao^hov, ci^vJiuv, 'E,§[Midv. 

2. In the first place of these series, ccvr, Ivc, a^v, 'E^joo, the 
tone is raised, hence here is the Arsis^ which may be marked 
by an oblique stroke: ^ ^ 

3. After this rise the tone sinks again in the two short 
syllables, or the long one answering to them, and this part of 
the series is therefore called the Thesis. 

4. In this Thesis the , tone, as it were, fluctuates without 
finding a point of rest : ovXo[jijS . . . 'jj^ii ... In order to attain 
a point of rest, it must light upon a second long syllable, by 
which the series of syllables may be closed, and made a whole, 
with beqinningj middle, and end: ov\oii,zvriv (' " " "), -/j^cauv 

('■')• . ... 

5. The conclusion may serve again as the arsis of a new 
series: . ^ . _ 

ccKk' 'o (Jtjsv ' Ai&^io'Trdg 
rmidv Aavaoi 

'Pj^^m auTovg, 
or it terminates the series, and then, in order to moderate the 
vehement flow of the syllables, a single syllable may be 
placed after it, which may, therefore, be called the Catalexis 
(the leavin^-offy zccrccXi^^ig}. 

/ ^ 

— W W — W 


u w - - 

-^ -. ; e. g. 


or, in German: Wann die Natur | lieblich erneut, where 
the impetuous flow of syllables will be moderated by the 
introduction of the catalexis : 

Wann che Natur sich | lieblich erneut hat. 

6. For the construction of the Homeric verse it is neces- 


/ k^ U / w ' 

a. That the series , in which, by the renewed 

arsis, measure and counter measure are produced, be 
repeated : 

/ t/ w / VJ w / 

b. That both these series, which, as two wholes, again 
appear as measure and counter measure, have the 
catalexis : , ^^ , ^^ , ^ , ^^ , ^^ , ^ 


c. That both series, which thus stand without close co- 
herence {ccffvvdgTTirot), combine into a whole, which is 
effected by raising the catalexis in the middle (") to a 
thesis (^^), and, thus, the complete series attains the 
following form : , ^ ^ , 

/ w u / •J o / 



1. The measure of epic verse, constituted as above de- 
scribed, runs through six similar metres, which are made up 
of the words united into a verse. 

2. The conclusion of every word makes an incision {rofju^, 
ccesura,) in the verse, that is to say, the series of metres is 
broken by the portion of time, which intervenes between the 
pronunciation of two words : as, II., a, 3. 

which verse, by the ciesuras, is divided into the following 
five series : , , , . 

3. When the caesura falls upon the arsis, it is called mas- 
culine, when after the first short of the metre ( " '^ | • • • ) 
feminine or trochaic, after the second ( ' " " | • • • ) dactylic, 

after the second long ( " " | • • • ) spondaic. So, in the line 
above quoted, the second, third, and fourth caesuras are mas- 
culine, the first is spondaic ; in verse 5, 


oiMVohi rs I Tac/ | A;oV | ^' IrzKuzTO \ (iovX^, 
the second is feminine or trochaic^ the fourth dactylic^ and 
so also the first, since by encUsis n so connects itself with 
the foregoing word, that both words may be considered 
rhythmically as one, oicovoTare. 

4. Compound words also produce a csesura, when the last 
syllable of their first word falls upon the arsis, as 

Movffoc, xoXiJTgo'^rov, 'Tr'if/j'^avr&g IvdKOTTOv^ ^vydrrjg 6Xo'6(p^ovog, 
at the dotted syllables. 

5. Over many caesuras the pronunciation glides along 
without their becoming very perceptible : e. g. 

"AvhgCC [JbOl I sVvSTS I M^OVffCi. 

6. On the other hand, some are more marked, by a longer 
interruption to the flow of the verse, especially when long 
syllables follow the masculine csesura, or when the csesura 
coincides with punctuation, which breaks or concludes the 
thought : e. g. 

M^i'/f, dzihz, ^£a II YlriX'/j'icchia} 'A%;X^o?, II., a, 1, 

'AXkoi (TV (Mv vvv rrjvhz ^s^ TT^ozg. \\ avrag 'Axocioi, ib., 127, 128, 

T^iTKrj Tsr^uTrX^ r a-TroTico^iu, \\ u'i zi 'tto&i 'Live, 

and of these we shall more especially speak in the sequel. 

7. The chief thing required in the hexameter is, that it 
should unite the several series, of which it is constructed, 
into a whole, without losing variety, and thus attain variety 
in unity. 

8. The verse wants unity , when the caesuras of the words 
coincide with the terminations of the metres : thus, 

Oiffsrz I Mouca; | '^[Jb7u | v[jbmv | uyXcca, \ 'hu^oc \ 
stg (piXov I i^ro^ | . 

9. Unity prevails when the caesuras do not coincide with 
the ends of the metres, and thus the voice slides to the latter 
over the former, or at least over the most of them, as if the 
foregoing verse ran : 

i}ro§ zg ^fjb&rs^ov, i.e. .. 

-VW — - — "■ -WW -WW -- 

5 > > > > > 

where the ends of the metres are marked by commas, and 
the caesuras by double points. 

10. Hence the use of the dactylic and spondaic caesuras, 


Strengthened by the sense and punctuation, is very much 
limited. — They occur however, 

a. In the first metre : 

T^pozq. — rm avr i]^z Kv/Aovog aykaog viog, IL, (3, 826. 
"Kzro^ci. — rov vvv g/k%' iKavco vfjag 'A%a/a;j', ib., &>, 501. 

b. The dactylic in the fourth metre, then named bucolic 
on account of its frequent use with the Bucolic poets, 
as in the first poem of Theocritus, v. 1, &c. : 

ahv ri TO -^idv^ia^/joc za.) n "Trlrvg, \\ ccl'zokz, ryim, 
ci TOTt ruTg itayouai [hzkiahzrcci' || a^y ^g jtou rv 

such lines are, through the abruptness of their sound, 
capable of great strength, where force is to be expressed: 
e. g. of a billow in a storm, 

TTovTco (jbh TO, 'tt^Stcc z,o^vGGzraiy 11 avra^ zitzna 
y}^(Ju pTjyvvfJbzvov (jbiydXa, (S^gjoos/, || a^^/ ^s r dzgocg 
ZV§70V iOV Ko^v(pov7cci. II. , B, 424, &c. 

Ohs. 1. — Where in other places words terminate with the metres, the 
flow of the verse slides over them, without suffering them to be 
perceptible : as, 

Tidiiav Aavaol l/ia ^axgya goTdi /SsXetftf/, II., a, 42, 
where Ip^a ddx^ua, flow together as if in one word, or xi^a 'iaracav in 
oipdaKfioi d' udl xjga 'isracav, rfi Ci6ri^og, Od., r, 211. 
Obs. 2. — The following verses remain with remarkable caesuras at the 
end of the third metre : 

71 ov fi'i/Mvp, on T sx^sfiu II u-^ohv, EX di mdoT'i'v, Il„ o, 18. 
ifit^osv y.ida^iZiv \\ Ar^roZg xa) Aihg v/6g, Hesiod, A, 202, 
where Spitzner* transposes, 

ifii^6iv xidd^tZs Aihg xa/ AT^roug viog. 
That it was so written is proved by the Hymn to Apollo, 545, 
Herm.y and the Fragment in the Schol. to Pindar, 3, Pyth., 14, 
which Asclepiades (li/ rotg r^ayudoufimig,) cites probably out of 
Hesiod • 

* De Versu Homerico, p. 10. 


^A^Gmri ds fiiyitea A/Sg xa/ A»]roI!/s (prob. A>]too5) ww. 
The first example is softened by this circumstance, that the adverb 
l/n|/o^£v coheres closely with its verb Ixgs/xw, and thus may conceal the 
Juatus between the two series. 

11. The masculine caesura occurs in all places of tlie arsis, 
from the first, as 

, . ^ikog \%Z'7rzvHkg l(pnig 
(BahX 11 uhl hi 'TTv^ou vzKvojv KOLiovTO ^a(JbU(x,t, II., a, 51, 
to the very last, 

yoiTccv 6(jbou zcct -ttovtov^ ^gcoga ^' ov^ccvohf \\ vv^, Od. s, 294. 

12. The femmme csesura also may occur in every metre ; 
in the fourth, however, it weakens the flow of the verse, 
when it is not strengthened hy either the position or punctu- 
ation of the words : as, 

UrjXsvg ^rjv [Jboi 'iTreira yvmTKcx, \\ '/KfLiGiffsrai aurog, II., /, 39'i. 
HAvviaoybid' ag •£ 6 ^stvog clvsvOi \\ 'ttovov kou kving* Od., ;j, 192. 

Obs. — Some verses can be corrected in this respect by the assumption 
or rejection of the augment : 

. . . xpaTS^6(p^o\ii yiivocTo cra/Ss, Od., X, 298. 

. . . ^aXi^n b' liJjia'mro "/airYij 11., g, 439. 

. . . aurag o/ Ilgo/'ros xaxa u^ritSaro ^u/io5, II., ^, 157.-|- 

13. Almost universal is the audible csesura, masculine or 
feminine, in the third metre or foot, where it divides the 
verse into two unequal portions, so that, for example, in the 
first book of the Iliad, of Gil verses only 7 are without this 
ctesura, either jnasculine or feminine^ in the third foot. 
Gomp. Spitzner ut sup,, p. 7* Thus, Iliad, a, 

Masculine. Feminine. 

1, ^"nm a£/^£ ^sa, . • (") % oh\o\jJivriv jj [/^v§i\ ('") 

3, 'TToXXug h' {(pdiiJbovg, (") 4, ri^tucov avrovg Vi, . . ('") 

* Hermann ad Orph., p. 692. 

t Hermann ut supra, p. 694. Spitzner ut supra, p. 13. 


7, ' Ar^zihrig rz oivaz,, (') 5, olmolsi rz '^roiai, . . ('") 

6, g| oy ^^ ra '^rgcora, ('") 
&c. &c. 

14. Where the third foot is altogether without c?esura, we 

sometimes find it included in a proper name of at least three 

syllables : 

'BoinjTcuv iJbh Thiv'ikzoog zou KTi'irog h^ov, II., |3, 494. 

YZi^rikog, 70V WT 'A§jM/i;r^ Tiicz }>ia yvvcciKoov, ib., 714. 

Oux-aXiyuv rs za,) ' Avrnvu^i 'TrsTWf/j&VM a,(/j(pa, II., y, 148, &c. 

sometimes in another longer word : 

t,iivovg rz (rTU(piki^of/jivoug \\ ^^ojdg rs yvvaiKocg, Od., t, 108. 

pvfTTcc^ovTag azizzkioog \\ zoltu, })ojybOt)Ta, zoCka^ ib., 109. &c. 

and as, by caesura in the third foot, the verse is divided into 

two portions, so here, by the caesuras in the second and fourth 

feet, it is divided into three portions, as II., a, 145, -r, 224: 
n hliag II 7i 'Ihofjtjgvzvg \\ ^ l7og 'Qihvaaivg 
'/^^otivdcov 7 II avsiJbOffzs'Trsaji' \\ ovkm ts Ta'^r^rcov,* &c. 

Obs. — By this division into three parts or series it also happens, that 
the second foot has the spondaic or dactylic caesura, II., d, 124, 
aurag s'Trndyj \ xvxXoTs^sg fiiyoc ro^ov srnviv; ib., 329, avra^ 6 'xXrjelov 
j sCT^jxg/ rroX-jfiriros 'OdvCGsug. Comp. II., v, 715, Od., tj, 120, 
X, 582, 593, &c. The same thing happens, but very rarely, when 
the caesura is in the third foot: ri'TniXTigsv im&ov, 6 dri sffriv, 
II., a, 388, where perhaps we should read, fMJdov s'xri'riiXTjgiv, Ti.r.'k, 
Comp. II., ^, 45. Lines of this sort have something ungainly in 
their sound, and have been therefore generally avoided. 

§ CXLV. 


1. As the several portions of a verse are combined into a 
whole, by the blending together of the feet and the caesuras, 

* Spitzner, ut supa, p. 8, 


and thus the ^miti/ of the verse is attained, so, in the junction 
of several hexameters, variety is attained, when the combi- 
nation, in the several verses, takes place in different modes. 

2. The combination of several hexameters, to the end of 
a proposition, is called a hexametrical or epic period. 

3. The epic period is divided into different series by the 
close of the verses, and by those caesuras which coincide with 
the punctuation. In the following passage, Od., a, 64, a dot 
marks the feminine, two dots mark the masculine csesura, 
and a stroke the end of a series. 

Tizvou l|M/oV, I TToTov cs gVo? (puyiv sPKog ohovrcav; | 
'TTCtJg av 'i'T^iir 'O^vffrjog sycj ^zioto Xcc&oifLi^v, j 
'og 'zz^] [/j'sv voog Iffr'i ^Qorm, \ m^i }> i^a, ^eoTffiV 
aduvdroiffiv s^co/ik, \ roi ov^avov sv^uv sy^ovfjip ; | 
ccXkd UoffsihaciJv yar/joy^og ci(rzzklg ah) 
KiizXco-TTog zsypXajrai, \ ov 6(p0a,X(jtjOv bXauaiv^ j 
avri&iov T[oXu(pyj[/jbi/, | ooij z^drog l(JTi ^iyiarov 
'Tra.Giv KuKXa/'TTiffffi, \ ©oooffa ^z ^'iv tzkz '^v(/j(pyi. 

4. The beauty of the hexametrical period depends upon 
this rule, that not only the feet should be varied as dactyls 
and spondees, but that also the different sorts of caesura, both 
generally, and especially when they terminate series^ should 
vary in position, i. e. should occur in different places of the 
verse. — The accumulation and rapid succession of different 
caesuras produces a vigorous and manly flow of the verse, 
which is thus divided, now into long, now into short portions, 
— is at one time bold and impetuous, at another soft and 
tranquil. — As a model of a bold and free-flowing period, the 
following passage, Od., g, 299, may be cited. 

"Cl (/jOi \yoJ ^BiXog, | ri vv (J^oi [/jrjzKTTCi yivrjrai ; \ 

hzi^co f/jij ^^ TTocvTcc ^SDC VTi^i^r'zg hia'Ttiv, \ 

'ij «/' 'itpar 'iv itovToo^ \ ■rg'/V 'TTccT^iha yaikv iziffdai, \ 

aXyi avaitXyiaziv \ rd^s ^ij vvv TavTa, r&XzTrui, \ 

o'ioia'iv vz(pzzaai 'Ttz^iar'i^zi ov^ccvov sv^vv 

XziJg, I sruga^s II -provrou, Z';r'i(T'?ri^x^V(Ti ^ asKXai 

'TTdVTOioJv d'AfMcov. j vvv [Jjo't &ojg ai'Trug oXzOgog. 

5. As an example of a softer evolution of the series, with 
chie^y feminine transitions, comp. Od., r, 204. 

r)jg S' a^' ccKOvovarig pgg hdzgvaj rrjKzro ^z Xi^^' 


cog ^s y^ioov TtotrzTrizzr h kz^o'Trokoiiiv ogsaffiv, 

r7}K0[/jyyjg ^ a^cc ryjg Trorcc^ol TXyj^ouffi piovrsg' 
cog Trig rriKiro kcCKo, Truo'^'ia })CiKovx^iov(ryig, 
zKciiovsrig iov oivhoa, Tccorj^ivov. — Avra,^ 'QihvGtnvg 
^v(Jbco (jjh yooooauv irjv ihkuioz yvvou}ca. 



1. That which has been ah-eady said (§ 28,) concerning' 
the quantity of syllables, applies also to Homeric verse, with 
a few limitations. 

2. Position takes place even when the two consonants 
which produce it, are not in the same word with the vowel 
which they lengthen: ol (mIv ^urrofMivov^ — rou p' ' AyoiiMiJjVOvt^yjg, 
— (jjvyiffocro yd^ Kccroi ^u(/j6v, — Iv aitzcjaJ yXa(pv^o7(n, — 'jrmi ^vri- 

3. The combination of a mute \vith the liquid ^ or X, 
produces for the most part a long syllable of no great force ; 
hence before (d§ in the compounds of (ooorog, the letter ^ 
Hkewise is inserted, to strengthen the sound : as, cifjuQ^orog, 
n^-^i^jAoorog, (poii(Ti(j!j^§orog, and, instead of o^^ithog^ 6^§i[JjO- 
-rar^^jj& is more proper to write ofM^oi^jjog^ hiJj^^i^o'ffdr^yi^ <^c. 

4. Yet, in the collocation of several words, this position 
generally stands without any such aid, and rejects even the 
support of the paragogic N. 

Ny^ra B;' o^^t/ccirjv, ors ^' sv'^ovfft (^^orot oiKKoi, 

II., z, 83, 386, CO, 363. 
So clyl r^zig, II., /3, 67 1, ^pyj H^o&oog, ib., 765, &c., 
according to the authority of the old Grammarians, whom 
Wolf follows, but Hermann and Bekker oppose. 

5. But if the beginning of the word which commences 
with ^ or X after a mute be iambic ("'), so that, without the 
rejection of position, it could not come into epic verse, then 
the position may be rejected. The following combinations 
fall to be considered : 


n. ^X, ^f. B. (3X,* j8^. O. (pX,* (pf. 

K. iCk, z§. r. yX,* 7^. X. xX, %^. 

T. rX, re- A. . . l§. 0. ^X,* %. 

Before those marked with an asterisk, however, a vowel is 
never short. 

6. The other combinations allow a violation of position in 
the case above specified : thus, 

a. Ill proper names : o*/ ^g IlXara/av, II., (3, 504. — 'E|£- 
Tarriai U^oix'/ihvg, Hes., E, 48. Comp. 86, 0, 521, 
54f6.-^' A(p§ohtT'/] is always """'. 'Y.v%,Ti(jbivocg ri KkBcovdig, 
II. ^, 570. — Koci ydg pa KXvrcct[jjvf/(jT§yig, II., a, 113, &c. 
— K§ovici)V, always ''"', without position for the preceding 
syllable. — Ovls A^vavrog, II., ^, 130. — Ya^t^iccv, II., j3, 
537. — -"E-rovro T^ikt^c^ II., ^, 202. — 'A|M;(piV^y^v, Hes., 
A, 2, 37, 165, even 'JrbcXiKr^vcoi/og, ib. 3, 'MxXszr^vuir/jg, 
35, unless a spiizesis of the syllables Uai takes place in 
these instances (Hermann ad Or ph., p. 757>)' 

Ohs. — Even where there is not an absolute necessity, the force of 
position is sometimes suppressed to suit the convenience of the verse, 

as HargopcXs, II., r, 287,("'— 'Eff^Xoi/ 'OTgum/a^jv, II., u, 383, w^'ic, 'O- 
r^wrrii, ib., 384, Ks/ira/ ' Or^uirs/^j), ib., 389, — 'lavlrog re Kgovog «, 
II., S, 479, and /xsydXoio Kgo^o/o, II., §, 194. 

b. In other words, which, without a short syllable pre- 
ceding, cannot stand in the verse : HA. r/coio 'ttTJuov, 
Od., §, 474, Yla^oi'/ji^zzv })i •7rXiOi)u vy|, II., %, 252, &c. — 
nP. Words compounded with -r^o, and T^og, which have 
a long vowel after the preposition : '/]<Tt '7r^o6v(jjirjCH, II., 
/3, 588, VTidg n itgo'Ttaaag, II., ib., 493, 'Tt^oaciuba.v, -Tr^oa- 
coTov, 'Tr^orjzi, &c. — KA. Kki0^vo!,i, 'sxki^'/j, zXuovai. — 
KP. z^ahccivoj, K^arcnog, and the cognate z^bup, '/t^v(pr]hov', 
(prj hi IccK^VTrXu&fu, Od., r, 122. — TP. r^cc'Trs^cc, r^dyovg, 
T^ir'/]v, r^ircjv, r^irovg, r^r/iaovrci, r^ocTiio[MV, r^ocTriff&cci, 
r^UTrojVTCii, r^oTroTg, lr^o!.(p'^iJjZv. — AP. hoccxcuu, 'Al^orrircc 
KCil ri^rjV, II., )/, 363. Comp. m, 6, where the reading 
used to be ai>6p6T'/]rcc. — 0P. ^paasiag, ^§opoig, ocXko0§6ovg. 

7. Here also the violation of position is extended from the 
necessary to the convenient : 


riA. Avroc^ 6 -TrXrif^iov, II., ^, S^, UH TXg7<rra, ib., i, 382, 

Od., ^, 127, Ovhi'i '7fkrivr\ II., |, 468, v^oairkal^z^ Od., 

X, 583, iihoSkciiv ^£ ^Xsoi', ib., y, 355. 
nP. Oh^ oys <x^iv^ II., a, 97> h^oXiffsis v^tv, Od., ^, 597* 

— "Ezrogt Il§icc[Jblhri, II., ??, 112. — -"Ovr/va tt^utov, Od., 

y, 320, and ^g (tv v^rog, ib., f, 275. 
^P. 'TjM-}v ^' Iot" (p^d&ffiT oXi0§ov, Od., 0, 444. 
KA. TyTrsrg Kkrithiaaii Od., |:/<, 215. — TlgoatfcKm, ib., <p, 

138, 165. 
KP. EJ'Xgro x^ivdiJbivog, II., X, 697> ^o/?? rg z^drogf ib., u, 

121, hix^uyl^Si Od., g, 488, vSii kIk^vilijAvcc, ib., -v^, 110, 

«ara K^a.ra, ib., ^, 92, ^g rg x^ar/> ib., /^/, 99- 
XA. 'A[jb<p} hi xXciTmv, Od., |, 529. 
XP. 'Fohoivri Is Xi^^^i ^^'f '^'i 1^^> olxotro %fgo?, Od., &, 

TA. The only passage under this head, M^ jm»' 'i^kt 

Gx^rkiyi, II., y, 414, is explained under the next number 

(8). ^ 

TP. Tig hvo) Il^KX,(JbOio' r^iTog ^ ijp, II., p, 95, a/fjbo^'yvvvro, 

T^s^ov, Od., X, 527. 
AP. Ta ^g hgctyi/jCCTOty II., X, 69, (JijiUbveajro h^o(Jbov, ib., -yp, 

eP. Em ^§6vu>, II., ^, 199, 0, 150, sv ^g ^§6voi, Od., ;?, 95. 

Obs. 1. — Recent Grammarians* have sought to limit the violation of 
position, in the passages above cited, by rejecting diceresis [mbii), 
the augment (TgotfxXfi'E, 'iyn^M-^i or sx^ic^/s) and other modes, not 
always with good success. Thus Hes. A, 199, "Ey%o; 'i-xpvs hi 
yi^ar y^^udiiriv « r^ijfuXiiav should not be altered, with Spitzner, p. 
96, into "Xi^oh 'iy^ws 'iyyoi' ^PUSiirjv rs rgupaXs/av, since a paroxyton 
composed of two syllables long by position, as here 'iyyoi,' %gu(r. does 
not fall with its last syllable into the third arsis of the verse, except 
when it is connected with the preceding words by a preposition (ig 

• Hermann ad Orph., p. 756, f. Bekker in his review of Wolf's Homer, 
J. A. L. Zeit., 1809, Oct., p. 126, Spitzner de versu heroico, c. 3. 



futfSov, II., 5, 79), or stands iu close coherence with the following 
words: £7%o{ n, iyx°'^ z"^*'' ^^> hx"^ l^'-7°^} &c. So II., ^, 306, 
"A^ov dri £7%05 AiofiTidiog, '^ds %al axjHv. E/'Xsro hi gaCSov, II., fl, 343. 
In the Hymn to Ceres, v. 336, is suspicious, ug "EgsEos cTs/i-x]/£i» 
^^gucogaaT/i' *Agy., and we should perhaps read wVguv' s/'g "EgsCoj, 
X. r. X.; in the verse of Hesiod we may read 'iyxpg \yj)'\js sv %£g(r/v 
tds %giiC5?)v T^vfdXsiav. Much obscurity still overhangs the rhyth- 
mical position of words, which had its certain laws as much as 
Dialect, or Syntax. To this topic belongs, for example, the valuable 
remark of Hermann ad Gregor. Corinth., p. 879, that the names 
"Arpilhyjg, UriXiidng, TuBsld'/jg, and the like, never have the arsis upon 
their middle syllable, always ~ , never . So also 'Evguedsvg and 
Obs, 2. — The few instances, in which position was violated before KN, 
EN, have been properly corrected in the Homeric text : lyvaf^-^av, 
II., w, 274, at the end of the line, is now read sxa/Av]yav ; moreover 
' avoiyvoiri ro/ov, Od., X, 144, is now read dvdyvoiri rov. In w d^Tyvun 
duQura, Od., g, 375, c3 a must be read as one syllable, thus u a^Tyvun, 
and 80 also in og dn afvuoraroc, II., v, 220, with the syllables hri d. — 
In Hesiod, however, these stand unalterable : dK^oxvs(paiog, E, 567, 
and iTUTi 'TTveougav, &, 319. Comp. Spitzner, p. 98. 

8. The law of position is violated also, in several words, 
especially in proper names, before Z, i. e. 2 A, and 2K : 07 
rs 7j(x,kvv0ov 'i%ov, XL, ^, 634. Comp. Od., a, 246, &c. Ot 
^£ TAXziocv, II., jS, 824, daru ZeXs/V, ib., \ 103 and 121, 
Yl^oxiovTo '^Kociiidvh^iov, ib., |8, 465, ^^g '^Kaybccvh^og, ib., s, 
774. Comp. ib., ^m,, 21, ^, 124, 305, &c. To this class 
belong likewise IVs/ra ank'Troc^vov, Od., s, 237, and Tzr^octf] rs 
GKiYj^ Hes., E, 587 ? but 'Icr/a/av, II., |3, 537, hlyvxriag odi, 
ib., /, 382, and elsewhere, have a synizesis of la, into one 
syllable, and thus too may be explained a^ir\iri, ib., y, 414, 
cited under the preceding number. 

Ohs. — Many suppose the primitive forms, used by Homer, to have 


been AeXua, Adxuvdog, Kd/Aavd^og, and recently Payne Knight * has 
referred, in support of this opinion, to the coins of Zancle (Messana) 
of the 7th century before Christ, which have the name of the town 
in the old form AANKAE ; this form, however, may have arisen 
from the defective orthography of ancient times. ^^^ 



1 . A short syllable, which stands in the arsis, is, on account 
of the weight of this position, longer dwelt upon in enunciation, 
so that, in the measurement of the verse, it may be treated as 

2. This happens, at the beginning of a word, in the 
following : ccv^g, ao^, ' A'^oXkcov, "A^???, ^oc7]§, oOtc, (pdiog, vhco^, 
of which the first syllables, although short in themselves, and 
always short in the thesis, are lengthened by the arsis. Thus, 
on the one hand, d/^ffs ^s rovg (Jbh " K^m^ II. , ^, 439, rn ^' «/ 
"Af;??, ib., g, 363, h ^ «/ vhu)^, ib., a, 347, Od., ^', 436'; 
and, on the other hand, "Ap;j? ^' h 'XoChMfjjriCi^ II., s, 594, 
rov §' ur^vnv (Avog "A^rig^ ib., 343, &c., ayXccov vhcij^, ib., /3, 
307, &c., ak^v^ov v^cup, Od., ^, 511, &c. So also, ccKk' oh' 
avyj§, II., a, 287, '^Kuarog avfjP, ib., |(3, 805, but iTiy^Sovfog ymr 
avTiP, ib., (3, 553. ^a^avog avrjg, ib., -r, 8U7. (Po7^og 

A'TToKKuv, ib., a, 64, and always short in the nominative, but 
'A'ToKkojvi avuKTi, ib., a, 36, ov f/A ya^ ' AtoKKcovcc, ib., a, 86, 
'6ci7j§ ocvT l(Jjog, ib., 7, 180, but haz^ojv, ib., oj, 762, 769; 
(pdog has a always short in the singular ; o(pig is long only in 
the expression ahXov o(piv, ib., ^, 208, with hivov dog, ib., f, 
385, ccog o^v, ib., <p, 173, occurs, with the circumjlex, (JjsXdcv- 
hrov do§ uo^To, Hes., A, 221, as also hdzg \(/jUo, ib., ^, 344, 
355, and '' Aozg, 'Apzg (BgoroKoiyi, ib., s, 31, 455, which 

* Prolegg. ad Horn., p. 152. Conf. Dawes. Misc. Crit., p. 6, 142, 
Kidd,, and for other words Schaefer ad Dionys de compos, verb., p. 289. 


Martial * quotes as an example that no license was forbidden 
to the Greek poets. 

Ob», — The quantity of ' hrnXKuvog is followed in siruh^ vnccc, II., -v}^, 2, 
smidfj rb Tgwroc, Od., 3, 13. So avrag Uv^ai^rig, II., /S, 848. 
Observe also dat^uv i-j^rouf, ib., X, 497, with diifi,Di^aTo dattfiiV) Od., 
I, 434. 

3. The longer forms of these words, ao^;, "A§sogj "A§f]og, 
tihurog, &c., follow the usage of the nominative ; but, as 
^AjffoXkav has always short a in the nominative, so avri^ and 
(pdog have always long a in the longer forms : avi^og, avi^i, 
(pdisa, fccckoi, Od., t, 15, f, 39» "T) 417.t 

4. The analogy of avs^og is followed by all words which 
begin with three or more short syllables : as, addvccrogf cckcc- 
f/jurog, H., g, 4, ccTroiXcc^Log, Hes., E, 20, avgipeXo?, Od., ^, 45, 
a'^ovseffdui, D., |, 46, a'7roh(cu[/jai, ib., g, 763, aTOTscpjo'/, Od., 
6>, 7> ccyogoictffdSi H., |3, 337* Wirovog, Od., jm<, 423. Also, 
A/oygv^f, Il§tcc(Jbi^rig, '^ihovtog, 7jS(pv§i7i^ ^vmfjbsvoio, ^vyari^sg, 
vkccKo^oj^ot ; and even when the dactyl thus formed is com- 
posed of two words : ha, (Jbh ko'Tri^og iiX0s, II., 7, 357, ^§vog 
iKv(JtjCc, Hes., E, 436, (piXi Kccffiyvyjrz, II., S, 155, g, 359, 
"kvro ^' ay<:yf, ib., Uy 1, but only at the beginning of verses, 
which, on this account, were called headless {aKk(paXoi), A 
monosyllabic word, thus lengthened in the commencement of 
a verse, appears at II., -r, 228, ro pa tot, — where, however, 
the pronunciation of ^ might be doubled so as to lengthen the 
foregoing syllable. 

5. The force of the arsis, here exerted at the beginning of 
words, displays itself also at their end, and so universally, 
that there is no short syllable at the end of a word, which 
might not be lengthened by being in arsis. Generally, how- 
ever, the production of a final vowel is followed by one of 

* Epigr. IX, 12. Dicunt Eiarinon taraen poetse, Sed Graeci, quibus 
est nihil negatum, Et quos a^ic, a^eg decet sonare. 

f Comp. Hermann ad Hymn, ad Demet., 38, Grsefe ad Meleagr., 
p. 83, 111, and Spitzner, p. 21. 


tlie semivowels, X, ^m,, u, §, <r, the sound of which easily doubles 
itself, and thus strengthens the foregoing syllable : xcci Treh'cc 
Xurzvvroc, H., ^, 283, kcu xoi/jara. vvv, Od., h, 685. The 
production is also favoured by punctuation, as in ovo[jbu. Oy- 
Tiv U (/,s, Od., /, 366, or a monosyllable following, as a^a- 
mrog ^V, ib., ^, 309, ToVei" cS, II., g, 71, rUsi u, Od., \ 175, 
II., a;, 36. 

6. When, however, a short final syllable is lengthened by 
arsis, it stands, 1, between two long, % as first or last of 
three short, 3, as the middle of five short, 4, as third and 
sixth in a series of eight short : thus, 


7 7 7? • 

7. Between two long: as, A;jra) 7% ^'T^^j^g, Od.,X,580. 
—T^aizgli Xziovffi, II., 0, 592, dvl^ocg ll XtffffSffdcct, ib., /, 520, 
ayxuvt vvlag, Od., |, 485, ^' vuiv si^uro, ib., -v//, 229, f^gra 
TTh^^uv, offoif II., j(3, 145. 

8. Of #z<70 short neither can be lengthened by arsis, since 
the other would then stand alone in the thesis, and thus form 
a trochee; but of threey 

a. The first: rci m^i koXk, II., (p, 352, aWa^ra k(u 
ccv/j§0Tu, Od., /, 109, (T'TTsT^a, zoci arolvvovffiy ib., ^, 
269, oiKfjccg aXoxov rs, II., ^, 366, a vi\ Usrzm, ib., I, 
338, ol' ys (as(/juSjt£, ib., ^, 735, 'AxtXk^i (Ms^sfjusv, ib., 
05, 283, ^;j2uvro |a,gya, ib., ;;, 444; also so that the 
first short is a monosyllable : g/ [jusv kzv ii^k, ib., vj, 77, 
nroi (JjIv g^' 'i'TTccvaug, II., X, 442, our ci§ ri ^zyotXi\fii/jUty 
Od., %//, 174. 

A. 7%e third: TjJ ^g ^' (?^a Ny(M.^a;, Od., ^, 105, oyvg» 
a^a A;?r4 II., &;, 607, ^k^o'TTzg avd^coToi, ib., <r, 288, 
hs'TTcc't lnhffKo^zvog, Od., y, 41, -TCOLVVvyjov ivhziv, II., |3, 
24, 61, aUa ^oXy ,a,gr(^oi', Od., \ 698. 

9. i^o?fr short syllables do not stand in one series, but 
frequently,_;?z;p, when the middle syllable is lengthened by 
arsis ("--—); e.g. ajj^i^ahka Idxcav, II., g, 302, &c., ^a^JAg^a 
^gya ^y^oj, II., ;^, 393, vi(Tff6(jbs0cc Ksv&ccg, Od., ;«, 42, OTroffcc 
roXvicivaz, II., a^, 7, akzi-^aro Vi Xi't Waioj, ib., |, I7I, aro ^g 
'ki'TTCc^riv, ib., >^, 406, i<p§d(ruTo, \iykm, Od., y, 289, and so in 
Soph. Antig., 134, avTirvTra }) l-Tri ya •rgffs ruvrakuOiig. 


10. In this manner is lengthened especially the last syllable 
of words, which consist of two short : as, ava, htd, zarcc, 
(jtiOikcc, jU/sya, 1^2, /^s, hi, I'tti, 'ttoti, on, so, cctto, vto, &c. : as, 
6(Jba6riac(,v ava ^iya^cx, ffziozvroi, Od., a, 365, 'Tr&hiovos ^/a vz(pzoi)V, 
II., X'i 309j 'TTZ'jr'kyiyvio!, zaroL ffv(pio7(Tiv, Od., z, 238, aX}M 
(JbocXcc Xi'yi(ug, II., y, 214, rifjjfjffug ^h gjU/S, ybiya, ^' 'i-^ao, ib., 
a, 454, orfr/v iv) (jjS^d^OKTiv, Od., a, 269, clKkov, oOt pusOiivroc, II., 
I', 229, 'AxtXijoc, so [jijS'y cc^zivova, II., j8, 239, ttocc/ ^' v'tto 
XcTTcc^oiffi, ib., i(3, 44. 

0^5, — If the word be compound, then the third of three or of five 
«hort syllables, if it fall at the place of junction Cin commissuraj, 
is lengthened by arsis : 'ttoXKov d'xsvli^ovro, II., ■/., 572, x^ar) TcaroivsuuVf 
Od., /, 490, aXKotCiv yi xardeiyrjXa, ib., ^, 226, Tccira disfMoi^aro, 
ib., ^, 4341, ffoi 6s, yvvai, rdo sff/riXXw, ib., •4', 361 (Spitzner 
i-TTigriXku, p. 80), fij^viv d'Zdii'Truiv, II., r, 35, svavXog ami^erj, II., p, 
283, supported by firj fiiv uvos^cisis, II., (p, 329, but XL//i' aTosgtrs, II., 
Z,, 348 (in this word, however, the digamma assisted the verse), 
a'rrdvsv&s AiiTiTiog vorafioTo, Od., »j, 284, btafhiku<STi, Od., /, 291. 

Besides these, of a similar nature are the following : ToCff/V l^lhri- 
cac5aiy II., -v]/, 792, ^w^^ccovro fLSfidorsg ly%£'>]tf', !!•, /S, 818, and 
idbora, II., /, 173, Od., ff, 421. 

1 1 . Six and 5ew?i short syllables do not follow In a series, 
but ei^ht : II., ^, 389, s, 74''5, k ^' c%sa (pXoyzcx, TToai jBrjffccTo, 
Xd^sro h' 'iyxog, and |3J; hs zccrukocpdihcc (p'i^cov, Od., «, l69 
(where, however, according to * Eustathius, zcc7ccXo(poihioc 
may he read), in which the two preceding cases are united, 
to wit, of the first five short syllables, the middle, and of the 
other three \he first are lengthened by the arsis. 

12. Two short measured as a long syllable, without 
synizesis (§ cxLix,) are found in the arsis in Bo^spj? za) 
Xi^vgog, II., /, 5, where, however, a various reading gives 
Boppgpjj. In like manner Bo^s?? zat Zs^y^o;, ib., -v^, 195. 

* Compare Hermann Elementa doctr. metr.,p. 43. 




1 . Even in the thesis a short syllable occasionally stands 
between two long-. In this case we cannot suppose a pro- 
duction of the syllable, there being no grounds for such a 
license, but merely a want of the second syllable in thesis, 
which is partly concealed by the long syllable preceding and 

2. This takes place, in the middle of a word, chiefly when 
the vowel is iota:'*'^ VTC^z^in, II, /, 7^, km[hia7iri-, Od., 9, 284, 
lark^ ib., r, 304, zaKozoying, ib., X'> ^74, asgyi^g, ib., a;, 
251, 'T'TTz^riaiyiv, II., ^, 573, rig vTrsPOTXr/iffh ib., a, 205 (and 
so, in Attic lyric poetry, -^roXkco psOyjccrt TgoffVKTffOfjijSiiovg X^vffotj 
•Kcoxxr/Ti S-' vTi^o'Tfkiag, which seems the true reading of Soph. 
Antig., 130), Tjai '?rgo0u[jbiyi(ri, II., (B, 558, kriybii^Gi^ Od., v, 
142. Add to these 'l(pirov, II., (5, 518, 'iKiov 'Trgoru^otds, 
ib., 0, 66, <p, 104, %, 6 (where, however, it would be well to 
read 'lk{6(pi, as it stands, ib., (p, 295, Kara 'lXi6(pi xXvTci Tziyj,(i), 
offjoiiov '?roXi[jjOio, II., v, 358, 635, o, 67O, aypiov' 'z^oakv, ib., 
%, 313, ' Affzhrjiriov Ivo 'xouhig, ib., j(3, 7^1 (but Kazkri'TTiou 
viov, ib., ^, 194, X, 518), ave-iptov zrccyAvoio, ib., 0, 554, "A|M/- 
<piog Xivoda^gri^, ib., |3, 830, " A^piov tzXdyov, ib., g, 6 12, 
z^ccrz^og Atco^'/jg, ib., j(3, 622, ' A(jjcc§vyzsi%v Aiu^ia, ib., ^, 
517, zotvd(LZVog 7^iyizo(n\ ib., X, 697» l^vrrriuva,, ib., (^, 169, 
ILuvTiog aXuov, Od., ;i, 492, /a, 367, where, however, Hermann 
would read [jjuvTrjog* 

S. Besides / the other short vowels are sometimes so used, 
but only in single instances : A. tst^uzvzXov oct ovhsog (but 
TST^azuzXov aTT'/jvyju, II., at, 224), NoJi' II zui z ayccdoTaiv ixi- 
G7u^ia9a [ho(,y^ia&ai, ib., v, 238 (where, however, we should 
read with the Venetian scholiast, \'Xiarcii[jjZ(^&c/?)' a-^ hvz^Yp^hu^ 
ib., ^, 293, Xivov aXom, ib., s, 487. — O. AioXov [MsyccXriTOPog, 
Od., z, 36, and oXorifftv (p^sai ^vzi, II., a, 342, oXorj Mo7§' 

* Ekm doctr. matr., p. 3 H, ' 


6Ts$?j<rev, II., X, 5, where the ancients preferred o\oi^ or oKur}. 
Besides, the open syllables, in this word, were supported in their 
quantity by the digamma, okofri, — T. 'Tt IXvog xsxoikv[jb(jtjsm, 
11., (p, 318. 

4. Short syllables, terminating a word, are so used at the 
end of the fourth foot : To^ya; ^Koffv^co'Trig Iffrz^pdvuTo^ II., X, 
SQy ^ocS'Tri 'fforvicc "H^>7, H., o", o57, according to the Venetian 
MS., ^ovv rjviv iv^viiAnuTTov^ II., ;c, 'ijy^, Od., y, '^82, — also 
in other parts of the verse : ^o^jcvg av, II., (3, 862, -rolXoi 
"kiaffo^jiAvut II., %■, 91» "^oXkoc Xiaaoi/jiVYji II., g, 35^, Tvxva pcif- 
yaXspjv, Od., g", 198, 'ttoWo, pvardZ^SfTKiv, II., a/, 7*55, Hfjloifov, 
'ff0v ekdi7v, II., V, 17^» where, however, as in similar examples, 
Tgiv y should be written.* 



1, As in the above cited instances both arsis and thesis 
were deficient in a time (xgovog, morajt so, on the other hand, 
there is sometimes a redundance in the one or the other ; and 
hence, to preserve the measure of the verse, two syllables 
must be set together (^rrvviZpcvovfft, <ruv/(^?j<r;j>) or pronounced 
together {awzKipoovovvrui, (Tvv&K(pMV7i(Tig).f 

a. The arsis in two syllables of two or three times. 

b. The thesis in two syllables, or in three of three or four 
times, both cases having a short vowel followed by 
another short, a long, or a diphthong. 

2. Synizesis is most frequent in the case of g, thus. 

* The passage, Hes., A, 54, aurag 'jip/xX^a yi bo^xjesou) ' Afifir^huviy 
quoted by Spitzner, p. 82, is corrupt. Several MSS. have Xaoaaow, the 
most leave out ys. The verse had, like many of the ancient epos, a 

double reading : 

Aurckg rj 'lp<xX^a bo^yGGoio ^ Afitpirgvuvi, and 

Atirag 71 "l<pix\ov Xaodffotf) ' Af/jipir^mvi. 
f Comp. Eustathius ad II., p. II, I. 25. 


a. With a, ga, ea, sa/, ga? : ^gosi^sa, II., y, 27, 450, A/o- 
(O/^^ga, ib., ^, 3()5, g, 881, ffrrjOiu, ib., X, 282, v-^z^z^zoc, 
Od., ^, 757, o-a;£ga, II., S, 113, |3g\g^, ib., 0, 444, v^, 
Od., /, 283, pg^, II., (jj, 381, at the end of the Hne, and 
pia hikzvGiG^ai, ib., j', 144, y, 263, avh^6[jbscx, K^sa, Od., 
/, 347, and, in the middle of the word, (Trsarog, ib., <p, 
178, £«, II., g, 256, in r^g/V joo' ouk la UocKkug 'AOrjvrj, — 
yvtuascii, ib., j8, 367, ei'Ty^sa/, k'Xit ourot 'in h^jv Tugdivog 
'ifrffgciii Od'j ^» ^^> ^nd Kiktocif ib., ^, 812, 'TrsXiKsag, II., 
•i//, 114, afl-ma?, Od., X, 110, TroXsa?,  II., cs, 559. So 
^^ga?, vfj^sag, a(pkag., and even A/Vgos?, ib., J', 541, irg^^- 
■rga?, Od.j^ii', 90. _ _ 

b. With 0, go, go?, gov, go/, eo/?, go/r : g^gygo, II., ^, 142, i<r;;^go 
Kkav^lhoio, Od., 6;, 323, n^Xgo? u/oj, II., a, 489, M;;^/- 
ffTgo? y/oj, ib., (3, 566, a(p^zov, ib., X, 282, ri^i^^zov^ Od.» 
«, 201s e<po^eof, ib., %, 456, ^rXgovsj ;s£ ^vyjsrrj^ig, ib., <r, 
2-1.7, asXTTgovrg?, IL, ?7, 310, v^lv [Jbh ^go; 5o?gv, ib., a, 
18 ( and so frequently with the Attic poets), msogyviotf 
Od., X, 312, ^so7(Ttv, ib., f, 251, y^vaioig, IL, S, S, 
oUiotTO, ib., ^, 18. 

c. With (W in e&i, e&i) em, g^yjW/. siug, zur, zcor : as, YlrikTiiuhzea 
A%/X^o?, II., a, 1, kyKukoiLriTiu, ib., €, 205, ^ ri ^aXoc 
X;fg<y, ib., /, 197» 6O8, (rrrihcov, ib., «, 95, ^rXg^yf g-r/ 
o'ivo'Tra Tovrovi Od., a, 183, ffrs(i>(JbiP, II., X, 348, (pOgctf^gv, 
Od., T, 383, eiXitufftv, II., (3, 294, aa7S(jb(picog, Od., ^, 
41 9,^^59, mrTiuT, II., <p, 503, TshJaiTh Od., r, 331, 

[JbZ[JUVi(A)TO, II. , -^/J S6I. 

3. Synizesis is found in the case of 

A. ?j g^' ccvdsi^' ^ gyiw fl-gj Ilo -v^, 724, az&Xzvav, where the 
Venetian ms. has a&}^, II., u, 7^4. 

I. 'Ig^gy<royo-*, Od. f, 94 (Spitzner, p. 187* t^svffova), t^o- 
Ta^otdz 'TTokihg^ II. jS, 811, (p, 567, 'i(^ciGi ToX/a?, Od. 9^, 
560, to which Alyv-TrTiocg, II. /, 382, AtyvTrrtri, Od. $, 
229, AJyvTTirig, ib. 127, 'Wia/a^ 01. (3, 537 T^^e 
Heyne ad loc), may be added. But most Mss. have 
instead of TroKiog, "^rSXtjog, Heyne prefers ToXgoj, Barnes 


ToXlo;?; although the harsh synizesis in voXTog is suf- 
ficiently supported by similar examples. 
O. ' AkXosiUoc (pcciviffzsro, Od, V, 194i, oyloov [Jboi, ib. i, 287- 
T. Aci^§voiffh ib. <r^l73, imitated by Apoll. Rhod. 3, 
805, and HXzKr^vcjvog, Hes. A. 3. 

4. Nor are single examples wanting, in which a long 
vowel or diphthong, with the vowels following, is treated as 
one long syllable. The examples are, 'EvvccXico, II. j^, l66, 
P, 259, ^J?'/i9/o, ib. (B, 415, ^jj/W, l'/]'i'oig, also ^icc, Od. s, 266, 
/, 212 (where Bekker reads ^a), (SsSA;?^/, ovh' ccXiov, 11. X, 380, 
which may be read ^s^Xsa/, as instead of ^ovXricci, Hes. E, 
647, the two best MSS. of Hesiod give (iovXsui* — Tlie 
abbreviation of I'Trh^ in ilriXrjffavr h-Trh^ (Lokct^ II. a, 156, &c. 
cannot be referred to this head, since the ancients rightly read 
£TS/ Yi, But included_under this head are T^^uog aKk\ Od. ^, 
303, with ovK k^zrriv oVog iffffi, B., v, 275, and, from the Har- 
leian MS., rolog 'ioc h r/rokz^oj, Od., |, 222, t iiiixaiov ovh\ ib., y, 
379, — of which, however, a more exact account is given in 
the section on the abbreviation of long vowels and diphthongs, §. 

5. Finally, short or long is combined with long as one 
arsis or thesis, when they follow one another in two separate 
words, in the case of e^si, tJ, i], l^, (/j^i, and of terminati ons i n 
7^, co: e. g. STTs/ ovh\ IL , v, 777? e^s/ ov, ib., a, 114, ?j oh% 
cckig, II., g, 349, ^. 450, h ouz hori&zv, ib., /, 537, n ehojcsv, ib., 
£>466, 7} ob ^i(J^i>ri, ib., 0, 18, ^ zi'TTiiiiZvai^ Od., ^, 682, og ^^ a- 
(pviioTUTog, II., y, 220, aXX' ors ^^ oyhoov, Od., ^, 26 1, s/ '^h 
'h^ ' Avrii^axpio, II., X, 1^8. So ^;) ^' o6V(wg — zT^itttz voco, ib., 
a, 131, according to Bekker, p. 134, should be Avritten ^^ 
^71 ovrug, like (Jj^ ^^ TcivToig — S'T/sX-rso, ib., 545, and e, 684, 
;«, 447. — '^i l^n olXkoi, Od., ^, 165, J^lXw^ivri, rii ya^og, ib., 

* The Parisian, n. 2771, and the Vienna, n. 292. The passage should 

be read 

Eur ay Iv efiTo^iriv rgs-^/Jjg aiCif^ovcx, Sy/iov, 

Aii^u Bri, X. r. X. 
f Spitzner m< supra, p. 188. 


05, 226, n^yXs/^??, 'idsk' 2^i^&[Mvcci, II., a, 277> according to 
Aristarchus, since '^sXai is not Homeric. 'Aff^sffrcu ovh' vlov, 
B., I', 89, and so vhl Ij/jm ukvijjOooj, ib., c, 458, where vhl l[jJ 
is printed. By this extension of synizesis some seek to ac- 
count for the hcense in acrrs^i othj^ivco, II., g, .5, %a7^s ^s rc^ 
o§vt0i 0^v(T&vg, ib., «, 277? instead of a,(jr&§\ opvi&\ 

Obs In the last case, the combination of two short syllables [dcfrsp o- 

'TTu^ivui, &c.) would be measured as one short, a licence, for which 
Eustatl)ius (utsup.,p. 12, /. 23,) knew of examples in the more 
recent poets alone; as Solades, aduv (j^ikr^iv TL7\ktaha (~ " '' ) bi^ihv 
xccr ufJiOV, and Praxilla, dXXa nhv {""'") ov-Tron %/ji,ov m gTriham 
iViikv. He follows, therefore, in /is/a 3s (S(piag d'Toe(priXsii, II., e, 567, 
the correct reading Bs c<fag. Comp. § cciv, 10. 

§ CL. 


1 . Hiatus occurs, when of two concurring- words the former 
ends \vith a vowel and the latter begins with one, without the 
verse permitting the first to be elided : 'TcXdyy^d'/i, £'^£^' — 'Trdkv 
akyzDi, ov Kotra, ^u[jj6v — vyj'jriot, oil Kurd. 

2. The hiatus does no injury to epic verse, when the first 
vowel is a long or a diphthong. This is then used as a short: 
g/Vs ?cui '^i^lv — oIkoi 'iffccv — 'iayjxToi ccphgSJi/ — oi hi 'byj dXKoi — 

d&^OOl TjffUV. 

3. But this short, like other short syllables, is long in the 
arsis: dvri^zou 'Ohvayji — ol ^\v hvao^Mvov 'T-rs^/ofoj. 

4. Short syllables of this description too, like the others 
treated of above, are sometimes found in the thesis, — thus in 
the first and second feet: h')Qii <y? on, II., ^, 209, n Ai'a?, n 
'BojW/Svsy?, a, 145, rj sy, ^g Kcc-Kooq^ |3, 253, and in the Odyssee, 
Tto'v^n 'Ijccc^ioio, a, 329, \ 840, vu^Jboi 'iv&cx, kcc) lv6a, Od., (p, 
400, &c. 

5. In the third foot this hiatus occurs in the case of ^', 
which, as the word of separation, concentrates the tone in 


itself, and it thus strengthened, n vvv '^rjOOvovr tj varz^ov avrtg 
iovra, II., a, 27, xrzivrig yjs 16X&> rj aiJtj^ulov, Od., a, 296. Once 
in the case of Kut: zaXku rs ffriX^cov kcu g/ja-ac/, II., y, 392, 
where, however, the digamma stood at the beginning of g/jooao'/ 
(in "YjtTO^cc H§tcc[jtjih)^Vy xcci zl (JudXa, Kccgrs^og lariVj ib., v, SI 6, 
another reading gives zl zcu, and in 9ra^ ^' avr^g Xd^irzg kou 
"l[MZgog, Hes., ^, 64, Wolf writes, without notice, Xugtrzg rz 
zai). Finally, we have og kzv TrikziLayjo au vizi\ Od., t, 438, 
where perhaps c^ y' vtzi stood. 

6. It is more common in the fourth thesis : ov kzv \yu ^Yicotg 
ay&yco n aXkoc ' KyjiiuVy 11., (3, 231, ru \jjyi [hoi Turz^ug Tod' 
oiLoiri zvko ri[jb^, ib., ^, 410. Consult on the place of this 
hiatus in the thesis, Spitzner, p. 107, ^C' In the case of 
ai it is common only where this is separated by punctuation 
from the following word, and thus supported against hiatus : 
^jjO/a/, aXKoiffiv hzj Od.j |, 41, xzTadai, aXk' Z'jrd^vvov, II., g, 
685. (RJ 

§ CLI. 


1 . Besides the hiatus of long vowels, that of short vowels 
occurs to an equal extent, sometimes in the arsis, as a^o go 
KuQi^aKzv vlov, II., 343, comp. f, 163., ov^z ovg 'Traihccg 'iuffxz, 
ib., jS, 832, Xzvg (T<p&ag riffcciTo (xzryjffiog, Od., v, 213, where, 
after Barnes, it has been altered to ff<pz7ag ricuid'. The place 
of this hiatus is also common in the thesis as well m feminine 
as in dactylic caesuras. 

2. If the short vowel be of such a description, that it does 
not permit elision, its hiatus has nothing offensive, e. g. if it 
be iota of the dat. sing, third decl. or v. ^ Aya(JtjZ(/jVovi ovXov, 
II., (3, 6, ka'TTihi z'yx§i(jtj(p0ztg, ib., ?j, 272, zyx/i 'I^o(jbzv}jog, ib., 
|M;, 117} ^(JjdTi "Ai'So?, ib., ^, 422, '^ruilt d^j^wzv, ib., -r, .522, 
'Traih) o'TTaffffZP, §, 196, dvh§t zrui^iffffui, cu, 335, ovlzvt zIkoov, 
Od., X, 515, 'X'^rz^iovi oiyyz'kog, ib., jO/, 374, clorv, dzX'Trrz- 
ovrzg, II., ri, 310, "Trdy/p, ZTirzi, Od., v, 133, 'Tr^o^w, h-TTZi, ib.. 


3. Nor Is the hiatus oflfensive, 

a. When the two words are divided by punctuation, by 
which crasis and eHsion are prevented : /cdd-j^ffo, lyijco o 
I'TTi'TrstO&o fjbvd&i, II., a, 565, Kad^ffro, l'7rt'yva(Jtj-^cc(Tcc, ib., 
569j Gvyoyji)KOTi' avrag vts^Obv, ib., (i, 218, dXk' oiva, 
il (jjii/jovdg ys, ib., /, 247, 'TroviMi/jZ&oc' a)hi itov d(jij[jji, ib., 
«, JOj 'TTs^ihiha, ovhi fjuoi riro^, ib., 93, ohiv m (/jiyd^oiffi 
Kcc&iiaro, i^yj szaffra), ib., X, jG. 

b. In the feminine caesura of the third foot, since by this 
the verse is divided into two halves, and thus a closer 
combination of the words, which apostrophe would 
produce, is hindered : kyyjoCkov r', ' Kvr^oovtt, /^s, II., (3, 
697? "^^^ ^'^ M h/ivovro m (jijiydgoifft 'yzvidX'/i, ib., £, ^0, 
xai xBv hyj 'TTaKoci '/}(T0a Wi^regog, ib., 898, xsivfj ^s r^v(poi- 
Xg/a a^' eWero, ib., 7, 37^, 01 h' cc(i,<p' ' Kr^ziuva doXkkg, 
ib., -v^/, 233, ov yaf era; ^i,vffav oaaz vito, ib., cy, 607. 
So ib., \ 412, £, 343, 388, 424, n, 32, 63, /, 57, 426, 
K, ^55, X, 256, &c.* 

4. All these limits, however, are frequently transgressed 
on every side, by the hiatus of short vowels; and the question 
arises, how is it then to be treated ? Were the hiatus 
universaly we might at once resolve to recognise it as a 
peculiarity of epic verse, and so let the matter restj but it is 
as often prevented or removed by apostrophe. Since, then, 
so arbitrary a license is not found out of Homeric verse, or 
found only under great limitations, means have been thought 
of, either to banish it entirely, or at least to reduce it to 
certain bounds. The most efficacious mode of so doing 
appears to be the recognition of the J^olic digamma, as it is 
generally named. It has been supposed, that the words 
beginning with a vowel, before which the hiatus of a short 
vowel is now found, had originally, in the epic language, this 
labial sound, and consequently that no hiatus took place when, 
e. g. aTo so, "houz oi, rov le cLvct\ concurred as k%o fzo, ^ouik foi, 
rw ^s fdvoct,. Since this matter, both in itself and in its 
application, is subject to great difficulties, the history of the 

Comp. Heyne Excurs. ad II,, o, p. 135, 6, Spitzner, p. 142, &c. 


digamma, already touched upon at § xix, must be now 
further developed, and exhibited in its relation to the poems 
of Homer. 

§ CLII. 


1. Tliat language, out of which the Greek, the various 
branches of Teutonic, and the Latin arose, had, both in the 
beginning of words, and between vowels in their internal 
structure, many consonants, which afterwards were partly lost 
altog'ether, and partly weakened into aspirate or vowel sounds. 
It has been already observed, that a portion of the diphthongs 
proceeded from this attenuation or rejection. ('') 

2. The sounds which we call labial (t, |3, v, ^, f,) and 
guttural (;£, y, %, ch, q, qu,) were most frequent. 

3. The attenuation of the gutturals displays itself in quoi, 

HOI, ol, QUAM, HAN, av, QUA, a, QUALIS, CiKl in aXlKOC, 

yfkix,og, aqua, ache, as sahache, Germ., chapar, Hebr., 
jecur, i]'7rap, kivin or quin, Caucasus, vinum, Germ, tvein, 
ohog. And here too the transition from guttural to labial is 
visible. Thus, the old language had both in QVoi ; '^'^ when 
the sound was softened, out fell the guttural, Voi, as foi 
remained in iEolic ; or the guttural Q was weakened into 
the aspirate, hoi, like chapar, n'^cc^. Otherwise the labial 
was dropped, QVOi, qoi, coi, cui. 

4. But in labial sounds, at the beginning or in the middle 
of words, before vowels and even consonants, the ancient 
tongue was still more rich. The liveliest of labial sounds is 
heard in the Latin F, which, by its figure and its place in the 
alphabet, answers to the Greek digamma, — as is attested 
also by the primitive pronunciation of the digamma, before it 
was softened into the milder sound of W: (pdivcii, fari, (pdc- 
zsXkog, fa-sciculus, <p^yog, fagus, (pjjjoo;;, fama, <prip, fera, (pXs^, 
fleo, (pvyri, fuga, (pvKog, fucus, (pvco, fuo, whence fui, (pvKkov, 
folium, (p^arri^, frater, (p^vyoo, frigo, (p^O-yciva, fru-tices, (pco^, 


5. This strong- sound was attenuated, 

a. In Latin chiefly hefore e and i; thus Festa^ fesft's, 
Felttty jinum, became Vesta, vest is, Welia, vinum; 
into b in the otherwise very ancient hru(jes, Belena, 
Priscian, p. 147, <poCkonvcc, balcena; into h, herba, 
hircus, hordeum, hariolus from (pz^^oo, jircus, fordeumy 
fariolus (Terentianus, p. 2250, Velius Longus, p. 2250, 
Gomp. Bekker, ut supra, p. 140J; and in Spanish, 
Jiijo, hermoso, from Jilms, fermoso ; and in German, 
Horst from JForst; in French, hors from for s. 

h. In Greek it passed frequently into (p or (3; thus (ppdr^oc 
for f^arga, the form in the inscription brought from EHs 
by Sir W. Gell, (pgccZof, (p^arroj, (p^rjv, (pgict^, <poi% (frigus), 
(pguyM (fructus), (pguyavou (Lat. frutex) ; (^^^rcog, (^ou'hcc- 
fjuuvTog,* and other similar words in JEoMc: /3o£^«y 
(Lat. fremo). So ^I^/j (the goddess,) was BToig with 
the Lacedaemonians : ayak^jjo, B/^;^o?, Pans. Lacon., 19. 

6. It disappeared altogether, at least in the majority of 
dialects, from the words in which the iEolians substituted 
|3, as p^r^y^, 'Pa^cc^ooavro?, pcchvog (Mo\. (B^cchvog'), paOociJjcy'^, 
pohov ( J^ol. /3^o^ov)j poid, polZpgi po'TroKov, poy^dico, pi^cc, piov, and 
from some others, as piv, priyvv^jji (frango, comp. fractus, 
pccKTog), prjZtg (f§W? in Alcseus, according to the authority of 
Trypho)> PHP, moreover, as the root of p^^oj {pny-ffai), 
answers to fre(/-i, and was originally FPHP. So there was 
originally fuco (whence fa7'i), thus f-/jv, frjg, f^, attenuated 
(pyjvi <prjg> <Pn, Macedon. ^^v, p?jg, |3^, according to Heraclides 
in Eustath. ad Odyss., p, 1654, /. I7, and with the sound 
entirely rejected? i^v, ng, n, ^sfrigere passed into rigere. 

f Priscian, p. 547, says this happened quotis ab /3 incipit dictio, Johan. 
Grammat. in Hort. Adon., p. 236, allows it to appear Wi rivuv Xs^suv 
which Apollon. Dyscol. defines more closely, de Synt., 435, B, where he 
informs us, that this jS appeared before ^, when r, 8, ^ etood in the next 
syllable, whence we do not find (3^su for ^su, oudl ciXXo ri roiouruv. Eus- 
tathius, p. 222, 1. 4, adds to r, d, ^ also x, of which Johannes Grammat., 
ut supra, p. 236, gives /S^ax?) for gax>j as an instance. Comp. /3gaxog, 
jS^dxta, in Mattaire, p. 220. 


7. As QVOi, QVALis display a guttural and a labial sound 
in combination, so by the comparison of (pXS,v and ^Xav, <p^^ 
and ^^^, tpXi^o) and '^'kiQ>&)^ (pXioi and ^Xtcc (Etym. Mag"., v. 
(^Kiujcc^co and (pXtcc), we discover the admission of a labial 
before a T sound in the primitive forms. These words were 
originally f^kav, f^rio (the Etym. M. admits <p0y]^ as well as , 
^%, P' '^'^ 1 , /. 1 3), fdXi^&» P&Km (as ^£0?, 'ilhtaev were probably 
fhiog, efhutrevy the digamma remaining in vereor), so that 
by the rejection of one or the other letter, they became '^'kav, 
f\av> (pXav; ^^^, /--z]^ {comp. fera), (p^^, which (p^^, according 
to Varro (De Ling. Lat., B. 5, p. 4<5), was by the lonians 
still further softened into BHP. So <p0iacig lost its in 
fiaag, which Hesychius has retained in y/ca?* (pdu^ocg. So 
also we may explain the iEolic forms |3gX^/Vs?> ^sX(po( (BiXsocg 
(Etym. M.i under (oXri^), together with ^sXipJVs? AsX^o/ 
^eXsa^y by supposing original forms (ihX(p7vzg, BlsX(poi /3^g- 
Xm§^ — /3§ having stood as a middle sound between (pd and 
Tr as it still remains in jS^aXX^y) (iliXv^og, and the cognate 

Obs — The German Zwo, i. e. dewo, has a similar double sound with 5 
interposed. In Greek the g first fell out, and then dfo passed into 
bvo. So the Lat. pron. is, compared with Germ, dies-er, rig, and 
the ^ol. gen. r/o, sliows that the primitive form was frig, which, 
by the rejection of t, f^ or rr^ passed into the various shapes of rig, 
is, dies-er. Compare the English pronoun this. 

8. It has been already stated (§ xix), that, in the middle 
of words, the digamma commonly passed into v. In the 
beginning of a word also the name of Velia displays an u 
thus derived. At first, when founded by Phocaeans from 
Ionia, the city was named TsXjj (Strabo, p. 387> 1. 4. Comp. 

for what follows Herod. I, c. lC7i Stephanus de Urbb., 
under BEAEA, Cic. de nat. deor. Ill, c. 22, PHn. hist. nat. 
Ill, c. 5, Heyne ad Hom., vol. VII, p. 709), (TEAEA, 
iEol. TEAIA from 'iXog, fiXog, ace. to Dionys. Halic. Ar- 
cheeol. I, 20), either because the labial f was already much 
softened, as in avojg, avm, or because their alphabet wanted 


the vau(K) (or digamma). Herodotus still calls it 'TiX-^ (not 
'TsX;?), but posterior to his time, this was changed into BsAsa, 
or even "EXsa, as it was in Strabo's day. Compare with 
these varieties, FsXsa, 'YsAsa, BsXsa, "EXsa, the series of its 
Latin appellations, Felia, Velia, Helia, Elea ; and take the 
whole as a convincing proof of the mutability and final 
extinction of a labial sound, once distinguished for a plenitude 
of life and vigour. 

9. Lastly, let the student compare vicus with o'tzog, vinum 
with olvog, ^(xXkoj with IocXIm, ^cc/c-xfig with "luK^^og, — these 
will make it evident that digamma and other labials may 
occasionally be transformed into or 1. The apparent change 
of the digamma, in Greek, into simple gamma, arose ge- 
nerally from a mistake of the Grammarians, who wrote the 
one for the other. Thus, in the Lexicon of Hesychius, we 
find yicig, yo'^yj', 'ysKkai, and many more, for the genuine 
Fsa^, F/c^yv, FsXkoit, &c., in Latin ver, vis, vellere^ &c. ; 
although, in some words, the transformation of digamma 
into yamma might really take place, as the comparison of 
ya^sc^a/ {fa^ia&(x,i) with gaudere^ gavisus evinces. 

The genuine form of the digamma or van is preserved in 
the Latin and Etrurian alphabets, in several of the oldest 
Greek inscriptions, in the coins of Elis with the legend FAA 
or FAAEION, &c. On the coins of Capua, and the He- 
raclean tables, it has assumed a shape, in which the cross- 
lines of f are removed to the extremities of the joining line, 
jF. This shape was gradually converted into the mark of 
number for six like s", and, in modern writing, this s" has 
been substituted for it. 

10. The original force of the labial sound in the ancient 
'digamma, and its attenuation in (p, /3, or extinction in 0, /, or 
the aspirate, having been explained, we must now, for the 
better grounding of that which follows, collect from inscrip- 
;:ions, coins, and the hints which old writers supply, a catalogue 
bf those words, that retained the letter under different forms, 
and in some dialects, while they dropped it in the more 
•onmion branches of the Greek tongue. 




1. Td^sgyog, 6^ov[Mffdct)r6g. Ad/ccoveg. Hesych. Schow. 
Read ov (/jtadarog. It is cli^yog with double digamma 
fdfz^yog, from 'i^yov, Lac. Fi^yov. See under 'i^yov. 

2. Bdytov, [Jbiyci, Hesych. That is fdyiov (Jlyiov) in the 
sense of extraordinary ^ greats hke Lat. sacer, separated^ 
great (va. auri sacra fames), which seems radically 
allied to the Greek word FAF, SAG, SAC-er. 

3. Bayoj, KXd(T[jj(x, agrov^ [J^d^^g, kou (oaaiXsug zou (rrgoiTicuri^g 
(prob. (TT^oiT'/iyog). Adzuvig. It is dyog {^fd.yog) from 
tiyvv[Li, morsel of bread, and dyog {fciyog) from riyCia&ai, 
a leader. Thus fdyvviu^ faym&uA^ and softened |3a- 
yvvi/jf, ^ocysiffdai, with the Lacedeemonians. 

4. Toibi&>, %a^aj Hesych., is dhck; formed like %^£«y, used 
together with, or instead of fahuf, as, in the same way, 
ydhfrdai, jj^sc^a/, — ydlovroci, sv(p§ciivovrai, — ycchstv, yjt^i- 
Esff^cci ( Comp, gaudere), — yda&av^ rihovdv, i. e. fa^ia(^ai, 
fd^iovTKi, fa^ziv, fdaaav^ — then with the sound softened 
from /\, ^<£ho\JMi^ dyot'Troo, ib., and /3a^y, that is d})v icith the 
Eleans. Comp. Pearson ad Hesych. in voce ^dl'/jXoi. 

5. ^cctvri, vQ,^ig, Hes., is from uhog, thus aiV?j (^faivri). 

6. Tccmrcci, dvvzi, Hes., i. e. aivvTai, faivvrai^ and should 
properly be so written. 

7. FAAEION, i e. 'HXs/i-jv, and the abbreviation FA 
upon coins * (which were formerly ascribed to the city 
Faleria, instead of the province EUs\ supported and 
explained by FAAEI0I2 in the Elean inscription 
already given. 

8. ^aXiKiuTTjg, avv'i^'/j^og, Kpi^T&g, Hes., i. e. rfkiKicur'/jg {fa- 

9. Td[Jb[j(j0^ot, dfjbzroxoi, IffrzoyjiLzvoi, Hes., is u[jj(Jbo§oi (/-af/j- 

* Mionnet Description de medailles antiques, V. I, p. 98. 


jB/O^o/), i. e. dviv (JjOigug, kX^^ov, ovtsg. Suidas ydiL^o^og 
(i e. fa,iJjfo^og\ kijAroxpg- 

10. Fctval, favT}^, for aVa|, aV;;^, ^olic ace. to Dionys. 
Halic. (Archseol. I, p. 16, Reiske. and Lascaris' Gr. 
Gr., 3, B, p. 379, ed. Bresl., 1547) ; favul also from 
Alcman in Apollon. Alex, (yrz^) avrmv(/j.^ p. 365, Bek- 
ker). The MS. has there y ccm^. 

11. EAEinN, i.e. ' A^icov (fcc^iooi), upon the coins of 
Axus in Crete (Mionnet, vol. 2, p. 9.^^), and FAP- 
NUN, a name upon an Orchomenian inscription 
(Walpole Memoirs rel. to Turkey, p. 469, n. 2, Clarke 
Trav., vol. II, part II., p. 153).(RJ 

12. VccTVikuv^ hfjjikiiv^ Hes., is a^jjikuv {fa^i\€iv), 1: for [i,^ 
as in itir S[Jbou, Hort. Adon., p. 244, and -TnU^xoftjCit. 

13. ^Ivmii, huvBtv, aioXiKov, "ttXzovdi.gijju rov |3, Etym. M., 
under aXi^^vvm, thus softened from fhvvco. Of this 
description are the words which otherwise still com- 
mence with j3^, (p&. 

14. V^o'vicriazv^ i-^6(p)^(rsv, Hes., is hovTTfjffiv (^fhov'TT^ffsv') : 
unless here 7 before ^ adhered in the same way as y^ 
before in x^ikfv, %^g?, &c. Immediately below yi^ovrov, 
-^ocpov, is rightly restored yhovTrov. 

15. Fga^, lag-, Hes., is Fea^, f^^, |S%, Lat. ver. Or did, 
here also, together ^vith fyj^^ ver, the form yza^ stand, 
perhaps radically connected with the Germ. Jahr (Eng, 
year), the returning time. 

16. Yikv for Uiv from Alcseus in Apoll. Alex., p. 358, 
B, in the verse 'Tio-rs ^zojv (jbrjlW ' OXvf/j'ricov Avaai ung 
fk&zv. Add to this fol for oFfrom Sappho, ib., SQQ, A.(''' 
Hence also fzo, fk. Comp. fiv below. 

17* ^si/iocg, (/jKk^ccv — ^ZKug, pocz^ohv (i. e. S/cdg, fiKdg\ 
Hesych., ib., (ouzuadnijv, zur okiyov 'Tr^o^ug. — ^iipccxsg, 

18. 3bikocti, eiKOffi, Auzcovsg, Hes. The same word a])pears 
on the Herac. Tab., which also exhibit LEH, EEHH- 
KONTA, i. e. s^, i^riKOvra ; and on an Orchomenian 
inscription (Marsh Hor. Pelasg., I, p. J3,) FIKATI, 
as vig-inti.(^) 

19. Fg/^ava for iipdm, as iEolic in Priscian, p. 546. 


20. TsKocOoi, ixoma, Hes., is probably to be read yexajot, 
that is /-excijoi, ifcovaa. 

21. FEAATIH, the name of Elatea, in an Orchomenian 
inscription (Walpole, ut sup., p. 469, n. 3), and the 
name of the inhabitants FEAATIHT i. e. ikarijjtj for 
iKccrifji from 'EXar;sy?. ^^^ 

22. VzT^zvri, 'EXsv;?, Dionys. Hahcar., Lascaris, and Pri- 
scian, ut sup., Servius ad Virgil, p. 512, Hence, with 
the oldest Latins, Belena. 

23. ViKkcti, rlXm, Hes., is from fiXkca, Lat. vello. 

9,4i. TsXki%oif, (rvvu'krj()OCi, Hes., is zl'hkco, slXi^co, Mo\. fsXki^a. 
Comp. stXiM and siXvcj, fzlkpoo, fikpoo, hXvu, with voho, 
i.e. FOLEFO, FOLFO, voho and mlutus. Add ys- 
XiKTi, 'iyJi, ib. — Y'lKog for 'iXog in Dionys. Halic. (Archeeol., 
I, 20). See before, § CLii, 8, under 'TjX;?. 

25. Vikovrq^ov, sXvT^ov, Hes., with digamma and ov for v 
 (as siXrjXov^cc), from sX-m, kXvoj, siXvu, hence, an en^vrap- 

ping, an inclosure, supported by vel-um, vel-are. 

26. Te[/jpijOcroc, I^dria, Hes., is zi^ara, 'iybi/jKra, (fiiJjfJbccTcc), 
Bavarian hemmeten, and from the same root, ib., f/iar^a, 
aroXri — Yiariu, 'ivhvaic, of the same family with vestis. 
Germ, iveste, Eiig. vest. 

27- TiVTO, sXaQsv, a/iXuQsv, Hes. Suid. Comp. ymov, 
KOtt^ioi, Kut XccQ zcct zccOi^s, Hes. It is sl'Xeo with p 
instead of X (like riXOs, rjph), thus g/ko, tEoI. hvso, fkvvzo, 
/-svvov, or rather fivvzv. 

28. TivTOi (prob. ysvrsa), k^zoc, axXdyyi/cx., Hes. Add ykv- 
re§, 71 JcoiXioc, Hes., i.e. fivreg, Lat. iwnfer 3,ncient\y Jentcr. 

29. Tsrig (prob. yzXrig), IX'Trig, Hes., is IX'Ttig, fiXicig, with 
r instead of -r (as, on the other hand, GTTuXiig, Tri'Tr^ccTrrat, 
for (TTaXzig, Tzr^wirrui, Horti u4.don. j)' 244, b). Hence 
also fkX'Zco, fiX'TTi^oi), fzX'Kco^ri. 

30. FEHOS, i.e. f'litog, eTog, in the Elean inscription, 
hence si'Trov, stTra/p, &c., had the digamma, 

31. FEPrON, i.e. F&^yov, spyov, in the same inscription. 
It is written FAPFON. Comp. fdh^yog above, and 
the Germ, werk, Eng. ivork. 

32. FETA2, i. e. firag, 'irrjg, in the same inscription, ally. 


relation, as Teirovsg jj^g era/, 0{lyss,2 , l6, of the same 
root with the Germ. Vet-ter, cousin. 

33. Bspp;»jc, '^pa'PTzr/jg, and |3spps;y, l^ccTnTevziv, Hes., from 
gppg;v (f'eppeiv), fspp'/jg, wlience also the Lat. name V^en^es. 

34. LET02, LETE02, upon the Heracl. Tab., FETEA 
in the Elean inscription, FETIA in the Orchomenian, 
i. e. sVo?, 'irzog, sVsa, sr^a, all of them with the dig-amma. 
Add, in Hesychius, yWog, hiavrog, — yirogi, 'irn, Lacon. 
gVo^, /^groo, for 'irog. Comp. the Lat. vetus, vetustus, 
full of years, old. Also yivvov, annosum, from hog {fivog\ 
the year, Koen. ad Greg, Cor., p. 273. 

35. T'/j&icx, (prob. y^^ja), n^yj, Hes., is fri^ia, nka, ^% 
3G. r/a, clv6yj, Hes., is i'a (A/a, whence violce). 
3J. Fiv, ffoi (read ol), Hes., like s(jjii/y Ifjuoi, and fio, avrov, 
are fio, fiv. Add A^c? /^a, /^o, of which Apoll. Dyscol., 
Tg^; ffyvr., p. 432, D, says, 6? Alokzig ybzra, rov f vXri^o- 
GvKka^iiv (read rov f ir'kriooGoXKa.^ii,^ Kocra itaaav 'jtruGiv 
3i(u yhog. 

38. Yiitov, iiTTov, Hes., is fiTrov, elrovj as fllov (whence vtdi), 


39. Tig, lyAg Ku) laxdg (properly corrected Isyjjg), Hes., 
is pig, vis, as follows lower down under yi(s%vv, la^w. 

40. Ts(ra.[jjii/cci, si^hui, Hes., is hcc[jjzvai (^fi(TU[/jevcci), from 
A/Vpj/x/, i'fl-jjj'a;/, whence hcctri. 

41. r/cyrjv (prob. yiayov), hov, Hes., is, with double digamma, 
fifjfof, hence /o7?y in Homer, hov, and short in Attic, 'iffov. 

42. F/^rr/oi, Ifry^dr'/], Hes. (properly corrected SfT^j^a^a), is gVr/a 
(^fi(TTiu) like Festa, vesta. 

43. F/o-r/a/, larou^yoi, Hes., so that it was fiffriai ; add yiarico, 

•zaixroyjUi, future of hri^co (/-Kxri^cti), sisto. 

44. TiTzoc, irza, Hes., so that it was /vrga, vitex. 

45. B/rofXa, name of the town Oi'ryXo? in Laconia (Ptole- 
msRus), now Vitulo (Morritt in Walp. Mem., p. 54), 
so that it was originally firoukog, firukog, whence the 
common dialect made Oirvkog, as mog from pivog, vlog 
from fiog. 

46. Vtirvv, hw (firvv)' *' Quamquam (1. quamque) 'iruv 
Achaii dicunt, hunc (iiruv gens Mo\a." Terentian de 
Syllabb., p. 1397, Putsch. 


47. To7lut ol^a, and Toi^j^iai, l'7rt(Trcx.(/jOci, are /^o7loi and foihriiLL. 

48. FOIKI AN, i. e. oIkikv {foiziccv\ in the Petilian inscrip- 

tion : '"^ fviciocg for o/«/a? in a Bceotian inscription (see 
Bibliothek der Alten. Lit., 5 St. zu Anf.). Comp. 
viciis, and fdizog in Dionys. Halic, and Lascaris, ut 

49. FOMA, i. e. 6^'^ (^fofijo,), in an inscription of Orchome- 
nus. ^^) 

50. V^rj^zig. "A-ral ^g ' AkKouog fgrj^ng ccvri pri^stg zI'ttzv cog 

(priffi T^vpuv 6 fy§u[Jj[JL>ciTiK6g, Lascaris, ut supra. So 

that it is FPHr, FPAF, Hke FREG, FRAG, in 

Jre^i, fragilis, fracfMs. 

To the above must be added the already mentioned class 

of words with |3, originally /^, before ^ : (3^^r<y^, Priscian, p. 

547. B^a^a//»avry?, Hort. Adon., p. 244, b, (S^a^;?, ib., 236. 

^^/(^a, Apoll. Dysc, ut supra. Priscian, p. 548. Johannes 

Gramm. in Hort. Adon., p. 244, b. B^ur^^, Hort. Adon., 

p. 245, b. B^ur^^e?, Apoll. Dysc, p. 436. Of the words 

with digamma in the middle we shall speak hereafter. 

Obs. — The catalogue could be considerably enlarged by a comparison 
of the Greek, with the Latin and Teutonic tongues : e.^. a\ vah ! 
oX-og, Germ, voll, ^ng. full, vdu^, uSag (whence vdarog), Eng. tvater 
(like ^vydrrj^, daughter), Germ, wasser, s/'x-w, Germ, weich-e, Eng. 
weak, l^iM, say, from l^, ver-bum (root f-^F), icsv^a, vespera, oJvog, 
vinum, ov|/, vox, &c. 

§ CLIV. 


1. From that which has been advanced it appears, that 
the labial sound, universally, but especially in its most remark- 
able form, the digamma, was retained in those words which 
dropped it in the Attic and common dialects, not by the 
-Cohans alone, but also by lonians, Cretans, and Doric tribes. 
It has been traced likewise in the languages of other nations 



besides the Greek ; but it was not the iEoHans who brought 
the sound to Italy or Germany. The just conclusion is, that 
this sound was a peculiarity of the old Grecian, and the 
tongues related to it, and that its alphabetic character was 
called j^oUc only because the ^Eolians continued to employ 
it, as the Latins employed their F, in ivriti))(/, while with the 
other Greeks, it served merely for a mark of number. 

2. Next to general analogy, the foregoing conclusion is 
supported by the testimony of ancient authors. Thus Dio- 
nysius of Halicarnassus (Archseol. Rom., p. 16,*) treats of 
the digamma as a letter belonging to the Ancient Greeks, 
who prefixed it, he says, to most words beginning with a 
vowel; and Trypho (Mus. Crit, No. 1, p. 34), affirms, that 
the lonians and Dorians made use of it as well as the iEolic 
tribes, t 

3. The question as to its use in Homer must, therefore. 

ocTotTwi/ a'l aoyoA octto (pwri'iVTMV iysvovro, Tr^v ou (SuWaZriV hi eni^siu} ysyga/A- 
fjLBvrjv. TovTo d' tJv uff'ffs^ yd/Mfj^a hirroug raTc, 'xXayiatc, %. r. X. 

-|- Tid&ri Xs^iuv, § 10, ut supra, n^ogridirai to hiyaij^fia rra^d n "ludt 
%a} AioXsZai '/.ai Awj/sHff/ -/.ai Aaxwff/ -/.a! BoicuroTg, oiov avat, fdva^, 'EXsi/a 
fiy'via, — and Lascaris also from Tiyplion, ut supra, p. 379, T^ufuv 6 
T^a;xijMrr/.6g og xa; "Iwva; xai AuonTg xal Adxcuvag Kai 'Boiurovg auruj 
yJriC&aA (priGiv. — Wolf (Liter. Analect, part 3, p. 162, for theyear 1818,^ 
communicates this remark of Tryphon, in order to ^^ reconcile himself 
with the friends of the digamma," as something "for which they have 
sought so long, an authentic ^xoo^ of the use of digamma by the lonians" 
This " extract from the very respectable Grammarian" was alluded to in 
the second edition of this grammar, of the same date, with a reference to 
the Museum Criticum and to Lascaris, immediately after the passage 
from Dionysius, which is evidently the principal authority on the subject 
— ascribing the letter not to one tribe or another, but properly to the 
ancient Greeks in general, under which appellation the lonians are of 
course included. If we had no other evidence than Trypho' s, a conclu- 
sion from the lonians to Homer would still be a wide spring — since Ionic 
and Homeric are not identical. 


first be stated, without reference to the condition in which his 
poems have been transmitted to us, thus, — 

Is it Hkely that the Homeric poetry, composed in an early 
period of Greek history, should have possessed a sound be- 
longing to that ancient epoch, and to the original constitution 
of the Greek tongue ? 

4. We may be inclined to answer this question in the 
affirmative, although the sound, in the course of centuries, 
disappeared from the Homeric poems, and was the more 
certainly neglected in committing them to wiiting, inasmuch 
as in Attica, where this process took place, the alphabetic 
character of the digamma was out of use, 

5. The silence of the more ancient Grammarians as to 
Homer^s use of the digamma, does not make against this 
opinion. They found their copies of the Poet destitute of 
that character, and thought the less of restoring it to its 
original rights, from perceiving it to be, in actual use, con- 
fined to the iEolic dialect ; — they thus were led to suppose it 
an tEoHc peculiarity, while they treated Homer as an Ionic 

6. Still, of a sound that exerted so decided an influence 
over the quantity and form, of words, some traces must have 
remained in the Homeric poetry, which no lapse of time could 
efface. And these it should be our next step to discover. 

7. The force of the digamma, in the measurement of verse, 
is compared by Priscian * to that of a consonant, — with the 
example olo^zvog fz^^kvav iXiKoj'Tri^a,. 

* Priscian, p. 5'15, 546, " Teste Astyage, qui diversls hoc ostendit 
versibus." Hence this point is quite certain. So also Terentian de 
Syllabis, p. 239, Coiisotkb prcehere vices et digammos effiei. When 
Priscian adds, that the ^Eolians used it as a double consonant, as iu 

NiCrosa 6s foZ 'raiboi, 
he appears to speak without grounds; since in the verse quoted the length 
of hi is imputable to the arsis in caesura, not to a double consonant. 


§ CLV. 


1. In the list of digammated words we placed and explained 
ymov and yivro, i. e. f^mov and Fivro, old forms of sKou and 
sXsro. This yivro or fsvro is found in Homer's Iliad, ^, v. 43, 
f, V. 25, 241, and twice in c, v. 476-7, where the attempts 
to treat it as ysusro, or to get rid of the digamma, are equally- 
vain. The old form maintains itself here, supported by the 
laws of quantity, like an ancient corner-stone in the system of 
the language, while fzvvzro^ fkvvovro, &c., which, according to 
this analogy, must have stood in the primitive poetry, have 
been lost by reason of the similar quantity and more familiar 
form of iiXzro, ziXovro, &c. 

2. Of the same nature are yhovT'/jGav and yhov'Tog, i. e. fhO- 
'TT'/iaciv and fhovTroc, old forms of ^ov'Tryjaav (ibov'TTTjCiKv) and 
lou'TTog. See Hom. II., A, 45, s, 672, n, 411, «, 329, A, 152, 
(L, ^35, V, 154, ^, 88. Odyss., ^, 465, o, 112, 180. 

3. On the same principle may be explained the word 
cc(pccvlccm, Od., -r, 087. Instead of the (p it should be written, 
with digamma, ccfavldiKi, that is the verb is compounded not 
of ccTTo and ccv^dvcOf but of a privative and foivhavca,'^^^) the old 
shape of avhavo). 

§ CLVI. 


1. Where the digamma itself has vanished, the traces of its 
original presence have remained. Nowhere is this so evident 
as in the pronoun of the third person. Its ancient forms, as 
was pointed out in the list of digammated words, were fio, 
fko, piOsu, fo7, fk. That this pronunciation endured still at 


the epoch of the epic dialect, is demonstrated first by the 
negative ov, which is so placed before them, as if, not an 
as|)irated vowel, but a consonant followed it : thus, i'Tn} ov 
'i&iv Igt] yjozi&)v, II., a, 114, ov oi tTrura^ II., |3, 392. Comp. 
II., s, 53, }, 410, Od., a, 262, Its/ ov i, II., ^, 214. Now, 
had the pronunciation not been ov fkkv, ov foi^ ov fz, both 
the pronunciation and afterwards the orthography must have 
been ovy^ shv, ovy oi\ ov% i, like ovy oar/j, Od., y^, 412, ov-)q 
Iff'TTiadriv, II., y, 239, and other similar collocations. 

2. Another clear trace of a lost digamma, is the absence 
of the paragogic v before this pronoun in ^aik oI, II., g, 4, 
ojg zi ol avdi, II., (^, 281, t'^) o'i kz g, II., /, 155, and a number 
of other passages, which must have been ^oukv ol, ziv ol, yJiv s, 
and so on, had they not been pronounced }ioui foi, ok foi, zi 
fi, and the like. 

3. Hence there is, 

a. A lengthening of the syllable not by arsis, but on ac- 
count of the diqamma in 7arj(a, yJiv i x.vnq, II., %, 42, 
rya^ shv, II., ;, 419, 686, &c. 

b. No hiatus in ' Ar/jk^a,, 'io, II., ^, 239, o^to 'i&iv, II., (^, 
62, ccvTi s, II., %, 172. Compare Od., ^, 211, II., s, 
343, V, 163, V, 261, Od., g, 459, /, 398, 461, cp, 136, 
II., [J., 205, V, 278, g, 96, 1^, 803, 0, 165, &c. &c. 

The collocation "hi 01 alone, without elision, occurs in more 
than a hundred instances.* 

4. In opposition to this theory there are, in the case of g^gv, 
go, g, six places, of which II., g, 56, 80, II., v, 402, 'z-^oakv 
S0SV (pivjovra, and Od., 7], 217, iyJikivazv go, are to be corrected 
by dropping the paragogic v. — Moreover, Od., <r. 111, y^i i 
hnKccvomT I'TTiiGaiv (where the scansion would be zou A,) is 

* Amid this multitude of examples there appears here and there one 
opposed to our view of the subject, which Hermann ad Orph., p. 775, 
has collected and examined. — In Od., /, 360, wg spar* ahrd^ o'l aurig lyi) 
m^ov, a Breslau MS. has &!? 'if'- drag; — we should read, therefore, ug 
(par- drd^. In Od., 0, 105, svd' hav 01 'xi'Tr'koi rrafi'Jor/.iXoi, the same MS. 
has svdd 0/ 'iaaav tstXo/, which guides us to 'iv6a 'iffav tstXo/, the more 
certainly that ovg xdfiiv odirri renders the foregoing &/ unnecessary. 



rightly written without I, in a MS. of Breslau, and the Cod. 
Harleian. collated by Porson ; and II., ?, 162, rih ^s oi zccroc 
^u[/jOv aoiarri (puivzro ^ovkri 'YXhlv zlg'Xhriy zv hrvvxaccv i uurrjv 
is corrected by Hermann (ad Orph., p. 778?) into hrvvu/rccy 
so that the nominative depends upon the idea of the resolution 
which is expressed in n^z Vz ol — a^larri (paivzro ^ovXrj, she 
resolved — to go — having adorned herself. — A seventh place : 
'Ttzioyj^ri §' £0 avrov zv hrzai })iog ' Ay^iXkzvg, II., r, 384, could 
easily be reduced to rule, by a change of form, 'ffzi^rj^'/i ^z zv, 
but in fact, as will be shown below (§ CLViii, 6), it is merely 
an apparent exception. 



1. By similar tests we may prove that many other words 
had the digamma in Homeric versification, — especially such 
as are known to have had it in the ancient form of the Greek 

a. When short vowels suffer no elision before them : as, 
avrovg ^g zK&jpicc, II., cc, 4 (read fz'ku^ioc and compare 
T'zvTo, n. 27 in the catalogue); ' Ar^zil'/jg rz aVaf, II., a, 
7 (read fuvu^ and compare this word in the list), &c. ; 
or are used long: [jbri (jav ccTroz^ffziz, II., (p, 329. Comp. 
Wspprjg, n. 32, cat., avatzcug, a^jZ^ahkd loLyjtjv, &c. 

h. When in composition also neither elision nor crasis 
takes place: as, ^/as/Tj^st', zTiavhan, k'Ttozi'Ttz, dzgyog, 
aoiyrjg, a,zzrjri, azXTT^g, a.Trroz'^rfig, ZKazpyog, ^zozilrjg, all of 
which are compounded of words, which, according to our 
former list, had the digamma in the old language. 

€, When verbs, where it appears that theg should have 
the temporal augment, take the sgllabic : as, gags, za^ccv, 
II., n, 270, Od., y, 298, mXn, II., v, 408 ; or have the 
digamma converted into v still remaining, as zvulzv, II., 
^, 340, f, C47, supported by falzco, pcthziv, fcc}iv, Pocggoc, 
n. 4, in catalogue. 


2. In this way it may be easily demonstrated, tliat the 
most of those words which were pronounced with the (h- 
gamma in the ancient tongue, retained the same pecuHarity in 
the Homeric language. The non-elision of vowels before 
them will alone be a sufficient test with reference to many 
vocables. Thus with reference to several beginning with 
a: dyvv^i, aivu[jjCit, and particularly to the words ava^ and 
civdffffaj. See the Misc. Critica of Dawes, p. 141, who has 
collected all the examples in Homer, and amended those 
passages which seem to oppose this notion. 

3. With reference to words that begin with s, it is neces- 
sary to observe, 

a. That the syllabic migmcnt, originally, did not differ from 
Tcduplicatioyi (as the forms rsrvzouro, XsXadeffdcci, XsXa- 
xovTO, XsXa^szV, '7n(p^cchkiv, testify), so that digammated 
verbs would have the digamma prefixed also to their 
augments. For example, since gXTo/Aa/ was really fiX- 
'TToyboci, and zizo) fiizco^ 'O^yc^a lik'TTiro, Od., \//, Si5, 
should be 'Ohvarjoc fifikxiro', slg co-ttk eoiKZ, II., y, 158, 
should be sig oo'tto, fifoiKz ; and so in similar instances, 
as, fkfok'Tta.^ Od., (3, 27<5, and 'i^yoo {fk^yoo)^ f'lfo^yn. 
h. But since even in Homer's time the first consonant of 
the reduplication was so far shaken, that it appeared 
only in certain words, and in these not universally (for 
we find 'i\ayj)v^ £^a%£) &c., as well as "kikdyj^n, II., -^z, 
76, \iKaxmi^ ib., ;;, 80), so it is manifest that the 
digamma before £ may be equally affected, and that 
there is nothing inexplicable in such collocations as 
'h^driKag 'ifor/cz, Od., ^, 146 ; oarig foi r Inrkoizz^ II., 
I, 392, and a few more of the same kind. See Od., (^, 
193, II., (p, 583, y, 186, %, 216, &c. 
4. Homer appears to have preserved digamma in the 
following words : sa^ ; i'^ov, o/^a, and the other parts of that 
verb ; I'lhog ; lihcSkov ; zix,oai ; ky.m ; 'iTiriTi ; il'kico and its 
varieties and derivatives ; ikiaaco ; 'i\i% ; sXt/? ; g'X^^y ; i\uq^ ; 
hv\j[M and its derivatives ; gVoj, iii:ov, &c. ; 'iog and og ; ioyov^ 
'io^yoi, &c. ; hosco ; 'ippco ; sWs^og ; srrjg ; 'irog ; ^^vg and rihoi^oii ; 
i^Qog ; 'iov ; lovOo:,g ; 'ig ; hog ; hrii/ji ; 'irvg ; oiKog and words 
connected with it ; ohog and its derivatives. 


5. Again, some words seem to have been digammated by- 
Homer, as to the digamma of which, neither inscriptions nor 
any other relics of antiquity afford evidence. Such are clkig, 
akrjvai, aXoJvcct, cI'tttco^ a^aiog, a§la>, a^vzg, darv, zUu, 'iovov, 
eki^Ki, 'iOvog, spcuffrog, 'hv^og, SKrikog, ^Vo-vlz/'H^;?, hx^oo, IccyJ], 
ixfjbdg, ouXa{Jb6g, ovkog : add to these ud^tu^ zizzKog, 'ioycoy k^yoj, 
l^yddctf, spho), i^vu, Irmiog, ijzcc, ifkog, l'i[Mai, "IXiog, i'TTsg, 'Igtg, 
IcoYj, 606v'/], cuX^, cug. 

6. With regard to other words of the catalogue, nothing- 
can be decided, from the few places in which Homer uses 
them, as to their digamma ; such are hrsocc, i^XiKig, TikiziYi. 
Some have lost it in Homeric Greek, as tkog^ which occurs 
in two places: JWo/ tkog x.oi,roi, II., y, 221, civ })ovot,H,(x,g zcci 
sXog, Od,, I, 474. So also 'EXsv^. In II., 7, alone we find 
a{ju(p 'EXivnv, 91,— gVs/^' TAsvpjv, 282, 285,— ay^' 'EXiw, 
383. — Add ciXTTji ccv^i^, vhcu^. 



1. But few words are used by the Poet, without excep- 
tion, in the manner required by the digamma, ^vith which 
they commenced ; namely, such as but rarely occur. These 

are aXmui, a^aiog^ zhvov, sdu^ai, 'idvog, gWs^oj, 'irTjg, fppof, '/jvo-^p, 
'iov, iohvs(pzg, lov0dg, ovXci(/j6g. 

2. In all the rest, either a greater or less number of 
instances oppose the digamma. But few, however, as we 
have seen, in the case of go, ol, £, &c. Next to these the 
digamma is maintained most steadily in the words aVa|, aVry, 
u[ji,a and cognate vocables, and 'ioifcs (f&foizz or 'ifoiKz), a 
word which occurs in 115 places, only 9 of which reject the 
digamma.* With regard to the exceptions, it may thus be 
received as certain, that the ignorance of later times, when 

* Hermann in the review of Heyue'a Homer, Leips. Lit. Zeit., ISOS, 
July, p. 44). 


the digamma had vanished from the Homeric poems, and the 
alterations to which the poems were subjected, were the real 
causes of their introduction. 

3. But in the case of other words, considered as having 
had the digamma, so many places and such undeniable read- 
ings mihtate against the use of this letter, that the ignorance 
above alluded to, and the alterations produced by it, will not 
suffice to clear up the difficulty. Thus their appears in 25 
places Ipoaj'Tng r/rorvKx, "Hg*??, leathng us to the form fri^ri ; and, 
on the other hand, we find ^ga "kivyJAzvog "He;? in 21 places, 
supported by y^^vaoO^ovog "Hgyj in two. Even in the same 
book this difference occurs : thus "kiuzcoXzi/og "li§ri, II., a, 5.5, 
-TTorvia, "H^??, ib., 551, -/ovao^oovog "H^;?, ib., 6ll. In the same 
way 'TTorvia "H€;j, II., §, 2, is opposed by KocXua^vPOV "H€;j{', 
Od., \ 602, iMiXinlM ohou, II., ^, 258, k, 579, Od., ;, 208, 
&c., by [jjsXr/jUog ohov, II., ff, 54<5y Od., y, 46. The like 
happens with regard to the words oi^vzg, izug, SKccffrog, i/caiv, 
'i^yov, '/jhug, "IXiog, ' Igig, l(jog^ oV/.og. 

4. The use of the digamma is equally variable in the tenses 
and moods of verbs. Thus to fiayj^ and the substantive 
fioc/jii which reveal themselves in jM/sya 'io(,yj)v, II., ^, 506, ^, 
317> jM-sya /a^oyca, ib., s, 343, yhzro locrx/i, ib., ^, 456, &c., 
is opposed h.\jj(piotr/jSioLV not k[jj(pificcyyiav^ ib., 31 6.'^*^ Against 
a^ofii'Trriy ib., /, 506, a/(Ti[jjCc 'Xu^fii'Traj)/^ ib., i^, 62, ;;, 121, 
vvv ^s ijjZ 'Zdofii'Ttoua akoypg^ ib., ^, 337, stands |M/^ cs Troc^zi'Trri, 
ib., a, 555. From fayco comes ^fs in JWs/ov ^s ol ^gs, ib., 
%//, 392, although faJiiv, 'ifa^iv, Ifdyri, are so frequent and 
established that scc^oc and kccyf^v remained even in the Attic 
dialect. Against fava,^, favocfyaz, stands '/ivarraz, against fzXiGaco 
itXt'TToug, against f7(pi '\(piySkd^'i^g. Thus fi^ov and i'Sov, IfoiKojg 
and sUv7u, fsihaig and &iluiu, fz-Trog and hi(7'?raj, &c., contradict 
one another. 

5. Since, then, on the one hand, the existence of tlie di- 
gamma, and, on the other, its frequent absence, have appeared 
as facts, and since the former can as little be mistaken as the 
latter denied, or ascribed solely to the ignorance of gram- 
marians and transcribers, the question arises, how can these 
apparent contradictions be reconciled ? 


6. Priscian * says that, in scansion, the iEoHans sometimes 
reckoned the digamma for nothing. The example adduced 
by him is ay^ijusg ^' fiiPuvav, from which it appears that ^s, in 
apostrophe before the digamma, suppresses tliat letter. Accord- 
ingly the follomng places do not militate against the digamma, 
since in them it was suppressed by ^' : 

omn ^' cl^v ZTi^Tiv, II., y, 103, 'Trsgiffffiiovro ^' Usi^cci, ib., r, 
382 (but "TTi^iCiffiiovTo, 'ihi^oii, i. e. fidngoii, ib., |, 315), 'Tru^TiOt) 
^' h oivrov, ib., r, 384<, and so, in various passages, iWia; ^' 
siffdf/jBvog ; rov h' 'i^ov ; rig §' oi^' si ; TpjXs^a^o; §' s/;2;y?a ; cy;/ 
SKOcOiii ; gy o o/;cao tKicOai ; gj' o o/vov s^sysJ', &c. 

7' The license given to the simple l& cannot be refused to 
o^s, cti'^s, ouhs, and so ro^' si'^sf/jsvoci, II., '/], 375, &i^' giT;;<r/j', ib., 
;j, 300, ovK M TTccihi ci(jjvm, ib., -r, 522, may stand without 

8. Fg exerts the same force as U in the suppression of the 
digamma. Hence we may preserve, without any offence, 
Avrag oy oV (piXov vlov, II., ^, 474, si zstvco y l'7rk(T(Ti, ib., |, 
208, and, in other places, roi y haai ; ri av y oivux-Tog, &c. 

9. If, then, we may consider it as proved, that in the case 
of apostrophe, after ^s, o^g, u^z, ovh's, ^;j^g, yg, oyg, the di- 
gamma of the next word disappears, it can scarcely be doubted 
that, in conformity with this practice, the digamma should be 
dropped after other apostrophized words also. Hence we may 
deduce the general rule that, after apostrophe the digamma 
is thrown away. And thus, according to the analogy of ^' 
zi<TcifLivog, ^' sr/cvla,^ &c., we find o<p/ sihn^ II., ^, 406, o(p^ 
liirco^ ib., ;?, 68, and, in a similar manner, Iv sih/jg ; cloijbccr 
avcczTojv ; Kihv si'bvloc', KoX sIkvIcc', {i(TO[jtj' i/caar'/jv ; 'iadi' 'iz^- 
Xog ; rs§(jjad' iXi(T(Ti[Msv ; 'bd[Jbi»^iM k'Trkffffi, &c. 

* De Arte Granim. Dawes remarks upon this fut sup., p. IQ9J : 
alteram ejusdem doctrinam, ^oles itidem digamma pro nihilo quandoque 
accepisse, futilem esse atque ahsurdam — But why ? Quod enim adducit 
— quill corruptum sit, nihil dubii esse debet. He alters it accordingly to 
"Afif/jc bs or "A/m/mi Bs. — That is really to say, the doctrine is false, therefore 
the example must be corrupt, instead of what should be proved, the ex- 
ample is corrupt, therefore the doctrine must be false. Even granting the 
corruptness^ i\iQ falsity does not follow, as the sequel will show. 


10. Still a much greater number of places remains, that 
reject the inci})ient digamma in words to which it belonged, 
without any apostrophe to suj)press that letter ; so that the 
question arises, whether the digamma may be supplanted as 
well by the necessities of versification as by the influence of 

11. To accouiit, generally, for the disappearance of the 
digamma, let us observe, 

a. What was previously said as to its attenuation and 
rejection, whence we may understand how some words, 
originally digammated, such as focv/j^, fihkvri^ fvhco^, 
entirely lost the digamma in the Homeric dialect, and 
liow others, though they retained digamma in themselves, 
lost it in their derivatives, as flp in 'i(p0i[jijog, 'l(pizXsi'^'/jg; 
fihov in 'IhofJtjivivg; fikiaaco in zlXiTTohzg; f'l'Ttog in hia'Tca). 
h. The disappearance of other consonants from the begin- 
ning of words. Thus, (jbuXsvgov and akzv^ov\ zu'^rivr} 
(Thessalian) and kitrivri'-, especially that of a in aXgy 
Lat. sal, Eng. salt ; es, Lat sese, Eng. self; 'i^uv^ Lat, 
sedere, Etuji. sit ; zivcci. Germ, seyn ; gf, Lat. sex, Encf, 
six ; sVra, Lat. septem, En(f. seven ; vXyj^ Lat. sylva 
(ffvXf'/j') ; v'^&g, Lat. super ; vtto, Lat. sub ; ug^ Lat. 
sus, Eng. sow : and from the middle of words, as, 
MoDca, Spart. Maia; KXsoy(7a, Spart. YJ\.zco(x,; -Trui^ovfyojv, 
JSpart. 7rciihla/S,y ; ^lovffdojv, Lat. Musarum ; '^or/jrciav, 
Lat. poetarum, &c. 
12. Moreover, that the same word, at the same epoch, 
might be pronounced with the digamma, or without it, ac- 
cording to the exigencies of metre, as fsiTov or sittov, fi^yov 
or 'i^yovy we learn from the analogy of other words, which, in 
like manner, retain or reject the initial consonant. Thus, 
r in ya/a, aia : as larova^yfC^TO youa,^ IK /3, 95, &c., but 

(puffiZpog aia, II., 7, 243, &^c. 
A in hojxco and iojk'/;. Tlie verb in all forms of the present, 
in which alone it is used, ha)zssv, })iMZi^jZvo(,if hajzof^sv/], 
&c., always with ^; but the derivatives 'la/x^, II., s, 
740, icozdg, ib., g, 521, tajzccy ib., X, GOl, together with 
the compound Trockico^ig, II., /!//, 71? compare II., 0, 69, 
601, always without ^. 


K in x,iuv and loov : as Xs^oc^s fcicjv, II., y, 447, ^iid other 
places, but Mavrog lojv, ib., a, 138, &c. ; the latter forms 
\loiJV, lovau, loiiv, &c.,) are found in about 200 places, 
the former [kiojv, ziovca, Kio[Mev, Ktoirs, &c.,) in about 50. 

A in XsiQ,M, s'l^co : as Ai'i KsiQetv, II., (^, 266^ Scd but 
hdz^vov si^si, ib., r, 323, &c. ; in Xui-^Ti^og, ai-\pyi§6g, as 
^gj^oj Xccs-d/'/iocx, rz yovva^ ib., %, 204, &c., but TayOjO/ai' 
ul-^Tjoog ^s ;io^o? z^vzooio yooio, §, 103, &c. Compare 
II., r, 276, &c. 

M in |W;/a, i'a : as rcj ^s |!a/^? ■rsg'/ I'^joV s^ov otoj'oj', H., 0, 4l6, 
&c., but r^? (Mv l^g (Jrr/Jg J?f%s, ib., -r, 173, &c., as the 
necessity of metre may demand. Tlie form i'a is even 
occasionally found employed merely to avoid the repeti- 
tion of |00, as h ^2 r Iri Tifjurj yj[Mv zu/cog, II., /, 319;^^*^ just 
as, without necessity, the (p, which is the representative 
of the (hgamma in the word <p^, is often rejected, since 
this is always '/i at the beginning of a verse. 

n in Ti^i and e^i. Yls^i frequently is adverbial, ver?/, 
instead of iti^iacug^ and in compounds 1^/ is used with 
the same meaning : egiQpo[jjog, l^iyhovTvog, Igizvh'^g, &c., 
perhaps radically connected with the Germ, sehry Eng. 

2 in (Tvg and vg. Against ffusg, (TviffTi, stand also vsg, usfffft 

as the verse may demand. See II., ;, 467, Od., tc, 24<3, 

ib., V, 410, I, 8, 0, 397, Sec. 

13. Since, then, kiojv, kio^zv, Ket%co, Xui-^p'/i^og, fjjirjg, yccToc, 

yaiT^g, yciTciv, Sec, according to the exigencies of metre, might 

also be pronounced as /s^v, 'lOLLZVy u^co, ai-^rjgog, Irjg, aia, ccif^g, 

alav, &c., it need not seem extraordinary that digammated 

words should, on the same principle, sometimes throw away 

the digamma, especially since, in their case, the mutability of 

the letter, its suppression after apostrophe, and its entire 

; extinction in later times, come in aid of such a supposition. 

j Thus we may allow in one set of instances the collocations 

j aXXcc, fava% aXXa, fdvaaffa,^ Takaiovi^uo fdvazrog, &c., and, 

I in another set, yao dvazTog, (juh aVa|, rig -zzo olvaaazg^ ^ufjbov 

i avufiTog, &c. ; in one place, (pd^iLaza. fzihojg^ and in another, 

,1 si'ys jU/gy iihzir,g ; in one place, uvh^u. fzKarrrov^ and in another, 

1! '^^vijjOv SKUffTCtfy and so fixog or sVo?, Fi^yov or %yov, &c. 



14. Wliat has been here admitted on the grounds of ana- 
logy and induction, namely, that the digamma may stand or 
fall according to the exigencies of metre, is clearly demon- 
strated (not to mention again y'lvro^ i.e. f'zvro or fikro^ which 
is found in some places, while g/'Xsro appears in others), in 
ioiybovito';^ i.e. lolf^ovTog, which becomes lo'ihovTog when the 
syllable requires to be shortened : thus, loiyhovToio, II., g, 67^, 
&c., IpiyhnvTTog 'Tcoaig "A^^jc, ib., ;j, 411, &c., but azrdcov Ipi- 
^ovTrojv^ ib., y, 50, aWovarig l^ihovTrov, ib., cj, 323, &c. it is 
demonstrated also in fj, as, which is (p^, i. e. f'/j in II., (5, 144^ 
since on that line (ztv/jdrj h' ayoo^, ojg zv[JjUTcc [Mocz^a, ^ccXuffffr.g,^ 
the Scholiast remarks that Zenodotus \wites (p?) zuf/jarcc ; and 

thus too at ib., ?, 499? o ^£ ^^, pccj^biocv avcco'Xiyjv, Ui(p§ciVs 

rz liPckaai, zou zvyj)[jjivog sVoj rfoha,'* Zenodotus gives o ^g, (t7\ 
7ioj^Zia,v avaaj/jv^ Iii(poa^i, z. r. X. Here Homeric usage forces 
us to abandon (pri for g'(p;>j, and the rules of versification force 
us to retain the consonant in (prj, unless, with Aristarchus, (^^' 
in spite of sense and connection, we give up the verse alto- 
gether, from an uncritical horror of the word (p-/} or f-^. 

15. Lastly, in furtherance of our proofs, we may cite also 
those forms which, as we shall presently see, had the digamma 
in the middle of the word, and yet dropped it as the verse 
might require : thus, suz?iXog, i. e. ifzrjkog and 'iz'ifkog, avra^^ 
i.e. kfrao and ara^, 'Ar^s/^«o, i.e. ' Ar^zibafo and ' Kr^zfbzcoy 
cjCkivvM&m and uJlkaa^vj^ &c. ; as, in Latin, both amaverunt 
and (avmcriuit) amarunt, paraverunt and pnrarunt^ audi- 
verant and audierant were in use at the same time. 

* Douhiloss from Manuscripts. It may be observed, by the way, that 
Iloraeric criticism would gain much in clearness and certainty, if more 
attention wer(! pr«id to Zenodotus, and to his important and remarkable 
readings of the Foet's text, than to the often partial and pedantic Aris- 
ta rebus. 


§ CLIX. 


1. We may, in the first place, admit as correct the Hst of 
digammated words in Homer which Heyne has given in an 
Excursus upon the IHad, book r (vol. vii, pp. 708 — 77^, of 
his edition), leaving- it to future research to ascertain whether 
one or two words may not yet be added to that catalogue ; 
and, this done, we may, 

a. In the treatment of the text, prefer those readings which 
are conformable to the use of the digamma, since it is 
more probable that this letter might have been dropped 
by grammarians and transcribers ignorant of its claims, 
than that the poet should, without metrical necessity, 
abandon it. 

h. If the digamma cannot recover its right by critical aid, 
without appealing to conjecture^ then the place should 
be left undisturbed, since it is doubtful whether it has 
been corrupted by the alterations of grammarians, or 
rejects the digamma in obedience to the will of the Poet. 
It is only in this way, that, without giving up the doc- 
trine of the digamma, the Homeric text can be preserved 
from perpetual and flagrant violations. 

2. With greater confidence may we, before digammated 
words, throw away the paragogic v, write ov instead of oy^^, 
and dismiss those particles, which have been inserted instead 
of the digamma, evidently from ignorance, to fill up the verse. 
Thus hOiV clo oIvi^ovTo for hhv /-oivi^ovro, II., rj, 472, oVxorav 
i(j6[JjOdov for oV-rors fiGoyjooov, ib., o, 209, joosra r -^dzcc Kut 
voi/jOv for (Mta fri&icx,^ ib., ^, 511, &c. Here also it is left to 
future observation to determine how far, through these and 
similar safe alterations, the passages apparently opposed to 
the digamma may be diminished in number, and the list of 
words, which in Homer's usage retained the digamma, be 


§ CLX. 



1. In order not to curtail or disconnect the history of the 
digamma, and at the same time for the sake of giving yet 
more support to the doctrines already propounded, we shall 
add what is to be said as to this letter in the middle of words, 
a subject belonging rather to the dialect than to the versifi- 
cation of Homer. 

2. In the Latin tongue we perceive it joined to consonants 
in comburo from con-uro ; sylva from v\yj or the old vXfy} ; 
cervus from zi^caog, Mo\, fcz^zog, old zzgsfog, thus kerevus, 
kervus, cervus, the homed animal ; volvo from fsXifco, FiXfoj ; 
salvus from (xafog ; arva from a^ofu, as vivo from ^lofco ; 
curvus from yv^og, which must have been y'v^fog. In Greek 
we find, in Suidas, ^s^S/cr^^, i. e. ^g^Acr^^ from 'hzi^u), and 
ok^ayi/iov, i. e. oTiZ-a^v/o^, a vessel in which the ovkai (of which 
the true form thus appears to have been oXfcci,) were de- 
posited. We find also I'^t^'bag, i. e. Itti loctri accorchng to the 
Scholiast on Pind. Pyth., IV, 249, and (n^'byji/, there quoted ; 
pv(i>^og from py^y in the Etym. Magn. Add hfog, aftjfo^og. 
The sound is retained in ydjjj^opg, [jbZ(Tri[JbQ§irj. To this class 
belongs also AFVTO, properly afro, in the Delian inscrip- 
tion. ^'^) Now as i/Tog, ovXoit, yv^og, have come from fiafog, 
okfai, yv^fog, so similar long vowels and diphthongs appear 
to be of similar origin, as ovka\jjog, h^ouco from h^ofu, k'Mvco 
from k/cofcij, whence a;50^, r/jM/^ from rifoj, tiFijjtj. So ofjuiXog, 

TTi^lXoV, "TTl^a^, (pvkOV, '^V')(fO, '^V'XJl, ItTVU. 

3. The digamma stands also between vowels : avariis, 
aaroc (JifccTog), drog, jlchivi, ^ Axaifoi, cevuni, (xlfm, aver- 
nus, dpo^vog, Argivi, ' A^yzifoi, bos, bovis, ^ofg, (Bo fog, Davus, 
Accfog, according to Priscian, p. 710» /3''o?> compare vivus, 
^lou, vivo, clavis, nXocig, divus, oiog, levis, Xiiog (l!zfog'), lavOy 
7,ofco, Xovco, Mavors, Mars, (jjoifo), novus, v'lfog, niFn, bibo, 
rivus, '^ofog, probus, Tgocvg, Mo\. vr^afug. Add rufcog, Xafog, 


quoted from Villois. Proleg-. to the Iliad, p. 4, IdFiov, Alcman, 
■Kcct ;^£7/M/a tz)^ re Idfiov in Priscian, p. 547- — EFAOIOI2 
in the Elean inscription, AIFI on the Olympic helmet, ('^) 
2irETET2I, i.e. 2irEFET2I, in the Si^ean inscription, 
K0MAFVA02, i.e. ctv}Mfoihog for avXcolog, KiOoc^aFoibog for 
xiQccouhog^ 7^ccycu6og, -Kcoi/jcohog, on an Orchomenean inscription 
(Clarke^ ut sup.^ p. 15S). 

4. To this head belong in Hesychius A/Ssro?, azrog, Ylz^- 
yccioi. — ' A^Ti^om^ aT^ova.. — ' Kxoo^uM&ai^ vxcczovuv. — "Y.^oc(rov, 
sccffov, ^vgazovatoi (thus Idco was hfuco, i^ocaj) — compare what 
Gregor. Corinth, p. 354, quotes as Doric, t^ so, suoc, ro 'iaaov 
2ucc(Tov.— Aa^sKog, laKog,,ojng. — 0a€a^of, ^a;coi', thus 
'^afccKov, '^a^cizov, 'i^auzov, '^otKov. — From the Pamphylian dia- 
lect in Eiistath. ad Odyss., p.lG54, Oa^og, ^a^zkiog, o^ovQco, or, 
since ov arises from the change of the digamma, more properly 
o^o^a;. — To this head appertains also what Priscian says, p. 
547, and more fully at p. 710, viz., that the ^olians placed 
the digamma between two vowels: *' this is proved," he says, 
"by very ancient inscriptions, written in the oldest characters, 
which I have seen upon many tripods." He cites, p. 547, 
A7][/jO(pdfsov, which, at p. 710, he calls Ariijjopofcov, and at p. 
547, Kufozafcov^ which, at p. 7IO, becomes Kaozofoov. A;?- 
Ijj0(pa,fojv, KaFoKafav, are right ; the other forms in -oojv must 
have arisen, after the neglect of the dio;-amma, from the 
contraction of -acov to -m and the insertion of 0. 

From all this it is already clear, that, in the old language, 
the digamma appeared in words between the open vowels. 

5. It has been already stated (§ xix, 4), that, before a 
vowel, the digamma passed into u, or in Greek into v. 
Priscian quotes from Latin the nunc mare nunc siluce of 
Horace, and the zonam soliiit diu lujatani of Catullus. As 
aves gives auceps and auf^ur, faveo fautoi\ and /ai-o lautuSy 
so from atoj, i. e. aFistj, comes avio, and with the insertion of 
d avdio, audio, from yatoj, i. e. yaficu, come //avio (Hience 
(/avisus,) and (/audium (jaudeo. The Etym. Mag. has j^oL 
avojg, fj riaig ; Hesychius has au^y?, yji/Apo, ; Eustathius, p. 548, 
has av^yjZTog for appj^xTog from df^rizrog, infractus ; and 


Heracleides * has as j^ol. 'havXog, IcxXog (Spartan BaSsXojA 
so that it was hccfiXog, hcc^iKog, 'havXog, haXog. Observe also 
locv-xjiv, Idxsv ('in German, jauclien, jauchzeii). 

§ CLXI. 


1. The digamma appears connected with a consonant, in 
Homer, in fjiji^jijQXsTo, fJbifibQXcozs, -ttcc^ijAijij^Xooks. It was (jij'ifXoj, 
f^iQXctj, as, in Hesychius, we find ^iQXso'' [jbiXXsiv(^or, as it should 
be written, ^iXziv). Thus iLifXo[jMi^ ^i[jJi^Xiro^ yJijjAXiTo^ — 
and so with the other forms. So we may explain a^riv^ 
a^ri^oTig^ g^^s/ffsf, (^) yTro^^s/W^rg?, as having" been ahfyjv, a- 
'bfyjKong, ItfiKTZv, virohfiiamng^ compared with iaog^ a[j!j[M^og^ 
app7]Z7og, from i(jfog, KiJjfo^og, clf^r,K,Tog^ compared also with 
dueUiim^ which was dvellum^ dhellum^ and hence helium 
('perhaps connected with ^vzXXa), asDuilliiis^Duellms, were 
called likewise Billius^ Bellius. " Ahfrjv is found also as a^pjf, 
without the digamma, and thus it augments the list of words 
which retain or drop this letter according to the demands of 

2. We may conclude, from preceding remarks, that the 
digamma appeared also betwen open vowels, in Homeric 
Greek. 'A'/iy, a/Wo;, oig, zXrjig, A^^'iov, &c., since they are 
never found contracted into kioj, (laaco, otg, JcXrig, ' A^nov, were 
evidently pronounced a/^/ia;, afiadco, oftg, fcXrjfig, A^Tjfiov as 
aix.av, clz^yog, &c., were afiKojv, dfz^yog^ &c. Thus likewise 
^aFcx,Kog, ^a/uffffs/v, 'ifaGOv^ dfi6Xov, kfii (^ahi), dfu^co, dfii^a), 
ufiffTiog (not dviffTiog'), 'A/V^pjc,'^^' dfil}]Xog, dXofd (^dXcod), 
dfoXX'/jg, dfoXt, (ci'X?), dfo^, dfoorrjp, dfog {a,vog\ dfcChkog 
{ava}^iog\ d^TTj {dvT'/i\ dfr(jj'/] {dvT^?i), Germ, athmen, 

* In Eustath., p. 1654, 1. 28, the passage should be read and arranged 
as follows : "Et/ Xsyu ('HgaxXE/'^Jjj) xa/ 6V/ AioXsTg rw a T^offridivng to v [ug 
(priCi xa! ' A^lara^y^og, rra^arihig rh dra^, auru^ — ) daXog, duuXog, I'a^sv, 
/au^sv Xiyovdi. Oiirw xa; ipdffxu, fauexu. 


yi^ufog {yzoaiog) or y^afog^ Gerin. grau^ aiifieiitly </rav, 
^af'/jp, hdfij (haico^ h^jfiog, Ifavog, K^afccl'voj (^z^ajtyJvoj), from 
KPAF, whence the Germ, kraf-t, Xafdg (Xaj), Xufiy^, 
Aafigrrjg, Xifoov (Germ. Leu, anciently jLrr, Avlienee Loeice), 
ofag i^ovg), g"en. ofarog (^ovoirog\ hfioj, 'Tri/'ifo} (j7r<jZico\ (pafzvvog 
(jpazivog\ yjifco, xj^dfco, xoifog, together with all snbstantives 
and verbs of the same kind havinof a vowel before the linal 
vowel. In case of contraction the digamma disappears, thus 
Ar^ii^otfo, At^si'^ixo, Ar^ii%co. 

3. The language is full of traces of the diganima changed 
into V. It appears in the termination svg, as (ouaiXivg, 'O^ua- 
(Tivg, 'Argsvg, ' A%,/XX2i3?, Tvhsug, words of which the roots are 
seen more clearly in the Latin forms Ulysses, Achilles, and 
are perfectly revealed in the forms TVTE, AXLE, ATPE, 
upon old Italian works of art. But like ^aatXifg, so nmst 
there have been ^oc(Ti}Jjfog, (ouaiXifcj QdocaiKsua;), (iccdiXt^fig 
(ri[/j}jg (ici(TiX'/]'i^og, II., Z., 19^), (oa<nX^fiog {y'lvog ^^aaCXviiov, 
Od., T, 401 j.(^^^ The digamma remained in the vocative 
^oicriXsu, not to leave the root open and ending in the feeble 
g, and in the dat. pi. (oaffiXsvcri, combined with c, as in the 
nominative sing. 

4. In like manner, the digamma remained in future and 
aorist tenses, supported by c, though it disapjjeared \vhere it 
stood unsupported between vowels ; since iiM'Trnvsri, II., r, 
159, &c., ^iiiazat, ib., 4'» ^^8, ^svasffdai, ib., X, 7^0, zXkv- 
ffoffjui, ib., %, 87, zXavas, Od., co, ^292, 'xXzvGzaOai, ib., (Jj, '25, 
%^a6(r?;, II., gj 1^^8, demonstrate that their verbs, S^s<y, zXccto), 
'TTViu, y^^dco, were once ^i'ifa), TcXdfco, Wifoj, x^dfoj (^Germ. 
jrahen) ; and, further, the parts and derivatives of aXzzivco, 
zdoj, ySXio), pzoo, %Siy, as aXzvccfrdcci, x.av[jja^, y.Xvrog, pvrog, %uroj, 
point to ccXifoj, xdfco, zXifoj (properly to make a noise, — so 
the German kleffen, applied to dogs — as the Germ, gaffen, 
Eng. (jape, may be compared with yjlfco — yj^oj, yuivoj — ), &c. 

5. In some verbs, the digamma is either retained or drop- 
ped in the present, as 'hzoo or 'hivoo, or is not at all thrown 
away as (^KcriXzvco, hoiiico. In some the c is suppressed in- 
stead of it, as %s6<jy (not xzvGca), Od., |8, 222, and so 'y^vov, 
ib., ^, .'544, yzvdvTcjv, ib., ^» 214, yjvav, xzvat, &c. 

G. In the aorist of aXiSivoj from dXiftj, the digamma not 


only suppresses <r, akzva,^ oiXsvai, aXzvocffdcciy &c., but it is also 
lost itself, as in aXeuffOoci, II., v, 436, and so akiciffdi, akiairo, 
in other places, which were undoubtedly ccXefuadcci, akifa,iTo. 
Exactly in the same manner we find evzyjKog and the common 
'izyfkog, zvoi^zv instead of 'ioHbiv, aviocxpg, auVraXsoj, and the 
strange form ccvz^vcrccv (but see Heyne Obs. ad II., a, v. 459)j 
which may be explained afsgvffoci/, viz. fsgv(Tcci> with the inten- 
sive a, prefixed. From all this, and the preceding remarks, 
it seems evident that the diphthongs uv and sv arose from 
the attenuation of a,f and hf. 

Obs. — The appearance of ixriXog, i. e fsxriXog, together with eSxtjao?, i. e. 
ifx^Xog, may be explained without supposing fifzrikog by comparison 
with the root QVIE or QVEE, i. e. KFEE of quietus. Since the 
sequence of KF opposes the analogy of the Greek tongue, the sound 
KFEE was transposed into FEKE and EFKE, the roots of FE- 
KHA02 and EFKHA02, i. e. exjjXog and eux»jXog. 



1. Bentley was the first who clearly recognised the traces 
of the digamma in the Homeric poems, and the necessity of 
attending to it in the treatment of the Homeric text. On the 
margin of Stephanus's edition of Homer in Poetis principp. 
Jier.y he marked the lections of several manuscripts, prefixed 
the digamma to the proper words, and endeavoured to 
alter the adverse passages according to its demands, often 
improving on himself, as he proceeded, and amassing or ex- 
amining a great variety of matter. From these notes he 
drew up a full and elaborate treatise, in which he goes through 
the digammated words in alphabetical order, and overthrows 
all apparent objections to his doctrine. The notes alluded to 
(called the codex Bentleianus,^ were sent to Heyne, but not 
the treatise ; and thus the dispersed observations, and some- 
what crude views of the great Critic have become known, but 
the larger work remains, without having beQii published, in 


the library of Trinity College at Cambridge ; where it was 
shown to me, still in manuscript, together with the above 
mentioned codex, in the year 1815. (''') 

2. After the labours of Dawes and of Payne Knight* on 
the subject of the digamma, this letter found in Heynet an 
eminent protector, who, after his fashion, gave many useful 
hints, but wavered in his observations, and brought the question 
to no final decision. Both on this account, and because, fol- 
lowing the example of his predecessors, he was too prone to 
change, or to throw suspicion upon every passage that seemed 
to oppose the digamma, and thus to mangle the works of 
Homer, he gave ample grounds for contradiction and even 
severe censure, t Soon after the outbreaking of this literary 
war, Hermann II took the field, dividing the truth from error 
with singular sagacity, and endeavouring with great pains to 
destroy the arguments against the reception of the digamma 
into the Homeric poems, but at the same time to prescribe 
proper limits to its use in Homeric criticism. The neglect 
of the digamma in solitary instances, he admitted as a proof 
of the later origin of those passages, in which such instances 
occurred. The doctrine immediately acquired fresh partisans 
in Germany; as, for example, Buttman in his Greek Gram- 
mar, and Boeckh.^ Recently a new opponent to the 
digamma has appeared in the person of Spitzner, who, how- 
ever, without combating the other proofs of its existence, 

* The first in Miscell. Crit, Sect. IV, de consonantis sive aspirationis 
Vau virtuie, and the latter in Analytical Essay on the Greek Alphabet, 
London, 1791, and recently in Prolegg. ad Homerum — with a preface 
by Ruhkopf, Leipsic, 1816. 

-j- Besides the remarks scattered over his commentary, see the three 
Excursus upon II., r, 384, Vol. VII, p. 708—772. 

\ See the review of his Homer in the Allgem-Lit. Zeit, 1803, p. 
285, sqq. 

II With a review of Heyne's Homer in the Leipz* Lit. Zeit., 1803. 

<|| On the versification of Pindar.. Berlin 1809, Sect. IV, and ad 
Pindar, de metris Pindaricis, cap. xvii. Mattbiae, Gr. Gr., p. 40, 
contends against this letter, but in the appendix, p. xxii, retracts his 
opposition. ("^ 


rests bis hostility to the letter upon this single circumstance— 
that hiatus cannot be, by its aid, entirely removed from the 
poetry of Homer ; expdlas furca, tamcii usque recurrit. 



1. Finally, with regard to instances of hiatus, before words 
not digammated, they are partly exculpated by the circum- 
stances pointed out § CLi, -S, partly of such a kind that they, 

a. May be removed by the insertion of a particle agreeable 
to the language : e. g. when o is altered into oys, ^s into 
^gr , ^' K^', ^' ou, according to the analogy of other places, 
or by a slight change of form : z\g aXa, a.Xro, II., a, 532, 
into clXal'; aarz^a t^kzv^ ib., ^, 75, into aors/ 'i'/izzv ; toj 
[JjS £«, ib., ^, l6, [jj^ [MS m, %, 339, (^>i^& £«, ib., |3, l6o, 
181, into r&J [jj ita, &c. ; or that they, 

b. Must remain, as tokens of the alterations, which the 
Homeric text has endured, while it was transformed, in 
the course of centuries, out of its primitive shape, still 
attested by many traces, into the later appearance now 
assumed by it — alterations which have aflected the ar- 
ran(/enient of words, as well as the dialect. Moreover, 
the hiatus would find admission so much the easier, 
since, after the disappearance of the digamma, critics 
were forced to consider it as a peculiarity of the epic 

Obs. — The most conspicuous hiatus is that after s, in the personal 
termination, — «, in rs and in bs. The 2nd pers. pi. — rs, however, 
compared with the ancient form of the first, — //,sg instead of — fj^iv, 
and with its derivation from the pronoun of the second person 2T, 
TT, — 2E2, — TE2, appears to have lost a g, and Eguccrarg, 'XiXd(f- 
<Sa.7iy &c., seem to have been originally e^uaaarig, VikadGang, he. 
(like ipvagafisg, rrikaceafug), so that e^vffaaTi r,'xu^6vh, Od., -/., 40,->, 
fiXdaaaTi o-rXa, ib., 404, is^ivdan, odrig, ib., u, 215, &c., were really 
without hiatus. Also the dual ending — i was shortened from — ig. 


and 80 ai,tt« — a\)voy(Oi7(.6TV ahrdo, II., 8, 218, miolit better be read 
tfuvo^^wxerss. — Moreover, n, compared with jcsi/ — ri, was probably 
rh — r£,^^^ and hence there was, originally, no hiatus in n, ' O^aiXo'^ov, 
II., £, 542, n a'ik'za, Od., ^, 57, &c., although no one would, probably, 
think of introducing these forms into the Homeric text. Besides hi 
there are the fuller forms hfi and ha'i, the last of which, as interroga- 
tive, is proposed by Apollonius, Lex. Hom., p. 270, ed. Vill., in the 
question rig Balg, rig ds (1. dai), ofjuiXog, Od , a, 225, as likewise in 
TTug 6' at (1. da}), r&iv aXKuv Tgwwi/ (pvXaxai n %a} svval, II., x, 408, 
where the position of the article a'l ruv is un- Homeric. 

§ cLxrv. 


1. Apostrophe injures the forms of words by making- them 
similar to one another, and thus undistinguishable. Placed 
after consonants, however, it allows the syllables to be dis- 
criminated through the pronunciation, as 

Kcczojv zard^'y^ig r^vhs M.omav zladyoov, 
and Kazojv rMTa^yj.ig rriv^ iiMovaav zlerdyoov (comp. Lobeck 
de Apostr., p. 5), may be distinguished in pronunciation ; 
and the theatre of Athens ridiculed the actor, who, in Eurip. 
Orestes, v. 273, pronounced yakriv ogoo, i. e. yocX'/iv^ o^co, I see 
a calm, as yaX^v o^S, I see a cat, — pronouncing-, without 
marking the elision, yccXrjv o^Si instead of yotXr-v o^co. On the 
other hand it is impossible to make elision sensibly heard 
between voivcls : zv-^zi' 6 ysgcou, Od., X, 585, hf/jzT, on, ib., 
^, 462. Here apostrophe is merely a mark for the eye. 
Since, therefore, the Homeric poems were innnediately in- 
tended for the ear, it is proper, according to the concurring 
opinion of Hermann, Bekker, Spitzner, &c., universally to 
remove apostrophe, even after consonants, where this can be 
effected by the insertion of other forms, as, in the above cited 
examples, by zv-^ai o yioojv,^^^ l^zv, on. Of the several elisions 
we shall speak in the next divisions of this section. 

2. The diphthong ui suffers apostrophe in the terminations 


— OjM*a/, — ara/, — sra/, — ovrai, — za&oci^ — affOoci, as (BovXo[Jj 
kyo), U., a, 117, s/W bt\ ib., jB, 137, <pa,ivzr ' A^rji^iXov^ ib., 
y, 457, KiiGOvr b, ib., %, 71 > ^^^i^*^^' ^^» iffra^^' af/jp, ib., X, 
589, 590, seldom so that the apostrophized syllable falls in 
the arsis, only a^sc^' It/, ib., c, 294, Kskoc^iffd' "Ar'/jg, ib., r, 
136, and ib., u, 422, 469, Od., z, 385, ^, I96 (Herm. ad 
Hymn, ad Merc, v, 133, Spitzner, ut supra, p. 164). 

Obs. 1. — The forms affffsr , sfi/Msv, apostrophized from sSdZTai, ifj^/isvai, 
must, according to Bekker, supported by Spitzner, p. 165, be 
exchanged for the stronger sVra/, Jvai. — An apostrophized termina- 
tion — j^aai stood II., (p, 322, 3, ovds ri fiiv %g£w "Ecrra/ rufJuQo^orid 
OTS fjjiv ^aTTuffiv 'A^a/oi, where Crates gave the reading TUfj,Co^o7Jg ; 
and once a; in nom. plur. first decl. in ug o^sf hhbvai hZvov^ II., X, 272, 
which Bentley alters to o^e/"' hbhvri ^ui/sc, Buttmanu (Gr. Gr. I, 127,) 
to h^iai oduvai with synizesis, 

Obs. 2. — 01 is suppressed by apostrophe in roi and /mi, — roi in the 
line ff^w/V /i^svT eTsome, 11. d, 341, not elsewhere, — fioi in s/V ays fji,' 
w, II, /, 673, X, 544, xai /jb o'/'uj afjuuvsrs, II., v, 4, 81, ^ fi o/'w, Od., 
d, 367. Comp. II., ^, 165, t, 207, — in which instances, however, 
synizesis also might find room, — fihrot Jteo/xs, ays [lot w, as in dUT 
IfiQj uK-jfio^u), II., 0", 458. Comp. § 149, 5. 

3. A sujffers apostrophe without limitation, though rarely 
in the personal termination ca: ov G(piv It ooa)v a?.£;-»^' I^lz, 
Od., ^, 200, ^iri^iGff o!,(j^(pori§ri(Tfv, Od., |, 351, formerly hrj- 
§z(Toc a,[L(p'. — ToTog s" b '7roXi[jjCi), Od., 5, 222, should be written 
'ia, roiog la, with synizesis. "Ava for ccmarri^i, and as the 
voc. of aVal, is never apostrophized (Herm. ad Orph., p. 724, 
and Hymn, ad Apoll., 526). 

4. E is elided in all terminations; yet not in lU, nor in 
the termination ^& (Spitzner, p. I7I, who cites only Hes., A, 
174, alyJ ccTTiksi^sr 'i^cc^' 0! ^'.), nor in the optative form 
— BIS, so that in ovhs fcsv clog 'in "^vy^jh \[ijh "Trehsi ' Ayaf/jS^jbrnv, 
II., /, 386, x.v-^si' 6 yi^&iv, Od., X, 585, &c., the other forms 
'zmat, KV'<ptti, Sec, should be placed like aKOVffai, II., r, 81, 
jj, 129, ocu§oii, ib., 130, &c. 


Obs. — "HXud' in ^Xu()' axwxi^ and tlie like, in opposition to rfkOiv 
"Ovst^og, &c., is left by Hermann ad Orph., p. 724, for tlie sake of 
saving the ancient form in riX\jO\ 

5. Elision of iota. In the datives — oirrt and — ;j<r/, tlie full 
form has passed through — oia and -/id into the short — oig 
and — '/jg ; yet the longer forms are far more numerous, and 
those in — -^g stand almost always before a vowel : 'Ar^sihrig 
v-TTo, II., jS, 249, cioyivi/fjg omen, II., ^, 424, Od., ^, 472, l/^jj? 
VTTo, II., 7, 352, z, 4f5Q, &c. In many of these places there 
once stood the apostrophe, which, as we perceive, belongs to 
them all. The short form is found in uj^vfft ts cryjg kui\ II., a, 
179, £? o;^g Gvv vrivfft, II., s, 641 (and there a Mosc. MS. reads 
o't'y;aiv v/jvaiv): h 7ruXa,[jjrig (pogsovai, II., a, 238, should be, 
perhaps, b 'rccXGi[jj-/j(T( (po^iovcrt. Add to these, Od., ;?, 279, 
X, 242, V, 65, II., 'f, 180. 

6. In the third declension / of the dat. sing, appears to be 
elided by Homer, yet acrs/ oTrojoiva, II., s, 5, r&J ogvi^' 'OW- 
civg, II., z, 277» were, according to Eustathius (ad Iliad, p. 
12), even by the ancients ascribed to synizesis : a(Trso( ottoj- 
§ivSi, oovi&i 'OhviTiug. Entirely of the same description are 
II.,' z-, 385, I, 259, X, 544, p, 88^ 289, ^, 26, Od., g, 62, 
0, 240, 364, T, 480. In ztj^vzi 'Hryr/^??, II., g, 324, even 
the common text has observed the rule, by which these iotas 
should be regulated. In Od., o, 246, the author of theAxiochus, 
p. 115 (Gompa7'e Boeckh ad Pind., Not, Grit., p. 394,^ 
has 'Trocvroirj (piXor-^T . — The iota of this case after a vowel, 
which is elided in the common text, should be subscribed or 
adscribed : n^oj, II., ;j, 453, Od., &, 483, not n^cJ, nor 'O^yc^' 
for '0^y<7^i', Od., o, 157. — So read ^sTa; not ^sW, Od., z, 
316, 7%a/ or y%a, not yh°^, ib., X, 136, i^, 283, &c., 
to which we shall return under the third declension of the 
Homeric dialect. 

7. In the plural also synizesis instead of apostrophe was 
admitted in zccvonaa a^ccDvlav, II., v, 407 (and Eustath. ad 
loc). This kind of apostrophe occurs especially after double 
c: gVsffff' cci(rx§o7(T(, II., a;, 238, -TroXUad, ib., s, 546, v, 452. 
Compare II., ^, 6OO, ;;, 273, §, 530, 308, v, 497, Od., ^, 
241, &c. Even xk^' is found II., t, 420, 452, tr, 505, 


<p, 208, Od., *', 115. Add several in — ffi: ^cufjjua e(jjo7(riy 
II., ^, 221, hciKova s(jL>o7(Ti, Od., ^, 103, r, 596. — 2(p' for cp' 
in zai fj(p' a.:ioirci vi'dcicc Xmo), II., f, 205, )(^g^wScc Vz G<p "A^pjroj, 
Od., y, 440, may be conveniently written full, and classed 
under synizesis. 

8. Iota in the personal terminations — uai, — riai, — ovgi, 
— coai, admits ajjostroplie, but not frequently : laraa\ II., ;, 
44*, I, o08, (priG 'iiJtj[Mmi, Od., ^, 352, (rniyy^a uvu, ib., ??, 
72, (pgo/i'/jf/, ib., ^, ol3, ohov(r\ II., r, 144, psf^ofo"', ib., -^z, 
206, -Trz^iSTTicoG, ib., ^, 95, <poiroJa\ Od., |3, 182. 

9. "(Jr/ is not apostrophized in Homer, and or is oVs, as 
%a/g>£ vois;, or u^icrrot ' Kyjxioov ^yjoiooji/ro, Od., S-, 78 (like Ovzzt 
sycij'ys — TiiJjrjZig hoyjCit, on [JjZ (Bgoroi ovri riovffiv, Od., v, 129). 
Compare II., a, 24<4^, 397, \ 32, s, 331, Od., ?, 6O, 90, 
366, V, 333, <p, 116, 254.('*) 

1 0. The adverbs of place, akXo&iy avro&i^ rv^oQi^ v-\p60{, and 
oOi (in II., /3, 572, &c.), suffer elision, except when they come 
from substantives, as yjoudi, 'IXiodi (Spitzner, p. 173); elision 
is allowed also in sizotrt, Od., |3, 212, I, 669, /, 241, and 
roeradzi in roamy^ v^cop, Od., X, 586. 

11. In the case of 0, according to what was said at the 
beginning- of this section, apostrophe should be banished 

a. The genitive — 010, which has sometimes been made 
— 0/' merely through the error of the Grammarians 
(Herm. ad Orph., p". 722). («) 

b. The pronouns IjO-s?' oXiyoi/, II., i^, 7^9, fTSi' ors, II., ^, 
454, &c., where the forms g^sD, azv, were preferred 
even by Herochan (Bekker, p. 131). 

c. The verbal terminations — so, — uo, since instead of 
— s', — u\ the ear and the rhythm admit in all cases of 
— £y and — cu: the AXk' sW, o^ga of Aristarchus, who 
here also preferred the improper reading, has been 
exchanged for uXX' S'ttsv; still, however, are left (/j^ 
'<l'&vhs s-7ri(Tra(jjZvog, 11., I, 404, and similar examples at 
II., ;, 260, Od., a, 340, II., &j, 202, Od., I, 752. 

In the same way we should read ^gco 6'7ri(T(Ta}, Od., &>, 
33 (like Ikt'/jgco afcoiriv, Od., co, 193), instead of fj§cc,' 
(Spitzner, p. 173). 


12. Finally, rovro, ouo, cctto, and the verbal terminations 
— ccTO, — sro, — ovro, — oiaro, admit unrestricted elision ; but 

not TO, "uoo. 

§ CLXV. 


1 . By crasis there are contracted, in Homer, 

aa, in raXka from ra ccWcc, II., a, 46.5, |3, 428, Od., 7, 
462, ?, 430. w 

oa, in oj^iTTQc from doicTog, II., X, 288, j', 154, 433, 
X, 521, 6;, 384, Od., 0, 416; ^yZ'rof for ccvrog, II., s, 
396. Also cijXXoi, i.e. or aAXo/ is read by Zenodotus, 
II., (3, 1. 

OS in oUjM/Oj for g^oj, II., 3^, 360 ; '^^oudyizzv, 11., a;, 409 ; 
'TTPo'j'Trsrjj'^pK, Cd., ^, 54, compare II., ^, 367, Od., ^, 
117, ^j, 360 ; 'T^ovru'^Puv, II., i^, 136, 0, 306, ^, 262, 
compare Od., a, 319; Tt^ovpaivi, ib., /, 145, compare 
ib., /, 143, (jj, 394, i/, 169; 9r^or^)/oyo-;, ib., %, 90, 
compare II., x^ 97, '4', 325, 453, Od., 7, 8, ^, 138, 
r, 544, &), 82. 

00 in rovvoiJjK for ro ovofMcc, II. y, 235, — which is rejected 
by Hermann (Obs. 28, ad Viger, p. 7O7,) as un- 
Homeric, and ;cki r ovvofjbcc written in its place. 

at av in zuvrog, II., v, 734. According- to the analogy of 
other places, however, we might read, in that line, 
[jjuXta-rci U T aiiTog ; although yJ for zcci is acknowledged 
by the Scholiast. In the passages II., |3, 238, and /, 
412, which ^Yo\^ (de Ortlmjmpli., Gr. Gr., p. 434,^ 
classes under this head, kz not y.ui manifestly stands. (^^ 

at s in yAyoj, II., (p, 108, which, as the only example, 
should probably be read ohg ku) lyu; although it is 
supported by Kayoo ryjg o/rr^g. Hymn., B, 173, at the 
beginning of the verse. — Kdzshog, xdzzitTB, and zdzs7t% 
are now exchanged for ;cui KZivog, zai yMai, zcci ziide, and 
ZKV, II., s, 273, for zs. 

ov i in ovvizoc, Tovnzoc, from ou hizcc, rov mza, (with the 


aspirate suppressed as in ov§ogj &c., comp. § CLXXi), 
both frequent. 

2. Aplia^resis lias been banished from Homer by Wolf. 
It occurred in h^ 'i'mrot, II., o, 163, u, 338, Od., cc, 290, 
j8, 221, ^, 378, X, 121, which used to be written Ij] ''ttzitcc or 

3. Apocope. — At the end of words the vowel is taken 
away by apocope from agcc, "Tra^oi, envoi, zccrcc, vtto, If/, v^otL 
(Supposing", to wit, that a at the end of ava, a^a, &c., be 
not a vowel added to the original form.) 

4. "A^ and Ta^ remain without farther alteration, d^ (rcpooz, 
Ta^ Z;;v/, &c., also av, except before liquids and p sounds, 
before which, according to knoNvn laws, it is changed : av ^\ 
Qoag, II., % 168, civffTccg, &c. ; but ccXki^ai, II., (p, 321, 
a[/j[Jbi%ag, II., co, 329, ctjO* nu'ikoLyog, KfjjQccivov, ayj (povou, &c. — 
Before pc it occurs changed into y, as ciyz^z^jbdaaffa, Od., a, 440. 

5. Kara never appears in the merely shortened form of 
zur, but r is always changed into the following consonant, 
whether mute or liquid : za'PTTsaov, kclx 'tt^iov, zaz zstpocX^g, 
zci^^a)\.sv, zuy yow, zoi^ ^s, zuKkzi'Trco, zd^ [Jbiffffov, zotvvzvaag, 
zcc§ pec, &c. &c., and before the digamma (from d.yoj, i. e. 
fdyco, fd^aig, z.a,rafdz,aig\ zuffdt,aig, which is wrongly 
written zavd'^otig, Hes., E, 664, 690 ; but zd'rr <pd\a^' (not 
zd(p (pdXa,^'), II., T, 106, zdrOccvs, zardd-^ui, zdrQi^Jbiv, and the 
like, according to a well-known law. Before two consonants 
r is thrown away : zdayj,h, II., \, 702) and so zcc(ttopvu(jcc, 
zdzTuvz. According to this analogy zd(Jb[jbo§s stands for 
zcizo[/.o^2, Od., £, 160, 339, X, 216, y, 33. 

Ohs. — Chrysippus united the preposition, so shortened, with the 
following word in aiJjQufio7(Si, Aristarchus separated the words. 
Comp. Schol. Venet. ad II., S, 441, and Etym. Magn., p. 81, 1. 16, 
which also has a/M<p6voVy xadd's, and %ahhiisiv, for xara ^s iiGiv, p. 30, 
1. .35, where, however, instead of xahlzyGi)) h ^aXdaffrj, we should 
read -AaZhiis h '^akafiw in reference to II., y, 382. 

6. 'Tto follows this law only in the form v^^dXkziv, 
II., r, 80. 


7. Also h is shortened from bt, which last has remained 
only where the verse demanded it, as ^(Jbers^eo h) oinco ; — where 
it stands for hzcrri ; — and in a few other places, as ^0'^ m VTJi 
jiikaivrj, II., r, 331. Thus likewise ^^og is from 'tt^oti 
(gToundlessly weakened into '7rori\ — in which word the r 
passed into final sigma, as ^ in ^0^/, ^oj, g^/, 'ig. ll^ori has 
remained only where the exig^ency of the verse required. 



1. The peculiarities of a dialect are to be found, a. in the 
roots of words, b. in the parts of them subject to inflection, 
€. in the use of particular words, d. in particular constructions 
of speech. 

2. Under the name of Homeric or epic dialect we under- 
stand all those peculiarities of the Greek tongue, under the 
above-mentioned heads, which were either adopted into epic 
song out of the primitive langiiag-e, or altered by it in com- 
pliance with its own exigencies, and which have reached our 

3. Thus we cannot expect to discover in the epic dialect, 
a self-included and perfectly consistent whole, since its monu- 
ments, the epic poems, differ in some respects according to 
their ages, authors, and countries. 

4. Besides, it must be considered, that the oldest of these 
poems, transmitted from an epoch of uncertain antiquity, 
gradually, in the course of centuries, changed their original 
form, until they acquired, in writing, a more substantial 
shape, better secured against the influence of the never-ceasing 
alterations of the language. 

5. Much of their ancient cast, likewise, was lost through 
the fault of the Alexandrian critics, especially of Aiistiirchus, 



while they endeavoured to give a purely Ionic character to 
poems which they esteemed Ionian. 

6. That, notwithstanding the number and continuance of 
such openings for innovation, much of its ancient character 
still adhered to the epos, arose from the circumstance, that 
its language, developed by song, growing \vith the growth, 
and intertwined with the substance of poetry, became as it 
were something consecrated, and, in its essence at least, 

7. Thus the epic dialect descended in a form at once 
variable and steadfast; on one side following the perpetual 
changes in the language of a spreading population, on the 
other side maintaining, in many essential particulars, its 
primitive nature. It lost the digamma, lengthened the now 
open vowels, softened the syllables originally hard, gradually 
contracted those which were open, and was compelled to 
sacrifice much, which seemed improper, because dijSerent from 
Ionic. Meanwhile it retained that which was not subject to 
such changes, as a character impressed upon it by long usage, 
and protected by the measure of its versification. Hence it 
displays as great a variety and inconstancy in its forms, as a 
consistency and constancy in its fundamental qualities. 

8. We shall first collect and examine the peculiarities be- 
longing to this dialect in the letters; and these are partly 
grounded on its original foundation, partly introduced by the 
necessities of epic rhythm. 



1. The use qfrj where the common dialect has cc: thus, 1. 
instead of long a, iii "A^^riffrog, with the cognate words from 
hgdof. ' AhgyiffTUocVf II., j3, 828, 'A^^^cr;?, ' A^^fjffrivr;. sfjUTD^g, 
S^ffixsg and words belonging to it, ^;;£?ro, '^j^zvvro, ^yiyjamo, &c. 
^'J^TJjf, ^^f'll* 'l^ffa)v, iJ^rtjp, 'i§}]^, ySkyjig and derivatives, Oa/- 
riKiq, XiyjVi oiTjioc^ Ti^Tjv, T^riGGco and t^K'^^ 9r§}^v, H. VII, 10, 
pyjihug, TtTrjvi?i add the cases of dyj§, m§og, ni§h ^s^a, and from 


•v^/a^, -^rj^fx^g in zoXoiovg rs -^/jgag re, II., tt, 583 (although 
we find -^a^oov vz^og, ib., g", 755), quoted by Gellius, B. 13, 
c. 20, as preferred by the old Grammarians on account of 
the difference of sound. They must, therefore, have taken 
offence at the roughness of the two a syllables in -^olgag. 

In the same way ^irjKOffioi, hyiKO<Tim, r^irjKOfftcc. 2. Instead 

of short a, for the support of the verse, in viz^zdovrcci from 
dsi^oj, iz'^QoXog, ^yjKsou, riydhog, rjysgkffdcci, }](/jU06&ig, T^vz^ozig, 
yivo^iri, ccyyjvo^irj, and derivatives, ("^ dv^gorog, Od., /, 123, g- 
'xny^oi^o'h II. J jW/j 456, Od., I, 513, (LOi^riyzvig, II., y, 182, 
'^oh'/!V&[jbog, dvryjvco^. So from dzuy/l'/^'^vogy the fem. dzyiy^z^jbiVT^. 
Likewise rjybvziv and rj^cciov appear to change cc into tj, — to wit 
a intensive^ — as TiysgidovTcct, riyzgkff^oit, II., y, 231, pc, 127, 
change their a, the collective (collectivum, from ccfjt^cc). The 
same happens in the inflections drocffdcckiriffi, (pOrj/jg, for drcc- 
adocXiatffi, (pddrig, &c., of which hereafter. On the contrary, 
XikccffiJj&vogt XsXcctrrai, XzXd(T[jijzOcc, from the original root, instead 
of Xikyiff(Lzvog, &c., have remained. 

2. Doubling of z in zh for the support of the verse : ^u, 
II., ^, 456, &c. ; also as an adverb, ^y r^stpsv 7^ driroCKkzv 
(for zb ZT^z(pzi), ib., ^r, 191? proposed by Hermann (ad Find. 
01., 5, 37,) and defended by the similaiity of zv 7^z<pov viS 
driroCKkov, II., |, 202, 303, Od., r, 354. So in compound 
words: rivymiog and ?}v%,o[jbog. Add Tjog, IL, (i, 653, and ^i>v, 
ib., £, 628, without other forms. Further, in-oXuTjedTof, Od., 
X, 275, ^okiXTj^ZTHiOi, ho,. Likewise h'vrz, IL, (3, 87. &c., as 
well as zvTZy ri'TTitroc, however, for eVs^ra, in connection with 
^s, S' ^TziTcc (others read lyj Vg/ra), II., 0, 163, y, 338, Od, 
a, 290, 294, &c., is a false reading (comp. Heyne ad II., 0, 
163), for §^ zTziToc, which is now universally read. Add to 
these the termination ziov, where it comes from zfiov : (oKffi- 
X^iov, i. e. (iocffiXifiov, Iz^riiov, Koiadri'iov and KoiaO'/i'ioc, M.tvvri'iog, 
^ztvfj'iov and ^nvri'icc, Trci^yj'iov, '7roXz(jo7]'ici, &c. To this class be- 
long ^icc ( ' " " and " ' " ) from z'lco, I travel ( Sophron in 
Etym. M. p, 423, /. 20, under rjicc), dry provisions 
for tJie way, Od., |3, 289, 410, I, 363, &c.; then, what 
easily stirs itself chaff, ib., s, 368, and in II., v, 103, pi^ey 
of wolves, together with Xrjtg, X'/ft^og, booty, out of Homer 
Ag/a. The same is observable in zvc, ioc, i, e. zfg, 5 fog, as 


:(iaffi}.ivg, ^ccffilSjog^ UriKivg, U^\7Jog, of which hereafter. 

3. Prefixture of i to a long syllable, which hegins ivith s: 
in gg^va, gg>y.^&/f, ggffTp?, and derivatives; Izovcorai, II., v, 382, 
UxlofjijKi, kgfffjzis; in hsiKOffi (yet g/;i0(7/, ib., (3, .510, &c.), htg 
for gjg, Hes., ^, 145; hiffoifASvog, 7j, UX'r&Tai, &c., likarcii, II., 
^, 296, gg^yg;, &c. ; and, vdth the rough breathing, isffffccroy 
ib., z, 23, 1775 sWro, ib., ^, 464, g;?;itg, ib., a, 48, so that 
we cannot consider this epsilon in hiXsov,Scc.y hfTrov, &c., hicKro, 
UX^STO, gg^yg, gg^To, gg^aro, &c., as ^Ae augment. (^^ 

OJ5. 1. — Almost all these words had the digamma, so that the pre- 
fixture was chiefly before that letter. To this class also probably 
belong ^QouvTo, r e(peu^ot, II., (S, 198, oeufisvog, i" -xou efiv^oi, Od., £, 
439, &c., and firi'^iv sipEv^igxu, ib., r, 158, which once stood for 
fiririv 'iff ev^laxu ; since neither does the meaning there admit of e-Tr/, 
nor does t<p£v^Igxu appear elsewhere except in imitations of the 
Homeric usage. Here, then, s(psu§igxc)) should be considered as 
iftv^kxu, and efiii^ofjjiv, ipsugw, ipsv^oi, explained in the same way, 
as having the prefixture, and after it the trace of the vanished di- 
gamma, as above in the instance of a(pavddm. 

Obs. 2. — E appears as ^post-fixture in (iriThra Ziiig from iM^rig, in nt 
and TfiXioi;. Yet rii is probably a shape of riFi, and i] only its abbre- 
viation ; and ^sXiog, for af'eXiog, is the true and constant form in 
Homer. The later n'^og, unknown to Hesiod also, is found, besides 
Hymn, xxxi, 1, only Od., 6, 271, in the song of the loves of Mars 
and Venus, there inserted, and shown, by this very use, to be of 
later date. Also a^eX^soj, 6v, 0/, is the ancient form, and the more 
recent adiX(p6{, like a^eXp^, is unknown to Homer. 

4. Introduction ofyi into compound words, in order to 
make words with several short syllables suitable to the 
rhythm of the verse, in I'Trrizruvog, 6v, oi (I-tti — 7} and iravog, an 
ancient form from 'irog\ zbriymog "^ofzoio, II., X, 427, "^(^S 
l-TTTj^okog, Od., |3, 319} i.e. striking upon, Wirvx^g, and hence 
master of, from which afterwards g7r;j€oX/;? and o-yv^jSoX/;?. Of the 
same kind are i'7r'7r'/](JtjoX'ya)v, 11., v, 5, vzi^yzviug, Od., 006, f, 127, 
(yet viOTeiv&ka,, no'TTKUToc, &c.), oXiy/jTriXtt^g, Od., g, 468, &c. 


(yet oXiyoh^oc/sMV, II., o, 246, t, 843, %, 337> where the posi- 
tion of \ makes the rj unnecessary), and hence with more 
recent writers xuxfj-^rektri and sv^xiXtfj (comp. Et. Magn., p. 
390, \. 24, 40), ikcc^j^QoXog. — In '7ro'kz(Jj7iiog, whence 'TrokzybTiiccy 
and ToXtyjrrig, whence ToXinrccg^ ib., |3, 8O6 (""""), (the forms 
of 'xokirng (" " ' ) being- hkewise found, II., 0, 558, &c.,) the 
7\ is also probably of a rhythmical origin. In like manner 
it stands for v in Tccvrikiyiogy II., ^, 7O, &c. (yet ruvvylMaaoi^ 
Od., g, 66). 

0^5. — On the other hand, is extended into 0/, when the word contains 
a reference to place, as odoi-rogog, &c., ^o^oirvmrigiv, II., w, 26 !• 
Hence IluXo/yevgos, II., /3, 54, ■^, 303, is rightly preferred to IIu- 
>.r,ysvkg, but instead of bXoolr^o^og, ib., i*, 137, we should admit 
oXooT^o^og, did not the former stand almost universally, and were it 
not also quoted by the Etym. M., p. 622, 1. 40, out of Democritus. 
The meaning has no reference to place, and the extension is, on ac- 
count of position, as little requisite as in bXoo^^m, II., 0, 630, and 
lXo6(p^ovog. That, however, in UuXoiyivng and the rest, place is 
expressed by the old dative form, is proved by similar formations out 
of Homer, which retain the dat. 3rd decl. as a designation of place, 
such as'o^e/Carjjs, i^ilavXog, o^eiyiVTjg, &c. In the expression oi person^ 
in ' A^ynfovri^g and avd^ettpovrrjg, has been exchanged for «/. 

5. Extension ofcc into at in ^a^a/ before a mute : 'srcc^oct 
'TOffty va^oit l^oiQfjila, -zroc^oc} Atog, &c. Also in compound 
words, 'PToc^ui^oirus, II., -^py 132, <;rccgcci'7rs'7ndouffot, II., ^, 208, 
'ru§ui(paffigy 7ra§cct(pociJbivog. Sometimes before X: 'ffagut Xa^ra^pjt', 
II., y, 359, &c., TToc^oii Ksx^sffffiy Od., a, 366, <r, 213, also 
TTccgui poovy II., TT, 151. Kara is thus extended only in «a- 
raiQaraty Od., f, 110, and ifTro before mutes: V'xcci tobccy 
vTui li TSy and v'^rcct la'yjjg {fiay^g^ II., 0, 275, where v'ttq 
is improperly admitted. 

6. 'T'To, however, is proper (not v'ttccC) before X : vtto 
'kiTK^oi&ty II., |3, 44, &c. ; before v : viro vs<pia)Vy ib., 0, 6^, 
&c. ; before ^ : v'pro ptT^jgy ib., 0, I7I, &c. ; before two con- 
sonants : vtto ^'knyriii ib., i, 414. So we should read (see 


Etym. M., p. 262, 1. 9,) y^o Iziovg (i. e. Ifiiovg), II., 0, 4, 
instead of v-Trou hiovg, and thus 'x}^^k v-tto hioug, ib., fc, 3j6. 
I 'T'TTcci belongs probably to an ancient form of vto, when the 
root Xn (sub) took oc instead of 0, TIT, Til A, as 'Trocg^ ';ra^oi. 
It reveals itself also in the adverb v'^rciidoc, II., 0, 520, c, 421, 
&c. Like VTTUi stood Krccl for octto, II., X, 663, which might 
plead the same analogy, but yet is properly rejected before 

7. The same extension occurs in idoiiyivkffffi (i^v), Od., |, 
203, and 'I^a/^sj'so?, II., t, 586; also in a/V, cchrog, al-^poc, 
like xoc(jijCci\ [jjcc([jtjoi&>, (juct^f/ijocigou. Also at the end of the root : 
vaTov ^' o^cj ciyysoc, Od., /, 222, from vdco, ksoocis, II., /, 203, 
from zzgci-afy and so si §' ci(jtj[/ji 'Tra^oc^&airicn TohzaGiv^ ib., x., 
346, for '7rK§oi(p0a7j(Ti, unless we should read '7roc§a(pd^yi(Ti in 
that place, of which hereafter. Lastly, in compound words, 
ai sometimes takes the place of other vowels : KXvrcciiMyicir^cc, 
T[vXai[J^mog, see, and [M(Tai'r6Xiog (half-grey), II., v, 361, ridcci- 
Qojffffovffi, Od., V, 106. 

Obs. — Insertion of a on account of the rhythm is found in the patrony- 
mics: nj5X9j/a6»]$: TiXafiOjviddrigfSiC. (Eustath. ad IIiad,p. 13,1. lO.)'^' 

8. Extension of s into si in a considerable number of 
words ; but only before vowels and semivowels. 

a. At the beginning of words : siccvov, II., t, 9, stagivyj, 
oiffi, rjffi, slXdrivog, WiXsiOvioc, siK'/]Xou0oc, sivi and siv, sivccrog, 
s'lvsKCCy si§og, si^ojTug^ s'iau, slco, s'loog, with derivatives and 
compounds ; even s as augment in sloiKvlai, II., <r, 418, 
and the reduplication before ^ in ^si^iszr ' AxikTJoi,, ib., i, 
224, $s/§£%ara/, Od., ;?, 7^, ^siha and cognate words ; 
never in ea^, skccvvco, skdrrj, s^arog, s^sryjog, g^sui'a', &c. 

h. In the inner part of the root : hsisXog, }csivrj(jiv, II., \ 
181, from xsvog^ Xsiovfriv, ib., g, 782, &c., from Xsajv, 
fj^siXavi, ib., a>, 79, from (jbiXag, ^sivog and cognate words, 
arsivsi, ib., 0, 426, ars7vog and the rest of this root, rst^su, 
ib., 0", 485, rsicog, VTrsi^, vTst^oxog. Hs^ag takes the shape 
of "TTSi^ag, 'Trsi^ciToc, whence ccTsi^irog, aTS/^sc/o? (^sometimes 
aTs^siGTiog, Eustath, ad Iliads p. 24, I. 33), (p^ziocra,. 
With many words this occurs only in some derived forms : 
^ski and ^sXirj always, also (/js\mri^ iJi^skitp^cov ; but (jM- 


^iY/>?-> fo?i {LzikiGffzo ; never in o-^gfoj, ffgXa?, c^gXaj, i^g^a/, 
&c., Tix,og, (T;j2§a<TS, "tt^iov, &c. 
c. At the end of the root : ah&irig, ahX(psiov, II., s, 21, 
&c., liiovg, ib., 0, 4, I's/oro, ib., c, 547, 'Eo^M/g/ag, ntohv, 
01, vrjX&iig, Hymn., Ill, 246, pg^a, (reio, gjW/g/b, g/o, &c., 
G'Ttzhg, X^ihg ; not in the cases of polysyllabic roots : 
an/cka, a-rgy^sa, a-r^j^ga, kxrivhg, d'xriviog, Ki^ioc, ^T^za, 
he. In verbs in iu: 'Tnvkkrov, II., -v|/, 283, viiyMov, &c., 
of which hereafter. The modal-vowel s is never ex- 
tended : r'i^'Tnuiy &c., nor the s in Moyagiwv, 'Ar^g/^go;, 
and the like. 

9. Change of o into v : dXKvhig from aKko, hrvrdg from 
'ivTOv and Taj, altogether enveloped, comp. 'i^h'Trng from g'lW/Ta, 
which has the root toj without the consonants which appear 
in -raf, itcivrog ; r^Xvyirog, comp. r;jXo -^si*, -^/, -eg, and r;;Xo- 
rar<y, Od., rj, 322. So probably d(jj(pi'yv'/]zig as an epithet of 
the crippled Hephaestus, from a^(p/ and yoog, encompassed 
with sorrow i'^^^^ and d(jtj(pi'yvog in 'iyy^iffiv di/jipiyvoifft, II., ;', 147, 
&c. Moreover, from d^yog come d^'yv(poiy d§yv(p5og, d^yv^sog, 
and from ^/ojt^o, huT^vc-iog, penetrating. Thus may be ex- 
plained the Homeric contraction of go into gy, as l^oogo, cso, go, 
into g|M/gD, (Tiv, gy, of which hereafter. — "A[jijvhig, II., /, 6, &c., 
derived from d(jijcc, has in like manner v for a, as ad^zzg was 
in ^olic av^zzg ; thus, too, the Greek has y^(y^, /^y^a^ (comp. 
y^aro?), where the Teutonic tongues have a, Germ, wasser, 
Eng. water. 

10. Change of o into ca: dvcuiffrov from oi'a;, Ata/vviTog (the 
forms with o, Aiovvtrog, Aioi/uaou, &c., appear in the Hymns, 
besides Od., m, 74), also in several forms, which have 
lost the digamma after o : Xayofog, Xccycoog, hare, xoXofog, 
zoXciJog, II., a, 575, alarm, tumult (Qz^cfir^g — ZKoXua, ib., |3, 
212) ; also the cognate Kokoiog, jackdaw, which preserves o 
with extension. " K&ofog, "Kdoog, o^z<rKofiog, lying on moun- 
tains (o^g-oj, KZ-oj, Kzi-co, fcz7-(/jai, Ko-irri), o^zaKooog. So ' A-^z- 
"kou'iog, d^z^aiig, 7irot,T^oijiog, (/,'/}r§coiov, Od., r, 410. Also several 
substantives and adjectives in zig : zv^mig, z^uzig, y.r^oDZig, zri- 
roizig (but cellar bzig, ffziozig, &c.), together with a whole class 
of substantives : dXoo?;, ^ari, Icori, &c. 

11. Extension of o into ou only before semivowels : Tovu 


makes ywrnrog, yoOmrot, yovva ; ho^v makes ^ov^arogy ^ov^o^, 
hoO^ccra, hov§u ; hovKiy^ohst^uVf D., j3, 460, from hoXi-)(^6g and 
Ugyjt KOvXzoVy ib., a, 220, &c., 'M.ovktog ijgofg, Od., c, 423, 
(jjovvog and cognate words, vou(Tog, ovvoiJbK, ovXog from oXo? 
(^f6XKog\ ovKtog, ovKo(Jbivog (also 6Kkv(jijZvog), OuXvyj-rog, ov^sog 
and oy^sa from o^oj, <7rovXvg, (never in those words, which are 
derived from verbs : hofijog (^SjM/s;), Tovog Q^miJijOii), trrovog 
(crgv^y), (povog (jpzvy <povsfy (povzvco), and the post-Homeric : 
ffroXog, (pdovog). Add words, in which the digamma has been 
dropped : h^ofu, o^ovco ; KoXofuj koXovoj ; as aKoriy dfcovfj, and 

12. Extension of o into ot in a single word before v : 
dyjtoivTjGiVt II., I, 213, Od., X^ 26l, 268, since (pomov aJ[Jiju, 
ib., c, 97» &c., is not connected with (pouog, but in a length- 
ened form of (poivog (hcccpomg^ dark, and the forms derived 
from datives, UvXaiysmg, &c. (comp. n. 4), belong not to 
extension. In other words, this extension occurs only before 
vowelsy not however in (SojJ, yoogy ^oog, &c., but in aXoicx. 
from dXoda), and dTrr/Xor/iffsv, H., $, 522, j^yvotricrs, ib., a, 537» 
&c., always in ^o/oi, ^oioi, &c., also to/j; and to/^s/?, xi'o/^, 
<pXoi6stj ib., a, 237, fron;i 9?ioo?, %fo/^, after the analogy of 
which also those parts of oXoogt which have the middle o long, 
are written, by many, with oi in the two places : "E^ro^a h' 
avTOv (jj&ii^cct oXofj Moi^' gcrg^pjcgf, H., ')(^i 5, and ij ya^ oy oXo^ffi 
(p^zai ^vei, ib., a, 342. Lastly, the genitives of the 2nd 
decl. /S/o/b, l/-t/o7o (l^og^ &c., of which hereafter. 

Obs. — By comparing i}.oog with iXoipw/og of the Odyssee (5, 410, 460, 
X, 289, ^, 248), which form attests a root oXopo, as iraTg^uiog irar^o, we 
discover evidently, in oXo^o, iXoog with the digamma, oKof og, and that 
eXopw/og [oXofu/og) is but a lengthened form of this (oXofog). Hence 
it follows, that in the original language of the Epos these syllables 
were supported and produced by digamma, as OAOFH, so IINOFH, 
*A0F02, and that, after the rejection of this, the vowel was ex- 
tended, to make it long. Thus it appears better to leave o}j)rj and 
tkojiai, than, by writing 6X«;^, iXoifjai, to lose a clear trace of the 
digamma, which the various changes of the epos have spared. 




1. Besides the above, there appear ^ in many tvo?'ds, 
vowels, ivhich do not helony to them in the common dialect y 
nor to their derivation : g for a in ^s^sO^ov, "^vffsro, ^^trero, 
&c., forms of the 1st aor. mid. — s for / in ayxifjuccx^oi for 
k<Yyj\jjcc)(j)^^ to explain which Apollonius (ts^/ l^rtpp^ijij., p. 555, 
Bekker,) adduces l,sfcvcov for tizucuu with the Sicyonians. O 
for a in To^^ccXig. Also Iffrt/] for iffrr/^, Trrojaffeiv for 'Trrriao'sip, 
TsgioKTiou for 'TTZ^iovaiov. 

2. Other words, again, point to an u^olic analogy : Zsi- 
hcjgog, ^zig, the first from ^a-^, the second for ^rjv, to which 
it stands in the same relation as the Germ, dreist, bold, active, 
to l§ri(Trn§iog, both from APA, APE, in Igocoj. Also those 
which are now banished from Homer, Zpcx^^'^"} re^mcorsg, &c., 
now given as Zccx^'^l^i'i n&vriioTzg, &c. 

3. Other words point to forms which fell out of use : 
roiyjvs, II., 7, 273, It' Itrxoc^optv, Od., s, 59, to rdiMvu, gV^afoj 
for Iffxpi^rjf as eWg^oj for iff'rrs^jj. 



1. As the verse required the extensions of sound above 
enumerated, so, in other instances, it required the abbrevia- 
tion of long syllables. 

2. Abbrev, of a. In the ace. plur. 1st decl. in Hesiod : 
zov^otg (better ;cou§ug,) 6(jb6(p§omg, ^, 6O, so 'Apxv7ag, 267, 
fMsrccmtiragt 402, (iouXug, 534!, 653, T^o-Ttag, s, 5Q4!, 663, 
ostvug, 675. 

Obs. 1. — 'Eaw's as a subst. has a short, and as an adj. a long. For its 
use as a subst. see U., <p, 507, t, 9, 7, 385, 419, $, 178, as an adj. 
II., i, 734", a, 385, 6, 352, 613, vj., 25'k<«' 


Obs. 2. — 'EccM has always a long before ff; hence, instead of i'laca' 
aurd^, 0(1., ?t, 166, is now read ilaa- aurd^, the double eigma in 
E/affCs, sasss, has been removed, and in oux sdaougiv s/mi, Od., cp, 233, 
ga must be read with Synizesis, as in r^sTv y^ oux IS. YiaWdc, 'A^^v;;, 
II., 9, 236. 

Ohs. 3. — "Ykaog has short a in fXaov ei/^eo ^u/^di/, 11., /, 639, comp. t, 
178, on the contrary it is long in "iXdog 'OXvfimoc, II., a, 583. Comp. 
Hes., e, 338, Hymn. IV, 204, in which case the word was perhaps 
originally /Xtjoj, like IXrjdi of which the later form was 'lXd6i. 

3. There is a difficulty in quantity connected with the 
words cirrj, &c. The form of this word in Pindar, Pyth., 2, 
28 (51), ccuTuv, also written audrccv, i.e. afccrccv, directs us 
to the root ccf (changed into the long av by the attenuation 
of the digamma), which repeats itself in the formation afuf, 
as (JtjOi^ in (jija^(jjcc§ (^i/ja,^^cci^oj\ and to^ in -tto^'^o^ (purpura,) 
{pro^(pv^-cS). The multiplicity of forms, and their varying 
quantity^ arise solely from the attenuation and rejection of 
the digamma, «/■«/-, ccvuv^ ava,, aocv, cioi, a ("", "', "", "", "); 
thus, from afa,foi/jai, afdoi/jcci (whence kparai^ aara/ ; "At;?, 
^ 'zdvrag kciTcci, II., r, 91, 129), come the aorist-forms 
(ayay) daaav (jJ sru^oi, Od., ;t, 68, '7rgo(pvys7v' adiffaro ya^ 
(jbiycc ^v(Jtjco, II., X, 340, — (aya) oivog ^' — aoc(r h) (jjsydc^co, Od., 
(p, 296, (p^ivccg ciaff&v o'l'vai, ib., 297j aii<i auad^yiv, ovK uvrog 
avccivo[jtjccij II., /, 116, aXX' i^g/ auac)i[jj)^i/, II., r, 137, — (aay) 
evo^jffsi'' cidffaro ^l \ikycc ^vjJju^ II., /, 537, — (aa, "^ '') t?5 S' aV?? 
docGug, II., ^, 237; add adadriv, kda&cci, haahig, II., r, 136, 
•r, 685, r, 113, Od., \ 503, ^, 301, which have the second 
a lengthened by position. Lastly, (aoj, a) ao-s ^^os ^cciiMovog 
aha, Od., X, 61, Z^/ clcroiro, II., r, 95, and "Ar;j (afdrT^) 
itself, always long, and in the thesis, II., (3, 111, ^, 237, h 
18, r, 91, unnecessarily contracted from aar;j, which form, 
as we have seen, was not foreign even to Pindar. Add to 
these the adj. aarog with similar varieties of quantity; thus, 
with a negative, adocrog, inviolable (""'), o[/jO(T(Tov ddurov 
^rvyog vhcog, II., ?, 271, mighty ("'"), ci&0Kog ddrog, Od., 
%, 5. — Abbreviation of the long a occurs only in the deriva- 
tives kroL^rri^og (Jlrri, ccr/i^og), arwduUfj, — From these forms 


must be distinguished those from dlrjv, ahfyji/^ Hkewise with 
long- a : a^s/v, to satiate (with the genitive), whence ai^hctrog 
aaon "Agyjci, II., s, 289, y, 'J8, %, 267, &c., oiffaadai (piXov 
ijro§ — 'TTOTT^rog, 11., r, 307» and aazaOz kKuv0[/jo7o, II., a;, 717» 
also the adj. with a negative : (aaro?) arog, insatiate, drog 
ToXi^jboio, II., g, 388, &c. Distinguish likewise doo derived 
from diiA} (the root of the Germ, we-hen^ with os intensive), 
to breathe in sleep, to sleep: vvkt d(Tcc[Jbzv, Od., -r, 367, 
contr. from ccicroi[Jijiv, which stands in vvktcc [juh diaK^zv, Od., 

y, 151. 

4. Abbreviation of / by the force of the dactylic rhythm is 
found in many nouns. From 'EXsuc/j, 'Y.Xzvdivog, Hymn IV, 
97, EXsyc/^a^ao, ib., 105. — Yi^ovirj maintains its original 
length only at the close of the hexameter : VTrmgOs zoviriy II., 
|3, 150, &c., and loses it in the thesis : Koviri V \x, K^arog, 
Od., X, 599, comp. n., "4/, 506, and always in aoviriffi, KoviriG, 
or fcovr/jg. — A/pjc (",) at the beginning of the verse: II., a, 
553y &c., and [jufj [jijOi ri Xirjv ("'), II., (^, 486. — My^7^a/, II., 
<p, 350, and (/jugurifftv, ib., 18. — ^i'bcovog, ^fbovioi, ^fhovi^, with 
/ long, II., (^, 290, Od., V, 285, &c., and y,ih6vsg -proKvlcillcckoi, 
II., "4/, 743. — From (TTuiJbig, (TTa[jij7i/og, '^a,(j!ji(ri (rra^mGai, Od., 
6, 252. — <^om^, (pomfcog, &c., Od., X, 123, &c., and (pomKoza- 
aocv, &c., II., ;£, 133, &c. — So also zi is shortened by throwing 
away g: Yiosihuviov dyXaov dXTog, II., j3, 506. — The abbrevia- 
tion of ogvTg, ogvidog is uncertain in o^vig It^X^s, H., (Jb, 218, 
where Aristarchus gives o^vtg rjXds, and in o^vig m ^zyd^oiai, 
II., a;, 219, where Heyne {ad 11.^ jM/, 218,) gives o^vig h 
(Miyd^oKTt. So o^vTg dTr^tri, H., /, 323. In other places ogvig 
is either at the end of the verse or in position. The oblique 
cases ogvtOog, o^vidt, o^vTfft, &c., are long without exception, and 
the long syllable in o^vtg itself appears to have been first 
shortened by later writers. 

5. In like manner the length of / is broken by the dactylic 
rhythm in many verbs. — The verbal forms from /Xa are like 
iXoiog, II., a, 583, &c., lon^: H^j^dt, IXrixriffi, IXdaKOvroci^ ikd- 
GKiG&ai, iXd(TffO[jj\ Od., y, 419, iX(x,(t6(/jS(T0oi, II., a, 444 ; but 
short in d^vuoTg iXdoi/rcci, II., |3, 550, [jijiv !Xcc(T(76(jtjS'J0i, 11., a, 
100, *Y.Kdi^yov Ixdffff&cit, II., «, 147. — 'l(ycc(Tiv, long in tXsiovcc 
'fffufftv, II., -4/, 312, &c,, short in dvl^zg 'kauiv, II,, ^, 151, 


&c. — Mrivioj^ long in ' A%/Xgy? (Jb'/;vtsv, II., |3, 769j but, through 
the influence of the fourth foot, short in 'Argii'byig ^' irk^ojdzv 
il^rivhy II., a, 247- — T/g/j', /o;z^ in the arsis : ovhk ri risi, II., 
i, 238, &c. ; but short in ours rhi, Od., v, 144, &c. Here, 
however, the natural quantity is short, and is made long" only 
by the power of the arsis, since it is never so in the thesis. 
In the other forms riirciffdcci, riybdoj, ri[jtj^(Ta>, Tiri^rjaduty &c., 
the long syllable is introduced by the inserted consonant. — 
To fJijT^TiffopijOii, H., y, 41 6, [/j)]ri(Taffdaf, D., «, 48, &c., no 
form without the c can be added in Homer, the first appear- 
ance being rd ol (ju'^rlov upcuKTzg in the Pseudo-Orph., Argon., 
1330 ; and, since the forms with <r are universally long 
the duplication of sigma is removed in the latest editions 
(comp. Heyne ad II., y, 416). — Kovim has always ; long 
(although }covi}] is sometimes shortened by the dactylic rhythm), 
so that there is no ground for doubling the sigma in fcoviaaov- 
Giv, II., I, 145, <p, 407 (comp. Heyne ad II., ^, 145). So 
the reading zoviaecXog is preferable to Jtoviffaakog. 

Obs. — I in a syllable prefixed with the incipient consonant is always 
short : dldu/u,!, hibaGxcn, riraivu, &c. — xixXrjffxu has it long by position. 
Of vKpavexu, however, the trisyllabic forms are sometimes lengthened 
by the arsis : T/jJautrxe, II., x, 478, &c. (but 'erd^oKfi 'rrTfavgxuv, Od., 
/(A, 165, &c.). The forms of more than three syllables are always 
short, as OT^aucxs/isv, mipavexo/Mcci, 'O'Tipausxo/Mvog, &c. 

6. The roots x§t and (p^t have / short : zzzfiiLmgy fc^Wevrsg, 
haxgihov, &c., 'i(p&hv, s(p0tTaf, s!p0ihv, &c., except ug «£ loXof 
(pdiJig, Od., (3, 368 (like (irrjrig from ardrig). They lengthen 
it before v and a: (p^mrat, (pdrnvreg, <p6ivov&i, k^Tvm, Pc^ivoiiJbi, 
K^Ivuffdat, &c., (pdicroci, (pdla^vo^cc, &c., and shorten it again, 
when after v the root is extended : (ptivvSu, (p^ivvdovffi, as in 
the future forms, huK^ivki, hccx^ivUffdui. 

Obs. — The root m also has short iota, lengthened in the forms with v: 
t/i/wi/, mvojfft, 'xivsiVf &c.; vJiiMiv, II., ff, 825 (comp. Od., <r, 3), is 
lengthened only by the aiais. In the future, a lengthens the / ; '>tistt) 
(*'")inPind. Isth., 6, Yl (103). 


7. Abbreviation of v. Of oKOm the v is lon(j/ in xe^<r<V 
aXvcuVf Od., /, 398, and short in ^/I'gyso';*' akvcov, II., <w, 12, 
&c. — Y.tXviv, siXv[Mvogi BiXv(j!jCi, &c., shorten v in the extended 
form il'kv(pouv, II., X, 156, and even in iiXvarat, II., (ju, 286, 
Od., y, 352. — 'E^;jrya> has long y in l^yjrvuv Irkfffft, U., j3, 
75, l§f]ruovTo, II., ^, 345, &c. ; but g^pjriJsra;, II., /, 635, 
&c., eg^rvov, ig^rm, H., |3, 97» &c. — Uoi'^wovrcc, II., a, 6OO, 
&c., and even Toi-Trvvov 'Troc^iovrZy II., a, 4^7^y but g-romuoi', II., 
<r, 421, &c. — 0y£ ^ 'Adfii/rj, Od., 0, 222, and ^yoj/ra, ib., 
260. — 'Idvdj in IviQvovffi, II., <r, 175, and /^us/, D., ?i, 552. — 
l^stxioc Xuu, Od., ?!, J4ff also oKXvovcccvy kXXvzfTKZv, Od., |3, 
105, 109; but Xvii, Od., |3, 69, and Xvcov, II., ^z, 62, &c. 

Ohs. — Taking all circumstances together, it seems evident that o is 
here, except in g/'Xuw, universally short, but, as the iota of %^i, fdi, ri, 
is produced by the insertion of v, or c, or x. (thus, tTu, rlvu, r/cco), so 
also Xuw, Xutfw, Bvu, dvvu, dZeu, didvziv, &c.; long likewise in the 
aor. 'idvv and subj. duu, dvri, du/xivai, &c.; but not before ^ and r: 
Xu^Tj, Xu^£;?)i', AgXura/, wherefore before ^ a v is inserted in order to 
lengthen: a^Ti/uw, d/M'Xvuv6rj, II., e, 697, ^, 436, diax^n/kTsv, &c. If, 
beyond these limits, long syllables appear in such words, they arise 
from the force of the arsis (as Xvro d' dyuv, II., ai, 1, a/xmuro, II., X, 
359, ^, 475); but in thesis the long syllables are only apparent, 
being properly short, but enclosed and concealed by two long. As 
before driiJ^'iriei, so now dXKvsffxoVy J^jjruovro, voiirvvowa., &c. 

8. 'Efya> and puoptjcci must be more closely examined, since 
Heyne (Excurs. IV, ad II., a,) has brought the matter as 
little to decision here, as in the case of ar^], Xva, and the rest, 
of which we have spoken. — 'Y^pvoo had the digamma ; thus, 
root h^f, fz^v, the v coming, as in other instances, from the 
attenuation of f. As fz^f, FEPFO, the word is allied to 

ferveo, FERFEO, and the Germ. WERFEN, to throw, cast, 
fling, &c. Its rachcal meaning is vehement activity, exertion 
of strem/th without farther aim, which it retains in ferveo 
(e. g. fervet opus, he). Tlie same signification appears, 
ivith the direction of exertion from the object, in the Germ. 


werfen, and to the object in g^y<y, I draw. 'E^vco C"") 
maintains its quantity and sense through all the active forms: 
i§v5iv, II., f, 235, &c., 'igvov, II., (js/, 258, &c., 'iguffccv, l^vaoci^f 
^c.y and, according to the exigence of the verse, l^vasoiLZVy 
s^vffffav, zi^v&Giv, &c. In like manner in many of the middle 
forms, as s^vaffccfLSPog t.i(pog o^v, si^vaffocro (pdffyuvov 6^0, II., )^, 
S06, Od., x^ 79. — T is long in the pass. perf. sl^varcci, II., 
f, 7'^j and so pluperf. si^uccro, II., o, 654, |, 30 (compare 
xszX'/iaro, ks%cc(Pj^6tcc, II., «, 195, g, 698, and others of a like 
description), si^vro, II., t, 542, &c. (whence zi^va&ai cIkoitiv, 
Od., y, 268, comp. -v^, 82, is to be treated as a perfect, and 
with the Et. Mag., p. 378, 1. 38, written at least si^va^cct, if 
not slguffdcct.) — This long v of the perf., however, appears 
again short in E/^yar' svT^vfJbvoi, II., §, 248, where Heyne 
writes si^viir, i. e. s'lgvvroci (the same editor^ contradicting 
himself^ wishes si§u(jb&mt, II., j*, 681, to be written, with double 
(/j, eigvi/ji/jivui\ also in II., a, 239, and in sl^vccro, II., %, 303. 
We are forced, therefore, to recognise here also, the force of 
the dactylic rhythm breaking down the long syllable. With 
g thrown away we find the cognate words pvffraaruog, Od., cr, 
224, pvffTcc^ovragt Od., t, 109, &c., pvffrd^sffKiv, II., &>, '755, 
puTfj^fft, II., -r, 475, traces, pvr^^oi ^wv, Od., ^, 173, stretcher, 
pvTo7(Ttv Xusaffif Od., Z,, 267, &c., puaaty epithet of prayers 
(Xiral), drawn together, wTinkled, II., /, 503. — With respect 
to meaning, the verb varies this in the middle and passive 
forms : a, to draw to one, to draw back or restrain, inhibere : 
ccvYj^ Vi zzv ovTi Aiog voop si^vffffcciTO, II., ^, 143, restrain or 
resist the will of Jove ; b. to draw into oneself and keep 
there : M^ (juh ay^vvyAvri x,^ccbiri xoXoi' oux, sgv(TcciTO, II., cj, 
584, comp. Od., t, 459 ; from (b.) to keep there, arises, 
c. to observe, to obey : ou av yg ^ovXccg sigvffcco Y^^oviuvog, 
II., ^, 230, comp. ib., a, 2l6 ; d. to draw forth, to deliver, 
to save : kcu rov fjbh (juztcc xz^sh Igvffaaro <i>o7^og 'A'TroXkcoVy 
II., g, 344, comp. ib., y, 450, Od., x^ ^7^, whence ^' igvarccro 
Tcui (Jb IXiTjffsvy Od., I, 279, cannot stand with long y ; e. to 
save, hence to protect, defend: dffrv itxikm l^ivyfjusvat ei^uff- 
(Tovffiy II., (T, 176, comp. ib., (p, 588, y, 93, and hence Minerva 
is called Iguai'^rrokig, ib., ^, 305 ; lastly,/) to ward offj in aXX' 
oOfc olcovoTatu l^vffcrocro zyj^a (JbiXuivav, II., /3, 859, in which it 


comes round to the signification of the Germ, werfen, pro- 

Obs. — la this derivation of meanings, all proceed from and return to 
the root FEPF; yet it must not be overlooked, that the root SEPF 
of servo also exists, allied in sense to the other, and which perhaps 
lies at the foundation of the forms with the signification of save, 
and the extension of £, s/gutftfouff/, ii^u6/Mia&a, &c., as well as of some 
of the following. 

9. In the meaning of preserve, defend, ward offi the forms 

a. Throw away s in the present, as zzK^iiikvy] pvsrcci ar^ct- 
rov, II., », 417, comp. ib., 259, Od., o, 35, II., /, 396, 
u, 195. 

b. Stand as secondary tenses without increasing in the 
beginning, and without modal-vowel, with long y, hke 
a^'TTwro and 'kvro : as, mog yd§ (r^piv 'i^vao '^v'kag, II., p;^, 
507, comp. ^, lo8, g, 23, j/, 555 y and as ward oiF, ib., g, 
538, f, 518, Od., 0), 524. Add 'i^vadai, Od., g, 484, 
&c., and, without £ : pvffdocij II., o, 141, and pvccr, 
ib., 0", 515. 

c. Spring from FEPT without FE, and PT with long 
T, as independent forms with v long : puo(/j' opbcJg, II., 
0, 257, &c., pvffccffdoii, imperat. pvffui vt rji^og vtocg 
^ Kyjjuuv, ib., ^, 645, pvaairo, &c. ; so with the aug- 
ment : arag*, cs Zgy? kppvffocro, ib., v, 194, comp. Od., 
%, 372, a, 6, whence the single f in ohg yag Igvzro 
"IXiov "Y^KTug, II., ^, 403, is suspicious. It might be 
f/ag pvsro or h' IppUro. A form from this root, in the 
sense of keep under, betrays its later origin in the con- 
clusion of the Odysee, already recognised as of more 
recent date than the rest of the poem, 'A0-^V7^ — 'HcD — 
'PvffoiT W 'n,K&oiVM, Od., -4/, 244. A form with v 
short is altogether false in rov (Jbh lyaiv h&zv pvffcciJbjjv xa) 
kvrf/tcyov avTig, II., 0, 29, which verse has also a rhyth- 
mical error (comp. § CXLVI, n. 7, obs. 1,) and should 
be written rov ^\v lyoov h(f ilguadiLYjv. 

10. Abbreviation of ri and u. — H into g. Together 


with eav^ a^yrjri (pastvcJ, H., y, 419, cc^y^jri zzgccvvco, Od., 2, 
128, &C.5 stands agysn Ifjf/jcu, II., X, 818, cc^yircc Irifi^ov, ib., 
<p, 127, and Hes., ^, 5U.~ A(TKyj0y;g, II., ;i, 212. &c., 
together with affzsdkg, Od., |, 255, which, in the slow motion 
of the verse vfja^v '^rriiJbdv&rj, aXk' affK2&kg Kcci dvovcrot, has attained 
the impulse of the lighter rhythm by this extension from 
affKrjklg. — Together with ccKctx^^ivog, H., g, 24, &c., stands 
a7cyf/j,yJir/i^ II., e, 364, &c. So in a prcB-Alexandrian Ms. 
(vid. j3Ssch. con. Timan.^ p. 152, Reiske), ug o^ov Ir^d- 
(pe[jijiv Tgf b v(Jbsrs§oi(Tf 16(Jjoi(ji, II., -^z, 84, is read instead of 
ccKk' 6[jbov, ug lr^(x,(pr,^zv, k. r. X., and according to this analogy 
r^cc<pi(juzv for r^acp^mi, H., ;j, 199, o", 436, Od., y, 28, er^a(p- 
kyiv, II., g, 555, gV^a(pg, ib., (p, 279, r^a<p' ib., j8, 66 1, as varia- 
tions of the text (Heyne ad II., i//, 84, et Boeckh. ad Pind. 
Not. Crit p. 465). Perhaps we should also read zuTSCc^df/jSv 
for zccrscilcifjbyjVj II., v, 257. — O is shortened into in evgO- 
Xuq^og which is always, even with later writers, zv^vjo^og, and 
in r^o'^daa'dcci, (jr§o(pciaff0cci, for rgaj^dff^cci, ffrgctXpccadat, from 
T^a-Ti-cccOf (TT^ojipda)* (comp. Eustath. ad II., ^, p. 719, 1. ^0). 

Obs — So also 'iu)g and riug (in which £ is sometimes extended for the 
production of the first syllable, e/'wg, II., y, 291, &c., rf/wg, Od., b, 
9], &c.), are to be WTitten, where they have a trochaic quantity 
(-'•'), eXos — Ti7og : thus 'iug rau^' oi^fiam, 11., a, 193, &c., should 

• Lobeck in Parergis ad Phrynich., p. 580, says with reference to the 
forms 'xaXivT2p<::da6&at, &c., Homerica quidem carmina Criticorum in- 
dustria ita tornata et perpoUta sunt, ut nullum appareat amplius veteris 

scabritice vestigium Neque dissimulem Fr. Thierschium mihi 

prceter causam pristincB inconstanticc patrocinium arripuisse videri in 
Act. Monac, Tom. I, Fasc. II, p. 179, sqq. It will be seen from the 
text that these forms are by no means entirely extinct in Homer, as the 
learned author of the Parerga believes ; and it would be difficult to show 
why forms, created by a visible and sensible necessity of rhythm, should 
be called inconsistent. We must remark besides, that they find their 
limitation even in the grounds of their origin, and extend, with the 
exception of a'KpirtoTujVTo, which is required by the metre, not beyond 
the cases, in which and a are inserted before the long vowel contracted. 


be eTcj 6, x. r, X. fsee Hermann Elem. Doctr. Metr., p. 58, 59 J ; 
- wherefore rsug 'A^aio!, II., u, 42, should be «/b5 'Ap^a/o/, and iMi^inro) 
aldt Tsug, II., r, 189, accordiug to Hermann should be fiifM/sTw au- 
Todi TiTog. — According to the same analogy the w appears shortened 
in T^gcuog aXX', Od., ^, 303, and xvfiarog s^avadvg, rdr s^sdyerat 
'riTii^ovde, Od., £, 438, was perhaps originally xv/Marov. 

11. Especially important to syntax is the abbreviation 
of the subjunctive modal-voicels yj, &>, of which Homer is full. 
Here shall be quoted only those forms Avith a short vowel, 
which, without regard to construction, even on account of 
their structure can be nothing but subjunctives : ^s/o^sv, II., 
a, 143, comp. -v^/, 244, 486, r^ciTTiioiLzv, ib., y, 441, comj). 
I, 314, Od., S^, 2'29, ^a/As/srs, XL, ;;, 72, which are evidently 
the forms ^icof/jsv, r^ocTTicof/jSv, ^a[M7iTs (from ^ojf/jsv, r^ocTraiiMv, 
'tcc[jjfJTi), with extended s and the long vowel abbreviated. — 
Add to these tofLZv, lyiigofLZv, II., (d, 440, and im ii}io(jbzv a,[/j(poj, 
II., a, 363. The accent is thus rightly placed by Pamphilus 
according to the Venetian SchoHast, although this displeases 
the Scholiast, who, however, opposes merely his own choice 
to that of the other : ov yko Tcapo^vvoi^iv x,cx,roi rov Ild[jj<ptXov. 
So also tvcc ith'iTZ 'Truvrzg, II., S-, 18, aKsTcci, ib., Xy 192, %£y- 
0[MVy ^ziiLoiJjZVy 'Tri'Troi^o^jiVy yziviui. These forms stand for 

yztvyjociy from il^i 'ioj^ o'lha iihaj, '/[ko^yiv, 'iy^zvcc, 'ihn^a,, TTi'^roidoCf 
systmfjj'/iv, (^> 

12. u4bbreviation of the diphthongs ei and oy, in |Sa^s;»;?, 
'Eo|«/2a, ^;jAga?, and ^o^aj ty;c£a ' I^/?, Hes., ^, 780> aoriTrogy 
aiXko'TToCy r^i'TTog, jSoXsra;, II., X, 319) /SoXscr^s, Od., cr, 387, 
and according to almost all mss., vvv h' krzpooc i^oXovro '^Boi 
for l^ovXovTOf Od., a, 234,* also, in Hesiod, Xuyog f^^ivv, a, 
302, for Xoiyovg. 

 The Harleian mss. have iZoXovro (with a above the oX), ISoj^.ovro, 
iZokono, those in Bennet's Coll. Canib., (Sov'aovto, the Parisian 2403, 
('ZoijXovTo, ov corrected into o, and beside it y^. -/.al IQdXovro, 2769, iwoiXovre 
(so also the Heidelberg), 2804, SovXovto. So also a Breslau MS. and the 
Vaticaa. Comp. § ccxxxii, 31. 



Ohs. — It is not intended to assert, in these remarks, that the long 
syllables are original, and that the abbreviation of them is an ano- 
maly introduced by versification. On the contrary, the short forms 
must be the original, as e. g. ^oKoijjOli, compared with volo and the 
Germ, wollen ; and as bos is more primitive than 1801/5, so mg and 
v^i'TTog are older than tous, r^ivo-jg. Such short syllables are, therefore, 
really a relic of the ancient language, to which grammar, forced to 
proceed upon existing and predominant forms, can only allude. 

13, Also a/, 0/, t;/, shorten their quantity without chang- 
ing their form, «/ in sfjbraiov ovls (^irjg, Od., v, 3JQ (but 
fiuzcov 'i^jtjTrcnog oCKnrrjg, ib., <p, 400), which, being- derived 
from 'iiJj'Trrig^ 'ifji^rcc (sfjuTafog, altogether in, or versed in), was 
probably originally written s/xraog-. — O; in ohg : agsr^v o'log 
iff(Tf, II., V, 275, &c., where the full form o7og has retained the 
quantity of the primitive ftog (compare the Germ, tviey as). — 
Tt in v!6g: A^vavrog viog, II., ^, l.:30, &c., "E;sto^, vis U^kx,- 
(iiOWy ib., ;;, 47, &c., also a trace of the primitive form FI02 . 



1. j4s long vowels and diphthongs are shortened through 
the necessities of versijication, so, upon the same ground, 
short vowels in several words are entirely rejected. 

2. At the beginning of words, a, in crroixv&ffffiv, crs^o-r^, 
crs^oTTPjys^sra, II., ■^, 598, X, 66, t, 298, together with 
aarcix^iiTffi, ib., |3, 148, affrs^o'^ri, z, 154, aars^oTi^rrig, a, 580, 
&c. — E in ziivog for Iziivog as the verse may require,* in 

* By Aristarchus the license is extended beyond these bounds, who, e. g. 
read in II,, 0, 94, ^log xiivov ^v/Mog, to the injury of the rhythm, because it 
was so Ionic. In obedience to him %j.%i7m, II., cr, 648, was made %ai 
Xiiiov, '/idxiivt^, ib., 0, 45, xa/ xihtfi, and xdxiivoi, ib., i^, 200, %ai xsmg. 


xudev, Kil&i, ftiiffs everywhere for itczikv, ixildi, ^k) l;ci7(Ts. Add 
the already mentioned pvzffdcci for l^veadaf, and words pertain- 
ing to it. On the other hand all the forms of %Xiij are now 
given in Homer with g. E is thrown away from g/ in hiXog 
for iix,{kog from zIko), ihvlriai in the phrase ihviriGt 'Tr^ccTTthafft, 
II., ff, 380, &c., for iihviriai, lastly in hog, which has retained 
its £ only in the feminine fonns g/ir^j^, mriv, giVa/ (not I'iffdcov) 
k'lc-yjg, iiffocg, ib., a, 468, g, 300, &c. O before / in, (^othufjuiv) 

3. In the middle of words ^ a, in yXafCTO(pa,ycof, II., v, 6, 
and as modal-vowel in 'ihfjbsv for otlocfijsv, si'k7iXou0(jbsv for eiXrj- 
Xov^cc[JbsVf 'ikaav, kikffcct, &c., according to the old Grammarians 
for ^Xacrav, kXaffcct. So UXfjuida, hX^zvog-, although these forms 
may be more fitly derived from fiXca, Lat. FOLFO, volvo 
(Heyne ad II., X, 413). — E as radical vowel in <?nX^ WiXzro, 
eTXiTO, so iTTiTrXopbivoy, Od., ;?, 261, crg^/TXo^gi'<yv, ib., g5, 16, 
in zsX, xizXiTO, in "^rgra, a'7ro'?rroi[Mvog, II., (3, 71 » &c., gTrraro, 
&c. In Igov, 4§oi, igsvg, igsvaaffdai, i'^^f, from h^ov, '^'jI, &c., 
the iota is lengthened after the ejection of s, as in oip/gj, o^;"?, 
&c. (comp. Ai^iK. Ts^} "^rviuiJboiTMV, Ammonius, Valck., p. 229). 
— O in r/Vrg for riTroTB, II., a, 202, &c. 

§ CLXX. 


1. The di(fammay dropped out between vowels, still exists 
in its effects so far that those vowels formerly separated by 
it have been preserved open : thus, 

AE in oc^y arirrig, k^vai, cciVTzg. AEP, i. e. AFEP, whence 
av^Tii aura, in '/jz^idovTai, a^^, ^s^/, yjigcc, yi'spioc^ azi^co, ao^, 
ao^r;^, aooQro. Moreover, in ag/^o;, aoihog, aothrj, aoihiccck), arjla/v, 
aiXXrj, ciiKXrig, aoWia, ag^^y {aiiyeo and av^dvco), ahl (from 

Zenodotus is said to have read x^xiTas, ib., fj,, 348. The same prejudice 
that armed Aristarchus against the augment, seems to have instigated him 
in this matter also. 


AFEN), AE, the root of 'i-fMsmi and the intensive AF, A, 
ever being. — AI in oi'iov (I heard), cc'is, al'a/p, dtouffu. — AO in 
a(x,o(p^m. — EA in loca, laa?, \S,v^ imco, &c., iocbora^ loiyrj, 'ici^z, 
soi^og, K^&ocg, Grzarog, ip^saf. — HE, rizXiog. — HI, '/j'icc, TjWsog, ri'icov, 
^'iaocu, zXrjtg, &c., "kyj'iov, XT^idoc, &c. — EE in ^k^^ov. — OE in 
Xosrgov, Xoi(T(TO[JijUi, ^Tj^ioz^yog. — 01 in 'O/'Xsy?, 'Oi'X/cc^;;?. 

2. So the V derived from the digamma remains open in 
ayV^, aurs;, aursyv, ayVs, &c., \\jg. 

3. Hence the negative a ha,s no v after it before digam- 
mated words: adarog, aay^?, clcx.'ffrog, aa(r%sro?, dziK>ig^ dkzriTi, 
azKcov, dzgyog, d^diffffou, ' Ai'hfjg, ' A'ihconvg, d'thj^Xog, d'ih^tg, dih^nfj 
(but before words not digammated : duuihrjg, dmiuofjucci, dvat- 
7iog, &c.). The words dvovrocTog^ II., \ 540, and dvouT'/]T(\ 
ib., %, 371 » do not harmonize with dXXoi/ ^mv zyjivad novrarovy 
aXXov douTOVf ib., ff, 536. 

4. The separation of the vowels is variable in the words 
connected with didXog: di&Xog and ddXuv, dz&Xo(po^oi and d^Xo- 
(po^otf &c., according to the exigencies of the verse 5 yet 
dz0XzvoiJv T^o umKTog, II., a;, 7^4, is preferred to the other 
reading ddXzvcoi'. The forms of ^otdtrffoj remain open, yet 
'^oojKog exhibits contraction (^dfozog, '^dozog, ^cozog, '^ocoy^og). 
Always Q^rjiKiog, ou, co, on, 01, ti, ?j?, and Qg'/j'i%a, but Q^^zzg, 
(d^riKuv (better (d^YiKojv as from Q^7ji'/ca)v\ ©^^fcs(T(Tt, S^r]Kr;g, 
S^r%,'/]phs, (d^n^^ri&zv, as well as S^rjixsg, Qoriizag. — AvKoo^yog, 
II., (^, 130, Avzovgyou, ib., 134. — Always ooc^i^siv with 
6oc§iffTrig and oupc^jv mpca G(pz7z^dcov^ II., ;, 327; but u^za&iv, ib., 
g, 486. — 'O/iy and oio[jtjUii open in all forms except o'ioiro, Od., 
^, 580, Xi 12, where the constant quantity of the iota hinders 
us from reading Tig tc oioito. — "O'ig (never oig^j oiog, oiv, ohg^ 
o'lSffffi, always open (and hence o'lm trisyllabic against Aris- 
tarchus in II., y, 198*). The forms o'iog and oiW sometimes 
become dissyllabic : thus otog durco, Od., a, 443, &c., oluv 
a^yzvvdcov, II., c, 588, &c., but only when the versification 
requires. The usage is looser in Taij, Toug^'f (pdog (j^oog)^ 

* Comp. the Venet. Schol, ad he. and the Etym. Mag. p. 620, 1. 22. 
f Tlaig, Lac. 1:6)'^, hat. puer, and belonging to this puber, Germ. Sube, 
where the labial maintains itself, but is again lost in the provincial Bud. 


ipoMg; althoug-h Bentley requires -roi'ig everywhere, when the 
verse will allow: as, iiig itaig (Bent, raiq) 'Ay^^/Wo, II., j3, 
819. Compare Heyne ad loc, 

5. Separation of vowels in the middle of a word, where 
the root and the termination meet, is entirely disallowed : 
'Ar^ii'hyjc, 'Eu^oiyjg, zv'TrXoirjv, &c., except when the first vowel 
is long in the forms — ring, — '4ig, — ri'id^rig, — ^'iov, — uiov; 
yet we find, from VTrz^uiov, yrs^^ia, the shortened form V'TTz^of, 
Od., oj, 362, &c. (perhaps, on account of the uniform diaeresis 
in other cases, better written v7:i^oji\ and ascribed to syni- 
zesis), also the word vTrs^&iyjv, II., y^, 49<5. Since all the 
forms of '^'/I'iog, such as ^ri'ioio, ^rii'oo, &c., remain, without 
exception, open, it seems right to restore ^ri'iojaavrz, II., )^, 218, 
^7iico6kvrig, Od., /, QQ, and to write all other forms of this verb, 
such as ^7jCt/(Tug, "hriojaziv, &c., open. 

6. When two consonants follow the diphthong, dicerests 
frequently occurs, even where no di gamma has been dropped. 

Thus, although oUrsi^co, otzrog, and o'ikt^ , yet always oi^ug. 
Although oT^oiffa, yet mT^s ; i'lkryiv and kfff^cco from sUco, &c., 
together with the digammated ailgig, aj'ffrog, aiffffo), hhroi, and 
the resolved digamma in dvrybri, diJffruXzog (i. e. afffraXsog 
from the privative a, ap, and (Tr&k'k&), I equip, adorn (aroXfj), 
thus meaning unadorned^. 

7. Hence su is made Iv before two consonants : Iv yvurov, 
\v x^ivag, &c., and according to this analogy Iv T^^ffffsffzov, 
Od., ^, 259, instead of Iv'Tr^T^GGZffKov, 

8. In compound words sv remains unaltered before vowels 
and single consonants: iua,i[jjovog, ivav&'zog, sv^orog, &c. ; but 
it is Iv before two consonants without a liquid: Iv^vyog, 
ivzri^ivog, iv(Tr§£(p'^g, &c., ajid before the semivowels, which 
are then doubled: Ivf/bfjjSkiTjg, iiJvvrirovg, ivppoog, lvff(TiX(jijog, &c., 
except before X in evXei[jjcoi/, Od., ^, 6O7. 

9. Before a mute and liquid zv arid ku stand as follows. 
Always open before nT', kv^ 7^, rg: luKXisg, 'Ku}ci^ri(jjihg, 
lvT[j^^roi(Tiv, ivT^s(psog, &c. — Open and shut before tX, (p^ : 
open in the forms belonging to kvTrXizzg, Iv'zrXonuf/jog, gyVXycs^, 
but ii/rXizTovg, II., 4', 145 (with ku'^rXiKTo), ib., •\p, 335), 
W'jrXoiyiv, ib., /, 362,* constantly iu(pPOHci)v, Ivcp^av'mv, ivtp^utvotrS) 

* UuirXii^v, Od.) X* 3, ha8 been exchaug:ed for s/atXs/jji', but is supported 


&c.; but with Ivp^n^rig also sv(p§?jvai, Bv(p^riv Wzzsffi, II., at, 
102 ; with w^ppcov also iv^^m; with lv(p§o(7uvri(Tt also zvip^ofrOv^; 
svip^oihiag, Od., r, 352. Even before ^^ stands, together 
with luhiJjTiToio, lv^[/j}^rov, also gy, after the apostrophe of ^g, in 
B' &vh[j^7]Tov j8aXs riixog, Od., y, 302. — The sound tt^ has 
only gy not Iv before it, in the forms suT^i^ffrovy II., c, 471, 
iVT^vfjbvoij ib., S» 248. 



The rough breathing passes frequently into the smooth, 

when its syllable is strengthened by the assumption of other 

letters* or altered by infection. 

A. From aXko^ai (not used by Hom.), comes aXro^ so sTaXro, 
II. <p, 140, akjjj(x,ri, Od., S^, 128. With (ifjjami stands 
also a,(/jOc^tr6g ; with cl[juoc, oiybvhig ; ^vith (i'TTTiaQcci^ dTrro&T&g, 
II., S-, 209 ; '^^ with rifjumg, a[jbf/jS ; with '^(mv, afjbjMi. 

E. "KzrjXogandivx}]Xog; zkiGaa} and g/X/xo^gj, slXv(/jSvogy elXvccrat; 
with iTofJbSffda, saTofjjsdcc, II., a, 158 ;t with scoXog QXjdsaivog), 
svcoXog (Lexic. -rg^; 'Trvzvftj., p. 221); with iulora, evahev ; 
with 'ivvvyijiy Iffdrjg. 

by 'ff^g?ji' ^^xen luVX£/?ji/, Od., g, 467, and by fu TX^caea, ^ituivuv, II., tt, 
223, where also s/j.'zXriffaffa, analogous to s/M'rrXsiriv, is a various reading, 
but rejected by the metre, and thus shown to be a gloss. 

* So in the Lexicon 9ri^) TvBv/ji^dr. Ammon. Valcken, p. 209, 'AXxvJJv 
Ik tou h aX/ xvnv sTv/MXcysTrai, o^u-wg %}//Xoiyra/ dia rh Ivdyzedai rh %. So 
also p. 201. Add 'XoXkaxig ydg r\ Taoayuyrj sluhv aXXdecnv zal rh Ti/sD/ia, 
wg £1/ rSj ct/Ma, a/ji,udig, ibiu, /figws, /^w, /|oj, ohog, 'Oduffssvg, i'l'^u, ii^/x6g, s/'^yw, 
s'l^Krri, ib., 229. Cornp. 240. 

f In the same Lexicon, p. 219, 'Effv6fj,ida, dvrl rou dx.oXov6riffo/xiv, tovto 


I' "Ix&i and i%(Azvog, t'^oiXou alyog, II., S, 105;* t^^^g and ihoVf 
ug sv6f](Tu, Od., V, 204. 

O, 'O-[jij0u, o-(jb60iv, and from this root m^oi, united togethei, 
wedded, and occgtarug, company, conversation : also or^txog, 
II., (o, 765, oiiTsug (i. e. bf'iTiag), of the same year, oTrccr^og^ 
OTocr^ov^ ib., X, 257. 'Olog, way, and oy^o?, threshold; o^og 
and ou^o?, II., jM/,421 , &c. The root oy^ has the difficult word 
d'TTovgug, 1\., cc, 356, 507, &c., taking away, depriving : 
0^, ovg, ov^a,ovpag,d'7rov^ag ; and in a lengthened form a.'zov^i- 
'^ovcriv, ib., %, 489; so ^/oyg-Zo-avrs?, Herod., 4, 42, ocTrov^ocg, 
Apoll. Rhod., 4, 1433, middle form with pass, meaning 
d'7rov^d[Mzvoi -^^.vxpig, Hes., a, 173. It is clear that this 
drov^ag cannot be by syncope from dTrov^taag, but is the 
orujhial form, and d'7^ov^i?^co^ &c. the later extension.t^) — 
Farther, oXog, whole, and ovkog in ci^rov ^' oifkov iXojVf Od., 
f, 343.t So oj^KTTog, II., X, 228, &c., and uKkoi for 0/ 
aXXo/, ib., |(3, 1, in the Homer of Zenodotus, where, how- 
ever, the aspirate is only subjected orthographicaUy to the 
sign of the crasis. — On the other hand, n^Xiog passes into 
nXiog, yji^g into 2co(T(p6§og, and d'lli^g later into a^;jg. 

* The Lexicon alluded to explains (p. 228,) 'I'^aXog by o^finnxBg, as 
belonging to hco. 

■f The meanings of the forms from ouX answer to the German voll, full, 
(^foXXog, ouXog. Ccmp. Festus de verbb. signif., p 516, Dacier. Sollo 
Osce dicitur, quod nos iofum vocamus. S and f are interchanged, as in 
fi, se, fdXig, satis, he), — WoUe, wool, (Festus ib., Solox, lana crassa) — 
and wohl, well (sol-vo, sal-vus) ; — to voll, full, in the above-cited pas- 
sage, also in 'XiiJ^-^ai, — olXov Ivst^ov, full, clear dream, II., /3, 6, o5Xa/, 
whole barley-corns, and ouXo^-jrai, — to TVolle, wool, so that ovXog is wooly 
in w>Mv n rairriTU)/, ib., t, 221, and ^Xaivag r hds/j,ivui civXag, ib., w, 646, 
— to wohl, well, in ovXs n xai /Asya %a^£, Od., w, 402, hail, &c., in ouXji, 
healed wound, (^^ and vTouXog. 




1. The mutes sometimes resist the regular change hefore 
[ju: ^ in il, 'il^jzv, later '/o-^asv, 'ihyj&vut, and ohiMf] for offf/jf/, in 
Pindar also zizochijAm : ^ in zepco^vOfjuivog (from Ko^ug, 
%,6§vd-og, zo§ud-(j(Tcj, Ko^vaGco)^ later ^s^o^ycjoobo?, and WiTndfi&Vf 
H., |(3, 341, &c.: X "^ dpiccxiJ^'^i'oi/. 

2. N remains before c, as in dvfrrdg, du(rr§i-<pBiciP, ccv- 
(TXi^kiv, &c., ;tsv(ra/, so in xawu^, II., /3, 12, according to 
Aristarch., see the Veil. Scholy ih.* according to Zenodotus 
'ffccGtrvliri, which is supported as an original mode of writing by 
inscriptions in the ancient Attic alphabet: E22IAAOI, E2- 
2AMOI, &c., h liXXcj, b loi[Jbai. (Comp. Boeckh. Index 
lectt. Berol., 1816, Oct., p, 6.) 



1. Mis inserted, in order to strengthen the syllable, in the 
compounds of ^^orog : cliJj^§orog, (p0Kri(jtj^^orog, <pas<r/^€^oroj,t 

* The context shows, that in that Scholium we should read "On Zriv6- 
8orog AIA rov tf instead of XflPIS. 

f Bekker, p. 127, 128, tit supra, explains it from a duplication of the 
jS, aQZ^orog, so that the more easily pronounced ^aC was substituted for the 
hard /3/3 ; in which way also ^/MpaGiyj appeared for aufaa'in, and the mss. 
have often xcc,«£aXe for xdQ^aU, II., '4-, 683, Od., ^, 172, on which 
Porson remarks : qui error, si tamen est error, fregttens est in hiijusmodi 
compositia. The same duplication appears io ci.(M/Mooog, aKKrix-rog, &c. 


also in dfji^(pcii(ririf II., g, 695, Od., \ yO^** which has sprung 
from dF<pcc(ylr} (comp. a/uraXso?, which passed into dvtrrcckzog), 
and was originally uvipaai-/]. So v in lh^vv6i^&av^ II., y, 78, tj, 
56 (although we find th^us, ih§v(j&), dihTrvvvGj^ — root 'jrvzf 
Qjrvzv(jja\ Tfvv (as ;^gA, ^(^y,) — for dvixpudyj, and in vTS[juvy;ujVKs, 
lWx-> 491, for v7rs[jbri[JbUKS. N inserted in the same manner is 
found in vajwiLvog from ovo[/jOc, and d^rdXcc^vog from TuXdfJijj]. 

2. 2 2* added, in compound ivords^ to roots ending in the 
weak z : \yx^ in 'iyxog, syx^'^'^i S7%s-2-9ra?io? ; o'a;ts-2-TaXo^; 
^£-2-(paro^j ^£-2-;»i2Xoj (^s(o)2/;^sXog, ^2-;csXo?, ^iff-xzXog) y* 
<ps§z-^-Qiog f before r in ^zi/jirog, "^sfJijifTrog ', 6gs-1,-rs§og, &c. ; 
before t in st in gV-o?, S-s-stt;?, ^s'T/j, ^s-S-t/?, whence ^s- 
(TTTiffiog, &c. ; so sV-0?, gV/(79r£, 'ifT'TTZTS, and I'T, zG'Tro^zQcc, iff'iro- 
(/jzvog, as in (T[/ji^§6g, '^zd^Jbavb^og^ "LdKvv&og, Sec. 

3. T is assumed in '^oXig, '7rokz(jjogy and their derivatives: 
'TTTokig, 'Tjrrokk&^oVi 'TrroXt'Trogdog; itrokziJjog, itrokzixii^ziv^ ttoXz- 
fjtjKTT^, II., %, 132, &c. — B (from the digamma) in ■7roiP(Affj- 
QkcuKZ from |M/0>i, jO/Xo, and (j!jZ[jtj^Xzrcci, ^zfJb^XzTO from ^M/sX, /M/sCA. 
Comp. § CLXI, 1. — in i/jCcXOocKogf zygriyogdoccri, II., z, 419» 
^/)^^a and its derivatives. 

4. P is transposed in connection Avith mutes : dra^Tog and 
arcc^'Tirog for dr^a'TTog, ccr^wTrirog ; (i^uhvg, ^d§h(Trog ; ^dgffog 
and ^^dffog ; z^drog, zdoriffrog ; zccphiri (cor-dis) and z^ahi}^ ; 
^^ara for ^a^ra, 11., \|/, l69; (327 in g^sfs, &c., and £^7 in 
5^701' ; pg^ in pzZsiv, and z^^ in g^^g/;/ ; -Trzgd is transposed in 
ZT^adoVj and ^£^^ in 'i^^azov. 



1. Consonants are doubled in order to strengthen the 
syllables; namely, the smooth mutes in some forms, and more 

frequently the semivowels. 

2, n in OTTcog, oT'irri, oTTrors, O'tcito&zv, oV^o^/, o'lC'Tcmv, 

*Corap. Schol. Venet. ad II., y, 180, 


6'ffTorz^og, ox'Tirotjoi,, OTTxori^co^iv, — K in ts^s^^a;, II., p, 6 12, 
'XikiKKn'^iv, 0(L, g, 244, as also auKog in Hes., a, 364, 461, 
ybiya, aazog a^a|s, should be written auKKog, — T in orrt, 
0, rri, orr&o, orrsu. 

Ohs. — The doubling of the middle h in g'SSs/cs, rn^iddsiffav, abds'sg has been 
already remarked, as springing from an ignorance of the digamma, 
and s^iodriaaffdai, II., -v]/, 792, is now written with a single 8. 

3. A after the augment in sKka^s, 'iXXsiTrov, zkXiGdiL7]v, 
IXkirdvsus, and the words pertaining" to them ; in compounds : 
cc'TroXX'/l^iicii'i [/jSrciAX'/]^ocvri, aXX}^Krog, v&oKkourog, Hymn., II, 
241, -TroXvkXiGrov. 

4. M in diJjiJjO^og, a.[/jiJbo§it]v, &iJb[jtjahgy siMf/jivoti^ 'i[jb[jbogz, \v(Jj- 
UjZkirjg, (ptXouj[Mihr]g', and as 'i[jb[Mvcct so 'tf/jfjusvui in II., y, 365 ^ 
according to Hermann (de Ellipsi et Pleon., p. 232), and 
so upoujI/jSvch, Hes., I, 22, Gaisf. 

5. N in av/iipikog, Od., <^, 45 ("Wolf gives ai'i(piXog like 
aduvccrog), hviTn, Ivvvrirog, aydvvi(pov. 

6. P after the augment: sppuis, sppuhocrui, 'ippuv, Vppzov^ 
epps^s, 'fpp^^s, 'ippiyoi, kppi^corcci, spp-v^s, kppuaccTo, IppmavTo, &c.j 
and in compounds: clppriKrog, upprjTov, dvapprj^ag, dTopp^^ccg, 
d'Troppoj'i, dyocppoog, d>icckcippi(roio,(ou0vppoog, 'hicippoci(rov(Ti,lTfppoog, 
l'Tippo(}og, I'TTippsov, KCiTccppsov, Ti^ippvrog, voXvpp?jvogy -TroXvpprivgg, 
vTopprivov, II., X,, 21 6, &c. 

7. 2 ill the middle of the root: oggov, offadzt^ OGcdriov, 
Toaaog^ ro(r(Tovrov, '^oaa^yjctg, '^r^oGGco, h-ziaau^ 'Tt^oaao&iv^ n\jyiGaii 
(from i>s[^>SGig), vzi/jiaaa, vs[j^S(Ta-/^()sig, vs/Ascro-^jrov, (Msnov, ^vatravoug, 
'Qihvffffivg. ^fter the augment: eWsya, IfjffivovTO, £(T(TV[jbut, 
iffffiiovro, l(T(Tu(Mvog, &c. ; and in compounds : ivffcrzXfjijog, 'Eyc- 
(Tcopov. Lastly in the termination <r; of the 3rd decl., Hzvffaiy 
hioiJjccfTtTi, &c., the tenses in <ra and (Tco of pure verbs, as ^ccfjjdff- 
fftu, hociJjdfffTUTO, yiXaacruv, 'TiraaadiMvog, &c., 'i(TC)0[JtjUi, hffsi, 
xdXsffffCi, &c., Xoi(T/Td[jbsvog, mKSffffs, rgiffffs, nXiffao}, &c., 6[jj6(T<T'/iy 
&c., 'i^v(T(Tav, &c., zv(j(rz, Od., ^, 39, u, 320, zva<T a^a,, ib., 
r, 417, KvsGaiy ib , &/, 236, in which places zvffi, yJva\ kv(tcci, 
stood improperly, since v is short, as Ixu zucn, II., ^, 474. 
Comp. II., CO, 478, Od., g, 463, &c., "TTu^drdtToi. xvirets, ib., -v^^, 
87, &c. ; also informs where ^ must fallout before g: (p^d^u 


(<p^a^), <p^a(T(ro[JbCii, &;c., alxiLoinaovffi, 'Tt'ikccaaov^ zoiiKTaoi, Sic, 

Obs. — As here the consonants, so in some cases syllables are repeated 
or doubled, not only in the verbs ^ag,aa/gw, TaTra/i/w, &c., but also 
in nouns : from kj-tj, drrj^og, (not in Homer), in Horn. araPTtj^oc, 
unless the syllable rag be an insertion in the root, as in ImraoloQog, 
which is compared with it by the Schol., II , a, 223. 



1 . As the doubling of consonants is introduced by the 
exigency of versijication, so in obedience to the same princi- 
ple or to euphony, some consonants are occasionally thrown 

2. Those words which lose a consonant in the beginning, 
have been already adduced under the head of the digamma. 
In the middle, or at the end, § is dropped in [hoki^og for 
(jjoXiQ^og, II., X, 237. — r in (pd^vyog, Od., /, 373, for (pd^vyyog. 
— H in am for am^, II., -r, 233, Sec. — P in -Trgori, Trori. — 2 in 

O'TTids, OTTldsV for OTTlffdz, OTlffdiK M-CCT&VffOlJbSV, II., |, 110, is 

probably not from ^(x,(Trzvuv, but an ancient form from jooa, 
whence (wro^drog. — N in \ym, lyoj, and the terminations ; and 
ai, hvhqpLGi, ii'7r7i(ri, &c. — Farther, 'i^yov aPZZTOv (i. e. cLit^azroi) 
stands II., r, 150, on account of the verse (Eustath., p. 117'5, 
1. 5), and a[jj<pi§uT:^ with a single consonant, where analogy 
requires the consonant to be double, as in 'TTioippurog. 

3. K is dropped out of '^vv, the root of ^vvog (^zoivog), so 
that the weaker (tvv appears where the verse requires it, as 
7) is Gvv, II., a, 307; but t,vv is also retained on account of the 
verse, as rov av t,vv Bo^srj, II., 0, 26, &c., or for the sake of the 
preceding syllable, even when not absolutely necessary, as 
'A'TToXXcov 'ApTif/bili ^vv, Od., 0, 410, quoted by Gregor. 
Corinth., Att. dial, § v. . 

4. Nothing but the necessity of versification can justify the 
change of ^vv into trvv, so that, where the verse admits, we 


should read ^vpb^XfifJbSvog, ^Oftj^KriTOiif lujtATafra, &c., for (tv(/j' 
Qx^fjusvog, &c. So also |uv for ffvv at the beginning of the hne 
in II., |(3, 47, 187, 450, &c. 

5. Nor is there any ground for attenuating ^vv after v^ since 
vx, combine in a sonorous enunciation. It is better to read 
'i(LZv t,vv, I]., a, 170, 179, 'O^&o^v ^vv, II., a, 325, &c., instead 
of (Tuv ; nor should ya^ <ryv, -rs^ cw, gy^ o'yj', II., a, 183, and 
the like, be allowed to remain. 






1. Where at the end of the root a long- a appears, it is 
changed into ;;, e. g. Mcivriuicl, Mccvri/s?^ ; Tsysa, Tzyir}^ &c., 
except ^ga C " ), A/Vs/ac, 'Kp(MiKg. 

2. Since the gen. and dat. of this decl. have always the 
termination long, this termination will always have ;?. The 
ace. follows the nominative, e. g. |M>/a, {/ji^^g, (Jji^, but [Jtjiciv ; 
yaTcc, yocirig, 'yotr/j, but yccTav; '^dku^oTzi^ci, 'TToXvQorsigT^g, TokV' 

3. Except ^soc, '^zag, ^zuv ("' ), and even ^sa7g. Comp. 
n. 37. So also Og;a? 'ttoc^ rsix^ffffi, II., yj, 135, from Os/a 
(Etym. M., p. 410, 1. I7), recognised by Strabo and Apollon. 
Comp. Heyne ad loc. However, from %s/a (spehinca)^ 
which the Etym. quotes together with Os/a, we find x^ny 
II., x,^ 93, 95. — Concerning masculines in 05 see n. 22. 

4. It is necessary next to state the cases in which the ter- 
mination of the nom. is lo7ig ;?, and in which it is short ex.. 
Much, under this head, must be repeated from the remarks 
on long a of the 1st decl., which prevails in the common 
dialect instead of n in the Homeric ; but the collection of all 
the rules (chiefly after Spitzner de vers, heroic, GrcBc.^ p, 
26, S^c.)y is requisite in a complete survey of Homeric Greek. 


5. Dissyllables in -ata are short : ya7u, ala, Ma/a, r^aTav, 
II., |3, 498 ; polysyllables are long : avotyzociri, 'AOyjvur/], IXuit], 
evvcci% ayiXoci'/], -^rsr^a/;?. Except n?vara/a, A/Aa/a, 'W/a/a. 

6. IVords in -zee are long : yzvirj, M.ccvTiPi7j, Tsys;?. 

7« '^he termination -sioc is short in adj. in -vg, -&7a, in 
the fern, forms from zvg, rj^, and -in the names of women 
and toivnSf e. g. (BahTa, (ia^eia, sv^iioc, isgsiu, (^uaiKsicc, ^v(tcc- 
giffroroKiia, svTOiT&gsiav, II., ^, 292, &c. — ' Avz^oj^zia, Ai[JjViiJ- 
^SiOi, H^tsoroyzmu, Ut^vsKottzioc, TLs^azpovziu, ^Kdvhztu, '\(pi^ihzicx,^ 
0a,Xzfcc with the adj. ^uXzioc, II., f], 475, &c. ; together with 
several isolated ivords : k^uvzik, xcuhziu, orsXs/a, r§v(pdXzia, :— 
long in substantives from adj. in rig, and in the fern, of -ziog : 
e. g. aztKziy], ccvDcthziTj, akri&ziri (different from the common dia- 
lect, in which these words have a short), zvzXzr/], zccrri(pzi7i, 
oi^ziyi, rav§siri, ^ybiovziri, Togyzi/j, (oozr/j, 'A^yzr/^, Xzirj from "kzhg, 
together with kyz\zir\ from the non-Homeric As/a. 

8. The following dissyllables in -icc are short : 'h7cc, fjbicc, 
i'a, polysyllables are long : ^oXir], -TroXr/j^ dvdgccKtri, CKOXir;, Kovirj, 
z^abi'/j, &:c. (add the abstracts : rjXizr/], ix-^riXaalri, To'kvx.oi^civiri, 
&c.). — Except "TroTviu, 'TroXviJJi'ici, Hes., ^, 78, E/^sr^/aj', II., 
j8, 537, Qs(Txiocy, ib., 498 (the former, however, is cited by 
Steph. Byzant. under XuTjcigy as '^.^ziT^ziav, and the latter by 
the Etym. M., p. 305, 1. 37, as Qza-Trzicc). 

9. JVoQ'ds in -oia are short from ^ovg : EySo/a, MsX/So/a, 
'Hg^/So;a, Ilz^iQoia^ the rest are long : TgotT^, al^oirj, zvxXoi/iy 


10. TVords in -via are short : dyvidvy II., y, 254,* zu^vdc- 
yvtcc, "A^'TirvKx, (JbuTnc, o^yvioc, tzQcCkoioL, with other participles 
of this sort. On the contrary, ^riTQviriy II., e, 389. 

11. Those in -ovri and -ufj are long: daovr}, dhuri, Zcori, 

* Wolf there writes uyuiav according to the Etym. M., p. 305, 1. 36, 
as Ionic, corap. Heyne ad 11., -^z, 327, but ayviai, Od., |3, 388, dyvlag, 11., 
£, 642, I, 391. So also opyw' II., ^|/, 327, ^yviav, Od., ,, 327, x, 167. 
In the common dialect dyuid, o^yuid have alone remained. The Homeric 
form dyvia, o^yuicc is supported by the shortness of the a, since in his 
composition, in dyvid, l§yvid, the tone upon a would lengthen the vowel, 
as in /A^jrgu/jj. 


i'^uyj, ^urjy ico^, vriPcorj ; also where a consonant separates o) 

and rj : Xoo^rj, icoyfj, zvycoX'/j, itoAjaoShSi^ ri^Tukri^ <piiha\n^ o'ttco'^t}, 

12. Those in -Xcc, -voc, -^a, -ca, are short : ^veXka, askXoc, 
uboczsKKoi ; hiffToivcc, uAXaivoi, r^iatm, yT^alva, K^oUpbrn, UoXv- 
oaf/jvci ; x^'iMutocc, loxioci^oc, ^otj)(j:nD(x,^ vziai^cc^ Mar^a, (j(pouea, 
^l/jriTzi^cc, Kvhiciv&i^cc, avraxi/upcc, K.ccanai'ii^cc, KocWidvu^u, 'tcov- 
XvQoTei^oiy '^ktocc, GTzi^cc, (Jjo7ok, upovga, a<pvoav (1. (j(pv^ttv), Od., 
y, 434 ; B^ca, II., |3, 532, Moyca, Qoajaa, ykoJaaa^ oWa, 
aljjjciroiGGa^ 'xociTcaKozaaa,, &c. Add those with a double 
consonant : cc^yv^o'Trs^oc, cl^hcchx,, ^A|/a, p/(^«, <py^a (1. ^i)(^a), 
II., /, 2. 

13. Owytons are long : alyj/jriy %s(poiX}i, ti^Jj?!, ^oijjrj, ulvri, 
xikccivYi, ocyog^, a^riu, viu^rj, Ikv^tj, XifforTj, (tuptj. Also ivords in 
-ivTi, vGiJjivri and Aiyivfj in vtjffog r Kiyivrj, Hym., I, 31, al- 
though A'lyivav is written II., |3, 5Q2. Also several in -Xa : 
uiyXri, "^kvKM (yet y,?cvXK\ irsgojdi, U, Od., (Jb, '3,35, which, 
according to Spitzner, should be read hdzv ya,§ 1,H.vXk'/], 
irs§&>0i Is) ; in -va, : ' AXx[Ji,rjv7^, 'A^tdhvyj, ''Eksr/j, clyvri, tsxvt], 
Z^mn ; in -^a : ccv^r,, aW^yj, '^v^yj, <E>a/^^;j, (pg^lTgr;, 'Trvpccy^fj, 
rtlJ^i^yji vW^rj, rscp^f] ; in -ffffcc : jcviffffyj, Miffffrjv, 11., jS, 582. 

14. The mute words are generally oxytons and therefore 
long : Xco^?j, <pvyrii c^'ytcoKY}, -Tri^iwTr'/i, l^ajhri. Also some that are 
not oxytons : AUdrj, hair'/j. 

15. In the words hitherto quoted we have considered 
only femifiiiie forms, and not the roots, out of ivhich mas- 
culines were formed, as I'X'KoroL, TjTrura, ^c. These give 
rise to particular forms in the sing., and both classes must 
therefore be more closely examined. 



l6. The original language had, as an universal mark of 
personality, the old dative pronoun OIN (FIN) in the form 
of an affix, which, attached to the root of the word, converted 
it into a noun, without determining the case, and hence 


adhered to all the different expressions of relation afterwards 
introduced, or according to the Etym. J/., p. 800, /. 8, ap- 
peared in every case. For the nominative, there is there 
cited : ohoq ^ Wi^ri<pi -rccgskdeiv K^siaauv sig roi Vizaiot, Hes., g, 
214 (where irs^rip is now read) ; for the vocative, Ov^uvia(pi 
for Ov^avioi* As accusative it still stands in 'ig r hvf](ptv, 
Hes., s. For this case Apollonius (^g^/ gT;pp., p. 621, 1. 21,) 
quotes also Itti li^iopv (II., f, 308), from the 2nd declension. 

17. In Homer the use of this affix in the 1st decl. is much 
limited. There is no trace of it in masculine words, nor in 
feminine proper names. It appears only in other feminines, 
with a long vowel in their termination, and only in the geni- 
tive and dative, chiefly in the expression of place : e. g. 
ibv7i(piv and ivvri<piv for ivvrjg^ ivvrj. — 

By treatiny (piv or p as this sort o/* affix, we are relieved 
from the necessity of compariny it to the adverbial termina- 
tions, and thus of either misexplaininy the non-adverbial 
part of its use, as in 'ig r hvrjpv^ or combat iny its exist encCy 
which will be a difficidt matter, especially in such instances 
as a[/j' rjoT (p(x,ivo[JbiV'/i(pi, ri(pi (5r/i(pi, ^soipiv, and the like. 

18. Examples of yenitives in -<piv ', &vv)^(p(, %.&(pcck>j(pi, II., 
X, 350, &c., vsv^ijpv, ib., S-, 300, &c., so x,i(pa}3i(piv not 
xe(paX^^iv, ib., «, 458.t — RetnaQ^k also the adverbial -0zv, 
which occurs, in expresions of place as a yenitive form : 
uyo^rjGiv, ^ociri^d&v, Q^riKyj&iv, "\h71kv, kKktI'i^Szv, OlyjxkiT^&iv, "tt^v- 
[jbvrjkv, STcc^r^j^gv, T§oi7]0£v, &c. ; in the followiny declensions 
likewise it must be considered a genitive of place, whence 
it also connects itself with prepositions : g? AiGv^ii^Qiv, II., 
S^, 304, similar to It, zvvijpv. 

Obs. — The genitive i\jv7i<pi appears to have had its affix (pi united also 
with the subsidiary and connecting sound tf, which has been retained 

* From Alcman ace. to Schol. A. ad II., 1/, 588, and Apollon. Dyscol. 
Excerpt, ed Reitz.,p. 434, C, where we must read Ov^a,vla<piv in Ovgavia 
ov^avioipiv Ta^' ' AXx/jmvi, or rather 'il^aviap. Comp. Heyne Excurs. II, 
ad II., % p. 523. 

f Comp. Schsefer ad Gnomic. Poett, Gr., p, 237, 


elsewhere, but here banished. From ETNH2<I>I arose, after the 
rejection of ^I, sui'^s, in the regular form for the gen. of this decl. 

19. In the dative an iota is subscribed : svv^jp, (p^rir^ri(pt, 
&c., which is pointed out by the Etym. M. under (p^rir^rip 
as a mere traditionary usage, and which militates against the 
manifest derivation of this iota, which clearly arose after the 
ejection of (p in evv^(piy &c. The form evv^-i, zvv'^, &c., was 
established for the dative, when the progress of language 
assigned separate forms to the expression of different relations 

20« Examples of the dative form in pv, p : kyzkyipt, 
u'/Xoc'irip, |8/?7ip;, ysvsrjp, v, ^vo^srip, ^vgrip, KS(poik^<pij v, kKi- 
Gi'/j(pi, Piv^^pv, '7rockcx,[jbr;(pt, (p§nT§ri(piu ; also adjectives : irsgrip, 
%,§ccTi§yj(pi ; partic. <p(x,ivo(jbiV7](pi ; pron. ^(p/. 

21. The accusative, springing from the full form svvrjipiv^ 
&c., by ejection of p, zvv^v, &c., ofters nothing remarkable. 
The affix has entirely disappeared. The adverbial termina- 
tion ^£ is added, for the most part, to the ace. already formed : 
xkiffirivhsy v(T(J!jivrjvlz, Q^^xj^vhs, Tgoirjvhs, ^0irivhs ; but traces of 
old formation are seen in 'i§oc^s, ^y^a^g, where the roots e^oc, 
^v§c6, have assumed the ending ^s, and before it the subsidiary 
2, 'i^aahiy ^v^cc(jhi. — The vocative, here confined to a few 
proper names, "H^>7, ^ AO-^v/j, Uj^viko'rsici, and the like, is 
similar to the nominative, except that of Ny^^;?, Ny/t-Kpa 
p\f]y II., y, 130, like the Lat. Nympha. 




22. Masculine words retain in the nominative, where 
euphony or versification requires it, a unaltered, as /V'Toroj, 
ri'TrvrcCy zv^votto,, as with the Latins in poeta, propheta, and 
with those, who now inhabit the mountains of Laconia, in 
vavTOi, y^oj^tdrcc, l^'/if/jira, 'Tr^op^Toc, &c. (comp. Villois. Pro- 
legom, to IL, p. 49, L. in the obs.). Otherwise a is added 
to the root, and the a lengthened into ri : ' Ar^s/^a, 'Ar^g/'^;jj, 



Bofga, Bo^g;j?, except in those in -g/a, which have long a: 
AiVs/a?, Pivyzia^y 'Eo[jbztocg, and retain it in the other cases. 
Together with 'E§(/jStag there remains also a short form 
(' E^fAsa, 'EeiM/S???), 'E^/A^?, but only in D., u, 72, Od., s, 54, 
a;, 1, perhaps originally open 'E^ijus^g; and together with 
Almotg also Alviug, D., »', 541, perhaps originally A/Vg;;?. 

O65. — The 2 of tbe nom. is probably derived from the suffix FIS,^ 
which we shall recognize among the pronouns as the nom. of FEO, 

io In the 3rd decl. F as well as 2 has remained in (SaffiXs, j3aai- 

Xifs, fSadiXivg, &c. Of the eame origin are -is and -es in Patr-is, 
Germ. Vater-es, Vaters, and the pronouns is and Germ, dieser, 
which, compared with FI2, point out AFI2 and TFI2 as the primi- 
tive forms. 

23. In the genitive appears the suffix FO : 'Ar^g/^a, 
'Ar^s/SaFO, TPjXg/^aFO, so that the forms either remained 
open, 'Arg&fhcco and Il^jXg/^ao, thus attesting the previous 
existence of F or O between the vowels, or were contracted, 
AO into n, thus, 

a. Without farther alteration after a vowel : ''Egfjbsiocg^ 
''^^^zicco, Od., ^, 390, ^E§(jusiaij, II., 0, 214, Bo^gpj? from 
Bo^ga, gen. Bo^gao, ib., g, 524, &c., Bo^g«y, ib., -4/, 692, 
&c., and iv(J!j[JbiXi)^g, root w(Jtjyjsktcx, (from gy and fJusXtcCf 
fjbzXir]\ gen. ivyj^ikicco, Iv^^ikico. 

b. With prefixed g, not ranking as a syllable, after a 
consonant : 'Ar^et^uo, 'Ar^iihco, n?jX;?i'a^ao, Il?]X}jioihu^ 

24. The termination OIN has been already recognized as 
the pronoun of the third person, namely as the dative FIN, 
which, as an universal symbol of personality y might lie at 
the basis of every case. This being premised, we may 
recognize, without difficulty, FO as the genitive of the same 
pronoun (FEO, and, by dropping the E, FO), so that FI2, 

* The ancients made so little distinction here, that, e. g. Eustathius, p. 
13, 1. 5, produces as similar and of the same formation, A/Ve/sw, liriKiibiUf 


FEO, and FIN, added as suffixes to the root, produced the 
inflections of the singular. ('^^ 

^25. Examples of the nominative in -a : Qviffrcc (also 
(dvi(TTr]g). Adjectives : cckcck'/^toc, alxiJUTird (also ccl-x^nTyig), 
Tj'Trvra, (from ccttvoi}), lirirorcc^ n(psXri'ys§iroi, (/jj^rkrcc, &c. Of 
the adjectives, besides a/%jM/;jT^?, the following have the full 
form : acrs^oT^jr^?, v-^i^^i^irrig. 

Obs — Nominatives of this class have the accent sometimes on the final 
syllable, as affrEgoTTir^S, aiyj^T^rr^i, but commonly on the penultimate, 
X|yff;jf, 'Argiibrig, 'I'jrmrrig, so Quiffra, /VTTora, '/wriXdra,, vnpeXi^yt^sra, 
&c. On the ante-penultimate, but not without opposition from some 
Grammarians, it is found in fjjrjriira, II., a, 175, as Aristarchug 
wrote it then, and Inx^dTriffiv rt dvayvtuGig is the reir.ark of the 
Scholiast. For the same accentuation of the word are quoted, II., 
a, 308, Horus and Apollonius, h rtfj *sg/ va^uvu/Muv ; and the in- 
sertion of g for the sake of rhythm {fi'/jriBTcc for fi^rira,) is assigned 
as the cause (the tone remaining on the original sound). This 
occurs also ia two compound adjectives : tu^vo'?ra, and dfidKriTay and, 
out of Homer, in the voc. deff'TTora, according to the Schol., II., a, 508. 

26. Examples of the genitive in -ao, -a. Besides ^o^m 
and lv(jij(jijsXfco, also 'Ep[j^sicj, II., o, 214 (so Xlvzkco, ib., £, 534*, 
and ' Kako), ib., (3, 46 1, should be written Kiviiu, 'Acioj, or 
the latter rather as an adjective, anico h Xzii/jmi). So OXsyy^y, 
not ^^Xz'yvov^ Hymn., XV, 3. In Hymn., II, 413, 'E^(jbsa) 
(BovK^ffiv KXz'^f(p^ovog points to the form 'Yioybiao from 'E^ybirig 
(n. 22) ; yet 'Epfji^zicu in a Mosc. MS. invites us to write 
'E^f/jiicj ^ov'k^. 

'^Tjl. Examples of the genitive in -ao, -zco : l-/krriq^ I'/Arcco, 
E., <p, 75, &c., iKiTioj^ ib., coy 158, &c., avQ^Tfig, cySiyre^, 
Od., §, 640, &c., especially proper names and their de- 
rivatives : 'Aihuo, AiciKihccOy Avyiiccg, Avyrj'idlrig, Avyyj'iahuo, 
"AXroio, "l^sco, NpjasAcjo, N;j?i?j;aSao, N;j?.?jia^2i;y, 'O^sffrcco, Uu- 
^ociluo, II., ^, 228 (1. Ylu^ailuo)^ Oiviiluco. Adjectives : 
a^cuXappuTOiO, (Bu^uppitrcco, luppiirao, dgysffroco, l^i^os(j(,iTecu, "Trv- 

28, The dative ends in -yj, yet Ainfocg has Alvsta, II., s, 


272, 432, 450, &c., and accordingr to this analogy it should 
be 'E^fo-s/a, not 'EeitAs/??, in Hymn., XVIII, 36. On the other 
hand the short form 'E^joosa, II., s, 390, should be written, 
like Bo^iri, &c., 'Eef/-£?j. 

29. The accusative ends in -rjv, except again Klvziav and 
'l^puAtuv. Heinrich has marked as not epic 'E^iO/s/jjj/, Hes., g, 
58 (comp. Schcefer ad he). 

30. The vocative of the terminations -rrig and -vrig ends 
in short a, e. g". QoaJra, hoXof/jT^ra, 'TroiH.iXof/ijjJTcc, zvpStoc, cru- 
Q,STC6f rirra, riix^aiitkrircty that of the termination -ziug in 
long a .• Almci, '^^[Mid, &c., that of the terminations -ihTjg, 
-t(Tf)g, -Off^ig, in -ri : 'Ar^zihj^, '^rfkriidlrj^ ' Kyyjari^ Hymn., III., 
108, 193, X§v(7}^f Ilg^ff^, Hes., g, 17) &c. So also 'E^jM/^, 
Hymn., XVII, 12. 



31. Of the dual there occurs only the form in a : 'Ar^s/^a, 
':r§o(pavsi<TCi, II., ^, 378. Here, and in the plural, the masc. 
and feminine words agree, and, in the plural, the nom., ace, 
and voc, do not differ from the common forms ; consequently 
the gen. and dat. are to be considered. 

32. The genitive adds HN, properly FHN, to the root, 
whence the termination AFON, AON, and by contraction 
after vowels ON, after consonants, with E prefixed, EUN : 
T^yipaXs/a (r^vpaXzidojv)^ r^v(pcCkztuv, but ayo^rj, ccyo^dcov, II., 
3, 275, and ocyo^icov, ib., /, 441, uvrrj, avrccajv, ib., g, 7-52, 
&c., avrioi)v^ ib., jOo, 424, akipyiGTacov^ aG'TTiarduv, he. The 
prefixed E forms a short syllable in g| apzcjv^ II., /, 5QQ, ug 
itTTMV 'TTvXicjv, ib., f], 1. Comp. (Jb, 340, szrog ^v^iojv, Od., i^, 191. 

33. If the pronominal forms FI2, FEO, FIN, were suf- 
fixes for the inflection of the singular, the plural 20EE2, 
SOEHN, 20I2IN, 20EA2, or, without the auxihary 
sound 2 (<piv for (Tp'v was Laconic *), and with the original 

* Comp. Sylb. ad Etym. M., p. 702, 1. 43. 


labial FEES, FEHN, FI2IN, FEA2, would form suffixes 
for the plural. FEES shows itself in the uom. as FE2, E2, 
clearly in the third decl., FEHN as FHN, HN, in the seen, 
of all the declensions. So also FI2IN and FEA2 as FI2IN, 
I2IN, SIN, and FA2, A2, in dative and accusative, since 
in process of time the digamma and the first vowel disap- 

34. Examples of the genitive in AON, HN. Feminine 
subst. %zoLcov, II., ^, 7» ^s^^ H., Ill, 32, zkiaidojv^ II., /3, 91» 
&c., kKktiuv, ib., -v^, 112. The form Kkiaizcav, in some edi- 
tions, is but weakly supported. Nor is it right to read yciiicov, 
H., I, 46, but yaioov ; in Od., ^, 284, &c., we find yaiacav. — 
M-ovaaiv appears in the Batrachom., v. 1, and ^Tj^jijog ' K&nvZv 
in H., I, 30. — 'M.oCkzidojv^ Od., y, 287, &c., MaXs/^r, ib., r, 
187, "Tirccpzidciov, ib., a, 334, &c., 'ttoc^sioju, II., &>, 794, &c., 
poacuv, ib., y, 5, &c. Feminine adjectives : a,Xia,(uv, l(jba)d(,(ijv, 
Od., a, 435, h(jja)cijv, ib., r, 121, ^Kocioicov, II., )^, 6, ^kcciSv, 
ib., 7, 263, &c., zv^ziduv. 

35. Examples of the genitive in A ON, EHN, Femi- 
nine substantives : k'ffzikduv, agaoju, II., o, 378, &c., a^sojv, 
ib., /, 560, a(pooffvvdMV, ^okdm, Od., ^, 283, (iouXscov, II., cc, 
273, &c., ibodm, ivvduv, spzTfJbscjv, Kz(pa,}.!zMV, i:iv^<pdojv, ib., y, 
8, &c., Ny|M/(p2(W{', Od., (M/, 318, H., II, 98, tTrrzicov o'TrXzcov, II., 
X, 536, y, 501 (where read Ix'ttzimv, since ixTrzirj, ib., k, 568, 
shows that this adj. has three terminations), Trvkdav, ib., %, 
6, 'Trvhkoov, ib., ri, 1, 'r;;/^^;!', ^rX^jysia;;^, yjmdojv, \py%siyj', ooTzCl<zm. 
For p/^iiJi', ib., <p, 243, read p/(^£(yv. — 

Feminine adjectives : dTrakdcov, d^yzvvdcov, II., y, 198, &c., 
a^ygfviw;' (read a^yzwiuv), ib., ff, 529, d'TVccrrzcov, Taffzuv ('ttoc&uv 
is given as a various reading), avki^o^jjivdcov, svTroiT^ruotiv. 

Masculine substantives : l^zrdcov, Ku'TnOdoov, zuvoguKTrzcop, vocv- 
rdm, Od., ^, l62, vuvt'zuv, ib., ;, 138. 

Masculine adjectives : ccX(pri(rrdcov, daicmTdcav, (ouktccojv. 

36. The dative ends universaUy in -^ffiv, -riai, -rig, and it 
has been already shown (§ clxiv,5,) that the abbreviated form 
-yig appears in very few instances, and was probably strange 
to Homer. 

37. The suffix of the dative, FI2IN, joined with the root. 


e. g. with that of kKkhioc,^ gives as the original dative form 
%.Xtfffr]fi(Tiv, and after the ejection of digamma Kktffiyjffiv. 

38. The Etym. M., p. 166, 1. 30, proceeding on the false 
supposition that the dative originally ended in -ccig, and that 
-'/Iffiv was formed out of it by extension and alteration, says, 
** we mark only two as not changing their a in the Poet, oire 
^iccTg Kyoiffttffh 'ttk^' avh^dffiv ivvri&TJvui (Od., s, 119), and — 
Xi(jiji(Tiv rz x,ou ccKTuig (II., ^oo, 284)." Hermann (ad H. ad 
Aphrod., 191, J resting apparently upon this observation, 
and extending it, endeavours to show that ^s?jc, II., y, 158, 
should be altered. Must we then alter likewise dzvUoi ^zr\Giv^ 
II., 3^, 305, r, 286, where there is no trace of ^zaiffiv ? 

39. The accusative has universally oc long, since here the 
final -a of the root blends with a in the termination ag. 



40. Besides the contractions of the genitive there appear 
some others, but not of certain authority. 'E^joo^? from 'E^- 
|M/g;j? has been already considered. Like this is Yiobriq, II., ^, 
575, rio^^v, ib., 590, which according to analogy comes from 
Wo^iriq. We may add avzou, Od., ;?, 11 6, as it now stands 
instead of the ancient avKcci^ but avKoi itself is not quite satis- 
factory, and must be exchanged for avrAca of the Vat. MS., 
n. 915, the more so, because we find avziccg riaGa,^a,x.ovr , 
Od., u, 341, and also iirikzui, ib., ri, 115, X, 588, and even 
at the end of the verse, [jbTjXsccg, ib., co, 339. 

41. To vriTCikri, childhood, in v/j'Tniri aXsystvyj, II., /, 491, 
belongs as ace. vj^Tisug, the contracted form of which {vT^'Tnag^ 
and with the prefixed a vri'jridag appears as childish play in 
vyiTidag hyj.nv, Od., a, 297- This again supplies an analogy 
for 'biccvffix.dccc. Suidas (Vol. II, p. 6OO, Kuster,) derives it 
from mvg and zcctco,* of which the primitive form was xeof 

* n^ocpuws rfi %wg(f iiTii va'jrixuiraroi ovng Wey,a,iov ra7g vavdi '!fi<S(Sav 
crgif adfakiiav. 


(Etym. M., p. 498, 1. 40), thus originally mvffifcioi, vctvfftxa,, 
and with a, prefixed ^avaixda. Besides the nom. there 
appear, 'NavaiKcca, Od., (^, 276, 'NccvffiKciav, ib., (^, 49. '^^ 

42. For the sake of revision paradigms are here added. 
The numbers refer to the foregoing paragraphs of the first 
declension from 1 to 41, unbroken by the sections : the stars 
mark rejected forms. 

1. Feminine. 

Proper names m short a : 

in j; : 

n^jj'sXo'rg/a, 1. 

'EXsvyjy 13. 

n^jvaXoTs/;??, 2. 


Tinvzkovzirjy 2. 


UfjvsXo-TrsfOiVi 2. 

'EXiv^v, 2. 

U7]vsX6'7rs(a, 21. 


Other words in short a : 

in ;? : 

Nom. ^vsXKci^ 

}cs(poiX^(piVf 1 

Gren. ^vsKh^f 

zvvrig, ) 

Dat. ^vsKkri, 

Ace. ^veXKav, 


Form in long- a 



^ga, S. 





• • • 





2. Masculine. 

Pure in rig : 

in ug : 

N. Bo^gjjj, 22. 

Aiviiocgt ) 

O. Bo^sao, "\ 




Booga/, 3 

Ainiot/y 23. 
A/Vg/W,* 26. 

D. Bog'gjj, 

AivuDi, 22. 




Acc. Bo^iyiv, 

T • • • • 


Aipziavy 22. 
Mute in a, Tig : 

fr^^'|23, 27. 


Acc. 'Ar^sihrjv, 
V. Qoura, 40. 
'Ar^eA;?, 30. 


Pure : 

N. zkiam, 

G. ZkltTld&lVf 


D. xktffiyiffiv, 

UKTuTgy } gg 

Acc. xX((Tiag. 







Masculines in the same way, n. 31. 



43. Various forms arise partly from the extension of the 
final letter of the root : thus, 

A into AIA (PEA), y^ (PEAIA) yccTcc, as XAIP in 
%a/f<y from XEAIP, attested by the adj. /o%ga/^a; PPA, 
PPAI A, whence y^ccTuv. PPA itself is deduced from PEP A, 
visible in ysgoaog. — AI into AINAI, ^zai, ^suivai, Avithout 
any other case. — E into EI, Amocg, Alniocg, &c. — EH into 
EI A, 'Ef^g;??, 'E^joog/W— EA into EIH, Tga, 'Pg/??.— E into 
EIH, 'irxfigy 'iyx^og (root EPXE), £y%g/;?, lyx^k?, &c., 'ikzyxpg^ 
ikiYXj^k (in the plur. IXgy^ga, II., u, 260). — H into AIH, 
*A0t}V)^, 'A&rivaky rig, kc, amyKr;, avayxaiJ], II., \ 300, &c. 


(Comp. on the substantive use of this form, Scheefer ad 
Lamb., B, p. SS-i.) 

44. Table of the forms of 'E^;M/^?, and yrj, youcc (with re- 
jection of 7), ala. 

('E^jM/g;j?) (Ha) 

'E^joos/a?, 22. 'Ee|M/^?, 22. R, Talccy AFa, 

'E§(jbsic60, 23. y^?, 7a/???, ai'???, 

''E§[jtjS(co, 26. 'EfjM/Siy, 

*E^|M;g/a, 'Ep|«Asa,* yjj, ya/?;, 

'E^^s/S?,* 28. 'E^^;?,* 28. 

'E^jM/s/av, 29. 'E^joo^v, y^v, ya^'a;', alaf, 

'Epw/g/a, 'E^///^. y^. 

Only the genitives 

45. Next stands the class of words which inflect some 
forms according to the third declension :t 'AXk^ and dat. aXxi 
(also aXxjj, Od., <y, 509). — ' Az^ai and ace. az^iag always in 
the fourth foot of the verse (but ol;c^ag at the end of the line, 
II., ^, 425). — AvXyj and ace. avXiv (also avXrjv, II., ^, 316, 
&c.). — 'Imxri, II., g, 740, /Wa?, ib., 521, but w^cci rz hccx^vo- 
Sffffccv, ib., X, 601. — 'X(y(/jiv}^j ;??, ri, nv, a/, ccg, but y(7|M*m 
/W/a%;g(r^a/, II., |3, 56, whence are explained as accusatives of 
the 3rd decl. (pvyo^z and oi'^a^g instead of ^yy^f^g, omovh. 

46. Independent forms of the first and third declension are 
found in, a. ' Kihriiy b. " A^?ig, and c. T^ccia,'. 

a. 'A'llrig. 
N. 'A'i^T^g, .... ' A'i'bconOg, 
G. 'Ai'lao, "A'ilog, .... 
T). 'A'/'^?7, 'A't%f ' A'i^coi/yj'if 
Ace. 'A'/'^;jv. 
The forms of 'A'itrig are derived ultimately from FIA (VID- 

•^ UXajidt^isdai and (isra'TrXd^sffSai ; the distinction drawn by the Gram- 
marians we learn from Eust. ad II., p. 16. "A'l'di ivXayiaffdrj uto tou ai'g 
(was formed obliquely from the obsolete a/5) — But if 'Afdrig and 'Atdou 
are to be considered the only valid forms, then fisTiTrXdedr) dvh toZ 'Atdov, — 
in the one case TXay/atf/x-os,, in the other fisraTXaff/x^oi* 


EO), which with a negative gives the roots AIA, AIAA, 
AI AONE. '«^ 

b. "A^Tjg. 

G. "A^eo;, (A^;jro?) "A^og, "A^iog^ 
D. ;'Ae?7, (2.) "A^;;}; "A^s,, 

Ace. "A^;jv, , "A^;jor, 

V. 'A^sg, (3.) 

(1.) The chief passage concerning "A^;j? is cited from 
Herodian by Eustathius (ad IL, s^p. 518^. Herodian sup- 
ports the form "A^scj, foreign to our editions of the Homeric 
text, by the usage of Archilochus -ra?^' "Agzoj ^ir}(povov^ and 
produces in defence of the unwonted genitive "A^yirog the 
patronymic 'A^?jr;aS;j? from Hes., a, 57, and the diminutive 
"* A^Tirioov. According to this view, the forms "A^riog, "A^rii, 
"A^7]u, were produced by the elision of r, and "A^zog^ "A^u 
from them by abbreviation of the long vowel. Thus is re- 
moved the necessity of deriving both from the ^olic "Ag-syg, 
which he cites from Alcaeus. For "A^zog there is found in 
many places (e. g. II., |, 485,) the variation "A ^g^;;, seemingly 
as little to be regarded as 'xokzcag for ToXzog. 

(2.) Between "A^?? and "A^zi the reading varies, II., g, 757? 
<p, 112, where the Townley Scholiast marks the form as 
contracted from "A^;?/, and hence must have read "A^ri. "A^si 
alone is used in Pindar, 01., 9, 82 (116), ^, 5, 85 (113), &c. 

(3.) "Afg? of twofold quantity in the line already quoted 
(§ CXLVil, 2), ^A^g?, "Ac£^ ^^oroXoiys^ (JuiuKpovs rzix^ffiTrXTJra, 
II., g, 31, gave so much offence to Ixion (Eustath.^ %it siip.), 
that he — especially since the repetition of a name in the 
vocative is rare — wrote ''A^zg d^sg, i. e. /SXa-rr/^g, supported 
by the vocatives following. Yet Ptolemy defended the re- 
petition for the sake of its greater emphasis. 

c. T§t]ug [ygocTccj. 
.... r^;?t;V,(l.) yfJJUf, 


• • • • 


• • • • 

y^vfi, yqriv. 



(1.) The root of the forms is TEPAF (ys^aiog), TPAF 
(Germ. grau\ 

47. Double forms are found also in ' Avri(pciT7ig, ' Avrtpocrcto, 
' Afr/(par;jf, but 'Afr^par^a, Od., «, 114. — 'E^^^^, ^g, &c., and 
sbrirvog (in 28 places for the sake of its dactylic rhythm in 
the fourth foot). — Aa'i'lzg, torches, Isrui, bundles (hscj) for 
burning-, — 'EXt/? and iX'Tra/^y;. — "F.0zi^cci and l0Bi§dihgy Od., ^, 
176; where, however, Aristotle (see Schol. ad Theocr,, 1, 
33^) read yzvziahzg. — 'II[jijS§7j and ^(jui^cci with ^/xa^, fj(j(jCiTog, 
'Ti, -Td, 'ffiv. — Kowg, Koviogy Km, Kovtv, and xoutri, Tjg, rj, riv, ^at. — 
K^i^cci, dg, and the ancient form k§7. — UiXstcc, uv, oci, and (out 
of Homer) 'TrsXsicig, whence 'TrsXeiuhg, II., X, 634, veXziciffiy ib., 
g, 778. — HoXjrctiy iroXirccgy II., 0, -558, 'XoXi'^rugy ib., /3, 8OG. — 
^ii^oj and (pzihoSXri. — ^ri[J^^, 'phl^^^h and <prj(Mig, (prJiLiv. — ^vyrj, 
(puyyj, and (pv^iv. — Xoo/jy, whence %po/?7, H., |, 164, and Xi^^y 
X§oog, &c. ; also X^corog and Xi^"^^- — From the first and 
second declension come together ^sa and ^sog, goddess, also 
in the plur. ^eaivut. — Qv^rj, and ^ugzov, also S^y^sr^a, oig. — 
KXt(riri, and fcXitriov, Od., &;, 208, fence, enclosure. — '^Trsp&iyiy 
roof of the mouth, and VTrsgrnov, upper story. — ^i^ovf/jv, 2/^of/- 
fjdiv, and 27^^voj ; also the inhabitants are named l^ihovzg and 
^ihovioi. — ^TSiXsiov, handle of axe, and arziXziri (adj. with ot^ 
understood), socket of axe. — Hagdivix^, compared with 
'Tra^^ivog, is like\vise an adjective (understand zo^rj) used as a 
substantive; and after the same analogy xu^Kui)^ (sub. v7^\ 
the same as ^u^^. 

48. Forms of ^ laig, 

banquet : 

Sing. N 


G. 'hairrigy 


^cctrogy loctrvog. 



Ace. "^oiiryjVf 


Plur. N. .... 




D. ^citrricri 

, 11., «, 217, 

• « • « 



AaiTvog appears in the fourth foot II., x* 490. The root 
hocirv reveals itself also in ^aiTUfjjoviCf cov, zffaiy aj, which occurs 
in the Odyssee alone. 


Obs. 1.— Several feminines in -sia pass into the termination -jjg, but 
only in the post-Homeric epos : vi'Cysvyig, H., Ill, 94, T^iroysvTJ r'^v, 
H., XXVIII, 4),'A(p^oysvrig, Pseudo-Orph. in Evx-' ^^' 7t which form 
should be restored also in Hes. Theog., 196. Likewise KuT^oysi/??? 
should be read in the ace. Kw^oyevia in Hes. Theog., 199. It is the 
only form used in the part of Theognis first edited by Bekker. 

Obs. 2. — The difference of forms penetrates even to the root in those 
which come from OH and flU. — The root OH fqffen, open J, visible 
in o<!r-TOfiai, [of-fia) ofiiia, appears in ^Vo^/ ya,y.%Q, B., t, 408, 
o'lvoita <!r6vTov, ^6i o'/vo'Tn, ib., v, 703, [jjrfko'xa x«gTov, yagmm ri Xiovng ; 
also in OHH, which does not itself occur, but is visible in en^oirri, 
ddTi^oTri, and gives the root OIIA for the adj. ixj^vo'ira, and the adverb 
aracra/bc, out of sight, Od., a, 320. So that here there is an extension 
of >j into a/jj, plur. a/a, as in some other adjectives : o^^v>j, o^cpvairi ; 
dcayxj), avayxaifj. — The root flH appears in the accusative : s/g u-xa, 
and adverbially xa.Tivca'iTa^ II., o, 320 : also in several plural adjectives: 
iKixuTTig, &c., and feminines in the sing. yXauxw-r/f, '/.vvuiTidog, II., y, 
180, suwcr/Sa, Od., ^, 113, &c. According to this analogy is also 
derived from /SXjtw, Ta^aQkuTig, II., /, 503. Likewise flHH in 
IvMitrj, •TTs^K/j'Trri, II., f, 8, in the adj. xuvuTra, II., a, 159 (as sv^-j(rra 
belongs to OIIH), with some in og and ov: Bvoufisrwroc, rr^oau'ffov, &c. 

49. The patronymics follow the rules given (§ cxxxix): 

'Ittotj?? (I'Tr'TroTOi), 'iTTrora^;?? ; ' AirxX'/iTiog, ' AffzXrjTnochi^g ; 
^ Arv[Jbvwg, ' ATU(JbVKihf;g ; Uavdo-og, Havdoihrig ; Qiffrco^, ©iffrogi- 
'6r]g, Og^???, ^e^TiTog, ^SPT^ridlyjg ; K&ccg (Ksa-oj), Kea^;??; 
Tlei^cciog from Usi^a-og, Hsi^oii'^rig* Add to these N;;X;;ia^;??, 
Ue^ffri'i'dlj^g, Avyjj'idlj^g from the root uvys, whence Atiygj??, 

*So we should adopt 'A\Ka7dav, Find., 01., VI, 68 (115). Comp. 
Boeckh ad Find., p. 379. 'AXxaTog has the root not pure, but extended 
from aXxa (AXzaog like Ohofiaog, &c.). — Hence 'AXxaiBrig is regular, but 
'AXxs'iBrig is from the abbreviated root aXx, as on the other hand UsXoTyi- 
j'ddai, Nem., VIII, 12 (21), is from the root (HsXctts) lengthened. An 
important passage on these forms occurs in Eustath. ad 11., a, p. 13. 


Ayyg/a?, as '^^fjusj^g, 'Y.§fjbsioig, comp. n. 22. — In 'Ay^i^/c/a^^jc, 
0y£(Tr;a^;?c, KXyr/^???, Ts^Ttocbrig, AccsPTicchrig, M.ivoiricx,h'/ig, 
' OiXicch'/^g, from 'Ay^/V;??, ©yscrr;;?, KXuriog, Ts^t/oc, Aag^T;jc, 
Msvo/r/o?, OlXivg, the terminations /^??? and /a^;;? have displaced 
the final vowel of the roots ccyy^KTcc-, S^ygcra-, xXvri-, re^Tri—, 
Xccigru-, (MivotTi—f oiXs-; but 'lci'7reTiovil'/]g hi Hes., S^, 528, 
combines both formations: 'IccTr&rog, 'locTnricov, 'locTrsriovi'hrig, 
like TaXuog, TuKdicov, Tocka'iovi^ag^ in Pindar, 01., VI, 15(24). 
On the other hand, of the second formation we find like 
"iHzrihrig in Herod., 5, 92, ABuzu'kt'hrj, II., v, 307, AwkccXi^cco, 
II., (Jb, 117) viz. both not from 'Hirtajv, A&VKcckicov, but as if 
deduced from the simple forms HET02, AETKAA02. 
Yet, that we must not treat these as real primitive forms, 
but only as possible forms supposed by the Poet, is proved by 
the foreg^oing series, and also by Aai^Tr&rflrig ov Aciyj'Trog 
lysivsTO, II., 0, 526, as if from Aayb'Trirrig. Finally, Philoc- 
tetes is named from his father lioiag {avrog\ not Iloiccvriahi^g 
but Uoioivriog, Od., y, 190; and so '%6m\og KccTuvTi'iog ccyXocog 
viog, II., g, 241 ; Ajax from Telamon not only TiXoc^mid'^rig 
but also Tskoc[jbcoi^iog, and the other Ajax not only OlXiahrig 
but also '0'(X}jog Tcc/pg Ai'aj,(^) ib., v^ 66, &c. 



1. The universal primitive form of inflection by OIN has, 
in this declension, chiefly through the influence of quantity y 
been retained more firmly than in the first. ( Comp. Apoll, 
Lex. under ^so^iv, p. 41 6.^ 

2. In the (/enitive it stands in '\}jo(pi yJkvro!, rziyjcx,, II., <p, 
295, which form has been rejected, at the expense of the 


verse, in 'IXiov ic^-Trd^oiOiv (read 'Vkiop^, II., ^, 104, and the 
like, cited § cxLViii, ^2, uto Zvyo(piv, ib., r, 404, &c., ccvo 
'7rcx,(JG(x,\o(piv, ib., a/, 268, i;£ 'xaaaaXo^iv, Od., ^, 67, 105, !;& 
TOfToip/f, ib., <a>, 83, TXarso? '7rrv6(piv, II., v, 588, kto %aA;fO(p/f, 
ib., X, 351, cct' iGx^'^ocpiv, Od., ;j, I69. Comp. Od., s, 59. 

0^5. — Besides this last form there appear, of the same word, only 
the feminine Isxa^r^ and leya^a.i, so that we must suppose an ob- 
solete form sffp^a^og, whence e(r;^ago^/v, as in the case of som^a and 

3. In the dative we find adverbially used ccvrop with 
^ra^a and st/ instead of xa/ ayr^w or It' ayr^aJ, as well as 
avrov, in that very place. Thus, vrjug Ivit^7](TSiv — Krmsiv hi 
'Tca^ avTo<pi 'TTccvrug cc^iffrovg (which passage decides also upon 
XL, jO/, 302, f, 42, y, 140, -v^, 640, where the expositors 
hesitate), and ^hng W uvropv ziccro aiyrj, II., r, 255. 

4. In the accusative: It) hz^ioipiv and W ci§icrrs^6(pif, H., v, 
S07, 8 (comp. Et. J/., jt?. 800, /. 9, Apoll Dyscol Excerpt. 
Reitz., p. 434, (7., aw^ -rs^/ sTippjjjOo. «i Anecdott. Bekk., T. 
Ily p. 621 J, g-r' go-);^aeo(p/v, Od., r, 389. 

5. Also in the plural, 

a. In the genitive: Aaz§v6(pti>, II., ^, 696, -v^j 3^7> &c., 
^go^/j/, ib., -4/, 347, ^,101, iK§io(piv, Od., |i«/, 414, 0, 551, 
&c., o(m6(piv, ib., I, 134. 

^. In the dative: ^i6(piv fjb'^frroj^ ccrdXavrog, E., rj, 366 j Sec, 
and a,(jtj<p' oario<piVy Od., ^, 45, t, 145. 



6. The genitive ends in -010 as well as -ov, as cc^yu^ioio 
^io7o, II., a, 49, &c. Both terminations arise from the 
suffix FO, which was explained under the first declension; 
so that from the root BIO the primitive genitive was 
BIOFO, after the ejection of A, BIOIO, (BtoTo by extension^ 
and BIOO, |3/ou by contraction. 


7. The dative, arising as in BIOOI, BIOI, has retained 
its original in several forms, as 'l(T0[jbo7, oUoi, &c., which 
now rank as adverbs, in the rest it was changed into cj, (iiM. 

Obs The vocative has usually 05 instead of s. Thus (piXog, II., 5, 

189. Comp. /, 601, x, 169, &c. So rtiXtog, II., 7, 277. 

8. The nominative, accusative, and vocative dual, have the 
common ending, but the genitive and dative end only in OIIN, 
as, in the genitive: aii>(por2.^onv, ^XiCpccgouVy ^(Jjiopouv, 'i'tttouv, 
6<p^ocX[Jtjo7'iv, To7iv, a)H>oiiv. These may be wi'itten more properly 
without diaeresis : MfLouv, 6(pdccX[jtjo7iv, &c., since the coalition of 
the sounds is here impossible. 

9. In the dative we find only uiLoiiv in II., 0, 308, t, 40, 
64, Od., X, 262. The other termination in -oiv is post-Ho- 
meric, since cc[jij(por&§oiu, II., s, 156, of the old editions is now 
corrected cc[jtj(poTi§aj. Where the long forms in -oi'iv were not 
enforced by the verse, the plural are found, which have spread 
themselves at the expense of the other. 

10. That the abbreviation of the dat. pi., of which the full 
form is -otffiu, prevails in this decl., so that -otg as well as 
-otaiv is found, has been already observed. 

Obs. — The primitive forms of the plural must have been flMOFI, w,«,o/, 
ilMOFflN, ufiouv, and this originally w/x,wv as a perispomenon, to 
which the Doric genitives mavrZiv, T^wwi/, Toxtrm^ bear witness ( Apoll. 
Alex.f Vi^l dvTuiv, p. 293, S.J, or [ufLouv) m/muuv, to which /SXapa^wi/ 
d-To xuavsduv, Hes., d, 7, and '^iol dur^^ig sduv, ib., ^, 46, 111, &c. 
(said to be from Id, good gifts), direct us (Heyne ad II., a, 393, 
Hermm. Diss, de Gr. L. DialL, p. 5 J. In these it seems that 
u was exchanged for the a common in genitive forms. The common 

form (^//^m has arisen from the ejection of the radical before luv 

Dative X1M0FI2IN, whence wfioiGiv, and without a uj{^oiiv, vvhicli 
through the progress of the language and the division of relations 
was appropriated to the dual. — Accusative nMOFA2 (w/Aoaj), w/ioug. 




11. Examples. 









oiJiMOio, 6. 


ui/jOi'iv, 8. 


lacov, 10, 0^*. 


OLvropv, 3. 

ufMoiiv^ 9. 

CtJ[JbOlfftVy 10. 






12. Contraction in this declension is unusual in the ter- 
minations -&og, -sov, and those pertaining to them ; hence 
universally 6<rrsov, ocrriov, offrs&i, offrecc, j^^a'iog^ XS^^'^^y x^vffiov 
(and, where necessary, a syiiizesis of the two last syllables : 
X§vffgcOi II., a, 15, x§v(Tiyi, %, 470). So Iluvhcc^&ov, Tyf^a^soy, 
&c. (but Avzov^yov, II., (^, 134, from AvKoz^yov, and again 
resolved Avzoo^yogt ib., rj, 142, 144, 148). 

13. The contraction of oo occurs in the single place: ccvrci^ 
vovg r,v sf/tj'Tr&^ogy Od., z, 240, in opposition to voogy voov, vom, 
voovy ' Avrivoog, ay);^/foo?, &c. Comp. tXoov, Od., y, l69, 
hTrXoov, IL, ^, 133, &c., and oyloov, Od„ |, 287, hut li-TrX^v, 
11, ^, 134, Od., r, 226. 

14. The names, which come from ^oog, remain equally 
open, as Usi^idoog (-rg^z-^ooj), Il^60oog, except the gen. and 
dat. of Hoiv0oog, which are contracted, or rather, since they 
do not alter the accent, which have thrown out o before the 
termination. Uavdou, IL, o, 522, &c.,(^) Yidv&co, ib., g>, 40, 
but Hdv0oov, ib., y, 146. 

15. Also 'Cio resists contraction in ' A^zsffiXccog, iKccogj 
Mz/ikccog, H^MTSfflXaog, &c. It changes « into ;? in Eypjvo?, 
II., yi, 468, 4, 747j and ' A^ji^poc^riog, Od., o, ^253, which is 
supported against the now admitted ' Afjijpoi^ocog by the ex- 
ample of Pindar — Nam. 9> 13 (30) — . Perhaps, as formerly 


remarked, the same method should be followed with 'tk&og, 
when its middle syllable is made long-, as in II., a, 583, 
Hymn, ad Cer., 204, Hes., i, 313, and <'X;;o?, 'iXtjov, be 
written. — As in 'iXaog, so the a is short in OIvoijmov rs, II., s, 
706, (00, 140. But instead of ayh^aog, II., /3, 447, ^, 539, 
\ Od., g, 136, &c., Aristarchus wrote kyri^oog ( Schol. ad II., 
^, 447, Scliol. Harlei. ad Od., g, 136^, which appears at 
the end of the verse in Od., g, 218. See also Od., ??, 94, 
H., |6o, 323, ^, 444, and (v-^ikz^cx.ov,') v-^ikz^cov 'iXci(poVy Od., 
y., 158. 

16. Contraction with g prefixed is found in : ' Am^yjfftvzojg, 
Od., ^, 113, 'AK^m^g, ib.. 111. In both shapes occurs 
'AyiXaog, Od., x^ 212, 241, and ' Ay'zkiug, ib., 131, 247, 
which forms supply the analog-y for similar words of this 

17. Forms of UrjAXscog : 

N. UmXsojg, II., §, 597, &c. (I) 
G. n;jvgXg^o, ib., i, 489, (2) 
D. Yl'/]ViXs&/, ib., I, 487, 
Ace. TlnviXzojv^ ib., v, 92. (3) 

(1) From H'/jviXuog. As a variation there is U'/jviXsog, 
whence also other later forms, UrjvzXmo, &c., were deduced. 

(2) From nHNEAAOFO, comp. n. 6, (^mX-aj-o) Uyj- 
vzXzojo. So the g-enitive form TliTzajo, II., h, 327, 338, |a., 
331, 355, |3, 552, v, 690, the only case of the word which 
occurs, must be derived from Hsroiog, contracted IVirzoog* 

(3) So likewise Bgicc^icuv, II., a, 403, from Bgidguov, 
which is nowhere found resolved. 

18. Hence we may explain the obscure and often cited 
form aW, II., |3, 323, 7, 84, /, 30, 695, Od., |3, 240, ??, 
144, K, Jl. The context in these passages evinces, that the 
meaning- of the word is — silent, speechless, and the forms 
above given show that it is contracted from amoi. Thus the 
word is amog (dmfog, amvog), the original of umvlog (Od., 

* Comp. Hephsest. Enchirid. m^l xo/vjjj, p. 4, where 'Ao^iXi^g is cited 
out of Sopbocles — riv yag e-j/ji^/jbir^ov dvru — for 'A^^/4Xa,og, with the addition, 

^la Touro Kal two' ' O/JjTjoui nvTriXXo/j/iv rriv n»]V£>.a<»o rivaxrog. 

A a 


g, 456, z^ 378), as avu is the original of ccvbdco (comp. Et. 
M., p. 105, I. 26, and 'AttoXK. 1:. sTTippTjiL., p. 555, I. 10^, 
and oii'ct), avio, the original of audio. 

Obs> — This word is examined by Apollon. Alex. t. htt/po,, p. 554, 
who concludes by stating civaog to be the original form. 

19. In the same way the name Usi^oog, II., |3, 884, &c., 
and hence the gen. Uii^icu, ib., v, 484, must be referred to 
Usiguog (extended Usi^cciog, Od., 0, 544, &;c.). Thus Usi- 
§ccog, Uei^cog, and with co resolved, Usigoog, as the name ^vvaog 
(changed into ^uvrjog,) passed through ^vvzojg (Eustath. ad 
II., ;;, p. 1451, 1. 11, Od., X, p. I68I,) into Euvoog. 

20. The same change takes place in mog (which appears 
in <rao<p^^v), ffcHg, and hence croog. — ^cog, II., v, 77^, &c., Goog, 
Od., r, 300, which form produces croa, aori, aooig, and other 
cases, as well as the verb ffoziv. Moreover the root Zpt pro- 
duces the adj. Zciog, XJog^ II., g, 887 (from ^aog, and hence 
wrongly written by some Xj^g), and with inserted, Z^caog. 
KoXcuog and Kaymg arise, as was shown before, from aokofog, 
"kayofog. The same analogy is followed in (lcc[jjCi, ^^«, ^[jjuog,^ 
l(jijMg, Od., CO, 256, and v'xolijbug, ib., I, 386, which however 
passes into the 3rd decl. ^(Luzg, l^Mocg, and has retained the 
lengthened form ^[Jijcoog, ^^Jjutj only in the fem. plur., ^[laccf, 

21. Where on comes from double in the root, the cases 
are otherwise formed : {cK^ofog, adoog,) "AOug, gen. (adooo) 
'AdoM, II., I, 229. — 'H (yccXoog,) ycikcog, sister-in-law, plur. 
nom. (yaXooi, ydXco,) yaXm, II., %, 473, gen. yaXooov, ib., ^, 
378, &c., like '^aiy.og, ^ojzovg, and hoaxog, Od., ^, 26, ^oufcot, 
ib., jO/, 318. 



22. The second declension also has often various forms of 
the same word ; first such as are not at all different in their 
shades of meaning, but vary by an easy change their gender 
or inflection, as loiz^v and Iuk^vov — (livl^ov in opposition 


to Uv^^iov is un-Homeric, also al&'k(pog in opposition to 
cchX(ps6g') — hffyjog, li(T(j(jOi\ and Ufffiara — yJ{kzv6oi and ?czkzv6cc 
— mi^og, nom. om^ov^ om§ (indecl.), mi§oi, and om^urcc — 
'Ttr^dXiov^ -Trn^DtXiu, and 'Tcr^co — -^r^oh^a and 'tt^o^v^cciu, Hymn., 
II., 384 — 'TT^offco'Trov, nt^oau'xci^ and 'X^oaoj'TraGi, in the fourth 
foot, II., ^, 212, also 'TTPOGM'Trccrcc admitted by Wolf for tt^o- 
cu'Tra rs, Od., (7, 192. "^^cog in opposition to 'i^og has been 
already marked as un-Homeric. 

23. Forms of a^mog. 


N. a^vg/o?, 

G. cc^vnov, 

D. Abl cc^mu. 

Ace. oi^v\ (l) a^vziov. 

Ace. oi^vi, oi^v\ II., y, 246, 103. 

N. oi^vzg, 

G. k^vuv^ a^vucHv, 

D. a^vsffffiv, a^vsiotg, 

Ace. d^vag, agvswvg. 

(l) "A§v\ i.e. oi§m, U., y, 119, %? ^10. The dual ace. 
is of both sexes in II., y, 103. The nom. is obsolete. From 
this word comes a^vsiog, originally an adjective, as which it 
still appears in oiV cc^vim ps^nv, Od., k, 527, &c. Then used 
as a subst., meaning — a ram. 

24. Forms of ^vtox^og and Ifjr^og. 

'^m^og, &c. <V^o?, /^r% II., §, 190, 

/V^o?, ib., I, 194, &;c. 
wio-x^ov, 7\noyjicc^ II., S^, 312, &c. irjT^^cc, Od., ^, 384, 
'/ivio-xfii, &c. ^v(o-x,m?j II., £, 505, iVfo/, 

25. Forms of y/of. 


^^ (w) (yO (i^^'O 

N. viog, (l) 

G. L»/oiJ, y/oj, vliog, 

D. y«, y/gi', y/g*, (2) 

Ace. vlov, via, vl'iK. (3) 




vikg, vkHg, 









N. Ace. 



V. vhg, vhlg. (4) 

(1) T/o? \vith short vl was remarked above, § CLXViii, 
13. But it is not allowable to make the forms of the second 
series short, as Hermann (H. ad Apoll., 51,) does with vhg. 
These, as well as the forms of the third series, are uniformly 

(2) Hermann hesitates as to the form y/s?; but it is con- 
formable to analogy, and cannot be impugned in three places, 
II., <r, 144, (p, 34, Od., |, 435. 

(3) According to Buttmann, " the accus. y/sa is errone- 
ous ;" yet there is apparently no ground for this assertion. 
It stands in 'AXXa Q'ztiv Tcvhaivz kou viioc, }icc§T&§odv(Jbov, II., v, 
350, supported against vm by euphony and rhythm. 

(4) lCh7g as voc. only in II., g, 464. The Hymn HI to 
Venus, V. 51, contracts also the nom. vikg into vk7g. 

26. Several proper names also belong to this class : 
N. Uccrgoxkog, M.ikavdiog, (2) M.a,KccvOivg, 

G. IluT^ozXov, Oio, Ylccr^OKXjjog, 
D. YIcct^okKoo, 

Ace. Wdr^OTcKov, Ylocr^OKkrja, ^zkdv&iov, 
V. Hdr^ozki, Ylar^d}ckzig.)(^ 1 ) MsXaf^/s, MsXar^gy, 

nar^o;tX'. ' Od., x-> IS-^, ib., (p, I76. 

(1) The form Yi.(x,T^oySkug is from Ylotr^oKXag from the root 
xkii with double s ; hence it belongs to the 3rd decl., with 
the obsolete nom. Ylar^oKkJ^g like ^opozk^g, UspnikTJg, &c. 

(2) The forms in iog in the fourth place of the verse, on 
account of their dactylic rhythm, the other forms at the end 
of the verse. So also ' AXzifMlcuv, II., -r, 197» hut "AXKi(j^og, 
ib., r, 392, ^, 474, 574. 

Obs. — Some names bcloug in iliffcrent forma to different persons; as 
'E^r/Pouoiy son ot Daiilauus, 11., v, 210, &c., and 'Efc'x^^iv;, tlie kin^ 


of Athens, ib., /S, 547. Comp. Od., >?, 81. Mmsk-jg, king of the 
Athenians before Troy, Msv'^ffSrjg (whence the ace. MivsaSriv, II., g, 
609), slain by Hector, and MmaSwg, the Boeotian prince, slain by 
Paris, II., yj, 9, &c. 

27. The class of words in lov, derived from others by ex- 
tension (^Trcigcc'/io'yTi,) of the termination, is worthy of notice, 
as 'ix'^og, iX'^iov, si§og, gi'^/ov, &c. In several of these no differ- 
ence of meaning is discernible, as ekai^u, II., ff, 93, from sKajg, 
and iXa/gicc, ib., a, 4, from iXco^tov. From /'%;vo? comes 'iyyiGi, 
Od., ^j, 3I7j expressing the track of game ; 'r/yiot, denotes the 
same thing in ib., r, 436 (where 'i^yi is admitted instead of 
ix;*''?)? and, the track of a man, in II., c, 321. So also there 
is no perceptible difference of signification between glg'o?, si'^/oj', 
and s^/ov, nor between OKYiitrPov and aKriitoLviov, a7tv\Juvoq ^ and 


28. On the other hand the derived word in some instances 
stands to the radical in the relation of a particular to an 
universal : as 'i^x,oq^ an enclosure, s^ziov, a court- wall, II., /, 
476. — Q^tyxog, Od., yi, 87, ^^lyzoTffi, ib., ^, 267, and jU/syos 
^^lyxiov civXTJg, ib., -r, l65, where the (/loss rnyjov has crept 
into the text. — ©jj^, a beast, '^T^^tov, beast of chase. Tlius the 
word Tckiaiov^ noticed under the first declension, differs from 
KXiffiyi, ^v^iog from ^vp'/j, oovzov from o^vig, — 'Mkroo'Trov, forehead, 
and (jjiTajTriov, part of the forehead between the eyes ((Jbeao- 
(p^vov), U., T, 739- The sense o/* diminutives attached to this 

form IS post-Homeric* — M.ri^og, (^rigoiy thighs, and [^rigiccy 
also jM-^^a, the parts cut out of the thighs and reserved for 
sacrifice, always in an apostrophized form — jW/^^' iKccri, II., a, 
464, &c. Concerning the accent and meaning, consult SchoL 
ad Il.y ut sup. — "Oy/cog, bending out (tumour), applied to 
arrows, barbs, II., ^, 151, 214, oyziov^ hollow vessel, chest 
for keeping iron &c. in, Od., <p, 6l. 

* Comp. Spohn. de extr. parte Odi/ss., p. 138. In modern Greek 
also, which, although a popular dialect, has preserved no small portion of 
the oldest forms of the language, vaioi for iraihiov, S>jg/ for Sjjg/oi', &c., have 
not the sense of diminutives. 


29. Of different but cognate meanings are, ^yyo?, cross- 
piece of the lyre, to which the strings are fastened, II., /, 1 87, 
X^ym, the yoke for beasts of draught, ^yya, the cross-beams 
of a ship. — Aai'77£j, httle pebbles, Xaa?, a large stone. In 
a like relation stands Xi&og to X/^a^sj, small stones for throw- 
ing, Od., I, ^^i and hence the adj. X/^al, ib., s, 415, jagged, 
pointed. — Ng;£y?, nKViq {yzav^^oi)^ vzxooi, dead, corpses, vzKoihg, 
II., g, 886, heaps of dead. — N»ip£ro?, snowy weather, vKpdlsg^ 
snow-flakes, snow-shower, also in the sing. vi<pdg rjl x^'Ka^ccy 
II., 0, 170, and vi(poi, ace, snow, without the nom., Hes., g, 
505. — Otyjiov, rudder, oi';j|, hook, ring, in II., u, 269, sv 
oirizzffffiv cc^ri^og, according to Eustathius, the rings (^xoikoi,) 
through which the reins pass. — "O^ccrog, plantation, garden, 
Eng. orchardf o^XPg, row of trees in a garden or vineyard. — 
Ylorovy "TTOToio, II., a, 470, and -TrorrJTog, ib., X, 779, &c., differ, 
as drink y and the act of drinking — 'VaJ'Tczg, twigs, Od., x, 
166, &c., and pofTTj'ioi, II., f, 199, &c., thickets. 

30. We should remark also the feminine gender of Us^ya- 
og and "Ikiogy except in one place, "Iktov alTv tkonv 'Adrivuirig 
/a jSoyXa?, II., 0, 71' 




1. The affixed pronoun (piv has here remained in an in- 
considerable number of genitive and dative forms of the plural 
number, which are altogether pure, or mutes in 0?, gen. sog, 
except zorvk/ibovoipi)) for zorvkr^ovuVy Od., g, 433. 

2. These forms take between the radical vowel and (pi the 
strengthening c, as oxog^ (o^s) oxsctp/ (as ca^gffTaXo?, (pz^iff^tog, 
&c.). There occur, 


a. "0-x^iff(piy gen.., II., s, 107» dat.., ib., 'tt, 811, %, 22, -v^, 
518, &c. It is remarkable that the form oy^sap has 
everywhere maintained its place without being supplanted 
by the later oyjaai. 

h. "0§s(Tpv, gen., II., \ 452, dat., ib., X, 474, x;, 139, 
189. In other places ooi(r(pi has passed into oQzaai. 

c. ^T^^sff^piv, gen.f II., |, 214, s, 41, 57, ^5 259, &c., not 
for oTTikog but cr^j^s^yv, comp. ib., ;c, 95. In the dative 
ffr'/]di(T(pi has passed universally into o-rjj^so-ff/, and the 
latest traces of it in II., |W/, 151, 401, according" to the 
old editions, have vanished from the more recent. — It 
seems evident that the dative in -iffffiv in other words 
also is a mere alteration of the primitive sffiptv. 

3. The termination Gipiv, which frequently unites itself 
with £ prefixed, is found added to the root xgur, K^oiriffipi, II., 
%, 156, for z^ocrog* 

4. Another irregular form is l^i^zva^iv^ II., /, 572. Comp. 
Hes., ^, 669, where the contracted genitive ("E^sSo?, -zog, -zvg,) 
is united with the pronoun. Perhaps originally this form 
was l§s^s(T(pi, which a Vatican MS. gives in the place cited from 

5. Finally, we must remark mupv as a genitive in II., t, 
^4^6 J |3, 794 ; as a dative in II., v, 7OO. Comp. II., r, 281, 
&c. The form is pocf-(piv weakened into v(x,v(piv. 



6. The dative plural, arising from a(piv after the ejection 
of (p, ends here also in giv : 'kui/jTrr^^Giv, Azvaiv, Tziy^zatv, &c., 
varied however in many ways. 

* Supposing that this form is well founded, and that the lesser Scholia, 
which have virh xoolt'ig^iv^ do not point to the real form, this would then 
be vTh x^ccTog (piv; and in (piv we should have a trace of the old dative 
't'v or fiii for oT, of which hereafter. 


7. ^<piv after a vowel has remained, as we have seen, in 
a few forms, o%g(7ip/v, &c. ; but in most the (p has been ex- 
changed for ff, and so (Tfftv has arisen from (r<piv : as, y^ii^iaai, 
rivy^aai^ r'lTtiaai^ v&(pzff(ri, &c. 

8. E before affi doubles itself where the verse requires an 
extended form, thus not arridkaai (-"-"), but oy^k/rffi, and 
from gVo?, STrsffi, sTstrffi, Wzzmi, (iiXog, fBiXB(7i,^iX2afff, (^BXkffffi.^^') 

9. If we take from ^zkktJGi and the like the root (jSsXs), 
there remains as termination zaet, and this is affixed, not 
only to forms in g, to which it originally belonged, but also 
to other forms: e.g. zvm, zvv-og^ dat. (x,vv(n,) ;£yo-/and zvvsaffi, 
vsKVffi, vzKViSGi, ^iTocg, ^£T«o?, ^ZTaiGGiv, -TTccv-rog,, and 

10. Thus the dat. plur. has besides ffpv three terminations, 
fftv, (Tffiv, and safftv, and their use is limited only by the quan- 
tity of hexameter verse, which the forms could not oppose, 
as, e. g. ^ccifJ!j6vi(Tfft, Vkvi^iaai, -^^evhkfTffi, >cu[Jbd7£(rffi, would do, 
which Pindar has adopted as trochaic series (Isthm., 8, 26 
(49), Pyth., 2, 49 (89), &c.). Concerning the admissibihty 
of the termination (k(T(ti, see below, § cxcvii, 54. 

11. Together with these two terminations (Tiv (or craiv,) 
and £(ro-/{', traces remain of another, gc/, in the dative, ocvukts- 
ffiv, hzGi^ oigc/, ^g/^gff/f. This last is found in some inaccurate 
editions in ^g/^go-iv cc[Jb(po7i§ri(Tiv, II., ^, 382, where the common 
reading was %g/p/ yg r^ gVg^?;, and that of Aristarchus %g/^g(r<r' 
a|W/^OTg^?jf, so also ^(^g/^gff/j' adocva,Tri(Ti, II., -r, 704, which has 
been exchanged for ^iI^igg adccmTrifft, but in Od, 0, 462, 
%g/^g(r/v ci[jijipa,(p6covTo has been retained against the authority of 
the Harleian MS. It is undisputed only in II., y, 468. 'Avu- 
ZT&aip is found in Od., 0, 557, iW/f, II., -^z, 191, and oktriv 
(perhaps oiffiv,) in Od., 0, 386. These are the first efforts 
of the language to relieve itself of the double ff, original 
in this case, and grounded upon a sure analogy, by the 
ejection of one (T, and thus to acquire new forms, which, on 

* The form in E22IN is retained, out of verse, in the JEoVic dialect, 
as ETEPrETH2ANTE22I, nANTE22I T0I2 ArnNE22IN, &c., in 
Caylus Rec. d' Antiq., T. II, PI. 5G. 


account of their softness, were established in tlie lonism of 
prose, e. g. in Herodotus. 

12. In the dual there appears here also the original onv, 
e.g.^en. ^ii^yjifoi'tv, Od., (jij, 52, iGj, dat. -TrohoT'iv, II., i, 228. 



13. Of mutes standing at the end of the root, the following 

are ejected in Homer : 

A. Udgig, (Ylix^ilog) Uu^iog, and analogous to this, ace. Uocgiv. 
According to this analogy 0sri?, 0sr//', Q'&ri, SiriVy 
although Qgrihog retains its ^, II., ^, 370, &c., as oV/j, 
OTTihog, oTihcc. Qii^ig (^@i[jbihog, Qsi^irog,) takes for the 
strengthening of its weak syllable <r before r: ^fji^itrrog, 
%fjiji(Tri, ^sujiaroi, '^i^iang, '^z^jjityrag. 

0. Ko^yg, Tco^vScc, and, as if from KO^vg, zo^uog, also ko^vv, II., 
V, 131, ^, 215. 

T. Kigag, whence ;tj^a (read ks^ui), II., k, 385, (xigxTu, 
;cs§KU,) H.s§oc, II., §, 109, &c., zz^dcov, KS^a,i(r(Ti, together 
with zi§u(ji. — K^sag, (^K^iarcc, zgiacc.) x^sd in pc^icc MTrrcoy, 
Od., y, S3, &c.; hence synizesis prevails in %.§ioc TroKkd, 
II., ^,231, &c. In the Odyssee, however, it is found with 
apostrophe: z^s vm^r&^K, 7, 65, &c.; whence it would 
appear that z^iuoc threw away the latter a and had Kg&a 
short. But it is remarkable that synizesis keeps its ground 
in all places which have z§iu. — Genit. (kp^utojv) zpsumv, 
H., II, 130, z^iuv, Od., 0, 98, Koii^v, ib., ^, 49. Dat. 
zgiccffiv. — Ts^ctg, Ti^ocroi, as once read in Od., fjj, 394, but 
now Tipua, from the Harleian ms., also n^diju, rs^agco-/. 
From this source, likewise, is rs/^ga, II., c, 485; thus 
T&i^ccoi, rzi^u, and passing over into the inflection of those 
in -og, -so?, rs/^sa and rzl^zffi, H., VII, 7 — YkXcog, {yzXcora, 
yiKucc) y'ikoj, Od., c, 100, or according to Bekker, p. 132, 
rather yzkoj. TkXoo, Od., y, 8 and 346, where y'zkov was 
once read. — "ll^ug in l\i^, 11.,^, 385, ll^ai, ib., k, 5^^%, X, 
621, for th^uTa. 


14. Another class of mutes in r take § to the root in the 
nom., and retain r in the other forms, where these occur: 
dXsi(p(x,§, Hes., ^, 558, aX&i^arog, rt, ru, II., -^z, I7O, Od., <y, 
45, &c. —'AXkcc^, II., £, 644, X, 822. — ET^e (s^o;), II., g, 
369, Zi^ocra^ Od., jO/, 252, &c. — ET^^a^ (si'Xo;), IL, rj, 388, &c. 
— -^H/^a^, riffjccrog, &c. — 'Hra^, jjVar;, Od., %, 83, ^'Trura, 

Batrach., 37 "Omcc^, II., x» 433, &c., miuroc, Od., a, 148, 

&c. — Ovdoc^, II., /, 141, ovdara, Od., ;, 440. — Hsi'flao (-rg^aj), 
as it is in several places (but 'Tnl^ag is sometimes given as a 
variation), 'Trsi^ara, 'Tni^aai. — From ariao comes ariarog, 
Od., <p, 178, 183, and with the common form zridnaaiv, 
which, according to this analogy, requires the nom. ktzcc^j is 
found zrs^ccg, II., ^y, 235. 

Obs Of the other mutes in a < sound, vXrtig is always open and 

with long/; hence xX^j/'ooj (not xX/^/Sog), nktiih^ %kr[iha, xX>]/8£g, 
xXj3?(r/v. So also X?j?e, but with short /; thus Xjji'Sos, &c. 

15. Out of liquid words are sometimes dropped, 
P: \yfi^ ace. of ix^§, II., g, 416. 

N: xvzsaj, ace. of xukscuv, for zvKiojvcc, Od., ;«, 290, &c., 
zvz&iio, IL, X, 624, comp. 641. Ily^^i;, ace. of Ily^^yj' in 
Ily^^iy^' z^xP^iAvyiv, Od., a, 581. 

Ohs. — Different from these are several forms of nouns from the radical 
syllables : aK(pi for ciXpirov, H., IV, 209, — yXdfu for yXa(pv^6v, Hes., 
£, 503, — du) for duf/M, II., ^, 363, &c., and even in the plural xi^aia. 
8oJ, Hes., ^, 933, — xgrfor k^iStj, IL, £, 196. 

16. The termination -ucov, gen. -oiovog, with long a, remains 
open, when the word begins with one or more short syllables: 
Ai^v[Jbcia)V, 'l^ZTCccov, Avzccuv^ M.a'Xjoicov, Hoffsihdaov ; but is con- 
tracted with prefixed: aojv, -cov, -ooov ; when the word begins 
with a long syllable: Ayi'izooovra, Arji/jOKOuvrccy II., s, 534, 0, 
499. 'I'TT'Trofcouvrcc, IL, «, 518. 

Obs. — Ksag, the heart, is in Homer always contrasted x%, xn^i, and 
M^p as a properispomenon ; the latter always for the expression of 
that which lies at the heart or comes from the heart, commonly united 


with 'xs^i: see II., d, 46, v, 119, &c., except in dvrjo ovrs Zsug xt^bi 
(perhaps ov Zivg m^i '/.ri^i) (piXrjgri, II., i, 117. — On the contrary, 'ia^, 
which occurs only twice, and each time in the gen., 'ia^og, II., ^, 148, 
Od., T, 519, has remained open ; also from crsa^, eriarog, Od., <p, 
178, 183. — 'A;5^ retains its a only in the nom., and changes it in 
the dactylic forms of the other cases, riioog, ri'-^ty ^i^a. Corap. 
§ CLxvr, 1. 

17- K§ovia)v (always ^ ~ ' ^ has in the gen. I and O long 
or short, according to the exigence of the verse: KoovTsov, gen. 
Koovicuvog, II., <p, 184, and Koomvog, II., ?, 247; but the dat. 
and accus. have always K^ovicuvi and Koovioovu. The vocative 
does not occur. 

Obs — Of the adjectives derived from (ppov, we find with a short 
syllable in the voc. -ABoBaXie^^ov, II., a, 149, d, 339, but with a 
long syllable 'Trs^if^uv EusuxXs/a, and even 'S's^iip^m YlrjviXoTiia, Od., a, 
329, without metrical necessity; however, it stands right in Tsg/pgoe 
Um^oviia, Od., T, 435, ff, 284, p, 321. 



18. The genitives of pure words in a are always open: 

yfjouog, Kvicpccog, Od., c, 370 The datives remain open as 

the verse may require: yn^di, II., g, 153, &c. When a 
vowel follows, the iota should not be elided: y^a wto, Od., 
X, 136, l^cc o(p§c6, ib., X, 316, nor yet subscribed as Ki^cc 
(which after the ejection of r belongs to this class), II., X, 
385, (TsXa, ib., ^, 563, Od., <p, 246, since the cc being short 
admits of no subscription. Hence it remains to adscribe it, 
so that y%a/, ^STa/, ;tg^a/, o-gXa/,* stand together with the 

* The Venetian Scholiast upon II., X, 385, recognises the iota. 2w 

rw luira sy^a'^dv rmg rh xsga, Ivcc fj boruf^ ofioiug ruj d'sTO, (Mikirihioc o'lvou 
(where ?) %a/ y^^a hirh XiraouJ. ourw 5g xa/ doKiT hixiariTv rj 'ra^ddocig, ug 
xai 'AXi^iuv d^ioT, 


open terminations yrj^cii, ^Z'Tra'i, zi^u'i, azkui. — In the plural 
the two alphas fall together: (^sTaa) ^stoj, Od., r, 67, &c., 
a(pika (from a^zKag)^ ib., ^, 231 ; or the latter a is dropped, 
so that the remaining one is short, only however in yk^ug : 
ys^a, II., j8, 237) ^5 334, &c. The gen. and dat. of ^g-ra? 
occur: ^srao^v, II., jj, 480, ^sTacc/j', ib., 0, 86, ^STccscff/, 

1 9. Forms of Acta?, a stone, ^ao^, A A2, ou^ag. 
«. Sing. N. -kaa,;, II., B, 321, Od., X, 598. 
G. Xaog, ib., (M/, 462, ib., ^, 192. 
D. Xai; ib., TT, 739. 
Ace. Xaav, ib., |8, 0I9, &c. 
Dual. Xas, ib., '4/,329. 

Plural. G. Xa^yf, ib., joo, 29- 
D. Xagcff/, ib., y, 80. 
The root Xa, compared with lapis^ is of itself short, but ex- 
tended by means of the digamma, afterwards ejected, Xa/^, 
Xocv, Xa, and admits the second a as the verse requires. — 
The cognate name of a town, Aaj, has in the accusative the 
short a prefixed : OJVs Adccv gl^ov, II., ^, 585. 

b. Oa-oj and ((p(*>g) (pouc. Dat. ^as/, ace. i^ao?, (po^ys-, 
<p6a)(jh, to the light. Plur. ^asa, eyes, Od., t, 15, ^, S9, 
r, 417. _ 

c. Of 'hug, laoc, which must be supposed as a root, occurs 
only loii in h la'i Xvygrj, H., v, 286, &c., which quantity 
and meaning forbid us to derive from 'ha'thi. From hoc, 
with the termmation wg comes oriiog. 

d. Oti^a?, the ground (different from ovhog, threshold), 
changes a into £ : gen. ovhiog, dat. ox^Ci, II, -v^, 283, Od., 
/, 459, and ovhn, II., g, 7^4; ace. oxjbag, ovhaah, ib., f, 
457, Od., ;c, 440. 

§ cxc. 


20. The pure words in iota retain their iota, with few 
exceptions, through all cases j whence the dat. sing, has 


always both iotas combined in one long: "l\is, '^a^dxotrtg; 
gen. Xv(Tiog, fjijrjviog ; dat. zvriffrt, (Jb/jTi, Tragccycom ; ace 'Tra^dczoi- 
riv ; voc (Jbuvn, &c. — Plural, "B^/Sf, vfjffrisg, Tra^'^dkag ; gen. 
-TTu^^ccXicov ; dat i^iffdiv ; ace. vfiffriag, -TroXiag, &c, and also 
lag contracted into ig in oczomg, Od., k^ J, from the Harleian 
MS., instead of ccKOirccg, and o'ig for oiccg. 

21. The change of / into g makes a faint appearance in 
'TTOffig, husband, -zroaiog, Od., t, Jd, &c., Troaiv, •^roffiug, II., ^, 
240, which has in the dat. 'Troffsi, IL, s, 71 ; inclining to the 
class of words in g, and probably occasioned by the feeble 
sound of the double iota in Trofft'i. Hence also t6(Tzi, Od., X, 
429, f, 555, r, 95. Likewise, by this g, these forms are 
distinguished from those of ^ Trofftg, drink, which displays no 
trace of g. — Kovst, which some would put for z6i/T, Od., A, 191, 
is not worthy of notice. 

22. The g is unopposed in vz^/jiaau, II., ^, 335, from /sfjAffig, 
also in sTcck^ig, of which the following forms are found: 
gTaA.?/o?, gVaXi/j', iTrdX^isg, and likewise (IraXlggj) gTaAls/?, 
I'^dX^idiv. So (judvTig, fjboivriog, (AcUvrng, but (Jbuvrsi, II., v, 69,* 
and in oig-. 


23. Forms of o iV : 


oiog, oiog, 

D. ... 

Ace. o'l'v, 

N. o'isg, 

G. o/iyv, o/oJ;', 

D. Ol-S(T(TlV, 


Ace. oi'?. 
24. This g is exchanged for ;j in a series of forms of the 
word -roX/c, of which the following are found : 

* By comparing (SaaiXivo/Mui, ^asiXivg, with fMvrsvofMai, fidvTig, we are 
induced to suppose in the nominative an obsolete form fiavrevi, the 
genitive of which should perhaps be restored in Mai/TJjoj u>moij, Od., jc, 
4-93, //,, 267, instead of '/Miriog dXaoj. 








• • • • 




'Tcokn^, Hes., a, 1 05 






irokiug^ 'Ttokiig^ 'Kokridg. 

The form with rr is explained by the Venet. Schol. to II., 
4, 1, as a Cyprian mode of writing. — The genitive 'Ttokiog 
(for which the Attic ntokicog is here and there recommended,) 
is exchanged with itokiog in II., |3, 811. The dative is open 
only in II., ^, 152, otherwise "tcoKzi ; itokiig only Od., o, 412 ; 
and the ace. 'Tcokzig from icokiag in II., j(3, 648, Od., S^, 574, 
II., /, 328, <r, 342, 490, with ^oX<aj, ib., \ 308, Od., ^, 

§ CXCI. 


25. The pure words in yj, oy?, have the genitive, e. g. 
viicoog^ vsKvcov, miiversally open^ and, where the verse requires, 
synizesis, as 'TT^o'Tra^oth vizvog, II., t, o21, according to the 
Harl. MS., instead of the common reading T^oG&iv v'iKvog; but 
the dative is open (y'i) only in r/ibvi, II., v, 486, which, 
indeed, is now changed for the other lection 'Tn/ivfLovt. In all 
other examples it is shut: a(jj(pi v'iKut, II., -r, '326, &c., t,vi>- 
i(7iff0ai oi^vl, Od., 71, 270, o^-x/iarvl, 'ttXi^OvI. (When the two 
sounds xA are combined into a diphthong, as in TXrjdvi, the 
circumflex belongs to it as much as in ^oi', ^oT, &:c.) 

26. The plural vzg is always open and dissyllabic, vzaai 
always trisyllabic (^ZfLKyrwovra viKvsafftv, Od., X, 568, having 
been corrected out of Strabo into vizuffffiv). — The accus. vac 
is always open in vUvoig, shut in yivvg, Od., A, 320, h^vg, II., 



X, 494, comp. "4/, 118. 

Those which 

begin with a long 

syllable, retain vug open 

nly where the 

rhythm supports it. 

as in the fourth foot /%^ya?, Od., %, 384, 

op^uag, ib., /, 389. 

On the other hand, tx^vg, 

Od., £, 53, &c 

;., at the beginning 

of the verse, zXtTvg, 6(povg. 


27. FiXamples. 

In a : 

In t : 

In v: 







Xvffiog, 20. 




jM/^r;, 20. 


yrjgoct, 18. 

-roo-gi', 21. 




tXti^T, 25. 


ttoXj^'i, 24. 







ff^gXa, 18. 

gTraA^/gg, 22, 


Fs^a, 1 8. 










oW(7/j', 23. 




v'/IGTiag, 20. 




ToXg/g, 24. 

yzvvg, 26. 


zkiTvg, 26. 



28. Pu re wo rds of this description are of three sorts : 
neuters in og, sog, substantives and adjectives in vig, zog, adjec- 
tives in vgy eog, e. g. Tg?%o?, tzix^og ; Ato(jtjflh7^g, AioiJtjr;hog ; 
evrjKrjg, zurjxzog ; ^Ivgj ^hzog. They have the genitive open 
when the verse allows it; e. g. xuKkiog zl'vuca, II., u, ^35y &e.; 



SO viixzog, (TTTidsog, 7z(%zog in 28 places, &c. So also of the 
other sorts: Y^v'Tni&iogy Aio[/j/ihiog, su^^csog, zvfjjyjhiog, zvuhzog, 
ciTT'/jviog, ccTi^-Treog, '/jh&og, 'huTrsTioc, 'hva'4kiyiog, "hva^cckTsog, i^iKV- 
}ikog^ kgiahmg, suspyiog, &c. Synizesis has no place in these 

29- Instead of synizesis, contraction in sy? occurs in the 
following with the termination o?, sog : 'E^sSsy?, II., ^, 368, 
Od., X, 37 (where 'E^sSoy? is a various reading); of 'E^s- 
^iV(T(piu, II., /, 572, we have already spoken, n. 4. Also 
^cc[jjQivg, '^a^ffivg, ^g^syc, Od., ;;, 118, where '^igovg once stood. 
Instead of ymvg, Od., 0, 532, Wolf has admitted yzvog, 
although the other form is well supported by Mss., and yivog 
in the Harl. ms. is merely from the hand of a corrector. 

30. The same rule of contraction as the verse may require, 
is followed in the dative -si'; so that we find both sXzzi\ 
^g^g'/', KccKksi, fLm'i, rayji, rg/%gi', and 'ilxzi, ^g^g/, zciXksi, ybbzi, 
rdx^i', TiiyjL So likewise Xg;^g/, i/(^g/, <pa^g/, xg'Ag/, %^Tg/, and 
the adjectives KaTUTTgyji/BT, -ttXcctbi, -^r^occXsiy }cikam(psi. 

31. Somewhat more complicated are the rules for sec in the 
ace. sing, and in the plur. of neuters. 

a. The ace. of substantives in -;??, -sec, is always open, with 
synizesis where required: ^loyij'/ibsocy Ylokv^svfcsoc, ILvrsi- 

h. Adjectives are also open: a(jj(p7^^s(psaj ccokXsoi, ccTrsvdscc, 
kntrina, agi'^^STrsoi, a^i^^oc^scc, &c. ; there are found with 
synizesis, ^gog/Bgoj, II., y, 27, &c., at the end of the verse, 
ccXkostlsoii Od., V, 194, y-i^g^gipga, Od., I, 7-57 ; — yet 
contraction occurs after two short syllables in aho- 
Toc^TJ, Od., ff, 201, supported by the usage of Anacreon 
in oclvoToc^yj 'xocT^ih' Wo-^o[jjcct, which the Harl. Schol. 
quotes at Od., jM/, 313. Add it^uroTrccyri, II., u, 267; 
although Wolf admits ■r^ia^ro-rayga in that place. 

c. Lastly, the plural termination sci is open in neuter sub- 
stantives : vsi-KSoc, Tgu%ga, rg/%ga, ^sksoc ; and even where 
the verse invites contraction: zoci -TrdGsv ak<ysoc, II., 00, 7« 
So (TTTjdscc, ffocpcsK, and Ci)Koc (iiXscc T^ojsffffiv s<pki, II., 0, 
444, probably from the edition of Aristarchus, who, 
according to the Harl. Schol., also read rg/xgfga, Od., a. 


184", where Wolf admits rsiMv/j. Tsvx^ is twice found, 
n., X. 322, 7i,J07. 

32. The nom. ssg is open or contracted as the verse re- 
quires : 6[jjyjys^kg, sTCi^rkg, /COiT}^^z(pkg, icivoLvyiig^ o|g£?. Close 
together stand, nt^ojTO'Xd'yug vsorsvx^?, II. » s, 194. Contracted 
are, hu^yug^ Ivihzvzig, vj^Xtnlg, in the fifth foot, Od., t, 317> 
T, 498, x^ 418. (R) Also TT^^viTg, II., X, 179. Hence the 
synizesis is doubtful in aazi^dsig xat (Ivovaoi^ Od., ^, 255, and 
we should read aax,ri&€ig^ did not the Harl. various reading 
afr;c£^2gc point to ka-Kri&'iZg. 

SS. The genitive is always open, as Grri&ioiiv^ ciXtrscuv, except 
where s stands between two vowels. Comp. n. 35. 

34. The accusative sag is equally open : ccoXXsccg, IvTrXsziccg, 
^cifjijiccg, and with synizesis, 'TrzkiKzag^ II., \//, 114, &c. Comp. 
§ cxLix, 2. The contraction of sag into zig occurs (besides 
'TTokiocg, TToXzig^ already mentioned,) only in ToXsa?, 'zokiig ohk- 
adVT ai^rioOg, II., o, 66. Comp. II., v, 734, y, 313, <p, 59, 131. 
However we find also ToXJoig, II., a, 559, |8, 4, Od., 7, 262 : 
also at II., (p, 131, the Ven. Schol. gives the open form. 


35. Several adjectives have long a before g at the end of 
the root : az§oc'/]g ; hence ctfCPrAi, (oczoaicc,) cocgocfj, comp. n. 
31, ^., kXiaiig. — Za^yj and ^a^v, Od., |M,, 313, passing into 
the first decl. ; yet Zco] also must have been read there, since 
the Harl. Schol. gives ahoTccdyj as parallel. — Auffarig, Ivaa'iog, 
and with double g, Ivaotrioov, Od., v, 99, also from VTrs^a'/jg, 
v'Tri^cisi, II., X, 297. — Zocx^rjyig (i. e. ^a%fa^? from x§^ in 
g'Xfag, s^rg^oag, and ^a), whence (^a^^e^jsg?,) Z^axpm'i?, iZ^XS^- 
kcov,) Zcix^^^v, II., g, 525, formerly tax^^'^^ ^^th g; after the 
analogy of Z^iilcooog. (Comp. Schcrfer ad Hes., g, 560.^ 

36. Those which have g before g, are, besides the words 
derived from xXkog, the following: ctsoc, Ikog^ zXkoc^ Z^so? j 
thus : 



N. a'TTZoi;, 

G. GTtziovg^ Od., g, 68, 226, &c., 
D. G'TTTJ'i, ib., ^, 210, n., ff, 402, u, 83, &c. 
Ace. c-rgoj, ff'TTgiog, Od., g, 194. 


x^ • • • • • 

G. aTzim, H., Ill, 264, 
D. CTCiffaij Od., a, 15, &c. 
(T'TTrisfffftf ib., ;, 400. 


viz. from the root ctss (from CTgXg, ff'^i^Xa, comp. c^/iXcciov, 
spelunctty) gg is combined into ;; in ffTr^i and ff'Tr^saai, the one g 
is dropped in o-Tgcc/ (where C'T^o'/ would be more analogous), 
and g is extended into g/ in cr-Tnioug from ff-Trs-zog, a'Trzkog, 
(TTziovg. — Nom. ace. hiog, gen. (^ggoj,) ^iiovg, II., x, 376, o, 4, 
the two genitive forms, (TTiiovg, hiovg, supporting one another, 
although the only genitives in ovg in the Homeric dialect. — 
Of zXsog appears only (;i>ig-ga,) z.Xid, II., /, 189, comp. ib., 
524, Od., ^, J^^i and together with ^^eo? only the extended 
XS&'iog, II., X, 686, &c. 

37. From ;£?igg in Kkiog are derived first a number of proper 
names, in which the terminations og and j^g are both found, 
as in IloiT^oxXog, discussed under the second declension. So 
'Ipi'Kkov, ll., |3, 7(^5, ^i^spcXov, ib., g, 59. As a single Ho- 
meric nominative in opposition to those in og stands, with g 
extended, OUXzirig, Od., 0, 244. Add, 

N. ' H§ccx,Xs'/;g, Hes., 5, 318, 
G. 'H^ccH.X'^og, II., I, 266, 
D. 'H§aKX?ji, Od., ^, 244, 
Ace. 'H^ukXt^oi, II., I, 324, 

'H^oiKXia, Hes., a, 448, 
V. TiccrgoKXsig, II., cr, 49, 
so that gg is contracted into j^ in (^§cckXssu,^ 'HgUKX^oii but in 
'HoccxXicc one g is dropped. — 'H^ccxXT^i appears trisyllabic 
('H^ciKXyj,) in Hes., a, 458 (where all the mss. agree in 
giving the dative) ; so 'Olvffrj, ?]§&), of which hereafter. 

38. After this analogy appear ' AyocxX^og, BadvpcX^f Aio- 
%.Xjjog, AtofcXm, 'ExifcXfjoc, ''Ex^fcX^jog (but "E^^s^^iov, II., y, 474, 


9r, 694f)f and those cases of Udr^oxkog which pass into the 
third declension. 

39. The adjectives derived from the same root vary in the 
use of £/ and tj. — From azXsrjg stands ocKkrizig (or aK\iizig\ 
II., |W/, 319, for a-yckikg^ which however is more aptly com- 
bined into ayJkrjig. Add a^yocKk^og U§idc[jijO{0, II., -r, 738, 
comp. ib., -^p, 529' With si there are left ivKkziag, with the 
adverbs, a-zXiiug^ IvKlsiaig. — 'Evppir;g (also liippoog,) has in the 
gen. (lijppkog,) liJppsTog. Lastly, the longer form kX&it, ayu- 
Kkiirdg (but rrfkiKknTog from kcO^ioj)^ and from ^g/ra, gen* 

40. A in 'HgccKkea, Hes., a, 448, is on account of the 
synizesis in that place of undetermined quantity ; but a^Xsa, 
Od., I, 728, and hff^cXiCi, II., /3, 115, /, 22, have it io7i^ ; 
so probably 'HocczXicc has it long too, it being not uncommon 
that where one vowel is dropped the remaining one is length- 
ened. Other forms, in which this s has been dropped, cannot 
be pointed out, and azXssg, II., yj, 100, kiJKXsig, ib., g, 415, 
are adverbs. The later forms of this sort, as ayuxXsa, Pind. 
Pyth., 9, 110 (185), svkXsI; 01., 10, 89 (101), are derived 
from the abbreviated root zXs, giving zXrjg, ccyoizXyjg, IvxXfjg. 

41. The adjectives derived from substantives with se, double 
the first and extend the second, ??s;, in the feminine termina- 
tion, in which alone they are used: 'I^/^X^s/;?, 'IpftXniiyjg, 

'lEiTZOKXYliing. So 

'Hgci/cXi^ir/i, II., X, 690, 
'H§cizX}^iirig, ib., /3, 666^ 
" 'HgaKXTjer/i, ib., /3, 658, 0, 640, 
'H^aaXyiiiTiv, ib., £, 638. 



42. Masculines in s, with the tone upon this g, have the 
nominative formed in sfg^ gy?, ^aaiXzvg^ 'AyjXzvg, while, in 
those with toneless g, it passed into ;jf, A/OjU/^§;;?, UoXuhOxyig, 



43. Proper names still unformed, viz., ATPE, TVTE, 
AXLE, &c., for 'Ar^syg, Tvhvg, (' A^Xsug,) ' A)^/Xgy?, are seen 
upon votive cups and marbles, cut in the most ancient style. 
In the formation the terminations fluctuated between ;j? and 
gy^, until they were separated in the manner above stated. A 
trace of this is found in KKTfTJJg, II., X, 223, where Kiaffsvg was 
once read, with which Aristarchus placed Ho^^g and 'JL§[jjrjg. 

44. The substantives, which are not proper names, have, 
except in the nom. voc. sing, and dat. plur., universally g 
doubled into ;? : (iocffiXsug, (DccatXfjog, (iauiXij'i, (occffiXijoi, ^ccfTiXsv, 
(ia(T(XJ^ig, (oocffiX'/jojv, h-xricov, (^affiXzwi, h-Trivai, (ouaiXijag, h'Tryjug. 
Of a^ifTTZvg, not found in the nom., but remaining in oc^iffrrjog, 
oc^iffTyJK, a^iGrrjii, '/joov, ^aj, the dat. plur. is a^iarr,z(jf)iv, gi, 11., 
a, 227, /, 334, &c., as vriZGtnv from vi^vg. In Hesiod first the 
vowel is shortened. Comp. Brunch ad Hes., g, 244, who 
writes ^uGiXkm, and Schcpfer, ib., 246, who ivrites, as voc, 
^cKTiXrjg. Of the proper names several have no doubling of 
the vowel, as ' Ar^zvg, Tvhug, ' Ar^sog, gi', set, Tvhzog, g;, sec ; 
some have the long and short vowels intermixed, of which 
more below. 

45. Examples. 
N. ^aaiXsvg, Ty^gyg, Il^jXgy?, 

G. (occffiXTJog, TvUog, IIjjXjjo?, 



' A-x,O.Xsvg, 



D. ^ci(T{X?j'i, Tvlii, HtjX^'i, 'AxiXrih 

' AxiXXri'i, 

n;?Xg7,(4) 'AxiXXii, 
Ht^Xboc, 'AxtX>joc, 

'OhvfTivg, (1) 
' Ohvaffivg, 
' Ohvffjjog, 
' Oluaa^og, 

'OhvtTSvg, (3) 
' Olvaff'iog, 

Ace. ^aatX^a, 

V. ^CCdiXiV, 

' O^VffZl, 

' O^yc^a, 
' Axi'XXrja, ' Ohvffa^cc, 

'OWcga, (5) 

'A%/X£y, 'O^yff-gy, 
' AxiXXiv, ' O^yo'fl'gy. 
46. a. Nominative, (l) The original forms are those 


with the single consonant, which is doubled in ' O^yo-csy? 
and ' Axt'kXivg — the only forms in which the duplication 
is retained in prose. 

b. Genitive. (2) In Atoysv^g UyjAsog vlog^ II., a, 489, 
and in ib., -r, 21, Od., A, 478, it would be more rhyth- 
mical to \vrite Yl'4Knog vlog, TlT^Xfjog viL The short form 
would then remain, on account of its dactylic quantity, 
in ay}.rkrc. Xhihkog vis, II., ^, 203, comp. ib., v, 2, (p, 
139, &c. ISo we should write ^'/iKKTTTJog vlog, II., |3, 
5QQ, i//, 678, but Tv'hkog vlog, ib., s, l63. Comp. j8, 
406, I, Si55, 'Ar^iog vlov, y, 37. &c.— (s) 'O^uffsu? 
stands in Od., oj, 391, and, according to the Harl. MS., 
}ioyjOi)V -TrgoTugoiSsv 'OWirsCi?, ib., 416, instead of '^§07roi- 
goi0' 'O^vaijog. So, according to the Townleian Schol., 
some read ' l^ofMi/ivg, II., v, 424, but wrongly (see Bekk., 
p. loO, obs., Spohn, p. 15.5). 

c. Dative. (4) Yl'/]Xsi, og itzpi yj^^i, II., ^y, 6I. So Uo^Osi, 
II., I, 115, in the first foot, in which also ix^vg, &:c., 
n. 25, were contracted without metrical necessity. At 
the end of the verse we find ' AxiXW, II., -v^, 792, and 
formerly also 'Qthvaiim oi'/tco, Od., 0, 157- The Harl. 
MS. has there 'Oihvcni hi, and defends it by n^oji Ko(.o[A- 
"hovrt (thus reading, according to our orthography, 'O- 
^yo-??, 'h^co *). 

d. Accusative. (.5) 'O^yo-csa mo^v, Od., ^,212, is deemed 
an inferior reading to ' O'hvaari s'ktuv ; yet the apostrophe, 
in this case, as in 'Olva^' i^ci[jj^v, Od., v, 131, 'Olva^' 
Of, ib., r, 267, and kg Ti'/]Xyj' Izirsvciz, II., t, 574, should 
be removed : not 'O^vu^' from 'O'^vfxtjcc, but 'O^iviij from 
'O^vffiu, IIt^Xt] from UrjXecc, as is shown by c(,}X 'Olv(Trj 
'TTodsovaa, Od., r, 136. Add TvUa, II., ^, 222, and 
Tvhr,, ib., h, 384, M'/^KifTTTJ, ib., 0, 339. (Comp. Herm. 
ad Greg. Cor. in Addendis, p. 878. J On the other 
hand it must remain in ' AxiXn' hyjom, II., v, 139, 

* In that place, however, it is better to read Myuiv for x/wv, according 
to the marginal lection of the Vatican ms., so that 'Ohuari would be the 
accusative: AJ yao lydjv wg 'Noar-^sac 'iddxrjvds, yjyjiiv '03u(7^ hi o'lKui 'E'litoi'iJ 
(scil. auTw). 


UoiT^oxXji' llzm^itav, ib., %, 331, since here we can 
admit no short form as lying at the basis of contraction, 
and we cannot take away the apostrophe, although in- 
audible between two vowels, when supported by the 
analogy of the forms. 

§ cxcv. 


47. Substantives in contract their forms with the excep- 
tion of %^ot)g. We have to consider c^itug, ri^g^ ILaXv-^oj, 
fcuffjivof, A'/jTit), %^£(5t) and extended x^si^- 

G. (jioog,) rjovg, Kakv^ovg, Ayjrovg, II., S-, 508, a, 9> &c. 

D. (jioi,) 7]o7, AriToT, zuijijIvo7^ %?£"'^j 

Ace. alh^j vjai, Arjrco (but Anrco, with grave accent, Od., X, 

580, as also 0£av^\ II., X, 224), 
V. AriroT, H., I, 14, 62. 

Obs. — 'Hw$ from auig has aw changed into eu in swtf^ogof, II., ^'j 226. 

48. The forms of x§&>g remain open : Xfoo?, %fo/, %^oa, 
roc[juz(Tix§occ, kvx^oig, Od., |, 24. 

49. Of (2ovg the following forms appear : 
N. j3oy?, j3o£, (ioeg, 
G. ^oog, ^ouv, 

D. ... jSoyo-/, (Bovfffv, 

Ace. ^ovv, (1) )3o£, ^occg. 

(1) The form |3^v, II., tj, 238, is an adjective, and signi- 
fies, with uff'Tri^oc understood, the buckler of bull's hide. 



50. Cl at the end of the root is often contracted out of ao : 
^[juao, lybug, Tv^ao, Tv(p&)g, in Pindar, and in Homer extended 



by £, Tv<p&/ivg, as xa^g by a, nom. zaiag. Of the former are 
found: Tv(pcosogy II., |3, 783, Ty<p^si', ib., 782, Tufp^yaa, Hes., 
^, 821, and from Tv(pda)v, Tu(pdom, H., I, 306, 352, Hes., 
S^, S06. From ;£&;«?, ;tiyga, xcoiiriv. 

51. Forms of T^^y?, ^/o«/iyj, and the feminines and adjectives 
belonging to them. 

N. (^T^^y?, father of the Trojan race,) ^y^ug, Od., a;, 257, 
G. T^iyo?, II., y, 231, T^&>/aSo^ — "hiihog, Od., v, 263, 
D. T^o;/, II., £, 265, 
Ace. T^oJa, ib., y, 230, ^^a!' g^ov, Od., ^, 7^6. 

N. T^ajzg (tJie people), T^coai, ^[jb&iui, T§ajochsg, II., co, 704*» 
G. Il^oucov, Ofjbiiiafv, T^aj'tccha/u, hfjuofcccov, hfjbcuaiu, Od., r, 121, 
D. T^iy<r/j', T^ciiffiy T^^sffffiv, T^aisffffi, T^ojiffff, ^(jucusffffiv, -at, 

Acc. T!^Z(x,g, ^(Luag, T^atdcg, II., y, 420, ^iicodg, T^^^i'a^aj, T^^w- 

Add also T^co'ioi, T^coioc, T^a/cct, T^MOvg, T^co'i'zog, T^coifcov, T^^y- 
t'Xog, II., &), 257, &c. 

52. Besides these there appear with at : ^H^^y?, ^fo/oj, 7?^/a;/, 
but j^§&>, II., ^, 453, ^^^a and t^^cJ " A^gyiffrov. — Mjjr^^y?, 
(jb^T^cva. — Mivojg, Mivcoog, M/Wa, and M/W, II., |, 322 (Aris- 
tarchus reads Mivm, like "A§)^p, Zpcriv), according to which 
T^^at also should be written without apostrophe. 



53. Forms of, 

N. ccvTj^, ^yvydrrj^, (/jTjTri^, Tarrj^, 

G. kvi^og, ccvh^og, '^vyuri^og, ^vyar^og, (jbi^ri^og, (Jbrir^og, 

'TTuri^og, Tcur^og, 
D. dv'zPi, dvhoi, J^yyarg^/, ^vyocT^i, [/jrjri^t, (JjrjTPt, 'Trccr'ioi, 

Acc. dvi^oc, clvh^a, ^vyur^cc (^yyar^', II., X, 74*0), fJbJ^r'iPoi, 

V. avg^, ib., St), 725, '^vyccn^, (Jj^ts^, "Trdn^. 




N. Ac. avsgi, av\s. 

N. avs§eg, avhgig, ^vyccrs^sg, ^vyur^sg, 

G. ... Dcvo^iijv, 'i^vyocrgcov, toctz^oov^ 'Trar^uv. 

D. avlgciffiv, c(,v\s(T(jiv (11, ^, 308), '^vyccTi^straiv, II., o, 197- 

Ace. avs^a?, avh^ag, ^vyccrz^cig, ^vyaroocg, [/jf]7i§ug, 'TraTigocg. 

54<. Forms of youv and ^6§v. 

N. Tow, 

G. yovvog, (l) yovvuTog, 


Ace. yow, 












yovvaat, (2) 






Ace. yovvoc, 

(1) Tovvog, II., X, 547, Od., r, 450. — According to the 
common opinion (Eustath. ad Od., S, p. I6O6, /. 62^, 
yovvog and ^ov^og arise by transposition from yovvog, 'bo^uog ; 
whence also we must admit that yovva and ^ov^cc came from 
yovvuToc and ^ov^ura, by abjection of ra. By comparing", 
however, yow with ye?i?/, genua, we perceive the original 
yovva,, and this weakened out of yovfa, ; which form, after 
the ejection of the f and the consequent extension of 0, gives 
immediately yovva, — so ^opy, ^ov^u. To both forms yovvog 
and ^oy^o? stand in due relation, with respect to formation and 
accent, while yovv and ^ov^ are taken as roots ; which are 
revealed also in yovvzam, hov§£(T(ri, and according to which, 
yovvoov and hovom should, by the law of analogy, be accented 
yovvoiJu, hougcHv. The other forms, yovfccTog, hov^uTog, &c. must 
be from lengthened roots yovvccr, hov^ur ; the nominatives 
pertaining to which, yovmg, hov^ocg, if they ever existed, 
were obsolete in common use. 

(2) Together with yovvocui, yovvot'Jiv, Wolf has retained 
yovvDCTfri, II., /, 488, f, 451, contrary to the reading yovi/itrat 


enjoined by mss. and Scholiasts, although the doublino: of <r 
after a in the dat. plural, after he has given up ai/l§a(T(Ti for 
clvl^iffffi, II., §, 308, has no sure ground to rest on ; and 
yovvifffft is certainly established both by its analogy with yovm^ 
and by the parallel forms oi^viffffi, II., t, 352, and lov^zaai, ib., 
IL, 303, Od., ^, 528. There is left only Iu'/mvouvto li'Traaaiv, 
II., 0, 86, with a disputed readimj (Zenodotus gives ^£/;ca- 
vmvr Wiiaai^ or rather 'hii-Kavouvro STTsaaiv,) and vm'ious forms, 
^s-raoro-/, and IzTdzaai, to be read with synizesis. 

55. Forms of ro zdori, the head. The root is zd^ (as ace. 
in II., 5r, 392), with the formal syllables «r and n'^, Koc^ar, 
za^YjT ; from the former come k^olt by the ejection, and z^cckt 
by the transposition, of a ; from the latter comes the nom. 
zd^n by the abjection of r ; whence by a new addition of ar, 
Kd^TjccTf and of i/, ku^j^v, which gives zd^Tjvov. 

Roots, zoc^ccr, z§ccT, k^uoct, zcc^nr, x,cx,^yi<^r, Koc^riv. 

iS . .... ... .... TCCCPT]^ •••. .... 

G Kgurog, figduTog, zd^T^rog, -/ta^n^Tog^ .... 

D K^uri, /cpdccri, x.d§'/iri, KCiP'/iccri, .... 

Aec z§drcc,(^ 1 ) . . . }cd§ri 


N. «a^a,(2) KK^yjocTK, zd^rim^ 

G z^dr&fv*'/jvaji', 

D ZPOitTlV, 

Aec ... Z^UCCTK, KCC^J^VOi. 

(1) K^ara as ace. in Od., ^, 92; — it is masculine, and 
so all the forms of the same series. Kgdrcov^ Od., %, 309, ^y, 
185, should be \vritten zoocrcHv. 

(2) Kdod from Kd§ocra (as above Ki^d, K,§id), only in H.,IV, 
12 (ad Cerer., see there Ruhnkenius). — Ka^?? appears as 
Tc^Tj in Tcccrd K^^hv or KccTocz§7J$iv, II., -tt, 548, Od., A, 588. 
Concerning }c^d7S(j(pt, comp. n. 3. 

56. The forms of v^vg come from a double root m (navis,) 
and vi ; thus : 










vocvpv, n. 5. 





vccvpVy n. 5. 






57. From 70 (oag) or contracted oug we find, 

N ovura, 

G. ovuTog, .... 

D ovufft, II., /A, 442, 

offfiv, Od., jM/, 200 (from ouTfft), 
Ace. ou?, Il.,?i,109, y,473, omra, II., ;z, 535, Od.,|M,,177,&c. 
The contraction of oa, into oj is shown also in arojug (^oocrosig), 
whence uTuivTu, II., i^, 264, 513. 

58. Forms of '^a^'Trr^uv with and without r : 
N. Sa^T^j^olv, 

G. 2a^T;j^ovoj, Sa^^^ovro?, 

Ace. 2a^7r;;So{'a, 

V 2a|"r^^of. 

In the same way "kkm, Xeovrog, with r, is related to the Latin 
leo, leonis, without this letter. 

59. Forms of avg : 
N. Gugy 
G. (jvog^ 
D. (Tf/i 







• • • 







Ace. avv. 

This word belongs to those which lose the initial consonant 
according to the demands of metre. Comp. § CLViii, 12. 
60. The following likewise are multiform or irregular : 
Aldio'TTzg, cov, zGffiVy AidioTocg and Al&io'Tr^ag, II., a, 423. — 
"KvKy as voc., II., y, 351, &e., together with ava|. — ' Avh^a,- 
'7rohi(j(Th II., ?7, 475, in a suspected verse, where also Aristar- 
chus read avl^cc-Troloifft from ccvh^xTohov, common out of Homer. 
— 'Ao§, ao^i, as neuter, and do^ag ace. plural, Od., ^, 222, 
vid. Pors. ad loc. — 'Affrrj^, aarz^t, a^Ts^a, and dffr^a, II., ^, 
555. — TaffTTj^ (like tdctt^^, n. 5S)y yocffTi^og, fyoKTr^og, yocffTSgt, 
yoiffT^i, yccffTsgct, and yaar^T^v, Od., 3^, 437- — Sri^tlT^^^ ^^1^^- 
Tfj§og, Sec, ^rj^riT^^ocgi II., joo, I7O, but ^y]§'/j70§ccg uvhgxg, ib., /, 
544. — Aicov, XsofTo?, Xztovffiv, II., g, 782, &c., and XTg^ ib., X, 
239j &c., X7v\ ib.. A, 480, where the apostrophe is now 
removed.* — Ma<rr;i, (JbuffTiyiy (JijUffrtycc, (JbuffTiy ugy and from 

* The Grammariaxis who receive X/g, Xivog, XTva, have upon their side 


fjijUffTig — of which the root is visible in (judffris, II., f, 622, 
(j(,oc(TTiiTai, ib., V, 171 — come ^darl, ib., -v^, 500, ^dariv^ Od., 
0, 182. — "O&ffZy both eyes, used only in this form, from o'tc 
with the insertion of co-, before which -r is dropped. — nX'^dug^ 
gen. 'ff\'^6vog, dat. 7rXf]0v7, II., %, 458, Od., t, 105, hut -TrX^dzi, 
II., f, 330, -^rX^^s/, ib., <p, 218, -^z, 639, from 'rX^dog, not 
found in the nom. in Homer ; ace. "TrkriOvv. — ^[jjojh^, and 
a[ij^iyyig. — ^Tiv^rj^sg, and (j'^iv^cc^thg, H,, I, 442, like ay- 
KoXihcGi, H., 0-, 555, )^, 503, for ayftakTig^ which by its 
quantity is excluded from Homer. — Without a nominative 
appear: ^ai; Xiri, masc. Xiroc ; pi<pcc, iLes., 'i, 505 ; (rrixki 
(TTix^g, ariyj^g \ (pukaTczg and (pvXazrfj^sg, and ^}j§ig, the Cen- 
taurs ; together with ^fj^eg, beasts. 




1. Adverbs, as the signs of simple conceptions, have, 
except they arise from words already formed, the root pure, 
or with only a slight addition, as X/Va, oxu. Others are 
composed of the roots and adverbial syllables ^a, ^sv, ^ov, 
hg, &c., or prepositions : 'brj-da, xoc^a-^ig, 'Kqpyyv^ a'7rovo(y(pi, or 
spring from forms already produced, as ly^riyo^rig^ avih^corf. 
We shall here collect together the most remarkable of the 
different classes, according to their terminations. 

2. Ending in a : aVra, in front, against, with smvru, taccvrtx, ; 

the analogy of ?g, /vo^, ha. If X/sCfr/ be quoted from Callimachus (comp. 
Heyne ad II., X, 480), this shows only that he, like Aristarchus, derived 
the cases from X/g, Xiog, &c., and formed the dat. plur. on that supposition. 


aT-^/a, quick, with K throAvn away from Xui-^ in Xai-i^j^^og, 
nimble ; ^^vxoc in v'ttcAovxcc, beneath the wave ; gVg/ra. — 
' Hkk^ root focK, in vac-illare^ Germ, ivac-kein, hence — faintly, 
a little. — Sapbd. — Aty^a, twofold, without %, ^tcc ; hence ai/lr/^cc 
(amhx(x>\ lidvhxp'^, and with 3-a, (hix^Sot,) lix^oi, as rgixa, 
T^i-^Od, (jnr^ayjx) nrcax^oi, (sv) hdoc. — "Y,vzyM^ ihzKCi^ and with 
the gen. rovmzcc, ovviza. " stands Od., §, 288, 310. — 
Kou^u, lig^htly. — A;Va, with fat, root oi' Xi7rcc^6c,wit\iaksi(pnii in 
X/V akzi-^zv, Od., (^, 227, otherwise always with iXaioo, but 
with relation to the verb, akzi-^aiLivco X/V ikaico, IL, tc, 577 — 
comp. I, 171, &c. For dXst(psii/ by itself means — to rub, to 
smear, and acquires the meaning- to anoint by aid of Xtxcc 
(to smear with fat), so that sXaico is not superfluous. So 
also with %^/20-^a/: xi^(Td[jAvot Xitt sKaico, Od., ^, 96. — A/y«, 
shrilly. — MaXoj, very, (Jbdin adjuration; [Mff^ccy until ; [jJvvv0cc, 
a little, for a short while. — ' Oxcc, as giving force to the mean- 
ing of cc^iarog in o-^ cc^iarog^ he, and sio^a, eminently, root g%, 
from Ixj^. — Htv-xoc in 'bi'Trrvyjx, twofold ; 'Ttvx.a, frequently, in- 
telligently. — 'Psa andp2?a, lightly; p/jooipa. — Ta%a, quickly. — 
'Tto^^k, from beneath, from downcast eyes, i.e. looking black, 
from VIVO and 'hecix,, the obsolete root of g^^a^ov, }ii^-/.ot^cn ; so 
that the original form was probably v'TVob^az,, and | thrown 
away, as x, from yy^a;. — X^/^a(^^g(7^a), yesterday, and TT^io'i^cc, 
IL, /3, 305. — With a extended : yjx.[jjai, on the ground, toge- 
ther with x^fid-^ig, and (%a|(>6a-2-^£) ^ajM^a^s, to the ground ; 
'TTokai ; and I'a/ in >>«/ jW/a ro^g cT/cri'Trr^ov, IL, a, 234. 

3. A changed into tj appears in d'Trdi/r'/j, 'ttccvt'/i, everywhere 
(without ground for subscribing iota^^'), aKkyj, yj, t^ittX^, rsr^a- 
'T^'kri. — With a added to a : ' A^'h^ocjcdg, one and all, Od., v, 14, 
iTcdg, far ; and with a also changed into ri : (i^Ti-tz) 'ifjj'Trrjg. — 
With V added to a : [dna, avri, dvria, avrifitx) dvri^irjv, 
against. — Aa (whence l7^6d, or eHded ln^'\ Iriv, long. — jZix, 
^/%a in Pindar, (jbtylcc and (juiylj^v, and so (odlrjv, r[jy/]h)]v, &c. — 
Ma, fi,rjv, truly, usually weakened into (Jbiv. ('^) 

Obs. 1. — From these must be distinguished adverbs which have the con- 
sonant after a from their roots: 'Az'/jv, root Kav, ziv. Comp. 
CANo, conCENtus, with a privative, voiceless, silent. — 'A^, root 
of agcra^w, a'/^su, with the meaning observable in RAP-tim, quickly, 


in (s/r' ao) sl&a^, (affo-d^) apag. — 'Ag root of &^u), fit, join, with the 
meaning of — fittingly, consequently, now : pure in the particle a^, 
of which a^a is the lengthened and gd the transposed form, and 
which also lies at the basis of (y'a^) ydg and (au rs ag) aiira^, ard^. 
In like manner in '6<pea, in which o with tlie suffix (pi, ofi (like J(pi), 
and ga, are combined into one form. 

Obn. 2 In the forms which by the addition of i^ to a (»)) have the 

syllable jjv, — dwiZiriv, fj^lydriv, &c., appears also the analogy for ut^i- 
drrjv (Tg'a from Tr^ia/Mai, t as a formal letter before yj); and so 
guvaiydriv, Hes., d, 189, which epic usage does not allow us to con- 
sider accusatives feminine as /xansdvy and the like. 

4. Forms in ig, i ; and, a. without abjection of c : aijjvbiq 
(from ajjj^ whence ci[jja^ jEoI. a^o-y, with ^;?), (bCkohig {aXko^ 
^ol. aXXy), iTraiJjOiQyih'g ; — 6. ;? and / equally: a%^/?, «%$>/, 
and jt>05Xs'^' f-^^%?' 5 au^/?, ay^; ; uurig, l^uvric, ccvn ; TroWaKig 
and TToXkoczh %a^xa§/g and p(^a^a^/ croosca?, Od., r, 599) 
according to Eustatliius, ib., p. 1879? who cites also ^^y^/?, 
Xco^i. — c. Those formed with the adverbial syllable ri have ; 
alone: cl^ri (ap as in a^<jy), even now, 'in (g from glva/), still 
beinq^ still. Add to these ly^yiyoori, kvaiiMcori, kvibouri, and 
the like. Also £p/, very, the root of 'ioig, eoi'Zco, in compounds 
i§t^oi)Xog, ioiyhovTrog ; ^%/, where (needlessly written ??%/), oy%/, 
not, and the dative form v-^i, on high (Jj-^og'), ]'(pi (root of i'j, 
strength, with the suffix p) ; focip/, and probably also, though 
now written with c, Kix^Kpigy obliquely. 

Obs. 1. — The forms sx^t-/, with the will, dsxr]ri, against the will, have 
the root s from I'jj/a,/, aor. rjjia, and may be considered datives of lost 

Obs. 2 — Also the local ^/ belongs to this class : odi, 'rodi, vodl, oTmdi, 

t69i, iXTodl, dm-TT^odi, %i7&l. 

5. Forms in s?, sv, so, s, s/, y, y?, gy, )^^k, together with 
%^/^a, 9rg^£? in (^/a-a^a-Tscsg) ^/ajCA'rgos?, gj with abjection of c in 
'TToaz (TO-fT-g?), ;!cgr(7g. The local ^g and i'>gi', ,^g : %a^g, i^y^a^g, 
%a|M/a^g, si'^gi', i^g^^^gv, o^gj', oTKr&iv, Tr^oahv, and 'x^o&nodiv. — Ep 
in aVg^, whence cItzoOzv, aTTurs^dsv. — E in ts, ^g, and the local 


hs, vaiiivyjvhz^ &c, of which class mark ovhz ^0(/j0vh2, II., cr, 445, 
&c., together with "tt^o (pocoahz, IL, ^, 188 ; the one on ac- 
count of §£-§£, the other on account of 'rg-o-^s, — gj'^s, ^ivrz. — 
E extended : a^se/, s/, a/s/, together with (as) ulkv and ("' ) 
as/, the last H., X, 211, -4/, 648. — T in af, ccv, together with 
avrig, av^tg, and aurcijg (not aur^yj*), thus, again, even yet so, 
hence — \vithout consequence, in vain, — (ccusf) dnv, whence 
dviuhv, ccTrdvivhv (s root of 1'y][jji and dm, hence- — leaving be- 
hind), £/^, si), iii, yjv, — (Tccvyy) 'Tcdyy^v, after Homer's time with 
% ejected -ravy ; %fu (knee,) in r^oyyv, kneewards, on the 
knee (^t'y developed becomes yo^y) ; dvriK^v, front to front, 
II., s, loO, generally — through to the other side {tc^v de- 
veloped KO^v, head, whence %.o§v(prj), is according to Eusta- 
thius to be written with (T where the verse permits : thus also 
(j(jsa7]yv, f/jiffriyvg, (Maai^yv, i/jiarrriyvg. 

6. Forms in o, o;, og, ov, a, cog : ^su^o, htav&oi, on this spot, 
II., <p, 122, formed as a dative like the non-Homeric Ivhoi, 'Trzboi. 
— n^otzog (gen. of 7r^o"/|, a gift), for nothing. — Aiccpc^thov, 
pckuyyj^^op, 'TTv^y/^ov. — 'E';r/(r)^s^^, in connexion, from c^s/V, 
(7%;g^oj', whence h (^x^^co in Pindar ; Igu, ziao ; OTriaoo, o'lriaau ; 
'TT^offco, TT^osffoo, T^OTiPoj. — "^oog, iiojg, and in correlation to these 
Tiug, Tziciog ; ug, ug, axrrz, and derived adverbs in cog : ItiZk- 
(pzkajg, I'TTto'fLV'yi^ojg (i. e. iTi-^-f/joys^cog^, same as I'TCi'Trovcogy 
VTi^i^Tiojg (^d[/jcc^r), '7rzgi(p§oibicijg from (p^a^g in 'prs^t^^ochsg ; scogy 
iiojg, ofjboig. 

J. In f, added to the root, end aVa| and Kcc^dTcx,^, yvv^, 
on the knee, kov^i^, Od., ;(;, 188, explained by the Etym. 
M., p. 533, 1. 55, as \>c zo^orig rovr 'isri rijg zi(pccXyjg, hence 
from zogv, zov^i, like yow, yowl, and with |, zov^i^, i. e. by 
the head, iLovvdt,, kd^, 'ttvI, with which also may be classed 
^d-^, and its derivative yjC/.-^ihicog. 

8. With respect to local terminations, &i, kv, we may 
remark, that the latter is often identical in meaning with the 
former, as'l^pj^gj^ iLz^icov, II., y, 276, \yyv&iv nk&i, ib., ^, 128, 

* Hermann depronomine aOroj, p. 74. — The Grammarians distinguish 
between aiirwg /aocdjv and aurwg dxirug, e. g. Schol. Epid. ad II., a, 133, 
without suflBcient grounds. 


tr/^^oQiv ^s 0/ ?X^sf ' K&n^Tit Od., |3, 267 (Apoll. Alex, ^. aj/r., 
jo. 344, ^.J. Perhaps in such passages the termination was 
originally &iv^ which afterwards dropped the v^ and where a 
long syllable suited the verse instead of ^/, was supported by 

Obs. — The adjectival terminations ov and a are in Homer also adverb- 
ial: T^uTov, T^uiTu, TO, '^T^uTa, xaXov, &c. To this class perhaps 
belongs as an adverb a-/.suv, Od., (p, 89, II., 5, 22, as ax/jv from the 
full root Kav, so this form from xa with v thrown away, axa, whence 
axdov, axsuv, and this form again, according to the analogy of exwv, 
ixoijga, x^siuv, x^$ioijffa, becoming adjectival, as dxiovr, Od., f, 195, 
dxsovffa, II., a, 565, and elsewhere. 



1 . Several languages make no alteration on the root, which, 
remaining pure in the adverb, is to be increased to an ad- 
jective (and consequently in other tongues is endowed with 
the signs of gender, number, and case). Thus in the Arme- 
nian, the English, and in some cases also in the German. 

2. In Greek, certain traces of the same method have re- 
mained in -TTiT^r] yag Xig, Od., p, 79j developed Xtffafj . . . 
'TTiT^y), ib., y, 293. T^o<p/ from r^z(p (as o-x/x, from g)/), unde- 
veloped in 7^o(pi KviMU^ II., X^ 307, developed in Kvf/jUToi rz 
T§o(p6suT<x, ib., 0, 621, but retained in the former shape in the 
71071- Homeric gyr^oip;?, and in av^^sj rpopsg in Herod., B. 4, 
1. 9. B^r for ^§idv occurs in Hesiod, according to Strabo, 
p. 364, as the formerly quoted subst. IcD, zp7, &c. 

3. There is but little change on ^^a from spoc in s^0i[jjcctf 
in ^v[Jbc^ ri^oc (pz^ovng, II., |, 132, &c., whence iTriT^^a,, ib., a, 
572, 578. Similar to this is a^sv, ugv in a^vcc, with the dative 
form 'TToKvcc^viy II., j3, IO6. 

4. Thus also the roots in a are frequently undeveloped, 
cilxi^T^Tcc, gy^yoTa, all of which pass into the first declension, 


except (rXa, ) 'jco'tJjTkctQ., of which no other case is found, and 
(•rra,) a'zr'/ji;, of which the dat. plur. occurs in aTrnai noa- 
ffo7(Ti, II., ;, 323. The rest, which have a, are participles in 
a?, to which also belong-s yyigavr&afji roKSvffi, Hes., g, I7I (ysf? 
Germ, greisy Eng. ffrey, whence yvi^ag part. aor. and yri^zig 
in the Etym. Mag., p. 231, 1. 2, in yn^zig h oU&ovffiy perhaps 

5. As in 'TTo'kvT'kag, ocTr'/jg, so with pure words in s, /, 0, y, 
the addition of c produces forms of the third decl., with the 
terminations ?;?, tg, vg, cag, in the nominative. — H? from g 

and 6 in hzr^rig, 'TroXvKrj^yig, ^sog/^^j, svi^yrjg, ^^viTrfig, '/ifjijihafigy 
^(jijiT&krigy 'TTobajKYig. Several of this class appear only in the 
plural, as sXgy^ggj, ^cci/jizgy 'ffXkg, T^vXkg, from -tts^Ooj for 
TS^aiy, — Trs^uXrjg, -^^uX'/ig, pedestrian, TCokoG'Xi^icigy -zcoVy ru^^isg, 
&c. — In ig : 'Trdkvih^ig, vjjig, i^gCT/j from ^sct; in ^go-r/^a^?. 
Among those derived from [jurjrig the termination varies be- 
tween tg and rjg (the latter from cc according to the first decl.), 
aypivXo^/jyjrig and a,yzvKo[MfiTyig, ayyM\o\hriTioi) ; ^tokofMYirigy }i6k()- 
(/jrjnv, voc. ^oko^rircx, ; 'n'oiKiKo^riTriv, ttoikiXoiju^tcc, without any 
trace of TouiXofjj'/irtgy and, on the other hand, '7ro'kv(L^rig in 
84 places, TokviJjrjriog, II., <p, 355, with no trace of toXujM*^- 
T/ig* Of like formation are the epithets of Erinnys, riz^o(poirig 
and ^aa'TrXririg, Od., 0, 234, the very (^u or ^a, e. g. in ^a- 
(pomg, very bloody,) near approaching {pt'iKctca). — In vg'. gyV. 

* Moschopulus, ad Hes,, i, 38, p. 23, affirms that all derivatives of 
fiTjTig are to be written in the nominative as paroxytons with iota, but 
form, in the other cases, dyxuXofJi^'/jTou, &c., according to the first decl. 
" The metre will prove the first point, if any one desire proof in such 
matters." But both assertions are wrong, since in jSa^ufiTJrcx, Xsl^uv, 
Pindar Nem., 3, 53 (92), the metre would not admit j3a6-j/jLriTig ; and, in 
the second place, the inflections -log, -iv, according to the third declension, 
are found as well as -sco, rjv, after the first, e. g. 'XoXvfMyiriog 'H(paiffroio, II., 
f, 335, and Ar/isdov boXo/^^riv, Od., a, 300, 7, 198, 308. Of such 
groundless observations the old Grammarians are full, and I should have 
passed over this, like others of the same kind, did it not appear to give 
supporc to Schaefer, one of the greatest German critics, in his opposition 
to me ad Hes., 'i, 38. 


^Xccrvg^ Kxixvg, strengthless, Od., t, 515, (p, 131, according 
to the Etym. M., p. 48, 1. 24, from kiu^ zUvg, ciKmvg^ unfit 
to go, weak, and 'xoKvhccK^vg. — In cog the participles i'xi'x'kojg, 
fASf^uaig, &c., and from rayjitrtxp^g, rK[jijmx§0Ui Tcc(jbS(Tix§ocig. — 
6. Of mute and Hquid words there are of similar formation 
in ?r : — 'ffu^u^KcHTreg, II., /, 449 ; in k sounds : zuXktyvmiKoc, 
"km&u^ril^ '^oXvd'i^, -ipcog, rgixoi'ixig, roXvTrihctxog^ -sj, aToppaj'^, 
(Amvxig ; in t sounds : ccpif/j^rsg, Iguffcc^fjbarig, -ug (from k^(jijOit), 
'TT^oQk^Tig. Thus too, ociXko'Trog and rei'^rog, r^iTrohog, avaXxtg, 
ace. aucc>jct^cx, and dvaXxiv, fjbTjzu^ig^ TroXv^uPcchcc, &c. — Liquids: 
hgiuOxsng, ';roXvpp'/]vsg, y'i^ov (as an epithet of (rdaog, Od., ;^, 
184), gf%s?. — Those mutes, which are formed by means of 
(gvr?,) £/?, have before this termination ;?, o : (BocOvhv/^ug^ 
[Mffyjug, rikri&ffffocg, XocyjrjZvra,, alfjtjOiTOSfTffci, o(jj(poCk6zv7(x,^ vi(p6ii/roc, 
'ru^(puv6e>7a, (TKiosvTOi, •?rcn'7raX6iV7u, &c. A contraction of 
this form occurs in Ti(jijfjg, II., /, 605, and Ti[MrjvTa, ib., <r, 
475. Where a long syllable appears before o, this vowel is 
doubled in order to avoid the trochee in 2y^<v£vra, II., y, 65, 

Kf^TCi/SffffCCV, KYjOJiVTl^ KriOuiVTCi, UTcijiVTCC. 

7. The termination og is extended in various modes by 
means of vowels and consonants, thus by g, /, X, |M/, v, p, (t, 
namely og, eog, tog, Xiog, f/jog, (Mog, i[/jog, vog, mg, sivog, §og, aiog, 
eatog, with the verbal rog, rnvog. 

It is sufficient, under this head, to cite a few remarkable 
forms ; e. g. (^0^) "^ov^og, {kyuf) ayavog, (aoa) a^aiog, x^r;- 
yvov, delightful, from zioi§, ktjp, k^tj, and a lost root, yuf'm 
gavisus, yccv, yv, thus, heart-rejoicing, — (aXs) in akzvoj, with- 
draw, avoid, nXkog, astray, distracted, (p^zmg riXss, Od., (3, 
243, and with one g, <p§epccg nXz, II., 0, 128, ohog rfXiog, Od., 
I, 464, — (%«) cl^ziog, TuXccTTiigiog, (ccvrt, ccPTiftog') ccPTitwg, 
(of^o, of^ofiog) 6[jjOuog and 6[jjo7og, ib., ^, 218 (not o(LOiog), yg- 
Xoi'iov, II., /3, 215 (later ygXoTov), uXXoTog, '?rocv7o7og, — {Z,io) tpj^og, 
XvTTgog (later XvTTfj^og), avsyjcoXiog, ci-^ocT/jXiog, uvbgofj^iog, xd}J^t- 
(hog, i>7ihv[i>og, ribv^juog, (^hu-Tr^o) liccTr^uaiog, uTstgio'iog. 



8. Adjectives frequently occur in various forms, since of 

c c 


the terminations above enumerated several are sometimes 
attached to the same root, or the introduction of new syllables 
produces extension^ or different roots lie at the basis of the 
forms, or one form is inflected according to different declen- 

9. Extension by means of log, soc, uog (yj'iog), sivog, ivog^ 
f/jog, §og, Tog : ayocdog and ^yuhog, zzvog and zzviog, "kaivog and 
Ku'l'i'sog, (JbitXixog and fjustXixiog, okoog and oXon'og, Trctvwy^og and 
Travvvy^iog, 'TrroKiTogdog and 'TrroXi'^o^diog, yJCkniog and yaikyJiriiog^ 
^ivog and ^iviog, (z.stvsfia, ^zivzicc) ^sivri'ia,, t,vvu (koivu) and ^.w/iioc, 
II., "4/, 806, &c., zaXkiiiog and KuXog, ^ocfjukg and ^a(/jivoi, 
Xcyug and \iyv^og. So 'tcikccai^^ovog^ II., X, 466, &c., raXoc- 
(Ti(p§ovci, ib., ^, 421, and ToiXd(p§ovu, ib., v, 300, v-ipiTrirrig and 
v-^l^iTrsT'/jZig, 'TTVKVog, l^og, with the fuller forms, k§6g, 
lastly iv^oog, in the gen. gy|oy, ib., %, 3J3f shortened by the 
rejection of o before ov. 

10. Inflected according to different declensions : a/V6?, 
ui'^sioi, cc'cTTv, and ace. al'xvv, also al'Trm and a;Va, ocItthi'ov, 
tti'^sii'yjg, -^, -^f ; ^str^/j, ^iff'TTitJiog ; lui^yog^ treating well, 
gysg-y^?, well-made ; £f%£? srccTooi with i^irj^og Irui^og, II., ^, 
266 ; l^i^oSXov, ib., /, 329, &c., and \^i^oSXa'/M, ib., 7, 74, 
&c. ; zvrzix^ov, ib., a, 129, &c., and ttoX/j' zvnlxzoc, ib., ^r, 
57 (from zvruyjig, so that according to analogy it should be 
written syrs/^sa) ; Xiyvg, Xiynct, and Xtyv^-/;, as ^aXe^^ with 
^aXg;« ; <KoXmXc(,g and ToXvTXriroi, Od., X, 38, '7roXvTX'/][jjcoVy 
II., ;?, 152, Od., (T, 319 ; 'TroXvlaz.^vg, II., ^, 544, abounding 
in tears, 'TroXvhuK^vv and 'ZoXvbuKovrog, ib., ^y, 620, much- 
bewailed. "A^a^^yj and oi^dKovrog are identical in meaning, 
see Od., ^, 186, ^y, 6I. "\hriv 'TroXvTri^aKu, II., ^, 47, &c., 
but 'KoXvitiha.Ttov "I^???, ib., y, 59, &c., where, however, Aris- 
tarchus wrote TroXwri^iaKog, which Wolf has received into the 
text : also from T/^a, t/^^jco-pjc, ib., X, 183 ; 'TroXupprivog, Od., 
X, 257, and 'TToXvppm^i Jh, ;, 154, 296, (also the already 
cited TToXvcc^vi) from a^v, guv ; (pomg, (poii/iog, and (poivrizig ; 
^cc(poif6g and ^ci(poiviog. 

11. Difference arising from various roots : ci^yog, {ci^yzr) 
a^yTJri and d^yiri, with (^a,^yv(p) a§yv(pcc and a^yyi^soj', (argen 
in argentiini,) dcyivvog and d^ytvostg ; i'^/a (/j^Xa, 11., s, 556, 
&c., and 'i<p0i(jijog from ]<p/ and r/,y4 ; (Mraffffoii, Od., /, 221, 



middle-aged sheep, yearlings, from ijbsrdi (like 'inffffui from 
It/, which the Etym. M. quotes from Hecatseus), and (jbsa^iig, 
II., jtA, 269, the warrior between £50)^0? and -x^egstorsgog, also 
[jbS(Tog ; uiog, vsocgog (a^, new-fitted), and vriydrsog from nrjyoc- 
rsog, viog and 7a, rejoicing in newness, glittering with newness; 
prj-TTiog from i/s and st, sjjeechless, infant, vrjTvriog from i^s and 
aTy in dTrvca, so also vyj'Triaxog ; vioffaoi (oWg), new-seeing, 
young, vsoyvof, new-born, young, from yoi', yvoy and from the 
extended ysvs, viriyiviig. 

12. Forms of ly? : 

N. lyVj ey'j Ihj y? 235, and ey, both adverbial, 

vfig^ Tjv, only in (juivog yjv, ib., f, 456, &c., and in compounds, 
G. sj^og (1) in viog e^og, ib., |, 9. Others read io7o. 


Ace. hvv in vlou ey>, ib., ^, 303, 
(1) 'E^o? still stands in II., r, 342, Od., 0, 450, f, 505, 
and, in these places, has arisen from Ivg, as BoifftXTjog from 
(ooiffiXBvg, &c.; on the other hand it has been exchanged for 
i^og, from the pretended iug, suus, for iog, in II., «, 393, |, 
9.^^^ So also II., 0, 138, «y, 422, 550, in which the meaning 
of the second person is ascribed to img. It is better to 
introduce iyjog universally, and, where the pronoun is required, 
to consider it as a representative of the pronoun, as is the case 
with (piXog in similar passages. 

13. Forms of TroKKog and '?rdKvg : 
Masc. Neut. 

N. '^roXkog, -TToXKov, 


Ace. ToXKou, 


G. ToXKcoVy 
























^oKXoTg, '^oXsffG-iv, gg\ 

'proXkffffiv, (T(Ti, (T(t\ 
Ace. -roKkovg, voXka,, TroXKag, -roXga?, comp. 3rd decl. 

'XoXXsig, n. 33. 
UovXug and the forms connected with it point to an original 
ToXXvg together with 'TroXXog, so that after the ejection of one 
X, in order to lengthen the short syllable thus produced, 
extension of the vowel was necessary : <^oXXvg, '^rovXvg, as 
(B6XXo[i,a,iy ^ovXo(Jbcci, oXXog (oXog\ ovXog, &c. UovXO occurs 
only in compounds : 'rovXvhdy^ag^ TrovXvQorsf^otf vovXvTTolog. 

§ CCI. 


14. Feminine terminations of adjectives : 

a. In -og. These are regular, except '^ovgog, of which the 
feminine is formed in -;?, -ihog, -tv. 

h. In -;??, fem. -g/a : yjlvi'Tr^g, ^^vi'TTum, Hes., ^, 965, 1020, 
')(jxXKO^(x,§rjg, y^ccXpcoQoi^sicc. So also sv^vohsij^g, II., tt, 635, 
and r^vipdXitot,, -7jg, &c., without the occurrence of the 
masculine. — Of K.VTr^oymtoi, Hes., S^, 199> and com- 
monly in later writers, there is a form KfTr^oysv^?, also 
feminine. See § CLXXXi, n. 48, obs. 1. A different 
accentuation prevails in Tct§(pkgy Toc§(pB(a,i, ^apgsj, ^u- 
jEZ/g/a/, "^ccfijsccg, ^oi(/jSioig. 

c. In -vg, fem. -sia. Forms with the usual accentuation, 
as ev§vg, sv^sia, are frequent. To Iccrrvg, ^cccrsioc, belongs 
I'TT'Tirohocazicc. — Of these adjectives r}^vg has for the fem. 
the form in -vg : rihvg ayVjO/Jj, Od., (l, S6^, as well as 
^^g/a, thus likewise 'xovXvg in tovXvv \(p' vy^^v, II., Xy 27» 
Od., ^, 709. There is a different accentuation in Xiyvg, 
Xiysioi, Xtyetyig, Xiynav, together with Xiyv^Tj, -^v, -TJffi. — 
Q}jXvg is feminine in II., r, 97, Od., g, 467, ^, 122, 
II., «, 216, g, 269, together with ^ijXg/a, ^rjXsioci, ^rj- 
Xiiccg, and ^T^Xvrsgoiif -ciuv, -r^ai. Observe also the cognate 
form ^«Xs/a, -?;, -av, belonging to ^aXy?, which remains 


only in S^aXs^yv, II., %, 504, '^uXs^og having been estab- 
lished in common use. — The orthography varies in the 
w^ord kXdix^icc (of the masc. of which, namely IXccxpg-, 
the superlative alone appears in Homeric verse, H., II, 
573). The orthography varies between XdxzKx. and 
IXdyjiKjc in Od., /, II6 (consult the Commentators there 
and upon Hesychius under Xdyjia and kXccx^ici), Od., 
«, 509. Those who read \oi.yj.ia, derive it from 'Koi.yjii- 
pstv, ffxa-rreiv, so that it should mean iwxrxpog, syys/og, 
manifestly in opposition both to the rules of derivation 
and the meaning of the word as shown in H., I, 197» 
where kXdcxsicx, is contrasted with (JAyocXTi rz ihiiv zoct e'l^Oi 
ciyriry; in speaking of Charis. 
d. In -)^g, fern. -st§oc, and -s§siu. From avy]§ zuhuvsi^oc, 
fBojTiixyiig}^, II., a, 155, from ttoct'/j^ suTroiTSgsia. It is 
clear that the radical syllable ig in avs^og, xars^o?, was 
changed into e§cc, upu, but su'Trdcr&i^cc extended, on ac- 
count of the rhythm, into BUTrari^na. According to the 
same analogy [Moixoi^ gives (jboizuiga with the extension 
of «^ in ai§oc. 

Ohs. — n/e/^a as fem. of muv is anomalous, and manifestly taken from 
an obsolete root me^, according to the above mentioned analogy £f, 
£/ga. This root seems preserved in piger (the meanings oi fat and 
sluggish being nearly related). — Thus too, 'x^6(p^cigcioc, II., x, 290, &c., 
belongs not to 'X^Sp^uv (especially since this is itself feminine, Od., s, 
143), but must be considered analogous to the developed form t^o- 

cp^d^ouda. By form, and partly by signification, are distinguished 

'ff^saQug, old, TgscrSe/ga, honoured, and T^sffCa, nom. and voc, II., r, 91, 
£, 721, &c. Yet there is an evident affinity between the meanings 
old and honoured. All these forms have the radical syllable *g£(r£, 
but their terminations as if 'Tr^saCi^o and v^isQog had also been used 
in the masculine. 

15. Gender of adjectives in -og. Of those in -og we find 
of two terminations the />riya^/?^6'A', e.g. aTo^^;jroj, II., /t-o, 11, 
except, ah(j,'/iTyi, and axuorirri, H., Ill, 133, cnxn^&ar/}, 
II., V, 58, &c., once aQ^ortj, ib., |, 78 (but clfj^^gorog always 


of two terminations), cc(7^s(Tryi, yet pKoyt — occ^iffTM, ib., ^, 89» 
|3o^ ^' old^sffTog, ib., v, 169, oaiKikirj, Od., /, 503, yet o(,&i?cski&i 
m Koiryj^ ib., r, 341. 

16. Of two terminations are also those compounded \vith 
zv (except participles, as e. g. luxri(jjsuri\ Exceptions are 
found in, lupps/r;?, Od., |, 257, Bvxor/jTuajVf II., cr, 636, gy- 
'7rot>]TritTt, ib., g, 466, where however the Harl. and Townl. 
Mss. have suTrotyiroKTi, as ivvoirirov rs 'ry^a7^;;f, Od., y, 434, 
and KKitTiccg iv'Trotrirovc, H., Ill, JS. Thus we find ttXskt^, 
ymi/jTrrrj, tuktti ; hut svTXszrovg, II., i^, 115, Ivyvdyb'irrovg, 
Od., (7, 293, evTvzTOVy I, 276. From guggCTog are found both 
iv^iffrri, kuB,i/rTag, Iv^iffTrjg, and on the other hand, iv^sffrot he 
r^dvi^oci, Od., 0, 333, su^itrrov cctt cn'Tr^vrjg, II., ^y, 578, iv^iaru 
W aT^i/rj, Od., ^, 7<5. So (Tuvihig — kv^i(TTOi, II., a, 2j6, but 
TcoXK'/jr^fTiP Iv^zrrrrig aavihz(r<riv, Od., ip, 137, where, however, 
iu'ii(TToig should be read on account of the very rare abbrevia- 
tion of yi(Tii'. 

17. Thus with other compounds : XockKila r kyyjoCkov^ 
II., |3, 640, and ayjjoiXri^ H., I, 32, a^i^rfkoi hi 01 uvyoii, II., 
Xi 27, comp. V, 244, and agi^r/Xrj, ib., c, 219 ; Ip^i^ovg -^v- 
yj^g-, ib., «, 3, comp. X, 55^ and t(p0i(Jtj7^, ib., g, 415, voXvtpo^^ov, 
ib., I, 200, and 'Trohxxpo^^'/jv, ib., /, 568, dvTidi'/j, oiiJj<pn\i(j(jrj, 
•zoXu^/jvyjffn^, a,[/j(p(PV77i, vuvffix.'kzirri, dyotzkiirr]^ but %.ov§'/]g r/jXe- 
xkziroTo, ib., |, 321. 

18. Of those not compounded, which were given § lxiii 
as of two terminations, we find with a feminine termination : 
g^^jM/^jc, Od., y, 270, comp. jM/, 351, yiybiovzirj, xzifijsgioci, II., |3, 
294, d(T7rci(Ti}^, H., I, 63, but da'Trdfriog yyj, Od., -^z, 233, on 
the other hand we observe ahog 'ttoKioTo, ib., g, 410, &cc., 
Dclyavirig pc^rj tocvk-oTo, II., tt, 589, "^f^^'? — ou h'/][/jiog, Od., y, 
82, TTizoov — ohffjTjv, ib., h, 406, oXoct/rurog ohix'/j, ib., 442, ay^iov 
arrjv, II., r, 88, oVa ypCkzzov, ib., c, 222, Ttkvrog 'iT'^oha.f/ijSioCf 
ib., j3, 742. (Where the form is not yet decided, a certain 
feeling of propriety, or regard to euphony, sometimes decides 
the choice, e. g. 'TroXKug §' i(p6i[jjOvg -i^v^dg, II., a, 3, although 
I(p6iyij0cg would have been possible according to i:p&i[/jj^ akoyjog, 
ib., g, 415. Eustathius Cp. I6, 1. 18,) properly remarks upon 
this place : l^k(pvyz h\ ro Iv rgiai '^a^iffoig dzoci^ov zdKkog.') The 
other verbals are regular: dxz(TToci, II., v, 115, ymiMTTrifrt, X, 


416, yvafjij'Trrdg^ ff, 401, yvajrc/J, o, 350, 'bti/c^rfjv, Od., r, 56, 
iXsrrj, II., i, 409, KoKkrirn'^i, OA., (p, 164, KoWriTdc, -^y, 194, 

§ ecu. 



19. In the Homeric degrees of comparison much is fomid 
in consonance with the rules already delivered on this subject: 

as, o^vg, o^uTctrov, (oc/Jug^ (icc^ifrrou, (igulvg, (/3af) ^d^isrov, 
zcczcoTSpog, [jijCCKoi§T&^og, [jjccfcd^rurog, (jaXuvts^ov ; or with a 
slender deviation, as cu instead of for the sake of the verse : 
Kdy^o^zivoori^og, Od., y, 376, X^Dcorzoog, ih., /3, 350, oi^v§a.>rs§dv, 
II., ^, 446, oi^voajTCiTov^ Od., s, 10 '. There are other words, 
as in the common dialect, either peculiarly irregular or multi- 

20. Irregular : i^vvrurcc, II., fr, 508, (jAfjfjdrco, ib., ^, 223, 
vsar??, ib., X, 712j ^^so viaraj and i^bscctcc ; such too as display 
their roots not in the positive, but still visible in other words, 
although these are not exactly at the foundation of the degrees 
of comparison : ciXyog, dXyiov, (ia(TiXivg, (5a(TiXzvTS§og, (^um- 
XivTUTog, fciphog, Kighiou. KSghirrog, zvojv {kvv), kvutsoov, [Jbvxky 
Ujvyj)iTO(,rog, vz^-^zv, v'zotzpoi, ovri-adiv o'XiGTocrov, '7rr/,§oi0iv, 'xoc^ol- 
rs^oi, tIcov, 'Ttiorotrov, II., / 577? '^.fo (jTr^ootrog^, TgioTog, pTyogy 
piytov, ib., a, 325, &c., vt'zp, vTi^rs^og, v'Trsgrocrog. — Many 
apparently belonging to this class have still their adjectives : 
zd^riarog in zgccrvg, ly^zyx^arog in eXsy^sg?, so that it is not 
necessary to make rA^rog and 'iXzyyjig their roots. — From 
obsolete roots are derived, o'ttKotz^oi, oxXoraroi, vvi^urog, va- 
rzoog. — A comparative form without a correspondent height- 
ening of the sense is found in dy^orz^og, lzt,tTZ§6v, ^jjXvTz^oct, 
hpz&TZoog. and with merely a faint expression of comparison 
in aaoorz^og, II., a, 32, '^zurz^ai^ Od., |M/, 111. 

21. Multiform : dasov and in the second formation daao- 
TiPO), Od., g", 572, r, 506. and iTccffcrvTZgoi ; (opcclvg, (ooah'cov, 
Qpdfrffcov, and (^d^ltaroi, and according to the same analogy, 
zgz (in xgzco, whence z^ziojv), K^zaauv ; ra%yc, '^dnauVy '^daaoVi 


^affffovug, and rdyjOTOt, ; 'Jtot.yjjgy 'Trdaaav ; i^jOtK. in f/jocz-^og, 
and [ju^zog, iLmaov, Od., ^, 203, (/joc/c^orzgyjv, Od., c, 195, and 
ILri/CiaroVy II., ;?, 155 ; and from (My in ^zyzGog, [jM^cov and 
(jbsyicrTog. So dyccdog, (^sXr&gog, (d&Xtiov, Od., ^, 18, where 
now, from the Harl. MS., is given (iikTs^ov, and d^zioov, of 
which hereafter. Ts^cctrs^og and yegotours^og, ^.^Kog, ^cccziajVi 
zdziffTog, and from %s^g, mean, Uttle, bad, %g^g/ay{', X^'S^"' ^^^ 
from yji^cov in the second formation, xzi^orz^og, KolaSog, last, 
II., -4^, 536, and Xoi(T0ri'iov 'i^po^ dz^Xov^ ib., 785» which de- 
cides upon '^[MirciXavrov hi y^^vsov Xot(T0rj'i' 'i^rjzzv, ib.> 75 1> 
where some read Xoia^yj'i as from Xotffd&vg, the opposite of 
d^KTTSug. Auiov and Xa/irs^ov. Of TrXsov, -TrKkg, &c.j below. 
From T^gffSy?, Tr^sff^vrz^og, rurog, and 'Tr^ztr^iffrriv, H., XXX, 
2. U^Srog, and in the second formation, 'Tr^coriffTog, like r^irog, 
r^irarog. 'F^'ihog from pa, prfirs^og, priiffT'/!, Od., ^, 565, pri'iTOiT, 
ib., r, 577j ?>) 75? u^rrs^og, varurog, and vardriog ; (padvTcx,rog 
and (pazmrzoog, which was probably (poczvvorz^og, since only 
from this (^agv, (pav* ^aav,) the other form could arise ; (p'z- 
^tffTog and (p'z^rocrog ; (pikim and (piXrz^og, (ptKroiTog ; uKiarog 
and u/cvTocTog. 

Q2, Forms of T?;g, whence in the singular ^rXgo;;' and ^rXgoi', 
in the plural: 

N. wKgg?, (l) II., X, 395, -rXsovg?, 

-TrKziovg, (2) 

G 'n-'KzovuVy 

D, .... TXZOVZfffflVy c/, 

vXztoiTiv, ffl, 
Ace. T^ga?, II., j3, 129, ':rXzovag, 'zXziova. 

(1) IT/Vgg? from ttXs without a comparative ending, as Germ. 
mehre, Eng. more (whence also IIAEHS, IIAEBE^, plebsy 
properly — the majority of the people, the common people), and 
with a comparative termination, "xXz-iov, tXzTov, also 'ttXzov, 
Thzovog, &c. — (2) ITkziovg, Od., a;, 464, in place of -yrXziopzg. So 
also 0/ vXzovzg zoiKtovg^ Travpoi hz rz 'Trar^og doziovg, Od., /3, 277- 
23. Forms of X^k^^^ ^<^ot %gog, whence (%gf?7?) %sf^o?, 
without comparative form, but with comparative signification. 
Xsfs with the comparative termination luv^ Xisog/jyf, and by 
transposition, %s/^iyv. 



• • • • 
















■• xk^^^y 

• • • * 


Tlie ^vriting of the forms xk^^^-> ^^'' ^"^^^ ^'■> xk^'^^^ YJi^'^^ 
arises from the wrong supposition (e. g. of Heroclian, Schol. 
ad II., a, SO, B), that Xis^pja is abbreviated from ^^sos/oi'a. 
As ;^s^g/iyv from )^s^g, so from a^g (whence also " A^i^g, the apt, 
or able\ a^eiaov, the fitter, the better, and ugziov, agziovog, 
a^g/ov/, a^slovoc, u^zico ; phiral, ccgiiovg, II., -r, 557. 



1 . Forms of sig : 


eh \ 
isig, Hes., ^, 145, 







. • . 







The compounds are hlzKOi, kvbzKaraj, r;, rj, and 'ivhizcc with a 
noun, ivhiKocTTi^x^-i ^^-j ^j 494. The ordinal has its root in 
cr^o, whence -Trgof/jog (primus,) and the common form -Tr^cDrog, 
also with superlative termination Tr^ojTiarog. 
2. Forms of ^v^ : 

N. 'hvUi ^yo, "hoico, ^oioi, ^o/a/, ^o;a, 

G. ^va, Od., ^j, 515, 

D. ^oioTg, ^oioTfff, 

Ace. ^y^y, ^yo, ^oict/, 'hoiovg, hoiug, hoiK. 

The basis is ^y^, Lat. (/mo (hfo, §wo, ^cwo, Germ. zwo). — 
Avco (shortened ^vo only where the verse requires,) seems to 
be the dual of ^vog, ^oog, v and o being interchanged, and from 
^oog is ^oioj, ^oiot, &c., with ot for o. — Numerals compounded 
of Syft> : ZvM^szoi, and (from §o,) ^fii/^g«a, and from this 


^vu-^ZKarri, II., <p, 46, and ^uhzKaTri, ib., a;, 781, with the 
cognate word })voohi}cu,^oiov^ ib., -v//, 703 ; lastly, ^uokoci^sxcc. 

3. The root of r^iig is r^g (tres)^ and with a slight 
change of sound, r^/, for the adverb. Hence r^zlg contracted 
from r^Ug and r^iag for nom. and ace, II., /3, 67I; and neuter, 
ro/a, rf /', without any other form ; and the adverb r^4, thrice, 
T^iXa and r^i^Pa,, rgi-TrXi^, threefold, and rgfxoc'ixig. The re- 
moter forms arise out of the root of the adverb, namely, t§i : 
T^r/izovra (and strangely enough r^r/jxovrcov Irkoov, Hes., s, 641, 
apparently corrupted out of rgirizourcc fiTicov\ T^iayj\ia,i : the 
ordinals, in the simple form, rpirog, ou, &;, ov, yj, aov ; in the 
extended form, r^irxTog, co, toitut'/], T^g, ?j, ?j)^, r^irarov, and 
T^iTjzoaioi, 300 : the compound numbers r^iazai^ZKoc, r§tff?coii- 
hsfcury], ov ; and the nouns compounded with r^tg : rgiocipoc, 
rgiyXi^vo!,, r^iyX&fy^iva,, r^isrsg, rgio'Tog, rgt'TrXcuPccc, r^iTog, r^i'TTOkov, 
r^iT^Tvxpg, r^KTTOixsi. 

4. The root for Jour is Tirug, whence by transposition 
TiT^u, the adverb nr^d-Kig, and Tiffaag, whence rzcfaa^ig, rza- 
aot^ag, riaaa^u ; also from tzto^, rirogsg, rerogoc, Hes., s, 643, 
and from a root which more nearly approaches the German 
vier, namely, 'ttktv^, Tiffv^Bg, Od., s, 7O, "^r, 249, and -Triavgoig, 
II., 0, 680, T^, 171, oi), 233. From the root of the cardinal 
come rs(T(Tcc^uKOvru, nGaaod^oiov, II ., '4/, 705, and from the 
root of the adverb, tztud or rer^cc, the ordinals riroc^rog, ?j, 
ov, and r&Tgcirog, tW^cctov, also the abverbial form riT^uy^&d 
and TiT^uo^oi, Od., t*, 81. 

5. From "TTivrs there arise 'TnvTT^KOvra,, Tivrri^offioi, -TnvrrjH.ov- 
Toyuov, II., /, 579. The forms 'TnvrdiTsg, Od., y, 11. '5, 'ttsv- 
TDiirrjPOv, display cc instead of g, which vowel, even if it did not 
once stand in the root of the cardinal, as in gVra, U?c(z, yet 
belongs to the adverbial roots of the numbers, and from them 
has passed into the otlier forms. Thus from •rgj/ra, 'TrevruKig 
(not Homeric), 'Kkvrccyjx, II., jT/, 87, and the above cited -rgv- 
ragrg?, 'Ttivrairr^^ov. So in the following: oktu, oKrccKig^ 
6%.rdiKr/j(jjog, &c. A fuller root, -ttbiju'ttk, is shown in the verb 
'TTz^'rrdcrazrat, Od., ^,412, also in TgjW/Tf^/SoXa, II., a, 463, Od., 
y, 460, and TriiL-Trrog, ri, ov, whence Trz^'Trruioi, ib., |, 257, on 
the fifth day, the only word of this sort in Homer. 

6. The root of g? is 1-k. Hence yJi^oc . . . iKKKibzzahu^Ky 


II., §, 109j and sK,rou, from g|, i^/izovrcc, i^yifjuao, and from the 
adverbial root i'icc the form g^asrsc, Od., y, 115. 

7. To i'Trrci belong i'TrTCiKat^iKcc, and the derivatives 
gVraSos/of, s-Trrdsrsg, i'Trroi'Trohriv, sVmTog'o?, iTrrccTTuXoio. The 
ordinals from another root, sS (as Germ, siebeu, Thiiring". 
sebe}i\ i^cc, eS^o, in the short form, s^ho[Jtjog, of, and in the 
longer, i^'ho[jbrjcr7i, IL, ;;, 248. 

8. 'Ozrco appears again only in o^r&jzaihifcdcrr; ; the other 
forms have as their basis either the adverbial root in a, — 
oTCTazvrjiJja^ II. , s, 7^3j Oi^rccTo^g?, Batrach., ^(JO, — or a root 
oy^, oyho (like Iba, gS^o), in oyhoog and hy'hoo'Kwrcc^ II., ^, 5(38, 
()52. The ordinal here also is found both in the short form 
o'/hoog, ov, and in the longer oy^ocirco, Od., y, u06, §, 82, 
hyhodrriv, II., r, 246. These forms in ccTog appear to have 
arisen by transference from riroarog, "hiKocrog, and remind us 
of the superlative the more, because every ordinal has in a 
certain respect the meaning of a superlative, since it expresses 
the liigliest of a given number. Thus, for example, the eighth 
is more than all the preceding numbers one by one, so the 
seventh, sixth, &c. 

9. To hvka, appertains a considerable variety of forms. 
The radical appears to be zva, (NEVN). This reveals itself in 
the ordinal hdri^, II., ^, 31 o, and its extension iharog, ib., /3, 
295. Also in the adverbial zlvdzig and in the derivatives: 
slvdireg, zhcivvxzg ; lastly, with repetition of the first syllable, 
in hivyiKOvru, II., jS, G02, which however is not certain. — 
Likewise we find the form zwa extended by an inserted g into 
hviot. From this arise hvzoc^oicov, hv&d'Trriyugf gvvgaT^^gg?, 
hndyjkoi. Before a following 0, sy, the final a is dropped : 
hno^yvioi, Od., X, ^11, ivHoj^oio, II., c, 351; besides which, 
in the sequence of ??, contraction of g;j also occurs: (Ivvzocri^a^j 
hvs7^[jja§) m}j[JjU§, through which form the reachng m'/]KOvray 
II., |3, (i02, instead of the peculiar mi/rjH,oi/Tcc, gains some 
support, especially since it stands in fcocl ivvTiKOvroc •yrokrizg, Od., 
r, 174, and is there enforced by the rules of quantity. 

10. AUa lies unaltered at the root of all forms connected 
with it : ^izd'/Cig, ^ZKa-^iKoi (like hvidyj'koi\ since (Jbu^ioi does 
not occur in Homer, but only [^votoi, i/ju^iai, (JjU^icc, numberless. 
Add to these liKccrog and liKccg, hzd'^ig, II., |3, 128, h%,d^agf 


ib., 126, the only word of this class in Homer, and hsKocTrrixv. 

11. The remaining- cardinals are eizoai, izccrov, and xiXtu. 
Of the first we find the forms zho(n, and, in the Odyssee, 
apostrophized ehoa (not zhoatv, except in the compound 
eix,o(rtvfj§ir cl'Trotm, II, x^ 349), and as a digammated word 
(§ CLiii, 18,) with a prefixed s : hUo^iv and hUoai (not 
elided ksixoa). The adverb here also has a : UKoaoi,x,tg, and 
hence lnzo(Ta,Q>oiov, kixoffdQoiu, and, with a ejected, hizotjogoio, 
Od., /, 322. On the other hand, the forms of this kind 
without prefixture have /: sUoffifjosr^ov and the above cited 

12. 'Epcotrov appears only in this form and in compounds: 
e%.ciT6(/j^'/], szocT6[jj^oiog, iKocroiL'Trohov, U(zr6(/j'7roXiv, izarofA'TrvAOi, 
Uccrov^uyog. — Of %/?ao/ there happens to be found merely the 
neuter %/X/05, %/X/', and the abbreviated form in the com- 
pounds: Imaxikoi, ^£;£a)^/Xo;. 

13. The derived numerals, marking tens, from 30 to 90, 
have, as we saw, as far as they occur, ;; in the middle: rpt- 
fjfcovrcc, &c., except TiGaa^uKovra, where rhythm prevents the 
duplication, and oyluKovroc^in which contraction ivomhyhoyjKOvroi. 
takes place. The peculiarities of each are marked under their 
corresponding primitives. 

14. The compound numbers from 11 to 19 are either 
joined closely together, e. g. hliH.a, Ivulizoc or IuIzku, and so 
in the forms connected with them : ivhizoiru, yj, ivhzdc'Trfrxp, 
loJhzKKrri, IvcohyA^oiov ; or united by means of Kui : IvoKocilzKOi, 
r§i(7zcn%K0i, SKKOiihsKcx,, i'TrruKocihsx-cc, OKrcoKuihsKoc. That it is 
necessary to combine the three words by the accentuation into 
one, is evinced partly by the suppression of <r in Ufcuihsxa, 
partly by the transference of the form so combined into the 
compound iKKaihiKohajgcc, II., §, 109. 

15. But this sort of combination ceases when the numbers 
pass beyond 20 : ^y^y zai shoa, Od., /, 241, «, 208, and even 
mffv^ig rs zai ZiKoai, II., t, 249 (here, however, we should 
read xtfrvgsg kou ux,oai, partly on account of the digamma in 
s'/«0(7/, partly because rs koci would produce a sort of opposition 
between the numbers : four and also twenty, e. g. ovK gi' f/toi 
hxuxig rs xui siKOffuxtg roca ^oiri, II., /, 379) ; however, com- 
bination appears again when the compound number is united 


with a noun : ^vojyMnixoaiiLZT^ov, ib., /, -^z, 264. Other com- 
binations of numbers than those cited do not appear in Homeric 

Obs. — Peculiar to this dialect, however (^si'jj t] euvheig, Ven. Schol. ad 
II., a, 53), are, besides the above quoted s^^/^ag, Ivi/^/xa^, also ac- 
cording to the same analogy, aliTJ^/Ma^, 'ffavT^fjua^, 'Koesr^iiag. 

§ CCIV. 


1 . The following are the Epic forms : 







• • • 



















• • m 





















\ rii/jiig^ 

) y^g/?, 

• • • 


oT. oh 

» ft 














fC) 551, 

(Tp, a(p\* 














2. The forms lycu, [JjOi, and clf/tjiMzg, give as roots gy, jO//, oiffj, 
of which the first two survive in the Germ, ich, Eng-. /, and 
mir, Eng. to 7iie ; the third appears in the Enghsh am, the 
first person of to be. — To the root ^; correspond in the other 
persons at and rt, of which hereafter, and these three will be 
recognised as verbal suffixes ; e. g. Iffj-f/J, l(j-<Tt, z(T-rs. From 
gy arises by paragoge''^' (^vi^,) the form gya'i';;, which was re- 
tained by the Dorians. From lyMv/i is the abbreviated form 
lyav, which, however, has in Homer the v only when sup- 
ported by quantity. — Of the second person the radical form 
is ru (tu, DV), the paragogic rvvyj, II., g, 485, comp. ^, 262, 
fjb, 237, &c. 26 and rv sound like two forms of the same age, 
but of a different analogy ; and in Homer r is visible only in 
some dative forms. — For the third person t is acknowledged 
by Apollonius Alex. (t. 'Avr., p. 330, B, co?np. Herm. de 
pron. avrog in Actis Lips., Vol. /, p. 64, and Schol. ad U.-, 
a, 237.) and others. Some read it in ojg 1 a'Tcaaot, "IXtog (i e. 
ci>g avTrj, aitciaa. "Iktog), II., y^, 410, ajid ib., Heyne. The 
Latin is evinces, that the full sound of this pronoun was ig. 
Moreover, that it had the digamma has been ascertained; and 
fig compared with Germ, dies-er^ as ^iico with (dswo) zwo, 
and with rig, ri, and the third personal termination r;, de- 
monstrates the original form to have been rfig, from which 
rig and fig proceed, as (pr]o and ^^^ from (p6ri§ or ^(pri^. For 
the other cases / passed into g, go, g, as in die-ser, these, so 
that ; remained only in certain forms, iV, p/v, viv. 

3. Genitive. The forms g/^go (ego), go, compared with (jbt, gi, 
rt, show I changed into g, and the a thrown away from og, the 
imiversal sign of the genitive, as in the second declension, 
and some forms of the first (comp. Apoll. ut sup., p. 356, A). 



— E before [juso is to be treated as a prefixture, — to which we 
shall return under the verbs. The connection of the genitive 
forms, l(jijio, extended 1(/jz7o, contracted gjC^sy, enclitic (mu, and 
so with the rest, is very evident. The forms i^'zhv^ a'ihv, Uiv, 
have the adverbial termination as a mark of case, as Alav'M- 
r/]div, "Ibi^hv, &c. — Tlie forms 1[Jjo7o, aoTo, for h[jjs7o, (jiio, are 
confined to places where they are really the genitives of IfJjog, 
aog. — Tzoh stands impregnable in oidy one place : ohu(r(Ta[Mvoio 
TSo7o, II., S^, 37, repeated ib., 468, " in a book which contains 
more of what is singular than any preceding one," so long 
as the cause of the explanation in Hesychius, oc[jj<pi rsoTis, ts^i 
coy, is not detected elsewhere. — 'Es/b, given in Buttmann (§ 
Lxvii, obs. 6, 7)) stands not in Homer, nor is the form 
mentioned by Apollonius. — The apostrophe in the genitive 
s(Jbi7' okiyov, II., "4/, 789j (>z7' on kzv, ib., (^, 454, comp. Od., 
^, 462, is, according to the general rule, inadmissible, since 
it can be avoided by the use of other forms, \ij,zv, (Tsv. 

4. Dative. The original forms retained by the Dorians, 
are (g^sA/v) Ijoog/V, gjO/Zv, rg'/V, riv, ktv, iV, with the old v of the 
dative in the singular. Only reiv remains in Homer, and 
that only in the Odyssee, ^, 6l9, 829, "k, 560, 0, 119, sup- 
ported by quantity, with which, on the other hand, sfjjoi and 
io7 correspond as well as sfijiv, itv. After the rejection of v, 
i^i, ri, si, and /, were extended by the assumption of 0, g/ooo/, 
roi, (Toi, io7 {koi would be more accurate), and 0; ; — jooo; and rot 
are always enclitic. That h is not foreign to the Epic 
language, is proved by the citation in Apollon. from Hesiod, 
iV }> avrco ^avuroio ra^irig, to which place the parallel is: 01 
^' avroo "/coi,y,a Tzv^^i ocv^^ aKkoj ttaKo, nvyj^v, Hes., s, 248 
(comp. Ruhnken. Ep. Crit. I, p. 198, ed. second). To this 
class also belongs avv Vz (r(piv for avroo, H., XVIII, 19 (perhaps 
Gvv Bg (J(plv\ and ^^i&u yAv a(piv a^ov^cc for uvtm, H., XXX. 
Comp. § CLXXXVi, 3. 

5. udccusative. "Eg (sese,) with accent thro^Aal back, as in 
mg, hlvcc, in gg §' uvrov, II., v, I7I5 comp. a, 134. The ac- 
cusatives, [Atv of the lonians, viv of the Dorics and Tragics, 
arose from fiv, which had f as a mark of the accusative, as in 
riv for o-g (comp. Apollon. lit sup., p. SQ5, B\ and which, 
after the rejection of the /-, was, as a feeble syllable, supported 


by (jtj and u. Moreover, that (/jiv and g were employed not 
only for the masculine and feminine, but also for the neuter, 
is demonstrated by gk^tt^ov . . . -tts^] 'yu§ pa i yjxy^o^ 'i\v^iv 
. . . vvv avr'i [i>iv vleg ' Axccicov, k.t.X., II., a, 234; also s 
stands for avrdg, H., Ill, 268. 

6. The dual of the first and second persons has the roots 
(which have survived in the Latin 7i0Sy vos,) vo), G<pco, either 
unaltered^ — vu in the accus., Od., o, 475, ^, 306, and G<paf, 
nom. II., a, 574, ?l, 782, v, 47, accus. ib., o, 146, — or with 
the suffix fig, as nobisy vobis, so v&>fig, G(paofig. These full 
forms reveal themselves only with v for a (as ^Iv for Sy4), as 
nominatives, in vuiv ^' Ih^v(JjSu oXs6§ovy II., ^, 99, perhaps also 
(7(pco'iv, Od., -v^, 52, though this is not certain, since cipaJiV 
there, may be the dative in relation to 7^ro§ : vuiv may be the 
accus. in vSiiv aydaavro, k. r. "k.^ Od., \^, 211. In o cipm 
-ff^oisi, II., a, 336, Zenodotus read, without metrical necessity, 
ffcpaj'ivy in order to show that the form (T(pio'iv, in other cases 
besides the gen. and dat., rests upon ancient authority, and 
was limited to these merely by the later schools of the 
Grammarians. In other places the forms vuii and ff^c^'i with- 
out V are used for nom. and accus., and with v commonly for 
the dative. — The genitive with v stands in only two passages, 
II., Xi 88, Od., ST, 171. Iota is subscribed only in Od., S, 
62, to which the ancient Commentators objected.* Perhaps 
the dative without v should stand there: (r(pu)'i ysvog for (r(p£v 
ys yivog, so that this i^ in the dual was not peculiar to any par- 
ticular case, but stood or fell according to the demand of 
versification, and thus this inflection (full-written, i/aipv,) has 
retained that uncertainty, which we have already ascribed to 
the application of the suffix pv. — For the dative of the third 
person likewise, a form (T(pA>tv is found, but always enclitic, see 
II., ^, 402, a, 338, X, 628, &c.— For the accus. of the third 
person alone aipui is equally encliticj see II., a, 8, k, 546, &c., 
and E/ ^ri a(pca A'iuvtz, ib., f, 531. + — 2^^s for the second 

* Apollon. Alex. *. 'Avr., p. 370, A. Valckenaer ad Plioeuiss., 171, 
alters the reading to eu ydg ff^uv yi ym;. 

f Apoll. Alex. T. 'Avr., p. 373, C, cites also from the Thebais rw -mi 


person, instead of c^o;/', was read according to Apollonius, 
p. 374, by Ixion, in II., ;j, 280, to wliich form therefore v&ie 
for vao'i is parallel, cited by Apollonius out of Antimachus. 

J. Plural. Nominative. The more ancient forms are 
a^liizg and viLix^zg (both with the spiritiis /(mis, comp. Schol. 
ad II., cc, 335\ the roots ufjb and vfjj with the symbol of 
connection s? (in gV-^, within, thus AME2, I ivithin or among 
a number, consequently ive\ the other forms are extended : 
'HMEE2, 'TMEE2, riybug, ufLstg. The corresponding form 
for the third person would be 20EE2, (T(pi7g (^from TOIE2, 
20IE2, he amojir/j, yet it is unknowni to Homer, and was 
employed neither by the jEolians nor the Dorians. Comp. 
ApolL, p. 378, B, 380, B. 

8. Genitive. The ancient forms a.[/j[jjcov and vihybcov, being 
of the same quantity with the attenuated yjytjiojv, vijuscov, are on 
that account not visible in use. To '^[/jScov, v^itzcov, belongs 
G(pioov, Gipm, which in rco apzojv, Od., 7, 134, is enclitic, but 
is not enclitic as a^oJv in II., ^^, 155, r, 302. 

9. The dative a^iJbz&iv in Alcteus (ApolL, lit supra, p. 
383 J, compared with G(pi(riv, gives as ancient forms, AM- 
ME2IN, HME2IN, &c., whence dii>ijjiv and ^pv, &c., are 
abbreviated, as G(piv from Gp'aiv. (In this (7(p/<7/v the 7'adical 
iota appears again.) — By enclisis ^(uv becomes j^[^iv (some 
write it ri[Jbiv), and '/ifMiv passes into rj(jjii/, when the verse re- 
quires short iota, as in Od., X, 344, v, 272. — The parallel 
forms of v[jb7v, namely v[Jbiv and u/^/f, do not occur, but in 
their place is found v(M(jtjiv, as a[jb[jjiv also has limited the recep- 
tion of yifjiiiv. — 2(p/V out of the reach of enclisis, and therefore 
orthotone, is cited by Apollonius, p. 385, A, from Hesiod : 
G(piv §' (wroig \hiycc 'k^JjCx,, probably from s, 4(3, where now 
stands co/ r ccvtu [iJiycc Tryjfjtjcc. In Homer it occurs frequently 
as enclitic. 2<p; is always enclitic. 2(p' for ff(pi, II., ?, 205, 
Od., y, 440, may be delivered from apostrophe by synizesis. 

10. Accusative. Together with ai^iM, v[i>/m, shortened 
from "AMMEA2, "TMMEA2, as G(ps from G(psocg, there 

cpw yshdro firirrio, i. e. ffpoi witliout e (vvlience also in II., g, 531, tlie apos- 
trophe should be removed), and from Book I, dffTraelui n gfu ayi a'iy.abi. 

D d 


stands of like quantity ^pa?, Od., ^, 372, nowhere y^ar, 
but (T^oig analogous to ?7//-a? in II., £, 567, supported by this 
analogy, and by Apollonius, Hesychius, and the Etym. M., 
against the now admitted (T(pzoig. 'HjM/sa?, v[jbiocg, G(piocg, are 
always open, and, where necessary, submit to synizesis. 2<pg 
is always enclitic. 

§ ccv. 


11. The enclitic forms are written in the paradigm \vithout 
accent or with an altered accent ; but in the present editions 
much in the use of enclisis is variable. UmversaUy^ how- 
ever, enclisis ceases when the meaning of the pronoun is by 
any means raised and strengthened. 

Obs. Hence it follows, that the nom. lyw, ov, are never enclitic, since 

they are employed to strengthen the personal expression,'-^^ otherwise 
omitted. Concerning avrog, as representative of the third person, 
there is some doubt. In our Homer it has been retained as enclitic 
only in II., (j>, 204. 

12. The strengthening takes place, 1st, when the case of 
the pronoun is governed by a preposition, adverb, adjective, 
or substantive : ci[Jb(p} s, b (rot, ix/ ol, (Tidiv Kvriov, itov l[Mot, 
nxog o'£^2^ II') ^j 169, regret for thee, a>^o? cgy, thy regret, 
would be enclitic, as XW'^ ^^^^ thy widow, but x^g''l ^^^j ^^- 
reaved of thee. Likewise the regimen of verbs removes 
enclisis ; except when the case governed by the verb stands 
without relation to another word, or without any peculiar 
weight, as s'l (m (rcccoffug, ovhi (JjS -rs/Vs/j, 01 'Tretdourcci, &c. ; 
although in precisely similar passages a stronger intonation 
is sometimes found: cctto ^v(jijOv MolXXov l^ol hzcci, II., a, 563, 
Bvxs<^^oii l[/jl viK}j(TOit, ib., <Pi 501, &c. 

13. Also, 2nd, in comparative expressions : (p'sgrs^og zl(i>i 
Gihv, Gio <pk^7Z^oi shi, so (Jbiy a[/jiivom, Itsi iv (prjf/^i (Siri ttoKv 
(pe^rB^og ilvoct (not sy), II.; 0, l65. 


14. Likewise, 3rd, in oppositions of a different kind: 

avnlmaroXTj, avriliocGrik'kopjZvov. Thus upon n ^' ijC/i %g/^oV 
iXovacc, (piXcov kitovo^pvj irat^cov, Od., [jij, 34. Apollonius (tts^/ 
avvrat,.,^. 119, Bekk.,) remarks : oP0orovov[Mi> yovv to rj S' 
i^jji . , . ^;a 70 knibi(iCTiXko[Juivov itqpaw'TCov tuv iTal^cov. — So 
'TToulu, ^' iiLo) Xvffai Ti (pi\'/]v, II., a, 20, after the preceding 
v[Mv (jjh ^io), K.T.X., which the Grammarians call 'iiLcpmig 
STSoov 'TTDoaoo'Ttov TTapayM^oijAr/i (ib., p. 121), or 'Tra.^i^'ZTctifrig 
avTihaarzXKoijhov 'r^oaso'rov. Hence not cog K ccuroog koi ziivov 
— cog GZ, yvmi, ;f.r. X., Od., ^, l68, but a)g as, not Zs:)? §' 
civrog viiMf oX^ov 'OXviMTTiog (iv^outtokjiv \ Kai itov aoi rdy 
'ilcoKZv, ib., 190, but z(/J '?rov (tos. So must we emend II., ^, 
206, /, 615, X, 331, V, 305, and not xccKov 701 gvv Iimo) 7ov 
%'/jhii>, og Ki [hi y.rihy], but og !c k[/jl Krihyj. 

15. Farther, orthotonesis prevails, when with the pronoun 
also auTov, ckutco, &c., or some other word referring to the 
pronoun, is placed : rj IfijOi Civ7cu, ao] ^' at-ro!, Sec. Hence for 
701 0.1)700^ Od., £, 187, write go) avTSj, and so in other passages. 
Likewise we find, e/^stJ 'Ccov7og^ G7vyi^^v i[Mi, Gikv . . xfuo^hivng^ 
H., ^, 477. Hence not yd^ cso '7rcc7^og h) iLzyd^oiaiv ccKovacc 
Eux^lAvyig, II., a, 396, but yoio azo, and so correct ib., i^, 
483, X, 124, ^J/, 70, Od., y, 53, &c. 

Obs. If the meaning of aurog be not immediately connected with the 

substantive pronoun, but the one be only a closer definition of the 
other, then the orthotonesis disappears, and aurog may be placed 
either first or second : 'Eu^vaXog d's i aurhv a^sffgdadu s'Trhagiv, Od., ^, 
396, not himself, but him, namely that very person, that is Ulysses, 
and these cases are parallel to the article or pronoun with a foUowinif 
name, § cclxxxiv, 17 — So (jJ aurhv, II., x, 212, (miv ahrbv, Od., o, 
118, and with aurog preceding: auroj tqi, II , /, 249, auToi/ ss, '■■■ , ' 

IG. Lastly, the enclisis is removed by strengthening par- 
ticles : ys, TTiP, U, [Jjh ; f/-?) ya§ 'i[/jOiys, 11., a, 295, &c., and 
with ;ia/: kou l^hoi yz, ib., X, 366, &c. Hence not outs joog 
y h (ji^zya^oiat, Od., X, 198, ovtz \hz y Iv vfjiffcri, ib., 406, but 


in the first passage, out 'i{h m, and in the second, out ifLS 
y Iv, as was the earlier reading in both. 

17. On the other hand the endisis is required for the 
genitive of possession, and hence itaT^oq aolo is preferred to 
•xuTPog cm, II., a, 486, and in [Jijsycc0v(/jov azio (pov^og, ib., c, 
335, Golo should be adopted out of the Harleian MS. — Where 
there is a separation between the words, as nihaTi too, ot i^fio 
^za, SWig ri-^uTo yovvcov, II., 0, 76, comp. ib., \ 343, Xf 4^54, 
Od., T, 348, we must understand not an union {GvvT(x.t,ig\ 
but an apposition (■rapccral/j,) of ideas, so that in Od., r, 
348, the verb cl-^uaQai refers equally to Ii/aHo, to touch me, 
and to Tohuv, to touch the feet. — Also by being placed first 
this genitive is relieved from enclisis : as, a'zo ^' cxjTza, 'ttixtsi 
a^ou^cc, II., ^, 174. 

18. Enclisis is required likewise, 

a. For the dative, which stands for a genitive, e. g. oWs 
^s 01, II., a, 104, h hi 01 jjto^, ib., 188, whence in o7d' 
eov oIkov Krih(rzop, Od., '^, 8. Wolf has adopted from 
Eustath. oliTS ol o'izov. 

h. For the dative which conveys but a slight notion of 
appropriation, so that in <p^a,^zad\ cog ufiAv 'Tc^o^tjor/jig ^g- 
\jj7l\jJzvog zuhi, II., ^, 482, where one ms. has v^yijiv, we 
should write v^iv. 

c. For the so called dative of advantage (datimis com- 
modi): 0^^ '^(liv ZKUZgyov iXaffffzcci, II., a, 147, &c. 
Thus in 'iKaog 'OXui/jTiog 'iaazTai tjijav, ib., 583, read y^ijav, 
and so in 01., /3, 339, Od., a, I66, k, 464. 

Obs. — The position of the pronoun before the verb, however, introduces 
orthotonesis, and as bog fjboi and IfLoi hog, so also differ airnXriGu hi rot 
&ds, II., a, 181, and ffoi fih d^, Msi/sXas, ■/.ar7i(psiri xa! mihog"'E(S6iTai, 
ib., ^, 556. Yet, in the Epic language, this distinction is not strictly 
observed, and the fluctuating sense, in such relations, easily inclines 
one way or the other: l/xs 6' 'iyv(u xa; ff^ocss/Ts, Od., X, 91, but 'iyvu 
hi 4'U%!7 /(i£ Toowjcfog Alaxihao, ib., 470 ; or even where the pronoun 
stands before the verb : M^ ffg, y'i^ov . . . iraoa fjjuff/ x/;^s/w . . , (irt 
vu rot OX) ■xj^aiaiiri cx^Trrgov, II., a, 26. 


§ CCVI. 

19. Forms of rig'. 

Of indefinite rig. 


interrogative rig. 

N. r/f, r/, 


ri, riri. 

G. TgO, 

rzo, 11., 

CO, 128, 


Tsy, ib., 

0-, 192, also relative, 

D. rso;, 


Ace. rim, ri. 



N. rivs. 


N. rivsg, 


Ace. r/va?. 

r'icov, onl 

ly 11., ^, 387. 

20. We saw before that rig was of the same root with ;', 
20. Hence it agrees, in the forms no, rzv, rio, rzv, with the 
declension of that pronoun. At the same time the germs of 
other declensions also appear, of the second in rs^ and r&) for 
noi and roi, and of the third in rivoc, rivz, ring, rivotg. 

21. Tig, ri, with the vowels o and fj, is developed in T02, 
TH, TO, whence proceed, 

Of, tj, 0, the relative, 

0, ?, ro, the Epic relative, 

0, ^, ro, the article. 

22. It is evident that the Epic relative is distinguished 
only by its accent from the article, and has all the other 
forms, rov, rrjg, r^, he, in common with it, without exclud- 
ing, however, the other forms of og and o. "O and o? dispute 
the place when G(piv follows : o a(piv was the lection of Aris- 
tarchus, comp. Etym. M., p. Gl4, 1. 12, og (j(piv of others, 
comp. Heyne ad II., a, 73. — In the nom. plur. r remains 
according to the exigency of the verse : roi, rai, roi. 

23. The ili'inonstratives are formed from T02, TH, TO, 
and the article : (o-rog) ovrog, (af-rri) avrri, (ro-ro) rovro. TO^ 
(rootTO,)with anew 02 gives (ro-oj)ro/bg, with ovrog roiovrog. 


Besides these there is the demonstrative o, which the more 
accurate ancients accented in that sense, e. g. o/' [/jh ^u(TO[mvov 
'X'TTz^iovog, o'l §' aviovrog, Od., oc, 24. There are likewise og, 
oyz, and oh, of which the following datives are remarkable : 
To7ffli(Ti, r6i(jhzaat, Tolahiamv, as efforts of the language to 
subject even the appended syllables to the laws of inflection. 

24. Avrog (compounded of rog and ap, the intensive a, as 
avi^vaav of ap and l^vaav) is by Homer always kept separate 
from the substantive pronouns : ccvraj [jt,oi, I^lo) auryj, uvr^ roi, 
sdi avTco, Gi — avTov, II., v, 273, s avT^v, ib., |, l62.* 

25. The ace. avrov is enclitic in Ko-^pz ya^ avrov 'iy^ona. 
zccToi (jTrj&og, IL, ^, 201-. (Comp. Schol. ad II., joo, 204, 
Hermann de Pron. avrog, p. Q5.^ Hermann would extend 
the enclisis also to ocvto and ayra, II., y, 25, o, 43, &c. 

26. The relatives og and o combine, the first with rig, rs, 
the second with r/j, oVr/c, oWs, one, of which last we find the 
following forms, of the masculine and neuter genders, '^' and 
beginning with o, which, since the cases are marked by the 
inflection of rig, is not itself inflected. 

N. orig, Od., a, 47, &c. on, II,, a, 85, &c, 

orn, ib., ^, 408, 
G. orzv, Od., ^, 421, 

orno, ib., a, 124, %, 377> 
OTTsy, ib., ^, 121, 

oov, II., |3, 325, Od., a, 70, H., I, 156, (l) 
D. ors^y, II., 0, 664, Od., |3, 114, 

oru, II., |M/, 428, (2) u rm, Hes., s, 21. 

Ace. orivcc, II., ;:^, 450, (^^ on and orr;. 



G. oriMV, Od., ;!f, 39, 
D. 6riOi(T{, II., 0, 491, 

* Corap. Apoll., ut supra, p. 139, Reiz ad Hes. Theog., 470, Wolf's 

edition Places in Pindar, such as ov va,rr]P 'iyji K^owg WoTijjOv avruJ Tag- 

sSgov, 01., 2, 84 (139), and the like, demonstrate that to his usage also 
aurou, avTM, which have here and there intruded, as well as I/muvtuj, cauTw, 
were foreign. 


Acc. oTivag, II., 492, ol tiv\ II., a, 289, 

ovffrtvocg, ib., ^, 240, aWa, aW. (3) 

(l) In Hymn I, 156, oroy is also given. "Oou has clearly- 
arisen from ono after the ejection of r, so that go was con- 
tracted into ov instead of sv, as in the case of hiovg and (TTrmvg. 
— (2) Zenodotus, however, read here likewise orsco, which 
Wolf has admitted. — (s) II., a, 554, t, 367, &c., Herodian 
ad 11., a, 554, derives it from a and m for roc, which remained 
among- the Megarensians ; thus clffffcc for aVa as orri for on. 
We find, however, also aaau after OTroToc in g/Vs i^/O/, O'K'TtoY 
aWa Tg^/ %^o/' ii(Jb(x,r(x, hro, Od., r, 218 (qualia qucedaTn^ 
German was fur welche), for r/va, which points to a different 
analogy. 2 A for ra prefixed A, like T02 in AFT02, avrog, 
and passed through AT2 A into aWa and aVco, according as 
it stood out of or 2?i relation. Concerning the breathing 
comp. Heyne ad II., a, 554. 

27. Together with the common forms of the possessives, 
which were given in § Lxxviii, there are found some par- 
ticular forms : 

^i/jog^ ... ... ... *•• •«-. 

aog, rgoj, Tsjy, rzov, 

0?, goj, g;j, goi/, 



v(/jsrs§og, vf/jrj, 


<T(pirspog, (Tipov, IL, a, <T(p}jg, 

534, (T<p^, (T(pSy 


(T(po7ffi, g, 

(T(povc, (r(pdg. 

28. The forms a^jjog, v(jj6g, and (r(poc, come from the roots 

a^g, v[jbs, a(pi^ without the insertion of the syllable rg^. — ' K^og^ 

with long a, and hence removed from the analogy of a^o-^^gj 

and passing over into that of h^ug^ is better written with the 


aspirate, than with the smooth breathing, comp. Heyne, II., 

29. Of offog there appears the extension oasdrm rs za^i 
ohv, II., e, 7-58, with the same sense as o&ov, hke the extension 
in mrariov, ib., S^, 353, and the hke. 




1 . If we compare these three parts of the substantive verb 
(scjoo/) sifjbiy l(T-(Ti, l(7-Ti, with each other and with the Latin 
es-sct and German wes-en, we shall perceive the root of this 
primitive word to be g?,^ with or without the digamma, 
which passed, in combination with the primitive pronouns ^/, 
c/, Ti, into the persons of the verb. 

2. In order to understand the further developement of the 
forms let us observe, 

a» That the pronominal affixes were extended by the in- 
sertion of a : jM//, [Mcci, (Ti, (Tat, rt, rui. (Thus zui is from 
zi, still visible in the modern Greek, e. g. in the crasis 
xidvd/]j i, e. xa,} dvdrj.) 

* The meaning of this root is shown in the Hebrew Lt'J^, HESCH, 
Fire, conip. the German Esse for Feuerherd (hearth), also tautologically 
named Feueresse, and again comp. with this comesse, comesus, German 
essen (to eat), and we have the necessary series whence to draw the 
conclusion, that the substantive verb (wesen — esse — 'icHG^ai,) denotes an 
existence supported by consumption of nourishment. Of all life it seems 
the indispensable condition, that the object, in which it dwells, should be 
sustained and developed by the adhibition of homogeneous matter, that is 
by consumption. 



b. That these, by means of prefixed sounds, connect them- 
selves more conveniently with the root. Such prefixed 
sounds obtain in g,M;o/, g/!>og, from jM/o/, i^z. So ai has still 
in modern Greek Wi or go-gva, and g has £g. A and o as 
well as g served as prefixtures for combining the affixes 
with the root. 

3. The further developement has thus the following steps : 
a. E^OMI, E^E:$I, E^ETI, 

b. e:somai, e^e^ai, e:3etai, 

c. E3AMI, E^A:^I, EXATI, &c. 

4. The designation of different tenses by different forms is 
the work of a language already advanced ; and the Greek 
made the first step towards this by duplication of the radical 
syllable, E2E20MAI, E2E2E2AI, E2E2ETAI, whence 
proceeded after ejection of the middle sigmas WioiJjoti, Wisoci, 
lakrai, or i(r(reu(jbci(, leg??, gccg/ra/, the future forms which 
remained with the Dorians, while in common use the simple 
form zGoyboci obtained in the future, while the undeveloped 
(l(T[jtji) si(jiji fell to the share of the present. 

5. In this derivation we see comprised almost all termina- 
tions which, in the progress of the tongue, were apportioned to 
the different tenses : from E20-MI come zco and trco, from 
E20MAI, iO[jbat and ao^cci, from E2AMI, E2A, ga, <ra, a, 
of which go5 or ^a remained as the imperfect, and as the 
Homeric termination of the pluperfect. E2AM (eram) 
passed through E AM (jiim') into nv, which then served for the 
formation of the terminations ^i^v, si-riv, d'/ji/, &c., and of ttjv 
and (Tdr;v in the secondary tenses. Herein lie also the personal 
terminations, not only (Jbi, ai, ri, but also (0|a/, o) co, (gg) sig, 
(gr) zi, (Jbcci, (Tcct, Tcn, and for the secondary tenses, {o[Jj^ ov, gc, 
g, (jb}^v, (TO, TO, Qjj7]v arising in the manner above pointed out, (to 
and 70 from c/, ti, in the same manner as ffoi, ol,) and likewise 
the modal-vowels of the indicative. 

6. The origin of the pliu-al terminations, at least of the first 
and second person, is also clear, if, when once aware of the 
nature of the affixes, we form from the primitive MI and 21 
their plurals ME2, 2E2, or TE2, without farther addition, 
and connect (Jbig and Tzg with the root, either immediately, or by 
means of prefixed sounds. Immediately (l(T(jbig) zlfLig, (kffTig) 


sffTS, of which si[Msg remained with the Dorians, though in 
common use it passed into zi[jtjsi/, and Iffrs has dropped the <r. 
According to another analogy the affixes, second person TI 
and 21, third person TI, which we have already changed into 
20 (TO) and TO, were ended with N, second person TON, 
third person TON. JVith prefixed sounds appear E20ME2, 
E2ETE2, and these combined with the formal syllables 
(found also in the adverbs,) ^ov, ^a, {6iv) 0s, give S(T6[/,&(Tdov, 
ido^zada, (sffirzah) sVeo-^s and 'iaeffdov, the two last after the 
ejection of rs, and the two former likewise, s(T6(jbsdov, iaofjus^oi, 
after the ejection of <r. These terminations, in the develope- 
ment of the language, are thus distributed. 

a. In active. D. 



rov or Tf^Vj 




b. In passive. D. 





or s(T0r]i', 

PI. Ofijiffdoi, gc^s, 

7. Of another kind is the third person plural, which, if 
we compare 'iaovrai with the Doric sing, br/, (pavri, shows 
itself in the shapes vri and vrui. It contains, therefore, the 
affix r;, ra/, and v seemingly as a sign of the plural (as in 
German JVeise, plur. die JVeisen ; Strafe, plur. die Straferiy 
&c., or in English ox, plur. oxeii), — Another termination 
for the 3rd pers. plur., namely cav, is perceived by comparing 
gVav, (pmav, "^zdav, &c. In this v appears to be accidental, 
as in rov, and ca seems to have some connection with aipkag, 
(r<pdg, — but this is nothing more than a conjecture. 



8. Next to the distribution of the terminations and personal 
inflections, formed as above described, a second source of great 
variety in the forms of tense was that repetition of the radical 
syllable already pointed out in slfjut : ay, ccyuy ; ccg, af a^, or 
a§f!^ ; 0^, o^of^ ; in which the roots beginning with a consonant 


constantly admitted the vowel s. Thus not only ipzv, '7rs(p5u, 
but also XaO., XzXad, x,uh, fcszcch, &c., probably because this s 
belonged to the radical word si[Jbl, and to most of the primitive 
roots, and so the sound which was heard often became next 

9. Reduplication, although almost confined, in the common 
dialect, to the perfect and pluperfect, spreads much wider in 
the language of Homer, being foreign only to the designation 
of present time, and to the latest of all the tenses — the im- 
perfect (the only example rzrzvxzrov, II., v, 346, depends 
upon a doubtful reading, — yJirXiro for zzKikiro is, on account 
of its participle K&yJkoihzvog to be considered as a second aorist, 
— and for avrz vzTrzi^iro, Od., |(3, 103, we now read uvr 
I'TTZTrzihTo from l-r/ and i'7ni6z7o). 

10. It is not infrequent in the designation of future time, 
in which the reduplicated form was afterwards appropriated 
to the futurum exactum. Of active formation we find : 
azot'Y/iGzig, H., II, 286, zzKccbriffu, Od., (p, 153, I7O (together 
with the mid. form x,zxochr](T6[jbid\ II., S^, 353), 'TTZTid^iTco, II., 
%, 223 ; but for ccXakfcriffii zockov rjiJjO,^, Od., z, 288, okakKrjaiv 
is properly admitted. Of passive formation there are : ^g- 
hst,o[jijai, ze-)(^oX(V(jO[jjCct, zsy^oXoiXXSon, XsTiS A^sra;, TZTZv^&rai, also 
xexX'^ffri, II., y, 138, (JjZilvt^&o^' Irui^ov, ib., %, 390, (Mfjiji'Tias- 
(r0cct, Od., r, 581, (p, 79j (<?£, ^a) '7rz(pf]ffecct, -rg^^cgra;, II., v, 
829, Od., %, 217, II., 0, 40, ^, 155. 

11. It does not appear in the so called second future, 
and in the first aorist we find only ^avsov IziXovg k-zMyjiai 
royJjag, II., -^z, 223, and (a(p, a'?ra(p) V^ocTi-dpriGzv, H., I, 376. 

12. Next to the perfect the second aor. act. and mid. is 
most rich in forms of this description, with the reduplication 
continued through all the moods : thus j^yocyov which remained 
in the common dialect also in many of its forms, (^akz) 
oku'kKZ, akuXzoig.) k\a^x,ojv, akcckyJz\jjiv, iji^ a^agov, ^^upov, 
^'oa^g, k^a^&jv, {a(p, ccTTup) in ^Vai^g, a,Tcc(poi70, &c., Od., 5, 
488, 4'? 216, &c., (ccy^) ^^ocyz, (hoc) Izhaov, ^g^agc, KZx.diJju, 
KzyAiJjOjai, II., a, I68, tj, 5, g5aTa<po/ro, ib., /, 376, kzku^ovto, 
%ZKvda)iTiy zz%oc^otTO, KZxa^oiccTO, KzXdy/i7S, XzXuxootn, XzXcc^zaOcci, 
XgXa^gff^a/, XzXoiOovTOf XzXoiKovTO, oi^o^z, oo^o^\ '7rz'7nOoi>, TTZTTtOzTu, 



13. In the forms from (pzv, the root of (povoq, slaughter, to 
the redupHcation {'7r&(pivov) ■7rs(pvov is prefixed the augment, 
gVsfpfov, g'Tg^i'Sc, 'i'7rs(pviv, g9r£(pfg, S7n(pv\ x.aTZ'7rz(pvz, Sec. Thus 
also to KiKkzTO in T^a)iGa:iv SKiKXiro, II., ^, 172. In ^^(p^ocbov, 
gTg<Pfa^g, it might seem that the augment stands not before 
the reduplication, but after the preposition gx/ — 'i(p^(x!6ov. 
Since, however, no active forms of this compound appear, 
but only those belonging to gT/fp^acao-^a/, and iTrsp^ocffSrig, Od., 
g, 183, it is better to class Wi(p^a^ov with WzxXzro. It is 
doubtful whether for ^' l[/ji[jb7}Kov, Od., /, 439, we should read 

^g ^ZybTiKOV. 

14. According to Aristarchus the participle of '7r&(pvov has 
the accent upon the first syllable, xccrcc7re(piict>v, II., g-, 539, 
'!re(pvovrcc, ib., t, 827 — who was, however, opposed by 7^- 
ranniof according to the Venetian Scholiast, ad II., -r, 827. 
Tyrannio wrote, in conformity with rule, KccrccTrspduv, xg^p- 

Obs. — Out of eorae roots extended by reduplication arise new form^ 
of the present and imperfect : ags, aoagg, a^d^igxi, Od., ^, 23, a<pi, 
ava<pe, avaf'iGXH, ib., X, 217, a^j^s, azdyje, axa')(j^iig, ib., cr, 432, 
axa;;^/^so, II., ^, 486, Od., X, 485. Thus too (ly^^gogawv) ey^rjyo^ouv, 
awake, Od., v, 6, derived from ey^riyo^a, and perhaps gTs^i/xof from 
<7rs(puxec, only in Hesiod'8 t^ 01,0.0111 iTrecpu/cov, s, 148, ^, 152, 673, d, 76.* 
In like manner Its/ (loi i^w^irai evdoOi Su/xog, Od., r, 377, cf. ib., 524, 
and conj. o'Trvors ¥s7xog dgu^Tirai -TroXsfioio, II., v, 271, from o'gwga, unless 
here we are to trace the formation of the perfect to the root 60s in 
o^hvTo, ib., j3, 398, -v]/, 212, as age in dgscw is the root of a^jj^s/isva, 
ag?;gj/isvoi/ (1. d^Ti^s/Msm), and d^ri^ifimg in Apoll. Rhod. Argon., 1, 
787, — 3, 833, — 4, 677, which are defended by Buttmann against 
Brunck. — These forms, then, with apparent duplication in the 
present and imperfect, must be considered as off-shoots of forms 

* But in £, 148, viipmaci is a various reading, so that s^ wiiuv '!Ti<pm(Si 
must likewise have been read there. 


already doubled. Both these tenses, however, have a peculiar du- 
plication with iota : x/xXi^cxsro, didrj, from JcaXsw, dsu, &c. 

§ CCIX. 


15. The augment arises out of reduplication by the abjec- 
tion of the initial consonant : XiXccy^ov, 'ikwyov^ zizoc[jjOi/, 'izccimv. 
As a property of the tenses, which is not accidental, but which 
springs from the first roots of the verbs when developed, it 
must have found place in the Homeric dialect universally, 
except where the tneasure of the verse, the division of series 
(see § CXLV, 3), or regard either to rhythm or the euphony 
of forms cause its rejection. 

16. Measure of the verse : uXka, zaxojg cc<phi, II., a, 25, 
^^ B' cc'/icov, ib., 34, hiv^ II rSk(xyyn yinr, ib., 49, &c. Thus 
XDc' ayo^Tjv and a\-^cc §' 'zkud ayo^^v. Hence not (jjaruirryj, 
'Tcu^darri^ avciyvaj, for (MiTiffrri, 'KaPiarri^ avzyvco, but either iKdogz 
or l^ido§iv, 'ixOvyz or k^i(pvyiv, as the verse may demand. 

17. Division of series : iffria il\v GniXavro, S^so-ai/ ^' h V7{i' 
[Jbikociyyi, II., a, 433, d> It) 'ttoTX s[jj6y)^(Toc,, Vosccv Ik [Jboi vhg 
^ Kyjx.ioov, ib., a, 162, ooq (poiro' %a/f£ ^s <P^[J^^, Od., ^, 35. In 
these instances the augment, (miXcivr 'iOzaccv, cog <pur 'iyjx.i^z, 
\\hoyria shoaav, would unite the series, which sense and punc- 
tuation require to be separated. On the other hand, in m zti 
'TToKK' l^Jijoyrisoi, ^oauv ^s ^01 vhg ' KyjiiMV, to read 'ttoWcc [Jboy/iacx, 
would be as faulty from disuniting words properly joined, as 
to read liLoyriii 'ihosuv, which unites series properly disjoined. 

18. Reyard to rhythm. In order to favour the trochaic 
csesura in the third foot the augment is dropped : rri hKurri 
^' ocyo^rjvhz KccXiiT(T(x,ro 'kccov 'Ay^iXXsvg, II., a, 54, aig 'Olutrzvg 
(pvKkoKTi KOiXu-ipuTo, Od., £, 491. Or it appears, in order to 
create that caesura : "E;«ro^, Itts/ (/jS kut ccicrav hsiKSuug oub' 
vm^ cchoiv II., y, 59. It is retained or dro])ped to remedy 
the feminine ceesura in the fourth foot (§ cxliv, 12), and 
stands or falls in the fifth, in order to create the trochaic 
csesura, by which words are closely combined: not clKysa, 


^^«£v, but aXyi sd'/izsv. So also jW'Jjf/' sxoiizv, t'S'^s' Ixo^dovv, 
fyouvar 'iKaf/j-^i. On the other hand ^ocvoiroio zaKv^sVf kv(Jj(x. 
zaKu-ipsv, hya, Kzkzvzv, ^[jbcoyjai yJikivzv, '/jhl (piK'/jdiv, &c. Also 
it is dropped, when the final word is surpassed in weight by 
the preceding, which disturbs the flow of the end of the verse : 
©■•rXay^vcs 'Trcccravro, 'i^^Tra'yXcc (piXrjtjsv. Here the augment 
aifkayx^ '^'^(^'^oiv^o, 'izTrocyX' i(piXr,Giv gives weight to the last 
word, and a flow to the end of the verse. 

19. Euphony of Forms, It does not appear after "^iol^ 
since the sound of tsps is not pleasing, and ts^/ rejects apos- 
trophe in Epic verse ; hence -Trz^t^aXXs, "tts^i^'/^, &c. In the 
same way yacrs^a rv-^/sv, not yaark^ itv-^iv^ II., ^, 31 o, and 
the like. Perhaps ^ta(jr'/]r'/]v, II., a, 6, stands together with 
^liffT'/jaccv, II., CO, 718, because hsffT'/jrrjv would have the sound 
of E three times consecutively. 

20. In no case is the use of the augment in Homeric 
Greek to be abridged upon other grounds than those above 
mentioned : certainly not upon the strength of the old pre- 
judice of Aristarchus, that it is not lofiic, and therefore not 
Homeric. Thus Ptolemy and Aristarchus read (hrj^z kuti 
instead of jO-^/ iKuri, II., a, 464, as mo7'e Ionic {iaza/rs^ov^ 
without, as it appears, objecting to fju'/i^i' iKria, II., S^, 240. 
There are many examples of the same kind scattered over 
Homer, and proceeding probably from the same school : 
avTog ydg (Tpiv 'hcoziv, II., ^, 612, ovroi hioziv, ib., /, 39, 
together with kTrihcozi, ib., ;, 148. Of a like sort are OyXs/^j?^ 
Of rtzTi, II., /3, 6O8, M.v§[jjihmg II zccX&vvro, ib., X, 684, 
zuraujv^ciTO, '^ccooch^aiMiT'/jv, together with '?ra,^i^^aiLov, ir/^^a- 
[/jiT-/]v, together with k7r&hoci[Mov, &c. 

21. There is much variation in the use of the temporal aug- 
ment. It appears in the case of A, AI, AT, in nhhocn, yiX(pov, 
^[jj^poTB, rivrzov, TjWrjffoig, '^'Trr&ro, jj^Tacsf, ri^^oaz, &c., fiviov, 

even the digammated av^uvo) has it in r.vhavz, yet we find 
without traces of it, cL\&vro, ol^sro, ai'^sro, a'ivvTO, dXffo, dXro ; 
also a'fXis, H.j 7, 447, opposed to ^^%g, ^fX"*'' ^^X^'^^^ "i more 
than 100 places, cc'tttzt, xocdd'Tmro, opposed to n'Trnro, d^sz 
to sT^^ffSv, d(p^sov, dyjivro. — In the case of E it appears in 
TJX^rigB, ri^diTOf d'TT^x^ZTOj TJcrdioVj not in 'iygSTO, IVryg, 'i^ovrOf 


hyoi^ovro, g^^of, e^aro, sixB, v'TTonTti, vttou^s. Wolf has like- 
wise removed the forms siKfcs, Tikriro^ which stood together 
with sX;«s, 'ikitzto^ and zlfrrriKZi for hrrixu, seemingly without 
reason in the last instance. — ET is, in our text, always with- 
out augment in zvlov, svpov, svy^zro, Itzv^octo, the last in 10 
places, to which Wriv'^ocro, H., I, 3()2, should be sacrificed, 
as Yjvvdlfivro, Od., ^, 449, to Kocrsvi'ccfjhv, II., y, 448, and 
wvrjffz, Od., h, 440, 7-58. — To I the augment belongs not 
only where the verse requires a syllable long by nature, e. g. 
1/CSf 7ksv, but also in position ; and as i^s stands in II., |3, 53, 
&c., so it is proper to have everywhere I^s, 7^ov, and instead 
of £^/^s, zccdi^ov, PCccOt^s, to write l(p7^s, zudJ^s, since in these 
forms there is no ground for variation. — O and OI have the 
augment almost uniformly : STrcoTrroji', di^aev, iTco^azv, ur^vvSy 
STo/T^vvs, co^iTO, 27^0X^70, o^fJ^cj^s, aud it is wrong to read 
OK^iooovrOy Od., <7, 33, OTrXirrhv, ib., %//, 143, while instead of 
otXbov, ib., (^, 73» u'lfkzov has been admitted. We must ex- 
cept, however, the verbal form derived from moq, olvi^ovro, 
II., '/ji 472, ^, 54(), opposed to covoxozi, ib., a, 598, where 
clvo-xfizi was the nearly universal reading of the ancients, as 
in Od., 0, 141. (We find likewise vzKtcto zoomyj)zi, II., §, 3, 
cf. Od., y, ^255, from which it appears, that this word, being 
digammated, either prefixed the s as augment, or retained the 
first syllable unaltered.) 

Obs. 1.— The augment in the reduplication is found in (a^) TJ^a^ov, 
^'oags, ^'/ca%£, wgogsv, in both root atid reduplication in the pluperf. 
riXriXaro (from JXa), II., s, 400, %J3gf/ (as well as a^^gg; from aj), 
ri^yi^iidTo {^sid), but is wanting in sgs^i'xro, from s^siTij, ib,, S 15^ 
The augment before the digammated verbs, edXr}, II., v, 408, &c., 
sdipdrj (d<p in aTroiJ^ai), ib., v, 543, &c., scc^s, lahdra, suaSe, sspyadiv, 
&c., has been aleady examined, § CLVir. 

Obs. 2 — Buttmann fLexilogus, P. I, 63, 11,^1 seeks to establish 
that in the Homeric language the augment never stands between a 
preposition and verb, when the verb without the preposition is not 
in use, as, e. g. in avn^oXsTv. But with respect to the Homeric verbs 
of tliis description, avTitps^l^u, Tr^ofji^ay^l^u, Iraiyi^cu, iyyvaXl^u, the 


rule cannot be proved, since they either do not occur in augmented 
tenses, as dvTKps^i^u, Ivaiy'i^u, or the augment is precluded by the 
rhythm, as in syyvu,}j^s, 'x^o/^d^i^s. The only one, however, which 
affords scope for trying the rule, dvriQo'kiTv, has the augment in durs- 
QoXi^ga, dvTsZoXrjgag, avrsCoXrigav. Against six examples, viz. II., v, 
210, 246, ff, 790, 847, Od., x, 277, x> 360, only two, II., X, 809, 
Od., X, 416, have as a variety air/CoXjjffs, dvriQoXrigag, and without 
the warrant of any ancient grammarian. In the latter place ^'Sjj fih 
voXiuv dvd^ojv (p6v(t) dvTBQ6>.7}ffag the Vatican MS. produces the now 
received arrangement of the words t&Xswi/ (povw dvd^uv as proceeding 
from Aristarchus, but does not allege that this foe to the non-Ionic 
augment rejected it from the word in question. Hence we must 
admit that the custom of inserting the augment in such words had 
its rise even in the language of Homer. It is further remarked, in 
the Lexilogus, that the Homeric dialect avoids the augment before 
a preposition, and that the words, which seem to contradict this law, 
dvahofiai in rjvpvaro or rjvMviro, II., ff, 450, diuiKco in 'ffa^axXhag sdiw/iiv, 
ib., -^f 424, and xadai^ca in XaQuv r/cdSri^s, ib., cr, 228, are not com- 
pound but simple : av, avav, dvaiv-ofMai, diuifcu the same as tuzu, with 
the first syllable strengthened, and naQaigu) connected with xadaoog, 
so that likewise in iXOovrig d' hddi^ov, Od., cr, 408, we should read 
ids '/iddi^ov. 

§ ccx. 


22. After the reduplication and the augment which pro- 
ceeded from it, we have to consider another kind of increase 
at the conclusion of the root by means of the letters 2K, the 
signification of which, originally one of I'epetitioih strength^ 
duration^ is still visible in many instances, though in many 
it is lost. Originally belonging also to the present tense, it 
has been dropped by many words in this tense, while remaining 



in the imperfect, and in the first and 2nd aor., only however 
in the singular number and in the 3rd pers. plur. Thus : 
Sing. 1st, GKov^ 2nd, azzg^ 3rd, CKZVy 3rd pi. gzov, 


2nd, o-«£o, 3rd) gtczto, 3rd pi. gkovto, 


and so that before the 2, E as mood-vowel generally appears. 

a, Imperf. : }>iviGKOv^ hvsvsdKOv, '^zXsffKsg, eVsc^g, 'i^hsazz, g)^£- 
GKOv, TsXidzzo, hs^Kiffxzro. Those in A contract AE into 
A, which becomes, where it is requisite, A A : maftzg, 
s'ioiffxoVf vocieroiocffKOVf viK<x.(rKopjiv, zshoccctrzov, ^s^aac^s. — 
Those in E have E or EE before 2K : (iovzoXkffPcsg, 
zak&iffKov, KuKssff/cs, pcaXsffKsro, i/ju0s(jzovto, together with 
vukzUgkov, vzi/tmazi, (in which forms the first letter of 
EE is extended into EI for the sake of the verse :) 
dvYyiGnov^ root oiyyt^ okkffKov, root oKs in tuXstroc and 
ohkovro, T§odiS(T}C2, and again ffiriffzovro, icu'hkaKiro^ oj&i- 
6}iz. — The verbs without mood- vowel want it also under 
this form : "(^uvvvtrzito^ -Tri^vaery^ ovriv 'iXziT/cs, II., &), 752, 
'iffxov, /czfffc&T ht (/jsyoc^otfTi, Od., (p, 41, the bow of U- 
lysses lai/ lon^f was laid up, from KE in ^czifjuat, and 
like 'QuwmKZTO, also pOazio, pvffzzu. Lastly, before 2K 
is placed instead of E the A of the aorist in zovTrwrxSj 
pi'TrraffKov, pixrccffzi, hiappiTrTccffKiv. The only example 
of a 2nd pers. plur. is in ou ^ 'ir l(poi(TZid' v-Tror^o'Trov 
o'UccS Uiffdui, Od., %, 35. 

b. First aorist : ^ccffoc(TZiTO, ti^Gdamro, IXdactGKZv, S'7n%KffKS, 
i§7}rvffU(Tzs, ^^e^ocffxov, (/jvrjmfrzsTO, 6(jjOx.Xfi(Ta(TKe, ovr^ffaazs, 
oitTccffKS. A remarkable contraction of OH into Cl ap- 
pears in dyvcoffuffpcs, Od., -v^, 95, from dyvoriffooffus, which 
is falsely written with 22, dyvaiffffccfrKS,* although later 
authors have kyvuatrziv like aK^coffffsiv, &c. As in this 
instance, so O comes from OH in (icoaai/Ti, II., (Jj, 337, 
from (io?iffccg (ib., ^, 89, &c.), ixi^aaoujDci, Od., a, 378, 

* Even by Lobeck ad Phryn., p. 608, who refers it to the analogy of 
those in oxsom, and remarks " quod (scil. ayvuiasaem) LexicograpJd nuper 
<ad ayvbisadexfn referebant, nunc nibilo rectius ab ayvou (sic) repelunt." 

E e 


|(3, 143, i'^iQco(76(jjs0\ II., ;c, 463, cf. Bekker, p. 158 and 
§ ccxxi. 
c. Second aorist : gXec^g, lfft%ffx,z, T^oSaXsc^s, (pvyz(TzZj and 
without mood-vowel, hoffKov. Of the second aorist pas- 
sive the only example is (pdvitrxs instead of lipav;?, II., X, 
64, Od., X, 587. 
23. The augment with this form is very rare but not 
unknown. Thus we find 'i(pu(Jzov, £(pa<7«s?, s(poi(TKSV, e(pKffzs, 
l(pd(TZi6\ in twelve places, also ^vyiaTTJ^aiv IfLKryiazovro, Od., 
V, 7> supported by the rhythm, and instead of o^(rao-«£, Wolf 
has admitted from the Townleian MS. oo^aatjzz ; however we 
retain ai'^ocffxs, ccvh^truffxi, and even OT^vnazov, II., a, 24, 
where cur^vviGKOv was the earlier reading, — Of the compounds 
only Ta^sSafT^g, B., X, 104, dvi[Jbo§[jijv§i(Tzs, Od., (ju, '238^ and 
';ra§ifci(TKSTo, ib., f, 521, in the Townleian MS., have preserved 
the augment ; not so the rest : aVo-rXyfeo'^s, h'TnzXv^io'Kov, 
dTroKivrjffuffxs, Karu^rjvuffKS, h-zippriffffitrxov, huppi'TrruffKov. That 
before Aristarchus the augment stood in these forms we learn 
from the usage in Apollonius Rhodius, e. g. hz^afiffxov, 1, 
1074, dusKkO^eaKS, % 551, in the Paris. Schol. (cf. ib., Scha- 
fer, p. 175), kxiKkovkazov^ 3, 687, before Brunck's edition, 
dvsK^ovsffKoVj 4, 1650. 

§ CCXI. 


24. These tenses were frequently formed out of the simple 
roots, which in other, and partly later formations, have been 
altered by the insertion of vowels and consonants. So ^Xd- 
Sera/, II., r, 82, I66, Od., v, 34, together with (^Xd'Trrei, 
(iXd'TTOvtn, ^Xd'TTTOi ; Xlro(L&,i^ H., XV, 5, fLsXdvst, II., t;, 64, 
together with jM/sXa/fsr', ib., ff, 548, &c., and thus likewise 
T&(jijSii 11., V, 707* together with rif/bvuv, Od., y, 175. 

25. In the formation of the perfect the verbs are divided 
according to the three classes. The pures form their perfect, 
originally, only by reduplication and the terminations A, A2, 


E, which are the reHcs of the primitive form g« (ii. ,5,) and 
its persons 'ioig, h. Thus, 

1st, ^sA/a in Tz^thzi^K, II., k, 93, v^ 52, g>, 240, 242, 

2nd, hiliocg^ Od., <r, 80, 

8rd, ^sA/s, II., ff, 34, ^, 358, Od., ^, 306. 

The plur. in the same manner, though without A before 
^iv, rg, frc;, in the pures : 
1st, lii'hiJbsVy II., /, 230, &c. 
2nd, Isihrs, ib., y, 366, as imperative, 
3rd, (hshvTffi) Isbioiui, ib., m, 663^ with A instead of N. 
So also pluperf. khi%[^sv, ib., ^, 99, lleihiffuv, ib., g, 790, and 
VTrehlhauVj ib., g, 521, and in the same way those in A and 
T : gWa|M-gv, sffrarov, 'hran, laroidiy TBdmcriy ';n(pOa(T(f g^cATg- 
(puccai, or, where requisite, with prefixed A : (ii^oiocffif ysyoc- 
afftHf -ff/, hyysydoiffi, and pluperf. u[jtj(pM ^' IxyiydTfjVj Od., «, 
138, d'^STihuaocVf ib., ^w., 393. 

OJs. — Some lengthened by E form the perfect out of the original roots : 

g/ysw, «'gg/ya ; Souorsw, 8ido-j'!ra, whence didouTrSrogf II,, -v)/, 679. 

26. In their further developement they double their vowel, 
in the indicative only that of hocioj (loc) hihj^s, ^g^^g;, — in the 
rest merely that of the participle : rzOvyju/g, (|3a^g) (^s^cc^'/jora, 
&c. In the indicative, in order to strengthen the syllables, 
they insert « (as in ft,^ en, (Jb^^zirt,) before the terminations A, 
A2, E, &c., at the same time lengthening the vowel : (oiQcc- 
ag, (oi^oc-z-ccgy j3g€^^a?, (BiQrjKS, rUvi^KZ^ KiKy^ri'/Mg^ "TrzpvKZi^ II., 
\ 109, r&Coi^d'/ixaai, &c. 

Obs. — The old form ytydars (instead of ysyaTS like sCrars), Batrach., 
14'2, which places a before a short a, and then lengthens the latter, 
is probably a corruption for ysydaci, which might pi'operly stand, 
with a change of person, after o'lTivsg. There are stronger grounds 
for the abbreviation of aei in some places of Homer: ridvam' rifiriv 
Si Xikoyy^asiv ha ^toTsi, Od., X, 303, where Eustathius expresses a 
wish for MS. authority in support of the reading XiX6y^as\ which is 
now admitted, (''' and so in ib., ri, 114, rrifimaoi would more 


properly belong to the construction than irapmv. After Homer this 
usage is quite certain, and an example appears even in Antimachus : 

27. The simple perfect forms without K follow in their 
moods the original conjugation, i.e. that without mood-vowels. 
Imperative : hi%di, hihrs, (^kKv) xixXv&i, zzzkvrz^ ri^ncc^i, 
ridvara;, rerKccdi, rzrXdraj. — Optat. rzdvairjv, rsdvairjg, ri0mi/j, 
TBrXatrj. — Injin. with full termination ^si'a/, or shortened (i,zv : 
T&rKccfJbsmi, r&&miJbZvcci, rirXci(jtjis/, T5&vcIc(jijZv, (SsSapgv, h/cyzydijbzv, 

28. Of the participles of these we find, 

a. With radical vowel unaltered : (SsSao;?, iyyzyocviDt, Izyz- 
yavlcc, "hibdojg, 'ffs(puv7ci, ^zybccojg, the last, where requisite, 
with long A ; aXco fjbzi/jcca>g, II., cr, 754*, and (JbZ(jtjd6Tzg. 

h. These forms, after the short vowel, double the O : ^z- 
^acura, yzyocSra, (jbziMcccorzg, "TrzipvZTocg, except ^g/^/ora, 
^zihiorzg, ^zihioruv, 'hzihiorocg, on account of the measure. 
If it began with ^z it would also form ^^icoTug. 

c. The other pures in A, and all in E, lengthen the radical 
vowel, and take O or 17 according to the verse. 
Nom. zzK^riojg, 'TTZTrrjoog, rzdvricog and rzrvx/^cug, II., ^, 7^8, 
according to Heraclides in Eustath., p. I7OO, 1. 40, 
Gen. zzfC(/jr]aljrog, rz&vTiooTog, rz^vrjOTog, Kocrocrzhrivirjg, 
Dat. KZKOTriOTi ^v[/jS, II., (p, 456, &c., pcararz^vrjari, 

Ace. (izQa^rjorcc, KZKfjb'/jSJrcc and KZZfjjTjora, zzKU(p}^o7oc, 

Ttzyji^TiWct, TzdvriiiJTa, and TzhrjoTOi, 
Dual, zzKo^fjOTZ "TToirig, Od., c, 372, 
Plur. '7rz'!rTi^u)Tzg, rzrKrjOTzg, v'TroTTZTr-TriaTzg, 'TroTi'TTZ'TrrrivTai, 

ib., V, 98, '^Z'TTTTjCUTag, KOtTOCTzQvriaJTCOV. 

Ohs. — The X in the participle has improperly maintained itself after 
the H arising from A in re^i'^jjcwai/, Od., 6, 734. The forms with EI 
instead of ri according to jEoliCy i. e. very ancient analogy, such as 
xarari&muTog, &c., which were saved out of editions previous to 
Aristarchus, have been entirely removed from the most recent 


d. With AO contracted into Cl and E prefixed : ri&nuTi, 
Od., r, 331, 'TTZ'ZTzaJr, II., ^, 503. When the con- 
traction occurs in the feminine, the termination is ca : 
karcoGK^ rzdviojGu, &c. Of this kind we have in Homer 
only iSsSaJfl-a, Od., v, 14. 

29. Mutes. 

a. They adhere to the simple formation of the perfect : 
(lax) aiJj(piot,xvioi,v, (ii^Pidi, (^i^Pi^affi, jSsS^y^^y?, (BsQ§tij0oig, 
yiy'/l&i^ ysy^dii, Isho^fcojg, ihyihaig, 'ioiKoc, 'iokTa, kzkzv&z, kz- 
sckriyc^c, /CZKO'Traig, XiXoiTSV, oi^oc, -Trixoi^u, -rsTO/^s, •7ri(p§iKoc, 
':r&(p§iKvtai, -rs^yyorsj, rir§o(pcc, nr^ri'/ii, rsr^iyn, rsr^iyvTcct. 
According" to the demands of rhythm the radical vowel 
of the participle is shortened in several feminines : Xz- 
XoiKv7a, Od., [jb, 85, together with XsX'/jxcug, II., %, 141, 
^z^ocKvicci, ib., ^, 435, together with ^zyb^Kug. — There 
is no trace of aspiration of the p and k sounds, since 
TS7§o(piv, Od., "4/, 237, has the aspirate already in the 
root 7Pi(paj. — Likewise the use of pc in the mute verbs is 
not demonstrable, since (^sk,^ajKa)g, 11., x^ 94, Od., %, 
403, together with (ii^^d/dotg, II., S, 35, may be deduced 
from the root (igo, whence also Karcc^gug, and hsthoiKcCf 
together with hiho), from the form (hficu) liico ; these 
forms, however, being ascribed to (ogcodcu and Isihco, may 
have opened the way for the admission of « into the 
perfect of mutes with t sounds. 

b. In the participle we find together with zzKXrjytug in the 
plural KzaXnyovTzg, II., jO/, 125, ^, 756, &c., instead of 
xzKXrjyuTzg. Aristarchus, however, in the second edition 
(cf. the Harleian Schol. ad Od., S, 30, ivith Victorian 
ad II., T, 429, J introduced the common form zsxXT^ya/Tsg 
in place of zvKXnyovTzg, since he never spared any thing 
taken for ^Eolic, except where it was supported by the 
verse. Of the same origin is probably TiTgiyojTccg, II., 
j8, 314. The author of the treatise -tts^i '0(jij}]g. hccX. 
(Mattaire de Dial., ed. Sturz., p. 478,^ explains kz- 
KXriyovTsg as deriv^ed from KixXnyoTzg, with N inserted. 

Obs. — From e/3wg comes the feminine dat. plur. with the initial syllable 
shortened in the phrase Idviriffiv T^wridieffiv, and fo/xoD; forms the 


feminine s/xu/a, together with which ilxwg appears first with the 
Attics, since in the only Homeirc example r^ iixug, II., p, 254, we 
should read tw "xiXog, like r^ 7xsXos, ib, t, 11, to) 'izsXog, ib., w, 
758, Od., 5, 249, and must consider shojg as a mere gloss of the 
Epic word 'UiXog, which has crept into the text. 

30. Liquids. These also have the simple perfect formation 

in a : ((oovX in (BovXo[jtjOCi) 'yr§oQ,i^ovXoc, cc^rj^o^g, yzyovi, ysyMvajg, 
Tid'/jXs, rz6rikojg, ^i^rfkz, (JjS(/j'/jXu, ogoj^i, u^oj^zi, 11., c, 498, — the 
K is an entire stranger to them. — In the feminine participle 
they shorten the doubled vowel of the perfect formation : rz^Ti- 
Xug, r&0ciXv7c6, and so rsduXvirj, rzOocXvToiv ; a^ri^ojg and cc^yi^og, 
-oTog, -on, -ora, but cc^ugvlcc, ^ka^vlav, a^a^uioig. 

Ohs. 1. — The forms jas^aCAWx?, Tra^/z-j^CXwxs have the root /aoX (/aXo, 
liiliko, iMijjtZ'ko,) with inserted B (as out of Homer fii<sr\n.^icc from 
(juig-yjlji^s^ia,) and without M in T^oOMffziiv, xaraCXw(fxs/v. 

Obs. 2. — The forms x.s'^^dvdsi, 11., w, 192, and zs^avMra, ib., 4'> 2^^> 
Od., d, 96, together with (x;«^) X"'^^> '^X'*-^^^' ^^^® *^® '"°°* XANA, 
of which the N is visible also in the cognate ^%ai', %a/i/w, yawn^ 
Germ, gdhnen)^ X<^vwy x£;i^>]va. Like this is "kikii-^iTig, Hes., ^, 
826, together with Xs/%w, from the root AEIXM. Comp. 'Ki-)Qias&ai 
(cf. Buttmann Lexilog.^ P. /, n. 7, ohs.). 

31. The pluperfect has the full old form ea added to the 
root, and thus ends in the sing. EA, EA2, EEN. 

1st, rivcuysccy Od., /, 44, a, 26c>, ^, 55, 'XZ'Troi&zoCi ib., ^, 
181, iTidTjTrzoc ^v[/jS, ib., ^, 166, tj'^soc from si'^^y in 
^'^goj (Jbh ycc^, on — (z^jbuvzu, Otha ^s vvv, II., |, 72> 

2nd, irs^^Tgoj? ^yjO/^, Od., a, 90, 

Srd, ^'^ssj/, II., (T, 404, Od., -4/, 29, and yjhs, II., /3, 832. 

32. The termination EE is contracted into H in yjles, -/j^ri, 
II., 05, 70, &c. ; we find jjhi once, H., IV, 208. The ter- 
mination EI is, however, the common one for the Srd pers. 
pluperf. in other verbs ; likewise the termination EIN appears 
in ovK (i^ 'in ^;)j' 'EffTtjfcsiV avrov yoi^ VT^j^tTrs <pc6i^i(J!j(x, yvlci, 
II., "4/, 691, from iffTfjxszv, supported by the imperf. (risKizv) 


TJffKZtv, \h., y, 388, and by r^o&mv in Aristoph. Plut., 696, 
where see the Schohast and the remark of Hemsterhuis. 
According to this analogy Aristarchus gave nvoDyziv in II., ^, 
170, the Harleian Schol. gives the same in Od., s, 112, cf. 
II., g, 661, ^, 270, &c., hlii'TrvriKZiv, Od., ^, 359, &c. ^ Also 
nvMyiov, ihiiv 'irog, II., ri, 394, should be altered to rivuyny 
(scil. Yl^ioc[jtjOg). 

33. From ^hcc comes likewise the second person Tjzilrig, 
otherwise -/jsthig^ II., %, 280, contracted from riiihocg, and this 
from yj/ihag with prefixed H, as ^V for yjv. See the other 
forms under the verbs without mood-vowel. 



34. Pures. 

a. Most of the inflections are regular ; but the second 
person without 2 appears in (ii^X^^ccif II., s, 28, X, 380, 
f, 251, and contracted in (Jbifjuvri for (Jbsujvrjui. The last 
persons ATAI, ATO, for NTAI, NTO, (Bs^Xmrcct, 
Trs'TTorrioiTOit, (is^oXyiccrui, jSsSx^aro, jSsSoA^aro, ^s^^jjaro, 
KiKknoito, -zsipo^riocTO, and according to Hesychius, Cyril- 
lus, many Mss., and editions before that of Barnes, also 
^ocrat, ^ccTo, zudrjocro, cczofx/iccro, in which EI is now 
predominant, — 7tiy/k^ce.T0^ Od., |, 282, si^vuroci, &c., 
and with extension retained in the root (6cc-loii) hlatccrai 
(perhaps ^g^jjara/). — The form cc^7i^o^hri.f II., <r, 548, 
from (i^ou, maintains the short vowel here, as in other 
parts, k^oau, a^oy^zmi. — With 2 assumed appear rgrg- 
Xgcros/, rsrsXiff(Jtjivog, ourccffrai, II., X, 667, '^, 62, from 
ovTccco, whence ovras yj^'hjtoj, Od., %, 365. — With a 
prefixed in the infinitive, }Kx,ioyb(x,i., divide^ (^a) ^g^aac^a/, 
Od., T, 316. 

b. There are also some forms of the optative and conjunc- 
tive : ug yjZ^vicoTO h^of/jov^ II., -4^, 36l, from (/jS[Jbvu-oi-TOj 
AG being changed into EH, and [/jifjtjvrjijjriv, ib., <w, 745. 
Eustathius, for the explanation of the form KZKl.n(^riVi 


and the Etym. Mag. under fjus[AvsM70, cite from Pindar 
fijS(j!jVOitocTO ((JbsiJbvavTO for iM[jjvriVTo). However, the 
Homeric passage alluded to, — ovbi ri yboi emj -TrvKivov 
gVoj, ovTi jczv ah) yii^v^i^riv vvKTocg rz xcci ^(Jbura, ^ock^v- 
XZov(Tu, — would admit also the indicative (upon which I 
would have thought). The conjunctive appears in aXku 
Ta^t. fJtjZ[jjVco[jijzdci, Od., f, 168, from ^i^voc-u^zQa. — Of 
another optative form, KzkuTOf Od., c, 238, we shall 
speak hereafter. 

c. Lastly, some with reduplication have the accent thrown 
back : (aXs) aKccK'/ifJbDci, aXdXrjtrdai, akccX^(jjZi/og, and (a%s) 
aKccx>l(^cici, cizoi'x/jTaf, ccKCfx/iffjZvog. Cf. Etym. Mag., p. 
45, 1. 50, p. 56, 1. 20 and 31. The last, on account 
of the verse, takes in the feminine cc!C7]-x,s[jijZVf], II., g, 364<, 
and cczfj-x^siMSvocii ib., o-, 29. In conformity with this we 
should alter, with the Venetian Scholiast, ccKOi-Xj^frdoct, II., 
r, 335 f into ocKoix/lffdcct, which was admitted also in Od., 
S, 8O6, according to the Harleian. The Scholiasts call 
this retrocession of the accent j^oiic. 

35. Mutes. 

a. The consonant remains unaltered before M in az (ac-us, 
needle^ cckcxx, (like tvk, Tzru%^ tztzv^), dza-x^pbzuovj 
kK(XYjjAvcc^ Iho^xjyj, [hz\ijO^\)yj^zvoL^ Od., f, 435, contrary 
to which reading f/bziJuo^v/iMzvoc has remained in the text, 
fcu^vd (in xo^ug, 7co^v&-og\ %.zx,o^v&^zvog^ -ov, -ot, -oi. 

b. P and k sounds, unchanged in the perfect active, are 
aspirated in the passive of the following : egym in (p^zvzg 
z^y^ocTCit, II., TT, 481, &c., t^zttso (r^a-r), m Xaoi t I'tti- 
7ZT§oiipoc70ii fcoit Toaact ijJzjjjrikzv^ ib., j3, 25, 'TC^iovhz ya^ 
OAzi T£r^a<pa^', OTtitor ziii T^uuv aioizv lovrcov, ib., ;c, 189, 
(o^zy^ h^uKovTzg hq^oi^zyjxjro it^ori hi^riv, ib., X, 26, &c. 

c. Especially note-worthy of this class are a,v^(p&oj in Od., 
jM/, 51, from avd-TTTu^ root cc<p in aipij, thus ccv-r,^-(T^c»), avr;- 
(p0co, 3rd pers. sing, imperat. perf. — ' Ax)^-)(zhccT in 0" 
Tov "hzv^ o^ooovTzg aKriy^^ocT, II., ^, 637, ^^'^ afflicted. 
This form supposes a root AXE A with A, reduplicated 
AKHXEA, and aKriy^^zhocTat must be for oix.yjX,z^vT(x,i, 
but its thenia {ot,KOc%zV) aKocxi^oj, whence oi-xocxi^zig^ 
aKayil^zb, in Homer, so that in the change of A to Z 


the preceding s becomes /. A derived form in -iZoo, 
however, as an offshoot of an older form, can scarcely 
produce genuine forms so distant as darix^locTCit, and 
hence the variation dKrixza,r merits particular attention. 
To wit, as (a%s) a^ytar^W'-^^'i is related to a.y.rix^^'^^n^ so 
is {arM%n^7o) uKocxm^o, II., {l, 179, related to dx7jXiccT0 
in this place. — 'Eog/^o; has from l^^iih rjo^^nffro, II., y, 358, 
I, 136, and from gfs^, i^jj^s^ara/, ib., -v^, 284, Od., ??, 
95; but in ib., ?j, 86, sAjjXaLr' seems the better reading 
(from kXccuvij), an uncommon form of IX^Xoctch. If we 
compare this eX'/jXccTai with iXr}}MTo, II., \ 135, and 
yjXfjXccTo, ib., e, 400, and with the general analogy of 
the language, we shall perceive that the plural had 
(IX^XocvTo') IXriXoiaTO, IXfiXoiccr ; and this last open and 
uncouth form, as above in d^rix^oc^i admitted A even 
against the common analogy. — 'Eppce^ara/, Od., y, 354, 
gppaBar', II., |M/, 431, exhibit again the A, but here the 
root PA A has its support in pa^^y, besprinkle, whence 
loj[jtjOi . . . poiffffOiTS, Od., V, 150, and in pa^a/oo/yys?, 
hlood-dropsy from pa^ and a<jo(/a (a^/y? like Xoc-g, Xai'yl). 
3Q, Liquids. 

a. They follow generally the common rules : tWccXto, 
TiTOiVTQ, cdaypv (ai(r%vv-iJjivog\ 7iffxv[jj(/jevog, where the 
variation ^(rxu[Ji>mg deserves no notice, o^ digdcci, II., ^, 
474, dyei^oj {dy&o) dyrjyigoid' offffot, ib., h, 211, z^uiccivco 
from K^aVy k^ccuv, WiziK^oiocvTcci, Od., \ 6I6, sing, like 
((p«v) -rgipavra/, II., t, 208, but (<pu) 9rg(pavra/, ib., g, 
531, «re */am. 
^. O instead of E appears in the root in the two difficult 
forms TgTTOff^s and gy^;jyo^^a/. The first in jccckoc voXXck. 
'jri'TTOffk EhzK ifj^TJg 'igi^og, II., y, 99> in the speech of 
Menelaus to the hosts, cf. Od., «, 465, -4/, 53, root 
^sv, Tov, in 'TTivoyijai, the radical word of Q7rzv-z-&a)) '^rzvQco, 
thus {ttov) 'Trk'TTovsk, 'Trivodk ; the other in iypfiyo^dxt 
clvoix^h Il-> ^5 67, (pvXotzjjg [juvfiffocade zoii gy^^yo^^s, ib., ri, 
371, 0-, 299, derived from gyg^ in iyzi^iu, awaken, which 
strengthens, by the assumption of ^, the series of weak 
syllables caused by reduplication in gysyo^: gy^syo^, 
ly^nyo^, ly^fiyo^-crOi, iy§r]yo§ds,3,ndly§riyo^(Tdoct, ky^riyo^doct. 


to he awakened^ to he awake. Thus both carry 
their O into the passive forms. The Etym. Mag., p. 
312, 1. 34, says that forms of this kind, 'i<p0o^0ai, (jui- 
fjbo^doii, TiTo^daif lygriyo^daiy are proparoxyton as being 
j^oUc. Cf. n. 34. The bastard form ly^Tiyd^&aGt for 
ky^f^yo^aai, II., «, 419> must have come from this. 



3J. Pure verhs. The simplest forms are those with the 
vowel unaltered before 2, which is doubled where the verse 
requires : y'lKciaciv and y'lkaaaav^ rfkccaccv and ll^Xaffffav, a/^s- 
aircLi and al^iaasrut, agscrffofjbutj viizi&a) and vi'ntiaaz^ &c. 
Whether the duplication of the 2 after short vowels had certain 
limits, cannot be ascertained. Many verbs, e. g. -ro^sa;, 
'TTohdOLv, 'TTo^kaui, appear only with single 2. It is superfluous 
in zoviffffovGiv, II., I, 145, since KoviovTzg, ib., v, 820, -v^, 372, 
&c., has long iota, whence also zoviGoiXco, ib., g, 503, is to be 
preferred there and in other places to the other reading x-ovis- 
GoKu. — The forms with single 2 often lose this letter in the 
active future: z^zi/jOoj, II., yi, 83, root x§s[jij«, from which 
z^i(jijOcffSi z^sffjoiffCiVTeg, ayz^si/^daocffoi. Thus it is z^Z[jijdc(Tco, with 
2 ejected z§B[jjaJ, and with O inserted z§&[jij6m : (^J avriou, II., v, 
752, ^&o(J!jcci in ^rj^ov jSs?;, ib., t, 852, g^so;, ib., Zj 534, za- 
"k&ovffccy Od., f, 412, &c. — Kico in o^ao zicov, Od., ??, 342, about 
to lie down, in order to lie down, and the extended form 
ziiu), ib., r, 340, &c., together with zoczzzlovrzg. The root 
appears in the Latin ja-CEO, and its future ja-CEBO, 
compared with this future ziu, shows clearly enough the analogy 
of such forms. — Ko^gs/j, II., v, 831, ^o^gg/, ib., ^, 379, f> 241, 
where, however, the form with 2, which elsewhere also is 
given as a variation, has remained in the text : rgXgg/, ib., 3^, 
415, l^vovfTi, ib., X, 454, h^avOco yg, ib., X, 365. 

38. Next to the forms with the short vowel stand those 
with the vowel doubled : uyu-^tiffccy avirjazt, arar^CA/, ahrjffovffi, 


Tifffiffoiffdaif hocK^vauffcc^ l^^uazi, yj^aircti. Of this class also 
some lose 2 in the future and aorist. — AAi7, jind (compare 
in-DAG-o, the root of which, since G is here only a formal 
letter, is identical with the Greek), fut. 'htcfb) (in-DAGABO), 
^^^y, whence ^^s/?, Iriofjtjsv, l-^ers, are all three used only as 
futures. — nin, drink, whence cr/W in Pind. Isth., 6, 71 
(108), in the middle 'ffio[jijcct, whence TrioiJtjivog, wishing to 
drink, Od., x,, l60, II., v, 493. — Ka/<s; (root zap, ^a), aor. 
g^?ja, ib., a, 40, ^, 240, &c., Krjiv, ib., <p, 349, formerly 
written with iota subscript 'i-ycrjcx,, inaccurately, since the AI 
which later appeared in the present by the extension of A 
can as little give I to the older form 'izT^a, as <pa/W can to 
I'^pjfa, which comes from the root (pav. The form 'i-/C7iov, Od., 
/, 553, arose, as the Harleian reading shows, from a confusion 
of 'izrjcc with 'izuioi/, the proper reading. — We find also the 
optative Kyjcct, II., (p, 331), %r;aiiv, ib., m, 38, and the infin. 
K^ui, Od., 0, 97* Together with these well-grounded forms 
with Tj, we have in our editions another series of forms with 
it : KocTOiKUOii, z2to[jjSv, KiiavTzg, &c., as to which the mss. 
sometimes vary between EI and H, sometimes give EI 
without variation. The latter reading is ascribed by the 
Ambros. Schol., ad Od., X, 74, to Aristarchus. It stands 
in the same rank with ^a^^^s/iyv, Kararz&vziajrcov (since the 
assumption of zlco for Kaioo is inadmissible), but confounds 
the forms of Kuioj with those of ziu, ziico (split and lay, cf. 
Eust. ad Od., t,, p. I766, /. 21^; e.g. kus[mv, KOiTCiKikrs, 
zccrocKzio^jbiv, at the expense of clearness. — 2 is dropped like- 
wise from cifcio[jijai in ccKZidiLZvoi, H., t, 29 ; where another 
reading is cckuoimsvoi. There is the same difference in ockuo- 
^jZvov, Od., I, 383, but in both places the aorist is supported 
by the context. — ' Axio(jjoc{, avoid, gives, rfkivotro, 
dKeuu[/jivog, dkzvatj&oii ; and \vithout T : aXiUffds, aXi'/jrcii, aXsaj- 
(jtjsdoc, aXiUffdcci. — 2EFn gWsya, ffiva, gzvzv, (Tivug, (Tiuocro. — 
Xio), yiva, 'ix^usv, yjvii/, yjva[Msv, 'iyjvav, conj. yjva}, &c. ; and 
without T: g^saf, &c. The forms with 2, 11., ri, SQ, &c., 
are now removed. 

Ohs. — In some the usage varies between the long and the short vowel : 
ouraffec, II,, X, 421, and outtjCs, ib., 434. So in the forms of fiayofAdi 


which have /*«%£ as their root. The form with the short vowellia 
certain : fiayieaG&at, 11, y, 20, 433, &c., fia-)^isaio, ib., ^, 329, 
fj^ay^sdairo, and the future f/^ayjeovrai, without 2 in the forms iiayurai, 
II., V, 26, iJjrf)(ionaiy iLur/imro, fi,(xy\m7o. Hence we should expect 
the duplication of the 2 to be sufficient for lengthening the syllable. 
But the duplication of 2 and of E, E22 and H2, contend with each 
other in almost every place according to the mss. and the Gram- 
marians: (jjayisaaihat and iLayr\<soiiai, II., y, 290, (iayri]SaiiJ.7\v and 
(i.(xyi(S(ia't[hriV, ib., v, 118, &c. For H2 the Venetian Scholiast on II., 
a, 298, cites the authority of the editions of Massilia, Argos, Sinope, 
which were, therefore, later than the Peloponnesian war, since they 
had the long vowels, and that of Anilmachus and Ai istopJmnes. 
The other Venetian Scholiast adds the authority of Aristarchus, but 
opposes to this the doctrine of HeracleoHy to which he gives the 
preference. Heracleon, though he wrote the nouns fha.yj]ihm, iia- 
•/rfrn'ii with H, wrote the verbal forms with 22. It seems that 
Aristarchus must have been induced by the orthography of these 
nouns to prefer the H, not reflecting that a conclusion from these to 
the verb can as little be drawn as from axo^jjrog to xo^sw, which, in 
spite of this verbal, has in the corresponding forms always E2 or 
E22 : xo^idae^ai, xogstJCaro, &c. Both modes of writing have main- 
tained themselves in Homer since Antimachus and Aristophanes, 
until Wolf finally sacrificed that with E22 to that with H2. — From 
the future forms /xap^soi/ra;, &c., we must distinguish the participles 
fj^ayiioiMivogy Od., X, 400, w, 113, and iJ.cL-/io\)iiivog, ib., g, 471, which 
are to be referred to (layiGiojjjai with 2 ejected, &c. 

39. Mute and liquid verbs have in these tenses Httle that 
is irregular. — Of the mutes we find without 2 in the future 
'ihojjjcn from 'zhco, II., \ 237, &c., perhaps because lao^cci 
might be confounded with the future of z\[JjL Also in the 
aorist we may remark the forms associated with (p'l^ca^ miKa^[Jbsv, yjviiKav, &c. {nvzyzzv^ Od., %, 493, has been changed 
to nvii}tiv\ and according to iVristarchus g/ra?, II., a, 106, 
108, to which Wolf has preferred sTts?, as well as 'iwTng to 


hivccg, II., a, 55'2,, &c., although he has left zi'TCotTz^ Od., 7, 
427, and giWa^', ib., (p, 198. — Of the liquidsy several in P, 
A, and N, have the 2 in their 1st aorist : "Af<a/, a^ffs, iTcrj^az, 
agffov, agffccg, a^ffocvrsg. Ksi^co, sxs^ffzv, zs^ffuvrsg, hazsgaat ; 
but without 2 in the sense of devour: (jb^Xcc — KUTiKn^av, Od., 
•v^, 356, and in the middle a-Trozsi^affdoci. — ('O^,) ouoffz, df^aav, 
ogffrjg, o§(Tocg, Ivio^acig, sVo^ffov, gTo^cs/ap. — (Oy^,) (pv^au. — A. 
TtiKKw, i'7riH.sK(r3V, s'/cskff0i[/jsv, i'?rr/ikacx,iy iTriKsKcTDcvrsg. — E A, (g/Xso;,) 
iKffav, 'iKffociy i\Got.g. — N. (jciv, zsvAcij,) nkvaoii, II., -v^, 337. 

Obs. — To the liquids belong also the forms generally associated with 
(piXsca, of which the root is not fiXe, but <piX : sipiXaro, piXaro, (pTkai, 
II., jc, 280. Add hrtva MoZcat (piXuvraiy H., XXIV, 5, as is now 
rightly read instead of (pTXivvrai. 

40. The imperative of the 1st aor. mid. has the 2nd pers. 
sing. 2EO instead of 2AI in ^vffzo, II., r, 36, &c., fcccroc^v- 
cgo, Xg^so, o^ffzo, og<T&v, and ag/o-go, H., XVI, 1, of Hermann's 
edition. — In the same way ETO for ATO is always found 
in hvG&To, yet in the plural ^vffuvro, II., \p, 739. Between 
jS^ffgro, iQrjffsro, aTg^ijcgro, &c., and (oriffaro, e^^ffccro, a^rgS^- 
(TOiTOy the Mss. vary in almost every place. — JEpaphroditus 
was, according to the Venetian Scholiast, of opinion, that we 
should write E, when it stands for ocTTi^am, but elsewhere, 
aTTi^fiffciTO. — The A of the aorist disappears likewise in afgrg, 
II., y, 105, cf. &), 778 ; add olcg, brt?i^y Od., %, IO6, 481, 
oiffiTcj, II., r, 173, Od., ^, ^55, ohiTB, II., y, 103, 0, 7I8, 
and Od., y, 154, where ohzrs is preceded by poiaaciTS, 150, 
and H,oidf]^ocT£, 152. Still without A are : I^ov, l^sg, H., I, 
230, 278, and perhaps also the infinitive oWi^hzvy Od., y, 
429, &c. The distinction between the terminations, and 
their allotment to the several tenses, has no where limits 
exactly ascertained. 




41. Pures, The assertion of recent Grammarians, that 
pure verbs have no second aorist, is much restricted by a 
regard to Homeric usage, since no inconsiderable number of 
such forms, derived from a shorter root than that of the 
present, is found in his poems, which are to be ranked under 
the extended present, just as 'ikiTov, 'i(pvyov^ under XziTco, (psvya/. 
Thus the 2nd aor. yoov, II., ^, 500, belongs to yodoisv, Od., 
Of, 190, yofii^zvcn, II., I, 502, — Xoov, H., I, 120, and Ao' g» 
r^iTTohog, Od., z, 361, to (Xokadcct') \oviG&ai, II., ^, 508, 0, 
9.Q5i o^ovTO to o^sovTo, ib., -^z, 212, hrvyov, Od., %, 113, 
jCDCTiffTvys, II., §, 694, to (rruykif ffrvyeyiai ; further, rivajyi and 
ygy^yi'S to rivuyiov and yzyuvzov. Lastly, with a diphthong, 
ai'^gro, ai'^so, cci^ofjbsvog, to ai^so(/jOct, aihTffdai^ and with A, 
(juiiJuriKov (K) together with (jbfjxoc, in (Jiifipcoilsg and the post- Ho- 
meric yj7^X,(X,M. 

42. The mutes have generally the short vowel in the 2nd 
aorist, yet we find with the long vowel (like aiWo, i^zi/jtikov), 
'jTi'^fh^yov^ 'Tn'TrXyiyovTQ, ■rsTrX^ygro, &c., and pass. ZK-TrXfiyrj, Ik- 
'TrXfiysvng, so that even here the boundaries between the imperf. 
and 2nd aor. were not yet rigorously observed. 

43. Of futures we must remark, 

«. Those which lose A : ccyX(x,'i'^o[jbcn (in Pindar), 2nd fut. 
(ayXai'^sojU/a/,) ccyXccieiffdut, II., k, 331 ; (Koyijibioo) zoybia, 
Od., 0, 545, xTS^iai, II., ff, 334, KTS^tovat, ib., X, 456, ;:^^, 
336. («) 

^. The so called second futures of the liquids, o^ztrcit, II., 
Vf 140, 6xk(r0oif, ib., 0, 700* ^Xyvgoyffa/, Od., ^,31, 
(TTifJijcicvzoifj v'?rz§0ogmrat. To these belong also the forms of 
the root HE 2, which, by its final consonant is allied to 
liquids : ^go-govra/, II., X, 824, '^effkcrdat^ ib., i, ^35y &c., 
and the single form from the class of mutes rezzTffOai, 
H., Ill, 127. — These are really to be considered as 
forms, which have lost 2 out of the full future termina- 
tion £<rOjM/a/. 


§ ccxv. 


44. Both passive aorists follow generally the common 
form : gXs^^pjv, iciv0'/j, l^iyT^, jW-'V'?? ^^' > 7^^ the 3rd pers. 
plur. is often formed by the addition of merely N to the root, 
EN instead of H2AN, e.g. riyz^kv, T§K(psv, fjt>iyev. One form 
has H in this termination : ybidv6riv u'lybXTi (/jyi^ot, II., ^, 146. 

45. The forms of lT^oc,(priv have the short vowel also in 
other persons : iT§ci(pir7iv, 'ir^cc<p a^iffrog^ II., (p, 279> where 
Herodianus more accurately accented lT^tt,p\ r^aip' h) (Msyd^co^ 
ib., |3, 661, as a various reading instead of r^ci(p'/] h (jbsyci^M, 
and ir^d<pi^iv, ib., i^, 84, in the pre- Alexandrian mss., r§cc(p&- 
fjtjsv for T^K<p?ifJbsvoii or T^cc(p?jvai^ ib., f], 199, Cj 436, Od., y, 28. 

46. The roots, which have assumed N in the present, 
retain it for the most part in the first aorist : not only lav^g, 
V'7n6i^^a,v&ri, but also xKivdijuctii ha?cgiv0'/i(Jb5voctt and K^tvdiPrsg, as 
well as K^i&ivng, nay several assume N for the first time in 
this form : a^j^'n-vvvdri, II., |, 436, th^vvGi^auv, ib., y, 78, ??> 56, 
hri^tvdrjTrjVf ib., t, 7^6. 



47. The first personal termination (Jbi is, with the excep- 
tion of uhyj[j(ji, Hes., g, 628, banished from all verbs but those 
without modal-vowel, in the indicative ; but it appears in 
some conjunctives. Thus in II., -/^^ 450, the old reading even 
of the earlier editions is i^a)(jj\ oriv 'i^ya TiTVKrai, and in ib., 
c, 63y Od., r, 490, tla>(M, zTiimiiii, are cited as variations by 
Seber in the Argus Homericus. Since Hermann (de emend, 
ratione Gramm. Gr., p. ^Q3,) pointed to the same forms, 
after Eustathius, more of this kind have been restored : aya- 
yo/jM//, II., (w, 717* WikuiJijiy Od., (p, 348, ry%&;|M</, ib., x> 7* 

48. The second person, 


a. 21 in the active is ehortened to 2 when the termination 
0A is added ; this 0A, however, is retained only in 
certain forms \ in the indicative where there is no 
modal-vowel : gpjc^a, 'it,st(T0K, '^u^tja^ci, ri0yi(T0u, <p^(T0u ; 
also in llloia^cc, II., r, 270, and (o/^ac-^a) ohdoc ; in 
the optative : jSaXo/c^a, zXuioktOcc ; in the conjunctive : 
(BaXTja^a, s'lTryjada, ev^riffda, Wzkyia&cc^ ^vvriG&a, 5ra^£|gXa- 
ayia&a, &c. 

b. In the passive it generally remains open, after the 
ejection of 2 : iT/rgXXsa;, KzK&ai, ohvoeoity oi'sui, 'i'^'kio, 
7x20, ahvffccOf &c. The treatment of such syllables falls 
under the same rule as that which applies to pure verbs. 

49. T'he third person Tl changed to 21, is, in the indica- 
tive (besides in those without modal-vowel), still visible in 
Ta;M/(pa/f;jfl'/, II., e, 6. According to Heraclides (^Eustath. ad 
Od., 7], p. 1576, I. 3%) this is the only example of the 
kind in Homer. Before the last edition of Wolf, ccv&x^(Tty 
(p's^riffi, (S^/^^jc/, still stood. Schafer ad Lambert. Bos, p. 
50% requires '7r^o(pi^i^aiv, II., /, 323, and or^vvfjcn, Od., |, 
374, and in 'Tniazrat oicGa, ol Aica xccraxXouhg re jSa^sTiz;, ib., 
;?, 197) would read, according to Eustathius, ut supra, Aiacc 
xaTa!ckco0ri(Ti (ioi^&Tu (suppressing v. 198). Buttmann re- 
marks, that these forms appear only after oVrs, where the 
syntax may have the conjunctive, and in like manner g«ra- 
[jijvy](Ti, II., y, 62, ^g^jc;, ib., %, 23, (jbivriffi, ib., Xi 93. Ad- 
mitting the validity of this remark, we should have in -Trocfjtj- 
(patvrjffi the pure conjunctive without iota subscript, of which 
presently. — Of the optative there is an example in si h' a^^z 
'7ru^ci(p0aij^(Tt -^roheaat, IL, «, 346, which, according to the 
Venetian Scholiast, almost all the copies have ; those which 
varied must therefore have read '7rcc§(x.(pdr]yiffi or '7roc§cc(p0ociri(Ti. 
Another example is al xk (a k'Tnyvok — hi kzv ccyvoii^Gi, Od., &;, 
218 ; but then we should read ai'«g y^ I'TCiyvo)?} — ^g x,iv ccyvoirjffi 
from ayvoiico, which gives ayvoihaag, ib., u, 15. — In the con- 
junctive this termination is very frequent : dyriaiv, kyvoiriaiv, 
asih^ffiv, okakTiriaiv, &c. It is manifest, that in these forms, 
arising from the root, the modal-vowel H, and the termination 
21, the iota subscript can claim a legitimate place as little, 
as in datives of the first declension like oiyo§^p, since it was 


only after the ejection of 2 that H2I became HI, and this 
was contracted into /i. 

50. In the second and third persons dual and plural the 
distinction is not so sharp, as in the later form of conjugation, 
between chief and secondary tenses, and between the dual 
and plural numbers. The second persons for chief and se- 
condary tenses are known to be, dual, erov, s(t0ov, plural, sre, 
i(T0s. Here terminations are so far confounded, that the later 
dual forms, srov, zfrdov, are used as plural : 'AXA.' ays^' cog av 
\ycov ii'Ttoi)^ 'TTiihadi rdyjcrcx,' 'Icr/a ^h "Tr^oirov zdhrov, H., I, 
i87 (for ^a^srs), says Apollo to the sailors, where also Xv- 
rrccvTs (^oiixg, which ends the verse, is to be considered plural. 
— Ti(p0' ovTcog 7](Tdov r&ri7^oT£c, ib., 456, for ^^a^s. — The third 
persons dual, divided according to chief and secondary tenses, 
viz. chief tenses, &rov, za&ov, — secondary, srpjv, ia^riv, are so far 
unchstinguished, that several forms of the secondary tenses 
have the terminations proper to the chief, i. e. srof, i(j6Qv, for 
srjjf, iG&riv, but the contrary does not occur, i. e. the chief 
tenses have never irriv, iad'/jv, for zrov, ia6ov. The use of the 
active rov for rriv is supported by three Homeric forms : rs- 
Tivx^Tov or IrzvyjTov, II., v, 346, }iiajzirov^ ib., x,, 364,* Xa- 
pvfTffirov, ib., or, 579. For the same change in the passive 
voice we may cite : ^co^y](T(Ti(70oi>, II., v, 301, for ^u^riaaia&nVi 

xgo$, Etyni. M., p. 280, 1. 34. The reason is here given, why it could 
not be 6/w/csr>j!/ : the verse rejected it, — but then the simplest step was to 
shorten the H, so that the forms would have been Irrj-^/inv, diajTCsrev, 
XaipuffsiTsv. Schafer ad Scliol. in Apollon, Rhod., p. 146, admits for the 
active at least of these tenses in the oldest shape of the language a double 
dual formation : 2nd, irov, 3rd, irov, 2nd, irriv, 3rd, irnV- " Sed posterio- 
rum usus temporum, grammatica subtilius an argutius exculta, termina- 
tionem in ov assignasse secundse personse, in riv tertiee (videtur)." This 
admission goes further than the examples, none of which has sr'/jv for the 
second person. It seems certain that £t?)i' was the original form, and 
that the other proceeded from the shortened srsv changed into srov, since 
analogy rejected iv as a personal termination (at least where s was not a 
radical vowel). 



without metrical necessity, and S6' ccvsoz '^M^rjffffsciOov, II., tt, 
218, as some read instead of ^a/^rj/rffovro. Thus there is an 
exchange of the forms 

erov for grs, &tov for irtju, 

ffhv for c^s, (700V for adriv. 

51. In the plural of the passive the verse decides as to the 
use of the terminations (jusfrdov, (MSffda, and (Mdov^ [Jbidu, e. g. 
^ot.'XPiJjia&a. and ^axi^GoiiiZ&cc, STOiJusfrdoc and rzo'rroji/jzda. — A for 
N appears not only in the perfect but also in the optat. IsuotoiTO, 
iTroiccro. The use of the short modal vowel instead of the long 
in the conjunctive has been already considered, § clxviii, 11. 

Obs. — We find from 6<piKku the third pers. sing. opt. op'iXXsiiv, II., t, 
631, Od., /3, 334, perhaps to avoid confusion between ofiXko}, in- 
crease, and oipBiXu, owe, by using the aorist form hfiiXsnv. The 
aorist forms in na, siag, uiv, together with a//A/; aig, at, are, however, 
frequent in Homer. 

52. The imperatives have in the 3rd pers. plur. only r&^v 
and (J0m, not raffav and a&uaav : larcav^ sVsc^&fv, oristinm, &c. 



5Q. The passive infinitives have the usual form ; in the 
active their full form is psva/ or s^sj/a/ from 'iijufjbsmi, the ab- 
breviations of which are s(Jbsv, (jusv, (g^) siv, von, and cci. 

54. The present has, 

a. Kfjusvoct, s[jbiv, ziv : ccfiovs[Mvoc(, azovi^zv, ockovhv, ocysfJbZVf 
ayeiv, ikKSiMvoci, sX}ci[jjiv. So also the first future ; afs- 
fjijivoii, 6c,^i(jbiv, afs/v, (piXktVy (pCkCiv. 

b. M.ZV0CI, va,t, in pure verbs. Thus with H before the 
termination : a^-^i^ivut, yorjiJijivon, 'Truvrifjuivcci, from aguof, 
yooicif, Tuvoioif, so zuK/jf/jSvoit, '^svdrjf/^zvcn, To0y;[/jsvoit, (piKfj- 
fjuevcii, (po§'/i(jbsvc6(, II., 0, 310, and (po^^vai, ib., /3, 107, ^i 
149, &c. Thus likewise the passive aorists : aiiPCKj^'/j- 
yjivcii, uyj(jt^ivoci, and oct^von, aXyjiMvai and aX^voci, H,r//iiMvai 


and Tciyjtvoci^ ^ay][Mvccf and ^ocjjvat, zuriiMvai^ ccoWiadriy^ivai. 
From those in O there appears aoo^zi/ai (from cc^oco), 
Hes., £, 12, with a short vowel in this form. With E 
unaltered we find uymujivai, Od., v, 213, from ayivzco. 

55. Of the perfect, except those forms without modal 
I vowel in ^zvui, uav^ already discussed, such as tzDvuimvoci, 
Tidvoc(jtj£u, and tl[Mvoci, II., v, 273, from othcc, no others are 
common either in the Epic language, or that of Pindar, who 
has y&yuKiiv as infin. of yeyaxcc, Ol., 6, 44 (^S3). The ter- 
mination ivoii appears first in Herodotus. 

56. The infinitive of the first aorist adheres to rule ; that 
of the second has s[JjSvcci, k^Lzv, as well as the common form siV, 
which frequently stands in the open form 'mv : hCkoCkiciiJjivoLi^ 

i^ziv, '7rs'rXriyi[jijiv, xip^cchs^jjiv, '?r&(p§cihkii>, 'zccOktu, Triisiv, TocyjUiUf 
(pccykiu, ipvyhiv, yj/})kiiv. A confusion between the 2nd future 
and aorist cannot occur, since, so far as I am aware, of the 
former no active injinitive, even in liquid verbs, is found, 
but only the infinitive middle. We find of the future (iaXica, 
(iocXz&i, (DcckiOi/Tu, ; but (iaXkiu, (docXuv, always as aorist forms. 
So the future forms ^uu[jijUvsovTig, TtXvviovaa, "TrXvAovffui, with- 
out an infinitive ; licczgivkif II., (3, 387 ; but infin. hocx^ivk- 
ffdcci, Od., c, 149. The same remark applies yet more forcibly 
to mute verbs, which, as is known, entirely want the second 
future active. Aor. 'yreakiv, II., ^, 82, &c., mkiv, ib., &>, 608, 
of which the futures 'TTifrkadcci, ib., ;, 235, &c., rzKiiaQon^ H., 
Ill, 127, were cited § ccxiv, 43. Likewise ihkiv, ihziv, 
which the Etym. Mag., p. 465, 1. 49, describes as ko^iarog 
^iuTi§og Koc} fjuiXXoiv, is really found only as an aorist. Hence 
the terminations are : 

2nd fut. inf. act mid. ktrdcci, eTffdocii 

2nd aor. — — kif, g/V, — sadui, . . . 



57. Not a few forms have remained in the old shape 


without »i modal vowel, so that they come near to the perfect 
and pluperfect ; and thus the houndaries between two tenses 
run into each other, especially since the perfect sometimes 
wants reduplication. 

58. Perfects and pluperfects of this sort are : 't^fjuivui, 'i^[jbzy, 
i'Tri'Tn&^iv, ilXrikov^iiiZv, uktov, htKryjv, resemble^ hence equivalent 
to the full forms kot/carov, \oiH,drriv^ &c. — also in the passive 
'i'iKTo, II., -4/, 107. From l^yo), restrain, the perfect has, 
without reduplication, 'i^ccroci, see n. S5, h, and from k^iko} 
kPYiijJivoq, Od., ^, 2, cf. 11., 0-, 335, &c. — The Etym. Mag., 
p. 56, 1. 51, marks this want of reduplication as peculiar to 
the ^Eolians, who said 'XoiriiMcii, vo'/^i/^xi, — i. e. the ancient lan- 
guage allowed, even in the perfect, an omission of the redu- 
plication, which practice afterwards maintained itself with the 

59. Since, then, the reduplication may be dropped in the 
perf. and pluperf., nothing forbids us to rank (tvto, II., (p, 
167j with 'iarjVTo and 'ifftrvron, and to associate laav^/jzvog, in 
respect of the accent, with ccXccXri[JijZvog and aKccy^-^i/jSvog, n. 34. 
b. In the same way we may rank together hi-)(^arai and 
^£/^£%ar , II., ^, 4 ; x^'^^i yy^'^o, y}>{^'^^'^-> ^^^<1 '^'^X^'^0, Ki-xpuTO, 
Kix^vron ; Xyro, Xvvro, and XiXvvro, XsKwrai ; goyro, 'igvadat, 
and zi^uTOf zt^vadat ; d^'rrvvTO, and crsTvyc^a;, '7rz'7rvu[jijZvog ; 
KXvdi, yJkvTZ, and KZKXvdi, kzxXvtz ; zttocto and Trz-Trrcircci ; 
and as %,Xv0i is related to xz}ckv0i, so rkriro}, Od., X, 350, 
rX^rs, II., /3, 299, to rzrXa&i, ib., a, 586, g, 382. More- 
over, ZTTkrivro (from -rsXa, -rXa), II., \ 449, S-j QSy and 
TTZTXrif^zvog, Od., [ju, 108, must be ranked together, as also 
(iX^ro, (DXij(j0cci, ^XriiLzvog, and jSsSx^jro, ^z^XriiJjZvog, so that 
(^X^izrai, Od., ^, 472, appears to be the perfect conjunctive, 
with H shortened, for (oX'/i'/jtch. — Lastly, O^is^Kiy <p6i^zvogi 
rank with z(p6iTui, z(p6iro. 

60. The same is the case with mute verbs. Ag|o, })zy.TO, 
^'zyjtrcci^ Vzy^&oii, })iyyjZvog, TToribzyiLzvog (like zaauf/ijzvog), belong 
to the same verb with 'bzhzz,o, and (Jjikto, z[/jikto, to the same 
with [jijZf/ji'yfLZvov. 

61. With other forms of this kind we cannot cite, as in the 
above instances, augmented or reduplicated perfects. Such 
are ccr][juzvog, a^/ASva/, d'/]TOVf &c., aoi^zvov, doijuzpoc, dXtrri[jijZvogy 


wKTi[xsvov, Kotxri^jzvov, 6v^(jjZvog, and ov/^ffo, (from Xg% in Xs^oj) 

'TTT^KTO^ dX(TO, dXrO, STToiXTO, H,(ZTB7rCcXT0, I'TtdX^ivog, KaTZTrdXyijivog. 

I 62, Co. Lastly, some have allie<l forms in the aorist active, 
I which circumstance, together with the want of redupUcation, 
tends to confound the distinction between the tenses : with 
sx,7u, 'ixTuv, TcuTiKTav, KTa^jjivui, and x,ccriZTu^iv, we find «ra- 
ff^a/, IL, 0, 558, ztoc[JjSvov ; with 'i(p0'/ig, 'i(p0ri, (pddv, ib., X, 51, 
<p0ociy], stands <p0oi[Azvog ; with ovra, stands ovrcc(JijSvcn ; with aigSTO, 
o^ovTO, stand oj^to, o^go^ mp^ui, o^fMvog, and 'TraXivo^yAvai. — ^'E- 
^pbiVKt, however, together with '^i/sf/jsmi, II., ^, 346, (pg^rs, ib., 
;, I7I) ^ix^at, ib., a, 23 (but ^s^scr^a/, ib., 20), are manifestly 
in the present. — When we consider that the redupHcated forms, 
with regard to meaning, agree with those not reduplicated, 
and the latter, again, with the aorists, so that, e. g. xXvOt and 
/CiKXv^i, '^/jjro and Kiyyro^ avro and havTO, are identical in 
signification, and that the unreduplicated forms stand, like 
aorists, mixed with imperfects, 'iXsx.TO zoci '/jm l7ai/ 'iybi^viv^ Od., 
r, 50, -TT^iuTO — zvvri ^' ovtot 'ifijiKTO, ib., a, 433, — we are led 
to form the opinion that these are exa7nples of an oric/inal 
formation made up of root and termination^ and hence be- 
longing, in appearance, to the province of the perfect and 
pluperfect, but in meaning to that of the aorist, after which 
they accent their infinitives, such as s^vadui, and participles, 
cc^[/jSvov, h&yf/jsvog, ipcyjevov, pcix/iiMvog, o^^zvov. 

Obs. — As the forms above cited want the modal vowel, so several want 
the radical vowel, which has fallen out in the compression of the 
word. Of this kind were the forms of i^'Ttifivov) 'Xs(pvov, vi^i'rXo/Jijivog, 
and from ays/^w (ay£^) dy^o/j.svoi, dy^6/jt,svai, &c., and from iyii^u, 
iy^io, iy^iTOf 'iy^icQcu. 




64. The Homeric dialect has, in verbs as well as in the 
other parts of speech, many and various contractions; there 
are not, however, so many forms contracted, as in the later 
dialect of the Attics ; noi' are those, in which contraction oc- 
curs, contracted uniformly. 

65. Contraction is evidently not an original property of 
the language, but was first introduced in the process of its 
developement, and caused by the ejection of consonants, the 
necessity of versification, and the feeling or taste of the 
different Grecian tribes. Instead, therefore, of seeking to 
multiply its instances in Homer, it seems more advisable to 
resist it, wherever it opposes analogy. In many cases the 
language, even after Homer, — as, for example, in the lyric 
parts of Attic poetry, — has been hostile to this tendency. 
(See Lobeck ad Soph. Aj.^ 287.) 

66. On the other hand, the contracted forms, though 
generally following the common method, so far deviate from 
it, that the exigency of versification may compel the extension 
of vowels, their duplication, or their insertion before or after 
the contracted syllable. The rules of Homeric contraction 
must, therefore, pay due regard to these peculiarities as well 
as to the limitation and inconstancy alluded to above.* 

* The subject is treated, in the following observations, chiefly accord- 
ing to the excellent remarks of Bekker, to whom these Homeric enquiries 
Lave been already so deeply indebted ; although he goes upon the opposite 
principle of maintaining contraction, as much as possible, wherever it is 


§ ccxx. 


67. The contraction of these verbs, as far as they are used 
by Homer, proceeds according to rule, wherever the forms 
tlius produced agree with the verse. 

So from 6§UM come ogag, o^a (even for o^dric, II., X, 202, 
o^apj, ib., IS7), (>^^v, o^arui, o^aro,- — o^u, o^aj^iv, o^&lv, o^cuffa, 
o^cofjbcci, ogcovTO, o^cuTO, o^cof/bivog. So hkewise {Iz^iUiDcov) kz^if/^M, 
II., 0, 18, 21, from u^doiLOii (ji^ocov) '/]gM, Od., c, I7C, t^vttcu 
for r^vTTcioi, (3iA/uro for (Biocoivro. 

Ohs. — Wolf (Analect., II, p. 419,) writes the infinitive of these verbs 
without iota, yika'j, ogav, and has found many followers. The de- 
cision of this point depends, evidently, not upon what La&caris or 
Urbanus extract from the old Grammarians, or teach on their own 
authority, nor upon the fallacious analogy of ^j^gutf&s/v, y^i^veoZv, but 
upon this only : whether the contraction is earlier or more recent 
than the extension of the infinitive form iv into uv. The revivers of 
this mode of writing cannot solve the question here raised, and can- 
not, therefore, prove that they are in the right. 

68. After the contraction a vowel may be introduced, in 
behalf of the verse, either to precede or follow the contracted 
syllable : thus a short vowel is inserted, when by this means 
two short syllables are brought together. 

So we find, besides the above cited forms of o^u, with a 
prefixture: o^aaj, 6oacc(j6cx,i, o^m^ o^ocov, o^ouffcc, ogocors, from 
^oocM, (Booca, (BooMU, ^oomrcc, ^oooovng^ (io6cti(n.<-^^ 

69. This prefixture is indispensable, when the contracted 
form has a trochaic rhythm (' " ' ' ' * ). 

Hence from aWidoiJjCci, ahicoi^oci ('"')» cciriuafrOai, ul- 
71600VTU1, aiTiom, ciVTtocoTO. From dvTiu ("'''), uvtiuccv, uvtkx,- 
ac^s, &c., and similar forms in great number: ayoPKCicdai, 
aayjikdn^ hyyvoiuaOon, layjxrmaa^ &c. 

Ohs. 1. — The prefixed A appears also without contraction in tiie root 


of words : (padv&ri)/, (padvkv, Saao'o's/s, ^aaeffifiiv, and hhaaeQai, Od., 
p. 31G, from daio/Mcti. 

Obs. 2. — On the other hand, A is not prefixed, when the latter of the 
contracted syllables was sJiort ; thus it is inserted in o^disdai, o^da- 
edai, but not in forms contracted out of asg, as, asv, so that Bentley 
offends against analogy in making /j^ridl sa (I. /xrib' I'/a), II., ]S, 163, 
/A»33' Ida from sdi. Moreover, A is not prefixed when T follows, 
e.g. in the contractions of dsrs, dsrai. The only exception is ciarai 
in jj fji,riv %a/ xgarfgdg Tsg luv aarai, will be satiated with, voXsfioio, Hes., 
d, 101 (for the form 'y'syaan, already rejected, cannot be adduced 
here, since, even if it were legitimate, it has no contraction). This 
daTai is from the radical Afl, in the future ciffsrai, with 2 ejected, 
cisra/, the contraction of which into drai is certain. Hesychius gives 
us drai' 'rrXri^ovrett, — mistaking, however, the tense in his explana- 

Obs. 3. — The prefixture of O is limited within similar bounds : con- 
tractions from aov, uofj^sv, reject it, and d^Jou Kara. 'x6vrov, Od., i, 
377, is not from aso, ao, but from aso, aou, dXdio, dXdov, aXoo, dXdw, 
wander. Of saw we find no form with o prefixed. There are Idag, 
Ida, sdccv, but neither sooofjbBv, nor soojffi. The forms of this verb stand 
either open : olds lusi, Od., d, 805, like firjdi sa, II., /3, 165, or closed 
by extension: s'l x ilu/xiv, Od., <p, 260, — an extension which should 
be applied likewise to the open syllables : ovd' siojffi, i^riS tia, old' s/'w. 

Obs. 4. — E is prefixed to u after two consonants, for the sake of soften- 
ing the sound, in /As^i'swro and ^suifMivog, II., -^^ 834. — A is extended 
to a/ in X£ga;2, II., /, 203. 

70. A long vowel is prefixed where the spondaic rhythm 
is required: ^yac^s, ^yaac^s ; [Avoiffdui, (Mvaocadat ; ^cocu, ^^tvcuffu, 
^cci^uuv, ^zvoivuco, &c. 

Obs. — From these we must distinguish the forms yiXoiuv, yiXmvrig, 
&c. Since, even admitting that, in Homer, ysXaov could have been 
contracted into ysXuv, yet the insertion of a prefixed in yikmv 
would be, according to the foregoing remarks, contrary to analogy, 


and of the extension of a prefixed o into oi we find no single trace. 
The root of this form is really yiXof, — perceptible also in yiXof wg, 
yiKo'i'iog, — and with the verbal termination A : yikora, jikopaM, I 
laugh loud, heartily, as aoihidcu, sing loud and clear. Hence comes 
iyikofriGada) ribu yiXoindccea, H., Ill, 49, with o, which is here no 
prefixture, but a radical vowel, extended into oi after the loss of the 
digamma, as in ysXoiiog from yiXofiog, and thus yiXoiuv from ysXoraov, 
yiXouv, and yiXoiuvrsg from yiXofdovng, yiXouvrsg, or rather ysXouvrsg. 
Thus yiXooj, Od., f, 105, is from ysXodu, and should be accented 
yzXou. We find likewise ysXojovrsg, Od., c. 111, from ysXodovng, 
where occ is contracted into w, or rather where there appears a relic 
of the old orthography TEAO PONTES. Here too, however, yiXoi- 
uvng is another reading. It is remarkable that all these forms occur 
in the Odyssee and the Hymns, and that, throughout the Homeric 
poems, the aorist forms only of ysXuu are in use. 

71. Contraction is rejected by, 

a. The forms with long a: h-^dcov, "hi-^dovra, &c. 'zzivdcov. 
h. The forms in ocov^ when a short syllable precedes a : ts- 

Q^ccov^ zuTiGKiocov (but Ivoj^cov, l(poircoi', where a lou(/ 

syllable precedes it). 

c. The forms in ao, except where the verse demands co. 
In "^ui/jOv Wkjo)^ II., /, 645, read hiaao ; ^^a' OTriGGco, Od., 
a), 33, and iKTriau aKOiTiv, ib., 192, can scarcely stand 

d. The forms of monosyllabic roots : Xas, \oicov^ '^Zf^Sj 

e. Several individual forms: aoihidsi, ccoihiaovat, i}MOvroii, 
Kgochdcijv, oyjoariyjiii^ ouras, vXocei, vXccov, vXuoufTiv, vKaovro. 
Lastly, vccisrciM, vanrdoveji, vanrucov, nocurdovrci^ vccizto,- 
ovToov, miZTciovrag, of which only voctirdccaKoy, c/cs, is 

72. The feminine of mtzrccsov has O instead of OT: vut- 
STOicoarjg, vaizraojaT^, variToccorjocv, vunraojtycig, like ri^Xz&dcoau, Od., 
g, Qo, according to the Augsburgh Ms. — The Etym. Mag., 
p. 598, calls vociiToccoffoc Doric, and compares il^ioacci, (ocov, 
for ih^ovaKt, ^ovv. It seems more probable that tlie O, so 


frequent in the forms of this conjugation, was transferred 
from the contracted forms to those above cited, according to 
that pecuharity of the Greek language, by which a law of 
formation, once established, transgresses the limits to which, 
strictly considered, it ought to be confined. 

73. Other verbs remain open only in a few forms, namely 
yoa^ in yodoiiMsv, yodonv (but yoocovra, yoocoffa, &c.), tka,ctiv, 
kiiXcccov (but ekdccv, eX6ajffi\ ryfkzOdoov, r'^KzOaov, rrikz&dovrag, 
7r[kz^dovaD(,i (but t'i^Xz&ooo&k, T'/jkiOoojaav^ &c.), (Jbultdcoi/, (jjuhdu 
(but (JbithiOMV, -ocoaoi), ojjjOffrr/^dst (but \arrj(j)OJvro)^ &c.(^> 

74. As the contracted forms hitherto cited insert A, O, or 
n, by prejixture^ so the following insert O after the con- 
tracted syllable : ^^sootf/ji, yi^cioot[jui (^yj^ao-i-i/ji, r^^co-i-^i, y;Q,tx)OiiJji), 
together with '^^oof/J^ II., ri, 133, TjQsoovrsg, ri^uovra, (jjvmvro, 
yijVooo(Livco. Thus ^cooo forms itself, arising out of ^dco, and 
keeping ^co as the root, with fresh modal vowels: not only 
'itc^ov, ^aovr&g, but likewise (^coovcoc, ^&jeiv, ^co'iiMv, ^oi)i[/jZi>oct, 

75. We have still to remark, 

a. A want of modal vowel, through which the radical A 
passes into H: o^rjui, and o^?jro according to Zenodotus 
for S^KTO, 11., a, 56, and the dual forms: •Tr^offcivhyiT'/iv, 
GvX^T'/iv, (jvvD(,vrr,r'/iv, (poirfjTj^v. — Add the already mentioned 
infinitives u§^[Mvcci, -TTZivrjiMvoci. 

b. The transition of some in A to E : (jusvoivsov from jO-s- 
voivdoj, ^vrsov, o^JjO'/cKzov, 6yjOz}so[Mv. We shall perceive, 
on referring to the original, 11., (/,, 59, ?7, 423, 0, (358, 
Od., <p, 360, 367, %, 211, £u, 173, that the transition 
occurs only in the fourth foot, and in the case of AON, 
i. e. only in order to obtain a more nimble dactyl for 
that place. By this, however, an analogy was grounded, 
and hence in koci ijbiv dt^j^^suTzov, Od., ^, 251 (now dvf]pa- 
rai)i the contracted form dvrjPojrzvv, represented in the 
Harleian codex by dv^^urzvajv, is not to be unconditionally 

* And in later Greek, the analogy being extended to y.vmix,ai\ (imio, 
Apoll. Rhod., 1, 896, (j.miak^ Pscud-Orph. Arg., 557. Cf. Bekker, p. 


rejected, especially since such forms are common in the 
later lonism, and in the bucolic-Epic dialect. 



76. Besides the present and imperfect of those in EH we 
may class under this head all futures in EO, and all second 
persons in EO, EAI, and HAI, the infinitive of the 2nd aor. 
act. ktv, and the conjunctive of the aor. pass, a) — sof and eiof. 

77* The contraction is avoided when E stands before cu, 
^, Off and synizesis, if requisite, is employed: uXzeuffi^ (pi- 
Xicufijsv, 6[jboc§Ti&)V, otzioiro, together with which (^aXai, II., §, 
451, ^u^ffuv, ib., e, 124, seem inadmissible, as also "^t^oTo, ib., 
a;, 418, for '^'/]ioio, Avhere E stands between two vowels. Con- 
traction has been introduced generally into the passive aorists : 
'Tntorj&coihiv, i/ji0a}(jtjsv, ^ccajfjjsv, also in u'^oJ, zihojai^ opposed to 
which is oip^' zihzcoy Od., -r, 236. That E was heard in these 
forms likewise is proved by those which the exigence of metre 
has caused to remain open, as ^lyzooaiy and by the extended 
forms ^azioi), -Kiyyioo^ &c. 

78. E before EI and AI is contracted, or not, according 
to metrical necessity: <pCk€i^ II., /3, 197» ^i^^'i^h ih., /, 342. 

So likewise })Ozii^ STTiTrXzi', zaXzi^ znvzi, o[jjiXsig, 6[JjiXs7, ofjui- 
XiiVy TK^^ilg, raoQsi, Zii. We find i'Ts^^^sa;, kTi^'/]7Scci, iTiTik- 
Xsa/, o/ga/, ohv^soct, together with 'iar;, uarj, ^svy], Kzx,7^rj(j^, f/jercc- 
r^ZTTi, and hence we should substitute for (jjvdicci, Od., (3, 202, 
the genuine form [jjvdiri from [Jbvdz-z-(Tuif (jjvdkai, as we have 
(Ssfj from (ikcci, II., -r, 852, co, 131. — Equally untenable is 
ovri TTci^og yi n<y>i', Its/, Od., ^,811, where the Harleian MS. 
leads us through -zoSkiai to the right TtcoXz-^, Wii^ that is cra^o? 
in connection with the present. — The synizesis of EAI ap- 
pears in yvooaiai^ II., ^, 367, sWsa/, Od., ^, 33, hr'vnai^ 

79. Likewise EH, EHI, HAI, are contracted where it is 
requisite : Tnt^rjd^rov, II., k, 444, fcrJTai, Od., (o, 102, ei^rj, 
I'TTiX'/l^ri, tuv0rjg, iccv0/], <pavyj, and liriiv ivy7j(n Xiari^ ib., fCy 526, 


for Xiffrjat (cf. Xiro[J!jUi, H., XVIII, 48), 7vcc — [ivfjcry] Ii/aT' (I. 
i(jbsv), Od., ^, 462, ^ ov (MiMrji II., 0, 18, y, 188, gTay^??, ib., 
X, 391 J with STrocv^rjui, ib., 0, I7. 

80. There remain EE, EE2, EEN, EO, and EON. They 
continue open, as the verse may require, especially in dactylic 
theses of the 4th, 5th, and 1st foot, and are elsewhere con- 
tracted ; 

a. EE in the 1st foot : rjrsi 'Ss TL^idiLoio^ II., v, 365. Cf. 
Yjy 295, Od., (3, 387, ^'^ss ^s X^'^a 'Travrcc^ ib., g, 455 ; 
but aim ^' oioovov, II., co, 292, and oudsi h' h (Toczsi -r/- 
'^rajv poof, ib., (p, 241 ; in the 2nd : Kii(/jZvov, 'ippsi ^' ui[/jcc 
II., ^, 86, aXX' oy a'vyy^zi "^vffjov, ib., t", 808, cf. ib., ;, 612; 
in the 4th: jjr&s Grjy^a, ihiaQui, ib., ^, I76, cf. Od., /, 354; 
in the 5th : ou^a vsovrdrov sppss %£^fo?j Ih, '', 539. 

b. EEN, EE2, are always open : Ta^su/ifssv, '7r^o(jz(pajvziv, 
'7r§0(js^djviig, ^Vssv, gVXssv 'lXi60iv, II., |, 251, except the 
already quoted Tiff/CBii/ sioiot zcikdy ib., 7, 388, and the 
pluperf. slaTriKiiv^ &c., in the arsis. 

c. EO, EON, are open in the places mentioned, thus in 

i'i^sov, Wi^y^io, I'Koa^iov, IXocffr^sov, tkKiOy g,6o€a>A£0, IviTroisov, 

-rXsOfJbSVi fi^ZOV, '^^T^VZOV, ^TikiOV, IKZO, XlXccko, [JtjZigZO, ILik'TTZO, 
(JbZTS^y^ZO, (JbTjbiO, l/jl^VTjfTKZOi [JATZ(pC0Vi0V, VrjZOV, ohvgSO, OlltiXzOVf 

o^zy^hov, o^ffzo, 'Trocgz^zo, 'TrzKzffKZo, 7rz^iT§0[M0VT0, 'TrodzoVy 
7r60zovTzg, rz, vokov, Tr^orioffczo, 'TrgozccXt^zo, ^6§0zov, aKZ- 
'TTTZO, (pguZzo, %a(^2o, m'ttXzov. — Contracted in the rest thus; 
BO in ET: ai^zv(Lzvoi, II., tt, 353^ i^aiozu[jj'/iv, Od., |, 232, 
uiirzw, ^aXkzv sts/, ib., joo, 218, yzvzv, II., £, 897) 727^- 
vzvv^ Od., /, 47, zyzyuvzvv, ib., ^, I6I, ^arzvvTO, II., -^y 
121, ziXzvvrOy ib., (p, 8, ziXzvvroc, Od., X, 573, zXzv, II., 
Vy 294, zTTzv, ib., Zy 146, V, 381, 465, 0, 556, Od., 0, 
281, ^, 52, 78, |'^).£y, II., ^, 280, -4., 893, Od., ^, 69, 
and £u;^gu o-y y stzitcc, II., (sy, 290, VTrShvy Od., 0, 310, 
^^jgyj-ro* II., 7], 444, «, 524, &c., zdrizv[jbz<70u, Od., ;, 218, 
eycov zKozvv, ib., ^, 252 (now lyoj Xozov), i^zv, tzzu, Unvybz- 
mi, ixvzv[jtjZ(T0a, ib., at, 339, zlaotxvzvffoiv, ib., ^, 157, ^°5- 
XsOi'rg?, ib., «, 229, 255, jO;, 249, zaXzvvro, II., /S, 684, 
'7r^OH,cckzv(/jZvogi H.> II» 241, j'£/;i£yo'' (from i'£/^£Ofro'/,) 


uKkyiXT^ffi, II., y, 2t54, riilJOev yao vzu(JjUI, ib., c, 13G, olyjivtrty 
Od., y, 322, oyJKivvrcch II., (p, 261, o^<Tgu, 'roXS|t/>oj'^s, ib., 
^, 264, TTiidiv lyM, ib., i, 235, TrzXiV ovhi, ib., ^y, 219> "^^y- 
Xivfju'/jv, Od., %, 352, 'TTcoXzviMvot, ib., g)? 534, 'proisvf/^rjv, xo- 
vgv(jjivov, II., ^, 374, '7roviV[Mvog, ib., i-, 288> pvffKSu, ib. a;, 
730, (Tzu^su, Od., -v^, 209, aipa^ccyivvTOi ib.) /> 390, (p/- 
XsC'j'TSj, ib., 7> 221, (po^iV[jb&vog, 11.? ^, 149' (p^a,^su, ib., /, 
25 1> a/^iuvT, ib., c, 594. — '0$y(7^a To^s^ffa (from -ro- 
OiovTffoc), Od.> r, 136, is groundlessly changed for 'OW^ 
•TrodioviToc. Uis^zuv, ib., /oo, 174, 196> stands with Tr/s^gf, 
ib., §, 287, in the same relation as yzycuv&vi/ to ysy^yvsv, 
uvojyzov to aWysv. — A^yrsuj'ra, II., jM/, 283, for "koorovvroc 
(from "kooTOivra,), has no analogy with the rest in EN. 

81. On EO and EON we have still to remark ; 

a. That in EON the contraction is not universal, but that 
several open forms, with synizesis, have maintained 
themselves against the contracted. These are a(poiov Is 
(jryjha, II., X, 282, yfkdarzov ^s ^so/, ib., 0, 21, '/lymov ccvoi 
claru^ ib., c, 493, j^vcuyzov, ib., yj, 394, rj^K^^hzov, cl^xov, Od., 
z, 204, riTiOV a\ iKciarcc^ ib-, a;, 337, \&Q7\vzov^ II., &;, 722, 
■KoCkiov^ Od., .^, 550, ojg lifkiov^ H., I, 408, iipo^sov, Od., 
%, 456, and in the middle, aikrr'iovriq, II., ??, 310. 

^. Tliat EO submits to apostrophe instead of contraction : 
kitoxocvi uoihrig, Od., cc, 340, "Travi, eoc Is, II., /, 260, 
szKs Itt ccvOgcjxovg, ib., co, 202, gu%s' ' AO'/jvar/], Od., ^, 
752, jW/^ -v/zsy^s' l-7n(Trci[Mvog, II., $, 404. 

c. That the common contraction into ov appears in refyg 
I'TTogdouv, II., §, 308, and ccvsppiTrTovv, Od., i', 78. Also 
svyov once stood in II., &>, 290. 

82. Together with the contraction of E its extension is 
very frequent, e. g. 

"Eosio, II., X, 611, h§m[JAv, ^iiri, runs^ ib., ^, 507, 0, 246, 
^s/s/f, ib., ;«, 437, ^g/W Ng/;cg/(i;, ib., ^, 359, vzikzIcov, ib., (3, 
243, -4/, 438, ^, 217, Od., <y, 9, fs/^sg/ov ^' 'Olvtrm, ib., %, 26, 
with viiKiov, II., jO/, 268, Od., jO/, 392, vuKziri, ib., ^, 189, vg/- 
Kiirim, II., a, 579, with >'g;;ig?, vzikuv, vziKZvai, ■rgv^g/grov, ib., -c^, 
283, "TTkilnv^ Tkiioursg, ccTriTrXsiov, Od., S^, 501, uTro'^rXitiiVy 
IL, /, 418, Od., T, 331, Tvg/g/, TTViiovTig, "Trvitons, Tvg/ovraj, 


%-vzlovGcc, Trmovffuv, nXuei, irikzkro, IriX&iov, II., /, 456, o, 593, 

83. Of verbs in Efl we must likewise remark : 
a. Two optative forms in (EOIH) OIH : to [l\v 'ijcTuiM, 
oip§cc <po§or/i, Od., /, 320, and aXkov x ixduiorjai (Bgorcuu, 
aKkov PCS (piAoi}^, ib., ^, 692. 
d. Two dual forms with H : 6[jiju§ryir)^u, II., v, 584, and 
cc7rsiX^T}]v, Od., X, 313, once written ocTirKsiT'/jv. There 
remains ^o^Tg/rjjf, Od., o, 302, and similar forms out of 
the dual : s^aisira;, II., ^, 422, alozirco, ib., j8, 34. Add 
likewise. It) §' aiyziov Kvtj ru^ov, II., A, 639, where others 
TBRdzvk ; lil)^ [/joa-x^oicii XvyoKTi, ib., X, 105, from ^ico (^s 
^/^s). Also roy? (Jbh tio out uvifjjcov htun (/j'&vog, Od., s, 
478, r, 440, requires ha,-^, as related to a;; NoVo?, ib., 
/u-, 325, a;j Zi(pvpog, ib., 5, 458. 



84. The verbs in OH follow partly the ordinary rules of 
contraction, e. g". 

Tovvovi/joci, II., (p, 74, yowoOfjuivog, ib., 0, 66O, &c., youvovf/jtju, 
Od., X, 29, youvovffOaif ib., ;«, 521, '^zziovtcci, cf. ^ss/o^o-a', 
YjoXovfhai^ XoXovTcci, t 0,-^/^0^0,1^ II., ^, 112, yuiMOvfrOai, Od., 
^, 221, ^pjoyj/, II., e, 452. Also in II., /, 681, Aristarchus 
sought instead of (Toyjg, which belongs to (Tocj {ffoy;, ib., ;, 424, 
(Toco(T{, ib., 393), to introduce the contracted forms of ffuoco (to 
which Gaoo&^vai^ aouisoi^ belong), ^vl■iting {aoorig) aoolg^ not 
aocog or Gooog^ accorthng to the Venetian Schol., v. 667. 

85. Where the syllable with O is to be long, the O is 
changed to Cl : 

'l^a^ovTcc, II., (T, 372, Il^c^^ovTug, ib., ^, 543, Od., ^, 39, 
i^^cuovffo,, II., X, 119, together with JWo; . . . iloajffui, ib., X, 
598, iTriKv^TojovTii Hes., a, 234, vTvcooi'rug, II., co, 344, Od., 
g, 48, ^oozron^ II., y, 29, xf^^o, Od., s, 216, -^z, 213, yjjzro^ IL, 
(p, 306, ()&)0PT0, ib., X, 50, &c., ly^ojovTO, ib., i^, 367, tXojohv^ 
Od., 2, 240, -rXfyov, II., (p, 302, luz^vTrXc^stv, Od., r, 122, 


root TrXo, 'ttXcusiv, to swim, whence 'TrXcorrj h) vriffco, ib., x., 3, 
together witli 'TrXhiv, to sail, as of pevovro po in poog. To this 
class belong- also the forms (Tcoovrzg, Od., /, 430, acoztJKov, II., 
^5 3C)S, from ao in gooc, aoric, aocoai, II., /, 393. 

86. Thus these verbs fall under the analogy (n. 68, 69,) 
of those in AO, to which the formation of hopmi, Od., /, 108, 
^TiiouvTO, II., V, 675, ^iTiimv, ib., a, 19-5, }>riiomv, Od., ^, 226, 
is quite similar. 

87. Since in these several places the open forms a^oovcri, 
^rj'iooPTO, Irj'iooisv, might stand, and contraction is not necessary, 
it seems probable that the D, passed into them from the ana- 
logy of those in AH, — a conjecture which is greatly strength- 
ened by the form aact) instead of ffoiov (properly trccou from 
7u6s(To, (Tuoio, (Tuoov, (Tccov), II., TT, 363, Od., V, 230, ^, 593. 


Preliminary/ observation. In order to give a full view 
3f these verbs, it is necessary to collect all the forms, which 
ippear in Homer, of the most remarkable in A, E, O, — to 
point out and explain their peculiarities, — and to range with 
them the cognate parts of other verbs. 



88. In the collection of forms which belong to the roots 
'(TTOi, sistere, and era, stare, the simple verb is placed first, 
md after this are inserted the compound forms, which are not 
found in a simple state. The most remarkable are accom- 
panied by references. The points (. . .) separate the passive 
or middle forms from the active. 




Present t r ^^ 


1st, 'larafJijSi', 3rd, laraai, .... 1st, 'igtol^oci, set myself^ 

standy 3rd, '{arcx.rai, 3rd, 'irrravrai. 

2nd, I(Tt;?, (a) 11., <p, 313, set up, and zu&lcrTccy ib., /, 202, 
set dowUy . . . 'iarccao^ (b) 3rd, Iffroiadco, 2nd, "laTotah. 
Optative. . . . Conjunctive. . . . 


. . . laru^zvog, ov, oto, &>, oi, i(7Tcn[Jbivri, ai. 

3rd, iffTt^, 'iffTuazs, 'ifrruax, Od., 574, placed, 3rd, 'iaTocro, 
stood y hrccTy 'laruvTO. 

Aorist second. t j- ^• 


1st, iarviVy stood, (Trrjv, II., X, 7^4, 2nd, eiTT'/jg, 3rd, sW;;, ffr??, 
(TrufTzSy 3rd, (xr^rriv, 1st, (yrrj^jusv, 2nd, gVrjjrs, (c) 3rd, sWpj- 
ffccv, ib., V, 488, gWav, ib., X, 214, crav, (d) ib., ;, 193. 


2nd, (rrfj'/ig, (e) II., §, 30, 3rd, (TTrj/jy ib., s, 598, avao-r?^, Od., 
0", 334, 1st, GTiioihiv, (f) CTi<i)(JbSi>, II., X, 348, ^, 231, 2nd, 
'Trcc^fTrrjiTov, Od., <r, 183, ord, '^s^iarricoa , II., f, 95. 

3r(l, ffTur/], 3rd, ffrur/jjccv, TsoiffToTiu, Od., u, 50. 

2nd, cr^^/, 3rd, VTroarrjro), II., ;, 160, 2nd, cr^rs. 


era?, ffraffoi, ffrocvTS, (TToivr&g, oov. 

Have set myself , stand. 
2nd, sffrriPCKg, 3rd, sffrrjKSy hrrjx, II., ^, 263, 3rd, hrarov, (g) 
ib., -v^, 284, 1st, Z(7Tcc[jbsvy 2nd, aipgcrarg, ib., ^, 340, 3rd, 
iaraai, i(TTfixa(7iy ib., ^, 434. 



cc(p£(rTUf\ Od., %//, 101, 169 (ccTTotTTOir^ is also read). 

2nd, hrocd\ Od., x^ 489, 2nd, sWare, II., v, 35iu 

iGTU(MV(/j, iffrcc(Mv. 

iffTuorog, oj, £, £?, m, (xg, a. 

Pluperfect. ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^ 

3rd, hrtjxsiv, iarviKZi, 3rd, eWarot', II., ^'j 284<, 1st, eVra- 
jW/Sj/, 3rd, 'iarocGCiv (h). 

Future. T J- .• 


1st, aTTjGo^iv, 3rd, ariiGovci^ . . .1st, ar'/iffoyjoci, shall stand f 

G77iao^z&K, 3rd, avaaryiaovTai, 


avffT'/iam, II., x, 32. 

^«"^* ^''^' Indicative. 

1st, ffrmci, placed, 2nd, eVr^^ra?, 3rd, o-r^<r£, gW?jffe, Od., a, 
127, 1st, ff7^<Ta(yjSv, 3rd, sWpj^rav, GXiiGotv, . . . arriGavro. 


GryiGUGl^ GT'/lGUVTOCt. 



ffT}jffai, . . . cT'/jGota&cn. 


GT^ffag, CiGCC, GT'^GaVTig, . . . GT'/lGU(MipjJ. 

\orist first. Passive. 
3rd, iGToidri, Od., §, 463, rsgtGrd&y], ib., X, 243. 
(a) "iGTf] for /'(TTa^/, so that, after the abjection of ^/, the 
vowel is lengthened, becoming like the imperfect ; yet 
it is zu&iGTcc, II., /, 202. 



(b) "Iffraao and Ta^laruao, II., ;£, 291 ; but from (pdiMoci, 
without 2, (pao [mv0ov, Od., -r, l6S, gVo? (pcco, ib., c, I7I. 

(c) "Eo't;;t£ of the Snd aorist has the aspirate sVr;jr£, II., §, 
243, 216,* where it sliould belong to the perfect tense, 
for iffT'/ixurs, or by duplication of the A for sWars ; the 
ejection, however, of an entire syllable from the one form, 
or the duplication of A in the other, cannot be proved 
to belong to this word, and the meaning, did ye place 
yourselves, do ye stand, does not forbid us to consider 
it the aorist, and to write it, with Ptolemy of Ascalon, 
one of the greatest of the ancient Grammarians, sari^rs. 
In the aorist the duplication of the a is sure, and is 
opposed only by (^drrjv for ^riT'/jv, II., a, S^JJ, &c., — 
which may perhaps be really a form of the pluperfect, 
without reduplication. 

(d) "Ecrav and arav together with 'iffrriaccv. So likewise 
would (p^oLv, II., X, 51, have, in its full form of the 2nd 
aorist, s^pd'/^trccv, to which belong 'i(pd'/]g, Od., X, 58, s^^;?, 
II., TT, 314, 322, and we need not, with the Scholiasts, 
deduce (pdocv from the false form 'i(pdoc(rcii>. Somewhat 
different are the forms (pdv, e^pocv, spu(Tuv, of the imper- 
fect tense. 

(e) The common conjunctives of the aorist. era?, (rr^g, arri, 
of which we find only the third person in avaarrj, Od., 
ff, 334, and from /3a avcc^yi, ib-, j8, 358, kxi^^rov, ib., -v^, 
52, are, as is well known, contracted out of Grdu, ardrig, 
ardr,. A, being doubled, gave arririg, drri'^, 'TrspiarTjatai, 
and after the same analogy (3a gives kfju^'/}-^, vts^^tj/i, <poi 
gives (p'/]'/i, (pda, <p^%, and so fjijiPo;vrj'/i(ji. According to 
(pd^y; we should write Tccoapdfj'/jtrt for 'Trcc^ccpihirjiri, II., z, 
346 (formerly 'Trccoapdar/io-i), or '7ra,occ<p0f/ri(T{ (if the iota 
of the 3rd pers. conj. in rj/n must be retained as a mark 
of distinction). For the extension of A into AI is more 

* According to the doubtful remark of the Venetian Scholiast on II., 0, 
243. He identifies it with sgran, " therefore it has become, by extension 
(sxrac/;) of the A, 'idrriri, so that it may he written with the aspirate, since 
'iSTyjxaij,iv (he must mean icrj^xars,) and 'iaran are one and the same." 


fitly confined to the present and its allied forms, as iiccio- 
[jbut, %,ccio[JjCh, vaizrdco, yA^arc, vouov, and is rejected in those 
forms, such as 9^a/?j, arairj, ipuir,, in which it once ap- 
peared (rf. Eustath. ad 11, ^, p. 1090, /. SOj. 

(f) The 1st pers. pi. {ffTucofJijiv, ar^iMzv,) has arioo^jjiv with E 
inserted. Thus too kto, x.TiojiJjZv, Od., %, 216, from the 
Harl. MS. (p&iMi/jZv, ib., r, 383, and in the 3rd pers. pi. 
{(p&dojai) (pdioiffi, ib., 0), 437- — Together with gt'zcoilzv 
appears (Treio[jjSv for crr7]0[jjsv, of the same kind with rs- 
dmoTog, Z,axssiojv, &c., viz. witli EI for jj and the modal 
vowel shortened. In II., e, 95, TriOKjrzim was origin- 
ally an universal reading, cited even by Herodian in the 
Etym. M., p. 449, 1. 31, but, according to the Venet. 
Schol., Aristarchus, inimical to the old analogy of this 
EI, changed it to '^rsPiffr-^oja. In compliance with this pre- 
cedent, as ToigarTjiTov, Od., (t, 183, is undisputed, crTjoiLzv 
also should be inserted in the only place (II., o, 2970 
which has ffreiofjtjsv, — if we regard the agreement of form 
in ffry;'/jg, crjj??, ffTTjiroi', trr'/jcjai, more than the old analogy 
of the tongue. A root (tts must by no means be supposed 
for (TTSio[jbiv ; although such a root did exist, but with 
the digamma (jrrzF)t and with the meaning of stiffen^ 
make fast or sure, and in the middle make sure with 
oneself, anvro ya^ zxr/jjiiizvog i/iz'/jaifyjsp, II., (5, 597> where 
the Schol. interprets it aocra, ^idvoiuv a>Pi^iro, and arsvrcct 
yug ri 'ixog l^kiv, 11., y, 83, &c. With arzlo(i>iv stands 
or falls jGs/iw, II., ^, 113, go, x,ara%.zio[jjiv, ib., x,, 97» 
IriSg/ojtASJ', Od., ^, 262, X,, 334, but not r/ v\j ^ziojjjot^i 
aha "TTcc^ovsa, II., %, 431, supported by ^'zn, ib., 'tt, 852, 
o), 131, for ^'zzai, thou livest, and ovti Atoc (isoyjcn (p^zrriv, 
ib., 0, 194, in the words of Poseidon. The roots ^z in 
(ozo(Jbcci, (^Germ. weben, move), and |8/ in (iiog stand in the 
same relation as 'i and zo, h and s, and it is not neces- 
sary, with Aristarchus, to read (oloyjcci for (oziofjjui, II., 
%, 431. 

(g) "EffTCiTov, zaTa<n, &c., the simple perfect forms, explained 
above, n. 24, 25. 

(h) "EfrruGuv. Wolf writes for placed, zaruaav in ariyjxg 
hruGav, II., ^, 525. Cf. Od., y, 182, g, 307,— to 


wit a form abbreviated from sar)j(Tocv ofthejirst aorisf — • 
then again rovg hraauv vhg 'Axataiv, II., jm,, 56, which 
the Grammarians take for a syncopated pluperf. (gVr^- 
jtZKrav), For stood he has also 'iarKoccv throughout the 
IHad : JWo;— IV^ra^av, II., ^, 777, cf. ib., \ 331, 334, 
g, 781, z, 520, |M/, 132, &c., — a form abbreviated from 
sffrrjciKv of the secojid aorist : but, on the other hand, 
'iarccaocv with the rough breathing through the whole 
Odyssee, so that, in this manner, the transitive and in- 
transitive forms are confounded in the Iliad, and in the 
Odyssee likewise, though in a different manner. — That 
hrciffav is shortened from the seco?id aortstj and intran- 
sitivey no ancient critic, as far as I know, has asserted. 
Aristarchus, however, according to the Venet. Schol. on 
II., |W;, 5Q, laid down, 
1st, That the transitive 'iarccaccv^ placed^ being abbreviated 
from the first aorist eW^jcav, should be written with the 
smooth breathing, and, 2nd, that the intransitive sffrocauv, 
as syncopated out of iffrfizstffoiv, should be written with 
the aspirate. With this opinion the Venet. Scholiast, 
Eustathius, &c., coincide. — Of these two assertions the 
second, viz. that gWacav, stood, should be written with 
the aspirate, is confirmed by the compounds a(pzaraGKv, 
XL, 0, 672, <p, S9I1 and gf^so-racav, ib.> g, 624, &c. The 
form, however, is not syncopated, but as genuine an old 
simple pluperfect as ocTrzTzOvc/Mav, Od., jO., 393, and g/^Ss- 
€a(7ai', II., ^, 720. Uncertainty hangs about the first 
assertion, viz. that 'icrnaccv was shortened into 'iarocGuv. 
Such an abbreviation opposes all analogy,* and had it 
been admitted in this form of 'lan^iM^ we should find, in 
the frequent occurrence of parts of this verb, not only 
'iaroKJOiv for gffr;j<rai', but also some traces of the abbrevia- 

* Cf. Buttmann, appendix, p. 572. — "Evgiffs for sVgjjcs, which is there 
cited out of Hes., ^, 857, is more correctly given, by a Parisian ms., and 
one of the Scholiasts, eVgas, a radical form of voyi&m, the root of which thus 
appears to be IIPA (compare German im-ten, French em-6m-ser), as that 
of tX;j^w is IIAA in iri/i<rrKciVTO, vi/MvXttCii. 


tion of arrJGav, (rrtjffUf ar^az, eW;j<7£. There are six places 
in which the transitive form 'iaraaccv is brought into ques- 
tion. In one of these, ]1., c, 346, 'iaruaccv^ the imperfect, 
is the common reading, and this decides respecting Od., 
^, 435, where both hraaoiv and 'iatciGccv (approved by 
Porson) are given as readings. Both passages may then 
decide with regard to II., ^^ 525, where the same dif- 
ference prevails, and all three with regard to the remain- 
ing passages, II., jM/, 5^^ Od., y, 182, c, 307, — so that, 
in all of them, we should write hrnffav. 



89. The roots in E without a modal vowel, retain this 
tter in several persons of the present and imperfect. Thus, 
om the simple root S^s come 'TT^odkovai^ II., 05, 291, and with 
iduplication, 7rci§rth7f Od., a, 192, and imperf. Irihi. 

resent. t v ,• 


2nd, ri0)j(T0Ui ef. n. 48, Srd, ridrjffi, -Tra^T-tM, 3rd, riOuffi, 

II., ^, 262, . . . 1st, r;^a/A£(T^a, 2nd, rikaQi, 3rd, rlkvrci,!. 


. . . 2nd, ri&zak, Od., r, 406. 

Conjunctive. . . . Optative. . . » 

• • • • 

Infinitive. Participle. 

ri6y][jbzmt, cf. n. 54, rihig, ridivng, . , . ri^r}(jbZvov. 
3rd, ar/^£/, r/i^g/, 3rd, ridicrccv, . . . Srd, Wikno, rikvro. 

orist second. t v 


1st, s^s^sj', fcdrkiMv, Srd, 'ikaav^ '^iaccv^ ^zafrav, . . . x.r/,rdi(jcx.v^ 

Od., /3, 415, 3rd, Ikro, ^sro, xccrdidOriv, 1st, koctOsim^cc, 

2nd, shads, ^iadi, 3rd, 'ihvro. 

1st, ^iico, II., T, 83, 2nd, ^sipg, Od., ;c, 341, 3rd, ^sir;, ib., 

301, — 1st, ^g<i^^£j/, ib., a>, 485, ^zlo^%\>, II., a, 14S, . . , 

1st, uTodiioi^uii ib., c, 409. 


1st, ^s/jjf, II., g, 215, 2nd, ^s/j??, Od., '^, 186, 3rd, Wikf}^, 
1st, ^&7[Mv, ib., [jb, 34^7, 2nd, Widstrs, II., co, 264, Srd, 
^g^s;', ib., §, 363, ... 1st, 'Tragcchif/jT^v, Srd, -Troi^cchTro. 

2nd, ^g?, II., ^, 273, 2nd, Koirdsrs, Od., r, SI7, ;£ar^sr', 
ib., (p, 21)0, Srd, ^g^r^yv, ib., r, 599, • • . 2nd, ^go, ib., 
;5, 333, vTrodiv, ib., 0, 310, 3rd, ^g<7^^, II., /3, 382, 2nd, 
S-gfl-^g, ib., V, 121. 


^ei/jzi/ui, '^sijjZv, ^sivcif, . . . ^gc^a/. t 

zotra&zig, Od., y, 259, ^g^rgj, . . . ^Sfjusvog, ?}. 

1st, '^T^atu, 2nd, S^??(Tg/j, 3rd, ^^<rg/, 2nd, ^'/iffsrs, Srd, ^jj(roy(r/, 
. . . 1st, '7ra,§oi0/i(TO[/jOii, 2nd, VTro^yja&oit, 1st, y-ro^pjcojO/g^a, 
3rd, ^^(Tovra/. 

S^pjcgjM/gfa/, ^}^(ts[JjBv, ^ri(Tsiv, . . . ^riazG&oci. 
Aorist first : only in the Indicative. 

1st, Un^ccc^ ^^«a, 2nd, 'i&tjzccg, Srd, g^;;«g, '7r§ov0)^KZ, ^^zs, 
'^^nXi ^^%'j Srd, 'idfjKuv, . . . S^^^aro, II., x, 31. 

Aorist passive. t» .• • 1 

^ Participle. 

a(jij<piT£0&7ffoc, II., «, 271. 

Obs. — The common forms of the 2nd aor. conj. Sw, ^fig, ^f;, are con- 
tracted from fsu, which the Etym. M., p. 449, 1. 39, cites from 
Sappho {^lojfjbiv appears, Od., u, 485), ^srig, SIjj, and these with ex- 
tended E: Se/'w, &£/>ie, ^sifi, then with short modal vowel, '^islofisv, 
xarahiofjbiv, ib., (p, 264, together with %oj/msv and uToklo/, II., tf, 
409, for aToO'sufLai. This analogy is followed by the rest in E, and 
by the second aorists. Thus open, like ^su/msv, are from sifii, am, su, 
II., a, 119, Od., /, 18, spgi, II., /3, 366, 'iri, ib., jc, 225, /^, 300, ^, 
484, Od., r, 329, 332, susiv, II., /, 140, &c., from iV/ ap%, ib., ^, 
590, from s/jblyrjv, /i/yswc/, ib., /3, 475. With the first syllable con- 
tracted we find for £'>]ff;, gaitf/, ^^C/, II., r, 202, and wff/, Od., u, 491. 
Also ^tf/i', II , 0, 359, for £>jcr/i', dpwfiiv, H., VI, 22, middle (J^ui'w- 


fjji&a, II., V, 381, for a^ew/Agv, cuvew^e^a, daSi/juiv, ib., (3, 299, With 
extended E : dueiu, II., x, 425, &c., da//,'clca, Od., ff, 54. Aa/Asr/j? 
in II., y, 436, ^a^cis/jj in ib., ^, 246, Jfg/w, ib., a, 567, Iff/Jie in Od., 
V, 376, for Ifneug, avslp, II., /3, 34, /ae^s/w, ib., 7, 414, /^s^s/?5, Od., 
i, 471, y.ix^ioj, II., a, 26, /j^iyslng, Od., s, 378, (Jjiyuri, in ib., 3, 222. 

Lastly, (j,srii(Aj, II,, -v]/, 47, from e/'/z,/ To this class belong s'l'ric in Od., 

V, 415, E/'?i, ib., g, 586, for i'lr.g, s'l'n* Finally, with E extended, and 
short modal vowel: xi^slofisv, II , p, 128, r^wTTiiofx^sv, ib., 7, 441, ^, 

314, Od., i^, 292, bafiikn, I)., >;, 72 Together with the extended 

E we find, by a mixture of the analogy of those in A, the double 
H in ^firig, II., t, 96, ai/^^j, ib., /3, 34, ea'ryiri, ib., r, 27, (par/jTi, ib., 
T, 375, ;^/, 73, w, 417, Od., j, 394, ■^, 233. The Etym. Mag. has 
dv^»j '^rXiovafffiui rod, H., p. 106, 1. 52, and favriri, p. 787, 1. 26, with 
the remark that Aristarchns and the accurate Grammarians held this 
form to be the conjunctive instead of favfi 'jr'kiovadijjijj roZ ?;. Also the 
Venet. Schol. on II., r, 27^ aavriri : ourug ' A^iara^-^og fi/db r&D ») ca-r;^*;, 
and II., p^, 73, ^ai'^?;* on ' A^iffra^^og (pavrjrj dice ruv duo >} dvW rou 
faviir\. Here we have the origin of these forms : Aristarchus, who 
was hostile to the iEolic EI for H, persecuted also the EI arising 
by extension from roots in E, inasmuch as he, and others after him, 
wrote (pavfiri, dvpyi, — subscribed the iota in the penultimate of Crjjjj, 
^6riri (Etym. M., p. 73, 1. 53, on dXcJjj), — and explained as pleonastic 
the final H, which they had rendered enigmatical. Hence there is 
no doubt that these forms should be rejected as creations due to the 
Grammarians, and that the distinction between those in A and E, 
as ST^ji, (pS^ifl, and d\isiri, eaviiji, should be observed. 

§ ccxxv. 


90. In g/jW// also several forms with the common modal 
vowels appear : htg^ hi, &c., imperf. sou. 

* Cf. Hermann Dissert. I. de legibus quihb. serm. Homer, p. XVI, 
Schafer on Hes., £, 538, in the Gnomics, p. 238. 


Present. t i- ^• 


1st, e!(Jbi, 2nd, kafftv and sig (a), Srd, Icri, 'iffd\ .3rd, g<rrov, 

II., a, 259j 1st, £/^sv(b), 2nd5 harrs, Srd, g/V/ and soc(Ti. 


1st, soj, [yjiTziM, Qnd, ur,g, 3rd, sV/f, ^ff/v, 'ir;, ziri, Srd, eW/f, ^yc/, 

Od. oj 490. 


lst> s'iJ^V7 2nd, £/';?? and eo/j, II., /, 284, Srd, sirj and go/, ib., 

i, 142, 2nd, glr', i. e. gTrg for g'/;jrg> Od., <p> 19^5> Srd? gigy. 


2nd> gW' (c), Srd, sgtm, 2nd, gWg, Srd, hrcuV) II., a, 3S8. 



laiv, lovTog^ h a, s, gji ^y)/* Ofj, lovffh loijffoe,) lovarig, rj, uv. 
ImDerfect • 

1st, g« (d), II., I, 321, r, Od., I, 222, S52, ^a, II., g, 808, 
SOI/, ib., X5 762, gV^fov, ib., ;?, 15Sj sVj ib., X, 7^2, &c. 

2nd, gV^a> H*. %» 435, ^(T^a, ib., g, 898. 

Srd, gV' W, Il.» X, 808, Od., r, 283, -^z, SI6, u, S4S, ^gj/, 
II., y, 41, Tiv, hy.Zy ib., g, 536,— Srd, ^Vrjjv, ib., 6, 10, — 
ist, yifJAv, 2nd, «rg, Srd, 'iaocv, jjaccv* ukto, Od., y, IO6. 

Future. r i- • 


1st, iffO(Juoci, 'i(T(TO(J!jCci, 2nd, stzoci, zg'/i, 'iaazott, Srd, 'iffsrcci, 'iarat, 

iGGzrcch hffir and l(Tcrs7rai, II., jS, S93, »', 3 1 7, — 3rd, l<rg- 

o-^of, 1st, i(T6(jiji(Tdoc, I(r6[jbs0\ 2nd, eW^g, Srd, 'isovrah 'iffovr, 


* Likewise r^s ^' '^v rosT'j -/.sipaXai, Hes., S, 321, supported by the 
usage of Epichairaus, Herodotus, and the Lacedsemonians in Aiistoph. 
Lysietr., v. 1260. Cf. Valcken. ad Herod., v, p. 376, 1. 21. This must 
not be supposed, as Eustalhius would make it (ad Od., u, p. 1892, 1. 47), 
to be the singular, joined according to tlie Boeotian idiom with plural 
nouns ; but, as the 2nd aor. pass. Srd pers. plur., has EN for H2AN, so 

must there have been hv for (iriGuv) r^sav, which passed into r^v According 

to Ael. Herodian, vioi fion,^, Xi^iug, p. 45, it was also used by Simonides 
for the 1st pers. plural. 


'iffS(T0ui> 'iffcrs(T0ai, hasaf, II., jJa, 324, &c. 

1(j(t6(j^sv(x, II., a, 70, icGoijhoiGiv, ah Icraofijivriffi. 

(a) 'Efffjiv and £<7<r/, as the verse may require, according to 
Bekker against Eustatliius on Od., a, p. 1408* 1. 14, 
thus in ToXz) ^egrs^og laffiv. 'AKXk x,or\, II., 0, 56. Cf. 
II., £, 645, ^, 522, g<Tff/, l/Ao/, ib., g, 896, &c.— ET? is the 
shortened hai. For £;V, m is cited from ai{haro(; rjg ccyK- 
0o7o, Od., S, 611 J by Ael. Herodian.* 

(b) E/jO/li/ constantly. The older form 1(7^2^ appears in some 
places, e. g. Od.5 0, 1 97' as a various reading. 

(c) "Eo-ff in aXaiyjoq ha, 7m rig <ts kdu o-^iyovcov iv e/V??, Od., 
a, 302, 7, 200, &c. Full form eWo, as in Sappho <7u/a- 
fjjcx.yog 'iffffo. 

(d) "E« and sou as radical forms. Together with 'ice we find 
with doubled E, tjot and (EAMI, EAM, EAN) £>.— 
The form 'ice indicates universally the past, and repre- 
sents both aorist and imperfect. The third person ^tjv 
is related to ^a as 'iriv to 'ia. The dual form tjarnv (from 
gar;?!') has the 2 inserted. 



91. The root is I (iota), which is partly extended, by as- 
iumption of E into IE, partly changed into E, as the pronoun 7 
rives s. From the original root proceed : (Ji>idieig, (Mdisi, '^§01/1, 
uOiriffi, 7ii, imperat., and ^vviov, II., a, 273, where Aristarchus 
-ead ^vmv. From IE proceed the forms without modal 
/owel : JV/v, h7(ri, 7sTa(, &c. ; and from the cognate radical 
n 'E those of the 2nd aorist : a^srpjv, l(pziri, ^g-ojj, vipbrzg ; 
md likewise the 1st future and aorist. 

92. The iota is short, but stands as long after two short 
syllables : avrz [jjidkfjsv, II., 1,364, cug (pdffccv kldui, Od., fi>, 1 92, 

JJiBi fioi/yi^, Xit,iug, ed. Dinclorf, p. 44'. 


Present. t j- .- 


2n(l, (jjsOkig, II., (^, 523, for ft^sdii^g, also Od., h, 372, from 
the Harleian MS. — 3rd, (jijsOisi, II., k, 121, -r^o/s/, ib., (3, 
752, JV'i', ib., (p, 158, Od., ;?, 130, X, 239, av/V;, ib., 
^, 568, hirifftf ib., jM/, 65, — 1st, ^z6ti^iv^ 11., |, 364, — 
2nd, zoidkrs, ib., (p, 132, fJbs0isTS, ib., ^M/, 409, ^ 116, — 
3rd, k7ai ("'"), ib., y, 152, TrgohTfri, ib., X, 270, — 
. . . 3rd, /sra/, Od., f3, 327, J'svra/, II., I, 77. 


3rd, ^fo/?7, Hes., y, 153, as must be restored after si zsv 
instead of '7r§oiot ; 'r^oi'^in (to be written after cog §' ors 
instead of -r^o/jjff/), Od., joo, 253, (jbidij^ffi, II., j^, 234. 


2nd, aviBirig, Od., j8, 185. 


2nd, isf C' ), II., <p, 338, from Jss, |ym/, Od., a, 271, 
'^rgoi&t, ib., li;, 519, — 2nd, fjijidtsrs, II., ^, 234, ccipkre, Od., 
%, 251. 


fjb20iifjbivui, II., f, 114, (jtjsdis[jusVi ib., ^,351. 


g^/s/? C" \ Il'j a, 51, a.TTO'^goisig (" - "^ ^ -)^ Qd., %, 82, 
av;gr<ra ( ^ " ' 0, H., s, 422, ^^oisr^ra ( ^ ^ ' ^), Od., |8, 92, 
/gm? (^  ^ ), Od., ^, 626, /sT^ra; (-"'), ib., ^o,, 192. a*?/- 
g7(Ta; ( " ), ib., ^, 1 26, (jijsMvtcc, II., ^, 330, {Lzdiivrocg, 
ib., ^, 240, .... li^/jivog^ oj, ov, co, a, mv, ovg, kf/jivrj, rjv, 
avis^/jiVTj^ ccvis[/jivovg, l(piS[/jivog, l(pnybivyi. 

1st, 'TT^dhv ("""), Od., », 100, also ib., /, 88, from the 
Harleian MS. and ib., ^^ 9, a form like the later form 
of the pluperfect, but without analogy in the imperfect. 
Hence it might be rejected for T^dl'rjv^ the older read- 
ing in Od., /, 88, joo, 9, especially since it opposes the 
law laid down by the Etym. Mag.* for the formation 

rojv iig (Ml. ra Si bihn^a x,al rg/Va did di^&oyyov, wj drro 'Xi^iffvufiivuv. 
Etym. Mag., p. 177, 1. 9. 


of this person, were it not supported by its evident origin, 
namely, as from I, g/^/, comes the imperf. la, so from 
h comes Isa, related to hiv, as irg^^Tsa to the later grs- 
0fi7rsit/. It is supported, moreover, by the Platonic 
'iyoj rys ovv — -Troiaav rj^rj (pcovrjv ri^istv in Euthydem, § li, 
Heind., which by its augment is brought still nearer to the 
pluperfect, yet can by no means be considered doubtful. 
—2nd, '^rfoihg, Od., co, 333,— 3rd, h C'% Ih, a, 479, 
^, 397, &c., <£/ (■ ■), ib., 7, 221, &c. ami, Od., 3^, 359, 
ap'si, l(pizi ib., <y, 180, tt^o'/s/, IL, a, 326, 336, always 
''''"; but gip/s/ (""'"), ib., o, 444, with \(pki (J'^'\ Od., 
a;, 180, ^g^/g; (^ ^ -), II., 0, 7I6, a(pki (" ^ "), ib., «, 25, 
&c. — 2nd, cc(pkri, Od., %, 251, x,oc6Urz C' ""), IL, <p, 
132,— 3rd, JW, II., (tA, S3, pg^/gv (^^"), Od., (p, 377, 
lywov, II., a, 273, Aristarch. ^vvkv, .... 3rd, Jgro, ib., 
j8, 589, I'sr', ^^a* eager, ki^kro, Od., %//, 240, let go,— 
2nd, /gff^;;!', 11., a, 501, &c. — 3rd, JWo, ib., v, 501. 

Second aorist. t t 


2nd, hpkrriv, II., X, 642, — 8rd, anaav, ib., ^, 537, >coi0ifrciv, 

let down, H., I., 503, vgosffocv, Od., ^, 681, .... 3rd, 

^Ov&To, understood, ib., ^, 76. 

1st, l(psiM, II., a, 567, [/ji&iico, ib., y, 414, — 2nd, k^sirig, 
which belongs to Od., v, 3^6, instead of i(py](Tsig, — 3rd, 
fjffiv, 11., 0, 359, ciufi'/j and avsirj, ib., |3, 34, a:pg/?5 and 
oi(p'/j)^, ib., y, 464, now a(psi7;, — 1st, fi>s0iM[jjZv, II., k, 449, 
.... 1st, avvoij^ida. ib., i*, 381, from (rvvzoj^z&cc. 

1st, iiTiv, II., it;, 227, in iTcriv yoov g| g^ov gJV (doubtful), 
e(psr/}v, ib., c, 124, — Srd, a^g/??, ib., 7, 317, ei^S''^, ^d., 
a, 254, ^g^g/;?, IL, v, 118, Od., g, 471. 

2nd, 'i(psg, IL, g, 174, T^og?, ib., a, 127, ''f) 38, 241, ^vng, 
ib., ,/3, 26, 63, oj, 133,— 3rd, -Trgoiroo, ib., X, 796. 

l^ilMv, II. , X, 141, (Li^i^iv, ib., a, 283, T^og^gv, Od., ;>£, 155, 

iT/r^og|M/gi/, IL, $, 94'. 

* Together with ar/ieii we find avsast called the future of avlri/ni. It 
appears in rp om oTd' s! xiv (a av'san ^eoj, n xtv ccXuoj, Od., C, 265 ; but the 
constant analogy of this future, — according to which, forms with H stand 
in fourteen places against this single instance of E, — as well as the con- 
struction of s/ xiv with the indicative, cast suspicion upon disasi; and 
the true reading is perhaps ^ xen fi d/sp '^sog, ^ x,ev aXww, — although 
no one would admit such an alteration into the text without further 
authority. The form dvi(faifii in s/ xhvu — E/j Buvriv d/sffaifii, II,, §, 209, 
which answers still less to the aorist ^xa, belongs necessarily to tha (lecto 
imponeremj ; and as here stands i'lg ihvi^v a/eaaifii, so it is said of one 
slain sg hif^ov 3' dvs<ia)/rig ayov^ where no one will think of uvit^/i/. More- 
over, &vi<fav, II., <p, 537, is not a first aorist, but is to be added, as a 
second aoi'ist, to ndkaav, 'Kgkmvy and thus the deduction of di/sffw, awca, 
from dviYiij.1, appears to be quite groundless. 




93. The forms here collected proceed from the root E (to 
set), which has retained the S in Latin? (se-d-eo) ; the aorist 
extends the E where necessary ; the perfect ^fAa/, have set 
myself, sit, doubles it. 

Aorist. T T .• 


ord, miv, ehs, set, zuhTav, s, — Srd, zhuv, . . . 3rd, siaffccro. 


ihov, Od., ;;, l63, .... 'itpzaaai, ib., o, 277* 

Infinitive and Participle. 

e(pi(Tffai, Od., v, 274<, — hccg, ib., |, 280, aveffuvrsg, II., v, 

65^, sffocGoc, Od., «, 361, . . . . l(ps(}'(TK(JUivog, ib., ^r, 443. 


1st, ^{juocf, 2nd, ^ffcii, 3rd, ^(ttui with strengthening" 2, 

7J[/jsda, i]G&i, 'iccrai, 

iiccTUi and r/CiTKi. 

Imperative. Infinitive. Participle. 

91(70, n., y, 406, xccdijffo — yjadcci — n^zvog, ov, ri, Kud^(Mvog, 01, 

u, (Jjsdriyjivog. 


1st, ^'jM/jjf, Srd, ^(TTo, xcc07^(rro, 2nd, i^(r^}jv, II., ^, 445, 458, 

1st, jj|M/£^«, Srd, 'iccTO, ituro, and ijocro. 



94. The forms here collected are from the root FE (vestts), 
but have dropped the digamma. They have the meaning oif 
clothe. The E is extended only in the perfect; the 2 is 
doubled, where necessary, in the future and aorist. 

Perfect. t j- r 


1st, flfi^at, am clothed, Od., 7, 72, 2nd, hcoci, ib., a;, 250, 

Srd, iiTCii, 


slfjuivog, II., £y, 308, ei(/jivot, st(Juivoc, Z'TtiZiyiAvz, 

2nd, gWo, Od., ^, 199, Srd, eWo, II., -^z, 67, with 2 in- 
serted ; sWro, ib., ^, 464, 2nd, gV^^jv, ib., c, 517. 

Future. t t ^• 


sWo;, a(Jb(pii<ra), Od., g, I67. 

Aorist. TV .• 


1st, sffffoc, 3rd, eWsv, sWs, 1st, l'7n2(T(TU[MVt 3rd, sWaf, .... 

£(j(Tccro, 11., ;5, 334, saocro, iiaaaro, ib., ^, 177> sff(Toci/rOf 

ib., I, 350, oc[jtj(pn(7avro. 


gWoi', .... gWa/, Od., i, 154, ot^(piz(j(x,a&ii ib., %//, 131. 


a[j!j(pii(rui[Jijf, Od., ^r, 361. 

Infinitive. Participle. 

sffcc(T0cct^ II., la;, 646, e(T(Tug, a[/j(pii(xa(TU, .... ia(Toi[/jZvog, sffffu- 

^kvu, II., I, 282, i(T(rcc[Jbsvoi. 



95. Present. t j- .• 


1st, gl/oo/j gljW/',* 2nd, ilff^oi, II., X, 450, glo"/, glc', ^/g/c/, — 

1st, ija-gi', 2nd, i'rg, 3rd, iac;, .... '/gj/ra/, Od., 5(^, 304. 


1st, 'ico, II., ft;, 313, 2nd, 'i^ffdoc, ib., ^, 67) if??? 3rd, i>j<7/, i'??, 

1st, i'ojM/gi', 3rd, i'iyo'/. 


3rd, i'o;, gi'?j, II., a;, 139. 

* Commonly denoting the future; but sometimes as a present ; octtj 
'HsXiog — iJtf vvh yuTav, Od., x, 191, rrjfiog a^ 1^ aXog eJct/ ys^m, ib., 5, 401, 
a meaning that fluctuates between go and about to go. 



2nd, m, 3r(l, hco, 2nd, irs, 2nd, iW^g, II., (l, 274. 

Infinitive. Participle. 
lyjsvoct, (a) /'iW/Sv, /si'a/, and sitjv. (b) — 'Iis^t*, tonog, t, cc, sg, uv. 
oiiffcc, oci, . . . . 'li(/jivog, oio, ov, of, m. 

1st, ^7a, ri'iov^ 2nd, Ti'izg and is?, Srd, ^'kv^ ^'is, fisv, fis, I'sv, is, 
3rd, i'rjjj', 1st, }jo[/jiv, Od., ^, 251, — Srd, yj'iov and TJiffuv, II., 
«> 197j &c., g'T^o-ai', Od., r, 445, iffuv. (c) 

1st, siiTOfjtjUi, ordj sl<rsra/, Od., o, 213. 
First aorist. 
3rd, shoiTo, II., s, 538, hiffccTO, ib., o, 415, hiGoc(76riv^ ib., o, 
544, — l7nii(Ta[Mv}^, U., <p, 424. 

(a) For iJM;S{/«/ ("""), IL, f, 365, Hermann cfe ElUps. et 
Pleonasm.^ p. 234, writes t[jj(jbzvccf. The latter is cer- 
tainly quoted by the Etym. Mag., p. 467' !• 20, but 
without particular notice of the double M. He calls 
'i^yijzvcct Attic, 'i^zv Ionic, so that 'i[jjii>zvui is perhaps 
wrongly written. Moreover, the iota in 'iyjzmi might be 
lengthened by arsis, as well as in hyL,zv for 'ioj(LZv. 

(b) EiV is given as a genuine form of the infinitive. It 
stands in the passage: 'Clg §' oV av cci'^rj voog dvz§og, offr 
iTTt 'TTok'k^v Touav s.KriXoudiJt)g, <p§z<Ti TrzuzuXiiJtjyiiTi vorjarj' "Y.vdi' 
z/rjv 7} 'ivdoci (jtjSiioivri'/ifTt rs ToKkd' ^Clg K^aiTn/oug f/jz^ocula, 
hzTTocro TOTVioc "H^;j* II.. o, 82. — Porphyrius in the 
Venet. Schol. asserts, that the editions of Aristarchus 
and his school wrote gi>ji' with N (so that the earlier 
must have had si';;), and that it signifies VTri^gy^ov. Thus, 
according to Aristarchus, it comes from zhoct, and is the 
1st person of the optative, as the Etym. Mag., p. 34, I. 
18, likewise understands it. — The further explanation of 
the Scholiast, however, " this way or that way should I 
go," ascribes it as optative to izmi. Whichever sense 
we give to it, the sudden introduction of the first person 
agrees ill with the Epic style; and hence the opinion 
of Philoxenus is preferable, as given in the Etym. Mag. 
ut supra. He derives it from si'ia;, TTo^zvo^ai, whence the 
future zi(ro[Mon g? uXohh II., ^, 335t &c., and explains z'i^v 



as the infinitive, comparing with it the forms Xiyi^v, p'i^v, 
for Ksysiv, <pscg;v, which have remained in tEoHc. It 
will not do to argue against this, that no farther trace 
of such infinitives appears in Homer : siV also would 
probably have given place to usiv, had it been soon 
enough recognised as an infinitive, 
(c) The forms from z'/cif, imperf. yj'iov, and those from /It-a/, 
appear together, the two series being distinguished by the 
H : ^'{h and 'kv, 7Jh and is (io(jjiV as indicative, together 
with TJopbsVf is not found); hence we have placed tjiattv 
beside (ffuv. And as in slfjtjt the imperfect has la as well 
as 'iov, so that of sTjO// has viiu together with yj'iov. The 
form ?isi, II., %> 286, v, 247, Od., ^, 290> appears to 
belong to an old formation of the imperfect in ga, sac, 
g£, Si, from uoj (^scc, '/jsotg, jj'gg), fjsf ; so that it may be 
ranked with '^oo'kiv, § ccxxvi. 

§ ccxxx. 


96. From lo, h^o, come some forms with modal vowel; 
viz. 2nd, hho7g and hihoity&a (1. h^o7(T0(x,} as the form hihoJg 
lengthened by ^a), 3rd, hiho7, and in the imperfect, Srd, ibi%u, 
Od.» X, 289> and together with, 2nd, l^/^iw?, ibo r, 367, &^i^ovg, 
as a various reading. We even find a future form from hiho, 
hihiuaofLsv, Od., v, 358, where, according to the Harleian 
Scholiast, Aristophanes unwillingly (§y(r%so«/Wv,) wrote over 
it voi^i^oijtjzv. What he said upon dyXaoi hso§cc h^uiffsiv, Od., a/, 
314, is not noted; but he took offence also at IvaitrifjbOi hcoga h- 
^ovmi, II., u, 42.5, though nothing hinders us from considering 
this (with Hermann de Pleonasm, et Ellips., p. 232,) to be 
the infinitive of the 2nd aorist, which might have the redu- 
plication as well as the future. 

97* Paradigm, (a) 
Present. Indicative. 

1st, ^i^ui^i, II., t]/, 620, 2nd, ^i^olg, ib., /, 164, and S/So/(7^«, 
11., r, 270, 3rd, h^o7, Od., I, 237, and lilcoai, 11., y, 
299> — 1st, Vi^o(jjiv, Srd, h^ov^i. 


Conjunctive. Optative. 
1st, h'lcof^h Od., u, 31-2, cf. Hermann on Vigen n. 28, p. 
707, («) 2nd, Uo7rz, 3rd, Uo7sv. 

Imperative. Participle. 
h'la)0i, Od., y, 380, h%v, ib., y, 58, — hloug, h'^onog, h- 
2nd, I'ht'^cog, Od., t, 367i 3rd, llihu and §/Soy. 

Second aorist. t j- ^• 


1st, locTKov, 3rd, §oo';£S, 1st, g^O|M/s;' and ^6(Jbzv, Od., &;, 65, 
II., §, 443, 3rd, 'iloffav, loffccv. 

Conjunctive, (b) 
1st, is, Od., /, 356, 2nd, %, 11., ;?, 27, 3rd, ^oJ^^r/y, ib., 
a, 324, ^4/(7/1', ib., a, 129, ^pj, Od., jM,, 21 6,— list, lal- 
(/jZv, 11., -^z, 537, and Imyuzv, ib., ;;, 299, 351, 3rd, luaai, 
ib., a, 137» .... 1st, 'TTi^ihojiLidov, ib., i|/, 485, 1st, 
Wilc!;[Mi0cc, ib., %, 254. 

1st, hoi7]v, Od., 0, 449, 2nd, ^0/???, ib., ^, 6OO, 3rd, ^0/;;, II., 
Pf 121, — 1st, ^o/Jm/Sv, ib., V, 378, 2nd, aTo^o/rs, Od., Xt 
61, 3rd, ^o?£v, II., a, 18. 

Imperative. Infinitive. Participle. 
2nd, 'hog, 3rd, ^oro;, 2nd, hors — Ufjusmi, Od., ^, 41 7> ^OiM/Sv, 
II., g>, 443, hovpai, h'hovmt — lovng, lovtroc. 

uture. T J' *• 


1st, lojff&f, 2nd, hMffstg, 3rd, huBzt, — 1st, luGoybZv, hihMffO[/^si'f 

3rd, la/ffovfft. 


Lorist first, 

only in the indicative, as yjxoc and 'i&T^Kcc. 
1st, ihojKOi,, 'hojpcoc, 2nd, 'ilcifKag and hSxocg, 3rd, ghuKS, ISks, 

(a) The forms are mostly active. Of the passive we find 
only the perfect hzborcch II., s, 428, and 1st aor. passive, 
lokk, Od., (3, 78, of the middle ^eoy? iTnluyjsdu, 11., >^, 

H h 


25 Is namely, as ^d^rv^oig^ let us give the gods as ivit- 

nesses, and r^iTrohog 'Zipihoj^i&ov ^s Xs€;jroj, ib., -v^, 485, 

kt us wager, &c., the earliest example of a bet, and 

l(/ji0sv •^&gihio/TO(Jb(x.i avr^jg, Od., -ip, 78. 

(b) The conjmictive forms of the 2nd aor. would be originally 

hoM {haj\ ^6r!g, ^oyjaiv, and ^orj. Through duplication of 

the O arise from these the above cited '^soriatv and hc^rj, 

and the shut form hiJaip. So also hiog from '^doiig, and 

in the plural ^QjoiJbzv for ^ojuimzv, and }iojo>)(n. The false 

mode of writing ^coi^ arose from the false persuasion of 

Aristarchus, that ^ojg, ^Z, were the true forms, and that 

in ^MT^g, 'hojy}, as in arriTjg, (pocvrjtj, the final H was pleonastic. 

Others took the ^ouyi, dXa/yj, for optatives (the Cl standing 

for O), as they were with the Attics, or wrote Iso/j, like 

CT^rj, a false form, which appears once or twice in some 

editions. Jf^olf has given §^>j as an optative ; and, 

where necessary, has written o/, as ^olrjg for ^ojyjg, II., t, 

QQ.5, Od., h 268. Elsewhere he follows the orthography 

of Aristarchus, Icori in IL, ^, 527, ^' 81, &c ; but in 

the Odyssee, jM/, 21 6, c, 87, &c., he has given ^uti. 

98. The analogy of luri is followed in the 2nd aor. of the 

post- Homeric aXiazu and of yiyvrnKW. conj. oKajea, II., X, 405, 

Od., 0, 265, aX(^yi, IL, /, 592, ^, 506, Od., ?, 183, o, 300. 

Here also we should read akojri, and in optative construction 

aXoiri like aXoiriv, IL, "x^, 253. So also 'iyvaiv, 'iyvcog, lym, 

yvu, yvuTriv, Od., <p, S6, — conjunct. 1st, yvuco, ib., i, 118, ^, 

549, and yvaJ, 2nd, yvSjg, ib., %, 373, 3rd, yvM, IL, «, 411, t, 

273, 1st, yvojoijjzv, Od., -r, 301s yvcoi^zv, 2nd, yi/aJrov, ib., ^, 

218, 3rd, yvQofTi and yvucaai, IL, a, 302, and -\^, 6IO, 66 1, <y, 

688, — optat, yvoirjv, yvoirjg, yvoiyj, ymiu, — imperative, yvaJTS. 

But the infinitives (a.Xa)[jijsmt, II. , (p, 495, ocKiumi, ib., (p, 

281, yvoji/jzvoti, ib., 349, &c., yvii/^'a/, Od., /3, 159), assimilate 

themselves, like Ti0r][j!jivcci, to the infinitive of the pure (po^rjvui, 

99- As aXofvai and yvavcci in the infinitive, so one form in 
the participle retains the fl, namely, ZTi'TrXug iugsoc 'kovtov^ IL, 
^, 29 1> which, compared with ttdrk^oag, H., I, 127, i^rsTXiy?, 
Od., 7, 15, 'jccc^i'TTkoo, ib., |a-, 69, can only be the participle of 
the 2nd aorist. 




100. The forms of those in T in the optative are without 
after v, as often as a consonant would follow vi, before which 
; cannot stand. 

101. Of this sort are ^ocTrroifJtjZv "haivuro rs Xuog, II., m, 665, 
or ^aivvTro. — UXzovsg kb ^vr,(rr7}ozg — "Hoohv ^uivvccr' Its/ tts- 
iW(7/ ywcciKojv, Od., ff, ^48, 1. hocivvioir ; and, according to 
tiis analogy, in the perf. pass, vsvotsv Ki^ccXoig — XiXvro ^s 'yvToc 
tdcarov, ib., 238, for XsKvTro. Not less in the active forms : 
f 'i^vv in ^ccpffuvov — fjuyj rig (JjOi — dvcchvrj, Od., /, 377* A 
^ienna MS. has oivcc6oiri, 1. dvuhvirj, viz. ^vtri, as arairj, ^etyj, 
■)irj. In like manner read ^vir;, Od., a, S48, for Ivrj ; for l«- 
'jljusv, II., T, 99> read i%,^v{jijsv, as also the Munich MS. has 
)r eKhv7(/jSu. 

102. The infinitive ^svyvvfjtjsv amysv, II., t, 145, compared 
dth ^zvyvv^ivoii, ("""), II., y, 260, and ^zvyvvmv avrog, ib., 
, 1^0, cannot be otherwise than short, wherefore Bekker 
ith Hermann, de EUips. et Pleon., p. 232, writes ^ivyvv^L- 

103. Of those in iota we find only two : (jp^u^Jbriv) (pQl^^riv 
1 d'7ro(p6i(jijriv, Od.> ;i> .51, and ((pduro) (pffiTO in ^^/v ya.^ zzv pcoci 
)| (p^iV (x,[jb^^orog, ib., X, 330. 



1. As in the declensions, so in the verbs* it seems neces- 
iry to enumerate the vai'ious forms of the same word. The 
otion of anomaly, under this head, must be duly circum- 
^ribed or even altogether abandoned, since here no common 
aradigm can be assumed as the rule (^vofijog), no present as 
riginal, but the root only prevails throughout ; to which 
le most different formations, arising in the manner hitherto 


developed, are equally to be referred. — Moreover, not all the 
forms, which stand together under the verbs placed above 
each article, are to be considered as belonging to these verbs. 
The prefixed verbs are so placed to indicate the root, and to 
avoid prefixing the bare roots. Under them are collected 
whatever forms are related to the root. 

1. 'A|3a;t5/V, not to know, 

appears in one form, T«y §' 'iKikot; Kccrilv T^um 'xo'kiv ' ol ^ 
d^ciZi^ffccv, Od., ^, 249. The root is ^ocz in sVo? h' ursg rt 
^'i^ccpcrai, Od., ^, 408, has been spoken. Hence that explana- 
tion, spoke not, kept themselves quiet, ^avyjxn:(/.v, Etym. Mag., 
p. 2, 30, and ib., 1. 48. Sappho, aXX' dQuz}^v rav <p^iv £%;a/, 
tranquil. Also from BAKZ, (j3a^) ^oi^eii^, to speak, (outers, 

2. "AyuiJjDn, wonder at, admire. 

Root FAF (cf. Germ, cjaf-fen, to gape at, and (/av-isus^ with 
strengthening A. From FAF comes {yccf, yoci) zvhu <ycx,ia)V, 
II., a, 405, proud and rejoicing in his glory. FA with NT, 
yavvaazrui, will rejoice, II., f, 504, and without modal vowel, 
ydvvTai, ydvwToci, with NA, yuvocovrzg, yocvocotjai, bright-shin- 
ing, jiourishing. — From AFAF (aya) dyaihoci rs TiOrj'Trd rs, 
Od., (^, 168, -v^, 175, and in fuller form (dyaf) with inserted 
A, (aydfifj^ui, dyuz(r&ai) dydufrOai, to grudge, '^sa,7g dydccffh, 
Od., g, 119. — 'Hyduffds, ib., £, 122, like [Lvdocfjdoci, n. 69. — 
Future, (aya) dyaaaia^cii, ib., §, 181. Aorist, '/lydafjotro, II., 
y, 181, and dydaaocro, dya&Gd(MOu, dyufrffd^Lzvoi. Conjunct. 
dydffj^cr^s, II., ?, Ill, and (e'/'^sa ^cci) dydfftrscci for dydrr-^ui. 
The extended form dyaio^ai (AFAFOMAI) in rjro^ v^dzru 
dyoc(0(jbii/ov zoizd s§yoc, expresses at once astonishment and 
indignation (Od., v, 16). Of AFAZ, whence dyoi^6(Mvoi in 
Pindar, N, 11,6 (7), a trace was formerly found in dyccZp(jbsd\ 
Od., «, 249, now dyaaad^zO' . 

S. ^ kyzi^co, assemble. 
Root FEP (ger-o,) with A collective, aiLot, to bring together. 
— From AFEP, 2nd aor. dy'i^ovro, d(jt>(puyi^ovro and dyi^sffdai 
(1. Gcys^iffdcct), Od., /3, 385, and {dyz^o^zvoi) dy§6(jbsvoi, uv, oiaif 


/, '/jffi. — 1st aor. pass, aye^dj^, dys^dey, riyz^kv, and pluperf. 
iy;jyg^) dyfjyi^uT, II., y, 13, and dyriyi^ad\ ib., ^, '211, Od., 
, S88, <y, 21. — AFEIP, ayii^oj^ ayiigsro, &c., ays/fa. ('Ays^s) 
)^2^s£o-^a/, II., ^, 1 '^7, i'o assemble themselves, and S^y^y/??7S^£<a;v, 
)d., ;;, 283, gathering strength, reviving, and with inserted 
), tiysgsdovrut, riys^idovro. Cf. § CLXVi, 1. Also AFTP, 
hence ciyv^ig, crowd, 6(jtjy;yv§tg, oubj^yu^kg, (ayv^iV) ofJbT^yu^i- 
zffdcci 'Axoiioug, Od., cr, 376, and with paragogic TA, ^^^jooar 
yv^ruZsiv, ib., r, 284, to collect ivealth. Lastly, ccyo^ri, as- 
'mhly, and hence (ayog-a) ayo^dKa&ai. 

4. "Ayvvyjt, break. 

loot FAF, fut. a^^, aor. (sfu^s) eals. II., ??, 270, soc^z, cf. 
CLVii, 1, c, d^rjg, ci^oii, ib., ^, S06, d^avrz^ ib., ^, 40, and 
)tat. (^Kupfdlaig) xccvoc^aig, lies., e, 611, 638. Cf. § CLXV, 
— 'Efdcy/j li<pog, broke, II., y, 367- Cf. § CLVii, 2, and 
^;?, II., TT, 801. Plnr. TraX/f /xcysv o|g£? oyzot, II.) 5, 214. — 
f^ith augment stands avxzmg tj^s, Od., r, 539, with NT, 
i^tdyvvTcci, II., T, 78j of the voice of Hector, breaks itself, 
werberates around, ccyvvrov, ib., ^, 148, ayvv^zvdcov, ib., tt, 
39, Od., ;k, 123. 

5. ^Kzi^co.^ lift up. 

oot AFEP in cc'i^&rj, dz^kv, ccs^kig, and (do^) dco^ro. — AEIP 
asi^cuVi dup6[jjSvog, diipccg, uzi^d^zvog. — AEIP, AIP, in hai^co, 
^ollo) slay, ai^ovTu, 2nd aor. mid. u§6(jijJ^v, d^oif/jrjv, dgf]cci, d^s- 
^cci, &c., aor. 1st, -^garo, ji^cc. — 'Ag^ with NT, AEPNT, 
PNT, in d^wtrd'/jv, c(,§vv[Mvog, to carry off for oneself, said of 
ings which are fought or contended for, hence to win or to 
rive for as a prize, hg'/i'iov — d§vv(j6yiv, II., %, 160. — Tif/j'^v 
^vv(jjSvot lAzvi'hdco, II., a, 159, and ib., Heyne. Cf., g, 553, 
id ' A^vv(jjZvog nv rz il/vyjiv, Od., a, 5, he endured much in 
'der to win, — to preserve, — AEP with paragogic E0, 
oi&ovTui. From Iml^oj, smgu, spoils of a slain enemy, and 
snce hoi^iZfo {rivd), despoil one when slain, slay. 

6. * Ak%oo, increase. 

oot FEF (in veg-etus,^ with the prefixed A, AFEF, with 
: aggg;, ui^srui, ai^ojv, a,it,i, ui^zro, 11., A, 84. Cr. aXg?^ 


under k\(iK7tuv. — From AFEF, AFFE come augeo and oJu- 
%o[Lai out of Homer. 

7. 'Arjvoii, to blow, diffciiy to sleep. 

Root FE (cf. Germ, weh-eri) with the strengthening A, AFE, 
without modal vowel and with E doubled, cf. n. 6O, (a;?) 'Bo§&?ig 
xoit Zg^y^o?, TM r& Q§riKri0sv ariTOv, II., /, 5, a^jW/Sva/, ib., -^y 
214, ccyjvai, aviybcov pbivog v<y§ov aivrcuv, Od., s, 478. Imperf. 
cif} Noro?, Od., f/j, 325, drj 7A(pv^og, |, 458, and §;ag<, 1. ^/a??, 
cf. n. 83. Pass. S-y/xoj driTo, II., (p, 386> «^a* blown up, ex- 
cited, and Xsiyj' — voftjsvog kcci ocy](/jSvog> Od., ^) 131. — In the 1st 
aor. ocsffoii, to draw breath in sleep, to sleep, afsaa, ib., y, 490, 
afya^LZv, ibo y, 151> and (jAkGoc(i,iv) acajW/Sf? ib.> ^, 367. 

8. 'AiVo-is;, rush impetuously. 

Root FIK, whence 'Uut arrive, and with the strengthening 
A> AFIK. with the notion of pi^ess upon, rush, and long 
iota ; as, to^uv aijcag lc\jj(p\c jjAvov^ II., 0, 709? vokouAKog 'ttoXi- 
[Jboto, ib., a, 165, Ko^vdcc'ixi, ib., %, 132, r^i-x/H'iPcsg^ Od., r, 177) 
thus not gTa/ia;, II., g, 263, ;j, 240, jM/, 308, v, 513, Od., «, 

295, but gTai'^a/, cf. Bekker, p. 153. 

9. 'AkaXfczTv, to repulse. 

Root AEK (luc-ta,) with strengthening A. — AAEK, 
AAKE in aX^r; and AAK (dXcckx.) in kXccXxs, oXoXkoi, oig, 
dXdiXzoiBv, dXoiXzs(JbSvcii, f/bsv, dXocXK&iv, dXaXzuv. — A AEK with 
2 or 2E, pres. dXz^kiLzvai, (mv, dXi^ofjtjZvoi, Od,, /, 57> dXz^u- 
[jtjZffdcc, with aor. aXs^u(j0Ki, II., v, 475, a?.g|?j(7g;g, Od.> y> 346, 
and fut. dXit,ri(Jiiv, dXz^riazig, dXs^^ffovra. The forms in the 
present appear to be future forms, which, together with 
aXz^riffUv have lost the meaning of the future. 

10. ' AXaXvxTJ^fjbcci, tremble with grief and anxiety. 
Root ATF in luy-eo, with the strengthening A and TE in- 
serted, as ra%, draKreco> &c., (cf. lug-eo, luct-us) AATKTE, 
whence dXotX\jz.77ifjjOn — ovh'z f/boi i]70f "E,M/^g^of> dXX' dXocXvKrri- 

(JjOCI, 11.5 %> 9^' 

11. 'A Xz&ivco' avoid. 

Root AAEFj AAE. — From the former come 1st aor. rjXzmro, 


xXsvuro, dXivoii'TO. Imperat. aXzvai, conj. dXiverai, Od.> f, 
ilOO, dXivaa&cci, dXivdfMvog. Cf. § c CXI 1 1, S7. — That which 
stands as present, r^v ovrig dXzvircci (earlier dKevuTdi) og kz 
yhriTCih Od., 00, 29» should perhaps be read dXivaro. Then 
vvithout X: dXiaffOz, dX'zccvrOi dhir/rai, dyicui/Tai, dXiaa^ai, — 
mp. dXiovTOi II ) (T> 586, which should perhaps be dXiuvro. (") 
— AAEF with paragogic EN, pres. d'/szivco, sig, &c. 

12. 'AXccffTilu, to be indu/nant. 

Root AAA, Lat. latus^ belonging to fero, with the notion of 
mdiire. Whence jO/Jj jooo;, ccXaarz, avvriyboavvag ayo^zvz^ II., )^, 
^61, and from aXufTTioo^ endure not, am indignant, TiXuaTSov 
)g '^soi, ib., 0, 21, aXKCTTjaag 'i-Trog '/jvhoc, ib., f/y, l63, and rov ^' 
TaXccffT^ffoccTcc '7r§o(T7]vhcc Tla/JMg 'A0rivri, Od., a, 252, indic/- 
lant on this account (k'ffi). 

13. " AXko(/j(/j, spring. 

iloot FAA (cf. sal-tus), in Homer in the 2nd aor. aXffo, II., 
r, 754, and dXro with lengthened alpha, § CLXXi, 1, ccxviii, 
)1. Conj. ciKr/Tcci, II., ip, 5S6, and dKirat, perhaps clX'/^roit 
ind aXzTcci, so that in the other forms the aspirate vanishes 
»nly in consequence of the compression of the syllables. — 
-*artic. l'^KX(jbivog, i'7rdX[jjSvog, KccTi'7rcx,X[jtjivog. — Of the 1st aor. 
inly iariXoiTO, II., ^, 5-38. 

14. 'AXoia, smote, 

ippears only in yulav '7roXv(pop^f]v ^SfO'/j' ccXoia, II., /, 568. 
Root aXof^ in aXcijg, the threshing -Jloor, and hence uXofdu, 
iXoidoj, properly to strike in threshing, hence to strike ge- 
lerally, and aTrriXoiYiaiv, II., \ 522, broke in pieces. 

15. 'AXvtu, to be of wandering or unsettled mind, by rea- 
son of grief or joy. 

loot AT in Xvco (whence also lues,^ with strengthening A: 
IXviig, ort 'l^ov hiKr,(rag, Od., c, 333. — The wounded Venus, 
iXvovG cc^i^'/jfraro, II., g, 352. Hence dXvaKoov, Od., yj^ ?>Qi'd, 
382, uXv^cov and cOJJtai together with aKvaKa^aj, wander away, 
withdraw myself, avoid, and the form with double 2 : Kvng 
iXvaaovTzg, II., ;^, 70> raving, furious, and Xiiaau. 


16. 'AXmvui, to be taken. 

Root AAO, AQ, and A from cl^jbu. In Homer only in the 
2nd aor. to be taken : 3rd pers. rfku (as 'iym\ Od., %, 230, 
aXoiYiv^ akolrii olKoju, ah&iri, ctikmcci^ cf. n. 98, part. aXot'Tg, II., 
g, 487. 

17. "Ajoosva/, to satiate. 

Root AAF, cf. SATVR and Germ, sdttigen^ whence AAFE, 
{a^friKonC) ccb^riKong^ satiated) and ^zi-Trvoj cchri'^znv, Od., a, 134, 
ah})nv. — From A AF, proceed AF without A and A A without 
F. From AF {df^^ivai) "dfjusvui in x§oog af/jsmt ai/hgoftjioio, 
II., pf 70» aVs/t', afTiffde, curri, ocaai, aacca&ai, all with long A, 
wherefore ^ [hriv zui x^ccTS^og "tts^ luv aara/ 'TrohkiLoio^ Hes., a, 
101, is probably a corruption from (JifiTKi) aercih and is fu- 
ture ; also (aocTog) arog^ insatiable. — From AA, cc6og 'i'kzto 
^v(j^6v) satiety^ II., >., 88, and cl^nV' For the forms belonging 
to ccoi(Tcc(j^riV see § CLXViii, 3. 

18. ' Aucituofjtjcci, refuse, deny. 

Root NAN (cf. ?za, Bavarian for nein, no^, AN AN, (amtv) 
ccvoctvoyjoci, say 710, avciivofJbCii, avuiv&ai, uvccivsrOf aor. av/imffdoctf 
and conj. av/jvyirui, II., /, 510, and indie. ^voctvsrOi ib,, <r, 450, 
and ccTn^vtjvaPTOi ib., fj, 185, rejected. 

19. 'Av^avo;, please. 

Root FA A, whence aSs, a^o/, a^grv, and (jfahv) evoibsv, II., 
^, 340, ^, 647, Od., T, 28, and (IfccUg) kaUruy II., /, 173, 
Od., ff, 422.— FA A, FHA, ^(tccto ^ alvSg, Od., /, 353. 
ANAAN u(pa,vhuvit, til/lavs, i'Tn^vhoivz. 

20. 'Av0fj(rai, to bloom, to blossom. 

Root ANE0, perf. with reduplication ccv^vodcc,(^^ whence cci(jJ 
'in ^sgfLov av^vohv s? ojTzikTJg, II., X, ^QQ, bursts, sprinys up ; 
KviaGrj [hh avrjvodiv, Od., §, 270, from the house of Ulysses. 
Likewise tivodoc compounded with Iv and It/ (on and over) 
-^eh^ h' iTTiv^voh Xa^f;;, II., |3, 219, on the head of Thersites: 
scanty hair was spread on and over it. Cf. II., «, 134, Od., 
Sy, 365. Besides these we find only ANE0, AN0E, «W^- 
aui> Od., X, 320. 


21. ' Amyu, command. 

I the present stand ^vf/^og i'Tror^vm xai kvojyzi, II., o, 43, 
wyzTov^ ib., ^, 287) and without modal vowel cimyiMv, H., I, 
28, ccvaiyrj, II., ;c, 130, o, 148, dva/yoi[jbi, dvcoyoir. Imperat. 
coyertu, Od., (3, 195, dvaiyere, ib., -v^, 132, and without modal 
fwel a,va)x0fi Hm «» 67» &c.; so that X0 extends to the other 
srsons also : dv&%0&;, ib., X, 189, oivsox^s, Od., %, 437, infin. 
cuys(jbzi', imperf. (Ivuyov, II., e, 805, and rjvcoyov, ib., /, 578, 
<wy£, Dcmyov, and fjvaysov, ib., ;?, 394 ; but cf. n. 32. — There 
likewise a form with A: ccvojyoc, avojyag, a^myZy which is 
nsidered as perfect, although it never has the augment, and 
pluperf. rivojyicc^ cf. n. 31, t^vayit, not ava/ysi. Also avu^M, 

22. ' A'ffuipiazcOi delude, 

oot A<I>, AOE in a(p^, and {d'wa^p) ^Vafps, Od., |, 488, 
«^^7ra(p£v, ib., i, 360, conj. ila-ra^^y, ib., -v^/, 79? opt. a-ra- 
iTO, ib., 2l6, ela-raipo/ro, II., /, 376, ^o caress, tojiatter, to 
hide by caresses and jiattery,, generally joined with /:>oy^^, 
gso'o'/f, and from acraipg a-raip/c^g/. 

23. 'A'TTfiO^K, took away. 

oot FPA, whence fraus (taking away), deceit, with the 
lengthening A, AFP A, whence the root ay^«, which gives 
rrivgccg in pcat (/jIV f/jsyoc zuhog d-TrrjO^agt II., ^, 237, likewise 
rriO§ct, d'TrrjO^soi/, and d'TT^v^aro, Od., ^, 646. — Thus we must 
stinguish from these forms dTov^ug, root OP> and I'Trocv^siv, 
ot FPT, which even Buttman associates with them. Still 
3s can zv^iffKoj be related to this stock? the root of which, gy^, 
FP, EFEP, conveys the notions of draw andfoi'th, i. e. to 
•aw to liyht, to discover. 

24. ' A^t^i^ivog, laden, oppressed. 

oot FAPE, whence (Bu^vg, ^oc^z-og, and hairan, bar, Gothic 
r to bear, bore, and with the strengthening A, (dfci§?][jbevog, 
iPri^jbivog^ 'd§y!(j^mg, heavily laden. T'/j^u't 'kvy^M Ketrai m 
yd§o(g d^riiMvog^ II., (T, 435, cf. Od., ^, 2, i, 403, -^z, 283. 
itferent from d§ri(jtjsvcii belonging to d^dcj, pray, ib., x^ 322. 


25. "A§CO,ft. 

Root AP, aor. a^cs, ()d., (p, 45, and I'^rrj^asv, U., |, 339, cloaov, 
a§(TUVTSc, ccoffug. Cf. § CCXIII, 39, CCXViii, 63. — "A^cc^ov, 
fjoa^s, ccga^y], d^cc^uv. — "A^hv^ov a^^^rjaccv, — perf. do'/jor;, dorjcog^ 
Qori^ &c., d^ccovia, Szc. — pliiperf. d^rigsi and %^cs/, JL, ^, oQ, 
— APE, aor. dczaai, conciliate, accommodate, 11., /, 120, r, 
138, 7KV7CC ^' o'Triakv dosaaofLgd', ib., ^, 362, d^zaadiLZvoi^ 
d^z&da^o), &c. — APAPE2K, dod^iazs, fitted on, Od., ?, 23. 
— APTE (ars, art-is,) in composition oijuccctzcov, uniting 
oneself, acting together icith another, — oiiiaoryiTrtV, o^a^rrr 
(TOiVTS, and l<po[MCiOTsiTyjv, l^of^a^TiiTB ; and as the opposite of 
this 'AMAPTE, aor. dyijUOTiiv (perhaps originally ccfaoTiiv, 
as ybiv from fiv) to separate oneself, to wander away from 
an object, to miss or fait : ufjuccors, sv, df/jd^T'/j, df/jaoTo/a, dtpa- 
^Dc^TOVGrj, II., ^, 411, — fut. d[/jCCPTyj(Te(T0at oz-cott'/jc, Od., /, 512, 
that I should be deprived of sight. — AMAPTAN, imperf. 
Tiyud^Tuvi, failedy missed. — APTT (to fit-> to order), dorvvsi, 
d^rvvDcvTic, d^Tvv67j, fut. d^rvv'iovaa.. — APE with 0M, (^d^iflfjij) 
rioi^fjjsov (to set in order ichile counting, to count or number), 
d^iO(jjr,aoj, -aa,?, doi^^y.&7;^zvai ; and AP0M, do&iJbr,aavri, II., rj, 
302, united. 

26. ' A(pv(j(Tco, draw. 

Root OT and OTF (^cf. Germ. Pfii-tze, puddle, Pfu-hl, 
pool) with prefixed A, AOTF, whence dpvsaco, as from '?ror,y, 
'Ti^rjaaoo. Pres. oi)voyj)H . . . d^vaiycov, II., a, 598. Cf. Od., /, 
9. Fut. d^6liiv, II., a, 171. The aorist from OT, AOT, 
d(pv(T(Tov, Od., (3, 349, d(pv(JGocc, ib., /, 204, dZva(JUTo, II., ^, 
230, d^v(j(jdybZvog, ib., \|/, 220, d^vaadyijivoi, ib., 7, 295, «, 
579, Od.. ^, 359, afym, a^yffffsv, II., ;. 517, Od., /3, 379. 

27. 'Axo[Jbai, aflict myself, grieve. 

Root AX, Germ. Ach and /^/^^Wi, woe. Hence dyjiiLoci. Nj;v 
^ dyj)\Lcn, Od., T, 129' o-> 256 ; aor. {dy.ay^ W'Ccyj. (affdcted, 
injured), Qsa'Trpcurovc, ib., tt, 427, and middle UKdyovro, dza- 
yoiujTiV, dKctryoiiLi^a^ uKdyjoivro. Likewise AX> xVXEF, dyjvuv, 
ajffiicting oneself] ^vimw dyjvcov, grieving at hearts only in this 
form, and without f, dyjcov, dyjovau. Hence with reduplica- 
tion, aKuyjidi TOKyjocg, II., \^, 223, cf. § ccviii, 11, aKayji^jjUi, 


tc. conceming which see § CLXVi, 1, CLXViii, 10,ccxii,34; 
^AXEA, uKccyJ^ij, afflict, ax.or/J(^ii;y urMr/J^tO, azr/JorxT ; 
f. § ccxii, 33, c ; AX with NT : ayj'j'j.ui, torment myself, 
yjvtMHog, dyj'jTOf AX with 0E, ayjog, uyji-og, burden, pain, 
■yjoaui, am oppressed, pained, ayJou,at i/jco:, D., £, 361, r,- 
'hro, was yrieted, vexed, rr.C: rr/Ji'o, Od., o, 4.37, icas laden. 

2S. Ba/>4/, icalk, go. 
\e have akeady cited Sdrr^v for o^tj^v ra) o* akxoyr: oar>:», 
1., a, 3'27? ^^c, with ri) o' — u^tLara ctrjr,',, ib., ^. llo, Sec, 
nd £cr!T>> ib., ^. 40. — The imperative has 3K and the notion 
f speed -^" in Bcwr*' i^/, D., 3, 8, &c., the active meaning" 
ppears in xuzw> icr/ca^xsasv viae 'Ayuisui, D., o- '■2-S4. The 
arriciple form with the prefix BI, and the meaning of stalk- 
np along, joined with u.ccx^, C-^i, appears in r,]'- ilcczsol SiZac, 
1., r^, ^213, Sec, 'jC/ o<ca>Ta rvyai*, ib., »» 371* The same 
Drm lengthened by 20 : Aiar o\ 'z^o: T^fjTutt^'^t-r) iLox^rt 
utdfj^iii. ib., >, 809, cf. 0, 676, T, o34, and BIBA with 
aodal vowel iLrtx^a Si^yrou IL, 7, 2*2, and C'-rj^;; 0= 'zoci/xioc 
\iixzrioct.o Oo/Va u,{tx.^ci. St^Sica, Od., /^ «539. Also we find 
cr/r ToTa cr£/jyfa (namely pr.uuira^) o/Sa, IL, II, iS^^. 

29. B<z/yjy. fhroic. 

Wt BE A (in oi/.oc, </arf,) and BAA (cf. English ^/7). 
5EA, BAE, ^nd aor. opt. S'/Mo. II., >, 288, and conj. o/^sra^, 
)d., f. 472, manifestly for 3/s7:tcci — BEA, BOAE. SbZo- 
Jiuro, C, /, 3, 3iZo}j:u,iift:, ib., 9. Od., z> 247, hence ayrs- 
Jo/j:<7ar> a;TscO/j:<ri, ayri^6/j:<T(zi:, -r,Gou, -zcax (to throw oneself 
n the way), to meet. — BAA. fut. oa/ia/, D., ^, 403, aor. 
3a>.o>, Sec., oi'fSTO and ocusa^ui, &c. pres. imperf. od'/Jsou, 
ici/jjTo, Sec. BAA, BAA, perf. pluperf. 3)i^'/j;z.ii, S-Z/JicUf 
hZ/j;T(n, oit/J/xTcti, 3zZ/J:ccro, Sec, Oi^/j:iLz>o:, and without 
eduphcationt i^j^ro, pjSjro, p'/jJG0cu, 3}j:'JLi>oc. 

30. Biooiutii briny to life-> preserve in life : 

'V ydz iL l^ii)cao, zo'jst,, Od., ^, 46S, and in the 2nd aor. act. 
o live, whence 7, airo/sfT^ ha y^>o* r^ 3iiiiai, D., (h 5\\, cf. 
b., X, 174, Od., ^, 359, and imperat. a/jXfg ith <i7oZ&ic&^ 
t/j.oc ^ o/*T», D., ^, 429. 


31. BoOXoiJUcct, will. 

Root BOA (vol-untas) in oCk\oL ^okzGdz, Od., t, S87» and 
according" to several mss. also irs^cog l^oXovro ^soi, ib., a» 234, 
for l^akovTO. Cf. § CLXViii, 12, and obs. BOTA in 'tt^o- 
€s€oyXa, IK, a, 113, prefer^ and ^ovXoybah (BovXiro. BOT- 
AE in (BovXriaiTai, H., I, 264. 

32. Ta[jbktv> marry. 

Root rAM (cf. Germ. Brdiiti-g?km.y i. e. betrothed to the 
hride\ whence 'iy/iiLzvi sy/if/jZ} y^^hzv, yyj^ai, yhy^otg, of the man 
who marries, y/jybua&ai, yriujocro, 'y}^(jbcc(Jbsv'/], of the womam e.g. 
'ET/«a(rr;;v, .... Vri^LccijJiVTi u vk7' 6 ^' 6V 'Trccr'i^ k^svoc^l^ocg 
Tjj[JtjZh Od.> X, 273. — FAME) yapusstu, yociiikovri, ya^jAiadat. 

Fut. yocpbiu, II., h 388, and immediately after UriXsOg 

[juoi S'TTsiroi yvmTx.oi ycc[jtj&Gffercch ib., ;> 394, will give in mar- 
riage to me, 

S3. Tzyuvzm to cry out, to cry aloud. 
Root rOA (connected \vith BOA), TO AN, mN.— Imperf. 
{ymz) lyzymzh II., %> 34^ lyzyuvzw, Od., ^, I6I, yzycjvzvvy ib., 
/, 47, ^, S7O, perf. yzymug, II., ^, 227, &c., 2nd aor. ors 

roffffov ccTT^V) offffov rs yzyoovi jSo^caj, Od., g, 400, &c., likewise 
i^oridi yiycovi rs, ib., ^, 305, yzycovziv and yzyuvkiLZv, 

34. Tn&iiv, to rejoice. 

Root FAF (^cf. yoiv-^ogi gav-isus). Hence FAFHN, yalcov, 
II., «» 405, &c. FA with 0E (^cf. gau-deo), yyjdioj, whence 
the imperf ly^Osov, iyyjkzv, II., ri, 214, 127j and in the other 
tenses y^&rjffZh yrj0y}(TZ, &c., without a trace of yfidat ; whence 
for yrj&ity ib., |, 140, the other reading y^diTis to be preferred. 

35. Tyj^dGzca^ grow old. 

Root FAP (cf. the German gar denoting that which is at an 
end, finished), FHPA> whence yri^dg, II., ^, 197, yyj^a^vrzaatf 
Hes., g, 171, and from yrj^doo, ly/j^cc, KOirsyrjPcc, and with 2K, 
yyi^dffKSh zuTay^§u(jH,a)(Th &c. Likewise FPAF (grau) pass- 
ing into E in the German greis, hoary^ — roots which have 
no influence on the verbal formations. 


36. T(yvz(r6ai, to become. 

Root FEj FAj perf. yzya,ot,(rh yzyoiMtoc^ &c. — FE? FEN, aor. 

y'ivzTOi y'ivoiTo, yivfjrat, yivkadoch &c.5 perf. yiyovz. — With ex- 
tended g : yiiv6[jtji0cc, II., Xi 477' ^ve7'e born, yzivoiLzvu, ynvoiLz- 
vri(7h and aor. 1st, yzivocro, kywaro, y&ivuadah and yzmoci (for 
yzivriKi), Od., v, 202. 

37. Aafjmiy to know. 

Root AAX, in the non-Homeric ^;^a%^ and indagare^ ^Aa|s, 
^/Sa^ajO/Sv, ^s^;^a%^a/, IL, A, 831. — With 2K ^ihccffKOVffiv, h- 
hcc(TKi[jtjSvcti, and hi^ccdK^aui, Hes., g, .54, ^0 teach. AAX, 
AAXE, and both without X, AA, AAE. The former in 
the 2nd aor. act. ^g^agi', taught, Od., ^, ^33, '<p, I6O, and 
(^ihccfrdcii) ^ihccuffdai, ib., ^, 3l6, to teach oneself, to discover. 
AAE in the 2nd aor. pass, to be taught, to know, ghoc'/]v, II., 
y, 208, and belonging to this hasiM, huyjvcci, '^r^ohusig, &c. So 
also fut. -Trcog yoig lybzv <Ty, '^iivz, ^oc^ffzoct, Od., r, 325, and perf. 
^ihci'/jxag, hihocTjxs. Lastly, AAE, AH in ^^cj (indagando 
reperio)^ used ^vith respect to the future* shall or will jindy 
ovziTi S^srg TiK(i,co^ 'Ikiov, II., /, 418, 685, and I'/jeig, ib., v, 
260, &c. 

38. Aa'i^oj, dissever ; loticj, destroy. 

Root AAFIK. ^Yi\k loC'ilpov ^uX-Ag, II., ;?, 247, &c., then 
hxi^6[jjivog, ^oii^sro, ^ociS,cit, ihoii^s, ^^diy^ivov t^to^, Od., v, 320, 
&c., — After the ejection of K, AAFI, then AAI, whence 
^ccio[Jbcii, divide^ distract, ^ocisrai ?Jto§, Od., a, 48. Ai^ioTocg, 
roi lc)^0oi ^ihuiuTCii, ib., a, 23, and active x^bcc hcckro zou Afjbs 
(Jjoi^ccg, ib., 0, 140. Lastly, A Al without iota gives the forms 
of the fut. and aor. mid. and perf. pass, ^accafro, ^affa/^g^a, 
hufTcuurui, ^cca<roc[/jSvoi, zvah u^a, ^aca^r^a/, II. , %//, 21, to tear 
to pieces raw^ (^g^ara/) ^g^acra/, ib., a, 125, &c., aTo^a<r<ro- 
jM/a/, ib., f, 231. Lastly, A A lengthened by TE : ^arsoi'ra/, 
^arg^yfra/, hccrzvvro, II., \//, 121. We must distinguish from 
these the forms from AA, A AI, which root is connected with 
KAI in Kuiof, namely ^a/s, IccTzv,'-^^ set on Jive, ^oCiov, ^akrs, ^uiO' 
(JjSvov, kindled, burning, r,, cov, aor. ^cc'/jrcci 'Ottot av T^oiri -^u^l 
'TTclacc hoiyiTCii Aocio[jijivri, ^aiooffi ^' k^ri'ioi vhg ' Kyjucov, II., y, 3l6, 
for which ^a;jr«/ K.oti6(^ivti Koiioj(yt l\ k.t.'K., stands? ib.> <p> 375, 


perf. ^£$??s, pi. hlrjit^ burned, raged, said of war, grief, tumult. 
The remarkable forms of Kot.ico have been already explained, 
§ ccxiii, 37. 

39. Auivvi/ji^ feast (active sense). 

Root AAIIA, cf. dapesy from AA and from ITA in Toi-ffoc- 
G&ot,i^ taste. The full root only in the non-Homeric ^a-raf;?, 
expense, AAIIA without A, A AIT in Homer in ^a^re/, 
(^oiboi'TrToi)) hccphccTTouffi, pcocrcibcc-^cci, to feast (neuter sense). 
After the ejection of H and consequent extension of A, AAI 
in ^oiiffsiv ^g yot^ov, II., r, 299, to furnish a marriage feasts 
and ^ccKTaiJbzvoi^ Od., <r, 408, having feasted. The same 
meaning belongs to the form with NT : ^ocivv laTra, yi^ovaiv, 
II., /, JO, and loiivuTut, feasts, ib., 0, 99. Aocivvo, ^ocivvvro, 
^aivvTo, and ^Kivviocr, cf. n. 109, ^ciivv'/i, Od., ^, 243, for ^oci- 
w[jjOci, })oc.ivvaScci, ^aii/vf/ijivog. 

40. Acc^JbVTJiJbi, subdue. 

Root AAM (cf. Germ, zahm, Eng. tame). From AAM, 
A A ME, the aorist form lla,[^}^v, l^dihyj, ^c^[JU'/i, plur. ihdyij?iijijzv, 
hd[/jSt/, conj. ^oif/jiiM, si'/jg, zirj, g/'srs, opt. ^a[/jiirig, ^cc[/jSi7], infin. 
hoc[/jy][/jSi>oci, ^oi[/j^voci, ^oifjbitc, hu[jAvTOi, &c. — From A AM A the 
aorist form with 2 : i^(x,[jtjCii(T(Ti, ^d^ocaaz, ^di(/jOi(T&v, })dc[/joc(r, §a- 
jM/aco;, ^oc[/jOi(TOiioiro, &c., together with ^ot^da&ri and ^oc^aa&zig, 
as also some forms from AO : lcc(jtjoi, II., a, 6I, loifjudccc, ib., 
X;, 271, future lu[jij6coffi, ib., (^, 368. — From AAMNA (§a^« 
with N), lcc[j(jVfjfj!j\ II., s, 893, ^cc[jijV}](Tt, ib., 746, and khcc[Jijva, 
ib., 391, ^DCfjijva, ib., ^, 103, as zuriKru, and pass, ^ociiivccrui, 
^a,[j!/va(T0oit, ^ci(/jvccro, whence likewise hocfjum, ib., ?, 199, should 
be written as 2nd pers., locyjva from Ictfjuvccacci, — From AAM, 
AMA, comes the perf. lsh[jtj^[jbsdoc, '6s6[jij}j[/jivog, ov, 01, pluperf. 
^g^p^|M/;jj/, ^il[jb'/j7o, ^ehf/brjocTO, also the aor. hf/bfjdriTcj, 11., /, 158, 
and ^(juT^diVTu. 

41. AztzvufLh show, and I'^xof^ott, 7'eceive. 

Root AIK with the meaning of stretch out, and reach (li/cov 
and g^m in Find. Pyth., 9, 128 (218), Ol, 11, 75 (10, 
86)> cf. digitus), extended AEIK (Germ, zeig-en), to point 
with outstretched hand, hence ^ii^co, 'iht'isv, &c., and U'/iXsih)^ 


^j\v lycov lvhi%ofjjci{, 11., r> 83. to Peleides will I point, will 
address myself to him, and with NY> Isixvvg, pointing, tm 
zoci '^iiKvv!Mvog, ib., ;, 196, pointing to them, stretching out 
the hand, greetimj them as (/uests, and '^yJKZv tLi&hu, Asikvv- 
fASvog AavocoTtJh II. 4^, 701' where the dative belongs to ^tjfcsu 
and with ^si>cv6[Jijivog we must understand ccvroOg ; ^ziKvvijjivog 
ciUTovg, bidding them to the i) antes. So AEIK with ANA, 
})iix,a,vooi)VTo ^i'lTccKyavh ib., o, 86, and ^zikocvocovt iTrhsffiv, Od., c, 
111, ^y, 410, and the form reduplicated by AEI : AzI^zkt 
'AxiK^oc, II., /, 'i'2ii, AitUxocTOit, Od., ?], '^ I, AziUxkt, II.. §, 
4, so that in the radical syllable EI is shortened to E. AIK 
is reduplicated in the same way, hth%5(T0c6i^ hihi%ccfrdoci, in the 
pres. with 2K, ^sihiirz6[jjivogy ^sihia-zero, and "bzhaKOfjijivog, Od., 
0, 150, reaching out the right hand. — From As/^2;sro, &c., 
is extracted the root AEK, AEX, with the meaning of take, 
receive-: for }iiyj,(>&cci^ ^«?0|W;a/, ^s^ac^a/, &c., together with the 
forms explained in n. 59» ^£^0, §s;sro, &c., to lie in wait for. 
— AEK, AOKEF, ^okzvzi^ ^ozzvaocg^ to catch stealthily, to lie 
ill wait for, and AOKEF without F, lihoTCTJiMivog, II., o, 7<30. 

42. Aivca, bedew, moisten. 

Root ^if (cL Germ. Thau, Eng. dew), ^busi, ^svs, sSsys, '^iveffzoVf 
^iviTcci, is moistened, Izviro, ^ivovro, KOiTihuffccj II., /, 490. 

43. Aio), bind ; livo(jiycciy need. 

Root AE in Uov, Od., |M/, 196, hiotfjiji, imperat. hiovrajv, ib., jO*, 
54, and with like meaning Uourx, II., <t, 553, ^rj/rnv, e'brjaroc, 
&c., ibrjfTOiTO, ^fj/rar, Od., (/j, 16 1, ^■/]ircc[j!jSvog, ^s^sro, ^s^sj^ro, 
and (^<^s) imperf. ^A;j, II., X, 105. — Asvo(JjOci, need, ivant^ 
l7n^s0o[/joci, hivioct, hsuyjt Od., a, 254, ^sysra/, hsvoiccto, Isusffda/, 
hsuidOoii, hiUO(JAvog, zbzvio, IhiuiTo, ^iVifrOriv, fut. (hzfi) hiv^irsuii 
ib., ^, 192, I, 510, livfifTiffdcct, ib., -v^, 128, and 1st aor. only 
act. in ihiv'^rrsv, ib., /, 483, 510. With these there appears 
from the root without f, hT only in r/ ^s h7 7roXiiJiji^i(jjiVoii, II., 
h 337, and ^^(TSf in l^o/j/b ^s B^/rsv, ib., c, 100. 

44. Ai^ri[jjcct, seek. 

Root AIA (with short iota), AI2A, AIZ, whence l7Ps, II., 
'TT, 713, 1. ^/^s. — AIZE, whence ht^t^oct, Od., X, 100, ^/^^^jfoj, 
?; and fut. ^/^?j<To^g^', ib., t> 239- 


45. AmOct) and ^ivio), turn. 

Root AIN in h7vog, vorte:v> whence AINEF in h'vzuov, hvzvz- 
ff^g, ^mvovTzg^ hvivovffccv. In the rest mthout /■ : kh'usov, zbivi- 
o(Jbsv, ihvsofjbSffdcc, turned ourselves abouU wandered, ^ivsi(r0yiv, 
eTTthv^ffoig, hivfj^iig^ and (TT§s(psh'vridsvj II., t, 792, were rolled 
about) c(,(j^(p{hh'vf^Tcti, ib., -v^, 562, surrounds. 

46. AU 

Root AI, cf. ti-mor, to he afraid, and tojlee, also to inspire 
fear, to scare. In the former meaning it is in the active : 
Viz v'/}vc>h 'Ay^ociSv, II., /, 4i33, feared for, and 'prs^i clarv (Jtj'zyoc 
Ugiuyjov hiov, ib., %, 251, fed. In the latter sense it has al- 
ways the passive termination : KTg — ov pa zvvsg — kto (rra^ftjoio 
liMvrai, ib., g>, 109. So ^Ititcci, II., %, 189, 456, &c., IfaTro- 
h'cij(jbai, ib., g, 763. — From the root AIE come without the 
modal vowel : vo^i^zg ccuratg Ivhistruv, ib., <r, 584, seek in vain to 
terrify, and JWo/ — ^rshioio h'svrat, ib., i^, 475, speed (ruunt). 
— To both forms belongs the infin. ^/W^a;, and therefore it is 
both active : ^ztvov ca'xo (j^syccgoto Vna^ui, Od., ^, 398, and in- 
transitive : ov pa r u'ff&i^yirog (Jb&[/j0vs (TTu0[jb6io his(70oci, II., |a<, 
304, he does not endure without an attempt to hasten from 
the fold. To Viinm also belongs as conj. according to the 
reading of Zenodotus : ug ^' oVorg 'Tfkvi&m 'TCorciiLog 'Tt^iovhz Viri- 
ra/, ib., X, 492, for zdruaiv (1. hyjrcci from ^{i'/jrui, as ^g;jTa/, 
^}jrai\ For the perfect form §g/^;a, &c., see n. 24, &c. — 
With AI stand AEF and AFE in Uog,friyht. From AEF, 
AEI, and the same with A Tas in [jijS§ u^JbZ^a)), comes Izilco, 
of which no person appears, og/o-go-^a;, liiaw, &c., and (hfii) 
g^^g/<7a?, gv, g, arg, av j (^/^g/) v-zo^^iGag, v'Troh^ziaavTzg, &c., 
II., >^, 282, |0o, 413, with (^g/) vTroliiffurz, Od., |3, 66.— 
With 22, terrify, (h, hih) hiliffffsai, ^sihi(r(Tso, ^uliffffiff^cv, 
^Sihff(rs(7doci, together with ^g/^/|g<r^a/ and hih%cca^aif perf. (^g- 

47. AoDcffuffdoii, to appear. 

Root AOFA, whence cczrAXiog ^okt sipoci, Od., ^, 242, ap- 
peared, together with lousaccTO, II., v, 458, &c., and })ouaazroii 
for houtrffi^Tat, ib., -v^, 339. 


48. 'Eyg/^fw, rouse. 

Root FEP (ger-o) with the prefixed E (out) in (sysf, lyg-) 
gy^go, gy^gro, probably the 2nd aor. and 'iy^sa^at (I. gy^gir^a/), 
Od., f, 124, — perf. (sy^gyo^) ly^riyogdat, gy^^yo^^g, gy^jjyo^^ao-/, 
cf. n. 36 f b, and hence gy^;;yo^O(jy;', cf. n. 14, obs., — and EFPE 
with 22 ky^fiiTffug, iy^aaovTzg, being aivake. 

49. "E^isy, 'i(T&oj^ and Ic^/iw, e«f. 

Root E A and E2 (cf. Eng. eaty and Germ, essen^ Lat. edere, 
and comesse). From EA shsi, ehovffi^ shovrsg, shoisv, zh^zvoii. 
Also sho(jbai, shsui, s^ovrai, expressive of the future^ cf. II., §, 
237, ^, 836, ff, 271, 283, Od., /, 369, &c., imperf. 's^ov, s- 
hiffKS. Likewise perf. l^i^liitg, II., g>, 542, and (i^g) s^^^ora/, 
Od., %, 56. The root EAE is also found in (EAE and 
TT) k^TjTvc, whence ihrirvog. The O of this form is according 
to the analogy shown in n. 36, b. — E2 with E0 (E2E0, 
E20), &(T0ci) in 'iadovffi, 'ia&nv, k(j6s[jtjsvai, gV^^v, 'iadovirai, ^o-^s, 
^(T^'j Od., or, 141, and the paragogic kadico, whence ic^/g/, 
l(r0hrs; imperat. hOa, 'ia&i'; infin. 1(tM(jijSv; imperf. rja^is, rjudtoPt 

50. Ei'^^y, see. 

In Homer the active is common only in the imperf. : uhoi/, g/Jg, 
itho[JijSV, and slrritlovy beheld^ Od., X, 583, 593 ; pass, gi'^gra;, 
are seen, appear, II., ^, 559, ib., a, 228, &c. ; §/ag/^gra/, 
is seen through, ib., v, 277j zihoybivog, -rj, like, looking like ; 
imperf. gi'^ovro, saw, ib., -r, 278, — 2nd aor. 'thov, saw, 'I^zg, 'ihzv, 
-g, 'iho^jjiv ; imperat. i'^g ; conjunc. 'ihco, 'ihco^jbi, 'ihrjg^ 'ihoo^jiizv, i^j^rs, 
t^Mfft ; optat. t^oi[jji, 'thoig, '/hoi, ihotsv ; infin. ilisiv, ihsTv ; partic. 
thoi/v, ilovffoi, -ui, and mid. with the same meaning, ih6[J/}^v, 'ihzro, 
'ihovro, 'ihaj[Jbca, 'ihrjui, 'ibrirah ihoo^zdov, 'ih/j/rds, 'Zgoihojvrcih Od., v, 
155; optat. 'ihoio> ihoiro, 'ihotctro; imperat. '(Izade; infin. lUffdcci; 
— fut. gi'ffOjOoa/, soil, STcth shall see, II., ^, 532 (from see, Jind 
out, Od., r, 501, shall know, for know, II., «> 88 ; — aor. 
IsiffOiO, ihocro, hiffotTO, ihoivro, e'lffrjrah uauiTO, si(TK(Mvog, hiad- 
fjtjzvog, -rj, was seen, appeared, seemed, was like, — perf. o7hu 
(have seen), know, oihag only Od., a, 337, and H., II, 456, 
467j elsewhere oh&a, oi^gv, ol^g, oih\ In the plur. only 'ihi^zv, 
and from hrji/A hrz, haui. As the forms of the other moods 
there are ascribed to this zihw, II., ?, 235, where Aristarchiis 

2nd H h 


read i^iojy and commonly eihaj, g/^jjj, g/^jj, e'i^ofjtjev or rather ilho- 
(jbsv, ii^STS, II., ^, 18, zilcuai; optat. &(ht% rig, »j ; imperat. hdt, 
iffTO) ; infin. 'ihiMvoci, i^fi>iv ; part, zl^ug, orog, oruy ots, orsg, oaiv, 
oat, sl'bvToc, fjg, ri, av, a/, and dat. plur. thviricri "^^ocTthsTah with 
intellifient mind, together with which sthvi'/itri is another read- 
ing, as in II., oc, (i08. Cf. Heyne ad loc. From this is 
formed the future ii^rjcsig, zlhrjazrz, zihi^aziv, (yzfjuiu, to be about 
to know ; pluperf. 1st, -^icc ; 2nd {jii^iccg), rizi^trig, riiihug, 
'/j^fjtrdcc ; Srd, Tjii^ri, risi%t, Od., /, 206, ^^szv, rihzz, rihri, -/j^si ; 
plur. from 'i(T'/](jjf, huv. We find also from /(tpj^M// the supple- 
mental forms '/crs, h^i, hro), haai, hav. 

51. 'EiXv{Avog, involved, wrapped up. 

Root FEAEF, Lat. volv in volvo. From fzkf, fikv, ziXv, 
comes ziXvffM -^afijcidoKTi, II., (p, 319, will cover tip, zlXvccroci, 
B'iXvTO, zlXv(JijZvog. From FEAEF, FEAE (/-zXi), zlXz, comes 
ziXzi, II., ^, 215, drove together, z'iXzov h arzivzi, Od., %, 460, 
zlXzvvTo, zIXzvvTcc. From /-zKz, Fz\, 2nd aor. a^jjip) (or/ju Aio- 
f/j^^zog I'TT'Trohdmio Y.lXoyuzvoi II., z, 782j (pressed together) 
crowded, together with 1st aor. zXaai, zzKaai, zXaccg, perf. 
UXfi,s0cc, zzXffj'zvog ; lastly, from the 2nd aor. pass. fzK, fotX (as 
crzX, aroCk, in Grz7Xoo, gtccXoo) {zfukri), Alvziocg h' zakyj, II., v, 
278, and ■/c^v(p&n yoco vtt uaxih — TjJ vtto TToig lotXri, ib., v, 408, 
gathered himself tof/ether, crouched. — Add ' A^yziovg ZKiKzvaa 
akriiiiimi, II., z, 823? aX}jmi, aXzig, aXzvrzg, and xziyiJzq^iov ah^zv 
vlco^, ib., ■^, 420. (") 

52. YjItzTv and zi/kt'ttzTv, to sag ; '/ji'iTru'Trz, upbraided. 
Root FED, whence 2nd aor. 1st, zIttou and zzi-^oi/ ; 2nd, sm? 
and zztTTzg, zi7ra,g and zziTrocg ; * Srd, zi-^zv, zztvzv, zIttz, zzittz, zW 
and gT(p', Od., /, 279, '^, 131, ziiczazzv and uttz^kz, plur. zi- 
'?royi>zv, z'lTrov, zzi-ttov ; conj. giW^, gi'-rj^?, zi'^yifrda, z'i'Trrjaiv, ziTrrjai, 
giVjj ; optat. zi'TTOiyji, z)'7rot[ju, zi^roig, z'/ttoi ; imperat. g<Vg, h'ziTrz, 

Schol. Ven., B, ad II., a, 108. The augment is not strong ; since A 
might intrude in the indicative, without on that account disturbing the 
forms of the optat. and partic. 


II., ;f, 425, giV', ai'(p', gmrg, and si'Trarg ; infin. g<V£|M/gva/, gm- 
lU/gv, gm/V ; part. eiTn^v, ovroc^ &c., siTrouffcc, Sec, We perceive, 
therefore, that the prefixed E appears only in the indicative, and 
should be considered as an augment. Of the compounds we 
find the present forms : iviToiiM, k/z'^ovToc, hi'Trovaa, Ws'Trovrsg, 
with smrs, IL, ^, 76 1, &c., and imperf. smTov, H., XVIII, 
29. Since the prefixture of the E, as we have seen, appears 
in the light of an augment, we cannot treat these forms as 
having arisen from Asts, 'ifs'Trz, &c. ; but must believe that 
after the loss of the digamma (IvfiTTov, gV/^g9rg) they have the 
N doubled, a duplication which in Mriviv a'TroziirovTog^ II., r, 
75, is impossible, and in ci'i(ri[jtj(x, va^iiTrajv, ib., ^, 62, vvv ^g ^JjZ 
TragsiTToufja, ib., 337, is against analogy, whereas in gfgTrg N 
invited to its adoption. EO with 2, ESH, whence (ecTr) 
'ifTTTSTS and (gcT, /(7^) IvKT'Tsiv ; indie. eVoTTgg', hiffTrs ; conj. Ivi- 
(Tz-oj, '/] ; opt. hiaTToig, 01 ; imperat. gV/^Tg, evs(r'?ng,* like STria-^^ig ; 
also in the pres. Iv/Wg/y, Hes., S-, 369, and fut. IvKT-Tryj/rco, Od., 
g, 98 ; and the forms without 2> as in Pindar, ct^g/a? hiTrrcov 
iX'TTi'^ag, Pyth., IV, 201 (358), so in Homer, fut. bs-^oj, Od., 
B, 137, gv/-^g/. XL, ^, 447, Od., X, 147. These forms bring 
the word into connection with those from IH (in ixog, bur- 
den, hi'Trri, a hiirdening with words, ohjurgation, Ittooo, oppress^ 
in ^Eschyl.) '/-^ztcxi, IL, |(3, 193, will oppress, and aor. i'l^ao 
Kccov ^ Ar/j/Auv, ib., a, 454, and a series of forms, which are 
written with H, HT, 20, and 22. The meaning of these 
is decided by iitiaiv rz x,az6i(nv hiTrofijSv ( V^ar. led. hiaaoyjzv) 
i^\ ^ohriaiv, Od., u, l6l, we assailed with reproaches. Cf. 
lr6X[jjOi (oocXXoiMvog zou Ivia&oybzvog, ib., l63, without variation; 
^jjYj jM/S, yvvui, Yj^'ki'zoiaiv hviChzai ^v[j2v hi'Trrs, II., y? 438, J^ar. 
lect. hiaTCz, hi'KZ, and for hiirruv, ib., co, 238, in a similar 
sentence hiaTCOiv and gf/Wct^v, which the Victor. Schol. explains 
as jEolic for hi'Tvroov ; and Ivittoi, with the same variations, 
hiffffot, hiG'Troi, Ivi-TT'Trot (i. e. hi'TTot). Since the signification, 
marked above, pervades all the forms, we may regard as the 
ground form hi'xco (perhaps Fill with prefixed E, EFIIT, so 
that IfiTroj passed into hi'Troj) which became also hiacrco, as GIT, 

* According to the Hail. Schol., Od., ^, 185. Cf. Becker, p. 123. 



offffofji^oii, o-i^ofjuai,^ riEn, TSffffM, 'TTZ'^oi) ; the forms hiffTrs, hl~ 
G-TToiy would thus be of a different analogy, but yet in the pres. 
and imperf. on account of the weak succession of syllables in 
hiTz the T might be inserted? hi'Tm, as in rvTrru^ &c., so that 
the forms of biTrrco and htaffco stand in the same relation to 
those of kviTTM. The 2nd aor. is reduplicated in two ways : 
mvi'Trsv^ II., 0, 546, 552, -4-', 473, where the various reading 
Ivsvc^rsv cannot stand in an aorist, and, as l§vx, IgvKazs, and 
ri^vKcczz, so IwTT, hvl'TToc'Tn, ib., j3, 245, y, 427> 438, s> 650, f, 
141, Od., y, 17, 303. 

53. Ei'^iy, say. 
Root FEP (cL ser-mOy ser-ies, dis-ser-ere)^ pres. z'i^oj, say, 
only in the Odyssee : (/jvyitTT^j^ffiv ^l (jjocKKTrci '7n(pDcvs}c6i/jivog 
Tuhs si§M, ib., /3, 162, ayj(p( Is Xocoi"OX^toi haovrai' roils rot 
vy][jbs§rsoe. si'^^y, ib., X, 135, and s^tsfjusvog rcchs s'i^oj, ib., v, 7 ; fut. 
igs&), s^sovai, will say, egsojv, k^sovffcc. — Mid. (make another 
say to me,) question : s'/^ofjucci, avsi^soci rjhs [jtjSruhXolg, II., 7, 
177> sii^oii "Y.KTo^K Ihv, ib., oj, 390, makest me speak to thee 
of Hector, askest me concerning him : s'iTsg rs y's^ovr s'ig'/ion 
STsX^MU, Od., cc, 188, u'l zsv rig gs . . . . s'i§r;rui, ib., /, 503, 
sl^'sGdoj, s'i^SG&at, sl§6iJbsvov, avsigsro, ib., ;?, 21, which is also 
written II., p 508, for avrigsro ; l^si§sro, s'/govro. — Likewise 
we should probably regard s^sa&ai in the Odyssee in (MraX- 
X^Gcci Kou s§sG0oii, ib., y, 69, 243, |, 378, 0, 361, tt, 465, 
compared with avzigsoii ^^g ^srocXKag^ II., y, 177? ^s an aorist, 
IdsgOcci^ and rank with it rov '^sTvov s§m[jijs0cc, ib., ^, 133, and 
igoiro, ib., a> 135, y, 77* — In connection with this are the 
forms from FEPF (verbum), EPE, pres. cause to say, or 
ask : l^z^sovGi, question, Od., |, 375, s§soi[jijt, im'ylit questiofi, 
lb., X, 229, (s§sit>(jjsv) l§sio(jbSv, II., a, 332, JWoyj ra? i^Siiyi' 
(inquiriny after) 'OihvGyj'i Gvv^vrsro, Od., ^,31, and so also 
mid. (make say to m£, question) ovbs ri 7r^0G^aG&cx,i Iuvcc[/jUi 
STTog, ouh' sgssGdoci, ib., yp, IO6, hs^s^ssG&s SKUGrcc, II., x, 432, 
(g^sso) ggig/0, ib., X, 611, gosoj'To. In the future both senses 
are found : ro fLsv gz v^urov sycov si^^GOfjuai ccvri], Od., tj, 237, 

f Buttmann in Lexilog., T. I, p. 283