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(In Preparation.) 

This work, already completed by the Author, will contain all the 
facts of any importance in Greek Syntax, with copious citation and 
translation of illustrative examples. The Syntax of Attic Prose is 
distinguished from the Syntax of Poetry and the Dialects, the latter 
being printed in shorter lines. The general system of arrangement 
will be such as to facilitate the use of the book, both for general study 
and for reference. 














The Alphabet 

11-14. The Alphabet . . . . . . . . . . 9-10 

15-22. Vowels and Diphthongs . ; . . . . 10-11 

23-28. Breathings 12 

29-36. Consonants 12-14 

37. Historical Note on the Alphabet , ' . . . . 14-15 

38. Pronunciation . . ...... 15-18 

Changes of Vowels 

39. Lengthening . 18-19 

40-41. Compensative Lengthening . ....... 19 

42-43. Interchange of Vowels .. . . . . . . 19 

44. Strong and Weak Root- Vowels ....... 20 

45. Exchange of Quantity \ 20 

46-52. Contraction 20-23 

f>3-58. Crasis . . . .-.....'., 23-24 

f.9-63. Elision . . . . . .. . . 24 

64-69. Movable Consonants 25 

70-71. Syncope . , . 25-26 

72-73. Addition of Vowels . . . ,. 26 

74. Metathesis . 26 


Changes of Consonants 


75-78. Doubling of Consonants 26-27 

79. Euphony of Consonants . . . . . - . . . 27 

80-83. Mutes before Mutes .-...". . . . . . 27 

84. Mutes before a . . . 28 

85. T before Vowels ......... 28 

86-89. Mutes before n ....'...... 28 

90-95. v before Consonants . . . 29 

96-97. Changes before y . . 30-31 

98-104. Changes in Aspirated Letters . 31-32 

105-107. Oner . . ... . . . . . . 32-33 

108. On F 33 

109-113. Final Consonants 33-34 

114-122. Syllables : their Division and Quantity . . . . 34-36 


123-127. Principles of Greek Accent ' . . 36-37 

128-146. General Rules of Accent . .' . . . . . > 38-41 

140-141. Accent of Contracted Syllabic . ; . ... . . 41 

144. Accent with Crasis ......... 41 

145. Accent with Elision 41 

146. Anastrophe . . . . . . . . ... . . - , 41 

147-148. Words distinguished by Accent . . . ' . ... 41-42 

149-150. Proclitics . , 42 

151-156. Enclitics . 43-44 

157. Punctuation 45 



158-159. Inflection, Stems, Roots . 46 


160-167. Nouns : their Numbers, Genders, Cases 47-48 

168-172. Declensions: Case-endings, Accent 48-49 


173-190. Stems, Case - endings, Accent, and Paradigms of the First 

Declension 49-53 

191-194. Contract Nouns of the First Declension 53 51 




195-201. Stems, Case-endings, Accent, and Paradigms of the Second 

Declension . 54-56 

202-205. Contract Nouns of the Second Declension .... 56 

206-211. Attic Second Declension 57-58 

212-213. Gender of the Second Declension ...... 58-f>9 


214-223. Stems, Accent, and Quantity of the Third Declension . . 59-61 

224-232. Formation of Cases 61-64 

233. Stems classified ......... 64 

234-239. Mute Stems (including Paradigms) 64-67 

240-242. Liquid Stems (including Paradigms) . . . . . 67-68 

243. Syncopated Stems (including Paradigms) . . . 6S-G9 

244-249. Stems ending in a (including Paradigms) 69-70 

250-254. Stems ending in w or o (including Paradigms) .... 71-72 

255-261. Stems ending in t or v (including Paradigms) .... 72-73 

262-266. Stems ending in a Diphthong (including Paradigms) . . 73-75 

267-276. Gender of the Third Declension . 75-76 

277-283. Irregular Declension . . . .... . . 77-79 

284-285. Local Endings . 79-80 

Adjectives and Participles 


286-289. Adjectives of Three Endings . . . . - . . 80-81 

290-295. Contract Adjectives in -eos and -oos 81-83 

296-304. Adjectives of Two Endings ,. 83-84 

305. Adjectives of One Ending 84 


306-313. Adjectives of Two Endings . . . . . . . 84-86 

314. Adjectives of One Ending 86 

315-325. Formation and Inflection of the ahove 86-89 

326-327. Inflection of i^yat, iroXiJj, wywoi . . ... . . 89-90 

328. Participles in -os, -rj, -ov . . 90 




329-333. Participles with Stems in -vr- 

334-335. Contract Participles in -duv, -tuv, -6ui> 

336. Contract Participles in -dut . 


337-349. Comparison by -Tepos and -TOTO* .... 
350-353. Comjiarison hy -tuf, -KTTOS ..... 
354-356. Irregular Comparison 

Adverbs and their Comparison 

357-359. Formation of Adverbs 

360-363. Comparison of Adverbs ... 

The Article 
364-366. Declension of the Article 6, ij, r6 . 






Personal and Intensive Pronouns . 
Reflexive Pronouns 
Reciprocal Pronoun 
Possessive Pronouns 
Demonstrative Pronouns 
Interrogative and Indefinite Pronouns 
Relative Pronouns . . . 
Correlation of Pronouns 
Correlation of Adverbs 












406-407. Cardinal and Ordinal Numbers, and Numeral Adverbs " . 108-109 

408-416. Declension of Ordinals and Cardinals, etc. . . , ' . . 109-110 

417-418. Notation ,- . . . 110-111 

420. Fractions .......... Ill 

421-429. Various Numeral Words . . ... . . 111-112 


430-442. Voices, Moods, Tenses, Numbers, Persons .... 112-114 


443-454. Verb -stems, Kinds of Verbs, Thematic Vowel, Suffixes, 

Endings, Augment, Reduplication .... 114-117 

455 Principal Parts of a Verb 117 



456-457. Two Forms of Inflection Verbs in -w and Verbs in -/M . 117-118 

458. Meaning of the Tenses . . ...... 118 


459. Account of tbe following Paradigms ..... 118 

460. Synopsis of \6u ......... 119 

461. Conjugation of Xdw ........ 120-124 

462. Synopsis of \eliru ......... 125 

463. Conjugation of 2 Aor. and 2 Perf. Systems of Xe/Tw . . 126 

464. Synopsis of tpalvu ......... 127 

465. Conjugation of the Fut., 2 Aor., and 2 Passive Systems of 

<t>aivw .......... 128-129 

466-476. Notes on the Conjugation of Verbs in - .... 130 

477. Conjugation of Contract Verbs in -dw, -4u, -6w . . . 131-133 

478-482. Notes on the Contract Verbs ...... 134 

483. Synopsis of TI/J.OI.U, <f>i\tu, 57?X6w, 6-rjpAu .... 134-136 

484-489. Perfect and Pluperfect Middle and Passive of Verbs with 

Consonant Stems ........ 136-139 


490-497. Characteristics of Verbs in -AH ...... 139-140 

498. Inflection of the Present and Second- Aorist Systems of rlOijfu, 

iffTyfii, didufu, deiKWfu, also tSvv and . . 140-145 

499. Inflection of the Second -Perfect System of ?<m?/u . . . 145-146 
500-507. Notes on the Conjugation of Verbs in -fu . . . 146-147 
508-511. Synopsis of Tl8i)fu, lynnu, SISufu, SelKvvfu , . . . 147-150 


512-516. General Rules ......... 150 

517-521. Special Rules . . . .^ '.. . . . . 151-152 


522. Elements of a Verb ..... , 152 


523. Definition of Augment ..... ... 152 

624-525. Syllabic Augment ........ 152-153 

526-534. Temporal Augment ........ 153-154 

535-547. Reduplication of the Perfect, Plupf., and Fut. Perf. . . 154-156 

548-550. Attic Reduplication . . . ... . 156-157 

551-552. Reduplicated Presents ..... ... 157 

553. Reduplicated Aorists ........ 157-158 

554-568. Augment and Reduplication in Compound Verbs . . . 158-160 




569. Tense-Suffixes 160-161 

570-571. Thematic Vowel . . ... . . . . . 161-162 

:.7-J-f.73. Optative Mood-Suffix . ...,.-. . . , . 162-163 


574. Endiugs enumerated 163 

557-586. Personal Endings of the Indie., Subj., Opt., Imper. . . 163-165 

587-598. Observations on the Personal Endings . . . . . 165-167 

599-601. Infinitive Endings 167-1G8 

602-606. Participial and Verbal Adjective Endings . . . . 168-170 

607-609. Two Forms of Inflection (Common Form and /u-Form) . . 170-171 


610. Verb-Stem and Present Stem . . . . .... 172 

611-621. Irregularities and Changes in the Verb-Stem . . . 172-174 

622-663. Formation of the Present System (Eight Classes of Verbs) . 174-184 

661-672. Inflection of the Present System 184-186 

673-681. Formation and Inflection of the Future System . . . 186-189 

682-686. Formation of the First- Aorist System . . - . . . 189-191 
687-690. Inflection of the First-Aorist System . , . . . . 191 

691-703. Formation and Inflection of the Secoud-Aorist System . . 191-194 

704-709. Formation of the First-Perfect System 194-195 

710-714. Inflection of the First-Perfect System . . , .' . . 195-196 

715-721. Formation of the Second-Perfect System .... 196-197 
722-725. Inflection of the Second- Per feet System ... 198 

726-731. Formation of the Perfect-Middle System . . . -..- 198-200 

7:'.2-7 17. Inflection of the Perfect-Middle System .. . ; . 200-203 

748-749. Future-Perfect 203 

750-752. Formation of tho First-Passive System ..... 203-204 
753-756. Inflection of the First-Passive System ..... 204 

757. First-Future Passive . 204-205 

788-760. Formation of the Second-Passive System .... 205-206 

761. Inflection of the Second-Passive System .... 206 

762-763. Second-Future Passive 205 


764-766. Presents in -fu . . . . 206-207 

767. Second-Aorists of the pi-Torni 207-208 

768. Second -Perfects of the fju- Form 208-aOt 

769. Irregular Verbs of the /ti-Form . . '. . 

770-790. Inflection of ?ij/u, ftfu, el/u, <w, 'V ttl i :/u, oI5o, -f)fil, XP^I 209-216 



791. Active Verbs with Future Middle 216-217 

792. Middle and Passive Deponents ...... 217-218 

793. Future Middle with Passive Meaning ..... 218 

794. Second-Aorist Middle with Passive Meaning . . . 218 

795. Deponents with Passive Meaning 218 

796. Middle Passives ..'."'. 218-219 

797-8DO. Mixture of Transitive and Intransitive Meanings . . . 219-220 



801-804. Vowels in Aeolic and Doric compared with Attic . . . 221-222 

805-814. Vowels in Old Ionic (Epic) compared with Attic . . . 222-223 

815-817. Vowels in New Ionic compared with Attic . . . . 223-224 

818. Consonants in Doric compared with Attic . . . 224-225 

819. Consonants in Aeolic compared with Attic .... 225 
820-831. Consonants in Old Ionic (Epic) compared with Attic . . 225-226 

832. Consonants in New Ionic compared with Attic . . . 226 

833. Breathings in Dialects . . . . . . ' .; . 226 

834-839. Digamma 227-228 

840-843. Compensative Lengthening and Exchange of Quantity in 

Dialects 228 

844-852. Contraction and Crasis in Dialects 2*28-230 

853-857. Synizesis, Elision, Apocope, Aphaeresis in Dialects . . 230-231 

858-859. Movable Consonants in Dialects . . ' . . 231 

860-861. Addition and Assimilation of Vowels in Dialects . . . 231 

862. Metathesis in Dialects ......... 2T1 

863-873. Quantity in Dialects ...... ' . . 231-233 

874-879. Accent in Dialects . . . . . . . . 233 


880. Numbers in Dialects - '>'> 


881-884. First Declension in Dialects . . . . . . 234-235 

885-888. Second Declension in Dialects . . ... . 235-236 

889-902. Third Declension in Dialeets . . . . . . 286-240 

903-909. Irregular Declension in Dialects . . . . . . 240-242 



910-913. Local Endings in Dialects . . . . . , . . 242 

914-917. Epic Case-ending -<(n(t>) 242-243 

918-933. Dialectic Variations in Adjective Forms ... . . 243-244 

934-946. Comparison of Adjectives in Dialects .... 245-246 

947-948. Certain Dialectic Adverbs 24ft 


949. The Article in Dialects ....... 246-247 

950-953. Personal Pronouns in Dialects 247 

954. Reflexive Pronouns in Dialects 248 

955-956. Possessive Pronouns in Dialects ..... 248 

957. Demonstrative Pronouns in Dialects 248 

958. Interrogative and Indefinite Pronouns in Dialects . . 248 
959-961. Relative Pronouns in Dialects . . . '. . . 248-249 
962-963. Dialectic Correlative Pronouns and Adverbs . . . 249 
964-967. The Numerals in Dialects . 249-250 



968-971. The Augment in Dialects . . *. . . . . 250-251 

972-977. Reduplication in Dialects . ..... 251-252 

978. Tense-Suffixes in Dialects ....... 252 

979-989. Personal Endings in Dialects . . . . . 252-254 


990-997. Changes in Verb-Stem in Dialects ..... 254 

998-1008. Present System (Eight Classes of Verbs) in Dialects . . 254-256 

1009-1014. Contract Verbs in Dialects 256-257 

1015-1017. Mi-Form of Present System in Dialects .... 257-258 

1018-1028. Future and First- Aorist Systems in Dialects . . . 258-259 

1029-1030. Second-Aorist System in Dialects . . . . . 259 

1031-1037. Perfect and Perfect-Middle Systems in Dialects . . 259 

1038-1039. Passive Systems in Dialects . . ' . . . . 259-260 

1040-1041. Iterative Imperfects and Aorists in -<TK%. . . . 260 

1042-1043. Formation in -0%. . . . . .... 260-261 

1044-1048. Subjunctive in Dialects . ........ 261 

1049-1051. Optative in Dialects 261-262 

1052-1054. Infinitive in Dialects . 262 

1055-1061. Participles in Dialects 262-263 

1062-1072. Enumeration of Dialectic /u-Forms 263-265 

Catalogue of Verbs 


1073. General List of Attic and Dialectic Verbs .... 265 314 


1074. Simple and Compound Words . . ... . . 315 

Formation of Simple Words 

1075-1076. Roots ' 315 

1077-1078. Suffixes . 315-316 

1079-1091. Changes in Roots and Stems . . . . . . 316-317 

1092. Primitives and Denominatives ...... 317 


1093-1108. Primitives . . v ...... 317-320 

1109-1129. Denominatives 320-323 


1130-1131. Primitive Adjectives 324 

1132-1147. Derivative Adjectives . 324-327 

1148-1152. Formation of Adverbs ......... 327-328 


1153-1154. Forms in -dw, -<?w, etc. . ., 328-329 

1155-1159. Desideratives, Intensives, etc. . ..";'. . 329 

Compound Words 

1160. Elements of a Compound . ' . . . . . 330 

1161-1170. First Part of a Compound . ..... 330-332 

1171-1178. Last Part of a Compound 332-333 

1179-1194. Accent of Compounds . 333-335 

1195-1200. Meaning of Compounds 335-336 

INDEXES . 337 



1. The Greeks. 1. The ancient Greeks were a branch of 
the great Indo-European or Aryan family of nations comprising 
the Indian, Persian, Italic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic peoples. 
Their national name was Hellenes ("EXXqves}, which was applied 
to all Greeks of whatever locality, and their country was called 
Hellas ( f EXXa<?). The Romans called them Graeci, whence our 
name Greeks. The Hellenic race was divided into three main 
divisions : the Aeolians (AtoAefc), the Dorians (Atw^tefr), and the 
lonians ("leaves). 

2. At the time of the composition of the Homeric poems, the division 
into Aeolians, Dorians, and lonians was unknown ; nor was there a general 
name, as Hellenes, for the whole race. Homer uses the names Hellas and 
Hellenes only of a small district in Thessaly and its inhabitants. The 
Greeks in general he usually calls Achaeans ('A^atoi), Aryives ('Apyeioi), or 
Danaans (Aavaot), although these are only the names of certain tribes. Four 
times he uses the collective name Ilava^atot (II. 2, 404; 23, 236 ; Od. 1, 
239 ; 14, 369); once HaveAA^'es *at 'Axaioi (II. 2, 530). 

2. 1. The Greek Language is one of the Indo-European 
or Aryan group of languages, all of which are descended from 
some common- parent language. Of these the Italic languages 
(including Latin) are the most closely related to Greek, the 
relation being apparent from various similarities in roots, words, 
and inflections. 

2. To the three divisions of the Greek race correspond the 
three groups of dialects : the Aeolic, the Doric, and the Ionic, 

15 B 


the dialects within each group differing in various respects from 
each other. The Aeolic and Doric groups have more resemblance 
to each other than either has to the Ionic. 

3. 1. The Aeolic Dialect (*} At'oAi? or 7} AioAi/o/) was spoken in 
the Aeolian colonies of Asia Minor, in Thessaly, Boeotia, Arcadia, 
Elis, Lesbos, and Cyprus. Like the Doric, the Aeolic has more 
strictly retained the more primitive Greek form in many sounds and 
word-forms. It thus oftener shows a closer resemblance to Sanscrit 
(the oldest language of India) and Latin ; as /ZKCITI, Sanscr. vinfati, 
Lat. vlginti, Attic effcoo-t, twenty ;. feros, Sanscr. vatsa, Lat. vetus (old), 
Attic CTO?, year ; <f)^p, Lat. ferus (wild), Attic Oijp, wild beast; TOV, 
Sauscr. tea, Lat. tu, Attic o-v, thou. 

2. Lesbian Aeolic is chiefly represented in literature by the lyrical 
fragments of Alcaeus and Sappho (about 600 B.C.) ; by the 28th, 29th, and 
30th idylls of Theocritus (about 270 B.C.) ; and by some late imitators. 
Boeotian Aeolic is represented by the lines of the Boeotian in Aristo- 
phanes' Acharnians (lines 860 ff.), and by a few and very corrupt fragments 
of the poetess Corinna (about 490 B.C.). There are also a number of 
Aeolic inscriptions, and the ancient grammarians have various notices 
of the dialect. 

4. 1. The Doric Dialect (>/ Aw/n's or 77 Aoyn/o/) was spoken in 
Peloponnesus, in Isthmus, in Northern Greece, in the Doric colonies 
of Asia Minor, as well as on the adjacent islands, in Southern Italy 
(Magna Graecia), in a large part of Sicily, in Northern Africa, 
(Cyrenaica), on Crete and Rhodes. Like the Aeolic, it has preserved 
more primitive forms of the parent Greek language than the Attic, 
especially in the use of digamma, in the retention of a for Attic 77, in 
T for which the Attic often has o-, and in many word-forms ; as 
and J-fiKart for Attic ei/cocrt ; Adavd for 'Adi'jvij ; Ad/xvos for 
<f>aTi for (frrjcri, says ; irXHrlov for ir^tjcriov, near ; HoreiSav for 

2. Leading peculiarities common to all Doric dialects, with few ex- 
ceptions, are : the first person plural in -/ACS for -/xev, as ; the 
infinitive in -jj.ev for Attic -vcu, as for SiBovai ; the formation with 
in verbs in -w, as xw/3iu> and e\tu/3i^a for xwptVw and e\i!>puTa. ; the 
future in -<rw and -<rov/xai, as Aixrw, SOKTW, Xv< for A.fxro>, 8w0-(i>, 
A&ro/xai ; the demonstrative TTJVOS for eKetvos, that ; the reflexive O.VTO.VTOV 
(avrbs avrov). In many respects the Doric agrees with the Aeolic : in the 
use of d for T/, as Ad0d for Xt'jdr) ; in the dative plural in -rcri in the third 
declension ; in the apocope of the prepositions irapd, dvo, Kara ; in the use 
of r for (r, as TrAorrios for 7rA.ou(rios (but Lesbian Aeolic has cr) ; the 


digamma is retained by most of the Dorians (also by the Lesbians and 
Thessalians) to the fifth century B.C., by some even later. 

3. As regards the two varieties of a stricter and a milder Doric, the 
following is to be noticed. The distinction is mostly one of locality. The 
stricter Doric (which is nearer the Aeolic and more removed from the Ionic) 
was spoken by the Lacedaemonians, the Cretans, the Cyreneans, also by the 
Tarentines, the Heracleans, and probably also by the other Dorians of 
Southern Italy ; the milder Doric was spoken in general by the other 
Dorians. Bui; we also find forms of the stricter Doric in the older monu- 
ments of Ihe milder Doric territory, thus showing that the distinction is 
also partly one of time. The principal differences between the stricter 
and the milder forms are the following : (a) the stricter Doric uses rj 
and CD where the milder Doric, as well as the Ionic and Attic, uses the 
spurious diphthongs 6 and ov (arising from contraction or compensative 
lengthening) ; as alpTj<r6ai = milder Doric (also Attic) alpeurBaL, from 
alpeea-dai ; /Ai<r$oWi = milder Doric p.LO-6ovvTi = Attic /u<r0ofm, from /xi- 
(rdoovTi ; /3(aX.d for /3ovXd = Atuc f3ov\r) ; \apirjs for ^apt'eis from xaptevrs, 
8iSu><; for SiSous from SiSovrs, iinrd) for LTTTTOV from ITTTTOO, AVKWS for AI'KOVS 
from XVKOVS ; (6) it often assimilates consonants, as Laconian u.KKop for 

; (c) it has na and to for ew and eo in verbs in -ew, as cVeuviw, 
while the milder either has open forms (reuvo, <iAeo/*s), or 
contracts eo> to w and eo to tu (</>iAw*, (/uAeiyjtes). 

4. The Doric dialect is also divided into three periods : the older, to 
about the fifth century (Alcman) ; the middle, to the time of Alexander the 
Great (Epicharmus, Sophron, the Laconian parts in Aristophanes' Lysistrata, 
the Megarian lines in his Acharnians) ; and the new, from the time of 

5. Apart from the Doric inscriptions and the notices of the ancient 
grammarians, the Doric dialect is represented in literature by a number of 
writings, most of them fragmentary. We mention the most important. The 
lyric fragments of Alcman (about 630 B.C.) are Laconian Doric, but he has 
<ilso Epic and Lesbian forms. The idylls of Theocritus (about 270 B.C.), 
except the 28th, 29th, and 30th, and of Bion (ubout 280 B.C.), and Moschus 
(about 250 B.C.) are written in Sicilian Doric (stricter form) ; but they have also 
many Epic and Lesbian forms. Pinuar (about 522 to about 442) and the other 
lyric poets (except Alcman) use the milder Doric with some Lesbian and many 
Epic forms. The fragments of the Comic dramatist Epicharmus of Cos 
(about 550 to about 540, lived in Sicily) and of the mime-writer Sophron of 
Syracuse (about 460 to 420) are in the Sicilian (Syracusan) Doric. A 
number of the writings of the mathematician Archimedes (287 212) are in 
Sicilian Doric with an admixture of many ordinary forms, while others exist 
only in Attic versions. The few fragments of burlesque tragedy known as 
the Hilarotrar/edy, by Rhinthon (about 300 B.C.), Blaesus, and Scirat 
(or Sderias) are in the Tarentine Doric. Most of the fragments of the Italian 


Pythagorean philosophers (also the work of the philosopher Timaeus of Locri 
in Italy and a friend of Plato), and most of the fragments of Arckytas of 
Tarentum (who lived about 400 B.C.) are spurious ; they all show a curious 
mixture of Doric, Lesbian, and Ionic forms. Most of the fragments of 
Philolaits of Croton, a contemporary of Socrates, and some of those of 
Archytas of Tarentum are genuine ; both of these philosophers were Pyth- 
agoreans. The Rhodian Doric is represented in the fragments of the lyric 
poet Timocreon, a contemporary of Themistocles. The text of the Laconian 
popular decree in Thucydides, 5, 77, is not in pure Laconiau ; the treaty 
between the Lacedaemonians and Argives in Thucydides, 5, 79, is iu 
ordinary mild Doric. Aristophanes' Lysistrata has a number of lines in 
Laconian Doric (81 ff., 980 ff., 1076 ff., 1042 if., 1297 if.); in tbu 
Acharnians, 729 If., a Megarian speaks in his dialect. The spurious letters 
of the Tyrant Periander of Corinth in Diogenes Laertius I., 99, 100, aru 
supposed to be in the Corinthian dialect. The popular decree of the 
Byzantines, a Megarian colony, in Demosthenes' Oration on the Crown, 90, 
is probably spurious and has a mixture of stricter and milder forms, whereas 
the Byzantine inscriptions show only the milder forms. For the Doric of 
Tragedy, see 10. 

5. 1 . The Ionic Dialect (>} 'las or ?/ 'law*?)) was spoken in Ionia 
in Asia Minor and in the Ionic colonies, on the Cyclades, in Euboea, 
and in Attica. Although the Attic dialect is, properly speaking, only 
the Ionic of Attica, it is not included in the term Ionic and is always 
considered apart. The term Ionic dialect includes the Old Ionic (?) 
dp\aia 'las) and the New Ionic (>/ vewre/aa 'las). The Old Ionic or Epic 
dialect is the language of Epic poetry, the New Ionic is the Ionic as 
it appears in the writings of Herodotus and Hippocrates. 

2. (a) The language of the Homeric poems must not be considered as quite 
identical with the Old Ionic spoken dialect of his time, but is somewhat a 
mixture containing a number of Aeolisms. In Homer the Old Ionic shows 
a variety of forms : often lengthening vowels grammatically short, and 
shortening those grammatically long, metri causa; doubling consonants or 
using a single consonant for a double, for the same cause ; dropping con- 
sonants; and allowing the digamma to influence or not to influence the metre. 
From the Old Ionic was gradually developed the New Ionic, which differs 
from the Old Ionic notably in these respects : the digamma is wholly lost ; 
contracted forms are much more frequent according ' to the inscriptions 
(although the older texts of New Ionic writers show even more open 
forms than Homer) ; the vowels sometimes differ, as rea-o-fpcs for the Old 
Ionic Tr<ra/xs, Qwfjia for Oavfia, wv for ovv ; K for TT in the interrogative 
and indefinite pronouns and adverbs (as KOTC/SOS for TroVepos, OKOO-OS for 
OTTOO-OS, KOV for irov) ; smooth mutes before the rough breathing are not 
aspirated (UTT* ov for a</>' of, /ACT' a for //#' a). 


(b) The three principal differences between Ionic (both Old and New) and 
Doric are these : Ionic regularly changes original a. (from a) to t], as Tn'A?/, 
7ri'A?/s, etc., for Doric Tn'Ad, Tri'Ads, vyyov for Doric dyov from uyco, eorTj 
for Doric rrd, ffAff/ws for Doric K\apos ; it often weakens a to e, as 
y, T/D</>to, for Doric ya, T/Da</>a> ; it changes T to o- in certain formations 
and inflections, as <f>i)<ri, TrAoi'crios ; TVTTTOV<TI, TiQelcri, for Doric <dri, 


3. Apart from the few Ionic inscriptions and the notices of the ancient 
grammarians, the' Ionic dialect is represented in literature by a number of 
writings. The poems of Homer (about 800 B.C.) with their admixture of 
Aeolic forms have been already mentioned. The poems of Hesiod (about 
735 B.C.) are also in the Old Ionic or Epic dialect; but he sometimes used 
Doric forms : as the Aeolic and Doric genitive plural in -uV (as 6ea.v for 
BeC>v\ the Doric accusative plural in -as and -os (as /3ov\d<s for /3oi>Aas, 
Aayos for Aayovs). The Epic dialect was the language of all Epic poetry, 
and particularly of all poetry in hexameters, although it is sometimes' 
modified, especially in the older Ionic poets. Anacreon (b. about 540, 
d. about 478) wrote in New Ionic. The mimes of Herondas (or Herodas, fl. 
about 225 B.C.) are in Ionic, with some Dorisms. New Ionic prose begins 
in the sixth century B.C.; there are a few fragments of Hecataeus of Miletus, 
who lived about 510 B.C. The leading New Ionic prose writers are the 
historian Herodotus of Halicarnassus (b. about 484 B.C., d. about 408 B.C.), 
and the physician Hippocrates of Cos (b. about 460 B.C., d. about 357 B.C.). 
The language of Hippocrates differs from that of Herodotus chiefly in the 
aspiration of a smooth mute before the rough breathing : hence Hippocrates 
d</>lKOVTO, Herodotus dVi'/coi'To, from diro and i 

6. 1. The Attic Dialect (?/ 'Arfli's or ?} 'Arri/oj) is a further 
development of the New Ionic. It holds a kind of middle place 
between the broad and rather rough Doric, and the soft Ionic. This 
is best seen in the use of d and ij. By using a after e, i, and p, and ?; 
elsewhere, a harmonious variety of sound is produced. Compare 
Attic ^/ze/au with Doric u^e/xi and Ionic f)p*pfy A^/6 1 ?/ with Doric Aa#d, 
(To<f>ia. with Ionic o-o</>t?;. The Athenians, moreover, did not hesitate 
to borrow occasionally from the Doric and Ionic, and thus gave their 
idiom a more generally Hellenic character comprehensible to all 
Greeks. Owing to its literary importance, the Attic dialect is made 
the basis of grammar and the other dialects are treated subordinately 
to it. 

2. The Attic dialect underwent some changes in the course of time, 
according to which it is divided into Old, Middle, and New Attic, although 
the differences between these are not great. The period of Old Attic ends 
about the time of the Peloponnesian War (431 B.C. 404 B.C.). The in- 
scriptions of this period show up to 420 B.C. -rja-t (-ya-i) and wri (-peri) for 


-ats in the dative plural (8pa^fiij(ri and Spa^fajtm for Spa^/zeus, rap.ia.crL 
and Tap.ia.uTi for ra/xiais) ; so also -oun for -ois, but not so late. But TT for 
era- (us 7rpuTTo> for irpua-o-ui) was always Attic from the earliest period ; yet 
the Tragedians (Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides) and the oldest Attic prose 
writers (as Gorgias, Antiphon, Thucydides) preferred the Ionic o-cr, while the 
Comedians (as Aristophanes) and the other prose writers preferred the Attic 
TT. It was the same with Attic pp for Ionic per, which latter was preferred 
by the oldest Attic prose and by the Tragedians (appi/v Attic = apvijv Ionic, 
and older Attic prose, and Tragedy). The Middle Attic period lasts to the 
times of Philip of Macedon (reigned B.C. 359 336; and is represented in 
literature by the orators Lysias and Isocrates, the historian Xenophon, and the 
philosopher Plato. The orators Demosthenes and Aeschines may be counted in 
the New Attic, whose other leading representatives in literature are Menander, 
Philemon, and the other writers of the New Comedy. In the New Attic the 
dual number is wanting ; y is often written ei ; names in -775 of the third 
declension have the genitive -ov (ATjp.o<r@fvov for Ary/xoo-^evovs ; the Ionic 
forms of the third person plural perfect and pluperfect middle and passive 
in -a-Teu and -a-To never occur ; (rvv is used for vv (Xenophon has o-rv, 
Plato oftener vv than o-w) ; the plural of nouns in -ei's ends in -T/S in Old 
Attic (also in Plato), in -as in Middle and New Attic (/2ocriAiys, fiacnXeis). 

3. After the Macedonian conquest, the Attic language, as the most 
cultivated of all the Greek dialects and the idiom of the masterpieces of Greek 
literature, became the language of the Macedonian court, of literature, and 
finally of all educated Greeks ; while the other dialects survived only among 
the uneducated classes. The old Ionic was however retained for Epic, the 
Doric for lyric and bucolic poetry. 

7. The Common Dialect. 1. The Attic tongue thus became the 
universal Greek language. As it was now spoken not only by many 
non-Attic, but 1 also by some non-Greek races, it naturally lost by 
degrees some of its earlier purity. This universal Greek idiom, dating 
from about the time of Alexander (died in 323 B.C.), is called the 
Common Dialect (rj KOLVI'J or ?} 'EAAevi/q) SIU'ACKTOS) and its writers are 
called ol KOLVOL or ol "EAA^ves. It took up some non-Attic forms and 
expressions and dropped some of the specially Attic forms (as TT for 
oxr), although this occurred less in literature. 

2. Midway between the purer Attic writers and the writers of the 
Common Dialect stand the philosopher Aristotle and his pupil Thtopknuhu. 
Important writers of the long period of the Common Dialect are the poet 
and scholar Callimachus (librarian of the Alexandrian library from about 
B.c. 260 to about 240) ; the historian Polybius (about 240 B.c.) ; the 
rhetorician Dionysius of Halicarnassus (lived since 30 B.c. in Rome) ; the 
Jewish historian Josephus (b. A.D. 37, d. about 100) ; IHodnrus Siculus, a 
contemporary of Julius Caesar and Augustus ; the geographer Strabo (b. 


about 54 B.C., d. about 24 A.D.) ; the historian Plutarch (b. about 50 A.D., 
d. about 120) ; the historian Arrian (b. about 100 A.D., d. about 170) ; the 
historian Dio Cassius (b. 155 A.D.) ; the rhetorician Litcian (b. about 
120 A.D., d. about 200). 

3. In this period of decadence there arose, especially under the Caesars, a 
movement in favour of purer Attic which was called Atticism. The most 
prominent Atticists were Dionysius of Halicarnassus and Ltician. Gram- 
marians like Phrynichus, who tabulated and contrasted Attic and non-Attic 
forms, were also called Atticists. 

4. A Macedonian and an Alexandrian dialect are sometimes mentioned. 
The Macedonian language, of which little is known, was not a dialect of 
the Greek language, although related to it ; only in the Southern part of 
Macedonia was Greek spoken. Under the Alexandrian dialect we under- 
stand not the language of the learned under the Ptolemies (they spoke the 
Common Dialect), but the popular idiom of the common people of that 

8. Hellenistic. This term is applied to that form of the Common 
Dialect which appears in the Septuagint version of the Old Testament and 
in the New Testament. A Jew or other foreigner who spoke Greek was 
called a Hellenist ('EAAT/j/icmys, from eAAryvi^co, speak Greek). This idiom 
naturally had some Hebrew colouring. 

9. Modern Greek. 1. Throughout the long period of the Byzantine 
Empire and of the Turkish dominion, the language of the common people 
underwent a constant process of corruption and change, comparable in 
a measure to the change of the popular Latin to Italian. Although the 
ancient Greek continued to be the ideal of the Byzantine writers, the spirit 
of the older idiom was now dead. Many grammatical forms were lost, new 
ones were developed, and the vocabulary received a large admixture of Latin 
and Turkish words. The ancient language was no longer understood by the 
people, who now spoke a new language which may be considered about a 
thousand years old. This they called Romaic ('Pw/zaiWry) from 'Pw/zaioi, 
Romans, the name by which the Greeks of the Middle Ages designated 
themselves instead of "EAATpes. The term Romaic is now rather obsolete, 
the Modern Greeks calling themselves "EAArjves, their country 'EAAas, and 
their language 'EAATjvt/o/. The earlier form of this popular tongue began to 
be used in writing about the end of the twelfth century alongside of the 
ancient Greek employed by the learned. 

2. Apart from the great changes in pronunciation (see the footnotes to 38) and 
very many minor differences, the following are the principal points in which Modern 
Greek differs from ancient literary Greek : the dual is lost (as already in the Common 
Dialect and in New Attic) ; the dative occurs only in writing ; the third declension 
is little used except in books ; the comparative degree is generally expressed by tlio 
people by prefixing more to the positive, and the superlative by prefixing the article 


to the comparative, as in the Romance languages ; the future, perfect, and plu- 
perfect are formed by periphrasis ; the infinitive id used only in books and in 
forming compound tenses, otherwise it is replaced by vd (=iva) and the subjunctive 
(the New Testament often has Iva. with the subj. for the inf.) ; the optative mood is 
lost ; the middle as an independent voice is absent, but the passive remains ; the 
verbs in -/u have been changed to verbs in -u ; the pronouns often show changed 
or completely new forms ; the negative ou is replaced by Stv (from ovdtv) ; the 
vocabulary contains numerous foreign elements. The cultured or literary language, 
as it appears in books and newspapers, differs largely from the everyday popular 
idiom. The movement in favour of purifying and refining the language by drop- 
ping foreign words and again introducing classic forms and idioms has been going 
on for over fifty years and has greatly influenced the written and, to some extent, 
the spoken language. While the essential features of Modern Greek must always 
remain, the process of purification will continue to lead to a greater resemblance to 
the ancient language. 

10. The Dialects and Literary Forms. i. A certain con- 
nection exists between the dialects and particular literary forms. For 
Epic poetry the Old Ionic of Homer was the basis among all Greeks and in 
all times ; it also had a large influence on all subsequent poetry. Lyric 
poetry was usually written in the Doric dialect ; Alcaeus and Sappho use 
the Aeolic, Anacreon the New Ionic. For bucolic poetry (Theocritus, Bion, 
Moschus) Doric was generally employed. The Attic tragedians sometimes 
use Ionic and Doric forms in the dialogue ; in the choral parts they use the 
Doric a for ?/, also a for the gen. sing. masc. of the first declension, and -av 
for the gen. plur., besides other Dorisms (as </>iAd for <^)i'Ar;, vedvia for 
veaviov, dyaOav for aya-Qdv, p.o\Trav for /zoA.7r(ov, IToo-fiSui' for Iloo-eiSwi'). 
The Attic comedians use the Attic dialect throughout, except where they 
introduce Doric or poetic forms for parody. 

2. Prose was developed much later than poetry, and an author did not 
necessarily write in his own dialect ; for example, Herodotus, who was a 
Dorian of Asia Minor, wrote in Ionic. The philosophers and historians of 
Ionia were the first to cultivate prose, Ionic prose reaching its highest point 
in the works of Herodotus and Hippocrates, both of them Dorians. Doric 
prose was developed in the fifth and fourth centuries among the Pythagorean 
philosophers, of whom we may mention Philolaus of Croton, a contemporary 
of Socrates, and Archytas of Tarentum, who lived about 400 B.c. We also 
have a number of the works of the mathematician Archimedes of Syracuse 
(287 272) written in Doric. But it was in Athens that Greek prose 
reached its highest development The Sophists (as Protagoras of A1><1> 1,1, 
Gorgias of Leontini, Prodicus of Ceos, Hippias of Klis) contributed largely, 
by their studies and examples, toward moulding and refining the language. 
Then follow the great historians Thucydides and Xenophon, the orators 
Lysias, Demosthenes, Aeschines, Isocrates, and others, the philosopher Plato, 
and numerous other prose writers. 


11. The Greek alphabet consists of twenty-four letters : 






a short or long 










g (hard) 










e short and close 

e -vJrlXof (el, e) 









e long and open 




e 9- 






i si tort or long 

1(0) Ta 




k (hard c) 





















%l (|et, |w) 




o s7tor and close 

O ^JLLKpOV (0V, S) 





irl (irel) 




r, rh 




(r <? 











y (ii) s/i0?* or long 

V -^l\0lf (V} 

ups lion 




<f>l (0et) 





vt (vet) 

A- /V ' 





"V/^t (\lfl) 




o long and open 

/ / \ 

co yu,e7a (co) 


For a brief history of the Greek 
nunciation, see 38. 

alphabet, see 37 ; for the pro- 


12. NOTE. Sigma has the form s at the end of a word, elsewhere cr ; 
as Swrrrpoo-oSo?. But some editors still use s at the end of the first part of a 
compound ; as SusnyjosoSos (from 8ixr-, TT/SOS, and 680$). 

13. NOTE. In the classical period the name e? was used for epsilon, 
o5 for omicron, v for upsilon, and > for omega ; later grammarians calling the 
first two I and o. The names tylXov (plain e) and ?> \^iX6v (plain v) were 
used by grammarians of the Byzantine period to distinguish e from ai and 
v from oi, which were sounded alike in their time. The names t, TTI, </t, x<~, 
^t date from the period when ei had attained the sound t, about the fust 
century B.C. For t there was also the name u (like yuv, vv) ; o-iy/xa 
'apparently more correct than o-iy/xa) was also called erav. 

14. /, 9> ~\ V- 1- The letter /, called Fan (fav) or Digamma 
(double gamma, from its form), was part of the older alphabet and is 
equivalent to our W. It stood originally between e and The digammu 
was still pronounced in many words at the time of the composition of 
the Homeric poems, the meter of many lines depending on its presence. 
Some editors have therefore introduced it into the text. The 
assumption of its original presence in many words is necessary to 
explain their formation (see 108). 

2. The letter 9, called koppa (^6-inra), was equivalent to Q and be- 
came wholly obsolete. It stood between TT and p. 

3. The character ~^\, evidently a combination of C ( = a-dv, i.e. o-iy/^a) 
and iri, is called sampi (cra/wri). 

4. The letters vau and koppa, and the character sampi are used as 
numerals : koppa in the form 9 or S or q ; and vau in the form $, this 
last identical with the abbreviation of O-T. 

*>. The spirant y (i.e. y in yet) was never written, although its 
sound existed (see 96). 


15. Vowels. The vowels are a, e, tj, i, o, o>, v. Of these, 
e and o are always short ; tj and &> are always long ; a, i, and v 
are short in some words, long in others, hence, called doubtful 

16. NOTE. Short a, i, v are often indicated by a, if, v ; the long sounds 
by a, l, v. In this book the long sounds are hereafter always marked (except 
in 37), unless the length is indicated by the circumflex accent ; hence a, t, u 
will be always understood as short (d, T, v). The common character is some- 
times indicated by d, f, v. 


17. NOTE. The vowels a, a, e, y, o, to are termed open vowels ; 4, t, v, u 
are called close vowels. 

18. Diphthongs. The diphthongs (&i-<j)0oyyoi, double-sound- 
ing) are formed by the union of an open vowel and a close one, 
except in vt formed of two close vowels. 

The proper diphthongs are at, av, ei, ev, ijv, 01, ov, vt, and wv 
of the Ionic dialect. 

The improper diphthongs are formed by the union of a long, 
hard vowel (a, rj, &>) with i; they are a, y, n. 

19. NOTE. Spurious Diphthongs. The diphthongs ct and on are called 
spurious whenever they do not arise from e + 1 and o + v. The spurious 
diphthongs may arise from contraction (et from ee, and ov from eo or oo or oe) 
or from compensative lengthening (40) ; as <iAei from t<iAee, Xveiv from 
Xveev (47, 2), dpyvpovs from dp-yvpeos, SyXovre from oV/Aocre, Adyou 
from Aoyoo, n^eis from TI$CVTS, Xitowi from Avovrcri. Before the fourth 
century B.C., the spurious diphthongs were written as ordinary e and o. 

20. NOTE. Diaeresis. If two vowels which would regularly form a 
diphthong are to be pronounced separately, a mark of diaeresis (Sicu/jeo-is, 
separation} is placed over the second ; as trpo'ifvau (irpo-ievai), to yo forward. 
When, however, the diaeresis is evident from the accent or breathing or an 
iota written on the line, the mark is sometimes omitted ; as aim/, shout, 
distinguished by the place of the breathing from the demonstrative pronoun 

i\6vi, the accent showing the diaeresis ; Xrjio/ with i on the line, 
with t subscript. 

21. NOTE.- Iota Subscript. In a, y, p, the t is written below ci, >;, to, 
and is called iota subscript. When the first vowel is a capital, the i is written 
on the line ; as in THI TPAFJ2IAIAI, ry r^aywStci ; iHAHI, 'ftify/, a'%. 
As long as this i was sounded, it was written on the line ; but in the 
second century B.C., it was no longer heard, and henceforth was sometimes 
written (on the line), and sometimes dropped. Our iota subscript is qxiite 
modern, and dates from about the twelfth century A.D. 

22. NOTE. Latin Equivalents. The Latin equivalents of the diph- 
thongs were as follows : 

at av ft fv 01 ov vi a y <p 

ae au e ov I eu oe u yi ii e 6 

v, Phaedo ; Mv/Seia, Medea ; NeiAo?, Kilns ; Eoiam'a, Boeotia ; 
Aaiynov, Laurium ; 'O/D</>i'S, Orpheus ; MoCo-a, Mitsa ; Ei'Aei^uca, Illthyia ; 
6p^Ks, Thrdces ; Qprjo-va, Thressa; wSv/, ode. But in some names at and 
ot are represented by ai and oe; as, Maia, Maia ; Aias,Aiax; 'fpoid, Troia; 


in ft few compounds of o58v/, song, there is oe for < t o ; as, KwpoSiu. c&moedia, 
7/>ayo>8os, traijoedus ; in Ldius, A^tos, we have at for ju See 38. 


23. A vowel or diphthong at the beginning of a word lias 
either the rough breathing (') or the smooth breathing ('). The 
rough breathing (spiritus asper) is equivalent to h, and the vowel 
before which it stands is said to be aspirated ; as, la-ropld, historic, ; 
'H/3avXj;9, Heracles. The smooth breathing (spiritus lenis) indicates 
that the vowel has no aspiration ; as ey<o, ego ; 'A-TroXXwr, Apollo. 

24. NOTE. In diphthongs the breathing stands on the second vowel ; as, 
oikos, E vpttnrr), oJros. But when the diphthongs y, 77, <f> have the t writ leu 
on the line, the breathing is placed on the first vowel ; as, "AiSjys, yfo/s, 
"HiScM', ij&fiv, 'fliSv/, oJSv/. It will be seen that with small letters, the 
breathing is placed over the vowel ; with capitals, before the vowel. 

25. NOTE. Initial v or v always has the breathing in Attic. 

26. NOTE. The signs of the breathings were formed from H, which was 
once used to denote the rough breathing, till it came to be employed as r) 
(37). One half I was then used by some of the Italic Greeks, later also by 
the Athenians, for the rough breathing ; and the Alexandrians introduced 
the other half i for the smooth breathing. These fragments soon came to 
be written as Land ~1, and in the later cursive hand (37) they dwindled 
to ' and '. 

27. The consonant p takes the rough breathing at the beginning 
of a word ; as, pijTwp (Latin rhetor), orator ; 'Po8o<? (Latin Rhodus}. 
In the middle of a word, double p is written either p'p, or more 
commonly pp ; as Hvppos or Hvppos, Fyrrhus (p'p =rrli). 

28. NOTE. Except in pp, the breathing is dropped if it i.s brought into 
the middle of a word by composition ; as, ti'-fivui from tv-eivai or fo-cfvat. 
Evidence seems to show, however, that the rough breathing was here often 
pronounced. Compare the Latin forms enhydris for ei/ufyns, polyhisto*' for 
TroA.vurTw/3, Eulwmerus for Ei5v//z/)os. 


29. The consonants are divided into mutes, semivmvels, and 
'double consonants. 


30. Mutes. 1. The mutes are of three classes: 

labial mutes, TT /3 </>, or 7r-mutes 
palatal mutes, K y x> or *-mutes 
lingual mutes, r 8 0, or r-mutes. 

Those of the same class, as TT, (3, </>, are said to be cognate. 
2. These mutes are again divided into three orders : 

smooth mutes, TT K r 
middle mutes, (3 y 8 
rough mutes, c ^ 9. 

Those of the same order, as TT, K, r, are said to be co-ordinate. The 
rough mutes are also called aspirates, from the rough breathing, h, 
which they contain. 

31. Semivowels. 1. The semivowels are A, //,, v, p, a-, nasal y, / 
of the older alphabet, and y. Of these 

A, fj., v, p are liquids; 

p, v, nasal y are nasals ; 

a- is a spirant or sibilant; 

f and y are also spirants. 

2. Nasal y stands before K, y, x> or an d * s pronounced like n in 
sing or sink. It was represented in Latin by n ; as, aynvpa (anwa), 
anchor ; ayyeAos (angelus), messenger ; o-<<y, sphinx ; e'Aey^os (elenchus), 
proof. Nasal y is called ay/za or ayypa by some grammarians. 

32. Double Consonants. The double consonants are , i/-, f. 
7 is composed of K and a- ( = KO-). M* is composed of TT and a- ( = TTO-). 
Z represents a combination of 8 with soft s or with // ; that is, So- or a-S 
or fy/. In prosody , //, and ^ have the force of two single consonants 
in making a preceding vowel long by position (116, 2). 

33. Labials, Palatals, Linguals. The consonants may all be 
divided into 

labials IT (3 (}> ft J* 
palatals K y x V 
linrjuals r 8 <r A v p. 

34. NOTE. Surds, Sonants. The smooth and rough mutes, and also <r, 
, and ^, are called surds (hushed sounds) ; the other consonants ami the vowels 
are called sonants (soundiny letters). 

35. Final Consonants. The only consonants permitted to stand 
at the end of a Greek word are v, p, s (, \f)- Others lefb at the end, 
in word-formation, are dropped. See also 109 to 113. 



36. Relations of Consonants. The following table shows the 
relations in which the consonants stand to one another : 


























37. The Greeks obtained their alphabet from the Phoenicians, 
who, in early times, had numerous settlements in Greece and on the 
islands of the Aegean. The whole twenty-two letters of the Phoenician 
alphabet were adopted ; but their shapes were considerably modified, 
different values were assigned to the letters at different periods, and 
various letters were added. The two principal alphabets of ancient 
Greece were the Ionic or Eastern and the Chalcidic or Western, both 
of which went through various changes till they arrived at their final 
form, about the middle of the sixth century B.C. The Ionic alphabet 
is our ordinary Greek alphabet of twenty-four letters. The final form 
of the Chalcidic differed from the final form of the Ionic in these 
respects : it retained / and 9 ; it kept the original value of H as the 
rough breathing, and thus did not distinguish between $ and c ; it used 
L for A, X for x, and V for l:h ; it had no 12. The following table 
will show these differences, as well as the relative positions of the 
letters : 


Chalcidic ABrAE/ZH( = A)6IKLMX On?P2T YX( = x)$> ( = M). 

In the fifth century B.C., tjie Ionic alphabet gradually came into 
use at Athens ; and in the archonship of Eucleides, 403 B.C., it was 
officially introduced for all public documents and inscriptions. From 
this time on, it rapidly superseded the other modes of writing. 


The older Attic alphabet agreed in most points with the Ionic. But 
it used E for e, ?;, and spurious ei (19); O for o, w, and spurious ov 
(19) ; X2 for ; $2 for ^ ; \ f or A ; A for y ; it still used H for the 
rough breathing ; ? is found in a few of the oldest inscriptions. The 
following examples will show how the Athenians wrote before the 
end of the Peloponnesian War: EAOX2EN TEI BO\EI KAI TOI 
AEMOI for e'Soei/ rrj ftovX-ij Kal TW 8?//*w, EHE2TATE for eVeo-rarei, 
EAPAMMATEYE for typa/z/xareve, E<J>2E<I>I20E for tyrfivBr], TO 
HPOX2ENO2 for 7r/>oevo<? and Trpo^i/ovs, AIANO2KO for 
HOI for 01, HE for 7}, HE2 for ?) s , HEI for y, TON 6EON for TOV 8c6v 
or rwv #wv, K0\ YEN for KwAiW, TPE2 for r/oeis, XPY2O2 for x/>wrds 
and x/Dwrous, TOYTO for TO?TO and TOVTOV, HOII02 for 6Vo>s. 

The ancients used only the capitals, called majuscules or uncials 
("inch-high" letters). The tendency to round off the corners and to 
introduce abbreviations and amalgamations of letters produced the 
cursive or running hand which finally assumed, in the Middle Ages, the 
form of our ordinary small letters, known as minuscules. The numerous 
abbreviations found in older books are no longer used. 


38. 1. Vowels. The short simple vowels d, t, v had qualitatively 
the same sounds as the long a, i, v, and differed from them only in 

Long a was pronounced like a in father ; short a somewhat like a 
in partition. 

Long i was sounded close, like i in machine ; short l somewhat like 
y in very. 1 

The vowel v or v was originally equivalent to u in brute ; but before 
the fourth century B.C. it had acquired the sound of German il or French 
u. z In the diphthongs av, ev, ov, -r/v, <m>, the v had the n-sound. 

The vowel ij was pronounced long and open ; 3 like long French <? or 
e in reve, pere (like ai in fair) ; (3ij /3?j represented the bleating of sheep. 

The vowel o> was long and open; like o in bore. 

The vowels e and o were short 4 and close ; 4 e was pronounced some- 
what like French/? in/facial; o somewhat like o in annotate or poetic.* 

1 The short I in bit anil short S in let are open, and qualitatively different from i 
in machine and e in obey. 

2 In the ninth or tenth century A.T>. v had acquired the sound of f. The 
Romans at first represented v by u, later by j/. 

3 After the fourth century A. n. i\ acquired the sound of I, which it still retains. 

4 Originally e and o were also nscd to express long close sounds ; probably 
equivalent to e in obey, and o in prone. After these long sounds of e and o had 


2. Diphthongs. In all the genuine diphthongs both vowels were 
originally heard distinctly, but as one syllable. 

The diphthong at was pronounced a-i, 1 somewhat like ai in aisle. 

The diphthong oi was pronounced o-i, 2 somewhat like oi in foil 
The genuine diphthongs ei and ov were pronounced e-t (/>'-/' 3 ) and o-v 

The spurious diphthong ei (19) was pronounced as long close e; 
the spurious ov (19) as long close o. In the fifth century B.C. this 
difference in pronunciation between genuine ei and ov on the one hand, 
and spurious ei and ov on the other, must still have subsisted (spurious ei 
and ou being then written as e and o). But by 400 B.C. both genuine and 
spurious ei and ov were written alike and practically had the same sound : 
ov being then pronounced as ou in youth, and ei probably like ei in veinJ' 

The diphthongs av and ev were pronounced a-v (a-u) and e-v (d-u), & 

somewhat like ou in bound and eu in feud ; 7 av av was a dog's bark. 

developed into the genuine diphthongs et and oi' (see footnote 4 below), the regular 
short e and o tended to become open. The Alexandrian grammarians no longer 
distinguished anything but a quantitative difference between e and 17, and o and w ; 
the e being pronounced in their time somewhat like e in met, and the o somewhat 
like o in forget. 

1 Evidently like Italian a-i in mat. After the Alexandrian ]>eriod it tended to 

become short ; and by about the third century A.B. it acquired the sound of long 
open e, i.e. ancient 17, which by that time hail already changed considerably from 
its original sound. See footnote 3, p. 15. The Romans represented at by ae, as 
4>eu5pos, Phacdrus ; anciently by ai, as Mata, JUaia. 

3 Like Italian oi in noi. In the second century A.D. it began to be pronounced 
as it, and in the ninth or tenth century it had acquired the sound of ?. In Latin 
oi was represented by oe, as Kpoieos, Croesus ; anciently by oi, as T/xu'd, Troia. 

3 Like Italian ci in lei. 

4 Genuine and ou arose at a very early period. Genuine was formed from an 
originally long close e which had assumed a vanishing t-sound, making t- 1 ; genuine 

ou was formed in the same way from a long close o which had assumed a vanishing 
it-sound, making o-". The genuine diphthongs et and ov are seen in words like 

Xe/ww (old Attic "VEinO), * x (EXEI), ofrros (HOTT02), ffirovSj (ZnOTAE). 

6 But in the majority of cases and ov are spurious. Before the adoption of tin- 
Ionic alphabet, the spurious et and ov were written like ordinary e and o. At tin; 
time of the change in 403 B.C., the long e and o (due to contraction or compensative, 
lengthening, and henceforth written us and ov) must also have acquired the vanish- 
ing i- and u- sounds. By 400 B.C. the -souml had prevailed pver the c-sound in 
the diphthong ov, which was then pronounced as ou in youth, the sound which it 
still retains. In ft, the t gradually prevailed more and more over the e ; and by the 
first century B.C. ft was pronounced ?, except before vowels, where it still had the 
e-sound (NetXot, Kilns ; but M^Seia, Medea). Still later was finally pronounced 
everywhere as f. 

6 Evidently like Italian a-u and e-u in augusto, fcudo. 

1 In Modern Greek av and ev are pronounced af and cf before *, K, r, <f>, x, O, <TI 


The diphthong vt had the value of ii-i, 1 like French ui in lui, nuire; 

somewhat like ui in quit. 

The rare diphthongs ?;i> and wv were probably pronounced >; and w, 
with the addition of v (?t). 2 

The diphthongs a, y, y were pronounced a-i, 77-1, w-i, with the 

principal force on the first vowel. In the second century B.C. the 
i ceased to be heard. 3 See 21. 

3. Consonants. The consonants /?, 5, K, A, p., v, TT were practically 
the same as b* c?, 5 k, I, m, , p 6 in English. The p was trilled more than 
English r, and when initial or doubled, it was felt to be aspirated. 
Ordinary y was always lik eg in go? nasal y like n 8 in sing or sink. 
T was always like t in to. 9 2 was sharp, like s in so ; but before middle 
mutes (ft, y, 8) and liquids, soft like English z. 10 Z was composed of 
a- and 8, and pronounced dz, or more probably zd. 11 & and \p stood for 
KO- and TTcr. 12 The rough mutes #, x an d < were pronounced, in the 
classical period, as r, K, and TT, followed by the rough breathing ; 13 thus 

, \l/ ; and av and ey before other letters. Thus, ai/r6s is pronounced aftos ; ti'nropid, 
cfporia ; Gavpa, thavma, evayytXiov, evangelion. Similarly yv and uv are now pro- 
nounced if, Iv, and of, ov. The period of this change of v (u^ of these diphthongs to 
the spirant/ or v has not been determined ; but it could not have prevailed before 
300 A.D. 

1 From the fourth century B.C. the Attics wrote and pronounced v () for the 
diphthong w : thus, / for fj.v1a. In tlie Hellenistic period, vi was again written, and 
has in consequence been introduced into the Attic authors. 

2 See footnote 2, p. 15. 

3 Hence the Latin equivalents comoedia, tragoedia, Laius, for Kw/x^Sia, Tpayydid, 
Aos, were adopted when the t was still heard ; but odeum, rhapsodus for tpdeiov, 
pai/'yooy, after it had become silent. 

4 In Modern Greek like v. 

8 In Modern Greek like th in that. 

6 In Modern Greek IT after /j. is pronounced b ; as fytTropos (cmboros). 

7 In Modern Greek 7 before e, 77, t, v, at, ei, ot, vi, has the sound of our y in j/ct ; 
elsewhere it has a peculiar guttural sound, which is, in fact, the voiced equivalent 
of German ch in ach. 

8 In Modern Greek yy and yic are pronounced as ng, as dvdyKi), anaiigi ; in 7^, 
the 7 is like French nasal n. 

9 In Modern Greek r after v is pronounced d ; as den', andi. 

10 Hence f was often written for it in these latter positions ; as Z/j.vpi>a for Z/ui'/pvo, 
'ffievvtvai for fffievifijvcu. 

11 Hence <r5 in word-formation often gives f, as 'A^^afe from 'A^^dtr-Se ; and 
fftjv before f ( = <r3) loses its F the same as before a and another consonant. In 
Modern Greek fis pronounced z. 

12 While f and ^ were still written as XS and *S, the Attics felt an aspiration in 
those letters. 

13 Hence the Romans represented these letters by th, ch, and ph. The Greeks 
were obliged to use <f> to represent Latin/. In Modern Greek is pronounced like 
th in thin; x before f, 77, t, v, at, , and w, like German c/t in ic/t, elsewhere like 
German ch in ac/t; like/. 



was ai'-Tos, (\w was e-Kto, a.<fx\K<a was u-TreAKw. AVe may represent 
these sounds approximately in words like potf/took, bloc/touse, uphill. 

4. English and American Usage. In England most scholars 
still pronounce Greek according to the English method, with Latin 
accentuation. In the" United States some scholars still follow this 
English method, but the majority pronounce Greek with more or less 
approach to the ancient pronunciation. Perhaps a fair and practicable 
approximation to the probable ancient pronunciation would be the 
following : Pronounce (3, y ( = g in go), 8, K, A, /*, v, (ks), TT, p, a-, r, 
\l> (ps), &, a, tj, I, l, v, v (M), as explained above (but many pronounce -rj 
as a in late, and v as u in cube) ; 6 as th in thin, <f> as /, x as German ch 
in ach ; as dz or z or zd ; c as e in met ; o short as o in forget, w as o in 
lore (but most persons pronounce o> as o in tone) ; av as ou in bound ; 
cv and TJV as eu in feud ; ov and <av as ou in youth ; 01 as oi in foil ; m as ui 
in quit ; at as ai in aisfe / as a in rem or as ei in /tez'^M / ,#,<> as 
a, 77, w. 



39. In the inflection and formation of words, short vowels are often 
lengthened. These changes are the following : 

a becomes 77 (d after e, t, or />) 

c 77 r becomes l 

O W . V U 

Thus a short final vowel of a verb-stem is usually lengthened in the 
tense-formation of all verbs, except in the present system of verbs in <o. A 
similar lengthening occurs in the singular indicative active of the present 
system of verbs in /xi (664, 2). So also in the temporal augment (453, 2), and 
in many other formations. 

Ti/iaw (stem Ti/xa-), honor, fut. Ti/,r/-crw, aor. erfyi^-o-a, perf. reTiynr/-Ka, 
perf. mid. TfrffMij-p-ai^ aor. pass. fTlfj-ij-Br/v ; aw (a-), permit, ci-<ra>, etd-o-a, 
cm-Ka, eitt-yxai, eld-drjv ; lao/xai (ia-), /iea, td-<ro/xai, etc. ; Spuw (fyxx-), f?o, 
Spi-o-w, eSpa-a-a, etc. ; < (^>iAe-), Zov, <^)iA?y-(ra), e^iAry-cra, etc. ; 8?/Aow 
(3/;Ao-), />?, S^Aw-o-cu, 8?yAo>-(ra, etc. ; fj.r)vi<a (/A^VI-, 867), 6e wroth against, 
/i^vf-trw, e/i/yvi-cra ; KwAvw (KU>A?>-), hinder, K(oAl;-o-(o, e/cwAtKra, etc, 

"lo-rrj-fju (stem o~ra-), se<, TCTT^S, ta-Trjcri., impf. fcrTr;-v, fo-T7/s, fc'crr?; ; ri-0r)-fj.i 
(Of-\ put, impf. ert-drj-v ; Si-Sta-fjii (So-), </iw; BfiKvv-fj.1 (8etK-, present-stum 
6etKi'D-), Aow;, impf. c8etKvv-i/. 

"Ayw, Zeac?, impf. lyyov ; eAn'^oj, /io/w, impf. T/ATTI^OV, aor. 7/A7rra ; opiw, 
mark ojf, w/ii^ov, upura. ; tKereuw, implore, iKeTtvov, tKCTei-o-a ; v/3pi'w, insult, 
vfipifav, aor. pass, \ftpia-drjv. 


s, nature, from root </>r-, but Tre^u-Ka, am (by nature), perf. of (f>ixo, 
yroduce ; TI-CTIS, retribution, root T-, from which rtvw, ^oi/, rl-o-w, Ti-<ra, 
TTt-/ca, re'ri-o-yuat, IrL-frOy/v ; Tt/zi;-<ris, Tt/x^-^a, from root Tt/za- ; <$>i\r)-fj.a 
from root <iAe- ; /zi(r$co-T>ys from root /ztcr$o-. 


40. A short vowel is often lengthened to make up for the omission, 
for euphony, of one or more following consonants. In this way 

a becomes a i becomes r 

/zeAds for //,eA.av-s (90, 3) Auotxri for AUOVT-O-I (90, 4) 

icrrds i(7Tai/T-s (90, 4) Avovcri Auo-vcrt (90, 3) 

$i's Oevr-s (90, 4) Auowa Xvovr-ya, (90, 3) 

\apLffs ^apievT-s (90, 4) tKpiva ,, fxpiv-a-a. (105, 3) 

c'crretAa,, co-reA-cra (682, 2) ijfj.vva ,, r/fj.vv-(ra (105, 3) 

8t8ous ,, Stoocr-s (90, 4) Sei/cvu? ,, SetKvwr-s (90, 4) 

In these cases et and ou are spurious diphthongs. 

41. NOTE. (a) In the first aorist of liquid verbs (682, 2), a is mostly 
lengthened to ij (after t or p, nearly always to d) ; as, e^rjva. for e(/>avcra, 
from <a<.'va> (</>av-) ; e/^tai/a for ejcuavcra, from yu.tatVo> (juav-') ', iirkpava. for 
c~fpav(ra, from Trepat^w (Trepav-). 

(6) Masculine and feminine stems in -v-, -ya-, -o--, -OVT- (224, 3), lengthen 
e and o of the stem to 77 and to in forming the nominative ; as Ai/r>yv 
(prjTOp-}, rpLi'ip^ (rptrypes-), yepiov (yepovr-). 


42. 1. In the inflection and formation of words, the short vowels 
c, a, and o are often interchanged. 

T/3<-w, nourish, e-Tpd^rjv, was nourished, Te-rpo<j>-a, have nourislied, 
T/)O<^)-?/, nourishment, from the stem rpe(fi-. 

KAcTT-Tw, s<ea/, (-K \dir-yjv, was stolen, Ke-/<Ao(/>-a, /wive stolen, 
theft, from the stem /cAcTr-. 

crreA-Ato, send, e-crraA-Ka, /ictve sm<, crrdA-os, expedition, stem 
See 621, l-and 2 ; 1081. 

2. liarely t] and w interchange ; as, ap>yy-w, 7te?j?, tipwy-os, helping. 
In errreiJo'-to, hasten, and crTrouS-T/, Aas/e, there is interchange of ev and ou. 
See also 44. 

43. NOTE. Interchange between an original open vowel and a close one 
rarely occurs ; as, cVrt (e'er-), is, and urOi, be thou ; crKeSavi/iyu and (TMMi 


scatter ; ovo/xa, name, and ai'wyv/zos, nameless; dyo/ad, assembly, and 
s, blame, and a/Ai'/xa>v, blameless. 


44. In some formations and inflections we find an interchange, 
in the root, of 

I with or 01 

v ,, fv (sometimes ov) 

a 1} (seldom to). 

In such cases the long vowels or diphthongs are said to be the strong 
forms, and the short vowels the weak forms. The weak form is 
treated as the original. 

AeiTr-w, leave, Ac-AotTr-a, have le/t, l-Awr-ov, left, root AITT- 
<j>fvy-<D, flee, Tre-<f>evy-a, have fled, f-(f>vy-ov, fled, root <f>vy- 
rrJK-<a, melt, TC-TTJK-CI, am melted, e-TaK-rjv, was melted, root TO.K- 
fnjy-vv/j.1, break, />/3wy-a, am broken, fp-pdy-rjv, was broken, root pay- 
tAetMTo/xm (84), shall go, eX-r/XovO-a (Ionic) = fX-tjXvO-a, have gone, 
ijXvd-ov (Epic) = ?}A$-ov, went, root fXvd- (see ep^opai). 

See also 630 and 1080. 


45. A long open vowel sometimes exchanges quantity with -a 
short one following : ao and ?;o becoming ew, and rfa becoming ca ; 
as in Epic vaos, temple, and Attic vcws ; Epic ^Soo-iAT/os, ftaa-iXija, king. 
and Attic ^SatriAews, /JacrtAed ; Epic /Afrryopos, aloft, and Attic [jLereatpos ; 
Mei'eAdos, Attic McveAews. See 210, 2; 266. So T/W may become o>, 
as re^vews for Horn, rtdvi^ dead. 


46. Meeting of Vowels, Hiatus. When two vowels of different 
syllables meet, they are generally contracted into one long vowel or 
diphthong. The meeting of two vowels between two different words, 
called hiatus, can be avoided in prose by crasis (53 58), by elision 
(59 63), or by adding a movable consonant (62 67). 

47. Rules of Contraction. The following are the general principles 
of contraction : 

1. An open vowel followed by a close one forms a diphthong with it. 
y(Vf'i yevfi yepni ytpai ireidoi 7.ti.(lol eu eu 


2. Two like vowels (i.e. two a-sounds, two e-sounds, or two o-sounds) 
unite in the common long a, 7;, or <a. But ee gives ei (19) and oo gives 

yfpaa ye/od ^wXeiJTC ^tAryre 8r/Aoo> S^Aw 
/Mvacl /Ai'a Tt/A7yevTt Tl/xryvTi (TWOS crals 
But <j!u'Aee, (f)iXei ; TrAoos, 7rAof>s. 

3. When an a-sound meets an e-sound, the first in order prevails, 
and the result is a or 77. 

Tt/xae, Ti/za ; rt/xa^re, ri/Aare ; yevea, yevr; ; 'Ep/ied?,, 'Ep/xvys. 

4. When an o-sound meets an a-sound or an e-sound, the two 
become w. But oe and eo give ov (19). 

al8oa ai8(o i'jpu>a ?ypco <5>yAo?yTe SyAwT 

Tt/iw/iev Tt//,aw/xi/ rt/xw/xev 

But ST^ Aoe, S7yAov ; yeveos, 

5. Except in the case of e + ot, a vowel followed by a diphthong 
?o/ beginning with the same vowel is contracted with the y?rs# vowel of the 
diphthong ; and a following i remains as iota subscript, but a following 
v disappears. 

TI/XS Aveai Ai5r; (48, 3) Xvrjat Xvy 

TlUCl <f)lA77S d>lX.rK 

. - j % / j \"^ 

TlfJLU>fJ,i (f>LAOV (plAOV 

6. A vowel before a diphthong beginning with the same vowel is 
absorbed, similarly before ot. 

ju.vaat fAvai Troieet 7rott 8>yAooi SryAo? 
fivanf. fj.V(ji TTOifoi TTOIOI ^77Ao'ou 8?yAou 
See also 48, 2. 

48. NOTE. Special Rules of Contraction. 1. The spurious diphthong 
i is contracted like simple e ; as, TrAa/cdeis, TrAaKoiis, cake ; rifj-dftv, rlp-oiv ; 
SrjXoeiv, S^Aouv. See 322 ; f>99, 1. 

2. In contracts of the first and second declensions, every short vowel 
followed by a or by a long vowel or diphthong, is absorbed (47, 6), the follow- 
ing a becoming a ; as, O-UKCCU, O-VKOLI ; o-VKds, CTVKO.S ; dpyvpiav, dpyvpaiv ; 
d(TTea, ocrra ; aTrAo'a, txTrAa ; aTrAovi, ctTrATy ; UTrAo?), uirXy ; ctTrAoai?, 
uTrAai?. But ill the singular of tlie first declension, ed, after any consonant 
but p, contracts to rj ; as, ^/auo-ed, X/ 01 ' "*/ 5 TVJC, <rvKy. See 192, 294. 

3. In the second person singular of the passive and middle, eat (for eo-cu) 
gives the ordinary Attic ei as well as the regular y ; as, Af-ecu, Avei or Avy. 
See 597. 

4. Verbs in ow contract oei to ot, as, oSiAoets, STyAots ; also oy in the 
subjunctive, as SryAo'y, 8t/\oi. See 477. 


5. In adjectives in 775 of the third declension, ea becomes a after c ; and 
d or 77 after i or v. See 307. 

6. Rarely aei gives ai instead of a ; as at/aw from Ionic deipw, <ae up. 

7. For exceptions in the contraction of verbs, see 479; 481 ; 666, 2 ; 
1047. For contraction confined to certain cases of nouns and adjectivee of 
the third declension, see that declension. 

49. NOTE. A close vowel rarely contracts with a succeeding open one ; 
as ix^s for i'x$t'S, and i'x#u for i%0ve in comedy. 

50. NOTE. An I followed by I gives I ; as Xtos, Chiun, from Xuos (Xi'os, 
Chios) ; Kptvw from Kpl-ivo> for Kpiv-yta (96, 5). Similarly vi becomes v in 
liquid verbs ; as arvpat from crv-ipia for (rvp-yw (96, 5). But no contraction 
occurs in cases like KI-I, dat. of /as, weevil; l)^0v-i, dat. of iydvs, fish ; and 
/iv-t, dat. of /, mouse. 

51. NOTE. Contraction is often neglected when the first vowel is long ; 
as VT/I, to a ship. See 45. 

52. Table of Contractions. 

a + a = a 

a + ai =cu 

a + q. =<jt 

a + c = a 

a + et = p 

OF a 


a + 77 = a 
a + 77 = ^i 
& + L =ai 
a + i =<f. 
a + o = co 
a + 01 = (<J 
a + ou = w 
a + to = to 
c + a =? 

Or a 

c + at = Tj 

c + = ei 

yepaa = y/oa 

TlfJifi = 

Tt/xaeti/ = Ti/ J iav (48, 1) 
dfipta = aipta (48, 6) 
rl/JidrjTf = Ti/xaYe 

Ti/xao/if v = 
TlfJ.aoi[j.t = 
Ttp.aov = TI/J.O) 

(48, 5) 
ev(f>vfa = tv(f>vTJ (48, 5) 
(48, 2) 
(48, 5) 
fv<j>vca = v<f>va (48, 5) 
Aceat= Ai77 
Auai = Aut (48, 3) 

(48, 2) 

c + ei = ei 
e + 77 =77 
e + 77 =77 
e + i =i 
c + o = ov 
e + 01 =01 
e + ov ^ ou 
e + v = ev 
6 4- a> = to 
e + w = w 
77 + 01 =27 

77 + =77 
77 + l ^77 

77+1 =77 
77 + 01 =to 
t + i =i 

o + a = to 
or a 

o + ai = at 

o + e = ov 

o + ei =01 

or of 

+ 77 = to 

O + y = to 

yeveos = 
^>iAeoi = </uAoi 

</>iAew = 
ocrrew = OOTOJ 
Ai>?7ai = Ai'y 

Tl/i?/lS = Tl/XjJs (48, 1) 

= K\y9pov 

Kpl-lV(l)= KpfviD (50) 

aifioa = a/'f5w' 

d7rAoa = a7rAa (48, 2 

<x7rAoai = aTrAai (48, 2) 

voe = i/ou 

cS77Aoi = ^Aoi (48, 4) 

8?7 Aoiv= 877 Aorv (48,1) 

O^AdrjTf = O^AtoTf 

8180775 = 8i8<j>S 


+ 77 =77 cMrAoTj = aTrA^ (48, 2) 

V+l =V <TV-lp(0 = (TVp(i) (50) 

Hardy the following : 
v T c =v l\Bvf<s = l\8rs (49) 

to + a = W 

a> + e = co 

to + t = co T^pwt = 77/3(0 

to + o = to o~wos = o~ws 

O+l = Ol TTloi. = Trfl6oL 

o + o =ov vdos = vovs 
o + ot =ot cfyAoot = STjAoi 
o + ov = ov 8r)Xoov = 877X01) 

O + to = to oV/Adto = STjAto 

o + to = to aTrAdto = ciTrAy 


53. Crasis (/cpoo-ts, mixture) is the contraction of a vowel or diph- 
thong at the end of a word, with one at the beginning of the following 
word. The two words are then written as one, with the coronis (') 
over the contracted syllable. Thus TO, dyaOd, rdyatfa; TO ovopx, TOV- 
vo/aa. (For Synizesis, see 853, 854.) 

54. Crasis generally follows the rules of contraction, with these 
exceptions : 

1. A diphthong at the end of the first word drops its last vowel 
before contraction takes place ; as oinri for 01 c-n-L 

2. The final vowel or diphthong of the article is lost by absorption 
before initial a. Thus dvT/p for 6 dv-i/p, dSeA^ot for ot a<5eA<ot, ravSpi 

for T(p dv&pl, TO.VTOV for TOV O.VTOV. 

3. The particle rot drops ot before a ; as rapa for rot apa. 

4. The diphthong of /cat is lost by absorption before all vowels and 
diphthongs, except e and et. Thus KCUJTOS for KCU avros ; but xa? for 
KCU e?, K^tra for Kat etra. Yet we have Ktt for /cat ft and Kt? for Kal ct's. 

55. NOTE. The coronis is dropped if the first word has the rough 
breathing ; as av for a av, avrjp for 6 dvrjp. 

56. NOTE. In crasis, ere/DOS, other, assumes the form arepos ; hence 
arepos for 6 efrepos. 

57. NOTE. If, by crasis, a smooth mute (TT, /c, T) comes before the 
rough breathing, it is changed to the cognate rough mute (30, 2 ; 98) ; as 
darepa. for TO, efrepa, X arpo<s for /cat eVc/305, dolfianov for TO I/UUTIOV. 

58. Crasis occurs mostly in poetry. It is rare in Homer (see 851), 
more frequent in later poetry, especially in comedy, but rare in 
tragedy ; in prose the orators use it most. Crasis occur chiefly in the 
following cases : 

1. With the article : as avi'/p for 6 avr'/p ; OUTTI for o cTrt; O\<K for 6 
fK ; Tavro? for TOU O.VTOV ; TuvSpt for T< avSpi ; uScA^ot for ot dSeA^>oi; 
rovvofia for TO 6Vo/ia ; Toui/ai'Ttov for TO fvavriov ; TauTo for T& aurd ; 
Taya^a for Ta dyadd ; rrjiraptj for rfj tirapy. 

2. With the relatives 6' and a ; as ovyw for o eyw ; av for a av. 

3. With Kat and Tot; as KO.V for Kal av; *av for Kal ev; KOV for /cat 


ov ; KOVTOS for Kai avros ; XO.VTIJ for Kai avrrj (57) ; KOO-TI for Kai rrt ; 
X<o for Kai o : x?) for Kai ?; ; XGI for Kai 01 ; ^at for Kai at ; TU.V for roi 
av ; ftiVTav for P&VTOI av ', rapa for rot apa. 

4. With eya> ot/iat, eyw/xm ; and eyw oiSa, eywSa. 

5. With the interjection w; as wvflpwTre for w avOpwire; and in 
-n-povpyov, helpful, from Trpo fpyov, for an object. See also 99. 

6. With the enclitics /not and o-ot, mostly before m and 
as fjLov8oKi for /xot eSoKtt, croiVrt for (rot rrt'. 

7. With TT/DO in verbs ; as irpov^d) for TT/JO-C^W, TrpovTifj-rjo-a for 
trt/AT/o-a (see 554), especially in compounds. 

8. With t or 7ret or eTretSr; before ai/ : thus et av gives ordinary 
fdv or ?;i/ (Ion. and older Att.) or av (newer Att.) ; CTTCI av gives 
e-n-edv (Ion.) or tTrv/i/ (Horn, and sometimes Att.) or t-n-av (rarely Attic) ; 
generally the Attics use cTretSdV. 


59. Elision is the omission of a final short vowel (&, e, t, o) before 
a word beginning with a vowel. The elision is marked by an 

'ATT' e/iou for aVb cp-ov, SL enetvo for Sia Ktvo, aAX' fvOvs for tJAAa 
fvdvs, Aeyot/i av for Aeyot/xt aj', opar' avrov for opare avrov. 

60. NOTE. If, by elision, a smooth mute (TT, K, r) is brought before the 
rough breathing, it is changed to the cognate rough mute ; as a</>' o? from OTTO 
ov, Ka#' rjpepav from Kara -fjfjLfpav, vv\6' oXrjv from VVKTO oArjv. See 55, 97. 

61. Elision is not a necessary rule : some authors, as Isocrates, 
make full use of it ; while others, as Thucydides, often neglect it. In 
Herodotus elision is not as common as in Attic prose. It is most 
frequent with prepositions, conjunctions, and adverbs ; less frequent 
at the end of nouns, adjectives, pronouns, and verbs. 

62. No elision takes place in 

(1) the prepositions TTC/DI, irpo, fj*xpi, &XP l > 

(2) the conjunction 6Vt; 

(3) monosyllables, except those ending in e; 

(4) the dative singular in -t of the third declension, and the dative 
plural in -art ; 

(5) final -a of the nominative of the first declension ; 

(6) words ending in -v. 

63. In the formation of compound words, a short final vowel is 
usually dropped, but no apostrophe here marks the elision. 

'ATr-ayw (aTro and ayo>), ovS-et's (oi>8t and efs), Si-eAiTrov (Sia and eAtTroi'), 
c<j>-(vpuTK(a (CJTL and evporKW, 60), Trev^-^yMe/ios (TTCI/TC and ?}/x/3o, 60), Se- 
(Sina and rjfJLepa, 60). 



64. 1. At the end of certain forms of declension and conjugation, 
also in some other words, v is added when the following word begins 
with a vowel. This is called v movable (v c<e AKWTIKOV, lit. dragging 

2. The forms which take v movable are : 

(a) All words in -o-i (-i -i/'i). 

(b) All verbs of the third person singular ending in e. 

(c) 'ECTTI, is. 

Thus : oYSoxrtv eyuot, but SiSuxri ynoi ; Trwriv fXeyev fKeiva, but Trcurt 
Aeyoucri ravra. ; fXvcrev avrov, but eAwre rov av<5pa ; AeAvKev f/j-f ; eii<o<Tiv 
CTI, but etKocrt 

65. NOTE. The third singular pluperfect active in -ei rarely takes v 
movable ; as fXfXvi<ei(v\ he had loosed, ?/8ei(v), he knew. But the contracted 
imperfect in -ei (for -ce) never takes v in Attic. 

66. NOTE. It is usual, but not necessary, to add v at the end of a 
sentence ; also at the end of a verse in poetry. In Herodotus v movable 
is seldom found. The inscriptions show that v movable was often written 
before a consonant ; this is often done in poetry to make position (116, 2). 

67. NOTE. Of all the words which take v movable, only rri' may be 
elided in prose. 

68. Ov, not, becomes OVK before a vowel with the smooth breathing, 
and ovx before a vowel with the rough breathing ; as ov Aeyw, OVK oiSa, 
oi''x oin-os. Mr;, not, inserts K in p/K-eTi, no longer, on the analogy of 

69. 'E (KS), from, drops s before a consonant ; as K TroAews, but 
OIKOV ; eK-Aeyco, but e^eXeyov. 

Ourws, thus, often drops s before a consonant : as OVTWS fXfgev, but 
a)(s) Aeyei. 


70. 1. The omission of a short vowel between two consonants is 
called syncope ; as yiyvo/xai for ytyevo/zcu (G19), JjXOov for Epic 7yAv#oi', 
ecrrai for Epic reTai, Tr-n/o-opu for 7rT7]o-o//m (G19), irarpos for Trare/aos 

2. Syncope occurs oftener in the Dialects (most often in Epic forms) 
than in Attic, especially in verbs ; as err Ac for (ireXe, from TreAw ; yXaKTo- 
<ciyos for yaAaKTo-^xxyos, liviny on milk; T<.'TTT for TI'TTOTC, w//y then? 

71. NOTE. (a) When p. is brought before A or p, by syncope or metathesis 


(74), /? is inserted after it. Thus netrrjuPpid, midday, for 

and rjpjfpa) ; p,fj./3 XiaKa, epic perfect of ySAcoo-Kw, j/o, from stem /*oA-, 

fzAio- (39), for fj.f-fj.Xd)- Ka. 

(b) At the beginning of a word, //, is dropped before /3 in this case. Thus 
/3poTos, mortal, from stem /*op-, fi/x>- (compare Latin manor, die), for /A/JO-TOS ; 
/JAiTTw, take honey, from stem /jLtXir- of /xeAi, honey (compare Latin me/), 
syncopated /i/3Air-, /?Air-. 

(c) Similarly when syncope brings v before p in the oblique cases of i'/p, 
man, (243, 2), a 8 is euphonically inserted after the v ; as avoids for dv-pos, 
from dvepos. 


72. Prothesis. At the beginning of some words which begin with 
two consonants or had initial /, a short vowel is sometimes found ; 
thus occasionally giving double forms ; as, x#s and f-\6t<s, yesterday ; 
crra^us and a-trTa^vs, ear of corn ; aucnraipdt and cnrcupco, pant ; aOXov, 
prize, from a-c^Aov, formerly a.-ftdXov. 

73. Epenthesis. In some cases a vowel has been inserted between 
two liquids or between a mute and a liquid. Compare or-c-poTr?; and 
djfrrpairij, lightning ; aA--w, defend, and aA/o), defense. 


74. The transposition of a short vowel and a following liquid in a 
word is called metathesis. Thus K/OCITOS and Ka/aros, strength; Odpo-os 
and fyjoo-os, courage ; compare /3(-/3Xfj-Ka (from stem /3aA-) witli e-/3aA-ov, 
K(-Kfj.rj-Ka (from stem xa/x-) with e-Ka^ov, Tf-dvij-Ka (from stem #av-) Avith 
f-Oai-ov. The vowel is then often lengthened, as in the last three 
examples (39). 



75. 1. In the great majority of cases, doubling of consonants is 
due to euphonic assimilation. The only consonants found doubled in 
Attic are the liquids A, /*, v, p ; the mutes TT, K, r ; and rarely the 
spirant a: 

2. The rough mutes (<f>, ^, ff) are never doubled ; but TT</>, *x 
and rO are used for <<, xx> anc ^ && Thus 2a7r<w, Sappho, BaK^os, 
Bacchus, 'Aral's, ^^ic. 

3. The middle m.ites (/?, y, 8) are never doubled in Attic. In yy, 
the first y is always nasal ; as ayyAo? (31, 2). 


76. The later Attic has TT for the earlier Attic cnr ; as TCITTW, K/X-I'T- 
TCOV, OdXaTTa, for Tctcrcrw, Kpeicrcrtov, $ctAacrcra. But this refers only to crcr 
due to the union of a mute with y (96) ; not in "ATTIKOS and in some 
other words. The older Attic prose (as Thucydides) and the 
Tragedians have crcr and ps the later prose (as Xenophon) and 
the Comedians have TT arid pp. 

77. Initial p is doubled before the syllabic augment ; also in 
compounds after a short vowel. Thus ep-pcra-Tov, imperfect of pdirTor; 
d-n-op-pfta (euro and pew) ; but ev-poo?. The cause of the doubling is the 
loss of an initial cr or / before the p (see 108, 4). 

78. The later Attic has pp for the earlier Attic per; as xopp-//, 

Odppos for /copcrr/, $apcros. See 76. 


79. When the final consonant of a stem meets a consonant, in inflec- 
tion and word-formation, such a collision generally gives rise to certain 
euphonic changes; these are explained in 80 84 and 86 97. Certain 
special changes in the spirants cr and / are treated in 105 107 and iu 
108. The changes in the aspirated consonants are treated in 98 104. 
For the change of T before i and other vowels to cr, see 85. 


80. Before a lingual mute (T, 8, 0), a labial (TT, /?, c/>) or a palatal 
mute (K, y, x) becomes co-ordinate (30, 2) ; a lingual before another 
lingual becomes cr. Hence, only these combinations are allowed : TTT, 
KT ; (38, y8 ; <f>6, yj) ; O-T, a-0. 

for TfTpl/3-Tat AeAeKTcu for 




i. ,, Tre(J>paS-TO.i 

81. NOTE. 'E/c,/rom, in composition, remains unchanged; as K-KaAo), 

CK-8i8(D/J.i, fK-Otd). 

82. NOTE. When TT elands for the later Attic o-o-, it remains unchanged 
(76). Also TT and r6 in a few words ; as 'ATTIKOS, 'AT#I'S, Attic. 

83. NOTE. In all of the above combinations, the second mute is T, 8, 


or 0. If in formations any other combination of consonants would occur, the 
first mute drops out ; as Ke/co/xiKo. for Ke/co/xio'-Ka, TreTretKa for TrcTret^-Ka. 
Exceptions are TT<, K\, and rB (75, 2); TT and r6 in several words, as 
'ATTIKOS, 'Aral's; and y-nasal, which is not a mute (75, 3). 


84. A labial mute before a- unites with it to form \</ ( = TTO-) ; a 
palatal mute forms ( = KCT) ; a single lingual mute is dropped. 

/3Xf\j/<a for /^AfTr-cro) Aeo> for Aey-crw tATTicri for e 
rpii^w Tpl/3-<T(a <f>\6 <Aoy-s Tret'cro) 
,, ypa<j)-<rw apu> ,, d^^-crw opvuri 

TrAe^w ,, TrAtK-o-w acrw ,, aS-a-w ^a/3i<rt ,, \apifT-a-i (321,2) 

For more examples, see 231, 484, 485. 


85. T often becomes o-, especially before t ; as riOrja-t, for original 
Tidi]Tt' } TrAoixr-io? for TrAoi'T-ios, from TrAovros. But seldom before 
other vowels ; as crv, crot, o-e for Doric TV, roi, and Aeolic re ; 
to-day, for rrj^pov ; Zireo-ov for Doric eT 


86. Before p a labial mute becomes p. ; a palatal mute becomes y ; 
a linual mute becomes o-. 

for AeAei7r-/i<u ?] for 

TeTpl( T(Tpi/ 

yeypa/j.[j.a<. ,, yeypa<f> 

TreTrAey/^ai ,, 7T7rAeK-/iat 

87. NOTE. But when K/t and T/Z are brought together by metathesis 

(74), they stand unchanged ; as /ce-/c/z?/-Ka (KU/X-VW), T-T/A>/-ica (refi-vat). Also 

K, x> T > $ often stand before fi in the formation of nouns ; as a.K-p.i'j, edye ; 

al^, spear-point; aT-/x.5, vapor; (TTa^-//.os, station. 

'E/c remains unchanged here as in 8i ; as fK- 

88. NOTE. If the assimilation gives rise to /ti/x/x or yy/x, one //, or y 
is dropped. Thus 7rr/z/uai (for 7re7re/A/ji-/zai, from Tre/iTrtu ; 
AryAey/iat (for cA^Aeyy-yMou, Ar;Aeyx-/iai) from eAey\w. See 485. 

89. NOTE. The mutes remain unchanged before the other liquids, A, v, p. 
In cre/zvos, revered, solemn, for <re/3-vos (<r/?-o/zcu, revere), epepvos, dark, for 
(pf/3-vos (*Ep/3-os, Erelos), ft becomes /x. 



90. 1. Before a labial mute (also \f), v becomes p.; before a 
palatal mute (also ), it becomes nasal y. 

e/xTrAe/caj for ei'-TrAeKw cnryxatoi for crw-/ccuo> 

2. Before another liquid, i/ is changed to that liquid. 

for ev-AeiTrw crvppa.TTT<i) for <rw-pa7rrw 

,, v-p.vw cruAAoyos ,, crw-Aoyos 

3. Before o-, the v is regularly dropped and the preceding vowel 
is compensatively lengthened, d to d, e to , o to oi' (38). 

/zeAds for /ueAav-s (241, 2) At'owa for AvovT-7/a, Af>ov-(ra (96, 2) 
ev-s ( ) 7rao-a ,, TravT-ya, irav-o-a ( ) 

Avov-o-i (588 ) Au^eio-a ,, XvOevT-ya, XvOev-<ra ( ) 

4. Before o- in inflections, VT, i>8, vO are always dro])ped and the 
preceding vowel is compensatively lengthened as in 89, 3 

ytyds for ytyavr-s Trctcroyaat for Trei'6-crofj.a.i 

Tracrt vravr-crt crTretcra) o"7Tv8-(ra) 

AeovT-crt rt^twri 

For nominatives in -wv from stems in -OVT-, see 224, 3. 

91. NOTE. When v stands alone before -cri of the dative plural, it is 
dropped, but the preceding vowel is not lengthened ; as Ai/A7t for XI/JLCV-O-I, 
8ai/j.o(ri for 8at/xov-o-t, ^Aao-t for fj.eXav-fri. 

92. NOTE. (a) The preposition iv remains unchanged before p and <r ; 

as fV-plTTTO), eV-(TTp</>W. 

(b) The preposition crvv becomes <rvcr- before cr and a vowel, and o-u- 
before cr and a consonant or before ' } as trvcr-o'iTos, crv-crrrip.^ crv-fcvyvvfj.1. 

93. NOTE. The v of ?rav and TraAii/ may stand before a- or change to cr, 
in composition ; as Trdv-arixftos or Tracr-cro^os, TraAiV-cr/ao? or TraAicr-crKios. 

94. NOTE. In verbs in -vw the v of the stem is mostly changed to cr 
before -/J.CLI in the perfect middle (485) ; as </>utVtu, Tr^ucr-yucu for 7re</>av-/Aeu. 
See also 737, 4. 

95. NOTE. (a) The v is preserved before cr in A/xii/5 (stem f\/j.ivO-), 
tape-worm, 7re/>ivs (stem ireiptvd-), body of a cart, Trpi^s (stem Tl/avf^-), see 
224, 2 ; also in a few nouns in -cris belonging to late Greek, as ^ry^ai/o-ts, 
drying up, from ^-tjpatvio, dry up. 

(b) For v before a- in the perfect and pluperfect middle of liquid verbs in 
-vo), see 737, 4 and 5. 



96. The spirant y (13, 5) gave rise to certain changes when it 
followed the final consonant of a stem. 

1. Palatals (K, y, x) and occasionally T and 6 unite with y to form 
oxr (later Attic TT). 

<uAacr<rej for (j)v\a.K-y<o, stem <f>v\a.K- 

ijOtrtw, worse, 'IJK-ytav, r)K- (354, 2) 

Tuotrw ray-j/w, ,, ray- 

Tq.pu.<r<r<a\-yd), rapa^- 

cpsa-a-M epfT-yio, tpcr- 

Kpv/cro-a Kpr^T-i/a, Kpr/r- 

Xa/3tcrcra ,, \apif.r-ya., ^aptfT- (321, 2) 

See also 638. 

2. In the feminine of participles and adjectives (319, 333), vr 
with y becomes v<r, the v is then dropped (89, 3) and the preceding 
vowel receives compensative lengthening. 

\VOVT- stem, fern. Xvovr-ya, Xvova-a, Xvovcra 

SCIKVVVT- ,, SeiKyvyT-j/a, SeiKVui/cra, 
iravr- iravT-ya, Trava-a, vrao-a 

3. The union of 8 (sometimes also y or yy) with y forms 

cA.irt'<i> for (\Tri8-y(o, stem eATriS- (643) 
<j)pa8-yw, ^a8- (643) 
/cpay-i/w, /c/aay- (641) 
, craA7riyy-ya), ,, o-aATrtyy- (641) 
p-'zfav (Ionic) or /j-eifov (comparative of /xryas, great) 
for /j.ey-y<j)V (354, 4). 

4. After A, the // is assimilated, forming AA. 

fTT AA(0 ((TTcA-), SfiJirf, for (TTeA-7/to (648) 

aAAo/iai (aA-), /cap, uA-yo/zai, Latin saZio (648) 

//AAov, ?More, rather, ,, /zaA-j/ov, comparative of /xaA-a (363) 

dAAo?, o/Aer, dA-j/os, Latin Zitts 

5. After v or />, the y is thrown back as t to the preceding vowel 
with which it is contracted (47, 1; 50). 

c/xxu'w (<f>av-) for </>av-r/(t> ^ipj)i> (\ep-\ icorse, for 

\aipta (x a p-) X^p-yto a-wreipa. (o-wre/3-), fern, 
fi\a.tva (/xeAai/-), fern, of saviour, for (rtarep-ya 

/itAds, for // Aai'-ya Kptvta (Kplv-) for Kptv-y<a 

(324) o^'pw (<rvp-) . trvp-yto 


(rev-) for TCV-T/W a/xwto (dfj.vv-} for dfivv-yo) 

p-) Kp-y(0 OlKTlpW (olKTlp-) OlKTl/CM/W 

See also 648, and KCUW and xAatw (650). 

97. NOTE. Between two vowels y is dropped ; as fdv for e-j/av ( = el av). 


98. When a smooth mute (TT, K, T) is brought before the rough 
breathing by elision (59, 60), or crasis (53, 57), or in forming a com- 
pound (63), it is changed to its corresponding rough mute (</>, x> #) 

V(f> r/fj-iav for t>7ro ry/xwv ^OI/AGITIOJ/ for TO l^drtov 

e(j>opd(i) fTr-opcua vv\6* oXrjv VVKTO. oXijv 

oi'x OUTOS ,, OVK oiiros Ko.dicrT'tjfj.i 

/cat oSros 

99. NOTE. The smooth mute has been made rough, notwithstanding 
an intervening p, in <f>pov8os, gone (from irpo 68ov) ; <f)povpos, watchman (for 
7rpo-o/Dos) ; TfBpnrir os, four-horsed (from Terraces and tTTTros). 

100. In general, two successive syllables of the same word cannot 
begin with a rough mute. Hence 

1. In reduplications (536 ; 764, i) the first rough mute is changed 
to its corresponding smooth one. 

ire-<f)tXr)Ka for (f)-(f>i\r]Ka re-OvKa for 6f-6vKa 

2. In the first aorist passive imperative, the ending -6t is changed 
to TL after #>/- of the tense-stem (756). 

\v6rj-Ti for XvOr)-8i, (^avd^-ri for <f>ai>6r)-6i ; but 2 aor. </jar?/-^t. 

3. The verbs Ti6%u (stem Of-) and Bixa (Ov-) change 9 of the stem 
to T in the first aorist passive, and make f-T-Orjv and f-rv-drjv. 

A similar loss of aspiration occurs in a/wr-x w (f r 

in several other words. 

"EXW (stem ex- for a-ex; 533, &) loses its initial aspirate in the present, 
but recovers it in the future e'w. 

101. NOTE. In other cases, both aspirates remain unchanged ; as 
from fleAyw, wpdiaBrjv from opOota ; .^vO^v from \f<i>, <{>dOi from 

u, <rrpd<l>r]6i. from o-r/ae^w, fj,dd(6' rifj.wv for jJiddfTf rjfuav. 

102. Some stems, beginning with T and ending in < or x> throw 
the aspirate back to the T, whenever it is lost at the end by any 
euphonic changes. These stems are supposed to have had the initial 
mute originally rough. They are 


rp<Jxo y nourish, stem rpf<f>- for fy>e<-, fut. 0/ae^w, 2 aor. pass. trpdfojv ; 
$a7rru>, 6uri/, stem ra<- lor 0a<-, fut. Od\f/d>, 2 aor. pass, erd^rjv ; 
rpe^ta, rw?i, stem iy>ex- f r @P f X~> f llt - Opk^ofMU ; 
0pv7TT<o, weaken, stem rpv<f>- for 6pv<j>-, fut. 6pv\f/, subst. rpv</>7/, 

delicacy ; 
Tv<f>(a, smoke, stem TV<- or TI'<- for 0i"<-, perf. mid., 2 aor. 

pass. (Tv<f>r)v^ 

u, Arti'r, stem Tpi\- for Opi\-, gen. T^I^OS, dat. p], #pti ; 
vs, siPi/if, stem ra^- for ^a^-, compar. ^uo-crtuv for ^dx-J/wv, superl. 

See also dpacraru and the stem #a7r- in the Catalogue. 

103. NOTE. But remains at the beginning of the above stems, if 
(J>6 appears at the end ; as e-0pe(f>-6j]i', re-Opd^-dai (inf. perf. mid.), from 
rpf<J)(o ; Tf-dd<f>-@ai (inf. perf. mid.) from BO.TTTW ; c-6pv(j>-&i]v, re-0pv<^-0ai 
(inf. perf. mid.) from Opvirru. 

104. XOTE. In Trao-^w, suffer, for iraO-a-KO), stem iraO-, there is transfer 
of aspiration to a succeeding consonant. 

ON a- 

105. Single a- between two vowels is dropped in certain forms of 

1 . In stems of nouns in eo-- and GMT- ; as yei/os, race (stem ycveo--), 
gen. yevovs contracted from yeve-os for yeytcr-os; yepas, prize (stem 
yepaa--), gen. yepws contracted from ytpa-os for yepacr-os. See 246. 

2. In the middle endings -o-ai and -o-o ; as Xve-crat, Ave-ai, \vy or 
Avet (46, 3), e-Ave-(ro, e-Afe-o, cAvov. But />u-fbrms keep o- ; as rtde-o-at, 
iridt-<TO, \e\v-<Ta.i, eAeAixro. See 596, 609. 

3. The first aorist active and middle of liquid verbs drops <r of 
the tense-suffix era- (682, 2) ; as <j>aivw (<av-), aor. </>r;va for t^av-cra, 
t(f>7)vdfj,riv for Itftav-crap.rji'. There are a few exceptions (686). 

4. When a- of a stem meets o- of an inflectional ending, one o- is 
dropped; as yevos, race (yevfa--), dat. pi. yei/ecri for yeveo-tri (246), 

for OTracr-<rai (730, 1). 

106. In some adverbs of place (284, 3) o-S becomes ; as 3 
for ' Adrjvas-Sf, toward Alliens. 

107. An initial o- has often been weakened to the rough breathing. 
Thus i-o-Tjf/zi, place, for a-i-a-rrj-fMi, Latin sisto ; vs or o-vs, swiiie, Latin 
SM5 / (Kvpos, brotlier-in-laiv, Latin socer ; 7//irrs, half, Latin semi- ; e, sir, 
Latin s^a;/ firrd, seven, I^atin seplem ; aAs, 5rt//, Latin sai; /37ru), creep, 
Latin se?yo / e^o/Aat, s*7 (root 5-, originally o-eS-), Latin sed-co. 


Some words lost both a- and / ; as e, him, her, if, for o-/e, Latin se ; 
poetic 6's, his, for <r/os, Latin suits ; i]Sv<i, sweet, from root a&- for o-/aS> 
Latin suavis. See 108. 

For initial a- before p dropped, see 108, 4. 

ON / 

108. Many forms are due to the omission of an original f. 

1. The / was dropped when initial or between two vowels. Thus 
ciKoo-i, twenty, for AIKOO-I, Latin vlginti ; 4'ros, year, for /ero?, Latin vetus, 
old; epyov, work, for fcpyov, German werk ; fo-QSjs, garment, for /eo-0/s, 
Latin vestis ; ts, strength, Latin vis ; OIKOS, house, Latin vicus ; oii/os, wine, 
Latin wnum ; eTSov, saw (root fi8-, Latin vid-eo), for e-/i8ov = c-W ; 
cap, spring, Latin per/ /cAets, Ionic xX^is, A'ey, Latin dams; 8io<s, divine, 
Latin rfiww / ois, s/ieep, Latin ovis ; O-KCUOS, ^/<, Latin scaevus. See also 

2. Verbs in -ew of the Second Class (632) change cv of the stem to 
f.f and then to e ; as TrAew, sail (for 7rAev-w, stem TrAcu-, TrAe/-, TrAe-), fut. For KCUW for Kaf-yu and /cAauo for K\a.f-y<a, see G50. 

3. In the third declension stems ending in av, ev, and ou changed 
these diphthongs to af, e/, and o/ before a succeeding vowel, and 
then dropped /; as, -ypavs, old ivoman (stem -ypd- for -/paf, from ypav-), 
gen. ypd-6<; for ypdf-os ; ^acrtAevs, ^tfl^, gen. /?ao-6Ae-cos for /8acriA^/-os, 
Horn. /^ao-iAvJos ; /3ovs, ox (stem /3o- for /?o/- from /?ov-), gen. /3o-ds for 
y8o/-os. See 263. 

4. Words beginning with p lost an initial / or a-. Compare 
pt'iyvvfj.1, break, with Latin frango ; pew is for o-oew, hence the pp after 
the augment, as epptov for e- 


109. The only consonants permitted to stand at the end of a 
Greek word are v, p, s (, ^). Others left at the end in word- 
formation or in inflection are dropped. 

yepwv, old man, gen. yepovr-os, voc. yepov for yepovr 

<rw[JLa, body,, stem o-wyaaT- 

yaAa, miYA;, yaAa/cr-os, yaAaKT- 

Tra?, all, Travr-ds, vod Trav for iravr 

irais, boy, 7rai8-ds, TTO.I iratS 

yvvrj, woman, ywatK-o's, ,, yvvai yvvaiK 

110. NOTE. Exceptions are the preposition K and the negative adverb 
OVK or ot>x ; for these there are also the forms and oil 



111. XOTE. In the preposition irpos from Epic jrport, final r was 
changed to s after i was dropped. 

112. NOTE. In a few imperatives, the imperative ending -61 dropped t, 
and 6 was then changed to s ; as 8os from 80$ for So-6i (see 702, 3). 

113. NOTE. An original final p. was often changed to v in many 
cases it was dropped. 

fStiKvuv, I showed,' for original eSeiKvfyi, present SeiKviyu 

aypov (nom. dy/ads, field), aypofj., Latin agrum 

VOLVV (nom. vavs, ship), vavyn, Latin navem 

VVKTO. (nom. vt', night), VUKTO/M, Latin noctem 

tfAf'o-a, / loosed, eAikra/* 


114. 1. Every vowel or diphthong forms, with or without 
consonants, a distinct syllable. Thus a-irei-pi-d and v-yi-et-a 
have four syllables, ySa-crt-Xeu? has three, jrav-co has two, eu and 
TO have one. 

2. The last syllable is called the ultima; the syllable next 
to the last is called the penult (paen-ultima, almost last) ; the one 
before the penult is called the antepenult. 

115. Division of Syllables. In dividing a word into syllables at 
the end of a line, the following rules generally obtain : 

1. A single consonant between two vowels belongs to the following vowel ; 
as if/v-xrj, o-^ts, 7rpa-is, Ae-yco. 

2. Such combinations of mutes as may stand at the beginning of a word 
belong to the following vowel. They are : a 7r-mute or a K-mute followed 
by a corresponding r-mute ; a mute and a liquid ; pv ; <r and a mute ; er/z ; 
cr with a smooth or a rough mute and a liquid (cr/cA, <nr\, crrp, err A, o~<j>p, 

HAa-TTTO), pd-/?Sos, Xfi-(f>0rj-va.i, vt-KTap, o-y8o-os, a-\Oo-fjLat, a-KT>; ; 
o-irAov, a-T/xos, Tk-dvr)-K<i, [JLa-Kpos ; a-/xvds ; f-a-TTf-pa, e-<r\ov, e-cr<^a-^a ; 
a-tr/it-vos ; e-r/cAr/-Ka, o-crrpa-Koi'. 

3. Even combinations of consonants which cannot begin a word belong 
to the following vowel ; but a liquid is separated from a following consonant, 
and doubled letters are separated, also TT-<, K-\, T-6. 

Hpa-y[j.a, d-K/xv/, u-pi-0/zds ; ftd-Krpov, e-^^/jds ; av-Opto-Tros, aA-cros, 
aA-Aos, I'TT-TTOS, fp-pl-Trrov, Trpda--arfa, rdr-Tta ; 2a;r-</>w, BUK-^OS, 

. Compound words formed without elision are divided according to their 


component parts ; as e^-a-yw, e'A-AeiVw. But when the final vowel of a 
word lifts been elided, the compound may be divided like a simple word ; us 
ai'-a-yw or a-va-ya> from dva and ayw, fir-ep-^o-fJiaL or e-7rep-^o-//.ai, 
Ka.O-v<f>-ai-pM or Ka-@v-<j>ai-p<i). Similarly in separate words UTT' eKeiVou 
or d-7r cxccfov, yaA?7v' 6-pw or yaA?y-v' 6-pa>. 


116. Long 1 Syllable. 1. A syllable is long by nature when it has 
a long vowel or a diphthong ; as Kpt-vta, ftov-Xi'/, /3ai-va>, O.-KMV, AiWo. 

2. A syllable is long by position when it has a short vowel followed 
by two consonants (but see 119) or by a double consonant; as the 
first syllable of o-reAAo/xev, QO-KOS, Trends, 6i>s, ci^w. 

In this case, one or both of the consonants which make the syllable long 
by position may be in the following word ; as crepes TOTTOS ( ~ ~ - - ~ ), T& 
i<yov ( --), rb 0-rofj.a ( -- ~ ). 

117. NOTE. Obviously a syllable may be long both by nature and by 
position ; as Trpacra-w, irpa^is, 7rpay/xa (a). But the vowel of the syllable 
was pronounced long or short according to its nature ; as Trpdcro-w = prasso, 

= tasso. 

118. Short Syllable. A syllable is short when it has a short 
vowel followed by a simple consonant (but see 119); as all the syllables 
of tKOjUcra, AeAwa. 

119. Common Syllable. When a short vowel (a, e, o, r, v) is 
followed by a mute and a liquid, both in the same word or in the same 
part of a compound, the syllable is common; that is, it may be treated 
as long or short ; as the first syllable of T&KVOV, 7r7rAos, OT/AOS, /?6rpi's, 
Sypds (all - - or - - ). 

But when the mute and liquid are in different words or in different parts 
of a compound, the syllable is long ; as IK veiav and ^K-^/XW, both - - - . 

120. NOTE. In Attic poetry a syllable with a short vowel followed 
by a mute and a liquid is generally short. But when a short vowel is 
followed by yv* yp., 8/z, 8V, the syllable is regularly long ; when the short 
vowel is followed by J3X, yA, the syllable is seldom short, never short in the 
Old Comedy. 

121. The quantity of most syllables is apparent at a glance. 
Those with TJ or > or any diphthong are long by nature, those with 
or o are short by nature (116). The only cases of uncertainty are 
a, i, or 5, followed by a vowel or a sirigle consonant. But in these 
cases the following points will usually ell the quantity. 

36 ACCENT 122 

1. A vowel resulting from contraction is always long. 
Ke/xl from Ktpaa, aK<av from deKon', Kpivu from Kpt-ivw 

2. In all formations -av-a-- ami -avr-cr- give -do--, and -rv-cr- and -V-VT-O-- 
give -iv- by compensative lengthening (40). 

from AeAiixa-vo-i (592), yiyds from yiyarr-s, SeiKvfls from 

3. The accent often -betrays the quantity of its vowel or of the vowel of a 
succeeding syllable. 

Thus K/DuVis (d, i), fj.d6e (d), OO.KOS (a); \wpa. (a), /zoipa and ycfyvpa. 
(d) ; K/Dtre (i), Xivov (I) ; Kiyza (>, a), TTT/XVS and f)(0vtf$ (v). See 13:2, 135. 

122. NOTE. The quantity of a, i, v, in the inflectional parts of words 
is explained in Part II. of the Grammar. In cases where the quantity is 
not evident from position, or accent, or contraction, or compensative lengthen- 
ing, it must be determined from the Lexicon or from poetic usage. 


123. The Greek mode of pronouncing an accented syllable was 
entirely different from ours. In English an accented syllable merely 
receives a stress by which it is uttered louder or stronger than the other 
syllables. In Greek the accented sellable was spoken in a higher />//, 
its musical pitch or tone being raised. Hence the Greek words for 
accent Trpoo-woYd, singing, or rdvos, tone (stretching of the voice) ; and 
the descriptive terms dvs, sharp, and /3apv<s, flat. The Greek accent 
was thus essentially a musical one, while the English is simply a stress 
accent. In the course of time the musical accent disappeared, and a 
stress accent took its place, as in Modern Greek and in other languages. 

124. Selection of the Syllable to be accented. In determining 
which syllable of a word is to receive the accent, the Greek makes use 
of three different principles, the rhythmical, the logical, and the 
grammatical ; while the English makes use of only one, the logical. 

125. 1 . The logical principle of accentuation puts the accent on the 
root-syllable or primitive element on which the meaning of the word 
depends, or else on a prefixed syllable which explains the meaning of 
the word more definitely ; as laugh, Idiigh'ing, luugh'ter, laughable, 
laughably, laughableness ; icork, work'ing, u'ork'er, work'able, work'man t 
work'manship, work'lwusc. 

The Greek also follows this logical principle to some extent, 
especially in verbs which regularly accent the stem -syllable, the 
augment, and the reduplication. 

oo/za^o?, /za^o? ; e/zt, 

12.8 ACCENT 37 

2. But the logical accent is always subject to the rhythmical 
principle, which always limits the accent to one of the three last 
syllables, and generally restricts it to one of the last two, if the ultima 
is long ; as Aey-oyuat, but Xey-op^Oa ; e-Af>-cra, but e- Xv-crdfjujv ; ypdfj.-/j.a, 
but ypafji-fjidruii' ; /xa^-t/x,os, but p,a.yjip.ov. 

126. The rhythmical principle prevails in Greek. It permits the 
accent to stand only on one of the last three syllables ; and if the 
ultima is long, only on one of the last two (for exception, see 137). 
The accent is thus very frequently shifted to a suffix or to an 
inflectional syllable, without regard to the root-syllable, which is the 
basis of the signification. 

ITatSeuo), TrouSev-o/Aevos, TratSev-o/jtei/?^, TratSei'-o^evcov, TraiS 
oat/xan', 8ai(j.6v(v ; At'oi'cra, Xv-ovo-tjs, Xvovcruv from Xv-o\xra.<av. 

127. 1. The grammatical principle of accentuation is used to a 
considerable degree. By it certain suffixes or inflectional syllables 
receive the accent, or words spelled alike are distinguished in meaning 
by difference of accent. 

Fpa^wj) (root ypad)-), ypa.(f>-->], ypac^-i/cd?, ypa<f>-is, ypa<-evs, ypa//.-/*?/, 
y/oaTT-ros, ypaTT-reos ; Aeya> (root Aey-, Aoy-), ACK-TIKOS, ACK-TOS, Aoy-aw, 
Aoy-icds, dAoy-td, Aoy-eiov, Aoy-evs ; ap^w (root apx~)> "/X" r }> ap^-iKO?, 
up^-etov, ap^-aios, dvap)(-ia. 

0?Js, ^^T-OS, Onr-i, OrjT-OLV, Or/T-wv^ 6t]-a-L ; yvvrj, ywaiK-os, yvvaiK-i, 
yvvaiK-oiv, y VVO.LK-MV, y vvaii ; Xa/3-wv, 2 aor. part., root Aa^8- ; yeypa/x-, 
(j.evos perf. mid. part., root ypa<j>- ; Av-^ei's, aor. pass, part., root Av-. 

IlaiSeucrat, aor. inf. act., TrcuSeuo-cu, 2 sing, imper. aor. mid., TruiSetVat 
3 sing. aor. opt. act., all from TratSev-w, {each; TreiBw, persuade, and 7ret#w, 
persuasion J)/MOS, shoulder, and ci/xos, raw; XidofSoXos, throwing stones, and 
Ai^d/^oAos, stoned; TTOTC, when? and TTOTC, < so?ne time. 

2. But the grammatical principle also yields to the rule of 
the rhythmical principle that the accent is always confined to one 
of the three last syllables, and generally to one of the last two if the 
ultima is long. 

Tli UP, TO crrevo?, strait, and orevdj, narrow, but gen. pi. of o-reyo?, 
crrevMv (for crrei/ewi'), is the same as the gen. pi. of (rrevds ; Ai$o/?dAos and 
Ai$d/3oAos, both have gen. Ai$o/3dAov ; so abstracts in -tot are paroxytone, as 
(/nAm, friendship, but the gen. pi. is </)tAtd)v, from <iAittojj'. 

128. There are three accents : 

the acute ( ' ), as TOTTO?, 6&o<? 

the grave ( v ), as eya> r) av 

the circumflex (" ), as S&pov, ravra. 

38 ACCENT 129 

129. NOTE. The mark of accent is placed over the vowel ; in the case 
of a diphthong over the second vowel, as /xoixru, ovrovs, OIKOS, oucov. If the 
accent is placed over the first of two vowels, they are to be pronounced 
separately, the place of the accent making the diaeresis unnecessary ; as 
aujrvos (a-iipnos). With capitals, the accent stands before the vowel ; as 
"()/t;/3os, T When the i subscript is written on the line, the first 
vowel receives the accent; as " AiSr)<s = fySrjs, 'J2io/x>yr = WO/XT^V. The accent 
also stands over the diaeresis, as Tr/aairrryg. The above examples also show 
that the acute and the grave follow the breathing, and the circumflex is 
placed over it ; as &v, OTTWS, ^yov, e/xe iy fKtivov. 

130. XOTE. The acute accent denotes that the vowel or diphthong was 
pronounced altogether on a higher key. The grave, which originally 
belonged to all vowels uttered in ordinary tone, is used only in place of the 
weakened acute at the end of a word (142), and rarely on the indefinite 
pronoun TIS, ri (156, 2). The circumflex, which is composed of the acute 
and the grave (' v = ~), denotes that the vowel or diphthong began on a 
higher key, but sank to the ordinary. Thus ireWe was pronounced somewhat 
like 7Ti$e, ouco? like OIKOS, TOVTO like TOVTO, Stapov. like ooopov, Trpay/j.a like 
Trpda.'Yfj.a, vr/<ros like veecros. 

131. The origin of the marks of accent dates from the Alexandrian 
period. They were first introduced (and perhaps invented) by Aristo- 
phanes of Byzantium, about 200 B.C. Originally every syllable was 
marked, as av6fyxt>7ros, 0o8w/>os, A?)/iocr$ev7)s, ravpbs ; later only the 
syllable uttered in the higher key. 

132. Place of the Accent. The acute can stand only on one 
of the last three syllables of a word ; the grave only on the last ; 
the circumflex only on one of the last two ; and then only on a 
syllable long by nature. 

133. According to the accent, a word is called 
oxytone, if it has the acute on the ultima : ev, KaAos, jScurtXcvs ; 
paroxytone, if it has the acute on the penult : yevoi-s, (3<urddrv<i>v ; 
proparort/tone, if it has the acute on the antepenult : 

perispomenon, if it has the circumflex on the ultima : KaAoP, <avw ; 
properispomenon, if it has the circumflex on the penult . \PIJJJM, </>iA.oiy/.i'. 
A word whose last syllable is not accented is termed ban/tone ()8aym- 
TOVOS, grave- or flat-toned) ; all paroxytones, proparoxy tones, and 
properispomena are, of course, barytones. The term oxytone, oi'- 
TOVOS, means sliarp-toned ; Trfpi-o~n-w/j*t>oi> means drawn around (i.e. from 
the higher key to the lower). 

139 ACCENT 39 

134. Recessive Accent. A word which throws its accent back as 
far as possible is said to have recessive accent. This belongs especially 
to verbs. 

135. 1. Accent of the Antepenult. When the antepenult 
is accented, it has the acute ; but it can take no accent if the 
last syllable is long by nature or position. Thus 

, \vu>p.e6a ; but avOpunrov, 

2. Accent of the Penult. An accented penult long by 
nature has the acute if the ultima is long by nature, and the 
circumflex if the ultima is short by nature ; an accented penult 
short by nature always has the acute. Thus avOpwirov, ravrr/s, 
\va-eis, aw/Ad, jj,ovaa, irpa^L^, VYJCTOS, av\at; (but 0a>pdg) ; \6yos, 
rare, fyv\a%, rda-cre, Tpcnretys. 

3. Accent of the Ultima. An accented ultima short by 
nature takes the acute, as /ca\6<f, Xa/u,7ra9, \e\vic6s. If it is long 
by nature, it takes either the acute, as XeXu/coi?, or the circumflex, 

aS Tl/JLWV, KO\OV, Tl/Jia. 

136. NOTE. Final at and ot in inflectional endings and in adverbs 
compounded of TraAcu, long ago, are reckoned as short in determining the 
accent ; as avBpwTroi, T/3a7reou, ^wpoi, yAwo-crou, AcyeTai, AeAiyicu, Ti&eo-ai, 
TT/soTraAcu, very long ago; except in the optative mood, as /SovXcvoi, 
/^ovAcTxrcu, and in ot/cot, at home (thus distinguished from OIKOI, houses). 

137. NOTE. (a) In genitives in -ws and -euv from nominatives in -ts and 
-v? of the third declension (216, 2 ; 256), and in all cases of nouns and 
adjectives in -w? and -wv of the Attic second declension (207), the acute is 
allowed on the antepenult ; as TroAis, irdAfcos, rroAtwv, TTT)X V S, 7"yX aJS ' ' n JX ewv > 
tAews, tAewv. So also in the Ionic genitive in -eo> of the first declension 
(189), as Ka^8i)<r7;s, Ka/x/?ixrea> ; and in a few compound adjectives in -to?, 
as Swe/ows, unhappy in love, vt^6cptt$, high-horned. 

(b) For the acute in words like oxrre, r)5e, oFSe, and others, pee 153, 6. 

138. NOTE. The special rules of accent for the inflected parts of speed), 
with their exceptions, are given in the inflection part of the grammar. The 
accent of many words must be learned by practice and observation ; while 
for many others certain rules can be given (see Part IV., on the Formation. 
of Words). 

139. Change and moving 1 of Accent. In inflection and 
composition the accent may be changed or it may move to 

40 ACCENT 140 

another syllable, but it always remains on one of the three 

last syllables. 

1. When the final syllable is lengthened, 

((/) a proparoxytone becomes paroxytone ; as, 

(b) a properispomenon becomes paroxytone ; as <5<o/xn<, 8u>pov ; 

(c) an oxytone of the first and second declensions becomes peri- 
spomenon in the genitive and dative ; as rifj-i], ripjs, rifiy ; 0805, oSov, 

2. "When the final syllable is shortened 

(a) a dissyllabic paroxytone with the penult long by nature 
becomes propei ispomenon ; as XCMTW, AetTre ; 7r/>ucr<rw, Trpwra-e. 

(l>) a polysyllabic paroxytone becomes proparoxytone ; as iraiScvto, 

3. "When a syllable is prefixed to a word, the accent tends to move 
toward the beginning ; with verbs this occurs regularly ; with nouns 
and adjectives generally. Thus AetVco, e-X.earov, Ae-AotTra, uTro-AetTre ; 
Tt/A/, a-Tt/tos, </>iAo-Tf/ios ; Aoyos, uAoyos, SiaAoyos, tvAoyos. 

4. "\Vhen a syllable is added to a word, the accent tends to move 
toward the end ; as Trai&ito, iraiSfvofJ-fOa, irai8cvO-i'j( 

140. Accent of contracted Syllables. 1. A contracted syllable 
receives an accent if either of the original syllables was accented. A 
contracted penult or antepenult takes the accent according to the 
general rule (135, 1 and 2). A contracted ultima takes the acute if 
the word was originally oxytone, otherwise it is circumnexed. For 
some exceptions in the declensions, see 203, 293. 

Tf/t<'/ia< from Tifj.a.ofw.1 (f)i\.ovfiev from <f>i\( TI/IW from 

2. If neither of the original syllables had an accent, the contracted 
syllable obtains none ; as rtfw. from rfyiae, <t'Aei from </>i'Aee, eiVAovs 
from ciVAoos. 

141. NOTJ- The retention of the acute on the contracted ultima of a 
word originally oxytone is due to the fact that the circumflex is derived 
from ' + x (130), not from/ + ' ; hence <iAeu) gives </>iAw, while co-raws 
gives COTWS. 

142. Acute changed to Grave. An oxytone standing before 
other words in the same sentence weakens its acute to the 
grave ; as /caXo9 iced aya6o<t fjv (for #0X09 /cat uyaOos fjv) ; 

rjv <ro<j>o<i Ka\ ayados ; erri TOVTOIS ; ySaovAeu? rjv. 

147 ACCENT 41 

143. NOTE. But tho acute remains before an elided syllable (145), 
before enclitics (153, 2), and in the interrogative rts, ri (387). Before 
a punctuation mark which separates distinct ideas, the acute must stand. The 
acute also remains on a word considered simply as a word ; as, TO /ary Aeyeis, 
you say the word fjbi'j ; TO'\p ovo/j-a, the word dvvyp. 

144. Accent with Crasis. In crasis, the first word loses its 
accent ; that of the second word remains. But if the second word is 
a dissyllabic paroxytone with short ultima, the acute changes to a 
circumflex (135, 2). 

fovvofw, fur TO 6'voyu.a ; rayadd for TO, dyaOd lyiitSa for tyw oi8a ; 
TaAAa for TO, dAAa ; TOI'TTOS for TO evros ; d&irXa for TO. oVAa ; rapa for TOI 
apa (but KO.V for KOI av because oV is a monosyllable). 

145. Accent with Elision. The accent of an elided vowel is 
thrown back as an acute on the preceding syllable ; but if the elided 
word is a preposition or a conjunction, its accent is lost. 

SetV e'Ae^as for Seiva e'Ae^as ITT' avTW for CTU aim t o 

CTTT lycrav ,, eTrra Tycrav Trap eyuou ,, Trapd /JLOV 

ff>'^fi eya> ,, (f>i]fJLi eyw aAA e^w aAAa e'^w 

d(f) ITTTTOV aTrb iTTTTov ou6 eyw ,, ov8f iyw 

146. Anastrophe. Oxytone prepositions of two syllables some- 
times throw the accent back on the penult. This occurs 

1. When the preposition follows its case; as TOI'TWV 7re/oi for irepl 
TOI'TWV. In prose only Trept can be so used ; in poetry all dissyllabic 
prepositions may suffer anastrophe, except dpi, dvd, dvri, Sid. 

2. When the preposition alone is used for its compound (with rri). 
The five prepositions thus used are pera for /j,eTe<m, CTTI for eirecrTi, irdpa 
for Trapeo-Tt, VTTO for V7rrri, evi for eveo-Tt (evi being poetic for ev). The 
poets also use oVa for dvd-a-Tijdt,, up ! In poetry these prepositions 
may be also used for their other compounds of the indicative present 
of elfj.1 ' } as eyw Trdpa = Trdpf.Lp.1 ', Trdpa = Trdpeuri, eVt = eveuri. 

3. When a preposition follows its verb, to which it properly belongs in 
composition, it suffers anastrophe. This occurs in Homer ; as ^uywv viro 
for VfO^vyWff oAecrds O.TTO for a7roArds. 

147. Words distinguished by the Accent. 1. Many words are 
spelled alike, and are distinguished in meaning by the difference of 
accent (127). 

"Aywf, present participle of ayw, lead, and dywi/, contest; aAAa, neuter 
plural of dAAos, other, and dAAd, but ; f3io<>, life, and /Stos, bow ; /SouAevcrat, 
third singular aorist optative active, and flovXevcrai, aorist infinitive active, 
and /SovAevcrat, second singular aor. imperative middle of /Soi'Aevw, advise ; 
s, people, and 877/^05, fat ; SidAuTos, dissolved (dissolutus), and 

42 ACCENT 148 

dissoluble (dissolubilis) ; e'AupeTos, selected, and e^aipcTo?, that can be taken out; 
f\0pd, hatred, and X#/*C feminine of t'xfyxk, hating ; TrtiOw, persuasion, and 
ir<t'0G>, / persuade ; rd opos, mountain, and 6 opos, whty ; orevcs, strait, and 
orevos, norrertr; tfwpos, tribute, and $o/>d, bearing ; and numerous others. 

2. So also verbal compounds with active and passive meanings, 
IlaTpoKToyos, parricide, and TrarpoKTOi/os, slain by a father ; \ido/36Xos, 

throwing stones, and At0oy8oAos, stoned ; AI^OTO/IOS, stone-cutter, and Aitfdroyuos, 
cut on< o/ stow*. 

3. An adjective or participle which becomes a proper name almost 
always changes its accent. 

bright, and FAavKos, Glaucu,: ; Sioycvrys, Jove-born, and 
s, Diogenes; St^eyievos, having received, and Aea/zevos, Dexamenos. 

148. NOTE. See the following particles in the Syntax : apa and dpa ; 
rj and T) ; vi'v and poetic vi'v ; oftcow and OVKO?I' ; o>5 and ws. 


149. A few monosyllables are so closely attached to a 
following word that they have no accent of their own. They are 
called proclitics (from 7rpoK\iv(i>, lean forward), and are the 
following : 

The forms of the article o, >}, ol, at. 
The prepositions ei's or e's, e' or *, ev, as. 
The conjunctions ci (poetic at) and u>s. 
The negative ou (OI'K, ov\). 

150. Proclitics accented. The proclitics are accented in the 
following cases : 

1. Oi in the sense of no has the acute, 01"; so also at the end of 
a sentence, as irws yap ov ; for why not ? (Xen. Mem, 4, 2 37 ). 

2. A proclitic is oxytone when it appears as an independent word ; 
as TO tt, the word tl ; T) <?K irpo&o-ts, the preposition e/c. 

3. A proclitic before an enclitic takes the acute (153, 5). 

4. When the article is used for the relative os in Homer, it is 
accented; so also when demonstrative ; some editors accent the article 
in all cases when it is used pronominally ; for examples see the Syntax. 

5. When ds means thus, it has an accent; as K<U ws, even thus; ovS 
tk and fi.Tj8' fa, not even thus. This use of J>s is mostly poetic. 

6. When the conjunction os, as, and the above prepositions follow the 
nouns to which they belong ; as 0os 5' <5s, as a god (Horn.) ; KOKWI/ f, vut 
of evils (Horn.). 

153 ACCENT 43 


151. Some monosyllables and dissyllables attach themselves 
so closely to the preceding word that they lose their own accent. 
These are called enclitics (from eytcXtva), lean upon} 

152. The enclitics are the following : 

1. The personal pronouns p.ov, /W, /ze ; a-ov, o-oi, ere ; o?, of, e; in 
poetry o-^wrt. 

2. The indefinite pronoun ris, TI in all its forms (except O.TTO) ; and 
the indefinite adverbs Trot-, Try, iroi, iroOev, TTOTC, TTW, TTWS. Tliese must 
not be confounded with the interrogatives TIS, TTOV, Try, Trot, TTO&V, 


3. The indicative present of et/zt, be, and of <?//zi, say, except the 
forms ei and <y5. 

4. The particles ye, re, TOI, Trep ; the inseparable -<5e in 6'6e, rovSe, 
roo-oo-Se, etc. (not 6"e, w, am/) ; the local suffix -6e (-^e), as in Meya/oa<5e, 
toward Megara, 'ABijva^e, toward Athens (284, 3); -0e in ei^e; and -^i in 

5. These are poetic and dialectic: pronouns yLteu = /Ao{j; o-eo and o-ev = 
o"ou ; Toi = <rot ; re and Tv = o~e ; eo, ev, and e'^ei' = oi' ; /ztv, vtv, cr^>t ; o~</>e, 
<T<t><a, o~(f)(i}iv, <r(f>e<av, <r(f)fa<;, o~<as, cr<^ea verbs : the Epic ei's and eovri = 
e?s, tJwu art ; particles : poetic, vv and vt'v (not vvv, now) ; Epic K or 
Kfv, Qt']v, and ^a ( = apa) ; poetic Tro$i = Trou (but not TTO^I = TTOI?). 

6. For ij/j.<av, T^/ZIV, iJ/Ads, V/AWV, f/ztv, fyza?, see 369, 2. 

153. Rules for Enclitics. 1. The enclitic loses its own accent, 
except a dissyllabic enclitic following a paroxytone (see 4 below). 

2. An oxytone or a perispomenon before an enclitic always retains 
its proper accent, the acute here never changing to a grave ; as KAoV 
Tt for KfxAov rt, ovSfV (^TI<TLV for oi'Sev (frrjcriv, KaAwv Tivtov for KaXwv 
Ttvwv. For an exception, see 15G, 1. 

3. A proparoxytone or a properispomenon before an enclitic 
receives from it an acute on the ultima, and thus has two accents ; 
as av6p<air6s re, avBpta-iroi rives, </>?yvoi/ IJLOI, o-w/za TIVOS, ravra I<TTIV, 
ffyov Trore. 

4. A paroxytone before an enclitic receives no second accent, but 
here a dissyllabic enclitic does not lose its accent ; as vo/xos TIS, c^t'Aos 
[wv ; but vofj.01 rives, </>i'A.os eo-rtv, vo/xcuv Tivom 

5. A proclitic before an enclitic takes an acute ; as ei TIS, ov </>r;/u. 

6. A compound word, whose last part is an enclitic, is accented 

44 ACCENT 154 

as if the enclitic were a separate word ; as o8e, oiSe, roi'o-Se ; oo-Tts, 

orru'os, tjjTirt, StvTivw, etc. ; ouxr7re/3, ofdsTe, wo-Trcp, OXTTC, eiT, oirre, 
, oiVw, KCUTOI, etc. See also 155. 

154. NOTE. A properispomenon with final or ^ takes no second 
Accent from a dissyllabic enclitic ; as Kijprg Tiros, AcuAa^ amy (but Kr)pv 
TIS, \ai\difr re). 

155. NOTE. When tyw and /tot are written with the enclitic ye as 
single words, the accent recedes to the first syllable : eywye, e/xoiye. 

156. Enclitics accented. The enclitics keep their proper accent 
whenever they are specially emphatic. They are then said to be 
orthotone. This occurs in the following cases : 

1. The enclitic personal pronouns are accented when they express 
antithesis ; as 7} <roi T) TO> irarpi <rov ; when they follow an accented 
preposition, as vTrep cror, Trapa. (rot, eVi (re ; at the beginning of a sentence, as 
trot flirov. In these cases the larger forms e/xo?, t/W, e/xe are used (except 
frequently irpos fif). When the personal pronouns of the third person are 
direct reflexives, they are not enclitic (see the Syntax). 

2. The indefinite TIS, TI, is accented when it stands at the beginning of 
a clause (which occurs very rarely) ; as TI <j>rjiu ; do I say anything proper ? 
(Soph. Oed. Tyr. 1471); at the beginning of a clause after a punctuation 
mark (as in Plato, Rep. 33 7 e ) ; also in philosophical language, as TIVOS in 
Plat. Tlieaet. 147, Tt in Plat. Soph. 237 C . Also in the combination TIWS 
/*!' . . . rives Sc, as in Dem. 9, 2. 

3. (a) The enclitic forms of ei/u are accented at the beginning of a 
sentence, as euriv avdpu-oi ; and when they are separated by punctuation 
from the words to which they belong. (b) 'Eo-Tt becomes ecrri : at the 
beginning of a sentence ; when it is equivalent to <feo-Ti, as co-riv ISetv, one 
can see ; in the combinations ftrnv ot', &TTIV S>v, TTIV OTC, etc. ; and after 
tlAA.' or dAAa, ei, Kai, fn'j, oi'/c, TO?T' or TOUTO, and tlie adverb cos. 

4. The enclitic forms of <f>r}p.i are accented when they stand at the 
beginning of a sentence, as <f)/il eyw ; and when a punctuation mark 
separates them from the words to which they belong. 

5. The enclitic TTOTC is accented when separated by a punctuation mark 
from the context ; also in TTOTC ^kv . . . irorf 6e, TTOTC fitv . . . cviore Se, 
and the like. 

G. All enclitics are accented when the preceding syllable is elided ; as 
<TO<J! 8' turtv for tro</>oi Be euriv, TroAA* (<TTIV for TroAAa f<mi'. 

7. When several enclitics follow each other, each one takes an acute 
from the one following ; as ft TIS TI (ioi <^ryo-i TTOTC, if any one ever says 
anything to me. 

8. For dissyllabic enclitics after a paroxytone, see 153, 4. 



157. 1. The comma ( , ) and the period ( . ) are used as in English ; 
the Greek colon is a point above the line ( ) and is equivalent to the 
English colon and semicolon. 

KAfapx? & e t7rt ptv Toi'S TroAejtuo'u? O'VK i/yev* y^ft, yap /cat u;reip7/KOTas 
TO7>s o-TpuTiwras Kat do-trow? ovras* r;^ 7 ? ^ Ka ^ ^i fjv, Clenrchus did not 
march against the enemy : for he 'knew tliat the soldiers u-ere worn out and 
fa4iny ; and now it was late (Xen. Anab. 2, 2 1G ). 

2. The mark of interrogation is formed like the English semi- 
colon ( ; ) ; as rt Troteis / what are you doing 1 

3. The diastole or hypodiastole ( , ), like a comma, distinguishes 
certain compound pronouns from particles ; as O,TI and 6',Te, which, but 
on, because, and ore, when. The diastole is now usually omitted, a 
blank space taking its place ; as 6' n and 6' re. 

4. Modern editors sometimes use the mark of exclamation ( ! ), the 
quotation marks ( " " ), and the parenthesis. 



158. Inflection changes the form of a word in order to denote 
its relation to other words in the sentence. The inflection of 
nouns, adjectives, participles, pronouns, and the article, is called 
declension; that of verbs is called conjugation. Other parts of 
speech are not inflected. 

159. Stems and Roots. 1. The stem of an inflected word is that 
clement to which the inflectional parts are attached to express person, 
number, case, tense, mood, and voice. Thus rapid.-, Aoyo-, and 
\afjLira8- are the stems of the nouns rayxtds, Aoyos, and Aa/i7ras : cro<o-, 
of the adjective ' <ro<os ; itrra-, of the participle urras ; Aey-, of the 
verb Aeyw. 

2. The root of a word is the most primitive part which remains 
after removing all inflectional parts and all prefixes and suffixes. 
Thus, the roots of the words o-o<os, Ai'#os, <C/HU, Aeyw, /3o?s, and 
Aa/z7rus, are <ro<-, Ai#-, <cp-, Aey-, /Joi-, and Aa/owr-. By the addition of 
various letters or syllables these roots are developed into different 
stems. In some cases the root and the stem are identical ; as in TIO> 
(r^Ot TI-), Aeyu> (root Aey-). 

3. Both stems and roots very often assume different forms in 
formation and inflection. Thus, final consonants of stems and roots 
are subject to the euphonic changes explained in 79 109. Vowels 
are subject to the changes explained in 39 63, 70 74. Roots may 
be strengthened by the addition of consonants; as KOTT-T-W (root KOTT-), 
o-reA-A-u) for oreA-iy-u) (root o-reA-), TUO-CTW for ray-y-w (root ray-), Sax-v-w 
(root &IK-), <ftd-a-K-w (root <a-) ; they may be reduplicated, as Si-Sto-pi 
(do-). Stems may shorten or change a final vowel ; as yvw/*?/, opinion, 
the original stem yvw/tu- remaining in the nominative dual ; but in the 
plural it is shortened to yvw/id-, and in the singular it is 

165 NOUNS 47 


160. Numbers. There are three numbers : the singular, 
denoting one object ; the plural, denoting more than one ; and 
the dual, denoting two, but the plural is generally used instead 
of the dual. 

161. Genders. There are three genders : the masculine, the 
feminine, and the neuter. 

162. The gender is determined, partly by the signification, partly by 
the termination ; the grammatical gender being often different from the real 
gender. . The article prefixed often indicates the gender ; as 6 av?//a, the man, o 
oAe/ios, the war, rj yvvr/, tie woman, r/ Tfyuj, the honor, TO btvpov, the (jift, 
TO Trpuy/j-a, the thing. For the gender according to the termination, see the 

163. The gender of many nouns can only be learned by observation 
and practice ; but where the signification or the termination does not 
certainly indicate the gender, the following rules, to which there are 
many exceptions, will give some assistance : 

1. Masculine are names of rivers, winds, and months. Thus o 
.o's, the river ; 6 IT^vetos, the river Peneus ; 6 ave/^os, the wind ; 6 

s, the southeast wind ; 6 p]v, the month ; 6 'EKaro/z^aiwv, the month 

2. Feminine are names of lands, islands, most cities, trees, plants, 
most qualities and conditions. Thus ^ yij, Ihe land ; AfyvTrros, Aegypt ; 
r) VT/CTOS, tlie island; AT//AVOS, the island Lemnos ; ?} TrdAis, the city; 
Kopiv#os, Corinth; ?; Spvs, the oak; 1} apreAos, the tine; dperij, virtue; 
f ATTI'S, hope; viKrj, mclwy. 

3. Neuter are names of the letters of the alphabet, many fruits, 
diminutives even when they denote males or females, infinitives, all 
words conceived merely as names or words. Thus TO aA^a, the letter 
alpha ; TO O-VKOV, the Jig ; TO ye/xWiov, the little old man (from 6 ye/awv) ; 
TO $Setv, sinning ; TO Aeyet, the word Aeyei ; TO d^^pwTros, the word 
" man " ; T6 SIKCUOO-WTJ, the term "justice." 

164. Common Gender. Some nouns are either masculine or 
feminine according as they denote males or females ; as o, 1} #eos, god 
or goddess ; 6, fj TTCUS, boy or girl ; 6, 7} </>/'A.a, male or female guard ; 6, 
fj /3ov<s, ox or cow. 

165. Epieenes. Many names of animals have only one grammatical 



gender for both sexes ; these are termed epicene (eVtVoivo?, promiscuous). 
Such are 6 /*?, the mouse, 6 aeros, the eagle, y dA.w7rj/, the fox, y a/jxros, 
the bear. In order to designate the real sex of sucli words, the 
adjectives appi/r, nude, and 07yAvs, female, are added ; as 1) apptjv uAw7r?/, 
/A? male fox ; 6 OijXvs fj.v<s, the female mouse ; r/ apprjv apKros, the he-hem: 

166. Gases. There are five cases : the nominative, genitive, 
dat ire, accusative, and vocative. 

167. 1 . The meaning of the cases is in general the same as the 
corresponding cases in Latin. Thus : nom. a man (as subject) ; gen. 
of a man ; dat. to or for a man ; ace. a man (as object) ; voc. man. 
The principal functions of the Latin ablative (by, from, in, with a man) 
are shared between the Greek genitive and dative. 

2. The genitive, dative, and accusative are called oblique cases. 


168. Three Declensions. There are three declensions of 
nouns, adjectives, and participles. 

169. These resemble the first three declensions in Latin. The 
first or A-declension (with stems in d), and the second or 
O-declension (with stems in o) are often called the Vowel declension. 
The third is often called the Consonant declension, because its stems 
usually end in a consonant ; but it also contains many stems ending 
in t, v, and in the diphthongs av, >, ov, and a few in o and ot. 

170. Case-endings of Nouns. 


Masc. and Fern. Neuter. 

-$ or none -v 

-s or -10 



N. A V. 
G. D. 


N. V. 





Masc. and Fern. Neuter. 

-8 or none none 



-v or -a none 



-oiv (-ouv) 

-<ri (-ffffi, -fffffi) 

-vs or -as 


These will be explained under the different declensions. The two 
classes of endings agree in many points. 

171. Accent. 1. The accent remains on the same syllable 
as iu the nominative singular as long as the last syllable permits 
(132); otherwise it advances to the following syllable. The 
same rule applies to adjectives and participles. Whether the 
accent is acute or circumflex is determined by the rule in 

2. An accented ultima has the acute ; but in the genitive 
and dative of all numbers, an accented long ultima takes the 

3. A contracted ultima, if accented, takes the circumflex. 
Exceptions to these rules are given under the separate declensions. 

172. Points in Common. The three declensions have the following 
points in common : 

1. The dative singular ends in -i, which is written as iota subscript 
in the first and second declensions. 

2. The genitive plural ends in -wv. 

3. The dual has two endings : one for the nominative, accusative, 
and vocative ; and the other for the genitive and dative. 

4. All neuters have the same form for the nominative, accusative, 
and vocative; in the plural this ends in -a. 


173. The first declension includes masculine and feminine 
stems ending in a. But this a is often changed to rj or a in the 
singular ; in the plural it is always changed to a, also in the 
genitive and dative dual. The masculines take -<? in the nomin- 
ative singular, and thus end in -a? or -175. The feminines have 
no case-ending in the nominative singular, and end in -a, -a, 
or -tj. 

174. In the following table, final a, &, or tj is joined to the case- 
endings (170). The terminations may thus be seen as they appear in 







Masc. a?id .Fern. 

Mate, and Fern. 

-d or -d -T; 

-as -T/S 


-OS ->JS -/S 



N. A. V. -d 

-p -y -y 

- a -y 

-ats or -awri 

G. D. -atv 

-dv -dv -jv 

-dv -T^V 


-d -d -;; 

-d -a or -17 







175. NOTE. In the dative singular -a and -y are contracted from -d-t 
and -IJ-L. In the nominative and vocative plural, -at is contracted from 
-d-t. In the dative plural, -awrt (from -a-uri) is the old Attic form, 
found sometimes in Attic poetry, rarely in prose. The oldest Attic 
had also -ycrt (but not after , t, p). In the accusative plural, -ds is from 
-d-vs (40). The genitive plural in -wv is from the Ionic -ewv, but the 
old Ionic or Epic was also -d<av. The genitive singular in Homer ends in 
-do from original -d-to ; as veavt'ds, gen. vcavtd-o for veavtd-to (compare 
Homeric ave/tos, gen. dvc/Aoto, from which Ionic and Attic dve/xov for 
dve/ioo). The Attic -ov of the first declension is perhaps formed on the 
analogy of -ov in the second declension. 

176. Accent. The accent follows the general rule (171). The 
genitive plural is perispomenon because -<3v is contracted from Ionic 


177. NOTE. Irregular Accent. The vocative of SecnroTTis, master, is 
StoTTOTa. The nouns d</>i'?/, anchovy, X/ 37 / " 1 " 7 / 5 * ttfurer, and cnjcruu, Etesian 
windf, are paroxytone in the genitive plural, 

a</>i'wv is the genitive plural of d<vrys, dull, and \pija-rwv of 

178. NOTE. Examples of regular changes of Accent. 
Oxytone: TI/AV;, TI/ZT)?, Tl^ij, Ti/xvyv, rf/iai, rt/iwv, rt/xats, 
Paroxytone: KO/Z/, Ko/iys, Koyjiy, Ko/xat, KOfuav, etc. 
ProjMiroxytone : ye<fy>a, ytfo'pds, ye<j>{<pa., ye<f>vpat, ye<f>v 
Perispomenon : <rvKrj (contr. from o-f'Ked), OT"'KT)S, crf'Ky, O-VKIJV, etc. 
Properispomenon : <r<f*a.ipa, cr^xti^ds, <r<ftatpif, cr^baipav, cr^aipat, etc. 

179. Quantity. 1. The quantity of the terminations can be seen 
in 174 ; -oV of the accusative singular and a of the vocative singular 
agreeing in quantity with d or d of the nominative. 

2. The a of the nominative singular is always short (&) if the 
genitive has -r;s, and generally long (d) if the genitive has -us ; as fj-ova-a, 
^IOIWT^S, />tfa, /Jtff/s, a/niAAa, d/.uAA7S, cr/cta, (T/cius, j^wpd, xwpa? ', but 
always long in oxytones and paroxytones (except /ua, one, 
and those which have -?;s in the genitive). 

s, yood, 





3. Nouns in -a preceded by a vowel and those in -pa always 
betray the quantity by the accent ; these having long a when oxytone 
or paroxy tone, otherwise short d ; as a-Tparia, <(>0opa, /JcurtAeid, kingdom, 
o-o</)id, -fjfjiepd, but eiVoid, ye^vpa, /3a<rtAeid, queen, p,via, irtlpa.. The 
majority of nouns in d have the recessive accent (134). 


180. Tin following are the declensions of %capd, land 
honour, <rtcid, shadow, VIKIJ, victory, <y\waaa, tongue, and 



















N. A. V. X"P* 





G. D. x"P aiv 






Nom. X"P ai 




Gen. x *?'*'' 





Dat. x"P at s 





Ace. X"P* S 





Voc. x"P ai1 







181. Two Classes of Feminines. There are two classes of 
feminiues : those which have long d or rj in the final syllable of 
the singular throughout ; and those which have short d in the 
nominative, accusative, and vocative singular. 

182. First Class. These have long d throughout the singular after 
e, i, or p ; otherwise they have ?/. For examples, see ovctu, x'W 3 "? T '/ jt7 /> 
viKrj, in 180; for the exceptions, see below, 183. 

183. Exceptions to 182. 1. Ko/aq, girl, and Scpy, nedc (originally 

and (Se/j/Tj) ; also dOdprj, porridge. 
2. 'EAuu, olive, Trod, grass, poa, pomegranate, \poo~, color, erred, porch 
(for these Attic forms, there are also eAcud, TTOI'U, poid, x/ ot '"> <rrot'd). 


Adjectives in -/JOGS have the feminine in -pod (286, 2). For contracts ending 
in -a, -}, and -i/s, see ] 92. 

3. Some proper names have a against the rule ; as ASfid, Leda, gen. 
A>/6\is ; so AtoTi/iu, "tiAo/z/yAu, and others. 

4. Those belonging to the second class (184). 

184. Second Class. 1. Some have d in the nominative, accusative, 
and vocative singular; and TJ in the genitive and dative singular (like 
yAuxro-o, 180). 

(a) These are all in which & is preceded by o- (, \p, oxr, rr,), or 
AA. For exceptions, see 185. 

Thus, /iof-o-a, muse ; a/m^a, wagon, St^u, thirst, tfdAaaxra = later Attic 
fldAaTTo, *i, /, roo< ; a/xiAAa, contest. 

(6) Also ttKav&x, thorn; SforTroiva, mistress; Biaira, living; fvdvva, 
$crutiny ; t^iSi/a, adder; Ataiva, lioness; /xept/xva, care; TraGAa, cessation; 
irciva (also iretVif), hunger ; irpvp-va, stern of a ship ; rdA/xa, daring ; rotate a, 
trident ; Atyiva, HvSva ; also several rare words. 

2. Some have d in the nominative, accusative, and vocative 
singular ; and d in the genitive and dative singular (i.e. after e, i, p). 
They betray short d in the nominative singular by the accent, and are 
the following : 

(a) Those in -rpia and -eta denoting women ; as ^uAiyna, female 
harper, /Jao-i'Aeta, queen (but /Jao-iAet'a, kingdom}. Also fj.via,fly. 

(b) Abstract nouns in -eta and -oia from adjectives in -?/s and oos ; 
as dA^&io, truth (dA7/0r/s, true) ; iVota, kindness (elVoos, eiVovs, Wwd). 

(c) Most of those ending in -pa preceded by v or by a diphthong ; 
as ye<f>i'pa, Treipa. 

(d) Certain feminine adjectives in , see 315. 

185. Exceptions to 1 84. "E/xr?/, dew, and KO/XTI; = later Attic KO/S/JJ;, 
temple, have T; after o-. In Attic poetry we sometimes have abstracts in -ei'd 
and -oia, as d\rjdtia, evvoid, 


186. The following are the declensions of Ta/ua<?, steward, 
iTT/?, citizen, and ^0*77x779, ^;oc^ : 

>' //' Tttild- TToAlTU- 


Nom. rapids TroXiTt]s 

Gen. raaiou iroXtrow iroiT|ToO 

Dat. rap-io. iroXti-jj iroirp-jj 

Aoc. Ta^LiieLv iroXtTTjv iroiTj-Hjv 

Voc. TajiCd iroXtra iroi7]rd 



N. A. V. rapid iroXtrd iroiT]T<x 

G. D. rafjiiaiv iroXtraiv iroiTjTalv 















TO. (lids 







So are declined vedvt'd?, youth, a-rparnaT^, soldier, /c/omys, judge, 

187. The stem here also keeps d in the singular after e, t, or p ; 
otliervvise it changes d to t]. Exceptions are compounds in -fj.erp-rj's, as 
yeo>-/>iT/or;s, land-measurer ; the adjective ycwaSds, noble ; and some 
non- Attic names, as IleAoTriSds. For -ov in the genitive, see 175. 

188. Vocative Singular. The following in -17? have a in the 
vocative singular. 

1. Those ending in -TT/S ; as TroAzr^s, voc. TroXtra. 

2. Compounds in -yuer/aT/s, -TrwA-^s, and -rpt^T/s ; as yew-^eiyn??, land- 
measurer, yew- p.tT pa ; p.vpo-TrwX'rjs, dealer in perfumes, /j-vpo-iruXa ; 

s, teacher, TraiSo-rptfia. 

3. Names of nations ; as Tlfpa-rj-s, Persian, ITe/xra. 
Others in -77? have -77 in the vocative ; as 'AA.Kt/3iaS?js, ' 

189. Ionic Genitive. The Ionic genitive in -ew of masculines in -775 
occurs in Ionic proper names, and in names introduced by lonians ; as 
GaArjs, Tfudes, gen. GaAew ; Ka^^f'o-i7s, Cambyses, gen. Ka/z/3l)<rew. 

190. Doric Genitive. The Doric genitive in -a occurs in some Doric 
and Roman proper names ; as 2/c6V<xs, i/coTrd ; 2uAAas, ^t'AAd, Sylla. So 
Trar/jaAottts, parricide, fj.r)TpaXoid<;, matricide, and opvlQoQi'jpas, bird-catcher, 
have Trar/aaAotd, /^rpaAotd, and opvl9odi]pa, according to the grammarians, 
but no examples of these three genitives iu -d have been found. 


191. Some nouns in -da, -e'a, and -e'a<? are contracted and 
have the circumflex in all cases. The contraction follows the 
principles in 47 ; and in the dual and plural -ea is contracted 
to -d (48, 2). 


192. The following are the declensions of pvdd, pva, mina ; 
ya\er), ya\ij, weasel ; and 'Ep/jieds, 'Eppijs, Hermes (in the plural, 
statues of Hermes) : 
Stem fivd- for pvaa- yaAd- for yaAed- 'Epfid- for E/3/xcd- 


Nom. (fdd) jivd 

Gen. (M^ddj) jivds (70X67$) 

Dat. (/"da) (iva 1 (7 a ^ f 'l?) 

Ace. (/xvdd?) jivdv (7aX^i7K) y aA *l v 

Voc. (jwdd) p.vd 


N. A. V. 
G. D. 







('Kpjue'd) 'Epfj.a, 
( 'Ep^atf ) 'Ep|iaiv 


X. V. 



( iiyddts ) 








('Ep/x^at) 'Epfiai 

('Ep/x^ats) 'Ep|iats 
('Ep/x^dj) 'Epfids. 

193. NOTE. The other contracts of this declension are : names of trees, 
as <ri'Ktt, O-DKT}, fig-tree (except TrreAed, e/m) ; names of skins, as TrapSaAo/, 
7ra/>8aA7j, leopard-skin; also y^ (from a form yed or yad), KwAi), eXa (also 
eAud), 'A.0rjva. For contract feminine adjectives of this form, see 294. 

194. XOTE. Bo/jcds, north wind, uncontracted in Attic or contracted to 
ySoppas, is declined gen. ftoppov or fiopfov, dat. floppy, or ftopep, ace. fioppav 
or fioptdv, voc. fioppai. A genitive ftoppa. (Doric form) also occurs late. 


195. The second declension includes stems in o which is 
sometimes changed to o>. The masculine and feminine nouns 
take i in the nominative, the neuters v. The second declension 
therefore embraces masculines and feminines in -09, the masculines 
being far more numerous; and neuters in -ov. 

196. In the following table, final o of the stem, with its modi- 
fication to w, is joined to the case-endings (170). The terminations 
may be thus seen as they appear in inflection. 







Masc., Fern., Neuter 

N. A. V. -co 
G. D. -OLV 

Masc. and Fern., Neuter Masc. and Fern., Neuter 

Nom. -os -ov -01 -a, 

Gen. -ov -wv 

Dat. -o> -ots or -ori 

Ace. -ov -ovs -a. 

Voc. -e -ov -01 -a 

197. NOTE. In the genitive singular, -ou is from -o-o, which, again, is 
from the old Ionic or Epic -o-io (I'TTTTOS, Epic I'TTTTOIO, hence I'TTTTO-O, ITTTTOV). 
In the dative singular, and in the nominative, accusative, and vocative dual, 
o becomes w ; hence in the dative, Aoyo> is from Aoyeo-i for Aoyo-i. In the 
vocative singular of nouns in -o?, c takes the place of o ; in the nom., ace., 
and voc. of neuters, a takes the place of o. In the dative plural -ois is 
for original -otcri, contracted from -o-to-i, which is old Attic and found 
occasionally even in prose. In the accusative plural -ovs is for -o-vs (40). 
In the genitive plural, o of the stem is dropped before the ending -tov, and 
hence there is no contraction as in the first declension (Swpwv, not Sjo/awv). 

198. Accent. The accent follows the general rule (171). The 
exceptions are aSeA^os, brother, vocative aSeA^e ; contract nouns (203) ; 
and nouns of the Attic second declension (207). 

199. Quantity. The quantity is obvious from the table, 196. 

200. The following are the declensions of o ayyeXos, messenger ; 
f) 0809, road ; o \6yos, word ; 77 I/T/CTO?, island ; ro Bwpov, gift : 

Stem ayyeAo- 6So- Aoyo- v?/cro- 8(apo- 













8w pov 













N. A. V. 
G. D. 





















080 is 












So are declined o vd/tos, law, 6 


man, Trora/ios, rver, 
o fiios, life, o flaya-ros, death, ravpos, bull, I(JMTIOV, cloak, erOxov, Jig. 

201. NOTE. The nominative in -os is sometimes used for the vocative ; 
as <5 <t'Aos, friend. The vocative of 0os is always #eos. But proper 
names compounded with 0ds form the vocative regularly, as Tt/zd#ee. 


202. Xouns with stems in -oo- and -eo- are contracted ; -009 
and ->9 of the nominative becoming -01/9, and -oov and -eov 
becoming -ovv. The contraction follows the principles of 47, 
and in the plural -ca- contracts to -d- (48, 2). 

203. Accent. The accent of these contracted forms shows the 
following irregularities : 

1. The dual contracts -o> and -oo> to -w (not w) ; as TrAdu), TrAw, 

OOTtto, eXTTCO. 

2. Kaveov, basket, contracts to KO.VOVV. 

3. Contracted compounds in -oo? retain the accent on the same 
syllable as in contracted nominative singular ; Tre/aiVAoos, -n-epiirXovs, 
sailing around, gen. 7r/3MrAdoi>, TrepiVAov, dat. irepnr\6i>), irepiir\<p, etc. 

204. The nouns 1/009, vovs, mind, and oareov, O&TOVV, lone, are 
declined thus : 




Nom. (?<Sot) vovs 

Nom. (vooi) voi 

Gen. (v6ov) vov 

N. A. V. (vixa) v 

Gen. (vo(j}i>) vwv 

Dat. ('<M V V 

G. D. (^oty) votv 

Dat. (f6o(?) vois 

Ace. (rtov) vow 

Ace. (POOUJ) vovs 

Voc. (*5t) vov 

Voc. (<(So) voi 

N. A. V. (ifrtar) co-row 

N. A. V. (irrr^w) o*r.i 

N. A. V. (d<7T?a) oara 

Gen. (ixrrtov) oo-rov 

G. D. (6<rr^o4i') 6o-Totv 

Gen. ((iffT^w*') icrraiv 

Dat. ((J(rT^) o0T<j> 

Dat. (for^ois) OOTOIS 

205. Like vous and oVrouK are declined : TrAoos, TrAov?, sailing, 
vs, cfotwi / poos, povf, stream ; Op6o<s, Opovs, noise, <Ados, <f>\ov<s 
( = Attic ^A(os), bast, water-plant; \voo<;, XVQVS, down; TTVOOS, TTVOVS, 
bloicing, breath; Kavtov, KO.VOVV, basket; also their compounds, whether 
substantive or adjective ; a few names of relations, as aScA^t&os, 
nephew; and names in -0oos, -&n>s, and -i/oos, -vous, as 
leipi^ous. Uncontracted forms seldom occur in Attic. 
For contract adjectives of this form, seo 294. 



206. The stem of a few masculines and feminines of this 
declension ends in &> instead of o, the &> appearing in all the 
cases. This is called the Attic declension, although it is also 
found in non-Attic writers. 

207. Accent. The accent is irregular : long w of the ultima does 
not prevent the acute from standing on the antepenult, and the accent 
always remains the same as in the nominative singular ; but the accent 
of the genitive and dative is not certain. See also 137. 

208. The following are the declensions of 6 vew?, temple, and 
o /ea\a><?, rope : 


"N. V. v6s 

Gen. vcu 

Dat. vi 



N. A. V. Vw KU.XC 

G. D. VCpV 


N. V. v&f KclXa> 
Gen. vov xdXwv 
Dat. vetis KuXu>s 

Ace. vecis KO.XCOS 

209. NOTR. No neuters occur, except rarely the doubtful 
upper floor (for which avwyaiov is the regular form), and 
(Inscription), half a KTVS. But adjectives of this form have neuters in -<av ; 
as "tAews, neuter fAewv (298). 

210. NOTE. (a) The Attic second declension belongs to only a few 
nouns ; as 6 Aeuis, people ; 6 vews, temple ; o Tr/Dovews, hall of a temple ; 
t] ews, dawn ; rj yctAws, sister-in-law ; 6 dpvews, ram ; o Aayws, hare ; o raws, 
peacock ; r) a Aa>s, threshing-floor ; 6 TU^>WS, whirhvind ; o /caAws, rope ; a few 
rare names of plants and one or two others ; also some proper names, as 
fj Kews, 1} Tews, ?'i KoJs, 6 "A^ws, Mtvws, TwSa/aeuis, MeveAews, etc. 

(6) Most of those in -ews are explained by older form in -dos or -T/OS, 
from which they are derived by exchange of quantity (45) ; as vetus, Doric 
VUGS, Ionic VT?OS ; Aews, Horn. Ados ; MeveAews (original accent retained), 
Horn. MeveAuos. Some in -ws are due to contraction ; Aayws (also accented 
Aayws) from Horn. Aaywos. So also adjectives of this form ; as "Aews, 
propitious, for Horn, (also Tragic) f Ados ; dyrypws, free from old aye, from 
dy>y/)aos. In some of the M'ords of this declension the origin of the form is 
not certain. 

(c) The forms in -ws are nearly always preferred by Attic writers, and 
are sometimes found in other dialects. 

211. NOTE. Some nouns drop v of the accusative singular in the new 
Attic. So TY/v aXii), rbv vew, TOV Aayw or Aayw, rov'A&o, roy Mfi'to, TT/V 
Kew, T-TJV Kw, r>)i> Tew. 'H ews, datcn (originally of the third declension), 


has always TTJV eia. The accusative masculine and feminine of adjectives of 
this form never drops v in Attic. 


212. Those in -oi' are neuter. Most of those in -os and -us are 
masculine ; but names of females, trees, plants, Gauntries, islands, and 
citif* are feminine. Of the other feminines, many of which were 
originally adjectives, the most important are here given. 

1 . Several words for way : 

arparros, path KcXcvos, road, wall: ot//,os, path 

ciTpaTriTos, path AeaK/>o/30s, thoroughfare Tpiftos (r), o), path 

a/tatTos, carriage-road 68os, icay 

2. Certain names of minerals and earths : 

apyiAos, day* yfyos, cluilk cnroSos, ashes 

a<r/2oAos, soot KOTrpos, dirt riravos, lime . 

ao-^aAros, asphalt /ziAros, oc/ire vaAo?, f/laj* 

Pda-avos, touchstone irAiV^os, 6nW; ^a/x/xo?, sanrf 

/?>y/jvAAos, 6eri/i (ra7r<^i^)os, sapphire ^T}^>OS, pebble 

/JwAos, c/od cr/xa/)ay8os, emerald 

3. Certain names of products of trees and plants: 
axvAos, esculent acorn /?i'/3Aos, papyrus, book vapSos, narrf 
jSaAavos, aconi ^3r/?Aos, papyrus, book pd/38o<i, staff 

4. Certain names of things hollow: 

OKOTO?, transport-vessel KapSoTros, kneading-trough o-opo-i, coffin 

s, basket /d/?uTos, c/it o-ra/ivos, ^'ar 

s, bathing-tub A^/Kt'^o?, oil-Jla,-k ru</>po9, <Mc/i 

?, dome, vault Xi^vo<s, rat, winepress <, trunk 

K(i/j.ivo-i, oven irpfyoos (vp6\ovs\ eicer X r /^-" s c ^'* 

trench Tri'eAo?, batliing-tub 

5. Many adjectives used as nouns . 

(y>) or X^P")* ^''J/ fegwn />//ws (y// or \Mpii\ desert 

(oiVri'a\ a<ow tjirttpos (yi] or X ( V")> "mainland 

arAcios (Ovpa), house-door Kaderos (ypap.^')), a perpendicular 

f3iip(3ap->s (yv)), foreign land vcos or veios (yvj), falloiv land 

SiaAcKTo? (yAaxrtra), dialect v\o\os (^tapd), thicket 

StupATpos (, diameter o-uyKAr/ros (J8ouAr/), legislative assembly 
(far AOO-T />o? (8uya/iis), planter 

6. Also these : 

s, Zyr yva^os, Jaw S/wxros, rfeto 

cran StAros, writing-tablet KC/JKOS, /at7 


6, j] KO/avSaAAo's, tufted /xry/3iv$os, string o, >'/ <TTpov66<s (Att. 

lark VT/O-OS, island (rrpovOos), sparrow 

o, ?) Ko/3v8os (Att. KOpuSds), vocros, disease Ta/ucros, rennet 

. tufted lark pivos, skin T?//?VVOS, foj/a 

\l/iado<s, rush-mat 

7. These have different mecinings according to the gender : 
r) (.'TTTTO?, ware, cavalry 6, 7} K/aro-raAAos, crystal t] \i6os, some particular 
o I'TTTTOS, /iorse 6 K/nVraAAos, ice kind of stone, as 

>] XeKiOos, yolk fj KiWos, blue corn-flower diamond 

o AeKi$os, pulse-porridge 6 Kt'avos, We s/eeZ 6 Ai#os, simply s<o?i 

213. NOTE. The gender of many of the words of the second declension 
varies in poetry and late Greek. 


214. The third declension includes all words whose stems end 
in a consonant, in a close vowel (i or v~), or in a diphthong (av, ov, 
ev, 01) ; also a few whose stems end in o or to. The case-endings 
(170) are added to the stem. The genitive singular case-ending 
-09 becomes -tw? in some words. 

215. The form of the nominative singular is not always sufficient 
to ascertain the stem ; hut by dropping -os of the genitive singular, we 
can generally determine the stem. 

216. Accent. In general the accent follows the rules in 171. 
The following are special rules : 

1. Monosyllabic stems accent the case-ending in the genitive and 
dative of all numbers ; if the case-ending is long, it receives the 
circumflex. Thus, fj-t'/v, month, p,rjv-6<s, [tijv-i, fi/rjv-oiv, i^r/v-wv, IJ.IJ-CTI ; but 
pTJv-a, fj-rjv-f, pyi/-es. % For exceptions to this special rule, see 217. 

2. Nouns in -is and -vs, with genitives in -ecus, permit the acute on 
the antepenult in the genitive singular and plural (255, 2) ; as 
r} TroAis, city, TToAtws, 7ToAov ', 6 TTi/^fS, cubit, irr^ews, Trvy^ewv. 

3. The accusative of nouns in -w is oxytone in spite of the 
contraction ; as ry i}x^> ec h> acc - '/X oa > 7 /X^- 

4. The nominative of monosyllabic neuters is perispomenon, as TI> 
Trvp, fire. Also that of masculine and feminine monosyllables which 
have s in the nominative and v in the accusative ; as o /u> (acc. pvv), 
mouse, rj vavs (raw), ship, 6, rj /3ovs (ftovv), ox, cow. Add also : o, i] 
a? (gen. cuyos), goat ; tj yXav (yAauKos), owl ; l\6v<s, fish ; d(r<^vs, hip; 


, epbrow; TTUS, all (320); is, one (409); and except TO 0-175, 
Attic for or<m, dough, 6 *cfe, weevil, and Epic Afe, lion. See also 

5. The vocative of nouns in -rs, -a??, -ov?, and -w is perispomenon ; 
as /Jao-iAcrs, /.t'/w/, VOC. /3ao-iAv ; vavs, S/Jl/>, vaG ; /2ovs, OX, COW, ftov; 7/xto, 

6. The accusative and vocative singular of perispomena in -(V (gen. 
-f-os) are also perispomena ; as 6 /xvs, mouse, ace. /AW, voc. /*?. But 
tori's (oxytone), strength, ur\vv, i<r\v. 

217. NOTE. Exceptions to 216, l.--(a) Nine monosyllables are 
jtaroxytoiie in the genitive dual and plural: >/ fyis, torch; 6 8/xws, Rlave ; 
6 0u>s, jackal ; TO ous (gen. tiro?), ear ; 6, 7} Trais, c/7rf ; o o->ys, moi/i ; o Tpw?, 
Trojan; ij <^>ys, blister; TO <ws, ZijfAf. Thus, S^iSwv, 8y8oti/; WTWV, WTOIV ; 
irat'&or, Trat'Soii', etc. 

(6) Monosyllabic participles accent the stem-syllable ; as O-TUS, o-Tai'T-os, 
O-TOLVT-L, crraiVT-otv, O-TO.VT-IDV, a-ra-a-i. So also the interrogative pronoun 
Tt's, TI ; as TiV-os, TtV-i, TIV-OIV, TiV-wv, TI-O"I. For the indefinite TIS, 
TI, see 385, 2. 

(c) The genitive and dative plural of TTUS, aW (320), oi'Sets and /xi/8eis, 
n<m (412), accent the penult : irai/T-a>v, 7ra-o-i ; oi'Sev-tov, oi-Se-o-i. 

(d) Four contracted nouns are properispomena or paroxytone in all 
cases according to the last syllable : TO I//D from Zap, spring ; Epic TO Kijp 
from Ktap, heart ; 6 Acts from Aaas, stone ; and n Trpaiv from irpaj-iov, 
hfiiilland. Thus, ^p-os, i)p-t ', KT//>OS, Kijp-t ; Aa-o?, Aai', \6.wv ; Tr/aali'-os, 
7r^>wv-i. But ore ap = o-n}/), tallow, o-TeaT-os = o~n/r-ds, oreaT-t, OTT^T-I; 
</>/xa/>, ice//, </>/xaT-o5 = <^>p;T-os, <f>pi)T-t, <f>pr)T-wv ; 6/3^^ from 0/ocu = Ionic 


218. NOTE. These also accent the case-ending in the genitive and 
dative: yi'itj, woman (283, 5), 6, 7; KiW, rfogr (283, 14); the syncopated 
genitive and dative singular of iran'/p, fattier, p.i'jTrjp, mother, Bvydnjp, 
daughter, dtn'jp, man, ij yafrn'/p, belly, except the dative plural in -curt (243). 
For ovStt's, fjii)Sfi<i, see 412. 

219. NOTE. These have the recessive accent (134) in the vocative 

(a) Ilartyp, avi'ip, dvyarr^p, yatrrijp (243) ; trwn'ip, tavior, 'A^dAAwi', and 

(241, 5) ; and Homeric Bdi/p, brother-in-law. 
(6) Proper names in -tor, gen. -ovos or -OVTOS ; as 'Aya/ie/Ai'wv, 
'Aya.fitfi.vov ; Za/nrr/San', Stt/jTTT/Soi' ; except those in -<f>piav, compounds of 
^/wjr, as AvKo<f)p<ov, AvKoifrpov ; also AaKe6W/MDP, voc. AaKcSat/xov ; and 
KVeral others. Compare 308, 2. 

(c) Compound ]>aroxytone names in -77$, gen. -os, -ois ; as ^ 
(but compare 306, 1). 


220. NOTE. A^^TT;/), Demeter, has recessive accent in all cases, whether 
syncopated or not (243, 2). 

221. NOTE. For the recessive accent in adjectives, see 308. For the 
accent of participles, see 330. 

222. NOTE. A contracted monosyllable is perispomenon if the open 
form was accented on the penult ; as TTCUS from Trai's ; <ws, light, from 
<aos ; p from Opui'. But if the ultima was accented, it is oxytone ; as 
<w, blister, from <ons ; 6\ts, torch, from Sou?. See 141. 

223. Quantity. 1. The quantity is obvious from the table, 171 ; 
but nouns in -ci's have long d in the accusatives ; as /3ao-iAei>s, /Saa-tAea, 
/3acriAeds (see 45 and 266). 

2. Monosyllabic nominatives have their vowel long ; as TO trvp, 
fire ; 6 yty, vulture ; 6 i//ap, starling ; 77 pty, mat-work ; except a few 
of those in -a and -i. 

3. The quantity of the vowel of the ultima in the nominative of 
most other words must be learned by practice. 


224. Nominative Singular. The following are the general rules 
for the formation of the nominative singular of nouns, adjectives, and 
participles from the stem : 

1. In neuters the nominative singular is the simple stem. Final -r- 
of the stem is dropped (109). 

2w/xa, body, (rw/iar-os ; /xeAt, honey, yueAir-os ; yaAa, milk, yaAa/cT-os ; 
va.7rv, mustard, vdirv-os ; yepas, prize, ye/oacr-os, ye/oa-os, ye/aws (244) ; vfKTap, 
nectar, veKTa/)-os ; /zeAav (neuter of yueAds), black, /xeAav-os ; craves (neuter 
of <ra<rys), clear, o-a^ecr-os, o-a<^)-os, (ra</>o{is (244) ; ^apUv (neuter of 
Xa/Di'eis), graceful, ^a/atevT-os ; fv8ai/j.ov (neuter of fvSaififav), fortunate, 
ei'Sai/tov-os ; Aeyov (neuter of Aeywv), saying, Aeyovr-o? ; Awav (neuter of 
Af'o-fls), having loosed, Avo-avr-os ; TiOev (neuter of rt^ei's), placing, TidcvT-os ; 
SeiKvvv (neuter of SeiKvOs), showing, Set/vviVr-os. For the masculine of these 
adjectives and participles, see 2 and 3 below. 

For exceptions in formation, see 238 ; 239 ; 241, 3 ; 245, 1. 

2. Masculine and feminine stems, except those ending in -v, -p-, -a--, 
-OVT- (see 3 below), form the nominative singular by adding s and 
making the regular euphonic changes. 

Kopa, raven, Kopa.K-o<s ; 17 yuacrr/.^, scourge, /iatrTiy-os ; o ow, naif, 
ovu^-os ; 7} vi', night, VVKT-OS ; o (raA7riy, trumpet, fni\iriyy-o<s ', o yfty, 
vulture, yw-os ; >} <Ae^, vein, ^>A/?-os* ; 17 ecr$?/s, garment, O-^T)T-OS ; 
17 Aa/ATras, torch, Aa/z7ra8-os ; o, t] o/)vis, bird, opvW-os yt'yds, giant, 
yt'yavr-os ; aAs, salt, aA-o? ; Tras, all, TTUVT-OS ; ^a/jtets, yracfful, \apievr-o i s ', 


Autrus, having loosed, AiWvT-os ; Tt#ei's, placing, TI#CVT-OS ; SciKvi's, showing, 
SKi'iW-os. For the neuter of these adjectives and participles, see 1 above. 
For the perfect participle in -ws, gen. -OT-OS, see 331 ; for other 
exceptions in formation, see 236, 1, 2, 6. 

3. Masculine and feminine stems in -v-, -/>-, -o--, -OVT- form the 
nominative singular by lengthening the last vowel, if it is short : to 
?;, and o to w. Final T in -orr- is dropped. 

Ilot/juyf, sheplierd, iroip.ev-os ; o [J-yv, month, p.r)v-6s ; Sat/jnav, divinity, 
oW/ioi'-os ; 6 aywr, contest, ayuv-os ; o aidijp, etJier, aiBfp-os ; 6 #y/3, wild 
beast, Orjp-of ; pi'jTwp, orator, pijrop-os ; <f>(ap, thief, <f>tap-6<; ; -toKpar?/?, 
Socrates, 2o>KpaTr-os, ^.'wKpare-os, ^WK/XXTOVS (245, 2) ; tra^iys, ckar, 
<ra</>(r-os, tra</>s-os, (ratal's (244) ; ytpuv, old man, ytpovr-os ; Ae-yaw, saying, 
\(yovT-o<i ; &vo<f>wv, Xenophon, Sei'o^wvr-o?. For the neuter of adjectives 
in -s, and of participles in -ov, see 1 above. 

For participles in -ovs, gen. -oVr-os, from verbs in -oyu, see 331 ; for 
other exceptions in formation, see 236, 5 ; 241, 1, 2. 

4. Stems ending in a vowel or diphthong add o- to form the 
nominative ; except nouns in -w, genitive -o-os, -oGs. 

"Hpu>s, hero, T)/)(I>-OS ; } TroAis, city, TroAe-ws (255, 2) ; 6 i'x#s, fish, 
i\du-os ; /Jao-iAevs, /a'ju/, /JacriAe-ios (262, 1); y/aavs, oZ<i woman, ypd-ds 
(263) ; 6, 1} (3ov$, ox, cow, /3o-6<i ; 6, ij o?s, sheep, oi-os ; but 1} TTCI^W, 
persuasion, TTCI^O-OS, wei^ovs. 

225. Genitive and Dative Singular. 1. The genitive singular is 
formed by adding -os to the stem ; for examples, see the paradigms. 
But -o>5 is found for -os in the genitive singular : of nouns in -evj 
(262, 1), of certain nouns in -is and -i-s (255, 2), of OO-TV (255, 2), and 
of vat's (263). For the contraction of -e-os (from -r-os) and -o-os to 
-ovs, see 244, 246, and 249 ; for -a-os (from -ao-os) contracted to -<os, 
see 246. 

2. The dative singular is formed by adding -i to the stem; for 
examples, see the paradigms. 

226. Accusative Singular. 1. Masculines and feminines with 
stems ending in a consonant (except those mentioned in 3 below) 
add -a for the accusative. 

4>A^, <f>\(fl-a ; *o/>a, KopaK-a ; r0>/s, to-O^r-a ; Aa>v, lion, Aeovr-a ; 
Aa/iirds, \anird&-a ; aAs, aA-a ; Satfjuav, Baifiov-a ; p/T<ap, pt'jTOp-a.. 

2. Vowel stems add -v ; but stems in -eu- drop v and have -a, and 
stems in -u>- or -o- have -a. 

IIoAis, TrdAii/ ; 6 TTT/XI^, cubit, TrTfxyv ; vaus, vavv ; (3ov$, f3ovv ; 
v<}, f3atri\(d (262, 1); T//HJS, hero, 7//>a>-a or >y/3ti> (250, 2), 7ri0w, 
, ir(i6u (250, 3). 


3. Barytones in -ts and -vs, with stems in -T-, -8-, or -#-, reject the 
final consonant of the stem and add v. 

'H X"/ 315 (X a P ir -)> grace, yo-ptv ; t] /3is (epi8-), strife, epiv ; 6, >/ o/svis 
(opvld-), bird, opvlv ; fTrrjXvs (V^AvS-), stranger, fTrrjXvv ; d'cArris (eveATrto 1 -), 
hopeful, eveXiriv ; but the oxytone 1} eATri's, hope, has eATri'8-a. 

227. NOTE. Nominatives in -175 with stems in -cs- add -a and contract ; 
as 2a>K/oaT?7S, Zu)/cpaTe(o-)-a, SwKpar?; (244). For -to from -o(<r)a in the 
accusative of comparatives in -MOV or -wi/, see 351. For various exceptions 
in Attic, see 236, 3 ; 241, 4 ; 247, c ; 262, 1. Other exceptions to the 
rules in 226 belong to the Ionic dialect and to poetry. 

228. Vocative Singular. 1. Nouns with mute stems, except 
those in 3 below, have the vocative the same as the nominative ; 
<f)v\a ((f>vXa.K-), watchman ; "Kpa\^ ('Apa/3-) } Arab. For more examples, 
see the paradigms. 

2. Barytones with liquid stems have the vocative like the stem ; as 
8ai/jL(av (8a.ifj.ov-), voc. SOU/MOV. But oxytones with liquid stems have the 
vocative the same as the nominative ; as TTOI/^V (TTOL^V-}, shepherd ; 
6 cutov (GUWV-), age,, 

3. Those with stems in -18-, and barytones with stems in -VT- (but 
not participles) have the vocative like the stem. 

'H rvpavvis (TvpavviS-), tyranny, voc. rvpavvi ; Aewv (Acovr-), lion, 
Acov ; ytyds (ytyavr-), giant, yiyar. 

4. All others, except participles, have the vocative like the stem. 
For examples, see the paradigms. 

229. NOTE. For various exceptions, see 236, 7 ; 241, 5 ; 247, c ; 
249, 250, 251, 254. 

230. Nominative and Genitive Plural. The nominative plural of 
masculines and feminities is formed by adding -es to the stem ; that of 
neuters by adding -a. The genitive plural adds -wv to the stem. For 
examples, see the paradigms. For the contraction of -e-es and -e-a to 
-ets and -77, see 255, 2; 262, 1 ; 244. For the contraction of -o(o-)es 
and -o(o-)a to -ovs and -w in comparatives in -iwv and -wv, see 353. 

231. Dative Plural. The dative plural is formed by adding -o-i to 
the stem and making the regular euphonic changes. 




(90, 3 and 4) ; T/H>//J>; (Tpirjpco--), Tpm')pf<ri ; /3cuT<"i 

; (3ov<i (fio\>-), pburt ; raw? (vav-), vawrt. 
For the change in syncopated nouns, see 243. The endings -oxri and 
-nrt occur in the dialects. 

232. Accusative Plural. Consonant stems add -as for the accusa- 
tive plural. For -ds- in the accusative plural of nouns in -cvs, see 
262, 1. For the accusative plural of stems in -eo-, see 307 ; of 
steins in -t- and -i>-, see 255, 2 ; of stems in -ov-, -av-, -01-, see 263. 
For -01* and -w in the accusative plural of comparatives in -iwv, see 353. 

233. The paradigms of the third declension will be given in the 
following groups : 

1 . Nouns with stems ending in a mute : TT, /?, < ; *, y, x > T ^, Q 
liquid : A, v, p 


w or o 

a simple close vowel : i or v 

a diphthong : ev, av, ov, 01 


234. For the formation of cases, see 224-232. For the euphonic 
changes, see 40; 41 (b) ; 84; 90, 3 and 4; 91. For the change of 
aspiration in Opi, see 102. 

235. Masculines and Feminines. 







T| XcuXdvJ/ 




watchman trumpet 






rpi\<Js 4<rOf)Tos 

N. A. V. XaXair 
G. D. XaiXdiroiv 



N. V. 





o y i 'Y a s 


6 Xt'cov ij Xajxirds 

\eovr- \auiraS- 

T| IXirCs 



6, T| 8pvls 

































N. A. V 
G. D. 

y i yavT 




Xa.[iTru8oi.v cXiriSoiv 6pvt0oiv 

N. V. 






So are declined : 6 


Xa|iirdSwv IXTr8wv opvlflwv 

Xa(iTrdcrL tX.7Ucrt opVLtri. 

Xa(i.ird8as 4Xirt8as 8pvi6as 

s, vulture ; 6 "Apai^, "Apa/3os, Arabian ; 
fj Ka.TijA.i\j/, KarryAi^os, upper stoi'ey ; t] /cA^a^, K-A^iaKos, ladder ; rj 
fj.da-Ti, /Acxcrriyos, W/lip / 6 ovv, ovv^os, wrr// / 6, ?) Auy^, Avy/cds, /ywz / t] 
vv, VVKTOS, night ; 6 6i']s, OIJTOS, hired man ; 6 yepwv, yepovTo 1 ?, ofc? man. 

236. 1. Words in -i and -u- always have short rand v in the 
nominative singular and in the dative plural, even if they have long t or 
v in the other cases ; as >} foivig (</>OIVIK-), palm, <f>oiviK-o<s, (f>oiviK-t, etc., 
but (froivifci ; Krjpf (KIJPVK-), herald, Kt'jpvK-os, Ki'jpvK-i, etc., but icnp$i, 

2. In -tj aAwTT?/^, fox, dA(o7reK-os, tlie stem lengthens e to vj and 
takes s. In 6 TTOVS, foot, 7ro8-ds, the stem lengthens o to ov and takes s. 
In TTO.V (neuter of jras, all), Travr-ds, short a is lengthened. 

3. '0 /cAet's (/cAetS-), key, has ace. sing. /cAen/ or rarely xAetSa, ace. 
pi. /cAeis or KAetSas. 

4. '0, rf Trais (vratS-), c/w7<Z, has the vocative TTUI. 

5. '0 oSov? (Ionic oSwv), /oo^/t, dSoVr-os, forms the nominative like a 
participle in -ovs. 

6. Poetic Sufiap, uifc, Sa/Aapr-os, does not add s, but Sa/xap? occurs 
in Doric. 

7. Proper names in -as (gen. -avr-os) have voc. -as in Attic, 
as Atd? (Atai'T-), Ajax, voc. Afos in Attic, but Afai/ in Homer. 

8. Masculine and neuter participial stems in -ovr- from verbs in 




form nominatives in -ovs and -6v, as SiSovs, 8t86v, giving, gen. 
(see 329). The masculine and neuter stem of the perfect 
active participle ends in -or- and forms nominatives in -ws and -ds ; 
as AeAvKws, AeAi'/cds, having loosed, gen. AeAv/cdr-o? (see 329). 

9. Barytones in -is and -vs (with stems in -T-, -S-, or -6-) often have 
-a instead of -v in poetry, see 890. Many in -i?, with stems in -T-, -S-, 
-6-, appear to have been originally vowel stems. 

237. Neuters. 

rb o-iifio. TO fyirap rJ> irc'pas TO xcpas 

Jorfy Ziwr end horn 

Stem ffUfMT- i)iraT- Ttpar- Ktpaff-, Kepdr- 


N. A. V. <rw|MX fjirap (238) ir^pas (239) 

Gen. o-<ifiaTOS ^iraros ir^paros 

Dat. <ri|iaTi fjirari ir^pari 

Klpas (239) 

Kcpdros, (fcepaos) Ktpcas 
Kcpdrt, (Kfpa'i) Kpai 

N. A. V. 
<J. D. 

N. A. V. 










KCpdTOlV, (Kfpa.OI.Vj Kp<dV 

Kpdra, (Kepaa) Kt'pd 
Kcpdrcov, (Kcpawv) Kcpwv 

Like <rtafjM are declined : yaAa, ya\a/<T-os, 

/ OTCUS, <rraiT-ds (Doric and Ionic) = Attic O-TS, O-T^T-OS, 
and many neuters in -/*a, as irpayfia, Trpay/xar-os, //i^ / o-ro/na, mouth ; 
<njfta, sign. Also <^tas (contr. from <aos), %/t<, gen. </>WT-OS (but Homer 
has <oos, stem <^a<7-, used also in Attic tragedy). 

238. Some neuter stems in -ar- form the nominative singular in 
-ap, as Jjirap, 7/;raT-os above. The stem ended, perhaps, originally in 
-apT-. Like Tjirap are declined : Epic eTSap, food ; Epic ?n*ap, day ; 
Epic and poetic oveuip, profit ; ovOap, udder ; Epic and poetic ircipap, 
end ; ScAcap, bait ; (frptap = Attic <f>ptdp, </>pcdT-os, well ; trreap = Attic 
irrtdp, ore'dT-os, tallow ; poetic map, possession ; ovap, dream, virap, waking 
vision, and some others, mostly poetic, occur only in the nominative 
and accusative. Two stems in -ar- have nominatives in -up : vSup, 
V&IT-OS, water ; and o-xwp, o-/car-ds, dirt. 

239. The noun TT/XIS has two stems : irtpaa- for the nominative, 
accusative, and vocative singular, and irtpar- for the other cases ; so 




also re/aas (repaa- and rcpaT-), prodigy. Ke/ms has two stems : 
(with the genitive -a(o-)-os like ye/oas, 246) used throughout except in 
the dative plural ; and Kepar-, used throughout except in the nomina- 
tive, accusative, and vocative singular. The form KC/DWS is always used 
in speaking of the wing of an army. For Kfpat we sometimes find 
'Wrongly Kepa. See also the dialectic forms of these two words. 





For the formation of cases, see 224-232. For the euphonic 
see 41 (b), 90, 3 ; 91. 

6 O\S 6 TTOL)JLT|V T] 4 > P 1 'l V "H P^ S a i-">V 

shepherd mind 












N. A. V. 


G. D. 


N. V. 









iroi|J^VOS 4>pvo9 4>pe'va 

7TOLfJ.T|V 4 > P 1 1 V 


TTOl(J.Ve $ptVl 

TroL|a.evoi.v <{>pVOlV 


TTOLfievas (jipe'vas 






pts (241, 1) aiwv 



P Iv( 


















6 KpaTT|p 

6 pTjTlOp 










N. A. 
G. D. 





8ai|iov Orjpc 











X. V. T|-yp<Jvcs 8apovS (Hjpts Kpdrfjpes p^ropts 

Gen. Ti-yt^ovajv Saip.6vu>v Orjpwv KpaTTjpcov pTjTOpwj 

Dat. ^JY < H >< ^ ri 8at|io<ri 9r\p<ri KpaTfjpcri pTJrop<ri 

Ace. Tpyn<5vas SaCfiovas Otjpas KpdrTJpas pVjropas 

241. 1. Stems in -iv- take s and form the nominative in -is ; as 6 
pfe, piv-6s; 6 8(\<f>is, dolphin, SeA^-os. But in late Greek forms 
like piv and 8eA.<iV occur. 

2. These also add -s : is, one, cv-ds ; 6 KTCI'S, comb, K-ev-os (40) ; 
/wAds, black, /xeAav-os ; raAds, wretched^ raAai/-os ; also /^et? or /z-i)i-, 
month, fA.ijv-o'i. 

3. To Trrp, /re, Trii/o-os, lengthens the vowel in the nominative 
singular. 1 O aAs is the only noun with a stem in A.. 

4. 'AiroXXatv and IToo-etSwi' have the accusative 'ATroAAwvo, and 

'ATToAXw, IIo<ri8aJi'a and Jloo-fiSw. 

5. 'ATToAXwi' ('ATToXXwi'-), IloO-eiSwi/ (JloO^CtSwi'-), and O-Wr-l'jp ((TWT7//3-), 

preserver, shorten w and ?; in the vocative and have recessive accent : 
"ATroXXov, Iloo-eiSov, crwTep. For the recessive accent in these words 
and in certain others, see 219, 220, and 308. 

242. For -co and -ovs from -o((r)-a and -o(<r)-c? in comparatives in -twv 
and -wv, see 353. For a lew vocatives in -o? from stems in -ov, see 254. 
For the dative plural of 6 cum/p, star, see 243, 2. 

243. Syncopated Stems in -fp.. 1. The nouns nan'/p, father, ^T?//J, 
mother, dvydr^p, daughter, and 1} yaa-n'/p, belly, drop e of the stem in the 
genitive and dative singular, and accent the ending of those cases. 
In the other cases e is retained and accented, but the vocative 
singular has recessive accent. In the dative plural -/>- is changed 
to -pa-. 

2. 'An'ip, man, drops e of the stem dVe/o- before a vowel and inserts 
8 before p ; in other respects it is declined like irari'ip. 'O u(rn//o, star, 
currt'p-os, is regular, but has the dative plural da-rpdn-t. Ar/pyxr/p, 
Demeter, syncopates all the oblique cases and then accents the first 
syllable, thus: AT/^TT^, gen. (Ar/pyTepos) Ai//iT;7y>o$, dat. (A?;/xT/Te/n) 

ace. (A7/ji/T/>a) Avy/ij/T/xi, VOC. A^rjre/j. 

3. Declension of irart'ip, fM^rijp, 6i<ya.Trjp, and u.vt]p. 


Nom. ira-r^p 

Gen. (xar/pot) irarprfs (/ 

Dat (wartpi) irarpi (iHrript) ^rpi (0iryar^pi) dvyarpf 


Ace. irarepa 

Voc. irdrep PI Te P Ov-yarep 


N. A. V. irarepe 
G. D. irarepoiv 


N. V. irarcpes ji^Tspts 

Gen. irartpwv [iT|Tpo)v 

Dat. irarpdo-i (rrjTpd<ri Ou-yarpdo-i 

Ace. irarepas |rrjTpas Oxryartpas 


Nom. dvT|p Nom. (dve'pes) avSpes 

Gen. (dvtpos) dvSpos X. A. V. (dvtpt) &vSpc Gen. (dv^puv) dvSptov 

Dat. (dvtpi) dvSpi G. D. (dvepoiv) dvSpoiv Dat. avSpdcri 

Ace. (dripa) d.vSpa Ace. (dvtpas) dvSpas 

Voc. &Vp Voc. (dv^pes) avSpes 

For dialectic and poetic forms of these words, occurring in Attic poetry, 
see 895. 


244. Stems ending in -a- drop this -a-- before all case-endings 
(105); two vowels thus brought together contract. 

245. Stems ending in -cr- embrace the following : 

1. Many neuter stems in -eo--, which changes to -os in the 
nominative singular. 

2. Stems in -en-- of masculine proper names, which change -e<r- to 
-?;s in the nominative singular. 

3. Adjective stems in -co-- with nominatives in -?/s, -es, see 306. 

4. A few neuters in -ao--. 

5. One in -oar-, r} at'Sws (at'Soo--), shame. 

246. 1. Declension of TO yevo<; (yevea--), race, 
Kparecr-) Socrates, and TO yepas (jepaa-), prize. 

N. A. V. -ye'vos -ye'pas N. SwKpd-rrjs 

Gen. (yfrfos) Ytvovs (ytpaos) -yepus G. (SajK-pdrcoy) 2a)Kpdrous 

Dat. (yfvf'i) ysvei (ytp&i") ytp&i. D. (ZwKpdrti) 2toKpd.Ti 

A. (~uKpdT(a) ScoKpa-rr) 
A'. SUK parts 



N. A. V. (ybte) ytvti. (ytpa-t) 

G. D. (ycrtou>) ytvolv (ytpdoiv) 


N. A. V. (yt'fa.) yivi\ (^paa) ytpa. 

Gen. (yevtuv) ytv&v (yepduf) -ycpuv 

Dat. -ytvta-i -yt'pao-i 

2. Like yevo? are declined TO ref^o?, w;a//, /ueAos, sowgr, TOS, year,. 
and many others. 

Like 2(o/cpaT7/s are declined many names, as 

Like ypas are declined only : TO o-eAas, brightness ; cr^Aas, 
slool ; Sfiras, goblet; yr)/aas, old age; K/aeas, flesh; o-K7ras, covering. 
For Kpas (ntpaa-- and Kfpdr-), liorn, Trepas (irfpacr- and iTfpaT-), end, and 
Tcpas (repao-- and repar-), prodigy, see 237 and 239. For peculiar 
dialectic forms (rare in Attic) of these and of certain others, see 896 
and 897. 

247. NOTE. (a) Neuters in -os contract -a to -a if an e precedes ; as 
icXeos (/cAeco--), glory, noni. pi. *<Aed from KAe-a (compare 307). 

(6) Uncontracted forms of stems in -co-- occur in Attic poetry. Rarely 
the dual in -e is found uncontracted, as yevee. The genitive plural --u>v is 
often found uncontracted even in prose ; as mx*-*?, KepSf-wv. 

(c) Proper names in -775, gen. -cos, often have an accusative in -TJV, as in 
the first declension : ^(aKpdrrj or ^(DKpdrrjv ; less often a vocative in -77 : 
5evo7rei#fs or Eevo7rei'#7/. 

248. Proper names in -/cXe?;?, compounds of /cXe'o? (/cXeeo--), 
glory, have a double contraction in the dative. IleptKXer;?, Ile/at- 
/eX?;?, Pericles, is thus declined : 

Nom. (Ilfpi/cX^iTs) npiKXr)s 

Gen. (IIfpiK\^fo 

Dat. (IlfptK^ti) IIcpiKXct 

Ace. (IIcp(K\^ca) 

VOC. (IIfpi\\fs) 

Uncontracted forms occur in Attic poetry. 

249. 'H aiSws (alSoo--), shame, has gen. (at'So-o?) al8ov<t, dat 
(at'Sot) at'Sot, ace. (alBoa) alSa), voc. like nom. ; no dual or plural. 
It is declined like nouns in -eo (250, 3), except in the vocative; 
but the accent of the accusative in -&> is regular. Like <u'8&><? i& 
declined the Ionic 17 ^w?, dawn, while Attic 77 ea>5 is of the Attic 
second declension (2uG). 



250. 1 . These are few in number. Those in -co- form masculines 
in -ws, gen. -co-os. Those in -o- form feminines in -co, gen. -ovs (from 

2. The masculines may contract the dative singular -cot to -^, the 
accusative singular -coo. to -co, the nominative and the accusative plural 
-toes and -was to -cos. But monosyllables do not contract. 

3. Feminines contract in the genitive to -ovs, in the dative to -of, 
in the accusative to -co (with irregular acute accent, 216, 3). The 
vocative singular in -of probably belongs to an earlier form of the 
stem in -ot- ; and the grammarians and older inscriptions show a 
nominative in -o>, as ATJTOJ, 2a7r^Kp. 

251. Declension of o rjpws, hero, o 0&>9, jackal (205), rj rj^ta, echo. 









fjpcoi. or T]pa> 



fjpcoa or TJpco 






N. A. V. ijpwt Owe 

G. D. Tjpwoiv Owoiv 


N. V. fjpwts or ^jpcas 6ws 

Gen. Tipcicov Owuv 

Dat. fjpwo'i 6010-1 

Ace. rjptoas or jjpcos 0a>as 

252. NOTE. Like r/pcos and t^cos are declined TroV/otos, father's brother, 
s, sister's brother, 8/acos (217) and viroSfjuas, slave, and T/ocos, Trojan. 

Several rarely have forms of the Attic second declension ; as geii. >}/aco (like 

253. NOTE. The feminines in -co are mostly women's names ; as 
Fo/ayto, ATJTCO, KaXu^co ; also 7rei$to, persuasion ; eiWrto, well-being ; Af^co, 
woman in child-bed. No dual or plural forms of the third declension exist ; 
but rarely a few of the second declension are found, as Fopyovs, Aexofs. 
Uncontracted forms are found only in Pindar. 

254. NOTE. A few feminines in -cov, gen. -ovos, occasionally have 
forms like those of nouns in -co ; so f] titujtv, image, gen. CIKOI/OS and CIKOVS> 


ace. etKora ami tco, ace. pi. eucora? and CIKOVS ; utjSwv, nightingale, voc, 
dijBol ; xcte&av, iicalloic, voc. 


255. 1. The nominative singular of masculines and feminines ends 
in -r? and -i-s (in oxytones and perispomena -v?) ; of neuters, in -I 
and -v. 

2. Those in -is, several in -v?, and TO a<m>, city, change i and e of 
the stem to c in all cases except the nominative, accusative, and 
vocative singular. The genitive singular of these has -o>s for -09 ; the 
dative singular and the nominative dual and plural are contracted ; 
the accusative plural is irregularly made to conform to the contracted 
nominative plural in -is. The genitive singular and plural permit the 
accent to stand on the antepenult (216, 2). 

3. Others in -f-s or -i~s retain -v- of the stem throughout. Barytones 
have short -v- everywhere ; but oxytones and perispomena h;ive long 
-v- in the nominative, accusative, and vocative singular, and in those 
cases keep the same accent as in the nominative singular. 

4. Perispomena are all monosyllables, and 6 l\0v<i, .fish, >} oo-^rs, 
hip, and ij o<f>pv<s, eyebrow; but these three are often written as 

5. For adjectives in -vs, -a, -v, see 317. 

256. 1. Declension of 17 TroXt? (TTO\I-), state, 6 
cubit, TO a<rrv (turrv-\ city, and o i%8v<; (t^Ov-), fish. 

Nom. ir<5\is * rf |X w &OTU Ix^" 5 (255, 4) 

Gen. ir<J\us irVjx"*' do-rtws l\0vos 









i irdXti (j 


^"^v^v ^ 

ffT(() dcTTtt 


N. A. V. (ir6\(e) 
G. D. 


N. V. (r6X) ir(JXi$ 

Gen. iroXcuv 

Dat. ir^Xo-i irfjx* ^ dorwi 

Ace. iriXi '""fa* 1 * (HffTfa.) 4rr] 


2. Like TrdAts are declined, 77 /coVis, dust, rj Swa/us, poicer, ?} 
77y>ats, business, rj o-rao-is, faction, 6 /zai/ris, see?', and numerous others. 

Like Trr/x^? are declined only 6 TreAe/a's, ^, and poetic o irpecr(3v<s, 
old man (283, 28); ?} eyxeAvs, eel, follows t^flus in the singular, and 
tne plural. 

Like l\0vs are declined 6 d</ovs, eyebrow, rj Spus, oa, o ///Os, mouse, rj 

^s, strength, r/ o-f-s sow, poetic TO Sdxpv, tear (pi. SaKpv-a), and others. 

257. NOTE. 'O KIS, weevil, keeps r in all cases : KI-O'S, KL-I, /ay, KIS ; 
Kie, KIOIV ; Kies, Ktwv, Ktcrt (KIS). 

258. NOTE. The genitive plural of aa-rv (the only prose noun in -u) 
occurs only in poetry as ao-rewv, but the regular Attic was probably 

259. NOTE. No neuters with stems in -i are found declined throughout 
in Attic. See in the Lexicon the following foreign words : crtVowrt, 
mustard, Trevrc/Di, pepper, Ko/, gum, tftififu, stibium, crecreA.i, kind of shrub. 

260. NOTE. The stems in -i- and -v- of genitives in -ews were originally 
strengthened by the insertion of c, making -e(i)-os (for -e(t/)-osJ and -eu-os 
(for -e(/)-os). The t or v of the stem then drops out in most cases : 
7rdXe(6)-es, 7rr7xe(v)-i, acrre(v)-a ; and contraction consequently occurs in the 
dative singular, and in the nominative dual and plural. The genitive 
singular -e-tus of stems in -t- is perhaps due to exchange of quantity (45), 
TrdAcws perhaps from Epic 7rdA7j-os (compare 45 and 899, 2) ; but 
genitives in -eos as TroAeos occur in Attic poetry. The accusative 
plural, TrdActs, irry^ets, irregularly conforms to the nominative plural. The 
accusative plural in -vs is from -v-j/s (40), i\@v<; from l^Ov-vs in Lite 
writers forms in -v-as occur, as /Mi'-as for /xvs. The Ionic accusative plural 
in -is is from original -t-v? ; Ionic TrdAis from 7roAi-vs (for TroAas). 

261. NOTE. 1. The regular Aeolic, Doric, and Ionic inflection retains i of 
the stem throughout ; asTrdAr?, TrdAios, TrdAt for TroAt-i, TrdAtv, TrdAi, pi. TrdAies, 
TroAtwv, 7roAi<T6, TrdAts or 7rdAtas. This inflection is occasionally used by 
Attic writers in foreign and dialectic words ; as /AJ/VIS, wrath, /ir'} vios ; T I/3i? 
(river), "I/nos ; 'Avd^apa-i^, 'Ava^apo-ios ; Tiyxris, tower, TI'/DCTIOS, but pi. 
Tiyxreis, ri'pcrewv, TV/DCTCCTI. So 6, rj riypts, tiger, Tty/3i8os or Ti'y/nos. 

2. The Ionic genitive in -cos of nouns in -vs occurs late ; so also the 
contracted form of the gen. pi., as TTT^WV for Trr/^ewv. Ionic genitives in -os 
of stems in -v-, as Trry^eos and ao-reos, are doubtful in Attic. 


262. 1. Stems in -CD-, belonging wholly to masculines in -ei's, drop 
v of the stem before a vowel of the case-ending. The genitive 
singular has -eo>s (266, 1); the accusative singular and plural have 


-d and -eds (266, 1) ; the dative singular contracts - to -et, and the 
nominative plural -? to -ts. 

2. Stems in -aw belong only to 7} y/aavs, old woman, and 77 vavs, 

3. Stems in -ov- .belong only to 6, 7} /?ovs, ox, cow, and 6 
three-quart measure. 

4. The stem 01- belongs only to 7} o*s, sheep, originally o/is. 

263. Declension of 6 /3oo-iA.vs (/3acriAv-), king, 7} y/)avs (ypav), old 
woman, i] vavs (vav-), ship, 6, 7) /8ovs, ox or cow, and 77 o?s (01-), " 7iyi/ " " 




Dat. OS 




























N. A. Y. pacriXt't -ypdc vf\t PO otc 

G. D. pa<riX^oiv -ypcloiv vcotv pooiv oloiv 

N. V. 

Gen. pacri\'cov -ypdcov veaiv POIOV olwv 

Dat. pacriXtvcri ypa.v<ri vav<ri POUO-I O'LCTL 

Acc. pao-tXt'ds -ypavs vavs POVS ols 

Like /8a<rtXi5s are declined upci's, priest, yovvs, parent, 'O8w<rtvs, 
Ulysses, 'AxiAXtus, slchilles, and many others. 

Like /Jovs is declined 6 x^> mound/ and also 6 x^. three-quart 
measure, except that the latter has the accusative x<>a and xo<* (see 
902, 4) ; 6, 17 povs, sumac, is late. 

264. NOTE. If a vowel precedes -i>- contraction usually takes place in 
the genitive and accusative: -eo>s to -os, -twr to -wi>, -d to -a and -cds to -as. 
Thus Ev/3ors, Euboean, Er/?Ous or Kvf$o<as t Ei'ySoed or Er/Soa, Y,vf3o(uv 
or Evfiowv ; Ev/Soeds or Ei'^ows. 

265. NOTE. In the older Attic (as Thucydides) and in Plato, the 
nominative plural has -T)S (contracted from Homeric -TJ-CS) ; as /3ao-iA.7js for 
/Jao-iAcis. The nominative dual appears to have been originally contracted 
to -77, as /3ao-i\i) for fiafrt\t. The accusative singular -7^ from -d is rare in 
Tragedy, as f$a(ri\f). Aeschylus, Per*. 63, 580, has TOKS, open ; Plato, Theaet. 
169 b , has 6770-s, open. The accusative plural in -is (for -eds) is late. 

266. NOTE. 1. The stem of nouns in -et's ended originally in -rjv- 


before consonants and -r\F- before vowels. Homer retains -ev- for -rjv- in the 
nominative and vocative singular, and in the dative plural ; elsewhere -rj/- 
drops /. The regular Homeric inflection is then : /ScwriAevs, j3a.criXr)-o<s, 
/3acri.Xr)-i, /3acr<,Avy-a, ytJacriAeu ; /3ao"iA?y-es, /JacriAiy-cov, /SacriAewTt, (3afrt,Xrj-a<s. 
From the Homeric forms in -77-05, -*)-a., -rj-ds came the Attic forms in -e-ws^ 
-e-d, -e'-ds, by exchange of quantity (45). 

2. The stems ypa-v-, vav-, /Sou- were changed to ypdj--, j/d/- (w//-), /?o/- 
before vowels ; the / then was dropped (compare Latin nav-is, bov-is). Attic 
vews is from old Ionic VT/OS by exchange of quantity (45). 

3. The stem of oTs was originally o/i- (compare Latin ov-is). 


267. The gender may often be known from the stem, but in many 
cases it must be learned by observation. The following rules apply 
to the uncontracted stem of substantives: 

268. Masculine are stems in 

1 . -ev- : as y papers (ypafav-), writer. 

2. ~r)T- (except those in -T?;T-) : as TCITT^S (TUTT^T-}, carpet. 

3. -(or- : as tptas (epwr-), love. 

4. -VT- : as oSoi's (oSovr-), tooth, revwv (TCVOVT-), tendon. 

5. -v- (except those in -iv, -yoi/-, -Sov-) : as KO.VWV (/<avov-), 
I'S (KTV-), comb, [MJv (yu,r^v-), month, ala>v (attov-), (1^6. 

6. -/a- (except those in -&p-) : KpdTrjp (Kpdrrjp-), mixing-bowl, 
ep-), etlter, \^ap (^d/3-), starling. 

7. -TT-, -/?-, -<^>- : as yi'^ (yvTr-), vulture, 

-Kvt^)- or (rKviTT-), a 

269. Exceptions to 268. 

To ^65, 2 : i/ eV^/ys (eV^T/T- 

To ^6^, 3 . TO </>ws (^>COT-), 

To 268, 5 : Feminine are : </3?yi/ (</3ev-), mr'nrf ; aAxvwv (dA/cuoi/-), 
halcyon; CIKWV (CIKOV-), image; r/tu>v (r/iov-), shore; \0wv (\0ov-}, earth; 
Xiwv (x tol/ -)> snow; /3\r)X wv (P ^ 7 ?X a)V ")) penny-royal ; /i?;Ko>v (/x?yK<uj>-), poppy. 
Cnmmon are: 6, T) ^T/V (X 7 / 1 '-)? gander, ijoose ; o, 1} aAe/cTpucji' (dAeKTpvov-), 
cocA, /ten; 6, 17 KVWV (KW-OS), rfor/. 

To ^6'5, 6 ; >] yaa-rrjp (yatrTep-), belly ; ^ Ki]p (Krjp-), fate ; r; X 61 '/ 3 ? hand; 
TO TTup (irvp-), Jire ; also several poetic neuters used only in the nom. and 
ace. : TO e'Awp, booty, TO A8co/3, desire, TO TreAcu/a, monster, TO ryTo/a, heart, rb 
, bound. 

To 268, 7 : Feminine are: T; KaXavpoi^ (t<a.Xa.vpoir-\ shepherd's staff; 
(AaiAaTT-), storm ; KwA^^ (/cwAryTr-), holloiv of the knee ; pi\}/ (/Jr-), 
mat-work; pw\f/ (fxair-), bush; (ri']\p (a-qir-), sore; ^>Ae^ (<^)A/3-), vein; 


(X/m/3-), ** /or tlie hands; KernyAi^ (caT7?Ai</>-), upper storey ; the defective 
6$ (off-), voice, tcorrf ; ami two or three others. 

270. Feminine are stems in 

1. -i- and -i- with nominative in -is and -vs : as 7) 770X15 (TTOA.I-), 
state, ur\if (iyx i> ~)> strength. 

2. -at*- : US rars (vai>-), ship. 

3. -5-, -0-, -T7/T- : ns I/us (t/> l ^-)> s^l/*. KO/JVS (KopvO-), helm, raxvr^'s 
^Ta\vrijr-), speed. 

4. -tv-, -yoK-, Sov- : as pis (plv-\ ncse, o-raywi/ (o-rayov-), drop, 
XcAtowi' (xAi3ov-), nightingale. 

271. Exceptions to 270. 

To 270, 1 : M<!sculin<'. are : e^is, viper ; <cfs, weevil; KO/JIS, &w/; 01 or at 
KV/J/&IS, Inc-tabhs (but sing, only 7; Ki*p(3is) ; opx^, testitlc ; o<^>is, sei-peitt ; 
/SoT/us, cluster of (irajws ; fyn/vi'S, footstool; ix^vs, /A; Kai'Srs, a Median 
garment; /zfs, mouse; veicvs, corpse; irf \fKvs, axe; ff^x vs > cubit; 
ear o/ grain. Common are : 6, 7} <ri;s or s, t<nne ; 6, } o?s, 
Ttypis (gen. riypi-os or TiypiS-os), <tj7fr. 

To 5 70, 5 : 6 TTOVJ (7To8-), /oot ; 6, 7} TTCUS, child ; 6, 7} o/avls (o 

To 570, 4 : Masculine are : o 8cX^>fs (S(X(f>lv-\ dolphin ; reA/zfe 
; cp/xfs ((, prop. 

272. Neuter are stems in 

1 . -t- and -v- with nominative in -t and -v : as 7rre/t>i, pepper, ocrrv, 

2. -ar- : as crw/na (trw/xar-), ftorfy, vSwp (i-3aT-), water. 

3. -d/j- : as vfKTap, nectar, tap (T)/?-), spring. 

4. -cur- : as y/5as, jwize. 

5. -to- with nominative in -os : as yevo?, ro<:. 

273. These stand by themselves : TO yaA.a (yaXaxT-), TM ///.', 7} vv 
(WKT-), night, 7) Sai's (8air-), feast, 7) x^/ 115 (x a P lT ~)> f avor > T ^ f**^ 1 - (f J - f ^- lT ~)> 
honey, TO O-T^S (O-TJIT-), dough, TO ovs (gen. WTOS), '. 

274. Stems in -<D- (with nominative in -CDS) are masculine ; as 6 dus, 
0<i>-d>, jackal. Steins in -o- (with nominative in -w or -us) are feminine ; as 
17 iruOta (irtido-os, irdOovs), persuasion; 7} atScis (aiSo-os, ai'Sors), shame. 

275. Gender of Palatal Stems. Palatal stems l>elong to masculine and 
feminine nouns ; but their gender cannot lie determined by any general rules. 

276. The pender of some words varies in poetry and in late Greek ; as 
o (poetic 7/) ai/p, (lower) ntr; 6 rtidrjp, ether, in Homer /, in other poetry 
common ; 6 (poetic 7}) tutuy, age; 6 dXs, salt, i'j aAs (poetic), the sea. 



277. Heterogeneous nouns are those which are of different genders 
in different numbers ; as 6 O-ITOS, corn, TO. a-tra. See in 283 : TO vwrov, 
6 Seer/id?, rb t'yov, 6 Au^i/os, o o-Ta$yu,os, T& crraSiov. 

278. Heteroelites are nouns which have one form for the nomina- 
tive singular, but may be declined in some or in all cases according to 
different stems ; as 6 O-KOTO? (O-KOTO-), darkness, regularly declined like 
Aoyos, but sometimes it is neuter, rb O-KOTOS (G-KOTCO--) and is declined 
like TO yevos. See also o o-^s, 6 xp^s> 0aA-/}s, OlBi-rrovs. 

279. Metaplasties. If the nominative singular can be formed 
from only one of the two stems, forms belonging to the other stem are 
called metaplastic (/AtTaTrAao-^os, change of formation). Thus TO Trrp 
(TTU/J-), fire, but TO, irvpd of the second declension. See also o, ?} 

KOtVWVOS, O VtOS, )] X 6 '/ 3 ' O TttJ)S, 6 OVClpOS. 

280. Double Forms. 1. Some words have double forms for the 
nominative singular, and are declined according to two different stems 
which generally belong to different. declensions. Thus 17 Stya and TO 
Sltf/OS, thirst ; 17 Spedvrj and TO Speiravov, sickle ; TO SevSpov and TO 
Sci'Spos, tree ; ami many others. 

2. A peculiar declension exists for a few shortened or foreign proper 
names whose stem ends in a long vowel. The nominative adds s ; the 
accusative v ; the dative adds t subscript if the stem-vowel admits of it. 
Thus : M^/fas (from M^voSwpos) in Thuc. 5, 19, gen. and voc. M^va, dat. 
MTJV^, ace. Mi^VOV ; 'lavvrjs, Jannes, gen. and voc-. 'lavvij, dat. 'lavvy, ace. 
'l(i.vvijv ; Atovvs (from Aiovikros), Bacchus, gen., dat., voc. Atovu, ncc. 
&IQVVV ; 'I^croiis, Jeans, gen., dat., voc. 'I-^crov, ace. 'I^o-ovv. 

281. Defective nouns lack certain cases. See /zaA^s (genitive), 
/ieAe (vocative), T6 ovap, rb vn-ap, TO 6'^eAos, rav or Tav (vocative), TO 
Xpews- Some, from their meaning, have only one number ; as /iviy/u,?;, 
memory ; ^piicrds, gold ; ol eTT/o-tai, trade-winds ; TO, eyxaTa, entrails ; TO. 
'OAi'^Trta, Olympic games ; 'AOvjvat, Atliens. 

282. Indeclinable nouns have only one form for all cases and 
numbers. Such are : the letters of the alphabet, as aA$a, ftyjra ; the 
cardinal numbers from TTCVTC to C'KCITOV ; certain foreign words and 
names, as TO Trc-ur^a, passover, 'ASa/x, Adam, 'laxr-r^, Joseph. 

283. List of Important Irregular Nouns. This list contains such 
cases of irregular declension as occur in Attic. Double forms are 
not given, nor are forms already mentioned under the declensions. 

1. <>, 1} dpyjv, lamb (the noiri. sing, only in inscriptions), dpv-os, dpv-i, 


apv-a, apv-es, dpv-wv, dpv-d<ri, apv-as. For the nom. sing. 6, tj a/xvos, reg. 
of the second declension. 

2. "A/Dj/s CA/XO--), Ares, *A/>ews (poet "A/xos), "A/xi, *A/D7/ or "Aprjv, 

3. 6 yeXcos, laughter, yeXwT-os, etc. ; ace. also yeXwi/ in poetry. 

4. TO ydvv, &nee, ydvaT-os, yoVaT-i, etc. 

5. 77 yvi'fy tcife, yvvaiK-os, yvvcu-Kt, ywauc-a, yi'vai ; yvveu/c-e, yvvatK- 
oiv ; y WCUK-CS, y vvaiK-wv, yvvcui, y waiK-as. 

6. 6 oW/ids, /ftter, plural oftener TO. Secr/za than 01 8r/ioi. 

7. rb 8o/jv, spear, Sopar-os, Sopar-i, etc. Poetic gen. Sopo-s, dat. 8op-i 
and Bopfi. 

8. TO fuyoi', yoi, rot vyd ; rarely singular, o ^vyos. 

9. Zers (from Ayevs), Zetw, Ai-os, Ai-^ Ai-a, Zcu. Poetic also Zy;v-os, 
Zrjv-i, Zr}v-a. 

10. GaX^s (from 6aXed?), T7wtk, OoXew (189), 0aXy, GaX^v; later also 
OaXou and 0aX7^r-os, 0aX^T-i, 0aX?^T-a. 

11. 17 0fp.i<i, justice, 0/ii8-os, etc. ; but indeclinable in the expression 

1 2. TO >ca/)d, Aa^, poetic word ; nom. and ace. also TO Kpara gen. 
o?, dat Kpdrl and Kap^t ; ace. pi. masc. Kparaf. 

13. o, 7; KOIVWVOS, partaker, KOIVWVOV, KOIVOWW, etc.; but also Kotvtuves 
and icoivoWs in Xenophon. 

14. 6, T) KiW, do^, voc. KVOV ; the other cases from stem KVV- ; KVV-OS, 
icvv-t, KVV-O. ; KVV-C;, KVV-WV, KV-O-I, KW-OS. 

15. 6 Xas, stone (contracted from Horn. Xaas), poetic word for Xi'#os ; gen. 
Xa-os or Xdov, dat Xo-i', ace. Xaa-v or \a-v ; dual Xa-e ; pL Xawv, Xat(o-)(ri. 

16. 6 Xvx^os, lamp, plural Ta \v\ya. 

17. fjjd\tjs (gen.) only in vrrb /zdX?/?, under the arm, secretly. 

18. 6, 7; fidprvs, witness, puprvp-os, etc. ; but dat. pi. fj-dp-rv-vi. 

19. fitXe, only in the vocative, & /ueXe, my dear sir or madam. 

20. TO VWTOV, faci, pi. TCI vwra ; sing, rarely 6 vwros. 

21. Oi'SiVovs, Oediptts, gen. Ot'SiVoSos or OI^ITTOV, dat. OifiiVoSt or 
Ot3tV^), ace. Oi'oYjro&i or OtStVovi', voc. OtSiVovs or Ot'Swrov. In Tragedy 
also gen. OiSiTrdSd, ace. Oi5t7ro6 > tti', voc. OtfiwrdSd. 

22. TO oi'a/), dream, only nom. and ace. sing. ; the rest from the stem 
ovtipar- : oi'tipar-os, ovctpar-t ; ovfipar-a, ovfipa.T-<av, weipa-a-i ; o oi/etpos, 
dream, ovtipov, etc., regular. 

23. TW oWe, eyes, poetic ; oo-vtav, oWois or oWouri. 

24. 6, T; opvts, bird, see 235 and 909, 28. Also poetic forms 6/>vrs, 
opvlv, pi. o/3vei9, opvf<av, ace. o/jveis or o/ivis. 


25. TO ot>s, ear, WT-OS, COT-I; WT-U, arr-wv, w-trt ; ov>s is contracted from 
a form ovas (Horn, ovar-os). 

26. TO o</>Aos, advantage, only nom. and ace. sing. 

27. i) nvv, Pnyx, UVKV-OS, IIvKi/-6, IIuKV-a ; also IIvvK-os, IIvuK-t, 

28. 6 IT pea- (Senna's, ambassador, of the first declension. In the plural 
oftener Trpea-fteis, irpf(r/3e(av, Trptv/Seo-L, Trpfa-fBeis. The plural irpeo-peLS is 
from irpe(T/3v i s (properly adj.), oZd man, ambassador, poetic in the singular, 
gen. 7r/36cr/?ws, ace. Trpa-/3vv, voc. Trpecr/3v ; 6 irpe(rf3vTr)$, old man, of the 
first declension, is used in prose and poetry in all numbers. 

29. TO irvp, fire, irvp-6<s, irvp-l ; pi. TO. Trvp-d, watch-fires, dat. pi. irvpois. 

30. 6 o-r/s, moth, o-c-os (later O-^T-OS), pi. o-c-es (later CT^T-CS), cre-wv, 
<rfj-(ri, cr-a9 (later o-^T-as). 

31. o O-ITOS, corn, pi. Ta o-iTa. 

32. TO o-Ta8tov, stade, race-course, pi. ot o-rdSioi or Ta o-TaSia. 

33. o (TTa.Ofj.6s, station, pi. ot (TTa.Op.oi or Ta (TTadfj.a. 

34. Tav or TaV, only in the vocative w Tav or w Tav (also written <5 Vat/ 
and <5 Tav), my rfear sir. 

35. 6 Taws, Attic TaJis, peacock, of the Attic second declension ; but also 
dat. TO.&VI, Ta&ari. 

36. 6 TJ5<^)0)s, whirlwind, of the Attic second declension, with ace. TU<W ; 
name of a giant (also TU<WJ/), generally of the third declension, 

37. 6 vios, son, viov, etc., of the second declension; also vos, vov, etc., 
without t. Also IHUS (stem vtv-, the nom. sing, only in inscriptions), gen. 
t'teo?, dat. iui ; dual viee (but viei is correct), vieoiv ; pi. wets, wewv, iiieo't, 
vtets ; these forms also without i, as vvs, veos, ve?, etc. Other forms belong 
to poetry and to Homer. 

38. TO vTrap, awaking state, real appearance (opposed to ovap, dream), only 
in the nom. and ace. sing. 

39. >} X 61 '/ 3 * hand, x*v>-os, etc. ; but -^epoiv, X P~ l/ - ^ n poetry forms from 
X fi p- r X f P~ ^ n a ^ cases > as X 6 / 3 '^ X 6 / 3 " 4 '* X l / >0 ' 1/ ' X e ^P' e ( (r ) ar '" 

40. TO x/ 3 ^?, rfi, nom., gen., and ace. sing, alike ; pi. XP*" an( ^ XP f ^ v > 
the form TO XP* 0<5 (XP ee<T ~) ^ s dialectic and poetic. 

41. 6 X/ 3 ^ 5 ) skin, X/OWT-OS, etc. ; poetic (and Ionic) x/ 30 -^ XP~*> XP~ a > 
a dative x/ 3 ^ occurs in the expression ev x/><?, dose to the skin, near. 

For dialectic forms of some of the above, see 909. 


284. There are several endings which are added to the stems of 
some nouns and pronouns to denote relations of place. 


1. -0i denoting where; as a\\o-0i, elsewhere. 

2. -Otv denoting whence; as aAAo-0ev, from elsewhere, oiKo-Otv, from 
home; aiTo-far, from the very spot; pi^o-dtv, from the root (/$i'a), with o 
irregularly for d of the stem. 

3. -8f (enclitic), denoting whither, is added to the accusative ; as 
Myapa-&, toward Mcyara; 'Ehtwivd-Se, to Eleusis. A preceding o- 
joined with -8e forms -c (32) ; as "A07yvde (for 'A^r/vcwr-Se), to Athens. 

4. -o-e denoting whither; as aAAo-o-t, in another direction ; irdvro-o-f, 
in every direction (with o inserted after the stem). 

285. 1. The ancient locative case, with the ending -i in the singular and -o-i 
in the plural, is found in a few words commonly classed as adverbs; as OIKOI 
(OIKO-I), at home ; 'Icrdp-ol, at the Isthmus ; 'A0rjvr)<ri, at Atlwns ; Bvpda-t, at 
the fjates. The oldest Attic had datives in -dcri and -770-1. 

2. For the Epic case-ending -4>i(v), see 914. 



286. 1. This is by far the most numerous class. The 
masculine and neuter follow the second declension, the feminine 
follows the first. 

2. The nominative singular ends in -09, -77 or -d, -ov. The 
feminine ends in -d if -o? is preceded by a vowel or p ; as <j>i\io<;, 
<f>t\id, (f>i\iov, friendly ; e%0p6<>, %0pd, e^dpov, hostile. But 
adjectives in -009 have -or) in the feminine, except those in -poos, 
which have -pod ; as 078009, 0780?;, oyooov, ciyhth, but dpOpoos, 
tipdpcd, apdpoov, crmcded. 

287. Accent. The nominative and genitive plural of the feminine 
follow the accent of the masculine. Thus </>i'Au>s, fern. <fri\ia ; but 
</>i'Aiat (not </)iAiat), <iAuov (not ^>tAi<m'). 

288. Declension of ero^os, wise, and <i'\to9, friendly. 

Sixo. Nom. o-ocf>6s a-ofyt] <ro$6v <{>iXios |>iX(a cjnXiov 

Gen. <ro^)oj cro(|>"p cro({>oC <}>iX(ov <{>iXids <)>iX(ov 

Dat. o-o<|)(j> (ro <Hi <ro4><>> <|>iXtu> <}>iX^ 4>L\i.'uj 

Ace. <rc>4>ov <ro4>i|v cro<J>dv <|>(Xiov <|>iX{dv <j>i\iov 

Voc. croi|>;' cro(|>V] cror|>6v <fuXi <)>iXid <}>(Xiov 


DUAL. N. A. V. <ro<|>w o-ocjxi <ro4>u 4>iX(o> 4>iXid 

G. D. 







PLUR. N. V. 




4)iXio L 
























Participles in -os and all superlatives (337, 350) are declined like 
(ro(f>6<s (except in accent). Comparatives in -repos (337) are declined 

289. NOTE. The masculine dual forms in -w and -oiv are often used in 
place of the feminine in -d and -aiv in all adjectives and participles. 


290. Of the adjectives in -eos and -oos, the following are con- 
tracted : 

1. Those in -eos, -ed, -cov, denoting material or color ; as 
apyvpovs, of Silver ; </>oiv6<eos, <OIVIKOUS, purple. 

2. Multiplicatives in -TrAoos, --n-Xor), -irXoov ; as StTrAoos, 

3. Compounds of voos, mind, TrAoos, sailing, TTVOOS, blowing, 6p6o<s, 
noise, x^5) three-quart measure, and -//.voi's (from [tva, miua) ; these 
compounds being of two endings (301). For examples see 295. 

291. NOTE. Other adjectives in -eos and -oos are not contracted ; as 
KepSaAeos, KtpSaAed, KepSaXeov, shrewd, gainful oySoos, oy8o?/, 6'ySoov, 

292. Contraction follows the principles in 47 and in 48, 2. But 
the compounds in 290, 3 leave -oa in the neuter plural open ; as 
ewoos, ewovs, well-disposed, neuter plural evvoa. Other forms are 
sometimes found uncontracted in Attic. 

293. Accent. The accent of the contracted forms is irregular in 
these respects : 

(a) Adjectives in -eos accented the contracted syllable and become 

(I) The dual contracts -ew and -ow to -w, like nouns (compare 203, 1). 

(c) Compounds keep the accent on the same syllable as in the 
contracted nominative singular (like nouns, 203, 3) ; as ewvoos, eiVovs, 
gen. euvdov, cvvov, dat. euvoo), eiV<^, etc. 

294. Declension of ^pucrcoc, xpwovs, golden, upyiyxos, a^yvyjous, of 
silver, and uVAoos, aTrAovs, simple. 



N. V. 

N. A. V. 
G. D. 

N. V. 


(xp6ff<ot) \pvtrovs (xpvfffd) \pv<rf\ (xpGirtov) 



(vpOffcoi) xpvo~oi (YpdiTfcu) xpvo~(xi (xp^^'O 
(XP 1 ""^'*"') xpvo"<*>v (xpvatuv) xpvo~wv (xpvff^uv) 
(XpfWoij) xP^* ro ^ s (xpvffiaa) \ (xpvff^ois) 



v p vcro v 

V p VCTu> 





N. V. 



dpyvpovs (dpyvp(d) 
dpyvpov (dpyvp^tis) 
dp-yvpu (dpyvptq.) 
dpyvpovv (dpyvptdr) 





N. A. V. 
G. D. 


dp-yvpw (dpyvptd) 
dp-yvpoiv (dpyvpta.iv) 





N. V. 


dpyupoi (dpyvfxai) 
dp-yupuv (dpyvptwv) 
dpyvpots fclp-yt'p^ais) 
dpyvpovs (dpyvptdi) 





N. V. (dirXiot) 
Gen. (drXoou) 
Dat. (df\6< t j) 
Ace. (&v\&oi>) 










N. A. V. (dTXdw) 
G. D. (drXAoi*) 








N. V. (aTrXooi) dirXoi (ct7rX6cu) dirXai (airX6a) dirXd 

Gen. (oTrXiwc) dirXwv (cbrXowv) dirXwv (a.TT\6uv) dirXwv 

Dat. (air\6ois) dirXois (air\ enrXais (a,Tr\6ois) dirXois 

Ace. (air\6ovs) dirXovs (dirX6dj) dirXds (ct7rX6a) dirXd 

295. Compounds of (vdos) vovs, (TrAdos) TrAovs, (TJTOOS) TTVOUS, (Bpoos) 
s, (\6os) x^?5 & n( i -/^vov? are declined like evvoos, evvovs, well-disposed, 

thus: masc. and fern, (ewoos) ewovs, (euvdov) cuVov, (T5vdw) ei-vo), (evvoov) 
cvvovv ; (etVdw) evvw, (evvooiv) evvoiv ; (euvoot) ctVot, (evj/owv) euvwv, (evvdois) 
ciVois, (evi'dovs) evvovs ; neut. (evi/oov) etVow, etc., like masc. and fern.; 
nom. and ace. plur. evvoa uncontracted. Similarly, evTrAovs, sailing well ; 
(U'TtTrvovs, blowing against ; dAAd^/aovs, speaking another tongue ; ?y^i'xovs, 
iiolding half a \ous ;, u-orth ten minae. 


296. Many adjectives in -os have only two endings : -os for the 
masculine and feminine, and -ov for the neuter. They follow the 
second declension throughout. 

297. A few adjectives are of the Attic second declension and end 
in -u>s and -wv. They follow the declension of vews, with the same 
irregularity of accent (207). The neuter plural ends in -a. 

298. Declension of aAoyos, irrational, and tAews, gracious. 

Nom. 4X0^05 &Xo-yov t'Xcws iXewv 

Gen. oiXd^yov ifXcoi 

Dat. dXd-yw 'i'Xcu 

Ace. AXo-yov iXcuv 

Voc. aXo-ye dXo-yov 'i'Xcws t'Xtwv 

N. A. V. 

G. D. dXfyoiv iX<pv 


N. V. aXo-ycr. dXo-ya iXcw iXta 



Ace. aXo-yous aXo-ya. VXeios iXea 

299. NOTE. The neuter plural eWAeoj for e/cTrAca occurs a few times, 
.and is, perhaps, incorrect. 


300. ITAtws, full, has a feminine form in d : jrAttos, TrAeu, TrAetov ; and 
ara?Acu from dYairAewj (m. and f.), avaTrAtwv, filled up, also occurs. ]i<u, 
taffj is declined thus : num. masc. and fern. <rws, neut. o-wv, pi. num. and 
ace. o-cu*, neut <ra ; a feminine nom. sing. era. rarely occurs. The original 
form o-u-os is seen in the comparative o-autTfpos. The regular Attic crwos, 
<no<i, o-wof supplies tlie missing forms of o-w. 

301. Of three endings are most simple adjectives. Of two endings 
are most compound adjectives ; as aAoyos, dAoyov ; Sidfapos, Sidfopov, 

302. NOTE. The following simple adjectives have two endings : 

(a) ftdpftapoSy ijfjLtpos, Aot'Sopos, vvKTt/x>s, eKiyAos, K ij38r) Aos, AaAos, 
eriyto?, e-n/Tiyios, TJO-I'XOS, and some others. 

(6) Some in -tos and -tos ; as aidpios, yeve$Aios, /iov<retos, irapOevfios. 
Those in -tStos, -n/pto?, and -i/xos seldom have a special feminine form : 
nyz</>t'(Btos, Amypios, /xa^i/zos. 

303. NOTE. The following compounds have three endings : 

(a) Compounds in -ucos derived from compounds ; as erSai/jiov-iKos, -v/, 
-of, from ti>8aifjuav (TVVTC A-tKos, -ry, -ov, from o-vi'TcAiys ; fj.ovap^-iKo<i t -vy, 
-of, from fjuovap\os. 

(6) Compound verbals in -TOS when they express possibility ; as irapa- 

OS, ->/, -oi', acceptable, e'aipTos, ->y, -ov, //ia< ca?i be taken aut. 
(c) Also aTatos, -a, -of ; Trapo/zoios, -a, -ov ; Tra/ja^-oTa/iios, -a, -ov ; 
-a, -ov ; and those in -TrAao-ios, as SiTrAao-ios, -a, -oi'. 

304. NOTE. A number of adjectives may be declined indifferently with 
two or with three endings, especially in poetry. 


305. A few adjectives of the first declension ending in -as or -?/s 
. -or) occur only as masculines; as yewaSds, gen. ycvvdbov, noble; 

'&AovTo?, volunteer. 


306. Most adjectives belonging wholly to the third declension 
have -/<? for the masculine and feminine, and -e<? for the neuter 
(stems in -eo--) ; or -tav for the masculine and feminine and -ov 
for the neuter (steins in -ov-). 

307. Contraction. Contraction follows the general rules (47 and 
48, 5). In adjectives in -r/s, - is contracted to -Z after e ; as cv&jys, needy, 


ace. (tvSeea) evSfS. after t or i>, -ea contracts to d or 77 ; as vyi?ys, healthy, 
ace. (vyiea) vyia or vyirj, ev<inys, comely, ace. (ev<f>va) ei'<va or ev^vrj (48, 5). 
The accusative plural in -eis conforms irregularly to the nominative plural 
(compare 255, 2). For special peculiarities in the declension of comparatives 
in -wv, -ov, see 351 353. 

308. Accent. 1. Simple adjectives in -r/s, -es are oxytone (except 
TrXrjprjs, TrA^/pes, full). Compound paroxytones in ->/s have tin- 
recessive accent in all cases, also in contract forms ; as </uAaAT/#?;s, 

s, truth-loving, ^lAaA^wv; except compounds in -a>8r)s, -wAT/s, 
-IJ/>T)S. This rule applies also to nouns. 
2. Adjectives in -wv, -ov have recessive accent ; except those in 
-(f>p<i>v, compounds of <f>pr) v, mind ; as Satypuv, Satypov, of warlike mind. 

309. NOTE. The adjective rpLtjp-r]^ triply-fitted, used as a noun, 
/ Tpn'jp'rjs (sc. vavs), trireme, has the recessive accent in the gen. dual and 
plural ; rpit]poi.v and r/Dtr/pcov. "AArjfles, indeed ! from aAr/^r/s, <rwe, is 

310. Declension of aXr/Bijs, true, and evSaifjiwv, licuppy. 

Gen. (dX;^^os) dXtjOovs cvSa(|i.ovos 

I':it. (d\7;^A') c.\T]0et 



N. A. V (&\r,6te) oXi^ci v8a|xovt 

G. D. (dXriOtoiv) aXiiOotv v8aiji.<Jvoiv 


N. V. (dXTj^ej) dXriOtis (dXrj^ea) i\T]0ij v8a(xovS v8a(iova 

Gen. (&\ij6tuv) aXi\9u>v tv8ai|i<5vwv 

Dat. oXfiO^ori tv8aip.oo-L 

Acc. a\T]0tis (a\r)6ta) a.\t\6r\ cvSa(|xovas v8aijxova 

For the declension of comparatives in -wv (stem -ov-), see 351 

311. One adjective ends in -r/v and -ev : apprjv, appev (older 
apa-rjv, apa-ev), male, gen. appev-os. 

312. 1. Adjectives compounded of nouns and some prefix usually follow 
the declension of the noun ; as er-eAms, er-eATri, hopeful, gen. ej'tATriSos, ace. 
fve\7riv (226, 3), eveATri ; u-\pi5, v-\upi, graceful, gen. evxa/HTO?, ace. 


ev\afnv (226, 3), vxf>t ; fv-fiorpvs, cv-ftorpv, rich in grapes, gen. e 

-oSovs, fJMV-oSov, having one tooth, gen. fj-ovoSovros. 
2. Compounds of 7raT}/> and ^rrjp change these words to -irar<ap, 

Top, and -fu/TU>/j, -firjrop ; as d-Trdrop, a-Trurop, fatherless, gen. aTraropos. 
Compounds of TroAis liave the genitive -iSos ; as a-n-oAis, a-jroAi, without a 
eity t gen. d;roAi8os. Compounds of TTOI'S have the neuter in -TTOVV ; as 
6i-iros, Si-Trow, two feet long, gen. SiTroSos. Compounds of in}x i ' s > M V 
oY-jn/xi 1 ^ Tti Bi-injx v t f 1 cubits, are inflected like the masculine and 
neuter of yAi'/cis (317), except that the neuter plural is contracted : 

313. XOTK. Very few simple adjectives end in -ts and -i, gen. -tos. Of 
these only iyx><is, rp6<f>t, well-fed, gen. T/ao^)tos, has the neuter. The others 
have only -is for the masculine and feminine or for the feminine only. 


314. A number of adjectives of the third declension have only one 
ending, the feminine being like the masculine. These have no neuter, owing 
either to their meaning or to their form, although the oblique cases are 
occasionally found as neuter. The following are examples of their forms : 
uK-a/xus-, untiring, aKa/iuir-os ; <uyas, fugitive, <uyaS-os ; veofcpas, iieidy 
mixed, vtoKpar-of ; /ia*ap, blessed, /xaKup-o$ ; TTCVJJ?, poor, 7rev?/T-o? ; rj/udijp } 
half-beast, i'ip.idi]p-os ; UTTTTIJI', unwinged, aTrrv/j'-os ; ax r ? v > nee dy, axev-os ; 
Tpifttav, skilled, rpifitov-os ayvws, unktioim, dyi/wr-os ; CITY)\IS, stranger, 
tTnJAi-S-o? ; >}Ai, of the same age, TjAiK-os ; apTra, rapacious, a/)7ray-os ; 
fitavv, with one hoof, /ta>rvx-os ;>\f/, short-sighted, /AUWTT-OS ; many 
feminines in -ts, gen. -1805, as evwn-is, fair-faced, tvwmo'-os, 'ApyoAt?, Argolis, 
Argolic woman. 

Many end in an unchanged noun, like which they are inflected ; aa 
o-Trais, a-7rcu8-o?, childless. 


315. The masculine and neuter of these adjectives follow the 
third declension. The feminine follows the first declension and 
has -a in the nominative singular (like d\ij0eia or y\&crcra, 180). 
The masculine dual forms may be used for the feminine. 

316. Steins in -v-. 1. The nominative of stems in -v- ends 
in -vt, -eta, -v. The masculine and neuter are declined like 
jrirxy? and atrrv (256, 1); except that the genitive siugular ends 
in -os (not -OK), and the neuter plural remains uncontracted. 

2. The masculine and neuter are oxytone, and the feminine 


properispomenon. Except T//UO-U?, i^iVaa, rf/ua-v, half, and $}Avs, 
t, Q^Xv, female. 

317. Declension of <y\vfcv<;, sweet. 




Dat. (y\VK&) ^Xvicel yXvKii'a 

Acc. -yXvicvv YXvKtiav 


N. A. V. 



N. V. (-yXwrfey) yXvKtis -y^vKeiai ^XvK^a 

Gen. y^ VK/wv -yXvimwv yXwc'iuv 

Dat. yXuKeVi yXuKtiaus -yX^Keo-i. 

Acc. -yXvKcis Y^- VK ^ S y^ VK ^ a 

318. NOTE. The feminine stem in -eia- was formed by adding -id- for 
original -yd- to the masculine stem in -ev- or -ef- (compare TTTJ^D?, stem 
7n ?X u " ''"^X 6 ^'? ' M JX*'S 108 and 260). Thus yAv/cv-, yXvKef-ya, yAi'/ce-i/a, 
yAvK-ia, yAv/ceta. 

319. Stems in -VT-. I. Stems in -evr- form the nominative 
in -et?, -ecrcra, -ev. The masculine is paroxytone ; the neuter 
accents the same syllable as the masculine ; the feminine is 

2. There is one stem in -avr- which forms 7ra<?, Tracra, irav, 

3. The stem GKOVT- forms eicwv, eicovo-a, eicov, willing, and 
CLKWV (from aetcwv), a/eov<ra, axov, unwilling, both declined like 
participles in -on/ (329, 1). 

320. Declension of %apiei<;, graceful, and Tra?, all. 


N 'in. x a P l '"s x a P l ' CTCra x a P'- V >tr LS ndaa irdv 

Gen. x a P^ VTO5 xapLc'acrT]s \apuvTos iravrds ird(Ti]S iravTos 

Dat. x a P^ tVTl X a P l ^ o ' o Tl x a P^ <VTl iravT^ irdor^j iravrf 

Acc. x a p'* VTa \a.ptt<r<ra.v x a P^ V irdvTa iraaav irav 





N. A. V. \apltvrt 
G. D. 

N. V. 

x a P v ^ <ro " aiv 

x a P^ VTOlv 


x a p' <r(rai x a P^ VTa 
x a P l ^ VTWV x a P l *" <r '' v x a P t ^ VTWV 

jrdvrc ird<rd irdvrc 
ird<raiv irdvroiv 

irvrcs iro-ai irvra 

irdvrwv irdxroiv irdvrwv 

ird<ri ird<rais irdcri 

irdvras irdo-ds irdvra 

x a P' VTa 

321. NOTE. 1. The forms xap'f'S and 7ras are for \api-f VT-<S and Travr-s 
(40) ; CKWV (CKOVT-) forms its nominative singular masculine like a participle. 
The forms \ a P^ ev t **&*> an( i 7r 1 ' are f r X a / H ' l/T J *fovr-, and Travr- (109). 
Long a in irav is irregular ; but in the compounds it is sometimes short, as 

2. The feminine \apU<r<ra is formed from a stem xa/oier- by adding -ya, 
XapitT-ya (96, 1) ; the dative plural xa/atWt is also from this stem, \a.pieT-<Ti 
(84). The feminine Trcura is for iravr-ya (96, 2). 

3. For the accent of irdvrtav and TTOCTI, see 217 (c). 

322. Adjectives in -7/eis and -deis are contracted in Attic. Thus 
Tt/xrjtis, Tt(ju')e<r<ra, Tip.T]cv, valuable, contracts to rt/x^s, Tlfj-ija-cra, rlp-rjv, geu. 
Tf/ivjvTos, Tt/^7/<r<r/s, rfp'/vTos ; /xeXirdeis, /xeAirofo-o-a, /ieAtroev, marf o/ 
honey, becomes /xcAirous, /xeAiTowro-a, /jteA-troCv, gen. /icAiToiWos, fieXi- 
TOWTOTT/S, yiitXiTovi'Tos. Similarly names of localities (originally adjectives 
in -oeis and -oe<r(ra) ; as 'A/tatfous, 'A^/a^oui'Tos, ^4ma^MS (a city) ; 
Ai'ytpoiWa, Aegirussa (a city), 'EAeuof-cro-a, Elaeussa (an island). See 48, 1. 
But TO <fuavt]tvTa, vowels, remains uncontracted. 

323. Stems in -ov- and -tv-. Only /ie\a<?, ^Xaiva, 

black ; raXa?, raXaiva, raXav, ivretclied and reprjv, repeiva, 
repev, tender. For apprjv, appev, see 311. 

324. Declension of /uAa?, black, and repijv, tender. 










N. A. \. |UXav 
G. D. |uXdvoiv 









(xcXdvoiv rcptvoiv 







N. V. 




























325. The feminine stems fj.fX.aivu.- and npfiva- are formed from //eAav- 
and Tfpfv- by adding -yd- : fjifXav-ya-, repev-ya (96, 5). 


326. Declension of /teyas (fteya-, /j,eya\o-), great, 7roXu<? 
(TTO\V-, TroXXo-), much, and irpdos (Trpdo-, irpdij-) or Trpaos, mild. 








H- 6 7 a 






N. A. 
G. D. 

V. (Jie-ydXco 





N. V. 












; T-oXXois 


















N. A. V. 
G. D. 






N. V. 


irpdoi or irpdtis 
irpdcov or irpd^wv 





327. NOTE. The vocative p.tyd\t occurs in Aesch. Sept. 822. In Ionic 
the stem iroAAo- is found declined throughout : TroAAos, ->/, -6v. In Trpaos the 
stem irpdo- is used for the masculine and neuter singular and dual, and for the 
genitive and accusative plural masculine ; while the stem irpdv- (compare 
yAvKi's, 317, and m/x^'and OOTV, 256, 260) is used for all other forms 
except the accusative plural. Pindar has Trpdis, irpdr, and the Ionic has 
irpj/is, irpiji' ; TryxUis for irpdavs occurs late, also irpaa for irpdea. The 
forms from irpdo-, which differ in accent from those from irpdv-, are usually 
written irpyos, irp^ov, irpq.n>, etc., with iota subscript. 


328. Participles in <, -r\, -ov. All middle and passive parti- 
ciples, except aorist passive participles, end in -09, -rj, -ov, and 
are declined like <70<o<? ; as \v6fjxvo^, \vofjLevrj, \v6/j.evov ; XeXu- 

329. Participles with stems in -VT-. All other participles, 
with the two aorists passive, have stems in -VT-. The following 
is a list of their nominative forms : 

1. -wv, -oiva, -ov: Active present, future, and second-aorist parti- 
ciples of verbs of the common form of inflection (607). 

2. -ois, -ouo-o, -ov : Active present and second-aorist of the p.i- form 
of inflection (609). 

3. -ds, -do-a, -av : Active aorist of the common form ; active present 
and second-aorist of the /*t- form. 

4. -<ts, -euro, -fv : Active present and second-aorist of the pi- form ; 
all aorist passive participles. 

5. -ws, -Go-a, -iV : Active present and second-aorist of the pt- form. 

6. -o>, -utd, -os : Active perfect participles. 

330. Accent Participles in -os, -rj, -ov, have recessive accent, 
except the perfect middle, which is paroxytone ; in all other respects 
they are accented like <t'Au>s. Of participles with stems in -IT-, the 
present, futttrr, and first-aorist of the common form accent the penult of 
the nominative singular, masculine, and neuter, and the antepenult of 
the feminine. All other participles of this form are oxytone in the 
nominative singular, and properispomena in the feminine. The 
genitive plural of feminines from masculine stems in -vr- is peri- 

331. Declension of \wav (\vovr-), loosing, StSous (Stoovr-), giving, 
Zo-ras (urravr-), setting, cucrvs (otiKwvr-), shewing, uv (OVT-), being 




(present active participles of XVM, Bi8(a/j.i, Mmy/u, SeiKvvp.1, ci/it) ; 
(Awavr-), having loosed, AeAi'Kois (AeAvKor-), having loosed, and 
(Av#VT-), having been loosed (first-aorist active, first-perfect active, and 
first-aorist passive participles of 

N. V. 












8180 VTI 


N. A. V. 
G. D. 










N. V. 












N. Y. 











N. A. V. 
G. D. 









N. V. 












N. V. 



















N. A. \. XvVT 

G. D. 


Xu0tiVd XV&VTC SciKvwrt 
Xv6(o-aiv XvO^vroiv SCIKVVVTOIV 


N. V. Xv&vrfs Xv9io-ai 

Gen. XvSc'vrwv Xv6ewr<uv 

Dat. X6io-i Xv0o-ais 

Ace. XvO^vras XvOcferds 









St^KVCcrais 8tiKvCo-l 

N. \. &v 

Gen. 6vros 

Dat VTI 

Ace. 4vra 

N. A. V. VT 


N. V. vm 

Gen. oVrwv 

Dilt OVKTl 




6'v XcXvKws 


6vn XtXvKori 

Svri XcXvK^ra 

XeXvKv^ds XeXv'Ko-ros 
XXuKX)la XeXvKoros 
XcXvKviav XeXxjKos 


oi ; crd 6vrt XcXvKoVc XcXvKvCd XfXuxoVf 

ovcraiv OVTOLV XcXvKoVoiv XcXvKvCaiv XcXvicoVoiv 


oio-ai 6vra XcXvKoVcs 

ovo-wv 6vriav XcXvKoVuv 

ovtrais ocri XtXvKocri 

oi.a-as 8vra XcXvKoVas 






332. Like \\xav are declined AJnowv (act. fut. part, of Avw) and 
(act. 2 aor. part, of ACITTW). 

Like 8i8ois is declined &>vs (act. 2 aor. part, of Si'Sw/ni). 
Like Awrds and to-ra? is declined o-ras (act. 2 aor. part, of t<m;/*i). 
Like Av^et's are declined TI&I'? and ^i's (act. pres. and 2 aor. 
participles of riOr^m), and <am's (2 aor. pass, part of <euVw). 
Like fctKi'v? is declined Sis (2 aor. act. part, of &VM). 

333. NOTE. The feminine stems iu -owrd-, -do-a-, -ewrd-, and 
-f-o-d- were formed by adding -ya to the stem in -VT- : /SovAcvorr-ya, 
to-ravT-ya, Ti^fT-ya, SetKi'i'VT-i/a (see 96, 2). The perfect in -ws (with stem 
in -or-) has the feminine -via. For the formation of the cases of the 
masculine and neater, .see 224 232. 

334 Participles in -A.v, -<w, 6v are contracted. 
honouring, and <^iAcu>i', </>iAb>f, loving, are declined thus : 

N. y. 





rip. ii era 

(rlftAovri) Tifiwvrt 




N. A. V. (rifjidovTe) Ti(xo>VT (rf/moi;<rd) Ti[uocrd (rifudoi're) Ti|xwvre 

G. D. (rlfj-aovroif) Ti(iwVTOiV (rt/uaowaii') Tl(xii(raiv (n/oia.oj'ToiJ') Tip.u>VTOiv 


X. V. (rtyudovres) Ti|AwvTts (nyudowrcu) Ttp.u><rai (rlfjidovTa.) Tijiwvra 

Gen. (Ttfj.a6vrwv) Tijwavrwv (Ttyuaowwj') TIJIWO-WV (Tina6vTdiv) TijicivTcsv 

T^Q f f " ' \ "** / - ' \ "' /-' \ ~* 

Acc. (rt/xdoi'Tas) Ttjxwvras (ri^aoiycrcis) Ti(jiw<rds (rlfi.dovTa') TtjicovTa 


X. V. (<f>i\fti)v) 

Dat. ((f>i\fovri) 
Acc. (0iXeojra) 

cjnXcov ( 

<j>lXoVVTOS ( 

<j>iXovvri ( 
<j>iXovvra ( 

d)l\OUffQ.J U>LAOVO"CI (<pl\OV) 

(f>i\fovo"r)) 4>iXovo-T| (<^>tXeo^T() 
(piXeovcrav) (|>iXov(rav ((f>i\lov) 



X. A. V. (^iX^oj/re) 

r~* T^ ( ehi\f/\VTf\nt^ 

<j>lXoi/VT ( 

I <j>iXovvToiv ( 

<f>l\OVffQ.) <plXoVO*d (0lX6OJ'7"e) 




X. V. (0tX6>j'Tes) 
Dat. (<t>i\fov<ri) 

<j)lXoVVTS ( 

<J>iXo{io-i ( 
<j>iXovlvTas ( 

0X60l?(rCtt) <pl\OV0*dl \(pi\OVrCL) 
<bi\tO\Jff(jUV) OtXoV^WV (0tXcOVTWJ') 
0lX6(H'(7GUs) <plXoVG"Cll9 (0tXcOU<Tt) 

^>tXeoi/crdj) <f>iXova*ds (^tXeovTa) 


335. Participles in -owv from verbs in -ow are declined like <tAwr. 
Thus f>i]\o(av, Sr^Ariovcra, 6ryAooi / , showiiiy, contr. Sr/Aojv, ^tyAoi'cra, 8T)Aorr, 
gen. 5r^AovvTo, S^Acn'crrjs ; dat. Sr/Aovvri, 8^Aorcr?y ; ace. 8?yAorrr.. 
8?/Ao?crav, S^Aovv, etc. Uncontracted forms of verbs in -ow are never 


336. Contract Second-Perfect Participles in - a s. Several second- 
perfect participles of the />u- form ending in -uw<? have irregularly -o><ra 
in the feminine. They are contracted in Attic ; MS Horn, eo 

eirraMira, errraos, Attic ecrTws, errrwrra, Ifrrojs or oftener efrrds, 

(see 499). The w remains everywhere except in the neuter nomina- 
tive form in -os. 


N. V. TTWS TTo(ra (TTos or <TT<is o~rwTS torra><rai ccrrwTa 


Dat. <TTUTl <TTU(T|] <rTO>Tl 

Acc. torciyra (TT<u<rav corros or <TTcis 



N. A. V. 4<rrwT 4<rTti<rd ICTWTI 

G. D. ioTwroiv iorwcraiv <TTWTOIV 

COMPARISON BY -repot, -raro? 

337. The majority of adjectives form the comparative by 
adding -repot (stem -repo-) to the masculine stem, and the super- 
lative by adding -rarot (stem -rare-). Adjectives in -09 with a 
short penult lengthen -o- to -o>- before -repos and -retro?; but 
-o- remains if the penult is long by nature or position, and 
always after a mute and a liquid. 

Kof^o? (KOI-</>O-), liijht Kovtfw-rcpos, -a, -or KOI></> >-Taros, -?;, -ov 


crt/xi'o? ((rc/xro-), awjust a-ffivo-Ttpos tre/ii'(>-TaTOS 

inpo-), bitter irtxpo-Ttpos 

(veo-), new VW-T^OS I-CW-TUTOS 

o? o"o<>o- t/n'*e <ro< 

r-), trtt 
(jj.(\av-), black /xe Aai'-Tpos 

For the declension, see 288. 

338. NOTE. The penult is long in compounds of rip/, honor, 
mind, courage, and KiVSvi/os, danger ; hence ari/ios, unlumored, aTi/iOTe/>o, 
aTt/ioTaros ; irpoOvfios, eager, irpo6vfU)Tfpo<i, irpoBvp.uTaTO'i IVUC/VOTW& 
danyerout, (iriKivSvvortpos, tTriKivSi'voraTos. ITie penult is short in the 
(rulings -tos, -IKOS, -t/io, -tros ; hence aio, loorthy, duaTfpos t U^IWTUTOS ; 
ap^i/co;, capable of yoi-erniuy, dp^iK<aTtpo<i, dp^iK<aTaro<i ; ftdvutos t war- 

like, /ia^t/XWT/K)S, fJM\lfJLWraTO<i. 

339. K 1-05, empty, and o-rtvos, narroio, often have Kefure/x>s, KCI/OTUTOS, 

and OT<fOT/X>S, (TTCl'OTttTOS. 

340. IIvr;5 (jrer^T-), poor, shortens the >; of the stem and makes 
ircvr-Te/io, Trcrecr-TaTo? (f<r Trtrcr-Tt/ws, Trertr-TttTos, 80). 

341. These in -uios drop o of the stem : 

-//!)<. //, y(paiT(fto<i and rarely y<pau>re/M>, ytpuiTaros. 
-aAato, <if/f(/, TraAatVt/xjs or 7raAaw)T</x>s, TraAttiTaros or TraAaioraTos. 
o-^oAaio?, leisurely, a-\o\aiTpo<i and rarely <rxoAaioT/>o, o-^oAtttT 
and rarely o'xoAatoTaro?. 

7rp (adv ), beyond, irtpairtpos, further. 


342. Tliese drop o of the stem and add -cu'repos and -cura-ros : 
Mros, middle, /xecr-airepos, /xecrcuVaTos ; evo'ios, serene; ^0-7^05, quiet ; 

18109, OM7?i (tSiairepo? and iStatraros late) ; ros, eqiial } op6pio<s, early ; 
o^tos, Zaie ; TrAr/crtov (adv., 77X770-105 poetic), wear, TrAryo-icuVepos, TrXryo-iai- 
raros ; TrapaTrAvyo-ios, /i&e ; Trpwibs, Attic TT^WOS, ear% ; irpovpyov (adv.), 
advantageous, has Trpovpyiairepo's. 

343. These reject o of the stem and add -eo-repos and -eo-raros : 
"A.Kpdro's, unmixed, d/c/odT-ecrrepos, u/cpdr-eo-TaTos ; epptafj-evos, strong ; 

s, bounteous, free from envy (oftener dffrdovwTepos and d<$ova>TaTos) ; 
, adv. da-fj.fveo-Ta.Ta. and do-//vatTaTa ; CTriVeSos, plain, has 
ype/aa (adv.), quietly, lias r}/3/io-Tpos, more guiei. 

344. 1. These reject o and add -to-re/oos and -MTTCITOS : 

AaXos, talkative, AaA-io-re/oos, AaA-to-raros ; /iovo</>ayos, eating alone; 
s, dainty; KaKtjyopos, calumnious; Adyi/os, lewd; rarely 

2. Adjectives in -775, gen. -ou, also have this form of comparison ; as 
s, </'/, thievish, /cAen-tcrre/jos, /cAeTTTicrTaTos. But vj3purT->j<s, insolent, 
makes v/SpLo-TOTepos, vjSpia-TOTa.TO's (a neuter of the positive, v/3pia-Tov, occurs 
rarely in Comedy). 

345. Compounds of X"/ 315 ac ^ -w-repos and -w-Taro? to the stem ; as 
eTri'xapis (TTi\apiT-), pleasing, eTrixapiT-wrepos, 7rixa/>tT-wTaTOS. 

346. Contract adjectives in -oo? drop final o of the stem and add 
-ea-Ttpos and -eo-raros ; as (ewoos) ei>Vovs, ivell-disposed, cui/oeo-TC/)os = 


347. Adjectives in -wv, -ov (stem -ov-) add -ecrre/Dos and -fo-Taros to the 
stem ; as o^w^/awv (a-ux^pov-), prudent, o"w<^/oot'-eo'Tpos, o"w<^pov-eo"TaTos. 

348. Adjectives in -ets add -repos and -TCXTOS to the stem in -er- 
(321, 2) ; as \apiei<s, graceful, xapiea-Tepos, ^apiecrTaTo<s (for x a / 3tT " T / 3OS > 
XpiT-TaTos, 321, 2). 

349. Adjectives in - add partly -eo-rcpos and -eo-Taros, partly -to 
and -t'o-TotTos, to the stem ; as d</>ryAt, elderly, d<^T/AiKo-Tepos, d^Ti 
TUTOS ; a/D7ra^, rapacious, cx/DTrayio-re/Dos, u/aTrayio-Taros. 

COMPARISON BY -t<wi^, terror 

350. A few adjectives in -f<? and -^09 form the comparative by 
dropping these endings and adding -Z&>z> and -to-ro? to the 7*00^, not 
to the stem. In prose only these adjectives are thus compared : 

rjSv<s, sweet t'jSlwv, ?ySio-Tos 

's, swift Bdcra-wv (for 6d\-y(DV, 102), 

base a.l(T\ttav, atV^'o-ros 

hostile i\0ttv, f\6ia-To<; 


351. Comparatives in -lo>v, neuter -lov, have recessive accent 
and are declined thus : 

Nom.TjStv TjSlov Nom.T)8fovs rgStovs rjSiova f|8t 

('en. TjStovos ' N. A. V. fjSfovc Gen. TjSiovwv 

Dnt. f,8fovi G. D. T|8uJvoiv Dat. T|8to<ri , 

Ace. TjStova f ( 8tw ijSiov Ace. T|8tovas fjStovs f|Sfova TjStw 

Yoc. <J8lov Voc. T|8tovs f|8tows TjStova TjSiu 

352. NOTE. Irregular comparatives in -<av (354) are declined and 
recessively accented like t'jSiwv. 

353. NOTE. The forms t]8l(a for jfiiova and ^Sr'ovs for ySfoves are from 
a different stem in -<xr-, thus : r}8ro(tr)a contracted to r}8r'w (compare alSa><s, 
249) and /8to(<r)s to jfiiows ; the form 7/St'oj^ serving also as an accusative. 
The long and the short fornis are used indifferently in Attic. 


354. The following adjectives are irregularly compared : 

1. <vya0o$, good 



xpcio-a-wv or Kptirruv Kp 


Of these fi)rms, /JeAriwi', /JeAno-ros, refers rather to intrinsic or moral 
worth ; a/xciVwr, a^urro? express utility, fitness, excellence (a/>i(rros, related 
to a.p-Tt'i, virtue, excellence} Kpfura-wv (from K/KT-I/WV) and K/aarwrTos express 
power or SHjKriority (Epic Kpari's, jimcerful, TO /cparos, strength, power) ; the 
rare \aHav (for Awtwr) and A<Jkrro express desirability, and are used mostly 
with reference to the future. 

2. KOXtft, >"/'/ KaKttJV KO.KtCTTOS 

<j<r<rwv or JJTTWV ^Kwrra (adv.), 

Of these forms, \dp<i>v (for \tp-ytav, Epic X^P' 1 !^ weaker, inferior) and 
are equivalent to the I. at in deterior, deterrimus, and are opposed to 
', y3e Arurro-s ; /ero-ui' (for -ijK-ytav, 96, 1), Latin inferior, is opposed to 
v, Lat. tupcrior. 

3. KoX4s, Itrnuliful KoXXtwv (TO .d\\-oi, ocauly) KaXXurros 

4. l^Yat, ^r-< (i((iv (for nty-yur, 96, 1) jiy-urros 

5. p.lK-p<is, ma// p-iKporjpos 

See also 6X1701 below. 




6. dXt-yos, little, few 

7. iroXvs, much 

8. paSios. easij 

9. 4>iXos. dear 

6XeLl>v (on inscr.) 

The following belong to both /uKpo 


IXdo-o-wv or IXctTTwv (e\dff<rd>v 
for eXax-ywv (96, 1), stem e\a.xv-, 
Horn. eXdxa) 

fjo-o-ov or fjfTov, less, minus 

irXeiwv or irXc'wv (97), neuter some- 
times irXciv 


(<t>i\rfpos poetic) 

<f>iXaiT6pos (rare) 

p.d.XXov (fnXos (355) 


ami 6X1705 : 


<j>iXaiTaros (rare) 
(idXio-ra <|>iXos (355) 

10. dX-yetvos, painful 

aXyitov (rb &\yos, pain) 

355. Comparison by jxaXXov and jidXwrra. Sometimes the 
parative arid superlative are formed by joining /xaAAov (magis) and 
(maxime) to the positive. This occurs mostly in cases where the regular 
mode of comparison would be difficult to form. Participles always compared 
in this way. Thus S^Aos, plain, fj.a.XXov 8^Aos, more plain, fj.dX.KTTa S?}Aos, 
most plain ; ayaTrwv, loving, /j-aXXov dyaTrwv, ^dAwrra dyaTrwv. Sometimes 
/MctAAov is to be rendered by in a higher degree; and /idAwrra by in the 
highest degree or in a very high degree. 

356. Positive wanting. Some comparatives and superlatives lack the 
positive ; their stem is usually seen in an adverb or preposition. In 
ordinary prose only the following : 

:, former 

(irpo, before) 
(KCITM, dovmward) 
(' out) 

, latter, later 

s, near) eyyure/so?, nearer 

, far off) 7ro/o/3WTpos, farther off 

(irpovpyov, advantageous) irpovpyiairtpos, more ad- 
vanta/jeous . 

(i}pf/j,a, quietly) ijp/JL(crTepo<i, more quiet 

vcrrepos, later, latter 

TT/OWTOS (from Trpo-aros), 


KorwraTos, lowest 
vcrraTos, last 
Sfjfo/r9t (for 

furthest, extreme 
e'yyi'raTos, nearest 

vcrraros, last 




357. Formation of Adverbs. Adverbs are regularly formed from 
adjectives by adding -ws to the stem, which has here the same form as 
in the genitive plural.. The adverb is accented like the genitive 
plural, and is contracted if the latter is contracted. 

<t'Au>s, dearly from adjective <i'Aos gen. pi. 

s, irufly <ro<os 

s, simply enrAoos 

, wholly Tra? 

, siriftly rani's 

, truly dA;#7/s 

/xeydAws, greatly /neyas 

<ru)<t>p5v(a i i, prudently crwe^pwv <rio</>/w>v<ov. 

For various other endings of adverbs, see Part IV. (Word-formation). 

358. Occasionally adverbs are regularly formed from participles ; as 
TTay/m'u>s, regularly, from Teray/xevos (TTay/xi/wv) ; Sia</>epofTa>s, differently, 
from Siafapw (Sia<f>fp6iTtav). 

359. The accusative neuter singular or plural of adjectives is often used 
as an adverb ; as TroAu or TroAAo, much (from TroAus) ; /^ya or yueyeiAa, 
greatly (from /xeyas). 

360. Comparison of Adverbs. The neuter accusative singular is 
used as the comparative of the adverb; the neuter accusative 

is used as the superlative. 

(<ro<os), icisely croffxarfpov 

is), sweetly ffilov 

\apif VTIOS (^a/juts), f/racefully \apif<rTfpov \apifa~TaTa 

crox^/joi'w? ((T(a<^ptav), prudently <r(a<j>pov(<rrpov o-w^povlcrTaTa 

361. Sometimes the comparative is formed in the same way as the 
jxwitive ; as KaAAtovws (/caAAtwi'), Tnore beautifully; cra<f>ea-Tep(a<s (a-a</>TT/3Os), 

362. Adverbs in -to usually form the comparative and superlative in 
-Ttpu> and -TttTw ; as ayto, above, dvwrepw, dvc^raTU). So KTW, below, cw, 
outride, <o-w, within, Trpxrw or TTO/XTW = Attic iroppa), far off. From prep. 
ajro, from, come us-wrepw, farther, and aTrwreiTw, fartJiest ; eyyv's, nea? , has 
cyytT/xo or eyyire/wv, c'yyirraTU) or eyyvrara. A few others are dialectic 
or late. 

363. Kr, well, has a/teiror, apttrra ; /xdAa, much, very, has /xuAAor (for 
fiaX-yov, 96, 4), more, rather, /idAurra, most; JJOTTOV or ij-rrov (for t'jK-yov, 
96, 1), few, and I/KUTTO, /ea<, are from a stem 17*-. 





364. The definite article o (stem o- and TO-) is declined 



Nom. 6 T| TO" Nom. ol at T& 


Dat. Tp Tij T< G. D. TOIV TOUV TOIV Dat. TOIS Tats TOIS 


365. NOTE. The feminine dual forms rd and Talv rarely occur ; ro> 
and TOIV are used instead. 

366. NOTE. There is no indefinite article in Greek. But sometimes 
the indefinite TIS (385, 386) is equivalent to a or an; as dvt'jp TIS, a certain 
man, or a man. 


367. The personal pronouns are : 706, I, crv, thou, ov, of him, 
of her, of it. Auro9, avrr), avro, himself, herself, itself, is also used 
as a personal pronoun of the third person for him, her, it, them, 
in the oblique cases, but not in the nominative. 


fyw, I 

o-v, thou 












(XOL. |JLOl 







<K |U 







N. A. 






G. D. 









v|xcis, you 


</iC)/ avroi 





-L - 



















368. NOTE. We sometimes find the enclitic ye joined to eyw, e'/xoi', and 
<rv : e'ytoyf, efj-oiye (152, 4), cri'ye. 


369. NOTE. 1. The forms pav, poi, fie, <rov, <rot, ere, also oi', of, e, are 
enclitic (see 152, 1). For the rare cases of of retaining its accent, see the 

2. The forms i/ttwr, /f"', r}fts, v/awv, vplv, vfias, when not emphatic, 
are sometimes accented in poetry T//XWI', }ttti', ij/xus, r/zon', fyth', fyxus, with 
short I and d in the dat and ace. We sometimes find and vftiv even 
when these pronouns are emphatic. No examples of 7^/xds and v/ids seem 
to occur in Attic poetry. 

370. NOTE. 1. For the use of the personal pronoun of the third person, 
oi>, ot^ etc., see the Syntax. 

2. The Tragedians have also Ionic cr</>iV (enclitic) masc. and feni. for 
<r<f>uTi, rarely used as a singular ; Epic <r<e (enclitic) masc. and fern, for 
o-<as, sometimes used as a singular ; and the Doric ace. vlv (enclitic) for all 
genders, singular and sometimes plural. 

371. NOTE. The stems of the personal pronouns are : /xe- (Latin me\ 
vw- (Latin nog), 7//x<- ; <r- for T- from original rff- (Latin te, tuus), <r</)o>-, 
r/xt- ; <- for /- from original tr/- (Latin se, suus), o-c/>-. 'Eyw is from 
original <y<or ; and <rv (for original TV) is from a shorter stem TV-. 

372. NOTE. AI'TOS has three uses (see the Syntax). 

1. As an intensive pronoun, it means self (Latin ipse) ; as aurbs 6 dvt'jp, 
the man himself. 

2. In the oblique cases, it is the ordinary personal pronoun of the third 
person, of him, her, it, them, etc. 

3. Preceded by the article, as o aiVos, >} ai'rv/, TO aiVo, it means the 
tame, as 6 avros dvi'/p, the fame man. 

373. NOTE. Crasis with the article and auros often occurs (58, 1) ; as 
avrros, aim/, TUVTO (also THVTOV). Especially frequent is this with the forms 
of the article beginning with T and ending in a vowel : TaiVou for TOV 
aiVo?, TaiTip for Tp aiTip, TaiVa for Ta aiVa, TavT?/ for ry avry ; but 
Tai'-ra and Tarry must not be confounded with Tairra and TO.VTIJ, which 
l>elong to OVTOS, this (380). 


374. The relloxive ])ronouns are formed by the union of the 
Item* of the personal pronouns and avros. They are : e^avTov, 
cpavrfis, of mt/xt'lf, treavrov, areavrij^, of thyself, eavrov, eavrtjf, of 
7////;.s/7/, hrwlf, it.wlf. In the plural the two pronouns are 
declined separately, but the third person plural has also the 
compound form. 











f](id>v avT<uv TJJXWV avrwv 


T|u.a.s avrovs tjp-ds avrus 



V|x<ov auTcov 
xi[iLV avrois v\Liv 

up. as a u TO us 

' auToov 


Masc. Fern. 




avrov <avrt)s cavrov 
avr<{> lavTfl eauTto 
ttvro'v eawrfjv lavrd 








For the plural eaurwi/ etc., also 

Gen. M. F. N. o-<J>wv 

Dat. M. N. o-<j>o-iv avrois 
Ace. M. , o-^>ds avrovs 

375. The forms creavrov, (reavTrj 
often contracted ; as o-avrov, O-O.VTTJS, 


F. tr<j>o-iv avrais 
F. r<j>ds avrds 

s, etc., and eavrov, e 
avrov, aiTiJs, etc. 

, etc., are 


376. The reciprocal pronoun aX\,rj\a)v, of one another, is used 
only in the oblique cases of the dual and plural. The stem is 
\o- for d\\-a\\o-> 

Gen. dXX^Xoiv dXX^Xeuv dXX^X,oiv 
Dat. dXXV|Xoiv dXXt|Xaiv dXXrjXoiv 
Ace. aXXi'i\co aXXV]\a 

dXXVjXwv dXXTjXtov dXXVjXwv 


377. These are formed from the stems of the personal pro- 
nouns. They are : 

p.<Js, |iV|, 4|i<Jv, my f|[irpos, -d, -ov, our 

<rrfs, a~f\, <r6v, thy v(i^Tpos, -d, -ov, your 

[5s, TJ, &v, his, her, its] <r<j>^Tpos, -d, -ov, their 

They are declined like adjectives in -os, -a, -ov. 

378. NOTE. ?0s is never used in Attic prose, rarely in Attic poetry. 
It is expressed in prose l>y avrov, aim"}? ; as r) oiVt'a avrou, his houte. In 
Tragedy we often find Doric d/*o (sometimes written a/xos) for / 





379. 1. The principal demonstrative pronouns are : 

8S, fftt, T<$, this (here) 

ofrros, ai'TT), TOVTO, (his, that 

{KIIVOS, lxt'.vr\, fccivo, that (there, yonder) 

2. Of these o6, which is formed from the article and the demonstrative 
ending -8< (enclitic), is declined like the article, with -Be appended to each 
form. Orros has the article in the first syllable which has ou if the article 
had an o- sound (o, <o, ov), and av if the article had a or 77. 'E^ceii/os is 
declined like ai'ros (367) ; the Ionic form KIVOS is used alongside of ( 
in poetry. 

380. Declension of oe and ovros, this : 


Norn. 88< 


Ace. rov8 









N. A. 

G. D. roivSc 






Num. ot8 aiS Tu8c OVTOI adrai TaOra 

ToirS raurSc Toio-8 TOVTOIS TavTais TOVTOIS 

Ace. Tov<r8 Tdo-8t TeL8 TOVTOVS TavTas TUVTO 

381. NOTE. Separate feminine dual forms ruSe, raii/St, rairrd, ruvratv, 
are very rare. 

382. Other Demonstratives are : 

tTtpos, (Ttpa, itTtpoi', thf one or the, other (of two) 


- > " / \ 

roo-oirros, rwraiTj/, Tcxroirro(') ) 

*. TOUMX, TOlOl'rtf ) 

/ v ^ *Mr/i (in quality) 

(l') ) *' 


Trj\.iKi'xrS( t rrjXiKi'/Sf, TT)\iKoi'8f ) . . 

TT/AtAcofTov, TT;AiKa/T7;, Tr;AiKorTo(v) J 

383. NOTK. 1. The forms in -ouros are declined like O?>TOS, thus : 




TOCTOUTO?, Too-cum/, Tocroi'To(i'), gen. TOCTOVTOV, Tocrai'T^s, TC<TOI'TOV, etc. ; 
the neuter singular has two forms : one with, and one without -v. 

2. The forms in ~8e are declined like the simpler forms TOO-O?, TCHOS, 
Ti/XtKb?, with -8e appended to each form. The simple forms TOO-OS and 
TOIOS occur in Attic prose only in a few stock phrases ; as ocrojire/a av irXeiovs 
e/3yaoH'Tou, TOO- TrXeiova. ra-yaOa evpf'jcrovari, the greater the number that work, 
the more gain mil they find (Xen. Vect. 4, 32) ; ZK TOCTOV, since so long a time 
(Plat. Sympos. 191 C ) ; TOCTOS xal TOO-OS, so and so much ; TOIOS KCU TOIOS, such 
and such (in quality). TiyXi/cos never occurs in Attic prose. 

384. The demonstratives are sometimes emphasised by adding to the 
different forms the particle -f, before which a short vowel is dropped ; as 

UTTjI, TOI'Tf, 68f, 1781, TOoY, TOVTOVC, TOVTCOVt, TaVTl, 

Too-ovTovi. So also in ovrwst, u>8f, thus, just in this way. 


385. 1. The principal interrogative pronoun is rt?, ri, who ? 
which ? what ? always with the acute on the first syllable. 

2. The principal indefinite pronoun ri9, ri, some one, any one, 
is the interrogative pronoun rt? considered as enclitic ; when it 
takes the accent, it is always on the last syllable. 

386. 1. Declension of TI'<? and rt? : 


SING. Norn. rls rl 


Dat. rlvi, TU> 

Ace. riva rl 

G. D. 

PLUR. Nom. 


rls rl 


nvl, TJ> 
Tivd Tl 




TIV0.9 TlVtt Tivds TtVtt 

2. For the indefinite neuter plural rivd, there is also a form 
(never enclitic and not to be confounded with UTTO, from OO-TIS, 393). 

387. NOTE. The acute accent of TIS, rl never changes to the grave 
(143). The accented indefinite forms TIS and TI rarely occur, as they are 
enclitic (156, 2). 


388. Other Interrogatives and Indefinites are : 

iroo-o?, iroor;, irocrov } how much 1 

JTOO-OS, iroa-i), irwrov, of some number or quantity 

xoios, void, iroiov ; of what sort ? 

votos, iroia, irotov, of some sort 

s, 7T7/AtK;, m/AiK-ov ; how old ? or how large ? 
rAtK7, m/Aucop, of some age or of some size 

s, TTortpd, TTortpov ; which of the two ? 

s, TroTfpd, iroTcpov (rare), one of the two 
AT/, aAAo, other, declined like auras 

such a one (see 389). 

389. The indefinite 6, J, rb otiva, such a one, so and so, is Attic 
only, and used in familiar speech and always takes the article. It is 
seldom indeclinable, and is usually declined thus : 


(All Genders) (Masculine) 

Norn. i ^ rb Sctva o! 8civs 

Gen. TOV TJ)S TOV 8ivos TWV Stfvwv 

Dat. Tuj TT| TO) 8{lVl 

Ace. Tbv rf|v rb Suva TOVS 8ivas 


390. The relative pronoun is o?, r), o, who, which. 


Nom. 8s <j 6 Norn, o'l at & 

Gen. ov Ijt ov N. A. & u w Gen. c&v Jv wv 

Dat. V i G. D. olv otv olv Dat. ols als ols 

Ace. ov <jv 8 Ace. otis as a 

391. NOTE. Feminine dual forms u and aiv seem not to occur, or are 

392. NOTE. For os used in its originally demonstrative meaning in 
certain expressions, see 789 and the Syntax. For the r-forms of the 
article used as a relative in Homer, Herodotus, and in Tragedy, see 959 
and the Syntax. 

393. The indefinite relative 5<rri<;, f}n<;, ori, whoever, whatever, 
is composed of the relative os and the indefinite 7-49, each being 
declined separately. 



Nom. Sorts iJTis 8 TI 

Gen. ofrrivos, STOV fjo-nvos oSrivos, 8rov 

Dat. WTIVI, STW JJTIVI (uTivi, 8ra> 

Ace. 8vriva fjvnva 8 TI 


G. D. oIvTivoiv olvrivoiv olvnvoiv 


Nom. ol'rivss a?Tivs firiva, &TTO, 


Dat. oloTuri, 8rois alorrwri oToruri, STOIS 

Acc. oCorivas aernvas &nva, firra 

394. NOTE. For the accent, see 153, 6. The shorter forms OTOU, OTW, 
OTCOV, OTOIS, are seldom used in Attic prose, but nearly always in Attic 
poetry and inscriptions. The longer equivalents of these short forms are 
hardly ever found in Attic poetry. The plural arra must not be con- 
founded with drra which belongs to rts (386, 2). "0 TI or o, TI is thus 
written to distinguish it from the conjunction, on, that, because. 

395. Other Relatives are : 

exros, as much as ; OTTOO-OS, however much 
ofos, of which sort ; OTTOIOS, of which sort 

s, of which age or size ; OTT^AI'/COS, of whicJiever age or size 
s, whicJiever of tlie two. 


396. The following table shows the correspondence in form and 
meaning of the interrogative, indefinite, demonstrative, and relative 
pronouns : 


IN IM.r. 1.1,1.. 

T[J ; who ? which ? rlj, any one 65e, this (here) ; oC- 5s, tforts, who, which 

what ? TOJ, this, that 

ir6(ros ; liow much ? irwk, of some quan- (TO<JOS), -roatxyot, TO- 8<ros, Siroffos, (as 

how many ? quan- tity or number, troOroj, so much, much, as many) 

tus ? aliquantus so many, tantus as, quantus 

irotos ; of what sort 1 7roi6y, of some sort (rotoj), roi6cr5e, TOI- ofoj, oTrotos, of which 

quails ? oOToj, such, tails. sort, (such) as, 





how old t mjX/KOJ, of some age (rjjXiVos), -n)\iKOffSe, ^\/KOJ, oirijXkoj, of 
how large t or size TTjXiA-oDros, so old which age or size, 

or so large (as old) as, (as 

large] as 

vbrtpot ; which oftlic Tbrtpos or Korepfa, ?rpos, one or the owbrfpot, whichever 
twof one of two (rare) other (of two) of (he two 

397. NOTE. For the forms in parentheses roaos, TOIOS, 777X1*05, see 
383, 2. 

398. 1. The particles ovv, <5>/, S?/ TTOT, o-/j TTOT' ovv are sometimes 
added to indefinite relatives to make them more indefinite ; as OO-TIS ouv, 
whosoever, whatsoever, any one soever, CKTTIS 8?y, OO-TIS S'l'i TTOT, OTTI? 8y TTOT' 
of i' ; also written as single words, as OO-TKTOUV, (XTTwrS/y, 
QcrruTdtriroTO vv. 

2. Similarly TIS added to the otros, OTTOCTOS, CHOS, oTrotos, and oT 
makes their meaning more indefinite ; as OTTOIOS TIS, of what kind soever. 

3. The enclitic Trtp added to relatives, makes them more emphatic 
ofo? irep, of which sort exactly. 

399. 1. There are also the negative pronouns ovofTfpos 
neither of the two ; and poetic oiVis, /AT/TIS, no one (for prose ovSeis, 
412), of which OVTI and //TI, not at all, are used in prose. 

2. Negative adverbs are ov8a/iov and p.r]8a/j.ov, nowhere, ovSa/xy and 
fjir)oafj.ij, in no way, oi'Sa/iws and /t7/8a/iws, i/i ?io manner, and several others. 

400. The correlative TroSaTros, from what country ? cujils ? has the series 
os, o/ our country, nostras, rfttoaTros, of your country, vestras, uAAo- 
of another country, foreii/n, TrarroSaTros, of every kind, and the in- 

definite relative o;ro8a7ros, of what sort, of what country. 


401. Certain correlative adverbs are formed from the same stems 
as the correlative pronouns. 


rov ; where f 

vMtf ; whence t 

rof ; whither f 

irot/, somewhere, 

ttoQlv, from 
some, place, 
TOI, to some 
pint", aliquo 

(IvOa.), (itOddt, 
ivra.\J0a, there, 
hie, ibi 
(tvOev), ivOivot, 
IvrcuOcv, thence, 
liinr, hide 
(frflo), ivB&k, 
ivravOa., thither, 
hue, eo 

o5, tt>0a, 
where, ubi 

oOev, tvfftv, 
whence, unde 

of, fvffa, 
whither, quo 

Sirov, wherever 


Sir 01, whither- 





irbre ; when 1 irort, at some 
quando ? time, ali- 


r6re, then, 

ore, when, 



OTrire, u'hen- 

' . ~l 


riviKa, at 

oTT7)viKa, at 

what time? 


which time, 

what time 

TyviKavTa, at 



that time 

try ; which 

Try, some ivay, 

(TT/), TflSe, Tavrrj, 

rf' which 

STTT;, in which 

ivay? how? 


this way, thus 

way, as 

way soever 



irws ; how ? 

7r(us, somehoiv, 

(TWS), (cos), <55e, 

coj, uairep, 

STTWJ, as, 

quomodo ? 


otfrws, thus, 

as, that, ut 



so, ita, sic 

402. NOTE. The indefinite adverbs above are all enclitic (152, 2). 

403. NOTE. The forms in parentheses are not used in Attic prose 
except in certain expressions ; as KOL ws, even thus ; ov&' &s, fJ-ij^' ws, not even 
thus ; Zv6a fj.ev . . . evda Se, or evdev pev . . . ev6(v 8e, here . . . there ; 
ev0fv Kol fvdev, on both sides. Otherwise in prose evda is used like the 
relatives o$ and of, and ev6tv like o6fv. The demonstrative ws is accented. 

Tg and TWS are poetic. 

404. The indefinite relative adverbs may also be made more indefinite 
by the addition of the particles ovv, 877, Srj, TTOTC, 8tj TTOT' ovv (compare 
399, 1). 

405. 1. Correlative adverbs are formed from the stems of 
airros, aAAos, Tras, 

eKei, there, 

tKfWev, thence, 

Retire, thither, 

avrov, at, the 
very place, 
on the spot 

from the very 

avTofff, to the 
very place 

&\\offe, else- dXXore, at 

dXXws, in 


from another 
place, aliunde 

whither, another time 

another way, 


from every- 

to all places 

ever >/ way or 


from nowhere 


oWa/xi^s, in no 

2. Poetic are KfWi, /cei^ev, Kcwre for exci, tKfiOev, CKCICTC (379, 2). 





406. The following are the numerals with their signs, aud the 
numeral adverbs as far as they occur : 

























1 P' 










































4> - 


els, pCa, fv, one 
8vo, tiro ^ 
rpcls, rp(a 



TpiaKaiStxa (407) 

WKaCScKa (413) 


tts Kal ttKOCTl Vi 

or jiKoeri (Kal) 





Sidxoo-ioi, -at, -a 
TpidKoa-ioi, -at, -a 
TtTpaK<xrioi, -at, -a 
irtirraKOo-ioi, -at, -a 







Kal StKaros 
Kal StKaros 

Kal 8Karos 
ii-y8oo5 Kal 

irpwros Kal IKOO-TOS 














412 NUMERALS 109 








laKo<rioi, -at., -a 
irraKo<rioi, -ai, -a 
oKTaKoo-ioi, -ai, -a 





cvaKoo-Loi, -ai, -a 



/ a 

XtXtoi, -at, -a 



/ i 


8io-xtXioi, -ai, -a 
TpwrxtXioi, -at, -a 
(juipioi. -ai, -a 

8LtrU.ljpLOL. 0.1, -a 



or 8vo fj.vpia.Scs (426) 
100,000 ,p SKaKKT|j.-6pioi, -ai, -a SeKaKKr|xvpio<rTos 


407. For 1 3 and 1 4 there arc also -jyms (rpia) /cat Swa and 
(recro-apa) /cat 3e/ca ; in these the first part is declined (409). Ordinals 
ot the form Tpewr/catSe/caTo?, Teo-crapeo-KatSeKaros, etc., are used in Ionic 
and late Greek, rarely in good Attic writers. 

408. All ordinal numbers and the cardinals from 200 on are 
declined like other adjectives in -09. The cardinals from 5 to 
100 are indeclinable. 

409. The cardinal numbers el?, one, Bvo, two, rpeis, three, and 
re'crcrape? or Terrace?, four, are declined thus : 

Nom. cts (xi'a &> 

Gen. v<5s fiids tvo's N. A. 8vo 

Dut. evL \L\4 tvl G. D. 8uolv 

Ace. ?va 

Nom. rptis rpfa T^<r<rapes rscrerapa 

Gen. rpiwv Tecrordipwv 

Dat. rpwri T<r<ropcri 

Ace. rptis rpia. TtVo-apas T'<r<rapa 

410. NOTE. Ef? is from ev-s (40). The stein ev- was originally <rffj.-, 
and from this are derived /xta (for (jyzia), air-a^ (from original ayu-a/cis), 
-7rAo{is, eVtpos, e-KdTov ( = one hundred). 

411. NOTE. Avo, two, with a plural noun, is sometimes uninflected. 
The forms Suety for the genitive and 5ucrt(v) for the dative belong to late 

412. Like efs are declined its compounds ov6V? and /x^Set's, no one, none. 
Thus oi'Scts, ov8ep,ia, ovSev, gen. ovSevos, ou6eyu,tas, dat. ovSevi, oi'Se//,i^i, ace. 

, ovSev ; the plural forms oi'^eve?, oi'^erwv, ov8f<ri t ov8fvu.s 

110 NUMERALS 413 

often occur. When oi'Sei's and /^8is are written ovoe efs and /zr/oe cis, not a 
*>u', or when av or a preposition is interposed, as oi'6" e tvo<i,from no one, 
fiijS' av cis, the negative is more emphatic. For ovoWs, /-tr/Sei's, ovSei', 
/*/&', the late Greek had ovdet's, n^deis, ovOtv, (JujOtv. 

413. The cardinals 18 and 19, 28 and 29, 38 and 39, etc., are 
frequently expressed by subtraction and the participle of feu, lad: 
Thus T}S fuas &oixrat Tr<rapa.KOVTa, 39 S/UJ9S (ThllC. 8, 7) ; irtvT-i'jKOVTa. 
Svolv Stovra ITTJ, 48 years (Thuc. 2, 2). So also with the ordinals ; as 
cVos 8co>v 7TjT7jKO(rrbs av7//>, the forty-ninth man; 'bs Stovrt T/KaK<xrr<p 
CTCI, in the twenty-ninth year (Thuc. 4, 102). 

414 For the combination of 20, 30, 40, etc., with units, there are 
three forms for cardinals ; as Trevrt KCU CIKOO-I, five and twenty, or eucoo-i 
KOI TTfvrc, twenty and fire, or etKoo-t Tren-e, twenty-Jive. 

415. The ordinals from twenty-first to twenty-ninth, thirty-first to 
thirty-ninth, etc., may be expressed in two ways ; as Tre/xTrrbs KCU eiKoo-ros 
or eixotrrbs >cai ire/iTrros, twenty-fi/th. For twenty-first there is also cfs 
Kat ttKooTos (evbs KOI C/KOOTOV, vi /cat CIKOO-TW, etc.) 

416. 1. Mvptot means 10,000. But pvpioi (with change of accent) 
means innumerable, countless, rast, extreme; also in the singular /iiyn'os ; 
as nvpios xpdvos, countless time, pvpid Trevid, extreme poverty. 

2. The numerals in -101 are also used in the singular with collective 
nouns, especially with t] ITTJTOS, cavalry, and 1} OOTTI'S, ]ieam/-armed troops 
(lit. sfiield). Thus rijv SiaKwriav itrirov, the 200 cavalry or tlie 200 
Jb0W (Thuc. 1, 62); oorris p.vpl& K<L\ TfTpaKoa-id, 10,400 heavy-armed 
troops (Xen. Anal. 1, 7 10 ). 

3. The genitive o! \t\ia.i is perispomenon in Attic, ^tXiwf, when 
Spaxntov is understood ; otherwise paroxytone. 

417. Notation. 1. The numeral signs given above were in use since 
the second century B.C. The units 1 to 9 are denoted by the letters a to 6', 
the obsolete g~' (for /, van, 14, 1) being inserted for 6. Tens from 10 to 80 
are denoted by t' to TT' ; for 90 the obsolete q' (9, S, koppa, 14, 2) is used. 
Hundreds from 100 to 800 are denoted by p' to a/ ; for 900 the character 
~"^' (sampi, 14, 3) is used. For thousands from 1000 to 100,000, the same 
igns begin again, but with the stroke below the letter, as a for 1000. 
Examples: 00-17, 1253; ^iw//, 7840; Kaxoff, 21,679; irrjv^a, 88,461; 
*<&, 1868 ; vv, 450 ; pft', 102 ; K' 27. 

2. The capitals of the ordinary alphalxit of twenty-four letters are used to 
denote the books of the Iliad, as "2 for Book XVIII. ; the small letters are 
used for the books of the Odyssey, as <f> for Book XXI. 

418. Old Attic Notation. The older Attic system of notation, found 
in inscriptions of the classical period, was the following : 1 I, 2 II, 3 III 

423 NUMERALS 111 

4 IIII, J T (initial letter of TreVre), 5, TI ( = 5 and 1), 7 Til ( = 5 and 2), 
etc., 10 A (AeKa), 12 AI (10 and 1), etc., 15 AI 1 , #0 AA, #./ AAI, etc., 30 
AAA, 40 AAAA, 100 H (HeKarov, old spelling for eicaToV), 200 HH, etc., 
1000 X (xr'Aun), 2000 XX, etc., 70,000 M (Mvpiot). The numbers 50, 500, 
5000, 50,000 were denoted by placing A (10), H (100), X (1000), M 
(10,000) within a large F ( = TrevraKis) thus: I&, i.e. Trevra/cis Se/ca, Jive 
timctteti, 50; FA, 60; F 500; FAA, 520; F, 5000; FX, 6000; W, 
60,000 ; XXFHHF, 2750. 

419. Fractions. Fractions are expressed by TO /xe/oos or >} 
pj,rt, always with the article ; as TO TTC/ATTTOV p,epos or 77 Tre/xTTT?/ 

^- ; TWV TrevTe at 8vo fioipai or TO. 6\'o yu.ep^, -|-. When the denominator 
is omitted, it is always one more than the numerator ; as TO, 8vo fj.fprj 
or ai 8t'o fjioipai, -|. 

420. NOTE. 1. Half, T//XIO-VS, ^/MOTCIO, -IJ/AUTV, can also be expressed by 
?}/xt- (Latin semi-}, compounded with a substantive which then ends in -ov or 
-LQV ; as rj/iiTrXeOpov, half a plethrum (irXeOpov), i^iSdpetKov, half a daric 
(6d/3t/cos), ij/j.t,wj36\Lov, half an obol (o/3oAos). 

2. One-third, one-quarter, one-Jifth, etc., can also be expressed by compounds 
of Tpiros, TTa/)Tos, 7re/x,7rTos, etc., with fj-opiov, part ; as TptTrjfj.6pi,ov, ^ ; 
TtrapTr/fMopLov, ^ ; Trefjumj/Jiopiov, i, etc. 

3. One anrf a 7ia// may be expressed by i/^uoAios. 

4. One airf a third, one and a quarter, etc., may be expressed by eVi, com- 
pounded with T/HTOS, TfTapros, etc. ; as ITT/T/UTOS, 1^ ; 7rtTTupTos, 1^, etc. 

5. One rm'Z a half, two and a half, etc., nuiy be resolved into halves (1^ = 
^, 2^ = 4, etc.) and expressed by the compounds ?//>u- as above in 1 ; as rpia 
v';/xtTttAavTa, 1 .V (-,) talents ; irevre ypifivaia, 2i ( J) minae. Oi'tener the 
compound of ry/xt- is taken with the ordinal of that number from which the 
half ia subtracted ; as rpirov fj/JUTdkavTov, 2^-, i.e. two and yet half of the 
third ; rfraprov ^tTaAavToi/, 3J, etc. Compare the German dritthalb, 
vierthalb, etc. 


421. Other ordinals are : TroAAocrros, one out of many, one following 
many ; and TTOCTTOS, which one of a series ? with its corresponding indefinite 
relative oir<'xrro<s. 

422. Other adverbs in -O.KIS are : TroAAotKis, many times ; 

very often; oAiyaKts, seldom; KcurTaKis, each time; TocravTaxis, so often; 
ocraKts, as often as. 

423. Distributives are formed by cardinals compounded with o-vv, or 
else they are expressed by dvd or Kara or ei's with the accusative ; as 
trvvSvo, two together, two by two ; o-vvrptit or ura (KOTOI, e is) rpfl<s, three by 

112 VERBS 424 

424. Multiplicatives in --Aors (from -TrAoos, Latin -plex) ; as aT 
timpU, SurAoGs, double, two-fold, TpirrAois, three-fold, TTO \\air \ov<s, manifold, 

Also in -TrAcurios expressing how many times ; as oWAourios, twice as much, 
TptTrAeurios, three times as much, jroAAaTrcurios, many timea as much, etc. 

425. Adverbs of division ; as /novaxy, in one part, single ; St'xa or 
Sixy, t'w tico parts; rpi\a or rpi\y, in three parts ; Ttrpaxa or rerpaxy, in 
four parts ; iroAAaxy, """*TaX!?> e * c - 

426. Abstract numeral nouns in -As; as >) /novas (gen. /xovaSos) or 
Ws, the numfar one, unity ; 6W$, the nun^r two, dyad ; rpias, rerpus, 
7T/ijra$ (late irtiTeis), ^as, 7rTas or /3So//,as, o/cras or oy8oas, eVveas, 6Kas, 
i ^eK-ts, etc. ; etKas, 20 ; Tpiaxas, 30 ; TrcrupaKoi'Tas, 40 ; 7rei'T)/KOVTas, 
50 ; eKaroiras, 100 ; X^ l k> 100 5 pvp<-<*s, 10,000. 

Also in -is, gen. -vo : 17 rpiTTi's feen. rpiTTi'os), 3 ; TerpaK-n's, 4 ; 
Trevn/Koo-Tvs, 50 ; tKaroo-TV 1 ?, 100 ; X'^- IOO " T ^ S ) 1000 ; fivpioa-rv^, 10,000. 
TpiTTis in Athens meant one third of a ^>i'Ary, tribe ; Trevn/Koo-Ti's, etc., are 
used of military affairs. 

427. Numeral Adjectives expressing Age. These are compounds of 
-<T7js, -erf? (from TO CTOS, year) with occasional special feminine forms in -ens 
(gen. -criSos, ace. -eYiv) ; as TpiaKovTafTijs contr. TpittKovroi'-nys, TpidKovrafTts, 
special feminine form contr. TpidKovroirris, thirty years old. 

428. Numeral adjectives in -atos, -afa, -aiov formed from ordinals 
(except irpwros) and denoting o the second day, Sevrepatos ; on the third day, 

s, etc. Also TTOO-TGUOS, oi tc/i< day ? 

429. Other words of a numeral character are 

CKarcpos, either (of two) CKUO-TOS, each 

up.</>w, gen. and flat a/x^oiv (I^atin ambo) \ , . 

dfJ.<f>oT(pot., dfJufwTepai, a/x</K)Tepa (more usual) j 

several jras, aW, erej-?/ (320) 


430. Voices. The Greek verb has three voices: the active, 
middle, and passive. 

431. The middle voice generally denotes an action performed by the 
subject on himself or for himself. 

The middle and ]>ns-i\r differ inform only in the future and aorist. 

432. Verbs which have no active voice, but have middle (or middle 
and passive) forms with active signification are called deponent verbs. 

441 VERBS 113 

Deponents are called middle deponents if the aorist has middle 
form, and passive deponents if the aorist has passive form. 

433. Moods. There are five moods : the indicative, sub- 
junctive, optative, imperative, and infinitive. 

434. The first four moods are called finite moods, in distinction from 
the infinitive. The subjunctive, optative, imperative, and infinitive are called 
dependent moods, iu distinction from the indicative. 

435. Participles and Verbal Adjectives. There are active, 
middle, and passive participles ; and verbal adjectives in -ro9 and 

436. Tenses. The indicative rnood has seven tenses : the 
present, imperfect, perfect, pluperfect, aorist, future, and future- 
perfect. The future-perfect is found only in the passive voice, but 
it sometimes has active or middle meaning. The subjunctive and 
imperative have the present, aorist, and perfect. The optative 
and infinitive have the present, future, aorist, perfect, and future- 
perfect. Participles have all the tenses except the imperfect and 

437. Primary and Secondary Tenses. The tenses of the 
indicative are divided into: (1) primary or principal tenses, 
expressing present or future time, i.e., the present, perfect, future, 
and future-perfect ; (2) secondary or historical or past tenses, 
expressing past time, i.e., the imperfect, pluperfect, and aorist. 

438. Second Aorists and Second Perfects. Tenses called 
second-Siorist, and second-perfect (and -pluperfect) occur in many verbs. 
These almost always have the same meaning as the ordinary (or first) 
aorist and perfect (and pluperfect), and differ from the latter only in 
form. Very few verbs have both forms of the same tense, and when 
such double forms occur, they usually differ in meaning. 

439. NOTE. As no Greek verb in regular use has all these tenses, the 
paradigms given include parts of three different verbs. 

440. Numbers. There are three numbers : the singular, dual, 
and plural. 

441. Persons. The indicative, subjunctive, and optative have 
three persons: first, second, and third. The imperative has two 
persons : the second and third. 



442. NOTE. The first person plural is used for the first person dual. 
A rare special form of the first person dual of the middle is given in 579. 


443. Verb-stem or Theme. Every verb has one fundamental 
stem, called the verb-stem or theme, from which the various tense- 
stems are formed. 

Thus, in the verb irXtKta, weave, the verb-stem is TrAe*-, seen in the 
future 7rAtw (;rAK-o-<o), in the aorist rAea (e-ir\(K-a-a) ; in the perfect middle 
7T-7rAy-/xai, in the aorist passive i-Tr\e\-6r]i> ; similarly rpfir<a, turn, verb- 
etem tptir-, seen in rpi\f/ia (rpfTT-a-w), cTpdfra. (f-rpeTT-cra), f-Tpe<J>-dr)v ; so 
TcAt'co (TtAt-), finish, rA-<rw, e-T( A-<ra, Te-reAe-Ka, etc. 

444. NOTE. The verb-stem is frequently not seen in its pure form in 
all the tense?, it being modified in various ways. Thus, in the verb AeiVco, 
leave, the verb-stem AIJT- appears only in the second-aorist system 2-Anr-ov, 
(\iir-6fj.rjv ; in the second-perfect active Ae-Aoi7r-a, it is Aotrr- ; and in all 
other tenses it is AITT- ; in <aiV<o, show, the verb-stem <av- appears in the 
future <ai'-u>, <fniv-ovpat, in the perfect ire-^>ay-/ca (ire-^av-Ka), and in the 
aorists passive i-(j>av-6i)v and (-^dv-^v ; while it is modified in the second - 
perfect ir(-<f>r)v-a ; in KOTTTW, cut, the verb-stem KOTT- appears in all the 
tenses except the present ; in pjo.vda.vw, learn, the verb-stem p.a.6- appears in 
all the tenses (as second-aorist (-fiaB-ov), while in the present it is changed 
to pavQav- ; in favyta, flee, the verb-stem </>vy- has been changed to <f>evy- 
in all the tenses except in the second-aorist (-<t>vy-ov. Other changes in the 
theme will be noticed in 611 621. 

445. NOTE. When a verb forms its tenses from more than one stem, as 
Aru> (AiTr-, Atr-), ^ti'-yw ($17-, fairy-"), <cuV<o (</>av-, <av-y-), the shorter 
stem, as AMT-, $17-, </>>'-, is called the single stem ( = verb-stem or theme). 

446. Primitive and Denominative Verbs. i. The verb-etem 

may be a root, as Aa/J-, take, second aorist e-Aa/3-ov ; TI-, honour, present rt-o> ; 
irAcK-, \reave, present wAtK-w, or else it may be a root with some derivative 
suffix appended, as root TI-, lengthened to rlfia-, present Tf/xa-to. 

2. A primitive verb is one which forms its tenses from a root ; a de- 
nominative verb is one which forms its tenses from a longer theme. As 
a general rule, verbs in -pi (490), and verbs in HO of two syllables in the 
present indicative active, as irAtKw, ireave (or three syllables in the middle, as 
&t \OJJMI, receive), are primitive ; others are denominative. 

447. Vowel, Mute, and Liquid Verbs. Verb-stems ending in a 

vowel are termed vowel-stems, ns <iA-o>, rt/xu-w, Al5-to. Those ending in a 
consonant are called consonant stems, as irX.tK-<a, y/>a<-w, <f>aiv<a (<av-). 


Verbs with vowel-stems are called vowel-verbs or pure verbs, as ri/xa-w, 
Ail-eo, XP^' W - Verbs with steins ending in a mute are called mute verbs, as 
TrAeK-w, ay-w, AeiVw (Xnr-, AeiTr-), rpi(3< (rpl/3-, T/31/3-), -ypd^w. Verbs 
ending in a liquid are termed liquid verbs, as oreAAo) (crreA-), ve/x-w, </>cuVo) 
(<^>av-), Sep-w. 

448. Tense-Stems. 1. From the verb-stem are formed the 
various tense-stems by the addition of certain tense-suffixes, sometimes 
the final vowel of the verb-stem also undergoing a change. 

Thus, the verb-stem AS- forms the present stem Xv/ e -, present Avw, Atfo-ficu ; 
future stem Xv<j-/ e -, future Atcrw, ; first-aorist stem Ai'cra-, first-aorist 
e-Xvcra, e-Awa-/XTjv; first-perfect stem Xe-XvKa-, perfect active Ae-AvKa (modi- 
fied to Ae-Av/ce- for the pluperfect e-Ae-Ai'/o;, 593), perfect-middle stem 
Xf-Xv-, perfect middle Ae-Ai'-/wu, pluperfect e-Xf-Xv-/j.tjv (still further modified 
to Ae-Avcr/- for the future-perfect Xe-Xvcro-fj,ai) ; first-passive stem XvOt- for 
the first-aorist passive e-Xvdrj-v (still further modified to Xvdrjo-ft- for the 
future passive XvOSjo-o-fj-ai). 

2. The tense-stem is usually formed by omitting the augment (if any) and 
cutting off the ending (if any) ; but not the reduplication nor the augment 
standing for it. When the indicative singular ends in -oi, -ets, -, cut these 
off and add the thematic vowel -^-; this will give the tense-stem. 

For a full list of the tense-suffixes, see 569. 

449. Tense-systems. 1. Each tense-stem is the basis of a tense- 
system. Each tense-system includes one or more tenses. The follow- 
ing are the nine tense-systems : 


I Present, including present and imperfect. 
ii. Future, future active and middle. 

in. First-aorist, first-aorist active and middle. 
IV. Second-aorist, second-aorist active and middle. 
v. First-perfect, ,, first-perfect and -pluperfect active. 
vi. Second-perfect, second-perfect and -pluperfect active. 
vii. Perfect-middle, perfect tm& pluperfect middle wt\& future-perfect. 
viii. First-passive, first-aorist and future passive. 
ix. Second-passive, second-aorist and future passive. 

2. The tense-stems of the perfects are modified to form the pluperfect 
stems ; that of the perfect-middle is modified to form the future-perfect 
stem ; the stems of the passive are modified to form the future passive stems. 
The tense-stems are fully explained in 569 and 622 761. 

450. Thematic Vowel. 1. Certain tense-stems end in a 
variable vowel. This is written -%-. Thus, the present stem of 
Af'w is Xv%-, the future stem is Xva-%-. 


2. The subjunctive has the long thematic vowel -"/,-, which is 
thus a sign of that mood : Aeyco-^r, Aey?/-re. 
The thematic vowel is fully explained in 570. 

451. Mood-suffix. The optative has the mood-suffix -i- or -irj- 
(-le-) before the personal endings: At'oi-/zt, AVOJ.S, aor. X&rtu-/u, fut. 

For a full explanation of the moo<l-suffix, see 572, 573, and 608. 

452. Endings. These are appended to the tense-stems to ex- 
press person, number, and mood.', Af-e-T, Arcro-^cu, AiVe-Tai, (Ave-ev) Areir, Ai5e-o-#ai. For a 
full treatment of the endiftgs, see 574 606. 

453. Augment. This is either syllabic or temporal. 

1. The syllabic augment is the vowel e prefixed to the stem of 
the historical tenses of the indicative of verbs beginning with a con- 

A /-in, e-Auov, e-Aiwa, -AeArKTj, e-Xv@yv ; AeiVoj, e-AtiTroi', e-Awroi', 
-A<Aoi7r;, c-Act</>0//c ; <fxu'r<u, e-ffraivov, -<j>tivrjv, etc. 

2. The temporal augment is a lengthening of the initial vowel, if 
short, of the stem of the historical tenses of the indicative of verbs 
beginning with a vowel. 

"Ayd), v/yov, 'IjX&iJv ; tATTt'^w, i}X.iriov; tKerei'w, iKerevov, iKerewra ; O/MOJ, 
o>/xfor, tapura. 

3. In the dependent moods and in the participles of the historical 
tenses, the augment is dropped. 

Thus, aor. indie, act. e-Aitra, sul>j. Avo-w, opt. Af^rai/xi, impcr. Aixrov, inf. 
Aftrat, jirt. AfHrds ; oi/ntru, aor. indie, act. of optfo, lias opitrw, optvaifju, 
opurov, opurat, upi<r<is. 

For a full treatment of the augment, see 523 534, 550, 554 568. 

454. Reduplication. 1. Reduplication consists of a repetition of 
the initial consonant with e, to form the stem of the perfect of verbs 
beginning with a single consonant (except p) or with a mute and a 
liquid. If the verb begins with two consonants (except a mute and a 
liquid), or with a double consonant (, , ^), or with p, the syllabic 
augment takes the place of the reduplication. If the verb begins with a 
short vowel, the temporal augment takes the place of the reduplication. 

A rd), A-Ai'Ka, At-Aryzai ; AtVa>, A<-Aoi7ra, \t-Xfi/i/ ; ypd^no, 
yi-ypmJM, yt-ypap.fjuu ; / T * w > c-^/TijKa, -f>/T7//icu ; o-reAAco, 
-<rraA/*ai ; plirTia, p/>t</>a, fp-pl/ipMi ; dyyeAAw, V/yyeA/ca, 7;yyA/xai. 

2. The reduplication of the perfect, and the augment representing 
it are retained in all the moods and in the participles. 


Af-Xvt<a, Xf-XvKio, Xe-XvKoifJit., Xe-XvKevai, Ae-AuKws, Xe-Xvpai, Xf-Xvo-dai, 
Ae-Avcro, Xe-Xv/j.evos ; e-crraAKa, e-crraAKw, e-crTaA/cot/xi, f-o-raXKfvai, 
e-crTaA/cw9, e-a-raXuai, l-a-raXOai, e-orraAo-o, e-o-Ta.Xfj.fVos ; ?yyyAKa, 


3. In the pluperfect the reduplication is preceded by the syllabic 
augment e ; as Xe-XvKa, e-Xe-Xvia), Ae-Aiyzat, e-Xf-Xr/j,r/v. But if the 
perfect is formed with the augment, the perfect and pluperfect are 
augmented alike, as : e-o-TaA/ca, e-crraAK^, j/yyeA/zai, I'jyyeXujjv. 

For a full treatment of the reduplication, see 535-553, 554-568. 

455. Principal Parts. 1. The principal parts of a Greek verb are 
the first person singular indicative of every tense-stem it has. Most verbs 
have six tense-stems, many have less, and no verb has all nine. If a verb 
has no future active, the future middle is given. The following are the 
principal parts of Xvo>, AetTrcu, Ta<r<ro>, 7r/3acrcrw, ypaffxi), <au><u, crreAAw, 


Ai>a> (Au-, Ai-), loose, XV<TW, eArcra, XtXvKa, AeAv/tat, eXvdrjv. 

(AiTT-, AeiTr-), leave, Aeu^a), AeAoiTra, AeAt/x^ai, eXei^Orjv, 2 aor. 

(ray-), arrange, raa>, era^a, Tra^a, reray/zai, frd 

(irpa.y-\ do, -rrpd^o), fTrpa^a, TreTrpd^a, 2 perf., tirpa'xd^v. 

Tpd(f><D (ypa.(f>-), write, ypa^eo, eypaif^a, yey/oa^a, yeypapfjiat, 2 aor. pass. 

<&aiv(a (<^>av-), show, <ava>, l<^>ryva, 7re<^ayKa, 2 perf. 7T</>^va, ir(<j)a(rfji,a.i, 
f(f>dvdt]V, 2 aor. pass. e<f>dvrjv. 

(o-reA-), se?td, crreAw, eWeiAa, ecrraAKa, tcrraA/iai, 2 aor. pass. 

t, e<TK(t)\f/a, f< 

2. The principal parts of deponent verbs are similarly given. The 
following are the principal parts of (3ovXofj-ai, ytyvoynat, ar#avo/xcu, 

Boi'Ao/icu (/3ovX-), wish, /3ovXr'](roiJ.a.i, /SffSovX^fJuit, e/3ovXi'idrjv. 

Tiyvofiai (yev-), become, yevr/cro/zcu, yeyevr^/xai, 2 aor. eyevo/xryv. 

AltrOdvofJiai (<d<r6-\ perceive, a'urdi', ya-OrjfJMi, 2 aor. y(r66fJ.r)V. 

Mi/ifo/zai coutr. /xt/xoiyzai (jjilfie-), imitate, ^.lfj.i'jcrop.a.1., ffj.lfj.rj(rdfj/^v ) 

456. Two Forms of Inflection. The tense-stems are inflected 
either according to the common form of inflection or according to the 
pi-form (called also the simple form). Some tenses belong to the one 
form and some to the other ; but the present and second-aorist systems 
follow the common form when their tense-stems end in the thematic- 


vowel -%-, otherwise they follow the /zi-form. A synopsis of the two 
forms of inflection is given in 607 6U9. 

457. Verbs in - and Verbs in -ju. Verbs with the present 
system of the common form of inflection are termed " verbs in -w " ; 
and those with the present system of the /Ai-form are called "verbs in 
-/." But the names " verbs in -o> " and " verbs in -/xi " have reference 
only to the present system, and have no bearing on the other systems. 

458. Meaning of the Tenses. 1. In the synopsis of Avw in 460, 

the active of all the moods (except the subjunctive and optative), and the 
indicative of the. middle and passive are tianslated. The future-perfect 
infinitive and participle are rare forms, and cannot be conveniently rendered in 
English. All the subjunctives and optatives are also left untranslated, as 
their meaning can only be learned from the Syntax ; but the following 
examples will give some idea of their uses. 

Subjunctive. Atiwfuv or aor. Atfo-w/zev, let us loosr. "Iva Au&yicv or 
\{'<r<f*ev, in order that we may loose. 'Eav AVW/ACV or Avcrw/nev, if ice shall 

Optative. Ei$ Atfoi/^ii or Awrai/ii, that I may loose. "Iva Xvoifit or 
A&rai/xi, in order that I may loose. Et Afcoi/iev (or A&raiyitci') auroV, Aeyoi 
(or Aai) a.v, if we loosed him, he would say. EITTC on Adot/xi, A&rai/xi, 
Afxroi/it, he said that I was loosing, had loosed, would loose. 

The difference between the present and aorist in the dependent moods is 
explained in the Syntax. 

2. For irregularities of meaning in certain tenses of AeiVw, leave, and 
<aiVu>, show, see 797 and the Catalogue of Verbs. 


459. The paradigms of verbs in -w embrace the following : 

1. Synopsis and conjugation of all the tenses of Avo (Av-), loose (460). 

2. Synopsis of all the tenses of ActVo) (Aur-, AITT-), leave (462) ; and 
conjugation of the second -aorist and second-perfect systems (463). 

3. Synopsis of all the tenses of </>au'w (<ai/-), show (464) ; and conjugation 
of the future, first-aorist, and second-passive systems (465). 

4. The principal parts of the mute verbs TrAe/c-w, weave, dAAacro-w 
(oAAay-), exchamjf, cAty^-co, convict, rptfjta (rplft-, rpi/3-\ rul>. ypd<f>-<i>, write, 
;rt#a> (JTI#-, irtid-), persuade ; of the liquid verbs </>uiVto (<aj'-), shoir, and 
fTTtAAw (crrcA-), tend ; and of the pure verb TA-w, finish (489). Also the 
conjugation of the perfect-middle system of these verbs (485). 

5. Synopsis of all the tenses of the contract verbs Ti/za-ot, honour, <f>t\(-(a, 
low, STJ\<I-M, show, and 07/pa-w, hunt (483) ; with the conjugation of the present 
system of ri/xaw, </>iA'w, and d^Aou; (477). 




11 111 J 

***9i fe 

-g g ^ x ^^ .s 



b bo 


x xx 


3~S 5 
ij JIJ 

HP IP <p HP 




o * S I 

b b 




w w 



S 3 i 3 o w i 3 

J- HP '5 HJ HP <P -0 HP 

e l 

N ^f 









2. Xfois 


o \ ^., 


D. 2. XKTOV 


3. Xfcrov 


P. 1. Xcopiiv 
2. Xm 


3. Xcovo-t 


:'rw. S. 1. Xfo 

2. X^ 

3. Xfyj 

D. 2. X^TOV 


P. 1 X^wiicv 

2. X V 

3. X*KTl 

OPT. S. I. X4oi|u 
2. Xiois 

3. Xcoi 

D. 2. Xioirov 

3. Xvofrrjv 

P. 1. X6oi|uv 

2. Xoir 

3. X6oiv 

IMP. 8. 2. Xv 

3. XWr 

D. 2. Xtrrov 

3. Xv*rw 

P. 2. Xr 

3. Xv^vrwv or XtVrw 



INF. X<v 

PAUT. X6wv 



















S. 1. *Xv<ra 



D. 2. IXtio-arov 


P. 1. 


S. 1. 

D. 2. X$<rt]Tov 



XX^Kw (471) 



P. 1. XtSo-OJfiCV 






OPT. S. 1. Xco-aip-i 


2. X-Ocrais, X^<rias (467) XeXvKOis 

3. Xvcrai, Xvcrtu XcXvKOl 

D. 2. X^o-airov 
3. Xvc 

S. 1. XvicraLfjLv 

2. XccrcuTt 

3. Xtio-aitv, Xf'creiav 

S. 2. Xv<rov 
3. Xvo-drw 

D. 2. Xtiaarov 

3. XCicraTtov 

P. 2. Xtfo-art 

3. Xv<rdvT(av or 

"\\jcr druffav 






[XAwce (475) 




















S. 1. Xfopai 

2. X% X6 

3. Xirrai 

D. 2. X6r0ov 
3. Xif<r0ov 

P. 1. XvojicBa 

2. Xvr0< 

3. Xvovrai 

S. 1. Xiufiai 

2. X$T, 

3. Xi^Tai 

D. 2. X$t|<r0ov 

P. 1. Xvw 

S. 1. 

2. Xcoio 


D. 2. XdourOov 
3. \voUrbi\v 

P. 1. 
3. Xtoivro 

S. 2. 

3. XvcVOw 

D. 2. X0r9ov 
3. XW 



P. 2. X6o-e 
3. Xvrforflwv or 

XiV<r0(iMrai> (466) 

















s 'l:*Z & r v 

D. 2. &.v<ra<r0ov 

P. 1. eXvcrd}A0a 

3. IXio-avTO 


8. 1. X\5cra)( 
2. Xtfc-g 

3. Xftnrnu 

D. 2. Xtfo-T]<r0ov 

P. 1. Xv<rw|X0a 

3. XiJcrcovraL 


S. 1. Xvo-ajJiT]v 

D. 2. Xtfo-awr0ov 

P. 1. Xv<raj0a 
3. XiKraivro 


S. 2. Xvorai 
3. Xvcrd<r0(i> 

D. 2. Xti<rao-0ov 
3. Xii<rd<r0wv 

P. 2. Xti<ra<r0 
3. Xv<rd<r0wv or 










S> (472) 
XcXvficvos fjs 

XeXxija-e'vco TJTOV 

XfXWvos el'tiv (472) 

XcXvpit'vos cl'i] 

XcXv|iva> eLT]Tov or etrov 

XeXup-e'voi 6LT]p.v or eC(JLf 
XeXx)(jLtvoi. l'i]T or ctre 
XeXu|j.voi eiT|o-av or elev 

XeXva-o (475, 746) 


XeXv<r0wv or 













S. 1. XcXtfo-oficu (474) 

2. XtX^CTT], XtXxKTfl 

3. XeXtcrtTai 

D. 2. XXi<rr9ov 


P. 1. XXOr6ji9a 

2. XX&rr9 

3. XiXccrovrai 

S. 1. 

D. 2. 

P. 1. 

S. 1. XcXv<ro{}iT]v 

2. XiXvo-oio 

3. XcXca-oiTo 

D. 2. XcXi<roMr9ov 

P. 1. XcXv<ro(|ic9a 

2. XjXoo-oio-01 

3. XiXtcroivTo 

S. 2. 

D. 2. 

P. 2. 







Xv9<irov or XwflfftjTov (468) 
or Xv9ei^TT)v 

Xv9fiTi or Xv9c(TjT 
Xv9civ or Xv9(t](rav 



Xv0vTuv or 

Xv0i's, XvOtura, 








TJ, -or 

T|, -OV 




462. SYNOPSIS OF \dirw (Xewr-, XMT), leave 



1 4. SECOND- 





Pres. and 



2 Aorist 


2 Perf. and Plup. 

XcXoCiro) or XeXoi-mbs c5 
XeXotiroijj.1 or XcXoiircias 








Pres. and 


2 Aorist 


Perf. and Plup. 


\elir wjjuu 







Pres. and 


Perf. and 



] Future 

\ei<p0& (for 


Like the 



Like the 







IN r>. 

8. 1. i'Xiirov 



2. IXiim 



3. IXiirt 






3. iXiir^TTjv 



P. 1. < 



2. CUirrrc 



3. IXiirov 




S. 1. XiV 



2. Xtir^js 



O. AllTQ 



D. 2. Xfirrirov 

3. XfirTJTOV 



P. 1. Xtirwpv 



3. Xtiroxri 




S. 1. Xtiroifii 
2. Xiirois 



3. Xtiroi 



D. 2. XCiroirov 



3. XiiroiTTjv 



P. 1. Xiiroijitv 







8. 2. X(irc 
3. XnrtVu 










P. 2. Xirr 



3. XitrrfvTMV or 

XiTTto-Biov or 





















S * 3 ^ 

* 1 * t s i - 

e ^ * 3- s-v S 

1 | ^ | 



+J *r? 

M w 



S I I' 3 ? 

Q- v^ IP S n 



i t ** 


(N k k ^ ' 1 S 

I PH g o 9 i i ? 

S ^ S > | 3 



. ^ 




Pg ^ ^Pp 

^* ^b-Sb^tf^^ 




0^ ^ 5 * *> 

5. {! 5 3 -5 

o -i- --"" ^-i- 

W Jj' wfc^bb 


1 | 


| g I 1 Jr'Fl | 

CM t* " I 5 * ' ' " 



1 A|.- s M 

5 ^* 

^ L. ?^ ^~ c*~ "^* rt ?^ <** 

pi rM 

'"^ ^s"<3 "i*J fc*<p > "Jw 

p^ 50 

^ 8-5-8 Js v 8 t-Q.8 8 


^ <^j <5> <li <t> <> 


(S ~s~ ^ ~" "t ^~ ^~ 


^S - ti a 


_ *= t= N ,_, N N 

5j " "Q- *- "& " 






1 i 

03 w 


P- J F- * f 




3 5 o 3 iS 






*9" f\ ,f\ f\ f\ /^ 

tow ^y -^^ W U \J 




. S 



* > 

1- If 



3 'o "o 'S <3 

O O *Cu O 


|4 44 44 

i-l i il 



"S ^ 





PH .5* 

^ ^~, 

C-l _, > ^ 


^ ^ it> 

H >? 1J- 

- "2 

3 g S 

O ''o w ~O 

b b b_b 

& t- & & 

!X ^ ^ ^ 

*jj^ P" v *" P" 

a 8088 

1 1 i* 







js |. 

J 2. 


13 o 

r-J -O" ^ S 

n^ +* ^3 

PH 50 

53 3. 

. 3 3 3 u, S 3 

S 3 S I a * 

* 11 If ! M 

* fj ^ 


CH ^- "Q- "O-'Q-'Q- 

It illii 



!> ^ 

c . 

^ *~" - 

< *S O2 O |5 M PH 

O . - ; 

S 'S S^'S "-e ~^ 

i^^^s S-Jtf 











SYSTEMS OP <fta.iv<a 



4>a.vt], <}>avfi 



S. 1. frav 

3. ^KXVCI 
D. 2. <}>aviTov 

3. ^avctrov 
P. 1. <favov|xcv 

2. 4>aviTt 

S. 1. 


D. 2. 

P. 1. 


S. 1. 4>avoiT]v or <|>avoi|u 

2. 4>avoiT]s or 4>avois 

D. 2. 4>avoirov 

P. 1. 4>avoip.v 

3. 4>avo"uv 

S. 2. 

D. 2. 

P. 2. 


INF. 4>avctv 4>avio-6ai 

PABT. ^avt*v, <^avov|xcvos, 

4>avou<ra, 4>ai 

4>avovv 4>i 

* The uncontracU-d forms of the future 
inflected like </>tAe'u and </iAc'o/zui (477). 




Or <j)T|Vl. 

4>T)vauv or 


<|>T)vdvTwv or 



(464) are 





S. 1. ccfyrjvdjMjv 



3. c<f>TJvaro 

D. 2. 4)T|vacr0ov 



P. 1. "<}>Tivdfi.0a 
3. <j>TJvavTo 

SUBJ. 8. 1. (J>T|VCO|ACU 

3. cfn'jVTJTCU 

D. 2. <|>VjvT]o-0ov 
3. <j>T|vi]cr0ov 

P. 1. <f>T|VM|x<0a 

2. (f>T|VT]0-0 

3. ^vwyrai 

8. 1. 4>T]Va.LfJLT]V 

2. 4>T|vaio 

D. 2. <j>Vjvai<r0ov 

P. 1. 4>r|vaip.f0a 

S. 2. <j>fjvat 
3. <j>T]vdo-0(o 

D. 2. (|>TJva<r0ov 

P. 2. <{>^vao-0 

3. 4>r|vd.or0wv or 













Or (j>aVLT]T 




^aWvTwv or 

4>avr|erT), <|>ai 







-TJ, -0V 


-t, -OV 



466. The imperative forms ending in -THXTO.V and -o-0oxrav belong to 
late Greek. 

467. In the first-aorist optative active, the Attic generally prefers the 
Aeolic forms in -etas, -eif, -ciav (689). 

468. In the dual and plural of the aorist passive optative, the shorter 
forms in -eirov, -eiTijv, -ftfiev, -cire, -elev are much oftener used than the 
longer forms in -CIT/TOV, -enyTT/v, -ei'rj/zcv, -CIIJTC, -eirja-av (573). 

469. In late Greek the pluperfect ended in -civ, -eis, -ft, -CITOV, -eir^v, 
-et/zev, -cirt, -eurav ; as eAeAv/ceiv, cAeAv/ctts, etc. See 593. 

470. The perfect and pluperfect indicative are occasionally formed by 
periphrasis of the perfect active participle and efyu and tfv ; as AeAuxws dpi 
(fiv) for AeAi'Ket (eAeAi'/crj), KKi~tjfj.fvo<i c? for KfKrrjcrai. 

471. The perfect subjunctive and optative active is usually expressed by 
periphrasis of the perfect active participle and <5 and eti/v (subjunctive and 
optative of ci/xt, be) ; as AcAvKws <5 and AeAvKws efyv. The regular forms, 
like AtAvKw and AeAvKoi/xi, are very uncommon. 

472. The perfect subjunctive and optative middle is formed peri- 
phrastically by the perfect middle participle and o> and ctijv. For a few 
verbs whose perfect middle forms these moods without periphrasis, see 
712, 713. 

473. The future perfect active is formed by periphrasis with the perfect 
active participle and ro/u (fut of ei/ii, 6e) ; as AeAv/cws co-o/zcu, / sluill have 
looted. The forms TT>/(O, I shall stand, and reOvi'igw, I dinll be dead, are 
exceptional ; see urnjfiL and 6vy<TK<a in the Catalogue, also 1037. 

474. When a verb lacks the future-perfect passive, this form can be 
made by periphrasis of the perfect -passive (middle) participle and Icro/xat ; 
as tytvtrfjifvoi f<re<rQf, you will have been deceived (749). 

475. 1. The imperative perfect active occurs only in a few verbs whose 
perfects have present meaning; as Za-raOi, stand! reOvarw, let him- die, 
KCK/xiytre, yell! See 714, 724. 

2. The perfect imperative of all voices can be expressed by a periphrasis 
of the perfect participle and wrfli, corw, etc. (imperative of i/it, be). See 
714, 724. 

476. For -]7 and - in the second person singular indicative of the 
present, future, and future-perfect, see 597. BovAet from /Soi'Aoyuai, tm/t, 
out from ofo/xat, think and ctyet from o^o/iat, fut of o/>uu>, see, have no 
forma in -. 





477. Verbs in -<xu>, -ew, and -ow are contracted in the present and 
imperfect. The contraction follows the principles explained in 47 
and 48. 

The present and imperfect of ri/xaw (rt/xa-), honor, </>iAw (<iAe-), love, 
and Sr/Aow (SJ/AO-), show, are inflected thus: 


S. 1. (Tifjidu) 

2. (n/tdew) 

3. (rl/xdei) 

D. 2. (ri/xdero)') Ti|xo.TOV 

3. (rljiuieTOJ') TijxaTOV 

P. 1. (rifi.doft.fv) Tip.w[xev 

2. (rr/xdere) Ti(ia.T 

3. (ri/udot/tri) Tijiwcri 

S. 1. 


D. 2. 

P. 1. 

2. (ri/idr/re) 

3. (ri/xduxrt) 




) <|>lXlT6 

i) <f>iXov<ri 









S. 1. 

2. (Ti/xdou) 

3. (rt/idoi) 

D. 2. (rlfidoirov) TIJXWTOV 



P. 1. 

S. 1. 

















(577X6offft) 8t]Xoii<ri 











D. 2. (TtiUlOiWrOI') [TllMinTOv] ((fn\(otriTOI') [<|>lXofT)TOV (SllXoOtTfTOv) [OTjXoiTjTOV 

3. (nftAOlTfTtfv) TI(M{)T|TTJV] (^tXeOlTfTTJi') ( 

P. 1. (Tt.uaofyjifi') [rijii^T||JiV ((f>i\fOirifj.fv) [ 

2. (rt/iaoiijT*) TIJIWIJTC ((/itXeotijTf) <|>iXor|T 

3. (TtjuaoiTjacn') Tiuwnoiiv] (^tXeoiTjireu') i|>iXo(T]O'av] (S^Xoo^crcw) 8r]Xo(rjorav] 


S. 2. (TI/.O) rtjid (0iXee) <j>Xi (5iJXoe) 8V|Xov 

3. (TUdd^Tw) TlltCtTW (rf>tXf^Tw) <pLXlTCl) (uTjXofTW) OT|XOVTW 

D. 2. (rtjitcirror) Tiudrov (<pi\^fTov) <J>iXirov (Stj\ufrov) 8r]XovTov 

3. (Tt/xa^rw*) TIIMXTWV (^tXeeTWv) <J>iXeiTa>v (SrjXoeTUV) OTjXovTwv 

P. 2. (rt^ulrre) TIUO.TC (<fi\^frf) <j>iXiT (SijXoere) SrjXovrc 


or or or or or or 

TIJJLO.V (tf>i\fftv) <}>iXftv 


(<f>t\(wi>) 4>iXwv (SijXiwj') StjXwv 

S. 1. (friftaov) tTifiuv (e'0/Xeoi') 4<j>iXovv (fS^Xooi') 48t|Xovv 

3. (tTifiaf) trt\iA ((<(>i\ft) e4>iXti 

D. 2. (f'rtAulcroi') frijtaTov (^^>iXeeroi') i^iXciTOV 

3. (irifuiiniv) krlyjirtp (i(fn\(fTijv) ^tXtii-rjv 

P. 1. (Tlfj.dofj.fv) fri|u*)icv i((pL\('ofj.ev) <{>iXov[j.V 

2. (irlftAtTt) friparc (0tX^rre) cc^iXcirc 

3. (^ri,uao > ) frtp-wv (e<f>i\tov) t^tXovv ('5r\oo^) 


S. 1. (T^wLouai) Tiuwijuxi (rfwXco/tctt) <i>iXoOuGiip 

2. (Tt/wlTj, rj^tdf i) Tifiqt (<fn\(ri,<f>i.\^ei) 4>iXfj, <J>iXi (577X677, OtyXift) 

3. (rtjMrrat) Ti^drai (^>t\t'rai) <f>iXciTai (OT/Xikrcu) 8r]Xovrai 
D. 2. (ri/iardoi > ) Ti|uur6ov (0<Xeco'doi') <(>iXct(r6ov (077XofcrCof) 8t]Xov<r6ov 

3. (rlndtoOoo) Ti|Mur6ov (<t>i\tr6ov) <|>iXci<r6ov (5r]\JTdov) Si^XovcrOov 

P. 1. (rlfjLa6fi(Oa) Tip.wp.9a (<fn.\tjfj.(6a) 4>iXovp.c6a (5r/\oJfj.tOa) 

3. (ri/idorrat; Tijiuvrai f<j>i.\{'tvTcu) (^iXovvrai (^TjXaocraO 



S. 1. ( TLp.cop.aL (<pi\fufj,ai) 4>LXu> (8r)\ ST|Xa> 

2. (Tifj.drj) 1*1(1.4 (<j>i\eT)) 4> l Mi (fi'n^vy) 8r|Xo 

3. (rlftdriTai) TijiaTat (<pi\er)Tai) <}>iXfJTai (SrjXoijrctt) 8t]Xa>Tai 
D. 2. (Tlfj,drjff0ov) Tip.d<r0ov ((f>i\et]cr0ov) <j>iXi)(r0ov (Sr)\6r)<r0ov) 8t]Xa>cr0ov 

D. (rlfjidriffOov) Tip.dr0ov (<pi\fT]cr0ov) <}>iXfjo-0ov (StjXo^ffdov) 
P. 1. (Tifj.awu.e0a) TLp.uip.e0a (<f>i\ew/j.e0a) <(>iXwp.e6a 
2. (Tifj.drjff0e) Tip.cur0 (tpi\er)cr0e) <J>iXi)cr0 


S. 1. (Tifj.aoifj.riv) Ti|iwp,T]v (<fM.\eoi/j.riv) <}>iXoi|XT|V (Srfh.ooifj.Tjv) St]Xoip.T|V 

2. (rtadoio) Tip.wo (<f>i\oio) <j>iXoio (STjXooto) SrjXoio 

3. (TI/XCIOITO) Tifwpro (0tXeoiro) <j>iXoiTo (STjXootro) 8r]Xoiro 
D. 2. (Tifj,doi<r0ov) Ti(iw(T0ov (<f>i\eoiff0ov) <}>iXoi<r0ov (dri\6oi<r0ov) St]Xoicr0ov 

P. 1. (Ttfj.aoifj.e0a) TiptwjieSa (<f>i\eoifj.e0a) <j)iXoip.0a (dir)\ooifj,f0a) 8r]XoLp.e0a 

2. (Tifj.doiff0e) Ti|M><r0 (tf>L\foi(T0e) <j>tXoi<r0e (5?;X6otcrt9e) 8t]Xoicr0e 

3. (r(yUOO'To) TlpHttVTO (<(>1\(OI.VTO) ^iXoll/TO (SljXoOtJ/To) 8l]XoiVTO 


S. 2. (ri/wiou) Tijiw (<f>i\f'ov) $i\ov (5ijX6on) SrjXov 

3. (Tifj.a(T0a)) TifittcrOw ((j>i\fecr0w) (juXeCtrOw (5r]\offf0u) 8T]Xovw0a> 

D. 2. ( Ti|ido-0ov ((f>i\feff0ov) <j>iXi<r0ov (5rj\6e<r0ov) 8i]Xoi)o-0ov 

P. 2. (Ti/j.d(ff0f) Ti(id<r0 (<f>i\eeff0e) <(>iXl<r0 (dr)\6eff0t) 8t]Xoiier0 

or or or or or or 

(}- Tlfj/iffOuffav ((fnXeeaOuffav) <f>i\ei- (dr)\ofo~0uirav) driXoticrOuffai 
ffav) ff0uffav 


Ti|xd<r0ai (<f>i\eeo-0ai) <}>iXi<r0ai (5')jX6<n9ai) 8r]Xov(r0ai 

) Tip.iip.evos (0tXe6/ucpos) <f>iXovp.evos (SrjXoofievos) 8r]Xovp.evos 


S, 1. (fTlfj.aJfj.riv) eTip.u>p.T|v (e<f>i.\fjfj,r)v) 

2. ((Tifidov) trl\i.u> (e<f>i\ov) <f>iXou ((8-r)\6ov) ^Sr]Xov 

3. (in/j-deTo) irl\t.a.TO (e^iXe'ero) c<j>iXciTO (e"5jX6eTo) 

D. 2. (fTifudeffdov) Ti(id<r0ov (t<f>i\teffOov) <j>iXel<r0ov (e"8i]\6e<r0ov) i8r]Xov<r0ov 

3. (eTlfia^ffOrjv) Tl}xdcr0T]v (I(f>i\fea0riv) &j>iX<r0Tjv (^Sri\oeff0riv) f8T)Xov<r0T|v 

P. 1. (iTlfj.abu.e0 a) tTip.uip.e0a (e<(H\fbfj.c0a) <|>iXovp.<0a (edri\0('>/j.fl>a) ^8r]XoiJp.e6a 

2. (fTifultff0e) 4Ti(id<r0 (^<f>i\eeff0e) ^4>iXi<r0e (48rj\6eff0f) ^8i]Xov(r0 

3. (fTlfj.dovTo) ri|iwvTO ((<pi\f'ovro) <j>iAovvro (t'STjXAovTo) iBrjXovvTO 



478. The present optative of contract verbs has two forms : the regular 
form (modal sign -t-, the personal ending of the first person singular -pi) ; 
and the so-called Attic optative (modal sign -177-, ending of the first person 
singular regularly -v t and of the third plural -<rav). The Attic optative is 
much more frequent in the singular than the regular forms, but it is seldom 
used ill the dual and plural. 

479. The following in -aw contract to rj instead of to d : Si^uw, thirst, 
live, Ki-aw, scrape, irfivvua, hunger, oytaw, smear, xpd-ta, give oracles, 

se, ^-aw, rub. Thus : aw, w, ys, y 

480. Dissyllabic verbs in -ew admit only the contraction into ei, leaving 
the other forms uncontracted. Thus : TrAew, sail, TrAeis, TrAei, 
irh.fop.ev, irXftTf, rAiowrt, impf. eTrAeof, errAeis etc., inf. irXeiv, part. 
But &W, /mid, is usually contracted everywhere to distinguish it from Sew, 
which contracts like 

481. 'Piyow, shiver, contracts often to w and w as well as to ou and ot, 
thus : pres. plyu, /atyys, /Jtyv (and piyol), opt. plyfyv, inf. piywv (and 
^iyoGv), part. /nywiTts (also gen. pi. ptyoiWwi'). 'ISpou, sweat, Ionic and 
rare in Xenophon, has iSpoxrt, opt. to/xuy (with iSpoi), part. tSpwrri (ISpovvn). 
Aovia or Aow, wash, has Aouw, Aoi'eis, Aovti ; but other forms of the 
present and imperfect are generally from Aow, as Aov, \ovp.ev, X.OVTO.I, 
Aowrflui, Aoi'/itj/os, the v in. Aovw being dropped (see this verb in the 

482. The contracted form of the third person singular imperfect 
active does not take v movable ; thus ^>iAe or c/>tAcj', but contr. <i'A 
(never (<f>i\tiv). 

483. SYNOPSIS OF ALL THE TENSES OF ri/xaw, <iAw, 8>/Adw, and 
6i)pdta, hunt. The present and imperfect are in heavy-faced type : 


PRKS. Indie, rip* 4>iXii St]\w 



Iinpcr. rtftd J>iXn SVjXov 0r|pa. 

Infin. rifiav 4>iXiv ST]\OVV 9r|pdv 


Indie. TtfMy 4>iXow 

/"l/T. Indie. Tt/x^rw <f>i\r)<ru 5r)\dxrw (hjpdffu 

Opt Tlfffarotfu <$>i\t'}croi/j.i di)\i*><roifu Oijpdffoi/ju. 





AOR. Indie. 


Opt. Tiu.T)ffaifj,t 

Imper. ; 


Part, ri/xijcrds 
PERF. Indie. rerfyi^Ka 

Opt. TeTl/J.i)KOlfU 

Imper. [rerfynjK-e] 
Infin. TeTl/j.rjK^vai 
Part. TfTifj.rjKtos 

PLUPF. Indie. & 

PRES. Indie. Ti|ia>p.a,i 

Subj. ri|, 

Opt. TUp.WfXT]V 

Imper. TIJIW 

Infin. Ti|xdo-0(u 

Part. Ti|iw|ivos 

IMPF. Indie. !rI|uG)vt]v 

r. Iiulic. rlfj.rj<ro/ 















Opt. rIfj.Tjffoifj.rjv 

Iniin. rlfj.ijfffff0ai 

Part. Tlfi.r)ff6ftfvos 

AOR. Indie. drlfi.riffd/j.r}v 


Opt. T~ifj.riffaifj.r)V 

PERF. Indie. 

Subj. TTl[J.TJ/J.{l>OS &> 

Imper. rer^^o-o 
Infin. rerlfj.7jffOai 
Part. Terlfj.rjfj.frot 

PLUPF. Indie. 

(as 5rj\d}ffofj.a.<. (as 
pass. ) pass. ) 




6f5ri\ti>/jLti>os & 







A OR. 

\ Same as the Middle. 

Indie, ri^^onai 

Opt. Tl(jiT)(h)ffolfii)r 

Intin. Tift.T)6ii<ie0da.i 

Part. Ti/iTjtfijo'i/tei'OJ 



Subj. 1 
Opt. 1 
Infin. - 
Part. rlfi.r]0clt 



\ Same as the Middle. 





The forms and are late. 


484. 1. The meeting of consonants of the stem with /*, T, <r, or 6 
of the endings gives rise to certain euphonic changes (486) in the 
perfect and pluperfect middle. 

2. Some vowel-verbs add o- to the stem before endings beginning 
with p. or T, as in rer(\e-<, TfTc\e-o--rai ; but before endings 
beginning with <r, the stem remains pure, as in rereXe-o-at (105, 4). 

3. When the stem ends in a consonant or when o- is added to 
a vowel stem, the third person plural of these tenses is formed by 
using the perfect middle participle with W, are, for the perfect, and 
T^O-OV, were, for the pluperfect (739, 740). 

485. The following is the inflection of the perfect and pluperfect 
middle and passive of rptftta (rpift-, rplft-), rul>, TrXfK-ta, weave, dXAcio-a-w 
(aXAay-), exchange, t\ey\-<i>, convict, irtiOot (irciO-, -mO-), persuade, reXe-a), 
finish, <atVa> (<a"), show, and <rrAA(o (crreA.-, perf. trraA.-). For the 
principal parts of these verbs, see 489. 


INDIC. S. 1. rirpl^ai 
3. T^rpiirrai 

3. TTpI(j>00V 

P. 1. 







IMPER. S. 2. Ttrplfyo 

3. TCTpt(j>0W 

D. 2. T^rpl4>0ov 

3. Tcrpt<|>0a>v 

P. 2. T^rpl<})0 

3. Terpf<)>0wv or 

INFIN. TTpt<t>0ai 


D. 2. 

3. 4rrrpt(|>0t]v 

P. 1. ^TTpt(lfl0a 

3. TCTpI|i|J^VOl 

T)XXa-y(ieVos <a 

u>v or fjXXdxOwv or 


n <V 




IlfDIC. S. 1. ir^irur(iai Ter&<r|iat W<j> 

2. W^TTCWCll TTtX<TCll [7T<pO,VO'0,l J 488J <TT(iXo"Clt 

3. trfiMMjrai TT&.rrai Tr^avrai IcrraXTai 

D. 2. irim<r0ov rtT&.t<r9ov ir6j>av0ov KaraXOov 

3. ir^ircurflov 

P. 1. irrrrt<rfie0a T<rcX^<rp.c0a ir4>d<r[i0a 

3. irrirci(rplvoi TCTXrp,vok 

tltri tla-C tla-L tla-l 

St'BJ. irirwr|t^vos TercXco-jitvos u Tr(|>acrjivos w crTaX(ivos w 
OPT. ttrjv cttiv t^v ,, rfr 

IMITI:. S. 2. ir^irto-o rcrtXco-o [irtyavffo, 488] 

3. ircircicr6u> 

D. 2. iririo"0ov Tfr^Xcaflov ir^avOov <rraX0ov 

3. ireircbrOcov TcrcX^(T0wv ir{>dv0(i>v c<rrdX0(ov 

P. 2. irfirturO* TfrtXccrOt ir^4>av0 

3. irtirffcrflwv or TcrfXttrflwv or ir|>dv0wv or 

IXFIN. iriri<rflai TtreX^erOat ir<j)dv0ai ^(rrdXOai. 

PART. ireirwr|Uvos 


INDIC. S. 1. 

2. 4ir<iTwro 4rr^Xt<ro [tir4<t>a.vffQ, 488] 

3. iir^ircujTO kttr&^tvro 4ir^<j>avro lo-raXro 

D. 2. tir^ircwrflov IrcT^XtcrBov 4ir^4>.v0ov f(rraX0ov 


P. 1. 


486. NOTE 1. For the euphonic changes caused by a mute (;r, /S, <, 
K, y, x r > ^> ^) before /x of the ending, see 86 ; before r or 8 of the ending, 
ee 80 ; before <r of the ending, see 84. 


2. For final v of the stem occasionally assimilated to /z of the ending, 
see 737, 4 ; for the usual change of v-fj, to Q--/A, see 94. 

3. For< from /ZTT-/A and yy-fJ- from JX'P- shortened to and y/z, as 

- /xcu for and eA?;Aey-/zcu for fXyXcyx-fi-ai, see 88. 

487. NOTE. For e of the stem changed to a, as in o-reA-Aw, rTaA-/>iai r 
see 42 ; 726, 2 (6). 

488. NOTE. The forms Tre^av-crai, 7re<av-(ro, and 7re(av-<ro seem not 
to occur, see 737, 3. 

489. The principal parts of the verbs in 485 are as follows : 
Tpl/iw (rpt/3-, Tpl/3-), rub, r/Jt^w, cr/u^a, 2 perf. Terpfr/xx, fetplftjiai, 

trpi<$>6i]v, 2 aor. pass, ifptftijv. 

cK-cu, weave, ir\fio, eVAe^a, (2 perf. TrtTrAe^a or TreTrAoxa Ionic), 

i, fTr\e^6tjv, 2 aor. pass. firXaKrjv. 
'AAAcwroxo (dAAay-), exchange, aAAa^w, ryAAa^a, 2 perf. ^AAa^a, 
fj X\ayfj.a i, rjAAei^^r^, 2 aor. pass. ^AAayrjv. 

-w, convict, eAey^w, ^Aey^a, eA^Aey/xat, i/Aey^^Tjr. 

I^-, Trid-\ Treicra), (Treicra, (2 aor. (TriOov, poetic), TreTrei/ca, 2 perf. 

TeAe-w, finish, reAecrw, ereAeo-a, rereAeKa, TTeAe-o--/Aai, eT\f-(r-Orji'. 
^aivw ((f>av-), show, <f>avu>, e^va, Tr'^ayKa., 2 perf. Trefajva, I have 
appeared, Tre<f>a.(rfiai, e^dvB-rjv, 2 aor. pass, f^avrjv, I appeared. 

((rreA-), se?id, o-reAw, eo-TiAa, IcrraAKa, eWaA/xat, 2 aor. pars. 


490. Verbs in -/u differ from verbs in -<o in the inflection of the 
present, imperfect, and second-aorist active and middle ; there are also 
several second-perfects of the /xi-form. In these tenses, the endings 
are added directly to the tense-stem without the thematic rowel, except 
in all subjunctives, and also in the optative of verbs in -v 

491. Most of the second-aorists and second-perfects of the / 
have no presents in -pi, but belong to verbs in -w ; as fyvwv (second- 
aorist of yiyviixTKu, know), fffrdijv (</>#avo>, anticipate), e/3i]v (ftaiw, go) t 
(second-perfect of dvyo-Kh), die). 

492. The other tenses of verbs in -/u are regular, and inflected 
like verbs in -w. 


493. Verbs in fit, are divided into two classes : 

1. Verbs in -7//it (from stems in a or ) and verbs in -ayu (from 
stems in o). The present stem is usually formed by the so-called 
present reduplication with i. 

Verb-stein #-, present-stem riBf- for OiOf-, present ri&qfU ; 
ora-, urra- for crwrra-, 

., e-, te- for If-, ., 

So-, 6180-, 

2. Verbs in -vvju. These form no second-aorists (except 
from (rptvvi'fj.i). The present stem is formed by adding -vv- to con- 
sonant stems, and -vw- to vowel stems. 

Verb-stem BeiK-, present-stem SeiKvv-, present 

Kepa-, Kepavvv-, 

/i<>-, ,, pwvvv- 

o-/3-, o-pevvv-, vpevvvp.1. 

Verbs in -vv'/xi form not only the subjunctive, but also the optative 
like verbs in -o>. 

494. NOTE. Verbs in -v^/ni, which are chiefly poetic, add -^a- to the 

verb-stem to form the present-stem ; as Sa/iVTj/u from Sa/x-, present-stem 
See 652, IX. 

495. No verb in -pi has all the /it-forms. Of those given in the 
paradigms, MTTT//U lacks the second-aorist middle ; TiOrjfjLt and 

are irregular and defective in the second-aorist active ; and 
and all others in -viyzt, lack the second-aorist. 

496. A complete enumeration of all the /Ai-forms is given in 764-790. 

497. In the synopsis and inflection, e'Tr/na^T/v, I bought (a second-aorist 
middle of the /it-form from a stem Trpia- with no present), is given in the 
place of the second-aorist middle of tor^/xi, which is wanting. As SfiKvvfJii 
lacks the second-aorist (495), tSvv, I entered (a second-aorist active of the 
/u-form from Svw), is given in its place. 

498. Inflection of the present and second-aorist systems of riOrj^i 
(#-), place, urTijfii (o-ra-), set, Si&tapi (So-), give, 8fiKvffj.t (&IK-), show ; 
of the second-aorist middle (TrpidfjLijv (irpia-, no present), bought; and 
of the second-aorist active iSvv, I entered (from 







S. 1. r0T](U 

(500) t(TTT]S 




SeCKVvp.1 (503) 



D. 2. rlQerov 




3. T10TOV 




P. 1 . rC9(\kfv 




2. rC0T 




3. Ti0e'a<ri 





S. 1. T100) 








D. 2. T10TJTOV 
3. T10TJTOV 





P. 1. T10W|JLV 
2. Tl0f)T 

3. Ti0to<ri 







S. 1. .T\&th\V 

2. Ti0eT]s 
3. Ti0(r] 








D. 2. TiOtirov or 

IcrraiTOV or 

SiSoirov or 


3. Ti0rt]v or 


(502) lo-Tahyrov 
i<rrain\v or 

(502) SiSoi^rov (502) 
8i8oiTT]v or 


P. 1. Tl0l|AV Or 

2. TiOtirt or 

l<TTai(j.ev or 


i<rraiT or 

8i8oL( or 
SiSoiTc or 


3. Ti0icv or 


lo-raiev or 


SiSoicv or 







S. 2. r0t (500) 


8ov (500) 



D. 2. TtttTOV 




3. T10^TWV 




P. 2. TT 




3. TiWvrwv or 

lorravToav or 

8i8Jvrwv or 

SilKVVVTblV or 












8180 v$ 




IXDIC. S. 1. 

2. 4T(8is(500) 

3. irifa 

D. 2. MOrrov 

48i8ow (500) 






P. 1. *ri6|itv 




O. 1. 


D. 2. 

V^v/i, i; 

cu i IJK, ^c(/ta 


cuvr ^-a7i ^ 








P. 1. 









S. 1. 












v T y 



D. 2. 






P. 1. 









S. 1. 









D. 2. 

OtiTov or 

o-rairov or 

8oirov or 

3. OITTJV or 

(502) o-rairjTov (502) 8orjrov (502) 
or SoCrrjv or 






0i|j.V or 


Ofirf or 


araiT or 

8ot|iv or 
8oiT or 



0iv or 


o~raiv or 


8oiv or 






























8vvT<ov or 



56r UffaV 
































T (0 T ai 









S^K vvo~0ov 












SLK vvueOa 




























OPT. S. 















D. 2. 


2. Ti0i<ri) 

3. TiOcivro 

IMPEU. S. 2. 

D. 2. Ttt)r0ov 

P. 2. 

3. Ti06r0wv or 




3. W0To 

D. 2. 

P. 1. 





toTa<r9wv or 













8i8do-0a)v or 











8iKvvcr0ajv or 


IXDIC. S. 1. 

2. 0ov 

3. I0TO 

D. 2. I0r0ov 

p. 1. 

Sl'BJ. S. 


3. (Ocvro 






tirpiu) t'Sou 









D. 2. 



P. 1. 












OPT. S. 1. 





Trpiaio (507) 



D. 2. 




P. 1. 








IMPEK. S. 2. 








D. 2. 




P. 2. 


0<r0wv or 

irpido-0wv or 

odcrOajv Of 


irpia<r0ai (507) 8<Jer0ai 


499. Very few verbs have this form. The singular of the in- 
dicative never occurs. The second-perfect and pluperfect of to 
(<TTO.-) are inflected as follows. 



S. 1. (501, 2) TTU o-ra^v (poetic) 



D. 2. iSo-Tai-ov 

3. IfoTttTOV 


^<rraiTov or io-raCrjTOV (502) lo-rarov 
4oraTTjv or io-Tai^TT^v io-rdrcuv 



P. 1. fcrra|MV fcrrwfwv 4<rrai(ifv or]\i*v 

2. Ic~raT JarrJTi o-raiT< or i<rra.ii\rt io-rarf 

3. 4<rrd<rv &rr<i<rv fcrraicv or lorafrqa-av icrravTwv or 


INFIX. Jordvcu PART. C<TTS, <rr<ra, rr<Js or <rr<is 


INDIC. Dual. 5-oro.TOV cordnjv 

Plur. fcrraiwv JloraTC 

The perfect means stand ; the pluperfect, 


500. The imperfect forms rrtflets, tridei, fBiSovv, 8i5ovs, eSiSov are 
formed as if from contract verbs ; so also the imperative forms riOti and 
St'Sov, and the present indicative TI&IS. Compare 504. 

501. 1. Three verbs in -/AI, TI'#J//U, St'Sw/xi, and f^/ui, send (696), lack 
the indicative singular of the second-aorist active. This is supplied by the 
first-aorist, irregularly formed in -KO. : (OtjKa, eoWa, ijjca. This first-aorist 
was always used in the singular of the indicative active ; and we often find it 
in the third plural ZdrjKav, eSto/cav, a<-r}Kav ; sometimes also in other 
persons, as WrJKafjicv, Trap-cSwKa/iev, a<-^Ka/*v, eStoKare, a^>-7/Kare, irepi- 
6T)Ka.TTjv, and rarely the middle rjKdfJLrjv for eiprjv. The forms of the 
eecond-aorists are used in the other moods and generally in the dual and 
plural of the indicative. The supposititious forms of the indicative singular 
are iOyv, iSaiv, i]v. 

2. The indicative singular of the second-perfect of tVnj/u is supplied by 
the first-perfect eo-njKa which is not often found in other forms. 

502. In the dual and plural of the optative active, the shorter forms are 
much more common than the longer ones. 

503. Verbs in -u/xt frequently have forms from a present in -va>, but not 
in the middle ; as StiKvvu, Seixn'tts, Sei/cvuet, etc., impf. fStLKwov, imper. 
SfiKvix, infin. SfiKvvfiv, part. Setnvvtav. 

504. The optative middle present and second-aorist often have forms 
which show a transition to the conjugation in -<o, but not in the first and 
second persons singular. These forms are : TI&HTO, Ti0ot/0a, Ti#or#e, 

, and in the second-aorist (in comp.) -Qoiro, -OoipeOa, -Bourse, 




-Ooivro (also accented recessively, as (rvv-OoiTo, Trpocr-OoicrOe). Compare 500. 
For similar forms of i^/zi, see 771, 3. 

505. In the second-aorist middle indicative of the /xc-form, cr of the 
ending -o-o is dropped after a short vowel ; as tdov from $e-(cr)o, t-irp'na 
from e7r/na-(o-)o. But after a long vowel cr of the ending -cro is retained, 
as el-cro from tiy/zt ; but subj. y from ^-(o-)at, opt. eto from ei-(o-)o, imper. 
ov from e-(o-)o. See 596 and 695. 

506. 1. i^vva/ } can, and e7rurTa//m, knoiv, generally drop cr of the 
ending -o-o in the imperfect indicative and contract : eSvvw or iJSvfw and 
I/TTIO-TCO more common than eSvvacro and ^Trto-racro. 

2. Other examples of the dropping of <r in -O-GU and -o-o in ywi-forms are 
poetic and dialectic or late. So we find Svvy. and 8vvy for 8vvacra.i ; liricrTy. 
and fTTicrTy for eirio-racrai ; ccfr-Ui for e^-zWat ; TiBov for riOecro j i'o-rw for 
iWao-o ; 6YSov for 8i8ocro. 

507. For the peculiarity of accent in the subjunctive, optative, and 
infinitiye of cTr/Dtayu,?^, see 516, 520. For the irregular contraction in the 
forms io-T]ys, terry, etc. (from to-ra-ys, lo-ra-r?, etc.), see 1047. 

508. SYNOPSIS OF ALL THE TENSES OF riO^i (fa-), place, rem//u 
(o-ra-), set, oYSw/u (So-), ^iw, and 8(iKvvfj.i (8eiK-), show. The /it-forms 
of the present, second-aorist, and second-perfect systems are in heavy- 
faced type. 



Indie. f0T]fu 




Subj. Ti8a> 




Opt. TiOthjv 


8l8o IT) V 


Imper. ri9ti 




Intin. TiOe'vai 




Part. Ti0tCs 





Indie. irL9r\v 





Indie. 6-/i<ru 




Opt. 6-fiffoifju. 




Intin. Ofaetv 




i , ^n 

Part. 6-qauv 




1 AORIST Indie. fOtjKa (501, 1) 
Subj. - - (501, 1) 


(501, 1) 
(501, 1) 





S AURIST Indie. I0rrov (501, 1) ferny, 


Opt. 9i]v 
Imper. 6& 
Intin. Ottvai 
Part. 8fc 
1 PERFECT Indie. T^KOL (509) 

Subj. reBr/KU 
Opt. 1 
I in per. 
Part, i 

7 PLI'PERF. Indie. 

Subj. - 
Imper. - 
Infin. - 
Part. - 

f PLUPRRP. Indie. 

frr. /*/'. Indie. 



8orov (501, 1) 






i, stand dtSuKa, 

ffT^KOlfU SfSuKOlfU 

7, stood ti 
ov (501, 2) 

HoraTov (721) 

ea-r^w, s/taZZ stand (473) 


PRESBXT Indie. -KOcpai (trans. ) t<rrap,ai, sto?ui -S(Sop,ai (511) 8tKW(Jiai( trans.) 
Subj. Ti9uifuii 
Opt. Ti0cf|itjv 

l'<rra<ro -8(8o(ro 

I'crrao-Oai 81800-60.1 



Part. Ti0tfivos 

I HP ERF. Indie. iriWftTiv 

FVTVRE Indie. 



/ AORIST Indie. 






- Stiff onai (511) 




(td(i>Kd/j,r)v not 


Imper. ffrfjcrai 5etcu 

Part. ffrrjcrdfj.fvos 8ei^d/j.fvo! 

2 AORIST Indie. eSe'^v -&>dfxi]v (511) 

Subj. 6(S[io.i -8u> 

Opt. 0piv 

Imper. 0ov -Sou 

Infin. 0<r0ai -8ocr9cu 

Part. Servos 



}as in the Middle (but see 510 and 511). 



Indie. ereOyv 



Subj. reOu> 



Opt. reOdrfV 



Imper. reOrfrt 



Infin. rfOrjva.1 



Part. Tf6ek 



PERFECT Indie, T<f0et/oai (510), pass. dfSo[j.&i 

and rare 

Subj. reOetfj-evos S> > SfSo/jLevos & 

Opt. reOeifJievos fir/v ecrrayaecoy eirjv Sfdo/J.ffos eirjv oeSeiyfjAvos eir/v 

Imper. reOeiffo fffracro Seooffo Sfdei^o 

Infin. reOeicrOai ecrrdcrOai Se56cr0ai 

Part. TeOeifj.evos fcrrafj.e'vos Se86/j.fvos 

PLUPERF. Indie. ereOelij.riv'] (510) eSfdofj.r]v 

FUTURE Indie. re&r;crofj.aL 5oOrjcro[J.a.i 

Opt. rf6r/ffoi/J.ri>> ffra.0riffoifj.riv 

Infill. reff^fffffOai ffra.0r)(reff6ai 

Part. rfBfjcrofj.ei'os crra@ricrjfj.fvos ctoOrjcf'6fj.evos 

FUT. PERF. Indie. fcrr^oiMt (473) 3e5eio/oat (late) 

VERBALS efr& * <rrar6s 8o 

0cr(os ffra,reos ooreos 

509. NOTE. For Te#?/Ka, the form TeOciKa. (late) is still found in some 

510. NOTE. The perfect middle re&t/xai (probably spelled T( in 


Attic) docs not occur in Attic inscriptions, and is moreover very rare. For 
the perfect passive, Kci/^iai (784) is used. 

511. NOTE. The middle forms -St'So/xai, -f8i86u.rjv, -8w<ro/^iai, and -f&6fj,r)v 
occxir only in composition, as drro-8i8ofjMi. But the simple forma SiBopai, and 
(Sioofjiijv occur as passives. 


512. Verbs generally throw the accent as far back as the last 
syllable permits (recessive accent 134). Final -at and -01 count 
as long in the optative mood, elsewhere they are considered as 
short in determining accent (136). 

ll'in'iti <>, ira.LOfvop.fv, Tra.i8evofj.aL, ira.LOfvo~ov, 7rai8fVf, TraiSfi'OL ; TraiSeucrai 
(opt.), iraiofvo-ai (aor. inf. act.), iraiScvo-ai (SLOT, iiuper. mid.) ; 7rauu>, Trave, 
iravrrov, (7ra.v6fJ.rjv. 

Kara-A^o), Kara-Awe, Ka.T-fX.vov, Kard-Xvcrov, Kard-Af'crat (imper. aor. 
mid.) ; tcr\ov, obtained, cr^w, Kara-o^co, Kara-o-^w/xev, Kara-o-^oi/xi, 

513. NOTE. For exceptions to the general rule, see 514-521. For the 
accent of contract forms, see 140. 

514. NOTE. Participles are accented as adjectives, not as verbs, the 
feminine and neuter accenting the same syllable as the nominative singular 
masculine as long as the last syllable permits. Thus, TrcuSeiW, TrcuSevoixra, 
iraLOfvov (not iraiSevov)', a.rro-\vtav t a7ro-A/l5oixra, drro-Xvov ; Au$et's, XvOfura, 
Xvdiv ; 

515. The subjunctive and optative of both passive aorists, and of 
the present and second-aorist active and middle of verbs in -/*, (except 
those in -vrfj.t and those in 516 below) are accented as contracted 

Thus A.v0w from Xv0f<a ; Xvdftrfv^ XvO(ifj.ev from ; <avw, 
<f>avfiT)v, <fra.vf.iuAv ; TiOw from TI#-U>, rt,dfijj.fv from TiOf-1-fj.fv, SiSw from 
6t6o-u>, &i&oifj,tv from 8i86-i-fj.fv ; from ^e-a>-/zai, dftfiijv from df-i-fj.ijv t 
OtirrOf from Of-i.-<rdf. 

516. NOTE. 'F,irpidfj.*)v, bonyht, accents the subjunctive and optative 
as if there were no contraction (see the paradigm 498). Awa^uu, can, 
cTrwrra/iai, understand, Kpt/za/zai, hang, aya/zai, admire, and the eecond- 
ftorist wK>//iji/ (from ovi'vrjfj,i t benefit), have the same peculiarity. Thus : 
Svi'tafMi, &vvy, SvvrjTat, etc. ; eTrurrai'/z^v, cn-to-raio, tVurTeuTo, etc. ; 6va.ifj.rjv, 
ovaio, ovatro, etc. 



517. Ultima accented. 1. The ultima has the circumflex in the 
second-aorist infinitive active in -civ, and in the second-person singular 
imperative of the second-aorist middle. 

AtTretv, e/cAtTretv, Xa/3eiv Xnrov, ejcAtfrov, Xafiov. 

2. The ultima has the acute in the masculine and neuter of the 
second-aorist active participle, and of all participles of the third 
declension with the masculine in -s (except the first-aorist active). 

AMTWV, AITTOV ; iK-XafBtav, eK-Aa/3dv ; Av$et's, XvQev <avets, rivet's, 
StSoi's, SeiKvvs, AeAv/cws, terras (pres.) ; but TraiSetVas (first-aorist). Also 
twi/, pres. part, of ei/xc, go. 

3. These five second-aorist active imperatives : 

'EA#e, come, eiVe, say, cvpe, find, I8e, see, Aa/3e, take. But not their 
compounds ; as e-eA$e, ciTr-etTre, e-evpe, et'r-iSe, Trpo-X.a(3f (512). 

518. Penult accented. These forms accent the penult. 

1. All infinitives in -vat. 

AeAv/cevcu, ridevai, la-Tavat, 8i86vai, XvOrjvai, <av>jvai, dfiva.1, Sovvat, 

2. The infinitive and participle of the perfect middle and passive. 

; /3e/3ov\ev<r6ai, /3e/3 

3. The infinitive of the first-aorist active and of the second-aorist 

Avcrcu, (3ovXfv<rat, TifJ.rj<rai, ; Xnre<rdai, Xaftecrdai, yevevdai. 

4. Compounds of the imperatives Sds, es, 6(<s, and 

5. In optatives of the /^i-form of inflection, the accent cannot 
retreat beyond the modal sign -6-. 

Tideifjiev, Tt^etre, Ti#etev ; tcrrato, IcrraiTO, icrrato-^c, I<TTO.IVTO, 8t8oifj.fv, 
8i8otr, 8i8ot(v ; XvdeiTov, XvBfirrjv, XvOeifiev, XvOetre, Xvdeifv. 

519. NOTE. The forms in -at of the first-aorist are distinguished, when- 
ever possible, by the accent. 

/3ou\t5w diro-\(5w iratfw 6a.vfj.dfa crvfj.-w\^Ku IT\{KU 

3rd Slug. Opt. Act. /3oi>\etf<reu &iro-\6<rai iraixrai Oa.vfj.A(ra.i ff.vfj.-Tr\tl-ai ir\^at 

Inf. Act. /3<w\e0<rai djro-XCerat iroCcrat ,, ,, ,, 

2nd Sing. Imper. Mid. /SotfXeweu d7r6-XO<rai ,, 0ai//ota<rai <njfj.-ir\eai ,, 

520. NOTE. The infinitive of eTr/oia^Tji/ (498), bought, irpiaurdai, is 
accented like a present. 

152 AUGMENT 621 

521. Compounds. 1. The accent cannot retreat beyond the 
augment or reduplication. 

Thus irap-(-<r\ov like f<r\ov, obtained ; irap-6i\ov like ?x oi ' hud* irap- 
ijv, iro there, like i/v, was; dir-ii\6ov like *}A.0ov, went; dt^-iyfiai like lypan. 

Thus also when the augment falls on a long vowel or diphthong which 
remains unchanged by it; as eipyat, shut up, imper. ftpyf, impf. ctpyov, in 
comp. dir-cipyia, iuiper. air-eipye, but impf. dir-eipyov. 

2. The accent cannot retreat beyond the last syllable of the part 
before the simple verb. 

'Airo-8os, give up ; trw-K-8os, give out together ; kiri-dts, set on. 

3. The imperative in -ou of the second-aorist middle of the /u-form 
has the recessive accent if compounded with a disyllabic preposition ; 
as a7ro-8ov, sell, dvo-Oov, jnd off, Kard-dov, put down. Otherwise it is 
circumflexed ; as cv-dov, put in, irpo-8ov, Trpo-ov. 


522. The elements by which the various forms of the verb are 
made from the verb-stem are : 

1. The augment. 

2. The reduplication. 

3. The tense-suffix and mood-suffix. 

4. The endings. 


523. 1. The augment denotes 1 past time and belongs to the 
secondary tenses of the indicative ; i.e., to the imperfect, aorist, 
and pluperfect. It appears only iu the indicative, never in the 
other moods or in the participle. 

The augment is either syllabic or temporal. 

2. The augment in the indicative is never omitted in Attic prose ; it 
is sometimes omitted in the choral passages of tragedy, rarely in the 


524. The syllabic augment consists iu the vowel e prefixed to 
verbs beginning with a consonant, for the imperfect and aorist ; 

531 AUGMENT 153 

in the pluperfect e is prefixed to the reduplication. Verbs 
beginning with p double this letter after the augment. 

Avco, loose, t-Xvov, f-Xv6fj,r)v ; e-Xvcra, f-Xv<rdp.r)v ; f-XeXvKt], e-XeXi'[J.r)V ; 

, ivrite, e-ypa<ov, e-y pa<f)6/j.rjv ; 

; e-y pdfojv '. 
iVw, leave, f-Xenrov, f-Xfnr6fji.Tfjv ; e-Xnrov, e-XiTr6/j,rjv ; e-AeAoiV?/, 

o, throw, fp-plirrov ; ep-pi<a ; ep-pi</>$?7V, ep-pi^r/v. 

525. NOTE. In Attic three verbs, ftovXop-ai, wish, 8vva/, be able, 
, intetid, often augment with rj for e, especially in later Greek ; as 
e-povXofjLtjv and iy-/?ovA6/xryv, f-ftovXi'/Or/v and r r)-f3ov\r)6't]V l-8vvdfj.T/fv and 
i]-Svvdfj.r)v, f-SvvtjOrjv and rj-Svvijd^v ; f[j.eXXov and t;-/xeAAov. 


526. The temporal augment consists in lengthening the initial 
vowel of verbs beginning with a vowel, for the imperfect and 
aorist. The rough breathing remains unchanged. 

d becomes YJ, ayw, lead, fjyov, 

y, aSo>, sing, yoW, 

e , i], eA7riw, hope, i)Xiriljov, ryATTicra 

i , i, iKeTfvo), implore, iKfrfvor, ixe 

o , w, opi^o), mark off, wpitjov, wpicra, 

v, vfipifo, insult, r/3pi 
at , y, aiTcw, ask, yrovv, y 1 
au , rjv, av(o, increase, 

, ei/ca^o), liken, yna^oi', y^acra 
rjv, fvpi(TK<a, find, r/vpov, ijvpWijv 
(p, oiKea), dwell, 

527. NOTE. Initial 77, o>, t, >, ov remain unchanged. 

528. NOTE. Initial a generally becomes ?/ ; as d#Aew, contend, rjdXovv. 
But dv-dXio-KO) and av-dAoa> have indifferently a or 77. Poetic cua>, /war, 
makes O.LOV ; and the late verb d?;8t^w, disgust, cause aversion, has arjSifav. 

529. NOTE. Sometimes avau/w, dry, is found unaugmented. 

530. NOTE. Initial 01 is sometimes found without augment, especially 
in later Attic. But oio/j-ai, think, makes (pop.r]v, (^Or)v. 

531. NOTE. Initial t is generally left unaugmented. But eiKa^cu, 
liken, is found augmented more often than without augment : yKafoy, also 

v ; yKcura, also eiKacra. 



532. NOTE. Initial u is sometimes left unaugmented, especially in 
later Attic. In classic Greek, (v&<a and KaOtvSw, sleep, fvpuncw, find, v- 
<bpairw, tjladdfii, are sometimes found without augment. For compounds of 
(i; v-ll, see 566. 

533. NOTE. (a) The following beginning with a vowel take the syllabic 
augment (. This contracts with initial e to et ; as eaw, etcuv for e-eao-v. 

ayvvp.t, break, aa, tdyTjy ;, work, flpya^6fj.rjv, flpya- 

aArKo/iat, ai captured, aor. erfAo) 

(also with temporal augment) e/37ru) or epTrvfto, creep, tlpirov, eip-n-v- 

or i/A(t)r, but imperf. i}Ai- cru 

cfKOfirji' ; eo-Tiao), entertain, eiortwv, 

aw, permit, eiW, cuwra, elddrjv ; 

accustom, ci$tov y (Wura, ci- 

, eiA<v- 

, fur/*, CtXlWDV, 

x ov > 
, se/wi, aor. dual and pi. etrov for 

make water, tovpovv, tovprjcra; 
<l)6f(a, push, ftadovv, taxra, ffafrdrfv ; 
or eAKi'u, draw, CCA.KOV, eiAxv- tiveo/zat, 6wj/, etavovfjirjv, f<avi)@r)v ; 

era, tiAfcurfat' ; etSoi' for f-fi8o-v,saw, 2 aor. of opaw; 

, follow, ('nro/jujv ; fi\ov for e-eAo-v, <ooA;, 2 aor. of oupew. 

Also some Ionic and poetic forms and verbs (971). 

(6) Most of these verbs originally began with / or o-, which was afterwards 
dropped. Thus : eAiWw is for /cAunrw, roll (cf. Latin volvo), and ei'Aurcrov 
fur (-ffXurcrov, e-JAwro-oi' ; tiSov, saw, is for t-fiBov, e-iSov (cf. Latin vidi) ', 
tpTTta, creep, is for crcpirta (cf. Latin serpo), and ftpirov for 

534. NOTE. 'Opd<a, see, and di'-otyw or dv-oiyvvp.i, open, have both the 
syllabic and the temporal augment : (u>p(av, av-eo>yov, ai/-w^a, dv-fq>\8i)v. 
Eoprd^ti), keep festival, has Attic tiaprafoi', ifaprao-u., f(apT(i(TOrjv ; w- for 
^o- (45). 


535. Reduplication is a sign of completed action and belongs 
to the perfect, pluperfect, and future-perfect. It is retained in all 
the moods and in the participles, also when it is represented by 

e or et. 

536. In verbs beginning with a single consonant (except p), 
the reduplication consists in prefixing the initial consonant 
followed by e. 


I), loose, Ae-AvKa, e-Ae-AvK?}, Ac-Av/icu, e-Ae-Aiyzr/v, Ae-Av<ro/zcu ; 
Ae-Ai'cro ; Af-Av/ceycu, A-Av<j$ou ; Ae-AvKa>, Ae-At'/coi/xi ; Ae-AvKcus, Ae- 

Tr//,ao>, honour, re-Tifj.rjKa, e-Te-Tfya/KT/, T-Ti/x?7/xcu, e- 
; Te-TlfJLfjKevai, Tf-rlp-rjcrdaL ; Te-Tt/ur/Kto, re-Tl/j.t'jKoifj.i ; 

537. NOTE. If the initial consonant is rough, it becomes smooth in 
the reduplication : $uw, sacrifice, Te-6vKa <f>iXe(a, /ove, 7re-<iA?/Ka ; 

538. NOTE. The following have 6 instead of the reduplication : 
w (Aa;(-), obtain by lot, 

(Aa/3-), ^o/ce, L-Xr)(f)a, ei'-Aiy/z/mi (poetic Ae-At/ya/xai). 

Aeyw, collect, in composition -et-Ao^a, -et-Aey/xat or rarely -Ae-Aey/zcu. 
Aia-Aeyo/zat, discuss, has Si-aAey/^cu ; but Aeyw, speak, has Ae-Aey/xai. 
Mei'po/xat (fJ-ep-), receive part (Epic), fi-fj-aprai, it is fated. 
(pe-, ep-, stem), fi-prjKa, have said, ei-prjfjiaL, et-prycro/xut. 

539. Iii the following cases, the reduplication is represented 
by the syllabic augment e. 

(a) Verbs beginning with p, which is doubled after e. 

PITTTW, thrmv, fp-pl<f>a, p-pi<prj,,' ep-piifso; 
p-pl(f>evai, ep-pi(f>0ai. ep-pl<f>w<s, tp-pt/x/zevos. 

(^>) Verbs beginning with a double consonant ( , i/-). 

ZTJTCI>, seeA;, e-^ryrryKtt, e-^rr/Kry, l-tyrr/pai, e-r)TTt'][J.r}v, 

Svpew, shear, e-^vprjfj,ai, e-^vp^fj.rjv, f-^vp^(rdai, e-vprjfj,vo<s. 

tyev8<a, cheat, e-^eixr/u,ai, e-^eiV/xTyv, e-^curvat, e'-i/'tvoyAevos. 

(c) Verbs beginning with two consonants (except a mute and a 

SreAAw, sewrf, e-crraAKa, e-crraAK^, -o-raA/u,at, c-crraA/Aryv ; e'-crraAo-o ; 
-CTTaAKW, e-a-raAKOi/xt ; -o-TaAevat, e-oraA^at ; e-crraA/cws, e-o-raA/zevos. 

^^eipa), destroy, e-(f)0apKa, e-<f>8dpKr], e-<f>dapfj,ai, c-<f>6a.pKva.i, etc. 

l.'/ceva^a>, prepare, f-(TKvaKa, e-crKeuuKTy, e-frKfracr/JLat, ; e-(TKi'aKW5, etc. 

But Kptvia, decide, Kf-KpiKa, c-Ke/cptv^, etc. ; ypd<fna, write, yeypa<^a,, etc. 

(c?) The verbs mentioned in 526 also take the syllabic augment e; 
and with initial e, this is contracted to et. 

Thus (i0e-w, pus/i, Iwo-fuu ; ay-viyxt, 6rea^, 2 perf. edya ; a-w, permit, 
f"a.Ka, ; edifo, accustom, eidina, eWurfj-ai. 

540. NOTE. BAacrrai'w, sprout, has ^t-^Aao-Tij/ca oftener than -/3Aa- 
crrrjKa. rAv<^aj, cut, grave, has ye-y\v/, and in composition also -e- 
yMai. rAvKcuva), Triage sti'ee<, has ye-yAvxacr/Mai and aTT-e- 


541. NOTE. Mt/in;o-KU> (JJ.VOL-), remind, and Krao/xai (KT<I-), acquire, 
have the reduplication against the rule : fA-pnytat, remember, 
(Ionic and poetic, rarely Attic prose, also e-KT7//zcu), possess. 

542. NOTE. 'Opaw, se, makes ew/ad/ca (sometimes eopdKa), (w 
'Ay-oiyio, op?, has dV-f<ixa and 2 perf. dv-ewya, uj/-eyy/Aai. These two 
verbs have the temporal as well as the syllabic augment. 

543. NOTE. -"lo-n^i (o-ra-), se<, makes perfect e-o-TTj/ca, plupf. f- 
or i-<rr7;KTi (for e-rT7/Ka). So "IT//U (e-), ed, has perfect (in composition) 

for -KOU 

544. If the verb begins with a vowel, the reduplication is 
represented by the temporal augment. 

'AyyAAu>, announce, 7yyyAKa, 7yyyeAK77, 7/yyeA/wu, vyyyeA^v ; ]y- 
ycX(ro ; iJyytA/cej'ai, 7yyyeA^ai ; 7/yyAc(os, 7}yyA/ii'os. 
AI/xw, <a*e, yp;Ka, ypiJKr), ypjttai, gpt'jfj.rjv ; ypr/o-o ; 

fcj, associate with, wp.t\i)Ka, wfjLlXrjKfvai, etc. ; ayw, Zca<, iyX a > 

545. NOTE. 'Av-dAio-Kw or av-dAow, expend, makes dv-vyAwxa (with 
un-Attic a.v-6. Atoxa), ar-7yAo>/iai. 'Eo/jrafw, &eep festival, makes fwpraKa. 
The root IK- makes e-oixa, am Kfce, plup. C-^KTJ. The root 0- makes 2 perf. 
i-(adoL, am accustomed, 2 plup. fltadrj. 

546. Pluperfect. When the reduplication is represented by or 
by the augment, the pluperfect has no further change : 

Aa/z/3uru> (Aa^8-), <ai, i-A7j^>a, i- j ^e'8w, deceive, e- 

, -<rraA/ca, e- 

tti), shear, f-^vprjfia.1, i-f>pt'ifi.r)V ; 

ptiTT(a (pl<f>-), throw, fp-pl(f>a, ep-pt<f>T] ; ayyeAAw, announce, 7/yyeA*ca, 7/y- 

yeAc77 j 
ai/>e'w, take, ypi)Ka, yp'jKrj. 

547. NOTE. But <aT7/Ka, stand, perf. of To-TTy/xi, e<, makes f'urri'iKij 
(older Attic) for (-(<m]Ka, and e(rn/K7/ ; and eoixa (from root IK-), am /tie, 
makes WK7; with augment on the second syllable. 


548. Certain verbs beginning with a, e, or o, followed by a 
single consonant, form the reduplication by prefixing the first two 
letters of the stem to the temporal augment. This is called the 
Attic reduplication, although quite common in other dialects. 


prop, (Ip-ypeiKa), fp-i]pfio-/ ; 
-, e'Av^-, eA^-), 


Of these verbs, the following are Attic : 
dyei/jw (dye/3-), collect, dy-i'jyfpKa, eynew, vomit, e/i-r///CKa, 

dy-t'jyepfjiai ; 

ayo>, lead, uy-iyo^a fordy-ryyo^a(549); 
aKovd), hear, 2 perf. dK-t'jKoa (but 2 perf. 

(ccr#-, e8-), ea<, eS-rySoKa, 
(dAt<^)-}, anoint, 2 perf. dA- 

oAAii^tt (oA-, oA-e-), destroy, oA-wAe/ca, 
dpow, plough, ap-?ypo/xai ; 2 perf. oA-wAa (pres. mean- 

yei/jw (eye/3-), roitse, (ey-tjyepKa), ey- ing) ; 

2 perf. fyp-ijyopa, of*,vv{J.i (O/A-, oyu-o-), swear, o/j.-(a/j.oKa t 
am aioake (549) ; 
usually e Aa?Vo), drive, eA-w Aa/ca, 

(f>ep<j) (</)/o-, oi-, vcK-, evey/c- for -ev- 
6ear, 2 perf. v-?;i/oxa, 


Also a number of poetic and dialectic verbs and forms (976). 
Forms enclosed in parenthesis are not found in classic writers ; and 
and dp?#)o//cu are found only in Ionic prose, the latter being also 
poetic. But all these forms probably existed in Attic. 

549. NOTE. The form dy^o^a is perhaps from dy-i'/yoxa (which occurs 
in inscriptions), the second y being dropped. In eyp-n'iyopa, am awake, 2 
perf. of eycipw (eye/a-), rouse, the p of the stem is also reduplicated. 

550. Pluperfect. The pluperfect of verbs with Attic reduplication 
should take the augment, according to the ancient grammarians. This 
appears certain in those beginning with o, as wfiop.oK-rj, aTr-wAoA?/. Those 
beginning with e are found unaugmented in the pluperfect; as eA- 
tjXvOrj, dTT-evr)v6)(t}, e'yp-^yo'/or/. AKOVW has plup. I'jK-rjKo^. 


551. A number of verbs have a reduplicated form in the present, 
the initial consonant being repeated with t. 

Ti-#77/u (Of-), put ; 8i'-So>/u (So-), give ; Tri'/x-TrA^/xi (?rAa-), fill, and TTI/Z- 
irprjfju (TT/JU-), burn, strengthen the reduplication with /x ; yi-yvwcr/cw (yvo-), 
know. A peculiar form is ov-ivrjfjn (ova-), benefit, for oVoj'7/yu.i. For verbs 
with reduplicated presents, see 626, 652 (reT/xxiVoi), 658, several in. 
658, 764 (6) ; poetic 997. 

552. NOTE. In some cases the reduplication belongs to the verb-stem ; 
as /3if3d(a (J3i/3a8-), cause to yo, fut. f3ifido~w, 


553. Some verbs have a reduplicated form in the second -aorist. 
In prose the following verbs have reduplicated aorists : 


*Ayo), lead, 2 aor. }y-ayov, with temporal augment in the indicative 
{subj. dy-dyw, opt dy-dyoi/xi, imper. ay-aye, part, dy-aywv, inf. dy-ayeiv ; 
mid. i)y-dyo'/i>/>', subj. ay-ay w/xat, etc.}. 

tvfK- root (present <f>fpw, bear), aor. yv-ryKa, with temporal augment, 
probably syncopated from t'ji'-fvfKa, 2 aor. r/y-eyKoi', with temp, augment, 
for ijv-fi'fKov. 

"Kir-opai (stem originallv CTCTT-), 2 aor. f-<rirop.r)i' for cre-ertTro/^v, but the 
<ther forms from the stem O-CTT- ; subj. OTTW/WU, opt. O-TTOI/^I', imper. Q-TTOV, 
inf. cnretrda.i, part, erjro/xti'os. 

eV-, originally /CTT- (for present Aeyw is used), 2 aor. eiTrov for fe-ftirov 
{tiTrco, tiTroi/Ai, ciV, eiVety, etVwv}. Tho first aorist riira. is for /<- 

Other reduplicated second aorists are dialectic and poetic (977). 


554. Verbs compounded with a preposition take the augment and 
rjdu plication after the preposition. Prepositions ending in a vowel 
(except Trept and irpo) drop the final vowel before the syllabic augment ; 
but Trpo is often united with the augment by crasis. Before the 
syllabic augment K becomes , and V and <rvv take their proper form 
if they have been changed. 

<liro-/3dXX(i>, throw away, impf. dw-^aXXop, perf. Airo-ptpXijKa, pi up. 
Si.a-pa.ivw, cross, Si-tpaivov, 

yu, lead to, 


w, throw around, 
Trpo-pd\\u, throw before, 

\u, throw out, 

ty-ypd<f>ti>, inscribe, aor. iv-typa.\l/a, 

4fjL-J3dXXu, throw in, ,, iv-4fia.\ov, 

ffv\-Xtyw, collect, ,, <rvv-4\fl-a, 

ffv-ffKtvdfa, prepare o-w-eoTretfewo, ,, ffvv-effKftiaKa, , ffw-efftcevdicq 

555. NOTE. The following verbs take the augment before the preposi- 
tion, these being no longer regarded as compounds : 

' A(j.<J>t(vvi'fJLi, clothe, ijfjufiUfra, mi^Mtruot ; a<j>ir]p.i, send aivay, a^trjv or 
-tTTundfLttL, understand, i^, tjTrurri'iOijv ', KQ,Oefoua,i, sit, 
CKa(Jfofjir)v ; KadrjfJMi, frit, tKaOt'ifjLijv or Ka.Or']fj.r)V ; KaOifo, set, sit, fKaBt^ov, 

(K(iOl(ra or KaQura, (', K(iidiKa (late) : KadevSd), sleep, fKat 

, - -.. ft 


556. NOTE. The following compounds augment the preposition as well 
as the simple verb : 

endure, i'iv-et\ofi^v, I'lv-e-a-^ofj.rjv ; fv-o\\cta, karats, Yfv- 
xA^a, }i'-<i>xX;/xai; iir-av-opOoto, set ujrright, cir-rjv-wpdovv, 
. ; fir-rjv-top6(Dfjuii ; irap-oiv(<a, maltreat, or behavt ill (in drunken- 



ness), f-Trap-<avovv, f-Trap-^vr/cra, Tre-Trap-wvijKa, f-Trap-uivijOrfv, Tre-Trap-(^ 
(late) ; for d//,7r-exw, which is very irregular, see the Catalogue of Verbs. 

557. NOTE. These also augment the preposition as well as the stem : 
a/i^-yvoeu), doubt (from dfj.<j>i and yvo-\ ijytt<-e-yvoow and ?}pi-yvoovv, 
i')fj,<f)-e-yv6ricra; a/x<^7-/3^Tco, dispute (from d/*<is and fftrjv, 2 aor. of /Jumo), 
>'lfji<f>-f-(r/3i')Tovv, t']fji<f)-e-a m ^T'rj(ra, as if the last part were -cr/3^Tew (but the 
forms t'jfjL^Lcr-f^tJTovv, rifj.^icr-fti'jT'rja-a, etc., are often found) ; dvTi-/3o\ew, 
beseech (from dvrt and /2aAAw), has ?;vT--/3dAow or r/vri-^SoAow, r}vT-e- 
SoAcra or 

558. NOTE. Observe that the following are ?io< compounds : 

, /orce (dvay/oy, necessity) ; 
d), distress (cmd, distress) ; 
w, deceive (dTrdrr), deceit) ; 
ew, threaten (d;riA^, threat) ; 

(a-7ro/oos, difficult) ; 

pursue ; 

, purify (KaOapos, pure). 
They accordingly augment and reduplicate regularly ; as, T]vdyKaor, 
ryvayKGicra ; Sf8iw)(a ; KfKddap/j,at, 

559. NOTE. 'A-n-o-Xavw, enjoy, and e^-era^w, muster, have no simple 

560. NOTE. Auurdu>, arbitrate (from Statra, arbitration), is treated as if 
it were a compound ; it has double augment in the perfect and pluperfect, 
and also in compounds ; as SIT/TOJV, o^rrycra, SfSfijrrjKa, dTr-eoiyTijo-a, c- 
48vffnfy(hqv (late). Aid/co^eco, minister (from SIUKOVOS, servant), augments and 
reduplicates regularly, cStdKovovv, SeSidKovjjKa, etc., but there are later and 
<loubtful (poetic) earlier forms with augment Bur)- and SeStr;-. 

561. Denominative verbs (1153) derived from nouns or adjectives 
compounded with prepositions, take the augment and reduplication 
after the preposition. These are called indirect compounds (1177, 2). 

fy-Kb)/j.ia(i) (eyK(t>fj,iov), praise, ly- 


aTTo-Aoyco/zcu (oVd and Adyos), speak 
in defence, aV-e 

((rvvepyos), work with, (rvv- 
t'lpyovv ; 
Vt-o/)Ke(o (7TtopKos), swear falsely, 

KOLT-rjyopfo) (Ka.TTf]yopo<s), accuse, KO.T- 
r/yopovv ; 


562. NOTE. The following augment and reduplicate at the beginning : 

(lv and 


/i-7re8da>, establish (e'^-TreSos, steadfast) ; 
fp.-TTo\d(a, earn, traffic (e/i-TroAr), 

merchandise) ; 
fv-avTioofj.a.1, oppose (ev-avrtos, ojj- 

posite) ; 

raise a/o/it 

6e wore tfuin enough 
(7T/Dt-cr-(ros, aftofe measure) ; 
7r/3O-oi/jiia^o/xai, waie prelude (irpo- 
01 /MOV, prelude). 


Thus, JjfjL-iriSovv ; }p.-7roA(oi', ija-iro \rjKa ; I'jr-avrnaOrjv, 
i-fUT-e<apiov ; -7rpi-tr-<reiwa ; irf-TrpooifJLia<r( (but 7rpo-o</uao-u'p;e0a with- 
out augment, once in Plato). 

563. NOTE. 'Ey-yvciw, pledge, betroth (from fyyvrj which, again, is from 
iv and yvibv), makes t'ly-yvwv or ey-eyi'toy, i/y-yii^fra. or v-eyvv/<ra, -tjy-yvrfKa 
or cy-yeyrjjKa, etc., but the compounds always augment the , as KaT-^yyiW, 
Si-ijyyiijfjLai. 'EK/cAr^ria^w, 7w>M assembly (from tKK\r)crid, e/ctfATjTos, K- 
KaA<u>), augments either i-(-K\i)criaov or ijK-KXrjcria^ov.>, 
trangress law (fmin irapdvofj.o<i), has irap-ev6fj.ovv and irap-rjvonovy (as if from 
irapd and dro/xos), irapa-vd'OfiriKa. 'AvTt-8iKew, 6e a defendant (from avri- 
SIKOS, which, again, is from dvri and SIK-TJ), ha^ double augment : r/vr-e-Si'/covi', 
7/io > --8tKT^ra. See these verbs in the Catalogue. 

564. Compounds of 6W-, ill, augment and reduplicate before the 
adverb : 

Sr-Tvxw, am unlucky (from SUO--TI>X?/S), e-6W-Ti'xow, Se-Swr-ru^^Ka. 

565. NOTE. But the stem is augmented if it begins with a short vowel. 
Thus only : 6"w-ap(rreu>, be displeased (which occurs only late, from Swr- 
upeo-ros), Sixr-rjpta-Tovv, 8i<<r-jjpe(TTrjKa ; and 8fo--a7rio-T(o (mentioned only 
by the grammarians, from 8\xr-dirurTos), be very disobedient. 

566. Compounds of ev, well, augment the adverb if the stem begins 
with a consonant or with T; or w ; otherwise the stem is augmented. 
But they are very often found without augment. 

C&TVYCM (from c&Ttmfa), be lucky, T/V-TI'XOW, rfv-rv^rjKa. 
ei'-o^eo (from eu and fX 00 )) f eas ^i T)v-to\ovv, r^v^^r^iai. 
fv-pyT((a (from cu-fpyerv/s), do </oorf, cv-rjpyeTovv or cu-epyerow. 

567. Other indirect compounds augment and reduplicate at the 

7rapprjo-ia<yiai, speak freely (irappr)- 
9*5, Tras and pc-), f-irappi]<ria- 

build (from 
house-builder), ipKoSoiJiovv, (!>KO- 

vo\i-opK(<a, besiege (TroAis and cipyw, 
slutt in), ( 


d-6vp.fia, be disheartened (a-ftyxos, a 
privative and ^r/xos), i}-^D- 


568. NOTE. ^OSoiroiew, wut/c a 'frtj/, sometimes has perf. mid. part. 
toSo-irf-iroujfJLfvos. So also 68oi-7ropw, travel, ol 



569. The tense-suffixes are the thematic vowel and certain 
other letters added to the theme to form the tense-stems. They 
are the following : 


1. For the Present System : -%-, - T %-, -y%-, -v%-, -av%-, -v<-%-, -va-, -w, 
-(I)(TK%-, or none. 

Ai)-/-, Xu-o-/xev, A-O-VTGU, e-Av-o-v, e-Ac-e-Te, e-Xv-e-<r@e ; KOTT-T^-,, 
KOTT-TC-TC ; crreX-A^- for (rreX-y/ t - (96, 4), a-reX-Xe-rai ; <#a-v^-, <j>6d- 
vo-fj.ev ; a.p.apT-o.v/ e -, a/j-apT-dve-re ; (3v-ve/ -, /3v-veo-[j.ev contr. f$vvovp.ev ; 

crKiS-va-, (TKiS-vrj-fjiL ; 8eiK-vv-, 8eiK-vv-fJ.ev ; yr)pa-crK%-, yrjpa.-o-KO-fJi.ev ; 

eiy>-r/c^-, evp-i(TKe-Te ; <a-, (f>a-fiev ; Svva-, Svva-fjiai. 

2. Future System : -a-%. 

Ai>cr^-, Xv-(rofj.ev ; x.o^%- ( KOTT-CT^-), Ko\{/e-crde. 

3. First-Aorist System : -<-. 

Ai5-cra-, e-Av-cra-yaev ; Koi/'a-, e-Koifsa-vro. 

4. Second-Aorist System : -%- or none. 

AtTr-^-, -Ai7r-o-v; 8v-, f-Sv-v ; o-ra-, e-o-ny-v. 

5. First-Perfect System : - K a- (for the pluperfect -KT;- from -K-a-, 
-/<i- from -Ke-e-, -K-/ see 593). 

Ae-Av-xa-, Ae-Au-Ka-/ii/ ; -Ae-Av-Ki;-s, -Ae-Av-Kei(v), -Ae-Ai'-/ce-o-av. 

6. Second-Perfect System : -a- (for the pluperfect -?;-, -et-, or -e-, see 
593), or none. 

Ae-AoiTT-a-, Ae-AotV-a-^ev ; e-ora-, t-o-Ta-re, e-Ae-AotTT-^-?, e-Ae-AoiV- 
ei(v), -Ae-Aoi7r-e-Te. 

7. Perfect-Middle System : none (for the future-perfect -o$-). 

Ae-Av-, Ae-Au-yuat, e-Xe-X.v-fj.rjv; Ae-AetTT-, Xe-Xf.ip.-p.eda, e-Xe-Xeit^-de ; 
Ae-Au-o-^-, Ae-Ac-tro-^at ; ye-ypa^- (for ye-ypa<f>-o-%-\ ye-ypd^e-a-Oe, 

8. First- Pass ive System : -de- (for the future passive -Orjo-%-). 

Av-de-, e-Xv-Orj-v ; Xe^-de- (for Aey-^e-), e-Xe^-6r]-fj.ev ; Xv-Oyo-'ft-, Av- 
0'i' ; Tlfj.rj-6rj(r^f-, Tt/Avy-^yfre-Tat. 

9. Second-Passive System : -e- (for the future-passive -770-%-). 

10. For the Doric fut. tense-suffix -o-e^-, see 1022 ; for the Horn, first- 
aoi\ -o-^-, see 1028 ; for the imperf. and aor. formation in -CTK^-, see 1040, 
1041 ; for the formation in -0%-, see 1042 ; for the rare plupf. in -^-, 
see 1036. 


570. 1. The tense-stems of the present, imperfect, and second-aorist 
active and middle of verbs in -w, and of the futures and future-perfect 
of all verbs, end in a variable vowel, called the thematic vowel. This is 
o before p, and v and in the optative, elsewhere it is e. It is written 
-%- ; thus, Xv%-, Xnr%-, \wr%-, XvO^o-%-, XeXva-%-. In the futures and 
in the future-perfect, cr is inserted before the thematic vowel ; for the 
dropping out of cr before -%- in the future active and middle of liquid 
verbs, see 673, 3. To these tense-stems as they appear with the 
thematic vowel, the endings are appended. 



Present : \{<o-fj.(v, X6(-re, Xvova-t for Xvo-vcri from XVO-VTI (40, 588) ; 
A($O-/MU, At-e-Tcu, etc. ; Af'-To>, etc. ; Xveiv from Xve-ev ; \ve-(rBat ; Ai'o-/zevos. 

Imperfect : e\vo-v, -Ave-s, eXve, etc. 

Second-aorist : lAuro-v, lAwre-s, etc. ; AiVe, AITTC-TW, etc. ; AiTreii/ probably 
from Xiirc-fv ; Xiiro-fievos. 

Futures : Atxro'/zev, Xvcre-re, etc. ; Ai>0vyo-o-/xou, XvQfoe-Tai, etc. ; <i>av7y<ro- 
yxai, <av7yo-e-Tcu, etc. 

Future-perfect: XeXv<ro-[, AeAvcre-rat, etc. 

2. The subjunctive of all verbs has the long thematic vowel -*/,-. 

Present : Xtw-fj-tv, AI'TI-TC, Auoxri for Avw-vcri from Af'to-vn ; ATJW-/ACU, 
Affy-Tai, etc. ; (/ii-Form) Ti6<a-/Jiev from Ti@e-ia-fj.ev, Ti6rj-re from TiOe-ijre, etc. 

First-aorist : \iw(a-fj.fv, Avo-ry-re, AVO-UKTI, etc. (688). 

Second-aorist: \iir<a-[j.ev, AiVri-Tf, etc. ; (/xi-Form) 0<t>fj.ev from Oe-at-fifv, 
Bi]-Te from 6e-rj-Tc, etc. 

Perfects : Xe^vKat-fiev, AeAi'/oi-re ; AeAoiVw-yiev, AeAoiTroxri. 

571. NOTE. For -co, -eis, -ei of the indicative present active, see 588. 
For -<o, -775, -y of the subjunctive active singular, see 589. For e and rj 
contracted with the personal endings -(o")cu, see 596 597. For a of the aorist 
and perfect tense-stems dropped before -"/,-, see 688. For examples of 
the optative, see 668, 673. 


572. 1. The optative has the mood-suffix -t- or -i??- before the 
personal ending. In the third person plural the mood- suffix -i- 
becomes -u- before the personal ending -v, as \vou-v (but Avot-re), 
\v6eie-v (but \vOet-fiev). 

2. The mood-suffix -ITT- is used only before active personal endings 
{575). In this case the first person singular has the personal 
ending -v, and the third person plural -crav ; as <iAo/7;v from <iAeo-iT/-v, 
but (friXolfu from <iAeo-t-/u, <iAoiTT(rav from <f>iXeo-ir)-a-av, but <f>iXolcv 
from <f>iXfo-ic-v. 

573. Tlie mood-suffix -IT/- appears in the following cases : 

1. In the active singular of contract verbs in -aw, -ew, -oa>, seldom 
in the plural. The simpler sign -i- is used in the dual and plural, 
much less often in the singular. See the inflections of ri/iaw, <iAew, 
and '-I/A'/C.,. 

2. In the future active singular of liquid verbs alongside of the 
simple sign t ; as <f>avoiijv from </>ayeo-tTi-v or <f>avolfj.i from (Jxiveo-i-fu. 

3. In the active of /it-forms, the mood-suffix being here added 
directly to the tense-stem without the thematic vowel ; as TI&ITTV from 
Tt6-tTj-v, Sofyv from Bo-irj-v. But the dual and plural prefer the simpler 

577 ENDINGS 163 

mood-suffix -i-, as Ti6ei/j.ev from Tide-i-pfv ; and verbs in -vi~/u form the 
optative (as also the subjunctive) like verbs in -w, as 8fiKvvoifj,i from 


4. In the aorists passive ; as XvOeirjv from XvOf-ty-v, (f>avfir)v from 
<j>ave-i->j-v. But the dual and plural prefer the simple -i- ; as Xvd^l^v 
from Xvd(-i-/Ji.ev, (f>avLre from (fxive-i-Tf. 

5. In several second -perfects (723), as Trpo-eX-qXvdoiri, from irpo- 
\->')\vt>a ; also in e8rj8oi<oirj from eSv/SoKa. So also in second aorist active 
of x w iMVoe, (Txot^v, but -crxoijtu in composition. 

6. In other cases, the simple mood-suffix -i- is used. 


574. These are : the personal endings of the finite moods ; the 
endings of the infinitive, of the participles, and of the verbal 


575. Indicative. The personal endings of the indicative are the 
following : 


Primary Tenses Secondary Tenses Primary Tenses Secondary Tenses 

SING. 1. -jit 

2. -o-i (-0o) 

3. -Tl 

DUAL. 2. -TOV 
3. -TOV 
PLUE. 1. -|Xv (-/ties) 

2. -T -T -O-0 (-0) -O"0 (-0) 

3. -VTI -v, -o-av -vTai -VTO 

The passive has the personal endings of the middle, but the aorist 
passive has the endings of the active. 

576. NOTE. 1. The ending -o-t of the second person singular is preserved 
only in Epic cr-<rt', thou art; also perhaps in <ys, thou sayest, and in the 
subjunctive A.v$s (589). 

2. The ending -TL of the third person remains in O--TI, is ; and in Doric, 
as 8i8(DTi for Attic Si'Sw-o-i. 

3. The older ending -/ics for -p.ev remains in Doric ; as A.eyo-/zes for 











-O-0OV (-0OV) 
-0-00V (-00V) 

-o-0ov (-1 

-O-0TJV (-1 


-|tv (-Ates) 



577. NOTE. The early ending -(<r)0a for the second person singular, 
-originally a perfect-ending, is preserved in our-Qa for ol8-0a (80), from o78a, 

164 ENDINGS 578 

know; tyr-Oa, thou toast; fyi-crOa, tlwu wentst ; !</-<r#a, thou midst; 
(r&a or ySei-tr^a, tftou kneicest ; also in some Homeric and in a few dialectic 

578. NOTE. Occasionally -TTJV is found for -TOV in the second person 
dual indicative of secondary tenses both in Attic poetry and prose ; as ei'xerryv, 
fXtyfTTji', f7r-fTfXf(ra.Ti]v for fl\frov, tAe'ytroi', fTr-fTfXfo-aTov. 

579. NOTE. 1. The first person plural is used for the first person dual. 
A rare ending -fifOov for the first person dual occurs three titnes in poetry : 
XcAcJJMtcdoP from AeiVw in Soph. EL 950 ; 6pp.uhfj.fOov from opfidtD in Soph. 
Philori. 1079 ; irtpi8ta-fj.fdov from oiSwfJLi in Horn. II. 23, 485 ; and twice in 
Athenaeus 398 a. 

2. In poetry we often find -/j.t<rda. for -/z$a, as Xv6-/ 

580. NOTE. For changes in the endings -/u, -cri, -TI, -vrt, -VTO ; for -v 
of the first person singular ; for -o>, -eis, -ft of the singular, etc., see the 
Observations on the Endings (587 598). 

581. The secondary ending -<rav is used : 

1. In the aorists, as \v6ij-a-av, tyavrj-a-av. The older -v for -<rav 
seldom occurs in Attic poetry ; as fKpv<f>6f-v for e*/n'<0/-<rav. 

2. In the imperfect and second-aorist of the /xt-form ; as fTidf-<rav 
and (df-<rav from Tidjjp,u 

3. In the pluperfect ; as fXfXvKdrav. 

4. In the optative whenever the mood-suffix is -/-. 

582. The more primitive endings -6ov, -dijv, -Of. appear in the 
perfect and pluperfect after consonants ; as TTf-n-Xf^-dov (for irfTrXfK-Oov), 
fcrraX-df, but XfXv-<rdov, XfXv-<rOf. 

583. Subjunctive and Optative. 1. The subjunctive has the per- 
sonal endings of the primary tenses. The optative has the personal 
endings of the secondary tenses; but the 1 sing. opt. act. has -v only 
after the mood-suffix -ITJ-, otherwise it has -/AI, as Xvot-pt, faXoujv ; and 
the 3 plur. opt. ends in -trav whenever the mood-suffix is -t?/-, as Xvdfiif- 
<rav, <f>iXoii)-o-av. For -to, -j/s, -y in the subjunctive, see 589. 

2. The ending -v for -/u is found very rarely ; as Tp*<f>oi-v for Tpf<f)oi-fj.i 
(Eur. frag. 895), ap.aprot.-v for afj.dproi-/j.t from afiaprdvo) (Cratin. Drop. 
frag. 6). 

584 Imperative. The personal endings of the imperative are 
the following : 


Siny. Dunl. Plur. Sing. Dual. Plur. 

2. -Oi -TOV -TI -ro -o-9ov (-6ov) -<r0(-6c) 

3. -TW -TWV -VTWV -<rO<i (-6oj) -<r6ov (-Oo>v) -<r6<i>v (-Ocov) 

or -ruffav or -ffffuxrav 

591 ENDINGS 165 

The passive lias the personal endings of the middle ; but the aorist 
passive has the personal endings of the active. 

585. The more primitive endings -0o>, -Oov, -0<av, -Oe, -<9wo-av, are 
used in the perfect after consonants ; as Ter/at'^-^w for TfTpij3-8u, from 

586. NOTE. For changes in -Bi, and for the irregular -ov and -at of the 
aorist imperative active and middle, see the Observations on the Endings 


587. The personal endings and the tense-suffixes underwent various 
changes which are indicated below. But the terminations -w, -as, -et, 
-?7$, -rj are not yet definitely explained. 

588. Present Active Indicative. 1. (Common Form): Avw is prob- 
ably for XVO-/M, the ending being dropped and the thematic vowel 
lengthened, but some regard the original form to have been AUW-/AI, and 
others believe the first person in -w to be of different origin from that in -/u ; 
Aveis is probably from \vc-o-i, -cri becoming -s and the thematic vowel 
lengthened to ei ; Avet is probably from Aue-rt, the ending -rt dropped and 
the thematic vowel lengthened ; Aooi-o-t is from original and Doric \VO-VTL 
through Af'o-vo-t, -VTI becoming -wrt, v dropping out, and the thematic vowel 
compensatively lengthened (40). Similarly the future At*o-a>, Avcreis, Avo-ei, 
At'crovcrt for Xvo-o-fu, etc. 

2. (jit-Form) : Tt'ftj-s is for original TI $77-0-1, -s for -<rt ; TtOi)-<ri for 
original TiOrj-ri, -ri becoming -<rt (85). The third person plural inserts d 
before -VTL, then -U.VTI becomes -dvo-t (40), and finally -dcrt (compare At'oinrt 
from AUO-VTI, Avo-vo-t), and final a of the verb-stem contracts with -d<ri ; as 
Tiutdori from nOe-d-VTi, tcrTourt from tcrru-d-vrt, 6t8odcrt from 8tSo-d-vn. 
Similarly in the third plural of the second-perfect of the /xt-form : tcrrao-t 
from ecrra-d-vrt. 

For the long final stem-vowel (17, w, f>) in the singular of the ^t-forms, 
see GG4, 2. 

589. Present and Second-aorist Subjunctive and Optative: Ai'w 
is probably for AUU-/U and A/TTW for AITTCO-/^, the ending dropped (Homer 
has forms like e^eAco/u and TV\(a(Jki} ; AlJns and Xvy are probably from 
Af'T^-cri and Avr^-rt, perhaps through intermediate forms Af'?/i-<ri and 
Ai"'7/i-Tt, the additional t appearing as subscript ; Avwcrt is for Atfw-VTi 
through Ailw-vo-t (85) ; Avoi-s f(;r Ai"ot-(ri, A/'ot for Af'ot-n. 

590. Imperfect and Second-c.orist Indicative: e\vo-v, <?Ai7ro-v, 

6Ti0i)-v, and crrr/-v are forcAvo-/*, cAi7ro-/i, triOi)-/*, fcrrij-fj. (113). Compare 
the Latin deii-m and with Oto-v and e'Aeyo-v. 

591. First-aorist Active IndicaiiVJ. The first person singular has 

166 ENDINGS 592 

lost all trace of its personal ending, and the third person singular weakens 
a of its tense-suffix to ; as eAi-o-a, I Ai'tre. 

592. Perfect Active Indicative. The first person singular has lost 
its personal ending. The second person singular retains -s for -o-i. The 
third person singular has- lost its personal ending and weakens a of its tense- 
suffix to f, as AeAi'/ca, AeAi-xe, AeAoiTru, AeAoiTre. The third person plural 
AcAvKfXcrt is from \f\vKa-vri through AeAv*ca-i'<ri (40). 

593. Pluperfect Active. In the pluperfect active, final a of the 
tense-stem is changed to e. In the singular -a, -as, - are then added, 
and -a, -eas, -(') are contracted to -77, -775, -et(v) ; as eAeAvKT/, eAcAt'K?;?, 
AcArKi(i') from eAeAiWa, eAeAv/ceas, eAeArK(r). Herodotus has the 
uncontracted forms in -co, -eas, -. In late Greek ei was used for e and the 
singular ended in -(LV, -ets, -ct ; as eAeAi'/cetv, eAeAi'xeis, eAeAiWi, eAeAv- 
KctToi', etc. In the dual and plural, the regular secondary endings are 
added ; as eAeAi'Ke-rov, t'AeAi'Ke-Tryv, etc. 

594. Imperative. 1. The ending -61 is always dropped after the 
thematic vowel ; thus Avc for \ve-6i, AITT for \nre-0i. After the tense- 
suffix -Be- it is changed to -TI (100, 2) ; thus XvOrj-n for \v6rj-0i. The ending 
-61 is retained in the second-aorist passive, as <dVv/-#i ; in <rn}-0i and 
<TTa-6i from tVr^/it (508) ; in a few second-aorists of the /it-form from 
verbs in w (767) ; also in icr-6i from et/u or otSa (772, 786), in i-Oi from 
(ifii (775), in <f)d-6i or <fa-6i from ^>r;/zi (779), and in some dialectic forms. 
In the second-aorist active of Ti'0r//ju, ITJ/U, oYSto/zi, and X (0 > "^ 6 ^ 3 
changed to -s, thus #e-s, -s, 8o-s and o-^e-s for 6c-6, e-^, So-0, a-^e-d (112 ; 
702, 3). 

2. The second singular of the first-aorist active and middle is formed 
irregularly in -ov and -at, these terminations being of uncertain origin ; as 
Awrov, Afmu. 

595. NOTE. For the omission of -Oi in the present and pecond-aorist 
active of verbs in -(ML with lengthening of the stem-vowel a, e, o, or v to /, 
ei, ov, or v, see 671. For the lengthening of the stem-vowel a and e, o, v, 
to i], w, v, in the second-aorist active of the /u-form, see 702. 

596. Second Person Singular Middle and Passive. 1. In the middle 

and passive, the endings -crai and -<ro remain unchanged in the perfect and 
pluperfect indicative and imperative of all verbs, and in the present and 
imperfect indicative and present imperative of verbs in -/xi ; as AeAiMrai, 
tAeAiMTo, AAD-OTO, Ti'0e-<rai, Ti'#e-<ro, TI'#-O-O. 

2. In all other cases, the endings -o-at and -<ro drop o- ; they then con- 
tract with a preceding vowel, except in the optative. 

Thus Afy from Aff-(o-)t, i\6ov from eAi''e-(cr)o, AiVy from Afo-c-(o-)at, 
t'AiVoj from <'AiVra-(o-)o, XvOSprr) from \vBr]o-(-(o-)ai, AtA&ry from AeAfcre- 
(<r)at. Liquid future and aorist : <J>avrj from <f>avef-(<r)ai, c^vyvw from c'^Tjra- 

599 ENDINGS 167 

(o-)o ; Second-aorist : eAnrov from Ai7re-(cr)o ; Second-aorist of pi-form : 
(TrpLiD from 7r/aia-(cr)o, Wov from $e-(cr)o, eSou from c8o-(cr)o ; Contract 
presents : rlpa from Tt/tae-(a-)cu = Tipdy, <t><-h.y from <iAee-((r)cu <iAcy, 
SyXoi from 8?yAo-(cr)ai = 877X017 ; Contract imperfects : CTI/AW from erf/xae- 
(o-)o = eri/zaov, f<f>iXov from </><, Ace- (o-)o = e^tAeov, eSTjAou from e87iAoe-(<r)o 
= ZSyXoov. Subjunctive : Xvy from Xw^-(tr)at, AWT? from Afxr?7-(<r)ai ; fo'jvy 
from <f>rivr)-(<r)ai ; Xiiry from Ai7T77-(cr)ai ; Trpty as if from 7rpie7i-(cr)ai (6(>6, 
697, 1047), $77 from 6eri-(<r)ai, 8oj from So7/-((r)cu ; ri/a^ from rl[<r)ai 
= Tlp.dy, <iAj7 from (tAeT7-(cr)ai = (^lAey, ^Aoi from 877Ao77-(o-)ai == 877Aoi7. 
Imperative : Xvov from Ai)e-(cr)o, AITTOI; from At7rf-(<r)o, Trptw from 7r/3ia-(cr)o r 
$ou from ^e-(<r)o, 801! from 8o-(o-)o, Tt/xa) from Tt/xae-(<r)o = ri/xaov, etc. 
Optative: Aoot-o from Ailot-(o-)o, Avo-ai-o from Aiicrai-(cr)o, etc., the -o of 
-(cr)o always remaining, as ri/uw-o from ri/jiaoi-(o-)o. 

597. NOTE. 1. The second person singular indicative of the present, 
future, and future-perfect has two forms, -y and -et ; as Ai'Tj or Avei, Aro-y or 
Av(T6, XvOijcry or Xv&joret, \f\fxry or AeAvcrei. Of these -77 is the natural 
contraction of -e-(o-)ai ; while -et is only a different spelling for -y and is 
evidently not older than the fourth century B.C., when the tendency arose to 
spell every y as ei, as dyadei for ayafly, eipfOrjv for ypt6r)v. The spelling 
-ei is often called by the scholiasts Attic and Ionic for -77 in all the other 
dialects including the Common. 

2. Boi'Aei from fBovXo/, wish, out from oto/icu, think, and o^ei fut. of 
6/jao), see, have, no forms in -77. 

598. NOTE. For o- retained in -<rcu and -<ro in the present, imperfect, 
and second -aorist of verbs in -fit, see 596, 695. 


599. Common Form. 1. The present and second -aorist active 
of verbs in -to and the future active of all verbs, form the infinitive by 
adding -ev to the tense-stem, the thematic vowel (in this case always 
-) contracting with -fv to -etv. Thus TrAe/cetv from irXeKe-ev, Xva-fiv 
from Awre-ev, AITTCU/ probably from Ai7re-ev. Contract presents in -av 
and -ovv, as rifj-av and 8r)Xoi<v, are from -ae-ev = -aeiv and -oe-ev = -otiv, 
the i being lost in the contraction (48, 1). 

2. The first-aorist active infinitive ends in -at which takes the place 
of a of the tense-stem j as Aw-cu, TrAc^-cu, crrelX-ai. 

3. The perfect active infinitive has -vat which is added to the 
perfect-stem which changes a to e before it ; as AtAvKa-, AeAv/ct-vru ; 
AeAoiTra-, AAoi7re-vat. 

4. The infinitive of the present, future, and aorists middle, and of 
the futures and future-perfect passive, is formed by adding -arOai to 
the tense-stem. 




i for 
<rdat, Art-<rdai ; Ar0}/<re-<r#ai ; <ai'>/<rc-o-0 

600. Mi-for/77. 1. The present and second-aorist and second- 
perfect of the ^t-form and both aorists passive form the infinitive by 
adding -vat to the tense-stem. In the second-aorist active, and in both 
aorists passive, the final stem-vowel is long. 

Tide-ecu, terra-ecu, &iB6-vai, SeiKVv-vai ; (rrrj-vai (crra-), /3^-vai (/?-, 
indie. <?/?>/i', 2 aor. of /JcuVw, go), 8D-veu, yvw-vcu; eo-ra-vai, TfOvd-vai ; 
Ardij-vai, </>ai'7/-vai. 

2. The present and second-aorist middle of the /Ai-form and the 
perfect middle of all verbs add -<rOai directly to the tense-stem, con- 
sonant stems here taking the more primitive ending -0eu. 

Ttde-o-dou, i<rra-(r#cu, SiSo-trdcu, SeiKJ/v-o-tfeu, ie-o-#cu (from tT//u) ; 6i- 
<rdai, irrd-vOai (from Trcro/xai, Trra-), So-cr^ou, e-arOat (from tt;/xi) : AcAv- 
crdai, TfTlp-ri-^Baij TreirXf \-dai. from TrAeKW, i;AAa^-^ai from dAAao-(7w 
(ciAAay-), eA^Aey^-dai'froin eAey^w, ijo--^ai from 7^/xai (?}o--), st'f, TfTpi<f>-Oai 
from Tpfftta, rrttA-#at from oreAAa), Tre^av-^ai from <aiVa> (^>av-). 

601. NOTE. Several /xi- forms Lave the earlier ending -i>cu for 
original -ffvaL. Thus #etvcu, Souvai, eivai (from t>//xi) for original 
So-J-evai, f- 


602. The active tenses (except the perfect) and both aorists passive 
form their participial stems by adding -vr- to their tense-stems. The 
nominative of stems in -ovr- of the common form ends in -wv ; as AiW 
(AVOVT-), \iirwv (\ITTOVT-). All others add s to the stem in the nomina- 
tive singular, upon which -VT- drops out and the preceding vowel 
receives compensative lengthening ; as Av&t's (Avdevr-s), 

fut. Afxro-iT- 
1 a. Afxra-i'T- 
1 a. p. \v6f-vT- 

^ati'w, 1 a. <f>ijra-vT- 
2 a. p. <f>avf-vT- 

AetVw, 2 n. 

Tt/ZCtW, pr. 




2 a. 
2 a. 
2 a. 
2 a. 

8r/Aoo-vr- nom. 






For the formation and declension of the feminines and neuters, see 
329 335. 

603. The stem of the perfect active participle is formed by 
dropping a of the tense-stem and adding -OT-. 

XeXvKa XfXvK-or- nom. 


iva TTf(f>r)v-oT- nom. 

AeAoiTra AeAoiTT-or- AeAoiTrws 

For the declension and the irregular feminine in -via, see 329, 333. 
For perfect active participles of the /ii-ibriu in -ws, -wo-a, -os or -tos, 
see 336. 

604. All middle and passive participles (except the aorists passive) 
form their stems by adding -ftevo- to the tense-stem. 




Xv6rjcr6fj.evo<s (Av^rycro-yuevo-) 

Al7TOyU,VOS (Al7TO-/xeVO-) 

For the inflection, sec 288. 

605. 1. The stems of the verbal adjectives ar made by adding -TO- 
or -reo- to the verb-stem as it appears in the first-aorist passive, 
sometimes as it appears in the second-aorist passive. If the verb 
has no aorist passive, the verbal adjectives are formed directly from 
the verb-stem. Final < and ^ of the theme become TT and K (80). 

Ti/w^-reos Ti/ZTy-TOS 

ed-Tos ed-ros 

TeAecr-reos TeAecr-rds 

8o-reos 80-1 

(100, 3) 

"jV (102) OpeTT-TO<S 

ra/c-Tos Ta/c-reos 

Kpt-TOS K/31-T6OS 

ra-Tos ra-reos 

o^TttA-Tos crraA-reos 

y3aAAo) e/SX'/idyv f3\rj-To l s /3Xrj-Teo<s 

2. Many verbal adjectives have as their basis a present or future form ; 
as <f>ep-To<; (<e/>w) ; I-TCOV (T-rc from eTfU, stem t-, r/o) ; iV-reo? (wr-jtwv from 
ot'8a, stem tS-, know); p.a.^t.-Tf.ov (/xaxf-o"o/^at fut. of /Jia.\, fiyht) p.t.vt- 
TOS, /ieve-rcos (/^evf-w, /zevw, fut of /wi'w, remain). 

3. The verbal in -TOS either has the force of a perfect passive participle, 
as KpviTTos, hidden, TOKTOS, ordered, Airro?, loosed ; or else it denotes possibility, 
as o/adros, visibk, Tr/adxros, </ia< way 6e rfo, aKotwros, audible. Those 
derived from deponent verbs usually have passive meaning ; as SCKTOS, 
received, from 8e\ofiai ; but some have passive and active meaning, and 
others only active, as /W/ATTTOS, blamed, blamenble, or Uaminy (from 

170 ENDINGS 606 

os, sounding (from </>0eyyo/icu). Those derived from intransitive 
verbs are sometimes equivalent to present active participles, as /JVTOS, flowing, 
(from pi<a). Those derived from transitive compounds seldom have active 
meaning, as VTT-OTTTOS, suspected or suspecting. But those derived from 
transitive verbs and compounded with an adjective or with a privative 
(1169, 3) very often have active meaning, as Trav-aAwros, all-catching, 
a-jrpdKTos, not to be done or doing nothing or having done nothing. Finally, 
not every verbal in -TOS has the meaning of a perfect passive participle and 
at the same time may express possibility ; some have only the former 

4. The verbal in -TOS, -red, -reov (paroxytone), expresses necessity, and 
is equivalent to the Latin gerundive in -ndus ; as ACKTCO?, that must be said, 
dicendiis ; Aureos, that must be loosed, solvendus ; So-reos, that must be given, 

606. NOTE. 1. Simple verbals in -ros are of three endings ami oxytone ; as 
Xi/rdi, \vr-fi, \VTOV. Exceptions occur only in poetry ; as (tXi/rdj 'Iinroddfj.eia (E. 
2, 742). 

2. Compound verbals : (a) Those compounded with a preposition, and passive 
in meaning, are of two endings and proparoxytoue ; as e-ai/>eTos, picked out ; 3ia-Xuros, 
dissolved; fftv-Oeros, put together. (Occasional exceptions in form or accent in poetry, 
rarely in prose.) (b) Those compounded with a preposition, and denoting possibility, 
are of three endings and oxytone ; as ^-euperos, ft, -6v, that may be picked out ; Sia- 
\in-6s, that may be dissolved. But as the passive sense easily passes over to that of 
possibility, many of these are of two endings and proparoxytone ; as Kara-yiXaffrot, 
-ov, to be laughed at, ridiculous. Several are oxytone and of two endings ; as 
O&K dvtKTol, intolerable odours (Thuc. 7, 87). (c) All others are of two endings and 
paroxytone ; as A-ftarot, -ov, untrodden, inaccessible ; tii-irolirros, well-made ; \pvffo- 
8tTot, bound with gold; irav-ddKpvros, most lamentable. (Many have a special 
feminine form in poetry. Nearly all compounds of K\vrfa and irXeirdf, famous, 
illustrious, are oxytone, as &ya-K\vrfa, TeXe-/cXrjj). 


607. The Common Form of Inflection belongs to the present 
and imperfect and second-aorist active and middle when the tense-stem 
ends in the thematic vowel. -%- ; to all futures ; to the first-aorist 
active and middle ; to the perfect active with the tense-suffix -*ca- or 
-a-; and to all subjunctives. 

1. The singular of the present and future active indicative ends in -o>, 
-<is, -i (588). The endings -p.i and -<rt (for -TI) are everywhere omitted ; 
except -/xi in the optative, as Af>oi-/ju (583). 

2. In the third plural indicative present active, the thematic vowel o 
unites with the ending -vrt and forms -oixrt, as Avowi from X.VO-VTI. 

3. The third plural of the active of past tenses ends in -v ; as e 
-v, t\nro-v. 

609 ENDINGS 171 

4. The imperative ending -Qi is dropped ; as Xve. The second person 
singular of the first aorist active ends irregularly in -ov, as ACcrov. 

5. The middle endings -<rat and -cro drop cr and contract with the final 
vowel of the stem (59G, 2) ; as Aue-(o-)at, \vy ; Aw-(<r)a<,, Xva-y ; eAi>-(cr)o, 
eXfov ; eAu<Ta-(rr)o, eAC'crw. 

But there is no contraction in the optative : A*oio for Avot-(o-)o. 

6. The infinitive active has -eiv (for -e-fv) ; but the perfect active has 
-i/at, and the first-aorist has -at. Thus Xveiv for Af>e-cv, Avcretv, Xareiv ; 
AeAv/ce-vai ; AeAoTre-vat ; Aucr-at, <?}v-ai. 

7. Active participles with stems in -OVT- have the nominative singular 
masculine in -tov ; as Xlxav, ACOVT-OS (602). 

608. NOTE. When the optative mood-suffix is -t- (-te-), the ending of the 
first person singular is -/At and of the third plural is -v ; as AIOI-/U, </>tAot/xi 
(from </>tAeoi-/u), Atkrai-/>u, Aroi-/u ; Avote-v, </uAotev (from <iAeooie-i/), 
Af>o-ate-v, AiVote-i', rt^eit-v, #et-v, XvOele-v, <avei-v. When the mood- 
suffix is -177- the first person singular has -v and the third plural has -crav ; 
as (friXoirj-v (from 

<rav, Tt^t>j-o"a 

609. The |xi-Form of Inflection (called also the smp/<? form) 
belongs to the present and imperfect and second -aorist active and 
middle when the tense-stem does not end in the thematic vowel ; to 
the second-perfect active of the /u-form (499) ; to the pluperfect active; 
to the perfect and pluperfect middle; and to both aorists passive. 
But subjunctives are excepted. 

1. The first person singular of the present indicative active retains the end- 
ing -/it, the third has -tri for original -TI ; as Ti6rj-[i.i, riBrj-o-i, <^-/AI, (J>T]-O-I. 

2. In the third person plural indicative present active, a is inserted 
before the ending -VTI, with which it unites, forming -do-t ; as Ti#e-dcri from 
TiOe-a-vri, t(rraVri from tora-a-VTi, Sft/cvv-dcrt. So also in the perfect active 
eo-racri from ecrra-a-VTi. 

3. The third plural of the active of past tenses and of the passive aorista 
ends in -o-av ; as Ti0-o-av, We-a-av, eXeXvKf-crav, fXvfa)-<Tav, f<j>dvr]-<ra.v. 

4. The imperative ending -#t is retained in a few cases (594) ; as (fra-di, 
/3i}-di, c<TTa-Oi. In several second -aorists -Oi becomes -9 (594), as in Sos ; 
and in others it is dropped, as in TI'&I, SiSov, i'o-n; (671). 

5. The middle endings -<rat and -cro regularly retain a-; as Tt#e-crai, 
Tt#e-cro ; AeAv-erat, eAeAv-cro. But not in the subjunctive nor optative, nor 
usually in the second-aorist ; as enlij. rtdrj (for Tt^e-r^-o-at), opt. rt^eto (for 
Ti#e-t-<ro), indie. 2 aor. e@ov (for efle-cro). See 695. 

6. The infinitive of the active, and of both aorists passive has the ending 
-vat. Thus Ti$-vai, 8i86-vai, ecrTa-vai (600), Av^-vat, </>av7/-'at. Rarely 
the 2 aor. act. has -erai, as 6fivai (for Of-ftvai, Qe-fvai, 601). 

7. Active participles with stems in -OVT- have the nominative singular 
masculine in -ovs ; as 5i6Ws, 8e8oT-OS ("fi02\ 




610. It is necessary to distinguish the present stem from the 
verb-stem or theme. According to the final letter of the theme 
all verbs are divided into three kinds. 

1. Vowel Verbs, with themes ending in a vowel ; as Av-w, TraiSev-w, 
X/M~-<I>, Ti/ia-u>, TTOU-W, 8>;Ao-w, Ti'0>//Ai ($)> o't'&o/" (&>)> yiyvMO'KG) (yvo-). 

2. Mute Verbs, with themes ending in a mute ; as TrXe/c-w, Aey-w, 
ap\-w, unrr-w, ^ei'-S-w, irfi6<a (TTI#-), AeiVto (AtTT-), rptft-w, -ypa<f)-(a, SfiKvvfj.1 
(StiK-), \afj.(3a.vta (An/?-). 

3. Liquid Verbs, with themes ending in a liquid ; as o-reAAw 
(<rrA-), vffM-o), /m'-w, <atVw (<av-), Kptvta (x/oii'-), S/3-o>, oAAv/xi (oA-). 


611. The various tense-stems are formed from the theme by adding 
certain tense-suffixes. Certain regular changes in the theme are ex- 
plained under the formation of the tense-systems. But in many verbs, 
there are irregularities in the theme. These are noticed below in 
612621, and for the dialects in 990 997. 

612. Theme-vowel of variable quantity. 1. In some verbs of 
the First Class, the vowel of the theme is long in the present, but 
wavers in quantity in the other tenses. 

So A&o (Av-, Au-), A/trw, Awra ; but AeAi'Ka, AeAf'/xai, eAv$r;v. These 
verbs are enumerated in 625. 

2. In some verbs of the Fifth Class, a short theme-vowel is lengthened 
in some tenses, as in the Second Class. 

AaKVb> (8aK-, &JK-), bite, 8>/o/Aat,, t8rn\9ifv t but 2 aor. ZSaKov. 
These verbs are given in 656. 

613. Addition of . Many verbs add to the theme. Of these 
some add < to form only the present-stem (thus ending in -<%-\ others 
to form only certain tenses, the most to form all their tense-stems 
except the present, second-aorist, and second-] >erfect. 

Thus SoK(-n) (8oK-, pres. sU-in SOKC^-), seem, fut. Sow, aor. e&oa ; fitvta 
(jJUi>--\ remain, ncfuvijKa. ; aurOdvonai (aiV0-e-), perceive, O&r&fprOfKU, i;<r07j- 
IJMI, but 2 aor. t'ln-Bo/njv ; oAAf>/u (oA--), oAw from oAr(o, wAeo-a, oAwAexa, 
but 2 aor. mid. ta\6fj.rjv, 2 perf. oAwAa. 

The verbs whose tliemes take this additional e are given under the Eight 


614. Addition of a and o. A few verbs of the First Class add 
a to the theme; see 629. Several verbs add o to the theme; see 
628, 655. 

615. Short final theme-vowel retained. Contrary to the general 
rule in 39, many vowel-verbs irregularly retain a short final vowel of 
the stem in all or some of the tenses, except the present and imperfect. 

Thus : yeAdw, laugh, yeAttcroyucu, eyeAacra, eyeAdcr^v ; TeAeco, finish, 
TeAecra) contr. reAw, ereAecra, rereAeKa, TereAecrywai, ereAecr^v ; a^^Ojwat 
(d\8-e-), 60 displeased, d)(_0f(rofj.a.i, i'ixOeo-0-rjv ; Sew, bind, S^crw, e'Srycra, but 

These verbs are all given under 679 and (dialectic) 992. 

616. Addition of <r. Many vowel-verbs add <r to the theme in 
the perfect-middle system, as TereAe-o--/>icu, eVertAe-cr-//,?/!' ; also in the 
first-passive system before the suffix -$e- (-#77-), as ereAe-o'-^v, reAc- 

These verbs are all given in 730. 

617. Omission of v of the theme. Several verbs drop v of the 
theme in the first-perfect, perfect-middle, and first-passive systems. 

K/orvco (Kplv-}, judge, KfKpi-Ka,, (Kpt-Orpf. These verbs, four in 
number, are given in 707. 

618. Reduplication of the theme. Some themes are reduplicated. 

1. In the present, as yt-yvwo-Kw (yvo-), knoio (551). 

2. In the second-acrrist, as i/y-ayoi/ from ay-w, lead (533). 
The reduplication of the perfect stein is, of course, regular. 

619. Syncope. The theme is sometimes syncopated. 

1. In the present, as TrtVro) for Trt-Trer-w from stem TTCT-, fall. 

2. In the perfect, as TreTrrayuai for Tre-Trera-yuat from 7reTai'vfy*i (Trera-), 
xjiffdd out. 

3. In the second-aorisf, as ITTTO/H^V for e-Trer-o/A^v from Trer-o/xat, fly. 

4. Inthe/wiure; as Tmya-o/xcu 1'or Trerv/o-o/xai. 

620. Metathesis. -Sometimes the theme undergoes metathesis. 

1. In the jrresent, as $vr/o-Kw (Bav-, Ova-), die. 

2. In the future, as ovcAvy-cro/Atti from o-/ceAAw (<rKA-, (r/<Ae-), dry up. 

3. In the perfect, as (3(/3Xr]-Ka, /3e/^Ar/-/zat from /3aAAa> (/3a\-, /3Aa-), 

4. In the amid passive, as e/SXt'i-d-rjv from /?uAAw (j3a\-, /3Aa-). 

5. In the sacond-aorist passive (rarely), sec -e/iz-w in the Catalogue. 

6. In the second-aorist (rarely), as 8a.pOa.vtD (SapO-), sleep, poetic ZSpaOov, 
prose fSapOov. 

621. Change of root-vowel. In some cases the vowel of the root 
is changed. 


1. Chnnge of c to a : This occurs in monosyllabic liquid themes in the 
first-perfect (704), perfect-middle (726), and passive systems (750, 758) ; as 
crreAAu) (<rrA-), sciui, rraA-Ka, rraA.-/Aai, eerraA-Tji'. Also in the perfect- 
middle and second-passive systems of several mute stems (728, 758), as T/atTr-w, 
turn, rtrpa/ji-fjiai, cTpdir-rjv ; in the second-aorist system of several mute 
and liquid sterna ; as iy>r-<o, trpair-ov, frpaTr-ofjLrjv ; T/XVO) (re/a-), cut, 
traifi-ov, (Tap>6fiT)v ; (693, c; 694) and in some poetic forms (996). 

2. Change of to o : This occurs in the second-perfect system ; as T/ae^to 
(rpc<f>-), nourish, rkrpo^xj. ; ffrBtipin (<$>6(p-), corrupt, 8i-e(pdop-a (715, 720). 

3. Change of a to rj or a : This often occurs in the second-perfect 
system ; as <j>a.ivta (<f>av-), show, TTfffnjv-a ; Kpdfo (xpay-), cry out, KfKpay-a 
(715, 720> 

4. Strong and Weak Root-vowels : In verbs of the Second Class (630, 
31), the weak form of the theme, in I, v, a, is used only in the second- 
aorist and second-passive systems ; the strong form, in ci or 01, u or ov, 
77 or u> (with few exceptions, 633), is used in the other systems. 
Thus AtV-a> (Awr-), leave, Aei'^w, AeAoiTr-a, AeAei/A-pu, e\fi<f>-6r)v, but 2 aor. 
Xnr-ov favyo) (<pvy-), flee, <p(vofj.a.i, Trefavy-a, but 2 aor. ?</>vy-ov ; 
root eAv^-, fut. eAei'-o-o/xai, shall go. c\rjXovd-a (Ionic) = eArjAu^a, have 
gone, but 2 aor. ^Xvd-ov (Epic) = J)X.6ov, went ; rr/KO) (rax-), melt, T?/^W, 
r>/^a, TT?/K-a, frt']\-6rjv, but 2 aor. pass. fra.K-'rjv ; rpwytu (rpay-), gnaiv, 
rpM^ofJMi, TfTpwy-fJuti, but 2 aor. f-pay-ov ; pf(a (pe-, pef-, pev-), flow, /Sewr- 
o/zou, cppfv-cra, but 2 aor. pass, eppvyv. 

(Present and Imperfect Active and Middle.) 

622. There are seven ways in which the present stem is formed 
from the verb-stem. According to these different ways of forming the 
present stem we distinguish the first seven classes of verbs; the eighth 
class stands by itself and includes a few verbs whose tense-stems are 
formed from different themes. 

1. First or Thematic-vowel Class. 

2. Second or Strong-vowel Class. 

3. Third or T-Class or Verbs in -TTTW. 

4. Fourth or Iota-Class (y-Class). 

5. Fifth or A r -Class. 

6. Sixth or Inchoative Class or Verbs in 

7. Seventh or Verb-stem Class. 

8. Eighth or Mixed Class. 





623. The present stem is formed by adding the thematic 
vowel -%- to the verb-stem. 

624. To this class belong : 

1. All vowel verbs except those mentioned in Class II. (632) and 
in Class VII. Examples : Av-w, fj.rjvi-w, /3ovXev-w, Trav-<a, TljJ.d-w, <f>tXe-(t> } 

2. Many mute verbs. Examples : nAe/c-w, Aey-w, apx- 

3. A few liquid verbs ; as Mev-w, VC/A-W, 

625. Theme-vowel of variable quantity. 1. In the following verbs 
of the First Class, the theme-vowel is long in the present, but wavers 
in quantity in the other tenses. 

oY'O) (8v-, 8v-) TTTVCO (TTTV-, TTTU-) Tpi/3( (rpi/5-, rpl/3-) 

uvit) ft'i', (/v-j (pvtt) (u)t)-, <pv-) TU<PO> (TU<P-, Tv<p- for 

Auw (Xv-, Xv-) OXifio) (6Xi(3-, OXt/3-) 

/J.VW (/uu-, fj.v-) Trvfyw (rrvty-, ?rviy-) 

2. The present and imperfect of verbs in -ito and -iko usually have 

I and v in Attic ; in poetry either v or v. But always pfOvu), dvvia 

(Attic di/imo), dpvb) (Attic a/avrw), poetic a<i)w, Epic ravwa), poetic KAi5w. 
See 998. 

626. Present Reduplication. The following have present re- 
duplications : 

yi'yi/o/xcu sync, for yi-yev-o-/u,cu (yev-) 
ur^w sync, for (ri-o-c^-w, <rur\(D = e^w 
sync, for Tri-Trer-o) (TTCT-, TTT-O-) 

TIKTCO for Tl-TK-W (TK-) 

TL-rpd-ta late for rerpaivta (r/oa-) 

for'-to, poetic for /xev-o> 

627. Addition of . 1. Some themes insert e before the thematic 
vowel and form a longer theme, the present stem thus ending in -%-, 
as 8oKto, seem, present stem 8oKf%-, theme 80*-, seen in future Sdw. 
These presents are : 

ya^eo) (yayu,-e-) 8o/<a> (SoK-e-) 

y^^o> (yf]d-f-) Kvptw poetic (KV/S-C-) 

Also some poetic and dialectic verbs and forms. 

2. The following verbs of the First Class add e to the theme to form 
all their tense-stems except the present, second-aorist, and second- 
perfect : 



Sew (8e-e-), want (see Sew, 
8f-, bind) 




cpo/uu (ep-e-) 


oiopxxi {oi-f-) (TTUI-C-) (TrepS-, TrapS-e-) fiat, (irer-, TTT-C-) 
Also several poetic and dialectic verbs. 

3. The following of the First Class add e to form one or more 
tense-stems : 


Also a few poetic and dialectic verbs. For the poetic and dialectic verbs 
which add e to the theme for one or more tenses, see 990. 

628. Addition of o. Tpuxw ( T pvx-\ wear out, adds o to the stem for 
all the systems, rpi'X-o-, as rpf'xwo-w. Oi\ (ol\-c-), be gone, adds o in 
the perfect, GI'X-O- ; oi\-n>-Ka or O*X-W-K (Ionic and poetic). 

629. Addition Of a. A few verbs, confined mostly to poetry, add a 
to the theme for the present or other tense - systems ; as /3pux-a-opxu 
(/2pi">X-a-), roar, 2 perf. /fte/Jpuxa (Epic and late prose). These verbs are 
given in 991. 


630. The short theme-vowel a, i, v, is lengthened to 77, et, ev 
and -%- is added to form the present stem. The short theme- 
vowel a, i, v, appears only in the second-aorist, and occasionally 
in other tenses (633). 

Thus : -ny/co) (TCIK-, present stem TTJK^-), melt, T7/co, (Tt]a, TfryKa, 
Ti'i\Oifv, but 2 aor. pa?s. t-TaK-i/v ; Aenrw (AiTr-, present stem AetTr^-), 
leace, \ti\f<>>, AeAotTra, AeAei/jtyuai, e\ei<f>6r)v, but 2 aor. e-Xnr-ov ; </>ei'ya> 
(/vy-, present stem <^>cuy^-), flee, </Ji>o/zai, Tre^euya, but 2 aor. e-^uy-of. 

631. To this class belong : 

AflTTO) (AtTT-) 

otSa (18-) 
TTfidw (irid-) 
ir(vOo[ (TTV&-) poetic 

, ( H 

(itada (']&-, (0-) 
eoixa ('K-) 

tp(iir(a((piir-) Ionic and 

KtvQtit (KvO-) poetic (TTtlfjd) 

Also some poetic and dialectic verbs (999). For verbs of the Fifth 
Class which lengthen a short vowel in some systems, see 656. 

632. 1. In six verbs, the strong form ev became e/ before a 
vowel (108, 2), / was then dropped, and the present stem ends 
in -/ ( -. The weak stem in v is retained in a few forms. 

<TTi'xio (o"rix-) Ionic and 

(TI>X-> TVK-) poetic 




Thus : pco (strong stern pev-, pef-, weak stem pv-, present stem 
p%-), peiHTOjiai, eppevaa, eppvrfKa, eppvrjv. 
2. These verbs are : 

df(D (6v-), run irXtw (irXv-), sail pew (pv-), flow 

veto (yv-), swim Trvew (TTVV-), breathe ^ew (x v ~)i pour 

See also poetic o-erw in the Catalogue. 

633. In verbs of the Second Class the lengthened stem is called the 
strony stem, the short stem is called the weak stem. The weak stem appears 
in the second-aorist and second-passive systems, as eXnrov and eAiTro/xr/i/ 
from AeiVa) (AeiTr-, AITT-), fppvrjv and pm']<rop.a.i from pfut (pe-, pfJ'-, ptv-) 
with the Attic reduplication, as dA-?;Ai<a from dAet<o> (dAet<-, dAi<-) ; 
in the perfects fppvrjKa. (pto) and eori/Jr^ai (arc^3<i>) with t- added to the 
stem ; and in the perfect, perfect-middle, and first-passive systems of \f(a 
(x v ~i X e -^~ X eu ~)> * c 'X t " ca > K ^v/zat, e\vOi]v. Also in a few poetic and 
dialectic verbs and forms (999). 


634. The present stem is formed by adding -T%- to the verb- 
stem. To this class belong only themes which end in a labial 
mute (TT, /?, <f>). Obviously the verb-stem cannot be known from 
the present on account of the euphonic changes caused by r (80), 
but must be found in a second-aorist, if the verb has one, or in 
some other word from the same root. 

KOTTTto, CUt, pr. St. KOTTT/ f -, KO7T-, vb. St. 2 

da-rpaTTT^-, do-Tpair-, 

Q \ __o/ f)\ f) 

fj/\cnrT~/e-, f-jA.o.[j-, 

KaXvTTT^-, KO.Xvf3-, 


TW, dip, 

635. The verbs of this class are : 

pass. e-KOTr-ijv 
r-i'j, lightning) 
2 aor. pass. e-/3 
(KaXv(3-yj, hut) 
2 aor. pass. e-/5 


(i<pv<p-, tcpv/3-) 

pflTTd} (pl^'i pt<f>-) 

(TK7TTO/Xai ((TK7T-) 



(ra^>- for Oa(f>-) ' KVTTTW (KI"</>-) 
(rpv(j>- for 6pv(f>-) AetTTTO) (Aa<^-) 
caXvfi-) paTTTto (pa<f>-) 

Also several dialectic and poetic verbs (1000). 

636. NOTE. 'PforTco (pi<p-, pl<p-) has also a present form /HTTT<I> with 
e- added (plTTTf.%-}. ITeKre'to (TTCK-), comb, also adds f- for the present stem 
(ircK-T^-). TuTTTw (TVTT-) has the stem TVTTT-C- for some tenses. 




637. 1. The present stem is formed by adding the suffix -y%- 
to the theme, and making the regular euphonic changes caused 
by y. 

2. To this class belong many palatal themes with futures in -w, 
many lingual themes with futures in -o-w ; many liquid themes with 
futures in -w (from -e-erw, -eta) ; and several vowel themes. 

3. A complete list of the verbs of this class is not given ; but all 
the important ones, especially all which have second tenses, or have 
any irregular formation, are in the Catalogue. 

638. /. Palatal themes. In themes ending in a palatal (K, y, x)> 
the palatal unites with y forming crcr or later Attic TT (96, 1). The 
present stem ends in -o-<r%- (-TT$-). 

i = <f>v\a.K-y<D, guard, verb-stem <f>vXaK- (</>i'Aa, guard, <vAa/c-os) 
i = fj.ay-y<a, knead, /*ay-, 2 aor. pass. e-/iay-yv 

Tapd(T(r<j) = rapd^-yta, disturb, rapa^- (rapa^-rj, confusion) 

639. NOTE. The three palatals undergo the same changes before mutes, 
the future ending in -a>. Hence the verb-stem can only be known from a 
second tense formed with the palatal, or from some other word from the same 
root. Palatal themes which form presents in -crcrw and second-tenses with 
the palatal are : 



also of Class II.) 

640. NOTE. Some verbs with presents in -feu have stems in y. These 
occur in Attic (chiefly in poetry): aAaAau>, ypvfra, xpa-tja, oi/xwfw, oAoAt'^w, 
<rTa^u>, <TTi'afu>, <mjpi^w, O-TI^W, <r<aw = O-^XITTW. A number of others are 
only poetic and Epic (1002). 

641. NOTE. These with themes in yy have presents in -w : 
jcAafu) (KAayy-, Latin clango), scream, fut. KAayto. 

<raA7rifu) (<raA7riyy-), sound the trumpet, aor. raA7riya. 
Also poetic jrAafu) (TrAayy-), to wander. 

642. NOTE. Nao-a-w, stuff, compress, has the stem very- and raS-. 
nr<ru or TTTTW, cook, is from the stem TTCK-, while the fut. Tre^w and all 
other forms are from the stem TTCTT- ; a late present is TreTrrw. 

For presents in -w with stems in Sand y, see G46. For presents in -<ra-<a 
or -TTU from lingual stems, see 647. 

643. //. Lingual themes. In themes ending in 8, the 8 unites with 
y forming (9G, 3). The present stem ends in -$-. 


IX-ifra = 6X71-18-7/00, hope, verb-stem eXiriS- (eA.7ri's, hope, gen. e 

KOfj.ifra = KOfj.i8-yu> } carry, ,, ,, K0fju8- (Ko/xtS-ry, a carrying} 

<j>pa.<a = <f>pa8-ini>, so?/, ,, ,, <f>pa.8- (Horn. 2 aor. 7re-<pao'-oi') 

Oavpafra = @avfj.a&-yw, wonder 6a.vfj.a8-, perf. mid. 

644. NOTE. The theme is seen in the perfect middle and in the aorist 
passive; as Tre-(f> for Tre-^paS-fj-ai and e-($>pa.<r-6i]v for f-cfrpaS-Oi/v (80). 
The stem in 6 is seen unchanged only in a poetic second-aorist, as Horn. 
f--e-(f)pa8-ov ; or in some other word from the same root, as Ko/ziS-r/, e ATT is-, 
on. e ATTI'S-OS. But many verbs in -u> with stems in 8 have no original root 
in 8, but were formed by analogy ; as 6a.vp.dfrt> (#av/zaS-), from BOLV/J.O, 

645. NOTE. Ntoo, wash, has the stem vi/3- for the other tenses, as fut. 
rty(t>, also in the late present viirrta and in Homeric VMTTO/JUU. 2wto, save, 
luus the stem o-yS- in the present, elsewhere o-cu-, as crw-vrco, e-rrw-era, etc. 

646. NOTE. Several verbs in -fro have stems in 8 and y : ap-n-dfr) 
(dpTraS-, Epic and late ap?ray-) ; TTCU^W (TraiS-, Traty-). Also several poetic 
.and dialectic verbs (1002). 

647. NOTE. The following verbs with lingual stems form presents in 
(-TTW) : 

/3pd(T(r(o, late f^pdfra 

(^8/jar-, f3pa8-) 
pe<r<r<i> ((per-, epeT- 


-, dpfj.o8-) 
(/3Xt.T- for fifXi 
fjitXi, gen. /xeAir-os) 
Also several poetic and dialectic verbs (1002). 

648. ///. Liquid Themes, If the theme ends in A, the y is assimi- 
lated to it and the present stem ends in -XX%- (96, 4). If the theme 
ends in v or p, the y is thrown back as i to the vowel of the theme 
with, which it is contracted, and the present stem ends in -aiv%-, -aip%-, 
-fivje-, -eip%-, -lv%-, -~<-p%; -vv%-, -vp%- (96, 5). 
/3'iXXu) =/3aA-?/w (y3aA-), throw 
o-reAAto =o-TeA-7/to (trreA-), send 


KaOaipta = KaOap-yw (Ka6ap-\ cleanse 
= rei'-i/to TCV- stretch 


vpw = 

= Kplv-yta (Kplv-), judge 

(oiKTt/3-), ^)i<7/ 

=<j) (dp.vv-), ward off 

649. NOTE. 1. IWAo/*ai (/3ovX-(-}. ya/tew (ya/M-e-), yiyvo/xat 
(only pr. and impf.), Sep-w, ()^Aa (e'&A-e-), epo/zai (fp-(-), 

f-}, Oep-ofi.a.1. (prose only pr.), /^eAAw (/xeAA--), //eAw (/xeA-e-), 
(/zei/-e-), vffi<i> (ve/ji-e-), a-Tfv-ta, and several poetic verbs belong to the First 
Class. Some liquid verbs belong to the Fifth Class, as reyM-vw, cut. Several 
belong to the Sixth Class, as cvp-i<rK<i>, find. 

2. 'O^et'Ao) (o/>A-), owe, am obliged, is formed on the analogy of 




stems in v and p, and is thus distinguished from o0AAa> (o 
but Homer generally has the Lesbian o<eAAu> for o<eiAto. 

650. 7F". Themes in -av-. Two themes in -av- drop v, and y is 
thrown back as t to the a. 

tw = KO/-J/W (xat'-, KO/-, present stem KO/-J/^-, ica$-), 

The futures are Kai'<<r<o and KAaro-o/zm. In Attic prose, the present is 
often KOW and KAdo>. Several poetic presents of this form also occur 
(1002, 4). 

For the dialectic verbs of this class, see 1002. 

651. Addition of t. A few verbs of this class form some tense- 
stems by adding e- to the present stem, omitting the thematic vowel. 
They are: 

<-, /cAcu-e-) 
> / >$ > \ 
oTw (oo-, u(-(-) 

Also a few poetic and dialectic verbs (990). 


652. The present stem is formed from the theme by the 
addition of a syllable containing v. This occurs in various 

/. By adding -v%-; as re/i-vw, cut, present stem 

(Sax-, BIJK-, 656) 

(Si'-, see 

TTlTVb) (7TT-) poet. = TTt- 

(TI-, see T('W) 
vw (<f>6a-) 
refjivta (rtp,-) 
irtvto (TTI-, TTO-, 656) 

//. By adding -w%- for -v-y%-, a transition to the Iota or Fourth 
Class. Thus /JcuVw (/3a-), go. present stem (3aiv%- 

KepSaivo) for K(p8a-v-yw (Kfp&av-, K(pSa-) ($a.ivM for /3a-v-y(o (f3a-) 

TfTpuivto for TtTpa-v-yw (rtrpav-, rpa-) 

III. By adding -w%- ; as aio-Odvo/jMi (ala-6-), perceive, present stem 





(poet.) = oi'Sew 

also of Sixth Class) 


adding -o.w%- for -o.vt/%-, a transition to the Iota or Fourth 

<xr</y>ai'ro/zai for wr^p-avyofiai (wr(f>p-(-), smell, present stem w 



V. By adding -%- and inserting a nasal, \>. or v or y nasal, In the 
stem. Thus Xafj./3dvw (Aa/?-, present stem Aa/tt^ai/%-), take; [ 
(pad-, present stem p.avda.v%-}, learn; Biyydvw (6iy-, present stem Oiy- 
ya.v%-), touch. 

(aS-) Ionic and 
Oiyydvto (Qiy-*) 







r . By adding -*<%-; as iWw (pv-), 

KWfCD (KV-) poet. 



up, present stem fivvf.%-. 

VII. By adding -w%- (for - 

for eAa-vu-w (eAa-), rfrtve, present stem e/ 

Fill. By adding -w-, after a wwe/ -v-. 

They all end in -VVJJLL (or -vv/xai) and form the second class of verbs in 
fj.1 (493, 2) ; as Scuevvfti (8iK-, present stem Seinvv-), show, 0-KfSdvvvfj.i. 
(cTKeSa-, present stem crKfSavvv-), scatter, TTTdpvvp.a.1 (wrap-, present stem 
TTTaprv-), sneeze, 6'AAii/xi for oA-vi)/xt (oA-, present stem oAAv-), destroy, lose. 
They are enumerated in 766. 

IX. By adding -va-. 

Thus (TKtBvTfffjn (o-Ki8-i/a-), poetic and rare prose for 0-KeSdvvi'fj.i, scatter. 
All the others are confined almost entirely to poetry. 

653. NOTE. Besides the verbs of the Fifth Class given above, there 
.are some poetic and dialectic verbs and forms of this class (1005). 

654. Addition of e. 1. The following verbs of this class add c to 
the theme to form all their tense-stems, except the present, second- 
aorist, and second-perfect. 

alcrOdvo/iai (atcr$-e-) 


dfj.aprdi'<t) (dfj.apT-e-) 
(a5--), poetic 

2. These add e to the theme to form one or more tense-stems. 

O-TO/31'fy/l ((TTOp-(-) 

655. NOTE. "Ofj.vvfj,i (o/x-), swmr, adds o to the theme for all systems 
except the present and future making <'/A-O- ; as <3/z-o-cra, o/xw/x-o-Ka, but 
.fut. t/zoiyzat. 




656. NOTE. Some verbs of the Fifth Class lengthen a short stcin- 
vowel iu some of the tense-systems, but not in the present ; they thus 
belong also to the Second Class. They are : Sd/cvto (8a/c-, 8rjK-), Aayxvw 
(Aay-, A>/X-)> Aa/z/JdVw (Aa/2-, A.?//?-), Aav0dvu> (Aa#-, AT/#-), 

(TTTU.P-, TTTdp-), TTVvOaVOfJMl (iTvO-, 7TV#-), TVy\<ivto ( TV X~> Te7 'X")' 

(C 1 7' t fv 7~\ ifff/vvfu (Tray-, Trrjy-) and p/yvvfu (pay-, p?/y-, 2 perf. pwy-) 
have the long stem-vowel everywhere except in the second-passive system ; 
fifyvv/it has /uy- in the second-perfect and second-passive systems, else- 
where *t-. 


657. The present stem is formed by adding -<TK%- or -I<TK%- 
to the theme, which in some verbs is reduplicated in the present. 
Thus yt,yv(i>-<rtc(i} (yvo-), know, present stem r yi r yv(ocrK%- ; evp-Lcrtca) 
(fvp-), find, present stem evpt,crfc%-. 

This class of verbs has been called inchoative or inceptive on account of 
their resemblance to the Latin inchoative verbs in -sco, but very few have au 
inchoative meaning. 

658. I. Vowel Stems. These are: 

8i-8pd(TKW (Spa-)'](TK<i), older 

- 71) poetic 

(Oav-, Ova-) 

dpWTKd) (Bop-, BpO-) 

tAacTKo/zai (tAa-) 
(yi/o-) KvuTKO/JLai. (KV-) 

II. Consonant Stems. These are : 


(irepa-, Trpa-) 
TI-T/3WO-KW (rpo-) 

(aA-, aAo-) 

aAj'CTKO) for uAl'K-CTKU) 

(aAvK-) poetic 

-, dfJL- 


(dv-dA-, aV- 

tTr-avpio-Kb) (urp-) poetic 
ei'pwrKO) (ei'p-c-) 
AUO-KW for 
(Aa/c-) poetic 

also of Cl. V.) 

for TraO-(TKdt 
(irad-, irtvO-, also of 
Cl. VIII.) 

659. NOTE. EvptWa> (evp-) adds e to the theme for all tense-stems 
except the present and second-aorist (eup-t-), as fut i f 'p7/tro>. -TepwrKw, 

-ii-'^ has all other stems from the theme orepc-, as crrepyo-to ; a present 
i, l)e in want, is from <rre/>-. 'AAto-Kopxi (dA-o-), 6e captured, and 
d/i/^Aur<(D = -d/x/3Aow in composition (u/x^A-o-), miscarry, add o to the theme 
for all systems except the present ; as dA-ci-<ro/iai, y//z/3A-w-<ra. 

660. NOTE. Final o of the theme becomes u> before -<TK^-, as yi-yvw- 


<TKO> (y i/o-) ; final a sometimes becomes a or rj, as Si-S/au-o-Kw (Spa-}, run away, 
-- (\ remind. 

661. NOTE. The dialectic and poetic verbs and forms of this class are 
given in 1006. 


662. The verb-stem, sometimes reduplicated, is the present 

Thus (f>rj/j,i (<a-), say, <$>a-p.ev, <a-re ; Ti-$r;-/u (Of-), ri-Oe-^v, Ti-6(-T(,, ri-Of-o-Be, Ti-de-VTat ; 6Y-8w-/xi (So-), 8i-8o-[iev ; aya-fiai (aya-). 

Here belong all verbs in -pi except those in -vvfj.i. They are enumerated 
in 764-766, and (dialectic) in 1064. 


663. Several essentially different stems belong to the same 
verb. Compare the Latin fero, tnli, latum, and the English go, 

A.lpeia (alpe-, IA.-), take, aipi'jcru>, rj'p'rjKa, yprjfj.aL, ypeOr^v ; 2 aor. elXov 
{(Xw, fXoip.i, fXe, eXelv, fXiov}. 

EiSov, saw, see opa<a below. 

EITTOV (CITT-, ep-, pe-\ spoke, second aorist, no present ; fut. (e/oew) e/ow ; 
pert'. eiprjKa, eipry/xat ; aor. pass. eppi]0r)v ; 1 aor. etira. The stem etTr- is 
for -67r- = fe-fcir- (poetic CTTOS = ./Wos, word) ; e/3- is for Pep- (Latin ver-bum, 
word) ; pt- is for //ae-, etjOr;/tai = /c-//3^-/iat. 

"Epxo/^ai (e/3X - > e'Aev^-, fXvO-, \0-\ go, in prose, the other moods, the 
participle, and the imperfect are usually borrowed from e?/zi ; fut. e 
very rare in prose (777) ; 2 perf. IXtjXvOa 2 aor. fjXQov { 
etc. } ; Attic fut. is etp.i, shall go (7 7 5). 

'Eo-#io> (ecr^-, 8-, <ay-), ea< ; fut. eSo/iat ; perf. eo^/SoKa ; perf. mid. 
ISr/Sea-ftat ; aor. pass. -rjSea-drjv ; 2 aor. e'^ayov. 

'O/jaw (opa-, OTT-, 18- for /tS-), sf ; fut. o^-o/zat ; perf. tiopdKa; perf. mid. 
ft'>l>t~i.ji,n.i. or t5/x/xat ; aor. pass. &(f>8r)v 2 aor. eJSov {i8w, ?5oi/xi, etc.}; 2 perf. 
poetic oTTWTra. 

IIcto-x w (TTW^-, Trev^-), SM/fr ; fut. Treicro/iai for TrtvO-a-o-p-at ; 2 perf. 
TTfTTovBa ; 2 aor. firadov. 

TLfvto (TTL-, TTO-), drink ; fut. irt'o/tat ; perf. TreTrwKa ; 2 aor. CTTIOV. 

T/)X W ( T P X' f r ^P X' l^^, 8pafji-e-) ; fut.; perf. Seo'/sa/zT/Ka 
(stem Spa/x-e-) ; 2 aor. fSpapov ; 6fy>ew, $, and tdp(a are poetic and 

4>/3w (<e/o-, oi-, evK-, by reduplication and syncope ci'-evex- and e^eyK-), 
6ear, Lat. /ero ; fut. ourw ; aor. i^vey/ca ; perf. tv-i/i/ox** ; perf. mid. eV^ 
/^.at ; aor. pass, t' 


(<ive-, w/jia-), fat. wioycro/zai ; perf. mid. uK>//iai ; aor. pass. 
; 2 aor. mid. enyna/o/v (498) ; e<iv?pra/A)7v is late. 


664. Indicative. 1. (Common Form). The present indicative is 
inHected by adding the primary personal endings to the present stem 
in -%-, the imperfect is inflected by adding the secondary personal 
endings to the stem in -%-. For the present singular in -w, -c/.s, -, and 
the third plural in -oiwi, see 588, 1 ; for o- of the personal endings -o-ou 
and -<ro dropped, see 596, 2. See also the paradigm of Ai-w. 

2. (Mt-Jbn). The final vowel of the tense-stem is lengthened 
in the singular of tlie indicative active (& and e to 77, o to w, v to v). 
The present indicative adds the primary endings : the imperfect 
indicative adds the secondary endings, with -a-av in the third plural. 
For -o- from -o-i, -o-t from -ri, -a-o-i from -a-vrt, see 588, 2 ; for o- in 
-<rai and -<ro retained, see 596, 1. See also the paradigms in 498. 

665. NOTE. For the two forms -y and - of the second person 
singular middle, see 597. For the irregular dropping of a- in -trou and -<ro 
of verbs in -/ni, see 506. For several active forms of verbs in -/J.L made as 
if from contract verbs, see 500. For forms of verbs in -iyzi from presents 
in -vw, see 503. 

666. Subjunctive, The subjunctive has the long thematic vowel 
-%- and the primary personal endings. 

1. (Common Form). The long thematic vowel -%- takes the place 
of -%-. For the active singular -w, -ys, -y, and for the third plural 
-oxrt, see 589 ; for the second person singular -y for -i]-<rai, see 596, 2. 
See also the paradigm of \w. 

&aivu>, subj. <f>aiv<i>, faLivys, <f>aivy y (fxtivtofifv, etc. ; </>euVa>/>wu, <f>aivy for 
<f>aimj-(<r)at, ^aao/rat, etc. 

2. (Mi-Form). The final vowel (a, c, or o) of the tense-stem is 
contracted with the long thematic vowel -%- ; but final a irregularly 
contracts with t) and jj to ?/ and y (the Ionic has subjunctives in -ew 
for -aw, 1047). Verbs in viyxi form the subjunctive (and optative) 
like verbs in -w. 

TiTfy/xi (Ot-\ subj. riOta from nBf-w, n^y? from TiQe-ys etc., ri^w/Mai, 
rt^y from Ti#-j/((r)ai, etc. ; STTT//XI (ora-), ICTTW, to-rys from icrra-ys (1047), 
wrry from to-ra-y, terry from Mrra-7;(<r)ai, wrTTyrai from wrra-^Tat (1047, 
Ionic has open forms like cTrio-Te-tovTat fo'r Attic tirio-TtavTai from cTrurTa.- 
Si8(Dfj.t (So-), subj. 8t6\2 from 8t8o-w, 8t8ws from SiSo-y?, St&p from 
, etc., 8iBwfiat from 8t8o-w/xai, 8t8o? from 8i5o-7/(er)ai, StSwrat from 


8i8o-r)Tai, etc. ; SeiKvvfjii (Set*-, pres. stem Seixvu-), subj. SCIKVVW, 
8eiKvvrj, etc. 

667. NOTE. For the accent of the /xi-forms, see 515. For the 
irregular accent in the subjunctive (and optative) of Svva-ft,ai, fTria-Ta-aai, 
Kpf[j.a-/, and aya-/zat, see 516. 

668. Optative. 1. The optative has the mood-suffix -i-(-ie-) or 
-irj- added to the tense-stem, it being -i-(-ie-) or -07- according to 572, 
573. Ip. the common form of inflection, the thematic vowel, here 
always o, precedes the mood-suffix; verbs in -i/v/u form the optative 
(and subjunctive) like verbs in -w. 

2. The final vowel of the tense-stem contracts with the mood- 
suffix : o-/., oo-i, and eo-t give ot ; a-t gives at ; e-i gives ei ; ao-t gives 
(p (through aoi) ; while o- of the personal ending -o-o is dropped (596). 

3. The optative has the secondary personal endings ; but the first 
person singular has the ending -/u for -v whenever the mood-suffix 
is -i-. The third person plural has -o-av after the mood-suffix -irj-. 

Common Form. Avoifii from Auo-i-/*i, AUDI? from Auo-t-s, Ai5oi from 
XVO-L, Xvoifj-ev from Xvo-i-uev, Xvotre from Af'o-i-re, Af'oiev from Xvo-te-v ; 
Xvoifjirjv from Xvo-i-/j.r)v, AVOID from Avo-i-o = Avo-i-o-o ; SeiKvf'/u, opt. 
SfiKvyoifj,!. from 8eiKVvo-i-fjLi, SCIKVVOIS from SCIKVVO-I-S, etc. (Contract 
Presents) : TI/XCO/U from Tlp.a-oi-(jLi, Ti^a-o-t-/at ; rtynws from ri/xa-oi-s, Tl(j.a-o- 
t-s ; Tifupijv from Tlfj.a-oir]-v, rlfj-a-o-irj-v ; TtyMOjyur^v from Tlfj.a-oi-fj.rjv, rlp.a- 
0-i-fj.rjv ; TI/ZWO from Tt/za-oi-o, rt/xa-o-i-o = Tl/j-a-o-i-aro (478; 596, 2); 
<iAoi/u from ^)tA-oi-yu.t, <^>iA-o-i-/xi ; </>tAoir/v from <iAe-o;-v, (friXe-o-irj-v ; 
SijX.oifj.1 from 8^Ao-oi-/xt, S^Ao-o-i-ytxi ; 8i]Xoir)V from 8^Ao-o-y-v. See 
461 and 477 

Mi-.Form. ndfir/v from Ti6f-trj-v ; ri6cit][j.ev from Ti^e-ir^-yuev, or 
Tideifj-ev from Ti6f-i-fj.fv ; Tideiijcrav from ndf-itj-crav, or ri$eiV from 
Tt^e-ie-v ; Ttdeifj.^ from Ti6f-i-/j.r)v ; rtdfio from riBe-i-o = ride-i-a-o (596, 2) ; 
8i8otr/v from 8t8o-i?^-v, etc. ; IfrTair/v from to-ra-irj-v. See 498. 

669. NOTE. For the optative of /jtydw, shiver, and i8/odw, sweat, see 
481. For the optative middle of TI^/XI and itry/xt occasionally formed as in 
verbs in -w, see 504 and 771, 3. 

670. NOTE. For the accent of the /u- forms, see 515. For the 
irregular accent in the optative (and subjunctive) of, can, firurra.-, understand,, hawj, and <xya-/uai, admire, see 616. 

671. Imperative. The imperative endings are added to the tense- 
stem. In the common form, -Oi is always omitted. In the /xi-form, 
-61 is also omitted (672), and the preceding stem-vowel is then 
lengthened : a to ?/, e to et, o to ov, v to i~. For a of the personal 


ending -ero dropped in the common form, and retained in the /xt-form, 
see 596. 

Common Form. ^cuve, <CUV-TW, <f>aive-Tov, ^atve-rwv, <f>atvf-T(, 
<f>aiv6-vTu>v or ^aive-Taxrai' ; Avov for Ave-o = Af't-<ro (596, 2), Aue-tr^w, etc. 

Mi-form. MTTTJ, tcrrd-TO), etc. ; rl&t, Ti#e-Tio ; 8i'8ov, 8i8o-Ta> ; 
O ; fora-o-o, rid(-<ro, Si'8o-<ro, 8eiKvv-(ro, etc. 

672. NOTE. The only presents which retain -#t are : icr-0i from ei/xi, 
fe (also from o?8a, &?JOM>, see 772 and 786) ; l-Qi from ct/ui, </o (775) ; <a-#i 
or <a-#t from <^;/^t, say (779), and some dialectic forms. The ending -o-o 
drops <r in a few poetic forms (506, 2). 

(Future, Active and Middle.) 

673. The future stem is made by adding the tense-suffix 
-<r%- to the theme ; in liquid verbs, by adding -e%- (for -e-<r%-) 
to the theme. In verbs of the Second Class, -a-%- is added to 
the strong form of the theme. The inflection is like that of the 
present of the common form. 

A/xr<o, A&reis, Awrei, etc. ; AVCTO/ACU, \va-y or Avcrei, Aw-ercu, etc. : 
optative : Avo-oijiu, Awrots, Awroi, etc.; AWTOI/A^V, Awroio, ATUCTOITO, etc. 

1. Vowel verbs. Vowel stems regularly lengthen a short final 
vowel before the tense-suffix -0-%- according to 39. Thus a and e 
are lengthened to ?/, o to w, l to i, v to v ; but & preceded by e, i, or 
p becomes d. 

a-io, honour, Tt/zvy-crw, rlp.i]-< 

ea-o, permit, td-trw, 

aria-w, distress, dVid-<ra>, dvid-o-o/iat 

8pd-(a, do, 8pd-<rta, 8pd-crofia.L 

Tri'f-, irvfv-< 

TTVV-), breathe, 
(<rro-), e#, 
(d(-), put, 
(80-), jft've, 

2. A/tf/e ^er/?s. Palatal mutes (K, y, x) and labial mutes (TT, ^8, ^>) 
coalesce with o- to form or <. Dental mutes (T, 8, 0) drop out 
before <r. 


, weave, 

Aey-w, say, Aeo>, 

Tacrcrco (ray-), arrange, Tau), 

rapacnra) (rapa^-), disturb, Tapd<a, rapdo[j,ai 

AeiTTto (AiTr-, XfLTT-), leave, Aei^w, Aci^o/xui 

ypa</>-w, write, ypd\fw, ypd\f/o[ 

Tpe<j)-(D, nourish, 6pe\f/<a, (jpf{j/o/j.a<. (102) 

KOTTTti) (KOTT-), ni, 
/3Aa7TTW (/3Xaf3-\ injure, 

(TTreicrco, (TTreiitro/xat (40) 

(irid-, TTfiO-), persuade, TTCIO-W, 

3. Liquid verbs. Liquid stems insert before -a-%- ; thereupon <r 
drops out and contraction takes place. The tense-suffix thus appears 
as -e$- (from -eo-^-). 

<^>aA-), <r*p, deceive, fut. <r</>aA--<ra>, cr<^>aA-e-aj, cr</)aAal, cr<f>a.Xovfj.a.i 
crreAAo) (crreA-), sejirf, ,, crreA-e-cra), (TTeA--a>, crreAw, crreAou/xat 

(TCV-), stretch, Tev-c-crw, rcv-e-w, revw, 

Kpii'o) (xplv-), judge, ; , Kpiv-e-a-w, Kpw--(o, K/OIVW, Kpt.vovp.aL 

Te/j.i'0) (TC/J.-), cut, ,, Tffj.-f-a'ta, reju-e-w, rffj-d, 

Sepia, (otp-), fl a yi ) oep-e-vw, 8ep-f-(a, 

674. NOTE. The rule of lengthening a short final stem-vowel before 
-<r^- holds good also in the case of consonant stems which are changed into 
vowel-stems by the addition of < (613) or o (614, 628, 659); as e'0eAo> 
(e'fleA-e-), iw's/i, e'&Arj-o-w ; dAtcr/co/iou (dA-o-), 6e captured, aXio-a-ofj-ai. 

675. NOTE. XP aa *t y' LVe oracles, lengthens a to r; : \pi]<ro), f\p^cra, 
etc. ; also \pdo/, use, ^pvyo-o/xat, etc. So also Ter/aaij/w (rpa-), bore, rpi]o-ia, 
trpijcra. 'AKpodofiai, hear, has aKpodo-ofj-ai, -tjKpoaa-d^v, etc. 

676. NOTE. The following verbs have the future with the forms of 
the present : r#i<o (fad-) = poetic eS-w, ea<, fut. fSofiai, ; TT/VW (TTI-), drink, 
fut TTiofj.a.1 ; x^ w (X v 'i X e ^"> X ev ") 2 JOMr i f llt - X* w > Xfop.a.1. 

677. NOTE. Ilero/aat (TTCT-C-, TTT-C-), //, has the future TreTJyo-o/xai or 
syncopated Trr/ya-o/iai. -*E^o> (cre^-, o-^-), /tave, make fia or o-^'/fw. 

678. NOTE. The poetic verbs KeAAw (*ceA-), /?irf, K^U (Kvp-\ meet, 
and Spvvut (op-), rouse, retain or : /ceAcrw, KJ'/JO-W, opcrw. These have corre- 
sponding aorists (686). Other similar futures belong to Homer. 

679. Short theme-vowel retained. 1. A short final theme-vowel 
is retained by some verbs throughout (615); as yAdf-a>, laugh, yeA<- 
<, eye \a-tra, iyfXd-(r-6i]V ; TAe-w, finish, TA-o-w, (TfXf-a-a, TTAe-Ka, 


TTf \f-<r-fMii, TeA-o--0j/v. These verbs are the following (all in the 
catalogue) : 

(a) ay a- fiat dpu-a> ttrdiw (frrOt.-, eS-, 

al&f-o/tai yeAd-a) eSe-, 8o-) 

aK-c-o/xai \avvia (Aa-) ^e-w 

uAc-a> eAxw (^AK-, eAxv-) ^Ad-w r/ae-uj 


) (poet.) 


(6) All verbs in -d-vvv/u and -t-vvvfj.i (but except the first perfect ea-jSrj-Ka 
from (r/Je-vvi'/jii, extinguish). Also oAAiyu (oA-e-), Sftyvfu (op.-e-, O/A-O-), and 

Here belong also several poetic and dialectic verbs and forms. 

2. The following also retain the short final vowel of the theme 
before -a-%- ; but lengthen it in one or more tense-systems, or have 
double future forms, one with the lengthening and one without it ; 
as alvfw, praise, cuVra>, aor. yveo-a, perf. yvfKa, aor. pass. yvWijv, but 
perf. mid. yvrjuat. These are : 

alvf-ta KaAe-o) fj.vta (/AI-) iroOt-ta epv-w (Epic) 

a^OofJ.a.1 (dx$-e-) fJia.~)(ofJMi (jj.a\-e-) irfvio (TTI-, TTO-) TTOVC-O) <j>6dr(a ((f>da-~) 

3. The following lengthen the final vowel of the theme in the 
future, but keep it short in one or more tense-stems ; as Se-w, bind, 
S?/o-o>, (8i]o-a, but SeStKa, SeSe/zat, eSedrjv. These are the following : 

alpt-ta 8i'8w/zt (80-) e^w (trex-? "X ") iorrjfii (ora-) TIVW (TI-) 

y3atVw (J3a-) &vi'ap.a.i (Suva-) 6vw (@v-) \IXD (AC-) (^^w (</>5-) 

(3vvf<a (/3v-) 8vta (8v-) li^fiL (-) ridrjut (de-) root e/o-, pc- 

In the dialects the quantity is sometimes different from that of the Attic 
form. For the few Epic verbs which retain a short final theme-vowel in one 
or more tenses, see 992. 

680. Attic future. 1. The verbs KaAe-to, call, and reAe-oj, finish, drop 
a- of the future stem and then contract, making the futures have the same 
form as the present. Thus KaAew, fut. KaAecrw, KaAew, Attic KaAw ; TfAew, 
fut. TeAccra*, TtAew, Attic rAw. 

2. 'EAaww (Aa-, poet, and dial. pres. eAdw), drive, has fut. eAdcrw, 
cAuu, Attic Aw. Maxo/itti (jj.a^-f-), fiyht, has fut. na\<rofjLai, fJM^totuUj 
Attic fj.n\ovfjMi. -"OAAfi/*i (oA-e-), destroy, has fut. oAeo-w, oAew, Attic o 
Ka^tfo/zai (--), i<, has fut. Attic KaOfSovpai. 

3. All verbs in -dvvf<fj.i have this future ; as Kptfidtnrvfu (/c/x/xa 
Kp(fj.d<rw (KpffjMw), Attic Kpf/uZ. Also dftfaivvvfju. (d/x^)i-), c/o<Ae, fut. 


a/j.<f>io-(t> (dfj.<f>i<a), Attic dfj.<f>iw ; and (TTopevvvfj.i (<TTO/X-), spread out, fut. 

CTTOpfq'<i), (crTO/D(i>), Attic CTTOpW. 

4. Verbs in -rw o/ more than tico syllables regularly drop a- of the future 
after inserting e before the thematic vowel (as in the Doric future, 681) ; 
then -t-eo) and -i-eo/xat are contracted to -iw and -iov[wi. Thus vo/zico 
(vo/xtS-), think, (vofj-i-crto), vo//,i-eu>), Attic vo/uw, vo/ueis, voyuiet, vopiciTov, 
vofj.iovfj.ev, vop-tfiTf, vofj.iovo-L ; opt. vofj.ioiijv ; middle (, vofj,i-eo-, Attic, vofj-nj or vop.ifi, vofjufirai, etc. But O"xtw (o^iS-), 
pJi, of two syllables, has o-xt-crw. The regular future form vo/xio-w is late ; 
and forms like vo/xwrew do not occur. 

5. Bi/?aw (/3i/3a8-}, cause to go, usually drops o- of the future and then 
contracts : J3i/3dcrn>, (3i(3d(a, usually pifiio. Other verbs in -a^w seldom 
have this contracted future form. 

6. The above future formations are termed Attic, although they are 
found in other dialects. The forms KaAecrw, rcAeo-co, eAacrw, and oArw are 
found here and there in the texts of Attic writers, but ought to be eliminated ; 
while the forms in -ecrto, -eo-o/zcu, -ew, -eo/xcu, -curto, -aw, not in parenthesis, 
are dialectic. 

681. Doric future. A few verbs form the stem of the future middle 
in -cre%-, contracting -creo/zou to This is called the Doric future 
because the Doric forms futures in -crew (-crw) and -o-eo/xat (-crov/xai). The 
Attic has these forms alongside of the regular Attic forms, except in vew, 
TTITTTW, and perhaps 7rcu'a>. The verbs with Doric futures are the following : 

/cAouw (i<Xav-\ weep, KXa\xrovfj.aL or 

veto (vv-, vff-, vfv-), swim, 

Traifri) (TratS-, Traty-), sport,, (Trai'^w and late) 

(TrAu-, TrAe/-, TrAe-), sail, TrAevo-oiyxcu or 7rAercro//ai 

(TTID-, Trve/-, TTVC-), breath, Trvevo-ov/, or 

(7T6T-), /aW, 7Tcro?/xai 

((f>vy-, <frevy-), flee, <f> or < 



(First- Aorist Active and Middle.) 

682. The future stem is made by adding the tense-suffix -era- 
to the theme. In verbs of the Second Class -era- is here also 
added to the strong form of the theme. 

1. Vowel and mute verbs. The changes (if any) in the theme are 
here the same as in the future system (673, 1 and 2). 

Tlfj.d-0), honour, err/x^-o-a, e'Tt/xTj-crtt/iT/y 

td-(a, permit, eid-o-a, eia-o-dfj.ijv 

8pd-ua, do, (Spaa-a, f8pa.-o-dfj.ijv 




o, love, 
8;Ao-<>, show, 



, (K(pa-), mix, 
7r'u> (TTi'i'-, trvej'-, TTVCV-), breathe, 
irXtx-M, weave, 
Ary-a), say, 

Tuoxrw (ray-), arrange, 
rapd<r(rta (rapax-), disturb, 

TTffJLTT-d), Seild, 

ypd-(J>-<ji, icrite, 
Tpe<f>-(i>, nourish, 
KOTTTW (KOTT-), c^, 
fi\dirT<a (/i?Aa/3-), injure, 


ifl-), persuade, 













2. Liquid verbs. These drop a- of the tense-suffix -era-, and 
lengthen the theme-vowel in compensation : & to rj (after i or p to d), 
e to i, l to i, v to v (40). 

(<r</>aA-), fri^, deceive, aor. 


in'i.n-1'i (fttav-), pollute, 
Ttpaurm (irfpav-), finish, 
fit I'M (fiv-), remain, 
KptvtD (xplv-\ jwlge, 

(dfjivv-), ward off, 

e-crreA-o-a, eWeiAa, etrrciAa/iTjv 




683. NOTE. For vowel verbs which retain a short final vowel of the 
theme, see 679. For the irregular nrst-aorists in -*ca, cdi)Ka, eSw/ca, and 
fJKa from Ti6r}fjLi, SiSwfu, and iljfu, see 501. 

684. NOTE. Xew (xu-, X e -^' X l '~)> l^ " 7 '? has the first-aorist ex 
(without (r) for Epic ex ua > corresponding to the futures x* w a 
(676). 4>ep(i>, 6ar, 2 aor. ^Kcyxov, has also the first-aorist ryveyxa, 
Kdp-rfv (from the theme tfex-, 1 aor. stem i}vey/<a- for v-ev(e)K-a-, hy Attic re- 
duplication and syncope). Ewrov (root feir-), said, has also a first-aorist enra 
(from -/-/7r-a). AipM (dp-), raise, has aorist indicative iypa and ^cfy/7/v 
(a augmented to ^), and hfis d elsewhere : apM, apatfii, dpov, apai, apds, 
mid. apiafjML, apaifir)v, upacrdai, updpevos. "AAAo/zai (aA-), leap, makes aor. 
indie. r)\dfj.rjv ; elsewhere the stem is dA-, ns dAa/jtevos. 

685. NOTE. The following in -aivw lengthen -av- to -di'- instead of 
-T)v- : yAuKaiVw (yi'Kav-), sweeten, eyAt'Kdva ; l(r\vaiv<a (la-^vav-), make thin, 
ur\vava ; xtpoaivta (Kipfiav-, KtpB-e-), gain, extpSdva ; KoiAaiVw (/coiAav-), 


hollow out, CKOtAdva ; AiTratVw (AtTrav-), fatten, eXiirJ-va ; opyatvw (opyav-), 
be angry, only in Tragedy, wpydi/a ; TreTraiVco (TreTrav-), make ripe, 

686. NOTE. The poetic verbs KeAAw, KV/DW, and opvvfu retain <r in the 
first-aorist : exeAo-a, cKiyxra, a>/3<ra(for similar futures, see 678). Other first- 
aorists from liquid themes with cr retained belong to Homer (1019). 


687. Indicative. The secondary personal endings are added ; but 
the first person singular active omits -v, and the third singular 
weakens -a of the tense-suffix to -e ; for <r of the personal ending -<ro 
dropped, see 596. 

Tense-stem Xvo-a-, eXvcra, eAvo-as, e'Aikre,, etc., iAtxrdtu^v, 
eAwra) from eAi>cra-(<r)o, etc. 

688. Subjunctive. The subjunctive substitutes the long thematic 
vowel -%- for a of the tense-suffix, and is inflected like the present 
subjunctive of the common form. 

Tense-stem Aiicra-, subj. Avo-w, Af'o-jys, Xvcrrj, XVCTYJTOV, Aucrayxev, etc.; 
Xi<(j-(, Xvo-y, X&njrcu, etc. 

689. Optative. The optative adds the mood-suffix -i- to the tense- 
stem with which it is contracted, a-t to at. It is inflected like present 
optative of the common form. 

Tense-stem AiVa-, opt. Aucrai/u from Af'cra-i-/xi, Avcrats, Ai'crcu, A^'crai- 
fj.ev, etc., Xv(rat/j.rjv, Xvo-aio, Accratro, etc. 

The Attic generally prefers the so-called Aeolic forms in -etas, -eie, -eiev 
to the regular ones in -ats, -at, -atev ; as Awraias Accrete, Aro-atav. 

690. Imperative. The imperative endings are added to the tense- 
stem ; but the second person singular active and middle is irregular, 
the endings -ov and -at (of uncertain origin) taking the place of a of 
the tense-stem. 

Tense-stem Awa-, imper. Xvcrov, AiJcra-ra), A&ra-Tov, Af'tra-Twi', Avera-re, 
Xixrd-vTfav or Ai3o-a-Toxrai/ ; mid. Avcrat, Awa-a-^w, Xfoa-vde, 
or Xv<rd-(r6<a<rav (frrjvov, (f>ri\>d-T(i), etc. ; </}vai, <f>r]vd-o-8io, etc. 

(Second-Aorist Active and Middle.) 

691. Common Form. The tense-stem is formed by adding 
.%- to the verb-stem (in verbs of the Second Class, to the weak 
stem). The indicative is inflected like the imperfect (GO 4, 1 ; 
461; 463). 




BaAA<o (fia\-), throw, eySaAov, fftaXofJiijv ; AetVw (AtTr-, ACITT-), leave, 
tXiirov, (Xnrop.i)v ; Xap.fta.vta (Xa/3-), take, ZXafiov, eXa/36p.vjv ; ap,aprdv(a 
(ap.apT-\ err, iJpMprov ; rep.vo) (rep,-), cut, erep-ov, ere/xo/xv/v ; iKveo/xcu (IK-), 

692. NOTE. Second-aorists of the common form are found in prose 
only in mute verbs ; irtv<a (irt-, TTO-), drink, is the only vowel verb which 
forms in prose a second-aorist, ZTTIOV. Only primitive verbs can form 

693. NOTE. The few verbs of the First Class which have second- 
aorists form them in various ways. 

(a) By reduplication ; as cty-o>, lead, ryy-ay-ov, impf. 7/yov. 
(6) By syncope ; us Trer-o/xat, fly, e-TTT-d/zr/v, impf. tVero/xT/i/. 

(c) By change of the root-vowel e to a ; as T/JCTT-W, turn, erpcnrov 
(Epic and lyric), fTpa.irop.yv, impf. T/37rov. 

(d) By metathesis (poetic forms) ; as poetic StpK-op-ai, see, Z-SpaK-ov. 

(e) Some derivative verbs in -aw and -o form poetic or late second- 
aorists from the root ; as /xi'Kei-o/zai, roar, ffivKov (Epic), crrvye-a> 
(Ionic and poetic), dread, liate, &rrvyov (Epic). 

694. NOTE. The following verbs form the second-aorist active (and 
middle) of the common form in Attic : 

&yu (dy-, ay-ay-) 
aiptu (alpe-, i\-) 
atcr tidy (aiaO-) 
a\\ofJMi (a\-) 

vw (a/xapr-) 


ur\-, dfjiirt 
[d* - avpiffKU 

Siou/ju (&>-) (cettu'w (catt-) 

tytlpta (eyep-, eyp-) [Kiyxdvu (KIX-)] 
tdpanov (SpafJ.-, rpt- Kpdfa (upay-) 

flSov (IS-, opdu) 
flirof (fir-, pf-) 
iironiai (ffeir-, <TV-) 
tpofiai (ep-) Epic 
t<payot> (<(>ay-, f<r6lu) 
tx u (oeX'i ff X~) 

u (/3a\-) 

\o-, /xo\-)] 

ylyvofta.1 (yer-) II 

ddtcva (3aK-) 

ta (Oop-)] 


\ayxdvu (Xa%-) 
\afj.fidv(a (\aft-) 
\avOdvia (\ai)-) 
[Xd<r/cw (\a-)] 
\diru (\iir-) 
navddvw (/J.aO-) 
[6\iff0dvu (6\iffO-)] 
6\\\<fj.i. (6\-) 
w (6<pe\-) 

irtronai (irer-, BT-) 
trivu (TTI-) 
Trtwru (irfT-, ire<r-) (irrap-) 
irvv6dt> (TTV(>-) 

dapffdvu (SapS-) [xaivu (icav-)] 

u (iraO-) 
u (rri0-)] 


T/KTW (re/c-) 
rpiiru (rpfir-, rpair-) 
rpwyu (rpay-) 
rvyxdvu (TVX-) 
bir - i<fxveop.a.t (vwo- 

tj) (<f>vy-) 


Of the above, some have only the active, some only the middle. The 
second-aorists of those given in [ ] do not occur in Attic prose, and are 
either poetic or late. The dialects have many other second-aorists of the 
common form (1029). 

695. ^\i-Form. The tense-stem is here identical with the theme. 
The stem-vowel is made long throughout the indicative active (?;, w, v). 
The inflection of the indicative is like that of the imperfect of the /u- 


form, except that the second-aorist middle drops o- of the ending -o-o 
after a short vowel and then contracts (664, 2 ; 498). 

"ItTTry/u (crra)-, set, 2 aor. lo-rr/i', rT?/s, rr?7, rTr//zv, eW^re, eo-TT^o-av ; 
Si'Scoyni (So-), </iw, 2 aor. mid. eSo/iTp, 4'Soi> from So-(cr)o, eSoro, etc. ; TiOtj/JLi 
(0e-), put, 2 aor. mid. fdefj-yv, tdov for 0e-(o-)o, etc. ; /3cuVo> (/?a-), #0, 2 aor. 
f/3r)v, f/3ri<;, ef/lfy, etc. ; yiyvoxr/<a> (yvo-), know, 2 aor. eyvwv, eyvws, eyvw, 
etc. ; %iu (e-), send, 2 aor. mid. et/z^v (augmented), efcro, efro, etc. ; ovivt^i-i 
(ova-), benefit, 2 aor. mid. (Lvrjfj.rjv, wvtjcro, WV^TO, etc. 

The second-aorists of the /u-form are enumerated in 767 and (dialectic) 
1063. There are no second-aorists of the /xi-form from verbs in -V/J.L in Attic. 

696. NOTE. The second-aorists of TiOrj/jiL (Oe-\ Si'Sto/u (So-), and typi 
(-), retain the short stem-vowel in the indicative active : e-#-/>iev, l-8o-/xev, 
ei-fj-ev (augmented). The singular active indicative is wanting and is 
supplied by the first-aorists WijKa, eSco/ca, and ^/ca. The second-aorists are 
also peculiar in the imperative (594 ; 702, 3), and in the infinitive (601). 

697. Subjunctive. The subjunctives of the second-aorist active 
and middle of the common form and the /At-form are formed and 
inflected like those of the present of the common and /it-forms 

AeiVw, 2 aor. eAtTrov, subj. AI'TTW, AiV^s, etc., AtVw/xat, AtTrrj, etc. ; (/it- 
forms) : Tidrj/jLi, 2 aor. f-de-rov, subj. 6u> from Of-w, Oys from Of-y;, etc.; 
'icrTrjfjLi, 2 aor. eo-rrp, subj. O-TW, O-TTJS, (Try, etc., i'rom o-ra-w, o-ra-r^s, o-ra-y, 
etc. (666, 2 ; 1047) ; cYSto/xi, 2 aor. eSorov, subj. So) from So-w, ScjJv from 
So-j7s, etc. ; 8v<a (Sv-), 3 aor. eSvv, subj. 8vw, Si'ys, etc. 

698. NOTE. For the accent of the /u-fornis, see 515. For the irregular 
accent of the subjunctive of firpidfj.^ (irpLa.-} and uiio^uTp (ova-, present 
ovivrjfj.1, benefit}, see 516. 

699. Optative. The optatives of the common form and the /xt- 
form are formed and inflected like those of the present. 

ACITTCO, 2 aor. eAiTrov, opt. X.iiroifj.i, AtVots, etc., AITTOI/A^V, AtVoio, etc. ; 
(/xt-form) : ridrffu, 2 aor. fOcrov, opt. deirjv from Of-irj-v ; ItrrnfU) 2 aor. 
f<rrr)v, opt. o-Tairjv from ora-iTj-v ; StSw/xi, 2 aor. eSorov, opt. Sotryv from 
So- 6*7- v. 

700. For cryoiriv from eo-^ov, see 573, 5. Second-aorists of the fit- 
form from stems in v, as ISilv, form no optative in Attic ; but Homer has a 
few isolated forms, as S^TJ and tK-SG/xev (for 8v-ir) and e/c-Sv-i-/v) from Svv. 

701. NOTE. For the accent of the /it-forms, see 515. For the 
irregular accent of the optative of f.irpia.[j.y]v (Trpia-) and <jivij/j.ijv (ova-, pres. 
ovmj/Mt, benefit), see 516. For optative middle of the second-aorists of TiOrjfii, 
and1//u occasionally formed as in verbs in -co, see 504 ; 771, 3. 

702. Imperative. 1. (Common Form). The imperative second- 


aorist of the common form is made and inflected like that of the 
present of the common form. 

AtVe, Ai7T-Tfc>, AiTre-Tf, \nr(-VT(DV or Xnr-T(ocrav. \nrov, \Lirf-cr6ta, etc. 

2. (Mi-Form). The final stem-vowel is made long throughout the 
active, except before -vnov; the ending -Oi is retained (but see 594); 
in the middle -a-o drops o- after a short vowel. 

^nj-6i (o~ra-), O-TV/-TW, (rrrf-Te, o-ra-vrcov or <m/-Taxrav ; ftyj-Oi (/?a-), /??y- 
TO>, /2}-Tf, (3<i-vrwv ; yvu>-#i, yvw-ro), yvw-TC, yvo-vruii' ; 8v-0t, SU-TW, Sv-re, 
8\>-VT(av ; middle : irpiw for 7r/)ia-(<r)o, Trpi-d<r6ta, etc. ; $ou for 6t-(<f)o, 
8(-<rO(a, etc. ; Sou for So-((r)o, So-o-$w, etc. ; but ovr)-cro, oi'jy-<r$(o, etc. 

3. Bnt the imperative active second -aorist of Ti6iyj.i (#e-), SiSwpi (So-), 
ami o;/ti (-) retain the short vowel and have -s for -di (594, 112) in the 
second singular : #-s, 0e-T<o, #e-Te, ^-VTWV ; 8o-s, SO-TW, 8o-T, SO-I'TWV ; e-s, 
-TW, -TC, e-vrwi'. And ecr^ov, 2 aor. of tx* * haw, also has -s for -Oi, cr\f-<s. 

703. NOTE. In poetry we sometimes have -o-rd and -^8a (always in 
composition) for orJ0i and (3fjOi ; as Trapd-a-rd, stand by, Karci-/?d, corn* oJotiw. 

(First-Perfect and Pluperfect Active.) 

704. The stem of the first-perfect active is formed by adding 
-xa- to the reduplicated theme. 

1. Vowel verbs regularly lengthen the final vowel of the theme. 

2. Verbs with lingual stems (T, S, 6) drop the lingual before -Ka-. 

3. Monosyllabic liquid themes change e to a (621, 1). 

4. Verbs of the Second Class have the strong form in et or eu. 

5. The first-perfect or perfect in -Ka belongs to vowel themes, to 
some liquid themes, and to many lingual themes. 

(A.U-), AcAv-Ka rrreAAto (o-rcA.-), TTaA-Ka 

Tfrffj-rj-Ka <f>0(ip<o (<f>0ap-), f<f>6ap-Ka 

ctu-fca Kddaipw (KaOa.p-\ KCKa(9a/o-/ca 

</)(At-W, TTf>lXr)-Ka TTflOd) (irtO-), TTCTTfl-Ka. 

ridi/fu (6e-\ T(6rj-Ka Trreto (TTVV-), irfTrvcv-Ka 

&7Ao-w, SeSvyAw-Ka /?aAAw (fta\-, /8Aa-), (3fft\rj-Ka (620) 

St'Sw/u (So-), SeSw-Ka 0itj<Tii> (Oav-, 6va-\ Tfdvrj-Ka (620) 

Ko/xifw (Ko/ziS-), KCKo/xt-Ka KaAeto (KaAe-, xAe-), KexXrj-Ka (620) 

705. NOTE. (a) Of verbs with stems in v, <f>aiv(o (<av-) is perhaps the 
only one which forms the regular perfect in -Ka, Tre^ayKa. 'A;r-KTayKa 
from KTtii'd) (KTCV-), kill, and wpo<T-KfKfp8ayKa from KepSaivta (ntpSav-), gain, 
are doubtful. Other perfects in -yKa (for -v-Ka) occur only in late writers ; 
as fuaiixa (/xiav-), pollute, /i/itayKa. 


(b) Some liquid stems in A and p form the perfect in -KO. regularly ; 83 
ayyeAAw (ayyeA-), ryyyeA/ca, aipta (dp-), raise, fjpKa, and others. 

(c) In others (including all in /*), the stem adds (613), as v'tfjua (ve/x-e-), 
distribute, vevf/j-rj-Ka; or it undergoes metathesis (620), as Ovya-Kd) (Bav-, 6va-), 
die, T60vrj-Ka ; or it drops v (617), as Kpivio (Kpw-), judge, KfKpi-Ka. 

(d) Many liquid verbs have no perfect, or use the second-perfect. 

706. NOTE. For verbs which add e to the theme, see 613 and the 
Eight Classes. For vowel verbs which retain a short final theme-vowel 
before -KO., see 679 and (dialectic) 992 ; but except ew/^/ca from cr/3fvvrfj.i 
(crfBe-), extinguish. 

707. NOTE. Kpivw (Kpiv-), judge, K\fv<a, incline, retvw (rev-), stretch, 
drop v of the stem in perfect active making KexpiKa, Ke^AiKa, reraKa. 
These (with TrAwco, wash) also drop v in the perfect-middle and first passive 
systems: /ceKpi/xcu, fKpiOrjv; K/cAiyuai, eKXiOr/v ; TfTa/, erddiji'; TTCTT \vfiat, 
^TrXv6f]V. For a few poetic forms with this peculiarity, see KTCIVW and the 
Epic root (f>ev- or <a- in the Catalogue. Homer has the regular forms 
K\iv6r]v and Kpivdy]v. 

708. NOTE. Prose verbs whose stems undergo metathesis in the 
perfect in Attic are : 

/3aAAw (/3aA-, /?Aa-), throw, /3e/3Xr)-Ka 

6vTJcrK<j) (6av- } 6va-\ die, ^t^vr|-K.a. 

Ka\f(a (KO.XC-, K\e-\ call, KfK\ij-Ka 

Ka/xva) (KO./J.-, Kyua-), toil, KK/JU)-Ka 

TCT-, TTTO-), fall, 7re7TT(o-/ca 

(crKeA-, <TK\f-), dry up, ecr/cA^-Ka 

(T6/M-, T/ZC-), Cut, TfTfJ.r)-KO. 

Of these /?aAAw, KaAew, and reyuvw have the corresponding perfect- 
middle and aorist-passive. 

709. NOTE. AeSoixa, a perfect with present meaning, fear, from root 
Si-, corresponds to the Epic present 8ei8<a. 


710. Indicative. The primary personal endings are added ; but 
-fj.L is lost, -s remains for -crt, -TI of the third singular is lost and a of 
the suffix is weakened to ; -KUO-I of the third plural is for -Ka-vo-i from 
-K-a-vrt (592, 40). 

AeAvKa, AeAvKa-s, AeAvxe, AcAi'^a-Tov, AeAvKa-/iei', etc. 

711. For the pluperfect, which follows the -/xt form, see 593. For the 
periphrastic mode of expressing the future perfect active, also for the 
exceptional forms rryw, shall stand, and T#VT/U>, shall le dead, see 473. 

For the periphrastic forms of the perfect and pluperfect active indicative, 
see the Syntax. 


712. Subjunctive. The regular perfect subjunctive active is formed 
by changing a of the suffix to -%- > as AAv/ca, subj. AAvK<o, AeAv'/o/s, etc. 
But this form is very uncommon ; the usual form is the perfect active 
participle with <L, as AeAvxcus 5, ys, y, etc. Compare 713. 

713. Optative. The regular perfect optative active is formed by sub- 
stituting the thematic vowel (here o) for a of the suffix ; as AeAi>Koi/u, 
AeArxois, etc. For f8rj8oKOLrj, see 573, 5. 

But this form is rare ; the usual form is the perfect active participle 
with tiyv ; as AeAuKws e/', efys, e7, etc. Compare 712. 

714. Imperative. First -perfect imperatives of the regular form are 
very rare and none of the few which occur, as Trapa-TreTTTWKeTw (Archimedes), 
are found in Attic writers. Compare also 724. The perfect imperative 
active may be expressed by the perfect active participle and urdi, rra>, etc., 
as AeAvKws Ivdi (so also the middle 747). 

(Second-Perfect and Pluperfect Active.) 

715. The stem of the second-perfect system is formed by 
adding -a- to the reduplicated theme. 

1. The stem-vowel e is changed to o (621, 2), and often & to */ or 
d (621, 3). 

2. Verbs of the Second Class have the strong form of the theme, 
but take 01 for ei (621, 4) ; after the Attic reduplication, they have 
the weak form. 

(apx), rule, 7 VX' a rr/Kta (TCIK-), melt, Trr;K-a 

(xpay), cry out, K(Kpa.y-a uAei</>u> (dAt</>-), anoint, dA-yAt<-a 

(ypa<-), write, yey/aa^-a <cuva> (<av), shoic, Trf<J>r}v-a, ajypear 

(oS-), smell, oS-wS-a late <f>6eipta ((f>6(p-), corrupt, Si-fffrdop-a. 

(AiTT-), leave, AeAoi7r-a yiyvo/iai (yev), become, ytyov-a 

<jxi-y(o (<uy), flee, irifavy-a. oAAi"'/xi (dA-), destroy, oA-wA-a, perish 

716. NOTE. Second-perfects belong only to mute and liquid themes ; 
an exception is S(8ia, fear, from root Si-, Epic present SeiSw ; aKvyxoa, 2 perf. 
of aKo?'<t>, hear (stem O.KOV- for d/<o/-), is only an apparent exception, and 
was originally aKrjKof-a. 

717. NOTE. 'Piiyrtyu (pay), break, has the 2 perf. tppwya, am broken. 
The root f.6- for o-J-tO- (Latin SUCKCO) gives the 2 perf. (iw6a, am accustomed 
(for t-a-foO-a). 

718. Second-Perfects mth Aspiration. Some verbs with themes 
ending in a palatal or labial mute aspirate the final mute in the 
second-perfect : TT and /3 become <, and K and y become \. 




(TTC/XTT-), send, 7T7ro/u.<-a TOUTO-W (ray), arrange, Tfra\-a 

(J3Xa/3-), injure, /3ej3Xa<f>-a </>vAa(nr<D (</>i'Aa^), yuard, 7re<^t'Aa^-a 

719. NOTE. Two verbs have two second-perfects, one with aspiration, 
and one without : av-oty-w or ov-otyviyu, ope7&, 2 perf. av-ew^a and ai'-ewya; 
7rpdcra-(i} (irpay-'), do, Treirpa^a, have done, and irfTrpaya, hare fared (well or ill). 

720. List of Verbs with Second-Perfects. The following is a list of 

the other verbs with second-perfects, besides those already mentioned in 715 
719. Where there is no present from the theme, the perfect itself is given. 
Dialectic verbs are omitted. 

1. Without aspiration (including those with themes in 6, 

ayviyxi (y-) 

-fo(p p ie-) 

tK-, IK-) 
(KV&-, poet.) 

Aa/jlTTO) (Aa.yU.7T-) 

Aacr/cto (AaK-, poet.) 

/jiatvw (JJ-OLV-) 

otISa (18-) 

oTTWTra (poet. OTT-, opdta) 

6pvvfj.i (op-, poet.) 



(raipw (cra/j-) 



2. With aspiration. 

ayw (ay-) 
dAAacrcro) (aAAay-) 

jSAeTTW (/3AC7T-) 

SetKvvfj.1 (8eiK-) 

-, <f>ep<i)) 

Tri'jyvvfj.1 (Tray-) 


7rAe/<w (?rAe/c-) 

Tpi/3< (rp1,/3-) 

X.afj./3di'(a (Aa/3-) 
AaTTTW (Aa/5- or Aa<^>-) 
Aeyw (Aey-), coZfeci 

Some of the second -perfects differ in meaning from the present, as 
eypi'jyopa, am awake, from eyetpw, rouse, o-eo-rypa, (/rwi, from (raipio, sweep; 
some have the force of presents. For those which have Attic reduplication, 
.see 548. 

721. Second-Perfects of the pi- Form. Several verbs have second- 
perfects of the /zi-form ; the tenee-stem is here the reduplicated theme 
to which the personal endings are added. They are inflected accord- 
ing to the //,1-form, and lack the singular of the indicative. 

"la-TijfjLi (<rra-), set, 2 pert', stem rra-, eara-rov, &rra-pcv, rTa-TC, 
eo-Tuo-i from ea-Ta-d-o-i ; 2 plupf. 3 pi. eWa-o-ai'. So 6vjj<rta (6av- t 6va-\ 
die, Tedva.-fj.ev, reBva-re, Tedva-<ri, 2 plupf. eT#ya-<rav. 

The second-perfects of the /u-form are enumerated in 768 and (Homeric) 



722. Indicative, Subjunctive, Optative. 1. These are formed and 
inflected as in the first-perfect (704, 710-714). 

Indicative : y(ypa<j>a, yey/3u</>as, yeypafa, etc. ; AeAoiTra, AeAcuTras, 
AeAotTre, etc. 

Subjunctive : ycy/>a</>w, AeAoiVw, commonly ytypac^ws w, AeAoiTrws w. 

Optative : yeypa<oi/xi, AeAoiVoi/xi, commonly yy/3a</>ws f fyv, AeAoiTrws 
coy i'. 

2. The few second-perfects of the pi-form, form the subjunctive 
and optative like presents of the /xt-form. 

"Eorarov, 2 perf. of rTy/xi (<rra.-\ subj. TTU>, ecrrvys, J"T?y, etc. from 1 
eWa-u, eora-ys, eorra-y, etc. (666, 2 ; 1047) ; opt. eo-Tairjv (poetic) from 


723. NOTE. Several second-perfects of the common form use the mood- 
suffix try instead of i (573, 5) : irpo-eXyXvOoii], TTCTTOI^OI?;, Treirayoirj Doric 
for probably regular Tmr^yoiy] ; one first-perfect fSrjSoKoiij and one second- 
aorist (r\oii]v are so formed (573, 5). 

724. Imperative. 1. The second-perfect imperative active is confined 
almost exclusively to perfects with present meaning, and most of these 
imperatives are of the /xt-form. 

They are : IO--&L from o?<5a (i'S-), know, KfKpa\-di and KfKpdye-re from 
Kpdia (Kpay-\ yell, /cc^?yi'c-Tc from ^ao-/cw (\av-), gape, these three in Aristo- 
phanes ; Tt.0va.-6t. (Horn.) and Ttdva-rta (this also Attic) from OvycrKia (8av-, 
6va.-\ die ; ecrra-di, TTa-Tto, etc. poetic ; yeyove-Tia (Archimedes) from 
ytyi'o/iai, become; 8e&i-6i (Aristophanes) from 8e8ia, ftar; also several 

2. The second-perfect imperative active may also be expressed by the 
second-perfect active participle and urOi, CO-TW, etc. ; as AeAoiTrws urQi. 

725. The Second-Pluperfect of the common form is made and inflected 
like the first-pluperfect (see 593). 

, 2 perf. of Tre/xTT-w, send, 2 plupf. 7r7ro/ji^)-Ty, 

For the second-pluperfect of the /xt-fonn, sec 499 and 721. 

(Perfect and Pluperfect Middle and Passive, Future-Perfect Passive.) 

726. 1. The stem of the perfect and pluperfect middle (and 
passive) is the reduplicated theme. 


2. The perfect middle and the first-perfect active agree in these 
points : 

(a) Vowel verbs lengthen the final theme-vowel. 

(6) Monosyllabic liquid stems change e of the stem to a. 

(c) Verbs of the Second Class have the strong form of the theme. 

(d) Final v of the theme is dropped in a few verbs. 

(e) Metathesis of the theme. 

3. For the euphonic changes caused by consonants of the stem concurring 
with consonants of the personal endings, see 80 ; 84 ; 86 ; 88 ; 90, 4 ; 94. 
AUW (A/D-), rapctcrcrco (rapa^-), 
Spd-(D, SeSpa-fJiai KO[J.IW (KOfj.i8-), /ce/co//,i<r-/Aai 

i (40) 

Aei7ra> (Awr-), AeAet//,-/xai crreAAw (crreA-), 

Tpi/3d> (rpl(3-), TTplfJ.-fJt,a.L <$>6tipia (<f>6fp-~), 

ypd(f)-u, yeypa/j, Kpivw (xpiv-), 

TrAe/c-w, ireTr\.ey-fj,ai retvw (rev-), TeVa-/xcu 

ay-a>, ^y/tat /3aAAw ({JaX.-, /3Aa-), ^^A7/-/iat 

727. NOTE. For vowel verbs which retain a short final theme vowel, 
see 679. For themes which undergo metathesis, see 708. For themes 
which drop final v, see 707. For themes which add e, see 613 and the 
Eight Classes ; or o, see 628. For perfects middle with Attic reduplication, 
see 548. 

728. NOTE. Three mute verbs, CTT/)^>-W, turn, rpeTr-w, turn, and 
rpe<j>- for 0pe(f>- 102), nourish, change e of the theme to a :, 

, riO pa.^p.a.1. See the corresponding second-aorists passive in 760. 

729. NOTE. Two verbs, which occur in prose, are syncopated in the 
perfect middle : Kpdvvvfi.i (Kepa-), mix, KfKpafjLai with aor. pass. fKpddfjv ; 
and Treravi/iyu (Trera-), expand, TreTTTa/zat (TreTreracr/zat late). Also one or two 
poetic verbs. 

730. Insertion of a; 1. Many vowel verbs add o- to the stem of 
the perfect and pluperfect middle before all endings not beginning with 
<r. In the first-passive system, these verbs have o- before the tense- 
suffix Oe. 

TeAe-w, finish, TTeA-<r-yu,ai, tTTfXf-<r-fj.r)v, tTf\f-(r-6i]v, TeAe- 
<77ra-to, draw, r7ra-cr-/xcu, l(rird-fr-drjv ; crci-co, shake, crre6-<r-/iou, 

2. The verbs which take this additional o- are the following (a 
number of the forms with a- are not found in Attic, although all used 
in prose are included). 

(a) All those mentioned in 679, 1, as far as they have the perfect-middle 
and aorist- passive systems. But except dpow , e Aavvw, <0wo, and \f <a. 


(6) Also the following : 

aKov-w Kvat-<a 7raAcu-(o cret-w 

7TGll>G) O"W(tU ((TWO-, CT(j)-) 

/ \ \ ' / \ 

(TrAa-) Tiv<a (TI-) 

(irpa-) v-to 

Aei'-w TrAeu) (n"Av-) ^>pai'w (<pua-) 

iLifj-vycrKdi (^ Trvew (TTVV-) X" w 

ttH'vi'fj.i (f a) ~) ve-w, 7ieap irpiw \pa-ta 

6pav-<a ^'-w /jat-<o (poetic) x/ 1 

K\ij-(a or KAet-to 

731. NOTE. Of the following verbs (730, 1), some have the additional 
<r in only one of the two systems ; while others have double forms, one 
with cr, and one without a- : dAew, dpvw, a\&, 8pd(a, SwofMU, eAauvw, 
i, Opavd), Kfpdvvvfj-i, /cAyw or xAeia), fj.ip.vtj<TK(a, veto, 

o~w^w, 'xpd.ofj.a.i, XP^ W - 


732. Indicative. The perfect middle system is inflected according 
to the /ii-form. The perfect has the primary middle endings, the plu- 
perfect has the secondary middle endings. For example, see 461, 2. 

733. Vowel Stems. These are inflected like \e\ (461, 2). 
Vowel stems which add a- are inflected like re-re A-O--JUCU (485), the <r being 
inserted before /x and T of the ending and dropping out before other letters ; 
as OTra-to), draw, f<nra-<, ecrTra-crai, !cr7ra-<r-Tai, ffnra-crOf, nra-cr-yMeVos ; 
KeAei'>-a>, command, KeKAeiMr-/*ai. See also 484, 2 and 739. 

734. Labial Stems. These follow in their inflection Teiyn/A/zcu ; as 
KOTTTW (KOTT-), cut, KfKofj.-fJMi. ; ypd<f>-w, write, (485). But when the 
stem ends in and the assimilation to p. of the ending would give rise to /*/*//, 
one p. is dropped before fj. of the ending and the TT reappears before other con- 
sonants ; as TTffnrta (7re/i7r-), 7re7reyLi-/xat, TreTre/i^ai (irfTT([j.Tr-<rai), TreTre/XTT-rai, 
Tre7Tffj.-fj.tda, 7rt7refj.<f>-6(, 7re7re/n-/iei/os. Compare TTCO-O-W (TTCTT-), cooA;, 7re7re/^-/xai, 
but 7T(irf\f/ai (irT7r-<rat), TreTreTr-rat, etc. See also 739. 

735. Palatal Stems. These follow in their inflection TreTrAey/nai 
(TrAeK-), i"i AAay fiat (aAAay-), and eA^Aey/tat (eAey^-), 485. When the final 
palatal of the stem is preceded by y-nasal and yy would come before p, of 
the ending, one y is dropped. So </>0eyyo/iai (</>#eyy-), speak, e<0ey-/zcu, but 
</>0yai (tyOfyK-crai), e<f)OcyKTai, etc. See also 739. 

736. Lingual Themes, These follow TreTrejoyzai in their inflection 
(485) ; as 6pita (opiS-), bound, determine, topur-fiai, w/ai-crai, w/awr-rai, w/n- 
<r6c, plupf. wpurfJLrjv, etc. ; cnrev8(a (crTrevS-), pour, c< for eoTrev8-/xai 
(40), ((nrei-<rai, eoTrewr-rai, etc. ; avvr-w, accomplish, t'/vixT-fiai, y 
ijvvv-Ta.1, etc. See also 105, 4 and 739. 


737. Liquid Stems. 1. Those in A and p follow the inflection of 
eo-raA/xai (485) ; as ayyeAAco (dyyeA-), announce, ^yyeA-/*tu, KaOaipw 
(Ka.Oa.p-~), purify, ; (nreipta (cnrep-'), sow, ecr7ra/>/xcu, eyeipco (eyep-), 
rouse, tyi'iyep-fj-ai. See also 739. 

2. Those in v are inflected like 7re<acr/>iai (485) ; as AiyuuVo/icu 
v-), misuse, AeAl5/*ao--/>xi. See also 737, 4 and 739. 

3. The forms of the second person singular with v-arai and -v-cro, as 
7re<ai/-crai, e7re<av-cro, imperative 7re<av-<ro, do not occur. For these the 
periphrastic forms Tre^acr/xevos e?, f/a-Ba, icrOi were probably used. 

4. 'O^Cyco (dw-), sharpen, has in classic Greek -<H>^, later ww-/xcu, 
Other forms in from, and -V-/JLO.I (with v dropped) from -vv-/ 
are late ; as ery/>a^-/zcu late for Attic e'/ypa(r-/xcu from r//3ouvco (jypav-), (fry ; and TfTpd^v-fjuii late for Tf-Tpd^var-fj-ai from rpaxyvdi (rpa^vv-"), 
make rough. 

5. Liquid stems which become vowel stems by dropping v (617) or by 
metathesis (620) are inflected like XcXv-uai. So K/cAi-/iai from KAivw 
(*cAiv-), ftrarf, Pe/3\rj-[jia.i from ^SaAAw (^8aA-, f3Xa-), throw, and others. 

738. It is evident that the perfect-middle systems of reAew, TTCI'&O and 
(fraivca are inflected nearly alike, but the similarity of inflection arises from 
different causes. The cr in TTeAe-<r-/>ieu does not belong originally to the 
stem, but is inserted ; the cr in 7r7rtcr-/u is due to the euphonic change 
of the lingual before /j. ; while the cr in 7re<acr-/>tcu is due to the change of 
v to cr before /x. The following comparison will make this clear. 

-<rcu 7T7ret -trai 

TTAe-cr-Tai 7T7racr-Tai 


739. 77?/>tf Person Plural. The endings -VTCU and -VTO can only 
be pronounced with a preceding vowel. Hence in consonant stems 
the third person plural of these tenses is formed by periphrasis of the 
perfect middle participle with eto-i and Tycrav. So also in stems which 
add cr, as re-re Ae-<r-/z yen fieri. 

740. NOTE. The Ionic also has the endings -drai and for -vrat 
and -VTO; a preceding palatal or labial is here aspirated. Thus rao-cro) (ray-), 
rera^-arai, eVera^-aTo; AetVco, AeAei^-arai, fXfXfify-aro, \<apita(\<i)pi8-\ 
Kf^dipiS-arai, fKf\(apiB-aro. The passages in which such forms occur in 
Attic writers are: Thuc. 3, 13, twice, 4, 31 ; 5, 6 ; 7, 4 ; Xen. Anab. 4, 
8 5 ; Plat. Rep. 7, 53 b . 

741. NOTE. When a liquid stem becomes a vowel stem by the 
addition of e (613) or by metathesis (620) or by dropping v (617), the 


inflection is regular and follows AeAvyttcu ; as /3oi'Ao/z,eu (/3ovA--), wish, 
fJffioi'Xrj-vTai. ; /2aAA<i> (/3a\-, /3Aa-), throw, f3eft \rj-vrai. ; Kpivw (Kpiv-), 
judge, KfKpi-vTai. 

742. Subjunctive. The perfect subjunctive middle is made by 
periphrasis of the perfect middle participle and &, r/s, }, etc. Compare 
also the perfect optative middle (744). 

AcAiY/.evos <3, AAv/Ai/os ys, XfXvfj.evo's y, etc. 

743. NOTE. Two verbs form the perfect middle subjunctive by add- 
ing -%- to the tense-stem. They are : KTaofiai. (KTGI-), acquire, perfect 
KfKTri/j.i (Kf-KTa-), possess, subj. contr., KCKTJ;, KeKTv/rcu, 
etc. ; fj.ifj.vyo-Kd> (, remind, perfect fj.efj.vrjfj.aL (, remember, subj. contr., fj.ffj.vwfj.fda (?, Hdt. 7, 47). 
For similar optatives of KKTT//WU, fj.ffj.vrjfj.aL, KfK\rjuaL (from KaAew), and of 
8ta-ftf(3\r]fj,aL (from Sia-/3aAAo>), see 745. The periphrastic forms with 
<5 are often found ; as KfKTrjfj.fvos (3, fj.efj.vrjfj.evo<s w. 

744. Optative. The perfect optative middle is formed by peri- 
phrasis of the perfect middle participle with efrjv, efys, /, etc. 
Compare the perfect middle subjunctive (742). 

AeAiyieyos t>;v, AeAvyu,evoj ey?, AeAu/jiei'os et^, etc. 

745. NOTE. Several verbs form the perfect optative middle without 
periphrasis by adding -i-^rfv or -O-I-/XT/V to the tense-stem. They are : 
KTOIO/MCU (KTCI-), perf. Ke/cr^/xat, o'pt. KCKT^-I-^V, KCKTI/-I-O, KKT^-t-<ro, etc., 
contr. KfK-njfjMjv, KfKTyo, KfKTgTo, etc. ; also rare and doubtful KeK-n^ur/v, 

KtKTWO, KKTU)TO, etc. (from KeKTTj-O-t-fJ.1JV, KfKTIJ-O-l-O, KfKTrj-O-L-TO, etc.) J 

fj.ifj.vy(TK(a ('), perf., opt. fj.efj.vijfj.rjv, fj.efj.vfjo, fj.efj.vrjTO, etc. ; or less 
common and doubtful fj.efj.v<j>fj.rjv, fj.efj.v<^o, fj.ffj.vwro, etc. ; KaAew (KaAe-, 
KAe-), caW, perf. KeK\rjfj,ai, am called, opt. KfK\rjfj.r/v, KfK^yo, KfK\rjTo, etc. ; 
/2aAAa> (fia\-, /?Aa-), throw, oia-/3efi\, has opt. oia-j3f(3Xrj(r6f (Andoc. 
2, 24). Homer also has several similar forms ; see Auw, </>^t'vw, and 8aivi>fj.i. in 
the Catalogue. The forms in -yp-rjv are of the /xi-form of inflection ; those in 
-(pfj.rjv are of the common form with the thematic vowel. For a similar 
subjunctive of KfKTrjfjMt and, see 743. 

746. Imperative. The second person singular and plural occurs 
mostly in perfects with present meaning ; as fieuvrpro, /ze/xi/?/o-#e, 
remember. The third person singular of any verb may occur with real 
perfect meaning ; as fip-fjo-Ow, let it have been said ; oeooo-Qw, let it have 
been given; ireireipaa-Ow, let a trial have been (or be) made. See the 
Syntax. The regular forms of the dual and the third person plural 
seem not to occur, nor the second person singular in -v-o-o and Tre^ai'-o-o; 
for these, see 737, 3. 

747. NOTE. The perfect imperative middle and passive may be 
expressed by periphrasis of the perfect middle participle and r0i, KTTW, etc. 


(imper. of ei'/ii, be) ; as Tre^aoytevos icrOi, elp^p.evov OTTW ; reray/zevoi eWtov. 
Compare 714. 

748. Future-Perfect. 1. The stem of the future-perfect passive 
is formed by adding -<r%- to the stem of the perfect-middle. A final 
short vowel of the theme is always made long. The inflection is that 
of the future middle. 

8ew, bind, 8e8e-, SeSr;-0-o/xac y/3a<w, yey/3a<, 

KO7TTO), KC-KO7T-, KfKO\^ TaOXTto, TT<Xy-, 

2. This tense is seldom other than passive in meaning. But observe 
KfKT^<, I shall possess ; /ceK/ad^o/xcu, I shall cry out ; KeKAaycy/,ou, J s/i^ 
scream; /xe/xw/cro/xai, / s/iaW remember; 7re7rawo/xat, I s/iaW /tare ceased. 
The meaning of the future-perfect here depends on that of the perfect. 

749. NOTE. (a) Few verbs have the regular form of this tense. 
Other forms than the indicative are very rare : Sta-TreTroAep/o-o/zevov (Thnc. 
7, 25 9 , is the only example of the participle in classic Greek ; /ze/Avijo-ecr&u 
(Horn. Od. 19, 581 ; 21, 79 ; Isoc. 12, 259). 

(6) This tense can be expressed by the perfect middle participle and 
ecro/zcu ; as e^ew/xevos ea-0/, I shall have been deceived. Compare 474. 

(c) For the few verbs which form a regular future-perfect active of the 
regular form, see 473 and 1037. 

(First-Aorist and First-Future Passive.) 

750. First-Aorist Passive. 1. The stem of the first -aorist 
passive is made by adding -6e- to the theme. 

2. The theme of the first-aorist passive agrees with the theme in 
the perfect middle in the following points : 

(ft) Vowel verbs lengthen the final theme-vowel. 

(6) Monosyllabic liquid stems change e of the theme to a. 

(c) Verbs of the Second Class have the strong form. 

(d) Final v of the theme is dropped in a few verbs. 
() Metathesis of the theme. 

(/) Generally in the addition of <r (see 730 and 731). 

3. Before -&-, a labial mute (TT, /3) becomes < (80) ; a palatal 
(K, y) becomes x (80) ; a lingual (T, 8, 6) becomes o- (80) ; <f> and x 
remain unchanged. 

Avw (Ai 1 -), (Xv-dr/v TrAe/c-to, TrXf\-drjv 

e'a-w, Id-Or/v ay-co, 1 7X~^ 7 ? V/ 


-Orjv TTfiOta (TTI$-), 

AeiVw (AiTT-), fXfifft-Orjv Kpivw (/cpiv-), 

Tpt/3<a (rpi/3-), fTpt<f)-OrjV reivw (rev-), fTa-Orjv 

ypd<f>-(i), fypd<f>-Or)V f3dXX<a (J3aX-, /3Aa-), ffiXi'i-Oyv 

751. NOTE. In tre-drjv for fOf-Oijv from Ti'0r)/j.i (Of-') and in trv-6j]v 
for edv-drjv from #uw (0t'-), sacrifice, the ^ of the theme is changed to T 
(100, 3). 2Ty>e<-fa>, T/seTr-w, and rpe(f>-(a have <Trpt<f>dr)v (Ionic and Doric 
fu-Tpa.ffrOiji'), fTpf<j>6i]v (Ionic fTpd<t>dr]v), and fdp<f>6r]v, although their 
perfects middle are,, and See 621 and 

752. NOTE. For vowel-verbs which retain a short final theine-vowel 
see 679. For the few liquid themes which drop v, see 707. For themes 
which undergo metathesis, see 708. For vowel themes which add <r before 
-0e-, see 730, 731. 


753. Indicative. The suffix -Of- is lengthened to -Orj-. The 
inflection follows the /xi-form, the active secondary personal endings 
being added ; the third person plural ends in -crav. 

, fXv-6rj-fj.fv, fXv-Orj-Tf, 

754. Subjunctive. The subjunctive adds -*%- to the tense-stem 
and contracts. 

'KXvOrjv, subj. Xv6<a from Xv@f-a>, Xvdys from Av^e-ys, etc. 

755. Optative. The optative adds -;- or -i- according to 573, 4 
and 6, and contracts. 

'EXvdrjv, opt. XvOfojv from Xvde-irj-v, XvBeti)<i from Ai'0e-a/-s, etc. 

756. Imperative. The tense-suffix -Of- is lengthened to -Orj-, 
except before the personal ending -VTWV. For - instead of -6t, see 
100, 2 and 594. 

Avdrj-Ti, XvOrj-Tii), XvOrj-rov, Av^ry-rwv, XvOi)-Tf, XvOf-VTtav or XvO/j- 

757. First -Future Passive. The stems of the first- future 
passive is formed by adding -tr%- to the stem of the first-aorist 
passive, here -#77-. Thus \vw, eXvOrjv (\v-0e-), \v-9t)-<T%-. The 
first-future passive thus ends in -Orf-o-o-fiai, and its inflection is 
like that of the future middle. 

(Av), Xv-0-tj-o-o-fja.t. KaAwrTto (xaAi'/?-), KaXv(j)Ori<TOfJ,ai 



rdo-o-w (ray-), Ta.ydfoop.a.i dyyeAAco (dyyeA-), d 

dpX" w > dp-^Oi^o-OfJiai reivto (TV-), T< 

AeiTTW (AiTT-), Xft,(f>6-> 

(Seconcl-Aorist and Second-Future Passive.) 

758. Seconcl-Aorist Passive The stem of the second-aorist 
passive is formed by adding -e- to the theme. Verbs of the 
Second Class have here the weak form of the theme. An e of a 
monosyllabic theme becomes a (621). 

TrAeKw (TrAeK-), weave, tTrXaK-rjv ypdtfxi) (ypa<f>-~), write, eypd<-iyi/ 

dAAdoxru) (aAAay-), change, r]XXdy-r)v piTTTd) (pi<-), throw, eppi(f>-r)v 

rot, eo-dir-i^v (f)6fipu> (<f>dep-), corrupt, e<f)6dp-r)V 

LETT-), steal, e/cAaTr-Tyv ^aivcu (^>av-), show, f(f>dv-r)v 

\.a(B-), injure, /3Ad/?-ryv o-reAAw (crreA-), send, 

759. NOTE. Aey-w, gather, does not change e to a : eAey?ji/. ] 
(vrAi/y-, TrAay-), strike, has 7rAr;y-?yv ; but in composition e^-eTrAdyryi/ and 
Kar-eTrAdyryv. Srepicr/cw (crrep-) = crrc/Dew, deprive, does not change e to a ; 
f.o~rfpi]v (poetic), 2 fut. pass. (rTepryo"o/xai. 

760. NOTE. (a) The following Attic verbs form only the second-aorist 
passive : 

dyvvfj,t (dy-) fiaivta (jj.av-) o~iJ7T<a (craTT-) trc^dAAa) (cr^aA-) 

TTVtyW (TTVty-) (T/CaTTTO) (o~Ka<f)-) TVTTTW (rtTTT-) 

pea> (pev-, pv-) o~T\Xd) (crreA-) <f>6eipo) (<f>dep-~) 


(ft) The following Attic verbs have both the first and the second-aorist 
passive : 

dAAdo-crw (dAAay-) /cAivw (KAiv-) TrArycrcrw (TrAay-) 

KpVTTTO) (KpV(f>-, ptTTTW (j)l<f>-) Tpf/3<i 

I'." Kpv/3-) o~Tpi<rK<j> (crrtp-e-) <f>aiv<j) (<f>a 

Aey-w, gather o~Tp((f)<i) (crrpe^)-) <f>payvv/j.t 

fj.iyvv/j.1 (/Aty-) Tr/K<o (raK-) \f/v)(<a (^\-) 
Tn'iyvv/j.1 (Tray-) 

(c) The second-aorist passive of TVTTTW, strike, eTvirrjv, occurs only in 


poetry and in late prose. Of those verbs which have both passive aorists, 
a few use either indifferently ; while the others use one in prose and the 
other in poetry or in late Greek. 


761. The inflection of the second-aorist passive is the same as that 
of the first-aorist passive, in all the moods ; except that -61 of the 
imperative remains unchanged. 

Indicative. ^TeAAco (crrcA-), orraA-^-v, ecrraA-T^-s, ecrTotA-?}, erraA-7y-Tov, 

e<7TaA-V/-T7V, f<TT(iX-r)-HfV, rTClA-77-Te, TTaA-77-<raV. 

Subjunctive. ZraA-e-%-, (rraAcu from crraA-e-cu, o-raAr/s from crraAe-ys, etc. 
Optative. SraA-e-iri- (o-raAc-t-), oraAeuiv from <rraA-t77-j', etc. 
Imperative. trrdA-Ti-tfi, o-raA-ry-rw, etc. 

762. Second -Future Passive The stem of the second-future 
passive is formed by adding -o-/ f - to the stem of the second-aorist 
passive, here -;-. The second-future passive thus ends in -77-0-0- 

and is inflected like the future middle. 

(CTUTT-), <ra.Tr-t'f-<rofJ.a.i aAAacrcrco (dAAay-), 


763. NOTE. Second-futures passive corresponding to the second-aorists 
passive occur in all the verbs mentioned in 760, except the following : 

ayWfJ.1, dAei^XO, /?a7TTW, flpfX<i>, fcVYirtpU, 8Xlf3w, Ktl/30), KAtTTTW, /XOlVo), 

fj.d(T(r<a, paJTTw, TI'TTTW. But most of the second-futures passive are late, or 
are found only in poetry, and some are found only in composition. 


764. These belong to the Seventh and the Fifth Classes of 
verbs (662 and 652). Non- Attic forms are here omitted. 
Those of the Seventh Class are the following : 
(a) Simple stem in the present. 

flfj-i (*-), be (772) \prf (\/>a-, XP e ~\ ^ t5 ne ^ e&snr y (790) 

<t/xt (i-), go (775) aya-/xai, admire 

ij/jiai (170--), sit (782) Svva-fjuii, cow, be able 

tjfii (a-), say (789) ri(TTa-/zai, understand 

(KCI-, K-\ lie (784) Kpffj.a-fj.aL, hang (intrans.) 

(<^>a-), say (779) epa-fjwu., poet, for tpdio, love 


(b) Reduplicated stem in tlie present. 

SiSrjfjit, rare for Seo>, bind ovivrjfii (ova-}', benefit 

8l8(i)fj.i (80-), give (498) Tri/j.irXr)iJ.i (irXa-), fill 

(e-), send (770) jrifj.Trprjfj.i, (irpa-), burn 

(crra-), set (498) rWrjfJii ($-), put (498) 

For those of the Fifth Class, see 766. All of the above verbs are also 
in the Catalogue. The dialectic verbs are given in 1062. 

765. NOTE. In iri-p,-Tr\ri(j.i (irXa-} and 7rt-/z,-7rp^/>it (vrpa-) the nasal /x. 
is inserted after the reduplication ; in the compounds e/A-TTi/iTrArj/u and 
e/x-Tri/ATr/ary/xi .the inserted p, often drops out when e/x- stands for Iv, as 
/i-7rt7rAr//u.i and e/*-7ri7ry>7j/u ; but not when 4v recurs, as i/-e7ri/x7rAao-av. 

766. 1. Those of the Fifth Class, which add -w to the theme 
(after a vowel, -wv-\ form the present in -VV^L (-vvvfu-), and are 
inflected like SciKvvfii. They are the following : 

(a) Themes in a. ntpd-vvvpi, mix; Kpfp.d-vvvp.1, hang (trans).; fl-era- 
vvvfjii, spread ; crKeSa-vviyzi, scatter. 

(6) Themes in c. e-vvv/ju, (in prose dfj.(f)L-e-vvvfj.i), clothe; Kope-vvv[j.i, 
satiate ; <r/3f-vvv/Jit,, extinguish. 

(c) Themes in (a. w-vj/tyii, gird; pd>-vvvfj.i, strengthen; crrpoij-vvu/u, 
spread out. 

(d) Consonant themes. 

ay-vi'/Ai, break p.iy-vi/j.1. (p-y-\ mix 7rryy-vr/xt (^ray-, 7rr/y-), fix 

o.p-vv[jia.i, earn -oty-vi'/u = -ot'yto, open inf. eK-7rAryy-vv-cr$ai, s^rzie 

8eiK-vi'/it, s/iot? dA-Ai'/ii (oA-e-), destroy oneself, see TrArycro-co 

fipyta, shut in ofj.-vvp.L (o/a-e-), swear 7rva/3-vvyu,ai, sneeze 
, ?/oA;e 6/j,6py-vvfj.i, wipe off pryy-vi/xt (pay-. pv)y-), break 

Kreivd), kill op-vvfAi, rouse (frpdy-vvfj.!. = tppdcro'io, enclose 

All the above verbs are in the Catalogue. In Attic they have only the 
present and imperfect of the /xi-form ; but o-/3e-vvvfj.i has the 2 aor. fo-firjv. 

2. Those which add -va- to the theme ; as o-Ki'8-V7y-/u,i are confined almost 
wholly to poetry. See 1062, 1. 


767. 1 . From verbs in -/u. 

8iSwfj.L (80-), give, t-So-rov, etc. (498) 7r/na-, eTrpid/j.rjv, bought (498) 
ifyytu (e-), send, fl-rov, etc. (770) jri'prATy/ii (TrXa-),fill (firXt'ip.yv Epic) 

i(TTi]/u (crra-), e, CO-TTJV, s<ood (498) a-fievvvp-i (cr/3e-), extinguish, ecr/3r)v, 

went out 

oVi'viy/u (ova), benefit, (ivr/^ryv rid^fjn (0e-), pt<, f-df-rov, etc. (498) 

2. From wrfts MI -u>. 

(aA-), 6e captured, (dXiav or TyAwv {aAtu, aAoiTyl/, dAwvat, dAovs}. 
-), jro, 


/8iow (/?to-), live, c/Stcov {/3iuJ, fiupqv irregular (not /3ioi?;v which is opt. 

pres.), /StoWi, /2ioi's (Horn, iniper. /Sieimo)}. 

yrjpdo-KW (yepa-), grow old; 2 aor. inf. yrjpavai poet., part, yrjpds (Horn.). 
yiyvwovcw (y^o-), know, tyvtav {eyv<a<s, eyvw, tyvwrov, eyviuTMV, lyvw/uer, 

lyvwrc, yi'cocraj> ; subj. yi/w (like 8w) ; opt. yvoirjv (like 6V?;v) ; 

iniper. yvuOt, yviorut, yvwrov, yi'wrwv, yi/u>T, yvovraiv ; inf. yvwvai j 

part, yvoi's (like Sovs)}. 
-8i8pd<rKu> (8pa-}, run, in comp. only, -e8pav, -(Spas, -e8pd,, eta 

{-8/5W, -Spai'ijv (-8pa6i late), -8pavat, -Spas}- 
Suo) (8u-), enter, (8vv, entered {Si'w (opt. 8vr) and K-8?/xv Honi.), Su^i, 

8vvat, 8vs, 498}. 
KTtivo) (xrei'-, KTa-), ^i7/, poetic KTu>', KTas, I/era, etc. {subj. KTew/xai ; 

inf. KTa/zerai, KTCI^CV (Horn.) ; part, xrds} ; poetic fKTafjt,rjv, was 

killed {KTOCT&U, KTayu.ei'os}. 
TTfTOfj.a.1 (rrer-, TTTC-, TTTO-), ^y, poetic ITTTJJI/ {TTTW late, 

late, TTTTpai, TTTCIS} ; mid. also in prose eTrra/xryv {Trracr 
rXa- root, no present, fut. rXrycro/Aat poet., 2 aor. frAijv {rXd), 

T\rjtfi, rXfjvai, rAds}, all poetic. 
<f>6dv<a ((f>6a-), anticipate, etfrdijv {</>^w, <f>@air]i', <f>6y)vai, <$as}. 
<^>6w (<^>i'-), produce, c(f>vv, tras produced, am {<f>v<a (opt. <f>vr)v, <f>vr) Theoc.), 

, 2 aor. imperative o^es (all other forms of the 2 aor. are 
of the common form). 

(JTI-), drink, 2 aor. imperative iriOt, poetic Trie (all other 2 aor. 
forms regular). 
a7ro-o-KeAAa> (0-KtA-, o-KAe-), dry j;), 2 aor. inf. diro-o-KXrjvai (Aristoph.). 

There are also a number of other second-aorists of the /Ai-form in the 
dialects (1063). 


768. These occur in Attic Greek : 

"(T-njfu (O-TO.-}, set, 2 perf. ea-ra-Tov, etc. inflected in 499. 

/3aiv(o (fta-), go; first-perf. /3e/3rjKa, have gone, itand fast, regular; 2 perf. 
/3e/2dcr6 (poet.), f3e/3dd(Ti (Horn.) ; subj. en-fiefiCxri (Plat.) ; inf. /2e- 
(3dvat (poet.), (3e8d[i.ev (Horn.) ; part. (3e(3u>s (poet., also prose), f3f/3au><i, 
/^e/Joxra, and efj.(3e(3avla (Horn.) ; plupf. f3e/3a<rav (Horn.). 

ycyvofJMi (yev-, yo-), become; 2 perf. yeyova, regular; of the /u-form : 
yeyddre and ycyoacrt (Horn.) ; inf. yeydptv (Horn.) ; part, yeyaws 
(Epic and late), yeyavia (Epic), yeyws and yeyoxra (Attic poetry) ; 
plupf. 3 dual fK-yeydrijv (Horn, and late). 

6vy<ria (Oav-, 6va-\ die; first-perf. redvijKa, am dead, regular; 2 perf. 
TeOvaTov, redvap.ev^ reOvare, reOvao-i ; opt. redvairfv ; imper. Tf.Bva.Qi 
(Horn.), reOvdrw (Horn, and Att prose) ; inf. redvdvai (reBvavai from 
TeOva-evai, poetic, Te6vdfj.(vai and redvdp.ev Epic) ; part, 




re^eo? (Horn, usually re^i^ws, TcOvyvia) ; 2 plupf. third 

2 pf. 


6V for Sfi- root, fear, no pres., Epic impf. Siov, Sie, etc. feared, fled; Epic 
present SetSw = Attic first-pert'. SeSoiKa, I fear ; 2 perf. SeSia, 
ScSie, 8e8ifj,ev SeSire, 8e8iacri ; subj. rare, SeSt^, SeoYwcri ; opt. 
imper. SeSiOt, poet., Se8i$i late poets ; inf. SeSiei/cu ; part. 8e8i<a<s 
(prose), also SeSivta poet, and late ; plupf. eSeftieiv, eSe&'eis, 
<$e8rav. [Homer has forms beginning with Set-, as 8ei8oiKa 
SeiSia, 8fi8ia<s, SWSie, 8fi8i(j,ev ; imper. 6W<5i$i, SctSire ; part. 
plupf. f8ei8ifj.fv, eSei'Sio-av.] 

tS- for FiS- root, know; second-perfect oi8a, know, inflected in 786. 

IK- for FIK- root, be like, appear; second-perfect COIKO. for ft-PoiK-a., seem, 
appear, regular {subj. ot/cw ; opt. eotKot/xt ; inf. eoiKevcu ; part. COIKCOS, 
Plat, also etKws ,* plupf. e^Krj and ^'/cetv}; /u-forms are eoty/^ev (poet.), 
cinder i for 06K-(o-)-<xtri (poet, and rare in Plato), tfikrov and eiKrrjv (poet.). 
(Kpay-\ cry out; second-perf. Keypaya as present (imper. /ceKpax^i poet.). 
Others are poetic and confined mostly to Homer (1064). 


769. These verbs are : Irj/jLt (e-), send ; dpi (r-), "be ; eTfu (I-}, go ; 

say ; ^uou (170--), sit ; /cei/xai (/cet-), lie ; the second-perfect 
0180, (18-, et'8-), know ; r)p.L (a-), say ; and -^pyj (x/ a "> X/ 36 ")' ^ behoves, one 
ought. The dialectic forms are in 1065-1072. 

770. "rifu (e-), send. 



IND. S. 1. ?T]|ti V (771, 4)|s.fcw fcw (771, 2) 

(771, 2) 


(501, 1) 

3. itjo-i 



2. 16TOV 



3. 'ICTOV 




2. ?T 

3. Idcri 





1. & 


2. trjs 











c*|H|v (771, 6) 





D. 2. i<)TW 
3. tfj 


1 U 







P. 1. U|1CV 

2. tyre 

OPT. S. 1. itir\v 

2. wfrjs 

3. UlT] 

D. 2. YciTov or 


3. ttiT or itCi\Tt 

P. 1. iftficv or 

2. wire or 

3. uicv or 

, 3) 
(771, 3) 

IMPER. S. 2. fci (771, 2) 
8. tiro 

D. 2. ICTOV 
3. lrv 

P. 2. ?er 


PART. ufe, ti<ra, t^ 



-ftrov or 




, 6) 
tiro (771, 3) 



-i(j.ev or 
-ctrc or 


-tlcv or 





-l<rfl (771, 3) 
ctvro (771, 3) 


-?vrwv or i{'a-0ojv or 

-flvai (771, 5) 
-ts,-lra, -v, 

FUT. ACT. AND MID. (jo-w, fjo-opcu regular ; in prose only in composition. 
FiRST-AoR. ACT. AND MID. JjKa, -T|Kd(iT)v (501, 1) only indie. ; in prose T}KO 

mostly in composition. 

PERFECT ACTIVE, -ftica, only in composition. 
PERFECT MID. AND PASS. -<t|iai, plupf. -cfyiTjv, only in composition. 
AORIST PASS. -A9r\v in composition. 
FUTURE PASS. -KHjo-opLtu in composition. 
VERBAL ADJECTIVES. -4r<Js, -Wos in composition. 

771. NOTE. 1. The present stem i- is for i-e-; but whether this is for 
an original o-i-o-e- or yi-ye- is not known ; it was not fi-ff.-. The second- 
aorist -eirov, the perfect -efxa, the perfect middle -ef/wu, and the aorist 
passive -fWijv are for -t-frov, --Ka, -t-f/JMi, -f-fO-qv, the syllabic augment 
contracting with the stem -. But the first-aorist ^ica has the temporal 
augment. The subjunctive iw is for te-w, -<5 for --w, etc. 




2. The present forms iis (also found accented -tets) and lei, also the im- 
perfect forms t'eis and ?, are formed as if from contract verbs. Compare 500. 

3. The present optative forms d^>-ioire and d</>-t'oiev occur for d^-tetTjre 
and d<-iiev ; and irpo-oiTO, Trp6-oi(r6e, Trpo-oivro (also accented Trpo-oiro, 
Trpo-oi(T0e, Trpo-OLvro) sometimes occur for Trpo-eiro, Trpo-eur^e, irpo-tlvTO. 
These show a transition to the common form of inflection ; Tidr)fj.i has 
similar forms in the middle. Compare 504. 

4. The imperfect of d^-l^/xi is sometimes v'i<f>ir)v (with the preposition 
augmented, 555). 

5. Of all the forms which appear only in composition, the second-aorist 
infinitive active fivai appears once as simple (Aristoph. Ran. 133). 

6. Observe that the second-aorist middle indicative and optative and 
the pluperfect middle are the same throughout, except that the optative has 
-?o and the other two -ero. For similar forms from -3>, -eirjv, -efvcu, 
and compounds of S>, ffyv, clvai (from eifj,i, be), see 772. For similar forms 
from the present ITJ/AI and et/xi, go, see 778, 2. 

772. et/u (eV-, Latin es-se), be. 



w eit]v clvcu 

S ctTjS V'<r0t. 

U ^ 

S. 1. t|x 
2. tl 


1[ or fjv 

D. 2. rr<Jv 

3. (TTOV 

P. 1. 


3. clo-t 




tlrov or l'r]TOV 
or ii]Tr]v 


&v, o?<ra, 
6v (331) 



or l't]<rav 



VERBAL ADJECTIVE, crvv-corc'ov. 



to-oi(iT]v croLfjL0a i'crecrGaL 

t'o-oio o-oio-0ov i'croLO-0e PARTICIPLE 

3. ?<rrau ^<T<r0ov ?<rovrai tVoiro 4<ro(r0t)v ?<roivro tcrdfitvos 

Imperfect dual forms tfrov and ^Tiyv are very rare and doubtful in Attic. 
A late form i)s occurs for rjcrOa. 

The perfect and aorist are borrowed from ytyi/o/xat : ytyova and 


.'.. {Voficu to-dfieOa 

;i. ?<r, ?<ri if<r<r0ov %o-(T0 

773. NOTE. 1. Ei/Kt is from o--/it (Lesbian Aeolic l/t-/ui). E? is from 
Old Ionic fcr-cri through t-cri. 'Eo-ri retains the original ending -n. Eurt 



is from IO--VTI through Doric e-vri and e-vo-t. The subjunctive <L is from 
r-<o through Ionic l-w. The optative tirjv is from icr-irj-v. The imperative 
ur-di is from r-0t (43). The infinitive fivai is from r-vcu. The participle 
u>v is from r-wv through Ionic f-tov. 

2. The imperfect 7; is an augmented form, from original r/cr-a through 
Old Ionic r}-a, while 77 y is from i/cr-v. 

3. The future OTO/MU is from Old Ionic eo--cro//,ai ; the third person 
singular ICTTCU is syncopated from ecrerai. 

The present form ft may belong also to ei/it, go (775) ; and icrdi to oiSa, 
know (788). 

774. Accent. 1. The forms of the present indicative, except *, are 
enclitic (152, 3). 

2. For ecrri (paroxytone), see 156, 3 (6). 

3. In composition, the present indicative accents the preposition. 
Hence aTr-ei/xi and air-u may come from ei/xi, be, or e?/u, jro ; aTr-eteri may 
mean they are absent or he goes away (778, 1). 

4. The imperfect retains its accent in composition, as irap-^v, because it 
is an augmented form. 

5. The participle a>v retains its accent in compounds ; as irap-<av, irap- 
ovo-a, Trap-6v, gen. Trap-ovros, Trapowrrys, etc. 

6. The subjunctive w, the optative tir)v, and the infinitive etvat retain 
their accent in composition. The corresponding moods of the second-aorist 
active of "177/11 (!-) are -5, -eirjv, -efvat, with the rough breathing. Hence 
aTT-w, aTT-et'riv, aTr-etvai (from ct/zi) are easily distinguished from a<-w, d<f>- 
etrjv, d<j>-ivai (from f JI/AI). But irap-w, Trap-eirjv, -jrap-elvai may come from 
7rof/>ci/xi, am present, or Trap-frj/jn, pass over. 

775. el/jit (1-, Latin i-re), go. 



. t(lt Cd> 

2. l ttjs 

3. elo-i I 


I'OIJJLI or lotT]v 
feus I6i 

I'oi lirw 

D. 2. ITOV 
3. ITOV 

P. 1. t(lV 

2. frc 

3. tourv 







U&v, loixra, 

Wv (331) 






fio or f|iv 

or gti 
or i 



f|o-av or ijeo-av 



776. NOTE. The imperfect forms ?Ja, yeicrOa, j/et(v), rjvav belong to 
the older and middle Attic ; the forms yew, ?/s, y (without v movable), 
rjea-av belong to the newer Attic. In the plural we have late forms yti/J-fv 
and rjeire. The future euro/xat is Old Ionic ; but the Homeric eia-dfjirjv or 
ei(rd(j.r)v belongs to "e^iai = /le/xcu (not from "77/0.1), see the Catalogue. 

777. NOTE. The indicative present of ei]u,i has future meaning, I shall 
go, I am going (in poetry and late prose occasionally also as a present). 
The other moods and the participle are perhaps oftener used with present 
(or aorist) than with future meaning. For the present, ep^o^ou is used in 
Attic prose, but only in the indicative, the subj., opt, etc. always from et/u. 
'EAew-o/xai, the regular future of fp^o^ai, occurs only once in Attic prose 
(Lys. 22, 11). 

778. NOTE. Accent. 1. The compounds of ei/u always accent the 
preposition whenever possible ; as irdp-cifM, irdp-idi. Hence compounds 
like Trdp-eifjLL, irdp-et, and irdp-eurt may come from et/u or et/u (774, 3). 

2. The subjunctive fo>, i$s, etc. differs from the subjunctive -fw, -tys, 
etc. in accent, breathing, and quantity ; the compounds of both are thus 
easily distinguished, as dir-ita and d</>-tw, irpoa--i<a and jrpw-lw, even when 
the quantity is not marked. The infinitive if vat is distinguished by the 
smooth breathing (and short t) from -tevai ; so in O.TT-UVO.I and a<^)-ievai. 
But when the rough breathing of -icvcu disappears in composition, as in 
Trpocr-ifvai and irptxr-ltvai, they cannot be distinguished unless the quantity, 
I or I, is marked. 

3. The participle iwv, which is accented like a second-aorist, retains its 
accent in compounds ; as Trap-ia>v, Trap-iovcra, Trap-iov, gen. Trap-LovTOs, irap- 
iovcrrj<i, etc. 

779. <f>r)fj,t (</>a-, Latin fa-ri), say. 



S. 1. <(>Tifi 4>w 4>aiT]v <j>avai ?<f>tiv 

2. <J>^s <^ns 4>aCrjs <}>a6C or <jx0i 

3. 4>t]crl 4>fj 4> a "l <j>dru 

D. 2. <}>aT<Jv }>T)TOV 4>drov PART. ?<j>aTov 

3. 4>a.Tov ^fJTov <j>dT>v <}>ds, 4>do-a, 


(Attic ^do-Kw 

P. 1. tj>afj.V <{>o|Xv <JjaiT][jLv or c|>at|uv 

2. <j>ar^ <J>fyr <}>aiT]T (<}>aiT) 

3. <j>acr <j><io-i <j>a^crav or (j>afev 


FUTURE. <^j<r, 4>TJ<roi|u rare and late, 4>^0"o>v, <f>^<rtiv. 

FIRST- AORIST. ?<j>T]0-a,, <f>V|<rio, J>^trai(ii, , <j>fj<rai, 4>t|crds. 

PERF. PASS. Imper. ir<j>d(r8a>, be it said; w^arai is late; aor. pass. dnr-e<pd,6riif 

( Aristot. ). 
VERBAL ADJECTIVES. 0ar6s poet, and late prose, <j>ar&$. 

780. NOTE. The present indicative, except <r/s, is enclitic (153, 3). 
In composition o"V[j.-(f>ir)fj.i, dvTi-<f)r]fj.i, (rvjj.-ffrrjcri, etc. (but crv/z-<//?, dvri-foj'S, 
yet the editions differ in regard to the accent) ; subj. a-vfj.-<f>oi, crv/A-<ys, 
etc. ; opt. crv/u.^cu/zei', etc. No examples of the present optative dual are 
found ; nor does <cuTe occur. The participle <as, <acra, <j>dv, is Ionic or 
late ; it also occurs once or twice in Attic poetry. For it <f>d<TKwv is used. 
Middle forms of the present, imperfect, and future are dialectic. 

781. NOTE. <f>rj[ii may have three meanings. It may simply mean. 
say ; it may mean say yes, like Latin aio (ov <?//u, I say no, I deny} ; or it 
may mean / assert, affirm, am of the opinion, grant, admit. In the last sense, 
(/HXO-KOJ is more common, except in the indicative. The imperfect f(ftrjv, also 
tf><o, (f>airjv, etc., may have also aorist signification. 

782. 1. ^jmat (f)cr-), sit (Epic, tragic, rarely in Herodotus). 

INDIC. fjpcu fJIxcOa 4ipiv 

fjrai fjo-flov f)<r0 fja'o fjorflov 

?j<TTai yjtrOov fjvrai fjo'TO fjo-Otjv 

SUBJ. (wanting) 

OPT. (wanting) 

IMPER. fjo-o ^o-Oov fjo-Oc 

TJO-0W f|<r0ci>v fjo-0v or tfffOwffai' 

INFIX. Tjo-fleu PART, (jixcvos 

2. Kad-rifiai, sit (in Attic prose and comedy). 

.?BES. IND. Ka6r/, K 

SUBJ. Kauw/isii, KO.O-IJ, Kadrjrai ', etc. 

OIT. Ka.6oiiJ.ijv, Ka.6oio, KaBotTO ; etc. 

IMP. KaOrffro, Ka6t'j<r6<j) ', etc. 

INF. Kaf)rj<rOa.i, PART. 

IMPF. fKadi')iJ,Tjv, fKaOrja'o, fKaOrjTO ', etc. 

or KaOi'ifi^v, KaOijcro, KaO^ro Or KaOr^o-TO ', etc. 

For the imperative Kadija-o, the form KO.QOV occurs in comedy. 

783. NOTE. The stem 170-- drops <r before all endings except in the 
forms Tycr-rat, I^-TO, and KaOrpr-To (also Ka6ij-To). The meaning of ij/wit, 
K( is sometimes perfect, I have sat, have been seated. The missing 




tenses are supplied by eo/xcu, sit, t'w, seat or sit, or topu, sii ; in prose by 
Kadf^ofj-ai, KaOifo, Ka@io[, ; the future Ka&jcroyiicu is frequent in the Old 
and New Testaments. 

784. Keiftai (KGL-, ice-}, lie, have laid myself, have been laid. 
The present and imperfect regularly serve as the perfect and 
pluperfect passive of riOtj^ii, (510). 


S. 1. Kl|UU 

2. K6LO-CU 


D. 1. K610-00V 
2. KCIO-00V 

P. 1. Kl'p.0a 

2. KcurOe 

3. KtiVTai 












Ki<r0ov PART. 

Kicr0ajv Kl|XVOS 


Kara-Kcwyrat irpoor-K^oivro KcCcrOtov ?KIVTO 

, KtCcrjj, Ktia-erai, etc., regular. 

Besides the subjunctive and optative forms given above, there occur also 
-Kf-rjTai (Aristotle), Kara-Kf^vrai (Lucian), and IK-KCOITO (Dem.). 

785. NOTE. The compounds have the recessive accent in the indicative 
and imperative, as Kara-Keiyuat, /cara-Ketcro ' } but infin. Ka.Ta-Kficr0ai. 

786. ol&a (t'S-), know. 

This is a perfect with present meaning from the stem 18- ; compare 
fTSov, saw. 



olSa clSco iSiT}v eiS^vai f^St] offjSciv 

oi.o-0a elSfis iS(iT|s t<r0t {i8'i]<r0a or fj8is 

oC8e clS'fj elStiT) IVrca fj8ti(v) orfjSci 




el8iTinv or clScifxcv 
i8eiT)T or clSeire icrrt 
tl86iT]crav or clScicv KOTTUV or 





or ^j8T 


t(T|X(V dSw|lCV 

t<TT elSfjre 
I'ardcrt clSwtri 

FUT. cfrropai, etc., regular. VERBAL ADJ. 
The compound criV-oiSa, am conscious, am aware, has the recessive accent 
in the indicative and imperative, as (rvv-ur6i. 


787. NOTE. The perfect also has oi$a<s, otSafjLfv, oiSare, ot&io-i (.ome- 
times in Ionic and late Greek, rarely in Attic) ; oi&arov only late ; ourda<s 
for oT(rda occurs in comedy and in Herodas. The pluperfect forms y8ftv, 
ySeis, y&fi (without v movable) belong to the newer Attic (compare also 
similar forms of et/n, 776). The dual yo-rov and ycrr^v occur almost only 
in Attic poetry ; dual forms ySeror, ySerrjv are not found. The forms 
y8efj.fv and ij8fTf are rare and poetic. The pluperfect also has : 2 sing. 
fi&eLo-Oa and yfys (less correct forms) ; plural y8ct/*v, T/Seire, ySeurav (late). 

788. NOTE. The stem is iS- for /i8- ; compare Latin vid-eo, German 
tcissen, English to wit. The form our-Qa is from ol8-6a ; icr-fitv from Ionic 
i8-/ ; tcr-re from iS-re ; uraa-i (Doric UTUVTI) from iS-cr-a-vri with inserted 
<r (compare eido-i for eiK-o--a-vTi from loi/ca, 768) ; ?cr^i from iS-6i is 
identical in form with the imperative of ei/xt, be (773, 4). 

789. rjpl (a-, Latin a-io), say. 

This verb is used only parenthetically, like Latin inquam, ingriit. 
PKESENT. vy/u, suy I ; -fja-i, says he. 

IMPERFECT. T/V 8' cyw, said I ; iy 8' o?, said he, jj 8' ^, said she. 
Here 6's and ?y are old demonstratives (392). 

790. xprf (xP a -> XP ~)> there is need, it behooves (Lat. opus cst}. 

1. This is originally an indeclinable noun with rri understood. 
As a verb it is impersonal and formed its tenses by combining with 
parts of fip.i, be. 

PBESEXT. Indie. ^ ; Subj. xpy (from xti i/) > OP*- XP ") (fr m 
X/n) eiT/) ; /n^w. xprjvai (from xp*l f^at); Part. neut. 
Xpewv (from xp) ov). 

IMPBRPECT. XP^ (from xw T } v ) an( ^ ^ ess ^te 

FUTTTRE. - Xprj(TTa.L from )(p^ COTOU. 

2. A compound diro-xprj, if suffices, has these forms : 
PRESENT. airoxp^i pi- 

IMPERF. d-n-exprj. FUT. aTrox/MyVei, a?rox/t)/o-oixri. AOR. aTTt 


791. Active Verbs with Future Middle. Many active verbs have no 
future active, the future middle being used instead with active meaning. 
Here belong many verbs of the Fifth and Sixth Classes besides some of the 
other classes. The following is a list of all the important ones. Thoae 


marked with a * have also the active future, but the middle is preferred ; 
those marked with a f sometimes have the active future form in late Greek. 

* q.8u f/3odw el/j.1 * /cXdfw o:5a TT^TTTW * T'IKTU 

1" d/coi/w ) 7eXdw * ^uea> * /cXcuw f oifuL^di TrXe'w ^r\rjv 

dXaXdfw * yrjpd(ffK)u * eTraivea) Kpdfa oXoXt/fw irvtw 

t d/j.aprdvu yTjpDu ipvyydvu f KVTTT.U) f 6fj.vv/j.i * iro64(a 

t diravrdta ytyvuffKU effBiia KCVKVOJ opdu pew 

")" dTroXai^a; * ypijfca * 6av/j,dfa \ayxdvu OTOTV^U * po(f>^o} TuOdfa 

SapOdvo) * Oiyydvk) XdWw iraifa * fftuirdb} * <f>0dvu 

didpdffKO} OptpffKu vt<j), swim TTTjSdw crTrouSajw X^fa 

f3\7Tto) * SlWKb) KdfJLVb} VUto} irtvW ffVpLTTO} * YWp^W 

792. Middle and Passive Deponents. l. Middle deponents are 

deponent verbs whose aorists have active or middle meaning and middle 
form ; as aAAo/xcu, leap, ^Aa/z^i', leaped. 

2. Passive deponents are deponent verbs whose aorists have active or 
middle meaning, but passive form ; as Trpo6vfj,eofj,ai, am eager, 7rpov6vfj.rj@riv, 
was eager. The future passive form here has also active meaning ; as 
7rpo0vfj.r)6r)o~ofj,ai., shall be eager. 

3. The following is a list of the most important passive deponents. 
Those marked with a star have both the future passive and future middle 
form, like Observe that, am pleased, has only ^o-dtj- 
< (f)avTa.ofJi,ai, appear, has only </>avTuo-$r/o-o/>icu., admire SepKofiai (poet.), see, am pleased 

* alSeofjai, feel shame drjfj.oKpaT^o/, have a * 7)Trdo/, am beaten 
dXdo/tat, wander democratic government /iterate Xoyuai, regret 
d/itXXdo/xcu, contend * Sia\, converse fj.v(rdrro/j.aL, loathe 
avTi6o/Mi (poet. ), oppose * diavoeo/, reflect ofo/uat, think 
airovotonai, be out of one's, am able 6\tyapxto/j.a,i, be governed 

mind lvavTioop.a.i, oppose by an oligarchy 

ApiffTOKpar^o/j-ai., have an ^v6v/j.eo], consider Trorcto/aai (poet.), fly 
aristocratic government twofopai, think of * 7rpoOv/, am eager 

* dpvto/, deny ^Tri/xeXo/uat, care for irpovoeofjai, foresee, provide 

* axOofMi, am vexed Trtvoeo/, think on ffffio/, revere 
POV\O/JUU, wish 4irLffTafj,ai, understand <pavrd^, appear 
dfofna.1, need v\, take care <pi\oTi/jo/, am ambitious 

4. Of the above some have also the aorist middle; but this is less frequent, or 
only poetic, or post-classical : &ya/,, d/owXXdo/uai, dpv^o/j-ai, 8ia\^,, twivotofjiai., ijdofja.i, irpovoto/nai, 0tXoTt]u^oyiuu. Several use both the aorist 
middle and aorist passive indifferently : av\io/, lodge, live; irpayfjiaTeijo/niai, be 
busy ; <f>i\o<, treat affect ion"/ el ij. 

6. These prefer the aorist middle to the aorist passive : /3/>i~xdo/mt, roar ; 
ylyvo/j-ai, become; KoivoXoyto/mai, take counsel; diroXoytofiai, speak in defence; 
p.^fji(f), blame ; oXo^o/io/xai, lament. 

6. These also use the aorist passive in active or middle meaning : d/j.elj3i>>, change ; 
dnel^o/jMi, reply; r)fj.ei(p0r}v less frequent than r)fj,ei\{/dfj.Tiv ; diroptw, be at loss; 
airopton.a.1, be in doubt ; datravdu, spend ; Sairavdofiai, spend of one's men ; fpau, love, 
pres. and imp., tpa/, poet., -t)pAa6^v ; 04 pu, poet, warm, WpofMt, be warmed, 




dyvotu, not toperceive, 

to mistake 
dyuvlfofjuii, contend 
dSiKfu, wrong 
dfji<t>icr^r)Tw, dispute 
&px<>>, begin, rule 
diddtTKw, teach 
tdta, permit 
etpyu, shut out 

nfa, reproach 
iraidaytojyeu, educate 
troXffieu, wage war 
Trpo-ayopei'iu, foretell 
crrepfu, deprive 
<TT/)e/3X6w, screw up, 

', confuse 
rripew, guard 
rpf(pw, nourit-// 
Tptjiw, rub 
vu, rain 
tpfpta, bear 
<piX(b), love 
(pvXdaffw, guard 

^w, besiege 
irpdyau, do 
ri/xciw, honour 

warm oneself, chiefly poet., 2 aor. pass, tfftpriv ; treipdu, try, ireipdo/Mi, 
more frequent than tirfi.pdffd/j.t)v ; virorowtw, inroTOTTfOfjuii, suspect. Of these fpau has 
the future passive, pa.ff0fyrofjia.i, shall love ; ireipdu has irapdcro/ and, 
shall try. 

793. Future Middle with Passive Meaning. In many verbs the 

future middle has the ' meaning of the future passive ; as Tlp-rja-ofiai =, I shall be honoured. The following are all the most im- 

1. These seldom or never use the future passive form or have it only in late 

tv-fSpetu, lie in wait ofioXoytu, agree 

tx<>>, have, hold 

vw, tend, serve 
w, hinder 
Iy6u, whip 
', inhabit 

2. These also have the future passive form. 
pXdirru, injure Xeyw, say , 
Q-airardu, deceive fj.a,prvptw, bear witness 
tiri-rdffffd}, order, set over fier-trtfu. (Hdt.), send away 
Ka,Ta.-(J>povt<t>, despise irapa-Ttivw, stretch out, protract 

794. Second-Aorist Middle with Passive Meaning. Only these three occur in 
Homer: ^Xrifj.r)v (/3dXXw), was struck; IKTO.HJJV (KTSIVU), was killed; otirdficvos 
(ovrdw), wounded. 

795. Deponents With Passive Meaning. Deponents are sometimes 
used with passive meaning. This rarely occurs in the present and imperfect 
or future passive, often in the perfect and pluperfect and aorist passive. 
The following are all the important cases. 

1. Present and Imperfect, and Future Passive. Btafo/mt, force and am forced ; 
uWo/xcu, buy and be bought ; d-ywnfo/ucu, contend and be contended about ; Xu/j.ali'o/jiai, 
ill-treat and be ill-treated ; tpy ua Oya opai from tpydo/JLai, do ; dir-api>riOriffofMi from 

2. Perfect and Pluperfect. ' Ayuvifofjuu, contend; alvlffffo/Mi, speak in riddles; 

accuse; diro-Xoytofjuu, speak in defence ; /Sid^o^cu, force ; ^yydfcytett, work; 
pray ; rrytofjuu, lead ; /crao/Mi ; Xw/3d<tytai, ill-treat ; /xi;x a ''* / Iiat > contrive ; 
, imitate ; irappi]ffidfofjMi, speak freely ; iroXiTetfo/uai, be (act as) a citizen ; 
,i, carry on a business ; ffK^irro/jMi, see ; xMM at ) u ^ e > wvto/JMi, buy. 
These use the perfect middle in middle or passive meaning. 

3. Aorist Passive. These have the aorist middle and aorist passive, but use the 
latter with passive meaning: dyuvlfo/juu, contend; aMfo/ueu, ill-treat; alvlffffouai, 
speak in riddles ; alrtdofjuu, accuse ; a.Ktofj.a.1., heal ; /Sidfo/uat, force ; S^xoM* 4 . receive ; 
Swp^o/jMt, present ; fpydfofjLai, work ; ijytonai, lead ; Oedo/Mu, behold ; /do/xcu, heal ; 
KrdofjMi, possess ; XoylfafiLcu, reckon ; Xtafidoncu, ill-treat ; fuptofjuu, imitate ; 6Xo<f>6* 
pofjMi, lament ; irpo<, set up a pretext ; x/>do^ai, use ; uvtofjMt, buy. 

796. Middle Passives. Middle passives are active verbs whose passive 
aorists sometimes or always have reflexive or middle meaning. The future 


is usually of middle form. Thus aur\vv<a, disgrace, mid. be ashamed, ftV^uv- 
6r)v, felt ashamed ; (.v^paiv^, gladden, mid. rejoice, r/vf^pdvOr/v, rejoiced ; 
Kivew, move, Kivijdr)v, was moved or moved myself ; o-T/oe<w, turn, 
was turned or turned (myself) ; opyilja, anger, u>pyicr0T/v, became angry. 

The following are all the middle passives of any importance : 
dydpu Si-a\\dcrffu euco/^w Sia-Kptvu vc/jifffdu (poet.) Tropei/w TTJ/CW 

dypialvo) /cctT-aXXdovw eixppaivd) KvXlvdu 6pyifa ffrfiru rp^iru 

dv-dyu <rvv-a\\d<r<T(j) euwx^w \elirw dpeyw (poet.) <rKe$dvvv/j.i <j>> 

Kar-dyu dvidw 0ii/t6w 5ta-X(5w op/maw <nrelpw 

dOpotfa tfTTd) Klvtto) \Virtto) Op/Jllfa <TTp{<f)<j) 

alffj(6nt dicurdu Kara-K\tvu> /j.aivw irflOu cr^iciXX 

a\lfa Ivflyii) Koifj,d<a fieBtiffKb} Trepaibu o^fw 

dTT-a\\d<r<r<i) ecrridu 

797. Mixture of Transitive and Intransitive Meanings. In some 

verbs the future and first-aorist of the active form are transitive in meaning ; 
the second-aorist and second-perfect are intransitive. In some only the second- 
perfect is intransitive. 

1. ayvvfjLi, break (trans.) ; aor. -eda ; ayviy-iat, break (intrans.), fayrfv ; 
2 pf. e'dya, am broken. 

2. 8v(a, sink (trans.), put on ; 8vorw, eSva-a, 8e8vi<a Suo/xai and Svvw, 
enter, pass under; Swro/xcu ; 2 aor. 4'Sw, dived, went down; 8e8vKa, have 
entered, gone down. ^Ev8l5a) and eve8vo-a, d.Tro-8v<i) or eK-8v(a and d.Tr-f8vcra. or 
f-f8vara are used of putting on or taking oif another's clothes ; while fv8vofjia.i 
and tv-e8vv, diro-8vofJLai (lK-8vo/j.aL) and aTr-(8vv (e^-e8vv) are used of one's 
own clothes. 

3. eyeipto, rouse, awake (trans.), regular ; eyetpo/xat (intrans.), au-ake, 2 aor. 
^ypofjL^v, awoke ; 2 pf. eyprjyopa, am awake. 

4. i(TTrifj.i, set, place, O-T^O-W, ccrr^cra, ea-Tddr/v, was placed; Srmucu, set 
for myself, (rr^(ro[j.aL, eo-T^o-a/Ai^v ; to-ra/xai, place myself, a-njfrofjiai ; 2 aor. 

f(TTfjv, stood (set myself) eVr^/ca, stod (have placed myself), eia-T-r'jKr], was 
standing ; m/<o, shall stand. The same distinctions in the compounda 

5. AeiVw, leave (trans.), Aei^o), etc.; AeAotTra, /law left or have failed or 
am wanting ; mid. AetVo/Acu, remain ( = leave one's self), but 2 aor. eAiTropjv, 
fe/< /r myself (in Homer sometimes = u-os Z/i5 behind, am inferior) ; pass. 
AeiVo/iat, a?n left, also am Je/i! behind or am inferior. 

(i. fjuiivia, madden, fjiavta, tp^vo. ; yuaivoyucu, rajre, /j,avovp,ai, 
2 pf. fj.ffj.rjva, am raging. 

7. oX\i<fj.i, destroy, lose, oAw, wAecra, dAwAexa; oAAv/xat, perish, dAov/ 
2 aor. tiAopii' ; 2 pf. oAwAa, am ruined. 

8. Treidd), persuade, TTCIO-W, eTreicra, TreTrcixa, TrcurO^(, shall be per- 
suaded ; TreiOo, believe, obey, mfffOfJMt, irfi(rOr)v, Treireia-fiai, am convinced ; 
2 pf. TrtTToi^a, <rws<. 

9. irr/yvvfit, fix, fasten, (Trrjga, TTfTnrjy fiat, firi'i\6rjv ; Trvyyvv/zai, am 
fastened, freeze ; eirdyrjv ; 2 pf. TreTTT/ya, am 


10. 7rpd(nru>, do; Tre-Tr/jd^a, have done; Trcirpaya, fare (well or ill). 

11. fn'jyvvfj.1 (trans.), break, fppijga. ; p^ (intrans.), break, (ppdyrjv ; 
1 pf. tppwya, am broken. 

12. <r/3evvv[J.i, put out, extinguish, 2o-/3ra, eV/Jfcr&jv ; o-/3ej>vtyxai, go 
out, be extinguished; 2 aor. f<r/3rjv, went out; ca-(3tjKa, am extinguish >il. 

13. OTJTTO), cause to rot; tnjTro/icu, rot, e'crair^v, rotted; 2 pf. a-eo-T/Tru, am 

14. rrjKdt (trana), melt; rqKo/xat (intrans.), melt, Ira/c^v, melted ; 2 pf. 
Tc-n/Ka, am melted. 

1 5. <atVw, s/iow, <f>ava>, fcfyqva, irf^ayKa, 7rt<acr/jwu, I(f>dv6r)v ; <^atVo/xai, 
appear, f<J>dvr]v, appeared; fut. <^>avr;cro/xai and <; Tre^rjva, have 
shown myself, appeared ; ^xzi'vo/acu, s/iow, declare, ^>avoi/xat, e</>?;i/ap/v. 

16. <uco, bring forth, produce, <f>va-(j), l^>i;cra; <uo//,cu, am produced, come 
into being ; e</>w, was produced, came into being ; irtyvKa, am by nature. 

For the full forms of these verbs, see the Catalogue. 

798. NOTE. Observe these poetic forms : /3af xw, 0o, poet, fifou, shall cause 
to go, shall bring, f^rj<ra, caused to go ; poet. ydi>o/ (yev-), am born, aor. 4yftvdfj.tiv, 
begot, brought forth ; poet, ^pekw, tear, 2 aor. fjpiKov, trans, and intr. ; poet, tpdiru, 
throw down, 2 aor. tfpiirov, fell ; poet. 6pvv/u, rouse, 2 aor. 6pupov trans, and intr.; 
poet. dpaplffKu (dp-), fit, 2 aor. tfpapov trans, and intr. 

799. NOTE. Poetic intransitive second-perfects are fipdpa, fit (apaplvKw, fit, 
trans.) ; S^Sija, burn (dalw, burn, trans.) ; toXtra, hope (f\vu, cause to hope) ; 
KfKi)5a, am troubled (ic/idw, give concern). In late Greek dv-efpya (from &v-otyu) was 
used as equivalent to dv-e<j>y/, Jiave been opened, stand open. 

800. NOTE. Various other peculiarities of meaning of the tenses are noticed 
in the Syntax. 



(A summary of the leading features of all the dialects is given in the 



801. 1. For Attic 17, Aeolic and Doric regularly have d ; as Xadd for 
], Sayuios for S^/tos, v6ca for VLK-I], pdiTrjp for fjnrJTijp. 

2. But when 17 is due to lengthening of original e, it remains in Lesbian and 
Arcadian Aeolic, and in Doric, while in Boeotian and Thessalian Aeolic it is repre- 
sented by et ; as Attic, Lesbian and Arcadian Aeolic, Doric ira.ri]p (irarep-}, etiyevris 
(evyevee-) = Boeotian and Thessalian Aeolic vareip, evyeveis ; but Eleian Aeolic 

For variations due to difference in contraction or compensative lengthening, etc. , 
see 844 and 845, and 840, I, II. 

802. The following interchanges of vowels also occur : 

a for c in some words ; as yd for 7^ ; "Apra/M* for "Apre/uj ; Dor. firepoj = Lesb. 
Aeol. &Tepos for erepos ; Lesb. dXXora = Dor. &\\OKO. for fiXXore. 

a for o in a few words ; as Lesb. Aeol. vira for virb ; Boeot. Aeol. and Dor. Ft/can. 
for tHKOffi, 

t for a in a few words ; as Lesb. Aeol. K/S<?TOS for /rpdroj. 

c for i in several words ; as Lesb. Aeol. T^>TOS for rplros ; Dor. "ZeKV&v for 

f for o in some words ; as Lesb. dStiva for dStivrj ; Dor. ^Se^Kovra for 

i for e, especially in derivatives in -eos ; as Lesb. Aeol. x<&> Kl * f r x^^ Keos > ty l 
for 6ij/ ; Boeot. Aeol. 0t6s for 0e6s ; Dor. la-rid for earia., dpytpiov for dpytpeov ; also 
stricter Doric ua and to for eu and eo in verbs in -4u, as tiroAvlu for tvaivtu, 
[ for fj.oytofj.ev. 

i for v rarely ; as Lesb. Aeol. fyoj for C^os. 

w for a occasionally ; as Lesb. Aeol. <ri5/jm for o-(pjces, irt(ff}ffvpes for rfoffapcs. 

v for o often in Aeol., seldom in Dor. ; as Lesb. Aeol. tfaSos for 6fos, dirt fordv6' t 
'OSfotrevs ; Doric 6vv/j.a for Cvo/u.a. 

222 DIALECTS 803 

o for a often in Aeol., seldom in Dor. ; as Lesb. Aeol. 6vu for &vu, fold for avis. ; 
Dor. Tfropts for rtffffapet. 

o for or v very rarely ; as Dor. Kbpicupa. for Kfy/cu/m ; Lesb. Aeol. wphavis for 

803. "We seldom have eu for ei ; as Lesb. and Dor. (also Epic) al for et, Lesb. 
KTO.IVU for KTtivti), Doric Kviraipos for /cuTretpos. For , Lesbian and Arcadian Aeolic 
and Laconian Doric rarely have ot ; Lesb. 6voipos = 6Wtpos, Arcad. UotroiSdv = Lacon. 
HoolSav = Att. Hoffeid&v. Lesbian Aeolic sometimes has w for genuine ov ; as &pavos 
for otipavos. Arcadian shows -roi for -rat in verbs; as floXijToi for povXifrcu. For 
Dor. instead of vi in the fern, of perf. act. part, see 1057. 

804. These peculiarities belong to Boeotian Aeolic : 17 for ot in nouns and verbs ; 
as iinr6TT) for Ivirorai (882, 3) ; rvvTOfir] for TvirrofJMi ; i for genuine ei ; as ipdva for 
fiprivri, d/>x* f r ^PX et > * f r w i' 1 Tpo.Tos for irp&ros as in Doric ; for ot or u> 
(late) ; as "0/j.ripv for "Ofirjpoi, TVS &\\vs for rot's fiXXots, rO Sffjau for T(j5 SrjfjUfi ; ou 
considered long or short for v or v ; as Koikes for Kijves, KOV/J.O. for (cOyua. Later 
Boeotian also had iov for v ; as TLOV^JO. for TI/X?;, Atwvtoi^fftos for Atoi'Po'ioj (cp. English 
rfu/fce and French ditc) ; also to and tw for eo and ew in verbs in -^w (as in stricter 
Doric) ; tiro\tiuov for 


805. 1. The Old Ionic dialect regularly has ^ for Attic d. 

Sot^t'ij, rjp.eprj, veqvilfa TraAai^, ai<r\pfi for cro<j)ia, ijfjtepay vedvtds, 
TraAata, atcr^pa j P-oipy for fjMipp, XdOpy for Xddpy. TpuJKovra. for 
TpiaKovTa ; Itjcrofiaiy dvtryo"0), e/u^va, Treipr/a'Ofj.a.i for tacroyaat, ai/iao~a),, irfipa.crop.a.1, ; irpijcrcrii) for Trpatrcrca, 6i!>pr) for dwpa.^ KprfTrjp for 
KpaTrjp ; v^us for vavs. 

But a remains in $ea, NaixrtKad, <^ia, Aivcids, 'Ep/ieids. It also re- 
mains when due to contraction or compensative lengthening ; as yiyds for 
ytyavrs, /Aovcrds for /lovcravs. 

2. >; takes the place of a : 

(a) In abstracts in -eid and -oid (older Attic -ctd and -oid) from adjectives 
in -775 and -oos ; as aXrjOfirj, cvvoirj for dXt'jOeia, evvoia (883, 2). 

(6) In many other words ; as Kvurcrr) for Kvwro-a, vy/iafloeis for 

3. t) takes the place of e : 

(a) In the endings -eios and -elov; as Mivinyibs, U/wJtbv for Mtvveios, 

(b) In the oblique cases of nouns in -cvs ; as /Jcto-tA^-os, ^8ao-iX^i' for 

s, 6(Wi\ei (901, 2). 

(c) In ?}i5s, ?}i)yei / tos, r)VKop.o<s ; S/vTf occurs with cure. 

4. 2? for ai in the dative plural of the first declension ; as -yvw/tyo-i for 
yvw/wus (883, 6). 

806. The diphthong ei takes the place of e. 
(o) In adjectives in -cos ; as x/avcretos for 
(6) In the pronouns e/xeio, o-io, cfo, rj/j.fitov, 

816 DIALECTS 223 

(c) In the present and imperfect of some verbs in -ew ; as reXetw, 
for TcAew, Trvew. 

(d) In several augments and reduplications : eiAr/Aov^a, also fX-r'/Xovda ; 

for eoiKiua ; Sei'Sia and SeiSoiKO. for 85ta and SeSoiKo. ; SeiSeKTO and 
O (974). 

(e) In some other words ; as etpwraw for epwraw, ^eiVos for evos, 
with eVexa ; (TTTftos for CTTTCOS, VTrefp for vTre/3. 

807. The diphthong ov often takes the place of o before A, v, p, cr ; 
as oi'Ao/Aei'os, /xouvos, Kovpos, vovcros for oAo/xevos, /xoVos, Kopos, voVos. 

808. The diphthong 01 for o in dXo/d and ri\otrjfffi>, irolrj and Troiijets, irvolij, xpoiri, 
<f>\oios, <t>olvios, ayKoli>ri<rii> ) <f>oivios, 68oiir6pioi>, xpoiTvTrir]. 

809. Original at sometimes occurs for a ; as alet (from aiFei) alongside of Attic 
del ; x a / Jia ^ TTo-pai, Karat (in comp. ), probably old locatives for x*/*^ irapd, /card ; 
viral for vir6 is formed by analogy with irapai, etc. 

810. Short e sometimes occurs for 77 

(a) In the subjunctive forms like etdere, \d^erov, yelveai, for etdrjre, \df3rjTov, 

(b) In apytri and apytra alongside of dpyriri and d/xy^ra (from dpyijs), d/c^xe/^'''? 
for dx:ax'7M e ' t ''?> fc/>6j for 17/36$. 

811. Short o is found for w 

(a) Sometimes in subjunctive forms like topev, etdofj.ei>, for tu/j,ev, e?5w/uev. 
(6) In evpvxopos for ei/pi^xwpos. 

812. Short e is found for ct 

(a) In the feminine of several adjectives in -i/s ; as paOtr] for a0e?a, w/c^a for 
tima (925). 

(6) In A Was for A^ce/dy, 'E/5/t^o for 'Ep/j.da, K^UV for /ceiwv ; and in the oblique 
cases of xefyj, as x^s, X e pt> etc. 

813. These interchanges are uncommon : 

w rarely for o ; as Svu, rpwxdu, for 5vo, rpoxdw. 
ai for o in viral for VIT& (809). 

a rarely for e ; as rdfivu, rpdirw, for T{/J.VU, rptwu. 
e rarely for a ; as fitpeOpov for pdpadpov. 
t rarely for e ; as ZO-TI'T; for f<rrla. 

i for ei in JVceXos with erKeXoj, and in ISvlrjffi (from e^5ws). 
a for at in rapos, erdpri, also ^rai/oos, eralpri. 

o for OK in /36Xo/nat often used for /3otf\o/ucu ; and in these compounds of TTOI/S : 
dpritros, de\\6iros, rpliros. 

814. For eu instead of ou in contractions, see 847. For e instead of do, see 
843. For TJ or et for e in subjunctives (as 6dw, 6-rju), see 1045, 1046. 


815. 1. For Attic d regularly 77 as in Old Ionic (805, 1). 

2. For c we have t\ in 5nr\-/i<rtos and TroXXaTrXTjVios for SiTrXdinos and TroXXcurXdcrios. 
Some grammarians give also 17 for a in some feminines of the first declension ; as 
olT), irpvp-vrj, for d\-/j6eia, eOvota, (compare 883, 2). 

224 DIALECTS 816 

8. For ri instead of d in the first declension, see 884, 1. For 77 instead of ai in 
the dat. pi. of the first declension, see 884, 5. 

816. New Ionic has 771' for ci (compare 805, 3) 

(a) In nouns in -eid ; as ^afft\ijiij for pa<n\eid, kingdom, ffrparrjtij for ffrpareld ; 
hut -eta remains, as f3a<ri\eia., queen, d\^0fia. 

(b) In the endings eu>s and -eiov ; as ofc^fos, x a ^ K7 ? to " f r olicfios, x a ^ K ^ ov - 
A few names are exceptions, as Aapetos. 

817. These interchanges also occur : 

e for a in fpffijv, rttrfftpts, revaepaKovra. See also the cases like ytpeos (897, 
2 and 3), forearm (988), and bptovres (1011, 1). 

w for d in 5w/cos and jraiuvlfa. 

a for e in rdjuru, rpdirw (but ntyu, trpe^a), fdyados. 

e for t in l<rrii} and its derivatives, as ir-i<rrtos = Attic <j>t<rrios. 

a for 17 in Xo.|o^wit = Att. XTJ^O/WM, neffa/j-pplrj, d/Mpurfiartu. 

u for T; in irraffffta. 

i\ for w in <J>0i77m, QeffffaXtrjris, 'Iffriairjris and their derivatives. 

ai for a in alel, a/er6s. 

w for ai; in OCifj.a., ffufidfia, Ow/jAfflos, rpufia, rpufnartfu). 

ft for e in etpo/juii, eipur^u, elpvu, eiXicrcrw, efvaTos, e/vafcAcrtoi, e'ivfKev, KeivSs, ^twos, 

e for : in &, ?<rw, tpyw, l-wOa, (Uuv, icpifffftav, irXtuv ; in the feminine of 
adjectives in -i/j, as (iaOfa ; in all forms (except pres. and imperf.) of dclKvvfu, as 
8eu, ?5e|a, etc. , and in all its compounds ; in some proparoxytones in -e os, as 

( for et in TireXos, Trpocri/ceXos, fX?;. 

( for eu in 19 fa, -ea, -v, iffvvu. 

a for o in appudtw. 

ov for o in ^oiWs, voGcroj, vovcrfa, Off\v/j.iros, oOvo^a., ouvo/M&fu, 6 otfpot (=6 fy>os), 
ri oCpos (= rd fipos), 6 cw56j, threshold; in trisyllabic forms of y&vv and d6pv, as 
Yoi/vara, Soijpacri. 

to for oy in &v, roiyapuv, otiKow, yd>v. 


818. These consonant interchanges sometimes occur in Doric 

K for T in the temporal adverbs in -o/ca ( = ore); as ir6i;a, VOKO., otiwoica, SKO., 
, for ir6rt, irort, otiirore, &re, &\\ore. 

K for x rarely ; as S^KOfMi for S^xoA""- 

r for <T very often. Tlie original T (changed in the Lesbian and Arcadian Aeolic 
and in the Ionic to a; especially before t) is retained in the Doric : in adjectives in 
-Tto?, as irXoirrtoj for irXovvios in the numerals in -Karloi ( = -Kfoioi), as dia.Ka.rloi for 
SiaKOffioi ; in abstracts in -rla, as ddvvarid for ddvvaffld, yepovrla. for yepovaid ; in the 
third person singular and plural, as diSurn for SlduffL, rvirrovrt for rvirrovtri ; in Ti5, 
TO/, rt for o-iy, <rof, <r^ ; in some other words and forms, as twerov for tirtffov (from. 
trtirru}, HorciSdv (also Hoffeiddv) for IIocrfiStDi'. 

<r for & in Laconian ; as <ri6s for ^e6s, <rdXX for 0dXX, iyaafa for 
for Atffl- 

/> for (r in Laconian ; as rip for T/S, V^KI;/ for vticvs, nlpywrcu 

d for rarely ; as <55eX6s for (?/3eX6j. 

35 for f in Laconian ; as ffepidSu for Oeplfa, yvpvdddofjuii 

for <r in the future and first-aorist of verbs in -fw ; as x u P 1 ^ an{ i ^Xw^xo for 
and ^uura from 

125 DIALECTS 225 

v for X before r and ; as j3e"vTiffTos, evdelv, for /SeXrtoTOj, e\delv. 
pp for />j was used by some of the Dorians ; dppijv (also New Attic) 
Rough breathing for <r in Laconian in the middle for words ; as 
fj.ovcra, firoLff for eiroit](re, irdd for Tracra. 


819. These consonant interchanges are sometimes found in Aeolic : 
TT for T, as Lesbian irffj.we for irevre, Boeotian Trerrapa for Tf<rcrapa. : for 6, as 
$77/> for Grip ; (f> for x> as atftf"?" for avx 7 ?" ; /3 for 7, as Boeotian j3avd, /3av7?/c6s for 
yvv-ri, yvvaiKos ; /3 for 5, as /3eX0fs for SeXcpts ; /c for x in for ', T for 
er in Boeotian and Eleian, as Ft/can for ef/cocrt ; p for <r (Eleian), as roip for roty, 
oCro/3 for oCros, HeXa/yyos for IleXao^s ; K for TT (Thessalian), as Kopvo^ for irdpvoifs ; 
for <r in the third person plural (Boeotian), as ex^vBi f r ^X w<r ' ; f f r &, as 
fd/3aTos for 6idj3a.Tos ; cr5 for f, as irapicrSuv for irapifav ; 5 for f (Boeotian, Eleian), 
as AeiyftTTTTOs for Zetfi7r7ros ; 55 for f (Boeotian), as 6epi55u for Qepifa f for <r<r, as 
IwTd^ov for iirrrjfffrov ; ^ for cr, as ^ciTr^oi for Zair^ot ; 7 for : in dypfa for atp^w ; 
TTTT for /x/i in 6TnraTa 6/j./j.a.Ta ; TT for T, as in 6'rTt ; cr<r for <r, as in TeXecrcrcu ; XX 
for X, as in /36XXS, tiTAXd for ^oi/XiJ, wTetX^. The Boeotian has TT for <T(T as the later 
Attic ; as OdXarra, Boeotian and New Attic for 


820. A smooth mute is found for a rough mute in afrm for a5(?is, again, back ; 
in OUKI for ot^x' > all( l i n TfrvKeiit and rervKfo'dai from Tti/^w, make. 4>i7/i for 0?jp is 
Aeolic. We tind crij/wepo^ for T-r)/j.epov, to-day. 

821. A r-mnte or a /c-mute often remains unchanged before ^; as i'5/uev for 
fofjitv, 65fj.ri for <5<r,u.77, KfKopv6fj.fros, equipped, from Kopvcr<rw (Kopvd-), dKax/J-fvos, 
sharpened from root a*- or ax- (Lat. acuo). 

822. Double Consonants, Consonants are often found doubled where the Attic 
has a single consonant. So often X, /*, cr ; as XXa/3e for -Xa/3e, took ; ciTroXXijtas 
and dTro-XTjfets, <Aow wi^ cease ; ^/aa^es for ^a^es, </io;t learnedst ; tf>i\o/,ei5iis for 
<f>i\o-fj.ei5rjs, fond of smiles ; TOCTCTOS and rocros, so great ; vffj.f<r<rdw and vf/j-fffdu, be 
angry ; ^TAecrcra and r^Xea-a, finished ; and ecro^tai ; Trexrert lor Trofft from iroi's, 
/oo< / olKaaav and from 5i/cdfw ; rarely j< is doubled ; as evveov for %-veov, 
swam ; fwvTjTos for etf-pijTos, well- spun ; TT is found doubled in the relatives begin- 
ning with 6-, as oTrTroros and OTTOIOS, of which sort ; biriroTe and birbrf, whenever ; T is 
found doubled in oni (also OTI), because; in & TTI (also o ri), orreo and 6Vreii (also 
orev) from 3(TTis ; K is found doubled in TTfXtKKrjo-ev from TreXeKciw, /ie?o ; 5 is found 
doubled in &55r)i> (also dSijj', to satiety), in several forms from d5e- ; in d55ees, 
fearless (5&>s, fear), and ?55o-e, A feared, bnt compounds of 5e'os and augmented 
forms from Sei'Sw should be written with one 5 as the stem began originally with 5F . 

823. NOTE. The doubling is usually due to assimilation ; as iroo-ffl from woti-ei, 
&TTI from 65-Tt, 55e<ra from ISFeiaa.. In the case of crcr, the first cr often belongs to 
the stem ; ns in firey-ai = Attic ?7recrt from CTTOS (stem ^Trecr-), tcrffo/j.a.1 from stem etr- ; 
so also fTfXfffffa aor. of TtX^w (from obsolete stem TeXeo-- which became reXe-). For 
cases of doubling due to apocope, see 856. 

824. In Homer p sometimes remains single after the augment or in composition 
after .a short vowel ; as for ep-pa.irTOfj.ev from pdirru, stitch, coiilrit't', 
&-peKTov for &p-peKTov, undone. This rarely occurs in Pindar and in Attic poetry. 

825. Between /JL and X, and n and p, a euphonic (71, a) is inserted in: 

for fj.e-fj.\u-Ka from /3Xu?<rKW (/u.oX-, n\o-), go; &/u.f3poTos, immortal, for 
(cf. Lat. mor-ior) ; <pdlffi-fj.fipoTos, -man-destroying; finppoTov fi'om d/j-apTavw, 


226 DIALECTS 826 

err, miss ; /i^u/JXerat for fit-/j.\t-rat, and /^/-i/JXtro, from /uAw, care for, concern ; all 

826. 1. Insertion of v occurs in: vdnwuvos, also vui>vfj.os t nameless; dTrdXa/woj 
for dirdXayu.os, without device ; br-tftrfyi8Kt from vir-rjfjujw, boiv, sink ; ISpvvOijv from 
ISpOu, cause to be seated; dfj.-vvvv6ij from dva-nWw, breathe ayain, revive; and, most fairly, from i0tfs, straight ; all Homeric. 

2. Insertion of n occurs in Homeric d/j.<j>a<rii) for d^ao-id, speechlessness. 

827. Insertion of 6 occurs in the Homeric second-perfect forms typriyjpOtiffi and 
Iyp-tjyop6a.i (inf.) from tyelpw, wake, arouse. Homeric SLx&a., rpixOa., and rtrpaxQa- 
are probably old by -forms of Sixa, rpixa (these two also in Homer), and rirpa-xo.. 

828. In Homer TrriXe/uos and irr6Xu occur alongside of iroXe/tos and TrdXis and are 
probably old by-lorms ; jrroXts even occurs in Aeschylus and Euripides. 

829. In Homeric words like fyx^ff-Tra\o^, spear-brandishing, and 6pfff-<f>iv, dat. 
pi. of fy>os, mountain, the a of tyxw- and 6pf<r- belongs to the original stem. 

830. In some Homeric words an initial consonant has been dropped or else the 
double forms are due to different stems. They are: ala and yala = yf) ; doviros, 
noise, roar, and pi-5oviros or epi-ySoviros, loud-thundering ; Sovireu, sound heavily, 
aor. 5<wjr77<re and f-ySovirrja-av, gen. perf. part. 5e-5oi/7r6roj ; \iap5s, warm, soft, for 
xXiopis ; e^3w and Xet'/3w, drop, trickle ; fa for (da. So also ffpiKpys (also Old Attic) 
and /MKpfo, small ; KiSvaffOai for VKiSvaaOai, disperse, <r/c^5acre and eK45a<rOfi>. 

831. A consonant in the middle of a word is dropped in : fibXifios (Horn.) for 
/u6Xi/35os, lead; gen. <f>dpvy-os (Horn.) for <pdpvyy-os from <f>dpvyj-, throat; fMirttiv 
(Hes.) and /j.e/ (Horn.) from /j-dpirro}, seize; irorl or wporl^irpfa ; 6iri6tv mid 
iviffOtv, behind, afterward; tKToOtv for i-KroaOev, without, far from. Homer often 
has 'Ax'Xei/s and '05uerei>i alongside of 'AxtXXei/s and '05w<7ei/j. 


832. These variations of consonants appear in New Ionic : 
K for x in S^KO/UU, owe/. 

K for TT in all forms from the pronominal stem TO- ; as xotoj, KOO-OJ, ACT/, KWJ, /rire, 

, etc. ; but biroSavb^. 
T for in ai/m. 
Transfer of aspiration in {vQavra, tvQfvrev, KtOuv for Attic ivravda, tvrtvOtv, 


for ffff in 5tf6$, Tpi6s ; but never iV for o-yj', nor TT for as. 

y for 7^ in ytvofiai. and ylvtlxricw for Attic ylyvoncu and 7t7voxr/cw. 

A smooth mute remains before the rough breathing ; as dir' o5 for d<f> oC, juer' & 
for /xe0' fi, dv-iffrdvai for d^-iOTdVeu (d?r6 and Jffrdi'ai), avrrmepov for av6rj/j.fpov 
(aiV6s and Tj/dpa). Exceptions are rare ; as rd ^?rl Odrtpa, dffifftti', t<popos. 


833. 1. For the rough breathing we sometimes find the smooth in Homer ; as 
&na$a for &/j.a%a, iJAioj for ^Xioj, ftXffo and dXro from fiXXo/uai. In this case the 
aspirated vowel is sometimes lengthened ; as oi)36s for 656$, o\os for SXoj, ofy>os for 
3pos. Loss of the aspirate occurs in the case of crasis in Apicrroj from 6 dptaros, and 
uvTfa from 6 avr6t. 

2. The Lesbian Aeolic lacked the rough breathing ; hence SSw for T)8v*. 

339 DIALECTS 227 

834. In Homer. 1. Although digamma is not found written in the 
Homeric poems, it was certainly pronounced in many words. This is 
apparent from the metre, which would otherwise have too numerous cases 
of hiatus (46) ; also from the frequent cases of position-lengthening (863) 
which are explained by an initial digamma ; from the frequent treatment 
of a long final vowel or diphthong in thesis as long before an apparently 
initial vowel (873, 1) ; and from the syllabic augment before a vowel, as 
caa for e/aa. 

2. The following words had initial digamma in Homer ; some of them are verified 
by inscriptions : 

&yvv/j.i, break; fiXiy, in numbers; aXwvai, be captured; &t>ai;, lord, Avacrffa, 
queen, avaffffu, rule; dpaios, slender; [d/^c] apv-bs, lamb; &&TV, town; doroy, 
citizen; Hap, spring, Lat. ver ; ZSva, bridal gift; ZOeipa, hair; ZOvos, host; 
eldov, etSos, etdw\ov, see tSelv ; efrceXoy, see ot/ca ; ehoffi, twenty, Lat. viginti ; 
C?KW, yield ; elXvu, wrap up, Lat. volvo ; e? Xw, press ; eZ]uct, see HVVV/JLI ; elirov, 
said, #7roy, word; etpw, say, Lat. verbum ; ?(cay, far, IKCI-TOS, e/cd-e/ryoy, far- 
working, e/cT;-/36Xoy, e/caT7;-/3eXr>7y, e/car7-/36Xos, far-darting ; ^Kaa-roy, each ; /c?;Xos, 
free from care ; l/nyrt, by the will or grace (of a god) ; &cw, willing ; IXSouat, 
wish ; tXlffffw, wind ; ?Xt, coil, crooked ; (fXrquat, hope ; Hrvvfu., clothe ; el/na, 
&T0os, garment ; eo-tfTjy, clothing, Lat. vestis, vestio ; loi/ca, am like ; efreXoy, f/ceXos, 
like ; tpyov, see p5w ; Hpy<>), shut in ; tpyu, pydo/, work, Hpyov, work ; 
tppb), go; %p<rr), e<tpffi), dew; tpvofuu, shield, tpvu, draw; tvirepos, at evening, 
Lat. vesper; ITTJS, clansman; froj, year, Lat. vetus ; ^rwo-toj, fruitless; fjvo\f/, 
bright ; %a, favor ; fjX'h' resounding noise ; lo-x^t cr 2/ ^X w cr y mi & > ^tiv, 
see, dSov, saw, olSa, know, et5os, appearance; tt8u\or, shape; ISpeirj, knowledge, 
skill; tffrwp, one who knoiys ; i'e/uat, strive, hasten ;1\ios, Ilium; tov, violet, 
Lat. viola; * F I/ws, Iris; ty, l<fri, strength, Lat. vis; Ivlov, back of the head ; 
Iff os, equal ; Irt-r), willow ; olSa, see idew ; okoj, house, Lat. vicus ; otvoy, wine, 
Lat. vinum ; wy, as. 

3. These began originally with <rF : avddvu, please, ij8i5y, sweet, Lat. suavis ; 
(Ouv, accustomed, etwffa, am accustomed, fjOos, liaunt, Lat. suesco ; ?o, eC, $6fi>, 
ol, H, of him, her, etc., fly, his = Lat. suus ; iicvpos, father-in-law, Lat. socer ; 
ff , six. 

835. NOTE. We find change of original f to v in cases like these : etaSe? for 
i-ffFaoev = Zaoev, pleased (avddvu) ; afitaxot, shouting together, from a copulative and 
fiax't ', aMpvirav from ava-Ftpvcrav = av-Ftpeffav dF-Ffpvffav. 

836. NOTE. The words 5ei<ra, 5^oy, 5eiX6s, detv6s, from the root Si-, and Srjv 
and Sypjv, originally had F after 5 ; a short vowel before the 5 in these words is there- 
fore very often treated as long by position ; as tdeiffas = edFewas ( w, 11. 22, 19), 

otfre TL fit 5&>s ( ww \_/w, II. 5, 817), TW ftiv &pa 5eiXw /SoXeriji' ( ^ w ww , 

II. 5, 574), '6ir\oi(nv tvi otivolaiv ( ww w, 11. 10, 272), 00 rt /xdXa ofy (for 

oF-nv, -ww , 11. I, 416), tirl 5Tipbi> 5t /uot aldv (w w ,11.9, 415). 

8u7. NOTE. In many cases initial digamma is neglected in Homer and does 
not cause position -lengthening. This shows that its existence was extremely 
fluctuating and uncertain at the time. 

838. NOTE. In some words a prothetic vowel e is prefixed to the digamma, 
which then disappears ; as in &XTO/XCU for I'/eXro/MU, ttdva for ^-/e$ca, tdnoffi 
for iFeiKoai, ftirr) for ^Fla-r). 

839. In Aeolic and Doric. 1. Digamma remained in Aeolic and Doric long 

228 DIALECTS 840 

after it disappeared in Ionic. It is found in Boeotian and Doric inscriptions, and 
can be traced metrically in the poets. 

2. In Lesbian Aeolic it sometimes becomes /3 before p, as Ppodov for FpoSov = 
poSof ; v between vowels, as "Apeua (Boeotian) for 'Apefa from a form 'Apei/s = 
"Aprjs ; sometimes it is assimilated to a preceding consonant, as tffffos from Fi<rFos, 
tvvos from 6/fos. 


840. I. Aeolic. 1. The Lesbian Aeolic lengthens a to at instead of d : (a) in 
the nom. sing, of the third decl. ; as rdXats and /uAats for rdXds and /uAds (from 
raXacs and /xeXovs) ; (b) in Trotcra for TraVa (from wavrffa) ; (c) in the masc. and 
fern, participle, as forais and Tcrrato-a for icrrds and lardffa, reX&rais for reX^a-ds ; 
(d) in the ace. pi., as rais Skats for ras 5kd$ (from TO.VS 5u<a.i>s), 6x&ais for o^ds, re 

2. It lengthens o to ot instead of 01; : (a) in participles; as fyois = v\}/Q>v (from 
0\l/ufj.t = Att. u^ow), irXijflotffa for tr\ri9ovffa (from ir\ijOovrira), so also fioiffa. for ft-ovaa. 
(from fiovffa) ; (b) in the ace. pi., as <TTe<pdvois for <rrf<t>a.vovs (from ffrttpavovs) ; 
(c) in the third person pi., as Kptiirroiffi for KpvirTovffi (from Kpinrro-vTi). 

3. Sometimes assimilation of consonants took the place of compensative 
lengthening, as in verbs : Kpivvu for Kptvu (from Kpiv-yu, 1004), ticpivva. for tKplva 
(from fKpiv-va, 1026). 

4. The other Aeolic dialects generally lengthen o to w ; as Boeotian fj.w<ra for 
/ttoOcra (from povcra.). 

II. Dor/c. The stricter Doric lengthens e and o to i\ and w, the milder to and ou 
as in Attic; as ?ifj.ei> = milder Doric elf^ev = Attic el-vai (from ea-vai) ; f6/tws = 
milder Doric and Attic vo^ous (from vo/xovs) ; p.wo-a and ^oO<ro. 

III. Ionic. In forms like ^et^os from $tvF<K (inscr.) for Attic ^vos, o5pos from 
SpFos (inscr.) for Attic flpos, the Ionic has the compensative lengthening where the 
Attic has not 

841. NOTE. The Cretans (partly also the Thessalians and Arcadians) preserve 
original vs ; as irdwa, nOvs, rovs, for Attic ir&ffa, nOeis, rotfs. 

842. NOTE. Some of the Dorians have short final -as and -os where in Attic 
compensative lengthening produces -ds and -ous. This shortening of -ds and -oi/s to 
-as and -os is used by the poets (as Alcman, Hesiod, Tyrtaeus, Epicharmus, Theocritus, 
rarely Pindar). 

So TOS rpoiras for rpowds (Alcm. 33) ; Kotfpas, ird<ras in Hesiod (the accent remains 
the same as in -ds) ; Cretan inscr. TOS vfyos for TOI)S vo^ous ; TWS MKOS for \ikous and 
irap0tvos for irapBtvovs in Theoc. 


843. Exchange of quantity is very frequent in Ionic, do becoming ew which 
always forms one syllable by synizesis (853, 854) ; 'ArptiS^, gen. 'ArpttSdo or 
'ATpeiSew ; J/C^T>/S, gen. k^rdo or k^rew. So dw becomes ew ; as irv\rj, gen. pi. irvXduv 
or fl-i'X^&w = Att. TTV\UV ; IIo<roVw' for original and Horn. IIo<r5<iw' = Att. IIo<7ei5cDj'. 


844. Aeolic. I. The Lesbian Acolic has few contractions. It often contracts 
ao and aw to a (as in Doric) ; Kpovidd from original KpoviSdo, lloati^dv from 
HoffciSduv (Att. Yloffddwv), xa^""a" HfpifJ-vdv from original x a ^ fw ^ uv l**f*p99HF- 
It contracts e + e to T; and o + o to w ; as fats from t(\es, tptpyv for ^pety ; gen. \&yw 

851 DIALECTS 229 

for \uyov from \oyoo ; aF3ws = Att. cu'SoCj from a?3o-os. It seldom contracts e + o to 
ev, as (SAeus from /3Aeos. 

2. The Boeotian Aeolic also makes little use of contraction. It contracts o + o to 
w as in Lesbian : I'TTTW for I'TTTTOU from ITTTTOO ; but e + e gives regular , as Socetrai 
from Soce'erai. A peculiar 'contraction is a + o to av, as Zai'^dretj (inscr. ) for 

845. Doric. The Doric has these contractions : 

1. at, aei, ay, ay arc always contracted in verbs : ae and 077 become y, aei and 
077 become y ; as &py from 6pae Att. Spa, see thou, cprjs from 6pdeis = Att. 6p$s, than 
seest, 6py from opdy (or 6pdei) = Att. opq. (subj. or inc 1 .). But de gives d, as <f>wvavTa 
from <f>ii>vdevTa. 

2. a + o and d + w give d : (a) in noun-formations, as NoveiSdv for notmSawp 
(Att. Iloo-etSuJc) ; (b) in the gen. sing, of the first declension ; as 'ArpeiSa from 
'ArpeiSao, yvw/adv from yvu/j.duv (Att. yvu/muv) ; (c) occasionally in verbs in -aw, as 
yeXdvri and yeXacra (Theoc. ) from ye\d-ovrL nnd yf\a-ov(r)ffa (Att. ye\wffi and 
yeXwffa) ; but often the regular Attic contraction, as evtuwv from evticaov ',(d) in 
the 2 sing. 1 aor. mid. in Theoc., as eVdd Iroin ^?rafao=Att. ^TT^W. 

3. e + e gives TJ in the stricter Doric, and ei in the milder ; as ayiJTai from 
ayffrai (Att. 1776^01) ; aipTJa-ffai from dip&ffOai = Att. aipeiedai. 

4. e + o and e + ou (generally left open) are contracted to ev by some Dorians, as 
in Ionic; as %el\evs from x e ^ e s (Theoc.), <j>i\fvi>ri from 4>i\toi>Ti (Theoc.); ew 
usually remains open. 

5. o + o and o + e give w in the stricter Doric, ov in the milder ; as niffB&vri for 
fUffOovffi from fua-Oo-ovri, \d<r<rti)s for \d<rffovs from Aaovo-es ; TTOJT/CO for TTOVTIOV 
from TTocrtoo. 

846. NOTE. Pindar often has open forms. 

847. 1. Old Ionic (Homer). Contraction is very often omitted and is quite 
optional, the open and the contracted forms being used alongside of each other 
according to the needs of the meter ; as TTCUS and Trdi'j, ay/ipaos and dy^/aws, retfx'J 
and rdxea, e5 and 46. 

Where contraction takes place, it follows the rules of the Attic dialect ; except 
that e + o and e + ov give tv, not ov ; as Otpevs for Otpovs from dtpe-os, gen. of Otpos ; 
/j.fv for fp.ov from 4pjo ; p/ceDcri for veiKovffi from veiKtovcri. 

2. New Ionic (Herodotus). Contraction is generally avoided except in certain 
forms of declension and conjugation. In these, which are explained under the 
inflections, eo and oo give ev ; as ^/ueO from /, difvfjLev from d^ioofjitv. 

848. NOTE. 1. Unusual contractions in Homer are i + e = i in ipyl- for fe 
hawk, Z/j6s, Ipeus, etc. for i'epos, iepe^s ; and o + ?) = w, as in dydwKovra for dydo-riKO 
^uxrdj for /SoTjVdj, d^j'aia'aaKe from dyvo^aj. 

2. Herodotus also has o^xSwKocTct, (/>6s, iptvs, etc.; and w for 077 in certain forms of 
flodu and votu. 


849. Aeolic. Examples of crasis in Aeolic arc: &vrjp = Att. av^p from 6 dvyp, 
r&fjLov = Att. Tcvjj.6v from r6 ^ujj/. 

850. /)or/c. Examples in Doric are: w (stricter Doric) = Att. ouf (6 e'f), 
oiXa^o? from 6 Aa^oj ; but in the milder Doric o + e gives ov, as rovvavrlov (TO 
(vavrlov) ; o + a gives w, as r&ya\/j.a for r6 d7aX/u.a ; o + av gives wv, as OHTOS for 
6 ai)r6s ; rol + a gives TW-, as rifSpej ; 6 + at gives v>-, as y^Xos for 6 ahr6Xoj : 
Kat + ev gives KTJV-, as KT)I; (Theoc.) ; KO.I + ogives KW-, and /ca/ + ot gives *cy, as x^Tav 
(KO! ordi'), /fy/i-id (<cai oi/c/d). 

851. Old Ionic (Homer). Crasis is rare in Homer, occurring mostly with the 

230 DIALECTS 852 

article or Kal and a following vowel ; as for 6 t/j.6*, Kafrros for xal avrbt. In 
wpttrroj from 6 dpioroj, and uvrfa for 6 aurdj, the rough breathing is lost. 

852. New Ionic (Herodotus). Besides those in ordinary Attic, these peculiar 
cases also occur: wv/ip and uvOpwiros (6 d-) ; ovrepos and roCrepov (6 or ro + e-) ; 
Torepa (rd + e-) ; <SXXot, T&pxaiov, ruXyOte, T<!nr6 (6 or rd + a-) ; &v6puire, Siva.^ (> + a-) ; 
/caX6s Ka.ya.66s, KaxeWi, Kaxeivos, Ka.iJ.oL (/cai + a- or e-) ; fwuroO, f'fj.euvrov, ffewvrou 
(from Ho, ("neo, o~eo, and avrov, see reflex, pr. ), also wiT<5s, wurot, and TUVTO from 6 avr&s. 


853. In poetry two successive vowels belonging to the same word or to two 
different words are sometimes joined in pronunciation, although the contraction or 
crasis is not indicated by the writing. This is termed synizesis and occurs only for 
the sake of the meter. Thus Geos may make one syllable, eird ov may make two. 

854. 1. Synizesis in one word is frequent in Epic poetry, especially in ea, ey, eat, 
ei), eo, ecu, eov, ew, etf ; as /3Aea, tfKeov, xpwty. In Attic poetry it occurs mostly 
in the endings -ews, -euv ; as 7r6Xeo>j, ir-ij-xeuv. It is not frequent in other poetry. 

2. Synizesis between two words is more frequent in dramatic poetry than in 
Homer. It is confined mostly to cases in which the first word is 5^, ^, tf, /), tirei, 

yt6, (i ; as 5rj ZfiSofwv, 1) ov, T) ovStis, /HTJ fiXXoi, tirtl ovStv, tyu elf*', (D apiyvure. 


855. Elision is much more common and free in poetry than in prose. Homer 
occasionally elides a in the possessive pronoun era ; rarely a in the Epic particle pa,, 
and in the first-aorist active. Final e of adverbs in -fe is rarely elided in Epic 
poetry ; final e of the third singular first-aorist optative active in -eie is often elided 
in Homer. Final t of the dative singular and plural is often elided in Homer. 
Final o in genitives in -eio (as tpfio) is rarely elided in Homer, as also o in the verbal 
endings -eo and -ao. Final at of the verbal endings -pai, -trot, -rat, -ffffcu, is some- 
times elided in the Epic and Comic poets. Final ot of the enclitic pronouns fj.oi, 
<roi or rot, is sometimes elided in Homer ; so also ot in OL/J.OL (before ws) in Attic 
poetry. Many words and forms which may take v movable (64, 858) can be elided 
in poetry. 


856. In poetry a short final vowel is sometimes cut off before an initial 
consonant (diroKoinJ, cutting off). We thus find dp for dpa, the prepositions &, K&T, 
irdp for &va, /card, irc(pd ; Doric w6r for worL ( = Att. 717)65). These forms occur both 
as separate words and in composition. Of these &v is subject to the euphonic changes 
in 90, 1 and 2 ; the r of KO.T is assimilated to a following consonant, but before two 
consonants it disappears. Thus oGr' &p <t>ptvas ; &v re M^X 1 ?*' f r - va - Tf f^X^t dp-cmis 
for dva-ffrds, d\-\Vovffav for\6ov<rav, d/x-/3dXXw for d'a-/3dXXw, a/it irediov for dva 
irtoiov, dy-Kpffj.d,ffa.ffa for ava-Kptfidaaffa, ; d/3-/3aXe for xar-^SaXf, Ka.T-Oa.velv for 
Kara-Oavelv, for, Ka^.-/uet|dj for /caTa-/xtas, ACOTT weoiov, KO.TT <f>d\apa, 
KO.K Kopvffa, Kay ybvv, KO.S dtivajjuv, fUffov, Kap pdov ; irap-0t/j.evos for irapa-O^evot, 
Tap Zrjvi for Trapa Zrjvi ; Doric TTOT TOV, irbr T&V, etc. for irorl TOV, TTOTI TO.V, etc. So 
once ifT'/SdAXew for jro-/3dXX' (11. 19, 80),^ei. for diro-7re/t^ (Od. 15, 83). 


857. This is the dropping of an initial c of a word after a final long vowel or 
diphthong, especially after /M) or 1) (d^atpecns, taking off). Thus /UTJ 'yu for M ty&, 

864 DIALECTS 231 

1) '<f>di>i)v for ?) tydvyv, tirei 'Sditptiffe, irov '<m for vov Herri. Aphaeresis seems to occur 
only in poetry. In Homer the editors now usually insert the e and thus make 
synizesis (853). 


858. The Epic particle K ( Attic &v) may take v movable. The poetic 
particle v-uv, now, is sometimes vti in Epic poetry. In poetry many adverbs in -Oev 
(as Trpoffdfv, irdpoiOev) may drop v. The v may be added in the Epic adverb vbo<pi(v}, 
apart; and in the Epic suffix -<pi (914). The Epic pronoun <r<pi and the Aeolic 
(also Homeric) pronouns d/x/tu ( = T]/MV), C/J./M ( = b/juv) may also take v movable (950). 

859. yu^xp' and &xpi, until, are (JL^XP 1 * an( l ^X/" s ] ' n late Greek. These words 
also have s movable : TroXXdm, often (also TroXXdja Epic, Lyric, rarely Tragic) ; 
drpffj-as and drp^a, quietly, mostly poetic ; thirds, wholly (rarely faira in poetry) ; 
8.<t>v<is, unawares (rarely poetic &<pvus) ; e&6ti (Wti Ionic), straight towards, but fi)0i/s 
(iOvs Ionic), straightway, in Homer t0vs = straight towards; /]yij(s), between [Epic 
/j.eff<rijyij(s)] ; d//$ts, about (Epic also d/j,<pi) ; avriKp-bs, just opposite, straight mi (Horn, 
only dvriKpv), but KaravriKpt and diravTiKpt are better Attic without s. 


860. These cases of addition of vowels in Homer require mention. 

1. A prothetic e is often found before e or , seldom before i ; as ZeSva, et\8up, 
ttp<rr) for %dva, IX5w/), fpa-rj ; telKovi for fiKOfft, Hat] for I<rr) ; fe\irofjiai, eiffKW for 
{Xwofiai, tffKw. See also in the Catalogue of Verbs efyw, efyu, etdouai, ?X5o/xat, etXw 
flwov, elpyu, ftpu, (vviifju, irifu. 

2. An e is inserted in Jjei> for ty (from efyti) and in rjeXios for r;Xios. 

3. In the gen. and dat. dual, t is always inserted ; as &/JLOUV and iroSouv for 
&fj.oiv and TroSoiy. Homer sometimes has 6/j.oiios for 6/xo?oy, often irvKiv6s for TrvKv6s. 

4. In a few cases T? is inserted : ev-y-yevris, lir^ravo^ (from TOJ), perennial. 


861. In the Epic language an a followed by an o-sound is sometimes changed 
to an o-sound : <f>6ws for 0doj, OMKOS from 0ao/cos (Attic OCLKOS), trpuoves from Trpaoves 
(Attic irptiv). For a similar change in verbs in -aw, see 1009 (b) ; for the change of 
an e-sound following a to a, see 1009 (b). 


862. Metathesis of ap and pa occurs frequently in Epic poetry metri caitsa. 
Thus Kdpros and frpdros, ndprepos and Kpdrepos, Kdpriaros for Kpdrtffros, /SdpStcrros from 
PpaSvs, dra/)7r6j for dr/wirta, xpadlri and Kapdirj, T^rparos and T^rapros ; 5/>ar6s for 
Sapros from 5^/>w, but also veb-Sapros ; second-aorists ZSpaKov from Styx-opai, 
firpaOov from vtpO-<a, Tpaireiofj.ev (subj. ) from r^pir-w, Lesbian tfuppoTov and regular from d/j.aprdvw. By metathesis pVfw, work, is derived from fy>5w. 


863. In Homer an unwritten digamma may be the cause of position-lengthening ; 
as irpis olKOv for 7rp6s FOIKOV (11. 9, 147) ; x 6 '/ 5 ^ ""a^^v Iptiffae' for irdXtv Fcpfa&ff' 
(II. 5, 836). 

864. In Epic poetry a final short vowel standing before a word beginning with 

232 DIALECTS 865 

f or ffK seldom remains short ; as ot 5i ZAeta? fvcuov ( ww ww w, II. 2, 824) ; 

fV \tifiQ>v\. ^Kanavdply ( w ^ w, /if. 2, 867). This is evidently caused hy the 

exigency of the meter ; for in such cases the word beginning with f or <ric has the 
first syllable short and the second long. 

865. 1. In Homer a short vowel before a mute and a liquid usually makes 
position ; as eflSowi /SporQt ( w, //. 10, 83) ; &yt rpds (^ , II. 2, 671). 

2. But Homer often neglects position when a short vowel stands before a mute 

and p or X ; as Mo-pa Kparai^ ( w ^ , II. 5, 83) ; rfjs 5' dpa KXeuot'<n?f ( w ^ , 

0.1. 20, 92). 

Hcsiod sometimes neglects position when a short vowel stands before a mute and 
v ; as friKTt wvtovffav (w ww w, Thcog. 319). 

3. In position-length, the old Elegiac, Iambic, and Lesbian Lyric poets, and 
Anacreon agree with Homer. Only Tlieognis and Xenophanes sometimes neglect 
position-length in the cases of a short vowel before a mute and p or X. The choral 
poets (as Pindar) neglect position-length oftener than Homer. 

866. In poetry a vowel long by nature is rarely treated as short on account of 
the meter; as <fx>iv\.K6Tffav , ^/w w from <poivi%, <polviKos (Horn. II. 10, 133); 
xpwrtwv, ^^ from xpfafos (Enr. Med. 978). In the later Epic poets and in the 
Epigrammatists this is more frequent. 

867. In some words the quantity of the vowel is different in different dialects, 
or in different kinds of poetry, or at different times. 

Mr;ifw and /jHjvtw Attic, wviu Horn. ; CTJ/JU. Attic, usually trj/M in Horn. ; most 
verbs in -Cw have u in Attic, i> in Horn.; <5i'fi5p3s Horn., o/fty>6s Aristoph. ; com- 
paratives in -tuv Attic, -few Epic and Doric. 

868. In Epic poetry a short syllable is often treated as long when it stands in 
arsis : as *Apej "Apes fiporoKoiyt ( ww ww ^>, II. 5, 31). 

When the same syllable of word is thus either long or short, it is sometimes 
difficult to decide whether the vowel was originally short or long. 

869. 1. In Homer a is often lengthened to 17, c to ei or r/, o to ov or w, on 
account of the meter ; as i^nr^rijXoj for v\j/iirtT&\os, pbgct^pMrM for /tax^/ufos, 
riBrifjifvos for riO^fievos, oi/Xo/uevos for ^X^evoj. 

2. Similarly &, T and t" standing in the first syllable of a word and having the 
ictus, are often used as a, I, on account of the meter ; as dOdvaros and d^ci/xaTos 
'these two words always so measured by the poets), Uplafddrjs for, 
ovvdfj.ft'os for SiVd/ifvos. 

This occurs sometimes in the middle of a word, even when the syllable has not 
the ictus; as &\ffo /xe/ndu;5 (-ww- , Jl. 15, 754), Terp&KVK\oi ( '-^, Od. 9, 242), 
Troffffiv (pidriffOffOai (- w w - - - w, 11. 23, 792), viro5etri (w w - - -, II. 9, 73) ; 
i\6os KtKa\ ( ww ww, II. 21, 318). 

870. In TTomer a short final syllable ending in a consonant is often made long 
by the caesura ; as oi' re K.dpv<TToi> fx ov i?5' ol' ( w v^ | w w | || | , 11. 2, 539). 

871. 1. In Homor a short final vowel is sometimes treated as long, even before 
an initial vowel of a following word. Such a vowel may be in arsis or it may stand 
before an initial liquid of a following word. Thus : irar^pt 5^ (w w | <-, 11. 5, 156) ; 
Ail <#Xoj (vy | -w^) ; ffdKf'i t\a<r' (ww | -ww, II. 20, 259) ; ir6\\' freo. ( ww | -, 
II. 20, 255); S> uii JITwo (-ww | ww | w, H. 4, 338); TeVero IloXi^e^ea 

(^w | v^w | -ww, Od. 15, 249) ; iroXXa X7<r<S/x<or ( | -v^w | -, 11. 5, 358) ; 

aid 5e /xaXa/co ( | ww | w, Od. 1, 56) ; tvffrpffea. vevpfy (w | w^ | | , 

n. 20, 463) ; aMv rt pvffat ( , II. 24, 430). 

2. In old Comedy a short final vowel before initial p always counts as long ; 
in Tragedy it may count as short or long. 

80 DIALECTS 233 

872. In poetry a long vowel or diphthong standing before another vowel of the 
same word is sometimes treated as short. This occurs occ.'-sionally in Epic poetry ; 
as fy>os (-w, Od. 6, 303) ; fft.irva.iov (-ww, Oil. 20, 379) ; olos (^w,.77. 13, 275) ; 

Xa/xaieDpcu (^^> , 77. 16, 235) ; seldom in post-Homeric poetry and in the Attic 

drama; as roiaOra (w w, Pind. Pyth. 8, 55) ; irarptouv ( w , Find. Ncm. 9, 14) ; 

ot6s re (w-|w, Soph. Ocd. li. 1495); roiavrai (\s , Aristoph. Nub. 342); 

frequently with iroiw (w ). 

873. 1. In Epic poetry a long final vowel or dipthong standing in thesis before a 
word beginning with a vowel is nearly always treated as short ; as dfcrg e<f>' i>^rj\T) 

(-^w | | -, 11. 2, 395) ; ryv d' eyit ov \Vffu (- w | -, II. 1, 29). This 

sometimes occurs in the dramatic chorus. If the following word had digamma, the 
final vowel may remain long in thesis. 

2. But when the long vowel or diphthong stands in arsis, it remains long, 
as avTiOttt 'OSvtrrfi ( ww | ww | w), x w M e ' l ' o ' u 'Ax'X^os (^^ \ w^ | w, 
//. 9, 107). So also when the following word had an initial digamma ; as iracri 

<pi\ov Kal TJ5i; for Fi)5v ( wv^ | | w, 11. 4, 17) ; yv/j.v6v ardp TOI t,aar' for Ffifiar' 

(_^ w j __ | _ Wj /;. 22, 510). 


874. Tlie dialectic and poetic enclitics are given in 152, 5. For anastrophe 
in poetsy, see 146. 

875. The Lesbian Aeolic has the recessive accent in all words ; as /36XXd for 
f3ov\ri, wrAXd for wretX^, irkTa-fios for Trora/aas, &<riris for affiris, Adru for AT;TW, cro^oj 
for cro06s, XeD/cos for Xeu/c6j, rp&x vs f r r P&X l -' s i Hyuv for ^>t6, aCroy for auros, H<f>6op6a.i 
for <pda.p6ai. So monosyllables with a long vowel or diphthong are perispomena, 
as ZeOj from Z^i>j for Attic Zeyy from Zfo. But prepositions and conjunctions are 
accented as in Attic. 

876. 1. The Dorians tended to throw the accent to the ultima. Hence \ve 
have such forms as ct/u.7rAos for fi/iireXoj, OVTWS for oCrws, iravrCis for Trdcrws. 

2. The Doric -es for ets and -ev for -etv in the verb are considered long as regards 
accent ; as Afi.t\yes = afitXyeis, \tlirtv = XetTrctv. The third pers. pi. of the tenses 
of the active indie, and opt., and of the aor. pass, were paroxytone in Doric: 
4\eyov, t\6cra.v, t\df}oi>, t<f>i\d9fi>, \eyoifv, \vffaitv. 

877. Some perfect middle infinitives and participles are reces.'ively accented in 
Homer ; so eX^Xd/xevos (Acti'ipo;), iaffvfj.(vo^ (crewo), dKax^Mfos, aKa.xffii.evos, a.Ko.'x^yOa.i. 
(a.Ka.'xlfa}) d\a.\rjfj.evo$, d\d\i)ffdai (dXdo/uat). 

878. NOTE. The MSS. of Homer often show the second aor. mid. recessively 
accented, as eypeaOai ; but this is probably incorrect. 

879. The second-aorist middle imperative in -oi/(from -eo) is recessively accented 
in the dialects; as ?Xeu (Hes.) = XoO, irMeo (Her.) = irvtiov <rtv-6eo and tvffeo 
(Horn.) = ffvv-Oov and tv-6ov. 


880. Numbers. The Aeolic and New Ionic lack the dual number. It is rare 
in Doric. 

234 DIALECTS 881 



881. Aeolic and Doric. 1. Long d is retained throughout the singular; 
as yvw/xd, yvw/zds, yvw/zp, yyw/idv ; 'ArpeiSds, 'ArpeiSd, 'Arpci'Sp, 'ArpciSav. 

2. The genitive singular of masculines has d from original (also Epic, 
Boeotian) -do ; as KpoviSd, KTiVrd (Lesb. inscr.). Pindar has -d ofteuer 
than -do. 

3. The genitive plural has -oV from original -d<av, as yvoyiaV. It is 
perispomenon also in the fern, of adjectives, as veavidV, aAAav. This -av 
is used by the dramatists in the chorus and in lyric parts. 

4. The dative plural has -awri(v) in Aeolic, the Aeolic poets also have 
-cus (the article always TCUS). The Doric has -cus, Pindar often -auri. 

5. The accusative plural has -ous in Lesbian Aeolic, as KvAi'xvcus for 
KvAi^i'ds. The Cretic has the original -a-vs, as irpeiytn-dVs. 

882. NOTE. 1. Short a in nom. sing, is found occasionally in Pindar, as 
IHXXara for Att. Jle\\^vrj, very rarely in Aeolic (irpto-piffra.) ; in the voc. sing, 
rarely as Sk2 (Sappho), *cwpa (Theoc.). 

2. For 8. in the nom. sing. masc. , as iirwbTa (Horn. ), see 883, 3. 

3. The Boeotian has t\ for a anil ai in the dat. sing., and nom. and dat. pi. ; as 
yvwfj.i] (dat. sing, and nom. pi.), yixlsfir/y (dat. pi.) ; it has original do in the gen. 
sing, of masculines, as iroXtrdo. 

4. Proper names in -Xdos = Att. -Xews of the second declension have -Xds in 
Doric and follow the first ; as Me^Ads, gen. MevAd, dat. MevAa, ace. Mei/Aav. 

5. For the shortening of -as in the ace. pi. to -as, see 842. 

883. Old Ionic (Epic). 1. For d Homer has rj throughout the singular; 
(TO^I'TJ, croc^nys, cro^ty, O-O<I'TJV ; Bope?/s, dat. Bope?;, ace. BO/XTJV. Exceptions 
are $td, Naixrt/cad, ^cid, Atveids, Auyei'ds, 'Ep/xeids. 

2. Homer also has 77 for d in abstracts in -td and -oid ; as d\rj6firj, 
evTT\oir). Also in some other words, as xv&rr/ for Kvtcra. The voc. of 
vrfjufrr] is vvfufra. 

3. The nom. sing, of some masculines has -d for -775 ; as lirtroTa for 
ITTTTOTTIS, horseman, alxfJ-r/Td for CU'X/UT/T?^, spearman ; sometimes recessively 
accented, as /zr/Tiera, counsellor. Compare Latin poeta with TTOIT/TV/S. These 
forms in -d are called Aeolic, but no examples are found in the Aeolic poets 
and only two or three in inscriptions. 

4. The genitive singular of masculines in Homer has three forms : 
(a) -do, as 'Arpei&ao, iKirdo, Bo/iedo. 

(6) -co) (from -do), pronounced as one syllable ; as 'Ar/oei&w, tKerew. 
(c) -o> (contr. from -do) after vowels ; as'Ep/neuo, Bopew. 

5. The genitive plural in Homer has also three forms : 

(a) -dw, the original and most common form ; as Oedtav, of goddessw, 
K\uri(uav, of tents, dtnruTTatav, of warriors. 

(6) -av (usually one syllable) ; as TrvAewv, of gates, vavrewv, of sailors. 
(c) '<av (Attic form) after vowels ; as KAMTIWV, of tents, irapuwv, of cheeks. 

887 DIALECTS 235 

6. The dative plural in Homer has : 

(a) -r?o-i(v) or -ys ; as Oefja-i, to goddesses, 'Ar/oeiS^cri ; Trer/ays, to rocks. 

(b) -cus only in 0eais (Od. 5, 119) and d/crcus (II. 12, 284). 

7. Contracted nouns are rare ; as -yf) and youa, 'E/D/^s and 'E/3/Aeids, 

and Bo/oo/s. 

884. New Ionic (HerodotUS}. 1. Long 77 takes the place of d through- 
out the singular in words which have nom. -d in Attic ; as X"V ? ?> X 1 ^/ 37 ? 5 ' 
XW/3J7, -)(MpTf]v. Those which have -d in the nom. sing, in Attic retain -d in 
the nom., but have rj in the gen. and dat. ; as dAr/#eid, d\r)der)s y dXrjOeir], 
but d\rjdftav. Some MSS. have nominatives like dhrjOetrf, evvoir). 

2. The genitive singular of masculines has -ew, as Seo-Trdr^s, master, gen. 

, AewvioV/s, gen. AewviSeaj. After a vowel -coo becomes -w, as 
gen. 'E/D/xe-w. 

3. The accusative singular of masculines has -ea for -T\V in some words, 
as Eepe for fifp^rjv, but this is probably incorrect. 

4. The genitive plural has -ewi/ ; as rt/xry, ri/Atwv ; otKiry, otKitwv. The 
exceptions are : TWV and 5v ; barytone adjectives, participles, and pronouns, 
in -os, -f], -ov, which have the same form as the masculine : oAtywv, [^a-X ' 
[jievatv, TovTfav (but avrewv from avr^) ; those which have c before -ewv drop 
one e, as ^Aeooi/ for ^Ae-ewv. [Some give -tav in all cases.] 

5. The dative plural has -ycrt ; as yvwyu^crt, avrya-t,, AoiTryo-i. 

6. Except y^, hardly any contracted forms occur : /xvecu, /*veds, /xvewv, 
o-vKff], (rvKfTjv, etc. 


885. Aeolic and Doric, 1. The genitive singular has -to, the milder 
Doric -ov ; as Adyov = stricter Doric Ady w. The Aeolic poets sometimes 
have -oto, as fp^opevoio. Pindar has --ov and -oto. 

2. The dative plural has -oio-t in Aeolic, as KOLKOICTI ; in Aeolic poetry 
-OMT6 and -ois (the article always rots). The Doric sometimes has -owri(i') 
in poetry, but usually -ois. 

3. The accusative plural has -ois in Lesbian Aeolic, as O-TC^XXVOIS for 
<rTf<f>dvovs. The milder Doric has -ovs "as in Attic, the stricter Doric has 
-os or -os ; as Adyws for Adyovs, TWS AUKOS for TOUS AVKOVS. Boeotian 
Aeolic has -ws. Pindar has -ois ; examples of -os in Pindar are very rare 
and doubtful. 

4. Words of the Attic second declension follow the ordinary declension ; 
as vdds = Att. 

886. NOTE. 1. Late Boeotian inscriptions show v for -tf and -ot, -vs for -o ; 
as TV dd/jiv, "Ofj.T)pv for "0/j.rjpoi, rOj dXXtfs for Toty dXXou. 

2. The gen. in -wo belongs to Old Ionic, and was anciently considered Thessalian. 
Some Thessalian inscriptions have -ot (from -oio), as Z<XTI}/>OI from 2ari5/>oto = Att. 

887. Old Ionic (Homer). 1. The genitive singular has -oio or -ov ; 

236 DIALECTS 888 

as 6folo, dpyvpfoio, dAo^ov, p-rfpov. The intermediate form -oo is seen in 
the genitives Ilerewo and ilcyeAewo from He-Tews and HeveAetos of the 
Attic second declension ; it has also been traced in a few other places 
(oo = o5, //. 1, 70 ; 2, 325, etc.; see 6 below). 

2. The dative plural ends in -ori(v), less often -ots ; as otwvowri, o-ois 

3. The genitive and dative dual have -ouv for -oiv ; as w/xoav from 
to/zos, shoulder, (rraO/j-ouv from (rra^/ids, station. 

4. Contract forms are very rare ; as vovs once for vdos. 

5. The Attic second declension is very little used. For Attic Aews, 
Aayws, yews, /caAws, Homer has Ados, Aaywos, VT/OS, /caAos ; for Attic 
"A$ws, Kws, yaAtos, Homer has 'A$ows, Kdws, yaAdws. For Attic ecus, 
dawn, Homer and Herodotus have >/ws of the third dec! and declined 
like cu'Sws (249). 

6. NOTE. In tbe above-mentioned (887, 1) lines of the Iliad (1, 70 and 
2, 325), we have Sov, an inexplicable form, So would do just as well for the meter. 
In the Odyssey 10, 36 we have Al6\ov, which must be scanned - | - with the 
middle syllable lengthened ; whereas if we read AMXoo, we must scan - w w | - 
with the short syllable lengthened in arsis. In these and in some other cases, 
-oo is evidently a preferable reading to -ov. 

888. New Ionic (Herodotus). 1. The dative plural ends in -010-1, as 
Adyoicrt. The Ionic poets also have -ots. 

2. Contract forms do not occur. 

3. Some MSS. and editions of Herodotus incorrectly have cu'TeW and 
rovTfwv for the masc. and neut. pi. instead of CLVTWV and TOVTUV ; avrtioi' 
and rovTfotv are feminine. 

4. The Attic second declension is confined only to Aews and to proper 
names, as MeveAews, 'A/</>i/>ecos ; also dp^te/jews for dp\tfpfv<;. Others 
follow ordinary declension ; vryds, KaAos, Aayds. For us, dau-n, Herodotus 
has rjws as in Homer. 


889. For o6Ws, tooth, Herodotus has oSwv. For Aeolic and Doric a for 
77 (ywd, iroifjAv, etc.), see 801. , 

890. Accusative Singular. 1. The accusative singular has the ending 
-a somewhat oftener in the dialects than in Attic. 

2. So /cd/>is, helm, xbpvv twice in Horn., usually K&pvBo. (also Eur. Bocch. 1186) ; 
Kw/tui, bundle, K&pvOo. (Theoc. 4, 18) ; tirrjXvs, stranyer, has lir^Xvda in Her. 
1, 78; Wi/Xi*, newcomer, has ve^XvSa in Her. 1, 118, and vti)\w in Lucian, 
Dial. Mvrt. 18, 1 ; ?p, strife, has tpida often in Horn., with fpiv ; 6Vis, m/<//v/, 
vengeance, has 6iriSa and 6iriv in Horn. ; vijts, unskilled, vyi'da (Horn.), vrfiv (Callim.) ; 
Kvirpii has Kisrpida and Ktirpiv in Horn.; &va\Kts, cowardly, dvd\KtSa and &va\Kiv 
in Horn.; ^dXoiru, battle-din, <pv\6irt8a in Horn. Oil. 11, 314, elsewhere f>6\oirii> ; 
y\avKuirit, gleaming - eyed, y\avKAiri8a (Horn. II. 8, 373, Find. Nem. 7, 96), 
yXavKunrcv (Od. 1, 156) ; tv&irit, fair-faced, eiMiri3a (Od. 5, 113); Xfi5a(nrii, with 
white shield, \evKdffirt8a. in //. 22, 294 ; xd\Ka.airit, with brazen shield, xaXf'i<''''''5a 
(Pind. Pyth. 9, 1) ; novoKptfirlt, with one sandal, novoxp-i)irl5a. (1'ind. Pyth. 4, 73) ; 

896 DIALECTS 237 

Kdwafiis, hemp, KavvdptSa (Her. 4, 74) ; KdXjris, pitclier, Ka\iriSa (Find. 01. 6, 40) ; 
veavn, maiden, vedviSa (Aesch. Prom. 706) ; A.v\iSa twice in Eur. is from AtfXt'j ; 
UpoffuiriTida. in Time. 1, 109' 2 . 

3. Xci/xs has x<*P' several times (Her. 6, 41 ; 9, 107 ; (?) Xen. Hell. 3, 5 16 ; 
Knr. El. 61, #itf. 1378 ; 5pm lias fywlfla several times (Her. 4, 131 ; Eur. Hel. 
1109, Tp/i.. ^wZ. 607 ; Aesch. Frag. 88; Aristoph. Av. 720). 

4. Isolated examples are IxBfa (Theoc. 21, 45), and /36<x (Anthology) from 

5. As the Lesbian Aeolic accents recessively, it has v for a in nouns in -is and 
-i>s ; as y\a.p.w for x\tyU?&a, A'dtw^ti' (inscr. ). 

891. The vocative of proper names in -as, -avr-os is -av in Homer ; 
as Auls, voc. Aiav (Att. Aids). Except voc. HovXv8a/j.d and Ado8dfj.d. 

892. The genitive plural of monosyllabic stems is perispomenon in 
Doric, as mttS&v = irai'Stav ; but except rivu>v from TIS. 

893. Dative PlUral. 1. In Aeolic the dative plural has -eo-<ri, in 
poetry also -c<T(ri(v) and -cri(v) ; as 'Ap/caS-to-cri, 7ro8-eo-<riv, ^ep-<riv, 7rocr-<rt 
(from TroS-av). 

2. In Doric the dative plural has -eo-o-i(v) and the ordinary -cri(v), as 
pfv-ecro-i (Epicharra. Frag. 9). In some inscriptions we have -acro-t(v) and 
-ois ; as TrpdcrcrocT-ao-cri and \prjfj.a.Toi<s. 

3. Homer has -eo-<ri(v) often, seldom -ecri(v), -o-cri(v) sometimes after 
vowels, ordinary -cri(v) often ; as 7ro8-eo-o-t and TTOO--CTI or TTO-O-I(V) from 
7ro8-(ri, TravT-eo-o-t and Tra-o-t(v), Ki'v-ecrcrt and Kv-crt(v), jLtv^crTr/p-ccrcrt and 

and eirr-<rtv or 

4. In Herodotus we have cuTi'/z6v-(cr)o-i in all MSS. The other cases 
of -eo-i in Her. are probably incorrect, -<ri being regular. 

5. Pindar has -eoxrt oftener than -o-t ; sometimes in cr-stems -e-ecro-t. 
The Tragedians sometimes have -ecrcri metri causa. 

894. The genitive and dative dual have -ouv in Homer. So TroSouv 
eight times (Hes. once), Sei/arjvoui' twice. The nom. dual occurs several 
times in Horn, as a plural ; as dAorre (//. 5, 487). 

895. Syncopated Stems in -fp-. 1. J Ayr#> : the poets used the syn- 
copated and imsyncopated forms ; as dvep-os and dv8p6$. Horn, has dat. pi. 
dvSpdcri. and ai'Speo-vi. The a ot dvt'/p is short in Attic ; in Horn, it is long 
in dvfp-os, Avfp-t., dvep-a (avep, II. 24, 725), nom. dyr/p or dvijp ; in the 
Dramatists long only in lyric parts. 

2. LTttrryp, l^'iT^p (Dor. fj-drrip}, Ovydrijp, yaa-Ti'jp. In the poets unsyn- 
copated forms are often used. They also have other syncopated forms not 
found in Attic prose : Bvyarpa, Ovyarpes, Ovyarpwv, Ovyarpas ; iraTpwv, 
yaa-Tptiiv. Herodotus uses only the Attic prose forms. 

3. Arjp/TT;/) has the full and the syncopated forms in non-Attic poetry. 

896. Stems in -co--. 1. The Aeolic and Doric omit contraction. But 
f3f\evs from /2eA.os once in Alcaeus ; contractions also occur in the Doric 
inscriptions. The ace. sing, of adjectives in -T;S often has -i]v in Lesbian, 

238 DIALECTS 897 

as Sva-fifvijv (Sappho). Compounds of -KAojs drop one e everywhere in 
Doric, as 'ITTTTOKAC-OS. 

2. Homer usually has open forms ; often -e-i and -e-ts are contracted to 
-ei and -eis, sometimes -t-os becomes -cvs ; as rd\f'i = rd^ei, KU.TO.TT pyvti, 

from Trpjyve-es, Otpevs from Ofpe-os. 

3. In Homer KAeoS, /ame, has ace. pi. *Aea for K\eea. Compounds in 

are declined thus 'Hpa/cAe?;?, 'Hpa/cAv^-os, 'HpaKAr/-i, 'Hpa/cAvy-a, 

4. Herodotus has only open forms. In compounds in -KA;s one c is 
dropped ; as Seyaio-roKAojs, -KAeos, -/cAe^ -/<Aea, voc. Ge/juo-roKAees. 

5. The Attic poets seldom have open forms. The gen. sing, -ens from -e-os is 
seldom found in Pindar and Theocritus ; the dat. - from -ei often in Find, and 
Theoc. ; 1\ from -ea seldom in Find. 

897. Stems in -ao-- and -O.T-. 1. Nouns with stems in -cur- usually 
remain uncontracted in Homer ; but the contracted dat. sing, occurs, as 
37rcu ; and rarely the gen. pi., as Kpewv or Kpuwv. The dat pi. in Homer 
has three forms ; as SeTra-eo-o-i, 8Vao--o-iv, Kpta-cnv. The nom. and ace. 
pi. has -d instead of -aa or -a, as yepd, 8cTrd ; so KpJd rarely in Attic 

2. In Herodotus nouns with stems in -ao-- remain uncontracted, as 
yrjpas, yv/pa-os, yr/pa-i' (except K/aeas, gen. K/JCWS, pi. /cped, K/JCWV). With 
the exception of y^pas and icpeas, the a of the stem is changed to e ; as 

yepe-os, yepe-a, etc. 

3. These in -ao-- change a of the stem to e in the gen., dat, and pi.: 
/3praj, image (in Tragedy and late prose), /3/^re-oj, ftptrei, Pptrf-a and 

KUO.S, fleece, in Horn, and other poets, also Her., pi. KWC-O, /cwe-<n. 

oDSaj, threshold (Epic), otfSe-os, ofi5f-i, and oCdei. 

Kvtyas, darkness, Kvt<f>a-os (Odyssey) and /cW^oi/j (Aristoph.), dat. Kvt<t*f. (Xen.) 
and Kvitfc'i (Anthol.). 

KT^paj, possession (Horn.), Krtpta., KTfptuv, funeral gifts. 

4. Ke"pas and r^pas have no forms with T in Ionic. In Homer : ntpas, K^pai, 
Ktpa, Kcpdttiv, K^paffi and Kepdfffffi ; r^paj, r^paa, repaniiv, rfpdtffffi. In Herodotus a 
becomes e and no contraction takes place, as /c^pas, xtpe-os, ictpe-i', /c^pe-a, Ktpe-uv ; 
but he has gen. T^par-os with re'pe-os and pi. rtpar-a with rtpe-a. For Wpoj Horn. 
has wetpap, Tre/paros (238). For <ws, <^>wr-6j, Zi</A<, Horn, has <f>dos (<f>aeff-) or ^>6wj, 
dat. <J>dei, pi. (^(fea (<^>doj also in Tragedy). Doric Kp7?s = Kp&is. 

898. Stems in -co- or -o-. These are declined as in Attic. Uncontracted 
forms occur only in Pindar. In Herodotus proper names have the accusative 
in -ovv, as Ayrovv, 'lovv ; for ews, dawn, of the Attic second declension, he 
has ?}ws declined like aiScos (249). 

899. Stems in -L-. 1. In Aeolic and Doric the i of the stem is retained 
in all forms; i+i in the dative becomes t; the dative plural has -t-co-o-t, 
the accusative plural -t-as. Thus TroAis, 7roAi-os, (7roAi-i) n-oAt, iroAi-r, 
TroAt, pi. 7roAi-es, 7roAt-to^, TroAt-eo-Q-i, 7roAi-as. 

2. The Epic has the same forms as the Aeolic and Doric ; also several 
doubtful datives in -ci and -ei, a doubtful dative plural in -c-o-i, also -ts for 

902 DIALECTS 239 

-eas in the accusative plural (-eis is doubtful). Thus gen. 7roAi-os, /ATJVI-OS ; 
dat. fJL-^Tl (TroAei, TTocrfi doubtful) ; ace. 7roAi-v ; voc. ; pi. 7roAi-es, 
TroAi-wi', dat -TToAi-ecrcri (eVaA^e-o-iv, II. 22, 3), ace. 7rdAi-as, aKoiVis (TrdAets 
doubtful). IIoAis is peculiarly declined in Homer and has some forms 
from a stem TroA?;-, thus : TroAis, iroAi-o?, and often 7roA?;-os, dat. TrdAi, 
TTToAei, and TroA^-i.', ace. 7rdAi-v, pi. 7roAi-es and 7roA^-s, TroAi-wv, TroAt-ecrcri 
(TToXf-a-i is probably incorrect for TroAi <ri), ace. 7roAi-as, TroXrj-as, TrdAis ; 
TroAei (dat.) and TrdActs (ace.), found in some editions are doubtful. 

3. The New Ionic agrees with the Aeolic and Doric, besides having -is 
(from -i-vs) in the accusative plural ; as TroAts, TroAi-os, (7roAi-i) TroAi, TroAi-v, 

pi. 7ToAl-S, TToAl-toV, TToAl-CTl, TToAtS Or TToAl-aS. 

4. So also are declined most names in -is (gen. in Attic -t5-os) ; as 6Ms, 6M-oj, 
Qfn. In Homer the genitive in -t-or appears here alongside of -td-i, the dative is 
exclusively -1. SdpStes, Sardis, always has ace. ~dp5ls ; &x a P l * has dat. &x a P l (Her. 
1, 41), neut. pi. dxdpir-a (Her.). 

5. Genitives in -e-os, as 7n5Xe-os occur in Attic poetry. In Soph. O.K. 629 we 
have c& 7r6\is, TroXtj, as voc. 

6. Poetic Xfs, lion, follows the declension of ccfs (257). 

7. Adjectives of this declension are few in number, and mostly dialectic ; as 
ZSpis, knowing, Idpiv, voc. tdpt, pi. fSpiej. 

900. Stems in -u-. 1. The Aeolic has no contraction, the Doric seldom. 
Theoc. has iyOva. for l\dvv (255). 

2. Homer sometimes contracts that dat. in -vi, as Op-rjvvi ; the ace. pi. is 
open or contracted, as t'x^vas and ix^^s ; otherwise Homer has open forms. 
The gen. sing, has --os for Attic -e-ws, as acrre-os. The dat. pi. has -v-ecrcri(v), 
-IKTCTI(V), and -v-o~i(v) ; as ve/;-eo-criv, ve/ci)-crcriv, l\6i'-<rt,v. 

3. Herodotus has only open forms, the gen. is --os for Attic -e-ws, as 
TT^XVS, 7T^x "5, 5T^X***s 7r ^X v " v > 7r ' > 'lX e ~ f ' i , TT;X-(DV, 7T?y X 6 " " 1 ' ^X 6 " 618 - Those 
in -vs, gen. -v-os, usually contract the ace. pi.; as tx^S rarely l\6va<;. 

4. For adjectives in -us, -eta, -v in the dialects, and the ace. sing, evpfa and adfa, 
see 925. 

901. Stems in -ev-. 1. The New Ionic has the gen. sin</. in -e-os (for 
Attic --u>s) and has only uncontracted forms. For <ipx-i>fpfvs Herodotus 
has apx-^pfws (2, 37). 

2. In Homer we have y instead of when v is dropped ; as /2acrt- 
Aevs, /3acrtA^-os, ftaa-iXvj-'i, f3aa-i.Xyj-a J /^ao-tAry-es, /3aa-iX^-(a 

. But e often remains in proper names, as II^Ae-os, 
e-a ; rarely with contraction, as gen. Il^AeiSs, dat. IlryAei, ace. 

3. Pindar has" mostly New Ionic forms, seldom the Epic. 

4. The Boeotian and Thessalian Aeolic has et for Epic 17 as /SacrtXei-os. The 
Lesbian has -n, as J3ao-t\r)-os (Ale.); also e as ace. 'Ax^XXe-a (Att. 'Ax'XX^a). The 
Doric generally has e in inscriptions, as gen. /3cwiX^-oj j'also rj as Ifprj-'i. 

902. Stems in -av-, -ov-, -at.-. 1. FpaOj : Homer has yp-qvs and ypyfo, dat. 7^7;?, 
voc. ypyv and yp*i6 ; the gen. and ncc. are supplied by ypaia. (ypalris, ypatav). 

2. NaOj : Lesbian Aeolic has vetOs, va-oj (Ale. 19), vSX (Ale. 18), vdfffin (Ale. 79). 
Doric lias va.vs, vd-6s, vd-t, vavv, jil. vaes, 'doij', paix^ and (f-e(r(7i, i/a-a;. ^ew 
Ionic has vyd, vf-<5s, v-rj-'t, via, pi. vc-es, j/e-u))/, vr)it-<ri, v^-as. Homer has the New 

240 DIALECTS 903 

Ionic forms and also gen. vt)-fa, ace. vrj-a, pi. n. 1*77-6$, gen. vij-uv and vaO-<pi(v) 914, 
dat. vfi-tffffi, vt-effffi, va.v-<f>t(i>) 914, ace. vrj-as. 

3. BoOs: Homer has the dat. pi. jjov-ffi and ftoea-ffi(v), the ace. pl^jSoDj and /36-oy, 
the ace. sing, fiovv and once ft&v (Doric). Some of the Dorians have |3u>$, ace. pwi>, 
ace. pi. /3tSs. In Boeotian dat. pi. pov-<r<ri. 

4. XoDs, three-quart measure, has in Hippocrates and late writers fornr.3 from a 
stem x otv ~ ' g en - x^' WJ ' con ^ r - X&s, dat. xoe'i, ace. x^~ a contr. xoa., dat. pL x *" '') 
ace. pi. x^ tts contr. xas. The contracted forms occur in Aristophanes. 

5. Ots in Herodotus is it's, oY-os, etc. Homer has 6Ts, oT-oj and oi-6j, ace. 6W, pi. 
oWs (ofr Od. 9, 425), df-wi* and ol-Civ, dat. pi. or-eo-((r)i and 6-fffffi, ace. pi. 67s. Dat. 
6t also Aristophanes. 


903. Irregular declension is much more frequent in poetry and the 
dialects than in Attic prose. 

904. Heterogeneous Nouns, These are the most important: 6 Sd/cri/Xos, finger, 
TO. ddKTvXa, (Theoc. 19, 3) ; 6 Setr/ujs, fetter, dee/tot and metaplastic SeV/Mtra (Horn.), 
dffffid (Theog., Her.) ; 6 Spv/u.6s, oak-wood, TO, Spvpd (poet., Horn.) ; iraiAos, stable, 
TO. iTrai'Xa (Soph.) ; 'effwepos, evening, TO. ^a-jrepa, evening hours (Horn.) ; 0ea>i6j, lau; 
TO. Offffid (Soph. Fr., Ear.) ; T; KAeuflos, way, ictXevOot. and ictXtvOa (Horn.) ; 6 Xi^os 
/amp, ri \vxva (poet, and prose) ; 77 ir\evpd, side, TO. rrXtvpd (Ion. and poet.) ; 
6 pviros, dirt, pi. pvird (Horn.) ; 6 Tdprapoj, Tartarus, TO. 

905. Heteroclites. '0 Acpevos, wealth, ri> itptvos (Hes.) ; 7Awj, laughter ; Horn, 
has 7Aws, dat. yt\t?, ace. 7<\w, y(\ui>, (?) 7^X0^ (yeXtav also in the dramatists) ; 
fyu>5, love ; Horn, has fyv, tpov from nom. fyoj ; iSpus, sweat; Horn, has dat. I8p$, 
ace. Ibpu ; x/"^ J (XP WT ') skin, Ionic x/ 1 "^^ XP-*i XP~^ XP~ a > Mtvws (206), Honi. 
has gen. Mtvw-os, aec. M(^w-a ; Sa/jTrTJSwf, Sa/)7T7;5o'-oj, etc., or SO/JTTTT'SOPT-OS. 

906. Metaplastics. 1. The following words have one metaplastic form in 
Homer : dXxTj, strength, dat. dXK-i ; d^/cdX??, elbow, dat. pi. dytcaXiS-effcri ; dvdpd- 
iroSov, slave, dat. pi. dcS/HXTriS-etrcri ; 'At/Ti<t>dTi}s, ace. ' AvTi<f>a,T?i-a, ; rd flop, ttirnnl, 
ace. pi. masc. dop-aj ; OijprjTrjp, hunter, Oijp-frrop-as ; /WKT?, pursuit, ace. /u)c-a ; 
tX^p, lymph, ace. tx<2 (as if from (X' a ) > VIT/J.H'TI, battle, dat. vafuv-i. 

2. Hesiod has ace. spo/c-a from KP^KIJ, woof or wc/Z ; and a dat. sing. 05et from 
C5os = C8w/). Other metaplastics in 909. 

907. Double Forms. The Epic and poetic language often uses prolonged forms ; 
as ' A.0i)vaia. for 'AOijvd, llep<re^>oveta for \\fp<fe<pbvr), ffeXtjvaid ior a-fX-fivrj, moon, and 

908. Defectives. 1. These have only the nom. or ace. : rb AXicap, defense (Horn., 
Find.) ; T? apira (Hes.) for apvay/i, plunder ; rt> S^uas, body (Epic and poet.) ; TO 
(\&up or tXdup, desire (Horn.) ; TO ^5os, delight (Epic and poet.) ; Jipa. only in Jjpa 
<j>:pfiv, render a service (Horn.) ; TO fjrop, heart (Horn.) ; TO T^Kfjuap = Att. T^Kfiap, 
liound (Horn.) ; TO 8u) for du>/j.a, house (Horn., Hes. also as pi.) ; TO Kpi for KpWri, 
barley, (Horn.), and a few others. 

2. Other isolated cases are: voc. ijX^ or i?Xe^, foolish (Horn.); dat. sing, dot, 
Inttle (Horn., Hes., Aesch., Thcoc.) ; dat. pi. KTedT-T<ri, possessions (Horn.). 

3. Other defectives are in 909. 

909. The following list contains the' most important irregular nouns in the 
dialects. But double forms and those already mentioned ure not given. 

1. "AtSrjs, "AiSov, etc. (Attic). "Al'dris (Horn.), gen. 'Ai'Sdo and 'A'tSew, etc.; gen. 
also " Ai'S-os (Horn., Hes., Aesch., Soph.), dat. "Aid-i (Horn.), ace. *Ai'5-a (Aristoph.) 
Also nom. 'Ai'Suvth (Horn., Aesch., Soph.), dat. 'A'iSuvij-i (Horn.), both rare. 

909 DIALECTS 241 

2. A.ld(o<t>, Aftheopian, Horn., ace. pi. AZ0t'oir-as and Al6ioiri)-a.s. 

3. 6 &va, lord or master, &VO.KT-OS, etc. ; voc. &va (but poet. &va in addressing a 

4. "ApTis, Horn. *A/>?7-os and" Ape-oy, "Ap7?-i and 'Apet, ace. "Aprj-a. 

5. Yripvovrjs, gen. -on, Hes. dat. Ytipvovrj-'i, ace. r^ptwij-a and Yrjpvovea. 

6. rd yon;, ?te, ybvar-os, etc. Ionic and poetic yovvar-os, yovvar-i, yofoar-a, 
yovvar-uv, yovva-ffi. Epic also yovv-fa, yovv-i, yovv-a, yovv-uv, yotiv-effffi. 

7. TO d^vdpov, tree, Ionic and poetic oevopeov ; Her. TO devdpos, dat. pi. devSpefft ; 
dat. sing. SevSpei (Hippocrates). 

8. TO dfos, fear, Se'ous, etc. ; Horn. gen. Setoi/j. 

9. TO Sopv, spear, 56/>ar-os, etc. Ionic and poetic Sotipar-os, do6pa.T-i, dovpa,T-a, 
SovpdT-uv, datpa-tri. Epic also 5ovp-6s, Sovp-i, dovpa, Sotipwv, dotipaffc, dovpe. Poetic 
5op-6s, Sopi. 

10. TO. ZyicaTa, boivcls, and dat. pi. tyKa<ri (Horn.). 

11. Zetfs : the poets have Auk and ZT/V-OS, Au and Zyv-l, ace. Ai'a and Zyv-a. 
Pindar has Af for Att ; a Boeotian nom. Aei/j (Aristoph. Ach. 911). 

12. 6 V^X y ) charioteer, -ov, etc. ; Horn, also TIVLOXTJ-O- and ^vtox^-eJ. 

13. r> <?^MS, justice, 8f/tud-os, etc. (Attic) ; Hoin. Of/nivr-os, Find. 8t HIT-OS, Her. 

14. ri Kapd, Aw, poetic word. For Attic forms see 283, 12. These forms in 
Horn, and Hes. : nom. Kaprj, gen. KiiprjT-os, /capTjar-oj, Kpda.T-os, /c/sdr-os ; dat. Kap-rjT-i, 
Ko.p-rja.T-t, Kpda.T-i, KpdT-i \ ace. Kdpt] ; pi. /cetpd (Horn. Hym. Cer. 12), Ka.pria.T- a, 
Kpda.T-a. ; gen. pi. KpdT-wv ; dat. Kpa-a-i ; also nom. and ace. pi. Kaprjva, gen. KapT)vwv. 
Add to these &rl /rdp, headlong (II. 16, 392), and dat. sing. KpdTe<r-<f>iv (11. 10, 156) 
from a stem /cpdrea-. ~K.p3.Ta. (Od. 8, 92) is considered by some an ace. masc., by 
others a neut. pi. 

15. i) AcXet's, key, Attic /c\ei5-6s, etc. ; Ionic K\rf(s, ace. K\7]iSa ; Doric /cXdts, some- 
times /rXof, K\q.K-6s. 

16. 6, rj Koivuv-bs, partaker, Pindar Koivdv, KOLVO.V-OS, etc. 

17. TO Kpivov, lily, Kplvov, etc. ; Her. pi. Kplvea ; dat. pi. Kpiveffi in Aristoph. 
AM&. 911. 

18. 6 KVKe&v, mixed drink, ace. sing. Horn. /cf/cetD and KVKCIU. 

19. 6 Xfij, stone (Horn.), see 283, 15. 

20. 6 \twv, lion, X&WT-OS, etc., dat. pi. Horn, usually Xei'own. 

21. Xi/8-, fern, stem, libation, Xi/3-6s and Xi/3-a in Aesch. 

22. \iira, fat, oil (Hippocrates); Horn, always XITT' with i\altf, olive-oil: thus 
XiV t'Xaiui, richly with olive-oil. Perhaps XiV is for Xnr-, but it seems to be used 

23. XtT-, masc. stem, linen, Horn. dat. XtT-, ace. XZV-a. 

24. 6, ri fj.dpTvs, witness (283, 18) ; Horn, always /MpTvpos of the 2nd decl. 

25. ^ /x.d<rri, whip, fj.d<TT?y-os, etc. ; Horn. dat. ndffTi, ace. /j.dffTtv. 

26. 6 /ieis, nom. Ionic, poetic (also old Attic) for 6 /u.^, month. 

27. Oidiirovs (see 283, 21) ; gen. Horn. OlSiiroSao, Her. Oldnrbdew. 

28. 6, i) 6pvl$, bird (see 283, 24). Her. has Attic forms, ace. 6pvli> and 6pvWa. 
Doric gen. 6pvlx-oi, 6pvl%-i, etc. 

29. TO o5s, ear (see 283, 25) ; Doric &j (Theoc.) ; Horn. gen. otfctT-os, 
ofia-cri and u-ffi once. 

30. 6 8x os i chariot, not in Homer ; he has Td ix eo > chariot, ox^w, 6x fff '0 { 

31. ndT/xwcXoj lias in Horn., besides the regular forms, also gen. 
ace. IlaTpoKX^-o, voc. IlaT/wcXeis. 

32. TO ir\Tj6os, multitude; Horn, has only dat. TrXTjflei' and irXtfOei ; for it he 
has ^ TT\r)Ofa (Epic niul late) declined like IX^M. 

33. irptfffivs, old man, see 283, 28 ; nom. pi. Hes. irper/3^-ej (as if from stem 
irpe<rj3ev-) ; ace. pi. irp^r/Jtaj (Her.). 

34. T6 irpoffUTrov, face, regular ; also pi. irpoffuiraTa and irpoffdirafft, in Horn. 


242 DIALECTS 910 

35. TTTVX-, fern, stem, fold ; gen. irri/x-fo, etc. ; ace. Trri'x-a also Eur. Otherwise 
rrvx"^ (not in Horn.). 

36. r6 <rir^os or criretos, cave (Epic) ; o-iretoi-s, ffirrj-i, trireiuv, trirfoffi or <nr^e<r0-(. 

37. ffrtX't feni. stem, rwo (poetic), (mx-6s, <m'x-> <rrtx-as. 

38. 6 uioj, son ; see 283, 37. In Herodotus only of the 2nd decl. In Epic 
poetry these forms occur : vl6s, gen. vlov, vttos, often flos ; dat. vK, vltt ; ace. vl6v, 
via, vlea once in Horn. ; Voc. vtt ; dual vie ; pi. i>fcj, ui&s ; gen. UN? ; dat. vioiffi, 
vldffi ; ace. vlas, I'Jf'aj, uietj. 

39. rd 0aos, see 237. 

40. ^ xP> AwA see 283, 39. 

41. rb x/* w *) or T Xpf J (XP" oy )> <&W> see 283, 40. 

42. 6 XP^ J > sA,v'w, in Ionic is declined \po-bs, xpo-i, xp^- a - Horn, also rarely 
Xpwr-6s and xpuir-a. 


910. The local endings -Qi, -Otv, -Se (284) are more frequently used in Homer 
than in prose. In other poetry forms unknown to Attic prose also occur. 

911. The ending -Oi is little used ; as Kopiv660i, at Corinth (Horn.), o!Vco0i, 
at home (Horn.); rarely as a gen. governed by a following wpo in Homer, as 

I\t6-0i irpb, before Ilium. 

912. 1. The ending -dev is more frequent ; as K\iffir)6ei>, from Ihchut (Horn.) ; 
ovpavbOev, from heaven (Horn.); "ISyOfv, from Ida (Horn.); r)w6ei> (Att. twOfv), 
in the morning; Qfddev, from a god (Horn., Find., Tragedy); dypoOev, from the 
country (Eur.) ; veoffev, aneiv, from ^os (Soph.). 

2. Occasionally in Homer the form in -6ev is governed by a preposition as a 
genitive ; as dirii ovpavodev, from heaven ; it- A.lffvfj.i}6ev, from Aesyme ; so (card upTJOtv, 
from the head, dowmcard (Hes.). 

3. For -Oev in the pronouns, see 950. 

913. 1. The ending -de is the most frequent in Homer ; as 9i)/3do-5e, to Thebes ; 
AtyinrTovdf, to Aegypt ; oiKovSe, homeward; trbXivde, to the city ; rj/jjertpovSe, to our 
house; <f>&ucrdt, to the light; jro\e/x6'5e, to battle /doubled in ovde dopovSe, to his 

2. Peculiar forms are <f>uya.-8f, to flight; "AXS6ff-Se, to (the home of) Hades ; tp&fr 
and xi/iff i to earth ; Ovpafe, to the door (32). 


914. The Epic language has the case-ending -<i before consonants and 
-<f>iv before vowels, added to words of all the declensions, and serving -as a 
genitive or dative both singular and plural. 

915. 1. In the first declension it is always singular; as KerfxtXrj-fav, 
from the head; e evvfj-<f>iv, from the couch; /3iYj-<f>i, with violence; rjvopti]-<f>i 
irtiroiOtos, trusting to his prowess. 

2. In the second declension ; as 2 IAto-0i, of Ilium; air iKpicxfiiv, from 
the deck-beams (deck). 

3. In the third declension nearly always plural ; as KO.T cy>r-<t, doum 
the mountains ; irapa vav-(f>i, by the ships ; oxo--^>iv dyaAXo/ztvos, delighting 
in the chariot. Irregularly gen. sing, in euro Kpa.Tf<r-<f>L, from the head 
(909, 14). 

:925 DIALECTS 243 

916. NOTE. With a noun expressing a person, only in 0e6-<f>iv. 

917. NOTE. 1. This formation is rare with adjectives and pronouns ; as M 
8e!-i6-(/>i.v, on the right ; fj-<f>i /3/7?-0t iriQ-qaa-s, trusting to his strength. 

2. Very rarely it is adverbial ; as 06pr)-<f>ii>, out of doors. 


918. 1. The Ionic has -77 for d in the feminine ; evi?7 for evid, a.i<r\pr) 
for alo-xpd (805, 815). 

2. But Homer has Sia feminine of Sibs, divine. 

3. For the Doric and Aeolic genitive plural in -a?, see 881, 3. 

919. Adjectives in -os, -77 or -a, -ov, often have -os for the feminine in 
poetry ; as rj o^Aos (Eur.), r} TrjAiKoirros (Soph.), 1} K\VTOS (Horn.). 

920. Compounds in -os, -ov, sometimes have a feminine form in -77 or -a 
in poetry, especially in Homer ; as a-Oavdrrj (Horn.), a-o-/3eo-T?i, unquenchable 
(Horn.), tV-aAid, in the sea (Tragedy). 

!921. Contract adjectives in -eos and -oos remain open in the dialects. 
In Homer contract forms are seldom found ; as x et A t( Wovs, flooded inth 
winter snow. Open forms are generally found in Tragedy, in Comedy only 
in choral parts. 

922. 1. Adjectives in -o>s, -wv (298) are uncommon in Homer and 

2. For YAews, gracious, Homer has fAaos (also in Attic poetry). For 
-TrAews, full, Homer has TrAeios, TrAetTj, TrAetov ; Herodotus TrAtos, irXfij, 
TrXfov (also rare in Eur.). With ayvJ/Dcos, ageless, Homer has dyr/paos. 
With o>os, for), foov, living, he has also nom. sing, {ws, ace. ^wv. Of crws, 
safe, Horn, and Her. have only this form, with o-dos, croij, croov. The 
compar. of crws (from original cra-os), o-awrc/aos (II. 1, 32 ; Xen. Cyr. 
6, 3*). 

923. 1. Adjectives in -775, -cs (gen. -c-os) remain uncontracted in the 
dialects. The accusative plural masculine and feminine has -e-as ; as jrepi- 

= Att. Tre/aiSeeis, very timid. 

2. Homer sometimes contracts -ei' to -ct and -e-es to -eis ; as /caraTrpyivet, 
Compare also 924. 

924. NOTE. 1. Homer rarely contracts -ee- of the stem ; as Ivppeios for tvppttos, 
^u/cXetaj for euK\t(as. 

2. Attic forms like d(c\ea and tvSftii from dfcXeea and tvdeta are found in Herodotus ; 
but they should probably be written d/cXe'a and ^cSea, with one e of the stem dropped 
as in 'H/HiKXea. 

925. 1. Adjectives in -vs have the feminine in -ect, -075, #, -av, etc., 
in Herodotus. The Doric has -ea, but Pindar always -eta. Homer generally 
has -eia, -1775, -fiy, -flav ; rarely -ea or -er;, -er/s, etc. ; as (i/cea for wKeta, 
jSa&'ris for ySa^etr/?, /3aOfav for /3a0etav. The contracted forms remain 
open in Homer and Herodotus. 

244 DIALECTS 926 

2. The form in -i* is rarely feminine in poetry ; as ijSh (Od. 12, 369), 6fj\vs 
(Homer, Tragedy). 

3. The accusative singular masculine rarely has -ea for -vv in evpta irbvrov and 
ivpta. ic6\*oi> (Horn.) and atita. for i)8vi> in Theoc. Hesiod has a neuter plural 6$(ia 
for 6<?a (Scut. He*. 348). 

4. The Epic adjective ^0j = )caX6s or dyaOh, is thus declined ; ^0$ or 176* (neutt-r 
it or rid mostly as adverb)', gen. f7?os, ace. tfo or ij&v, gen. pi. eduv, of good things. 

"26. 1. Adjectives in -eis, -effca, -ev are frequent in poetry. Those in -i)ciy 
(Doric -deis) and -6ej are sometimes contracted ; as Tt/n}t (Horn.), rl^avra. (Theoc.) ; 
dpydi'Ta. (Find.), irTtpovvra. (Aesch.). Herodotus has uncontracted forms. 

2. For -6s Homer has -u>s after a long syllable ; as xi/ruieis. 

3. With names of places, the endings -6eis and -ifctj are also used as feminities, 
especially in Homer. 

927. For AiAdj and rdXds, Lesbian Aeolic has /iAcuj and rdXeuj (840, I). 

928. Homer has a number of feminine adjectives which have no corresponding 
masculine forms : irorvia., revered, voc. also icbrrva. ; lo-x^aipa, arrow-showering ; 
ev-Trar^peia, of noble father ; dvri-dvtipa, match for men ; fiwri-avfipa, nourishing 
heroes; nvSi-dveipa, man-ennobling ; dfipifjio-irdrpri, of mighty fa tfier ; iro(v)\v-/3&Tfipa, 
much-nourishing ; liriro - Sdaeia, thick with horse-hair ; Adxa. small (compare 
tKdffffw an<l f\dx-i<rros) ; several in -S&reipa, and others; 0d\a, rich, has a 
corresponding neut. pi. 0d\ea. 

929. Homer has also some feminines corresponding irregularly to masculines : 
Oovpts, impetuous (inasc. 0oOpos) ; iriupa., fat (iriwv) ; irptfffla and Trp^ffjiapa, honoured 
(irptffpvs) ; rrp6<f>pa<rffa, cheerful (irp6<f>puif) ; x a ^ KO ~P<*P fta ; heavy with brass (XXKO- 
^apijj) ; ripi-yfrfia, early-born (-fipt-yevfy) ; plural only Oapfial, croioded, and rap<f>fia.i, 
fre-qucnt (^aya^ej, rap^ej) ; so also /xcu-cupa (Find.), blessed (/idKap) ; ^5u-^iro (Hes.), 
sweet- speaking (^ov-fir/is). In Homer fyi-ijpos, faithful, has the pi. epi-ripes. 

930. The poets (esp. Horn. ) have some defective adjectives appearing in one or 
more cases, but lacking the nominative singular; as Ka.\\i-yi'va.i.K-ot (gen.), famous 
for fair women (Sappho), /caXXi-7iWtK-i (dat.) in Fiud., KoXXi-7iWiK-a (ace.) in. 

931. 1. IIoXi/j in Homer has these forms : ?roXX<5s, vo\\-/i, wo\\6v declined 
throughout like (ro<^>6s (but iro\\ov does not occur) : also iroXi'/s or iroi'Xi'j (neut. iro\v 
and iroi'Xi') ; gen. 7roX^-oj, ace. woXw and TrouX^ (also fern.) ; pi. ?roXf-j or iroXetj, 
gen. TroXe-wv, dat. ToXe'-eerffi(j') or Tro\t-crffi(v) or iro\4-ffi(v) ; ace. iroXe-aj. 

2. Herodotus has iroXXds, TroXX??, iro\\6v. 

3. Pindar also has iroXXis and iro\i'/s, iroXX6^ and iro\v, gen. pi. iroXXwi', fem. 
XXav, dat. iro\c<nv and TroXXots, ace. pi. TroXeis. Similarly Theocritus. 

4. The Attic poets occasionally have Epic forms ; as neut. pi. iroXt'o. (not in 
Horn., Aesch. Ag. 723), iro\twv (Eur. Hel. 1332), voXeffiv (Eur. Iph. Taur. 1264), 
iro\\6v (Soph. Ant. 86). 

932. npaoj does not occur in Homer and Hesiod. Pindar has Trpdfa, irpdO ; 
Herodotus has irpiifa, irpi)6, and a comparative trpy'toTtpos. 

933. 1. In Aeolic the participles have -oura for -oi-o-a, -at? and -awra 
for -as and -oo-a (840, 1) ; as irveoura. for Trveowra, XiTrowra for AiTroro-a, 
Soio-a for Sowra, reAecrais for TeA.O-us, Qptyaura for Bptyaxra. All these 
also in Pindar ; -oura also in Theocritus. 

2. Other dialectic peculiarities in participles are mentioned under the verb. 

944 DIALECTS 245 


934. Most adjectives are compared also in the dialects by means of the 
endings -re/ao? and -raros. 

935. XOTE. The ending -os is used as fern, in 6\ouraros 6S^ (Od. 4, 442) and 
in irpwriffTov diruTnfjv (Hymn ffom. 2, 157). 

936. Adjectives in -os occasionally have -ti-repos and -ti-raros after a long vowel 
in Homer, and after a mute and a liquid in Attic poetry ; as <5i'fiipu>repos and 6i'fi~pu>- 
TO.TOS (Od. 5, 105, II. 17, 446), 6ivpos, wretched; 8vffiroT/j.uTepos (Eur. Phoen. 1348), 
more unlucky ; papviror/j-wraros, most ill-fated (Eur. Phoen. 1345). 

937. In Herodotus adjectives in -eos and -T/i'os have -6-repos and -6-raros like the 
corresponding Attic adjectives in -eios ; as e7rtr^5eos (Attic eTrn-iySeios), serviceable, 
eTriTT/Seo-repos, ^TrtTTjSeo-TttTOS ; di^pTjibs (Attic dvSpeios), manly, dvopijio-repos, dvoprfio- 

93o. For -repos and -raroj, we find -earepos and -eo-Taros : in Her. ffirovSai- 
^crrepos (also ffirovdai-orepos) and ffirovSai-fffTaros from cr7roi)5cuos, serious, excellent ; 
djuop^-ecrraTos from d/iop<os, mis-shapen; iryiT/p-eVraros (also vynrjp-oTaros) from 
vyi-r]p6s, wholesome ; in Pindar d^ov-eer-repos (01. 2, 68), from S.ITOVOS, without toil; 
aiSoi-fffTdTos, 01. 3, 42 (with aidoi-braros), from aidoios, august. 

939. Observe these peculiar forms: &x a P l *> graceless, dxapt'o-repos (Horn.); 
Metros, middle, sup. Aief<r)craTos (poet.); v^os, nctf, superl. } veaTos (Epic also yeiaros), 
^6 j < in place, novissimus (Horn., Trag. ) ; ift/s, straight, Wvvrara (Horn.) ; $aeic6s, 
shining, (ftativbrtpos and (f>a.dvTa.Tos (Horn.). 

940. The superlative ending -aroj, as in v^aroj, occurs also in poetic fara-ros, 
suprcmus (later used also of the Roman consul), and in &rxttToy (prose), last, 

941. These poetic (chiefly Homeric) adjectives have comparative form, but 
positive meaning : aypb-repos, wild (belonging to the country), <5p^<r-repoj, living in 
the mountains, Sefi-repos, rigid, dexter, 0T)\v-Tepos, feminine, and perhaps Oewrepos, 
belonging to the gods (0e<5y, god). 

942. 1. Comparison by -twv and -MTTOS is more frequent in poetry than 
in prose. In Epic and Doric poetry -iwv has short -I. 

2. These occur: flaMs, deep, fiaOluv (Tyrt., Theoc.), /Wtfioros (Horn.); /SpaSi's, 
slow, fipadiwv (Hes.) and ftpaaauv (Horn.), /3pd5t(rros (Aristoph. Fr.) and jSdpStffTos 
(Horn., Theoc.) ; /3pax^s, short, ^pdxrTos (Find., Soph., Aristoph.) ; -yXwctfs, sweet, 
-/XvKiuv (Horn., Theoc.) ; ^Xf-yx^ es > pl-> infamous, {ktyxpmt (Horn.) ; Ki"5p6y, glorious, 
Kvdluv (Eur.), icy&crros (Horn., Aesch.); /xa/cpoy, long, fj.dff<ruv (poetic since Horn.), 
JUTJKKTTOS and Dor. /xa/cioros (poetic since Horn.) ; of/crp6s, pitiable, OIKTHTTOS (Horn.) ; 
Tract's, thick, irdffcruv (Horn.) and iraxiuv (Aratus), Trdxtfroj (Horn.) ; <f>t\os, dear, 
<t>i\i(j)v (poetic), </>/\icrros (Soph.) ; WKUS, quick, <&Ki(rroj (Horn, and other poets). 

943. NOTE. For Odvffuv Her. lias Taxt'repos, also 6dffffov ; Find, has 
for raxwToj, ^x.^P^ TaT0 ^ (also Soph.) for ^xflioros. 

944. Irregular Comparison. 1. dyaftk : a comparative d/Ltetvirepos for 

in Mimnermus ; com par. dpetuv poetic, and dpei6Tepo$ (Theogn.) ; Her. and Doric 
Kptffcruv for cpe iff a <av, Horn, /cdprtcrros for Kpdno-Tos, Horn, positive KporiJj ; Horn. 
Xc6iwi> ami Xwfrepos for \ipwv (a jmsitive Xwios in Theogn. and Theoc.) : com par. 
/SArepos (Horn., Aesch.), sup. /SAraTos (Aesch.); compar. ^^prepos (poetic since 
Horn.), sup. ^praroy (Horn., Hes., Find.) and <^ptoTos (Epic) voc. w Qtpiare also in 
Tragedy and even iu prose. 

246 DIALECTS 945- 

2. Ka/t6y : compar. *cacwrepoj (Horn., Theoc.); compar. x f P f ^ uv (Horn., Theoc.), 
Xfipbrepos and xtpfiorepos (Horn.). Horn, has these defective compar. forms: dat. 
sing, "xtpifi, ace. sing, x^prja, pi. x^"? s > neut. x^"7 a or X^P fia - Her. uas compar. 
tffffuv for fj<r<rw'. 

3. /i^yas : compar. pt<av in Her. and Dor. 

4. /iucpis and dXfyos : superl. peiffTos in Bion, compar. &\lfav in Horn. 

5. iroXvs : Her. often' contracts eo to ev, as irXAw to ir\fvv, irXeofos to TrXeOvoj 
(adv. w\e6vus). Horn, also has nom. pi. irX^es and ace. pi. TrXeas. 

6. pq.5ios : Ionic prftdios ; compar. p-rjtrepos (Epic), pr/repos (Theogn.), pyrepos 
(Find.) ; superl. p^raros and /bjioros (Horn.), paurros (Theoc.). 

7. iriirwv, rip, and Wow, /o : the compar. and superl. of these do not seem to 
occur in Attic prose ; but in poetry and late prose they have Trewairepos and ireTrat- 
Taros, irl(>Tfpos and irtiraros. 

945. Defective Comparison. 1. These comparatives and superlatives are from 
the stems of adverbs or prepositions : vdpoidev, before, irapot-repoj, one in front 
(Horn.); 6iri.ffOei>, behind, 6irlffTO.TO*, postremus (Horn.); &vw, upward, dvuraros, 
supreme (Her.); dyxov, &yxi, near, d.yx^ Tf P^ (Her.), &yx iffTO * (poetic); H<f>ap, 
forthwith, d<pdpTtpos (Horn.) ; w^pp, beyond, irepairepos (Find.) ; 5.<raov, nearer, 
tiraffffurepos (Horn.). Here belongs also poetic a-i/yiuiToj, last. For ftrraroj, last, 
Homer also has vffrdnos, and with the same meaning Sfisraros, a superl. of Sevrtpos, 

2. Some poetic comparatives and superlatives are derived from nouns : /3a<riXfi/j, 
king, /3a<nXei>repoj, more kingly, and /3a<rtXei/raTOj, most kingly (Horn.); Kovpos, 
youth, Kovp&repos, more youthful (Horn.) ; KIJUV, dog, Kforepos, most dog-like or 
impudent, KtjvraTos (Horn.) ; tiir\ov, weapon (?), oirXdrepos and OTrXiraToj, more (most) 
youtiiful (Horn.); /c^pSoj, gain, icepSiwv, more gainful, tctpdiffros (Horn.); O^oj, 
height, v\//iuv, higJier (Find.) and vif/lrepos (Theoc.), (tyaoros (poet., not in Horn.) ; 
pT-yos, cold, plyiwv, more dreadful, piyiffros (Horn.) ; pvxfa, farthest part, /j.vxolTaros, 
inmost (Horn.) ; and several other rare cases. In the first three examples, the noun 
(/foffiXetfs, Koupos, Kixav) may be considered the positive. 

946. A strengthened superlative is irpwrioros, first of all, chiefest (Horn., Attic 
arama) ; a strengthened comic comparative irporepairfpoy, very long before, occurs in, 
Aristoph. Eq. 1165. 


947. For e&, well, Homer often has ^0. 

948. "E(cay (in Attic prose only positive), tKaffrtpu (Horn.), txaffrdru (Horn., 

Her.); d-yx 1 or &yxv> near, iffffov (poetic, Her.) and dffffortpu (Horn.), 
(Horn., Her., Find.) and dyxordru (Horn.) ; njXoO or rfjKe, far, -n/Xordrw (Horn.). 


949. 1. For 17 Aeolic and Doric d (Lesbian a, 6 for o) ; for TOV Lesb. 
and Boeot. Aeolic, and stricter Doric TW ; Homer has TOIO ; for TT/S Aeol. 
and Dor. ras (also in Tragic chorus) ; for T~Q Aeol. and Dor. T (Boeot ral 
and TV/) ; for TT/V AeoL and Dor. rav. 

2. For 01 Doric rot, also Horn. ; Lesb. Aeol. 01 ; for at Dor. rat, also 
Horn. ; Lesb. ai ; for TWV AeoL and Dor. rav, Horn. TOUOV ; for TOIS and 
rai? poetic Toio-t(v) and Taio-t(v) ; Horn, rpri and rys, rarely Tor8(o-)cri ; 

953 DIALECTS 247 

for TOVS Boeot. AeoL, stricter Dor. TWS, Lesb. AeoL rot?. Herodotus has 
Towrt and rrja-i. 

3. No dual forms in Dor. or AeoL ; Horn. TW and rol'iv. 

4. For 01 p.fv, ol Se, the Tragedians sometimes have TOI /ACV, rol Se. 
For the article as a demonstrative, see the Syntax. See also the relative 
o's (959). 



NOTE. A very few rare forms found only on inscriptions or in the grammarians 
are omitted. For enclitics, see 152, 5 and 6. 

950. Old and New Ionic, In the following table forms not enclosed 
in ( ) belong to Herodotus as well as to Homer. 


N. l-y** (^y<&0 o"v (rVvrj) 

6. tfJLe'o, i[Ltv, (J-eu cre'o. <rv (e'o) v 

((fjieio, e/j.t0ei>) (ffeio, crtQev) (elo, 'fOfv, eov, toTo) 

D. (>, <ro, roC (reiV) ol (foi), (tv ai)r<p = si&i ipst, 

Hes. Fr. 204), (<r<#) 
A. i4 i^ <r^ *, Jifv 

N. A. (N. vui, A. j/wi', vc6) (ff<j>wi, er0w) A. (fffiut, cr<p<a\ (<7<f><i>) 

G.D. (i><D'iV) (ff^xIitV, cr<f>wv) (D. ff<t>uiv) 


N. TJ|icis (iJ/x/afj) vjxtis (tf^es) [cr^e?? not in Hotn.] 

G. f|(Xiov (i)fj.elwi>) \)|ia)v (O^.e(wj') (r<|>av (aQeiuv) 

D. 'HK'^ V (^MA") vjtiv (f/u.A") r<j>cri, cr<f>i(v) 

A. Tjfxt'as (<SjU/ue) vp.ta$ (f/tt/u.e) <rq>cas ((r</)as, <r^) 

[<r<^ea neut. not in Horn.] 

951. NOTE. Forms with d/tt/n- nnd fyiju- are Lesbian Aeolic. 'Eyci? is used 
before vowels. Toi is enclitic. For dialectic forms used in Tragedy, see 370, 2. 

952. Doric. 'E^civ and ^-yii ; ^/cxe'os, i(J.ovs, ^/xeC, ^ju.0> M^, /teO, tptOfv, 
fj.e6^v, Tarent. ^uio and ^/x/w(s) and ^twy ; ^UP and /to( ; d. vw'i, v&'Cv ; pi. d/u^j, 
o-ntuv, afjitv, apt. Ttf and TVJ'')? for o-y ; rto, T^OJ, reoOj. reOs, rev, reov, Tarent. rlos 
and TIW(J) ; roi, rfv (for trot) ; T^, Ti5 (encl.) for <re ; pi. i'/u.^y, v/j.(uv,, vfj^. Doric 
has lv for o?; vlv as masc. or fem. sing, (also pi. in Pindar and Tragedy) ; ^ and 
fffe. Of these Pindar has tyuv, TV, <rol, rlv. 

953. Aeolic. 1. (Lesbian}: tywv and ?>w; tutOev (Sapph.) for ^oO ; d>yu for 
Vs 5 dW" (Ale., Sapph.) for ^/ttv ; &nfj.e (Sapph., Theoc.) for r) Tu and ffv ; 
atOev (Sapph.) for <roC ; 0/u/ues (Sapj)h.) ; vfj-f^wv (Ale.); tyijiu (Sapph.) ; f/itMf (Ale., 
Theoc.). f^ev (Ale.) for oC ; fot (Sapph.) ; A<r<f>i (Sapph.) = <r<t>l<ri ; &<T<f>t (Ale.) = 

2. Of these Pindar has, &fj.fu, &, fifJ-fu, 

3. (Boeotian) : 'Itivya (Corinna) ; ^oOj (Cor.) for tpov ; vwe (Cor.) for vi!>. 
(Cor.) for ffv ; reovs (Cor.) for cov ; rlv (Cor.) for trot ; oi)/i^j (Cor.) ; ovfiluv (Cor.). 

248 DIALECTS 954 


954. 1. Homer has the two pronouns separated ; as e/i a.bria>, t avr6v, 

2. Herodotus has intwvrov, etc., ffeiavrov, euvrov. 

3. The Doric has avr&s avrov, as airroiffcv aurotfs (Epicharm. 97), avrbs atrr6v = 
Lvrov (Epicharm. 132) ; also avroffavrov, avTOffavras, etc. (inscr.) ; and OLVTCLVTOV, 

afrravras, etc. ; all used for all three persons. 


955. 1. 'E/i6s : Lesbian Aeolic /uos. 26s: Doric -re6s ; Lesb. Aeol. T^OJ and 
<r6j (Boeotian rtos) ; Homeric refa, -77, -bv, and <r6s (r6s also in Tragedy). 'Os : 
Horn. 3s and e6s (also Pindar). 'H/^repoj : Doric a^Ttpos (a/t6s inscr.) ; Lesb. Aeol. and d/i/u^repos (Boeotian a^os) ; Horn. ijfj.frepos and a/i6s (also in Tragedy, some- 
times written d/iis). ^T/u^repot : Doric and Horn, ufitrepos and f/uos (also Pindar) ; 
Lesb. Aeol. S^repos : Dor. and Horn. <r^repos and crc/ws (once in Find.); 
Lesb. Aeol. ff<f>6s. 

2. Add to the above Homeric vutrtpos and <r0wtrepos, o/"a both, of you both. 

956. NOTE. Alcman has 0-^6$ and ff<(>t6s = 5s. Z^eVepos and <r^>6s are some- 
times used for 5s in poetry. 'E6s rarely occurs for <r<pTfpos. The vocative of ^u<$s 
is >6s. 


957. 1. "O8e follows the dialectic peculiarities of the article throughout. 

2. For Keivos, the Lesbian Aeolic has K^VOS ; the stricter Doric has 
Krjvos, the milder KCIVOS. Keivos is Ionic and poetic. The Dorians have 
for this pronoun also -nyi'os, T?/va, rrjvo ; also roo-o-r/vos = TOCTOUTOS (Theoc.). 

3. For TOCTOS the Epic, Doric, and Lesbian Aeolic have ToVcros. 


958. 1. The pronoun TI'S has in Ionic reo and TCU for TIVOS, rey for 
TI'VI, Tttuv for Tivtav, Tfouri for TMTI ; these forms also for the enclitic TOV, 
T(f, etc. 

For aTTa the Ionic has aoxra (not to be confounded with ao-o-a). 

2. Lesbian Aeolic has, besides the ordinary forms, TI'O> for TI'VI, and 
rtourtv for ruriv (Sapph.). 

3. IIoo-os in Epic, Doric, and Lesbian is TTOO-CTOS. 

4. Herodotus has K- for ir- in interrogative and indefinite pronouns and 
adverbs ] as KOCTOS, KOIOS, KOTC/OOS, KOV, KOTC, etc. 


959. "Os. 1. Homer sometimes has o for os, oou (oo, 887) for or, and 
(rjs for ijs. He sometimes uses the r-forms of the article for the relative ; 
this also occurs in Tragedy. For examples, see the Syntax. 


2. Herodotus uses os, 17, OL, a". For the other cases he uses the article 
(TO, TOV, TTJS, T(J>, etc.) ; except after an elided preposition, as O.TT &v, 81 ov ; 
and in certain conjunctional expressions, as ev w, u-hile, es o (eu>s ov, ax/ 31 

3. In Doric and Aeolic the r-forms of the article are occasionally found 
as relative. 

4. For 05 demonstrative, see the Syntax. 

960. "Oo-ris. 1. Homer has these peculiar forms : OTIS with OOTIS ; 
o TTI with o TI ; gen. orev, OTTCO, orrfv, with OUTIVOS ; dat. OTCO) ; ace. onva 
with ovTiva ; gen. pi. OTCWV ; dat. pi. oTeouri ; ace. pi. oYivas with owTivas. 
He has ao-o-a for aTTa. Lesbian has OTTI and OTTIVO.S. 

2. Herodotus uses oVeu, oVew, 6'rewv, OTtOMTi, and aoxra. 

961. 1. "Oo-o? and OTTOO-O? have O-Q- in Doric and Lesbian Aeolic, often in 

2. Homer often has TTTT in the indefinite relative pronouns and adverbs ; 


3. Herodotus has OK- for OTT- (832) ; as 6/cocros, OKOIOS, OKOV, O/COTC, etc. 


962. TcWos and TOLOS occur in poetry with TOCTOVTOS and TotoOros. For &ros 
Homer has once 6o-<rdrtoy (//. 5, 758), Theocritus (4, 55) has Sovixos, as (how) little. 

963. 1. Certain correlative adverbs are poetic or dialectic : irbOi (poet.) = TTOV ; 
TTo0i (poet.) = wot ; r66i (poet.), tliere ; 80i (poet.) = oO ; 6tr66i (poet.) = 8-irov ; 
rodev (poet.), thence; rijviKa, Dor. raviKa (Theoc.) ; TWS (Epic and Att. poet.) 
oi/rws ; ry (poet.) T-gde ; wy frequent in poetry = OVTUS. 

2. Epic ^MOJ and r^/toj (Dor. S./J.QS and ra/noj) = 6re and r6re. 

3. Homer has irftve and 6w6<T for wot and STTOL ; he has yx i with 5, both 
meaning which way or where. 

4. Homer also has ti'ws and elos with Attic ?ws, as long as, until; and 
and retos with Attic r^ws, so Zong' ; also 8<f>pa. = ?cos and r6<f>pa = rewj. 

5. Poetic KfWi, etc., see 405, 2. For fvOavra. and tvdevre in Her., see 832. 


964. The cardinals have these peculiar forms in the dialects : 7. is 
(Hes. 145) for as ; Lesbian to, for p.La. ; Homer has i'a, trys, lfj, tav along- 
side of jj.ta, fitTys, fJ.t,f], fj-iav ; also dat. sing. masc. uj~ ; stricter Doric i*s. 
The plural of ovSa's and /xr/Set's is ovSafJiot, t ovSafid in New Ionic 
(from ovSf and an old pronoun <i/ios or ap>s = TIS). Of ov8ei<s, /A?;8is 
Homer has only oi'Sev, fj.tjBev, ovSevt. 

2. Homer has Svo and 8v<t> both indeclinable ; also 8oo ; and Sotoi, Soiat, 
Boui declined regularly. In Herodotus 8ro is either indeclinable or it forma 
Sro, S>wv, Svowri (SuoTv is probably incorrect). Gen. 8viv and dat. 
are late. 

250 DIALECTS 965 

4. Homer has the Aeolic wdrvpts with Teo-xrapes. Herodotus has 
T(ra-fpf<;, Tfa-<repa. The Doric has reTTopts or reropa with Terraces, dat. 

5. Aeolic ire/Mire for TrevTe, whence the ordinal Tre/wr-ros. 

12. Homer has SuJSe/ca, SvwSfKa, SvoKaiSeKa (this also in other poets). 
Herodotus has 8vu>8cKa and 8vo /ecu Se/ca. Pindar lias Swo'eKa and 8vw- 

74. Herodotus has Te&crfpecrKaiSeKa. also as neuter. 

20. Homer has ei/coo-i and eetKoari. Doric has etKari (FixaTi, 

30. Homer and Herodotus T/uryKovra for rpiaKovra.. 

40. Herodotus TetrcrepaKovra for recrcrapaKovra ; Doric 

70. Doric ft8ofj.rJKovTa and 

80. Her. oySajKovTa, Horn, also 

90. Homer evtv^/covra with ( 

200, 300, etc. Homer St^/cocrtot, Tptr/Koa-ioi for Sidxoo-iot and 
Herodotus 8tr^Kocriot,T/Dt?y/co(7ioi, eivaKoo-iot for ei/aKoo-ioi. 
L, TT/3aKaTtot, etc. ; also the Attic forms. 

, 2000, etc. Lesbian X^A I( HJ Boeotian xi'Aiot, stricter and milder 
Doric XtyJUbt and ^etAioi. Homer evvea^iAot for cvaKicrx 
for fj-vpioc (/zvpios, countless). Herodotus ctVa/cio-^^Aioi for 

965. The cardinals have these dialectic forms : 

Doric 7r/3aTos for Tr/awros ; Homer T/H'TOS and T/stTaros, Aeolic repros ; 
Homer Tera^ros and TT/3aros (also Pindar) ; Homer e'/iJSo/ios and f/386- 
/MUTOS ; Homer oySoos and oySo'aros ; Homer eya-ros and eivaros, Her. 
eifcrros ; Homer SwSfKaros and St'oiSe/caros, Her. SvwSe/caros ; Tearo-fpf<r- 
KaiSeKaros and rerapro's Kal Se/caro? ; Homer eei/coo-ros and ei/coo-ros ; 
Her. TpiTjKotrTos for TpidKocrro?, O'IV/KOOTOS for SIUKOCTTOS. 

966. Numeral Adverbs. 1. Herodotus has etVax/s. Those in -am not expressing 
definite numbers sometimes drop -<r in poetry ; as TO<ro-d*, 6<r<rd/ in Horn. (859). 

2. Like 8tx<* an( l T P^X a Homer lias also wfvraxa and iirraxa., and 51-xOa. and 
Tpl-xOa. ; also rpurXj) and TerpajrX^. Herodotus lias Si^oD, rpixov, irtvraxov. 

967. Ai(r<r6s and rpiff<r6s, two-fold, three-fold (Her. 8i<5s, rpifoj) sometimes occur 
in poetry for Svo and rpeis. For 3i-ir\&noj, Tpi-7r\d<rios, etc., Her. has 
rpt-irX^rtos, etc. Tptd/cdj is in Hes. and Her. 


968. Omission Of the Augment. 1. In Homer both the syllabic and 
the temporal augment are often omitted ; as (3fjv and /2r/v, 7/ye and a.ytv, 
tl\ov and (\ov, t/3e/3i'iKciv and ^c/Jr;Ki, JfKero and IKOVTO. Iterative forms 
in -O-KOV and -o-Ko/irjv (1040, 1041) are generally unaugmented. 

976 DIALECTS 251 

2. Similarly in the post-Homeric Epic poets ; also in other non- Attic 
lyric poets. The augment is sometimes omitted in the lyric parts of Attic 
Tragedy, seldom in the dialogue parts. 

3. (a) Herodotus omits the augment in the iterative forms in -CTKOV 
and -a-KOfj-Trfv (1040, 1041), as ayecr/cov, Troieecr/cov, XdfBf<TKOV, oBvpea-Kfro. 
It is absent occasionally in the pluperfect, as ava/?e/3r/Ke, KaraAeAeiTTTo. 

(6) He regularly omits the temporal augment : in certain Ionic verbs and 
forms, as dyiyeo),, avatcriynda), dpp(a8eu>, dpTeop.a.1, eoxrow, 
ouvcyia^o), ovpi(j, epyw (Att. et/oyw) ; in the poetic verbs and forms 
d\VKTci<a, eAifi'co, at/wye, epSw ; in eaco, epydo/zcu, eto$a ; in all verbs 
beginning with at-, av-, ei-, cu-, 01- ; in the pluperfect of verbs with Attic 
reduplication, also in rrr/Kee. 

(c) Verbs beginning with a vowel (not e), which have a syllabic augment 
(533) or a double augment (534), usually omit the syllabic augment ; as 
wveovTo, wpeov (opoua), av-oiav. 

969. 1. After the syllabic augment Homer sometimes doubles \, as ^-XXiVcrero, 
prayed ; -fj, only in i--/, learned ; v in 2-vveov, swam ; a in <reiw, drive, and. 
(refit}, shake (t-<rcrciovTO, H-ffcreva) ; 5 in %-ddeiffa, feared (tor t-dFeiffa 836). 

2. Sometimes p remains single after the augment ; as 4-pdirTofj.fv, l-peas. 

970. Initial a- augments to a- in Doric and Aeolic ; as #70;, &yoi>, s.%drjv, 
&PXO/J.O.I, apxo/J.av. Initial at- and en- remain ; as alpta, aip6-qv, avSdu, a^Sdcra. 

971. To the Attic verbs in 533 and 534 beginning with a vowel, which 
take the syllabic augment e, add Ionic and poetic forms from dv8avw, UTTTW, 
fi&ov, eiAw, etTrov, ei/)W, join, A7rw, evvvp.1, e^o/xai and i(ja, ep8u, oivoxoew. 
See these verbs in the Catalogue. 


972. The reduplication (or its equivalent, the augment) is rarely omitted in 
Homer. Thus l/>x ara ' an d tpxa. from Zpyw, shut. See also in the Catalogue 
Hvvv/ju and dXtra^o/nai. Homeric 5^xa r ', (8eyfj.-r}t>, d^ypevos, etc., are ^t-forms, and 
not perf. and plupf. as is commonly supposed. 

973. 1. Herodotus regularly omits the temporal augment representing the 
reduplication in the verbs mentioned in 968, 3 (b). For (OIKO. he has ol/ca ; and tuOa, 
tdoOea. for dwOa, eiuffi). 

2. For t(-\-r)<f>a and ef-XTj/otyuai (from Xa/u^avw) Herodotus has XeXd^/ca and OTTO- 

974. Reduplication with p occurs in Homeric pe-pviru^vo^, soiled, from pvir6u. 
Homer also has fynope (for wf-yuope) from fj-eipofMi, obtain; and tffffv/jLai (for 
ere-cri'/xat) from fftvu, drive. The reduplication is irregularly lengthened in Homeric 
dei-doiica. and Sel-dia from Sddu, fear, and dft-Sey/jiou, greet, from deiKvvfj.1, sho*t>. 
Ionic iKTTjyuat for K^KTIJ/MI. 

975. The verbs which take the syllabic augment c before a vowel (533, 
534, 971) also have the reduplication represented by e in the dialects. See 
these verbs in the Catalogue. 

976. Attic Reduplication. In addition to the verbs with Attic 

252 DIALECTS 977 

reduplication in 548, the dialects and poetry have a number of peculiar 
forms. See in the Catalogue dyetpta, cupeu>, aK-a^-/zi'os (a*-), aAuo/iut, 
aAiKTu>, root ai'$-, dpapio-KW, d.K-a\-in) (d\-\ eyei'pw, I5w (r#iw), epeiSm, 
e/)iV((), /H'O>, X (l) i V/* l ' t|) j root o5i>, ou>, opaw (OTT-), dpeyto, opvi'p.1. 

977. Reduplicated Second -aorists, 1. A number of verbs have 

reduplicated second-aorists in Epic poetry : as 7T-<j>pa.S-ov, from (frpdfa, say ; 
ire-iriO-ov, from TTfiOta, persuade ; d\-a.\K-ov (syncopated), from uAt^w (clAc*-), 
I0ard o/f. 

2. These verbs (all in the Catalogue) are dic-ax-lfa (dx-), dX^w (dXe*c-), 
dir-a<j>-lffK(i} (d<f>-), root 5a-, fviirru (tvijr-), epOxu, KO./J.VU, jce'Xo/xcu, KtvOu (Kv0-\ K\VU, 
\ayx<iv(j) (Xa^-), \afj.^dvw (Xo/S-), \av6dvu (\a6-\ \dffKU (Xax-), (jApirr 
6pvvfu (6p~), wdXXw (jraX-), root irop- (irfirapfiv), ireiffw (iri6-}, irX^ffffu (ir\riy-, 
irwOdvofJMi (wvd-), root ray-, root re/x-, repirw, rei^xw, < (<f>id-), root 
<ppdfa (<f>pad-), xdfw (x a ^"> /ca ^')> /t a */ x *' (X /*")- Of these fviirru, chide, and 
draw, reduplicate peculiarly : -tivtir-a-v-ov (or (v-tvlir-ov) and -qpOK-aK-ov. 


978. 1. For the Doric future tense-suffix -<re%-, for -<r%-, see 1022. 

2. For the Homeric h'rst-aorist tense-suffix -a%- for -<ra- in a few cases, see 1028. 

3. For the doubling of a in the future and first-aorist in Homer, see 1018. 

4. For the iterative imperfect and aorist tense-suffix -<TK%- in Ionic, see 1040, 

5. For the present and second-aorist tense-suffix -B%-, see 1042, 1043. 


979. 1. The Doric retains -n in //t-forms, as TiOrjri for Attic riOrprt ; 
it has -/*? for -pfv, </>a-/xe for <^a-^ev, </>e/ for (j>(po/j.fv, a.Trea~T(iXKa-fj.f<;, 
u/3o-/x.?, TiO(-[jLes ; -- VTL is retained in the third person plural ; as l^o-rri 
for ?x ovcrt AeAv/ca-vTi for XcAvK&rt, Aro~a-i'Tt for Awawri, riBf-vn for 
(Boeotian Aeolic inscriptions have -v#i for -VTL.) 

2. It has -/idv, -<rda.v t -TO.V, for -/^/', -o-6tyv, -TT/V ; as f<fxp6-/j.u.v t eAeAi''- 

980. In poetry -fjLfvOa often occurs for -fJLeOa ; as u.Trr6-fji.T8a., 

981. Homer sometimes has -TOV and -or^ov for -TTJV and -crdrjv in the 
third person dual of past tenses : Tfv\e-rov, 8<apTi')<re-cr6ov. 

982. The endings -p,t and -crt (third person singular) are often retained 
by Homer in the subjunctive ; as KTCIV(I>-IJLI, rv\w-iii, 0A0-o-i, Aa/fy-o-i 
(written by some fdeXrj-cri, Aa^-o-i). 

983. 1. The ending -a-da. is sometimes retained by Homer in the 
indicative, as Tt'0/-o-0a, 8i8oi-<r0a also in the subjunctive, as f' rarely in the optative, as K\aioi-ar6a, ^8aAoi-o-^a. 

2. It also occurs in a few Lesbian Aeolic and Doric forms. 

988 DIALECTS 253 

984. The ending -di occurs oftener in Homer than in Attic ; as StSo>-$t 
for 8i8ov, ffj.TTtTr\.r)-0i for e/zTTtVA?;. Pindar always has imperative 81801 for 
8i8ov. The endings -raxrav and -cr^wo-ar do not occur in Homer, and are 

985. Homer often has -v for -<rav ; as f/3a-v for ((3r)-crav, e<a-v for 
ec^-o-av, (f)i\i]df-v for f<f>i\rjdr]-(rav, rpdfa-v for er/ja^-o-av. This some- 
times occurs in other poetry. 

986. The Lesbian sometimes has -?;s for -eis, as <f>cpr]s for <epets. 
The Doric (Theocritus) sometimes has -es for -eis, as ayu.eAyes (Theoc.) for 

987. 1. When -a-at and -cro drop <r, the Lesbian has the open forms ; 
as Keicre-at and e</>atVe-o (Sappho), ^r/Ka-o (Theoc.) ; seldom -e-at becomes 
-y, as eo-y (Ale.). 

2. The Doric always contracts -e-at to -y, as oty. The 2 sing, in -e-o 
of verbs in w remains open, as <$X f ~ (Epich.). The 2 sing. aor. mid. 
contracts -a-o to -a, as eVa^d (Theoc.) for ITT^W from irrjyvvfu. 

3. (a) In Homer -e-at, -y-at, -e-o, -a-o, usually remain open ; as 
7rv#?7-at, /3aAAe-o, wSixra-o. Sometimes -c-o becomes -ev, as /^aA 

In epeio (II. 11, 610) and cnrelo (II. 10, 285), -e-o is lengthened to -eeo-. 
Homer has -ei from -e-at only in o^et, thou wilt see. 

(b) Homer even has in the perfect middle /3f/3Xr)-at for /Je/JA^-o-at ; 
/ie/Avr;-at and fie/xvy with p-ffj-vrj-a-ai. 

(c) In /it-tbrms Homer sometimes drops o- of the endings -o-at and -o-o 
where the Attic retains it ; as efjidpva-o for e/xa/Di/a-o-o, St^-at for ot^-trai, 
fj.dpva-o for p.dpva-(ro. 

4. In Herodotus -e-at, -e-o, and -a-o remain open ; but for -e-o we some- 
times find -ev, especially in the imperative, as irrOev. 

988. 1. For -vrat and -vro the Ionic often has -a-rat and -a-ro (a pre- 
ceding TT, /?, K, y being here aspirated). 

2. () Homer has -aro always in the optative ; as yevot-aro for yeVoi-VTo, 
aTroAot'-aro for aTroAot-vro. 

(6) He always has -arat and -aro in the perfect and pluperfect middle 
of consonant stems, and generally of vowel stems (including Ketyuat anil 
7^/zai) ; as Terpd<f>-a.Ta.i from T^TTOU, ep^-arat and ep\-aro from e/ayw, 
dyriyfp-aTO from ayetycxo ; Ke\o\ta-aTO from ^oAow, /3e^8A7y-arat and 
/3e[3\t')-a.To from /JaAAcu, f<f>6i-a.TO from <^^tva>, /ce-arat and /cet'-arat with 
Ket-vrai from /cet/zat, e-arat and et'-arat from ^juai. See 989. 

3. (a) Herodotus has -arat and -aro in all optatives in -oi-aro and -at-aro 
for -ot-vro and -at-vro ; as ayot-aro, ^ovAot-aro, yeixrai'-aro, for ayot-iTo, 
J3oi'\oi-vro, yewat-vro. 

(6) In the perfect and pluperfect middle, pure verbs here shortening 
77 and et to e ; as Ke\(api8-arai (^wpi8-\ f(TKfvd8-aro (o-/ceiia8-), TCT pty-arat 
(Tptf$<i>\ eVera^-axo (ray-), aTr-iK-arai and without aspiration of 
K ; ?}ye-arat lor ?yy>/-i'Tai, ^yye-aro for -ijyrj-VTO, wppe-aTO for 

234 DIALECTS 989 

j3e/3X.e-a.Tai and /3((3\ for ftf/BXrj-vrai and fftefiXrj-VTO, Kt-arai for 

(c) In the present and imperfect of the /it-form, final a of the stem 
liere becoming e ; as TtQt-a.Tai and en^e-a-ro for riOc-VTai and eV/^e-vro, 
to-re-arai and to-re-arc for tWa-vTai and bntt-VTO, oWe-arai and e'Swe-aro 
for Sui/a-vrai and cSwa-vro, Kar-e-arai and Kar-e-aro for Kadrj-vrat and 


989. NOTE. 1. Homer inserts 5 before -orat and in three cases : d*c-i;x^- 
S-aro from duaxifa, jwm ; eXTyXd-S-aroi from eXaiVw, rfrirc ; and from 
paivu, sprinkle. 

2. In Trre^x-aTtu (r^rtry/ttai) the vowel is lengthened, and in 
the vowel is shortened metri causa. 



990. Addition of e. The following poetic and Ionic verbs add e to the theme 
to form one or more tense-stems : &\6-ofiai, ytyuvtw, Sovirfo, tlpo^ai, fi\tw, liravptu, 
KeXaSe'w, K&O/JMI, Kfvrtw, Ki/)5w, icrvirtta, Kvptu, Xd<r(cw, /j.4do/, fJ.6fa, irarto/j.a.1, plytu, 
ffrvytu), ropfta, xpaifffuii) ; dyUjrXa/c/<r/cw, d.Tra<piffKw, root Sa- ; also poetic forms of 
SiSdffKta, irelBd), tpel8o/ ; ^>iXe'w. 

991. Addition of a. These (chiefly poetic) verbs add a to the theme for the 
present and other systems : {ipOx-a-opai, yo-d-u, STjpi-d-o/Juu, XIXM-^-W, 

/iT/Tl-d-W, /JiVK-d-OfJMl. 

992. Short final theme-vowel retained. The following Epic verbs retain a 
short final theme-vowel in all or some of the systems : d/cTjSew, 4pv<a, Kortw, Xot'w, 
vtLKfu, and roots da- and de-. 

993. Syncope. For syncopated poetic forms, see TrAw, TreXdfw, /*Aw, ;ce'Xo/xoi, 
roots rffj.- and <ptv-. 

994. Metathesis. For poetic forms with metathesis, see dfiaprdvu, dapOdvu, 
dfpKO/j.a.1, vfpoofj.a.1, rtpiru, dpdffvu ( rapdffffw) ; /3Xw<r/cw, oapA^u, 54/j.u, firopov (irop-). 

995. Omission of v of the theme. See poetic forms of icrfivu, and of the root 
<pfv- or <pa- in the Catalogue. 

996. Change of root-vowel. Besides the second-aorists in 694 and 760 which 
change e to a, see in the Catalogue rtpirw,, irtpffw, and Trrtfffffw. 

997. Reduplication of the theme. Resides the presents of the /ju-form (764, b), 
and the ordinary verbs of the First and Sixth Classes (626, 658), add poetic 

vffKw, dp-aplffKU, Ki-K\r)ffK<a, ri 

^ 998. Theme-vowel of variable quantity. Homer hab aAvw, dprvw, 

Svw, 6vu) (also Find., Theoc.), and Ovw, tS/iOw, KWKUW, Xvta and Ai>w. Other 
cases of -vta for Attic -via are extremely rare. 

1007 DIALECTS 255 


999. To the list in 631 add : root Oa-rr- or ra<- (reOrjTra), T/ir/yw (r/uay-) 
= Tfj.v<a, epeiKw (epiK-), (pevyo/ (e/ofy-), epevOta (epvO-), all Epic or 


1000. To the list in 635 add : yvapr-Tw (poet.), tvlir-ria (Epic), pdpTr-Tw 


1001. All verbs of this class which have second tenses or have any 
peculiar or dialectic (poetic) forms are given in the Catalogue ; also all which 
form the present irregularly. 

1002. 1. Palatal Themes. See d/Bpordfa dAa7raw, ai5Saw, ari'w, 

f^vfo (fi-vy-, 

(/Baa-ray-, ySacrraS-), vvcrTa^aj, cri"pt^w, o-^eTept^w, TrAa^w 
(TrAayy-), dt^i'crcra) (d<j)vy-- 1 d<vS-) ; d/j-vcnrw, Trpotcrcroyuai, vtVcrw, 6'cnroyu,ai 
(OK-, OTT-), OTOTV^W, o-(f>v^tt) (cr<pvy-), T/DI'^W, <^eu^w, <f>i]p,iw. 

2. Linglidl Themes. See t/xao-crw, KO/DWXTO>, Aa^n'crcrw, Aewcrw, Atcr- 
i, vi'cr<TO/u,ai, a^acrcraj. 

3. Liquid Themes. See et'Aco, root <^>ev- or <a-, o^eAAw and dyu,etpco. 
All important dialectic (poetic) liquid verbs and poetic forms of others are 
in the Catalogue. 

4. Vowel Themes. See in the Catalogue KCUO> and /cAatw ; also Souw 
(Sa-), twrn, SaiofJMi (8a-\ divide,, (fj.a-, /ACV-, /xacr-), reac/i a/<er, vaia> 
(va-), inhabit, vaw (i/aiw), ^ow, OTTIIICJ (OTTIN) <aA;e <o urife. 

1003. The Aeolic often has -0-810 for -o> ; as lue&r&e (Sappho) == etKa^w, 
o-vpio-8(D (Theoc.) = a-vpi^(a. In Doric most verbs in -w have stems in y ; 
as KoyMt^w, carry, fut. KO/ZWTW = Doric /co//,/w, Aor. eKo/xwra = Dor. (Kofju^a. 

1004. The Aeolic assimilates i/ to v and /> (except after a) ; as Kptwu 
for Kptvo), <j>6eppo> for <{>&fip(a, o~vpp<a for <rf'pw, but (ftaivw (not 


1005. To the list in 652 add 6uv<a, aA^avw, dAiratvo), epi8a.ii><a, epvy- 
vd), Ktv6dv<j> = Kevdw, paivta, \av8dv(a, and the /^u- verbs in 1062, 1. 


1006. To the list in 658 add /3do-Kw, /ctxAryo-Kw, TTI-TTI'O-KW, 7ri-<ai'crKw, 
d[j.TrXaKio~Kt>), dTro.(J)io~K(i), dp-ap-itTKO), ICTKCO, Tt-TUTJCO/MU, 8ia-</>averK(> or 
-<f>ioo-Ko>, vAao-KU). These as well as dialectic forms of tliose in 658 are given 
in the Catalogue. 


1007. The Epic verbs of this class are enumerated in 1062, 2. 

256 DIALECTS 1006 


1008. See the Catalogue for poetic and dialectic forms of the rerbs 
in 663. 


1009. In Homer. 1. Verbs in -aw. (a) These often contract as in 
Attic. Sometimes they remain open, as vcueraowi ; sometimes a is here 
lengthened to a, as Tretvaovro, oi\l/dtav. 

(6) Very frequently verbs in -aw show a peculiar assimilation : ae and u>/ 
giving a double a-sound, and ao, aw, and aov giving a double o-sound. 
One of the two assimilated vowels is then usually lengthened (to a or w), 
seldom both, : 

opata for opdu i?/3woi/u for rifidoi/u opdps for opdys 

6/>6wvr ,, opdovTft opjwaa ,, opdovffa dpdq, ,, opdei 

opjijifju ,, opdoLfj.1 op&wffi ,, opdovfft opdav ,, opdav 

opotfre ,, opdotrf 7e\u>o'Tes ,, 7e\doi'Tej opdaffffat ,, opdfffOai 

(ifvoivtau) ,, fj.fvoiva.w opdas ,, opdas fivdoffOai ,, /ju>df<r6ai 

The Attic future has the same peculiar forms : eAow for eAaw, tAefys for 
eAacis, e\da for eAaet, from eAavvw (eAuw). 

(c) The first vowel is lengthened when the meter requires it. If the 
second vowel is not long by nature or position, the assimilation does not take 
place (except in /ivwoyuiej/os = fj.vaop.eros) ', thus never o/jow/tev. 

(d) Verbs in -aw sometimes have imperfects in -to- for -ao- ; as avraw, 
encounter, yvreov. The part, of \pdofiMi is \pu!>p.fw<i. 

(e) The forms in (b) above are now generally considered spurious, and 
some editors now give the ordinary uncontracted forms ; as -yeAaoi/res, 
opdoixrt, etc. 

2. Verbs in -ew. Verbs in -ew generally remain open. Sometimes and 
ft become ei, eo and rarely eou become ev ; as rap/So. = ra/a/See, <j>i\ti = 
<^>tAi, <f>iX.cvvTf<i = ^tAeovTfs, vfiKewri = veiKfoixri. Sometimes -e-eai and 
-e-eo (from -c-e-o-ai and -e-e-o-o) drop one e, or may contract to -eiai and -to; 
as fivBeai or fjwdfiai from nvOe-f-at,, u.Tro-aip(o for a7ro-at/3--o, aiocio for 
aioe-f-o. Verbs in -w sometimes have the older form in -ei'w; as vtuctua 
for veiK(i>, ereAetcTo for eTfAeero, reAeiw for reAew. 

3. Verbs in -ow. These sometimes have forms in -ow- and -wo- like 
verbs in -aw ; as dpooxri for dpoovo-i from d/>ow, plough ; vTrvwovres for 
iVvoovres from VTTVOW, sleep; but some of the forms are doubtful. 
Otherwise they always contract as in Attic. 

1010. NOTE. For Homeric infinitives in -Tj-^exai from verbs in -aw and -tu, see 
1052, 2. For /u-forms of verbs in -dia and -^w in Homer, see 1015, 2. 

1011. In Herodotus. 1. Verbs in -aw. (a) These change aw, ao, aou 
to ew, o, eoi>, and keep these e-forms open ; otherwise a with a following 
vowel contracts ; so opew (opaw), opas, 6pa, 6peofj.(v, oparc, opeoixri. 
Exceptions are *Aaw, \f/do>, o-//aw, <aw, /?tao/xai, tao/xat, which have all the 

1015 DIALECTS 257 

contract forms as in Attic. But the 2 pers. sing. impf. mid. indie., and 
pres. imperative contract -aov as in Attic : eVr/xw (erlfj-dov), o/ow (opdov). 
The optative always has -w'^v, (afj.-tjv ; as evoptarj, Tt/zom>. XP a<a an( ^ 
Xpuo/zcu contract to 77, not to ei as in Attic : xpeopai, x/Tai, xpeofievos,, e\peovTO. 

(6) When the present -aw is preceded by a vowel, eo and eov (for Attic 
ao and aov) become ev ; as aiTievvrcu (aiTtdovTcu), f3oevvre<s (fiodovres). 

(c) The Attic future of eXavvw (eAdw) shows only contracted forms in the 
MSS as in Attic : eAwv, lAokri, etc. ; bu|; these should perhaps be written 
e\ewv, eXeowi, etc. [see below 1011, 2 (c)]. 

2. Fier&s t -ew. (a) These remain uncontracted ; -eeat and -eo become 
-eat and -eo : KaAew, /caAeeis, /caAeet,, /caAeWcu, etc., but KaAo;, 
But Set and Seiy are found only contracted. The optative has 


(b) Only five verbs in which -ew is preceded by a vowel (dyvoew, 
Orjeofj-ai, voeco, TTOICCO), contract eo and eou to u ; thus 

(c) The above rules apply also to the future of liquid verbs and to the 
Attic future : o~rj paved), a7ro/?aAeets (from o-ijfj.aivo), aTro/^dAAw), Kop.ieei, 
Kofj.ievfj.e6a (fut. of KO[J.ita). 

3. Verbs in -oto. These contract as in Attic ; but when the present -oco 
is preceded by a vowel, oo and oov become ev ; as dieiy/,ev, dievo-i. 

1012. NOTE. Some grammarians do not consider the above rules quite so 
strict and consistent for Herodotus. 

1013. In Doric. 1. The Doric contracts a + e or t] to 17 ; a + i or 
y to y ; a + o or CD to a (except in final syllables) ; vtKw, VIK-TJS (viKaeis), (vlKaofj.ev\ VIKTJTC (vi/cdere), vlKavri (vtKaowi), oprjv (opav). 

2. It contracts ee to tj and oe or oo to <o in the stricter, to et and ov in 
the milder form ; as (/>iAeere = <{>L\fJTe (strict) = <iAe?Te (mild), pia-Ooere = 
[j-icrduiTe and fjacrOovre, fj.Lo~66ovo~i =>vTL and /,. It leaves eo 
and ew open ; or they become to and tw or o> in the stricter form, or to ov 
or ev and <o in the milder : (/>tAeo>, <iAw, ^>iAtw (stricter Doric) = </>6Aw, 
</>iAw (milder) <f>iX.eo[j.e i s, (j>i\, </uAw/xes (stricter) = <^>iAeo/>ies, 
(f>i\.eovTi, <f>i\.iovTi (stricter) = (^lAeovrt, ^tAeuvTi, <iAoiWi (mild). 

1014. In Aeolic. Verbs in -dw, -ew, -dw are usually inflected according 
to the /LU - form ; as </>i'A^)u,t, opr]fj.t (oped) = opdd)), SoKifi&fM, Ordinary 
uncontracted forms also occur. 


1015. 1. In Homer the third person plural adds -o-i (from -VTI) with 
lengthening of the preceding vowel : rt^eio-t, SiSova-i, prjyvva-L. But except 
idurc, </ii/ are, and u'uri, they go. 

2. In Homer the forms made as if from contract verbs in -eo> and -oo> 


258 DIALECTS 1016 

are more numerous. He has TiBrj-a-Oa for TI#IS, riOrpri and ridci, 

and 8i8our6a, 81801 and 8i'8o>cri, feis or uts, oprt and i'ei or let ; also 

imperative Kadicrra. 

1016. 1. In Herodotus the second and third persons singular and the 
third person plural are formed as if from verbs in -eto, -aw, -ow. Thus 
Tidrjp.1, Ti$is, riOfi, ttdturi ; i(TTr)fj.i, io-rps, lora, Itrratri, imperative icrrd ; 
8i'8w/zi, StSois, 81801, 81801x71. Like ridr]fj,i is conjugated Sfy/u ; feis, fet, 
ffto-i. The forms riOrja-i, t'or^o-i, 8i8oxrt, and imper. ?O-TT; are doubtful. 

2. The imperfect of TtOr)p.i is eridfa, fTiOtas, eridee. 

3. The third person plural of Setfcviyu is 8eiKvwri ; so also dTroAAvcri, 
o-vp-prjyvvo-i, etc. Less common and doubtful are forms from -t'w. 

1017. The Doric naturally has a. (from d) for 77 throughout ; as fcrrd/u, 
, etc. for TTr;/ii, Q-T^O-W, etc. 


1018. Homer often doubles o- after a short vowel ; as reAcoj, reAeo-o-w, 

(oA-e-), oAO"o~a, 6'Aeo'O'a, avvw, avt<ro - a), yeAaw, eyeAao'O'a. 

1019. Besides K<AAw, Kvpw, SpvvfHj with fut. aor. forms in -o-w and -o-a, 
see (in the Catalogue) poetic (Epic) forms of ac//3u>,<rKd>, tAa>,, 

1020. Verbs in -aw lengthen a to a in Doric, and always to rj in Ionic ; 
thus Doric rlp-ano, Ti/xdo-w, er^/>td<ra, Ionic /iet8iaw, yueiSi^o-w. Except eaw 
which always has d, and Krao/zai which usually has ?/ even in Doric. 

1021. In Doric most verbs in -w have the fut. and first aor. in -w 
(from -w) and -a ; as )(w/3i'w, ^wpt^w, f\wpia. 

1022. The future in Doric has the tense -suffix -crc^. Tims d/a^w, 
dp(i<s, apfi, dpfiTOV, dpcv[J.(<;, dpfire, dpfvvri, mid. d 

dpeiTai, etc., contracted form apew, dp^etis, etc. 

1023. These futures without cr from vowel -verbs occur in Homer : 
fifOfJMi or /, shall live (cf. /?i'-os, Zt/e) ; S?yw, sliall find (cf. 2 aor. pass. 
-8d-i]v, learned) ; xew or /cet'w, s/irtW Zi'e, from /cet/^iai ; vtofiai usually s/mW jro 
(also pres.) ; fg-avvta, achieve, epva), draw, and ravvw, stretch, also occur as 

1024. The Lesbian Aeolic leaves the liquid future open, as<a. 
So always Herodotus, and often Homer. 

1025. For the Attic future formed in -dw for -aw in Homer, see 1009 (b). 
For the Attic future in Herodotus, see 1011 (c). . 

1026. The Lesbian Aeolic assimilates cr of the suffix -o-a- to a preceding 
liquid in the first-aorist ; as dTreoreAAa for aTreo-retAa, CKptvva for (Kplva, 
ff( for eVet/xaro. Homer has w<AAa from wf/>eAAw, increase. 

1027. These first-aorists without or occur in Homer : xva with Attic 

1038 DIALECTS 259 

from yew, pour ; i]^-tva.p.-qv and r/Aeayu^v from aAeuo/uat or a 
avoid ; e/o;a for Att. (Kavcra from KCUW (*cav-), &MTO ; ecro-cua from <rei'a> (o-v-), 
drive; Searo, seemed (only Od 6, 242). Hesiod (Op. 767) has Sareao-tfcu 
from Sareofjiai, divide. 

1028. Homer has a few first-aorists with the tense-suffix -v%- for -era-, 
these occur : fov and fe from ?KW, come ; imper. a^ere and ar# from 
ayw, /ear^, also inf. a^e/Aev ; imper. owre and oarere (<f>p<a, bring], also inf. 
ore/xev and owre/zei/ou ; e/3?yo-To and imper. j3i'](reo from fiaiva), go ; imper. 
o'po-eo and. o/xreu, rise, from opvv^L, rouse; fSvo-fro, set (8vw) ; Ae^eo, Zay 
thyself (Aey w) ; aetcreo mid. imper. from dci'Sw, swjgr ; TreAaoxreTov, approach 


1029. For second-aorists with metathesis, see 994 ; with syncope, see 993 ; 
with reduplication, see 997. 

1030. In the yat-form, the stem-vowel remains exceptionally short in poetic 
tKTav, killed, and Homeric o5ra, wounded. For second-aorists of the /J.L- form, 
see 1063. 


1031. Homer forms the first-perfect active in -KO, only from vowel- 
themes ; and these often have second-perfect forms in -a, especially in the 
participle. Thus Tre<f>vKOicri and irefyvacri. from <f>vo), produce; xe/c/oj-ws 

= Att. Kc/c//,r^Kcus from Ka/j,-vo>, am tired, K/copry-uls from Kope-vvv/ju, satiate. 

1032. A smooth or middle mute is never aspirated in Homer in the 
second-perfect : Ke/<o7r-ws = Attic KCKO<-WS from KOTT-TW, cut. 

1033. The pluperfect active has -ea, -eas, -ee, -ea-re in Herodotus ; as 
(w6ea, 7re7ro/A^), trwr/SeaTe. Homer has -ca, -eas or -rjs, -et or -ei-v (-ee 
only in ySee). 

1034. In Theocritus we occasionally find the perfect active indicative 
in -to, -el's, -ft ; as SeSoucw for SfSoiKa, 7re</>rKi for TretftvKf. 

1035. Dialectic second -perfects are quite numerous, especially in Homer ; 
as eoATTa, hope, from eATrw, cause to hope, 8e8oirrra from Boinrew, resound, 
fopya from />eto, work. 

1036. A pluperfect with -^- is e/zc/A^K-o-v from /Ae/oj/ca, pres. yM^Kao/zat, 
bleat. Other apparently similar forms, as eyeywve, are imperfects ; but see <uco. 

1037. The future perfects active K-^a/o->y(rw (also K^a/)/a-o/xai) from 
Xcu'/xo (x a P~)> rejoice, and Ke-KaS-rycrw from X"C W (X a ^')> 2/ ie ^> occur in 


1038. Two vowel stems add v before 6 in the first-aorist passive : 
I8pv-v-6r)v = Attic iSpvOtjv from iSpvio, erect; aLfj.-Trvv-v-6r)v, revived, from 

260 DIALECTS 1039 

W-), breathe. Homer has also eKXiv-Orjv and eK\i-Oi]v from K\fi>< 
aul tKpii>-6i)v from Kpfvw, separate. He has <f>adv6i]v from </>aiVo> (<aev-), 
shine ( = <ttiV(o). 

1039. The first future-passive is absent from Homer. Of the second 
future passive he has. only Sav/tro/xai from f8d-rjv, learned; and 


1040. Homer and Herodotus have iterative imperfects and aorists 
denoting a customary or repeated action. They occur only in the indicative ; 
first-aorists are confined to Homer, and second-aorists nearly so. Herodotus 
forms these iteratives only from verbs in -w. 

1041. The suffix -<TK%- is added to the tense-stem ; verbs in -aw have 
-a-<TKov or -O.O.-&KOV as the meter requires ; verbs in -u) have -eecrxov, in 
Homer also -C-O-KOV. Herodotus always omits the augment, Homer nearly 

Imperfects : nfre-ffKov from fdvw, remain ; (x f - ffKOV from x w > have ; (ioffxt-crKovTo 
from (loffxu, feed; Aye-crKov from ayw, lead; viKd-ffKo/j.(i> from vlK&u, conquer; yoda-ffKf 
from yodu, bewail; iroite-fficov, iroiet-ffKero from TTOI^W ; riQe-ffKov from riOrjfu ; 
5i8o-ffKov from Sidwfu ; fuvvv-o-KfTo from favvviu, gird. First- ^ or ists : avft-fiaa-aKev 
from avddu, speak; diro-rp^\f/a-<rKe from Tptiru, turn; fju>r)<rd-ffKeTo from /J.L forgo- KU, 
remind. Second- Aorists: Xd/3e-<r/ce from \afjLJ3dvu, take; <f>vyf-ffKe from favyu, flee ; 
yrd-ffKf from iffTrjfu (ffra-). Two imperfects have -a-ffKov for -cffKov : Kpinrra-ffKe 
from Kpvirru, hid', and ftirra-ffKov from ptirrw, throw. The second - aorist passive 
<f>dve-ffKe from (paivu occurs rarely in Homer. 


1042. A number of verbs form poetic tense-stems by adding -Oft- to the 
present or second-aorist tense-stem. Before the suffix -Oft- t the variable 
vowel may become a (once v). With the exception of several presents in 
-Ota and -OofMatj and of the second-aorist fcr\fOov from e\io, the others are 
probably all imperfects ; but as some of them have aorist signification (cf. 
f<f>rjv), many scholars regard some of these as second-aorists, and accent the 
infinitive and participle accordingly. These forms are mostly Epic, but 
several occur also in Attic poetry, rarely in prose. 

Thus: diuKw, pursue, tot(j)ica.dov, subj. diuxdOw, inf. Siwicddeiv ; eticu, yield, elKaffov, 
subj. elicdOu, opt. elicdOoiftt, part. clxdOwv ; d/jivvw, ward off, imper. duvvdOcre, dfiv- 
vdffov ; <j>\4yu, burn, QXeytOw ; lx w - hold, aor. tff\t6ov, subj. <rx^ u > op*- <r\tOoiiu, 
imper. ax^ TU ^ inf- ff\*9teiv t trxtddv, part. ffXfOuv ; <f>0ivu, perish, <p9ivi!>d<a, perish 
or destroy. 

1043. For all the forms of the above and the others, see in the Catalogue 
aytipu (rjycpiOo/Mii), deipw (rifpfd ou.a.C), <iX'w (dXicdOu), ci/xOi'w (invvdOu), SIUKU 

v), ftKw (ftKaOov), ttpyu (tpya&ov), t%u (tffx e 9o), KIU (fieT-eidadoi>), <f>0lv<a 
), <p\(yw (<p\ey^9w). There are also several other isolated forms in poetry. 

1050 DIALECTS 26 i 


1044. In Homer the subjunctive often has the short thematic vowel -%- 
for -%-, especially in the first-aorist, which may thus be confounded with the 
future indicative : epvcra--o-/j.ev for opvcrcr-ta-p.ev, eyeip-o-/j.ei>, i'e/xecr//o--e-T, 
f(f>d\j/-e-ai for e^ai^-Tj-cu, ei>-e-ai from i'>-?i-ai, Sr/Arycr--Tai, '1-o-fj.ev ; these 
cases do not occur in the singular active nor in the third person plural. 
Similar examples occur in the Elegiac poets, and sometimes in Pindar. 

1045. 1. The second-aorist subjunctive of the /xi-form remains mostly 
uncontracted : Oewfj-ev. In this case the final stem- vowel is very generally 
lengthened, a and e to 77 (or ei), and o to w ; in the first and second persons 
plural and in the dual, the thematic vowel is then short -/ f -. Thus : /^-w 
or /?ei-o> (for /2a-w, Att. /3u>), 0?/-w or #ei-a> (for $t-<o, 0u>), yv<a-ta (for yvo-co, 
yvw), o-nj-rjs (for ore-^s, O-T?;S), Qij-ys (for $e-$v, $$s), yvw-^s (for yvo-?i?, 
yvws), (TTi/j-y, Brj-y or Oei-y, 8(!>-y or Sw-y-cri (for So-y, 8w) ; O-T?;--TOI' (for 
(rra-T^-TOV, O-T^TOV), Brj-o-fj-ev or Oe[-o-fj,ev (for ^e-to-^ev, ^w/xev), Soj-co-(ri (for 
6o-ct)-(ri, ^aJcri), crry-to-crt or crTet'-w-crt (for crra-w-crt, crrokri). 

2. A few similar middle ^u-forms occur ; as a7ro-$ei'oyu,cu (for <x7ro-^-w-/>iat, 
aTTO-^w/xai), (3\->j--TaL from (3dXX(a. 

3. The MSS vary in some forms between ei and T;, but 17 from a or c is 
probably correct for all forms. 

4. Homer has -ceo- also in stems in -a- ; as o-rewyaev (crra-) ; cf. 1047. 

1046. 1. In the subjunctive of the second-aorist passive, Homer has 
some forms like his peculiar subjunctives of the second-aorist active of the 
/ju-form (1045, 1) ; as Sayu^-to or Sa^ei-io (for 6ayu,e-w, Sa/x-w, from, 
2 aor. pass, of 8a/j.-vana, subdue] ; Sa/z-^-ys and 8afj.ij-rj ; 8afj.^-e-Te or 
8a/ (for 8a.p,-r)-T, SafJL-rj-Tf) ; TapTr^v, 2 aor. pass, of repTTd), delight, 
has TpaTT-ij-0-fj.ev or Tpa.Trei-o-fj.ev. In these cases also et should probably be 
everywhere replaced by 77. 

2. Otherwise Homer leaves the subjunctive aorist passive open, as 

1047. In Herodotus the subjunctive of both aorists passive and of the 
second -aorists of the /xt-form remain open, except that er; and ey contract to 
77 and y ; stems in a change this vowel to e. Thus alpeOfw, <aveoKri ; 
f^ava-CTTMfj,fv, Trpo(T-deu), /Seta (from e/3rjv) ; but vlK-tjdys, ^ai'y, K -/^J7> 
BfJTai, as in Attic. 

1048. Subjunctive /tteywew/uetfa in Herodotus 7, 47 for (jxfj.vtS3p.eda. is doubtful. 


1049. Homer has -IT/- in (rratrjcrav (II. 17, 733), otherwise never in the 
-dual or plural ; and very rarely in the singular. 

1050. The so-called Aeolic optative forms in -eias, -eie, -etav belong to 
all the dialects, but no examples seem to occur in Lesbian. 

262 DIALECTS 1051 

1051. For Homeric optatives from Svta, A.i$co, Saivv/j-i, and <f>dti'(a, see- 
the Catalogue ; also m/yviytt. 


1052. In Homer. -I. Besides the ordinary ending -(v, Homer often has 
-/zeveu and -fj.fv in the present, future, and second-aorist active of verbs in 
cu ; as dfJ.vvf-fJ.fvai, dp-vvf-fjifv, dfivvfLV ; de-/z,i'cu, de-p.fv, aeiv ; eA$c- 
fjLtvai, f\6f-fj.fv, fXOfiv. Verbs in -aw and -o often have -/j-fj.fvai as 
Treivao), TTfi.vij-fj.fvai ; KaAew, KaXt'j-fifvaL (only ayiveu) has aylvc-fievai, as if 
from a stem dyiv-). Of verbs in -ow we have only the pres. inf. dpo-fifvai. 
or, (?) in Hes. Op. 22. 

2. The endings -/j.evat and -vai, preceded by 77, occur in a few presents from verbs 
in -jut ; as aj-ftcvai, and ay-vat from S.-TJ/M, blow ; in the second-aorist active of stems 
in a of the ^u-form ; as ffT-f}-fj.evai, ffTij-vat ; in the aorist passive ; as onoiwOri-ufvai, 
fj.iy-fj-fj.evai, Sari-fitvat and darj-vat from 5a-, learn. Other presents in -fu have -fj.evat 
and -/if" with preceding short vowel ; as iffTa.-fj.fvai, iffTO.-fj.ev, evyvu-(j,evai, ^evyvv-^tv 
(but dtSou-vat, II. 24, 425 ; TiOri-fj.fvai, II. 23, 83 and 247 ; fei^vv-/Mfi>, II. 16, 145). 

The second-aorist of stems in e and o adds -^vo.i and -fixv to the unchanged 
stem, but -vat to the lengthened stein ; as 0(-fj.tvai, Of-^tv, do-ptvai, d6-nei> ; but 
fat-vat, dov-vat ; after a long vowel -pevai (not -ft-tv) is used, as emj-yttevoi, yvu-(>ai, 
So-fj-fvai. If the second-aorist active ends in -av, the a remains short before -/tevcu 
and, as dcrav (from Krtivw, kill), Kra-fj-evai, KT6.-fj.ev. 

3. The perfect infinitive active of the jut-form has -/j.evat and ; as Te9i>d-fj.ti>ai 
and TeOva-fifv. 

4. The second-aorist active often lias -e-tiv for -eiv ; as Bavteiv for Oavelv. 

5. Observe that the syllable preceding -fitvat or -fj.ev is always accented. 

6. The ending -vai never occurs after a short vowel (tt-vai sliould probably be 
always written l-nevai). The ending -/MV nearly always follows a short vowel 
(except in ffvyvu-ftev above). 

1053. In Doric. The Doric generally has -pev where the Attic has -vai; as 
tpirayTJ-fifv for dnirayrj-vat (from vriyvvfu), ffTa-/j.ei> (Pind.) for ffTrj-vat, dt-pev (Theoc. ) 
for fat-vat, StSb-fjLev (Find.) for 8td6-vat. Verbs in -w have -fiv, as in Attic, in the 
milder Doric. We also find -i\v and -ev for -eiv ; as aeLBtjv (Alcm.), aetdev (Theoc.), 
Pindar once in yaptiev for yyptietv ; also -wi> in contract verbs in -6w, as inrvtLv 
(Aristoph. Lys. 143). The perfect active has -eiv and -i\v ; as yey&K-ftv (Pind.) =* 
ytyovf-vat, dedvKr/v (Theoc.) for SfSvKf-vat. 

1054. In Aeolic. The Lesbian has -fj&vat in monosyllabic stums with short 
final vowel in the ^.t-conjugation ; as tfj.-fj.evai for el-vat. All others in -/u and those 
of the w-conjugation (also those from verbs in -aipi, -TTI/M, -ufu or -ot/xi = Att. -dw, -eta, 
-bit)) have -av, -rjv, -uv ; as ayyv (Sappho) = ayetv, ("wt-detiffriv (Sappho) = firi-de vaav, 
avT\rjv (Ale. ) = avT\etv from avT\eu, SiSuv (Theoc.) for Std6-vat. ffTe<(>dvwv = ffTa(f>avovv, 
6fj,vd<r6r)v (Theoc.) = ava-nvqadji-vat ; so in the perfect, as TedvaKt]v (Sappho) = 


1055. The Lesbian Aeolic has these peculiarities: 1. -cus, -awro, -oura, 
for -as, -cUra, -oucra ; as TArais for reAeo-ds, Opffaura for 0p*<f>a<ra, 
jrveoicra for irveoixra, \iTroura for AiTrovo^a, Solera for Boixra. 

2. As most verbs in -aw, -eu, -&w follow the /xt-form (as <pi\i]-ni = <f>t\eu), the 
present participle has -an, -e, and -oiv ; as yt\ais, ytXaura, ye\av (from y{\at-fu = 

10G4 DIALECTS 263 

Attic ye\du) for yf\wv, ye\Zffa, ye\wv </>i\eu, <f>i\tiffa., <pi\fv (from tf>i\rj-/j.i = 0i\e'w) 
for <f>t.\u>i>, <f>i\ovffa, <f>i\ouv ; fyi*oir = v\f/Civ from t\j/w[j.i Attic i^6w. 

lOob. Tlie Aeolic had -w, -ovros for -wj ; as vtvoriKuv for vtvoTjK&s. Pindar lias 
iretj>ptKovTas (for ire<j>piKt>ra.s) and xXa5ovras. Homer has /ce/cXijyoi'Tas from K\dfw, 

1057. The Doric had -eta for -wa in the perfect fern. ; as eoraKeta for ecrrrjKvia. 

1058. Homer rarely has -rj-fj.evo<s for -e-/xevos in the participle of the 
^,t-form ; as Ti6t']-[j.tvos. 

1059. The second - perfect participle often has -WT-OS for -OT-O? in 
Homer ; as KCK^IT/WS, *reK/x?;-ojTos and KCK'/^-OTOS ; KfK\rjy(a<;, KcAijy-wTS ; 
rerptyws, Terpiywres. 

1060. In Homer the feminine of the second-perfect participle sometimes 
retains d where it has otherwise been lengthened to rj ; so dprjpios, fern. 
dpapvia, indie, aprjpa (dpapicrKto, Jit) ; T$dAi>ta, indie. TfBrjXa .(^aAAw, 
bloom) ; XeXrjKa = Att. AeAdKa from AacrKw, speak, fern. part. AeAciKv ia ; 
fj.efjLd.Kvia., masc. //.e/^Kcos from fj.ijKao/j.a.1 (JUIK-), bleat. 

1061. Homer has a number of peculiar forms of the second-perfect 
participle of the /zi-form. Herodotus has eo-rews for KTTWS ; ftmyKws in 
Herodotus is doubtful. 


1062. Presents of the p-i-Form.}. Those of the Fifth Class are 

cuvu/xcu, a^vvfiai, yavvfiai, Saivi'fju, /caiviy/.ai, KlvvfJii, opfyvvfJLi y 
(see ravvw), Tlvv/xat (see Ttvfa>) ; 8a/tvr;/ii, KtprqfU, Kpi'iij.vijfj.L, /j.dpva/, 
Trepv'7/yut, Tri'Ava/iai, irLTvr)jj.i, trKiSi'iifJii or KiSvijut, 

2. Those of the Seventh Class are O.IJJJ.L,, 8if-/xat, Sifyfju, tA?/yu.i, 
ovofjuii, <TTeu/j.aL, late urro/tat, Epic ftiftujfj.!. (f3a-). 

3. For present or imperfect /AI- forms from verbs in -a>, see opaw, 
apaofj-ai, yoaa>, Tretvaw ; KaAew, <^>o/>w, ^lAew dvi'w, eSw, pvofj,at and, (revta, <f>ep(a, Kiy^avw. 

4. For all the above, as well as peculiar /tu-forms of ordinary Attic /lu-presents 
(764, 766), see the Catalogue. 

1063. Second-AoristS of the pi-Form. Besides a few peculiar forms 
of those mentioned in 767, see the Catalogue for second -aorists of the /it- 
form of the following verbs : aAAo/zai, aTrcu'paw, dpapicrmo, aa, ^SaAAw, 

t, root yev-, 8c\ofj,ai, KC \ofiai, KAaw, xAi'w, KTIW, Aeyw and root 
Arw, p.tyvvp.1, opvvfjn, ovrdia, TraAAw, 7reAi{w, iripQto, Tnjyvi>fj,i, 

rA(i')O>, 7ri'0>, 7TT7/O-O-W, O*C7'a>, (f>6ll>to), X*^- 

1064. Second -Perfects Of the pi -Form. Besides peculiar forms of 
those mentioned in 7fi8, see the Catalogue for Homeric second-perfects of 
the /xi-form of aytoya, /3i/fyxxrKW, eyei'/Ho, e/3^o/nai, fj.aio/ (/xa-, fi(i'-\ 

TTftOtt), TT^TTTW, TOOt rAu-. 

264 DIALECTS 1065 


1065. fjfji'i 1. In Homer generally IT//MI with short , 2 sing. lets 
(Jets), 3 sing. iet ( ei) and usually 070-1, 3 pi. HMTt, inf. le^eei/cu and if/xet' ; 
impt'. leiv ; first aor. I/KCI and tr/KO. ; forms with et- usually have only -, 
as rar era, eVro, for eurar, cfro, eivro. 'Av-irjfjii has fut. (?) di'-e-o-w and 
aor. tti'-e-<ra. 

2. In Herodotus Sty/u follows TI$?/MI. The perf. pass. part, of /zeT-t'r;/u is 
irregular; fj.f-fj.fT-i-fj.evo<s ; the perf. mid. aV-ewvTcu for oV-eii/Tai is very doubtful. 

1066. ei,fjbi. 1. Homer has eWt and eis (eis) for ?, CI'/MCV for e<, 
leurt (not encl.) and ri, subj. o, eys, etc., eWt, and once (Jxri (/xer-ei/xi has 
fjiTf(a and /xcT-iw) ; opt. eiViv, etc., with lois, eoi ; imper. &r-<ro (middle 
form), rrco, rT, 3 pi. rrwv ; infin. t(/j.)fj.evai^ f(/jL)fjiev, eivai ; part, ewv, 
ovcra, eov (rarely Attic forms). Imperfect 1 sing. ?-a, ^-a, e-ov ; 2 sing. 
tyrOa and trprQa. ; 3 sing. CT/V, i/ev, i]^i', ryv (rare) ; 3 pi. rjcrav and 
imperfect also COTKOV (iterative form). Future r-o-oy,cu and 
r(o-)eat and ry ; ((r)o-Tai, ecro-eiTai (Doric), and 

2. Herodotus has eis (eis) for e?, et/xev for O-/iev ; subj. eo>, eys, etc.; opt. 
once i/-eot, otherwise Attic forms ; part. <ov, fov<ra, eov. The imperfect 
has Attic forms ; also the iterative form tWoi/, and seldom ea = fy, las = 
?yfr$a, eare = ^re. 

3. Doric : r}/xi (stricter form for ct/u) ; ecro-t' for e? ; ti/xes and ei'/zev 
for ea-fj.fv, fvri for <ri ; infin. ?}/xti/ and fi/j-ev ; part, ewj/, eouo-a. Imperfect 
3 sing. }s for 7)V, ?)[*$ for ^//xev. Future (T(, tcra-fi, eo-o-cirai, etc. 

4. Aeolic: Lesbian e/x/xt from eo--/u for ei/xi ; imper. r-0-o (Sappho), 
part, twv, fern. eWa (Sappho). 

1067. L/JLI -- 1. Homer has eurOa for e?; subj. Tw, ir)<r0a, iy<ri and ty ; 
opt. let?/ and Tot ; infin. ifievai and t/xev (ifififvai incorrect for t/xei/at). 
Imperfect 1 sing. 7; la and civ-v/tbv for the Attic forms ; 3 sing. 7/i'e, j;e, ie 
(yet doubtful) for Attic forms ; 1 pi. yofj.fv for y/J-fv ', 3 pi. 7/icrai', eV-ycrav, 
wrav, -ryibv ; dual rTt/j/ for yTrjv. Future eia-op-ai. Aorist eicra/XTji' or 

. Hesiod has (?) c?s for et (O/). 208). 
2. Herodotus has r/i'a, 7yi'e, ^yib-av for Attic ya, yei, 7/ecrav. 

1068. <^>77/u. 1. Homer has (f>y<r6a for </>ys ; subj. <^?/?; and <g(<ri) ; 
impf. e</)7/v or </>v^v, f(f>r)(r6a or <//V$u or ^>i}s, ^>v), ^>a/xev, e</>av or ^ai', 
and </>ao-ttv or ^xurav. Infinitive <f><ifj.(v poetic. Homeric middle forms 
(with active meaning) : imperative </!>ao, <cwr#oj, (f>do-@( ; inf. c/>acr$ai (also 
Find, and rarely Tragic chorus) ; part. <a/vos (also Her., Find., Aesch., 
once in Xen.) ; impf. <a/ziv or (fxifj.^, ^>aro or (fxiro, etftavro or (fxivro 
(<f>dro also Find.). 

2. Doric (ftdfjii, <f>u.Ti, </>avri ; impf. e<^)d or </>a = ^>/ ; fut. (f>daro/ ; 
aor. xJure for 

1069. rjfiai. Homer has etarcu and etaro, rarely earat and earo (once 
for iJvTai and T^VTO. Herodotus always has /car-earai and 


1070. KiflCtl. Homer has Kcarot, /ceiarai, Keovrat, for KCIVTCU 
(iterative form) for CKCITO ;, KCMXTO, KCIVTO, for CKCIVTO ; subj. KT/TCU 
for Kei/Tai ; Hym. Merc. 254 /cara-Keiat for Kara-Kewrai. Herodotus has 
KTa6 and eKefTo, KfecrOai, Keecrdtt) (Kemu, etc., are doubtful) ; /cearcu and 
Kearo for /ecu/Tat and 

1071. otSa. 1. Homer has oiSas once for or#a ; ify-tei/ for 

subj. ei'Sw and ei'Stw, eto'oyu.ev for et'Sw/Acv, etSere for ciSr/re, ei'Suxri ; inf. 
i8yu,evcu and i8/j,ev for tiSevai ; fem. part. iSiua in I8vir)cri TrpaTriSerrtri, 
otherwise eiSvia. Pluperfect y8ea for y&r] ; y8rj(rOa with ?yiSr;s ; jJSee, 
i']ei8rj (yStj doubtful) ; foav for ycrav or ySftrav. Future etcro/xat and 

2. Herodotus has otSa, o?8as, ofSe, t'8/xev (otSa/xev four times), io-re, 
QiSda-i (some prefer ib-do-i) ; subj. ei'Sew. Pluperfect ySea, i/See, -ififare, 
y8ecrav. Future i'6%/Va>. Aor. eifir/cra, learned, found out (Hippocr. and late). 

3. Boeotian Aeolic imperative ITTW for ['O-TCO (Aristoph. ^4cfe. 860). 

4. With ot'Sa the Doric has a present tcrd/xt, icr^is, wrdri,, 

1072. ^/DT/. Poetic infinitive XP*j v XP^ vat - Herodotus has 


1073. In the following list, the forms printed in heavy-faced type belong to 
Attic prose, that is, to the ordinary spoken language. Other forms are found only 
in poetry, or in the dialects, or in late writers. However, the mere absence of an 
ordinary regular form from the classic prose writers or from the dialogue parts of 
comedy may be merely accidental, and many such forms were doubtless good Attic. 
The same may also be said of some forms found only in composition in Attic prose. 
Forms which are inferred from other forms (i.e., imperfect active, present and 
imperfect middle and passive, aorist middle, pluperfects, future passive, and future- 
perfect passive) are usually omitted. The Roman number indicates the class to 
which the verb belongs ; but the First Class is not indicated. For more detailed 
citation of passages in which the various forms occur, see Veitch's Greek Verbs, 
Irregular and .Defective. 


(da-), injure, mislead, no pr. act. ; prcs. mid. uarat ; aor. aao-a or ado-a or 
contr. a<ra ; aor. mid. aacra/Arjv, erred ; aor. pass. dao-#r;v. In the aorists 
the first a may be long or short. Verbal uaros, adaros, dddrov; aVdro?. 

[d/3/ooTaco], miss, only d/3poT(io[j.ei' (II. x. 65 subj. for -w/zei'). Compare 
epic i1fj.f3poTov from afJMpTdv<o. (IV) 

dyaio/xat, see aya/jiai. 

dvdX.Xw (ayaA.-), honour, adorn, net. is the comic poets, and late prose ; &.yaX<a ; 
mostly pass. &.y6.\\op.*\, glory in, delight in ; lyyaX/xat (.?), i/yuX- 
late. (IV) 


&-ya.}iai (dya-), pass, dep., admire {pr. and impf. like itrrafiai (498); subj. 

dyujiai, ayr), etc. 516; opt. d-ya|iTiv, &-yaio, etc. 516} ; Homer also has 

dyuio/Acu and, envy ; fut. dydcro/Aat. epic ; aor. ^cYdo-Onv and 

rarely 1\y<ura.\Li\v ; verbal dyao-nJs. (VII) 
dyao/zai, see aya/iai. 
dyy&Xco (dyyeA.-), announce; dyycXw; ^yyi\a; ^yytXica; rjyytXfjiai; 

^lyy^!" (late and on inscriptions) ; fut. pf. ayy^9T|(ro(xai ; verbal 

ayyeA.Tos. (IV) 

(dyep-), collect; ayepw ; aor. TJ-y^P* > pf- dyr/ye/jKa, -/*<*' late; ep. 2 

aor. mid. dyepo^v with part. dypofj^vos ; ep. plupf. p. dyr^yeparo ; 

ep. aor. pass. jjyepOrjv. Epic by- form t]ytpf.Oop.a.L (1042), be collected, 

only I'lycpeBovrai and t'jyepfBovTO. (IV) 
dylvew, epic, Doric, Ionic, = dyco, only pres. and impf. . t 

d-yvo&o, not to know, regular, but fut. mid. dYvofyro|u has passive meaning. 

Epic ayvouw. 
dyvupn (/ay-), break, in prose usually in comp. Kar-dYvvju and Kar-a-yvvw ; 

4|w ; ?aa (533) and rare epic 7^a (Hes. Op. 668, 693, opt. 2 sing. Kav- 

aeus from Ka/-/a^ai?, KaT-/acus) ; 2 ]). ?dYa and Hdt. erjya ; caypai late ; 

2 a. p. WYIV, ep. fdyyjv and ay^v ; verbal tcar-aicTos. (V) 

(uypiav-), 6e 7rf ; d-ypiavw ; aor. late -ijypidva transitive ; pass. 

dyptacvofJML rare and Lite ; >}yptdv6r)v ; comp. pr. ^-a-ypuxvw, make wild, 

pass, become wild. (IV) In place of this verb the Attics usually prefer 

d-ypiou, make wild, mid. pass, d-ypvoofiai. become wild, tenses regular. 

choke ; &yw ; f\y%a., middle = hang one's self, 
lead ; 4 f. m. d|o|iai also = f. p. dx^o-ofxai ; r]^a rare, doubtful in 

Attic (Horn, has 1 aor. imper. aere and inf. dgiptv or oAoicMU, first 

aor. forms with -a%- instead of -o-a-, 1028), Horn. a. in. 4tyMfy; 2. a. 

^JYa-yov ; pf. ^\ a an< i rarely ay^o)(a, late and inscr. ; ^yH Lal > ^X^i "X'*1- 

oropat. ; vb. UKTOS (Plut), aKTt'os. See by-form ayivew. 
(ttSe-), be sated ; only aor. opt. d&jcreii/ and ]>erf. part. dSr/Kw?. Epic verb. 
^8w, SITU/ / d'o-ofiai (8<a rare) ; fj<ra ; go-piai ; fjaflTiv ; vb. <<rros. Contracted 

from Ionic and poetic aei'Sw ; deur<a and aewro/Aai ; rjeura. 
(de-), rest ; aor. aecra or aeo-a, once contr. ao-a/xv (C/rf. xvi. 357). Epic. 
dei/30) Ionic and poetic for atp. 
deo) Homeric for ai!a>. 

(d-), blow; arjari, arjTov, deicri, (like TiOfuri, 1015), inf. dr//xcvai and 

d^vat, part dei's ; impf. 3 sing, drj or aei {aor. 3 pi. ae<rav (Ap. Rhodius 

4, 884)}; mid. pr. arrrai. (Find. /. 3, 27), impf. drrro, part dij/xevos. 

Epic verb. (VII) 

respect, feel shame, poetic aiSo/Aat ; f. alScVofiai and rarely al8r6T|- 
<ro(iai ; tjS6r0i]v as mid. ; fjSto-fiat ; aor. fl8<rd|iT]v poetic, in prose = 

pardon a criminal ; aiSecrros. 

&o, praise, in prose mostly in composition ; alv&r (epic and lyric 
fjvfo-o. (ep. and lyr. rjvrjcra) ; {vcKa ; ijvtiixai ; iljvflhiv ; alvr<Js, 
Horn, also pr. aivtfafUU, Hes. atvrjp,i. 


alv<rro(xai (alviK-) aivl alvtrropai, speak in riddlts ; alvC| ; flvi<]V ; flvi-y- 

jiai pass. ; flvfy^v pass. ; CUVIKTOS. (IV) 
aivvfiai, take, inipf. aivv[n]v. Epic. (K//) 
aipco) (alpe-, eA-), ta&e ; atp^j<r ; {jpijica, Hdt. dpaip^Ka ; fi'pT), Hdt. d/ot- 

pt^fj.a.1 tjp&n v ; fut. pf. flp^jo-ojwu rare ; 2 aor; clXov {?X, Xoi|ii, iSXe, tXciv, 

eXwv} ; aiperds, alpcrt'os, Honi. Aeros. ( ////) 
atpu (dp-), /i/<, contr. aet'pw (aep-) ; cfpa> ; fjpa {apw, apaip.i, apov, Kpas} ; fjpKa ; 

TjpfjLaL ; ^p0T)v, dpOrj(ro|xai ; dpr^ov. Ionic and poetic deipu (aep-) ; 

Ijetpa ; ^fpSfjv ; Hoin. plpf. 3 sing, awpro (for 7/opro) ; aeipa/z.T/v. (/ V) 

The future apoiyzcu (short a), and aor. r}pd/x^i/ belong to apvvfjLat 

win. Epic by-form ?}ep$o/zai (1042), 6e lifted, raised ; only 

impf. only t'/epfdovro (late epic). and rarely alVOofxai (a.ivd-\ perceive; alo-O^o-opxti. ; TJ<rflT)(iai, ; 

ai<r6T,T<5s. (V) 
dib-crco (diK-), ?'MS/I, Ionic and poetic for $o-<ro>. 
aio-^flvw (ato-^w-), disgrace ; alo-xvw ; fj<r\vva ; y<r\vyi<a late ; mid. pass. ; f. aio-\wovpiai, and less often ai<rxw0^o-o(iai ; ^oyyjijiM late 

(p. p. part. ycrxv[J.[JLfvo<i Honi.) ; vb. al<rxwT'os. (IV) 
dtw, hear, Ionic and poetic (in Homer dio>, in Attic poets cuw, and aim) ; 

impf. aiov aor. r-ryra ; f. 7r-cucrco late; eTr-awrros Hdt. See the 

following, also arj/j.i, blow. 

duo, breathe out, only impf. aibv. Epic verb. Compare a^/Ai, blow. 
aK-a^-t^w (d^-), grieve, afflict, a redupl. pres. ; f. dKa^^a-w ; aor. aKa^rjcra ; 

p. p. d\'dx>//*a.i { 3 pi. d/o;Xo'aTai, inf. dKd\i](rdai, part. dKa^J/fievos or 
imper. late aKa^^croJ; 2 aor. ^Ka^ov, r}Ka^oyu,7jv. Epic. 
See also ax-viywu and a^o/, am pained, and the act. parts, 
or d^ei'toi/, 6ei?.jr grieved. 

(O.K-), sharpened, epic redupl. perf. part. ; no present. 
a.Ke' /zeai ; aKea-ofiai late; ^K<rd(Jir]v ; aor. pass. rjKeardrjr late; vb. 

ew, neglect ; f. aK^Sryo-w late ; aor. d/o/($e(ra and late dKi'j8rj<ra. Poetic. 
O.KOIJU) (d/cou- for d/co/-), /tear ; aKovcro^iai and late etKcn'crw ; ^Kov<ra ; 2 pf. 
a.KT|Koa (7 1 6), 2 plpf. -f|KTjK<JTj or d.KT]K({T] ; ^Kovcr/Aat late ; -fiKovo-Oiiv ; 

o.Koucr6T] ; - vb. aKOVO-rds, aKoucrTt'os. 

dAaAd^w (dAaAay-), raise the war - cry, mostly poetic and late prose ; 

dAaAd^o/zcu ; fjXdXaga ; mid. same meaning. (IV), wander: (?) dA^o-crat ; 7/A>/0r/v ; pf. with pres. meaning dAdAr;/tat 

{inf. d\d\rj(rdat, part. dAaA^ei/os}. Chiefly poetic, the pf. and aor. 

nearly exclusively epic. 
dAa7rdw (dAaTray-), destroy; dAaTrd^to (also Xen. Anab. 7, I 29 ); 

dA<x7raa ; a. p. late e-a\u.Trd\6r)v. Epic. By-forms AaTrd^w and 

Ao7rd<rcrw. (/ 1^) 

(dAy vv-), vex ; dAy w<3 ; 7;Ayi5i'a ; pass., be grieved, fut. dAyrrov/xai 

as pass. ; a. p. dAyw&jv, fut. p. late <xAyvv#ry(ro/*ai. Mostly poetic, 

esp. tragic, rare in prose and almost always late. (IV) 


dA8au'o> (dA6W-), nourish, epic, poetic (Aescli.) ; epic 2 aor. iJjASavov ; pres. 

also dASvyo-Kw, grow, thrive; vb. av-aAros, insatiate, Horn. (/I*') 
dXci4><i> (dAi<-, dAci<-), anoint ; dXctyu ; fjXei\|/a ; d\T|Xi4>a, late and rare 

?yAei<a ; dXT|Xi^|Acu, late and rare ; T|Xi4>6i]v, late l\\ifo\v ; 

d\L4)0T|o-ofjLai ; mid. fut. dXch|/opai, aor. f|Xci\|/d|iT]v ; vb. dAeiTrros late, 

45 aXciirrfos. (//) 
dX'u> (dAe-, dAe/c-, dAK-), ward off ; active rare in prose ; fut. dAlgo|iai, 

epic dAe?ycr(o, Hdt. dA?yVo/icu ; aor. lyAe^jycra epic, 7yAca late j aor. 

inid. ^Xc^ifjLTjv ; epic 2 aor. aAaAKov, whence late fut. dAaA/oycno, pres. 

poetic a.\Ka.O(a. 

dAco/tou, avoid ; aor. ijXfvdfjirjv. Epic. See dAerw below. 
dAevw, avert; dAewrw, ryAewa, Aeschylus; epic mid. dAei'o/uat, aor. 

lyAevd/zryf {subj. ^-aAv-o--w/Aai Soph. Aj. 656 perhaps for e'-aAvo>/xat 

in Hesychius from dAixrKw}. Pres. epic and late prose also 

avoid. Poetic verb. 
aXtu, grind; [fut. dA<rw, Attic 4X ace. to Moeris, p. 17] ; ^Xra ; 

late ; dXVjXco-pai and d\T|Xe(xai. late 7/Aecr/xat ; late i]Xfcrd^v ; vb. 

dAeoreov late. Rare by-form dAry$o>, pres. and impt'. in Hippocr. 
dA^/fai inf. from aor. p. fd\ijv, see ciAw, press together. 
a\, be healed, fut dA&ycropu, Homeric. In Hippocr. dAflouVw, 

(trans.); f. dA&yVw late; aor. 7/A^ryo-a late; aor. p. 


dAivSew, dAfo), moie roW; aor. ^-?yAicra (Ar., Xen.) ; pf. 

e-T/Ai/ca (Ar.) ; p. dAtv5o/j,ai and dAivSo/xai, and aor. 

late ; pf. V|Xiv8Tj|i^vos (Dinarch. Fr. 10, 2). Compare Ki>AiV5(i>. 
(dA-, dAo-), 6e captured, used as passive to atpo ; f. 

pf. 4dXo>Ka or fjXuKa ; 2 aor. &Xa>v or fjXwv JoXw, dXws, aXw, etc. (Horn. 

aAwto) ; dXoii]v ; dX<uvai ; aXovs (498, 695, G99)j ; vb. dXwrds. See 

ai>-aAi'(TKto, expend. (VI) (dAir-, a'Atrav-) and epic (also late) dAirpaiVw, siri ; aor. lyAirov, 

t^XiTOfjLrjv ; late aor. akiTtpra ; p. part. lyAmy/ztfos, sinning. Epic. 

(/^, K) . 

aAi'w, see dAiVSw. 

dXXdo-oru and ciXXdrrw (dAAay-), cliange ; &XXd^o> ; ^XXaa ; -<jXX-x.<i i u conip.; 
fyXXa-yiiai ; ^XXdx8r|V and ^XXdyrjv, dXXax6T|o-opiai and oXXa-yVjo-oixai ; vb. 
dXXaKT^ov. (//) 

&XXo|iai (dA-), leap ; aXovpai ; ^XdjiTiv ; 2 aor. fjX.op.rjv rare and doubtful in 
Attic, epic sync. 2 aor. aAo-o, aAro, dA/xei/os (1063). (IV) 

, be excited, distressed (Ionic); impf. d\vKTaov (only Hdt. 9, 70) ; 
dAuKTew (Hippocr. 8, 30), be restless, be anxious ; epic perf. dAaAi>KT>y/xai 
(II. 10, 94). (IV) 

(dAvK-), avoid ; dAv^w ; ryAv^a ; Horn, also dAwKafw and a 
Poetic. (VI) 

d\<f>dvd) (dA</>-), find, acquire ; epic 2 aor. 7y A$ov. ( k) 
) (up.apT-), err ; d)iapT^<ro|Mii and late d/z 


f|(jiapTT|8T|v ; 2 aor. fj|xaprov ; ep. 2. a ijfiftpOTOV ; 1 aor. rifj-dprrjcra late - r 

vb. dv-a[tdpn]TOS, ire|-a.|iapTT|Ttov. ( V) 

to (dfj.f3X-) also e-a|ApXdco. miscarry ; d[j.f3X(acr(a late ; aor. r//x/2Awcra 

(Hippocr. and late), cg-r||ipXci>o-a, and late 2 aor. e-a/x/iAaWi ; pf. 

t tllipXioKo. ; -iip.pXio|iai, ; a. p. rjfj./3Xti)8r]v late. ( VI) By-forms : e- late; dfj.f3XvfrKM (Soph. Fr. 134); djU/^AajcrKW late; 

dfj.f3XtcTKdv(a late ; but d/j.f3Xv6(jj, blunt, is a different verb. 
dp.f3Xvvd) (d/j.(3Xvv-), blunt dfj.f3X.WM ; -tjfj.ftX.vva ; ; XvvOrjv. 

Mostly late, rare in Attic. (//) 
u. change, rare in Attic prose ; d|xttya> ; ^iicuf/a ; mid. d|, excliange, 

make a return, rare in Attic prose and comedy ; d(j.c(\|/o|iai ; T)|/dfjn]v ; 

pass, be exchanged, pf. T^eiTrrai (Galen, 1, 210) ; a. p. rifj,ei(f>dr)v late ; 

the mid. in the sense to ansiver, is poetic with aor. mid. or (less often) 

aor. pass, (one prose example dTr-rj/JLei^drj, Xen. An. 2, 5 15 ) vb. St- 

ayu,ei7TTOS (Sappho 14 B). 

(d/j.ep-) and dp.ep8ta, deprive ; t")fj,pa-a ; ^fiepO^v. Poetic. (/, / V) 
a/j,6vai, see aw. 

see dfj.fip(a. 

and d[JLTr-ia-\(a, see ex w ' 
dfj,7r AaKicr/cw (dfj.TrX.aK-), miss, err ; 2 aor. r//XTrAaKov ; pf. mid. 3 sing. 

KT/TCU. Poetic. ( //),7rvvf, dfj.7rvvfr6r)v, dfj.7rvvro, epic forms, see 
djivvcj (daw-), ward off; djj.ww ; TJJAVVO, ; mid. ward off from myself, defend 

myself, d^vopiai ; ; ^|xvvd[i.T]v ; vb. djivvrfos. (/ V) 
dfj,vtr(T(a and a.p.vrrw (d/z,v^-), scratch ; dfj.v<a ; rjfjiv^a (late rjfJLvxQtjv and 

dyMv^^r/o-o/xai). Poetic and Ionic. (//) 
d|Kf>i--yvoa>, doubt ; impf. f||x<j>i'yv<$ovv and r\\i.$iyv6ovv ; aor. T]p.4>v v T l cra > a - P- 

pt. dfJ.(piyvorjOei<;. 557. 
dpi(f>i-vvv|ii and late dfj.<f>i-vvviD (dfj.<f>i-e- for d/x^>t-/ecr-), clothe/ fut. d/*<^tcrw 

epic, and d)j.4>i<u Attic ; i]|i4>(e<ra ; i]p.<{>e< ; aor. pass. dfj.(f>i-ea-6ei<s late ; 

fut. mid. d|i4>io-ofiai. ; d/>i</)tecrd/x7yi' poetic and i']fj.(f)icrdfj.^v late prose. 

See the simple form evviyu (I- for /r-), with forms compounded with 

7rt and Kara. A late by-form is d/A</>tda>, d/j.<f>idcrw, ijfjufriacra, t^/u^OKO, 

ijfK^LafrfJLai. 555. (K) 

o, dispute; augments rj/jLcfxcr- or ifptfaur-. 557. 
(dvav-) refuse; impf. ^vatvd/i^v not Att. ; aor. i^v^vd/j.rjv Horn. 

and late prose (Eur. M. 237). (/^) 

oj (aA-, uAo-, 659) and dv-dXdw, spend; impf. dv^jXio-Kov and (Thuc. 

8, 45) dv^Xovv ; dvdXw<rw ; dvi]Xcixra ; avTJXwKa ; dv7jX< ; dv^XwOtjv ; 

dvdXwTos, dvdXwTt'os. The forms avaAuxra, uvdAwxa,, di'a.X<odt)v 

are found in MSS ; but they are late ; the rare forms (in composition) 

KaT-i\vdX(acra, KaT-tjvdAw/xai, KaT-T)vdAai^r/v are late. See dAiV/co/xat. 


av8dv<i> (dS-), please (present also in Attic poetry) ; impf. Horn, and Hdt. 
or itjvdavov (but some claim dvSavov for Horn. ; and some 


claim idvSarov for Hdt.) ; f. d8-i'/cr(a Hdt. ; 2 aor. eaSov Hclt., d8ov or 
fvaSov (for if-fabov) Horn. ; 2 pf. eaSa epic, also late, Ionic and poetic. 
Adj. &<r-|icvos, pleased. (V) 
av-t\o> and dv ^\o|um see t\u. 

f, springs, epic 2 perf. with pres. meaning in Od. 17, 27 ; as plpf. = 
aor., sprung, in II. '11, 266. Compare -evrjvoQe. 

fry-vvju and dv-ofy, open (see the simple oiy-viyu and oiyw poetic), 
dv-oiyvvw late; impf. dv-ty-yov (534), dv-yyov (II. 14, 1G8) could be 
dv-ewyov with synizesis, rjvoiyov (doubtful in Xen.) and dv-tyyvvov late ; 
fut dv-oiw ; aor. dv-twga, late rjvoi^a. (doubtful in Xen.), Hdt. avoia, 
Theocr. dv^a ; pf. dvu>x a ; 2 pf. uvu>-y a rare in Attic, and means hare 
opened, in later writers usually = stand open for which the Attics use pf. 
pass. dv&pYiiai, stand open, Theocr. dvyyuai, late i"jvoiyfj.aL ; a. p. dvtwx&nv, 
late ijvo[\0yjv, late fut. dvoi\6i']crop.a.L ; 2 a. p. late r}i/oiy;i', 2 ftit. late 
dvoiyt'frofJMi ; fut. pf. dv^ofiai ; vb. dvoiKrfov. In late writers, besides 
the classical forms, there are also found forms with triple augment : 

dv-op06u), set upright ; augments regularly in classic writers ; as dv-wpOuo-a ; 
late plpf. J]v-op6ii>Ktiv (Liban. Epist. 959). But the double compound 
tT-av oo06o> regularly has the double augment (556) eir-r\v-p-, as 
tir T]v-uip6a><ra, ir-7]v-wp0w|xai, etc. ; in late Greek occasionally the simple, 
as fTT-ar-ii)p6(aOrjv. 

X^w, meet, has double augment (557) ; ^vr--p<JXow (Aristoph. I}VTI- 
floXovv); dvri-po\ii<rw, r^vr-t-^6\r]a-a (epic dvTi-/36\r)cra) ; a. p. 

SiKu. be defendant, has double augment (563) ; f|VT--8h>\>v ; dvTi-8iKTJ<rw ; 
^vr--8KT)<ra. Forms with ryvri-S- are doubtful. 

dvvfj.1, see aww. 

dvva>. Attic also dvvTu, accomplish (late dvvta) dvv<rw and Horn. f- 
avvta (1023); TJVVKO. ; TJvvo-fiai ; late. ijvvo-Brjv ; vb. dw<TT<$s, dvvros 
(Sext. Emp. 617), dv-ijvvTos (Soph. El. 166), UV-J/VIXTTO? (Od. 
16, 111). Written also O.VV(T)W with the aspirate. Poetic avta (also 
avo>), pres. and impf. Doric ayiyu, only impf. aviyxes (Theocr. 7, 
10) ; pass, dwrat late ; impf. ?}VITO (Od. 5, 243), UVITO (Theocr. 2, 

avtoyo, 2 pf. with prea. meaning, command {1 pi. ai/wy/xev ; pubj. dvwyco ; 
opt. dva>yoi/j.t ; imper. dv(i>\0i and rarely dvioye, di'taytroi and dvw\0o), 
dv(o\df and dvw-yere ; inf. uywye/zei'}; 2 plupf. with imperfect meaning 
7/vwyea {3 sing. TJvwyei and dvwyet}; impf. Horn, rjvtoyov (1036) or 
dvtayov {3 sing, r/vwye}; pres. forms from (?) dvcoyw, or (?) dywyew 
occur ; 3 sing, dvwyei, dual avwyero^, pt. di/wycuv, -owa ; fut. 
dvw(a ; aor. rjvwa. Poetic and Ionic. 

dr-avpata, take away, present not found ; impf. with aor. meaning aTr-^i'pwv. 
Poetic and epic. Allied epic forms are fut. a7rtny>r/cr<o, aor. part. 
UTTOI'/DUS and aT 


(a7r-a<-), deceive; f. rare u7ra<?/cru> ; 2 a. -Ijirafov, raid. opt. as act. 
dird<f>oiTo ; rare 1 aor. drrd^cra. Poetic. (VI) 
air-x8-avojiai and late o.TT-i\6o^a.i (t\6-\ be hated; air-x6iioro(xai ; dir-iix0'lH L<u ; 

d'ir-Tix0H <T l v - ^ ee the simple e\6o> and f\6ofj.a.i. 
dnSfpo-c, epic aor. 3 sing., swept off (Horn.) ; see Apia. 

diro-Xovw, enjoy, no simple form ; diro-Xavo-ofiai and late cnro-Aca-crto ; dir- 
t'Xavera ; diro-X^XavKa ; p. p. late ciTro-AeAaiyACU but part. dT 
(Plut.) ; a. p. late a7r-eAavo-0j;v ; vb. oVo-Aavo-ros late. 
see d-!r-avpd<a. 
see XPV- 

-), fasten, kindle, middle, touch ; &t|/ ; fjxj/a ; Tjppai ; fj<J>0i]v, fut. late 
in comp. d<#r/o-o/tai ; Horn. a. p. ed^Orj (II. 13, 543; 14, 419), also 
derived from eVo/xcu and iairrw ; vb. dirrds, ctirr^os. (///) See Epic pray, mid. dep. regular ; epic act. inf. 

dpapio-Kb) (a/D-), fit, join, trans. ; [fat. (?) dpw, aptrui] ; aor. rjpo-a ; 2 aor. 

tjpapov trans, and intrans. ; 2 pf. dpdpa, be joined, fitted (also in Aesch., 

Eur., late writers, and once in comp. in Xen.), Ionic dprjpa.' p. m. dpt'/pefjiai 

late in simple ; a. p. ripBr^v ; 2 a. m. part, ap/zevos (1063) ; vb. 

7rpoo--a/oTeos (Hippocr.). Poetic verb. (VI) 
apao-a-cu and dparrw (cxpay-), strike, the simple form not in Attic prose, in 

Comedy only Ar. Eccl. 777); dpd|w ; r{pa|a ; -r/pay/xai late; iipdxO^v. 

See pdarcro). (IV) 

&p8w, water ; aor. rjpcra. Hdt. Attic only pres. and impf. 
dpc'o-Kw (p-), please j dpco-w ; rjp<ra ; dpi'/peKa late ; tjpf(r6r)v late ; vb. 

dpTT<Js. (//) 
aprjfj.evos, oppressed, epic perfect passive participle. 

suffice, assist; dpiclcru ; T]pKcra ; ?yp/feo-/>iai late ; ijpKfa-O-rjv late ; 

dpKe<T@i'icrop,ai late ; vb. a/a/ceros late. 

poetic, and dpiiorroi (upfj.o8-), fit ; dp^oo-w ; fjpiioo-a ; (rvv-dpfjLoa Find. ; 

ijpfjLOKO. late ; fjp|J.oo-| ; r\pp6<rQt\v, dp^oo-6T|(ro| ; vb. a,p(io<rr&>s. (IV) 
ap-vv-fj-ai, win; dpov^ai. ; 2 a. i]pofj.riv. Poetic, tragic, also in Plato. (V) 
dpoco, plough ; dpocra) late ; i'/poa-a p. p. dp->'/ Ionic ; ^po0t]v. 

^w (dpiraS-, apiray-}, snatch; dpirdo-o) and oftener dpird<ro|xai, Epic or late 

apwa^ia ; fjpircura, poetic TJpTra^a ; ijpiraKa ; and late IjpTra.y/', 

T)pirdo-9T)v, Hdt. also ^pTrd-^B^v, 2 a. p. late -fjpirdyijv ; dpirao-Oiio-ofjiai and 

late d/37ray7y(ro/xat ; vb. d/sTrao-Tos late, d/37raKTos Hes. (/ V) 
(dprvv-), prepare ; fut. dprvvfo* ; aor. rjprvva ; a. p. 

Epic. See the following dprvw. 

iJu (in Homer dprvw), prepare ; regular, but in Attic prose only in comp. 

), Attic dpvrw, draw water ; dpTxro/xcu late ; rjpvo-a ; itr-r\pvQi]v and 

(late, Ionic) ; vb. tir-apvor^os. 

w> begin, command, middle begin ; &p ; fjp^a ; late pf. fjpxa. ; 

middle ; fjpx^v ; fut. dpx^o'o/xai Aristotle, &pgo|i.<u is sometimes used 

as passive ; vb. dptcrlos. 


(Lo-cru, qiTTco, from Ionic or poetic dwro-co (ax- from dix-), rmh ; 4 from Ionic 

dito ; jja from Ionic ?/ta ; a. p. with act. meaning I'/i^drjv (Horn.). 

Rare in prose. Some write ourcrw or arrto. (IV) 
CKTrpdirrai (dcrrpaTr-), liyliten, flash ; do-Tpd\f(a ; fj<rrpa\J/a. (///) 
driTttAAw (aTiraA.-), rear, tend, epic and lyric ; aor. arirr^Xa. also late. (/K) 
aTi'u> (aruy-), terrify, epic and lyric; arv^w late; inf. aor. drvgai (Theocr.); 

a. p. drvx^et's (also late). (IV) 
nvaivd) (avav-) or avcuvtu, rfrt/; f. aravw ; a. rjvrfva ; a. p. rfvavdriv ; f. m. as 

pass, ai'avov/Luu ; f. pass. avavdij(rop.a.i. Sometimes the past tenses have 

av- for TJV- (519). The verb is poetic and Ionic, rare in Attic prose or 

poetry. (/ V) 
ai'Sd^w (avSay-), speak, late in act. : avSu^w, -rjvSaga ; mid. only aor. in Hdt. ; 

a. pass. av8a\6ei(ra (Orph. hymn. 27, 9). (IV) 
avdvco and atf (av-), increase ; ai|ii<rw ; rj^'HO'a ; t)$;iiKa ; r|{i^fiai ; T]V|I]&T]V ; 

vb. avgrjTfov (Aristotle). (/) Epic and Ionic- de^w (so always in 

Horn.) ; f. late der/creo ; a. late de^-rpra. 
aTr-avpa.(a, see above. 

see below. 
, feel, handle (647 ; 1002, 2), Hdt.; aor. r^cura (Hdt.); a<aw or 

a<da>, handle, Ionic (not in Hdt.), rare in Attic, prose ; in comp. except 

pres. part. a<ou>v (J7. 6, 32), eTr-a^crw, e7T-?;^>?;tra. (IV) 
d<j>-tT](ii, let go; impf. sometimes ^<|>ft]v as well as &4>tt)v (555 ; 771, 4). See 

the inflection of ?7//u (770). (///) 
d^iVtrw (d(j>vy-), draw, pour ; d^>i'^w. Poetic, chiefly epic ; also late prose. 

See d<vu>. (IV) 
d<f>vii), draw, pres. in comp. only; fut. d<^ixro-o> (Anth. 5, 226) for d</>i'o-w ; 

aor. 7^</>v(ra. Poetic, mostly epic. 

and d^eo>, 6e grieved, only in present participles d\evwv and d^ewr. 

Epic. See aKa^t'^w, a^-vi'/xai, a^-o/xat. 

^ e displeased, be vexed; dx^* <r F Lai > aru ^ ^ P- ^ mid. 

o.\9cr0T]cro}icu ; -!j\drjp.a.(. late ; #|X^*"^ T 1 V - 
a^-i'v/xai (d^-), 6e troubled. Poetic. (V) See di<a.)(i<a, d\ev(a, d\oftai. 
ax-o/j-ai (d\-), be troubled, epic, only present, see above, 
[dw], satiate ; fut. ao-co ; aor. acra ; 2 aor. = satiate one's self, inf. a/iei/cu (for 

df/zei'ai), subjunctive ciapey or ew/itv ; mid. pres. aarai (? acrai) ; f. 

curo/xat ; a. otrd/ir^v. Epic. 
atapro, see atpo> (dfip<a). 


/3dfu> (/3ac-), *poi, 1/tter, epic ; er-/3d^a) (Aesch.) ; /3f/3a.KTai (Homer). (/ k) 
PO.CVM ()3a- 652, II.), 90; fut. f3tfj<ro|xai in comp., the simple in poetic or late 
for act /?77<rw see below) ; pf. (^(J^Ko, Aav jrowe, stand fast ; 2 pf. (768) 
3 pi. /?/3a<ri (Tragedy) contr. from Horn. ^SeySdcurt {subj. e/*-/:?e/3axrt 
(Plat.) ; inf. fteftdfMfv epic, /3f/3dvai poetic ; part (3e/3w<; (poet, rare in 
prose), (3((3<txra (poetic), and (fj.-fi(/3avia (Horn.) ; plupf. ft 


Horn,}; 2 aor. iprjv (767) in coin p., the simple is poetic {p, Patrjv, 
PTJVCU, pds } ; p. p. f&papcu rare and in comp., late (?) Trapa-f3ff3aa-/j.aL ; 
aor. p. c|3a6T]v rare and in comp., late are (/Bda-Orjv and tflavd^v ; rare 
epic aor. mid. e/3^crdfj.r]v and IfBrja-ofjLijv ; vb. (Sards. 8ia par^os. Some 
tenses occasionally have a causative sense, make to yo : KaTa-fiaivw (only 
Find. Pyth. 8, 78) ; -/3ry<ra) (poetic) ; f/3rjcra (poetic, Ionic prose, late 
Attic ; also v7rep-/8rycraTw in Xen. Eq. 7, 2). (V, IV) See also /3ao-/co>, 
/ty3aa>, and /Si/fyyLu. (/, /[/) 

(j3aX-, /3Aa-), throw ; f. poXu in good prose in comp., /SaXXi/a-w only 
in Aristoph. Vesp. 222 and 1491; 2 aor. poXov ; sync. 2 a. dual 
gv/j.-(3Xr)Tr)v and inf. v/i-/3A^evcu epic ; epic 2 aor. mid. as pass. 
f/BXrifjirjv {subj. /^Ar^erou, opt. (3Xyo or /3Aeto, inf. fBXija-Oai, part. 
^8A?y/xei'os}, sync. fut. v(j.-/3\r](reai (only 77. 20, 335), s/iaW encounter ; 
pe'P\T|Ka ; p t '(3\T]| {epic 2 sing. /3e/3Xrjai ; opt. in Andoc. 2, 24 
Sia-/3e/3Xrj(r@( (745)}; epic /3e/36Xr), ; p\T|6T)v, p\T]6^(ro|xai ; f. pf. 
pcp\T)<ro|icu (simple late in prose) ; vb. fiXr/Tos late, airo-pXr]T&>s. (/ ^) 
rrw (/3a<-), rfi|9 ; pd|/w simple late ; pcu|/a ; plpa| ; tpd^v and poet. 
fj3d(f>6r]v ; vb. pairrcJs. (///) 

(flap w-), ?oarf, annoy ; papvvw ; efidpvva late ; (3ef3(ipv[Ji./ late ; 
papvv9Tiv. (IV) 
f3dcni> ((3a-\ poetic form of /3ouVa>, go ; in //. 2, 234, lTri/3aa-Kffjiv is trans., 

o cause <o ^o. ( VI) 

/^ao-ra^w (J3a-TTa8-, later /Batrray-), carry ; /Jao-Tacrw and late /2a<TTttw ; 
e/Jao-racra and late e[3a.<TTa.a ; late and e/3aa-Td\6r^v and 
f(3ao-Tdyr)v ; vb. late /?ao-raKTos. Poetic, also in Attic poetry, late in 
prose. (/ ^) 

/3eo/i.a.i,, /8ioyu,at, s//a/Z Ziw, epic future (1023) ; see /?io. 
P^o-o-u (J3r)X~)i an( ^ P^TTW, couyh ; fti]^(a (Hippocr.), e^^a (Hippocr. and 
Hdt). (/If) 

s<ep; Horn. HT/TO. Merc. 225 ; pr. part. /3ij3wv. Epic. 
(pa-*), go; pr. part. /tySds. Epic. (K//). 

((3po-), eat, pres. Hippocr. and late ; f. /J/awo-o/zcu late and (. ? ) 
late ; a. 4'/3pw^a and dv-(/3p(i>(ra late ; 2 a. epic ffipwv (Honi. 
IpoW. 127); pf. pppica; 2 pf. part. /^e/Jpws (Soph.) 1064; 
f/3pu>6ijv Hdt. and late ; ftp<i)d->')( late ; /3ef3pio(rofj.a.i (Od. 
2, 203) ; /fyxoros, /Jpwreos. The Attics used only the perfect act. and 
pass.; the other tenses were supplied from r#iw. (VI) See the 
by-form /3pwd<a. 

PLOW, fee, pres. and impf. rare and doubtful in Attic, au> and /JioTeuw 
preferred ; puio-oficu, and late /?iwcr<u and /3ico$7}<ro/iai ; lp(ci><ra rare, 
usually 2 a. iptwv (767, 2) {*pfo>s. ^p, etc. ; subj. piw, PI^S, etc. ; opt. 
piu)T]v (irreg., pioi-riv is pres. opt.); imper. /Jtwrw Horn.; inf. PIWVCU ; part. 
PIOUS} ; pcpiwKci ; p. p. pp(oroi with a pronoun, as p.oi ; vb. PIWTOS. 
PUOT^OS. See ^8t(ixrKO/xai. 

/3ui>( (/3to-), Attic dva- piwa-Kopai tr. re-animate, intr. revive ; f. late 



di'a-/?iaxr<o, will restore to life ; aor. e/3iwo-a/^v, Attic 

re-animated ; 2 a. dv-ptwv, revived ; 1 a. act. intr. dve-flioxra revived, late ; 

a. p. dv-f/3iioOriv late. (VI) 
pXdirrw (fiXa/3-), injure ; pXd\|/a> ; ?j3Xa|/a ; pepXa4>a and inscr. e/3Aa</>a ; 

pt'pXafijiai and inscr. e/JAa/z/xevos ; lpXd<}>6T]v and tpXip^v ; fut. mid. 

pXdiJ/oficu = fut. pass. pXapt|cro(jLai ; /3(3Xd\j/Ofj,o.i (Hippocr., Galen). (///) 

(3Xd(3fTai, pr. 3 sing. pass. (Horn. ; Anacrontea). 
pXao-rdvcu (/^AacrT-) and late /3Aao-To, sprout, rarely trans, cause to sprout, 

bring forth ; ftXacrrrfria, Ionic, poetic, late ; e /3 Xda-rijo-a, Hippocr., late ; 

2 aor. tpXaorrov ; pepXd<rrT]Ka, less often IpXdo-njica. ( V) 
pXt'iru, see ; pX6\J/, late /JAe^-w, Hdt. dva-fiXtyd) ; 2pXci|/a ; a7ro-/?/3Ae<j!>a 

late ; /?/2Ae/z/iai late ; Trpoo--f/3X(j>6i]v late ; vb. pXcTrrds, pXrr^os- 
pXCrrw (/?Air-, from /xeAtr-, 71), <a&e Iwney ; f. (?} (3\icro) ; ^pXiara. 
fiXuxTKia (fjio A-, /zAo-, /3Ao-, 71), </o / f. ; p. fj.ep./3\WKa ; fftoXov. 

Poetic, late in simple. Late fut. Ka.Ta-/3Xit>w, late aor. f/3X(aa. (VI) 
Podco, s/iOM/ ; po-qo-ofiai, late f3ot]crto ; lpot]<ra ; late are /3/?o?//ca and 

and /?ojj(?>/i'. Ionic (3odw, and from stein /3o-: 

-W ; late are f(36o-Kr](ra. and e/3o(rKii']@r)v vb. f3oo-Krjr(o<s. 
i, in'//, icis/i (augments eflovX- or ->}[3ovX-, 525) ; povX^o-ojiai and late 

f3ovXrjOi}(rofiaL ; pcSovXi^^iai ; 2 pf. poet. 7rpo-ftf/3ovXa, prefer; l$ov\'(\9r]v ; 

vb. povXiyr<Js, /JovXrjTfos (Aristotle). Honi. also /?oAo/xui. 
va (ppcAuv-\ delay, be slow ; f. ftpaovvw late ; a. (fipdovva late ; pf. 

fifppdSvKa late. (/K) 

fo, Ppdtra-d), Attic poetry ^8/tMXTTto, 6oi7, sTwifo ; ftpdtrta, ffipaara, 

f3e/3pa<rfJMi, ff3pdo-@ijv t /3pa<rTfov, all late. (/K) 

- stem, only 2 a. efipaxe or fipdyt, resounded. Epic and late. 
Pp'x, w< / /3/>e^w late ; ippt^a ; pippcyjiai ; ^Pp^x9t]v and f(3pdx>jv late ; 

vb. [3pcKTeov late. 

/?pt'u>, /ee^ heavy, drowsy ; e(3pia. Poetic, (/ /) 
ftpfdw, be heavy, rarely <o weigh down ; (3pZo-ia ; eftpura ; f3ef3plOa. Poetic, 

late prose, pr. once in Plato. 
/3po\-, swallow ; a. /3pof late (Horn, aya- and KCITO-) ; 2 p. di'a-[3f[3po\f\' 

(II. 17, 54); a. p. KaTa-/3poxdfi^ late; 2 a. p. di'a-f3po\(i<i (Od. 11, 

586). Epic. 

f3pvdw, teem, revel; a. dv-ef3pvaa. Poetic; late prose. (IV) 
fipi'Kta and late (3pf>x(a, grind (lie teeth, bite ; /3/M'eu ; cfipvga ; 2 a. 9ftp6\t ; 

ff$pv\6->i\'. Poetic (rare in Tragedy), also late. 
Ppv\dop,ai ((3pv\-, 629), roar; fipv\i'fro^a,i very late ; &.v-t$pv\r\a-a.\i.T\v Pint. ; 

f(3pf\ijd^v a. mid. (Soph. O.R. 1265); 2 p. as pres. f&fipv\a. poet, and 

late prose. 
Ppw6i,>, KaTa-i3p'>0<a (Babr. 67, 18), eat; 2 pf. opt. /?e/fyw0ois (II. 4, 35). 

Compare /Ji/3/xocrKw. 

PVV'U> C^i'-) and late /3rw, stop up; -pi<ro> ; ipvcra ; p*pu( ; late Trap- 
' ; vb. wapa-pvor<$s. Hdt. in 2, 96 has Sia-f3vrfTai. (V) 


Yo.fa.tio (yap-), marry (of ilia man) ; fut. ya\j.u. late ya/i^cru) ; a. ^na, late 
eydfj.rj(ra (also Meuander) ; y < y*'-l 1T ) Ka > mid., marry (of the woman): 
yap&>| ; yap.ovpai, late ya/zTyo-o/zut ; ya/zro-Tcu = will provide a infe 
for (II. 9, 394) is doubtful ; eyT]|idp.T]v ; y { 'Y-H LT lH- cu > aor - pass. iyttfi/^0i)V 
late, eyafie6r}v in Theocr., ya/xr/^Tycro/Aai late ; vb. -yaiwrrj, married, mfe, 
ydvvfjLat. (ya-), rejoice ; f. epic yavwrcro/xou ; late pf. yeyavvp-at (Anacreontea). 

Poetic, also late. (V) 

yeywva (ywv-). epic 2 pf. with pres. meaning, also yeywvew and yeywvio-Kw, 
S/IOM {subj. yeywvco ; imper. yeywve, yeytoveiro) ; inf. yeywve/u.ei' epic 
and yeycoveii' ; part, yeywi/ws epic}; impf. eyeywvei and e^eycove 1 pi. 
; fut. yeywv^o-w ; a. eyeywyTjo-a. Poetic, rare in Attic prose. 
(yev-), 6e born, epic ; aor. eyeiva^v, &#/, poet, {in prose o 

i; yetva/^ei/^, parent }. (IV) 

laugh; -ycXao-ofxai. (615) and late yeAocrw ; Y^Xa<ra (Theoc. 20, 15 
Kara-yeyeAao-jUcu late ; ^y*^^"^ T l v ) ^ a te ytkaa-dija-ofjiai ; vb. 
yeAao-Tos (Od. 9, 307), Kara- (PI.), late yeAao-reos. 
yevro, grasped (1063), epic 2 aor. II. 18, 476 ; also for lyevero from 

ytvo), give a taste, taste, mid. taste; regular, but a. p. is eyevcrOrjv late. 
yvyflew (yrjB-, 613), rejoice, poetic; yi]6i]cna ; eyrjOrjo-a ; 2 p. ytyT\Qa. as pres. 

and -yT]pda) (yrjpa-\ grow old ; yi\p&<r<D and ynpd<ro|xcu ; t-yTJpdora ; 
y'Y 1 1pdKa, am old ; 2 a. inf. (767) yrjpavai., poetic with Horn. pt. y>//3as 
(Xenophanes Eleg. Fr. 8 has y^/aeis like #et's) ; yrjpdo-KOfjian. (Hes. Fr. 
163) ; y?7/3ao/xcu and {nrep-yr/paOets late, (l^/) 

(yei'-, 618) and yfi/oyuai (Doric, new Ionic, and late), become; 
yeviio-ojiai ; yrye'vT)( and 2 p. -yfyova mean am or /iate been; 2 a. yv<$ni]v 
(epic 3 sing, yevro ; compare epic yevro = seized) ; eyevt]dijv (Doric, 
Ionic), fut. yci>r)6i')(rofjiai (Plat. Parm. 141); 2 pf. of /u-form (768) has 
ycyadre and yeyadcrt (Horn.), inf. yeya/zev (Horn.), part, yeyws (epic and 
late), yeyavia (epic), yyws and yeyoxra (Attic poets), plpf. 3 dual 
eK-yeydrijv (Horn, and late). 

(y vo-) and yiviao-KU) (Doric, New Ionic, and late), know ; yvuo-oiiai 
(1 a. ttv-eyvwcra only in Hdt, meaning persuaded) ; 2 a. Ityvwv, 767, 
perceived -fyvo><s, ?-yvw, etc. ; subj. yvw (like Sw, 498), opt. yvott\v (like 
Sofyv, 498), imper. yvwfli, yvwrw, etc. ; inf. yvwveu ; part. yvovs (like 8ors, 
332) | ; e'-^vtoKa : ?Y vw<r ( iat ! tyvwo-OTiv ; vb. YVWTT<JS and poet, yvwros, 

desire; a. eyXid[ (Com. Fr.). 

(yXi'Kav-), sweeten, late in act., yA^/cai/dl, eyAvKdva ; usually pass. 
yXuKa(vo|iai ; yy\vKao-/j.aL and ttTr-eyAi'/cao-^ai late ; (y\VKav6i)v, yAi>- 
Ka.vdi'i<ro[JLai late ; mid. Kar-ryXvKi]vaTo as act. (Com. Fr.). 


yXv4>w, grave, cut ; yAr^w late ; tyXvi^a late, tv- in Hdt. ; -yfyXufiiiai and 

-y\v(i(iai ; eyAi'</>0>/ and fyXvfftrjv lute ; vb. yXvTrros late. 
yvduTTTta (yvafj.Tr-), bend ; yvduif/w ; ?y va/z^a ; dv-fyvdfj.<f>6rjv. Poetic. 

yoaw (yo-, 629), bewail, Horn. inf. yorj/zevcu; 2 a. ydov epic; late are yoi/o-co 

and fyoijo-a. Mid. yodouat Attic poetry, also once in Xen. ; yo^cro/iai 

(II.] ; eyoijcrdfjujv and yo?/#eis late. 
ypa<f>w. write ; ypci'J" ; -ypax|/a ; y<YP a< l >a > l a t e yfypd<f>i)Ka ; -ycYpafifiai, late ; ^Ypd<J>r]v, late fypa<f>brjv ; yP a 4 )1 l cro H l - ai 'Y e YPx'l' FMtt ; vb. 

'to (yp'y-), grunt ; ypvw late, and ypvo[ ; fypva ; vb. 
Attic poet., also Plat. 

(Sa-), ^ec/i, learn; no present; 2 a. eSaov, learned, taught; 8f8aov, taught, 
2 a. m. inf. SeSdaa-dai ; 2 p. part. SeSaws, having learned ; 2 a. p. eSur/v, 
learned; f. Saryo-o/xai, s/iW learn; p. SeSa^/ca, Aave learned; SeSdry/xat, 
7iave learned. Poetic, mostly epic. Homer has also fut. S>yw, shall find. 

8cu8aAA.o> (SatSaA-), rfefA curiously, poetic ; Pindar has p. p. part. 88ai6aA- 
a. part. 8ai8a\6ei$ ; and a f. inf. from a stem 8ai.SaA.o-, 

(8aty-), rend; 8at(a ; eSai'^a ; SeSaly/zai ; f8at\0tjv ; vb. 

Epic and lyric. (/^) 
Saivi'fj.1 (8at-), entertain {Saivv epic imperative pr., or indie, impf. ] ; SatVw ; 

e8ara ; mid. Saivvfjiai., feast, eat {Horn, opt 3 sing. Satvuro (700, 1051) 

for 8aivv-i-TO, 3 pi. 8auvvar' for 8atvv-i-VTO } ; ; i8atcrdiJ.rjv ; 

aor. pass. part. 8aurOcis ; vb. a-Satros, not <o fte ea<ew. Poetic, also in 

Ionic prose. (K) (8a-, 650, 1002), divide; p. p. 3 pi. SeSai'arai (Od. 1, 23). Poetic. 

(/^) See, divide, and Satw, kindle. 
8ai<a (6a-, 650, 1002), kindle; 2 p. SeS^a, 6ttrn, epic, 8f8ava late; mid. 

oa/o//at, 6tmi ; 2 a. (f8a6fj.i]v), snbj. Sdrjrat 8e8avfj.tvo<i late. Poetic 

(once in Hippocr.). (/K) See, divide. 
8aKvu> (Sa*<-, ST//C-), 6t<e; S^o^ai and late Sr/w ; 2 a. i'SaKov and late 1 a. 

f8i)a 8c8i)\a late ; StBrj-yjiai ; !8i]x0T]v and late 2 a. p. eSdKrjv, 

SrjxeVio-o^i. (V, II) 
8afj.dd> (8afi-a8-), tame ; f. Sa/xouro), 8ap.dw, 8afj.<a { Horn. 3 sing. 8afj.a 

and 8ap.da, 3 pi. Sa/xowo-t, by some called present}; e'Sa/iacra ; mid. 

Sa/ia^ofjiai ; 8afj.a(rdfj.r)V ; 8e8dfiao-fJMi, late ; a. p. f8afj,do~6rjv ; vb. 

8afj.(i(TToi' late. Mostly poetic (in Attic prose Sa/ia^iu, KaT-f8afj.aa-dfj.rjv, 

and f8afj,d(rOr)v occur). (/ K) Compare the following oap.v6.ta or 
8auvd( (8afj,va-) and 8duvrjfj,t (8afj.-, 8fia-), tame ;, 8f8fj.t'j(rofjLai ; 

f8fj.t'ldi]v and 2 a. p. f8dfj.r)v. Poetic. See the preceding 8afj.vdta. 

The pf. also belongs to Ionic 8ffj.(a, build. (V) 
-8apddv(a (8apB-), sleep, simple only ioapdov (Od. 20, 143); regularly 


Kara-SapOavw ; Ka.T-'8a,p0ov and poet. Ka.T-k8pa.6ov ; pf. KaTa-88dp0T]Ka ; 

late Kar-tSdpdtjv, slapt. ( V) 
oWeoyMcu (8ar-, Sare-), divide ; f. ; a. f8aa-dfj.i)v (in conip. twice in 

Xen., once in Thuc.) ; a. inf. (?) Sareacr^ai in Hes. Op. 767 ought to be 

pr. 8aTff<rOai ; SeSacr/AGU ; late -eScur6fyv ; vb. dvd 8a<rros. Poetic. 

Compare Satofjuu, divide. 

8eafJLai, appear, only iinpf. Staro in Od. 6, 242. (^//) 
StSia. SeSoiKa. 6Wou>, /ear, see root Si-. (?), SeSto-o-o/Mcu,, frighten (formed from SeSia, 8e8oiKa ; 

epic form SetSurcrojucu) ; f. SeSio/xai late, and epic 5ei6Yo/xcu ; a. 

e8f8i^dfj.ijv (rare Att. pr.) and epic eSiSia/r/v (late 8ei<H<ra/xevos, 

fearing). (VI, IV) Different from epic Se(i)8 ur KO/AGU, greet, only pr. 

and impf. 

SeiSey/zcu, see 
8iKvu(xi (8etK-) and SEIKVVCO, s/io?r, full inflection in 498 ; 8 

SeSci^a ; 8t8ei-y| ; ISei)(0T)v ; lute 8f8fi^o/ pass.; vb. SIKTOV. 

Hdt. has root Se/c- : -8ew, -e'Se^a, -SeSey/xai, -e'Se^ci/xrp. Mid. 

in epic also = f/reei, welcome; a. eSet^ct^v (Horn. Hymn.); Horn. 

8ei8eyfjLat (for 8eSeiy//.at, 3 pi. SitSe^aro) ; so also SeiKavaw, s/to?c (?/te 

hand), poetic, pres. late, mid. welcome, and epic <$e(i)oYo-/co/xcu, #ree<, 

different from (5e(<.)6Yo-Ko/xcu = SeSt'cro-oyuai, frighten. 
Se/zw (5e/x-, 8yu.e-), build; a. e'Setyua ; 8f8/j.i)/ Ionic, poetic., see ; late ; eSe/a^a/xr^v late ; 2 a. 4'Spa/cov, and late 

ts-e8pa/ca ; f8kp\0i]v and 2 a. p. i&paK^v, saw; 2 p. 8f8opKa as present; 

vb. yu,oyo-Se/3KTos (Ear. C'yrf. 78). Poetic, occasionally late prose. 
Se'pu), ,^((y, also Seipu ; 8pw ; t'Seipa ; SeSapjiai. ; 2 a. p. 8apT|v, Sapi'jorofj.a.1, (New 

Test.) ; tSdpdrjv late ; vb. Sapros late, S/Dards (Horn.). 
Stxo|iai, receive, SeKo/xai Aeol. and New Ionic ; 8ofu ; Std|iT]v ; 8Scy|xai, ; 

-8'x0i]v passive (late as simple) ; late Sex$?/"cyi,ou passive ; poet. 

SeSe'o/icu act.; vb. SCKTCOS late, diro-8KTov (Hoin.) ; /xt- forms (1063); 

pres. Horn. Sc^arai (3 pi.), part. 8ty/j.evo<s, awaiting; impf. Horn. 

f8fyfi.T)v, was expecting, but as aorist poet e&yyu.rp JeSeKTO or Se/cro, 

iinjjer. 8co, 8f%(Je, inf. 8ex^at}, but some consider 8e\arai as a perf. 

without redupl. and ^yp.rfv as plupf. 
8tw, />i?i^, 480 ; Sfyrco ; i'8i](ra ; Se'Scxa, rare and doubtful 8e8i]Ka ; 8c'Sc)iai ; 

48^0T]v ; 8e0T|<ro(iai, ScSTJcropiak. ; vb. -St'ros, -Scrc'os. 
8&> (orig. Se/w), lack, need, 480; 8i(ra> ; 8^ii<ra, Horn, has 8rj(T(i> (11. 18, 

100); e8fvi]a-v (Od. 9, 540); 88tt]Ka ; impersonal Bel, it is necessary ; 

impf. e'Sei, f. Sci^o-ti, a. tSer l o- ; middle St'ofj-ai, want, epic 8cvo/tat ; 

8^o-ofi.aL. epic 8fv/i<TO[ ; 8e8T) ; &<i]0T|v, late Ser^ryo-o/xai. 
8r)pid<o (8r)pi-a-, 629), contend; 8rjpfa-w late; (8i'}pl(ra (Theoc. and late); 

mid. 8ripido/ and S^ptopai. as act. ; 8rjpf( (Theoc.) ; eSTy/aiaa/Aryv 

and i&ijp[v6rjv t contended. Poetic. 
Sv/w, Horn, future, s/ia// _/?nd. Compare root 8a-. 
St-, 8/t, 44, fear ; pres. Se'Sw epic ; f. (SetVo/iai epic, Serw late; {Scura ; pf. 


as pree. SlSoiica, Horn. 8ei'8oiK<z ; 2 pf. us pres., Honi. Sei'Sta, Att. SISia 
{see 768, SISias, St'Su, S&ificv, S^Sirc, ScSCdo-i ; sul>j. rare 88(T|, 88(w<ri ; 
opt. (?) 8Si; (Plat.); iinper. 8&i0i, late poets SeSifli ; inf. 88Uveu : 
part. SeSiws ; plpf. 48e8iv, IStSicis, &>8tt, cSt'Sio-avj. See below root 8ie- 
and 8io>. 

arbitrate, not a compound ; from St'oura ; augmented as though a 
compound of Sid, doubly augmented in the pf. and plupf., and in com- 
pounds (560); 8iaiTT|<rw : 8ii[jTT]<ra, but dir-cSiVJTTjo-a ; ScSrgrriKa, plj'f. 
KaT-88i/j)TT|Kt] ; SeSi^T^piai. plpf. 4-8c8ifJTT]To; Ka.T-c8iT)Tt]<rdp.T]v ; Siairdofxai, 
pass, dep., pass a life ; SiaiTTjo-optai ; 8i^-nf)0T)v, but f^-fSirjTrjd^v (Dio Cass.). 
minister, from SCUKOVOS, not a compound, augments regularly (560); 
inipf. ^Stoxovovv ; 8iaKOvrj<r ; ScSidKovijica ; SeSidKOVTjjiai, SeScdKOW/a-o/zai 
(Josephus) ; {Suucov^9t]v ; later forms in 8ir)-: as SirjKovipra, SiijKovi'j6ii\', 
are very doubtful in classic poetry ; forms in Seo'tiy- are incorrect. 

SiSao-Ku (8t8a^-, for 8i8a\-a-K<a), teach ; SiSd^w ; &CSaga, epic eSiSao-xrycra ; 
8tSSaxa : 888aYjiai ; 48t8ax8iiv ; vb. 8i8aKTo's, -rfos. ( VI) See root 8a-. 

8i'S?//u (3e-), bind ; pr. and impf. Poetic, also Xen. Anab. 5, 8- 4 . (VII). 

(&pa.-), only in comp., run away ; -Spd<ro|xai, late -Spdo-tu ; -S&pdKa: 
2 a. 4'8pav {767, -8pw, -8par)v, late -Spadi, -Spdvai, -8pds}; 1 aor. -e&pa.<ra. 
late. New Ionic -SiSpijcrKw, -Sprjcro/j-ai, -SeSpijKa, -eSprjv {-S^vat, but 
-8/>d S J. (VI). 

(So-), give, see inflection in 498, synopsis 508, also 511 ; Horn. 2 sing. 
818015 and 818010-60,, 3 sing. 8i8ot and KBlMn, 3 pi. StSovvi, imper. 
8i'8ou and SiStaOi, inf. 8i8ovvai and 8i86/ ; Hdt. SiSois, 81801, StSovcrt ; 
Hijmn. Horn. impf. (8i8ov ; f. Swo-w, epic also 8i8oxrw ; 1 a. {Suica, and 
2 a. dual and plural ?8o-rov, etc., see 501 (Hes. 3 pi. e8ov) ; 2 a. 
iterative Horn. SOCTKOI/ 88ojKa ; Sc'So^ai ; iSdO^v ; vb. Sort'os. 

8t-, active, make flee, only impf. 3 pi. fv-8iea-av (II. 18, 584) ; mid. 8i/xat, 
flee, or to make flee {subj. Suo/zcu accented like 8i'va>p.a.i 516 ; opt 8toiro 
504, 516 ; inf. 8ir#cu}. Epic. Compare 81-, 8to) (8e8otKa, 8e8ia, 
&t&i). (VII) 

8irj[j.a.i (8i^f-), seek (rj retained throughout in the pres.) ; impf. e8i?yp/i/ ; 
Si^V/cro/xai ; eSi^o-a/xTjv. Ionic and poetic. ( VII) 

8iK-, throw ; late pres. Si/cei ; 2 a. (8iKov in Pindar and Tragedy. 

8i4/dw, tliirst, pres. see 479 ; 8uj>^<rci) ; t8i'\|rrjo-a ; late 5e8/'^^Ka. 

8iw, pres. does not occur ; impf. 8iov, 8t'c, feared, fed in Homer. Compare 
roots St- and 8ie-. 

SIWKW, pursue ; Suo^u and often er Su6o| ; 8i'u>a : 8c8ia>xa ; <\<ii>y/i<it late; 
8i!u)x0T]v ; vb. SIWKTOS late, SICOKT^OS. 

8j'07raAi{w, shake ; f. 8i/o7raA.t'to. Epic. (IV) 

8oK<i> (8oK-, 613), seem, think; 8<5|w ; ISo^a ; late plpf. act. 3 pi. e8e8oxeo-ai> ; 
S('So-y|ia.i ; ^8ox8t]v rare ; 8oK>y<rw, fSoKfjcra, 8f8oKr)Ka, 8e8oK7;/xat, and 
e8oKT)6r)v are poetic or late ; vb. d-8<5Kt]Tos, unexpected. 

, sound heavily, 613; impf. cTr-eySoiVei (Anthol.); 8oi'?r?;(ra) (Anthol.); 
(8ovTrrfcra (Xen. Anab. 1, 8 18 ), epic SouTTT/cra, epic fTri-ySowr^wa ;. 


2 a. KOLT-fSovirov (Anthol.) ; 2 p. 8e8ovira., fell; BovTrijOrjv (Anthol.). 

8pdo-o-o> and 8paTT<t> (8pay-\ seize, grasp, active late ; mid., 

8pdgo( lute, eopa^d^v ; SeSpay/zai. Pr., impf., aor., pf. found iu 

Attic. (IV) 
Spd<i>, do, 616; Spdcrto : 2Spd<ra ; ScSpdica ; Sc'Spdpxu, rarely ; 

eSpdo-Oijv ; vb. Spdo-Tt'os. 
8piro, pluck, late and poetic S/MTTTW ; a.Tro-op^op.a.1 late ; 2Spc\|>a ; 2 a. 

e8paTrov (Pind.) ; f8pe<f>6r)v late ; vb. a-SpeTrros (Aesch.). 
Svva-|xai, be able, can, pr. and impf. like to-TaaaL (498), augment l8w- or 

i\8vv- (525), for accent of pr. sub). and opt. see 516 {2 sing. poet, and 

late prose 8vva, Ionic 8vvy ; impf. 2 sing. eSvvw and late t8vvacro}; f. 

3vvr|cro|JLaL and late Swry^cro/iai ; ScSvvT)|xai ; eSw/jOriv and Ionic eSwa- 

o~dr)v (also in Xen.) ; vb. 8uvar<Js. (///) 
8vv(a, go into, set (Ionic, poetic, rare in Xen.) = Sco/xeu from 8ixa ; a. f&vva, 

late prose (V, IV) ; Mw (8v-), enter, or cause to enter, go down, sink, see 

797 ; 86<rw trans. ; ?8v<ra trans. ; S&VKO. intrans. and S&vica trans. ; 

8t'8v|jiau; 48ve^v ; epic eowro/xr/i/ (1028) 2 a. i!8vv intrans. {inflected 498; 

subj. 8v, opt. Horn. 8vrj from Su-ir/, and eK-8vfj,fv from eK-8v-i-fj.v, 700 ; 

imper. 8fi0i, inf. Svvai. part. 8vs}; vb. a 
Svpofw.i, weep, see 


fd<f>6r], see aTTTco. 

4dw, epic etaw, permit, augment 533 ; tdo-w ; cULo-a, Horn, edtra ; 

ctdfiai ; cld0T]v ; cda-ofjtai pass. ; vb. eart'os. 
iyyv&M, proffer, pledge, betroth, augments r^y-yv- or ev-tyv-, pf. r/y-yv- or 

ty-ye-y v- ; compounds augment rj, as KaT-Tjyyvwv and KaT-TiYyv^fiai, and 

this is probably the correct form for the simple. See 563. 
4-yttpw, rouse, raise trans., 2 pf. and mid. wake intrans. ; c-ycpw ; {j-yup a ; 

eyr/ye/sKa late ; ^y^Ycpixai : li^pOTiv ; 2 p. ^yp^JYP a > am awake, Horn. 3 pi. 

fyprjyopdao-i, imper. fypt'/yopOf for ey/aeyopare, inf. eypyy option or 

typriyopdai ; 2 a. m. rj-ypofx-pv ; vb. eyepros (Aristotle), l-ytprto?. (/ ^) 

A present eypw and is poetic or late. 
eSw, ea<, see kcrOiw. 
ftpyvvpi and tkpyta, see cipyvii/At. 
f^o/, sit, see t'o>. 
^9- (545, for o-f(O-), present only part eOtav, accustomed; 2 p. i'w9a, Ionic 

ea>6a, am accustomed ; 2 plpf. Au9i\, Ionic ew0a. (//) 
e'Xw and O&w, ?H/i; impf. ^0\ov : (')eX.rfjr ; ^OcXVjo-a {(^ecX^crw, (i)eX^- 

o-atjxai, etc. ] ; f|9^XtiKa, late rtBkX^Ka. ; vb. 0A/Tos late. In the Attic 

poets 6eX(a is used in the Tragic trimeter. 
Ml<* (idi8-, o-/0-iS-), accustom, 533; f. WUb (680, 4); ittura; eWiKa ; 

d'8i.< ; tl0L<r8Tiv ; vb. t^wrros late, Micrrcos. 
clSov, saw, see 6pdo>, .s- <, and olSa, know. 


^w (eiKao 1 -), make like, conjecture; augments -QK- or CIK-, see 531 ; but the 
forms fjicajov, ifj Kao-a,, etc. seem more correct in Attic prose than 
ctxatov, ei'Kacra. ei' etc. (IV) 

. yitld ; impf. C!KOV ; l'a>, like f. of etKta, resemble, appear; cla ; 2 a. 
(iKa.6ov (1042) ; tiKTeov late, vrrciKTtov (PL). 

(CIK-, tK-), resemble, appear ; present not in use ; impf. et/ce, seemed likely, 
fitting (only II. 18, 520), but some regard this as pf. or plupf. ; f. t|w 
rare (like f. of eiKw, yield) ; 2 p. tonca (545) as pres., impers. loucc, it 
seeins, is fitting, New Ion. and Dor. o?Ka { /^it-forms : 3 a. (I'KTOV (Horn.), 
loty/zev (Att poet), ei^dcri (Att. poet, rare in Plat), see 768 ; subj. 
*oiKa>. New Ion. OIKIO ; opt. toiKoifn. ; inf. ^oiKt'vai, Att poetic et/ceveu ; 
pt. HKU>S. iKs mostly poet, but always duds in the sense of fitting, New 
Ionic oiKws}; 2 plpf. fyxtw, late rrp(xru>Kciv, ^KCIV (Ar. Av. 1298), Horn. 
dual eiKTrjv. (//) See also CMTKW and TKW, liken, compare. 

or eiAew, roll, mostly poetic or Ionic ; eiAv^trw late ; i\y<ra late ; late ; ei\.ijOrjv late ; in Hdt. eiAeo/xut, dir-ei^.ijfj.a.1., a.7r-iX->']6ijr ; 
in Attic o-uv-eiAeo/iat (X.en. Hell. 7, 2 8 ), ai'-etA.r/^^v (Thuc. 7, 80). eiAw 
(i'A-, fA.-), roW it^), |>res.s together, no pr. act., but pass. etAo/xai (Horn.) ; 
a. cAo-tt epic ; p. p. eeA/^tai epic ; 2 a. p. epic ectA^i' or aX.r)v \ 3 pi. 
aAev for eaA^craj', inf. dA-^vai and dXr/fj-fvai., pt. aAet's } ; here also are 
generally referred a plpf. eoAet (Find. Pyth. 4, 233) and plpf. p. eo\rjro 
Apoll. Rh. 3, 471); etAAw or ctAAw and ciAAo/zai, also lAAto and 
TAAo/xai occur in Attic (pr. and impf. for tiAw and efAo/uat), but are 
antiquated. (/ If') 

it is fated, see (jJ.fp-}, obtain. (IV) 
be, see 772, 773, 774 ; Dialects 1066. 
o, see 775, 776, 777, 778 ; Dialects 1067. 
Iirov (elir- = fe-ffTT-, 553), said, a second aorist, epic tenrov {ttirw, ciroi|u, 
flirt, fiirciv, ilirtivj ; first aor. (lira, rare in Attic, poetic ecnra J<)j)t. tirai(ii, 
imper. clirov or tl-irov, inf. eiirai Hdt, pt. eijrds (Hdt) rare and perhaps 
late in Attic j; 1 aor. mid. a.Tr-fnrdp.r)v New Ionic and late, 6Vei.7ra/A7/' 
and crvi>-fiirdfj.-i)v late ; a late epic present erreo occurs. For the other 
tenses, the root ep- or pe- (for fep- or fpf-) is used : pr. fipw Horn, and 
rare (in Attic supplied by XY<*. 4 >T 1F 1 ^ an ^ (especially in comp.) by 
d-yopcvw) ; f. pu. Ionic e/>ew ; ctpTjKa ; el'p-q^ai ; cppVjOtjv, Ion. elpedrjv, late 
ipp(fa/v, pr)0T|0-Ofiai ; f. p. elpTjcropai : vb. pr]T(Js F -rt'os. (VIII) See 
ereTTCj, X^ya, 4>tip. ; compare also (JJpopuu and /oew or epeo/xai, asi, which 
are from a di He rent root, as also eip<a, join. 

or eip-yo> (elpy-), shut /'/?,* ip^o> ; elp^a, poet 2 a. ct/>ya^ov ; tlp-yfxai : 
ripx^qv ; vb. flpK-Hj, prison. ttpyw (with soft breathing), shut out, has 
the same forms as cfp-yw, with the smooth breathing, vb. (IpKrfov. Epic 
cfpyo) and fyyrfyu, sAa( tn or s/i,w< ow/, 2 a. tepyaQov, p. p. lepy/nat 
(3 pi. plpf. (fp\aro). Epic also fpyu, shut in or /IH< out; cpa (dis- 
tinguished from <p^a from epSa), w/c), 2 a. epyadov ; tpyfiai {3 pi. 
l/>\arat, 3 pi. plpf. c/jxaro}, (p\drjv. Ionic -}pryv9fK and -tpyot (in 


comp.), shut in ; w-e/ow (Soph.) ; epgas Attic part., also Attic -epa 

in comp. ; Ionic tpyw, shut out ; ep^op.a.t. (Soph.); -epa ; -epy/JLat,. Attic 

forms in ipy- and epy- are doubtful., ask; tiprprofuit, Ionic. Horn, also pres. Ipew and oftener epeo/xcu 

(Horn. imp. 2 sing. 4'peio for eptio, 987, 3). "Epoftai (?), pres. supplied 

in Attic by eptordo) ; pt|cro(icu ; 2 a. T|pd|ii]v. 
(ipvtt), draw ; see e/ai'w. 
ei'/DO) (e/>), say, epic present ; see ttirov. 
etpw (e/>, Lat. sero), ^om, rare in simple ; a. -tlpa, Ionic -e'/xra, Horn. aTro-fpcra, 

swept away; p. -clpica; p. p. e?/>pu late, epic ee/>/zcu. (/^) 
(T<ra, seated, see tw. 

(CIK-), fo'&en, compare, present also TKO); impf. ^IO-KOV (p. p. 77/300-- 

r/t'^at, ar^ Kie, in Eur.) ; plpf. T/IKTO or CIKTO. Epic. (//) 
, Ionic eco$a, am accustomed, see root e$-. 

caZZ aw assembly; augments tj-' ' K Vri < rt a ov or ^KK\Tj<ratov, etc. 

(563). (//) 
eXavvco for t\a-vv-(a, 652 (e\a-) and poetic eAaoj, drive; f. lAacrw, Att. ^Xw 

(680), epic eAaw and eXdw ; ^Xacra ; -cX^XaKa (late in simple) ; eXrjXapiai 

(Horn. plpf. 3 pi. eA^AeSaro or eA^Aearo or eA7/Aa8aTo), Ionic and late 

lAvyAaoymi ; 1\\a,9r\v, late t'/XdcrBrji' ; vb. eAaros, ^Xarfos. (/) 
eX-yx w , examine, refute; {Xl-ygw ; ^X-y5 a ! ^X^Xe-yi" 11 (735); 

raise war-shout, shout (Eur., Xen.) ; r}AeAia (Xen. and late) ; 
mid. pr. bewail (Eur., Aristoph.). (IV) 

, ittrn rapidly, whirl; !AeAia ; eXeXi^Orjv. Epic and lyric. (/^) 
See eAicrcra). 

-w, cXCi-rw, rarely tlXCrrw (eAtK-), roW ; X|w ; cYXiga ; tZXi-ypiai (Horn, plupf. 
eAeAtKTO ; late pf. A?;Aiy/xai) ; etXCxOriv ; vb. cXiKrds. Also written 
with smooth breathing. (IV) 

&.KW, late (\KV<D, draw; 8X (prose in comp.), A/o;cra> Ionic and late ; 

rfXKvo-a, efA^a late ; ti'XKVKa ; cYXKvo-|i<u ; iXKv<r0T]v, late ei'Ax^r/i/ ; vb. 

eXKT^os, (rvv-sXKvo-Tt'os. Horn, has also eA/ceto, eA/<yycra), rjXK^cra, eAKr/^t's. 

tArrw, cause to hope; 2 p. as pres. 4'oATra, hope, 2 plpf. ewATrea (971); mid. 

IATTO/ACU or A7ro/iai (860), hope = Attic eX-rrifo. Epic. 
fiw, vomit; f. (?) c/xew and (xto|iai; ij(xcra; ffj.rjfj.eKa late; e/x^ecr/iat ; 

r}//^v late. 

tvaipa> (evap-), kill ; 1 a. Kar-fvrjpa late ; 2 a. -i'/vapov ; mid. as act. (, 
a. ; pass. eVaipo/xai. Poetic. (/I/) 

s/ai/, spoil; evapi^a) (1002); evdpi^a and later rjvdpi^a, i]vd.pura. 
(Anacr.) ; KaT-r)vdpur/, KaT-r/vapta-^riv. Poetic. (/^) 

and evv7ro> (ei' + (reTT-), saj/, <e/i (late ev'unrwi) ; f. evi-o-Tr^yo-w and 
fvty<o ; 2 a. eVi-OTrov { eVt-o-Trw ; (vi-(nroifj.i ; imper. evi-o-Tre or eVi-irTres, 
2 pi. e-(nrTC for ev-trTrere ; inf. Vi-(r7reu/ and ei/i-o-TTf/xej'^ ; (a. evuffO, 
late). Poetic. See ?TTOK 

defect. 2 pf. with pres. and impf. meaning, nit on, lie on; in 


compos, with V- (//., Orf.)> KCLT- (Horn.. Hymn. Cer. 280, Hes. Scut. 269), 
trap- (Ap. Rh. 1, 664). Epic. Compare]voBe. 

(ev-tir-), Poetic and epic, also eviitrcrw, chide; 2 a. tv-kviirov and 
>')v-fir-aTrov. (HI) 

f.vvvfjii (t- for fecr-, vestio), clothe, pres. act. only in conip. ; impf. Kar-fivvov 
(II. 23, 135); f. epic eo-o-to ; a. epic fcrcra. ; mid. evvvpai epic, Hdt. CTT- 
eii'ixrSat (or eTr-eyv- or cTri-eyy- or f<f>-(vv-) ; f. -eoxroyum ; a. e(cr)(ra/M7yi' 
and c(T<rd/j.r]v ; pf. eoytai and i/xai. Simple verb chiefly epic, very 
rare in Attic poetry ; in prose uyu,<i-vviyu. (K) 
ty oxXtuJ. harass, with double augment, 556 ; ijv-xXovv ; v-ox^T|<rtt ; i^v- 

w\\Tio-a ; f|v-<ix^ T ! Ka . etc - '. forms with fv-<a\\- doubtful. 
OIKO.. resemble, appear, see CIKW. 
eo\fi and eoAryro, pluperfects, see eiAecu. 

^w, Ion. opra^w, keep festival ; itnpf. opratov (534). (/K) 

and eTr-avporKU) (ai'p- 613), oy'oj/, epic and lyric, rare; 2 a. 
7raiyx>v ; mid. (Travpio-KOfiai Ion. and poet., rare in Attic prose ; 
7raiy>7/(ro/iai ; a. cTrrjvpdfj^ji' rare, and 2 a. ein^vpop.i]v. (VI) 

, urge (not a compound) ; impf. Sfimyov ; 7/7reta late ; mid. iirtiyopa.*., 
liasten ; firct^o^ai ; r/Trety/xcu late ; rfirdy9i\v ; vb. !iriKT'ov. Active rare 
in prose. 

understand {pres. indie, like iWa/^iat 498 ; 2 sing. 7ricrrp and 
poetic, e^-7ricrTai Hdt. ; subj. WoTcofxai, 4irCo-r[], etc., accent 
516 ; opt. irioTa|AT]v, cirtcrravo, etc., accent 516 ; imper. 4irrrw, poet, 
and New Ion. eTrurrcuro ] ; impf. iyirwrTa|iTp> like icrTa/AT;v 498 {2 sing, 
and poet. i/TrtcrTcuro 506 J ; 4iri(rT^<ro(xai ; f\iri.<rrf\9i\v ; vb. 

(VII) Different from <f>-i<TTa/ from e</>-i?y/u. 

(O-CTT-, 107 ; 533, 2), be after, be busy with; simple only part, in II. 6, 
321 and 11, 483; impf. -eiTrov (Xen. once, epic -eirov ; -e^w (also 
Xen.) ; 2 a. -CO-TTOV for C-O-CTT-OI' ; a. p. Trepi-e<f>6v]v in Hdt Ionic or 
poetic. Mid. iro|iai, follow, late poet. pres. fo-irofuii ; fr|fO|uu ; 2 a. 
{553 ; o-mofiai, <nroip.r\v, <nrov (Horn, tnrfio, 987, 3), <nr6r6ai, 
In Horn, forms like ecrTTwytzai, ea-Trot/xtyi', efrTretr^w, T7ro- 
pevos, ought probably to be changed to oTrw/zai, cnroifj.r]v, etc., and the 
preceding word to remain unelided. 
cy>a-/zai poetic (like urrafjuti) and Ipdw, /ot' ; a. iipd<r0i]v act. f. epoo-#?/<ro/^ui 
act. ; epic a. m. lypcura/ir;!' ; 7//)ao-/xai late ; vb. eparos poet and 
ipatrnfc. (///) 
/jau), only in conip. i-cpda>, ^owr ; aor. ^ -qpao-a ; fg-r/puOrjv (Hippocr.). 

work, augments tip- (533); inijit'. clp-yato^v ; <pY<xo-o)xai; tlp-yao-d^v ; 

act. and pass. ; lpYd<rflt]v pass. ; vb. tp-yao-rt'os. 
, see tt'pyto and cipyw. 

o and (pSiD (for fepfo from J-fpyyta), do, Ionic and poetic ; p^o> ; cpa ; 
2 p. eopya, and 2 plpf. eopyea ep. and Hdt ; vb. epxros late. Compare 


/3rw late ; ^psura ; ->//>iKa late and Trpocr-tp^ptiKa. late ; 


Hdt. {Horn. 3 pi. fptjpe^-a-TaL and 3 pi. plpf. fprjpfB-a-ro } ; 
; f. p. fprjpi<ro[ (Hippocr.). Mostly poetic. 

(epiK-), tear, bruise ; -fjpei^a or (?) -tjpi^a ; 2 a. ?ypiKov tr. and intr. ; 
p-i')piyp.a.i ; late t'lpfi^O^v. Ionic and poetic. (//) 

(epnr-), throw down ; (peiij/d) (also Xen. Cfyr. 7, 4 1 ) ; t"jpi\f/a. ; 2 a. 
ijpnrov, fell ; 2 p. Kar-epr/piTra, /tave fallen ; rypei/A/xai and fpi'ipififiai late 
(plpf. epepiTTTO 77. 14, 15); a. p. Find. epiV^v and i]pei<f)driv. Mostly 
Ionic and poetic. (//) 

, epew, ask ; epopai ; see fipofj.a.1. 

(eper-), strike, row, poetic, late prose, epeTTW late ; rjpecra epic. (IV) (epvy-), cast forth, eruct, epic and Ion., and tpvyydvw ; pvo[, ; 
ripev^dfjujv late ; 2 a. ^pvyov. (//, K) 

, make red, Ion. and poet, also cpvOaiixa poet, and late prose ; 

e'p^cd, cover, Find, and late e/3e7rra> ; c'p&|ru ; 

(pew, epeofjiai, epofj-ai, ask; see fipoftai. 

ept&aiw (e'pt^av-), contend; a. epidrjva (Ap. Rh.) ; a. in. inf. 

(II. 23, 792). Epic. Horn, also epiS/xcuVw. (/k) 
Kpirw and epTrv^o) (epTruS-),' creep, augments tip- ; <=p\}/io and late 

^piruo-a and lute eipifra ; vb. pir-T<Js poetic (also Att. Com.) and late 

prose, creeping. (I, IV) 
tppv-ydvcd (e'/avy-), cast forth, eruct, see e 
t'pptD, jro (<o harm) ; t'pp^jo-to ; -ijpp^o-a ; 
epvKta, hold back, Ionic and poetic, also Xen. ; epv<a ep. ; r//Di'a, also Xcn. ; 

2 a. ripvKavov ep. 

epi'w (pv- and eipv-), draw {Hes. inf. et/3?'/ievai} ; f. epwrco and Si-fiprtrw 
late, Horn, tpuw (1023) ; a. (ipixra. and tpwa {subj., opt., etc. ei'p- or 
e/>} ; mid., draw to oneself, protect, guard, epvo/zcu {Horn, /xi-fonns : pros. 

3 pi. flpvarai ; impf. 2 sin<j. epvaro, 3 sing, fpvro or fipvro (Hes. epiro), 
3 pi. t w /3WTo or clpvaro (Theoc. epwro), inf. epw&ai or 6/>vcr^atj; f. 
fpva'a' and eipi;(cr)croyMat ; a. fpixrdfjirjv or flpva-dfj.tjv ; p. p. 

and eipvcr/j.a.1 (Ap. Rh. epffj.aC) ; a. p. eipixrByv {fipvo-dfis and 
in Hippocr. ; vb. epwros. Ionic and poetic. See pvo/xcu. 
?pX<>fiai (fpx~t f^fvO-, eXvB-, f\6-\ go, come {subj. only ep. and Ion. ; 
opt. (?) ; imper. ep. and New Test. ; inf. ep., tragic, Ion., rare Att. 
prose ; part, poet., rare Att. prose ; in Att. prose the corresponding 
forms of eTp.i are used} ; the impf. ?/p)(o^v (same as impf. of ap\o/jiai) 
rare and gen. late in simple, doubtful in Att. which uses ya instead ; 
fut. (\fvcrofiai ep., Ion., Trag., late (Att. prose only LVP. 22, 11), Att. 
prose regularly uses fifj.L or d<f>io/jiMi or r/(i> ; pf. t'XVjXvBo, ep. eXvy \ov6a 
or elki'j \ov6a, syncop. A^ \vfjLtv and tA^'Airre in Com. and Trag. Frag. ; 
2 a. fjXOov {imper. cXW 517, 3}, poet. -IjXvdov only Indie., Doric tydov 
(not Pindar) ; vb. /*eT-eAewTos and vTr-cA^ereov. (VIII) 

, (o-Q(D ep. and poet, and late prose, e8<a ep. and poet, and Ionic and 
late prose (Ivd-i-, eS-, <f>ay-\ eat, Horn. inf. eS/zevai ; fut. KSopiai (676) 


[<ayo/Mai in Old and New Test.] ; pf. eSrjSoKo, Horn. part. fSifiws ; p. p. 
KaT-c8r)8crfAai, ep. ( ; ^|86r(h]v ; 2 a. &t>a-yov ; vb. t'Siaros, -T^OS. 


a-Tiaw, entertain, augments eiori- (533). 
fTTfj.ov, see root TC/A-. 

'Sw, sleep, mostly poet, and Ion., rare in Attic prose ; impf. evSov or ijvSov; 
fv8rj<T<a ; usually xaOcv&o ; impf. tKa.6tv8ov and Ka0T)vSov, ep. Ka6tv8ov ; 
Ka.0ev8r|o-to ; a. inf. KaBevSijtrai late ; pf. inf. KaBev&ijKfvai late ; vb. 

e t'pi'crKu) (fvp-f-), find ; <vpVj<r<i> ; T|i!pT]Ka ; T]tipT](iai ; i\vpldi\v (615) ; f. p. 
Op0T|crofxai, late fvprjBtjO' ; 2 a. Tjvpov, 1 a. (VpTftn late ; a. in. (Hes. and late) ; vb. cvptros, -T&>S. For evpijKa, evpov, etc. 
see 532. (VI) 

cv<J>pa(vo> (ei'c^pav-), cheer; f. v<j>pavb> ; a. rj<J|)pdva ; pass., rejoice; f. 
v<j> and v4>pav0T| : a. Tjv^pdvOrjv. See 532. (IVi 

pray, boast; eO^ojxai ; T)V|O,|JLT]V ; iiii-yjiai (also pass.) ; late i)vx^ r ] 1 ' pass.; 
VKT<JS, -rfos. See 532. 

(t\Qa.p-), hate, ep., poet., and late prose ; a. r/x^/ 301 > pass., 6 
hated, with f. m. e\6apovfji:ai ; vb. \6aprfo i s. (IV) 
n), hate, e'x#o/iai pass. ; only pr. and impf. ; see air-cx,9dvo|iai.. 
(o"fX") l ulve > hold, also Hcr\<a (tor crt-crex-w) ; impt'. tlxov (533) ; l|w or 
<rxfyra> (o"X ") > ^"nC 1 ! 1101 * fi'i'-o^wxa (for -OK-W^O) in. II. 2, 218; ? 
late in simple, Horn, plupf. pass. 3 pi. tir-w\-u.To, were shut (II. 12, 340) ; 
t(T\f6rjV late; 2 a. H<r\ov for e-crcx-o*' {tOC"* trx ^" or -"X ol K Ll > tr \^t "X" V > 
<rx<iv} ; 2 a. poet. rx#ov (1042) ; mid. ^xofuu, hold by, be near, etc., 
C<rxo|iai, restrain oneself, remain ; O|MU and <rxVj< ; t<rx5^v late in 
simple { o-xw^ai, TXO|XTIV, <TXOV, <rx^<r8ai, <rx<5ftvos j ; vb. /CTOS late, CKT^OS, 
7rt-crxTo5, d<|>-KTfov. Compounds with irregularities are : 

(a) dfj.TT-f\(ji arid rare d/i.7r-rxw, put on, clothe, poet. ; impf. d/j.Tr-fi\ov 
(Horn. dfj.Tr-)^ov Od. 6, 225); d/x</>-tw ; 2 a. ?}/A7ri-o-xoi'; mid. d(iir-^x<>| J1 -a' 1 
and, and, have around oneself, wear ; impf. 
T]fjLir (Lxop.T]v (556) ; f. d(j.4> ^ofiai ; 2 a. fj|iir-<rx<JH lT l v and 1\^irt,-<r\iy.rv. 

(b) dv-x w > hold up, poet, and New Ionic ; dv-ei\ov ; di/-e'^w and 
dva-^xijcrdi ; (late pf. ai'-e<rx/Ka) ; di'-tcrxoi' ; dv-^xof" 11 ! endure; 
f\v-n\6\i.r]v ; av ^ and dva-<rx^eroftai ; 1\v-t<r\6^r\v ; vb. dv-Kr6s, 
dv KTos, dj'a-crxeTos. 

(c) {nr-wrxW-ofwu (of Class K), promise, vTr-Lcr\ofj.o.i. poet, and Ion. ; 

boil, cook, rarely tyeio ; ty-f\<r< ; ^\(rrjo-a ; late -ijif/i/Ka ; late ry^?//iui ; late 
and ij^drjv ; vb. t<J>0<5s and J n l T< ^> ^ a t fi ^>^os and e 



uw, l<o, live [jfjs, ITJ, etc. 479 ; imper. (v/tfi for Jfl is late} ; iinpf. ?5v, 479, 

(late 1 pers. sing, e^v) ; l^o-w and Vj<ro}xai ; for late ffyo-a. and (foxa. 

the Attics use tfi'uav and /3e/3iWa ; pr. o>o> (ep., Ion., Dor.) ; late 

7rava-wo-o> ; Hdt. 1, 120 7r-eaxra (?). 
VYvv|ii (evy-, C V T"> Lat. jug-urn), yoke; vw ; gnga ; late efei'xa 5 ?t v Yl iau 5 

5<vx6T]v rare, and 2 a. p. ttvyrjv ; vb. {ev/cros late. (K) 
, poet. eiu>, 6oi7 (trans, and intr.) ; e^ava-J^o-w (615); ?Jo-a ; 

Ion. ; f^crdijv late ; vb. TTOS late. 

-), gird ; ajo-o> late ; t^too-a ; e^wKa late ; l>H-cu and 
late ; vb. {'WO-TOS late. ( /) 

(i}/3a-), come #o manhood and Tjpdw, 6e ai manhood; <|>-i]f3rj<rci (simple 

Dor.) ; fjpTjo-a ; irap-^jpriKa. ( //) 
r}ye/3e^o/iat, be collected, see d/ycfpco. 
fjSo|JLai, be pleased; f. T|o-0T|<rofiai ; a. fjo-Orjv, a. m. -ija-aro (Od. 9, 353); very 

rare act. 1780), 170-0), i]cra. 
f|Suv<i> (rjSvv-), make sweet; fjSiiva ; fjSvo-pai ; T|8vv0Tiv and VTrep-rjSva-Otjv 

(Galen) ; vb. f,8vvT^ov. (IV) 
t'lfptdo/j-ai, be lifted, raised, see aipw. 
fJKw, come, am come ; impf. ^JKOV also as aor. ; {jlw ; fja and pf. fJKa. late. 

See tKO) and iKVo//,ai. 
^/xai, si<, see 782, 783, 1069. 
i\\ii, say, see 789 ; epic generally ry alone, said. 
rifj.v<a (v, late i"), 6otf, sini ; ry/Auo-w late ; i/yafcra ; pf. vTr-ep-v-t^fjiVKa, Att. 

redupl. with v inserted. Poet. 


OdXXu (da\-), Uoom (causative, made groiv, Find. 01. 3, 23) ; f. (?) 0uAA?/u-a> 

late ; pf. re&yAa poet. 
flairra) (ra<^- for $a(-, 102), bury; 6d\|/co ; ^0a\j/a ; T6'9apL(iat ; 2 a. p. iVd^y, 

a. p. #d</>0r;v Ion. and rare ; f. p. TcOu^opai ; vb. 6airWov. (///) 
6a<[>-, see ra<- (eVa^>ov, rfBr/Tra). 
6eiv(a (dfv-), smite ; devu ; edfiva, 2 a. e^cvov. Poet., Att. Comedy, also late 

prose. (/ V) 

6f\-/o), charm ; OeX(o ; c6f\a ; t6t\\6i)v ; vb. ^tA/cro's. Mostly poet. 
6e'Xu>, lois/i, see e'^eAw. 
etpofiat, warm oneself, i,n prose only pr. and impf.; f. 6fp< (Od. 19, 507); 

2 a. p. (edeprjv) subj. #e/oo> (Od. 17, 23). Act. 0f'/)w very rare and late. 
Qita (dev-, dtf-, 6v-), run ; dcio-opai, late 6(vcr<i>. (//) 
6i](rda.i, inf., milk; edr)<rafj,r)v, sucked, epic. 


h) (Oiy-), touch ; 6iopat ; Wiyov ; eBi^dr/v late ; vb. a- 

Mostly poet. (V) 
OXdo), bruise, break; 0Aeuro) ; e$Ao<ra; Te#Aa<r/mij (6 h.dcr0r)v ; vb. $Acurrds. 

Ion. and poet. See <Aa(o. 
e\tp (0Ar/?-, 0Ai/3-), press; 0\fyw late; *0XZ\|x ; rtf Xu|>a ; Te0Ai/^cu late; 

IOXt<|>9T|v and latfe e6\tfir)v. 
0VTJO-KU and older OV^O-KW (6a.v-, 6va.-\ die ; Oavovfxai ; re'Ov^Ka, am (fead ; f. p. 

TtOvTJf-w (473), late TfQvTJgofjiai ; 2 pf. T^varov (see 499, 768) ; 2 a. 

<9avov ; vb. 0VTjT<5S) late diro-daveTtov. In Att. prose always diro- 

Oavovpai and dir-^0avov and nearly always diro-OvVjo-Kw, but always T&vtiKa. 


flpdo-o-o) and Opd-rrw (rpa^-\ disturb; ?6pd|a ; iOpa.\dr]v ; Hom. pf. Ttrpriyu., 

am troubled. Mostly poetic, by-form of Ta/xuro-w. (/ K) 
6pava>, break; 0pav<ra ; ^Opavcra ; Tc0pau|uxi and WOpavo-fiai ; t'0pavo-0T|v ; vb. 

0pvnrrw (rpv<f>- for 0/W&*, 102), ferea^; down, spoil; dptyw late ; ev-fdpvij/a 
Hipp.; Tl0pv)i|uu ; fdpixfrOr/v late, erpixfrrjv Hora., tTpvfiiqv very late ; 
mid. Opvirrojiai, put on airs, 0ptn|/o|iai ; vb. ?v-0pvirros. (///) 

0p((TK(j) and OpitXTKO) (6op-, Opo-\ leap; f. ; 2 a. Wopov. Poet. 
(VI) By-form Bopvvop.a.L (Hdt.), late 6opvvjj.(u. (V) 

Ww (6v-, 625), sacrifice ; 0Dcru> ; ?0vo-a ; r^OvKa ; Tt'Ovjxai ; irv9r\v ; vb. 

OVID or 0wa> (Hes. ^iii/ew), rush. Poet. 


taii/io (tav- ; Jf, i in ictus or augm.), warm; a. t^va (Pind. idva); a. p. itiv6i]v. 
Poet, (/l^) 

laAAw (t'A-), sen<i; f. eV-iaAw and (/>-iaAw (Aristoph.) ; a. iJ/Aa (Orf.). 
Poet, (/l^) 

tat'w, rest ; Mtxnt late ; laixra. Poet. 

ew, sound; ta^r/o-o) ; ia.\f](ra.. Epic, in ep. a, in trag. d (but some 
write ia*c^w, etc., for trag. I'd^ew). taxw, sound, poet. 2 p. part. fern. 
dfji^-La^vta (Horn.). 
oto, sweat, regular ; for irreg. contr., see 481. 

iS/wo), place, erect, regular ; but a. p. iSpvvdrjV (for reg. ISpvOyv) ep.. also 
late (1038). 

Itavw, sent, place, also intr. sit; only pres. and impf. ; the rest from tfw. (1^) 

tj (18-, i^e-), seat or *iY, in prose usually KaOttu ; impf. (often as aor.) iov 
(poet), KaOifav or Ka8iov (Horn.), tKaO^ov (555) ; fut. Ka6t<roi (not 
Att.), KaOiw, late Ka.6-(.^i]<T(a and v^-t^/crw ; aor. eura epic (for e-creS-o-a, 
see f^o/tai below), seated {imper. ewrov or better etro-ov, inf. etro-at, part. 
rds (Hdt. (?) inr-fio-ds) } ; KaOelcra and KaBtcra. (Hom.) ; Hdt. has 
KaTiVa or (?) KtiVwra ; Theocr. Dor. pt. Ka0i'as ; Att. cKdOic-a or 
Ka0i<ra ; late T^cra (also Ka#-, <rvv-) ; pf. late KfKdBiKa, ti>-ifr)Ka, crvv- 
i^Ka. Mid., sit, itofiai and Ka0l(o<Mu, e^o/Ltat (eS- for <re<5-, Lat. sed-eo) 


and Ka6eo|icu are much rarer ; impf. lgrf|xt)v and Ka0ij;<$|iT|v, rarer are 
(6fj.ijv and Ka0dfj.T]v ; fut. tca0iT|cro|jwii and Ka6eSo\i|iai (for Ka@-e&-f- 
< ; Horn. <-rcro/Aai (II. 9, 455), seat for themselves; eio-opai and 
KaOicrofiai are late ; (Old Test.) ; aor. (trans.) eo-crayu^v and 
ffcrdp,r]v (Horn.) ; i<rd(iT]v rare in prose, also Hdt. ; Att. usually 
tKo.0io-ci.fniv. Aor. pass. eKadfcrdrjv late. Vb. KaOcor&v. (IV) See 
also fjfj.a.1 and Kd0t||uu, sit (782, 783). 
it||u (e-), send; see 770 and 771, and (Dialects) 1065. (VII} 

K<a t iKveofj^at (IK-), come : t/cdvw only pr. and impf. (ep. and trag.) ; 
IKCD (epic), impf. IKOV, f. iw in Megar. Dial. (Aristoph. Ach. 742), 1 a. 
iov (1028), {late 1 a. *}; LKi'fouai, i^o/nat, ty/xat, 2 a. iKOfir/v ; in 
Att. prose nearly always in comp., as d4> iKveo^uu, but iKvovpevos, suitable, 
occurs rarely. Compare iJKw. (V) 

(f Aa-), ep. lXdop.a.i, propitiate ; lXd<rop.<u ; TXa<rd(ATiv, iXdo-flriv. 
(VI) Compare iXrjfiL. 

(iAa-), 6e firopitious, pres. only imper. "iXrjOt or lAa^i, "Aare (Ap. 
Rh.) ; pf. itAry/ca ; mid. i'Aa/xai, propitiate. See iAacrKo/xat. Epic. 

I'AAw, 7'oZZ, see eiAew and ei 

6/iacro-w (647, 1002), /asfo; aor. ifiaa-a. Epic. (/K) 

ifj-eipto (i/j.ep-\ desire, ep. ; t/ietpo/xai, desire, a. ifJLeipd/j.yv and (Hdt.) ip.fpOr]v. 

Poet, and Ion. (/^), fly, see irfTOfj-ai. (VII) 

ifrd/j.1., Doric for otSa, fotoio { uras, wrdri, i<>, tcrare, icravri}. (^//) 
TKW, ZiA-en, compare, see TKW. (K/) 
tcrrai'to, ^>/ce, late ; only pres. and impf. 

(o-ra-), tf; for inflection see 498, 499, and 508, also 797, 4 {Hdt. 
2 sing, tcrrcxs, 3 sing, terra., imper. Terra (1016, 1) ; Hom. inipcr. 
Ka$-i'crraJ ; f. <rr^<ra), s/iaM set ; a. ^o-rrjo-a, .sc< { Hom. 3 pi. cVrcurav and 
fcrrrjcrav} ; 2 a. ?omiv, stood {Horn. 3 pi. eWai', inf. a-ri'i/j-fvai} ; pf. 
?om]Ka, stand; 2 pf. ^o-Ta-rov, stand, 499 {Horn. inf. ecrra/xev and 
rra/Aevai, part, co-raws and CO-TCO'I?, Hes. fcrrrjws \ ; p. p. ^trrafiai rare ; 
f. pf. rr^|, s/iaW stand; a. p. eo-Tdflijv, icas s<; Hom. iterative imp. 

c, iter. 2 a. (rra<TK ; vb. o-rards, errar^os. ( I''//) 
o, ia-\avd<a, check ; only pres. Epic. 
ia-\vaiv<a (lcr\yav-\ make lean, dry; (rvv-i(r\vavCi> ; a. ur^vdi'a (Aesch.), Ion. 
(prob. Attic) ; Kar-foyvrmai late ; to r \i / ai'^i' (Hippocr.) ; vb. 
(Aristotle). (//) 


(Kadap-), purify ; KaOapw ; Ka0iipa and (doubtful in Attic) 
late KfKaOapKa ; KaOdp0t]v ; vb. Kadaprfov (Hipp.). (IV) 
KaO^ofiai. and KaO^co, see l'a>. 
Ka6^8<o, sleep ; see 


sit; see ij/xat 782, 783 ; 10G9. 

(for Ka8-vv-fJMt), excel ; p. KCKaoyzai (Find. KfKa.S-fi.tvo>;). Poet. (K//) 
af-), kill; Kavta ; 2 a. Ixarov ; 2 p. Ke/coi/a. Poetic. In classic 

prose Ko.Ta-Ka.ivfD rare in Xen. (IV) 
KCU'W (*av-, Ka/-, Kajy- t /cat-, 650), Att. prose nd uncontr., 6urn ; Kavo-w ; 

{icavon ; 2 a. fkija ep., poet part. Keds ; -K^KavKa ; KCKav^xai : fcavOrjv ; 

2 a. p. efccfyv ep. Ion. and late (Hdt. has both a. p.) ; vb. KCU'(O-)TOS, 

late 8ia-KavTfoi'. (IV) 
KaXt'u) (KaAe-, *Ae- 639, 2), call, Aeol. KaXrjfJu, ep. inf. KaA?/yu,vai ; fut. KoXw 

(680, 1), KaAecrto (Aristotle), KaAew (Horn.) ; ^KaXeo-a ; Kt'icXTjKa ; K^K\T)fiai, 

(for opt. see 745) ; ^K\Vj0T|v ; f. p. KK\^j(ro|iai ; vb. /cA^ros, KXryrfos ; 

ep. pr. KiKAr;(TK<i>. 
KaXvirrw (xaAv/?-), cover ; KO\VI)/W ; KaXv\|a ; late a.iro-KfKa.Xv<f>a. ; KKaXvp.(xai ; 

<a\v4>6r]v ; vb. KaAvTrrds, <rvY-KaXvrrT^os. Simple rare in prose. (///) 
Kd(Avoj (Kayu,-), labour, am weary or sick ; fut. Kapovfiai ; 2 a. KCL|IOV (Horn. 

also subj. ; K&|i,T|Ka (ep. part K*<yu,7/ws) ; vb. aTro-Kpirfov. ( V) 
KcLp-iTTu), bend; Ki(n|/o) ; Kap.\|/a ; KKa(i|iai ; (88, 734); ticd|Juf>0T]v ; 

vb. Kajfirr<Js. (///) 

Kar-iryop^w, accuse ; regular, but aug. and redupl. after prep., 561. 
Ka<-, pant, only epic 2 p. pt. KCKa<f>r]u><s (II. 5, 698 ; Anthol. 9, 653). 
Kf&dvvv/jii (Ke8a-\ epic, scatter, see onc8avvvfu. (/) 
Ktijiai. lie; see 784 and (Dialects) 1070 ; compare KCIW or KW. (VII) 
Kipw (K(p-), shear ; f. Kcpw ; a. iKcipo, ep. e/ce/xra ; late -KfKapKa ; K^Kapfiai ; 
Find. ; 2. a. p. fKdprjv (Hdt. and late) ; vb. /capros late, diro- 

?t, only /ceiwj' (Of?. 14, 425). 
and KCW, ivish to lie down, rest. Epic. 

S-), see X^C *- 
KcAaSfw, roar ; KAa8?/(rw ; KtAaSj/o-a ; Horn. pr. pt. KeAa&ov. Ep. and lyr., 

also late prose. 
KcXcvw, command; KcXcvcrw ; cK^Xcv<ra ; KCK&CVKCI ; KtKcXcvo-^ai (616); ixtXiv 

crOrjv ; vb. -irapa K\txja-T09. 8ia-KXV<rr^ov. 
KeAAw (xeA-), land; f. KeAtrw (678); a. exeAcra (686). Poet, rare in late 

prose.. In Attic prose oKeAAw. (IV) 

KeAo/zcu, order ; KcAij<ro/xai ; KeAvj<ra/x/j/, 2 a. fKCKXofjLrjv (693 a, 6), 2 a. 
/xi-forni KCVTO for KATO (Alcman). Poet. 

(KCVT-, Kevre-), goad; Ion. and poet. Kevrrprw ; (KfVTypra ; Horn. aor. 
inf. Kfva-ai ; KeKfVTrjfjuu (Hippocr.) ; fK(VTT/j6t)v (Theophr.) ; o-vy-KevTriOi}- 
<rop.(u (Hdt) ; vb. 8ia-KvrrjTfov late. 

(Ktpa-, Kpa.-), mix; late Kpd<rto ; cxlpdo-a, Ion. (Kpr^ra; late 
; KKpd(iat. Ion. KfKpijfiat, late tUKtpatrfUU : CKpdOrjv and cKcpd- 
<r0Tp ; vb. Kparov. (K) Epic also K(pd<a and Kepaiw pres. and impf. ; 
and Kipvr/fj.1 or Kipvaw, pr. and impf. 

-, KepSav-, 652, II), gain; f. KtpSavw, KfpSi'jO-w late, KepBi'iarofiai 
Hdt ; a. cKfpSdva (685), eKepSrjva Ion., Hdt also tKfp&ipra ; irpo<r-KCKlpST]Ka 


(Dem. 56, 30), KfKfpSijKa and KK(p8a(y)i<a late ; KCKepSr/pu late. 

(Ktvd, Kvd-\ hide ; KetVw ; Ixei'o-a (Horn.) ; 2 p. ftfKtv&a as pies. ; 
ep. 2 a. Ki>6ov (subj. KfKi>6io) ; in tragedy Kcvdw and KeKv$a also 
mean am hidden. Epic and tragic. (///) Ep. KevOdvta, only impf. 

Ki'/8w (xr)8-, Ka8-\ rex, act. epic trouble ; K>/?/V<u ; tKyfirjcra ; 2 p. KfKr/8a as 
pres. (Tyrt. 12, 28); mid. K^So^oa. poetry and prose; f. redupl. ep. 
(11. 8, 353) dif. from the 1'ut. of X"^ > eKr/8ra/;v (Aesch. 
. 136). 

and KT|piSTTci> (KIJPVK-), proclaim; KTjpiSw ; KTJpva ; eV 
(Dem. 19, 35); KKVjpvvnai ; Kt]ptfx*V. (IV) 

e P- Kt X" va> ( Kt X')> ./^/ Ktxij<rofJia.i ; 2 a. e'/axov, ep. a. 
i', late Kt'x>/o"ci ; Horn, has also /ii-forms from KIX- thus : 2 a. 
t^ry/j.ei', Ktx^TTyv, subj. /ax "> P^ Kt X et/r / ^ n ^- 'f'X 7 ! 1 ' 06 
and Ki^rffjievai, pt. Ki\fi<s and Kix^evos} ; v ^- a- K iX r i TO *> unattainable 
(Aesch.). Poetic. (I/) 

(Ki8va~\ see o-KeSai'vi'/jit. (K) 
Kii> (KI-), ?ftore oneself, pr. and impf. Epic. (/) 
nipvrjfu and Kipvdw, epic, see Kepavvvp-i. (V) 

(xp a -\ land; XPW Hdt. ; ^XP 1 ! " 01 5 K ^XP r l lca 5 m ^- ( Kl/ XP a / txat ) UIR l 
Ki\pdop.aL late, borrow ; xpr]<rdj.T]v ; K'xpT)|iai. ( ///) Compare \po.M, 
give oracles, and \pa.op.a.i, use. 

d<j) (K\ayy- and /<Aay-), and KAayyavw, cZa?i(/ ; xAay^w ; tKAay^a ; 2 a. 
t/cAayov ; 2 p. K6cXayya, as pres. ; ep. KeKA^ya (pt. KocAr/yovTes) ; f. p. 
KcxXd-yioixcu as fut. Mostly poetic. (IV) 

atw (KAav-, /cAa/-, K\afy, KAai-, 650), Att. prose icXdw uncontr., wee^? ; 
K\avcro)jiai, rare KAawou/acu poet. (681), also KXai^o-w or KXa^jo-a), late 
KAavcrw ; ^KXaxiera, Ke/cAai'/xat poet., KeKAavcr/jiat late ; eKXavtrdrjv late ; 
vb. /cAavTos poet., /cAaio-ros late. (IV) 

aw, break; xActo-ta ; ?KXa<ra ; KCKXao-jiai ; KXdo-0T]v ; 2 a. pt. ctTro-KAas 
(Anacr.). Pr. and fut. only occur late. 

, older Attic K\^CO, sliut ; K\ti<ri0, KXfjo-<o ; ^KXtwra, ^KX^cra ; MicActiqa late, 
ajro-K^cXflKo. ; K^KXcipAi., KCKX^jiai, KeK\io-|iaL later; K\io-0T|v, tK\fjcr0T]v; 

Vb. KXtWTT^S, KX^(TT(Js, Ulte y/cAtO-TOS. Ion. K\1)lW, a. KA?;iO-a, KKA?/t- 

r#T/i' ; Dor. f. /cApw, a. -(K\aa. 

r-), steal; K\tyo> ; 'i\e\ia. ; KK\o<j>a ; KK\(j.fxat ; fK\f<f>@t]v Hdt. 
and poet., 2 a. KXdirr]v ; vb. KXcirnJs, KXtirr^os. (///) 
K\yu>, shut, sec K\eiuj. 

icXtvw (K\LV-, /cAt-), 6enr?, ma^e incline; icXivo) late in simple; ftcXlvct ; late 
K(K\IKO. ; KKXifxaL ; fK\i6i]v poet, and late prose, inXivOnv epic, also (?) 
late prose ; Kar-tK\lvr\v ; vb. aTro-KAireov (Aristot.). (IV) 
K\vta, hear ; impf. ZK\VOV as aor. ; 2 a. iniper. K\v6i and (epic) K(K\vBi, 
K\vTf and (epic) Ke/fAuTC ; KCKAuKa ; /cAi'/^evos = vb. KAirros, famous;. 



spin; eir-K\(ixra ; eTri-KCKAdxr/Mai (Plat.); cKA.wa-9i]v (Plut.) ; 

Mostly poetic or late. 

scratch, late in simple ; -Kvaurto ; -?Kvawra ; K^KvaiKa ; ; 

Kvdw, scrape, rub, pres. contr. rj (479) ; KVV/O-CD (Hippocr.) ; *Kvt]o-a ; KO.TU.- 
KSKv^o-fiai ; KaT-KW|<r0T]v ; late pres. also KV>')6ia. 

vu) (KoiAav-), hollow; KOtXavw ; cicotXava Ion. KOiA?/i'a ; KKcu'Aa/A//.ai 
and Hippocr. KexoiAatr/zai ; eKotAa^^v/v (Hippocr., Theophr.). (IV) 
, cut short, maim; regular, but KeKoAow/^ai and KeKoAou/Aut, tKo\ov- 

and <Ko\ov9t]v. 

), raise dtist, reg. ; but for KCKovfyiai also ntKOVuTftai. 
KOTT-TW (KOTT-), cut ; KOXJ/CJ ; gico\|/a ; -KCKOCJXX, Horn. pt. KCKOTTOJ? ; KKO( : 

tKcJirTjv ; f. p. -KCK<$t|/o|iai ; vb. K<xirn5s, late KOTTTCOV. (///) 
Kopevvvp.1 (KO/DC-), satiate, pres. late, also Koptta late ; Kopfo-ta (Hdt.), Kopew 
(Horn.) ; (Kopecra poet. ; ep. 2 p. pt. KfKoprjws ; KeKopecr/iai (Xen. and 
late prose), KKop^ (Ion.) ; Ko/3r#7yv poet. ; vb. d-KopryTos and 
a-Ko/3e(o-)Tos poet (/) 
Kopva-fTU) (Kopvd-), to helmet, arm ; a. pt. Kopvo-cra/'os (Horn.) ; pf. pt. 

KCKopvOfjifvos. Poetic, chiefly epic. (IV) 
KOTCCO, be angry ; eKoreo-a ; 2 p. pt KCKOTTJWS, angry. Epic. 
Kpd^ui (xpay-), crt/ OM<, pr. and impf. rare ; 2 a. gxpctyov ; 2 p. KfKpa-ya as pres. 
{imper. KtKpa.\Oi and /ce/c/adyere, Aristoph. 724, 768} ; f. p. KCKp&jofiai as 
fut. ; f. K/>au> and KCKpd^w late, a. fKpaa and K/cpaa late. (/ K) 

(Kpav-), accomplish ; Kpav<a ; fKpdva, Ion. fKprjva ; p. p. 3 s. 
KetcpavTai ; eKpdvflrjv. Ion. and poet. Epic also Kpaiaivio ; Kp-i'jrjva ; 
pf. KK/)uai/Ttti, plpf. KCKpaai'TO ; vb. a-K/sacros, unaccomplish&l . 

(KPC/JLO.-), hang, intrans., pres. like t'crTa/zat jsubj. Kpcjiwjiat, Kp<^, 
opt. KpffjiaiixT', Kptp-aio, etc. 516} ; Kp|i^<ro|Aai. (^//) Comi)ure 
vp.i ami Kpiuvr/fjLL (Kpi'ifivijfii). 

(Kpfp.a-), late KpffjLavviw and Kpffidw, suspend, hang (trans.) ; 
KpffJL'i<r<a, Attic Kp<|iu ; cKp^fiao-a ; late /ctKpe/xaoyxai ; cKpc|id(r6T]v ; (lor 
iniil. Kp<|ia|iai intr. and Kp|iT) see above); vb. KpcjiaoTrfs, Kf^atrrkov. 
(V) See also (Kpt'ifJivrjfj,L). 

^w (KpiK- or Kpty-), creaA; (Com. fr.) ; late prose cxpi^a; 2 a. K/HKC or npiyt 
ep. ; 2 p. Kcxpl-ya (Aristoph.). (/K) 

(, not Kp-i'ifjLvrj/j.1 as often written, s-nspend, very rare in 
act ; mid. KplfWOftau = Kp^fuxftai. Poet, New Ion., late prose. ( V) 

Kpifj.vd(i) rare and late. 

u (xpiv-, Kpi-\ judge; Kpivw ; ^Kplva : K^Kpiica : K^Kpipxi ; ^Kp^v, cj>. ;I!SD 
tKpivOrjv (707) ; vb. K^ITOS ]ioet., Kpirc'ov. (IV) 
, lixit ; Kpovtrta; e'Kpovcra: K^KpovKa ; K^Kpovftai and KcVpovo-fiaL : tKpotcrO-qv ; 

vb. Kpoi-o-Tos late, Kpov<rr6>v. 

Kpvn-rw (i<pv<f>-), conceal, late -Kpr<w and Kpvftm ; Kpwj/u ; ?Kpv\(/a ; a-i<y-K(Kpr<f>a 
late ; K^Kpv| ; ^Kpv^^v, late bcpvfajv and litp6ffi)V ; vb. Kpvirros, 


acquire ; KTr|<ro|iai ; *KTi\<r.p.i\v ; cKT/j0t)v pass. ; K^KTT)ficu, possess {subj. 
-TJ, -Tjrai, etc. 743, opt. KCKT^^V, KKT[JO, KKTTJTO, etc. or (?) 
KCKTwpjv, KtKTwo, KKT<j>To, etc. 745} ; pf. Ion. also KTT//JICU found some- 
times in Att. ; f. p. KtK-nrjo-ojiat and Ion. also e/crr/o-o^at, shall possess ; 


KTivw (KTCV-, KTCI-), kill ; KTCVW, Horn, /crevew and KTO-VCW ; ?KTiva ; poet. 

2 a. (KTOLVOV, poet. 2 a. CKTCIV (767, 2) with mid. eKTayMiyv, twas killed; 

2 p. dir-^KTova and (Aesch.) fcar-CK-rovo, ; p. dir-fKTOvrjKa, ttTT-e/crayKa, 

(?) a7r-KT<xKa, all late ; p. p. aTr-e/cTa/^/zcu late ; a. p. e/cra^v epic, 

fKrdi'6'ijv late. (/K) In Att. prose ciiro-KTtCvw is generally used. Passive 

forms of KTeiVw are rare ; in Att. prose Ovi'/a-Kta is used as pass, of KTCIVW, 

or the passive of av-atpew. By-form KTCIVI<[JLI, Kreivvw, also written 

KTeivvi'fjii or KTivvv/JLi, late in simple ; but airo-KT()v(v)v|xi in Att. 

prose. ( V) 
KTIO> (/crtS-), found ; KTIO-W ; ?KTio-a ; late eKTiKa and KCKTIKO. ; KTio-}xai and 

late KCKTL(rfj.di ; (Kri<r9i\v. (/ 1^) From an earlier stem KTI-, epic 2 a. 

m. pt. KTt/xevos, founded. 

(KTVTT-), sound ; eKTinrrjara. ; 2 a. CKT^TTOV (Horn.). Poet., rare in 

late prose. 

aivw (Ki'Sav-}, honour ; KfSavw late ; fKvSrjva. Ep. and late prose. 

Horn, also /a'Savou, honour, vaunt myself ; and KuStaw (also late). (/I/) 

o (KT-), 6e pregnant, KUTJCTW (Hippocr.) ; itcvrpro, conceived ; K<Kvrr]Ka ; p. p. 

KCKi'^at late ; a. pass. eKvijOyv late ; mid. fcriwgr forth. By-form KVW 

poet. ; e/a'o-a, impregnated (Aesch. J<V. 38), but late = brought forth. 

Causative KIUO-KW (KV-), impregnate (Hippocr.), Kvt<rico|uu, conceive; fut. 

and aor. from KV&O. ( VI) 

, KvXivSt'w, KvXtw, ? - oW ; late KvXio-fo ; iKvXlora ; KaTa-KCKvXlo-pai., late in 

siniplu ; KvXfo-0T]v ; vb. KvXurros. 

(KV-), kiss; (?) Ki'v>y<roju,ai, late KI'XTO) eKvcra (also late prose), Kvv?yo-a 

late. Poetic. ( /) rrpoo--Kvvw, do homage ; irpoo--Kvv/|<r ; irpoo--KWT|<ra, 

poet. 7rpo(r-Kvo-a ; 7rpoo--KKi'v^/ca late. 

stoop ; -K&l/w (late in simple) ; KV\|/O, ; K^KVCJMX. (///) 
Kvpo>, meet, happen, is regular ; poet., Hdt., and late prose. Ki>p<a (KV/>), 

Kvpa-ta (678); e*ciyxra (686). (IV) 

(Aa^-), obtain by lot ; X^ofiat, Ion. Aao/zat ; 2 p. tfXrixa, I n - an( ^ 
poet. AeAoy^a ; clCXiyy|j,ai ; cX^jx^v ; 2 a. HXaxov { Horn. eAAa^oi', but 
Horn. AeAa^ov, made partaker} ; vb. XtjKT^ov. (V) 

pdvco (\a/3-), take; Xrjxj/ofiai, late Ary^w, Ion. Aa/x^-o/iat, Dor. \.a\ffovftai ; 
cl!XT]<f>a, Ion. and Dor. AfAu/??/Ka ; efX^fifiat, poet. AeAr/yti/iat, Ion. and 
Dor. AeAtt/u/xat ; iX^iJ^v, Dor. eAd^)^r;i/, Ion. (X.a.fjL<f>6r)v ; 2 a. Xaf3ov 
(Horn. 2 a. inf. \f\afifa-0ai) ; vb. Xiprrds, Xtiirrfov, Hdt. 


Xdjiirw, xfn'ne ; Xdp.x|/uj ; fXapJ/a ; 2 p. AeAa/xjra poet. ; late ( 

XavOdvw (Aa#-), lie hid, escape notice of, also A.7/#w (Class II) mostly poet.; 

XTJO-W ; poet. IA7/(ra, and late in simple (see also Xijddva)), 2 a. JXaOov, 

Hoin. has also XeXaBov, caused to forget ; 2 pf. X&T)8a as pres., Dor. 

XtXdda. Mid. XavOdvopai, forget, simple poet., rare in prose, usually 

f iri-Xav0dvo|iai, Hdt. 7Tt-A^o/xat, poet. Arydo/iai ; iri-X^j<ro|Aai ; eiri- 

XA.T]<r|iai, ep. XfXa.crfj.aL ; 1'. p. AeAv/a-o/xai poet.; 2 a. tir-tXa6<5fiT)v (epic 

AAa#o/ti7)v). In the sense, to cause to forget, XrjQdvu (Od. 1, 221) ; 

cir-fXij<ra (Od. 20, 85). Vb. a-Aao-ros ep., a-A^o-ros and a-Ad$77Tos 

very late. (IV) 
ActTTTw, (Xa/3- or Aa</>-), lick, lap, pres. act. late; Aa^w (II. 16, 161), 

K-Xd\|ro|iai (Aristoph.); t|-'Xav}/a (Aristoph.), simple late; X&cujxx 

(Aristoph. Fr.). (Ill) 

(for AaK-(TKfe>, ACIK-), speak ; Aac?y<ro/u,at ; eAuKrjo-a rare ; 2 p. AeAtixa 

trag., ep. XeXrjKa (part. AeAaKuta) ; 2 a. e'Aa/cov ; 2 a. mid. AeAaKo//>;v 

(Horn. Hymn. Merc. 145). Poetic, rare in late prose. (VI) 

>, devour, poet, and late prose ; eAa<ua late. (/I/) 
Aaw, fee ; only part. Aawv and impf. Acte. Epic. 
Aetco, wish; Aw, Ays, Ar/, Aa>yi)rc?, etc. (contr. 479), inf. JUJv. Doric. 
Xcaivw (Aeav-), smooth ; tXe'dva, Hdt. eA7;va ; AfAtacr/xat and fXedvOrjv and 

vb. Aeavreoi/ late. 
Xy (^)j aa !/ ' e ^/ ^ w ' ^ l a ; P^ AeAe^a late (reg. ctpijica, see eipw under 

slirov) ;,, but 81 {(Xe-yfiaL (538); tX^x^lv ; XcX^ojwxi ; vb. poet. 

ACKTOS, XtKWos. 8ia-Xyo|iai, discuss; 8ia-X|o(iau and 8ia-Xtx6^<ro|ACi ; 

8i-X^x&]v, late 8i-eAe^a/x,r;i/, Aristot. St-eAey/^i' ; pf. Si-ctXc-ypai ; vb. 

X^-yw (b\ gather, in simple, rare and poet., usually in com p., as <ru\-, IK- ; 

X^w ; ?Xt|a ; ei'Xoxa (538), late e^-ei'Atxa ; fKXrypai and XcXc-ypai ; 2 a. p. 

^X^yrjv and rare in Att. tX^x0r)v ; f. p. Xc-y^jcro(, late KaTa-Ae^^ryo-o/Atti ; 

vb. AeKTo? poet., f K-XcKTcos. epic 2 a. m. of /Mt-form f\eyfj.r)i> (Od. 9, 

335), counted myself to, but AKTO (Od. 4, 451), /ay doww, see the 

root Aex-. 
XcCirw (AiTT-, A^tTT-, AOITT-), leave, synopsis in 462, 2 a. and 2 pf. inflected in 

463, irregularities of meaning, 797 ; rarely Xi|xirdvw ; Xc(|/u ; eAet^a late; 

2 p. XAoiiro, liave left, lnire failed; 2 a. fcXiirov ; mid. remain = leave 

one's self, but cAiTro^y, le f t for myself (Att. prose in comp.), in Homer 

sometimes = was left behind, irrn inferior; pass. = am left, am left behind, 

am inferior, XeXetfx-iai, 3 ;i. ]>lpf. eXenrro (Ap. Rh.) ; l\tfy&i\v, late 2 a. p. 

eAiVviv ; f. Xi4>9t|<ro(jiai ; t. p. XcXcixj/o^xai ;- vb. Xftirr^ov. (//) 
Xc(x<i '"'; Aet'^w late ; (Xcvga; late f-f\(t\dr)v. 
Xcirrdvcs (AeTTTw-), make thin ; A7rn>rw (late); ^Xirrvva ; XfX^irrva-fiai {inf. 

XcXfirrvcrOai, late AeAeTmV&u, 737, 4} ; i\tTrn>v9r]v. (IV) 
\t-rria, peel ; -X^\|/o> ; fX|/a (simple only //. 1, 236); XlXap.pai ; ^-c\dirr|v. 
Ae'<rcrw, see, poet ; late Aeixrw and cAeixra. (/I/) 
Xiiw, s<ore, in prose mostly Kara-Xcvw ; -Xevo-w ; -^Xcvo-a ; tXv<r8t)v. 

1073 CATALOGUE OF VER15S .293 

Aex-, root, lay down, compare TO Aex-os, and Atytu, gather ; forms like those 

from Ayw are : eAea (voov), laid to rest (II. 14, 252),. imper. Xfgov (II. 

24, 635) ; fut. and aor. Aeo/xcu and eAe^a/xTjv occur several times ; 2 

aor. fit-forms : fXfKro several times, imper. Aeo (II. 24, 650, Od. 10, 
- 320) and Afeo (//. 9, 617; Od. 19, 598); inf. Kara-Aex^at (Od. 15, 

394); pt. Kara-Aey/xevos (Orf. 11, 62 ; 22, 196), see 1063. Epic. 
X-r/do), lie hid, Xr)6dv<a, cause to forget ; see Aav$ava>. 
Ai'yc, aor., twanged, only 77. 4, 125. 

AiAaio/xcu, rfm?-e eagerly ; pf. AeAir//xat. (/K) Epic. See Aaa>, tm/i. 
Xtp.iru.vw, teave, see AetVto. 

Xlfj.iuo-0-n) and AF/XWTTW, hunger ; Ai/xwotuu ; fXifuo^a. All late. (/I/) 
Xaraivta (AiTrav-), make fat; eAtVava and eAtV^va ; AeAiVaoyxat ; eAi7r<iV0?;v. 

Late. (//) 

AITTTW (AtTT-), long for, late ; AeAi/x/xei'o? yMax^/s (Aesch.). (///) 
Atcrcro/iat and rarely AITO/AOU (Air-), supplicate, poet., rare in prose ; eAwru- 

/MT/V epic ; 2 a. eAtrojwr/v epic. (/K) 
Xt^fjiona and Atx/^"^' ^ c ^' mostly poet. ; also late ; lAt'x/A^cra late ; pf. pt. 

AeAix^oTts or AeAetx-^ores for -/AT/OTCS (Hes. T/i. 826), compare 1031. 
Aoew, epic for XotJw, u'as/i ; Aorcro/*ai (and late Aoeo-w) ; eAdeo-a and mid. 

See Aovw and Aow. 
Xovw (and epic Aow), wash; in Att. and Hdt. tlie pres. and impf. (except 

Xovco, Xovcis, Xovei) are formed from Aow and contracted ; as Xovpcv, XOVT, 

Xovcri, ?Xow, etc. 

(Ai'yuav-), abuse, act. rare and late ; eXv/j.di>a, and e'Afyx,r/va ; 
as act. ; Xv^ ; tXv^Tjvdjxiiv ; XX6( ; fXi'fJ.di'Bi)V 

pass. (Aesch., Eur.). (IV) 
\itia (Xv-, Av-), loose; synopsis in 460 ; inflection in 461 ; Horn. Ai>o> or 

Avco ; epic 2 a. /xi-forms : fXvfj.rjv as pass., ATJTO, AVTO (i~ by ictus, 

hence not to be written AUTO), AtVro, vir-eXwro ; see 1003; pf. opt. 

AeA^To or XeXvvro, eee 700, 1051. 


fj.a.iv(a (P.O.V-) poet., madden ; e/xrjva poet. ; (iaivo|iai, be mad, rage ; f. 
(Hdt.) ; <|xavT)v ; 2 p. p.6(iT]va, am mad ; poet. ', fiffjiavrj/jLai, am 
mad, late ; f. fj.avi/j<rofj,ai late. (IV) 

(ij.a<r-, fjuicr-y-, fj,at-, 1002, 4), feel after, desire ; fj.da-ofj.aL ; ( ; 
vb. 7rt-/AacrTos (Od. 20, 377). (IV) Second perf. /xe/xova (p-ev-, p.a-\ as 
pres. {/xe/xoi/a, /xe/xova?, p.ffj.ovf, but the rest are /it-forms : /X/XUTOV, 
fj.ffj.afj.fv, fj,t/j,a.Tf, fj.ffj.dfur i ; imper. /xe/xaTw ; pt. /xe/xaws, f. fj.ffj.avia (-CICUTOS 
and -doTes) ; inf. /xe/xovei/ai (Hdt. 6, 84) ; plpf. /xe/xacruv}. (/, ///) 
Doric verb fidofjai (Snpph. 23), /XWTCU, fj,wvTai, opt. fuj)To late, imper. 
/XWTO, inf. /xoxr^ai, pt. /xw/xei/os trngic. All these forms are poetic, 
mostly epic. 


pavOdvu (, learn ; |ia0V)<ro|iai ;]Ka ; 2 a. pa0ov ; late p. pt. 

/ieru< as act. (Aesop) ; vb. fiaO^-ros. -T&S. (/) 
p.apai'vw (fj.apa.v-), make wither; p,apar<a late; cjidpdva. and mid. as act. 

efj.apTjvdp.rjv late ; and late ; fp.apdv6rjv (Horn., 

and late), (/l^) 
fidpvafiai (jMp-va-), ' fight {only pres. and impf. ; like urrw/xcu (98), subj. 

udpvwpMi (516), imper. p.dpvao}. Poetic. (V) 
p.dpTTT(o (fiapir-) seize ; pdpifsa) ; fp,api[/a ; ep. 2 p. p.fp.apira ; ep. 2 a. fj.fp.ap- 

TTOV {Hes. inf. p-airffLv (Sc. 231, 304) and opt. p.fp.dTroifv (Sc. 252), but 

some read p-apirffiv and //.e/xa/DTroiev}. Poetic. (///) 
[iap-rup6o, tear witness, regular; fiaprvpop-ai, ca/Z witneues; 8ia-fj.apTvpovp.aL 

late ; 4jiapTvpd|iT]v. (//) 
p.acro-0) and pxTTW l 1 "'/- , knead ; |xd|( ; f fj-a^a ; |XpLa\a ;^a.1 ; 2 a. p. 

4p.d-yr)v ; e/xax^/v late. (//) 

(p.a<TTiy-), whip, pres. late ; fp.d(ma ep. ; faaa-ri^drjv late. 

ep. /ACUTTI'W. -Prose |xa<rrl-y<5<o. 

<7/i< ; Horn, also (Od. pt. p,a\eovp.fvo<i and 

in Hdt. p.a)(f6p.fvos doubtful ; f. |iaxovp,ai, Hdt. p-a^fa-oaai, Horn. 

ouai and usually fj.a^t', p.a\i'frofj.aL also late prose ; 

epic also ffj.axrjo-dp.rjv (also late prose) ; |icp,dxii|xai ; fp.a-^fO'Orjv late ; 

vb. /iax^Tos (Od. 12, 119), d-pxxeros (Soph. Se^<. 85), jiaxtrt'ov and (T), be concerned ahoid ; rare. Epic. //,8w and 

(icOvo-Ku (p.f$v-), intoxicate ; late p.fdvo-tD ; (A0vo-a ; l|X0vo-0t]v ; late 


|u0vw (jjifOv-), be intoxicated ; for the other tenses, the passive of pc0v<rKo>. 

[tfipopa.1 (p.fp-\ obtain, epic ; 2 pf. 3 sing. fp.p,opf epic ; p. p. ctpaprai, i< ts 
fated [ ; .|iapp.vo5, fated, and esp. clp,apfj.^vT| as subst., Fate} ; late also 
p.fp.6prjTai and p.fp.opp.fvos. (IV) Compare also root irop-, irpo-. 

\it\\u, intend; augni. fp.- or ^|i- (525) ; |i,cXX^o-co ; p.\\T]<ra . vb. |itXXi]Tov. 

fj.fX.Tro), sing, celebrate ; p.fX\f/w ; ffiftya. Poetic. 

/xfAw, concern, care for, poet. ; p,f\.r'jo-<a poet, p.fX,r' epic ; /zeA?;cra 
late ; /ze/xeA^xa late ; p.fp,rj\a epic ; p.ffjLfXrjp.aL as pres., poet. {ep. 
lLfH,p\.fTai and p.fp.j3XfTo for,X- (71 a), but late epic}', 
f/j.fXrjdrji> poet. The personal forms poetic or lato, in prose ton (UXo|iai 
and t-n-u p.\{' Impersonal forms : p.^Xci, it concerns ; p.cXr|o-ci ; 4fi^Xtj<rc ; 
pf|iAT|KC ; vb. (icXriT^ov. 

p.ffjiova (p-fv-), desire, 2 pf. See p.aiopMi. 

pipfyopon, blame ; |ilp|/o|iai ; 4(ic^<|rd|ii]v and rarely i\U\>.$9i\v. 

fi'vu. remain, poet. p.ip,v<a ; |uvw, Ion. p.fVf(D ; {pciva ; pt\Uvi]Ka, ; vb. |uvtr<}s, 


fifpp.rjpi<i>, ponder, devise, epic ; p*pp.rjpig<D ep. ; p.fpp.t'jpia ep., dir- 

ffjLfpp.rjpio-a (Aristoph.). (IV) 
fj.i]8<', devise ; ; fp.rja-dp.'rjv. Poetic. 


(p>v]K-, fJ.a.K-, 629), bleat, cry, pr. and impf. not in use ; 2 p. pt. 
Horn. p.ep.rjKu><s, fj.efj,a.Kvia; 2 plpf. ep.ep.riKov (1036); 2 a. pt Horn. 


i-, 629), plan; also and (Find.) ; ; 

ep.r)Turdp,r)v. Epic. 
p.icuva> (p.iav-\ stain ; p,iava> ; cp.Ca.vai, Ion. e'/za/i'a ; p.epiayKa late ; p.p,ia<rp,ai, 

late fj.efj.Lafj.fiai ; tp,idv0i]v. (/ K) 
p.t-yviip.1 (p.iy-), mix, or more correctly p,fyvxip.i, also p,-yvv, less often p,io~y 

(for /ziy-cTKto) of Class ^/ ; p.iw. p.c(<o ; "p.Ta, c'p.cif-a ; p.ep^e)i,)^a late ; 

p.c'p,, p.f'(j.6L^ ; c|ifxOr)v, tp.Cx9Tjv ; 2 a. p. p.iYqv ; ep. and late p-i-Ji]- 
; ep. 2 a. m. eulKro and P.IKTO ; ep. fut. p. p.ep.i^ ; vb. 
and fXLKTe'os (or P.IKT-). (V) 
and older /xt/Av^crKw (p-va-), remind, the simple is poet, in active ; 

fj.vrj(r<a, euvrja-a ; in prose ava-|xip,vr|o-K<o, I^TTO-. p.ip,vr|<rKO|iai, remember; 

|iv<](r0T|v ; efj.vrjo'dfj.'^v poet. ; pf. = pres. p,^p.vT], remember, memini 

{subj. p,cp,v<0|uu, |j.p,vwp.8a (Hdt. 7, 45 (?) fj.efj.veiop.eOa), 743 ; opt. 

p.p,vQp.T)v, -fjo, -fro, etc. or less common and doubtful fj.e/j.v<puyv -oJo, -<^ro 

etc., 745 ; imper. fj.efj.veo Hdt. for |U|i.vT]o-o} ; f. p. = fut. |X|iv^<, shall 

bear in mind, f. iiv^crO^o-oiiai, shall remember, poet, /xvryo-o/iai ; vb. 

a-/xvacrTos (Theoc. 16, 42), uvrjo-reov Hippocr., em-p.viioTt'os. (VI) Epic has Horn, forms (e)av(JJovTo fj.v(a6fj.evo<s, and Ap. Rh. 1, 896 has 

imper. uvweo ; see 1009, 6. 
fj.Lfiv(D, remain, poet, for p.evw. 

p,t<ryw for fj.iy-0-Kw, mix, only pr. and impf. ; see p.t-yvvp,i. (VI), remember, epic =, see /xt/Avryo-Kw ;, court, 

desire, epic, late prose, very rare in Att. prose. 
p.opvo~o-(t), soil, pollute ; pr. and impf. not found ; ep.6pva late ; p,ep.opvyp,evo$ 

or (?) p.efj.opvxp.evos ep. (IV) 

p.i(o and (Ion.) and (late) eK-p.vd<a, suck; ep-vfao-a late, CK- (11.). 
p.vco (p-vy-), grumble ; /AI'^W late ; p.uga- (/ V) (P.VK-, 991), bellow; late; tp.vKTja-dp.Tiv ; ep. 2 p. p*p.VKa 

as present ; ep. 2 a. ep,vKov. 

(p-vp-), run, flow; mid. ^ow with tears, lament; aor. ep.vpdp.yv late. 

Poet. (/10 

and p-vrrw (JJ.VK-), wipe, act. in comp., pres. diro- (Plat.) ; -{p,vga (XTTO- 

late, Kara- Com. fr.) ; plpf. dir-p.^p,vKTo (Com. fr.) ; KaT-ep.i>\di]v late ;, wipe one's nose (Hippocr.), diro- (Xen.) ; d-ir-p.v{dp,r)v (Aristoph.). 

jitw, shut ilie lips or eyes ; p-vvai late ; )fp.v<ra ; p.^p,vKa. 


Wtw (va<r-y-, vat-, 650; 1002, 4), dwell; f. late ep. ; 
caused to dwell, placed, ep. ; evatra-dpriv, took up my abode, ep. ; 
settled; vevafrpat late. Poetic. (IV) 


veunrw and VOLTTW (vay-, va.8-, 642), stuff, compress, pr. late ; eVa^a (Horn, and 

Hdt) ; Wvao-jioi and I'fi'ay/xai (Hippocr.). (IV) 
vati) (vaf-y-, 650 ; 1002, 4), flow, only pres., epic; inipf. VO.QV, now written 

valov (as in Od. 9, 22). (IV) 

veiKcu), ep. (pr. also Hdt.), vei/ccuo ep., chide; VCIKCO-OJ ; evei'/cecra. 
vu<j>i, better than v</>i, snmo, ewer iCTt/i snow ; late poet, vei^w ; Ka.r-ivv.fyt ; 

pass, vtkfwrai. 
Wp.w, distribute, pasture, consider; vt(x<L. late i'c^7/cra) ; lvcip.a ; S 

vvt'(iT]fiai ; vfiT|0tjv ; vb. 8ia vfit]T&>v. 
veo/iat, gro, come, also as future. Poet. See vtuop.a.i. 
-ve<j!>u> and (?) -vf>(a, only in comp. <rvv-v6}>i, 6e clouded; late - 

2 p. o-vv-Wvotjx. 
v& (1) (vev-, ve/-, vv-, 632), swim; f. vcvo-oiiftoi (Xen. An. 4, 3 1 ' 2 ), see 681 ; 

^-frcwa ; 5ia ve'vevKa ; vb. vv<rrov. (//) See V77X o /* at - 
vf<a (2), heap up, pr. in comp. and only in Hdt; in Att. x<* is used ; vv/o-cu 

(Suid. ) ; ?vt)<ra ; v^vTj(<r)(iai ; late tvrj(<r}6i]v ; vb. VI/TOS (Od.). Epic 

vrjfw, vrjrja-ta, evrjrj<Ta.iJ.r)V. 

via (3) and vr)B(o, spin; vVjrw ; *vr|<ra ; vfvr)<Tp.a.i late; Iv^jdip' ; vb. V/JTOS. 
-vi5 (vi/?-, vty-, 645), and late VITTTW, Horn. VITTTO/JML, wash; the simple is 

poet, or late ; -vtyw ; -?vn('a ; -v^vi| ; KaT-evtydrjv (Hippocr.) ; f. vi</>?/- 

cro/xat late (Old Test.) ; vb. a-viTrros (/^.), dv-air<J-viirros. (/ V, III) 
vfo-ofjuii better than vimrofuu (perhaps for vev-yofjuii, compare, go or 

will go. Poetic. (IV) 
vo4<a, think, observe; vo^jcro), etc. In New Ionic + 77 = 0*: Ivoxra, 

vojttjw (vofj.iS-), think ; fut. Att. vo|ua> (see 680, 4), vo/xwrw late ; v<5fiio-a 

etc. (IV) 
vwrr&tju (i/ixrraS-, vixrra-y-, 1002, 1), sleep, feel drowsy ; rurrcied (Old Test.) 

lvv<rrao-a and late ej'jxrra^a. (/I/) 

scrape, smoothe ; t^ecra mostly ep. ; Kgco-pai ; late f^tcrdrjv ; vb. 

(r)pav-), dry ; grjpavw ; t^pdva, Ion. (gijprjva ; {gVjpao-pai and late 
c^i'lpafJLfJMi ; j^T)pdv6r|v ; vb. fypavreov late. (/l^) 
, shear, ref, r . ; but i'/cxo late, has ff>pa (Hippocr. and late). 
polish ; lwra, late -!ftr/MU ; 4{tf<rflT)v ; vb. ^i5o-Tos (Hdt.). 

, oSa^ato, oSa^ew, n?ar< ^-om a bite (Xen., Hippocr.) ; b"Sa>/<roynai as 
pass. (Hippocr.) ; a>8a^dfj.rjv CAnthol.) ; w3ay/*at (Soph. Fr. 708). 
8cnropa), (rare/, from oSowropos, regular; but pf, mid. is sometimes found 
for wSowro/^Ka. See 567, 568. 


), make a way, regular ; but pf. usually with aug. and red. coSo-TreTrot?;- 
instead of wSo-Trot^-. See 567, 568. 

68v-, be angry, no pres. ; ciSttrcit/x^v and oSwSixrfiai. Horn. 
68vpo|u (oovp-), lament; oSvpovfiai. ; coSvpdixTjv ; late Kar-oSvpfafa pass.; 

dSuprds (Aristoph.), oSvpreov late. Trag. Svpopai. (IV) 
6l<a (08-, de-), smell ; 6}tf<r, Ion. drw ; JJ^wo, Ion. wecra ; 2 pf. as pres. 

oScoSa Hoi n., also late. 
oi'yw, also oiyvvfJLi, open; CHOJ ; <pa, ep. also wi.'a ; oi\6el<i Find. Poetic, 

in prose dv-oC-yvv|Ai. 

oI3a (iS-), /mow. See 786, 787, 788; Dialects, 1071. 

oi.36o, SM*/ ; wSt]<ra ; wSrjKa. ot'5aw (Plut.). oi'Savw ep., oi'Saivu) late, a. 
dv-(i)8r)i>a late ; aor. dv-oLBijcrdfiriv act. (Q. Sm. 9, 345). (K) 

(oiKTip-), later oiKretpw, |)t<?/ ; (. ? ) oiKrepio (Aesch. Fr.) ; wKrlpa, 
otKTipr)(rw, oKTipryo-a, MKTfipyjdrfv, late. (/I/) 
-)) lament ; oi,(x<ioju, late ot/xw^w ; (ppt>|a ; otynwy/xevos (Eur. 
a. 1285); ot/xwx^ets (Theogn. 1204). 

e'w, |wur wine, reg. ; Horn. pres. oiVoxoetW; impf. Horn, oivo^oet and 
oi, Anacr. wvo^oet. 

nJfc, in prose usually otfuu ; impf. (5p,T]v, in prose prob. always 
<j)|At]v ; o'iT|a-o[uu ; (^TjO^v ; vb. olrjTt'ov ; epic owo and often o&o only 

1 sing. ; dfo/xat, dio-a/ir/v, wicr^v. 

ol'xo(j.<u, begone; olx^o-ojiai ; Ion., also late oi\rj/iaL and 7rap-<px>//^ al prob. 

not Att. ; oi^wKa (Ion., poet.), also found as ifytoKa (628, but some 

consider oi^Ka for oix-^X' a with Att. redupl.) ; Trap-w)(r]Ka ep. and 

late prose ; ep. by-form oi^veo). 
oKe'XXw (oKeA-), run ashore; JiKciXa. Poet. /ceAAw, KeAo-w (678), eKeAcra 

(686). (/K) 
oXicrOdvco (dAtcr^-), sZtp, also rarely -6Xio-0a(vo>, late in simple ; oAto-#rycr<o late ; 

2 a. wAicr^ov Ion., poet., lute ; uA7$ryo-a and wAicr^r/Ka Hippocr. and 
late. (V) 

-flXXv|ii (for dA-vv-/u, 652, VIII, root dA-) and -6XXv, destroy, simple is 
poet., in prose dir-<iXXv[x(,, also e-6XXvp and 8i-<JXXii(xi ; f. oAeo-oj ep., 
also late in comp., doubtful in Att. (680, 6), Hdt. dAew (1011, 
2 (c) ) ; Att. -6X ; -&\ra. ; -oXuXsKo. ; 2 p. -6XwXa, perish; mid. 
oXXxifiai, perixh ; ; 2 a. coXdfj.T]v {ep. part. oi'Adyu,evos} ; late 
p. p. oAwAecr/iat, late a. p. aTr-wAeo-6'7/1'. (I/) Poetic oAeKcu pr. and 

6XoXvci> (dAoAuy-), sliout, rare in prose ; 6XoXvo|icu, Old Test. dAoAv^w ; 
&\6\vt*. (IV) 

6Xo<|>upo|xai. (oXo<f>vp-), bewail ; 6Xo4>vpov|iai ; wXo<j>vpd|XT]v ; (jjXo(f>vp6r)v (Thuc. 
6, 78 :i ) probably pass. (IV) 

ofj.apT((, be together, accompany, poet. ; reg. ; but also 2 a. o/j.aprov (Orph. 
Arg. 513). 
f(D, make water, pres. (Hes. Op. 727); w/ua (Hippon. 55). 

(O/A-, 0/j.o-) and 6p,vvw, swear ; f. 6ixov|xai, late d/xocrw and tV-o/ioo 


uip,ocra ; ofiuifioxa ; oacifiofiai and, late w/AOCr/zevos ; o)(ioOr]v and 
o[i6o-8iiv ; vb. d-r U>P.OTOS. ( K) 

6/j.opyvvfj.i. (ofjMpy-), ivipe ; poet, in simple; 6fj.6p<a late; 
t op.6p-yvu| ; 3--O|x6po|iai; ^ ujp.op|d.p.T]v : dir-<>|x<$px0T]V. ( /) 

6vivTjp,i (ova-, for OV-OVT/-/XI, 764, 6), benefit; 6vrj<r ; <5vi]<ra ; 2 a. m. 

and late (iva^j/ {767, 1 ; opt. ovatjrqv, fivaio, etc. 516 ; imper. oi'7/cro 
Horn., pt. ovijfievos Horn.} ; a> late ; &v4\fa\v ; vb. OIV-<)VT)TOS. (VII) 

ovofj.a.1 (ovo-), insult, pres. and impf. like SiSofjiai. (498), opt. OVOLTO (Hoio.), 
Hum. also 2 pi. ovvfo-Of (II. 24, 241) ; ovocro/zai ; uvoo-dfttjv, Hoin. also 
wvaro (//. 17, 25); Kar-ovwrd^v (Hdt.) ; vb. dvo(er)Tos. Ionic and 
poetic. (VII) 

6ovco (duv-), sharpen, Attic prose irap-o^ivw ; 6vv ; <Bi5va ; late 7ra/>o>uy/ca; 
uiup.p,ai, late d-TT-w^va-p-at ; cogvvOrjv. (//) 

OTTUIW (d^i>- ; 1002, 4), take to infe; oVucra> (Aristoph. Ach. 255); late 

Epic and late prose. (IV) 
see 6pda>. 

opdw (opa-, 18-, /i5-, OTT-), see ; Aeol. opi]fj.i ; impf. wpv, Hdt. wpojv ; f. 6\|/, 
2 sing, only 5|/ti {Horn, distinguishes 7r-o^o/xat, s/iaW iooA; on, and TTI- 
o\f/, sJutll choose; see also 1 aor. mid.} ; 1 a. mid. 7ri-a>^ap/v, chose 
(Plat. Com. Frag. 2, 623 ; also Plat. Leg. 947) ; but eV-o^aro, saw 
(Find. Frag. 88) ; copaica and cwpaxa, Herodas in 4, 40 has S>pi]Ka, 
sometimes, optap^Ka, with Att. redupl. ; 2 pf. oironra, poet., Ion., late ; 
fupd|iai and w( ; ux^Q^v. late ewpd^T/v ; 2 a. ctSov {tSco, i'8oip.i, S< and 
Att. also 18^, IScIv, iSwv} ; Jot8a, Jbio?r, see 786, 787, 788, and (Dialects) 
1071}; vb. opdrds, OTTTCOV late, ircpt-oTTTtov. To 18- also belong these 
middle forms : Pres., seem, appear, resemble ; ep., poet., New Ion., 
also late prose {eeiSo/xcvos Find. N. 10, 15 ; impf. e-ei&ro Qu. Smyr. 

I, 153} ; aor. and io-a/x?/v epic ; 2 aor. fl86p.rjv, saw, ep., poet 
(in Att. prose rare and only in comp.). (VI) 

opya.iv(a (opyav-), be angry ; upyava. trans., enraged. Only in trag. (//) 
6pty-(a, reach, ep., poet., late prose, of 6peyvvp.i (V) only part, opeyvvs in 

II. 1, 351 and 22, 37 ; opeto ; wpea (also rare in Att. prose) ;- 6pyo|iai, 
stretch oneself, desire, rare and late opeyvrfievos ; op^op-ai : <opE|d|iT)v and 
oftener tipfyfav ; wpey/zai (Hippocr. 1, 520), with redupl. dpwpey/xai 
{3 pi. optope\arai II. 16, 834, plupf. optapf.\(iro II. 11, 26, part. 
opiopeyfievos Joseph. Ant. 18, 6 5 } ; vb. O^CKTOS (II. 2, 543 ; Aristot. 
Metaph. 11, 72). Bare collat. form opiy-vdofiai (Eur. Ba. 1255 and late) ; 
late dpiyvr/<ro/xcu ; aor. inf. opiyvr)(JT)i'ai Isocr. 6, 9 ; Antiphon Soph. 
Frag. 91 (109)., see opvvfj.i. 

dptvio (opiv-), raise, rouse ; wplva. ; wpivBrjv. Also opodovo) (upodvv-) ; 

wpoOvva.. All epic. (IV) Compare opvvfj,i. 
opvfp.1 (op-), raise, rouse ; o/ww ; <L/xra ; ep. 2 a. upopov (also intrans.) ; 

2 p. opwpa, mid. = have roused myself/ mid. =rise, rush; opvvfj,<u ; 

f. opovfj.a.1. (Horn.) ; p. 6pwpcfj,at (Horn.) ; 2 a. ti/od^v {ep. forms : 3>pro, 


imper. o/xro and o/xreo and opcrer, inf. opBai, part. opfj.tvo<s}. Poetic. 

(V) Epic by-form opeo/xat, pr. and impf. Compare opivta. 
6pvo-trtu and opvTTtt (6pv%- or opvy-), diy ; opvgco ; dipva, rare late 2 a. wpvyov ', 

opwpuxa ; 6piopvy|xai and late u>pvy(JLai ; &pv\6r\v, late (apvyr/v, late (?) 

wpv)(rjv (but KaT-opv^y'/a-ofjLai Aristoph. ylv. 394 ; vb. ApvicixSs- (IV) 
6cr4>paivo|iai (t'xr<pp-a-, ocr<f>pav-, 652, IV), smell; rare and late do-</ja(v)o/^cu ; 

6tr4>pr|o-o(icu ; 2 a. oxr4>p6|iT]v (Hdt. 1, 80 has 1 aor. 3 pi. wa-ff>pavTo) ; 

(iXT(j>pdv6it]i> rare and late : vb. ocr<pavTos and oV^prjTos late. (K, //) 

Late act. -oo-</y>amo, (/iue to smell. 

OTOTVW (1002), lament; droTt'^o/iat ; av-wTOTi>a. Poetic (dramatic). (/I/) 
(or/aw-), rouse, urge on; orpvvut ; wrp'va ; late dirpvvOrjv. Poet. 

and late prose. (/K) 
e'w. mrtie water; impf. eoxlpovv (533); ovp^j<ro(wii, ovp^crw (Hippocr.) ; 

Iv-tovpTjcra ; 4v-covpi]Ka ; a. p. ovprjOijv (Hippocr.). New Ionic has oi'p- 

for Attic lovp-. 

wound ; oi'racro) ; OVTCWTO, ; oura<r//at ; late ovTacrdrjv. Ep. and 

trag. (//) 
, wound ; late oi'mjcrw ; ovTrjcra ; 2 a. ep. 3 sing, p-i-form ovra {inf. 

ovrdfjLevai and ovra/Aev} ; 2 a. mid. pt. ourayuevos as pass. Epic. 
64>eiXoj (o^eA-, 649, 2), owe; ep. mostly has the Lesbian d^eAA-w, rarely and 

only in //. d<^etAw ; 64>i\^o-w ; >4>t(\.T]<ra ; ux^eiXtiKa ; a. p. pt. 6<|>iXT]9ts ; 

2 a. ui4>eXov. in wishes, tliat ! (see the Syntax). (/ /) 
d^AAw (d^eA-), increase, poetic, mostly epic ; aor. opt. d^eAAeie (Horn.). 


o4>Xio-Kdv<o (d</>A-, d^>Ato-K-), owe, incur (a penalty), be guilty ; 6<)>XVj<ra> ; w^Arycra 
rare and un- Attic ; <B<j>XT)Ka ; J>4>\T)|jLai ; 2 a. 4>X.ov {inf. and part, some- 
times found accented o<f>\eiv and o<^Awi/ as present, o<Ao> as ind. pres. 
rare and late}. (VI, V) 


wafi;w (TraiS-, Tracy-), sport; Trat|ov(iai (see 681 ; said by a Syracusan in Xen. 

Symp. 9, 2 ; but late TTGU^O/XCU is probably Attic ; late also 7reuw) ; 

Kiraiora, late 7ra<,a ; ire'iraiKa, late TrtTrai^a ; ir^Traio-|iai, late 7T67raty/xai ; 

late 7raix$ryi> ; vb. irawrr^ov. (/K) 
..-ato), ,9<n'A;e ; ira.l<ru and irai^jo-w ; ^iraio-a ; ir^iraiKa ; /a.-7re7rawr^iat late ; 

fTraia-Oriv (730, 731) in Aesch. 
iraXata, wrestle ; TraAawra) (7^. and late prose) ; 4irdXai,<ra ; TrtTraAat/ca late ; 

TreTrctAawr fjiat (730, 731) late ; cTraAtt/'o-^ryv (Eur.). 
TraAacro-w, throw, sprinkle, throw lots; 7raAa<o ; TreTraAay/icu -[formation in <r, 

7T7raAao-^ and TroraAao-flcu doubtful}. (/|^) 
TraAAw (iraA-), shake, brandish, poetic ; 7rr/Aa ; 7T7raA/jtat ; Horn. 2 a. redupl. 

part. a/^-TreTraAwv ; Horn. 2 a. mid. 7raAro and TraAro ; late and rare 

7r7T7yAa and ai/a-TraAets. (IV) 
Trao/zat, acquire, find, no present ; Trcuro/xat ; cira<rdfj.r)v Triirdfiat Doric verb, 


also poetic ; not to be confused with irda-ofj-at and eTTaa-dp-riv from 

TTttTeo/nat, taste, eat, 
ira.pavop.tV transgress the law (563) ; augments wap-fvojiovv and irapT]v6fjLovv, 

etc. ; but perf. irapa-vvofir]Ka, late Trap/vduv/Ka. Probably all the forms 

in Traprjv- are un-Attic and late, 
irap-oiv^w, liehave rudely (in litjuor), insult (as a drunken man) (556) ; 4-irap-ivow ; 

ffjL-Trap-OLVr'](r(a (Luc.); i-irap-wvt]cra ; ir-irap-iovT)Ka ; Tre-Trap-Mnj/j-aL Luc. ; 

4-irap-a>vT)0Tjv ; impf. (-TrapoivtL (Dio Cass. 45, 28). 
Trucro-o) and ITTT (647), sprinkle ; ircurw ; 2-irao-a ; ird.o-0T)v ; late TrtVatr/xai ; 

vb. waor&v. The simple verb is poet, and late prose. (IV) 
ird<rx> (trad-, TrevO-) for irad-a-KW (104), suffer, feel ; ircta-opai from TT(v6-<ro[jMi 

(40) ; 2 a. liraOov ; 2 ]>. ir^irovBa {2 pi. TTfiroa-Bf for TreTroV&rre, /J. 3, 99 ; 

eiraOvia in 6*<f. 17, 555} ; Doric ireiro<r\a. ; vb. TTOI&JTOS late. (VIII) 
TTHT i(T(r<i), strike, pr. and impf. epic ; irardlw ; ira.Ta|a ; ^K-irtiro.rayp.a.1, (Od. 

18, 327); late fTrard^Orjv ; for the pres. and impf. the Attics use 

TOTTTW and iraCw, for the pf. and aor. pass. irrrXT] and eirX^JYnv. (IV) 
(irar-, 990), taste, eat; fut. Trdb-o/xat in Aesch. Sept. 1037 very 

doubtful ; fir<i(rdfji,r)v ; plpf. Treirdcr^v in 7/. 24, 642 ; vb. a-Traorros 

(Orf. 4, 788). This verb is not to be confounded with Trdofjuii, 

etc., find, acquire, nor with the passive of Trarew, tread. 

malce cease, regular ; but in Hdt. the MSS have liravOriv and 

vb. d-7rawTos, iravorTt'ov. Late a. p. fTrdrjv, in New Test. dva 

c) (TretO-, Tri8-), persuade ; irtia-o> ; ^Trcura ; ir^trciKa ; 2 ]). ir^irot0<i, trust ; 2 a. 

tTriQov poet. ; redupl. ep. 2 a. TrtiriOov {in Find. Isth. 4, 90 = trusting} ; 

hence Horn. fut. 7ri0/;0-w (990), Orf. 21, 369 = kt/i obey, but Horn. fut. 

7re7ri0j/o-(o (II. 22, 223) = s/iaW persuade; poet, jri^ryo-ds, trusting; Horn. 

ync. 1 pi. of 2 plupf. tTrk-niQ-^v (1064) ; in Aeech. MTO. 599 the 2 pf. 

imperative 7r7reio-0i ought probably to be Trkirurdt. or perhaps 

(for Trem.6-01 or TmroiO-di) ; mid. and pass. imBoiieu, */m p 

o6ej/ ; ir<Cro|Uii ; 2 a. (Tridofjujv poet. ; irri<r|iau ; 4irtC<r0T]v ; vb. iri<rr<Js, 

= one must obey. (II) 
epic = ITCKT&O (TTCK-), comb; fut. Dor. Tre<u (Theocr.) ; late aor. 7rea ; 

ep. a. m. eVe^u/Ar/i/ ; ^\frnv. (///) 
imv&a, hunger, for pres. contr. see 479 ; imvfyrw ; ^irc(vr)<ra ; irr*vT)Ka. 

ev-), erarf, epic for Trepfivw ; eTTfipjjva ; 3 sing. pf. TrcireipavTai 

in Od. 12, 37 and m<ri cawa in Soph. 7V. 581. See irtpalvu. (IV) 
(irtp-), pierce, ep. and late prose ; reipa ; irtira.p[j.aL ; 2 a. p. dv- 

CTrdpr,v (Hdt.). (IV) 

(TTCKT-), corn.6, see TTCIKW. 

d^to (;reAaS-, TreAa-, TrAa- ; TreAas, war, 644), 6?-tn</ near, intr. approach; 

TrcAatrtu and Att. TrtAw (680, 5) ; 7reAa<ra ; ep. 7rrA?//icu ; fTTfX.dcrBr)V 

and trag. irX.a6r]v ; 2 a. mid. ep. fTrX.rifj.rjv ; vb. TrAoo-ros. Poetic, 

rare in Hdt. (IV) By-forms: TrcAaw poet.; 7reAu$<o and 7rAd#o> 

dram. ; also of Class V, epic Tri'Ai^/zt or, and iriXvdta. In 

prose ir\T)o-Ul|;i>. (IV) 


7reAe/zto> (1002, 1), shake, drive away ; TreAe/xi^a ; 7T\ffj.L^Or]v. (IV) 

TTtAw and 7reAo/a,cu, be; inipf. eireXov and tireXofJLtjv {ep. sync. eTrAe ; 7rAeo 

and 7rAei', eTrAero ; TrAo/wi'os Euplior. ^r. 55, Homer in comp. CTTI- 

TrAo/xei-os and Tre/H-TrAo/aevos}. Poetic. 
irefiirw, send ; nr^u|/ci> ; ir|A\|/a ; irirop^a (715, 1; 720, 2); irirc|i|iai (same as 

p. m. from Trecrcrw, coo&, but see 88 and 734) ; ir^|x<j>6r]v ; vb. TTt\Lirr6s, 

irerraivot (ireirav-}, m&e soft; eTreTTdva (Dor.); p. p. inf. -jreTrdvOai ; 

irfiraptiv, TrfTropeLv, TreTT/Dwrai, see root TTO/D- or TT/SO-. 

TTfTTTd), COO&, SCO 7Te(T<TW. 

irepaivto (Trepai/-), ewrf, accomplish ; ircpavw ; circpdva, ep. firfpr/va ; irir^paernai ; 

irpdv9i]v ; vb. a-ir^pavTos, irepavreov (Galen), 8ia-irpavT'ov. (/ V) 
ircpSo|iai, Lat. pedo ; diro-irap8^<ro(xai ; 2 p. iriropSa ; 2 a. dir-'irap8ov. 
jrep6<a, destroy, sack; TTC/XTW ; 7repo-a ; ep. 2 a. eirpaOov (621, 1 ; 996) and 

firpaOofjujv {sync. 2 a. inf. TrepBai for 7re/3#-(T0cu}. Poetic, in prose 

irepvr)/j.i (TTf/j-va-, 1062, 1), sell, poetic for TrcoX&n or diroSSo|iai ; fut. inf. 

Trepdav for Trepdo-etv in /. 21, 454 (see 680) ; ep. fTTfpaa-a ; pass. 

irepvajMat ; Horn. wfTrepi'nj.6vo<s. ( V) Observe also Trepdta, go over, cross, 

in simple poet, or late prose ; Tre/mo-w ; tVepdcra ; ireirepa.Ka.. See also 

Att. IT^TTW (TTCK-), late TreTrrto (ireTT-), cooA; ; ir^\j/w ; ?iro[ra ; 
(same as p. m. from irt\Lir-<a, send, but see 88 and 734) ; tir^O^v ; vb. 
irrnfc. (IV, III) 

L, fly ; see Trero^iat. 

fii (Trera-), expand, later ava-Treraoj ; f. TreTtiVw ; irerw ; cirra<ra Att. 
in comp.; late Sitt-TreTreraKa ; irlirTapai (sync., 619) Att. ava-, and late 

frreTacrd'^v poet. ( 1^) See also triT-mj-fU or TTLTVOLW. 
(TreT-e-, TTT-), t /7i/ ; irTT|oro|iai and irnfio-ojiai (619); 2 a. -^irr^n^v in 
comp. (619). Of Class VII are late tWa-yucn and poet. Trera-pu ; 2 a. poet. 
eirrrjv (768) and mid. irrdp.Tjv ; pt. Trept-Trrvyo-do-a (Or. Sib. 1, 245). 
Poetic and Troreo/icu; Trorr/o-o/xai (Mosch. 2, 145); 
cTTOTi'jdrjv ; vb. TTOTT^TO? (Od. 12, 62). Epic Trtorao/iat ; 
late fTTdiTi'jOrjv. 

irf{'6op.a.i (TTvO-, TTfvO-), poetic for irvv0dvo(H. 
irc<f>vov and 7re<^vov and 7T<apu, all poet. ; and late Tre^vto, see root 

'* 7rj ?7") ^ x > fasten ; ir^j|w ; ^frr]|a ; late 2 p. TreTrrj^a ; 2 ]>. 
am ^erf (797, 9) ; late irfiniyfiai ; poet. eVvy^^T/v ; 2 a. ]>. 
; ep. 2 a. m. of /zi-form /caT-7r>/KTo, <itci, in Plat. Phaed. 118 a , 
pres. opt. (1063); Trrjyi/iJTo for Trryyvv-t-ro (700, 1051 ; but some MSS 
huve TrrjyvvoiTO. (II, V} Late pres. Tnjo-trw or TTV/TTW. 
aivw (mjp.a.v-'), injure ; irijfj-avw ; eVr//UT/i'a ; fTt]fia.i'drjv ; vb. m)fj.avT(ov. 
Mostly poet. 


irtatvti) (irlav-), fatten ; irlavw ; firiava ; iriri(W[ ; late eiridvQrjv. Poet., 
Ion., late prose. (IV) 

7riXvrjfj.i and (-rnXva-), TTiAvaw ; see TreAa^w, approach. 

iri|iir\T||u (TrAa-, see 765), fill; irXfyrw ; irXT)<ra ; irirXT]Ka ; irc'irXTia-fiai, late 
also TTTT\ ; lirXfyrflT]v ; poet. 2 a. m. of //.i-form f7r\ijfj,tjv {767, 1 ; epic 
TrXijTo and TrXrjvro, Aristoph. fv-fTrXrjTo ; opt. in Aristo])h. ffj.-7rX.yfj.rjv 
(700) and fp.-TrX.yro ; iniper. e/^-TrAr/cro (Aristoph.) ; pt. kp.-TrX-fiiJ.fvos 
Aristoph.)} ; vb. 4ji-ir\Ti<rT^os. In Attic prose in comp. : 4(i-iripnrXT]|ii. 
(VII) By-form Trifj.7rXa.vw only pass. TrtfiTrXavfTai (II. 9, 679). Late 
by-form e/A-Tri/tiTrAao). TrXijdw, be full, poetic, also late prose ; in late 
prose also trans., fill; 2 p. (poet.) TrfTrXrjda, be full ; in Att. prose only 
irXVj9ov<ra dyopa. ir\t\9vto, be full, abound, a~u\L-ir\r\6via, fill : irXT)8vo-a, 
late (rvv-fTrXr]6v(ra ; also late TrXrjO&via (irXr)6vv-), fill ; in Aesch. pass. ; 
late TrfTrXrjdriJLfj.a.1. 

mpirpT)}jLi (Trpa-, see 765), barn; irp-f\<ria ; iirpi\(ra. ; late -irfTrprjKa. ; 
late TTfTrprjo-p-aL; firpV|r9tiv. In Attic prose usually in comp.: 
(VII) Late Trifj:Trpdw. Horn. impf. fv-fTrpyOov (from Trpi'jBw) only 
II. 9, 589. 

mnVrKto (TTIVV-), make wise, poet. ; Horn. riViKnra ; late fTnvvtrdr^v. ( VI) 
See irWo>. 

mvw (TTI-, TTO-), drink; fut. irfo|i<u or iriojtai (676), iriov/xai (Xen. Conv. 4, 7, 
and late; see 681); irt'irwKa ; irtirojiai ; fir<58r]v ; 2 a. liriov {imper. 
poet, and late irU ; 767} ; vb. iror<5s, tror^os, Aesch. Pr. 480, 

-(V, VIII) 

(TTL-), give to drink; TTLITW ; tTrwra. Ionic and poetic. (VI) See 

(Trpa-), sell, pres. rare and perhaps late, but Ion. TTITT/^O-KW ; 
irerrpaKa ; ir^irpdpxi ; ^irpdOrjv ; vb. irpa.T<5s, irpdrtos. ( VI) See also poetic 
irfpvrifj.1. For the pres., fut., and aor. the Attic uses iro>X6i> and 
diro-SiSofiai, ir<oXTJo-a> and diro-Swcrofxai,, (v<a\r\tra. and dir-8opiiiv. 
irtirrw (TrfT-, TTTO- ; for TTt-TTfT-d), 626), /aW ; fut. irtoovjiai (681), Ion. 
7rt<, late 7rro/u.ou ; p. ir^irraiKa ; 2 p. part. (Soph.) TreTrrws, Horn. 
TrcTTTTfois and TTCTTTCWS ; late pf. TrfTTTrjKa ; 2 a. <firirov, Dor. fTrerov, rare 
and late 1 a. oreo-a. Of Class V, poet, irirvia. 

(iriTva-, 652, IX ; 1062) and inrvdw, spread, only pres. and impf. 
act. and mid. Poet, for ircTdvvv(u. (1^) 
, poetic for irtirrw, fall. 

<^>av-), declare, ep. and Aesch. ; mid. ep. (K/) See -( 

(TrAayy-), caws <o wander; firXay^a; mid. TrAa^o/iai ; 

f7ra.y\6riv ; late fTrXay^dfiriv ; vb. 7rAay*CTos. Poetic. (/I/) 
7rAa#u), dramatic for TreAa^w, /rtngr near, approach. 
TrAao-trw (;rAaT-, 647), Att. irXArTw ; a^a-TrAaaa) (Hippocr.) ; lirXawa : late ; 

TTfTT XaKa ; irfirXao-pai ; tirXdo-Otjv ; vb. irXa<rr<Js, late TrAacrTcoK (/ V) 
n-Xt'tcw, veuve, braid ; late TrAe^w ; tirXc^a ; 8ia-7re7rAo^a or ffj.-Trf7rXf)^a 


Ion. ; irirXeYf"u ; ^irX^xOTjv (rare) and 2 a. p. &rXdict)v ; vb. 

irX&o (TT\V-, TrAeu-, TrAe/-, 632), sail; irXevtroiiai and irXcvo-ovpiai (681), 

late; irXev<ra ; ir^irXevKa ; irrXv<r|n. (616); fir\eu<rdr}v late; vb. 

irXevo-rt'os. (//) Ionic and poetic TrAww, TrAoxrojiicu and late TrAoxrto ; 

In-Awo-a ; TreTrAwKa ; ep. of /it-form 7rAwv (1063); vb. TT AUTOS. Rare 

7rAonw, Att. 7rA(j>w (Thuc. 1, 13), late 7rAono/zat ; late 7rAoto/x,cu. 
7rA?7y-m'-, eK-TrAr/y-vixr^ou, s<riA;e oneself (Thuc. 4, 125), see TrA^cro-w. (^) 
Tr\i'j6w, irXT]0voi, be full, irXrjOvvfj), fill; see rifarX.vffti. 
7rAr;cro-a), Att. irX^rrw (;rAay-, TrAr/y-, 639), strike; irX^(j<o ; 7rXT|a ; 2 p. 

TrtirXirya ; ir'irXt|Y(iai. ; tTrXtfyd^v rare ; 2 a. p. lirX^yrjv, and (always in 

comp.) t^-eirXa-yiiv an d KaT-eirXa-yt|v ; Horn, redupl. 2 a. (^TreTrA^yov ; vb. 

Kara-irXriKT^os ; pres. inf. mid. of the yat-form (Cl. 1^) eK-TrA^y-vv-o-^at 

(only Thuc. 4, 125). (IV, //) In Attic prose, the simple verb is used only 

in the perfect and passive systems ; in the other systems, the compounds. 
irXvw (TrAiw-), wash; irXvvw ; fcrrXDvo. ; ir^irXvjiai (617); (ir\.vBrjv (late); vb. 
(Hippocr.), irXvre'os. (IV) 
TrAoi^o/Acu ; see irX^w. 
(TTVV-, TTVCV-, TTVC/-, 632), breathe, blow, poet. Trveuo ; -irvoKrovjiai. (681), 

-irveii<ro|xai (late in simple), late Trvewrw ; lirvew<ra ; -ir&rvevKa in comp. ; 

late e/x-TreTTvew/Acu ; late -eVveTxr^ryv in comp. (//) 'Ava-irWw, take 

breath ; epic forms : 2 aor. imper. afji-Trvvf ; 2 a. mid. 3 sing. ap.-7rvi>To ; 

a. p. dfjL-Trvvcrdrjv. From the same root: epic TreTrvi'fiai, be wise; 

TreirvvfJievos, wise. See TTIVI'O-KO). 
irvt-yw (TTi'iy-, Trviy-), choke; diro-irvf^w, late aTro-Trvt^o/zat, Dor. a7ro-7rvi^ou/zai ; 

2irvT|a ; ir&rviYfMu ; 2 a. p. ^irviyr]v (Att. air-} ; late a.Tr-eirvi\dii]V. 
7ro0&), desire, miss; iroO^jo-w and TroOco-ofxai (679); itr69r\a-a. and tir69ra. ; late 

TreirodrjKa ; late TreTrodrjfjLat ; late 7rpo-tTro6y)6r]V. 
trovtto, labour; irovfyrw, etc., reg. ; but Trovecropu (Luc. ^4swi. 9); texts ol 

Hippocr. sometimes have Troveo-w and 7rovra (679). 
TTo/)- or TT/OO-, root, Sfive, impart ; poetic 2 a. (iropov ; 2 a. inf. 

(to show), in Find. P^. 2, 57 is irtTrapelv in some MSS ; p. p. 

(poet., also late prose), it is fated; irnrpia^ivos, fated, rare in prose 

{f| ircirpa>|jL.lvT], fate}. Compare 
irpdo-<rw and Att. irpdrrw (irpay-), do ; irp<ia> ; ^irpd^a ; ir&rpaxa ; 2 p 

have fared (well or ill), sometimes liave done, 797 ; ir^irpdYfwit 

vb. irpdKT^os. (IV) 

Trpdvvw (n-pavv-), soothe; tirpdtva : iirpa.vv9r\v ; late (IV) 
TrpeTr(a, be conspiciious, becoming, poetic ; Trpe^io ; fTrpf\f/a. In prose, imper- 

sonal : irpeVsi, irpt'xj/ti, tTrpti\it. 

, see ir(n,irpT](ii (Trpa-), fatrn. 
rr/ota-, 2 a. stem : brpid|XT|v, bought, inflected in 498 ; see also 516, 520. 

For the present, see <ovfc|iai. (VIII) 
irpta), saw ; irpio-a ; irt'irpia-fiai ; Iirpt<r9r\v. 616. 

(TrpoiK-, Trpotg, Att. Trpotg, gift), leg; simple only in pres. 


(Archil 130); Kara-irpot^ofiaL (Archil., Hdt.), Att. 

(Aristoph.) ; late Kar-fTrpoi^dfiiji'. (IV) 
iTTa.iu>. stumble ; irra<r ; Kin-aura ; ^irraiKa ; late (irrauruai ; late eTTTai<r9r)v ; 

vb. a-irraioros, not stumbling. 616. 
<Trrapw|uu, late Trrdpi'vfj.i (Trrap-) ; f. Trra/xo (? Hippocr. 8, 484) ; 2 a. 

?irrapov, 1 a. fTrrvipa (Aristot. Probl. 33, 16); late 2 a. p. fVrapijv. (V) 
irHjoro-w (TTTttK-, TTTTJK-), coicer ; late 7TT?;a> ; brrT}a ; 2irrrix a ' ilte OTTij/ca, 

late vTTo-TTfTTTijxa ; 2 a. part. Kara-TTTaKcuv in Aesch. Eum. 2f)7. 

(//, //) From the kindred root Trra- : epic pf. part. TreTrrTjojs (may lie 

confounded with Horn. TTCTTTT/WS from irtirrw) ; 2 a. 3 dual df pi-form 

Kara-TTTTi'jTrjv in //. 8, 136 (compare CTTTT/V from TTCTO/XCU, /y). Poetic 

and Hdt. ?TTw<ro-a> (TTTWK-) ; late TTTW^W, late eTrrw^a. 

irrwro-w, pound ; eTTTicra (Hdt.) ; lirrio-fwii ; late 7r/3i-7TTi(r$ei's. 647. (/K) (TTTV/>), 6e afraid, fear (Hippocr. and late) ; firTvptjv late ; act. 

f-mvpa late. (/^) 
irrvo-o-w (TTTi'y-), fohl; irrv|o) ; ?im)^a ; ?imry|Jiai ; iirrv\9i\v ; 2 a. p. dv-fTTTvyrjv 

(Hippocr.) ; vb. TTTVKTOS (Ion., late). The simple form does not occur in 

Attic prose. (IV) 
irrtfw (TTTU-, 625), spit; TTTUO-O) and Trn'cro/jiat (late); -frm<ra (sinipls poet., 

late) ; CTTTVKGI late ; tTTTV(r6i]v (Hippocr., late) ; 2 a. p. CTTTUT/V (Hippocr.) ; 

vb. KaTa-irrvoTOS. 

Trvdto, make rot ; Tri'trw ; eTri-o-a (TTUO-C, Callim. Fr. 313) ; pass. = rof, decay. (TTV^-), /u?ar, inquire ; f. irtvo-ofiai ; irmi(T|uu ; 2 a. tiruflofiT)v ; vb. 

ava-Tri-o-TOS (Orf. 11, 274). Poetic pres. 7TV0o/zcu. (V, II) 
o, Attic irvptTrw (TrvpeTos, fer-er), have a fever ; irvpfio (Hippocr.); 
(Hippocr., late) ; ireTrrpf^a (Aristot.). (/ V). 

paivto (pav-, pa-}, sprinkle ; pavu ; eppava, ep. cpao-cra ; 8i-ppayKa (Old 

Test.); cppao-pai {eppavrai Aesch. Pers. 569, epic 3 pi. eppd-S-araL, 

plpf. eppd-S-aro ; see 988, 989}; fpdvOrjv ; vb. late /jai'ros. Ionic, 

poetic. (V, IV) 
paiw, strike, break ; paurta ; tppaura ; eppaurdtjv ; f. mid. as pass. Siappai- 

a-fa-Bai (II. 24, 355). Poetic. 
pdirrft> (pa<f>-), stitch ; pdt|/<>) ; i'ppavj/a ; late 2 a. (rvv-fppa<f>ov ; late plpf. 

(rvv-(ppa<f>iJKt ; ; 2 a. p. {ppcu^Tjv ; vb. pa-irrds, late TT/JOO-- 

paTrreov. (///) 
powrcrw (pay-), parrw, throw down, pres. late ; paw late, gvp-pdw (Thuc. 8, 

96); {ppo^a ; late -fppd\0r)v. See dpda-cria. (IV) 
pcfo (fpey- from //>y-, 620), '/o ; pe^w ; fppega, usually l/3^a ; epe\6r}v 

(also Hippocr.) ; vb. a-pKTo<;. Poetic. (IV) Compare tpou. 
pt'iru, 6enrf, incline ; pt\j/ta (Hdt. ; Pans. 9, 37) ; tpp|/a. 
pt'u> (pv-, pev-, ptf-, 632), ^ou> ; f. pevaojtai (rare in Att), ptva-ovaai (Aristot), 

later peucrw ; tppeixra (Hippocr.; late; rarely Attic); 4ppvt|Ka (613); 


2 a. p. tppxrqv as act., fut. p. pv^ro(iai as active ; vb. purds (Eur.), 

peuo-Tos (Emped. and late). (//) 
p-, root, say ; see flirov, sairf. 
p^-yvvfii (pay- for /pay-, p^y-, pwy-), 6rai& ; pf| ; 2ppr|ga ; 8i-epprj^a (Old 

Test.); 2 p. tfppwya, am broken (717; 797); - f pp?/y//.ai rare; tpfn')^dr}v 

rare ; 2 a p. ppdyiv ; vb. prj/cTos (//.) I n Attic usually in comp. 

(K, //) Of Class III, poetic (also late prose) prjo-o-w ; pv/rrw late prose, 
ptyew (piy-, 613), shudder ; piyv/croj ; eppiyr/a-a; 2 p. eppiya as pres. 

Mostly poetic. See piyoo>, shiver. 
pt-yow, s^iwr twWi coW; regular; but sometimes peculiar pres. contr. (481) 

to o> and o> as well as to ov and ot {piyw, pty<s, ptyw and plyoi ; opt. 

plyioyv ; inf. pljdv and piyouv ; part, ptywvres (but gen. pi. piyotWoji/ 

in Xen. He. 4, 5 4 )}. 
pttrro) (pt</)-, pt^>-)) throw, also ^Iirr^w (636) ; pfJ/w ; ppi\{/a ; ^ppl<{>a ; 

\J I J I I / ' 1 \ /'ll'lll'llrrllll 

*ppt4>OT|v ; 2 a. p. ppt<j>T]v ; vb. piTrrds (Soph. Tr. 357). (///) or pvo/ (a by-form of epuo/nai), defend, guard {ep. //i-forms in 

Horn.: impf. 3 pi. pvaro, inf. pixr#ai} ; pwo/xat ; eppvardp.tjv ; late 

epv<rOrjv ; vb. purds (Oo 1 . 6, 267). Poetic, New Ionic, late prose, rare 

in Att. prose. See epi'w. 

pinraw, epic, pvTrdw, befoul; Ionic pf. pt. pepvTrwp.ei'os. 
piovvi'fj.1 (pto-), strengthen; paicra) ; ^ppwa-a ; ppa>|i<u {imper. ^ppaxro =fareivell ; 

so also inf. as <pe ppa><r6ai, Plat. Phaed. 61 b } ; eppuio-0-qv. (k) 

o-cuvu> (crav-), /awn ^on ; a. 

o-ai'pw (o-ap-), si^ee^ ; o-apw (New Test.) ; ecr^pa ; 2 p. <r&rr]pa, </n'n. 

o-aXir^w (o-aATTtyy-), sound the trumpet ; late craATTtorw and craATTiw ; 

late fcrdX-ma-a ; late Trepi-a-ecrdXirurTai and 7rept-crraA.7riyKTcu. (//) 
<raow, save, see <r<ia>- 
o-acro-w (New Ionic), Attic OXXTTW (cray-), ioatZ, pacA^ equip ; to-aga ; o-cora-y|iai. 


o-aco, si/<, late by-form (TT/^OJ ; ea-rjcra ; trf(rrj(cr)p.^vo<i ; n/(0-)0i/i/ ; vb. late 

O-TJO-TCOV. New Ionic. 
<rpvvv(Jii (a-fte-), extinguish ; o-p'cr ; ^o-pco-a ; late fcr(3< ; i<rfU<rtor]v ; 2 a. 

p. to-p^v, went out {767, 1 ; inf. airo-a-pijvai, pt. a7ro-<r/3et's (Hippocr.)} ; 

^o-prjKa, am extinguished ; vb. a-/3<rTos late. ( k') 
O-PO), revere, only pres. ; impf. f<rfj3ov late ; oftener o-e'po(iai ; a. p. ^<j>6t]v 

as act. ; f. inf. <rej8?/o-o-#ai (Diog. Laert. 7, 120); vb. erem-ds (Aesch. 

Pr. 812). 

<rc(<i>, shake ; c-tieru ; lo-cura ; crtcrtiKa ; o-'o-< 10-^0.1. (616) ; 4<rf<rflrjv ; vb. o-iwrrds. 
(<ru-, <reu-), move, urge ; aor. eo-o-eua (1027) ; pf. eo-crtytai, hasten (974), 

pt (T(rvfj.evo<i (877), fa-v&rjv and bowf*? 2 a. m. <r(o-)i'/tv/v (1063); 

vb. <7ri'cro-i>Tos (Aesch.), dvacrorvros (Hippocr.). Poetic, also late prose 

From a-fvofj-at or <rdo/iat, ha$ten, these forms in the Drama : Doric 



cra>/zat (Coin. Frag. 2, 887), a-fvrai (1062, 3 ; or ? <rovrai, Sopli. TV. 

645), <rov(rd( (Aristoph. Vesp. 458), trovvrai (Aescli. Pers. 25) ; imper. 

(rov (Aristoph. Vesp. 209), a-ova-Ota (Soph. Aj. 1414), (rova-de (Aesch. 

twice, Callim.) ; <ro{xr0cu (Plut, Mor. 362). (//) 
en]|Acuvw (u">]p.av-), show; o-rijiavw ; &Hj(XT)va ; late o-r>//*ayKa ; <ro-T|fia<rjjiai ; 

<rr](idv0i]v ; vb. a-q-q/zavTOS (II. 10, 485) ; late cny/xuvreos. (IV) 
o-rprw (cryTr-, (raTr-), cause <o rot; <T7/^a> (Aesch. Frag. 270); Kar-ecrT^a late ; 

2 p. <r6rrpra as pres., oe rotten; late O-CO-TJ/A/ZCU ; 2 a. p. ^<rdin]v ; ta"t]^>6r]V 

late ; vb. O-TJTTTOS (Aristot). (//) 
crfvofiat (criv-), injure (Ion., also poet.) ; f. (. ? ) o-tv^o-o/xat (Hippocr. 8, 112); 

fa-lvdfjLrjv (Ionic). (IV} 
<rKairrw (CTKCU/)-), rfiV/ ; <rKat|/co ; a-Ka\|/a ; {<TKat|>a ; ^CTKap-fiaL ; 2 a. p. 

late (<ni(f>6r)v. (Ill) 

-jceSa-), scatter; f. o-KeSao-w (Theog. ; late prose), Att. 

680, 3 ; ^(rK8a<ra ; to-KcSao-pai ; ^<rK8d<r0T]v ; vb. (TKeSao-Tos (Plat. Tt//(. 

37). In Att. gen. in comp. (V) O-KC&IU) only o-xeSawv (late), late 

also (TKe8au>. Epic /ceSavviyu ; e/ceSao-o-a ; (KfSda-Oijv ; plpf. pass. 

KtKeSao-To (Ap. Rh. 2, 1112) ; late and rare KeSaw only pr. ; late and 

rare Ke8cuo/xcu only pr. Pres. o-Ki'Svi/^i (o-/8-va-) and (TKiBvafjMi (poetic, 

Ionic, rare in Attic) ; poetic KioVrj/u and K^Svafuu, 

X-, o-icAe-), rfry tip, pres. late ; f. (r/ceAw late ; Horn. a. Za-KrjXa, 

made dry ; 2 aor. inf. (Aristoph.) diro-o-K\fjvai (from ecrKA>/v, 767) ; late f. 

ci7ro-<rKA'//.To/Acu ; ecrKAr^xa, be dried up, Ion., also late (sync. part. 

e'o-KATjwres (Ap. Rh. 2, 53)}. (/K) 
<r.;tTTTop.aL (o"K7T-), view; crK\j/o(iai ; ^trKe\)/d(iT)v ; <rKcp.}iai ; Ion. f(TK<f)drfV 

pass. ; 2 a. p. fTr-ea-Keirrjv (Old Test) ; vb. O-KITT^OS. (///) In the 

pres. and impf. Attic writers usually employ o-Koir&, but the other tenses 

of (TKOTreo) are used only by late writers. (///) 
<TKT|irrw ((TKrjTT-), prop ; a-K-f^a ; i'o-KT]\j/a ; late p. fTT-ta-Kr/^a ; ?o-KT)(Xfiat ; 

(<TKt8-va-), see crKc8dvvv[xi.. (V) 
((TKWTr-), jeer ; <rK<dt|/ofiai, late aTro-crKOj^w ; ^o-KcovJ/a ; late 


07*1(0, contr. <r|A, anoint, smear ; for pres. contr. see 479 ; otherwise reg.; 
Sia-oy^wvre in Hdt. 2, 37 is a wrong reading for Sia-o-/AoWes. By-form 
mostly Ionic and late ; (r/z?/a) ; ecr/A^^a ; r//.7yy/z,ai late ; 81- 
jv late ; vb. veo-oyiryKTos (/i. 13, 342), d-ay^/cros. 
, -burn, pr. late ; ecr/xi^a (Horn.); late KaT-r/>u}y/juu ; late Ka.T-to-iJ.v- 
xOi)V ; late aTr-ecr/iuyryv. 
<roo/xai, hasten; see O-CT'W, mow, r^e. 

o-Trapyw, roW, ivrap ; only e<nrapga (Horn. Hym. Ap. 121). 

o-irdw, dm>i- ; <rirdra) ; l<nrdra ; IcnraKa ; ?<rn-a<r(4ai ; to-irdorOrjv ; vb. dvr(- 
<rrra(TTos, o-Trarrrtos (Hippocr.). 615 ; 616. 

(o-7T/>), SOU' ; <rirpw ; {(nrcipa ; late fa"irapKa ; to-rrapfjiai ; 2 a. p. 
co-irdpt]v ; vb. (nrapros, late OTra/)Tov. (/ 1/) 


, pour libation; fat. <nrcr (90, 4); &rircura ; Kar-eo-TreiKa Lite; 
urfiai (736) ; late T eiV^ryv. 

, n/e, rfn're ; poetic, New Ionic, rarely late prose ; rarely Att. prose 
(in comp.) ; mid., hasten, le angry ; l(nrepxOr)V. 
o-irtvSw, urge, speed, trans, and intrans. ; tnrewrot ; fcnrcvo-a ; late ecnrevKa ; late 

fcnrevcr[j.a.i ; vb. oTmxrreov. 
0-Tuo> (o-ray-), drop, o-ra^w late ; rraa ; ev-errTay/^cu ; -fa-Ta^Orjv ', 2 a. p. 

eo-Tayj/i' ; vb. <rraKT<5s. 640. Rare in prose. (IV) 
ore'-yw, cover, defend ; late crre^u) ; late eWe^a ; late eo-re^^ryv. 
o-Tei/?o> (o-Tt/3-, 0-T66/3-), tread ; late crTei^w ; Ka.T-f<TTfi\f/a ; ea-Tiflrjfjiai (613) ; 
(rreiTTTos. Poetic. (//) 

-, <rmx-), #o, poetic, Ion., late Att. prose ; ep. 7Tia ; ep. 
2 a. eo-Tt^ov. (//) 

XXw (o-reA-), send; a-reAw ; 2<rriXa ; ?<rraXKa (621); etrraX^ai : 2 a. p. 
(<rra\j]v. (IV) 

yd^w (crrei'tty-), gr?-oa?z ; o-reva^w poet., late prose ; 4<rT^va|a ; late e'crTe- 
vayfj.o.1 ; vb. (rrevaKTo?, orrevaKTeos. (IV) Epic crTfvd^d) and 
only pr. and impf. (rrevw, si^, groan (rare in prose), ep. 
straiten ; both only pr. and impf. 

ta, love ; <rr^p|w ; ?<rrp|a ; 2 p. ecrro/aya (Hdt.), 621 ; eorepy^at (Emped. 
190 ; late) ; late IfrTep^Oriv vb. o-re/aKros, <TTPKTOS. 

and o-rtpio-Ku ((rrep-), deprive, rare ; but diro-a-Teplw reg. for the pres. 
and impf. ; rrp^rw ; itrrtpi\<ra., Horn, eo-repecra ; !or^pT|Ka ; co-T^pr]|xai ; 
; 2 a. p. poet. ea-Tfprjv. 0-re', am deprived of, am in want, 
i, pledge oneself, affirm, defective verb (1062, 2) {only (TTevrai, 

i, o-reuTo}. Poetic. (VII) 
O-T<JXO, encircle, crown ; a-reifa) ; ?crTt|/a ; ?<rr6fji(xai ; tcrT^>^v ; vb. late 

O-TTTOS. Rare verb ; o-T}>av(5a) is gen. used instead. 

O-T?//KW (a-Trjpty-, 640), support ; f. <TTr)pi(a, crTrjpurb), crT^/otw (Old and 
New Test.) ; ecmy/H^a, late ecrr^/atcra ; ItmjptyfMaL ; tcrTr/ptx^^v. Poetic, 
Ionic ; also late prose, (/i^) 
O-T^W (orty- 640), prick; o~rw ; eo-rt^a (Hdt.); ?<rriY( ; tfrTL\Oi]V late; 

vb. (TTIKTOS (Soph.). (/K) 

oT-opvvfiu ((TTop-), spread out ; f. late crropecrw, crropw ; <rr<5p(ra ; late e<7To- 
p(r/ ; late ca-ropfo-Orjv (also Hdt.). By -form o-Tpwvvvjxi (O-T/DW-) ; 
o-rpwo-oi (late in simple) ; 4'crTpowra (trag., Hdt.) ; late 
e(rTpaj) ; e(rrpii')0rjv (Soph. ; late) ; vb. poet. crr/awTos. ( V) 
o, turn; <rrp^\|/w ; ^o-rpc^a ; late 2 p. -(<rTpo<f>a (621); 
o-Tp4)0T|v (rare in Att. pr.), Ion. and Dor. ea-Tpd<f)6iji> ; 2 a. p. 
vb. orpcirnSs, late o-T/jeTrreos. 

(crrpw-), spread out ; see under <rr<Jpvv(u. ( V) 

(crrvy-, 613), hate, dread; f. pass. (TTvyrprop.a.1 (Soph.); fcrTvy>](ra 
(trag., late pr.) ; ecm>a (in Homer = made terrible); ep. 2 a. eVruyov ; 
dT-eo-Ti'y^Ka Hdt.; late fa-TvyrjfjLai ; ecrTvyt'jdrjv ; vb. orvyTjTos. Ionic 
and poetic. 


<rTi'</>Ai'o> (oTi'<eAiy-), dash; rrv(eAia ; late f(rTV(f>fXix6r)v. Poetic (rare 

in Hippocr.). (IV) 
<Tvpi<a, Alt. o-vpfrrrw (criy>ty, pipe), play on the pipe, whistle, f. late (rvpiio, 

(rvpia-ta, Old Test, tri-pito ; t<rpiga, late e'crfyncra. (//) 
a-epu (trrp-), draw; (rvpw (Old Test.); ftrvpa ; <r6rvpKa ; late crecrvy>//ai ; late 

2 a. p. -6<rvpr)v ; vb. Sia-crv/areoi' late. Att. pr. in comp. (IV) 
cr<aw (crc^ay-), Att. pr. cr^amo, s/<(?/ ; <r<j>dco ; iV4>a^a ; late r<aKd ; 

l<r<j>a-y|Aa.i ; i(r<^a.\di]V rare ; 2 a. p. tcr^dyriv ; vb. O-<(ZKTOS. (/K) 
<r4>dXXci> (crr/>aA-), (rip p, deceive; <r<f>aXu> : 2<r4>T]X.a ; late r</>aAKa ; o-4>; 
late f<T(f>a.)(.0r)v ; 2 a. p. fcr+dXtiv. (/k) 

; see o-^>a^w. (/ 1/) 

-), appropriate, reg. ; but (r^>Tpi^a/x7;v (1002) in Aesch. 
SM^. 39. (//) 

iy^W) bind, fasten; late cr<i'yo> ; late r<tyu (also Hippocr.); late 
lo-</)tyKTa6, etc., 735, 739}; late and Hippocr. 

^w and late cr^irrrw (a-tfrvy-, 1002), throb; o~(f>v<a; r<i'a. Mostly 
late. (/K) 

(o-^aS-), cui open, Ze< gro, reg. ; pr. also cr^aw, impf. erxwr (Aristoph.). (IV) 
5 ) later OTM^W, epic cr<oo> (crw8-, (rw-), sr; <r<6o-o> ; tcrtocra ; o-^a-wKa ; o-^o-<o|iai 
and <r^r<oo-(iai ; lo-wOrjv ; vb. (TWOTTOS late, O-OXTT^OS. (/ V) Epic (rww ; 
o-w^w is very rare in epic. Epic, poetic (not Att.) o-ecoto {subj. o-ovys, 
<rorj, O-OOMTI ; but authorities differ between these and o-a^s or croco? 
(<raws, (ro(j)s), (TOO), crowo-t (o-aawri, o-aokri)} ; craaxra) ; raaxra ; i<rana6i)v; 
2 a. of /zi-form craw, ^ saved or save MOM (from Aeol. crau>/u ; but some 
write craov, making it impf. or pres. imper.). 

ra-, root, take; imperative TT) (Horn.), in Herodas TJJ, 2 pi. r^re (Sophr 

Fr. 100). 

ray-, root, seize; 2 a. part. Teraytoi/. Epic. 
raAa-, see rAa-. 
ravviu, stretch; f. ravwra) (simple late) and in Horn, ravvta (see 1023); 

iravvcra. ; TTavu<r/iai, late prose Tfravv/xat ; tTavvcr^^v ; pr. pass, of 

/u-form TtivvTai. Epic, also Ion. prose. Compare reivw. 

ru) (ra/sa^-) and rapdrrct, disturb ; rapd|o> ; r<ipaa ; late plpf. crw- 
Tapa^etv ; TcrctpaYfwii' ; ^Tapd\8T)v. Compare 8pdcrcra>. (/|/) 
a!id Tarrw (Tay-), arrange, order ; Ta|w ; ?ra|a ; r^raxa ; rfro.y\ia.<. ; 

Ir6.\8r\v ; 2 a, p. rare (Tayrjv ; vb. TOKT^S, raKWos. (/ V) 
ra</>- or ^arr- (102), astonish; 2 p. rfdrjira, am astonished (ep., Ion., also 

late) ; 2 a. era<^ov (poet.). (//) 

reyyw, tw< ; Tya> ; Irey^a ; frfy\0r/v. Rare in Att. pr. 
T(VCO (TCV-), stretch ; rtv& ; trtiva ; rfraKa ; T^ra^ai ; erd&qv ; vb. 

(Aristot.), ^w-rarfos. 621, 1 ; 707. See ravv<a and TiTaiVw. (IV) 


TK|iapo|iai (TfK/j.ap-), ordain, infer, judge; rcKp-apoxifxai ; crEK^pd^v. Act. 

TtKfUUfX*) put a mark, limit, show, poetic ; ere/c^/Da ; vb. r 

(Com. fr.), TfKfj,apTeov (Hippocr.). (IV) 
TeXc'w, complete, accomplish ; fat. TeAra>, Att. rcXw (680, 1 and 6) ; 

T:T&.KO, ; TT&.eo-|i<u ; rX6r8i]v ; vb. tiri-TtXcor&s. 615; 730, 1. 
TtAAco (reA-), perform, raise, compel ; a. ereiAa. Poetic. dva-r&Xw, mal;e or 

let rise, rise ; av-^reiXa ; late ava-reraAfca. ev-reAAw, enjoin, command ; 

usually ev-TX\o(H ; late ev-TeAo{yzcu ; iv-6TtXa|xt]v ; 4v-TtToX(iai. eVt- 

reAAo), enjoin, rise, poetic. 621, 1. (IV) 
T/JL-, find ; epic redupl. 2 a. Teryuov or erer/zov (619 ; 993). 
T[iv (rep.-, T/Ae-), Ion. and Dor. ra/zrw, re/zw (in II. 13, 707), cut ; f. rejiw ; 

r^T(xi]Ka {pt. rerpjws pass. (Ap. Rh. 4, 156)} ; 2. a. irc|i.ov, Ion. and poet. 

era/xov ; T^T(i,T]p,ai ; lT|vfj0ip> ; vb. T/rr/ros (poet., late), TJITJT&>S. (K) See 

a, gladden, amuse ; rlp^iot ; ^rcp^a ; Tp<j>0riv, Horn, also rdp(f>6i)v ; Horn. 
2 a. p. erdpTrrjv {with subj. Tpaireid), not from Tpewo)} ; Horn. 2 a. 
TapTr6fj.r]v and redupl. TeTapirofi^v. 621. 

re/xrau/w (r/wav-), rfr?/, ep., pr. late; a. ere/xr^va (//.). (/K) Epic and 
Ion. Tep<To/, become dry; 2 a. p. frepcrrjv ; late ere/cxm, marfe rfry. 

Teraywv, having seized ; see root ray-. 

rerirjfjiai, Horn, pf., am troubled, vexed; only dual T(Tir)(rOov, pt. TeriTj/zei'os, 
and Teri?;ws, troubled, vexed. 

rfTfj.ov, found ; see root re/i-. 

(rtTpav-, rpa-), bore, pres. in comp. ; late (?) nrpaLvM ; f. Ion. 
Sta-rer/Daveo) ; a. Ion. crer/D^va, late ererpava ; late IrtTpdrOijv. 618; 
652, II. (/K, K) Late rirpdw and rirprip.L (r/aa-); late Tp;crw; ?rpr]<ra; 
WrpT]|xat ; late eTprjOrjv ; vb. late T/DT;TOS. 

I;^-, TVK-, TI>X-), prepare, make; rtv^w; ereu^a; 2 a. Horn. Teri'KOi', 
TfTVKOfj,rjv pf. pt. Horn. Terevxws as pass., see Tvyx^" 4 * 5 TTvy/ 
{Horn. TTel; / )(-aTa^ and Terev^-ttTo, 740}; f. pf. TtTfvofj.a.i ; Horn. 
Irv^Orjv, Hippocr. ereu^^v ; vb. Horn. TVKTOS. Poetic. In Homer and erv^drjv often have the meaning of rervx 1 ! 1 ** an( l *TVXOV, 
from Tv-yxavw, happen, hit. (II) Poetic TCTWTKO/ZCU, prepare, aim; act 
late. (VI) 

rijicw (TCIK-), melt, trans. ; -Hj ; ?rr)|a ; 2 p. T^rqKa, am melted; late TtT^yp-ai ; 
ff-rjxOrjv rare ; 2 a. p. frdKtjv ; vb. TT]KT<$S, late T?/KTCOS. (//) 

Tie-, trouble; see ren'r^ai. 

T^JXI ($e-), j9u( ; for synopsis and inflection, see 508; 498 (504); 1015, 
1016. Dialectic forms: Homer: Pres. Tid^vda. for TI^?;S, Tidi)<ri and 
Ti0ei, 3 pi. TiOeuTL (irpo-Ofovcri in //. 1, 291, is doubtful unless from 
irpo-df(a, rush forth) ; inf. TiOfpev and TI&//ZVCU (Theognis 286 has 
TiOeiv) ; part, rt^e/xevos and (72. 8, 34) TiBr/fj-evo^. Hdt. : Pres. Ti$fis, 
rt^ei, 3 pi. TiOf'uri ; 7mj)/'. fTttiea, ert^eas, trlOee. For the subjunctive 
see 1044-1048. 

TKTO> (re*c-, for TI-TK-O>, (526), in'njf forth, beget ; r^opai, re^w (poet., also 


late), rare and poet reKof/xat (Hijm. Horn. 3, 127) ; 2 p. riroKa. ; 2 a, 

ITCKOV ; very rare !rea (not Att.) ; late rercy/^at ; late ere^drjv. 
rt'AAw (TiA-), pluck ; TtAw ; friAa ; TcnA/xai ; Ti'A#>yr. Poetic, occasionally 

Ionic and late Attic prose, mostly in conip. (IV) 
Tivaoxrw, swing, shake ; 8ia-Tivao/zeu (reflex, or pass.) ; eriVa^a ; reriVay/jiui. 

Ep., also late. (//) 

rtv** (TI-), ep. rfrw, pay, expiate; mid. ta&e payment, avemje ; rto-u, better 
frrwra, better Jrcura ; TTIKO, better rirtuno. ; WTurpai, better 
tTCo-0T]v, better tTti<r9i\v ; vb. Horn. rtTos (conip. U-TITOS\ 

airo-T()ioT'ov. Pres. rtvvp.i rare and late, rtvvfJMi ep. and (rarely) 

Hdt. (V) See TIM, honour. 

(rival/-), stretch ; eTiTrjva. Epic, see TCIVW. (//) 
(T/JO-), wound ', rpwcrw ; Irpaxra ; late TerpwKa. ; Tt'rpiojiai ; ^rpuifrqv ; 

vb. Horn. T/3a>TOs, late T/DWTCOI/. (K/) Epic pres. Tpww rare. 
TiTi'crKO/zat, prepare, aim ; see rev^o). 
Ttfc), Horn. TIW, honour ; epic Tt<ra>, erio-a, rexi/iou ; vb. Honi. a-rtro?. Poetic. 

In Attic ritrw and Irtcra are from rivw (except irpo-ruTO.^ in Soph. ^47i(. 22). 
rXa-, sync, from raA.a-, endure ; f. rAiycro/iai, late TA7y(ra) ; late erA^cra ; 

TerAr/Ka usually as pres. ; 2 a. IrAr^v {767, rAw, rAau/v, rA^/fli, rA^vai, 

rAds} ; 2 pf. epic /ti-forms rerAa/tev {1064; TerAai^i' ; rerXaOi, 

TerAaTw ; TerAayiievai and T(.r\ap.v ; rerA^w?, rerAvyvia} ; 

Poetic, rare in prose. From raAa- : late fut. TaAacro-w ; ep. 
(r/iay-, T/X7;y-), CM<; T/A7yw; Ir/iry^a ; 2 a. Ir/Aayov; 2 a. p. 

late eTfiijyrjv. Poetic. (//) See Wjivw. 

(rop-, 990), pierce, bore ; pr. only avTi-Topewra (Hymn. Merc. 283) ; 

f. ai/Ti-To/37ycro> (Hymn. Merc. 178); f. TTopy<rw in Aristoph. Pax 381, 

tttter in a piercing tone ; crop^a-a ; 2 a. ITO/OOV ; late TeTopry/xevos. Epic. 

See TTpavw. 

TOT-, hit, find ; only aor. To<rcra (Pind.). (//) 
rp^irw, Ion. and Dor. Tpdirw, turn ; Tpt'4/u ; {rpn|m ; 2 a. fTpairov poet. ; 

T^rpo<}>a, rarely TT/>a<a (? Att.), these perfects identical with those from 

Tpttfxo ; TtTpap-fiaL ; Irp^O^v rare in Att, Ion. eTpd(f>6ijv ; 2 a. p. frpdirriv ; late 

T/37TTos, rpcirWos, late TpaTrrjTfov. 621. Horn, also T/aaTrew and rpoTrew. 
Tpe'4>u) (Tp((f>- from 6pf<f>-, 102), Dor. Tpd<f)io, nourish; 6p\|/&> ; ^0pe^/a ; 2 a. 

epic (Tpa<ftov as pass., iwis nourished, grew; rfrpo^a, late and doubtful 

TCTpa(f>a. (these perfects identical with those from rpfirw) ; 

t0p'4)0Tiv rare in Att, 2 a. p. Irpaufav ; vb. Optimos. 
rp^x<o (Tp*X~ f rom &P f X~> ^2 ; opa/*-)> Dor. Tpd\w, run; fut. (in comp., and in Comedy), dpi^io late, 8pafj.w rure and late, 

and 8pdfj.ofJMi rare and late ; fdpt^a poet, and rare ; 2 a. 

StSpd|iT|Ka, poet. 8e8pop.a ; ScSpd^fiai ; vb. 6pKT&>v, late 

(VIII) poet. 8pofid(a. 
tremble ; trpwa.. Rare in prose. 
(r/31/3-, 625), rub ; rptyw ; frpit|ra ; Terpi4>a ; T^rplfi|xai ; irpt^fttjv, oftener 

2 a. p. tTpi(BT|v ; vb. ttT/aiTTTos (Od.), late 


T/3t('w (rply- 640), squeak ; erpl^a late ; 2 p. rtrplya as pres. (Horn. pt. 
TT/3iywTes). Ionic, poetic. (IV) 

Tpvfo (1002, 1), murmur, mourn, epic ; late frpv^a. (IV) 

rp{>\<a, waste, exhaust, rpv\6(a (628) only Mimn. 2, 12 ; f. rpv\<!a-t, ep. 
rpv(D ; 4rp6x<ra ; ; fTpv^iodrjv Ion. 

rpu-yw (rpay-, 631), gnaw; Tpwo|xai ; KaT-erpo^a (Ion.); 2 a. frrpa-yov ; 
T^rpwyiiai ; vb. rpwKTos. (//) 

Tvy\Ava (TI>X-, TCV^-), happen, hit ; Tcvgofiai ; epic eTV\r)(ra, 2 a. |TV\OV ; 
TcrvxTca, less often TeTv\a, late rerv^a; late, ev-erevx^ 1 ' 
late. ( V, II) In Homer reri'-y yu,cu and tTv\6riv (from re^x* ) often have 
the meaning of TTVXT<I and %TV\OV. 

TVITTW (TVTT-, TVTTT-, 636), strike; Tinrrfj<rw, late Tv\f/<a ; Iri^a Ion. and lyric, 
ervTrr^cra late ; 2 a. ITUTTOV poet. ; TfTVTrr^Ka late ; poet., late ; $rv$8qtt and 6TiirT7y^v late, 2 a. p. CTUTT^V poet., late 
prose ; vb. TvirrriTtos. (///) For the aor. Attic prose uses 4iraTaa 
(Trarao-o-a)) or liraura (iraCw) ; for the pf. and pass, systems, 
irrrXT]Y|u ; 1-jrXVjynv (TrX.t'jcrcrw). 

TO<|>W (T?</>- for 6i!(f>-, 102, 625), raise smoke; r^Ovpfxai ; 2 a. p. 
Simple form very rare in Attic prose. 

tryiatvw (vyiav-), 6e in health, recover health; vryiavw ; v-ytava, Ion. vyirjva.; 

vyidvOyv (Hippocr.) ; vb. vyiavTfov late ; late tiyiaw is reg. (IV) 
wAao-KO) (uAa/c-), poet., howl, bark at, rare, vAacrcrw late; v\aa. late. (//) 

Epic vAaw, pr. and impf. Usually v\aKT&o. 
vir-wrx-v^-ojiai (i)Tr-e\-), and vTri-(r\op.a.L, promise, see e^w (c). (/) 
v<j>aivu> (v<}>a.v-), weave ; ti4>ava> ; i54>nva, late v<f>dva ; v</>ay/<a late ; ti4>a<r}iai 

(737, 2) ; ii<f>aver)v ; vb. v|>avT<Js. (IV) In Od. 7, 105, t-^aw. 
few, rain; ti<r ; Sera (Find., Hdt., late prose); to-pxi ; v<rdr)v (Hdt.). 616. 

(<$><iv-), appear, slww ; (<f>aa.vOr)v. Poetic. See <a<W. (/ K) 
4>aivco (</>av-), sfeow; synopsis in 464; certain tenses inflected in 465; 
4>avo> ; &J>T]va ; ir^^yKa ; -n^ao-fiai (485); ^4>dv0t)v ; 4>avofuii, appear; 
2 a. p. ^<}>AVTIV, appeared ; f. <f>avVj<ro|xai and (fxLvovfMu ; 2 p. ir^<)>T|va ; 
4>a(vofiai, show, declare; 4>avov(iai ; air-c^vd^v (simple rare and poet.); 
Horn. 2 a. iter. (fraveo-Kf, appeared; vb. a-^>avTos (/^.). (/k) From 
root <a-, ^aw, appear, pres. late ; impf. <ae (Horn.) ; f. p. irf>i'i<rtTai, 
will appear ; pf. Tre^arat (in Stobaeus) ; see root <ev-, </>a-, for several 
similar forms. In comp. Sia-, tin-, wo-, New Ion. and late -< 
and -c/xuo-Kw ; in the Bible </>avo-<o, <^avo-a. ( K/) Compare Tri^ 
and (jtafivw. 

4l<rKa> (<^a-), say, = ^i|*C ; only pres. and impf. ; see <j>rj^. ( VI) 
xita ; see <^av. 


4>a8 onai (</>tS-, </>tS-), spare; 4>ttro^ai ; 4 >u<r< M JLT l v ; e P- 2 a. Tre^iSo/^/v, ep. 
f. Trf(f)i8-i'f(rofjiat ; jre^cwryu.evos late, Tre^toSy/^tevos late epic ; vb. <}>i<rTov. 

</>ev-, <^>a-, HM ; 2 a. redupl. and sync, (.irffyvov and 7re<vov (pt. KaTa-7re<vo*i' 

also found accented Kara-Tr^vtov) ; 7T<a/ucu ; ire^y/a-ofULL. Epic. A 

late pres. TTC^VW is found, also a p. pt. Tre^aoyAevos. 
4*pu> (</>, oi-, eye/c-, tveyK- for ey-evex-), bear ; fat. ofrrw mid. and 

pass.) ; 1 a. ^vryKo, f|vryKa(iTjv ; 2 a. ^veyicov (mid. rare) ; p. tvTjvoxa ; 

iyTJveypai ; f|v'x6rjv ; Vx9Vj<ro|u, oi<r9T)<rojwxi ; vb. olo-r<5s, ol<rrcos. Poet. 

and dial, forms: Homer pr. imper. <$>tpre for faptTe ; a. r/i^tKO, rarely 

>jviKov, r')ViKa.p,-i)v ; aor. imper. oftre (1028; also Aristopli.), inf. 

oio-e/ier(eu), Find, ofcreiv ; vb. </>/JTOS (also Eur.). Herodotus has rpetxa, ; ; -fivfi^di^v ', once (in 1, 157) a. inf. ar-oicrai or 

dv-wa-at ; generally di'-cjio-Tos for av-owrros. Heeiod (Scut. 440) has 

a doubtful pr. indie. o-w-evi'KTcu. Late verbal <rvfjurfpi-fi>cKTfoi' 

(Stobaeus). (VIII) 
<j>tryc (<^>vy-, favy-}, flee; <j>^o|, Dor. <f)fv^ov/, rare in Att. prose (681), 

late <ei!a> ; 2 p. ir&juvya ; Horn. p. part. Trec^uy/zti/os, 7r</)i'^oT5 ; 2 a. 

&|>iryov ; late (<J>fva (but see <t>ev<a) ; late tfavxBrjv ; late p. pts. 

(Nicander) Trec^u^oTts and (f>vfr)6eis ; vb. <J>KT<$S, <}>CUKT^OS, ep. </>DKTOS. 

(//) <f>vyydv<i), New Ion. and Att. poet., Alcaeus has 7re<vyya). See ^>ei'^a>. 
<^)i'^a>, cri/, <^>i), lament; c<f>eva (Aesch.). 1002, 1. (//) 

<^>a-), saj/; for inflection, etc. see 779, 780, 781, and (Dialects) 

1068. (///) 

(1002, 1), sat/, pr. late; late <;/it'(o ; <7yytua (Hes.), t^ryyuwra 

(trag.) ; 7r</>;//jUo-/L/.e)>os, e<^?//xio-^r;i', <^>r^i^^et's, all late. (/K) 
4>0dvu ((f>6a-), anticipate, Horn. <#uvw ; <f>0^jo-o)iai, <^^acrw late (doubtful in 

Att); tyfaura; 2 a. tyOrjv (like IOTTJV in 498) (mid. only 

epic) ; ((JtdaKO. late, irt<j>da.K.a. very late ; f<f>6d(r6r)v late ; vb. 

late ; <f>0dvo/ late. ( ^) 
4>9<Yyo|iai, er, speak; <jjei'o|icu : ^6ry|d|iT)v ; 4>0^p.aL (485; 735); vb. 

-), corrupt, destroy; f. <j>0fp, Horn. Sia-<$e/3o-a> (1019); 

?4>9apKa ; &{>9ap|iai, late Trf^dapfiai ; 2 p. <f>6opa late, btlt Attic 8i-6J>6opa 

intr. ant ruined or trans, /wire destroyed ; 2 a. p. ^4>0dpT|v ; vb. </>^a/aros 

late. 621. (/K) 
<}>9ivw (<f>6i-\ perish, mostly poet., epic <0iVw, rarely trans. ; <f>8ivi'i<rt>>, 

e<0iVj/cra, f(f>6ivr)Ka, all late; . ? e<f>6iva late (K) <J>6tvv6to (epic) is 

trans, and intr. Epic <#i'o), perish (pr. and impf. in Homer only) ; 

<f>6icno, Horn. </>06rw, trans. ; tyOura, Horn. f<J>8l<ra, trans. ; late </>#IKU ; 

c<j>6ifjui.i ; f^didrjv (Horn.) ; 2 a. of /ti-form <f> {subj. </>0tu>/xai ; 

opt. <t>Bt[Lr)v (for <f>6i-i-fj.i)v, 700, 1051); <j>6i<r6(a ; </>0icr0cu ; ^)^i/tvos}; 

vb. <f>0iros. 
4>-A'u (<f>t\e-), love, 4>iX^a-w, etc., reg. ; Horn. pr. inf. ^>iA7)/i<vat (1062, 3; ; 

ep. aor. from stem <tA.- (627 ; 990) t<f>i\dfj.rjv. 


</>Aaw, bruise; ^Aao-crw for <Acurw (Theocr.) ; <Aacra (Find., Tbeocr., 
Hippocr.) ; <Aao>tcu and e</>Aao-#7/v (Hippocr.) ; <Ada>, eai greedily, 
swallow, only pr. and impf. in Comedy. See 6Xd<a, 616. 

<j>Xyo>, mr, tr. and intr.; <Aeo> ; ityXeJja ; Tre^Aey/zai late ; t^Xe'x^Sriv ; 2 a. p. 

<J>opto>, carry, reg. ; Horn. inf. pr. <opeeii', (f>op-?/vai, (f>opi'i/j.evai. 
4>pd.Yvi5(xi (cppay-), <f)pdcro-(j), <J>paTTu>, fence, stop up ; </>pdu> ; t'4>paa. ; 

tre<t>paKctv late ; ire^pa-yiwu ; *'<J>pax9t]v ; 2 a. p. t<$>p(iyt)v late ; vb. 

&-4>po.KTos. ( /, / V) Attic are also the forms <j>ap'yvi5|xi., 2<|>apga, irt^ap-yfiai, 

t<j>dpxOT]v, <f>apKTos. 
4>pda> ((ppa.8-), tell, show ; <|>pd(ro>, etc., regular: ; ep. 2 a. ()ir<j>pa8ov ; Hes. 

p. pt. Trpo-Tre(}>pa.&p.vo<$. (IV) 

>pdTTw (<pay-), /?ice ; see 
<}>pi<r<rw, 4>pfTT ((f>plK-), shudder ; 4>piw late ; ?<J>pla ; irc<{>piKa as pres. 

Kovras Pind., 1056). (/I/) 
4>pti-y> <f>pi'<ra-(i> and <pvTT<o late, roa< ; (frpv^w ; &f>pva ; ir^4>pv-y(xat> ; e</>/3i>- 

X^v (Horn. Epigr. 14, 4 and late) ; 2 a. p. f(f)pvyr)v late ; vb. <|>PVKTOS. 
4>v\d<r<rw (<^>i;Aa/c-) ; guard; <{>vXda> ; c<j>v\a^a ; ir<j>vXaxa, 7re^)i'AaKa late; 

irc^vXa-yfxai ; t^uXdxO'HV ; vb. <}>vXaKTov. (//) 
4>6p ((f)vp-), mix, knead ; fyvpcra. (Horn, and late poets, 1019) ; <pvpa late ; 

n-^4>wp(iai ; ttfivpdijv ; f. p. 7r<Vyxro/>iai (Find.); vb. <rvfj^(pi'pTos. (IV) 

By-form <|>vpdw, is regular. 
<^f (^>u-), produce ; Horn. </>uo> (rarely in Att.) ; <j>o<ra> ; Jfcjriio-a ; ir'<|>CKa, am 

(6j/ nature) {ep. /zt-forms ; 7rc</>rd(rt, e/Js-Trf<f>vij, TTC^VOJS ; Hes. lias plpf. 

3 pi. firtyvKov (1036)} ; 2 a. <}>vv, fee, be born {like i!Svv 498 ; 707 ; 

767 ; subj. 4>v" ; opt <j>vr)v and <f>vrj (700) or (?) <f>vit] in Theocr. ; 4>vvat ; 

<}>f5s} ; 2 a. p. late etpvrjv (but subj. ^>vw, </>vy, <vcikri found in Att.) ; vb. 

<f>vro<s Pind. ; late, but T& 4>vr<Jv, ^)/an<. 
-<^)tixrKw, see (paivta. 


-^a^w (xS-), /orce back, yield, pres. ava-^a^w ; ^ao-<jo/iat Horn.; d'-X ao " (ra 
Pind. ; Xen. has dva-xa^ovres and 8ia-)(d<ra.<r8a.i. Poetic, (/l^) From 
Ka8- Horn. ; K6Ka8ov, deprived ; KeKu8o//,r/v, retired, K*<a5?y(r<o, shall 
deprive (1037), this last different from the redupl. fut. of K?/<HO. 

xcupu) (\a/>, X 01 / 3 "*- (^ J 2), xV -), rejoice ; \n\^a-u, late \tipi') ; ex ai/ P/ (ru 
late ; Kcx^p^Ka (Horn. pt. KX a / 7 ?ws) ; Kf\dpyifj.a.i, K^ ; 2 a. p. 
xp*)v as act. ; ep. a. ex^pdfj.ifv, ep. 2 a. Kf^apofjujv, late ep. 2 a. 
e\ap6fj.rjv ; ep. fut. p. Kexap/o"o> and Kf\a.pi]<rofj.o.i (1037) ; vb. 

, loosen ; xaAatrco Ionic ; f'xdXa<ra, Pind. x"^- a ^ tt > Kf^a.\a.Ka (Hippocr.) ; 
late ; xaXdo-6T)v. 615; 616. 

-), be offended ; \aXTro,vu ; t'xaXeir^va ; xaXnrdv0i]v. (IV) 
^"> X V ^")> con ^ n > X(i<, (90, 4); 2 a. e^aSov ; 2 p. 
as pres. poet., mostly epic ; sometimes Ion. prose. (IV) 


XCMTKW (xa-), lute \aivut (X av '^ff a P e > f- X*"' *)"" ' 2 a - *X avov ; 2 P- 

aspres. (//, /^) 
Xfl> (x e ^-)> Lat. coco; \ro\>\ia.i, rarely yta-op.a.1. (681); Z\ <ora rarely 2 a. 

eXetrov ; 2 p. KfyoS* ; K{X>'|UU. (/ 10 
\tt (x 1 '-, X V ~ X ^~> 632), j)o?tr, simple poet, or late prose, ep. x et/a) 

(1009, 2) ; fut. x^ (676) ; a. l\ta. (684), ep. f\fva, late txtixra ; K*\VKO. ; 

Kxvfjiai ; I\v9r]v ; Pet. 2 a. (\vp.rfv (1063). (//) 
xXaS-, sound, ring, swell; only p. pt. jcexAdStos (ace. pi. KxAd8ovTas), and 

inf. KxA^ "' > fl U i n Pindar. 
X<5, late x^vvf/xi (x) } nfa P U P >' X"" w *X w<ra 5 ^X WKa 5 K^x"^!" 11 - (616); 

*X<r0Tiv ; vb. xw^T<5s. (/, V) 

ifw (x/oawr/u,-), 7ie^, ward off, pres. late and rare ; Hoin. 

Horn. exP u '7' tr / cra > Horn. 2 a. \pa.i(Tp.ov. 990. 

K tat > 1tse (XPT 1 " 011 ) XP i l oreai> . etc - 479 ) 5 XPV !" 111 

; (\ff\ir9i\v pass. ; vb. \pi\rr69, good, \pt\o~rtos. Hdt. has 

> ( xP^ Tai "> X/ 3 o/ AV 5> XP" TO XP* OVT0 ' X/ 3 " "^" 1 * e ^ c -> 1011}. 
X/3oto>, xp, <7*i' oraches (Att. X pi]S> XPti. etc -> 479 ) 5 XP 1 ^" ; tXP^l "* ; K ^XP T l Ka '- 
Kk\prfTiia.L Hdt ; txP^"^ T l v > m id. XP^P- -^ XP"!" 11 * consult an oracle ; 
X/^/croftai Ion. ; exprjo-dfirjv Hdt. See xPTlt w > wn<, a*^- 
(xP a -> XP ") ^ iere ** ^^ ^ behoves; see 790 and 1072. 
t' I n - XPW&y wanty ask; Att. pr. and impf. ; \pri<Tto, Ion. 

ra, Ion. exp^wra. (/I*') 

, anoint, sting ; xp** ; ?xP^" a ; <<XP' Ka (Old Test) ; K^xpiH tau > Ke 
tXpfo^v, vb. x/ 5 '0"ros, late 7ri-xpio"Teov. 

Xp<j>t< or XP"?" (X/ 30 *^")) colour ; ^xP ia<T(l ' a * e 5 Kx/> WKa late ; 
late Ktxp^/J-ai ; txP 4 * " 1 !" > late P res - XP^ vv ^f J - t - Poetic XP 
8ee ^**- 

aw, \|S. rub; contrasts to / instead of a, see 479; otherwise regular ; but 
tyi](<r)fJMi and f\f^(cr)dr)v are late. By-form *|^jx 5 ^$ ', tyl < *M v 
late ; *t|niY|Mi. ; e^v/x&/v late. Both usually in comp. 

|/^a ; j/|a ; tyeypai Hippocr. ; vb. |/KT<$S, i/'tKTtos late ; 
(?) p. \f/oya, (?) 2 a. p. e^eyvjv. 
\J/^X W , nib, see ^aw, ^w- 

|rt!ixw (^fvx-)t cool ; \|^5w ; fc|/v|a ; ?4iry|wit ; \|>6xOr]v ; 2 a. p. <*|^XTJV, late 
; vb. ^I-KTCOS. Hippocr. 


u>e'u (w^-, 627), push; impf. tu>9ow (533) ; f. <S<r, poet. w&i'](r<a ; Iwora, Ion. 
<5tra ; ew/ca late ; ?wo-jxat, Ion. wcr/iat ; a>o-0T]v ; vb. aTr-axrTos, aTT-axTTeos 
wo-reos late). 

i, fruy; impf. tatvov\ti\v (533); uv^erojiai ; cuvrjixai ; ^wvV|6riv pass.; for 
the late ftavrfrdfj.rjv, the Attics use t'lrpidjujv (see 498, 507 ; 516 ; 520) ; 

. VTfT<}s, WVTJT^OS. 


1074. Simple and Compound Words. 1. A simple word is made 
from one stem only ; as pvOo-s, fable, -ypd^w, wite, KaAo-s, beautiful, 
6'-s, who. 

2. A compound word is formed by the union of two or more 
stems ; as p^Qo-ypafas, writer of fables, Ka/cd-/zavTis, prophet of evil 


1075. Roots. In all words the fundamental part is the root. 
To it are added prefixes, suffixes, and inflectional endings (159, 2). 

Thus the roots of the words Aeyw, T/OCTTW, Ai'0os, Sue?/, /3ous, KUKOS, 
yAwus, 6's, are Aey-, T/OCTT-, Ai$-, SLK-, f$ov- (/2o/-), KO.K-, yAvK-, 6-. 

The whole Greek vocabulary can be referred to a comparatively small number 
of roots. Whether these roots ever had an independent existence as words i 
not known. 

1076. NOTE. 1. Roots are originally of one syllable. Most of them consist 
of a consonant followed by a short vowel and another consonant ; as <j>ep- (<ptpu), 
diK- (8iicri), <f>i\- (0t\os). Some consist of a consonant and a vowel ; as So- (dldwfu), 
/3a- (fialvu). Only a few have an initial vowel followed by a consonant ; as dy- 
(&yw), 6p- (6pvv/JLi). If a root begins or ends with two consonants, one of the two 
is usually a liquid or a ; as ypa<f>- (ypd<f>u), irXex- (irXticu), &px~ (fy>X w )> ire/xir- 
(TT^UTTW), ffira- (ffTrdb)}. 

2. Roots of two syllables arise from prothetic or epenthetic addition .of vowels 
(72, 73) ; as 6-8ofa (6-Sovr-, Lat. dens, dent-is), and dW-w (compare d\K-ty. 

1077. Suffixes. 1. Koots are developed into stems by the addition 
of suffixes. Thus the root dp^- becomes the noun-stem dp\-a- (nom. 
ct/X~ 7 /) by means of the suffix -61- ; it becomes the adjective-stem 
dpx-iKo- (nom. a/>x-"o-s) by -the addition of the suffix -IKO- ; it becomes 
the present-stem of the verb apx-u by adding the tense-suffix -%-. 
Similarly the root ypu<- becomes ypa<-d- (ypa<f>-j'i) ; ypafriKo- (ypa.<f>- 


t/co-i) ; ypatfi-%- (yp(i<j>-ta, y/3ci^>-o-/xev, y/)a<-e-T) ; ypap-fj-aT- for y/sa</>-/iUT- 
(y/ju/A-/AO, ypdp.-fJM.T-os). 

2. A stein (i.e. a root and a suffix) is very often still further developed into a 
new stem by the addition of another suffix. Thus the noun-stem dpx-a,- becomes 
the adjective-stem dipx-a-io- (nom. apx-cuo-s) by means of the suffix -to- ; the noun- 
stem ypafi-fMT- becomes the new noun-stem ypa/ by means of the suffix -i-. 

3. The root and the stem are sometimes identical ; as iprj-fd (<f>o--), TTOVS (iro5-). 

1078. NOTE. In the list of suffixes in this part of the Grammar all the most 
important are considered. 

1079. Changes in Roots and Stems. In all formations, roots and 
stems are liable to a number of changes (1080-1091). 

1030. The vowel of the root may take the strong form : ti or ot (from t) ; tv 
(from v) ; i\ or u (from a). Thus \fi/j.-fj.o., remnant, and \onr-6s, remaining, from 
Xtir- (Xf/irw) ; fei>y-os, yoke, pair, from firy- (feifryKu/w) ; \riB-r), forgctfulness, from 
Xo0- (\avffdvu) ; pvx-pfa, cleft, from pay- (priyvv/u). 

1081. By the interchange of vowels, original e very often becomes o (seldom a) ; 
17 seldom becomes u ; ev seldom becomes ov. Thus rpt<p-w, nourish, rpcxp-Tf/, nourish- 
mrnt, Tpa<p-fp6s, well-fed ; orA-Xw, send, 0T<5X-os, expedition ; dpwy-6s, helping, from 
dpriy-<a, help; ffirovd-ri, speed, and ffircvSu. 

1082. The final consonant of a stem coming before a consonant of a suffix has 
the regular euphonic changes (80, 84, 86). Thus ypdfj.-(JM for ypa.(p-fj.a, Si/coer-rfc for 
diKad-rris (from 5iKafw), iriff-ris for wiO-ris (iriff-, welOw), \eK-r6s lor \ey-rot, and X^|it 
for \cy-ffts from \ty-u. 

1083. A final vowel of a stem is often contracted with an initial vowel of a 
suffix ; as d/>x a ' OJ from dpx a "''*, o/jcetoj from cuVe-io-j, at'Soioj from a/5o(<r)-io-j ; ijpifos 
from ^pw-to-j ; /3a<rtXeid, kingdom, from /3a(7iXe(/)-td ; olidSiov from otKi-iSiov. 

1084. A short final stem-vowel is usually lengthened before a consonant of the 
ending ; as dpa-pa, action, from dpd-u ; pr)-p.a, pace, step, from /3a- (fiatvu) ; -iroirjff-is, 
poesy (making), from Trowf-co ; Su-pov, gift, from 5o- (Si5wfu). But exceptions are 
numerous ; as /Sd-ats, So-r^p, 8tifi6-T~>)s. 

1085. A long final stem -vowel is often shortened be/ore suffixes, as before 
inflectional endings ; as apxato* from apx&-io-s, stem dpx- shortened to dpx*-- 

1086. A final vowel or diphthong of a stem is often dropped before an initial 
vowel of a suffix ; as \6y-io-s, skilled in words, from \6yo-t ; /3(wtX-i/c6s, kingly, from 

1087. A final consonant of a stem is sometimes dropped ; as ffutfrpo-ffwij, 
temperance, from ff&Qpui', temperate, stem ffu<j>poi>-. 

1088. As in the perfect and aorist passive, <r is sometimes added to the root ; 
as ffTra.-ff-fj.6t, twitching (ffTd-u, i-a-K^-a-Q^v). So occasionally 6 ; as ffra-O-fjibs, station 

1089. Final o of the stem is often changed to e ; occasionally d to w or 77. 
Tims fwoij'o-j, praise, lv<u.vt-w, praise, dvaiv^-r-rjs, praiser ; ffrpand, army,!}- 
Tip, soldier ; rl^ (TIIJM-), honour, Tifj,i)-eli, honoured. 

1090. A vowel is sometimes added : in the root by epenthesis (73), as oT-e-poir--f) 
and affrpair--/!, lightning ; or pleonastically, as iroXi-^-TT/j, Ionic for iro\ir^, citizen. 

1091. Reduplication and metathesis sometimes occur, seldom syncope ; as 


fd-uS-ri, food (V5-, lonie 5w, eat) ; 77477-0-1?, cutting (refj.-, r/j.e, r(/u.-v<a) ; irrq-vbs for 
ireTrjvjs, -winged, flying (TTCT-, irre-, TT^T-O/MII, fly). 

1092. Primitives and Denominatives, 1. A primitive word is 
formed directly from a root or from the theme of a verb ; as ypa<^i} 
(y/3a</>-d-), writing, ypa<-tKO-s (ypa<j>-iKo-), able to write, ypa(f)-i<5 (ypa<f>-iS-), 
style (for writing on tablets), ypa<-fu-s (y/)a</>cu-), writer, ypa/x-yu,?/ 
(ypap.-p.d- for ypa(J>-p.a.-), line, ypdp.-p.a- (ypap.-p.aT- for ypa<f>-p.aT-), Something 
written, all derived from the root ypau}>- (ypd(J)-(a, I write}. So the 
noun StKaw-rrys, judge, comes from 6\/caw (Si/caS-), to judge, which again 
is derived from 81*77, right, law ; XO/^V-TT/S, chorus-dancer, is from ^opevw, 
to dance, this latter also a derivative, from x/> dtowrc, chorus. 

2. A denominative word is formed from the stem of a noun or 
adjective ; as viK-dw, conquer, from VIKOI-, stem of viicy, victory ; ypap.- 
/AaT-eus, writer, scribe, from the stem of yp<ip.-^a. (y pap.- par-), anything 
written ; apxaios, ancient, from the stem of upx 7 / ("/X<*~) beginning. 



1093. A small number of nouns have no suffix, the root and the noun-stem 
being identical. Thus irofa (irod-), foot; tf>\6% (<j>\ay-), flame, from the root <\7- 
(<j>\ty-u, burn) ; 6-ftp, 6rip-6s, beast. 

1094. -o- (nom. -os, -ov, gen. -oi>), a very common suffix. The nouns in 
-os denote either persons (oxytones) ; or things, especially abstracts (barytones). 

dpx-^-Si leader, from &px-<*>, lead <rr6\-o-s,cxi)edition,fromffTf\-(ffTt\\u,!ici<d} 

Tro/xTT-o-y, escort, ,, TT^/XTT-W, send 7r\6-o-j for 7r\o/-o-j, voyaye, from tr\tf- 
rpotp-o-s, nurse, ,, Tpty~tt, nourish (TT\^W, ir\v-, ir\ef-) 

X67-o-s, speech, ,, \ty-u, speak fvy-6-v, yoke, from fvy- (fctiy-vvfu, join) 

1095. -a- (very many feminines in -d or -TJ). Nearly all denote things, 
many of them abstracts ; a few denote persons. 

&PX-J (dpx-a.-), beginning, from &px-w, begin \oifi--f] (\oifi-a.-\pouring, from \fip-u,poitr 

Tpo<f>--q (Tpo<j>-d-), nourishment, from rp^-w, <rirovd-ri (ffTrovd-d-), haste, from ffirevE-w, 

nourish hasten 

fiAX'~n (M a X'*-)> ,fiffht> from fidx-opai, flijfit td-ud-ri (e8-ud-a-),food, from W-w (Ionic), 
ffKa<f>-ri (ffKa<f>-a-), tub, from <r/ca</>- (anair-ru, eat 

dig out) <j>op-d (cpop-d), bcfiring, from <jdp-w, l->n- 

1096. NOTE. These are mostly oxytonc. Observe that the following are. 
parnxy tone : /3Xd/3i;, damage ; ndx"n, battle, ; Trtdri, fetter ; ir\dvri, wanderiinj ; dirdrtj, 
clieating ; artyy, roof; peterr), care; T^X^I chance; aiffx^vn, shame; \-f)Oy, forgetful- 
ness ; vtKij, victory ; dixy, riyht ; Xw/3?;, outrayc ; \ijwr), pain ; and some others. 

1097. Primitive nouns are also formed by the following suffixes : 
-avo-, -avd- : <rrt<p-avo-i, crown (<rr^-w, crown) ; (hry-dv^, whetstone (tfifr-w, whet). 
-ova- : rjS-ov-fi, pleasure (^5-o/xat, rejoice). 

-Xo-, -\4- : fTj-Xo-j, zeal (f^-w, boil) ; <rri)-\ij, pillar (era-, t-ffrrj-fu, set) ; <f>v-\o-v 
kind, race (<f>6-u, 2'oducc). 


-po-, -pd- : yan-p-p&-s, son-in-law (yan-tw, marry); x^P*> land; irirpa, rock; 

Sw-po-v, gift (So-, di-Su-fu, give). 

-TO-, -TCI- : /Sto-ro-s, living (/3to-w, live) ; Kol-ri), couch (-, KH-, Kfl-nai, lie). 
-08- : vup-d-s, vHp-dS-oi, snow-flake, from vi<p- (vt<j>-u, snow). 
-i-, -18-, -IT- : rpox-i-J, runner, gen. rpox-t-or and rp6x--ws (rptx-u, run) ; \ir-t-t, 

i\r-iS-ot, hope (Epic t\w-u) ; -xa.p-i.-s, xdp-""-oj, favour, grace (\a-p-, x<*tpw). 
-ov-, -wv- : eiK-uv, flu-ov-m, image (dx-, touca, am like) ; K\vd-wv, K\vd-wv-os, billow 

(/cXi'5-, jcXtffw, splash). 

1098. Other suffixes can be seen in words like the following : ireiOu, iret0-o-os, 
iretOous, persuasion ; al8dn, of 5-o(<r)-os, eu'SoOs, shame ; \i^, X^S-rpr-os, kettle ; y{\us, 
7A-wT-oj, laughter; 6n-vo-s, hesitation; <pep-vr), dowry; irapO-tvo-s, maiden; w\-4vi), 
elbow; Kb<p-wo-s, basket; /xeX-tioj, millet; 0et5-w\^, thrift; TrX-rj-O-tipr}, satiety; 
a.\y-r)-5ui>, d\y--ri-d6v-os, pain; apir-f-Sdvr], rope; T)ye/j.wv, i)ye-fjL6i>-ot, leader; Xet/icwv, 
\ei-/i<ii'-oj, meadoio ; ir\i]-ff-/j.ov/), fulness; ffrd-fju>o-s,jar; M-pry, lake. 

1099. Agent. 1. The following suffixes denoting agent are masculine : 
-T<i-, norn. -TT/-S : Kpi-T?;-s, judge (K/amo, K/JI-, decide) ; avX-rj-rtj-^, flute-player 

(avAe-w, play the flute) ; 8pd-(r-Trj-s, worker (Spd-w, do) ; IK-C-TT/-S, sup- 

pliant (lK-V0/ 

-ri\p-, nom. T?;/O : So-Tijp, giver (Si'Saya, 60-, give) ; <rw-T>y/3, saviour (o-ci-w, 

<r<^^w, save). 
-Top-, nom. -dtp : pyj-Ttop, orator (>-, fp-, e/J-ew, pw, shall say) ; KTicr-Ttap, 

founder (KT/^W, KTi8-, found). 

-cv-, nom. -ev<s : ypa<j>-fv-s t writer (ypd^-w, write) ; <ov-u-s, murderer (<f>tv-). 
-Tpo-, nom. -T/90-s : id-r/3'JS, physician (fa-oyMcu, /teaZ). 

2. The following denoting agent are feminine : 

-Tpu8-, nom. -T/H'S : avXtj-rpi-s, female flute-player (avAe-w). 

-Ti8-, nom. -TI-S : tK-e-rts, female suppliant (iK-veo/iai). 

-Ttipcl-, nom. -reipa : So-rapa, fern, of So-Ti'/p ; crw-Tfipa, fern, of crio-rijp. 

-Tpid-, nom. -rpia : Troirj-rpia, fern, of 7rot^-T>)-s, ^)oe( (from Troie-w). 

1100. NOTE. Some of those in -r-f/p (gen. -r^p-os) and in -ei/i denote things ; 
as fw-<r-ri7p, girdle ({tb-vvvfu, gird) ; KOTT-CI/-!, chisel (K&TT-TU, cut). 

1101. NOTE. 1. The masculines in -TT/J usually form their feminities in -T/J/J 
or -rpia, sometimes in -TIS ; as a^XTj-riJ-s, a.v\r)-rpl-s ; TTOI^-T^-J, TTOITJ-T/MO ; 

2. The masculines in -r-fjp have their feminines in -rtipa ; as au-r-fip, 

3. Of those in -rap and -rpi-j, a few have corresponding feminines in -rpta ; as 
ffv\-\ff7r-TWp, partner, (rvX-X-f/ir-Tpta (from <ru\-\a/w.j3ti'w, <ri;X-Xo/3-) ; <a-T/)6-s, id-rpta. 

1102. NOTE. Sometimes the same word has two or more forms, with different 
suffixes; as Spd-tr-rri-s and Spd-ff-rrip ; dptiv-Tup and dpw-T-?ip, helper; fMaOij-rri-s, 

'pupil (from fMvffdvw, fuiff-t-, learn), fern. fj-aO-ij-Tpk or ^aOri-rpia ; id-rpA-s, poetic 
la-Trip (Alcman td-rwp). Several in -rwp has forms in -ropo-s ; as di-dtc-rup and 
6i-dc-Topo-s, Guide (frequent epithet of Herrnes), from Si-dy-u. 

1103. NOTE. Accent. 1. Those in -rrip, -rp6y, -rp/s, and -ei5$ are oxytone. 

2. Those in -rwp, -rtipa, and -rpia. are recessively accented. 

3. (a) Those in -rrp are oxytone when the suffix has been added to a lengthened 
final stem-vowel or when the suffix is preceded by <r ; as TTOITJ-TTJJ (TTOI^-W), 

fa, KTiS-), ipxri-ff-rij^ (6px^-o/JM). The exceptions are : 

j, 7rXd<rT7;j, 


(b) Those in -TTJS are paroxytone when the suffix has been aildcd to the short 
simple stein ; as epyd-r^ (^xydfo/mi), workman, v<f>dv-Trjs (v<f>aivu, v<f>ai>-), wearer. 
Exceptions are /cpirijj, judge, viro-Kpirris, actor, evpfr-qs, finder ; also some words 
from licjuid themes, as Kadaprris, ^a\TT?s, and a few others. 

4. Those in -n$ corresponding to masculines in -TTJJ are accented on the penult ; 
as K\ewT-r)s, /cX^Trris. 

1104. Action or Abstract Idea. The following suffixes denote an 

action or an abstract idea : 

-TI- (nom. -TI-S, fern.) : TrtV-ris, faith, from Trid- (irfiOw, persuade) ; <a-ris, 

report, from <^a--(^>7;/u,t, say). Compare Latin verbals in -tio, as ac-tio. 
-<ri- (nom. -cri-s, fern.) : /ilp^-cris, imitation (/zfy/.e-o/xai, imitate) ; irpa.^i's for 

Trpdy-o-is, action, from Trpdy- (Trpdcra-d), do). The suffix -o~t- is for 

original -TI- (see 85). Compare also Latin verbals in -sio, as divi-sio. 
-o-id- (nom. -aria, fern.) : 8oKifj.a-cria, testing, from SoKi/zaS- (BoKifJidfra, test). 
-JJLO- (nom. -/io-s, masc.) : Stwy-yaos, pursuit (SiwK-to, pursue) ; Aoyicr-/jios, 

calculation, from AoyiS- (Aoyt'^o/xou, calculate) ; o8vp-(ji,6<$, wailing, from 

oSvp- (, wa/il) ; (T7ra-o--/ios, spasm (o-Tra-co, draw), pv-6-fj.os, 

rhythm, from /?-, pu- (/5ew, /ow). 
-|j.d- (nom. -//,r7, fern.) : o8-yLA^, orfor, from 08- (o^w, smell) ; yvia-p-t], opinion, 

from yvo- (yiyvwa-Kw, know). 
-TV- (nom. -TV-S, i'em.), mostly poetic and dialectic words: 6pxr]-<r-Tv<s, dancing 

(opX-o[, dance) ; jSpw-rvs, food (ftpo-, /3i/3/3wcrKo>, eat). Compare Latin 

verbals in -tus, as can-tus. 
-cio- (nom. -etd for -ef-ia, -ev-id). These are from verbs in -euw ; as 

TrcuS-eid, education, from TratSeuw, educate. Compare 1113, 2. 

1105. NOTE. One in -TIS and two in -cru denote persons : /xdc-Tij, seer (pav-,, rage) ; irb-ffis, husband (but TTO-CTIJ, drinking, from TTO-, vtvw, drink) ; 
/cd-fftj, brother or si'sto-. Often others in 1104 are concrete in meaning; as 56-<ris, 
#i/K or the act of giving ; xC-/*6s (x"-)> juice; ypa/j.-/j.ri, line. 

1106. NOTE. Accent. Those in -Tts and -<ns are recessively accented. Those 
in -via and -eia are paroxytone. Those in -/uos and -ros are oxytoue. Those in -/XTJ 
are either oxytone, as ypa/j.-/j.-/), or paroxytone, as <j>r/-fj.r]. 

1107. Result. The result or effect of an action is expressed by these 
suffixes : 

-IXT- (nom. -//.a, neuter with recessive accent) : 7rpay-fj.a, deed, thing done 
(irpdy-, Tr/ado-o-w) ; ypdp,-fjM, anything written (ypd<j>-w) ; T/x7/-/xtt, section 
(re/x-, T/At-, re/i-vw) ; vorj-pM, thought (voe-w). 

-<r- (nom. -os, neuter with recessive accent) : TK-OS, gen. TeK-e(o-)-os, TCKOVS, 
child, from TCK- (TIKTW, bring forth) ; Au^-os, ?ot (Aa^-, Aay^aj/w, obtain 
by lot) ; i/'euS-os, Zie (ij/ev8-io, deceive). The suffix -co-- often expresses 
quality : ra^-os, swiftness ; (3d0-o<;, dqith ; v/>-os, width. 

1108. Instrument or Means is denoted by 

-rpo- (nom. -rpo-v, neuter) : dpo-rpo-v, plough (dpo-w, plough) ; o-K^Tr-rpo-i', 
staff (o-xryTT-Ttu, prop); \v-rpo-v, ransom (Av-, Av-<o); SidaK-rpo-v, teacher's 
hire (8i8ax-, BiSda-Kta, teach). They are recessively accented ; except 
AOU-T/OO-V, 6a(/i (Aov-o>, was/i). Compare the Latin -trum, as ara-<ru?. 


-rpd- (nom. -rpd, paroxytone) : fiaK-rpa., knfadinrj-trowjh (juiy-, px<ro-w, knead) ; 
v-<r-Tpa, scraper (i'-w, scrape). But often -rpd. denotes a place; us 
op\Yi-tr-rpa., place for dancing (op^e-opai) ; iraAou-o--iy>u, wrestling -ground 
i-u), wrestle). 


1109. Quality, Nouns expressing quality or the abstract idea of the 
adjective are formed from adjective-stems by the following suffixes : 

-id- (nom. -id or -ia, fern.): (ro<f>-ia, wisdom ((ro<^o-s, wise) ; ti>8aifj.ov-id, 

happiness (cvSai/Jnav) ; d\-i'jde-La for dA?7#ecr-ia, truth (aAr/^/s, true) ; 

ewo-ia, kindness (eiVoos, eiVoi's) ; ddavacr-ia, immortality (u#uVaTO-s). 

Compare the Latin -ia as in miseria, memoria. 
-r|T- (nom. -TT^S, fem.) : IO-O-TTJS (UTO-T;T-), equality (ro-s) ; ebrAd-TJjs 

(ciTrAo-TTjT-), simplicity (a7rAdo-s, cbrAous) ; 7ra^i;-T>;s (TTCIXI'-TT/T-), 

thickness (jra^u-s). Compare the Latin -s, -tdt-is, as veri-tds, veri-tdt-is, 

-orvvol- (nom. -o-w>;, fem.) : 8iKaio-<ri'vr), justice (Sixato-s, ,/iisO ; (rwt^po-eruvjy, 

discretion (o-oj^pwi', o-co^ov-, discreet). 
-a8- (nom. -ds, feminine abstract nouns of number); /tcw-ds (/nov-aS-) or ^-ds (^v-a5-), 

<Ae 7it<, unit;/, the. number one, from ^6po-s or els, ^i/-oj ; 5u-dj (5y-a5-), dyad, 

from 5tf-o ; rpt-ds, triad. 

1110. NOTE. Most of those with the nominative in -a are from adjectives in 
-os, but some are from adjectives of the third declension. Those in -ia are from 
adjectives in -i)S, gen. -e((r)-oj, -ovs, or from adjectives in -oos, -ow ; the final e or o of 
the stem unites with -id to form -eta or oid, as in d\?j0ia from d\-/iffri(ff)-ia, tCvoia. 
from fOvo-ta. But some compound adjectives in -T;J have corresponding nouns in 
la, as d-Tux^. unfortunate, d-rvxia., misfortune ; while some nouns waver between 
-a and -id, aa tv-irdOfia. or ev-iradid, comfort, from et'-Tro^s, comfortable. Adjectives 
in -e^j, gen. -fe(ff)-os, -^ous, drop one e of the stem ; as ev-Se^s (evdefff-), needy, tvSfta 
for V-5eei*, )t/w/. 

1111. NOTE. The feminine form in -a or -i; of some adjectives is occasionally 
used ;is an abstract noun. The accent is then thrown back. So f\0p-d, hatred, from 
f \dpos, -d, ~6i>, Itostile, hateful; O^p-^ri, warmth, from 0tp-fjAi, -17, -bv, warm. 

1112. NOTE. Accent. Abstracts in -id are paroxytone, as <ro<pld; those in -eta 
and -oid from adjectives in -17* and (-oos) -oi'$ are proparoxytone, as dXijfleta, tCvoia.. 
Those in -TT/S, -Trrr-o* are almost all paroxytone, as irax6-i~ns ; but a few are 
oxytone, ai d^ior^s. Those in -ffvvrj are paroxytone ; those in -ds arc oxytone. 

1113. Person Related. 1. The person related to or concerned with 
an object is denoted by these suffixes : 

-v- (nom. -evs, masc., oxytone) : Kpa/M-ev-s, potter, from Kepa/zos, potter's 
day, earthenware ; y panpar-ev-s, secretary (ypdpfjia, ; 
Trop6fj,-fv-<;, ferryman (TTO/D^/JCO-S, ferry) ; /)-v-s, priest (tepo-s, sacred). 

-ra- (nom. -TT/S, masc., paroxytone) : TO^O-TT/S, boicman, from TO^O-V, bow ; 
OIKC-TT/S, servant (O^KO-?, house) ; TroAf-rrys, citizen (7rdAi-s) ; o-Tparua-rqs, 
soldier (<rrpartd t army) ; vau-T7;s, sailor (vau-s) ; 8rfj.(a-rt]s, prisoner 
(oW/io-*, fetter). 
8. The feminine suffixes of the same meaning are : 


-n8- (nom. -TIS, paroxytone or properispomenon, corresponding to - 

otKe-Tts, house-maid; TroAi-ns, female citizen; Sccryuuo-Tis, female 2 risoner. 
-id- (nom. -eta, proparoxytone). This occurs in /2ao-i'Aeia, queen, and in 

ie/Dia, priestess. 
-18- (nom. -is, oxytone). In some feminines corresponding to masculines in 

-ei's ; as <ap//,aKei's, (f>apfjLa.KLS, dealer in charms or poisons ((^a/a/xaKov, 

drug). See also 1114. 
-wr<r6L- (uom. -wrcra, proparoxytone) : flaa-iX-ia-a-a, queen ; KtAicro-a for 

KiAiK-7/a (96, 1), Cilician, from KiAi, Ki'AiK-os ; 6ij<r<ra for QijT-ya, 

female serf, hireling, from $rys, (fyr-o's. 
-aivd- (nom. -aiva, recessively accented) ; corresponding mostly to masculines 

in -o>v ; a few correspond to masculines in -os. 

Ae-ouva, lioness (Aewv, Aeovr-os) Aa/c-aiva, Laconian (AaKtov, AaKa>v-os) 

TKT-atva, artisan (TKTWV, Te/crov-os) AvK-cuva, she-wolf (AvKos) 

1114. NOTE. The suffix -i5- (nom. -Is) belongs also to some feminines 
corresponding to masculines in -175 (not -TT/S) of the first declension ; as Ilepcris, 
Persia, Persian woman (H^pa-r)s), ZicvStt, Scythian (ZKtftfijs). Comjiounds of -TTWXTJJ 
are proparoxytone in the feminine ; as dpTo-TrwX-qs, dealer in bread, dpro-TroXis, bread- 
tcoman. Sometimes the suffix -iS- corresponds to other masculine forms ; as 
/cdTn/Xos, retail-dealer, fern. Kairr)\ts ; <j>v\a, guard, (f>v\a,KLs. 

1115. NOTE. The suffix -id- (nom. -/$) also appears adjectively ; as 7r6Xiy 
ffvfjLfjLaxis, an allied city (<r<j/, allied). 

1116. Patronymics, These denote descent from an ancestor and are 
formed from names of persons by means of the following suffixes : 

-8d- or -180- or less often -iaSd- (nom. -S^/s, -t'o^s, -laS^s, masculine and 


-8- or -18- or less often -10,8- (nom. -s, -ts, -tas, feminine and oxytone). 
-iov- or -lav- (rare and poetic, nom. -l(ov, masculine and paroxytone). 
-iwvcU or -ivd- (rare and poetic, nom. -iu>vrj or -ivr/, feminine and paroxytone). 
The suffixes -5d- and -8- are added to masculine stems in -a- which is then 
shortened to -a-, and to sterns in -10- which is changed to -ia-. The other stems add 
-i5d- and -iS- ; but -o- of the stem in the second declension is dropped, and -eu- of the 
third drops v. Some steins add -wtSd- and -iaS-. Only a few stems have -iov- 

son of Boreas, fern. Bope-y, gen. Boped-S-os from Bop^d-s 
Qt<TTid-dr)-s, son of 'J'hestius, ,, Qe<rnd-s, ,, 0ecmd-5-os 

Hpiap-iSri-s, so-n of Priam, Hpiafi-l-s, 
KfKpoTr-l8r)-$, son of Cecrops, ,, Kticpoir-t-s, 
Hi)\e-t8ri-s (Horn. Ib/Xe-Wij-s), son of Peleus, 

fern. Nyprj-l-s or Nijpe-i-r, 

fepipr-tdSij-s, son of Pheres, ,, I'epTjT-id-s, gen. <btpriT-td8-os 
Kpov-tuv, son of Cronos, gen. Kpov-tuv-os and Kpov-tov-oi, ,, Kp6o-s 

'A.Kpiff-n!>vri, daughter of Acrisius, ^A(cpiVto- 

7, daughter of Adrestus, " A.8p-q<rTo-* 



from 4>^pr;s ($fprjT-) 

1117. NOTE. The poets vary the form of the suffix according to the meter ; 
as (IlijXe-tti?-s) IlT/Xe-tSTj-s and in Homer IlijXij-idSrj-s and n^Xe-fow. The poets 
sometimes combine -Iov- and -i5d-, as 'laver-iov-tSti-t, son of Japetus ("IairT6-j) ; 



sometimes the stem drops or adds a syllable, as AewcoX-/5i;j, son of Deucalion 
(AfwaXiwi', AewraXiwi'-) ;$i}s, son of Lampus (\dfnro-s). Other irregularities 
sometimes occur ; as Aiayopidai from Aiay6pd-s. The combination -ata5?jj from -cues 
was always avoided, -a(i)t$i;s being used instead, as IleipcuSTjs (Horn.) from Ilfipatos. 
Sometimes -iSijt is used as a diminutive iu comic formations, as K\eirT-idi>i-s, 
child of a thief. 

1118. NOTE. Relationship is expressed in a few words by the suffixes -i5eo-, 
son of -- , and -tSea, daughter of - ; the nominatives end in (-i5eos) -tSoCj and 
(idta) -iSrj. Thus: Ovyarp-idous, daughter's son, Ovyarpi-Srj, daughter's daughter; 
d8c\<p-idovs, nephew, ddfX^idij, niece. 

1119. Gentiles. These denote a person as belonging to a particular 
country or nation or town, and are formed by means of the following suffixes : 

1. -cv- (nom. -eus, masculine and oxytone). 
-18- (nom. -is, feminine and oxytone). 
These two correspond to each other. 

Meya/i-ev-s, a Megarian, fern. Meya/a-ts (Mcyap-iS-), from Meyapa (pi.) 
4>(OKai-ei>s, a Phocaean, ^CDKCUIS (^UKOU-IO"-), <J?uKata 
'Eperpi-fv-s, an Eretrian, 'Epfrptd 

2. -rd- (with long preceding vowel, nom. -d-T^, -^-T^S, -f-Trjs, -W-TTJS, 

masculine and paroxytone). 
-rvS- (with long preceding vowel, nom. -a-rts, ->/-TIS, -t-ris, -w-rts, 

feminine and properispomenon). 
These two correspond to each other. 

s, of Tegea, fem. Teyea-ris (Tyeu-Ti8-) from Teyed 

/s, of Aegiiia, Atyi^-ns (Aiyii'T/nS-) Aiyiva 

'A/38r)pi-TT]<; t of Aldera, 'A^S^pi-ris (' A/38rjpl-ri.8-) "ApSrjpa (pi.) 

i]i/ceAt(j-T;s, Sicilian Greek, SixeAtw-Tis (2tKAtw-Ti8-) 2i/ceXtd 

1120. NOTE. The feminine form in -fs (-ld-os) may also denote a land or a 
dialect ; as ij AioXis, sc. yrj or x^P* -AeoHs ; sc. 7Xwff<ra or 5idXe/cros = <Ae Aeolic 

1121. NOTE. 'IraXtumu and SiKeXiwreu were Greeks settled in Italy and 
Sicily ; 'IraXoi and 2t*eXoi were the original inhabitants. 

1122. NOTE. For the gentile adjectives in -toj, -/c6s, -t6j, -rivbs, -av&s, -ivot, 
see 1140 and 1145. 

1123. Diminutives. These are formed from the steins of nouns by 
adding the following suffixes : 

1. -10- (nom. -LO-V neuter ; those of three syllables with the first syllable 
long by nature or position are paroxytone, all others are proparoxytone). 
TratS-toy, little child, from Trais (TraiS-) ye^vp-iov, little bridf/e, from ye<f>vpa 
KT/TT-IOV, little garden, KTJTTO-S d(nri8-iov, little shield, aoTT6S (dcnrtS-) 
Note that final o of the stem of the second declension is dropped. 
2. The suffix -10- sometimes appears in a strengthened form thus : 
-18-10- (nom. -i'8-io-v) ; irrjy-tStov, little spring (irriy-^) ; oix-fluov (I+r=i), 
little house (oi/a'd) ; v8iov (v + t = v), little swine (Cs, v-os) ; Ti\-iSiov 


(for Tet / \o--iSiov), little wall (rct^os) > Sawc/wr-iSuM', little Socrates 
(^WKpa.Ttj'S, 2a)K^aTe<T-). 
-ap-io- (nom. -ap-io-v) : Tra.i8-a.piov, little child, Kvv-dpior, little dog 

-vSp-io- (uoin. -v8p-Lo-v, rare) : /xeA-vo'/Hov, fo'Me song (/xeAos, /ieAe<r-). 
-vXX-io- (nom. -uAA-io-v, rare): oV#-vAAiov, little flower (dv0os, dvflecr-). 

Observe that -e<r- of the stem is dropped. 
3. -IO-KO- (nom. -wr/co-s, masc.) : 7rou8-io-KOS, young boy (Trais, TrcuS-) ; 

di>0pa)7r-i<TKO<s, little man (di'$p<o7ros). 
-WTKO,- (nom. -TK?7, fern.): TrcuS-Mr/oj, young girl. 

1124. NOTE. Among the many other suffixes sometimes used as diminutives 
are these : -i5- or -f5- (nom. -ts or -ts, fern.), as Ovpts (Ovpid-), little door, from Ovpa ; 
vTjtr/s (vrifflS-), islet, from vycros ; -tdev- (nom. -tSetfs) to denote the young of animals, 
as der-i5ei's, young eagle, from der6s (but also i;i5ei''s, grandson) ; -- O.KVO., -tx v &> -I'XXtS- 
(nom. -iXXtj) ; several others are seen in irid-aKv^ from irlOos, wine jar ; iro\-ixwi 
from TroXis ; a.Ka.v6-v\\is from d/cay^/s, finch. 

1125. NOTE. Some words have the form, but not the meaning, of diminu- 
tives ; as 0-qp-iov, wild animal, from 0i^>, which is less used in prose ; T& piv-la, 
nostrils (pis, plv-bs, nose}. 

1126. NOTE. The diminutives not only may express smallness of size, hut 
often they denote something pretty or beloved, or even contemptible ; as, irarpidtov, 
paya ; liUKparidiov, Socky dear! (Aristoph.). 

1127. Place is expressed by the following suffixes : 

1. -10- (nom. -lo-v, neuter). This suffix may have two forms. 

(a) -T)//3-io-v. From names of persons in -rr/p (most of them older forms 
of nouns in -rrjs). Compare the Latin -tor-ium, as oratorium. 

a.Kpoa-Ti'ip-iov, auditorium, from (aK/ood-n/p) aK^od-n/s, hearer 
8iKao"-T^/D-iov, court of justice, (8t/ccum/p) St/coumys, judge 
(6) -eio-v from -e-io-v. 

Kovpf-io-v, barber's shop, from Kovpfv-s, barber 
Aoye-to-v, place for speaking, Aoyo-s, speech 
fjiovcrf-io-v, seat of the muses, /xowa, muse 

2. -wv- (nom. -we, masc.). 

dv8p-wv, apartment for men (dvi'jp, dv8/3-os, man) 
ITTTT-WV, horse-stable (tTTTro-s, Aorse) 

otv-wv, wine-cellar (o?vo-s, mw) 

d/u,7rA-uJV, vineyard (a/ATre Ao-s, fct'ne) 

3. UJVLO. (norn. -wvtd, fern.) : poSamd, rose-bed. 

1128. N<ITK. Those in -r-tipiov and -eiov sometimes denote a means; as 
iror-fipiov, drinking cup ; rpo<pelov, pay for rearing ; see also the adjectives in -TI^MOJ 
and -etoj. 

1129. Other suffixes for derivative nouns can be seen in words like: KoriXi;-ct', 
56i/-os, cup-like hollow (/corriXTj, cup) ; Krnn-ts, -t5-oj, greavc (Kv/i/j.r), leg, thigh) ; 
vcotX-ds, -dS-oj, a hollow (oiX6s, hollow). 



1130. -o-, -d- (noiu. -0-5, -y) or -u, -o-v). A very common suffix. 

AoiTr-o 1 ?, Aoi?r-7y, AOITT-O-V, remaining (AttV-a), AOITT-) 
KttK-o-s, KaK-r'i, KO.K-O-V, bad (root KO.K-) . 

(ro</>-o-s, (ro<-?y, (ro(f>-6-v, wise (root <ro<-) 

-IKO- (nom. -IKO-S, -i/o/, -IKOV, oxytone). The primitives with this suffix 
oftener have -T-IKOS. It denotes fitness or ability. 

dpx-iKO-s, ./(< to ru/e (ap^-w) /3Aa7r-TtKo-s, aWe ?o harm (/?Aa7rra>) 

y/>a</>-iKo-s, rtWe fo w/^e or rfrato (ypa.<f>wi) awr^-riKo-s, capable of feeling (d< 
^ /or action, practical vo/xai) 

See also 1140. 

-to-- (nom. -775, -es, mostly compounds). 

cra<-rys, cfear (root <ra<-) i^fv8-t'i<s, false (^er6-o/xai, Zt'e) 
-|>v- (nom. -/xwv, -/xoi', paroxytone). 

I/, mindful (p-va-, /JUJJ-VI'/O-KW, remember) 

v, suffering, daring (rAa-, -T\r]-v, endured?) 

-w- (nom. -v?, -eta, -r, added only to roots). 

ra^-i'-s, swift (TO-X'I TU\-OS, swiftness) evp-v-<s, wide (fvp-, tvp-os, width) 
>/8-v-s, sweet (?)8-, r/S-o/xai, fte pleased) 

1131. XOTK. Participles are also primitives (suffixes -VT-, -or-, -pevo-, 602, 
603, 604) ; so also verbal adjectives in -TO-S and -reo-s (605). 


1132. -to- (num. -lo-s, -iu, -to-v or -10-5, -to-v). The most common 
Biifiix. It expresses that ivhich belongs or pertains in any way to a person or 
thing. With a preceding vowel of the stem, it becomes -aio-s, -eto-s, -oio-s, 
-yo-s, -vio-s. 

ovpdv-io-s, heavenly (oiy>avo-s, heaven) Oepeio-s, of the summer (6fpos, 6epe<r-, 

TrAoAno-s, wealthy (irAovros, wealth) summer) 

Kadiipio-s, cleanly (Ka0ap6-s, clean) ySao-i'Aeto-?, kingly (/3acriAus, -e-a>s) 

<f>L\io-<i, friendly (<t>i\o-$, dear) ai'SoTo-s, venerable (at'Sois, at^oo--, 

StVaio-s, .>M< (5tK7/, right) shame) 

fiyo/>ato-s, forensic (dyopd, forum) i^pyo-s, heroic (?yp<j-s, 17/310-05, Aero) 

OI'KCIO-S, domextic (OIKO-S, house) Tn'i\wo-<:, a cubit long (TH/XV-S, cwfti<) 

From the neoter of the adjectives in -etos come the nouns of place or means 
in -etoj' (1127, 6; 1128). 


Gentiles are often formed with this suffix. 

'AO-qvaio-s, Athenian ('Affyvcu, Athens) Xios for Xi-to-s, Chian (Xio-s) 
MIXijo-io-s, Milesian 

lloo. NOTE. The ending -aios is found in some adjectives from stems which 
do not end in a ; as xepaailo?, from or of dry land (x^p<ro-j). We also find -ieuos ; as 
raXavTicuos, worth a talent (ra.\avrov) ; ffKoratos and ffKonaios, dark (cr/tiroy, darkness). 

1134. NOTK. Accent. Those in -ios not preceded by a vowel of the stem are 
mostly proparoxytone. Those in -aios, -oios, -tpos are generally properispomena. 
Important exceptions Oxytone are: yfpai6s and -ftipaibs, old; Kpa.ra.i6s, strong; 
TraXcujs, ancient (from adv. TT 6X0.1). Proparoxytone are : /3/euoj, violent ; Sixain, just ; 
Set'Xeios, wretched; ndraios, foolish ; v5/uaios, customary (v6/j.os). Of those in -etos 
(omitting ct^eios, wealthy, and poetic 0arei6s), many are properispomena, but most 
of them are proparoxytone. 

1135. -to- (num. -eo-s, contr. -ovs, 294). This denotes material. 

-s, xpv<rov i s,golden()(pv(r6-<s,gold) Atveo-s, Xivovs, of linen (\ivov, linen) 

The older form for -eo- is -eto- ; as in xpixreio-s (poetic) ; Ke/)a/iios or 
= xepafjiovs, earthen (/ce/aa/zos, potter's earth). This -eio- is therefore 
the ordinary -10-, the e belonging to the stem. 

1136. -tvo- (nom. -tvo-s, proparoxytone). This also denotes material. 
\i6-tvo-s, of stone (At^o-s) i;A-ivo-s, wooden (v\o-v) 

But a.v6p&ir-u>os = av6puireios, human (&i>6pwiros). 

NOTE. The same suffix -tc6-s (oxytone) is used for adjectives expressing 
time; as vvKTep-iv6s, by night; (ap-iv6s, vernal; xfff<r-iv6s, belonging to yesterday. 
It also expresses likeness, full of, and similar ideas ; as ireS-ii>6s, like a plain, flat 
(irediov, plain) ; 6pe-ivfa for 6pe((r)-iv6s, mountainous (6pos, 6pe<r-, mountain). 

1138. -vr- (nom. -eis, -eo-cra, -ev, 320). These denote fullness, and are 
mostly poetic. 

Xa/w-eis, graceful (\api-s, \apiT-, grace) 6A?J-ts, ivoody (vXrj, wood, forest) 

1139. -Ttpo-, -rare- (nom. -re/)os, -raros). 
-lov-, -ICTTO- (nom. -ftav, -to-ros). 

These form comparatives and superlatives (337, 350). Those in -repos and -raros 
are added to the stem of the positive and are therefore denominative ; while those in 
-luv and -iffros are primitive, the suffix being added to the root. Several poetic 
adjectives in -repoj have no comparative force at all ; as dypb-rtpo-s, wild (living in 
the country), from dyp&s ; dptv-repo-s, living in mountains. 

1140. -IKO- (nom. -t/co-s, oxytone). It denotes fitness or ability ; some- 
times relation, like -ios. This suffix may also have the form -KO- or -UKO-. 

If the stem-word ends in -tos, the suffix is -a/c6$ ; stems in -t- and some others add 
K!K ; stems in -ev-, gen. -e-ws, have -t/c6j, and with preceding e make -etc6s (Vut 
/3cKTiXei5s makes j3a<riX-i/c6s) ; stem-words in -et-os and --a add -*c6s (but ffirovtie'cs, 
spondee, makes <T7rov8et-a/c6s) ; the stem-words ending in -at-oj have -tcos, tlie 
preceding t often dropping out and the a becoming d. 

/za$*;/AaT-iKo-, able to learn (jj.d6^fj-a, 8t8<to-KaA-tKo-s,^< to teach (Si 
[j.!i.@t'i[ji:t.T-os, thing learnt) teacher) 


/ioi<r-iKo-, musical (jMiwa, muse) AeKeAci-Ko-s, Decclean 

-s,icoMints/i(yi'v-r;,ywai/c-os) Decelea) 

-s, bodily (o-wpx, o-w/zar-os, Kepa/xe-iKo-s, earthen (Kepafievs, potter) 

'Axeu-iKO-s or 'Ax-iKO-s ('Axa'Q-s, 

, natural (<j.Vt-s, nature) Achaean) 

feminine (0v)Au-s, female) Kopiv6i.-aK6-<;,Corinthian(K.opiv6-to-<; t 

s, .Daric (Ad/3to-s, Darius) Corinthian. 

1141. -r^pio- (nom. --ny/no-s, proparoxytone). These are from nouns in 
-TJ;/> or in -r>/ (1099) j but sometimes the corresponding noun does not 

a-<D-T^p-io-<s ) preserving((rw-Tijp,saviour) TT(i(r-Tr]p-i.o-<s,persuasive(from probable 

form TTfurryp, irtiOu, persuade) 

1142. -8r- (nom. -wo^s, -w8es). This suffix is added to noun stems 
and usually denotes fullness, sometimes similarity (like -o-et'S^s). 

s, grassy (Troid, grass) ai/xaT-o^rys, //Z o/ blood (af/ia,at/iaT-os) 

^ sandy (^a/^/jtos, sand) o-^f)T;K-w6jys, wasp-like (CT"</>?/^, tcasp) 

The suffix -wSr/s is probably not contracted from -o-eiST/j, as is commonly sup- 
posed ; the latter is derived from rb eiSoj, form, shape. 

1143. -Xo- (nom. -A.o-s, mostly oxytone). 

1. The primitives are mostly active in meaning. 

Sei-Ao-s, timid (Set-, <5e6Wa, /ear) ^iS-w-Ao-s, parsimonious (</>'8-o/zai, 
<TTp((3-\6-<s, twisted (<TTf<t>-(a, turn) spare) 

T/3o;(-a-A.o-s, running (rpe^-w, rim) aTrar-^-Xo-s, deceitful (dirarrj, deceit) 

er/c-e-Ao-s, /like (IK-, eotxa, am HAe) voo-->;-Ao-s, stci (voo-os, disease) 

2. -aXto- (nom -Aeo-s, paroxytone). This suffix expresses quality. 
d/OTT-aAfo-s, grasping, attractive (apv- Kp8-a\e-o-s,shrewd,gainful(TbKfp8o<;, 

a^w, etz) gain) 

1144. -vo- (nom. -vo-s, mostly oxytone). The primitives are usually 
passive in meaning. 

Sci-vo-s, terrible (Bet-, SeoWa, fear) aAyei-vo-s for dXyr-vo<;, painful (TO 
(rruy-vo-s, hated (o-Tvy-eio, ^ui(e) aAyos, pain) 

iriO-a-vo-s, persuasive (trid-, TTCI'^W, o/>t-vd-s, mountainous (o/sos, opea--, 
persuade) mountain) 

1145. Gentile adjectives in -avh, -i/i/ij, -tKOj, often used substantively, were 
only formed from names of places lying outside of Greece, those in -Ivos are used 
almost wholly of Italic and Sicilian Greeks; as ' AyKvp-avb*, of Anci/ra ("AyKi'pa) ; 
K.vfris-r)vfa, ofCyzicene (K.6fr.K-os) ; TapavT-ivot, Tarentine (Tdpctj, Tdpair-oj, Tarentum). 

1146. -po- (nom. -po-s, mostly oxytone). The primitives are generally 
active in meaning. 

e'x0-po-s, hated, hostile (f\0-(i), hate) d>Oove-po-<;, envious (<j>96vo-<;, envy) 
T-pd-s, bright (Aa/z7r-w, shine) \virr)-p6-<i, painful (Ai-rrTj, pain) 


1147. -(>-, -IJAO-, -o-ifio- (nom. -/to-s, -ip-o-s, -o-ijuo-s). 

The suffix -fj.o- is rare and occurs in primitives. The adjectives in -t^toj may be 
derived from nouns or from the root ; those in -<TI-/J.<K originally came from nouns in 
-cri-s, but -cri/uoy came to be used as an independent suffix and was applied to verb- 
stems. The dissyllables in -yuoj are oxytone, nearly all the others are proparoxytone. 
0ep-(d>-s, warm (0{p-u, warm) vior-i^os, belonging to a return (vfarro-s, 

yudx-'Aws, warlike (/xdx-o/uai, fw-x-'n) return) 

rp6<p-inos, nourishing (rpty-w, rpo$--t\) xP 1 ?' ''-/"' ^ -useful (xpfj-ffi-s, use) 

f5wd-ijuos, eatable (5-, fd-wd-r/, food) lirird-fft-[j.os, fit for riding (lirirdofji.a.i, ride) 

Ko.t-ffi-ft.os, combustible (/caO-0-i-j, burning) 


1148. Adverbs are formed by means of the following suffixes : 
-s. This is the most common suffix. 

It is added to the root of adjectives of the second declension, and to the stem of 
adjectives of the third declension. For examples, see 357. 

-8<5v, -a8<$v, -T]8<5v, -8Vjv, -ASr\v ; and rarely -8a, -ivSTjv, -v8a, -8h]v and -8wx. 
These express manner and are added to roots or to noun-stems. 

'Ava-fpav-ddv, openly (dva-<paiv<>), (pav-) ; 6/j.o-6v/j.-ad&v, with one accord (bfi.6-0vfjios, 
of one mind) ; Kvi>--rjd6v, like a dog (K<LH>)V, KW-6s, dog) ; Kptij3-8r)v, secretly (Kptiir-ru, 
conceal) ; <firop-d8-qv, scatteredly (ffireipw, (rwep-, sow, scatter) ; nly-8a, confusedly 
(fjiyvvfjii, yut-y-, mix) ; ir\ovT-iv$T)v, according to wealth (TrXoCros) ; tcpvirr-ivda, 
hide-and-seek (-ivda used of games) ; ffx f -^"n v t near (crx^Sios, near, from <rxe-$bv, near, 
root ffX f ~) i Ka.Ta-\o<pd-8eia, on the neck (/card \6tpov). 

-5 (= -/c-s). Expresses manner and is added to roots and to noun-stems. 

'Ava.-fii%, confusedly (dva-fdyvv/u, ply-) ; iri;, with the Jist (wvy-/j.j, fist) ; 
irap-a\\d^, alternately (7ra/>-a\\d<r<rw, irap-aXXay-, change). 

tl, -f, -u Those compounded with a- (poet, v-q-) privative, iras, or avrbs, and those 
in -ffT-l from verbs in -<ffu and -/fw, express manner. Others are temporal or local. 

IlavSrinei (iras, Sij/ttos), in a body ; d/j.axfi (d-, fj.dx"t), with resistance ; vijiroivel 
(vr;-, iroivTfi), with impunity; Horn. dva.Lfi.wrt (dv-, af/ua), without bloodshed; dffTaurl 
(&-, ffrdfa), in floods ; 6/j.o/j.affri (from 6vofj.dfa), by name; eXX^nrrf (from eXA^ifw), 
iu Greek ; Trpwi Att. irpv, early ; Ayx 1 -, near. 

-OLKIS. This is added to the root of numerals and pronouns to express how many 
times ; as 8fK-dKis, ten times, iroXX-d/cu, many times. 

-is occurs in 5/s, twice, rpit, thrice; Horn. dfjL<p-ovd-is, on the ground 
ground) ; Horn. XiKpupk, sideways. 

-8is occurs in a lew words ; as Epic x<v-&s, to the ground ( = xaMfr) 
in turn. 

rt (Aeolic -ra, Doric -KO) is added to the stem of pronouns to express time when; 
as fiXXo-re, at another time ; &-TC, when. 

-61, -0v, -Sc (-fe), -<rc, see 284. 

-i, -<ru (locatives), see 285. 

1149. NOTE. For the adverbial use of the dative and accusative of ordinary 
nouns, adjectives, and pronouns, see the Syntax. 

1150. NOTE. Other adverbial formations are : -775, as ^j, in order ; -oi', as 
in d-yx ^ near ; 6/noO, together ; TroO, where ? -oi, as iroi, wii it her if -w, aa TTUI, yet ; 
6irtffu, behind; dvwrtpu, higher ; -ov, as ir\yfflov, near; -a (oftener in poetic 
adverbs), as rdxo., quickly, in Attic prose, perhaps (rax''?, quick) ; ffd<pa, 
((rajr/is) ; -oi, as ^/cds, far; -i^(s), as tv0i>(i), straight to ; -rjv and -a?, as 

just now, \iav, too much. 


1151. NOTE. In some adverbs -ax- is inserted after the root ; as 7roXX-ax-oO, 
vwny times, in many places ; dXX-ax-fl, elsewhere; and some others. 

1152. NOTE. Of the different forms of adverbs, those in -T?J nnd -ov are old 
genitives ; datives are those in -77 and -a (see the adverbial dative iu the Syntax) ; 
those in -, -*, -t, -<ri are old locatives or datives ; those in -u or -ws are probably 
old ablatives ; those iu -r/v or -av are accusatives of nouns or adjectives in actual 
use or from old stems. 


1153. Denominative verbs are those formed from the stems of nouns or 
adjectives. The following are their principal terminations : 

1. -dw. Verbs in -aw are formed mostly from words of the first 
declension, and denote to do or to be or to /wire that which is expressed by 
the primitive. Some lack the corresponding primitive. 

rtytott, honour (rip.?), Tiynd-, honour) roA/ud(i>, be bold, dare (rdA/ia, boldness) 
yoau), icail (yoos, wail) KoyMacu, wear lowj hair (KG/AT/, hair) 

For verbs in -iaa> and -aw expressing desire or a morbid condition, 
see 1155. 

2. -Iu. Verbs in -ew are formed from words of all declensions, and 
express a condition or an activity. 

<f>L\ia, love (<i'Aos, friend) a-TpaTijyf(j),lead,amgeneral((TTpaT^y6g) 

dirci\(a, threaten (uTreiA?;, threat) reAeo), finish (reAos, reAeo--, end) 

fv8aifj,ovf(a, unhappy (fv8ai/JMV, happy) drv^cta, am unlucky (drv;(?/s, drv\(r-) 

Those from stems in -r- drop -co--, as in reAew and drvxecu. Sometimes 
they have older forms in -ctta as Epic rcAct'co from original TeAr-j/w. 

3. -<Jw. Verbs in -oto are nearly all formed from words of the second 
declension. They denote to cause or to make. Several lack the corresponding 
primitive, as dpow, plough. 

X/nVos, gild (xpwtJs, gold) Sr^Aow, make clear (S>}Aos) 

f\cv6epo<a t make free (eAev'^epos) fypioia, jtunish (fafiia, penalty) 

4. -wo. Verbs in -evo> were first formed from nouns in -ei% afterwards 
from words of all the declensions. Most of them express to be, some to do. 

^8ao-tAi'o>, am king, rule (/JacriAevs) drjpfina, hunt (Bijpa.) 

(jtovfvW) am a murderer, murder (<^>ovev5) ro^evw, shoot with the bow (TOOV) 

/3ov\tvu>, take counsel (/3ov\nj) d\r)0{r<a, speak the truth (d\.i)8r)$ t true) 

5. -Aj and -(J. These were at first formed from actual lingual or (less 
often) palatal stems ; as f\iri<a, hope, for eXiriS-yu) (eArt's, eATrt'8-os) ; o-ra^w, 
drop, for oray-j/w (o-ray-wi/, drop). But many were afterwards formed from 
other stems by analogy. They express action ; those in -iw or -ia from 
proper names express an adoption of manners, language, opinions, or politics. 


SiKufo, judge (SiKr), justice) iXAnvtte, speak Greek, live like a Greek 

ovo/zau>, name (6Vo//.a, name) SW/H^W or 8<i>pidw, favor, or live like 

e/jy:ib/za6, work (epyov, work) the Dorians 

i;(ri>xw, be quiet (^cn^os) <iAi7r7rt'to, favor Philip's party 

7rAouTia>, make rich (TrAoirros, riches) 

Several in -rdfu> are intensive ; as plirrdfa, throw about (ptirru, throw). 
G. -atvco and -vvw from -av-yta and -vv-y<a. These are derived from 
various steins. They are for ihe most part causative in meaning. 
cr^pouVto, ijladden (fv<f>p(ov, cheerful) 7rruii>, ripen, make ripe (TTCTTWV) 
(r>//iaiVu>, siijnifij (o-^a, si</?t) i^uyw, sweeten (rySus, sweet) 

^aAeTratVo), am angry (^aAeTros, /lard, owa>, sharpen (ous, sharp) 

1154. Endings of less frequent occurrence are : -fw and -<ta, as Epic /co^fa, 
make dust, from /com ; poetic yrjpvta, utter, from yrjpvs, voice, sound ; -^i"w, only in 
Tri^fw, press; -<H"w, as SecrTrofw, awi master (SecrTroTijy) ; -- tffw, as epirvfa, crawl along, 
from Zpirw, creep; -- eivw, from -ev-yta, as Honi. dXeet^w = dXeo/iai, avoid; -- fvw, 
from -tv-yw, as Horn. 6ptvu = 6pvv/jLi, arouse ; -aipu from -ap-yu, as rfK/j,aipofiai, mark 
out, from r^KfjMp, mark ; -etpw from -ep-yu, as poet. 1/j.tipu, desire, from jynepoj, 
desire; -- t'pw from -ip-yw, only otxTtpw, pity, from o/KT/>6s, pitiable; -- (ipw from -vp-yw, 
as fj.apropofj.a.1, call to witness, from /mdprvs, (ndprvp-os, witness ; -dXXto from -aX-i/w, as 
cuKciXXw, flatter, from ot'/caXos, flatterer ; -AXw from -t\-yu, as d7"yAXw, announce, 
from 577^X09; -iXXw from -i\-yu, as TroiKiXXw, variegate, from iroudXos, variegated; 
--- 6XXw from -oX-?/w, aoXXw, <?<r?i quickly (al6\os, quick moving) ; -- i''XXw from -v\-y<i), 
as ffTpwfjivXXb), babble, from trTpw/j.v\os, talkative. 

llOO. Desideratives. 1. These express desire and end in -<re and -lAw (a few 
in -d). Those in -ireiu are formed from the theme of verbs as it appears in the 
future ; those in -idu and -eiw are from nouns. 

ytXa-ffeiw, desire to laugh (yeXdw, laugh) ffTpaT-qyidw, desire to be general (ffTpa.TT)y6s) 
}roXffj.-rj-fffiii), desire to wage war (woXe/Aeu, ftavardu, desire to die (Oavarbs, death) 

wage war) <pot>dw, have murderous intent (<f>6t>os, 

fj.a6rjT-Ldti>, desire to be a pupil (/oa^T/r^y, murder) 


2. Some in -idia and -du denote a bodily affection ; as 6<p8aX/uud<i), have sore eyes 
(6<j>9aXfjdd) ; Ppa.yx.dw, am hoarse (fipayxos, hoarse). 

1156. Most of those in -&<r<r<j) or -OJTTW denote a morbid condition ; as 

Tv<f>Xw<T(Tti}, am blind (n/0X6j, blind). 

1157. Intensives or Frequentatives. These are few, and nearly all poetic. They 
are formed from primitive verbs. 

1. Some end in -rdu ; as vaie-rdw, dwell, from valu ; several in -rdfw, as 
plir-rdfa, throw about, from ptirru, throw; a few end in -arptw, as ftu-ffrptu, call 
out, from podu. 

2. Some repeat the stem, at the same time changing the stem-vowel ; as /JMI/JMU, 
pant for, from (FJM-), seek ; fj.opfj.6pu, dash, from ftPpu, flow ; Trop<pi>pu t boil (of 
the sea), from <f>fipu, mix ; voiirvtita, puff, from TTC^W (TTVV-), breathe. 

1158. For the so-called inceptive or inchoative verbs in -<TKU, see 657. 

1159. Often several verbs with different meanings are formed from the same 
noun ; as 5oiA6w, enslave., SovXtvw, am a xlarc, from 5oP\os, tttntj troXffdu and Mp.c' 
iroXe,u:'fo), wage war, iroXc/j.Jw, make hostile, from n-j 



1160. The treatment of compound words embraces: (1) the first part : 
(2) the last part; (3) the accent; (4) the meaning. Most compounds are 
made up of two parts, and the principles which apply to these, hold also in 
case of unusual compounds of three or more parts. 


1161. First part a noun or adjective. 1. When the first part of a 
compound is a noun or adjective, its stem alone is used. 

2. In stems of the first declension final -d- is usually changed to -o- 
before a consonant, and is usually dropped before a vowel. 

3. Stems of the second declension usually drop -o- before a vowel. 

4. Stems of the third declension generally add -o- before a consonant. 
t Hfj.epo-8poiJ.o<s, day-runner (i^uepd), Si/co-ypa^os, composer of law-speeches 

(81*77) a\\6-Trov<s, storm-footed (aeAAa) ; Kf(j>a\-a\yijs, causing headache 
(xe^aXiy) ; A.oyo-y/3a<os, writer of speeches (Aoyos) ; X/ ) " 7 ?y s chorus-leader 
(XPs) ; crtafj.aTo-<f>vX.a, bodyguard (<royia, o-eu/zar-) ; i)(6v-o-(f>dyo<;, fish- 
eating (tx^~ s ) > <wi-o-Aoyos, natural philosopher (<ixri-s). 

1162. NOTE. The exceptions to the above rules are very numerous. Stems of 
the first declension sometimes have -a- or -17- instead of -o- ; as dyopd-i>6/j.os, clerk of 
the market (dyopd) ; x 1 7-0fy )os > linger of libations (x^) ! fVMP*' 1 N fated from 
birth (po'ipa, fate). Compounds of yrj, earth, have yeu- in Ionic and Attic, and yd- 
in Doric ; as yew-^r/wjs, Doric yd-/jLtrpds, land-measurer. Stems of the second 
declension occasionally have -17- instead of final -o-, as Aa^-/36Xos, deer-slaying 
(t\a<t>o-s, deer}. Some words of the Attic second declension have -w- instead of -o-, 
as vew-ic6pos, Jiaving charge of a temple (vtws). A final stem-vowel is often retained 
when the second part of the compound originally had digamma, as Horn. 
= Attic dijfuovpyh, artisan; and -o- is not elided when the second part is -o^os (from 
x w )> hut is contracted with o to ou, as (ffrtovxos from e<mo-oxos, guarding the house 
(ito-Tid, hearth), paftdovxot, carrying a staff (p<i/35os). 

1163. NOTE. Stems in -t- and -v- sometimes do not add -o- before a con- 
sonant ; as iroXi-irbpOiji, sacker of cities ; i]du-\ayos, of sweet speech. So vain, ship, 
and /3oCs, ox or cow, are usually vav- and /3oi>- ; as i -K\r)pos, master of a ship ; 
/3oi>-*c<SXoj, cow-herd. The stem of 7rs (WO.VT-], all, generally appears as vav-, seldom 
as iravr-o- or wavr- ; as wdi'-cro^os or ird<r-<ro0oy, all wise ; iravro-irbpos, full of 
resources ; iravr-apxos, all-ruling ; wavoupyos, villainous, is from irav-o-tpyos. 
Sometimes neuter stems in -(J.O.T- (nom. -pa) drop -T- or -ar- ; as 6vo/jia-K\iT6s, of 
famous name, ai/j.-0-ppa-rft, bleeding freely (afyta, afycar-oj, blood). Stems in -tff- 

(nom. -T;J or -oj) generally drop -cff- and add -o- ; as \f/tv8-o-ndpTvs, false (^ei'5i)s) 
witness; dvO-o-<f>6p<n, bearing , flowers (&v0os). So also stems in -a<r- ; as Kpf-o-<f>dyot, 
flesh-eating (/rp^aj). But some poetic forms retain -fa- or -aa- ; as ffaK(ff-<j>6pw, 
shield-bearing, <re\a<r-<t>6pos, light-bringing; some add -t- after -tff-, as Ttixeff-i-irX-rtT-rp, 
approacher of walls (perhaps -cr-i- is here dat. pi.). 

1164. NOTE. Sometimes -a- or -77- takes the place of -o- with stems of the 
third declension ; as irod-a-viirTT/ip, foot-pan, i<p-i>i-ij>5pos, wearing a sword. In some 
cases -t- is added to stems of the third declension ; as wp-l-irvovs, fire-breathing. 

1165. NOTE. The first part of some compounds is a genitive, or dative, or old 


locative ; as pewcr-ot/cos, ship-house., Sopt-KTTjros, icon by the spear, ., 
traversed by ships, 6pei-^drr)s, mountain ranging, 63oi-7r6/>os, way-farer (bdoi- locative, 
or from 65). 

1166. First part a verb-Stem. Compounds whose first part is a verb- 
theme (as in English break-water, make-shift, go-between) are rare in prose. 

1. The present stem, or the theme, remains unchanged before a vowel ; 
and adds -e- or -o- or -i- before a consonant. 

Ilt#-apxos, obedient to command ; e'A-av8pos, man-slaying (eiXov, eA-) ; 
8aK-f-Ov[jio<s, biting the heart ; AiTr-o-ra^id, desertion of one's post ; a-p^-i- 
TCKTcov, master-builder. 

2. The verb-stem has -cri- (-or- before a vowel) joined to it. 
Ari-crt-TTovos, freeing from toil (aor. e'Avcra) ; eyep-o-t-yua^os (eyep-, eyeipco), 

battle-stirring ; crrpei/'i-SiKos (crrp<-), perverting justice ; Trav-tr-are/ios, calm- 
ing the wind; 7rAr/-t7T7ros (TrA^y-), horse-lashing. Several insert e before 
-<TI- or -o~- ; as eAK-e-crt-TreTrAo?, trailing the robe ; <ep--o--/?tos, life-bearing. 

1167. NOTK. In the compounds without -<n- or -cr-, only primitive stems are 
used. Stems of verbs in -tw and -dw (as /u<7ew and VIKO.U) drop e and a. Hence 
fuff(o)- and VIK(O)-, not /utcre- and vlica-, in composition ; as uur-dvOpuTros, hating 
mankind ; fj.lff-6-ywos, woman-hater, i>iK-6-fiov\os, prevailing in the Council. 

1168. First part a preposition or adverb. Only the regular euphonic 
changes here occur. Prepositions drop a final vowel before a vowel, and 
irpo may contract o with a succeeding o or e to ov. 

3 A7ro-/3aAAo>, throw away (aTrd, /3aAAa>) ; aTr-e^w, hold off (ciTro, 
ey-^ew, pour in (eV, xea>) ; Trpo-ex<0 or Trpov^fa, hold before (irpo, 
<j)pov8o<s, gone (irpo, 68ov) ; Tre/atp-pew, flow around (Trepi, pew) ; tiet-Aoyi'ti, 
continual talking; cv-irpeTn')<s ) fitting; TraAi'A-Aoyos, saying again (TraAiv, 
again). Rarely 77 takes the place of a final vowel of a preposition, or is 
inserted after it; as eV-ry-/3oAos, having attained, fitting; virfp-rj-<)>avos, 

1169. First part an inseparable particle. The following particles 

are inseparable and are used only in composition : 

1. TJJU-, half, Lat. semi-; as i}/zt-^eo?, demigod; rjp.i-fJLav>'i<i t half-mad; 
r}/xi'-<$os, half-cooked. 

2. 8v<r-, ill, un-, mis- (opposed to ev, well), denotes difficulty or dis- 
agreeableness ; as oY<7--/2aTO?, hard to pass (opposed to ev-fiaTos) ; 6W-p.a0?ys, 
hard (or slow) to learn (opposed to ci5-yna.6^s) ; 8ixr-yap;os, ill-weddeil ; in 
Homer Awr-Trapis, ill-starred Paris. 

3. A- privative (&v- before a vowel) has the force of a negative, like 
Latin in-, English un- or -less; as a-7rcus, chiklless ; a-^aros, inaccessible 
(ftaiviD, (3a-) ; a-Ti/ios, unhonoured ; av-aios, unworthy; dv->yKeo-Tos % , 
incurable (aKeo/zai) ; av-atSvy?, shameless. The form a- often stands before 
vowels, especially if the following part originally had digaimna ; as 
a-(/)oivos, wineless ; a-(/)ry5tys, unpleasant; a-o:rAos or av-o7rAos, unarmed; 
a-virvo?, sleepless. Sometimes a- contracts with a following vowel, as 


from d-Ku>i', unwilling. For a- copulative and a- intensive, eee 1170. For 
v- from civ- in Epic poetry, see 4 below. 

4. vtj- (Lat. w), an Epic negative prefix ; as vri-iroivos, unavenged. In many 
cases the -77- probably belongs to the second part, and v- is from dv- ; as v-yutpTfy, 
unerring (duaprdvw, d/xapr-). 

5. dpi- and 4pi-, poetic intensive prefixes ; as dpl-yvuros, well-known, fpi-K\'S^, 
very glorious. 

6. d-yx- (compare d^yav, ??(/, too), an Epic intensive prefix ; as dya-K\vrfa, highly 
renowniul ; dy--/ivup, veri/ manly. 

7. Ja- or So,-, an Epic intensive prefix ; as fd-#eos, most divine; dd-a-Kios, thickly 
shaded. Of these fa- is really the Lesbian form of did, and da- is evidently from 
<j-5a- = fa-. 

1170. NOTE. Another prefix is d- copulative, used like the Latin con-, ami 
denoting union or likeness; as d-Kolrr)s, fern. i!-/totTis, bed-frJloir ; d-rdXavros, of 
equal weight. An d- intensive is found in several words ; as d-rev^y, wry tight, 
stubborn (rev-, reivu) ; 4-ire5os, even, flat (irtdov, ground). 


1171. When the last part of a compound noun or adjective begins with 
d or e or o, this vowel (unless it is long by position) is usually lengthened : 
a and e to rj, and o to co. 

'Y7r-r//coos, obedient (v o, tucouu) ; v-?yi'e/xos, with fair mnd (e?, aveyMos) ; 
KaT-?7/)<?ys, covered (Kara, e/>e<a>) ; av-w/zoros, unsworn ; but av-ofjL/3po<i, 
without rain, because o in opftpos is long by position. 

1172. NOTE. In a few of the compounds of &yu, lead, and tLyvvju, break, a 
becomes d; as \ox-Hyfa, captain (\6xos, &yu) ; vav-dyjs, shipwrecked (vavs, &yvv/j.t). 

1173. Compound Adjectives and Nouns. 1. If the last part is a 

masculine or feminine noun or adjective of the second or third declension, 
usually it remains unchanged. 

"A-#eos, godless; O.TT-OIKOS, aiiuy from home; a-irais, childless; KaKo-iSou'/zwi', 
ill-fated ; Swr-epws, insensible to love or sick in love ; SI'-TTOVS, two-footed ; irdv- 
<ro<^>os or 7ra<r-cro<os, all wise; av-d/xoios, unlike; /AMTO-TTOVOS, labour-hating; 
<j>iX-f \\7jv, fond of the Greeks; dxpo-TroAis, acropolis; oyu.o-o'ovA.os, fellow-slave. 

2. If the last part is a noun of the first declension, or a neuter of the 
second or third, or a verb-theme, it is changed, and commonly assumes, the 
ending -os, -ov, or -T/S, -s, less often -77? or -TT/S (gen. -ov), -rr)p, and -riap. 

Xw-o'eiTn'os (SeiTri/ov), dining together ; <^>tXo-Ti/xo5 (TI/A?/), honour-lori/i<i ; 
d-Tv^^s (TI'XT/), unfort unate ; di'-wvi'/zo? (ovo/xa, ovofiar-}, nameless; 
evTa-Tr/s (eros), five years old ; VTrep-ftapt'^ (ySd/aos), overloaded ; Ai'/x)-7roios 
(iroifta), lyre-maker ; Sixr-pi^os (^"X / 1 * 111 )? Iwrd to fight ; va?-/xd^os, fighting 
in ships; ev-ycvrjs (yevos), of good birth; $>-</>iA.?/s (^>tAew), beloved of the 
gods; ya-ypri<f>o<i (ypd<fxa), geographer; A.i#o-/3oA.os (/JdAXw), throvring 
stones, but Ai#o-/?oAos, stoned (147, 2; 1181); tv-Trptir^ (irpfTna), becoming; 
i'l[i.L-6avi'i<j (Bav-, BvycTKta), half-dead. m.vpo-v&kifa dealer in perfumes (ftvpov t 
y(i>-/ATp>/s, land-measurer (yrj, fj-trptw) ; vofj.o-6fTr)<i, law-maker 


s, Of-, TiOrjfj.i). MrjAo-^cmyp, sJiepJierd ([J.ij\ov, /JocrKw) ; TraiS-oAerw/), 
child-murderer (TTUIS, oAe-, oAAf/zi). 

3. An abstract noun in the last part of a compound ia nearly always 
changed to a new abstract in -id-, which is derived from a (real or 
supposititious) compound adjective. 

Tv'Xfy luck, but d-Tv\ia, ill-luck, from d-rv^7/s, unlucky ; p-dxVi fiyht, 
but vav-/j.a\id, sea-fight (lit. ship-fight), from vav-/xa^os, fighting in ship*; 
yftoAi/, throwing, but Ai#o-/3oAtd, stone-throwing, from Ai#o-/3oAos, throwing 
stones; Tr/aa^is, doing, but ev-wpa^iti, doing mil, success. 

1174. NOTE. An abstract noun compounded with a preposition can retain its 
forms; as irpo-j3ov\ri, forethought ; ffvy-yvufj.ri, pardon; Sid-ra^ts, arrangement, and 
many others. Other cases are rare ; as f.uffOo-<popd, receipt of wages (/juvOos, <popd). 

1175. NOTE. Some compounds add -s to the stem of the last part ; as a-yv&s, 
d-yv&T-os, unknown (yvo-, yiyvuffKw) ; dirop-pw%, dirop-piay-os, broken off (pay-, 

H7b- NOTE. Compounds of nouns in -rrjp (gen. -rpos) end in -rwp (gen. 
-ropos), as d- irdrup, fatherless. Compounds of vaus, ship, Kfpas, horn, Kptas, jfteah, 
and yfjpas, old age, end in -us; as irepi-veus, passenger in a ship; eO-icepus, with 
beautiful horns ; yXvidj-Kpews, having sweet meat ; d-yripws, free from old at/e. 
Conipoumls of 717, land, end in -yews, --yeios, and -yaws (Ionic), as eti-yeus, of go"d 
soil, Kara.-yei.os (Ionic Ko.ra.-ya.ios), under the earth. Some neuters in -/m (-^O-T-) form 
compound adjectives in -fuav ; as iroXv-irpdyfj.uv (wpdyfjia), busy. The noun <j>pfy, 
heart, mind, forms compound adjectives in -(ppwv ; as crdj-Qpuv, of sound mi ml, 
discreet. Compounds of apxw waver between -dpxTis and -apxos ; as tirTr-dpx 7 ?' 01 ' 
'i-jrn--a.pX.os, general of cavalry ('I'TTTTOS, apx&). 

1177. Compound Verbs. 1. These can be formed directly only by pre- 
fixing a preposition to a verb ; as fK-f3aivw, go out, Trpo-e^w, hold forth. 

2. When the first part of a compound verb is anything else than a 
preposition, it is an indirect compound (denominative) ending in -eo> and is 
derived from a (real or imaginary) compound noun or adjective. 

Xttv-/za^ew, fight in ships, from vau-/Ma\o, fiyhtimj in ships; At#o-/2oAw, 
thro iv stones, from Ai#o-/3oAos, stone-thrower; ei'-n^w, be fortunate, from 
ti'-ri'X'/s; vo/JLo-dereu), make laws, from vofj.o-OfTrj<i, laic-giver; d-TTtidew, 
disobey, from a-7rei$^s, disobedient. 

1178. NOTE. The rare exceptions are poetic ; as d-T(>dw, dishonour. 


1179. General Rule. Compounds generally have the recessive 
accent ; as 7ray-/ca/cos, utterly bad (iras, /ca/co's) ; a-rt/xos, unhonoured (u- 
and TI/XI/) ; o-ui/-o8os, assembly (0605). 

1180. 1. Primitives in -d, -*/, -^s, -evs, -/ios, and -05 retain their accent 
also in composition. 

event; oVo-To//.?;, cutting off; <rvv-8iK(urrii]<i, frlUiw-iuriinmn ', 
vs, writer ; o-i)A-Aoywr/ids, reckoning ; aTro-Soreos, to be given btick. 
2. But dissyllabic nouns in -d, -r/, -7)5, when compounded with any other 


word than a preposition, become paroxytone ; and compounds of 8r//.o<j, 
band, bond, are recessively accented. Thus Ota, dv8po-6fd, man-goddess 
(Minerva) ; SOKT/J, 'urro-SoKr), mast-hold; K/SITI/S, ompo-KptTT/s, interpreter of 
dreams ; crvv-Sfa-fws, band, ligament. 

1181. Compounds ending in -os (not -TOS or -KOS), whose first part is a 
noun or adjective of adverb, and the last part is the stem of a transitive 
verb, are : 

(a) oxytone if the penult is lorn/ and they have active meaning ; as 
a-TpaT-rjyos, general ; CTITO-TTOIOS, bread-maker ; ^i^o-Tro/wrcs, conductor of 

(b) paroxytone if the penult is short and they have active meaning ; 
Ai$o-/3oA.os, throwing stones; Trarpo-KTovos, parricide ; 6r/po-Tp6<f>o<;, feeding 
wild beasts; oixo-vo/tos, managing a household ; Aoyo-y pdtfros, speech-writer. 

(c) proparoxytone if the penult is short and they have passive meaning ; 
as Ai#o-/3oAos, pelted with stones ; irarpo-KTovos, slain by a father; Orjpo- 
iy>o<os, fed by beasts. 

Ilo2. NOTE. Double compounds, like ffv-ffrpdr-yyos, joint-commander, are 

lloo. NOTK. Proparoxytone are compounds in -ox< (^X w ) -apx oj (*PX w )i 
-o-i'Xos (ffvXdta, rob), -iropOos (irtpffw, destroy) ; as tyi-o^oi, charioteer, lit. rein-holder ; 
vav-apxoi, admiral, commanding a ship; Iep6-ffv\os, robbing temples. Those in 
-oOx os are contracted from -o-oxos ; as dg.dovxos (from 3p5o-oxos), torch-bearer. 

1184. NOTE. There are some other exceptions ; as Kaicovpyos (for Ka.Ko-epyk, 
evil-doer; iravovpyos, villainous; fnd-epyos, far-worker. 

1185. All adjectives in -KOS in which K does not belong to the root 
remain oxytone in composition ; as arTo-Sei/cri/cos, demonstrative. 

1186. All in -os whose first part is a preposition, d-, i>-, Sw-, dpi-, tpi-, 
dpn-, dp\i-, dfi-, dya-, r)fj.i-, {d-, O/AO-, TroXv-, Trav-, are recessively accented. 

1187. Compounds in -os whose last part is not the stem of a verb are 
recessively accented. 

1188. NOTE. 1. 'Avriot, against, ojyposite, retains its accent in composition. 
The multiplicatives in -7r\6os are paroxytone ; as 5e/ca-7r\6os. There are also some 
other exceptions. 

2. For compound verbals in -rot, see 606, 2. 

1189. Compound adjectives in -775, -es, are generally oxytone ; as 
a-o-a<>ys, uncertain ; tv-yeviys, well-born. 

1190. NOTE. The following are barytone : 

1. Those with u> in the penult ; as ev-wthjs, sweet-smelling (68-, 5fw) 
ruined, ruinous (^-6XXi"/u). 

2. Those in -Avri}! (&VT&-U or &VTCL), --/iffys (^0oj), -^KTJS (&KJ), -"hpW (dp-, 
-KJfrrit (KTJTOS), -fieytdrit (/dyeOos), -/AI^/CIJJ (/XIJKOS), -w/ix^ ( v ^)X Vf )i *r*Mjp|f 

-Telxys (retx^)> T W'? J ( T7 ?P^ W )- Thus /car-dvTT/s, downward, steep ; Ka.Ko--/i0T>it, of bad 
habits; vt-7)Kr]i, newly sharpened; -xa^ K ~'nPW> furnished (tipped) with brass; 
fjitya-K-lrnp, huge, unwieldy; vircp-fitytOrit, enormous; irept-/j.tficr}s, very tall or long ; 
irevra-ir-fixw, of five cubits ; /Mtcpo-ffreXexfy, having a long trunk; tti-Tflxns, well- 
walled ; Se/uno-TT^j, keeping one to one's bed. 


3. Also aM-aSijj, avr-dpicr)s, Tro5-dpicr)s ; 5o\o-/jnf)dr)s, ^a<ru-jUij5i;j ; ^uX-aXi^ijs, 

1191. NOTE. Compounds in -^TTJS (from fros, year) are paroxytone in Attic, 
oxytone in late writers ; as T/M-^TTJS, rpi-eres (late Tpi-enfis, rpi-erh), three years old. 

lie) ,<. NOTE. Barytones in -77$ are recessively accented in the vocative and 
neuter ; as ev-ri6-ijs, etf-^tfej. Except those iu -rip^s, -u"?s, -wS^j, -01X77$, -tipy* ; as 
fi>-ti)5r)s, ei)-tD5es. 

1193. Compound adjectives of the third declension with the stem ending 
in a consonant are recessively accented. But the following are oxytone : 

1. Those in -dj, -d5os ; as woXv-dfipds, with many ridges, Kvvo-<rirds, torn by dogs. 

2. Those in -u>^, as yXjWK-cty (except eXix-w^, KVK\-W\J/, /njX-w^, fjLv-wift). 

3. Those whose last part is a monosyllable with d or ^ or w, and derived from a 
verb ; veo-Kpds, newly mixed (Ktpdvvv/M, nepa-) ; -r)fju.-0v/is, half-dead (OfyffKu, Oav-) ; 
dtrop-pul;, broken off" (p-fftvvfju, pay-). 

4. Those in -ff<j>di- ; as 5ia-o-</>dj, a rent, rocky gorge (Sut-o-QdrTw). 

5. Compounds of SoTijp used mostly as nouns ; as dXjSo-dorrip, giver of happiness. 

1194. NOTE. Those in -wins are perispomena ; as eXiK-ohrts. Those iu - or 
-^ never accent the antepenult. 


1195. According to their meaning, compound nouns and adjectives 
are divided into three clauses : determinative, possessive or attributive, 
and objective. 

1196. Determinative Compounds. 1. In these the first part 
determines or explains the second as an adjective or adverb. This 
class of compounds is the least numerous. They are nouns or 

J AK/, citadel, upper city ( = a.Kpd TroAts, Horn. TroAts aKprf) ; 
fj.((r--ir]fj-f3pia. i mid-day ( fj.eo-7) i^iepd) ; ^cuSo-Km>, false herald ( = ^enS^s 
uripvQ ', 6/j.6-8ovXo<s ) fellow-slave ( = ofj.ov SovAei'wv) ; />ieyaAo-7r/37nys, mag- 
nificent (yaeyaAws TrpfTratv) ; d^t-yovos, late-born ( = o^ yevofjifvos) ; 
Trpo-f3ovX.rj, forethought; dfj.(j>i-0a.Tpov, amphitheatre (theatre extending round 
in a circle) ; dir-e Xtvdepos, freedman ( = 6 O.TTO TIVOS eXfvdepos wv) ; a-y/3tt(^os, 
unwritten ( = ov yey/ja/A/zei'os) ; d-8vvaTo<s, unable, impossible ( = oi5 Sut'oros) ; 
Si'o--a/3o-ros, ill to please ; Sixr-/?aTos, hard to pass. 

2. A few compounds called copulative are made up of two nouns or two 

*Ia.Tpb-/j.avTis, physician-prophet (a prophet who is also a physician) ; i<f>o-/j.dxa-ipa, 
sword-sabre ; Oeb-ravpos, god-bull (Zeus changed to a bull) ; y\vKij-wiKp<n, sweetly 
bitter; Xeu/ci-^cuos, whitish-gray. 

3. A few compounds, mostly poetic, express comparison ; the word de- 
noting the comparison usually stands first. 

MeXi-r;5^s, honey-sweet (/J^\t, rjdfa) ; 'Apyt-Ooos, swift as Ares; irod-^vtfiot *!/?, 
Iris with feet swift as the wind. 

1197. NOTE. Determinative compounds of d- privative or Sva- with nouns are 


rare and poetic ; as fnjnjp A-HT/TUP, an unmotherly mother ( = /j.i')rrip 01* fir/nip oC<ra) ; 
Hoin. AiV-waptj, ill-starred Paris. 

1198. Possessive or Attributive Compounds In these the first part 
explains the second, just as in determinatives ; but the compound is 
an adjective expressing a quality. These compounds can be paraphrased 
by making the second part the object of the participle of l^w or a 
similar verb and making the first part an attribute of the second. 

Maxpo-^etp, long - armed = having long arms (fjMKpas x V jas X WI/ ) 
dpyvpo-Toos, with silver bow (dpvpovv TOOV (\wv) ', O/AO-T/WTTOS, of the 
same disposition (op.oiov rpoirov e\(ov) ; KaKo-8aL/j.<av, ill-fated (KaKov 8a.ip.ova. 
<?X WI/ ) ; TTtKpd-ya/xos, bitterly wedded, unJtappily wedded (iriKpbv ydfiov x wv ) 5 
o-<o-</o<ov, of sound mind, temperate (<rwv vovv f\(av) ; oWa-eTrys, having or 
lasting ten years (Se/cu, TOS) ; eKaToy-Ke<aAos, hundred-headed ; avT 
working with one's oion hand; dyaOo-eiSys, seeming good (a,ya6ov eiSos 
and many others in -ciSr/?; ev-^eos, inspired, Imving a (,'od within (tv 
Oeov ()((av) d/j.(f>t-Ktiav, with pillars all round (/aovas dfjuj)' tavrov *X W1 ') 5 
a-7rais, childless (7rai8as OVK ex a)V ') > av-at8ry9, shameless (at8a> OVK f\<av) ; 
8uo--^8ouAos, ill-ailvised, having bad counsels (Ka/cas ^ovAas fX wv )- 

1199. Objective Compounds. These are composed of a noun and 
a verb or adjective or preposition. The noun, which may be the 
first or the second part, stands in the sense of an oblique case to the 
other part. 

^rpar-T/yos, general, army - leading ( = OT/oarbi/ ay tov) ; \oyo-y pd<f>o<;, 
speech-writer (Aoyovs ypd<f>wv) ; <tAo-/zowros, loving the Muses (<j>iX(7>v ras 
Moixras) ; fj.ur-dvdpwTTO's, man-ha'ing (JJ.UTMV dvOptoirovs) ; 8eia-L-8a.ifj.iar, 
sjnrit-fearing (SeStws roi's 8a6/zovas) ; poet. Aikri-Trovos, toil -relieving (\vtav 
TOVS TTOVOVS) ; poet. a//.a/)T-t-vovs, erring in mind (d/jLaprdviav vov) ; repTr- 
i-Kcpavvos, delighting in thunder (T/97roynevos Keparr^) ; x ei / )0 " 7rot ' 7 ? TO ? 
made by hand (xe/xrl TTOIT^TOS) ; Oco-f$\afii)<i, stricken of God (iVb dfov 
poet ^e-TyAaros, God-sent (Aa#is iVb rov Beov) ; 
m </i house,, home-bred (ev OIKW yei'o/xevos) ; d^to-Aoyos, 
worthy of men'ion (Aoyov a^ios) ; itro-^co?, god-like (ttros Qt<$) ', ty-\Mpio<i, 
native, being in the country (ev rfj \P a * )V ) > ^>-ti"''"'os, pertaining to a horse, 
on horseback ((ft tTnr<a wv) ; Trapa-^aAao-crtos, maritime, lying on the seaside 
(irapa 0aAa<r(rav) ; UTT-OIKOS, colonist, away from home (dir' OIKOV a>v). 

1200. XOTK. For the difference in accent and meaning in those whose last 
part is a verb, as \i$o-fi&\os, stone throwing, and Xi0j-oX<w, j>cltcd with stones, see 




THE numbers refer to the sections. The irregular nouns given in 283 and 909 
and the verbs given in the catalogue (1073), also many other forms, are not generally 
given in the Greek Index, as they are either mentioned under the appropriate heads 
in the English Index or are easily found under the Table of Contents. Similarly 
some subjects, like pronunciation, are also indicated only in the English Index or in 
the Table of Contents. 




A, doubtful vowel 15 (a), open 17 ; a 
lengthened to 77 and d 39, 41 (to at in 
Aeol. 840) ; interchanged with e and o 
42 (dial. 802) ; in contraction 47, 48, 
52 ; elided 59 ; augm. to 77 526 (to d in 
Dor. and Aeol. 969), d usually augm. 
to 77 528 ; a added to theme 614 (dial. 
991) ; a changed to d in theme 621 3 , 
to 77 or w 621 4 ; a in Ion. for e and at 
813, 817, for 77 817, for o 817 ; a for 
et in dial. 813 ; d for w in Boeot. 804, 
in Aeol. and Dor. for 17 801 ; a-, &v- 
privative part. 1169, d- copulative 
1170 ; -a Epic for -77$ in 1 decl. 883 3 ; 

a noun suffix 1095 ; d Aeol. 13 or. 

Ep. gen. for -ov in 1 decl. 881 2 ; -d re- 
tained in Aeol. and Dor. in 1 decl. 881 1 

a, improper diphthong 18, augments to 
77 526 

aya- insep. prefix 1169 

compared 354 1 , in dial. 944 1 
s declined 200 
s, ayripaos 210 (b) 

a-yw aug. redupl. in 2 a. 553 

&8f\(j>e voc. 198 

ae contr. to 77 in Dor. vb. 845 1 

a contr. to y in Dor. vb. 845 1 

-dfw denom. verb-formation 1153 

a?? and arj contr. to 77 and 77 in Dor. vb. 

845 1 

0775^, voc. aTjSot 254 
d6dpr} 183 

"A0wj, acc.'A0w211 
at diphthong 18 ; becomes 77 in augment 

526 ; at in Ion. for Att. 809, 817, for 

o 813 

At'ds voc. 236 7 
atddx declined 249 
-cuva noun suff. 1113 
-aivw denom. vb. -formation 1153 
-aibs num. adj. in 428 
of/>w aor. 684 
-atj Lesb. Aeol. for -as in ace. pi. 881* ; 

-ots, -aura, -oura Aeol. part, for -as, 

-dcra, -ovtra 933, 1055 
aiffi(v) for -ais in dat. pi. Aeol. 881 4 
-al-repos, -af-Toros comp. and stiperl. 342 
al&v declined 240 

-<ms adv. end. 1148, adverbs in 422 
dKotfw 2 pf. 716 

Axpodonai lengthens a to 77 675 
UKUV declension 310 
d\7'6s compared 354 10 
d\770j)s declined 310 ; d\tJ0f s 309 


d\\d<rffu pf. mid. system : inflection etc. 


declined 376 


dXXo-0t, -Ofv, -fff, -re, dXXws 405 
oXXoMot a or. 684 
dXXos 388 

4X070$, -ov declined 298 
a\? declined 240 
dXwT7 236 2 
dXws, ace. dXw 211 
dnelvuv 354 1 

afits, ufjAtav etc. Dor. = r;/ae is etc. 952 
d/trcpos, oV6s Dor. = 7#A<repos 955 1 
dMT/Vwp adj. 312 2 
&fj./jLes, d/jifju, &^fjif = i]fJ.f t s, ^/xiV, TRIO'S 950, 

951, 953 
dfj.fjL^repof, &/JL/J.OS Lesb. Aeol. = ^/x^repos 

955 1 

a>6s = <?/t6s 378 
&fj.<j>-u, -brepoi 429 
-aV Aeol. and Dor. gen. pi. in 1 decl. 

881 s 

dvjjp declined 243 
dvoiyu 2 perfects 719 
-OPS for -as ace. pi. in Cretic 881* 
&vu, dvorr^pw, dvurdru 362 
dvuyetav 209 
ao contr. to d in Dor. nouns 845 2 ; in Aeol. 

844 1 ; -do Aeol., Dor., Ep. gen. sing. 

for -ou in 1 decl. 881 2 , 883 4 ; -do for 

-eu in dial. 843 
an-Xoos, dirXoDs declined 294 
dTroXts, -t adj. 312 
'\Tr6\\uv 219, 241 4 
dpyvptos, dpyvpovs declined 294 
apt- insep. prefix 1169 
dpio"ros 354' 
-as for -as in Dor. 842 ; as (-a5os) fern. 

noun suffix 1097, 1109, 1116, numerals 

in -di 426 ; -ds, -d<ra, -av part, in 


dffiris with plural number 416 2 
&ffffa = &Tra 958 1 ; d<r<ra = dTra 960 1 8 
dffTTip declined 243 
AffTv declined 256, 258 
&ff(j>i, S.ff(fx = ffiftlffi, ff<t>as 953 
-a-Tai, -a-ro endings for -VTO.I, -vro 988, 


drra = Tii'd 386 2 ; 0>ra = &Ttva 393 
av diphthong 18 ; augments to 771; 526, 

529 ; -av- stems of nouns 262-, in dial. 

902 ; av of verb-stem changed to aF-y 

and then to cu 650 

pronoun, declension 367 ; 6 ai>r6s 

373; avrov = his 378; adroO = eawoO 
375 ; ai/r6s avrov, etc. Dor. 954 3 

avrov, avrbOtv, avroffe 405 

d<pvri, gen. pi. dipvuv 177 

aw contr. to a in Aeol. 844 1 , in Dor. 

845 2 ; du contr. verbs in : dial, forms 

1009 1 , 1010, 1011 1 , 1013 1 , 1014; 
-dw as denom. vb. -formation 1153 ; 
in desideratives 1155 
aav gen. pi. in Horn. 883 50 

B, labial middle mute 30 ; euphonic 
changes, see labials ; |3 in Aeol. for y 
and S 819 ; euphonically inserted 
between /* and X or p in Old Ionic 825 

-/3d for prjBi 703 

jSofcw 2 p. /iu-form 768 

dXXw : metathesis 708, pf. mid. subj. 745 

fiaviXfia queen and /Ja<nXefd 184 2 (a) 

pcuriXevs declined 263, 265 

/SeXrfwK, ptXriffros 354 1 

/3t^dfw fut. 680 5 

/3i6w 2 a. fu-form 767 

/3X for n\ 71 

Bop^ds 194 

POV\O/JMI : fiov\fi never fiovXy 476 

/3oOs declined 263 

F, palatal middle mute 30 ; nasal 31 ; 
euphonic changes, see palatals ; y in 
Aeol. for t 819 ; for-yi' in New Ion. 832 

70X77, 70X^77 declined 192 

yy/j. changed to yp 88 

7^0$ declined 246, 247 (b) 

yewddas adj. of one ending 305 

7^pas declined 246 

yrjpdffKu 2 a. /it-form 767 

71705 declined 235 

yiyvofiai 2 p. /u-form 768 

yiyv&ffKu 2 a. /xt-form 767 

yXvicaivu aor. 685 

y\vi<vs declined 317 

y\0>ffffa declined 180 

7paOs declined 263 

A, lingual middle mute 30 ; euphonic 
changes, see linguals ; S in Aeol. for 
f 819 ; 5 in Dor. for 818 ; 55 in Dor. 
and Aeol. for f 818, 819 
So- insep. prefix 1169 
5o, -6V, -Sov etc., as adv. endings 1148 
, voc. Soep 219 
declined 240 
) 236" 
5a"s gen. du. and pi. accent 217 


-Se local 284 ; in dial. 910, 913 

Sei-Soixa, Sfi-Seyfiai etc., redupl. 974 

SfiSu 2 p. /ti- forms 768 

Sfiva pron. declined 389 

8dvv/j.i inflected 498 ; synopsis 508 

8tfn) = 8epFri 183 

Sexarai 972 

Sew 480 

8rj\6u, 577X0) pr. and iinpf. inflected 477, 
synopsis 483 

AT^T^P declined 243 

-5?7s names in 1116 

81801, Find. = didov 984 

SiSpdffKu 2 a. /xt-forms 767 

SidufM inflected 498 ; synopsis 508 ; impf. 
and imperative 500 ; aor. in -KO. 501 

SiTnjxvs adj. 312 2 

6Y7TOHS adj. 312 2 

-5ts adv. ending 1148 

8i\f/d<i} contr. 479 

6>tis gen. du. and pi. accent 217 : a of ending -ao generally 
dropped 506 

Stio declined 409, 411, dial. 964 2 

Stiff- insep. part. 1169, augm. of its 
compounds 567 

86u : 2 a. (Svv inflected 498 ; forms from 
-tiu 503 ; dial, forms : 964, 2 a. in- 
form 767, SOT; opt. 700 

SCipov declined 200 

E, short 15 ; open 17 ; lengthened to 77 
39, 41 (in Dor. 840 II.) ; to et 40 (in 
Dor. 840 II.) ; e in contraction 47, 48, 
52 ; e elided 59 ; e interchanged with 
a and o 42 ; e as syl. aug. 453 1 , 524, 
533, 534 ; e becomes 77 in augm. 526, 
becomes ei in augm. 533 ; e as redupl. 
454 1 , 539, 540, 542, 543 ; e added to 
vb.-stem 613 (dial. 990) ; e changed to 
a in theme 621 1 , to o 621 2 ; e for a, i, 
o in dial. 802 ; e in Ion. for Att. 77 810, 
for fi 812, 817, for a 813, 817, for i 
817 ; e prothetic 838, in Homer 860 1 ; 
e inserted 860 2 

-ea Ion. for -tp> in ace. sing. 884 3 

eavrov declined 374 

tyyvs compared 356 

eyu declension, etc. 367-371, in dial. 

e contr. to 77 in Lesb. Aeol. 844 1 , to et 
in Boeot. 844 2 , to 77 or in Dor. 845 3 

<?<? = 950 

teit^eh 964 

lip Horn. = 755959! 

ft)e\ot>Tfy adj. of one ending 305 

et diphthong 18 ; interchanged with i and 

01 44 ; becomes 77 in augm. 526, 531 ; 

ei in redupl. 538 ; et in Ion. for e 806, 

817 ; - end. of 2 pers. sing. pass. 

476 ; -ei, -f as adv. ending 1148 ; 

-fi- for -vt in part. 803, 1057 
eta Dor. part, for -via 1057 ; -d noun 

suff. 1104, 1113 

-etas, -ete, -etaj' in aor. opt. act. 468 
eiKuv declined 254 

flfj-i inflection, etc. 772-774, dial. 1066 
ei>u inflection etc. 775-778, dial. 1067 
-tiv, -ets etc. in late plupf. 469 
eloj 963 4 

elirov, elira 553, 684 
-ets, -fffffa, -ev adj. in 319-322, 1138 ; 

-ets, -etffa, -eV part, in 329-333 
efs, fj.ia, %v, declined 409 ; dial. 964 ; stem 

410 ; compounds 412 
ei'ws 963 4 

K or e' 69 ; in comp. 81 
eVcooTos, e'/cdrepos 429 
eVcet, ^KtWev, e'/cet<7e 405 
eVetj/os 379, 380, dial. 957 2 
eVwv declined 319 

v, Adxtcrros 354 6 
fut. 680 2 
pf- n 1 ^- system : inflection etc. 


ATT/S declined 235 
2/j.avTou declined 374, in Horn. 954 1 , in 

Hdt. 954 2 

fo, e/jiev, fj.ev, ueo, /ev = .t 

950, 952, 953 
e'yixe'os, ^oOs, ^eD(s), fiov, /teO, ntdev, 

Dor. = (l)nov 952, 953 
faeuvTov etc. (Hdt.) 954 2 Dor. =yttot 952 

e'/o/o, e>t'w(s), ^/xtdis, Tarent. Dor. = e>oO 952 
^6s, my, 377, 378, dial. 955 1 , 956 
-ev Don inf. 1053 

tv6a, tvOaSt, Iv0fv, frOevSe 401, 403 
fvdev K al tv0ev 403 
tvra.vOa, ivrevOev 401 
t compared 356 
eo contr. to ev in Aeol., Ion., sometimes 

Dor. 844 1 , 845 4 , 847 
eo, ev, elo, eOev, eov, toio = ov95Q, 953 
^ot= ol 950 

eWa 2 p. fu-torm 768 
-eos contr. adj. 290-295 ; as adj. end. 1135 
e6s Horn. =8s poss. 955 1 ; = o-^re/jos 956 
eov contr. to ev in Ion. 847 
eiri in numeral compounds 420 4 


: a of ending -<ro gen. dropped 506 

firo/jLO.1 2 a. 553 

ivpia^v inflection 498 

(pi- insep. prefix 1169 

'EpfjLrjt, 'E/j/te'eij declined 192 

tpffrj 185 

declined 235 
ff(fft) dat. pi. in dial. 893 
Oiw fut. 676 

cF-Ttpos, -e<r-roTos compar. and superl. 
343, 346-349 
-r^w 473 

eVepos 382, 396 

-eY77s (r6 eYo$) adj. in 427 

^Trjffiat, gen. pi. (Ttjcriuf 177 

eu diphthong 18 ; becomes t)v in augm. 
526, 532 ; -eu- stems of nouns 262-'266 
(in dial. 901) ; ev of vb.-stem changed 
to ef and then to e 632 ; e5 com- 
pounds : augm. of 566 

etf/307-pi'j, -v, adj. 312 1 

ei" f \7m, -i, adj. 312 1 

eiVoos, e0i>oi'j declined 293 

-ei's noun suffix 1099, 1113, 1119 

e0x/><s, -'> adj- 312 1 

-ei/w denom. vb. -formation 1153 

t\0pjs compared in dial. 943 

*xw (<r*X-, *X.e-) 677 ; 2 a. /ui-form 767 

-ew gen. for -ov in Ion. 883 46 , 884 2 ; 
-ew denom. vb. - formation 1153; 
contr. vbs. in -ew in dial. 1009 2 , 1011 2 , 
1013 2 , 1014 

-euv gen. pi. in Ion. 883 5 , 884 4 

e'ws down : ace. ew, declension 249 

ewi'T-oOetc. (Hdt.) 954 2 

Z, double consonant 32 ; in Aeol. for Si 

and ffff 819 
fa- insep. prefix 1169 
fdw contr. 479 

-fe local ending 28, in dial. 913 2 
fw verbs in 637-647 

H long 15 ; open 17 ; interchanged with 
w 42 ; t} in Boeot. for eu 804 ; in Ion. 
for a 805, 815. for w 817 ; 17 inserted 
(dial. 860 4 ) ; i? as syl. aug. 525 ; -17 
Ion. for -a in 1 decl. 883 1 2 , 884 ; -17 
as noun suffix 1095 

rj improper diphth. 18 

J7 rel. adv. 401 

rrytnav declined 240 

-77>$, -175 adj. in 322 

rfi Ion. for ei 816 

TJKiffra superl. adv. 354 2 
r/Xkos, birr)\iicos 395, 396 

: inflection etc. 782, 783, dial. 1069' 

ir6s 400 

T]fJLfill)V = TlfJ-UlV 950 

for -e-ynevoj Horn. part. 1058 
377, dial. 955 1 
fl/j.1, say, 789 

i)/M- insep. prefix 420 1 5 , 1169 
fan 963 2 

-qv Ion., Dor. inf. =-tiv 1053, 1054 
ijflKa rel. adv. 401 
ijTrap declined 237 
riptfj-a, r)pt/j.tffrepos 356 
fy>ws declined 250, 251 
-i?j, -ej adj. in 306-309, 1130; 77? vb.- 

end. for -eis 986 ; -TJS, -Tjat(j') dat. 

pi. in Ion. 883, 884 B 
ijffffwv , iJKiffra 354 a 8 
i?X' 963 s 

T)XW declined 251 
r)aij Ion. =?w$ 249 
i)v diphthong 18 

9 rough mute 30 ; euphonic changes, see 
linguals and aspirated letters ; in 
Aeol. for <r ; inserted in Old Ion. 

-Otv, -0i local 284, in dial. 910-912 

0rip declined 240 

-0i of imperative changed to -a 112 ; 0t- 
in dial. 984 

0vyffKU ; metath. 708, 2 p. /u-form 768 

0pl declined 235 ; aspirates in 102 

Ovydrrjp declined 243 

06s gen. du. and pi. accent 217 ; declen- 
sion 251 

I doubtful vowel 15 ; close 17 ; lengthened 
to f 39, 40 ; interchanged with et and 
ot 44 (in themes 621 4 ) ; i in contraction 
47-52 ; * elided 59 ; i becomes I in augm. 
526 ; t in dial, for e and v 802 ; t Ion. 
for e and and eu 813, 817 ; I for et in 
Uoeot. 804 ; i inserted in gen. and dat. 

dual in Horn. 860 3 ; 1 as local end. 

285 ; -t added to demonstr. as odt 384 

ta = fjUa 964 ; -m noun stiff. 1109 

-idto desiderativcs in 1155 

-idfos nouns in 1118 

I8p6ti> contr. 481 

te contr. to I in Ion. 848 

-ifw vbs.: fut. 680 4 ; -ffw as denom. vb.- 
formation 1153 

177- opt. mood-suff. in Horn. 1049 


'ii)tu : inflection etc. 770, 771, dial. 1005 ; 

aor. in -/ca 501 
-i/coj, -rj, -ov adj. suff. 1140 
lv Dor. =dat. ol 952 ; fv ai/ry 950 
-ti>osadj. suff. 1136, 1137 
-LOV noun suff. 1123, 1127, 1128 
-tos, -ta, -wv adj. suff. 1132-1134 
tov in Boeot. for i 804 
rn-Tros (i)), cavalry 41 6 2 
- (-ewj) nouns in dial. 261, 899 ; ts 

(-<Soj) fern, noun sutf. 1113, 1114, 1116, 

1119 ; ts as adv. end. 1148 

-iff era noun suff. 1113 

-tV-repos, -KT-TCITOJ compar. and superl. 

344, 349 
HOTTJ/JU : inflection 490, 499 ; synopsis 

506 ; pf. in -Ka 501 2 
-icrros superlative 350-353, dial. 942 ; as 

ending 1139 
Icrxvait'O} aor. 685 
Ix&vs declined 256 
l^-^evi 964 
-tuv comparative 350-353, in dial. 942 ; 

-uav as ending 1139; -MV, -i(u)vr] names 

in 1116 

K palatal smooth mute 30 ; euphonic 
changes, see palatals ; K in Dor. and 
Ion. for TT 817, 819, for x 818, 819 ; K 
in New Ion. for \ an( l *" 832 

Kae^o/jiai 680 2 

KdOrj^ai : inflection 782, 783 

/ecu (is, even thus 403 

KO.KOS compared 354 2 , dial. 944 2 

/caX<fw : fut. 680 1 ; metath. 708 ; pf. mid. 
subj. 745 

/caX6s compared 354 3 

/cdXws declined 208 

Kd/jii>(i) metath. 708 

Kdr-u, -u>Te/>oj, -wrctroj 356 

Kei-0t, -Ofv, -fff 405 2 

: inflected 784, 785, dial. 1070 
= ^Keivos 957 2 
: fut. 678 ; aor. 686 
declined 237, 239 
aor. 685 

K<?ws, ace. K^w 211 

Krjvos Dor. tuflvos 957 2 

/crs declined 257 

/cXcu'w: fut. 681 

-/cX^j proper names in, decl. 248 

/rXet'j 236 3 

/cX^os pi. contr. cX^d 247 

A'Xr^w drops v 707 

Kvdw contr. 479 

/coiXaiVw : aor. 685 

KOIOS, K(HTOS etc. for TTOJOS etc. 958 4 

K6pr/ = K&pFi] 183 

xpafa : /it- forms, see Catalogue 

Kp&T-rip declined 240 

Kpdffffuv, updriffTos 354 1 

Kptvw drops v 707 

KTdo/ : pf. subj. 743, opt. 745 

KTfivw : 2 a. /u-form 767 

KPpw : fut. 678, aor. 686 

KtDs, ace. KiD 211 

A semivowel and liquid 31 ; XX in Aeol. 
for X 819 

Xcryws, ace. Xcryw, Xayw 211 

XaiXai/' declineil 235 

Xa/ras declined 235 

Xetjrw : synopsis 462 ; 2 a. and 2 pf. sys- 
tems 463 

X<?wj/ declined 235 

X<?ws and Xd6s 210 (b) 

\iiralvu aor. 685 

Xo7os declined 200 

-Xos adj. end. 1143 

Xotfw, X6w contr. 481 

\6w : synopsis 462, 2 a. and 2 pf. systems 

\qxav, XffJcrros 354 1 

M semivowel and liquid and nasal 31 ; 

mutes before fj. 86-89 ; /uX and ppp for 

H\ and up 71 ; /u/t/u. changed to nn 88 ; 

fj. final becomes v 113 ; inserted in Old 

Ion. 826 

-fia (-/WITOS) noun suff. 1107 
fj.d\a compared /uaXXoc, /xaXterra 363 ; 

comparison by jUaXXov and fj.d\i<rra 355 
-/udv Dor. end. = -/ui7v 979 2 
fi' fut. 680 2 
declined 326, 327 ; compared 354 4 , 

in dial. 944 3 ; ^ya, fj.eyd\a adv. 359 
/j.fifui', fj-tyiffros 354 4 
fjLeiuv comparative 354 6 
Me^ = /x^"241 2 
^eXas declined 324 
/j.(/ pf. subj. 743, opt. 745 
-lj.ev Horn. inf. end. 1052, Dor. 1053 
-fj.eva.1 Horn. inf. end. 1052, Aeol. 1054 
-/jifffOa for -nfOa pres. end. 579 2 , 980 
fj.T?ITTip declined 243 
-fju. : inflection in -M 456, 457, 609 ; 

forms of verb, pres. in Horn, and Hdt. 

1015, 1016; -M pers. end. retained 

in Horn. subj. 982 
yoit(fp6s compared 354 s 7 ; in dial. 94 4 4 


MV 950 

Mfrws, ace. Mfrw 211 

fj.vd, pvaa declined 192 

fiovoSovs, jAovodov adj. 31 2 1 

fiopiov, part, in compounds 420 2 

-tun adj. end. 1147 

-/xos, -A"7 noun suff. 1104 

fJiPptOL, fj.fpioi 416 1 

N semivowel and liquid and nasal 31 ; 
may end a word 35 ; movable 64, 68 ; 
before consonants 90-95 ; omitted from 
617 ; inserted in Old Ion. 826 ; 
omitted from vb.-stem in dial. 995 ; 
v in Dor. for \ 813 ; v added before 
in vowel verbs 1038 ; v as vb. end. 
for -ffa.v in Horn. 985 

vaCs declined 263 

vSp for vp 71 

veu (w-, vfF-, vfv-) fut. 681 

veAs, temple, declined 208 ; rctlx, v&fa, 
v-nbs 210 (b), ace. 211 

VTI- neg. prefix 1169 

vf)ffos declined 200 

vtn7) declined 180 

viv Dor. pron. 952 

-vos adj. end. 1144, 1145 

voCs (POOS) declined 204 

vff in Cretan 841 

-VTI end. 3 pers. pi. Dor. 979 1 

viifu verbs in : -679 b, 680 3 ; -vvfu and 
-vvfMi, verbs in, 652 vin, 655, 656, 766 

vow etc. 950, 952, 953 

vuirfoot Horn. 955 2 

S double cons. 32 ; surd 34 ; may end a 
word 35 : in Dor. for <r 818 ; in Ion. 
for ffff 832 ; - as adv. end. 1148 

0, short 15 ; open 17 ; lengthened to 
w 39, 41, to ov 40 ; lengthened to 01 
and w in Aeol. 840 ir, 2, 4 : lengthened 
to w and ov in Dor. 840 n ; inter- 
changed with and a 42 ; o in con- 
traction 47, 48, 52 ; elided 59 ; o for 
a in Epic 861 ; o in dial, for a, e, u 802 ; 
o in Ion. for u 811, for ov 813 ; o 
added to vb.-stem 614; o becomes w 
in augm. 526. 
S Horn. =rel. s 959 1 

6, 77, rb article 364, 365 ; proclitic forms!49 
o n neut. of 6V 393, 394, 396 
SSt, ijSe, rtde 379-381, 396, dial. 957 1 ; 

boi etc. 384 
65(Jj declined 200 

6dwv Hdt. = Woi/s 236 8 , 889 

-% them, vowel : in Horn, for % in subj. 

1044 ; rarely as plupf. end. 1036 
-6eis, -oOs adj. in 322 
or; contr. to w in Ion. 848 
861 963 1 
ot diphthong 18 ; interchanged with i 

and et 44 ; 01 for ei in dial. 803 ; 01 in 

Ion. for o 808 ; 01 augments to i? 526, 

530 ; -01- stems, dial, forms 902 
oTrel. adv. 401 

o(5a : inflection etc. 786-788 ; dial. 1071 
-oil? Horn, for -oti> dat. du. 887 s , 894 
-oio Horn. gen. for -ov 887 1, otei, never 0/77 476 
olos, oTrotos 395, 396 ; with rtj 398 2 
ols declined 263 

-ots Lesb. Aeol. for -oij ace. pi. 885 s 
-oiffa Aeol. part, for -ovcra 1055 
otffi(v) Aeol. Dor. Ion. dat. pi. for -ots 

885 2 , 887 1 , 888 1 
OKOIOS etc. for OTTOUW etc. 961 3 
6\eifav, 6\iyiffros 354 6 
6\tyos compared 354 6 , dial. 944 4 
6\\tfu fut. 680 2 
oo contr. to w or ov in Dor. 845 4 , to eu 

in New Ion. 847 2 , to w in Aeol. 844 1 2 ; 

-oo Horn. gen. for -ot; 887 1 
So, Sou = rel. oi5 959 1 
-oos contr. adj. 290-295 
O'TTIJ, oTTijviKa 401 

btrbOev, oiroi, OTTOV 401 ; 07r60i, biroffe 963* 
OTTore 401 

biroTcpo, 895, 396 ; with rli 398 a 
oTTTTotos etc. 96 1 2 
STTWS, as, that 401 
6pyaivw : aor. 685 
6pvis declined 235 
6pvi>tu : fut. 678, aor. 686 
-oy, -o, -ov noun suffixes 1094 ; adj. suff. 

1130, see also adj. ; -os, -77, -ov part, in 

328 ; -os as neut. noun sufF. 1107 ; 

-os for -ous in Dor. 842, for -oi>s in ace. 

pi. 885 3 

8s, ij, 8 rel. pron. 390-392, 396 ; dial. 959 
os, 1j, ov poss. pron. 377, dial. 955 1 
8ffo<t, fiiroo-os 395, 396, with rls 398 2 ; 

6Wos 961 1 
o-Tts indef. rel. 393, 394, 396, dial. 960 ; 

with particles like ot>v, SrJ, etc. added 

398 1 

bffrovv declined 204 
art rel. adv. 401 
on, that, because 394 
flrts, oriva, firtvos 960 


8rov, OTiji, see 6'<mj 

8m, OT(T]V, orreo, orey, ortwv, ortoHn 960 

ov diphthong 18, when spurious 19 ; -cu- 
stoms, dial, forms 902 ; long or short 
in Boeot. 804 ; ov in Ion. for o 807, 
817 ; -ov- stems, dial, forms 902 

ov, OVK, ovx 68 

ov pers. pron. declension etc. 367-371 ; 
rel. adv. 401 

ovd' &j 403 

ovda/j.-fj, -ov, -ws 399 2 

ouSa/j,-ov, -60ev, -oaf, -wj 405 

ovdtrepos 399 1 

oi)/xes etc. = vfj.c'ts etc. 953 

o5s, ear, gen. du. and pi. accent 217 

-out, -ovffa, -ov part, in 329-333 

OVTIS, ovn 399 1 

OVTOS 379-381 ; ovroat 396 

otfrwf, so, 401 

&<(>pa. 963 4 

6^0^0.1 (fut. of opdu), 6Y, never 6\f/it 476 

-6o> contr. vbs. in, dial, forms 1009 3 , 
1011 3 , 1013 2 , 1014; -6w as deuom. 
vb. -formation 1153 

II, labial smooth mute 30 ; euphonic 

changes, see labials ; ir in Aeol. for r 

819 ; TTTT in Aeol. for w 819 
iratfw : fut. 681 
ircus gen. du. and pi. accent 217 ; voc. 

TTCU 236 4 

iravrax-ov, -6dtv, -6fff, -ws 405 
n-as declined 320 
ira.T7)p declined 243 
irfiOu pf. mid. system, inflection etc. 


TTfivdu contr. 479 
TT^/xTre = TTfvre 964 
TTfTraivti} : aor. 685 
ireiruv compared 944 7 
irep encl. added to rel., as o?6s irep 398 3 
ire'paj declined 237, 239 
ITepi-KX^s, -ArX-^j 248 
w^ro/jLai. : fat. 677 ; 2 a. /tu-form 767 
TTIJ, TFT;, TrrjvlKO. 401 
TnjXiVos 388, 396 
irTjx 1 ^ declined 256 
irifjnr\r)/u 764, v inserted 765 
irifj.7rpijfu 764, inserted 765 
irtvu : fut. 676 ; 2 a. /-form 767 
vtwru : fut. 681 ; metath. 708 
tricrvpfs = Tfffffapfs 964 
TT^WV compared 944 7 
-TrXdcrtoj ad,], in 424 
irXetj* = ir\tov com par. 354 7 

irXeiuv, irX^wr, TrXeicrroj 354 7 

?rX6cw : pf. mid. system, inflection etc. 

irX^w : fut. 681 ; pr. contr. 480 

wX^wj declined 300 

ir\ri<Tffu : a. pass. 759 

-irXoOs adj. in 424 

TrXdcoj drops v 707 

TiWu : fut. 681 

iro5an-6s, oTroSaTros 400 

7r6^e', Tro6fv 401 

7r6^t, TTO^I 963 1 

TTO?, Trot 401 

TTOITJT^S declined 186 

Troifj.r)i> declined 240 

TO?OS, 7roi6s 388, 396 

TroXis declined 256 

TroXfrijs declined 186 

7roXi/j declined 326, 327, dial. 931 ; com- 
pared 354 7 , dial. 944 8 ; wo\t, TroXXd 
adv. 359 

iroppu, Tropp&repos 356 

Trofff 963 3 

IloveiSwv 219, 241 4 

TTOCTOS, iroffos 388, 396 ; v6ff<ros, 958 s 

Trore, Trore 401 

TTore/jos 388, 396 

TTOV, 7TOI/ 401 

TTOVS 236 2 

irpaoj declined 326, 327 ; irpavs, irpr)fo 932 

TT/DO before augm. 554 ; irpo, Trporepoj 356 ; 

irpOTepairtpos 946 
wy>6s from Ep. TT/JOT/ 111 
irpovpyov, Trpovpyiairepos 356 
irpwros 356, TrpwriffTos 946 
7rr6Xe/ios, TrroXtj (Ion.) 828 
-TTTW : verbs in 634-636 
TrCp, irvp-6s 241 s 
TTWJ, irtis 401 

P, semivowel and liquid 31 ; initial always 
p 27 ; may end word 35 ; doubled after 
syl. aug. 77 (sometimes not, in dial. 
824) ; pp for earlier p<r 76, 78 (in Dor. 
818) ; p in Dor. and Aeol. for <r 818, 
819 ; p reduplic. 974 

pydios compared 354 8 , dial. 944 6 

pq.<av, pq.vTos 354 8 

priyvvfu : 2 pf. 717 

pr/Tup declined 240 

piy6ti} contr. 481 

pit declined 240, ptr 241 1 

pot adj. end. 1146 

S : two forms 12 ; spirant 31 ; surd 34 ; 


may end word 35 ; <r final dropped 69 ; 
off for later rr 76 ; mutes before <r 84 ; 
changes in <r 105-107 ; a in Dor. for 
6 818 ; rough breathing in Laconian 
for ff 818 ; <T<T in Aeol. for a 819; 
ff added to theme 616 ; ff dropped in 
endings -<u, -<ro : resulting dial, forms 
987; doubled in fut. and aor. (dial.) 
1018 ; ff retained in liquid fut. and aor. 
(dial.) 1019 ; ff dropped in fut. and aor. 
of some vowel verbs (Horn.) 1023, 1027 ; 
ff of end. -ffa assimilated in aor. of 
liquid verbs (dial. 1026) 

ffd\iriy declined 235 

ffa.vTOu = ffea,VTOu 375 

ff8 in Aeol. for f 819 ; ffSu in verbs 
(dial.) 1003 

-ffe local 284 

-ffetu desideratives 1155 

ffto, ffeu, ffeio, fftOev = ffov 950, 953 

-fff%- Dor. fut. 1022 

ffeavrov declined 374 

ffeuvrov etc. (Hdt.) 954 2 

<njs gen. du. and pi. accent 217 

-ffffa end. retained in Horn. 983 

ffOav Dor.=ff9t)v 979 2 

-ffOov = -ffdyv in Horn. 981 

~ffi local 285 ; -<rt end. 3 sing, retained 
in subj. (Horn.) 982; -<n end. 3 pers. 
pi. in Horn. 1015 1 

ffid noun suff. 1104 

ffit noun an ff. 1104 

ffnt\\u : metath. 708 ; 2 a. /it-form 767 

a Kid declined 180 

-ffK%- iterative impf. and aor. 1040, 1041 

-<TKw : verbs in 957-961 

ffpAu contr. 479 

-&%- as aor. end. for -aa- in Horn. 1028 

ff<n, thy, 377, dial. 955 1 

ffoQh declined 288 

-ffffu (-TTU) verbs in 637-647 

-fro. for ffTTjOi 703 

ffrt\\u : pf. mid. system : inflection etc. 

ffrpttjnt 728, 760 

ffv declension etc. 367-371, dial. 950-953 
noun suff. 1109 
, ff&, ff&a 950 
(Alcman) = fa 956 
pos, their, 337 ; <r<^re/>os = 8* 956 
uv, ff<f>eiwi> = (r<t>wv 950 
(v) = ff<f>iffi 950 

Dor. Horn. ff<t^rt(xn 955 1 ; = oi 956 
etc. 950 


declined 246, 247 (c) 
declined 237 
wj declined 300 
ffwTJp, voc. ffwTfp 219 

T, lingual smooth mute 30 ; euphonic 
changes, see linguals ; rr for earlier fftr 
76 ; r before vowels 85 ; r in Dor. and 
Aeol. for a 818, 819 ; r in New Ion. 
for 6 832 ; rr in Aeol. for r and ffa 819 

rdXds declined 323 

rajitJds declined 186 

ra.v Aeol. and Dor. =r>v 949 2 

rav Dor. end. = -rr/v 979 a 

-Tares superl. 337-349 

rax^s compared in dial. 943 

ruvrrj dem. adv. 401 

raw Horn. =ruv 949 2 

T^, ri/Dor. =fft 952 

-re adv. end. 1148 

rt8r-/iw 473 

retvu drops v 707 

retcs, ret'wj 963 4 

-reipa. noun suff. 1099 

ew : fut. 680 1 ; j)f. mid. system : inflec- 
tion etc. 484-489 
metath. 708 

T^O, rev, rtip, rttav, rtoiffi for rivos etc. 958 1 

reo, reos etc. Dor. for ffov 952, 953 

re6s Dor. Horn. =<r6s 955 1 

-T^OS vb. adj. 605 

re'pas 239 

rtprjv declined 324 

-repoj, -Tares compar. by 337-349 (dial. 
934-941) ; -repoj as end. 1139 

rtffffapes declined 409, dial. 964 

rerpaivw lengthens a to ij 675 

T^WJ, ace. T?o> 211 

rri, rfjde dem. adv. 401, 403 

njXfcos, rr]\(.Koffdf, rqXiKovros, 382, 383 

r^/toj 963 2 

Trjvlxa, r-rjviKddf, ripfinavra 401, 963 1 

rrpxn Dor. = ^KJ<OJ 957 2 

-Trip noun suff. 1099 

-T^HOJ adj. end. 1141 

-rr/j masc. nom. suff. 1099, 1113, 1119 ; 
fern, noun suff. 1 1 09 

rfjff(i) Horn. =Ta?i 949 a 

TI end. 3 p. sing. Dor. 979 1 

riypit, Tt'-ypt(5)oi 261 

: inflection 498 ; synopsis 508 ; 
impf. and imperative 500 ; aor. in -KO. 
501 ; opt. w-forms 504 
uiu, rl/jiu : pres. and impf. inflection 
477 ; synopsis 484 


1-ifj.ri declined 180 

riv Dor. =ffol 952, 953 

riot, T/(W)S Tarent. Dor. =<roO 952 

rit interrog. 385-387, 396, dial. 958 1 2 ; 

TI'S indef. 385-387, 396 ; accent 152, 

153 ; 6'o-osTis etc. 398 a 
-m fern, noun suff. 1099, 1104, 1113, 1119 
Tiy, rioifftv Lesb. Aeol. = rlvi, rl<nv 958 2 
rXa- : 2 a. /xi-forms 767 
r60t, roOfv 963 1 
Tot, rat Dor. and Ion. = art. ol, al 949 2 ; 

rot, retv-aoi 950, 952 ; roi M^" 1 S<* 

in Trag. 949 4 
-rot Arcadian for -rat 803 
rottV Horn. =TOIV 949 3 
roio Horn. =ToO 949 1 
Tolas, Tot6<rSe, rotoOroj 382, 383, 396 
rots Aeol. = TOI;S 949 2 
Tot(rof(ff)ffi Horn. 949 2 
Tot<n(i'), TOi<rt(y) poet. = TO?S, rats 949 2 
-rov end. = -TT/V in Horn. 981 
-TOS vb. adj. end. 605, 606 
To<ros, roa-offSf, TOffovros 382, 383, 396 ; 

r6cros in dial. 957 3 
Tocrcr^coj = roffovros 957 2 
TOTe 401 
rov=ffv 953 
TO^PO 963 4 
rpdirefa declined 180 
Tpe?s, T/a declined 409 
rpeirw 728, 760 
T/*'0w 728, 760 
-rpia noun suff. 1099 
rptpw : pf. mid. system : inflection etc. 


rpnf)pris accent 309 
-r/Hs fern, noun suff. 1099 
Tpov, -rpd noun suff. 1108 
Tpais gen. du. and pi. accent 217 
rij Lesb. Aeol. =<ri/ 953 ; Dor. =at 952 
T(5'77 = (riy 950, 952 
-rds noun suff. 1104 
TU> Aeol., Dor. =roO 949 1 
-rwp noun suff. 1099 
TWJ, <A?w, 401, 403, 963 1 : Ttij Aeol., 

Dor. =roi5s 949 2 

T doubtful vowel 15 ; v close 17 ; initial 
i always v in Attic 25 ; v lengthened 
to v 39, 40 ; u in contraction 47-52 ; 
v becomes v in augm. 526 ; v changed 
to fv or 01 in theme 621 4 ; v for F, see 
digamnia ; v for a and o in dial. 802 ; 
v for ot or v in Boeot. 804 ; v- stems 
in dial. 900 

CSup 238 
vi diphthong 18 

uv, etc. Dor. for fytets etc. 952 
, your, 377 
vn^uv, v/j.elwi> = vfj.wv 950 

, vnfie Aeol. = i 
950, 953 

Lesb. Aeol. 

I'Aioy Dor. Horn. = tfjuerepos 955 1 
-o^w denom. vb. -formation 1153 
-i/j nouns ; late gen. -eos 261 ; OT num- 
erals 426 
-us, -eta, -u : adj. in 316-318 ; as adj. suff. 


-rfs, -v<ra, -iiv part, in 329-333 
vff-Tfpos, -TCITOS 356 

<i> labial rough mute 30; euphonic changes, 

see labials and aspirated letters ; <f> in 

Aeol. for 6 819 
<f>aivu : synopsis 464; f., 1 aor., and 2 

pass, systems 465; pf.-mid. systems: 

inflection etc. 484-489 
<j>tptj) : aor. and 2 aor. 553, 684 
<j>evyw fut. 681 

tffrjfii : inflection etc. 779-781, dial. 1068 
<j>0dt>w : 2 a. /-form 767 
(fiiX-alrepos, -a.lra.Tos 354 9 
ipi\ew, <f>i\u : pr. and impf. inflected 

477, synopsis 483 
0/Xos declined 288 ; compared 35 4 9 
<pl\-repos, -TOTOS 354 9 
<(n(v) Ep. case-end. 914-917 
(f>\f\f/ declined 235 
<poLvl^, -JKOS, -t^t 236 1 
<pp-/iv declined 240 
<j>v\a. declined 235 
</>rfw : 2 a. /xi-forms 767 
0VS, blister, and 0ws, light ; gen. du. and 

pi. accent 217 ; #ws gen. 237 

X palatal rough mute 30 ; euphonic 
changes, see palatals and aspirated 

Xapieis declined 320 

X<?fw fut. 681 

Xeipuv, xefyHoros 354 2 

Xt\tSwv, voc. x f ^'5o? 254 

X<?w fut. 676, aor. 684 

Xpdw, xp^ / 140 ' contr. 479 

Xpri inflection 790, dial. 1072 

Xpi?crT>7s gen. pi. \prfiffrwv 177 

Xpncreos, xpvffovs declined 294 
>a declined 180 


^ double cons. 32 ; surd 34 ; may end a 

word 35 ; ^ in Aeol. for a 819 
\f>a.u contr. 479 
4t = ff<t* 952 

12 long 15 ; open 17 ; interchanged with 
i) 42 ; w in Aeol. for ov 803 ; in Ion. 
for o 813, for d, 17, a: 1 , ov 817 ; verbs in 
-w 457 ; w in contr. 47, 48, 52 ; nouns 
in -w 251, 253 ; adv. in -u compared 
362 ; verbs in -u 457, inflection in -w 

607, 608; w Aeol., Dor., Ion. gen. 

for -ov 8S3 4 ", 884 a , 885 1 

-w, -s, - as pf. endings in Theoc. 1034 

if improper diphth. 18 

i&Se, so, 401 

-udTjs, -w5es, adj. end. 1142 

-%- them, vowel of subj. ; in dial. 1044- 

we noun suff. 1127 ; -wv Dor., Aeol. inf. 

end. for -oOi' 1053, 1054 ; -uv Aeol. 

part, for -ws 1056 ; -<av, -ov adj. in 309; 

-we, -ovffa, -ov part, in 329-335 
-ws adv. end. 1148 ; -ws, -uv adj. end. 

298 ; -ws Dor. for -ovs ace. pi. 885 3 ; 

-ws part, end., in Horn. 1059 ; -an, -via, 

-6s part, in 329-333 ; -ws, -w<ra, -w or -6s 

part, in 336 
ws, thus, 401, 403 ; ws rel. adv., as, that 

401 ; ws = oCrws 963 1 
Oxrirep, as, that 401 
-wcnrw, -WTTW verbs 1156 
-w-repos, -w-raros compar. superl. 345 
wu diphth. 18 




Ability, adjectives of 1130, 1140, 1141 

Abstract nouns 1104-1106 

Accent : nature and principles of 123-156 ; 
nature of Greek accent 123 ; selection 
of syl. to be accented 124-128 ; kinds 
of accent 128 ; mark of 129-131 ; place 
of 132 ; words named according to 
(oxytone etc.) 133; recessive 134; 
accent of antepenult, penult, ultima 
135; of final -at and -od36; of genitives 
in -ews, -fuv, -ew, and compounds in 
-ws 137 ; change and moving of accent 
139 ; of contracted syllables 140, 141 ; 
acute of oxytone changed to grave 143 ; 
accent with crasis 144, with elision 
145 ; anastrophe 146 ; words distin- 
guished by accent 147 ; proclitics 149, 
150 ; enclitics 151-156 ; accent in 
dialects 874-879 ; accent of nouns 
171 ; of 1st decl. 176-178; of 2nd decl. 
198, 203, 207 ; of 3rd decl. 216-222 ; 
accent of adjectives 287, 293, 297, 308, 
309, 816 ; accent of participles 330, 
514, 517 2 , 518 2 ; accent of verbs 512- 
521 ; with final -at and -01 of opt. 512 ; 
of contr. forms 140, ultima of verb 
accented 517, penult of verb accented 

518, accent of compound verbs 521 ; 
accent of compound words 1179-1194 

Accusative case, formation, see Endings 
of cases 

Action, suffixes denoting 1104-1106 

Active verbs with fut. mid. 791 

Active voice 430, 432 

Acute accent 128 ; changed to grave in 
oxytoues 142 

Addition of vowels 72, 73, dial. 860 

Adjectives and participles, inflection 286- 
336 ; of 1st and 2nd decl. 286-305 ; of 
3rd decl. 306-314 ; of 1st and 3rd decl. 
315-326 ; irregular adjectives 326, 327 ; 
contract adjectives 315-318, 322 : 
dialectic forms of adj. 918-933, of part. 
918-933 ; comparison of adj. 337-356, 
dial. 934-946 ; numeral adj. 427, 428; 
formation of adj. 1131-1147 ; sea 
also Table of Contents 

Adverbs 357-363: from adj. 857, 859, 
from part. 358, from steins of nouns 
and pronouns 284, 285 ; neg. adv. 
399 2 ; dial, forms of adv. 947, 948 ; 
comparison 360-363 ; correlative ad- 
verbs401-405; numeraladvv. 406, 422, 
425; formation of advv. 1148-1152 


Aeolic dialect 3 

Agent, suffixes denoting 1099-1103 

Alphabet 11, obsolete letters 14 ; history 
37 ; pronunciation 38 

Anastrophe 146 

Antepenult 11 4 2 ; accent of 135 

Aorist tense, augm. 523-534, reduplication 

Aphaeresis 857 

Apocope 856 

Article 364-366, dial. 949 ; dual masc. 
used as fern. 365 ; crasis with, 58 1 ; 
proclitic 149 

Aspirate mutes 30 

Aspirated letters : changes in 98-104 ; 
mutes before 98 ; in successive syllables 
100, 101 ; aspirate thrown back in 
cases like rpe<f>- for 6pe<t>- 102, 103, 
thrown forward in ira.a\u> 104 

Assimilation of vowels in Epic 861 

Attic dialect 6 ; Att. 2nd decl. 206-211 ; 
Att. redupl. 548-550, in dial. 978 ; 
Att. flit. 680 

Attributive compounds 1198 

Augment 453, 523-534, 554-568; 
syllabic 524, 525, 533, 534 ; temporal 
526-534 ; of plupf. 524, 546, 550 ; 
of compound verbs 554-568 ; augment 
in dial. 968-971, omitted in dial. 960 

Barytones 133 

Belonging or pertaining to, adjectives 

Breathings 23 ; place of 25 ; form 26 ; 
with v and p 25, 27 ; dropped in middle 
of compounds 28 ; in dial. 833 

Cardinal numbers 406-414, 416 

Cases 166 ; meaning 167 ; endings 170, 
of 1st decl. 174, 175 ; of 2nd decl. 196, 
197 ; of 3rd decl. 224-232 

Circumflex accent 128 ; its origin 130 ; in 
contr. syl. 140, 141 

Classes of Verbs, eight 623-663: I. 
(Thematic-Vowel Class) 623-629 ; II. 
(Strong -Vowel Class) 630-633; III. 
(T-Class) 634-657 ; IV. (Iota Class) 637- 
651 ; V. (N-Class) 652-656 ; VI. (In- 
choative Class) 657-661 ; VII. (Verb- 
stem Class) 662 ; VIII. (Mixed Class) 
663; in dialects 998-1008: 1.998; II. 
999 ; III. 1000 ; IV. 1001-1004 ; V. 
1005 ; VI. 1006 ; VII. 1007 ; VIII. 

Close vowels 17 

Common dialect 7 

Comparison of adjectives 337-356, in 
dial. 934-946 ; of adverbs 360-363 

Compound verbs, augm. and redupl. 554- 

Compound words 1074, 1160-1200 ; first 
part of 1161-1170; last part of 1171- 
1178 ; accent of compounds 1179- 
1194 ; meaning of compounds 1195- 

Conjugation of verbs in -w 459-489 ; of 
verbs in -/ju 490-511 

Consonants : division of 29 ; mutes 30 ; 
semi-vowels 31 ; double 32 ; labials, 
palatals, linguals 33 ; surds, sonants 
34 ; final 35 ; relation of 36 ; movable 
64-69 (in dialects 858, 859) ; final in 
formations 109-113 ; changes of con- 
sonants 75-113 ; doubling of 75-78 ; 
euphony of 79 ; variations in dialects 

Contract nouns : 1st decl. 191-194 ; 2nd 
decl. 202-205 

Contract adjectives 290-295, 307-310, 
315-318, 322 

Contract participles 334-336 

Contraction : rules of 47-52 ; quantity of 
contr. syl. 121 ; accent of contr. syl. 
140 ; contraction in dialects 844-848 ; 
contraction of verbs 477-483, in dial. 

Coronis 53 

Correlation : of pronouns 396-400, in 
dial. 962 ; of adverbs 401-405, in dial. 

Crasis 53-58 ; quantity in 121 ; accent in 
144 ; crasis in dialects 849-852 

Dative case, see Formation and Endings 
of cases 

Declensions 168, 169, 172 ; of nouns: 1st 
decl. 173-194 (dial. 881-884), 2nd decl. 
195-213 (dial. 885-888), 3rd decl. 214- 
276 (dial. 889-901), irregular dccl. 277- 
283 (dial. 903-909) ; of adjectives and 
participles 286-366 : 1st and 2nd decl. 
286-305, of 3rd decl. 306-314, of 1st 
and 3rd 315-326 ; of contract adjectives 
290-295, 307-310, 315-318, 322; of 
irreg. adj. 326, 327 

Defective nouns 281, dial. 908 

Demonstrative pronouns 379-384, 396, 
400 ; dial. 957 

Denominative nouns 1109-1129; verbs 
446, 1153-1159 ; words 1092 


Deponent veros 432, witb passive mean- 
ing 795 

Derivative adjectives 1132-1147 

Desiderative verbs 1155, 1156 

Determinative compounds 1196, 1197 

Diaeresis marks (") 20 

Dialects in literature 10 ; dialects treated 
in detail 801-1072 

Digamma or Vau 14 1 4 , 834-839 ; forms 
duo to omission of 108 

Diminutive nouns 1123-1126 

Diphthongs 18 ; improper 18 ; spurious 
19 ; Latin equivalents 22 

Distributive numerals 423 

Doric dialect 4 ; genitive 190 ; fut. 681 

Double consonants 32 ; double forms of 
nouns 280, dial. 907 

Elision 59-63, in dial. 855 ; in compounds 
63 ; no elision in certain cases 62 ; 
accent with elision 145 

Enclitics 151, 152; rules for 153-155; 
accented when emphatic 156 ; enclitic 
as last part of compound 153 6 , 155 ; 
successive enclitics 156" 

Endings: of cases 70; 1st decl. 174, 175 ; 
2nd decl. 196, 197 ; 3rd dec!. 224-232 ; 
local 284, 285, dial. 91 0-91 a ; Epic 914- 
917 ; of verb 452 ; personal endings 
of verb 574-598, indie. 575-582, subj. 
and opt. 583, imperative 584-586, re- 
marks on verb -endings 587-598; 
participial and verbal adjective endings 
602-606, in dial. 1055-1061 ; infinitive 
endings 599-601 

Epenthesis 73 

Epic case-endings 914-917 

Epicene nouns 165 

Euphony of vowels 39-74 ; of consonants 

First-aorist system : formation 682-686, 
dial. 1018-1028 ; inflection 687-690 

First-future passive 757 

First-passive system : formation 750-752, 
757, dial. 1038 ; inflection 753-757 

First-perfect system ; formation 704-709, 
in dial. 1031, 1034, 1036, 1037 ; in- 
flection 710-714 

Fitness or ability, adjectives of 1130, 
1140, 1141 

Formation of words 1074-1200, see Table 
of Contents 

Fractions 419, 420 

Frequentative verbs 1157, 1159 

Fulness, adjectives of 1138, 1142 
Future : conjugation in liquid verbs 465 ; 
future middle with passive meaning 
973 ; future-perfect 748, 749, 1037 ; 
fut. -pf. formed by periphrasis 473, 474 ; 
future tense-system (formation and 
inflection) 673-681, in dial. 1818-1028, 
fut. with present form 676, Attic fut. 
680, Doric fut. 681 

Gender 161 ; natural and grammatical 

162 ; rules of 163 ; common 164 ; 

epicenes 165; gender of 1st decl. 

173 ; of 2nd decl. 195, 212, 213 ; of 3rd 

decl. 267-276 
Genitive case : formation, see Endings of 


Gentile nonns, suffixes 1119-1122 
Grave accent 128, for acute in oxytones 

Greeks 1 ; Greek language : its history 

and dialects 2-10 

Hellenistic Greek 8 
Heterogeneous nouns 277, dial. 904 
Heteroclite nouns 278, dial. 905 
Hiatus 46 

Imperative : personal endings of 584- 
586; formationof: present system 671, 
672 ; first-aorist system 690 ; second- 
aorist system 702, 703 ; first-perfect 
system 714 ; second - perfect 724 ; 
perfect-middle 746, 747 ; first-passive 
system 756 ; second-passive svstem 761 

Imperfect tense : augment 523-534 ; 
-0%- 1042 

Improper diphthongs 18 

Inceptive verbs 657 

Indeclinable nouns 282 

Indefinite pronouns 385-389, 396-400, in 
dial. 958 ; accent 387 ; indef. re- 
latives 393, 395, 396, 400 

Indicative : formation : present system 
664, 665 ; future 673-681 ; first-aorist 
682-688 ; second-aorist 691-696 ; first- 
perfect 704-709 ; second-perfect 715- 
722 ; perfect-middle 726-731 ; first- 
passive system 750-752 ; second-passive 
system 758-760 ; personal endings 
575-582, in dial. 979-989 

Infinitive endings 599-601, in dial. 1052- 

Inflection 158 ; of verbs, two forms 456 ; 
common form 607, 608 ; /u-form 609 ; 


present system 664-672; future 
system 673 ; first-aorist system 687- 
690 ; second-aorist system 691, 697- 
703 ; first-perfect system 710-714 ; 
second-perfect system 722-725 ; perfect- 
middle system 732-749 ; first-passive 
system 753-757 ; second-passive system 
761, 762 

Instrument, suffixes denoting 1108 

Intensive pronouns, see Personal pro- 
nouns ; intens. verbs 1157, 1159 

Interchange: of vowels 42-44 ; of quantity 
45, in dial. 843 

Interrogative pronouns 385-388, 396, 
400 ; in dial. 958 ; accent 387 

Ionic dialect 5 ; Ionic genitive 189 

Iota subscript 21 

Irregular nouns 277-283 

Iterative aorist, impf. in -<TK%- 1040, 1041 

Koppa, obsolete letter 14 1 2 * 

Labials 33, labial mutes 30 
Lengthening of vowels 39 ; compensative 

40, 41, in dial. 840-842 
Lingiials 33'; lingual mutes 30 
Liquids : v before consonants 90-95 ; 

liquids before y 96 4 5 ; liquid verbs 

447, 610 

Local endings 284, 285, dial. 910-913 
Locative case 285 
Long vowels 15, 16 

Material, adjectives of 1135, 1136 
Means, suffixes denoting 1108 
Metaplastic nouns 279, dial. 906 
Metathesis 71, 74, dial. 862 ; in verb 

stem 620, dial. 994 
Middle deponents 792 ; middle mutes 

30 ; midille passives 796 ; middle 

voice 430-432 
Modern Greek 9 
Moods 433, 434 ; mood-suffix 451. of 

subjunctive 571, of optative 570, 571 
Movable consonants 64-69, in dial. 856, 


Multiplicatives 424 
Mute verbs 447, 610 
Mutes 29 ; classes and orders 30 ; cognate, 

co-ordinate, aspirate 30 ; labial, palatal, 

lingual 30 ; smooth, middle, rough 30 ; 

mutes before mutes 80-83 ; before a 

84 ; before /j. 86-89 ; r before vowels 

85 ; quantity of vowel before mute 

and liquid 119, 120 

Negative adverbs 399 a ; pronouns 399 

Notation 406, 417, 418 

Nominative case : formation, see Endings 
of cases ; norn. for voc. 201 

Nouns 160-283, dial. 881-909 ; see Table 
of Contents; formation 1093-1130 

Numbers 440 ; of nouns 160, 880 ; of 
verbs 440 

Numerals 406-429 ; cardinals 406-4] 4, 
416.; ordinals 406, 408, 415, 421 ; 
numeral adverbs 406, 422, 425 ; nota- 
tion 406, 417, 418 ; fractions 419, 420 ; 
distributives 423 ; multiplicatives 424 ; 
numeral nouns 426 ; numeral adjectives 
427, 428 ; numeral pronom. adj. 412, 
429 ; numerals in dial. 964-967 

Objective compounds 1199 

Open vowels 17 

Optative : formation : present 668-670, 
in contr. vbs. 478 ; future 673 ; first- 
aorist system 689 ; second-aoiist system 
699-701; first-perfect system 713; 
second-perfect system 722, 723 ; perfect- 
middle 744, 745 ; first-passive system 
755; second -passive system 761; 
opt. in dial. 1049-1051 ; verbs in -/M. 
502, 504 ; opt. mood-suffix 570, 571 ; 
opt. personal endings 583 

Ordinal numbers 406, 408, 415, 421 

Oxy tones 133 

Palatals 33, pal. mutes 30 

Paroxy tones 133 

Participles 435 ; declensions, formation, 

etc. 328-336, in dial. 1055-1061 ; 

endings 602-606 
Passive voice 430-432, pass, deponents 


Patronymics, suffixes 1116-1118 
Penult 114 2 ; accent of 135 2 
Perfect-middle system 726-731 ; pf.-mid. 

with consonant stems 484-489; addition 

of ff to stem 730, 731 ; inflection 732- 

749, 3rd pers. pi. 739-741 
Perfect tense : periphrastic forms 470- 

472 ; reduplication 535-550, 554-568 
Periphrastic forms : pf. and pi. pf. : act. 

ind. 470, subj. and opt. 471 ; pf. mid. 

subj. and opt. 472 ; fut. pf. act 473 ; 

fut. pf. pass. 474 
Perispomena 133 
Person related, nouns denoting 1113- 

Persons of verb 441, 442 


Personal and intensive pronouns 367- 
373, in dial. 950-953 

Place, nouns of 1127-1129 

Pluperfect tense : augm. and redupl. 
524, 546, 550 ; periphrastic forms 470- 

Possessive compounds 1198 ; poss. pro- 
nouns 377, 378 ; in dial. 955, 956 

Present tense: redupl. 551, 552 ; present 
system 622-672, in dial. 998-1008, 1015; 
present formation (eight classes of 
verbs) 623-663 ; inflection 664-672 ; 
present redupl. 551, 552 

Primary tenses 437-439 

Primitive adjectives 1130, 1131, nouns 
1093-1108, verbs 446 ; primitive words 

Principal parts of verbs 455, 489 

Proclitics 149 ; accented 150; encl. before 
encl. 153* 

Pronominal adjectives, numeral 412, 429 

Pronouns : see Personal and Intensive, 
Reflexive, Reciprocal, Possessive, De- 
monstrative, Interrogative and Inde- 
finite, Relative ; also Correlation of 
Pronouns, and the Table of Contents. 
Negative pronouns 399 

Proparoxytone 133 

Properispomenon 133 

Prothesis 72 

Punctuation 157 

Quality : adjectives of 1144 ; nouns de- 
noting 1109-1112 

Quantity: of syllables 116-122, in dial. 
863-873 ; evident in various ways 121 ; 
exchange of quantity 45, in dial. 843 ; 
of 1st decl. 179, of 2nd decl. 199, of 
3rd decl. 223 

Reciprocal pronouns 376 

Reduplication 454, 535-568 ; of perf. 

stem 53f>-545, 548, 549 ; of pres. stem 

551, 552; 'of aor. 553; of compound 

verbs 554-568 ; Attic redupl. 548-550 ; 

redupl. of verb-stem 618, in dial. 

997; redupl. in dial. 972-977, rarely 

omitted in dial. 997 

Reflexive pronouns 374, 375, in dial. 954 
Relative pronouns 390-395, 396, 400, in 

dial. 959, 960 

Result, nouns denoting 1107 
Root and stem 159 ; roots 1075, 1076, 

changes in 1079-1091 
Rougli breathing 23-28 ; rough mutes 30 

Sampi, obsolete letter 14 1 3 * 

Second-aorist middle with passive mean- 
ing 794 

Second-aorist system : formation 691 
696, in dial. 1029, 1030; inflection 
691, 699-703 ; formation in -6%- 1043 

Second future pass. 762, 1039 

Second -passive system 758-763 

Second-perfect system : formation 715- 
721, in dial. 1031-1033, 1035, 1036; 
inflection 722-725 

Second-pluperfect 725 

Secondary tenses 437-439 

Semi -vowels 31 

Short vowels 15, 16 

Similarity, adjectives of 1142 

Simple and compound words 1074 

Smooth breathing 23, 24, 26 ; smooth 
mutes 30 

Sonants and surds 34 

Spirant y as in yet 5 ; spirants F and y 
31 ; changes before y 96, 97 

Spurious diphthongs 19 

Stems 159, 1077 ; changes in 1079-1091 ; 
stems and root 159 

Strong and weak root-vowels-interchanged 
44, 621 4 

Subjunctive : formation : present 666, 
667 ; first-aor. 688 ; second-aor. 697, 
998 ; first-perfect 712 ; second-perfect 
722 ; perfect-middle 742, 743 ; first- 
passive system 754; second - passive 
system 761 ; subj. personal endings 
583; subj. in dial. 1044-1048 

Subscript iota 21 

Suffixes 1077 ; tense-suffix 569; optative 
mood-suffix 572, 573 

Surds and sonants 34 

Syllables 114 ; division of 115 ; quantity 
of 116-122 

Syncopated nouns 243 

Syncope 70, 71 ; of verb-stem 619, in 
dial. 993 

Synizesis 853, 854 

Tense-stems 448 
Tense-suffix 569, in dial. 978 
Tense-systems 449 ; formation 610-790 
Tenses, 436-439 ; meaning of 458 
Thematic vowel 450, 570, 571 
Theme, see verb-stem 
Theme-vowels variable in quantity 612 
Time, adjectives denoting 1137 
Transitive and intransitive meanings 
mixed 797 


Ultima 114 2 ; accent of 135 s 

Vau 14, see Digamma 

Verb-stem 443, 444 ; relation to present 
stem 610-633 ; changes in 611-621 (in 
dial. 990-997) ; theme-vowel of variable 
quantity 612 ; e added 613 (in dial. 
990) ; a and o added 614 (in dial. 991); 
short final vowel retained 615 (in dial. 
992) ; ff added 616 ; v omitted 617 
(in dial. 995) ; reduplicated 618 (in 
dial. 997) ; syncopated 619 (in dial. 
993) ; metathesis 620 (in dial. 994) ; 
root-vowel changed 621 (in dial. 996) 

Verbal adjectives 435 ; endings of 605, 

Verbs 430-800, 1073; dial, forms 

1072 ; verbs in -u and -/ 457 ; see 
also Table of Contents ; also Index 
under Voices, Moods, Tenses, etc. 

Vocative case: formation: see Endings of 

Vowel verbs 447, 610 

Vowels 15 ; open and close 17 ; short and 
long 15, 16; changes in 39-74; length- 
ening 39 ; compensative lengthening 
40, 41 ; interchange 42, 43 ; strong and 
weak 44 ; exchange of quantity 45 ; 
see also Contraction of vowels ; varia- 
tions of vowels in dialects 801-817i 
assimilation in Epic 861 

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