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(In Preparation.) 

This work, already completed by the Author, will contain all the 
facts of any importance in Greek Syntax, with copious citation and 
translation of illustrative examples. The Syntax of Attic Prose is 
distinguished from the Syntax of Poetry and the Dialects, the latter 
being printed in shorter lines. The general system of arrangement 
will be such as to facilitate the use of the book, both for general study 
and for reference. 
















The Alphabet 

11-14. The Alphabet . 

15-22. Vowels and Diphthongs 

23-28. Breathings 

29-36. Consonants .... 

37. Historical Note on the Alphabet 

38. Pronunciation 





Changes of Vowels 

39. Lengthening 

40-41. Compensative Lengthening . 
42-43. Interchange of Vowels 

44. Strong and Weak Root- Vowels 

45. Exchange of Quantity . 
46-52. Contraction .... 

53-58. Crasis 

59-63. Elision .... 
64-69. Movable Consonants . 
70-71. Syncope .... 
72-73. Addition of Vowels 

74. Metathesis . 






Changes of Consonants 


75-78. Doubling of Consonants . . . . . . . . 26-27 

79. Euphony of Consonants ........ 27 

80-83. Mutes before Mutes 27 

84. Mutes before <r 28 

85. T before Vowels 28 

86-89. Mutes before //, 28 

90-95. v before Consonants ......... 29 

96-97. Changes before y 30-31 

98-104. Changes in Aspirated Letters . . 31-32 

105-107. On o- 32-33 

108. On f 33 

109-113. Final Consonants 33-34 

114-122. Syllables : their Division and Quantity 34-36 


123-127. Principles of Greek Accent 36-37 

128-146. General Rules of Accent 38-41 

140-141. Accent of Contracted Syllable 41 

144. Accent with Crasis ......... 41 

145. Accent with Elision 41 

146. Anastrophe . . . . ... . . . 41 

147-148. Words distinguished by Accent ...... 41-42 

149-150. Proclitics 42 

151-156. Enclitics . 43-44 

157. Punctuation 45 


158-159. Inflection, Stems, Roots 46 


160-167. Nouns : their Numbers, Genders, Cases ..... 47-48 
168-172. Declensions : Case-endings, Accent 48-49 


173-190. Stems, Case - endings, Accent, and Paradigms of the First 

Declension . . . . . . . . . 49-53 

191-194. Contract Nouns of the First Declension 53-54 



195-201. Stems, Case-endings, Accent, and Paradigms of the Second 

Declension ......... 54-56 

202-205. Contract Nouns of the Second Declension .... 56 

206-211. Attic Second Declension 57-58 

212-213. Gender of the Second Declension 58-59' 


214-223. Stems, Accent, and Quantity of the Third Declension . . 59-61 

224-232. Formation of Cases 61-64 

233. Stems classified 64 

234-239. Mute Stems (including Paradigms) . . . . , . 64-67 

240-242, Liquid Stems (including Paradigms) . 67-68 

243. Syncopated Stems (including Paradigms) .... 68-69 

244-249. Stems ending in cr (including Paradigms) . 69-70 

250-254. Stems ending in w or o (including Paradigms) .... 71-72 

255-261. Stems ending in i or v (including Paradigms) .... 72-73 

262-266. Stems ending in a Diphthong (including Paradigms) . . 73-75 

267-276. Gender of the Third Declension . 75-76 

277-283. Irregular Declension . . . , . . . . 77-79 
284-285. Local Endings 79-80 

Adjectives .and Participles 


286-289. Adjectives of Three Endings 80-81 

290-295. Contract Adjectives in -eo? and -oos 81-83 

296-304. Adjectives of Two Endings 83-84 

305. Adjectives of One Ending 84 


306-313. Adjectives of Two Endings 84-86 

314. Adjectives of One Ending 86 

315-325. Formation and Inflection of the ahove 86-89 

326-327. Inflection of pya.s, iro\ts, jrpaos 89-90 

328. Participles in -os, -77, -ov , . 90 




329-333. Participles with Stems in -vr- 90-92 

334-335. Contract Participles in -A.wv, -twv, -buv .... 92-93 

336. Contract Participles in -dws 93-94 


337-349. Comparison by -re/sos and -raros ...... 94-95 

350-353. Comparison by -tuv, -to-ros ....... 95-96 

354-356. Irregular Comparison ........ 96-97 

Adverbs and their Comparison 

357-359. Formation of Adverbs 98 

360-363. Comparison of Adverbs ... ... 98 

The Article 

364-366. Declension of the Article 6, 77, TO 99 


367-373. Personal and Intensive Pronouns 99-100 

374-375. Reflexive Pronouns 100-101 

376. Reciprocal Pronoun ........ 101 

377-378. Possessive Pronouns ........ 101 

379-384. Demonstrative Pronouns ........ 102-103 

385-389. Interrogative and Indefinite Pronouns 103-104 

390-395. Relative Pronouns 104-105 

396-400. Correlation of Pronouns 105-106 

401-405. Correlation of Adverbs 106-107 


406-407. Cardinal and Ordinal Numbers, and Numeral Adverbs 

408-416. Declension of Ordinals and Cardinals, etc. . 

417-418. Notation 

420. Fractions ......... 

421-429. Various Numeral Words 



430-442. Voices, Moods, Tenses, Numbers, Persons 



443-454. Verb -stems, Kinds of Verbs, Thematic Vowel, Suffixes, 

Endings, Augment, Reduplication . . 
455 Principal Parts of a Verb 





456-457. Two Forms of Inflection Verbs in -u and Verbs in -ju . 117-118 

458. Meaning of the Tenses ........ 118 


459. Account of the following Paradigms ..... 118 

460. Synopsis of Xdw ...... . . . 119 

461. Conjugation of Xdw ........ 120-124 

462. Synopsis of Xeorw ...... ... 125 

463. Conjugation of 2 Aor. arid 2 Perf. Systems of Xe^Tro) . . 126 

464. Synopsis of (f>aivu ......... 127 

465. Conjugation of the Fut., 2 Aor., and 2 Passive Systems of 

0cuVo> . ......... 128-129 

466-476. Notes on the Conjugation of Verbs in -w . . . 130 

477. Conjugation of Contract Verbs in -da, -&;, -6w . . . 131-133 

478-482. Notes on the Contract Verbs ...... 134 

483. Synopsis of rt/xdw, 0iX^u>. 77X60;, dypdw .... 134-136 

484-489. Perfect and Pluperfect Middle and Passive of Verbs with 

Consonant Stems ........ 136-139 


490-497. Characteristics of Verbs in -/it ...... 139-140 

498. Inflection of the Present and Second-Aorist Systems of T^TJ/U, 

'ia-Tfjfjn, didwfju, ddnvVfju., also 28vv and tirp(.&ivt]v . . 140-145 

499. Inflection of the Second-Perfect System of 'Lor^i . . . 145-146 
500-507. Notes on the Conjugation of Verbs in -/it .... 146-147 
508-511. Synopsis of riOrjfju, t<rr7//At, 5idu/M, 5eiKvv/M . 147-150 


512-516. General Rules 
517-521. Special Rules 

522. Elements of a Verb 


523. Definition of Augment 

524-525. Syllabic Augment 

526-534. Temporal Augment 

535-547. Reduplication of the Perfect, Plupf., and Fut. Perf. 

548-550. Attic Reduplication 

551-552. Reduplicated Presents 

553. Reduplicated Aorists 

554-568. Augment and Reduplication in Compound Verbs . 










569. Tense-Suffixes 160-161 

570-571. Thematic Vowel 161-162 

572-573. Optative Mood-Suffix 162-163 


574. Endings enumerated ........ 163 

557-586. Personal Endings of the Indie., Subj., Opt., Imper. . . 163-165 

587-598. Observations on the Personal Endings ..... 165-167 

599-601. Infinitive Endings 167-168 

602-606. Participial and Verbal Adjective Endings .... 168-170 

607-609. T\vo Forms of Inflection (Common Form and /u-Form) . . 170-171 


610. Verb-Stem and Present Stem 172 

611-621. Irregularities and Changes in the Verb-Stem . . . 172-174 

622-663. Formation of the Present System (Eight Classes of A r erbs) . 174-184 

664-672. Inflection of the Present System 184-186 

673-681. Formation and Inflection of the Future System . . . 186-189 

682-686. Formation of the First- Aorist System 189-191 

687-690. Inflection of the First- Aorist System 191 

691-703. Formation and Inflection of the Second-Aorist System . . 191-194 

704-709. Formation of the First-Perfect System 194-195 

710-714. Inflection of the First -Perfect System 195-196 

715-721. Formation of the Second-Perfect System .... 196-197 

722-725. Inflection of the Second-Perfect System .... 198 

726-731. Formation of the Perfect-Middle System .... 198-200 

732-747. Inflection of the Perfect-Middle System .... 200-203 

748-749. Future-Perfect 203 

750-752. Formation of the First-Passive System 203-204 

753-756. Inflection of the First-Passive System 204 

757. First-Future Passive 204-205 

758-760. Formation of the Second-Passive System .... 205-206 

761. Inflection of the Second-Passive System ..... 206 

762-763. Second-Future Passive 205 


764-766. Presents in -/w 206-207 

767. Second-Aorists of the /u-Form 207-208 

768. Second -Perfects of the /it-Form . . . 208-209 

769. Irregular Verbs of the /xt-Form 209 

770-790. Inflection of iV", dpi, el/ui, ^T/AU, v/yucu, Ke?Mcu, olda, 7)/*l, XPV 209-216 



791. Active Verbs with Future Middle 216-217 

792. Middle and Passive Deponents . . . . . 217-218 

793. Future Middle with Passive Meaning ..... 218 

794. Second-Aorist Middle with Passive Meaning . . . 218 

795. Deponents with Passive Meaning ...... 218 

796. Middle Passives 218-219 

797-800. Mixture of Transitive and Intransitive Meanings . . . 219-220 




801-804. Vowels in Aeolic and Doric compared with Attic . . . 221-222 

805-814. Vowels in Old Ionic (Epic) compared with Attic . . . 222-223 

815-817. Vowels in New Ionic compared with Attic .... 223-224 

818. Consonants in Doric compared with Attic .... 224-225 

819. Consonants in Aeolic compared with Attic .... 225 
820-831. Consonants in Old Ionic (Epic) compared with Attic . . 225-226 

832. Consonants in New Ionic compared with Attic . . . 226 

833. Breathings in Dialects 226 

834-839. Digamma 227-228 

840-843. Compensative Lengthening and Exchange of Quantity in 

Dialects 228 

844-852. Contraction and Crasis in Dialects 228-230 

853-857. Synizesis, Elision, Apocope, Aphaeresis in Dialects . . 230-231 

858-859. Movable Consonants in Dialects ...... 231 

860-861. Addition and Assimilation of Vowels in Dialects . . . 231 

862. Metathesis in Dialects 231 

863-873. Quantity in Dialects 231-233 

874-879. Accent in Dialects . . . . . % . . . 233 


880. Numbers in Dialects 233 


881-884. First Declension in Dialects 234-235 

885-888. Second Declension in Dialects 235-236 

889-902. Third Declension in Dialeets 236-240 

903-909. Irregular Declension in Dialects 240-242 



910-913. Local Endings in Dialects 242 

914-917. Epic Case-ending -<f>i(v) 242-243 

918-933. Dialectic Variations in Adjective Forms .... 243-244 

934-946. Comparison of Adjectives in Dialects .... 245-246 

947-948. Certain Dialectic Adverbs. ...... 246 


949. The Article in Dialects 246-247 

950-953. Personal Pronouns in Dialects ...... 247 

954. Reflexive Pronouns in Dialects ...... 248 

955-956. Possessive Pronouns in Dialects ..... 248 

957. Demonstrative Pronouns in Dialects 248 

958. Interrogative and Indefinite Pronouns in Dialects . . 248 

959-961. Relative Pronouns in Dialects 248-249 

962-963. Dialectic Correlative Pronouns and Adverbs . . . 249 

964-967. The Numerals in Dialects 249-250 


968-971. The Augment in Dialects 250-251 

972-977. Reduplication in Dialects . ..... 251-252 

978. Tense-Suffixes in Dialects 252 

979-989. Personal Endings in Dialects 252-254 


990-997. Changes in Verb-Stem in Dialects 254 

998-1008. Present System (Eight Classes of Verbs) in Dialects . . 254-256 

1009-1014. Contract Verbs in Dialects 256-257 

1015-1017. Mi-Form of Present System in Dialects .... 257-258 

1018-1028. Future and First-Aorist Systems in Dialects . . . 258-259 

1029-1030. Second-Aorist System in Dialects ...'.. 259 

10:J1-1037. Perfect and Perfect-Middle Systems in Dialects . . 259 

1038-1039. Passive Systems in Dialects 259-260 

1040-1041. Iterative Imperfects and Aorists in -cr/c^. . . . 260 

1042-1043. Formation in -B% 260-261 

1044-1048. Subjunctive in Dialects . ..... 261 

1049-1051. Optative in Dialects 261-262 

1052-1054. Infinitive in Dialects 262 

1055-1061. Participles in Dialects 262-263 

1062-1072. Enumeration of Dialectic /it-Forms 263-265 


Catalogue of Verbs 


1073. General List of Attic and Dialectic Verbs .... 265 314 


1074. Simple and Compound Words 315 

Formation of Simple Words 

1075-1076. Roots 315 

1077-1078. Suffixes 315-316 

1079-1091. Changes in Roots and Stems 316-317 

1092. Primitives and Denominatives ...... 317 


1093-1108. Primitives 317-320 

1109-1129. Denominatives 320-323 


1130-1131. Primitive Adjectives 324 

1132-1147. Derivative Adjectives 324-327 

1148-1152. Formation of Adverbs ....... 327-328 


1153-1154. Forms in -<w, -eo>, etc. 328-329 

1155-1159. Desideratives, Intensives, etc 329 

Compound Words 

1160. Elements of a Compound 330 

1161-1170. First Part of a Compound . 330-332 

1171-1178. Last Part of a Compound 332-333 

1179-1194. Accent of Compounds 333-335 

1195-1200. Meaning of Compounds 335-336 

INDEXES . . 337 



1. The Greeks. 1. The ancient Greeks were a branch of 
the great Indo-European or Aryan family of nations comprising 
the Indian, Persian, Italic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic peoples. 
Their national name was Hellenes ("EXX^z/e?), which was applied 
to all Greeks of whatever locality, and their country was called 
Hellas ('EXXa?). The Eomans called them Graeci, whence our 
name Greeks. The Hellenic race was divided into three main 
divisions : the Aeolians (AioXefc), the Dorians (Awptefc), and the 
lonians ("I owe?). 

2. At the time of the composition of the Homeric poems, the division 
into Aeolians, Dorians, and lonians was unknown ; nor was there a general 
name, as Hellenes, for the whole race. Homer uses the names Hellas and 
Hellenes only of a small district in Thessaly and its inhabitants. The 
Greeks in general he usually calls Achaeans ('A^atoi), Argives ('Apyeioi), or 
Danaans (Aavaoi), although these are only the names of certain tribes. Four 
times he uses the collective name ITava^atoi (II. 2, 404 ; 23, 236 ; Od. 1, 
239 ; 14, 369); once Ilai/eAA^i/es icat 'Axatot (II. 2, 530). 

2. 1. The Greek Language is one of the Indo-European 
or Aryan group of languages, all of which are descended from 
some common parent language. Of these the Italic languages 
(including Latin) are the most closely related to Greek, the 
relation being apparent from various similarities in roots, words, 
and inflections. 

2. To the three divisions of the Greek race correspond the 
three groups of dialects : the Aeolic, the Doric, and the Ionic, 
35 B 


the dialects within each group differing in various respects from 
each other. The Aeolic and Doric groups have more resemblance 
to each other than either has to the Ionic. 

3. 1. The Aeolic Dialect (77 AfoAi's or f) AioAi/o?) was spoken in 
the Aeolian colonies of Asia Minor, in Thessaly, Boeotia, Arcadia, 
Elis, Lesbos, and Cyprus. Like the Doric, the Aeolic has more 
strictly retained the more primitive Greek form in many sounds and 
word-forms. It thus oftener shows a closer resemblance to Sanscrit 
(the oldest language of India) and Latin ; as fiKan, Sanscr. vin$ati t 
Lat. mginti, Attic CIKOO-I, twenty ; /eros, Sanscr. vatsa, Lat. vetus -(old), 
Attic ITOS, year; fojp, Lat. ferns (wild), Attic #-/;/>, wild beast ; rov, 
Sanscr. tva, Lat. tu, Attic o-v, thou. 

2. Lesbian Aeolic is chiefly represented in literature by the lyrical 
fragments of Alcaeus and Sappho (about 600 B.C.) ; by the 28th, 29th, and 
30th idylls of Theocritus (about 270 B.C.) ; and by some late imitators. 
Boeotian Aeolic is represented by the lines of the Boeotian in Aristo- 
phanes' Acharnians (lines 860 If.), and by a few and very corrupt fragments 
of the poetess Corinna (about 490 B.C.). There are also a number of 
Aeolic inscriptions, and the ancient grammarians have various notices 
of the dialect. 

4. 1. The Doric Dialect (->} Aw/n's or f) AW/OIK?}) was spoken in 
Peloponnesus, in Isthmus, in Northern Greece, in the Doric colonies 
of Asia Minor, as well as on the adjacent islands, in Southern Italy 
(Magna Graecia), in a large part of Sicily, in Northern Africa, 
(Cyrenaica), on Crete and Rhodes. Like the Aeolic, it has preserved 
more primitive forms of the parent Greek language than the Attic, 
especially in the use of digamma, in the retention of a for Attic 77, in 
T for which the Attic often has a-, and in many word-forms ;" as 

and /ei/cart for Attic cticoo-t ; 'AOdvti for 'AOijvrj ; Ad/xvos for 
<f>a,Ti for (ftrjcrt, says ; irAdrcbv for tc\rpriov t near ; HortLSdv for 

2. Leading peculiarities common to all Doric dialects, with few ex- 
ceptions, are : the first person plural in -jttes for -//,ev, as <vpitrKOfi$ ; the 
infinitive in -/<iev for Attic -vat, as 5tSo/Av for SiBovai ; the formation with 
in verbs in -fw, as x^P L ^ an d XV l a f r X* / 3 " an( l ^X^P L(Ta '> tn e 
future in -era) and -crov/xat, as Avcrw, Scocrw, Xvcrovp-di for At'crw, Scocrw, 
Aixro^cu ; the demonstrative rrjvos for Keu/o?, that; the reflexive avravrov 
(aijros avrov). In many respects the Doric agrees with the Aeolic : in the 
use of a for -rj, as XdOd for \rjOrj ; in the dative plural in -eo-cri in the third 
declension ; in the apocope of the prepositions 7ra/xx, aVa, Kara ; in the use 
of r for cr, as TrAoi'rios for TrAovo-tos (but Lesbian Aeolic has cr) ; the 


digamma is retained by most of the Dorians (also by the Lesbians and 
Thessalians) to the fifth century B.C., by some even later. 

3. As regards the two varieties of a stricter and a milder Doric, the 
following is to be noticed. The distinction is mostly one of locality. The 
stricter Doric (which is nearer the Aeolic and more removed from the Ionic) 
was spoken by the Lacedaemonians, the Cretans, the Cyreneans, also by the 
Tarentines, the Heracleans, and probably also by the other Doriana of 
Southern Italy ; the milder Doric was spoken in general by the other 
Dorians. But we also find forms of the stricter Doric in the older monu- 
ments of the milder Doric territory, thus showing that the distinction is 
also partly one of time. The principal differences between the stricter 
and the milder forms are the following : (a) the stricter Doric uses 77 
.and w where the milder Doric, as well as the Ionic and Attic, uses the 
spurious diphthongs et and ov (arising from contraction or compensative 
lengthening) ; as alprjcrOai = milder Doric (also Attic) cu/Detcr$cu, from 

aL ; ju,r#wi>ri = milder Doric p.icrBovvri = Attic /j-taOovcrt, from /xt- 
; /3(D\d for fiovXa = Atcic POV\TJ ; \apL-rj^ for ^a/oieis from yjipievT'S, 
for SiSovs from StSovrs, ITTTTCO for ITTTTOV from ITTTTOO, AI'KOOS for XVKOVS 
from XVKOVS ; (6) it often assimilates consonants, as Laconian aKKop for 
dcr/co? ; (c) it has io> and to for eco and eo in verbs in -ew, as 7raivtco, 
</>tAio/ze9 ; while the milder either has open forms (eVatvew, </uAeo/zes), or 
contracts eo> to cu and eo to v (<tAt3, (/uAeu/xes). 

4. The Doric dialect is also divided into three periods : the older, to 
.about the fifth century (Alcmari) ; the middle, to the time of Alexander the 
Great (Epicharmus, Sophron, the Laconian parts in Aristophanes' Lysistrata, 
the Megarian lines in his Acharnians) ; and the new, from the time of 

5. Apart from the Doric inscriptions and the notices of the ancient 
grammarians, the Doric dialect is represented in literature by a number of 
writings, most of them fragmentary. We mention the most important. The 
lyric fragments of Alcman (about 630 B.C.) are Laconian Doric, but he has 
also Epic and Lesbian forms. The idylls of Theocritus (about 270 B.C.), 
except the 28th, 29th, and 30th, and of Bion (ubout 280 B.C.), and Moschus 
(about 250 B.C.) are written in Sicilian Doric (stricter form) ; but they have also 
many Epic and Lesbian forms. Pinoar (about 522 to about 442) and the other 
lyric poets (except Alcman) use the milder Doric with some Lesbian and many 
Epic forms. The fragments of the Comic dramatist Epicharmus of Cos 
(about 550 to about 540, lived in Sicily) and of the mime-writer Sophron of 
Syracuse (about 460 to 420) are in the Sicilian (Syracusan) Doric. A 
number of the writings of the mathematician Archimedes (287 212) are in 
Sicilian Doric with an admixture of many ordinary forms, while others exist 
only in Attic versions. The few fragments of burlesque tragedy known as 
the Hilarotragedy, by Rhinthon (about 300 B.C.), Blaesus, and Sciras 
(or Sclerias) are in the Tarentine Doric. Most of the fragments of the Italian 


Pythagorean philosophers (also the work of the philosopher Timaeus of Locri 
in Italy and a friend of Plato), and most of the fragments of Archytas of 
Tarentum (who lived about 400 B.C.) are spurious ; they all show a curious 
mixture of Doric, Lesbian, and Ionic forms. Most of the fragments of 
Philolaus of Croton, a contemporary of Socrates, and some of those of 
Archytas of Tarentum are genuine ; both of these philosophers were Pyth- 
agoreans. The Rhodian Doric is represented in the fragments of the lyric 
poet Timocreon, a contemporary of Themistocles. The text of the Laconiau 
popular decree in Thucydides, 5, 77, is not in pure Laconian ; the treaty 
between the Lacedaemonians and Argives in Thucydides, 5, 79, is iu 
ordinary mild Doric. Aristophanes' Lysistrata has a number of lines in 
Laconian Doric (81 ff., 980 ff., 1076 ff., 1042 if., 1297 ff.) ; in the 
Acharnians, 729 if., a Megarian speaks in his dialect. The spurious letters 
of the Tyrant Periander of Corinth in Diogenes Laertius I., 99, 100, are 
supposed to be in the Corinthian dialect. The popular decree of the 
Byzantines, a Megarian colony, in Demosthenes' Oration on the Crown, 90, 
is probably spurious and has a mixture of stricter and milder forms, whereas 
the Byzantine inscriptions show only the milder forms. For the Doric of 
Tragedy, see 10. 

5. 1 . The Ionic Dialect (?} 'las or 7} 'Iaw/o}) was spoken in Ionia 
in Asia Minor and in the Ionic colonies, on the Cyclades, in Euboea, 
and in Attica. Although the Attic dialect is, properly speaking, only 
the Ionic of Attica, it is not included in the term Ionic and is always 
considered apart. The term Ionic dialect includes the Old Ionic (?) 
apxoua 'las) and the New Ionic (?} vewre/od 'las). The Old Ionic or Epic 
dialect is the language of Epic poetry, the New Ionic is the Ionic as 
it appears in the writings of Herodotus and Hippocrates. 

2. () The language of the Homeric poems must not be considered as quite 
identical with the Old Ionic spoken dialect of his time, but is somewhat a 
mixture containing a number of Aeolisms. In Homer the Old Ionic shows 
a variety of forms : often lengthening vowels grammatically short, and 
shortening those grammatically long, metri causa; doubling consonants or 
using a single consonant for a double, for the same cause ; dropping con- 
sonants ; and allowing the digamma to influence or not to influence the metre. 
From the Old Ionic was gradually developed the New Ionic, which differs 
from the Old Ionic notably in these respects : the digamma is wholly lost ; 
contracted forms are much more frequent according to the inscriptions 
(although the older texts of New Ionic writers show even more open 
forms than Homer) ; the vowels sometimes differ, as recrcre/oes for the Old 
Ionic Teo-o-apes, #oo/xa for davpx, <ov for ovv ; K for TT in the interrogative 
and indefinite pronouns and adverbs (as KOTC/DOS for Trorepos,, OKOO-OS for 
OTTOCTOS, KOV for TTOV) ; smooth mutes before the rough breathing are not 
aspirated (oV ov for ac/>' ot>, /xer' a for /xe$' a). 


(6) The three principal differences between Tonic (both Old and New) and 
Doric are these : Ionic regularly changes original d (i'rom a) to 77, as TrvXrj, 
TH'AT/S, etc., for Doric TrrAd, Tri'Ads, r^yov for Doric ayov from uyw, (rrrj 
for Doric ecrrd, K\fjpos for Doric KXapos ; it often weakens d to e, as 
ye, T/oe^co, for Doric ya, T/ja</xo ; it changes T to o- in certain formations 
and inflections, as </>?/cr4 TrXovcrios ; TUTTTOWI, rt^eicri, for Doric </>dri, 


3. Apart from the few Ionic inscriptions and the notices of the ancient 
grammarians, the Ionic dialect is represented in literature by a number of 
writings. The poems of Homer (about 800 B.C.) with their admixture of 
Aeolic forms have been already mentioned. The poems of Hesiod (about 
735 B.C.) are also in the Old Ionic or Epic dialect ; but he sometimes used 
Doric forms : as the Aeolic and Doric genitive plural in -uV (as Oeav for 
$ewi/), the Doric accusative plural in -as and -os (as fiovXds for /3ovXd<s, 
Aayds for Aayovs). The Epic dialect was the language of all Epic poetry, 
and particularly of all poetry in hexameters, although it is sometimes 
modified, especially in the older Ionic poets. Anacreon (b. about 540, 
d. about 478) wrote in New Ionic. The mimes of Herondas (or Herodas, fl. 
.about 225 B.C.) are in Ionic, with some Dorisms. New Ionic prose begins 
in the sixth century B.C.; there are a few fragments of Hecataeus of Miletus, 
who lived about 510 B.C. The leading New Ionic prose writers are the 
historian Herodotus of Halicarnassus (b. about 484 B.C., d. about 408 B.C.), 
and the physician Hippocrates of Cos (b. about 460 B.C., d. about 357 B.C.). 
The language of Hippocrates differs from that of Herodotus chiefly in the 
aspiration of a smooth mute before the rough breathing : hence Hippocrates 
, Herodotus aVrKOj/ro, from aVo and i/ 

6. 1. The Attic Dialect (->} 'Arfli's or ?; 'ATTI/O}) is a further 
development of the New Ionic. It holds a kind of middle place 
between the broad and rather rough Doric, and the soft Ionic. This 
is best seen in the use of d and ?/. By using d after e, t, and p, and rj 
elsewhere, a harmonious variety of sound is produced. Compare 
Attic f]/j.epa with Doric a^pa and Ionic fjfj-epr], X^Orj with Doric Ad#d, 
o-o</>td with Ionic a-o^'u]. The Athenians, moreover, did not hesitate 
to borrow occasionally from the Doric and Ionic, and thus gave their 
idiom a more generally Hellenic character comprehensible to all 
Greeks. Owing to its literary importance, the Attic dialect is made 
the basis of grammar and the other dialects are treated subordinately 
to it. 

2. The Attic dialect underwent some changes in the course of time, 
according to which it is divided into Old, Middle, and New Attic, although 
the differences between these are not great. The period of Old Attic ends 
about the time of the Peloponnesian War (431 B.C. 404 B.C.). The in- 
scriptions of this period show up to 420 B.C. -r/o-t (-#cri) and dcrt (-peri) for 


-cus in the dative plural (8pa-^p^crt and Spa^/x^icrt for 
and ra/xidto-t for ra/u'ats) ; so also -ou/t for -ots, but not so late. But TT for 
cro- (as 7r/)drT(o for 7rpdcr(ru) was always Attic from the earliest period ; yet 
the Tragedians (Aescltylus, Sophocles, Euripides) and the oldest Attic prose 
writers (as Gorgias, Antiphon, Thacydides) preferred the Ionic crtr, while the 
Comedians (as Aristophanes) and the other prose writers preferred the Attic 
TT. It was the same with Attic pp for Ionic pa-, which hitter was preferred 
by the oldest Attic prose and by the Tragedians (appy/v Attic = apo-rjv Ionic, 
and older Attic prose, and Tragedy). The Middle Attic period lasts to the 
times of Philip of Macedon (reigned B.C. 359 336; and is represented in 
literature by the orators Lysias and Isocrates, the historian Xenophon, and the 
philosopher Plato. The orators Demosthenes and Aeschines may be counted in 
the New Attic, whose other leading representatives in literature are Menander, 
Philemon, arid the other writers of the New Comedy. In the New Attic the 
dual number is wanting ; y is often written ei ; names in -rjs of the third 
declension have the genitive -ov (Ar;/xoo-^ei'ov for Ar/^oo-tfevovs ; the Ionic 
forms of the third person plural perfect and pluperfect middle and passive 
in -a-Tou and -a-ro never occur ; crvi> is used for vv (Xenophon has o-iV, 
Plato oftener vv than a~vv) ; the plural of nouns in -eis ends in -vys in Old 
Attic (also in Plato), in -eis in Middle and New Attic (/2ao-iAvys, /^acriAeis). 

3. After the Macedonian conquest, the Attic language, as the most 
cultivated of all the Greek dialects and the idiom of the masterpieces of Greek 
literature, became the language of the Macedonian court, of literature, and 
finally of all educated Greeks ; while the other dialects survived only among 
the uneducated classes. The old Ionic was however retained for Epic, the 
Doric for lyric and bucolic poetry. 

7. The Common Dialect. 1. The Attic tongue thus became the 
universal Greek language. As it was now spoken not only by many 
non-Attic, but also by some non-Greek races, it naturally lost by 
degrees some of its earlier purity. This universal Greek idiom, dating 
from about the time of Alexander (died in 323 B.C.), is called the 
Common Dialed (?} KOLVI] or ?} 'EAAevt/o/ 6\aAe/<Tos) and its writers are 
called 01 KOLVOL or ot "EAAT/ves. It took up some non-Attic forms and 
expressions and dropped some of the specially Attic forms (as TT for 
o-cr), although this occurred less in literature. 

2. Midway between the purer Attic writers and the writers of the 
Common Dialect stand the philosopher Aristotle and his pupil Theophmxtus. 
Important writers of the long period of the Common Dialect are the poet 
and scholar Callimachus (librarian of the Alexandrian library from about 
B.C. 260 to about 240) ; the historian Polyhius (about 240 B.C.) ; the 
rhetorician Dionysius of Halicarnassus (lived since 30 B.C. in Rome) ; the 
Jewish historian Josephus (b. A.D. 37, d. about 100) ; Diodorus Siculus, a 
contemporary of Julius Caesar and Augustus ; the geographer Strabo (b. 


about 54 B.C., d. about 24 A.D.) ; the historian Plutarch (b. about 50 A.D., 
d. about 120) ; the historian Arrian (b. about 100 A.B., d. about 170) ; the 
historian Dio Cassius (b. 155 A.D.) ; the rhetorician Lucian (b. about 
120 A.D., d. about 200). 

3. In this period of decadence there arose, especially under the Caesars, a 
movement in favour of purer Attic which was called Atticism. The most 
prominent Atticists were Dionysius of Halicarnassus and Lucian. Gram- 
marians like Phrynichus, who tabulated and contrasted Attic and non- Attic 
forms, were also called Atticists. 

4. A Macedonian and an Alexandrian dialect are sometimes mentioned. 
The Macedonian language, of which little is known, was not a dialect of 
the Greek language, although related to it ; only in the Southern part of 
Macedonia was Greek spoken. Under the Alexandrian dialect we under- 
stand not the language of the learned under the Ptolemies (they spoke the 
Common Dialect), but the popular idiom of the common people of that 

8. Hellenistic. This term is applied to that form of the Common 
Dialect which appears in the Septuagint version of the Old Testament and 
in the New Testament. A Jew or other foreigner who spoke Greek was 
called a Hellenist ('EAA^wo-r^s, from eAA^vt^co, speak Greek). This idiom 
naturally had some Hebrew colouring. 

9. Modern Greek. 1. Throughout the long period of the Byzantine 
Empire and of the Turkish dominion, the language of the common people 
underwent a constant process of corruption and change, comparable in 
a measure to the change of the popular Latin to Italian. Although the 
ancient Greek continued to be the ideal of the Byzantine writers, the spirit 
of the older idiom was now dead. Many grammatical forms were lost, new 
ones were developed, and the vocabulary received a large admixture of Latin 
and Turkish words. The ancient language was no longer understood by the 
people, who now spoke a new language which may be considered about a 
thousand years old. This they called Romaic ('Pco/jouK^) from 'Pw/xcuot, 
Romans, the name by which the Greeks of the Middle Ages designated 
themselves instead of "EAA^ves. The term Eomaic is now rather obsolete, 
the Modern Greeks calling themselves "EAA^ves, their country 'EAAas, and 
their language 'EAA^vtK^. The earlier form of this popular tongue began to 
be used in writing about the end of the twelfth century alongside of the 
ancient Greek employed by the learned. 

2. Apart from the great changes in pronunciation (see the footnotes to 38) and 
very many minor differences, the following are the principal points in which Modern 
Greek differs from ancient literary Greek : the dual is lost (as already in the Common 
Dialect and in New Attic) ; the dative occurs only in writing ; the third declension 
is little used except in books ; the comparative degree is generally expressed by the 
people by prefixing more to the positive, and the superlative by prefixing the article 


to the comparative, as in the Romance languages ; the future, perfect, and plu- 
perfect are formed by periphrasis ; the infinitive is used only in books and in 
forming compound tenses, otherwise it is replaced by v& ( = 'iva) and the subjunctive 
(the New Testament often has 'iva with the subj. for the inf.) ; the optative mood is 
lost ; the middle as an independent voice is absent, but the passive remains ; the 
verbs in -/M have been changed to verb.s in -a ; the pronouns often show changed 
or completely new forms ; the negative 01) is replaced by dev (from ovdtv) ; the 
vocabulary contains numerous foreign elements. The cultured or literary language, 
as it appears in books and newspapers, differs largely from the everyday popular 
idiom. The movement in favour of purifying and refining the language by drop- 
ping foreign words and again introducing classic forms and idioms has been going 
on for over fifty years and has greatly influenced the written and, to some extent, 
the spoken language. While the essential features of Modern Greek must always 
remain, the process of purification will continue to lead to a greater resemblance to 
the ancient language. 

10. The Dialects and Literary Forms. i. A certain con- 
nection exists between the dialects and particular literary forms. For 
Epic poetry the Old Ionic of Homer was the basis among all Greeks and in 
all times ; it also had a large influence on all subsequent poetry. Lyric 
poetry was usually written in the Doric dialect ; Alcaeus and Sappho use 
the Aeolic, Anacreon the New Ionic. For bucolic poetry (Theocritus, Bion, 
Moschus) Doric was generally employed. The Attic tragedians sometimes 
use Ionic and Doric forms in the dialogue ; in the choral parts they use the 
Doric a for 77, also a, for the gen. sing. masc. of the first declension, and -av 
for the gen. plur., besides other Dorisms (as <iAa for </A.?7, veavia for 
veavtou, dyaOav for aya$toy, fj,oX7rav for /xoATrwf, ITocreiSai' for Iloo-etStoi'). 
The Attic comedians use the Attic dialect throughout, except where they 
introduce Doric or poetic forms for parody. 

2. Prose was developed much later than poetry, and an author did not 
necessarily write in his own dialect ; for example, Herodotus, who was a 
Dorian of Asia Minor, wrote in Ionic. The philosophers and historians of 
Ionia were the first to cultivate prose, Ionic prose reaching its highest point 
in the works of Herodotus and Hippocrates, both of them 'Dorians. Doric 
prose was developed in the fifth and fourth centuries among the Pythagorean 
philosophers, of whom we may mention Philolaus of Croton, a contemporary 
of Socrates, and Archytas of Tarentum, who lived about 400 B.C. We also 
have a number of the works of the mathematician Archimedes of Syracuse 
(287 272) written in Doric. But it was in Athens that Greek prose 
reached its highest development. The Sophists (as Protagoras of Abdera, 
Gorgias of Leontini, Prodicus of Ceos, Hippias of Elis) contributed largely, 
by their studies and examples, toward moulding and refining the language. 
Then follow the great historians Thucydides and Xenophon, the orators 
Lysias, Demosthenes, Aeschines, Isocrates, and others, the philosopher Plato, 
and numerous other prose writers. 



11. The 

Greek alphabet consists of twenty-four letters : 







a short or long 









g (hard) 










e short and close 

e ^rl\ov (el, e) 








e long and open 






6 TIT a 




i short or long 





k (hard c) 





















& (et, f{J) 




o short and close 

6 jJilKpOV (0V, Q) 





nil (irei) 




r, rh 




(r 9 











y (ii) short or long 

v ^l\ov (v) 





<pl (<f)l) 





yl (y e l\ 


a (o 


o long and open 




For a brief history of the Greek 
nunciation, see 38. 

alphabet, see 37 ; for the pro- 


12. NOTE. Sigma has the form ? at the end of a word, elsewhere cr ; 
as SvcnrpocroSos. But some editors still use s at the end of the first part of a 
compound ; as SvsTrposoSos (from <W-, TT/JOS, and 6Sos). 

13. NOTE. In the classical period the name el was used for epsilon, 
ov for omicron, v for upsilon, and <3 for omega ; later grammarians calling the 
first two c and o. The names e \^iX6v (plain e) and v \j/Z\6v (plain v) were 
used by grammarians of the Byzantine period to distinguish e from at and 
v from ot, which were sounded alike in their time. The names i, TTI, </u, \h 
\^L date from the period when ei had attained the sound t, about the first 
century B.C. For t there was also the name u (like /xu, vv) ; criy/m 
'apparently more correct than criy/za) was also called crdv. 

14. /, 9> ~\ y- 1- The letter /, called Van (fav) or Digamma 
(double gamma, from its form), was part of the older alphabet and is 
equivalent to our W. It stood originally between e and f. The digamma 
was still pronounced in many words at the time of the composition of 
the Homeric poems, the meter of many lines depending on its presence. 
Some editors have therefore introduced it into the text. The 
assumption of its original presence in many words is necessary to 
explain their formation (see 108). 

2. The letter 9, called koppa (^OTTTTO), was equivalent to Q and be- 
came wholly obsolete. It stood between TT and p. 

3. The character ~^, evidently a combination of C ( = a-av, i.e. o-fy/ua) 
and 7T?, is called sampi (o-apri). 

4. The letters van and koppa, and the character sampi are used as 
numerals : koppa in the form 9 or S or q ; and van in the form $, this 
last identical with the abbreviation of O-T. 

5. The spirant y (i.e. y in yet) was never written, although its- 
sound existed (see 96). 


15. Vowels. The vowels are a, e, TJ, i, o, co, v. Of these, 
e and o are always short ; 77 and u> are always lony ; a, L, and v 
are short in some words, long in others, hence, called doubtful 

16. NOTE. Short a, i, v are often indicated by a, I, v ; the long sounds 
by a, t, f'. In this book the long sounds are hereafter always marked (except 
in 37), unless the length is indicated by the circumflex accent ; hence a, i, v 
will be always understood as short (d, 6, v). The common character is some- 
times indicated by a, f, v. 


17. NOTE. The vowels a, a, , 77, o, w are termed open vowels ; i, t, v, v 
are called cfose vowels. 

18. Diphthongs. The diphthongs (Si-^Ooyyoi, double-sound- 
ing) are formed by the union of an open vowel and a close one, 
except in vi formed of two close vowels. 

The proper diphthongs are at, av, et, eu, T/U, OL, ov, vi, and a)v 
of the Ionic dialect. 

The improper diphthongs are formed by the union of a long, 
hard vowel (a, 77, GO) with t; they are a, y, . 

19. NOTE. Spurious Diphthongs. The diphthongs et and ov are called 
spurious whenever they do not arise from e + t and o + v, The spurious 
diphthongs may arise from contraction (ct from ee, and ov from eo or oo or oe) 
or from compensative lengthening (40) ; as e<tAet from c</Aee, Avetv from 
Aveev (47, 2), opyvpous from apyi'/Deos, S^Aovre from oV/Aoere, Aoyou 
from Aoyoo, rivets from Tt^evrs, Xvowi from Avovrcri. Before the fourth 
century B.C., the spurious diphthongs were written as ordinary e and o. 

20. NOTE. Diaeresis. If two vowels which would regularly form a 
diphthong are to be pronounced separately, a mark of diaeresis (tatpccri?, 
separation) is placed over the second ; as irpoievcu (:rpo-ivai), to go forward. 
When, however, the diaeresis is evident from the accent or breathing or an 
iota written on the line, the mark is sometimes omitted ; as dvrij, shout, 
distinguished by the place of the breathing from the demonstrative pronoun 
avr>j; iyOvi, the accent showing the diaeresis ; \.rjifofuu with t on the line, 
A^o/zat with t subscript. 

21. NOTE. Iota Subscript. In a, y, w, the t is written below a, 7;, a>, 
and is called iota subscript. When the first vowel is a capital, the i is written 
on the line ; as in THI TPAFfilAIAI, ry rpayuSia ; filAHI, '^1877, (f8y. 
As long as this i was sounded, it was written on the line ; but in the 
second century B.C., it was no longer heard, and henceforth was sometimes 
written (on the line), and sometimes dropped. Our iota subscript is quite 
modern, and dates from about the twelfth century A.D. 

22. NOTE. Latin Equivalents. The Latin equivalents of the diph- 
thongs were as follows : 

at av et eu ot ov vt a y a> 

ae au e or i eu oe u yi a e o 

<!>ai'8(ov, Phaedo; M?;8ta, Medea; NeiAo?, Nllus ; Botwrid, Boeotia ; 
Aavpiov, Laurium ; 'Op^cvs, Orpheus; Morcra, Musa ; EiAet^vta^ Iltthyia ; 
5, Thraces; 6/oycrcra, Thressa ; wSr;, ode. But in some names at and 
are represented by ai and oe ; as, Mata, Maia ; Aia.<s,Aiax; T^otd, Troia ; 


in a .few compounds of toSvj, song, there is oe for w , as, Kto/zwSia, cOmoedia, 
r/)ayto3d, tragoedus ; in Ldius, Aaos ; we have ai for a.- See 38. 


23. A vowel or diphthong at the beginning of a word has 
either the rough breathing ('} or the smooth breathing ('). The 
rough breathing (spiritus asper) is equivalent to h, and the vowel 
before which it stands is said to be aspirated ; as, icrropld, liistoria ; 
< H^o./cX?)9, Heracles. The smooth breathing (spiritus lenis) indicates 
that the vowel has no aspiration ; as eyco, ego ; 'ATroXXw^, Apollo. 

24. NOTE. In diphthongs the breathing stands on the second vowel ; as, 
OIKOS, EtyxoTT?;, ovros. But when the diphthongs a, 77, w have the i written 
on the line, the breathing is placed on the first vowel ; as, "AtSrys, aS^s, 
"HiSetv, y8fiv, 'fit8?y, wS'/y. It will be seen that with small letters, the 
breathing is placed over the vowel ; with capitals, before the vowel. 

25. NOTE. Initial v or v always has the breathing in Attic. 

26. NOTE. The signs of the breathings were formed from H, which was 
once used to denote the rough breathing, till it came to be employed as 77 
(37). One half I was then used by some of the Italic Greeks, later also by 
the Athenians, for the rough breathing ; and the Alexandrians introduced 
the other half i for the smooth breathing. These fragments soon came to 
be written as Land ~~1, and in the later cursive hand (37) they dwindled 
to * and '. 

27. The consonant p takes the rough breathing at the beginning 
of a word ; as, ptfrayp (Latin rhetor), orator ; 'PoSo? (Latin Rhodus). 
In the middle of a word, double p is written either pp, or more 
commonly pp ; as Tlvppos or Hvppos, Pyrrhus (pp = rrli). 

28. NOTE. Except in pp, the breathing is dropped if it is brought into 
the middle of a word by composition ; as, tv-eivai from ev-clvat or er-eiYat. 
Evidence seems to show, however, that the rough breathing was here often 
pronounced. Compare the Latin forms enhydris for cVvS/ns, polyhisto"' for 

Euhemerus for 


29. The consonants are divided into mutes, semivowels, and 
double consonants. 


30. Mutes. 1. The mutes are of three classes: 

lalnal mutes, TT /3 </>, or 7r-mutes 
palatal mutes, K y x or K-mutes 
lingual mutes, r 8 0, or r-mutes. 

Those of the same class, as TT, (3, <j>, are said to be cognate. 
2. These mutes are again divided into three orders : 

smooth mutes, TT K r 

middle mutes, /3 y 8 

rough mutes, $ y^ 0. 

Those of the same order, as TT, K, r, are said to be co-ordinate. The 
rougli mutes are also called aspirates, from the rough breathing, h y 
which they contain. 

31. Semivowels. 1. The semivowels are A, p, v, p, a-, nasal y, / 
of the older alphabet, and y. Of these 

A, fj., v, p are liquids; 

p, v, nasal y are nasals ; 

a- is a spirant or sibilant ; 

f and y are also spirants. 

2. Nasal y stands before K, y, x or f, and is pronounced like n in 
sing or sink. It was represented in Latin by n ; as, ayKvpa (ancora), 
anchor ; ayyeAos (angelus), messenger ; o-<ty, sphinx ; e'Aeyxos (elenchus), 
proof. Nasal y is called aypx or ayy/x,a by some grammarians. 

32. Double Consonants. The double consonants are , ^, 
7 is composed of K and a- ( = KCT-). Mf is composed of TT and o- ( = TTO-). 
Z represents a combination of 8 with soft 6' or with y ; that is, Bo- or 0-8 
or Sy. In prosody , ^, and ^ have the force of two single consonants 
in making a preceding vowel long by position (116, 2). 

33. Labials, Palatals, Linguals. The consonants may all be 
divided into 

labials IT ft <f> p f 
palatals K y x V 
linguals r BO o- X v p. 

34. NOTE. Surds, Sonants. The smooth and rough mutes, and also o- r 
, and \j/, are called surds (hushed sounds) ; the other consonants and the vowels 
are called sonants (sounding letters). 

35. Final Consonants. The only consonants permitted to stand 
at the end of a Greek word are v, p, s (, \f). Others left at the end, 
in word-formation, are dropped. See also 109 to 113. 



36. Relations of Consonants. The following table shows the 
relations in which the consonants stand to one another : 



;~/..'--- / 










ROUGH //kX^^-*^ 





' /> y 













37. The Greeks obtained their alphabet from the Phoenicians, 
who, in early times, had numerous settlements in Greece and on the 
islands of the Aegean. The whole twenty-two letters of the Phoenician 
alphabet were adopted ; but their shapes were considerably modified, 
different values were assigned to the letters at different periods, and 
various letters were added. The two principal alphabets of ancient 
Greece were the Ionic or Eastern and the Chalcidic or Western, both 
of which Avent through various changes till they arrived at their final 
form, about the middle of the sixth century B.C. The Ionic alphabet 
is our ordinary Greek alphabet of twenty-four letters. The final form 
of the Chalcidic differed from the final form of the .Ionic in these 
respects : it retained / and 9; it kept the original value of H as the 
rough breathing, and thus did not distinguish between e and e; it used 
L for A, X for x, and IP for Mi; it had no fi. The following table 
will show these differences, as well as the relative positions of the 
letters : 

/0wic ABFAE ZH eiKAMN^OLT P2TY <f>X^'12 

Chalcidic ABPAE/ZH( - 7t)6IKLMN OII?PSTYX( - )* ( - Mi). 

In the fifth century B.C., the Ionic alphabet gradually came into 
use at Athens ; and in the archonship of Eucleides, 403 B.C., it was 
officially introduced for all public documents and inscriptions. From 
this time on, it rapidly superseded the other modes of writing. 


The older Attic alphabet agreed in most points with the Ionic. But 
it used E for e, T/, and spurious e6 (19); O for o, w, and spurious ov 
(19) ; X2 for f ; 3>2 for \j/ ; \ f or A ; A for y ; it still used H for the 
rough breathing ; 9 is found in a few of the oldest inscriptions. The 
following examples will show how the Athenians wrote before the 
end of the Peloponnesian War: EAOX2EN TEI BO\EI KAI TOI 
AEMOI for ZSogev -nj fiov\y KOI rw %xo), EIIE2TATE for 7recrraTei, 
EAPAMMATEYE for iypa^ar^, E3>2E<I>I20E for tyrf&vO^ TO 
AEMO for rov Swov, TON A<I>IKNOMENON for ruv d< 
HOI for ol, HE for r), HE2 for fjs, HEI for y, TON OEON for TOV ov 
or TWI/ Otuv, K0\ YEN for KwAveiv, TPES for r/oeis, XPY2O2 for x/>vo-ds 
and x/ovo-ous, TOYTO for TOUTO and rovrov, HOH02 for cwrws. 

The ancients used only the capitals, called majuscules or uncials 
("inch-high" letters). The tendency to round off the corners and to 
introduce abbreviations and amalgamations of letters produced the 
cursive or running hand which finally assumed, in the Middle Ages, the 
form of our ordinary small letters, known as minuscules. The numerous 
abbreviations found in older books are no longer used. 


38. 1. Vowels. The short simple vowels &, I, v had qualitatively 
the same sounds as the long d, i, v, and differed from them only in 

Long a was pronounced like a in father ; short a somewhat like a 
in partition. 

Long i was sounded close, like i in machine ; short I somewhat like 
y in very. 1 

The vowel v or v was originally equivalent to u in "brute ; but before 
the fourth century B.C. it had acquired the sound of German ii or French 
u? In the diphthongs cu>, ev, ov, TJV, <ov, the v had the -sound. 

The vowel 77 was pronounced long and open ; 3 like long French e, or 
I in r$ve, pere (like ai in fair) /3yj /3fj represented the bleating of sheep. 

The vowel w was long and open ; like o in lore. 

The vowels e and o were short 4 and close ; 4 e was pronounced some- 
what like French 6 infdodal; o somewhat like o in annotate or poetic. 4 * 

1 The short in bit and short e in let are open, and qualitatively different from i 
in machine and e in obey. 

2 In the ninth or tenth century A.TJ. v had acquired the sound of I. The 
Romans at first represented v by u, later by y. 

3 After the fourth century A.r>. 77 acquired the sound of I, which it still retains. 

4 Originally e and o were also used to express long close sounds ; probably 
equivalent to e in obey, and o in prone. After these long sounds of e and o liad 


2. Diphthongs. In all the genuine diphthongs both vowels were 
originally heard distinctly, but as one syllable. 

The diphthong ou was pronounced a-t, 1 somewhat like ai in aisle. 

The diphthong ot was pronounced o-t, 2 somewhat like oi in foil 
The genuine diphthongs a and ov were pronounced e-t (6-i 3 ) and o-v 

The spurious diphthong et (19) was pronounced as long close e; 
the spurious ov (19) as long close o. In the fifth century B.C. this 
difference in pronunciation between genuine et and ov on the one hand, 
and spurious ei and ov on the other, must still have subsisted (spurious et 
and ov being then written as e and o). But by 400 B.C. both genuine and 
spurious ei and ov were written alike and practically had the same sound ; 
ov being then pronounced as ou in youth, and ei probably like ei in vein. 5 

The diphthongs av and ev were pronounced a-u (a-u) and e-v (6-u)? 
somewhat like ou in bound and ew in feud ; 7 av av was a dog's bark. 

developed into the genuine diphthongs ei and ou (see footnote 4 below), the regular 
short e and o tended to become open. The Alexandrian grammarians no longer 
distinguished anything but a quantitative difference between e and rj, and o and w ; 
the e being pronounced in their time somewhat like e in viet, and the o somewhat 
like o in forget. 

1 Evidently like Italian a-i in mai. After the Alexandrian period it tended to 

become short ; and by about the third century A.D. it acquired the sound of long 
open e, i.e. ancient 17, which by that time had already changed considerably from 
its original sound. See footnote 3, p. 15. The Komans represented at by ae, as 
3>cu5pos, Phacdrus ; anciently by ai, as Matct, Mala. 

' J Like Italian oi in noi. In the second century A.D. it began to be pronounced 
as u, and in the ninth or tenth century it had acquired the sound of I. In Latin 
ot was represented by oe, as Kpot<ros, Croesus; anciently by oi, as Tpot'd, Troia. 

3 Like Italian ei in lei. 

4 Genuine et and ov arose at a very early period. Genuine ei was formed from an 
originally long close e which had assumed a vanishing t-sound, making e- 1 ; genuine 

ou was formed in the same way from a long close o which had assumed a vanishing 
it-sound, making o- H . The genuine diphthongs ei and ou are seen in words like 

Xet (old Attic \EIHO), ?%et (EXEI), ouros (HOTTOZ), ffvovSj (SHOTAE). 

5 But in the majority of cases et and ou are spurious. Before the adoption of the 
Ionic alphabet, the spurious et and ou were written like ordinary e and o. At tlu; 
time of the change in 403 B.C., the long e and o (due to contraction or compensative 
lengthening, and henceforth written as et and ou) must also have acquired the vanish- 
ing i- and u- sounds. By 400 B.C. the w-sound had prevailed over the e-sound in 
the diphthong ou, which was then pronounced as ou in youth, the sound which it 
still retains. In et, the t gradually prevailed more and more over the e ; and by the 
first century B.C. et was pronounced i, except before vowels, where it still had the 
e-sound (NetXos, Nil us ; but MT^Seta, Medea-). Still latsr et was finally pronounced 
everywhere as I. 

6 Evidently like Italian a-u and e-n in augusto, fcudo. 

7 In Modern Greek au and eu are pronounced of and cf before TT, K, T, <f>, x, 6, <?, 


The diphthong vi had the value of u-i, 1 like French ui in lui, nuire; 

somewhat like ui in quit. 

The rare diphthongs yv and <ov were probably pronounced 77 and w, 
with the addition of v (u). 2 

The diphthongs a, y, w were pronounced a-t, ?/-t, w-t, with the 

principal force on the first vowel. In the second century B.C. the 
L ceased to be heard. 3 See 21. 

3. Consonants. The consonants /3, 8, K, A, /z, v, TT were practically 
the same as &, 4 d, 5 k, I, m, n, p 6 in English. The p was trilled more than 
English r, and when initial or doubled, it was felt to be aspirated. 
Ordinary y was always lik e# in go, 7 nasal y like n 8 in sing or sink.. 
T was always like t in fo. 9 2 was sharp, like s in so ; but before middle 
mutes (/?, y, S) and liquids, soft like English . 10 Z was composed of 
o- and 8, and pronounced dz, or more probably sd 11 & and ^ stood for 
KG- and TTo-. 12 The rough mutes 0, x> an d < were pronounced, in the 
classical period, as T, K, and TT, followed by the rough breathing ; 13 thus 

, \l/ and v and ev before other letters. Thus, ai)r<5? is pronounced aftos ; einropid, 
cfporia ; 6au/ma, thavma, evayye\ioi>, evangelion. Similarly yv and uv are now pro- 
nounced if, iv, and of, ov. The period of this change of v (u] of these diphthongs to 
the spirant/ or v has not been determined ; but it could not have prevailed before 
300 A.D. 

1 From the fourth century B.C. the Attics wrote and pronounced v (ii) for the 
diphthong vi : thus, /ttfa for fjivla. In the Hellenistic period, vi was again written, and 
has in consequence been introduced into the Attic authors. 

2 See footnote 2, p. 15. 

3 Hence the Latin equivalents comoedia, tragoedia, Laius, for Katydi 
Aos, were adopted when the i was still heard ; but odeum, rhapsodus for 
pa^^Sos, after it had become silent. 

4 In Modern Greek like v. 

5 In Modern. Greek like th in that. 

6 In Modern Greek TT after ytc is pronounced b ; as Z^Tropos (cmboros). 

7 In Modern Greek 7 before e, 77, i, v, at, et, ot, vi, has the sound of our y in yet ; 
elsewhere it has a peculiar guttural sound, which is, in fact, the voiced equivalent 
of German ch in ach. 

8 In Modern Greek 77 and yic are pronounced as ng, as dvayK-rj, anangi ; in 7%, 
the 7 is like French nasal n. 

9 In Modern Greek T after v is pronounced d ; as dvri, andi. 

10 Hence f was often written for it in these latter positions ; as Z(j.vpva for 2/x^a, 
ffievvtivat for ff/Sevvfaftu. 

11 Hence <r5 in word-formation often gives f, as 'A^vdfe from 'A^T/i'dcr-Se ; and 
<rvv before I' ( = 08) loses its v the same as before <r and another consonant. In 
Modern Greek f is pronounced c. 

12 While | and \{/ were still written as XZ and $S, the Attics felt an aspiration in 
those letters. 

13 Hence the Romans represented these letters by th, ch, and ph. The Greeks 
were obliged to use to represent Latin/. In Modern Greek Q is pronounced like 
th in thin ; % before e, 77, t, v, at, et, and ot, like German ch in ich, elsewhere like 
German ch in ach; <p like/. 


avQos was av-rog, 6x w was C-KW, o^eXiett was d-7reA/<w. We may represent 
these sounds approximately in words like pothook, bloc/vAouse, uphill. 

4. English and American Usage. In England most scholars 
still pronounce Greek according to the English method, with Latin 
accentuation. In the United States some scholars still follow this 
English method, but the majority pronounce Greek with more or less 
approach to the ancient pronunciation. Perhaps a fair and practicable 
approximation to the probable ancient pronunciation would be the 
following : Pronounce fi, y ( = g in go), 8, K, X, p, v, (ks), IT, p, o-, r, 
\// (ps), a, a, 77, I, i, v, v (il), as explained above (but many pronounce rj 
as a in late, and v as u in cube) ; 6 as th in thin, </> as /, x as German ch 
in acli ; f as ch or z or zd ; e as e in met ; o short as o in forget, w as o in 
lore (but most persons pronounce to as o in tone) ; av as ou in fozmrf / 
cv and 771; as m in /ewd / ov and wv as ow in youth ; ot as 0i in foil ; vi as w 
in quit ; at as ai in ais/e / et as ei in ?'em or as ei in height ; a, y, w as 
d, ?;, to. 



39. In the inflection and formation of words, short vowels are often 
lengthened. These changes are the following : 

a becomes 7; (a after e, t, or p) 

7; i becomes r 


Thus a short final vowel of a verb-stem is usually lengthened in the 
tense-formation of all verbs, except in the present system of verbs in w. A 
similar lengthening occurs in the singular indicative active of the present 
system of verbs in /xt (664, 2). So also in the temporal augment (453, 2), and 
in many other formations. 

Tr/xaw (stem rlf^a-), honor, fut. Tt/x?y-crw, aor. eri/^-o-a, perf. reTi/xTi-Ka, 
perf. mid. TerE/xr;-/xat, aor. pass. irl^-O^v ; law (ea-), permit, ed-crw, eia-cra., 
eta-Ka,, ela-O-rjv ; iao/z,at (ta-), heal, icl-cro/xai, etc. ; Spaw (8pa-}, do, 
SpJL-cro), eSpa-cra, etc. ; </>iXew (<^iAe-), Zove, (f>iXi'j-o-<a, e^tAvy-cra, etc. ; Sr^Adco 
(S/iAo-), s/io?y, 57/Acu-o-w, e87/A(o-o-a, etc.; //.TIVI'W (ftrpf-, 867), 6e urof/i ayainst, 

), fjL'i')vl-<Ta \ KwAvco (KcoAv-), hinder, KwAr-o'w, eKCuATMra, etc. 
"l<TTr)-/Ju (stem <rra-), sef, TO-TT;?, TCTTTIO-I, impf. fcrr^-v, fcrr7is, f<TT?; ; TI-$T?-/>U 
), ^(^, impi. TL-0^-v ; 8t-8w-yu,t (So-), ^t'e; Bfitcvv-fU (8eiK- } present-stem 
ci/i'-), S/IOM;, impf. e5ctKVv-v. 

"Ayw, Zmf?, impf. 7/yov ; cX-ifa, hope, impf. 7/ATrtfov, aor. ryATrwra ; O/DI^W, 
/: oj^, wpi^ov, wpio-a. ; tKeret'to^ implore, tKerevov, iKerevcra ; I'^/oi^co, insult, 
} aor. pass. t/3purOrjv. 


-t, nature, from root </u-, but 7re<i3-Ka, am (by nature), perf. of 
produce; T/-CTIS,, retribution, root TI-, from which rtVw, |;a?/, Ti'-o-w,, 
reri-Ka, Teri-ayxai, iri-crO^v ; ripy-cris, Tip/-jua, from root ri/xa- ; 
from root </>iAe- ; /XICT$(O-T>/S from root 


40. A short vowel is often lengthened to make up for the omission, 
for euphony, of one or more following consonants. In this way 

a becomes a i becomes t 

for /xeAav-s (90, 3) Avowi for AVOVT-O-I (90, 4) 

terras tcrrarr-s (90, 4) Auowt XVO-VCTL (90, 3) 

0ei9 Oevr-s (90, 4) Xvova-a Xvoi>T-ya (90, 3) 

^apices ,, x a /K V/T ~S (90, 4) fxplva ,, Kpiv-<ra (105, 3) 

cWeiAa,, ecrreA-a-a (682, 2) t'jfjLVva y^w-a-a (105, 3) 

StSovs Stooj/T-s (90, 4) SetKVi-s SetKvvvr-s (90, 4) 
In these cases et and ov are spurious diphthongs. 

41. NOTE. (a) In the first aorist of liquid verbs (682, 2), a is mostly 
lengthened to 7] (after i or p, nearly always to d) ; as, 4'^va for e</>avo-a, 
from <aiVa> (</>av-) ; e/xtava for />uaixra, from /xiaiVw (jjuav-) ; cTre/oaya for 
eTre/aavcra, from Tre/xxiVw (Trepav-). 

(6) Masculine and feminine stems in -v-, -^o-, -o--, -OVT- (224, 3), lengthen 
and o of the stem to r; and co in forming the nominative ; as Ai/xr/v (At/xev-), 
(prjTop-), Tprfpys (r/oiiy/oes-), ye/owi/ (yepovr-). 


42. 1. In the inflection and formation of words, the short vowels 
e, a, and o are often interchanged. 

>, nourish, e-rpa^-^v, v;as nourished, re-r/ao^-a, Tiave nourished, 

)-ry, nourishment, from the stem 

cAeTT-Tw, siea/, e-/cAa7r-7^i/, was stolen, K-/cAo<-a, 7iave stolen, /cAoTT-T^, 
from the stem /<Ae7r-. 

o-reA-Aw, send, e'-o-raA-Ka, /lave sen^, o-rdA-05, expedition, stem o-reA-. 
See 621,' 1 and 2 ; 1081. 

2. Rarely ?/ and w interchange ; as, apjy-oo, 7ie/j9, a/xoy-os, helping. 
In o-7rei;S-w, te^?i, and o-TrovS-vj, /tosfe, there is interchange of ev and ov. 
See also 44. 

43. NOTE. Interchange between an original open vowel and a close one 
.rarely occurs ; as, CCTTI' (r-), is, and ia-0i, be thou ; crKeSavvi'/xc and 


scatter ; OVO/JLOL, name, and dvci>i/v/jos, nameless ; dyo/oa, assembly, and Travijyvpis ; 
/xw//,os, blame, and d/ziyxwv, blameless. 


44. In some formations and inflections we find an interchange, 
in the root, of 

i with et or ot 

u ,, ev (sometimes ov) 

a ,, 1} (seldom o>). 

In such cases tlie long vowels or diphthongs are said to be the strong 
forms, and the short vowels the weak forms. The weak form is 
treated as the original. 

Aei7r-(o, leave, Ae-Aoi7r-a, have left, e-Ai7r-oi>, left, root X.LTT- 
<eiry-a>, jtfee, 7re-<evy-a, Tiave ,/ferf, e-^vy-ov, ^erf, root </>vy- 
r>y/c-(o, weft, re-rr/K-a, am melted, l-Ta/c-^v, was melted, root T<XK- 
frf)y-vvfu t break, cp-ptay-a, am broken, lp-pdy-rjv, was broken, root pay- 
eAeu-o-o/xat (84), sfeaZi gro, lA-^Aov^-a (Ionic) = eA-7/Ai'^-a, Aav ^one, 
t'jXvd-ov (Epic) = 7}A$-ov, w;ew#, root eXvO- (see ep^o/xai). 

See also 630 and 1080. 


45. A long open vowel sometimes exchanges quantity with a 
short one following : ao and 7/0 becoming ew, and rja becoming eu ; 
as in Epic vaos, temple, and Attic vews; Epic /3acriA?jos, paonXrja, king. 
and Attic /3ao-iAews, /?ao-iAea; Epic peTt'iopos, aloft, and Attic /xerew/oos; 
MeveAaos, Attic Mei/eAews. See 210, 2; 266. So TIW may become ecu, 
as renews for Horn, re^iw 


46. Meeting of Vowels, Hiatus. AVhen two vowels of different 
syllables meet, they are generally contracted into one. long vowel or 
diphthong. The meeting of two vowels between two different words, 
called hiatus, can be avoided in prose by crasis (53 58), by elision 
(59 63), or by adding a movable consonant (62 67). 

47. Rules of Contraction. The following are the general principles 
of contraction : 

1. An open vowel followed by a close one forms a diphthong with it. 
yci/et yepa'i yepai TruOoL TTCtdot V V 


2. Two like vowels (i.e. two a-sounds, two e-sounds, or two 0-sounds) 
unite in the common long d, ?;, or <o. But ee gives et (19) andoo gives 

o v (19). 

yepaa yepd c^iAeryTe (j6tAryT SrjXow 877 Au> 
yavad ^u,i^a Tt/x^yevrt Tl/xryrrt craios crws 
But <f>i\f, <tAet ; TrAoos, TrAovs. 

3. When an a-sound meets an 0-sound, the first in order prevails, 
and the result is d or 77. 

Tt/xote, ri/xa ; Tt/xarjTe, Tt/xare; yeVea, 

4. When an 0-sound meets an a-sound or an e-sound, the two 
become w. But oe and eo give ov (19). 

alSoa a t o\o ijpwa yjpw SryAo^re S^Awre 

ri^tai^tev rt/xaw/xev Tt/zco/zev c^iAewcrt <^>iAw(rt 

But SrjAoe, STJAou ; yeveo?, yei 

5. Except in the case of e + ot, a vowel followed by a diphthong 
we^ beginning with the same vowel is contracted with the j?*s vowel of the 
diphthong ; and a following i remains as iota subscript, but a following 
v disappears. 

TI/AS Aveat Ai5>y (48, 3) Xvrjat. Xvrj 

riua (itAeris ^lAns 
r ' j \ 


6. A vowel before a diphthong beginning with the same vowel is 

absorbed, similarly e before 01. 

fjivdai fjbvai Troieet Trotet otyAOOl 8ryAot 
/xvaci />iv^t Troieot TTOLOL tt]X6ov SyXov 

See also 48, 2. 

48. NOTE. Special Rules of Contraction. 1. The spurious diphthong 
ei is contracted like simple e ; as, TrAa/coeis, 7rAaKo{;s, ca&e ; Tf/xaeiv, rtuav ; 
6^XotVj S^Aoui/. See 322 ; 599, 1. 

2. In contracts of the first and second declensions, every short vowel 
followed by d or by a long vowel or diphthong, is absorbed (47, 6), the follow- 
ing a becoming a as, (TUJceat, crf'K-at ; crvKed?, crv/cas ; dpyvpeav, dpyvpav ; 
ocrrea, ocrra ; aTrAoa, airXa ; aTrAor/, cxTrA^ ; aTrAo^, aTrAy ; aVAocus, 
aTrAat?. But in the singular of the first declension, ed, after any consonant 
but /a, contracts to r; ; as, x/oikred, X/^"*? > <rvK*i vvKfl. See 192, 294. 

3. In the second person singular of the passive and middle, eat (for eo-cu) 
gives the ordinary Attic et as well as the regular rj ; as, Avecu, Avec or Xvy. 
See 597. 

4. Verbs in ow contract oei to ot, as, SryAoets, SryAots ; also 077 in the 
subjunctive, as 817 Ao$, S^Aot. See 477. 




5. In adjectives in 77$ of the third declension, ea becomes a after e ; and 
d or 77 after t or v. See 307. 

6. Rarely aa gives at instead of a ; as aipta from Ionic det/)to, take up. 

7. For exceptions in the contraction of verbs, see 479 ; 481 ; 666, 2 ; 
1047. For contraction confined to certain cases of nouns and adjectives of 
the third declension, see that declension. 

49. NOTE. A close vowel rarely contracts with a succeeding open one ; 
as i\0us for ix$i.'es, and l\0v for l^Ove in comedy. 

50. NOTE. An I followed by I gives I ; as Xtos, Chian, from Xtto? (Xi'os, 
Chios) ; Kpivd) from K/H-IVW for Kplv-yio (96, 5). Similarly vi becomes v in 
liquid verbs ; as cnTyxo from (rv-ipio for o-vp-yw (96, 5). But no contraction 
occurs in cases like /a-t, dat. of /as, weevil; l^Ov-i, dat. of l^Ovs, fish ; and. 
/iv-t, dat. of /xvs, mouse. 

51. NOTE. Contraction is often neglected when the first vowel is long ; 
as vrjt, to a ship. See 45. 

52. Table of Contractions. 

a + 


= d 

yepaa = yepd 

e + et 



a + 


= ai 

/xvdat = /xi'ar 

e +77 


7 / 

a + 


= 9 

/xvaci = 7U,va 




a + 

= a 

rfyxae = rt/xct 

e + t 



a + 


= a 

Tt^aet = Tt/xa 

e +o 



or d 

Tt /J ttxetv = Tt / lai/(48, 1) 

e + ot 



detpto = atpto (48, 6) 

e + ov 



a + 


= a 

Tt/xaT^re = rt/xare 

e + v 



a + 


= a 

rlfJ-drj = Tt/xa 

e + to 



a + 


= at 

yepat = yepat 

e +w 



d + 


= ? 

paurros = pao"To? 

77 + at 



a + 


= to 

Tl^ao^v = TL^M^V 

77 + e 



a + 



Tt/^aotyu,t = Tt/xto7U,t 

77 + et 


7 / 

/ ^ 

a + 


= to 

Tt/u-aou = Tt/xto 

77+ t 



a + 


= to 

Tt/xato = rt/xto 

77 + ot 





= 77 

ret^ea = re 1^77 

t + t 



{.yt^a-vytT] (48, 5) 

V(j)Va = v(j)vrj (48, 5) 

o + a 



or d 

oo-Tea = oVrc7 (48,^2) 

or a 

ijyiea = vy tt7 (48, 5) 

o + at 



> / / Ji /^O K\ 

o + e 



e + 


= y 

Ac'eai = Av77 

o + et 




Aveai^ Avet (48, 3) 



trvKat = o-7~Kat (48, 2) 

+ 77 



C + 

= et 

<i' = </>iAet 

+ 77 



<lAeet = (f)t \L 

yevet = yevet 
yeveos = 

(f>i\ov = (f>i\ov 

V = 6V 

00~TW = ()0-TOJ 

Tl/ZT/S (48, 

= 7J K \ljiOpOl' = K\1j9pOV 

Kpt-ll'O)'= KpfvtoJ (50) 

atSoa = ai(5w 

aTrAoa = a7rAc7 (48, 2 

a?rAoat = aTrXat (48, 2) 

vde = vo{i 

877X061 = 877X0? (48, 4) 

8ryAoetv = 87yAofv (48,1) 


o + rj = 77 aTTAory 

O + t = = Ol 7TtC/Ot 

O + O = Of VOO5 = VOl'S 

(48, 2) 

o + ot = ot 

V + I 

1 O~V-Lp(i) = (TVplt) (50) 

Rarely the following : 
v -f c =v l^0v<5 = l\@v<s (49) 
co + a = co ifpttn = i^ptu 

o> -t- e = co 
co 4- t = (o 

o + ov = oi> S^Aoov = cSr/Aou 

rt \ / Ol \ ^ 

O + CO == CO OTlAOCO == O7?ACO 

o + w = co aTrAoco = aTrAco | co + o = co acoos = 0-005 


53. Crasis (icpoo-is, mixture) is the contraction of a vowel or diph- 
thong at the end of a word, with one at the beginning of the following 
word. The two words are then written as one, with the coronis (') 
over the contracted syllable. Thus TO, dyaOd, rdyatfa; TO 6'vo//,a, TOI;- 
vo/za. (For Synizesis, see 853, 854.) 

54. Crasis generally follows the rules of contraction, with these 
exceptions : 

1. A diphthong at the end of the first word drops its last vowel 
before contraction takes place ; as oiW for ot r 

2. The final vowel or diphthong of the article is lost by absorption 
before initial a. Thus avrjp for 6 dv^/o, aSeA<ot for ot aSeA^o/, rdv8pL 
for TCO dv8pi, ravrov for TOU avrov. 

3. The particle Tot drops ot before a ; as rapa for Tot dpa. 

4. The diphthong of KO^IS lost by absorption before all vowels and 
diphthongs, except e and ei. Thus Ka^Tos for Kat avTos ; but Kas for 
Kat e?, KcjtTa for Kat efra. Yet we have Ket for Kat et and Ket's for Kat ei?. 

55. NOTE. The coronis is dropped if the first word has the rough 
breathing ; as av for a av, av^p for 6 o.vf}p. 

56. NOTE. In crasis, eVe/D05, other, assumes the form oVe/sos ; hence 
oVepos for 6 T/)O5. 

57. NOTE. If, by crasis, a smooth mute (TT, K, T) comes before the 
rough breathing, it is changed to the cognate rough mute (30, 2 ; 98) ; as 
Qarepa for TO, eVepa, ^cxTepos for Kat T/3O5, BolfJidriov for TO tyotaTtov. 

58. Crasis occurs mostly in poetry. It is rare in Homer (see 851), 
more frequent in later poetry, especially in comedy, but rare in 
tragedy ; in prose the orators use it most. Crasis occur chiefly in the 
following cases : 

1. W^ith the article : as avi'ip for 6 avtjp ; OVTTL for 6 eV/ j OI>K for 6 
IK ', TavTov for TOV avrov TavSpi for TCO av8pL j d8eA<^)ot for ot cxcSeA^oi; 
Touvo/xa for TO ovofJM} TowavTtov for TO evavTtov ', TO.VTO for TO avTO ^ 
TdyaOd for TO, dyaOd ', Tr)7raiprj for Trj tTraprj. 

2. With the relatives o and a; as otryco for 6 eyco ; av for a av. 

3. With Kat and TOI j as KCXV for Kat av \ KCXV for Kat tv \ KOV for Kat 


ov ; KO.VTOS for KOL avros ; yj&vrr] for Kai avr^ (57) ; KOO-TL for Ka6 

Xw for Kai 6 : x 7 ? for Kal ?} ; ^ot for Kal ol ; ^ai for Kal al ; rav for rot 

av ; /zevrav for /xevroi dv ; rapa for rot a/aa. 

4. With eyw ot//,GU, lya/xat ; and yw oiSa, eyu8a. 

5. With the interjection w; as uvOpanrt for w avOpMire; and in 
Trpovpyov, helpful, from Tiyjb epyov, for an object. See also 99. 

6. With the enclitics pn and o-ot, mostly before m and 
as [j.ov8oKei for ^uoi e8o/<ei, CTOVCTTL for crot ecrrt'. 

7. With 7T/30 in verbs ; as Trpov^io for Tr/ao-e^w, Trpovrffjirjcra for 
ri/ji^(ra (see 554), especially in compounds. 

8. With ci or eTret or fTraSij before av : thus t av gives ordinary 
Jav or ?jv (Ion. and older Att.) or av (newer Att.) ; eTret av gives 
eTreav (Ion.) or ITTI/V (Horn, and sometimes Att.) or eTrav (rarely Attic) ; 
generally the Attics use eTretSdV. 


59. Elision is the omission of a final short vowel (a, e, i, o) before 
a word beginning with a vowel. The elision is marked by an 

'ATT' efjiov for oVo e^o?, St CKCIVO for Sto, CKCIVO, dXX' evOvs for aAXa 
cvOvs, XkyoifM av for Aeyoi/u av, opar' avrov for opare avrov. 

60. NOTE. If, by elision, a smooth mute (TT, /^ r) is brought before the 
rough breathing, it is changed to the cognate rough mute ; as d<$> ov from avro 
ov, KaB' f)/j,pav from Kara ->}/xe/)av, vv\0' oAryv from viJKTa 6'A^v. See 55, 97. 

61. Elision is not a necessary rule : some authors, as Isocrates, 
make full use of it ; while others, as Thucydides, often neglect it. - In 
Herodotus elision is not as common as in Attic prose. It is most 
frequent with prepositions, conjunctions, and adverbs ; less frequent 
at the end of nouns, adjectives, pronouns, and verbs. 

62. No elision takes place in 

(1) the prepositions TTC/JI, TT/OO, ^xph ^X/ 31 

(2) the conjunction 6Vt ; 

(3) monosyllables, except those ending in e ; 

(4) the dative singular in -i of the third declension, and the dative 
plural in -o-t ; 

(5) final -a of the nominative of the first declension ; 

(6) words ending in -v. 

63. In the formation of compound words, a short final vowel is 
usually dropped, but no apostrophe here marks the elision. 

*A7r-ayo> (aVo and ayw), ov8-eis (ov8e and eis), 6VeAi7rov (Sia and e'AiTrov), 
f(f)-vpL(rK(i> (evrt and cvpto-Kd), 60), 7rev#-?5/ze/>os (TTCVTC and ^fte/oa, 60), 6V 
(6V/<a and fj/jiepa, 60). 



64. 1. At the end of certain forms of declension and conjugation, 
also in some other words, v is added when the following word begins 
with a vowel. This is called v movable (y c</>eA/<wTi/<ov, lit. dragging 

2. The forms which take v movable are : 

(a) All words in -o-t (-ft -\//i). 

(b) All verbs of the third person singular ending in e. 

(c) 'Eo-Ti, is. 

Thus : StSioanv e/W, but SiSoxri /JLOL ; -rrao-iv e'Aeyev e/cetva, but 
Aeyowi ravra ; eXvcrev avrov, but IAi5tr rov avSpa ; AeAvKev e/xe ; e&ccxrtv 
T>7, but eiKocrt ya^ves. 

65. NOTE. The third singular pluperfect active in -ei rarely takes v 
movable ; as eAeAi>Kei(V), fre 7id ZooW, fySet(v), Tie /mew. But the contracted 
imperfect in -et (for -ee) never takes v in Attic. 

66. NOTE. It is usual, but not necessary, to add v at the end of a 
sentence ; also at the end of a verse in poetry. In Herodotus v movable 
is seldom found. The inscriptions show that v movable was often written 
before a consonant ; this is often done in poetry to make position (116, 2). 

67. NOTE. Of all the words which take v movable, only eo-ri may be 
elided in prose. 

68. Ov, not, becomes OVK before a vowel with the smooth breathing, 
and or'^ before a vowel with the rough breathing ; as ov Aeyto, OVK o?8a, 
ot'x ovros. M>j, not, inserts K in p/K-ert, no longer, on the analogy of 


69. 'Ef (e'/v-s), from, drops s before a consonant ; as IK TroAews, but 
ef OLKOV \ e/cAeyw, but efeAeyov. 

Oin-ws, thus, often drops s before a consonant : as O^TWS e'Aeev, but 
OVTO>(S) Aeyei. 


70. 1. The omission of a short vowel between two consonants is 
called syncope ; as yiyvo^ai for yiyevo/mi (619), rjXOov for Epic t'jXvOov, 
ecrrat for Epic ecrerai, TTTrya-o/xat for TreTTycroyLtat (619), Trar/oos for Trare/aos 

2. Syncope occurs oftener in the Dialects (most often in Epic forms) 
than in Attic, especially in verbs ; as eVAe for eVeAe, from vreAw ; yAa/cro- 
for yaAa/cTo-<ayos, living on milk ; rtVre for riVore, why then? 

71. NOTE. (a) When //, is brought before A or p, by syncope or metathesis 


(74), /? is inserted after it. Thus /xeo-ry/z^ptd, midday, for /An7/z(e)/oid (/zecro? 
and ^ ; /x/x/3AwKa, epic perfect of /3Aaio-Kw, 0o, from stem /xoA-, /xAo-, 
/zAa>- (39); for /xe-//,Aa>-/ca. 

(6) At the beginning of a word, /z, is dropped before /3 in this case. Thus 
, mortal, from stem p)/o-, fJ.po- (compare Latin morior, die), for /xpo-Tos ; 
/2AiTTco, to/ce /tone?/, from stem //,eAir- of /zeAi, Tione?/ (compare Latin wc-Z), 
syncopated /z/3Air-, /3Air-. 

(c) Similarly when syncope brings v before p in the oblique cases of avi'ip, 
man (243, 2), a S is euphonically inserted after the v ; as dV^oos for dV/oos, 
from dVe/oos. 


72. Prothesis. At the beginning of some words which begin with 
two consonants or had initial /, a short vowel is sometimes found ; 
thus occasionally giving double forms; as, x#s and -x#*, yesterday : 
crra^vs and a-o-ra^v?, ear of corn ; cunrat/xo and cnraipw, pant ; aOXov, 
prize, from a-e^Aov, formerly a-ftOXov. 

73. Epenthesis. In some cases a vowel has been inserted between 
two liquids or between a mute and a liquid. Compare o-T-e-/Do?nj and 
ao-T/oaTnj, lightning ; aA--a>, defend, and aA/o}, defense. 


74. The transposition of a short vowel and a following liquid in a 
word is called metathesis. Thus K/XXTOS and Ka'/orog, strength; Odpo-os 
and Opda-os, courage ; compare /?e-/?A?/-K-a (from stem /3aA-) with -/3aX-ov, 
Ke-/cp;-/<:a (from stem Ka/x-) with e-Ka/xov, re-Ov^-Ka (from stem ^av-),with 
-6av-ov. The vow r el is then often lengthened, as in the last three 
examples (39). 



75. 1. In the great majority of cases, doubling of consonants is 
due to euphonic assimilation. The only consonants found doubled in 
Attic are the liquids A, //,, v, p ; the mutes TT, K, T ; and rarely the 
spirant o\ 

2. Tho rough mutes (<f>, x, 0) are never doubled; but TT</>, KX, 
and r# are used for <j><J>, xx an d 06. Thus 2a7r</>w, Sappho, Ba^xo?, 
Bacchus, 'ArOis, Attic. 

3. The middle mates (/?, y, 8) are never doubled in Attic. In yy, 
the first y is always nasal; as ayyeAos (31, 2). 


76. The later Attic has TT for the earlier Attic o-o- ; as TCCTTW, Kpcir- 
TWV, BdXarra, for ravo-io, Kpeicra-uv, OdXacra-a. But this refers only to era- 
due to the union of a mute with y (96) ; not in"ATTi/<os and in some 
other words. The older Attic prose (as Tlmcydides) and the 
Tragedians have o-o- and /as ; the later prose (as Xenophon) arid 
the Comedians have TT and pp. 

77. Initial p is doubled before the syllabic augment; also in J/~ 
compounds after a short vowel. Thus e'p-/>a7rrov, imperfect of pd-n-Tw ; uj*r *?* 
a7ro/3-/3eco (UTTO and pew) ; but v-poo$. The cause of the doubling is the / '" 

loss of an initial o- or f before the p (see 108, 4). 

78. The later Attic has pp for the earlier Attic pa-; as Koppvj, 
Odppos for Kopa-rj, 9dp(ros. See 76. 


79. When the final consonant of a stem meets a consonant, in inflec- 
tion and word-formation, such a collision generally gives rise to certain 
euphonic changes; these are explained in 80 84 and 86 97. Certain 
special changes in the spirants o- and f are treated in 105 107 and in 
108. The changes in the aspirated consonants are treated in 98 104. 
For the chane, of T before t and other vowels to o-, see 85. 


80. Before a lingual mute (T, 8, 0), a labial (TT, /?, <J>) or a palatal 
mute (K, 7, x) becomes co-ordinate (30, 2) ; a lingual before another 
lingual becomes o-. Hence, only these combinations are allowed : TTT, 
KT ; 08, 78 ; <j>0, X ', <TT, <r6. 

TT/3t7TTat for TT/H/3-Tat AeAeKTcu for 

yypa<f)-TaL SeSe/crat 


81. NOTE. 'E/<,/rom, in composition, remains unchanged; as eK- 


82. NOTE. When TT stands for the later Attic o-o-, it remains unchanged 
(76). Also TT and T# in a few words ; as 'ATTIKOS, 'Arflt's, -4ic. 

83. NOTE. In all of the above combinations, the second mute is T, 8, 


or 0. If in formations any other combination of consonants would occur, tlie 
first mute drops out ; as KeKo/zi/ca for Ke/<o/xt8-Ka, TreTrei/ca for 7re7rei$-Ka. 
Exceptions are TT</>, K^, and rO (75, 2); TT and rO in several words, as 
os, 'Ar$is; and y-nasal, which is not a mute (75, 3). 


84. A labial mute before o- unites with it to form \j/ ( = TTCT) ; a 
palatal mute forms ( = KO-) ; a single lingual mute is dropped. 

fiXeijsa) for /3Ae-cr(o Aeco for Aey-trw eATrtVt for eATriS-o-6 

,, opvlO-crt. 

,, 7rAe/<-cra> acrco ,, aS-crcu ^apiecrt ,, papier-en (321, 2) 

For more examples, see 231, 484, 485. 


85. T often becomes o-, especially before t ; as riO^a-i for original 
TiOyjTi; TrAovcr-ios for TrAoiV-tos, from TrAoin-os. But seldom before 
other vowels ; as o-v, croi, ere for Doric TV, rot, and Aeolic re ; a-fj^pov, 
to-day, for TJJfJLepov ; eVecrov for Doric eVerov. 


86. Before /x a labial mute becomes //, ; a palatal mute becomes y ; 
a linual mute becomes o-. 

for AeAet7r-/>tat Typy/xat for 

,, TTpl/3-[JLat. rji/vcr/xai ., 

87. NOTE. But when K/A and T/A are brought together by metathesis 
(74), they stand unchanged ; as Kt-KfjiTj-Ka (Ka/x-i/w), Te-T/x?;-/ca (re/z-vw). Also 
K, ^, T, $ often stand before /A in the formation of nouns ; as UK-/^, ecfr/e ; 
al^-fJLrj, spcar~2)oint ; ar-/zos, vapor ; crra$-/zos, station. 
'EK remains unchanged here as in 81 ; as eK-/xav$ou'(o. 

88. NOTE. If the assimilation gives rise to /X/X/A or yy/x, one /x or y 
is dropped. Thus TreTre/j./iat (for 7re7re/z/z-/>tai, TreTre/zTT-^at) from TT^TTIO ; 
eA^Aey/zat (for eA?;Aeyy-/>tat, eA^Aeyx-^ai) from eAeyx^. See 485. 

89. NOTE. The mutes remain unchanged before the other liquids, A, v, /3. 
In cre/zvos, revered, solemn, for cre/3-vos (cre/?-o^at, revere), epe/iyos, darik, for 

s ("E/)/?-os, Erebos), /3 becomes /z. 



90. 1. Before a labial mute (also \f), v becomes /x; before a 
palatal mute (also ), it becomes nasal y. 

euTrAeKO) lor ey-TrAe/cco cruy/ccud) for crw-Kcuu> 

(rvp./3aiv<a crvv-/3 


2. Before another liquid, v is changed to that liquid, 

eAAetTru) for ev-AeiTrou cruppcnrTco for (r 

efji/jievio ,, ev-[JiV(i) cn;AAoyos ,, crvv-Aoyos 

3. Before a-, the v is regularly dropped and the preceding vowel 
is compensatively lengthened, a to d, e to ei, o to <n> (38). 

/xeAds for /zeAav-s (241, 2) Al)owa for Arovr-i/a, Auov-cra (96, 2) 
eis ev-S ( ) Tracra ,, Travr-ya, Trav-cra ( ) 

Al5owi ,, Ai)oi/-o-t ( 588 ) XvOtia-a ,, Av^ei/r-7/a, Av^ev-tra ( ) 

4. Before a- in inflections, vr, vS, v(9 are always dropped and the 
preceding vowel is compensatively lengthened as in 89, 3 

ytyois for ytyavr-s Tretcro/xat for TrevO-cro/JLai 

TTavr-crt crTretcra) (T7rev8-(r(o 

Aeovcrt Aeovr-o-fc rt^eicrt ^, rt^evr-crt 

For nominatives in -wv from stems in -OVT-, see 224, 3. 

91. NOTE. When v stands alone before -o-i of the dative plural, it is 
dropped, but the preceding vowel is not lengthened ; as Ai/xecrt for At/u,ei/-o-i, 
Saifjiocri for Satyzov-cri, ^eAacrt for yueAav-m. 

92. NOTE. (a) The preposition kv remains unchanged before p and cr ; 
as ev-piiTTd), ev-crrpe^oj. 

(6) The preposition <rvv becomes trw- before a- and a voivel, and a~v- 
before (r and a consonant or before ; as o-vfr-criros, o-v-o-rry/xa, o-v-^e^yi'ij/zt. 

93. NOTE. The v of ?rav and TraAii/ may stand before cr or change to cr, 
in composition ; as 7rai>-croc/>os or 7racr-cro</>o<j, TraAiVcr/aos or TraAtcr-crKtos. 

94. NOTE. In verbs in -vcu the v of the stem is mostly changed to cr 
before -/u,at in the perfect middle (485) ; as c^atVcu, 7Tc/)acr-/ J iat for 7re</>av-//,cu. 
See also 737, 4. 

95. NOTE. (a) The v is preserved before cr in e'A/xii/s (stem eA/zii/0-), 
tape-worm, Treiptv? (stem TrcipivO-}, body of a cart, 'Yipvvs (stein Ttpvvc^-), see 
224, 2 ; also in a few nouns in -cris belonging to late Greek, as ^/oavcris, 
drying up, from grjpaivw, dry up. 

(6) For v before cr in the perfect and pluperfect middle of liquid verbs in 
-vto, see 737, 4 and 5. 




96. The spirant y (13, 5) gave rise to certain changes when it 
followed the final consonant of a stem. 

1. Palatals (K, y, x 
o-o- (later Attic rr}. 


and occasionally T and 

unite with y to form 

for <vAa/c-7/to, stem 


se, iJK-yw, 

rjK- (354, 2) 




x a P LT -y a i 




X aptT-(321, 


See also 638. 

2. In the feminine of participles and adjectives (319, 333), VT 
with y becomes vcr, the v is then dropped (89, 3) and the preceding 
vowel receives compensative lengthening. 

XVOVT- stem, fern, Xvovr-ya, Xvovcra, Xvovcra 

SiSovr- ,, SiSovr-T/a, BiSovcra, StSorcra 

XV$VT- ,, XvOevr-ya, XvOcvcra, 

SeiKvvvr- ,, SetKvvvT-ya, StLKvvva-a, 

iravT- 7ravT-ya, Travcra, Tracra 

3. The union of 8 (sometimes also y or yy) with y forms 

e/\7rtYw for eATrtS-7/w, stem eATrtS- (643) 

- (641) 

o-aATTtyy-7/oj, ,, o-aA7riyy- (641) 
ju,coy (Ionic) or /xe/^ajv (comparative of /xeyas, great] 
for fjLy-ywv (354, 4). 

4. After A, the y is assimilated, forming AA. 
o-reAAw (o-reA-), se?if/, for o-reA-i/w (648) 

aXXojjiai (cxA-), Zea/?, dA-7/o/zai, Latin sah'o (648) 

fjiaXXov, more, rather, ,, /xaA-?/or, comparative of fj,dX-a (363) 

aAAos, o^/ie?*, (xA-7/os, Latin aZwts 

5. After v or /a, the ?/ is thrown back as t to the preceding vowel 
with which it is contracted (47, 1; 50). 

(au/co ((/xxv-) for <av-?/a> \eiptii' (X 6 / 3 -)^ worse, for \ep-ywv 

XaipiD (\ a p-) j, X a P~y ) (TMTtipa (crwre/i-), fern, of o-a)T?)/o, 
/zeAatva (/xeAai/-), fern, of saviour, for o-a>re/>7/a 

//.eAas, for //eAaiM/a Kpfvttt (nplv-} for Kpiv-yw 

(324) <rf'/3(o (crvp-) . <rvp-ya) 


Tivit) (rev-) for rev-i/w a/xuvw (a//,w-) for d/jivv-yio 

KlpO) (Ktp-) ,, Kp-yil) OlKTlpli) (OIKTI/3-) OlKTl/M/CO 

See also 648, and KCU'W and KAcu'w (650). 

97; NOTE. Between two vowels y is dropped ; as ecu/ for t-7/av ( = ei av). 


98. When a smooth mute (TT, K, T) is brought before the rough 
breathing by elision (59, 60), or crasis (53, 57), or .in forming a com- 
pound (63), it is changed to its corresponding rough mute (</>, x> $) 
v<f> rjfAutv for VTTO r/fMMv Oolfj-driov for TO l^driov 

ecf>opdiD 7r-opa.(j) vv\0' oXrjv VVKTO. oXrfv 

oi'x ovros ,, OVK OVTOS /ca^tVrry/zt /caT-to-T7//xt 

Kttt OUTO? 

99. NOTE. The smooth mute has been made rough, notwithstanding 
an intervening p, in </>oiSos, (/owe (from TT/OO oSov) ; (frpovpos, watchman (for 
irpo-opos) ; T0/oi7T7ros, four-horsed (from Terra/ae? and ITTTTOS). 

100. In general, two successive syllables of the same word cannot 
begin with a rough mute. Hence 

1. In reduplications (536 ; 764, &) the first rough mute is changed 
to its corresponding smooth one. 

7T-(f>L A-^Ko, for <f)-<f)iXr)Ka re-OvKa for 

2. In the first aorist passive imperative, the ending -Bi is changed 
to -rt after #17- of the tense-stem (756). 

\vOrj-ri for Xv0r)-6i, (})dv6ij-Ti for ^>ai'^r;-^t ; but 2 aor. (f>di"tj-0i. 

3. The verbs Ti^ftt (stem 0e-) and ^vw (^v-) change 6 of the stem 
to T in the first aorist passive, arid make c-re-Orjv and f-rv-dijv. 

A similar loss of aspiration occurs in d/iTr-exw (for 
a/xwrTr^w ( I0r a/x^-tcrxw), clothe ; K-xet/)ta ('X** an( ^ X t/ /)' 
in several other words. 

"EX<D (stem 4x-for o-ex-, 533, 5) loses its initial aspirate in the present, 
but recovers it in the future efw. 

101. NOTE. In other cases, both aspirates remain unchanged ; as 
from 6^eAya), wpO^Oifjv from dp^dw ; c^^v from x^ w j ^>a^i from 
from a-r)<a) JidOeO* rj.u>v for 

102. Some stems, beginning with T and ending in </> or x> throw 
the aspirate back to the T, whenever it is lost at the end by any 
euphonic changes. These stems are supposed to have had the initial 
mute originally rough. They are 


nourish, stem rpttp- for @pe<f>-, fnt. Opti^io, 2 aor. pass. Tp<i<j)-rjv ; 
, &?'?/, stem ra<- for #uc/>-, fut. #d^a>, 2 aor. pass. ^rdcprjv ; 
J, ?*zm, stem r/oe^- for Ope\-, fut. Opk^opat 

weaken, stem Tpv<J>- for Opwj>- f fut. Opvi/so/jiai, subst. rpvc^ry, 
delicacy ; 
rl5</>co, sraoA-e, stem TV<- or 71^- for $?(-, perf. mid. T#u/z/Aat, 2 aor. 

pass, Tv<j>ijv 

i^, hair, stem rpi\- for Opi\-, gen. -rynxos, dat. pi. 0/att ; 
v?, su?t/if, stem ra^- for $X~> com P ar ' Qwf&tav for Bd^-ywv, superl. 

See also Opda-o-a) and the stem 0o,7r- in the Catalogue. 

103. NOTE. But remains at the beginning of the above stems, if 
appears at the end ; as e-Opetfr-Oijr, T-0pd<f*-Qai (inf. perf. mid.), from 

Te-$a</>-$ou (inf. perf. mid.) from OOLTTTW ; f-Opvtjr-Qrjv, re-@pv(J>-0ai, 
(inf. perf. mid.) from QpruTTTQ). 

104. XOTE. In Tracrxax, suffer, for TraO-a-Kw, stem Tra.0-, there is transfer 
of aspiration to a succeeding consonant. 

OX o- 

105. Single a- between two vowels is dropped in certain forms of 

1. In stems of nouns in eo-- and acr- ; as yevo?, race (stem yeveo--), 
gen. yevovs contracted from yeve-o? for yemr-os; ye^as, _pn^e (stem 
ye/oao-), gen. ye/aws contracted from yepa-os for yepacr-os. See 246. 

2. In the middle endings -o-eu and -<ro ; as Ai~e-o-ai, Ai~e-at, Avy or 
Aiet (46, 3), e-Ave-cro, e-Atie-o, cAvov. But /xi-forms keep or j as ri^e-crat, 
cTiOe-cro, XfX.v-0-aL, eAeAv-cro. See 596, 609. 

3. The first aorist active and middle of liquid verbs drops cr of 
the tense-suffix era- (682, 2) ; as ^MU'I/CO (^>av-), aor. e<fava for e<j>av-o-a, 
cifavafnjv for e<j>av~<rap,i)v. There are a few exceptions (686). 

4. When o- of a stem meets cr of an inflectional ending, one o- is 
dropped; as ycfos, rftce (yevecr-), dat. pi. yevecrt for yevecr-cri (246)^ ecrTracrat 
for eo-Tracr-o-at (730, 1). 

106. Iii some adverbs of place (284, 3) 0-8 becomes f ; as 'A$?jvde 
for 'A^j/Ftt^-Se, toward Athens. 

107. An initial cr has often been weakened to the rough breathing. 
Thus L-a-TYj-fiL, place, for o-t-o-T/-/*t, Latin sisfoy rs or crvs, swine, Latin 
szfs / eKvpos, Irother-in-law, Latin socer ; Ty/Ato-i's, A//, Latin sgrnf- ; c^, .^?','', 
Latin sex; evrra, seve?*, Latin septem ; aA, s//, Latin s/; 

Latin ser^o / e^o/xat, szY (root 45-, originally o-eS-), Latin 


Some words lost both a- and / ; as e, him, her, if, for o-A, Latin se ; 
poetic os, his, for O-/GS, Latin suiis ; i/Sus, sweet, from root 08- for o-/d8-, 
Latin suavis. See 108. 

For initial <r before /> dropped, see 108, 4. 

ON / 

108. Many forms are due to the omission of an original A 

1. The f was dropped when initial or between two vowels. Thus 
ciKoo-i, twenty, for {CIKOCTL, Latin vlginti ; eros, year, for /eros, Latin velus, 
o/</ cpyov, work, for fepyov, German werk ; r0rjs, garment, for 

Latin vestis ; is, strength, Latin ns/ o?/<o?, 7i0wse, Latin wens; o?vos, 
Latin virmm ; eiSov, s^iw (root AS-, Latin vid-eo), for I-A6W = e-toW ; 
?a/>, spring, Latin ?er; /cAeis, Ionic icAi/ts, key, Latin dams ; Sios, divine, 
Latin dims ; ofs, s/teep, Latin ow's/ o-/caio5, Ze/2, Latin scaevus. See also 

2. Verbs in -ew of the Second Class (632) change ev of the stem to 
e/ and then to e ; as TrAew, S(M/ (for TrAev-w, stem TrAev-, TrAe/-, TrAe-), fat. 
7rAevcro/./,ai. For Kai'w for Kaf-yiD and K\ai(D for /<Aa/-7/a>, see G50. 

3. In the third declension stems ending in av, ev, and ov changed 
these diphthongs to a/, c/, and o/ before a succeeding vowel, and 
then dropped f as, y/oavs, oW woman (stem y/ad- for y/od/, from y/oav-), 
gen. ypa-os for ypd/-09 ; /SaouAcvS, ^m//, gen. ^acriAe-cus for /5ao-tAr//-o?, 
Horn. /JacrtA^os ; ^ovs, oz (stem /?o- for )8o/- from /?ov-), gen. ^8o-os for 
;8o/-os. See 263. 

4. Words beginning with p lost an initial / or a-. Compare 
pyjyvvfjLi, break, with Latin frango ; /sew is for o-oew, hence the />/o after 
the augment, as Upptov for c- 


109. The only consonants permitted to stand at the end of a 
Greek word are i/, p, ? (, ^). Others left at the end in word- 
formation or in inflection are dropped. 

ye/owv, old man, gen. ye/oovr-os, voc. yepov for ytpovr 

(rw/jta, 6oc/i/, ,, o-cu/Aar-os, stem o-w/xaT- 

yaAa, mi2ft, yaAa/cr-o?, yaAaKT- 

Tras, aZZ, Travr-os, voc. irai/ for 

, boy, 7ratS-os, ,, Tra? 

woman, ywaiK-o's, ,, yvi/at ,, ywat/c 

110. NOTE. Exceptions are the preposition IK and the negative adverb 
OVK or oi'x ; for these there are also the forms e and ov. 



111. NOTE. In the preposition TT/JOS from Epic TT/OOTI, final T was 
changed to s after t was dropped. 

112. NOTE. In a few imperatives, the imperative ending -61 dropped i, 
and 9 was then changed to s ; as Sds from SoO for 80- 61 (see 702, 3). 

113. NOTE. An original final JJL was often changed to v; in many 
cases it was dropped. 

cSetKvuv, I showed, for original eSei/cvv/z, present Sei/cvi^i 

aypov (nom. ay/ads, field), ,, uypop, Latin agrum 

vavv (nom. vas, s&ip), vavfi, Latin navem 

VVKTOL (nom. vt', night], ,, ru/cra/z, Latin noctem 

e'Avcra, I loosed, eAucra//, 


114. 1. Every vowel or diphthong forms, with or without 
consonants, a distinct syllable. Thus a-Trei-pl-d and v-ji-ei-a 
have four syllables, /3a-crt-Xeu9 has three, 7rav-a) has two, ev and 
TO have one. 

2. The last syllable is called the ultima; the syllable next 
to the last is called the penult (paen-ultima, almost last) ; the one 
before the penult is called the antepenult. 

115. Division of Syllables. In dividing a word into syllables at 
the end of a line, the following rules generally obtain : 

1. A single consonant between two vowels belongs to the following vowel ; 
as ipv-X'h O-^'S, Trpai-^LS, Ae-yw. 

2. Such combinations of mutes as may stand at the beginning of a word 
belong to the following vowel. They are : a 7r-mute or a K-mute followed 
by a corresponding r-mute ; a mute and a liquid ; JJLV ; cr -and a mute ; o-/z ; 
o- with a smooth or a rough mute and a liquid (cr/cA, (nrX, crrp, err A, o-^p, 

ve-KTap, -yo-os, 
a-/xvds ; -cr/re-/3a, 

3. Even combinations of consonants which cannot begin a word belong 
to the following vowel ; but a liquid is separated from a following consonant, 
and doubled letters are separated, also -<& K-\, r-0., a-Kytxvy, d-pi-Oi^os ; /3a.-KTpor* f-^0p6<s ; a.v-upoj-7ros, aA-cro?, 
; aA-Aos, I'TT-TTOS, ep-pl-Trrov, Trpdcr-o-co, TCIT-TW ; 2a7r-<^a), Ba/c-^os, 

4. Compound vrords formed without elision are divided according to their 


component parts ; as e^-a-yw, IX-XetTTW. But when the final vowel of a 
word has been elided, the compound may be divided like a simple word ; as 
.av-a-yco or a-va-yw from dvd and ayw, ir-ep-\o-^ai or e-7T/)-^o-/xat, 
Ka0-v<f>-a.i-p<i) or Ka-6v-(f>ai-po). Similarly in separate words UTT' eKeiVov 
.or a-7r' Keivov, yaAryv' o-/>w or yaAry-V 6-/otu. 


116. Long Syllable. 1. A syllable is long by nature when it has 
a long vowel or a diphthong ; as Kpi-vu, /3ov-A?j, /3cu-vw, O.-KUV, Xv-u. 

2. A syllable is long by position when it has a short vowel followed 
by two consonants (but see 119) or by a double consonant; as the 
first syllable of o-reAAo/zev, QO-KO?, Trefos, 6vs, e^w. 

In this case, one or both of the consonants which make the syllable long 
by position may be in the following word ; as ere/oos TOTTOS ( - ~ ~ ), rb 
( ~ - ), T& crro/m ( - ). 

117. NOTE. Obviously a syllable may be long both by nature and by 
position ; as Tr/oacro-w, Trpaf is, Tr/aay/xa (a). But the vowel of the syllable 
was pronounced long or short according to its nature ; as Tr^odo-o-w = prasso, 
= tasso. 

118. Short Syllable. A syllable is short when it has a short 
vowel followed by a simple consonant (but see 119); as all the syllables 
of eKOutcm, Xe\VKa. 

119. Common Syllable. When a short vowel (d, , o, r, v) is 
followed by a mute and a liquid, both in the same word or in the same 
part of a compound, the syllable is common; that is, it may be treated 
as long or short ; as the first syllable of TCKVOV, TreTrAos, CIT/AOS, j36rpvs, 
ay /DOS (all - ~ or ~ ~ ). 

But when the mute and liquid are in different words or in different parts 
of a compound, the syllable is long ; as IK vewi/ and IK-VC/XW, both - - - . 

120. NOTE. In Attic poetry a syllable with a short vowel followed 
by a mute and a liquid is generally short. But when a short vowel is 
followed by yv. y/>t, 8/x, oV, the syllable is regularly long ; when the short 
vowel is followed by /3A, yA, the syllable is seldom short, never short in the 
Old Comedy. 

121. The quantity of most syllables is apparent at a glance. 
Those with 17 or o> or any diphthong are long by nature, those with 
e or o are short by nature (116). The only cases of uncertainty are 
a, i, or i>, followed by a vowel or a single consonant. But in these 
oases the following points will usually ell the quantity. 

36 ACCENT 122 

1. A vowel resulting from contraction is always long. 
Ke/od from Kcpaa, OLKOW from de/cwr, KpivtD from Kpi-Lvu> 

2. In all formations -av-cr- and -<XVT-<T- give -dcr-, and -vv-cr- and -V-VT-V- 
give -f'<r- by compensative lengthening (40). 

AeAi'/vdcrt from AeAi'/ca-vcrt (592), ytyds from yiyavr-s, 8et/ci/t)s from 

3. The accent often betrays the quantity of its vowel or of the vowel of a 
succeeding syllable. 

Thus KpacriS (d, ), px$e (d), #a/<os (d) ; xV (7 - ( (i )> /*ofy>a and yecpfyxt 
(d) ; /cpu/e (t), Xivov (1) KV/JLOL (v, d), TTTJ^VS and t^flves (v). See 132, 135. 

122. XOTE. The quantity of d, ?, f, in the inflectional parts of words 
is explained in Part II. of the Grammar. In cases where the quantity is 
not evident from position, or accent, or contraction, or compensative lengthen- 
ing, it must be determined from the Lexicon or from poetic usage. 


123. The Greek mode of pronouncing an accented syllable was 

entirely different from ours. In English an accented syllable merely 
receives a stress by which it is uttered louder or stronger than the other 
syllables. In Greek the accented syllable Avas spoken in a higher key, 
its musical pitch or tone being raised. Hence the Greek words for 
accent Tr/ooo-ojoYd, singing, or roVos, tone (stretching of the voice) ; and 
the descriptive terms oi's, sharp, and fiapvs, flat. The Greek accent 
was thus essentially a musical one, while the English is simply a stress 
accent. In the course of time the musical accent disappeared, and a 
stress accent took its place, as in Modern Greek and in other languages. 

124. Selection of the Syllable to be accented. In determining 
which syllable of a word is to receive the accent, the Greek makes use 
of three different principles, the rhythmical, the logical, and the 
grammatical ; while the English makes use of only one, the logical. 

125. 1. The logical principle of accentuation puts the accent on the 
root-syllable or primitive element on which the meaning of the word 
depends, or else on a prefixed syllable which explains the meaning of 
the word more definitely; as laugh, 1angh"ing, laugh' tcr, laugh'aUe, 
laugh 'ably, laughableness; work, working, worJ/er, workable, workman, 
workmanship, workhouse. 

The Greek also follows this logical principle to some extent, 
especially in verbs which regularly accent the stem- syllable, the 
augment, and the reduplication. 

Stay/xx/i/xo, eypafov, eypai^a, yeypac^a, 

128 ACCENT 37 

2. But the logical accent is always subject to the rhythmical 
principle, which always limits the accent to one of the three last 
syllables, and generally restricts it to one of the last two, if the ultima 
is long ; as Aey-o/xat, but Aey-o/xe#a ; e-Aii-cra, but i-Xv-crd^v ; ypd^-^a t 
but ypa/A-//,ara)v ; /xcx^-i/^o?, but /za^i/AOf. 

126. The rhythmical principle prevails in Greek. It permits the 
accent to stand only on one of the last three syllables ; and if the 
ultima is long, only on one of the last two (for exception, see 137). 
The accent is thus very frequently shifted to a suffix or to an 
inflectional syllable, without regard to the root-syllable, which is the 
basis of the sinification. 

ocu/zcov, 8aifji6v(DV ; At'owa, Au-oiVr/s, Afwcrwv from Av-owda>v. 

127. 1. The grammatical principle of accentuation is used to a 
considerable degree. By it certain suffixes or inflectional syllables 
receive the accent, or words spelled alike are distinguished in meaning 
by difference of accent. 

Tpdffia) (root y/)d(/>-), ypa<f>-ij, y pa^-tKos, ypa^-is, ypa(j>-V<s, ypa/z-//,?;, 
y/oaTr-Tos, ypaTT-reos ; Aeyoo (root Aey-, Aoy-), ACK-TIKOS, Ae/c-ro^ Aoy-aw, 
Aoy-tKos, dXoy-id, Aoy-etov, Aoy-ei's ; a/3X w (root dpx~\ ^PX~ 

QTJS, 6r)T-6$, OITJT-I, QrjT-oiv, OrjT-fov, drj-cri ; yvvri, y vvaiK-6<$, yvvaiK-i, 
yvvaiK-oiv, y watK-tuv, yvvatgi ; Aa/2-wv, 2 aor. part., root Aa/3- ; ytypap,-, 
/xevos perf. mid. part., root ypa<$>- ; Av-0et's, aor. pass, part., root AIK 

IlatSeucrai, aor. inf. act., TrouSewcu, 2 sing, imper. aor. mid., TrouSeiVai 
3 sing. aor. opt. act., all from 7rcu8ev-w, teach; 7rei'$w, persuade, and Tret^w, 
2iersuasion ; w//,os, shoulder, and w/zo, raw; Xt6o/36Xos, throwing stones, and 
XtOofioXos, stoned; irore, when? and TTOTC, at some time. 

1. But the grammatical principle also yields to the rule of 
the rhythmical principle that the accent is always confined to one 
of the three last syllables, and generally to one of the last two if the 
rTltima is long. 

Thus, TO crrevog, strait, and rrrevo;, narrow, but gen. pi. of crrevo?, 
<TTevtoi/ (for o-rei/ecov), is the same as the gen. pi. of O-TCVOS ; At^o/?oAos and 
Ai$o/3oAos, both have gen. XiOo/36Xov so abstracts in -id are paroxytone, as 
</>iAid, friendship, but the gen. pi. is </>tAtco^ from </>iAido>i/. 

128. There are three accents : 

the acute ( ' ), as TOTTO?, 0809 

the grave ( N ), as eya> rj av 

the circumflex (" ), as Swpov, ravra. 

38 ACCENT 129 

129. NOTE. The mark of accent is placed over the vowel ; in the case 
of a diphthong over the second vowel, as /xoucra, avroi's, O?KOS, oiKot. If the 
accent is placed over the first of two vowels, they are to be pronounced 
separately, the place of the accent making the diaeresis unnecessary ; as 
UITTVOS (a-iipnos). With capitals, the accent stands before the vowel ; as 
"OfjL-rjpos, *H-Xts. When the t subscript is written on the line, the first 
vowel receives the accent; as "At6^s = aS^s, i li6fM]v = cp6fj.r)v. The accent 
also stands over the diaeresis, as Trpavr-rjs. The above examples also show 
that the acute and the grave follow the breathing, and the circumflex is 
placed over it ; as on', OTTCOS, ?yyov, //, fj e 

130. NOTE. The acute accent denotes that the vowel or diphthong was 
pronounced altogether on a higher key. The grave, which originally 
belonged to all vowels uttered in ordinary tone, is used only in place of the 
weakened acute at the end of a word (142), and rarely on the indefinite 
pronoun rts, TI. (156, 2). The circumflex, which is composed of the acute 
and the grave (' v = ~ ), denotes that the vowel or diphthong began on a 
higher key, but sank to the ordinary. Thus ei^e was pronounced somewhat 
like 7ret$e, of/cos like OIKOS, rovro like TOVTO, 8o>pov like Soopov, Trpay/zo, like 
, vvycros like vero9. 

131. The origin of the marks of accent dates from the Alexandrian 
period. They were first introduced (and perhaps invented) by Aristo- 
phanes of Byzantium, about 200 B.C. Originally every syllable was 
marked, as avOpu-n-os, GeoSw/aos, A?)/xoo-#en)s, ravpos ; later only the 
syllable uttered in the higher key. 

132. Place of the Accent. The acute can stand only on one 
of the last three syllables of a word ; the grave only on the last ; 
the circumflex only on one of the last two ; and then only on a 
syllable long by nature. 

133. According to the accent, a word is called 
oxytone, if it has the acute on the ultima : eV, /caAo's, 
paroxytone, if it has the acute on the penult : yevcns, 
proparoxytone, if it has the acute on the antepenult : 

perispomenon, if it has the circumflex on the ultima : /caAov, 
properispornenon, if it has the circumflex on the penult : 

A word whose last syllable is not accented is termed barytone 
TOVOS, grave- or fiat-toned) ; all paroxytones, proparoxytones, and 
properispomena are, of course, barytones. The term oxytone, ov- 
roi'os, means sharp-toned ; Trepi-a-rrw^vov means draiun around (i.e. from 
the higher key to the lower). 

139 ACCENT 39 

134. Recessive Accent. A word which throws its accent back as 
far as possible is said to have recessive accent. This belongs especially 
to verbs. 

135. 1. Accent of the Antepenult. When the antepenult 
is accented, it has the acute ; but it can take no accent if the 
last syllable is long by nature or position. Thus av0pa)7ros, 

X{/c6yue$a ; but avOpwirov, 

2. Accent of the Penult. An accented penult long by 
nature has the acute if the ultima is long by nature, and the 
circumflex if the ultima is short by nature ; an accented penult 
short by nature always has the acute. Thus av9p(i>Trov, 
\vaeis, aa)fj,a, /juovaa, 7rpdj;i$, vijo-os, av\at; (but 6<0pd) 

Tore, cfrvXaj;, Taacre, rpaTrefys. 

3. Accent of the Ultima. An accented ultima short by 
nature takes the acute, as /caXo?, Xa/ATra?, XeXtveo?. If it is long 
by nature, it takes either the acute, as XeXu/cw?, or the circumflex, 
as rlfjioiv, KCL\OV, rlfjia. 

136. NOTE. Final cu and ot in inflectional endings and in adverbs 
compounded of TraAou, long ago, are reckoned as short in determining the 
accent ; as avOpwTroi, T/oa7reou, ^to/sot, yAakro-cu, Aeyercu, AeAiyxcu, Tt'0rcu, 
TrpoTraAcu, very long ago; except in the optative mood, as /3ov \evoi, 
/^ovAetxrcu, and in. OIKOI, at home (thus distinguished from ot/coi, houses). 

137. NOTE. (a) In genitives in -ew? and -ecoi/ from nominatives in -15 and 
-vs of the third declension (216, 2 ; 256), and in all cases of nouns and 
adjectives in -cos and -wv of the Attic second declension (207), the acute is 
allowed on the antepenult ; as TroAts, TroAews, TroAetov, Tnjx v<s j ^/X 60 ^ 7r?^etov, 
fAews, lAewv. So also in the Ionic genitive in -eoj of the first declension 
(189), as Ka/z/^o-r/s, Ka/x/?i5cre(o ; and in a few compound adjectives in -ws, 
as 8v<re/)co9, unhappy in love, I'^t/ceptos, high-horned. 

(b) For the acute in words like cocrre, i^Se, oi8e, and others, see 153, 6. 

138. NOTE. The special rules of accent for the inflected parts of speech, 
with their exceptions, are given in the inflection part of the grammar. The 
accent of many words must be learned by practice and observation ; while 
for many others certain rules can be given (see Part IV., on the Formation 
of Words). 

139. Change and moving of Accent. In inflection and 
composition the accent may be changed or it may move to 

40 ACCEXT 140 

another syllable, but it always remains on one of the three 
last syllables. 

1. When the final syllable is lengthened, 

(a) a proparoxytone becomes paroxytone ; as OdXaa-o-a, #aAa<ro-r/s ; 
, 7roAe/a,oi' ; 

(b) a properispomenon becomes paroxytone ; as Swpov, 

(c) an oxytone of the first and second declensions becomes peri- 
spomenon in the genitive and dative ; as rip}, ripjs, rr/x^ ; 6os, o8ov, 

2. "When the final syllable is shortened 

(a) a dissyllabic paroxytone with the penult long by nature 
becomes properispomenon ; as AaVw, AeiTre ; Trpao-o-w, TrpSave. 

(b) a polysyllabic paroxytone becomes proparoxytone ; as v 

3. When a syllable is prefixed to a word, the accent tends to move 
toward the beginning ; with verbs this occurs regularly ; with nouns 
and adjectives .Generally. Thus AeiVw, e-Aewrov, Ae-Aowra, aTro-AeiTre ; 
Ti/ziy, a-ri/zos, </uAo-Tt/zos ; Aoyos, aAoyos, SiaAoyos, et'Aoyos. 

4. "When a syllable is added to a word, the accent tends to move 
toward the end ; as Trouoei'O), 7ratSei>o//<e(9a, TraiSev^tro/zou. 

140. Accent of contracted Syllables. 1. A contracted syllable 
receives an accent if either of the original syllables was accented. A 
contracted penult or antepenult takes the accent according to the 
general rule (135, 1 and 2). A contracted ultima takes the acute if 
the word was originally oxytone, otherwise it is circumflexed. For 
some exceptions in the declensions, see 203, 293. 

Tl^fjiai from Tl/jLao/JLai ^tAov/xev from <iAeo/zev TI/XW from TI/-UXO) 
ri/xco/xei'os ,, Ttyuao/zei-'os ^tAeirw ,, ^>iAeerw ea-rtos ,, to-raws 
2. If neither of the original syllables had an accent, 'the contracted 

syllable obtains none ; as rr/xa from ripxe, </>tAet from 0/Aee, evTrAovs 

from eorrAoos. 

141. NOTE. The retention of the acute on the contracted ultima of a 
word originally oxytone is due to the fact that the circumflex is derived 
from ' + ^ (130), not from v + ' ; hence c/>iAea> gives <iAo>, while arrows 
gives CCTTWS. 

142. Acute changed to Grave. An oxytone standing before 
other words in the same sentence weakens its acute to the 
grave ; as /ozAo? Kal dyaOos r]v (for KO\OS /cat ayaOos fjv) ; 

TJV cro<j6o9 /cal dyaQos ; eVl TOVTOLS ; 

147 ACCENT 41 

143. NOTE. But tlio acute remains before an elided syllable (145), 
before enclitics (153, 2), and in the interrogative rt's, rt (387). Before 
a punctuation mark which separates distinct ideas, the acute must stand. The 
acute also remains on a word considered simply as a word ; as, TO JJ.T/J Aeyeig, 
you say the word ///>/ ; TO dvijp ovopa, the word dvijp. 

144. Accent with Crasis. In crasis, the first word loses its 
accent ; thai: ot the second word remains. But if the second word is 
a dissyllabic paroxytone witli short ultima, the acute changes to a 
circumflex (135, 2). 

TOI'VO/AO, fur TO 6Vo/j,a ; rayaOd for TO, dya$a; c'yiSSa for cya> o?Sa ; 
TaAAa for TO, ciAAa ; TOVTTOS for TO CTTOS ; O&TrXa for TO, orrXa ; rapa for TOI 
apa (but Kav for /cat aV because oV is a monosyllable). 

145. Accent wrUxJEUsion. The accent of an elided vowel is 
thrown back as an acute on the preceding syllable ; but if the elided 
word is a preposition or a conjunction, its accent is lost. 

SeiV e'Aeas for Seiva 4'Ae^as iir avrw for CTTI avTw 

CTTT rjcrav eTrra rycrav. Trap' G/J.OV ,, Trapd efjiov 

<}i// eyw ,, ^>r?ai eyw aAA' eYW d/\Aa eYw 

3 I) rt ) \ e- 5 ro 3 / 5^\3/ 

a^> LTTTTOV aTTO nnrov ovo eycu ,, ovoe eya> 

146. Anastrophe. Oxytone prepositions of two syllables some- 
times throw the accent back on the penult. This occurs 

1. When the preposition follows its case ; as TOI'TWV Trept for ircpl 
TOVTWV. In prose only irepi. can be so used ; in poetry all dissyllabic 
prepositions may suffer anastrophe, except dp/>i, dvd, a.vri, Bid. 

2. When the preposition alone is used for its compound (with e'er'). 
The five prepositions thus used are /xe-a for ^eTeo-Tt, en-i for eVeo-Tt, Trdpa 
for Tra/aeo-Tt, viro for {'TrecrTi, eVc for eVea-Tt (cvt being poetic for ev). The 
poets also use ava for dvd-o-T-rjOt, up ! In poetry these prepositions 
may be also used for their other compounds of the indicative present 
of i[j,i ' } as eyw Trdpa = 7rdptp,t ' } Trdpa. = Trdpticri, eVt = eVewrt. 

3. When a preposition follows its verb, to which it properly belongs in 
composition, it suffers anastrophe. This occurs in Homer ; as <$>vywv VTTO 
for VTTCxfcvywv, dAeo-ds oVo for aTroAead?. 

147. Words distinguished by the Accent. 1. Many words are 
spelled alike, and are distinguished in meaning by the difference of 
accent (127). 

"Aycov, present participle of ayw, lead, and dytuy, contest; aAAa, neuter 
plural of aAAos, other, and dAAd, but ; f3ios, life, and /3ios, bow ; ySovAetVat, 
third singular aorist optative active, arid /^ovAevcrai, aorist infinitive active., 
and /3ot;Aevcrat, second singular aor. imperative middle of f^ovXevw, advise ; 
, people, and Sry/xos, fat ; SidXvros, dissolved (dissolutus), and 5taAvTo j, 

42 ACCENT 148 

dissoluble (dissolubilis) ; e^cuperos, selected, and e^cupeTos, that can be taken out; 
)(0pa, hatred, and t\6pa, feminine of e\6pos, hating ; TreiOto, persuasion, and 
7rei$to, / persuade; TO 6'/x>s, mountain, and 6 opos, whey ; o-revos, strait, and 
O-TCVOS, narrow; <o/aos, tribute, and (fropos, bearing ; and numerous others. 

2. So also verbal compounds with active and passive meanings. 

IIaT/3OKToi/o5, parricide, and Trar/ao/cTovos, sam fr?/ a father ; \i0o/36Xos, 
throwing stones, and At^oySoAos, stoned ; At^oro/zos, stone-cutter, and 

3. An adjective or participle which becomes a proper name almost 
always changes its accent. 

bright, and FAau/co?, Glaucus ; Sioyev^s, Jove-born, and 
s, Diogenes ; Sea//,evos, having received, and Ae^a/xevos, Dexamenos. 

148. NOTE. See the following particles in the Syntax : a/m and d/>a ; 
)] and ?) ; vvv and poetic vvv ; OVKOVV and OVKOVV ; o>5 and ws. 


149. A few monosyllables are so closely attached to a 
following word that they have no accent of their own. They are 
called proclitics (from Trpoic\ivw, lean forward), and are the 
following : 

The forms of the article o, ->], ol, al. 
The prepositions et's or cs, t!~ or e/c, ev, cus. 
The conjunctions (poetic at) and ws. 
The negative ov (OVK, oi'x). 

150. Proelities accented. The proclitics are accented in the 
following cases : 

1. Ou in the sense of no has the acute, ov ; so also at the end of 
a sentence, as TTWS yap ov ; for why not ? (Xen. Mem. 4, 2 37 ). 

2. A proclitic is oxytone when it appears as an independent word ; 
as TO ct, the word d ; ->] IK Tr/aotfeo-is, the preposition ZK. 

3. A proclitic before an enclitic takes the acute (153, 5). 

4. When the article is used for the relative 6's in Homer, it is 
accented; so also when demonstrative ; some editors accent the article 
in all cases when it is used pronominally; for examples see the Syntax. 

5. When o>$ means thus, it has an accent ; as xal w?, even thus ; ovB 
ws and p/S' ws, not even thus. This use of ws is mostly poetic. 

6. When the conjunction w?, as, and the above prepositions follow the 
nouns to which they belong ; as #eos 8' ws, as a god (Horn.) - } KOIKWV e, out 
of evils (Horn.). 

153 ACCENT 43 


151. Some monosyllables and dissyllables attach themselves 
so closely to the preceding word that they lose their own accent. 
These are called enclitics (from yK\fvco, lean upon) 

152. The enclitics are the following : 

1. The personal pronouns pov, /W, p.e ; o-ov, o-oi, <re ; ov, of, e; in 
poetry o-^icrt. 

2. The indefinite pronoun TIS, rl in all its forms (except arra) ; and 
the indefinite adverbs TTOV, TT?;, TTOI, TTO&TV, TTOTC, TTW, TTWS. These must 
not be confounded with the interrogatives TIS, TTOV, 73-77, TTOI, 7ro$ev, 


3. The indicative present of ei/u, fo, and of </>7//>u, say, except the 
forms e^and <$?. 

4. The particles ye, re, ro6, 7re/> ; the inseparable -Se in 6'5e, 
roo-oo-Se, etc. (not 8e, &w, cw^) ; the local suffix -8e (-{'e), as in Me 
toward Megara, 'A^vd^e, toward Athens (284, 3); -0e in et^e; and -^t in 

5. These are poetic and dialectic : pronouns /jieu fjiov ; creo and (rev = 
crou ; TOt = <rbi; re and rv = o- ; e'o, ev, and 0ev = ov ; /xiV, vtV, <r^)t ; o-^>e, 
o-</)0)e, o-c/>o>iV, o-</)cov, cr</>eas, cr^xxg, a-(^ea ; verbs : the Epic e6S and (rcrt = 
et"s, Z/WM ari; particles: poetic, vv and vi'v (not VT;V, ?iow) ; Epic KC or 
Kev, 0^i/, and /5a ( = apa) ; poetic irodi=Trov (but not TTO^I = TTOV). 

6. For r//ztoy, r]/zti/, 7^/xds, />twv, ?/*?i/, fytds, see 369, 2. 

153. Rules for Enclitics. 1. The enclitic loses its own accent, 
except a dissyllabic enclitic following a paroxvtone (see 4 below). 

2. An oxytone or a perispomenon before an enclitic always retains 
its proper accent, the acute here never changing to a grave ; as /caAov 
Tt for KaXov Ti, ouSev (f>7j(TLv for oi'Sev <^?yo-6V, /xAu>v Ttvcov for KaAwv 
Tti/wv. For an exception, see 15G, 1. 

3. A proparoxytone or a properispomenon before an enclitic 
receives from it an acute on the ultima, and thus has two accents ; 
as avOpwos re, dvOpwTroi rives, ffivov JJLOL, crw/xa Ttvo?, ravrd ICTTLV, 
i\ov vrore. 

4. A paroxytone before an enclitic receives no second accent, but 
here a dissyllabic enclitic does not lose its accent ; as vo/xos ns, <i'Aos 
fj-ov ; but vo/xot rives, <^>tAo? eo-rtv, vopiDV rivwv. 

5. A proclitic before an enclitic takes an acute ; as ef rts, ou fami. 

6. A compound word, whose last part is an enclitic, is accented 

44 ACCENT 154 , 

as if the enclitic were a separate word ; as 6'Se, o?3e, roiVSe ; OOTIS, 
wTtvi, wvrtvcov, etc. ; otocrTre/o, oiosre, tocnrep, oitrre, eiVe, cure, 
, OVTTCU, Katroi, etc. See also 155. 

154. XOTE. A properispomenon with final or \f/ takes no second 
accent from a dissyllabic enclitic ; as Krjpr Tiros, AaiAai/' ICTTLV (but 

155. NOTE. When eyw and e/zoi are written with the enclitic ye as 
single words, the accent recedes to the first syllable : eycoye, e/zotye. 

156. Enclitics accented. The enclitics keep their proper accent 
whenever they are specially emphatic. They are then said to be 
orthotone. This occurs in the following cases : 

1. The enclitic personal pronouns are accented when they express 
antithesis ; as >') (rot i] TM Trarpi o~ov ; when they follow an accented 
preposition, as virep cro?, Trapa croi, e/rt ere ; at the beginning of a sentence, as 
crol i7Tov. In these cases the larger forms euo{>, e/xot, e/xe are used (except 
frequently Trpos //.e). When the personal pronouns of the third person are 
direct reflexives, they are not enclitic (see the Syntax). 

2. The indefinite rts, TI, is accented when it stands at the beginning of 
a clause (which occurs very rarely) ; as rl (fry/u ; do I say anything proper ? 
(Soph. Oed. Tyr. 1471); at the beginning of a clause after a punctuation 
mark (as in Plato, Re}}. 33 7 e ); -also in philosophical language, as rtvbs in 
Plat. Tkeaet. 147, rl in Plat. Soph. 237 C . Also in the combination rives 
/zei' . . . rives Se, as in Dem. 9, 2. 

3. (a) The enclitic forms of ei/xt are accented at the beginning of a 
sentence, as elcriv avOpuoL ; and when they are separated by punctuation 
from the words to which they belong. (1} 'Eo-ri becomes e'crri : at "the 
beginning of a sentence ; when it is equivalent to efm, as CO-TIV tScir, 
can see ; in the combinations. eWiv ot', ecrrtv &v, ecmv ore, etc. ; and after 
dAA' or dXXa, et, KGU, //,?}, <n>K, TOUT' or TOVTO, and the adverb ws. 

4. The enclitic forms of c/7/>u are accented when tlic-jy st;md at the 
beginning of a sentence, as (/>r//xt eyw ; and when a punctuation mark 
separates them from the words to which they belong. 

5. The enclitic TTOTC is accented when separated by a punctuation mark 
from the context ; also in ore /j,eV . . . TTOTC Be, TTOTC //.ei' ! . . ci'tore Se, 
and the like. 

6. All enclitics are accented when the preceding syllable is elided ; as 
cro(oi 8' etcrtV for croc^ot Se eicrtv, TroAX' ecrTtV for TroAAa ecrTa'. 

7. When several enclitics follow each other, each one takes an acute 
from the one following ; as et TI'S TL (xot <fap,i TTOTC, if any one ever says 
anything to me. 

8. For dissyllabic enclitics after a paroxytone, see 153, 4. 



157. 1. The comma ( , ) and the period ( . ) are used as in English ; 
the Greek colon is a point above the line ( ) and is equivalent to the 
English colon and semicolon. 

KAeap^os 3e 7ri fj,V ~TOV<$ TToAe/uovs" OVK riyev' ?Jcei yap KCU avretpryKora? 
TOVS o-r/oaTttoTtt's Kat dcrZTOvs 6Vra- lySrj 6e /cat oi/'C iyi', Clearckus did not 
march against the enemy : for he 'knew that the soldiers were worn out and 
/anting ; and noiv it was kite (Xen. Anab. 2, 2 16 ). 

2. The mark of interrogation is formed like the English semi- 
colon ( ; ) ; as rt Trotets / what are you doing? 

3. The diastole or liypodiastolc ( , ), like a comma, distinguishes 
certain compound pronouns from particles ; as 6',rt and 6',re, which, but 
6Vi, because, and ore, tcAm. The diastole is now usually omitted, a 
blank space taking its place ; as o n and o re. 

4. Modern editors sometimes use the mark of exclamation ( ! ), the 
quotation marks ( " " ), and the parenthesis. 



158. Inflection changes the form of a word in order to denote 
its relation to other words in the sentence. The inflection of 
nouns, adjectives, participles, pronouns, and the article, is called 
declension; that of verbs is called conjugation. Other parts of 
speech are not inflected. 

159. Stems and Roots. 1. The stem of an inflected word is that 
element to which the inflectional parts are attached to express person, 
number, case, tense, mood, and voice. Thus ra/zid-, Aoyo-, and 
Aa/xTraS- are the stems of the nouns Ta/uas, Aoyos, and Aa^Tra? ; a-oc^o-, 
of the adjective o-o^o ; terra-, of the participle to-ras ; Aey-, of the 
verb Aeyw. 

2. The root of a word is the most primitive part which remains 
after removing all inflectional parts and all prefixes and suffixes. 
Thus, the roots of the words o-o^os, A/#os, </>e/>w, Aeyw, /3o?s, and 
Aapras, are <ro<-, At#-, <e/)-, Aey-, /3ov-, and Aa/x7r-. By the addition of 
various letters or syllables these roots are developed into different 
stems. In some cases the root and the stem are identical ; as in TOO 
(ruOt TI-), Aeyoo (root Aey-). 

3. Both stems and roots very often assume different forms in 
formation and inflection. Thus, final consonants of stems and roots 
are subject to the euphonic changes explained in 79 109. Vowels 
are subject to the changes explained in 39 63, 70 74. Roots may 
be strengthened by the addition of consonants; as KOTT-T-W (root K-OTT-), 
crreA-A-w for (rreA-y-w (root crreA-), racrorw for ray-?/-a> (root ray-)j Sa/c-v-w 
(root Sax-), <a-o-K--w (root </>a-) ; they may be reduplicated, as Si-Su-pi 
(80-). Stems may shorten or change a final vowel ; as yj/w/xr/, opinion, 
the original stem yvco/xd- remaining in the nominative dual ; but in the 
plural it is shortened to yvw/xa-, and in the singular it is 

165 NOUNS 47 


160. Numbers. There are three numbers : the singular, 
denoting one object ; the plural, denoting more than one ; and 
the dual, denoting two, but the plural is generally used instead 
of the dual. 

161. Genders. There are three genders : the masculine, the 
feminine, and the neuter. 

162. The gender is determined, partly by tlie signification, partly by 
the termination ; the grammatical gender being often different from the real 
gender. The article prefixed often indicates the gender ; as 6 dvi'jp, the man, 6 
77oAe/xo9, the war, TJ yvvtj, the woman, rj T 1/^77, tlie honor, TO owpov, the gift, 
TO Trpayfjia, the thing. For the gender according to the termination, see the 

163. The gender of many nouns can only be learned by observation 
and practice ; but where the signification or the termination does not 
certainly indicate the gender, the following rules, to which there are 
many exceptions, will give some assistance : 

1. Masculine are names of rivers, winds, and months. Thus 6 
o?, the river; 6 rfyveids, the river Peneus ; 6 ave//,os, the wind; 6 
, the south-east wind ; 6 pjv, the month ; 6 ( Eicaro/u^Saeav, the month 


2. Feminine are names of lands, islands, most cities, trees, plants, 
most qualities and conditions. Thus 17 y?j, ihe land ; AtyvTrros, Aegypt ; 
rj VT/O-OS, tJie island; ATJ/JLVOS, the island Lemnos ; ?} TrdAis, the city ; 

, Corinth; f) Spvs, the oak; >} a//,7reAos, the vine; dpeTr'j, virtue; 
i<s, hope; VLK-TI, victory. 

3. Neuter are names of the letters of the alphabet, many fruits, 
diminutives even when they denote males or females, infinitives, all 
words conceived merely as names or words. Thus TO aA</>a, the letter 
alpha; TO O-UKOV, the Jig ; TO ytpovnov, the little old man (from 6 ye^owv) ; 
TO aSeiv, singing ; TO Aeyet, the word Aeyet ; TO avOpaxros, the word 
"man" ; TO Si/catoo-wr/, the term "justice." 

164. Common Gender. Some nouns are either masculine or 
feminine according as they denote males or females ; as 6, rj Oeos, god 
or goddess ; 6, 07 TTCUS, boy or girl ; o, -fj <f>vXa, male or female guard ; 6, 
^ /?OTJS, ox or cow. 

165. Epieenes. Many names of animals have only one grammatical 



gender for both sexes ; these are termed epicene (eVtKoivos, promiscuous). 
Such are 6 ^vs, the mouse, 6 aeros, the eagle, rj dAwir?^, the fox, rj apKTos, 
the bear. In order to designate the real sex of such words, the 
adjectives apprjv, male, and OijXvs, female, are added ; as ?; app^v aAwTrr/J, 
the male fox; 6 OfjXvs ///Gs, the female mouse; rj app^v apKros, the he-bear. 

166. Cases. There are five cases : the nominative, genitive, 
dative, accusative, and vocative. 

167. 1. The meaning of the eases is in general the same as the 
corresponding cases in Latin. Thus : nom. a man (as subject) ; gen. 
of a man ; dat. to or for a man ; ace. a man (as object) ; voc. man. 
The principal functions of the Latin ablative (by, from, in, with a man) 
are shared between the Greek genitive and dative. 

2. The genitive, dative, and accusative are called oblique cases. 


168. Three Declensions. There are three declensions of 
nouns, adjectives, and participles. 

169. These resemble the first three declensions in Latin. The 
first or A-declension (with stems in d), and the second or 
O-declension (with stems in o) are often called the Towel declension. 
The third is often called the Consonant declension, because its stems 
usually end in a consonant ; but it also contains many stems ending 
in L, v, and in the diphthongs av, ev, ov, and a few in o and 01. 

170. Case-endings of Nouns. 


Masc. and Fern. Neuter. ' Masc. and Fern. Neuter. 

-S or none -v -S or none , none 



N. A Y. 
G. D. 


N. Y. 




-s or -to 






-oiv (-ouv) 





-<ri (-ffffi, -ecrcr;) 
-a 1 -vs or -as -a 


These will be explained under the different declensions. The two 
classes of endings agree in many points. 

171. Accent. 1. The accent remains on the same syllable 
as in the nominative singular as long as the last syllable permits 
(132) ; otherwise it advances to the following syllable. The 
same rule applies to adjectives and participles. Whether the 
accent is acute or circumflex is determined by the rule in 

2. An accented ultima has the acute ; but in the genitive 
arid dative of all numbers, an accented long ultima takes the 

3. A contracted ultima, if accented, takes the circumflex. 
Exceptions to these rules are given under the separate declensions. 

172. Points in Common. The three declensions have the following 
points in common : 

1. The dative singular ends in -i, which is written as iota subscript 
in the first and second declensions. 

2. The genitive plural ends in -wv. 

3. The dual has two endings : one for the nominative, accusative, 
and vocative ; and the other for the genitive and dative. 

4. All neuters have the same form for the nominative, accusative, 
and vocative; in the plural this ends in -a. 


173. The first declension includes masculine and feminine 
stems ending in a. But this a is often changed to 77 or a in the 
singular; in the plural it is always changed to a, also in the 
genitive and dative dual. The masculines take -? in the nomin- 
ative singular, and thus end in -a? or -779. The feminines have 
no case-ending in the nominative singular, and end in -a, -a, 
or -77. 

174. In the following table, final a, a, or rj is joined to the case- 
endings (170). The terminations may thus be seen as they appear in 







Masc. and Fern. 

Masc. and Fern. 

-a or -d -77 
-as -r;s -r/S 

- a i -0 -0 

-av -dv -v/v 

-a -d --,; 

-as -175 

- a -1? 

-ai/ -ryv 
-d -a or -77 

-ats or -ato~t 

N. A. V. -a 

G. D. -atv 






175. NOTE. In the dative singular -a and -y are contracted from -d-t 
and -rj-i. In the nominative and vocative plural, -at is contracted from 
-d-t. In the dative plural, -atcrt (from -d-ta-t) is the old Attic form, 
found sometimes in Attic poetry, rarely in prose. The oldest Attic 
had also -yen (but not after e, t, p). In the accusative plural, -as is from 
-d-vs (40). The genitive plural in -tov is from the Ionic -ewy, but the 
old Ionic or Epic was also -dam The genitive singular in Homer ends in 
-do from original -d-to ; as veavtds, gen. veavid-o for veavta-to (compare 
Homeric oVe/xos, gen. aVe/toio, from which Ionic and Attic avc^ov for 
ave/xoo). The Attic -ov of the first declension is perhaps formed on the 
analogy of -ov in the second declension. 

176. Accent. The accent follows the general rule (171). The 
genitive plural is perispomenon because -0>v is contracted from Ionic 


177. NOTE. Irregular Accent. The vocative of Seo-TroV^s, master, is 

The nouns a</>i'/y, anchovy, XP'/ " 7 " 7 / 5 ) usurer, and cr^o-tat, Etesian 
winds, are paroxytone in the genitive plural, d<J>va>v, x/ T/ / " Twl/ '> e 
afyvuv is the genitive plural of d</>v?js, dull, and XPW T ^ V ^ 


178. NOTE. Examples of regular changes of Accent. 

Oxytone : ri/x'/y, TI/XT)S, TI/X!}, Tl^'i]v, ri/xat, rt/xwv, ri/xats, 
Paroxytone: KO/X?^, Ko/zrys, KO/X>;, xo/xat, /co/xwr, etc. 
Proparoxytone : y^vpa, ytfo'pas, ye^vpa, y^vpau, ye(j>vpwv, etc. 
Perispomenon : O-VKT) (contr. from o-f'Kea), CTVK^, O-VKIJ, O-VKTJV, etc. 
Propcrispomenon : cr^aipa, o-</>ai)ods, crfaupfy <r<f>aipav, o-ffraipai, etc. 

179. Quantity. 1. The quantity of the terminations can be seen 
in 174 ; -av of the accusative singular and a of the vocative singular 
agreeing in quantity with d or d of the nominative. 

2. The a of the nominative singular is always short (d) if the 
genitive has.-?;?, and generally long (d) if the genitive has -ds ; as /xovo-a, 
/xoi'O-j/s, pifa, pifr]S, a/xtAAa, a/ztAAr/s, o-/ad, o~Kias, X^pd, x^P^ '> ^ u ^ 
always long in oxytones and paroxytones (except /zta, o<?, Kippa, 
and those which have -77? in the genitive). 




3. Nouns in -a preceded by a vowel and those in -pa always 
betray the quantity by the accent ; these having long a when oxytone 
or paroxytone, otherwise short d; as o-r/oarta, $Qopa, /2ao-tAetd, kingdom, 
<ro<f>id, fiftepd, but ewoid, ye(f>vpa, /3ao-iAeid, queen, pvia, Trei/oa. The 
majority of nouns in d have the recessive accent (134). 


180. Tin following are the declensions of %&^>a, land, rl t 
honour, cr/aa, shadow, VLKTJ, victory, yXwcro-a, tongue, and 







N. A. V 
G. D. 











crKicC vtKa 


CTKiaiv vlKaiv yXaicrcrcuv 
































181. Two Classes of Feminines. There are two classes of 
feminities : those which have long a or 77 in the final syllable of 
the singular throughout ; and those which have short d in the 
nominative, accusative, and vocative singular. 

182. First Class. These have long d throughout the singular after 
e, i, or p ; otherwise they have rj. For examples, see o-Kta, x^pd, n^ 
vfarj, in 180 ; for the exceptions, see below, 183. 

183. Exceptions to 182. 1. Ko'/^, girl, and SC/OTJ, neck (originally 
Kopfrj and Se/j/^) ; also dOdp-rj, porridge. 

2. 'EAad, olive, Trod, grass, pod, pomegranate, XP^^t c l r ) vrod, porch, 
(for these Attic forms, there are also cAcu'd, TTOUX, potd, 


Adjectives in -poos have the feminine in -pod (286, 2). For contracts ending 
in -a, -T), and -rjs, see 1 92. 

3. Some proper names have d against the rule ; as At'jSd, Leda, gen. 
Ar)Sd$ ; so AtorJ/xd, ^tAo/xvyAd, and others. 

4. Those belonging to the second class (184). 

184. Second Class. 1. Some have d in the nominative, accusative, 
and vocative singular; and 77 in the genitive and dative singular (like 
yAwcro-a, 180). 

(a) These are all in which d is preceded by o- (, ^, o-o-, rr,), f, or 
A A. For exceptions, see 185. 

Thus, /xoi>o-a, muse; a/zaa, wagon, St^a, thirst, $aAao-o-a = later Attic 
OdXarra, sea, pia, root ; a/xtAAa, contest. 

(b) Also aKavOa, thorn; Seo-Trotva, mistress; oYatra, living; evOvva, 
scrutiny ; e;(t6Va, adder ; Aeati/a, lioness ; pepLuva, care ; TravAa, cessation ; 
Tretva (also TretV??), hunger; Trpvpva, stern of a ship; roXua, daring ; T/ot'ati/a, 
trident; At'yira, YLvSva ; also several rare words. 

2. Some have d in the nominative, accusative, and vocative 
singular ; and d in the genitive and dative singular (i.e. after e, t, p). 
They betray short d in the nominative singular by the accent, and are 
the following : 

(a) Those in -rpta and -eta denoting women ; as \^dXrpLa., female 
harper, /W/Aeia, queen (but /3ao-tAetd, kingdom). Also pvla, fly. 

(b) Abstract nouns in -eta and -ota from adjectives in -?;s and oos ; 
as aA^eta, truth (d\rjOf^, true) ; eiVota, kindness (ei'voos, ewous, kind). 

(c) Most of those ending in -pa preceded by v or by a diphthong ; 

(d) Certain feminine adjectives in d, see 315. 

185. Exceptions to 184. "E/xry;, dew, and KO'/XT?; = later Attic Kopprj, 
temple, have 77 after o-. In Attic poetry we sometimes have abstracts in -etd 
and -ot'd, as aAry^etd, ewot'd. 


186. The following are the declensions of rapids, steward, 
LTTIS, citizen, and TroirjTrjs, poet : 

Stem rapid- TToAtTd- Trotr^rd- 

Nom. TttflldS iroXtTT]S TTOtT]TTJS 

Gen. Tap.Lou iroXtrov iroiTjToi) 

Dat. TajJLia. iroXiTT] TTOI^TTJ 


Yoc. TauLtcL iroXLTa TrotTiTd 





N. A. Y. 
G. D. 







Dat. Tttfiiais 

Ace. Tajuas 

Voc. rajiiai 

So are declined vedvtds, youth, 
ids, Nicias. 








soldier, K/jmJs, judge, 

187. The stem here also keeps d in the singular after , i, or /> ; 
otherwise it changes d to 77. Exceptions are compounds in -/^er/o^s, as 
yw-/xT/37/s, land-measurer; the adjective yevmSds, noble; and some 
non- Attic names, as IleXoTrtSd?. For -ov in the genitive, see 175. 

188. Vocative Singular. The following in -77$ have d in the 
vocative singular. 

1. Those ending in -T??? ; as TroAm/s, voc. TroAira. 

2. Compounds in -/jLerprjs, -TrwA^s, and -rpt/?^? ; as yw-/jLrprj<s, land- 
measurer, yeio-fjLerpa ; //,ty)o-7rwA?)S, dealer in perfumes, ^vpo-irdXa. ; TrcuSo- 
TpifiTjs, teacher, irai^o-TpL^a.. 

3. Names of nations ; as II 6/30-77?, Persian, Ile/xra. 

Others in -775 have -77 in the vocative ; as 'AA/a/^iacfys, 'AA/a/Sia^. 

189. Ionic Genitive. The Ionic genitive in -a> of masculines in -775 
occurs in Ionic proper names, and in names introduced by lonians ; as 
OaAvjs, Thales, gen. 6aAe"a> ; Ka/xySvcr^s, Cambyses, gen. Ka/z/:fa)crea>. 

190. Doric Genitive. The Doric genitive inv-d occurs in some Doric 
and Roman proper names as 2/co7rd5, 2/co7rd ; 2ijAAd, ^vXXd, Sylla. So 
TraTjOaAotds, parricide, ^rpaXoia^ matricide, and opvlOofa'jpas, bird-catcher, 
have Trar/oaAoid, /^rpaAoid, and opvlOoOr/pd, according to the grammarians, 
but no examples of these three genitives in -d, have been found. 


191. Some nouns in -da, ~ed, and -ea? are contracted and 
have the circumflex in all cases. The contraction follows the 
principles in 47 ; and in the dual and plural -ea is contracted 
to -d (48, 2). 


192. The following are the declensions of pvda, p,va, mina ; 
<ya\er], ya\rf, weasel ; and 'E/)yite'a9, 'Ep^s, Hermes (in the plural, 
statues of Hermes) : 

Stem fJLva- for /zvad- yaAd- for yaAed- 'Eyo/xd- for '] 


Nom. (fj.vdd) fivd (yaXtr)) 

Gen. (fj.vdds) jxvds (70X677?) 

Dat. (fj.vda) [iva (70X677) 

Ace. (/j.vddv) [ivav (ya\ei>]v) ya\r(v ('Epyuedi/) 'Epji,f|v 

Yoc. (fj.vdd) jJtvd (ydXer)) yaXr] ('Ep/t^ct) 'Ep[xi] 


N. A. Y. (fJ.vdd) [Avd (7aXtd) -yaXd ( 'Ep/i^d) 'Epfxd 

G. D. ( / ui'ctcuj') [xvaiv (70X^01^) y a ^- a '' v ('Ep/xe'atJ/) 'Epjiatv 


N. Y. (fj.vdai) |ivai (7aXe'at) Y a ^ a ^ ( 

Gen. (/mvauiv) p.v<Sv (7aXecDi') ^aXaiv ( 'Ep/ieuj/) 'Epjjiwv 

Dat. (/i^ctais) (ivais (ya\eais) y a ^ a '- s ('Ep/xeats) 'EppLais 

Ace. (/j.vdds) jivds (7aXeds) -yaXds ('Ep^te'ds) 'Epjids. 

193. NOTE. The other contracts of this declension are : names of trees, 
as o-f'Ked, o-uKrj, fig-tree (except TrreAed, elm) ; names of skins, as Tra/aSaAer/, 

/, leopard-skin; also y/; (from a form yea or yad), KwA^y, eAa (also 
?va. For contract feminine adjectives of this form, see 294. 

194. NOTE. Boreas, north wind, uncontracted in Attic or contracted to 
fioppas, is declined gen. fioppov or /Soptov, dat. (3oppa or /Sopea, ace. fioppav 
or fiopedv, voc. fioppoi. A genitive Poppa (Doric form) also occurs late. 


195. The second declension includes stems in o which is- 
sometimes changed to o>. The masculine and feminine nouns 
take 9 in the nominative, the neuters v. The second declension 
therefore embraces masculines and feminines in -09, the masculines 
being far more numerous ; and neuters in -ov. 

196. In the following table, final o of the stem, with its modi- 
fication to w, is joined to the case-endings (170). The terminations 
may be thus seen as they appear in inflection. 



Masc. and Fern., Neuter Masc. and Fern., Neuter Masc., Fern., Neuter 

Nom. -os -ov -ot -a 

Gen. -ov -wv N. A. V. -o> 

Dat. -w -ots or -otcrt G. D. -oiv 

Ace. -ov -ovs -a 

Voc. -e -ov -ot -a 

197. NOTE. In the genitive singular, -ov is from -o-o, which, again, is 
from the old Ionic or Epic -o-to (LTTTTOS, Epic LTTTTOLO, hence ITTTTO-O, LTTTTOV). 
In the dative singular, and in the nominative, accusative, and vocative dual, 
o becomes w ; hence in the dative, Adyw is from Aoyco-t for Aoyo-t. In the 
vocative singular of nouns in -o?, e takes the place of o ; in the nom., ace., 
and voc. of neuters, a takes the place of o. In the dative plural -ots is 
for original -oto-t, contracted from -o-rt, which is old Attic and found 
occasionally even in prose. In the accusative plural -ovs is for -o-vs (40). 
In the genitive plural, o of the stem is dropped before the ending -o>v, and 
hence there is no contraction as in the first declension (Sco/owv, not Sw/awv). 

198. Accent. The accent follows the general rule (171). The 
exceptions are aSeA</>ds, brother, vocative aSeA^e ; contract nouns (203) ; 
and nouns of the Attic second declension (207). 

199. Quantity. The quantity is obvious from the table, 196. 

200. The following are the declensions of o ^776X09, messenger ; 
f) oSo?, road ; o \oyos, word ; rj vrjo-os, island ; TO &copov, gift : 

Stem ayyeAo- 65o- Aoyo- vr/cro- otopo- 


Nom. dyy^ 05 68ds Xd-yos vfyros Saipov 

Gen. ayyeXov 68oi) Xd-yov vfyrou Swpou 

Dat. d-yy^V 8w Xd-yw vt|<rw 8wpo> 

Ace. &-yy ^- ov ^ v Xd-yov vfjcrov 8oipov 

Voc. d-y-yeXc oSc Xd-ye vr\<rt. Saipov 


N. A. V. dyye'Xo) 68w Xd-yw vf\<ru> Swpw 

G. D. ayyeXoiv oSoiv Xd-yoiv VTJO-OIV 8wpoiv 




Dat. dyyeXois 
























So are declined 6 vo/xo?, law, 6 avOpwTros, man, 6 Trora/zo's, river, 
o /3i'o?, life, 6 OdvaTos, death, rav^os, bull, t/xartoi/, cloak, crvKov, jig. 

201. NOTE. The nominative in -os is sometimes used for the vocative ; 
as w <j6i'Aos, friend. The vocative of #eds is always 0ed$. But proper 
names compounded with 0eos form the vocative regularly, as Ttjuo$ee. 


202. Xouns with stems in -oo- and -eo- are contracted ; -009 
and -eo? of the nominative becoming -oi>9, and -oov and -eov 
becoming -ovv. The contraction follows the principles of 47, 
and in the plural -ea- contracts to -a- (48, 2). 

203. Accent. The accent of these contracted forms shows the 
following irregularities : 

1. The dual contracts -eo> and -do> to -w (not o>) ; as TrAdco, 7rAo>, 
oorrew, OCTTW. 

. 2. Kaveov, basket, contracts to KO.VOVV. 

3. Contracted compounds in -005 retain the accent on the same 
syllable as in contracted nominative singular ; TrepiVAoos, Tre/oiVAovs, 
sailing around, gen. TrepLTrXoov, arep/irXov, dat. 7re/)i7rAow, rcptirX^), etc. 

204. The nouns 1^009, ^01)9, mmf?, and ocrreov, oarovv, lone, are 
declined thus : 













N. A. V. 

(ybui) vw 







G. D. 

(v6oiv) voiv 














t (vboi) 


N. A. 

Y. (6<TTeoj>) 


N. A. Y. 

(6<rre'co) OU"TW 

N. A. 

Y. (ocrre'a) 





G. D. 

(otrreoti') oorotv 










205. Like vov? and OO-TOVV are declined : TrAoos, TrAov?, sailing, 
, JJLVOVS, down ; poos, >ov<s, stream ; Opoos, Opovs, noise, <Ao'o?, ^Ao^s 
( = Attic </>Aews), &tis, water-plant; \voos, \vovs, down; TTVOOS, TTVOVS, 
blowing, breath; Kai/eov, /cavow, basket; also their compounds, whether 
substantive or adjective ; a few names of relations, as aSeA<i8eos, 
, nephew; and names in -#oos, -^o^s, and -voos, -wvs, as 
, HapiOovs. Uncontracted forms seldom occur in Attic. 
For contract adjectives of this form, see 294. 



206. The stem of a few masculines and feminines of this 
declension ends in o> instead of o, the co appearing in all the 
cases. This is called the Attic declension, although it is also 
found in non- Attic writers. 

207. Accent. The accent is irregular : long w of the ultima does 
not prevent the acute from standing on the antepenult, and the accent 
always remains the same as in the nominative singular ; but the accent 
of the genitive and dative is not certain. See also 137. 

208. The following are the declensions of o vew, temple, and 
6 tfaXo)?, rope : 



N. A. V. VW KClXo) 

G. D. vov 


N. V. V6W KdXto) 

Gen. vewv KaXwv 

Dat. vews 


N. Y. vecos KciXos 

Gen. ve K<xXo> 

Dat. vc(i KoLXu 

Ace. vecov KclXwv 

209. NOTE. No neuters occur, except rarely the doubtful dVtoyetuv, 
upper floor (for which dvcuyouov is the regular form), and ?5/>ueKTetoi/ 
(Inscription), half a e/crevs. But adjectives of this form have neuters in -wv ; 
aslAetus, neuter fAeco v (298). 

210. NOTE. (a) The Attic second declension belongs to only a few 
nouns ; as 6 Aews, people ; 6 vetus, temple ; 6 7r/>oi/e<os, hall of a temple ; 
f) ecus, dawn ; rj yaAtos, sister-in-law ; 6 dpvetus, ram ; 6 Aaytus, hare ; 6 raws, 
peacock ; rj a Acos, threshing-floor ; 6 TI)<COS, whirlwind ; 6 icaAws, rope ; a few 
rare names of plants and one or two others ; also some proper names, as 
7} Kecos, rj Tecos, r} Ktos, 6 "A#tos, Mfvws, TwStxpecos, MeveAecus, etc. 

(6) Most of those in -ecus are explained by older form in -dos or -7705, 
from which they are derived by exchange of quantity (45) ; as vews, Doric 
vdos, Ionic 1/7705 ; Aews, Horn. Ados ; MeveAews (original accent retained), 
Horn. Me ve Ados. Some in -ws are due to contraction ; Actyws (also accented 
Aayws) from Horn. Aaycoo's. So also adjectives of this form ; as 'tAews, 
propitious, for Horn, (also Tragic) 1 Ados ; ayrj/acos, free from old age, from 
dyrj/oaos. In some of the words of this declension the origin of the form is 
not certain. 

(c) The forms in -tos are nearly always preferred by Attic writers, and 
are sometimes found in other dialects. 

211. NOTE. Some nouns drop v of the accusative singular in the new 
Attic. So rr/v txAw, rov i/eco, TOV Aayw or Aaywi, rov "A$to, rov Mtvto, TT)V 
Kew, rrjv Kco, TT)V Tew. 'H ecus, dawn (originally of the third declension), 


has always rfjv eu>. The accusative masculine and feminine of adjectives of 
this form never drops v in Attic. 


212. Those in -ov are neuter. Most of those in -os and -CDS are 
masculine ; but names of females, trees, plants, countries, islands, and 
cities are feminine. Of the other feminines, many of which were 
originally adjectives, the most important are here given. 
1 . Several words for way : 

path K\vOos, road, wall; ot/zos, path 

os, path' Aeco^opos, thoroughfare rplfios (?}, 6), path 

d/xaiTos, carriage-road 0805, way 

2. Certain names of minerals and earths : 

apytAos, clay*- yv^t)S, chalk crTroSos, ashes 

acr/?oAos, soot KOTT/OOS, dirt riVai/os, lime 

ao-(aAros, asphalt /u'Aros, ochre vaAos, glass 

)8acrai/os, touchstone irAtvflos, fcrafc ^a/x/zo, sana* 

/?>JpvAAos, 6en/Z craTT^et/aos, sapphire i/^</>os, ^e&We 

/?<uAos, cZoc? o-/x,d/oay8os, emerald 

3. Certain names of products of trees and plants : 
a/cvAos, esculent acorn j3i/3Xo^ papynw, book vdpSos, nard 
/?aAai'os, acorn j8v/Aos, papyrus, book pdfiSos, staff 

4. Certain names of thins hollow : 

a/caro?, transport-vessel KapSoTro?, kneading-trough a-opo^ coffin 

basket Klfiwros, chest o-rafAvos, jar 

bathing-tab A?y/a'$os, oil-jla-k rdffrpos, ditch 

0oAos, rfoi, rau^ Ar/vo?, i-af, winepress <^CD/)tajUO 

orei nywxoos (^/^X 01 ^)* elcer X?^ 5 ' confer 

freicA. TrvcAos, batJiing-tub 

5. Many adjectives used as nouns . 

avvSpts (yT] or X^/^)j ^ r l/ r ^^^ fp^fMW (7'5 or X^P^\ desert 

aro/xos (ovo-td), tow& i/7r/)os (y>j or x^/ d )> ^mainland 

auAeto? (6vpa), house-door KdOtros (y/oa/xp/), a perpendicular 

Pdpfiapos (y^), foreign land veos or veto's (y>j), fallow land 

StdAeKTOS (yAwo-o-a), dialect i'Aoxos (x^pa], thicket 

8ta/xer/3os (y/KX/i/irj), diameter crvyKA^Tos (/?ouA?j), legislative assembly 

e/>t7rAacrT/)os (fiwafas), plaster 

6. Also these : 

/3dp/3iTos, lyre yvdOos, jaw Spcxros, dew 

yepavos, crane SeAros, writing-tablet KC/JKOS, tai7 


6, t] Kopv8aX.\6s, tufted p//oiv$os, string 6, t] o-rpovOos (Att. 

lark v>/cros, island (rrpovOos), sparrow 

6, ?} Kopv8o<s (Att. /<o/ovSos), vocros, disease ra/ucros, rennet 

f, rush-mat 

7. These have different meanings according to the gender : 
YI ITTTTOS, mare, cavalry 6, rj Kpvo-raXXos, crystal f) XiOos, some particular 
6 TTTTTOS, horse 6 K/ow-raAAos, ice kind of stone, as 

r) Ae/<i$os, yolk f) KVOLVOS, blue corn-floicer diamond 

6 XfKiOos, pulse-porridge 6 Kvavos, 6Zwe stee 6 Xi6o<$, simply stone 

213. NOTE. The gender of many of the words of the second declension 
varies in poetry and late Greek. 


214. The third declension includes all words whose stems end 
in a consonant, in a close vowel (i or v ), or in a diphthong (av, ov, 
ev, OL) ; also a few whose stems end in o or co. The case-endings 
(170) are added to the stem. The genitive singular case-ending 
-09 becomes -o>9 in some words. 

215. The form of the nominative singular is not always sufficient 
to ascertain the stem ; but by dropping -os of the genitive singular, we 
can generally determine the stem. 

216. Accent. In general the accent follows the rules in 171. 
The following are special rules : 

1. Monosyllabic stems accent the case-ending in the genitive and 
dative of all numbers ; if the case-ending is long, it receives the 
circumflex. Thus, IM']V, month, prjv-6s, JJLTJV-L, fj,r]v-oiv, ^TJV-MV, fJi^-(Ti y but 

pyjv-a, pyj/-e, pji/-es. For exceptions to this special rule, see 217. 

2. Nouns in -i? and -vs, with genitives in -ews, permit the acute on 
the antepenult in the genitive singular and plural (255, 2) ; as 
rj TroAis, City, TroAecos, TrdAewv J 6 TTT^X^J dibit, Trtj^d)^, 7rryx ewv/ ' 

3. The accusative of nouns in -w is oxytone in spite of the 
contraction ; as -^ rjX> ec h> acc - 7 }x oct > r 5x^- 

4. The nominative of monosyllabic neuters is perispomenon, as r5 
Trvp, fire. Also that of masculine and feminine monosyllables which 
have 5 in the nominative and v in the accusative ; as 6 /xvs (acc. pvv), 
mouse, r) vavs (vavv), ship, 6, rj POVS (/3ovv), ox, cow. Add also : 6, ^ 
a? (gen. atyos"), goat ; y -yXav (yAavKos), owl ; iyOvs, fish ; dcr^vs, hip; 


o</3vs, eyebrow; iras, all (320); efs, one (409); and except TO O-TUS, 
Attic for O-TOUS, dough, 6 KIS, weevil, and Epic Afc, /iow. See also 

5. The vocative of nouns in -eis, -avs, -ovg, and -w is perispomenon ; 
as /3ao-tAeis, /JMf7, voc. /^acriAcu ; vavs, s/J9, vau ; /3os, ox, cow, j3ov; i]x<*>, 
echo, -f)\ol. 

6. Tlie accusative and vocative singular of perispomena in -v? (gen. 
-uos) are also perispomena; as 6 [JLVS, mouse, ace. /JLVV, voc. pv. But 

i's (oxytone), strength, lo-^v 

217. NOTE. Exceptions to 216, 1. (a) Nine monosyllables are 
paroxytone in the genitive dual and plural: >} Sas, torch; 6 8/xws, slave; 
6 $cos, jackal ; TO ov? (gen. WTO?), ear ; 6, 17 TTCUS, c/ii/d ; o o-?ys, mo^/i ; o 
Trojan ; t] <ws, blister ; TO <^as, %/ii. Thus, SaSwv, S^Sotv ; WTWV, 
Trat'Swv, TraiSoiv, etc. 

(6) Monosyllabic participles accent the stem-syllable ; as O-TUS, O-TCU'T-O?, 
O-TO.VT-L, o-rdvT-QLv, o-rdvT-uv, cTTa-o-i. So also the interrogative pronoun 
TI'S, rt ; as TtV-os, TtV-t, TiVoiv, TtV-wv, Tt-o-6. For the indefinite TIS, 
Ti, see 385, 2. 

(c) The genitive and dative plural of Tra?, Z^ (320), ovcif and /x^Set'?, 
?io?ie (412), accent the penult : TTCIVT-WV, ira-cri ; oi'Sev-wv, oi'Se-o-t. 

(d) Four contracted nouns are properispomena or paroxytone in all 
cases according to the last syllable : TO rjp from e'a/o, spring ; Epic TO K7y/o 
from Kea/3, ^g>^ ; 6 Aas from Aaa, sfo?ie ; and o Tr/awv from irpapuv, 
headland. Thus, >yp-os, ">)/o-t ; KTJp-os, K*jp-i ; Aa-o?, Aai', Aawi/ ; Tr/awt'-o?, 

7T/3WV-t. Bllt CTTCap = VTTJp, fallow, CTTaT-OS = CTT^T-O?, O~TaT-t, aTTTjT-L ; 

, well, (frpfar-os = ^?/T-o5, ^>/or;T-t, <^>p^r-MV ; 0/>^^ from 0/5ai' = Ionic 
or 6/3>jij, 0/)a/<-o5 = 0/odtK-os, 0/)ijtK-o?, QpyK-6$. 

218. NOTE. These also accent the case-ending in the genitive and 
dative: ywj, woman (283, 5), 6, 17 KVWV, <Zo^ (283, 14); the syncopated 
genitive and dative singular of Trart'jp, father, fJ-tjrrjp, mother, Ovydr^p, 
daughter, dv-ijp, man, t} yacrrn'ip, belly, except the dative plural in -ao-t (243). 
For ovSeis, firjScis, see 412. 

219. NOTE. These have the recessive accent (134) in the vocative 

(a) Tlarvyp, dvi]p, Ovydrrjp, yaa-r^p (243) ; o-(OTry/j, savior, 'ATroAAtoi', and 
IlocretSwv (241, 5) ; and Homeric Sd'i'jp, brother-in-law. 

(6) Proper names in -wv, gen. -oi/os or -OVTOS ; as J Aya/>ieyava>v, 
'Aya/x/xvov ; SapTnySwv, ^dpTnfiov ; except those in -</>pcov, compounds of 
^>/>r;v, as AvKO(f)p(ov, AvKcxfcpov ; also Aa,Ke6W/zcov, voc. AaKe^ai/xov ; and 
several others. Compare 308, 2. 

(c) Compound paroxytone names in -175, gen. -eos, -oi>s ; as 2 
(but compare 308, 1). 


220. NOTE. A^/zrj-ny/), Demeter, has recessive accent in all cases, whether 
syncopated or not (243, 2). 

221. NOTE. For the recessive accent in adjectives, see 308. For the 
accent of participles, see 330. 

222. NOTE. A contracted monosyllable is perispomenon if the open 
form was accented on the penult ; as TTCUS from TTCU'S ; </>w?, light, from. 
<f>do<s ; &pf from 3pai. But if the ultima was accented, it is oxytone ; as 
</>ws, blister, from <OKS ; Sas, torch, from BOLLS. See 141. 

223. Quantity. 1. The quantity is obvious from the table, 171 ; 
but nouns in -tvs have long a in the accusatives ; as /JacriAeij?, /iWiAed, 
/3ao-iAeds (see 45 and 266). 

2. Monosyllabic nominatives have their vowel long ; as TO irvp, 
fire; 6 yv\f/, vulture; 6 \f/ap, starling; y piif/, mat-work; except a few 
of those in -d and -l. 

3. The quantity of the vowel of the ultima in the nominative of 
most other words must be learned by practice. 


224. Nominative Singular. The following are the general rules 
for the formation of the nominative singular of nouns, adjectives, and 
participles from the stem : 

1. In neuters the nominative singular is the simple stem. Final -r- 
of the stem is dropped (109). 

2w/za, body, <rco//,aT-os ; /xeAt, honey, /^eAtr-os ; yaAa, milJc, yaAa/<T-os ; 
vatrv, mustard, VUTTV-OS ; ye/aas, prize, ye/oao--os, ye/oa-os, yepws (244) ; VfKrap, 
nectar, i/eKrap-o? ; /xeAav (neuter of /xeAois), black, /xeAav-os ; craves (neuter 
of cra<rys), clear, (rac^ecr-o?, cra^>-o5, cra^oi'S (244); \apiev (neuter of 
\apieis), graceful, ^apievr-os ; ei'Sai/xov (neuter of evSat/xwv), fortunate, 
ev8ai//,oi/-o? ; Aeyov (neuter of Aeywv), saying, Aeyovr-os ; Xvcrav (neuter of 
Accrds), having loosed, Avcravr-os ; rtOev (neuter of rt^ets), placing, rt^ei/r-os ; 
SCIKVVV (neuter of Sei/cvi5s), shoiving, SetKi/iVr-os. For the masculine of these 
adjectives and participles, see 2 and 3 below. 

For exceptions in formation, see 238 ; 239 ; 241, 3 ; 245, 1. 

2. Masculine and feminine stems, except those ending in -v-, -/>-, -o--, 
-ovr- (see 3 below), form the nominative singular by adding s and 
making the regular euphonic changes. 

Ko/)a, raven, KopaK-o$ ; >} /zao-T/., scourge, //-aa-Tiy-os ; 6 ovv, nail, 
oW^-os ; 17 vv^, night, VVKT-OS ; 6 <ra.Xiriy^, trumpet, traATriyy-os ; 6 yl)^, 
vulture, yf'TT-os ; rj (^Ae^, vein, <fr\/3-6s ; rj za-Oijs, garment, fo-OyJT-os ; 
rj Aa^tTra?, torch, Aa/zTraS-o? ; 6, r) o'/ms, bird, opvl6-os ; ytyti<s, giant, 
ytyavr-os ; aAs, salt, dA-os ; Tras, all, Trai/r-o? ; x a P^ L< *-> graceful, 


, having loosed, Avcravr-os ; ri$ei's, placing, Tt#evT-os ; SZLKVVS, showing, 
For the neuter of these adjectives and participles, see 1 above. 
For the perfect participle in -tos, gen. -o'r-os, see 331 ; for other 
exceptions in formation, see 236, 1, 2, 6. 

3. Masculine and feminine stems in -v-, -p-, -a--, -OVT- form the 
nominative singular by lengthening the last vowel, if it is short : e to 
t], and o to w. Final r in -OVT- is dropped. 

IIoi/xTJy, shepherd, Trot/xev-os ; 6 /xrjv, month, pyv-os ; SOU/MOV, divinity, 
Sat/zoi'-os ; o dytoV, contest, dytov-os ; 6 aiOiijp, ether, aWep-os ; 6 @r)p, wild 
beast, Orip-6s ; p/Tto/5, orator, ptjrop-os ; <to/o, /ii<?/, </>to/3-os ; 2w/c/oar?;s, 
Socrates, 2to/</3aTeo--os, ^to/c/oare-os, 2to/</xxTovs (245, 2) ; traces, cZear, 
tra</>e(T-os, tra</>-os, craffiovs (244) ; ye/5tov, oW man, ye/oovT-o? ; Ae'ywv, saying, 
Aeyot/T-os ; 7evoccoV, Xenophon, ^ei/o<^covT-o5. For the neuter of adjectives 
in -e?, and of participles in -ov, see 1 above. 

For participles in -ov?, gen. -OI/T-OS, from verbs in -co/zi, see 331 ; for 
other exceptions in formation, see 236, 5 ; 241, 1, 2. 

4. Stems ending in a vowel or diphthong add cr to form the 
nominative ; except nouns in -to, genitive -o-os, -oG?. 

"H/xos, hero, rjpco-os ; ?j TroAis, city, TroAe-cos (255, 2) ; o t'x#u?, ^*^ 
t^^-os ; ^acrtAevs, 7a'?i^, ^ao-iAe-cos (262, 1) ; y/oa^s, oZ(^ woman, y/xx-os 
(263) ; 6, ?) fiovs, ox, cow, f3o-6s ; 6, >) ot9, sheep, ot-os ; but >} 

225. Genitive and Dative Singular. 1. The genitive singular is 
formed by adding -05 to the stem ; for examples, see the paradigms. 
But -to? is found for -os in the genitive singular : of nouns in -ev? 
(262, 1), of certain nouns in -is and -us (255, 2), of tV (255, 2), and 
of vaus (263). For the contraction of -e-os (from -eo--os) and -0-09 to 
-ovs, see 244, 246, and 249 ; for -a-os (from -ao--os) contracted to -tos, 
see 246. 

2. The dative singular is formed by adding -i to the stem ; for 
examples, see the paradigms. 

226. Accusative Singular. 1. Masculines and feminines with 
stems ending in a consonant (except those mentioned in 3 below) 
add -a for the accusative. 

3?Aei//, (^Ae/3-a ; Kopa, KopaK-a ; ecrOi'js, fcrOyJT-a ; Aetov, lion, AeovT-a j 
AajtATras, Xafj.7ra8-a ; txA?, aA-a ; Saijacov, 8ai'/xov-a ; py'jTwp, fr^rop-a. 

2. Vowel stems add -v ; but stems in -ev- drop v and have -a, and 
stems in -to- or -o- have -a. 

IIoAts, TroAiv ; 6 7T'/yx v ?5 cubit, TT^VV ; vavs, vavv ; /3ov$, fiovv ; 
^ao-iAea (262, 1); rj/ 30 ^ 5 ) ^ ero ? 5/>w-a or ?]/)to (250, 2), Tret^to, 
-a, 7TL0a> (250, 3). 


3. Barytones in -is and -v?, with stems in -T-, -8-, or -0-, reject the 
final consonant of the stem and add v. 

*H X"/ ts (X a / tT ')> 9 ra c e , X^P LV 5 "n *P L * (*P L &-\ strife, Zpiv ; 6, >; opvis 
(opvlO-}, bird, opvlv ; eVryAvs (eVryAvS-), stranger, Trrj\vv ; eveAvrts (eveATriS-), 
hopeful, tvcXiriv ; but the oxytone i) eXres, /lope, has eAvriS-a. 

227. NOTE. Nominatives in -175 with stems in -es- add -a and contract ; 
as Seo/c/xxT^s, 2wKyoaTe(cr)-a, 'Z^Kparrj (244). For -w from -o(<r)a in the 
accusative of comparatives in -tcov or -coy, see 351. For various exceptions 
in Attic, see 236, 3; 241, 4; 247, c ; 262, 1. Other exceptions to the 
rules in 226 belong to the Ionic dialect and to poetry. 

228. Vocative Singular. 1. Nouns with mute stems, except 
those in 3 below, have the vocative the same as the nominative ; 
<i> Aa ((pvXaK-), watchman ; "Apa\f/ ('Apaft-), Arab. For more examples, 
see the paradigms. 

2. Barytones with liquid stems have the vocative like the stem ; as 
Sat/xwv (Sou/x,ov-), voc. Saifjiov. But oxytones with liquid stems have the 
vocative the same as the nominative ; as TTOI/Z^V (TTOI/XCV-), shepherd ; 
6 O.IMV (cutov-), age. 

3. Those with stems in -tS-, and barytones with stems in -vr- (but 
not participles) have the vocative like the stem. 

'H rvpavvis (rvpavviS-), tyranny, voc. rvpavvi ; Aewv (Aeovr-), lion, 
Aeov ; ytyas (ytyavr-), giant, yiyav. 

4. All others, except participles, have the vocative like the stem. 
For examples, see the paradigms. 

229. NOTE. For various exceptions, see 236, 7 ; 241, 5 ; 247, c ; 
249, 250, 251, 254. 

230. Nominative and Genitive Plural. The nominative plural of 
masculines and feminines is formed by adding -es to the stem ; that of 
neuters by adding -a. The genitive plural adds -wv to the stem. For 
examples, see the paradigms. For the contraction of -e-es and -e-a to 
-ets and -TI, see 255, 2 ; 262, 1 ; 244. For the contraction of -o(o-)e<? 
and -o(o-)a to -ovs and -o> in comparatives in -twv and -wv, see 353. 

231. Dative Plural. The dative plural is formed by adding -o-i to 
the stem and making the regular euhonic changes. 


ovvi ; crto/xa crw/xar-, crcu/xao-t 
(opvl6-\ opvuri (84) ; x a / t/et ^ (X a / teVT ") X 
(aA-), aAcrt; p^rwp (pr/rop-), pr/ropcri Sat/xwv (Sat/xoi'-), 8ai/j,o(TL (91) ; ytyds 
(ytyavr-), ytydcrt ; icrras (TTVT-), tcrraa-i ; ye/owv (ye/oovr-), yepovcri ; 
(Avovr-), Avovo-i ; Avici's (Av^e^r-), XvOeic 




BLKVV(TL (90, 3 and 4) ; rpitjprj<s (rpir)p(r-\ Tpi7//oecrt ; 
fiacriXevcri ; /3ous (/3ou-), powt ; vau? (^av-), VOLVO- L 

For the change iu syncopated nouns, see 243. The endings -crcrt and 
-ecro-i occur in the dialects. 

232. Accusative Plural. Consonant stems add -as for the accusa- 
tive plural. For -as in the accusative plural of nouns in -evs, see 
262, 1. For the accusative plural of stems in -eo--, see 307 ; of 
stems in -i- and -v-, see 255, 2 ; of stems in -ov-, -av-, -OL-, see 263. 
For -ons and -w in the accusative plural of comparatives in -IGJV, see 353. 

233. The paradigms of the third declension will be given in the 
following groups : 

1. Nouns with stems ending in a mute : .TT, /3, <f>; K, y, x T > ^ ^ 

liquid : A, v, /o 

o> or o 

a simple close vowel : i or v 

a diphthong : ei>, ai>, ot, ot 


234. For the formation of cases, see 224-232. 
changes, see 40; 41 (b) ; 84; 90, 3 and 4; 91. 
aspiration in 9pi^ see 102. 

235. Masculines and Feminines. 

6 <J>vXo 6 (rdX-m/yd 

u'atch man tru mpet 
0uXa/c- <ra\iriyy- 


TJ XcuXav}/ 


T| cf^Xe'v}/ 













N. A. Y. 
G. D. 



<j>X potv 

N. Y. 


<}>X 'p es 














For the euphonic 
For the change of 


















6 XcW 


f) XajAirds 

- torch 







6, T) opvls 



N. A. V. 
G. D. 

N. V. 




Xe'ovres XajiirdScs 







Xeovras Xa|rrrd8as eXiriSas 8pvi9as 

So are declined : 6 yv\//, yvjros, vulture ; 6 "Apa\f/, "A/>a/3os, Arabian ; 
varr/Ai^, KarryAt^os, upper storey ; i] /cAt/xa^, KAz/xaKos, ladder ; tj 

'}hip ; 6 6w, oVv^os, w*7 / 6, Y) Avy^, Avyxos, 
v^, VVKTOS, night ; 6 $7ys, Orfros, hired man ; 6 ye/xuv, yc/aovros, 

236. 1. Words in -i and -vf always have short t and i; in the 
nominative singular and in the dative plural, even if they have long l or 
v in the other cases ; as y] <f>oivl (^owlfc-), palm, <j>oiviK-os, <f>owiK-i, etc., 
but <[>OIVIL ; Ky)pv (mypvK-), herald, KijpvK-os, K^PVK-L, etc., but Kijpv^i. 

2. In rj aAwTT^J, /ox, aAw7T/<-os, the stem lengthens e to a/ and 
takes s. In 6 TTOVS, /oo/, 7ro5-os, the stem lengthens o to ou and takes s. 
In TTO.V (neuter of Tras, all), 7ravr-os, short a is lengthened. 

3. '0 KAe/s (/<AeiS-), key, has ace. sing. fcAeti/ or rarely /cAetSa, ace. 
pi. /cAets Or /cAetSas. 

4. '0, T) Trats (TraiS-), c/7(i, has the vocative Trat. 

5. '0 oSovs (Ionic oSwv), ^oo^ } dSoi/r-os, forms the nominative like a 
participle in -ovs. 

6. Poetic Sd/xap, tw/e, Sd/xapr-os., does not add ?, but Sd/xa/as occurs 
in Doric. 

7. Proper names in -as (gen. -avr-os) have voc. -as in Attic, 
as Aids (AiWr-), Ajax, voc. Atas in Attic, but ATav in Homer. 

8. Masculine and neuter participial stems in -OVT- from verbs in 





form nominatives in -ovs and -6v, as SiSovs, 8i8ov, giving, gen. 
(see 329). The masculine and neuter stem of the perfect 
active participle ends in -or- and forms nominatives in -ws and -os ; 
as AeAv/cws, AeAvKos, having loosed, gen. AeAvKor-os (see 329). 

9. Barytones in -is and -us (with stems in -T-, -8-, or -0-) often have 
-a instead of -v in poetry, see 890. Many in -is, with stems in -T-, -8-, 
-0-, appear to have been originally vowel stems. 

237. Neuters. 

TO -n-e'pas 



TO o-wp.a 

TO fjirap 


TO Kepas 



N. A. V. 



N. A. V. 
G. D. 



fjirap (238) 

irepas (239) 

Kpas (239) 
KtpaTOS, (/cepaos) Kepcos 


-rjiraTOiv irepdTOiv 

KpdT, (xepae) Kpd 
KepflToiv, (Kepaoiv) 


N. A. Y. <r[iaTa 




Kepdra, (Kepaa) Kepd 
Kepdrcjv, (Kepauv) Kcpwv 
fjirao-i ire'pao-i Kpd<rt 

Like (Tw/xa are declined : yaAa, yaAa/cr-os, Wif^ / /xeAi. /xeAfcr-os, 
/ (rrais, aTaiT-os (Doric and Ionic) = Attic O-TCIS, (rrar-os, dough ; 
and many neuters in -/xa, as Trpay/za, Tr/oay/xar-os, thing ; a-ro/xa, mouth; 
<r!)fj,a, sign. Also <^ws (contr. from <aos), /i^/, gen. <wr-os (but Homer 
has ^>aos, stem <aecr-, used also in Attic tragedy). 

238. Some neuter stems in -ar- form the nominative singular in 
-ap, as fj-n-ap, i/Trar-os above. The stem ended, perhaps, originally in 
-apr-. Like fjirap are declined: Epic eiSap, food; Epic ^/xap, ^y; 
Epic and poetic 6Via/5, j9?'o/z^ / oWap, udder ; Epic and poetic ireipap, 
end ; 8eAea/), bait ; <f>peap = Attic ^)/3ed/3, ^/oedr-os, we// / areap = Attic 
a-redp, o-re'dr-os, tallow ; poetic /creap, possession ; ovap, dream, vrrap, waking 
vision, and some others, mostly poetic, occur only in the nominative 
and accusative. Two stems in -ar- have nominatives in -up : vSup, 
i58ar-os, water ; and o-Kwp, o-/v-ar-os, dirt. 

239. The noun vre/oas has two stems : Tre/oao-- for the nominative, 
accusative, and vocative singular, and Trepar- for the other cases ; so 




:also rtpas (repacr- and repar-), prodigy. Kc/xxs has two stems : Kepaar- 
(with the genitive -a(o-)-os like ypa<s, 246) used throughout except in 
the dative plural ; and Ke/odr-, used throughout except in the nomina- 
tive, accusative, and vocative singular. The form KC/DWS is always used 
in speaking of the wing of an army. For Kepai we sometimes find 
wrongly Ktpy. See also the dialectic forms of these two words. 


240. For the formation of cases, see 224-232. For the euphonic 
.changes, see 41 (b) , 90, 3; 91. 

6 aXs 6 Troip.T]V T) 4>pr|V T) pts 

salt shepherd mind nose 

Stem a\- iroi^tv- <ppev- plv- 

6 alwv 







K A. Y. 
G. D. 

N. V. 







N. A. Y. 
G. D. 








6 TI^I 






7roi[Xvoiv <|>pevoiv 




6 8a.Lp.tov 




6 0T|p 



8ai|ia>v 6rjp 


0r, P 

8aL(j.ova Ofjpa 

Saifjiov 0^p 


efj pe 

pts (241, 1) alwv 

pivds alcDvos 

plvi alcovi. 

piva alwva 

pts alwv 









6 KpdTTjp 6 pTjTCOp 

mixing-bowl orator 
Kparrjp- prjTOp- 



K par T|p 








N. Y. T|Y|xdvS 8ai[ioves Ofjpes Kpar^pes pt|TopS 

Gen. TpyfjLovcov Saifioveov 0-qpwv KpaTijpwv piyropwi 

Dat. TiY 6 ^ " 1 Saifioo-i Oi^po-t KpdTfjpa-t pip-open 

Ace. T|-y6(iovas 8a[xovas Ofjpas KpdTfjpas prp-opas 

241 1. Stems in -iv- take s and form the nominative in -is ; as 6 
pis, piv-6s ; 6 SeAc/u's, dolphin, SeA^iv-os. But in late Greek forms 
like piv and SeXfav occur. 

2. These also add -s : cfs, one, ev-os ; o KTCIS, comb, K-rev-ds (40) ; 
jueXdg, Wae&, /xeAav-os ; raAds, wretched, rdXav-os ; also /xet? or /j,/jr, 
month, i^iyv-os. 

3. To irv/o, .yJre, TTV/O-OS, lengthens the vowel in the nominative 
singular. '0 a/Vs is the only noun with a stem in A.. 

4. 'ATroAAcov and IlocretSwi' have the accusative 'ATrdAAan/a and 
'ATrdAAto, noo-eiScova and Iloa-etSa). 

5. 'ATrdAAaH' ('ATroAAwv-), IlocretScoi' (IlocreiSwi/-), and cromyp (O-COT?;/O-), 
preserver, shorten w and 7; in the vocative and have recessive accent : 
"A-TToAAov, IIoWSoi>, o-wre/o. For the recessive accent in these words 
and in certain others, see 219, 220, and 308. 

242. For -w and -ois from -o(cr)-a and -o(<r)-s in comparatives in -tcov 
and -(uv, see 353. For a few vocatives in -ot from stems in -ov, see 254. 
For the dative plural of 6 ao"n}p, star, see 243, 2. 

243. Syncopated Steins in - ep -. 1. The nouns -n-ar^jp, father, wrrjp, 
mother, Ovyar^p, daughter, and -] yaa-rtjp, belly, drop e of the stem in the 
genitive a:id dative singular, and accent the ending of those "cases. 
In the other cases c is retained and accented, but the vocative 
singular has recessive accent. In the dative plural -e/o- is changed 
to -pa-. 

2. 'Avrip, man, drops e of the stem dvep- before a vowel and inserts 
8 before p ; in other respects it is declined like 7rar?jp. '0 do-r/yp, star, 
aVrep-os, is regular, but has the dative plural do-^pdo-i. Ary/^yTrj/}, 
Demeter, syncopates all the oblique cases and then Accents the first 
syllable, thus : Ary/z^T^/o, gen. (Arypyre/oo?) A?5ya,7yT/)os, dat. (A7yp?Te/n) 

t, ace. (Aryyu/jyre/Da) A?y/x7yTyoa, VOC. A7y/z7yT^). 

3. Declension of Trarry/D, ^rjTrjp, Bvydrrip, and 


Nom. iraTTJp 

Gen. (?rar^/3os) irarpos (uijrepos) p.t]Tpds (dvyardpos) 

Dat. (Trarept) irarpi (^repC) p.T]Tpt (dvyartpi) OvyarpC 


Ace. irarcpa p/rjTt'pa 0vyaTpa 

Yoc. iraTtp K L ^ T P Sv-yarep 


N. A. V. irarepc jiTjTe'pc Svyarepe 

G. D. irarepOLV p/qre'poiv Bvyarc'poiv 


N. V. irare'pes 

Gen. irarepcov 

Dat. iraTpdo-t |rt]Tpd<ri Ou-yarpdo-t 

Ace. irare'pas |JtT)Tpas Ovyarepas 


Norn. dvTjp Norn, (drfpes) 

Gen. (avepos) dvSpds N. A. V. (dvepe] dvSpc Gen. (dvtpuv) dvSpwv 

Dat. (dvepi] dvSpi G. D. (dvepow) dvSpoiv Dat. dv8pu<ri 

Ace. (dvepa) &vSpa Ace. (dvepas) dvSpas 

Voc. &Vp Voc. (d^pes) dvSpes 

For dialectic and poetic forms of these words, occurring in Attic poetry, 
see 895. 


244. Stems ending in -cr- drop this -cr- before all case-endings 
(105); two vowels thus brought together contract. 

245. Stems ending in -cr- embrace the following : 

1. Many neuter stems in -ecr-, which changes to -o? in the 
nominative singular. 

2. Stems in -eo-- of masculine proper names, which change -eo-- to 
-?;s in the nominative singular. 

3. Adjective stems in -eo-- with nominatives in -?;s, -es, see 306. 

4. A few neuters in -ao--. 

5. One in -oo--, 7} atSws (cu'Soo--), shame. 

246. 1. Declension of TO 7^09 (yevecr-), recce, 5< 
/cparea-) Socrates, and TO ryepas (yepao--), prize. 


N. A. V. y^vo<s -ye'pas N. 

Gen. (yeveos) yo /ovs (yepaos} -yc'pcos G. (Zw/cpdreos) 

A. (2 



N. A. V. (ytvee) -ymi (Y^paO ^'P 5 - 

G. D. (yeveoLv) -ywoiv (yepdoiv) -yepwv 


N. A. V. (ytvea) yivi\ (yepaa) -yepd 

Gen. (yeveuv) -y V " v (yepdw) -yepcov 

Dat. -ye'vecri -yepao-t 

2. Like yeyos are declined TO TC^OS, wall, /x,eAos, song, eVos, year,. 
and many others. 

Like SwK/aaTTis are declined many names, as 'j 
Like yepas are declined only : TO o-eAas, brightness ; o-</>Aas, 
stool; SCTTUS, goblet; yrjpas, old age; K/oeas, flesh; o-Ke7ras, covering. 
For K6/)a (Kpaa-- and Ktpdr-), horn, Trepas (Tre/oao-- and TTtpaT-), end, and 
Te/oas (rfpaa- and}, prodigy, see 237 and 239. For peculiar 
dialectic forms (rare in Attic) of these and of certain others, see 896 
and 897. 

247. NOTE. (a) Neuters in -o? contract -ea to -a if an e precedes ; as 
KAeos (/cAeeo--), glory, nom. pi. /<Aett from KAe-eo, (compare 307). 

(6) Uncontracted forms of stems in -co-- occur in Attic poetry. Rarely 
the dual in -te is found uncontracted, as yevee. The genitive plural --<ov is 
often found uncontracted even in prose ; as TC^-WI/, KepSe-cov. 

(c) Proper names in -rj<s, gen. -eos, often have an accusative in -rjv, as in 
the first declension : Sw/cpaTi/ or Sw/c^aTryv ; less often a vocative in -77 : 

248. Proper names in -K\erjs, compounds of /cXeo? (/cXeeo--), 
glory, have a double contraction in the dative. Hepi/cXe^s, Hepi- 

,779, Pericles, is thus declined : 





Voc. (ITepi/cXees) 
Uncontracted forms occur in Attic poetry. 

249. f H at'Sft)? (alSoa-), shame, has gen. (alSo-os) alSovs, dat. 
(alBol) al&oi, ace. (al&oa) al&co, voc. like nom. ; no dual or plural. 
It is declined like nouns in -&> (250, 3), except in the vocative; 
but the accent of the accusative in -<w is regular. Like al&ax> is 
declined the Ionic 77 77009, daiun, while Attic 77 ew? is of the Attic 
second declension (206). 



250. 1. These are few in number. Those in -w- form masculines 
in -ws, gen. -w-os. Those in -o- form feminines in -to, gen. -os (from 

2. The masculines may contract the dative singular -wt to -w, the 
accusative singular -wo, to -w, the nominative and the accusative plural 
-wes and -was to -a>s. But monosyllables do not contract. 

3. Feminines contract in the genitive to -os, in the dative to -01, 
in the accusative to -<o (with irregular acute accent, 216, 3). The 
vocative singular in -ot probably belongs to an earlier form of the 
stem in -ot- ; and the grammarians and older inscriptions show a 
nominative in -w, as A^T^>, Za7r<o). 

251. Declension of o r/pa)?, hero, 6 0a>9, jackal (205), rj 77^0), echo. 


Nom. -fjpws 0ws to* 

Gen. -qpwos 66s 07X OOS ) to 5 

Dat. -fjpwi or ijpa) 0<o 

Ace. fjpwa or ijpw 0wa 

Voc. fjpws 0ws 

N. A. V. ffptOC 0W 

G. D. Tjpwoiv 6<ooiv 


N. Y. -fjpcoes or ^pws Owes 

Gen. Tjpwwv 0wu)v 

Dat. -fipwo-i 0w<rC 

Ace. -qpwas or -ipa)S 0cias 

252. NOTE. Like ^pws and #ws are declined 7raT/)a>s, father's brother, 
//,^T/3(os, sister's brother, 8/xtos (217) and -t'Trofyicos, sZa^g, and T/3ws, Trojan. 
Several rarely have forms of the Attic second declension ; as gen. -tjpu (like 

253. NOTE. The feminines in -<u are mostly women's names ; as 
Fo/oyw, ArjTio, KaAv^w ; also 7rei$w, persuasion ; eijeo-TW, well-being ; Ae^w, 
woman in child-bed. No dual or plural forms of the third declension exist ; 
but rarely a few of the second declension are found, as Fopyovs, Aexofc* 
Uncontracted forms are found only in Pindar. 

254. NOTE. A few feminines in -<ov, gen. -ovos, occasionally have 
forms like those of nouns in -w so ^ CIKOJV, image, gen. eiVoVos and 


ace. eiKova and ei/ao, ace. pi. eiicm'as and 
(6v, swallow, voc. 


\v, nightingale, voc. 


255. 1. The nominative singular of masculines and feminines ends 
in -is and -vs (in oxytones and perispomena -vs) ; of neuters, in -i 
and -v. 

2. Those in -ts, several in -vs, and TO acrrv, city, change t and e of 
the stem to e in all cases except the nominative, accusative, and 
vocative singular. The genitive singular of these has -cos for -os ; the 
dative singular and the nominative dual and plural are contracted ; 
the accusative plural is irregularly made to conform to the contracted 
nominative plural in -ets. The genitive singular and plural permit the 
accent to stand on the antepenult (216, 2). 

3. Others in -i><? or -t~s retain -v- of the stem throughout. Ttory tones 
have short -v- everywhere ; but oxytones and perispomena have long 
-v- in the nominative, accusative, and vocative singular, and in those 
cases keep the same accent as in the nominative singular. 

4. Perispomena are all monosyllables, and 6 IxOvs, fish, 1} oo-c/>vs, 
hip, and itj o</>vs, eyebrow; but these three are often written as 

5. For adjectives in -vs, -eta, -v, see 317. 

256. 1. Declension of rj vroXt? (vroXt-), state, 6 
dibit, rb acrrv (acrru-), city, and o l%6vs (l%0v-), fish. 










N. A. V. (TroXee) iroXei (Trrjxce] 
G. D. iroXt'oiv 

&O-TV IxGOs (255, 4) 

&0-TS IX0V< 




N. V r . (7r6Xees) 
Gen. iroXcwv 

Dat. irdXeo-t 

Ace. iroXeis 



do-re'cav i\Qvuv 

(aorea) &O-TT] 


2. Like 71-0X19 are declined, rj /coVis, dust, r) Swa/xi?, power, rj 
ajis, business, r} o-racris, faction, 6 //.aims, sm*, and numerous others. 
Like Tnjx^s are declined only 6 7reAe/a>s, #, and poetic 6 Trpta-pv s, 
wiaw (283, 28) ; ?} ey^eA-vs, ^> follows i'x#us in the singular, and 

i* 1 tne plural. 

Like ix^u? are declined 6 o(f>pvs, eyebrow, rj Spvs, oak, 6 pvs, mouse, rj 
iVxus, strength, rj crvs sow, poetic TO SaKpv, tear (pi. SaKpv-a), and others. 

257. NOTE. *0 /as, weevil, keeps r in all cases : KI-O'S, KI-I, KLV, /as ; 
K?e, KLOLV ; Kies, KUOV, KKTI (/as). 

258. NOTE. The genitive plural of aa-rv (the only prose noun in -v) 
occurs only in poetry as ao-recov, but the regular Attic was probably 

259. NOTE. No neuters with stems in -t are found declined throughout 
in Attic. See in the Lexicon the following foreign words : crtvowrt, 
mustard, 7rc7re/K, pepper, KO/J/U, gum, (rtip.pi, stibium, trcrcX.i, kind of shrub. 

260. NOTE. The stems in -t- and -v- of genitives in -ews were originally 
strengthened by the insertion of e, making -e(t)-os (for -e(^/)-os) and -eu-os 
(for -e(/)-os). The t or v of the stem then drops out in most cases : 
7roAe(i)-es, 7rriyt(v)-i, do-re(v)-a ; and contraction consequently occurs in the 
dative singular, and in the nominative dual and plural. The genitive 
singular -e-ws of stems in -t- is perhaps due to exchange of quantity (45), 
TroAews perhaps from Epic 7roA^-os (compare 45 and 899, 2); but 
genitives in -eos as TroAeos occur in Attic poetry. The accusative 
plural, TroAeis, Tnjx^s, irregularly conforms to the nominative plural. The 
accusative plural in -vs is from -v-v? (40), i\6v<s from i\6v-v<s ; in Lite 
writers forms in -v-as occur, as /JLV-O.S for //,vs. The Ionic accusative plural 
in -is is from original -i-vs ; Ionic TroAts from ?roAt-vs (for TroAeis). 

261. NOTE. 1. The regular Aeolic, Doric, and Ionic inflection retains t of 
the stem throughout ; asTroAis, TroAios, TroAi for 7rdAi-i, TroAiv, vroAt, pi. TroAtes, 
TToAtcov, TroAicrt, 7roAts or TroAias. This inflection is occasionally used by 
Attic writers in foreign and dialectic words ; as //-ryvis, wrath, yu^vios ; T !/HS 
(river), "Iptos ; 'Avd)^apa-i<s, 'Ava^dpa-tos ; rvpa-is, tower, rvpvios, but pi. 
Tvpveis, Tvpa-euv, Tvp&tcri. So 6, rj riy/)6s, tiger, rt'y/nSos or riy/atos. 

2. The Ionic genitive in -eos of nouns in -vs occurs late ; so also the 
contracted form of the gen. pi., as irrf^v for Tr^ecov. Ionic genitives in -os 
of stems in -v-, as Trvj^eos and ao-reos, are doubtful in Attic. . 


262. 1. Stems in -ev-, belonging wholly to masculines in -tvs, drop 
v of the stem before a vowel of the case-ending. The genitive 
singular has -ecu? (266, 1); the accusative singular and plural have 


-cd and -eds (266, 1); the dative singular contracts -a to -el, and the 
nominative plural -ces to -eis. 

2. Stems in -av- belong only to >) ypavs, old woman, and ?/ 

3. Stems in -ov- belong only to 6, 7) /3ou, oz, cow, and 6 
three-quart measure. 

4. The stem 01- belongs only to ?J ofs, sheep, originally d/is. 

263. Declension of 6 /tacrtAevs (/3ao-i\v-), king, r/ ypavs (ypav-), old 
woman, i) i/as (vav-), s/izp, 6, 77 /3ovs, 02 or cow, and i] oTs (ot-), 


Norn. pcuriXCTs YP a ^ s va ^ s P^s ols 

Gen. BacrtXe'cos -ypdos vcws POOS olds 

Dat. (/3acrt\^i') pao~iXci YP^ VT 1^ P^ oU 

Ace. paoriXe'd yp a ^ v vaiiv POVV otv 

Voc. pao^tXev -ypav vav POV ot 


N. A. V. pao-tXc'c -ypo- 6 v ^l e P ^ 

G. D. pao-tXtoiv Ypdotv veoiv POOIV oloiv 


N. V. (/3acrtX^es) pa<riXcis YP^ S vijes POCS otcs 

Gen. BacriXccav ypawv vccov Bowv oiwv 

Dat. pao-iXtvo-i ypa.\)<rL vavcri POXJCTL olo- 

Ace. pao-iXeds vpavs vaiis 

Like /Sao-iXtvs are declined ic/aevs, ^rigs/, yovcijs, parent, ' 
Ulysses, 'A)(tA.Aeus, Achilles, and many others. 

Like /?os is declined 6 x o ^ s > mound; and also 6 x^ three-quart 
measure, except that the latter has the accusative ^ocx and ^oas (see 
902, 4) ; 6, vj povs, sumac, is late. 

264. NOTE. If a vowel precedes -eu- contraction usually takes place in 
the genitive and accusative: -ews to -w, -ecor to -tov, -ed, to -a and -eds to -as. 
Thus Ev/3ovs, Euboean, Ev/?oews or Ei'/^ows, Ei'^oed or Ei'/3oa, EvfSoetov 
or Ev/3oon' ; Ev^oeds or Ev/3o<jk. 

265. NOTE. In the older Attic (as Thucydides) and in Plato, the 
nominative plural has -rjs (contracted from Homeric -^-es) ; as /3ao-iArjs for 
/?ao-tAet5. The nominative dual appears to have been originally contracted 
to -rj, as /3a(TLX.TJ for /^curiAee. The accusative singular -TJ from -ed is rare in 
Tragedy, as /^acriA.^. Aeschylus, Pers. 63, 580, has ro/cees, open ; Plato, Theaet. 
169 b , has G^crees, open. The accusative plural in -ets (for -eds) is late. 

266. NOTE. 1. The stem of nouns in -ei;s ended originally in -rjv- 


before consonants and -v}F- before vowels. Homer retains -ev- for -rjv- in the 
nominative and vocative singular, and in the dative plural ; elsewhere -r)f- 
drops A The regular Homeric inflection is then : fiacriXtvs, /Jao-iA^-os, 


From the Homeric forms in -77-09, -rj-a, -rj-as came the Attic forms in -e-o>s r 
-e-d, --as, by exchange of quantity (45). 

2. The stems ypav-, vau-, /?ov- were changed to y/)d/-, vd/- (wy/-), /fo/- 
before vowels ; the / then was dropped (compare Latin nav-is, bov-is). Attic 
vetos is from old Ionic v^os by exchange of quantity (45). 

3. The stem of ois was originally o/i- (compare Latin ov-is). 


267. The gender may often be known from the stem, but in many 
cases it must be learned by observation. The following rules apply 
to the uncontracted stem of substantives: 

268. Masculine are stems in 

1. -ev- : as ypafavs (ypafav-), writer. 

2. -r]T- (except those in -T?;T-) : as ToV^s (raTT^r-), carpet. 

3. -cur- : as e'pcos (e/ocor-), love. 

4. -VT- : as 68ov<s (ofioitv), tooth, TZVIDV (revovr-), tendon. 

5. -v~ (except those in -iv- t -yov-, -8ov-) : as KO.VUV (KCXVOV-), rule, 
KTct's (KTCV-), comb, ^t']v (fjirjv-), month, atwv (aiwv-), age. 

6. -p- (except those in -&p-) : Kpar-^p (Kpar^p-), mixing-bowl, aWijp 
(aWep-), etlier, \j^ap (fap-), starling. 

7. -TT-, -/3-, -<- : as yty (yv-rr-), vulture, x ^ 1 '/' (x a ^ 
6 <TKVL\}/ (crKvt^)- or o-KvtTr-), a kind of ant. 

269. Exceptions to 268. 

To 268, 2 : t] eo-#r)s (ecr^r-), rfj-ess. 

To 268, 3 : TO </>cos (</>WT-), Wgf/i. 

To ^65, 5 : Feminine are : ^>p?yv (<pev-), mino! ; cxAx^wv 
halcyon; etKwv (et/cov-), image: t'jiwv (ryiov-), shore; \0tav (\0ov-), earth; 
yjiwv (\iov-], snow ; pXrjX lav (P^X **''}) penny-royal ; /X^KWV (/Z?/KWV-), poppy. 
Common are: o, 07 x^ (X 7 / 17 ')) gander, goose; 6, ->} aAe/cT/ovtoi/ (clAeKT/avov-), 
coc&, Aen ; 6, 07 KVCOV (KVI/-OS), cior/. 

To ^6^, 6 : 17 yao-TrJ/3 (yacrTe/3-), belly ; rj Kijp (K-rjp-), fate ; rj \eip, hand; 
TO Trvp (irvp-), fire ; also several poetic neuters used only in the nom. and 
ace. : TO e'Aco/3, 600^, TO leASw/o, desire, TO TreAco/), monster, TO rjrop, heart, TO 
Te/c/xcoyo, bound. 

To 268, 7 : Feminine are : 7} KaXavpoif/ (KaXavpo-*), shepherd's staff ; 
XaiXaif/ (AcuAaTT-), storm ; KcuA^^ (KcuA^Tr-), hollow of the knee ; piif 1 (/or-), 
mat-work; puif/ (/3W7T-), o?js/i; o-r/i/' (O-^TT-), sore; ^Aei/' ((Ae/?-), win; 


(Xpvt/3-), water for t".ic hands ; Ka-nyAii/' (/carry Aic/>-), upper storey ; the defective 
o^ (OTT-), voice, word; and two or three others. 

270. Feminine are stems in 

1. -i- and -v- with nominative in -is and -us : as i] Tro'Ats (TTO\L-\ 
state, iVx^'s (tVxi>), strength. 

2. -av- : as i'ai>s (yav-), S/Wj?. 

3. -8-, -$-, -r?yr- : as epis (e^tcS-), Strife, /co'pvs (KopvO-), helm, 

4. -ii/-, -yov-, Sov- : as /n's (/>^-) WCS0, crraycoV (crrayov-), 

xeAtSov-), nightingale. 

271. Exceptions to 270. 

To #70, -/ : Masculine are : e^ts, viper ; /cfs, weevil; KO^JIS, &uf/; ot or at 
fieis, liw-tabks (but sing, only 1 )} Kvpfiis) ; opx^, testicle; o^>ts, serpent; 
, cluster of grapes ; Op^vv^ footstool ; i\6vs, fish ; KavSvs, a Median 
garment; //vs, mouse; VCKVS, corpse; TreAe/cvs, ao:e ; 7r^\i', cubit; crrd\v<s, 
ear of grain. Common are : 6, 1) crGs or rg, swine ; 6, ?} CHS, s/iee^ ; 6, 1} 
rt'y/HS (gen. Ttypt-os or Tty/atS-os), foV/fr. 

To -2*70, 3: 6 7TOV5 (7ro8-), /oof; o, vy TTOUS, child; 6, >} o/avis (opvlO-\ 

To 270, 4 ' Masculine are : 6 SeA<l's (SeAc/ui/-), dilpltin ; reA/xl? 
slime; (epfMv-}, 2 )r "P- 

272. Neuter are stems in 

1. -c- and -v- with nominative in -i and -v : as TreTrep, pepper, 

2. -ar- : as orwyw,a (crco/xar-), &OC??/, i)S(u/D (i?8ar-), water. 

3. -dp- : as veKTa/D, nectar, eap (fjp-), spring. 

4. -acr- : as yepas, prize. 

5. -co- with nominative in -os : as yevos, rC. 

273. These stand by themselves : TO yaAa (yaAa/cr-), ??u7/', 
(WKT-), night, ^ Safe (Satr-), feast, ->) XP L<S (x a P LT ~)i f avor ) T ^ 
honey, TO a-ra? (crrar-), dough, TO or? (gen. ciros), ?'. 

274. Stems in -w- (with nominative in -ws) are masculine ; as 6 ^GJS, 
000-Os, jackal Stems in -o- (with nominative in -co or -cos) are feminine ; as 
77 7ret$co (zret^o-os, Tret^ovs), persuasion ; 7} atSco? (at'So-o?, aiSov?), shame. 

275. Gender of Palatal Stems. Palatal stems belong to masculine and 
feminine nouns ; but their gender cannot be determined by any general rules. 

276. The gender of some words varies in poetry and in late Greek ; as 
6 (poetic r}) cby/>, (lower) air ; o aWS/p, ether, in Homer v}, in other poetry 
common ; 6 (poetic ry) cu'cov, age; 6 aAs, salt, 7} aAs (poetic), the sea. 



277. Heterogeneous nouns are those which are of different genders 
in different numbers ; as 6 O-ITO?, corn, ra crlra. See in 283 : TO vwrov, 
6 Secr/xos, TO t'yov, 6 Ain^vos, o (JTaOfJios, TO CTTaSiov. 

278. Heteroelites are nouns which have one form for the nomina- 
tive singular, but may be declined in some or in all cases according to 
different stems ; as 6 O-KOTOS (O-KOTO-), darkness, regularly declined like 
Aoyos, but sometimes it is neuter, TO O-KOTOS (O-KOTCO--) and is declined 
like TO yevos. See also 6 o-^s, o xpws, aA?}s, OtSiVovs. 

279. Metaplastics. If the nominative singular can be formed 
from only one of the two stems, forms belonging to the other stem are 
called metaplastic (/xeTaTrAao-yaos, change of formation}. Thus TO irvp 

, fire, but TO, TTvpd of the second declension. See also 6, ij 
6 vtos, t] X l/ /> Taws, o oVei/aos. 

280. Double Forms. 1. Some words have double forms for the 
nominative singular, and are declined according to two different stems 
which generally belong to different, declensions. Thus ->} Stya and TO 
8tyo<s, thirst ; ^ Spe-ravi] and TO Speiravov, sickle ; TO Sevopov and TO 
oe^fyos, tree ; and many others. 

2. A peculiar declension exists for a few shortened or foreign proper 
names whose stem ends in a long vowel. The nominative adds s ; the 
accusative v ; the dative adds t subscript if the stem-vowel admits of it. 
Thus : M^i/as (from M^voSco^oos) in Thuc. 5, 19, gen. and voc. MT/VO!, dat. 
ace. ^Irjvav ; 'lavvrjs, Jannes, gen. and voc. 'lawy, dat. 'lavvfj, ace, 
Aiovi;5 (from Ato^o-os), Bacchus, gen., dat., voc. AIOJ/V, ace. 
' ; rlrjcrovs, Jesus, gen., dat., voc. 3 I->yo-oG, ace. 'Irja-ovv. 

281. Defective nouns lack certain cases. See /mA^s (genitive), 
//,eA (vocative), TO ovap, TO v-rrap, TO o^eAos, Tav or rav (vocative), TO 
X/>ews. Some, from their meaning, have only one number ; as /-tv^/x?/, 
memory ; xpvvos, gold : ol T?;o-tat, trade-winds; TO, e'y/caTa, entrails/ TO. 
'OAv/xTTta, Olympic games ; 'AOrjvai, Athens. 

282. Indeclinable nouns have only one form for all cases and 
numbers. Such are : the letters of the alphabet, as aA<a, p^jra ; the 
cardinal numbers from TTCI/TC to exarov ; certain foreign words and 
names, as TO 7rao-xa, passoiw, 'ASa/z, Adam, J Ia>o-rJ^), Joseph. 

283. List of Important Irregular Nouns. This list contains such 
cases of irregular declension as occur in Attic. Double forms are 
not given, nor are forms already mentioned under the declensions. 

1. (>, 7) dpyv, lamb (the nom. sing, only in inscriptions), dpv-os, dpv-i, 


dpv-a, apv-<s, dpv-dv, dpv-d-<ri, dpv-as. For the nom. sing. 6, rj d/xvos, reg, 
of the second declension. 

2. "Apr)<s ('A/>ecr-), Ares, "A/sews (poet. "A/ocos), "Apei, "Apt] or *Aprjv, 

3. 6 yeAws, laughter, yeAcoT-os, etc. ; ace. also yeAeov in poetry. 

4. TO ydvv, 7mee, yoVaT-os, yoVar-i, etc. 

5. 17 yvv>7, wife, ywcu/c-ds, ywai-Ki, yvvouK-a, yvi/cu ; yvvcu/<-e, ywaiK- 
oiv y watK-es, y WCUK-WV, ywcui, yuraiK-as. 

6. 6 Secr/xos, fetter, plural oftener rot oW/za than ot Seoyxoi. 

7. TO 6d/n', spear, Sopar-os, Sopar-i, etc. Poetic gen. Sopo-s, dat. 
and So/)i. 

8. TO fvydv, 2/o/ce, TO, fuya ; rarely singular, 6 vyos. 

9. Zet's (from AT/CVS), Zeus, At-ds, At-t, At-a, Zeu. Poetic also 

10. OaA?'?? (from GaXcas), T^tZes, GaAeco (189), 6aArJ, 6aA>> ; later also 
v and GaA?^T-os, GaA^T-i, GaA^T-a. 

11. 17 Otpis, justice, ^/Ai5-os, etc. ; but indeclinable in the expression 
#/us <rrt, /as f. 

1 2. TO Ka/)d, 7i6ac7, poetic word ; nom. and ace. also TO Kpara gen. 
K/saTos, dat. Kpaeri and Kapa ; ace. pi. masc. Kparas. 

13. 6, a} Kotvtovos, partaker, KOIVWVOV, KOIVWVW, etc.; but also 
and Koii/wvas in Xenophon. 

14. 6, rj KI'WV, c?o^, voc. KVOV ; the other cases from stem KW- ; 
KVV-L, Kvv-a ; KVV-?, KVV-WV, KV-O-L, KVV-O.S. 

15. o Aas, stone (contracted from Horn. Aaas), poetic word for Ai'#os ; gen. 
Aa-os or Aaov, dat. Aa-i', ace. Xaa-v or \a.-v ; dual Aa-e ; pi. Xduv, Aae(o-)o-t. 

16. o Avx^os, Zam^), plural Ta Ai'x^a. 

17. /zaA^s (gen.) only in vTrb /xaA^s, under the arm, secretly. 

18. 6, ^ {j.dpTvs, u'itness, /jLuprvp-os, etc. ; but dat. pi. /maprv-crL. 

19. /xeAe, only in the vocative, to /xeAe, ?TIT/ dear sir or madam. 

20. TO VWTOV, 6acA', pi. Ta vwTtx ; sing, rarely 6 VWTOS. 

21. OtSiVov?, Oedipus, gen. OtSiVoSos or Ot^iVof, dat. OtStTroSt or 
OtStTTW, ace. OiStVoSa or OtSwrovi/, voc. OiStTrov? or QI&ITTOV. In Tragedy 
also gen. OtSiTrdSd, ace. Oi8nr68av, voc. Ot'SiTro'Sd. 

22. TO orap, dream, only nom. and ace. sing. ; the rest from the stem 
oveipar- : oi'ei/aaT-os, oveipar-i j ovttpaT-a, oveipdr-wv, oveipa-an 6 
dream, oveipov, etc., regular. 

23. TW oo-o-e, eyes, poetic ; ocro-wv, ocrcrois or ocrcrotcri. 

24. 6, rj o/ovls, 6iVf7, see 235 and 909, 28. Also poetic forms 
opvlv, pi. opvees, 6/)vewi/, ace. opvets or 


25. TO ovs, ear, WT-OS, or-i; wr-a, WT-WV, to-o-t ; os is contracted from 
& form ovas (Horn, OWT-OS). 

26. TO o(eAos, advantage, only nom. and ace. sing. 

27. 17 !IKU, Pnyx, IIvKV-os, H.VKV-I, HVKV-O, ; also HVVK-OS, 

28. 6 irpa-/3vrr)<s, ambassador, of the first declension. In the plural 
oftener Trp'ea-fieis, TrpeV/^ewv, 7rp(T/3cn, 7r/>O-/3eis. The plural Tr/aeo-^ets is 
from Trpf<r/3v<$ (properly adj.), oZd mew, ambassador, poetic in the singular, 
gen. 7r/360-/?ojs, ace. Trpt<rf$vv, voc. Trpea-fiv ; 6 7r/3eo-/?uTr?s, oW wa?i, of the 
first declension, is used in prose and poetry in all numbers. 

29. TO Trvp, fire, 7rvp-6<$, irvp-L ; pi. TO, 7rvp-d, watch-fires, dat. pi. Trvpots. 

30. 6 o-r/s, mo^/i, o-e-os (later O-T^T-OS), pi. cre-es (later CT^T-CS), o~-(ov, 
<n)-o-i, o--a? (later o-rJT-as). 

31. o O-ITOS, corn, pi. Ta o-iTa. 

32. TO cTTaStov, sfa^e, race-course, pi. 01 crTaStot or Ta o~TaSia. 

33. 6 orTaOjJLOS, station, pi. ot a-raOfJLOi or Ta crrad^a.. 

34. TUV or TaV, only in the vocative & rav or <3 Tav (also written w Vai/ 
.and (5 Tav), my rfear sir. 

35. 6 Taws, Attic Ta<5s, peacock, of the Attic second declension ; but also 
dat. TOL&VL, Tawm. 

36. 6 TV<WS, whirlwind, of the Attic second declension, with ace. rv<f>w ; 
tu9, name of a giant (also Tv^wv), generally of the third declension, 

37. 6 vtds, SOTI, viov, etc., of the second declension ; also vo<s, vov, etc., 
without i. Also vivs (stem vlv-, the nom. sing, only in inscriptions), gen. 
visas, dat. me? ; dual vtee (but viei is correct), vteoiv ; pi. wets, vtewv, tueo-t, 
vteis ; these forms also without i, as vvs, veos, vet, etc. Other forms belong 
to poetry and to Homer. 

38. TO vjrap, a waking state, real appearance (opposed to ovap, dream), only 
in the nom. and ace. sing. 

39. 17 x et/ )5 TMWW^ X L P'^ etc - 5 ^ llt X 6 / 30 ^ X c / xri/< ^ n P oe try forms from 
X^ip- or x^/o- in all cases ; as X /- s > X P~'^ X L P~ ~ LV > X ^P' ( <r ) (rL ' 

40. TO x/>ews, f?&^, nom., gen., and ace. sing, alike ; pi. XP*- anc ^ XP ^ V > 
the form TO x/ 3 ^ ? (xp eeor -) is dialectic and poetic. 

41. 6 xp&s, skin, x/ WT -s> etc. ; poetic (and Ionic) \po-6<s, XP'h XP~ a > 
a dative XP<J> occurs in the expression ev XP& c ^ ose t the sldn, near. 

For dialectic forms of some of the above, see 909. 


284. There are several endings which are added to the stems of 
some nouns and pronouns to denote relations of place. 


1. -Oi denoting where; as aXXo-Oi, elsewhere. 

2. -Otv denoting ivhence ; as aAAo-0ev, from else'where, oiKo-Ocv, from 
home; avro-Oev, from the very spot; pi6-6tv, from the root (pifa), with a 
irregularly for d of the stem. 

3. -Se (enclitic), denoting whither, is added to the accusative ; as 
Meya/aa-Se, toward Mcyarct ; 'EAewtVa-Se, to Eleusis. A preceding a- 
joined with -Se forms -e (32) ; as 'A0r)i/dfe (for 'A^i/do^e), /o Athens. 

4. -o-e denoting whither; as aAAo-o-e, m another direction; TrdVro-o-e, 
MI 0m 1 ?/ direction (with o inserted after the stem). 

285. 1. The ancient locative case, with the ending -t in the singular and -o-t 
in the plural, is found in a few words commonly classed as adverbs ; as ot'/cot 
(ot/co-t), at home; 'Icrfytoi, at the Isthmus ; 'AOtjvrio-i, at Athens; Q\)pdjcri t at 
the fjates. The oldest Attic had datives in -dcrt and -T^CTI. 

2. For the Epic case-ending -<j>i(v), see 914. 



286. 1. This is by far the most numerous class. The 
masculine and neuter follow the second declension, the feminine 
follows the first. 

2. The nominative singular ends in -09, -77 or -d, -oi>. The 
feminine ends in -d if -o? is preceded by a vowel or p ; as </>/Xio?, 
<f)i,\id, <f)i\iov, friendly ; e^fyo?, ex&pa, tySpov, hostile. But 
adjectives in -009 have -or/ in the feminine, except those in -poo?, 
which have -pod ; as 078009, 078077, oySoov, eighth, but dpOpoos, 
apOpod, apdpoov, crowded. 

287. Accent. The nominative and genitive plural of the feminine 
follow the accent of the masculine. Thus <i'Aios, fern. ^>tAid ; but 
(fciXiai (liot (jaXtaiJ, <^>tAto)v (liot ^>iAion'). 

288. Declension of 0-0^09, wise, and (f>i\ios, friendly. 

SING. Nom. <ro<|>6s o-otfvrj <roJ>6v <f>iXtos <J> <j>i\iov 

Gcii. o-oij>30 <ro(}>;J3 o-oif>ov <|>LX^ov <}>iXids <j>iXuou 

Dat. <rot{>c3 ^o^fi <rotj)w <{>iXi(o <j>iXia <f>iXw 

Ace. o-ot}>ov <roj>i"]V o-o(j>dv <jn'Xiov <j>iXidv <})iXiov 

Yoc. <ro<|> <rot|)ij o-ot}>dv 


DUAL. N. A. V. <ro<}>(6 o-o<j>a <ro<j>w <j>i\Ca> <j>iXa 

G. D. <ro<}>oiv <ro<|>aiv <ro<f>oiv <|>iXoiv <|>iXcuv <j>iXtoiv 

PLUR. N. V. <ro<f>o <rocf>at <ro4>d <jnXioi. (jnXiai 4>0ua 

Gen. <ro(j>a>v (roej>a>v <roc}>a>v tjnXitov <jnX(ov <|>iXwv 

Dat. <ro<j>ots <ro<j>ais o-otjxns 4>iXois <j>iXicus ({uXCois 

Ace. o-o<j>ovs <ro<J>ds <ro<|>d cjnXiovs tf 1 ^** 5 <|>Xia 

Participles in -os and all superlatives (337, 350) are declined like 
credos (except in accent). Comparatives in -re/oos (337) are declined 
like <i'Aios. 

289. NOTE. The masculine dual forms in -to and -oiv are often used in 
place of the feminine in -d and -cuv in all adjectives and participles. 


290. Of the adjectives in -eo? and -005, the following are con- 
tracted : 

1. Those in -eos, -ed, -cov, denoting material or color ; as 
dp-yvpovs, of silver ; <otvi'/ceos, </>oivtKous, purple. 

2. Multiplicatives in -rrAoos, -TrXorj, -irXoov ; as StTrXoo?, 

3. Compounds of voos, mind, TrAoo?, sailing, TTVOO?, blowing, 6p6os, 
noise, x os ' three-quart measure, and -/xvovs (from /xva, mww) ; these 
compounds being of two endings (301). For examples see 295. 

291. NOTE. Other adjectives in -cos and -oos are not contracted ; as 
/ce/oSaAeos, KepSaXfd, Kp8a\ov, shrewd, gainful; o'ySoos, oySorj, oySoov, 

292. Contraction follows the principles in 47 and in 48, 2. But 
the compounds in 290, 3 leave -oa in the neuter plural open ; as 
ewoos, vvovs, well-disposed, neuter plural evVoa. Other forms are 
sometimes found uncontracted in Attic. 

293. Accent. The accent of the contracted forms is irregular in 
these respects : 

(a) Adjectives in -eos accented the contracted syllable and become 

(b) The dual contracts -cw and -ow to -w, like nouns (compare 203, 1). 

(c) Compounds keep the accent on the same syllable as in the 
contracted nominative singular (like nouns, 203, 3) ; as tvvoos, evvovs, 
gen. cvvoov, evvov, dat. ewdw, ci'W, etc. 

294. Declension of ^pvo-cos, ^/awovs, golden, dpyvpcos, dp-yvpovs, of 
silver, and uTrAo'os, aTrAovs, simple. 





N. Y. 


N. A. 
G. D. 










N. V. 









N. Y. 










N. A. 
G. D. 

Y. (dpyvpeu) 







N. Y. 









N. Y. 










N. A. 
G. D. 

V ' |txtll) 









N. V. 




























295. Compounds of (voos) vovs, (TrAoos) TT\OV<S, (TTVOOS) TTVOVS, (Opoos) 
Opovs, (xo5) X^ s > an( i -pvovs are declined like evVoos, tvvov?, well-disposed, 
thus : masc. and fern, (ewoo?) evvovs, (evvoov) evVov, (evj/dw) ei'vw, (tvvoov) 
cvvow ; (eut'oaj) evvco, (ewooiv) ei'voiv ; (ewooi) ewot, (evvocuv) euvajv, (ewoots) 
cvVots, (evvoovs) evvovs ; neut. (evi/oov) evvow, etc., like masc. and fern.; 
nom. and ace. plur. evvoa uncontracted. Similarly, V7rAov, sailing well ; 
dvTiTrvovS) blowing against ; d\\60pov<$, speaking another tongue ; rjfjLL^ov^ 
holding half a ^ovs ; 8e/<a/zi/ovs, worth ten minae. 


296. Many adjectives in -os have only two endings : -os for the 
masculine and feminine, and -ov for the neuter. They follow the 
second declension throughout. 

297. A few adjectives are of the Attic second declension and end 
in -ws and -wv. They follow the declension of veto?, with the same 
Irregularity of accent (207). The neuter plural ends in -a. 

298. Declension of aAoyos, irrational, and fAeoos, gracious. 


Nom. AXo-yos &\oyov I'Xccos t'Xewv 

Gen. dXd-yov 

Dat. dX6-yo> 

Ace. dlXo-yov t'Xewv 

Voc. dXo-ye diXo-yov I'Xews t'Xtwv 


N. A. V. aXdyw iXcw 

G. D. dXoYoiv t'Xtwv 


N. V. &XOYOI AXo-ya iXtw t'Xca 
Gen. dXd-ywv iXeeov 

Dat. <xX<tyois t'Xews 

Ace. dXd-yous &Xo-ya i'Xews t'Xea 

299. NOTE. The neuter plural eWAeco for eWAea occurs a few times, 
.and is, perhaps, incorrect. 


300. IIAecos, full, has a feminine form in d : TrAews, TrAed, TrAecov ; and 
avaTrAed from avaTrAews (m. and f.), avaTrAeoov, filled up, also occurs. I^ws, 
sa/tf, is declined thus : nom. masc. and fern, o-ws, neut. o-wv, pi. nom. and 
ace. o-ok, neut. o-ct ; a feminine nom. sing. <ra rarely occurs. The original 
form cra-os is seen in the comparative o-awre/Dos. The regular Attic crwos, 
o-wd, O-GJOV supplies the missing forms of o-w?. 

301. Of three endings are most simple adjectives. Of two endings 
are most compound adjectives; as aAoyos, aAoyov; 5ia<o/oos, 6W.<o/oov, 

302. NOTE. The following simple adjectives have two endings : 

(rt) j3dp/3apo<$, rj/xepos, AoiSo/oos, vvKTtpos, e/cr/Aos, Kij3Sr)\os, AaAos, 
CTV/AOS, er^riyxo?, TJO-U^OS, and some others. 

(6) Some in -109 and -etos ; as aWpios, yeve#Aios, /xovcreto?, Tra/D^eVeto?. 
Those in -t'Stos, -rijptos, and -t/xo seldom have a special feminine form : 

303. NOTE. The following compounds have three endings : 

(a) Compounds in -IKOS derived from compounds ; as ei'Sou/zov-tKos, --/y, 
-ov, from v8ai/x(ov; o-vvreA-tKos, -ry, -ov, from crwreA'/js ; /xovap^-tKos, -vj, 
-oV, from fMovapxos- 

(b) Compound verbals in -ros when they express possibility ; as Trapa- 
A^TTTOS, ->/, -ov, acceptable, l^acperos, -?y, -ov, f/iai caw 6e taken out. 

(c) Also dVraios, -d, -ov ; Tra/oo/Aoios, -a, -ov ; Tra/xxTrorayLiios, -a, -ov ; 
evavrios, -d, -ov ; and those in -vrAao-tos, as SnrAacrios, -a, -ov. 

304. NOTE. A number of adjectives may be declined indifferently with 
two or with three endings, especially in poetry. 


305. A few adjectives of the first declension ending in -as or -?;s 
(gen. -oi') occur only as masculines ; as yevvaSds, gen. yewcuSov, nolle ; 
e$eAovT?Js, e^eAovrov, volunteer. 



306. Most adjectives belonging wholly to the third declension 
have -779 for the masculine and feminine, and -e? for the neuter 
(stems in -ecr-) ; or -u>v for the masculine and feminine and -ov 
for the neuter (stems in -ov-). 

307. Contraction. Contraction follows the general rules (47 and 
48, 5). In adjectives in ->;?, -ea is contracted to -d after e; as evSoys, needy, 


ace. (tvSeea) evSea ; after i or v, -ea contracts to d or ry ; as vyir/s, healthy, 
ace. (vyiea) vyia or vyt?y, v<f>v)js, comely, ace. (ev<uea) ev</>va or twjxvf) (48, 5). 
The accusative plural in -eis conforms irregularly to the nominative plural 
(compare 255, 2). For special peculiarities in the declension of comparatives 
in -<ov, -ov, see 351 353. 

308. Accent. 1. Simple adjectives in -r;s, -es are oxytone (except 
7r\^prj<?, TrXfjpes, full). Compound paroxy tones in -r;s have tin- 
recessive accent in all cases, also in contract forms ; as </ 

, truth-loving, <tAaA??#wv/ ; except compounds in -w 

This rule applies also to nouns. 
2. Adjectives in -<ov, -ov have recessive accent ; except those in 
-(J>p<av, compounds of <f>priv, mind ; as Satypuv, Sat<f>pov, of warlike mind. 

309. NOTE. The adjective rpirjprjs, triply-fitted, used as a noun, 
rj rpiript]^ (sc. vavs), trireme, has the recessive accent in the gen. dual and 
plural ; rpir^poiv and r/ot^wv. "AAry^es, indeed ! from dX-t^Oys, true, is 

310. Declension of aX?/^?, true, and ev^ai^wv, happy. 


Noin. d\T|0Ti']s 

Gen. (a\T]deos) d\T]0ovs 





N. A. V (d\-n8te) aXi)Q<-i 6v8aCptov 

G. D. (aXyOtow) d\T]0oiv ev8ai|iovoiv 


K. V. (ctX^es) dXriOcts (dXi/Wa) dXriOt] 6*8aC(iovS 

Gen. (aXydtuv) dXt]0a)v cvSaijiovcov 

Dat. dXr]0o-i v8aip.oo-i 

Ace. dXt]0is (d\T)Ota) dXr]0t] evSai^xovas v8aip.ova 

For the declension of comparatives in -wv (stem -ov-), see 351 

311. One adjective ends in -rjv arid -ev : apprjv, appev (older 
apo-rjv, apaev), male, gen. appev-os* 

312. 1. Adjectives compounded of nouns and some prefix usually follow 
the declension of the noun ; as ev-eATrts, etJ-eAwt, hopeful, gen. ei5eA7ri8os, ace. 

(226, 3), eveAvrt ; v-\api$, er-^apt, graceful, gen. tvya.pno<s, ace. 


(226, 3), ev\api ; tv-(3oTpvs,tv-f;$OTpv,richin grapes, gen. ev/Sorpvos ; 
, /xov-ooW, having one tooth, gen. /xovdoWros. 
2. Compounds of irarrip and ^rrjp change these words to -Trarwp, 
-Trarop, and -/x^rwp, -/j.r)rop ; as d-Trdrco/o, d-rrarop, fatherless, gen. aTraro/oos. 
Compounds of TroAi? have the genitive -i8os ; as d-7roAis, ci-TroAi, without a 
city, gen. aTroAiSos. Compounds of TTOVS have the neuter in -TTOW ; as 
6Y-7roi>s, Si-Trow, two feet long, gen. SirroSos. Compounds of TT^XUS, as 6, >} 
St-7r?7Xt>?, TO SI-TT^XV, o/ w;o cubits, are inflected like the masculine and 
neuter of yAi'Kvs (317), except that the neuter plural is contracted : 

313. NOTE. Very few simple adjectives end in -ts and -t, gen. -LOS. Of 
these only rp6<$>i<$, r/aoc/u, well-fed, gen. rpoffrws, has the neuter. The others 
have only -is for the masculine and feminine or for the feminine only. 


314. A number of adjectives of the third declension have only one 
ending, the feminine being like the masculine. These have no neuter, owing 
either to their meaning or to their form, although the oblique cases are 
occasionally found as neuter. The following are examples of their forms : 
a/cap!?, untiring, aKa/xavr-o? ; <vyas, fugitive, (f>vydS-os ; vtoKpds, ncicly 
mixed, veo/cpar-os ; naKap, blessed, /xa/<ap-os ; Trev^s, poor, 7rev?;r-o ; f}[j.iOr)p } 
half-beast, ^filBrjp-o^ ; d.7mjv, unwinged, aTrr-^-os ; v-X'l v i needy, d^ev-os ; 
rpi/Swv, skilled, Tpi/3a>v-os ; dyvcos, unknown, dyvwr-os ; eV^Ai's, stranger, 
7T7yAt'S-o? ; ^Ai, of the same age, rjAi/c-os ; aprra^, rapacious, ap-ray-os ; 
fjLwvv, with one hoof, /xwi/u^-os ; fj,va>\j;, short-sighted, /XUWTT-OS ; many 
feminines in -is, gen. -tSo?, as evwTrts, fair-faced, evojTrtS-os, 'A/syoAtg, Argolis, 
Argolic woman. 

Many end in an unchanged noun, like which they are inflected ; as 
d-7rcus, d-TTcuS-os, childless. 


315. The masculine and neuter of these adjectives follow the 
third declension. The feminine follows the first declension and 
has -a in the nominative singular (like aXr^Oeia or y\a)oro-a, 180). 
The masculine dual forms may be used for the feminine. 

316. Stems in --u-. 1. The nominative of steins in -v- ends 
in -u?, -eta, -v. The masculine and neuter are declined like 
TTTy^f? and aarv (256, 1); except that the genitive singular ends 
in -o? (not -o>?), and the neuter plural remains uncontracted. 

2. The masculine and neuter are oxytone, and the feminine 

320 "ADJECTIVES ' 87 

properispomenon. Except rj/zicrvs, ?7/xtcreia, tf/jucrv, half, and 6yj\v<s y 
, OfjX,v, female. 

317. Declension of ry\vKvs, sweet. 




Dat. (yXi>/c#) Y^ VK ' : \XvKt<x (y\vic&) -yXvKCi 

Ace. 'YXvKvv 

Voc. 'Y^ VK ^ 


N. A. V. (yXvicte) y\VK(.i yXvKtia. 

G. D. -yXvKe'oiv ^XvKtiaiv 


N. Y. (yXuK^es) 



Ace. yXvKeis ^XvKcCds 

318. NOTE. The feminine stem in -etd- was formed by adding -id- for 
original -yd- to the masculine stem in -ev- or -ef- (compare TTTJX V ^ stem 
^-, 108 and 260). Thus yAi>Ku-, yXwcc/-yo, yXvicc-yo, 

319. Stems in -VT-. 1. Stems in -evr- form the nominative 
in -6t9, -eo-o-a, -ev. The masculine is paroxytone ; the neuter 
accents the same syllable as the masculine ; the feminine is 

2. There is one stem in -avr- which forms Tra?, iracra, Trav, 

3. The stem efcovr- forms etcmv, e/covaa, e/cov, willing, and 
CLKWV (from ae/ccov), atcovaa, a/cov, unwilling, both declined like 
participles in -cov (329, 1). 

320. Declension of xapicis, graceful, and ?ra9, all. 


Norn. xap^ i s x a P^ <ro " a X a P^ V TTO.S -nao-a 

Gen. \apievTos xapieo-o-qs x a P^ VTOS iravros trd<ri\<$ 

Dat. x a P^ VTt X a P l<ra "n \aptevTt iravrC irdo-T) iravrC 

Ace. x a P^ VTa x a P^ <r<Tav X a P^ V iravTa iraaav irciv 

Voc. x a P^ V \apCco-o 1 a 





N. A. V. \aptVT 

G. D. x a P l * VTOtv X a P l ' r<raiv 

X a P l * VTOlv 





N. V. 

x a P l * 

\a.pte<r<ra.i X a P^ VTa Travres ircurcu irdvTa 

x a P l<r< v x a P l ' VTft)V irdvrwv irao-wv -irdvTcov 

x a P t<r<rcus X a P^ <ri irdcrt irdo-ats ird<ri 

xn-P 1 *' " "^ 5 x a P^ VTa Travras ird<rds iravra 

321. NOTE. 1. The forms \apUis and ?ra? are for \api-zvT-s and 
(40) ; K(ov (CKOVT-) forms its nominative singular masculine like a participle. 
The forms ^a/atev, IKOV, and TTOLV are for \api-evr, IKOVT-, and iravr- (109). 
Long d in TTOLV is irregular ; but in the compounds it is sometimes short, as 

2. The feminine \api(T(ra is formed from a stem \apier- by adding -7/a, 

(96, 1) ; the dative plural \apieo-L is also from this stem, \apieT-vi 
(84). The feminine Trao-a is for rravr-T/a (96, 2). 

3. For the accent of Travrwv and Trcuri, see 217 (c). 

322. Adjectives in -^et? and -oet? are contracted in Attic. Thus 
Ti/xTyeis, rffJi^jfcra-a, rlfMrjev, valuable, contracts to TI/ATJS, rt/x^cro-a, rt/z^v, gen. 
TI/A?}VTOS, TlfMJo-crrjs, Tt^vros ; /jteAtroet?, /zeAtroeo-o-a, /xeAiroev, TTiarfe o/ 
honey, becomes ytteAiTous, /zeAirovo-o-a, /AeAirovv, gen. /AeAiToiWos, /xeAt- 
TOWTO-^S, /xeAtTovvros. Similarly names of localities (originally adjectives 
in -Gets and -oecrcra) ; as 5 A/za#ovs, J A//a^ouvros, Amathus (a city) ; 
Alyipovo-cra, Aegirussa (a city), 'EAcuoiWa, Elaeussa (an island). See "48, 1. 
But TO, ^xov-xyevra, vowels, remains uncontracted. 

323. Stems in -av- and -ev-. Only 
Hack; rd\d<$, TaXaiva, rd\av, wretched; 

tender. For appijv, appev, see 311. 

and reprjv, 

324. Declension of //,eXa9, 

and reprjv, repewa, 



Nom. jie'Xds ji'X.aiva [icXav TpT]v repeiva 

Gen. [leXavos (xeXaiVT]s jxeXavos re'pevos TpLvt]s 

Dat. jieXavi [leXaCvfl jieXavi repevt Tpivt] 

Ace. [ieXava jieXatvav pteXav repeva repeivav 

Yoc. [le'Xav (icXaiva p-e'Xav repcv rcpeiva 



N. A. V. |XXav |iXavd p.e'Xav re'pcvt Tepefrd repcve 

G. D. (xeXdvoiv [JtcXaivaiv neXdvotv rept'voiv rtpe^vaiv repc'voiv 



N. V. 




























325. The feminine stems /xeAatvd- and Tepeiva- are formed from 
and rcpev- by adding -7/d- : yueAav-?/a-, repev-ya (96, 5). 


326. Declension of fieyas (/jueya-, /jueyaXo-), great, 
(TTO\V-, TroXXo-), much, and irpao^ (Trpdo-, Trpdv-) or Trpaos, mild. 




|X<ydX.T] p-eya 


iroXX^ iroXv 



|iYa.XT|s [jLC'ydXov 





(jLC-ydXT] jj.c'ydXu) 


iroXXtj iroXXw 



p.e'ydXtjv p-c'-ya 


iroXX-qv iroXv 



He-ydXt] (ic'^a 


iroXX^ iroXv 


N. A. 

V. (JLeydXw 

(u-ydXd (UYdXu 

G. D. 


P Y dXaiv ji Y dXoi 



N. V. 


l^dXcu p.YdXa 


iroXXaC iroXXd 



p.yuXwv p-gydXcov 

r iroXXwv 

iroXXwv iroXXwv 



p-eydXais p-eyaXcu' 

5 TToXXoiS 

iroXXais iroXXots 



firydXas p.c-ydXa 


iroXXds iroXXd 



















N. A. V. 




G. D. 





N. V. 

irpdoi or irpdcts 




irpdcov or irpcUwv 












327. NOTE. The vocative ^teyaAe occurs in Aescli. Sept. 822. In Ionic 
the stem TroAAo- is found declined throughout : TroAAos, ->}, -ov. In Tr/aaos the 
stem Tiyjdo- is used for the masculine and neuter singular and dual, and for the 
genitive and accusative plural masculine ; while the stem Trpdv- (compare 
yAvKvs, 317, and Tn/^vs and OOTV, 256, 260) is used for all other forms 
except the accusative plural. Pindar has Tr/oavs, Trpdv, and the Ionic has 
Trprjvs, Trprjv ; Tr/odeis for Tr/odovs occurs late, also irpaa for Trpdea. The 
forms from Trpao-, which differ in accent from those from TT/OCXV-, are usually 
written TT/XXOS, irpdov, Trpdoy, etc., with iota subscript. 


328. Participles in -os, -TJ, -ov. All middle and passive parti- 
ciples, except aorist passive participles, end in -09, -77, -ov, and 
are declined like croc^o? ; as \vojji,evo^, \vofjbevrf, \vofjievov ; \e\v- 
/jievos, \e\,v/jbvr), \e\vjjbevov. 

329. Participles with stems in -VT-. All other participles, 
with the two aorists passive, have stems in -VT-. The following 
is a list of their nominative forms : 

1. -wv, -ovcra, -ov : Active present, future, and second-aorist parti- 
ciples of verbs of the common form of inflection (607). 

2. -oi's, -ouo-a, -ov : Active present and second-aorist of the /^t- form 
of inflection (609). 

3. -d$, -do-a, -av : Active aorist of the common form ; active present 
and second-aorist of the /JLL- form. 

4. -e/s, -eto-a, -ev : Active present and second-aorist of the JJLL- form ; 
all aorist passive participles. 

5. -us, -vo-a, -vv : Active present and second-aorist of the /zt- form. 
6. -ws, -via, -o's : Active perfect participles. 

330. Accent. Participles in -os, -77, -ov, have recessive accent, 
except the perfect middle, which is paroxytone ; in all other respects 
they are accented like <^>iAtos. Of participles with stems in -VT-, the 
present, future, and first-aorist of the common form accent the penult of 
the nominative singular, masculine, and neuter, and the antepenult of 
the feminine. All other participles of this form are oxytone in the 
nominative singular, and properispomena in the feminine. The 
genitive plural of feminities from masculine stems in -VT- is peri- 

331. Declension of AiW (Xvovr-), loosing, SiSovs (SL&OVT-), giving, 
wrras (lo-ravr-), Setting, Sei/cvus (SetKvvvr-), showing, div (OVT-), 




(present active participles of Avw, St&op, wm/ju, Scucpii/u, et/x,t) ; 
(Avo-ai/r-), having loosed, AeAvKws (AeAvKor-), having loosed, and 
(Ai'tfevr-), having been loosed (first-aorist active, first-perfect active, and 
first-aorist passive participles of 


N. Y. 












K A. V. 
G. D. 










N. Y. 




Xt overt 







N. Y. 













N. A. Y. 
G. D. 









N. Y. 


Dat. Xo<rd<ri 

Ace. Xc<ravras Xi5<r<l<rds 


Xo<rd(rai Xctravra 
Xvord(rcov Xi5<rdvTa>v IOTO.VTWV 
Xctrd<rt icrrdtri 





N. V. XvOeis XvOeicra Xv0ev SCIKVCS 8iKv<ra 

Gen. Xv0VTos Xv0io-qs XuOe'vTOS' SeiKvvvros 8iKVOa-T]s SCIKVVVTOS 


Ace. Xv0vra Xu0gio-av Xv0e'v 8eiKvxivTa SeiKvvo-av 8eiKvvv 




N. A. Y. Xv0VT \v0eto-a 
G. D. Xv0VToiv Xu0<rcuv 




N. Y. Xv0VTS 

Gen. Xu0VTwv 

Dat. Xv0L<ri 

Ace. Xv0vras 

Xv0l<rai Xv0VTa 8IKVVVTS 

Xv0i<rv XvOe'vrwv 
Xv0wrcus Xv0ei<ri 


N. Y. <5Jv 

Gcri. OVTOS 

Dat. tfvri 

Ace. 6vTtt 

N. A. Y. fivT 
G. D. tfvroiv 





6v XeXvKws XeXvKvIa 

6vros XeXvKoros XeXvKvids 

XtXvKori XeXvKvia 




XeXvKoroiv XcXvKvtatv 

N. Y. 6vTs 



Ace. 6vTds 





SVTO. AeXvKOTds XeXvKvCds XeXvKora 

332. Like Avcov are declined Xvo-iov (act. fut. part, of Avw) and 
wi> (act. 2 aor. part, of AeiVto). 

Like StSovs is declined Sovs (act. 2 aor. part, of 8i8w/xi). 
Like Avcrd? and icrras is declined o-ras (act. 2 aor. part, of i'(m;/>u). 
Like XvOeis are declined rtflei's and ^eis (act. pres. and 2 aor. 
participles of TI'&J/U), and <^avei? (2 aor. pass. part, of </>aivw). 
Like SeiKi/vs is declined Svs (2 aor. act. part, of '&uw). 

333. NOTE. The feminine stems in -ovtrd-, -do-a-, -eicrd-, and 
-V(TOL- were formed by adding -ya to the stem in -vr- : /JovAevovr-ya, 
icrravT-T/a, rt^evr-i/a, 8eiKvvvT-ya (see 96, 2). The perfect in -cos (with stem 
in -or-) has the feminine -via. For the formation of the cases of the 
masculine and neuter, see 224 232. 

334. Participles in -d<ov, -&>v, -6v are contracted. 
honouring, and <iAon', </>iA<oi/, loving, are declined thus : 


N. Y. 




TifJLoiv ' (rt/idowra) Tt|JLW<ra (Tt/idoj/) 

TijxwVTOS (rljULaovffrjs) TifJtw<TT|S (ri/xdoi'TOs) TIJJLWVTOS 

TIIAWITI (rtyuaoi/o"77) Tifu6(rrj (rl/mdovTi) TifiaivTi 

TtjiwvTa (n/idoi'<ra.j') Ttjiwcrav (rl/idof) TIJJLWV 





N. A. V. (rl/j-dovTe) Ti[ia>VT (ri/xaoiVd) Ti|A(6<rd (rt / udoi'Te) Ti|iwvT 

G. D. (rl/J-aovTOiv) TIJIWVTOIV (rt/xaowrcuj' ) Ti[iw<ratv (rlfj-aovToiv) TIJJLWVTOIV 


N. V. (rlfj-dovTes) Tt(xVTS (rl/ndovaai.} Ttp.w(rai (fi^dovTO.} TifiwvTa 

Gen. (Tlfj-aovTuv) TI^WVTWV (ri/uaoi'crcDi') Tip-wo^wv (rliMabvTwv] TIJJLUVTWV 

Dat. (riyu.doi;(rt) TIJIWCTI (rtyuaoi/crats) Ti[Jtw(rais (rlfj.dova'i) TIJIWCTI 

Acc. (n / adoj'Tas) Ti[J.VTas (rrjaaoucrds) Ti(Jtw<rds (ri/idovra) Ti|icovTa 


N. V. 

N. A. V. 
G. D. 

(<f)i\eovcra) <j>i\ovcra ((friXeov) <{>iXovv 

<J>i\ovvTOS ((friXeovo-rjs) $i\o\xn\s (<f>i\eovTOs) <}>iXovvTos 

<j>iXovvri (0t\eoucr7?) <|>iXovi<rii (0iXe'oj/rt) <j>tXovvri 

<}>iXovra (<f>i\eov<rav) <j>iXov<rav (<f>i\tov) <f>iXouv 





N. V. 





335. Participles in -owv from verbs in -ow are declined like 
Thus foyAocoi', S^Aoot'cra, SryAdov, showing, contr. Sr^Awv, S7yAovcra, 
gen. S^Aovvro?, SvyAoi'cr^? ; dat. S^AovvTi, thjXowry ; ace. S?y 
S^Aoi'o-ai', Sr^Aovv, etc. Uncontracted forms of verbs in -o<o are never 


336. Contract Second-Perfect Participles in -as. Several second- 
perfect participles of the /u- form ending in -aw? have irregularly -wo-a 
in the feminine. They are contracted in Attic ; as Horn. rrao>s, 
eo-rawfra, ecrraos, Attic ecrrcus, ecrrwcra, IO-TWS Or oftener ecrro?, standing 
(see 499). The <o remains everywhere except in the neuter nomina- 
tive form in -ds. 


N. V. <TTWS Ixroicra <TTOS or i 


Dat. <TTWTI <TTwcrr| i<rT(STi 

Acc. 6<rrcoTa l<rTW(rav I<TTOS or 

<TTCOTS icrrwcrat 






COMPARISON BY -repos, -rare? 

337. The majority of adjectives form the comparative by 
adding -repo? (stem -repo-) to the masculine stem, and the super- 
lative by adding -rare? (stem -raro-). Adjectives in -o? with a 
short penult lengthen -o- to -co- before -repos and -raro? ; but 
-o- remains if the penult is long by nature or position, and 
always after a mute and a liquid. 

KO^C/JOS (;co7'</;>o-), liijht i<ov(j)6-Tpos, -a, -or Koi'</>j-TaTO9, -i), -ov 

(AeTO-), ^rt-6 AeTTTO-TepOS AeTTTO-TaTOS 

ds ((TjU,i / o-) ) august cre/zyo-repos cre/xi/o-raros 

(TTt/vyOO-), "bitter 7TlKp6-TpO<$ TTLKpO-TaTOS 

ve^s (^eo-), way yew-re/aos reco-raros 

(ro(f>6<s (cro<j>o-\ wise cro^xu-repos 

yXvicv; (yAvKv-), sweet yAvKi'-re/aos 

For the declension, see 288. 

338. NOTE. The penult is long in compounds of rt/x?}, /icmor, 
mind, courage, and Kii'Svvos, danger; lience ari/xos, imhonored, 
driyUOTaros ; 7rp66vfJ,o<s, eager, TrpoBvpoTepos, TrpoOvfAoTaros ; 
dangerous, eTriKivSf'i/ore/aos, eTriKivSi'i/oraros. The penult is short in the 
endings -tos, -LKOS, -tyuos, -tvos ; lience a^6os, worthy, d^twre^os, d^tcuraros ; 
capable of governing, 

339. Kei/os, empty, and a-revos, narrow, often have Kevoreyoos, 

340. Ilevr;? (TTCI/T^T-), |?oo?', shortens the 77 of the stein and makes 
7rei'r-Te/)os, 7Tveo--TaTo (for TreveT-repo?, Trever-Taros, 80). 

341. These in -atos drop o of the stem : 

Z, yepatVe/)os and rarely ye/xxtorepos, yepat'raros. 
o5, a^ec?, TraAatre/oos or TraAatorepo?, TraAaiVaros or TraAatoraros. 

leisurely, a-^oAatre/aos and rarely <r)(oAaioTe/)os, o- 
and rarely a-^oAatoTaTos. 

Trepa (adv ), beyond, Tre/Dou'repos, further. 


342. These drop o of the stem and add -curepos and -airaros : 
Mecros, middle, /Aea-atrepos, /xecratVaro? ; evSios, serene; -ijo-v^os-, quiet; 

t'Sios, own (iSiatre/oos arid iSiairaros late); icros, equal; opOpios, early; 
o^ios, late; TrAr/criov (adv., TrA^o-ios poetic), wear, TT AT/O- lairepos, TrA^o-tai- 
raros ; 7ra/3a7rA?jo-ios, foX*e; TT/JOHOS, Attic Trpwos, ear/?/; Trpovpyov (adv.), 
advantageous, has Trpovpyiairepos. 

343. These reject o of the stem and add -eo-re/oos and -o-raros :- 

unmixed, aKpdr-eo-rc/Dos, aKpar-ecrraros ; e/yxo/zeyos, strong ; 
bounteous, free from envy (oftener d<$ovtorepo9 and d<$ov(oraros) ; 
, adv. aayxeyeo-Tara and acr/xevatrara ; eTrtVeSos, plain, lias 
7/pe/za (adv.), quietly, has r)pp,<TTpo<$, more quiet. 

344. 1. These reject o and add -/O-TC/DOS and -urTaros : 

AaAos, talkative, AaX-to-re/oos, AaA-icrraros ; /xovoc/jayos, eating alone ; 
oi^o^ayos, dainty; KaK^yopos, calumnious; Aayi/os, lewd; rarely TTTW^O?, 

2. Adjectives in -^s, gen. -ov, also have this form of comparison ; as 
K/XeTTTTys, ^/u'g/ 1 , thievish, KAeTrrto-Te/oos, /cAeTrTiVraros. But v/Spia-T^s, insolent, 
makes v/SpivTorepos, vjSpLa-Toraro's (a neuter of the positive, vj3pi<rTov, occurs 
rarely in Comedy). 

345. Compounds of X^-P L<S a( ^ -w-re/3os and -w-raros to the stem ; as 
eTri^a/Dis (7ri\a.pir-) } pleasing, eTrt^a/aiT-wre/oos, 7rtx a / 3tT -^ TaTO 5. 

346. Contract adjectives in -oos drop final o of the stem and add 
-eo-repos and -eo-raros ; as (ewoos) eiVovs, well-disposed, ewoeo-re/oos = 

347. Adjectives in -cov, -ov (stem -ov-) add -eo-repo? and -rTaros to the 
stem as crco^/awv (vrw^pov-}, prudent, o-w^poi'-ecrTepos, cr(D(f>pov-crTaTos. 

348. Adjectives in -ets add -reyoo? and -raros to the stem in -er- 
(321, 2) ; as xapieis, graceful, ^a/Heo-repos, ^apteo-raros (for 
Xa/oter-raros, 321, 2). 

349. Adjectives in - add partly -eo-rc/oos and -co-Tares, partly -t 
and "tOTOTOS, to the stem ; as ac/>ryAt^, elderly, a^At/ceo-Te/oos, d^ 
TO.TOS ; a/oTra^, rapacious, apTrayia-repos, a/o7ray /Wares. 

COMPARISON BY -tce)z/, to-ro? 

350. A few adjectives in -^9 and -po? form the comparative by 
dropping these endings and adding -Zwz' and -to-ro? to the roo, not 
to the stem. In prose only these adjectives are thus compared : 

i^Si's, street i/Sfwv, ryStcrros 

if Odcro-cov (for Oa\-yuv, 102), 




351. Comparatives in -Icov, neuter -lov, have recessive accent 
and are declined thus : 


Nom.TjStwv fjSiov Nom.Tj8fovs TjStovs T)8fova Tj8ta> 

Gen. rjScovos N. A. V. TjSfovc Gen. T|8i6vwv 

Dat. fjStovi G. D. rjSiovoiv Dat. -r]8to<rt 

Ace. TjStova f|8ta) -fjSlov Ace. f|8tovas T)8tovs T|8fova -qStco 

A T oc. fjSlov Voc. TjSioves rjStovs Tetovo, T)8t 

352. NOTE. Irregular comparatives in -eoi> (354) are declined and 
recessively accented like rjSiiov. 

353. NOTE. The forms r)8lw for ffiiova and rjSlovs for rjSiovts are from 
a different stem in -oov, thus : r)8lo(a-)a contracted to rJSr'w '(compare alSats, 
249) and r)8to((r)s to ?}Sfovs ; the form fjSiovs serving also as an accusative. 
The long and the short forms are used indifferently in Attic. 


354. The following adjectives are irregularly compared : 
1. <rya9os, good 


Kpeicrcrwv or Kpeirrwy 

Of these forms, /JeArfwi', /^eArto-ros, refers rather to intrinsic or moral 
worth ; ajuetvcov, apicrros express utility, fitness, excellence (ap-tcrros, related 
to dp-Trj, virtue, excellence) ; fc/ocurcnov (from KpfT-y&v) and Kpartcrro? express 
power or superiority (Epic /cparvs, powerful, TO K/MXTOS, strength, power) ; the 
rare Awwv (for AwiW) and Awcrros express desirability, and are used mostly 
with reference to the future. 

2. KdKOS. folf KttKfcDV KO.KIO-TOS 

Xipwv X ^P ltrTOS 

ijo-o-wv or TJTTWV TJKurTa (adv.), least 

Of these forms, ^et/awv (for xep-yuv, Epic X^/ 3 " 7 ?^ weaker, inferior) and 
are equivalent to the Latin deterior, deterrimus, and are opposed to 
, /5eATrTos ; ?yo-<Twv (for ^K-T/WV, 96, 1), Latin inferior, is opposed to 
, Lat. superior. 

3. KaX<Js, beautiful KaXXtcov (ro /cdXX-os, ocaiity) KaXXwrros 

4. p-e'-yas, ^rca< |Xitcov (for [j.ey-yuv, 96, 1) 

5. [ux-pos, swia^ [iiKporepos 

See also 6X1705 below. 


6. 6Xfyos, little, few 6\a>v (on inscr.) 

The following belong to both fuxpos and 0X1705 : 

iXdcro-tov or eXctTrwv 

for eXax-?/a)/> (96, 1), st 
Horn. eXdxct) 
?j<r(rov or ^TTOV, less, minus 

7. iroXvs, 'much irXeiwv or irXecov (97), neuter some- irXeioros 

times irXeiv 

8. paSios, easy p<v 

9. cjnXos. dear ($tXre/>os poetic) 

<|>iXaiT6pos (rare) <j>iXauTaTos (rare) 

jiaXXov <|>iXos (355) pxXicrTa cjnXos (355) 

10. dX-yavds, painful dX-yeivdrepos 
dX^yttov (TO 

355. Comparison by (idXXov and p.dXi<rTa. Sometimes the com- 
parative and superlative are formed by joining /xaAAov (magis) and //,a AID-TO, 
(maxime) to the positive. This occurs mostly in cases where the regular 
mode of comparison would be difficult to form. Participles always compared 
in this way. Thus SvJAo?, plain, /xaAAoi/ 8rj\o<s, more plain, /zaAto-Ta SryAos, 
most plain ; ayaTrwv, loving, /xaAAov ayaTrcov, /xaAtcrTa ayavrwv. Sometimes 
/xaAAov is to be rendered by in a highei' degree ; and //,aArra, by in the 
highest degree or in a very high degree. 

356. Positive wanting. Some comparatives and superlatives lack the 
positive ; their stem is usually seen in an adverb or preposition. In 
ordinary prose only the following : 

(irpo, before) irporepos, former TT/OWTOS (from 


(KOLTW, downward) Kororrepos, lower /cortoTaTos, lowest 

va-repos, latter, later VO-TOTOS, last 

furthest, extreme 

, near) eyyvTepos, nearer eyyi'TOTos, nearest 

>, far off) TroppiaTtpos, farther off 

(irpovpyoVf advantageous) Trpovpyiairepos, more ad- 


quietly) ^pe/xco-Te/oos, more quiet 

later, latter voTarcs, last 




357. Formation of Adverbs. Adverbs are regularly formed from 
adjectives by adding -us to the stem, which has here the same form as 
in the genitive plural. The adverb is accented like the genitive 
plural, and is contracted if the latter is contracted. 

<iAws, dearly from adjective <i'Aos gen. pi. 
o-o<f>o)<s, wisely cro^os 

cbrAws, simply ,, uTrAoos 

7raj/TW9, wholly ,, TTCCS 


, greatly /xcya? 

, prudently ,, crw^owv ,, crto</x>i/wv. 

For various other endings of adverbs, see Part IV. (Word-formation). 

358. Occasionally adverbs are regularly formed from participles ; as 
TTay/xevcos, regularly, from reray^eyo? (reray/xevcov) ; Sia^e/DovTcos, differently, 
from 8ia</>/)a>v (Sia^e/joi/rwv). 

359. The accusative neuter singular or plural of adjectives is often used 
as an adverb ; as TroAv or TroAAa, ?>i?ic/t, (from TroAvs) ; /xeya or /xeycxAa, 
greatly (from /xeyas). 

360. Comparison of Adverbs. The neuter accusative sinf/i/lar is 
used as the comparative of the adverb ; the muter accusative plural 
is used as the superlative. 

crocks (<ro(/>os), wisely o-o<wre/)ov 

r}8is), sweetly 'ijSiov 

(aAry^s), ^ritZi/ dXrjOea-repov 

(xa/neis), gracefully \apio-rpov 

(a (i)<j> p<ov}, prudently o-w^/ooveo-repov 

361. Sometimes the comparative is formed in the same way as the 
positive ; as KaAArovws (KaAAtoov), more beautifully; cra^ecrre/ows (cra^eWe/oos), 
9/iore clearly. 

362. Adverbs in -co usually form the comparative and superlative in 
-T/>U> and -rarw ; as avw, above, avcorepw, avwrarco. So Kara), below, e^w, 
outside, ecrco, witliin, TT^OO-W or Tro/ao-co = Attic iroppa), far of. From prep. 
aTTo, from, come aTrwrepw, farther, and aTrwrarco, farthest ; eyyts, Tim?', has 
cyyvre^xo or eyyvrepov, lyyvrarco or eyyvrara. A few others are dialectic 
or late. 

363. Ev, ?c<eZ/, has a/xeivov, a/otcrra ; //.aAa, much, very, has /xaAAov (for 
fj-aX-yov, 96, 4), wo?'e, rather, /AaAto-ra, most; rj<r(rov or ^rrov (for rjK-yov, 
96, 1), /ess, and rj/c terra, ^eas^, are from a stem ?}K-. 



364. The definite article o (stem o- and TO-) is declined 


Nom. 6 T) r6 Nora. 01 at TO, 



Ace. TOV Tifjv TO Ace. TOVS T<S TO, 

365. NOTE. The feminine dual forms rd and raiv rarely occur ; TW 
and TOIV are used instead. 

366. NOTE. There is no indefinite article in Greek. But sometimes 
the indefinite TIS (385, 386) is equivalent to a or an; as avi]p Tts, a certain 
man, or a man. 


367. The personal pronouns are : eyco, I, av, thou, ov, of him, 
of her, of it. AI)TO?, avrtf, avro, himself, herself, itself, is also used 
as a personal pronoun of the third person for him, her, it, them, 
in the oblique cases, but not in the nominative. 


Nom. eyw, / o-v, thou 
Gen. 4jjiov, [iov crov o5 

Dat. jxo, fioi croC ot avTw 

ACC. }JL^, JJL O"^ '<t aVTOV aVTTJV ttVTO 


N. A. vw o~<j>w a^Tw avTct avTw 

G. D. vwv o~<|)wv avToiv avTatv 


Nom. 'HK-cts, we, you o-<j>is, they 
Gen. 7j(iwv vfjiwv o-<|)wv 

Ace. TJp.ds VJJLCIS o-(j)ds 

368. NOTE. We sometimes find the enclitic ye joined to lyw, e/>ioi, and 
crv : eycoyf, e/xoiye (152, 4), cri'ye. 


369. NOTE. 1. The forms /zou, yuot, yue, o-ou, o-ot, ere, also ov, oT, e, are 
enclitic (see 152, 1). For the rare cases of ot retaining its accent, see the 

2. The forms ?}/xwv, rj^tv, rj/jias, V/JLWV, VJJLIV, i^as, when not emphatic, 
are sometimes accented in poetry TJ/XOUI/, fjpiv, ?5/zds, iyz<oi/, v//,iV, fyias, with 
short t and d in the dat. and ace. We sometimes find i//xtv and V/JLLV even 
when these pronouns are emphatic. No examples of ^/xas and iy/,ds seem 
to occur in Attic poetry. 

370. NOTE. 1. For the use of the personal pronoun of the third person, 
ov, 01, etc., see the Syntax. 

2. The Tragedians have also Ionic cr<f>lv (enclitic) masc. and fern, for 
o-ffrio-i, rarely used as a singular ; Epic o-<e (enclitic) masc. and fern, for 
cr<as, sometimes used as a singular ; and the Doric ace. vlv (enclitic) for all 
genders, singular and sometimes plural. 

371. NOTE. The steins of the personal pronouns are : //.e- (Latin me), 
I/to- (Latin nos), *)(**- J o~e- for re- from original r/e- (Latin te, tuns), o-</>w-, 
vfji- ; e- for /e- from original o~/e- (Latin se, suus), o-^>e-. 'Eyw is from 
original fycav ; and crv (for original TV) is from a shorter stem TV-. 

372. NOTE. AI'TOS has three uses (see the Syntax). 

1. As an intensive pronoun, it means self (Latin ipse] ; as auros 6 avryp, 
the man himself. 

2. In the oblique case?, it is the ordinary personal pronoun of the third 
person, of him, her, it, them, etc. 

3. Preceded by the article, as o avros, t} avTt'i, TO ai'ro, it means the 
mine, as 6 O.VTOS av>;/>, the same man. 

373. NOTE. Crasis with the article and auros often occurs (58, 1) ; as 
avros, avrj, TO.VTO (also TO.VTOV). Especially frequent is this with the forms 
of the article beginning with T and ending in a vowel : raiVou for TOV 
avrov, TO.VTW for TW avrcu, Tai'ra for TO, cu'ra, TQ.vrg for Ty avTfl ; but 
TavTa and TavTtj must not be confounded with TO.VTO. and TavTrj, which 
belong to orros, this (380). 


374. The reflexive pronouns are formed by the union of the 
stems of the personal pronouns and avro?. They are : e/jiavrov, 
6/jLavT7)$, of myself, creavrov, creavrrj^, of thyself t eavrov, eatm)?, of 
himself, herself, itself. In the plural the two pronouns are 
declined separately, but the third person plural has also the 
compound form. 






Masc. Fern. 

Jf5C. J^W. 

Gen. ep-avToi) ep,avrf]s 

T)p,a>v axiTwv qp.wv 


Dat. cp,auTu> op,avrrj 

Tjp,tv avrois vjp.iv 


Ace. Ijiaurdv i|uurHjv 

T|[j.ds avrovs TJ^ds 


Gen. o*eavrov o~eavTT]s 

vp,wv avToiv vp.wv 


Dat. o~eavTw o*avTTJ 

tp,iv avrois tp,tv 


Ace. o-gavTov O-O/UTTJV 

tip,ds avTotis vp.ds 


Masc. Fern. Xcut. 

Masc. Fern. 


Gen. cavTov lavrfjs IO/UTOV 

lavraiv lavTwv 


Dat. eavTw eauTTJ cavrai 

lavrois lavrais 


Ace. eavrdv eavr^v lavrd 

iavrovs cavrds 


For the plural eavrwv etc., also 

Gen. M. F. A r . o~<j>oiv c 


Dat. M. N. o-fyicrw avrots 

/''. o~<j)LO"iv avrais 

Ace. M. 0-^0,5 avTovs 

F. o-<j>ds avrtts 

375. The forms o-eatrroi', creavrTys, etc., and eavrov, 
often contracted ; as o-avrov, cravT^g, avrov, avr^s, etc. 

etc., are 


376. The reciprocal pronoun aXkrj\wv, of one another, is used 
only in the oblique cases of the dual and plural. The stem is 
- for 


dXX^Xwv dXX^Xtov 

dXXt|Xois dXX^Xais dXXr|Xois 

dXX^Xovs dXX^Xds 


Gen. dXX^Xoiv dXX^Xaiv dXX^Xoiv 

Dat. dXXVjXoiv dXXi^Xaiv dXXrjXoiv 

Ace. dXX^jXa) dXX^Xd dXX^Xa) 


377. These are formed from the stems of the personal pro- 
nouns. They are : 

ep,6s, ejj.T|, p.6v, my Tjp,Tpos, -d, -ov, our 

<ros, <rfy <rov, thy vp,eTpos, -d, -ov, your 

[6's, ij, 6V, his, her, its] <r<J>'Tpos, -d, -ov, their 

They are declined like adjectives in -05, -d, -ov. 

378. NOTE. ^'Os is never used in Attic prose, rarely in Attic poetry. 
It is expressed in prose by avrov, OLVTTJS ; as ry OLKLO. avrov, his house. In 
Tragedy we often find Doric a/xos (sometimes written a/xos) for l/xos. 





379. 1. The principal demonstrative pronouns are : 

88, fjSe, ToSe, this (here] 

ovros, airrt), TOVTO, this, that 

Kivos, IKCIVT), eKetvo, tfz,a (<Arc, yonder] 

2. Of these oSe, which is formed from the article and the demonstrative 
ending -8e (enclitic), is declined like the article, with -Se appended to each 
form. Ovros has the article in the first syllable which has ov if the article 
had an o- sound (o, w, ov), and av if the article had a or rj. 'Ejcew>s is 
declined like cu'ros (367) ; the Ionic form jceti/o? is used alongside of CKCI 
in poetry. 

380. Declension of 6'Se and ouro?, /tw : 



Dat. Tw8e 

Ace. Tdv8e 





T(58 TO -TO) 






N. A. TciSe 
G. D. 

Nom. ol'Se 


















381. NOTE. Separate feminine dual forms raSe, ratvSe, ravra, Ttti'ratv, 
are very rare. 

382. Other Demonstratives are : 

e'repos, ere/ad, trepov, the one or //^' o//Wr (of t\vo) 

rocroCT-Se, rocrv/Se, rocrovSe ) 

' , - / \ {-so much. 

TOCTOVTO?, Tocravrt], TOO-OVTO(V) J 

TototrSe, T06d8e, rotovSe ) 7 x . ,. N 

, * / \ r such (in quality) 


Tr?AtKocrSe. TTiAt/o/Se, T^AtKovSe ) 7 7 

' x ' . \ ' / N ^ / \ f SO (9k/, 50 

T?/AlKOrTOS, TTjALKavrr), TljAlKOVTO(v) J 

383. NOTE. 1. The forms in -ouros are declined like ovros, thus : 


uTos, Tocrcu'rr;, TOO-OUTO(I/), gen. rocroirrov, Too-avrys, rocrovrov, etc. ; 
the neuter singular has two forms : one with, and one without -v. 

2. The forms in -Se are declined like the simpler forms TOCTOS, TOIOS, 
n/Aiicos, with -Se appended to each form. The simple forms TOCTOS and 
TOIOS occur in Attic prose only in a few stock phrases ; as ocrwTre/o av TrAeiovs 
epya^wvTcu, TOCTO> TrAetova Ta.ya.0a evprjcrovcri, the greater the number that work, 
the more gain will they find (Xen. Vect. 4, 32) ; IK rocroi, since so long a time 
(Plat. Sympos. 191 C ) ; TOO-OS KCU TOO-OS, so and so much; TOIOS KOLI TOIOS, such 
and such (in quality). Ti/Aticos never occurs in Attic prose. 

384. The demonstratives are sometimes emphasised by adding to the 
different forms the particle -i, before which a short vowel is dropped'; as 
aurryr, rovrl, 68f, r)8i, roSt, rovrovf, TOVTWVI, ravri, 
rocrovTovi. So also in ovrwst, w8f, thus, just in this way. 


385. 1. The principal interrogative pronoun is rt9, TL, ivho ? 
which ? what ? always with the acute on the first syllable. 

2. The principal indefinite pronoun rW, rt, some one, any one, 
is the interrogative pronoun rw considered as enclitic ; when it 
takes the accent, it is always on the last syllable. 

386. 1. Declension of rt? and rt9 : 













Tfrl, TO) 

TlvC, TO) 







N. A. 



G. D. 




















2. For the indefinite neuter plural nvd, there is also a form arra 
(never enclitic and not to be confounded with arra from 6'o-ns, 393). 

387. NOTE. The acute accent of rts, ri never changes to the grave 
(143). The accented indefinite forms rts and rl rarely occur, as they are 
enclitic (156, 2). 


388. Other Interrogatives and Indefinites are : 


TTOO-OS, 7roo-rj, TToo-oV, of some number or quantity 

TTOtOS, TTOtd, 7TOLOV \ of wJuit SOl't ? 

rrjXiKrj, TrrfXiKov ', how old ? or how large ? 

T^XtKr), TTTjXiKOV, Of SOUIC ttffC OT O/ 801116 SIZ6 

, TTore/od, Trore/aov ; which of the two ? 

7TOT6/OOS, 7TOT/)d, 7TOT/3OV (rare), 0?^ O/" //i6 /WO 

X^, aAAo, o^?*, declined like aurds 
, such a one (see 389). 

389. The indefinite 6, ?], TO faiva, such a one, so and so, is Attic 
only, and used in familiar speech and always takes the article. It is 
seldom indeclinable, and is usually declined thus : 


(All Genders) (Masculine) 

Norn. 6 T] TO 8ava ol Setvts 

Gen. TOV TT]S TOV Seivos TWV 

Dat. TW TTJ TW Setvi 

Ace. TOV -n?jv Tb Sciva TOVS 


390. The relative pronoun is 09, r/, o, who, which. 


Nora. 8s T] 8 Nom. o? erf a 

Gen. o$ fjs o$ N. A. w w w Gen. wv wv a>v 

Dat. & fl o> G. D. olv oiv olv Dat. ols als ots 

Ace. 8v ijv 8 Ace. oils as a 

391. NOTE. Feminine dual forms a and alv seem not to occur, or are 

392. NOTE. For 6s used in its originally demonstrative meaning in 
certain expressions, see 789 and the Syntax. For the T- forms of the 
article used as a relative in Homer, Herodotus, and in Tragedy, see 959 
and the Syntax. 

393. The indefinite relative ocms, r)Ti<$, on, whoever, whatever, 
is composed of the relative 09 and the indefinite n<$, each being 
declined separately. 



Nom. &TTIS -{jris 8 TI 

Gen. oSnvos, #TOI f|<rTivos oSnvos, STOV 

Dat. urrivi, 6ra) flTivi <OTIVI, STW 

Acc. tfvriva -fjvriva 8 TI 


G. D. otvTivotv olvrivoiv otvTivoiv 


Nom. ofrrives atrives frriva, &.TTO. 


Dat. otorwri, STOIS alcrrwrt olcrrwrt, 8rois 

Acc. oiicrrivas fitrrivas driva, &TTO 

394. NOTE. For the accent, see 153, 6. The shorter forms OTOV, OTW, 
orwv, oToi5, are seldom used in Attic prose, but nearly always in Attic 
poetry and inscriptions. The longer equivalents of these short forms are 
hardly ever found in Attic poetry. The plural arra must not be con- 
founded with axTtt which belongs to rls (386, 2). "0 rt or o, TI is thus 
written to distinguish it from the conjunction, 6Vt, that, because. 

395. Other Relatives are : 

00-05, (is much as ; OTTOO-OS, however much 

ofos, of which sort ; OTTOIOS, of which sort 

rjAt/cos, of which age or size ; o7rr;At/cos, of whichever age or size 

o7roTe/)os, whicJiever of tlie two. 


396. The following table shows the correspondence in form and 
meaning of the interrogative, indefinite, demonstrative, and relative 
pronouns : 



T/S ; who ? ichich ? ris, any one 6'5e, this (here) ; oC- 6's, 6'<ms, who, which 

ivhat ? TOS, this, that 

TTOCTOS ; how mitch ? Troops, of some quan- (r6(ros), ro(r6<r5e, TO- 6<ros, 6'Troo-os, (as 

how many ? quan- tity or number, a-ovros, so much, miich, as many} 

tus ? aliquantus so many, tantus as, quantus 

Trotos ; of what sort ? TTOLOS, of some sort (rotos), Toi6<re, TOI- ofos, oTrotos, of which 

qualis ? OUTCS, such, talis. sort, (such) as, 





; how old ? TTTJAIKOS, of some age (rrjAt/cos), TTj\iKocrSe, 77X1/00$, 07rr;At/oos, of 
how large ? or size TTjAt/couros, so old which age or size, 

or so large (as old] as, (as 

large] as 

Trorepoy ; which of the Trorepos or 7rorep6$, e'repoy, one or the oirorepos, whichever 
two? one of two (rare) other (of two) nf the two 

397. NOTE. For the forms in parentheses roo-os, rotos, rr/A-i'/cos, see 
383, 2. 

398. 1. The particles ovv, S>y, 6%; TTOTC, S?y TTOT' ovv are sometimes 
added to indefinite relatives to make them more indefinite ; as OCTTIS ovv, 
whosoever, whatsoever, any one soever, ocms 6\y, ocrrts S// TTOTC, OO-TAS Svy TTOT' 
ovy ; also ^'ritten as single words, as ocr-ncroCy, 6o-no-8;y, 

2. Similarly TIS added to the ocro?, OTTOO-OS, oTos, oTroto?, and o 
makes their meaning more indefinite ; as oTrotos ns, of n-Jntf l-ind 

3. The enclitic TTC/D added to relatives, makes them more emphatic ; as 
oto? Tre/), o/ lo/iicA- sort exactly. 

399. 1. There are also the negative pronouns oi'tSere/jos 
neither of the two; and poetic oi'ri?, /xv/rts, ?zo o?fe (for prose ou^ets, 
412), of which ovrt and pr}Ti, not at all, are used in prose. 

2. Negative adverbs are ovSapov and fnjSafwv, nowhere, ovSafjirj and 
Lrj, in no way, ot'8a/xo>? and /xrySa^tals, i>i ?<o nianmr, and several others. 

400. The correlative TroSaTro?, from what country ? cnjas ? has the series 
os, of our country, nostras, I'/meSa-ros, of your, country, vestras, a/XAo- 
of another country, foreign, Trai/roSaTros, of every kind, and the in- 

definite relative oTrooWos, of what sort, of what country. 


401. Certain correlative adverbs are formed from the same stems 
as the correlative pronouns. 


TTOU ; where? 

7r60ei/ ; whence ? 
unde ? 

Trot ; whither ? 


TTOU, somewhere, 

Trodtv, from 
some place, 
Troi, to some 
place, aliquo 


(tv0a), evddde, 
evravOa, tlicrc, 
hie, ibi 
(tv6ev), ev6ei>5e, 
evreudev, thence, 
hinc, inde 
(&0a), ev0d8e, 
evravOa., thither, 
hue, eo 


ou, ei>0a, 
where, ubi 

86ev, tvdev, 
ivhencc, unde 

ol, evd a, 
whither, quo 


O'TTOI', wherever 


owoi, whither- 








Trore ; when ? 

TTOT^, at some 

r6re, then, 

6're, when, 

07r6re, when- 

quando ? 

time, ali- 






irrjviKa ', at 


r/i't/ca, at 

birriVLKa, at 

what time? 


which time, 

what time 

TrjistKavra, at 



that time 

Try ; which 

Try, some way, 

(TV}, rySe, raury, 

y, which 

fay, in which 

^oay? how? 


this way, thus 

way, as 

way soever 



TTWS ; how ? 

Trtus, somehow, 

(rws), (ws), c55e, 

us, tiffTrep, 

OTTWS, as, 

quomodo ? 


OL>TO>S, thus, 

as, that, ut 



so, ita, sic 

402. NOTE. The indefinite adverbs above are all enclitic (152, 2). 

403. NOTE. The forms in parentheses are not used in Attic prose 
except in certain expressions ; as KOI ws, even thus ; ovS' ws, ^8* ws, not even 
thus ; evOa fj,ev . . . ev@a 8e, or evOtv /zev . . . evOcv 6e, Jtere . . . there ; 
zvOev KCU V@v, on both sides. Otherwise in prose evda is used like the 
relatives ov and of, and eV#ev like odev. The demonstrative ws is accented. 

Tfj and TWS are poetic. 

404. The indefinite relative adverbs may also be made more indefinite 
by the addition of the particles ovv, &j, S?j, TTOTC, S?} TTOT' ovv (compare 
399, 1). 

405. 1. Correlative adverbs are formed from the stems of 
curros, aAAos, Tra?, oi56W 

e/cet, there, 

tufWev, thence, 

e/cetcre, thitJier, 




avrov, at, the 


avroae, to the 

very place, 

from the very 

very place 

on the spot 




&\\o(T, else- &\\ore, at 

fiXXws, in 


from another 

whither, another time 

another way, 


place, aliunde 




to all places 

from every- 
ovSa/j.ov, ovda/ui.6dei>, 

nowhere from nowhere no-whither 

2. Poetic are Ket#t, Ket0ev, Keiae for CKCI, eKet$ev, e/ceicre (379, 2). 

evert/ way or 
ov8a/j.)S, in no 





406. The following are the numerals with their signs, and the 
numeral adverbs as far as they occur : 







ts, p.a, 6V, o?i<2 





8vo, two 





Tpeis, rpia 





T^crcrapes, Tcr(rapa 



(r^rrapts, TTrapa) 







? ' 






























tp ; 

8c6S CK a 




i/y' TpeicTKaCSeKa, TpCros Kal SeKaros (407) 

rpiaKaCScKa (407) 



Teo-o-ap<rKa(8eKa (407) T^rapros Kal StKaros 








^KTOS Kal ScKaros 







6KTWKai8Ka (413) 

0^8003 Kal SeKctTos 




^varos Kal StKaros 





el K oo-a. K is 



els Kal tKocri(v) 

irpcaros Kal elKOO-rds, 

or eiKoo-t (Kal) ls 










T (T(rapd K ovra 
























<f (?" 
















TpiaKoo-Loi, -ai, -a 




TTpaKoo-ioi, -at, -a 




ircvTaKoortot, -at, -a 


412 NUMERALS 109 


600 x' e|aKo<rioi, -ai, -a e^aKocriocrTos 

700 \|/' l-irraKoeriot, -ai, -a CTrraKcxrioo-rds 

800 to' OKTdKOirioi, -ai, -a oKTaKocrtoor-ros 

900 ^' IvaKoo-ioi, -a i, -a IvaKoorioo-rds 

1000 ,a xtXiot, -at, -a xiXioords xlXiaKis 

2000 ,p 8t<rxtXtoi, -ai, -a SwrxiXioo-rds 

3000 y Y TpurxtXtot, -at, -a Tpi<rxiXio<rTos 

10,000 y t p/Dpioi, -at, -a fj.i)pio<rTos p.vpta,Kt9 

20,000 ,K SurjiCptot, -at, -a Surnvpioords 

or 8vo [uipidSes (426) 

100,000 ,p ScKaKto-fJLCptot, -at, -a 8KaKi<r|j.vpto<rTos 

or 8Ka [ivpuxSes 

407. For 13 and 14 there are also r/oeis (rpta) Kal 8e/<a and reo-o-a/oe? 
(reo-o-apa) Kal Se/ca ; in these the first part is declined (409). Ordinals 
of the form T/oeio-KGuSe/caros, Teo-o-a/oeo-KcuSeKaTos, etc., are used in Ionic 
and late Greek, rarely in good Attic writers. 

408. All ordinal numbers and the cardinals from 200 on are 
declined like other adjectives in -09. The cardinals from 5 to 
100 are indeclinable. 

409. The cardinal numbers el?, one, Svo, two, r/oefc, three, and 
reacrape^ or Terrapes, four, are declined thus : 

Nom. ts jita &/ 

Gen. ivos pas ^ v s N - A - 8fo 

Dat. evl (it^ Ivt G. D. Svotv 

Ace. '<iva. p.i'av ^v 

"Norn. Tpis rpCa. T&rorapes reVo-apa 

Gen. Tptwv Tecro^dpcov 

Dat. rpitrt T(ro-apcrt 

Ace. rpeis rpia reVorapas rea-crapa 

410. NOTE. Ef? is from ev-? (40). The stem ev- was originally 
and from this are derived /x,ia (for cr/xta), a;r-a (from original a/A- 
a-TrAov?, ere/oo?, C-KOLTOV ( = one hundred). 

411. NOTE. Avo, two, with a plural noun, is sometimes uninflected. 
The forms SVGLV for the genitive and 6Wi(v) for the dative belong to late 

412. Like efs are declined its compounds ovSa's and /x^Set?, no one, none. 
Thus oi'Set's, ovSefJiia, ovSev, gen. ovSevos, ovSefjuas, dat. ovSevi, oi'Se/xi^t, ace. 
v, oi'Sev ; the plural forms oi'Seve-r, ot'Sevwv, or8eo-t ? 

110 NUMERALS 413 

often occur. When oL'Sets and /z^Sets are written ovSe es and /^Se cis, not a 
sou/, or when av or a preposition is interposed, as ovB' e evos, from no one, 
fjitjS' av eis, the negative is more emphatic. For ovSets, /xr/Sets, oi'Sey, 
/x^Sev, the late Greek had OV&GLS, /xr/^eis, ovOev, ^Bkv. 

413. The cardinals 18 and 19, 28 and 29, 38 and 39, etc., are 
frequently expressed by subtraction and the participle of Sew, lack. 
Thus vr)es jtxtas Seowat reo-crapa/covTa, 39 S/iipS (Thuc. 8, 7) ; Tre^rry/covra 
^I'oti/ Seovra err/, 48 years (Thuc. 2, 2). So also with the ordinals ; as 
evos 8eov TrevTrjKoo-rb^ dvt'jp, the forty-ninth HUlll ; evbs Seovri T/>taKoo-T<T> 
eret, in the twenty-ninth year (Thuc. 4, 102). 

414. For the combination of 20, 30, 40, etc., with units, there are 
three forms for cardinals ; as Trevre /cat et/cocrt, five and twenty, or et/coo-i 

/Cat 7TVT, tweiltlj Mid five, OY lKO(Tt 7TVT, tweilty-five. 

415. The ordinals from twenty-first to twenty-ninth, thirty-first to 
thirty-ninth, etc., may be expressed in two ways ; as Tre/xTrrb? KCU et/cocrros 
or eiKocrros KOL TTt/zTTTo?, twenty-fifth. For twenty-first there is also efs 
Kat eiKO(rros (ei'o? Kai eiKocrrov, evt KOL i/<oo-rw, etc.) 

416. 1. Miynoi means 10,000. But pvpioi (with change of accent) 
means innumerable, counties, mst, extreme; also in the singular /ivptos ; 
as fjivpios ^povos, countless time, pvpia. Trevid, extreme poverty. 

2. The numerals in -tot are also used in the singular with collective 
nouns, especially with i] iWos, cavalry, and t] OO-TTIS, hean/-armwl troops 
(lit. shield). Thus rr)i/ StdKoo-tdv iWov, /Ae 200 cavalry or tfAe 200 
7w?'sg (Thuc. 1, 62); ao-Trt? /xi~/)td /cat rer/)a/coo-ta, 10,400 heavy -arnicil 
troops (Xen. ^?i5. 1, 7 10 ). 

3. The genitive of yiXiai is perispomenon in Attic, x^Atwv, when 
Spaxpwv is understood ; otherwise paroxytone. 

417. Notation. 1. The numeral signs given above were in use since 
the second century B.C. The units 1 to 9 are denoted by the letters a to 0', 
the obsolete g~' (for /, van, 14, 1) being inserted for 6. Tens from 10 to 80 
are denoted by t' to TT' for 90 the obsolete Cj' (9 % hoppa, 14, 2) is used. 
Hundreds from 100 to 800 are denoted by p' to a/ ; for 900 the character 
~\ (sampi, 14, 3) is used. For thousands from 1000 to 100,000, the same 
signs begin again, but with the stroke below the letter, as a for 1000. 
Examples: aon/y, 1253; /w//, 7840; KO.XO&, 21,679; irrjvga, 88,461; 
awfi/, 1868 ; vv , 450 ; pfi', 102 ; K^ 27. 

2. The capitals of the ordinary alphabet of twenty-four letters are used to 
denote the books of the Iliad, as 2 for Book XVIII. ; the small letters are 
used for the books of the Odyssey, as (/> for Book XXI. 

418. Old Attic Notation. The older Attic system of notation, found 
in inscriptions of the classical period, was the following : 1 I, 2 II, 3 III, 

423 NUMERALS 111 

4 IIII, 5 T (initial letter of TreVre), 5, FI ( = 5 and I), 7 Til ( = 5 and 2), 
etc., 10 A (Ae/ca), Ji AI (10 and 1), etc., 15 AF, #0 AA, 21 AAI, etc., 50 
AAA, 40 AAAA, .ZOO H (He/caroi/, old spelling for eKarov), #00 HH, etc., 
7000 X (x^'Aiot), #000 XX, etc., J 0,000 M (Mvpioi). The numbers 50, 500, 
5000, 50,000 were denoted by placing A (10), H (100), X (1000), M 
(10,000) within a large F ( = 7revTaKts) thus: F, i.e. TTC^TCXKIS Se/<a, five 
times ten, 50; FA, 60; F 500; FAA, 520; F, 5000; FX, 6000; P 1 , 
50,000; XXFHHF, #750. 

419. Fractions. Fractions are expressed by TO /xepos or >) jjioipa, 
pj,rt, always with the article ; as TO TTC/XTTTOV ^po<s or 77 Tre/zTTT?; p.oipa, 
\ ; TOJV 7TVT at Suo /jioipaL or TO. Svo [Afpr/, -f. When the denominator 
is omitted, it is always one more than the numerator ; as TO, 8vo ^prj 
or at 8vo fJioipaL, -. 

420. NOTE. 1. Half, r^io-vs, rj/j-ia-eca, yj/jaa-v, can also be expressed by 
17/^1- (Latin semi-}, compounded with a substantive which then ends in -ov or 
-LOV ; as rj/JL!7r\0pov, half a plethrum (ir\e6pov\ ^tSdpetKov, half a daric 
(Sdpet/co?), r)(jiiw/36X.iov, half an obol (o/?oAo). 

2. One-third, one-quarter, one-fifth, etc., can also be expressed by compounds 

Of T/31TOS, TTayOTO, TTe/XTTTOS, etc., with /XO/OIOV, j?a?* ; aS T/)tT^/XO/)tOV, -^ ' 

TtrapT'rj/JLopLov, ^ ; Tre/zTTT^/xo^toi/, i, etc. 

3. Owe awd a 7ia/ may be expressed by ^/uoAios. 

4. 0?i antZ a third, one and a quarter, etc., may be expressed by 7rt, com- 
pounded with T/KTOS, Ttrapros, etc. ; as eTrtV/KTos, 1^- ; 7rtTTa/oTo, 1^, etc. 

5. 0ri<? ?^^ a half, two and a lialf, etc., may be resolved into halves (1 J = 
rr, 2ty = 4, etc.) and expressed by the compounds ?y//,t- as above in 1 ; as rpta 
?}/xiTa/VavTa, 1 ^ (%) talents ; TTCVTC rjfj,ipvaia } 2^- (^) minae. Oftener the 
compound of ?}/>tt- is taken with the ordinal of that number from which the 
half is subtracted ; as T/OITOV yfjardXavTov, 2|, i.e. two and yet half of the 
third ; reraprov f)/j,iTdXavTov, 3^, etc. Compare the German dritthalb, 
merthalb, etc. 


421. Other ordinals are : TroAAoo-Tos, one out of many, one following 
mamj ; and TTOO-TOS, which one of a series ? with its corresponding indefinite 
relative OTTOO-TOS. 

422. Other adverbs in -O.KLS are: TroAAaKt?, many times; TrAeicrraKi?, 
very often; oAiyaKis, seldom; eKao-Ta/as, each time; TocravTa/us, so often; 
OVOLKLS, as often as. 

423. Distributives are formed by cardinals compounded with cruv, or 
else they are expressed by ava or K-aTa or ets with the accusative ; as 
(TvvSvo, two together, two by two ; o-rWpets or dva (Kara, ds) rpeis, three by 

112 VERBS 424 

424. Multiplicatives in --Aovs (from -TrAoos, Latin -plex) ; as dbrAov?, 
simple, oWAous, double, two-fold, rpLirXovs, three-fold, TroAActTrAoiV, manifold, 

Also in -TrAao-tos expressing how many times ; as (HTrAourios, twice as much, 
TpiTrXdcrios, three times as much, TroAAaTracrios, many times as much, etc. 

425. Adverbs of division ; as povaxij, in one part, single ; Si^a or 
<$ l Xi)j in two parts ; Tpi\a or Tpi<xfh ^ n three parts ; rer^a^o, or Terpa^v], in 
four parts ; TroAAax?/, Travro-xf], etc. 

426. Abstract numeral nouns in -ds; as rj /xovas (gen. /xovaSos) or 
evas, i/ie number one, unity ; 8i;as, /ie number two, dyad ; T/nas, rer/oas, 
7re//,7ras (late Trevras), ea, CTTTCIS or eftSofuisj o/cras or oySoas, cvveas, SCKU^, 
i/8e/<tt5, etc. ; etKag, 20 ; T/Ka/cas, 30 ; Teo-cra/oaKoi/ras, 40 ; 7rei'T?yKOVTcx, 
50 ; e/carovras, 100 ; x^tas? !000 5 fii'ptas, 10,000. 

Also in -v, gen. -vos : 17 rpirrvs (gen. T/HTTUOS), 3 ; rerpaK-rr?, 4 ; 
7TVT^Koo-Tv, 50; 6/carocTTvs, 100; xtAiocrrvs, 1000; ^ivpuxrrvs, 10,000. 
T/OiTrus in Athens meant one third of a (f>vX'/'j, tribe; TrtvTrjKocrTvs, etc., are 
used of military affairs. 

427. Numeral Adjectives expressing Age. These are compounds of 
-CT^, -ere? (from TO e'ros, i/ea?*) with occasional special feminine forms in -Iris 
(gen. -ertSos, ace. -ertv) ; as T/otdKovraeT-^s contr. rpLdKovrovTr^, rpidKovraeTes, 
special feminine form contr. T/ndKoi/rovTis, thirty years old. 

428. Numeral adjectives in -cues, -aid, -atov formed from ordinals 
(except TT/OWTOS) and denoting on the second day, Sevre/xxtos ; on the third day, 
T/OITGUOS, etc. Also TTOO-TCUOS, on what day ? 

429. Other words of a numeral character are 

Ka.Tpos, either (of two} /<a<TTo, each 

afj.(f>(j), gen. and dat. CI/JK/XHV (Latin ambo) \ , , 

dfji^orepoi, dfjL^orepaL, d/xc^ore/oa (more usual) / 
ei/toi, several TTCC?, aW, every' (320) 


430. Voices. The Greek verb has three voices: the active, 
middle, and passive. 

431. The middle voice generally denotes an action performed by the 
subject 071 himself or for himself. 

The middle and passive differ in/orra only in the future and aorist. 

432. Verbs which have no active voice, but have middle (or middle 
and passive) forms with active signification are called deponent verbs. 


Deponents are called middle deponents if the aorist has middle 
form, and passive deponents if the aorist has passive form. 

433. Moods. There are five moods: the indicative, sub- 
junctive, optative, imperative, and infinitive. 

434. The first four moods are called finite moods, in distinction from 
the infinitive. The subjunctive, optative, imperative, and infinitive are called 
dependent moods, in distinction from the indicative. 

435. Participles and Verbal Adjectives. There are active, 
middle, and passive participles ; and verbal adjectives in -TO? and 


436. Tenses. The indicative rnood has seven tenses : the 
present, imperfect, perfect, pluperfect, aorist, future, and future- 
perfect. The future-perfect is found only in the passive voice, but 
it sometimes has active or middle meaning. The subjunctive and 
imperative have the present, aorist, and perfect. The optative 
and infinitive have the present, future, aorist, perfect, and future- 
perfect. Participles have all the tenses except the imperfect and 

437. Primary and Secondary Tenses. The tenses of the 
indicative are divided into: (I) primary or principal tenses, 
expressing present or future time, i.e., the present, perfect, future, 
and future-perfect ; (2) secondary or historical or past tenses, 
expressing past time, i.e., the imperfect, pluperfect, and aorist. 

438. Second Aorists and Second Perfects. Tenses called 
second-&orist and secand-periect (and -pluperfect) occur in many verbs. 
These almost always have the same meaning as the ordinary (or first) 
aorist and perfect (and pluperfect), and differ from the latter only in 
form. Very few verbs have both forms of the same tense, and when 
such double forms occur, they usually differ in meaning. 

439. NOTE. As no Greek verb in regular use has all these tenses, the 
paradigms given include parts of three different verbs. 

440. Numbers. There are three numbers : the singular, dual, 
and plural. 

441. Persons. The indicative, subjunctive, and optative have 
three persons: first, second, and third. The imperative has two 
persons : the second and third. 



442. NOTE. The first person plural is used for the first person dual. 
A rare special form of the first person dual of the middle is given in 579. 


443. Verb-Stem or Theme. Every verb has one fundamental 
stem, called the verb-stem or theme, from which the various tense- 
stems are formed. 

Thus, in the verb TrXeKw, weave, the verb-stem is TrAex-, seen in the 
future 7rAew (TrAeK-o-w), in the aorist eVAe^a (C-TT Aex-cra) ; in the perfect middle 
Tre-TrAey-pxi, in the aorist passive i-irX^x-Orfv ; similarly rptTro), turn, verb- 
stem T/aeTr-, seen in rptij/w (r/oeTT-cro)), erpe^a (e-r/oeTT-ora), l-Tp<j>-Oyv ; so 
reAew (reAe-), finish, reAe-crw, e-reAe-o-a, re-reAe-Ka, etc. 

444. NOTE. The verb-stem is frequently not seen in its pure form in 
all the tenses, it being modified in various ways. Thus, in the verb AetVo, 
leave, the verb-stem AITT- appears only in the second-aorist system e-AiTr-or, 
-XiTT-6fj,r)v ; in the second-perfect active Ae-AotTr-a, it is AOITT- ; and in all 
other tenses it is ACITT- ; in <cuVw, show, the verb-stem <av- appears in the 
future </>av-to, (ay-oiy/.cu, in the perfect 7re-<ay-Ka (7re-(ai'-Ktt), and in the 
aorists passive e-<av-$//v and t-cfrdv-yv ; while it is modified in the second- 
perfect 7T-(f)i]v-a ; in KOTTTCO, cut, the verb-stem KOTT- appears in all the 
tenses except the present ; in /xav<9av<o, learn, the verb-stem /xa#- appears in 
all the tenses (as second-aorist e-/m#-ov), while in the present it is changed 
to pavOav- ; in <euyo), flee, the verb-stem <$>vy- has been changed to </>evy- 
in all the tenses except in the. second-aorist e'-<vy-ov. Other changes in "the 
theme will be noticed in 611 621. 

445. NOTE. When a verb forms its tenses from more than one stem, as 
AeiTrw (X.L7T-, AeiTr-), </>evyw (</>vy-, <evy-), </>cuva> (</>av-, <ai/-?/-), the shorter 
stem, as AITT-, 4>vy-, <jxiv-, is called the simple stem ( = verb-sttm or theme}. 

446. Primitive and Denominative Verbs. i. The verb-stem 

may be a root, as Aa/2-, take, second aorist c-Xa/3-ov ; TL-, honour, present rt-w ; 
7rAe/<-, weave, present TrAe/c-co ; or else it may be a root with s'ome derivative 
suffix appended, as root TI-, lengthened to rl^a-, present Ti/xa-<o. 

2. A primitive verb is one which forms its tenses from a root ; a de- 
nominative verb is one which forms its tenses from a longer theme. As 
a general rule, verbs in -/xt (490), and verbs in -co of two syllables in the 
present indicative active, as TrAcKw, weave (or three syllables in the middle, as 
Se^ofJiat, receive), are primitive ; others are denominative. 

447. Vowel, Mute, and Liquid Verbs. Verb-stems ending in a 
vowel are termed vowel-stems, as <tAe-to, ri/xa-w, A>-a>. Those ending in a 
consonant are called consonant stems, as TrAe/c-w, y/oa^-w, <cuVa> (<^ap-). 


Verbs with vowel-stems are called vowel-verbs or pure verbs, as Ti/xa-co, </uAe-w, 
Ail-co, \pi-u- Verbs with stems ending in a mute are called mute verbs, as 
TrAcK-co, ay-o), AeiVw (AiTr-, AetTT-), r/3i/3w (rpifi-, T/H/?-), ypd(p-io. Verbs 
ending in a liquid are termed liquid verbs, as crreAAw (<rreA-), ve/x-w, </>cuVu> 

448. Tense-Stems. 1. From the verb-stem are formed the 
various tense-stems by the addition of certain tense-suffixes, sometimes 
the final vowel of the verb-stem also undergoing a change. 

Thus, the verb-stem A- forms the present stem Av/-, present Avw, Afto-/zai ; 
future stem Avo-^-, future Ato-to, At>o-o-//,cu ; first-aorist stem Awa-, first-aorist 
c-Avcra, e-Xva-d-prjv ; first-perfect stem Ae-AvKa-, perfect active Ae-AvKo, (modi- 
fied to Ae-AvKe- for the pluperfect e-Ae-Av/oy, 593), perfect-middle stem 
Ae-Ar>-, perfect middle Ae-Av-//,cu, pluperfect e-Ae-Av-yu/^v (still further modified 
to Ae-Af'o-^- for the future-perfect Ae-Ai;cro-//,ou) ; first-passive stem XvOe- for 
the first-aorist passive e-Xv&rj-v (still further modified to XvOrja-ft- for the 
future passive XvO-tjcro-fj-ai). 

2. The tense-stem is usually formed by omitting the augment (if any) and 
cutting off the ending (if any) ; but not the reduplication nor the augment 
standing for it. When the indicative singular ends in -co, -eis, -et, cut these 
off and add the thematic vowel -/ e -\ this will give the tense-stem. 

For a full list of the tense-suffixes, see 569. 

449. Tense-systems. 1. Each tense-stem is the basis of a tense- 
system. Each tense-system includes one or more tenses. The follow- 
ing are the nine tense-systems : 


I Present, including present and imperfect. 
II. Future, future active and middle. 

in. First-aorist, ,, first-aorist active and middle. 
iv. Second-aorist, ,, seco?id-aorist active and middle. 
v. First-perfect, ,, ' first-perfect and -pluperfect active. 
vi. Second-perfect, ,, seco ^id-perfect and -pluperfect active. 
vn. Perfect-middle, perfect and pluperfect middle and future-perfect. 
VIIL First-passive, first-aorist and future passive. 
ix. Second-passive, second-aorist and future passive. 

2. The tense-stems of the perfects are modified to form the pluperfect 
steins ; that of the perfect-middle is modified to form the future-perfect 
stem ; the stems of the passive are modified to form the future passive stems. 
The tense-stems are fully explained in 569 and 622 761. 

450. Thematic Vowel. 1. Certain tense-stems end in a 
variable vowel. This is written -%-. Thus, the present stem of 

is Xv%-, the future stem is XV<T%-. 


2. The subjunctive has the long thematic vowel -/,,-, which is 

thus a sign of that mood : Aeyco-/xei/, Aey^-re. 
The thematic vowel is fully explained in 570. 

451. Mood-suffix. The optative has the mood-suffix -i- or -<,?;- 
(-6e-) before the personal endings: XVOL-/JU., XVOLS, aor. AVO-CU-/ZI, fut. 


For a full explanation of the mood-suffix, see 572, 573, and 608. 

452. Endings. These are appended to the tense-stems to ex- 
press person, number, and mood. 

Af'o-yu,ey, At'e-re, AC'cro-/>iai, Avcre-rat, (A/ue-ev) Avetv, \ve-(rOai. For a 
full treatment of the endings, see 574 606. 

453. Augment. This is either syllabic or temporal. 

1. The syllabic augment is the vowel e prefixed to the stem of 
the historical tenses of the indicative of verbs beginning with a con- 

Af-to, e'-A/uov, e-Aixra, e-AeAv/oj, e-XvOi]v ; AeiVw, e-Aei7rov, e-AiTrov, 
e-AeAoiTTTy, -Aet<$?;v ; (iatVw, e-<^atvov, e-(frdvr)v, etc. 

2. The temporal augment is a lengthening of the initial vowel, if 
short, of the stem of the historical tenses of the indicative of verbs 
beginning with a vowel. 

"Ayco, ?yyov, '>JX.@ r 1 v > ^A7rta>, v'jATrt^bv ', iKerei'w, t/cereuov, i/cerevcra 

3. In the dependent moods and in the participles of the historical 
tenses, the augment is dropped. 

Thus, aor. indie, act. e'-Aixra, subj. Avcrw, opt. Avo-cu/xi, imper. Aw-ov, inf. 
Avcrai, part. Avcrds ; &picra } aor. indie, act. of O/HO>, has o/oi'crw, o/DiVat/xi, 
o'/Hcrov, opiVat, optcrd?. 

For a full treatment of the augment, see 523 534, 550', 554 568. 

454. Reduplication. 1. Reduplication consists of a repetition of 
the initial consonant with e, to form the stem of the perfect of verbs 
beginning with a single consonant (except p) or with a' mute and a 
liquid. If the verb begins with two consonants (except a mute and a 
liquid), or with a double consonant ( , \j/\ or with p, the syllabic 
augment takes the place of the reduplication. If the verb begins with a 
short vowel, the temporal augment takes the place of the reduplication. 

Al5o>, Ae-A^Ka, Ae-Av/mi ; AetVco, Ae-Aoivra, Ae-Aet/x/zat y/oa^xo, 
ye-y/)a</>a, ye-yyoaya//,ai ; /T<o, l-f^njKO, l-^ny/ttat j crreAAw, e-araAKa, 
e-crraAjuat ; plTrrw, e/o-pi^a, e/a-pr/z/xai ; ayyeAAw, rjyyeAKa, rjyyeA/xai. 

2. The reduplication of the perfect, and the augment representing 
it, are retained in all the moods and in the participles. 


Ae-Av/ca, Ae-AvKO), Ae-Ai'/cot^u, Ae-AvKevcu, Ae-AvKws, At- Ai^ai, Ae-Avcr$cu, 
Ae-Avcro, Ae-Av/xevo? ; -crraA/<a, e-trraAKO), e-crraAKOi^u, e-(TTa,AKevcu, 
e-crraAKws, e-o-raA/xcu, e-crraA^at, e-o-raAa-o, e-crraA/xet'os ; ^'yyeAKa, 
?}yyeA/c(o, ?}yyeAfco//u, ^yyeA/cej/at, ?yyyeA/<(os, rjyyeA/xat, SjyyeX.Oai, rjyyeAcro, 

3. In the pluperfect the reduplication is preceded by the syllabic 
augment e ; as Ae-Ai>/ca, e-Ae-AvAo;, Ae-Aiy/,ai, J-Ae-Aiyx^v. But if the 
perfect is formed with the augment, the perfect and pluperfect are 
augmented alike, as : e-o-raA/ca, e-crraA/c^, rjyyeA/xcu, lyyyeA^v. 

For a full treatment of the reduplication, see 535-553, 554-568. 

455. Principal Parts. 1. The principal parts of a Greek verb are 
the first person singular indicative of every tense-stem it has. Most verbs 
have six tense-stems, many have less, and no verb has all nine. If a verb 
has no future active, the future middle is given. The following are the 
principal parts of Xvi>), AetVw, Tourcro, 7rpdcro p (o, ypa<^xo, <^>cui/<o, ( 

(Av-, Ai>-), loose, Avcrw, eArtra, AeAvKa, AeAtyjcu, eAv 
AetVw (AtTT-, AetTT-), Zgaw, Aet^-w, AeAotTra, AeAet/z/xat, eAet^^v, 2, aor. 


Tacrcrto (Tay-), arrange, ra^co, era^a, rera^a, reray^tat, eToi^B^v. 
n/ocurcrw (irpo.y-\ do, trpafw, 7rpda, TreTr/m^a, 2 perf. irtT 

, write, ypdi^io, e'y/xx^a, yey/)a<^a, yey/oa/x/xat, 2 aor. pass. 
, <avw, e^ryva, vrec^ayKa, 2 perf. 7re</>^va, Tre 

aor. pass. 
2reAAw (crreA-), sert^, crreAw, ecrretAa, co-TaA/ca, tcrraA/zai, 2 aor. pass. 

(O-KWTT-), Je 

2. The principal parts of deponent verbs are similarly given. The 
following are the principal parts of /^ovAo/xcu, yiyvo/zai,, 

Boi'Ao/xat (^ovA-), iwis^, /3ov\ijo-o/Jiai, 
Ftyvo/Aat (yev-), become, yevryo-o/xai, yeye^/xat, 2 aor. eyevo/zr/v. 
Ala- avowal (aicrO-\ perceive, ato-^cro/xat, ?J(r^/xai, 2 aor. yardo^r. 
Mt/xeo/>ta6 contr. /zt/xoij/uat (/xt^ie-), imitate, 

456. Two Forms of Inflection. The tense-stems are inflected 
either according to the common form of inflection or according to the 
pi-form (called also the simple form). Some tenses belong to the one 
form and some to the other ; but the present and second-aorist systems 
follow the common form when their tense-stems end in the thematic- 


vowel -%-, otherwise they follow the //.e-form. A synopsis of the two 
forms of inflection is given in 607 609. 

457. Verbs in - and Verbs in -jxt. Verbs with the present 
system of the common form of inflection are termed " verbs in -o> " ; 
and those with the present system of the /xt-form are called " verbs in 
-pi." But the names " verbs in -w " and " verbs in -//,t " have reference 
only to the present system, and have no bearing on the other systems. 

458. Meaning of the Tenses. i. in the synopsis of Avw in 460, 

the active of all the moods (except the subjunctive and optative), and the 
indicative of the middle and passive are translated. The future-perfect 
infinitive and participle are rare forms, and cannot be conveniently rendered in 
English. All the subjunctives and optatives are also left untranslated, as 
their meaning can only be learned from the Syntax ; but the following 
examples will give some idea of their uses. 

Subjunctive. Avco/xei/ or aor. At>ora>//ev, let us loose. "Iva Avto/xev or 
Xvcrwfjiev, in order that we may loose. 'Ecu/ Aftco/zev or Avcrw/xev, if we shall 

Optative. Et'0e A^oi/xt or XvcraifjLi, that I may loose. "Iva XVOL/JLI or 
Xtxrai/jLi, in order that / may loose. Et Xvoiptv (or Aljo-at/zev) avrov, Aeyot 
(or Ae^at) av, if we loosed him, he would say. EiVe on Xvoipi, Afta-cu/xi, 
Xva-ot/jLL, he said that I ivas loosing, had loosed, would loose. 

The difference between the present and aorist in the dependent moods is 
explained in the Syntax. 

2. For irregularities of meaning in certain tenses of ActVoj, leave, and 
>, show, see 797 and the Catalogue of Verbs. 


459. The paradigms of verbs in -w embrace the following : 

1. Synopsis and conjugation of all the tenses of Xvu (Av-), loose (460). 

2. Synopsis of all the tenses of AetVw (AiTr-, ACITT-), leave (462) ; and 
conjugation of the second-aorist and second-perfect systems (463). 

3. Synopsis of all the tenses of <cui/w (<av-), show (464); and conjugation 
of the future, first-aorist, and second-passive systems (465). 

4. The principal parts of the mute verbs TrAe/c-w, weave, aAAacro-<o 
(dAAay-), exchange, eAey^-o>, convict, rpifiu (rpi/3-, rplj3-\ rub. yyoac^-to, write, 
Tret^oo (triO-, TreiO-}, persuade ; of the liquid verbs </>aa'w (</>av-), show, and 
o-reAAw (crreA-), send; and of the pure verb reAe-co, finish (489). Also the 
conjugation of the perfect-middle system of these verbs (485). 

5. Synopsis of all the tenses of the contract verbs ri/xa-o), honour, </uAe-a>, 
low,, Sr/Ao'-w, show, and ^/aa-w, hunt (483) ; with the conjugation of the present 
S3 r stem of rt/x,ao>, <tAea), and SryAoa) (477). 






,_, d v 3 o 

X v-5 * 

c- 3 S"ja 

l-g-S^ 1- 
<*<<<<'$ ^ 


I- 1 



k d 

! b 

-IP ip <p ip IP 



3 o S 

b b b 

HJ -5 '5 









1 1 



^ S 
5 S 


> t 



'f -B 

a d 

^ I 


i| fill 1 

-<M OjO^KH P-t 





INDIC. S. 1. 




D. 2. XCTOV 


P. 1. XfofiCV 

2. Xcere 

3. Xtiovcri 

SUBJ. S. 1. XtilO 









D. 2. X*T}TOV 
3. Xtft]TOV 

p. 1. 

2. \T|T 

3. X^OXTl 

S. 1. 

2. Xcois 

3. Xvot 

3. XiJoCrtjv 

P. 1. Xcoifjiev 
2. Xcoire 


S. 2. Xve 

3. XtJCTO) 

D. 2. Xierov 

3. XiJTO)V 
P. 2. XCT 

3. XVOVTWV or XC^rwaav 












S. 1. H\vo~a. 

2. ifXvcras 

D. 2. cXtfo-arov 

3. eXvo-aTTjv 

P. 1. IXtfo-ajJicv 
2. eXco-arc 



S. 1. Xo<ra> 



XcXvKO) (471) 

D. 2. 


P. 1. 





OPT. S. 1. Xfrraiju 


2. Xo<rais, X^o-eias (467) XcXwois 

3. X^o-ai, 
D. 2. XtfcraiTov 

S. 1. Xc<rai|JLv 

3. Xtf<raiv, X^crciav 

S. 2. Xvo-ov 
3. Xiio-dTw 

D. 2. Xco-arov 
3. Xvardrwy 

P. 2. Xc<raT 

3. XiJ<rdvTwv or 




[XAu/ce (475) 


















S. 1. Xoofiai 

2. XOT), Xo 

3. Xtferai 

D. 2. XiW0ov 

3. Xt5CT00V 

P. 1. XvdfieOa 

2. Xveo-06 

3. Xijovrat 

S. 1. Xvcofjiai 
2. XBT, 


D. 2. 



P. 1. 


3. Xowvrai 

S. 1. XvofytTjv 

2. Xcoio 


D. 2. X^oto-0ov 

P. 1. Xvot|i0a 


S. 2. Xov 
3. Xv 






D. 2. 

3. Xv(T0a)V 
P. 2. XO<T0 

3. Xv^crOwv or 

\v(rd(t)(ra.v (466) 
















S. 1. IXvo-djiTjv 



3. IXtfo-aro 



D. 2. Xc<ra<r0ov 



3. IXv<rd<r0T]v 



P. 1. eXi5<rd|jL0a 
2. eXe<ra<r0 


^; e ; 

3. IXoo-avro 




S. 1. Xiio-cojjicu 
2. Xtic-T) 

XeXv^vos w (472) 
XcXvfievos fjs 

XeXup-e'vos fj 

D. 2. X6o-T]o-0ov 


XfXxjp-e'vw JjTOV 
XeXu(Xva ^TOV 

P. 1. Xv(TWJJie0a 

3. XiJ<ra>vT<u 

XeXvp.evoi ujxcv 
XeXvfjicvot fjre 

XeXup-e'voL too"L 


S. 1. Xv<raCjAT]v 
2. X^o-aio 
3. Xco-airo 

XeXvjxevos di\v (472) 
XeXv|ievos CL'TIS 
XeXvp-e'vos eiT] 


D. 2. Xv<raur0ov 
3. Xi5<rao-0Tjv 

X(Xv|j.^va) ei'-qrov or ctrov 
XtXi)|j.evaj elTJTTiv or etr-rjv 

2. X<rai<r0 
3. Xoo-cuvTO 

XeXvfjievoi. i't]|j.v or elpev 
\t\vptvoi cl'rjre or etrc 
XcXvp.voi el'rja-av or elev 


S. 2. Xv<rai 
3. Xv<rd<r0w 

Xe'Xvo-o (475, 746) 

D. 2. Xc<ra<r0ov 


3. Xi5<rd<r0ttv 


P. 2. Xfl<rao-0 


3. Xii(rd<r0wv or 

XeXv<r0<ov or 

















-T], -OV 





S. 1. XcXtio-on-ai (474) 

2. XeXctrT), XeXvcret 

3. XeXvcreTcu 

D. 2. XXc<T(r0ov 
3. XcXflo-eo-Oov 

P. 1. XeXv<r6>0a 

2. XXC(Tr0 

3. XtXticrovTai 

S. 1. 

D. 2. 

P. 1. 

S. 1. 

2. XeXtfo-oio 

3. XeXtto-oiro 

D. 2. XeXio-ourOov 
3. X6Xv<ro<r0T]v 

P. 1. XXv<roC}Ji0a 

3. XXc<roiVTo 

S. 2. 

D. 2. 

P. 2. 







Xv0iT]S Xv0-q<TOlO 

Xv0lT] Xv0^<TOlTO 

Xv0irov or Xv0cCT]TOv (468) Xv0TJ<roio-0ov 
Xv0eTT]v or Xv0eii]TT]v Xv0T]<ro(r0T]v 

Xv0etp.ev or 
Xv0iT6 or 
Xv0iv or 





Xv0e'vTv or 

Xv0Cs, Xv0io-a, 



-T), -OV 




462. SYNOPSIS OF XetVo) (XetTT-, TUTT), leave 



1 4. SECOND- 



Pres. and 


2 Aorist 

2 Perf. and Plup. 





XeXoforo) or XeXoiirws & 

XeXoLTroip-L or XeXoiTrws 







Pres. and 


2 Aorist 


Perf. and Plup. 










Pres. and 



Perf. and 



1 Future 

\i<t>6& (for 


Like the 



Like the 












P. 1. 

2. 4XlTT 

3. gXi-rrov 

S. 1. Xforco 

2. Xtirgs 

3. Xiiqj 

D. 2. XCirirrov 
3. XfarqTov 

P. 1. XCirwjwv 

3. Xfriraxri 

S. 1. Xtiroiju 
2. Xhrois 


S. 1. 2Xi7rov eXnrdjiTiv Xe'Xoiira 

2. ^Xiires 4Xirov XeXonras 

3. ^Xnrc cXCireTo XeXowre 

D. 2. 4XhrTov 


D. 2. XCiroirov 

P. 1. 
3. Xforoiev 

S. 2. XC-n-6 
3. Xiirfru 

I). 2. XlTTOV 
3. XtTTT(OV 

P. 2. XClT6T 

3. XtirdvTtov or 









































" .... 4 -S- 



11 . 

1 . 
1 1 



& ^ 

S 3 

1 1 

o ;- 3 "S o 


-ri o-' 
fl 2 -M aj 



t o . J5 J 

g ? ^ t ^ 

-< M tn O ^ 

hH fj 

P O O -J 

S ^3 -S'-tf S- ^ 

ilJ -H S Qj P ri 03 














S. 1. <j>av<S 


2. <j>avis 

4>avfj, 4>avet 

3. <j>avt 


D. 2. <j>aviTov 


3. <j>aviTov 


P. 1. (f>avovp.v 


2. <j>aVlT6 


3. 4>avovcri 


S. 1. 



D. 2. 


P. 1. 



S. 1. <}>avoCT]v or <J>avot|ju 


2. 4>avou]S or <|>avois 


3. 4>avou] or 4>avoi 


D. 2. <J>avotTov 


3. <|>avo{TTjv 


P. 1. <})aVOl|JLV 


2. 4>avoiT 


3. <f>avoiv 


S. 2. 



D. 2. 


P. 2. 







<}>rjvai or (j>i^Vi.e 





<j>TJvaitv or 4>rjvaav 


4>T]vdvTv or 

INF. 4>avciv <f>avi<r0cu ^fjvai 

PAET. <j>avwv, <|>avov|xvos, <J>TJvds, 

<|>avov(ra, cj>avovp.evT], 

<|>avovv 4>avovi[j.vov <J>fjvav 

* The uncontracted forms of the future <^ai'ew and <aveo/mi (464) are 
inflected like <iAew and </>iAeo/xat (477). 






S. 1. <J>T)vd}I.T]V 

2. ecf>T|va> 

D. 2. j>T|va<r0ov 


P. 1. |>T|vdn0a 


SUBJ. S. 1. <j>^v(jLat 




D. 2. <f>^vii<r0ov 


P. 1. <j>T]v|Ji0a 

S. 1. <{>TivaC(iT]v 

2. (|>r|vaio 

3. < 

D. 2. <f)^vatcr0ov 
3. <>Ti 

P. 1. 4>T]vajx60a 

S. 2. <j>t)vat 
3. <j>T]vdo-0w 

3. <J>T]vdcr0ft>v 

P. 2. 4>^va<r0e 

3. 4>t|vdo-0cov or 


-r\, -ov 









4>aviTov or 

<j>avi|iev or 
<j>aviT6 or < 
<f>aviv or 




gavel's, 4>aveura, 





-T], -OV 



466. The imperative forms ending in -rwcrav and -o-$<ocrai> belong to 
late Greek. 

467. In the first-aorist optative active, the Attic generally prefers the 
Aeolic forms in -etas, -etc, -eiai/ (689). 

468. In the dual and plural of the aorist passive optative, the shorter 
forms in -CLTOV, -cmyv, -ei/xev, -eire, -eitv are much oftener used than the 
longer forms in -ei^rov, -ei^r^i/, -et^/xev, -ct^re, -eir^o-av (573). 

469. In late Greek the pluperfect ended in -eiv, -ets, -et ; -eirov, -etr^v, 
-ei/xev, -eire, -ettrav ; as IAeAv/cetv, JAeAi'/cets, etc. See 593. 

470. The perfect and pluperfect indicative are occasionally formed by 
periphrasis of the perfect active participle and i/xt and ?}y; as AeAvxws dpi 
(T^V) for AeAvKa (eAeAv/c/^), Ke/cT?^u,evos ct for KCKT^crat. 

471. The perfect subjunctive and optative active is usually expressed by 
periphrasis of the perfect active participle and <5 and tirjv (subjunctive and 
optative of et/u, 6e) as AeAvKws w and AeAv/cws e^v. The regular forms, 
like AeAvKw and AeAi>K06/xi, are very uncommon. 

472. The perfect subjunctive and optative middle is formed peri- 
phrastically by the perfect middle participle and w and cfyi/. For a few 
verbs whose perfect middle forms these moods without periphrasis, see 
712, 713. 

473. The future perfect active is formed by periphrasis with the perfect 
active participle and ecro/xat (fut. of flfii, be) ; as AeAv/cws e'cro/xcu, I shall have 
loosed. The forms eo-r/jjw, / shall stand, and Te$nju>, I shall be dead, are 
exceptional ; see wmyfu and Ovyo-Kw in the Catalogue, also 1037. 

474. When a verb lacks the future-perfect passive^ this form can be 
made by periphrasis of the perfect -passive (middle) participle and to-o/xat ; 
as ej/'ew/xevcH e'crecr#e, you will have been deceived (749). 

475. 1. The imperative perfect active occurs only in a few verbs whose 
perfects have present meaning; as rra0i, stand! reOva., let him die, 
KKpd-yT6, yell! See 714, 724. 

2. The perfect imperative of all voices can be expressed by a periphrasis 
of the perfect participle and r0t, Itrno, etc. (imperative of ei/u, be). See 
714, 724. 

476. For -17 and -et in the second person singular indicative of the 
present, future, and future-perfect, see 597. BovAet from /?ouAo/uu, ?nV, 
ofec from otb/zat, think and o^et from 6'^o/xcu, fut. of o/aaw, see, have no 
forms in -rj. 





477. Verbs in -aw, -ew, and -ow are contracted in the present and 
imperfect. The contraction follows the principles explained in 47 
and 48. 

The present and imperfect of Ti/xaw (ri/m-), honor, <iA.a> ($iA.e-), love, 
and SrjXou (Sr/Ao-), show, are inflected thus: 

S. 1. (xt/idot/u) 

2. (xi/idois) 

3. (x^doi) 

D. 2. (TLfjAoLTOv] 

P. 1. 

2. (xtyttdotxe) 

3. (rl/j-doLev) 


S. 1. 


S. 1. (xl.udw) 

2. (rt/is) 

3. (Ti/idtt) 
D. 2. 

P. 1. 

2. (xi^tdexe) Tip,&T 

3. (xt^tdou(Tt) TIJXWCTI 










S. 1. (Tt/tdw) 


D. 2. (Tt/j.drjTOv') TijxaTov 

3. (rlfjLd'r)Tov) Tifxarov 
P. 1. (xt/ida) / uei') Ti|iw(i.V 

2. (xtyUaTjxe) Ti[ia.T 

3. (xt/x,dwo"t) Tijxa><ri 







































D. 2. 


P. 1. (Tljj.aoirjfj.ev) 



S. 2. 


D. 2. 

P. 2. (Tt/*cere) 










[<{>iXoh]TOV (dr)\ooiT]TOv) [SrjXoiTjTOV 

((f)i\eoir)Trjv) <|>iXoii]TT]v] (orjXooirjTrjv) StjXoiTjTTjv] 

[<}>lXoiT|fJLV (dr)\OOL7]fJ.ev) [8r]XotT]fJLV 

<j)tXoiT]T (577XoOl77Te) 8T]Xo(T]T 

<|>iXoiT]<rav] (d7]\ooir]crav) 8T]XoiT}<rav]. 








) <j>iXeiv 

(rr y uawi') 

) <j>iXwv 




S. 1. 

2. (erl/maes) 

3. (eTl/ 
D. 2. 

P. 1. 

2. (ert/idere) 









!<|>iXiT (eSrjXoere) 







S. 1. ( 

2. (r^udp, rtju 

3. (ri/uaercu) 
D. 2. 

P. 1. 

2. (Tl/jidecrde) 

3. (rt.adoi'rai) 


















S. 1. 

2. (rifj-drj) Tip.< 

3. (rlfj-drfrai) Tijidrat 
D. 2. (rlfj-d-rjcrdov) TifJtd(T0ov 

3. (rl/j.dr]<rdov) Tifid<r0ov 
P. 1. ( u.e da) 

2. (rlfj-drjo-de) 

3. (rlfj.dwvrai) TijxwvTai 

S. 1. (rlfj.aoifj.riv) 

2. (ri,udoto) 

3. (rlfJ.doi.To) TlfiWTO 

D. 2. (rlfj.doL(T9ov) Ti[i<3or0ov 

3. (rlfj.aoio'drjv) Ti|j.u>or0T|V 

P. 1. (rlfj.aoifj.eda) Tt[iu>|i.0a 

2. (rlfj-doiade) Tijxw<r8 

3. (rtyudoiJ'To) TIJJLWVTO 

S. 2. (n^doi/) TIJJLW 

3. ('crdct}) Ti(JLtto-0a> 

D. 2. (<rdov) Ti(Jido-0ov 

P. 2. (rlfj.deo-0e) Ti(xdo-0 

3. (ri/j-aeaduv) Tip.d<r0wv 


(<rdai) Tip.d<r0ai 



(<J>t.\Tj(r6ov) <j>iXij(r0ov 
(<j)i\e7)(rdov) <j>iXfj<r0ov 
((f)L\e<jjfj.eda) 4>iXtofie0a 
((piXtTjade) ^>iXf]cr0 
((pi\e uvrai) 













((pi\eoifj.rjv) <|>iXoip.T]v 

(0tXe'oto) (f>iXoio 

(0tXeotro) <|>iXoiTO 

(<t>i\eoi(rdov) <}>i,Xoi(r0ov 

((piXeoiffd-rfv) <}>tXo^<r0T]V 

(<f>i\eoifj.eda) <)>iXoip.0a 

((f>i\eoi<rde) <|>iXoi<r0 

((piXeoLvro) <juXoii>TO 


















(<j)L\e'ecrdoi>) <})iXi(r0ov (8rj\6e(rdov) 






(<f>i\eeffdwv) <]>iXei(r0(i)v 


S. 1. (erlfj.abfj.'rjv) 

2. (erlfj-dov) 

3. (erlfj-dero) Ti|j.dTO (e^tXe'ero) 
D. 2. (erl <rdov) 6Ti(jLd<r0ov (efaXeevdov) 

3. (erlfj.aeff9t]v) Ti[xdor0T]V (e(pi\eecrdT]v) 

P. 1. (erlfj.abfj.eda) Tip.cop.0a 

(<f>i\ee<rdai) <juXci<r0ai (5rj\be<Tdai) 


(<j>i\ebfj.evos) <|>iXovp.VOS (8r]\obfJ.evos) 



<j>iXiro (edrjXbero) 




(j)iXovfJ.0a (edr/Xobfj-eda) 

2. (erlfj,de<Tde) Ti(ido-06 (eQiXeevOe) (}>iXi<r0 (eorjXbevde) 

3. (erifj.dovro) TIHVTO (e^iXeWro) t<j>iXoOvTO 





478. The present optative of contract verbs has two forms : the regular 
form (modal sign -i-, the personal ending of the first person singular -/*i) ; 
and the so-called Attic optative (modal sign -irj-, ending of the first person 
singular regularly -v, and of the third plural -crav). The Attic optative is 
much more frequent in the singular than the regular forms, but it is seldom 
used in the dual and plural. 

479. The following in -ao> contract to t] instead of to d : Si^aw, thirst, 
aw, live, KVO.IO, scrape, Trcivato, hunger, ayxaw, smear, XP (/IM 1 9^ ve oracles, 

use, r/'aw, rub. Thus : faw, w, fj<s, 0, (tjrov, inf. fjjv, impf. tfav, 

480. Dissyllabic verbs in -eoo admit only the contraction into ei, leaving 
the other forms uncontracted. Thus : TrAew, sail, TrAets, TrAei, TrAeirov, 
TrAeo/zei', TrAeire, TrAcoixri, impf. eVAeov, eVAeis etc., inf. TrAeiv, part. TrAcon'. 
But Sew, 6mc?, is usually contracted everywhere to distinguish it from Sew, 
want, which contracts like_7rAew. 

481. 'Ptyoto, shiver, contracts often to <o and w as well as to ov and 01, 
thus : pres. plyu, ply^, plyy (and plyoT), opt. plywrjv, inf. plyuv (and 
plyovv), part, piywvrts (also gen. pi. plyovvrwv). 'IS/oow, sweat, Ionic and 
rare in Xenophon, has ISpuKTi, opt. ISputj (with 18/301), part. tS^owvrt (tS/ooui/n). 
Aovw or Aow, wash, has Aovcu, Aoveis, Aouet ; but other forms of the 
present and imperfect are generally from Aow, as e'Aov, Aov/xev, Xovrai, 
Xovo-Oai. Aoiyxei/os, the v in Aovw being dropped (see this verb in the 

482. The contracted form of the third person singular imperfect 
active does not take v movable ; thus e</>i'Aee or <t'Aeei/, but contr. e^i'Aet 
(never ec/uAciv). 

483. SYNOPSIS OF ALL THE TENSES OP rt/xaw, <iAea>, SryAow, and 
#?7/5cuo, hunt. The present and imperfect are in heavy-faced type : 

PRES. Indie. TIJIW 4>iX 

Subj. TIJJIW <|)LX 

Opt. [TlflWjJLl] Tl}JLWT]V [(^iXoifJlt] 4>l\oCT]V [8r]Xoi|JLl] 

Imper. Ttp-d cjnXei 8t|Xov 

Infin. TIJJ.O.V <f>tXiv St^Xovv 0T]pdv 

Part. TIJJLWV <jnXwv 8T]Xoiv 9r]ptov 

IMPF. Indie. eTipov <})tXovv c8t|Xovv 40T[p<ov 

FUT. Indie. Tt/xijcrw 0tX?7(rw S^Xcicrw 6ijpd<Tb} 












Part. Tlfj-r/ads 

PERF. Indie. 

Opt. TeTlfJ.'flKOtfJ.l 




PLUPF. Indie. 





PRES. Indie. 
Opt. Tip.wp.Tjv 
Imper. Tip.w 
Infin. Tip.dcr0at 
Part. Tip.wp,vos 

IMPF. Indie. 

FUT. Indie. 

Part. Tl, 





8T)\OVp.CVOS 0T)pWp.6VOS 

8r]XoVp.TJV 0T]pWp.TJV 

(as dri\<j)< (as d-rjpd.a'ofj.a.i. 
pass. ) pass. ) 





Imper. ri/iTjo-ai 




PERF. Indie. 

PLUPF. Indie. 

ire(f>i.\Tjfj.ei>05 & 




IMPF \ ^ ame as the Middle. 

FUT. Indie. rl [1.7)9 fa opai <f>i\ri9r)cro/j.a(. 5?7Xw0?7<ro/4cu (8r)pd9^(ro/} 


AOR. Indie. ^rlfji.ri0Tjv 
Sabj. rl/j-rjOu 
Opt. TLfJLrjdeirjv 
Imper. rl^)Qt]ri. 
Infin. rlfj.ri9r}vat <f>i\T)9rjvai 

Part. Tl/j.T]9eis 

3 J>LUPF. } Same as the Middle - 

FUT. \ 


The forms #77/00, (9?yo-o//,ai and re^/y/od/xat are late. 


484. 1. The meeting of consonants of the stem with /z, r, a-, or 
of the endings gives rise to certain euphonic changes (486) in the 
perfect and pluperfect middle. 

2. Some vowel-verbs add o- to the stem before endings beginning 
with //, or r, as in TereAe-o--^tat, TereAe-(r-Tat ; but before endings 
beginning with a-, the stem remains pure, as in rereAe-o-at (105, 4). 

3. When the stem ends in a consonant or when^o- is added to 
a vowel stem, the third person plural of these tenses is formed by 
using the perfect middle participle with eiW, are, for the perfect, and 
^o-av, were, for the pluperfect (739, 740). 

485. The following is the inflection of the perfect and pluperfect 
middle and passive of T/H/?W (rpi/3-, rpl/3-), rub, TrAe/c-w, weave, aAAao-o-w 
(aAAay-), exchange, eAey^-o>, convict, ire'iOu (TTfiO-, 7rt0-), persuade, reAe-w, 
finish, <j>aivu> (<ai/-), show, and crreAAw (o-reA-, perf. o-raA-). For the 
principal parts of these verbs, see 489. 


INDIC. S. 1. 


3. T^TplTTTttl 

D. 2. rrpi<|>0ov 





P. 1. TTptfJL|X0a 


3. T< 




TTpi|i|Aevos to Tre-rrXe-yp-tvos to 
f frl v it ^1 V 



IMPER. S. 2. rlrptyo 

3. TTpf<j>00> 

D. 2. TTpl<J>00V 

3. TTpt<j>00)V 

3. TTpf<j>0tov or 



INDIC. . S. 1. !TTptfip]v 

2. T^TplJ/0 

3. T^Tpl1TTO 

D. 2. 




3. TTplJl|lVOt 


INDIC. S. 1. 

2. ireireurai 



D. 2. ire'imo-Oov 
3. ireimirOov 

P. 1. Treimo-fifiOa 

2. TrermcrOe 

3. ir 





IMPER. S. 2. 


D. 2. ire'-rmo-Oov 

i, 488] 5?<rraXo-<u 










TTeX<r0ov ire^avOov 


crraX[j.VOS <3 

II ^V % 

', 488] ^o-raXcro 




P. 2. 

3. iriri<r0a)v or TereXecrOwv or ir(j>dv0()V or earaXOwv or 






INDIC. S. 1. 

D. 2. . lireimo-Oov 
3. iire."irtl<rQi]v 

P. I. 







, (TTdX|lT]V 

, 488] ga-raXo-o 






486. NOTE 1. For the euphonic changes caused by a mute (TT, (3, </>, 
K, y, ^, T, S, ^) before /A of the ending, see 86 ; before r or 6 of the ending, 
see 80 ; before cr of the ending, see 84. 


2. For final v of the stem occasionally assimilated to /x of the ending, 
see 737, 4 ; for the usual change of v-/x to tr-/x, see 94. 

3. For fA/A-fA from /XTT-/Z and yy-p from yx~P shortened to //.//, and y//., as 
in TT7TfJi-fJiaL for 7re7re/x,7r-/>tat and for eA^Atyx-/^*, see 88. 

487. NOTE. For e of the stem changed to a, as in crreA-Ato, 
see 42 ; 726, 2 (6). 

488. NOTE. The forms 7re</>av-(rai, 7T<av-cro, and ?re(av-(ro seem not 
to occur, see 737, 3. 

489. The principal parts of the verbs in 485 are as follows : 

(rpijS-, rplj3-}, rub, rpfyw, eV/H^a, 2 perf. Terplffra, rer/3 II/A/AIU, 
jv, 2 aor. pass. irpt/Srjv. 
IIAeK-co, weave, vrAe^to, rAea, (2 perf. 7T7rAex a or TreTrAoxa Ionic),. 

rAe^^i', 2 aor. pass. eTrAafc^v. 
'AAAao-o-co (aAAay-), exchange, aAAaoo, ^AAa^a, 2 perf. r|AAa^a r 
^AAay//,ut, ryAAa^^v, 2 aor. pass. ^AAay^v. 

ey^-w, convict, cAey^w, r^Aey^a, eA^Aey/xai, ^Aey^^^v. 

I^-, TriO-\ Trewrw, eVetcra, (2 aor. eirtOov, poetic), TreTretKa, 2 perf. 

e-a), finish, TeAecrcu, ereAecra, rereAe/ca, TereAe-cr-^xai, e 
<av-), 5/ioiy, <^>av(u, e^ryva, 7re<^ay/<a, 2 perf. Tr 
appeared, Trc^aoyutt, e^av^^f, 2 aor. pass, t^dvtjv, I appeared. 

-TeAAco (crreA-), sent?, cT-reAw, ecrretAa, IcrTaXka, eWaA/zai, 2 aor. pars. 


490. Verbs in -/xt differ from verbs in -co in the inflection of the 
present, imperfect, and second-aorist active and middle ; there are also 
several second-perfects of the />u-form. In these tenses, the endings 
are added directly to the tense-stem without the thematic vowel, except 
in all subjunctives, and also in the optative of verbs in -i 

491. Most of the second-aorists and second-perfects of the / 
have no presents in -//,t, but belong to verbs in -co ; as eyvtov (second- 
aorist of yiyi/wo-Kto, know), <j>8rjv (<f>Qdv<0 t anticipate), efirjv (fiaiva), go) y 
(second-perfect of OVYJO-KIO, die). 

492. The other tenses of verbs in -/u are regular, and inflected 
like verbs in -to. 


493. Verbs in pi are divided into two classes : 

1. Verbs in -ry/xi (from stems in a or e) and verbs in -w/xi (from 
stems in o). The present stem is usually formed by the so-called 
present reduplication with i. 

Verb-stern #e-, present-stem ride- for QiQe.-, present r'iSi]fu ; 
,, crro.-, Icrra- for crio-ra-, t'orry/xt ; 

., -, L- for te-, ttjiu ; 

So-, StSo-, 6Y8w/u; 

2. Verbs in -viyxi. These form no second-aorists (except eo-/3r;v 
from cr/SevriyAi). The present stem is formed by adding -w- to con- 
sonant stems, and -vw- to vowel stems. 

Verb-stem Sei/c-, present-stem Sei/cvv-, present 



Verbs in -vf^/xt form not only the subjunctive, but also the optative 
like verbs in -o>. 

494. NOTE. Verbs in -v^/u, which are chiefly poetic, add -va- to the 
verb-stem to form the present-stem ; as 8a/xv?;/u,t from Sap-, present-stem 
Safjiva-. See 652, IX. 

495. No verb in -/xt has all the /xt-forms. Of those given in the 
paradigms, io-rry/zt lacks the second-aorist middle ; riO^fjn and 

are irregular and defective in the second-aorist active ; and 
and all others in -vvxt lack the second-aorist. 

496. A complete enumeration of all the /u,t-forms is given in 764-790. 

497. In the synopsis and inflection, eTr/tna/xTyv, I bought (a second-aorist 
middle of the /u-form from a stem Trpia- with no present), is given in the 
place of the second-aorist middle of t'o-r^/xt, which is wanting. As 8etKvi'/xt 
lacks the second-aorist (495), e'SiJi/, / entered (a second-aorist active of the 
/xt-form from Svu>), is given in its place. 

498. Inflection of the present and second-aorist systems of 
($-), place, icrr^fjiL (crra-), set, St8w/xt (So-), give, SfiKvvfju, (<$e6/c-), show ; 
of the second-aorist middle tTrptd^v (vr/oia-, no present), bought; and 
of the second-aorist active e'Sw, I entered (from St>w). 







1. TL0T|p.L ICTTT|[J.L 8lS(l)|ll 8c(KVU}il (50 

2. T0T]S,Ti0is(500)fcrTT]S 8i'8o>s 8efcvvs 

3. rCQi\<ri 





2. r0TOv 




3. T10CTOV 





1. Tl'06HV 


8{8 0[ JLV 


2. T106T6 




3. Tl0'd(rt 






1. T10W 




2. T10TJS 




3. T10TJ 


8 (.8(3 



2. Tl0f]TOV 




3. T10TJTOV 





1. Tl0fJLV 




2. Tl0f]T 




3. T10WO-1 


818 wo-t 




1. T10^V 




2. T1061T1S 




3. T10U] 





2. Ti0iTov or 

i<rraiTov or 

StSoirov or 


(502) lorahrrov 

(502) 8i8oriTov (502) 


3. Ti0CrT]v or 

lo-TaiTt]v or 

8i8oiTT]v or 






1. Ti0L|iev or 

lo-Tai|i.v or 

8iSoi|xv or 





2. Ti0eiT or 

t<TTaiT or 

8i8oir or 





3. Ti0iv or 

lOTcucv or 

8iSoiv or 







2. ri'0t(500) 


SiSov (500) 


3. Ti0ra> 





2. Tl'0TOV 




3. Tt0T(OV 





2. r0T6 




3. Ti0VTwv or 

l(TTa.vTa)v or 

8i8ovTv or 


















T10 V 






S. 1. TC0T]V 


I8i8ow (500) 


2. Ti0lS (500) 




3. trttei 




D. 2. T^TOV 




3. T10TT]V 




P. 1. TL0(1V 




2. 4-K06TC 

^ <rTaT 



3. 4T<0<rav 






S 1 (501 1) 

ifo-TTJV, S<00^ 


^8i5v (497) 





D. 2. ilOerov 




3. 606TT1V 




P. 1. 20|1V 




2. ?0T 




3. 5!0rav 





S. 1. 0w 




2. efjs 




3. 0fj 




D. 2. 0TJTOV 



f 8lJT]TOV 

3. 0T]TOV 




P. 1. 0<OfJLV 




2. 0T1T6 




3. 0WO-1 





S. 1. 0^T]V 




2. 0617]? 



3. 0^ 



D. 2. 0iTov or 

o-raiTOV or 



0iTiTov (502) o-TaLT]Tov (502) 8oiT]Tov (502) 
a-TaiTT]v or 8oLTi]v or 



P. 1. 0L|iev or crrai|Av or 8ot[iv or 


2. 0eiT or 

<TTatT or 

8oiT or 

3. 0iv or 


o-raiev or 


8oiv or 






2. 0's 

3. 0TW 






3. 06TWV 





3. 0evT<ov or 


o-ToivTwv or 


























1. TWefieu 




2. rCQ&rai 




3. T<0Tai 





2. Tl*0<T00V 



8 KVVO-00V 

3. T 00-00V 





1. Tl0>0a 




2. T10<T06 




3. rCOcvTcu 





1. Tl0W|iCU 
2. Tl0fi 
3. Tl0f)Tttl 








2. Ti0i](r0ov 

3. T1071CT00V 

lO-TT] 0-00V 




1. Tl0W|JL0a 
2. Tt0f]O-0 




3. TtGaivTai 




OPT. S. 

2. Tl0tO 

|;^ v 





3. T10ITO 



























8l8o 10-0 6 





































Ti0e'o-0cov or 

lo-Tao-0wv or 

8i8d<r0a>v or 

SeiKviio-Owv or 


































48 C K vvo-0ov 


























I0' R V 

irpid|iT)v (497) 




































0cSjia t 

irpuojiai (507) 














2. 0fj<r0ov 
3. 0i]o-0ov 





2. 0TJO-06 

3. 0<J>vrai 



OPT. S. 

1. 0lp.T]V 
3. 061TO 

irpCaio (507) 
irp Cairo 





2. 0610-00V 




2. 0610-06 
3. 061VTQ 





2. 0ov 

3. 06*0-0(0 

irp Ca> 



2. 06V0ov 
3. 060-0WV 




2. 06V06 

3. 06o-0a>v or 

irpido-0a>v or 


odo-0wv or 



irpiao-0ai (507) 







499. Very few verbs have this form. The singular of the in- 
dicative never occurs. The second-perfect and pluperfect of 
(o-ra-) are inflected as follows. 


S. 1. - (501, 2) 60-TW 

3. 6<rrfi 

D. 2. 'eVrarov 6o-rf]Tov 

3. lo-rarov lo-rfjrov 


60-raC-qv (poetic) 


io-rairov or lo-ra^Tov (502) 
eo-raiTT]v or 6o-raiTJTTiv 


?o-Ta0t (poetic) 




P. 1. &rTa[iV <TTtOp.V (TTaiflV Or <TTaiT]|AV 

2. ^<TTaT6 <rTTT <TTaiT OP 

3. <TTao-t IOTTWCTI 6OTaiv or crTat]<rav co-rdvTwv or 


INFIX. eo-Tclvai PART. eorws, ea-rwo-a, co-rfc or Icrrws 




The perfect means stand ; the pluperfect, 


500. The imperfect forms Tt$ets, Iri'^et, eoYSow, eSiSovs, eSlSov are 
formed as if from contract verbs ; so also the imperative forms Tt'$ei and 
v, and the present indicative rt^eis. Compare 504. 

501. 1. Three verbs in -/u, riQijfu, (JuSco/zi, and "^/xt, sen^ (696), lack 
the indicative singular of the second-aorist active. This is supplied by the 
first-aorist, irregularly formed in -KO, : cd^ica, l5coKa, ^Ka. This first-aorist 
was always used in the singular of the indicative active ; and we often find it 
in the third plural cfd^icav, coWav, d<f>-iJKav ; sometimes also in other 
persons, as e^/cajaev, Tra^o-eowKa^iev, d<^>- / /yKa/xev, e^co/care, df^-iJKaTC^^TrepL- 
fOijKaTrjv, and rarely the middle rjKa^v for et/xr^v. The forms of the 
second-aorists are used in the other moods and generally in the dual and 
plural of the indicative. The supposititious forms of the indicative singular 
are l^v, eSwv, rjv. 

2. The indicative singular of the second-perfect of To-r^/xt is supplied by 
the first-perfect ecrrr/Ka which is not often found in other forms. 

502. In the dual and plural of the optative active, the shorter forms are 
much more common than the longer ones. 

503. Verbs in -VJJLL frequently have forms from a present in -i5co, but not 
in the middle ; as SeiKvvw, SeiKia'eis, SetKi/vet, etc., impf. eoW/cvvov, irnper. 
SeiKvvt, infin. SeiKvvetv, part. SfiKvvuv. 

504. The optative middle present and second-aorist often have forms 
which show a transition to the conjugation in -<o, but not in the first and 
second persons singular. These forms are : n^oiro, n0(H/xe#a, 

, and in the second-aorist (in comp.) -Oolro, -0ot/ze#a, - 




-Oolvro (also accented recessively, as crtV#oiTO, 7rp6cr-6oi(rd). Compare 500. 
For similar forms of t?//u, see 771, 3. 

505. In the second-aorist middle indicative of the /xi-form, cr of the 
ending -(TO is dropped after a short vowel ; as Wov from et9e-(cr)o, eTrpiw 
from 7r/3ia-(cr)o. But after a long vowel cr of the ending -cro is retained, 
as ef-cro from Lrjfju ; but subj. y from e^-(cr)at, opt. eu> from et-(cr)o, imper. 
ov from e-(cr)o. See 596 and 695. 

506. 1. Avi'a/mij can, and eTricrrajucu, know, generally drop cr of the 
ending -cro in the imperfect indicative and contract : eSvvo) or t'fivvw and 
lyTrtcrTco more common than ecSiWcro and ^Trtcrracro. 

2. Other examples of the dropping of cr in -crcu and -cro in jut-forms are 
poetic and dialectic or late. So we find Svva and Svvy for 8vva.crai ; cTricrra 
and fTTLcrrrj for eTTicrracrat ; ec/>-let for ec/>-lecrcu ; ridov for Ttt9ro ; I'CTTCO for 
t'crracro ; cStSov for 8t6ocro. 

507. For the peculiarity of accent in the subjunctive, optative, and 
infinitive of eTryHa/r^, see 516, 520. For the irregular contraction in the 
forms terras, tcrrrj, etc. (from icrra-ys, icrra-^, etc.), see 1047. 

508. SYNOPSIS OF ALL THE TENSES OF TI%U (<9e-), ;?fe, i'o-r^t 
(crra-), set, &'8co/u (60-), ^tw, and SeiKi/iy/,1 (SetK-), sAow. The /x,t-forms 
of the present, second-aorist, and second-perfect systems are in heavy- 
faced type. 



Indie. rCQt]^ 

Subj. Ti0 

Opt. Tl0h]V 

Imper. riQti 

Infin. Ti0v<u 

Tart. Titefe 


Indie. erUhjv 


Indie, d^ffdi 

Opt. dr)<TOL]M 

Infill. 6r](Tiv 

Part. Qi)awv 










1 AORIST Indie, ftfy/ca (501, 1) 
Subj. - - (501, 1) 


(501, 1) 
(501, 1) 





2 AORIST Indie. 20rov (501, 1) 

^O-TT,V, stoo^ 

^Sorov (501, 1) 

Subj. 0(S 



Opt. 0IT)V 



I in per. 0S 



Infin. 0ivcu 



Part, 0ei's 



1 PERFECT Indie. red-rjKa (509) 

fffTrjKa, stand 

5^5w/ca 5e5xa 

Subj. TfdrjKW 


deduKU 5e5et'xw 

Opt. redrjKOi/JiL 


deddKotfu. dedeixot/J-i 

1 1 imcr 

Intin. redr]Kva.i 


8e8wKei>cu SeSax^c" 

Pai't. TfdrjKiOS 


5e5wK(6s 5e56 tX ws 

7 PLUPERF. Indie. ereOriKr] 

el<TTr)Ktj, stood 

e5e5c6/c7/ e5e56t X 77 

T^FD ElE'/^TT Tnill/n 

^o-rarov (501, 


x/ 7 J^itrJltH J.1K11C. ' 



o u i jj . 



Inn >cr 



e / 



^ PLunziti* Indie 

'^OTTttTOV (721) 

J^trr. PF. Indie. 

f(TT7)u, shall stand (473) 








PRESENT Indie. T^Ocjjiai (trans.) 

IVrafJiai, 5te?icZ -SiSojxai (511) SiKW[icu(1 

Subj. Ti9a>|ia.L 


-Si8co|jiai 8ciKvvco|jLai 

Opt. TL0c(lT]V 


-8l8oi[JLT]V SeiKVVOLfJtTjl 

Imper. ri0cro 


-8i8o<ro ( SeiKwero 

Infin. Ti6eo-0ai 


-S^SoorOai StiKvvcrOat 

Part. Ti0|Xvos 


8i8op.evos SeiKvv|J.vo< 

IMPERF. Indie. Ti0'[iT]v 


-fSlSdfiTjV 8lKVVp.T)V 

FUTURE Indie, '^cro/iat 


-d<l)<ro/j,ai (511) -5ei^ofj,at 

Opt. dtjo'oi/J.'rji' 


-ducroifJi'rjv -SeL^oLfj.rjv 

Infin. 6-f]ffffda.L 


-3u<T<?0ai -8eie<r6ai 

Part. 6rja-6fji,evos 


-dufftfJLcvos -deitfttevw 

1 AORIST Indie. (eOrjKa^v not 


(edwKajUi-rjv not e8ei.%dfji.rji' 













Infin. ar^ffaffBai 


2 AORIST Indie. I0>T]V -eSo^v (511) 

Subj. 0o>|iai 
Opt. 6[iTiv 

Imper. 0ov -8ov 


Part. 0tp.vos -8ojivos 

PERFECT Indie, r^ffei/mai (510) ^ora/icu, pass. 

and rare 

Subj.' redei/Mvos & e<rra/ieVos cD Sedo^evos & deSeiy/nevos c5 

Opt. re^et/teVos LT)v 

Imper. rtdeicro ^rracro dedocro 

Infin. redfiffdai 
Part. reQei/jLevos 

PLUPERF. Indie. ^Tedei^v ? (510) 



)as in the Middle (but see 510 and 511). 



Indie, frtd-rjv 

^rci^^^ ^(i^v 

Subj. TeOCo 

(rraddj dodu) 

Opt. redd-rjv 

<fro.Q(.'n]v SoOeir/v 

Imper. T^T/TI 

ffTddrjTi SodrjTi 

Infin. Tedrjixti 

ffraOrjitai Sodrjvai 

Part, resets 

(TTaOeLs Sonets 


Indie, red'rjffofjia.i 

(TTa.6l)<TO/J.CI.i SoO'T/ffO/JLO. 

Opt. Tdr)O-OLfJ.T]V 

o'Ta.O'rjffOLfj.Tji' Sodrjffolfjn 

lufin. redricreffdai 

<TT0.0r)(reo'6at 8o6r]O'<j'dt 

Part. Tedr)ff6/J,i>os 

ffTaOf](To/J.i'Os So^T/cro/uei 


T 1' 

, i} . I'XTON 

T/"rr> r> A T a 


(Trar6y Soros 

5e5e^o/iai (late) 

509. NOTE. For re^Ka, the form reOfiKa (late) is still found in some 

510. NOTE. The perfect middle T#eiyuai (probably spelled Tc&j/zai in 


Attic) does not occur in Attic inscriptions, and is moreover very rare. For 
the perfect passive, /cet/zat (784) is used. 

511. NOTE. The middle forms -SiSo/Aai, -eSiSo^yv, -Swcro/zcu, and -eSo^f 
occur only in composition, as cnro-Si'So/mi. But the simple forms StSofi&t and 
<$i8op7V occur as passives. 


512. Verbs generally throw the accent as far back as the last 
syllable permits (recessive accent 134). Final -ai and -01 count 
as long in the optative mood, elsewhere they are considered as 
short in determining accent (136). 

HatSevw, TraiSei'o/zei', TrcuSei'o/xai, TrouSetxrov, Trai'Seve, iraificuOt ; 7raiSeuo-at 
(opt.), TraiSeucrcu (aor. inf. act.), TrcuSewcu (aor. irnper. mid.) ; Travw, Trave, 
iravo-ov, eTravo/x^v. 

Kara-Afcw, Kara-Ave, Kar-eAvov, Kara-Af'crov, Kara-Avo-cu (imper. aor. 
mid.) ; terror, obtained, cr^w, Kara-cr^w, Kara-o-^w^ei', Kara-cr^oi/xi, Kara- 
tr^w/zat, Kara-crxotTo. 

513. NOTE. For exceptions to the general rule, see 514-521. For the 
accent of contract forms, see 140. 

514. NOTE. Participles are accented as adjectives, not as verbs, the 
feminine and neuter accenting the same syllable as the nominative singular 
masculine as long as the last syllable permits. Thus, TrouSeiW, 

(not TVuScuovjj a7ro-Al;a)v, a7ro-Al5o7xra, a7ro-Ai,>ov j 

515. The subjunctive and optative of both passive aorists, and of 
the present and second-aorist active and middle of verbs, in -/>u (except 
those in -viyu and those in 516 below) are accented as contracted 

Thus Ai>#ta from Av$oo ; Av^eop, Av$et//ev from XvO^-i-^v ; c^avw, 
, c/)avi/xei/ ; TI$O) from ri^e-w, Ti$ei/xej' from Ti^e-t-/xev, StSw from 
StSoi/jiev from St8o-6-/xi/; OM/J.O.L from ^e-a)-/zai, Oei/JL^v from tfe-i-//,?/^, 
from Oe-i-o-de. 

516. NOTE. 'ETT/Ha/x^v, bought, accents the subjunctive and optative 
as if there were no contraction (see the paradigm 498). AiW//,cu, crt??, 
7rtcrTa/>tai, understand,, hany, aya/xai, admire, and the second- 
aorist wv>///,i?v (from o^/v^/xt, benefit), have the same peculiarity. Thus : 
Sm'<D/xcu, Swy, Svvrjrai, etc. ; 7r7Tai/x^v, cTT/crrato, eTT/frratTO^ etc. ; o 
ovaio, ovatro, etc. 



517. Ultima accented. 1. The ultima has the circumflex in the 
second-aorist infinitive active in -etv, and in the second-person singular 
imperative of the second-aorist middle. 

Ai7Ttv, t/cAiTretv, XafitiV \ Xnrov, e/cAtTrov, Xafiov. 

2. The ultima has the acute in the masculine and neuter of the 
second-aorist active participle, and of all participles of the third 
declension with the masculine in -s (except the first-aorist active). 

AiTrtov, AITTOV ; l/<-Aa/3aji/, K-Aa/3oi/ ; Av#ei?, \v6tv ; <avets, Ti#ei?, 
SioWs, SetKvus, AeAvKws, terra's (pros.) ; but TraiScwrds (first-aorist). Also 
i<oi>, pres. parti of et/xi, go. 

3. These five second-aorist active imperatives : 

'EA$e, come, eiTrt, say, eu/oe, find, tSe, see, Xa/Se, take. But not their 
compounds ; as e-eA#e, oV-eiTre, eg-tvpt, eiV-tSe, 7r/>o-Aa/?e (512). 

518. Penult accented. These forms accent the penult. 

1. All infinitives in -vac. 

AcXvKevaL, TtOevai, icrrdVcu, StSop-at, Av^vat, <f>avfjvai, OeivaL, Sovvatj 


2. The infinitive and participle of the perfect middle and passive. 
AeAvcr$cu, AeAv/zevos ; /^e/^ovAeiicr^ai, /?e/?ovAev/>ievos ; 

3. The infinitive of the first-aorist active and of the second-aorist 

Avcrou, fiovXcvcrat, TljArjo-ai AtTrecr^ai, Xafieo-Qa 

4. Compounds of the imperatives 8os, es, ^es, and 
'ATTo-Sos, (rvy-Ka.6-<s, aTro-^e?, cTrt'-o-^es. 

5. In optatives of the /At-form of inflection, the accent cannot 
retreat beyond the modal sign -t-. 

Tt$eiyu,ei/, TiOeire, rt^etev ; icrrato, i(TTatTo, tarata-^e, icrraivTo, SiSoifAev, 
SiSoiTf, StSoiev ; Av^6TOV, XvOetrrjv, Av^et/xev, Ai^eire, A^;^etV. 

519. NOTE. The forms in -at of the first-aorist are distinguished, when- 
ever possible, by the accent. 

fiovXevu ctTro-Xoo; Trariw davpafa 

3rd Sing. Opt. Act. fiov\eija-ai airo-Xvvai iravcrai 0au/ud<r<u 

Inf. Act. /SovXevcrai diro-\v(rai iravarai ,, 

2nd Sing. Imper. Mid. potiXevffcu air6-\v<Tai ,, dat/macrou 

520. NOTE. The infinitive of 7rpta^v (498), bought, Trpia<r@ai, is 
accented like a present. 

152 AUGMENT 521 

521. Compounds. 1. The accent cannot retreat beyond the 
augment or reduplication. 

Thus irap--<r\ov like <T\OV, obtained ; Trap-tlyov like et^or, had ; Trap- 
TJy, was there, like rjv, was; dir-ijXOov like ?JA0ov, went; a<-iy/xai like iy/iou. 

Thus also when the augment falls on a long vowel or diphthong which 
remains unchanged by it ; as ct'/>y w, shut up, imper. et/>ye, impf. eipyov, in 
comp. dir-eipyo), imper. aTr-e^oye, but impf. aTT-ei/ayoi/. 

2. The accent cannot retreat beyond the last syllable of the part 
before the simple verb. 

'A7ro-Sos, give up ; crvv-eK-Sos, give out together ; ITTI-^CS, set on. 

3. The imperative in -ov of the second-aorist middle of the /ui-form 
has the recessive accent if compounded with a disyllabic preposition; 
as a7ro-8ov, sell, diro-Oov, put off, Kard-Oov, put down. Otherwise it is 
circumflexed ; as ev-Oov, put in, Trpo-Sov, jrpo-ov. 


522. The elements by which the various forms of the verb are 
made from the verb- stem are : 

1. The augment. 

2. The reduplication. 

3. The tense-suffix and mood-suffix. 

4. The endings. 


523. 1. The augment denotes past time and belongs to the 
secondary tenses of the indicative ; i.e., to the imperfect, aorist, 
and pluperfect. It appears only in the indicative, never in the 
other moods or in the participle. 

The augment is either syllabic or temporal. 

2. The augment in the indicative is never omitted in Attic prose ; it 
is sometimes omitted in the choral passages of tragedy, rarely in the 


524. The syllabic augment consists in the vowel 6 prefixed to 
verbs beginning with a consonant, for the imperfect and aorist ; 

531 AUGMENT 153 

in the pluperfect e is prefixed to the reduplication. Verbs 
beginning with p double this letter after the augment. 

AVID, loose, e-Xvov, e-Avo/XTyv ; e-Avcra, e-Avcra/xrjv ; 4-AeAvKry, e- 

>a^>a>, write, -ypa<f>ov, -y pa<pojj.rjv ; e-ypaipa, e-y/oa^a/x^v ; e-yey/>a</>?7, 
dfjL/jirjv ; ^-ypa^v. 
AetVco, leave, e-Aenrov, e-AetTro/x^v ; e-Ai7rov, e-AtTro/xrjv ; e-AeAoiV?/, 

, throw, ep-plTTTOv ; p-pl<f>a p-pi(f)0rjv, ep-pitfnrjv. 

525. NOTE. In Attic three verbs, /3ovAo/xai, IMS/I,, be able, 
eAAw, intend, often augment with 77 for e, especially in later Greek ; as 
and ^-/^ovAo/x^v, -/3ovX-/)6r]v and ry-/?ovAr^>yv ; e-Swa^tryv and 
-vvr6iv and -Swrv xeAAov and 


526, The temporal augment consists in lengthening the initial 
vowel of verbs beginning with a vowel, for the imperfect and 
aorist. The rough breathing remains unchanged. 

a becomes YJ, ayw, lead, fjyov, f]\6r}v 

a > # <asw<7, r;8oi/, i/Va, ?}cr^v 


i ,, I, LKTvw, implore, 

a>, oplQ&i mark off, <opiov. w^wra, u>pia~6rjv 
v v, vfiptfo) insult, ifipifov, vj 

at >;, atrew, asA;, tjrovv, rjrrjo-a 

av 771), ai'u>, increase, ijvfypr 

ei 77, etKct^u), Z^ew, >J/caoi', 

ev T^V, eiyncrKa), ^wc?, rjvpov, 

01 ,, o>, otKW, divell, MKOVV, w/crycra 

527. NOTE. Initial 17, to, t, v, ov remain unchanged. 

528. NOTE. Initial a generally becomes 7; ; as a^Acw, contend, 
But av-aXia-KO) and av-dAow have indifferently a or 77. Poetic dico, 
makes cuov ; and the late verb a^Si^w, disgust, cause aversion, has a^Si^oi/. 

529. NOTE. Sometimes avatvw, c?ry, is found unaugmented. 

530. NOTE. Initial ot is sometimes found without augment, especially 
in later Attic. But oto/xat, think, makes wo/x^v, ^Orjv. 

531. NOTE. Initial et is generally left unaugmented. But etKa^w, 
liken, is found augmented more often than without augment : yKagov, also 

v ; yKao-a, also ' 




532. NOTE. Initial eu is sometimes left unaugmented, especially in 
later Attic. In classic Greek, ci;8a> and KO&W&D, sleep, ci'/our/cco, find, tv- 
</>aivco, gladden, are sometimes found without augment. For compounds of 
tv, well, see 566. 

533. XOTE. (a) The following beginning with a vowel take the syllabic 
augment e. This contracts with initial e to et ; as taw, ewov for e-eao-v. 

, break, eaa, Idyryv ; 

a??i captured, aor. 
(also with temporal augment) 
or rjAwi', but imperf. lyAi- 


law, permit, etW, cioura, 
$tw, accustom, eWtfov, 
eAtcrcrw, ^r, etAicrcrov, 

eA/<w or eA/ci'w, draw, eiAKOV, ei'A/cv- 

fc, follow, 

epya^o/xat, 16'or^;, ; 


creep, eipirov, 

a-a ; 


, etVrtao-a, 

sewrf, aor. dual and pi. eirov for 

oi'/oew, wa^e water, covpovv, eovprjcra; 
w^eo), push, e(u^oi;v, eoxra, too-$?7i> ; 
wveo/xat, 6it?/, ewvov/XT^v, euvn'jOrjv ; 
?Sov for e-/tSo-v, sa?y, 2 aor. of o/aaw; 
tfAov for e-eAo-v, foo^;, 2 aor. of atpeco. 
Also some Ionic and poetic forms and verbs (971). 

(6) Most of these verbs originally began with / or <r, which was afterwards 
dropped. Thus : eAtcrcrw is for /eAicro-w, ro// (cf. Latin volvo), and 
for -/Aicro-ov, e-eAicrcroi' ; eiiSov, saw, is for e-/i8ov, -t8ov (cf. Latin 
epTTd), creep, is for (repTrw (cf. Latin serpo}, and elpTrov for 
-/)7roi/ ; e'^w, /jre, is for crex^j and e?xov for e-crexov, e-exo^- 

534. NOTE. '0/oaco, see, and av-otyw or dv-oiyvvpi, open, have both the 
syllabic and the temporal augment : ewpwv, oV-ewyov, av-ewa, dv-U)\@r)v. 
'Eo/aTa^w, &ee^> festival, has Attic etupra^oi/, eiopracra, (j)pra.(rdrjv ; ea>- for 
7)0- (45). 


535. Reduplication is a sign of completed action and belongs 
to the perfect, pluperfect, and future-perfect. It is retained in all 
the moods and in the participles, also when it is represented by 
e or i. 

536. In verbs beginning with a single consonant (except p), 
the reduplication consists in prefixing the initial consonant 
followed by e. 


Al5w, loose, Ae-AvKa, e-Ae-Av/oy, Ae-Aiyxai, e-Ae-Av/z?yv, Ac-Aixro/zcu ; 
Ae-Ai'cro ; Ae-Av/cei'cu, Ae-Au(r$ou ; Ae-Ar>/<a>, Ae-At'/cot/xi ; Ae-AvKws, Ae- 

Tt/xaw, honour, T-rffJir)Ka, e-Te-Ti//>yK7y, re-Tt/xry/zai, e-re-Ti/zry/^yv ; re- 
Tt/u/jycro ; 

537. NOTE. If the initial consonant is rough, it becomes smooth in 
the reduplication : #ua>, sacrifice, T6-6vKa ; <iAew, fow, 7re-</StA?yKa ; 
withdraw, K-^ioprjKa. 

538. NOTE. The following have et instead of the reduplication : 
avw (Aa^-), obtain by lot, et-Ary^a, et-A?y^ry, ei'-A^y/xat, ec-ATy 

Aa/x/3avw (Aa/3-), toZre, i-Xr)<f>a, ei-A^/x/xat (poetic At-Ary/x/zat). 

Aeyw, collect, in composition -ei'-Ao^a, -et-Aey/u,at or rarely -Ae-Aey/zcu. 

-Atyo/xat, discuss, has 6Vei'Aey/zcu ; but Aeyw, speak, has Ae- 

Mei/oo/xat (^te/D-), receive part (Epic), et-yuayorai, ^ is fated. 

(pe-, e/o-j stem), e6-p?y/<a, A-ave saz'rf, ct- 

539. In the following cases, the reduplication is represented 
by the syllabic augment e. 

(a) Verbs beginning with p, which is doubled after e. 
, throw, p-pl(f>a, tp-pifyrj, ep - 

Verbs beginning with a double consonant (f, , r/'). 

(c) Verbs beginning with two consonants (except a mute and a 

2rAAo>, sew(, -(TTaA/ca, e-o-raAKty, 1-o-raA/xai, -(TTaA/j,ryv e-oraAcro ; 
-<rraAKco, e-frraA/cot/at j e-(TTaAKevat, e-crTaXOai ; -(TTaAKOj, e-crTaA/xevo?. 

<&@ip(D, destroy, -(j)OapKa, -(f>Oa.pKrj, -(f>8apfjLaL, -(f>9apKva.L, etc. 

^Keua^ca, prepare, e-o-KtvaKa, e-crKi;aK7y, l-crKevacr/xat ; e-o-Ki;aKws, etc. 

But Kpivo), decide, K-KpiKa, e-Ke/c/ou/ry, etc. ; y/3a(/>co, write, yey/oac^a, 
yeypa/x/xai, etc. 

(c?) The verbs mentioned in 526 also take the syllabic augment e; 
and with initial e, this is contracted to ei. 

Thus w$-o>, p-us/i, eoxr/mi ; ay-vt>/u,i, break, 2 perf. edya ; ea-io, permit, 
LdKa, eidfjuti ; eflt'fw, accustom, tWiKa, cWtcrfJMi. 

540. NOTE. BAao-rayou, sprout, has /3e-/3Aa(rr?yKa oftener than e-/3Aa- 
a. FAvc/xo, n<^, grave, has ye-yAv/x/xat, and in composition also -e- 
FAvKatvca, make sweet, has yc-yAvKacr/xat and a7r--yAv/ca(r/>iat. 


541. NOTE. MI/ZV^CTKO) (//,va-), remind, and Krao/xai (/era-), acquire, 
have the reduplication against the rule : pe-^vrj/jLai, remember, 
(tonic and poetic, rarely Attic prose, also e-K-nj/ucu), 

542. NOTE. 'Opart, see, makes etoyod/ca (sometimes ed/xl/<a), eiopa/ 
Av-oiytt), ope?z, has dV-eo>xa and 2 perf. ctv-ewya, dV-eu>y/u,ai. These two 
verbs have the temporal as well as the syllabic augment. 

543. NOTE. "la-rrjiJii (crra-), set, makes perfect e-o-TT/Ka, plupf. e- 

or ei-cm}K?7 (for e-lcrr^Ka). So f^/xi (e-), sent?, has perfect (in composition) 
-e/<a for -e/<a. 

544. If the verb begins with a vowel, the reduplication is 
represented by the temporal augment. 

'AyyeAAw, announce, VjyyeAKa, ?yyyA/<?7, ?yyyeA/xcu, -t^yy^X^v ; ?yy- 

yprjKa, yp'fjKrj, prgtai, yprprjv ; yprjcro ; ypyKcvai, ypyj- 

tw, associate with, wfJLiXyjKa, ayuA^Ktvcu, etc. ; ayw, Zeac?, 'v/ 
?]yyuai, etc. 

545. NOTE. 'Av-aAiVKw or av-dAow, expend, makes av-rjAw/ca (with 
un- Attic dv-aAwKa), av-?yAo)/>tai. 'Eo/orct^w, /^eej) festival, makes eiopraKa. 
The root CI'K- makes -ot/ca, am ^'/ce, plup. C-WKT^. The root #- makes 2 perf. 
i-(j>@a, am accustomed, 2 plup. ia> 

546. Pluperfect. When the reduplication is represented by ei or 
by the augment, the pluperfect has no further change : 

Aa/*,/?dV<o (Aa/?-), take, L-Xr)<f>a, ei- 

, throw, ep-plcfra, e 
(D, seek, e-frJ 
t(a, shear, - 

, deceive, e-^eitr/xat, e- 

0-reAAw, send, e-crrttA/ca, c-crrdA/oy ; 
dyyeAAto, announce, ryyyeA/ca, ?yy- 


547. NOTE. But eo-rr/Ka, stand, perf. of iemy/xi, sef, makes etcmy/oy 
(older Attic) for c-ecrrT/Ka, and eo-rry/cry ; and eot/ca (from root etK-), am fo'&e, 
makes lo>/<7; with augment on the second syllable. 


548. Certain verbs beginning with a, e, or o, followed by a 
single consonant, form the reduplication by prefixing the first two 
letters of the stem to the temporal augment. This is called the 
Attic reduplication, although quite common in other dialects. 


Of these verbs, the following are Attic : 

dyet/xo (dye/o-), collect, dy-ryye/>/<a, | e/xew, vomit, e/x-ry'/xeKa, (e'/x-ry/xeayxcu) ; 
dy->yye/>jucu ; 

dyo>, Jearf, dy->yo^a for dy-7yyo^a(549); 

taar. 2 perf. d/<-ry/coa (but 2 perf. 

(***., *), 

(dAt<-), anoint, 2 perf. dA- 
, plough, <x/>-?y/>otta( 

eyet/xo (eye/)-), rowstf, (ey->yye/)Ka), ey- 
2 perf. ey/yyo/)a, 

am aivatce (549) ; 
lAdw usually e Aa?n>o>, 
eA-7yAa/xcu ; 

6'AAiyxi (oA-, oA-e-), destroy, dA-o>AeKa, 
2 pert'. 6'A-a)Aa (pres. mean- 
ing) ; s 
(o/x-, O/A-O-), swear, 

, ot-, eve/c-, evey/c- for ev- 
, 2 perf. eV-Tyvoxa, 

>, convict, eA-yyAey/xat 

Also a number of poetic and dialectic verbs and forms (976). 
Forms enclosed in parenthesis are not found in classic writers ; and 
and d/ny/oo/xcu are found only in Ionic prose, the latter being also 
poetic. But all these forms probably existed in Attic. 

549. NOTE. The form dy/yo^a is perhaps from dy-?yyo)(a (which occurs 
in inscriptions), the second y being dropped. In ey/o-Tyyopa, am awake, 2 
perf. of eyet/xo (eye/3-), rouse, the p of the stem is also reduplicated. 

550. Pluperfect. The pluperfect of verbs with Attic reduplication 
should take the augment, according to the ancient grammarians. This 
appears certain in those beginning with o, as w/xo/xo/oy, d7r-a>AoA?y. Those 
beginning with e are found unaugmented in the pluperfect; as IA- 
rjXvOfj, aTr-evTyro^Ty, lyp-rjyoptj. AKOWO has plup. ?yK-7yKo?y. 


551. A number of verbs have a reduplicated form in the present, 
the initial consonant being repeated with i. 

Ti-#7y/xi (0e-), put ; 8i-8w/xt (So-), give ; 7ri/x-7rAfy/x6 (TrAa-), fill, and TTI//,- 
7iyy/xi (rrpo.-}, burn, strengthen the reduplication with /x ; yi-yi/oxrKw (yvo-), 
know. A peculiar form is oV-iVty/xi (ova-), benefit, for oV-ovry/xi. For verbs 
with reduplicated presents, see 626, 652 (rer/)atV(o), 658, several in 
658, 764 (b) ; poetic 997. 

552. NOTE. In some cases the reduplication belongs to the verb-stem ; 
as /3t/3dco (/3i/3aS-), cause to yo, fut. /3t/?do~w. 


553. Some verbs have a reduplicated form in the second -aorist. 
In prose the following verbs have reduplicated aorists : 




"Ayw, lead, 2 aor. 7'jy-ayov, with temporal augment in the indicative 
-[subj. dy-dy<o, opt. dy-dyoi/xt, imper. ay-aye, part, dy-aywv, inf. dy-ayetv ; 
mid. Tyy-dyo/z^v, subj. dy-ayw/xai, etc.}. 

evK- root (present <frzpw, bear\ aor. -rjv-e-yKa, with temporal augment, 
probably syncopated from rjv-evcKa, 2 aor. yv-cyicov, with temp, augment, 

for T)V-VKOV. 

"Kir-opai (stem originally creir-), 2 aor. e-crTro/xryv for cre-crtTro/A^v, but the 
other forms from the stem CTCTT- ; subj. crTrw/xat, opt. ajroifjajy^ imper. CTTTOV, 
inf. (77recr$ai, part. crTro/zevos. 

eV-, originally /CTT- (for present Aeyw is used), 2 aor. enrov for /e-/7ror 
t7re, etTreu', eiVwv. The first aorist ftVa is for /c- 

Other reduplicated second aorists are dialectic and poetic (977). 


554. Verbs compounded with a preposition take the augment and 
reduplication after the preposition. Prepositions ending in a vowel 
(except TTcpi and TT/JO) drop the final vowel before the syllabic augment ; 
but irpo is often united with the augment by crasis. Before the 
syllabic augment e*c becomes !, and !i> and a-vv take their proper form 
if they have been changed. 

d7ro-/3dXXw, throw away, irapf. a.7r-{j3a\\ov, perf. dt7ro-/&/3X?7/ca, pi up. d-rr-e^e^XriKr) 
dia-(3a.Lvt), cross, 
7rpo<r-dy<j}, lead to, 




7re/n-/3dXXu>, throw around, , 
7rpo-/3d\Xw, throw before, , 

K-j3d\\b}, throw out, 
ey-ypd(pu, inscribe, 
e/i-/3dXXw, throw in, 
<ri;X-X^yu>, collect, 




555. NOTE. The following verbs take the augment before the preposi- 
tion, these being no longer regarded as compounds : 

i, clothe, rjfJL<^U(Ta, r)jj,<f>i<rtiai ; a<j)frj/jiL, send away, d(f>friv or 

understand, i^Trio-ra/x^i/, i )y7rtcrT?;$?/v 

]v ; Ka.UrifJi,a.i, sit, e/ca^'/y/z^i' or KaOrnnrjv ; KaOifo, set, sit, 
cKaOla-a or Ka$tcra, l/ca^tcra^^, KKa.@iKa (late) ; KaOtvSio, sleep, 
and KaOrivSov. 

556. NOTE. The following compounds augment the preposition as well 
as the simple verb : 

i, endure, rjv-i)^6prjv, 7}v'-e-(r^o/x^v ; ev-o^Xew, harass, v\v- 
; t7r-av-op86w, set upright, eTr-tjv-top&ovv, 
; TTttyo-oiveoo, maltreat, or behave ill (in drunken- 




ness), t-Trap-wvovv, -7ray>wvryo-a, Tre-Trap-wvry/ca, e-7rap-tov>y$ryv, 7T-7rap-iovrjfMai 
(late) ; for d/xTr-e^w, which is very irregular, see the Catalogue of Verbs. 

557. NOTE. These also augment the preposition as well as the stem : 
d/ju/u-yvoew, doubt (from d/x^>t and yvo-), ?y/x(/>-e-yvdow and ly/x^i-yvdow, 
ry/x<--yi'd?y(fa; d/x<tor-/3?yTew, dispute (from d/x<t's and e/^Tyy, 2 aor. of /Souvw), 
7y/x(j|!>-e-(r/3?yTOW, ?y/x<-e-a-/3>yTryo-a, as if the last part were -(r/^ryrew (but the 
forms ?y/a</>r-/3ryTovv, rj/n(f)L(T-f3 r iJTrja-a, etc., are often found) ; dvri-/3oAeo), 
beseech (from dim and /3d A Aw), has iyvT-e-/3dAow or ?yvn-/3dAow, 771 

558. NOTE. Observe that the following are ?zoi compounds : 

, 6e a Zoss (d-Tropos, difficult) ; 
pursue ; 

aTrardw, deceive 
aTTetAew, threaten 

They accordingly augment and reduplicate regularly ; as, 
rjvdyKacra ; SeStw^a ; K/<d^ap/xat. 

559. NOTE. 'ATro-Aavw, ewjoy, and IJ-erdfw, muster, have no simple 

560. NOTE. Attttrdo), arbitrate (from Siatra, arbitration), is treated as if 
it were a compound ; it has double augment in the perfect and pluperfect, 
and also in compounds ; as Siryrwv, Si^rryo-a, SeStryrTyKa, aTr-eStTyTTyo-a, e- 
eSi>yny$vyi> (late). AtdKoi/ew, minister (from StaKo^o?, servant), augments and 
reduplicates regularly, eStd/cdvow, SeStdKovyy/ca, etc., but there are later and 
doubtful (poetic) earlier forms with augment 807- and SeSir?-. 

561. Denominative verbs (1153) derived from nouns or adjectives 
compounded with prepositions, take the augment and reduplication 
after the preposition. These are called indirect compounds .(1 177, 2). 

, deceit) ; 
, threat) ; 

&aip<0 : purify (KaOapos, pure). 

crw-e/jyew (crwepyds), work with, (rvv- 

sweo/f falsely, 

(eyKw/xtov), praise, ly- 

a7ro-Aoyeo/zcu (aTro and Aoyos), 
in defence, 

(ev and 

(/ca-nyyo/aos), accuse, KOLT- 
rjyopovv ; 
VTT-OTTTCVW (^TTOTTTOs), suspect, VTT- lv-$u/xeo/xai (ev and $v/xos), consider, 


562. NOTE. The following augment and reduplicate at the beginning : 

T-ewpi7(o, raise 

establish (e'/x-TreSos, steadfast) ; 
/A-7roAdw, earn, tragic. (e/x-TroA^, 
merchandise) ; 

i, oppose (ev-avrto?, op- 

e wore </ian enough 
(7re/)i-o--(ro, a6ove measure) 
id^o/xai, waA;e a prelude (irpo- 
oi/xtov, prelude). 


Thus, -t'jjji-TreSovv ; 7y^-7rdAwv, rj/JL-TroXr/Ka ; rji'-avTiuOrjv, 7yv-avr6 / a>/xai j 
f-jjLT-0)piov ; e-Tre/K-cr-o-ewa ; 7re-7ry3ooi/At / ao-/>iai (but 7r/)o-o<yu,ia(ra/x$a with- 
out augment, once in Plato). 

563. NOTE. 'Ey-yvaw, pledge, betroth (from t'yywy which, again, is from 
ev and ymov], makes vyy-yuwi' or ev-eyvwv, ryy-yi'?7(ra, or ly-eyvyya-a, 7yy-yv77Ka 
or ey-yeyinyKa, etc., but the compounds always augment the e, as Kar-Ty-yy va>v, 
6V7yyyij7yyu,ai. 'E/cKArycria^w, &0M assembly (from K/<A7io-id, e'/cKATyros, e/<- 
/caAew), augments either e-e-/<A?yo-t'aov or -fjK-KXycriafov. Ilapa-vo/xeto, 
trangress law (from Trapavo/xo?), has 7ra/>ei/o/u,ovv and Tra/o-Tyvd/xow (as if from 
7raptt and avo/xos), 7rapa-vei'o/u,7yKa. 'Ai/n-St/cew, 6e a defendant (from aVrt'- 
St/co5, which, again, is from dfrt' and SLK'TJ), has double augment : Tyvr-e-StKovi/, 
7yvT-e-6Y/oyo-a. See these verbs in the Catalogue. 

564. Compounds of 6W-, ^7/, augment and reduplicate before the 
adverb : 

Swr-ri-'xea.), am unlucky (from Svcr-rvx 7 /?)} e-8wr-T6\ow, B-Sv(r-Tv\rjKa. 

565. NOTE. But the stem is augmented if it begins with a short vowel. 
Thus only : Svcr-apecrTea), be displeased (which occurs only late, from Sw- 
a/)rros), 8va--i]pCTTovv, 8vcr-r)p(rTr)Ka ; and Svcr-aTricrreto (mentioned only 
by the grammarians, from o\'o--a7ri(rTos), be very disobedient. 

566. Compounds of ev, well, augment the adverb if the stem begins 
with a consonant or with 7y or w ; otherwise the stem is augmented. 
But they are very often found without augment. 

(from u-TU)(7ys), be lucky, 
(from ev and e^w), feast, 771 
ei'-e/oycreoD (from eu-epyeTvys), do good, ev-rjpycTovv or eu-e/oyerouv. 

567. Other indirect compounds augment and reduplicate at the 

(from oiKO-(5d/xo5, 
house-builder), w/coSo/xovv, WKO- 

besiege (Tro'Ais and etpyw, 

TTO A i - o^> K ryyita 6 


freely (Trapprj- 
o-id, Tras and pe-), l-7rappi]<Tia- 

disheartened (a-^r/zos, 
privative and 


568. NOTE. 'OSoTTotew, make a ivay, sometimes has perf. mid. part. 
wSo-Tre-Trony/zcvos. So also oSot-Tropew, travel, 66\H-7re-7rd/3?y'/<a. 



569. The tense-suffixes are the thematic vowel and certain 
other letters added to the theme to form the tense-stems. They 
are the following : 


1. For the Present System : -%-, -r%-, -y%-, - v %-, -av%-, - V e%-, -va-, -w-, 
~(I)<TK%-, or none. 

Au-/-, AV-O-/XCV, AV-O-VTCU, e-Af'-o-v, e-Av-e-re, e-Al>e-cr$e ; KOTT-T/-, 
KoV-re-Te; crTeA-A^- for o-reA-7/^- (96, 4), o-reA-Ae-rat ; </><9a-v%-, </><9a- 
vo-//,ev ; d/xapr-av^-, apapr-dvc-Tt ; /3i~>-ve%-, fiv-veo-fjiev contr. fivvovptv ; 
cr/ctS-va-, o-KiS-vrj-fJii ; Sei/c-yu-, Sei/c-vu-//.ev ; 

2. Future System : -a-%-. 

Av-CT/^-, X.V-(TO[JLV ; K0\jj/ e - ( = K 

3. First-Aorist System ; -era-. 

4. Second-Aorist System: -%- or none. 

AITT-/-, e-AiTT-o-v ; Sv-, e-8ij-v ; crra-, e-crr^-v. 

5. First-Perfect System: - K a- (for the pluperfect -K^- from - 
t- from -K6--, -K-y see 593). 

6. Second-Perfect System : -a- (for the pluperfect - TJ --, or -e-, see 
593), or none. 

Ae-AotTT-a-, Ae-AotV-a-/xev ; l-ora-, e-crra-Te, e-Ae-AcuTr-^-s, e-Ae-Ao6V- 
et(v), e-Ae-Ao67r-e-re. 

7. Perfect-Middle System : none (for the future-perfect -o$-). 

Ae-Av-, Ae-Af-/zai, e-Ae-Av-/x / ^i / / Ae-AetTT-, Ae-Aet/x-^te^a, e-Ae-Aet^-^e j 
Ae-Ai)-o-/-, Ae-Atj-a-o-^tat ; ye-ypa^'fe- (for ye-y/oa^-cr^-), ye-ypdi^e-a-Oe. 

8. First-Passive System': -de- (for the future passive -Orjo-%-). 

-, \v- 

9. Second-Passive System : - - (for the future-passive 

10. For the Doric fut. tense-suffix -cre^-, see 1022 ; for the Horn, first- 
aor. -er^-, see 1028 ; for the iinperf. and aor. formation in -<r/y-, see 1040, 
1041 ; for the formation in -^-, see 1042 ; for the rare plupf. in -^-, 
see 1036. 


570. 1. The tense-stems of the present, imperfect, and second-aorist 
active and middle of verbs in -w, and of the futures and future-perfect 
of all verbs, end in a variable vowel, called the thematic vowel. This is 
o before //, and v and in the optative, elsewhere it is e. It is written 
-%-; thus, Xv%, Xiir%-, Xva-%-, XvOyo-%-, XeXvo-%-. In the futures and 
in the future-perfect, o- is inserted before the thematic vowel ; for the 
dropping out of o- before -%- in the future active and middle of liquid 
verbs, see 673, 3. To these tense -stems as they appear with the 
thematic vowel, the endings are appended. 



Present: AVO-/XCV, Ave-re, XVOVCTL for Avo-vo-i from Af-o-vn (40, 588); 
Xvo-pai, Ave-rcu, etc. ; Ave-rw, etc. ; Ave6i> from Ave-ev ; Xvt-o-Oai ; Auo-yUtvos. 

Imperfect : e'Avo-v, e-Ave-s, e'Ave, etc. 

Second-aorist : e'Ai7ro-v, e'AiTre-s, etc. ; AiVe, AtTre-rw, etc. ; AITTCIV probably 
from At7re-ev; AiTro-yuevo?. 

Futures : Xva-o-pev, Avcre-re, etc. ; XvO-ijcro-fJiai, Av$>y<re-Tai, etc. ; oav^cro- 
^u,at, <av?7cre-Tat,, etc. 

Future-perfect: AeAikro-/icu, AeA&re-Tcu, etc. 

2. The subjunctive of all verbs has the long thematic vowel -"/,,-. 

Present : Avw-/xev, Av^-re, Auuxri for Avw-vcrt from Af'w-vrt ; AUW-/ZGU, 
Xvrj-ratj etc. ; (/xt-Form) rt^w-yuev from Ti^e-a)-/xe^, nBrj-Te from Tt^e->yr, etc. 

First-aorist : Al;o-w-/xi/, Xvo-rj-Te, A^a-wcrt, etc. (688). 

Second-aorist: Ai7T(o-/xi/, AtV^-re, etc. ; (/xi-Form) ^w/xev from 0e-w-/xa', 
&rj-T from ^e-^-re, etc. 

Perfects : AeAvKco'/xei', AeAi'/c?/-Te / AeA(H7ru)-/zev', AeAotVcDO-t. 

571. NOTE. For -a>, -et?, -ei of the indicative present active, see 588. 
For -w, .-ys, ->; of the subjunctive active singular, see 589. For e and ?/ 
contracted with the personal endings -(cr)cu, see 596 597. For a of the aorist 
and perfect tense-stems dropped before -'%-, see 688. For examples of 
the optative, see 668, 673. 


572. 1. The optative has the mood -suffix -t- or -trj- before the 
personal ending. In the third person plural the mood- suffix -i- 
becomes -te- before the personal ending -v, as Avote-v (but Avot-re), 
XvOeic-v (but Av#e?-/xei>). 

2. The mood-suffix -07- is used only before active personal endings 
(575). In this case the first person singular has the personal 
ending -v, and the third person plural -o-av ; as <iAot'r;v from </>iAeo-ir/-i', 
but (f)iXoLjjLL from <iAeo-i-/u, ^iXoi^a-av from ^>iAeo-^-crav, but <iAotV 
from <iAeo-te-v. 

573. The mood-suffix -177- appears in the following cases : 

1. In the active singular of contract verbs in -aw, -ew, -ow, seldom 
in the plural. The simpler sign -t- is used in the dual and plural, 
much less often in the singular. See the inflections of rt/xaw, </)iAew, 
and Sr^Aoco. 

2. In the future active singular of liquid verbs alongside of the 
simple sign t ; as (f^avoir/v from (fravto-t^-v or <avot)u,i from <^ai/eo-6-/>ii. 

3. In the active of /xt-forms, the mood-suffix being here added 
directly to the tense-stem without the thematic vowel ; as nO^v from 

-v, Sotyv from So-i-rj-v. But the dual and plural prefer the simpler 

577 ENDINGS 163 

mood-suffix -i-, as riO^l^v from rt#e-6-/>iev ; and verbs in -viyxi form the 
optative (as also the subjunctive) like verbs in -w, as SeiKvvoifju from 

4. In the aorists passive ; as XvOefyv from XvQe-trj-v, <f>ai>Lrjv from 
<f>av-ir]-v. But the dual and plural prefer the simple -i- ; as Av&t/xev 
from Xv@-i-fj,v, (f>avLT from <ave-t-re. 

5. In several second -perfects (723), as Trpo-tXr) XvOoL-rj, from irpo- 
cXijXv&a ; also in eSrjSoKofy from e8r}3oKa. So also in second aorist active 
of e'xw, have, v^o'i^v, but -crxot/xt in composition. 

6. In other cases, the simple mood-suffix -i- is used. 


574. These are : the personal endings of the finite moods ; the 
endings of the infinitive, of the participles, and of the verbal 


575. Indicative, The personal endings of the indicative are the 
following : 


Primary Tenses Secondary Tenses Primary Tenses Secondary Tenses 

SING. 1. -[ii -v -p,ai | rr l v 

2. -o-i (-da) -s -o-at -ax> 

3. -Tl -TCU -TO 

DUAL. 2. -TOV -TOV -<r0ov (-0ov) -<r0ov (-0ov) 

3. -TOV -TT]V -0-00V (-00V) -0-0TJV (-0T)v) 

PLUR. 1. -fjiev (-/u) -p-ev (-/*es) -jxe0a -fi0a 

2. -TC -T -<T06 (-0) -0-0 (-0) 

3. -VTI -v, -o-av -VTai -VTO 

The passive has the personal endings of the middle, but the aorist 
passive has the endings of the active. 

576. NOTE. 1. The ending -o-i of the second person singular is preserved 
only in Epic ecr-crt, thou art; also perhaps in ^>>;s, thou sayest, and in the 
subjunctive XV-QS (589). 

2. The ending -TL of the third person remains in eo--rt, is ; and in Doric, 
as StSwTi for Attic Si'8o>-(rt. 

3. The older ending -/xes for -/xev remains in Doric ; as Aeyo-/*es for 

577. NOTE.- The early ending -(<r)#a for the second person singular, 
originally a perfect-ending, is preserved in ottr-Oa for ol8-6a (80), from o?Sa, 

164 ENDINGS 578 

know; fja--9a, thou wast; -ijei-vOa, thou iventst ; efoj-crOa, thou saidst ; y8rj- 
<rOa or y'Sei-o-tfa, thou knewest ; also in some Homeric and in a few dialectic 

578. NOTE. Occasionally -rrjv is found for -rov in the second person 
dual indicative of secondary tenses both in Attic poetry and prose ; as ei^e-r^v, 
eAeyeT^v, eTr-ereAeo-ar^v for et^crov, e/Xeyeror, eTr-eTeAeo-arov. 

579. NOTE. 1. The first person plural is used for the first person dual. 
A rare ending -peOov for the first person dual occurs three times in poetry : 
AeAei/>t-yu,e$oi/ from AetTrco in Soph. EL 950 ; 6p//,w-//,e$ov from 6p/j.dw in Soph. 
Philoct. 1079 ; 7reyoi6"(o-//,e$oi' from Si'Sco/zi in Horn. II. 23, 485 ; and twice in 
Atheneeus 398 a. 

2. In poetry we often find -pea-Oa for -/ze$a, as Af'o-yuecr$a. 

580. NOTE. For changes in the endings -fja, -tri, -rt, -vri, -vro ; for -v 
of the first person singular ; for -w, -cis, -et of the singular, etc., see the 
Observations on the Endings (587 598). 

581. The secondary ending -a-av is used : 

1. In the aorists, as eAv6fy-o-av, e</>avr?-a-ai/. The older -v for -o-av 
seldom occurs in Attic poetry ; as tKpv<$>Qt-v for tKpv<f>0^-crav. 

2. In the imperfect and second-aorist of the /u-form ; as eV^e-o-av 
and We-vav from TI$?;//,I. 

3. In the pluperfect ; as cXeXvKe-crav. 

4. In the optative whenever the mood-suffix is -o/-. 

582. The more primitive endings -Oor, -0//r, -Oe appear in the 
perfect and pluperfect after consonants ; as Trt-jrXt^-Oov (for 7re7rAe/<-#ov), 
eWaA-^e, but XeXv-crOov, AeAv-cr^e. 

583. Subjunctive and Optative. 1. The subjunctive has the per- 
sonal endings of the primary tenses. The optative has the personal 
endings of the secondary tenses ; but the 1 sing. opt. act. has -v only 
after the mood-suffix -117-, otherwise it has -/u, as AVOI-/ZI, </>iA(H?/v ; and 
the 3 plur. opt. ends in -a-av whenever the mood-suffix is -i?/-, as XvOeiTr]- 
o-av, ^iXoi-i-f-a-av. For -w, -ys, -y in the subjunctive, see 589. 

2. The ending -v for -pi is found very rarely ; as rpk^oi-v for rp^oc-fJiL 
(Eur. frag. 895), a^a/jrot-v for u/zapToi-/^ from a^tapravw (Cratin. Drap. 
frag. 6). 

584 Imperative, The personal endings of the imperative are 
the following : 


Xi'nr/. Dual. Plur. Siny. Dual. Plur. 

2. -0t -TOV -T -o-o -<r9ov (-0ov) -<r0 (-0e) 

3. -TO) -TCOV -VTWV -O-0CO (-0fcj) -CT0OV (-0Wv) -<T0CJV {-00)v) 

or -rwcrav or -crOwcrav (- 

591 ENDINGS 165 

The passive lias the personal endings of the middle ; but the aorist 
passive has the personal endings of the active. 

585. The more primitive endings -$co, -Gov, -Ou>v, -Oc, -Ooxrav, are 
used in the perfect after consonants ; as rerpi^-Ow for TeTpi/3-Oio, from 

586. NOTE. For changes in -Oi, and for the irregular -ov and -at of the 
aorist imperative active and middle, see the Observations on the Endings 


587. The personal endings and the tense-suffixes underwent various 
changes which are indicated below. But the terminations -co, -eis, -et, 
-ys, -y are not yet definitely explained. 

588. Present Active Indicative. 1. (Common Form}: Ai5co is prob- 
ably for AVO-/AI, the ending being dropped and the thematic vowel 
lengthened, but some regard the original form to have been At'co-jut, and 
others believe the first person in -co to be of different origin from that in -you ; 
Ai>ets is probably from Ai'e-crt, -crt becoming -s and the thematic vowel 
lengthened to ei ; Avct is probably from Xvc-rt, the ending -rt dropped and 
the thematic vowel lengthened ; Xvovcn is from original and Doric XVO-VTI 
through Af>o-vcrt, -VTI becoming -vert, v dropping out, and the thematic vowel 
compensatively lengthened (40). Similarly the future Avcrco, Avcrets, Avcret, 
At'crovcrt for Avtro-you, etc. 

2. (jJLi-Form): riOrj-s is for original rt^ry-crt, -s for -trt ; rt^y-crt for 
original rtOrj-Ti, -n becoming -crt (85). The third person plural inserts d 
before -VTI, then -dvn becomes -avert (40), and finally -dcrt (compare Al3owt 
from Aljo-vrt, Ai'o-vcrt), and final a of the verb-stem contracts with -dcrt ; as 
Ti$edcrt from rt^e-a-vri, to-raVi from tcrra-d-VTi, StSoacrt from SitSo-a-vrt. 
Similarly in the third plural of the second-perfect of the /u-form : to-roVi 
from ecrra-a-vrt. 

For the long final stem-vowel (77, co, i>) in the singular of the /zi-forms, 
see GG4, 2. 

589. Present and Second-aorist Subjunctive and Optative: Ar'w 

is probably for XvM-fjn and A/TTCO for At7rco-/xt, the ending dropped (Homer 
has forms like e^eAco/xt and n'xw/xt) ; Ai^/s and A^r; are probably from 
Av^-crt and AvTy-rt, perhaps through intermediate forms Awyi-ert and 
Ai'Tyt-rt, the additional t appearing as subscript ; Avcocrt is for AT;CO-VTI 
through Auco-vtrt (85) ; Ai'oi-s for Af'Oi-crt, Ai5ot for Af'ot-rt. 

590. Imperfect and Second-aorist Indicative: ZXvo-v, tXi-n-o-v, 

IrtOrj-v, and ecrr^-v are for eAf>o-/x, eAt7ro-/x, ert^-/x, lo-T^-yu, (11 3). Compare 
the Latin deu-m and legeba-m with Oeo-v and e'Aeyo-v. 

591. First-aorist Active Indicative. The first person singular has 

166 ENDINGS 592 

lost all trace of its personal ending, and the third person singular weakens 
a of its tense-suffix to e ; as e'Ai>o-a, e'Ai~o-e. 

592. Perfect Active Indicative. The first person singular has lost 
its personal ending. The second person singular retains -s for -en. The 
third person singular has lost its personal ending and weakens a of its tense- 
suffix to e, as AeAi>Ka, AeAt'Ke, AeAotTra, AeAotTre. The third person plural 
AeAi'/cdcrt is from AeAvKa-i/Ti through AeAv/ca-rcri (-10). 

593. Pluperfect Active, In the pluperfect active, final a of the 
tense-stem is changed to e. In the singular -a, -as, -e are then added, 
and -ea, -eas, -ee(V) are contracted to -77, -775, -t(v) ; as eAeAvK?/, eAeAvKrys, 
eAeAi'Ket(i') from eAeAr/<ea, eAeAvKeas, IXeA.vfC(v). Herodotus has the 
uncontracted forms in -ea, -ea?, -ee. In late Greek et was used for e and the 
singular ended in -ety, -ets, -et ; as eAeAv/cetv, eAeAvKets, eAeAi'/cet, eAeAi'- 
Ketrov, etc. In the dual and plural, the regular secondary endings are 
added ; as eAeAv/ce-rov, eAeAvKe-rryv, etc. 

594. Imperative. 1. The ending -61 is always dropped after the 
thematic vowel ; thus Ave for \vc-0i, AtVe for At7re-#t. After the tense- 
suffix -0- it is changed to -ri (100, 2) ; thus \v0rj-ri for \v0rj-0i. The ending 
-6i is retained in the second-aorist passive, as <j>avi)-6t ; in a"rij-0i and 
&rra-0i from t'crrri/u (508) ; in a few second-aorists of the //,i-form from 
verbs in o (767) ; also in i<r-0i from et/x/ or oTSa (772, 786), in l-Qi from 
ef/xt (775), in <f>d-0i or <f>a-6t from </;/^t (779), and in some dialectic forms. 
In the second-aorist active of ri&uit, ^/xt, ^tdb)/u, and c'xw, -^t is 
changed to -9, thus $e-s, e-s, 8o-s and cr^e-s for #e-$, e-^, So-6^, o")(t-0 (112 ; 
702, 3). 

2. The second singular of the first-aorist active and middle is formed 
irregularly in -ov and -at, these terminations being of uncertain origin ; as 
Aucrov, A r era t. 

595. NOTE. For the omission of -0i in the present and second-aorist 
active of verbs in -[JLL with lengthening of the stem-vowel' a, e, o, or v to ?;, 
et, oi, or v, see 671. For the lengthening of the stem-vowel a and e, o, v, 
to 77, to, f>, in the second-aorist active of the /u-form, see 702. 

596. Second Person Singular Middle and Passive. 1. In the middle 

and passive, the endings -o-at and -cro remain unchanged in the perfect and 
pluperfect indicative and imperative of all verbs, and in the present and 
imperfect indicative and present imperative of verbs in -JJLL ; as AeAv-crat, 
eAeAi'-cro, AeAv-cro, rt^e-crat, ert^e-o-o, rt^e-cro. 

2. In all other cases, the endings -crat and -cro drop cr ; they then con- 
tract with a preceding vowel, except in the optative. 

Thus \vy from Afe-(cr)at, eAiJOV from eAf'e-(cr)o, Xvcrrj from Afcre-(cr)ai, 
eAixrw from eAi}cra-(cr)o, \v0ija-rj from Ai>^^cre-(o-)ai, AeAfo-?/ from AeAfo-e- 
(cr)ai. Liquid future and aorist : <avrj from ^>avee-(o-)at, e^>?yvw from e 

599 ENDINGS 167 

((7)0 ; Second-aorist : eXiirov from e At7re-(cr)o ; Second-aorist of pi-form : 
ITT/HO) from 7r/3ta-(<r)o, <iOov from $e-(cr)o, e'Sov from So-(<r)o ; Contract 
presents : TI/JLCL from Tt/me-(cr)at = rlfj.dr), <iA>7 from <iAee-(cr)ai = c^uAe^, 
8r)\oi from SriAoe-(cr)ai = SrjXorj ; Contract imperfects : ert/xw from ert/xae- 
(o-)o = ert/xaov, e<tAou from e</>tAee-(a-)o = e<tAeov, eS^Aov from e6r;Aoe-(o-)o 

= tSriAoov. Subjunctive : Xvy from Av^-(a-)at, Avcrry from Avcr?7-((r)at ; <ry vr; 
from (f>r)vrj-(o-)ai ; AITT?; from At7r?i-(o-)ai ; TT/HT? as if from 7rpier)-(o-)ai (666, 
697, 1047), #rj from 6ev)-(<T}a.i, Sto from 8ory-(o-)at ; rt// from Tt/xa^-(cr)at 

= ri/xary, <iA?7 from (iAe?7-(o-)at = (friXey, 877 Aot from 8rj\orf-((r)aL = SfjXorj. 
Imperative : Xvov from Ave-(cr)o, AITTOV from At7re-(o-)o, TT/OIOJ from 7r/oia-(cr)o > 
^ou from ^e-(o-)o, 6ov from 6V(a-)o, TI/ZW from Tt/xae-(o-)o = Ti/xaov, etc. 
Optative: Avot-o from Ai)ot-(o-)o, Avo-at-o from Avo-cu-(o-)o, etc., the -o of 
-(cr)o always remaining, as TI/XW-O from Ti/zao6-(o-)o. 

597. NOTE. 1. The second person singular indicative of the present, 
future, and future-perfect has two forms, -# and -et ; as Av# or Ar'ei, Avo-r? or 
Avcret, \.vQr)<rr) or Ai^rjcret, AeAlxr^ or AeAuo-et. Of these -r? is the natural 
contraction of -e-(o-)ai ; while -ei is only a different spelling for -rj and is 
evidently not older than the fourth century B.C., when the tendency arose to 
spell every y as et, as dyaOei for dyaOrj, ipe8r)v for ypedrfv. The spelling 
-et is often called by the scholiasts Attic and Ionic for -y in all the other 
dialects including the Common. 

2. Boi'Aet from ^ovAo/xai, wish, otet from oto/xat, think, and oi/'et fut. of 
6pd(D, see, have no forms in -77. 

598. NOTE. For o- retained in -o-ou and -<ro in the present, imperfect, 
and second-aorist of verbs in -/xt, see 596, 695. 


599. Common Form. 1. The present and second-aorist active 
of verbs in -co and the future active of all verbs, form the infinitive by 
adding -ev to the tense-stem, the thematic vowel (in this case always 
-) contracting with -ev to -eiv. Thus TrAe/ceiv from TrAeKe-ev, Xv(TLV 
from At~cre-ev, probably from AtTre-ev. Contract presents in -dv 
and -ow, as rlpdv and SyXovv, are from -ae-ev = -aeiv and -oe-ev = -oetv, 
the t being lost in the contraction (48, 1). 

2. The first-aorist active infinitive ends in -at which takes the place 
of a of the tense-stem ; as Aw-- at, vrAe^-at, o-reiA-at. 

3. The perfect active infinitive has -vat which is added to the 
perfect-stem which changes a to e before it ; as AeAv/ca-, AeAv/ce-vat ; 
AeAoiTra-, AeAotTre-vat. 

4. The infinitive of the present, future, and aorists middle, and of 
the futures and future-perfect passive, is formed by adding -er#at to 
the tense-stem. 

168 ENDINGS 600 

Ave-cruai ; 7r\]~-o~8aL ) (fraveicrOai for ff>av-cr0ai ; Xvcra-crOai, <f>t'iva- 

600. Mi- Form. 1. The present and second-aorist and second- 
perfect of the /xt-form and both aorists passive form the infinitive by 
adding -vat to the tense-stem. In the second-aorist active, and in both 
aorists passive, the final stem-vowel is long. 

Ti$6-vcu, la-ra-vcu, SiSo-vat, SeiKVv-vai ; a-ny-vai (crra-), /Brj-vai (/5a-, 
indie. e?rv 2 aor. of /ScuVw, #o), Su-vcu, yvw-vcu; ecrra-vcu, re^va-vat ; 

2. The present and second-aorist middle of the /xt-form and the 
perfect middle of all verbs add -a-Oai directly to the tense-stem, con- 
sonant stems here taking the more primitive ending -Oou. 

Liut-vOai, ifTrd-crOai, SiSo-cr$ai, SziKVV-crOai) i-cr(JaL (from ^yut) ; @t- 
0-60.1, Trrd-o-Oai (from Trero/xat, Trra-), 8o-cr$ou, e-cr^ai (from ?7^/xt) : AeAv- 
vOai, TCTlfJirj-crOaL, TrtTrAe^-^at from TrAe/cco, ^AAct^-^at from aAAaa-cra) 
(aAAay-), eA^Aeyx-^cu from eAey^co, rjcr-OaL from ?y/xcu (>}o"-), s^, TCTpifoOat 
from T/9i/?w, ea-raA-^at from oreAAco, TT<f>a.v-6ai from </>cuV(o (</>av-). 

601. NOTE. Several /xi- forms have the earlier ending - ei/ai for 
original -/evai. Thus Oelvai, Sowai, etvat (from t^/xt) for original 


602. The active tenses (except the perfect) and both aorists passive 
form their participial stems by adding -vr- to their tense-stems. The 
nominative of stems in -ovr- of the common form ends in -wv ; as Xvwv 
(Aiiovr-), XLTTWV (XtTTovr-). All others add s to the stem in the nomina- 
tive singular, upon which -vr- drops out and the preceding vowel 
receives compensative lengthening ; as Av#eis (Av#evr-s), 
(tcrravr-s), Sus (8wr-s), 8oi's (Sovr-s). 

Ai'co, pr. Xvo-vr- nom. Avcav 8?yAow, pr. 6?yAoo-vr- nom. 

fut. Af'cro-i'T- ,, Avcrwv TiOrj/Ji^ pr. nOe-vr- 

1 a. XVO-O.-VT- Avo-ds 2 a. ^e-vr- 

,, 1 a. p. XvOt-vr- ,, \v0i<$ tcrr>y/jtt, pr. io~ra-^T- ,, 

1 a. <ryva-vr- ,, ^>?yvd,5 2 a. o~Ta-vr- ' ,, crrds 

2 a. p. ^>ai'-vr- ,, ^>aveis Si8w/ji6, pr. 8t8o-vr- StSov 
2 a. AITTO-VT- AITTWV 2 a. So-vr- Sovs 

Ti/zaw, pr. Tl/uLOio-VT- rlfjiwv SeiKvv/Jii, pr. Set/cvv-vr- ,, 

^>tAeo), pr. ^uAeo-j/T- ,, <^>iAwv Si'vw, 2 a. Sv-vr- ,, Svs 

For the formation and declension of the feminines and neuters, see 
329 335. 

603. The stem of the perfect active participle is formed by 
dropping a of the tense-stem and adding -OT-. 

605 ENDINGS 169 

7T(^>rjv-OT- nom. Tre^yvw? 

AeAvK-or- nom. AcAtucfos 
AcAoiTra AeAotTT-or- AeAoiTTios 

For the declension and the irregular feminine in -via, see 329, 333. 
For perfect active participles of the /xt-forin in -ws, -coo-a, -05 or -ws, 
see 336. 

604. All middle and passive participles (except the aorists passive) 
form their stems by adding -/xevo- to the tense-stem. 

Aixro/zevo? (Af>cro-//,evo-) 




For the inflection, see 288. 

605. 1. The stems of the verbal adjectives are made by adding -ro- 
or -reo- to the verb-stem as it appears in the first-aorist passive, 
sometimes as it appears in the second-aorist passive. If the verb 
has no aorist passive, the verbal adjectives are formed directly from 
the verb-stem. Final $ and x of the theme become TT and K (80). 

Tl^lGtto ZTtfJi'i'lO'rjV Tl/J.l^-TO<5 TlfJL'tj-TOS 

eao> eldOijv ea-reos ed-ros 

(100, 3) 


raK-ros raK-reos 

K/31-TO? Kpt-TOS 

TOI-TOS ra-reos 

crraA-TO? (rTaA-Teo? 

2. Many verbal adjectives have as their basis a present or future form ; 
.as <e/>-ros (<e/>w) ; i-reoi' (f-re from e?/>tt, stem t-, r/o) ; icr-reo? (6O--/zev from 
oTSa, stem 18-, know); pa^-Tfov (/mxe-eroftai fat. of /xax-o/xat, fajht} ' } /Aeve- 
TOS, /xei/e-reos (/xeve-w, //.evw, fut of /ze^co, remain). 

3. The verbal in -ros either has the force of a perfect passive participle, 
as K/avTTTos, hidden, TOIKTOS, ordered, XVTOS, loosed; or else it denotes possibility, 
as 6/xxros, visible, TrpaKros, that may be done, OLKOVO-TOS, audible. Those 
derived from deponent verbs usually have passive meaning ; as <$KTOS, 
received, from B^o/jLat ; but some have passive and active meaning, and 
others only active, as /xe/ATrros, blamed, blamenble, or blaming (from 

170 ENDINGS 606- 

o?, sounding (from <$eyyo/zai). Those derived from intransitive 
verbs are sometimes equivalent to present active participles, as pvros, flowing, 
(from pew). Those derived from transitive compounds seldom have active 
meaning, as UTT-OTTTOS, suspected or suspecting. But those derived from 
transitive verbs and compounded with an adjective or with a privative 
(1169, 3) very often have active meaning, as Trav-aAcoros, all-catching, 
a-TT/od/cros, not to be done or doing nothing or having done nothing. Finally, 
not every verbal in -TO? has the meaning of a perfect passive participle and 
at the same time may express possibility ; some have only the former 

4. The verbal in -reo?, -red, -reoi/ (paroxytone), expresses necessity, and 
is equivalent to the Latin gerundive in -ndus ; as Aexreo?, that must be said, 
dicendits ; Aureos, that must be loosed, solvendus ; So-reos, that must be given, 

606. NOTE.' 1. Simple verbals in -ros are of three endings and oxytone ; as 
Xvro's, \iT77, \VTOJ>. Exceptions occur only in poetry ; as /cXirros 'Iinro5d[j.eia (H. 
2, 742). 

2. Compound verbals : (a) Those compounded with a preposition, and passive 
in meaning, are of two endings and proparoxytone ; as e^-aiperos, picked out ; did-Xvros, 
dissolved; ativ-deros. put together. (Occasional exceptions in form or accent in poetry, 
rarely in prose.) (b) Those compounded with a preposition, and denoting possibility, 
are of three endings and oxytone ; as ^-cuperos, -77, -bv, that may be picked out ; dia- 
\VTOS, that may be dissolved. But as the passive sense easily passes over to that of 
possibility, many of these are of two endings and proparoxytone ; as /cara^eXaoTos, 
-ov, to be laughed at, ridiculous. Several are oxytone and of two endings ; as 
OVK dveKTol, intolerable odours (Thuc. 7, 87). (c) All others are of two endings and 
paroxytone ; as d-^aros, -ov, untrodden, inaccessible ; eft-Troirjros, well-made ; xpvvb- 
Seros, bound with gold; Trav-ddKpvros, most lamentable. (Many have a special 
feminine form in poetry. Nearly all compounds of /cXi/rus and /cXeirds, famous, 
illustrious, are oxytone, as dya-K\vTos, reXe-/cXetros). 


607. The Common Form of Inflection belongs to the present 
and imperfect and second-aorist active and middle when the tense-stem 
ends in the thematic vowel -%- ; to all futures ; to the first -aorist 
active and middle ; to the perfect active with the tense-suffix -/cot- or 
-a- ; and to all subjunctives. 

1. The singular of the present and future active indicative ends in -o>, 
-ei5, -L (588). The endings -JJLI and -trt (for -TI) are everywhere omitted ; 
except -pi in the optative, as AVOI-/AI (583). 

2. In the third plural indicative present active, the thematic vowel o 
unites with the ending -VTL and forms -oven, as X^ovcri from AVO-VTI. 

3. The third plural of the active of past tenses ends in -v ; as 4'Auo-v, 
e'Aixra-v, 4'AiTro-v. 

609 ENDINGS 171 

4. The imperative ending -61 is dropped ; as Ave. The second person 
singular of the first aorist active ends irregularly in -oi', as Avcrov. 

5. The middle endings -0-0.1 and -cro drop cr and contract with the final 
vowel of the stem (5 96, 2) ; as Ai)e-(o-)ai, \Vrj ; Avcre-(o-)at, Xva-y ; eAi)e-(o-)o, 
eAvou ; eAi>c7a-(cr)o, eAi'crco. 

But there is no contraction in the optative : XVOLO for Avot-(o-)o. 

6. The infinitive active has -eiv (for -e-ev) ; but the perfect active has 
-vat, and the first-aorist has -at. Thus Avetv for Af-e-ev, AiWv, AtTretv ; 
AeAv/ce-vai ; AeAoTre-vat ; Avcr-at, <^v-at. 

7. Active participles with stems in -OVT- have the nominative singular 
masculine in -cov ; as Aiiwv, AtovT-os (602). 

608. NOTE. When the optative mood-suffix is -t- (-te-), the ending of the 
first person singular is -/JLI and of the third plural is -v ; as Aiot-/zt, <$>i\olp.i 
(from </>iAeot-/u), At'crai-/^, AtVot-/>tt ; Ai'ote-v., </uAotev (from c/>tAeoote-v), 
Avcraie-v, AtVote-i', Tt$et-v, #ete-v, Av$te-v, (^avete-y. When the mood- 
suffix is -t>7- the first person singular has -v and the third plural has -<rai' ; 
as (f)L\oir)-v (from 

609. The p-Form of Inflection (called also the s^mp/e form) 
belongs to the present and imperfect and second -aorist active and 
middle when the tense-stem does not end in the thematic vowel ; to 
the second-perfect active of the /xi-form (499) ; to the pluperfect active; 
to the perfect and pluperfect middle ; and to both aorists passive. 
But subjunctives are excepted. 

1. The first person singular of the present indicative active retains the end- 
ing -/zt, the third has -o-t for original -ri ; as Tt^7y-|Ut, rt^^-o-t, ^-ftt, (f>r)-cri. 

2. In the third person plural indicative present active, a is inserted 
before the ending -vrt, with which it unites, forming -do-t ; as Tt^e-dcrt from 
Tt$e-a-vTi, tcrrao-i from t(rra-a-i>Tt, Sei/cvv-dcrt. So also in the perfect active 
ecrraort from eo-ra-a-vrt. 

3. The third plural of the active of past tenses and of the passive aorists 
ends in -crav ; as en^e-crav, e'$e-crav, eAeAi'Ke-crav, eXvOy-crav, <f>dvr]-a-av. 

4. The imperative ending -Oi is retained in a few cases (594) ; as fa-Qi, 
firj-Oi, o-Ta-@i. In several second -aorists -Oi becomes -s (594), as in Sos; 
and in others it is dropped, as in rt^et, 6Yo\>v, tcrr^ (671). 

5. The middle endings -crat and -<ro regularly retain cr; as rt^e-crat, 
Tt^e-o-o ; AeAv-crat, eAeAv-cro. But not in the subjunctive nor optative, nor 
usually in the second-aorist ; as subj. TL0fj (for ri^e-^-crai), opt. riOtio (for 
Ti$e-t-cro), indie. 2 aor. Wov (for Wt-cro). See 695. 

6. The infinitive of the active, and of both aorists passive has the ending 
-vat. Thus Ti$e-vai, <$to-vat, terra-vat (600), Av$?}-vai, <avr}-vai. Rarely 
the 2 aor. act. has -eyat, as ^etvat (for #e-/evai, ^e-evat, 601). 

7. Active participles with stems in -OVT- have the nominative singular 
masculine in -ovs ; as 8tSovs, SiSoi/r-os (602). 




610. It is necessary to distinguish the present stem from the 
verb-stem or theme. According to the final letter of the theme 
all verbs are divided into three kinds. 

1. Vowel Verbs, with themes ending in a vowel ; as Av-w, Trai&v-w, 
Xpi-w, rf/xa-w, 7rote-w, S?/Ao-(o, TI$?///,I (0C-), 8frS<0fU (So-), ytyvwcrKco (yvo-). 

2. Mute Verbs, with themes ending in a mute ; as TrAeK-w, Aey-w, 
ap^-co, ai/vT-w, ij/evS-M, 7ret0a> (TTI^-), Actrrw (AiTT-), T/04/3-fc), y/>a</>-co, 
(Seiic-), Aa/A/Savw (Aa/3-). 

3. Liquid Verbs, with themes ending in a liquid ; as 

-), ve/x-w, IJLZV-W, (f>aivw (</>av-), Kptvto (icpcv-), Sep-u, oAAtyxi (oA-). 


611. The various tense-stems are formed from the theme by adding 
certain tense-suffixes. Certain regular changes in the theme are ex- 
plained under the formation of the tense-systems. But in many verbs, 
there are irregularities in the theme. These are noticed below in 
612 621, and for the dialects in 990 997. 

612. Theme-vowel of variable quantity. 1. In some verbs of 
the First Class, the vowel of the theme is long in the present, but 
wavers in quantity in the other tenses. 

So A><O (Av-, Av-), Av<rw, ?Av(ra ; but AeAr/ca, AeAiyxcu, eXtiOtjv. These 
verbs are enumerated in 625. 

2. In some verbs of the Fifth Class, a short theme-vowel is lengthened 
in some tenses, as in the Second Class. 

AaKVW (&XK-, &>7/v-), bite, S?yo/xcu, 8e67yy/>iat, e8'/yx$7yy, but 2 aor. eSaKov. 
These verbs are given in 656. 

613. Addition of . Many verbs add e to the theme. Of these 
somo add e to form only the present-stem (thus ending 'in -<$-), others 
to form only certain tenses, the most to form all their tense -stems 
except the present, second-aorist, and second-perfect. 

Thus 8oK-to (SoK-, pres. stem So/ce^-), seem, fut. Soco, aor. 28oa ; /j,evw 
(/xev-e-), remain, //e/xevrj/ca ; aurdavoytuu (ai<r$--), perceive, aur&Jcrofbat, fyrOij-, but 2 aor. JprOofi/qv ; 6'AAv/xt (oA-e-), oAw from oAecroj, wAecra, oAwAe/ca, 
but 2 aor. mid. wAo/xrp, 2 perf. oAcoAa. 

The verbs whose themes take this additional e are given under the Eight 


614. Addition of a and o. A few verbs of the First Class add 
a to the theme; see 629. Several verbs add o to the theme; see 
628, 655. 

615. Short final theme-vowel retained. Contrary to the general 
rule in 39, many vowel-verbs irregularly retain a short final vowel of 
the stem in all or some of the tenses, except the present and imperfect. 

Thus : yeAdw, laugh, yeAdcrcyxou, eyeAd<ra, eyeAdcr^ryv ; reAeco, finish, 
TeAecrw contr. reAw, eYeAecra, TereAe/ca, reTeAecryu,ai, ereAeo-^ryv ; a^Oopai 
(a)((9-e-), be displeased, a;($ecroyu,cu, ryx^eo-^v ; Sew, bind, S^crw, ecfycra, but 

These verbs are all given under 679 and (dialectic) 992. 

616. Addition of <r. Many vowel-verbs add cr to the theme in 
the perfect-middle system, as reTAe-o--//,cu, eVertAe-cr-//,?/!/ ; also in the 
first-passive system before the suffix -#e- (-Orj-), as ereAe-cr-^v, reAe- 

These verbs are all given in 730. 

617. Omission of v of the theme. Several verbs drop v of the 
theme in the first-perfect, perfect-middle, and first-passive systems. 

Kpivio (Kplv-), judge, KtKpi-Ka, KfKpi-fjuu, Kpi-@r)v. These verbs, four in 
number, are given in 707. 

618. Reduplication of the theme, Some themes are reduplicated. 

1. In the present, as yi-yvoxTKco (yvo-), know (551). 

2. In the second-aorist, as Vyy-ayoi/ from ay-w, lead (533). 
The reduplication of the perfect stem is, of course, regular. 

619. Syncope. The theme is sometimes syncopated. 

1. In the present, as TTI'TT TOO for Tri-vrer-w from stem Trer-, fall. 

2. In the perfect, as TreTrra/xat for Tre-Trera-/^*, from irra.vvvfii (Trera-), 
spread out. 

3. In the second-aorist, as eTrro/z^v for e-Trer-o/xr/v from Trer-o/jtai, fly. 

4. Inthe/wiure; as Trrvycro/xat lor 7rer-/y<ro/zat. 

620. Metathesis. Sometimes the theme undergoes metathesis. 
1 . In the present, as Qvytricfo (Oav-, Ova.-), die. 

2. In the future, as o-/cA?y-o-o/u,at from o-KeAAw (crKeA-, o-KAe-), dry up. 

3. In the perfect, as /Se/^Ary-Ka, /5e/3A>y-/,tat from /?rxAAa> (/3aA-, 

4. In the aorist passive, as e'/3Arj-^ryi/ from /5aAAw (/3aA-, /5Aa-). 

5. In the second-aorist 2Mssive (rarely), see repTrw in the Catalogue. 

6. In the second-aorist (rarely), as SapOdvu (SapB-), sleep, poetic 
prose ZSapOov. 

621. Change of root-vowel. In some cases the vowel of the root 
is changed. 


1. Change of e to a: This occurs in monosyllabic liquid themes in the 
first-perfect (704), perfect-middle (726), and passive systems (750, 758) ; as 

(TTeAAw ((rreA-), send, ecrraA-Ka, CTTaA-/xai, tcrraA-r^. Also in the perfect- 
middle and second-passive systems of several mute stems (728, 758), as rp^Tr-it), 
turn, Tfrpafji-jjiaL, Tpa,7r-rjv ; in the second-aorist system of several mute 
and liquid stems ; as Tp7r-w, erpair-ov, iTpa.7r-6fj.rjv ; re/xvw (re//,-), cut, 
, era/z-opp ; (693, c; 694) and in some poetic forms (996). 

2. Change of e to o : This occurs in the second-perfect system ; as r/)e</>a> 
, nourish, TTpo(f>a ; </>#et'/5w (c#e/>), corrupt, 6Ve</>0o/D-a (715, 720). 

3. Change of a to 77 or a : This often occurs in the second-perfect 
system ; as </>cuVw (<frav-), show, 7r(^rjv-a ; Kpafa (Kyaay-), cry out, Kenpay-a 
(715, 720). 

4. Strong and Weak Root-vowels: In verbs of the Second Class (630, 
631), the weak form of the theme, in I, v, a, is used only in the second- 
aorist and second-passive systems ; the strong form, in et or ot, eu or ov, 
TI or CD (with few exceptions, 633), is used in the other systems. 
Thus AeiV-w (AiTT-), leave, Aeu^<o, AeAot7r-a, AeAei/z-^cu, tXtify-Bijv , but 2 aor. 
e'AiTr-ov <^ei'y w (</H>y~)> ^e, <J>, Trefavy-a, but 2 aor. e^vy-ov ; 
root !Av$-, fut., shall go, eXi')\ov@-a (Ionic) = lAryAv^a, have 
gone, but 2 aor. JjXvO-ov (Epic) = r^Xdov, went ; rry/cw (TO.K-), meZi, T/;W, 
crvy^a, rerr/K-a, crify-Orjv, but 2 aor. pass. eraK-^v ; r/scoyw (r^oay-), gnaw, 
rpco^o/Jiat, Terpwy-/xat, but 2 aor. crpay-ov ; ^/aew (/3e-, /5e/-, pev-), flow, pevfr- 
o/xat, eppev-cra, but 2 aor. pass, e 

(Present and Imperfect Active and Middle.) 

622. There are seven ways in which the present stem is formed 
from the verb-stem. According to these different ways of forming the 
present stem we distinguish the first seven classes of verbs; the eighth 
lass stands by itself and includes a few verbs whose tense-stems are 
formed from different themes. 

1. First or Thematic-vowel Class. 

2. Second or Strong-vowel Class. 

3. Third or 2-Class or Verbs in -TTTCO. 

4. Fourth or Iota-Class (y-Class). 

5. Fifth or JV-Class. 

6. Sixth or Inchoative Class or Yerbs in 

7. Seventh or Verb-stem Class. 

8. Eighth or Mixed Class. 





623. The present stem is formed by adding the thematic 
vowel -%- to the verb-stem. 

624. To this class belong : 

1. All vowel verbs except those mentioned in Class II. (632) and 
in Class VII. Examples : Av-w, yu^i/t-w, /3ovXev-w, 7rav-o>, ri/xa-w, <tAe-w, 

2. Many mute verbs. Examples : IIAe/o-w, Aey-w, a/ox- w > rpi/3-io, 
ypa<-a>, avvT-d), aS-oo. 

3. A few liquid verbs ; as Mev-w, ve^-co,, Sep-w. 

625. Theme-vowel of variable quantity, 1. In the following verbs 
of the First Class, the theme-vowel is long in the present, but wavers 
in quantity in the other tenses. 

S/'o> (Si>, Si;-) 
6vu (Ov, 6v-} 

-J TTTV-) 

trpifi* (rpi/3-, 


u ((9Ai/3-, 6X.I/3-) 

-, fJLV-) TTvtyd) (TTViy-, TTVly-} 

2. The present and imperfect of verbs in -io> and -<o usually have 

I and v in Attic ; in poetry either v or v. But always /ze^uco, 

{Attic avvru), dpvo) (Attic a/ovrco), poetic a<vw, Epic Taj/va>, poetic 
See 998. 

626. Present Reduplication, The following have present re- 
duplications : 

yryvo/zou sync, for yt-yev-o-//,Gu (yev-) 
t'cr^w sync, for crt-cre^-o), o-tcr^cu = c^w 
TrtTTTW sync, for Trt-ireT-w (TTCT-, TTT-O-) 

TIKTW for Tl-TCK-W (TCK-) 

Ti-T/oa-w late for rerpaivo) 
fufwta for /zt-yuey-w, poetic for 

627. Addition of . 1. Some themes insert e before the thematic 
vowel and form a longer theme, the present stem thus ending in -e%-, 
as So/cew, seem, present stem SOK%- } theme SOK-, seen in future Sofw. 
These presents are : 

yctyuew (ya^a-e-) So/<ew (SoK-c-) 

yyjOtd) (y7y^-e-) Kvpew poetic (i<vp--} 

Also some poetic and dialectic verbs and forms. 

2. The following verbs of the First Class add e to the theme to form 
all their tense-stems except the present, second-aorist, and second- 
perfect : 

Sew (Se-e-), want (see Sew, 
Se-, bind) 


(e)0eAo> (e#eA-e-; 
po/j,a.L ( eyo-e-) 


ei/'w (e-i/'e-) 



TTCUCO (vrat-e-) 


7TTOfjiai (TTCT-, 
Also several poetic and dialectic verbs. 

3. The following of the First Class add e to form one or more 
tense-stems : 

v/xco (ve/x-e-) 


Also a few poetic and dialectic verbs. For the poetic and dialectic verbs 
which add e to the theme for one or more tenses, see 990. 

628. Addition of o. Tp^xw (T/aux-), wear out, adds o to the stem for 
all the systems, rpv^-o-, as Tpf'xwcrto. Ot'x /^ 011 (^X~ e ~)' ^ e 9 one > adds o in 
the perfect, (HX~~ > OI'X-W-KCX or CL>X-W-KGI (Ionic and poetic). 

629. Addition Of a. A few verbs, confined mostly to poetry, add a 
to the theme for the present or other tense - systems ; as /fyf'X-a-o/xou 
(/3pvx-a-), roar, 2 perf. /3e/?pvx (Epic and late prose). These verbs are 
given in 991. 


630. The short theme-vowel a, i, v, is lengthened to 77, ei, ev 
and -%- is added to form the present stem. The short theme- 
vowel a, i, v, appears only in the second-aorist, and occasionally 
in other tenses (633). 

Thus : T7y/cw (T<XK-, present stem rrjK^-), melt, r>y^o>, errj^a, rer^/ca, 
T7/x^>/v, but 2 aor. pass. ^-TOLK-IJV ; AetVco (Airr-, present stem 
leave, Aen/'co, AeAoiTra, AeAei/zyzai, \i<f>&rjv, but 2 aor. e-Xnr-ov ; 

/-, present stem (evy%-),, (CI;O/XGU, Tre^evya, but 2 aor. 

631. To this class belong : 

AeiTTW (AlTT-) 


t #eo (7T10-) 

-) poetic 


Til) I 

> (r/)ay-) 

-) Ionic and 
TVK ~) poetic 

- Ionic and 

?-) poetic o-Tet/3w (o-ri/3-) 

Also some poetic and dialectic verbs (999). For verbs of the Fifth 
Class which lengthen a short vowel in some systems, see 656. 

632. 1. In six verbs, the strong form ev became e/ before a 
vowel (108, 2), / was then dropped, and the present stem ends 
in _ %_. The weak stem in v is retained in a few forms. 




Thus : peco (strong stern pev-, pef-> weak stem pv-> present stem 
p%-), pevaofjiai, eppevaa, eppvrj/ca, eppvrjv. 
2. These verbs are : 

TrAew (TrAv-), sail /jeco (pv-), flow 

Trveco (TTI>V-), breathe \(t) (x v ~)> ^>owr 
See also poetic crevw in the Catalogue. 

633. In verbs of the Second Class the lengthened stem is called the 
strong stein, the short stem is called the weak stem. The weak stem appears 
in the second-aorist and second-passive systems, as \.LTTOV and 
from AeiVoo (AetTr-, AITT-), eppvrjv and pvrjO'OfJLai from peio (pe-, pef-, 
with the Attic reduplication, as d\.-rjXi(f)a from dAei<<o (dAei<-, 
in the perfects fppvrjKa (/oew) and fvriflrjfLai (o-ret/^w) with e- added to the 
stem ; and in the perfect, perfect-middle, and first-passive systems of ^eo> 
(x v ~> X -^~' X ev ") K ^v/ca, Ke^v/xat, \vfofv. Also in a few poetic and 
dialectic verbs and forms 


634. The present stem is formed by adding -r%- to the verb- 
stem. To this class belong only themes which end in a labial 
mute (TT, ft, <). Obviously the verb-stem cannot be known from 
the present on account of the euphonic changes caused by T (80), 
but must be found in a second-aorist, if the verb has one, or in 
some other word from the same root. 

K07TTO), CUt, pr. St. KO7TT/-, 

), lighten, ,, 


dip, paTTT^-, /& 

635. The verbs of this class are : 


vb. st. 2 aor. pass. C-KOTT-^V 
,, (dcrTpaTr-i], lightning) 
2 aor. pass, e-/ 

2 aor. pass. -/2d< 




for ^ 


KV7TTW Kf'()- 
ActTTTO) (Att^)-) 



Also several dialectic and poetic verbs (1000). 

636. NOTE. 'PifTTTW (/?</>-, pt^>-) has also a present form ptTrrew with 
e- added (piTrreft-). He/crew (TTCK-), com6, also adds e- for the present stem 
( c/c-re/{-). TVTTTW (TVTT-) has the stem TIJTTT-- for some tenses. 




637. 1. The present stem is formed by adding the suffix -y%- 
to the theme, and making the regular euphonic changes caused 

2. To this class belong many palatal themes with futures in -fw, 
many lingual themes with futures in -o-w ; many liquid themes with 
futures in -w (from -e-o-to, -ew) ; and several vowel themes. 

3. A complete list of the verbs of this class is not given ; but all 
the important ones, especially all which have second tenses, or have 
any irregular formation, are in the Catalogue. 

638. /. Palatal themes. In themes ending in a palatal (*, y, x), 
the palatal unites with y forming era- or later Attic TT (96, 1). The 
present stem ends in -o-a-%- (-TT%-). 

<f>vX.d(T(ra) = <j>vXaK-ya), guard, verb-stem <f>v\a.K- (</>vAa, guard, <i;AaK-os) 
juaorcra) = /my-i/w, knead, ,, /*.y-> 2 aor. pass. -/xay-ryv 

rapacrcrw = rapa^-yo}, disturb, rapa^- (ra/aa^-ry, confusion) 

639. NOTE. The three palatals undergo the same changes before mutes, 
the future ending in -<o. Hence the verb-stem can only be known from a 
second tense formed with the palatal, or from some other word from the same 
root. Palatal themes which form presents in -<ro-a> and second-tenses with 
the palatal are : 

dAAao-o-a> (aAAay-) 

(TrAay-, Tr 
also of Class II.) 

640. NOTE. Some verbs with presents in -w have stems in y. These 
occur in Attic (chiefly in poetry): aAaAa<o, y/n'a>, K/aa^w, ot/jua>, oAoAv^co, 
crra^w, <rTemco, <rr^pi^D, crrt^w, cr^a^ico = cr^arrw. A number of others are 
only poetic and Epic (1002). 

641. NOTE. These with themes in yy have presents in -w :> (/<Aayy-, Latin clango), scream, tut. /cAayw. 

(raATTi^w (o-aA7riyy-), sound the trumpet, aor. raA7rtya. 
Also poetic 7rAaw (TrAayy-), cause to wander. 

642. NOTE. Nacrcrw, stuff, compress, has the stem vay- and vaS-. 
Ileo-o-w or TreTrw, cook, is from the stem TTCK-, while the fut. Tre^co and all 
other forms are from the stem TTCTT- ; a late present is TTCTTTW. 

For presents in -o> with stems in Sand y, see G46. For presents in -acreo 
or -TTo> from lingual stems, see 647. 

643. //. Lingual themes, In themes ending in 8, the 8 unites with 
y forming (96, 3). The present stem ends in -{%-. 


cA-tu> = eA7riS-?/w, hope, verb-stem eA.7rtS- (eATris, hope, gen. eA7rt8-os) 

carry, ,, Ko^iS- (/co/juS-?/, a carrying} 

say, ,, ,, <paS- (Horn. 2 aor. 7re-</>/m8-oy) 

wonder ,, Qa.vfj.aS-, perf. mid. Te-#aiyxao--/xat 

644. NOTE. The theme is seen in the perfect middle and in the aorist 
passive; as 7re-</y>acr-/xai for 7T-</xxS-^icu and e-^>paj(r-0rjv for -<f>pa8-07)v (80). 
The stem in 8 is seen unchanged only in a poetic second-aorist, as Horn. 
-7T-(f>pa-ov ; or in some other word from the same root, as /coytuS-r/, I Arris, 
gen. eArriS-os. But many verbs in -<o with stems in 8 have no original root 
in- 8, but were formed by analogy ; as #atyx,ao> ($ai>yuaS-), from $aiyxa, 

645. NOTE. Ntw, it/m/i, has the stem vt/5- for the other tenses, as fut. 
vt^u), also in the late present vurna and in Homeric vwrrojuar. 2w<o, save, 
has the stem (rwS- in the present, elsewhere a-w-, as crw-o-w, e-o-<o-a-a } etc. 

646. NOTE. Several verbs in -(o have stems in 8 and y : aprrdfe 
(apiraS-, Epic and late apiray-J ; irat^iu (TratS-, ?raty-). Also several poetic 
and dialectic verbs (1002). 

647. NOTE. The following verbs with lingual stems form presents in 
-O-CTCU (-TTW) : 

a/)yu,oTTco, poetic 

j3pa.o-(ru>, late 



ySAtrrw (/?Air- for 
gen. /xeAi7 
Also several poetic and dialectic verbs (1002). 

648. ///. Liquid Themes. If the theme ends in A, the y is assimi- 
lated to it and the present stem ends in -AA/- (96, 4). If the theme 
ends in v or p, the y is thrown back as t to the vowel of the theme 
with which it is contracted, and the present stem ends in -aiv%-, -aip%-, 
-civ%-, -cip%, -lv%, -lp%-, -vv%-, -vp%- (96, 5). 

/3aAAw = fiaX-yio (/3aA-), throw KeipiD = Kp-ya) ( K *p-\ shear 
<TT\\O) = <TTeA-|/(o (o-reA-), send KplviD = Kplv-y<D (nplv-), judge 

= <f)av-yw (^>ai/-), show 

= KaOap-ya) (KaOap-\ cleanse 

= reiM/co (TCV-), stretch 

649. NOTE. 1. BorAo//,cu (j3ovX--\ ya//,ea> (ya/z-e-), ytyvo/iat (yev-e-), 
ye/jL-10 (only pr. and impf.), 8e/3-(o, (e)^eAo> (e^eA-e-), po/ (ep-e-), ep/aw 
(epp-c-}, Oep-0/ (prose only pr.), jueAAw (/zeAA-e-), /xeAw (/zeA-e-), /xevo) 
(fj.v--), v/xw (i/e/z-e-), (TTV-<D, and several poetic verbs belong to the First 
Class. Some liquid verbs belong to the Fifth Class, as re/x-vw, cw. Several 
belong to the Sixth Class, as ety>-<o-Ko>. ywt?. 

2. 5 O<ei'Aa> (o(eA-), owe, ?TI obliged, is formed on the analogy of 

(oLKrlp-\ pity 
(a/xw-), ward off 
= crvp-y(D (crvp-), sweep 




stems in v and p, and is thus distinguished from d^AAw (d<eA-), increase^ 
but Homer generally has the Lesbian d<eAAo> for ofaiXw. 

650. IV. Themes in -au-. Two themes in -av- drop v, and y is 
thrown back as i to the a. 

KCUW = KO/-T/O) (Kan-, Ka/-, present stem ica/-yj!-, 
K-Aaiw = K\ap-ijto (/cAau-, /cAa/-, K\a,f-y/ e -, 

The futures are Kawrco and KXavcrofiai. In Attic prose, the present is 
often /caw and /cActio. Several poetic presents of this form also occur 
(1002, 4). 

For the dialectic verbs of this class, see 1002. 

651. Addition of e. A few verbs of this class form some tense- 
stems by adding e- to the present stem, omitting the thematic vowel. 
They are: 

-, /?aAA--) 
Also a few poetic and dialectic verbs (990). 


652. The present stem is formed from the theme by the 
addition of a syllable containing v. This occurs in various 

/. By adding -v%-\ as re/x-vw, cut, present stem 


-, 656) 


. = 7TI- 

i-, S66 Ti'to) 

(TTI-, TTO-, 656) 

//. #/ adding -w%- for -v-?/^-, a transition to the Iota or Fourth 
Class. Thus /3cuVw (/3a-), #0, present stem /3auv%- 

KepSaivw for Kp8a-v-y(o (Kp8av-, KtpSa-) j3aivd} for Pa-v-ya) (/?-) 

TCTpaivio for rerpa-v-yo) (r^rpav-, rpa-) 

III. By adding -ov%- ; as alo-Odvo/jiai (aurd-), perceive, present stem, 



(poet.) = ot8ea> 

also of Sixth Class) 


IV. By adding -o.w%- for -ovy%-, a transition to the Iota or Fourth 

da-c^/mtVo/zai for 6cr(f>p-ai>yofjLai (dcr</3-e-), smell, present stem d 




V. By adding -$- and inserting a nasal, n or v or y nasal, in the 
Stem, Thus Aa/x/3ai/w (Aa/3-, present stem Aa/x/3ai$-), take; /xav(9ai/a> 
(uaO-, present stem uavOav%-), learn; diyydvu (Oiy-, present stem 6iy- 
yav%-) t touch. 

avodvw (aS-) Ionic and 


Aa/x/3avw (Aa/3-, 

Xa.v6dv(D (XaO-, 


VI. By adding -vi%-\ as /3vi/eo> (fiv-), 

cv-) poet. 


present stem /3vvt%-. 

w%- (for -i 
for eAa-viMo (eAa-), drive, present stem o 

By adding -w-, after a vowel -vw-. 

They all end in -VVJJLI (or -vv/xcu) and form the second class of verbs in 
IJLL (493, 2) ; as oeijevu/u (SeiK-, present stem SeiKfu-), s/iow, o-/ceSavvv/xt 
(cr/<eSa-, present stem o-/<e8uvvi>-), scatter, Trrapwaai (irrap-, present stem 
TTTapi'v-}, sneeze, oXXvpi for dA-^v/xt (oA-, present stem oAAv-), destroy, lose. 
They are enumerated in 766. 

IX. By adding -va-. 

Thus o-KtS^/xt (a-KtS-va-), poetic and rare prose for CTKcdavvv/u, scatter. 
All the others are confined almost entirely to poetry. 

653. NOTE. Besides the verbs of the Fifth Class given above, there 
are some poetic and dialectic verbs and forms of this class (1005). 

654. Addition of e. 1. The following verbs of this class add e to 
the theme to form all their tense-stems, except the present, second- 
aorist, and second-perfect. 

alo-OdvofJ-ai (cucr$-e-) 
5-e-), poetic 

2. These add e to the theme to form one or more tense-stems. 

)a/W (Kep8-e-) 6<r(f)paivofjLai (ocrc/>p-e-) Tvy\dvw (T^X-, T*VX-> TV X' ~) 
(oA-e-) o-ropvv/xt (crro/a-e-) 

655. NOTE. -"0/xi'iyxt (o/x-), swear, adds o to the theme for all systems 
except the present and future making c/x-o- ; as w/x-o-cra, o/xcu/x-o-Kttj but 



656. NOTE. Some verbs of the Fifth Class lengthen a short stem- 
vowel in some of the tense-systems, but not in the present ; they thus 
belong also to the Second Class. They are : SaKVoo (Sa/c-, S?/K-), Aay^avw 
(Aay-, Aiyx-)> Xap/3dva) (Aa/3-, AT//?-), XavOdvio 

C V 7")' Tr-tjyvv/JLi (Tray-, TTTyy-) and p/yvtyu (pay-, pipy-, 2 perf. /)<oy-) 
have the long stem-vowel everywhere except in the second-passive system ; 
f&fyvvftt has ply- in the second-perfect and second-passive systems, else- 
where ply-. 


657. The present stem is formed by adding -CTK%- or -LCTK%- 
to the theme, which in some verbs is reduplicated in the present. 
Thus yiyvco-o-KO) (71/0-), know, present stem yiyva>o-K%- ; evp-icnc(D 
(evp-\ find, present stem evpLaic%-. 

This class of verbs has been called inchoative or inceptive on account of 
their resemblance to the Latin inchoative verbs in -sco, but very few have an 
inchoative meaning. 

658. I. Vowel Stems, These are : 

peer KID 
fii-/3pa>(rii) (/3/DO-) 

pX<OtTAC<0 (/XoA-, 

/5Ao- 71) poetic 

6vt](TK(jy^ older 6vij<TK(i> 

(Oar-, Ova-) 
OpwrKta (Oop-, Opo-~) 
fAaa-KO/xai (fAa-) 



II. Consonant Stems. These are : 

aAi(TKO/xat (aA-, dAo-) 
-) poetic 

-, p- 


r-av pier KID (cu'y)-) poetic 

ako of 01. V.) 
for Tr 
(7ra#-, 7TvB- } also of 
01. VIII.) 
(TTpi<TKiD = crrepew 

Adcr/cw for Aa/c-CTKO) 

(Aa/<-) poetic 

659. NOTE. Efyxo-KW (ev/o-) adds e to the theme for all tense-stems- 
except the present and second-aorist (ev/o-e-), as fut. ei>p/(ra>. Zre/jurKto, 
deprive, has all other stems from the theme crre/oe-, as crrep/o-w ; a present 
<rTpo[jiai, be in want, is from o-rep-. 'AAicrKo/xat (dA-o-), be captured, and 
d/^Aia-Kw = -dya/^Aow in composition (d/Jif^X-o-), miscarry, add o to the theme 
for all systems except the present ; as dA-w-o-o/xai, rj/^A-w-o-a. 

660. NOTE. Final o of the theme becomes o> before -O-K^-, as yi-yvw- 


(yi'o-); final a sometimes becomes a or 17, as cu-fyd-a-KU) (Bpa-\run away, 
.va- remind. 

661. NOTE. The dialectic and poetic verbs and forms of this class are 

given in 1006. 


662. The verb-stem, sometimes reduplicated, is the present 

Thus <j>r)fii (<a-), say, <f>a-fjifv, <a-re ; ri-O^-^i (0e-), Tt-tfe-jaev, Ti-Oe-re, 
Tt-#e-/zat, rc-Be-crOc, Ti-Oe-vraL ; 8t-8w-/xt (So-), 8i-8o-fj,v ; aya-/xcu (aya-). 

Here belong all verbs in -/xi except those in -vvpi. They are enumerated 
in 764-766, and (dialectic) in 1064. 


663. Several essentially different stems belong to the same 
verb. Compare the Latin fero, tnli, latum, and the English go > 

Ac/oew (atpc-, IA-), take, <up}<r(i>, #V? Ka > ypv)[w.t t ypeO^v ; 2 aor. eLW 
{eA.(o, e'Aoi/xt, eAe, eAetv, cAwv}. 

EtSov, saw, see opdu) below. 

EiTTov (fiiir-, !/>-, /oe-), s^po/ce, second aorist, no present ; fut. (e/aew) e/>w ; 
perf. eLprjKa, ei'/or/^tat ; aor. pass. pp-)]6f]v ; 1 aor. e?7ra. The stem CLTT- is 
for -7r- = /-/CTT- (poetic 7ros = /7ro?, word) ; /3- is for /ep- (Latin ver-bum, 
word) ; /oe- is for //oe-, ciprjiJ,ai = j : c-J : prj-[j.aL. 

"EpXopai (e/ox-, eAev^-, eAv^-, eA^-), </o, in prose, the other moods, the 
participle, and the imperfect are usually borrowed from e?/u ; fut. eAevo-o/xou 
very rare in prose (777) ; 2 perf. IAr/Av#a ; 2 aor. rjXdov {e'A&o, 4'A^ot/zt, 
etc.}; Attic fut. is et/u, s/iaZ? go (775). 

'Ecrfltw (lo-^-, e'8-, <ay-), mi; fut. e'8o/xai ; perf. eSyJSoica ; perf.. mid. 
8rj8eo-/xat ; aor. pass. rjSccrQrjv ; 2 aor. e'</>ayov. 

'0/oaw (opa-, OTT-, tS- for /iS-), ste ; fut. o^o/xai ; perf. ecoyoaKa ; perf. mid. 
eiopdfjiaL or w/x/zou ; aor. pass. &<f)@r)v ; 2 aor. etiSov {i'Sw_, t'Sot/xi, etc.}; 2 perf. 
poetic oTTWTra. 

Ilao-xw (7ra#-, TrevO-), suffer ; fut. Treto-o/xat for 7rei/^-(ro-/xafc ; 2 perf. 
7T7rov#a ; 2 aor. eVa$oV. 

IIli/co (TTI-, TTO-), drink ; fut. TTI'O/ZOU ; perf. TrcTrw/ca ; 2 aor. ITTIOV. 

T/)X<o (r/oex- f r ^/ X- 1()2 > Spa/x-e-) ; fut. 8pafj,ovfJiaL ; perf. SeS/>ap7/<a 
(stem 8pafj,--} ; 2 aor. cSpapov ; 6^/o^o>, $peo/zai, and tOpe^a are poetic and 

^epco (<^e/)-, ot-, CVCK-, by reduplication and syncope ev-eve/c- and evey/c-), 
6ear, Lat. /m> ; fut. oib-w ; aor. rjvey/ca ; perf. lv-^vox ; perf. mid. 6r-7y 
/xai ; aor. pass. 


(cove-, TTpia-), fat. wvr/cro/jiat ; perf. mid. ecoVry/xcu ; aor. pass. 
2 aor. mid. eV/aia//.^ (498) ; ewv^o-a^i/ is late. 


664. Indicative. 1. (Common Form). The present indicative is 
inflected by adding the primary personal endings to the present stem 
in -%-, the imperfect is inflected by adding the secondary personal 
endings to the stem in -%-. For the present singular in -to, -e.-.s, -et, and 
the third plural in -oio-i, see 588, 1 ; for tr of the personal endings -0-0.1 
and -cro dropped, see 596, 2. See also the paradigm of Arto. 

2. (Mi-Form). The final vowel of the tense-stem is lengthened 
in the singular of the indicative active (a and e to ?y, o to to, v to v). 
The present indicative adds the primary endings: the imperfect 
indicative adds the secondary endings, with -o-av in the third plural. 
For -o- from -o-i, -tri from -TI, -d-o-i from -d-vn, see 588, 2 ; for o- in 
-crat and -o-o retained, see 596, 1. See also the paradigms in 498. 

665. NOTE. For the two forms -y and -ei of the second person 
singular middle, see 597. For the irregular dropping of o- in -trai and -o-o 
of verbs in -/zt, see 506. For several active forms of verbs in -yu made as 
if from contract verbs, see 500. For forms of verbs in -vpt from presents 
in -vw, see 503. 

666. Subjunctive, The subjunctive has the long thematic vowel 
-%- and the primary personal endings. 

1. (Common Form). The long thematic vowel -%- takes the place 
of -%-. For the active singular -to, -ys, -77, and for the third "plural 
-totri, see 589 ; for the second person singular -y for -tj-vai, see 596, 2. 
See also the paradigm of Avw. 

^cuvto, subj. <au'ctx, ^aiV^s, (fiawy, <au'(o//*v, etc. ; <aiVto/xai, <cuV>7 for 
<^>atVr/-(o-)ai, jxtivrjTai, etc. 

2. (M.i-Form). The final vowel (a, e, or o) of the tense-stem is 
contracted with the long thematic vowel -%- ; but final a irregularly 
contracts with 77 and y to 77 and y (the Ionic has subjunctives in -ew 
for -aw, 1047). Verbs in viyxi form the subjunctive (and optative) 
like verbs in -w. 

(0e-), subj. TI#W from rifle-to, rtflr/s from rtOc-ys etc., r 
from Ti#e-r7(o-)ai, etc. ; rn//u (trra-), icrrco, icrr^s from lo-ra-ys (1047), 
7y from icrTa-r), l(rry from LcrTa-rj(cr}ai, io-TrJTai from icrra-^rat (1047, 
Ionic has open forms like eVicrre-tovTcu for Attic eVt'o-TcovTat from 7rio-ra- 
<OVTGU) ; SiSco/x6 (So-), subj. SiSto from 8t8o-co, SiSto? from SiSo-?;?, StSw from 
etc., StSco/xat from Si8o-to/xai, 8180? from 6\So-r7(cr)cu, 8t8torat from 


, etc. ; StiKVVfu (Sei/c-, pres. stem SCIKVV-), subj. BCLKVVW, 
vvy, etc. 

667. NOTE. For the accent of the /u-forms, see 515. For the 
irregular accent in the subjunctive (and optative) of Swa-pai, eTru 
i, and <xya-/xcu, see 516. 

668. Optative, 1. The optative has the mood-suffix -i-(-te-) or 
-it]- added to the tense-stem, it being -t (-te-) or -trj- according to 572, 
573. In the common form of inflection, the thematic vowel, here 
always o, precedes the mood-suffix ; verbs in - vvfjn form the optative 
(and subjunctive) like verbs in -w. 

2. The final vowel of the tense-stem contracts with the mood- 
suffix : o-t, oo-t, and eo-t give ot ; a-t gives cu ; e-t gives ei ; ao-t gives 
w (through aoi) ; while cr of the personal ending -o-o is dropped (596). 

3. The optative has the secondary personal endings ; but the first 
person singular has the ending -/u for -v whenever the mood-suffix 
is -i-. The third person plural has -<rav after the mood-suffix -ir)-. 

Common Form. AVOLJJLL from Xvo-i-fu, Avois from- XVO-L-S, Xvoi from 
AiJo-i, Xvotfjiev from XVO-I-/JLCV, Xvoirc from Af'o-i-re, Xvoiev from Avo-ie-v ; 
XVOL^V from Avo-t-yu^v, XVOLO from Xvo-i-o = Xvo-i-<ro ; SeiKvf'/xi, opt. 
$iKvvoifj,i from &CIKVVO-I-IJLL, SCLKVVOLS from <$eiKj/vo-i-s, etc. (Contract 
Presents) : ri/xco/xt from rt/za-oi-/xt, Ti/xa-o-t-/At ; TI/XWS from ri/xa-ot-s, ri/xa-o- 
t-s ; TijjLipTjv from rlfJia-OLrj-r, Ti/xa-o-t7^-v ; rlfJua/JLrjv from Ti/xa-ot-ja^v, r^/xa- 
TI/XCOO from ri/za-ot-o, ri/xa-o-t-o = ri/xa-o-t-o-o (478; 596, 2); 
from <^>iAe-oi-/jit, <^>iAe-o-t-/x6 ; <tA<myv from <^>iAe-ot^-v, ^tAe-o-tiy-v ; 
from SrjXo-OL-fAi, SyXo-o-i-fAi ; SryAot^v from SrjXo-o-irj-v. See 
461 and 477 

Mi-.F0rm. riOefyv from Ti^e-t^-r ; TiB^ir\^v from Tte-t^-/xev, or 
eL/jiev from riOe-i-fjiev ; rtOcL^a-av from Ti^e-t^-ovu', or ri^eiev from 
e-ie-i' ; TiOei^v from n^e-6-^i/ ; nOeio from riSe-i-o = TtOe-L-vo (596, 2) ; 
from SiSo-tTy-v, etc. ; Icrra.i'Yjv from tcrra-i^-v. See 498. 

669. NOTE. For the optative of /oiyow, shiver, and ify)ow, sweat, see 
481. For the optative middle of Tifajftt. and uy/xt occasionally formed as in 
verbs in -w, see 504 and 771, 3. 

670. NOTE. For the accent of the ^ui- forms, see 515. For the 
irregular accent in the optative (and subjunctive) of 8wa-/xou, ca?i, eT 

/xou, understand, Kpe/xa-/xat, &??(/, and aya-/mt, admire, see 516. 

671. Imperative. The imperative endings are added to the tense- 
stem. In the common form. -0i is always omitted. In the /Ai-form, 
-0t is also omitted (672), and the preceding stem-vowel is then 
lengthened : a to 7;, e to et, o to ov, v to v. For cr of the personal 


ending -o-o dropped in the common form, and retained in the /xt-form, 
see 596. 

Common Form. ^Pcuve, </>cuve-Ta>, <>aiv-Tov, <aive-Tcov, <aive-re, 
<an>o-vT<Di> or <aive-T(ocra,v ; \.vov for Aue-o = \ve-cro (596, 2), AiJ-o-#<o, etc. 
M.i-Form. icrr^, IO-TCI-TO), etc. ; Ti#ei, TI$-TW ; 
u-ro ; i'a-Ta-cro, rt^e-cro, oYSo-o-o, &IKVV-(TO, etc. 

672. NOTE. The only presents which retain -$t are : icr-Ot from et'/xi, 
6e (also from otSa, know, see 772 and 786) ; l-Bi from etfja, r/o (775) ; <a-$i 
or <^>a-^t from ^/xt, *ay (779), and some dialectic forms. The ending -o-o 
drops cr in a few poetic forms (506, 2). 


(Future, Active and Middle.) 

673. The future stem is made by adding the tense-suffix 
-cr%- to the theme; in liquid verbs, by adding -e%- (for --a%-) 
to the theme. In verbs of the Second Class, -a%- is added to 
the strong form of the theme. The inflection is like that of the 
present of the common form. 

Aixr<o, Avcrets, Avo-et, etc. ; ATXTO/AOU, Xvarr) or Af'Q-ei, Avo-erou, etc. ; 
optative : Xvcroifju, Atkrois, Al5o-ot, etc.; Aikroi'/z^v, Ai;o-oio, Avo-otro, etc. 

1. Vowel verbs. Vowel stems regularly lengthen a short final 
vowel before the tense-suffix -or%- according to 39. Thus a- and 
are lengthened to 77, o to w, I to i, v to v ; but & preceded by e, t, or 
p becomes d. 

a-w, honour, 

ea-o), permit, ed-o-w, Id-fro/xat 

a-w, distress, avtd-o-w, dvid-o-o/xa 

d-co, c?o, Spa-era), Spd-cro/zai 

TTVV-), breathe, 
(o~Ta-), sgf, 

(Oe-), put, B^-crco, 

(So-), grive, Sco-crw, 

2. A/(//e Ker/?S. Palatal mutes (K, y, x) anc ^ labial mutes (?r, ^, <) 
coalesce with o- to form f or ^>. Dental mutes (r, S, ^) drop out 
before o-. 


weave, 7rAew, 7rAeo/xcu 

Aey-co, say, Aew, Ae^o/xou 

(ray-), arrange, ra^oo, rao/zat 

(rapa^-\ disturb, rapd^M, 

(AiTT-, ACITT-), foaw, Aeii/'w, 

y/3a</>-<o, write, ypd\f/<i), 

rp(f>-iD, nourish, @pe\l/<a, Optyopai (102) 

KOTTTCO (KOTT-), CM, KO^<O, Ko^o/xat 

(/3Aa/3-), injure, /^Aai/'to, /^Aai/'o/mi 

paS-), say, (f>pdcr<D 

(T7rev8-(o, pour, o~7reicra>, (TTreicrOjUGU (40) 

-, iriO-\ persuade, 

3. Liquid verbs, Liquid stems insert e before -a-%- ; thereupon a- 
drops out and contraction takes place. The tense-suffix thus appears 
as -$- (from -eo-^-). 

o-<aAAco (o-(/>aA-), <r^j, deceive, fut. o-<aA-e-(T(o, cr 

(rreAAto (crreA-), se?trf, ,, crreA-e-crw, crreA-t-co, (rreAw, o-reX.ovfj.aL 

( Tl/ -)j stretch, rev-e-o-w, rev-e-w, revw, revov/xat 

(Kplv-}, judge, ., Kpiv-e-cra), K/aiv-e-co, Kptvw, KptvovjJLai 

(TC/X-), cw^, ,, TejU-e-cra), Te/x-e-w, re/zw, re/xov/xat 

674. NOTE. The rale of lengthening a short final stem-vowel before 
-o-J^- holds good also in the case of consonant stems which are changed into 
vowel-stems by the addition of e (613) or o (614, 628, 659); as 
(e#eA-e-), u'is/i, $Ary-<r<u ; dAtcrKo/xat (aA-o-), 6e captured, dAw-cro/xat. 

675. NOTE. XP^ M y y' tve o^'^cles, lengthens a to 77 : 

etc. ; also x/aao/xai, sg, ^prycro/xat, etc. So also rer/aati/w (rpa-\ bore, 
eTprjcra. 'A/c/aoao/xat, /iert?', has aKpod<ro/>icu, rjKpoao-djji'rjv, etc. 

676. NOTE. The following verbs have the future with the forms of 
the present : ecr^tw (ccr0-) = poetic e8-w, m, fut. e'8o/xat ; TTII/W (TTI-), drink, 
fut. TTioxat ; ^ w v " e ^- V ' our fut. ^ 

677. NOTE. Ileroyu-at (TTCT-C-, 7rr-e-), /?/, has the future Trervjcro/xat or 
syncopated Trry/o-o/Aat. ^E^w (o"eX"> "X ')) ^ aw > make efo> or 

678. NOTE. The poetic verbs /ceAAw (KeA-), ?a?i^, Ku 

and opvv/j.L (op-), rouse, retain o- : KeAcrto, Kvparw, O/JCTW. These have corre- 
sponding aorists (686). Other similar futures belong to Homer. 

679. S/70/^ theme-vowel retained. 1. A short final theme-vowel 
is retained by some verbs throughout (615); as yeAa-w, 

a-o/xat, yeAa-o-a, eyeAa-a--^!/ ; reAe-w, finish, reAe-o-co, ereAe-tra, 


rjv. These verbs are the following (all in the 

catalogue) : 

(a) aya-/Aou dpv-o> CO-@I<D 

cuSe-o/zcu yeAa-w e8e-, e8o-) cnrd-ia 

a/ce-o/xat eAavvca (IAa-) ^" w reAe-w 

aAe-w e'AKO> (eAK-, IAKV-) ^Aa-a> r/oe-u> 

dvi'-co yixe-a) iXda-KO^ai (tAa-) <$iVa> i 

dpK-<D <ipa-[ (poet.) 

(6) All verbs in -d-vvvfii and -C-VVV/JLL (but except the first perfect efrfiy-Ka 

from o-/3e-vvvfjii, extinguish). Also oXXvfJiL (oA-e-), OJJLVVJJU (o/x-e-, o/x-o-), and 

Here belong also several poetic and dialectic verbs and forms. 

2. The following also retain the short final vowel of the theme 
before -cr%- ; but lengthen it in one or more tense-systems, or have 
double future forms, one with the lengthening and one without it ; 
as cuvew, praise, cureo-co, aor. yveo-a, perf. ^vc/<a, aor. pass. yvWrjv, but 
perf. mid. jfn^ccu. These are : 

OUV-<0 KaAe-U) /Af'to (/XI-) TTO0-IO pV-<D (Epic) 

d-^Oo/Jiat (dxO--~) /xa^o/zat (^ta^-e-) TTIVW (TTI-, TTO-) 7rove-a> (frOdi'to (<f>0a-) 

3. The following lengthen the final vowel of the theme in the 
future, but keep it short in one or more tense-stems ; as 8e-w, bind, 

but Se&fKa, SeSe/mi, tScOrjv. These are the following : 

8i8a>/xt (80-) ^ 

(/3v-) 8uw (Sv-) fy/u (I-) Tt^ryut (^e-) root e/)-, 

In the dialects the quantity is sometimes different from that of the Attic 
form. For the few Epic verbs which retain a short final theme- vowel in one 
-or more tenses, see 992. 

680. Attic future. 1. The verbs K-aAe-w, call, and reAe-to, finish, drop 
a- of the future stem and then contract, making the futures have the same 
form as the present. Thus /caAoo, fut. /caAccrw, /caAew, Attic /caAw ; reAetu, 
fut. TeAccrw, reAew, Attic reAw. 

2. 'EAou'vw (IAa-, poet, and dial. pres. eAaw), drwe, has fut. 
f\du), Attic eAw. Maxo/Aat (jMaj(--) /^^, has fut. /zaxeo-o/>tat, yu, 

Attic [MXpVfMi* -"OAAf'/zt (oA-e-), destroy, has fut. dAecrw, oAew, Attic oAw. 
Ka^^o/>tat (eS-e-), sit, has fut. Attic Ka^eSov/xat. 

3. All verbs in -drvv/ja have this future ; as Kpefj-avvvpi (KpcfM-\ hang, 

Attic /cpe/xw. Also djj.<j)ivvvfJLi (a/z^ie-), clothe, fut. 


(ayu</ua>), Attic ayu<tw ; and (rro/oevvi'/zi (crrope-), spread out', fut. 
(TTo/3o-(o, (crTopew), Attic crropw. 

4. Verbs in -too o/* morg f/ian fwo syllables regularly drop a of the future 
after inserting e before the thematic vowel (as in the Doric future, 681) ; 
then -t-ew and -t-eo/xcu are contracted to -iw and -tovfjuu. Thus vo/uo> 
(vo/ziS-), think, (vo/ott-crecu, voyai-ew), Attic vo/zitu, i/ojutefc, fo/uei, vo/xtetrov, 

vfJLv, vo/x,ietre, vo/xiovcrt ; opt. Vofuotijv ; middle (vo/u-creo-jucu, vo/xi-eo- 
Attic vo/JLLovfjiai, VO/AII? or vo/xte?, vo/zieirai, etc. But cr^t^co (cr)(tS-), 
^, of two syllables, has a-\i-(roy. The regular future form vo/ziVw is late ; 
and forms like vo/xio-eto do not occur. 

5. Bi/3aw (/3i/3a8-\ cause to go, usually drops a- of the future and then 
contracts : /?i/3ao-<u, /3i/3aa>, usually /2t/;?w. Other verbs in -a(w seldom 
have this contracted future form. 

6. The above future formations are termed Attic, although they are 
found in other dialects. The forms /caAeo-w, reAecrw, eAao-w, and dAeo-co are 
found here and there in the texts of Attic writers, but ought to be eliminated ; 
while the forms in -ecro), -ro/xcu, -ew, -eo//,cu, -ct(ra>, -aw, not in parenthesis, 
are dialectic. 

681. Doric future. A few verbs form the stem of the future middle 
in -<re%-, contracting -creo/xat to -(rov/xat. This is called the Doric future 
because the Doric forms futures in -crew (-erw) and -o-eo/xat (-crov/xcu). The 
Attic has these forms alongside of the regular Attic forms, except in vtw, 
), and perhaps iraifu. The verbs with Doric futures are the following : 

cu (icAav-), weep, /cAavcrou/xat or KAavcro/xai 

vew (vv-, i/c/-, vev-), swim, vevcro^ai 

Traifo (vratS-, Traty-), sport, irai^ovfjiai (Trai'^co and Trai'^o/xat late) 

ew (rrAu-, TrAe/-, TrAe-), sai/, TrAevo-ov/xat or TrAei'cro/xat 

eca (TTVV-, Trve/-, TTVC-), breath, or 

(TTCT-), /a^, Trecrov/zcu 

and e 


(First- Aorist Active and Middle.) 

682. The future stein is made by adding the tense-suffix -cra- 
to the theme. In verbs of the Second Class -era- is here also 
added to the strong form of the theme. 

1. ^owtf/ a/7flf mute verbs, The changes (if any) in the theme are 
here the same as in the future system (673, 1 and 2). 

Ti/za-co, honour, ert/x^-cra, 

a-a>, permit, eid-cra, 

8pd-(j>, do, fSpdcra, 




e-w, love, 
, show, 
(o~Ta-), srf, 


eSvy A co-era, 



ypd-<f)-w, write, 
T/D6^)-a>, nourish, 





jrv0) TTI'U 

TrAe/c-to, weave, 

Aey-oo, Srti/, 

Taaxrto (ray-), arrange, 

rapda-criD (ra/aa^-), disturb, 


TrdOu (inO-, Jreia-), persuade, 

2. Liquid verbs, These drop o- of the tense-suffix -o-a-, and 
lengthen the theme-vowel in compensation : a to ?; (after t or p to d), 

tO 1, I tO I, V tO I' (40). 

(o-<aA-), njJ, deceive, aor. < 

/jLr]i' (102) 

^v (40) 


e-crreA-cra, ecrTeiAa, 



-), pollute, 


K/oiVw (*plv-\ judge, 
-a/i,ui/w (dfj.vv-\ ivard off", 

683. NOTE. For vowel verbs which retain a short final vowel of the 
theme, see 679. For the irregular first-aorists in -/<a, ZOijKa, c'SwKa, and 
?^Ka from T401//U, 8i'8to/xi, and /Sy/xt, see 501. 

684. NOTE. Xew (x^-, X ^-? X V ')' jPwr, has the first-aorist e'xco. 
(without cr) for Epic e'xeva, corresponding to the futures x^ w an( i 
(676). 4>e/)a>, 6ear, 2 aor. 7/vey/coi/, has also tlie r/veyKa, 
Ka/xr/i/ (from the theme CVCK--, 1 aor. stem ^vey/ca- for ev-ev(e)/<-a-, hy Attic re- 
duplication and syncope). Enrov (root /en--), saiW, has also a first-aorist 
(from c-fc-fcir-a). Ai/ow (d/o-), raise, has aorist indicative ^pa and 

(d augmented to 77), and hns d elsewhere : G/XD, a-paipi, O!/DOV, a/aat, 
mid. apaj/xat, apai^v, apacrOai, upa^evos. ^'AAAo/xat (aA-), 
indie. rjXdfjir/v ; elsewhere the stem is dA-, as dAa/xevos. 

685. NOTE. The following in -atVw lengthen -dv- to -di'- instead of 
-fjv- : yXvKaivio (yv/cav-), sweeten, eyXvKava ; 

/<e/)8atVw (Kp$av-, KeyaS-e-), {/at??, tKepSava ; KOtAcuVu) 

makes aor. 


hollow out, fKoiXdva j AtTrau'to (AtTrav-), fatten, Ai7r<Ii/a ; opyaivoo (opyav-), 
be angry, only in Tragedy, w/oydi/a ; TreTratVco (weTrai/-), raa&e n)? 

686. NOTE. The poetic verbs KeAAto, Kvpio, and opvvjju retain <r in the 
first-aorist : e/ceAo-a, fKvpaa, &p(ra (for similar futures, see 678). Other first- 
aorists from liquid themes with or retained belong to Homer (1019). 


687. Indicative. The secondary personal endings are added ; but 
the first person singular active omits -v, and the third singular 
weakens -a of the tense-suffix to -< ; for <r of the personal ending -cro 
dropped, see 596. 

Tense-stem \vcra-, e'Avcra, e'Avo-as, e'Avcre, IAi5cra/>iev, etc., eAixru/zrp, 
e\vo-(i) from \v(ra-((j-)o, etc. 

688. Subjunctive. The subjunctive substitutes the long thematic 
Towel -%- for a of the tense-suffix, and is inflected like the present 
subjunctive of the common form. 

Tense-stem Xvcra-, subj. Aixrw, Af'cnys, \Vcrr], XtiarrjTov, Xvo-<ofj.v, etc.; 
t, Xvo-rj, Xv<rrjraL, etc. 

689. Optative, The optative adds the mood-suffix -t- to the tense- 
stem with which it is contracted, a-t to at. It is inflected like present 
optative of the common form. 

Tense-stem Avcra-, opt. Alxrcu/zi from Aixra-i-/>u, Arcrats, Ai'o-cu, At'crcu- 
ju,v, etc., Xvcralfji.r]v, Atxrcuo, Al)(rairo, etc. 

The Attic generally prefers the so-called Aeolic forms in -etas, -etc, -eiev 
lo the regular ones in -cus, -at, -atev ; as Avo-cuas Atfcreie, Artraiav. 

690. Imperative. The imperative endings are added to the tense- 
stem ; but the second person singular active and middle is irregular, 
the endings -ov and -at (of uncertain origin) taking the place of a of 
the tense-stem. 

Tense-stem Avo-a-, imper. Avo-ov, Aixra-roo, At'cra-rov, Aua-a-Twv, Aixra-re, 
or Avcra-rwo-av ; mid. Av<rai, Xvcrd-crOio, \vo-a-cr9t, 
), etc. ; ^vat, ^va-tr^w, etc. 

(Second-Aorist Active and Middle.) 

691. Common Form. The tense-stem is formed by adding 
-%- to the verb-stem (in verbs of the Second Class, to the weak 
stem). The indicative is inflected like the imperfect (664, 1 ; 
461; 463). 


BaAAw (/3aA-), throw, e)8aXov, e/^aAo/zr/v ; AetVw (\LTT-, XCLTT-}, leave, 
e'AiTrov, eAiTTo/xryv ; Aa//./3avw (Aayft-), ta/je, eAa/3 
(a/za/>r-), err, -tj^aprov ; re/xi/w (TC/A-), 

692. NOTE. Second-aorists of the common form are found in prose 
only in mute verbs ; 7ri/o> (TTI-, TTO-), drink, is the only vowel verb which 
forms in prose a second-aorist, eVtov. Only primitive verbs can form 

693. NOTE. The few verbs of the First Class which have second- 
aorists form them in various ways. 

(a) By reduplication ; as ay-o>, lead, T/y-ay-ov, impf. 7/yov. 

(6) By syncope ; as Trer-o/xcu, fly, -7rr-6fj,rjv, impf. eVerop/v. 

(c) By change of the root-vowel e to a ; as rpeTr-w, itm, <irpa.Trov 

(Epic and lyric), irpairo^v, impf. er/aeTrov. 

((Z) By metathesis (poetic forms) ; as poetic Se/a/c-o/xat, see, -8paK-oi\ 
(e) Some derivative verbs in -aco and -ecu form poetic or late second- 

aorists from the root ; as /uvfco-o/iat, roa? 1 , fyvKOV (Epic), (rrvye-o) 

(Ionic and poetic), dread, hate, tvrvyov (Epic). 

694. NOTE. The following verbs form the second-aorist active (and 
middle) of the common form in Attic : 

&ytt} (dy-, dy-ay-) 5t'5w/u (5o-) /cd/ij/w (/ca/i-) Treroyttat (irer-, TTT-) 

alpeco (atpe-, e\-) (yelpti) (eyep-, eyp-) [Kiyxdvw (KI%-)] TT^W (TTI-) 

(aiad-) Z8pa.iJ.ov (dpa/m-, rpe- Kpdfa (Kpay-) irtirru (irer~, iree-} 

(a.\-) ^w) [/cretVw (KTCV-, /crav-)] TTTapw/mai (irrap-} 

d/j.aprdv(j} (d/iapr-) elSoi' (t'5-, bpdw) \ayxdvu (Xa%-) irvvddvop.a.1 (TTV()-) 

d/x,7rtcr^;f^o,aai (dfjur- elirov (eir-, pe-) \a/bt,pdvd) (Xa/3-) Te/mvtt} (re/n.-, ra/t-) 

tax-, dfJ.Tre<rx-) eno/mai. (<re7r-, CTTT-) Xav^dvw (Xa.6-) ridijfjii (de-) , 

[dw - avpia-Kd) (air- ^po,uat (ep-) Epic [Xatr/cw (Xa/c-)] rkra; (re/c-) 

aup-)] 2<payois ((pay-, ecrdiw} XCITTW (Xt?r-) rpeVw (rpeir-, rpair-} 

(O.TT- ^a> (<re%-, <TX-) na.vda.vd} 

) ^}\6ov (e\vd-, ep^o/xcu) [oXto-^di/ 

cu (dp-)] TJveyKov (even-, 0e/)w) 6XXi"/it (6X-) 

()8a\-) 0iyydvu (diy-) (50eiXa> (60eX-) 

(/3Xa<rr-)] ffrfiffKU (Oav-) &<f>\urK&V(i) (60X-) 

{/3Xo-, y.oX-)] [#pa>ovca> (^op-)] Tracrxw (ira.6-} 

Sd./o'w (5dK-) iKveofAaL (LK-) ?rep5o/xat (irepd-, 

Sapddvtj} (8ap9-) [jccUy<d (/cav-)] Trapd-) 

Of the above, some have only the active, some only the middle. The 
second-aorists of those given in [ ] do not occur in Attic prose, and are 
either poetic or late. The dialects have many other second-aorists of the 
common form (1029). 

695. Mi-fo/m The tense-stem is here identical with the theme. 
The stem- vowel is made long throughout the indicative active (rj, w, f). 
The inflection of the indicative is like that of the imperfect of the pi- 


form, except that the second-aorist middle drops a- of the ending -o-o 
after a short vowel and then contracts (664, 2 ; 498). 

"Lm//u (<TTO)-, set, 2 aor. lo-nji/, eW^s, e'cmy, ecrT^^ei/, eW^re, ecrrTycrav ; 
SiStafJiL (5o-), </we, 2 aor. mid. cSo/zr/y, e'Sou from e8o-(o-)o, eSoro, etc. ; ri$ry/u 
(0e-), 2?w, 2 aor. mid. e^e/x^v, e$ov for e$e-(<r)o, etc. ; /3au>w (/2a-), #0, 2 aor. 
J3rjv, e/ifys, /&/, etc. ; ytyywo-Kw (yvo-), know, 2 aor. e'yvcov, eyvtos, eyvw, 
etc. ; Jfy/u (e-), smd, 2 aor. mid. CI/A^V (augmented), efcro, etro, etc. ; ovivrjfjn 
(ova-), benefit, 2 aor. mid. wijfj.-rjv, wi^cro, wvryro, etc. 

The second-aorists of the /u-form are enumerated in 767 and (dialectic) 
1063. There are no second-aorists of the /u-form from verbs in -fyu in Attic. 

696. NOTE. The second-aorists of riOyj^i (0e-), St'Soyu (80-), and ^rj/ja 
(e-), retain the short stem-vowel in the indicative active : e-#e-/xeK, c-So-pev, 
i-fj,v (augmented). The singular active indicative is wanting and is 
supplied by the first-aorists ($tyxa, e8w/ca, and ^/ca. The second-aorists are 
also peculiar in the imperative (594 ; 702, 3), and in the infinitive (601). 

697. Subjunctive. The subjunctives of the second-aorist active 
and middle of the common form and the /u-form are formed and 
inflected like those of the present of the common and /u-forms 

AetTra), 2 aor. (Xurov, subj. AtVto, At7r>ys, etc., AtTroyicu, A&rw, etc. ; (/At- 
forms) : rtOrjfjn, 2 aor. c-Oc-rov, subj. ^w from 0e-a>, ^iJ 5 ^ rom ^ ~?? s > etc -j 
la-rrjfjiL, 2 aor. e'cm/v, subj. (rrw, O-TTJ?, o-rr;, etc., from o-ra-co, o-ra-^s, <rTa-y, 
etc. (666, 2 ; 1047) ; St'Sw/u, 2 aor. e'8orov, subj. 8w from 8o-w, 8ws % from 
60-7^5, etc.; 8vo> (Sv-), 3 aor. eSvv, subj. SIKO, SI'T/S, etc. 

698. NOTE. For the accent of the /u-forms, see 515. For the irregular 
accent of the subjunctive of i-rrpid^riv (irpia-} and wvrjfJLrjv (ova-, present 
ovivri^i, benefit], see 516. 

699. Optative. The optatives of the common form and the De- 
form are formed and inflected like those of the present. 

AetTTw, 2 aor. e'AiTrov, opt. AI'THX/XI, AtVoi?, etc., AtTroi/xryv, AiVoto, etc. ; 
(/xt-form) : Ti^/xt, 2 aor. e^erov, opt. Oefyv from Oe-irj-v ; Tcrrry/xi, 2 aor. 
, opt. o-Tairjv from (rra-Lrj-v ; SiSiofja, 2 aor. e'Sorov, opt. Socr^v from 

700. For (rxon?v from eo-^ov, see 573, 5. Second-aorists of the /xt- 
form from stems in v, as I8vv, form no optative in Attic ; but Homer has a 
few isolated forms, as Svrj and eK-Sv/zei/ (for SV-LTJ and eK-Sv-t-//,ev) from <i$vv. 

701. NOTE. For the accent of the /u-forms, see 515. For the 
irregular accent of the optative of eir/Ha/A^v (irpLa.-} and (owy/x>yv (ova-, pres. 
ovu/rj/u, benefit}, see 516. For optative middle of the second-aorists of Tt6r)pi 
and U//AI occasionally formed as in verbs in -<o, see 504 ; 771, 3. 

702. Imperative, 1. (Common Form). The imperative second- 


aorist of the common form is made and inflected like that of the 
present of the common form. 

ALTTC, AITTC-TW, AiVe-re, XiTrfovriov or Ai7T-Two-ai>, AITTOV, Ai7re-o-#w, etc. 

2. (^[i-Fonii). The final stem-vowel is made long throughout the 
active, except before -vrwv; the ending -Ot is retained (but see 594); 
in the middle -<ro drops <r after a short vowel. 

^TTJ-Oi ((rra-), <TT>y-TO), (TT^-re, crT<i-VTwv or (mj-Taxrav ; flyj-Ot (/?a-), /??y- 
TW, flrj-Tt) POL-VTMV ; yvw-$t, yvto-ro), yi/w-re, yvo-vrwv ; Sv-#i, Su-rco, Sv-re, 
SV-VTWV ; middle : 7rpiu> for 7r^>ta-(o-)o, 7r/H-ao-#to, etc. ; $o{> for #c-(o-)o, 
$e-o-$u>, etc. ; Sou for 8o-(cr)o, 6\>o-$w, etc. ; but oViy-cro, ovr;-cr$to, etc. 

3. But the imperative active second-aorist of TiOrjfjiL (Oe-\ 8i8to/At (So-), 
and ">;/xt (c-) retain the short vowel and have -s for -61 (594, 112) in the 
second singular : 0e-s, $-TG>, ^e-re, O-VT<DV ; 6o-s, 8d-To>, 8d-re, SO-VTW^ ; e-s, 
-T(u, -T, e-vrwi/. And l(r}(ov, 2 aor. of lj((i>, /law, also has -5 for -0i, o-xe-s. 

703. NOTE. In poetry we sometimes have -crrd and -^Sd (always in 
composition) for <rrr}$i and J3rj6i ; as /ra/aa-a-rd, sfrmrf &T/, Kara-/3d, come down. 

(First-Perfect and Pluperfect Active.) 

704. The stem of the first-perfect active is formed by adding 
-KCL- to the reduplicated theme. 

1. Vowel verbs regularly lengthen the final vowel of the theme. 

2. Verbs with lingual stems (r, 8, 6) drop the lingual before -*a-. 

3. Monosyllabic liquid themes change to a (621, 1). 

4. Verbs of the Second Class have the strong form in et or eu. 

5. The first-perfect or perfect in -KO, belongs to vowel themes, to 
some liquid themes, and to many lingual themes. 

(Av-), AeAv-Ka (TreAAto (crrtA-), 

(So-), SeSaj-Ka Oi'ijo-Kw (6av-, 6va-\ rWvrj-Ka (620) 

KOfJilfo (/<O/Xt8-), KCKO/JLl-KO. KttAcW (KttAc-, AcAc-), KK\r]-Ka (620) 

705. NOTE. (a) Of verbs with stems in v, (f>aivio (<$>a.v-} is perhaps the 
only one which forms the regular perfect in -Ka, Tre^ay xa. 'Arr-eKrayKa 
from KTtVa> (KTCV-), A^7/, and Trpov-KCKepSayKa from K/)SaiVo> (/cepSav-), ^rawi, 
are doubtful. Other perfects in -y^a (for -V-KO) occur only in late writers ; 
as /xtaiVw (/ziav-), pollute, 


(6) Some liquid stems in A and p form the perfect in -KO, regularly; as 
ayyeAAw (dyyeA-), V/yyeA^a, aipd) (dp-), raise, rjpi<a, and others. 

(c) In others (including all in /x), the stem adds e (613), as ve/zw (ve/x-e-), 
distribute, veve/x?7-/ca ; or it undergoes metathesis (620), as Ovyo-KO) (6av-, Ova-), 
die, reOvrj-Ka ; or it drops v (617), as Kpivw (Kptv-), judge, KKpi-Ka. 

(c?) Many liquid verbs have no perfect, or use the second-perfect. 

706. NOTE. For verbs which add c to the theme, see 613 and the 
Eight Classes. For vowel verbs which retain a short final theme-vowel 
before -K-a, see 679 and (dialectic) 992 ; but except 6o-f3rjKa from cr/3evi/i~/xt 
(<r/?e-), extinguish. 

707. NOTE. Kpii/co (K/OIV-), judge, /cAtvcu, incline, retvw (rev-), stretch, 
drop v of the stem in perfect active making KtKpiKa, /cc/cAt/cot, TTa/ca. 
These (with TrAww, wash) also drop v in the perfect-middle and first passive 
systems: Ke/c/ot/xcu, tKpiOrjv ; KK\, KXiOrjv ; Tera/xcu, era$7;v; TreTrAiyxai, 
ttrXvOrfV. For a few poetic forms with this peculiarity, see tcreiifio and the 
Epic root </>ev- or ^>a- in the Catalogue. Homer has the regular forms 
KX.iv8rjv and f.KpivO'^v. 

708. NOTE. Prose verbs whose stems undergo metathesis in the 
perfect in Attic are : 

/?aAAw (J3a\-, /3Aa-), throw, 

(Oav-j Ova-), die, 
(KaAe-, /cAe-), call, 
(fca/x-, KfJLa-), toil, 
TrtTrra) (TTCT-, TTTO-), /a^, 
o-KeAAw (o-KeA-, o-/cAe-), dry ttp, eo-/cAry-Ka 

re/xvw (re/x-, r/xe-), cwf, rcr^-Ka 

Of these /3aAA(o, /caAew, and re/xvw have the corresponding perfect- 
middle and aorist-passive. 

709. NOTE. AeSoiKa, a perfect with present meaning, /ear, from root 
3t-, corresponds to the Epic present 


710. Indicative, The primary personal endings are added; but 
-/xt is lost, -5 remains for -on, -n of the third singular is lost and a of 
the suffix is weakened to e ; -K-ao-i of the third plural is for -/ca-vo-t from 
-Ka-vTi (592, 40). 

AcAvKa, AeAi'Ka-s, AeAv/<e, AeAv/ca-TOv, AeAvKfx-/xev, etc. 

711. For the pluperfect, which follows the -/xt form, see 593. For the 
periphrastic mode of expressing the future perfect active, also for the 
exceptional forms eo-r^w, shall stand, and Te0v?jw, shall be dead, see 473. 

For the periphrastic forms of the perfect and pluperfect active indicative, 
see the Syntax. 


712. Subjunctive. The regular perfect subjunctive active is formed 
by changing a of the suffix to -%- ; as XeXvKa, subj. AeAvxw, AeAuK^s, etc. 
But this form is very uncommon ; the usual form is the perfect active 
participle with o>, as AeAv/co>s w, ?J, y, etc. Compare 713. 

713. Optative. The regular perfect optative active is formed by sub- 
stituting the thematic vowel (here o) for a of the suffix ; as AeAvKoi/xi, 
AeAvKois, etc. For eSrjSoKoirj, see 573, 5. 

But this form is rare ; the usual form is the perfect active participle 
with ii]v ; as AeAv/cws efyv, et'^s, ei'ry, etc. Compare 712. 

714. Imperative. First -perfect imperatives of the regular form are 
very rare and none of the few which occur, as Tra/aa-TreTTTtoKerw (Archimedes), 
are found in Attic writers. Compare also 724. The perfect imperative 
active may be expressed by the perfect active participle and r$t, eWw, etc.,, 
as AeAvKws icrdi (so also the middle 747). 

(Second-Perfect and Pluperfect Active.) 

715. The stem of the second-perfect system is formed by 
adding -a- to the reduplicated theme. 

1. The stem-vowel e is changed to o (621, 2), and often d to ?/ or 
d (621, 3). 

2. Verbs of the Second Class have the strong form of the theme, 
but take ot for ec (621, 4) ; after the Attic reduplication, they have 
the weak form. 

(v-PX)) ru te, tfPX~ a T'IJKO) (TO.K-\ melt, rerr/K-a 

(/cpay), cry out, /cc/cpay-a dAei</xo (dAi</>-), anoint, dA-//Ai<-a 

(y/3a<-), write, yeypa<-a <^aiVa> (<av), show, 7re</>r/v-a, appear 

6'w (08-), smell, o8-w8-a late ffrOtipw (ff>0p-\ corrupt, i-<$>0op-a 

AetVw (AtTr-), leave, AeAotTT-a yiyvo/xat (yev), become, yzyov-a 

^>evyw (</>vy), flee, 7re<ei>y-a oXXv^L (oA-), destroy, 6'A-wA-a, perish 

716. NOTE. Second-perfects belong only to mute and liquid themes ; 
an exception is SeSia, fear, from root 3t-, Epic present 8et8w ; aioyfcoa, 2 perf. 
of d/coi'to, /tear (stem d/<ov- for a/co/-), is only an apparent exception, and 
was originally aKTjKof-a. 

717. NOTE. *Pijyviyu (pay), break, has the 2 perf. ep/owya, am, broken. 
The root e$- for vfeO- (Latin suesco) gives the 2 perf. eo$a, ??i accustomed 
(for e-cr/o^-a). 

718. Second-Perfects ivith Aspiration. Some verbs with themes 
ending in a palatal or labial mute aspirate the final mute in the 
second-perfect : ?r and (3 become </>, and K and y become ^. 




send, 7re7ro/z<-a Tcurcra) (ray), arrange, rra\-a 

(J3Xa/3-), injure, fiefiXa^-a </>vAao-(rw (</>vAax), guard, ir^vXa^-a 

719. NOTE. Two verbs have two second-perfects, one with aspiration, 
and one without : oV-oty-w or dv-oiyvvpt, open, 2 perf. dv-<*>\a and dv-eyya; 
7rpdcra-(o (jrpay-'), do, 7TTrpd)^a, have done, and Treirpaya, have fared (well or ill). 

720. List of Verbs with Second-Perfects. The following is a list of 

the other verbs with second-perfects, besides those already mentioned in 715 
719. Where there is no present from the theme, the perfect itself is given. 
Dialectic verbs are omitted. 

1. Without aspiration (including those with themes in 9, <, x)- 
ayvv/uLL (ay-) Aayxavw (Aax~) 7rA>ycr(rco (TrAay-) 

PplOll) (/3pld-} XdfJLTTW (Aa^U/TT-) pLTTTO) (j6l<^)-) 

yry^ew (yr]Q-) Acx<r/cco (AaK-, poet.) (raipo) (o"ap-) 

OLKa (etK-, IK-} 
6>aAAw (6aA-) 
KevOu (KV&-, poet.) 
KAaou (/cAayy-) 




(poet. OTT-, 6/Daco) 
(op-, poet.) 

-, ira.0-} 



2. With aspiration. 

ayw (ay-) 
aAAcxcrcrw (dAAay-) 



r/)?/3w (rpt/S-) 


Xa(j,/3dv<o (Aay8-) 
AaTTTW (Aa/2- or 
Aeyco (Aey-), collect 

Some of the second -perfects differ in meaning from the present, as 
eypijyopa, am awake, from eyeipo), rouse, (recrrjpa, grin, from o-aipa), sweep; 
some have the force of presents. For those which have Attic reduplication, 
see 548. 

721. Second-Perfects of the fjn-Form. Several verbs have second- 
perfects of the ^u-form ; the ten?e-stem is here the reduplicated theme 
to which the personal endings are added. They are inflected accord- 
ing to the //.i-form, and lack the singular of the indicative. 

"IcrT?7yMt (orra-), se, 2 perl', stem frra-, eVra-Tov, earra-fJiev, ecrra-Tf, 
(7Tacri from ecrra-a-crt ; 2 plupf. 3 pi. ecrra-o-ai.'. So OvrjcrKd) (Oa.v-, 6va-) } 
die, rWvo-fJLev, reftva-re, TcOva-a-i, 2 plupf. T^^a-crav. 

The second-perfects of the /zi-form are enumerated in 768 and (Homeric) 



722. Indicative, Subjunctive, Optative, 1. These are formed and 
inflected as in the first-perfect (704, 710-714). . 

Indicative : yey/>a<o, yey^a<as, yeypac^e, etc. ; AeAcuTra, AeAoiTras, 
AeAoure, etc. 

Subjunctive : yeypa</xo, AeAotVw,, commonly yey/aac^ws w, AeAoiTrws to. 

Optative : yey/oa^ot/zi, AeAotVoi/xt, commonly yey/>a</>ws efyv, AeAotTrw? 

2. The few second-perfects of the /u-form, form the subjunctive 
and optative like presents of the /zt-form. 

"Eo-rarov, 2 perf. of MTTIJ/U (crra-), subj. ea-rco, ecrTTjs, ecrr^, etc. from 
eo-ra-w, ecrra-y^ eo-ra-y, etc. (666, 2; 1047); opt. CO-TOUT/I/ (poetic) from 

723. NOTE. Several second-perfects of the common form use the mood- 
suffix if] instead of i (573, 5) : Trpo-eA^At'&m;, TreTroi^ot?;, ireTrayotrj Doric 
for probably regular TreTr^yoi^ ; one first-perfect eSrjSoKoir} and one second- 
aorist o-^ot^v are so formed (573, 5). 

724. Imperative. 1. The second-perfect imperative active is confined 
almost exclusively to perfects with present meaning, and most of these 
imperatives are of the /xt-form. 

They are : t'cr-^t from olSa (iS-), know, KKpa^-Oi and KCK/xxye-re from 
/c/3a^o) (Kpa.y-\ yell^ K^ve-T from ^acr/cw ()(av-), ^ajje, these three in Aristo- 
phanes ; reOvoL-Bi (Horn.) and re^a-rco (this also Attic) from @vyo-K<D (0av-, 
Ova-}, die ; fa-ra-Oi, eo-ra-rw, etc. poetic ; yeyove-rco (Archimedes) from 
yt'yyo/xcu, become; StSi-Oi (Aristophanes) from 88ia, /tar/ also several 

2. The second-perfect imperative active may also be expressed by the 
second-perfect active participle and tcr#t, ecrrw, etc. ; as AeAoiTrws ta-Oi. 

725. 7"/?e Second-Pluperfect of the common form is^made and inflected 
like the first-pluperfect (see 593). 

, 2 perf. of Tre^uTT-w, se?ic?, 2 plupf. e 

For the second-pluperfect of the /xt-form, see 499 and 721. 

(Perfect and Pluperfect Middle and Passive, Future-Perfect Passive.) 

726. 1. The stem of the perfect and pluperfect middle (and 
passive) is the reduplicated theme. 


2. The perfect middle and the first-perfect active agree in these 
points : 

(a) Vowel verbs lengthen the final theme-vowel. 

(6) Monosyllabic liquid stems change e of the stem to a. 

(c) Verbs of the Second Class have the strong form of the theme. 

(d) Final v of the theme is dropped in a few verbs. 

(e) Metathesis of the theme. 

3. For the euphonic changes caused by consonants of the stem concurring 
with consonants of the personal endings, see 80; 84; 86; 88; 90, 4; 94. 

\e\V-fJMl rapd(T(TM (rapa^-), Tfrdpay-jjiaL 

KO/uftt) (KO/XlS-), KKOyU,lCr-//,at 

7rei#(o (7ri$-), TreTreior-^tcu 

AetTTO) (AiTT-), \\f.lp,-fJLa.l (TTeAAo) ((TTeA-), <TTaA-^lGU 

TeTplfJL-fACLt <f>Ulp(J) (<j)Up-^, k(f>6a,p-fJLO.L 

yypafjL-[4aL Kpfvo) (K/OIV-), KKpt-jjLau 

7r7rAey-/xat TetVw (rev-), T6ra-/xat 

ay-w, r^y/xat ySaAAco (/3aX-, j3\a-"), /3J3Xri-fj.a.L 

727. NOTE. For vowel verbs which retain a short final theme vowel, 
see 679. For themes which undergo metathesis, see 708. For themes 
which drop final v, see 707. For themes which add e, see 613 and the 
Eight Classes ; or o, see 628. For perfects middle with Attic reduplication, 
see 548. 

728. NOTE. Three mute verbs, CTT/D<-<O, turn, T/>7r-(o, turn, and 
Tp(j>-(i> (rp(j>- for Op^(f>- 102), nourish, change e of the theme to a : eW/aa/^/zcu, 

TfOpafjLfjLaL. See the corresponding second-aorists passive in 760. 

729. NOTE. Two verbs, which occur in prose, are syncopated in the 
perfect middle : Kpdvvv[j.i (/<e/oa-), mix, Ke/cpa/mt with aor. pass. tKpdOirjv ; 
and 7reTavvfy/,i (ircra-), expand, TreTrra/zou (7re7reTao-/zat late). Also one or two 
poetic verbs. 

730. Insertion of <r. 1. Many vowel verbs add o- to the stem of 
the perfect and pluperfect middle before all endings not beginning with 
<r. In the first-passive system, these verbs have o- before the tense- 
suffix Be. 

TeAe-w, finish, reTAe-(r-/zai, eTTeAe-o--/z^v, ereAe-cr-^fyv, TeAe-o--0?y(ro//at ; 
(TTTcx-w, draw, 'cr7ra-cr-yu,cu, Icnrd-cr-Orjv ; (ret'-co, shake, o'ecrei-o'-^aat, e ere i-cr- 6^77 v. 

2. The verbs which take this additional o- are the following (a 
number of the forms with o- are not found in Attic, although all used 
in prose are included). 

(a) All those mentioned in 679, 1, as far as they have the perfect-middle 
and aorist-passive systems. But except dpou , eAaww, (f>0ivo>, and ^eco. 




(6) Also the following : 

UKOV-d) KVCU-00 TTaAcU-O) 

fivvcw (/3v-) 


CTOJ^O) (cra)S-, crco-) 
(?rAa-) TiVw (rt-) 

Aev-a) TrAecu (?rAv-) 

(/xva-) TTveco (TTVV-) 

pat-w (poetic) 

piOVVVfJil (/3W-) 

731. NOTE. Of the following verbs (730, 1), some have the additional 
<r in only one of the two systems ; while others have double forms, one 
with cr, and one without tr : dAew, dpvoi, ax$o//cu, Spdio, caW/xcu, eAaww, 
4/xew, fovvvfjii) 6pavu>, KpdwyfAt t nXyiD or KAetw, /xt/xvr/crKO), vea>, heap, 
OfAVVfUj TTCU'W, Treravi/iyAi, TrifJiirprjjJ,^ putvvvfju, crwio, xpdo[, X/ " - 


732. Indicative. The perfect middle system is inflected according 
to the /xt-form. The perfect has the primary middle endings, the plu- 
perfect has the secondary middle endings. For example, see 461, 2. 

733. Vowel Stems, These are inflected like AeAv/xcu (461, 2). 
Vowel stems which add o- are inflected like TTAe-cr-/xcu (485), the cr being 
inserted before //, and r of the ending arid dropping out before other letters ; 
as (TTra-to, draw, r7ra-o--/zai, eo-Tra-crai, ea-Tra-cr-Tai, e'o-7ra-cr$e, o-7ra-(r-/zi>os ; 
KeAet-to, command, KeKtAev-cr-^iai. See also 484, 2 and 739. 

734. Labial Stems. These follow in their inflection reT/of/^cu ; as 
KOTTTW (KOTT-), cut, KKo/x-/zat ; ypd<f>-w, write, yeypa[ji-fj,ai (485). But when the 
stem ends in /ATT and the assimilation to /z of the ending would give rise to /X///A, 
one ju, is dropped before /x of the ending and the TT reappears before other con- 
sonants ; as Tre/zTTto (TTC/XTT-), 7re7re^u,-/>tat, TreTre/x^ai (TTC eyu,7r-o-at), 7r7reyu,7r-rat, 
7re7re/x-^te^a, 7r7rjU,<^)-^e, 7re7re/x-/xevos. Compare Trecrcrco (TTCTT-), coo^; 

but 7T7rei/'at (7re7re7r-(rat), TreTreTr-rat, etc. See also 739. 

735. Palatal Stems. These follow in their inflection 

(TT\K-\ rjAAay/zcu (aAAay-), and tATJAey/xat (e'Aeyx-), 485, When the final 
palatal of the stem is preceded by y-nasal and yy would come before ^u, of 
the ending, one y is dropped. So <$eyyo/xat (<#eyy-), speak, '</>$ey-/xcu, but 
'(#eycu (l^^ey/c-o-at), 4'^^eyKrat, etc. See also 739. 

736. Lingual Themes. These follow TreTretcr/xat in their inflection 
(485) ; as 6/at^w (6/318-), bound, determine, w^otcr-yaat, w^t-crai, w/3to--rat, 
cr^e, plupf. w/Dtcr/jC^v, etc. ; (TTrevSw (crTrevS-), j>oi^r, e'(T7reio--/>tat for ( 

(40), ea-Trei-o-at, ecr7ret(r-Tai, etc. ; dvuT-w, accomplish, ^iaKr-fuxi, 
etc. See also 105, 4 and 739. 


737. Liquid Stems. 1. Those in A and p follow the inflection of (485) ; as dyyeAAco (dyyeA-), announce, rjyyeA-pxi, KaOaipu 
(Ka.0a.p-}, purify, ; cnrcipoi (<nrep-\ sow, evTrap-p.o.1, cyei/oco (eyep-\ 
rouse, eyt] See also 739. 

2. Those in v are inflected like Tre^ (485) ; as 
(Af'/zav-), misuse, X.eXvp.acr-p.aL. See also 737, 4 and 739. 

3. The forms of the second person singular with v-trai and -v-o-o, as 
Tre<$>av-orai, 7re</>av-cro, imperative Tre(j>av-cro, do not occur. For these the 
periphrastic forms Tre^aoyAevos el, rj<r0a, t'cr$i were probably used. 

4. 'O^yco (ovi/-), sharpen, has in classic Greek -wJi)/ J t-/ J iat, later &vv-p.aL, 
Other forms in -p.-p.aL from -v-p,ai, and -U-/ACU (with v dropped) from 
are late ; as efy] late for Attic ei]pa.(T-p.a.i from fypaivu (grjpav-), dry ; 
Terpd)^vfjL-p.aL and Terpa.yv-p.a.1 late for Te-Tpd^ from rpa-^yvo) (rpa)(yv-), 
make rough. 

5. Liquid stems which become vowel stems by dropping v (617) or by 
metathesis (620) are inflected like AeAv-/xat. So KeK\i-p.aL from /cAivco 
(/<Aiv-), 6e?i^, f^ej3Xf] from /3dAAu> (/3aA-, ^Aa-), throw, and others. 

738. It is evident that the perfect-middle systems of reAew, TreiOot and 
<au/w are inflected nearly alike, but the similarity of inflection arises from 
different causes. The cr in does not belong originally to the 
stem, but is inserted ; the o- in is due to the euphonic change 
of the lingual before p, ; while the a- in 7re(f>ao--p.aL is due to the change of 
v to or before p.. The following comparison will make this clear. 

rere\e-(T-pMi 7re7reicr-p.aL Tre<f) 

rereXe -crai TreTrei -crat 


rereXe -crBov 


739. 77?/>flf Person Plural, The endings -vrat and -VTO can only 
1)6 pronounced with a preceding vowel. Hence in consonant stems 
the third person plural of these tenses is formed by periphrasis of the 
perfect middle participle with euri and rjo-av. So also in stems which 
add or, as TereAe-cr-//,eyoi etcrt. 

740. NOTE. The Ionic also has the endings -arat and -aro for -vrat 
and -VTO; a preceding palatal or labial is here aspirated. Thus rdcro-w (ray-), 
Terd^-arat, a-eTa^-aTo ; AeiVco, AeAet^-arat, eAeAet^-aro, ^wpt^w (^wpi8-), 
Kexw/aiS-arat, e/cexw/at^-aro. The passages in which such forms occur in 
Attic writers are : Thuc. 3, 13, twice, 4, 31 ; 5, 6 ; 7, 4 j Xen. ylnafc. 4, 
8 5 ; Plat. Ee^. 7, 53 b . 

741. NOTE. When a liquid stem becomes a vowel stem by the 
addition of e (613) or by metathesis (620) or by dropping v (617), the 


inflection is regular and follows AeAiyxat ; as /3oi'Ao/xcu (/3ovA-e-), wish, 
f^6/3ovX.ij-vTo.L ; /3aAAti> (paA-^ /5Aa-), throw, ^e/3Ary-vrat ; K^fi'co (K^IV-), 
judge, KfKpt-vTai. 

742. Subjunctive. The perfect subjunctive middle is made by 
periphrasis of the perfect middle participle and <5, ?]s, ?], etc. Compare 
also the perfect optative middle (744). 

AeAiyxevos w, AeAv/xevos ys, AeAv/xevos y, etc. 

743. NOTE. Two verbs form the perfect middle subjunctive by add- 
ing -%- to the tense-stem. They are : /crao/xai (KTO,-), acquire, perfect 
KfKTrjfjiL (/ce-fcra-), possess, subj. Ke-KTa-co-/xai contr. /ceKrw/xcu, KCKTYJ, KeKr^rai, 
etc. ; fMfJLvno'Kb) (yxva-), remind, perfect (ytxe-jtxya-), remember, subj. 
ytxe-/xva,-co-/xat contr. /xe/x,i/o.yzai, fjiefj^v tope Oct. (? fJi/JiV-io-/Lt,e@a, Hdt. 7, 47). 
For similar optatives of K-e/<TT//xou, /xe/xioy/xai, /ce/cA^/xat (from KaAeto), and of 
Sta-/3e/3Ai7/zcu (from Sia-/3aAAa>), see 745. The periphrastic forms with 
(3 are often found ; as KeK-ny/xevos <3, /ze/xv?7/xej/os <3. 

744. Optative. The perfect optative middle is formed by peri- 
phrasis of the perfect middle participle with efyv, efys, i'//, etc. 
Compare the perfect middle subjunctive (742). 

AeAtyzevos euyi/, AeAiyxci'Os etry?, AeAv/xe^os ei^, etc. 

745. NOTE. Several verbs form the perfect optative middle without 
periphrasis by adding -i-^v or -o-6-/>tryv to the tense-stem. They are : 
KTao/zai (KTOL-), perf. /ceKrvy/xai, opt. KKT^-t-/X7yv, KKTr)-L-o, KKT>y-i-(ro, etc., 
contr. KCKTTJ fj.rjv, KCKTIJO, KKT?/TO, etc. ; also rare and doubtful KKT(^/zr/v, 

K6KTWO, KeKTWTO, etc. (from KeKTiy-O-i-yU^V, KKT1]-0-L-0, KKT7y-O-i-TO, etc.) J 

jjiifjivyo-KW (, perf. /ze/xvvy/xat, opt. />te/zi/?;//7yv, /Jiefjivyo, /xe/xw/ro, etc. ; or less 
common and doubtful /xe/xvw/x^v, /xe/xi'wo, /xe/xvwro, etc. ; KaAew (/caAe-, 
KAe-), ca^Z, perf. Ke/cA^/xcu, m, called, opt. KeKX.yp.yp', K6K\fjo, KK\fJTO, etc. ; 
/3aAAa> (/3aX-, /3Aa-), throw, 8ta-/?e/3A7y/xai, has opt. Sia-fiejSXfjcrOe (Andoc. 
2, 24). Homer also has several similar forms ; see Avw, <$i'v<o, and Scuvv/xi in 
the Catalogue. The forms in -yp/v are of the /zt-form of inflection ; those in 
-w/x>yv are of the common form with the thematic vowel. For a similar 
subjunctive of KKrr)/j.aL and ya/xvr//xat, see 743. 

746. Imperative. The second person singular and plural occurs 
mostly in perfects with present meaning ; as /xc^vTycro, /ze/zi^o-^e, 
remember. The third person singular of any verb may occur with real 
perfect meaning ; as ei/a^o-^w, let it have been said ; SeSdcr&o, let it have 
been given; 7re7re//>ao-0(D, let a trial have been (or be) made. See the 
Syntax. The regular forms of the dual and the third person plural 
seem not to occur, nor the second person singular in -v-o-o and 7re<ay-o-o; 
for these, see 737, 3. 

747. NOTE. The perfect imperative middle and passive may be 
expressed by periphrasis of the perfect middle participle and ib-#i, eWco, etc. 


(imper. of ei/u, be) ; as 7re<otcr/>ievo9 tcrOi, eipy/Atvov eWco ; reray/xei/oi CCTTWV. 
Compare 714. 

748. Future-Perfect. 1. The stem of the future-perfect passive 
is formed by adding -a-%- to the stem of the perfect-middle. A final 
short vowel of the theme is always made long. The inflection is that 
of the future middle. 

Avtt), XcXv-j AeAu-croyuat Tpf/3o), TeKplfi-, 

Seco, bind, SeSe-, SeSry-croyt/.at ypd(f>o) } yeypacf), 

K07TTO), K6-KO7T-, KKO^O/Xat TaCTCTto, TTay-, TtTa^OfJLO.1 

2. This tense is seldom other than passive in meaning. But observe 
KeKTrjcro/xcu, I shall possess ; Ke/c/adfo/zcu, I shall cry out; KexAayo/>iGU, I shall 
scream; jue/Av^a-o/zat, / shall remember; Treirava-ofAai, I shall have ceased. 
The meaning of the future-perfect here depends on that of the perfect. 

749. NOTE. (a) Few verbs have the regular form of this tense. 
Other forms than the indicative are very rare : Sia-TreTroAe/x^o-o/xei/ov (Thnc. 
7, 25 9 , is the only example of the participle in classic Greek ; //,e/Av?ja-eo-$at 
(Horn. Od. 19, 581 ; 21, 79; Isoc. 12, 259). 

(6) This tense can be expressed by the perfect middle participle and 
ecro/Acu ; as e^ew/zevos ecro/xcu, / shall have been deceived. Compare 474. 

(c) For the few verbs which form a regular future-perfect active of the 
regular form, see 473 and 1037. 

(First-Aorist and First-Future Passive.) 

750. First-Aorist Passive, 1. The stem of the first -aorist 
passive is made by adding -Oe- to the theme. 

2. The theme of the first-aorist passive agrees with the theme in 
the perfect middle in the following points : 

(a) Vowel verbs lengthen the final theme-vowel. 

(6) Monosyllabic liquid stems change e of the theme to a. 

(c) Verbs of the Second Class have the strong form. 

(d) Final v of the theme is dropped in a few verbs. 

(e) Metathesis of the theme. 

(/) Generally in the addition of cr (see 730 and 731). 

3. Before -0-, a labial mute (TT, ft) becomes < (80) ; a palatal 
(K, y) becomes x (80) ; a lingual (T, 8, 6) becomes a- (80) ; <j> and ^ 
remain unchanged. 

Avco (Av-), eXv-Orfv TrAe/c-to, 

a,-0rjv ay-w, 

Tapaa-crco (ra/oa^-), 
ccy>u(o (/co/ziS-), 



O.KOV-H), '^Kov-<r-6i]v irtiOo) (TTI^-), eTreicr-^i/ 

TrAew (TT\V-\ 7rXev-o--6?]V t^ou'vot) (<av-), t^dv-Oijv 

(AlTT-), \l(f)-0r)V KplVb) (K/31V-), fKpt-Or]V 

751. NOTE. In Ire-Orjv for tOe-Brfv from riOrjfJLL (0e-) and in erv-Oyv 
for tOv-dr]}' from #i>o> (^v-), sacrifice, the ^ of the theme is changed to T 
(100, 3). 2r/></>-a), T/OCTT-O), and rpe(f>-it) have lcrr/oe</)^v (Ionic and Doric 
ccrTpd(f)@-r}v\ Tpe(j>Or)v (Ionic Tpd(f>Or)v), and e^/ae^^v, although their 
perfects middle are ecrr^ajuyxcu, TT/)a^um, and re^/aa/A/xat. See 621 and 

752. NOTE. For vowel-verbs which retain a short final theme-vowel 
see 679. For the few liquid themes which drop v, see 707. For themes 
which undergo metathesis, see 708. For vowel themes which add tr before 
-0C-, see 730, 731. 


753. Indicative. The suffix -0- is lengthened to -(9r?-. The 
inflection follows the /xt-form, the active secondary personal endings 
being added ; the third person plural ends in -crai/. 

754. Subjunctive. The subjunctive adds -%- to the tense-stem 
.and contracts. 

> EAv0ry^ subj. XvOw from Av$e-w, XvOfjs from Av0->/s, etc. 

755. Optative. The optative adds -u/- or -t- according to 573, 4 
and 6, and contracts. 

'EAvfl^v, opt. XvOetyv from Av0e-t?;-v, XvOcirjs from XvOe-iij-s, etc. 

756. Imperative, The tense-suffix -#e- is lengthened to -0?;-, 
-except before the personal ending -VTCOV. For -n instead of -0t, see 
100, 2 and 594. 

AvOrj-Ti, XvQ',j-Tio, XvOrj-rov, \v6t]-To>v, Xv0rj-TC, XvOf-vruv or XvGi'j- 

757. First -Future Passive, The stems of the first-future 
passive is formed by adding -a%- to the stem of the first-aorist 
passive, here -Or]-. Thus \vco, e\v07jv (\v-0e-), \v-0rj-a%-. The 
first-future passive thus ends in -Orj-o-o-fjbcii and its inflection is 
like that of the future middle. 


TreiOo) (TTLU-\ Treicr Orjcro/Jiai 

Tdcr(T(o (ray-), Ta^B^froaai dyyeAAw (dyyeA-)j dyyeA^rycro/xat 

dpv-a), dpx^ycro^at Tiy(o (rev-), 

AetVcu (AiTT-), Aet<j 

(Second-Aorist and Second-Future Passive.) 

758. Second -Aor 1st Passive, The stem of the second-aorist 
passive is formed by adding -e- to the theme. Verbs of the 
Second Class have here the weak form of the theme. An e of a 
monosyllabic theme becomes a (621). 

TrAeKW (vrAeK-), weave, Tr\di<-rjv ypd^xo (ypa<-), write, lypd^-rjv 

dAAd(T(ra> (dAAay-), change, ^AAdy-^i/ ^ITTTCO (pl<^-\ throw, tppi^-yv 

(craTT-), rot, crd7T-rjv (faOeipii) ((f>@p-} } corrupt, <f>@dp-riv 

(/cAeTT-), steal, e/cAaTT-ryi/ <^>cuva> (^>av-), show, e(f>dv-7]V 

(/Shaft-), injure, /3Xdj3-r]v o-reAAw (crreA-), send, ecrrdA-^i/ 

759. NOTE. Aey-o>, gather, does not change e to a : eAeyT/v. IIA^o-cro 
/-, TrAay-), strike, has 7rA7Jy-?;v; but in composition c^-eTrAdy^j/ and 

idy^v. 2repio-Kco (<TT/O-) = (rre/oew, deprive, does not change e to a ;. 
(poetic), 2 fut. pass. <rre/3?j(7o/xai. 

760. NOTE. (a) The following Attic verbs form only the second-aorist 
passive : 

(dy-) fj.atv(i) (fjiav-) (TATTOO (craTT-) (r^>dAA(o (cr^aA-) 

Trviyw (vrvty-) o^KaTrrw ((T/cac^)-) TVTTTW (TVTT-) 

paTTTO) (pa<^>-) (TTretpw (o"7rep-) Ti't/xu (0'<-) 

pew (pev-, pv-) o~TeAA(o (crreA-) (frdetpw (c^^ep-) 


(/>) The following Attic verbs have both the first and the second-aorist 
passive : 

dAei<a> (aAt<-) KAeTrrw (/cAeTT-) TrAeKW (vrAeK-) 

dAAdo-o-w (dAAay-) /<Aii/(o (/cAtv-) TrAryo-cra) (?rAay-) 

Aey-w, gather crrpe^a) ((Trpet^-) (f>pdyvvfJiL 
fjLacrcni) (^tay-) racrcra) (ray-) ^aip(o (^ap-) 

(c) The second-aorist passive of TVTTTCO, strike, ZrvTrrjv, occurs only in- 


poetry and in late prose. Of those verbs which have both passive aorists, 
a few use either indifferently ; while the others use one in prose and the 
other in poetry or in late Greek. 


761. The inflection of the second-aorist passive is the same as that 
of the first-aorist passive, in all the moods ; except that -61 of the 
imperative remains unchanged. 

Indicative. SreAAa) (crreA-), ecrraA-^-v, IcrraA-^-Sj O"raA-?y, ecrraA-^-TOV, 
ecrraA-^-T^v, to-TaA-r^/zev, ecrraA-ry-re, ecrraA-^-frav. 

Subjunctive. 2raA-e-%-, crraAw from o-raA-e-co, crraA>/s from o-raAe-?;?, etc. 
Optative. SraA-e-t^- (o-raAe-i-), o-raAe^^v from crraAe-t?^-!', etc. 
Imperative. o-raA-^-^t, o-raA-?y-ra), etc. 

762. Second -Future Passive The stem of the second-future 
passive is formed by adding -&%- to the stem of the second-aorist 
passive, here -rj-. The second-future passive thus ends in -77-0-0- 

and is inflected like the future middle. 

cra7r-r;-cro/zai aAAa<rcru> (dAAay-), aAAayr/cro/>icu 

KOTTTW (KOTT-), KOTnyo-o/zcu <au'a> (<av-), 

/3\a/3r)crofJLai (rrcAAw (crreA-), 

763. NOTE. Second-futures passive corresponding to the second-aorists 
passive occur in all the verbs mentioned in 760, except the following : 
ayvv/zt, aAei'<co, /3a7TTa>, ^pe^w, ^ei'yv{>/xt, OXifiw, Keipw, KAeTrrw, /xaiVw, 
/xao-crw, paTrrw, TVTTTW. But most of the second-futures passive are late, or 
are found only in poetry, and some are found only in composition. 


764. These belong to the Seventh and the Fifth Classes of 
verbs (662 and 652). Non- Attic forms are here omitted. 
Those of the Seventh Class are the following : 

(a) Simple stem in the present. 

et/zi (r-), be (772) ^Pl (KP a ^ XP ~\ ^ is necessary (790) 

ef/zi (i-), go (775) aya-^at, admire 

r)fj,a.L (f)<r-\ sit (782) Swa-pai, can, be able 

rjfML (a-), say (789) e7rt(rra-/zat, understand 

K?/xat (/cet-, K-), lie (784) Kpe/xa-/xat, 7t?i(/ (intrans.) 

((/>a-), say (779) 6/>a-/A<u, poet, for /)atD, Zore 


(6) Reduplicated stem in the present. 

SiSry/Ai rare for 6eo>, bind oviv?7/xi (ova-), "benefit 

8i8<api (6V), give (498) TTi/ATrA^/u (TrAa-), fill 

fyfju (e-), send (770) irtfsirfrrjfju (ny>a-), oitrn 

wmj/u (o-ra-), sei (498) TI^/ZI (0e-), ^u (498) 

KLXPW L (XP a ~\ lend 

For those of the Fifth Class, see 766. All of the above verbs are also 
in the Catalogue. The dialectic verbs are given in 1062. 

765. NOTE. In 7ri-/>i-7rA?7/u (TrAa-) and iri-/*-7r/oi7/u (TT/XX-) the nasal //, 
is inserted after the reduplication ; in the compounds e/z-Trt/xTrA^/Ltt and 

i .the inserted JJL often drops out when e/x- stands for Iv, as 
and e/x-TriV/o^t ; but not when ev recurs, as ev-eTrtyxTrAao-av. 

766. 1. Those of the Fifth Class, which add -vv- to the theme 
(after a vowel, -vw-), form the present in -viyu (-vw/*e-), and are 
inflected like BeiKvvpi. They are the following : 

(a) Themes in a. Kcpd-vvvfti, mix; K/oe/xa-vviyzt, hang (trans).; 
vvvfjiL^ spread; o-Ke8a-vvv/zt, scatter. 

(b) Themes in . e-vvvfu (in prose a/x^t-e-vvv/xi), clothe; KOfH 
satiate; trft&vvpU, extinguish. 

(c) Themes in to. <u-vw/u, gird; pw-vvv/xi, strengthen; 
spread out. 

(d) Consonant themes. 

a-y-vvfj.i, break fjLiy-vrfJU (fj$y-\ mix Tr^y-vv^i (Tray-, Trr^y-), 

ap-vvfj,ai, earn -oty-vv/x6 = -otya), open inf. eK-TrAryy-vv-cr&u, 

Set/c-vv/zi, s/iow oA-Ai'/xt (dA-e-), destroy oneself, see 7rArja-(ra> 

ipy-vv/jLi = eipyd), shut in o/x-vi'/xt (op-e-), swear Trva/j-vi'/xat, sneeze 
^evy-vi'/xt, T/o&e o/JLopy-vvfja, wipe off pr)y-vi/j.i (pay-, p^y-\ break 

-KTiv-vipLi = KTivo), kill op-vv/JiL^ TOU86 (^pdy-vv/jiL = ^pacrcra), enclose 

All the above verbs are in the Catalogue. In Attic they have only the 
present and imperfect of the /it-form ; but (r/?-vvi~/xt has the 2 aor. o-/8r;i/. 

2. Those which add -va- to the theme ; as o-Kt8-vry-/xi are confined almost 
wholly to poetry. See 1062, 1. 


767. 1. From verbs in -/xt. 

oY6\o/u (So-), </i / ye, -8o-Tov, etc. (498) 7r/3ia-, eTrpia/xryj/, bought (498) 

(I-), sen^, ef-rov, etc. (770) TTi/xTrA^/xt (TrAa-), /i^ (eTrArj/zT/v Epic) 

(crra-), s^, tfcrT^v, sfoocZ (498) a-fievvv/JLi (cr^e-), extinguish, fffffyv, 

went out 

(ova}, benefit, ^V^-Y\V riO^/JLi (Qt-\ put, c-^e-rov, etc. (498) 

2. From vercs MI -w. 

(aA-), 6e captured, edAwv or r/Awv {dAw, dAotTyv, dAwvai, d 


/3too> (/5to-), live, /3t'o)v {/2iw, y&iorryv irregular (not f3ioii]v which is opt. 

pres.), /3iwv(u, /?tov? (Horn, imper. /3twr<o)}. 

yrjpdo-KU (ye/oa-), grow old; 2 aor. inf. yrjpdvai poet., part, yr?pas (Horn.). 
yiyvwcr/cco (yvo-), &now7, eyvwv {cyi/ws, e'yvw, eyvwrov, eyvwrwv, eyi/w/xer, 

eyvtore, eyv<jxrav ; subj. y via (like Sto) ; opt. yvoi'r^v (like ($oi?/i/) 

imper. yvwOi, y^wrw, yvwrov, yi/amoi', yvwre, y vovrcov ; inf. yvwvai ; 

part, yvovs (like Sous)}. 

(Spa-), run, in comp. only, -IS/oav, -cS/aas, -e8pa, -eSpafjiev, etc. 

{-8yoa>, -Spai'i^v (-SpaOi late), -Spavai, -Spas}. 

(Su-), e/i^r, 4'Suj/, entered {5vw (opt. 85^ and K-8v/xei' Horn.), 8u$i, 

Surat, 8u?, 498}. 

'-J Kra-), HW, poetic e/crdi', eWas, Kra, etc. {subj. 

inf. KrdfjLrai, Krd^v (Horn.) ; part. KT^?} ; poetic 

killed {/cracr^at, Kra/xevos}. 
7TTO/xai (TTCT-, Trre-, Trra-), ^y, poetic TTT?^V {TTTW late, Trrair^v, 

late, TTTTJvttt, Trrds} ; mid. also in prose eVra/xr^ JTrrao-^ai, 
rXa- root, no present, fut. rXryo-o/^ac poet., 2 aor. erAryv {rAco, 

TXr)6i) rA^i/at, rAas}, all poetic. 
(frOdvio (c/>$a-), anticipate, Z(f)0r)v |<^^a), <f>0ait]r, <f>6'ijvai, <j>9d<$}. 

(</)v-), produce, tfyvv, was produced, am {(^vw (opt. <j>vr]v, (f>vri Theoc.), 

(<rx-)> ^ avg > ^ aor. imperative crxes (all other forms of the 2 aor. are 
of the common form). 

(TTI-), rfmi/t-, 2 aor. imperative TTI^I, poetic Trte (all other 2 aor. 
forms regular). 

Aw (ovceA-, (TK\-}, dry up, 2 aor. inf. aTro-o-KATJvat (Aristoph.). 
There are also a number of other second-aorists of the /xt-form in the 
dialects (1063). 


768. These occur in Attic Greek : 

r<TT?//xt (crra-), set, 2 perf. eWa-Tov, etc. inflected in 499., 

{3aiva> (/3a-), ^o ; first-perf. /3/3r/Ka, have gone, stand fast, regular; 2 perf. 
/3e/3acri (poet.), J3ef3dd(ri (Horn.); subj. e/x-^e/^cucrt (Plat.); inf. /5e- 
/Sdvai (poet.), ^e/3a/xev (Horn.) ; part. fte/Sus (poet., also prose), /^e/^aio?, 
/5e^wcra, and e/x/^e/^ai'ta (Horn.) ; plupf. /3e/?acraj/ (Horn.). 

ytyi/o/xat (yev-, ya-), become; 2 perf. yeyora, regular; of the //,6-form : 
yeyaore and yeyaao-t (Horn.) ; inf. yeya/xei/ (Horn.) ; part, yeyaws 
(Epic and late), yeyavta (Epic), yeyws and yeywcra (Attic poetry) ; 
plupf. 3 dual K-yeyar^v (Horn, and late). 

dvrjo-K(D (0av-, Ova-}, die ; first-perf. TfOvr/Ka, am dead, regular ; 2 perf. 
TeOvarov, re^va/>iev, re^vare, reOvaa-i ; opt. TcBvaiijv ; imper. re.6va.6i 
(Horn.), TeOvdru (Horn, and Att. prose) ; inf. reOvdvai (rtOvavai from 
redva-vaL, poetic, r^Ovd^vac and T^Ovdpev Epic) ; part, renews, 


T#v(3(ra, TcQvcos (Horn, usually reflv^w?, Tedv^ma) ; 2. plupf. third 
pi. ereOvaa-av. 

Si- for Sfi- root, fear, no pres., Epic impf. Siov, 6Ye, etc. feared, fled; Epic 
present SetSw = Attic first-perf. SeSot/ca, I fear ; 2 perf. StSta, 
SeSte, SeSt/zei/ 6eSire, SeStacrt*; subj. rare, SeSirj, SeStoxrt ; opt. 
imper. SeStflt poet., SeSitfc late poets ; inf. SeSievcu ; part. 
(prose), also SeSiwo, poet, and late ; plupf. eSeSteiv, eSeSieis, 

. [Homer has forms beginning with Set-, as SeiSoiKa ; 2 pf. 
, SetStas, 8ei8ie t 6W6\/xei/ ; imper. 8^18161, SetStre ; part. 
plupf. eSetSt/>tV, e8etSto-ai/.] 

16- for A3- root, know; second-perfect oiSa, /mow, inflected in 786. " 
IK- for ftK- root, be like, appear; second-perfect eot/ca for /e-/otK-a, 
appear, regular {subj. eot/cco ; opt. ecuKot^tt ; inf. eoiKeVcu ; part. C 
Plat, also etKcus ,* plupf. eY/oy and r/Ketv}; ^tt-forms are eocy/xev (poet.), 
eiacri for eotK-(a-)-do-i (poet, and rare in Plato), IIKTOV and etkr^v (poet.). 
w (K/aay-), CTT/ owi; second-perf. Key/oaya as present (imper. KKpaxOi poet.). 
Others are poetic and confined mostly to Homer (1064). 


769. These verbs are : ^/^t (4-), s<?wc / dpi (r-), &e ; e^t (t-), ^o ; 
t (</>a-), say; fjpai (r)<r-), sit ; Keipai (KCI-), lie; the second-perfect 
o?8a (18-, ei'8-), know ; ??/u (a-), say ; and xptf (xP a ~y X/ ~) * # behoves, one 
The dialectic forms are in 1065-1072. 

770. itrj/jii, (e-), send. 




IND. S. 1. IT^I iT]v (771, 4) - - (501, 1) ?c|t<u I>T]V -cf|ujv (771, 6) 

2. li^s, iis uts (771, 2) t'ctrcu t'ccro -l<ro 

. (771 ' 2) 

3. n<ri ^et LTaL WTO -etro 

D. 2. UTOV iferov -elrov re<r0ov ?6<r0ov -etcrOov 

3. ?6TOV lTT]V -6?TT]V ^e*T0OV 

P. 1. lJlV l|lV -t(JLV 

2. iiT fere -etre u<r0 ic<r0 -t<r06 

3. td<ri teo-av -C<rav uvrai tevro etvro 

SUBJ. S. I. \& -& tw(i,ai 

2. i^s -^S i^j -|j 

3. ITJ -f| ifjrat 

D. 2. 17]TOV -^TOV lf)o-00V 

3. tfjrov -^TOV tfjo-0ov 



P. 1. 1 


2. f|T 

OPT. S. 1. te 

D. 2. TCITOV or 



-tlrov or 
&rr)v or 






P. 1. tct|iv or 

-6t[iv or 

2. iiT or 

t ^T (771, 3) 

3. tiv or 

ih](rav (771, 3) 

IMPER. S. 2. i (771, 2) 
3. tertt 

D. 2. iVrov 
3. tfrcov 

-elre or 


-etcv or 






P. 2. ?T 

v or 



tr0cov or 


-ctvai (771, 5) tW0ai 
-ls,-to-a, -2 


-Io-0 (771, 3) 
-etvro (771, 3) 


-<!(r0a>v or 

INFIN. tevcu 
PART, ids, teio-a, te'v 

FUT. ACT. AND MID. -fjo-w, TJo-ojiat regular ; in prose only in composition. 
FIRST- AOR. ACT. AND MID. fjica, -TJK<XJIT]V (501, 1) only indie. ; in prose fJKa 

mostly in composition. 

PERFECT ACTIVE. -elKa only in composition. 
PERFECT MID. AND PASS, .etjuu, plupf. -d^v, only in composition. 
AORIST PASS. -&Qi\v in composition. 
FUTURE PASS. -0^< in composition. 
VERBAL ADJECTIVES. -Irds, -Ireos in composition. 

771. NOTE. 1. The present stem te- is for t-l-; but whether this is for 
an original o-i-o-e- or yi-ye- is not known ; it was not jV/e-. The second- 
aorist -eirov, the perfect -eiKa, the perfect middle -ef/xou, and the aorist 
passive -tWrjv are for -e-eroi', -e-eKa, -e-1/, -e-e^v, the syllabic augment 
contracting with the stem e-. But the first-aorist ^/ca has the temporal 
augment. The subjunctive fw is for te-w, -5 for -e-o>, etc. 




2. The present forms teis (also found accented -tets) and tet, also the im- 
perfect forms ms and Yet, are formed as if from contract verbs. Compare 500. 

3. The present optative forms dc^-ioire and acfr-zoitv occur for d<-tet??Te 
and d<f>-liev ; and TT/JO-OITO, Trpo-oLcrOt, Trpo-oivro (also accented TT/OO-OITO, 
Trpo-oivOe, irpo-oivTo) sometimes occur for Trpo-eiro, Trpo-ela-Bc, -TTyoo-eti/ro. 
These show a transition to the common form of inflection ; TI^/AI has 
similar forms in the middle. Compare 504. 

4. The imperfect of d^-tTy/zt is sometimes rj(f>ir)v (with the preposition 
augmented, 555). 

5. Of all the forms which appear only in composition, the second-aorist 
infinitive active eiWt appears once as simple (Aristoph. Ran. 133). 

6. Observe that the second-aorist middle indicative and optative and 
the pluperfect middle are the same throughout, except that the optative has 
-eib and the other two -etiro. For similar forms from -co, -et'^v, -efvat, 
and compounds of (5, efyi/, efvcu (from ei/u, be), see 772. For similar forms 
from the present trjfjn and etjut, go, see 778, 2. 

772. elfjil (eV-, Latin es-se), be. 



.8. 1. l(tC cti|v 

2. el -gs ^TJS iV0t 

3. eo-rC T| l'r] 





D. 2. <rrdv 
3. eo-rov 

P. 1. 


3. cl<r 



etrov or tt]TOv 

61T1]V Or ITJTT]V 

ct|XV or iT](jLev 
etrc or iT)T6 
etev or tt]orav 


a>v, oScra, 
6v (331) 


or Jjo-rc 

VERBAL ADJECTIVE, o-vv-eo-reov. 




|, (o-l ?<r<T00V 



Imperfect dual forms r^rov and -rJTijv are very rare and doubtful in Attic. 
A late form rjs occurs for fja-Ba. 

The perfect and aorist are borrowed from yiyvo^ai : yeyova and 

773. NOTE. 1. Et/zt is from r-/>u (Lesbian Aeolic e/>i-/u). E?is from 
Old Ionic eo--a-t through e-o-t. 'Eo-rt retains the original ending -rt. EiW 




is from ZV-VTL through Doric t-vri and l-vcrt. The subjunctive <S is from 
cr-(o through Ionic e-w. The optative etTyj' is from icr-iyj-v. The imperative 
i(r-di is from tv-6i (43). The infinitive eiVcu is from eo--i/cu. The participle 
wi> is from ecr-wv through Ionic e-oov. 

2. The imperfect -^ is an augmented form, from original ?}(r-a through 
Old Ionic -rj-a, while rjv is from ^cr-v. 

3. The future ro/y,cu is from Old Ionic r-cro//,ai ; the third person 
singular e'crrcu is syncopated from ecrerac. 

The present form e? may belong also to ei/u, </o (775) ; and ta-Ou to ofSa, 

774. Accent. 1. The forms of the present indicative, except ef, are 
enclitic (152, 3). 

2. For CCTTL (paroxytone), see 156, 3 (>). 

3. In composition, the present indicative accents the preposition. 
Hence a7r-ei/zt and aTr-et may come from ei/zi, be, or ef/xt, go ; <x7r-eri may 
mean they are absent or he goes away (778, 1). 

4. The imperfect retains its accent in composition, as irap-fjv, because it 
is an augmented form. 

5. The participle tov retains its accent in compounds ; as Tra/a-tuv, irap- 
ovcra, irap-ov, gen. Trap-ovros, Trapowr^s, etc. 

6. The subjunctive to, the optative tfyv, and the infinitive emu retain 
their accent in composition. The corresponding moods of the second-aorist 
active of f^/u (-) are -to, -ei'-r/v, -efvat, with the rough breathing. Hence 
UTT-W, aTr-et^v, aTT-etvcu (from et/xi) are easily distinguished from d<-w, d^>- 
ci'v^v, d</>-etvat (from ^JJLL). But 7rap-u>, Trap-tLiqv, Trap-f.lva.1 may come from 

am present, or Trap-r^/xt, ^?ass ore?*. 

(t-, Latin i-re), ^(?. 


totp.i or IOITJV 


S. 1. etp-t 

2. ct 

3. t(Tt 

D. 2. IVov 
3. I'rov 

P. 1. t'|JtV 

2. l'T 

3. IcUri 




to ITT] V 







fja or ffeiv 
Tja<r0a or TJCI 

T]l(v) OF f|t 

twv, lovo-a, 
iov (331) 










gtrav or |J<rav 





776. NOTE. The imperfect forms ya, yetcrOa, rjei(v), ya-av belong to 
the older and middle Attic ; the forms ijetv, ytis, yei (without v movable), 
yeorav belong to the newer Attic. In the plural we have late forms fjei/xev 
and ycLTe. The future et'o-o/uai is Old Ionic ; but the Homeric curdprjv or 
belongs to ^e/xat = /te/xat (not from ^/^t), see the Catalogue. 

777. NOTE. The indicative present of ef/u has future meaning, I shall 
go, I am going (in poetry and late prose occasionally also as a present). 
The other moods and the participle are perhaps oftener used with present 
(or aorist) than with future meaning. For the present, e/>^o/zat is used in 
Attic prose, but only in the indicative, the subj., opt., etc. always from ?/u. 
3 EAew-o/xou, the regular future of C^XO/AOU, occurs only once in Attic prose 
(Lys. 22, 11). 

778. NOTE. Accent. 1. The compounds of et/u always accent the 
preposition whenever possible ; as Trap-ei/zt, 7rdp-L0i. Hence compounds 
like Trap-ei/xi, Trap-et, and vra^-eicrt may come from et]ui or et/xt (774, 3). 

2. The subjunctive Too, Zys, etc. differs from the subjunctive -w, -tys, 
etc. in accent, breathing, and quantity; the compounds of both are thus 
easily distinguished, as avr-ico and a<-ia>, Trpocr-iw and Tr/oocr-tw, even when 
the quantity is not marked. The infinitive tei/ai is distinguished by the 
smooth breathing (and short t) from -tevcu ; so in a7r-ii/cu and d^-lhai. 
But when the rough breathing of -tei/cu disappears in composition, as in 
Tr/oocr-teVat and 7rpoo--lvai, they cannot be distinguished unless the quantity, 
t or 6, is marked. 

3. The participle iiov, which is accented like a second-aorist, retains its 
accent in compounds ; as Tra/a-twv, Trap-tovcra, irap-iov, gen. Trap-iovTos, irap- 
toucrrys, etc. 

779. (/>77/u (</>a-, Latin fa-ri), say. 



S. 1. 

D. 2. 

3. <j><XT<$V <}>f]TOV 

P. 1. 


3. <{>dcrL 









<f>dvcu 'i$r\v 

e<f>T]o-9a or &f>T]S 

is, 4>a<ra, 


<j>a-r,o-av or <j>atv 


FUTURE. $-f\<ra>, <j>T](roi|Jii rare and late, <|>TJo-a>v, <J>TJO-IV. 

FiRST- AORIST. &Jxr]<ra, $J\<r<a, <}>T|o-ai|Jii, , 4>fjo-ai, <j>T|o-ds. 

PERF. PASS. Imper. ir<j>d<r0a), be it said ; Tr^arat is late ; aor. pass. aTr-e^ddrjv 

VERBAL ADJECTIVES. 0ar6s poet, and late prose, (fjare'os. 

780. NOTE. The present indicative, except <#?, is enclitic (153, 3). 
In composition (rvfj.-^^, avri-^ryyut, <ri'yu,-^>?yo-i, etc. (but crv/A-</>>ys, ai>ri-<^?, 
yet the editions differ in regard to the accent) ; subj. crf/x-^w, a-vfj.-<f>fjs, 
etc. ; opt. a-vfjL<fraifjiv, etc. No examples of the present optative dual are 
found ; nor does <cure occur. The participle <ds, ^atra, $dv, is Ionic or 
late ; it also occurs once or twice in Attic poetry. For it <do-Kwv is used. 
Middle forms of the present, imperfect, and future are dialectic. 

781. NOTE. (/>ry/zt may have three meanings. It may simply mean 
say ; it may mean say yes, like Latin aio (ov $?yyou, I say no, I deny) ; or it 
may mean / assert, affirm, am of the opinion, grant, admit. In the last sense, 
e^ao-Kw is more common, except in the indicative. The imperfect ^>ryv, also 
<w, (f>aiijv, etc., may have also aorist signification. 

782. 1. fifiai, (fa-), sit (Epic, tragic, rarely in Herodotus). 



., -?j<r0ov -fjvTai, fja-ro 

Sur.J. (wanting) 
OPT. (wanting) 

IMPER. fjo-o -fjorOov fjo-Oe 

TJo-0w -fjo-Owv -fforOwv or ijcrdw<raj> 

2. Ka6-rifjLai, sit (in Attic prose and comedy). 

.??iES. IND. KaOrj/JLai, /cd^?y(rai, Ka^ryrat; nduijcrOov ', 

LTI rj^-t, 

SUBJ. KaO>[j,a.i, KaOy, KaOrjTai ; etc. 

OPT. KaBoijAtfVj KaOoio, KaOolro ', etc. 

IMI-. KaOr/a-o, Ka^'/ycr^co ; etc. 

INF. Ka0i]o-0ai, PART, 

IMPF. Ka^?y/x?yv, fKaOrjcro, l/ca^ryro ; etc. 

or KaOijfJL^jVf KaOrjfro, KaO'rjro Or KaO^frro; etc. 

For the imperative KaO-rja-o, the form KaOov occurs in comedy. 

783. NOTE. The stem 170-- drops o- before all endings except in the 
forms Tycr-rat, ^o--ro, and /ca#7ycr-TO (also Ka#ry-To). The meaning of fjpcu t 
KaO'iifAat, is sometimes perfect, / have sat, have been seated. The missing 




tenses are supplied by {O/A<U, sit, i'fa, seat or sit, or Tfo/xat, sit ; in prose by 
/ca0eo/xcu, Ka#tw, Ka6topai ; the future /ca&jo-ojucu is frequent in the Old 
and New Testaments. 

784. Kelfiai (/cei-, tee-), lie, have laid myself, have 'been laid. 
The present and imperfect regularly serve as the perfect and 
pluperfect passim of rLOrjfjn, (510). 


S. 1. Kt(WH 

2. Ki<rai 

3. Kirai KT]Tai KC'OITO 

D. 1. KUT00V 
2. Kl<T00V 



















P. 1. Kl>00. 

2. KLcr0 Sia-Ker]<r0 

3. Kcivrai Kara-KeWrat irpo<r-KOiVTO 
FUTURE. Kefo-opai, KeCo-tj, Keia-erai, etc., regular. 

Besides the subjunctive and optative forms given above, there occur also 
a-vy-Krjrai (Aristotle), Kara-KecovTat (Lucian), and CK-KCOITO (Dem.). 

785. NOTE. The compounds have the recessive accent in the indicative 
and imperative, as Kara-Ketyuat, Kara-/cero ; but infin. Kara-Keia-Qcu. 

786. olSa (IS-), know. 

This is a perfect with present meaning from the stem 18- ; compare 


otSa el8o> 


o!8e 6l8fj 

i'(TTOV l8t]TOV 

to-TOV l8f]TOV 








Of l8lT6 

6l8eiT](rav or clScicv 








%Si\ orfjSciv 


FUT. V<ro|iai, etc., regular. VERBAL ADJ. io-reos. 

The compound o-iV-otSa, am conscious, am aware, has the recessive accent 
in the indicative and imperative, as a-vv-to-Bt. 


787. NOTE. The perfect also has o?<Sas, ofSa/xev, ofSare, oiSacri (some- 
times in Ionic and late Greek, rarely in Attic); otSarov only late ; or0as 
for oTa-Oa occurs in comedy and in Herodas. The pluperfect forms #Seiv, 
y8tL<s, y8cL (without v movable) belong to the newer Attic (compare also 
similar forms of e?/zt, 776). The dual fjcrrov and "Qtrrrjv occur almost only 
in Attic poetry ; dual forms ySerov, yBer-rjv are not found. The forms 
and y Sere are rare and poetic. The pluperfect also has : 2 sing. 
and yfys (less correct forms) ; plural ySeiftev, T/Sctrc, ySeia-av (late). 

788. NOTE. The stem is 18- for /i8- ; compare Latin md-eo y German 
wissen, English to wit. The form oi(r-0a is from ol8-0a ; i'o--/xei> from Ionic 
i'8-/Ai> ; L(r-T from iS-re ; icrao-i (Doric LO-O.VTL) from i8-cr-a-vrt with inserted 
o- (compare eido-t for eiK-cr-a-VTL from eotKa, 768) ; io-0i from i8-06 is 
identical in form with the imperative of ei/u, &e (773, 4). 

789. rjfjbi (a-, Latin a-io), say. 

This verb is used only parenthetically, like Latin inquam, inquit. 
PRESENT. ry/xi, say I ; rjcri, says he. 

IMPEUFECT. >]v 8' eyw, said I ; rj 8' 05, said lie, ?] 8' rf, said she. 
Here os and rf are old demonstratives (392). 

790. %pr} (^pa-, %/36-), there is need, it behooves (Lat. opus est). 

1. This is originally an indeclinable noun with to-rl understood. 
As a verb it is impersonal and formed its tenses by combining with 
parts of t/xt, be. 

PRESENT. Indie. x/>rj ; Subj. xPll (from x/ar) ?/) ; Opt. \P fy (from 
XP?) drj) Infin. xP?l vai (from XPV cwai) ; Part. neut. 
Xpeeov (from ^^ 6V) 

IMPERFECT. XP^I V (f r ni xp^j ^ v ) an( i l ess often 

FUTURE. x/orjorai from ^pr) 4Wat. 

2. A compound aTro-x/o^, ^ suffices, has these forms : 

PRESENT. ojroxP^^ 
IMPERF. aTrexP 7 ]- FUT. cxTrox/J^crei, aTrox/o^o-ova-t. AOR. 


791. /40/Ve KeA*/?S lV/Y/7 Future Middle, Many active verbs have no 
future active, the future middle being used instead with active meaning. 
Here belong many verbs of the Fifth and Sixth Classes besides some of the 
other classes. The following is a list of all the important ones. Those 




marked with a * have also the active future, but the middle is preferred ; 
those marked with a f sometimes have the active future form in late Greek. 





f OLfJ-dl^W 


"f" d/j.aprdvw yrjpvw 

t diro\av(a 

* apirdfa 


* /3X?7ra> 

* 6avfj.df() 

oapddvw * diyydvw 







* irodew 



vew, swim 

* (riwTrdw 



jrivw ; <f>avTa.o[j.a.i, 

&ya/, admire 
* cu'5eo/ucu, feel shame 
dXdo/icu, wander 
a/itXXdojitcu, contend 
avTi6o( (poet.), oppose 

792. Middle and Passive Deponents. 1. Middle deponents are 
deponent verbs whose aorists have active or middle meaning and middle 
form ; as aAAo/mi, leap, r)Xd[j,r)v, leaped. 

2. Passive deponents are deponent verbs whose aorists have active or 
middle meaning, but passive form ; as Tr/oo^ty/.eo/icu, am eager, TrpovBvfj.tjO'qi', 
was eager. The future passive form here has also active meaning ; as 
7rpoOvfj,v)6r)cro[, shall be eager. 

3. The following is a list of the most important passive deponents. 
Those marked with a star have both the future passive and future middle 
form, like 7rpoOvfj.60fj.aL. Observe that ^'So/xat, am pleased, has only 

has only (fravTacrOrjo-ofjiai. (poet.), see T/So/xcu, am pleased 

8r)fjiOKpaTeofj,at, have a *, am beaten 
democratic government fj.Tafj,e\, regret 

* 8ia\eyo/, converse, loathe 

*, reflect 
be out of one's dvvafj,ai, am able, oppose 
an tvBv/j.e', consider 
evvoeofj-ai, think of 
^TTiyueXoyttat, care for, think on 
e', understand 
euXa/3eo/x,cu, take care 

4. Of the above some have also the aorist middle ; but this is less frequent, or 
only poetic, or post- classical : ayafiai, alSeopai, d/xtXXdo/iat, dpvto/, StaX^yo/zcu, 
8vva/, eirivoe',,, <j)i\oTi[ Several use both the aorist 
middle and aorist passive indifferently : av\iofj,ai, lodge, live;, be 
busy ; (f>i\o<ppoveo/, treat affectionately. 

5. These prefer the aorist middle to the aorist passive : ^pi>xdofj.aL, roar ;, become; Koivo\, take counsel; diro\oyeofj,ai., speak in defence; 
fj.^fj.(f>, blame ; 6\o(, lament. 

6. These also use the aorist passive in active or middle meaning : dfj.el/3w, change; 
dfj.ei/, reply; rjfj.etyd'rjv less frequent than rjfj.ei\//dfj.Tf]v ; diropew, be at loss; 
diropeofj-ai, be in doubt ; Sairavdw, spend ; 8airavdofj.aL, spend of one's own ; epdw, love, 
pres. and imp., ^pafiac, poet., rjpdvOrjv ; 6epw, poet., warm, depofj-ai, be warmed, 


ffTOKpar^ofj,aL, have 
aristocratic government 
, deny 
am vexed 

o', think 
6\iyapxeo/, be governed 
by an oligarchy 

TTOTClOyUCU (poet.),/!/ 

* Trpo6vfj,eofj,ai, am eager 
Trpovoeofjiai, foresee, provide 
ffe(, revere 
<pavTdo[, appear 
<f>i\oTi/, am ambitious 




dyvoeu), not to perceive, 

to mistake 
dywj>io/j,a.i, contend 
ddiKeti}, wrong 
d/u.(f>i<T[3r)Tw, dispute 
&PX&, begin, rule 
BiSdffKu, teach 
<faa>, permit 

shut out 


iraidayuyeu, educate 
TroXe/iew, wage war 
irpo-ayopetw, foretell 
ffrepeu), deprive 
arpe/SXouj, screw up, 

rapdo-crw, confuse 
r-^pew, guard 
rpe(pu, nourish 
rptfiw, rub 
{j' W( rain 
<f>epu, bear 
t Xe'w, love 
0iAd<r<ra>, guard 

warm oneself, chiefly poet., 2 aor. pass, fd^pr/v ; Tretpdw, try,, 
more frequent than erreipci(rd/ji.7)v ; vTroroTreo), viroTOTreo/jLai, suspect. Of these pdu has 
the future passive, 6pa<Td-r)(, shall love ; Treipctw has ireipda-0/ and Treipdd^<rofJLai, 
shall try. 

793. Future Middle with Passive Meaning. In many verbs the 
future middle has the meaning of the future passive ; as Ti/z^'o-ojacu = 
Tifj,?]&r)(j-ofjiai, I shall be honoured. The following are all the most im- 

1. These seldom or never use the future passive form or have it only in late 

tv-eSpetiu, lie in wait bpoKoyew, agree 

&ri-/3oi/Xei5a>, plot 


x w > have, hold 
Qepa-rrevw, tend, serve 
/cwXdw, hinder 


2. These also have the future passive form. 

/3Xa7rTw, injure Xeyw, say TroXiopKew, besiege 

^-ctTrardw, deceive /xaprup^w, bear witness Trpdwu, do 

tiri-Tdavw, order, set over /uer-fytu (Hdt.), send away rifjidu, honour 

KaTa-<t>pov(i), des2)ise Trapa-reiva, stretch out, protract 

794. Second-Aorist Middle with Passive Meaning. Only these three occur in 
Homer: e^K^^v (/3dXXu), was struck; ^crd/o/i' (/cretVw), was killed; ourdyuevos 
(ourdw), wounded. 

795. Deponents With Passive Meaning. Deponents are sometimes 
used with passive meaning. This rarely occurs in the present and imperfect 
or future passive, often in the perfect and pluperfect and aorist passive. 
The following are all the important cases. 

1. Present and Imperfect, and Future Passive. Btdfoucu, force and am forced ; 
uWo/icu, buy and be bought ; dyuviofj.a.i, contend and be contended about; \v/naij>o/jLai, 
ill-treat and be ill-treated ; epyaadr]ffo^a.L from pydo/u,a.i, do ;\Q'}]<so^a.i from 
dir-apveofjiai, deny. * 

2. Perfect and Pluperfect. ' Aywvlo[j.a.i, contend; cuVuro-o^cu, speak in riddles; 
alrido/mat, accuse ; diro-XoyeofJiai, speak in defence ; /3cctfb/uai, force ; epyd^, work ; 

pray ; ijytofj.a.1, lead ; /crdo^aat ; Xaj/Sdo/iat, ill-treat ; /i^xavdo/uai, contrive ; 
imitate ; Trapp-rja-Ld^o/mac, speak freely ; TroXirei^oyuat, be (act as) a citizen ; 
carry on a business; <r/c^7rrofccu, see; %/jdo/mt, use ; (Lveo/mai, buy. 
These use the perfect middle in middle or passive meaning. 

3. Aorist Passive. These have the aorist middle and aorist passive, but use the 
latter with passive meaning: dywvi^o^ai, contend; cu'/afoyucu, ill-treat; alviffffopai, 
speak in riddles ; amdo/mi, accuse ; d/feo/u,ai, heal ; /Sidfaucu, force ; dexofJ-cu, receive ; 
dupeo/mai, present; ^pydfofJLcu, work; 777^0^011, lead; 6edo/, behold; ido/u,a.i, heal; 
KTdofj.a.1, possess ; \oyio/, reckon ; Xw/Sdo^tat, ill-treat ; /M^, imitate ; 6\o<f>6- 
pofAat, lament ; Trpocpaaii', set up a pretext ; xpao/iai, use ; uvtofwi, buy. 

796. Middle Passives. Middle passives are active verbs whose passive 
aorists sometimes or always have reflexive or middle meaning. The future 


is usually of middle form. Thus aio-\yv(D, disgrace, mid. be ashamed, ycr)(vv- 
Orjv, felt ashamed; eu<f>paw<a, gladden, mid. rejoice, yv^pdvOrjv, rejoiced; 
Kii/ea>, move, Klvij@r]v, was moved or moved myself ; crr/3<u>, turn, 
was turned or turned (myself] ; opy tco, anger, upytcrOrjv, became angry. 

The following are all the middle passives of any importance : 
dyetpb} Si-aXXdcrcro; evvo^w Sia-Kptvu ve/Aeadw (poet.) Tropetfw TTJ/CW 

dypialvb} KaT-aXXdcrffii} eixfipaivb) Kv\lvdb} dpyifa 
dv-dyw (rw-aXXdcrcraj etiux^d) XC^TTW opeydj (poet.) 

KCLT-dya dvidd) dvfjibw 5ta-Xda; 6p/ida> 

ddpoifa- $rrw Klvew XUTT&O 6p/x./fw 

aiVxd^w dicurdb} Kara-K\ivw /j-aivu Treidw (r<pdX\<*} %oX6w(poet.) 

dX^w ^treiyw /cot/adw ^.ed^ffKtj} 7repat6a> 

aTT-aXXdcrcra; e<rrida> Komifa MmvicrKb) TrXavdw 

797. Mixture of Transitive and Intransitive Meanings, In some 

verbs the future and first-aorist of the active form are transitive in meaning ; 
the second-aorist and second-perfect are intransitive. In some only the second- 
perfect is intransitive. 

1. ayvv[j.i, break (trans.) ; aor. -eda ; ayvvpai, break (intrans.), ecly^v ; 
2 pf. eciya, a?/i broken. 

2. 5i;w, sm^ (trans.), ^?M< on ; 5vcrw, ZSva-a, SeSvica Svo[ and 
6?i<er*, ^>ass under ; Svcro/xat ; 2 aor. e'Svv, dived, went down ; SeSvKa 
entered, gone down. 'EvSvco and eveSvcra, CXTTO-^VW or 4/<-8l;(o and aTr-eSvcra or 
e^-eSvcra are used of putting on or taking off another's clothes ; while v8vo/>icu 
and ev-tftvv, o.Tro-^vo^an (eK-Svofj-ai) and aTr-eSvv (e^-eSvv) are used of one's 
own clothes. 

3. eyet/xo, rouse, awake (trans.), regular ; eyet/oo/xcu (intrans.), awake, 2 aor. 
^ypo/^ryv, awo/ce ; 2 pf. eyprj-yopa, am awake. 

4. wmj/ii, sef, place, O-T^CTW, ccrr^cra, co~Ta^r^v, u - as placed ; lo-Ta/xat, se< 
/or myself, o-r^cro/xcu, fcrTrjcrd^v ; icrra/xat, |?Zace myself, <mya-o//,ai ; 2 aor. 

eo-rrjv, s^oocZ (set myself) ; eW^/ca, stond (have placed myself), eio-TTJKiy, uw 
standing ; rr?jto, s/ia^Z stone?. The same distinctions in the compounds. 

5. AetTTW, Zeai?e (trans.), Aet^w, etc.; AeAoiTra, A,a-ye Z^ or have failed or 
am wanting ; mid. AetVo/xat, remain ( = leave one's self), but 2 aor. eAtTro/xTy v, 
&/ /or myself (in Homer sometimes = was Ze/i behind, am inferior} ; pass. 
AeiVo/mt, am /<?/, also am fe/fc behind or am inferior. 

(i. /xamo, madden, /^avw, e/x^va ; />icuVo//cu, ra(/e, yu,avou/xai, e/xav^v, 
2 pf. /zeju^va, am raging. 

7. oAAv/u, destroy, lose, oAto, ai Accra, oAc6Ae/<a; 6'AAv//ai, perish,, 
2 aor. wAo/x7ii/ ; 2 pf. 6'AtoAa, am ruined. 

8. 7ra$to, persuade, Tretcrw, eVeio-a, TreTretKa, Treto-^r^o/xat, sAaZ^ &e per- 
suaded ; Tret^o/xat, believe, obey, vretVo/xat, 7T6 / cr^^v, TreTreccr/xai, am convinced ; 
2 pf. TreTrot^a, rws. 

9. Tn/jyvvfJit, fix, fasten, Zirrj^a, Trevr^yyaafc, ITT^^V j, am 
fastened, freeze ; evray^v ; 2 pf. TreTr^ya, am fixed. 


10. Tr/xicrcrcD, do ; irirpa)(a., have done; Trendy a, fare (well or ill). 

11. p-tjyvvfjii (trans.), break, pprja ; pjyiayxcu (intrans.), break, e 
1 pf. eppwya, am broken. 

12. cr/^evvu/xt, ^m out, extinguish, eo-/3ra, lo-fttirOrjv ; o-y8evmy/,ai, <jro 
out, 60 extinguished; 2 aor. fcr/Srjv, went out; tcfirjKa, am extinguished. 

1 3. crTyTro), cause to rot ; cnyTro/xcu, rot, ecraTT^v, rotted ; 2 pf. o-eo-^Tra, am 

14. T^KCO (trans.), me; T^KO/ZGU (intrans.), meft, era/c^v, melted; 2 pf. 
, am melted. 

15. </>amo, s^oiy, <avw, e^va, 7re<^ayKa, Tre^aa/xai, <f>dv6r)v ; <cuVo/x,cu, 
appear, <>dvr)V, appeared; fut. </>av?^croyucu and < ; Tretfrrjva, have 
shown myself, appeared ; (^cuvo/zcu, s/iow, declare, <^>avov/xat, e^ijvdfjLiji'. 

16. ^)vw, bring forth, produce, <t'cra>, <f>v<ra; ^uo/Aat, am produced, come 
into being ; c/>w, was produced, came into being ; Tre<j>vi<a, am by nature. 

For the full forms of these verbs, see the Catalogue. 

798. NOTE. Observe these poetic forms: fialvw, go, poet. /S^o- 

^o g'o, shall bring, f3ir](ra, caused to go j poet. ye[vo[ (yw-}, am born, aor. 
begot, brought forth ; poet. tpeiKU, tear, 2 aor. rfpiKov, trans, and intr. ; poet, epeiirw, 
throw down, 2 aor. -fjpnrov, fell ; poet. &pvvfu, rouse, 2 aor. &pwpoi> trans, and intr. ; 
poet. apaplvKw (dp-), ^, 2 aor. ijpapov trans, and intr. 

799. NOTE. Poetic intransitive second-perfects are &papa, fit (dpaptV/cw, fit, 
trans.) ; 8^8-rja, burn (daLw, burn, trans.) ; toXira, hope (Z\iru, cause to hope] ; 
KCKrjSa, am troubled (/oySw, give concern}. In late Greek av-eqya (from av-oiya)) was 
used as equivalent to dv-eipyfjiai, have been opened, stand open. 

800. NOTE. Various other peculiarities of meaning of the tenses are noticed 
in the Syntax. 



(A summary of the leading features of all the dialects is given in the 



801. 1. For Attic 77, Aeolic and Doric regularly have a ; as XaOd for 
7, Sa/xos for S?7yuo9, vtKd for VLKYI, fjLarrjp for fJL^rrjp. 

2. But when 97 is due to lengthening of original e, it remains in Lesbian and 
Arcadian Aeolic, and in Doric, while in Boeotian and Thessalian Aeolic it is repre- 
sented by ei ; as Attic, Lesbian and Arcadian Aeolic, Doric Trarrip (Trarep-), evyevrjs 
(evyeyea-} = Boeotian and Thessalian Aeolic Traretp, evyeveis ; but Eleian Aeolic 

For variations due to difference in contraction or compensative lengthening, etc. , 
see 844 and 845, and 840, I, II. 

802. The following interchanges of vowels also occur : 

a for c in some words ; as yd for yt ; "Apra/iis for "Apre/its ; Dor. Hrepos = Lesb. 
Aeol. ttrepos for Zrepos ; Lesb. &X\ora = Dor. AAAo/ca for #XXore. 

a for o in a few words ; as Lesb. Aeol. vird for VTTO ; Boeot. Aeol. and Dor. fkart 
for eiKo<ri. 

for a in a few words ; as Lesb. Aeol. Kptros for /cparos. 

6 for t in several words ; as Lesb. Aeol. r^pros for rpiros ; Dor. 2eKv6t> for 

for o in some words ; as Lesb. 4dti>a for 6d6vi] Dor. e^e^Kovra for e/35o/r7- 


t for , especially in derivatives in -eos ; as Lesb. Aeol. x<^ Klos f r x^^ Keos > ^ i 
for 6i{/ ; Boeot. Aeol. 0ios for 6e6s ; Dor. io-rid for etmd, dpytpiov for dpytpeov ; also 
stricter Doric tw and 10 for eu and eo in verbs in -^w, as tiraiviw for ^irau^u, 
fjt.oyiofj.e$ for fj.oyeo/Mi'. 

i for v rarely ; as Lesb. Aeol. i't/'os for O^oj. 

v for a occasionally ; as Lesb. Aeol. onfy>/cej for <rdpK$, ir{(<r)<Tvps for T^rcrapes. 

v for o often in Aeol., seldom in Dor. ; as Lesb. Aeol. OVSos for 6fos, cbrtf for air6' r 
for 'OSi^crcreuj ; Doric 8wfj.a for ovo/ma. 

222 DIALECTS 803 

o for a often in Aeol., seldom in Dor. ; as Lesb. Aeol. 8vu for oVw, ovla. for avid ; 
Dor. reropes for reWapes. 

o for e or v very rarely ; as Dor. K6pKvpa for Kepicvpa ; Lesb. Aeol. TrpiTavis for 

803. "We seldom have at for et ; as Lesb. and Dor. (also Epic) at for ei, Lesb. 
ivu for /cretVoj, Doric Kviraipos for Kuireipos. For ei, Lesbian and Arcadian Aeolic 

and Laconian Doric rarely have ot ; Lesb. ovoipos = tiveipos, A read. Hoffoiddv = Lacon. 
Hooidav = Att. Hoaetd&v. Lesbian Aeolic sometimes has o> for genuine ov ; as tipavos 
for otipavos. Arcadian shows -rot for -rat in verbs ; as j36\Tjrot for fiovXyrai. For 
Dor. et instead of vi in the fern, of perf. act. part, see 1057. 

804. These peculiarities belong to Boeotian Aeolic : 77 for at in nouns and verbs ; 
as itnrorr] for tTTTrorat (882, 3) ; rinrrofjir) for r^Trro/xat ; t for genuine et ; as ipdvd for 
elprjvr), dpxi for #/>%ei 5 a f r w in Trparos for -n-puiros as in Doric ; i> for ot or y 
(late) ; as 'OfAijpv for "0/u.rjpoi, rus &\\vs for rots &\\OLS, TV dd/nv for TO; STJ/X^ ; ov 
considered long or short for v or v ; as Kofoes for /c^^es, /coO/xa for /cOyua. Later 
Boeotian also had ton for u ; as rtoi;%d for T^tj, Aiwiuo^crios for Atovdcrtos (cp. English 
duke and French ^?tc) ; also to and tw for eo and ew in verbs in -ew (as in stricter 
Doric) ; eVoX^/Atov for 


805. 1. The Old Ionic dialect regularly has ^ for Attic a. 

Soc/ur;, r]/j,tpr), veryi/iiys, TraAat-^, alcr\p-)j for cro^td, rjfjiepa, vedi/ia?, 
-TraXata, alo")^pd ; fWipQ f r A tot/ / 3 ^j ^^PH ^ or ^a^/aa T/H^KOVTO, for 
irprofJUll, avtyyo~o>, ljat?yva, 7retpryo~o/xat for tao~o^/,at, aviao~(o, 
a, TreLpd( 7rpryo-(ro> for 7rpd(rcrw, Oup-rj^ for Oupd^, KprfTrjp for 
Kpdrrjp ; vr^vs for vavs. 

But a remains in ^ea, NancrtKad, <^eia, Aivetds, 'Ep/xetds. It also re- 
mains when due to contraction or compensative lengthening ; as ytyds for 
ytyavrs, /xoTxras for /totxravs. 

2. 17 takes the place of d : 

(a) In abstracts in -eid and -otd (older Attic -eta and -oid) from adjectives 
in -^ and -oos ; as dXrjOtlr), evvoi-rj for aAry$eia, ev^ota (883, 2). 

(6) In many other words ; as KVitrcrrj for KviVoxx, ly^ca^oets for d/x,a$oeis, 

3. 77 takes the place of e : 

(d) In the endings -etos and -etov ; as Miw^tbs, ieprytov for 

(6) In the oblique cases of nouns in -evs ; as /?ao-iA7y-os_, ySacrtA^t for 
y8ao-iAew, #ao-iAe?(901, 2). 

(c) In 7ji5s, rjiryeyeios, YJVKO/JLOS ; ?yvre occurs with eSre. 

4. >y for at in the dative plural of the first declension ; as yv^fjirjcrL for 
yi/w/xcus (883, 6). 

806. The diphthong et takes the place of e. 

(a) In adjectives in -eos ; as xp^~ t s f r x/^" eos - 

(6) In the pronouns e/xeto, creto, efo, ^/xetwv,, v/xetcov, ( 

815 DIALECTS 223 

(c) In the present and imperfect of some verbs in -eo> ; as 
ut) for reAew, Tri/eco. 

(d) In several augments and reduplications : etA^Aoi^a, also eXrj 

ia for eoiKina ; oWSia and SeiSoiKo, for 8eSia and SeSotKo, ; SeiSeKTO and 
ro (974). 

In some other words ; as et/awraw for epcoTaoo, etVos for evos, 
with eVe/ca ; (TTreios for crTreos, vireip for VTT^O. 

807. The diphthong oi> often takes the place of o before A, v, p, or ; 
as ovAo/xei'os, [MOVVOS, Kovpos, vov(ro<$ for oAoyuei/os, /xdi/os, KO^OS, vocro?. 

808. The diphthong ot for o in dXo/d and -fjXoirja-ev, -jrottj and Trot^ets, -rrvotrj, 

809. Original ai sometimes occurs for a ; as ctfci (from cu'fet) alongside of Attic 
del ; "x.a^ai, Trapai, Karat (in conip. ), probably old locatives for x.a^d, Trapd, /card ; 
vwai lor vtrb is formed by analogy with Trapai, etc. 

810. Short e sometimes occurs for T; 

(a) In the subjunctive forms like eidere, \d[3Tov, yeiveai, for etdrjre, 

(b) In dpytri and dpytra alongside of dpyrjTi and dpyrJTa (from d/>7^s), 
for aKax-rj^vr], ep6s for ?7/>6s. 

811. Short o is found for to 

(a) Sometimes in subjunctive forms like 'io^v, etdofj-ev, for tuftev, ddu/j.ev. 

(b) In evp^xopos for eupi/^wpos. 

812. Short is found for ei 

(a) In the feminine of several adjectives in -us ; as padt-r] for pa6eta, &Kta for 
t&/ce?a (925). 

(&) In A^d? for Alvelas, 'Eppta for 'Ep/j.ta, Ktuv for /ce/coj/ ; and in the oblique 
cases of x e ^P> as X 6 / 3 ^ 5 ? X P<-j e tc. 

813. These interchanges are uncommon : 

w rarely for o ; as dvu, rpcjx^w, for dvo, rpoxdu. 
at for o in virai for vTrb (809). 

a rarely for e ; as}, rpdwd), for W/APOJ, rp^Trw. 
e rarely for a ; as fitpedpov for f3dpa6pov. 
i rarely for e ; as laritj for eoTi'd. 

t for et in l'/ce\os with ei'/ceXos, and in ISviriai (from et'5ws). 
a for at in e'rapos, erdpr], also eraipos, eraiprj. 

o for ou in ^36Xo / uat often used for /3otfXo/*cu ; and in these compounds of TTOI/S : 
dpriiros, deXX67ros, rpLiros. 

814. For eu instead of ou in contractions, see 847. For ew instead of ao, see 
843. For 77 or et for e in subjunctives (as 0etw, 0^w), see 1045, 1046. 


815. 1. For Attic d regularly 77 as in Old Ionic (805, 1). 

2. For a we have 77 in 5t7rX?7<rio$ and 7roXXa7rX??crios for 8nr\dcrios and 
Some grammarians give also 77 for a in some feminines of the first declension ; as 
d\T)dei-rj, ef>voLrj, Trptifj-vr), for dXrjdeia, eflvoia, -rrpv/j-va (compare 883, 2). 

224 DIALECTS 816 

3. For 77 instead of a in the first declension, see 884, 1. For 77 instead of at in 
the dat. pi. of the first declension, see 884, 5. 

816. New Ionic has rj'i for ei (compare 805, 3) 

(a) In nouns in -dd ; as j3ao-i\-r)iTj for /3a<rtXetd, kingdom, ffrpaT-rftrj for (rrparetd ; 
hut -eta remains, as /3a<rt\eta, queen, d\r)6eia. 

(b) In the endings -elos and -elov ; as ot^'tos, x a ^ /C7 7 t ' OI/ for ot'/ce?os, xaX/cetoi'. 
A few names are exceptions, as Aapetoj. 

817. These interchanges also occur : 

e for a in 2p<n)v, r^rcrepes, re<rcrepd/coj/Ta. See also the cases like ytpeos (897, 
2 and 3), to-re'arat (988), and opeWes (1011, 1). 
o> for d in 5ukos and iraiwifa. 

a for e in}, rpdirw (but roe'i/'w, e'rpei/'a), fj.tya.0os. 
e for t in fcrri'i; and its derivatives, as iir-lcmos = Attic e^eVrtos. 
a for 77 in Xd^o^uat = Att. \7]ofjui, fj.ecrafj.ppi'r], d//,0tcr/3aT^a;. 
w for 77 in Trraxrcrw. 

77 for w in ^t^rty, GecrcraXt^rts, 'Icrriairjris and their derivatives. 
at for a in atet, ateros. 

w for af in 6u}/j.a, 0w/u.d^w, 9(>}fji.d<rlos, rptDyua, rpcofjiaTifa. 
et for e in etpo/iat, etpwr^w, et'pi^w, etX^crcraj, elVaros, etVa/c6(rtot, etW/cev, KCIVOS, feti'OJ, 

e for et : in e"s, &rw, epyw, ZwOa., [j.fav, Kptffffuv, irXtuv ; in the feminine of 
adjectives in -us, as /3adta ; in all forms (except pres. and imperf.) of SeiKvv/uu, as 
etc., and in all its compounds; in some proparoxy tones in -etoy, as 

t for et in f/ceXos, TrpocriVeXoj, fXi7. 

t for ev in t'^us, -ea, -u, idvvu. 

a for o in dppa>5^a>. 

ou for o in JJ.QVVOS, vovcros, vovatw, Q{j\v/J.Tros, of/Vo/xa, owo/udfa;, 6 oi''pos ( = 6 
rd oDpos (= r6 6pos), 6 ou56s, threshold; in trisyllabic forms of ybvv and 56pv, as 
701/vara, Sotipacn. 

(u for ou in c&v, T0i.ya.puv, OVKOVV, yuv. 


818. These consonant interchanges sometimes occur in Doric 

K for r in the temporal adverbs in -o/ca ( = ore) ; as irbKa,, TTOKO., ofaro/ca, 6'/ca r 
&\\OKa, for 7r6re, TTOT^, ovirore, 6're, dXXore. 

/c for x rarely ; as de^o/wu for dexo/ 

r for <r very often. The original r (changed in the Lesbian and Arcadian Aeolic 
and in the Ionic to <r, especially before t) is retained in the Doric : in adjectives in 
-nos, as TrXoi/rtos for TrXowrtos ; in the numerals in -KUT/OI ( = -KbaioC), as 5ta/car/ot for 
5ta/c6crioi ; in abstracts in -rtd, as advi/aria for ddvvaarid, yepovrtd for yepovcrid ; in the 
third person singular and plural, as Sidwrt for dldaxri, T^TTTOVTL for T^TTTOIXTL ; in rtf, 
TOL, T for (ri^, VOL, <r4 ; in some other words and forms, as Zirerov for Zirevov (from 
ir^Trra;), IToretSilJ' (also ITocretSdi') for Hoffeid&v. 

<r for Q in Laconian ; as <rt6s for ^e6?, crdXXei for 6d\\ei, dyaabs for tryatfis, ^Xcr?; 
for ^X^77. 

p for <r in Laconian ; as rip for n's, v^/cwp for vtitvs, /j.tpywaai for /j.i(ryov<rcu. 

8 for )8 rarely ; as 6de\6s for c/3eX6s. 

55 for f in Laconian ; as depiddw for depifa, for 

% for <r in the future and first-aorist of verbs in -o> ; as x u P^ an( i tyuptfa for 
and ^^ Lya from 

125 DIALECTS 225 

v for X before r and 6 ; as PWTHTTOS, tvdelv, for /3eXrt<rroj, tXdelv. 
pp for />s was used by some of the Dorians ; App-rjv (also New Attic) for &po-rii>. 
Rough breathing for cr in Laconian in the middle for words ; as /JLUO. for 
fj.ov(ra, eirotee for eiroirive, Trad for Tracra. 


819. These consonant interchanges are sometimes found in Aeolic : 
TT for r, as Lesbian irefj.ire for TT^VTC, Boeotian Trerrapa for T<rcrapa : <p for 0, as 
077p for #77/9 ; for x> as o-^'nv for aflx 7 ?*' ; /3 for y, as Boeotian /Sai/ff, fiavyKos for 
71^77, 7wcu/cos ; /3 for 5, as J3e\<j>ts for 8e\(f>ts ; K for x in Sexo/mai for 5exo/-ccu ; r for 
o- in Boeotian and Eleian, as FtKan for ei'/coo-t ; /> for o- (Eleian), as rotp for rot?, 
oCro/) for ofiros, HeXa/yyos for II 6X0,0-765 ; K for TT (Thessalian), as Kopvo^ for irdpvo^ ; 
for a- in the third person plural (Boeotian), as e'x^vOt for ^x wcrt I f f r &> as 
fa/3aros for 5td/3aros ; cr5 for ", as Trapiffduv for irapL^wv ; 5 for f (Boeotian, Eleian), 
as Aei;i7r7ros for Zetfi7T7ros ; 55 for f (Boeotian), as 6epiddu for 0e/nfa ; f for <r<r, as 
e-n-Td^ov for ^TTTrjaa-ov ; i/' for (r, as ^c?r0oi for 2a7r0o? ; 7 for t in ay/sew for atpew ; 
TTTT for yu/t in 6-mraTa = 6fj.fjia.ra ; rr for T, as in orrt ; <T<T for <r, as in reXecrtrat ; XX 
for X, as in p6\\a, cireXXd for ^0^X17, (bre^-rj. The Boeotian has TT for <r<r as the later 
Attic ; as OdXarra, Boeotian and New Attic for 0dXcurcra. 


S20. A smooth mute is found for a rough mute in aS-m for ai50t$, again, bade ; 
in OVKL for oi^x' 5 aij d in reTVKeiv and Tervneadai. from rei)x w > make. $17/1 for #7?p is 
Aeolic. We iind ffrj^epov for r-fi^pov, to-day. 

821. A r-mute or a /c-mute often remains unchanged before //, ; as i'5/xev for 
Lfffj.ev, odfjiri for OCT^ITJ, KKopv6/j.vos, equipped, from Kopvacra) (Kopvd-}, d/cax/iej'os, 
sharpened from root d/c- or dx- (Lat. acuo). 

822. Double Consonants. Consonants are often found doubled where the Attic 
has a single consonant. So often X, //,, <r ; as XXa/3e for -Xa/3e, foo& ; aTroXX^eis 
and dTro-X^fets, ^ow w^7^ cease ; ^/x/4a^es for ^/xa^es, Mott learnedst ; 0tXo/uyu.6t5?7s for 
0tXo-/xet'5T7s, /o?i^ q/" smiles ; Toatros and rooros, so ^rea# ; v/j.ccr<rdt0 and ^e^fo"aa;, /yf 
angry ; ^rAe<r<ra and reXeaa, finished ; e'crcro/ucu and ^'croyitat ; iroffffl for Troat from TTOUS, 
/oo< ; diKa<rav and St/cdcraare from 5t/cdfw ; rarely P is doubled ; as Zvveov for Z-vcov, 
swam ; ^vwrjTos for e^-^ros, well-spun; TT is found doubled in the relatives begin- 
ning with 6-, as oTTTrotojand OTrotos, of which sort ; o-mrore and OTTOTC, tchenever ; r is 
found doubled in orn (also 6rt), because ; in 6' rri (also 6' rt), 6Vreo and 6'rreu (also 
6'reu) from Sorts ; K is found doubled in TreXeKK-rjo-ev from TreXe/cdw, /lew ; 5 is found 
doubled in dddijv (also dtS^, to satiety}, in several forms from d5e- ; in d55eey, 
fearless (deos, fear), and ^SSetcre, he feared, but compounds of 5eos and augmented 
forms from 5et5w should be written with one 8 as the stem began originally with dF. 

823. NOTE. The doubling is usually due to assimilation ; as -rroo-ai from nod-cri, 
6Vrt from 65-rt, 28dei<ra from ^dfeiaa. In the case of o-cr, the first cr often belongs to 
the stern ; as in Zireff-ai. = Attic ^Trecri from e?ros (stem e7re<r-), teao/mai. from stem e<r- ; 
so also ^TfXecrcra aor. of reXew (from obsolete stem reXeo-- which became reXe-). For 
cases of doubling due to apocope, see 856. 

824. In Homer p sometimes remains single after the augment or in composition 
after a short vowel ; as e-pdirTo/j.ev for ep-pa.irTOfj.ev from pdirTw, stitch, contrive, 
a-peKTov for dp-peKTov, undone. This rarely occurs in Pindar and in Attic poetry. 

825. Between // and X, and fjt. and p, a euphonic ft (71, a] is inserted in : 
/ue7t/3XwKo, for /ie-/iXa;-A:a from /SXaxrKw (/aoX-, /xXo-), gw / &/j,j3poTos, immortal, for 
d-fj-po-Tos (cf. Lat. mor-ior) ; ^tfta-i'-^/Sporos, man-destroying ; ifftftporov from dyuaprd^w, 


226 DIALECTS 826 

r/v, miss ; /u^u/3Xercu for /xe-yuXe-rai, and A^i/SXero, from /iAw, care for, concern ; all 

826. 1. Insertion of v occurs in: VUVV/JLVOS, also i>6vv/j,os, nameless; airaXa/jLvos 
for dTrdXayUos, without device; v-rr-e/j-vrj/jiVKe from UTT-T^UW, fottf, sm& ; idpvvd-rjv from 
tSprw, caztse o &e seated; ap-TrvvvOr) from ava-irvew, breathe again, revive; and 
WvvTCLTa, most fairly, from ?0tfs, straight ; all Homeric. 

2. Insertion of /u, occurs in Homeric ct^acro; for d$ct(rid, speechlessness. 

827. Insertion of occurs in the Homeric second-perfect forms eyprjyop6a<n and 
^ypriyopdai (inf.) from eyeipu, wake, arouse. Homeric Sixda, rpixOa, and rerpaxOa 
are probably old by-forms of Bixa, T/^'xa (these two also in Homer), and rerpaxa. 

828. In Homer TrroXe^os and 7rr6Xts occur alongside of 7r6Xe/uos and TroXts and are 
probably old by-forms ; TrroXis even occurs in Aeschylus and Euripides. 

829. In Homeric words like e'7x^<r-7raXos, spear-brandishing, and f>pe<r-(piv, dat. 
pi. of tfpos, mountain, the <r of eyx ff - and opecr- belongs to the original stem. 

830. In some Homeric words an initial consonant has been dropped or else the 
double forms are due to different stems. They are: cua and yaTa = yrj ; SOWTTOS, 
noise, roar, and epi-dovjros or epi-ydowrros, loud-thundering; Bovirew, sound hear Hi/, 
aor. 8ovTn)(T and e-ydovTrriffav, gen. perf. part. 5e-5oi;7r6ros ; Xiapos, warm, soft, for 
xXtapos ; eijSw and Xet/3w, rfrc^, trickle ; ia for /j.ia. So also o-fUKpis (also Old Attic) 
and /it/epos, small ;Kiovaa6a.i for cr/dSj/ctcrtfcu, disperse, ffK^daae and eKtSaaOev. 

831. A consonant in the middle of a word is dropped in : yu6Xt/3os (Horn.) for 
Ai6Xu/35os, /ed; gen. 0dpiry-os (Horn.) for <pdpvyy-os from (pdpvy^, throat; /jLaireeiv 
(Hes.) and jj.efjLa.iroi.ev (Horn.) from /jidpirra}, seize; TTOTI or 7rpori = 7rp6s ; 6-mdev and 
faiffdev, behind, afterward; ettroQev for tKrovdev, without, far from. Homer often 
has 'AxiXeus and 'OSuo-ei/s alongside of 'AxtXXetfs and '05i/o-<rei)s. 


832. These variations of consonants appear in New Ionic : 
K for x i a 5e/to/icu, oi''/ci. 

/c for TT in all forms from the prononimal stem TTO- ; as Kotos, KOCTOS, Ky, K&S, KQTC, 
oKorepos, etc. ; but oirodaTros. 
T for 6 in aSns. 
Transfer of aspiration in evQavTa, evdevrev, KL&UV for Attic evravda,, evTev6ev, 

for era- in i6s, rpt^os ; but never iV for <r6i>, nor rr for ca. 

y for 7^ in ytvo/j.a.i and yivuvKu for Attic yiyvo/ and yt.yvu<rKu. 

A smooth mute remains before the rough breathing ; as dV' o3 for d,0' o3, //er' a 
for fied' &, dir-HTTavat. for dQ-iffTavai (O.TTO and icrrdi/at), avrr)fj.epov for 
(OLVTOS and ^epd). Exceptions are rare ; as rd e?ri Sdrepa, a.(f>-f)<ret.v, tyopos. 


833. 1. For the rough breathing we sometimes find the smooth in Homer ; as 
&jj.a.^a for &fj.aa, ^eXtos for ??Xios, dxVo and dXro from aXXo/^cu. In this case the 
aspirated vowel is sometimes lengthened ; as ovd6s for 656s, o&Xos for 6'Xos, oPpos for 
6'pos. Loss of the aspirate occurs in the case of crasis in (Sptaros from 6 dpiaros, and 
from 6 auras. 

2. The Lesbian Aeolic lacked the rough breathing ; hence &dvs for i]8fa. 

339 DIALECTS 227 


834. In Homer. 1. Although digamma is not found written in the 
Homeric poems, it was certainly pronounced in many \vords. This is 
apparent from the metre, which would otherwise have too numerous cases 
of hiatus (46) ; also from the frequent cases of position-lengthening (863) 
which are explained by an initial digamma ; from the frequent treatment 
of a long final vowel or diphthong in thesis as long before an apparently 
initial vowel (873, 1) ; and from the syllabic augment before a vowel, as 
aa for e/aa. 

2. The following words had initial digamma in Homer ; some of them are verified 
"by inscriptions : 

&yj>v/j.i, break; aXu, in numbers; aX&vai, be captured; &va, lord, &va<r<ra, 
queen, dvd(?<r<i}, rule; dpaios, slender ; [dpTjj'] dpv-bs, lamb; &CTTV, town; acrros, 
citizen; Zap, spring, Lat. ver ; edva, bridal gift; Zdeipa, hair; Zdvos, host; 
elSov, etSos, ei'SwXo;/, see iSeiv ; elWeXos, see lot/ca ; eiKocri, twenty, Lat. viginti ; 
ei'/cw, yield ; etXuu, wrap up, Lat. volvo ; etXw, press ; efyta, see CWV/JLL ; elirov, 
said, TTOS, word; etpw, say, Lat. verbum ; &cas, far, &ca-ros, Kd-epyos, far- 
ivoi'king, K-r]-p6\os, eKaTTj-fieXeTr]*, eKdTTj-poXos, far-darting ; &ca<rros, each ; ^Xos, 
free from care ; eKyn, by the will or grace (of a god) ; ZKUV, willing ; eXSo/zcu, 
wish ; \lff<ru, wind ; Xi, coil, crooked ; ATTO/UU, hope ; Zvvvfju., clothe ; elfj.a, 
ecrdos, garment ; ecrdris, clothing, Lat. vestis, vestio ; ZOIKO., am like ; eiVceXos, foeXos, 
like ; Zpyov, see epdw ; fyyw, shut in ; Zpyu,, work, epyov, work ; 
pp(>), go; po"n, &p<rr), dew; tpvofjiou, shield, tpvu, draw ; Zvirepos, at evening, 
Lat. vesper; try*, clansman; fros, year, Lat. vetus; truaios, fruitless; ^vo\f/, 
bright ; ^pa, favor ; ^XTJ, resounding noise ; lo.~x^, cry, l<ix u > cr y nt ; i5e2V , 
see, el8ov, saw, ol8a, know, et5os, appearance; eiduXov, shape; idpeirj, knowledge, 
skill ; '((Trap, one who knoivs ; i'e/u, strive, hasten ; ^TXios, Ilium ; lov, violet, 
Lat. viola ; *I/ots, Iris; is, I0t, strength, Lat. vis; Ivlov, back of the head ; 
r<ros, equal ; Ir^rj, willow ; ol8a, see ideiv ; OIKOS, house, Lat. vicus ; olvos, wine, 
Lat. vinum ; ws, as. 

3. These began originally with <rF : avdavw, please, i)8ijs, sweet, Lat. suavis ; 
200H/, accustomed, eiwda, am accustomed, fjdos, haunt, Lat. suesco ; &>, e8, 'edev, 
of, , of him, her, etc., 8s, his = Lat. suits; txvpos, father-in-law, Lat. socer ; 
e', six. 

835. NOTE. "We find change of original F to u in cases like these : evadev for 
= eadev, pleased (avdavdj) ; awa^ot, shouting together, from a copulative and 

; av^pvaav from ava-Fepvaav av-Fepeaav = dF-Fepvaav. 

836. NOTE. The words Zdt<ra, dtos, 5eiX6s, 5etj/6s, from the root 5t-, and driv 
and 8r)p5i>, originally had F after 5 ; a short vowel before the 5 in these words is there- 
fore very often treated as long by position ; as ^deio-as = e5fei<ras ( w, II. 22, 19), 

o#re TI fie 5eos ( ww w^, II. 5, 817), rw fj.ev &pa 5etXu> /3a\eTr)i> ( ww w^ , 

II. 5, 574), oirXoiffLv tin deivoiffiv ( ww w, II. 10, 272), otf TL fj.d\a drjt> (for 

dFijv, w , 11. 1, 416), eirl d-rjpbv 8t /J.OL atdv (w ww , II. 9, 415). 

837. NOTE. In many cases initial digamma is neglected in Homer and does 
not cause position -lengthening. This shows that its existence was extremely 
fluctuating and uncertain at the time. 

838. NOTE. In some words a prothetic vowel e is prefixed to the digamma, 
which then disappears ; as in ^XTTO/JCU for e-/eX7ro,ucu, tedva for e-fcSva, eei/cocri 
for eFeiKOffi, eto-r) for eF l<nj. 

839. In Aeolic and Doric. 1. Digamma remained in Aeolic and Doric long 

228 DIALECTS 840 

after it disappeared in Ionic. It is found in Boeotian and Doric inscriptions, and 
can be traced metrically in the poets. 

2. In Lesbian Acolic it sometimes becomes /3 before p, as jSpodov for Fpodov = 
poSov ;v between vowels, as "Apeva (Boeotian) for 'ApeFa from a form 'Apevs - 
"Apr]) ; sometimes it is assimilated to a preceding consonant, as ?<r0-os from FivFos, 
evvos from eVf os. 


840. I. Aeolic. 1. The Lesbian Aeolic lengthens a to at instead of d : (a) in 
the nom. sing, of the third decl. ; as rdXats and fj.e\ais for rciXds and /zeXds (from 
Ta\ai>s and fj,e\avs) ; (b) in Trcucra for Tracra (from iravraa] ; (c) in the masc. and 
fern, participle, as I'crrcus and tcrrato-a for terras and io-rdVa, reXeVats for reXeVds ; 
(flj) in the ace. pi., as rats 5i'/cais for rds 5i'/cds (from raj's St/ca^s), 6%#ats for 6'x$ds, re 
Tvy/u.fva.LS for re rvyfj.eva.s. 

2. It lengthens o to ot instead of ov : (a) in participles; as ttyots = v\j/uv (from 
tfi/'u^t = Att. v\l/bui), Tr\r)doi<ra for ir\-f]dovffa (from Tr\T)6ovT<ra}, so also //.ottra for fjiovaa 
(from fiovaa) ; (6) in the ace. pi., as trre^dVots for <rTe<pdvovs (from <TT<pavoi>s) ; 
(c-) in the third person pi., as KPVTTTOKTI for KpvTrToixrt (from KPVTTTO-VTL). 

3. Sometimes assimilation of consonants took the place of compensative 
lengthening, as in verbs : Kpivvu for Kptvw (from Kpiv-yu, 1004), ticpivva. for Znplva. 
(from eKpiv-aa, 1026). 

4. The other Aeolic dialects generally lengthen o to w ; as Boeotian /uDcra for 
(jLOuaa (from /iofcra). 

II. Doric. The stricter Doric lengthens e and o to 77 and w, the milder to et and ov 
as in Attic ; as f)/m,ev = milder Doric et/tei' = Attic ei-pat (from eV-vat) ; vbfJL<j)s = 
milder Doric and Attic VO/J.QVS (from vo/xoi's) ; fiCxra. and /u^ovaa. 

III. Ionic. In forms like etVos from tfvFos (inscr.) for Attic ^os, ofyos from 
opFos (inscr.) for Attic 6'pos, the Ionic has the compensative lengthening where the 
Attic has not. 

841. NOTE. The Cretans (partly also the Thessalians and Arcadians) preserve 
original vs ; as Trdvaa, rttfeVs, ro^s, for Attic Trao-a, rivet's, ro/s. 

842. NOTE. Some of the Dorians have short final -as and -os where in Attic 
compensative lengthening produces -ds and -ous. This shortening of -ds and -ovs to 
-as and -os is used by the poets (us Alcman, Hesiod, Tyrtaeus, Epicharmus, Theocritus, 
rarely Pindar). 

So ras rpo-rras for rpoirds (Alcm. 33) ; ccoi/pas, Trdaas in Hesiod (the accent remains 
the same as in -ds) ; Cretan inscr. r6s vo/uos for roi>s vo^ovs ; rcbs \VKOS for \VKOVS and 
jrapOevos for irap6ei>ovs in Theoc. 


843. Exchange of quantity is very frequent in Ionic, do becoming eu> which 
always forms one syllable by synizesis (853, 854) ; 'ArpetS^s, gen. 'Arpeiddo or 
'Arpeideu ; k-er^s, gen. t/cerdo or t/cerew. So dw becomes ew ; as 7nj\-r), gen. pi. 

or Tri'XeW = Att. TTV\UV ', nocm5eW for original and Horn. IIocret5ciajj' = At 


844. Aeolic. 1. The Lesbian Aeolic has few contractions. It often contracts 
ao and aw to a (as in Doric) ; Kpovidd from original Kpoviddo, UoaeLddv ^ from 
IlocretSawi/ (Att. noo-etScDi/), xaXeTrai/ /m.epifj.vav from original xaXeTrdow fj.epifj.vduv. 
It contracts e + e to 77 and o + o to o> ; as -ifaes from eexes, ftpijv for ttfpciv ; gen. 

851 DIALECTS 229 

for Xo7oi; from Xo7oo ; ai'5cos = Att. cu'SoCs from ai'5o-os. It seldom contracts e + oto 
cu, as pt\fvs from jSAeos. 

2. The Boeotian Aeolic also makes little use of contraction. It contracts o + o to 
was in Lesbian : I'TTTTOJ for I'TTTTOU from 'nriroo ; but e + e gives regular ei, as SoveTrat 
from dovterai. A peculiar contraction is a + o to av, as Zai'K^drets (inscr.) for 

845. 00/v'c. The Doric has these contractions : 

1. de, aa, ay, ay arc always contracted in verbs : ae and ay become 77, aei and 
a?7 become 77 ; as 6'p77 from 6'pae = Att. 6pd, see thou, cpys from 6pdeis = Att. 6/>s, thou 
seest, opTJ from opdfl (or 6pdet) = Att. bpq. (subj. or hit 1 .). But ae gives a, as 

from (puvdevra. 

2. d + o and d + w give d : (a) in noun-formations, as IIo<rei5d> for 

(Att. IIoo-ei5iDi/) ; (b) in the gen. sing, of the first declension ; as 'Arpeida from 
'Arpeiddo, yvufj-dv from yvu/jiduv (Att. yvw[j,&v} ; (c) occasionally in verbs in -aw, as 
yeXavTi and ye\a<ra (Theoc.) from yeXa-ovn and y\a-ov(r}ffa (Att. 7eXcD(ri and 
7c\wo-a) ; but often the regular Attic contraction, as MKWV from eW/caoj> ; (d) in 
the 2 sing. 1 aor. mid. in Theoc., as eVd^d Irom ^?ra^ao = Att. eViyfw. 

3. e + e gives 77 in the stricter Doric, and et in the milder ; as ayrjrai from 
d7eerat (Att. yyeirai) ; aipyffdai from aip&crdaL = Att. aipe'iadai. 

4. e + o and e + oii (generally left open) are contracted to ev by some Dorians, as 
in Ionic ; as x'Xevs from x et '^ 60S (Theoc. ), (/nXeOvri from 0iX6'Ti (Theoc. ) ; ew 
usually remains open. 

5. o + o and o + e give o> in the stricter Doric, ov in the milder ; as luffOuvri for 
fj-iffffovtri. from fjucrdo-ovTi, e'Xd(r(rws for ^Xdcrcrous from eXaerero-es ; irovrLw for TTOVTLOV 


846. NOTE. Pindar often has open forms. 

847. 1. 0/tf /0/7/e (Homer}. Contraction is very often omitted and is quite 
optional, the open and the contracted forms being used alongside of each other 
according to the needs of the meter ; as irais and TTCUS, ayypaos and ayypus, revxij 
and ret'xea, eP and v. 

Where contraction takes place, it follows the rules of the Attic dialect ; except 
that e + o and e + ou give ei;, not ov ; as Otpcvs for 6tpovs from flepe-os, gen. of 0epos ; 
e>eD for fyov from e^o ; j>eiKev<ri for vtLKovvi from vetKeovvi. 

2. New Ionic (Herodotus). Contraction is generally avoided except in certain 
forms of declension and conjugation. In these, which are explained under the 
inflections, eo and oo give ev ; as ^//.eC from e'/ie'o, d^ievfj-ev from dtioofj.ev. 

848. NOTE. 1. Unusual contractions in Homer are i + e=t in Ipyi- for i'e/od, 
hawk, Ipos, Ipevs, etc. for tepos, iepevs ; and + 77 = 0;, as in dySwKovra for oydoyKovra, 

r fioriffas, ayvu(ra<TK.e from ayvotw. 

2. Herodotus also has o75a>/coi'Ta, ipos, ipevs, etc. ; and w for 077 in certain forms of 
w and votw. 


849. Aeolic. Examples of crasis in Aeolic are: &vrjp = Att. av^p from 6 dvyp, 
tt. Toi>jj,6t> from rb epbv. 

850. Doric. Examples in Doric nre : wf (stricter Doric) = Att. OL> (6 e'^), 
oiXa0os from 6 ^Xa0os ; but in the milder Doric o + e gives ov, as rovvavrlov (TO 
tvavriov) ; o + a gives a>, as T&ya\/j,a for TO &ya\fj.a ; o + av gives wu, as UWTOS for 
6 ai^Tos ; Tot + a gives TW-, as TwvSpes ; 6 + at gives y-, as <jJ7r6Xos for 6 aiVoXos ; 
Kal + ev gives /c?7u-, as KT)I (Theoc.) ; Kai + ogives /ceo-, and /cat + ot gives :w, as x^ Tat/ 
(/cat ordv), K^K'LO. (/cat oiKld). 

851. O/^ /o/7/c (Homer). Crasis is rare in Homer, occurring mostly with the 

230 DIALECTS 852 

article or Kal and a following vowel ; as ovfj-bs for 6 e>6s, Kafrros for Kal avros. In 
wpto-Tos from 6 apurTos, and uwros for 6 atrrds, the rough breathing is lost. 

852. New Ionic (Herodotus}. Besides those in ordinary Attic, these peculiar 
cases also occur: w/>7?/> and &vQpwir<n (6 d-) ; ovrepos and rotirepov (6 or ro-fe-) ; 
rdrepa (rd + e-) ; iDXXot, T&p-yaiov, Td}\rj6es, TOJTTO (6 or ro + a-) ; tivdpuire, &va (w + a-) ; 
/caXos Kdyados, KdiceWi, KaKeivos, Kdfj,oi (/cat + a- or e-) ; ewirroO, f/iecouroO, crewuroD 
(from eo, e^o, treo, and cti/roO, see reflex, pr.), also WI>TOS, wurot, and TWUTO from 6 avros. 


853. In poetry two successive vowels belonging to the same word or to two 
different words are sometimes joined in pronunciation, although the contraction or 
crasis is not indicated by the writing. This is termed synizesis and occurs only for 
the sake of the meter. Thus 0eos may make one syllable, eird ov may make two. 

854. 1. Synizesis in one word is frequent in Epic poetry, especially in fa, eg., eat, 
677, eo, eot, eov, ea>, ey ; as /5eXea, $Ktov, xp v ^V- I* 1 Attic poetry it occurs mostly 
in the endings -ea>s, -ewv ; as TroXews, Tr^ea^/. It is not frequent in other poetry. 

2. Synizesis between two words is more frequent in dramatic poetry than in 
Homer. It iscon fined mostly to cases in which the first word is Sri, ^, ^, A"7> eTret, 

u elp, c& dpiyvure. 


855. Elision is much more common and free in poetry than in prose. Homer 
occasionally elides a in the possessive pronoun GO. ; rarely a in the Epic particle pa, 
and in the first-aorist activje. Final e of adverbs in -fc is rarely elided in Epic 
poetry ; final e of the third singular first-aorist optative active in -eie is often elided 
in Homer. Final i of the dative singular and plural is often elided in Homer. 
Final o in genitives in -eto (as e'yu.cio) is rarely elided in Homer, as also o in the verbal 
endings -co and -ao. Final at of the verbal endings -yttat, -<rcu, -rat, -crtfai, is some- 
times elided in the Epic and Comic poets. Final ot of the enclitic pronouns /uot, 
<rot or rot, is sometimes elided in Homer ; so also 01 in of/not (before d>s) in Attic 
poetry. Many words and forms which may take v movable (64, 858) can be" elided 
in poetry. 


856. In poetry a short final vowel is sometimes cut off before an initial 
consonant (d-rroKoirri, cutting off). We thus find &p for &pa, the, prepositions dV, /car, 
Trap for dva, Kara, irapd ; Doric TTOT for TTOTI ( = Att. irpbs). These forms occur both 
as separate words and in composition. Of these av is subject to the euphonic changes 
in 90, 1 and 2 ; the r of K.O.T is assimilated to a following consonant, but before two 
consonants it disappears. Thus oiV ap (ppevas ; &v re fj.d-^rji' for dvd re /mx??j>, dv-ffrds 
for dva-Trds, d\-\Vovcray for d^a-Xcoi'crat', d/i-/3dXXw for d^a-/3dXXo3, a/j, ireoiov for d^a 
Trediov, dy-Kpe/mdadcra for dva-Kpe/mSffaffa ; /fd/3-/3aXe for /var-e/3aXe, Ko.T-6a.veiv for 
Kara-davelv, nd-Krave for, /ca/x-/iet'^ds for /cara-/iet^ds, KO.TT ireoiov, KO.TT 0dXa/>a, 
KO.K Kopvda, Kay ybvv, Kad dvva/uuv, Ka/m. jmeffov, Kap pbov ; Trap-Oe/u-evos for -rrapa-de/jievos, 
Trap 7jrjvi for ?ra/m Zyvi ; Doric TTOT rov, TTOT T&V, etc. for TTOTI TOV, TTOTL TO.V, etc. So 
once vTT-fidXXeiv for viro-fiaXXeiv (11. 19, 80), aTr-ire^ei. for diro-trefji^ei (Od. 15, 83). 


857. This is the dropping of an initial e of a word after a final long vowel or 
diphthong, especially after /JL-TJ or fj (d^aipeats, taking off). Thus /XT? 'yd for fri] ey&, 

864 DIALECTS 231 

?} '<t>dvr)v for ?} tydvijv, direl '5a.Kpv<re, irov Vn for TTOV &m. Aphaeresis seems to occur 
only in poetry. In Homer the editors now usually insert the e and thus make 
synizesis (853). 


858. The Epic particle K ( = Attic dV) may take v movable. The poetic 
particle vtiv, now, is sometimes vti in Epic poetry. In poetry many adverbs in -dev 
(as irpbffdev, irdpoidev) may drop v. The v may be added in the Epic adverb vbv<$>(.(v\ 
apart; and in the Epic suffix -0i (914). The Epic pronoun a<$>i and the Aeolic 
(also Homeric) pronouns d/^ut ( = -}J/MV), tf,u/w ( = &fuv) may also take v movable (950). 

859. /x^xpt and &XP 1 > until, are /t^xpts an( i &XP 1 * i n la^e Greek. These words 
also have s movable : TroXXckts, often (also TroXXdKi Epic, Lyric, rarely Tragic) ; 
drpe/ms and drp^a, quietly, mostly poetic ; efjjras, wholly (rarely ^U7ra in poetry) ; 
#0?a>, unawares (rarely poetic A0vws) ; ti66 (166 Ionic), straight towards, but evdvs 
(Idvs Ionic), straightway, in Homer Td 6s = straight towards; /me<T'r)'yti(s), between [Epic 
iu.ecr<rr)yij(s)] ; d/x0t's, about (Epic also d/j-tpi) ; dvriKpiis, just opposite, straight on (Horn. 
only dvnKpv], but KaravTiKpu and diravTiKpij are better Attic without s. 


860. These cases of addition of vowels in Homer require mention. 

1. A prothetic e is often found before e or ei, seldom before t ; as ZeSva, tt\wp, 
pa"r) for edva, eX5wp, 'epvr) ; eeinocri for et/coat, 4ta"rj for Ia"rj ; &\iro/jiai, i<rK<t) for 
ATTO/ACU, tffKu. See also in the Catalogue of Verbs ei/jd, d/mi, ei'Souat, A5o/xat, ei'Xw 
flirov, eipyo}, e'tpw, 'evvvpi, 1-rjfj.i. 

2. An e is inserted in ^ev for ty (from ei'/u) and in r]e\ios for r/Xtos. 

3. In the gen. and dat. dual, t is always inserted ; as &/J.QUV and iroSouv for 
&fj.oiv and iroSotv, Homer sometimes has 6/wouos for 6/u.o'ios, often TTVKIVOS for TTVKVOS. 

4. In a few cases 77 is inserted : fv-rj-yevris, e-mfjeravos (from ^TOS), perennial. 


861. In the Epic language an a followed by an o-sound is sometimes changed 
to an o-sound : 06ws for 0dos, BOUKOS from OCLOKOS (Attic 6ai<os), irpuoves from irpaoves 
(Attic irpuv}. For a similar change in verbs in -aw, see 1009 (b) ; for the change of 
an e-sound following a to a, see 1009 (6). 


862. Metathesis of ap and pa occurs frequently in Epic poetry metri causa. 
Thus /cdpros and Kpdros, Kaprepos and Kpdrepos, Kd/moTOS for Kpana-ros, (3dp5i<rTo$ from 
(Bpadvs, drapiros for drpairos, Kpadi-r) and Kapdirj, rerparos and rerapros ; Spares for 
Sa/>r6s from 5^pw, but also veo-dapros ; second-aorists ZdpaKov from dtpx-opai, 
Zirpadov from irepQ-w, rpa7reto/*ev (subj.) from T^TT-W, Lesbian fjfj.fSporoi' and regular 
TJ/j,apT-ov from d/j-aprdvu. By metathesis p^ w > wor&, is derived from ^pSw. 


863. In Homer an unwritten digamma may be the cause of position-lengthening ; 
as Trpbs olKOv for Trpbs FOLKOV (11. 9, 147) ; X et P^ TrdXiv kpvffad for TrdXiv Fepijcrda' 
(II. 5, 836). 

864. In Epic poetry a final short vowel standing before a word beginning with 

232 DIALECTS 865 

or (TK seldom remains short; as ot d\ ZeXeiav ZVOLLOV ( ^w v_/w w, II. 2, 824) ; 
eV Xet/xtDi'i ^Ka/mavSpiif} ( --- ww w, //. 2, 867). This is evidently caused by the 
exigency of the meter ; for in such cases the word beginning with f or CTK has the 
first syllable short and the second long. 

865. 1. In Homer a short vowel before a mute and a liquid usually makes 
position ; as evdovffi fiporol ( --- w, //. 10, 83) ; #76 rpets (v_/ -- , //. 2, 671). 

2. But Homer often neglects position when a short vowel stands before a mute 
and p or X ; as Mcnpa Kparair) ( ^ ^ -- , II, 5, 83) ; TTJS 8' #pa /cXcuoiVTjs ( w w --- , 
Od. 20, 92). 

Hesiod sometimes neglects position when a short vowel stands before a mute and 
v ; as eYtKTC irveovvav (w ww w, Thcog. 319). 

3. In position-length, the old Elegiac, Iambic, and Lesbian Lyric poets, and 
Anacreon agree with Homer. Only Theognis and Xenophanes sometimes neglect 
position-length in the cases of a short vowel before a mnte and p or X. The choral 
poets (as Pindar) neglect position-length oftener than Homer. 

866. In poetry a vowel long by nature is rarely treated as short on account of 
the meter; as <j>oLi>\.Kb<T<rav, w^ w from 0oiVt|, <f>oivli<os (Horn. //. 10, 133); 
Xpvo-eW, ww from xpiVeos (Enr. Med. 978). In the later Epic poets and in the 
Epigrammatists this is more frequent. 

867. In some words the quantity of the vowel is different in different dialects, 
or in different kinds of poetry, or at different times. 

Mrirfw and /xrpita Attic, /tiT/i/fw Horn.; ITJ/J.I Attic, usually nj/m.i in Horn.; most 
verbs in -o> have v in Attic, v in Horn.; oifi'pjs Horn., olffpos Aristoph. ; com- 
paratives in -tuv Attic, -tuv Epic and Doric. 

868. In Epic poetry a short syllable is often treated as long when it stands in 
arsis ; as "Apes "Apes f3poro\oiye ( ww v_/w w, II. 5, 31). 

When the same syllable of Avord is thus either long or short, it is sometimes 
difficult to decide whether the vowel was originally short or long. 

869. 1. In Homer a is often lengthened to 77, c to ei or :/, o to ov or w, on 
account of the meter ; as i/i/'tTrerTjXos for i^tTreraXos, yuaxeifytej'os for yuaxeoyuei/os, 
Tidrj/j-evos for rt^e/u.ei'os, ov\6/u.evos for oXo/xevos. 

2. Similarly a, i and u standing in the first syllable of a word and having the 
ictus, are often used as a, I, v on account of the meter ; as dddvaros and 
fthese two words always so measured by the poets), Hpia/^idys for 
dwd/mevos for SiVd/Aepos. 

This occurs sometimes in the middle of a word, even when the syllable has not 
the ictus; as dXcro yue/xdcis (-ww- , II. 16, 754), Terp&KVKXoi t (- -w, Od. 9, 242), 
eplS-fiffaffBai (- w w - - - w, 11. 23. 792), v-rrode^t-rj (w w - - -, II. 9, -73) ; 
/ce/caXii/^ueVo, ( --- ww ww, II. 21, 318). 

870. In Homer a short final syllable ending 'in a consonant is often made long 
by the caesura ; as o'l re Kdpuo-roj/ e'xov iJ8* oT ( wy j s/w J H | , 11. 2, 539). 

871. 1. In Homer a short final vowel is sometimes treated as long, even before 
an initial vowel of a following word. Such a vowel may be in arsis or it may stand 
before an initial liquid of a following word. Thus : Trare'pi 5e (ww | w, 11. 5, 156) ; 
Atl 0iXos (v | -ww) ; ffdicci #Xao-' (ww | -^ v, II. 20, 259) ; 7r6XX' ^rea (-ww | -, 
II. 20, 255); & v'i\ Ilerewo ( ^> w | - w ^ | - w, II. 4, 338); re'/cero IIoXi;0ei5ea 
(ww | -ww | -v^w, Od. 15, 249) ; TroXXa \urff6fjxvos ( -- | -w | -, 11. 5, 358) ; 
ai'et 5e jjiaXaKOicri ( -- | ww | w, Od. 1, 56) ; eucrrpe^e'a vevp'qv (^ [ ww | -- | , 
II. 20, 463) ; aMv rt pvcai ( ----- , II. 24, 430). 

2. In old Comedy a short final vowel before initial p always counts as long ; 
in Tragedy it may count as short or long. 

880 PIALf.CTS 233 

872. In poetry a long vowel or diphthong standing before another vowel of the 
same word is sometimes treated as short. This occurs occi sionally in Epic poetry ; 
as %>os (-w, Od. 6, 303) ; tfjurvaiov (-w, Od. 20, 379) ; otos (^, II. 13, 275) ; 
Xa^aieCvcu (ww -- , II. 16, 235) ; seldom in post-Homeric poetry and in the Attic 
drama; as roiaura (w ^, Find. Pytli. 8, 55) ; Trarpwuv ( w , Find. Ncm. 9, 14) ; 
olos re (w- | w, Popli. Oed. R. 1495); roiaOrcu (w -- , Aristoph. Nub. 342); 
frequently with TTOIW (w ). 

873. 1. In Epic poetry a long final vowel or dipthongstaiiding in thesis before a 
word beginning with a vowel is nearly always treated as short ; as d/crf) ^0' v^rjXri 
(-^w | -- \-,ll. 2, 395) ; T> 5' e 7 i ov \Vffta (- ^^ \ -- \ -, II. 1, 29). This 
sometimes occurs in the dramatic chorus. If the following word had digamma, the 
final vowel may remain long in thesis. 

2. But when the long vowel or diphthong stands in arsis, it remains long, 
as dvTiOetp '08v<rr)'i ( ww | ww j w), %wo/weVov 'AxtXTjos ( ww | v^w | w, 
II. 9, 107). So also when the following word had an initial digamma ; as TTCUTI 
<pi\ov /ecu r\5v for Frjdv ( w ^ | -- | ^, 7/. 4, 17) ; yv/mvov drdp rot el'uar' for Fei/xar' 
(_^ w j __ | _ w> 7;. 22, 510). 


874. The dialectic and poetic enclitics are given in 152, 5. For anastrophe 
in poetiy, see 140. 

875. The Lesbian Aeolic has the recessive accent in all words ; as /36X\a for 
/3oiA?7, cirAXct for circiX??, worafios for, &<nris for clcna's, Aarw for A?;ru>, <r60os 
for (ro06s, XeO/cos for Xeu/cos, rpax^s for rpdxi'S, ^7w for ^ya>, aSros for ai^ros, tydopdai 
for e^6dp6ai. So monosyllables with a long vowel or diphthong are perispomena, 
as ZeOs from Z^i)s for Attic Zeuj from Z^j. But prepositions and conjunctions are 
accented as in Attic. 

876. 1. The Dorians tended to throw the accent to the ultima. Hence we 
have such forms as dfnr^Xos for cfytTreXos, oirrcDs for oi!ro?s, Trcwrws for TTCIVTWS. 

2. The Doric -es for m and -ev for -e/ in the verb are considered long as regards 
accent ; as dfj.t\yes = d/mtXyeis, \eiTrev = \eiTreii>. The third pers. pi. of the tenses 
of the active indie, and opt., and of the aor. pass, were paroxytnne in Doric: 
tXcyov, tXvo-av, e\dj3ov, e<pi\ddei>, \eyolev, \vffaiev. 

877. Some perfect middle infmitivps and participles are recessively accented in 
Homer ; so e\T)\d/j.evos (dXavvw), eacri'/jLevos 

878. NOTE. The 1\ISS. of Homer often show the second aor. mid. recessively 
accented, as eypecrdai ; but this is probably incorrect. 

879. The second-aorist middle imperative in -<n>(from -eo) is recessively accented 
in the dialects; as Xeu (Hes.) = e\ov, irijdeo (Her.) = irvdov <rvv-6eo and tvdeo 
(Horn.) = <rw-dov and iv-Qov. 


880. Numbers. The Aeolic and New Ionic lack the dual number. It is rare 
in Doric. 

234 DIALECTS 881 



881. Aeolic and Doric, 1. Long d is retained throughout the singular; 
as yvto^d, yvco/zds, yvw/xa, yvw/xdv ; 'Ar/KtSas, 'ArpeiSd, 'ArpetSa, 'Ar/oetSdv. 

2. The genitive singular of masculines has d from original (also Epic, 
Boeotian) -do; as K/aovtSd,, KTtVrd (Lesb. inscr.). Pindar has -d oftener 
than -do. 

3. The genitive plural has -oV from original -dwi>, as yvw/zoV. It is 
perispomenon also in the fern, of adjectives, as veavioV,, dXAav. This -aV 
is used by the dramatists in the chorus and in lyric parts. 

4. The dative plural has -aion(v) in Aeolic, the Aeolic poets also have 
-cus (the article always rats). The Doric has -cus, Pindar often -ari. 

5. The accusative plural has -ous in Lesbian Aeolic, as KvXixvaL<s for 

The Cretic has the original -a-vs, as Tr/DetyuraVs. 

882. NOTE. 1. Short a in nom. sing, is found occasionally in Pindar, as 
Xava for Att. He\\r)i>-r), very rarely in Aeolic (irpeafiurTa) ; in the voc. sing. 

rarely as 5t/ca (Sappho), K&pa (Theoc.). 

2. For a in the nom. sing, masc., as linrora. (Horn.), see 883, 3. 

3. The Boeotian has 77 for a and at in the dat. sing., and nom. and dat. pi. ; as 
yvib/jirj (dat. sing, and nora^ pi.), yv^^s (dat. pi.) ; it has original do in the gen. 
sing, of masculines, as TroArrdo. 

4. Proper names in -Ados = Att. -Aews of the second declension have -Ads in 
Doric and follow the first ; as Mei/eAds, gen. Mei/eAd, dat. Mei/f Aa, ace. llei>e\ai>. 

5. For the shortening of -ds in the ace. pi. to -as, see 842. 

883. Old Ionic (Epic}. 1. For d Homer has 77 throughout the singular; 
(ro<i?7, cro<f)irjs, <ro(/H?7, crcxfiirjv ; Bope^s, dat. BO/JCT/, ace. Boper/v. Exceptions 
are Oea, NavcrtKad, ^etd, Alicia?, Ai'yetds, 'Ep/xei'ds. 

2. Homer also has t] for d in abstracts in -eta and -oid ; as ccA^ea/, 

Also in some other words, as Kvicri] for wiva. The voc. of 
ufrr] is vv(JL<f>a. 

3. The nom. sing, of some masculines has -d for -r/s ; as lirirora for 

, horseman, al^r/rd for at^/xr^r?;?, spearman ; sometimes recessively 
accented, as /xryrtera, counsellor. Compare Latin jjogto with TTOI^T^S. These 
forms in -d are called Aeolic, but no examples are found in the Aeolic poets 
and only two or three in inscriptions. 

4. The genitive singular of masculines in Homer has three forms : 

(a) -do, as 5 AT/)et8do, tK^rdo, Bopedo. 

(b) -w (from -do), pronounced as one syllable ; as 'Ar/aei'Sew, iKerew. 

(c) -co (contr. from -do) after vowels ; as ' E/Dyotei'w, Bopew. 

5. The genitive plural in Homer has also three forms : 

(a) -dwv, the original and most common form ; as tfedwv, of goddesses, 

/, of tents, ao-TTio-rdwv, of warriors. 

(&) -GUV (usually one syllable) ; as TrvXewv, of gates, vavretov, of sailors. 
(c) -a>i/ (Attic form) after vowels ; as /cAio-twi', o/ tents, Tra/aetwv, o 

887 DIALECTS 235 

6. The dative plural in Homer has : 

(a) -ria-t(v) or -$s ; as Oerjari, to goddesses, 'ArpetSycrL ; Trer/j^s, to rocks. 
(6) -ais only in <9eous (Od. 5, 119) and a/crcus (II. 12, 284). 

7. Contracted nouns are rare ; as yfj and youa, 'Ep/x^s and 


884. /V0W /0/7/C (Herodotus}. 1. Long 77 takes the place of a through- 
out the singular in words which have nom. -d in Attic ; as X ( W> X'W 5 ' 
X<^Pl}j X^pr^v. Those which have -d in the nom. sing, in Attic retain -d in 
the nom., but have 77 in the gen. and dat. ; as aA.7y#eid, aArytfei'^s, dX'rjOei'r), 
but aAr}#eiav. Some MSS. have nominatives like d^rjOeirj, evvofy. 

2. The genitive singular of masculines has -ew, as Seo-Trd-nys, master, gen. 

, AcwviS^s, gen. Aewvi'Seco. After a vowel -eco becomes -co, as 
gen. e Epju,e-co. 

3. The accusative singular of masculines has -ea for -rjv in some words, 
as Effect for Hfpg-qv, but this is probably incorrect. 

4. The genitive plural has -etov ; as rlfj.^, rt/xewv ; 01*477, oi/aetov. The 
exceptions are : rtov and &v ; barytone adjectives, participles, and pronouns, 
in -05, -17, -ov, which have the same form as the masculine : oAiywv, /xaxo- 
juei/tov, Tot'rcov (but cuJTecov from avrtj) ; those which have e before -ecov drop 
one e, as (h]X.ov for ^r/Ae-ewv. [Some give -wv in all cases.] 

5. The dative plural has -^cri ; as yvtoftjprt, avrfja-i, Xonrrjo-i. 

6. Except yrj t hardly any contracted forms occur : /xveai, /xi/eds, /xvewv, 



885. Aeolic 8.nd Doric, 1. The genitive singular has -w, the milder 
Doric -of ; as Adyov = stricter Doric Ady cu. The Aeolic poets sometimes 
have -oto, as ep^o/zevoto. Pindar has -ov and -oto. 

2. The dative plural has -oicrt in Aeolic, as /ca/coio-t ; in Aeolic poetry 
-oitrt and -ot5 (the article always rots). The Doric sometimes has -ouri(v) 
in poetry, but usually -ots. 

3. The accusative plural has -ois in Lesbian Aeolic, as o-Te<dVois for 
(TT<t>dvov<s. The milder Doric has -ov<$ as in Attic, the stricter Doric has 
-cos or -os ; as Adyw? for Adyovs, rws AVKOS for TOVS AVKOVS. Boeotian 
Aeolic has -cos. Pindar has -ovs ; examples of -os in Pindar are very rare 
and doubtful. 

4. Words of the Attic second declension follow the ordinary declension ; 
as vdds = Att. 

886. NOTE. 1. Late Boeotian inscriptions show v for -y and -ot, -vs for -ots ; 
as TV ddfj.v, "Owpii for "O/uTjpot, rOs &\\i>s for ro?s dXXots. 

2. The gen. in -oto belongs to Old Ionic, and was anciently considered Thessalian. 
Some Thessalian inscriptions have -ot (from -oto), as Zarvpot. from 2artfpoio = Att. 

887. Old Ionic (Homer). 1. The genitive singular has -oto or -ov ; 

236 DIALECTS 888 

as Oeoio, dpyvptoio, dXoyov, /mypov. The intermediate form -oo is seen in 
the genitives Heretoo and Ilei/eAeojo from Ilerews and HeveAews of the 
Attic second declension ; it has also been traced in a few other places 
(oo = ou, //. 1, 70 ; 2, 325, etc.; see 6 below). 

2. The dative plural ends in -ori(v), less often -ots ; as ouovoori, aots 

3. The genitive and dative dual have -ouv for -oiv ; as &fiouv from 
oyzos, shoulder, crraOfJioiiv from crra$/xos, station. 

4. Contract forms are very rare ; as vovs once for i/oos. 

5. The Attic second declension is very little used. For Attic Aecos, 
Aaytos, vews, /caAws, Homer has Ados, Aaywds, v^os, KaAos ; for Attic 

"A&os, Ka>s, yaAws, Homer has 'A0o<os, Kows, yaAdoos. For Attic ea>s, 
<lnm-) Homer and Herodotus have ?/ws of the third decl. and declined 
like cu'ows (249). 

6. NOTE. In the above-mentioned (887, 1) lines of the Iliad (1, 70 and 
2, 325), we have 8ov, an inexplicable form, 60 would do just as well for the meter. 
In the Odyssey 10, 36 we have Al6\ov, which must be scanned - | - with the 
middle syllable lengthened ; whereas if we read Ai'oXoo, we must scan - w w | - 
with the short syllable lengthened in arsis. In these and in some other cases, 
-oo is evidently a preferable reading to -ou. 

888. New Ionic (Herodotus). 1. The dative plural ends in -OMTI, as 
Adyowri. The Ionic poets also have -ois. 

2. Contract forms do not occur. 

3. Some MSS. and editions of Herodotus incorrectly have ai'rewi/ and 
TOVT(OV for the masc. and neut. pi. instead of avrwv and TOVTWV ; aurccav 
and TovTewv are feminine. 

4. The Attic second declension is confined only to Aeros and to proper 
names, as MevcAews, 'Afi<j>idpc<oG ; also a/^iepews for dpx^p^- Others 
follow ordinary declension ; v/yds, /caAos, Aayos. For ecus, dau n n, Herodotvs 
has ryws as in Homer. 


889. For oSovs, tooth, Herodotus has oSwv. For Aeolic and Doric a for 
""I (yvv&i TTOi/jidv, etc.), see 801. 

890. Accusative Singular. L The accusative singular has the ending 
-a somewhat oftener in the dialects than in Attic. 

2. So Kopvs, helm, nbpvv twice in Horn., usually Kopvdo. (also Enr. Bacch. 1186) ; 
K&fJLvs, bundle, Kupvda (Theoc. 4, 18) ; 2irrj\vs, stranger, has e7rr)\v5a in Her. 
1, 78; t>t-ti\vs, newcomer, has verj\v8a in Her. 1, 118, and vfy\vv in Lucian, 
Dial. Mort. 18, 1 ; tpis, strife, has tpida often in Horn., with epiv ; O'TTIS, regard, 
vengeance, has 6irida and &TTLV in Horn.; vrjls, unskilled, vrj'ida (Horn.), vr[iv (Callim.) ; 
Ki^Trpis has Ki^TrpiSa and KuTrpiv in Horn. ; &I>CL\KIS, cowardly, dvd\Kida and &VO.\KLV 
in Horn.; 0o\o7m, battle-din, 0i!X67rt5a in Horn. Od. 11, 314, elsewhere <f>c\o7riy ; 
yXau/ca)7ris, gleaming - eyed, yXavKuirida (Horn. II. 8, 373, Find. Nem. 7, 96), 
y\avKu>Triv (Od. 1, 156) ; evGnri.?, fair-faced, evuTuda (Od. 5, 113); \evKaffTris, with 
white shield, \evKda-n-ida in 11. 22, 294 ; xdX/caa-Trts, with brazen shield, xaXfcdo-TrtSa 
(find. Pyth. 9, 1) ; JJLOV OK pr/Trls, with one sandal, novoKprjirlda. (Find. Pyth. 4, 75) ; 



Kdwafiis, hemp, KawdpiSa (Her. 4, 74) ; KdXwis, pitcher, Kd\Tri8a (Find. 01. 6, 40) ; 
veavu, maiden, vedviSa (Aesch. Prom. 706) ; Ai)Xi5a twice in Eur. is from Av\is ; 
Ilpoffwrlrida. in Time. 1, 109-. 

3. Xa/>is has xdptra several times (Her. 6, 41; 9, 107; (?) Xen. Hell. 3, 5 16 ; 
Eur. El. 61, Hel. 1378 ; fywts lias 6pvlda several times (Her. 4, 131 ; Eur. ffel. 
1109, Iph. Aul. 607 ; Aesch. Frag. 88 ; Aristoph. Av. 720). 

4. Isolated examples are Ix8fa (Theoc. 21, 45), and poa (Anthology) from 

5. As the Lesbian Aeolic accents recessively, it has v for a in nouns in -ts and 
-us ; as xXd/xi'i/ for xXa/^Sa, Trdi/i'i'xij' (inscr.). 

891. The vocative of proper names in -ds, -ai/r-os is -av in Homer ; 
as Atds, voc. Afav (Att. Aids). Except voc. IIovAv3a/xd and AdoSd/xd. 

892. The genitive plural of monosyllabic stems is perispomenon in 
Doric, as TrcuoVov = TTCU 8wv ; but except TWOI/ from rts. 

893. Dative Plural. 1. In Aeolic the dative plural has -eo-crt, in 
poetry also -e(nrt(i/) and -crt(v) ; as 'ApKaS-ecro-i, 7ro8-eo-(7ij/, ^e/o-o-tv, TTOCT-O-C 
(from 7ro8-cri). 

2. In Doric the dative plural has -e<r<ri(i>) and the ordinary -<n(v\ as 
piv-evo-i (Epicharm. Frog. 9). In some inscriptions we have -ao-o-t(v) and 
-ots ; as Trpdcro-o^r-ao-crt and ^/3^/xarots. 

3. Homer has -(rcri(v) often, seldom -eo-t(v), -cro-t(i/) sometimes after 
vowels, ordinary -o-i(v) often ; as TroS-eo-o-t and 7ro<r-o-t or TTO-<JI(V) from 
7ro8-o-fc, TravT-eo-o-t and Tra-o-t(v), Kvv-<r<ri and KV-CTI(V), fj,vr)(TTrip-co-(ri and 

L, 7T-e(r<rt(i/) and rr-(rjt(v) or 7T-cri(v) ; aiy-eo-tv, x et/ /' O " fc 

4. In Herodotus we have cuTi>/x6v-e(o-)cri in all MSS. The other cases 
of -e(Tt in Her. are probably incorrect, -crt being regular. 

5. Pindar has -eo-crc oftener than -<rt ; sometimes in o--stems -e-eo-o-i. 
The Tragedians sometimes have -eoxri rw<n cawsa. 

894. The genitive and dative dual have -ouv in Homer. So voSouv 
eight times (Hes. once), 2etp?poiii' twice. The nom. dual occurs seveial 
times in Horn, as a plural ; as dAoVre (II. 5, 487). 

895. Syncopated Stems in -e/>-. 1. J Av}p : the poets used the syn- 
copated and unsyncopated forms ; as dVe^-os and dvSpos. Horn, has dat. pi. 
dvSpdcTL and avSpeo-cri. The a of dvi'jp is short in Attic ; in Horn, it is long 
in di/ep-o?, dve/o-t, avep-a (S.vep, II. 24, 725), nom. dV^/) or ai/^/o ; in the 
Dramatists long only in lyric parts. 

2. Harr/p, pyTT/p (Dor. />tdrryp), dvyaTtjp, ya<rr^p. In the poets unsyn- 
copated forms are often used. They also have other syncopated forms not 
found in Attic prose : Ovyarpa, 0vyarpcs, Ovyarpuv, 6vyarpa<5 ; TTOT/DWV, 

Herodotus uses only the Attic prose forms. 

3. ^rj/jL-ijrfjp has the full and the syncopated forms in non-Attic poetry. 

896. Stems in -co--. 1. The Aeolic and Doric omit contraction. But 
from /3eAeos once in Alcaeus ; contractions also occur in the Doric 

inscriptions. The ace. sing, of adjectives in -175 often has -ryv in Lesbian, 

238 DIALECTS 897 

as Sva-fjievrjv (Sappho). Compounds of -/cAe^s drop one e everywhere in 
Doric, as 'iTTTro/cAe-os. 

2. Homer usually has open forms ; often -e-t and -e-es are contracted to 
-ei and -eis, sometimes -e-os becomes -eus ; as Ta\t'i = r<i\ei, KaraTrprjvti, 

from ir/njvc-es, Otptvs from $e/5e-os. 

3. In Homer /cAeos, fame, has ace. pi. /cAea for K-Aeea. Compounds in 

are declined thus 

4. Herodotus has only open forms. In compounds in -K'Ae?ys one e is 
dropped ; as Be/xio-To/cAe^s, -/<Aeos, -/cAei.', -/<Aea, voc. Ge/^tcrTo/cAees. 

5. The Attic poets seldom have open forms. The gen. sing, -evs from -e-os is 
seldom found in Pindar and Theocritus ; the dat. -ei from -ei' often in Find, and 
Theoc. ; TJ from -ea seldom in Find. 

897. Stems in -a<r- SLnd -ar-. 1. Nouns with stems in -cur- usually 
remain uncontracted in Homer ; but the contracted dat. sing, occurs, as 
SCTTOU ; and rarely the gen. pi., as Kpewv or K/aetwv. The dat. pi. in Homer 
has three forms ; as oWa-eoxri, SeTracr-criv, /cpca-cnv. The nom. and ace. 
pi. has -d instead of -aa or -a, as yepa, Se-ra ; so Kpza rarely in Attic 

2. In Herodotus nouns with stems in -ao-- remain uncontracted, as 
yrjpas, jr/pa-os, yijpa-'i (except Kpeas, gen. K/oews, pi. /cped, Kpewv). With 
the exception of y>}pas and K/oeas, the a of the stem is changed to e ; as 

, yepe-os, yc/ae-a, etc. 

3. These in -aa-- change a of the stem to e in the gen., dat., and pi.: 
fiptras, image (in Tragedy and late prose), fiptre-os, fiptrei, pptre-a and 

S, fleece, in Horn, and other poets, also Her., pi. Kue-a, 

o&5as, threshold (Epic), o05e-os, ovde-'i, and ou'Set. 

Kvtyas, darkness, KV<E<J>O.-OS (Odyssey) and />e0oi/$ (Aristoph.), dat. Kv<j>q. (Xen.) 
and Kvtyei (Anthol.). 

/crfpas, possession (Horn.), /cr^pea, KTeptwv, funeral gifts. 

4. K^oas and rtpas have no forms with r in Ionic. In Homer : Kepas, K^pai, 
Kepd, Ktpdwv, K^pa<ri and Kepdeaai ; repas, r^paa, repduv, repdeafft. In Herodotus a 
becomes e and no contraction takes place, as Kepas, Kepe-os, K^pe-'i, Kepe-a, Kepe-wv ; 
but he has gen. r^par-os with re'pe-os and pi. r^par-a with repe-a. For Trepas Horn. 
has n-e'ipap, irfiparos (238). For 0u>s, 0wr-6j, %A^, Horn, has tydos (0aeo--) or 06ws, 
dat. 0dct, pi. 0(jfa (0dos also in Tragedy). Doric KpTJs = Kpeas. 

898. SteA77S //7 -w- or -o-. These are declined as in Attic. Uncontracted 
forms occur only in Pindar. In Herodotus proper names have the accusative 
in -ovv, as A^rovv, 'louv ; for ecus, dawn, of the Attic second declension, he 
has ?}ws declined like cuSws (249). 

899. Stems in -<.-. 1. In Aeolic and Doric the t of the stem is retained 
in all forms ; t + i in the dative becomes I ; the dative plural has -i-ecro-i, 
the accusative plural -i-as. Thus TroAis, 7roAi-os, (7roAi-t) TrdAi, 7roAi-v, 
TroAi, pi. 7roAi-es, TToAi'-wv, TToXi-f.o'cr^ 7roAi-a. 

2. The Epic has the same forms as the Aeolic and Doric ; also several 
doubtful datives in -ei and -ct, a doubtful dative plural in -e-o~i, also -fs for 

902 DIALECTS 239 

-eas in the accusative plural (-as is doubtful). Thus gen. TroAc-os, /ZTJVI-OS ; 
dat. fJirjTl (TroAet, TroVei' doubtful) ; ace. 7rdAi-v ; voc. ; pi. 
7roAi-a>v, dat. 7roAi-eo-cri (7raAe-oriv, II. 22, 3), ace. 7roAi-as, aKoiri 
doubtful). LToAis is peculiarly declined in Homer and has some forms 
from a stem 7roA?7-, thus : TroAts, 7roAi-os, and often TroArj-os, dat. TroAr, 
TTToAei', and 7roA^-t, ace. 7roAi-v, pi. TroAi-es and TroA^-es, TroAt-wv, TroAt-ecro-t 
(TToAe-trt is probably incorrect for TroAt-cri), ace. TroAt-as, TrdA^-as, TroAts ; 
TrdAei (dat.) and TroAeis (ace.), found in some editions are doubtful. 

3. The New Ionic agrees with the Aeolic and Doric, besides having -l<s 
(from -i-vs) in the accusative plural ; as TroAts, 7rdAi-os, (7roAi-i) TroAi, 7roAt-v, 

pi. 7ToA6-eS, 7ToAt-tl)V, TToAi-CTl, TToAl? Or TToAl-a?. 

4. So also are declined most names in -is (gen. in Attic -t5-os) ; as G^ris, Qtri-os, 
O^Ti. In Homer the genitive in -i-os appears here alongside of -id-i, the dative is 
exclusively -t. SdpSies, Sardis, always has ace. ZdyoSts ; #xa/ns lias dat. &x a P<- (Her. 
1, 41), neut. pi. axdpir-a (Her.). 

5. Genitives in -e-os, as ?r6Xe-os occur in Attic poetry. In Soph. O.R. 629 we 
have 5> TroXis, TroXts, as voc. 

6. Poetic Xfs, lion, follows the declension of Kts (257). 

7. Adjectives of this declension are few in number, and mostly dialectic ; as 
fSpts, knowing, tdpiv, voc. id pi, pi. idpies. 

900. Stems in -v-. 1. The Aeolic has no contraction, the Doric seldom. 
Theoc. has t'x^a for i\6vv (255). 

2. Homer sometimes contracts that dat. in -w, as Oprjvvi ; the ace. pi. is 
open or contracted, as l^Ova^ and l\Bv<s ; otherwise Homer has open forms. 
The gen. sing, has -e-os for Attic -e-cos, as ao-re-os. The dat. pi. has -v-eo-o-i(v), 
-V-<TO-L(V), and -v-o~t(v) ; as veKv-ea-crtv, ve/a>-o-crtv, i\8v-<riv. 

3. Herodotus has only open forms, the gen. is -e-os for Attic -e-ws, as 
TTT^XV?, TT^e-os, 7rr;^e-t, TT^J^V-V, 7n/)(e-s, 7r^^- wv 5 ^X 6 " " 1 ? TTJ \e-as. Those 
in -vs, gen. -v-os, usually contract the ace. pi.; as ixOvs, rarely i\6va<s. 

4. For adjectives in -vs, -eta, -u in the dialects, and the ace. sing, evpta. and adea, 
see 925. 

901. Stems in -ev-. 1. The New Ionic has the gen. sin<r. in -e-os (for 
Attic -e-tos) and has only uncontracted forms. For dp\-iptvs Herodotus 
has apx-tepews (2, 37). 

2. In Homer we have ?; instead of e when v is dropped ; as /3acri- 

s. But e often remains in proper names, as IlrjAc-os, 
rarely with contraction, as gen. II^Acus, dat. IlryAet, ace. 

3. Pindar has' mostly New Ionic forms, seldom the Epic. 

4. The Boeotian and Thessalian Aeolic has ei for Epic tj as /Sao-iXet-os. The 
Lesbian has 77, as jSaaiX^-os (Ale.) ; also e as ace. 'A^^XXe-a (Att. 'A%tXX^a). The 
Doric generally has e in inscriptions, as gen. jScurtX^-os ; also rj as lep^-'i. 

902. Stems in -av-, -ov-, -01-. 1. FpaOs : Homer has ypyvs and yprjvs, dat. yprft, 
voc. 7p?0 and 7/3771) ; the gen. and ace. are supplied by ypaia (ypairis, ypaiav}. 

2. NaOs : Lesbian Aeolic has vavs, va-os (Ale. 19), vai (Ale. 18), vcteo-<rt (Ale. 79). 
Doric has vctus, vd-6s, vd-'i', vavv, pi. faes, vd&v, vavffi and vd-eavi, i>a~as. New 
Ionic has vyvs, ve-6s, vrj-i, vta, pi. ve-es, ve-uv, vrjv-ai, vt-as. Homer has the New 

240 DIALECTS 903 

Ionic forms and also gen. 1/77-65, ace. vrj-a, pi. n. vrj-es, gen. vy-uv and VO.V-<J>L(V) 914, 
dat. vri-eaai, ve-eirai, vav-<j>i(i>) 914, ace. vy-as. 

3. BoOs: Homer has the dat. pi. (3ov-<ri and /36eo-(n(j/), the ace. pi. /3oOs and /36-ay, 
the ace. sing, fiovv and once fi&v (Doric). Some of the Dorians have /3cDs, ace. p&v, 
ace. pi. j3o)s. In Boeotian dat. pi. (3ov-e(r<n. 

4. XoOs, three-quart measure, has in Hippocrates and late writers forn.3 from a 
stem %oei>- : gen. xoe-ws contr. x<^s> dat. x*i, ace. %oe-a co.ntr. xS> dat. pi. x ^ "') 
ace. pi. %ofas contr. %oas. The contracted forms occur in Aristophanes. 

5. Ois in Herodotus is 6i's, 6T-os, etc. Homer has o'i's, 6i'-os and oi'-6s, ace. 6W, pi. 
6't-es (oi'ies W. 9, 425), dt-wi' and oi-Cov, dat. pi. oi-e<r(<r)i and 6-ecrcri, ace. pi. 67s. Dat. 
61 also Aristophanes. 


903. Irregular declension is much more frequent in poetry and the 
dialects than in Attic prose. 

904. Heterogeneous Nouns. These are the most important: 6 5a/criAos, finger, 
TO. da.KTv\a (Theoc. 19, 3) ; 6 Seayxjs, fetter, 5eay>i and metaplastic dea/j-ara (Horn.), 
deo-ftd (Theog., Her.) ; 6 dpv/j,6s, oak-wood, TO, 8pv/j.d (poet., Horn.) ; irav\os, stable, 
TO, eirav\a (Soph.) ; evirepos, evening, TO. ecrirepa, evening hours (Horn.) ; deff/j-os, lair, 
TO. dea/md (Soph. Fr. , Eur.) ; 17 Ke\evdos, way, Kt\evdoi and KeXevda (Horn.) ; 6 Xi^x^os 
lamp, ra Xvx^a (poet, and prose) ; rj irXevpd, side, ra 7r\evpd (Ion. and poet.) ; 
6 /Wos, dirt, pi. pvird (Horn.) ; 6 Tciprapoj, Tartarus, ra Tdprapa. 

905. Heteroclites. O &<pevos, wealth, rb &<f>evos (Hes.) ; -yAws, laughter ; Horn. 
has 7eAws, dat. 7fXoj, ace. ye\u, yfXwv, (?) ye\ov (yehtov also in the dramatists) ; 

906. Metaplastics.l. The following words have one metaplastic form in 
Homer : d\Krj, strength, dat. dX/c-t ; dyKdX-rj, elbow, dat. pi. dyKo.\l8-effcn ; dvSpd- 
iro5oi>, slave, dat. pi. avdpaTrod-eaai ; 'AKri0dr7?s, ace. ' Avri^ari'i-a ; TO aop, sword, 
!icc. pi. masc. fiop-as ; O-rjpTjr^p, hunter, Orjprjrop-as ; t'w/cr), pursuit, ace. t'tD/c-a ; - 
i%wp, lymph, ace. TXW (as if from ix~ a ) 5 IHT/JLIVT), battle, dat. vcr/juv-i. 

2. Hesiod has ace. /cpo/c-a from Kp:>Kt], woof or weft ; and a dat. sing, vdei from 
vdos = v8up. Other metaplastics in 909. 

907. Double Forms. The Epic and poetic language often uses prolonged forms ; 
as 'Adyvaid for 'Adtjvd, Ilepo'e^oj'eia for Ilepcre^ovT;, <re\r]vaid lor ffe\r)vr), moon, and 

908. Defectives. 1. These have only the nom. or ace. : TO a\Kap, defense (Horn., 
Find.) ; TJ apirat; (Hes.) for dpirayr], plunder ; TO dejects, body (Epic and poet.) ; TO 
ee\dup or t\8wp, desire (Horn.) ; TO ^5os, delight (Epic and poet.) ; %>a only in ?ipa 
(j>;peu>, render a service (Horn.); TO rjTop, heart (Horn.); TO TCK/JL^P Att. TeK^ap, 
bound (Horn.) ; TO 5<S for 5cD//.a, house (Horn., Hes. also as ph) ; TO Kpt for Kpldrj, 
barley, (Horn. ), and a few others. 

2. Other isolated cases are: voc. ^Xe or r)Xee, foolish (Horn.); dat. sing. Sat, 
battle (Horn., Hes., Aesch., Theoc.) : dat. pi. KTedT-e<r<ri, possessions (Horn.). 

3. Other defectives are in 909. 

909. The following list contains the most important irregular nouns in the 
dialects. But double forms and those already mentioned are not given. 

1. "At5?7S, "Aidov, etc. (Attic). "Al'8r)s (Horn.), gen. 'A'i'ddo and 'Ai'Sew, etc.; gen. 
also"At'5-os (Horn., Hes., Aesch., Soph.), dat. "Ai'5-t (Horn.), ace. "Ai'5-a (Aristoph.) 
Also nom. 'At'5wei5j (Horn., Aesch., Soph.), dat. 'AiSuvrj-i (Horn.), both rare. 

909 DIALECTS 241 

2. Aldlo(p, Aetheopian, Horn., ace. pi. AWLo-jr-as and 

3. 6 &vai;, lord or master, &VCLKT-OS, etc. ; voc. &va (but poet. &va in addressing a 
god). ^ 

4. "Apr/?, Horn. "ApTj-03 and"Ape-oj, "Aprf-l" and "Apei, a,cc."Ap-rj-a. 

5. rr/puoi/T/s, gen. -ou, Hes. dat. F^/woi^-i, ace. T^i/oi'^-a and Y-rjpvovea. 

6. r6 7o'i>, &?i0e, 76vaT-os, etc. Ionic and poetic yovvar-os, yovvar-i, yofoar-a, 
yovvdr-wv, yovva-ffL. Epic also 701/^-65, yovv-i, yovv-a, yovv-wv, yotiv-ecrffi. 

7. TO 8tv5pov, tree, Ionic and poetic devdpeov ; Her. TO SeVdpos, dat. pi. &Vj>3pe<n ; 
dat. sing. devSpet (Hippocrates). 

8. TO 6Voj, fear, Seovs, etc. ; Horn. gen. Set'ou?. 

9. T 56pu, spear, dopar-os, etc. Ionic and poetic Sotipar-os, dotipar-i, dotipar-a, 
Sovpdr-wv, dotipa-<rt,. Epic also dovp-6$, Sovp-i, dovpa, dotpwv, dovpavi, dovpe. Poetic 
5o/o-6s, Sopl. 

10. TCI ^7/caTtt, bowels, and dat. pi. ZyKavi (Horn.). 

11. Zetfs : the poets have Atos and Z^j/-6s, Au and Zrjv-l, ace. Ata and Zrjv-a. 
Pindar has Af for Au* ; a Boeotian nom. Aetfs (Aristoph. Adi, 911). 

12. 6 fyloxos, charioteer, -ov, etc. ; Hom. also ^vtox^-a and rjvioxrj-es- 

13. 17 ^/xty, justice, dtfuS-os, etc. (Attic) ; Hoin. 0e'/u<r7--os, Pind. O^/JUT-OS, Her. 

14. rb Kapa, head, poetic word. For Attic forms see 283, 12. These forms in 
Hom. and Hes. : nom. Kaprj, gen. Kap^r-os, Kap^ar-os, Kp&ar-os, Kpdr-os ; dat. KaprjT-i, 
Kaprjar-i, Kpdar-i, Kpdr-i ; ace. Kaprj ; pi. Kapd (Hom! Hytn. Cer. 12), Kapr/ar-a, 
Kpdar-a ; gen. pi. Kpdr-wv dat. Kpd-ai ; also nom. and ace. pi. Kaprjva, gen. tKtf^vuv. 
Add to these eTri Kdp, headlong (II. 16, 392), and dat. sing. Kpdrea-^Lv (11. 10, 156) 
from a stem Kpdrea-. ~K.pd.Ta (Od. 8, 92) is considered by some an ace. masc., by 
others a neut. pi. 

15. i) /cXei's, key, Attic /cXet5-6y, etc. ; Ionic K\r\h, ace. K\r)i8a ; Doric K\dis, some- 
times /cXa, /cX^K-os. 

16. 6, i] KOLVUV-OS, partaker, Pindar KOLVO.V, Koivdv-os, etc. 

17. T6 Kpivov, lily, Kptvov, etc. ; Her. pi. Kpivea ; dat. pi. Kpive<n in Aristoph. 
Nub. 911. 

18. 6 KVKit)v, mixed drink, ace. sing. Hom. ACUKCW and KVKIU. 

19. 6 Xas, s^o?ie (Horn.), see 283, 15. 

20. 6 X^wv, lion, \OI>T-OS, etc., dat. pi. Horn, usually Xeioixn. 

21. Xt/3-, fern, stem, libation, Xi/3-6? and Xi/3-a in Aesch. 

22. Xt?ra, fat, oil (Hippocrates) ; Hom. always XITT' with ^Xay, olive-oil : thus 
XiV eXaty, richly with olive-oil. Perhaps Xt?r' is for XITT-I, but it seems to be used 

23. XIT-, masc. stem, linen, Hom. dat. XIT-, ace. XtT-a. 

24. 6, 77 ftdprvs, witness (283, 18) ; Hom. always /m/rrupos of the 2nd decl. 

25. ij jud<rrt, whip, ^dcrly-os, etc. ; Hom. dat. /u.d<TTi, ace. IL&GTIV. 

26. 6 /iets, nom. Ionic, poetic (also old Attic) for 6 ^-ffv, month. 

27. Oi'Snrous (see 283, 21) ; gen. Hom. Oidnroddo, Her. OlSivodeu. 

28. 6, i) 6pi>ls, bird (see 283, 24). Her. has Attic forms, ace. 6pviv and 6pvWa. 
Doric gen. &pi>lx-os, 8pvlx-i, etc. 

29. TO o5s, ar (see 283, 25) ; Doric c&s (Theoc.) ; Hom. gen. otfar-os, otiar-a, 
oija-ffi and ci-trt once. 

30. 6 3xoj, chariot, not in Homer ; he has TOL d^ect, chariot, 6%eW, 6xfo"-0i. 

31. ndT/ao/cXos has in Horn., besides the regular forms, also gen. IIaT/)o/cX?}-os, 
ace. IlaTjOo/cX^-a, voc. IlaT/xj/cXets. 

32. TO Tr\T)dos, multitude; Hom. has only dat. ir^Qe'C and 7rX?y0; for it he 
has 77 irXrjOvs (Epic and late) declined like t'x^Ps. 

33. Tryj&r/Si;?, oZc? ww, see 283, 28 ; nom. pi. Hes. 7rpea-j8r}-es (as if from stem 
ev-) ; ace. pi. Trpetr/Seaj (Her.). 

34. TO irpbauirov, face, regular ; also pi. Trpoffdj-trara and 7rpocru>7ra<rt in Hom. 


242 DIALECTS 910 

35. TTTI>X-, fern, stem, /oft/; gen. TTTVX-OS, etc. ; ace. Trri/x-a also Eur. Otherwise 
77 irrvx'h ( n t in Horn.). 

36. TO cnreos or ffireios, cave (Epic) ; a-rreiovs, cnry-i, aireluv, <nre(T<Ti or (nr^eacn. 

37. O-TIX-, fern, stem, row (poetic), orix-os, (rrt%-6s, <m'x-as. 

38. 6 wos, son ; see 283, 37. In Herodotus only of the 2nd decl. In Epic 
poetry these forms occur : inos, gen. vlov, weos, often vlos ; dat. i/u, vti'C ; ace. viov, 
via, vlea once in Horn.; voc. vie ; dual we; pi. vies, viees ; gen. viuv ; dat. violet, 
vidcri ; ace. was, vieas, wets. 

39. TO 0dos, see 237. 

40. T] x^P, hand, see 283, 39. 

41. TO XP^ WS ) or T0 X/ofos (xpetos), efc&, see 283, 40. 

42. 6 xP^s, sA;m, in Ionic is declined xp-os, xP-t> XPo-a. Horn, also rarely 
Xpwr-os and xpcDr-a. 


910. The local endings -61, -Oev, -de (284) are more frequently used in Homer 
than in prose. In other poetry forms unknown to Attic prose also occur. 

911. The ending -61 is little used ; as Kopu>060i, at Corinth (Horn.), o?/<o0t, 
at home (Horn.) ; rarely as a gen. governed by a following 717)6 in Homer, as 

I\t6-0i ?rp6, before Ilium. 

912. 1. The ending -6ev is more frequent ; as K\i<rir)6ei>, from the hut (Horn.) ; 
ovpavodev, from heaven (Horn.); ^Idrjdev, from Ida (Horn.); yudev (Att. eudev), 
in the morning; 6e66f.v, from a god (Horn., Find., Tragedy); dypodev, from the 
country (Eur.) ; veoQev, aneiv, from veos (Soph.). 

2. Occasionally in Homer the form in -6ev is governed by a preposition as a 
genitive ; as dTro ovpavbQev, from heaven ; e Alcrvfj.'rjdev, from Aesyme ; so /card Kpijdcv, 
from the head, downward (Hes.). 

3. For -0ev in the pronouns, see 950. 

913. 1. The ending -8e is the most frequent in Homer ; as Qrjj3a<r8e, to Thebes; 
AtyvTTTovde, to Aegypt ; olKovde, homeivard ; TroXivde, to the city; T7/xerepjv5e, to our 
house; 06o>o-5e, to the light; iroXefiovde, to battle; doubled in 6v8e dofnovde, to his 

2. Peculiar forms are <f>vya- 5e, to flight ; " Aidocr-de, to (the home of) Hades; Zpafc 
and xd/id^e, to earth ; Otipafc, to the door (32). 


914. The Epic language has the case-ending -<i before consonants and 
~(f>iv before vowels, added to words of all the declensions, and serving as a 
genitive or dative both singular and plural. 

915. 1. In the first declension it is always singular-; as 
from the head; e evvrj-^iv, from the couch; f3ir)-<f>i, with violence; r/ 
7re7roi$ws, trusting to his prowess. 

2. In the second declension ; as 2 I/Uo-ct, of Ilium; O.TT iKpio<>iv, from 
the deck-beams (deck}. 

3. In the third declension nearly always plural ; as /car opto--(f>i, down 
the mountains ; irapa vav-</u, by the ships; O\.CT-^>LV dyaAA-o/xevos, delighting 
in the chariot. Irregularly gen. sing, in OLTTO Kparccr-fa, from the head 
(909, 14). 

925 DIALECTS 243 

916. NOTE. With a noun expressing a person, only in 6e6-<f>iv. 

917. NOTE. 1. This formation is rare with adjectives and pronouns ; as M 
dei6-(f>ii' 9 on the right ; fj-fa f3irj-(f>t Triads, trusting to his strength. 

2. Very rarely it is adverbial ; as 6tipr)-<j>t.v, out of doors. 


918. 1. The Ionic has -rj for d in the feminine ; evt^ for evtd, oucrxpj 
for alo-xpd (805, 815). 

2. But Homer has 5ta feminine of 5?os, divine. 

3. For the Doric and Aeolic genitive plural in -av, see 881, 3. 

919. Adjectives in -09, -rj or -d, -ov, often have -os for the feminine in 
poetry ; as 07 SrjAos (Eur.), r} rr/AtKoirros (Soph.), 17 K\VTO<S (Horn.). 

920. Compounds in -os, -ov, sometimes have a feminine form in -rj or -d 
in poetry, especially in Homer ; as d-Bavdrr) (Horn.), OrO^&my, unquenchable 
(Horn.), ev-aAtd, m /ie sea (Tragedy). 

921. Contract adjectives in -eos and -oos remain open in the dialects. 
In Homer contract forms are seldom found ; as \cifjidppovs, flooded with 
winter snow. Open forms are generally found in Tragedy, in Comedy only 
in choral parts. 

922. 1. Adjectives in -ws, -oov (298) are uncommon in Homer and 

2. For ^Aew?, gracious, Homer has "Aao? (also in Attic poetry). For 
, full, Homer has TrAetos, TrAetry, TrAeiov ; Herodotus TrAeos, 
(also rare in Eur.). With ayr/pws, ageless, Homer has ay/j 
With {coos, <o7y, {wov, living, he has also norn. sing. ws, ace. WK Of 
^a/g, Horn, and Her. have only this form, with croos, o-orj, croov. The 
ompar. of (rtus (from original <ra-o<s), o-awrcpos (//. 1, 32 ; Xen. Cyr. 
6, 34). 

923. 1. Adjectives in -179, -es (gen. -e-os) remain uncontracted in the 
dialects. The accusative plural masculine and feminine has -e-as ; as 
Seeas = Att. Tre/otSects, very timid. 

2. Homer sometimes contracts -et to -t and -e-es to -et<> ; as 
TT/ar/vets. Compare also 924. 

924. NOTE. 1. Homer rarely contracts -ee- of the stem ; as evppeios for eu 
fVK\tas for evK\eas. 

2. Attic forms like d/cXea and tvdea from aK\eea and ^5e^a are found in Herodotus ; 
but they should probably be written d/cXe'a and ^5ea, with one e of the stem dropped 
as in 'Hpa/cXe'a. 

925. 1. Adjectives in -r>s have the feminine in -ka, -e>/s, ey, -kav, etc., 
in Herodotus. The Doric has -ea, but Pindar always -eta. Homer generally 
nas -eta, -etrjs, -et?;, -etav ; rarely -ea or -erj, -rj<s, etc. ; as w/cea for a>Keta, 
J3a0?)s for /?a^et^s, fiaOeav for ftaOeiav. The contracted forms remain 
open in Homer and Herodotus. 

244 DIALECTS 926 

2. The form in -us is rarely feminine in poetry ; as r/Si's (Od. 12, 369), 6rj\vs 
(Homer, Tragedy). 

3. The accusative singular masculine rarely has -ea for -w in ei'pe'a TTOVTOV and 
tvpta. KO\TTOV (Horn.) and d<5ea for i)5vv in Theoc. Hesiod has a neuter plural 6e?a 
for 6&a (Scut. He*. 348). 

4. The Epic adjective fi5s-/caX6s or dyafljs, is thus declined ; <?0s or 17!)? (neuter 
^u or -fjv mostly as adverb), gen. erjos, ace. evv or ij&v, gen. pi. etruj/, of good things. 

y^fr. 1. Adjectives in -ets, -e<rcra, -ev are frequent in poetry. Those in -Tjeis 
(Doric -dets) and -oets are sometimes contracted ; as TI/ZTJS (Horn.), Tifiavra (Theoc.) ; 
dpydvTa (Find.), irrepovvTo. (Aesch.). Herodotus has uncontracted forms. 

2. For -6eis Homer has -wets after a long syllable ; as KyTweis. 

3'. With names of places, the endings -oets and -TJCIS are also used as feminines, 
especially in Homer. 

927. For /i^Xds and rdXds, Lesbian Aeolic has /iAcus and rdXcus (840, I). 

928. Homer has a number of feminine adjectives which have no corresponding 
masculine forms: iroTvia, revered, voc. also irorva ; tb-x&upa, arrow-showering; 
ev-Trare'peta, of noble father ; dvri-dveipa, match for tnen ; /3arrt-di>pa, nourishing 
heroes; Kvdi-dveipa, man- ennobling ; o/Sptyu-o-TrdrpTj, of mighty father ; Tro(u)Xu-j86retpa, 
much-nourishing ; 'nnro-5d<Tia., thick with horse - hair ; eXdxeta. small (compare 
tXdffffuv and e'Xdx - i^ros) ; several in -56rei/)a, and others; 6d\eia, rich, has a 
corresponding neut. pi. dd\ea. 

929. Homer has also some feminines corresponding irregularly to masculines : 
6ovpis, impetuous (niasc. Qovpos) ; -jrieipa, fat (TTIUV) ; Trpecr/Sa and irpeajSeipa, honoured 
(Trpeafivs) ; 7rp60pacrcra, cheerful (irpocppuv) ; %aX/fo-^dpeia, licanj with brass (%aX/co- 
^aprjs) ; -?)pi-yei>eia, early-born (rjpL-ycvrjs) ; plural only Ba^aai, crowded, and rapfaiai, 
frequent (da^es, rap<ptes) ; so also /j-dKonpa. (Find.), blessed (/xd/cap) ; rjdv-cTreia (Hes.), 
sweet- speaking (rjdv-eirrjs). In Homer epi-rjpos, faithful, has the pi. epl-rjpes. 

930. The poets (esp. Horn.) have some defective adjectives appearing in one or 
more cases, but lacking the nominative singular; as Ka\\i-yi>va<.K-os (gen.}, famous 
for fair women (Sappho), KaXXi-yvvaiK-i (dat.) in Find., KaXXi-yuvaiK-a (ace.) in 

931. 1. IIoXi's in Homer has these forms: TroXXos, iro\\ri, Tro\\6v declined 
throughout like <ro<^6s (but iroXXoO does not occur) ; also TroXus or irouXtfs (neut. TTO\V 
and TrouXi^) ; gen. 7roXe-os, ace. iro\vv and irov\vv (also fern.) ; pi. ?roXe-es or TroXefj, 
gen. TToXe-wi', aat. TroXe-eo-cr^f) or Trd\-<rcn(v} or iro\-ai.(v} ; ace. 7roXe-as. 

2. Herodotus has TroXXos, TroXXij, TTO\\OV. 

3. Pindar also has TroXXos and TroXils, -rroXXbv and TroXu, gen. pi. TroXXtDv, fern. 
TroXXac, dat. Tro\e<ni> and TroXXots, ace. pi. TroXets. Similarly Theocritus. 

4. The Attic poets occasionally have Epic forms ; as neut. pi. TroXea (not in 
Horn., Aesch. Ag. 723), TroXea> (Ear. #e/. 1332), TroXecrii' (Eur. 7^A, Twr. 1264), 
TroXXoj/ (Soph. ^4?^. 86). 

932. Ilpaos does not occur in Homer and Hesiod. Pindar has Trpdus, -rrpdv ; 
Herodotus has irprjvs, irp-rjv, and a comparative TrpTjurepos. 

933. 1. In Aeolic the participles have -oio-a for -oi'o-a, -at? and -aura 
for -d? and -ao-a (840, 1) ; as 7ri'oto-a for Trj/eovo-a, AtVoio-a for Ai7ro?o-a, 
8oio-a for 8ovo-a, reAeo-ats for TeXeo-d9, Optyaucra for Optyd(ra. All these 
also in Pindar ; -oicra also in Theocritus. 

2. Other dialectic peculiarities in participles are mentioned under the verb. 

944 DIALECTS 245 


934. Most adjectives are compared also in the dialects by means of the 
endings -re/oo? and -raros. 

935. NOTE. The ending -os is used as fern, in oXowraros o5 M (Od. 4, 442) and 
in Trp&rwTov diruirr]v (Hymn Horn. 2, 157). 

936. .Adjectives in -os occasionally have -w-repos and -w-raros after a long vowel 
in Homer, arid after a mute and a liquid in Attic poetry ; as 6#i~pwrepos and 6i'vptib- 
Tcrros (Od. 5, 105, II. 17, 446), tifipos, wretched; dvo-rroT/uLUTepos (Eur. Phoen. 1348), 
more unlucky ; papviroTfj.uTaTos, most ill-fated (Eur. Phoen. 1345). 

/3 1 . In Herodotus adjectives in -eos and -7710? have -6-repoj and -6-raros like the 
corresponding Attic adjectives in -etos ; as tirir-fiSeos (Attic e-jnTrjSetos), serviceable, 
eiri.T7)5e6-Tpo$, eTriTT/Seo-raros ; dvdprjios (Attic dvdpeios), manly, d^Sp^to-repos, avSpijto- 

/OO. For -repos and -raros, we find -forepos and -^araros : in Her. ffirovdat- 
^<rrepos (also ffTrovScu-orepos) and <nrov6ai-e<rT<tTos from virovdaios, serious, excellent; 
djuop0-e<rraros from #/^op0os, mis-shapen ; vynjp-effTaros (also iVynjp-orctTos) from 
vyivjpfc, wholesome; in Pindar d-n-ov-effrepos (01. 2, 68), from ^TTO^OS, without toil; 
os, 01. 3, 42 (with cuSoi-oraros), from at'Soios, august. 

939. Observe these peculiar forms: #xapts, graceless, axa/wcr-repos (Horn.); 
-os, middle, sup. ne(ff}<ra.TO^ (poet.); veos, TWW, superl. ; vearos (Epic also vdaros], 

last in place, novissimus (Horn., Trag. ) ; t#i/s, straight, idvvrara (Horn.) ; 
shining, ^aetvorepos and (paavraros (Horn.). 

940. The superlative ending -aroy, as in r^aros, occurs also in poetic 
supremus (later used also of the Roman consul), and in &r%ctTos (prose), last, 

941. These poetic (chiefly Homeric) adjectives have comparative form, but 
positive meaning : aypo-repos, wild (belonging to the country), op^a-repos, living in 
the mountains, 5ei'-repos, right, dexter, drjXv-Tepos, feminine, and perhaps dewrepos, 
belonging to the gods (debs, god). 

942. 1. Comparison by -rW and -wrros is more frequent in poetry than 
in prose. In Epic and Doric poetry -iwv has short -t. 

2. These occur: /3a0us, deep, fiadiuv (Tyrt., Theoc.), j8d^<rros (Horn.) ; ppadfa, 
slow, f3padiui> (Hes. ) and f3pd<r<ruj> (Horn.), fipadiffros (Aristoph. Fr.) and j3ap5to-ros 
(Horn., Theoc.) ; /3pax^s, short, /3pcixi<rros (Find., Soph., Aristoph.) ; y\vKfa, sweet, 
yXvKiuv (Horn., Theoc.) ; e\e7xees, pi., infamous, e'Xe^x' " 7 " 05 (Horn.) ; Kv5p6s, glorious, 
Kv8lwv (Eur.), KvdurTos (Horn., Aesch. ) ;^/j.a.Kp6s, long, pficauv (j)oetic since Horn.), 
jtiTy/ctcrros and Dor. IMCLKKTTOS (poetic since Horn.) ; oi'/crp6s, pitiable, OIKTKTTOS (Horn.) ; 
Trax^s, thick, iraffffwv (Horn.) and traxiuv (Aratus), Trdxitrros (Horn.) ; 0t\oj, dear, 
(f)i\i<j)v (poetic), 0tXi(rros (Soph.) ; UKVS, quick, $/aaTos (Horn, and other poets). 

943. NOTE. For 6d<T<ruv Her. has rax^repos, also daaaov ; Find, has 
for rax'trros, ex^poraros (also Soph.) for ^x^' " 7 " 05 - 

944. Irregular Comparison. 1. dyaOos : a comparative d^tj/orepos for 

in Mimnermus ; compar. dpeiuv poetic, and dpeiorepos (Theogn.) ; Her. and Doric 
v for upeiffffuv, Horn, /fdprto-ros for /cpdrtaros, Horn, positive Kparijs ; Horn, 
and XcoiVepos for X^wi/ (a ]>ositive Xciios in Theogn. and Theoc.) ; compar. 
os (Horn., Aesch.), sup. jSeXraros (Aesch.); compar. 0eprepos (poetic since 

Horn.), sup. 0epraros (Horn., Hes., Find.) and ^eptcrros (Epic) voc. w 0^pi(rre also in 

Trageily and even in prose. 

246 DIALECTS 945- 

2. KO.KOS : compar. /ca/ctirepoy (Horn., Theoc.); compar. %epeiW (Horn., Theoc.),. 
Xeiporepoy and gepetfrepos (Horn.). Horn, has these defective compar. forms: dat. 
sing. xep?7i', ace. sing, x^*! -* pi. xtpn&i neut - X^a or xe/oem. Her. has compar. 
tzffffuv for rffffftiiv. 

3. /AeVay : compar. yuefwi' in Her. and Dor. 

4. fuxpos and oX^oy : superl. /Aeurroy in Bion, compar. oXifwi' in Horn. 

5. iroXvs : Her. often contracts eo to ev, as TrXeoi' to ir\vv, TrXeWoy to TrXeuvos 
(adv. TrXeo^wy). Horn, also lias nom. pi. irXees and ace. pi. TrXeay. 

6. p$5toy : Ionic pyidios ; compar. prjirepos (Epic), p^repoy (Theogn.), poYepoy 
(Find.) ; superl. p^traros and piftoTos (Horn.), patoros (Theoc.). 

7. TreTTuv, r^t?0, and 7rtwj>, / : the compar. and superl. of these do not seem to 
occur in Attic prose ; but in poetry and late prose they have TreTrcuYepoy and TreTrcu- 
raroy, 7rt6repos and Trtoraros. 

945. Defective Comparison. 1. These comparatives and superlatives are from 
the stems of adverbs or prepositions : Trdpoidev, before, wapoi-repos, one in front 
(Horn.) ; &TTL<rdev, behind, oTrt'crraros, postremus (Horn.) ; &vd}, upward, avtoTaros, 
supremus (Her.); ayxv> &yXh near, ayxorepos (Her.), tiyxwros (poetic); #0ap, 
forthwith, d0dprepos (Horn.) ; Trepp, beyond, Trepan-epos (Find.) ; Hcraov, nearer, 
eVa<r<rirrepo$ (Horn.). Here belongs also poetic Trv/j-aros, last. For wrraTos, last, 
Homer also has uorcmoy, and with the same meaning devTaros, a superl. of devrepos, 

2. Some poetic comparatives and superlatives are derived from nouns : /SacriXew, 
kin;/, (3a<n\evTpos, more kingly, and jSacrtXeuraroj, most kingly (Horn.) ; /coOpos, 
youth, Kovporepos, more youthful (Horn.) ; KiW, dog, /ciWepos, most dog-like or 
impudent, Kwraroy (Horn.) ; OTT\OV, weapon (?), OTrXorepos and oTrXoraros, more (most) 
youthful (Horn.) ; Kepdos, gam, Kepdiuv, more gainful, /cepStcrros (Horn.) ; u^oy, 
height, v\J/iwv, higher (Find.) and ui/'trepoy (Theoc.), (ii/'tcrroy (poet., not in Horn.) ; 
p?7oy, cold, plyLwv, more dreadful, piyurTos (Horn.) ; yiii^oy, farthest part, ^ii/xotraroy, 
inmost (Horn.) ; and several other rare cases. In the first three examples, the noun 
(paviXevs, Kovpos, KVWV) may be considered the positive. 

946. A strengthened superlative is Trpwrto-roy, first of all, chicfest (Horn. , Attic 
arama) ; a strengthened comic comparative Trporepcurepoy, very long before, occurs in 
Aristoph. Eq. 1165. 


947. For e5, well, Homer often has eu. 

948. "E/cay (in Attic prose only positive), eKcurre'pw (Horn.), e/caa-rdrco (Horn., 

Her.) ; &yx c or ^7X^j near, S.ffcrov (poetic, Her.) and d<r<rofepa> (Horn.), 
(Horn., Her., Find.) and cryxordrw (Horn.) ; TTjAoC or r^Xe, far, r^Xordrw (Horn.). 


949. 1. For rj Aeolic and Doric a (Lesbian <i, d for o) for rov Lesb. 
and Boeot. Aeolic, and stricter Doric TW ; Homer has TOIO ; for TT}S Aeol. 
and Dor. ras (also in Tragic chorus) ; for rrj Aeol. and Dor. rot (Boeot. rat 
and Trj) for -n/v Aeol. and Dor. rdv. 

2. For ot Doric rot, also Hoiu. ; Lesb. Aeol. ot ; for at Dor. rat, also 
Horn. ; Lesb. at for TWV Aeol. and Dor. rav, Horn, raw ; for TOIS and 
poetic TOIOTI(V) and rato-t(v) ; Horn, rycn and TT/S, rarely Toto-S(o-)o-t ; - 

953 DIALECTS 247 

for TOVS Boeot. Aeol., stricter Dor. TWS, Lesb. Aeol. TOIS. Herodotus has 
roto-6 and T$O-I. 

3. No dual forms in Dor. or Aeol. ; Horn. TW and rouv. 

4. For 01 /zev, 01 Se, the Tragedians sometimes have TOI f*cv, rol Se. 
For the article as a demonstrative, see the Syntax. See also the relative 
6's (959). 



NOTE. A very few rare forms found only on inscriptions or in the grammarians 
are omitted. For enclitics, see 152, 5 and 6. 

950. Old and New Ionic, In the following table forms not enclosed 
in ( ) belong to Herodotus as well as to Homer. 


N. 4-yoi (tyuv] <rv (rVvrf) 

G. 4jJL0, HlV, HV <T0, <TV (&>) 6$ 

(e/xe?o, fj.^dev) (<reio, crtdev} (eto, edev, cou, coto) 

D. Ifioi, [JLOt <ro, TO (reiV) ol (cot), (tv avr^i = sibi ipsi> 

Hes. Fr. 204),' (crQlv] 
A. I|U, pt o-e (?, c^) (iCv 


N.A. (N. VOJt', A. V&i, V&) ((r0Wi', (T0W) A. 

G.D. (j'wiV) (o"0u)tV, crtydov} (D. 


N. T||ICIS (A/x/ifs) v(iis (##/*) [cruets not in Horn.] 

G. f||io>v 
D. T||AIV 

A. Tj(JLa 

[(T0e'a neut. not in Horn.] 

951. NOTE. Forms with d/x/i- and iV/u- are Lesbian Aeolic. 'E-yc&i' is used 
before voAvels. Tot is enclitic. For dialectic forms used in Tragedy, see 370, 2. 

952. Doric. 'E'ycii' and c*7w ; e'/tc'os, e/xoGs, c/ueCj, ^/xcu, ^uoO, ytxeO,, 
yedtv, Tarent. c/xto and c"/xw(s) and e/xttSs ; e'/xtj' and AIO^ ; d. vCoi, v&'Cv ; pi. a/x^s, 
a/xc'u;!', a/xii', dyu,^. Tu and rvvt\ for <ru ; Te"o, r^oj, rcoOs, reDs, reO, rcoO, Tarent. TIO? 
and Ttw(s) ; roi, riv (for crot) ; re*, ru (encl.) for o~e ; pi. 0/xes, v/mew, vpiv, vpt. Doric 
has Iv for of; vlv as masc. or fern. sing, (also pi. in Pindar and Tragedy) ; ^ and 
0-0C". Of these Pindar has e^top, rtf, aot, riv. 

953. Aeolic. 1. (Lesbian}: Zywv and tyu; ^e6ev (Sapph.) for c>oO ; ^/xyues for 
fytxets ; &fj,/M (Ale., Sapph.) for ij/juv ; fi/x/xc (Sapph., Theoc.) for r?/xas. T^ and vv ; 
<r^e^ (Sapph.) for <rou ; fJ/xyues (Sapph.) ; u/x/xcwv (Ale.) ; ^/x/xt (Sapph.) ; fyx/xc (Ale., 
Theoc.). f^ev (Ale.) for 06 ; Fot (Sapph.) ; &r0t (Sapph.) = o-0iVi ; <*<r0e (Ale.) = 

2. Of these Pindar has 5/x/xes, #/x/xt, fiit/xe, ^/xt, </x/xe. 

3. (Boeotian] : 'Idvya (Corinna) ; f/xoOs (Cor.) for e/xoG ; v&e (Cor.) for vw. Tot/ 
(Cor.) for (TJ ; TCOUS (Cor.) for <rov ; riv (Cor.) for o-ot ; ofyxcs (Cor.) ; ov/^iuv (Cor.). 

248 DIALECTS 954 


954. 1. Homer has the two pronouns separated ; as e/j.e a.vr6t>, avrov, 

2. Herodotus has e/Aeuvrov, etc., a-ewvrov, euvrov. 

3. The Doric has CLVTOS avrov, as ai/TOiaiv ai/rotfs (Epicharm. 97), avrbs O.VTOV = 
vrov (Epicharm. 132) ; also avroffavrov, auroo-auras, etc. (inscr.) ; and avravrov, 

avravras, etc. ; all used for all three persons. 


955. 1. 'E/*6s : Lesbian Aeolic fyios. 26s: Doric reos ; Lesb. Aeol. r^os and 
cros (Boeotian nos) ; Homeric re6s, -T), -6v, and { <r6s (reos also in Tragedy). '-'Os : 
Horn. 6's and f6s (also Pindar). 'H^repos : Doric a^repos (ct/xos inscr.) ; Lesb. Aeol. 
&/j,ju.os and d/^repos (Boeotian ti/mos) ; Horn. r?/^repos and a/i6s (also in Tragedy, some- 
times written d/*6s). L T/j.^repos : Doric and Horn, v^repos and I~/AOS (also Pindar) ; 
Lesb. Aeol. tf/^uos. ^(p^repos : Dor. and Horn, afarepos and cr^os (once in Pind.) ; 
Lesb. Aeol. o-0os. 

2. Add to the above Homeric vwirepos and cr0a/n-e/>os, o/"?ts 60^, of you both. 

956. NOTE. Alcman has <r06s and <r0eos = 6's. 20ere/)os and <706s are some- 
times used for 6s in poetry. 'Eos rarely occurs for 0-0e're/>os. The vocative of f'/^os 


957. 1. "OSe follows the dialectic peculiarities of the article throughout. 

2. For /cetvo, the Lesbian Aeolic has K^VOS ; the stricter Doric has 
, the milder Ktivos. Ketvos is Ionic and poetic. The Dorians have 

for this pronoun also T-^OS, rr/vd, r>yvo ; also TOO-O-^VOS = TOCTOVTOS (Theoc.). 

3. For roo-os the Epic, Doric, and Lesbian Aeolic have 


958. 1. The pronoun Ti's has in Ionic reo and rev for TiVo<?, rew for 
rtvt, rewv for rtviav, reotan for rtcrt ; these forms also for the enclitic rov, 
T(p, etc. 

For a.TTa the Ionic has ao-<ra (not to be confounded with ao-o~a). 

2. Lesbian Aeolic has, besides the ordinary forms, TIO> for TLVL, and 
rioLcriv for ricriv (Sapph.). 

3. IIoo-os in Epic, Doric, and Lesbian is TTOO-CTOS. 

4. Herodotus has K- for TT- in interrogative and indefinite pronouns and 
adverbs ; as KOO~OS, Kotos, Kore/)05, KO^ KOTC, etc. 


959. "Os. 1. Homer sometimes has 6 for 6's, 6'ov (o'o, 887) for ov, and 
r;s for ?ys. He sometimes uses the r-forms of the article for the relative ; 
this also occurs in Tragedy. For examples, see the Syntax. 

964 DIALECTS 249 

2. Herodotus uses os, ?}, oT, a'' For the oiLer cases he uses the article 
(TO, TOV, rfjs, rip, etc.) ; except after an elided preposition, as CITT wv, oY ov ; 
and in certain conjunctional expressions, as kv o>, while, es o (ecos ov, a^pt 
o, l*<\pi ov), until, till, ^ ov, since. 

3. In Doric and Aeolic the r-forms of the article are occasionally found 
as relative. 

4. For 05 demonstrative, see the Syntax. 

960. "Oo-ris.- 1. Homer has these peculiar forms : 6'rts with oVrts ; 
o TTI with o Tt ; gen. orev, OTTCO, OTTCI;, with OVTIVO? ; dat. 6Vew ; ace. oVtva 
with ovTiva ; gen. pi. orewv ; dat. pi. oreoio-i ; ace. pi. orivas with oikrrivas. 
He has ao-cro, for arra.- Lesbian has OTTI and OTTIVO,S. 

2. Herodotus uses orev, OTCW, orecov, ortotcrt, and cwro-a. 

961. 1. "Oo-o5 and OTTOO-OS have cro- in Doric and Lesbian Aeolic, often in 

2. Homer often has TTTT in the indefinite relative pronouns and adverbs ; 

3. Herodotus has OK- for OTT- (832) ; as 6/coo-os, OKOIOS, OKOV, OKOTC, etc. 


962. T6(ros and TO?OS occur in poetry with To<roOros and roioOros. For 6'cros 
Homer has once ocro-drtos (//. 5, 758), Theocritus (4, 55) has foacxos, as (how) little. 

963. 1. Certain correlative adverbs are poetic or dialectic : ?r60i (poet.) = irov ; 
irodi (poet.) = TTOV ; ToBi (poet), there ; 60i (poet.) - ov ; OTTO^I (poet.) = &TTOV ; 
ro^ev (poet.), thence ;Tr]VLKa } Dor. rdviKa (Theoc.) ; rws (Epic and Att. poet.) = 
OUTCOS ; r^ (poet.) = ryde ; ws frequent in poetry = ourws. 

2. Epic fjfjios and r^/xos (Dor. d/xos and rafj-os) = 6re and rore. 

3. Homer has 7r6<re and oTrocre for TTOI and 6Vot ; he has $x i with ^, both 
meaning which way or where. 

4. Homer also has ei'ws and eZos with Attic ^ws, as long as, until ; and 
and retos with Attic Wws, so long ; also 8(ppa = ews and r60/>a = rews. 

5. Poetic K-eZ^i, etc., see 405, 2. For evOavra and evdevre in Her., see 832. 


964. The cardinals have these peculiar forms in the dialects : 7. e'ets 
(Hes. 145) for eis ; Lesbian ta for fj.ia ; Homer has ia, iTys, t?y, tav along- 
side of /zta, /xtr}s, /w,t^, /xtav ; also dat. sing. masc. i(T ; stricter Doric Tys. 
The plural of ovSeis and /zr/Sets is ovSa/jLot, ov8a/, ovSaftd in New Ionic 
(from oi'8e and an old pronoun &/JLOS or (i/>tds = rts). Of ovSet?, />tr;8et5 
Homer has only ovSe^, /x-^Sev, ovSevi. 

2. Homer has 6vo and 8uw both indeclinable ; also ooiw ; and Sotot, Soiai, 
8oid declined regularly. In Herodotus Svo is either indeclinable or it forms 
ovo, Svwv, OVOLO-L (Svoiv is probably incorrect). Gen. Sveiv and dat. 6Wi 
are late. 

250 DIALECTS 965 

4, Homer has the Aeolic iricrvpes with reo-o-apes. Herodotus has 
Tecr<Te/)es, recra-epa. The Doric has rerro/ae? or re-ropes with Terra/aes, dat. 

5. Aeolic Tre/xTre for TreVre, whence the ordinal 

72. Homer has SwSe/ca, SvcoSe/ca, SvoKaiSfKa (this also in other poets). 
Herodotus has SvwSe/ca and 6\'o KCU &Ka. Pindar has SwSe/ca and Svw- 

74. Herodotus has Teo-o-epeo-KaiSe/ca also as neuter. 

20. Homer has etWocrt and eetKocri. Doric has ei'/cart (Ft/can, 

50. Homer and Herodotus T/OUJKOVTO, for T/HUKOI'TO.. 

40. Herodotus recrcrepaKovTa for Tecro-a/aa/covra ; Doric 

70. Doric efiSofji'rJKOVTa and e/^ 

80. Her. oySwKovra, Horn, also o 

50. Homer eVei^Kovra with eVvr/Kovra. 

200, 500, etc. Homer O\>//COO-UH, rp^/coo-toi for SidKocrtofc and 
Herodotus St^Koa-tot,T/)t?^Kocrtot, eiva/coo-ioi for i>aKocrtoi. 
T/3idKartot, TeT/aa/cartoi, etc. ; also the Attic forms. 

7000, 2000, etc. Lesbian x^AAtot, Boeotian x^'Aioc, stricter and milder 
Doric -^XLOL and ^L\LOL. Homer evi/eaxiA,ot for ei/aKrxt'Aiot ; 5e/cax^ ot 
for fjivpiOL (jj,vpios, countless}. Herodotus eivaKrxtAtot for eva/acrxtAtoi. 

965. The cardinals have these dialectic forms : 

Doric Tr/DttTos for Tr/awros ; Homer T/HTOS and T/atrarog, Aeolic re/oros ; 
Homer TCTa/oro? and TT/>aros (also Pindar) ; Homer e^So/^o? and e/3So- 
/AttTos ; Horner 6'ySoos and oySoaros ; Homer evaros and eiVaro?, Her. 
etWro? ; Homer SwSeKaros and SvwSeKaros, Her. SvwSeKaros ; Tecro-e/oecr- 
KatSe/caro? and rera/aros KGU Se/caro? ; Homer teiKocrTos and et/cocrro? ; 
Her. T/K^KOO-TOS for r/atdKocrros, SUJKOCTTOS for StdKocrros. 

966. Numeral Adverbs. 1. Herodotus has ciVa/cts. Those in -am not expressing 
definite numbers sometimes drop -<r in poetry ; as ro<r<rd/a, 6(nrd/a in Horn. (859). 

2. Like 5t'%a and rptx a Homer lias also Trcvraxa and t'Trraxa, and 5tx#ct and 
rpi'x^a ; also rpnr\rf and rerpaTrXy. Herodotus has Stxo^j T P L Xv> Trevraxov. 

967. At<r<r6s and rpi(T(r6s, two-fold, three-fold (Her. 5i6s, rpt^os) sometimes occur 
in poetry for tfo and rpcts. For 5t-7r\^crios, r/n-TrXdcrioy, etc/, Her. has 5i-7rXiJ(rtos, 
rpi-TrX^o-tos, etc. Tpia/cds is in Hes. and Her. 



968. Omission Of the Augment. 1. In Homer both the syllabic and 
the temporal augment are often omitted ; as fifjv and efirjv, ?]ye and ayei>, 
efyov and e'xov, e/^e/J^/vetv and fieprjKei, f/cero and IKOVTO. Iterative forms 
in -O-KOV and -O-KO^V (1040, 1041) are generally unaugmented. 

976 DIALECTS 251 

2. Similarly in the post-Homeric Epic poets; also in other non-Attic 
lyric poets. The augment is sometimes omitted in the lyric parts of Attic 
Tragedy, seldom in the dialogue parts. 

3. (a) Herodotus omits the augment in the iterative forms in -O-KOV 
and -CTKO/ATJV (1040, 1041), as*dycncov, Troteeo-Kov, Ad^ecr/coy, doV/oeo-Kero. 
It is absent occasionally in the pluperfect, as dvct/^e/^Kee, KaraAeAeiTTTo. 

(6) He regularly omits the temporal augment : in certain Ionic verbs and 
forms, as ayii/ew, dfjieifiopai, dvatcrt/>to(o, appwSeco,, d/areo/xat, ecro-dw, 6^>Taou, 
oiVo//,a(o, ovpitw, pya> (Att. ei'/ayw) ; in the poetic verbs and forms de^Aew,,, \lvv<D, dfwye, p8w ; in eda>, kpya^op.o.1, O>0a ; in all ve"rbs 
beginning with cu-, av-, ei-, ci>, ot- ; in the pluperfect of verbs with Attic 
reduplication, also in ecmJKee. 

(c) Verbs beginning with a vowel (not e), which have a syllabic augment 
(533) or a double augment (534), usually omit the syllabic augment ; as 
(iveofTo, w/aeov (opdw), dv-oiav. 

969. 1. After the syllabic augment Homer sometimes doubles \, as ^-XXiVtrero, 
prayed; /u. only in -/A/m0e, learned; v in Z-vveov, swam; <r in treiw, oJrwe, and 

w, shake (e-acreiovro, 2-cr<Teva) ; d in -55ei(ra, feared (tor e-dFeiaa 836). 
2. Sometimes p remains single after the augment ; as ^-pd-n-TOfj-ev, -peas. 

970. Initial a- augments to d- in Doric and Aeolic ; as &yw, &yov, fix^ 7 ?"* 
pxoyu.ctj'. Initial at- and ev- remain ; as atpe'w, aipe9Tji>, au5da>, ai'5dcra. 

971. To the Attic verbs in 533 and 534 beginning with a vowel, which 
take the syllabic augment e, add Ionic and poetic forms from di/Sdvco, 
crScy, et'Aw, ?TTOV, ei/xo, Jo*'??,, e'ATrw, eWfyzi, e^o/xat and t'^w, e/)8(o, 

See these verbs in the Catalogue. 


972. The reduplication (or its equivalent, the augment) is rarely omitted in 
Homer. Thus ^pxo-rac and ^px^ro from Zpyw, shut. See also in the Catalogue 
IEVVVIJU and aXmuVo^cu. Homeric Sexa-reu, edeyfjnrjv, Seyfievos, etc., are /*t-forms, and 
not perf. and plupf. as is commonly supposed. 

973. 1. Herodotus regularly omits the temporal augment representing the 
reduplication in the verbs mentioned in 968, 3 (b). For ^OIKO, he has oka ; and w0a, 

ea for e?w#a, eludi]. 

2. For et-\rj(f>a and et-\rj/ (from Xa/jLJUavu) Herodotus has \e\d(3rjKa and d-Tro- 

974. Reduplication with p occurs in Homeric pe-pvTrw/ji.fros, soiled, from /Wow. 
Homer also has f/x/u,o/>e (for /u,e-^cope) from /jt,eipo/Jiai, obtain; and foffvfutt (for 
<re-<rv/ from crei^w, c?rivg. The reduplication is irregularly lengthened in Homeric 
8ei-SoiKa and de[-dia from SetSw, /car, and dd-dcy/, greet, from deiKvvfu, sho n v. 
Ionic % KTr)/ for KKTI)[MI. 

975. The verbs which take the syllabic augment e before a vowel (533, 
534, 971) also have the reduplication represented by e in the dialects. See 
these verbs in the Catalogue. 

976. Attic Reduplication. In addition to the verbs with Attic 

252 DIALECTS 977 

reduplication in 548, the dialects and poetry have a number of peculiar 
forms. See in the Catalogue ayei/aco, cupew, aK-a^-/xi/os (die-), dAdo/zcu, 
dAuKTew, root dveQ-, a/>a/ncrK<o, d.K-a\-ifta (a.\-\ ey'/D<u, e'8<o (&r6Lu>\ epei'Sw, 
e/3tV(o, e/oiu>, e'xa>, 7y/u'a>, root o6V, oco, 6/aaw (OTT-), opeyw, opvvfU. 

977. Reduplicated Second -aorists. 1. A number of verbs Lave 

reduplicated second-aorists in Epic poetry : as Trc-^paS-ov, from </>/oaco, say ; 
Tre-TriO-ov, from 7ret$a>, persuade ; aA-aA/c-ov (syncopated), from dAe^co (dAe/c-), 
iyr^ ojf. 

2. These verbs (all in the Catalogue) are aic-ax-lfa (dx-)> dXeo; (dXe/c-), 
d7r-a0-tV/cw (d0-), root 5a-, ev'nrrw (evur-), epCKw, Ka/nvta, Ke\o/, Kevdu (KV&-\ K\VU, 
\a.yx^ v<j3 (^ a X")> Xa j a/3di'a> (\aj8-), \avdavw (\ad-), Adcr/ca; (Xa/c-), /j,dpirTw (yuapTT-), 
&PVV/JLI (op-), TrdXXa) (?raX-), root Trop- (-rreTrapetv), irddu (iriO-), ir\-f}ffffw (ir\T)y-, TT\ay-),, (irvd-), root ra7-, root re/*-, repTru, re^x w > 0et5o//,at (0t5-), root 06^-, 
(f>pdfa (<f>pad-), xd^aj (x5-, /ca5-), xat'p w (x a p-)- Of these ej/iTrrw, fAzWe, and e/od/cw, 
draiv, reduplicate peculiarly : yviTr-a-rr-ov (or ev-evlir-ov} and r]pVK-aK-ov. 


978. 1. For the Doric future tense-suffix -crc%-, for -<r%-, see 1022. 

2. For the Homeric first-aorist tense-suffix -<r%- for -o-a- in a few cases, see 1028. 

3. For the doubling of cr in the future and first-aorist in Homer, see 1018. 

4. For the iterative imperfect and aorist tense-suffix -O-K%- in Ionic, see 1040. 

5. For the present and second-aorist tense-suffix &%-, see 1042, 1043. 


979. 1. The Doric retains -n in /xt-forms, as TI $171-1 for Attic riO-r^tri ; 
it has -/zes for -/^ev, <a-/*es for <a-//,i', <e/30-/xS for </>e/DO/zeF, a7reo-TaAKa-/x5, 
c('/)o-/xes, Ti$e-/>t? ; -- yT6 is retained in the third person plural ; as e^o-vrt 
for ^voixfi, AeAv/ca-i'T6 for AeAt'Kclo-t, Aro-w-vri for Ara-axri, riOt-vri. for 
rt$edo-i. (Boeotian Aeolic inscriptions have -v#6 for -vrt.) 

2. It has -/zdv, -crOdv, -rdv, for -/x^v, -cr$?/v, -r?7i' ; as </>e/9o-^tdi', eAeAi'- 
crdd.v, eAve-rdv. 

980. In poetry -fJitcrOa often occurs for -[icOa ; as tt7rTo-/xe<r$a, Tr 

981. Homer sometimes has -TOV and -vOov for -r^i/ and -a-O^v in the 
third person dual of past tenses : erer'xe-Tov, Qtop'Sjcrt-o-Oov. 

982. The endings -/xt and -crt (third person singular) are often retained 
by Homer in the subjunctive ; as /cTiW-/xt_, Tv^w-fjn, e^eA^-o-i, Ad/^?/-o~t 
(written by some WeXtj-cri, Aa/^-o-i). 

983. 1. The ending -o-#a is sometimes retained by Homer in the 
indicative, as riOrj-a-Oa, 8i8oi-<rOa ; also in the subjunctive, as e'$eA?7-o-#a, 

a ; rarely in the optative, as /<Acuoi-o-#a, /3dAot-o-#a. 
2. It also occurs in a few Lesbian Aeolic and Doric forms. 

988 DIALECTS 253 

984. The ending -#t occurs oftener in Homer than in Attic ; as Si8w-0t 
for Si'Sov, e/ATriTrArj-flt for cfjuriirX.rj. Pindar always has imperative St'Sot for 

8i8ov. The endings -rcocrai/ and -o-6Wav do not occur in Homer, and are 


985. Homer often has -v for -crav ; as e/3a-v for e/^-crav, e<a-v for 
e^-o-av, (f>i\T]Oe-v for ec/>tA?7 #77-0^1', rpdfa-v for erpd^-o-av. This some- 
times occurs in other poetry. 

986. The Lesbian sometimes has -77$ for -eis, as <e/?s for <epets. 
The Doric (Theocritus) sometimes has -es for -eis, as d/xeAyes (Theoc.) for 

987. 1. When -crat and -cro drop <r, the Lesbian has the open forms ; 
as Keto-e-ai and c<f>aivc-o (Sappho), e&J/ca-o (Theoc.) ; seldom -e-at becomes 
-77, as eo-fl (Ale.). 

2. The Doric always contracts -e-at to -77, as 007. The 2 sing, in -e-o 
of verbs in w remains open, as w^e-o (Epich.). The 2 sing. aor. mid. 
contracts -a-o to -a, as eVafd (Theoc.) for CTTTJ^CO from TrTJyviyzt. 

3. (a) In Homer -e-at, --rj-ai, -e-o, -a-o, usually remain open ; as /3ovAe-at, 
Trvdr]-a.i, /3dAAe-o, toSixra-o. Sometimes -e-o becomes -ev, as /^dAAev, eVev. 
In /3to (7L 11, 610) and o-rrcio (/^. 10, 285), -e-o is lengthened to -eeo-. 
Homer has -et from -e-at only in o^et, thou wilt see. 

(6) Homer even has in the perfect middle f3/3Xrj-at for /3e/3A77-crat ; 
fjL^vrj-at and /Jte/xvTj with /ze/xv^/'O-at. 

(c) In /Ai-lbrins Homer sometimes drops cr of the endings -o-at and -o-o 
where the Attic retains it ; as e/xapi'a-o for e/xapva-o-o, Si^-at for ot^-o-at, 
fj,dpva-o for /Jiapva-cro. 

4. In Herodotus -e-at, -e-o, and -a-o remain open ; but for -e-o we some- 
times find -ev, especially in the imperative, as irvOtv. 

988. 1. For -vrat and -VTO the Ionic often has -a-rai and -a-ro (a pre- 
ceding TT, /?, K, y being here aspirated). 

2. (a) Homer has -aro always in the optative ; as yevot'-aro for yevoi-vro, 
aVoAot'-aro for aTroAot-vro. 

(6) He always has -arat and -aro in the perfect and pluperfect middle 
of consonant stems, and generally of vowel stems (including Keiyuat and 
rjfjiai) ; as TtTpd^-arai from T/OCTTW, e/a^-arat and cp-^-aro from e'/ayw, 
dyrjyep-aro from dyeipw ; KexoAw-aro from x^"Oto, /3e/3A7y-arai and 
^e/3A7/-aro from ^SaAAw, e</>#t-aro from ^>#iVa>, Ke-arat and Kei-arai with 
Kei-vrat from Kei/xat, e-arat and et'-arat from 7^yaat. See 989. 

3. (a) Herodotus has -arat and -aro in all optatives in -ot-aro and 
for -ot-vro and -ai-vro ; as dyot-aro, /?ovAoi-aro, yevo-at-aro, for ayot-yro, 
POV\OI-VTO, yevo-ai-vro. 

(6) In the perfect and pluperfect middle, pure verbs here shortening 
77 and et to e ; as Ke^o>/3i8-arat (^wptS-), eo-KeudS-aro (o-/ceva6-), rerpt^-arat 
(rpi/3<j)}, ereTa^-aro (ray-), aTT-tK-arat and atr-lK-aTo without aspiration of 
K ; rjyt-aTai for -ijyij-VTat,, ryye-aro for rjyrj-VTO, wp/ie-aro for 

254 DIALECTS 989 

/3e/3A,-aT<u and e/^e/^Ae-aro for /3/3Xr)-vrai and tftepXrj-vro, Ke-arai for 

(c) In the present and imperfect of the /u-form, final a of the stem 
here becoming e ; as riOt-arai and eri^e-a-ro for Ti#e-vrcu and T6$e-VTo, 
tcrre-arat and tcrre-aro for tcrTa-vrat and rWa-vro, oWe-arcu and loWc-aro 
for 8wa-i/Tcu and eSwa-vro, /car-e-arai and for Kadrj-vraL and 

989. NOTE. 1. Homer inserts 5 before -emu and -ctro in three cases : 0^-77%^- 
5-aro from d/cax'fw, pain ; eXiyXd-S-ctTeu from e\awa>, drive ; and eppd-d-aro from 
paivb}, sprinkle. 

2. In rere^x-arat (r^Tiry/itu) the vowel is lengthened, and in tprjped-aro 
the vowel is shortened we^ri causa. 



990. Addition of e. The following poetic and Ionic verbs add e to the theme 
to form one or more tense-stems : dA0-o/ucu, yeyuvew, Soi'Tr&o, etpo/j-ai, elXew, eTravpew, 
K^Xo/iat, Kevreu), Kr/du), KTVTT^, Kvpew, Xdcr/cw,, /id^w, Trar^o/xat, plycw, 
opew, xpat(T/>tew ; d/xTrXaKtV/cw, d7ra0t'cr/<:w, root da- ; also poetic forms of 

991. Addition of a. These (chiefly poetic) verbs add a to the theme for the 
present and other systems : j3pvx- a -f j - ai , yo-d-u, dr/, Xix/i-d-cd, /^K-d-o/icu, 

992. Short final theme-vowel retained. The following Epic verbs retain a 
short final theme-vowel in all or some of the systems : dK-rjdew, eptiw, Koreu, Xot'w, 
veiKeu, and roots da- and de-. 

993. Syncope. For syncopated poetic forms, see Tre'Xco, TreXd^w, /^Aw, KeXofuu, 
roots re/m.- and 0e^-. 

994. Metathesis. For poetic forms with metathesis, see d/uaprdj/w, dapddvu,, trepdo/Jiai, repiru), Opdcrcrb) (rapda'a'ii}) ; /SXwcr/ca;, 5a/xd^a), 5e^tw, tiropov (TTO/J-). 

995. Omission of v of the theme. See poetic forms of Kreivu, and of the root 
<f>ev- or <f>a- in the Catalogue. 

996. Change of root-vowel. Besides the second-aorists in 694 and 760 which 
change e to a, see in the Catalogue rep-tru, 5e'p/co/xcu, 7re/>0w, and TTTrjffaw. 

997. Reduplication of the theme. Besides the presents of the /it-form (764, 6), 
and the ordinary verbs of the First and Sixth Classes (626, 658),, add poetic 
7ri-0ai;cr/cw, dp-apur/cw, Ki-KX-^cr/cw, rt-rwr/co/xcu. 


/ 998. Theme-vowel of variable quantity. Homer has 

(also Find., Theoc.), and ^6o>, ISpvu, KWKUW, Avw and Ai'co. Other 


cases of -v(o for Attic -VCD are extremely rare. 

1007 DIALECTS 255 


999. To the list in 631 add : root flair- or ra<- (rWrjTra), rpjyoo (r//ay-) 
= re/AVW, e/>eiK<o (I/06K-), e/oevyo/xat (e/oi'y-), cpevOio (f.pvO-\ all Epic or 


1000. To the list in 635 add : yvayu,?r-rw (poet.), evtV-rw (Epic), /m/oTr-Tw 


1001. All verbs of this class which have second tenses or have any 
peculiar or dialectic (poetic) forms are given in the Catalogue ; also all which 
form the present irregularly. 

1002. 1. Palatal Th emeS. See df3poTdfa dXa-rrdfa avSdfa, arrfci), 

-), /3a<TTa(o (/^acrray-, ySacrraS-), i/wra^to, 
(?rAayy-), a^t 

(OK-, O7T-), O 

2. Lingual Themes. See t//acra-(o, KopvcrcriD, Aa^vo-o-w, Aevo-o-co, Awr- 
<TO(JLai, Wcrcro/xcu, a^acra-w. 

3. Liquid Themes. See ei'Aw, root ^v- or </>a-, d^eAAw and dpcipto. 
All important dialectic (poetic) liquid verbs and poetic forms of others are 
in the Catalogue. 

4. K0W0/ Themes. See in the Catalogue KCU<O and icAauo ; also &uco 
(Sa-), ftwra, SatOfMt (6a-), divide, /xato//at (/xa-, /u.ev'-, /xacr-), reac/z- a/ifgr, vcuw 
(va-), inhabit, vaw (vatw), y?ow>, OTTI'/W (OTTV-) te^e ^o ?n/e. 

1003. The Aeolic often has -o-Sw for -^w ; as ei'KcurStu (Sappho) = ei/ca^co, 
trvpitrSta (Theoc.) = a"vpt<a. In Doric most verbs in -<o have stems in y ; 
as KO/Ato), carry, fut. KO/JLLCTID = Doric /co/xt^w, Aor. eKo/zwra = Dor. e/co/>ua. 

1004. The Aeolic assimilates y to v and /o (except after a) ; as Kptvvio 
for Kpivio, <f>@ppa) for (fiOeipw, crvppa) for crryxo, but <^aivw (not </>avi>a>). 


1005. To the list ill 652 add #dfco, dA<avco, dAiratVw, e/KSaiVco, epvy- 
yavw, Kv6dvo) = KtvOu, patVcu, X" 17 ^ 1 '^) and the /xt- verbs in 1062, 1. 


1006. To the list in 658 add /3acrKO), Ki/cA'/ycrKa), Tri-Tr/cr/cco, 

to-/cw, a7ra</>to-/ca>, dp-ap-io-Kw, t'cr/ca>, Tt-nV/co/zat, Sta-^)avo-KW or 
-^wa-Kto, vAacr/ca). These as well as dialectic forms of those in 658 are given 
in the Catalogue. 


1007. The Epic verbs of this class are enumerated in 1062, 2. 

256 DIALECTS 1008 


1008. See the Catalogue for poetic and dialectic forms of the verbs 
in 663. 


1009. In Homer. 1. Verbs in -aw. (a) These often contract as in 
Attic. Sometimes they remain open, as vcueraoi'crt ; sometimes a is here 
lengthened to a, as Tretvdovra, dn/'dwv. 

(/>) Very frequently verbs in -aw show a peculiar assimilation : ae and a-// 
giving a double a-sound, and ao, aw, and aov giving a double o-sound. 
One of the two assimilated vowels is then usually lengthened (to a or w), 
seldom both : 

opou for opdw 77/3wot/zi for 7?/3ctoi/ opdys for opdys 

opouvres ,, opdovres opottxra ,, 6pdov<ra opdg. ,, opdet 

6pj($u ,, bpdoi/u.i opowaL ,, opdovcri opddv ,, opdfiv 

6p6ij)T ,, opdoire yeXdjovres ,, yeXdovres opdacrQai ,, opdf&Oai 

fj.evoLvtj}(i} ,, fj,voivd<j} opdas ,, opdeis juvdaffdai ,, fjt.i'dea'dcu 

The Attic future has the same peculiar forms : eAdw for lAaw, eAaas for 
eAaet?, eXaa for eAaet, from lAai'i'w (eAaw). 

(c) The first vowel is lengthened when the meter requires it. If the 
second vowel is not long by nature or position, the assimilation does not take 
place (except in /zi'wo/xevos = /xyao/zevos) ; thus never o^ow/xev. 

(d) Verbs in -aw sometimes have imperfects in -eo- for -ao- ; as oVraw, 
encounter, rjj/reov. The part, of ^pdof^ai is x/oew/xevos. 

(e) The forms in (6) above are now generally considered spurious, and 
some editors now give the ordinary uncontracted forms ; as yeAaovres, 
opdovcri, etc. 

2. Verbs in -ew. Verbs in -ew generally remain open. Sometimes ee and 
i become et, eo and rarely eov become ev ; as rdp^i = ra/o^ee, <^>t Act = 
<f>t\i) <iAei'VTe<> = ^tAeovres, vttKevcri = veiKeovo~t. Sometimes -e-eat and 
-e-eo (from -e-e-crai and -e-e-o-o) drop one e, or may contract to -flat and -eto ; 
as jJivBeai or p.v6f.lai from aTro-aipio for a7ro-ai/3--o, ai^eto for 
at'8e-e-o. Verbs in -w sometimes have the older form* in -e/w as i^et/ceiw 
for vetKew, ereAetero for ereAeero, reAetw for reAew. 

3. Fer&s in -ow. These sometimes Jhave forms in -ow- and -wo- like 
verbs in -aw ; as apowcrt for dpoovcn from a/oow, plough ; VTTVWOI/TCS for 
I'TTvoovres from VTTVOW, sfcp; but some of the forms are doubtful. 
Otherwise they always contract as in Attic. 

1010. NOTE. For Homeric infinitives in --q-fjievai from verbs in -du and -&;, see 
1052, 2. For /w-forms of verbs in -du and -ew in Homer, see 1015, 2. 

1011. In Herodotus. 1. Verbs in -aw. (a) These change aw, ao, aov 
to ew, eo, eou, and keep these e-forms open ; otherwise a with a following 
vowel contracts ; so 6/>ew (opaw), o/>as, opa, opeoyuev, opare, opeovcri. 
Exceptions are /cAaw, ^aa>, o-/xaw, eaw, /Jiao/xac, tao/zat, which have all the 

1015 DIALECTS 257 

contract forms as in Attic. But the 2 pers. sing. impf. mid. indie., and 
pres. imperative contract -aov as in Attic: eVi/AW^(eTi/Aaov), 6/>w 
_ The optative always has -w?;v, W/ZT;V ; as tvopurj, TI/ZWTO. XP 
contract to ?/, not to d as in Attic : xp^f^ a ^ XP Tat > 

(6) When the present -aw is preceded by a vowel, eo and eov (for Attic 
ao and aov) become tv ; as atrieuvrat (airiaovrat), /3oe{Wes (/^oaovres). 

(c) The Attic future of eAaww (eAaw) shows only contracted forms in the 
MSS as in Attic : eAwv, e'Aokri, etc. ; but these should perhaps be written 
e'Aewv, eAeoixri, etc. [see below 1011, 2 (c)]. 

2. Fer&s m -ew. (a) These remain uncontracted ; -eeat and -eeo become 
-eat and -eo : KaAew, KaAeeis, /caAeei, KaAeopxt, KaAeerat, etc., but KaAe?/, 
e/caAeo. But Set and Setv are found only contracted. The optative has 

(6) Only five verbs in which -ew is preceded by a vowel (ayvoew, 
Stai/oeo/uat, ^eo/xat, vocw, Trotew), contract eo and eov to ev ; thus Trotew, 
7roteGo-fc, TroieiWes, eTrotei^v, Troiev/xat. 

(c) The above rules apply also to the future of liquid verbs and to the 
future: cny/xavew, a7ro/3aAeei? (from o-r//xatVw, aTro^aAAw), /co/xteef, 
(fut. of Ko/xt{a>). 

3. Fer&s ^'/i- -oco. These contract as in Attic ; but when the present -oo> 
is preceded by a vowel, oo and oov become ev ; as a^tevjuev, acew-i. 

1012. NOTE. Some grammarians do not consider the above rules quite so 
strict and consistent fur Herodotus. 

1013. In Doric. 1. The Doric contracts a + e or 17 to 77 ; a + et or 
y to rj ; a + o or to to a (except in final syllables) ; VIKW, VIKT/S (vtKaeis), 
vi/ca/xe? (viKaoyuei/), vtKrjre (i/i/caere), vlKavri (VIKOLOVCTL), opfjv (opav). 

2. It contracts ee to rj and oe or oo to w in the stricter, to ei and 07; in 
the milder form ; as t^tAeere = ^tA^re (strict) = ^lAeire (mild), /zto-^oere = 
fj.LcrOit)T and /xto-^ovre, fua~S6ov(rt = pio-BwvTi and ^icrOovvri. It leaves eo 
and e<o open ; or they become to and to> or to in the stricter form, or to ov 
or v and w in the milder : <i Aew, <tAw, <tAt(o (stricter Doric) = 
(milder) ; <tAeo//,es, (^iAio/xes, ^tAw/zes (stricter) = </>tAeo^es, 
^tAtovTt (stricter) = <iAeovrt, ^(Xevvrt, <j>i\ovvn (mild). 

1014. In Aeolic. Verbs in -aw, -ew, -ow are usually inflected according 
to the jut - form ; as ^>tAr^/xi, o'pr/^tt (6/>ew = opaw), So K //AW/A i. Ordinary 
uncontracted forms also occur. 


1015. 1. In Homer the third person plural adds -o-t (from -vrt) with 
lengthening of the preceding vowel : Ti#eto-t, StSoixrt, prjyvva'L. But except 
edo-t, ^7iei/ arg, and tcwrt, they go. 

2. In Homer the forms made as if from contract verbs in -ew and -oo> 


258 DIALECTS 1016 

are more numerous. He has rlOrf-crOa for Ti$eis, riQlpri and ri$e?, 818015 
and SiSoicrOa, 81801 and 8t8cocrt, teis or icis, i^crt and i or tet ; also 
imperative KaOurrH, 

1016. 1. In Herodotus the second and third persons singular and the 
third person plural are formed as if from verbs in -ecu, -aw, -oco. Thus 
riOrjui, TiOeis, Tt$ei, rit9eicri ; UTTtjjAi, terras, terra, tcrratrt, imperative t'crrd ; 
5uiko/u, 8i8ots, 81801, 8t8oi;cTi. Like riOrjfju is conjugated i??//xi ; fets, fei, 
teicrt. The forms TiOvjo-i, terrier i, 8i8cocrt, and imper. fern; are doubtful. 

2. The imperfect of riOrjfJii is eri$ea, trt^eas, ertc^ee. 

3. The third person plural of Setfcvfyu is Sei/cvvcri ; so also oVoAAiJcri, 
o-vp-pyyvvvL, etc. Less common and doubtful are forms from -I'M. 

1017. The Doric naturally has a (from d) for 77 throughout ; as 
o-rdcrw, etc. for t'crr^/xt, crrTJcrco, etc. 


1018. Homer often doubles <r after a short vowel ; as reXew, 
creAecrcra, 6'AA.fyu, (oA-e-), dAecrcrtu, o/Xecrcra, dvrco, anVcrw, yeAaw, eyeAacrcra. 

1019. Besides /ceAAw, KV/JW, opvvpi, with fut. aor. forms in -o-w and -era, 
see (in the Catalogue) poetic (Epic) forms of ae//)o>, dpapio-Ku, et'Aco, 

1020. Verbs in -aco lengthen a to a in Doric, and always to 77 in Ionic ; 
thus Doric rt/xacu, ri/xdcrw, ert/xdcra, Ionic ^etcuaw, /xei8t?)cr(o. Except eaw 
which always has d, and /crao/xat which usually has ?/ even in Doric. 

1021. In Doric most verbs in -to have the fut. and first aor. in -co 
(from -eco) and -a ; as xto/H^co, xto/at^w, l^iopi^a, 

1022. The future in Doric has the tense -suffix -cre^. Thus a/ajw, 
ap^ets, dp^ei, dp^eirov, ap^er/xes, dp^eire, dp^evvri., mid. dp^tvpai, dpy, 
a/)^etrat, etc., contracted form dp^cco, applets, etc. 

1023. These futures without cr from vowel -verbs occur in Homer : 
/3e'o/u,at or /?eio/*ai, s/ia^Z Z'e (cf. /3t-os, Zi/5?) ; 8^w, shall find (cf. 2 aor. pass. 
-8d-i]v, learned) ; KSW or Ket'w, .s/iZZ K<i, from Kei/xai ; veo/xat usually sA-aZZ </o 
(also pres.) ; e^-avvw, achieve, e/)i;co, draw, and ravuco, stretch, also occur as 

1024. The Lesbian Aeolic leaves the liquid future -open, as l/z-/zvew. 
So always Herodotus, and often Homer. 

1025. For the Attic future formed in -oco for -ctco in Homer, see 1009 (6). 
For the Attic future in Herodotus, see 1011 (c). 

1026. The Lesbian Aeolic assimilates cr of the suffix -era- to a preceding 
liquid in the first-aorist ; as aVecrreAAa for aVecrretAa, e'/c/oivra for c/c/ni/a, 
eYe/x/zaro for eret/xaro, Homer has wc^cAAa from w^eAAco, increase. 

1027. These first-aorists without cr occur in Homer : c'eva with Attic 

3038 DIALECTS 259 

e'x ea from XCM, pour; ^Xcvdjjirjv and I'jX.zd/jLYjv from dAe?'ojU,at or dAeo/zat, 
avoid; e/oya for Att. e/cawa from /catca (K<XV-), burn; ecrcreva from crei'to (crv-), 
drive; Searo, seemed (only 0d. 6, 242). Hesiod (Op. 767) has Sareacrtfai 
from Sareoytttti, divide. 

1028. Homer has a few first-aorists with the tense-suffix -<r%- for -era-, 
these occur : ?ov and ?e from IKW, come ; imper. aere and aeo-#e from 
ay to, Zea(, also inf. deyu,ev ; imper. otcre and oto-ere (<e/3W, bring), also inf. 
oio-e/xev and otW//,eva6 ; c^rja-ero and imper. /Jjjo-eo from fSaivM, go ; imper. 
o'/cxreo and o/xrev, <m<?, from opvv/ni, rouse; eSuo-ero, se^ (Svw) ; Ae^eo, ZT/ 
thyself (Aey w) ; detoreo mid. imper. from deiSw, swigr ; 7rAao"(rTov, approach 


1029. For second-aorists with metathesis, see 994 ; with syncope, see 993 ; 
with reduplication, see 997. 

1030. In the /tt-form, the stem-vowel remains exceptionally short in poetic 
KTO.V, killed, and Homeric ofrra, wounded. For second-aorists of the /u-form, 
see 1063. 


1031. Homer forms the first-perfect active in -*a only from vowel- 
themes ; and these often have second-perfect forms in -a, especially in the 

- - 

participle. Thus Trc^Kda-i and Tre^vdcrt from <vco, produce; 
= Att. K/c/x,7yKt6s from KU/X-VOJ, am tired, KKo/or/-ws from Ko/oe-vvv/xi, satiate. 

1032. A smooth or middle mute is never aspirated in Homer in the 
second-perfect : Ke/coTr-tus = Attic KCJCO^-WS from KOTT-TW, cut. 

1033. The pluperfect active has -ea, -eas, -ce, -ea-re in Herodotus ; as 
ecu&a, cTTciropfae, o-vvr/Seare. Homer has -ea, -ea? or -r^s, -ei or -et-v (-ee 
only in yJSee). 

1034. In Theocritus we occasionally find the perfect active indicative 
in -<o, -eis, -ei ; as Se&oifcw for 8eSotKa, ire^ltWec for irk^vKe. 

1035. Dialectic second-perfects are quite numerous, especially in Homer ; 
as o\7ra, hope, from e'ATrw, cattse /top?, 8eSo7)7ra from Soi'Treco, resound, 
eopya from ^e^co, wor^b. 

1036. A pluperfect with -/ e - is e/xepjK-o-v from /^e^/ca, pres. pj/cao/mt, 
Other apparently similar forms, as eyeywve, are imperfects ; but see <vw. 

1037. The future perfects active Ke-^ap-^o-w (also Kexaptjo-o/jiai) from 
(x a P~)> rejoice, and /ce-KaS-^crw from X^C^ (X a ^") #**^> occur in 



1038. Two vowel stems add y before 6 in the first-aorist passive: 
IBpv-v-Orjv = Attic i8pv0rjv from I8pv<a t erect; d^-irvv-v-O^v, revived, from 



irvc<0 (TTVV-\ breathe. Homer lias also iK\iv-6t]v and K\.L-0^v from K\ii'<o ; 
and cKpiv-Orjv from /c/oiVo>, separate. He lias <f>advQijv from (/xxeu/w (<aei/-), 
shine ( = <f>aii'(i)\ 

1039. The first future-passive is absent from Homer. Of the second 
future passive he has only Sarjo-o/xat from ISa-ryv, learned; and 
from fvvu mix. 


1040. Homer and Herodotus have iterative imperfects and aorists 
denoting a customary or repeated action. They occur only in the indicative ; 
first-aorists are confined to Homer, and second-aorists nearly so. Herodotus 
forms these iteratives only from verbs in -w. 

1041. The suffix -VK.%- is added to the tense-stem ; verbs in -aw have 
-a-a-Kov or -aa-o-/<oi/ as the meter requires ; verbs in -ew have -eecr/coy, in 
Homer also -C-O-KOI/. Herodotus always omits the augment, Homer nearly 

Imperfects : fj.eve-<ri<ov from nevw, remain ; e^-o-Kov from e'xw, have ; povKe-ffKovro 
from /3j(r/cw, feed; &ye-<rKoi> from 0170;, lead; vlKa.-ffKoiJ.ev from V~LKO.W, conquer; yoda-crKe 
from yodw, bewail ; Troiee-aKov, a Kero from Trotew ; ride-ffKov from Tidrj/mi. ; 
dido-aKov from 5i5u/j.i ; favvv-ffKero from uvvv/ju, gird. First- Aorists : avdritra-crKev 
fro :n avddw, speak; diro-rp^a-ffKe from rpeTrw, turn; fj-vrjad-ffKero from /ULL/J.V-^<TK(I}, 
real in'!. Second- Aorists : Aa/3e-(r/ce from Xa/t/Sdj'w, toA:c ; (j>vye-ffKe from (pevyw, flee; 
ffrd-ffKc from iVr?7jU,t (crra-). Two imperfects have -a-vKov for -ecrKov : /cpuTrra-cr/ce 
from KpviTTu, hide, and piirra-ffKov from pt-rrTw, throw. The second - aorist passive 
<}>di>e-<rKe from 0cuVo> occurs rarely in Homer. 


1042. A number of verbs form poetic tense-stems by adding -0/ e - to the 
present or second-aorist tense-stem. Before the suffix -0%-, the variable 
vowel may become a (once v). With the exception of several presents in 
-#w and -00/xat, and of the second-aorist e'o-xe0oi> from e'xw, the others are 
probably all imperfects ; but as some of them have aorist signification (cf. 
</;i'), many scholars regard some of these as second-aori-sts, and accent the 
infinitive and participle accordingly. These forms are mostly Epic, but 
several occur also in Attic poetry, rarely in prose. 

Thus: Siw/co;, pursue, e5i.diKa.dov, sub]'. Siw/catfw, inf. oiuKadeiv ; 'ei'/cw, yield, eiKadov, 
sub.j. elKdOu, opt. dKddoifj.1, part. elKadwv ; d/j.vvw, ward off, imper. d^vvadere, d/j.v- 
vddov ; <f>\e~yu, burn, <j)\eyedu ; e%co, hold, aor. eo-^eQov, subj. (rxe^w, opt. a-^eQoL^L, 
imper. (rxe^erw, inf. ff^Oeeiv, ffxedeiv, part, ffx^dov ; <pdlvu, perish, (ftdivvdu, perish 
or destroy. 

1043. For all the forms of the above and the others, see in the Catalogue 
dycipu (r), deipw ('), dXe^w (dX/cci^a>), d/mDvu (dftvvddu'), 5iw/ccj 
(oiUKa6ov}, ei'/cw (e'LKadov), eipyw (epyadov], 'e^u (eff^dov], KLW ((JieT-eidadov), Qdlvu 

), 0\e'7w ((f>\eyedu}. There are also several other isolated forms in poetry. 

1050 DIALECTS 261 


1044. In Homer the subjunctive often has the short thematic vowel -%- 
for -%-, especially in the first-aorist, which may thus be confounded with the 
future indicative : epvo-cr-o-fJLev for o/3vo-o--<o-/xejA, eyet/)-o-/xy, ]'/xeo-'/yo--e-Te, 
(/>a^-e-ou for e^a^-ry-cu, ev-e-ai from ei'^-^-ou, o^Ai/cr-e-Tcu, t-o-/zei/ ; these 
cases do not occur in the singular active nor in the third person plural. 
Similar examples occur in the Elegiac poets, and sometimes in Pindar. 

1045. 1. The second-aorist subjunctive of the /u-form remains mostly 
uncontracted : tfew/xev. In this case the final stem- vowel is very generally 
lengthened, a and e to y (or ei), and o to w ; in the first and second persons 
plural and in the dual, the thematic vowel is then short -/ e -. Thus : ^j-co 
or /?e-ci> (for /3a-<o, Att. /?w), #rj-w or #ei-a> (for #-w, 0to), yi/w-to (for yvo-<o, 
yvw), (rry-ys (for crT-ys, crrrjs), By-y<s (for Oe-ys, Oy<$\ yv<o-y<s (for yvo-ys, 
yvws), frry-y, 6y-y or #ei-#, 8(6-77 or 8(0-17-0-1 (for 80-17, Sw) ; o-T?j-e-Toi> (for 
o-ra-Tj-rov, O-TTJTOV), Orj-o-pev or Oel-o-pev (for ^e-w-^ev, OM/JLCV), 8oS-w-o-t (for 
8o-(o-crt, Swcrt), o-Try-w-crt or crrei-w-a't (for o~Ta-a)-o-t, crrwcrt). 

2. A few similar middle /zt-forms occur ; as aTro-tfei'o/xcu (for a7ro-#e-w-//,cu, 
a7ro-^w/xai), /3X.rj--TaL from jSaAAw. 

3. The MSS vary in some forms between t and 7;, but /? from a or e is 
probably correct for all forms. 

4. Homer has -eco- also in stems in -a- ; as O-TGWJJLCV (crra-) ; cf. 1047. 

1046. 1. In the subjunctive of the second-aorist passive, Homer has 
some forms like his peculiar subjunctives of the second-aorist active of the 
fu-form (1045, 1) ; as o\x/x?j-to or Sayuei-w (for Sa/xe-w, 8a/x-w, from ISa/x-^i', 
2 aor. pass, of Sa^-vda), subdue) ; SafJL-rj-ys and 8a^-y ; Sa/iTJ-e-re or 
SafjLt-e-T (for Sape-y-re, Sa^-y-re) ; cTa^Tr^v, 2 aor. pass, of T^OTTCO, delight, 
has T/3a7T7J-o-/zev or T/>a7rei / -o-/xei>. In these cases also et should probably be 
everywhere replaced by 77. 

2. Otherwise Homer leaves the subjunctive aorist passive open, as 

1047. In Herodotus the subjunctive of both aorists passive and of the 
second-aorists of the yat-form remain open, except that 07 and 07 contract to 
i] and y ; stems in a change this vowel to e. Thus at/ae^ew, <avaxrt ; 
c^ava-o~Tcoyu,V, irpocr-Oeio, /?eco (from eyS^v) j but vlKrjOys, <f>avy, K-j3y } 
Brjrai, as in Attic. 

1048. Subjunctive fj.efj.veuij.ed a. in Herodotus 7, 47 for fj.efj.vufj.eda is doubtful. 


1049. Homer has -IT/- in a-ratrja-av (II. 17, 733), otherwise never in the 
dual or plural ; and very rarely in the singular. 

1050. The so-called Aeolic optative forms in -eta?, -etc, -eiav belong to 
all the dialects, but no examples seem to occur in Lesbian. 

262 DIALECTS 1051 

1051. For Homeric optatives from uw, Avco, ScuViyu, and <#tVw, see 
the Catalogue ; also Trrfyvvpi. 


1052. In Homer. 1. Besides the ordinary ending -ev, Homer often lias 
-^u,rat and -/xev in the present, future, and second-aorist active of verbs in 
oj ; as dyu,i ; ve-/jtvai, dyoti}ve-/xv, dfJivvcLV ; d^e-^aevat, d^e-//v, a^eiv ; lX.0t- 

JA06-/A6V, e\0iv. Verbs in -aw and -ecu often have -ij-pevai ; as 
, 7TLvrj-fJivaL ; /caAeco, /caA^-/xeva6 (only dyu/e<o has dyu'e-^evat, as it' 

from a stem dyii/-). Of verbs in -ow we have only the pres. inf. d/3o-/xevai 

or dpofjLfjLcvaL (?) in Hes. Op. 22. 

2. The endings -yuei>cu and -j/cti, preceded by 77, occur in a few presents from verbs 
in -/M ; as d-r)-/j.evai, and ay-vac from #77^1, blow ; in the second-aorist active of stems 
in a of the /-form ; as ffrrj-fjievai, ary-vai ; in the aorist passive ; as 6,u,otw0?7-/xei/ai, 
fj.iyr)-fj.evai, day-fjievac and day-vac from Sa- } learn. Other presents in -fj.c have -/mevac 
and -;j.ev with preceding short vowel ; as lard-^evat, iard-fJiev, ei>yvv-/jivai,' 
(but didou-vai, II. 24, 425 ; rt^-^ei/at, II. 23, 83 and 247 ; frvyvv-fj-cv, II. 16, 145). 

The second-aorist of stems in e and o adds -fj,fi>ai and -/mev to the unchanged 
stem, but -van to the lengthened stem ; as de-^evai, 6e-/j.ev, 85-fj.eva^ d6-/j.ev ; but 
Bet-vat, dou-vai ; after a long vowel -/mcvai. (not -/u.(v) is used, as (Trrj-fj-evat, yvw-(j,evai, 
dv-fj-evai. If the second-aorist active ends in -av, the a remains short before -f 
and -/Aev, as ZKTOLV (from KTC'LVW, kill], Krd-fj.evai, KTa.-fj.ev. 

3. The perfect infinitive active of the /it-form has -fj.eva.i and -aev as 
and redva-fj-ev. 

4. The second-aorist active often lias -e-eiv for -eiv ; as Baveeiv for Oave'tv. 

5. Observe that the syllable preceding -yuei/at or -/iev is always accented. 

6. The ending -vai never occurs after a short vowel (ie-vai. should probably be 
always written i-nevai}. The ending -^v nearly always follows a short vowel 
(except in evyvi)-/nv above). 

1053. In Doric. The Doric generally has -fj.ev where the Attic has -vat ; as 
/j,7rayr)-fji,v for /j.Trayr)-vai (from Tr-f]yvv^i} t ffra-fj-ev (Find.) for <TTrj-vai, de-jmev (Theoc. ) 
for 6el-vai, 5i56-/uiev (Find.) for dido-vac. Verbs in -w have -etv, as in Attic, in the 
milder Doric. We also find -f\v and -ev for -eiv ; as deid-rjv (Alcm. ), aeidev (Tlieoc. ), 
Pindar once in ydpvcv for yrjpueiv ; also -&v in contract verbs in -6w, as v-jrvdv 
(Aristoph. Lys. 143). The perfect active has -eiv and -rjv as yeydtc-eiv (Find.) = 
yeyove-vai, dedvKrjv (Theoc.) for dedvite-vai. 

1054. In Aeolic. The Lesbian has -/mevai in monosyllabic stems with shovt 
final vowel in the /xt-conjugation ; as e"/j.-fj.evai for el-vai. All others in -fj.i and those 
of the w-conjugation (also those from verbs in -at/xt, -?T>U, -W/M or -oifjii = Att. -aw, -ew, 
-6a>) have -dt>, -rjv, -wv ; as dyyv (Sappho) = ^76^, Tri-dev<rr)v (Sappho) = ^-m-devffeiv, 
avr\r]v (Ale. ) dvr\iv from a.vr\ew, Sidwv (Theoc.) for dido-vai. ffre(f)dvwv = (TTa<pavovv, 
ofj.vdad'rjv (Theoc.) = dva-fjivrjadrj-vai ; so in the perfect, as TtOvaKyv (Sappho) = 


1055. Tlie Lesbian Aeolic has these peculiarities: 1. ~ats, -cuo-a, -ora, 
for -as, -do-a, -ovo-a ; as reAeo-ats for reAeVas, Optyxuva for Op<pacra f 
Trvtoicra for Trveovcra, At7roto-a for Xirrovu-a, Soicra for Sowra. 

2. As most verbs in -aw, -ew, -6w follow the /it-form (as <f)i\Tj-/jLi = 0tXe'w), the 
present participle has -ais, -ets, and -ots ; as ye\ais, yeXaicra, yeXav (from ye\ai-fju = 

10G4 DIALECTS 263 

Attic 7eXdo>) for yeX&v, ye\3cra, ye\Zv ; 0tXeu, 0iXeicra, <f)i\ei> (from 
for <f>i\Qiv, ^tXouaa, (j>i\ovv ; v^ois = I'l/'wi' from vif/u/ju Attic i\j/ow. 

1056. Tlie Aeolic hail -uv, -OITOS for -ws ; as vtvorfuwv for vevorjK&s. Pindar has 
Tre<f>ptKOi>Tas (for Tre^pt/coras) and /cexXaSopTcis. Homer has KCKXyyovras from KXdfw, 

1057. The Doric had -eta for -via in the perfect fern. ; as on-amta for 

1058. Homer rarely has -rj-ptvos for -e-/xevos in the participle of the 
/u-form ; as TtBij-fJttvoS' 

1059. The second -perfect participle often has -WT-OS for -OT-OS in 
Homer ; as KCK/X^WS, KeK//,7/-ioTos and KCK/X^-OTOS ; 

1060. In Homer the feminine of the second-perfect participle sometimes 
retains a where it has otherwise been lengthened to ?; ; so dprjpus, fern. 
dpapvia, indie, apypa (dpapicrKU, Jit) ; re^dAvia, indie. reOrjXa 

bloom) \ AeA^Ka = Att. AeAdKa from A<XO-KW, speak, fern. part. 
pepaKvia, masc. pep^Kuts from pujKaopai (paK-), bleat. 

1061. Homer has a number of peculiar forms of the second-perfect 
participle of the /u-Jbrm. Herodotus has eo-rews for ecrrtos ; (TT^KWS in 
Herodotus is doubtful. 


1062. Presents of the pi-Form.!. Those of the Fifth Class are 

aivvpai, d^vvpai, "ydvvpai, Saivvpi, Kaivvpai, Klvvpt, ope" 
(see ravi'w), rlvvpai (see rtva>) ; Sdpv 
t, TriAva/xai, TTirvrfpi, o-Kiovrjpi or 

2. Those of the Seventh Class are ar//xi, Seapai, 8it-pai, Sifopi, L 

o-Tvpai, late iTrrapai, Epic /3i/3r]pi (fia-). 

3. For present or imperfect pi- forms from verbs in -w, see 6/xxco, 
dpdopai, yoaco, Tretvaw ; /caAew, <^o/)a>, ^tAcw ; avvio, eSw, pvopai and 
epvopai, (TV(j), <^epw, 

4. For all the above, as well as peculiar /it-forms of ordinary Attic ^i-presents 
(764, 7(36), see the Catalogue. 

1063. Second-Aorists of the pi-Form. Besides a few peculiar forms 
of those mentioned in 767, see the Catalogue for second-aorists of the /xi- 
form of the following verbs : aAAo//.ou, aVar-paw, a/3a/oto-fcw, a<o, ySaAAco, 
ptf3pii)crK(i), root yei'-, S^xopai, KeAo/xat, /cAaco, /<Avco, KTt^co, Aeyw and root 
Ae^-, Ai'tu, piyvvpi, opvvpi, ovraw, TraAAw, TreAa^w 

1064. Second -Perfects Of the pi -Form. Besides peculiar forms of 
those mentioned in 768, see the Catalogue for Homeric second -perfects of 
the /xi-form of ai/coya, /3i/3pa><rK(D, eyei/xo, e/o^o/xat, paiopai (pa.-, ptv-\ 
, TrtTrrw, root rAa-. 

264 DIALECTS 1065 


1065. i-npi 1. In Homer generally trj/ju with short t, 2 sing. ?ets 
(teis), 3 sing, tet (!) and usually tr/o-i, 3 pi. teurt, inf. te'/xevat and te/xei' ; 
impf. t'etv ; first aor. fJKa and ev/Ka ; forms with ei- usually have only e-, 
as lorav ero, eVro, for eta-ay, etro, etVro. 'Av-ty/xt has fut. (?) aV-e-o-w and 
aor. ar-e-cra. 

2. In Herodotus r^/xi follows ri$y/xt. The perf. pass. r>art. of /xer-try/xt is 
irregular; /xe-/xer-t-/xeVos ; the perf. mid. dv-eWrat for dV-etVrat is very doubtful. 

1066. elfiii 1. Homer has eVcri and ets (cts) for ei", ei/jev for eoyxev,, 

edcri (not encl.) and eri, subj. e'w, eys, etc., ewcri, and once okrt (/xer-et/xt has 
/xerew and /xer-etto) ; opt. et'/yv, etc., with eots, cot ; imper. eo--o-o (middle 
form), eWw, eWe, 3 pi. ecrrcov j infin. ?(/x)/ii/at, 4'(/x)/>tv, e?vai ; part. (ov, 
coucra, eov (rarely Attic forms). Imperfect 1 sing, e'-a, ?}-a, e-ov ; 2 sing. 
Tyfr^a and crja-Ba ; 3 sing, er/i/, ?}ev, Vy?/t', 7} v (rare) ; 3 pi. r}crav and o-av ; 
imperfect also CO-KOV (iterative form). Future ecr-cro/xat and e-o-o/xat ; 
ctr(o-)eat and eVrr; ; e(cr)(rTat, eo-rreirat (Doric), and co-rat ; e'o-(rr$at, Icro-o/xevos. 

2. Herodotus has et's (et's) for et, ei/xer for etr^tev ; subj. e'w, ey?, etc.; opt.- 
once 4v-eot, otherwise Attic forms ; part, ewv, tovcra, eov. The imperfect 
lias Attic forms ; also the iterative form e'cr/coi/, and seldom ea = rjv, eas = 
?yo-$a, eare = Tyre. 

3. Doric : I'lpi (stricter form for et/xi) ; ecro-t for ? ; et'^es and et/xev 
for eo-fjiev, VTL for curt; in fin. ?}/xev and et/xev; part, ecov, eovo-a. Imperfect 
3 sing, rjs for /jv, 7//>tes for Ty/xev. Future ecro-or/xat, eo-cret, eo-creiTai, etc. 

4. Aeolic: Lesbian e'/z/xt from eo--/xt for et/u ; imper. ecr-o-o (Sappho), 
part. eu>y, fern. (rcra (Sappho). 

1067. ci^Li. 1. Homer has eio-Oa for ?; subj. t'to, iryo-^a, tr;o-t and t'y ; 
opt. tt?y and tot ; infin. t'/xevai and t/xev (i'/x/xevat incorrect for f/xei/at). 
Imperfect 1 sing, rji'a and dv-rjiov for the Attic forms; 3 ?ing. ^t,,we, t'e 
(yet doubtful) for Attic forms ; 1 pi. y'o/xev for $fiev ; 3 pi. i'ji(rav, 7r-ycrav, 
trav, -t]'iov ; dual ir?;^ for y'T?yi>. Future eicro/xat. Aorist (Va/xryi/ or 
to-d/x7yi/. #m'od has (?) e?5 for et (Op. 208). 

2. Herodotus has ryi'a, Vji'e, ?')to-av for Attic ])a, yet, 7/ea-av. 

1068. </>?7/u. 1. Homer has <f>rj(rOa for </>y5 ; subj. <^>r}y and </>y(o-t) ; 
impf. e'^v or ^v, e^yo-^a or ^(lOa or ^>ys^ ^>y, ^a/xev, e'</>ai/ or ^av, 
and l^curav or <}>d(rav. Infinitive ^axtev poetic. Homeric middle forms 
(with active meaning) : imperative </>ao, <a<r#oj, </>a<r#e ; jnf. </>acr#ai (also 
Find, and rarely Tragic chorus) ; part. <tt/xevos (also Her., Find., Aesch., 
once in Xen.) ; impf. ec/xx/xyv or (^a/xyv, e^aro or <^aro, e'(/>avTo or <^avro 
(^>aro also Find.). 

2. Doric </><x/xt, ^drt, </>avrt ; impf. e^>d or </>a = e^>?; ; fut. (^dcro/xat ; 
aor. <^ao-e for e'c^ycre. 

1069. rjfiai. Homer has et'arat and et'aro, rarely carat and earo (once 
i/vro), for T^vrat and ^vro. Herodotus always has K-ar-earat and /car-earo. 


1070. Kel/Jbai. Homer has /.-carat, /ceiarai, Keovrai, for Keivrat ; 
(iterative form) for C'KCITO ; Ktaro, KCIOLTO, Ketvro, for e/cetvTo ; subj. 
for jeer/rat ; Hym. Merc. 254 /cara-Ketat for Kard-Keto-ai. Herodotus has 
Keerat and e/ceero, /ceeo-$at, Keeo-$(o (Ketrai, etc., are doubtful) ; Kearat and 
e/cearo for Ktivrai and 

1071. oZ&a. 1. Homer has otiSas once for oicrOa ; i8//,ev for 
subj. etStu and eiSew, et'So/xei/ for eiSw/zey, ei'Sere for ciSr/re, ei'Swcri ; inf. 
iSfjitvat, and t8//,i/ for eiSevai ; fern. part. iSuia in iSviycrt TrpaTrtoWm, 
otherwise elSvia. Pluperfect $<5ea for rJSTy ; ySrjo-Oa with ryeiSr^s ; i/'See, 
doubtful) ; urav for ^crav or rjStvav. Future ta-o/>iat and 

2. Herodotus has otSa, ot^Sas, otSe, t'8/xev (oi'8a/xev four times), tcrre, 

(some prefer tordo-t) ; subj. ei'Sew. Pluperfect ^'Sea, iJSee, 7/Seare, 
crav. Future ei'8^o-a>. Aor. eto^cra, learned, found out (Hippocr. and late). 

3. Boeotian Aeolic imperative TTTW for to-rtu (Aristoph. J.c/1. 860). 

4. With otiSa the Doric has a present icrd/xt, itras, tcrdrt, to-ajaev, iWvTt. 

1072. ^77. Poetic infinitive xrf 1 ' = X/^ vat - Herodotus has dVo-x/>a, 


1073. In the following list, the forms printed in heavy-faced type belong to 
Attic prose, that is, to the ordinary spoken language. Other forms are found only 
in poetry, or in the dialects, or in late writers. However, the mere absence of an 
ordinary regular form from the classic prose writers or from the dialogue parts of 
comedy may be merely accidental, and many such forms were doubtless good Attic. 
The same may also be said of some forms found only in composition in Attic prose. 
Forms which are inferred from other forms (i.e., imperfect active, present and 
imperfect middle and passive, aorist middle, pluperfects, future passive, and future- 
perfect passive) are usually omitted. The Roman number indicates the class to 
which the verb belongs ; but the First Class is not indicated. For more detailed 
citation of passages in which the various forms occur, see Veitch's Greek Verbs, 
Irregular and .Defective. 


(aa-), injure, mislead, no pr. act. ; pres. mid. aarat ; aor. aa<ra or ado-a or 
contr. aVa ; aor. mid. aao-a/x^r, erred aor. pass. ddcrOrjv. In the aorists 
the first a may be long or short. Verbal aaros, adaros, addros; aVdTos. 

[a/3poTaa>], miss, only a/^/aora^o/xei/ (II. x. 65 subj. for -a>yiiei/). Compare 
epic TJjJi/SpoTov from d^apravto. (/K) 

ayai'o/xai, see aya/xat. 

(ay a A,-), honour, adorn, act. ia the comic poets, and late prose ; <rya\w ; 
mostly pass. <, glory in, delight in ; ^yaA/xat (?\ rJydX- 
<Vlate. (IV) 

266 CATALOGUE OF VERBS 1073 (dya-), pass, dep., admire {pr. and impf. like tWa/xat (498); subj. 

dyco|, ayrj, etc. 516; opt. d-yai^y, d-yaic, etc. 516} ; Homer also has 

dyuto/zcu and dydo/jiai, envy ; fut. ayauo/Aat epic ; aor. i\yao-Qr[v and 

rarely ^-yao-diiiiv ; verbal d-yao-rds. ( VII) 
, see dya//,at. 

(dyyeA-), announce; dyytXw; \yyei\a; fyyfXKa; i\yyt\\t.oi\. ; fj < yy&0r|v; 
and on inscriptions) ; fut. pf. dYycX6Vj<ro| ; verbal dyytXTos, 

dyyeArcos. (IV) 

(dye/u-), collect; dyepw ; aor. TJ-yeipa pf. dy^jye/o/ca, -//m late; ep. 2 

aor. mid. dyepo^v with part, dypojMevos ; ep. plupf. p. dyrjyepaTO ; 

ep. aor. pass, rjyep&qv. Epic by-form r}yepe$o//,a.6 (1042), be collected, 

only TjyepeOovTai and ?/y/3e#oi/TO. (/K) 
dyu/eo>, epic, Doric, Ionic, = dyw, only pres. and impf. 
a-yvolu, rao< to know, regular, but fut. mid. d-yvoT|<ro(j,ai has passive meaning. 

Epic dyi/otew. 

dyvvjit (/ay-), break, in prose usually in comp. KaT-<ryvvp.i and Kar-a-yvvw ; 
~Ag ; 2a|a (533) and rare epic rja (Hes. Op. 668, 693, opt. 2 sing. KGU;- 

dcus from KO/-/oAxts, /car-/a^at) ; 2 p. ^d*ya and Hdt. e-^ya ; eay/xat late ; 

2 a. p. cd-yiiv, ep. eayqv and dyry^ ; verbal Kar-aKros. (K) 

(dy/otav-), &e wild ; a-ypiavw ; aor. late t] transitive ; pass. 

dy/oicuvo/xat rare and Lite ; ^ypLavB^v ; comp. pr. ll-a-ypwuvw, make wild, 

pass, become wild. (IV) In place of this verb the Attics usually prefer 

d-ypidw, make wild, mid. pass, d-ypidofiai, become wild, tenses regular. 
, choke ; &y<a ; ftyfja, middle = hang one's self. 
&YW, lead ; afjw, f. m. a^optai also = f. p. ax^o-o^ai ; ija rare, doubtful in 

Attic (Horn, has 1 aor. imper. aere and inf. d^e/xev or d^e/xevcu, first 

aor. forms with -<r/- instead of -era-, 1028), Horn. a. m. d^d/zr/i' 2. a. 

^Y a Y ov 5 pf- ^X a an( i rarely dy?yo^a, late and inscr. ; 3\y\La.\. ; ^x T l v > "-X 1 !" ; vb. aKrd? (Plut.), aKrcos. See by-form dytvccu. 
(d8e-), 6e sated ; only aor. opt. d&jcreii' and perf. part. d5>/Kw?. Epic verb. 
4800, sm# / ao-o[iai (a'5a> rare) ; fj<ra ; ^o-ixai ; fja-0T]v ; vb. ao-reos. Contracted 

from Ionic and poetic deiSw ; deiicrw and detVo/xat ; rjewra. 
(dc-), rest; aor. decra or aecra, once contr. acra/xev (Od xvi. 357). Epic, 
detpw Ionic and poetic for al'pw. 
dejw Homeric for aua>. 
d^/zt (de-), 6^oiy; dryo-i, d??rov, detcrt (like Ti^eio-i, 1015), inf. dry/zcvat and 

dryvat, part, deis ; impf. 3 sing, d^ or det {aor. 3 pi. aea-av (Ap. Rhodius 

4, 884)}; mid. pr. dr/rat (Find. /. 3, 27), impf. dr/ro, part. d?y/xevos. 

Epic verb. (K//), respect, feel shame, poetic at'So/xat ; f. alS6ro|uu and rarely al8<r0TJ- 

o-ojjiat; i]8<r0T]v as mid.; fj8<r[iai ; aor. TJBeardjjLiiv poetic, in prose = 

pardon a criminal; cuSeo-ros. 
alvt'w, praise, in prose mostly in composition ; aive<ra> (epic and lyric 

cuv>y(r(o) ; rjveo-a (ep. and lyr. rjvr]cra) ; "rjveKa ; rjvT]|jLai ; fjve'Orjv ; alveros, 

alvT'os. Horn, also pr. aiVi^o/xat, Hes. atVry/Ai. 


alvur<ro|icu (cuVi/c-) an-1 CUV(TTO|ICU, speak in ritltUi:* ; alv^ojxat ; flvid[xiiv ; fivi-y- 
(wupass. ; fjvix^r.v pass. ; aiVi/crd?. (/I/) 

aivvpai, take, inipf. aivvfMjv. Epic. (K//) 

alpt'co (at/oe-, eA-), fae ; aip^o-w ; fjpT]Ka, Hdt. dpatp^Ka ; p'pt), Hdt. dpru- 
prj/j.aL flp^0Tiv ; fut. pf. flp^croiiai rare ; 2 aor. elXov {X, JlXoifii, 5-Xe, 
eXwv}; cupTos, alpTtos, Horn. eAeros. (////) 

otpw (a/>-), lift, contr. det'pco (de/>) ; rfpw ; fjpa {apw, apcup.i, dpov, apds} ; 
fjpjjiai ; ^pOr^v, dpOrjo-ojiat ; dpre'ov. Ionic and poetic 
TJupa ; t^cpdrjv ; Horn. plpf. 3 sing, awpro (for yopro) ; aet/oa^v. (/I/) 
The future apovpai (short a), and aor. ///oop/i/ belong to apvvpai (a/o-), 
mi. Epic by-form oyepe^o/>tat (1042), 6e lifted, raised ; only r/e/)e$ovTcu ^ 
impf. only -rjepeOovro (late epic). 

alorddvopiai and rarely aiVOofxai (a i'cr$-), perceive; al<r6^<ro|iai ; 

at'crcrw (ai'/c-), rits/t, Ionic and poetic for a<r(rw. 

alo-^-uva) (aicryvv-}, disgrace ; aurxww ; ti"X i ' va 5 V cr X v 7 Ka ^ e ' ni i^- pass. 
alo-xcvofjiai, ; f. al<r)(wov| nnd less often al<rx.vv0T|cro|Aai ; Ty'cr^v/^juat late 
(p. p. part. ya-\vfj./j.fvo<5 Hoin.) ; vb. al<r\vvT>s. (/K) 

at'w, hear, Ionic and poetic (in Homer ai'w, in Attic poets dtw, and ato>) ; 
inipf. aibv aor. 7r-ryib-a ; f. 7r-cucra) late ; eTr-diicrro? Hdt. See the 
following, also dry/xt, blow. 

duo, breathe out, only inipf. cub?. Epic verb. Compare dry/xi, 6Zom 

aK-a^-t^w (d)(-), grieve, afflict, a redupl. pres. ; f. dKa^ryo-co ; aor. d/cd^^cra ^ 
p. p. a/<d;)(?//mi { 3 pi. aK7yx^ aTai > i n f- o.K.d\y](rda.i, part. aKa^ry/xevos or 
a.Kt])(fji.vo<s, imper. late d/cd^>ycro}; 2 aor. ^Ka^ov, ^/ca^o/Aryv. Epic. 
See also a^-vv^at and d^o/xai, am. pained, and the act. parts, 
or d^ei'wi/, 6ew?gr grieved. 
(aic-), sharpened, epic redupl. perf. part. ; no present., Tiea^; aKecro/xat late; T|K<rd(XT)v ; aor. pass. rjKecrB^v late; vb. 


Sew, neglect ; f. dKrySrjoro) late ; aor. d/o/Secra and late d/oj&yo-a. Poetic. 
(UKOV- for d/co/-), /tear ; aKov< and late ctKoiVco ; ^Kouo-a ; 2 pf. 

OLKTjKOa (716), 2 plpf. T|KT]KOT] Ol' CLK^KOr] ; ^KOWyUCU late ; TJKOVO-01|V J 

dKOvo-0T| ; vb. aKovo-rds, OLKOVO-TCOS. 

(dAaAay-), raise the war - cry, mostly poetic and late prose ; 
a^o/xat ; f|XdXa|a ; mid. same meaning. (/ V), wander; (?} dAr/orerat ; rjXnjOtjv ; pf. with pres. meaning dAdA^/xat 
{inf. dAdA?yo-^at, part. dAaA?j/xei/osj . Chiefly poetic, the pf. and aor. 
nearly exclusively epic. 

(dAaTray-), destroy; dAaTrd^w (also Xen. Anab. V, I 29 ); 
aTraa ; a. p. late e-aAa7rdx#>?i'. Epic. By-forms AaTrd^w and 
AaTrdcrortu. (/ /) 

vvu (d.Xyvv-\ vex ; dAy ww ; ^Ay vva ; pass., be grieved, fut. dAy wov/zat 
as pass. ; a. p. dAywtfryv, fut. p. late dAyw#?jo-o/u.ou. Mostly poetic, 
esp. tragic, rare in prose and almost always late. (/ V) 


(dA&xi/-), nourish, epic, poetic (Aesch.) ; epic 2 aor. rjASavov ; pres. 
also dAS>5o-Ku>, grow, thrive; vb. dv-aAros, insatiate, Horn. (//) 

(dAi(-, dAet<-), an<nn ; d\i\}/a) ; ^Xeu}/a ; <x\T)Xuf>a, late and rare 
ic^a ; dXTJXip.fiai, late and rare rjAet/xpxi ; T|Xei<|>6Tiv, late ?/Aic/>r/v ; 
4>0T|cro}jLai ; mid. fut. aXa\J/o|icu, aor. f|Xi\|/d|rr]v ; vb. dAei TOS late, 


dXe'<o (dAe-, dAex-, dA/<-), ward off ; active rare in prose ; fut. dXefjojjicu, 
epic dAe?jo-to,, Hdt. aAe^croyucu ; aor. i?Aef?;cra epic, rjAea late ; aor. 
mid. f|Xa.(iT]v ; epic 2 aor. aAaAKOv, whence late fut. dAaA/o/crio, pres. 
poetic dAKa$a>. 

dAeopu, avoid ; aor. rjXevd/n^v. Epic. See dAewo below. 
dAevoo, avert; aAeiVw, rjAewa, Aeschylus ; epic mid. aAciJO/xai, aor. 
jjXtvajji^v {subj. 6^-aAev-cr-to/xat Soph. ^Ij. 656 perhaps for e'-aA?'fw//,cu 
in Hesy chius from aAw-/cto}. Pres. epic and late prose also dAeeiVio, 
avoid. Poetic verb. 

aXew, c/rind : [i'ut. dAecro), Attic dXw ace. to Moeris, p. 17] ; ^Xeo-a ; dAryAeKcc 
late ; dXir|\<r(Aai and dXif), late ijAeo-yotat ; late ^XccrO^v ; vb. 
dAeo-reov late. Rare by-form dA?/#w, pres. and inipf. in Hippocr. 
inf. from aor. p. tdXijv, see et'Aw, press together. 

healed, fut. aA$rycro/zai, Hoiueric.^ -In Hippocr. dA^att'w, 
(trans.); f. dA^ycrto late; aor. ij\0rjcra late; aor. p. ^vv-aXOecrO 

dAtvSew, dAiw, wafe roZZ; aor. If-'/yAio-a (Ar., Xen.) ; pf. 
6^-7; A i/<a (Ar.) ; p. dAivdeo/Acu and dAtVSo/xcu, and aor. ?}Ati'Svy^?p 
late ; pf. f|Xiv8T]|i'vos (Dinarch. J'V. 10, 2). Compare /a;AiV8w. (dA-, dAo-), be captured, used as passive to at/aew ; f. aXwcrojicu ; 
pf. IdXwKa or ijXwKa ; 2 aor. MXwv or fiXwv {aXw, dXws, aXw, etc. (Horn. 
dAcuco) ; aXoiTjv; dXwvai ; dXovs (498, 695, 699) { ; vb. uXwros. See 
di'-dAtcrKa), expend. (l^/) 

dAirouVo/zai (dAtr-, a'Atrav-) and epic (also late) dAiT/oaivw, sz?i ; aor. -/jAirov, 
-i]Xir6^f]v ; late aor. dAtT7/o-a ; p. part. lyAiT'/j/zeyos, sinning. Epic. 

(/K, K) 

aAi'o), see dAtVSto. 

dXXdo-a-w and aXXdrTw (dAAay-), change ; dXXd|a) ; i]XXa|a ; -i]XXc;xa in comp.; 
f]XXa-y|xai ; ^|XXdx0T]v and T)XX<ryT]v, dXXax0iq<ro(xai and aXXa-yriO-OH 1011 j v ^ 3 - 

dXXaKTOV. (//) (dA-), leap ; ; TjXd}rr]v ; 2 aor. r)X6/JLTjv rare and doubtful ill 
Attic, epic sync. 2 aor. aAcro, aAro,, dA/xevos (1063). (IV) 

, be excited, distressed (Ionic); impf. aXvuratov (only Hdt. 9, 70) ; 
dAvKTew (Hippocr. 8, 30), be restless, be anxious ; epic perf. d 
(II. 10, 94). (//) 

(dAvK-), avoid ; dA^w ; yjXv^a ; Horn, also dAvo-Kd^oo and 
Poetic. (VI) 

(d\<j>-), find, acquire; epic 2 aor. ?}A^>ov. (K) 

-), err ; dp.apTT|oroptat and late tt/xapnyo-co : t|fji,dpTT]Ka ; T|[idpTi]|iai; 


T|p,apTT|0T]v ; 2 aor. fjfiapTov ; ep. 2. a rj/x/fyoroi/ ; 1 aor. rjfjidpTrjo-a late ; 

vb. dv-afJidpTT]TOS, errf;-a|AapTTiTov. (/) 

(d/x/2A-) also lg-ap.pXda>, miscarry ; a^Awo-to late ; aor. ^/z/ifAaxra 
(Hippocr. and late), 4-T)p,pX<>o-a, and late 2 aor. e^-a/x/^Atoi/cu ; pf. 
-i]|xpXwKa ; -ii| ; a. p. ?}/x/5Aco^i/ late. ( VI) By-forms : e- 
a/x/3Aeo/xat late; d/x/3Ai'o-/<w (So])h. Fr. 134); d/x/3Aooo-Ka> late;. 
d/x/3Ato-/cdi'(o late ; but d/x/3Audw, blunt, is a different verb. 

d/x/3Avvco (d/j./3Xvv-\ blunt d/x/3Avvw ; ijjji/3\vva ; ^/z^Av/z/xat ; ry/x/3 \vvdrjv. 
Mostly late, rare in Attic. (/ K) 

d|Apo>, change, rare in Attic prose ; dp,ii|/ ; tj|Ai\J/a ; mid., exchange, 
make a return, rare in Attic prose and comedy ; djieixj/op-ai ; f||xei\|/dp.r]v ; 

pass, be exchanged, pf. rf/xeiTrrcu (Galen, 1, 210) ; a. p. yjpetyOrjv late ; 
the mid. in the sense to answer, is poetic with aor. mid. or (less often) 
aor. pass, (one prose example aTr-Ty/xei'^r/, Xen. An. 2, 5 15 ) ; vb. 6V 

(Sappho 14 B). 

(dfjiep-) and a/zep8o>, deprive ; ^/xe/acra ; rjpepOrjv. Poetic. (/, / V) 
a/xevat, see aco. 
dpepSiD, see a/xeipw. 
a/z7r-e^w and a/xTT-iVxw, see e'x^- 

a/x7rAa/<to-Acw (a/xTrAafc-), mm, err/ 2 aor. ^/xTrAa/cov ; pf. mid. 3 sing. ^/xTrAa- 
Krrrai. Poetic. (K/) 

, dfATTvvo-Orjv, a/xTrwTo, epic forms, see ai/a-7rvea>. 

w (d/xw-), ivarrf ojf ; dp,vvw ; TJp,i5va ; mid. ward ojf /rom myself, defend 
myself, d|ACvo|iat ; dp,vvovp,ai ; T|p,vvdp.T]v ; vb. dp-vvreos. (/ /) 

and a/xvrrw (a/xv^-), scratch ; dfjiv^w ; r^iv^a (late rjfJLv^drjv and 

Poetic and Ionic. (/K) 
dp.<}>i- < yvo(i), cfam& / impf. ^p-^i-Yvoovv and ^px^eyvoovv ; aor. T|n<}>ryv6iio-a ; a. p. 

pt. d[Ji(f>iyvoit)0is. 557. 

d(i<j)i-vvi5p.t and late dp(f)L-vvv^ (d[j.(f>i-- for d/x^t-^eo--), clothe; fnt. d/x<^)tcro> 
epic, and dfjwjnw Attic ; i^ko-a ; r t p.^t<rp,ai ; aor. pass. d/x<t-eo-#ei's late ; 
fut. mid. ci[A<|ne'<ro(icu ; d/xc^tecrd/x^i/ poetic and ry/x(/>iecrd/x^v late prose. 
See the simple form eWv/xi (e- for /ecr-), with forms compounded with 
7rt and Kara. A late by-form is dyu<^td{o>, ci/x^tdo-w, ?y/x^>ia(ra, 7^/x</)ta/<a, 

555. (/) 

), dispute; augments rj/x<eo-- or tj^LO--. 557. 
dvaivop-ai (avai/-) refuse; impf. 7)vatvo/xr^i/ not Att. ; aor. rjvr)vd/j.r]v Horn. 
and late prose (Eur. M. 237). (/K) 

(aA-, aAo-, 659) and dv-dXdw, spend; impf. dvTJXio-Kov and (Thuc. 
8, 45) dv^Xovv ; dvdXwo-w ; dvqXwo-a ; avTJXcotca ; dvT|Xa> ; dvT|Xco0T|v ; 
dvdXcoTos, dvaXwreos. The forms avaAaxra, dvdAwKa, dvdAw/xat, avdAw^v 
are found in MSS ; but they are late ; the rare forms (in composition) 
Kar-i]i/dA(o/>iat, KaT-tji/aAw^v are late. See 

(0,8-), ^^s (present also in Attic poetry) ; impf. Horn, and Hdt. 
ijvSavov or &]v&avov (but some claim dv8avov for Horn. ; and some 


claim cdvSavov for Hdt.) ; f. aS'/Jcrw Hdt. ; 2 aor. ZaBov Hdt., a8ov or 
va8ov (for l/'/aoW) Horn. ; 2 pf. edSa epic, also late, Ionic and poetic. 
Adj. &tr-fjLvo5, pleased. (V) 

dv-e'xa> and dv 6'xojiai, see ^x w - 

dvfjvoBe, springs, epic 2 perf. with pres. meaning in Od. 17, 27 ; as plpf. = 
aor., sprung, in 77. 11, 266. Compare -ei/?Jvo#e. 

dv-oiY-vi5|ii and dv-ofy<o, op?u (see the simple oty-vvfu and oiyw poetic), 
di'-oiyvi'u> late; impf. dv-^Yov (534), (xV-wyoi/ (//. 14, 1G8) could be 
dv-eipyov with synizesis, ^voiyov (doubtful in Xen.) and dv-ctpyvvov late ; 
fat dv-oi ; aor. dv-e'wia, late tjvoiga (doubtful in Xen.), Hdt. avota, 
Theocr. ay<pa ; pf. dvx a ; 2 pf. uvew-ya rare in Attic, and means hare 
opened, in later writers usually = stand open for which the Attics use pf. 
pass. dWo>Y|xai, stand open, Theocr. ai/wy/Acu, late JjvotyfMi ; a. p. a.vf<a\Q-r\v, 
late rjvoi.\0rjv, late fut. dvoix0rj( ; 2 a. p. late i/i/oiy/p, 2 fut. late 
dvotytjcrofJiaL ; fut. pf. dvb>|o|icu ; vb. dvoiKT^ov. In late writers, besides 
the classical forms, there are also found forms with triple augment : 

dv-op0dw, set upriyht ; augments regularly in classic writers; as dv-wp0<ra ; 
late plpf. r]v-op6wKiv (Liban. Epist. 959). But the double compound 
67r-av-op66w regularly has the double augment (556) CTT-T] v-vp-, as 
ir-T]v-wp0wcra, ir-T]v-wp6wfiai, etc. ; in late Greek occasionally the simple, 
as 7r-ar-a)yo^w^ryi/. 

meet, has double augment (557) ; ^vT-c-poXovv (Aristoph. t]vri- 
dvTi-poXi]<rw, T]vT--pd\iiora (epic avrt-/?oA^(ra) ; a. p. avrt- 

e'w, be defendant, has double augment (563) ; T|VT--8Kovv ; <xvTi-8iKTJ<r ; 
f|VT-e-8xT]o-a. Forms with rjvn-S- are doubtful. 

avvp.i, see avvco. 

dvva>, Attic also dvtmo, accomplish (late dvvo>) ; dvvo-<o and Horn. e- 
avuw (1023) ; ijvvKa ; T|vvo-fj,ai ; late ijvvo-OrjV ; vb. dwcrros, a WTO? 
(Sext. Emp. 617), dv-t'jvvros (Soph. EL 166), av-ijvwros (Od 
16, 111). Written also QLVV(T)O> with the aspirate. Poetic avw (also 
avw), pres. and impf. Doric avvfju, only impf. aviy/,es (Theocr. 7, 
10); pass, avvrai late; impf. r/vvro (Od 5, 243), avvro (Theocr. 2, 

avwya, 2 pf. with pres. meaning, command {1 pi. ai/wy/xev ; subj. avojyw ; 
opt. dvt(>yoLfj.L imper. dvM\Ot and rarely avwye, ai/coyerfo and avw^^w, 
avwx^e and avwyere ; inf. avwye/xei/}; 2 plupf. with imperfect meaning 
r)vcuyea {3 sing. TJvwyet and avcoyet}; impf. Horn, -tjvwyov (1036) or 
avwyov {3 sing, rjvwye}; pres. forms from (?) dvwyto, or (?) dyojyew 
occur ; 3 sing, avwyei, dual dvwyerov, pt. avwycov, -ovo-a ; fut. 
dvioga) ; aor. r,Vwa. Poetic and Ionic. 

d7r-ai'/)aco, take away, present not found ; impf. with aor. meaning dir-^vpayv. 
Poetic and epic. -'Allied epic forms are fut. drrovptjo-o), aor. part. 
.s and oxT 


d7ra<f>i(TKto (a7r-a</>-), deceive ; f. rare a7ra<rjcra> ; 2 a. rJ7ra</>oi', mid. opt. as act. 
a.7rd(f>oiTO ; rare 1 aor. a7ra^>?;cra. Poetic. (K/) 

and late a7r-6X#o/zai (ex^-)i ^ AaZ;^Qr\a-o\i.a.\. ; dir-iix0T]|H ; 
See the simple t\6o> and e'x#opu. 

aTroe/ocre, epic aor. 3 sing., swept off (Horn.) ; see efyxo. 

diro-Xavo), enjoy, no simple form ; diro-Xav< and late a.7ro-XavcriD dir- 
&av<ra ; diro-\\avKa ; p. p. late aTro-AcAav/xcu but part. aTro-AeAavayzevos 
(Pint.) ; a. p. late aTr-eAotvcr^v ; vb. aTro-Aavcrros late. 

a.Trovpas, see aTr-avpdiD. 

diro-xpT], see xp>?- 

&irir (dc-), fasten, kindle, middle, touch ; &\|/ ; fjtj/a ; %nai ; -fj^Oiiv, fut. late 
in comp. d<#7}<ro/xcu ; Horn. a. p. ed<f>6r) (II. 13, 543; 14, 419), also 
derived from eVo/xat and mTrrw ; vb. dirrds, dirr^os. (///) See Epic 
kd^tOrf or ed<j)@r). 

apdopiai, pray, mid. dep. regular ; epic act. inf. d/o^/zemt. 

d/oa/oto-KW (a/o-), ^*, jom, trans. ; [fut. (?) a/oco, a/ocrw] ; aor. ^/9o~a ; 2 aor. 
ijpapov trans, arid iiitrans. ; 2 pf. dpdpa, be joined, fitted (also in Aesch., 
Eur., late writers, and once in comp. in Xen.), Ionic dprjpa' } p. m. dpry/ae/xat 
late in simple ; a. p. -ijpOyjv ; 2 a. m. part, a/o/xevos (1063) ; vb. 
7Tpoa--apTo<s (Hippocr.). Poetic verb. ( VI) 

dpdo-o-w and dpaTTw (dpa-y-\ strike, the simple form not in Attic prose, in 
Comedy only Ar. EccL 777); upda> ; Tjpa|a ; -rjpayyu,cu late; -qpaxOiiv. 
See /odo-crw. (//) 

dpSto, water ; aor. -);/3cra Hdt. Attic only pres. and impf. 

dpeo-Kw (d/) e -)> please; dpe'o-w ; rjpeo-a ; dpfjpeKa late ; tjpeo-Orjv late ; vb. 

, oppressed, epic perfect passive participle. 
c'.pKeV suffice, assist; dpKo-o> ; rjpKco-a ; jjpKea-fJiai late ; ijpKeo-Qrjv late ; 

o/xat late ; vb. ct/oKeros late. 
poetic, and dp^TTw (dp/jio8-\ Jit ; apfidcrco ; fjp(io<ra ; crvv-dp^o^a Pind. ; 

late ; -{jp|io<r(xai ; Tjpji6<r6T]v, dp|xo<r0TJ(ro(JLai ; vb. apfiocrreos. (IV) 
oip-vv-fj,aL, win; dpov/j-ai ; 2 a. ?}po/xryv. Poetic, tragic, also in Plato. (V) 
dpdw, plough ; dpocru late ; ij/aocra ; p. p. dpypo/xat Ionic ; ^pd0T]v. 
dpird^w (d/D7raS-, d/o7ray-), snatch; dpirdo-w and oftener dpirdo-ojiai, Epic or late 
apTrd^d) ; -^piraera, poetic rjpTra^a ; rjpiraKa ; fjpTrcwrjiai and late ^jpTra^jJiaL ; 
T|pird<r9iiv, Hdt. also r^pTrd^Oi^v, 2 a. p. late rjpTrdyrjv ; dpircurB-qo-oiiai and 
late dpTrayija-ofJiaL ; vb. d/DTracrrds late, d/oTraKros Hes. (/ K) 
dprvvio (dprvv-), prepare ; fut. dprvvew ; aor. rjprvva ; a. p. dprvvOyv. 
Epic. See the following dprvio. 

(in Homer dprvw), prepare ; regular, but in Attic prose only in comp. 
, Attic dpvro, draw water ; d/owo/xat late ; rjpv<ra ; eir-TipvO-qv and 
(late, Ionic) ; vb. eir-apvo-T^os. 

begin, command, middle begin ; &pa> ; Jjpla ; late pf. ^px a 
middle ; tipx^v ; fut. d/>x^/o"o/xat Aristotle, dp^ojiai is sometimes used 
as passive ; vb. dpKTos. 


, aTTw, from Ionic or poetic diWw (U.K- from ai'/c-), rush; af> from Ionic 

di'Jw ; fla from Ionic rjija ; a. p. with act. meaning t]i^Brjv (Horn.). 

Rare in prose. Some write do-o-oo or arrw. (IV) 

(dcrTpa.7r-), lighten, flash ; d<rr/3a^o> ; ijo-Tpa\}/a. (///) 
drrrdAAw (artraA-), rear, tend, epic and lyric; aor. drtV^Aa also late. (//) 
OLTV(D (drvy-), terrify, epic and lyric; drvfw late; inf. aor. drvgai (Theocr.); 

a. p. aTvxOeis (also late). (IV) 
avaivn) (avav-) or avcuvca, rfn/; f. ai'aveo ; a. ijvrjva a. p. ijvdv$Tjv ; f. m. as 

pass. avavov/u ; f. pass. auav$r/(ro//.at. Sometimes the past tenses have 

av- for 7/v- (519). The verb is poetic and Ionic, rare in Attic prose or 

poetry. (/ V) 
avSdfro (avSay-), speak, late in act. : av8dia, yvSaga ; mid. only aor. in Hdt. ; 

a. pass. avSaxBeia-a (Orpli. hymn. 27, 9). (IV) 
avdvo> and aii|w (av-), increase ; aig^o-u ; r\<jj-T]a-a ; T]i5^Ka ; ti^T)p,at ; T]v^Qi]v ; 

vb. av^reoi/ (Aristotle). (V) Epic and Ionic dew (so always in 

Horn.) ; f. late cxe?y(rw ; a. late d^rja-a. 
aTr-avpaci), see above. 
7r-aupTKo/>tat, see below. 
d(acrcr(o, feel, handle (647 ; 1002, 2), Hdt.; aor. t'fyaora (Hdt); d<ao> or 

d<aw, handle, Ionic (not in Hdt.), rare in Attic prose ; in comp. except 

pres. part, d^ocui/ (II. 6, 32), eV-a</>7J(rco, r-;<i/tra. (/K) 
d<j>-tT][jLi, ^e^ ^o; impf. sometimes -q<J)fT]v as well as ouf>iT)v (555 ; 771, 4). See 

the inflection of tvy/xt (770). (///) 

(d(/>i;y-), draw, pour ; d^i'^u). Poetic, chiefly epic; also late prose. 

c?ratv, pres. in comp. only; fut. d</>vo-crw (Anth. 5, 226) for d 
aor. t"j<f>va-a. Poetic, mostly epic. 

and d^ew, 6e grieved, only in present participles dxeiW and 
Epic. See d/<axi{w, o.\-vvp,a.i, ax-op-at. 

^^ displeased, be vexed; ax0o-o|Jtai, and f. p. as mid. 

^-), be troubled. Poetic. (/) See d/ca^M 
(dx~), &e troubled, epic, only present, see above. 
[dto], satiate ; fut. curto ; aor. cura ; 2 aor. = satiate one's self, inf. ayuei/cu (for 
dc/xevat), subjunctive ew/xev or ew/xev ; mid. pres. aarat (.? derat) ; f. 
atro/xai ; a. acrd/^i/. Epic. 
aa)/3TO, see cu^oo (detpw). 


jSd^w (/?a*-), spea^, ?/Jfer, epic; eK--/5dJa) (Aesch.); /SefiaKTai (Homer). (/K) 
paivw (J8a- 652, II.), ^o; fut. pTjo-ojiai. in comp., the simple in poetic or late 
for act. /^'^crw see below); pf. pc'p^Ka, frave ^o??e, siaw^ /rts^; 2 pf. (768) 
3 pi. /2e/3ao-i (Tragedy) contr. from Horn. j3fj3dd(TL {subj. e/z-^e/3wo-6 
(Plat.) ; inf. /3e/3d/xei> epic, /?e/?di'at poetic ; part. /?e/2ws (poet., rare in 
prose), /Se/ftuo-a (poetic), and e/JL-ficflavLa. (Horn.) ; plupf. 


Horn,}; 2 aor. t$r\v (767) in comp., the simple is poetic {p, pabjv, pfj6i, 
pfjvcu, pds}; p. p. pe'pajjiai rare and in comp., late (?) 7ra/oa-/3^8ao-/xai ; 
aor. p. efia.Qi\v rare and in comp., late are /3dcr@rjv and cfidvOrjv ; rare 
epic aor. mid. e/^cra/A^v and e/?r/cro/xryv ; vb. POTTO'S, 8ia PO,T&>S. Some 
tenses occasionally have a causative sense, make to go : Ka.Ta-/3a.Lva> (only 
Find. Pytli. 8, 78) ; -/3r/crw (poetic) ; 4'/3>yo-a (poetic, Ionic prose, late 
Attic ; also vTrep-p-rjo-aTO) in Xen. .Eg. 7, 2). (I/, //) See also /?ao-Kco, 

(V, IV) 

(ftaX.-, /3Aa-), throw ; f. paXw in good prose in comp., /?aAArjo-w only 
in Aristoph. Vesp. 222 and 1491; 2 aor. gpaXov ; sync. 2 a. dual 
v and inf. fv/z-^Avj/zevcu epic ; epic 2 aor. mid. as pass. 
{subj. pX-rftrai, opt. /3A#o or jSXelo, inf. /3A?)cr#cu, part. 
, sync. fut. Ji'/x-^A^creai (only .Z7. 20, 335), s/ia/^ encounter ; 
pe'P\TlKa ; pp\T)|jLai {epic 2 sing. /^e/^A^cu ; opt. in Andoc. 2, 24 
Sia-/3e/3Ar/o-<9e (745)}; epic /3e/3oAr;/xat ; IpX^v, pX^o-ofJiai ; f. pf. 
pep\T|o-o^ai (simple late in prose) ; vb. /^A^ros late, diro-p\T]T&>s. (/ K) 
Tw (j8a^>-), tjtjj; pd\|fb> simple late; 2pa\|x ; pepa|jL| ; pd<j>T]v and poet. 
; vb. pairnfe. (///) 

, annoy; papwu ; kfidpvva late; /3e/3a^oi;^at late; 

/3d(TKn> (Pa~\ poetic form of /?<uVa> } ^ro; in 7i. 2, 234, c7rt/5acrKeyaev is trans., 

to cause to gro. ( //) 

^ao-Ta^w (/5aTTa8-, later /3ao-ray-), car? 1 ?/ ; jSoOTCurai and late /3ao-ra(o ; 
ffidcrTaora and late /3acrraa ; late ^e^acrray/xai and f3aa-rd\0^v and 
cpcuTTdyqv ; vb. late /JcurraicTos. Poetic, also in Attic poetry, late in 
prose. (//) 

Mt, ptofAat, shall live, epic future (1023) ; see ^8iow. 

erw (/3>?X~) ant ^ P^TTW, couyh ; /^>/^w (Hippocr.), e/?r/^a (Hippocr. and 
Hdt). (/K) 

aa>, s^ep; Horn. iT7/m. Merc. 225 ; pr. part. /?t/?(3i/. Epic. 
-), flfo; pr. part. /&/3ds. Epic. (K//) 

(ppo-\ eat, pres. Hippocr. and late ; f. /3/>wcro/mi late and (?) 
late ; a. /3/owa and dv-t/Spoxra late ; 2 a. epic /3p<jiv (Horn. 
oW. 127); pf. peppwKa; 2 pf. part. j8cj8/oo>s (Soph.) 1064; 
Pe'ppcofji(u ; tfipuQ-riv Hdt. and late ; /?/ow#>jo-o/xcu late ; /3e/3/)wo-o/xai (Orf. 
2, 203) ; /3/xoTos, /^/awrcos. The Attics used only the perfect act. and 
pass.; the other tenses were supplied from c<70to>. (K/) See the 
by-form /SpwBoi. 

PIOW, ^'?;e, pres. and impf. rare and doubtful in Attic, ao> and /?ioreua> 
preferred ; Ptwo-ojiai, and late /3iw<ra> and /?tw^^o-o/xai ; Iptwo-a rare, 
usually 2 a. piwv (767, 2) {epCws, epiw, etc. ; subj. pi<3, piws, etc. ; opt. 
PIWT^V (irreg., pioCiiv is pres. opt.); imper. /^IWTCO Horn.; inf. PUOVCU ; part. 
PIOUS}; ppu>Ka ; p. p. pe(3iTai with a pronoun, as /not ; vb. p KOTOS, 
PKOTCOS. See piaxTKOfJiai. 

(PIO-\ Attic dva-piw(TKO|xat tr. re-animate, intr. revive; f. late 


dva-/3uoo-w, will restore to life ; aor. e/^iojcraytx^v, Attic 

re-animated; 2 a. dv-epCwv, revived ; 1 a. act. intr. ave-^twcra revived, late; 

a. p. dv-/3MOnji' ]ate. (//) 
pXdirrco (/3Aa/^-), injure; pXd\|/ ; Kj3Xa\|/a ; pJ3Xa<}>a and inscr. e/3Aa(/>a ; 

pepXafifuu and inscr. ey8Aa/z/xei/os ; epXd<}>6T]v and epXdprjv ; fut. mid. 

pXoAj/ofiai = fut. pass. pXaprjo-ofjiai ; /3e/3Aai//o/mi (Hippocr., Galen). (///) 

/3Aa/?Tcu, pr. 3 sing. pass. (Horn. ; Anacrontea). 
pXao-rdvw (/^Aacrr-) and late ^Aao-rew, sprout t rarely trans, ccm& to sprout, 

bring forth ; /^Aacmjcrw, Ionic, poetic, late ; l/^Acwm/a-a, Hippocr., late ; 

2 aor. ^Xao-rov ; pepXao-rrjKa, less often 4pXd<TTT]Ka. ([/) 
pXc'irw, see ; pXe'xJ/ofiat, late /JAej/'W, Hdt. ava-ySAei/'co ; 2pXe\|/a ; a7ro-/3e/:?A<a 

late ; /?e^Ae/x/xat late ; 7r/)oo--e/3Ae<#7;v late ; vb. pXeirros, pXcirreos- 
pXCrro) (/3Air-, from /zeAtr-, 71), <oA;e honey; f. (?) /SAiVw ; ?pXio-a. 
^AWCTKW (ftoA-, /xAo-, ^SAo-, 71), </0 ; f. /xoAo?^/xai ; p. /x///?AwKa ; e^ioAov. 

Poetic, late in simple. Late iut. /cara-/?Aw^a>, late aor. e/^Aco^a. (//) 
Podta, &7t,o.i ; poTj<rop,ai, late /3orjaria tpdrjcra ; late are y8e/?or/Ka and 

and ef$or}9riv. Ionic /3oaco, and from stem /3o-: /?o>cro/xai, 

rxa>, feed; POO-KTJO-<O ; late are e/^ocr/oyo-a and /3o(TKt')Of]V ; vb. 

wish (augments cflovX.- or i'jf3ov\-, 525) ; povXt|<ro|xai and late 
//at ; pJ3ouXT]|xai ; 2 pf. poet. 7r/>o-/3e/:?ovAa, prefer; epouXT|0T]v ; 
vb. POVXTJTOS, f3ovX.r/To<s (Aristotle). Horn, also f36X.ofj.aL. 
Ppa8cvw (8paSuv-\ delay, be slow; f. ftpaSvvM late; a. e/3pd8vva late; pf. 

/SefipdSvxa late. (/K) 
/3pdu), /3pdo-crw, Attic poetry ftpdrrio, boil, shake ; /3pacro), e/3/oao-a, 

/^e/fyacr/zai, /3pd(T@r]v, /Bpacrreov, all late. (/^) 
flpax- stem, only 2 a. /?/)a^e or fipd\, resounded. Epic and late. 

; j3pf(D late ; ^pp|a ; p^ppe-yjiai ; pp\6iiv and /3pdxt]v late ; 
vb. fipcKTtov late. 

iio>, /e;e^ heavy, drovisy ; e/5/oi^a. Poetic, (/ /) 
f3pidw, be heavy, rarely <o weigh down; /3picr(o ; J3plcra ; fiffiplfla. Poetic, 

late prose, pr. once in Plato. 

fipox-y swallow; a. ffipo^z late (Horn, dva- and Kara-); 2 p. dva-f^^po^v 
(II. 17, 54); a. p. KaTa-[$po\Otis late; 2 a. p. dva-fi poll's (Od. 11, 
586). Epic. 

teem, revel; a. dv-tf3pvaa. Poetic; late prose. (IV) 
and late ^/ot'^w, grind the teeth, bite ; /3pvw ; /3pva ; 2 a. efipvyt ; 

Poetic (rare in Tragedy), also late. 

(fipvx-, 629), roar; /3/Di~x>;cro//a6 very late; dv-eppvxilo'd|iT]v (Plat); 
> a. mid. (Soph. O.R. 1265); 2 p. as pres. /3ef3pvx a poet, and 
late prose. 

fipuOo), KaTa-f3puOa) (Babr. 67, 18), eat; 2 pf. opt. /3e/fyw#ois (//. 4, 35). 
Compare /^t^/acuo-Kw. 

and late /?t'w, sfop ^ / -P^" w ; ^Pvora ; pIpvo-fAai ; late Trap- 
; vb. Trapa-pvo-Tos.^Hdt in 2, 96 has 8ia-j3vrTai. (V) 


w (yf*-), marry (of the man) ; fut. -yajjtw, late yapjcrto ; a. ^[la, late 
c-yapjora (also Menander) ; ye-ydp.iiKa ; mid., marry (of the woman): 
yafjL0|xai ; -yafiovfiai, late yapjcro/zcu ; ya/zro-Tcu = will provide a wife 
for (Li 9, 394) is doubtful ; t-yrujLaptiiv ; ye-ydpiTjiiai ; aor. pass. eyaft,^0rjv 
late, cyafjieO-rjV in Theocr., yap/#>jo-opu late ; vb. yajicrTJ, married, wife, 

(y a-), rejoice ; f. epic yaviWo/zou ; late pf. yeyavtyxcu (Anacreontea). 
Poetic, also late. (V) 
yeywva (ywv-). epic 2 pf. with pres. meaning, also yeywveco and yrya>vr*c<a, 
shout {subj. yeyGjvw ; imper. yeycove, yeycoyemo ; inf. yeywv/u,ey epic 
and yeywvetv ; part, yeywvws epic}; impf. eyeywvet and eyeywve 1 pi. 
eyeyuvevv ; fut. yeywi^cra) ; a. eyeyeov^cra. Poetic, rare in Attic prose. 
yeiVo/xou (yev-), be born, epic ; aor. eyeivapp, begat, poet, {in prose 6 

yeiva/xet'os, 17 ytivafjievr), parent} . (IV) 

yeXdw, laugh; -yeXao-oixai (615) and late yeXacrw ; rye'Xcura (Theoc. 20, 15 
4yeA.aa) ; Kara-yeyeAacr/xai late ; -yXcur9T]v, late yeAacr^cro/Aai ; vb. 
yeAao-ros (Of/. 9, 307), Kara- (PI.), late yeAao-reos. 

yevro, grasped (1063), epic 2 aor. JZ. 18, 476 ; also for lyevero from 

a taste, taste, mid. taste; regular, but a. p. is fyewr&jv late. 

-, 613), rejoice, poetic ; y-^^crw ; eyry^Tycra ; 2 p. -yyT]0a as pres. 
and -yTipdw (y^po.-), grow old ; y r lP^ crfc> an( ^ < Y T lP* (ro H iai > -yi]pd<ra ; 
dKa, am old; 2 a. inf. (767) yrjpaivai, poetic with Horn. pt. yypds 
(Xenophanes Eleg. Fr, 8 has yiypcis like ^eis) ; yr^pa.crKo^o.1 (Hes. ^V. 
163) ; yiypao/jtat and vTrcp-yrfpdOeis late. (//) 

(yci/-, 618) and yfvofjuu (Doric, new Ionic, and late), become; 
yevrjo-ofAai ; 'y^' and 2 p. yfyova mean am or /lave 6ee?i; 2 a. e-y V OH >T l v 
(epic 3 sing, yei/ro ; compare epic ycvro = seized) ; eyev-)')0r)v (Doric, 
Ionic), fut. yevrjOy')<TO[jiaL (Plat. Parm. 141) ; 2 pf. of /u-form (768) has 
yeyadre and yeyad(rt (Horn.), inf. yeya/zev (Horn.), part, yeyws (epic and 
late), ycyavia (epic), yeyws and yeywcra (Attic poets), plpf. 3 dual 
eK-ytyoiTYjv (Horn, and late). 

(yi>o-) and yti/wo-KCD (Boric, New Ionic, and late), know ; -yvworofxai 
(1 a. av-eyi/wo-a only in Hdt, meaning persuaded); 2 a. yvv, 767, 
perceived {^-yvws, yv, etc. ; subj. -yvw (like Sw, 498), opt. -yvo^v (like 
Sofyv, 498), imper. -yvwOi, -yvwrw, etc. ; inf. -yvoivai ; part, -yvotls (like SOT'S, 
332)}; ityvcoKa ; ^-yvwo-jxat ; ^vcocr0Tiv ; vb. yvwo-Tos and poet, yvwrds, 
yvwcrreos. ( VI) 

desire; a. ey/U^a/x^v (Com. Fr.). 
y\vKaiv<D (y\vKav-\ sweeten, late in act., yXvKavw, lyXvKdva ; usually pass. 
; yey \vKacrfjiaL and aTr-eyAvKacr^ac late ; f.yXvi<dv6r]v ) y\v- 
late ;~r-mid. Kar-e-yXv^varo as act. (Com. Fr.). 


y\v<|>a>, grave, cut ; yAi'^co late ; ey\wf/a late, tv- in Hdt. ; y ' < Y^ v H-H- at an( i 

e-yXvujicu ; eyAi'<$>; and eyXv^rjv late ; vb. yAvTrros late. 
yvdfJL~ri (yvafjiir-), bend; yvdpi^o) ; eyva/xi^a ; dv-eyvd^Oyv. Poetic. 


yoaw (yo-, 629), bewail, Horn. inf. yo?;//,evat; 2 a. yoov epic; late are yo?jo-w 
and eyor/cra. Mid. yoao/zat Attic poetry, also once in Xen. ; yo>jo-o//,at 
(77.) ; eyo^cra/xv/i' and yo?;^et? late. 

ypdcfxo, ?m'fa ; yP'H" 5 ypcu|/a 5 Y^P -^ 01 ' l a ^ e yeypdffrrjKa ; ye', late 
; eYpd<j>T]v, late eypd^Orfv ; -ypa<j>T)(ro|JLai ; y "Ypa- x | /0 | xat ; vb. 

(y/avy-), (/ran ; ypvgat late, and ypv^o^ai ; eypv^a ; vb. 
Attic poet., also Plat. (/I/) 

, teach, learn ; no present ; 2 a, e'Saov, learned, taught ; 8e8aov, taught, 
2 a. m. inf. SeSdaa-Oai ; 2 p. part. SeSaw?, having learned ; 2 a. p. eSaryv, 
learned; f. 8a?ycro/xat, S'/ia/i learn; p. SeSdrjKa, have learned; 8e8a?;/xat, 
learned. Poetic, mostly epic. Homer has also fut. <5'/jo>, shall find. 
(Scu8aA-), rfecA; curiously, poetic ; Pindar has p. p. part. 
; a. part. SouSaA$et's ; and a f. inf. from a stem 

Sat^O) (Scuy-), rend; 8aio) ; ISai'^a ; SeSaty/xai ; 8a'i\@r]v ; vb. 

Epic and lyric. (//) 
&atvvfj.L (8at-), entertain {Saivv epic imperative pr., or indie, impf. }; Scucrcu ; 

eSaicrct; mid. Saivv pat, feast, eat {Horn. opt. 3 sing. Saivvro (700, 1051) 

for Satvv-6-ro, 3 pi. Satvvar' for SGUVU-I-VTO] ; Satcro/xai ; eSatcra/zr/i/ ; 

aor. pass. part. Sato-^et? ; vb. a-Sairos, no^ ^o 6e eam. Poetic, also in 

Ionic prose. (K) 
Sato/Aat (8a-, 650, 1002), divide; p. p. 3 pi. SeScuarai ((M. 1, 23). Poetic. 

(IV) See Sareo/xcu, divide, and Souw, kindle. 
Satw (8a-, 650, 1002), kindle; 2 p. SeSrya, Zmni, epic, SeSava late; mid. 

Scuopxi, 6wm; 2 a. (e'Saopjv), subj. Sa^rat ; 8e8av/xeVo late. Poetic 

(once in Hippocr.). (/K) See Saiopai, divide. 
8dKva> (8aK-, S^K-), 6^e; 8Tj|o|jLai and late Syyf co ; 2 a. fe'Scucov and late 1 a, 

e'dv^a ; SeSij^a late ; Se'SiyyHLcu ; IS-qxS'HV and late 2 a. p. eSaK^y, 

Sfixe^oitai. (K, //) 

(8afjL-a8-\ tame ; f. 6a/xacrw, 8a//aco, 8a/zw { Horn. 3 sing. Sa//,a 

and 8a/xaa, 3 pi. Sa/xowcrt, by some called present J- ;' eSap*o-a ; mid. 

Sa/zao//,ai ; eSa/Aaa-a/x^v ; Se8a/xacr/xat late ; a. p. 8a/j.d(rOrjv ; vb. 

Sa/xaoreov late. Mostly poetic (in Attic prose Sa/xaa>, K 

and fSa^dcrO^v occur). (/ /) Compare the following Sa/jivd<i> or Sa/ 
a/xva-) and Sa/xv^/xt (8a/x-, 8/xa-), ^ame; 8e8/x7;/zai 
7/i/ and 2 a. p. eSd/j^v. Poetic. See the preceding 

The pf. SfSfjLrjfjiaL also belongs to Ionic Se/xw, build. (V) 
-SapOdvw (SapO-), sleep, simple only e&apOov (Od. 20, 143); regularly 


KaTa-8ap0dvco ; Ka.T-'8ap0ov and poet. Kar-eSpaOov ; pf. KaTa-88dp0T]Ka ; 

late Ku.r-.&(ip6i]v, ( V} 

(8ar-, 8are-), divide; f. Sacro/zcu ; a. eSacra/xr/i/ (in comp. twice in 

Xen., once in Thuc.) ; a. inf. (?) Sarea<7#cu in Hes. Op. 767 ought to be 

pr. 6Weeo-$cu ; ; late -eSacr^i/ ; vb. dva-Sao-ros. Poetic. 

Compare Saiofjuu, divide. 

appear, only impf. Searo in Od 6, 242. (^//) 
8'8ta, SeSoiKa. 6Wow, /ear, see root 6V. 
SeSuTKopzi (?), SeSiVo-o/xat, SeSfrrrofiat, frighten (formed from SeSta, SeSoiKa ; 

epic form SeiSia-o-o/xcu) ; f. 8e6Yo/xai late, and epic SeiSt^oyuou ; a. 

8eSia/x?7V (rare Att. pr.) and epic cSeiSt^a/x^v (late SetSicra/xevos, 

fearing). (VI, IV) Different from epic ce(t)5torKo/>iat, </ree, only pr. 

and impf. 

oVSey/Mou, see SetKi/v/xat. 
SeiKvup.1 (Sei/c-) and 8eiKvvo>, s/wm 1 , full inflection in 498 ; Sei^to ; e'8ia ; 

StSeixa ; StSet-yp-ai ; eSe^x^v j late 5e3ei^o/xat pass.; vb. SCUKTC'OV. (/) 

Ildt, has root 8eK- : -Se^w, -e'Se^a, -SeSey/xat, -eSe^a/x^v. Mid., 

in epic also = (/ratf, welcome; a. eSei^a^v (Horn. Hymn.); Horn. 

6WSey/xcu (for 8eSety/zat, 3 pi. SetSe^aro) ; so also Se6/cavao>, 

Juind), poetic, pres. late, mid. welcome, and epic <5e(i)6Yo-Ko/iou, 

different from 8e(i)8to-Ko/xat = Se6\Wo/xcu, frighten. 
8e/x,w (Se/x-, Syue-), build; a. 4'5et/xa ; SeSju^/Acu. Ionic, poetic., see ; Se/oo/xcu late ; eSe/o^a/x?/!/ late ; 2 a. e8pai<ov, and late 

eis-eS/oa/ca ; ^p^Oi^v and 2 a. p. 8pa.Kr)v, saw; 2 p. SeSo/oKa as present; 

vb. fjiov6-8pKTo<$ (Ear. CfycZ. 78). Poetic, occasionally late prose. 
Sc'pw, /rt^/, also BeCpw ; Sepw ; e'Seipa ; SeSapjxat ; 2 a. p. ISdptiv, 8apij(ro[ (New 

Test.) ; k^apOrfv late ; vb. Sa^oros late, 3/aaros (Horn.). 
8e\o[JLai, receive, Se/coyaat Aeol. and New Ionic ; St^ojiai ; IS|dp.T]v ; SeSc-yfjiai ; 

-l8e'x0Tjv passive (late . as simple] ; late <$ex#>}o"o/xou passive ; poet. 

8e8eofj,aL act.; vb. SeKreos late, diro-SeKreov (Horn.) ; /u- forms (1063); 

pres. Horn. Se^arat (3 pi.), part. 8ey/xevos, awaiting; impf. Horn. 

eSey/z^f, was expecting, but as aorist poet. tSey/x^v {e'SeKTO or SCKTO, 

imper. Se^o, Se>(#e, inf. Se^^ai}, but some consider Se^arai as a perf. 

without redupl. and l^ey/x^i/ as plupf. 
S&o, 6^1^, 480 ; 8Vj(ro> ; e8ti<ra ; St'SeKa, rare and doubtful SeS^Ko, ; Se'Senai ; 

8e'0T]v ; 8e0T|<ro[xai, 8e8r|<ro|Aai ; vb. -SeVos, -Stre'os. 
S^w (orig. 8e/w), /acA;, need, 480 ; Sei^o-co ; 86t]<ra, Horn, has &j<rei/ (7^. 18, 

100); 8evr]crv (Od. 9, 540); SeSe'TjKo, ; impersonal Set, it is necessary j 

impf. gSei, f. Se^crei, a. &tr\<re ; middle 8o|iai, want, epic Several ; 

8i](rofiai, epic Sev^o-o/ucu ; SeSe-qp-ai ; 8T]0T]v. late Ser/^o-o/mt. 
^7//otaco (8ijpt-a-, 629), contend; S??/oio-<o late; eS^/atcra (Theoc. and late); 

mid. (fy/Diao/acu and (ty/Hoyacu as act. ; 8rjpfcrofj.aL (Theoc.) ; cS^/orcra^v 

and I8rjptv0t]v, contended. Poetic. 
&jw, Horn, future, shall find. Compare root oV. 
St-, 8/t, 44, fear ; pres. Se'Sto epic ; f. SetVo/uat epic, SetVw late; 8>eurct ; pf. 


as pres. Se'Soixa, Horn. oWSoiKa ; 2 pf. us pres., Horn. Set'Sta, Att. 

{see 768, Se'Sias, St'Sie, Se'Sijiev, Sc'Si/re, 8e8id<ri ; subj. rare 

opt. (?) SeSietr; (Plat.) ; imper. 8e'Si0i, late poets StSlBi ; inf. ScSUvai ; 

part, 8e8is; plpf. IStSkiv, ISeSieis, IScSici, tSe'Suravj. See below root 8ce- 

and oYw. 
Sicurdco, arbitrate, not a compound ; from Siaira ; augmented as though a 

compound of Sta, doubly augmented in the pf. and plupf., and in com- 

pounds (560) ; 8ia</nrj(rtt ; 8iTJTT](ra, but air-8iTJTT]o-a ; SeSiVJTTjKa, plpf. 

KaT-8e8tTjTT|KT] ; SeSiTJTTjjJtai, plpf. li-cScSujTiyro; KaT-8iT|TT]o-dp,T]v ;, 

pass, dep., pass a life; 8iai/rr|<rofJLai ; 8iTjTT]8T]v, but e^-fSirjT'ijBrjv (Dio Cass.).. 
SidKovtw, minister, from SIUKOVOS, not a compound, augments regularly (560); 

inipf. eSidKovouv ; SUXKOVTJO-W ; ScSidicdiniKa ; 8e8idKovi], 

(Josephus) ; 8idKovr|0T]v ; later forms in Sir)-: as SirjKovtjcra, 

are very doubtful in classic poetry ; forms in SeStrj- are incorrect. 
8i8do-Kw (StSaX; for StSa^-crKw), teach; SiSd^w ; 8i8a|a, epic 

88i8a^ ; eSiSaxO^v ; vb. SiSaKrds, -reos. ( VI) See root Sa-. 
(3e-), bind ; pr. and impf. Poetic, also Xen. Anab. 5, 8' 24 . (///). 
-8L8pao-Kw (Spa-), only in comp., run away ; -Spdo-ojxai, late -8pa<no ; -88pdKa; 

2 a. -^Spclv [767, -8pw, -8patr]v, late -SpaOi, -Spclvai, -Spdsj ; 1 aor. -e^pdcra 

late. New Ionic -StSp^o-Kw, -8pijo~ofjt.aL, -SeSpyjKa, -JeSprrjv {-Sprjvai,, but 

-Spas}. (//). 
88u)fjLi (80-), give, see inflection in 498, synopsis 508, also 511 ; Horn. 2 sing. 

8t8ois and 8i8oio-6a, 3 sing. 8t,8oi and St'Scxri, 3 pi. 8i8ova-i, imper. 

SvSov and 8i8o)0i, inf. SiSovvat and 8i86fj.v ; Hdt. 818015, StSot, StSovcri ; 

Hymn. Horn. impf. e'SiSov ; f. Swo-w, epic also StSwcrw ; 1 a. &>oca, and 

2 a. dual and plural JlSo-rov, etc., see 501 (Hes. 3 pi. e'Sov) ; 

iterative Horn. SOOTKOV ; SeSuKa ; SeSojiai ; c8o0T)v ; vb. SOTCOS. 
8te-, active, make /lee, only impf. 3 pi. ey-oYecrav (/^. 18, 584) ; mid. S 

flee, or to make flee [subj. Scw/^at accented like S^'^w/xat 516 ; opt. Sioiro 

504, 516 ; inf. SimOai}. Epic. Compare 5t-, St'w (SeSot/ca, SeSia, 

Se/Sco). (///) 
Si^/zat (Sife-), *eA; (r/ retained throughout in the pres.) ; impf. eSt^/yp^ ; 

8ii'io-o/ ; eSi^o-a/xr/v. Ionic and poetic. ( l/V/) 
SIK-, tArow; ; late pres. 8i/cei ; 2 a. eSt/coi/ in Pindar and Tragedy. 
8i\|/dw, thirst, pres. see 479 ; 8i(j)TJo-<o ; 8i\j/i]o-a ; late SeoY^/ca. 
8tw, pres. does not occur ; impf. 8iov, Ste, feared, fled in Homer. Compare 

roots 6V and Sie-. 
SIWKW, pursue; 8uoo> and often er 8tw|o|iai ; 48ia>|a ; SeSiwxa ; 'SeoYooy/xai late; 

; vb. SIWKTOS late, SKOKTCOS. 
i^w, shake; f. 8vo7raX.ia). Epic. (//) 
8oKw (8oK-, 613), seem, think; 86a> ; ?8o|a ; late plpf. act. 3 pi. e<$eSo'xrai/ ; 
eSdx^ilv rare ; So/o/o-to, e8o/c^(ra, SeSoK-^/ca, 8e8oK7y/zat, and 
/cry^v are poetic or late ; vb. d-SoKTjTos, unexpected. 
), sound heavily, 613; impf. 7r-eySov7ret (Aiithol.); SOVTTVJO-W (Anthol.); 
(Xen. yl?ia6. 1, 8 18 ), epic SovTrrja-a, epic e 


2 a. KaT-f8ovTTov (Antliol.) ; 2 p. SeSovira, fell; SovTryO^v (Anthol.). 


and Sparro) (Spay-), seize, grasp, active late ; mid. 8/oarTo/xat, 
late, e8pad[j.Tr)v ; SeSpaypxt. Pr., impf., aor., pf. found in 

Attic. (//) 
8pdo). 0*0, 616; 8pdo- ; 28pdcra ; S&pdxa ; ScSpajxai, rarely SeS/oa<r/zou ; 

cSpdo-OTjv ; vb. Spdoreos. 
Spen-o, pluck, late and poetic SpeTrrw ; oVo-Spet^o/zai late ; Spc\|/a ; 2 a. 

ZSpaTrov (Pind.) ; eS/oe<$r;v late ; vb. a-SpcTrros (Aesch.). 
8vvc,-(xai, fo able, can, pr. and impf. like to-Ta//,ai (498), augment e6W- or 

i\8vv- (525), for accent of pr. subj. and opt. see 516 {2 sing. poet, and 

late prose 8vva, Ionic 8vvrj ; impf. 2 sing. ISvvco and late eSui/oo-o}; f. 

8vvVj<ro| and late 8vvrj Bija- o pa i ; 8e8vvr]|xai ; ISw^jO-qv and Ionic c6wcc- 

<rQ-K]v (also in Xen.) ; vb. Suvaros. ( ///) 
Bvvio, go into, set (Ionic, poetic, rare in Xen.) = &uo/zcu from 5uw ; a. e&vva, 

late prose (V, IV) ; 8vw (8v-\ enter, or cause to enter, go down, sink, see 

797 ; 8o<r trans. ; 28v<ra trans. ; S&VKO. intrans. and S&VKO. trans. ; 

S^Svftai; eSuOriv; epic eSvao/xr/v (1028) 2 a. i!8vv intrans. {inflected 498; 

subj. 8vw, opt. Horn. Svrj from 8v-ii], and e/c-Sv/xei/ from eK-6v-t-/xej/, 700 ; 

imper. 8u0i, inf. Svvai, part. 8vs}; vb. 
i, weep, see 68ipo|iai. 


fd(f>0r), see aTTTto. 

edw, epic eiao), permit, augment 533 ; i<r ; el'do-a, Horn, eaora ; 

e'ldp-at ; eld0T]v ; cd<ro( pass. ; vb. cdreos. 
-yy t ' >ft) > proffer, pledge, betroth, augments ?}y-yv- or tv-eyv-, pf. t]y-yv- or 

ey-ye-yv- ; compounds augment 77, as Kar-Tiyyvwy and KaT-T}yYVT](Jtai, and 

this is probably the correct form for the simple. See 563. 
4-yetpo), rouse, raise trans., 2 pf. and mid. wake intrans. ; e-yepw ; ftyeipa ; 
late ; ey^-ycpfwu : rfyepQr\v ; 2 p. l-yp^-yop -* am awake, Horn. 3 pi. 
ao-L, imper. eypn'iyopOc for eypeyoparc, inf. eypi]yop6a.i or 

eyprjyopOai ; 2 a. m. -q-ypojiiiv ; vb. eye/ords (Aristotle), e-yepreos. (/^) 

A present ey/oto and ey/ao/xat is poetic or late. 

, eat, see ecr#t'<D. 

and ec/ayw, see eipyvv/jLi. 
, see t'w. 
49- (545, for a-feO-}, present only part. 4'^wv, accustomed; 2 p. efcoOa, Ionic 

ea)#a, am accustomed; 2 plpf. elwOt], Ionic cw^ea. (//) 
04X0) and 0\a, w^s/i; impf. ^0\ov : (t')0\^ra> ; f|0\^<ra { (e)0Mj<ra>, (e)0\^j- 

o-aijjiai, etc. } ; f|0\T]Ka, late re^eA^Ka ; vb. ^eAryrds late. In the Attic 

poets $eAo> is used in the Tragic trimeter. 
e0it*> (efliS-, o-/e(9-t3-), accustom, 533; f. 0u (680, 4); l'0i<ra; 

\:0ia-(jLai ; el0io-0iiv ; vb. e'#rTos late, 0t<rros. (/ /) 
cISov, saw, see opdw, see, and ol8a, know. 


lK<xj;a> (eiKaS-), make like, conjecture; augments ?;K- or eiK-, see 531 ; but the 
forms TJKO.OV, fJKcura, fJKao-fiai, etc. seem more correct in Attic prose than 
cl'Katov, l'Ka<ra, etKao-jxat, etc. (/ K) 

iK, yield; impf. cticov ; i'w, like f. of ei'/cco, resemble, appear; elfja ; 2 a. 
eixaOov (1042) ; etWeoy late, {nrciKTlov (PL). 

c'iKO) (CIK-, tK-), resemble, appear ; present not in use ; impf. etKe, seemed likely, 
fitting (only II. 18, 520), but some regard this as pf. or plupf. ; f. l' 
rare (like f. of etK(o, yield] ; 2 p. &HKO, (545) as pres., impers. OIK, it 
seems, is fitting, New Ion. and Dor. OIKCL {/zt-forms: 3 a. IIKTOI/ (Horn.), 
eoiy/xei' (Att. poet.), ei'fdo-t (Att. poet., rare in Plat.), see 768 ; subj. 
eoiKco, Xew Ion. ot'/co) ; opt. loiKoifii ; inf. IOIKCVCU, Att. poetic et/cevat ; 
pt. >iKws, elKws mostly poet, but always IKOS in the sense of fit-tiny, Xew 
Ionic OI'KWS}; 2 plpf. CWKSIV, late TrpotrwKtiv, TJKCIV (Ar. ylv. 1298), Horn. 
dual etfer)/K. (//) See also er/<a> and to-/c(o, fo'Am, compare. 

ctAeco or eiAew, roW, mostly poetic or Ionic; etAy/o-w late; ei'A?/o-a late; 
eiAv//xcu late ; eiAr/^r/f late ; in Hdt. eiAeo/xcu, aTr-etAry/Aat, a7r-iA'/y^?/i' ; 
in Attic o-w-aAeo/xou (K.en. Hell. 7, 2 8 ), ai/-tArj6^r/v (Thuc. 7, 80). et'Aw 
(eiA-, eA-), roW w^, ^>rgss together, no pr. act., but pass. et'Ao/xat (Horn.) ; 
a. e'Acra epic ; p. p. e'eAyuou epic ; 2 a. p. epic eaA^i/ or aAr/^ { 3 pi. 
aAev for eaArycrav, inf. dA^vat and dA-^/xevat, pt. dAets}; here also are 
generally referred a plpf. eoAet (Find. PT/^/I. 4, 233) and plpf. p. t'oA^ro 
Apoll. Rh. 3, 471); ei'AAw or ei'AAw and et'AAo/ucu, also i'AAw and 
t'AAo/xcu occur in Attic (pr. and impf. for ei'Aco and et'Ao/xcu), but are 
antiquated. (/K) 

i'p.apTcu, it is fated, see /zet/oo/xai (pep-), obtain. (/I/) 

ip., 6e, see 772, 773, 774 ; Dialects 1066. 

fyu, 0o, see 775, 776, 777, 778 ; Dialects 1067. 

ctirov (etV- = /e-/7r-, 553), said, a second aorist, epic c'eiTrov {cl'irw, ci'iroi.iJtt, 
elirc, elireiv, elirwv } ; first aor. etira rare in Attic, poetic e'eiTro, ] opt. ci'iraifii, 
imper. etirov or eiirov, inf. etTrai Hdt, pt. etTrds (Hdt.) rare and perhaps 
late in Attic] ; 1 aor. mid. dTr-etTrd^v New Ionic and late, oVeiTrdyiu/i/ 
and o-w-eiTrot/zryv late ; a late epic present eVw occurs. For the other 
tenses, the root e/o- or p- (for /e/a- or //-) is used : pr. cipw Horn, and 
rare (in Attic supplied by Xeyw, HK and (especially in conip.) by 
f. epw, Ionic e/aew ; ipr]Ka ; el'ptuxai ; ppt|0T)v, Ion. clpeOrjv, late 
pii0T|<ro|iai ; f. p. elp^|(ro|JLai ; vb. pTjros, -reos. (^///) See 
, Xc'-ya, <|>TI(I ; compare also et/oo/xat and epew or e/aeo/uai, asA;, which 
are from a different root, as also et'/xo, join. 

l'p-yvvp.t or cl'p-yw (etpy-), s/iu^ //? / d'pfjco ; ip|a, poet. 2 a. eipyaOov ; elp-yp-ai ; 
l'pX0iiv ; vb. tlpKTTJ, prison. etp-yw (with soft breathing), shut out, has 
the same forms as el'p-yw, with the smooth breathing, vb. elpKrcov. Epic 
e/oyw and ttpyvvfjn, shut in or s/iw owf, 2 a. ttpyaOov, p. p. eepy/^iat 
(3 pi. plpf. eep^aro). Epic also e'/ayco, .s/iw^ m or s/m^ owi; ^^(dis- 
tinguished from />a from e/aSw, -work}, 2 a. tpyaOov ; epy/xcu {3 pi. 
3 pi. plpf. e/oxaTo}, tp\6ir]v. Ionic -!/oyn"y and -e/oyw (in 


comp.), shut in ; vv-p<D (Sopli.) ; e/ods Attic part., also Attic -cpa 

in comp. ; Ionic t/oyco, shut out; /oo/zou (Soph.); -tp^a ; -epy/zcu. Attic 

forms in e/oy- and e/oy- are doubtful. 
cipofuu, ask; clptja-ofjiai. Ionic. Horn, also pres. epew and oftener epeo/zcu 

(Horn. imp. 2 sing, cpcio for epeto, 987, 3). "E/oo/xou (?), pres. supplied 

in Attic by epwrdw ; IpTJo-ojjiai ; 2 a. TipofiTiv. 
cipvta, draw ; see e/oi'w. 
et/oco (e/o-), s?/, epic present ; see etirov. 
Kp (/), Lat. sero), join, rare in simple ; a. -etpa, Ionic -e/xra, Horn. aTro-e/acra, 

swgptf away ; p. -etpKa ; p. p. etp/xat late, epic eepfuiL. (/K) 
etb-a, seated, see t'^w. 
tcrKo> (li'/c-), fo'&ew, compare, present also icr/cco; impf. ^ICTKOV (p. p. rrpo<r- 

yjijat, ar^ Z^e, in Eur.) ; plpf. rjikro or eikro. Epic. (K/) 
l'co0a, Ionic ew^a, am accustomed, see root e#-. 
iKKXTio-td^w, caZZ aw assembly; augments e--KXT]<raov or ^|KK\T]<riatov, etc. 

(563). (IV) 
eXavvw for eAa-vv-w, 652 (eXa-) and poetic IAct(o, drive; f. IXacrw, Att. \w 

(680), epic eAaw and eAow ; ^Xcwra ; -4\T|\aKa (late in simple) ; eX^Xajxai 

(Horn. plpf. 3 pi. eAryAeSaro or eA^Aearo or eA?^AaSaTo), Ionic and late 

IAryAao-/xat ; fiXa.Q'rp, late "q \MarOrjv ; vb. eAards, cXar^os. (/) 

examine, refute; IX^w ; ^Xc-yia ; eX^Xe-yiiai (735); ^Xe'YX^v ; vb. 

war-shout, shout (Eur., Xen.) ; ?/AeAia (Xen. and late) ; 
mid. pr. bewail (Eur., Aristoph.). (IV) 

tfo), turn rapidly, whirl; eAeAt^a ; fktXfyfojv. Epic and lyric. (//) 
See IAicro-(o. 

eXio-o-w, eXCrrw, rarely dXirra) (eAiK-), ro/Z ; IX^w ; cl'Xi^a ; e^XiYixai (Horn, plupf. 
eAeAiKTo ; late pf. eAr;Aiy/mt) ; elXixQ^v ; vb. iXiicros. Also written 
with smooth breathing. (/ V) 

&.KCO, late eA/<t'<D, draw; SIX|w (prose in comp.), \KVO-M Ionic and late ; 
el'XKvcra, efA^a late ; etXicvKa ; el'XKvo-jiai. ; eiXKiicrOTjv, late tlXyjdriv ; vb. 
IXKTCOS, O-UV-XKVO-TOS. Horn, has also eAKew, eAK^o-w, rjA/o/(ra, eAK^^ets. 
, cause to hope; 2 p. as pres. eoATra, hope, 2 plpf. ewA-Trea (971); mid. 
eAvro/xat or eA:ro/xou (860), hope = Attic eA^co. Epic. 
>, vomit; f. (?) /xea> and ep.60|xai; fjneo-a; eju,>y/xe/<a late; e/z^/aecr/zat ; 
rjfjifOrjv late. 

(eva/3-), HW; 1 a. Kar-evrjpa late ; 2 a. I'/vapov ; mid. as act. ei/ou/oo/mi, 
a. evrjpdfjiYjv ; pass, ei/ou/oo/xcu. Poetic, (/k) 

, s/a?/, spoil; evapi^w (1002); evdpt^a and later rjvdpL^a, t'jvdpicra 
(Anacr.) ; Kar-^va/)r/xat, KaT-rjvapicrBrjv. Poetic. (//) 

and evveTrw (ei' + O-CTT-), say, te/ (late evtcrTrw) f. evi-o-7ny<rw and 
evt^w ; 2 a. eWcrTrov { evt-o-Trw ; evt-o-Troi/u ; imper. eVt-(T7re or evi-crTres, 
2 pi. e-o-Trere for ciMrTrere ; inf. ei'i-crTreiv and ei/t-o-Tre/zei/} ; (a. eVu/'a 
late). Poetic. See CITTOV. 
-ewjvo&c, defect. 2 pf. with pres. and impf. meaning, sti on, Zi? o?i; in 


compos, with CTT- (77., Od.), KV.T- (Horn. Hymn. Cer. 280, Hes. Scut. 269) r 
Trap- (Ap. Rh. 1, 664). Epic. Compare di't'/voBe. 

(ev-i7r-), Poetic and epic, also cp&row, chide; 2 a. ev-eyiTrov and 

fTT-fXTTOK (///) 

(e- for /ecr-, vestio), clothe, pres. act. only in comp. ; irnpf. KOLT-CIVVOV 
(II. 23, 135); f. epic ecnra) ; a. epic rcra ; mid. epic, Hdt. TT- 
tirvcrOat (or 7r-ei/v- or eTTi-ew- or I-W-) ; f. -etro-o/xat ; a. e(o-)o-ayu,r;v 
and eeo-a-afjLijv ; pf. eor/xat and ei/xat. Simple verb chiefly epic, very 
rare in Attic poetry ; in prose djji^i-fvvvfjLt. (V) 

v-o\Xw, harass, with double augment, 556 ; i\v-w\Xow ; lv-oxXir|<rft> ; qv- 
wxX-Tiora ; T|v-wx\*lKa., etc. ; forms with tv-oj^A.- doubtful. 

&UKO., resemble, appear, see ei'/v-w. 

edAei and eoAvyro, pluperfects, see eiAew. 

opTdco, Ion. opraa>, keep festival ; impf. Iwpratov (534). (/I/) 

7r-Gu>pea> and 7r-avpto-K<j> (avp- 613), enjoy, epic and lyric, rare ; 2 a. 
7ravpov ; mid. eVav/ato-Ko/xat Ion. and poet, rare in Attic prose ; 

a. tTrrjvpd/jLrjv rare, and 2 a. tTrrjvpofjL^v. (//) 
(not a compound) ; impf. ijireiYov ; i/Trct^a late ; mid. lirefyo\i.a.i, 
hasten ; irt|o}jtai ; ?'J7reiy/xcu late ; qireixQ'nv ; vb. eimicTe'ov. Active rare 
in prose. 

iro-Tap,cu, understand {pres. indie, like To-ra/xat 498 ; 2 sing. tiricrTa and 
eVio-TTy poetic, e^-eTTiVreai Hdt. ; subj. eirfo-Twfiai, ITTIO-TT), etc., accent 
516; opt. irio-Tai[iT|v, cirio-Taio, etc., accent 516; imper. emo-Tw, poet. 
and New Ion. 7ri'trTacro [ ; impf. iyiri<rTa}njv like fcrra/xTyv 498 [2 sing. 
qm<rra> and poet. rjTrta-raa-o 506 J ; tirio-nrio-ofjtat ; ^irta-TrjO-qv ; vb. 
Trio-TT]T8s. (VII) Different from e^-icrra/xat from e^-iry/xt. 

CTTW (creTr-, 107 ; 533, 2), 6e after, be busy with; simple only part, in II. 6, 
321 and 11, 483; impf. -ctTrov (Xen. once, epic -eVov ; -e'r/'w (also 
Xen.) ; 2 a. -ecrTrov for e-creTT-ov ; a. p. TTpi-(^Ot]V in Hdt. Ionic or 
poetic. Mid. 2iro|, folloic, late poet. pres. eo-Troyucu ; &|/o|icu ; 2 a. 
eo-irojx-qv {553 ; <nrwp,ai, <nroi(JiT]V, O-TTOV (Horn. (TTreio, 987, 3), (nreVOai, 
crirdfievos | . In Horn, forms like ecrTrw/xat, e(T7roi/x?^v, ecrTrecr^w, (T7ro- 
/xevo?, ought probably to be changed to tnrojpMU, O-TTOI/X^V, etc., and the 
preceding word to remain unelided. 

cpa-^tat poetic (like wrra/xai) and epcuo, ^ove ; a. i]pdcr6T]v act. f. fpacrB-fja-o/Jiai 
act. ; epic a. m. rjpaa-d/jLrjv ; Vy^atr/xat late ; vb. e/oards poet, and 

e/>aw, only in comp. |-pd(o, pour ; aor. 4^-^pacra ; eg-ypaOr) v (Hippocr.). 
Ep-yd|o|, worfc, augments ip- (533) ; impf. lp 

l'pYa- "f i a- t act. and pass. ; lp < ydo-0T]v pass. ; vb. 
epyay, see et'pyw and ei'/oyco. 
e/)8co and /o8w (for /e/o{co from /e/ayr/w), (^o, Ionic and poetic ; e'/a^w ; e/)^a ; 
2 p. e'o/oya, and 2 plpf. to/ayea ep. and Hdt. ; vb. C/OKTOS late. Compare 

/5eio-co late ; IjpGwra ; --ijptLKa late and 7rpo(r-p)jpiKa late ; 


Hdt. {Horn. 3 pi. epypeS-a-rai, and 3 pi. plpf. e 
; f. p. /37//ot6o-o/xat (Hippocr.). Mostly poetic. 
piK<i> (e/oi/c-), tear, bruise; r/pciga or (?) Vfpi^a ; 2 a. T//HKOV tr. and intr. ; 

j late r)pci\OriV. Ionic and poetic. (//) 

(epiTT-), throw down ; e/oet^w (also Xen. Cfyr. 7, 4 1 ) ; ^peiij/a ; 2 a. 
, fell ; 2 p. KaT-tpt'jpLTra, have fallen ; rjpe^uyzcu and fprjpifJifjiaL late 
(plpf. epepntTo II. 14, 15) ; a. p. Find, ipknfv and Vffxl^Bijv. Mostly 
Ionic and poetic. (//) 

epeo/xcu, epeoj, as& ; fpopai ; see eipopat. 

Ipefro-io (fper-), strike, ro?r, poetic, late prose, eperrw late ; rj/oeo-o, epic. 
e/oevyo/xat (epvy-), cast forth, eruct, epic and Ion., and epvyyavw ; e 

ripev^dfjujv late ; 2 a. fjpv-yov. (//, /) 
pev6(D, make red, Ion. and poet., also tpvOaivio poet, and late prose ; 

epe'cjwo, cove/', Find, and late e/acTrrw ; epcxj/co ; 

c/oeo), Ipeo/xat,, ask ; see etpo/xat. 

fptSaivd) (cpi8av-\ contend; a. p[8rjva (Ap. Rh.) ; a. m. inf. 

(II 23, 792). Epic. Horn, also c/oiS/xouW (/^) 
^piroD and ejOTrv^w (e/oTrvS-), cr^ejo, augments etp- ; p\|/co and late 

etpirvo-a and late etp^a ; vb. cpirc-rds poetic (also Att. Com.) and late 

prose, creeping. (I, IV) 

tppvyavw (tpvy-), cast forth, eruct, see Ipei'yo/xai. 
o harm) ; epp^ora) ; i]ppr]<ra ; els-T|ppT]Ka. 
, hold back, Ionic and poetic, also Xen. ; e/3?'w ep. ; tfpva, also Xen. ; 

2 a. rjpvKavov ep. 

(o (e/)v- and eipv-), draw {Hes. inf. eipv/zevou} ; f. tpixrw and 6Vei/mr(o 
late, Horn, tpvw (1023) ; a. et'pixra and epvcra {subj., opt., etc. i/o- or 
ep-} ; mid., c?ra^ to oneself, protect, guard, epvo/xat {Hom. /xi-forms : pres. 

3 pi. elpvarat ; impf. 2 sin^. cpva-o, 3 sing, e/avro or etpvro (Hes. epi'To), 
3 pi. tipvvTo or cipvaro (Theoc. cpvvro), inf. epva-Oau or t/)-uo-^atj ; f. 
/3tVo-o/xat and t/3v(o-)(ro/jtat ; a. c/ovo-a^tryv or etpvtra/x^v ; p. p. i/of//at 
and eipvcr/Aai (Ap. Rh. epv^ai) ; a. p. ipv(r6i]V {ci/dW^tts and e^ovo-^et^J 
in Hippocr. ; vb. epwrros. Ionic and poetic. See pvopat. 

(cpX' ^Aev^-, JAvtf-, e'A^-), ^9, come {subj. only ep. and Ion.; 
opt. (?) ; imper. ep. and New Test. ; inf. ep., tragic, Ion., rare Att. 
prose ; part, poet., rare Att. prose ; in Att. prose the corresponding 
forms of et)ui are used} ; the impf. r}p\6jj,r)v (same as impf. of ap^o/jiai) 
rare and gen. late in simple, doubtful in Att. which uses rja instead ; 
fut. e'Aercro/xat ep., Ion., Trag., late (Att. prose only Lys. 22, 11), Att. 
prose regularly uses et/xt or 0.^1^0^0.1 or ?y(o ; pf. t'X^XvOa, ep. eA?yAov$a 
or et'Arj \ovOa, syncop. lArjAi'/xci/ and \yjX.vr in Com. and Trag. Frag. ; 
2 a. ?\\Qov {imper. eX0e' 517, 3}, poet. yXvOov only Indie., Doric fjvOov 
(not Pindar) ; vb. /xeT-eAewreos and vir-eXOeTfov. ( VIII) 
lo-0ifc), ecr^w ep. and poet, and late prose, e'Sw ep. and poet, and Ionic and 
late prose (eo-0-i-, IS-, </>ay-), eat, Hom. inf. e^evat ; fut. 5( (676) 


[(f)dyo/jML in Old and New Test.] ; pf. eS^cxa, Horn. part, &?&u? ; p. p. 

KO,T-8r|8g-p,ai, ep. eSrySo/zcu ; f|8o-0T]v ; 2 a. &j>a-yov ; vb. e'Seo-rds, -re'os. 


o-Tiaa>, entertain, augments earn- (533). 
erer/xov, see root re/x-. 
u8w, sleep, mostly poet, and Ion., rare in Attic prose ; impf. tvSov or -/;vSov; 

v8ij(T(jy ; usually Ka0vSw ; impf. eKa0v8ov and Ka0T]i)8ov, ep. KaOtvSov ; 

Ka0v8Tjo-a> ; a. inf. KaOevSrju-ai late ; pf. inf. Ka^euSr/Kevat late ; vb. 


cvpia-Kw (iy>e-), find; evp^o-w ; TjtipTjKa ; T]i5pT)p,ai, ; Tjvp0iiv (615); f. p. 
e(ip0T|o-op,ai, late evprjOrja-o^ai ; 2 a, -qSpov, 1 a. fvprjcra late ; a. in. 
evpd/jujv (Hes. and late) ; vb. evperos, -rt'os. For evpi/KO, evpov, etc. 
see 532. (I//) 

V(j>paCvw (v(j>pav-\ cheer; f. vc|)pavw ; a. Tji5<}>pdva ; pass., rejoice; f. 
v4>pavovfjiai and u<j>pav0Ti<rojJiai ; a. T]v<}>pa.v0Tiv. See 532. (/K) 

P ra y> boast ; e{i|o|iat ; T]t|dfXTiv ; i]5Y(iai (also pass.) ; late yv\9riv pass. ; 
KTos, -T^OS. See 532. 

), 7ia<e, ep., poet., and late prose ; a. V/x^pa ; pass., be 
hated, with f. in. \Oapov/jLac ; -vb. k\6a.f)T.o<$. (IV) 
, hate, e'x^o/xat pass. ; only pr. and impf. ; see dir-exQa-vofxau 
( (r X")> ^ /tve ) /toW, also frrx.a> (for <rt-(rex-w) ; impf. l\ov (533) ; l'|o> or 
<r\-f\<ra> (<r\-) ', ktr^Ka, frvy-6\ti>K<i (for -oK-o>x a ) in IL 2, 218; ^o-xtijiat 
late in simple, Horn, plupf. pass. 3 pi. tV-wx- a To, were shut (II. 12, 340) ; 
late; 2 a. &TXOV for c-crex-oi' [<TX"> <TXOITJV or -<rxotfjii, <r\is, <r\tw, 
2 a. poet. ZcrxeOov (1042); mid. '{\opcu, hold by, be near, etc., 
i, restrain oneself, remain; ^ojiai and <r\-r\<ro\i.a.i ; O-XO|ATIV late in 
simple { <, O-XOIJITJV, <TXOV, <rx<r0ai, crxo|Avos j ; vb. CKTOS late, IKTC'OS, 
eTrt-o-xereos, d(j>-KTov. Compounds with irregularities are : 

(a) dpr-exw arid rare a/^TT-tcrxw, put on, clothe, poet. ; impf. a/ATT-etxoi/ 
(Horn. a/x7T-xov Orf. 6, 225); a^-efw ; 2 a. -fj/JLTTL-a-xov; mid. 
and d/JLTT-icr \ofjLai, and a/ATr-io-x^o/^ai, /jave around oneself, wear ; impf. (556) ; f. dp.<j>-| ; 2 a. ?|]v and f|p.iri-o-xcp-T;v. 

(b) av-ex w j hold up, poet, and New Ionic ; dv-tl\ov ; dv-tto and 

(late pf. dv-cr\tjKa) ; dj/-ecrxov ; ( dv-e'xopai, endure; 
v-^op,ai and dva-crxT| ; Tjv-o-xop.T]v ; vb. dv-Krds, 
dv-KTos, ttva-crxeT05. 

(c) tiir-io-xv-op,at (of Class V), promise, vTT-io-xo/xat poet, and Ion.; 
viro-o-XTJo-op,cu ; vir-t'o-xTip-ai ; {cir-eo-xop-iiv. 

cook, rarely ei/'ecu ; i^crw ; fj\j/T|o-a ; late IJI^H/KO. ; late Sjifnjpa.t ; late 
and -rfyOrjv ; vb. j>06s and ex|/tiTos, late e^^eos and ei 



, live {tiis, & etc. 479 ; imper. ftOi for fj is late} ; impf. S^wv, 479, 
(late 1 pers. sing, c&v) ', /j<ro> and tfj<ro|iai 5 f r ^ a ^ e ^'C 7 / " 01 an( l *frl Ka 
the Attics use /3iW and /3e/:?iwKa ; pr. ww (ep., Ion., Dor.) ; late 

(o ; Hdt. 1, 120 7r-e{ctxra (?). 
(feuy-, fvy-, Lat. jug-urn), yoke; v ; ^Jcvga ; late efix a ; 

rare, and 2 a. p. l^v-yiiv ; vb. evKros late. ( K) 
poet, feiw, 6oiJ (trans, and intr.) ; cava-i;6r<0 (615); ?t <ra 5 &r-$ 
Ion. ; efaOriv late ; vb. eo-ros late. 

, flfi/'rf ; fuxrw late ; axra ; e^to/ca late ; ^wjxai and 
late ; vb. ^WCTTOS late. K 


T)|3ao-Ktt (^a-), come ^o manhood and Tjpdw, 6e a* manhood; <f>-tipTJ<r (simple 

Dor.); ^jpTjo-a; irap-^priKa. (//) 
y'jjepeOofJLai, be collected, see d-yeipw. 

ti8o|Jtai, fee pleased; f. TJ<r0Ti<ro(iai ; a. fj<r6T]v, a. m. ijtraro (Od. 9, 353); very 
rare act. ^Sw, rjo-co, r]o-a. 

-), waA;g sweet ; fjSvva ; TJ8vo-|iai ; Tj8vv0Tiv and vwfp-rjSva-Oyv 
(Galen) ;vb. f,8wT'ov. (//) 

t, be lifted, raised, see aip&. 

, come, am come ; impf. ^KOV also as aor. ; ^<* ; fja and pf. fJKa late. 
See iKit) and iKveo^iat. 

sit, see 782, 783, 1069. 
say, see 789 ; epic generally r} alone, said. 
rjfivio (u, late v), boiv, sink; THAUO-IO late; TJfJLvfra', pf. vTr-e/jLv-t'ifAVKa, Att. 
redupl. with v inserted. Poet. 


0d\\w (Oa\-}, bloom (causative, made grow, Find. 01. 3, 23) ; f. (?) 0aAA//<ra> 

kte ; pf. Te#>;Aa poet. 
0dirra> (ra^>- for ^a^>-, 102), bury; 0d\|/to ; ^0a\j/a ; reOajifiai ; 2 a. p. erd^iiv, 

a. p. e9d<j>9ii]v Ion. and rare ; f. p. T0d\J/o(xat ; vb. Oairreov. (///) 

>-, see ra<- (era^ov, redrjTroi). 
Oeivu (Ocv-), smite ; Otvu ; e^eti/a, 2 a. Wevov. Poet., Att. Comedy, also late 

prose. (/I/) 

$eAyoj, charm ; #Aw ; e$eA.a ; e.6e\\0riv ; vb. $eA/v"ro'<s. Mostly poet. 
0\w, 7//M/1, see $e Aw. 
Oe'pojxai, warm oneself, in prose only pr. and impf.; f. fle/xro/xat (Od 19, 507); 

2 a. p. (Wepyv} subj. #e/ow (Oc?. 17, 23). Act. flepco very rare and late. 
(^cv-, ^c/-, #v-), ritw ;, late ^evo-oo. (//) 
6-T]<rOai, inf., m^7A;; iOrprdprjv, sucked, epic. 


Biyyavw (Oiy-\ touch; Oigo/mai ; Wiyov ; e&e\$ijv late; vb. U-#IKTOS. 

Mostly poet. (V) 
O\OUD, bruise, break; ^AdVw ; $Aacra; T$Aaoyxaij l$Acur$r;i'; vb. $Aacrrds. 

Ion. and poet. See <Aato. 
e\f p<o (#Ar/3-, 0Ai/3-), ^ms ; OXtyw late ; ilOXtya ; T0\i<f>a ; T0Ai^at late ; 

lOXt^v and late eOXtfav. 
0Wj<rKco and older 0vfj<rK (Oav-, 6vo.-\ die ; 0avov| ; T0vrjKa, am dead ; f. p. 

Te9vifja> (473), late reOvij^o^aL ; 2 pf. r^varov (see 499, 768) ; 2 a. 

20avov ; vb. Gvrjfos, late dVo-^GU'ereov. Ill Att. prose always diro- 

0avov|xai and dir-0avov and nearly always diro-0VTJo-K, but always 


0pd<rcrw and OpdrTw (rpa^-\ disturb ; ^0pd|a ; t6pa\6riv ; Horn. pf. 

am troubled. Mostly poetic, by-form of rapdcrcr<D. (//) 
flpavco, break ; Opavcrw ; ?0pav<ra ; T0pav}i,ai and reOpavo-jxai ; tdpavo-O-qv ; vb. 

0pvirTw (rpv<j>- for Opv(j>-, 102), 6rga/c c?ow;w, spoi7; Opv^u late; ev-c 

Hipp.; T'9pvp.jjLai ; (Upv<f>BrfV late, rpv(f>r]v Horn., erpv/Srjv very late ; 
mid. OpvTTTOfiai, ^??ti oil raVs, 6pv\j/ ; vb. ^v-Opu-irros. (///) 

OpuHTKw and Opa>cria (Oop-, Opo-\ leap ; f. Oopov^at ; 2 a. Wopov. Poet. 
(//) By-form Oopvvofjiai (Hdt.), late Oopvvpai. (V) 

00 (^v-, 625), sacrifice ; 0D<r ; ?0i5<ra ; T0vKa ; T0unat ; tTvOrjv ; vb. Ovre'ov. 

^ua> or OVVM (Hes. ^uvew), ?'MS/L Poet. 


(lav- ; t, I in ictus or atlgm.), icarm ; a. uyva (Pind. lava) a. p. Id 
Poet. (/^) 

t'aAAw (iaA-), send; f. eV-taAw and !(-iaAw (Aristoph.) ; a. a/Aa (Od.}. 
Poet. (//) 

iavw, ?*6'st; lavaw late ; lai'cra. Poet. 

ta^ew, sound ; la^rycrco ; tax 7 /" a - Epic, in ep. a, in trag. d (but some 
write tu,K^co, etc., for trag. id^ew). ia^w, sound, poet. 2 p. part. fern. 
d[M(f)- Latvia (Horn.). 

tS/adw, swmf, regular ; for irreg. contr., see 481. 

iS/n'co, place, erect, regular ; but a. p. ISpvvOrjv (for reg. ISpvOrjv') ep.. also 
late (1038). 

l<xvw, sent, place, also iiitr. sit; only pres. and impf. ; the rest from i'{co. (V) 

^w (t3-, te-), sea^ or s^, in prose usually Ka0ico ; impf. (often as aor.) ?{bv 
(poet.), KaOifrv or KaOifrv (Horn.), Ka0ttov (555) ; fut. Ka6io-(D (not 
Att.), Ka0iw, late KaO-ifr'icru and LK/>-IV}O-O> ; aor. efcra epic (for e-creS-o-a, 
see eo/icu below), seated {imper. efo-ov or better eo-crov, inf. eVo-at, part. 
co-ds (Hdt. (?) i>7r-io-ds) } ; KaOelara and KaOicra (Hoin.) ; Hdt. lias 
KaTficra or (F) Karwra ; Theocr. Dor. pt. KaOigas ; Att. lKa0i<ra or 
KaOicra ; late i'(r)<ra (also Ka^-, (rw-) ; pf. late Ke/ca$iKa, IK-A^KCE, o-r'v- 
. Mid., srY, V^ofiat and K<x0o}iai, e^o/xai (e5- for tre^-, Lat. 


and KaOlgofuu are much rarer ; impf. l<5|iT]v and Ka0ii;6fi.T)v, rarer are 
ffofjujv and CKaG^^dfi-qv ; fut. Ka0i^<ro|xai and KadeSovfiai (for Ka@-f8-f- 
a-o/xcu) ; Horn, e(/>-cro-o/zat (II. 9, 455), seat for themselves; cto-o/Aai and 
are late ; Ka6iov/ (Old Test.) ; aor. (trans.) ecra-dprjv and 
(Horn.) ; io-d|iTjv rare in prose, also Hdt. ; Att. usually 
Ka0io-dp.Tiv. Aor. pass. eKa#eo-0??v late. Vb. Ka0<rrov. (IV) See 
also ??/U,GU and KdOrjpxu, sit (782, 783). 

TT||U (e-), wd; see 770 and 771, and (Dialects) 1065. (VII) 
iKcli'to, IKW, iKvcofjuu (IK-), come : iKavw only pr. and impf. (ep. and trag.) ; 
iKco (epic), impf. IKOV, f. iw in Megar. Dial. (Aristoph. Acli. 742), 1 a. 
iov (1028), {late 1 a. ta}; IKVCO/ZCU, <o//m,, 2 a. fKop/v ; in 
Att. prose nearly always in comp., as d<j>-iKveo(iai, but IKVOVJICVOS, suitable, 
occurs rarely. Compare -fjKO). (V) 

(f Aa-), ep. tAao/xai, propitiate ; (Xd< ; t\a<rdfj.T]v, iXdo-0T]v. 
(VI) Compare i'A^/xt. 

(tAa-), &e propitious, pres. only imper. "iXrjOi or <fAa^i, ^Aare (Ap. 
Rli.) ; pf. 'i\y]Ka ; mid. i', propitiate. See AacrKo//cu. Epic. 


I'AAco, ro^, see etAecu and et'Aw. 

(647, 1002), Zas/i; aor. tpicra. Epic. (//) 
(i/xep-), desire, ep. ; f/xe/po/xai, desire, a. t/zeipa/x/jp and (Hdt.) 
Poet, and Ion. (/K) , 

tTrra/xat, ^T/, see Trero/zat. (///) 

icra/zi, Doric for otSa, fcnow { to~as, to-art, i'(ra/xv, icraTe, ttravrt}. 
t'a-Kw, Zi/fgr?, compare, see liWto. (K/) 
icrravw, place, late ; only pres. and impf. 

(o-ra-), se^; for inflection see 498, 499, and 508, also 797, 4 {Hdt. 
2 sing, icrras, 3 sing, ta-ra, imper. t'o-rd (1016, 1) ; Horn, imper. 
} ; f. o-H]ora>, s/iaZ/ sgi; a. ^arTTjo-a, S6^ {Horn. 3 pi. ecrracrav and 
] ; 2 a. ?OTT]V, stood {Horn. 3 pi. eWai', inf. o-T?y/zevai} ; ])('. 
stand; 2 pf. &rra-Tov, stand, 499 {Horn. inf. ecrra/xev and 
part, ecrraw? and eo-Teols, Hes. ecm^tos} ; p. p. ^< rare ; 
f. pf. i<rH]a>, shall stand; a. p. crr<x0Tiv, was set; Horn, iterative imp. 
, iter. 2 a. crracrKe ; vb. (TTaros, (rrarcos. 
aco, check ; only pres. Epic. 

aA;e /eaw, rfr?/; (rvv-L(rxvavw ; a. tcr^vdi'a (Aesch.), Ion. 
a- (prob. Attic) ; KaT-i(r\vr)pai late ; IcrxvavOrfV (Hippocr.) ; vb. 
eov (Aristotle). (IV) 


(KO.O a p-\ purify ; Ka0apco ; eKaO-qpa and (doubtful in Attic) tKaOdpa ; 
late KKaOapKa ; ; eKa0dp0t]v ; vb. KaOapreov (Hipp.). (IV) 
and Ka0, see l'?a>. 


K<x0T], sit; see fjfiai 782, 783 ; 1069. 

(for Ka8-vv-/xat), excel ; p. KeKacr/zcu (Find. Ke/caS-^evos). Poet. (///) 
(KOV-), kill ; KO,I/W ; 2 a. ZKOLVOV ; 2 p. KCKOVO.. Poetic. In classic 
prose /cara-KaiVco rare in Xen. (IV) 

(KO,V-, K<X/-, Kafy-, /ecu-, 650), Att. prose Kda> uncontr., burn ; KOLVO-U 
gKavo-a ; 2 a. e/cvya ep., poet. part. /ceds ; -K&avKa ; KKavfiai ; icax>0T]v ; 
2 a. p. Kar)v ep. Ion. and late (Hdt. has both a. p.) ; vb. K-GU>((T)TOS, 
late o\a-Kavreov. (IV) 

KaXe'co (/caAe-, /cAe- 639, 2), ca/, Aeol. /caA^/xt, ep. inf. KaA-^evac ; fut. KaXa> 
(680, 1), KoAeo-w (Aristotle), KaAew (Horn.) ; iKoLXeo-a ; KK\r]Ka ; K 
(for opt. see 745) ; tK.\r\Qr\v ; f. p. KK\TJO-O|X<H ; vb. KA?;ros, 
ep. pr. Ki/<A-/yo-K<D. 

(/<aAi'/S-), cover ; Ka\v\(/w ; eKaXv\j/a ; late aTro-Ke/caAtx^a ; 

; vb. KaAvTrros, o-vy-KaXvirTeos. Simple rare in prose. (///) 
vo (/ca/x-), labour, am weary or sick; fut. Kap.ov|xai ; 2 a. ^Kajiov (Horn. 
also subj. Ke-Ka/xw) ; KKp.T)Ka (ep. part. KeK/^ws) ; vb. d7ro-Kp.T]T'ov. (/) 
(Kayu,7T-), bend; Ka|ivJ/a> : tKd[ix}/a ; KKap.fjiat, ; (88, 734); Ka.p.<j>6T]v ; 
vb. Ka(nrrds. (///) 

-T]Yopa), accuse; regular, but aug. and redupl. after prep., 561. 
)-, pant, only epic 2 p. pt. KKa0r/co? (//. 5, 698 ; Anthol. 9, 653). 

(KeSa-), epic, scatter, see o-Ke8avvvp,i. (K) 
Ki|iai, lie; see 784 and (Dialects) 1070 ; compare Keuo or KCW. (l^//) 
Kipw (Kep-), s/im?' ; f. Kepw ; a. fc'Keipa, ep. eKcpcra ; late -ircfcapfca ; KKapfiai ; 
Pind. ; 2. a. p. e/ca/)??v (Hdt. and late) ; vb. /ca/jro? late, diro- 


, only KCI'WV (Od 14, 425). 
tw and Kw, wis/i <o Zze down, rest. Epic. 
(xS-> KaS-), see X^C W - 

?'0rtr ; KAa8?yo-o> ; /ceAaS?^(ra ; /ceAa^tov. Ep. and lyr., 
also late prose. 
vu), command: KeXevcro) ; ^KeXevcra ; KCKtXeuKo, ; KCKeXevo-jiai (616); t 

/ceAAw (/<eA-), fowd; f. Ke'Ao-w (678); a. CKeAcra (686). Poet, rare in late 

prose. In Attic prose oKeAAw. (/ K) 

i, order ; KeA?^<ro/zou ; eKeAr;(ra/xr^, 2 a. eKe/cAo/x^i/ (693 a, 6), 2 a. 

/u-form KCVTO for KeAro (Alcman). Poet. 

(/cevr-, KCVTC-), goad; Ion. and poet. Kevrxycrw ; eKevr?;o-a ; Horn. aor. 

inf. Kevcrai ; KeKevrrj/jLai (Hippocr.) ; fKevrrjOyv (Theophr.) ; a-vy-Kei'TrfO'ij- 

cro/zat (Hdt.) ; vb. Sia-Kevr^Teof late. 
Kpdvvii(Jii (Kpa-, *pa-\ mix; late Kepdcrd) ; eKe'pdo-a, Ion. eKpycra; late 

KKpaKa ;, Ion. K/cpr//zai, late KeKe/3ao-/xat ; cKpaO-qv and eKepd- 

O-OT]V ; vb. Kpareov. (K) Epic also Kepcxw and Kepouco pres. and impf. ; 

and KLpvrj/jit or Ktpvaw, pr. and impf. 
KepSaivc* (Kp8-, KpSav-, 652, II), gain; f. KepSavw, KepS'ijcro) late, Kp8ricrop,at, 

Hdt. ; a. Kp8dva (685), fKepSrjva Ion., Hdt. also exe/o^o-a ; irpocr-KKpST]Ka 


(Dem. 56, 30), KCK^pS^Ka and KKp8a(y)i<a late ; KCKepBrj/Aai late. 

Ki'$o> (KcvO, Kv6-}, hide; /cer-oxo ; CKCixra (Horn.); 2 p. KKev6a as pres. ; 
ep. 2 a. Kv6ov (subj. KtKvOio) ; in tragedy KtvOw and KfKfvOa also 
mean am hidden. Epic and tragic. (///) Ep. Kevtfavto, only impf. 

/o/Sto (xrjS-, KaS-), vex, act. epic trouble; Kr/oVyo-<o ; e/o^cra ; 2 p. KfKrjSa as 
pres. (Tyrt. 12, 28); mid. KrjSo^ai, poetry and prose; f. redupl. ep. 
KCKaSrjo-o/uu (IJ; 8, 353) dif. from the i'ut. of X w J eK^Seo-ct/x^v (Aesch. 
Sep*. 136). 

KT]pt<r<ra> arid KT]pOTro> (K^/OIJK-), proclaim; KT]pc ; cidjpvga ; e 
(Dem. 19, 35); KCKifjpiJ-yiiai ; iKTjptix^lv. (/k') 

ep. K}(dv(o (K^X")? find; K 1^0-0^1 ; 2 a. Ki)(0v, ep. 
, late Kixr)o-a ; Horn, has also yu,i-forms from /"X - tnus : 2 a - 
Ki\Tfjv {/CI'XT/S, Kixrjnv, KiX^T-^v, subj. Ki\i(o t opt. KL\.ii^ inf. iictj(i}vat 
and KfX^fttvai, pt. /cix et/ ? and Ktx^^ros}; vb. a-Kt'x^Tos, unattainable 
(Aesch.). Poetic. (K) 

(/ctSva-), see (TKeSavvv/JLL. (/) 
(/ct-), move oneself, pr. and impf. Epic. (/) 
Kipvrjfj.1 and /ctpi/aw, epic, see K^pdvvv^ii. (/) 

(x/oa-), /and; x/ '/ " * Hdt. ; ^XP'l ' 01 5 Ke'xprjKa; mid. (Ktx/oa/xat) and 
late, borrow ; l\pi\<rani.T]v ; Kt'xp-qjxai. ( ///) Compare XP^- U) f 
give oracles, and xpdofiat, use. 

K\do> (K\ayy- and xAay-), and /cAayyavw, c/aw/ ; K'Aay^w ; e*Aaya ; 2 a. 
e/cAayov ; 2 p. KCKXa-y^a, as pres. ; ep. Ke/cA^ya (pt. fcc*Aifyoi"rcs) ; f. p. 
KK\d-y|opLai as fut. Mostly poetic. (/K) 

/cAcuoo (/cAav-, /<Aa/-, K\afy, KAat-, 650), Att. prose K\dw uncontr., weep; 
K\, rare KAawov/zcu poet. (681), also KXaifyrw or KXarjo-a), late 
/<Acu'<Ta> ; ?K\avo-a, KK\ poet., K/<Aaw/zcu late ; KX.av(r0^v late ; 
vb. /cAavros poet., /cAavo-ros late. (/K) 

aw, break; /<Aacrw ; ^K\acra ; KK\ao-|xai ; eKXaa-O-qv ; 2 a. pt. aTro-AcAas 
(Anacr.). Pr. and fut. only occur late. 

older Attic KXVjco, s//?t; K\da-<a, KXijo-w ; {K\eura, ?KXr](ra ; Ke/cAet/ca late, 
a7ro-KKXT|Ka ; KKXi|iai, KCKXTjuai, KCKXeio-nai later; tKXeto-O^v, KX^<r6T]v; 
vb. KXeio-Tos, KX-rjorTos, late lyKAetcrreos. Ion. /cA^ico, a. KA>yicra, /ce/<A>yt- 
/xcu, tK^rjio-Oyv ; Dor. f. KAaw, a. -eKAaJa. 

5^eaZ; KXex|/w ; ^KX|/a ; KKXo<j>a ; K'KX6p, ; K\t<j>Orjv Hdt. 
and poet., 2 a. iKXairriv ; vb. KXirTos, KXcirreos. (///) 
KXVja>, s/iw^, see KXeiw. 

KXtvw (/<Aiv-, /<Ai-), &mr?, ma^ incline; tcXivw late in simple; ^KXlva ; late 
KK\.LKa ; KeKXifxat ; w\LQr)V poet, and late prose, e/cAtV^i/ epic, also (?) 
late prose ; /<aT-KXCvT]v ; vb. aTro-KAireov (Aristot.). (IV) 
K\VIO, hear ; impf. e'xAvov as aor. ; 2 a. imper. K\v6i and (epic) jceicAf>0t, 
/cACre and (epic) Ke/cAvre ; K/cAvKa ; /cAv/i,i/os = vb. /cA^ros, famou.i. 



spin; cTr-eKAoxra ; eTri-KCKAcocr/xai (Plat.); K/^uxrOrjv (Plut.) ; 

Mostly poetic or late. 
KVCUW, scratch, late in simple ; -/cvcucru) ; -2Kvcu<ra ; KC'KVCUKO, ; 


KVO.W, scrape, rub, pres. contr. 77 (479) ; Kvijcria (Hippocr.) ; ?KVT)<ra 

KKvii<r|iai ; Kar-KVT|<r0T]v ; late pres. also KV?/#OO. 
KOkXaivo) (/v-oiAaf-), hollow; KoiXavw ; eKoCXdva Ion. KOi\r)va ; 

and Hippocr. jccKOtAooyuu ; e/coiAai/tfryv (Hippocr., Theophr.). 
KoXovw, cw s/i-or, maim; regular, but KeKoAoiKr/xcu and KKoAoi;/xat, 

crOi^v and KoXov0T]v. 

Kovtw, rm'sg rfws, reg. ; but for KCKovlpai also 
K<$ITT<> (KOTT-), CM. ; KOTJ/W ; ^KoxJ/a ; -KKo<J>a, Horn. pt. 

K07TT)v ; f. p. -KKox|/o}JLai ; vb. KOTTTOS, late KOTTTCOV. (///) 
KopevvvfML (/<ope-), satiate, pres. late, also Ko/aew late ; Ko/oecrw (Hdt.), 

(Horn.) ; e/copeo-a poet. ; ep. 2 p. pt. KeKopyws ; /ceKo/aecr/xat (Xen. and 

late prose), KCKOprj/maL (Ion.) ; eKo/secr^v poet. ; vb. d-Koprjros and 

a-Ko/3e(o-)ros poet. (/) 

(KojpvO-), to helmet, arm ; a. pt. Kopvcnra/zevos (Horn.) ; pf. pt. 

KKopv9/j.evo<s. Poetic, chiefly epic. (IV) 
, be angry ; eKorecra ; 2 p. pt. KCKOT^US, angry. Epic. 

^w (Kpay-), cry out, pr. and impf. rare ; 2 a. ^Kpa-yov ; 2 p. KKpaY<x as pres. 

{iraper.\6i and KeKpdyere, Aristopli. 724, 768] ; f. p. KCKpd|o)iai as 

fut. ; f. Kpdu> and K6K/oao> late, a. eKpa^a and Kt/<pa^a late. (/ K) 

(Kpav-), accomplish; Kpavut ; eKpava, Ion. tK/or/va ; p. p. 3 s. 
eKpdvOrjv. Ion. and poet. Epic also Kpatatv<D ; 

pf. Ke/cpdai/rat, plpf. KCKpaavro ; vb. a-K/aai'TOs, unaccomplished. 
Kp|xa|xai (Kpe/jia-), hang, intrans., pres. like Larra^ai {subj. Kpep-wnai, Kpe'|j.T], 

etc., opt. KpsjiatpL^v, Kpejiaio, etc. 516} ; KpfjL^o-o|xai. (^//) Compare 

Kpepidvi'tip.i and KptuvrjfJLi (KpTrjfJ.vr)fit). 
Kpp.dvvi5 ( ai (Kpe/jia-'), late Kpfj.awvto and K^e/zaw, suspend, liaiuj (trans.) ; 

KpfJL'.t.(T(ti, Attic Kp|xco ; eKpe'fj-acra ; late KeKpefjiacr/aai ; tKp|xdcr0T]v ; (for 

mid. Kp| intr. and Kpep.r|<ro|xai see above) ; vb. Kpejxao-rds, /</)e/xao-Teov. 

(K) See also Kptfjwrjpi (Kp-i/fivrj^C). 
Kpi^w (KPLK- or Kpiy-\ creak (Coin, fr.) ; latg prose 6Kpta; 2 a. KpiKt or K/ai'ye 

ep. ; 2 p. KCKpI-ya (Aristoph.). (/K) 
Kpi/jivrjuL (Kpi/ji-va-), not Kpi'^vf]^i as often written, suspend, very rare in 

act; mid. Kpip.vap.a.1 = Kp^afiai. Poet, New Ion., late prose. (V) 

KpijjLvdw rare and late. 

Kptvco (Kpiv-, Kpi-\ judge ; xpivo> ; ^p Iva ; KeKpiKa : KCKpifiai ; Kpi0-qv, ep. also 
Kpiv8r)V (707) ; vb. /cptros poet, Kpire'ov. (//) 

Kpovo-cu ; ^Kpovo-a ; K6KpovKa ; and KKpovo-[JLai ; eKpov<r0T]v ; 

vb. Kpovcrros late, Kpovcrrcov. 

(Kpv(f>-), conceal, late -/cpv^xo and Kpt'/?o> ; Kpvvj/co ; ^Kpv\J/a ; o-vy-KKpv(f>a 
late ; KeKpujifjiaL ; Kpv<|>0T]v, late Kpv(f>r)v and \KffufirfV ; vb. Kpvirros, 


acquire ; Kr-f\<ro\i.o.i ; tKr^orufiiiv ; tKTT|9t|v pass. ; KC'KTTJUCU, possess {subj., -T], -fJTai, etc. 743, opt. KKT^[JLT]V, KCKTTJO, KCKTTJTO, etc. or (?) 
KKTwp.T]v, KKTa>o, KtKTWTo, etc. 745} ', pf. Ion. also KTr;/xat found some- 
tiines in Att. ; f. p. KKT^<ro|xat and Ion. also eKT?jo-opxi, shall possess ; 


KT61VW (KTCV-, KTO,-), kill; KTCVW, Horn. Kreveco and KTCIVCW ; ?KTCIVO. ; poet. 

2 a. cfcravov, poet. 2 a. eicrav (767, 2) with mid. exTapyv, was killed; 

2 p. dir-KTova and (Aescli.) Kar-fKrova ; p. a.7r-KTovrjKa, aTr-eKTay/ca, 

(?) aTT-e/cTa/ca, all late ; p. p. aTT-e/cra/z/xat late ; a. p. ekrdBrjv epic, 

(KrdvBvjv late. (//) In Att. prose diro-KTeivw is generally used. Passive 

forms of KTciw are rare ; in Att. prose #Kjyo-/cu> is used as pass, of /creiVw, 

or the passive of dv-aip<o. By-form KTetvv/Ai, /cretvvw, also written 

KTivvvfJLi or KTiwvfJLtf late in simple ; but diro-KT(e)iv(v)vp,i in Att. 

prose. ( /) 
KTI^W (KTiS-), found; KTio-w ; ?KTio-a ; late KTtKa and KtKTtKa ; ?KTio-} and 

late KCKTicr/iai ; KTicr0t]v. (/K) From an earlier stem KTI-, epic 2 a. 

m. pt. KTifivos, founded. 

(KTVTT-), sound; KTU7rryo-a ; 2 a. SKTV-JTOV (Horn.). Poet., rare in 

late prose. 

(/<t~8av-), honour ; KvSavw late ; e/cvS^vo. Ep. and late prose. 

Horn, also Ki58avw, honour, vaunt myself; and KiiStaw (also late). (/K) 
KV (KIV), 6e pregnant, KV^CTM (Hippocr.) ; CKVIJO-O, conceived; K^KV^KOL; p. p. 

KKvr)/j,at late ; a. pass. tKvij&rjv late ; mid. ftriw^r forth. By-form KVO> 

poet. ; Kvo-a, impregnated (Aesch. Fr. 38), but late = brought forth. 

Causative KVUTKCD (KV-), impregnate (Hippocr.), KvCo-Kojxat, conceive; fnt. 

and aor. from KVC'O). ( K/) 
Kv\tvS<i>, Ku\iv8^w, KvXtw, roll ; late /a;A.i(rw ; Kv\io-a ; Kara-KcKaJXlo-jjiai, late in 

simple ; KvXt<r0T]v ; vb. KvXio-rds. 
KW(o (KV-), fctw; (/) Kwiproftat) late KIXTW ; (Ktxra (also late prose), fKvvrjcra 

late. Poetic. (/) trpov-Kvvta), do homage ; irpotr-Kw(i<r<a ; rrpo<r-KWT]o-a, 

poet. 7rpo<T-Kv<ra ; Trpocr-KfKvvrjKa late. 

Kiiirrw (icv0-), stoop ; -KCxj/w (late in simple) ; KK\i\J/a ; KKv<j>a. (///) 
Ki>ptD, meet, happen, is regular ; poet., Hdt., and late prose. Kiy>a> (KV/O-), 

(678; ); K1>/3(ra (686). 


(Aax-), obtain by lot ; X^ojiai, Ion. Aao/xou ; 2 p. fX\i\\a, Ion. and 
poet. AeAoyxa ; ciXirypiai ; eXt^^y ; 2 a. ?Xa\ov {Horn. e'AAaxoi', but 
Horn. AeAaxov, made partaker} ; vb. XT]KT&>V. (V) 

Xajipavw (Aa/3-), tefe; X^ojiat, late ATJJ^W, Ion. Actya^o/xat, Dor. Ad^ov/>tat ; 

^ ei'Xt]<j>a, Ion. and Dor. AeAa^?//<a ; el'Xi^nai, poet. XeX^fjif^ai, Ion. and 

Dor. AeAa///xai ; eXVj^O^v, Dor. eAct^^v, Ion. iXd^Briv ; 2 a. ?Xa8ov 

(Horn. ^ 2 a. inf. AeAa/?e(r#ou) ; vb. X^irros, XTITTTWV, Hdt. /cara- 

Aa/Z7TTOS. ( /) 


Xdjiirco, shine; Xd|j.x|/co ; gXo,[i\|/a ; 2 p. AeAa^Tra poet. ; late i 

Xav9dvw (Xa.6-), lie hid, escape notice of, also A?y#w (Class II) mostly poet.; 
\T|<ra> ; poet. eA?ycra, and late in simple (see also Ary#aiW), 2 a. 2Xa9ov, 
Horn, has also XeXaOov, caused to forget ; 2 pf. XeXrjOa as pres., Dor. 
AeAd#a. Mid. Aai>#avo/zou, forget, simple poet,, rare in prose, usually 
eTri-XavOcivojJtai, Hdt. e7ri-Ary$oyu,ai, poet. Ary$o/xat ; e7ri-XT)< ; eiri- 
XeX^o-jxai, ep. AeAacr/xou ; f. p. AeAiyo-o/zou poet.; 2 a. eir-eXa0dfj.T]v (epic 
XcXaOo/jLtjv). In the sense, to cause to forget, Ary^avou (Od. 7, 221) ; 
7r-eA?ycra (Orf. 20, 85). Vb. a-Aacrros ep., a-Aryo-ros and d-Aa^Tyro? 
very late. (//) 

AaTTTw, (Aa/?- or Aa</>-), fo'c&, ?a^, pres. act. late ; Aa^w (//. 16, 161), 
eK-Xdv|/o[Acu (Aristoph.) ; c-eXcu|/a (Aristoph.), simple late; X'Xa<j)a 
(Aristoph. Fr.). (Ill) 

Aao"Ka> (for AaK-cr/<a>, AUK-), speali ', AaKvyfro/xat ; eAu/oyo'a rare ; 2 p. AeAdKtt 
trag., ep. AeAryKa fpart. AeAa/ciua) ; 2 a. e'Aa/cov ; 2 a. mid. AeAaKo/a?yv 
(Horn. Hymn. Merc. 145). Poetic, rare in late prose. (//) 

ACK^L'O-O-W, devour, poet, and late prose ; eAa</>va late. (//) 

Aaw, *e; only part. Aawv and impf. Aae. Epic. 

Aaw, with; Aw, Ary?, A>y, Aw/ure?, etc. (contr. 479), inf. Avyv. Doric. 

(Aeav-), smooth ; eXe'clva, Hdt. eAeryva ; AeAeacr/zat and fXcdvOr/v and 
vb. Aeai/reov' late. 

(" ', .>"'//, /'//; Xc'^co ; ^Xe^a ; pf. AeAe^a late (reg. el'pi]Ka, see ei/aw under 
elirov) ; X&cYpai, but Si-c\6Y|iai (538); eXexOtiv ; XeXt'lojjiat ; -vb. poet. 
XCKTCOS. Sia-Xe-yofiai, discuss; 8ia-Xe|o|iai and 
v, late St-eAe^ayu-ryv, Aristot. St-eAey/yv ; pf. S 


(ft), gather, in simple, rare and poet., usually in comp., as (rvX-, CK- ; 
X'M ; ^Xe|a ; ci'Xoxa (538), late e^-ei'Aex^ ; el'XcYJiai and Xe'Xe-yixai ; 2 a. p. 
eXc'-y^v and rare in Att. tXt'xO^v ; f. p. Xe-yT|<ro|iai, late'/cara-Ae^^ryo-o/Aai ; 
vb. Ae/cros poet, K-XKTOS. epic 2 a. m. of you-form eAey/>i?yi> ((>/. 9, 
335), counted myself to, but Ae/cro (0(Z. 4, 451), lay down, see the 
root Aex-. 

(AtTT-, AeiTr-, Ao67r-), leave, synopsis in 462, 2 a. and 2 pf. inflected in 
463, irregularities of meaning, 797 ; rarely Xijiiravw ; ( Xeuj/w ; e'Aeii/'a late; 
2 p. XeXotira, have left, liare failed] 2 a. ^Xiirov ; mid. remain = leave 
one's self, but e A ITT 0/7,77 y, ^ f or m l! se tf (Att. prose in comp.), in Homer 
sometimes = was left beJiiud., ?ra<? inferior; pass. = am left, am left behind, 
am inferior, X&npJMU, 3 a. plpf. eAeiTrro (Ap. Rh.) ; eXei^Orjv, late 2 a. p. 
f \arrjv ; f. Xi(j>0TJcro|Jiai ; f. p. XeXei\)/ ; vb, Xeiirreov. (//) 
lick; Aet^co late ; gXia; late k^X^i\6r^v. 

(AeTTTw-), make thin ; XCTTTVVW (late); eXeVrvva ; XeXtTrrvo-p-ai {inf. 

i, late XeXtirrvvQai, 737, 4} ; IXeirrvvQ^v. (IV) 
Xe'irw, peel; -Xw ; ax|/a (simple only II. 1, 236); XeXajijiat ; 4-eXairr]v. 
AeiWw, see, poet. ; late AeiVw and e'Aeixra. (/K) 
Xeuu, sio?ie, in prose mostly Kara-Xeviw ; -Xevcrw ; -gXevcra ; 


Ae^-, root, Jay down, compare ru Ae^-os, and Aeyoo, gather ; forms like those 
from Aeyto are : e'Aea (voov\ laid to rest (II. 14, 252), imper. Aeoy (II. 
24, 635) ; fut. and aor. Aeo/xcu and cAe^a/o/v occur several times ; 2 
aor. /xi-forrns : eAe/cTo several times, imper. Aefo (IZ. 24, 650, Od. 10, 
320) and Aeeo (II 9, 617; Od 19, 598); inf. Kara-X^Oai (Od. 15, 
394); pt. Kara-Aey/xei/os (Od 11, 62 ; 22, 196), see 1063. Epic. 

Arj#w, lie hid, Xr/0dv<a, cause to forget ; see XavOdvu. 

Aiye, aor., twanged, only JZ. 4, 125. 

AiAcuo/xai, desire eagerly ; pf. Ae/\t?//xat. (/I/) Epic. See Aaco, wis/i. 

Xip,irdvft>, fcaw, see AeiVw. 

Ar/xwcra-a) and At/xojTTW, hunger ; Af/xtoo/xai ; lAi/xco^a. All late. (/I/) 

AiTrruVct) (AiTrav-), make fat; eAiVdva and eXiTrrjva. ; AeAiTraoyxai ; tXnrdv6i]v. 
Late. (//) 

AtVrw (AtTT-), long for, late ; AeAt/^ei/os pax*)* (Aesch.). (///) 

AtVo-o/xat and rarely Airo/xat (Atr-), supplicate, poet., rare in prose ; eAtcra- 
//ryv epic ; 2 a. eAtro/jtjyv epic. (//) 

At^//aw and At^/xa^to, /icA;, mostly poet. ; also late ; eAi^^cra late ; pf. pt. 
AeAt^jUores or AeAet^-/xores for -/A^OTC? (Hes. 2Vi. 826), compare 1031. 

Aoew, epic for Xotw, ?/:rt,9/i ; Aoecrcro^at (and late Aoecrco) ; eAoecra and mid. 
See Aoi'to and Aoo>. 

Xovo> (and epic Aow), iras/i ; in Att. and Hdt. the pres. and impf. (except 
Xotiw, Xoveis, Xovci) are formed from Aoto and contracted ; as XOVJJLCV, XOVTC, 
Xovori, ?Xov, etc. 

Xv/j.aiv<i> (Xv/j.av-'), abuse, act. rare and late ; eXv^dra, and lA^/ftipa ; 
Xup.aLvop.aL as act. ^ ; eXup.T|va.p.T)v ; XeXup.acrp.aL ; \Vfj,a.v8tjv 

pass. (Aesch., Eur.). (IV) 

X6w (\v-, Xv-), loose; synopsis in 460; inflection in 461; Horn. Ai>o> or 
Aito> epic 2 a. /xt-forms : eAiy/^v as pass., Xvro, Xvro (v by ictus, 
hence not to be written Xvro), XVVTO, vTr-eXvvro ; see 1003; pf. opt. 
AeAtrro or XeXvvro, see 700, 1051. 


(/xav-) poet., madden; e/x^i/a poet. ; (Aaivo|xai, &e 9?iac?, ra^ye ; f. 
(Hdt.) ; navt]v ; 2 p. ne'fjLTjva, am marf ; ^rjvdfjLrjv poet. ; /xe/xa^/xat, 
, late ; f. yuav7ycro/xat late. (/K) 

(pao--, friur-y-, pai-, 1002, 4),/eeZ o/^er, desire; /xcxo-oyaai ; e/xao-a/x^v ; 
vb. 7rt-/xao-To (Od 20, 377). (//) Second perf. /xe/xova (/xei/-, /xa-), as 
pres. {/xe/xova, /xe/xoi/as, pcpovc, but the rest are /x6-forms : /xe/xarot/, 
/xe/xa/zey, /xe/xare, /xe/xacwrt ; imper. /xe/xarw ; pt. /xe/xaws, f. /xe/xavia (-awros 
and -dores); inf. /xe/xo^vat (Hdt. 6, 84); plpf. /xe/xaa-ai/}. (/, ///) 
Doric verb /xao/xat (Sapph. 23), /XWTCU, /xwvrai, opt. /xyro late, imper. 
/XWTO, inf. /xwcr^at, pt. /xw/xei/os trngic. All these forms are poetic, 
mostly epic. 


p.av9dvu> (/xa#-), learn; p.a0T|< ; fjt|id9T]Ka ; 2 a. fjia0ov ; late p. pt. /xe/xa#/y- 

/zef at as act. (Aesop) ; vb. (wiOiynfe, -T'OS. ( V) 
fiapaivw (/xa/>ai/-), make wither ; /xa/oarw late ; jj.dpava, and mid. as act. 

eiJLap-^vdfJirjv late ; /xe^apa/x/xcu and /xe/xapaoyxcu late ; fj,apdvOrjv (Horn., 

and late). (IV) 
/xapva/xcu (/xap-va-), fight {only pres. and impf. ; like tWa/zat (98), subj. 

/xapi/w/xcu (516), iinper. /xa/ovao}. Poetic. (/) 

(/xapTT-) sgirie ; [tapi/su ; epapi^a ; ep. 2 p. /xe/xap7ra ; ep. 2 a. /xe/xa/)- 

TTOV {Hes. inf. /xaTreei;/ (fife. 231, 304) and opt. /xe/xa7roiey (&. 252), but 

some read ytxapTreeiv and /xe/xa/j-oiev}. Poetic. (///) 

&ga?- witness, regular; (, caZZ witnesses; 5ta-/xa/3Tf/3ot'/xat 

late ; jAapTvpd|XTiv. (//) 

o-co and [idTTw (/xay-), knead ; [id^w ; ^jia^a ; p.|xa\a ; fxeixa-yiiai ; 2 a. p. 

6|jL<ryT]v ; e/xax^>/^ late. (/ K) 

(/xacrrty-), whip, pres. late ; e/xacma ep.; e/xao-Ti^^^i/ late. (//) 

ep. /ACKTTt'w. Prose (jtaa-TL-yoto. 

/i ; Horn, also /xa^eo/xat (Of?, pt. /xa^eoi'/xevo? and /xa^eto/xevos) ; 

in Hdt. /xaxeo/xei/os doubtful ; f. jiaxovpiai, Hdt. /xa^eo-o^xat, Horn. /xa)(- 

o/xa6 and usually /xa^ryo-o/xat, /xa^^cro/xat also late prose ; c|iaxo-dp,T]v, 

epic also e/xa^^cra/x?^ (also late prose) ; [j.cij.dx' ; CfW.'X&rQirjv late ; 

vb. /xax^rds (Oc?. 12, 119), cx-/xa^Tos (Soph. >S'c^i. 85), (iaxTov and (f) 

yueSo/xat, 6e concerned about ; /xeSv/o-o/xat rare. Epic. /xe5w and /xeSew, 

|i0vcrK(o (/xe^u-), intoxicate ; late /xe^vo-w ; |i0u(ra ; (i0vo-0T]v ; 


H0vw (fjufrv-), be intoxicated ; for the other tenses, the passive of 

/xet/)o/xat (/xe/3-), obtain, epic ; 2 pf. 3 sing, e/x/xo/ae epic ; p. p. ei'ixaprai, ^ is 
/atoZ {clp-ap^e'vos, /aierf, and esp. elfiapnevTi as subst., ^a^e} ; late also 
/xe/xop^Tcu and /xe/xo/D/xevos. (//) Compare also root Trop-, TT/JO-. 

|ie\\a>, intend; augm. ep.- or ^|(x- (525) ; (iXXif|<r(o ; p.\\ii<ra ; vb. [icXXiyre'ov. 

/X^ATTW, sing, celebrate ; /xeA^w ; e/xe/X^a. Poetic. 

/xe/Xw, concern, care for, poet. ; /xeA^(rto poet, /xeA/jcro/xat epic ; e/xeAryo-a 
late ; /xe/xeA>7/ca late ; /xe/xrjAo, epic ; /xe/xeA^/xat as pres., poet. {ep. 
/ze/x/3Aerai and /xe/x/^Aero for /xe/xA- (71 a), but late epic 
fjL\^Orjv poet. The personal forms poetic or Lit/ 1 , in prose 
and iri-fjL6\0|jLai. Impersonal forms : [w'Xei, ^ concerns ; H\TIO-I. ; 

/a (p,tv-\ desire, 2 pf. See /xcuo/xcu. 

p.jj.<f>, blame; p.e'|xx|/o[jicu ; ptp.\j/dfjLT]v and rarely |xe'fjL<j)0T]v. 
fjLvw, remain, poet, /-u/xvw ; [jtevco, Ion. /xevew ; ^jieiva ; jiejievTiKa ; vb. 


>, ponder, devise, epic ; /xep/x^/n^w ep. ; /xe/o/x^/oia ep., a;r- 
e/xep/x?j/Ko-a (Aristoph.). (/K) 

L, devise; /x^a-o/xat ; /xry(ra/x7yv. Poetic. 


PJKUO/ZCU (PJK-, pxK-, 629), bleat, cry, pr. and impf. not in use ; 2 p. pt. 
Horn. /ze/z?;/6s, ytze/zdKina ; 2 plpf. e/ze/zT/Kov (1036); 2 a. pt. Horn. 

L-, 629), plan; also yu^Tiao/zai and (Find.) /Z^TIO/ZGU ; /z^Tfrro/zat ; 


(/ziav-), saw ; (iiavai ; sfjudvcu, Ion. e/zirjva ; /ze/ziayKa late ;, 
late /ze/z6a/z/zcu ; i}udv9t]v. (/ K) 
|it-yvv|xi (/ziy-), misc, or more correctly fui-yviifu, also (xti^vvw, less often jjuo-yco 
(for /ziy-crKto) of Class K/ ; nt|w, pctt-co ; 2[jua, ^(xei^a ; yu.e/A(e)t^a late ; 
-yiiai ; eufx^iv, t \id\Qi\v ; 2 a. p. entyriv ; ep. and late /xiyiy- 
; ep. 2 a. m. '^/JLLKTO and /UKTO ; ep. fut. p. /^e/x^o/xat ; vb. 
and JIIKTC'OS (or [ICIKT-). (V) 

and older yu,t/xv>ycr/<a> (/>tva-), remind, the simple is poet, in active ; 
, fJLvrj(ra ; in prose dva-|xifi.v^(rKo), IVTTO-. )jii)j.vTJ(, remember; 
; fj,v^cro.fjirjv poet. ; pf. = pres. |xc'[](, remember, memini 
{sub}. (jLjjivd)(jiai, ^|JLvw|JL6a (Hdt. 7, 45 (?) //,e/xvew/>ie#a), 743 ; opt. 
p.p.vfjp.T]v, -TJo, -iJTo, etc. or less common and doubtful /xe/zvoi/z^v -wo, -WTO 
etc., 745 ; imper. /xe/zyeo Hdt. for p.e'p.VT]<ro} ; f. p. = fut. (XfJtvT|o-onat, shall 
bear in mind, f. fivTio-OVjo-oiAai, shall remember, poet, /zv^o-o/xcu ; vb. 
a-/xvao-ros (Theoc. 16, 42), /xi/^o-reoi/ Hippocr., irt-|ivTi<rTos. (VI) Epic 
/zvao/mi has Horn, forms (e^i/aWro /AI/WO/XCI/O?, and Ap. Rh. 1, 896 has 
imper. /xvweo ; see 1009, 6. 
, remain, poet, for /xevw. 

for pt-y-crKd), mix, only pr. and impf. ; see jit-yvvfu. (^/) 
[jivdofJia.i, remember, epic = /xi/xv^o~KOjU,at, see yw,i^tv^o"Kco ; yw,vaoyu,at, court, 
desire, epic, late prose, very rare in Att. prose. 

), soil, pollute ; pr. and impf. not found ; e/xo/ov^a late : 
or (?) /ze/zo/avx/zevos ep. (/^) 
w and (Ion.) /zi^ew and (late) e/<-/zva<o, swcJt ; /z7;^(ra late, K- (7Z.). 

-), grumble; /zi'^w late ; ^p.v|a- (/K) 

( (/xf'K-, 991), bellow; /zvK^o~o/zat late; ejivK-qcrdn^v ; ep. 2 p. 
as present ; ep. 2 a. ?/ZDKOV. 

(/zv/3-), rwn, /o-w; mid. /ow mi^ tears, lament; aor. e/zi>/oa/zr;v late. 
Poet. (//) 

and (XWTTCD (/ZVK-), wipe, act. in comp., pres. ctTro- (Plat.) ; -^p.v|a (aTro- 
late, Kara- Com. fr.) ; plpf. air-[j^nvKTo (Com. fr.) ; Kar-e/zv^^^^ late ; 
/zi;o-o-o/zat, wipe one's nose (Hippocr.), airo- (Xen.) ; air-nvd>T]v (Aristoph.). 


shut the lips or eyes ; /zww late ; 2|iwa ; 


vaioj (va<r-y-, vat-, 650; 1002, 4), dwell; f. vdVo-o/zcu late ep. ; 
caused to dwell, placed, ep. ; ei/ao-o-a^tr/v, ^ooA; i^ my abode, ep. ; 
settled; vevao-/zat late. Poetic. 


and i/arrw (vay-, va<5-, 642), stuff, compress, pr. late ; eVaa (Horn, and 
Hdt.) ; v^vcurfjiai and vevay^tat (Hippocr.). (IV) 

(vaf-y-, 650 ; 1002, &}, flow, only pres., epic; impf. vaor, now written 
i/atoi/ (as in Od. 9, 22). (//) 

ew, ep. (pr. also Hdt.), veiKetw ep., chide; veiKecroo ; evetKecra. 
V2ttj>i, better than vtc^ei, sno?0, cover m^ snow; ; late poet, vei^w ; KaT-cvi\|/c ; 

paSS. Vl<f>TCU. 

vjiw, distribute, pasture, consider; vejjtw, late i'e/>t^cro> ; 2vi[ia ; 8ia-vev|j.T]Ka ; 

vV}rri|Jiai ; 4vfjLT|0T]v ; vb. 8ia-v(iT|Tov. 
veoyucu, #o, co??ie, also as future. Poet. See vro/mi. 
-vecu> and (?) -vtfad), only in comp. <ruv-v&f>a, 6e clouded; late -ve^cret ; 

2 p. o-uv-Vvo<J>e. 
vt'w (1) (i>ev-, ve/-, vu-, 632), swim; f. vcvo-ovjiai (Xen. ^4?i. 4, 3 12 ), see 681 ; 

l^-e'vevo-a ; Sia-vc'vevica ; vb. vevcrrs'ov. (//) See vri\o^a.i. 
i/ea> (2), heap up, pr. in comp. and only in Hdt.; in Att. \6<o is used ; vrj(rw 

(Suid.) ; <ivT\<ra ; vvn(<r)jxai ; late V7^(cr)$?p ; vb. y^rds (Od.). Epic 

(3) and it^&ft, spin; v^jo-w ; ^vr)o-a ; vcwjarfuu late; v#j0T]v ; vb. 

w (I'tjS-, vty-, 645), and late I'MTTCO, Horn. viVro/zat, was/i; the simple is 
poet, or late ; -v.hj/w ; -2vuJ/a ; ; KaT-ev<x$?/v (Hippocr.) ; f. vi^>7y- 

late (Old Test.) ; vb. a-i/iTrros (//.), ai/-air<J-vnrros. (IV, III) 
better than vtWo/xat (perhaps for veo-^o/zai, compare veo/xou), gro or 
wiM gfo. Poetic. (IV) 
vow, think, observe; vo^o-w, etc. In New Ionic + 77 = 00: cVoxra, 

^w (vofJitS-), think; fut. Att. vojjuw (see 680, 4), vo/>tio-cu late; 
etc. (/IT) 

w (vvo-Ta.8-, vixrray-, 1002, 1), feep, feel drowsy ; vvcrraa> (Old Test.) 
and late evwrrd^o. (/[/) 

scrape, smoothe ; ee<ra mostly ep. ; ^<rjiai ; late egtcrOrjv ; vb. 

~), dry ; |r]pavw ; ^t|pdva, Ion. e^pr;va ; cTJpa<r}iai and late 
; lr]pav6T]v ; vb. f^pavreov late. (/K) 
, rej?. ; but fy>a> late, has cvpa (Hippocr. and late). (IV) 
cw, polish; gv<ra ; late -e^cr/xai ; gftr0r|v ; vb. Jva-Tos (Hdt.). 

oSaa>, oSa^aoj, dSa^ew, smart from a bite (Xen., Hippocr.) ; oSa^cro/xai as 
pass. (Hippocr.) ; w6\xa^>?i/ (Anthol.) ; wSay/xat (Soph. .Fr. 708). 

<! Sctirop^w, travel, from 68oi7ro/305, regular ; but pf. mid. is sometimes found 
o8oi-7T7r6pr)Ka for &Soiir6prjKa. See 567, 568. 


make a way, regular; but pf. usually with aug. and red. co 
instead of u)So- 71-007-. See 567, 568. 

doV, be angry, no pres. ; woWa/x^i' and dSwSw/xat. Horn. 
6Supo| (doiyj-), lament ; ; wSvpap/riv ; late Kar-oBvpfafa pass. ; 

oSvpros (Aristoph.), oSvprtov late. Trag. STL'/OO/XOU. (IV) 
6 (68-, dfe-), smell ; 6jtf o-, Ion. decra> ; di^o-a, Ion. toecra ; 2 pf. as pres. 

68d)Sa Hoi n., also late. 
oi'ya), also otyviyu, open; oioj ; <pa, ep. also ona ; oix$ t 's Find. Poetic, 

in prose dv-ofyvvju. 

otSa (18-), &now. See 786, 787, 788; Dialects, 1071. 

01360, swell; w8T]o-a ; u>8T]Ka. oa$a<o (Plut.)- otSai/w ep., ot'Samo late, a. 
dv-iSrjva late ; aor. av-ot&rpr<ipx}v act. (Q. Sm. 9, 345). (/) 

(oiKTt/3-), later oiKTCipto, pity ; (?) olfCTtfito (Aesch. Fr.) ; wKTipa, 
i/oa ; otKTt/Dry<ro>, wKrei/orycra, MKTtiprjOriv, late. (//) 
cotw (o/'/xcoy-), lament ; ol[iwo[iai, late ot/xw^w ; <>>|i<>ga ; ot/xcoy/zevos (Eur. 
E?a. 1285); ot/xo>x^ts (Theogn. 1204). 

wr mwe, reg. ; Horn. pres. otyoxoeixu ; impf. Horn, otvo^oet and 
ewi/oxoet, Anacr. wi/oxoet. 

oi', think, in prose usually otpiai ; impf. wop.t]v, in prose prob. always 
u)fit)v ; olVjo-ofJiai ; (pr^v ; vb. OITJTCOV ; epic ot'w and often ot'co only 

1 sing. ; 6io/, dtcra/z^v, wia-O^r. 

ot', begone; olx^a-ofxai ; Ion., also late CH'X^/ACU and Trap-w^^at, prob. 

not Att. ; oi'xwKa (Ion., poet.), also found as W'XWKGI (628, but some 

consider ot^wKa for otx-^X" a w ith Att. redupl.) ; Trap-M^Ka ep. and 

late prose ; ep. by-form oi'xi'ew. 
6K'X\a> (diccA-), run ashore; wKeiXa. Poet. KtAAw, KeAcroo (678), KeAcra 

(686). (/K) 
6Xi<r6av<o (dAto-^-), s^jo, also rarely -6\i<r0avo>, late in simple ; dAtcr^/ya-w late ; 

2 a. &Xitr6ov Ion., poet., late ; wAur^cra and wAtV^ryKa Hippocr. and 
late. (10 

-oXXvjjLt (for dA-vv-/xt, 652, VIII, root oA-) and -oXXvw, destroy, simple is 
poet., in prose dir-oXXv(u, also e|-dXXii}i.i and 8i-6XXi5^i ; f. oAr(o ep., 
also late in comp., doubtful in Att. (680, 6), Hdt. dAew (1011, 
2 (c) ) ; Att. -6Xw ; -uJXeo-a ; -oXcoXcKa ; 2 p. -6XwXa, perish ; mid. 
-SXXvjjiai, perish; -oXovptai ; 2 a. -o>Xd(jiTiv {ep. part. ovAo^e^os} ; late 
p. p. oA<uAr/xcu, late a. p. a~-u\<s9^v. (I/) Poetic dAeKw pr. and 

6XoXv| (oAoAvy-), shout, rare in prose ; 6XoXvo[iai, Old Test. oAoAvw ; 
iXdXvia. (IV) 

6Xo(f> (6\o(f>vp-), bewail; 6Xo<j> ; a>Xo4>vpd)iT]v ; (i)\o(f>vp6rjv (Thuc. 
6, 78 s ) probably pass. (IV) 

be together, accompany, poet. ; reg. ; but also 2 a. o/xa/orov (Orph. 
Arg. 513). 

tw, make water, pres. (Hes. Op. 727) ; w/zt^a (Hippon. 55). 
(o/x-, o/xo-) and 6p.vvw, swear ; f. 6u.oti|jiai, late d/xocrw and tV- 


wfiocra ; 6p.wp.oxa ; 6p.wp.op.aL and,, late WJU,O(T/XVO? ; wfjto0T|v and 
a>jj.6(T0r]v ; vb. dir-wfiOTOS. (/) 

opopyvvfAL (ofjiopy-), wipe ; poet, in simple ; O/XO/D^W late ; (O/AO/DO. ; 
-o|AopYW| ; |-o[idp|ofiai; -|j.opd[j.T]v ; dir-|i6px0Tiv. (V) 

6vivt]fjLi (ova-, for oV-ov^/xi, 764, 6), benefit ; 6vVj<r ; &vi\<ra. ; 2 a. m. lov^fj/qv 
and late Mvd/jLrjv {767, 1 ; opt. ovaifvrjv, 6'vaio, etc. 516; imper. 6V?/cro 
Horn., pt. ovrjfjievos Horn.} ; oWy/xou late ; utvf\Qj\v ; vb. dv-6vr]Tos. (VII) 

ovo/JLai (ovo-), insult, pres. and impf. like oY8o/xcu (498), opt. oVotro (Hoin.), 
Hoin. also 2 pi. otW<r#e (77. 24, 241) ; dvocro/zat ; a>voo-a//,?/i', Hoin. also 
wi/aro (/. 17, 25); Kar-ovovO^v (Hdt.) ; vb. OVO(CT)TOS. Ionic and 
poetic. (VII) 

ojjovco (ovv-), sharpen, Attic prose irap-oi)va> ; 6vvw ; wvva ; late Trap-wgvy Ka ; 
wfjufjLfxai, late tt7r-co^i'(r/xai ; w|vv0t]v. (//) 

(o7Ti>- ; 1002, 4), take to wife; OTTUO-OO (Aristoph. Ach. 255); late 
rw//,ei'os. Epic and late prose. (IV) 
, see opdw. 

opdto (o/>a-, iS-, /t5-, OTT-), see ; Aeol. op^/xi ; impf. Iwpcov, Hdt. wpojv ; f. 6\|/, 
2 sing, only 6\J/i {Horn, distinguishes 7r-d^o/>tat, sAa^ Zoo& ow, and eTrt- 
di/'o/xat, s/iaW choose; see also 1 aor. mid.} ; 1 a. mid. eTrt-wj/'a/z-^v, r//ox 
(Plat. Com. Frag. 2, 623 ; also Plat. Leg. 947) ; but eV-d^aro, saw 
(Pind. .F?-a#. 88) ; wpdKci and IwpdKa, Herodas in 4, 40 has ojp//ca, 
sometimes, d/aw^/ca, with Att. redupl. ; 2 pf. oVcoTra, poet., Ion., late ; 
Iwpdjiat and wfxjiai ; w<j>9Tjv, late copa6^v ; 2 a. t8ov {l'8w, \!8oiju, t8e and 
Att. also I8e', ISciv, I8wv} ; [otSa, know, see 786, 787, 788, and (Dialects) 
1071}; vb. opdros, oTrreov late, irepi-oirre'ov. To 60- also belong these 
middle forms : Pres. ei'So^cu, seem, appear, resemble ; ep., poet., New Ion., 
also late prose {ectSo/xevos Pind. N. 10, 15 ; impf. e-ei'oWo Qu. Smyr. 
1, 153} ; aor. etVa/z^v and eewra^irp epic ; 2 aor. et^d/xr^v, saw, ep., poet, 
(in Att. prose rare and only in coinp.). (VI) 

d/>ycuV(o (opyav-), be angry ; wpydva trans., enraged. Only in trag. (IV) 

d/aey-w, reach, ep., poet., late prose, of optyvvfju (V) only part, opeyvus in 
.71 1, 351 and 22, 37 ; d/je^w ; copea (also rare in Att. prose) ; op^o^ai, 
stretch oneself, desire, rare and late d/oeyvr/xevos ; ope'^ofiai ; a>p|dfjL-riv and 
oftener o>p'x9T]v ; oi/aey/xat (Hippocr. 1, 520), with .redupl. dpwpey/xai 
{3 pi. dpto/Dexarai //. 16, 834, plupf. d/D(o/oX aTO ^- H> 2 ^' P art - 
d/Dw/)y/xei/o5 Joseph. ^4?i/. 18, 6 5 } ; vb. d/aeKTos (/^. 2, 543 ; Aristot. 
Metaph. 11, 7 2 ). Rare collat. form opiy-vao^ai (Eur. Ba. 1255 and late) ; 
late opiyvi]o-ofjio.L ; aor. inf. d/aiyv^^vcu Isocr. 6, 9 ;' Antiphon Soph. 
Frag. 91 (109). 

dpeo/xou, see opvv/ja. 

opivto (opiv-), raise, rouse ; upiva ; MptvOrjv. Also opoOuvu (opoOvv-) ; 
upoOvva. All epic. (/K) Compare opvvfjii. 

(op-), raise, rouse ; o/ao-w ; co/xra ; ep. 2 a. upopov (also intrans.) ; 
2 p. opupa, mid. = have roused myself; mid. =rise, rush; opvvpai ; 
f. dpov/xat (Horn.) ; p. d/ow/De/xat (Horn.) ; 2 a. co/oop^v {ep. forms : wpro, 


imper. o/xro and o/ocreo and o/xrer 1 , inf. opOai, part, o^/xevos}. Poetic. 
(I/) Epic by-form d/^o/xcu, pr. and imp!'. Compare opivw. 

6pv<ro-a> and opvTrw (dp^x- or d/avy-), <%; 6pv ; <S>pva, rare late 2 a. wpvyov ; 

opwpvxa ; 6ppvyH Lat an( ^ l ate &pvy[ ; wpvxfhv, late to/n'y^v, late (?) 

b>pv\r)v (but KaT-opvxfoopai Aristoph. ^4v. 394 ; vb. opwnJs- (IV) 
6<r<J> (d<r</>/>-a-, ocr^pav-, 652, IV), sra^/; rare and late oo-</oa(v)o//,ai ; 

6o-<J>pT|o-o|iai ; 2 a. a><r<J>pojjLTiv (Hdt 1, 80 has 1 aor. 3 pi. dxr^pavro) ; 

<l)<r<j>poivOijv rare and late : vb. oa-^pavros and oa-^pyTos late. (V, IV) 

Late act. -do-c^pamo, give to smell. 

OTOTI'W (1002), lament; ororv^o/Aat ; ai/-wToVi>a. Poetic (dramatic). (IV) 
orpvi'io (orpvv-\ rouse, urge on ; orpwoy ; urrpvva ; late wTpvv^v. Poet. 

and late prose. (IV) 
ovpe'w, maAre water; impf. covpow (533); ovprjo-ofMu, OI'/OTJCTW (Hippocr.) ; 

v-ovpti<ra ; 4v-6oupT]Ka ; a. p. ovprjOijv (Hippocr.). New Ionic has ovp- 

for Attic iovp-. 
ovra^w, wound ; oi'racro) ; oirrcura ; ot5racr//at ; late ovTaa-Orjv. Ep. and 

s trag. (/K) 
ovrctw, ivound ; late ovr^o-w ; ovrrja-a ; 2 a. ep. 3 sing, /xi-form ovra -[inf. 

oi'ra/zei/at and ovrct/zev} ; 2 a. mid. pt. ovra/zevos as pass. Epic. 
w (oc/>eA-, 649, 2), oii'g; ep. mostly has the Lesbian o(/>eAAw, rarely and 

only in II. o^)t Aw ; 6<f>iX^o- ; ox}>eXT]<ra ; 4>i\i]Ka ; a. p. pt. 6<|>eiX.T]0is ; 

2 a. <5)<f>\ov, in wishes, that ! (see the Syntax). (/ V) 

-), increase, poetic, mostly epic ; aor. opt. o^eAAeie (Horn.). 


6({>Xia-Kdv(i) (o</>A-, oc^AtcrK-), oiyg, incur (a penalty), 6e guilty ; o^X^o-o) ; &<>X')]cra 
rare and un- Attic ; <o<|>XT]Ka ; w<|)XTi|iai ; 2 a. <j>Xov {inf. and part, some- 
times found accented 6'<Aeiv and o^>Awv as present, 6'<Aco as ind. pres. 
rare and late}. (VI, V) 


n-ai^o) (TrouS-, Traty-), sport; Trai^oOfjiat (see 681 ; said by a Syracusan in Xen, 
tiymp. 9, 2 ; but late TTGU^O/ZCU is probably Attic ; late also 7rcuo>) ; 
iraura, late eVcu^a ; ir^iraiKa, late TTCTraL^a ; -rreiraio-fxai,, late TrtTraiy/xai ; 
late tVcuxflr/i/ ; vb. irawrreov. (/K) 

ircUo-w and iratTJo-w ; ^iraiora ; irc'iraiKa ; /x-7r7raio-/xat late ; 
(730, 731) in Aesch. 

, wrestle ; TraAatVw (7Z. and late prose) ; lirdXaura ; TTCTraAou/ca late ; 
7T7raAaio-/i,at (730, 731) late ; eVaAcuo-^i/ (Eur.). 
7raAacr(rw, throw, sprinkle, throw lots; 7raAaa> ; TreTraAay/^at -[formation in (r, 

7T7raAa(r^e and TreTraAacr^at doubtful}. (/K) 

TraAAco (vraA-), shake, brandish, poetic ; cTr^Aa ; TreTraA/zat ; Horn. 2 a. redupl. 
part. d/x-7re7raAwv ; Horn. 2 a. mid. eTraAro and TraAro ; late and rare 
TTfTrrfXa and ava-TraAet's. (//) 
irdo/Jiai, acquire, find, no present ; Trao-o/mt ; 7rd(ra/Ar/v ; TreTra/xai Doric verb, 


also poetic ; not to be confused with 7rd(ro/zcu and eVdcrdp/v from 

Trareo/xai, taste, eat. 
irapa-vofxe'w, tranxyress the law (563) ; augments irap-evdjiovv and irapTivop-ouv, 

etc. ; but perf. irapa-vvdfiT]Ka, late TraprjvofJL^Ka. Probably all the forms 

in Traprjv- are un- Attic and late, 
ircip-oivew, behave rudely (in liquor), insult (as a drunken man) (556) ; e-irap-wvovv ; 

ffJi-Trap-OLinjcro} (Luc.) ; -irap-iovT)<ra ; ir-irap-iuVT]Ka ; Tre-Trap-MVij/JLat Luc. ; 

-irap-a>vT)0T]v ; impf. i-irapoivti (Dio Cass. 45, 28). 
7rdcr(r<o and irdrTw (647), sprinkle ; ird<ro> ; ira<ra ; Trdcr0T]v ; late TreTrcujyAou ; 

vb. iraoreov. The simple verb is poet, and late prose. (//) 
rrdar;(w (TraO-, TrcvO-) for rraO-a-KO) (104), suffer, feel ; imo-ofjicu from 7rev$-cro//,at 

(40) 2 a. HiraQov ; 2 p. iren-ovOa {2 pi. Tre/rocr^e for TreTrovtfare, /Z. 3, 99 ; 

-fjraQvta in UZ. 17, 555} ; Doric 7re7roo-xa ; vb. iraOrfTO'S late. (VIII) 
TrdTMr&tj), strike, pr. and impf. epic ; ira/ra^a) ; eirdTaa ; eK'-Tre dray/zat (Orf. 

18, 327); late 7raTa.\Or]v ; for the pres. and impf. the Attics use 

TUTiTtt and iraiw, for the pf. and aor. pass. and iirXfy^v. (IV) 
(Trar-, 990), fas^e, ea^; fut. Trdcro/xat in Aesch. /Sepi. 1037 very 

doubtful ; 7rdo-dyai;v ; plpf. 7re7rdcr/x^v in 7/. 24, 642 ; vb. 

(Od. 4, 788). This verb is not to be confounded with Trdo/xat, 

etc., find, acquire, nor with the passive of Trareco, tread. 

cease, regular ; but in Hdt. the MSS have liravO^v and e 

vb. d-7rawTO5, irava-Tt'ov. Late a. p. CTrdrp, in New Test. 
(7T6td-, TTiO-), persuade ; ireCo-w ; ^iri<ra ; ireireiica ; 2 p. TrciroiOa, trust ; 2 a. 

eiriOov poet. ; redupl. ep. 2 a. irtTriOov {in Find. 7A. 4, 90 = frtt^tw^r} ; 

lience Horn. fut. Trt^/jo-w (990), Of?. 21, 369= shall obey, but Horn. fut. 

~e7rt#7/o-(o (/Z. 22, 223) = shall persuade; poet. 7ri.0r)cra<s, trusting; Horn. 

sync. 1 pi. of 2 plupf. e7re7rt#-/xei/ (1064) ; in Ae?ch. Eum. 599 the 2 pf. 

imperative TreTretcr^t ought probably to be TrtTritrOi or perhaps TreTroicr^t 

(for ireTTiO-Oi or Tre-iroiO-OC) ; mid. and p;iss., am persuaded, /7/V'/v, 

o6gi/ ; irefa-oiJiai ; 2 a. fTTiOo/Jirjv poet. ; ireimo-jiai ; lireicrO-qv ; vb. ITIO-TOS, 

ircioTeov = one must obey. (//) 

epic TreKTew (7TK-), comb ; fut. Dor. 7re^(o (Theocr.) ; late aor. eVe^a ; 

ep. a. in. 3rea/*ip ; ir'x0T]v. (///) 

hunger, for pres. contr. see 479 ; imv^crw ; eirivi<ra ; Treire 
(treiptv-), end, epic for 7re/3eiVw ; tirtip^va ; 3 sing. pf. 

in 0^. 12, 37 and mer^ causa in Soph. 7V. 581. See irepcuvw. 

pierce, ep. and late prose ; eVeipa ; TreTrap/xai ; 2 a. p. dV- 
(Hdt.). (/K) 
(TTCKT-), com6, see TretKW. 

d^ca (7rcA.aS-, TreAa-, TrAa- ; vreAa 1 ?, ?im?% 644), 6?"i7?-f/ near, intr. approach; 

TreAdcrto and Att. TreAco (680, 5) ; CTreAacra ; ep. TreTrA^/xat ; 7reAdor^//r 

and trag. 7rAa^^v ; 2 a. mid. ep. vX^fifjv ; vb. TrAacrros. Poetic, 

rare in Hdt. (IV) By-forms: TreAdw poet.; TreAd^co and 7rAd$(o 

dram. ; also of Class V, epic TriXvi]p.L or TriAva/zat, and TrtAvdw. In 

prose irXT]cridt<). (IV) 


Ae/xto> (1002, 1), shake, drive away ; 7reAe/ua ; 

and TreAo/xcu, fo; impf. eVeAov and eVeAd/x^v {ep. sync. eVAe ; 
and eVAei', eVAero ; TrAo/zci/os Euphor. /<>. 55, Homer in comp. eVt- 

and Trept-TrAo/xei'os}. Poetic. 

; ire'p|> ; irp|/a ; Triron<f>a (7 15, 1; 720, 2); irlircpiuii (same as 
p. m. from Tretnrw, cook, but see 88 and 734) ; tir'n4>0T]v ; vb. 


(7T7rav-), ma&e so/; eVeTrdva (Dor.); p. p. inf. 7re7rdV0ai ; 


, TreTropetv, TreTT/awrat, see root TTO/J- or TT/DO-. 
TTCTTTW, coo&, see 7T(rcro). 
n-Epaivo) (TTpav-\ end, accomplish; irepavw ; cirepdva, ep. lirtprjva; i 

6Trepav6i]v ; vb. d-ire'pavTos, Trcpavreov (Galen), 8ia-irpavTov. (//) 

i, Lat. |?^o ; diro-TrapSricropLai ; 2 p. ire'iropSa ; 2 a. dir-c'irapSov. 
iD, destroy, sack; Trepcrw ; eVe/ja-a ; ep. 2 a. eirpaOov (621, 1 ; 996) and 
7rpa$6/Jir]v {sync. 2 a. inf. TrepOat for 7TpO-(rOai}. Poetic, in prose 

(Tre/u-i/a-, 1062, 1), sell, poetic for irwXe'w or diroS^Sop-ai ; fut. inf. 
TTtpdav for Ti-epdoretv in II. 21, 454 (see 680); ep. eTre/xxcra ; pass. ; Horn. 7T7rep?//xei/o?. (K) -Observe also Trepan, go over, cross, 
in simple poet, or late prose ; 7repdo-(o ; eTrepacra ; TreTre/odKot. See also 

Att. ireTTco (TTCK-), late TTCTTTW (TTCTT-), coo^ ; irt'\|/a) ; ^iretj/a ; 
(same as p. m. from irejiir-o), sgw(7, but see 88 and 734) ; lir<}>0iiv ; vb. 
mirrfe. (/K, ///) 

?// see Trero/xat. 

(TTcra-), expand, later ava-Trcraw ; f. Treracrw ; TTCTW ; eir^Tacra Att. 
in comp. ; late Sia-TreTreraKa ; irirTa(xat (sync., 619) Att. ava-, and late 

; 7reTcur6fyi/ poet. ( K) See also 7riT-vr;-/>u or Trirvatu. 
(TTCT-C-, TTT-), /T/; irT^oronat and irr^o-ojiai (619); 2 a. -irrdnT]v in 
comp. (619). Of Class VII are late iirra-^ai and poet. 7TTa-/xa6 ; 2 a. poet. 
eTrT?;!/ (768) and mid. eTrrdfiTjv ; pt. Tre/ji-Trrrjo-do-a (Or. Sib. 1, 245). 
Poetic TTorao/xai and Troreo/xat; Trorrycro/xat (Mosch. 2, 145); 
7roT^^v ; vb. TTOT^TOS (OcZ. 12, 62). Epic Trwrao/zat ; 
late eTrwn/^T/t/. 

irevBofj.o.1 (TrvO-, TrevO-}, poetic for irvvOdvofjuai. 

ir(f>vov and eVec^vov and 7re<^a/xat, all poet. ; and late TT^VW, see root <ev- 
or (/>a-. 

(vray-, Trr^y-), ^/tx, /as^m ; ir^lw ; ^irt]|a ; late 2 p. TrcTrrj^a 2 p. 
am ^e^ (797, 9) ; late 7re7r7yy//at ; poet. fir^)(^v ; 2 a. p. 
ep. 2 a. m. of //.i-form Kar-eTrryKTo, SMC&, in Plat. Phaed. 118 a , 
pres. opt. (1063) ; Tr-^yvvro for Tnyyvv-i-ro (700, 1051 ; but some MSS 
have Ttriyvvoiro. (//, /) Late pres. iryjara-io or TT^TTCD. 

(7T7//zav-), tn/ure ; Trrj^avw ; cirr} prjva ; er^/xai'^i/ ; vb. 
Mostly poet. 


7riaii/(o (Trlav-), fatten', Triava) ; tTrtava ; 7re7racryu,cu ; late iTrldvOrjv. Poet., 
Ion., late prose. (IV) 

and Tri'Am/zcu (TriAva-), TrtAvaco ; see 7reAaa>, approach. 

(TrAa-, see 765), ^^; irXif|(ra) ; ^irX-qo-a ; ire'irX/qKa ; ireirXTjo-ficu, late 
also 7re7rA^/xai ; err\T|o-0T]v ; poet. 2 a. m. of ytu-form fTrXijfjirjv {767, 1 ; epic 
TrA'^ro and TrA^vro, Aristoph. ev-eTrAr/ro ; opt. in Aristoph. 
(700) and eyu-TrAr/TO ; iniper. ep-TrA^cro (Aristoph.) ; pt. c 
Aristoph.)} ; vb. Iji-irXrio-Ttos. In Attic prose in comp. : efi- 
(VII) By-form 7ri/rAai/a> only pass. Trt/xTrAaverat (II. 9, 679). Late 
by-form e/x-7rt/x7rAaw. TrAr^w, 6e /uW, poetic, also late prose ; in late 
prose also trans., fill; 2 p. (poet.) TTfTrXrjOa, be full ; in Att. prose only 
jrXrjOovcra dyopa. ir\t]Q\na, be full, abound, <rvp.-irXi]0vcD, Jill ; eirXT|9i5<ra, 
late a-vv-7r\.^0vcra ; also late Tr\f]0i)va> (7rX.r)Ovv-), fill ; in Aesch. pass. ; 
late 7re7rA?7$ryx/>iai. 

(7r/)a-, see 765), burn; irpT|(ra) ; rrpT]cra ; late -fTrpfjKa; Tre'irp-qfjLai, 
late TreTT/jy/a-yucu ; 6irpT|o-0T]v. In Attic prose usually in comp. : t\L-iri\nrpr]\i.\.. 
(VII) Late TTLfjLTrpda). Horn. impf. ev-ttrprjOov (from Trp-ijOia) only 
II 9, 589. 

(TTLVV-), make ivise, poet. ; Horn. OFtvwtra ; late (.Trivva-Orjv. (VI) 
See irve'to. 

mvw (vrt-, TTO-), drink; fut. irtofiai or mo} (676), TTLOV^O.L (Xen. Conv. 4, 7, 
and late; see 681); ireirwKa ; ire'iroficu ; iir6Qr\v ; 2 a. mov {imper. iriOi, 
poet, and late Trte ; 767}; vb. iror6s, irorcos, Aesch. Pr. 480, TTICTTOS. 

-(V, VIII) 

I-), give to drink; Triers ; irLcra. Ionic and poetic. (K/) See 

seZZ, pres. rare and perhaps late, but Ion. 

irTrpa.Ka ; irc'irpaixai ; irpd0r]v ; vb. Trpdros, Trpdreos. ( ^/) See also poetic 
7rpvrj[jLL. For the pres., fut., and aor. the Attic uses iro>Xi> and 
cnro-8i8op.(u, irwX^o-w and diro-8w(, irwXi]o-a and dir-eSoiiijv. 

7TTO- ; for 7ri-7rer-a), 626), /W; fut. ire<roi)fxai (681), Ion. 
Trecreo/xai, late Trecro^at ; p. -irtirrtoKa ; 2 p. part. (Soph.) TreTrrws, Horn. 
7re7TT?/cj5 and TreTrrews ; late pf. TrtTTTrjKa ; 2 a. n-<rov, Dor. eTrerov, rare 
and late 1 a. eVeo-a. Of Class V, poet. TTLTVW. 

vrj/jii (TTiT^a-, 652, IX ; 1062) and Trirvaco, spread, only pres. and impf. 
act. and mid. Poet, for ITT<XVVVHI. (V) 

, poetic for irtirro), fall. 

av(TK(D (<f>av-\ declare, ep. and Aesch. ; mid. ep. (VI) See -(^aiVKoo 

(TrAayy-), cawsg fo wander ; eVAay^a ; mid. TrAa^o/xai ; 7rAayo/zcu ; 

late eTrAayfa/x^i/ ; vb. TrAayKros. Poetic. (/^) 
dramatic for TreAa^w, 6riw(/ wear, approach. 
TrAacro-o) (TrAar-, 647), Att. irXaTTto ; ava-TrAao-w (Hippocr.) ; ^irXcura : late ; 

; ireirXao-jiai ; i'jr\a.a'Qr\v ; vb. irXcwrTos, late 7rAa<Treoi'. (//) 
weave, braid ; late TrAe^to ; ^rrXcfja ; Sia-7re7rAo>^a or 


Ion. ; ire'irXe-yfMu ; lirXe'xOTjv (rare) and 2 a. p. cirXaKTjv ; vb. 

ir\w (vrAv-, TrAeu-, TrAe/-, 632), sai7; ir\v< and irXv<rov|iai (681), 

late; frrXcvo-a ; ire'irXevKa ; ire'irXcvo-fiai (616); fTrXevcrOrjv late; vb. 

irXevo-T&s. (//) Ionic and poetic TrAww, TrAoxro/xat and late TrAwo-w ; 

7rAoxra ; 7re7rAw/ca ; ep. of /xi-form eVAwv (1063); vb. TrAcords. Rare 

TrAcot'^co, Att. 7rAww (Thuc. 1, 13), late ; late TrAoi^o/xai. 
TrA^y-vu-, eK-7rA77y-i/u<r#ai, s^'&e oneself (Thuc. 4, 125), see TrAijcrcrw. (K) 
7rAr;$(o, irXT]0va), be full, TrXrjOvvia, fill; see TrtyzTrAr/jai. 
7rA>/o-o-(o, Att. irX^TTw (TrAay-, TrAv^y-, 639), strike; irX^fja) ; ^irX^a ; 2 p. 

irerrXTi-ya ; ireirXiryiiai ; eTrA?}^^^!/ rare ; 2 a. p. en-X^y, and (always in 

comp.) |--irXa-yTiv and Kar-eirXa-yTiv ; Horn, redupl. 2 a. (^TreTrXrjyov ; vb. 

KaTa-irXT]KTos ; pres. inf. mid. of the /xi-form (Cl. /) K-7rA^y-vv-o-^at 

(only Thuc. 4, 125). (//, //) In Attic prose, the simple verb is used only 

in the perfect and passive systems ; in the other systems, the compounds. 
wash; irXvvw ; girXuva ; ire'irXvfiai (617); fTrXvBrjv (late); vb. 
(Hippocr.), irXvTe'os. (IV) 
TrAtoi^w, TrAot'^o/xat ; see irX^w. 
(TTVV-, TTVCV-, TTVC/-, 632), breathe, blow, poet. Trveito ; irvciKrouiiai (681), 

-irvcva-ojiat (late in simple), late Trvet'crw ; ?irvv<ra ; -ir^irvevKa in comp. ; 

late e/z-TreTrvewyaat ; late -7rvv<rOr]v in comp. (//) 'Ava-irvew, to/ce 

&rmi^ ; epic forms : 2 aor. imper. ap-Trvve ; 2 a. mid. 3 sing. ap,-7rvvro ; 

a. p. afjL-TTvvo-Orjv. From the same root: epic TreTrviyxcu, be wise; 

TreTTviyzei/os, wise. See TTLVVO-KO). 
jrvt-yw (Tri'iy-, Trvty-), choke; diro-irvflw, late a7ro-7rvt^o/zat, Dor. 

^irvlfja ; ireVvi-ypLai ; 2 a. p. cirvtynv (Att. (XTT-) ; late tt 
iroet'w, desire, miss; iro0rfj<r and iroecVoiiat (679); en-de^o-a and ird0<ra ; late 

TrtTroOrjKa ; late TTCTroBrjfjiai ; late Trpo-tTroOy'jOrjv. 
iroveo), labour; irovf\<r<a, etc., reg. ; but Trovecro/xai (Luc. ^4sm. 9); texts of 

Hippocr. sometimes have Troi/eo-w and eTrovtcra (679). 
7TO/3- or TT/OO-, root, give, impart ; poetic 2 a. eVopov ; 2 a. inf. 

(o show), in Find. PT/. 2, 57 is TreTrapeiv in some MSS ; p. p. 

(poet., also late prose), it is fated ; Trirpa>(ie'vos, fated, rare in prose 

{TJ irirpo>|UvT|, /a^e}. Compare //et/>o/xat. 
irpdoro-w and Att. irpfiTTw (77 pay-}, do ; irpd^o) ; irpda ; ircirpaxa ; 2 p. ire-irpd-ya, 

have fared (well or i7Z), sometimes /wive done, 797 ; -ir^irpd-yiiai ; eirpclx0Tiv 

vb. irpdKTe'os. (IV) 

irpdvvw (iFpavv-), soothe; lirpdtva ; lirpavve^ ; late TTCTT paver pa i. (IV) 
7r/)7rw, be conspicuous, becoming, poetic ; Trpe^w ; eTr/oe^a. In prose, imper- 

sonal : irpe'im, irptyci, ^irp\|/. 
7r//^w, see ir^inrpTipii (irpa-), burn. 

-, 2 a. stem: irpwi|ATjv, bought, inflected in 498; see also 516, 520. 

For the present, see wveofiat. (VIII) 

saw; girpura ; ireirpi< ; iirpto-O-rjv. 616. 

(TT/OCHK-, irpotg, Att. 7r/3otJ, ^r^), &#/; simple only in pres. 


(Archil. 130); (Archil., Hdt.), Att. 

(Aristoph.) ; late Ka.T-t7rpoigdfj.rji'. (IV) 
, stumble; irra<ra> ; &Trrai.<ra ; feVraiKa ; late CTTTatcr/xat ; late C 

vb. d-irraio-Tos, not stumbling. 616., late Tndpvvpi (Trrap-) ; f. Trrapw (? Hippocr. 8, 484) ; 2 a. 

^Trrapov, 1 a. eTTTdpa (Aristot. Probl. 33, 16); late 2 a. p. eTTTaprp. (V) 
JTTTJCTO-O (TTTUK-, TTTI/K-), cozrer ; late 7mj<fl ; irrr]a ; ^irTT]xa., late emyKO, 

late i'7ro-7r7rT7;xa ; 2 a. part. Kara-TrraKwv in Aesch. Ifttm. 257. 

(/K, //) From the kindred root TTTCA- : epic pf. part. TreTrr^w? (may bo 

confounded with Horn. TreTrrr/w? from irtirrw) ; 2 a. 3 dual of /zt-form 

KaTa-TTT-fjTtjv in /. 8, 136 (compare eVr^v from Trero/xat, /?/). Poetic 

and Hdt. Trrwcrcra) (TTTWK-) ; late TTTW^W, late eTrrw^a. 

7TTi<r<ro), pound; eVrto-a (Hdt.) ; irri( ; late Tre/ot-TTTicr^et?. 647. (/K) 
TTTvpo/iaL (7TTV/9-), 6e afraid, fear (Hippocr. and late) ; 7rrvp-r]v late ; act. 

e-TTTvpa late. (/K) 
n-Tvicro-ft) (irrvy-\ fold ; irrv|(o ; frrrvfja ; ^irTvy( ; lirTvx0T]v ; 2 a. p. dv-7TTvyrjv 

(Hippocr.) ; vb. TTTVKTOS (Ion., late). The simple form does not occur in 

Attic prose. (/ V) 
nrcw (TTTU-, 625), spit ; TTTVCTU and Trrro-o/xat (late); -'iirrva-a. (siinpk poet., 

late); evrrvKa late ; ttrTwr&jK (Hippocr., late); 2 a. p. 77x^171^ (Hippocr.); 

vb. Kara-iT-ruo-ros. 

roi ; 7rr'o-w ; eVi'o-a (irvorc, Callim. .F 1 / 1 . 313) ; pass. = ro, decay. 
(7rv6-\ hear, inquire ; f. irv<ro|icu ; ireiruo'iiat ; 2 a. cirvOdfii^v ; vb. 

irevo-Tos, ava-TTi'o-ro? ((>(/. 11, 274). Poetic pres. Trei'^o/xat. (l^ ; //) 
7rv/3ecr(ra>, Attic -irvpTT (Tri'^ero?, forer), Jiave a fever ; Trvpe^w (Hippocr.); 

7rvp^a (Hippocr., late) ; -t-vpe^a (Aristot.). (IV). 

paivw (pav-, pa-), sprinkle ; pavu> ; eppava, ep. e'patro-a ; St-eppayKa (Old 
Test.); eppacrfjiai {Zppavrai Aesch. Pers. 569, epic 3 pi. eppa-S-arat, 
plpf. tppd-S-aro ; see 988, 989}; ipdvB^v, vb. late parrds. Ionic, 
poetic. (/, /K) 

pat'oo, strike, break; patera); cppaio-a ; eppaur&rjv ; f. mid. as pass. Siappat- 
o-eo-Oai (II. 24, 355). Poetic. 

pdirrw (/oa^i>-), stitch; pd^/w ; ^ppa\}/a ; late 2 a. crvv-ppa(f>ov ; late plpf. 
(Tvv-ppa<p^Ki ; 2ppann<u ; 2 a. p. Ippd^v ; vb. pairrds, late TT/)OO-- 

pa.7TTOV. (Ill) 

pdcra-iD (pay-), parrw, ^ro?c rfo?ni, pres. late ; paw late, |vp-pd^o) (Thuc. 8, 

96); ^ppa^a ; late -cppd\0r)v. See apacro-cu. (/I/) 
pefw (/pey- from /epy-, 620), r/o; pew ; eppe^a, usually epefa ; p\9t]V 

(also Hippocr.) ; vb. a-peKro?. Poetic. (/K) Compare epSw. 
pe'irw, 6enf?, incline ; pe^w (Hdt. ; Pans. 9, 37) ; 2pp\|/a. 
pc'co (pv-, pev-, pe/-, 32), /ow; f. ptvo-ojiai (rare in Att.), pevcroG/xat (Aristot), 

later peixrw ; eppevcra (Hippocr.; late; rarely Attic); cppmjKa (613); 


2 a. p. ppvT]v as act., fut. p. pvt|(rop.<u as active ; vb. /OVTOS (Eur.), 

pewi-ds (Emped. and late). (//) 
p-, root, say ; see el-rrov, said. 
pr\yvvpi (pay- for //>ay-, p/y-, pcoy-), 6rea& ; p^a> ; <(ppT]a ; Si-epprjxa (Old 

Test.); 2 p. 2pparya, am broken (717; 797); -/o/o?/y/xat rare; tppi]\0r]v 

rare ; 2 a p. eppdyrjv ; vb. pr/Kros (II.). In Attic usually in comp. 

(K, //) Of Class III, poetic (also late prose) /ory<rcra> ; pyrrto late prose. 
plyto) (ply-, 613), shudder; piyi]<ro>] eppiyrjcra; 2 p. eppiya as pres. 

Mostly poetic. See /jiyow, shiver. 
plyoa>, shiver with cold; regular; but sometimes peculiar pres. contr. (481) 

to o> and o> as well as to ov and ot {piya>, /atyws, ptyw and piyoi ; opt. 

plywyv ; inf. plywv and plyovv ; part, /nyon/res (but gen. pi. 

inXen. iTeM. 4, 5 4 )}. 
ptirrw (pi<f>-, pi </>-), throw, also jnirr&o (636) ; pt\|/w ; ^ppi\(/a ; ^ppi^a 

Ipt^e^v ; 2 a. p. cppt^v ; vb. ^TTTOS (Soph. Tr. 357). (///) 

or pvopai (a by-form of />*o/zcu), defend, guard {ep. //t-forms in 

Horn. : impf. 3 pi. pvaro, inf. pvvOai} ; pvcro/zcu ; Zppvo'd/JL'rjv ; late 

pvo-6r)v ; vb. /ovros (Oc?. 6, 267). Poetic, New Ionic, late prose, rare 

in Att. prose. See cpvia. 

dw, epic, /DVTTOW, befoul; Ionic pf. pt. pe/5V7rw//,evos. 

vf'/xi (/3w-), strengthen; /OGKTOO ; ^ppoxra ; ^ppcojiai {imper. ^ppuxro =fareivell ; 

so also inf. as <pae Ippwo-eai, Plat. P/iaerf. 61 b } ; 


a-atptt) (crap-), sweep ; (rapa) (New Test.) ; ecrrjpa ; 2 p. <r&rripa, grin. 
oraXiritw (craATTtyy-), sound the trumpet; late o-aATrtcrw and craATriw; 

late l(raA7ricra ; late Tre/oi-o-ecraATrio-rat and Trept-o-ecraATrtyKrat. 
traow, sw, see <rw^w. 
crd(T(Tio (New Ionic), Attic <raTTw (cray-), load, pack, equip; &rafja ; 

late by-form a-^Ooj ; 4'cr^o-a ; a-crrj((r)fjivo<s ; ecr?y(o-)^7yv ; vb. late 

New Ionic. 

o-pvvv|Jii (<r/3c-\ extinguish ; o-p^orw ; ^o-p(ra ; late eo-ySecr/xat ; o-p<r6Tjv ; 2 a. 
p. &rptiv, wm owi {767, 1 ; inf. diro-crpfjvai, pt. a7ro-(r/?et (Hippocr.)} ; 
&rpt]Ka, am extinguished ; vb. a-f3eo~r6>s late. ( K) 

o-|po>, revere, only pres. ; impf. re/3ov late ; oftener o-cpofxai ; a. p. Icrt^Orjv 
as act. ; f. inf. o-/^<reo-#cu (Diog. Laert. 7, 120) ; vb. creTrros (Aesch. 
Pr. 812). 

<T<O, shake ; o-c^crw ; 2<reio-a ; creo-etKa ; <reorei.or|xak (616) ; f<ret<rQi\v ; vb. c-eicrros. 

creuw (oru-, <rev-), more, urge ; aor. eWeva (1027) ; pf. eWv/xou, /ia^m (974), 

pt. eo-a-v/xei'os (877), tvvBriv and c<ro-vQr)v ; 2 a. m. eV(o-)v/xr/v (1063); 

vb. eTTiotrvros (Aesch.), avcurorDros (Hippocr.). Poetic, also late prose 

From <revo/zat or croo//,cu, hasten, these forms in the Drama : Doric 



<rc3/xcu (Com. Frag. 2, 887), o-evrai (1062, 3 ; or ? crou-cu, Soph. Tr. 

645), a-ova-Oe (Aristoph. Vesp. 458), croiWcu (Aesch. Pers. 25) ; imper. 

crou (Aristoph. Vesp. 209), o-ovo-#w (Soph. Aj. 1414), orovo-Oe (Aesch. 

twice, Callim.) ; o-owrOai (Plut, Mor. 362). (//) 
<TT]|jLcuvu> (trry/xav-), show ; crr||iavw ; eo-TJfrqva ; late (Tccn^/ay/co, ; 

(TT]ndv0T]v ; vb. a-cr?y/zai/Tos (77. 10, 485) ; late a^/xavreos. 
o-T)irw (CT^TT-, craTr-), cause o ro; cn^w (Aesch. Frag. 270); Kar-tcr^a. late; 

2 p. <To-T)ira as pres., be rotten ; late crecny/x/xat ; 2 a. p. Icrdmjv ; ecn^^ryv 

late ; vb. O-^TTTOS (Aristot.). (//) 

(<riv-\ injure (Ion., also poet.) ; f. (?) o-ivr}o-o/xcu (Hippocr. 8, 112); 

(Ionic). (/K) 
o-Kdirrw ((TKa</>-), efo$ ; o-Kaxj/o) ; 2crKax|/a ; ^<TKa<j>a ; 2crKa} ; 2 a. p. <rK<x<J>T]v ; 

late efTKacfrOrjv. (Ill) 
o-K8dvvv|JLi (cr/ceSa-), scatter ; f. o-KeSacrw (Theog. ; late prose), Att. o-KtSw 

680, 3; <TK'8a<ra ; eo-KSao-|xak ; <TK8dcr0T}v ; vb. o-KeSacrrds (Plat. Tim. 

37). In Att. gen. in comp. (V) <rKc8d<a only o-KcSacov (late), late 

also crKcSa^o). Epic KeSavvi^ui ; /ce8ao"(ra ; e/ceSacr^i' ; plpf. pass. 

KK8ao-ro (Ap. Rh. 2, 1112); late arid rare KeSaw only pr. ; late and 

rare KeSatofuu only pr. Pres. <rKi8vr}fit (cr/ctS^va-) and cr/a'6Va/>t(u (poetic, 

Ionic, rare in Attic) ; poetic KiSyqfJH and KiSvajuu. 

, o-KAe-), c?r?/ itp, pres. late ; f. cr/ctAw late ; Horn. a. ecr/c^Aa, 
2 aor. inf. (Aristoph.) diro-o-KXfjvai (from ecrxAiyv. 767) ; late f. 

a7ro-o-KA?j,To/xat ; eo-KA^/ca, 6e rfr^ wj9, Ion., also late {sync. part. 

ecr/^/oW (Ap. Rh. 2, 53)}. (/K) 
<r<<6TrTO[ (<TKT-), view; o-K\j/o(xat ; 4o-K\|/dfxt]v ; ^o-Kepjiai ; Ion. (TK({)0^v 

pass. ; 2 a. p. eTr-eo-KeTr^v (Old Test.) ; vb. o-Keirre'os. (///) In the 

pres. and impf. Attic writers usually employ o-Koire'w, but the other tenses 

of O-KOTTCW are used only by late writers. (///) 
o-KTJTrro) (a-KrjTr-), prop ; <ridjt|/a> ; ?o-KT]\|/a ; late p. 7r-(rK7^a ; ^<rKTijjijjLat ; O-KT|- 

^v. (///) 

(TKiSv-lJ/JiL (cTKlS-Va-), 866 <TK8dwi5|Xl. (K) 

(CTKCOTT-), ^g?' ; <TKco\|/o)xai, late o.7ro-(rKii>\f(D ', ^crKa)\J/a ; late ecTKW/z/xat ; 


contr. O-JJLW, anoint, smear ; for pres. contr. see 479 ; otherwise reg.; 
vre in Hdt. 2, 37 is a wrong reading for Sia-'oyzoWes. By-form 
mostly Ionic and late ; ay/^to ; Zcrprj^a ; cryu?7y/x,at late ; 81- 

late ; vb. ved-o-/z>7KT05 (JZ. 13, 342), a-tr/xriKros. 
i, pr. late ; earpv^a (Horn.) ; late Kar-ecr/zvy/xat ; late Kar-^a-fjiv- 
late a 

<Too/xai, hasten; see 
CTTra/ayw, ?'o^, wrap ; only ecrTra^a (Horn. Hym. Ap. 121). 
o-ircuo, (Iran-; o-irdo-o) ; &rrra<ra ; ^a-rraKa ; ^<rira<r|xai ; o-rrd(r0T]v ; vb. dvri- 

o-irao-Tos, o-TTacrTeos (Hippocr.). 615 ; 616. 

(Ttretpo) (cr7re/5-), sew; orirepu ; ^crireipa ; late ecnrapKa ; i'o-irapfiai ; 2 a. p. 
to-7rdpT]v ; vb. o-~ ayoros, late cnraprtov. (//) 


, pour libation; fut. tnrel<r<a (90, 4); frnreura ; Kar-eo-Tret/ca late; 
&nm<rp,{u (736) ; late ar/ret'cr^v. 

un/e, rfn'v ; poetic, New Ionic, rarely late prose ; rarely Att. prose 
(in comp.) ; mid., hasten, le angry ; ea-Trep\6i]V. 
o"irv8ci>, urge, speed, trans, and intrans. ; a-irtvo-w ; 2cnrv<ra ; late ZcnrtVKa ; late 

CT7rvrr/xai ; vb. o-irevo-reov. 

O-TUCO (o-ray-), drop, (rra^co late ; eo-ra^a ; ey-ecrray^uzi ; -ea-ra^^i/ ; 2 a. p. 
lo-ray^i/ ; vb. OTCUCTOS. 640. Rare in prose. (/I/) 
, cover, defend ; late (rrew ; late eWe^a ; late la-TexOrjv. 
o) (o-T6/3-, crTt^8-), tread; late (TTCt^w ; Kar-eo-rei^a ; <j-Tt/ (613) ; 
o-TeiTTTos. Poetic. (//) 
crret^w (crrt^-, aret^-), go, poetic, Ion., late Att. prose ; ep. 4'o-rei^a ; ep. 

2 a. eWt^ov. (//) 

<TT\X<o (o^reA-), send; ore Aw ; ^o-reiXa ; ?<rraXKa (621); &rra\n<u ; 2 a. p. 
IcrrdX^v. (7K) 

(crrei/ay-), groan ; crrcvd^M poet., late prose ; co-re'vol-a ; late 
va.yp.aL ; vb. o-revaKro?, (rrevaKreos. (/K) Epic (rreva^w and 
only pr. and impf. o-revw, si^, groan (rare in prose), ep. 
straiten ; both only pr. and impf. 

e; <TTp^co ; <(<rTpa ; 2 p. eWopya (Hdt.), 621 ; eWe/oy/xai (Emped. 
190 ; late) ; late co-Tepx&yv ; vb. O-TC/)KTOS, <rrpKTos. 

and o-repio-Kw (crrep-), deprive, rare ; but airo-orTcpew reg. for the pres. 
and irnpf. ; <TTpif|<r(o ; crrpT]<ra, Horn, eo-re/oecra ; <rrpT)Ka ; o-TepT](xai ; 
ltrTp^6T]v ; 2 a. p. poet. ecrTtprjv., am deprived of, am in want. 
L, pledge oneself, affirm, defective verb (1062, 2) {only o-re^rai, 
o-revi/rat, O-TCVTO}. Poetic. (VII) 
O-T'<}><O, encircle, crown ; o-re^w ; <i<rre\m ; ^o-r|i|iai ; lcrrk^)df]v ; vb. late 
O-TCTTTOS. Rare verb ; o-T<j>av6(o is gen. used instead. 

(arrrjpiy-, 640), support; f. o-T^/ai^to, o-r^/otcrw, crrr//otw (Old and 
New Test.) ; eo"ny/Ha, late lo-r?//)(cra ; ecm^ty^at ; tVr^/ot^^^v. Poetic, 
Ionic ; also late prose, (//) 

(o-rty- 640), prick; O-T^W ; tWi^a (Hdt.); ^o-Ti-yp-at ; ea-rtx^v late; 
vb. o-rtKTo? (Soph.). (//) 

(crro/3-), spread out ; f. late crro/)r<o, <rropw ; e<rrop<ra ; late CCTTO- 
pev/Jiai. late eo-ropeo-^v (also Hdt.). By-form o-rpwvvvjxi 
o-rpwo-w (late in simple) ; e'o-r/aaxra (trag., Hdt.) ; late 
2oTp( ; fcrTpwOrjv (Soph. ; late) ; vb. poet. CTT/CXOTOS. ( K) 

turn; o-rpexj/o) ; ^o-rpexj/a ; late 2 p. -eW/oo^a (621); &rrpa|x|j,ai ; 
<rTpe<})6T]v (rare in Att. pr.), Ion. and Dor. ea-Tpd<f)Oif]V ; 2 a. p. <rTpd<j>T]v ; 
vb. o-Tpeirrds, late o-T/aeTrreos. 

o-Tpwvvv(jii (O-T/OW-), spread out ; see under <rT<Jpvv|u. ( /) 

crrvyew (crrvy-, 613), Tia^, dread; f. pass. o-Tvy??cro//,ai (Soph.); fcrrvyrja-a 
(trag., late pr.) ; 4'cm>a (in Homer = mac?e terrible)', ep. 2 a. 4'crTvyov ; 
aTT-eo-rvyT/Ka Hdt.; late arrvy^/xcu ; ecrTvytjO^v ; vb. crrvy^TOS. Ionic 
and poetic. 


err vfa A iu> (crrt'c^eAiy-), dash ; lcrrv(/>eAia ; late ecrTV(/>eAt'x$r;i'. Poetic (rare 

in Hippocr.). (/I/) 
crvpifo, Att. o-vpfrrTw (o-{y)iy, pipe), play on the pipe, whistle, f. late crfynw, 

crf'/ot'crw, Old Test, criyjtw ; t<rvpia, late eo-iyncra. (/K) 
o-cpw (o-i-'/o-), dra?tf ; o-v/xo (Old Test.) ; <(<rvpa ; o-eo-upKa ; late crecru/)//ai ; late 

2 a. p. -ta-vprjv ; vb. Sia-a-vpreov late. Att. pr. in comp. (//) 
cr<aw (cr<ay-), Att. pr. o-<|>aTTco, s/a?/ ; cr<f>db> ; 2o-<|>aa ; late r<aKa 

&r<j>aY[iai ; ecr(^d\0rjv rare ; 2 a. p. toxjmyqv ; vb. crc^a/cros. (/K) 
<r<j>d\\co (ov/>aA-), rip Uj;, deceive ; <r$aXu> ; ?or<}>^Xa ; late ecr^aAKa ; 2cr4>a\|jtai ; 
late e(r<t>a.\0i)v ; 2 a. p. Icr^dX^v. (//) 
(o-(/>ay-), sZai/; see o-^a^co. (/^) 

(o-^)Te/)t5-), appropriate, reg. ; but eV^erep^a/xryi/ (1002) in Aesch. 
;. 39. (/K) 

fasten; late cr(/)iy^a) ; late eo-(/)ty^a (also Hippocr.); late 
{ecr^ty^at, ecr^tyKTai, etc., 735, 739}; late and Hippocr. 

a) and late O-<UTTO> (o-<^i;y-, 1002), throb; o-(^v^cu ; eo-</n>a. Mostly 
late. (/I/) 

(cr^aS-), cwi Oj9ew, Ze< ^fo, reg. ; pr. also trxaco, impf. ecrxwi/ (Aristoph.). (/K) 
later <rt w > e pic O-GJW' (crwS-, o-to-), sre; <r<rw ; i'crwcra ; o-e'a-wKa ; o-eVea|iai 
and <rcrwo-fiai ; e<rc60i]v ; vb. O-UKTTOS late, O-WOTCOS. (//) Epic enow ; 
(rco^w is very rare in epic. Epic, poetic (not Att.) o-ccow {subj. 
o-o?/, o-owcrt ; but authorities differ between these and (raws or 
(craws, crows), crow, o-owcrt (crawcn, o~awcrt)} ; crawcrw ; Icrawcra ; craw 
2 a. of //i-form craw, Tie sa-yec? or save f/iou (from Aeol. craw/zt ; but some 
write craov, making it impf. or pres. imper.). 

ra-, root, take; imperative rrj (Horn.), in Herodas TT}, 2 pi. TTJTC (Sophr 

Fr. 100). 

ray-, root, seize; 2 a. part. TeraywV. Epic. 
raXa-, see rAa-. 
ravvw, stretcli ; f. ravixrw (simple late) and in Horn, ravvw (see 1023); 

erawcra ; TTawo-/xat, late prose reravv/xai ; eravvcrBrjv ; pr. pass, of 

/xt-form rdvvrai. Epic, also Ion. prose. Compare reiVw. 
rapdo-crw (rapa\-} and Tapdrro), disturb; Tapa^w ; Tapa|a ; late plpf. crw- 

ereTapa^eiv ; rerdpaY^ai ; 6Tapdx.0i]v. Compare Opdo-crw, (/ V) 
Td<r<rw and rdTTw (ray-), arrange, order ; rd^w ; raa ; re'raxa ; Te'raYfiat ; 

fTa.\Qr\v ; 2 a. p. rare eray^v ; vb. raKros, raKreos. (IV) 
Ta<f>- or ^a?r- (102), astonish; 2 p. reOrjTra, am astonished (ep., Ion., also 

late) ; 2 a. 4'ra^ov (poet.). (//) 

reyyw, u ? g^ ; rey^w ; erey^a ; ereyx^v. Rare in Att. pr. 
Tivw (rev-), stretch ; revw ; ^rciva ; Tt'raKa ; TTa|iai. ; erdO-riv ; vb. raro's 

(Aristot), ^w-Tare'os. 621, 1 ; 707. See ravi'w and TtraiVw. (IV) 


TK(iapo|jL(u (rcKfjiap-), ordain, infer, judge; TK[iapovfiai ; ircK]i.T\p6i\i.i\v. Act. 

TKfj,aipo), pat a mark, limit, show] poetic ; IreK/x^/oa ; vb. 

(Com. fr.), TKfj.aprov (Hippocr.). (IV) 
reX&o, complete, accomplish; fat. TeAecrto, Alt. reXw (680, 1 and 6); 

TCTc'XcKa ; TT&.o-fiai ; Tt\4<rQi\v ; vb. liri-rcXco-Teos. 615; 730, 1. 
reAAco (reA-), perform, raise, compel; a. ereiAa. Poetic. dva-T&.X<o, wfre or 

let rise, rise ; dv-emXa ; late ava-reraAKa. ey-reAAto, enjoin, command ; 

usually v-TXXo( ; late ev-TeAov/xcu ; 4v-TiXa[iT]v ; ITTL- 

TeAAw, enjoin, rise, poetic. 621, 1. (//) 
re//-, find; epic redupl. 2 a. rer/xov or erer/xov (619 ; 993). 
T|xvw (re/x-, r/xe-), Ion. and Dor. ra/xr<o, re/xw (in /Z. 13, 707), CM; f. T|XW ; 
pt. Terp7ws pass. (Ap. Rh. 4, 156)} ; 2. a. ?T(JLOV, Ion. and poet. 
; TT|iT]|iaL ; T|XT|0iiv ; vb. T/XT^TO? (poet., late), T|AT|TOS. (V) See 

, gladden, amuse ; rip\\rot ; ^rcpt{/a ; Tp<|)0Tiv, Horn, also eTapffrOyv ; Horn. 
2 a. p. erapTTTyv {with subj. r/oaTreico, no^ from Tp7rw}; Horn. 2 a. 
cTapTrofMyv and redupl. rtra/oTrd/x^v. 621. 

(repcrav-}, dry, ep., pr. late; a. ere/ocrryva (//.). (/K) Epic and 
Ion. repcro/xat, become dry ; 2 a. p. eTe/acrry^ ; late erepcra, mac?e (?ri/. 

Teraywv, having seized ; see root ray-. 

rert^/xat, Horn, pf., am troubled, vexed; only dual TeTtrjcrOov, pt. TCTIT^VOS, 
and rertr/ws, troubled, vexed. 

rer/xov, /otm^ ; see root re//.-. 

(rcr/oav-, r/Da-), 6ore, pres. in comp. ; late (?) rtrpatvco ; f. Ion. 
Sia-TTpavta ; a. Ion. erfTprjva, late ererpdi/a ; late treTpdrO-ujv. 618 ; 
652, II. (//, /) Late rtrpaw and TiVp^/xt (r/oa-); late rpyo-o); ?rpT]cra; 

; late erp^Orjv ; vb. late rprjros. 

-J TVK-, rei^-), prepare, make; rei^w; erev^a; 2 a. Horn. rervKov, 
; pf. pt. Horn. Terev^ws as pass., see Tvy\ava> ; Tervy/zcu 
{Horn. Terei!x" aTat an( i TTei'x" aTO > 740}; f. pf. Tere^o/xat ; Horn. 
tTv\Orjv, Hippocr. iTCV)(0ip 5 vb. Horn. TVKTO?. Poetic. In Homer 
TTvy/xcu and Tv-^Orjv often have the meaning of rervx-qKa and n>xov, 
from Tv-yxo-vo), happen, hit. (//) Poetic TtTixr/co/zcu, prepare, aim; act. 
late. (W) 

TTJKW (ra/c-), me^, trans. ; T^W ; lir-rfea. ; 2 p. Terr]Ka, am melted; late reT^y/xat; 
Tr)\6r]v rare ; 2 a. p. TaKT]v ; vb. Tt]KT6s, late TT/KTOS. (//) 

Tie-, trouble; see rert^/xat. 

r0T]}jLi (^e-), _pw<; for synopsis and inflection, see 508; 498 (504); 1015, 
1016. Dialectic forms: Homer: Pres. riSyvOa for riOrjs, riO^cri and 
Ti$et, 3 pi. TiOeio-i (irpo-Oeovo-i in 7^. 1, 291, is doubtful unless from 
7r/oo-#(o, rws/z, /or^) ; inf. rtOe/mev and Tid^pevai (Theognis 286 has 
TiOeiv) ; part, ri^e/xevos and (77. 8, .34) TLOr/fJifvo<s. Hdt. : Pres. ritfets, 
riOel, 3 pi. TiOelvi ; eriOea, eri^eas, eri^ee. For the subjunctive 

. see 1044-1048. 

TKTO> (TCK-, for rt-reK-co, 626), bring forth, beget; Te', re^w (poet., also 


late), rare and poet, rcfeoufuu (Hym. Horn. 3, 127) ; 2 p. TTOKCI ; 2 a. 

grexov ; very rare 4're^a (not Att.) ; late rerey/zat ; late tTt\9i]v. 
Ti'AAoo (rtX-), pluck; TiAw ; eYiAa ; TCTiA/xou ; triXO^v. Poetic, occasionally 

Ionic and late Attic prose, mostly in comp. (IV) 
Ttvci(ro-(o, swing, shake ; Si<x-Tivao/xcu (reflex, or pass.) ; Irtva^a ; rertVay^tai. 

Ep., also late. (//) 
Ttvw (TI-), ep. Tyco, >?/, expiate; mid. to&e payment, avenge; rto-w, better 

reiorw ; $ri<ra, better r6ura ; reriKa, better r^mica ; T^rnrjiai, better 

TTi< ; Ti<r0T]v, better T<r0T]v ; vb. Horn, TITOS (comp. a-T?TOS\ 

dTro-T()i<rTov. Pres. TiKi>/xt rare and late, Tfi'tyxcu ep. and (rarely) 

Hdt. (/) See TIM, honour. 

TtraiVw (rivav-), stretch; Irtrryva. Epic, see reiVco. (/K) 
Tirpwo-Kw (r/30-), wound ; Tpw<rw ; rp<ra ; late rerpcoKa ; TTp<o|iat ; rpu0T]v ; 

vb. Horn. 77x0x0'$, late T/JCOTCOV. (//) Epic pres. T/JWW rare. 
TiTvcTKO[j,ai, prepare, aim; see rev^w. 
rio>, Horn. TIW, honour ; epic Tfcrw, criera, reri/xat ; vb. Horn, a-riros. Poetic. 

In Attic ricrw and ertcra are from TVW (except Trpy-T^rd'j in Soph. ^4?it 22). 
rAa-, sync, from raAa-, endure ; f. rAvycro/xat, late rAiycra) ; late 

rerA-^/ca usually as pres.; 2 a. erXrjv |767,TA(o, rAauyv, rAyy^ 

rAasj ; 2 pf. epic /xt-forms rerAa^tev {1064; TerAawyv 

rerAarw ; rerAa/xevat and rerAa/xev ; rerA^wg, TerA^vta} ; 

Poetic, rare in prose. From raAa- : late fut. raAcxcro-w ; ep. eraAao-cra. 
(r/xay-, T/xryy-), cu^; T/X?;^(O; eV/x^^a ; 2 a. er/xayov; 2 a. p. er/xay/yr, 

late erp/y^v. Poetic. (//) See TCJIVW. 

(TO/J-, 990), pierce, bore; pr. only avrL-ropcvvra (Hymn. Merc. 283); 

f. avTi-TO/arycrco (Hymn. Merc. 178); f. reTo/3>yo-<o in Aristoph. Pax 381, 

7if#gr w a piercing tone; ero/D^cra ; 2 a. ero/oov ; late rero/Dry/xevos. Epic. 

See TTpcuvo>. 

TOT-, hit, find ; only aor. tTocrtra (Piiid.). (//) 
Tpirw, Ion. and Dor. Tpaww, turn; Tp&|/o> ; ^rpetj/a ; 2 a. eV/oaTrov poet.; 

Trpo<j>a, rarely TT/xx<a (? Att.), these perfects identical with those from 

Tpe'<|>a> ; TTpajji| ; lTp<}>0T]v rare in Att, Ion. Tpa</>$?yv ; 2 a. p. Tpd-in]v ; late 

TpeTTTo?, TpeTrTeos, late Tpa.7rr)Tov. 621. Horn, also rpaTreco and rpoeio. 
Tp'4> (rp(f)- from #/oe</>-, 102), Dor. Tyaa^xo, nourish; 0pe'\|/a> ; ?0p\|/a ; 2 a. 

epic Tpacf>ov as pass., iwis nourished, grew ; Te'rpotjxi, late and doubtful 

Trpa.(j)a (these perfects identical with those from Tps'irw) ; Te'0pa[ ; 

0p(|)0T]v rare in Att., 2 a. p. eTpoujnjv ; vb. OpeTrre'os. 

f rom ^/ e X"> -^^^ ' fy -!^'}) Dor. T/3a)((o, ?*?t; fut. Spafiovjiai, 
(in comp., and in Comedy), tfptfw late, S/oa/xw rare and late, 

and S/Da/xo/uou rare and late ; Wpt^a poet, and rare ; 2 a. ^Spaptov ; 

8cSpdfjiT]Ka, poet. Se6y>o/xa ; 88pd|j.T])iai ; vb. 0pKTe'ov, late Spa/Ji.rjros- 

(VI 11} poet. 8pofj,d(a. 
tremble ; rp<ra. Rare in prose. 

-, 625), rit6; Tpf\|/w ; ^rpix|/a ; TTpw|>a ; TTpi|j.fxai ; erpt<J>0Tiv, oftener 

2 a. p. erptpijv ; vb. aT/HTrros (Od.\ late rplirr^ov. 


(rply- 640), squeak ; erpl^a late ; 2 p. TerpZya. as pres. (Horn. pt. 
rer/oiywres). Ionic, poetic. (IV) 
rpvfo (1002, 1), murmur, mourn, epic ; late er/ovfa. (//) 

, waste, exhaust, rpv\6io (628) only Mimn. 2, 12; f. Tpvx<ro>, ep. 
DUW ; Tpvx<ra ; TTpc\a)|iai ; krpv\(i)6f]V Ion. 

(rpay-, 631), rjnaw ; rpw|o|iai ; /car-ex/ow^a (Ion.); 2 a. Jb-pa-yov ; 

TCTpttYfiai ; Vb. TpWKTOS. (//) 

Tvyx<xva> (TV^-., TCVX-), happen, hit ; Tevo|icu ; epic erv^^o-a, 2 a. ^rvxov ; 
TTvxi1Ktt less often re-rev^a, late reru^a; eTrt-rereuy/uai late, ev-trevxOrjv 
late. ( K, //) In Homer Teri>y/>icu and M\0rjv (from rev^w) often have 
the meaning of rervxT^o- and n>xov. 

TVTTTCI) (TVTT-J TVTTT-, 636), strike; TvrrHj<r, late rvi^co ; 4'rv^a Ion. and lyric, 
ervTrrr/cra late ; 2 a. ervTrov poet. ; rervTrr^Ka late ; rervyu/zat poet., 
rervTrr^/zat late ; erv^Orjv and tTVTrTujOrjv late, 2 a. p. CTTJTT^V poet., late 
prose ; vb. TVTTTTITCOS. (///) For the aor. Attic prose uses 
or ?irai(ra (irafo>) ; for the pf. and pass, systems, 

for 6v(f>-, 102, 625), raise smoke; T#)VHJJLCU ; 2 a. p. irv$r\v. 
Simple form very rare in Attic prose. 


{ryia(va> (vyiav-), be in health, recover health; tryiavw ; v-yfdva, Ion. vyirjva 
vyidvOrjv (Hippocr.) ; vb. vyiavreov late ; late t>yiaw is reg. (IV) 

vXda-KU) (vAa/c-), poet., howl, bark at, rare, vkdcra-w late; v\aa late. (VI) 
Epic v\d(D, pr. and impf. Usually {i\aKT'. 

vnr-iorx-v-o|jLai (i>7r-e^-), and V7rt-cr\ofjiai, promise, see e^w (c). (/) 

v<j>aCvw (vffrav-), weave; v<j)avc5 ; ^rjva, late v(f>dva ; v(f>ayKa late; v<j> 
(737, 2); ti<})dveT]v; vb. v<f>avr<Js. (/K) In 0^. 7, 105, tx/>cuo. 

vw, ram; {}<rw ; vo-a (Find., Hdt., late prose) ; o-|mi ; ixrOrjv (Hdt.). 616. 

(<aev-), appear, show ; e<f>adv6'r)v. Poetic. See <ouVw. (/ 1^) 
4>ava> (c/>av-), show; synopsis in 464; certain tenses inflected in 465; 
<f>av<o ; ?<j>T]va ; ir|>(ryKa ; ire'^curfiai (485); <j>dv6t]v ; <f>, appear; 
2 a. p. 6<j>dvTiv, appeared ; f. <f>av^<ron<u and <j>avovfjwu ; 2 p. ire'^rjva ; 
<|>, s/low?, declare; <j>avovficu ; dir-<})T]vd|iT)v (simple rare and poet.); 
Horn. 2 a. iter. <aveo-Ke, appeared ; vb. a-</>avros (/.). (/K) From 
root <a-, (^ao>, appear, pres. late ; impf. <ae (Horn.) ; f. p. 7re<?ya-Tcu, 
wi7Z appear ; pf. Tre^arat (in Stobaeus) ; see root ^ev-, <a-, for several 
similar forms. In comp. 8ia-, CTTI-, -mro-, New Ion. and late -< 
and -<^WO-ACW ; in the Bible </>aixrw, (f)av<ra. ( K/) Compare Tri^ 
and <aemo. 

4>da-Kft) (^>a-), say, =<f>Ti(jiC ; only pres. and impf. ; see 
>dii) ; see <j>atvo). 


<j>a8o|Aai (^>i3-, </>eiS-), spare; <f>io-o|iai ; {>io-ap]v ; ep. 2 a. 7re<ic)o//,?/i', ep. 
f. Tre^uSvycro/xai ; 7r^)eicr/xevo late, 7re</>iSry/jievos late epic ; vb. <f>i(rT'ov. 

</>ev-, <a-,, HZZ ; 2 a. redupl. and sync. eVe^vov and TTC^VOV (pt. 

also found accented Kara-Tre^i'wv) ; 7re<a/zou ; Tre^cro/xai. Epic. A 

late pres. 7r</>i/o> is found, also a p. pt. Tre^acr/xevos. 
4>pa> (<e/>-, oi-, ^K-, evey/c- for ey-eveK-), 6ear ; fut. ol'<r (ouropai mid. and 

pass.) ; 1 a. ^vt^Ka, ^ve-yKap.^ ; 2 a. 4]vryicov (mid. rare) ; p. tvrjvoxa ; 

VT|V-yfJ.a,i ; i\v4^Qr]V ; cvx0T|orojJLai, ol<r0T|<ro|iai ; vb. olcrros, OIO-TC'OS. Poet. 

and dial, forms : Homer pr. imper. <eyore for ^epere ; a. ?yi'et.Ka, rarely 

VyVei/cov, t]veiKa[ji^v ; aor. imper. o/o-e (1028; also Aristopli.), inf. 

oto-e/x,ei'(at), Find, oicretv ; vb. fapTos (also Eur.). Herodotus has V/'vetKa, 

t'jViKa.fJiiji' ; ervyveiy/xat ; rjVfi^Ojjv ; once (in 1, 157) a. inf. ar-ourou or 

av-wo-at ; generally ay-ono-ros for av-owrros. Hesiod (Scwt 440) has 

a doubtful pr. indie. o-w-evciKtrat. Late verbal o-tyz,7rept-ei'KToi' 

(Stobaeus). (VIII) 
<f>v-yco (4>vy--, favy-), flee ; <}>v|, Dor. (^ei'^ov/xat rare in Att. prose (681), 

late </>euw ; 2 p. ir<}>vya ; Horn. p. part. Tre^uy/xeyos, 7r</>i>ores ; 2 a. 

&jnryov ; late l^cvAx (but see </>evu>) ; late ^v\0-^v ; late p. pts. 

(Nicander) Trec^v^ore? and <^v{V/^eis ; vb. <J>VKTOS, <}>UKTOS, ep. ^VKTO?. 

(//) <iryyavu>, New Ion. and Att. poet., Alcaeus has Tre^vyyw. See <evw. 
<ei'w, cry, </>ev, lament; c^ev^a (Aesch.). 1002, 1. (//) 

(</>a-), a.y; for inflection, etc. see 779, 780, 781, and (Dialects) 

1068. (///) 

ifa (1002, 1), say, pr. late; late <?//>u<o ; e^fttfa (Hes.), ^nj^ura 

(trag.) ; 7T^)?;/>ticr/xev'os, (<f>qfU0'0yiv t ^>?//>tt^^eis, all late. (/K) 
4>6dvo> (<^>^a-), anticipate, Horn, ^^ai/co ; <|>0T|(rop,ai, ^Bda-ia late (doubtful in 

Att.) ; 4 0ao " a 5 2 a - ^ 0T 1 V (like ^O-TTJV in 498) (mid. only c/^a/xei/os 

epic) ; <>0ai<a late, Tre^^aKa very late ; ^Oaa-Orfv late ; vb. <j>6ao-Teor 

late; </>^avo/xai late. (K) 

, speak; <|>0t|ofjiai ; <|>0'yia(j t Tiv ; ^ee^iiai (485; 735); vb. 

<{>0ipa) ((/>^e/3-), corrupt, destroy ; L <f>0ep, Horn. Sia-</>$e/9crto (1019); ?4>0tpa ; 

^4>0apKa ; ^<}>, late 7T<^Oapfj,aL ; 2 p. Z(f>6opa late, but Attic 

intr. am rained or trans, /tare destroyed ; 2 a. p. <j>0dpi]v ; vb. 

late. 621. (/K) 
<|>0i'vw (<f>Ot-\ perish, mostly poet., epic </>#tV(o, rarely trans. ; </>$ti'-/jo-oj, 

</)^tvryora, e^^iVry/ca, all late; .? <f>Qlva late (K) ffrOivvOu (epic) is 

trans, and intr. Epic ^)^tw, prwfc (pr. and impf. in Homer only) ; 

<$i<T<t), Horn. </>$fcr(o, trans. ; '</>$icra, Horn, ec^^rcra, trans. ; late <{>6iKa ; 

e<$i/jtou ; e(f>0t0r}v (Horn.) ; 2 a. of /u-form k^Q'i^v (subj. 

opt. (^dlfJLtjv (for ^>^i-t-/xr;v, 700, 1051); <#io-#a> ; ^610-60.1 ; 

<f>i\w (</>tAe-), Jove, 4>-M<rw, etc., reg. ; Horn. pr. inf. (/>iA?i/xevcu (1062, 3;; 
ep. aor. from stem </>iA- (627 ; 990) e'c 


</>Aao>, bruise; </>Aao-cr(o for <Aacrto (Theocr.) ; e^Acura (Find., Theocr., 
Hippocr.) ; e^Aacr/xat and t^Aacr^r/v (Hippocr.) ; (Aa<o, eat greedily, 
swallow, only pr. and impf. in Comedy. See 0Aao>, 616. 
e'-yw, 6wn, tr. and intr.; </>Aeco ; <f>X|a ; 7re<Aey/zui late ; e^Xc'xC-qv ; 2 a. p. 

<f>ope'<o, carry, reg. ; Horn. inf. pr. <opeetv, <f>opr)va.L, 

<j>pd-yvvfju ((/>pay-), </yxx(ro-co, <J>pdTTco, fence, stop up ; </)a(jo ; &j>paga ; (Tre 

7re<pa/<:etv late ; jr<j>pa^|Acu ; 4>pdx0T]v 5 2 a. p. ec/yjayr/v late ; vb. 

-4>paKT<>s. ( /, / /) Attic are also the forms <j>dp-yviJ|Ai, &|>apa, ire'^ap-yp-ai, 

t<f>dpx0Tiv, <}>apKTds. 
<j>pdw ((^pa8-\ tell, show; <j>pd<rw, etc., regular; ep. 2 a. (e)7re</3a6ov ; Hes. 

p. pt. Trpo-Tre^paS/xevos. (/K) 

, <j>pdTTa> (^>/)ay-), /mce ; see c^pd-yviJiit. (/ K) 

tTTw ((f>plK-), shudder ; </>/o^w late ; ?<j>pl|a ; ir<j>piKa as pres. (7rt(frpi- 

Kovra? Find., 1056). (/K) 

d) and (frpvTTio late, roast; <f>pvu) ; ^4>pv^a ; Tre'^pJJ' ; (f>pv- 

\6riv (Horn. Epigr. 14, 4 and late) ; 2 a. p. kf^pvyr^v late ; vb. 4>pvKros. 
<}>vXdo-ora) (0vAaK-) ; guard; <f>t>Xdco ; e<f>vXa|a ; ire^vXaxa, Tre^vAa/ca late; 

7re<f>vXa-Y|Aai ; 4<j>vXdx0-qv ; vb. 4>vXaKTov. (/ 1/) 
<j>opw (<$>vp-\ mix, knead ; tyvpo-a (Horn, and late poets, 1019) ; tyvpa late ; 

ir<})vp|jiai ; e^tvpBifV I f. p. Tr^\:pa-o^o.i (Find.); vb. crvfJi-^vpTos. (/^) 

By-form <f>vpdw, is regular. 
4>f (<^)v-), produce; Horn. <v<o (rarely in Att.) ; <j>C<rco ; &|>vo-a ; ire'^iJKa, am 

(by nature) {ep. /xi-forms ; 7re</>7'dcri, /jL-7T(j>vy, TTftfrvws ; Hes. has plpf. 

3 pi. ttfoKov (1036)} ; 2 a. ityvv, fee, be born {like Jf8i5v 498 ; 707 ; 

767 ; subj. <}>vw ; opt. <pvrjv and <^vry (700) or (?} (frvi-rj in Theocr. ; <|>vvcu ; 

<}>cs} ; 2 a. p. late e^vr^v (but subj. <uw, <^)t'>;, c^vwcrt found in Att.) ; vb. 

(f>vro<s Find.; late, but rb <j>vr<Jv, plant. 
see <>aivu. 

-^a^w (x ao "-)> /o*ce 6rtc^, yield, pres. ava-^a^w ; ^a(Ttro/zat Horn. ; av- 

Find. ; Xen. has dra-xaovres and Sia-^ao-ao-^at. Poetic. (//) From 
KaS- Horn.; KKa8ov, deprived; Ke/caSo^v, retired, K/ca6rycrw, 
deprive (1037), this last different from the redupl. fut. of /oySw. 
Xaipw (x a p-> X a P~ ~ (^13), \aipe-\ rejoice ; x - 1 ?^! ""* ^te xapr/o-o/zat 

late ; KexapT^a (Horn. pt. /cexap/ws) ; Kt^dptffMi, K^apfjiai ; 2 a. p. 
as act. ; ep. a. ex^/oapyv, ep. 2 a. Kc^po/n^v, late ep. 2 a. 
', ep. fut. p. K)(apr)crw and Kxa/o'/jo-o/xcu (1037); vb. x a P T s. 

loosen ; \aXd<m> Ionic ; ex < ^ a<ra > Find. ex^Aa^a ; KexaAa/ca (Hippocr.) ; 
KXAaa-/xat late ; e'xaXdo-Otjv. 615; 616. 

ai'-), be offended ; \oXeira.vG> ; e\a\tTri\va. ; i\aXcira.vQT\v. (IV) 
al/ ^"5 X V ^") contain > X ^ cro l uiaL (^^5 ^) > ^ a. e'xaSov ; 2 p. 
as pres. poet., mostly epic ; sometimes Ion. prose. (//) 


(x a ~)> kite \a.iv(D (\av-), gape; f. \avov[jiai ; 2 a. ?x avov > 2 p. 
as pros. (//, /If) 

-), Lat. caco; x (roC F Lat > rarely xeo-o/xat (681); 2x " a > rarely 2 a. 
4'xeo-ov ; 2 p. Ks'xoSa ; Ke'x<r| (/ V) 

X"> (x i '~> X V ~ X > ^~> 632), _pow-r, simple poet., or late prose, ep. X et/w 
(1009, 2) ; fut. x ' w (676) ; a. e'xea (684), ep. exeua, late extern ; K\vKa ; 
K'xv|iai ; exv9t]v; poet. 2 a. c^v/op (1063). (//) 
X/VaS-, sound, ring, swell; only p. pt. MCX^a&K (ace. pi. Kex\d8ovTa<s), and 

inf. Me^Ao&tv ; all in Pindar. 
Xo, late \tawvfu. (x)j heap up; X" " 40 '> ^X w<ra 5 K'x<Ka ; Kc'xcoo-fiai (616); 

^xwo-e^v ; vb. xrros. (/, /) 

X/3ato-/x,a> (x/)ato-/x-), /leZ^, warrf ojf, pres. late and rare ; Horn, \paur fiyo-it) ; 
Horn, expaitr/x^o-a ; Horn. 2 a. c'x/ooucr/zov. 990. 

^K- 011 . wsg (xP*i Tai > XP*) " 6 * 1 . etc - 479) ; XP 1 ! " ^ 1 5 ^XPl^Rv 5 
; i\pr\<rQi\v pass. ; vb. xP T l <rT ^ good, XP 1 ! " 1 "*' *- Hdfe has 
[xpaTat, xpeo/jLtvos, ^paro, e^peovro^ xpacrOau, etc., 1011 j. 
xp", give oracles (Att. xpijs, XPp etc -> 4 ^9) ; XP^ "" 5 ^'XP 1 ! 5 K^xpiT<a ; 
i Hdt. ; exP^*^ T ) v j niid. \pdofjia t, xp"H >ak ' consult an oracle ; 
Ion. ; ex/ D1 ?" ( W l/ Hdt. See XPTJ^i wow*, as&. 
(XP a ~i X/ e ")j ^igre r's neerf, i^ behoves; see 790 and 1072. 
", Ion. x/o^t 00 ) wan*, asA;; Att. pr. and impf. ; \pfrn*, Ion. 

-a, Ion. ex^;ra. (/K) 

, anoint, sting ; \pi<r<>> ; 'c'xpiara ; K\plKa (Old Test.) ; Ke', Ke 
f<r9T]v, vb. x)M(rro^ late evrt-xpio-Teov. 

or XP^t" (X/ w ^")j colour ; e'x/owcra late ; /cex^wKa late ; Ke', 
late Kex/ow/xat ; exp"" T l v 5 l a te pres. xpt&wvfu. Poetic 
(x~)j ^op ttp, see 

w, \|/w, rzt6; contrasts to r; instead of a, see 479; otherwise regular ; but 
^f/rj(<r)fMiL and ^^(cr^O-rjv are late. By-form <J/^jx w 5 x l /1 li ft) ; e^iyfafwyv 
late ; ^\|/iryjwtt ; efyx&qv late. Both usually in conip. 
, blame ; \|/o> ; ^v|/e|a ; ei^ey/xac Hippocr. ; vb. XJ/KTOS, ^e/creo? late ; 
p. ei/'oya, (?) 2 a. p. ^e 

; 2 a - P- ^xiv, late 

; vb. j/'VKTeos. Hippocr. 


(w^-, 627), ^usA-; impf. cw9ow (533); f. wo-w, poet. w&Jo-w ; ^<ra, Ion. 
wcra ; ecoKa late ; &, Ion. Sxr^ai ; iwo-6-qv ; vb. aTT-wcrro?, aTT-wo-reos 
(wcrreo? late). 

^// impf. cwvovpL-qv (533); J>vT|< ; (ovt] ; <ovTJ0T]v pass.; for 
the late twv^o-tt/^v, the Attics use tirptajxriv (see 498, 507 ; 516 ; 520) ; 




1074. Simple and Compound Words. 1. A simple word is made 
from one stem only ; as pvOo-s, fable, y/>a<-o>, write, KaAo-s, beautiful, 
o-s, who. 

2. A compound word is formed by the union of two or more 
stems ; as (jLvOo-ypdfos, writer of fables, KaKo-pavris, prophet of evil 
(KCIKOS, juavris). 


1075. Roots. In all words the fundamental part is the root. 
To it are added prefixes, suffixes, and inflectional endings (159, 2). 

Thus the roots of the words Aeyw, TATTOO, At'0os, SLK-TJ, /3ovs, Ka/<os r 
yAuKvs, os, are Aey-, T/OCTT-, Ai#-, BLK-, /3ov- (/?o/-), /CO.K-, y\.VK-, 6-. 

The whole Greek vocabulary can be referred to a comparatively small number 
of roots. Whether these roots ever had an independent existence as words is 
not known. 

1076. NOTE. 1. Roots are originally of one syllable. Most of them consist 
of a consonant followed by a short vowel and another consonant ; as 0e/>- (<t>tpu), 
8iK- (dixy), <iX- (0iXos). Some consist of a consonant and a vowel ; as do- (StSw/u), 
jSa- ((3aiv(>)). Only a few have an initial vowel followed by a consonant ; as ay- 
(&yu), op- (6pvv/u.i). If a root begins or ends with two consonants, one of the two 
is usually a liquid or <r ; as ypa(J>- (ypd<f>ct}), irXe/c- (TTX^KW), apx~ 

2. Roots of two syllables arise from prothetic or epenthetic addition of vowels 
(72, 73) ; as 6-dovs (6-dovr-, Lat. dens, dent-is), and dX-^-^w (compare aXic-ty. 

1077. Suffixes, 1. Koots are developed into stems by the addition 
of suffixes. Thus the root dpx~ becomes the noun-stem a.p-^-5.- (nom. 
by means of the suffix -d- ; it becomes the adjective-stem 
- (nom. dpx-iKo-s) by the addition of the suffix -LKO- ; it becomes 
the present-stem of the verb apx-w by adding the tense-suffix -%'. 
Similarly the root ypa(f>- becomes ypa(f>-d- (ypa^--q) ; ypa<f>-iKo- (ypa<f>- 


j,ev, y^a<-e-re) ; ypa/JL-fJ.a,T- for 

2. A stem (i.e. a root and a suffix) is very often still further developed into a 
new stem by the addition of another suffix. Thus the noun-stem dpx-a- becomes 
the adjective-stem dpx-a-io- (nom. dpx-cuo-s) by means of the suffix -to- ; the noun- 
stem ypafj.-fjMT- becomes the new noun-stem by means of the suffix -eu-. 

3. The root and the stem are sometimes identical ; as <pr)-/m.i (0a-), TTOVS (irod-). 

1078. NOTE. In the list of suffixes in this part of the Grammar all the most 
important are considered. 

1079. Changes in Roots and Stems. In all formations, roots and 
steiiH are liable to a number of changes (1080-1091). 

1030. The vowel of the root may take the strong form : et or ot (from t) ; eu 
(from u) ; 77 or u (from a). Thus Xet/t-^a, remnant, and \ot7r-6s, remaining, from 
XITT- (XeiTrw) ; evy-os, yoke, pair, from fvy- (fetiyPifyu.) ; \rid-tj, forgctfulness, from 
\ad- (XavOdvu) ; pw^-Atos, cleft, from pay- (p-^yvvfu). 

1081. By the interchange of vowels, original e very often becomes o (seldom a) ; 
V) seldom becomes w ; ei seldom becomes ou. Thus rpe^-w, nourish, rpcxfi-r), nourlsh- 
m>'i>f, rpa0-ep6s, well-fed ; (rre'X-Xw, send, ffrb\-os, expedition ; dpwy-os, helping, from 
dpyy-u, help ; cnrovS-r), Speed, and ffjrevdw. 

1082. The final consonant of a stem coming before a consonant of a suffix has 
the regular euphonic changes (80, 84, 86). Thus ypdfj,-fj.a for ypa<f)-/j.a., diKae-T^s for 
5iKa,8-TT)s (from 5i/cd~a;), TTtcr-rts for 7ri0-ris (TTI^-, TTCI^OJ), Xex-ros for \ey-ros, and X^is 
for Xcy-ais from X^y-w. 

1083. A final vowel of a stem is often contracted with an initial vowel of a 
suffix ; as ctpxcuos from dp%a-to-s, oiKetbs from otVe-to-s, alSoios from cu'5o((r)-io-s ; i]p<os 
from T^pw-to-s ; /SeuriXei'a, kingdom, from /3ao-iXe(/)-id ; oltddiov from OLKL-L^LOV. 

1084. A short final stem-vowel is usually lengthened before a consonant of the 
ending ; as 5pa-/x.a, action, from dpd-w ; /3^-/xa, pace, step, from /3a- (/3atj/w) ; Troirja-is, 
poesy (making], from 7rote-w ; 8u-pov, gift, from oV (Si'Soj^ci)- But exceptions are 
numerous ; as /3d-<ns, do-rrjp, STJ/AO-TT/S. 

1085. A long final stem -vowel is often shortened before suffixes, as before 
inflectional endings ; as apxatos from dpxci-io-s, stem dp^a- shortened to dp%a-. 

1086. A final vowel or diphthong of a stem is often dropped before an initial 
vowel of a suffix ; as Xoy-to-s, skilled in words, from X67o-s ; /3ao-iX-i/c6s, kingly, from 

1087. A final consonant of a stem is sometimes dropped ; 
temperance, from (r&Qpuv, temperate, stem <rw<t>pov-. 

1088. As in the perfect and aorist passive, a is sometimes added to the root ; 
as <T7ra-<r-yu,6s, twitching (crird-tt), -<nrd-cr-6rii>). So occasionally 6 ; as crra-^-yttos, station 
(forty/it, crra-). 

1089. Final o of the stem is often changed to e ; occasionally a. to w or 77. 
Thus ^Trcu^o-s, praise, eiraive-u}, praise, eTraive-Trjs, praiser ; a-rparid, army, crrpariw- 
r?7s, soldier ; TL/J.-^ (rl/uid-), honour, rt/i^-ct's, honoured. 

1090. A vowel is sometimes added : in the root by epenthesis (73), as ffT-e-poir-^ 
and dcrrpaTT-??, lightning ; or pleonastically, as TTOXI-TJ-TTJS, Ionic for TrdXirris, citizen. 

1091. Reduplication and metathesis sometimes occur, seldom syncope ; as 


-r), food (e5-, Ionic 5w, eat) ; Tfj-rj-ffis, cutting (TC/JL-, T/j.e, refj.-voj) ; TTTTJ-I/OS for 
j'js, winged, flying (TTCT-, Trre-, TT^T-O/WU, yfy). 

1092. Primitives and Denominatives. 1. A primitive word is 
formed directly from a root or from the theme of a verb ; as y/oa^-r/. 
-d-), writing, ypa<-6/co-s (ypa<-i/<o-), -&/ fo write, ypa<-i's (y/oa(/>-t<$-), 
(for writing on tablets), ypa^eu-s (y/oa<-ev-), writer, y/oa/z-/xrj 
(ypa^-/xd- for ypa<-/zd-), Zm0, y pa//,- /xa- (y pap- par- for y/3a<^-/xar-), Something 
written, all derived from the root ypa</>- (y/oa(/>-w, / tmfo). So the 
noun SiKair-Trjs, judge, comes from 6\Kaw (StKaS-), to judge, which again 
is derived from Sue?;, n#/i, /aw / x/ ^- T7 is> chorus-dancer, is from x<>/>euf> 
to dance, this latter also a derivative, from x/o?, dance, chorus. 

2. A denominative word is formed from the stem of a noun or 
adjective ; as viK-aw, conquer, from vixd-, stem of vz/cr;, victory ; y/oa/x- 
/zar-eus, writer, scribe, from the stem of y/oa/x-^a (y/oa/A-/xar-), anything 
written ; apyatos, ancient, from the stem of px^ ("PX^'X beginning. 



1093. A small number of nouns have no suffix, the root and the noun-stem 
being identical. Thus TTOI^S (7ro5-), /oo ; 0A6 (0X07-), flame, from the root 0\e7- 
(0X^y-o>, &?tm) ; ^p, 6r)p-6s, beast. 

1094. -o- (nom. -os, -ov, gen. -oi'), a very common suffix. The nouns in 
-os denote either persons (oxytones) ; or things, especially abstracts (barytones). 

dpx-o-s, leader, from &px-t>}, lead a-To\-o-s,ex2)edition,fi'oma'T\-(crT\\<j},scnd) 

TTO/XTT-O-S, escort, ,, 7re/x,7r-w, send 7rX6-o-s for ir\of-o-s, voyayc, from ?rXe/- 
T/)o0-6-s, nurse, ,, T/>e0-u>, nourish (TrXe'w, TrXv-, TrXe/-) 

Xo7-o-s, speech, ,, Xy-o>, sjjea^; ^7-6-1', y^e, from ^7- ($ev*Y-vv[u, join] 

1095. -d- (very many feminines in -d or -17). Nearly all denote thing?, 
many of them abstracts ; a few denote persons. 

apX-'h (apx-tt-), beginning, from &px-<>>, begin Xot^-ij (\oi(3-a-},pouring, from \eip-w, pour 

rpo(p-T] (rpo(f>-a-}, noiirishment, from rpe'0-w, CTTTOI/S-T? (cr7roi5-d-), haste, from cr7rei;5-a>, 

nourish hasten 

ftdx-rj (/ia%-d-), 7?^, from, .fight 8-u8-ri (e'5-w5-d-),/oof?, from 5-w (Ionic), 
ffudfi-r) ((r/ca0-d-), ^t6, from <r/ca0- (a/ca7r-rw, ea^ 

<^igr oy^) 00/3-a (0op-d), bearing, from 0e'p-w, ^ear 

1096. NOTE. These are mostly oxytone. Observe that the following are 
paroxytone : ^\dj3r), damage; fj-dxt], battle; Tredri, fetter ; ir\dvr), wandering; avarr), 
cheating; ffreyrj, roof; /xeXer^, care; rv^rj, chance; cuVxiV^, shame; \rj0r), forgetful- 
ness ; vturi, victory; St/c??, right; \u(3r), outrage; XI/TTT;, pain; and some others. 

1097. Primitive nouns are also formed by the following suffixes : 
-avo-, -avd- : o-re^-avo-s, crown (<rrc'0-w, crown) ; 6-rjy-dvrj, whetstone (d-fty-a), whet), 
-ova- : T75-01/T7, pleasure (f/, rejoice). 

-\o-, -\d- : ??-Xo-s, se<7.^ (fe'-w, 6oi7) ; ffTr)-\-r], pillar (crra-, i-ffT-ij-fju, set) ; 00-Xo-i' 
acc (00-w, 2>roducc). 


-po-, -pd-: ya/jL-jS-pb-s, son-in-law (ya/j.-eu, marry}; x^P^> land; -rr^rpa, rock; 

dti-po-v, gift (do-, di-dta-fti, give). 

-TO-, -TO,- : j3io-ro-s, living (/3i6-u>, live) ; Koi-rrj, couch (KC-, KCL-, Ket-/icu, lie). 
-a8- : j>t</>-d-s, vi<p-d8-os, snow-flake, from vitj)- (vt<j>-<i), snow). 
-i-, -18-, -IT- : Tpox-i-s, runner, gen. rpox-i-os and rpox-e-ws (rpex-u, run) ; \ir-i-s, 

e\7r-i'5-os, hope (Epic e\ir-u) ; x<fy>-i-s, %d/>-n--os, favour, grace (xo-p-, Xtpw). 
-ov-, -wv- : eiK-Mis, eiK-6v-os, image (et'/c-, ZOIKO,, am like) ; /cXuS-wi', /cXuS-ow-os, billow 

(K\vd-, K\tifa, splash). 

1098. Other suffixes can be seen in words like the following : ireidu, -n-eid-o-os, 
7ret0oCy, persuasion; cu'5o>s, cu'5-o(<r)-os, cu'SoOs, shame; Xe/S^/s, \ej3-r]T-os, kettle; yeXws, 
yA-arr-oy, laughter; OK-VO-S, hesitation; <f>ep-vr], dowry; irapd-fvo-s, maiden; wX-frrj, 
elbow; Kofi-wo-s, basket; /j,e\-ivr], millet; 0et5-wX?7, thrift; irXrj-d-wpTj, satiety; 
dXy-rj-Suv, 0X7-77 -56i'-os, pain; apTr-e-dovr), rope; yyeijubv, -rjye-fj.ov-0^, leader; Xet/xwi/, 
Xet- / acDj'-os, meadow; TrXfj-ff-fj-ovri, fulness ; crrd-fj-vo-s, jar ; \i-jm,vrj, lake. 

1099. Agent. 1. The following suffixes denoting ac/ent are masculine : 
-TO.-, nom. -rrj-<s : K/H-T?J-S, judge (K/)tVw, K/H-, decide) ; av Xrf-Ti] -<$ } flute-player 

(avAe-to, play the flute) ; S/od-cr-T^-s, worker (8pd-a), do) ; t/c-e-r^-s, sw^p- 

plia?it (iK-veo/xou). 
-Tt]p-, nom. rrjp : 6o-r?y/3, ^iver (SiSw/At, 80-, (/ive) ; crco-T^/a, saviour (a-io-a), 

crw^w, save). 
-Top-, nom. -to/) : py-rw/3, orator (pe-, ep-, e/a-ew, e/aw, s/wiZZ say) ; KTtV-rw/a, 

founder (KTI^W, KriS-,, found). 

-u-, nom. -evs : yyaac^-ev-s, writer (ypd<j>-(j), write) ; <f>ov-v-<s, murderer (</>v-). 
-Tpo-, nom. -T/30-s : ta-r/oos, physician (ta-o/xat, A,gaZ). 

2. The following denoting agent are feminine : 

-TpiS-, nom. -Tyois : avA/y-T/H-s, female flute-player (av Ae-a>). 

-TtS-, nom. -rt-s : t/c-e-rts, female suppliant (iK-veo/xai). 

-Tipd-, nom. -ret/aa : So-ret/aa, fern, of 8o-rtjp ; o-w-Te(,/)a, fern, of aw-rry/o. 

-Tpicl-, nom. -r/oia : Troi^-r/oia, fern, of TTOI^-T^-S, jjoe< (from TTOIC-O)). 

1100. NOTE. Some of those in -rijp (gen. -T^/)-OS) and in -eus denote things ; 
as w-0--T77p, girdle (&-VVV/M, gird) ; KOTT-CV-S, chisel (K^TT-TW, cut). 

1101. NOTE. 1. The masculines in -rrjs usually form their feminines in -rpLs 
or -rpia, sometimes in -ris ; as avXy-Tirj-s, avXtj-rpi-s ; Tronj-rrj-s, Troirj-rpia ; iK-t-TTj-s, 

2. The masculines in -T-qp have their feminines in -ret/aa ; as ffw-rr/p, o-c6-rei/)a. 

3. Of those in -rwp and -rpo-s, a few have corresponding .femmines in -rpia ; as 
cr^X-XTjTr-TUJp, partner, <ruX-X^7r-r/)ta (from <rv\-\a/m.pdvw, cr^X-Xa/3-) ; fa-rpb-s, id-rpia. 

1102. NOTE. Sometimes the same word has two or more forms, with different 
suffixes; as dpd-a-rrj-s and dpa-cr-r^p ; d/ut,vv-Tup and d/u,vv-Tr)p, helper; pLady-T-rj-s, 
pupil (from /J.av6dvu}, [j,ad-e-, learn), fern. /uLaB-Tj-rpis or fj-adrj-rpia ; Id-rpo-s, poetic 

fd-T-rjp (Alcman Id-rwp). Several in -rwp has forms in -ropo-s ; as Si-d/f-rcop and 
5t-d/c-ropo-s, Guide (frequent epithet of Hermes), from 5i-dy-w. 

1103. NOTE. Accent. 1. Those in -r-f)p, -rp6j, -rpt's, and -efc are oxytone. 

2. Those in -rap, -reipa, and -rpta are recessively accented. 

3. (a) Those in -TTJS are oxytone when the suffix has been added to a lengthened 
final stem-vowel or when the suffix is preceded by <r ; as Trot^-riys (7roie-w), 
(/crtfoj, KTid-), 6pxT)-<r-Trjs (6p%e-o^a). The exceptions are: 

?, KvfiepviJTrjs, irev^ffr^, TrXar^TT/s, TrXda'T'rjs, 


(b) Those in -T-rjs are paroxytone when the suffix has been added to the short 
simple, stein ; as epya-ri^s (epydfo/mai), workman, v<f>dv-Tr)s (vfaivw, ixfxnv-), wearer. 
Exceptions are Kpirys, judge, viro-KpiT-fis, actor, evpeTr/s, finder ; also some words 
from liquid themes, as Kadaprrjt, \l/a\r^, and a few others. 

4. Those in -TIS corresponding to masculines in -TTJS are accented on the penult ; 

aS /fX^7TT7?S, 

1104. Action or Abstract Idea, The following suffixes denote an 
action or an abstract idea : 

-TI- (nom. -TI-S, fern.) : Tricr-ris, faith, from irid- (Trei&o, persuade) ; <a-ris, 

report, from (a- (</;/>u, say}. Compare Latin verbals in -tio, as ac-tio. 
-eri- (nom. -o-i-s, fern.) : pi^-a-is, imitation (/xi/xe-o/xcu, imitate] ; 7rpai<s for 

Tr/my-o-is, action, from Tr/ady- (Tr/saWo, do). The suffix -o~i- is for 

original -rt- (see 85). Compare also Latin verbals in -sio, as divi-sio. 
-<rid- (nom. -crtd, fern.) : So/a/xa-o-td, testing, from So/a/xaS- (6\>Ki//,da>, es). 
-jjto- (nom. -/jto-s, masc.) : 8oy-/xos, pursuit (8twK-w, pursue) ; Aoyur-yuos, 

calculation, from AoyiS- (Aoy/o/xcu, calculate) ; oo\y>-yu,os, wailing, from 

oSv/3- (dSi'^oo/xat, wai'Z) ; (nra-(r-^6<s, spasm (o-Tra-w, draw), pv-0-fj.6<s, 

rhythm, from /ae-, pv- (pw,flow). 
-jid- (nom. -/XT^, fern.) : 63-fJufj, odor, from 08- (o^co, smell) ; yvw-//,?;, opinion, 

from yi/o- (ytyvwo-Kco, know). 
-TV- (nom. -TV-S, fern.), mostly poetic and dialectic words : 6p\7j-a--Tv<s, dancing 

(6px*-ofJiai, dance) ; /3/ow-ri'S, /oorf (/?po-, /3i[3pa>(rK(D, eat). Compare Latin 

verbals in -ws, as can-tus. 
-id- (nom. -eid for -e/-td, -ev-id). These are from verbs in -cvw ; as 

7rat8-td, education, from TrouSevw, educate. Compare 1113, 2. 

1105. NOTE. One in -ns and two in -cm denote persons: fidv-ris, seer (/J.CLV-, 
fjiaivo/mai, rage) ; Tro-tris, husband (but TTO-O-IS, drinking, from TTO-, TT^W, drink) ; 
/cd-o-ts, brother or s^er. Often others in 1104 are concrete in meaning ; as 56-o-is, 
#?/ or the ac of giving ; xii-^bs (xv-), juice; ypafj.-fj.rj, line. 

1106. NOTE. Accent. Those in -rts and -<rts are recessively accented. Those 
in -crtd and -da are paroxytone. Those in -/*6s and -rds are oxytone. Those in -fj-r) 
are either oxytone, as ypafj.-fj,r], or paroxytone, as <f>ij-/j,ri. 

1107. Result. The result or effect of an action is expressed by these 
suffixes : 

-JIO.T- (nom. -/xa, neuter with recessive accent) : 7rpay-fj.a, deed, thing done 
(Trpay-, 7r/)do-(rw) ; y pap- pa, anything written (y/aac^-w) ; r/x^-yaa, section 
(refji-, T/xe-, re/x-va>) ; vorj-fjia, thought (voe-w). 

-6tr- (nom. -os, neuter with recessive accent) : TCK-OS, gen. reK-e(o-)-os, TCKOVS, 
c/ii'M, from TCK- (rtKT(o, bring forth) ; Aa)(-os, Zoi (Aa^-, Aay^a^co, obtain 
by lot) ; \//v8-os, lie (^v5-a, deceive). The suffix -eo-- often expresses 
quality : ra^-os, swiftness ; J3dO-os, depth ; evp-os, width. 

1108. Instrument or Means is denoted by 

-rpo- (nom. -rpo-v, neuter) : apo-rpo-v, plouyli (d/oo-a>, plough) crKfjir-rpo-v, 
staff (a-KijTr-Tw, prop) ; Xv-rpo-v, ransom (Av-, Al>a>) ; SiSax-r/oo-v, teacher's 
hire (8t8a^-, St8do-/co>, teach). They are recessively accented ; except 
Xov-rpo-v, bath (Aov-co, wash). Compare the Latin -trum, as ara-trum. 



-Tpd- (nom. -rpd, paroxytone): /xotK-r/oa, kneading-trough (/xay-, ^.arrcrw, knead); 
v-(r-rpd, scraper (t'-co, scrape]. But often -rpd denotes a place ; as 
op\r]-v-Tpd, place for dancing (o/)^e-0yuat); 7raAat-cr-T/>d, wrestling-ground 
(7raAat-a>, wi^estle). 


1109. Qudlity, Nouns expressing quality or the abstract idea of the 
adjective are formed from adjective-stems by the following suffixes : 

-id- (nom. -id or -id, fern.) : o-o<-td, wisdom (croc^o-s, wise} ; ei'Sai/zov-tu, 

happiness (euScu/xwi') ; aA>;$e-ia for dX.rjOe(r-ta, truth (dA.t;07J$, */ . ; 

ewo-ia, kindness (ewoos, euvovs) ; d$avacr-id, immortality 

Compare the Latin -m as in miseria, memoria. 
-TTJT- (nom. -TT/S, fern.) : io-o-T?ys (tcro-rr/r-), equality (icro-s) ; 

(a7rAo-Ti/r-), simplicity (oVAdo-s, cbrAovs) ; Tra^r-r^s (Tra^v-r^r-), 

thickness (Tra^v-s). Compare the Latin -fas, -tdt-is, as veri-tds, veri-tdt-is, 

-o-vvd- (nom. -crvi/r;, fern.) : SiKouo-criV^, justice (Si/mio-s, Jwsf) ; o-u^po-vvvri, 

discretion (crw^/ocoi', a-w^pov-, discreet). 
-a8- (nom. -as, feminine abstract nouns of number) ; /xov-ds (^uoj^-aS-) or ev-cts (ej/-a5-), 

^/w wii<, unitt/, the number one, from /mdvo-s or efs, e^-os ; 5i>-ds (5y-a5-), c^?/ac?j 

from 5i;-o ; rpt-ds, triad. 

1110. NOTE. Most of those with the nominative in -id are from adjectives in 
-oj, but some are from adjectives of the 'third declension. Those in -ia are from 
adjectives in -f/s, gen. -e(cr)-os, -ovs, or from adjectives in -oos, -ow ; the final e or o of 
the stem unites with -ta to form -eta or ota, as in dX-^^eia from d\?j^7?(o-)-ia, evvoia 
from euVo-ia. But some compound adjectives in -175 have corresponding nouns in 
-id, as d-rux^s, unfortunate, d-rvxia, misfortune ; while some nouns waver between 
-eta and -id, as ei)-7rd#eia or ev-TraOid, comfort, from ev-Tradr/s, comfortable. Adjectives 
iu -e??s, cen. -ee(<r)-os, -eoi^s, drop one e of the stem ; as eV-5e??s (eVSeecr-), need)/, eV5eta 
for eV-5eei, ?i^. 

1111. NOTE. The feminine form in -d or -y of some adjectives is occasionally 
used ns an abstract noun. The accent is then thrown back. So e'xfy-d, hatred, from 
e'xfyw, -a, -bv, hostile, hateful ; d^p-/m.rj, warmth, from dep-^bs, -TJ, -bv, warm. 

1112. NOTE. Accent. Abstracts in -id are paroxytone, as ao0i'd; those in -eia 
and -oid from adjectives in -775 and (-oos) -ous are proparoxytone, as dX^^eia, eiVoia. 
Those in -rrjs, -r^r-os are almost all paroxytone, as iraxv-Trjs ; but a few are 
oxytone, as ST/IOTT/S. Those in -0-^77 are paroxytone ; those in* -ds are oxytone. 

1113. Person Related. 1. The person related to or concerned with 
an object is denoted by these suffixes : 

-6v- (nom. -t's, masc., oxytone) : Kepa/z-ev-?, potter, from Keyxx/xos, potter's 
clay, earthenware; ypa/z/xar-eu-s, secretary (ypcx/x/xa,] ; 
TTop^/x-ei'-?, ferryman (iropffjuio-s, ferry) ; te/o-ev-s, priest (ie/ao-9, sacred). 

-ro.- (nom. -TT/?, masc., paroxytone) : TO^O-T^?, bowman, from roo-v, bow 
OLKf-rrf^, servant (ot/co-s, house) ; TroAt-rrys, citizen (?roAt-s) ; (rT/oartw-TTy?, 
soldier (err par id, army) ; vav-rrys, sailor (vav-s) ; 8ecr/>tw-T7ys, prisoner 
(oW/xo-s, fetter). 
2. The feminine suffixes of the same meaning are : 


-ri8- (nom. -rts, paroxytone or properispomenon, corresponding to -rrjs) ; 

oiKc-Tis, house-maid; TroAt-Tts, female citizen; oW/zw-rts, female prisoner. 
-td- (nom. -eta, proparoxytone). This occurs in /3ao-cAeia, queen, and in 

tepeia, priestess. 
-18- (nom. -is, oxytone). In some feminines corresponding to masculines in 

-ei's ; as (f>apfjLai<vs, </>a/)/xa/as, dealer in charms or poisons (^dp^aKOv, 

drug}. See also 1114. 
-wr<rd- (num. -to-crd, proparoxytone) : fiavt. A-icro-a, queen ; KiAio-o-a for 

KtAiK-7/a (96, 1), Cilician, from KtAt, KtAiK-os ; O^jcra-a for Brjr-ya, 

female serf, hireling, from 6-rjs, Or/T-os. 
-cuvd- (nom. -aivd, recessively accented) ; corresponding mostly to masculines 

in -<DV ; a few correspond to masculines in -os. 

Ae-aiva, lioness (Aewv, AeovT-os) Aa/c-aiva, Laconian (Aa/ccor, Aa/cwv-os) 

reKT-aiva, artisan (TCKTCOV, reKTov-os) AvK-atva, she-wolf (Av/cos) 

1114. NOTE. The suffix -t5- (nom. -s) belongs also to some feminines 
corresponding to masculines in -17? (not -TTJS) of the first declension ; as Ilepats, 
Persia, Persian ivoman (Htpo-rjs}, Zxv0fe, Scythian (2/ci/^Tjs). Compounds of -TrwXTjy 
are proparoxytone in the feminine ; as dpro-Tr<j}\rjs, dealer in bread, dpro-iroXis, bread- 
woman. Sometimes the suffix -iS- corresponds to other masculine forms ; as 

retail-dealer, fern. KairyXls ; 0uXa, guard, 0iXcm's. 

1115. NOTE. The suffix -i5- (nom. -/$) also ap[>ears adjectively ; as TroXi? 
an allied city ((ri//i/xa%os, allied}. 

1116. Patronymics. These denote descent from an ancestor and are 
formed from names of persons by means of the following suffixes : 

-8d- or -i8d- or less often -ux8d- (nom. -8175, -t8^s, -la&^s, masculine and 


-8- or -18- or less often -ia8- (nom. -s, -ts, -tas, feminine and oxytone). 
-lev- or -uov- (rare and poetic, nom. -itov, masculine and paroxytone). 
-uovd- or -ivd- (rare and poetic, nom. -twv^ or -ivrj, feminine and paroxytone). 
The suffixes -dd- and -5- are added to masculine stems in -d- which is then 
shortened to -a-, and to stems in -io- which is changed to -ta-. The other stems add 
-i5d- and -id- ; but -o- of the stem in the second declension is dropped, and -ev- of the 
third drops v. Some stems add -iadd- and -tad-. Only a few stems have -iov- 
or -iw. 

, son of Boreas, fern. Bopea-y, gen. Boped-5-os from Bop^d-y 
y, son of Thestius, ,, eartci-y, ,, 0e<rrta-5-oy 
y, son of Priam., ,, Ilpta/W-y, 
;-y, son of Cecrops, ,, Ke/cpo7r--y, 
(Horn. IlTjXe-tSTy-y), son of Peleus, 

fern. N?7p77-/-y or 

from ^ptjs ($ep-r)T-) 

?7-y, son of Pheres, ,, ^epr/r-id-y, gen. ^epT/r-td 
Kpov-twv, son of Cronos, gen. Kpov-tw-os and Kpoi>-iot>-os, 
'Afcpio'-iwi'?;, daughter of Acrisius, 
'A.dpT)a-T-tvrj, daughter of Adrestus, ,, "ASp^o-ro-y 

1117. NOTE. The poets vary the form of the suffix according to the meter ; 
as (n.T)\e-idr)-s) Hr}\-id-r)-s and in Homer Hr/X-rj-iddrj-s and IT^Xe-iwi'. The poets 
sometimes combine -iov- and -i5d-, as 'laircT-lov-idtj-s, son of Japetus ('laTrero-y) ; 



sometimes the stem drops or adds a syllable, as AevKaX-iS-rjs, son of Deucalion 
(AevxaXiuv, Aei;/cctXta>j/-) ; Aa/unr-cr-idr)?, son of Lamp us (Ad^7ro-s). Other irregularities 
sometimes occur ; as Aicryopi'Scu from Aiayopd-s. The combination -cuctSr/s from -cuos 
was always avoided, -a(t)t577s being used instead, as Heipat'S??? (Horn.) from Ilei'pcuos. 
Sometimes -t'5?;s is used as a diminutive in comic formations, as K\eirT-i5r)-s, 
child of a thief. 

1118. NOTE. Relationship is expressed in a few words by the suffixes -i5eo-, 
son of -- , and -i5ed, daughter of - ; the nominatives end in (-tSeos) -t5oGs and 
(-i<5ed) -idrj. Thus: dvyarp-idovs, daughter's son, 6vya.Tpt.-drj, daughters daughter; 
d5eX0-i5oDs, nephew, ddeXfadi), niece. 

1119. Gentiles. These denote a person as belonging to a particular 
country or nation or town, and are formed by means of the following suffixes : 

1. -6v- (nom. -et's, masculine and oxytone). 
-18- (nom. -is, feminine and oxytone). 
These two correspond to each other. 

Meyctp-cu-s, a Megarian, fern. Meya/>-ts (Meyap-iS-), from Meyapa (pi.) 
^co/ccu-cv-s, a Phocaean, ,, 
'E/aeT/oi-ev-s, ft Eretrian, 

2. -TCI- (with long preceding vowel, nom. -d-r^s, -r;-r^s, -l-rr/s, -( 

masculine and paroxytone). 
-Ti8- (with long preceding vowel, nom. -a-ns, -ry-Tts, -i-rts, -W-TIS, 

feminine and properispomenon). 
These two correspond to each other. 

of Tegea, fern. Teyea-ris (Teyea-rtS-) from Teyed 

o/ Aegina, Atyi^-Tts (Atyt^rtS-) ATyii/a 

s, o/ ^l&rfera, 'A/S^pl-ris ('A/3%u-TiS-) "AftSrjpa (pi.) 

, Sicilian Greek, St/ceAtw-rts (St/ccAiw-rtS-) 

1120. NOTE. The feminine form in -fs (-i5-os) may also denote a land or a 
dialect ; as ^ Ai'oXis, sc. 777 or xupa. = Aeolis ; sc. y\u><r<ra or 5td\e/cros = the Aeolic 

1121. NOTE. 'IraXtcDrcu and Si/ceAiwrcu were Greeks settled in Italy and 
Sicily ; 'IraXot and St/ceXot were the original inhabitants. 

1122. NOTE. For the gentile adjectives in -tos, -/cos, -LKOS, --rjvos, -avbs, -tvos, 
see 1140 and 1145. 

1123. Diminutives. These are formed from the stems of nouns by 
adding the following suffixes : 

1. -10- (nom. -LO-V neuter ; those of three syllables with the first syllable 
long by nature or position are paroxytone, all others are proparoxytone). 
TrauS-iov, little child, from TTOUS (70x18-) ye</>r'p-iov, little bridge, from ye^v/oa 
/ojTT-tov, little garden, KTJTTO-S ao-TrtS-t'ov, little shield, do-7ris (ao-7rt5-) 
Note that final o of the stem of the second declension is dropped. 
2. The suffix -10- sometimes appears in a strengthened form thus : 
-18-10- (nom. -iS-io-v) ; 7njy-i8iov, little spring (Tn/y?/) ; oiK-fSiov (r+r=i), 
little house (oiKid) ; vSiov (v + i = v) t little swine (vs, v-ds) ; TCi\-tSu>v 


(for reiser- t-Siov), little wall (rei^os) ; Sw/cpar-iStov, little Socrates 

ap-to- (nom. -dp-io-v) : TraiS-dptov, little child, KW-dptoV t little dog ( 


-v8p-u>- (nom. -v8p-Lo-v, rare) : /zeA-vfynov, Zi^Ze song (/zeAos, /xeAecr-). 
-vXX-io- (nom. -vAA-io-v, rare): oV^-vAAtov, little flower (av6o<$, av#ecr-). 

Observe that -etr- of the stem is dropped. 
3. -WTKO- (nom. -iV/co-s, masc.) : TrcuS-i'o-Kos, young boy (Trais, 

dv6pu7r-i(TKos, little man (av@p(D7ro<s). 
-unto,- (nom. -LCTKITJ, fern.) : n-cuS-Mr/oy, young girl. 

1124. NOTE. Among the many other suffixes sometimes used as diminutives 
are these : -id- or -T5- (nom. -& or -ts, fern.), as dvpts (Svpid-), little door, from dvpa ; 
vr)(rts (i>T)<rl8-), islet, from vijffos ;- -- i5eu- (nom. -tSei^s) to denote the young of animals, 
as cteT-tSefo, young eagle, from der6s (but also ut'Sei/s, grandson) ; -- OLKVO., -ix v v-> -vXXtS- 
(nom. -uXXis) ; several others are seen in irid-aKv-^ from TT/^OJ, wine jar ; iro\-Lxvri 
from TroAts ; a.Kavd-v\\ls from a,Kai>6is, finch. 

1125. NOTE. Some words have the form, but not the meaning, of diminu- 
tives ; as Orjp-iov, wild animal, from d-tjp, which is less used in prose ; TO, plv-la, 
nostrils (pts, plv-bs, nose}. 

1126. NOTE. The diminutives not only may express smallness of size, but 
often they denote something pretty or beloved, or even contemptible; as, TraTpidiov, 
papa; ZuKparidiov, Sucky dear! (Aristoph.). 

1127. Place is expressed by the following suffixes : 

1. -10- (nom. -io-v, neuter). This suffix may have two forms. 

(a) -Ti/jp-io-v. From names of persons in -rr^p (most of them older forms 
of nouns in -T^S). Compare the Latin -tor-ium, as oratorium. 

a/<pod-T>y/3-iov, auditorium, from (aKpodr^p) aKpodrrys, hearer 
StKcur-T^/o-iov, court of justice, ,, (SiKacrT'/jp) Sucao-nys, judge 
(6) -eio-v from -e-io-v. 

Kovpe-io-v, barber's shop, from Kovpev-s, barber 
Aoye-io-v, place for speaking, Aoyo-5, speech 
fjiovcre-Lo-v, seat of the muses, /jiova-a, muse 

2. -wv- (nom. -a>v, masc.). 

dvSp-a>v, apartment for men (dvijp, dvSp-6<s, man) 
tTTTT-wv, horse-stable (['TTTTO-S, horse) 

OLV-MV, wine-cellar (otvo-s, wine) 

a/xTreA-iov, vineyard (a/xTreAo-s, vine) 

3. -wvid- (norn. -wvtd, fern.) : po8<j>via, rose-bed. 

1128. NOTE. Those in -T-f}piov and -eiov sometimes denote a means; as 
iroTypiov, drinking cup ; rpotpeiov, pay for rearing ; see also the adjectives in -r^pios 
and -etos. 

1129. Other suffixes for derivative nouns can be seen in words like: KorvXrj-duv, 
-dov-os, cup-like hollow (KortiXr/, cup) ', /c^/ti-is, -?5-os, greave (Kvfi^ri, leg, thigh) ; 
ycoiX-ds, -dd-os, a hollow (/cot\6s, hollow). 



1130. -o-, -d- (nom. -0-5, -r/ or -a, -o-v). A very common suffix. 

AoiTr-og, AOITT-T;, AOITT-O-V, remaining (AetV-w, AOITT-) 
KaK-o-s, KaK--tj, Ka/c-o'-v, 6ad (root KCIK-) 

o-o</>-o-s, o-o(-?y, (ro<j)-6-v, wise (root cro<-) 

-IKO- (nom. -t/co-s, -1/0;, -iKoV, oxytone). The primitives with this suffix 
oftener have -T-IKOS. It denotes fitness or ability. 

a/E>x-txo-s, jit to rule (a/o^-w) /3Aa7r-TiKo'-s, afr/e fo /ia/-i (/3Aa7rrw) 

ypa(/>-iKo-9, -We ^o iynfg or rf? - aiy (ypa^>-w) alcrOrj-TiKo-s, capable offeeliny (dcrOd- 
^^ /or action, practical vo/xat) 

See also 1140. 

-cor- (nom. -?y?, -es, mostly compounds). 

cra(-?js, cfea?- (root (ra</)-) 
-jiov- (nom. -/zooi/, -/xoi/, paroxytone). 

, mindful (/xva-, /zt/xv/ycrKco, remember} 

', suffering^ daring (rAa-, e-rAry-r, endured] 

-v- (nom. -us, -eta, -i', added only to roots). 

rax-v-s, s?oi/fc (TX~5 T^X' 05 ' sioiftnemi) ei'p-v-s, icwfe (ei'/a-j ev/3-os, width) 
rjS-v-s, sweet (>}5-, r/8-o/xai, 5^ pleased) 

1131. NOTE. Participles are also primitives (suffixes -PT-, -or-, -/JLCVO-, 602, 
603, 604) ; so also verbal adjectives in -ro-s and -reo-s (605). 


1132. -10- (nom. -io-s, -ia, -IQ-V or -10-9, -lo-v). The most common 
suffix. It expresses that which belongs or pertains in any way to a person or 
thing. With a preceding vowel of the stem, it becomes, -ouo-s, -eto-s, -oto-s, 
-wo-s, -v to-s. 

oi'y)dV-io-s, heavenly (ovpavd-s, heaven) ^epeto-s, o/ Me summer (Oepos, Oepeo--, 
TrAoi'a-io-5, wealthy (vrAovro?, wealth) summer) 

-?, cleanly (/ca#apo-s, clean) /3acrtAeto-s, kingly '(/Sao-tAevs, -e-ws) 

-s, friendly (</>tAo-s, dear) aiSotb-s, venerable (at^ws, ai6ocr-, 
oY/auo-s, ,/MS^ (St/cry, right) shame) 

ayopouo-?, forensic (dyopd, forum) i^/awo-s, heroic (ry/ow-s, rjpw-o?, Tiero) 

oiKeto-5, domestic (of/co-s, house) Tr-rfyvio-s, a cubit long (7^x^-9, cubit) 

From the neuter of the adjectives in -eios come the nouns of >Zace or means 
in -eioi/ (1127, 6; 1128). 


Gentiles are often formed with this suffix. 

s, Athenian ('Adrjvai, Athens) Xtos for Xi-to-s, Chian (Xfo-s) 
Mr\T7<rto-j, Milesian (MiXT/ro-s) 

1133. NOTE. The ending -cuos is found in some adjectives from stems which 
do not end in a ; as x f P ffa -^^f rom r of dry land (x^/xro-s). We also find -tcuos ; as 
TaXavTLcuos, worth a talent (raKavTov] ; cr/corcuos and <7/coTtcuos, dark ((r/c6ros, darkness). 

1134. NOTE. Accent. Those in -toy not preceded by a vowel of the stem are 
mostly proparoxytone. Those in -cuos, -otos, -yos are generally properispomena. 
Important exceptions Oxytone are: yepaids and yrjpaios, old; Kparaios, strong; 
TraAaos, ancient (from adv. irdXai). Proparoxytone are : /3/cuos, violent ; &KCUOS, just ; 
Set'Xeios, wretched; /xclrcuos, foolish; zoyucuos, customary (t>6fjt,os). Of those in -etos 
(omitting d^etos, wealthy, and poetic 0aret6s), many are properispomena, but most 
of them are proparoxytone. 

1135. -eo- (nom. -eo-s, contr. -ovs, 294). This denotes material. 
X/ovcreo-s, xpvcrov^^golden^pvcro-^gold) AtVeo-s, Atvou?, of linen (AtVov, linen} 

The older form for -eo- is -eto- ; as in x/vo-eto-s (poetic) ; /ce/xx/xetos or 
Ke/xx/jteos = Kpa/j,ovs, earthen (icepa/xo?, potter's earth}. This -eto- is therefore 
the ordinary -to-, the e belonging to the stem. 

1136. -ivo- (nom. -tvo-s, proparoxytone). This also denotes material. 
At$-tyo-s, of stone (At^o-s) vA-ivo-s, wooden (v\o-v) 

But av6pwir-ivos = avOpuTreios, human (&vdpuiros). 

1137. NOTE. The same suffix -i^-s (oxytone) is used for adjectives expressing 
time; as vvKTep-ivbs, by night; eap-ivds, vernal; %^e<r-tj>6s, belonging to yesterday. 
It also expresses likeness, full of, and similar ideas ; as 7re5-'6s, like a plain, flat 
(irediov, plain} ', (Jpe-u/o? for 6pe(<r)-iv6s, mountainous (6pos, dpea--, mountain). 

1138. -VT- (nom. -ets, -eo-o-a, -ev, 320). These denote fullness, and are 
mostly poetic. 

Xapt'-ets, graceful (X*/H-S, X a P LT ~> y rac e) i^A^-ets, woody (vAi^, wood, forest} 

1139. -repo-, (nom. -re/oos, -raros). 
-iov-, -WTTO- (nom. -fcov, -to-ros). 

These form comparatives and superlatives (337, 350). Those in -repos and -raros 
are added to the stem of the positive and are therefore denominative ; while those in 
-l(j}v and -toTos are primitive, the suffix being added to the root. Several poetic 
adjectives in -repos have no comparative force at all ; as dypo-repo-s, wild (living in 
the country), from dypos ; opfo-repo-s, living in mountains. 

1140. -IKO- (nom. -IKO-S, oxytone). It denotes fitness or ability ; some- 
times relation, like -tos. This suffix may also have the form -KO- or -O.KO-. 

If the stem-word ends in -tos, the suffix is -a/cos ; stems in -i- and some others add 
-/cas ; stems in -eu-, gen. -e-ws, have -i/c6s, and with preceding e make -et/c6s (1 ut 
fiacriXevs makes /3ao-i\-t/c6s) ; stem-words in -et-os and -et-a add -/c6s (but <nrov5e'ics, 
spondee, makes o'Troi'Sei-a/fos) ; the stem-words ending in -cu-o? have -i/cos, tlie 
preceding i often dropping out and the a becoming a. 

o-s, able to learn (^a.6i] px, St8ao-/caA-tKo-s,^^o teach(8iSacrKo.X-o<s t 
learnt) teacher) 


/zoi'cr-tKo-5, musical (/zovcra, muse) AeKAei-/<o-s, Decclean (Ae/<eAei-a, 

yvvaLK-iK6-s,womanish(yvv-r),yvva.iK-6s] Decelea] 

crto//tar-tKo-s, bodily (crw//,a, crw/xar-os, Kepayue-i/cd-s, earthen (Ke/m/xevs, potter] 

body) 'A^at-iko-s or 'A^a-iKo-s ('A^atd-s, 

</>t>o-i-/cd-s, natural (<iVi-s, nature) Achaean) 

BrjXv-KO-s, feminine (0?j\v-$, female) Kopiv@t-aK6-<S)Corinthian(KopLvO-io-s, 

Ad/Det-Ko-9, .Dm*ic (Ad/)eto-s, Darius) Corinthian. 

1141. -Tt]pio- (nom. -rry/Dio-s, proparoxytone). These are from nouns in 
-Trip or in -r^ (1099) ; but sometimes the corresponding noun does not 

a-(^-Ttjp-LO-<s ) preservi7ig(crci)-Tii]p,saviour) TrtLor-T-rlp-io-s, persuasive (from probable 

form Tr^KTTijp, 7rei$(o, persuade] 

1142. -8<r- (nom. -wS^s, -toSes). This suffix is added to noun stems 
and usually denotes fullness, sometimes similarity (like -o-eicfys). 

TTOi-toS^s, grassy (Trotd, grass) ai//,aT-w8r/g,/w/ of blood (a if jia, ou'/xar-os) 

, sancT) a-^/c-w&ys, wasp-like (o-<f>'ij, wasp] 

The suffix -ciSrjs is probably not contracted from -o-et5r?s, as is commonly sup- 
posed ; the latter is derived from TO elSos, form, shape. 

1143. -Xo- (nom. -Ao-s, mostly oxytone). 

1. The primitives are mostly active in meaning. 

Sei-Ao-s, timid (Set-, SeSoiKa, fear) </>tS-a>-Ao-s, parsimonious (<f> t . 
(rTpe/3-A.o-s, twisted (CTT^)-O>, tztrn) spare) 

rpo^-a-Ad-s, running (rpe^-w, rnn) cxTrar-ry-Ad-s, deceitful (aTrarr/, deceit) 

ei'K-e-Ao-s, ZiA;e (CIK-, eot/ca, ar/i ZiA;g) vocr-r^-Ad-5, sicA; (vdcros, disease) 

2. -aXeo- (nom -Aeo-s, paroxytone). This suffix expresses quality. 
d/37r-aAeo-s, grasping, attractive (apir- KtpS-aXe-o-s, shrewd, gainfu 

1144. -vo- (nom. -vo-s, mostly oxytone). The primitives are usually 
passive in meaning. 

Sei-vo-s, 'terrible (Sei-, 8*80 LKa, fear) dAyei-vd-? for aAyea-i'os, painful (TO 
(TTvy-vd-s, /ia^e^ (o-rvy-ecu, Tia^e) dAyos, pain) 

7rt^-a-i/d-s, persuasive (xiQ-, TrciOa), d/^et-vd-s, mountainous (opos, d/aeo--, 
persuade) mountain) 

1145. Gentile adjectives in -d^os, ^j/os, -a/os, often used substantively, were 
only formed from names of places lying outside of Greece, those in -t^os are used 
almost wholly of Italic and Sicilian Greeks ; as 'AyKvp-dvos, of Ancyra (" AyKvpa) ; 
Kv^iK-r]v6s, ofCyzicene (Kv&K-os) ; TapavT-wos, Tarentine (Td/ods, Tdpa^r-os, Tarentum). 

1146. -po- (nom. -/oo-s, mostly oxytone). The primitives are generally 
active in meaning. 

ex#-/>d-?, hated, hostile (e'x#-o>, hate) <f>0ove-p6-<;, envious (<$>6ovo-<s, envy] 
Aa/x7r-pd-s, bright (Acx/xTr-w, shine) Xvirrj-po-s, painful (AvTTTy, pain) 


1147. -K-O-, -410-, -<ri|io- (nom. -/AO-S, -ijuo-s, -cri/xo-s). 

The suffix -fjio- is rare and occurs in primitives. The adjectives in -t/uos may be 
derived from nouns or from the root ; those in -<n-/<tos originally came from nouns in 
-cri-s, but -tri/xos came to be used as an independent suffix and was applied to verb- 
stems. The dissyllables in -/uos are oxytone, nearly all the others are proparoxytone. 
dep-jji6-s, warm (0p-w, warm] vbar-L^o^, belonging to a return (vbaro-s, 

/idx-t/ioy, warlike (fjidx-o/j-ai, Mx* 7 ?) return) - 

Tp6<p-i/jLos, nourishing (rpty-w, rpo(p-ri) %pi7-(rt-yu.os, useful (xpj?-0"t-s, use) 

e5o>5-i/txoj, eatable (5-, tf-wd-T], food) 'nnrd-<ri-[ji.os, fit for riding ('nnrdfriJiai, ride) 

Ka.6-<ri~/j.os, combustible (Kav-<ri-s, burning) 


1148. Adverbs are formed by means of the following suffixes : 
-o>s. This is the most common suffix. 

It is added to the root of adjectives of the second declension, and to the stem of 
adjectives of the third declension. For examples, see 357. 

-86v, -a86v, -TjSdv, -8t|v, -dSTjv ; and rarely -8a, -iv8r]v, -v8a, -Shjv and -Seia. 
These express manner and are added to roots or to noun-stems. 

'Ava-(pav-86v, openly (dva-Qaivw, <j>av-} ; bfj.o-6vn-a.Sbv, with one accord (6/x6-^u/xos, 
of one mind) ; KW-TJOOV, like a dog (/ciW, Kvv-6s, dog) ; Kptifi-otiv, secretly (K/^TT-TW, 
conceal) ; (nrop-do-rjv, scatteredly ((nreipu, a-rrep-, sow, scatter) ; fj.ty-da, confusedly 
(fdyvvjju, fuy-, mix) ir\ovr-ivo-rjv, according to wealth (TT\OVTOS) ; Kpvjrr-ivSa, 
hide-and-seek (-ivda used of games) ; <r%e-5^i', near (<rx^5ios, near, from o^e-Sop, near, 
root <rxe-) ; /cara-Xo^d-Seta, on the neck (Kara \b<pov). 

-| (= -K-S). Expresses manner and is added to roots and to noun-stems. 

'Ava-/j.l^, confusedly (ava-fjdyvvfju, fuy-) ; irt%, with the fst (irvy-/ji'/i, fist] ; 
Trap-a\\dj;, alternately (7ra/>-aAXa<r<rw, Trap-a\\ay-, change). 

-eC, -f, -i. Those compounded with a- (poet, vrj-) privative, Tras, or avrbs, and those 
in -ffT-L from verbs in -dfa and -t^"w, express manner. Others are temporal or local. 

Uavdrj/j-ei (?ras, ST^UOS), in a body ; a^axd (a-, /uctx?;), with resistance ; v-rjiroivei 
(vr]-, iroiv-fj), with impunity ; Horn. dvai/uLurt (dv-, af/ua), without bloodshed; dcrrafcrt 
(a-, ffrdfa), in floods ; dfj-o/j-aarL (from ovo/xd^w), by name; eXXrjvia-Tt (from eXA^/fw), 
in Greek; ?rpa;t = Att. TT/)(^, early; &yx i > near. 

-aKis. This is added to the root of numerals and pronouns to express how many 
times ; as 5eK-d/as, ten times, TroXX-dm, many times. 

-is occurs in dis, twice, rpis, thrice; Horn. dfji<t>-ovd-is, on the ground (ofidas, 
ground) ; Horn. \licpi<f>k, sideways. 

-8ts occurs in a few words ; as Epic xa/ud-Sis, to the ground ( = xa/ife) ; dfj.oij3r}5i^, 
in turn. 

-T (Aeolic -TO, Doric -KO.) is added to the stem of pronouns to express time when; 
as &\\O-T, at another time ; 8-rc, when. 

-9t, -Oev, -Se (-fe), -ore, see 284. 

-i, -<ri (locatives), see 285. 

1149. NOTE. For the adverbial use of the dative and accusative of ordinary 
nouns, adjectives, and pronouns, see the Syntax. 

1150. NOTE. Other adverbial formations are : -T/S, as e^s, in order ; ov, as 

in dyxov, near; 6/uoO, together; TTOV, where? ot, as Trot, whither? w, as TTW, yet; 

oTrtVo;, behind ; dvdyr^pu, higher ; -ov, as irXyaiov, near ; -a (oftener in poetic 
adverbs), as rdxa, quickly, in Attic prose, perhaps (rax''s, quick) ; <rd</>a, clearly 
(<ra077s) ; -as, as e/cds, far; -v(s), as vdt($), straight to; tjv and -av, as 

just now, \iav, too much. 


1151. NOTE. In some adverbs -a%- is inserted after the root; as iroXX-ax-ov, 
many times, in many places ; d\\-a.x-y, elsewhere; and some others. 

1152. NOTE. Of the different forms of adverbs, those in -T/S and -on are old 
genitives ; datives are those in -77 and -g. (see the adverbial dative in the Syntax) ; 
those in -et, -f, -t, -ai are old locatives or datives ; those in -w or -us are probably 
old ablatives ; those in -yv or -av are accusatives of nouns or adjectives in actual 
use or from old stems. 


1153. Denominative verbs are those formed from the stems of nouns or 
adjectives. The following are their principal terminations : 

1. -aw. Verbs in -aw are formed mostly from words of the first 
declension, and denote to do or to be or to have that which is expressed by 
the primitive. Some lack the corresponding primitive. 

TlfjiOLM, honour (rt/x^, Ti/zd-, honour) roA/zdw, be bold, dare (roA/xa, boldness) 
yoono, wail (yoos, wail] /co/*dw, wear lony hair (KO/JLTJ, hair) 

For verbs in -taw and -dw expressing desire or a morbid condition, 
see 1155. 

2. -&>. Verbs in -ew are formed from words of all declensions, and 
express a condition or an. activity. 

</>iAew, love (<i'Aos, friend) (rrpaTriyU),lead,amgeneral(o-T partly 6g) 

dVetAew, threaten (aVetA?;, threat) reAew, finish (reAos, reAeo--, end) 

v8ai/xovew, unhappy (ei'Sat/xwv, happy) arv^ew, am unlucky (OLTV^/J^, driver-) 

Those from stems in -eo-- drop -eo--, as in reAew and drux^w. Sometimes 
they have older forms in -etw as Epic reAei'o; from original reAeo--?/w. 

3. -6U. Verbs in -ow are nearly all formed from words of the second 
declension. They denote to cause or to make. Several lack the corresponding 
primitive, as dpow, plough. 

gild (xpikros, gold) S^Aow, make clear (SfjXos) 

, make free (tAei'^epos) ^/xtow, punish (^/xtd, penalty) 

4. -6u. Verbs in -et-w were first formed from nouns in -evs, afterwards 
from words of all the declensions. Most of them express to be, some to do. 

ySamAei'w, am king, rule (/3ao-tAei') Orjpevd), hunt (Ot]po) 

c^ovevw, am a murderer, murder (<ovei;s) ro^evw, shoot with the bow (TOOV) 

f3ov\V(D, take counsel (fiovXi]) aAr^ei'w, speak the truth (dAi^rys, true) 

5. -at; and -ti>. These were at first formed from actual lingual or (less 
often) palatal stems ; as ^ATTI'^W, hope, for eATriS-7/w (cA-jr/s, eAn-tS-os) ; o-rafw, 
f??'0j9, for o-ray-7/w (o-ray-wv, drop). But many were afterwards formed from 
other stems by analogy. They express action; those in -i'w or -idw from 
proper names express an adoption of manners, language, opinions, or politics. 


8tffaf<t>, judge (SiKr), justice) ZXXrjvifa, speak Greek, live like a Greek 

di'o//,aa>, name (oVo/xa, name) Swpifo or 6\o/9iaw, favor, or live like 

fpya.fajMit t work (epyov, work) the Dorians 

ijo-vxdfa, be quiet (rjo-^xos) <iAi7T7ria>, favor Philip's party 

7rAouTta>, make rich (TrAoirros, riches) 

Several in -rdfU; are intensive ; as plTrrdfa, throw about (ptirTw, throiv). 
6. -ava> and -tivw from -av-ya) and -w-i/w. These are derived from 
various steins. They are for the most part causative in meaning. 
ei'^/XJuW, (jlarHen (evcfrpwv, cheerful) TreTratVo;, ripen, make ripe (treirtov) 
cny/mti/w, signify (o-rypx, SM//I) T^UI/M, sweeten (r)8vs, sweet) 

^aAcTrcuixo, am angry (^aAeTrd?, /tare?, dwco, sharpen (6vs, sharp) 

1154. Endings of less frequent occurrence are : -tu and -dw, as Epic Kovtw, 
make dust, from Kom ; poetic ynpvu, utter, from yijpvs, voice, sound; -- ew, only in 
luffa, press; -o^w, as Seo'Trof'w, a?n master (SfcnroTTjs) ; -- uw, as epirvfa, crawl along, 
from epird}, creep; -- etVw, from -ev-yw, as Horn. dXeetPO) = dXeo/iai, avoid; -- fj'w, 
from -iv-yw, as Horn. 6ptvu} 6pvv^jn y arouse; -ai'pw from -a/o-T/w, as rcK'/uaipoyuai, mark 
out, from TKfj.ap, mark; -6ipa; from -e/o-T/w, as poet, i/j-eipw, desire, from i/xepos, 
desire; -- i'pw from -t/a-yw, only oi'/cr^pw, ^?^?/, from oi'/crpos, pitiable; -- dpw from -vp-yu, 
as /actprdpoyttai, ca// witness, from /mdprvs, /j-dprvp-os, witness ; -dXXw from -aX-7/w, as 
cu'/cdXXw, flatter, from atxaXos, flatterer ; -- eXXw from -eX-?/w, as d77eXXw, announce, 
from #776X05 ; -t\Xw from -iX-7/o?, as TroiAftXXw, variegate, from Troi/aXos, variegated ; 

6XXw from -oX-?/w, ai'jXXw, ^?tni quickly (al6\os, quick moving) ; -- i-XXw from -v\-yu, 
as ffTpii}fj,v\\(jj, babble, from crrpw/xuXos, talkative. 

1155. Desideratives. 1. These express desire and end in -o-efa and -idw (a few 
in -cuo). Those in -o-et'w are formed from the theme of verbs as it appears in the 
future ; those in -tdw and -du> are from nouns. 

7eXa-<m'o>, desire to laugh (ye\dw, laugh) ffTpaTyyidu, desire to be general ((rrpar^os) 

Tro\efj.ri-<reiw, desire to wage war (TroXe/iew, davardu, desire to die (Qavaros, death) 

wage war) <f>ovdw, have murderous intent (<t>6vos, 
fjiaOrjT-tdw, desire to be a pupil (padyTT)?, murder) 


2. Some in -tdw and -dw denote a bodily affection ; as 6<f>6a\fjn6.w, have sore eyes 
(609aX/ucl) ; fipay-^du, am hoarse (fipayxos, hoarse). 

1156. Most of those in -axra-w or -wrrw denote a morbid condition ; as 
Ti'0\axr<ra>, am blind (ri/0X6s, blind). 

1157. Intensives or Frequentatives. These are few, and nearly all poetic. They 
are formed from primitive verbs. 

1. Some end in -raw ; as .^cue-raw, dwell, from void) ; several in -rdfaj, as 
ptTr-rd.fa, throw about, from pt-n-Tw, throw; a few end in -arpew, as /Sw-o-rpew, call 
out, from jSodw. 

2. Some repeat the stem, at the same time changing the stem-vowel ; as /nai/j-dw, 
pant for, from /ACU'O^CU (yua-), seek ; pop/u-vpu, dash, from [Mtipu, flow ; Trop<J>vpu, boil (of 
the sea), from 0d/>w, mix; ironrvow, puff, from irvtw (TTVV-), breathe. 

1158. For the so-called inceptive or inchoative verbs in -OTCW, see 657. 

1159. Often several verbs with different meanings are formed from the same 
noun ; as 5oiA6o>, enslave, SouXei'w, am a slave, from SovXos, slave ; TroXeyuew and Epic 

,a:'fw, wage war, 7roXe,ujw, makf. hostile, from 7rjXe,<xos, war. 



1160. The treatment of compound words embraces: (l) the first part: 
(2) the last part; (3) the accent ; (4) the meaning. Most compounds are 
made up of two parts, and the principles which apply to these, hold also in 
case of unusual compounds of three or more parts. 


1161. First part a noun or adjective. 1. When the first part of a 

compound is a noun or adjective, its stem alone is used. 

2. In stems of the first declension final -d- is usually changed to -o- 
before a consonant, and is usually dropped before a vowel. 

3. Stems of the second declension usually drop -o- before a vowel. 

4. Stems of the third declension generally add -o- before a consonant. 

o/xos, day-runner (^/xepd), 6\KO-y/3a<os, composer of law-speeches 
aeAAo-7roi>s, storm-footed (aeAAa) ; Ke<aA-aAy?/s, causing headache 
; Aoyo-y/oac^o?, writer of speeches (Aoyos) ; XP~ r J7^^ chorus-leader 
o-WjUaro-^vAa^, bodyguard (crw/>ia, croj/xar-) ; tx$u-o-</>ayo?, fish- 
eating (tX^~ s ) > </>vcri-o-Aoyos, natural philosopher (<TXTI-S). 

1162. NOTE. The exceptions to the above rules are very numerous. Stems of 
the first declension sometimes have -a- or -77- instead of -o- ; as ayopa-vd/j-os, clerk of 
the market (dyopd) ; %o77-06poj, bringer of libations (wn) ', noipy-yevris, fated from 
birth (fj-olpa, fate). Compounds of 777, earth, have yew- in Ionic and Attic, and yd- 
in Doric ; as yeu-^Tprjs, Doric yd- ^T pas, land -measurer. Stems of the second 
declension occasionally have -77- instead of final -o-, as \a<j>T)-j36\os, deer-slaying 
(e\a0o-s, deer). Some words of the Attic second declension have -u- instead of -o-, 
as vew-Kopos, having charge of a temple (veus). A final stem-vowel is often retained 
when the second part of the compound originally had digamma, as Horn, dyfjuo-epyds 
= Attic d-rifjuovpyte, artisan; and -o- is not elided when the second part is -o%os (from 
2x w )> but is contracted with o to ov, as eortoOxos from ecmo-oxos, guarding the house 
(eoTtd, hearth], pa/35ouxos, carrying a staff (pd(3dos). 

1163. NOTE. Sterns in -t- and -v sometimes do not add -o- before a con- 
sonant ; as Tro\L-Tr6pdr)5, sacker of cities ; 7)di/-\oyos, of sweet speech. So vavs, ship, 
and (3ovs, ox or cow, are usually vav- and fiov- ; as vav-K\r)pos, master of a ship ; 
/3ou-/c6Xos, cow-herd. The stem of iras (TTO.VT-}, all, generally appears as irav-, seldom 
as TTO.VT-O- or travr- ; as irdv-aofios or 7rd(r-cro0os, all wise; 7rafro-7r6pos, full of 
resources; Trdi>T-apxos, all-ruling; iravovpyos, villainous, is from irav-o-epyos. 
Sometimes neuter stems in -/j,ar- (nom. -yita) drop -T- or -ar- ; as 6vo/u.a-K\VT6s, of 
famous name, aifji-o-ppay-rjs, bleeding freely (afyia, afytar-os, blood). Stems in -e<r- 

(notn. -775 or -os) generally drop -e<r- and add -o- ; as \fsevd-o-/j.dpTv$, false (\fsevdrjs) 
witness; dv0-o-<J>6pos, bearing flowers (avdos). So also stems in -a<r- ; as Kpe-o-(f>dyos, 
flesh-eating (/c/o^ay). But some poetic forms retain -ecr- or -aa- ; as ffaKe<r-(J>6pos, 
shield -bearing, <reXa<r-06pos, light-bringing; some add -i- after -eo--, as retx eo "-'- 7r ^' > ? T7 ? s > 
approacher of walls (perhaps -ea-i- is here dat. pi.). 

1164. NOTE. Sometimes -a- or -77- takes the place of -o- with stems of the 
third declension; as irod-a-vnTT-rip, foot-pan, t0-77-05pos, wearing a sword. In some 
cases -t- is added to stems of the third declension ; as -rrvp-i-Trvovs, fire-breathing. 

1165. NOTE. The first part of some compounds is a genitive, or dative, or old 


locative ; as veuxr-otKos, ship-house, dopi-KTTjTos, won by the spear, 

traversed by ships, 6pei-fidTrjs, mountain ranging, 65oi-7r6/>os, way-farer (odot- locative, 

or from 65^). 

1166. First part a verb-Stem, Compounds whose first part is a verb- 
theme (as in English break-water, wake-shift, go-between) are rare in prose. 

1. The present stem, or the theme, remains unchanged before a vowel ; 
and adds -e- or -o- or -i- before a consonant. 

Hi6-ap\os, obedient to command ; eA-avSpos, man-slaying (e?Aov, eA-) ; 
SaK-e-$v/xos, biting the heart ; AiTT-o-ra^td, desertion of one's post ; dp\-t- 
TfKTtav, master-builder. 

2. The verb-stem has -cri- (-a-- before a vowel) joined to it. 
Av-cri-TTovos, freeing from toil (aor. e'Avcra) ; ye^o-o-i-/xa^os (lye/)-, cyei/ow), 

battle-stirring ; o-r/oei/'t-SiKOs (trr/oec/)-), perverting justice ; Trav-cr-dve/Aos, calm- 
ing the wind; 7rAry-i7T7ros (TrA^y-), horse-lashing. Several insert e before 
-<TL- or -<r- ; as eA/c-e-cri'-TreTrAos, trailing the robe; <e/>-e-o--/:?ios, life-bearing. 

1167. NOTE. In the compounds without -cri- or -o--, only primitive stems are 
used. Stems of verbs in -ew and -ciw (as /j-iaeu and viKau) drop e and a. Hence 
fua-(o)- and VIK(O)-, not fu<r- and V'LKO.-, in composition ; as u.l(T-d.v6pwTros, hating 
mankind ; fu<r-6-yvvos, woman-hater, viK-6-(3ov\os, prevailing in the Council. 

1168. First part a preposition or adverb, Only the regular euphonic 
changes here occur. Prepositions drop a final vowel before a vowel, and 
TT/OO may contract o with a succeeding o or e to ov. 

'ATTO'/^dAAw, throw away (aTro, /3aAAa>) ; avr-e^w, hold off (aTro, ^a>) ; 
ey-)((o, pour in (eV, x^ w ) Tr/oo-e^w or Tr/aov^w, TioW fte/bre (TT/)O, e^w) ; 
<^pov8o<s, gone (irpo, 68ov) ; irepip-p^, flow around (Trept', /oew) ; det-Aoyid, 
continual talking; ei'-7r/D7rry, fitting; TraAiA-Aoyos, saying again (?raAiv, 
again}. Rarely 77 takes the place of a final vowel of a preposition, or is 
inserted after it j as eTT-yj-^oAos, having attained, fitting ; V7rep-ij-(f>avos, 

1169. First part an inseparable particle. The following particles 

are inseparable and are used only in composition : 

1. TJJU-, half, Lat. semi- ; as >}/xt-^eo5, demigod; iy/xt-/xav^?, half-mad; 
i^u-e<$os, half-cooked. 

2. 8v<r-, i7, im-, mis- (opposed to ev, ?^eZZ), denotes difficulty or ^'s- 
agreeableness ; as Swr-jSaros, Arrf ^o jjass (opposed to ev-^aro?) ; 3vo--/za^>j?, 
Aarrf (or S^OM?) o ^ear?i (opposed to ev-/xa^) ; STxr-ya^os, ill-wedded ; in 
Homer Avcr-Trapis, ill-starred Paris. 

3. a- privative (dv- before .a vowel) has the force of a negative, like 
Latin in-, English wn- or -Zm; as a-Trous, childless; a-^aro, inaccessible 
(f3aiva), j3a-} ; a-ri/Ao?, unhonoured ; av-aios, unworthy; dv-^/ceo-ro?, 
incurable (aKeo^uat) ; oV-cuS^s, shameless. The form a- often stands before 
vowels, especially if the following part originally had digamma ; as 
a-(/)oivos, wineless ; d-(/)r/8ry, unpleasant; a-o?rAos or av-OTrAos, unarmed/ 
a-i''7n/o?, sleepless. Sometimes a- contracts with a following vowel, as a/cooi/ 


from a-Ku>v, unwilling. For a- copulative and a- intensive, see 1170. For 
v- from ai/- in. Epic poetry, see 4 below. 

4. VTJ- (Lat. we), an Epic negative prefix ; as PTJ-TTOU'OS, unavenged. In many 
cases the -77- probably belongs to the second part, and v- is from dv- ; as v-yu-eprris, 
unerring (d/xaprdi/w, d/xapr-). 

5. dpi- and 4pi-, poetic intensive prefixes ; as dpi-yvwros, well-known, epi-KrSrfc, 
very gloriom. 

6. d^yi- (compare dyav, very, too), an Epic intensive prefix ; as dya-K\vr6s, highly 
renowned; dy-yvup, very manly, 

7. a- or 8a-, an Kpic intensive prefix ; as ~d-#eos, most divine; 5d-<r/aos, thickly 
shaded. Of these fa- is really the Lesbian form of did, and da- is evidently from 
ff8a- = fa-. 

1170. NOTE. Another prefix is d- copulative., used like the Latin con-, and 
denoting union or likeness; as d-KoiT-rjs, fern. a-/coms, bed-feHoir ; d-raXai'ros, o/" 
equal weight. An a- intensive is found in several words ; as d-rei/Tjs, very tig/if, 
stubborn (rev-, reivu) ; &-Tredos, evew, flat (iredov, ground). 


1171. When the last part of a compound noun or adjective begins with 
a or e or o, this vowel (unless it is long by position) is usually lengthened : 
a and e to 77, and o to <o. 

'Y7r-77/coo<>, obedient (VTTO, OLKOVIU) ; ev-?yi'e//,os, with fair wind (er, uve/xos) ; 
Kar-r/pec^rys, covered (Kara, Ipec^w) ; av-eoyu.oros, unsworn; but av-o/x/3pos, 
without rain, because o in o'/z/fyos is long by pusition. 

1172. NOTE. In a few of the compounds of aycj, lead, and tiyvv/ju., break, a 
becomes ct ; as Xox-<ryos, captain (Au^os, 070;) ; vav-dyjs, shipwrecked (vavs, ayvvfjn). 

1173. Compound Adjectives and Nouns, 1. If the last part is a 

masculine or feminine noun or adjective of the second or third declension, 
usually it remains unchanged. 

"A-$eos, godless; obr-oiKo?, away from home; U-TTCUS, childless; /caKo-jW/zwi/, 
ill-fated ; Svfr-epws, insensible to love or sick in love ; 8i-7roi>s, two-footed ; TTO.V- 
<ro<os or Tracr-cro^o?, aZ^ mse ; av-o/x,otos, unlike ; /xtcrd-Trovo?, labour-hatin;/ ; 
<f)L\-\\rjV, fond of the Greeks; a/c/>o-7roA.ts, acropolis; 6/>to-8oi;Ao?, fellow-slave. 
2. If the last part is a noun of the first declension, or a neuter of the 
second or third, or a verb-theme, it is changed, and commonly assumes the 
ending -o?, -ov, or -77$, -es, less often -7/5 or -T77? (gen. -ov), -rr;/), and -rw/x 
(SetTTi'ov), dining together ; </>iAo-rt//,o5 (rt/x7y), honour -lor i ntj ; 
), unfortunate ; ar-covt'/xo? (6Vo//,a, ovo/xar-), nameless ; 
ve 7/eo?'S oZdl ; VTrep-jSap^s (/?apo?), overloaded ; AT^O-TTOIOS 
, lyre-maker; 8vcr-fJia-^o<s (/>ta)(o/xat), 7iar^ o fight; vap-/u,a^os, fighting 
in ships; ev-yevTJs (yevos), o/ r/oorf fo'rtfi; ^eo-^iXv;? ((/)iAew), beloved of the 
gods ; yew-y/aac^o? (y/oa<^cu), geographer ; Ai$o-/3oAo<? (^aAAw), throwing 
stones, but Ai6^o-/?oAos, stoned (147, 2; 1181); tv-wp^-fa (TrpeTrw), becoming: 
av-, ^vrj(r/cco), half-dead. Mi'/oo-TrwA?^, dealer in perfumes (pvpov, 
yO)-/Aer/)r/s, land-measurer (yr), /u,er^ew) ; vo/xo-^er^s, law-maker 


Of-, TiOrj/ju}. M^Ao-/3orvy/), shepherd (fj.ijX.ov, /5oo-Kw) ; 7rcuS-oAeTuy>, 
child -murderer (TTCUS, oAe-, 6'AAi~/xt). 

3. An abstract noun in the last part of a compound is nearly always 
changed to a new abstract in -id-, which is derived from a (real or 
supposititious) compound adjective. 

Tr>x>7, luck, but a-Tv^td, ill-luck, from d-Tu^s, unlucky ; fJ-d^rj, fid^t,. 
but vav-{JLa^id, sea-fight (lit. ship-fight), from vav-pdyos, fighting in ships; 
fioXi], throwing, but Ai#o-/?oAtd, stone-throwing, from Ai#o-/3oAos, throwing 
stones; 7r/>ats, cfctt'ragr, but ev-TT/od^ta, cfcmit/ u-M, *ttccfss. 

1174. NOTE. An abstract noun compounded with a preposition can retain its 
forms; as irpo-f3ov\r), forethought ; avy-yvu/m.7}, pardon; did-ra^is, arrangement, and 
many others. Other cases are rare ; as f.uo-0o-(f)opd, receipt of wages (fJuvOos, <f>opd). 

1175. NOTE. Some compounds add -s to the stem of the last part ; as d-yv&s, 
d-yvuJT-os, unknown (yvo-, yLyvtiHrKw) ; d-rrop-p^, dirop-p&y-os, broken off (pay-, 

1176- NOTE. Compounds of nouns in -rrjp (gen. -rpos) end in -rwp (gen. 
-ropoj), as d-Trdrcjp, fatherless. Compounds of vavs, ship, Kepas, horn, Kpeas, flesh,. 
and yvpas, old age, end in -cos; as -rrepi-veus, passenger in a ship; eti-Kepw, with 
beautiful horns; yXvuti-icpews, having sweet meat; d-yr/pus, free from old age. 
Compounds of yrj, land, end in -yews, -yfios, and -yaws (Ionic), as etf-yews, of go"d 
soil, Kard-yeios (Ionic Kara-yaws), under the earth. Some neuters in -/net (-/KIT-) form 
compound adjectives in -n<av ; as TroXv-Trpdy/^uv (Trpdyfj.a), busy. The noun <j)pi'iv, 
heart, mind, forms compound adjectives in -typuv ; as crc6-0pcoi', of sound mind , 
discreet. Compounds of &pxu waver between -dpx 7 ?* and -apxos ; as iinr-dpx'ns or 
tTTTT-ap^os, general of cavalry (ITTTTOS, fip%co). 

1177. Compound Verbs. 1. These can be formed directly only by pre- 
fixing a preposition to a verb ; as e/<-/^atVw, go out, 7rpo-\iD, hold forth. 

2. When the first part of a compound verb is anything else than a 
preposition, it is an indirect compound (denominative) ending in -eco and is 
derived from a (real or imaginary) compound noun or adjective. 

Nav-/mxea>, fight in ships, from vav-/n.d)^o<s, fighting in ships; Ai$o-/3oAea>, 
thro iv stones, from Ai$o-/3oAos, stone-thrower; cv-TV^co*, be fortunate, from 
v-rv\n')S vo/zo-^eretu, make laws, from vo/xo-^err/s, law-giver ; d-7rei$w, 
disobey, from d-7m#rjg, disobedient. 

1178. NOTE. The rare exceptions are poetic ; as d-Tlpdu, dishonour. 


1179. General Rule, Compounds generally have the recessive 
accent ; as Trdy-KaKos, utterly bad (TTUS, /caKos) ; a-rr/xos, unlwnoured (d- 
and T4/A7J) ; crvv-o8os, assembly (6805). 

1180. 1. Primitives in -a, -i"j, -ijs, -ets, -//.os, and -eo? retain their accent 
also in composition. 

event; oVo-TO////^ cutting off; crvv-^tKaorrry?, fellow-juryman ; 
vs, writer ; cn>A-Aoyto-/xo5, reckoning ; a7ro-8oTeo?, to be given back. 
2. But dissyllabic nouns in -a, -rj, --^s, when compounded with any other 


word than a preposition, become paroxytoiie ; and compounds of Seoy/,0?, 
band, bond, are recessively accented. Thus Oed, dvSpo-Qta, "inn-ijn<likxx 
(Minerva) ; Sorf, la-ro-SoKri, mast-hold ; K/HT/JS, oVei/ao-K/airr/s, interpreter of 
dreams ; crvv-oW//,os, band, ligament. 

1181. Compounds ending in -os (not -ros or -KOS), whose first part is a 
noun or adjective or adverb, and the last part is the stem of a transitive 
verb, are : 

(a) oxytone, if the penult is long and they have active meaning ; as 
crr/aaT-^yos, general; O-ITO-TTOIOS, bread-maker; I/^XO-TTO/ATTOS, conductor of 

(b) paroxytone if the penult is short and they have active meaning ; 
At#o-/3oAos, throwing stones; Trar/ao-Krovos, parricide ; Orjpo-Tp6(f>os, feeding 
wild beasts; ot/co-vo/xos, managing a household ; Aoyo-y/3a</>os, speech-writer. 

(c) proparoxytone if the penult is short and they have passive meaning ; 
as Ai$o-/:?oAos, pelted with stones/ Trarpo-KTovos, slain by a father; Oijpo- 
T/)0(/>09, fed by beasts. 

1182. NOTE. Double compounds, like av-ffTpdr-r/yos, joint-commander, are 

1183. NOTE. Proparoxytone are compounds in -DXOS (xw), -apxos (Apxu), 
-(n~\os (<rv\d(>), rob), -iropdos (irepdu, destroy}', as ijvi-oxos, charioteer, lit. rein-holder; 
vav-apxos, admiral, commanding a ship; iepo-<rv\os, robbing temples. Those in 
-oOxos are contracted from -o-oxos ; as 5g5oOxos (from SpSo-oxos), torch-bearer. 

Ho4. NOTE. There are some other exceptions ; as Ka/tovpyos (for Ka.Ko-epy6s, 
evil-doer; iravovpyos, villainous; eKa-epyos, far-worker. 

1185. All adjectives in -KOS in which K does not belong to the root 
remain oxytone in composition ; as aTro-Set/criKos, demonstrative. 

1186. All in -05 whose fifst part is a preposition, a-, ei>, Si-o--, dpi-, I/H-, 
dpTL-, a.px<--, aet-, aya-, f](j.L-, fa-, opo-, TroAu-, TTO.V-, are recessively accented. 

1187. Compounds in -os whose last part is not the stem of a verb are 
recessively accented. 

Hoo. NOTE. 1. 'Airtos, against, opposite, retains its accent in composition. 
The niultiplicatives in -TrXoos are paroxytone ; as 5e/ca-7r\6os. There are also some 
other exceptions. 

2. For compound verbals in -TOJ, see 606, 2. 

1189. Compound adjectives in -rjs, -es, are generally oxytone ; as 
d-o-a<f>tjs, uncertain ; ev-yevr^s, well-born. 

1190. NOTE. The following are barytone : 

1. Those with w in the penult ; as ev-wd-rjs, sweet- smell ing -(68-, 3fw 
ruined, ruinous (e$-6XXi"/xt). 

2. Those in -dvTys (avrd-w or &VTCL), -7)071$ (7)60$), -TIKT/S (a/oy), -77^775 (dp-, 
'K7iT7)S (KTJTOS), -/J,eye0ris (/Jitye0os\ -WKrjs (fiTJKO^), -TTTJX^S (^X^s), -ffreXex^ 

-reixTjs (re?xos), -Trjp7]s (rriptui). Thus KaT-dvTTjs, downward, steep; /ca/co-r7^7?s, of bad 
habits; i>-r)K^, newly sharpened; x a ^ K ~'*lP' r lS} furnished (tipped} with brass; 
/meya-KTiTT/s, huge, unwieldy; vTrep-/j.eye07)s, enormous; Trepi-fj.^^, very tall or long ; 
TrevTa-TrT/xris, of five cubits; fj-aKpo-areXex^, having a long trunk; eu-retx'??, wellr 
walled ; defjivio-Tripris, keeping one to ones bed. 


3. Also avd-ddnjs, avT-dpKrjs, Trod-dpKrjs ; do\o-/JL^8rjs, 6paffv-/j.r)8r)s ; <f)i\-a\r)6r]S, 

1191. NOTE. Compounds in -{TTJS (from ros, year) are paroxytone in Attic, 
oxytone in late writers ; as T/M-&TT.S, rpi-eres (late Tpi-er^s, T/H-er^s), three years old. 

1192. NOTE. Barytones in -175 are recessively accented in the vocative and 
neuter ; as ev-ridrjs, ev-ndes. Except those in -riprjs, -0)775, -wdrjs, -06X775, -16/3775 ; as 


1193. Compound adjectives of the third declension with the stem ending 
in a consonant are recessively accented. But the following are oxytone : 

1. Those in -as, -d5os ; as iro\v-5eipds, with many ridges, /cwo-trTrds, torn by dogs. 

2. Those in -wi/', as y\avK-w\// (except eXt/c-w^, /cikX-wi/', ^X-w^, ^v-w^}. 

3. Those whose last part is a monosyllable with d or 77 or w, and derived from a 
verb ; veo-icp&s, newly mixed (Kepdvvvfju, /ce/ra-) ; rifja-Ov/js, half-dead (dvrjo-Ku, dav-} ; 
dirop-put;, broken off (p-favv^i., pay-}. 

4. Those in -<r<pd ; as 5ict-<r0d, a rent, rocky gorge (Sta-o-^drrw). 

5. Compounds of doryp used mostly as nouns ; as dXfio-doTrjp, giver of happiness. 

1194. NOTE. Those in -WTTIS are perispomena ; as eXt/c-wTris. Those in - or 
-^ never accent the antepenult. 


1195. According to their meaning, compound nouns and adjectives 
are divided into three clauses : determinative, possessive or attributive, 
and objective. 

1196. Determinative Compounds. 1. In these the first part 
determines or explains the second as an adjective or adverb. This 
class of compounds is the least numerous. They are nouns or 

5 AK/oo-7roA.ts, citadel, upper city ( = aK/oci TroAcs, Horn. TroAts aKprf) ; 
fjifcr-^pfSpLd, mid-day ( = fJL(rrj rjfJ-epa) ; \jsev8o- K?jpv, false herald ( = \^v8r]<s 
Kr}pv) ; ofAo-SovXos, fellow-slave ( = 6/zoi! SovAevwv) ; /xeyaAo-TrpeTrr/s, mag- 
nificent (/xeyaAws irpeTroyv') ; d^t-yovo?, late-born ( = d^ yevo/xei/o) ; 
7r/oo-^ovA^, forethought; a/x<i-#edT/oov, amphitheatre (theatre extending round 
in a circle] ; cnr-eAei'^e/oos, freedman ( = 6 (XTTO rtvos lAev^e/oos wv) ; a-ypa<o5, 
umvritten ( = ov yeypa/x/xei/os) ; d-8vvaro<s, unable, impossible ( = ov Swaros) ; 
8va--dpearTO<s, ill to please ; Svcr-^aro?, hard to pass. 

2. A few compounds called copulative are made up of two nouns or two 

2 IaTp6-/j,avTis, physician-prophet (a prophet who is also a physician) ; t0o-yu,d%cupa, 
sword-sabre ; Oeo-ravpos, god-bull (Zeus changed to a bull) ; y\vKv-TriKpos, sweetly 
bitter; Xev/c6-0cuos, whitish-gray. 

3. A few compounds, mostly poetic, express comparison ; the word de- 
noting the comparison usually stands first. 

MeXt^S???, honey -sweet (/*Ai, ^5i;s) ; 'Apw'i'-Ooos, swift as Ares; iroS-^ve/mos T I/Jty, 
Iris with feet swift as the wind. 

1197. NOTE. Determinative compounds of d- privative or 5v<r- with nouns are 


rare and poetic ; as fi-^rrjp d-^rwp, an unmotherlj/ mother ( = 
Horn. Ava-TrapLS, ill-starred Paris. 

1198. Possessive or Attributive Compounds In these the first part 
explains the second, just as in determinatives ; but the compound is 
an adjective expressing a quality. These compounds can be paraphrased 
by making the second part the object of the participle of e'^w or a 
similar verb and making the first part an attribute of the second. 

MaK/od-xet/9, long - armed = having long arms (pxK/aas xeiyjas \ wv ) > 
dpyvpo-roos, with silver bow (dpvpovv TO^OV e'xwv) ; O/AO-T/OOTTOS, of tlte 
same disposition (OJJUHOV rpoirov 6^wv) ; KaKo-8ai//,(oj/, ill-fated (KOLKOV 
5 Ti-LKpo-ya/jLos, bitterly wedded, unhappily wedded (iriKpov ydfiov 

of sound mind, temperate ((ru>v vovv ?X WV ) > SeKa-errys, having or 
lasting ten years (Se/ca, eros) ; l/caroy-Ke^aAos, hundred-headed ; avro~\tf>, 
working with ones own handj dya$o-eioV/s, seeming good (dyaOov eiSo? fyotv), 
and many others in -ei8>ys; ev-peos, inspired, having a god within (tv 
Oebv e^wv) ; a/z<i-KtuH', with pillars all round (Kiovas a/x^>' eavrov 
tt-7rai5, childless (7rai8a? OI'K e'xwv) ; dv-atS^S, shameless (at5w owe 
8vo~-f3ovX.o$, ill-advised, having bad counsels (/caKa f3ov^a$ e'xtov). 

1199. Objective Compounds. These are composed of a noun and 
a* verb or adjective or preposition. The noun, which may be the 
first or the second part, stands in the sense of an oblique case to the 
other part. 

2r/)aT-^yos, general, army - leading ( = crrparov ay <ov) ; Aoyo-y pdcfros, 
speech-writer (Aoyovs ypa</>wv) ; </>tAo-/xowos, loving the Muses (<iAa>v ra? 
Moi'o"d) jJblcr-di'OpWTros, man -having Qu&rcov dv0pia7row$) ; Setcrt-S 
spirit-fearing (SeStw? TOVS Scu/zoi'as) ; poet. Avo-t-Trovos, toil -relieving 
TOVS TTOVOUS) ; poet,, erring in mind (dfj-aprdviav vov) ; 
i-Kpavvo<s, delighting in thunder (YepTroyu-evos Kfpmwtp} ; x et / 30 ~ 7roi ' / ? TOS > 

xe/>crt TTCK^TOS) ; ^eo-/5Aa/??^, stricken of God (iVo 
os) ; poet. #e-^Aa.TOS, God -sent (eXaOels VTTO rov 
6or?i w ^ house, home-bred (ei/ ot/co> yevd/xevos) ; a^td-Aoyos, 
worthy of mention (Adyov a^ios) ; icrd-^eo, god-like (to-os ^ew) ; ey-xtapios, 
native, being i?i f/ie country (ev T>/ X^P? " )l/ ) ' c^-wnrws, pertaining to a liorxf, 
on horseback (efi tTTTrw wv) ; Trapa-OaXdcra-LOS, maritime, lying <w ^e seaside 
(irapa ^aAao-crav) ; aTr-oi/co?, colonist, away from home (obr' OLKOV wi'). 

1200. XOTR. For the difference in accent and meaning in those whose last 
part is a verb, as Ai0o-/35\oj, so?ie throwing, and At0j-/3o\os, pdlcd icith stone*, see 




THE numbers refer to the sections. The irregular nouns given in 283 and 909 
and the verbs given in the catalogue (1073), also many other forms, are not generally 
given in the Greek Index, as they are either mentioned under the appropriate heads 
in the English Index or are easily found under the Table of Contents. Similarly 
some subjects, like pronunciation, are also indicated only in the English Index or in 
the Table of Contents. 




A, doubtful vowel 15 (a), open 17 ; a 
lengthened to 77 and a 39, 41 (to at in 
Aeol. 840) ; interchanged with e and o 
42 (dial. 802) ; in contraction 47, 48, 
52 ; elided 59 ; augm. to 77 526 (to d in 
Dor. and Aeol. 969), d usually augm. 
to 77 528 ; a added to theme 614 (dial. 
991) ; a changed to a in theme 621 3 , 
to 77 or w 621 4 ; a in Ion. for e and at 
813, 817, for 77 817, for o 817 ; a for 
et in dial. 813 ; d for w in Boeot. 804, 
in Aeol. and Dor. for 77 801 ; d-, av- 
privative part. 1169, d- copulative 
1170 ; -a Epic for -77? in 1 decl. 883 3 ; 

d noun suffix 1095 ; d Aeol. Dor. 

Ep. gen. for -ou in 1 decl. 881 2 ; -d re- 
tained in Aeol. and Dor. in 1 decl. 881 1 

g, improper diphthong 18, augments to 

aya- insep. prefix 1169 

dyatfos compared 354 1 , in dial. 944 1 

&yye\os declined 200 

0777^0;?, d777>aos 210 (6) 

a.yw aug. redupl. in 2 a. 553 

d5eX0e voc. 198 

ae contr. to 77 in Dor. vb. 845 1 

aet contr. to rj in Dor. vb. 845 1 

efa> denom. verb-formation 1153 

077 and ay contr. to 77 and 77 in Dor. vb. 

845 1 

voc. aySoi 254 

Atfws, acc."A0a;211 
at diphthong 18 ; becomes 77 in augment 

526 ; at in Ion. for Att. 809, 817, for 

o 813 

Al'ds voc. 236 7 
at'5u>s declined 249 
-aiva noun suff. 1113 
-atvo) denom. vb. -formation 1153 
-aios num. adj. in 428 
at'pw aor. 684 
-ats Lesb. Aeol. for -as in ace. pi. 881 5 ; 

-at?, -at(ra, -oi<ra Aeol. part, for -ds, 

-d<ra, -owra 933, 1055 
~ai<ri(v) for -ats in dat. pi. Aeol. 881 4 
-al-repos, -af-raros comp. and superl. 342 
al<fo declined 240 

-am adv. end. 1148, adverbs in 422 
d/corfw 2 pf. 716 

d/cpodo^at lengthens a to 77 675 
&KWV declension 319 
dVyetcos compared 354 10 
ciXTjflT/s declined 310 ; d^fos 309 


pf. mid. system : inflection etc. 


d\\rj\<i}t> declined 376 
dXXo5a7Tos 400 

d\\o-0i, -Oev, -ere, -re, d"XAu>s 405 
aXAo/icu aor. 684 
&\\os 388 

&\oyos, -ov declined 298 
aXs declined 240 
a\&iri)% 236 2 
aXws, ace. #Xw 211 
d/meiviov 354 1 

d>es, uAtewj/ etc. Dor. = fyis etc. 952 
d/merepos, d/mos Dor. = r//x,erepos 955 1 
d/x^rwp adj. 312 2 
<fyt;ues, d/i/u, d/ijue = r/juets, ^/u?j', ^uas 950, 

951, 953 
d/u/ierepos, ^/i/xos Lesb. Aeol. = r^ueVepos 

955 1 

a>6s = ^6s 378 
#ju,0-w, -ore/301 429 
-dV Aeol. and Dor. gen. pi. in 1 decl. 

881 3 

d^p declined 243 
di/ot'7w 2 perfects 719 
-avs for -as ace. pi. in Cretic 881 5 
dvw, dvurtpw, dvurdrij) 362 
dvuyewv 209 
do contr. to a in Dor. nouns 845 2 ; in Aeol. 

844 1 ; -do Aeol., Dor., Ep. gen. sing. 

for -ov in 1 decl. 881 2 , 883 4 ;-- -do for 

-ew in dial. 843 
eiTrXoos, aTrXous declined 294 
dTroXts, -(. adj. 312 
'A7r6XXo>i> 219, 241 4 
dpyvpeos, dpyvpovs declined 294 
dpi- insep. prefix 1169 
&PHTTOS 354 1 
-as for -as in Dor. 842 ; as (-a5ps) fern. 

noun suffix 1097, 1109, 1116, numerals 

in -ds 426 ; ds, -d<ra, -av part, in 


d(T7rt's with plural number 41 6 2 
AVcra = oVra 958 1 ; a<r(ra = aTTa. 960 1 2 
d<rT7)p declined 243 
a<TTv declined 256, 258 
ao"0t, &<T(j>e=cr<f>i(ri > <r0ds 953 
-a-rat, -a-ro endings for -vrai, -VTO 988, 


&TTa = Tivd 386 2 ; aTTa = &Tiva 393 
av diphthong 18 ; augments to f^v 526, 

529 ; -au- stems of nouns 262 2 , in dial. 

902 ; av of verb-stein changed to aF-y 

and then to at 650 
avros pronoun, declension 367 ; 6 

373; ai>Tov = his 378; aurou = eavrov 
375 ; avros auroO, etc. Dor. 954 3 

auroO, avrbdev, avrbve 405 

d0i/77, gen. pi. dtyvuv 177 

aw contr. to a in Aeol. 844 1 , in Dor. 
845 2 ; -dw contr. verbs in : dial, forms 
1009 1 , 1010, 1011 1 , 1013 1 , 1014 ; 
-dw as denom. vb.- formation 1153 ; 
in desideratives 1155 
auv gen. pi. in Horn. 883 5a 

B, labial middle mute 30 ; euphonic 
changes, see labials ; /3 in Aeol. for y 
and 5 819 ; euphonically inserted 
between JM and X or p in Old Ionic 825 

-/3d for pyjdi 703 

/Sa^w 2 p. /it-form 768 

/3dXXw : metathesis 708, pf. mid. subj. 745 

jSacrtXeta queen and /SatriXetd 184 2 (a) 

jSao-tXeus declined 263, 265 
, /3^XricrTOS 354 1 
fut. 680 5 
2 a. /it-form 767 

/S\ for fi\ 71 

Bope'ds 194 

/3ou\o/jLai. : fiov\ei never /3oi5X77 476 

jSoOs declined 263 

F, palatal middle mute 30 ; nasal 31 ; 
euphonic changes, see palatals ; y in 
Aeol. for i 819 ; for yv in New Ion. 832 

70X77, yaXe"?7 declined 192 

yy/u. changed to y/j. 88 

76J/OS declined 246, 247 (6) 

yevvddas adj. of one ending 305 

yepas declined 246 

yr]pd<rKu 2 a. yut-form 767 

yiyas declined 235 

yiyvo/uLat 2 p. /it-form 768 

yiyvuffKb) 2 a. yui-form 767 

y\vKaiv(i) aor. 685 

y\vKvs declined 317 

yXuffva declined 180 

7paOs declined 263 

A, lingual middle mute 30 ; euphonic 
changes, see linguals ; 5 in Aeol. for 
f 819 ; S in Dor. for /3 818 ; 55 in Dor. 
and Aeol. for f 818, 819 

5a- insep. prefix 1169 

-5a, -d-rjv, -dov etc., as adv. endings 1148 

5d?7p, voc. 5dep 219 

dai/j.uv declined 240 

ddfj.ap(s) 236 6 

5?s gen. du. and pi. accent 217 


-5e local 284 ; in dial. 910, 913 

dei-doiKa, etc., redupl. 974 

5ei8w 2 p. /it- forms 768 

Seiva pron. declined 389 

delvviu inflected 498 ; synopsis 508 

dpr} = dpFfj 183 

dexarai 972 

3eo> 480 

577X60*, 577X0) pr. and impf. inflected 477, 

synopsis 483 
Ar}fj.rjTr}p declined 243 
-775 names in 1116 
dldoi, Find. = dlSov 984 

Ku 2 a. yui-forms 767 
inflected 498 ; synopsis 508 ; impf. 

and imperative 500 ; aor. in -/ca 501 
diinrixvs adj. 31 2 2 
diirovs adj. 312 2 
-5ts adv. ending 1148 
di\f/dw contr. 479 
d/u,us gen. du. and pi. accent 217 : <r of ending -cro generally 

dropped 506 

dvo declined 409, 411, dial. 964 2 
dv<r- insep. part. 1169, angm. of its 

compounds 567 
5do : 2 a. Zdvv inflected 498 ; forms from 

-tfw 503 ; dial, forms : 964, 2 a. /xt- 

form 767, Svrj opt. 700 
dupov declined 200 

E, short 15 ; open 17 ; lengthened to 77 
39, 41 (in Dor. 840 II.) ; to ei 40 (in 
Dor. 840 ir.) ; e in contraction 47, 48, 
52 ; e elided 59 ; e interchanged with 
a and o 42 ; e as syl. aug. 453 1 , 524, 
533, 534 ;'e becomes 77 in augm. 526, 
becomes ei in augm. 533 ; e as redupl. 
454 1 , 539, 540, 542, 543 ; e added to 
vb.-stem 613 (dial. 990) ; e changed to 
a in theme 621 1 , to o 621 2 ; e for a, t, 
o in dial. 802 ; e in Ion. for Att. 77 810, 
for et 812, 817, for a 813, 8] 7, for t 
817 ; e prothetic 838, in Homer 860 1 ; 
e inserted 860 2 

-ea Ion. for -?7i> in ace. sing. 884 3 

eavrov declined 374 

tyyvs compared 356 

<fyuj declension, etc. 367-371, in dial. 

ee contr. to 77 in Lesb. Aeol. 844 1 , to ei 
in Boeot. 844 2 , to 77 or ei in Dor. 845 3 

ee' = 950 

*s = efc 964 

&p Horn. = ^959* 

adj. of one ending 305 
et diphthong 18 ; interchanged with t and 

01 44 ; becomes 77 in augm. 526, 531 ; 

ei in redupl. 538 ; ei in Ion. for e 806, 

817 ; -et end. of 2 pers. sing. pass. 

476 ; -et, -f as adv. ending 1148 ; 

-ei- for -vi in part. 803, 1057 
eta Dor. part, for -via 1057 ; -etd noun 

suff. 1104, 1113 

-etas, -ete, -eta? in aor. opt. act. 468 
et'/ccjj' declined 254 

elfjil inflection, etc. 772-774, dial. 1066 
etyut inflection etc. 775-778, dial. 1067 
-eiv, -ets etc. in late plupf. 469 
efos 963 4 

elirov, eiTra 553, 684 
-ets, -eo-o-o, -ev adj. in 319-322, 1138 ; 

-ets, -etcra, -tv part, in 329-333 
ets, pia, to, declined 409 ; dial. 964 ; stem 

410 ; compounds 412 
euos 963 4 

K or e* 69 ; in comp. 81 
e/caoros, eKdrepos 429 
^/cet, eiteWev, e'/cet(re 405 

379, 380, dial. 957 2 
declined 319 

t^nrros 354 6 
fut. 680 2 
pf. mid. system : inflection ' etc. 


ATTI'S declined 235 
tyavrov declined 374, in Horn. 954 1 , in 

Hdt. 954 2 
/, e/jieu, fj.ev, efj-elo, tfjAOev = Att. (e')yUoC 

950, 952, 953 
^/x^os, eytoCs, ^/ieO(s), fj.ov, fj.ev, ^dev, 

Dor. = (e>o0952, 953 
tficuvrovetc. (Hdt.) 95 4 2 
ilj.iv Dor. =fju)L 952 

e/Ltto, ^'^(s), e/iiws, Tarent. Dor. = e/j.ov 952 
^6s, my, 377, 378, dial. 955 1 , 956 
-ei> Dor. inf. 1053 

tvda, fredte, tvdev, tvdtvte 401, 403 
fv8ev Kal tv8ev 403 
evravda, tvrfvdev 401 

compared 356 
eo contr. to eu in Aeol., Ion., sometimes 

Dor. 844 1 , 845 4 , 847 

e5, eto, eOev, eov, eo?o = o5 950, 953 

= of 950 

/ca 2 p. /xi-form 768 

-eos contr. adj. 290-295 ; as adj. end. 1135 
eos Horn. =5s poss. 955 1 ; = <r0ere/)os 956 
eov contr. to eu in Ion. 847 
in numeral compounds 420 4 


: <r of ending -ao gen. dropped 506 
2 a. 553 

ewpLa.ij.Tiv inflection 498 

cpi- insep. prefix 1169 

/x^ds declined 192 
r)s declined 235 

-eo-(<rt) dat. pi. in dial. 893 

ff0iw fut. 676 

-ecr-repos, -eo--raros compar. and superl. 
343, 346-349 

rr$?w 473 

ecrxaros 356 

erepos 382, 396 

-fr?7s (TO 2ros) adj. in 427 

erTjoicu, gen. pi. er^ffldjv 177 

ev diphthong 18 ; becomes 771; in augm. 
526, 532 ; -ev- stems of nouns 262-^266 
(in dial. 901) ; eu of vb.-stem changed 
. to ef and then to e 632 ; e5 com- 
pounds : augm. of 566 

ei'3orpi's, -v, adj. 312 1 

etfe\7m, -t, adj. 312 1 

eiVoos, etfpous declined 293 

-ei'S noun suffix 1099, 1113, 1119 

evxapis, -i, adj. 312 1 

-evu denom. vb. -formation 1153 

txffpk compared in dial. 943 

'xw (" e X-> ff X -) 677 ; 2 a. /u-form 767 

-eco gen. for -ou in Ion. 883 16 , 884 2 ; 
-eu denom. vb. - formation 1153; 
contr. vbs. in -ew in dial. 1009 2 , 101 1 2 , 
1013 2 , 1014 

-euv gen. pi. in Ion. 883 5 6 , 884 4 

ews down : ace. e'w, declension 249 

ewuroO etc. (Hdt. ) 954 2 

Z, double consonant 32 ; in Aeol. for di 

and c-o-819 
fa- insep. prefix 1169 
fdu> contr. 479 

-fe local ending 28, in dial. 91 3 2 
-ft> verbs in 637-647 

H long 15 ; open 17 ; interchanged with 
a) 42 ; 77 in Boeot. for at 804 ; in Ion. 
for a 805, 815, for w 817 ; 77 inserted 
(dial. 860 4 ) ; 77 as syl. aug. 525 ; -77 
Ion. for -d in 1 decl. 883 1 2 , 884 ; -77 
as noun suffix 1095 

77 improper diphth. 18 

r, rel. adv. 401 

?77e / uwi' declined 240 

-fats, -r}s adj. in 322 

776' Ion. for ei 816 

a superl. adv. 354 2 
s, oTTTjAkos 395, 396 
: inflection etc. 782, 783, dial. 1069 

s 400 
Tj/meiuv = i)/j.u)i> 950 

-T]-/j.vos for -e-/xe^os Horn. part. 1058 
Verepos 377, dial. 955 1 
77^1, say, 789 

rjfju- insep. prefix 420 1 5 , 1169 
IT>S 963 2 

-77^ Ion., Dor. inf. =-w 1053, 1054 
rel. adv. 401 
declined 237 
, r)pe/j.(TTpos 356 
declined 250, 251 
-775, -es adj. in 306-309, 1130 ; -775 vb.- 

end. for -ets 986 ; 77?, -yat(v) dat. 

pi. in Ion. 883 6 * 1 , 884 5 
770-a-wj', TJKiara 354 2 6 
fa 963 3 

77xw declined 251 
77015 Ion. =ews 249 
771; diphthong 18 

9 rough mute 30 ; euphonic changes, see 
linguals and aspirated letters ; in 
Aeol. for a ; inserted in Old Ion. 

-6cv, -dt local 284, in dial. 910-912 

0r?p declined 240 

-0i of imperative changed to -a- 112 ; 0i 
in dial. 984 

6vfi<rKu ; metath. 708, 2 p. /it-form 768 

dpi declined 235 ; aspirates in 102 

Ovydrrip declined 243 

Bus gen. du. and pi. accent 217 ; declen- 
sion 251 

I doubtful vowel 15 ; close 17 ; lengthened 
to T 39, 40 ; interchanged with et and 
01 44 (in themes 621 4 ) ; t in contraction 
47-52 ; t elided 59 ; i becomes Tin augm. 
526 ; t in dial, for e and v 802 ; t Ion. 
for e and ei and eu 813, 817 ; t for et in 
Boeot. 804 ; i inserted in gen. and dat. 

dual in Horn. 860 3 ; 1 as local end, 

285 ; -I added to demonstr. as 6St 384 

ta = fji.ia 964 ; -ta noun suff. 1109 

-taw desideratives in 1155 

-tSeos nouns in 1118 

I5p6w contr. 481 

te contr. to I in Ion. 848 

-tfw vbs.: fut. 680 4 ; -tfw as denom. vb.- 
formation 1153 

177- opt. mood-suff. in Horn. 1049 


Ii7/u : inflection etc. 770, 771, dial. 1065 ; 

aor. in -/ca 501 
-i/cos, -17, -ov adj. suff. 1140 
lv Dor. =dat. of 952 ; tv avr$ 950 
-a/OS adj. suff. 1136, 1137 
-iov noun suff. 1123, 1127, 1128 
-los, -ia, -wv adj. suff. 1132-1134 
tou in Boeot. for v 804 
I'TTTTOS (ij), cavalry 416 2 
-is (-ecos) nouns in dial. 261, 899 ; is 

(-idos) fern, noun suff. 1113, 1114,1116, 

1119 ; tj as adv. end. 1148 

noun suff. 1113 
s, -Kr-Taros com par. and superl. 

344, 349 
'larri/ju : inflection 490, 499 ; synopsis 

506 ; pf. in -KO, 501 2 
-laros superlative 350-353, dial. 942 ; as 

ending 1139 
tVxJ'cuVu aor. 685 
ixOus declined 256 
i$--=evi 964 
-twv comparative 350-353, in dial. 942 ; 

-uav as ending 1139; -iuj>, -L(ui)vr) names 

in 1116 

K palatal smooth mute 30 ; euphonic 
changes, see palatals ; K in Dor. and 
Ion. for TT 817, 819, for x 818, 819 ; K 
in New Ion. for x an d TT 832 

KO.e^OfJLO.1. 680 2 

Kd6-r)fj,ai : inflection 782, 783 

Kal u>s, even thus 403 

KCIKOS compared 354 2 , dial. 944 2 

/caXcw : fut. 680 1 ; metath. 708 ; pf. mid. 

subj. 745 
KaXos compared 354 3 

declined 208 

metath. 708 

-cirepos, -ciroros 356 
Kci-6i, -Qev, -(re 405 2 ! 

: inflected 784, 785, dial. 1070 

= Kll>OS 957 2 

: fut. 678 ; aor. 686 

declined 237, 239 
Kepdaivu aor. 685 
Ke'ws, ace. K^OJ 211 

K7JVOS Dor. KIVOS 957 2 

/crs declined 257 
/cXatw: fut. 681 

-K\e-rjs proper names in, decl. 248 
K\eis 236 3 

/cX^os pi. contr. /cX^d 247 
K\lvw drops v 707 
contr. 479 

Koi\atvu : aor. 685 

KOJOS, /c6(ros etc. for TTO?OS etc. 95 8 4 

K6prj = K6pFtj 183 

Kpdfa : /xt-forms, see Catalogue 

Kpar-fip declined 240 

Kpdvffuv, KpariffTos 354 1 

Kptvw drops ^707 

KTaofj,at : pf. subj. 743, opt. 745 

KTelvb) : 2 a. yui-lorm 767 

/cfyco : fut. 678, aor. 686 

Kws, ace. KtD 211 

A semivowel and liquid 31 ; XX in Aeol. 

for X 819 

Xcryws, ace. Xcryti, Xcryw 211 
XatAai/' declined 235 
Xa^Trcis declined 235 
XeiVw : synopsis 462 ; 2 a. and 2 pf. sys- 

tems 463 

\euv declined 235 
X^ws and Xd6s 210 (6) 
\Liralvw aor. 685 
Xo7os declined 200 
-Xos adj. end. 1143 
Xotfw, X6w contr. 481 
Xdw : synopsis 462, 2 a. and 2 pf. systems 


354 1 

M semivowel and liquid and nasal 31 ; 
mutes before /t 86-89 ; /u/3X and ^/3/o for 
/iX and /u/> 71 ; /UyUM changed to /z/x, 88 ; 
fj. final becomes v 113 ; inserted in Old 
Ion. 826 

-pa (-/wtros) noun suff. 1107 
fj.d\a compared /mXXop, /idXtcrra 363 ; 
comparison by yuaXXov and /xdXto-ra 355 
- / udi' Dor. end.^-^j/ 979 2 fut. 680 2 

declined 326, 327 ; compared 354 4 , 
in dial. 944 3 ; ^ya t fj.eyd\a adv. 359 
t(i)i>, /JL^yicrros 354 4 
comparative 354 6 
fify 241 2 
declined 324 

pf. subj. 743, opt. 745 
Horn. inf. end. 1052, Dor. 1053 

Horn. inf. end. 1052, Aeol. 1054 
-fj.f<r0a for -fj.eda pres. end. 579 2 , 980 
fj-rjTtjp declined 243 

-/M : inflection in -fj.i 456, 457, 609 ; 
forms of verb, pres. in Horn, and Hdt. 
1015, 1016 ; -- fj.i pers. end. retained 
in Horn. subj. 982 

compared 354 5 7 ; in dial. 944 4 


luv 950 

Mfrws, acc. Mfrw 211, declined 192 
/xoi/65ous, fj-ovboov adj. 31 2 1 
lj.bpi.ov, part, in compounds 420 2 
-iuos adj. end. 1147 
-/xos, -/tt?; noun suff. 1104 
fj.vpi.oi, fj-vploi. 416 1 

N semivowel and liquid and nasal 31 ; 
may end a word 35 ; movable 64, 68 ; 
before consonants 90-95 ; omitted from 
617 ; inserted in Old Ion. 826 ; 
omitted from vb.-stem in dial. 995 ; 
v in Dor. for \ 813 ; v added before 9 
in vowel verbs 1038 ; v as vb. end. 
for -<ra.v in Horn. 985 

vavs declined 263 

v5p for vp 71 

vci>) (vv-, veF-, vev-} fut. 681 

veds, temple, declined 208 ; pec&s, pa6s, 
vrjos 210 (&), acc. 211 

v-t)- neg. prefix 1169 

vrjffos declined 200 

vtK-rj declined 180 

viv Dor. pron. 952 

-j>os adj. end. 1144, 1145 

j/ous (POOS) declined 204 

v<r in Cretan 841 

vri end. 3 pers. pi. Dor. 979 1 

-vvfju. verbs in : 679 b, 680 3 ; -vvfu and 
-vvfwi, verbs in, 652 vnr, 655, 656, 766 

vwi etc. 950, 952, 953 

vuirepos Horn. 955 2 

5 double cons. 32 ; surd 34 ; may end a 
word 35 : in Dor. for <r 818 ; in Ion. 
for o-o- 832 ; as adv. end. 1148 

0, short 15 ; open 17 ; lengthened to 
w 39, 41, to ou 40 ; lengthened to ot 
and o> in Aeol. 840 n, 2, 4 ; lengthened 
to w and ou in Dor. 840 n ; inter- 
changed with e and a 42 ; o in con- 
traction 47, 48, 52 ; elided 59 ; o for 
a in Epic 861 ; o in dial, for a, e, u 802 ; 
o in Ion. for w 811, for ou 813 ; o 
added to vb.-stem 614; o becomes 
in augm. 526. 

&' Horn. = rel. os 959 1 

6, 77, TO article 364, 365 ; proclitic forms 149 

6 Tt neut. of Sorts 393, 394, 396 

6Se, ijde, To'Se 379-381, 396, dial. 957 1 ; 

odt etc. 384 
656s declined 200 

, 889 
-- them, vowel : in Horn, for % in subj. 

1044 ; rarely as plupf. end. 1036 
-oets, -ous adj. in 322 
077 contr. to w in Ion. 848 
80i 963 1 
01 diphthong 18 ; interchanged with i 

and et 44 ; ot for et in dial. 803 ; ot in 

Ion. for o 808 ; ot augments to y 526, 

530 ; ot- stems, dial, forms 902 

of rel. adv. 401 

oT5a : inflection etc. 786-788 ; dial. 1071 

-ouv Horn, for -oiv dat. du. 887 3 , 894 

-oto Horn. gen. for -ou 887 1 

oto/icu, oi'et, never olrj 476 

otos, oTroibs 395, 396 ; with ris 398 2 

ots declined 263 

-ots Lesb. Aeol. for -ous acc. pi. 885 3 

-otact Aeol. part, for -ov<ra 1055 

-oi<ri(v) Aeol. Dor. Ion. dat. pi. for -ots 

885 2 , 887 1 , 888 1 
6/cotos etc. for OTTOIOS etc. 961 3 

354 6 
6X1705 compared 354 6 , dial. 944 4 

fut. 680 2 
oo contr. to w or ou in Dor. 845 4 , to ev 

in New Ion. 847 2 , to w in Aeol. 844* 2 ; 

-oo Horn. gen. for -ou 887 1 
oo, oou = rel. o5 959 1 
oos contr. adj. 290-295 
O'TTTJ, fanjvtKO. 401 

oirldev, OTTOI, OTTOU 401 ; OTTO^I, OTrocre 963 2 
oTrore 401 

67r6repos 895, 396 ; with ris 398* 
oTrTrotos etc. 961 2 
OTTWS, as, that 401 
opyaivw : aor. 685 
8pvls declined 235 
6pvvfu : fut. 678, aor. 686 
-os, -a, -ov noun suffixes 1094 ; adj. suff. 

1130, see also adj. ; -os, -r?, -ov part, in 

328 ; os as neut. noun sutf. 1107 ; 

-os for -ous in Dor, 842, for -ous in acc. 

pi. 885 3 

6's, f/, o rel. pron. 390-392, 396 ; dial. 959 
os, r), ov poss. pron. 377, dial. 955 1 
6'o-os, OTTOO-OS 395, 396, with rh 398 2 ; 

6Wos 961 1 
ocrrts indef. rel. 393, 394, 396, dial. 960 ; 

with particles like ovv, drj, etc. added 

398 1 

oo-Touj' declined 204 
ore rel. adv. 401 
STL, that, because 394 
OTIS, QTIVOL, oTivas 960 


6'rou, 6'ry, see 

6Vrt, OT(T)V, orreo, orey, orfcov, OT^OKTI 960 

ov diphthong 18, when spurious 19 ; -ov- 
stems, dial, forms 902 ; long or short 
in Boeot. 804 ; ov in Ion. for o 807, 
817 j -ou- stems, dial, forms 902 

ov, OVK, oi>x 68 

oS pers. pron. declension etc. 367-371 ; 
rel. adv. 401 

ovd' ws 403 

ov8a/j.-rj, -oO, -ws 399 2 

ouda/j.-ov, -66ev, -oae, -ws 405 

oWerepos 399 1 

ov/ etc. = i5/ie?s etc. 953 

o5s, ear, gen. du. and pi. accent 217 

-otfs, -ov<ra, -ov part, in 329-333 

OVTIS, OijTL 399 1 

ogros 379-381 ; ovrovt 396 

otfrwy, so, 401 

6</>pa 963 4 

8\f/ofjLai (fut. of opdw), 8\f/i, never 6^77 476 

-6w contr. vbs. in, dial, forms 1009 3 , 

1011 3 , 1013 2 , 1014 ; 6w as denom. 

vb. -formation 1153 

II, labial smooth mute 30 ; euphonic 
changes, see labials ; TT in Aeol. for r 
819 ; TTTT in Aeol. for up 819 
iraffw : fut. 681 
TTCUS gen. du. and pi. accent 217 ; voc. 

TTCU 236 4 

Travrax-ov, -odev, -6<re, -cDs 405 
Tras declined 320 
TTdTiyp declined 243 

ireidw pf. mid. system, inflection etc. 

contr. 479 
= irVT 964 
w : aor. 685 
compared 944 7 
Tre/) encl. added to rel., as ofos irep 398 3 
Tre'/jas declined 237, 239 
UepL-K\erjs, -K\rjs 248 
Trero/xat : fut. 677 ; 2 a. ^it-form 767 
TTT}, TFT;, TrrjvLKa 401 

, 396 
declined 256 

764, v inserted 765 
TTLfj.TrpTfjfj.1 764, v inserted 765 
irtvw : fut. 676 ; 2 a. /u-form 767 
: fut 681 ; metath. 708 

es 964 

compared 944 7 
-TrXcio-tos adj. in 424 

compar. 354 7 

Xetcrros 354 7 

: pf. mid. system, inflection etc. 

: fut. 681 ; pr. contr. 480 
TrXe'ws declined 300 
Tr\r}(T<r(D : a. pass. 759 
-TrXous adj. in 424 
TrXdj/w drops v 707 
irvtw : fut. 681 

7ro5ct7r6s, OTToSttTTOS 400 

Trodev, iroSev 401 
7r6^, TTO^I 963 1 

TTOi, TTOt 401 

is declined 186 
declined 240 

TTO?OS, 7roi6s 388, 396 

TroXij declined 256 

7roXr?7s declined 186 

7roXi/s declined 326, 327, dial. 931 ; com- 
pared 354 7 , dial. 944 5 ; iro\v, TroXXd 
adv. 359 

iroppw, iropp&Tepos 356 

Troo-e 963 3 

Tloo-eiouv 219, 241 4 

TTOO-OJ, TTOO-OS 388, 396 ; 7r6o-(ros, 958 3 

Trore, Trore 401 

TTorepos 388, 396 

7TOU, TTOl/ 401 
TTOVS 236 2 

Trpaos declined 326, 327 ; Trpatis, 7rp7/i)j 932 
irpb before augm. 554 ; irpo, Trporepos 356 ; 

TT pore pair epos 946 
irpos from Ep. Trport 111 
irpovpyov, irpovpyiaiTepos 356 
irp&Tos 356, TT/jwrio-ros 946 
TrroXf/ios, TrroXis (Ion.) 828 
-TTTW: verbs in 634-636 
?rOp, irvp-os 241 3 

7TWS, 7T(is 401 

P, semivowel and liquid 31 ; initial always 
p 27 ; may end word 35 ; doubled after 
syl. aug. 77 (sometimes not, in dial. 
824) ; pp for earlier pa- 76, 78 (in Dor. 
818) ; p in Dor. and Aeol. for <r 818, 
819 ; p reduplic. 974 

pottos compared 354 8 , dial. 944 6 

pyuv, p'^crros 354 8 

p-^yvvfii : 2 pf. 717 

priTwp declined 240 

p'ryow contr. 481 

pts declined 240, ptv 241 1 

-pos adj. end. 1146 

S : two forms 12 ; spirant 31 ; surd 34 ; 


may end word 35 ; <r final dropped 69 ; 
<T<T for later TT 76 ; mutes before a- 84 ; 
changes in a 105-107 ;<r in L>or. for 
6 818 ; rough breathing in Laconian 
for <r 818 ; aa in Aeol. for <r 819 ; 
tr added to theme 616 ; <r dropped in 
endings -<rcu, -<ro : resulting dial, forms 
987 ; doubled in fut. and aor. (dial.) 
1018 ; <r retained in liquid fut. and aor. 
(dial.) 1019 ; a dropped in fut. and aor. 
of some vowel verbs (Horn.) 1023, 1027 ; 
0- of end. -<ra assimilated in aor. of 
liquid verbs (dial. 1026) 

ffd\Triy declined 235 

(ravTOv = <reavTov 375 

crd in Aeol. for 819 : o-5w in verbs 
(dial.) 1003 

-ere local 284 

-cretco desideratives 1155 

tree, creO, treto, <rt0v = (rov 950, 953 

-<re%- Dor. fut. 1022 

ffeavrov declined 374 

trewuroD etc. (Hdt.) 954 2 

<nfc gen. du. and pi. accent 217 

a-da end. retained in Horn. 983 
Dor. =cr077i' 979 2 
= -(rdr)i> in Horn. 981 

ffi local 285 ; en end. 3 sing, retained 

in subj. (Horn.) 982; -en end. 3 pers. 
pi. in Horn. 1015 1 

ffid noun suff. 1104 

-<ris noun suff. 1104 

er/ce\Aw : metath. 708 ; 2 a. /u-form 767 

a Kid declined 180 

(TK%- iterative impf. and aor. 1040, 1041 

CTKW : verbs in 957-961 

<r/idw contr. 479 

-ff%- as aor. end. for -<ra- in Horn. 1028 

0"6s, thy, 377, dial. 955 1 

0-ocpos declined 288 

-trcrii) (-TTW) verbs in 637-647 

-<rra for o-rrjdi 703 

o-reXAw : pf. mid. system : inflection etc. 

0-rpe0a> 728, 760 

06 declension etc. 367-371, dial. 950-953 

-ffuvr) noun suff. 1109 

cr0eas, o-0e, <r0ea 950 

<r0eos (Alcman) = 6's 956 

0-c/>erepos, their, 337 ; 0-0e're/>os = 5s 956 

<T(f>f<t}v, (r<t>eid}v = <r<pG)v 950 

<r<f>i(i>) = <r<t>l<Ti 950 

<r05s Dor. Horn. =0-0e're/x>s 955 1 ; = os 956 
Horn. 955 2 

declined 246, 247 (c) 
trw/m declined 237 
o-ws declined 300 
0-wr?7p, voc. 0-wrep 219 

T, lingual smooth mute 30 ; euphonic 
changes, see linguals ; rr for earlier <rcr 
76 ; T before vowels 85 ; r in Dor. and 
Aeol. for 0- 818, 819 ; r in New Ion. 
for 6 832 ; TT in Aeol. for r and era 819 

rciAas declined 323 

a^tuas declined 186 

a? Aeol. and Dor. = TUV 949 2 

-rd;> Dor. end. =-TT)V 979' 2 

-raros superl. 337-349 

TO.XVS compared in dial. 943 

TavTij dem. adv. 401 

row Horn. =rw* 949 2 

re, TJ} Dor.=o-e 952 

-re adv. end. 1148 


drops v 707 
, reiws 963 4 
noun suff. 1099 

: fat. 680 1 ; pf. mid. system : inflec- 
tion etc. 484-489 

re/ww metath. 708 

re'o, reO, rew, re'wp, reoto"i for rtVos etc. 958 1 

re"o, reos etc. Dor. for 0-oD 952, 953 

reos Dor. Hom.' = 0-6s 955 1 

-reos vb. adj. 605 

repots 239 

Tep-qv declined 324 

-repos, -raros compar. by 337-349 (dial. 
934-941) ; -repos as end. 1139 

retro-apes declined 409, dial. 964 

rerpatvw lengthens a to 77 675 

Tews, ace. Tew 211 

r?7, rf/5e dem. adv. 401, 403 

Tr)\iKOS, TrjXiKocrde, r^At/coOros, 382, 383 

r?7>os 963 2 

TrjviKa, TijviKade, TyviKavTa 401, 963 1 

r^os Dor. =f/cetvos 95. 7 2 

-r77p noun suff'. 1099 

-r>7ptos adj. end. 1141 

-r?7s masc. nom. suff. 1099, 1113, 1119 ; 
fern, noun suff. 1109 

rf?o-(t) Horn. =rals 949 a 

-TI end. 3 p. sing. Dor. 979 1 

ri'ypts, riypi(5)os 261 

Tidrj/j.t. : inflection 498 ; synopsis 508 ; 
impf. and imperative 500 ; aor. in -/ca 
501 ; opt. w-forms 504 

rt/xciw, rl/aw : pres. and impf. inflection 
477 ; synopsis 484 


rlfjLiri declined 180 

T'LV Dor. =0-0/952, 953 

ri'os, n'(w)s Tarent. Dor.=(roO 952 

rls interrog. 385-387, 396, dial. 958 1 2 ; 

TI'S indef. 385-387, 396; accent 152, 

153 ; 6Vos rts etc. 398 2 
-rts fern, noun suff. 1099, 1104, 1113, 1119 
rt'y, rioLffiv Lesb. Aeol. = T'LVL, TL<TLV 958 2 
r\a- : 2 a. ^tt-forms 767 
r60i, Tbdev 963 1 
TOI, rat Dor. and Ion. =art. ol, a! 949 2 ; 

rot, retv VOL 950, 952 ; rot ^v, TOI 64 

in Trag. 949 4 
-rot Arcadian for -rat 803 
TOUV Horn. Toiv 949 3 
TO?O Horn. =TOU 949 1 
rotos, Toi6<r5e, roioOros 382, 383, 396 
TCHS Aeol. =Totfs 949 2 
Toi<r5e(cr}<TL Horn. 949 2 
TOI<TL(V), Tcua-t(j') poet. = TO?S, TCUS 949 2 
-TOP end. -rt]v in Horn. 981 
-ros vb. adj. end. 605, 606 
TO(Tos, Toaoffde, TOffovTos 382, 383, 396 ; 

TOCTOS in dial. 957 3 

TO(T(rrjVOS = TOO'OVTOS 957 2 

r6re 401 

Totf = cn; 953 

To0pa 963 4 

Tpdirefa declined 180 

T/>e?s, rpi'a declined 409 

rpeVw 728, 760 

T/>e0w 728, 760 

-Tpia noun suff. 1099 

Tpifiu : pf. mid. system : inflection etc. 


accent 309 

is fern, noun suff. 1099 
-Tpov, -Tpa noun suff. 1108 
T/x6s gen. du. and pi. accent 217 
TIJ Lesb. Aeol. =<rrf 953 ; Dor. =<rt 952 
rd^ = (n5950, 952 
-TOS noun suff. 1104 
TtD Aeol., Dor. =TOV 949 1 
-rwp noun suff. 1099 
T<S, <Aiw, 401, 403, 963 1 : rcos Aeol., 

T doubtful vpwel 15 ; v close 17 ; initial 
v always v in Attic 25 ; v lengthened 
to v 39, 40 ; v in contraction 47-52 ; 
v becomes v in augm. 526 ; v changed 
to eu or 01 in theme 621 4 ; v for F , see 
digamma ; u for a and o in dial. 802 ; 
v for OL or y in Boeot. 804 ; -- v- stems 
in dial. 900 

vdwp 238 

vt diphthong 18 

iVe5a?r6s 400 

vfj.t$, iV^w^, etc. Dor. for 5/iets etc. 952 

*,uerepos, your, 377 

= VfjLWV 950 

>'/x/xe Aeol. = fi/jLels, fifju 
950, 953 

Lesb.^repos 955 1 
Dor. Horn. ^erepos 955 1 
-di'w denom. vb. -formation 1153 
-vs nouns ; late gen. -eos 261 ; -- vs num- 

erals 426 
-us, -eia, -u : adj. in 316-318 ; as adj. suff. 


-ds, -vaa, -vv part, in 329-333 
, -raros 356 

$ labial rough mute 30; euphonic changes, 
see labials and aspirated letters ; ~ in 
Aeol. for 6 819 

(paivu : synopsis 464; f., 1 aor., and 2 
pass, systems 465; pf.-mid. systems: 
inflection etc. 484-489 
0e'pw : aor. and 2 aor. 553, 684 
<f>evyw fut. 681 

: inflection etc. 779-781, dial. 1068 
avw : 2 a. /it-form 767 
A-ore/>os, -a/raros 354 9 
Aeu>, 0iXw : pr. and impf. inflected 
477, synopsis 483 

declined 288 ; compared 354 9 
t\-repos, -rarcs 354 9 
<fn(v) Ep. case-end. 914-917 
declined 235 
, -IKOS, -tti 236 1 
declined 240 
0i/Xa declined 235 
0dw : 2 a. /ii-forms 767 
0ys, blister, and 0ws, W^ ; gen. du. and 
pi. accent 217 ; 0o)s gen. 237 

X palatal rough mute 30 ; euphonic 
changes, see palatals and aspirated 

declined 320 
fut. 681 

j/, xetpitrros 354 2 
wv, voc. xeXiSo? 254 
fut. 676, aor. 684 
, xpdo^at contr. 479 
inflection 790, dial. 1072 
. pi. xpriffTuv 177 
Ps declined 294 
fy>a declined 180 


^ double cons. 32 ; surd 34 ; may end a 

word 35 ; \f/ in Aeol. for <r 819 
^dw contr. 479 

12 long 15 ; open 17 ; interchanged with 
77 42 ; -u> in Aeol. for ov 803 ; w in Ion. 
for o 813, for a, 77, a; 1 , ov 817 ; verbs in 
-a; 457 ; w in contr. 47, 48, 52 ; nouns 
in -& 251, 253 ; adv. in -w compared 
362 ; verbs in -w 457, inflection in -w 
607, 608; -- w Aeol., Dor., Ion. gen. 
for -ov 883 4c , 884 a , 885 1 

-w, -eis, -ei as pf. endings in Theoc. 1034 

<{) improper diphth. 18 

tide, so, 401 

s, -w5es, adj. end. 1142 

-%- them, vowel of subj. ; in dial. 1044- 

-uv noun suff. 1127 ; -wv Dor., Aeol. inf. 

end. for -ovv 1053, 1054 ; -wv Aeol. 

part, for -ws 1056 ; -uv, -ov adj. in 309; 

-aw, -ovaa, -ov part, in 329-335 
-ws adv. end. 1148 ; -ws, -uv adj. end. 

298 ; -ws Dor. for -ovs ace. pi. 885 3 ; 

-ws part, end., in Horn. 1059 ; -c6s, -via, 

-6s part, in 329-333 ; -ws, -wcra, -wor -6s 

part, in 336 
ws, thus, 401, 403 ; w's rel. adv., as, that 

401 ; u>s = otfrws 963 1 
&a"rrep, as, that 401 
-cicraw, -UJTTW verbs 1156 
-w-re/oos, -c6-raros couipar. superl. 345 
wu diphth. 18 




Ability, adjectives of 1130, 1140, 1141 

Abstract nouns 1104-1106 

Accent : nature and principles of 123-156 ; 
nature of Greek accent 123 ; selection 
of syl. to be accented 124-128 ; kinds 
of accent 128 ; mark of 129-131 ; place 
of 132 ; words named according to 
(oxytone etc.) 133; recessive 134; 
accent of antepenult, penult, ultima 
135; of final -at and -01 136 ; of genitives 
in -ews, -ewv, -ew, and compounds in 
-ws 137 ; change and moving of accent 
139 ; of contracted syllables 140, 141 ; 
acute of oxytone changed to grave 143 ; 
with fra.gfs 144^ with elision 

145; anastrophe 146 ; words distin- 
guished by accent 147 ; proclitics 149, 
150 ; enclitics 151-156 ; accent in 
dialects 874-879 ; accent of _apjins 
171 ; of 1st decl. 176-178 ; of 2nd decl. 
198, 203, 207 ; of 3rd decl. 216-222 ; 
accent of adjectives 287, 293, 297, 308, 
309, 316 ; accent of pa_riciples 330, 
514, 517 2 , 518 2 ; accent of vej^s 512- 
521 ; with final -at and -01 ofopt. 512 ; 
of contr. forms 140, ultima of verb 
accented 517, penult of verb accented 

518, accent of compound verbs 521 ; 
'accent of compound words 1179-1194 

Accusative case, formation, see Endings 
of cases 

Action, suffixes denoting 1104-1106 

Active verbs with fut. mid. 791 

Active voice 430, 432 

Acute accent 128 ; changed to grave in 
oxytones 142 

Addition of vowels 72, 73, dial. 860 

Adjectives and participles, inflection 286- 
336 ; of 1st and 2nd decl. 286-305 ; of 
3rd decl. 306-314 ; of 1st and 3rd decl. 
315-326 ; irregular adjectives 326, 327 ; 
contract adjectives 315-318, 322 : 
dialectic forms of adj. 918-933, of part. 
918-933 ; comparison of adj. 337-356, 
dial. 934-946 ; numeral adj. 427, 428; 
formation of adj. 1131-1147 ; see 
also Table of Contents 

Adverbs 357-363: from adj. 357, 359, 
from part. 358, from stems of nouns 
and pronouns 284, 285 ; neg. adv. 
3992 ; _dial. forms of adv. 947, 948 ; 
comparison 360-363 ; correlative ad- 
verbs 401-405; numeral ad vv. 406,422, 
425 ; formation of advv. 1148-1152 


Aeolic dialect 3 

Agent, suffixes denoting 1099-1103 

Alphabet 11, obsolete letters 14 ; history 
37 ; pronunciation 38 

Anastrophe 146 

Antepenult 114 2 ; accent of 135 

Aorist tense, augm. 523-534, reduplication 

Aphaeresis 857 

Apocope 856 

Article 364-366, dial. 949 ; dual masc. 
used as fern. 365 ; crasis with, 58 1 ; 
proclitic 149 

Aspirate mutes 30 

Aspirated letters : changes in 98-104 ; 
mutes before 98 ; in successive syllables 
100, 101 ; aspirate thrown back in 
cases like rpe<f>- for 0pe<f>- 102, 103, 
thrown forward in jrao'xu 104 

Assimilation of vowels in Epic 861 

Attic dialect 6 ; Att. 2nd decl. 206-211 ; 
Att. redupl. 548-550, in dial. 978; 
Att. fut. 680 

Attributive compounds 1198 

Augment 453, 523-534, 554-568; 
syllabic 524, 525, 533, 534 ; temporal 
526-534 ; of plupf. 524, 546, 550 ; 
of compound verbs 554-568 ; augment 
in dial. 968-971, omitted in dial. 960 

Barytones 133 

Belonging or pertaining to, adjectives 

Breathings 23 ; place of 25 ; form 26 ; 
with v and p 25, 27 ; dropped in middle 
of compounds 28 ; in dial. 833 

Cardinal numbers 406-414, 416 

Cases 166 ; meaning 167 ; endings 170, 
of 1st decl. 174, 175 ; of 2nd decl. 196, 
197 ; of 3rd decl. 224-232 

Circumflex accent 128 ; its origin 130 ; in 
contr. syl. 140, 141 

Classes of Verbs, eight 623-663: I. 
(Thematic-Vowel Class) 623-629; II. 
(Strong-Vowel Class) 630-633; III. 
(r-Class) 634-657 ; IV. (Iota Class) 637- 
651 ; V. (N-Class) 652-656 ; VI. (In- 
choative Class) 657-661 ; VII. (Verb- 
stem Class) 662 ; VIII. (Mixed Class) 
663; in dialects 998-1008 : I. 998; II. 
999 ; III. 1000 ; IV. 1001-1004 ; V. 
1005 ; VI. 1006 ; VII. 1007 ; VIII. 

Close vowels 17 

Common dialect 7 

Comparison of adjectives 337-356, in 
dial. 934-946 ; of adverbs 360-363 

Compound verbs, augm. and redupl. 554- 

Compound words 1074, 1160-1200 ; first 
part of 1161-1170 ; last part of 1171- 
1178 ; accent of compounds 1179- 
1194 ; meaning of compounds 1195- 

Conjugation of verbs in -w 459-489 ; of 
verbs in -pi 490-511 

Consonants : division of 29 ; mutes 30 ; 
semi-vowels 31 ; double 32 ; labials, 
palatals, linguals 33 ; surds, sonants 
34 ; final 35 ; relation of 36 ; movable 
64-69 (in dialects 858, 859) ; final in 
formations 109-113 ; changes of con- 
sonants 75-113 ; doubling of 75-78 ; 
euphony of 79 ; variations in dialects 

Contract nouns : 1st decl. 191-194 ; 2nd 
decl. 202-205 

Contract adjectives 290-295, 307-310, 
315-318, 322 

Contract participles 334-336 

Contraction : rules of 47-52 ; quantity of 
contr. syl. 121 ; accent of contr. syl. 
140 ; contraction in dialects 844-848 ; 
contraction of verbs 477-483, in dial. 

Coronis 53 

Correlation : of pronouns 396-400, in 
dial. 962 ; of adverbs 401-405, in dial. 

Crasis 53-58 ; quantity in 121 ; accent in 
144 ; crasis in dialects 849-852 

Dative case, see Formation and Endings 
of cases 

Declensions 168, 169, 172 ; of nouns : 1st 
decl. 173-194 (dial. 881-884), 2nd decl. 
195-213 (dial. 885-888), 3rd decl. 214- 
276 (dial. 889-901), irregular decl. 277- 
283 (dial. 903-909) ; of adjectives and 
participles 286-366 : 1st and 2nd decl. 
286-305, of 3rd decl. 306-314, of 1st 
and 3rd 315-326 ; of contract adjectives 
290-295, 307-310, 315-318, 322; of 
irreg. adj. 326, 327 

Defective nouns 281, dial. 908 

Demonstrative pronouns 379-384, 396, 
400 ; dial. 957 

Denominative nouns 1109-1129 ; verbs 
446, 1153-1159 ; words 1092 


Deponent verbs 432, with passive mean- 
ing 795 

Derivative adjectives 1132-1147 

Desiderative verbs 1155, 1156 

Determinative compounds 1196, 1197 

Diaeresis marks (") 20 

Dialects in literature 10 ; dialects treated 
in detail 801-1072 

Digamma or Yau 14 1 4 , 834-839 ; forms 
due to omission of 108 

Diminutive nouns 1123-1126 

Diphthongs 18 ; improper 18 ; spurious 
19 ; Latin equivalents 22 

Distributive numerals 423 

Doric dialect 4 ; genitive Hfcl>^\JjiL_*i- 

Double constrriants 32 ; tTouble forms of 
nouns 280, dial. 907 

Elision 59-63, in dial. 855 ; in compounds 
63 ; no elision in certain cases 62 ; 
accent with elision 145 

Enclitics 151, 152 ; rules for 153-155 ; 
accented when emphatic 156 ; enclitic 
as last part of compound 153 6 , 155 ; 
successive enclitics 156 7 

Endings : of cases 70; Istdecl. 174, 175 ; 
2nd decl. 196, 197 ; 3rd decl. 224-232 ; 
local 284, 285, dial. 910-91;} ; Epic 914- 
917; of verb 452; personal endings 
of verb 574-598, indie. 575-582, subj. 
and opt. 583, imperative 584-586, re- 
marks on verb -endings 587-598; 
participial and verbal adjective endings 
602-606, in dial. 1055-1061 ; infinitive 
endings 599-601 

Epenthesis 73 

Epic case-endings 914-917 

Epicene nouns 165 

Euphony of vowels 39-74 ; of consonants 

First-aorist system : formation 682-686, 
dial. 1018-1028 ; inflection 687-690 

First-future passive 757 

First-passive system : formation 750-752, 
757, dial. 1038 ; inflection 753-757 

First-perfect system ; formation 704-709, 
in dial. 1031, 1034, 1036, 1037 ; in- 
flection 710-714 

Fitness or ability, adjectives of 1130, 
1140, 1141 

Formation of words 1074-1200, see Table 
of Contents 

Fractions 419, 420 

Frequentative verbs 1157, 1159 

Fulness, adjectives of 1138, 1142 
Future : conjugation in liquid verbs 465 ; 
future middle with passive meaning 
973 ; future-perfect 748, 749, 1037 ; 
fut.-pf. formed by periphrasis 473, 474; 
future tense-system (formation and 
inflection) 673-681, in dial. 1818-1028, 
fut. with present form 676, Attic fut. 
680, Doric fut. 681 

Gender 161 ; natural and grammatical 

162 ; rules of 163 ; common 164 ; 

epicenes 165; gender of 1st decl. 

173 ; of 2nd decl. 195, 212, 213 ; of 3rd 

decl. 267-276 
Genitive case : formation, see Endings of 


Gentile nouns, suffixes 1119-1122 
Grave accent 128, for acute in oxytones 

Greeks 1 ; Greek language : its history 

and dialects 2-10 

Hellenistic Greek 8 
Heterogeneous nouns 277, dial. 904 
Heteroclite nouns 278, dial. 905 
Hiatus 46 

Imperative : personal endings of 584- 
586; formation of: present system 671, 
672 ; first-aorist system 690 ; second- 
aorist system 702, 703 ; first-perfect 
system 714; second - perfect 724; 
perfect-middle 746, 747 ; first-passive 
system 756 ; second-passive svstem 761 

Imperfect tense : augment 523-534 ; 
-6%- 1042 

Improper diphthongs 18 

Inceptive verbs 657 

Indeclinable nouns 282 

Indefinite pronouns 385-389, 396-400, in 
dial. 958 ; accent 387 ; indef. re- 
latives 393, 395, 396, 400 

Indicative : formation : present system 
664, 665 ; future 673-681 ; first-aorist 
682-688 ; second-aorist 691-696 ; first- 
perfect 704-709 ; second-perfect 715- 
722 ; perfect-middle 726-731 ; first- 
passive system 750-752 ; second-passive 
system 758-760 ; personal endings 
575-582, in dial. 979-989 

Infinitive endings 599-601, in dial. 1052- 

Inflection 158 ; of verbs, two forms 456 ; 
common form 607, 608 ; /it-form 609 ; 


present system 664-672; future 
system 673 ; first-aorist system 687- 
690 ; second-aorist system 691, 697- 
703; first-perfect system 710-714; 
second-perfect system 722-725 ; perfect- 
middle system 732-749 ; first-passive 
system 753-757 ; second-passive system 
761, 762 

Instrument, suffixes denoting 1108 

Intensive pronouns, see Personal pro- 
nouns ; intens. verbs 1157, 1159 

Interchange: of vowels 42-44 ; of quantity 
45, in dial. 843 

Interrogative pronouns 385-388, 396, 
400 ; in dial. 958 ; accent 387 

Ionic dialect 5 ; Ionic genitive 189 

Iota subscript 21 

Irregular nouns 277-283 

Iterative aorist, impf. in -<TK%- 1040, 1041 

Koppa, obsolete letter 14 1 2 4 

Labials 33, labial mutes 30 
Lengthening of vowels 39 ; compensative 

40, 41, in dial. 840-842 
Linguals 33 ; lingual mutes 30 
Liquids : v before consonants 90-95 ; 

liquids before y 96 4 5 ; liquid verbs 

447, 610 

Local endings 284, 285, dial. 910-913 
Locative case 285 
Long vowels 15, 16 

Material, adjectives of 1135, 1136 
Means, suffixes denoting 1108 
Metaplastic nouns 279, dial. 906 
Metathesis 71, 74, dial. 862 ; in verb 

stem 620, dial. 994 
Middle deponents 792 ; middle mutes 

30 ; middle passives 796 ; middle 

voice 430-432 
Modern Greek 9 
Moods 433, 434 ; mood-suffix 451, of 

subjunctive 571, of optative 570, 571 
Movable consonants 64-69, in dial. 856, 


Multiplicatives 424 
Mute, verbs 447, 610 
Mutes 29 ; classes and orders 30 ; cognate, 

co-ordinate, aspirate 30 ; labial, palatal, 

lingual 30 ; smooth, middle, rough 30 ; 

mutes before mutes 80-83 ; before a 

84 ; before IJL 86-89 ; r before vowels 

85 ; quantity of vowel before mute 

and liquid 119, 120 

Negative adverbs 399 a ; pronouns 399 

Notation 406, 417, 418 

Nominative case : formation, see Endings 
of cases ; nom. for voc. 201 

Nouns 160-283, dial. 881-909 ; see Table 
of Contents; formation 1093-1130 

Numbers 440 ; of nouns 160, 880 ; of 
verbs 440 

Numerals 406-429; cardinals 406-414, 
416 ; ordinals 406, 408, 415, 421 ; 
numeral adverbs 406, 422, 425 ; nota- 
tion 406, 417, 418 ; fractions 419, 420 ; 
distributives 423 ; multiplicatives 424 ; 
numeral nouns 426 ; numeral adjectives 
427, 428; numeral pronom. adj. 412, 
429 ; numerals in dial. 964-967 

Objective compounds 1199 

Open vowels 17 

Optative : formation : present 668-670, 
in contr. vbs. 478 ; future 673 ; first- 
aorist system 689 ; second-aorist system 
699-701 ; first-perfect system 713 ; 
second-perfect system 722, 723; perfect- 
middle 744, 745 ; first-passive system 
755; second -passive system 761; 
opt. in dial. 1049-1051 ; verbs in -/ 
502, 504 ; opt. mood-suffix 570, 571 ; 
opt. personal endings 583 

Ordinal numbers 406, 408, 415, 421 

Oxy tones 133 

Palatals 33, pal. mutes 30 

Paroxy tones 133 

Participles 435 ; declensions, formation, 

etc. 328-336, in dial. 1055-1061 ; 

endings 602-606 
Passive voice 430-432, pass, deponents 


Patronymics, suffixes 1116-1118 
Penult 114 2 ; accent of 135 2 
Perfect-middle system 726-731 ; pf.-mid. 

with consonant stems 484-489; addition 

of 0- to stem 730, 731 ; inflection 732- 

749, 3rd pers. pi. 739-741 
Perfect tense : periphrastic forms 470- 

472 ; reduplication 535-550, 554-568 
Periphrastic forms : pf. and pi. pf. : act. 

ind. 470, subj. and opt. 471 ; pf. mid. 

subj. and opt. 472; fut. pf. act. 473; 

fut. pf. pass. 474 
Perispomena 133 
Person related, nouns denoting 1113- 

Persons of verb 441, 442 



Personal and intensive pronouns 367- 
373, in dial. 950-953 

Place, nouns of 1127-1129 

Pluperfect tense : augm. and redupl. 
524, 546, 550 ; periphrastic forms 470- 

Possessive compounds 1198 ; poss. pro- 
nouns 377, 378 ; in dial. 955, 956 

Present tense: redupl. 551, 552 ; present 
system 622-672, in dial. 998-1008, 1015; 
present formation (eight classes of 
verbs) 623-663 ; inflection 664-672 ; 
present redupl. 551, 552 

Primary tenses 437-439 

Primitive adjectives 1130, 1131, nouns 
1093-1108, verbs 446 ; primitive words 

Principal parts of verbs 455, 489 

Proclitics 149 ; accented 150; encl. before 
encl. 153 5 

Pronominal adjectives, numeral 412, 429 

Pronouns : see Personal and Intensive, 
Reflexive, Reciprocal, Possessive, De- 
monstrative, Interrogative and Inde- 
finite, Relative ; also Correlation of 
Pronouns, and the Table of Contents. 
Negative pronouns 399 

Proparoxytone 133 

Properispomenon 133 

Prothesis 72 

Punctuation 157 

Quality : adjectives of 1144 ; nouns de- 
noting 1109-1112 

Quantity: of syllables 116-122, in dial. 
863-873 ; evident in various ways 121 ; 
exchange of quantity 45, in dial. 843 ; 
of 1st decl. 179, of 2nd decl. 199, of 
3rd decl. 223 

Reciprocal pronouns 376 

Reduplication 454, 535-568 ; of perf. 

stem 535-545, 548, 549 ; of pres. stem 

551, 552 ; "of aor. 553 ; of compound 

verbs 554-568 ; Attic redupl. 548-550 ; 

redupl. of verb-stem 618, in dial. 

997 ; redupl. in dial. 972-977, rarely 

omitted in dial. 997 

Reflexive pronouns 374, 375, in dial. 954 
Relative pronouns 390-395, 396, 400, in 

dial. 959, 960 

Result, nouns denoting 1107 
Root and stem 159 ; roots 1075, 1076, 

changes in 1079-1091 
Rough breathing 23-28 ; rough mutes 30 

Sampi, obsolete letter 14 1 3 4 

Second-aorist middle with passive mean- 
ing 794 

Second-aorist system : formation 691 
696, in dial. 1029, 1030; inflection 
691, 699-703 ; formation in -0%- 1043 

Second future pass. 762, 1039 

Second-passive system 758-763 

Second-perfect system : formation 715- 
721, in dial. 1031-1033, 1035, 1036; 
inflection 722-725 

Second-pluperfect 725 

Secondary tenses 437-439 

Semi-vowels 31 

Short vowels 15, 16 

Similarity, adjectives of 1142 

Simple and compound words 1074 

Smooth breathing 23, 24, 26 ; smooth 
mutes 30 

Sonants and surds 34 

Spirant y as in yet 5 ; spirants F and y 
31 ; changes before y 96, 97 

Spurious diphthongs 19 

Stems 159, 1077 ; changes in 1079-1091 ; 
stems and root 159 

Strong and weak root-vowels interchanged 
44, 621 4 

Subjunctive : formation : present 666, 
667 ; first-aor. 688 ; second-aor. 697, 
998 ; first-perfect 712 ; second-perfect 
722 ; perfect-middle 742, 743 ; first- 
passive system 754; second -passive 
system 761 ; subj. personal endings 
583 ; subj. in dial. 1044-1048 

Subscript iota 21 

Suffixes 1077 ; tense-suffix 569; optative 
mood-suffix 572, 573 

Surds and sonants 34 

Syllables 114 ; division of 115 ; quantity 
of 116-122 

Syncopated nouns 243 

Syncope 70, 71 ; of verb-stem 619, in 
dial. 993 

Synizesis 853, 854 

Tense-stems 448 
Tense-suffix 569, in dial. 978 
Tense-systems 449 ; formation 610-790 
Tenses, 436-439 ; meaning of 458 
Thematic vowel 450, 570, 571 
Theme, see verb-stem 
Theme-vowels variable in quantity 612 
Time, adjectives denoting 1137 
Transitive and intransitive meanings 
mixed 797 


Ultima 114 2 ; accent of 135 3 

Vau 14, see Digamma 

Vsrb-stem 443, 444 ; relation to present 
stem 610-633 ; changes in 611-621 (in 
dial. 990-997) ; theme-vowel of variable 
quantity 612 ; e added 613 (in dial. 
990) ; a and o added 614 (in dial. 991); 
short final vowel retained 615 (in dial. 
992) ; cr added 616 ; v omitted 617 
(in dial. 995) ; reduplicated 618 (in 
dial. 997) ; syncopated 619 (in dial. 
993); metathesis 620 (in dial. 994); 
root-vowel changed 621 (in dial. 996) 

Verbal adjectives 435 ; endings of 605, 

Verbs 430-800, 1073; dial, forms 968- 

1072 ; verbs in -w and -/a 457 ; see 
also Table of Contents ; also Index 
under Voices, Moods, Tenses, etc. 

Vocative case: formation: see Endings of 

Vowel verbs 447, 610 

Vowels 15 ; open and close 17 ; short and 
long 15, 16; changes in 39-74; length- 
ening 39 ; compensative lengthening 
40, 41 ; interchange 42, 43 ; strong and 
weak 44 ; exchange of quantity 45 ; 
see also Contraction of vowels ; varia- 
tions of vowels in dialects 801-817, 
assimilation in Epic 861 

Y spirant, as in yet 







-p ^ 

GO tlO 

O J4 

^ 0) 
O O 




Acme Library Card Pocket 

Under Pat. "Ref. Index File."