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' Fto{g&. Gould ....FiinUn. 




District ClerVs Office. 
Be it remembered, that on the first day of 9fay, A. D. 1836, and in the fiftieth year of 
the Independence of the United States of America, Cummings, nilUard ic Company, of the 
said district, have deposited in this office the title of a book, me right whereof tney claim as 
proprietors, in the words foUowins, to wit : — ^ Greek Grammar^ for the use of schools, from 
the German bf Philip Buttmann. Decond edition of the translation.** In conformity to the 
Act of the Congress of the United States, entitled', ^ An Act for the encouragement of I#earn- 
ing, by securing the copies of maps, charts and books, to the authors and proprietors of such 
copies, during tne times therein mentioned :** and also to an Act entitled, ^ An Act supple- 
mentary to an Act, entitled. An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies 
of maps, charts and books, to the proprietors of such copies during the times therein men- 
tioned; and extending the benefits thereof to t^e arts or designing, engraving and etching 
liistorical and other prints.** n a vi a \ CJer* qf the District 

JOHN W. DAVIS, J ofMassachiuetts, 

^ > 


to the first Edition of the TVanskUion. 

The deficiency of the Greek Grammars infuse in this coua- 
try, has been generally felt and loudly complained of. Till a 
comparatively late period, use was made almost exclusively of 
the small Latin compend, usually called the Westminster Greek 
Grammar. The Gloucester Greek Grammar was chiefly trans- 
lated from this, and imperfectly supplied its numerous deficien- 
cies. Of late years Valpy'^s Greek Grammar has been extenv 
sively used, and with great advantage, being in many respects 
worthy of high commendation. That it is, however, but an in- 
sufficient guide ta the student who seeks a thorough acquaint- 
ance with the language, will be generally admitted, and it is al-* 
so not wholly free from the imperfections of the former scho- 
lastic compends. 

. Under these circumstances, the translator, has been led, not 
less by his own reflection, than by the advice of judicious firiends, 
to prepare a translation of the most approved of the Greek 
Grammars in use in Germany. It is well known that the Ger- 
mans have paid a greater attention to philological pursuits than 
any other people of the present day, and that among themselves 
the study of the Greek has been carried much farther than that 
of the Latin.. In consequence of the zeal with which every de- 
partment of Greek literature has been pursued m that country, 


that of grammar has been enriched with many very valuable 
elementary works. It will be sufficient to quote the names of 
Hermann, Bu^tmann, Matthiae, and Thiersch. JSuttmann 
and Matthiae have particularly distinguished themselves as the 
authors of the Greek Grammars in most extensive use. Con- 
sgidered as an historical analysis of the language, the Grammar 
of Professor Thiersch may be thought to deserve the preference. 
It is, however, as its title indicates, a Grammar not so much of 
the classical language as it appears in the n^ass of the writers, 
as of that earlier form of it which is called the elder, the Ho- 
, meric, or epic dialect.* While it needs but a slight inspection 
of this Grammar, to feel the necessity of studying Homer al- 
most as a work of another language, this fact itself equally sug- 
gests the conclusion, that a Grammar, particularly founded on 
this more ancient form of the language, is not well adaipted to 
be a guide to the clsdlsical writers at large. The larger Greek 
Grammar of Matthiae was translated into English by the late 
Mr Blomfield, and is thought to have made a great accession 
to the stores of grammatical criticism accessible to the English 
student. As a .philosophical and practical grammarian, howev- 
er. Professor Buttmann, of the University of Berlin, is allowed 
by his countrymen to hold the first rank. Three Greek Gram- 
mars, drawn up by him, are now before the public. They .are 
his Greek Grammar for Schools, the larger Greek Grammar, 
and tlie Complete Greek Grammar. The latter work, as the 
title suggests, is intended to contain a complete grammatical in- 
dex»of the GreeH language, in which all the facts furnished by 
tlje study of all tlie authors, should be referred to their systema- 
tic place, so far as tliey establish principles or exceptions to 
principles. The first volume of this work was published in 

* Griechische txrammatik vorzufflichdes'Homerischen Dialects, 2d ed* 


1819, and not till the larger Greek Grammar of the author had 
attained its eighth edition. 

This larger Grammar is a work of more than 600, for the 
most part, finely printed pages, and is that by which its learned 
author attained, in the public estimation, the place be is now al- 
lowed to fill as a Greek philologian. That it is not adapted to 
the use of schools, might be anticipated even from its size, and 
is not less apparent from the minuteness of critical detail into 
which it runs. The author was m consequence led to prepare 
an abstract from it for the use of schools, which, under the name 
of the School Grammar ^ has gone through many editions in 
Germany, and is the work which is now presented to the Amer- 
ican public in a translation. 

Although the superiority of this work, not only for philoso- 
phical investigatipn but learned criticism, can scarcely fail to be 
apparent to all who are able to judge of it ; the translator is 
not without fear that, at least at first, it may be found somewhat 
m advance of the state of philological studies in this country. 
Though professedly an abstract, for the use of schools, from a 
larger work, itself but an outline, filled up in a third still more 
complete, there is nevertheless reason to fear that some pprtions 
of this grammar may be thought beyond the requirements of 
some of the American schools. The great improvements, how- 
ever, which have been made in elementary instruction in some 
of these institutions, and the consequent elevation of the stand- 
ard of excellence in this department, authorize die hope that 
this farther contribution to the same end, will liot I?e unaccep- 
table to judicious teachers and diligent learners of the language. 
The translation of the valuable tables of Mr Thiersch, by Pro- 
fessor Patton of Middlebury College,* has already served to 

■» — < III 

* Now of Nasfau Hall, Prinoeton, N. J. 


awaken the public to the value of the German works in this de- 
partment of learning, and it is hoped that the Grammar of Butt- 
mann will rai$e them still higher in the estimation of scholars* 

In making use of this grammar for the purpose of elementary 
instruction, much must be left to the discretion of the judicious 
teacher. While it probably contains nothing, of which use may 
not be made in reading the Greek authors usually studied in 
our schools and colleges, it is not designed of course to be com- 
mitted to memory or studied at first without discrimination. It 
must be remembered that if the grammar be the first book put 
into the learner's hands, it shojuld also be the last to leave them,' 
and that it miist therefore combine elementary principles with 
critical detail.. A Greek accidence, which should embrace only 
that which it is absolutely necessary to commit to memory, in 
-commencing the study of the language, would probably be foun^ 
useful to begmners ; and such a one it was the intention of the 
translator to compile from the grammar.^ He has for the pres- 
ent omitted it, from the consideration, that it is in the power of 
the judicious teacher, to attain nearly the same object, by mark- 
ing the portions of the grammar, which it is necessary to com- 
mit to memory. 

The translator trusts that he shall be thought to have ren- 
dered a service not wholly insignificant to the study of chssical 
literature. The increased attention, which has lately been paid 
to this department, leads him to hope his labour will not be unac- 
ceptable. The translation of Mr Thiersch's tables by Profes- 
sor Patton, will be found a valuable contribution to the means 
of cultivating this study ; and the English Greek Lexicon; which 

'■I- .111.. ■ .11 y ■ ■ ■ r ■ ■ ■ I ■ . 

*A work of this kind has since been compiled and given to the public by one of the editors 
•f the present edition of this grammar. 



is in preparation by Mr Pickering, will remove one of the obsta- 
cles to the pursuit of the Greek in our schools. It is the design 
of the, translator to adapt for use in this country the text-book of 
Mr Jacobs, a work of singular merit and of extensive use 
abroad, and which^ as it refers throughout to the Grammar of 
Buttmann, will be particularly useful to those who are well 

grounded therein.* 


Cambridge^ Aug, 1822. 

* ThU wMk has since been pnblished, and is now extensively used in this country. 


In preparing a new edition of the translation of Buttmann's 
Greek Grammar, the sole object has been to follow the original 
with exactness. Nothing has been added, and nothing omitted, 
except an occasional remark relating to the German idiom and 
not true of the English. ,The division idto sections, though not 
. common in our school books, has yet been retained. The pa- 
ges of the former edition are marked in the margin of the pres- 
ent, so that references already made to the Grammar i^ill not 
lose their value. Our opinion of the general merits of the 
Grammar and its adaptation to the purposes of instruction need 
not here be expressed. In what manner we have acquitted 
ourselves of the task of preparing the new edition the public 
will judge. 


JSTorthamptonj May 1, 1826. 



1. X HE Greek, like all other langaages, bad Tarious dialects, 
which however may be all reduced to two fandamental dialects, 
the Ionic and Doric, belonging to the two great divisions of the 
Grecian race, which bore these names respectively. 

2. The Dorian tribe was most extensive, but its diMect was 
rough, andNipon the whole less cultivated. A branch of this dia- 
lect was the iColic, which early attained a considerable degree 
of improvement, particularly in the iSolian colonies of Asia Minor 
and in the neighbouring islands: ^ 

3. The Ionian tribe inhabited in earlier times for the most 
part what was afterwards called Attica'; and sent out from this 
quarter its colonies to the coasts of Asia Minor. Inasmuch as these 
colonies attained a high degree of refinement, earlier than their 
mother country, oi* any other Grecian tribe, the appellations of 
JoniafM ^and Ionic were appropriated to tHem and their dialect, 
while the original lonians in Attica were called Attics and Atheni- 
ans. The Ionic dialect, from the multiplication of vowels, is the 
softest. But the Attic soon surpassed th^ others in refinement, by 
avoiding, in the ease peculiar to itself, the Doric harshness, and 
the Ionic softness. Although the Attic race, geograqpihically speak* 
ing, was the original, the Ionic dialect of the Colonies in Asia 
Minor is considered as the mother of the Attic dialect, because it 
attained a high degree of cultivation at a period, when it had least 
departed from the common source of both, the old tongue of the 
Ionian ra^e. 

4. As mother, however, ofall the dialects, we must assume an 
original ancient Greek language. But of this it is only by means 
of philosophical deduction that we can ascertain or rather conjec- 
ture the forms. Every dialect naturally retained more or less 
from this ancient language, and of consequence each preserved 





ID itself, from the same soarce, much that was grradually lost in 
kindred dialects. Hence may he explained the fact, that the 
grammarians speak of Doric, i&ollc, and eyen Attic forms, in the 
old Ionian bard Homer. In general. It has been the practice to 
nam^ that, which was customary or of frequent occurrence in a 
dialect, after that dialect, filthough it should likewise occasionally 
be found in some other. In this way we must explain the Dori- 
cisms, so called, in the Attic writers,* and the Atticisms traced in 
authors pot in that dialeot.t 

5. To this same original language belong, fo^ the most part, 
the poetical Jorms or poetical licenses^ as they are called ; for the 
oldest. poets formed themselves a language, out of the manifold 
phraseology of their age. Many peculiarities of this phraseology 
became obsolete : but the later poets, having their predecessors 
for guides, were unwilling to lose this richness of language ; and 
thus what was originally dialect, and ought to be classed as such, 
got to be, in the end, poetic peculiarity, or as it is commonly 
called^ poetic license. 

6. In every cultivated nation, some one of its prevailing dia- 
lects generally becomes the foundation of the common language 
of literature and of good society. This did not take place, at an 
early period, among the Grbeks. Cultivation advanced far among 
them, while they were still divided into several states, separated 
from each other by position as well as political relations. The 
language of literature, therefor^, as well poetry as prose, till near 
the time of Alexander, depended upon the dialect to which the 
writer had been educated, or which he preferred. Hence arose 
Ionic, £olic, Doric, and Attic writers of poetry and prose ; from 
each of which classes more or less, is still extant n 

, 7. Meantime Athens attained a political elevation so impor- 
tant, that it possessed for some time a sort of general government 
{^yffiovla) over Greece, and became, at the Sfime period, the 

• The Doric future in GOVfiai^ lovfAU^, 

<^ Such as the Atjtic declension in mg ; |w for cn/y &a 


centre of literary ioipnnreinent. Greeks from all the tribes went 
to Athens for their education, and the Attic works became! the 
models in every department of literature. The consequence wais, 
that when Greece soon after, under the Macedonian monarchy, 
assumed a political unity, the Attk dialect, having taken rank of 
the others, became the lannfuage of the court and of literature, in 
which the prose writers, of all the tribes and of whatever region, 
henceforth almost exclusively wrote. The centre of this later 
Greek litexature formed itself in Alexandria in Egypt under the 
Ptolemies, ^ , t - 

8. With the universality of the Attic dialect, as was to be ex-. 
p^cted, began its degeneracy. Writers introduced vpeculiarilies of 
their .provincial dialects ; or, in place of anomalies peculiar to the ' 
Athenians or of phrases that seemed artificial, made use of the 
more regular or natural forms; or instead of a simple phrase, 
which had become more or less obsolete, introduced a more popu- 
lar derivative fomi.* Against this however the grammarians, often 
pedantically and unreasonably, struggled ; and, in their treatises, 
placed by the side of these aSeanre or inelegant modernisms, 
the true forms from the old Attic writers. And hence it became 
usual to understand by duie^ only that which was found in the 
ancient classics, and was in the < strictest sense peculiar to them ; 
and to give to the common language of literature, formed in the 
manner indicated, the name of mom^, ^ the vulgar,' or iUi^yixi?, 
^ the Greek, i. e. the vulgar Greek.* Hence also the subsequent 
writers were called ol xmvoI or oi "EkXtiPigy in distinction from the 
genuine Attic writers. Their language, however, is not to be 
viewed as a separate dialect ; for after all this xoivij itukiMTog re- 
mained essentially Auie^ and of course every common Greek 
grammar assumes the Attic dialect as its basis. 

It follows from fliis, that not every thing which was called At- 
tic is on that account peculiar to this dialect, even in the classic 
age. . Moreover there were several Attic forms, which were not 

» mt 

• For instance v^j^a^M f^r wv, 'o 'WWi »»<* »QV€(^if for oQOvif^ 
to plough, V ., . 







excliKively wed eveD in Atheos, but wUch were mterehaiigfed 
with other noiyersally adopted forms, as qi$kolfi with q>iXo7^ and 
fvp with avv^; as there were also several Ionic forms not wholly 
unknown to the Attics, as the not contracted forms In the place of 
contracted ones* 

9. To the universality however of the Attic dialect an excep- 
tion was qiade in poetry. In this department the Attics remained 
the models only in one branch, the dranu^. As dramatic poe.try 
from its nature^ even in tragedy, is necessarily the language df 
actual life, the Attic stage admitted nothing hut the Attic dialect, 
which was retained in the sequel on all the other Grecian diea- 
tres. In addition to this, the dramatic poets, pai*ticularly in the 
dialogue, especially in that part written in trimeters, with the 
exception of a freer use of the apostrophe and contraction, indul* 
ged themselves in but few of the poetical licenses, as they are 
called, and substitutions of other forms. - 

10; For the other, sorts of poetry, particularly those which 
were composed in hexameters, viz* the epic, didactic, and elegiac, 
Homer, and the other elder Ionic hards, who continued to be read 
in the schools, remained the models. Among them the oldt Ionic 
and Homeric language was retained, with most of its peculiarities 
and ancient forms, and became, as had been the case with die At- 
tic dialect in prose, the reigning dialect or universal language in 
this department of poetry in aO ages. It is therefore best denom- 
inated the Epic language^ as its origin was exclusively in the epic 

11. The Doric dialect^ however, even in later days, was n<4 
excluded from poetry. On the contrary it sustained Itself in^ 
some of the subordinate branches of the art, particularly the pas- 
toral and humorous. When, however, the language which pre- 
vails 'in the lyrical portions of the drama — ^that is, in the choruses 
and passionate speeches^— is called Doric, it is to be remembered 
that the Doridsm consists in little else than the predominance of 
Jthe long a particularly in the place of i;, which was a feature of 
the ancient language in general, and^ for its dignity continued in 
use in sublime poetry, while In common life it remained a pecu- 
liaritr of the Dorians. 

PART 1. 


The Greeks borrowed their characters pruicipally from the 
PhemciaDS, as sufficieDtly appears from the oriental names of the 
letters in the Greek alphabet. They are the following ; 





















t ^ 


*B tptAw 

































V. ' 


Nv , 






Xi • 

^ o 



O fitxpov 



7c taf . 











. Off , 





*7 • 






u, . ' 

^T y/iAov 




WX . 















^Jl /id/a 



■ • ■ . ■ ' ,., ■■ . 

1. The twofold mode of writing some letters is ipdifferentiy 
used, with the exception of a and ^ : o is ooly used at the begiii- 
ning ^nd in Uie middle of a word, and g only at the end.* The 
latter is not to be confounded with g. 

2. Of the abovementioned letters, a large number of abhrevia- 
iiofu and eharaeten have been formed, several of which are less 
compendious than the common letters themselves, for which they 
were designed as substitutes. Their use has accordingly been 
much limited in modem times, and little difficulty will be found 
in reading recent editions of Greek authors, if the following char- 
acters are understood. 

B stands for ov g stands for at 

o^ for ff^ %^ for %at 

©* for Off J/ for ax 

Several of the characters, so called, are mere contractions of 
the, common letters, as )k for U, kc. ^ 

^ 3. The Greeks made use of the letters of their alphabet as 
numerical signs. To fill out the numbers the stigma g was intro- 
duced after €, the ^ after 7f, and the J) after cd.* All the nume* 
rals moreover have the accent, as «' 1, /?' 2, g 6, / 10, h/ 11, u 
20, 3cg 26, Q 100, a 200, aXfi^ 232^ &c. The thousands begin 
with a, hut with a mark underneath, ^a, ^, &c. fiakfi^ 2232. 

1. It is impossible to ascertain the ancient pronunciation. Aillong 
the modes in which Greek is pronounced in modem times, two 
principally may be distinguished, the Erasmian and the Reuchlin- 
ian. The pronunciation adopted in England and partly in Amer- 
ica, resembles the Erasmian most nearly in the consonants, but 
dififers from both in the vowels.:^ ^ 

* Also by some modem writers at the end of a tyUdble^ a distinction 
however which leads to great difficulty, if extended beyond the most fa- 
miliar compositions, as those with the enclitics and with nQog^ £<V, ig 
and perhaps ^1;^. 

t g is called «<t or Hignut^ ^ koppa^ and 9 sanpi, 

X We make use in this grammar of the Erasmian, because it incontest- 
ably approaches nearest the ancient. This appears from the manner in 
which Greek names are written by tl^e Latins (as in the names of the let- 
ters above in the alphabet,) and Liatia names by th'e Greeks. There are 


' t 

2. r before another y and also before n, x, £9 aoimds like ng ; 
e. g. ^fyvg^ eng-gm, like ng in aiif ier^ or ia the Latin word anguHus ; 
wiyMpiffig^ syngcrisis; '^yx^atig^ Angchises; ^iyS^ Sphisgx. 

Z does not correspond to the English 2*, but has the sound of dt. 

K in Ore^ wofds written in Latin, eren before t and t, isrep- 
resented bj e ; as is also the Latin c reprinted in Greek by k ; 
'as Kifimv Cimon ; Cicero Kivtigmv^ the Romans having always 
pronounced their c like k before a vowel. 


1. The Letters are divided into CommanU and V<meU, 

2. Among the consonants are first to be distinguished the thim 
compound letters, i, f, 1/;, each of which in reality consists of two 
letters, represented however by a simple sound; C oidg^ | of xc^ 
and %b ofng. 


3. The simple letters are divided, a) according to the oigans 
with which they are pronounced, viz. 

/7, 7T, 9,/», are labials, 
d, T, ^, Pj A, ^, 9, Unguals. 
Tj X, X^ palatics. 

b) The letters, according to their qualities, are either 
Semivowels,* which are the following, A, f€, y, (», called iko , 
Mquidtj and the simple nbilant a ; ov ' 

Bianj inteinal argnments against the Renchlinlaii. According to this pro* 

Bunciation fj is pronounced liks #, «& lilce a long, and £*, 0«, t; and v& 
are all pronounced like », and 1; when it is second in a diphthongs, with 

the exception of ov, is pronounced like/, as avtog aftosj Zfvg gefs, Thii 
pronunciation groands itself on the modem Oreek pronunciation, though 
it can be proved that the latter has in the lapse of time departed from the 
ancient. It i^ called, from the multiplication of the iota sounds, ioiaeu' 
imit, or from the sound of fi [I on the continent of £|irope] it^iim ; the 
Erasmian, etticitmtu. » 

* So called hj^ the ancients, as forming by their humming or sibilant; 
iound a transition to the artiiBulate ipand of the vowels. 




MiTTES^ which are 

aBpirates q>^x^ '^, 


ir, ff, r. 

From this it appesre, that each Wf^ pottessefl the three 
mutes, and that the nhie letters, arratnged thus, 

^'^ ^ ^1 
A fi *, 

W, «, T, 

correspond to each other, both in the horizontal and perpendicn-' 
lar directions. 

4. No genuine Greek form terminates in any consonant, except 
%^ViQ\ for those which end in| and i/i are to be considered as 
terminating in %g and ng. 'J?x*and ovx form the .only exception, 
and these never occur at the end of a clause. 


1. The ancient pronunciation of the diphthongs is the least 

known. The manner in which they were pronounced by the 

Romans will appear from the following examples- 

Phadrus on the cOntlnrat of 


ai, 0mdgog Phaedrus 





NelXog _ 


iv > EvQog 
ov Movaa 









It is to be observed, that the Latin us^ge is not uniform, partic- 
ularly in the case odi. This appears from the different modes of 
writing *Jg>iytvHa Iphigenia^ Mrjdeia MSiea^ 'HQamXanog Hera- 

* It U a modern error to write the av and ev before a vowel in Latin 
with a «. It would be more correct to write Agaue^ Euariy ftom*^yavfj^ 




ditus^ IlokyxXsnog PolyclUus^ as also from the examples above 
given of At7tM and Lyceum. A few Greek dij^hthongal forms in 
.«*«, oia remain unchanged when written in Latin, except that 
the i probably passed into the jL according to Latin usage, as Maia^ 
jiiaiu^ TqoIu^ Maja, Achaj^ Troja. 

£• f^m the above mentioned diphthongs are to be distin- 
gaished those which are called improper diphthongs, which are 
formed by iotarahscripi placed under the following vowels, 

y? ^> y- 
The sound of these vowels is not affected by the toto svibtenjii^ 

which serves only to indicate the derivation of the word. An- 
ciently perhaps it was heard in the pronunciation^ The ancients 
moreover wrote the iota in the line, and in capital letters^ this is 
still practised, a3 THI 2O0IAI^ t^ <ro9)/«, rcji "Ai^Sif ox ^d^. 


> . • ' • 

1. Every, word beginning with a vowel has over that vowel 
•ne or the other of the two following breathings, viz. 

( ' ) The spiritu» lenis or soft breathing. 
( ' ) The spirit'us asper or aspirate. 
The aspirate is our modern h ; the 9(^i breathing- stands where 
in modem langtiages we simply begin with a vowel,* as 

lyio ego^ ^AnoXXvtv ApoUon^ fSftog omoi, lavoQla kutoria^ ' Of*V' 
gog ffomeros^ vdmg hudor. 

The two sorts of words, for all purposes of grammar and pros- 
ody, are alike considered as beginning with a vowel. 

2. In the case of a diphthong in the beginning of a word, the 
breathing is placed over the second vowel of the diphthong, as 
Ev^mlifjg^ oTog, This, however, is not the case with the improp- 
er /diphthongs, as ''Atdrig, i^drig. 

* As the aspirate is repreBented in modem languages by h^ so the soft 
brei^thing is the oriental Alif^ and it has an actual force. Every vowel 
Httered without a consonant, and of course every one which is pronoub6- 
ed separately from the preceding letters, must be pronounced with an au- 
dible, though gentle impulse or breathing. The ancients were led to de- 
note it the rather, as they .wrote without a division of words. 




3. The aspirate is always attached to q when it begins a word, 
dnd two g in the middle of a word are thus written, g^. This- had 
its foundation in the mode of pronouncing, for it was retained by 
the Latins, as ^i^ztag^ Tluggog^ rhetor, Pyrrhus. 

The ^olians in several words made use of the soft breathing 
instead of the aspirate ; which was.also sometimes done in the oM 
lanic. We accordingly find in Homer v^tf^iv for vfiJv^ ijthog for 
lihog^ &c. The ^olians moreover had in many words a peculiar 
aspiration of their own, denoted by a particular letter /, which 
from its form was called digamima or double gamma, and was 
pronounced like v or f. It is probable that this sound was origi- 
nally found in the Greek language. 

^ 7. PROSODY. 

1. Prosody, as now understood, includes only the subject of 
quantity^ that is, the length or shortness of the syllables*. 

2. Every Veord and every 'form had for each syllable (with a 
few exceptions) a fixed quantity, which followed the pronuncia- 
tion of common life, and which must therefore be learned, in or- 
der to pronounce correctly.' 

3. Quantity is denoted by two marks, {y) for short, and (-) for 
long, thus 

« short Of, a long a, d uncertain or doubtful. 

4. Every syllable which cannot be proved to be long is to be 
considered short. 

6. A syllable is long, first by nature, secondly by position. 

6. I. A syllable is said to be long by nature, when its vowel is 
long, as in Latin amare and docere.. In Greek, this is partly ascer- 
tained in the character itself, as ^ and co are always long, f add 
always short. The three others 



* The elder Greek grammarians included under the head of 7tQ000)dia& 
not only the quantity, but the accents, and breathings. The subject of 
quantity is here treated not in reference to poetry, but to pronunciation 
in «;eneral« 

^7.] PROSODY. * 11 

are, in Greek, as in Latin all the vowels, both long and short, and 
for this reason are called 'doubtful (ancipites.)* 

7. Among the sounds naturally long are also to. be reckoned 
those, in which two vowels are .united into one sound* 

a) All diphthongs are accordingly long without exception, as 
the ;penult of /?ao/Af£0$ and £71^^01. 

b) All contractions for the same reasons are long ; and theref<Mre 
the doubtful vowels when they serve as contractions. Thus a in 
i%(av for aixmv^ i in i^og for liQog^ . and u in the ace. pi. fiorgvg 
for p6xQvag. This does not extend however to such contractions 
as are to be regarded in the light, of elisions;- thus the penult of 
ctnaym for ino-dyia is short. 

8. All the other cases, in which a^ «, and v are long, are ascer- 
tained by usage alone, and can accordingly be learned, for the most 
part, only by observing the use of them in the poets. As far as the 
radical syllables Ae concerned, this must be acquired by every 
person by his own observation, with the exception of a few rules, 
which will presently be given. The quantity of the syllables us- 
ed in the formation and inflection of the words, and the cases in 
which the radical syllable changes its quantity in the inflection 
and formation of words, are taught in their proper places in the 
Greek grammar. 

It is moreover to be considered, that in general those cases 
only are noticed where in the inflection or formation of words 
a, *, and v are long, and syllables of which nothing is said, or 
where the reverse does not result from the general rule, are con- 
sidered as short; as the penult of nQayfjiatog^ iTinpafAr^v ; and in * ' 
the formation of words, as I i;A«i/off, ^*xft*offi5i/j;. 

9. II. A syllable, even if its vowel be short, is long hy posv- 
tion ; that is, when it is followed by two or more consonants or a 

* "We are not to suppose from this, that there is iu the nature of the 
vowels a, ^, u, in every ca^e somethings doubtful and wavering between 
long and short. All the single vowels are yi certain words positively long, 
in certain others positively short. But only in the c and o sounds did 
•the Greek alphabet contain for each case a separate sign or letter, 'in the 
other three we learn their quantity in each separate case, from the usage 
of the poets, as we learn it in Latin in the case of all the vowels. 





•doable coDSOtiant ; e*g.tDe penultimate' of Af/£0^a^, /i^yiaro^, 
nad-iXxfo^ fiekifivov, &%po^^og^ ma'&ilm^ voful^m. 

1Q. A route before a liquid, however, is io general not consid- 
ered in posifion ; accordingly the penult is short in atenvog^ 3U 
d^iitX(*og^ yeved-Xtf^ &v$norfAog^ he. Nevertheless, th^ potts Vi»e^ 
the3e syllables as long, and hence it is often said that mutes before- 
the liquids make the syllable doubtful.* 

1 1. A true exception to the rule of mutes and liquids Is formed 
by the medials /?, /, ^, when they precede A, ju, 9^,10 which case 
they render vowels long by position. Thus in the following words 
the penult is long, mnktyfiai^ Titgi^i^log^ svodfiog ; but in the 
following it is short, Xttgadga^ MtXiaygog^ fAoXofigog. 

5. The following are the most Important cases, where the 
doubtful vowels are long in the penult, and which it is of great 
moment to learn correctly. 

nofiakog knave 

6 q)XvagQg'\ tattle 

dvic^gog sorrov^ul 

Ttaga turban 

bnaSog • companion 

^ av&«fjig prmi4 

with -words derived from &ym and S/vv/ai and ending in ctyog^ as 
loxayog captain^ vatfayog a shipwrecked person. 

ccxgavog pure 
alvani^ ^mustard 
a? outyeir jaw 

fj KUfAlVOg 

6 x^^kivog 


6 fio&vvog 
TO xikvqtog 
6 ofiikog 


' danger 
an old man 
shell or pod 

6 argofiiXog fruit qf the pine 

iq X^Xiddv 
to tagixog 
97 nanvgog 
11 it V gov 





aconite^ a poison 

pickled fish 

papyrus^ a reed 





a -sort of grain. 

* Great care must be taken in these cases to ascertain whether the 
Towel be not long^ by nature, for then it must remain long^ ; as nivta^kog^ 
which comes from ad'Xog^ which is contracted from atd'Xog^ and has its 
« longf. 




So too iaxvgog gtrong (from iaxwa I dm ahU.) On tbe other, 
hand iyvgig and oxvgogfirm (from ijjroi / hold) have a short v^ like 
other adjectiTes in v^g* 

It Is safer to pronounce the following with the penult long, 
-though they sometimes are found short : 

fAvgixfj tamarisk xdgvvtj cluh 

TtkfifAixvQa flood rogvPij trowel 

The following proper names are long in the penult : SrvjAqta' 
Aoff, 0agaaXog^ngia7tog, "^garog, ^Irjffdpatog, ^^^tfig^ M&^gi^ 
idtfj^j JEvfgartjg^ Nttpattjg^ Ssavoi^ /ceowi/, ''^/laa*^, JSugaiug 
(Serapis.) ^ ^ / 

, JSvgmogj 'JEhfmevg^ 2i'gi(pog^ Fgavixog^ J^aVxog^ Mthtog^ "Oai^ 
gig^ JBovatg^g^, -^yX^^V^j -^/y/i^a, Kotfiigivu^ *Aq)gf)ditfj^ '^(iqii- 

Aiovvaog^ '^ A(jiq)gvaog^ KafApvarjg^ 'Agxvtag^ AjwxvtoV, Bij^ 
gvtog^ ''^Pvdog^ Bihvvog^ Uixwovy Ktgxvga (Cprcyra.) 

6. The first syllable of the following words is long : 

i^ftAdff * bare ' fiingog 

o X^^^,'^ fodder T^fufi 

6 kifAO.i hunger vixfj 

^ gvvog thin , nklvri 

lirog ^simple divij 

d&vfiog mind 6 x^^dg 

^vfAog pole, of carriage 6 tvgog 

6 x^l*^S juice 6 nvgog 

d XQV^og gold . ifvXfi 

%vvog common ^ vXtj 

uvg)6g bent Ivmj 
\pvxv ^ *oiii 

Of the verbs which terminate in a simple oi attached to the 
radical syllable .it is to be observed in general, that the a is short, 
as in ayo)y ygaqio), ^ The i and v are long, as in xjgi^o)^ avgia^ \pv- 
Xfo^ excepting ykvq.(a I engrave^ which has the v short. 

The case of cb^or, Ivoi^ and vvoi will be se|}hrately treated below. 
Of the contracted verbs, the following, whose Jirst syllable is 
long, req^uire particular notice : . ^ 

xmoi / move « dtqjaof I dip ■ 

^lytw I shudder avXao$ I plunder 

Gtyum I am silent q)vaao} , I blowJ^ 

' ' ■ / 

* On the contrary nvgog^ the genitive of to nvg^ firt. 

t The learner should be taught to apply these quantities to ascertain 
the pronunciation of derivatives like ati>fiog^ Siipvxog^ tTgi^OV^ dtargi* 
§oiy ^Pgc'&tjg^ uavXov^ &c. also of tl^e proper names, as Hermotimus, 
Demonicus^ Eupbyle. &c. 








wheat* ' 4 


wood OT matter 





7* Some words are desenring of notice, which, being derived 
from verbs, instead of the long vowel of the present, take the 
short vowel of the second aorist Thus some substantives in 17, as 
TQifitj^ diaxQi^fl^ apaipvxVt notgaipvxV' But i^^;^^ is long. ^ 

And some adjectives in i^g gen. eog. Thus evxgivi^g^ atQiffiig^ 

8. The rule, that one vowel is short before another,' which 
wants certainty in Latin, is still less certain in Greek ; although a 
long vowel occurs seldomer before another vowel, than before a 
consonant. The nouns in tog^ vov^ «a, have the ^ always short, / 
with these exceptions, where it is commonly long, viz. %aUa nesty 
inovla dusty avia sqrrow. 

The termination of the present tense in vod and l(o must be 
learned from observation. It is very often long. ' 

The penult of the following words deserves notice, as being 
long : 

0* Xaog people ^ iXda ■ the olive 

xaoi for xa/ai I bum xAaoi for xAa/oi I weep 

6 vaog temple 'JEvvoi Bellona. 

Those also in acov and toot/, which take in the genitive, such, 
as the comparatives like ^ilxitavy and proper names, hkve their 
penultimate long ; as MaxawVy ^Jtfiv&amv^ '^fiq)i(oVy * Tntgloiv^ 
gen. ovog. On the other hand the penult is short in ^ivxaUwVy 
0OQfAio}Vy gen. oDvog, Proper names ,in aog^ compounded from 
Aadff, are of course long, in the penult, as Nixolaog. '^(iqnu^aog , 
if long, but Oivofiaog is short. 

9. The accents are of great use in deciding the quantity of 
many words. 

§ 8. ACCENTS. 


1. Besides the quantity of the syllables, Ihe Greel^ language 
recognized a tone {rovog) or what we call the (iccents ; of which, 
however, it is difficult, according to our ideas, to make any use in 
pronunciation. Inasmuch as th^ accent is found as often on la short 
syllable as a long one, we cannot express it as we usually express 
accent, without injuring the quantity, as in t/i9'^/m* and -2(WX()aTi;^.t 

* In English we still .pronounce Amphi'on, but use has established 
Hype'rion; see Walker's key, f 59. 

t The modern Greeks, however, even in reading the poets, pronounce 
according to the accents, and their own versification is wholly founded 
upon them. 

^§ 9, 10.] ACCENTS. - 15 


^^^_^,^_^_ _l B. _■ ^ ^ '^— ■ ■ ^ . . _ _ _ .■-_,_^ I^BW n IJ,!! ■ _ 


So loDg therefore as it is out of oar power to indicate both the 
quantity and the. accent in our pronunciation, it is safer to follow 
the quantity in reading the Greek. 

2. Notwithstanding this^ an acquaintance with the accents is 
essential to a thorough knowledge of Greek ; nor are they without 
advantage even for common use. They often indicate, by their 
position, the quantity of a syllable ; many words and forms of dif- 
ferent signification, but otherwise written alike, are distinguished 
by the accents ; and even in cases wherc^ they are not thus of im- 
mediate use, they serve to fix the laws of their position, by which 
we are to be guided in the cases where they are of use. The 
following are the chief rules relative to the accents. 

1. Every Greek word, generally speaking, has the accen{on one 
of its vowels, and this is properly the acute^ o^ua {nQOao^dla accent 
being understood,) that is, the sharp accent^ which is written thus . 

2. Of every syllable^ which has not this accent, it was held by 
the ancients, that it received the heavy or grave accent ; that is 
that, in which the voice descended, ^otQtta or gravis. The mark 
of this is \ which^ however^ is not in common writing affixed to 
the syllables to which it belongs. 

3. A long vowel, moreover, may receive the circumflex, call- 
ed in Greek negianoifuvij^ that is wound about^ and written thus "*. 
Such a syllable is to be considered as composed of two short vow- 

' els drawn together, of which one has the acute and the other the 
grave accent; thus oo, whence dJ. When, however, two short 
vowels marked thus o6 pass into one, it is written oS. 

■^ lo; 

I , 

1. The accent, acute, grave, or circumflex, can only be plac- 
ed on one of the three last syllables of the word ; the circumflex 

only on one of the two last.* 

- — — *- _— — — t , 

* WTivi and the like Will appear, under the head of enclitic*^ to be 
only apparent exceptions to this rule. 

16 ' ACCENTS. K 11' 

2* The character of the last syllable, io respect to the accent^ 

gtres a name to the whole wor^. Accordiiig as this syllable has, Ist ' 

the acute, 2d the circumflex, or 3d the g^ve, the word is called 

^^ Oxytone, as ^eog^ og, T£TV(poig 

PeriApomenoD^ as q^tkoi^ vovg 
Barytone^jas tvhtcu^ nga^fjia^ ngay/Aatcc. 

Thus barytone verbs are distinguished from the contracts, 

which are perispomena or circumflexed. 

3. Again all barytones, which are dissyllables or polysyllables, 

according as they have the acute, Ist upon the penult, 2d the an- 

tepenult, or 3d the circumflex on, the penult, are called 

Paroxytona, as . ' tvjitw, rervfifiivog 

Proparoxytona, as Timvofjievog^ Sv&Qomog 
Properispomena, as ngayfia^ (pdovaa, 

4. Barytones of one syllable, or words wholly without^accent, 
are the following, all beginning with a vowel : 

ot; (otJic, oi;;|r) nol, .eSg ju^ ^^if^ iv in^ iig^igio^ !£,(«») oti^ 
And these nominatives of the prepositive article, 

0, 17, oij ai. 

When it is said that these words are without accent. It is meant 
that they take none> ii\ their connexion with other words. But 
when at the end of a sentence, or after a word dependent on them 
in the construction, they are sometimes written with the acute; 
nmg yoQ ov ; — d'iog tag — Kaxtov «§. 

. When an bxytone precedes in connexion other words, the 
acute accent is considered as softened into the grave, and the is 
changed into the \ wA«cA, except in this ease^ is never vorUten. But 
at the end of a sentence, or before a period, or colon, the mark of 
the acute accent is retained, thus 

'Ogytj di nokka dg^v avayxa^ei xaxo.* 
The«interrogative rfe, 7/, is the only exception to this rule, as 
will apj^ear in its place. 

* Care muat therefore be had not to reg^ard words endings in ^ as bary' 
tones : on th6 contrary, they are all oxytones with the acute accent qui^. 
escent, on account of th« connexion with other words. 

§ 12.] ' 




Od what syllable each word receives the accent, is best to be 
learned from observation and thq lexicon. The following rules, 
however, particularly in reference to the choice between the two 
kinds of accent^ tnaj be applied with advantage. 

1. The circumflex requires, a vowel long in itself, and not 
merely made long by position. Thus xtjdog^ (f^S^ ii^X^Q^ ovrog^ 
afi'^yfiot. Also xiiAati^ Vh^'^^ ^^(^^ ^or in these words , the doubt- 
ful a, «, v, are long. A short vowel can accordingly receive no 
accent but the acute, as tregogj fitvogyiva^ n^og^ ttoAi/, nhyfia. 

This furnishes ,an instance of the use of the accents in deter- 
mining the quantity of the doubtful vowels ; for since a circumflex 
cannot stand over a vowel which is merely long by position, the 
a in npayfia and fiaXkov is recognized as long in itself 

2. The acute accent may also stand on a loi^ vowel^ as nivm- 

3. The cases in which the kut syllable, being naturally long, 
receives the circumflex, can only be learned from the lexicon and 
some rules which are to follow in other j^arts of the grammar, es- 
pecially the rules of contraction and declination. 

' 4* If the penult, wheq long by nsiture, is Siccented, it tnust al- 
ways be with the circumflex, whenever the last syllable is short, 
or long by position only, as ^vf*cc, oJvqg, t//i;;fo?, /?cSAa| (G. axo?.} 

This accent shows the learner that the « in /ua and «S' of 
these words is short, and the v in t^t^j^o^ long. 

This rule, however, does not apply to the cases where^an 
enclitic forms a part <rf the woi^. We accordingly write «/w, o©w, 
oigneg^ ririg^ Tovgde. &c. • ^ ^ 

The only real exceptions are words formed of ei and vai by 
protracting them, as iid^e would that^ and valx^ yes certainly.'^ 


5. If the last syllable is long by nature, a circumflex cannot 
stand on the penult ; for instance ^»irw(>, olViy, t/;i5jf oi, 'd-oiga^ (G. 

• NaiXh which is found in some works otherwise correct, is erroneous. 




m 12, 13. 

6. Od the antepeDult no accent but the acute can standi If 
the last syllable is long, whether by nature or by position, the an- 
tepenult can receive ^ no ^ccent whatever; accordingly we write 

7. The terminations ai and oi^ however, though long in them- 
selves, are regarded as short in reference to the preceding rules. 
Accordingly we find xvuTOfiai^ av&Qwnoi^ &c« ngoqiJTatf (plural of 
7igoq)iiTfjg) and natXoiy &c. 

Exceptions tp this principle are,^ (l) The third person of the 
the optative in o^ and a*, as (psvyoi^ noii^ocic ; (2) The adverb 
oiKOi at h6me^ although dxoi houses follows the rule ; (3) The words 
compounded of enclitics^ as o'ifioc woe is me. 

The 01 in the terminations of the Attic declension, though 
long, also admits an accent on the antepenult, as n/ikecog,^ and dvvi- 
yeo)t/; dlso the Ionic genitive in *w. 

From the preceding rules, the use of the accepts in ascertain- 
ing the quantity of many words is apparent, e. g. 

1. The circumflex shows the syllable on which it stands to be 

2. By rule 4, the acute in such words as xagxivog^ fiuO^gov^ 
shows that the penult is short. 

3. The accent of such words as 7re7p«, agovQot shows by 4 and 
6 that the last syllable pf these words is short 

4. The acute on the penult o^ xdgu, An^a &c. shows by 4, 6, 
that the last syllable of these words is long. 

Even in words and forms, from whose own accent no imme- 
diate inference as to their quantity can be drawn, the comparison 
with other words will furnish gs often with a direction. Thus 
we shall infer that ihnog has its penult long and ^tocptlog short, 
because oltog has the circumflex and q)ilog the acute. So ofSdt- 
xog from dixfi^ dixai. But the circumflex on monosyllables will 
a£ford no inference with respect to the lengthened forms, because 
monosyllable nominatives of the third declension are always long ; 
as nvg^ fivg^ nvgog^ ^ivog. 


When a word undergoes a change by declension, conjugation, 
or in any other way, the accent is variously affected. 

1 . The accent is necessarily affected by such a change, when 
the word is so altered by this change, that the accent cannot re- 
main as it was, without a violation' of the above rules. £. g. 

§ 14.] ACCENTS. 19 

The circumflex mast pass into the acute, as olvdg^ Oivov 
(§ 12. 5.) ^fjfia^^iJi*aTog (§ 10. 1.) 

The^cate must pass into the circumflex, as fpivfto, imperative 
qtevfe (§ 12. 4.) 

Or the acute must pass from the antepenult to the penult, as 
av&gmnojs dv&gdnov^ agovgd agovQcig (§ 12. 5, 6.), 

2. But even when the accent might have remained as it was, 
without violating the rules, though not altered indeed in this case, 
yet it is oflen made |o change its place. E. g. . 

It is ihrq^n back^ either when any addition is made to the be- 
ginning of the word, as zvnTm — iTVirce^ odog — avvodog^ nM&evrog 
, —dnaidevT^g^ — or when the cause is removed, which in the radi- 
cal forth fixed it to the penult, as natdevon, noud^v€. 

It is thrown forward^ principally when the word receives one 
of the terminations which are marked with an accent, either al-> 
ways, as lixvipa — rfri/g^ojf , or in certain cases, as ^p, ^rjgog. 


1* There are a number of words, which, considered in them- 
selves, have an accent like others, but which — some always, some 
commonly, and some often — connect tiiemselves so closely by 
sense apd pronunciation to the preceding word, as to throw their 
accent upon it. This is called eyxhaig or inclinatio tohi^ and 
the words subject to this inclination are called enclitics.* 

2. The following are enclitics. 

a) The indefinite pronoun t«9, ti\ in all the cases, with the 
forms zov and n^ belonging to it. y> 

b) The following oblique cases of the personal pronouns, fiov 
Hoi^ fAe\ (FoiJ, &oi, 0£, ov, of, £^ fiiv^ viv, and some of those which 
begin with aq), 

c) The present indicative of hfii and goi^jut, with the exception , 

of the monosyllabic second person singular. 

' . ' ' ■ . III ■ 

* In opposition to this name, every accented word, and of coUrae an 
enclitic itself, when not. thus deprived of its accent, is called prthotone^ 


^0 ACCENTS. [§ 14. 

d) The adyerbs ttqi^, tw}, ttoi, nov, no#i, noOiiw^ noxi^ which 
are distinguishecl only by their enclitic accent, from the correspond- 
ing interrogatives ttcu^, noxi^ &c. 

e) The particles Jiai, rf, roi, ^lyi/, y«, x« or xfV, vy or vvv^ 
nig^ ^a, with the inseparable particle dt, 

3. If the preceding word be a, proparoxytone, as av&gwnog^ or 
a prbperispomenon, as aoT^a, the accent of the enclitic is thrown 
upon the last syllable of such preceding word, but always as an . 
acute, whatever be the accent of the enclitic in itself considered. 
Thus avd'QOinog iaxt^ aSfia fiov* 

If the preceding word has no accent, as ei, it takes that of the 
enclitic, as i'i ng. 

4. If the preceding word has already an accent on the last ^ 
syllable, or an acute on the penult, this accent serves for the en- 
clitic. Moreover in this case the acute accent on the last syllable, 
instead of being written like the grave, as it would otherwise be 
according to § 11, is written as the acute, as dvtjg Tt^' tial aor ' 
q)iXci} ae* yvvaiKcip t&vmv Svdga W Xiyeig ti. 

5. If, however, the enclitic be a dissyllable, the accent of the 
preceding paroxytone will not thus suffice for it, and it retains its 
own accent, as loyog noxi^ ivavxiog aq}iaiv^ which is also done when 
the preceding word undeigoes an apostrophe, as nokXol d* elalv, 

6. If one enclitic follows another, in general, the first, while 
it throws its own accent on the preceding word, takes on itself the 
accent of the second, and the second of the third, and so on ; so 
that the last enclitic alone remains without accent, as ei tig rivd 
qifjai fiot naQfivat. 

7. The enclitics remain orthotone^ only when some peculiar 
emphasis lies on them ; and as this can never be the case with 
many of these particles, they are never found but as enclitics. 

As many of these enclitics are so closely united with the pre- 
ceding word as to constitute but one, and to have, as such^ an as- 
certained sense, it is usual to write them as one,t as mgre, ovt€, 
oiogre or otogvf^ fjttvtoi^y ogtig^ cDvxtvwv, The encUtic d«, which 

* Distinguished by its accent from wv now. 

4^ 15, 16.] STOPS AND MARKS. . 21 

I ' • / 

must be carefully distinguished from the coqjonction di hut^ occurs 
thus in o^f, TOii^dB^ mdi^ dofiopde^ &c. ' 


1. The period and comma are used in writing Greek as in Eng- 
lish. — The colon and semicolon are not distinguished from each 
other, but are both. written by a point at the top of the line, as 
ovu '^ld'€p' dkXa — . The note of interrogation is the semicolon 
( ; ) of the modern languages. 

2. The comma is^not to be confounded with the diastole or hy- 
podiastdle^ which series to indicate more distinctly certain words 
compounded of enclitics, .and to discriminate them from words not 
otherwise different ; thus o^xi neuter from oqtiq^ and TO,Tf and 
^iot^ to distinguish them from the particles on and rorf. 

Apostrophe, ('). 

Diaeresis ( ••) placed over a vowel which does not form a 
diphthong with the vowel that precedes it, as oig a sheep^ uQaig 
mild^ pronounced o-w and pra^^us. 


1. In the formation and inflection of words in Greek many 
changes take place, principally for the sake of euphony, which 
often make it hard to trace the root, but which still are common- 
ly made on fixed principles. 

2. Those consonants, which aire of the same organ, or of the 
same corresponding , character in different organs, are prone to 
pass into each other, when a change takes place in the inflection. 

3. This is the foundation of the diversity of the dialects, as the 
following sketch will show. 

Rem. 1. The dialects interchange frequently : 
aj The aspirates with each other, as ^Aav, Att <plav^ to cnah. 
b) The mediab^ as yXiixwv^ Att. i^Ai};f ct»r, pennyroyal ; for y^, 
the old Dor. is da, earth 

:iii CHANOE or LETTERS. [^ l^' 

c) .The smooth ; thus the iaterrbj^ative and k'iDdi;ed forms, in- 
stead of the commoD n, as imtov^^Tnagj noiog^ onolog^ tto), &c. have 
with the lonians always x, as xoiJ, xo)?, Ko7og^ dicojog^ xo). So too 
for nipTt fioe^ the Colics say nifine. 

d) The liquids ; thas the Dorics for -^^-^ov -said ^vd-ov'^ I came; 
the Ionics for nvevfAwv said TiAfu/ioii^ /u;ig9. The looic /jilv him 

\ is with the Dorics and Attics pip. ^ . ' 

e) The letters of the same organ. Thus the Attics preferred 
yvcifpivg to xva(pevg a fuller ; and the lonians occasionally chang- 
ed the aspirate into the corresponding smooth^ as daxof4ai for^£/o- 
fiat I take ; avrtg for aud'ig again ; Att. dacpuQctyog^ Ion. aoniQa- 
yog^ asparagus. 

f ) The a with the other lineuak, particularly 
with T, as for oi5, Doric ri;, tAow / 

with 1', as for the ending fxep^ the Dorics have /uf ^, as rvmO' 

fA€V^ Doric TVTtTO/ASg. 

g) The double letters with the corresponding single ones, par- 
ticularly S with f", as C6(J^ another form of do^^ a roe ; /luddu Dor- 
ic for f^iiCa doughy kc. Still more commonly for C, in the middle 
of a word, the Dorics make use of^ ad ; as avgladoi for avglCo)^ I 

2. We must not^ however, think that these or any similar chan- 
' ges prevail throughout a dialect without exception. The dialects 
have only a ^enc^ency toward certain changes, which we must make 
use of to explain the cases, that actually occur. Sometimes the 
change takes place only in a single case^ as for instance for avp 
the old form is ^vp^ which change of a and | is found in the be- 
ginning of no other word whatever. Two changes are so frequent 
as to deserve specification, viz. 

rr and aa 

QQ and p'(y ^ 

of which TV and gg are favourite forms of the Attic dialect, and aa 
and QO of the Ionic. Thus 

Att. Ion. laaaeiv to arrange 

yMatxa yloiaaa tongue 

aQQfjp agatjv male 

^OQ^fj '•» ' xogatj cheek. 

The Ionic Corms^of these words are^found, however,^ occasion- 
ally in Attic writers. * ; 

§<5 17,18.] ASPIRATES. ' 23 


1. Each aspirate may be considered as having had its origin 
in the kindred smooth mute, combine^ with the rough breathing ; 
hence the mode of writing them in Latin pk^ th^ ch. 

9. When therefore ii^ the composition of wolrds a smooth miite 
comes in contact with the rottgh breathings an aspirated letter is 
formed ; thuis the words inl^ dixa^ ocmog^ after an elision of their 
last syllables, form in combination with ijfjiega day^ i<fVM9^S* ^^~ 

3. The "same happens id two words not thus combined; thus 
ov% becomes ov^ in oJ;^ oaioig^ — and with the addition of an apos- 
trophe ocTTO, an\ becomes ,<iq> , as uq>' ov^ and avrl, aVr', becomes 
avd-^ as «W civ. 

Bat the lonians retain the smooth mute in both cases, as in 
oaov^ fdeTiariva^ for fAe^nnivd^ from taravai, ^ 

§ 18. 

1. It was a principle in the Greek langnag^ that tvoo suecessioe 
syllables shoxild not each begin with an aspirate. This rule was 
not without exception ; where it operates, however, the first aspi- , 
rate is usually changed into .the corresponding smooth mute. Thus 
from q>ikeiv and ;^a)(>f a^ are formed, in the reduplication, nfg)iXffxaj 
and x^xoigii^ct, instead of <f€(f)iktjxa and X^X^9^^^' 

2. Some few words have, in their radical form, two successive 
aspirates, of which the first agreeably to this rule^ passed into the 
corresponding smooth mute. But in those parts of the word, 
where the second aspirate undergoes a change by other laws of 
inflection^ the first aspirate returns. £. g. 

From the root BPEO is the present tense rgeqKo I nourish ; 
future 'd'Qtxpo). Derivatives, t^jo^i}, /&gs7tv fjgiov^ Oge/ifjia. 

From the root SPEX^ present xgixoi I run ; future middle 
^gilofiai. Derivative rgoxog, 

3. In a few words of \his kind, the first^aspirate retains its place 
in the leading forms, such as the nominative of a noun and the 
present of a verb, and not in the derivatives. £. g. 

24 CHANaE OF LETTERS. [$ ^^^ 


From the root SP/X^ nom. 97 ^(»i| Aair, gen. r^lx^S^ dat. pL 
'd'Qc^iv. Derivative r()^;fdoi. 

From the root QAO^ pres. d^inna I bury^ aorist pass, ivaiprjv. 
Derivative 709)0^. 

4. The second of two aspirates is seldom thus changed. It is 
regalarly done, however, in the imperatives in ^i ; as ^m, n;^- 
&ifTi^ for ^*fr#, ivif&tid-^. 

Rem. 1. In some words thie Ionics change one of the aspirates 
and the Attics the other ; thus^ 6 yi^ixfav^ Jon. x^^oii^, a garment ; 
ivrev&ev^ Ivxav&a^ Ion. iv&evTfv, ev&avxa. 

Rem. 2. The passive ending d^v^ with its derivatives, has the 
effect of changing the preceding aspirate into a smooth mute 
only in the verbs ^veiv to satrifice^ and ^Hvav to place ; as hy^v, 
he'&fjv^ tf&eig. In all^ other verbs^ no change is effected in this 
way ; as ix^'O'tjv^ iogd'oi'd'fjv from og&ooa^ ^aip^flg^ i&peq)^ijv^ i- 
'^iXX&riv. Morover in most of the remaining cases of derivation 
and composition the same license prevails, and we say nartaxo^ 
'&6V, EoQiv&o-^i^ fidx^O'&at^ dfiq^ixv^iiQ^ &c. 

Rem. 3. This rule perhaps extended not only to the aspirated 
letters^ but to the rough breathings which it turned into the smooth 
breathing. Of this, however, there is but one trace remaining, 
viz. from the root ^£X is formed present £ jfoi / Aave, fut. £$0), de- 
rivative iKTMog^ where the aspirated breathing is changed into 
the smooth breathing in the present, on account of the following 
aspirate /, but reverts to the rough breathing in i%f» and iuTinogj 
where § and x take the plac^ ^^ X* 


1. The Greeks avoided every roughness arising from the se- 
quence of consonants not easily pronounced together. 

2. In pursuance of this, three consonants, or one with a double 
consonant, can never (except in the case of composition like dvg- 
(jp^agtog^ ^xTiromt?, inrpvxfOy) stand together, unless the first or 
last be a liquid^ or a / before the palatics /, x, Xi as nifigy&elg^ 
9xki^gog, T«y$o>. In other cases such a concurrence is avoided 
or a letter dropped. 

3. But a roughness may be produced even by the concurrence 
of two consonants, which is avoided by the application of the fol- 
lowing rules. 


^ 2D.] CONSONANTS* 25 

Rem. 1. In a few rate cases the pronaDciation is relieved, by ia- 
troducing a .third coilsoiiant As when e. g. the. liquid ju or i/, by 
ocnissioa of a vowel, comes to stand directly befbire A or p, then the 
middle mute corresponding to the first of them (/?, ^ is interposed; 
tiius from vf^t()a day is formed fAiatifA^Qta soutk^ from (JieftiiXfjTtu 
arose the epic form fiififiket cti^ ^nnd avijp man has in the genitive 

Rem. 2. A consonant is sometimes, but not oAen, by transposi- 
tion, placed where it will be more easily pronounced, as ingad'ov 
£rom 7i«ip#oi, and xagdiu^ epic foriii ugu&ifi heart. > 

§ 20. 


1. When' two mutes of a different organ meet, it is the rule that 
before a smooth mute nothing can stand but another smooth^ before 
an aspirate nothing, but another aspirate^ before a middle nothing 
but another middle mute / as ^Trf a, vvxiog^ ^&ivw, ax^og, fidekv- 

2. When therefore, in the fohnation of words, two mutes of an 
unlike character meet, the former commpnly assumes the charac- 
ter of the latter. Thus by adding the termination Tog^ drfv^ &eig^ 
are formed from ygatpm I write^ y^ciTtTog^ y^ap&tjv^dind from nkexti 
I twine, nXei'dfig. 

3. But of two like mutes already combined, one alone cannot 
he changed, but alvrays both together, as from mra, oxtqi are 
formed ipdojiOQj, oydoog, and when of two smooth mutes the se- 
«ondj by the addition of the rough breathii^, becomes an aspirate, 
the first becomes an aspirate also ; thus from intct and i^fitpa is 
formed iqpS-iifAi^og of seven days ; and frcmvima^ vvx^' oAf^y the 
whole night.* 

4. The preposition Ik alone remains unaltered before all con- 
sonants, as iitd-ilvai^^ ixdovveii. 

■ ^ ■■■■■!■■ IIIIMI II l«l mi ■! ■—■_,- 1 . — ^ _ — — ■ ■ .p.^^_^^_^_^^.^,^,^^^^fc^^^i^^, 

* The Greeks pA)bably made as much audible difference between n 
and Xi as we hear between r and S". We are unable in English to make 
this distinction. On the other hand, most of the contineatal nati(tti9 of 
. Europe dietioguisb between X and ^, bat confound r and ^. 

4 i 


CHANGE OF LETTERS. [^'^ 21, 22, 28. 


1. The doubling -of the same consonant is not very common in 
Greek. It takes place most frequently in ihe liquids, and next^ 
to them, in r. 

2. When (> stands at the beginning of a word, if a simple vow- 
el is made to precede it in composition or inflection, the g is usu- 
ally doubled ; thus hQQ^nov and aQQintiQ from ^tn<o with £ and' a, 
neglggooQ from negi and ^iot). This, however, does not hold in 
the case of diphthongs, as evgoDarog from iv and gtavvvfii. 

3. The aspirates are never doubled, but instead thereof an- as- 
pirate must be preceded by the kindred mute ;* thus ^cxTrgpcJ, J?ax- 
;|ro?, iln'&evg. 

' Rem. 1. Those paets who da not use the Attic dialect, double a 
consonant very often for the sake of the metre, as oaaov^ otri^ ev- 
vene^ for oaov^ &c. This however is not wholly arbitrary, but 
takes place often in some words, and never in o^thers, as iV^, m- 
gog^ itfjLa^ avefiog. 

Rem. 2. The poets also make use of the opposite practice, in 
employing the single consonant, where the common dialect has 
the double, as '^x^kevg, 'Odvaevg^ for '^;ftUei;?, 'Odvaaevg, 

§ 22. ' 

, When P; n^ q), and y, x, ;f, come before (X, they pass with the 
a into the kindred double consonant xp or £. Thus, in the future 
ending, which is regularly aoi, are made from A^m-cu, lei\p(o^ from 
A*ya), Ai^ox, from fgaq)ct}^ yQaxfuo^ from fneixto^ or«/Sw, &c. And 
in. the ending ai> and aiv of the dative plural, we find from '^^ga-- 
ficg^ *'^ga\pi>^ from xdgaxeg^ xoga^Av, 


• I 

1. Befoj^e /u, in the middle of a word; the labials are uniformly 
changed into fi ; thus in the perfect tensie passive, from A^moi, A£- 
Xiifi-fia^, So too from rgi^w, rgififia^ from ygdq^oD^ yQf^f^f^V* 

2. The palatics and Unguals are often changed before fi, — x 
and X iiito y, and d, '^, r, f , into a ; thus ttA^xoi nXfyfia^ T^v^fo re- 





§ 24. 

< I , 


The Unguals ^, ^, r, f, can only stand before liquids. They 
arc dropped before a, as qidcD ^ooi, Tif/^o) Tie/aoi, acifjiaTa acifictai^ 
g>gaC(o q>Qaoig, 

Before other linguals they are changed into a ; thus ridta rf<T- 


}. The V remains unaltered^ in general, only before d^ ^, and 
r. Before the, labials it is changed into |U, and before the palatics 
into /, pronounced as ng, Acciordingly in composition avv with and 
iv in are thus changed ; avfinaax(a^ Ifi^aivfo^ avfiq)igof, ^f*^vxog, 
— £/xaAcu>, Gvyyevr^g^ *yjr**(>/f<», iyli(a. 

'An apparent exception is made in the enclitics^ which are not 
considered as forming one word sufficiently ta authorize the 
change of the v\ thus we write tovye^ oimeQ' 

2. Before one of the liquids, the v passes oyer into the same 
letter, as avXkiyat, ikkelnw^ i/ipiev(o^ avQQanxta, 

But the preposition Iv commonly remains unchanged before g^ 
as ivgantoi, 

3. Before ff.and C, the v in composition is sometimes retained, 
sometimes changed into ff, and sometimes dropped. In it^eciiong 
the V is commonly dropped before <y,*as in the^dative plural, dal* 
fiov-eg daifiO'G^^ fi^v-eg (Ati-oiv. 

4. When after the v^ a ^, ^^ or t, has been omitted before a 
(by § 24.) the short vowel is made long, as 7r«yr-*^ na-oiy tinftttV" 
wff, TVilfiai^ for which end « passes into «t, and o into ou, as 
anivdta fut. otuUgo)^ inivT-^g dat. Jkov-g^v, 

Rem. i; The exceptions to these rules, as 7a<pavaa&{2 pers. 
perf. pads, oftpaivoi) are rare, and ^re learned by observation. 

^ Rem. .2. Before a and C, ev is always unchanged, as ivaelo}, 
2vv changes its v into <j before a jtn^Zc cr, as ovaGnia^ but if an- 
other consonant follow, and also before f, the v is dropped, as gv^ 





1. No certain laws regulate the change of the vowel&, in the 
formation and inflection of Greek words. It inclades under it the 
lengthening and shortening of squnds ; since it rarely happens that 
when £ or for instance, from any cause , are lengthened, that 
they. pass into ff or oi, but generally into ** oc ov. 

These changes also, like those of the consonants, can be best 
observed, in the comparison of dialects* 

Rem. 1. The Ionics are prpne to lengthen the t and o of the 
other dialects, but principally only, when a semi-vowel foUowsj 
as ^Mog, iivina^ vnjsi^y for ^ivog ttrai^e^ Svina on account qf^ V' 
•ntQ oroer ; vovaog^ ovvofia^ novkvg^ xov^tj^ for voaog disease^ ovo^ 
jua narne^ noXvg much^ xJ()i? maiden ; or when the i is followed by 
another vowel, as x^^^*^'^^ fw^og golden; which Heenses are 
particularly abundant in the poets. But this is not wholly arbi- 
trary, as there are some words never subjected to this license, 
such as nolig^ rovog, fjiepog^ ntgl^ &c. 

Rem/ 2. When a and o are lengthened by the lonians^ tbey 
pass into a» and (», as aetog'eagle^ ail always ; Ionic, ttuvog^ m$€^ 
So noa grtjtss^ Ionic nolti*. 

Rem. 3. In other cases, the reverse is practised by the Ionics/ 
Dorics, and poets ; and we find ii^'fwv, xp«afya>v, ;f*po?, for fJidi»v 
greater', u^icffwv better, jf6«(w>V (genitive from x^i9 hand) ; and for 
the accusative in ovg the Dorics use og. See <kelow in Declen- 
sion If. ^ ' 

. Rem. 4. In other cases, the Dorics for o and ov toake frequent' 
tise of «), as xiS^og for x4{)og or itoi^^o^ -a young mem, ^iHUog for 
devkoga slave. 

Rem. 5. The ^ in most cases had itr origin in o, which pre- 
vailed in the ancient Greek language, rind remained also afterwards 
the characteristic sound of the Doric diakict, wllich commonly 
uses a long a /or t?, as dfiiga for ^(lign day^ tpufia £>r qf^fiti rt' 
port^ aravai for ar^vat to stand, ,.,(See § I. 11.) 

Rem. 6. The Ionics, on the other hand, preferred the 17 and 
commonly used it instead of the long «, as <i^f*tptj^ •»(gE>ia7,for— *«; 
*^v^g^'d'oi^$j^^ for inTQog physician and 'Stw^al breast plate (geni- 
tive dxa^SuiQg\ ngtioofo^ n^j^yfia^ for ngdaao)^ ngSyfia. 

Rem. 7. It is a peculiarity of the Attic dialect borrowed from 
the Ionic, when a long^ stands before 0, to change the « into £ and 
the o into w j pa for kaog people^ vdog temple^ the Attics read Xftog^ 

Rem. 8. The Ionic dialect frequently changes the short a into 




i before liquids afid before vowels^ jab itactgig for ziaaaQtgJmir ; 
f^atjtf for uQiffiv nude; veXog for valog gkua; (Avia for ^vua mi- 
na ; and io the Terbs in ito. In other cases a is used for f , as 
t(»ttTtm for rpeViot) / turn ; tafivta for ttfiina I cut ; fiiyu^og for 
fii'yi'&og greatMSi. • 

Rem. 9. In the compoonds of atn^off self, and the words '^fnv^u 
wonder, and rgavfAtt wound, the Ionics change- oi; into mv, as ^/ic- 
mvTOv, imvtov, ^nvprn, rgosvfAa. 

Rem, 10. Other changes are the following; ngeitog the first, 
Doric TVQaxog, — 17 nagduXig ike ledpa/rd, Doric TiogdaXig^-^^vO' 
fia name, ^olic owfict, — iaiia hearth, Ionic larlti. 


1. A vowel immediately preceded by another vowel, in the 
aame word, is called a pure vowd^ being prononnced withoat the 
aid of a consonant; and particularly the terminations in a,og, and 
Q>, are called pure, when another vowel precedes, as in awplu, 

2. The characteristic difference of the Ionic and Attic dialects 
is, that the former, in most cases, seeks the concurrence of vow- 
els, and the latter avoids them. 

3« The common means by which the Attic dialect avoids them 
are the following, viz. / 

I. EHsion, by which one vowel is cast away and the other re- 

II. Cofktraction, by which seveml vowels are 4rawn into one 
long sound. This takes place principally in the formation and in_ 
flection of words, according to the following principles. 

a) Two v<»wel9 form of themselves a diphthong; thus e« and 

' 0£ are formed from « and or", as xtixzt rdjti, otidoT aiSou 

. Tlie otber proper diphthongs have generally a different origin ; 

but the impr^ptr diph^ongs may all be considered ,as formed by 

N contraction, viz. ly, i?, cw, from «r, ^X, «/*, as yn^^ifn^ff't Sg^rfHsa 

Bq^qco^ Imatog X^oxog* 

• b) Two. vowels pass into a fciniired Jong vowel" or diphthong; 

and generally as follows : 


I I 

17 from €a — reixict Tiix% tttag KfJQ heart. 

H from if — noUi noiu^ gud-gov gild-gov stream. 

( Oct and ori — aldoa aid(a^ fiiG'd'OtjTi fAca^tSve, 

ioo — nXoog nkovg^ (jiia&oofiev jiiaO-ovfiev. 
ov from < 06 — tfAtCl^oa ifiiad-ov. 

{eo^ — xeix^og teixovg^ nouofitv noiovfiev. 

c) The doubtful vowels a, «, t;, when they are short, absorb 
the following vowel, and thereby becoihe long, as af&Xog Ionic 
with short a, Attic ad'kog combat^ — Ti'/ua* r/jua, — dative "Itpit^ Iq>l^ 
—ix&ieg and -ag with v short, contr. Ix^vg^ from the sing, liifivg. 

d) A long sound absorbs a short vowels without farther change.* 
This i3 particularly the case with the following, viz. 

With e both before and after almost every long sound, as qi^Ua 
^tXtH^ TifjitievTog Tifi^vrog. 

With a and principally by kindred sounds and by oi, as r«- 
juaai r^^ot), Jloaeidawv Ilooeidoiv Kepiune^ laag kag a stone^ /u^• 
a^oovoi fiiO'^ovah nXoot nXo7. 

4. When a diphthong compounded with «, the improper diph- 
thongs not excepted, is to be contracted with a preceding vowel, 
the two first vowels undergo a change, according to the preceding 
rules, and the « either becomes subscript^ as rvm-em rvnt^^ del- 
d(a fdta I sing^ aoi^ri tidri song^ tifA-Mv and rvfi^it^ — tifA-f^ or the 
I is drdpped if the contracted sound is not of a nature to admit i 
subscript^ as fAiO'&'OHtr fjnad^'^vv^ 'OnoBig 'Onovg. 

•Rem. 1. Such are the regular contractions; but several excep- 
tions to these rules occur, as will be seen in. their places. The 
Ionics particularly neglect the contraction, and resolve ^ long 
sound into^ its original component parts, as 2 pers. sing. pass. Tvn- 
T«a* for TVTvtr^^ and even -noueav^ enaivua^^JiLC. for nou'ri (which 
is commonly ^till farther contracted into noitj)^ kc. Many' of these 
forms are common to both the Ionic and Doric dialects. 

Rem. 2! The tendency of the Ionic dialect to resolve the long 
sounds is the source of the separation of the vowels in the diph' 
thongs^ which prevails among the epic poets In certain words, as 

* This is not to be considered as an elision, but as a true contraction, 
as is seen by the use of the circumflex to compensate for the short yowel 
dropped ; as qUfkifa, (pikw. 

-^ 28.] 



nalg for naig hoy^ otofiat for OiOjAt^i I ihink^ &c. of the jjroiractif^ 
of a Yowel sound, as gtomg for (fxug lights ngritivov for xgtjvov from 
nQaivcjy &€• and of the Ionic irueriion of an «, as ijf for ij or^ ieU 
Koai for EiHoa& twenty^ ddeXq>i6g for ddeXgiog brother. 

Rem. 3. The Ionics sometimes produce a concurrence of vow- 
els, by thrusting out the consonants which separate them, as t/- 
Qttog for Tigatog.^ 

Rem. 4. There are nevertheless cases, where the Ionics con- 
tract and the Attics do not ; as Igig (with t, long) Ionic for Ugog 
Bocred. The Ionics and Dorics have also a contraction peculiar 
to themselves of eo into f u, as nkevveg for nkioveg, nouvfAhvog for 
nouofjifvog^ for which the contracted form no^ovfAevog is com«» 
monly used. 

Accent of contracted syllables. 

Rem. 5. When of the two syllables to be contracted, neither 
has the accent, the syllable formed by the contraction generally 
remains also without it, as neginXoog neginXovg^ ixlfiaov izifiojv. 

Rem. 6. If however one of the syllables to be contracted has 
an accent/ the contracted syllable is accented ; if the x>enult or 
antepenult, it is accented according to the mles ip § 10 and § 12 ; 
if the last syllable^ it is accented with the circumflex in almost 
every case, as voog vovg^ noum nam. 


1. When one word ends with a vowel and the next begins 
with one, whether aspirated or not, an effect called hiatus is ob- 
served, which was still less agreeable, particularly to the Attics, 
than the concurrence of vowels in the middle of a word. 

2. This hiatus was accordingly avoided in poetry, particularly 
in the Attic poetry. £ven in prose, with the exception of the 
Ionic writers, its frequent recurrence was disliked. The principal 
means of avoiding it were, first synalcephe, or the union of the 
two syllables in one ; and secondly the addition of a consonant, as 
the V, called v iq)iXMV0tiH6v. 

3. The synalcephe is of two kinds, viz, 

a) Elision, where one vowel is wholly dropped. 

b) Crasis^ where the vowels form a long one. This last, par- 
ticularly in prose> has a very limited application. 

Rem. 1. Crasis^ over which a comma or smooth breathing (') 
is commonly placed as a sign, is oftenest used in the article and 

52 APOSTROPHE. [^^^« 

-II t > . I ■ II I .. , I. , I I ■ .1. w i> I f . 


in the conjunction *aL It is governed, for the most part^ by the 
roles given aebove for the regulation of contractions in the mid- 
dle of the words, as tovpolvtIov for to huvriov^ rovvofAu for to 
ovofia^ TotfJti for t« ifia^ xavtu for tct avxi. So by the Ionics 
xmyuXfiix. for to ayaXftcL In the Attic dialect, however, the a 
commonlv absorbs every vowel in the article, as to aXti-d'tg be- 
comes taXtj&eg^ and tov ivd()6g becotnes tdvdgog. 

Rem. % A sjyllable contracted by crasis, is <^ necessity long, 
as talffi^dg^ laXla* for ra akka^ and Kcm/, xuQSrii^ for nat inl^ 
»«l ttQ^Tti. The i>siibscript , is used only when, besides the con- 
traction, the I IS still found 'in the last syllable, as leai dxm^ xi^to. 

Rev. 3« Some of the most common instances of crasis, which 
at the same time most need explanation to the learner, are iy^' 
liat for iym oifiai I think ; iytfda for iyM oldw I know ; '&oifiatiOP 
for TO ifiiTCOv the garment ; ovvexa for ov ivexa wherefore* 


1. By elision in Greek,' as in other languages, the short vowd 
' at the end of the word, when the next begins with a vowel, is s^nt 

dS, To denote this a comma ( ' ) is placed over the space thus 
left vacant, as in ifjiov for inl ifiov,' and when the vowel of the 
second word has the rough breathing, the smooth mute of the first 
is aspirated (§ 17. 2.) as «9* ov for dno ov, 

2. In prose it is only certain words of frequent recurrence, 
^ which are commonly elided^ particularly oAAa, S^a and «()«, avct^ 

dici^ x«?a, /u«T«, na^d^ ajio, vtio, cJfigp/, dvTt^ ini^ tf«, Ti\ yi ; or 
frequent combinations, as vri 4iu^ vri At* by Jove ; TtavT av for 
navTa av, &c. In other cases it is rare, in most wholly unused, 
particularly in Ionic prose. The poets, on the other han^, avail 
themselves of this license in the case of almost all the short vow- 
els. Only the short u, monosyllables in' a, ^, o, and the preposi- 
tioa negly are never elided. 

Rem. 1. If th)s vowel cut off had an accent, this accent in par- 
ticles is lost with the vowel, as an from dno^ akV from dUAcc, ovf 
from ojidit In every other sort of word, the accent passes to the 
preceding syllable, and is always acute, as ^an innj from iraxa 

* TbtAAa, as thii word is written in moet editions, is wron^.- 


OF V if^AxvaxixoVj etc. 


The poets elide, thoilgh more rarely, the diphthong -ai, but 
this is done only in passive termineUiofu^ as fiovXtad"' tqiti^ ^9X^1** 

% 30. 
OF v^ ifsAxvtnueoy^ and other final consonants. 

1. Certain words and terminations have a twofold form, with 
and without a consonant at the end, of which the first is commonly 
used before a Vowel, the other before a consonants 

2. This secondary form is especially made by what is called 
the V ig)6lKvaTM6v^ which may be assumed or dropped by the 
Native plural in _ai^ and in the verbs, by all third persons in e and 
I ; as, for instance, nSaiv iliuv iiuivog^ otherwise nuGv and aine^ 
mnpev ifii^ Uyovotv avri^tl'd^ow vno. In the common dialect, 
this V must always be used before a vowel. 

3. A similar y is applied to the terminations in ff», expressing 
a place, which are formed from datives plural, as 'Okvfjmiaai^ and 
to the woids nigv^b a year c^o,*and eino^fi twentyj though not al- 
ways to this last. 

Rem. 1. The Ionics omit this v even before a vowel; on thet 
other hand, the poets use it before a consonant to effect a position 
f6r the preceding vowel. This is also sometimes done in Attic 
prose, and at the ^hd of a sentence it is rarely omitted. 

4. Of a similar character with thys i^ is the ^ in ovrm ovroig 
thus ; and also, though chiefly by the Ionics, in fiixQi' f*^'x9^Q^ 

5. The particle oiJ not becomes ovx before a vowel, and con- 
sequently passes into ovx before an aspirate. (Q 17. 3.) 

ftsif. 2. The reverse ^olds with this x iik'ovH from what was 
observed of the v ; for as no Greek word by itself can terminate 
in X (5 4. 4.) this x is dropped at ever^jpause, even when the 
next sentence begins with a vowel ; as Uv' akX* otav^'Xenopk, 
Sympos, vi. 2. . " 

34 PARTS OF SPEECH. ^NOUNS. [^^ 31, 22. 


t. Strictly speaking tliere are but three principal parts «of 
speech. For all that belongs to the name and designation of ob- 
jects ir included in the noun ; the word, by which any thing is ex- 
pressed relative to objects, is the verb ; and the other parts of 
speecli^ by which the objects thus named and distinguished are 
farther qualified and connected^ are included under the head of 

2. It is usual, however, to make some chief subdivisions of the 
three main parts of speech ; and there are usually counted eight 
parts of speech in most languages ; thus (l) The noun^ which re- 
mains divided into substantive and adjective^ is further distinguished 
from (2) The pronoun which includes the article^ and (3) The 
participle^ which in the syntax is considered a part of the verb. 
(4) The verb remains undivided, but the particles are divided 
into (5) adverb^ (6) preposition^ (7) conjunction^ (8) interjectionj 
of which the last is often reckoned by the Greek grammarians as 
an adverb. 

§ 32. GENDER. 

1. The gender of the noun is either masculine^ feminine^ or 
net/^ef, and appears in part by the termination, as will be. remark- 
ed in each declension. To indicate the gender, use is made of 
the article o for the masculine, i] for the feminine, and to for 
the neuter. 

2. The names of pei^ons, as man, woman, god, goddess, &c. 
follow always the natural gender, be the termination what it will; 
as ij '&Vfa^f]g daughter^ v vvog daugfiter'in law. From this is except- 
ed the diminutive ov^ which is always neuter, as to yvvaiov^ frotn 
ywi^ wife^ TO (AHQaniov from fxaiQal a youth. 

Rem. 1. Hence every personal denomination, which is common 
to the natural genders, is of common gender in grammar; thus we 




C V 

« V 

have av^gmnog a man^ and also tj av^gvmoQ axooman. So too 
o and 1? '^tog ^od and goddess ; 6 and ^ xgoqiog guardian and 
ntir^e; o and tj (jpvka^ a male or female watcher. Of several of 
these words, however, there are separate feminine forms, as 17 ^ea 
Me goddess^ which with the Attics supersede the use of the common 

Rem. 2. Several of the names of animals are in like manne.r 
copimon, as and ^ fiodg the ox 6t cow ; 6 sind 17 innog the horse 
or mare. In most of these, however, one gender is used fer hoth 
sexes, and this is called, by the Latin grammarians, when it is 
masculine or feminine, genus epicasnum; as kvupg wolf^ and. 77 
akdntil fooif^ whether masculine or feminine. But ev^n in sub- 
stantives, which are of the common gender, one or the other gen- 
der usually predominates, to denote the species ; thus 0* 'innog is 
used in general of the horse kind, and of any individual of the kind 
whose sex is not specified. In SgxTog bear and xdfjiijlog camel^ in 
general, and In ^aq)og stag ^nd kvodv dog^ often, the feminine 
gender prevails. The feminine if tTinog has the additional and 
peculiar signification of cavalry. 

3. The names oftrees^ as 17 g)fiy6g the betch^ ij nitvg the pine^ 
and the names of cities and countries^ as 17 Kogivd'og^j^ ^yvntog^ 
17 AavttdnlfJLOiv^ are, with a few exceptions, feminine. 


1. The Greek nouns have the^ve first cases of the Latin, 
without the ablative^ of which the place is supplied partly by the 
genitive and partly by the dative. 

2* The Greek language in nouns and in verbs has a dual num- 
ber, used of too persons. It is not however always used; by 
some writers not at all ; and most frequently by the Attics. 

3. The dual has never more than txeo endings^ one for the no- 
minative, accusative, and vocative ; the other for the genitive and 

4. The division into three declensions is most convenient, cor- 
responding to the three first declensions of the Latin, and with 
terminations as exhibited in the following table. 















L Ded. 

IL DecL. 
e^ neotov 





0^ nent a 



ovg neuta 

Of neiit.a 


Off («•?) 

a or 9 J nent like 
— (the nom. 



eg neat « 

o<y or Of 
as n^fit. a 
<ff Dent a 

N. B. The Attic second declension, so called, is omitted in the 
ahove table, for the sake of simplioitj ; it will be ^iren hereafter 
in its place ; see^ 37. ' 

6. When the ternMnatlons as here g^yen are pure^ and contrac- 
tion ensnes, the contrcxied declension takes place, as will be seen 
below, .in each of the three declensions. 

Remarks on the Table. 

1. The genitive plural^ in all three declensions, ends in mv. 

2. The daivoe singular^ in all three declensions, ends In i>; 
which, however, in the two firat is concealed under the form of 
the ioia subscript 

3. The dative plural^ properly, in sill three declension, ends 
in aiv or ai ; for aig and ois are only abbreviations of the more 
ancient form ai^iv and oiaip^ or aiai and oi^au 

4. The vocative i^ generally the same as the nominative ; and 
even where it has a separate form, the nominative is often used 
for the yocative, particularly by the Attic writers. 

5. The neuters^ as also in the Latin fanguage, have three cas- 
es alike, viz. the ncNminative, accusative, an^ vocative ; and in the 
plural of neuters all these cases end in a, 

6. The three declensions resemble the three first in Latin ; 
but it is to be remarked that out of og in the nominative the Lat- 




ios make w ; ottt of 09 in the genitive they make is ; out of ov 
and a>y, tim ; and that, in genend, /i in Greek becomes » in Latip. 
7* In regard to accent^ it is a general rule, that the endings of 
the genitiire and dative, if long and accented, must have the cir- 
cm\fiex ; the nominative, accusative, and vocative, the amU. It 
is, however, to be observed, tha^ the last syllable, ^ the nomina- 
tive and voclitive singular of the third declension, is not prpperly 
considered as the termination, as will be seen in its place* 



I. All words in 0$ and r^ are masculine, and ail in u and 17 dre 

t> Words in a have their genitive in a?, and retain the « 
through all the terminations of the singular, if it is preceded by 
another vowel, (a pure § 27. 1), as ao^ia, or by (», as Vf^^jQ^* 
The a is also retained by the contracted nouns, as fiva (see be- 
low in Rem. I ) 7" by aXaXo^y gen. -Sg^ the watery ; and by some 
proper names, as Ai^da^ 'uivigofitid^^ CMo/KijA«, Ftla, 

3* All other nouns in a have the genitive in 17?, and the da-* 
tive Jn 17, but in the accusative and vocative they resume the a, 
in the dual and plural, all the four endings, the nominative, da- 
tive, accusative^ and vocative, retain the a. The rest may be 
learned from the following table, where the changes of- the ac- 
cent, according tQ the general rules, are observed. 









G. D. 

^', honor. 



iq, wisdom, 
'Goq)ict * 


^', muse. 

0, citizen. 

0, youth. 















vaavia . 

Movaa noXitd 














r. I 


' Moioatg 




91, opmiotim 






I/pmfia I xguupa I iiaxfuga | 'jtrptiSa 
, fpfifkfup ! xQHuPOip ! fiaxatgiup \ '^gitStup 


ypmiia^ A tgluipfu ( fiix^ug^t* '^Q€i9ai 
/pfufimp tqhupAp ftaxttipmp *^ig(M»p 
ypuffuug rgiaipcug futx^uQ^^ 'jiiuMatq 





i /pwfias 








j fioxaigag 
1 naxaHfoi 


Of the vo€4Uive of nuuctdinet. 

4. Of the noons in 17?, those which end in n/^, several com- 
pounded verbals which are ibnned merely by adding 19^ to the 
consonant of the verb, as yimftirg^^ fivgoumkifg^ nm&otpififig, 
kc* and national names, as ndgatig^ ZxiBrig^ have a in the voea- 
Itve. The others, which, however, are by fiur the smallest nnm- 
her, have ^, partkalaily the patronymics in ^ff, as 'j^xgtUhrig in 
the table. 

Remarks on the foregoing examples. 

h Comtraetiom. The contracts of this declension contract the 
nominative into one of the nsoal terminations, and then proceed 
regularly; except that the cootncls in m preserve diis vowel 

^ 34.] FIRST DfiCLBNSlON* 3^ 

« unchanged throogbout, as being originally pure^ and those in Sg 
always have the Doric genitive in long a (Rem. IV. 3.) They 
may all be Jcnown by the circomflexed terminadon, as Xiovria, 
contr. ieovT^^ getiitiye Xtovriig^ &c. plural nom. leovtaly accus. 
Xsovrag^ Hon-skin ; ^EpffAtag^ contr. 'J^fitjg^ gen. 'JE^fAOV^ Mercu^ 
ry ; fivw^ contr. /eiv«, gen« H'^Sig^^ mtna ; fiogeag^ Attic fiojp^ag, 
gen. JSo^gu^* &c So too '^^tivi^ *A'&nvag, Minerva ,and yiy, yi}ff, 
earth. « 

II. Quantity. 1. The nominative a' which has tjg in the geni- 
tive, is always short. 

2. The nominatvoe a which has ag in the genitive, is in gen- 
eral long, though in many words short. . 

3. The vocative in a of masculines in rjg is short, of those in ag » 
long. The dual termination in a is always long. 

4. The termination ag^ throughout the first declension, is long ; 
and the accusative plural is in this distinguished from the third de- 
clension, where it is short. 

5. The accusative singular in av follows the quantity of the 

III. Accent, 1. It is characteristic of the first declension that 
the genitive plural always has the accent on the last syllable, 
wherever it may be in the other parts of the word, as Movaa 
Mbvjtjojv^ ancavd-a axccvO'cov, — Exceptions to, this rule are the 
following, viz. 

a) Feminines of adjectives and barytone participles in o?, as 
^svog^ iivtj — ^gen. pi. litv(ov' ahiog^ ah la — gen. pi! amW' 
rvmofiivog^ -ly, — gen. pi. Tvnrofiivfav, 

b) The three substantives XQn^Ttig usurer^ ol ittidlah trade 
winds^ dqimj a sort offish. 

2. With this exception^ the accent of the substantives^ as far 
as the general rules admit, remains on the syllable, where it is 
found in the nominative, as nom. pi. ao^/a^, voc. sing. nolTza^ 
with the exception of the vocative J^aTior a from ^cottoti;^ maW^r. 
The/emittines of the adjectives in o^, on the contrary, cast the ao; 
cent, whenever the termination, admits, upon the syllable where 
their masculines have it, as aHiog^ f. a$/o, pi. a^ioi^ a^ia^. 

3. It has already been remarked, that the endings of the geni- 
tives and datives^ in general, if accented at all, are drcuniflexed ; 
as those of rtfn^ in the table. See § 33 Rem. 7. 

* The donbling^ of the ^ in this word is merely an accidental pecu- 
liarity. ' 






IV. DiaUcL 1. The Darid^ in all the tennioatioDs, me a 
long ^ ^or 17, a0 nfue, as; ^, ay. The lomici commonly use ti for 
long a, as oo^/^, jjif, 17, lyy* iiixa$gu^ Tjg^ 17, ay wWn^i &c- 
This however is neyer done in the accusative jrimal. 

2. The oldeitfarm of the genitive dngalar of the mascolinea 
is io^ and of the genitive floral at all endings iww* Hence ia 
Epk poetSf ^Argiidao^ T&fiaotv^ kc. 

3. The Dorics contracted these genitives into long a, as rotl 
^Acgeida, riv rifiSv, This Doric genitive, in some few words, 
particnlarly proper names, remained in common use, as 'Awpipag^ 
tov *^»vl§a^ Hannibal* 

4. The lonici^ on the other hand, converted the Sio into «ai, m 
which however the m has do effect in bring^ing the accent for- 
ward, as tioUt{(o. So too from ifov the /outer made aoy, as 
Movoiwv. y 

5. On the ancient form of the dative plural, as T&f*aiai^ Mov^ 
oaiaiv^ see above in ^ 33 Rem. 3. The Ionic dialect hasi ^oer, 
^ffi, and 17?. 

Wards for practice* 





'^YXlofiq (* long] 

) Anchises 

&vQa , (v short) 




&Hgoniifig {i short) Cecropides 






















iaxoUct ^ 




falfi X 


Xvkij (vlong) 















Midag (i short) 








vlmti (» long) 






• bride 


" ' x 

sphere , 








, Idswre 



(FmTfjgla ' 




. TUfilag 

. steward 





Ttvlfi {v short) 


vXtj {v long) 











Scythian * 


outer garmmU 










1. All words in ov are of the neuter gender^ and most of those 
in og are mascnline. . ^ ^ 

2. There are, however, several feminines in off, not only those 
alluded to ahove in § 32, the names of persons, animals, trees, and 
cities ;^hut many others, such as i^ oSog road^ if fii^kog book^ 77 vfj' 
aog island, ij t^oaoff disease, with many names of stones and plants^ 
particularly also iseveral, which are in reality adjectives with a 
femlnipe suhstantive omitted, as tJ SiikiXTog dialect {(pmvi^ under- 
stood) ; 97 dcifiergog the diameter {ygctfifAi^ understood) ; 17 SrofAog 
atom, {ovala understood) ; 17 awdgog desert {,X^Q^ understood) ; 
and others of this description. 








6, speech. 1^^ beech. 

koyog iffi/og 

Xoyov qifjyov 

X6y(^ qytiyro 

koyov qitiyov 

0, people, 


i ^W« 










* The common mode of writings this word 0(pvga is incorrect, as the 
termination is short. See Aristoph. Pac. 566. Cratin. ap. Hephsest. p. 6. 



N. A. V. 













I 9^y w 
I (prjyoTv 



I driiAOtv 



t ap&Qoino} 
\ avd'Qfanoiv 









1. The Attics sometimes make the Tocative like the nomina- 
tive ; ^tog God is always the same in the vocatiye as the nomina- 
tive. [Bat an exception is found Matt. 27: 46.] 

2. By the Epic writers the genitive in ov is changed into oiOy 
as X6yoi,o^ (ftiyolo. The Dorics make o) in the genitive, and id 
the ;iccusative plural oi?, and rarely, og. 


Several ^ords in oog and oov^ eog and eov^ commonly undergo 
contraction, according to the general rules given above, except 
that a of the neuter absorbs in contraction the preceding a or o, 
and becomes long, as oazia oVra, dnkoa dnkS. 

frords for 









south mnd 



^vkov . 






^ ifiTuXog 



child ' 











ij Gfidgaydog 

' emerald 


east wind 




west wind 



?J 7}n6igog 





outer garment 




















' 1 


Sing. 0, voyage, Plur, Sing, ro, bone. Plur. 


nkoog nkovg 



oGxiov 6<novv 

oarea Offro^ 


nkoov nkov 



ofJTtov oaxov 



nXota Ttkcf 



6<ntm ooTi^ 

ooTioig oatolg 


nXoov nXouv 



ooxtov oatovv 

ooria . otna 


nkos Ttkov 



oaxiov ooTOvv 

oatea oaxa 


Dual N. A. nkom 


G. D. 




oatioiv ooTOtv 

Remark. There are not many substantives of this kind ; 6 voog 
understandings and 6 Qoog stream, may be taken as examples. 


To the second declension is referred, under the name of the 
Attic, the declension of several words of the masculin'e and femi- 
nine gender in tag, and of the neuter in cup. It has in all the cases 
an 01, instead of (he usual vowels and diphthongs, and an ioia sub' 
script \9hefe o^ or qi is found in the regular second declension. 
The vocative is always like the nominative. 


d, temple. 











TO, hall. 

















dvwytta . 





1. The expression Attic second declension is by^ no means to be 
understood, as if the Attics were accustomed to inflect all nouns 
in og in this way. It is, on Xhe contrary^ an ancient and peculiar 
declension of a very limited number of words, of some of which 
moreover there exist forms in the common secohd declension, as 
d kaog people, vaog temple, also keoSg, vecig. So 6 kaydg hare. 


Ionic layaog and Xay6s> Other examples are 6 xaXtag cable^ and 
o nuTQfag^ fn^Tgotg^ paternal and maternal uncle. Of those words 
of which tffo forms are actually corrent, that which falls tinder 
this declenaon is commonly peculiar to the Attic dialect. 

2. This dedension has a peculiar accusative in cd, paiticularly 
used in the proper names K£g^ Kimg^ Tt^^ ''A&tog^^s^A in n ^^^ 
the dawn (accus. rtip av), which is thjs Attic form for i^tog of the 

\ 3. The accent of the genitive ved is contrary to the rule laid 
down § 33 Rem. 7' With respect to the other anomalies in thcf 
accent of this declension, see above under § 12. 7. 

<^ 38. GENDER. 

t. Iti consequence of the diversitj^of endings in this declen- 
sion, the determination of the gender by^the termination admits of 
no general rule, and resort must be had to observation of the indi- 
vidual cases. A few rules however with respect to some termi- 
nations are gfiven below. 

2. In general, the g is found at the end chiefly of mascallnes and 
feminines, and the short vowel, at the end of nepters. No neuters 
end in 5 or i/i. 

Remark. The follow ipg is an enumeration of those endings, 
whose' gender is fixed. In giving the exceptions, no notice h tak- 
en of personal appellations, such as ij f*^^fi9 mother ^ ff dagiag 
spouse^ whose giender is apparent Where however U (univer- 
sally) is placed, there no personal appellation of another gender 




1. All in ^i;^, as o ogevg mule^ dfiq:ogevg amphora. U. 

% All substantives^ which have vtog in the genitive ; as o t£- 
yotii/ -opTog tendon^ 6 odovg -ov^og toothy 6 Ifjiag -avrog thong. The 
only exceptions to this are some names of cities. 

3. Those which end in i^q^ as o ivamtiQ ffrdle ; except iy ya- 
^i^Q belfy^ 1^ Kfigfeie. By the poets also 17 atig atr, mist^ which is 
usually masculine ; and the neuter contracts^ of which hereafter* 

§^ 38, 39.] 



-»— «r 


1. All in 0), as '^x^ ^^^' U. 

2. Those in a^, gen. a^off, as i{ XafAnag torch; with' the ex- 
ception of some adjectives of the common, gender. 

3. Those in tg^ as '^noXig cUy, ij X^^i grace. Excepting 6 oq)iQ 
serperUy 6 ex^g add&Ty 6 xoQtg 6t^, 6 fAagig a certain measure^ 6 aig 
.a wood worm. oXig lion^ 6 ^ekqjig dolphin^ -o, iy ogvig bird^ ij, o 

vi/Qig tiger^ i?, o {^ig bank^ shore, 

4. Nouns of quality in ttjg (the Latin tiu); as ij (AiKQOxrig 
parvitas* U. 


1. All in «, 17, «, 1/, as to omfia body^ Kugti head^ fiiKi honey ^ 
ttOTU ctly. U. 

2. All whibh terminate with short- syllables in t and 0, as 
ro r«r;po^ Tva/2, to ^0(> breast^ and the neuter, adjectives in eg^ ev^ 
ov. U. 

5. Those in a{), as to ^ncig the livery to vinrag^ with contracts 
in foe^ -fjg^ as to iag ^g aprink^ to Mag xfJQ the hearty to otiaQ 
aTtjg tallow* Excepting only o xffdg the starling, 

4. Those in oip, which are not personal appellations ; as to v- 
dwQ water^ to TtKfiCDg mark. Excepting ix^oQ lymph^ and ix^Q 
a blister. 

5. Those in ag -aros and -aog^ as to v^'gag -arog miracle^ to 
danag-^aog cup ; excepting lag -aog a stone, and or to KPA2 
xguTog head. 

There are no other neuters of this declension, excepting to 
nvg fire^ to (ptag lights to ovg ear^ to araig dougk. 

. Nouns in ag^ therefore, are generally masculine when they 
make the genitiTe in at^TO^, feminia.e when they make It in aoqg, 
and neuter when they make it in aTO^ and aog. 


In thjB declension of every noun, a distinction must be made 
between the root^ and the changeable terminaii9n of the case. 
In the first and second^ declensions, the ilominative has such a 
termination of case ; in tb/e third declension, however, such ter- 
mination is attached only to the oblique cases — thus : 

Dec. II. koy -og^ "koy -ou, Xoy -o^ 
— 111. ^i}(>, ^rig -0V5 ^^ng -/. 




Still in the third declension, the nominative is rarely so unchang- 
ed, as in d^i^Q. In most cases its last syllable is modified either by 
addition^ as gen. ftv-^s^ from the root fiv^ where the nominative 
is fivg^ — or by dropping a letter, as gen. amfiaxog^ from the root 
amfiax^ nom. Qtofjia^ — or by suhsiituiion^ as gen. einovog^ from the 
root tlxov^ nom. eixoiv. 

Remark. In order to decline correctly a noun in the third 
declension, it is absolutely necessary to know beforehand the 
nominative and one of the remaining cases.- If, however, one 
only is known, the rules are mucl^ more simple for finding the 
nominative from the genitive, than for finding the genitive from 
the nominative; because in general the radical form. is found 
uncorrupted in the genitive, but not in the nominative. It is 
also accordingly necessary in the lexicon to take note as well of 
the genitive, as of the nominative. But as in reading, some 
oblique case is more likely to occur than the noitiinative, and it 
is accordingly requisite, in ordei* to .ascertain the meaning of the 
word, to discover the nominative from said oblique case, the rules 
which follow may be applied for this purpose. 

, §40. 

1. The most common changes, which the root of the word 
sufifers in the nominative, are the following, viz. 

a) The assumption of ff, as o fnvg^ {iv-og mouse ;* o alg^ €k/1*o$, 

b) That instead of e and o of the root, ^ and' on are found in 
'the nominative, in masculines and feminines, as iq ai%iav^ dnov^og^ 

image ; dktjd'rjg^ a^d'e-og, true, 

2. With respect to the more exact application of these princi- 
ples, two principal xBases must again be distinguished, viz. (1) That 
of a consonant before the inflectional termination ; (2) That of a 
vowel before the inflectional termination. 

* The learner is to understand in these and following^ examples, that 
from the radical form jui;, which is detected in the genitive /MVOff, the 
nominative fivg i» derived. . , ,' ' 

§41.] INFLECTION, 47 \^ 


k When a consonant precedes the inflectiopal termination^ and 
the nominative takes the ?, ^ is understood in the first place, that 
this g with /, x, ;f, and with /?, tt, % passes into S and i//, as xo^f ' 
xd(>ax-off, ovv^ ovvX'Og^ mp .dn-og^ jfdAui// ^^akvfi-^g, 

2. These nominatives in § and t// never change the f. and o of 
the root, as q>Xaxi) q)Xifi6g^ qiXo^ (pXoyog^ al&ioxp atMonog^ except- 
ing only 17 dXainri^^ dkdnenog^ the/ox. 

3* if however the consonant immediately preceding the infleo- 
tiona! termination is a ^, r, or ^, it is dropped hefore the g assum- 
ed hy the nominative, as lufjinig kaf^nadog^ AtoQig AtiQldog^ %ri^ 
Kig xi^Atd'o?, OQvig OQvi&og^ mgvg xogv'&og, ij HuQvrig Ild^tj^ 
^og, xigag Ttgdrog^ yd(H^ ^ighog, 

4. In like manner v and vr are dropped before this assumed 
g ; but in this case the short vowel, always kith vr and commonly 
with 1/, is lengthened in the manner given abovev(§ 25* 4.) as yi- 
ydg yiyavtog^ x^9^^^^ xagUvTog^ odovg odovrog^ — dtl(pig (long *) 
diXqitvog^ Oog^vg Oog^vvog^ — liikdg fiildvog^ xteig xTevog,* 

5. When g is not assumed in the nominative, v and g are the 
only consonants, which can remain at the^ end of the nominative, 
as -^jyp S^g-og^ aldv aitav-og. It would be necessary to drop all 
the others ; though this, however, actually occurs only with T,t 
as awfia adfjiatog^ SBvoq)Sv Sfvofprnvx-og* 

In. either case, ^ and of the masculine and feminine are al- 
ways changed into ^ and ct), as li^riv liftiv-og^ gi^Ttog gfjrog^og^ 
yi'gfov ytgovT-og. 

6. Some neuters, which make atog in the genitive, take g in- 
stead of g in the nominative, as ^nag ijnatog, 

■ ■ ■ . - ■ ■ ■ , ■ . — ■ ■ ■ ■ ■' ' ■ — ' 

* ilg is the only additional like example. . See below in * 70. 

t Because all the other letters take the g (| or 1/;) in the nominative ; 
f4 and J do not at all occur before the inflectional termination of this de- 
clension, and of A the only example is iikg^ alog, ** 

Iff 48 . THIRD DECtBNBION, [^ 

7. According to the premises, the usual cases, in which a con- 
sonant precedes the inflectional termination, are as follows, viz. 

** " ** dog^ tog, ^og frbmanbm. in g {Xaftnag, 

hut especially 


r a (ffoifca "UtTogS 
fXTog from a nom. in < ag Ire^oig -aro^j 

( «o (inap -arog) 

\a£f*u 'ixvog\ 

The grenittTe tews from a nom. inj J Hfj^'^^jJ"'*^ 

hut especially 
^^ f yoff and Qv0g from a nom. in tjp and f»i' - 
{kifi'^v Ikfuvog, ilxtiv ehtovog) 

Sag, €tg, ovg, vg 
Qovg oovTog, q)vg (pwrog) 
(ov {^(^(dp, ovrog) 

" " ** Qog from a nom. in g {d^i^g d^rjgog) 

hut especially 
^ sgog and ogog from a nom. in rjg and (og 
J {tttd-iqg at'&igog, ^i^rwg gtjibqog) 
and from two neuters in og, viz. * , 
oop 9Tii7ord and r^Tog breast 

8. The following cases require particular attention, viz, d, ij 
akg dXog salt, sea; ri fnikv (liXitog honey ; to xagti xagtivog head ; 
fl vv^ vvxTog night ; d SvaS Svaxtog king ; -^ difjiag daftagrog 
spouse; novg nodogfooi; with a- few others which will be given 
below. , 


I. The quantity of the penult of the genitive in «, i, v, is only 
fixed, like that of the nominative of other n6uns, by authority. In 
g;eneral it id short; those cases therefore only will be noted where 
it is long. 




1. All substantlFes which maKe^.the genitive id avog^ jfPog^ and 
vvog^ have the penult long ; as Ilav Jlavog^ nuiiv naiSvog, fig 
fhvog^ ieXfpig ifekqnvog^ fAOOvv fioovvog. - 

2. In like manner the |ienults of several in ig -liog ar^Jong ; 
and as these are ail oxjtones In the nominative, the long syllable 
in the genitive hi circnmflexed| by which mark they are known ; 
as dfpQayig aq>^(xyliog^ itptjfiig nvjifuSog* 

3. Of others not included under the preceding heads, the fol- 
lowing are to be noted as having the penult of the genitive long : 

CPo/w|, nog Phenician^paltn-tree^ 

6 fixff^ nog rush [red-colour 

6 ttf), nog (an insect) 

o 'd^oijMvl, »og hreoit plait, 

UquI^^ Hog hawk 

6 oia^^ Kog hdm 

6. xopifal, nog a danct 

«i9(h;|, Hog hirald 

%nvi^ nog (a madne bkd) 

6 fiofjifivi^uog Mkmorm 

6 xonnvJi^yog entchoo 

6 yvxp^ nog vulture 

6 xffttQ starling. 

II. All monosyllable nomibatives, wiUi ^the exception of the 
pronoun tig^ are long ; therefore nvg^ nvQog. 

III. When the termination ng -ivrog is preceded by i? or o, a 
contraction commonly ensues ; thus t^fAi^i&g rifAtiiiaog contraeted 
into Tifi^g Tifi^vTog, fAehrosig fAsXiTOevTog contracted inti^ fieXiiovg 
-ovpTog* Oiher examples are the names of cities in ovg ovi^Tog^ 
as 'Onovg^ &t. 


1. Those nouns of this declension which have a vowel before 
the inflectional ending, (or og pure in the genitive § 27. 1), take 
klmost universally a ^ in the nominative; a few neuters only in » 
and t/, and a few/eminines in oi, are excepted. 

S. Moreover as neuters only (§ 38 Rem.) have nominative 
endings short in f and o, hence in! mascufines and feminines the i 
of the other cases becomes it or tv^ and the o becomes (» or 09^ 
in the nominative. 

i, if o^$g^ ^og 


$j ifUg^ ^og 


rm-^l, yog 


»f juaozr^l, yog 


6 nigS$if uog 


nPifAp^h ^og 


fj anad&i, no^ 

paha branch 

6 ^VQfpul^ KO^ 


q^iva^^ xog 


0ui«Si nog 


fiU^, uog 


n ^«$, yog 










Thus in particular are derived the following, viz. 

The gen. in uog from the neuters in off, {atXag aiXaog). 

^ ^ uig and vog from the nom. in &g, «, and vg, v, 

{lUg niog^ daxQv -vo^)* 

* i the nom. in ovg {fiovg Poog). 
^^ ^^ oog from C the feminines in oi and <ag^ 

\ {^X^ "^®^i aidtig -^og). 

C the nom. in tig and tg, 
" " iog {emg) from I [aktj'&iig neut dXtj&tg G. aogy 

( the nom. in 6vg^ {tnnsvg innifog). 

In this place is especially to he noted ygavg yQaog an old w<h 
man. F(>r vavg see § 66. 4. 

4J Besides these, the genitives log and iwg are formed hy a 
change of vowel, e. g. 

a) From the numerous neuters in off, as tsix^^^ tilx^og, 

h) From most nominatives in ig and », and some in vg and v, 
as TToA^ff T^oAfODff, aoTU aatiog. 

Remark. The vowels a, i,' v, hefore the termination of the 
genitive (with the single exception of ygaog) are short The 
monosyllable nominatives are here also long, as (Avg (Jivog. 

§ 43. 

The following examples will serve, in essential points, for all 
the varieties in this declension. 

o\ anunai 


Ace. . 

G. D. 








S'^gifl (f) 










o^i^^dioiniiy. o, lion* 







dctlfioai {v) 
daifiovag ' 








0^ giant. 

ylyoLv ^ 


ylydai (y) 


















0, ra/ven, 






0, 17, child. o^jackaU. 0, woodworm* to, thing* 







noioi (y) 

















^mol {v) 

mai {v) 








ngiyfiaai {y) 


1. These examples will sufficiently illustrate the declension ; for 
as doon as the nominative and genitiye are ascertained by tneans 
of the foregoing rules and of the lexicon, the learner's reflection 
will easily suggest, that all nouns which end in S and 1/1 are de- 
clined like xo()«|, — all which haye the genitive in dog^ d'og^, and 
rog^ like nuJg nwdog^ — no$fiiip noiftipog like dalfimv iaipio^og^ 
idovg o&ovTog and Mg ^tptog like kdwv Uovrogf and ^nag rina- 
zog like ngay/Aa Anog, It is only necessary to make some pair- 

. ticular observatioos with regard to the aeeusalioe and vocatifoe sin^ 
gular, and the dalioe plural, which will be presently done. 

2. Q^ntiiy. The ^, a, and a^, in the terminations of the cases, 
are always short. Compare Remark II. 4, on Dec. L For .tlie 
quantity of the penult of the genitive, see the preceding sections. 

3. Accent. The following are the principal rules relative to 
the accent. 

a) In dissyllable and longer words, the accent remains on the 
sam^e syllable as in the nominative, so long as its nature admits ; 
see above in xoga^ and a/oiy. 

b) Monosyllables throw the accent, in the genitive and dative ' 
of each number, upon the termination of the case* On th^ termi- 
nation oiv it becomes a circumflex. See above ^g and xlg. 

52 TftiRD DEC. ACCUS. SINO.—^VOCATIVE. [<^§ 44, 45, 

c) On th6 contrary, the nomioatiye, accusatire, and ¥OcatiT« 
never have the accent on the terminaiion (^ the case.* 

Exc. From the second of these rules are principallj excepted 
the juarticiples^ ^as d-eig '&ev%ftg^ . £v ovto^^ &c. — the plural ^of the 
adjectives nSg nav^ (jiavroff, navti,) pi. G. nopttov, D. noffty,— 
and the genitive plural of some few others, aa^oi; and nuis ahpv^. 


1. The principal termination of the accusative in this declen- 
sion is a, hut in some, words in «^, vg^ avg^ andot;?, there is also tiui 
accusative in y, form^ as in the other declensions, hy changing 
the g of the nominative into v^ and retaining the same quantity. 
This is the only form of the accusative for those nouns which have 
a vowel before the termrnation of the casft ; aa fipvg G. fio6g — fiow' 
igvg dgvog — dgvv^ and also ix'd'vv^noXiv^.ygavv, &c. 

2. Those on the other hand which have a consonant in the 
genitive, where the last syllable of the nominative is accented, 
make the accusative in a^ as ilvlg -^dog^-^ilnida' Tiavg n^dog*^ 
aoda. But if the hurt syllable be unaccented, thejTcommonly take 
an v'lvk the accusative, though sometimes an a, as Sgtg 'idpg — iQtv 
and tQida' Kogvg -vdvg — xagvv and xigv&»' eveXmg -vdog^-^vil- 
ixiP and eviknt^* nalvnovg 'Odog — ^7rQA^ot;i(^and Ttokvnoiu, 

§ 45." or THE VOCATIVE^ 

1. It lis very common in this declension, for a noun to have a 
vocative of its owb, but yet generally, Especially in the Attle 
writers, to make the vocative like the nominative. The foltow- 
ing are accordingly the rules, by which nouns in 'this declension 
may form their vocative ; but it must be left to observation in 
particular cases, whether they do actually so form them, or make 
the vocative like the nominative. 

2. The terminations evg^ ig^ and vg^ with the words 7ia7g^ yguvg^ 

■ . ■ 1 1 

* Care mast be taken not to confound the termination of the word^ as • 
0Oir-i7^, with the termination of the caj e, as aoiri^p-a. - 

§46.] DATl^/pB JTtUlUt. - ^ . ' 63 

md §9>ik^ drop the ^ io the Tocatire, and thoie in liq aasune the 
circomflex ; as fiaaiksvg^ yoc oo fiaQ^kev^^-^^md lo Ila^^ Av^qI^ 
7^^, '^dvy &c. and 7i«i, /C'fti^) /?(^* 

3. The same holds of these id ug and t^^ which drop t^ hefore 
their g. They comatooly, h^weyec, resume this v ia the voca* 
tive^ as takug^ tuXivog^ cJ viXav u^tig -airoff, iJ Alav x^' 
i*g 'ivtog^ cJ jfjR^/«t^. 

4. Noons, which in the termiDation of the nominative have 
17 or 01, only shorten this in the vocative ; bat this in general only 
wbeD the other cases also have f and ; see above dal^wv and 
l«W. So too fi^rvQ '^9ogj cJ ^^£f* ^^<»^ -opos^ co.^^ro^' 
>2'(iiix(>OTi2g -<o?, el ^xQtttig* 

h, Feminines in a> and oi^ form the vocative in qI^ as San^d^ 

Rem. 1. The three following throw the accent back, viz. tih- 
rfp, Sveg^ dSfg^ from Trarfjp, dvijg^ darig brother-in-law^ G. igog* 

Rem. 2. The words, which retain the long vowel in the other 
cases, remain i^lso unaltei^'ed in the vocative, as V IIkaT(ov G. 
'(ovog^ 03 Sivo^Mv G.-oJi'Tt>ff, 01 ifjTfjQ G.^fjgog, w KguTtjg G.-i?roff. 
There are three only of this kind, which shorten the vowel in the 
vocative, './^TroAJtoii' ^mwog^ t» ^^nokkov' Tloaeiitip ^mvog^ c? IIo- 
G6iiov^ N^piunt; and amzriQ ^vgog^ cJ acur<p. Here also it is to 
be observed, that the accent is thrown back. 



1. When the termination aiv and at of the dative plural is 
preceded by a consonant, the general rules again operate, as in 
the g of the nominative (§ 41) ; see above in leop^S, 771^^^, «<W, 
as also in "^gctxp "^gapog^-^^^gaipip* ^nug "^narog — fjnaaiv^ 
kc. . > 

2. When in these instances the vowel of the nominative is al- 
tered in the oblique cases, it remains altered in the dative plural ; 
as ittlfimv *ojfog — daifiooiv* novg nodig — noffiv akdntji^ '€xog 
---ikein^iv. But when *t is omitted, the lei^hening of the vow- 
el mentioned above (§ ^5. 4.) takes place ; see above ki(av^ yiyag^ 
and so too odovg 'Ovtog — odevoi' rvjiitg -ivzog — tvtihoiv. If, 



however, v alone has been omitted, the short vowel remains, as 

Rem. 1. Also the adjectives (not participles) in eig 'ivrog have 
only an £, as (poivijeig -^v^tog — tpannjea&v. 

3. When the termination aiv^ ai, is immediately preceded by a 
vowelr— of course when there is an og pure in th^ genitive — this 
vowel also remains unaltered, as in the other oblique cases ; as 
akfjd'iig 'iog — aXtid-ioi; Tei^og -eog — rdxiai' dgvg dgvog—^gvaiv. 
Only when the nominative singular of such words has a diphthong, 
the dative, plural also assumes it, as fiaaiXivg -iwg — fiaatlevat'' 
ygavg ygaog — ygaval' fiovg fioog — fiovaiv. 

Rem. 2. In the ancient and Epic dialect^ instead of a& and aiVj 
in all words, eai and emv, or ea<F^ and eaaiv^ are used ; which ter- 
mination, as it begins with a vowel, is appended precisely like 
the terminations of the other cases, as ayaacr-ca^ xopax-ca^, 1%^^ 


1. Some nouns in i7(>, 6. egog^ drop the e in the genitive and 
dative singular, and also in the dative -plural, where they take an 
a after the (>, as nanig father^ 

Gen. {nartgog') naxgog^ Dat. {nceregi) navgl 

A. nurega^ V. nar^g, 
PL natagegj G. narigmv^ D. ncergdu^^ A. natigag. 

2. The same is the case, with some anomaly of the accent, in 
the following ; fii^Tfjg ijiijT^og) (iritgog^ mother ; ij yatniig {ytt- 
OTtgog) yaatgog^ belly^ stomach ; S'vya^tjg {O'vyazegog) 'dvyargog, 
daughter ; Ariiirivrig {Afjfif^Tigog) AtifAtixgog^ Ceres; which last 
makes ,in the accusative AtiiAtjTgtt, For avi^g^ see the anomalous 
nouns, 6 56. 4. • 

Remark. The poets sometimes neglect this syncope, and say for 
instance natigog^ and sometimes they adopt it where in general 
it is not found, as narg^v^ Svyargeg. 





1. Of the nouns that have og pure in the genitiye, there are 
Tery few which are not, la the common langtia^e, more or less 
contracted ; although it is hy no means always done, where hy 
the general rules it might he. 

% In some respects, moreoTer, the mode of contraction varifes 
from that prescribed by the general rules, and one species of this 
variety is expressed in the following canon, viz. 

The contracted accusatvve plural qfthe third declension isjormed 
like the contracted nominatvoe plural. 

Remark! ^ Thus, forjlnstance, dXti^ug and potg are regularly 
contracted, aktjd^eTg^ 0ovg^ and,- contrary to the general rules, the 
contraction of the accusative akti'&iag^ Poag^ is exactly the same. 

§ 49. . ^ 

Words in t^g and 6?, 6. £Off, which are almost exclusively 
adjectives, neuters in og and «o^, and the feminines in oi and oi^, 
6. 00$, are contracted in all cases, where two vowels meet. 









G. D. 







^\ gaUey. 

TQll^QiOg TQir^QOVg 
TQiflQCg ^ • 

TQi,riQiovv TQifigolv 

TQif^Qseg TgittiQug 

TQitigeat (v) 
TQt^f^Qeag xQir^Qug 
TQiflQeeg rgitigHg 

TO, wall. 


TiiXiog relxovg 
tilx^i tdx^if 


Tei>x^oiv tiifXpHv 

T€^X^U XHX\ 

xecX^oiv Tsix^'v 
Tilx^Gi {v) 
teiXBu Tfixv 
Telx^K telxv 

^7, echo- 


flXoi fixoi 
fjXoa rix^ 


> r 

2d decl. 

2d decl 

66 1:HI^Q 0ECLBNSION. l§ 50* 


1. The oncontracted forms of the feminine in co and curare not 
used even hy the Ionics. These words moreover are commonly 
used only in Uie singular. The dual and plural when ^sed are 
formed according to the second declension.* 

2. The neater adjectives iD£^ are declined like the neoters ia_ 
og ; accordingly/ in the plural we have rd alrj^tea^ dXri'&rj, , 

3. The dual in 17 formed from i€ departs from the general rule 
in § 27. % 

4. One masculine in 0^99 O. <oog, vis* ijgotg tke hero, adBiits a 
contraction, of which^ however no use is made in prose, except in 
ijgma tjgia^'^iJQmag tigmg, 

§50. . 

1. All other words admit the contraction only in the nomina- 
tive, accusative, vocative plural, and partly also in the.dative sin- 
gular, particularly those in vg, G. vog^ as 6 ix^vg fish. 

Sing. N. fjj^iJff, G. ixdvog^ D. tx'^m\ A. t%'&vv. 
Plur. N. tx'&if.g contc.^l^^g, G. rjf^wv, D. lx^ai,{y\ 
' A* Ix^^s contr. ix^^' 

2. In the same manner are formed those in 19, if, according to 
the Ionic and Doric mode, they have log in the genitive y as in 
Herodotus, noh'g G. noXiog^ — pi. noXug and noliag^ cdntr. nokig, . 
— and these have also in the dative singular noku contr. noXu 

3. Another example is fiovg ox, cow. 

Sing. N. fiovg^ G. fioog, D. pot\ A. fiovv^ V. fiov. 
Pkr. N. fioeg contr. ffovg, G, /Jowv, D. /?oua/(v), A. fioag 

contr. fiovg. 
Also fQcevg an old woman' 

Sing. N. ygavg^ G. ygaog^ D. y(>af, A. ygavv, V. ypav. 
P/ur. N. /()«£? contr. y()ai;ff, G. ygamv, D. /(>ai;a/(v), 
A. (/^a«?) contr. ygavg. 
In.this last word is to be remarked the uncommon contraction of 
ygicig into ygavg. 

' Roc. 1. It is worthy of note that, by this contraction, the pluta! • 
number is again made similar to the nominative singular; and ev- 
en where the quantity is different, the accent sometimes remains 
Uie same ; as nom. sing. 6 fiovgvg Ae clmUr ^ grapes^ acc^ pi. Tovg 
potgvg. < 




Rem. 2. The word oig nhtep follows theexaniple oi noUg 
above, and accordingly makes Gen. oVos^ and Norn, and Agc. pi. 
oVq^ with the t long. Commonly, however, even the nominative 
-flingaJar is contracted, as i/ olg^ and then the worid is thus declined : 

Sing. PL 

No'm. o7g oleg^ otg 

Gen. oiog 
Dat. oil 
Ace* olv 

olag^ olg. 
Hence we can say ij, oi, and ra^, olg, ' 

: §51. 

1. Most nouns in ig and «, and some few* in vg and v, retain in 
common language the vowel of the nominative only in the accu- 
sative and vocative singular ; in aU other cases they change it in- 
to r. . In thesQ words, also, the dative ti is changed into ai,^ and 
the plural ng and £ctg into atg^ and the neuter, ea into «?, but no 
farther contraction takes place. 

2. The substantives in ig and vg have besides what is called 
the Attic genitive^ by which, instead of og in the genitive singular 
they make cu?, and in the dual, instead of o^v they make C|iy, bu^ 
accent all three genitives as if the last syllable were short. 

3. The neuters in v and i have the common genitive, as aarv, 
Saxeog^ uotifav ninsQi^ mne^eog. 




^, ci<y.* 0, ell fo, city. 







Dual N. A. 

G. D. 








•jtokfat {^) 



ntix^o^ (v) 


afar £7 






• In g^eneral nokig signifies cilif politically, and aotv geographically. 




K 52, 53 

Rek. AdjecUres in vg^ v^ have the common genitiye, and al- 
so do not contract the neoten plural, as liihig nent* lidv, gen.iidi" 
og^ Ploi:. liietg nent. nida. 

§ 52. 

1. Noons in ivg h^ye also the Attic genitive, hut only the sin- 
gular in o)^, and without any peculiarity of accent In these too 
the contraction extends only to the dative 9ing%ilar and namtnattDe 
and accuiative^pktralj in which last case, however, the tug is more 







0*, king. ^ 





fiaailsvat {v) 
paaikiag and fiaaiX^Tg 

Rem. The length of the a' in the accumtive singular Kadphh 
ral is an Attic peculiarity; The earlier AtUc writers contract the 
nominative plural into ij^ as ^aaik^gr The lonians make uni- 
forv^j fiaadljog^ fiaaikfii\ -^a, 'fjag^ &c. 

'J 53. 

1. There are some peculiarities in the contraction of the third 
declension adapted hy the Attic writers, when another vowel pre- 
cedes and follows e. In that case the termination fci is contracted, 
not into 17, but into ct^ as vy&i^g healthy^ Ace. sing, and NeutvpU 
vyua contr. vyii' XQtog debt^ PL /p^Va X9^'^' 

Rem. 1. Even some in ivg drop the e in this manner before 
'W, o^, and o$g^ as ;foci;^ (a certain measure), 6. jjfocSff (for x^^'^^O) 
Ace. pi. x^^^' ' 

.2. in proper names in nkttjg cohtr. xkr^g^ a double contraction 
arises, which, however, is confined in general to the dative. 

N. JleQixXtfjg contr. II^$uX^g 

•G. n^QinUiog contr. IltpMXeoSg 

A. IligixXua 

V. neghkug 




§ 54, 56.] 



§ 54. . . , 

1. Of the neaters in a^ these two^ viz* ni^g horn and t^Qag 
miracle^ make arog in the genitiye, but drop tiie v id the Ionic di- 
alect, as KtQaTog, uiQuog' %iQaxog\ tigaog. And the three foUow-r 
k^, viz. yfiQag old age, fdgag haiumr^ knd v^giagjlmk^ always have 
aog only. 

2. Hence arises th^ IMiowing contraction. 


ndgaoiv neg^ 


j.^ - 

xigaotv negmp 


N. A. V. kipag 

G. wlgaog ndgwg 
D. ti^gal ntgtf 

3. The oth^ netitei9 in c^^, aog^ as diTtag eup^ a^Mp gHUer^ 

have only the forms in a and ^, as to itjta^ ^^ eiXff. 

Rem. The Ipuians oftefi ehatige the a into t^ hi the inflectioD^ 
as ndgiog, rd nigiUj &c. 

The comparatives in oiv, neat, oy, gen. ovog^ drop the y in the 
aecusathe singular and the nomtiMUtve, acctitotrpe, and vocoltoe plu' 
ral^ and contract the two vowels. It is here, however, to be re- 
marked, that without this contraction the v is never dropped, even 
in the Ionic dialect 



Nom. fui(o»p greator 

Gen. fiilCovag 

Dat fidiovi 

Ace fitliova cotttr. fulim 

Voc* fieliov 

Neuter pi. r« fttlCopa contr. /m«/{i». 
The dual remains unaltered. 


fitlCopeg qontr. ft^ltovg 


fulioai^ (y) 

(iiiiovag contr. fuiCovg 

fitliovfg contr. (uliotig 

Rem. Of the same character, though more violent, is the coiv 
traction familiar to the Attics of the accusative of the two names 
*AnoXlw¥ -oiyoff, and IIop%$d£v -mvog J^tptme^ viz. 

Ace. *Jnilkm¥a^ 'Anolloir tloandiSpa^ ilolr^i j«t>. 




Examples for projctiee in all the rides of the third declension. 

Such letters preceding the termination of the case, as cannot 
be ascertained by the foregoing rales, are given in parentheses* 

L Exampk^of sfich as have consonants before the termna- 

tion of the case.' 

6 dyxoiv 


, ^'EkKig {d) 


17 dtjdciv (0) 


6 "fEkXrjv 

a Crreek 

dijg («) 


n linlg {Jf) 


ai^Q (f) 


^*«>ff(^) . 


V «*l (y) 


^f(>a7r(oy(oyr) svrvcmt. 

ij ttKxlg (iv) 

ray . 

6 &ig {iv) 

heap ' 

6 dvdgtag {yt) 


6 iaga^ (ax) 

' hawk 

6 a^mp (0) 


ifijug {vT) . 


7] avka^ (k) • . 


f) 9c«rr^A^i/; {qi) 


V Hi {%) 


ij xiyAfe {ti) 


6 ytgoiv {ovx) 

old man 

6 xXoiv 


6 /pvxff (71) 


^ xvfjfjiig {id) 


yvxp {vn) 


4 ^OQvg {d) 


n daig (r) 


mdg {iv) 


V ^9 {S) 

torch - 

t] mvlt,'^ (x)- 


6 deXq)ig {iv) 


TO xviua 


6 dgaxoiv (ovr) serpent 

ij AaiAai// (71) 


6 Adxmp 


• «J <ya(>g (x) 


Xagvyi {y) ' 


17 aet^gtiv 

siren ' 

klfAI^V {i) 


to OTOfia 


ij Ivy^ (>e) 


fj Utv^ iy) 

the Styx 



n 2^(plyi {y) 


fi^p . 


«? Tigvvg {d) 

(name of a city) 

6 fioaw (v) 

(wooden towei 

•) g^'^^/^) 


TO yinToiQ 


?J <jpA«^» (/?) . 


6 ovv^ {x) 

nail^ talon 

1? (pXo'^ {y) 


d SpTvi (/) 

. quail 



TO ov'&ag (r) 


TO (fcHg (f ) 


Tiatav (a) 







o mpfjg (t) 

poor man 

r, Xekideiv (o) 


o TiivaS (x) 


6 xvy 


no$f*iiv («) 


V t^^ 


V Tcr^ipvg (y) 

wing - 

n t^i»v (o) 


?7 TtTlJg (/) 

fold . 

ri iXufkiyg {S) 

military robe 

o Qtg {iv) 


d i/zcip (o) 




fj Oi\p 



II. Examples of such as 

have a vowel before 

the termination oj 


case, and i 

are more or less contracted. 

TO Svd^og 


6 oQtvg 


6 fioTQvg 




z6 yjivog 


ij oxptg 

sights vision 

3^ ytvvg 

jaw hone 

fj mi'&fa 


TO axiTtixg 


6 TiAenvg 

ax (see §51.2.) 

iq dQvg {v) 


TO niniQt 


6 Imiivg 


?; nirvg 


TO x6f4(Jll 


ij noitiGig 

poetry r. 

iq udrjT(a 


ij nga^ig 


6 fiivTig 

prophet . 

6 ataxvg 


fiiJff (J) 

mouse * 

^ (jpvaig 



1. Irregularity in the declensioD of nouns, as in the conjugation 
ofverhs, has its origin for the most part in the. existence of a 
twofold form of the same word. It is frequently the case, that the 
Greek language, particularly in the ancient and poetical dialect, 
has words of several terminations and forms of inflection, while 
the signification remains the. same; £lb jftjfAi^Tfjg and Atiiititqu 
Ceres ; daxgvov and dotx^v tear. This latter form is older. 

2. Occasionally, morebver, one form remained in use in one 
case and one in another; and thus a word became a true anoma- 
lon ; see below 2^vg^ /^vrj^ vdotg^ &c. But often both forms con- 


tiMMd ID use iR tlie mne case, as vlog jor, 6. vlov aod w^og^ and 
sacb an insUnBe is called by the gramniariaBB an abmrndemt. 

3. When both forms soppose one nommatiTe, from which they 
TarioQBly descend, the word k called a HetavdUe^ as when Oidi- 
novg makes in the 6. Oidlnad^g and Oidinov. When however 
one of the forms supposes a difierent obsolete nominative, it is 
called a Metaplann^ as oviifow dream^ Gen. ovtigov and OMfporo^, 
from the obsolete opeigmg. 

4. The following words, of which some are HeteroeUUi and 
some Metaplamu^ are worthy of particular note for the irr^okri- 
ty of their declensions. 

1. 'u^piig man belongs to the class of words like Tutnip (§ 47), 
bat it admits the syncope in all increasing cases, with an insertion 
of d (§ 19 Rem. 1), as ivdgog^ ipdQi, SpSga^ m avig. PK SwSg^g^ 
apdgwv^ opSgaa&v^ ivdgag. The poets, not Attic, make me of the 
original form of the genitive ivigog^ &c. 

2. Kvimf dog^ uvpog^ xvy/, rw«, c» uvop. PI. uwig^ nvpmp, sv- 
<ri, Kvvag* 

3. i7vi;|, ij, a pUce in Athtm^ in the old writevB tevri^oV, mmrl, 
Tiiixya, afterwards also ninmog^ &c. 

4. Xelg^ 97, hand^ X^^Q^^^ ^° ^^ ^* ^- ^^^ Z^po<^9 o^^^ ^^ I'- 
pi. X<()oi. — ^By the poets also ^'poff, ^^(m'. * 

5. ^p/g Aatr has r^'X^'^, kc B- pi. '^p»$<, accordii^ to § 18. 3. 

6. Ovff, TO, ear, GL mog^ &c. G. pi. oUrmp^ D. pi. aio/y. 

7. ZlxAa, to', mtlft, G. yaXaxtog, D. /aAaxT«. 

8. "29i»^, to', water^ and oxa!^, ro^JiUk^ have G. udaro^ amit- 
TO^, &c. D. pi. vd«o«, &c. 

9. Fopv^ TO, A:nee, and do'^^t;, to, spear^ have G. yoptnog^ Soga- 
Tog, &c. D* pi. yovaoiy kc — There is also an ancient genitive 
and dative, dogog, dogi^ from Sogv, — loo. yovpazog, iovgatog, &c; 
Epic yovpog^ dovgog, PL ra yovva^ dovgu^ &c. 

10. S^f^g^ 4i jtutice^ iThemis^ G. in the ancient and epic form 
^«/M£0T0ff,&c. afterwards also SdfiinogBad Sifuiog. Ionic B£^i>og* 

11. Migftvg wt^ncM, fiagrvgog^ kc. A, fjiagrvga and fiigrvp^ 
D. pL fictgrvaiv. 

^ 56.] IRREbUtAR DECitKKSlOH. 6S 

tS. iVai;^, ff, skip^ Ionic ^171;^, is thus declined by the Attics, 
G. vi<ig{£oTva6Q*^ 26 Rem. 7.) D. yi^f, A. yorui^, ?f. pi. i^«ff, 6. 
vemv^ D. vavah^ A. i^avg. (See /7ot;^ § 50. 3.) The lonians haTe 
80tiietime8 vtjog &c. sometimes veog kc, and in the A. p^a and via, 

13. i^A«/c, 17, key^ G. xA^^d^, has in the accusative xhlduy but 
int)re commonly hIuv^ and in the plural niildeg^ Hkn^ag^ contr. 

14. Zivg Jupiter, G. ^»dvV D. Ad,- A. Jla, V. 2fei;, by the 
poets also Zijvog, Ztivl, Z^va, from the obsolete noniinatives ^/^ 
and 2Si¥, 

15. TWi? voman, ywatnog, yvpatxl, yvpoina, iSyvvm.Fh 
ywatnsgf yvvaintSp, yupa&^l, from the obsolete Ihpoi^, 

Remarks. ^ 


1. To the Heteroclites are also to be added those in 17^, 
wbich are declined according to the first and third declensions ; 
especially proper names like SaX^g, which makes commonly G. 
^oAov, ^or by the Ionics with a change of the accent, Sak^co,) 
D. SaXff, Ace. Balfjv, — but also BiXfjTog &c. This holds of oth- 
ers in tl^e accusative alone. All compound proper names, which 
have . iog in the gfenitive, make the accusative in 17 and 171^, as 
JSoattgiTiig, G. {tog) ovg. Ace. Jkougdzti and Ikoxgdr^p. In like 
manner ^gijg Mars, G.'^AQiog which is never contracted, D. 
^^gil\ ^^gsp. Ace. ^Sigti and ^Aqtip- On the other hand i^any 
words iuy^ff, which belong to the first declension, are formed by 
the Ionics in the accusative singular and plural like the third, as • 
%Qv ieanozea, PI. 701;? deanotecig, from deanotrjg -ov, and Mtk- 
nitfu from MiXriaSfjg -oi;.* 

2. Another sort of Heteroclites are those in ig, which in their 
inflection sometimes do, and sometimes do not, assume a conso- 
nant ; as liji'^ig anger, G. fjujviog and fitivtSog' 6, 97 oQvig bird, 
generally opyi^o^ &c. but also PI. ogvng, ogvi&)p, 

* All namei formed like patronymics, as MiXT$adfjg, JEvg^nlSijg, 
&c. and most others not compounded like 2koxgaTfjg &c. viz. ^lO^lptig, 
S^Qhi^^ -^V^^) ^^* ^^ d«clin^ in the Greek throughout according to 
the fint decleDsion,' with the exception of the lonicism mentioned in the 
text. The Latins, on the contrary, form them according to the third de- 
clension, as MiUiadU^ Xtrxit, &c. 


3. The nominative endings in log and mv also exhibit a vari- 
ety of changes, viz. . ^^ . 

a) Nom. tag and off, as 17 aAoiff threshing Jloor^ 6. o, N. pi. aAo^. 
h) " «g, G. fti and wo?, as J^ivwg. 

c) ^^ ctfff, 6. anog^ which also sojnetinies drop the r. The 
word idgmg sweaty idgmxi^ idgioru^ has also another form with 
the Attics, viz. rcJ idgto^ top iSqq), which maj be regarded as a 
contraction like xtgari^ ^^Q^^ but which also corresponds with the 
forms of the second declension Attic. The word 6 yekoig -oitog 
laughter has in the accusative yAwza and jiXa^p, So also x^^^ 
XQfotog skin makes the dative XQVt ^^^ ^^^J ^^ ^^^ proverbial 
phrase iv XQV closely* The lonians make X9^^ XQ^^^-i ^^' 

d) Nom. wg and wp. In these words, the doable form occurs 
even, in the nominative, as 6 Tvq)oig -ai, and vvq)€iv -oipog^ whirl- 

4. The word vlog is regularly declined according to the se- 
cond declension, but receives also the following forms of the third 
declepsion, particularly in the Attic writers, viz. G. vleog^ 1), 
vi«7. Ace. vita. Dual vhe^ vUo^p. PI. vUtg^ vu(ov^ vlaaip^ viiug 
and vhlg, 

5.^ OfdepSgov tree and xglvov lUy^ there are datives plural ^eV- 
dgeai^ xglv^a^^ and also other cases, which suppose a nominative 
singular in og of the third declension. ^ 

6. It is also an instance of Metaplasm^ when sometimes from 
masculines in og of the second declension plurals in a are formed, 
as ra dtofjia^ ivy 01^ tfra^^tia, a7ra, from deofiog fetter^ C^yog yoke^ 
GTaiffjiog balance^ aTrogjood, 

J7. Some words of more recent or foreign origin have a very 
siniple declension, as^ 0dfjg^ G.^ 0*A»7, D. <^«Ai], A. 0tkfjv, 'Jfj- 
ffovff, G. '/tioov^ D. 'ifitfov^ A. *Itjagvv> 

8. An anomaly of a very curious kind exists in the epic dialect, 
in the very common final syllable (piv and gn^ which is used in- 
stead of the dative or genitive singular or plural, being appended 
to words in the following manner, viz. OTgatogarmy^ avgatoq)*: 
Kticpakri head^ xe(pcikfj<fi' ^la violence^ piijquiT tnij'd'og -eog breast^ 


.— . i — • — — * — ^ ' ' ' t ' 

«* * » • 


1. Defective Doubs are chiefly such as, in thetr-nature, cannot 
well occnr in more tiian one nnraber, particularly the following 
plurals; Tce l/xara eniraUs, oi htjotat trade mnds^ and the names 
of/eHvDolsj as ra Atoviaux, the feast of Bacchus- 

2. Certain words are defective, which only occur in particular 
connexions ; snch are the following,.viz. 

The neuters ovag vision^ ^nd vnttQ real appearance^ only used 
as nommaitoe and accusaivoe^ 

7b o'^ihiQ and to fjdog, adoarUage^ only used as nominattoe^ as 
rt &p i)fHv oipelog tifjs; of what advantage wouldst thou be to us ? 

Mukfi^ instead of fiao/ccAi?, shoulder^ in the phrase vno ftalfjg 
under the arm, 

3. Lastly there are nouns defective in particular cases; such 
in prose are the following, viz« 

— G. tov agvog qfthe lasnb, ^D. a^/, A. apya, PI. i^fsg^ D. 
c^cfae, all which are cases of atk obsolete nominative APPHNy 
G>ea. APPENO^^ and by syncope tigvog* The want of a nom- 
inative is supplied by o dfivig. 


JJjQtG^vg an_(dd man bas-in this signification oqly Ace. Ttgiafivvy 
V. ngiafiv. In the signification oftsmbassodor it has only oi npi* 
afi^$g kc. D Ttgdofiea^. The cases h^e wanting are borrowed 
from nQiUpVTfig an old man^ and ngiofitVTi^g an ambassador. 

4. Indeclinables are for the most part only some foreign names, 
as to naaxa Easier, and among them the names of the letters of 
the alphabet, as aX(pa, fiv, &c. Of pure Greelt words, most of the 
cardinal numbers are also indeclinable. (§ 70.) 


1. There are inGreelk) as in Latin, adjectives both of two and 
of three endings; in tibe former, the masculine and feminine gen- 
der have a common form. 

2. The feminine of adjectives of three ending^blways follows 

the first declension of nouns. '* 

66 ADJECTIVES. ['^ 59- 

3. The neater has in the nominatiye, and of course m all the 

like cases (see § 33. Rem. 5), always one form ; which, however, io 

the remaiDlog cases is tinifotmiy declined like the masculine. 

Reharx. It is therefore only necessary, in order to decline the 
adjective correctly, to know all the parts of the nominative, and 
the genitive of the masculine. ' ' 


<^ 59. ADJtiCTIVKS IN 0^. 

1 . Most numerous are the adjectives in o^, which correspond 
to the Latin in ii5,'*and have, like those, either three endings, viz* 
masc. oQj fern. 17 or a, neut ov, — or two endings, ^viz. com'. 0$, 
neut.'ov. ' 

Note. Fpr the few with the neuter in 0, see the pronoun § 74. 

?. The gfreater part are of three endings, and these, when a 

vowel' or q precedes, have in the fem. «, 6. a?, otherwise always 

fj. E.g. ^lAoff, ^/A^, q}ikov^ dear^ friend; kv^mog^ii^ ov diivog^ 

t/, oy, dreadful But also, q>ihog,g;Ma^ (pihov^ friendly ; ilev-d^e- 

Qog^ tQa^ BQOv^free; nvQQog^ a, oV, red like fire; and other examples 

are dgiGTegog left^ ie^iog right,, dtjkog plain^ iQV'&Qog red^^'&avfia" 

owg wonderful^ f&flog divine^ 9tovq)og light, kiiog smooth^ XevHOg 

white^ fiopog alone, ao(p6g ivue, axXtfgog Jiard* 

Rem. 1. But those in oog have ^, aa-SySoog the eighth, oydoti^ 
'^oog^ sxsnft^ d^oti. But if p precede, these also have a, a3 d^QOog 
frequent^ d^Qoa, The feminine in a is long. With respect to the 
accent see above § 34 Rem. HI. 

3. Of two endingfs are such as these, viz. (>' Bnd i] fia^pagog 
not Greeks "^avxog calm^ tcd-aoGog tame^ and in the Attics many 
others also, which are commonly of three endings. 

4. In an especial manner belong to the adjectives of two end- 
ings all compounds, which, ^ without any particular derivational 
ending, terminate in og ; •as 0, 17 qilivenfog fond of children^ ffugv* 
Tovog barytone^ ^okvq^ayog voracious^ ev(p(ovog harrnoniow^ aloyog 
irrational^ dgyog for aegyog idle^ dnoxkfjgog disinherited^ dialevnog 
'Whitish^ although the simple is kevxog^ % 6p. 






Also adje^ivea formed hi this aiauner finm cowpg— d Terbn, 
as Suiqio^Q^ VTci/xooff, from d$aftgm^ vjitfxoiiM, Ik* 

5. All adjectiTes derired from other woidi| l»y tbe WMiifrtt 
addition of the deriTatiooal endings «o^, leg^ »oc, g^g^ to^ tK^ — a^ 
Hav-ntog from fiimg^ de$X6g and ^lyo^ from ^EISl^ f «v«fp6« 
from q>alvmj nktntog from 7iiU«oi, xgv^iog itam x^vog^^^^x^ at 
least in prose, of three endings. 

On the other hand, among the adljectiTes in ^oc, «W, «40?,««of* 
are several of common gender. ^^ 

Rem. 2. When an adjective has one of these terminatioiia, and 
is also compounded, a conflict of the different analogies c pi «ei » 
with respect to whkh the following is to, be observed. 

a) The compouu&i in *og have not their immediate origto in a 
composition, bat are only derived from compomid words ; the; 
have therefore^ always three endings, as iiudiint^nig^ r^, or, fnm 
ini^sixvvfAi^ eviaifiovixog^ 17, o'y, from tidal f^mv. 

b) (Mier verbals, when Uiey are first compounded as adjec* 
tives, follow iAke fourth rule above ; as nptvotog^ ^^ or, (nm m«, 
^Unv€\)inog^ ov^ inspired ; itdidsvtog^ li^ opy from Jimsdivmj mMmi' 
devTogy or, untaughi. When, however, they are derived iroft 
eompoimd verbs, the usage varies between the two fomatioas. 

^ 60. CONTRJ^CTS IN ovg. 

1* Some adjectives iA oog are contracted, viz. 

a) Those of common gender, which are formed by coafoii. 

tion from contracts of the second declension, like rot^, nloSi^ n 
fvpoog^ ivvoovyfcmmarably duposed^ contr. ivpovg^ ivwovp^ G. tvnv 
&c The neuter plural in oa remains unaltered in this fora^ n 
ia avoa from avovg senseless. 

b) The numerical ideas dnXoog, dtnloog^ 17, or, kt smuL 
twofold^ &c which have the peculi7rity, that they ooifonnjL ^^ 
tract cti and oa into ^ and «. E. g. 

Sing. dvnXoog^ dtTtXoijj dinXoov, Plur. iinXooi^ itnU^ j. i' 
contr. ^£7iAot;ff, d$nk^y dtnXovv, contr. d«irAor, itnl^ ium\'% 

* With tbese namerical adjectiyes mOBt not be oimfiHiti||^. 
poondB iyfnXovg navigaiion^ as 0, j} inkovg MiiMrif4/e|^0?^^^*^ 
neut. ovr, neut. pi. oa. ^'Mtig^kc 


d8 ADJfiCTivfts. [^ 61, 62. 

■ " -■ " ■ ' I -■■■.■ ■ ■ ■■ I ■ ; ■ . ..I.. . ■ I .1 ,1. ^ 1 

2. Some a^Jeotires alio in «Otfi ezpreisiiig a tuhHqnce or mati- 
rta/, are contracted, with a transposition of the accent^ e- g. 
Xgvasog^ X^vcia^ X^va^op 
contr* ^(^vooi;^ Z^voijf, jjfptHFot/y, G. ot)>, n^^ oi!', &c. 
When another vowel orp precedes, the feminlae is contracted 
not into ^, but into «, as igieoQ^woollen^ caatt. i^ovg^ igii^ i^foSv' 
oQYVQiOQ silver^ contr. a^yvgovg, a^yvgi^ d^yvgovp. 

The neuter plural has always a, as ra ;fpt;af « conte* ;i;pv9a, 
like oorax o'ffra. See above ^36. 


Adjectives in mg, resembling the second Attic declension, are 
in general of common gender^ as 6 and «?' tXnag^ to iXaav^ grtmous. 
So too ai^xQif^g worthy^ and tvynog Jruitful 

Rem. 1. Some of these form the neuter alsd in ct), as ayiigtog 
not growing old^ neut. i/fiQiov and uytiQio, — For the ohundoants^ 
-which make In the gen. oi and iavog, see below § 65 Rem. S. 

Rem. 2. , Of three endings there is only one simple, viz. nUtog ^ 
JuU^ TiA^a, nXimvy neut pi. nkia. For owg see below in § 64. 3. 

§ 62. 

The remaining forms of adjectives of three endings are the 
following, viz.^Ha^v, — yXvHvg^ ykvHeJa^ yXvKv^ sweety . 
(G. tog) G. masc. and. neat. yXvxtog. 

E^ampUa^ pagvg keavy^ figadtig skw^ Pgaxvg ihort^ivgig hroad^ 
ijdvg sweety o^vg sharp^ oaxvg swift. 

2.' €tg^ ioaa^ iv, — jjragif^?, ;^a()/«(Toa, %aQUv^ charming,^ 

(G. €vu>g) G. ;fa^/5i'roff. 
Examples, aifiwtOHg bloody, vki^ng woody, ivgiing rusty, 

3. ag, ttiva, av, — /*ekag, fiAatva^ fukav, black., 

(G. avog) G. fitXavog, 

The only other is Tulag wretched. 

4 63.] ABIECTIVSS. ^ - 69 

4i Tiieftllowii^0epafii!te'esaflBiple9^Yiz. 

Tcip^y, T«{p#«va, ti'QiP^ 6. <90ff, tender* 

Coeap. MKioy commonlj axaiv, aicoi;(r«, axot^, wmllAi^- 

f nig^ n£aa^ nap^ G. netPtig^ §dly the whole. ' 
Comp. vifinetg^ anug. 

Rem. 1. Th^ nentter-irav is long only as a moaosyllable ; in 
compositiOQ it iB, agreeably to aoal(»gy, short ; as iaeig^ unaea^ 
anav^ all together. With respect to the accent on the genitl'^e 
and dative plaral, navTimf^ nam^ s^ee above § 43 Rem. 3. 

^ Rem. 2. A part of the participles are declined like ivttov and 
Tiig, For these, all of which have three endings, see below & 
88. 8. ' 

Rgm. 3. From the adjectives in eiq arise several^ contracts^ — 
^**ff, iy*oo«, ^f V, being contracted into ^ff, ^ooa, ^i^, — and oei^ 
oeaaa^Q^Vj into ovgj ovaga^ ovy,^viz. 

Tifir^g^ Tififjoaa^ Tiftijv^ G. tifiijvTog^ from ttfi^Hg honoured^ &c. 

fisXitovg^ (AiXiTOvaaa, (laXttovv^ G. (AihxQvptog^ from (liknoHg 
full qfhone^ &G. (See 4 43 Rem. 111.) 

■ ■* 


1. The remaining forms of adjectives in two endings, all ac- 
cording to the third declension, are the following. 

a) i?ff, neut. tg — ttlf^d't^g^ aKtid-tg^ true^ 

(G. iog^ contr. ovg) G. ilri&avg. 

Examples^ einQinrig decorous^ axgi/Slig exacts dyevvtjg degener- 
ate^ av^ttdfig proud^ yecidtjg earthy^ {^tj^ici&ijg bestial 

b) (k)y, nent. ov. — iXernieov^ iXetifiov compaenonate,^ 

(G. ovog) G. l^etiiAOvog, 

• Esccanplei^ dfiVfAetnf with long v, bkanelete^ anga/fitov unoccu- 
pied, evypcifAOfv well disposed, 

c) ig^ neut t. — idgtg, idgi^ skilful^ G, 7dgwg. 

There are very few examples of this last Iclnd. 

d) The following simple word, viz. Sg^tiv or ugativ, neut. 
i^^fv^ igoiv^ Q, a^^vog^ agaevog, male. 



K 63. 

2. Besides these, there are ad jectiTes formed from a sabstan- 
tive merely by composition, and retaining as closely as possible the 
termination and declension of the sabstantivey as may best be 
seen in the examples. These are ail of common gender, and have 

a neuter, when analogy admits of one ; e. g. * 

ivxagiQ^ ^vxagh G* itog^ from 17 X^9^^ '^^^' 
adaxgvg^ iSangv^ G. vog^ from to daxgv^ vog. 
Sometimes, however, there is' in the termination a change of 

tl into Q), and e into 0, as from notrriQ^ ^gog^ comes ancertog^ og, G. 

ogog^fatherlett ; from gtgijp^ q>g€v6g^ underHanding^ comes aoiq>giar^ 

ov^ G* ovog^ intelligent. 

Rem. 1. Compounds of novg^nodog^foot^ regularly follow their 
substantiye, as dinovg^ dino^og^ twqfooted ; but in the neuter they 
haye dinovv (as evvovg^ ivvovv^ from the contracted second declen- 
sion), which they decline according to the general rule, like the 
masculine. (§ 58. 3.) 

Rem. 2. Compounds of ytlfog^ oiro^, laughter^ commonly for- 
sake the declension of this substantive, and follow the Attic second 
declension (§ 61) ; as also those formed from lugag, xegarag^homj 
with a change of the ft into 01. Both, however, have also the 

f:enitive mtog^ as g)doyeXfog^ dlnigmg^ neut. oit^, G. m and mrog. 
See § 56 Rem. 3. c.) 

3. When analogy does not admit of the formation of a neuter, 
it remains an adjective of one ending, which, however^ is only 
masculine and feminine, and not also neuter, as it is in Latin ; thus 
and fj anaig^ dog^ childless^ from nalg naidog^ also 6 and 17 fcn- 
itgox^^g^ goQi long hmded^ from x^^j ^c* 

Rem. 3. There are some corhman adjectives of one ending in ' 
i?ff, ^TOff, {agyiig^jifjuv&i^g); in wff, torog, {dyvdg); and in S and 
t//, {^hl, xog' fiwvv^, x^^' aiyUixp^ nog, &c.) 

Rem. 4. There are several common adjectives in ag, G. uSog, 
as (jpvyag fugitive, koydg chosen, &c. and a few in ig and vg, G. 
&dog, vSog, as avakxig, tntjlvg. Commonly, however, those in ag 
and ig, G. dog, are only feminine, and become, by the omission of 
the substantive, substantives themselves, as 17 fjiat^vag (sc. yvvi^) the 
Bacchante, 1; ncttglg (sc. /^) native country. 

Rem.' 5' Several adjectives also are only masculines ; so par- 
ticutariy yigotv, ovtog, old ; ngio^vg old (^ 67. 3) ; nimig, niv- 
Tixogypoor; and ^^fAot^ri}^ voiunlary, /fi/i^aaffno6ie&c..accord]i^ 
to the first declension. * . 





aoiftog unM. 





K. aog)6g 
G. doqiov 

A. aog)dv 
V. aoifi 


N.A.V. (Fogpoi ffogpa ao^oi 

G. D. aoq>o7v aoipaiv aoqtoiv 


G. aoqtoip 
D. aoipoig 
A. aoqtoig 
V. CFogoo/ 

G. rA«(» 
D. a^qi 
A. Xhfov 


QOq>a^ ao<p€i 





fAaxQog Umg, 


N. (AaxQog^ fianga fiaxgov 

G. fAoiHgov fittKQog (luxgoy 

D. /iax()cp fMZH0^ fAtt%g(^ 

A. fiaxgov (Au%giv fiaxgov 

Vi fAaxgi fiaxga ftangov 

N.A.V. /uxxpai fiavtgi fiaxgti 
G.'D. (Aaxgolv (laxgaiv f4augoiP 


N. fiaxgol fiaxgal fiaxga 

G. fAaxgwv — 

D./uaxpo?^ fiuxgaTg fiaxgolg 
A. (laxgovg (Aaxgig fiaxga 
Y. (laxgol fiaxgai fiaxga 


XXimg gradauS' 


N. A. V. »«(» 

G. D. 'iXectiv 



G. iKewv 
D. f^^qiff 
A. Utmg 
V. rA^Di 




N. ykvxvg ykvxela yXvxy 
G. ykvxeog ykvxtlag yXvxkog 
D.yXvxiiH yXvxeiy yXvxii il 
A. yXvxvv yXvxsiav yXvxv 
V. yXvxv yXvxeia yXvxv 


N.A.V. yXvxii -xsla 

G. D. yXvxeoiv -xdaiv -««W 



"N.yXvxfeg tig -xeiat 

G. yXvxidnv -xiimv 

D. yXvxiaif -xiiatg -vciav 

A. yXvxiag eJg -tsiag • -xia 

V. yXvxiig ilg -xe7at -xia 

yaglng charming. 

N, ;f«()/«*5 -gtioaa -gUv 
G. x^glivTog -guoGfjg -giivrog 
D. iagUvt& -gidaati . r-gUvxv 
A. %agUvxa -gUaaav -gUv 
V. ;f «()/£«(«•') -gUaaa -gUv 

"Xic NA.y. ;f«()/«j'T« -fWa -fi^« 
G. D. xagUvxoiv -iaoaiv -imoiAf 


N. xagUvteg -gUaoav -gUvra 
G. ii^agiivTfav^uQOoiv "guvrtav^ 
D. %agUiai^ -guaaaig -gteioi 
A. ;|fa()/fyT<ff -gt^'aoag -gtevra 
1 V, xagUvttg 'gUaaa^ -gUvra 





fulag black' 


N.fiiXag /lAatva fitkuv 

O. fiAavog (iiXaivijs fitkapog 

D, (Atlttvif (AiXatvi^ fiiXctv& 

A. fiAava fiAaivav fitkav 

V. fiiXav fieXaipa fiiXav 


N.A.V. fuXavi fieXaiva gjitXave 

6. D. fuXuvotv -Xttipitiv^'Xivoiv 


N.fjiiXaveg /a'Xaiva& fiiXava 
G. fuXavmv fiiXaivav (AiXavtav 
D.fieXaai (AsXalvu^g ^iXctiji 
A. fAiXavag fieXaivag fAtXavu 
V. fiAaveg (AiXuivui, fAiXava 

Sing. , 

N.ixdv inovaa ixav 

6. inovtog ixovaijg ixovtog 

D. inovzt inoiofi inovti 

A. inovra inovaav i%6v 

Vc t 
. extop 


c I 


Dual ^ ,^ \ , 
N.A.V. ixopre inovau inoPTi 
G. D. i»6ptmp '•ovaaw ^opraiv 

Plur. ^ 

"N.ixopTig inovifai ixopta 

G. ixovTOMf inovadip ixoprmv 

D. ixovat ixovaaig inovac 

A. inopTag ixovactg inopva 

V. ixopteg inovoav ixopxa 

N. nag 
G. navlog 
D. navtl 
A. napxa 
V. nSig 

nag all 












N.A.V. napie naoa napri 

G. D* napTQip naaaip napto&p 

N. nap%£g 
G. napttov 
D. nam 
A. napxag 
V. navreg 











aXri'^rig true. 


N. aXfj^i^g aXti^ig 

G. dXri&iog ovg 

D. dXfj'&ti H 

A. dXfi'&ia tj dXfiifig 

V. dXn^ig 


N.A.V. dXti&h tj 
G. D. dXri&ioip oTp 


N. dXii'&ieg i7g 

G. aXfi&imp Up 

D. dXtj&hi 

A. dXti&iag ug 

V. aXfj&ug eTg 

dXti&ta ^ 

dXfi'&ia £ 
dXfid'ia fi 

agivfifop blameless. 

Sing. Dual ^ Plural 

N. afitffAtop dfivfiov N. A. V. dfivfiope N. d/xvfiOPig dfiVfiopa 

G. «fii)juo«'Off G. D. dfivftopoip G. djivjAOvwp 

D dfiv/iopi ^ D. afiVfAoai 

A. fl^tj/uoi^a dfAVfAOP ^ A. duvuopag djiimopa 

V. an^ov V. afAV(AOPig ofiVf^opa 

§ 64.] ADJECTIVES. '73 

» ' ' » ■ ' ' — ' ■ — 

^ idgig ikilfid. 

' Sing. Dual Phr. 

N. idgis iig^ N. A. V. tdg^e N. Wyng idgia 

O. Jdgiog^ G. D. idgloiv G. IdQliuv 

'D.'ldQu D/idgiat 

A. idgiv idg^ ^ A. Hdgiag 7igia 

V.idgi, "V.idgug Hgm' 


1. The two a^ctivea fuyag greats and noXvg mudi^ many^ make 
from this simple' form, in the nominative and accusative singular 
only, masc. (nyocg^ fUfuv nolvg^ nokvv' and neut. ju^^ot, nolv. 
All the rest, with the whole feininiae gender, is derived from the 
ohsolete forms MEF^iAOS^ 17, ov^ and nokkog^ r, iv. E. g. 

G. fdeyuXov gjieydXrjg fi^yiXov 
D. fieycikf^ l^^ydXri fiiydXco 
A. fityctv fifydXriv fitya 

noXvg noXXri noXv 

TioXXov noXXijg moXXov 

noXh^ TioXXti TioXXtS 

' noXvp noXXi]v noXv. 

The dual and plural are regularly formed as from adjectives 
in Off, viz. fJLfyiXto^ a, co* luyaXoi^ ui>^ a' noXXot^ ai^ a, &c. 

Remark. The forms nelXog^ noXXiv^ are Ionian ; and the rego- 
lar forms of noXvg are found in the Epic dialect; as noXiog^ noXieg^ 
i7g^ &c. 

2. ng^og mi/J, meek^ is in this form used only in the masculine 
and neuter singular. The feminine and the neuter plural are bor- 
rowed from a form ngaig (Ion. ngtjvg) used in the dialects ;, ac- 
cordingly we find fern. ngaeTa, neut pi. ngctta. We also, find in 
the nom. pL masc both ng^c^ and ngaeJg^ G. only ngaioiv. 

3. omg safe^ contr. from 2A02^ has from this form only aSg 
of the common gender. Ace. and neut. crcui', Ace. pL amg. Rarely 
the fem. sii^. and neut. pi. aa. All the rest is from dcJoff, a, ov. 

4. Defectives are chiefly these^ viz. <fg6vdog^, 17, ot^, vanished^ 
gone^ which is used only in the ndminative of all the genders and 
numbers; norvux venerable^ sovef'eign,^ used only in the feminine. 

10 . 

74 ADJECTIVES.— COMPARISON. [<^ 65, 66. 

I I o ■ ■ II ■ ■ ^ ' i I I II ■ . I II III ■■ »^_^— - II , ■ III .1 .<fc»^— ^— 

I • 


72 . i: The Qreakf have the three de^ees of comparisop, Posi- 
tive, Comparative, and Superlative, and a separate form for ench. 
, This form is commpn to the three genders, which are distinguish- 
ed only by their appropriate termination. 

2. The most common form of comparison Is -^egoSy a, ov for 
the comparative, and -toto^, ij, ov for the superlative. 

3. Adjectives in og drop their g before this termination, ifti 
^omg sifUabk precede^ and diey retain th^ir o irachanged $ e. g. 

iaX^9og Hror^y iaxv^otiQogy rucvog 
niatog JhUhfuiy moTdregogy vinvo^. 
Also after mutes before liquids (§ 7. 10.) in prose, as o^^od^ig ve- 
hementy atpodgoTarog, 
4. If a short sytlahle precede^ the o is changed into cu ; e. g. 
ao4jp6g mUe^ (T^qicit^gog, rarog 
Httigwg timely^ KotcguiTBgogyTUT^g 
na'&agog pure^ nad^agwregog, tatog • 
i^vgog secure^ ixvgoitegogy tarog. 

Rem. 1. Some adjectives in og^ particularly in the Attic writ- 
en, instead of o or a>, take a$ or sg or iff, as fue'oog in ^e tnidstj 
futamTiATog* ig^fx^fidvog Hrwtg^ iggwfAepiatcg0g' XiKog Ho^fuaoiow, 

Rem. 2. Some in atog wholly omit the o, a8 yegawg oldj ft- 
' gotitfgog. So too nalaiogy axolalog^ mgmog. 

Rem. 3. <jplk&g dear^ fifiendy commonly does the same, as 9^*- 
v^^Sj ^^70toff, or inserts a^, as (pilmhegogy rarotf. 

Reh* 4* The cojjtracts in eog, ovg^ contract the f o) into w^ as 
nogifvgeciTaTogy nogifivgajrarog, — those in oog^ Ovg^ on the other 
hand, take an fff, in the oncontracted form, according to Rem. 1, as 
sadoag^ ml^wuiag^Wkd hence contracted mKoiigjtmkavinaTog, 

^ 66. ADJECTIVBS IN Vff, «ff, ???, ««ff. 

1. Of other adjectives, those in vg merely drop tbe ff, as (vgvg 
broody evgviegogy rawg. 




2» The fBLtont hoUb of ihoae ih u^^ €k. «yoff, which however 73 
bere restme the » wbieb bad heeti dtofip^ befcfre the ^^ M /k^ 
Aa^ blacky G. fiikavog — iAiXcivt£Qog> 

3* Those in 12^ and ng shorten this tei'mination into sg ; e. g. 

aXi^iig trw^ G. £0^, uXri&€9tuTog 
nirrig poor^ G. i?ro^, luviattitog 
XagUig charming^ G. ivtog^ xaQiiataxog 
An exception is ipevdrigfakt^ G. /off, xpevdlaraTog, 
4. The other adjectives take most frequeixtly eati^ag^ more 
raMl^f IffreQ^g^ and undergo the* same change before it, as before 
the termination of the case; as a(pg(ov irrationdl^Q,'Sif)QOv^oe^ 
cpmpar. dq)QOV'i<na^og' agnal rapadout, G. a^ay-og^ compar. 
dgnay-ioTciTog, . ' 

^ ,67. toupAKiffOft BY iow, C4rr0ff. 

1. A much less frequent form of comparison is the following,,neut.-iOi'yfor the comparative, and -ioroff, 1;, ov for 
the superlative. 

Note. For the mode of declension, see above in § 65 gAilCwv. 

2. This form of comparison is adopted as follows, viz. 

a) By some adjectives in vg, as lidvg aweet^ i^dlmv^ ^^tarog, 

b) By some in Qog^ with the pmission of the (), as aioxQog base^ 
aioj^/oiy, aieiK^iaTog* 

3* In some comp^atives of this form the preceding consonant 
is, with the *, Changed into Off or .xr; thus xixvg swift^ sup. ra- 
Xiarogj has this for its most common form of comparison, and also 
takes a in the b^inning^, as SvQemv^ neut. i^waoot^, Att. ^«t- 
Twv, ^arrov. Hence it appears that the t in Ti%vg had its origin 
in ^, according to § 18r 

Rsaf. This form of comparison always has the accent on the 
of^pemU^ if the quantity of the last syllable admits it; as n^vg^ 
i^iia)v neut. ijiiov^ tidiOTog. 



I ' * ' ■_■ - - — - _ 


74 Rem. 2. Of the adjectives in t/^'onljf 17^^ and tajfi;^ adopt 
this form commonly ; most of them adopt the regular form vrtgog 
and vratog, and a few only take the other form^ particularly in 
the poets. 

Rem. 3. Of those in gog the following belong here, viz. al- 
GXQog base, ix^gog fiostSe^ oixrgog sad^ xvdgog glorious. But in 
these the other form is also in use, and of oiHigig the compara- 
tive in i(ov is not used. 

Rem. 4. Here too is to be reckoned fiaxgog long, on account 
of its forms of comparison f^iaaaiov for ^ax/oot/, superl. ju^x^arog, — 
in which latter there is also a change of the vowel, so ad to con- 
form to TO fifjxog length. More common, however, are the forms 
fiangoTigos^ fiaKgozatol^. 


Several adjectives have quite an anomalous comparison, by 
^ ' which they derive the comparative and superlative degrees from 
obsolete forms of the positive*^ . Where ther^ is more than one 
form of comparison for one positive, each of the comparative 
forms usually has one of the more definite significations of the pos- 
itive, or is used by preference in particular connexions ; of which, 
however, the single instances mustbe left tox>bservation. 


Comp. • Sup. 

1 . ^yci'&og good^ ccfxelvtov neut. -vov better agtatog besi 

PtKrltav fiekrioiog 

xgiiaamv or xgshrwv xguTivrog 

lmi(av commonly Awwi/, Xtiiatog commonly Xtaatog. 

75 In the elder poets the regular comparative corresponding to 

agiatog is still found, viz. cigfitav^* and of xgdtcinog eVen the* 

'positive xgaivg. Instead of xgetoaojv the lonians m^kengtaaoiv. 

* Traces of the^ original positive degree may be found in ^^?, the 
name of the g^od of war, and in the abstract agett] virtue. 

4 69.] 



2. wnnig bad^ naaUiav %w&inog 

X^igtov xilQiiJTOQ 

fjavtop or fjttQiv finiaTog. 

The form ^eatuv has only the signification of tvotm, wecJcer, 
more useless^ and is d}w9js 9pposed to ngdrKav.^ The superlative " 
ijxiinoQ is little used ; though the neut pi* ^'xiora occurs fre- 
quently as an adverh. 

3. fityag greaij fifiCwv (Ion. ^iim) fiiyiajog, 

4. ficitgog smcdty ciXaaacDv^TTonf iXdxiazog 

5. iklfogftw^ (fAiluv oXlyiaxog. 

The ancient positiye was EAjiXTS. The regular forms 
^tngixigog '•rvrog are also used. 

6« ;foAt;^ mucky nXeicav or nlhmv more^ nl&^atog most. 

' The Attics in certain phrases use nXilp for the neut Tiltiop^ 
as 7tA«iv ^ fAVQMi. ^ The lonians and Dorians contract thus, nA/dV 
T^A; iJi^, nXiovig nXevvtg, 

7* xaAo^ 5eau/i/u/, 
8. ^qidiog eaey^ 


The lonians, who make gtitdiog in the positive, compare thus^ 
^i^Auy, gri'iinog^ from an obsolete positive ^ot^, ^ijt^. 


9. aXytimg pginfid, dXyioiv SXyiarog* 

The regular form dXyuvoTigog ^^tog is, however, more com- 
mon in the masculine and feminize. 

10. niitfov ripe J 

11. nlwv faty 




.]. There are also defective comparisons, which have no pos- 
itive ; and in this view we may regard some of the anomalous 
comparisons given above, as fjrxmp^ Kgehjoiv^ XdSarogj &c. \ 

2. To the class of defective comparisons may be referred the 76 
adject] ves derived from particles^ and those which' indicate sequence. 


78 mmsaALS. ^ 70, 

Most of them hare other additional aii6malies, to he leaiiied hy 

particular observation, viz. 

nXfjaiahegog -rarog^ from nXtjaiop near ; as also in Latin, pro^ 
pe^ propior^ proximw* 

ngoregog the former^ prior^ nQtSrog the firsts frotti iigo bef&re. 

vnt^egog -rutog anc) vnarog^ higher^ highest^ from vntg aborot, 

eaxatog the Uut^ from i^ out of. 

vategog -tUrog^ the loiter^ the loit. 

Rem. 1. In the poets, particularly the epic, many forms of 
comparison of this kind are found, as qffgvtgog^ (pigtatog^ also 9)€- 
g$atog^ hrofoer^ better^ which may be connected with the positive 
aya^og. In the same way may be considered as defective some 
in <Qii'> larog^ when there is a corresponding abstract substantive 
in 0$, as g^ylmv more drecutfid, nigounog most crafiy^ wpiOTog 
highest^ from the substantives to giyog horror^ mgdog cunnings 
mpog height 

Rem. '2. It is a case somewhat different, when from a substan- 
tive used adjectively, degrees of comparison are formed, as ival' 
gog friend^ iiatgixatog the most tnfuna^e; %Kimfig (gen. ov)(^t^ 
xkentiinaTog mosi ihiemsh. 


1. The cai^inal €r^ one is thus declined : 

M. r. N. 

N. itgy fii»^ ly 

G. ivog^ fiuig, ivig^ &c* 

Hpre is to be observed the irregularity of the accent in fi/a, fiwg^ 

From iTg ^re formed, by composition with the negative parti« 
cles ovdi and iitiiiy the negative adjectives, viz. 

M. F. N. ^ 

ovSelg^ ovSifjiia^ ovdiv > ^^^ 

fAfjfelg^ fifjdifita^ firiiiv S 

77 In the declension of these derivatives the accent of the primh 
tive is retained, as ovievog^ ovdifiwg^ &c. 




fL !%• cardiBiil ^ Avo haB of ooolte the dual Ibmi, Titt. N. 
A. Aio, G. D. di;oiir. 

' The Attics also said dvttv^ btit only in the genitive. They 
also use ivo indeclinably in tbe geDitive and dative. The dual 
afiq>m bath will be given below in § 78. 

3. Hie cardinal x^eig three is thus dedined : 




T|i/a . 

G. tfmv 

D. tQMi (v) 

A. TQtig. 


4. T£a<r«(»ec or thra^g fomr. 

M. la F. 


N. Tioaagsg or xmoQig 


G* xevaapoiv 


D. xidisuQai or j^trofai (y) 


A. uaaugag 


5. The remaining single numbers as far as <en, and the round 
numbers up to a hundred^ are not declined. They are as follows, viz. 



n ^ . 

nx . 









€iKOai {v) 
























6. Tbe ibllowiDgf is the usual form of those cwrdioals which are 
compoanded of the units and tens^ viz. ttfdexa eleven^ dmdsxa twelve^ 
rgiguaidixa thirteen^ TiaaaQsgxaiSixa^ nivtexaidexa^ ixuaiienaj. 
iitrakaidixa^ 6xT(axalde%a^ ivveaxaidexa, • 

Less common are dfxat^elg^ dsxcmtvte^ &c. 
In these compositions tQetg and riaaafieg are also inflected, a» 
reaaaQaxaidexa^ TeaaagaixalSexa^ dexaxQitav^ fee. 

7. The remaining compound numbers are uaually written sepa- 
rately, and when the smaller number precedes, they are connected 
by xa^, but not commonly when it follows; as nivtf xal iixoaiVj 
or ellxoav nivr^. 

8. The round numbers after a hmdred are regularly inflected,Yiz. 


«^, a 

two hundred 


Of, a 

three hundred 


a^, a 

feur hundred 


o», a 

five hundred 


. ai^ a 

six hundred _ 


o^, a 

seven hundred 


Of, a 

eight hundred 


air^ a 

nine hundred 


ai^ a 

a thousand 


Of, a 

two tho^and 


Of, o 

three thousand 


Of, o 

four thousand 


Of, a 

ten thousand 


. Of, a 

twenty thousand. 

Remark. When other words are compounded with these num- 
bers, '/moi/o- ^(Jiovog) indicates unity ^ di- two^ rgi- three^ wrpo- 
fouri as fiovoxsgmg^ dixsgotg^kc. The 6ther numbers are usual- 
ly formed in o and o, as nevTa-fAezgog^ xiXio-tikotvtog. 

* The o in nevtakoatoi and the subsequent numerals is short, 
t ivvctxifTto^ omits the f of ivvda. 

t J^p/of used indefinitely, like the English word myriad^ it distin- 
guished by its accent 





1. The two first ordinsil numbers are two defective forms of ^9 
comparison, viz. 

ngmTog the firsts primus^ n^ngog the first oftmo^ pru^. 
devTiQog^ the second. 

The others are the following, viz. 



teragTog _ 





















•fourteen^ &c. 






fortieth &c. 




two hundredth &c^ 




ten thousandth. 

Here also in composition, the small number usually precedes 
with xctl^ or follows without it, as rgtaKoatog ngcdtog^ or ngmtog 
%ul igiUntotSTog. To these ordinal numbers the interrogative form 
TiooTO^ refers, which cannot be rendered by any one word in En- 
glish; in- Latin ^o^u5.^ 

2. The njimeral adverbs, which answer to the question htm 
many times ? are the following, viz. unai ofic«, dtg^ zgig^ UTguHtg, 

* From nifUie in the ancient and the JKolic dialect for nivti. See 1 16 
Rem. 1, c. ^ 

. 11 ' 




nivraxig, ontaxig, ixterorrdxig^ X^Xiaxt^^ &c. The interrogative 
is nooanig^ how many timei ? 
80 The following are the adjectives, which answer to the ques- 
tion hovMnany-fold ? viz. dnloog contr. anXovg simple^ dinkovg^ tqi- 
nXovg^ tirganXovg^ nivtankovgy &c. (§^60) ; or ako dtnkaoiog^ &c. 
4. The words which express the seyeral numhers taken as sub- 
stantives,, are all formed in ag, G.aSog. Thus fj fwvag unity^^vag^ 
TQidg^ xiTQctg^ mvtag (also nifinrag and ntfindg)^ tfciff, i^Sofiig^ 
oydodg^ ivviag^ dindg^ &c. — uxag (20), tgiaxdgy teaaagaxovTagj 
&c. — ixaTOvrdg^ jt^Akt?, (ivgidg. 


1. The substantive or personal pronouns, of the first and sec- 
ond person, are iyto /, i^iiilg we, av thou^ Vfulg ye, with long v. 

2. The third person (of which the accusative is t) has no 
nominative singular, like the Latin «e, which, in the Attic writers, 
it also resembles in the reflexive signification of self. In the plu- 
ral number it has a particular form for the neuter, which howev- 
er rarely occurs. 

Rem. 1. This pronoun is but little used by the Attic writers, 
for in the dbect sense of ^«m, Aer, t^ they substitute for it the ob- 
lique cases .of amog^ and in the reflexive sense iavrov. 






9 ' 

ffiOV^ fiOV 



we two 

ye two 

G. D. 

aq)m\\ ffgpcu 
aqioiYv^ aq)€^v 



they two 



§ 72.] 








aq^lat {v) 
Gq}ag N. aijpfa 

Rem. 2. The oblique cases of the first and second persons 
in the singular, and of the third person ]n all numbers, with the 
exception of the circamfl^xed forms o<fdip and a(fug^ are subject 
to inclination' (§ 14). In the first person, the monosyllable fonns 
^re always enclitic ; the dissyllable forms, orthotone. These en- " 
clitics, moreover, become orthotone, (1) as is the case with otheiT^ 
enclitics, wjien a particular emphasis rests on them ; (2) especial- 
ly when they are ^governed bj a preposition, as ne^i aov^ tv aoi^ 
Tiaga oipia^v^ nag Ifiov^ elg «/m«. 

Rem. 3. For the purpose of emphasis the particle yt is append- 
ed to these pronouns, in which case the accent is thrown back in 
4>ai, ifAol, and ifii, as *>(»/«, ifnovye, ifAOiye^ i^ueys, avye, &c. 

• Rem. 4. Diakcts. The following are the forms which the 
pronouns assume in the different dialebts. 

a) The Dorics for av make tv,— for the enclitic aoi they make 
Toi,— also for the enclitic at they make ^v. ^ 

b) The genitive in ov of these pronouns has its ongm in £0, 
and accordingly we find in the epic poets «>o, aio, to, or tfAtio, 
<F«ib, do. Hence the lonians and Dorians have tfitv, f*ev, aev, 

«v (627 Rem. 5). . - ,. u * 

The poets make use of s genitive of a peculiar character, 
formed by appending the syllable ^tv, viz. efAt^ev, at^iv, t^tv. 

See also & 116. ' ' /. ,t i i j 

d) The lonians resolve the contraction of the plural, and say 

e) The Dorics, on the other hand, abbreviate the plural m 
the first and second person, as dfitg vfAtg and in the accusative 
they adopt the termination ^ which is otherwise peculiar to the 
dual as aW, vf^e, for w^g and Vfiag, Hence, the pronunciation 
and accent being changed, the following epic forms arise : 

l^om. SfAfifg, iififieg, ^ ^ 
Dat. ofifitv, vfifiiv, or ctfifii, vf^fit^. 

Ace. «/U/Mf, Vf*fl£' 

f) There is also a similar abbreviation of the plural in the 
third person, viz. 

Dat. 4jif>iv or af /, 
Ace Oift* 
This abkeviated form of the accusative the Attic poets use as an 




[§§ 73, 74. 

82 accYuative in the flin^alar alio. It is accordingly found for avvov^ ^ 
i{y, 0, and avrovg^ ag^ a, 

g) Finally, there is also a merely enclitic accusative of the 
ihird person, yiz. Ionic §aIp, Doric and Attic fiV, also used -for all 

Senders, Atm, Aer, and it, and for the plural them. The Attic viv, 
oweyer^ is used only in poetry. 

4. The po9»euvoe pronouns derived from the foregoing perso* 
nal pronouns are regular adjectives of three endings. Their com- 
mon form is inflected from the genitive singular ; e. g. 

Gen. iiii^v — "*i»off, i[Ati^ ^t*^^^ "»«»»« 
Gen. GOV — eog, oij, aov, thine 
Gen. ov — 6V, Vt ov, hit, her,, its. 
Also frond the nominative plural ; e. g. 

97/ucii? — ^fitvigog, a, ov, our 
vfAfug — vfAiTegog, «, oy, your 
- C(pi7g — Gq)iTfgog, a, Of , their* 

Rem. 5. For aog the Dorics^ and /ontcf make r^off, a (17), ot^, 
and for og they make £oV, ^.(^)) ov. ^ But for the plural there is 
an older and shorter form, dfjiog or afiog^ and Vftog, 17, oV. 

Rem. 6. ^The ^ossessives vtohigog, a(ptottsgog, formed from 
the duals vmi\ a(pm\ are found only in the ancient poets. 


• • • 

To the substantive, pronoun also belongs 0, % to deivu, any one^ 

a certain (me. It is thus declined, viz. Nom. and Ace. dnva, G. Sh* 

vog, p. ^«7v*, PI. ol deJvtg, 

Remark. We sometimes; though vef-y rarely, find datva wholly 
indeclinable, as zop dtlva, top tov dilva sc. viov. 

§ 74. . 

1. The four following adjective pronouns are regularly declin- 
ed, except that they have in the neuter. 

ixvTog, avTii, ccvto, self, 
ix^pog, ineivfi, ix€tvo, this, that. 
aXlog, «AAi7, aAAo, another, 
og, ^, 0, see in § 75. 

§74.] PRONOUNS. 85 

Rem. 1. inflvog comes from Ikh there. The Ionic form of 83 
it is xeivog^ 17, o. 

2. The pronoun avvog has a threefold signification ; (1) self; 
(2) in the oblique cases, him^ hermit; (3) with the article, <Ae 
same. Farther details on this subject will be found in the syntax 
(§ 127-) It may here only be added, that in this last meaning, it 
is often contracted with (he article ' (according to § 28 Rem. 1), 
as zuvtpv^ Tai/Tco, ravrij, for tov avtov^ &c. where it is also to 
be remarked, that in this case the neuter ends in ov as well as in 
o, as zavTO and ravrov^ for ro avTO, Care .must be taken not to 
confound tetvry and ramu with tavzf] and ravra from ovxog. 

3. From avTog is formed the common reflected pronoun^* viz. 
by compounding avrog with the accusative of the substantive pro- 
nouns {ifif\ at\ e'), and then declining it through the' oblique cases. 

G. ifiavTOv^ ifAauTfig^ D. ifiavtcf^ ij, A. tfiavtov^ iqv^ mine^ me. 

G. i5i4/LVT0v or rravtov^ &c. thine^ thee, 

G. iavxov or aiJroiJ, &c. Am, Acr. « 

The last has also an accusative neuter lavxo^ avro^ and is declin- 
ed throughout the plural, as iavttav^ iaviovg^ &c. The two first 
persons form the plural without composition, as i^ficjv amwv^' 
Vfiiiv auTiov^ &c. 

Rem. 2. In all these compositions of avrd^ the Ionics have 
wv instead of av (§26. 9), and do not elide the «. They accord- 
ingly say, ifUO)VTOv, aeavxov^ ioiVTOv^ &c. 

4. From aXkog is'formed the redproc&l prmioun^ viz. 
G. dXXriliov. D. aAAi}Ao«tf, a^ff. A. aXXi^kovg^ aff, a. 
Dual. <iAA?}Aw, «• dX^ko^v^ atv^ each other. 

4 ^ 

* So called, when the action refers back to the subject. For instance, 
in the phrase f he clothes me,' me is the common personal pronoun ; in 
the phrase, ' I clothe me,' it is the reflected pronoun. When an acti6n is 
represented as muiualy the pronoun is called reciprocal. This last name, 
however, is usually considered to include both cases, and in many gram- 
mars the pronouns called reflected in the text, are classed as reciprohal. 

86 THE ARTICLE. [§ 75r 

§ 75. _ THE ARTICLE. 

84 1- The Greek grammarians give the name of Article^ ra ag- 
^pa^ to the two simplest signs, which, partaking of an adjective 
character, serve to point out a substantive, and which, 'in two 
clauses of a complete sentence, refer to each other. In the mod- 
em languages one of these is called the definite article {tke)^ and 
the other the relative pronoun (w^o, which)Jf 

2. Of these two articles, the one is the prepositive article^ viz. 
0, ?^, TO, the. This coincides in its inflection with the adjective pro- 
nouns above given, with the following exceptions, viz. 

a) That the masculine and feminine of the nominative singular 
and plural are unaccented (§ 10. 4) and have the rough breath- 
ing*, instead of which all the other parts have a t. 

* An example > of such a complete sentence, where both the articles 
appear, is this: '^ this is //ie man, toko will save us," OVtOQ eoriv 
avijQ Sg aoiofi rifiSig, Hence, as these two words correspond to each 
other exactly like joints, and thus unite two sentences as members of one 
body, the Greeks have csdltd them ra ig^Qa^ artictUoa^ articles^ ^r, lit- 
erally translated, joints. Now that the ^rst of these two articles, 0, 17, TO, 
Me, so frequently stands alone with its simple sentence, and thus, strictly 
speaking, ceases to be an article, is accounted for by the consideration, 
that in a multitude of such cases the second part of the sentence is retain- 
ed in the mind, beings some such phrase as ^^ of which we are treating^,^^ 
or " which you know," or " which is here in question," &c. and in this 
way it g^radually became the usag^e of languag^e to attach the prepositive 
article, the^ to any object, which is to be mentioned as sufficiently defin- 
ed by the nature of the sentence and the attendant circumstances. The 
grammars of the modern languages preserved the name of article for the 
prepositive article only, without reflecting; on the 6rigin and cause of this 
name ; but the postpositive article was called (and correctly when con- 
sidered by itself) the relative pronoun. And as in modem languages an- 
other pronoun (in English a or an), which is nothing but a weaker TC^, TC, 
quidam^ in like manner shows the substantive to be undefined, just as the 
points it out definitely, the latter was called the definite, the^former the 

§ 75.] 



b) Not only the neuter, bnt in the nominative singnlar the 85 
masculine also, 6nds in o. 

J The other is the postpositive article^ o, tf, o, who^ whick. This 
is declined precisely like (he adjective pronouns in ^74. 1 . 




Prepos. Art. 

Postpos, Art. 











TCJl * 







TOV . 







' r 


N. A, 

































3* The postpositive article or relative pronoun is often 
stren^hened, partly by the enclitic ne'g^ as ogntg^ -^neg^ OTteQ^ 
&c. and partly by composition with ti?, as ogrig^ &c. for which 
last see below in § 77. 

Rem. 1. The peculiarities of the dialects are the same,^as iii 
the first and second declensions, as toIo for Tor, a for 97, tag for 

T^^, &c. 

indefinite article, although the two words have nothing in them that con- 
nects, or can be called a joint. It is therefore but reasonable for the 
Greek g^mmarians to follow the ancient Greek names, as they contain 
in themselves their own justification. At least, the articles need not be 

* — — 

considered, in any language, as forming a distinct part of speech. They 
are essentially adjective pronouns, and therefore should be classed among 
them* V 





Rem. 2. In the ancient langfuage the two articles were in fonn 
the same, and were only distinguished hy their place and accent^ 
as is still the case with ^', ot\ ai. The epic poets have also o for 
Sg^ and' all the forms of the prepositive article which begin with 
r, are used by the Ionics and Dorics for the corresponding forms 
of the postpositive article, as to for o, ti^v for rjv^ &c. Besides 
this, the Dorics use to/, tcx/, b6th for ol^ Mi, and for oF, aY, ^ 

Rebl 3. In strictness, however, both forms are nothing else 
but the ancient simple demonstrative pronoun this ; and, as will 
appear in the syntax, are both often used for this pronoun in the 
writings of the ancients. 


1. The Greeks have a double form for the general demonstra- 
tive pronoun this^ that. The one ^ is formed simply by appending 
the enclitic particle dt to the prepositive article, viz. o^£, ^'^e, 
To'df , G. TOvde^ xtjgSe^ &c. PI. ol'ie^ a?J*, Tcfd*, tovgde^ &c. 

2. The other, ovzog^ is derived from the same article, and 
conforois itself to it, throughout a very anomalous inflection. For 
where the prepositive article has the aspirate or the t, this pro- 
noun has the same ;. and where the article has o or o>, this pro^ 
noun has ov in the first fSyllable ; and where the article^has tj or 
<x, the pronoun has av in the first syllable ; as d- ovrog, ol- ovro^ 
ToiJy- tQVTmv^ ij- avrtj^ rix- ravTa, &c. ^ 




M. F. 






ovTog avT^ 






Tovtov tavxtig 












zoviov Totirtriv 










Dual N. A. 





G. D. 

tOVTOlV 3 





• • • 4 

The irHerrogdivve pronoan for who ? wkUh ? xxihat ? is rlg^ neut 
t/, G. tivoQ' It has the accent always on the «, as xivig^ D. pi. 
Ttei^ and is thereby <Iistinguished, as it also is in the nominatiTe 
siDgcdar, by the invariable acute accent (§11)^ from the indefinite 
pronoun tIq^ neut. ti, G. xvvogi^ a certain one^ any one ; which, 
moreover, as enclitic, is commonly used without accent. The 
declension of r/^, both as interrogative and indefinite, is regular, B7 
according to the third declension, and the i is short throughout. 


Rem. 1. In the few cases, where the monosyllable tig t2, in 
consequence of other enclitics following it, receives the acute, the 
context or the accent of the preceding word will distinguish it 
from the interrogative ; as dvi^Q rig noTi. 

2. For the genitive and dative of both pronouns, the following 
forms are often used, viz. tov and tcJjt (for all three genders), or^ 
thotone for zivog zlvt^ and enclitic for Tivog rtpL* 

For the neuter plural of the indefinite pronoun we find 5rTa, 
Ion. ofaffa, not enclitic, insteact of tim^ as d^tva axxa fqr duvi 

3. The compound relative ogtt^g^ which is a strengthening of 
Off, has a twofold inflection^ viz. 

Nom. ogtig^ ^ttg^ o,t^ (see § 15. 2.) 
Gen. ovtvifogj ^giivog^ 
' Dat. (j^ztyt^ tiTivi^ fee- 

Also the following form, analogous ' to the secondary form of 
rig mentioned in no. 2, viz. otoi;, otoi, for ovzivog^ ^rivi^ but 
not for the feminine, apd also arxa, Ion. aaaa^ for az^va. 

Re»i. 2. The secondary form xot', t(o, must be carefully distin- 
guished from the genitive aAd dative case of the article, from which 
it is shown to be distinct by the threefold gender and the usage of 
the dialects. The zov of the article is by th6 epic poets resohred 
mto TOio, but the ToiJ for zlvog and ziyog is resblved into zeo by 
the Ionics, and zev by the Dorics. 

y , 

• As TijI zsitfAalgrj zpvzo ; whereby protest thou thit ? yvvmnog lOV 
of a certain woman ; ^Qfia'&al zof to use any thing, 

12 ' ' ^ 

90 C0Rll£LA<riVB6. ' [^ 7B, 

4. By composition with ov and fifj are formed Grom thf in- 
definite rig the negative pronoons Oifr*^ oun, fnitig fni^^^ none, 
^which ave iccliiied likft ri s. 


1. Correlatives are words, referring to each other, ibf which the 
one contains a question, the ot,her the various most simple an- 
g3 swers to ^t* The general correlatives are already contained in the 
foregoing pronouns, viz. 

Inierrogatvoe tig voho ? 
DitMmMtrailioe t>, od; , ovtog^ Urn* 
Indefinite tig, any one^ sotne one* 

Rekuioe og, com^nnd ogtig, who. • 

J^Tegatioe ovxig^ fiv^^j or gvdiig^ fifiMg^ none (§ 70. 1.) 
Each of these has its feminine and neuter. 

-2. When, however, the ideas contained in those words are 
directly referred or confined to two objects or divisions of the sub- 
ject, they are expressed by the fojlowing, viz. 

Interrogative notigog^ o, ov^ which <^ two, 
' Demonstrative . o\ od«, ovtog^ this* 
Indefinite 6 iT€Qog (ij iti()a^ &c.) one of two. 

Relative onouQog which of two, 

M'egative ovddtiQog^ fiv^mgog^ neither of two. 

Remark, o wgog often forms with those portions of the article, 
which end in a vowel, a crasis, in which however a long a is 
always found.* E. g. Srsgog, axdga, augoi^ for 6 itegf^g,^ ttiga^ 
ot tt^Qpr d^aregov^ fartgov^ !»aTtgf^, ^«r«pa, for to tiagos^^tov 
ittgov^ tfu m()qi, ta tti^a. 

This htgog corresponds precisely to the Latin alter : and, 
when one has been already named, i^is to be rendered ^e other. 

3. To the question tig and notigos^ may be answered^eiy offe. 
^Fiiis «nflw«r has m Gvsek the^form of a comparative or sopeda- 
tive^vi2.'£Ka7£^og, «, ov^eaeh^twos iifaaTog,a^on^eadhqf,mansf. 


•♦Thi^Ung. a probably bas iU orig^ia iii.%a.e<(lff Doric forn o£ietigog 
for ttegog, of wbich th^ short « beconei Jom; by a crasis with the article, 
as mentioned in the text. ^ ". 

^79.] . C<M»fiLiLTI¥Eft» 91 

« * 

-4. Other iia^cles reftpooeive to r/^ a^ the foUgwing,, yi^ jfil.- 
ko^'am^her (§74. 1), tmis, 7Ui(yv£^, each,. all; correspQ9<]bi^ to. 
i^cln, when tke qpiesUon is n6%iQOS, are the fiillowmgr, yiz. J. IV^* 
f^g the o^Ur; afitpovi^og, a, av, a^ipotegoi^ (M, 0,601^ Fq^ tlw 89 
la0t we find) in certain eomeauon^, simply the dual N, A. «^f i», 
6. IX ^^^peo^, with the accent thrown forward, and for aU three 


1. Besides these general correlatives, there are others more^ 
precise, referring^ to the properties or relations of the object, such 
as how madty where found, &c. These are formed in Greek by a 
very distinct analogy, but as they are partly in the adjective, and- 
partly in ^ adverbial ftirm, the latter must remaia to he con- 
sidered below* 

2. Every such series of correlatives haS] its radical ibrm and 
termination of inflection common ; but is peculiar in its initial let- 
ters. The interrogative begins with a 31, as noaag quaniWY how 
much ? how large ? htm many ? The same form, with a change 
however of accent, is sometimes used indefinitely^ as noaog alir 
qaantiue, of a otrtain size or number. When, instead of a n, it be- 
gins with a r^ it is in tbe dem6nBiratvoe, as toaog taniua, $ogreat,so 
much, 80 many, li, instead of this consonant, the word begin wit|i 
the aspirate, it is rehUvoe, as oiMg quanUu, as large ae, as much as. 
The negatifoe of these forms is not found in the common diaJbect^ 

.3. In additicMQ to the simple relative, there is also the compound, 

which is used by preference in certain connexions. It corresponds 

to ogt$g, OTQv, amongjhe general correlatives, and is formed by 

prefixing the syllable 0, without variation, to the interrogative 

.form, as Ttoaog, relative oaog and omaog. 

4. The simple demfnstratite roaog is used as a perfect dempn- 
stetive pronOoQ^ finr the meet part only in the poets. Resell ia 
commonly had to a strengthened form ; and as the article (the 
primitive demonstrative, subsequently used merely, as an article,) 
?8 strengthened either by the enclitic di (o^f), or by being cbang- 





' ed into ovrog^ so the correspondiog process is observed here, -o^ 
being in the latter case changed into -ovrdff, e. g. xoaog^ Toaogds 
or ToaovTog, The first of these is inflected in the middle of the 
compouad, thus toaogde^ roaiidi^ Toaovdi^ G. rooovde, &c* 
90 The form with -^utog governs itself, with respect to ov 
and at;, according to the simple form ot!ro^. In the neuter, how- 
ever, it has. both ov and o. Accordingly we have the following 

. forms, viz. 

N. TOGOVTog^ ToaavTtj^ roaovrov and touovto 

G. Toaovtov^ roaaytfjg^ &c. 

PI. ToaovTOi^ Toaavrai^ roaavra^ &c. 

5. Th^ following are accordingly the three most entire series 
of correlatives. 

Interrc^. Indef 

noao^> ; nooog 

how great? htm 

many ? quanius ? 
noiog ; itotog 

of what kind? 

nrjkixog ; » nfjXlxtjg 

how old? how 

large ? 









Note. For the Ionic forms xoaog, xo7b^, oaoebg^ &c. see § 
VG. 3. c. • 

Rem. 1. There are still other imperfect correlatives, which 
in addition to the interrogative form have only the compound rel- 
ative^ as particularly nodanog^ onodanog^ where born ? and the 
derivatives from -nooog and noarog ffor which we have no cor- 
responding English word*); nooankaaiog how many fold? dno- 
OTog^ onoaankdaiog^ &c. The same is the case with niregog 
and Qnotegog mentioned above. 

Rem. 2. As the root of these words acquires its correlative 
force by virtue of the initial letters ^n^, t &c. some of them attain 
Qther shades of signification, by composition with the general cor- 
relatives, Iregog^ aklog^ nig &c. Thus to the question nolog may 

• jiie-how-m^nyetJi ? would represent no^ftog in Eng^lish. In Ger,man, 
der wievielate ?- 

^ 80, 81.] 



be answered iti^log^ akkotog^ of another kind^ nartolog of every 

Id like manner, to nodanog corresponds aXXodunos of anoth- 
er country^ navTodanog of every country^ rifiidctnog of our country^ 
from 17/uf Iff. 

^80. AFFIXES. 


1. All the compounded and strengthened relatives, such as og- 91 
Ttg^ OTOv, ogn^Q^ onoaog^ kc. receive upon all their forms the affix 
ovv^ which retains the accent on itself, and in this connexion cor- 
responds precisely with the Latin cunque^ and expresses the com- 
pleteness of the relation, as ogr^g who^ ogzigovv quicunque^ whoever^ 
whosoever^ tJT^ovv, otiovv, otc^ovv^ ovjivoioui/ or oVrti/ouv,— 
ogniQOvv^ onoaogovv^ onijXixovovv^ &c. 

Rem. 1. To strengthen still more this signification, use is 
made of the form dijnote^^s ogrcgdfjnor^' iativwhosoeveriimaybe^ 
o^ov^nOTS^ &c. which is, however, often written in two sepa* 
rate words. 

2. In like manner among the Attics, and in the familiar style, 

the demonstratives, for the sake of greater strength, append to all 

their forms what is called the demonstrative L which in like manner 

retains the accent, is always long, and absorbs all short vowels at ' 

the end of the word to which it is affixed, as o^ro^oi^ro^/^AifAere, 

hicce^ avirfl' from avtri^ tovii from rotJro, TOVtovt\ &c. Tavrl from 

TaiJra, oSi from o^f, exeivogi that ihere^ ixei^tKapi^ &c. rooovTOvtj^ 

roaovdl^ &c. 

Rem. 2. When the enclitic yi ^§ 1 50. 2 ) is attached to the^ de- 
monstrative, this /follows it, as xovxo /£, rovToyi, 

§ 81. THE VERB. 

1. The parts of a Greek verb, sdch as the modes and tenses^ 
may be presumed to be known, from the analogy of other langua* 
ges. The Greek, however, is richer than either the English or 
Latin, particularly by the distinction of the Middle Voice^ of the 
Optative as a different modi from the Subjunctive^ of the Aorist 
as a separate tense, of the Dual as a separate namber, and by a 





great direisitj of mdd«i w^ participlies, iarefefeace tftbe teases. 
Meantime it should here he remarked, that hy do means all^ thai 
can be formed hy conjugafiQn and declension is actaally fbnnd to 
have been nsed in every verh, although for convenience, all the. 
parts are exemplified in one verb^ in the grammar. 
92 2. la the second place it should he premised^ that in the Greek, 
more than any other language, a certain form endowed by the 
general analogy with a certain signification, may yet, in .single 
cases, have another and even an opposite signification ; as a 
passive forni may have an active meaning. The grammar of 
course mus^ treat of the forms as they are in themselves, and 
then attach to them. their most usual signification. It is knpos- 
sible, however, that the significations should be fully known, till 
they are systematically unfoldedMn the syntax. 

3. All that is necessary to the undexstandipg of the fonnation 
. of the verb is here for the aiost part supposed to be known froa^ 

other languages, such as the general idea of the varfons voices, 
modes, and principal, tenses. With respect to the optative mode 
and middle voice, sufficient preliminary information will present- 
ly be given. The tenses alone of the Greek verb require a more 
detailed previous description. 

4. The most obvipus distincdon of the tenses is into prerem, 
past^ BLudfyture. The past time, however, in common laagoage 
admits of more subdivisions than the others. Among the tenses 
which fall under this head, (and which bear in Latin the common 
name o£ prmterita^) is this difference to be obsepred, that in one 
of them the mind of the speaker remains in the present time, and 
makes mention of a thing past or happened. This, is the perfect 
tense. In the other preterite tenses, the mind transports itself 
to th^ past |ime, and narrates what then happened.* This narra- 
tive tense has in the Greek the subdivisions of imperfect, phtper* 

focty and ofirist, whose signification will be unfolded in the syntax. 

5. Hereupon is founded the division of the tenses into the 

• K 

* la a lively uarratian this is therefore often done by ihepre^nt itself. 


ti^ viz. inQ:^^ i^Im^^i^/mI, and aoritL 

6. .AU ilie lenaed are distins^bed from each otlier id a iw«- 
£M OMu^ner; (l) afi jof tbem l^j tbeir raspectiye tenninatioiis^aBd 
(2) the past teises by a fwefia:, called tiie aujgment. The liastoriGal 
tenses are farther diBtingaislied from all the others, and among 
them fr<nD the perfect, by an augment appropriated to themselves, 
nfvA by apecidiar manner of declension.— Of each df these, in order, * 
an account will be given. 


1" The augment is of two kindis, according as the verb begins 93 
with a vowel or a consonant. If the verb begin with a consonant, 
the augment makes a syllable of Itself, and is therefore called the 
SfttteAic Augment. 

2. The aug^ment of the perfect tense is formed by prefixing the 
fitstietter of the verb with an «, as niTf^cv, perf. xt-rvq:e^ and 
there^e thi! iingment of the perfect is also called a reduplteathe 
ailment, or simply a reduplication. If the first letter is an aspirate^ 
it follows from what was said in § 18, that instead of the aspirate, 
tfae corresponding imooih Is used, 9iA''(pik^ia I love, T^Hjpikfixtt' &vta 
I sacrifice^ ti-'^xix. The third future, which is derived from the 
perfect (( 99), retains this augment. i . 

' 3. The historical teases^ on the other hand, simply prefix an 
«, as rvntfo^ imperf. l-rimroi', aor. «^Ti;t/w, — and the pluperfect^ 
which according to its form and signification is derived from the 
perfect, prefixes this c to the reduplicati(m of the perfect^ as n/- 
jxrcu^ perf. rd^rvqfa^ plup* i-^^tv^itv. / 

4. If the verb begin with (), this letter is doubled af^er the f , 
aa ^»nrw / lew, imper£ £^4^mvov (§ 21 . 2 ) ; and in this case the 
perfeet and pluperfect take no «ther augment than this, instead 
of the usual i^di^licati4>p, as perf. «(^'^§pa, plup. i^m^Hv. 

^. When a verb begiiiB with a dauUe consonanl;, iqalead «f 
the redaplioalion, e^cidoD^ is laaied, mhkh ffemams wt^haut cb«9ge 


Verbs. — ^tkmporal augment. 


in the pluperfect ; as xpalXm I play ^ perf. ttpaXxa^ plap. i'^iXiuw 

(fjviio I seek, C^'ca I abrade^ perf. pass. iitixrifAai, e^ea/Aai. Tbe 

same takes place in most cases where two consonants begin a 

word ; as perf. eqr&oga from ^^^/poti, perf pass, lanagfiai from 

qmigm I sow^ ixriaftui from Mri^oi / create^ iittvyfjiai from nrvaato 

I fold. 


1. From this last rule (he following are excepted, 'and, of 
course, are subject to the general rule, tIz. 

^4' a) Two consonants, of which the first is a mute and the second 
a liquid ; as ygaqxo I wtite^ yiyQaq)a. So too xexkif^ai^ mtitvivna^ 
&c. But yv and often yX assume only a simple «, as yvmQi^m^ iy- 
voig&a^a&' Kar-eykoiTTiafiivog^ di-tyXvntai and dt^w yeyXvntau 

b) The perfects fitfAvrjfiai and x^xi^/uat, from /uWcu / remember^ 
and XTttOfiai I acquire. 

c) Some anomalous perfects, as nenxafiai and ntnrtjxa^ in 
which, however, the nr is formed by syncope from tist. See in 
the list of anomalous verbs luravvvfAL^ nhofim^ nimto, 

2. A few verbs beginning with liquids, instead of the redupli- 
cation, fake the syllable el or ^i, as AHBSl etXriq)a. See in the 
anomalous verbs Xafiffavw^ Xiyoi^ ^i; /(>OjUix», and PESl under emetv. 

3. In the three verbs §ovXo(Aai I will^ dvv9i(Aai / can^ '/lAkm I 
skall^ the Attics often add the iempwal to the syllabic augment, 
as ridvvi(Ariv for idvpifiriv. For the syllabic augment before a 
vowel, directions will presently be given. 

4. The augment of the historical tenses is often omitted by 
the Ionics and all the poets, except the Attics ; as §uXe for effuXi^ 
firj for e^fi^ yivovTO for iyevovzo &c. In the pluperfect this omis- 

^ sion prevails even in prose ; as rervipiiaap^ tirvmo^ for iierV' 
qiHOav^ htivnto' dtfiUi for idfdin^ &c. 

5. In the epic writers the second aorist active and middle of- 
ten takes the reduplication, which in this case is retained through 
all the modes (§ 85) ; as mni&ov, nen^d^eiVy for inid-ov^ iii&tiv^ 
from nii^o}. 


1. When the verb begins with a vowel, aspirated or not, the 
augment, with that vowel, is converted into one long vowel ; and 
this kind of augment, which is called l^e Temporal^ remains un- 
changed through all the preterite tenses. In general in this ang- 
inent, ce and « are changed into ij, and o into ddj as ivvoa I fulfilf 




Mmpf. livvov^ perf. ^yvjca, plup. i^zifiuiv^'^kmCtii I hope^ impf.^iU 
niiov^ perf. ijXnMa^ plup. i^knhiiv^ — OfAiXita t cMockUe wUh^ impf. 
wfAiltov^ perf. oifAiXfjum^ plup. dfiiXi^XHv. 

2. The following verbs, viz. c^oi, cam, Axcd and Axvw, ignm 95. 
and £(>7ii;^ai, £'i9'oi (see anomalous verbs) and e^if o, iXiaam^ iaridoiy 
igv(o^ £7701 and inofAu^j igyaio/Aai^ change the c not into 17, but in- 
to. €t, as impf. <7jtoy, perf. iig^aa(A»$^ &c. ' 

Rem. 1. See also iUov^ iXeiv, amoE^ the anomalous verbs un- 
der nuQim^ and the verbs belongii^ to the radical form '^/Z, § 108. 

3. The vowels t and v can only be augmented when they are 
short, and that by lengthening them, as 'i%ittivfa\ aor. 'ixmvffa, 
and even when the vowel is already long by position^ this aug- 
ment ought to be indicated in pronunciation ; as loivn ^laxvov^ 
vfMfim Vfivow, 

4. Of the other vowels already long in themselveS) i^ accord- 
ing to no. 1, usually becomes 17, while the others, 17, oi, t, t;, admit 
no augpnent whatever, as ijrrao/ia^, impf. i^rroi/uiji^, perf. rixtfifiM^ ■ 
plop, tiirififiv^ excepting in the case of the accent, as specified 

6. A diphthong is susceptible of augment, when its first vowel 
can be altered in the above mentioned manner ; in which case, if 
the second vowel be i, the iota subscript is used. Accordingly 
avicn I increase makes tjvj^ov' ivxofiui I pray^ tiv%6(Arir ahtta I 
demand^ fdoi I sing^ y^^ov^ ^dov olxi'm I dwetl^ ^xeov. 

Many verbs, however, neglect this augment, as is stated in the 
next remark, and with ov it never takes place ; as ot/raCon, ot/ra- 

Rem. 2. In general many verba, in which the augment would de- 
stroy the euphony or lead to confosion, remain unchanged. Among 
these are many beginning with an a, ai;, or 01, followed hy a vow- 
el, as txYo), avaiW, o/ax/^co, — only that the short a, as in aYoi, is 
lei^hened, — impf. aibi^ (a long), avatvno^ oian&Cev^ &c. — Some 
others also beginning witho^ have no augment, as oiWfoi, o/xoi;- 

p£o», oiatgiw. Li like maimer also all which be^in with <^, as 
«?x(», «?xov, «7Sa, with the single exception of «ixa?ai / conjecture^ 
which in the Attic writers receives an augment, as iixuaa^ Siua^ 
Ofn«&i Att ^aaay.fixaafAai, Those that begin with a are not uni- 
form in th'is respect, as tvxofAm^ fjvxofAfp^ and ivxofifiv. Those 


♦ \ 

98 VERBS*-«-TEllFOEAL AUGMENT. [^ 83. 

compounded with ev will be mentioned below^ ^ 86 Rem. 5. Tbe 
96 Ionics and tbe poets not Attic often omit Ibis augment, as they do 
' also tbe syllabic, in verbs of all sorts ; as dfAilfiito for rifihl^eTO^ 
i'iav for eiotv from €a<u, ufAnav for ^ft/ia^ 

Rem. 3. Inasmuch as the increase, effected by this augment, 
consists only in lengthening a short vowel, it has the name of Tenir 
parol Augment^ avStjaAQ xQOvik^^ from XQ^^^S time^ which word 
denotes also the ^latitt^i/ of syllables. 

Rem. 4. This augment has its origin in the contraction of tiie 
syllabic augment.^ with the vowel of ^he verb ; as ayia l-ayov 
riyoV' In this, however, the contraction of u into 17, and £0 into 
(0, departs from the common practice (see § 27) ; while that of £a 
into ^, and u into ei^ e-fx^y iix^v, conforms to the general law of 

Rem. 5. Hence is tp be explained the accent of some com- 
pounds. For while the tone, as far as possible, inclines to tbe 
antepenult, we, find in avtjnTOv from avantto a circumflex on tbe 
penuU, which had its origin in this contraction. In this manner, 
th.e augment is occasionally visible only in the accent ; as from 
dnsigym is formed the imperative SnHQfe^ but the third persoD of 
the imperfect tense is dnelgye. 

Rem. 6. The syllabic augment, moreover, has actually main- 
tained itself in many cases before a vowel. Among these cases 
are reckoned, in the common dialect, tbe following three verbs, 
which by the general rule should not have the temporal augment, 

Impf. ioi^ovv, ea)vov(A7jv^ iougovv. 

Rem. 7. In like manner, in the perfect tense, the temporal aug- 
• ment has its origin in the syllabic e, f«r, since the common redu- 
plication consists in repeating the first consonant with an «, when 
the verb began with a vowel it admitted only of prefixing the £, 
which was then with the initial vowel of tbe verb transformed in- 
to the temporal augment Even the i of this kind is retained un- 
aUered in the v^rbs just quoted, as perf. ioivfiftai from ciptoftat^ and 
besides this in three other perfects, viz. loixa^ ioXna^ io^»^ from 
WKOi, eXnw^ igyca. The in these perfects is. formed by a muta- 
tion of tbe vowel of tbe root — which will be treated of below-: 
and the ^ is a reduplication, so that we have epym i-ogya^ like 
degmon dt-dogtctt. 

Rem. 8. As we saw above (§ 82 Rem. 3 ) that the syllabic 
augment was increased by tbe temporal, so in the verb ogdca I see 
tbe temporal augment is commonly increased by the syllabic, re- 
taining the aspirate, as impf. icigmv^ perf. itupauaA 

Rem. 9. When a verb begins with ao, the second vowel takes 
the augment This occurs in the verb iogtiCta I celebrate ufesii- 


^ 84, 85.] yiiRB8«*-«ATTlC nSDVfUGATlOSy ETC. 


vol, ew^rorCov, and m the plaperfeete brioiu;iiig to the perfecte 
tiooed in Rem. 7, viz. if^iuiv^ ieikmiv^ ita^uv*' 


Though a redi:^licat]on like that of the syllabic augment does 

not exist in verbs that take the temporal augment, yet several of 

them have, in the perfect tense, a peculiar, and, as it is called, the 

Attic reduplication ; which, however, is so far from being found in 

Attic writers alone, that most of the verbs which assume it, reject 

altogether the above descril>ed simpler form. It consists in this, 

that in the perfect tense, before the ordinary temporal augment, 

the two first letters of the verb, without changing the vowel, are 

repeated, e. g. 

a/ilgm I assemble^ 

^ ifiim I spit, 

6gvTT(o I dig,, 
(oi. / smelly 





Hem. 1. This form inclines to a short vowel in the third sylla- 
ble^ and therefore shortens the long vowel, as in aXeiqxa^ perf. 
ciXfjk^g}a^ dXtih/ifAtti' oxovoi, perf cexijxoa. 

Rem. S. The pluperfect sometimes takes a new temporal aug- 
ment, most frequently in ixxi^koo. 17x17x0 j«y. This however is not 
g^enerally the case (§ 82 Rem. 4.) 

Rem. 3. As the second aorist in the poets, widi the temporal 
augment, sometimes assumes the reduplication of the perfect (§ 82 
Rem. 5 ), the same also happens with this Attic reduplication, in 
such a way that the temporal augment precedes it ; as ^Pi2, perf. 
&(^Qtty aor. ftoagov. In common language the verb iyia (see an- 
omalous verbs) has such *an aorist, viz. ijyayov. This reduplica- 
tion also remains in the other modes, which drop only the tempor- 
al augment^ as aga^^ ayayBiv, iyuyw. 



All .the augments prevail as well in the passive and middle, as 98 
in the active voice. As far as the modis and pariidpiUi^ however. 

100 VERBS.--^AD6lfK1IT IK OMfPOftlTlON. [§ 86. 

- - 

are tMXicenied, the aoritt and perfect only come into coDsideration, 
since the impeffept and pluperfect tenses are confined to the in- 
dicative mode. Here the following rule preyails. viz. 

The augnMfil rf the perftet U reUdiud tkrcm^h aU the modes and 
participles; that of the uorisi, onfy in the indicaiive* 

Thus with the syllabic augment, e. g. from rvntto. 

Perf, xixvq>a Inf. tnvqiivat Part* ttrvq^iag. 

Aor. ivvxffa Inf. xvxpai, Part TVtpag. 

So alsp with the temporal augment, e. g. from inpifiow. 

Perf. i7X()//?a»x« ^ Inf r^UQipmnipa^ ' Part. ^n^Qipiaudg. 
Aor, i^Kgifiotaa Inf. axg^fitSaat^ Part, ditgtpoiaag. 

Remark. This role may be more precisely stated, viz* Every 
thing that is a reduplication, or stands in the place of reduplication, 
(consequently the irregular reduplication of the aor. XiXa^ov^ 
part Af Aix'^ofy, and the like, § 82 Rem. 5.) remains through all 
the moded^while the simple augment is confined to the indicative. 
For this reason the irregular aorist ^yayov drops in the infinitive 
mode the temporal augment, but retains the reduplication, as 
iyayeiv (^ 84 Rem. 3.) 


The following is the chief rule for the use of the augment in 
the compound verbs, viz. 

In the verb compounded with a preposition^ in the ax^menied tenr 
ses the augment follows the preposition* 

E. g. ngogq>ego}^ ngog-iqiegov' inodvm^^an'idvaa^ dno-didvud* 
avlkdyw^ avv-iXfyov* aTraAAairo), dn-ijkXceTTOP' 

In most other forms of composition the augment is prefixed, 
QQ^ as fiiXonouoi^ ifiiXonoiow^ fiefuXonoltjua' nXtjftfuXtm, mnlijfi/At- 
hjua' aq>govm^ i^q>g6pow. 


Rem. 1. In some cases, where the simple verb is nearly or 
quite obsolete, the augment precedes the preposition ; 9»ini^iVr 
Sov^ ixd&iCov^ i^qiiovv from dgiiijfii. The best i^riters however 
sometimes use the other form, iis nad^tjvdov. 

§ 87.] VSRfiS. — INrLKCtlOK. 101 

' " — —^ — — — ^^ — ' — ■r — T-i .m . " •- — ■ r — —^^ — ' — " ■ " ' — • 

RsM. 2. Prop€rly speaking, all such rerlm have the augpnent 
prefixed, as are iiot so much tbemselves compoanded with anoth- 
er word, -as derived from a componnd word oif another part of 
speech, as ^tivonad^toi^ idHvonahovv^ from deivona'&rig* oixodo' - 
fiim^ ffxoiofAOw^ frdm oiseo#o'/»off. — ^With these, however, are 
classed in respect to the place of the augment, the other compound < 
verbs not compounded with a preposition, although they retain . 
the single verb without change, as fteXoftounn, itpgovito^ &c.* 

Rem. 3. Hence it results, that even some verbs compounded 
with prepositions prefix the augment ; as tvavxiovfAm^ i^pavrtov- 
, fAflv avx$pok£^ tivTipiXow^ the former of which has its origin in 
ivavxlog^ and the latter is formed altogether by composition, with- 
out a previous existence as a simple verb. It is most usual, how- ' 
ever, that even in such verbs the augment .should follow il»B pre- 
]K)8ition. Hence we find uniformly iiixktialaaav, iveKCjfiiaCov^ 
ngoiqitiTBvaot^ avvi^gyovv^ inATSf^devKa^ iviyelgovv^ and various 
oUiers, although of all these verbs {inxXtjaiatm^ iyHCDfitaiw^ ngo- 
g^T£vw, (fwigyeoi^ innijdevm^ hX^'^Q^^^) °o simples exist, but they 
are.aU derived respectively from iunXtjaia^ iyxdfitov, ngoquirtig^ 
avvsgyog^ inlrtjdsg^ and from iv and X^h'^ 

Rem. 4. The following verbs usually take the augment in both 
^aces at once, viz. dvog^ota I set tip, i^vcig^ovy ivoxlifa I trou* 
hle^ "iqvfoTKfiQa' afi%OfAat I endure^ ijveix^ftfiv' nagoiptfa I rave, 
nenagn^vfjita. — Still more anomalous is this in the verbis diumavHv 
to minister to and diaitfv to decide^ ^fdiTjHovriKci, xaTsdii^Tijaa, in- 
asmuch as these are derived from didnovog, dltLira, where the a 
does not begin a new word. ^ 

Rem.* 5. The words compounded with iv and dvg assume in the 
middle only the" temporal augment; as tvigyetBiv, tvfjgyhoyp' 
dvgagicitiiv^ dvgtigiQxovv* When, however, an immutable vowel 
or a consonant follows those particles, they either receive the augr 
ment at the beginning, as idvaoinovv from &vganHv^^ deSv(nvxfi^€c, 
fpi(pgttiv€TO, or those beginning with ev more commonly take no 
augment, as eitaxovfiyiv from fvcoj^cia'^ae. 

§ 87. . • 



1. All terminations of the Greek verb are divided, in virtue 
of their ending and their inflection by numbers and persons, into 
two leading classes, plainly distinguished from each other. In slg- 
nification the one class is for the most part active, and the other 
passiye. In consequence of this, notwithstanding the departure 






in single tenses from the prevailing 8ignifi€atioD, the one class is 
called the active voiee^ and the other the pcusive* 
^QQ 2. In each of these classes, the leading ten^ viz. the present, 
.perfect> and future, foUow an analogy in some degree peculiar to 
themselves, and in which they are distinguished from the histori- 
cal tenses. 

3. All this is apparent from the followii^ table, which contains 
the usual terminations of the different tenses^ and their inflection 
by the three numbers and persons. It is applicable in the present 
form only to the indicative mode* Its application to the subjunc- 
tive and optative will be explained below. 


Leading tenses. 

1 2 3 

1 2 3 


— tf — 
wanting tov zov 


fiai {aai) la^ 

' IA6&0V G'&OV ad-Qv 

Historical tenses* 


— • ff . — 
wanting rov tijv 
fi€v re V {aav) 

fAfJV (<J0) TO 
lU^n 0^6 VTO 

Thus Ai!o/uai, Xekvfiai^ kvaofiai^ kvd^iiQOfiai, are respectively the 
first person of the leading tenses of the passive form of kvw I hose. 
All that intervenes between the termination fca^ and the root Av, 
or if nothing, intervenes, is the peculiarity of the particular tense ; 
and this will be treated of below. 


1. The terminations in the foregoing table, begin with that 

consonant from which the remainder of the word onward, in the 

same tense, is in the main the same. A portion of the conju- 

gational form attaches this consonant immediately to the ropt of 

the tense (see below the perfect passive and the conjugation in fc»); 

but by far the greater portion of the conjugatioaal form interposes 

another vowel, called Uie connecting vowel between, which is far 

from being uniform, as Xv-o-^fnp, kv-e-te^ At>e^^. The more 

precise detail therefore of the mode, in which the termination is 

attached to the root, must appear from the paradigm below. The 




ioTegoiog (able ezUbite od^ in one point of view, that in which 
the various fonns of tenses coincide. 

2. The first and third persons singular Act are not indicated 
in the table^ because in mbst cases they do not terminate in aeon- 
sonant, but have as it were, the eonnectwe vowel alone,* which, 
however, differs widely in the different tenses. Compare e. g. 1. 
Av-Q), 3. Xv-H^ with Xu-O'fASv^ or 1. tXva-a^ 3. tXva^^ with Ikva'tt" 
fuv» In the greater portion of the historical tenses, the first per- 
son has a permanent v {tXy-o-v^ iXtXitx^ei-p^) and the third persoti, 
when its vowel is f , takes the v /qpeAxuor^xoV, {iXv-iv or iXv-e.) 
In the infrequent conjugational form in /uc, both persons have a 
termination in the )prese6t, altogether peculiar, viz. iu«, <t«,(§ 106). 

3. The third person plural, active voice, in ,the leading tenses, 
is given according to the common usage ofianguage. It is proper, 
however, to remark here, that in the Doric dialect it terminates 
in ni, and that the vowel before the ot in the common form is 
always long, because an v has dropped out ; as rvrnqvai^ Dot* 
tVTiTorci' reivqaoi^ Dor. TiTvq>avGi^ (§ 103. IV. 1.) 

4. The terminations aai and oo^ in the second person of the 
passive, are only to be regarded as the foundation ; for in most ca- 
ses they undergo some change. The manner in which they are 
combined with what precedes them, will be explained in its plactt 
below; 8ee§ 103 Rem. II. 

5. With regard to the peculiarities, in which the historical' 
tenses differ ft'om the leading tenses, the following points must be 
attended to in reference to the preceding table. 

a) A character, which runs through the whole active and pas- 
sive form, is that the third person dual, which in the leading ten- 
ses is the same as the second, (as pres. rvTrrnov^ ivTVCfrov^ pass. 
xvmeoid'ov^ zim^Q'^ov^ in the historical tenses uoifoimly t^- 
minates in t^v^ as imperf. 2. itvnxnov^ 3. irvmhtiv^ pass. 2. hin- 
xeG&ov^ 3. ixvnria'&riv, 

b) Besides this, the third person plural active affords but one 
other permanent distinction between the leading and the historical 
tenses. In the former it always terminates in aiv or at, {ovaiv, 
adiv^ or aai^) while,, in the historical tenses, it has a fixed Vj{ov^' 

c) In the passive form, on the other hand, the two classes of 
tenses throughout the whole singular number and all the third 



* It may-BtiU be called the connective vowel, fhongfa in these cases it 
has nothing to connect, because in substance it is identical with that vow- 
el, and is dropped in those forms which do not take the connective vowel. 

Compare e. g. ixl&tj with hi^-v and ixi^i-fiev^ in which * orij be- 
longs to the root. 




peniODS are distiogoished. From the fnai of the leading tenses is 
UDiformly derlTed fitjv in the historical ; and from the ra^, both 
singalar and plural, in the former is always derived to in the lat- 
ter. Equally constant is the distinction between the terminations 
aa^ and ao. 

6. The dual is wholy wanting in the first person of the active 
voice, that is, it does not differ from the plural. 


!• The impe.rfect and pluperfect exist only in the indicative 
mode. All the other tenses exist in the other modes and partici- 
ples, though by no means found in actual use in every word. The 
future only always wants both the imperative and subjunctive- 
102 ^ 2. The Greek language has the joptatvoe^ in addition to the oth- 
er usual modes, which derives its name from the signification im-' 
plying a wish^ but is used in various others. Its precise force is 
taught in the syntax ; it need here only be remarked, that its im- 
port is substantially that of the imperfect tense subjunctive mode 
in Latin, which is not found in Greek. 

3. This remark is intimately connected with the, foUovving 
main rule, relative to the inflection of the optative and subjunc- 
tive, viz. 

In the subjunctive mode^ all the tenses are inflected according^ to the 
analogy of the leading tenses of the indicative ; in the optative modcj 
according to that of the historical tenses** 

Consequently, in the table given above (§ 87. 3), the upper 
row coiktains the terminations also of the subjunctive mode, and 
the under row those of the optative. 

4. The subjunctive uniformly connects with the terminations 
of the leading tenses the vowels o» and 17, instead of, the peculiar 
vowels of those terminations in the indicative. The subjunctive 
therefore, both active and passive, of the coinmon conjugation, as 

in nmroi, may be easily formed by the following rule, viz. 

^ — ■ 

* AccordiDgly the third person dual of the optative, even of the le^ing 
tenses, always ends in i^v^ and in the third person sing, and plor. of the 
paisive voice always in TO. 

§ 88.] ' VERBS. INFLECTION. 106 

■^" —■ III ■■■■I— »M.ii ■_■ ^■,^ - _,.■■■■.»■■■■ ilM ■ ■■» I ■ ■ I i . M M — ■■■ ■ ■■■ M.fc , 

Where the indicaivoe mode hat ai, o, ou, the nAjunctive has at ; 
where the indicative has «, et, ^, i!Ae «u6;unc^tre Aa^ ^, ?;.* E. g. 

IdcI. ruTiro), o/ufi/, oucr», o^a^, &c. 
Subj. TVTircu, mfisv^ oxri, tafiai^ &c. 


Ind. TvmiTf^ erai^ &c. 
Subj. TvuTtjii^ fixai^ &c. 

Ind. TvnvHgj «*, i?, &€»► 
Subj. riJjirj^ffj 5, 1?, &c. 

The subjunctives of all the different tenses and conjugations^' 
follow these endfngs of the present of the usual regular conjuga- 
tion. . • 

. 5. The. optative has, as its peculiar characteristic, an t, which 
it x;oiBbines, with a vowel of the verb or the terminatlDn of the 
tense, in a diphthong, that remains unchanged through all num- 
bers and persons. The jtermination of the first person active is 
either fAi or riv^ as rvnroifii, rvf^driv^ and in the last case this 17 
remains, together with the diphthong, through all the other ter- 
minations, as of^t, otQ^ 0^, &c. — f/i/i/, drig^ dri^ eitiaav^ &c. In the 
passive voice this diphthong stands, uniformly directly before the 
terminations of the historical tenses, as tvmoi-fitjv^ xv'&ei-TO* ^ ' 

6. The imperative has a second and third person In all the^ 
numbers. Its terminations in all the tenses are these, viz. 

Active S. . ^ ,.701 D. vov^ttav P.Tf, rfaaav ar vtcjif. 
Passive S. {ao\ad'0} 1). a^op, a^oiv P. a^«, a^oMrai' or u^oiv. 

7. The infinitive has the following terminations^ viz. 

Active Hv or vai^ or ai. 
Passive G'&at. 

,S..The participles are all adjectives of three endings; the 
feminine is therefore, agreeably to the rule in § 58. 2, formed af- 
ter the first declension of nouns. The masculine active has vrog 
in the genitive, which requires g or i^ in the nominative, and In 
the feminine aa. £. g. 




106 VERBS. — "INFLECTION. [^ 89. 

oiv or ovg^ ovau, ov «^, aaa^ av 
G. ovTog,. G. apTog. 

G. ivtog, (j. vptog. 

From this the participle of the perfect active is wholly differ- 
ent, being uniformly as follows, «?iz. tog^ vla^ o?, G. orog, ' 
The participles of the passive voice all end in fnvog^ ^, ov. 

Remark. Among the modifications which the preceding in- 
flections undergo, attention must be particdlarly paid to the con- 
traction, not so muph of the contract ver^^ properly so called, as of 
some parts of the usual conjugation, where contraction takes place; 
as will be shown below. See§ 95 Rem. 6. § 103. Ul. 6. 

... VOICES. 

.1. The idea of passive includes in it the case, in which the 
action that I suffer, is performed by myself. Such an action m4y 
J 04 therefore be expressed by the forms of tl\e passive voice. This 
is what is called the reflective sense. The Greek language, how- 
ever, goes farther, and uses the passive voice, in connexions in 
which the verb has only a secondary connexion with the subject, 
as I prepare myself a houses All these cases, which will be farther 
explained in the syntax, make out the idea of middle ; and the 
passive, when used to express them, is called the Middle Voice. 

2. We have already seen above (§ 87 ) the general differ- 


ence of the active and passive formsw According to that differ- 
ence, every active is converted into its natural passive ; which is 
here, for greater convenience, exhibited only in the first person 
of the indicative of the general tenses. 








OV OfifJIf 


a, xa 



ilP^KHV JiriP 


( aoti 

. eofiOLt 


^ (fa aafAfjp 

i ^ 




§ 89.] VERBS. INFLECTION. 107 

__, i 

3. Now in this natural pa^lve form the present^ the imperfect^ 
the perfect^ and the pluperfect temes express in all cases, where 
the idea of middle can exist, that idea ; so that it is only from the 
context, that it can he determined, in any given ^case in these 
tepses, whether the signification is passive or middle. But in the 
aorist and future, the ahove form of the passive is, for the most 
part, used only as a middle^ slnd for the passive idea a particular 
form is used, which has this peculiarity, that the aorist, notwith- 
standing its passive meaning, assumes nevertheless in its inflection 
of person and numher the active form ; while the future, formed 
from this aoHst by increment, passes again into the passive form, 

Aor. Pass. \ ^^ 

Fut. .Pass. \ ^r^'*^^ 

In distinction from these forms, the above mentioned forms of the. 
natural passive are called in the Greek grammar the Future and 
Aorist Middle. The four first named tenses, however, the pres- 
ent, imperfect, perfect, and pluperfect, which may be used equal- 
ly in both significations, and might hence well be called Passive- 105 
Middle forms, are in the Greek grammar simply called passive^ 
and can only be called middle in connexions, where they have a 
reflective sense, and this must be ascertained by the syntax. 

Remark. It may be observed here that the medial form of 
the aorist is not only banished from all verbs, which do not admit 
the idea of the middle voice ; but that in many, the passive aorist . 
in d^tiif and ^y has adopted the medial significiition, and is there- 
fore used only in a limited, through not an inconsiderable class of 
words. Here, however, every verb is assumed in the grammar 
to be entire ; and it must be left to further remark to ascertain in 
what parts any particular veri> is defective. , ^ 

I I 

r ' 





1. As the tenses in general are comprehended^ id what has 
/ been stated above, it is only further to be remarked, that some of 

them appear in two forms, which bear in the grammar the names 
ofjirst and second^ without any diversity of signification. The 
double form of the perfect is found only in the active voice, that 
^of the future and aorist in the active, passive, and middle voices. 

2. Besides this, the passive has still another third future, or 
paulopost future^ jas it is called, which takes the reduplication of 

' the perfect, and of which the signification will be given in the 

3. All the tenses, belonging to the Greek verb, will now be 
detailed according to the division given above of active, passive, 
and middle. 


Note. In the following table the augments and\ the termina- 
tions of the fii^t person singular are indicated. The -larger dash 
' stands for the proper root of the verb ; the shorter, in the begin- 
ning, for the first letter" t'epeated in the augment. The 'aspirate 
over the termination denotes that the preceding consonant is as- 
pirated. * \ 



1. Perf 

1. Plup. 

2. Perf. 
2. Plup. 
1. Fut. 

1. Aor. 

2. Fut. 

2. Aor. 

3. Fut. 

106 4. The (Connexion of these terminations of the tenses or teni' 
poral forms^ as they might be called, with the root of the various 
verbs, requires a particular explanation, which is called the doc- 
triae o{ ihe formation (fthe tenses. — This,. however, must be pre- 
ceded by the consideration of the characteristic of the theme. 





— Of^at 


i OV 

i — o/Ativ 


-f — o or xa 

,-^ — A*«* 


e-S HP or HHV 

l-€ flfJV 


-e — a 

i-e — eiv 


— aw 
* — aa 

— d^flQOfiai 

— aouai 
i — Oautiv 


— w 

— riooficu 

— ovfiac 

( — OV 

i — fjv . 

i 6(4 tjv 


-« — aoficci 



^§9lv92.] VERBS. THEME. ' 109 


1. That letter, whicli immediately precedes the chief vowel 
of a temporal termination, is called the duiracXtruiic of said tense, 
viz. according to the foregoing ta^le^, a is thie characteristic of the 
first future and first (^Lorist active and middle. 

g. Mpre particularly, however, the letter which remains (af-* 
ter casting away every thing which belongs to the termination of 
the cobjngation) at the end of the root itself, is called the charao^ 
teristic of the verb. It vis necessary therefore only to cast away 
the o) of the present tense, and the last letter or the two last let- 
ters are the characteristic, as in Xfy-to the y, in q)Ov€ifOi} the f v.* 


1. That however, which remains, after dropping the oi of the 
present tense, is not always the pure, root of the verb. For when 
the other tenses are divested of their peculiar augments and ter- 
minations, there remains with many verbs a root, moVe or less 
diverse from that of the present. 

2. Some of these differences consist merely in the changeable 
D^ature of the vowel, or its being shortened or lengthened, as tqI' 
nto aTQanov^ degxM dedoQxa, ieina tXmov, (jpalvm qavci eqyf]va, 
pciklm i'^aXov^ which are to be considered merely as changes in- 
cident to inflection. 

3. In others the difference is more considerable, whei^e the 
pure and simple root of the verb, as recognised in the other 
tenses, is in the present by additions or changes rendered more 
full and larger; as rvntdn hvntjVj root TTTT, in the prtoent 
T^IIT; Tciaata /rci/iyv, root T^F, in the present TA2I!; kafi- 

• The etymolog^ical root of the verb, which in (povfVta is (jpOP, is not 

here meant ; but the g;ranimatical root of the verb, of which fV is also a- 

part. So in fptXeo) and'T^/tcao), f and o;, not A and ^, are the character- 

110 VERBS. THEME. [§92. 


J J - T- l _ I - I I , l_ "- .-—■-■-■ - - ^ 

pdiftu ilapov Xti\\)ix^cti>^ root AAB^ AHB^ in the present AAM- 
107 ^'^^ appears, therefore, that the ancient and more simple form, 
which has been preserved in some of the tenses, has passed over 
into a more strengthened form in the present. But since the 
grammar, for the sake of uniformity, always starts from the pres- 
ent. In all verhs where more considerable discrepances of this 
kind appear, an obsolete or ancient present^, corresponding with the 
form preserved in the other tenses, is assumed for the conven- 
ience of grammntical use. 

5. Every form of the present tense, whether obsolete or not, 
from which you start in forming the single parts of any verb, is 
called a theme* To prevent the unnecessary multiplication of 
themes in this grammar, instead of an obsolete theme in cu, its 
root alone in capital letters is sometimes given, as TTil, TJF^ 

6. In reality, this confounding of forms, like the similar one in 
the declension of nouns (§ 56), is an anomaly ; and accordingly 
the catalogue of anomalous verbs (to be given below) -consists prin- 
cipally of verbs of this class. When, however, the difference of 

, the usual from the obsolete or assumed theme is common to a 
considerable number of verbs, which also coincide in the cbalrao 
teristic of the present tense in use, th^s also is reckoned among the 
diversities of the usual conjugation. 

7. Here are to be reckoned those verbs, in which the true 
characteristic is only conpealed in the perfect tense by insertion 
or change of letters. These are of three sorts, viz. 

a) In verbs whose characteristic is ttt, the t is an addition for 
the sake of strength, while the true characteristic is one of the 
labials /?, ti, <f>* E. g. " 

x^vitro) I hide^ tvuto) I strike^ ^aivtm I sew. 

KPTBn TTnSl 'PAdiSl 

• See * 20. 






b) Of most of the verbs in aa br rr, the true characteristic is 
one of the palatics /, x, ;|r. £. g. 

raaao) I dispone^ (pgiaau) I shudder^ /Srjaao) I cough, 
* TJrSi 0PJAn BHXSi 

Some, however, ha?e one of the Unguals ; see Rem. 2 and 3 be- 
low. ' . 

c) Of most of those in f (Dor. qS) the true characteristic is jqs 
dy but several have y. E. g. 

q>gci((o I say^ o^ta I smelL — x()a^a) / scream, 

8. Ail these verbs retain the fuller and less simple form in the 
present and imperfect of the active and passive, while every thing 
else is formed from the simple theme. For the i^ake, however, 
of brevity and grammatical uniformity, these differences of the two 
themes ^are usually treated as-common inflections ; and as if e. g. 
in ri)i/o, TVTif/g^ &c. the r of the present rviiTta were dropped; 
or as if before the a in q()do(o (fut. of (jr^^a^o)), not the simpler 
characteristip d\ but f were omitted. 

Rem. L To the verbs in i^ whose pure characteristic is ^, be- 
longs the greatest number of derivatives in i^o^ and ctCcD, To the 
characteristic y belong all that i-adicate a sound or call^ as x(/a£»> 
/ scream^ ajfifdCfa I grvan^ tfjjCcD I chirp^ oifAoj^ca I lament &f,c. with 
some others, particularly <jrafw / drop^ atiCo) I prick^ aiij^licti I 
prop^ oqvio) I palpitate* The three following, viz. nXdCoi I drive 
^about, xkdCo) I sound^ aaATT/^cu / sound a trumpet^ on the contrary, 
have yy as the true characteristic, (future likdy^M &c.) 

Rem. 2. On the other hand, some verbs in aa or rr have, as 
the true characteristic, not the palatic, but the lingual, and follow 
therefore the analogy of those in C, as nidaaw I Jorm^ ndaao) I 
stroke^ ntlaacj I husk grain^ fut. nkaaon &ic. 

Rem. 3. Some verbs vibrate between the two characteristics d 
and y. See in the list of anomalous verbs d^nuCoi^ nalCo)^ (faatd- 
^01, vdaaoj. 

Rem. 4. It has been stated in general terms above, that in the- 
characteristic ttt, the true characteristic is always one of the labial 
mutes ; and in aa or tt, one of the palatics, or according to Rem. 
2, one of the linguals. Which particular letter, however, it may 
he in any single case, is for the most part indifferent ; since, as we 
shall see below, most verbs are in use only in those tenses (the 
first future^ first aorisi^ and perfect^) which are obliged, in obedi- 
ence to the general rules (§ IB &c.) to change this pure charac- 

i ~ 




teristic ; and indeed the three mates also in the lilie way.' For«x- 
ample, from the future §r\iia it is clear, that the true characteristic 
of (itiaata is a palatic, but not which. It is true we are able, in 
these cases, to conjecture from kindred forms, which paiatic is the 
true characteristic ; but as the declension of the verb is not there- 
1^^ Jby affected, it is not unsafe in all verbs, whose true characteristic 
is not obvious from the conjugation, to regard n as the true char- 
acteristic of those in TIT, and of those in aa or tt either y or ^ 
(Rem. 2^, v^hich latter is the basis of the kindred termination C. 
It will remain therefore only to take note of the few verbs, which 
really, in one of their tenses, retain unchanged a different letter 
from the regular characteristic of that tense, viz. 

a) In icr, — (iXanTW I injure^ ngvurot I concecd^ in both^of 
' which the true characteristic is ff. — ^anxia I «ew, ^amm I bury ^ 

axanrdi) I dig^ giniM I throw^ {tQvnxm I breaks in all which the 
true characteristic is gr. 

b) In aa, zr, — apQiaaca I shudder^ the true characteristic of 
which is X. 



1. The attaching of the temporal endings, as they are givea 
above (^ 90), cannot take place directly, nor without consideration 
of the general rules of euphony ; which require, that the charac- 
teristic of the verb, if it do not harmonize with the ending, should 
undergo various changes and modifications. In addition to this, 
various peculiarities, founded in usage, are to be considered. 

2. The subject will be more intelligible, if we observe what 
tenses are derived one from another, or coincide one with anoth- 
er. The tenses in this respect are divided into three classes, 4d 
whibh they are arranged in the order, in which, in most verbs, 
they are found. 

I. Present and imperfect active and passive. 

II. First future and aorist active and middle. 

First perfect and pluperfect, with perfect and pluperfect pas- 

sive, and paulopost future. 
First aorist and first future passive. 

III. Second future and second aorist active and middle, second 

aorist and second future passive, second perfect and plu- 





Should any particalar yelrb, made use of as a paradigm, want 
any of the preceding' tenses, such tense of that yetb is neyerthe- 
*les8 inserted iu the grammar, as a guide to other verbs, in which 
it is used. 

Every change made in a verb in the tenses quoted first in ei- 110 
ther of the preceding series, takes place in the other tenses of the 
same series, unless some particular rule or exception prevent 

Remark. The circumstances in which the tenses, in each of 
the preceding series, for the most part^ agree with each other, 
are principally the following, viz. 

a) The tenses in series 1. make no alteration whatever in 
the radical form of the present active^ which is in real use ; and 
where the present active belongs itself to a strengthened form of 
the root (in conformity with what was ^ated above), it is found in 
all the teases of this series, as rtWo), txvntov &q. while the tenses 
of the second series, for the most part, and of the third series 
altogether, are derived from the simple form. 

b) The series 11^ comprises all those tenses, in which the 
characteristic of the verb is 'generally changed by inflection, par- ; 
ticularly by the addition of a consonant in the termination, as tv- 
'tpu &c. 

c) The series HI. on the other hand, retains unchanged 
the characteristic of the verb, as inmtjv^ and alters only occasion- . 
ally the radical vowel. In this ifsries of tenses alone, therefore, 

— when the first series contains a strengthened form — -the true '*' * 
characteristic of the verb is to be recognised, since in the second 
series, should the said characteristic be a palatic, though this fact 
may be known, yet it cannot be ascertained by mere inspection, 
which of the palatics is the characteristic. 

^ 94. THE TENSES. 

1. In order to learn the formation of the tenses^ it is necessary 
to assume only one part or form of the verb, from which to derive 
them all ; and the present indicative active is made use of for this. 
All the ptiier varieties of person and mode^as sooi^ as this one 
person is known — are derived uniformly in all verbs, i^ccording to 
the mianner to be unfolded in the paradigms below, with the qual- 
ifications^ expressed in ^ 87, 88. 




K 96. 

■ ♦ 

Reiu&x. The perfect alone is of a form so peculiar, that ^eyer- 
al of its personaLand modal inflections must be learned at the 
same time, as being in some degree independent of each other 

2. SeyeraV tenses are formed in a manner so simple and regu- 
lar throughout, that they may be satis&ctorily learned from the ex- 
amples, which follow below. For more conyenient inspection, 
. however, they are here detailed in the usual conjugation in co.— 
The tenses then are derived as follows, viz. 

a) From the present in (u, the imperfect in oi/, tvnro} Btvmov, 

b) From every tense in o), a passive in ofiai. From the pres- 
' ent active, the present passive, ivntw tvniof4M^ and from the fu- 

|]^][ lure, the future middle,. Ti!t//o) zvtpofAm. Under this moreover is 
included the second future or the circumflexed future in cu, middle 
ovfiat (§ 101. 2.) 

« c) From every tense in ov, a passive in o/ui^y. From the im- 
perfect, the imperfect passive, hvivtov^ hvuTOiiriv^ and from the 
second aorist active, the. second aorist middle, itvjtow iivno^iiv, 

d) From the first aorist, the aorist middle, merely by appead- 
ing the syllable /uiyv, ervxpu irvxpafiriv. 

* e) From the perfect in every case the pluperfect ; in the ac- 
tive voice, by changing the a into f^i/, tirvifa hetvqjnv^ — ^in the 
passive voice, by changing fxo^v into firiv^ Ttzufif.tai heTvg^fifjv* 

f) From each of the two forms of the porist passive, the cor- 
responding' future passive is formed by changing tjv into i^aofum^ 
izvqj'&fjv and ixvnt]v — ivq/d^rjaofjiai^ rvni^oofiai. 

The other tenses have their particular rules. 


1. The principal form of the Greek future is the termination 
da>. It is found in by far the greatest number of verbs, and is 
thence called the firH/uture^ as navfa^ fut navaou* 

2. When the characteristic of the verb is a consonant, the 
changed incident to a take place, viz. 

^ 96.] VKRBS. — ^TDTURK ACTIVE. 115 

I • 

Xi/ci}^ nkdxm^ tfi%m^ fot X«|io, nA«|i», r«u|fti 
^UHoDy Uinu^ ygaq}(o, — '^klipm, Xilxjjw^ yQw^fio ' 
onivifa^ mld'otf^ m^okf — amvam^ neiam, lu'^m, 

3. In verbs in irt, in aa or rr, and in f, the real ctiaracteristic 
according to ^ 92 is adopted. In consequence nr i» clianged in- 
to 1/;, aa ottt into g, and C into a, e. g. ^ ^ 

rvnifo {TTITSi) M. rvxpto 
Tuaao) ( TArSi) — raSoi 

In th^ rardr cases, as is also taught in the same place, C is 
changed into |, and aa or it into 9, e. g. 

ngdCta {KPArSiyM.Mpd^m 
nXttOffm {nAA0Si) — nlaota. 

4. When the characteristic of the verb is a vowel, the syllable 112 
before the endii^ aot is by rule long^ whatever be its quantity in 

the present, e.g. 

danQVia {v) fut. dangvam {v) 
rtta (i) — tlam (i) 

In consequence of which rule e and o are changed into'i; and 
on, as <piKi(o^ dfjloQj^ — g^iktjata^ dfjXtotfo}. 
For exceptions to this, see Rem. 3 below. 

5. l*he characteristic a is changed into tj in the future, except 
when one of the vowels ; , t, or the consonant g precedes, in which 
case the future has long a,* e. g. 

r^^ccco, anatam^ fut. ttfifjOta^ anctttjifm 
ffodo}^ iyyvcuo, — - fioi^am, iyyvi^am 
id(a^ fi€idia(a^ — /cxaoi, fAHdt^aam (a) 
Sgdw, ijpmgam^ — - dgaGW^ ifrngiaot (a) 

For exceptions see below Rem* 4. * 

* Compare the rimilar rales in the first declension i 34. 2^ and in the 
feminine pf adjectives # 59. 2. 

116 VERBS. — FUTURE ACTIVE* . [§95. 

I — ~ - — - ■ ■ — - ■ - - ^_^_^^^^^^,^^^^^^^,^^^^^^^^^_^^ — . , . „ _ ^ 


6. On the other hand, the penult syllables of the futures in 
ddot), f ffo), i/acv, are always short when they coine from verbs in ^(a 
or in a(7, rr, as in qsgaofa^ divtiaoi^ vof^laat^ Hlvao)^ from <pQa^(a^ 
dixaio)^ vo(Jii^o)j xAi;f(u, and in ni,aG(Oy ntiooa^ from TiAaaaoi, ntlaata* 


1 . When the cr of the future is fU'eceded by a labial, the change 
lakes place mentioned § 25. 4, as anivd(o^ fut. aneiam, ^ 

2. In the Doric dialect, in the first future and aorist, most of 
the verbs in C, era, tt, which commonly have a, take an £, as 
liOfii'io)^ ^«xa|f», from X0ju/C<^, dcxdCto. 

3. Several verbs, that have a short vowel as a characteristic, 
have the same unchanged in the futjure, as yelato I laugh^ anafo 
I draw^ fut. aam' ctivtot I ptam^ nakt'ta I caU^ ^im I 6oti, fut f'aoi* 

' vtQOfa I plough^ fut. Offft>' uvvia I fulfil,^ igvcn I extract^ fut. i/aw- 
Some verbs vibrate between both lorms, partly in the future itself, 
as7io#£^a> / desire^ fut. t'octt and 97 ao), partly in the tenses which are 
derived thereft'om (compare § 92. 2.) as kvco I loost^ fut kvoia^ 
perf pass, lilvuau See in the anomalous verbs aiveat^ aioita^ 
Sim, no^eta^ d'i;oi, ^i;w, Ivo). , 

4. The verb OL^Qoaofiat I Aear' has dxpoaaofAai^ contrary to the 
analogy of ffodcD fut ^(jq>. On the other hand, y()cxa), X9^^f*^h ^* 
X^V^^f^t &c. is contrary to the analogy of d^dto^ c(ffa>. 

113 5. The following six, viz. x^f^ I pour out^ pm I flow^ viafi 
svoim^ nXioa I saU^ nveot I blow^ d^io) I run^ have ev in the future, 
as ;^ei;(TQi, ^evaofACti^ &c. see anoihalous verbs. The two follow- 
ing, 'xmicd / bum^ and xAa/o) / weep^ whose original form, preserv- 
ed in the Attic dialect, is xAao>, xaoi, with a long a, take av in the 
future, as xai;aai, xXavaca^ see anomalous verbs. 


6. When the termination aoi is preceded by a short vowel, the 
a is occasionally omitted, in the Ionic dialect, and, in the Attic di- 
alect, the two syllables are contracted into one, and marked with 
a circumflex, as from rekeoi I finish^ 

Fut reXiao) Teliasig^ &c. 

Ion. Tski(a nlieig nXtH rsXiofiiv rekifte taXeovaiv 

Att Tela! T6k€ig tsXsi zikovfifv tekelre Tfkovaiv. 

From ^tfid^ca I Uad^ 

Fut fiipiGO) pipdaeig &c. 

Ion. (/?«/?aai ^ipdng ^&c. obsolete.) ^ 

Att j^f/JcJ pifi^g^i^^ ^i^mfAev pipdte Pipoiatv. 

The same prevails in the modes and participles^ and in the mid- 
dle voice. See the present tense of the contract verbs below. 

, ^ 


_ I , I I I 111! 

.7. If the short vowel he «, the two vowels do not admit of 
contraction. In this case, . after the omission of the a, the oi is 
drcumflexed^ and inflected; in every respect, like a contract verh 
in £01, as from xofiiCo)^ 

Fut. utofAiam xofilaeig &c. 

Att. xo/JiMo xofieig ui lovfisv leTta lovai. Mid. xofAiqvfiat &c. 

In the Attic writers, this is the most usual form of the future in 
verbs of this class. 

, SECOirb FUTURE. ' ^ 

8. When, in order to form the future, the termination ^co, and 
the (u, itg &c. ovfi^it &c. formed from it, are attached to the char- 
acteristic of the verb, it is called the second future ; which form of 
the future is the most common with verbs, whose characteristic is 
A, ^, v^ Q, with respect to which more precise rules are given be- 
low in § 101. A foroDf&tion of the same kind, in some other verbs, is 
to be regarded as wholly anomalous ; see in the anomalous verbs 
fAUXOfiai and i^Ofiai. 

9. The Dorics attach the terminations cu^&c. ovf4fv^ ovf4ai (or, 
more exactly in the Doric dialect, fufifv, evfiai^) to the^ff (l»^) 
of the common first future, as xvxpm^ tvxpovfieif or rvifjsvfiev^ and 
this form is also used in the Attic and common diaiect, as the 
futare^middle of some verbs; as from nvlyca I suffocate^ Fut Mid. 

10. An entirely anomalous form of the future, viz. in o/iai^ 
may be seen under nlvo) and ead-iot^ in the list of anomalous 


1. The Aorist terminating in a is called the First Aorist. This, 114 
however, has a twofold formaticm, adding either ace or simply a to 
the characteristic of the verb. In the same cases where the fu- 
ture, according to the rule, ends in aoi — that is, universally, ex- 
cept in verbs in A, ^, f , ^ — the first aorist ends in aa, wherein the 
same changes take place, as in (toi, viz. 

TUTrreo, Tvxpoi^ aor. l.,tTVXpa 


nvtu}^ nvevaoj^ — tnvivau. 





Verbe, on the other hand, in A, /u, y, q^ whose future ends not in 
901^ hut in w^ hare this aorist not in aa, but in a alone ; the par- 
ticular rules for which will be given in treating verbs of this class 
below in § 101. 

Rem. 1. A few verbs of the anomalous class, though they are 
not verbs in A, /u, i/, (>, form their first aorist in a instead of (r«, as, 
%tfo^lx^a. For the first aorist in %a of some verbs ia [al, a* ^^^ 
xcK, see those verbs below. 

2. The aorist in ov is called the Second Aorist, The terminal 
tion. is haninediately attached to the characteristic of the verb ; 
where, however, three things are to be observed, viz. 

a) The second aorist is uniformly derived from the pure and 

simple characterisHc^ when the same exists, according to 
§ 9^^ in a strengthened form in the present. 

b) The penult of the present is commonly shorlened in the 

second aorist. 

c) The € in the radical syllable of the verb is usually changed 

into a, in the second aorist. 

3« It is only by the^ changes, that the second aorist is distin- 
guished, in form, from the imperfect ; and all verbs which cannot 
undergo these changes (e. g. lgv(o^ ygaq^af^ &c.) or where there 
would be no difference but the quantity of the vowel (as in xAivo)), 
have no second aorist.* 

4. It is also altogether wanting in derivative verbs, formed 
from othei" words with a regular termination, like afoi, /(ico, aivm, 
vvoij £i;c(i, ow^ ao), and tw* 

Rem. 2. Of other verbs, moreover^ the greater part have the 

first aorist, and much the smaller portion the second, although it 

115 ia assumed in the grammar, even in verbs which do not possess it, 

in order to teach the formation of other tenses, particularly the 

second aorist passive.! 

♦ Tiiey may have nevertheless a second aorist passive, as tfQafffiv^ 
see J 100. 

t The learner is therefore to be apprised, that in the following exam- 
ples the forms hxvnov^ Ikqv^o^^ tQ^aipov^ '^kkayav^ fxaoy, &c. are 
either not found at all in Greek writer^, 6t very rarely f and ttoii irvtpify 

- f 


_ i» — if 

— a 

— a 



: I 

5. Id coDformity with these priDciples, the changes and ahbre- 
viatioos (indicated generally above in no. 2,) of the characteristic 
and vowel o^the present into the characteristic and vowel of the 
second aorist, are accomplished in the respective cases^ as fol- 
lows, viz. 

Pres. IX Sec. Aor. k — fiaUm iffakov 

In — Timroi ^ txtmov 

— nx — ■*■ \/^ — x()i;nro> ixgvffov 

aa^ TT — — y — ukXdaam i^kkayop 

i — (fgaCia tq^gadov 

at — -» a — %al(o tnaov 

— fj — — a — krip-ia ika^ov 

'^ kflnm . iktnop 

e or a, in the verbs A, /u, y, g 
.^^ (V — — iJ — ffevyfo tg)vyop 
.— . ^ — — a — tgtnto irgunow 

Kkm. 3. to avoid the danger of mistaking an imperfect, or in 
other modes a present, for the second aorist, or the reverse, it is 
to be observed in addition to the rule hi no. 3, that, as was taught 
§ 94. 2, the real imperfect tense of a verb always conforms exact- 
ly to the actual present tense, and consequently, in the indicative 
mode, that only is the true aorist, which differs in form from the 
imperfect in actual use, and, in the other modes, from the present 
in actual use. Accordingly eygaq:ov from ygiq^ia^ can only be im- 
perfect, and ygaffttig only subjunctive present. 

Rem. 4. In some verbs,' the second aorist has the syllable be- 
fore the termination lon^^ content with the other points of differ- 
ence noted in no. 2, as fvgov^ ipkaatov^ &c. see the anomalous 
verbs fvglamm^ fiknarivto. In a few caises, where the vowel would 
otherwise be long by position, a transpotition restores the common 
relation between the present and second aorist, as digHto^ edganov. 
See the anomalous verbs d^ipxoi, mg'&io. 

Rem. 5. The second aorists in i/t^, oiy, t)y, and the syncopated 
aorists, are treated below under the head of verbs in fi«, § 110 

Rem. 5, 6. 

1 y , — , — .■ 

tjkkal^a^ &c. are used instead of them. The former, however, are given 
to show the formation of the second aorist passive of these verbs, whicl^ 
skctually occurs in the Greek writers. 


vc:rbs.-^first and second perfect. 

K '97. 



1 25' 1. The first perfect has two termioationa, both ending in a, 
«ff, &c. 

a) If the characteristic of the verb be /?, ti, qp, or y, x, %, tliis 
letter is (or remains) aspirated, and a is attached to it . £• g. 

TQifio)^ Xenof^ yQiig)w^ perf. rtT()^goa,* XAegia^ ytygaipa 

If the characteristiC'^f the present is changed (Q 92), it can still 
be recognised in the future ; and as the same letters, which effect 
/ in the future a change into | or t/;, produce in the perfect a ^ or 
qp, so to form the perfect from the future it Is only necessary to 
change those 'double letters into these aspirates. E. g. 

xaaacu (t«5o>), perf. xixayia 

TvnTO) (rvi^w), — tirvcpa. 

b) In all ot^er cases the first perfect ends in xa. This termi' 
nation in the verbs which make the future in 9od, is attached to 
the root in the-«ame manner^ and with the same chains, afi the 

• <yai, e. g. ^ 

t/w . (rZtfai) 

iQv&Qidoi {iQv&Qiaao}) 
anam {anccao)^ 
nveott (nvevaoi)) 

So also the following/ with the omission ^of the Unguals, viz. 

nei'd'ci {neiaoti) ' perf ninu%a 

The verbs in A, ^, v, q will be considered below in § 101. 

2. Several verbs have a second jp&rfecixxi a. It is this form, 

which, in the elder grammarians, in consequence of its beings la 

* a few rare instances, found to have an intransitive or reflected 

perf zitiua 

— zevifiifjua 

— eanccHa 

* With I long as in the present. 


meaDiDg, was ad^d the Perfect Middle,^ la reality y however, it 
is foand, hoth in virtue of its prevalent slgoification and of the 
anal(^ of its formation, to he a second form of thie perfect active. 
This form attaches the sam^ terminations, as the first perfect, to 117 
the characteristic of the present, without any change, as Ai^^oi 

3. There are three things here to he noted, viz. 

a), When ^he characteristic of the present is not simple (§92) 
the simple characteristic appears in the secoad perfect, precisely 
as in the second aorist, e.g. 

' nAfiaooi {UAHrSl) — itinkfiya 
q>glaam {0PIKSi) . — mtpgata 
0(03 (0^«) — oditi^a. 

" b) In general this form prefers a long vowel in the penult, 
even when the second aorist has a short one. Hence the second 
perfect of g>€vy(u (second aorist iq;vyov) is niffsvyct. ' The short 
a, accordingly, whether it exists simply in the present, or has heen 
introduced into the other tenses by shortening the ij or ai of the 
present, is commonly changed in the second perfect into 17, e. g. 

^akkm (fut. ^akm) — ti^tiXu 

Xii'&m (aor. 2 iXa^ov) — ItXtj&a 

Sulfa (aor. 2 idaov) — dedtjoc.* 
But sometimes this is merely made long, as^ngaCoi (Jxgiyov) 

c) This perfect, moreover, is inclined to the vowel i>, and it 
therefore not only remains unaltered, as in nomm {KOIISi) ntKO- 
Tra, but it is also adopted as a change of f, as ^f (»xqi, dtdognct^ 
TEKSl^ thona (see anomalous verbs* t/xtw). This circumstance 
operates in a twofold manner on the et of the present, according, 
as f or ^ is the basis of this diphthong, which is to be determined 
f3pom those tenses that shorten the vowel, as the second future and 
second aorist. If the radical letter be «, which is the case only 


* The mode of writing dnhiCi a»- also niipifva, afatina &c. is incor- 
rect. • 

16 • 

122 VERBS.-— PBRrXCT PASSIVB. [<$ 98. 

Iti rettm ill k, fi, v^ f , ikeu $i is changtd ia s ; if it be », dieii it i« 
ehanged iato Oi, «. g. 

amigta (ftit. <m*()(i5) — Ifsnoga • . 
, Af/Tto) (aor. 2 flirtov) — ^ AAotTra. 

4. The same remark may be made of the second perfect, which 
was made above (§ 96. 4) of the second aorist, viz. that it exists 
118 only in primitive verbs, and that the greater number of these, as 
also all derivatives, have only the first perfect. 

Riaf. ] . Some first perfects also chaise i into o. Siich are 
nifATifa I send^ nino(i(i>a' xlinto) I $teal^ x^VcAogpa* Tginm I ium^ and 
Tgeqoi I nourish^ t^rgoipu. See also A^^, m/pBikoxa^ amone the 
anomalous verbs. In like manner e« is changed into o^4n ^eooi%a 
from the anomalous AElSl. 

Rem. 2. It has already been remarked (§ 84 Rem. 1), that af- 
ter the Attic redapiication the vowel of t)ie perfect is shortened, 
as axovm iyiiq%ou^ lilaicpm akfikliq\ot^ EAETf^Sl ikijXv'&tt. 

Rem. 3. For several shortened forms of the perfect, as piflaa 
for pi^rinu^ fiifiafjifv for p$Sn*u(Jitvhc» see §.tio Rem. 4. 


1; In the Perfect Passive the terminations fiai^ <nx«, ra», &c. 
and in the Pluperfect^ f4fjv^ (fo, to, &c. are attached to the charac- 
teristic of the verb, not, as in the other passive fdrms, by means 
of the vowel of connexion (§ 87 Rem. 1, ofim^ frat, &c) bat imr 
medtateiy^ inasmuch as the characteristic precedes the «e or mx of 
the regular first perfect active, frcnn which the perfect passive i« 
formed. • 

Rem. 1. When therefore a verb has no first perfect in use, it is' 
supplied in the grammar, as in Af/^rw {A^lo^^ra) the tet perfect 
9iA^tfpa is supplied, to Am tberelrom the perlect passive kik^i' 

£.. Thene are accordirigly two general rules for the forauilioa 
of this tense, viz. / ^ 

I. If the first perfect Jiave ^, %^ these letters undergo a change 


before /i, a, r, according to the general rules m §^ 80, £«, S3. 
Hence from ttrvipa and mnXtia are formed • 

xitv-niAM^ xijv-^ak^ %i%v-ntu^y 

for "ipiMi^ -^am^ '^thu* 

ninXs-y/Aai^ mnXi-iai^ niitl^-XTM^ 
for -xt^uL, --jfira*, ^x^$ii. 

In order to avoid the concnrrence of three consonants (^ 19. 2 ) in 
the farther inflection of this tenise and the pluperfect, the a Is omit- 
ted from the tertninations o^<, a&a^, o^oi, &c. e. g. 
2d pers. pi. tirwfy^i for r^a^e or -i//^f, 
luLiunlex'^ai for -jjjo-d'c* or -J^ai. 

The third person plnral in vrtti and vto cannot he formed, con- 
sistently with the analogy of the Greek language ; and its place is 
therefore supplied hy an Pinion of the participle with a tense of 

. elvai, to be ;. siee the paradigm of rvntm helow. 

"* • , 

Rkm. 2. In thie Ionic dialect, however, instead of yra^ and vro 
there is found urai and axo^ see ^103 Rem. III. 5. 

11. The second general rule for the formation of the x^rfect ^^^9 
passive is, that when the first perfect active is formed in »a, this 
teteination is merely changed into fnxi^ and this as followsi, viz. 

a) If the characteristic of the verb be a vowel, this change is 
directly effected, e. g. ^ 

nenoiTjxa-^—TTfnolfifiai^ aat^ rat, &c. 
(t^eo), wva<o,) vivevKtt — vivevfAcn^ aat^ tai^ &c. 

by But when before the x of the first perfect active, as also 
before the ooi of the future, a lingual has dropped out, its place is 
supplied by an o before the terminations of the perfect passive, e. g. 

Sd(o {ilow, ^xa)— ffafim^ tiara* &c. 
(pgdCdii (7i«gppaxa) — ntip^aCfAai^ atat &c. 

Before another a, however, this a is again omitted, as 2. pen. 
sing. mmi-Gat^ 2. pi. mmta^i^ 3. pi. as above. . / 

c) The rules for the perf. pass, of verbs in A, /u, r, Qj are given 
separately in § 101 below. 



. ^ . 



■ * - ' - 

Reit. 3. The o of the perfect active, which is derived from an 
€ iD the present, does not pass into the perfect passive, as nXeitTw 
{xtxloq^u) xinkififiai. ' Bat the following three verbs, viz. xginfa I 
<i«m, Tgtqft} I nourish^ crgtupto I turn (trans.) have in the perfect 
passive a peculiar change of the 9 into a, as titiiafAfiav^ T£rpai//a«, 
&c. le'^gafifjiai from r^^'igpcu (that is &PJS0Si^see § 18. 2), eoTgafi" 

Rem. 4. Some verbs change the diphthong fi/, which existB 
originally in their present, or is assumed by them in the future, 
into V in the perfect passive, as levyjo, {ztTivj^a) Tervyfiat' So 
also (ffvyto^ and nifto} {nvemo} nenpfvxa) ninvvfiai. In ;f£w (yfiJ- 
ffcti)^this change is already made in the perfect acdve xtx^xu^ 
nixvf*ai- Of the variable quantity of some verbs in m, t;c», see 
above § 95 Rem. 3. 

Rem. 5. The a before the termination of the perfect passive is 
assumed by several verbs, which have no lingual, but a vowel for 
th^ir characteristic, viz. pure verbs^ as axovw iJKOvafiat^ xikivfa 
taxikivafjiui, and particularly several of those which retain a short 
vowel unchanged, as reKeat (r; Af orco) TftiXiOfiai. 

Rem. 6. When yy is brought to stand before /u, one / is^initted, 
as iXiyxoii^ perf. ^AiyAfy/a, pass. iki^Xfyfiat' Ofiyyoi^eaq^tyfia^, The 
other terminations follow the rule, sis ili^leyim^ ymrm^ &c. I<f- 
9^/£ai, &c. 

Rem. 7. In like manner wliere the perfect passive would have 
ftju, and another jm is a^ded from the root of the verb, one fi is 
naturally omitted, ais TtdfiitTOi, nixafifAai^ %ixoLfi\pUi^ &c. . 

Rem. 8. The subjunctive and optative can only be rormed, 
when the termination is preceded by a vowel allied with the ter- 
mination of the subjunctive, or which combines with the i of the 
optative, e. g. 

xrao/ua^, Htxrtjfiai^ Subj. x^xrcojutt^, i;, i^rat, &c. 

Opt. xexTtififjv^ x£xrfjo, nixtifTO^ &c. 
Ticpftoi, mmgotfiaij Opt. nent'gaififjVj &c. 

Also when the vowel is ^ or v, optative tenses may be formed (as 
tr is a kindred vowel) by the suppression of the i. The vowel 
must, however, be long, as Ai;ai, XfXvfiai (see § 95 Rem. 3.) Opt. 
3. pers. XiXvTO' The use, however, of all these forms is very 
limited, and usually superseded by composition with the tenses of 
ilvtti. See the paradigm. 

^^ 99y 100.] verb9.-«'Fi;tciie anj> aobists pass. 



The Third Future or Paubpostfuhtre of the passive^ in respect 
to signification (§ 139) and form, is derived from the perfect pae- ' 
^e, of which it retains the augment, substituting aofAti$ for the 
termination of the perfect passive. It is therefore only necessary 
to take the endii^ of the 2d pers. perf. pass, in <r««(i/fa#, im) and 
change the ai into Ofiai^ e. g. 

T^vgafJifJiai {rtrgaxpat) — retg'dtpOfiai 
iuq>lXri/itti {neipUfiaai) — n€(p$Xrjoofiai 

Rem. 1. In thoeie cases, in which the vowel of the first future 
is shortened in the perfect passive, the third future makes it long 
;i^in as ktkviyofiai^i See § 95 Rem. 3. 

Rem, 2. Tlie verlls which have the temporal augment, and' 
the verbs il, fc, y, (), have no paulopbstfuture. 



1. All verbs form the aorist of the passive either in ^t^v or^/y, 
and many in both ways at once. The former is called first aorist, 
the latter second aorist ; see above &' 89. 3. 

2. The first aorist passive attaches ^lyV to the characteristic 
of the verb, e. g. 

It is here understood (see ^ 20), that the characteristic of the |^21 
verb^ when it is a smooth or middle mute, is changed into one of 
the aspirates^ e. g. , ^ 

TVTtTOn ( TTTlSi) — hvq)d'fjv 

136 r£RBs. — riRST ahix sbcond aor. PAds. [^ 100* 


3. In respect to the remaining changes of the root, which take 
place in the series of the first future (^ 93. 2), the first aorist pas- 
Hive goverDS itself principaliy according to the perfect passive, in- 
ataiuch as it assones a in the same* cases, e. g. 

The radical vowel is also in most cases changed in the same 
way, as ip the perfect passive, e. g. 

q^tXdat {neipilfifAat) — i(fiXii&i2P 
tifAao) {t€t ifitifiai) — itifjiijd'fjv 
Tfi);jrto {vtTvyfAat) — itv^'^riv, 

4. The second aorist passive attaches ti^ to the jewrc charac- 
teristic of the ve^b, and in so doing, follows, all the rules given 
above for the second aorist active. It is necessary therefore to 
form the second aoiiat active, whether it is used or not, and then 
change the ov into f^v^ e. g. > 

Timrwr^' atvnov^ — irvnijv 

Rem. 1. A few verbs, whose characteristic 'is a vowel, assatne 
o in the. first aorist passive^ without having it in the perfect passive, 
as nav(o^ nenavfjiai^ — inavG'&riP' fipotofiai^ fAefiPtjiAaiy — IfAvria&tiv* 
For the opposite exception aoif'a;, otafotffiui^ — iato^tju^ see anom- 
alous verbs. 

Rem. 2. Those which, without being verbs in A, fi, v,^^ change 
their € into a in the perfect passive (§ 98 Rem. 3), retain their 6 
in the first aorist, as ar^tipto {iotQafiftat) iaT()if&f]v' r^icWco, it^s'^ 

Rem. 3. As it is not possible in the passive voice, for a confu- 
sion of the imperfect and second' aorist to take place as in the ac- 
tive, so those verbs have 9, second aorist passive^ which, accordiqg 
to § .96. 3, cannot have it in the active. In this oase it may be 
formed from the imperfect active, as in other cases it . is formed 
from the second aorist active. The rule, however, prevails that 
the long vowel is made short in the second aorist, 6. g. 
yQaq)(a, impf. ^^a(pov^ — iyQafptjv 
TQi^a^ impf. iT^ip^v^ — ixgifiriv (short e). 

Rem. 4* For the^same reason also some verbs, whose radical 
vowel is «, form a second aorist passive, without changing « into 
tfi as npUym^ iq>Xfyipf. 

^. 101.] YSBBS IN Aj /», Vj 9. 127 


I I I I !■! . ■ -in I I . I . ■ - ^■- -■- - 

^ IQl. VERBS IN ^, fij y« Q' 

|. The verbs, whose characteristic is one i)f the four letters A, 
/I, Pjfij depart so extensively from the analogy of the other verbs, 
that it is necessary here to exhibit their pecnliarities in one con- 
nected view. N , » 

2. ^11 verbs of this cLms, strictly speaking, want the first future 
IB ao), and have instead of it the second future (§ 95 Rem. 8.) 
Tlie termination of this future, in the Ipnic, is m, ing^ Mid. fOf^m^ 
&c. and this iii the common dialect is contracted as follows, viz. • 

vi'fJto}^ fut. vefiiOD^ com. vefioi 

fiivio^ fut. fifvio)^ com* fiBv£, 
Of this future the further inflection {vffi^^ eJgf u, ovfASp^ thi, 
ovist^ &c. Mid. ovjEtcef, ^, ihat, &c. see In the paradigm,) is to be 
cooipared witib the ^Hresent of the contract verbs in dm (^ 105.) 

3. The syllable befoite the temtoatimi^ when it is long in the 
present, is without Exception shortened in this future, e. ^. 

\poLkl(a, artkho^ fut ^(xAcv, orekA 
vt^ivw, a/Jivvm^ fut. kqIvcS^ d/jivvw> 

Ta tills end, the diphthong mi is changed into short «, and 6$ Into 
«, as aiQOi^ fat. iXjOcu' Hifivta^ fut. xnvm. 

4. The first aorist of these verbs Is ibrmed also, without if, in 
a alone. They retain therewith the characteristic as it is 10 the 
future, but lengthen again the syllable before the termination, iqp 
dependently however of the present, as they et^iber simply leAgthen 
the vowel of the future, e. g. 

ilivvm (^dfivvw) -»- 9J(jivvfx^ 

or they change the e of the future into ^, and.a into 17, e. g. * 

fiepai^aT£kk(a<f t€/m», {fji^pi^ otektSy tbvw) — Sjinvu^ tatuXa^ heiva 
ypiXkm^ ^afW, {fpmkw, <pupi) — tftjlm, iqnjva. 

Several verbs, however, which have m in the present, take a long 123 
a in the first aorist, as Tre^&ivca {negccvc^^ iniQivu^ Inf* nifSvah 

1^8 VERBS IV X, /U, y, Q. [^ 101. 


Rem. 1. The Yerbs aiipoi and iklofiai beginning with a, have 
a in the first aprist, which, only in the indicative, in consequence 
of the augment, is changed into 17, as tjgay &Qai^ agag* i^kafAtjv, 

5. The second aorist retains the vowel exactly as it is in the 
future.' E. g. 

. fiaXkm {fiakm) — ifiaXov^ pass. ipiXtiv 
qmhta (gpavcu) — a. 2 pass, lijpapfjv 
kXIpw {xXivm) — a. 2 pass. ixXlvtiv (short i)» 

But the i of the future in^issyllahk verbs is changed into a (comp. 

§ 96. 2.) . E. g. 

ntelv<a (jktsvw) — ■ axravov 

areXXm {areXa!) — a. 2 pass. hraXfiv, " 

Polysyllables retain t^e f , as o'^^/Aco, AifiXov* 

6. The second perfect, when it is used, is formed entirely ad- 
cording to the rules given above (§ 97. 2, 3.) E. g. 

^iXXfo — Tt'&fjXa, ipalvio <— niqyii^u 
APEMSl — did^litt. 

The H of the present, lAnce (as appears from the future) it has its 
origin, in verbs of this class, not in the radical «, but in c, passes 
-into alone, and not into o», as aittlgm {onegci)^ ianopa. 

7. The fi!tst perfectfthe x>erlect passive, and first aorist passive, 
follow the general rules in attaching the terminations x«, fnix^, &c. 
4^y,.to the characteristic, retainii]^ the changes of the future* E. g. 

. aq)aXX(o {aq>aX(o) — iaq^aXxa^ eoipaXfiav 

. Inf. uQidijifM. 

The peifect passive also drops the a of the teiininations a^o^, 
<y^«, &c. ($ 98. 2.) E. g. 

aq)aXX(a^ £aipaXfAa&^ 2 pers. pi. €aq>aX^e 

qfvgof, ntqtvQfAUi,^ inf. ne^v'g^a^. 

* The mode of writing with the i suhscript, as r^QU, q^Qttlj ^9>y^0i} &Ci 
and with the acate in the infinitives, ai^ negwvtu be, is incorrect. 

I 101.] VKW8 IN A, fl» «^, ^ 129 

8. Here, howeyer, the two following departares from the anal- ^^^ 
Qgy of the other yerhs are to be observed, viz. 
^ a) When the fature has an e, the dissyllal^les in these tenses 
chan^ it into a. £. g. 

OTcAAoi {aztXaS) — IcrraAxa^aaraA/uat, iar^ik&fjVy aor. 2 pass, iaralfjy 
assi^(» {mgci) —TtinaQKu^ mnfM^ftui^ aor. 2 pass, inigtiv, ' 

b) The foUowiag yerbs io ^W, slvtu^ vvoi, yiz*» M^ivw^ Kklvm, 
7€/yc9, itrf &o»^ TiAwoi, drop the v in these tenses, and aisume the 
«bort yowel of the future, but in such a way, that those in ihm 
change that short yowel, which is f , into a. £• g« 

itghfa {itgivoS) — - lUXQixa^ xingtfiai^ ingi^tiP 
Teivat (revcJ) — Ttzdxa rttafiai, ha^fjv 
Ttkvvm {nkvvcS) — ninkvxa nfnXvfia&^ inkv'&ipf. 

Rem. 2. The polysyllables, according to the rule, retain e un- 
changed in the penult, as a///Uo), ijyyeXxa^ ^yyfX^tjv. This is 
done also in^the perfect passive of dissyllables which begin with 
£, as €tg(a, eegfiai. 

Rem. 3. The verbs which retain v^ occasion difficulty in the 
perfect passive. They preserve, however, the v unchainged in 
the following cases, viz. 

a) In the second person singular, where it even remains before 
4r, as fpalveo^ niqtavaav. 

b) In the^ terminations which beg^n wiA 9^, in which bowev- . 
er the a is dropped in consequence of the. y, as inf. iutpuv^M. 
See no. 7 above. 

c) fn the 8d sing, as ndtpavTM he Juu appeared. 

In the same manner, however, the 3d pi. is formed, (as xi- 
xgapvai from xgalvm^ where v is omitted, according to the next 
remark. But this form is extremely rare on account of this very 
confusion, and the compound form with eial is preferred. 

Rem. 4. Before the terminations beginning with /u, the follow- 
ing is the usage with respect to the v, 

a) The v passes into /w, as ^axv/Jif^ai from aiayvvm. ^ ^, 

b) The ^ is dropped, retaining the long vowel, as r^rgixviAttv 
from Tpa^^wQi. 

c) Most commonly instead of v we find ff, as q^ahm \q>avm)^ 
niijpaafitt^' fAoXivv>^ fACfioXvOfia^* 

Rem. 5. The elder and» the .£oUc dialects fiHmed the^future 
and the first aorist, even of these verbs, with <f, as xeigta enigff^, 
relgw rigom^ which form is the most usual in some verbs, as. q>vgm 
I knead. q>vgam. 



T£RBAL8 IN tOC Ald> UO^. 

[§ 102, 

125 ^ 102. VERBALS IN TOQ AND TiOQ. 

1. With the formation of the tenses must be connectecl that of 
the verbal adjectives in xiq and xio<:^ which, in signification and 
use, nearly resemble participles. See the Remark below. 

2. Both terminations always have the accent, and are attached 
immediately to the cliaracteristic of the verb, which undergoes 
the changes required by the general mle* The vowel is in va* 

, rioos cases changed. These changes coincide in every respect 
with those of the aorist passive, except that of course when tbe 
aorist has 9)^, /^, these forms have .itt, icr. We can therefore 
compare with these verbals the 3d sing. perf. passive, which has 
also T, though in respect to the leading syllable it departs, in many 
verbs, both from the first aorist and the vert)als. 

3. Accordingly we have the following forms of verbals, viz. 




— nkeKzog 

\ -' 






■— kiXTog • 




— YQO'Tfxog 




— ffTQ^ntog 




— ipmgujibg 

qitkifo ' 



— q^ikrjTiog 




— algnog 




— navmiog 




— arakreeg 




— tatiog 





— XVTog 




— Ttpivarog. 


The verbal in t 

ic conresDonds 

in form with the 

participle in to, and has in fact the same signification^ e. g. liiUK- 
Tog woven, Gtginxog twisted. But most commonly it conveys the 
idea of possibility, like the Latin temunation »/w, as arpeiiTog ver" 
HUUiSf^exible^ ogarog vitibilis; vtn6/e, ixovGrog audible. The ver- 
bal in tiog^ meantime, has the idea of necessity, and 'corresponds 
with the Latin participle in dw^ as q)iki3ziog amandus^ a person to 
he loved* See § 134. Rem. 4. 

.^103.}, BAETTON TXBBS. 131 


1. The foregoing rules, as well as the other details of the va- 
rious modes and tenses, will now be all illastrated in an example 
with the common baryton verb tvnrto^ to which will be subjoin- 
eil some ether peculiar examples of baryton verbs as they are 
used, and lastly one of the^ class in k^ fi, v, ^, viz. iyyeXXm. 

% Baryton ve^bs, as was explained above in § 10. 2, are in 
their natural form, in which the termination of the present tense is 
always unaccented ; in distinction from those, whose two last sylr , 
lables are contracted and marked with a circumflex, and hence 
called verba eotUracta by the Latin grammarians, and perispomena 
by, the Greek. The latter will be treated separately below- 

Rem. 1. The learner will bear in mind that tI^tvtoi is here 
used only as a paradigm or example, in which every thing is ex- 
hibited in one view, which belongs to the various verbs of this 
kind, although neither Tvntto nor any other single verb is found 
in all the modes and tenses here given.* See ^104. 

2. It was formerly usual to give the second future active and 
middle with the paradigpm of^unzw. Ina^mufch, however, as this 
form is wanting in all the verbs of the class to which Tuntta belongs 
viz. those whose characteristic is not k\ (i^ v^ ^, of course in the 
greatest number of verbs, it was here omitted in the preceding 
edition, but introduced in full in cx/^eAAoi, in the paradigm of 
verbs in A, ju, i/, q> It is now subjoined also in Ti;7irqi. 

Rem. 3. In order to have the whole conjugation in one view, 
a table is subjoined, whichLgives the first person of the declinable 
modes, the second person of the imperative, the infinitive, and the 
masculine gender of the participle, in all the tenses of the active, 
passive, and middle voices. This is immediately folloi^d by th^ 
flame verb, inflected at full length. 


* The parts oiTvntm in actual use may be seen in the list of anomalous 
verbs; where it is placed, in consequence of another form of the future not 
liere introduced, yiz. zvntfj^w^ 




[§ 103. 



•^4 i* 




§ g_'S-3 

M (M K» M 



^$-R R 

M ^ »4 h 




















i 3 2 tr.H J 

@-§ ?-** f.** *^r^ i^ ^ 





V ^ 0) 

-. ^ s ^ D -*- sm -c; sm 
g«p:^v,^9o. so 







R R {i« 

d s> iS 

»• M ^ 




©•a-R R S 
d ;;> d ;d 2» 

t« N (4 t4 M 




* •*» o 

3 I: 

R fc» 

S «^ 

d^a^R R g 

ed d ;:> «b 

t* M H (« 

■I * 




2: ** 




a^.»5 04 cu Es4 << (S4 << Em 

•^ ^ ®» ©I GO 

A _S 9 p o p 

^ 2* *u ^ 

H» H» « 2 

9. ^ ^ 

$ ^ R 

^•- ^e s 



p5 :^ s^ sk s^ 

e o o o o 

« ^^R R 

^ a d a d 

O (4 ti« (« M 



2 ^ •* * 

^ ^O R 

"d SI f) c 

g .3 g .S 

C^ O P O 

^ «-« Oi o< 


^ For the regular subjunctive an4 optative, which occur in only a few verbs, see above in 
'$96Reiii.8L For that whieh is here given, see $ 106. IV. 


% loa.] 

PARAmoK OF Ttmrcii^ 



Present^ / strikep 













TVTtTOVai (f). 


Imperfect, I was striking. 



eruT^Toy, > 


. irumi (v). 









First Perfect, / have struck. 
S. T^Vvfpcr, > Thv(pag^ %iruq>B (y), 

P. tiTVfctfiiv^ TitvqfaTi\f ' mvfpaci (v). 

First Pluperfect, / had struck. 

S. irfTv^c^i', Itivviftigy itmxfu^ 

D. ' ir€Tvq>HTOv, mrvgof/riyv, 

P. hmqiHfABv^ ititvijpem, itiTvq>Hoav or caai^. 


Second Perfect, / have struck, 

S. r^Viixra, riximugy * jixyne {y) 


P. TiTvnafiiv^ 


Second Pluperfect, / had struck. 

S. ititvnHv^ 
P. hivvneifiev. 

irervnettt^ hivvTtfiaav or eaav. 

First Future^ / i^/2 strike, 
S. ivi/;ci»9 Tv^fjiig^ TVtpn^ 

P. TViponiP^ Tvipive^ cvxpovjBtv. 



R 103. 


FInt Aorist, I struck 

• itvxpag^ 



Secodd Future, / shall strike* 



TvneTg^ ' 









Tvnovat^ (v) 


P. IxxmofASv^ 

Second Aorlst, I struck. 


iTvne (v), 





t « 

S. TVTtrm^ 

P. TVnTWfXtV^ 


. Tvntr^g^ 

S. T€TV<paJ^ 


P. zervg^wfiev 

S. Ttri/^oi, 


P. TUi/;(iD/ufy, 



First Aorist. 



Tvtymo^ (y). 

§ 103.] 





Second Aorist 













nmoia^ (f^). 

















^ tvnxouv* 















First Future. 











First Aorist. 






. D. 









Second Future* 



rWoifc^) , 


tvnot^ . 




rvjio/Tiyv, ^ 







* See Remark III. 3. below. 

\ ' 


I^ARAPiGK or rvfirM. 

C^ 103. 


P. tinoifuv^ 

Second Aorist 













First Perfect 
Second Perfect 
First Fut^e 
First Aorist 
Second Future 
Second Aorist 


Present, Strike. 

TVTlThoiVj ' / 

TVTrthfaaav or tvmovTfov, 

.. Perfect. 


Fiist Aorist 

Second Aorist. 








to strike. 

to have «(rticft. 

to hixve struck^ 

to be about to strike, 

to have struck. 

to be ahcuU to strike^ 

to have struck 

§ 103.] 





Present, striking.^ 

^ • 


TVTtTOip^ Tvmovaa^ • 



rvntovTog^ ttmTOvatig^ 

TVTnOVTpg^ &c. 


Perfect, having struck* 


T£Tv<f)Qig^ tervifvTa, 



TiTvq>6Togj T€tv<pviag^ 




First Future, about to strike. 


. N. 

nn//an^, rvtpovaa^ 


rpyfovTog, Tvipovoffg^ 



First Aorist, hamng struch 


TVipig^ Tmpaaa, 



tv'ipavTog^ tvyiaatjg^ 




Second Future, abovX (o siirikt* 



.nm£vj nmovaa, 



TvnovvTog^ nmovafig. 


Second Aorist, hamng struck. 


rVTsmp, TWT0i5a«, 



tvnoTtog^ Tvnovatjg^ 





[^ 103. 






Preseiit S. trvnTOgjiai 



I am struck ivmi^ or et * 

rvntfi * 






D. TvnTOfiC'&ov , 








P. TVTlTOfAS'&a * 









Imperfect S. izvmo/ifjv 
I was ptruck itvmov 

D, hvuTOfied-ov P. itvutofied^a 
tTvnTiG'^fjv ivvmovto 

Perfect S. Tttvf4fJiai 
I home been struck ttTVipai 



P. T€^vfif*ed^a 

T€tVfifltVOg (J 

See below 

the verb d^l 




Pluperfect S. hetvfifirjp 
I had beffi struck itixvxpo 


' D. hitvfific&^p P. hfrvfAfAid-a 

1 Future Tvcpd^riaoiifu 
I shall be struck Tvg>'&}]ari or ei^ 

&G. as in the 

Subj. wanting 


XV(jpd^t](50lO &C- 

as in the 

1 Aorist S. tvvq>^riv 
I was struck ixvg)'&fjg 
D. — 


P. ixV(p'd'fifA6V 

* ixvfjpd'ritsav 





^. .^■ - - . ■ ■^_i ■■■, ... ■ „ ■■■■■■ ,. .1— J ■ i». ■ ■ I » ■ II I , ■■ ■ 

2 Future xvnriaoficii I shall be struck 







I xvq){^iup t 

through all the 

g Aorist ixvntjv J was struck through all the 

3 Future xEtvxffOfnai I shall haroe been struck^ through all the 

* See below Rem. II. 3. 

t The eborter form is more commonly 

§ 103.] 


be struck 






to be struck 

Tvmio&wo4itp or TVTniad-mv 



TvitTOfiiPog^ 17, OV 
being struck 

TtTvipo have been struck 

having been struck 

Imperat wanting 

to be about to 
be struck 

TVip&rjaofiepog^ \ 
17, ov about tOxbe 

TV<p'&rjti be struck 



Hfodes like_the ] J'uture^ 
Modes like the 1 Aorist 
Modes like the 1 Future 

to have been 

Tvg)^ih struck 

-used in the Ist and 3d persons, and always in the 3d. 



K 103. 




The Present^ the Imperfect^ the Perfect^ and the Plupdrfeet 




1 Future rvxpofiai 



like the Pres- 

Jike the pres- 

ent pass. 

ent pass. 

l.Aorist S. hvilJafiijv 



irvxpfo - 






D. itvxlfafAf&ov 



' hvifiaa&ov 

Tvyjfjff'&ov * 





P. hmUauid'a 

9 f - 





Tvxjjaia'd'c ' 



2 Future S. tvhovfiM 



tvn^ OT^eT 






D. Tvnovfii'd-ov 









* P. xiJuovfAi^a 








2 Aorist hxmofAtiv 


1 Tvnoi/iijp 

like the Im- 

These two mod 

es like the Pres- 

perfect pass. 

ent pass. 


The verbal adjectives (§ 102) are 

^ 103.] 




tefuea are the same as in ike- Passive Voice, 





% OP 




TinpdcG^mootv or rvxpdad'tav 





V'i ov . 


17, ov 



' Timdud'OiV 
Tvnt'o'&toaav or rvnia^iav 


V^ ov. 

TUTtTog^ fvimo$. 

^ . _ 


PARADiOH or Ttmiivn. 

[§ 103. 


I. nu^ivfo I educate, Middle / cause to educate. 

Pres. ndidivm 




naidevoi &c. 




inuidfvov, eg, € {v) &c. 

Perf. Indf 
ag, e [v) &c. 

Subj. nenaidfvxcii Opt. nfnaidevxoifi^ 

Imp. not Id use Inf. nencudevxtifa^ 

Part, nenatdevudg, via, 6g 

inenttvdev%Hv, eig, it^ &c. 


Opt. naidevaoifjii Inf. veudivastif 

Part, natdivamv • 

ina/dfvoa, ag, 

Subj. Opt. 

natdivaat naidivata/ii 
fig, ti, &LC. naidevaaig 




^ 103.] 

PARADIGM OF naiiivto. 



Pres. IruL 
TiatdivOfAat ' 
natdii^ or h 

Subj, Opt. 

nttidevfivaif &c. nmdtvono &c. 
Inf. Part. 



Perf. Ind. 
S. neitttldivfittt^ D. TunmdiVfifd^op P. nenaidevfAtd'a 

Tunaidevaai nenaidevad-ov nsnaidevo'&e 

nenaidsurai nenaidevG'&ov TUituidivvTUO 

Subj. and Opt: wanting. Imp. junaidisvao 

Inf. mnatrdiva'&ai Part, ninaidevfievog 



D. ininaidevfjied-ov 

P. in$naideviA€&a 

' inenaidivvto 

Future. Ind. 

Opt. na^ivd-fjaoififjv Inf. na$dev^fia€a'd'a& 
Part, naidev&tjaofiivog 

Aor. Ind. 

3 Future^ Ind. 
Ttinaide uGOfAui 

Subj. ^ Opt. Imp. 

Inf. naidev'&^vttir Part, nat^evd-ilg 

Opt. TunaidepGOififiv Inf. mnaidivaia'&oii, 
Part. mnaidevaoJAivog 

Future. Ind. 

Aor. Ind. 


Opt. naidevaoifiijv Inf. naidevaeod'ai 
Part. TxttidBvaofievog 

J^uhj. Opt. Imp. 

nnidivatofAinff naidiVGalfitjv naidevGat 

tjj fitai &c. (uo^ aiTO kc. naideyGuG^ta 
Inf. naidevGaG'&ai Part. naidevGaftevog [&c. 

Verbal Adjectives imid^vTog^ naidamiog. 

144 PARADIGM OF Gil<a, ETC [§ 103. 

/ — ; ' 

II. asifo I shake^ Middle I move myself vehemently. 

Pres. aelta Suhj. •aeio}. Opt. oeloifi^^ aeloigj aelot^ &c. 

Imp. aeli^ autTOii &c. Infin, otUiv. 

Part, aeloDVj aelovaa^ obIov. 
Imperf. iWov. Fesf-aaoHHa. Flu^rf. iaeaeUst^v. Futaiiaoj. 
AoT. €GHaa. Stibj. miam. Opt, oiiaalfii^ aeiaaig^ aeiaai iic, 

Imper. aeTaov^ aroi &c. Ii\f. (SBiaaif, 

Part, aiiaag^ ailwou^ aeiaav, 

Pres. adofiav Imperf. iaeiofitiv. 

Perf.. aeaeiofiM . D. OBaelafntd-ov . ^. atailofiid'a 

aiaeiatat ataetad-ov 3 pers. wanting. 

Subj. ADd OpU wanting. Imp. aiauoo^ aaaila&n &c* 
Inf. aeaeia'&d^ Part, aeaeiofjifvog 

Vlupetf. iasaelGfAfjv' D. ioiaeiafAed'ov ^ F. iaeaelafU'&a - 

iaeanao - ifsiouG^ov iaa'ceiad's 

^ loioHGTO iasaeia&fjv 3 pers.' wanting. 

Fut. GHGd'TiaofiM Aor. iatia&fjv 3 Fut aeailao/ittc 

Fat. oiiaOfAM Aor. iGeiaifAtjv 

. Verbal Adjectives aHOzogj aeiotiog. 

IIL Xeirna I Uave^ Middle (poetical) / remain. 

Pres. ^ Xelnm Subj. Xeinm Opt. lelnot^fi^^ kilnoig^ lelnoi Sic. 

Imp.lHuB Inf. Xiliuiv Part. Kelmav 
Imperf. iTHnov 

Perf. (2) A*io*7ra Pluperf. eAeAofTic^y 

Fot. kfixpo) 
Aor. (2) tkmon Suhj, Unm Opt. klnoifi& Imp. Una 

Inf. hnaiv Part, kmoiv, ovGcc^ 6v. 







Pres. k€lno(ia& Imperf. ikeinofifjv 

Feif. Xe^ififjiixif Suhj. and Opt wanting. 

kiksixpa^ Imp. kiXeixpo^ ksMip'&ai &c. 

XiXttnTtti &c. Inf> kiXi7(fh&m Part hki&fifiivos 

'Fluperf. iX^Xeififitiv^ t/;o, mo &c. 

Fut keiip'&iiaofAM Aor. ikelqf'&tjv 
3 Fut. l^kilxpoiAat. 


Fut Xiltpo/ia^ 
Aor. (2) iXmofirjv 

Subj. Xin<ofiaif Opt Xinolgitiv 

t Imp* X^novkc* Plur. XlneQd'ekc. 

Inf. Xcntad'M Pari, hnofitvog 
Verbal Adjectives keintog, keinTtog. 

IV. yQiffta I write^ Middle / write for mystify I accuse, 


Pres. yQttq>m 
Ferf. yiygafpa 
Fut. ygatpoi 

Pres. . yga(pofia& 

Imperf. eygaifov 
Pluperf. iytygaq)6iv 
Aor. eygaxpa. 


Imperf. iyQaq>6(i7jv 

Ferf. yiyQUfAfiai^ yfyQaxpai^ yiygunvai &c« 
** Pluperf. iyeygajjifAtiv, i//o, nro &c. 
1 Fut. ygaq)'9'i^aofi(^t seldom used 

1 Aor. iyguq^&fiv seldom used 

2 Fut ygaqniaofia^ 2 Aor. ifgiq^v 

3 Fut yiygatffOfjiat. 

Fut ygaipofia^ 

Aor* iygaxffafjiijV' 

Verbal Adjectives ygixmog, ygameog. 



PA«AIH6M or n(fX»* 

K 103. 

V. ap/cu / kad^ rule^ Middle / begins 

Pres. oQxm httperf. ^^/ov 

P«rf. [nQX^) '^^ Plupcrf. arc Tery rarely used 

Fgt. apfoi 

Aor. ^gia Subj. Sg^m Opt ap|a«ju^, Sgi^iig, Sg^ai &c. 

Imp. Sg^ov^ cig^ttTm &c. 

/itf. a(»Sa» Part' Sglag. 

Pres. X Sgxofiat, 







Imperf. vgx^f*^^ 
D. fjgyfjied'OP P. ijgyiie-d-a 

,vgx^ov vgx^^ 

'^gX'^ov ' 3d pers. wanting 

iSu5;. and Op^. wanting. Imp* ^(>Sq, tjgX'O^o* ^« 
/n/! i7(*;t^a^ Port, tigyfitpog 
iPluperf. vgyfivv D. fig/fitd'ov P. ijgyfied'a 

^()XTO ^Jt^^y 3d pers. wanting 

Fut. igx'O^v^ofiai 

Aor. ijgX'^v '^j' f^gx^^ Qp^- igx^^^V^ ^^P' Sigx^'t^ 

Ittf. agx'd'fjvtti Pari, dgx'd'clg 

3 Future wanting (9e€ § 99 Revi. 2.) 


Fut aglofiai, 

Aor. rig^aiATiv Sulfj. ig^fmi^ Opt dg^aifit^v Imp. Sgtfu 

Inf. Sg^aad'cii Part dg^afiivog [ia&fa &bc*^ 

Vei:hal Adjectives (in an active and middle meaning) 
igntog^ agnriog. 


% 103.] 

PARADIGM or 9%ivu(a, 


Yt. . atuvaioD I prepare, 


Pres. GitevaCto ^ . - Ittipetf. iaxsvaCov 

Perf. ianevaxa 

Si^. iaHtvanta Opt. iemvixo^fAif imp, tiot med 

Inf. itFHivmudvak. Part. ionevtiHiog 
V\np«t£, iexfvaHiiv 
Fut. tfnetniam 
Aor. ifmtictaa S^.oxiviim OpUanivaaaifi^^aaig^aMlLC, 

Imp, auevaaoif 

htf, oicevdaal P^, anevauag. 


Pres. , oxivi^ofAM Imperf. iaxtvaCof^fiv 

Perf. ^ iaxevccafiat^ D. ianevdafAC^p P. ianivdafitd'a 

9 t 

iax6ifaaac iaxtvaad'ov ioxcvd^O'&e 



3d pers. wantiag 
Subj, aad Opt, wanting Imp, iaxivaao^ iaxivdo'&w ^sc 
Inf, iaxivda^ai^ Part* iaxevuafiivog ^ 

Pluperf. iaxmiafAtiy^ aao^ aato kc, 
Fut. cxivaa&fiaofiat 

Aor. iaxevuG'&rjv ^ 

3 Fut.' {iaxivaaofiai) not in use. ' 

Fut. axivaaoficii 
Aor. iaxevuadfitiv Suhj. axevaacufiap Opt, GXivuaulfifjv 

Imp. ax€vuaai^ axevaauO'&ia &c. 

Inf. Gxeviaaad'a^ Part, axivaaifAivog, 

y Verbal Adjectives- ax£i;«aroff, axivaaxiog. 

148 PARADIGM OP ffOfi/^U. [§ 103- 

Vli. KOfiiCoi / bring, Middle / receive. 


Free. nofAlita Imperf. ixofuCov 

Perf. HtKO/AiKct Pluperf. iiiamofiUHv 

Fot. x^fihfa 

Attic Fut KOfuci. p. p. KOfuov/Aev 

nofAUiQ xofiuiTOv uofimte 

xofiuT xofAulrov xofiMvai {v) 

Opt. nofA$o7fii^, o7q &c. Inf. KOfiuiv 

Part' KOfJiioivj ovaa^ ovv Gen. ovvrog 
Aor. ixogAiaa Subj. nofAiam Opt xofiiaaifii^ oaig^ aai &c. 

Imp. KOfAiaov ^ Inf. nofAioai Part. KOfAiaag. 


Pres. ttofilCofiM Imperf. ixofitCofin^ 

Perf., tiixofiiOfiM (compare ianevaafAui) 

Subj. and Opt. wanting Imp. xexofnao^ la&(o &c. 
' Inf. xixofiio^ai Part. nexofAiOfAivog 

Plaperf. inexofilafifjv 
Fut. xofitad^iiaofiai 
Aor. ixofAiG'&fjv 
3 Fut. {xixofiigo/Aai) not used. ^ 


Fut. 9cofJiloo(Aav 

Attic Fut. KOfAiovfiai D. noficovfied-ov . P. xo/ueov/uf ^a 

xofAifl * xofiulahov < xofAi€7a'&€ 

%Ofi9f6txav ' xOfjicHad^ov xofjuovvrai^ 

Opt.'xOfJipolfAfJP^ XOfHOtO &c. 

Inf. xofiula^^ai Part. xof*iovfievog 
Aor. ixa/jitaif/ifiv Sidj. xo/ilacDf^ai^ Opt. xofjiioalfitjv 

Imp. xofiioaif Inf. xofAiaaO'&gii, Part. xofi(aa(itvog. 

Verbal Adjectives xofi&atog^ xo/jnateog. ^ 

-« ■ ■ III ' .. ■ ■■ . 1 ■ 11 

* See Remv II. 3, below. 

i ' 


PARADIGM OF q>vkaaa6i. 

VIII. qfvXaaao) I guard^ Middle I guard mytelf. 



Pres. qfvXaaatu 

Perf. n£g)vkaxtt 
Fut. ipvXd^o} 

Imperf. tqivXaaaov 
Pluperf. in£<f)vXax€tv 
Aor. Ig^vXa^a 


Pres. g)vXiaGOfiac Imperf. iifvXaaoofifjv 

g)vXdTTOfAtt^ i(f)vXaTTOfAfjv 

Perf. nsffvXayfial ' D. neq^XdyfAtd'ov P. nsqivXayfiB^a 
n€q>vXa^at mqvXuX'&ov n£qivXa%^i 

neifvXanra^ nufvXax'O'ov 3d pers. wanting 

Subj. and Opt wantiog: /n^. neq^vXa^o^ n^qivXdx'&to kc^ 
Inf. neipvXdx'&ni Part, nBcpvXayfttvos 

Plnperf. instfvXdyfjiijv D. ins(ffvXayfii^ov P. in£(fvXdyfi£^a 
imqivXa^o -imffvXaX'&ov ineqiXuX'O's 

ineq)vXaKTQ in£q)vXdx'^fjv , 3d pers. wantiiig 

Fut. ^ q>vXax^^^O!*^ff 
Aor. iipvXax'O'fjv 
3d Fut. n£q)vXdio(im, 


Fut. givXd^Ofjiai Aon iqivXaldfAriv. 

Verbal Adjectives ^vAaxroV, (pvXaKTiog, 


[^ 103. 

IX« i^gvaam I dig. 




Imperf. oigvaaov 





Suij. ogmgvxd^ Opt: ogmgvxoifit 
Imp. not used Inf. ogwgvxtpat^ 
Part. 6g(ogvx(i^ 

Pluperf. ogatgvxfiv 






Subj. 6gv^<a Opt. ogv^atfAi Imp. og 
If^. ogilai, Pari, ogv^ag. 





Inperf. cigv9ai^n* 




* r 

Perf. ogtogvyfAntif 

Subj. and Opt, wanting Imp. og^gv^e^ ogwgvX'd'^ &t. 

Inf. 6g(»gvx^^ P^^* ogmgvyfuvog 

1 Fut. ogvx'd-ijaofAai 2 Fut. igvyv^OfAM 

1 Aor. fugvx'&tiv jt Aor. otgvpjp 

Inf. ogvx'^vvtif' &C. Inf, ogvy'^VM &c. 

3 Fut. wanting (sec § 99 Rem. 2.) 




Fut. ogv^Ofiai 
Aor. wgviafifji^ 

Subj. ogv^fafitttr Opt. ^gu^aififiv Imp. ogv^ai 
• Inf ogv^ua&at ParU ogvl^ifAivog. 

Verbal Adjectives ogvxrog^ ogvxttog. 


PARADteif OF 9tffMw, 


Present Ind* 


ayytXlio I announce, 

Subj. ayytXXfa^ OpU dyyeXXoifii^ Imp* Sy^elke^ 
Inf, dyytkksi'V^ \ Part. ayyiXkiov. 



Perfect /nd. 

Suhf, r}yytXi€(o^ Opt. TJyyiXxotfii^ Imp. not used, 
Inf' "^yyfXtifvai^ Part. liyyiXnidg. 


2 Future 


D. . -^ vfy^X^Trdv 

Pr dyyiXovfifv dyytXthe 

S. ayyiXolfii ayyeXoTg 

D. — ayyfXo7iov 

P. iyyeXoTfifv dyyeXoln 


uyyeXovev (i^). 




dyyeXoif]v^ oitjg^ olt}^ &c.* 
Inf. dyyaXelv. 
Part. dyyeXtSv^ dyyfXovaa^ dyyeXovv^ Gen. dyyeXovvrog, 


1 Aor. Ind. 

Subj. dyffiXw^ Opt. dyyiiXaifu^ Imp. uyyeiXoVy 
Inf. dyyeiXai^ Part. dyyeiXag. 

2 Aor. Ind' 

Subj. dyyf'Xa^ Opt. dyyeXoifii^ hap. ayyeXf^ 
Inf. dyyiXeiv^ Part. dyyiXfav. 

*■ See below, Rem. III. 2. 

I / 

152 ' PARADIGM OF ayyeikiu, • [<^ 103. 


137 Pres. Ind. 


Subj. ayytXXcDfim^ Opt. ayyekkoififiv^ Imp, ayyiXXov^ 

ayyiklofAdv. Inf. dyyikXeO'&M^ Part, dyyekloft^veg. 

~~—t : ' . . 


* ■ i ■■■■., 

Perfect , Indicative. 

D. vyyilfjif'&ov^ fjyyfk&ov^ ^yyek&ov^ 

P. i^yyfkfie'&oc^ tjyyfk'&i^ {^yyek/ievoi elaiv.) 

{Subj. and Opt. r^yyikfAtvog c5 and.frijt^.) 
Imp. ijyyekao^ riyyikd^m^ &c. Inf. i^yyek'&ai^ Part: i^yyekfidvog. 


tiyyikiAtiv^ '^yyekaOy vyyekvo^ 

D. riyyikfjii'd'ov^ fiyyekd-ov^ Jiyy^'^^V^^ 

P. rtyyikfied^a^ ^yyekO'e^ {i^yyakfiivoc ^aav.) 

1 Future 
ayyik'&iqGOfAat^ &c. 

1 Aor. Ind. 

Subj. dyyekd^M^ Opt. dyyfkd'elfjv^ Imp. ayyek'&tju^ 

i^yyek&fjv. Inf. ayyek^rivai^ Part* dyyfk'&eig. 

2 Future 
diyyeki^GOfJiaiy &c. 

2 Aor. Ind. 

Subj. dyytkm^ Opt. dyytkehiv^ Imp. dyydkijd'i^ 

riyyikriv. Inf dyyskijvai^ Part, dyyikelg. 

, I I 1— — I— IL_ -l__l_«L_l__1^11l_M^.I_l-^ _-^ U 

3 Future wanting. (See ^ 99 Rem. 2.) 

§ 103.] 

PARADIGM OF if film. 



Fntare ^ Indicaiive. 

iffeXovfia&^ a^ftl'^ or e7, 

D. /iffeXovfii'&ow, ifffliJad'ov^ 
jP. dffeXovfiid'cCf iffekeiQi^i^ 






S. affilolfifjv^ dffdloio^ 

D. afffXolfji^'&ap, iyytXoia^ov, 
P. cifffXblfii'&tti dffBXo7a{te\ 




Inf. dffiXiia&M^ Part. dffiXovfASvog, 17, op. 

I Aor. Ind. 

Sukj. dyfilXoifAah OpU dyyeiXalfitiv^ dffdXmo^ &e. 

Imp. ttffHXair^ 
Inf. dffklXaa^ai^ Pari* dfynXafiSvog. 

2 Aor. /fu2. 


Su^. dffAoifiah Opt. dffeXolfAfiv^ Imp. dyyeXov^ 
. ' InJ\ dffiXia^M^ Part, dffiXifAfvog. 

Verbal A^jectiTes dff^Xvos^ dffiXtiog. 




K 103., 


1. Accent. 

139 1. As the foundation of the doctrine of accent in the verbs, it 
. is to be understood, that it is placed as far back as possible, and, 
in consequence, always on the first syllable of dissyllables, a»n;n- 
Toi, jvnje^i (fivyb)^ q^evye. 

In trisyllables and polysyllables, whenever the nature of the 
last syllable addaits, it. is placed ^on the^ antepenult, as rvmofiev^ 
Tvmova^^tiTvifciai^ rvmofiai^ Itvnrt^ evvxpa^ iipvla^a. So also in 
imperatives^ as q/vkatTij q)vka^ov^ g^vkaSuci^ where the present is 
ifvkctrt^^ inf. q>vXaTTiiv^ in consequence of the long final syllable. 
' Hence verbs of two syllables, when compounded, throw the 
accent, if the last syllable admits it, on the preposition, as g>igs, 
q>€vyi — nQ6g<piQ€, anoipivys, 

2. Apparent exceptions to this rule are cases, where a contrac- 
tion takes place, viz. 

a) Cases where, according to § 83 Rem. 4, 5, the temporal 
augpent had its origin in a contraction, as in such compound verbs 

, as avfjnrov from.cei/aTrroi. 

b) The case 6f the circvmflexed future of every kind, accord- 
ing to § 95 Rem. 6 seq. Also the aorist of the subjunctive pas- 
sive (see below Rem. ni«6) ivqtd'S^ ri;7tQ>. 

^. Real exceptions to the general rule are the following, viz. 

a) The second aorist (for the sake of distinction from the pres- 
ent) has the accent on the termination inr the following cases, viz. 

(1) In the infinitive and participle acttve, and infinitioe middle^ 
.always, as rvnilp^ tvndv^ rvniod^ni. 

(2) In the 2d sing* of the imperative of some verbs, as yivov 

H7lt\ &c. ' 

b) The infinitive and the participle of the perfect passive, are 
distinguished from all the rest of the passive form, in having the 
accent regularly on the, penult, as T6Tvq>'&ai^ nenoi^a^mt^ mvfi" 
fupo^^ nenoififjiepog, 

c) InfinitvDes in vw have the accent on the penult, as tiTVqd" 
•'a*, Tvqy&ijvai^ rim^vat, ' 

d) The inHniiive of \)\e first aorist active in «», and the 3d per- 
son of 4he optative active in oi and at, retain the accent on the 
penult, evcfn when they are polysyllaBles, xe. g. ^ 

Inf. (fvka^ai^ • Ttaidiuaui, 
3d pers. Opt. q>vkaTTOi^ (jpvkd^M^ na$^i(Fai,* 

' * By this, and because, according to ( 1^ Rem. 5, the 3d sing, opta- 
tive never has the penult circumflexed, the three singular forms of the first 


§ 103.] 



5. All participles in mg Andug have the acute od the last syl- 140 
lable, as Tetvqfwg^ tvq>Mg^ xvndg* — So also," in the verbs in fci, 

the participles in €»^, a^, avg^ and vg. ^ 

6. Where the masculine of a participle has the accent, the 
other genders retain it^ without any other consideration than (hat 
of th^ nature of the syllables, af qivXaitmu^ q^vXatvovaaj (pvldt-^ 
TOV r^fii^amv^ %i(Ai^aovoa^ r$fiijaoy t^Tvqxiig^ t€tv^viu^ titvtfog. 

II.; Second person singular passive. 

1. The original termination of the second person of the passive 
foim OMymd ao (see the table above in § 87) has been retained, in, 
the common conjugation, only in the perfect and pluperfect, and 
in the verbs in fjn. It was found originally also in the present and 
imperfect, as xvittioai^ itvntioo^ in the imperative rvnttoo^ in 
the first aorist middle itvxpceifo, in the subjunctive rvntfjaat^ &c. 

2. The Ionics dropped the a from this ancient form, and, ac- 
cordingly, form it in ca^, tjai^ 60, ao. The common dialect again 
centragted these forms into ??, ob, and c», ds follows,' viz. 

Ion. Com. Ion. Com. 

Present Ind. rvntiai^ tinttj^ Imperat. Ti;7i;r£0, r^wroi;, 
Snbj» tvittrfat^ rvntri, Imperf. /n;'7iT£0, Ixvmov^- 
1st Aorist Middle, Ion. hvipoLOy Com. iTV\p&. * 

1b like manner in the optative, from oiao was formed oio^ which^ as 
it does not admit of contraction, was retained as the common form. 

3. The Attics had the peculiarity^ that instead of contracting 
the ioti into 'ij, they contracted it into «^, (see the paradigm.) This 
form is only used in the future active, and in the verbs fiovKo/iMj 
OAOficu^ and the fut oWog4a$ (see anom. ogao}^) 2d pers. fiovket^ 
OiHj o'tpH^-^o that povkti and oiti are necessarily in thesubjunctive. 

Illr Particular lonisms and Atticisms. 

1. The Ionic dialect forms, from the imperfect and the two 
aorists, a peculiar form in axoi^, passive and middle attOfAfjv^ which 
however, is formed in the indicative alone, and has commonly no 
augment, e.g. . 

zvnreaHOv^ Tvi€T€<ftii6fAiiv, from tymov^ "ijAtiv^ 

TVxpaaKOVy rvxlfaanofitiv from ixvxpa^ -afiriv^ 

' TuiiiOitov^ zvneonofAfiv^ ifrom txvnov^ -ofifjv. 

This form is only used of a repeated action. 

atorist are distinguished, vis. Inf. act. na^^lMTa^, 3d Opt. act. naidevoat^ 
Imperat. mid. ncii^vaai. Since, however, the number of syllables or 
the character of the penult rarely admits this accentuation, in general two 
of these forms, and in such verbs as tvitufa all three, are liable to be con- 
founded with each other. / ^ 

156 Hemarks on the paradioms. [^ 103. 

2. Instead of the optative id o^ju^, there was also a form' in 
oltjv^ oifjg^ oltl^ plural oittfJtiv, oltjtf^ oiijuav^ that bears the name 
of the Attic. It b foand chiefly, however, only in the contract 
verbs (seie below,) and hence also in the 2d fut. as q>avoifjv from 
gpaiVo), fut (jpapci. See in dyyf'Xk(o. 

3. Instead of the Opt. 1st aorist active in a£ju», there was a 
provincial form in £ia {rvxpetci^ ag^ ^ , &c.) of which the foilowiog 
terminations were much more common than the regular form, viz. 

Sing. 2 Tviffitag^ 3. zvipeie (v), for -atg, •*«*, 
Plur. 3. TvipHav^ forot£i/. 

141 4. The form in vxiov and Pass. Gd-(»v of the 3d pens. pi. of the 
imperaxvoe is called the Attic, because it is the most common in 
the Attic writers. In the active voice, it is always identical with 
ihe genitive ph^ral of the participle of the same tense, with the ex- 
ception of the perfect. 

5. In the third pers. pL pass* in the indicative and optative, bat 
never in the subjunctive, the Ionic dialect converts the v into a, 
as follows. 

Opt. TvntoiaTO for rvntoivro 
Perf. nenavaTai for ntnavvra^ 
— x^Kkiarai for xexhvtai. 

This never takes place in the termination ovtai^ though occa- 
sionally in ovTO, with the change however of o into «, as i^ov' 
leato for ifiovXovto. Particularly is the 3d pers.plar. perfect 
and pluperfect passive formed by the help of this Jonlsm, when 
I the characteristic of the verb is a consonant, (see ^ 98. 2.) e. g. 

TiTVifaTui for -ijpvTaij 
izixaiaro fox -;fvro, 
tGraXaTOLi for -kvxai^ 
from ri/TTTO), rerrto), orekXcu &c. 

6. The circumflexed forms are by the Ionics resohed with a 
change of accent, and this not only in the 2d fut. (§ 95 Rem* 6, and 
§ 101. 2,) but also in the infinitive 2d aorist active in tivy as qvyir 
«»!/ for (jpvyitv from fffvym^ t(f>vyQv^ and in the subjunctive of both 
aorists passive ih £^ (comp. the subj. of verbs in /u^) e. g* 

Subj. 1 aor. pass, rvvp^im for tixjp^x!), 
Subj. 2 aor. pass, xvnica for xvnm. 

This * is, by the Epic writers, lengthened Into et or fj. 

IV. Additional peculiarities of dialect, 

1. The 3d pers. plur. Of the leading tenses instead of aw or at 
has commonly in the Doric dialect vxt^ as was remarked in § 87 
Rem. 3, and hence ^the long vowel before the a in the common 
form is explained, viz. 




rvTiTOVTi^ tetviptivTi^ for tVTttovai^ tiTvtpHai^ 
Subj. timttavti for Tt/nroia^, 
2 Fat. * fA€vi0PTi contr. fi6tf€vifTi for (fiivtovai) fnpovai. 

2. The Doric dialect forms the 3d plural of the aorist passwe 
in ev mstead of ijaav^ as ttvqi&ev^ twiiiv^ for -tioav. See below 
In the coDjagatlon of verbs in (ii, 

3. The 1st pers. plur. active Id fiev is converted in the Doric 
dialect into iieg {rvmofjieQ^ itvxpufifg); and in the l^st plur.. and 
dual pass, in fif ^a, ue&ov^ the Dorics and the poets interpose a, as 

4. The infinitives in a^v and vai<^ in the ancient language and 
in the dialects, had a form in fi/v and fievai,^ viz. 

tvitttfiev^ ximttfAtviiH^ for xinteiv ' 

Tixv^'ifjtip^-tfi€vai for TSTv^tva& ' , 

Tvnrjfifv^ Tviitifiivui^ for rvn'^vcu. 

5. The Dorics more particularly formed the infinitive partly 
in €p or fjv instead ofei^p^ and so also the 2d pers. of the present 
in €g instead of ng. 

^ 6. The ancient language, in the 2d pers. of the active -form, 
has instead of g the termination <T^a, which in the poets is still 
frequently found appended to the subjunctive and optative, a^ 
i'&tXfiff^u for i-&fXfig^ xXaiota^a for xlaiotg- In the common dia- 
lect this is retained only in certain anomalous verbs (see below 
«/j^/, q>rjf4i^ and otda). 

7. The epic poets, in the 3d person of the subjunctive, have 
fimv or fiei instead of tj, as rvnttiaiv, ?XV^^^ ^^^ rvntri^ ixv* : 



, 1. In the foregoing rules and tal4es, the manner qf formii^ the 
several modes and tenses in different sorts of verbs has been giv- 
en, as far as it results from the examination of several regular 
Terbsf. But in the numerous cases, in which a verb has several 
formations of the same tense. It is not possible from the foregoing 
rules and examples, to fix with certainty, what form is actually 
most in use. And as in Latin, particularly in the third conjugation^ 
it requires to be remarked in each single case, what the perfect 
and supine are, so hi Qreek, it is necessary to observe what is the 
usage in each singie verb ; that is, to observe each of the tenses, 
which has been made the subject of separate remark above., 

159 t«tST OF BARYTON VERBS. [^104. 

2. Principally, however, it is imporiaDt to know whether, io 
any particalar veri>, the second aorist active, the second perfect 
and the second aorist passive, are in use. For since the other 
form, viz. the first perfect, and first aorist jiassive is — taking the 
whole catalogue of verbs — by far the most usual,^it is to be assum- 
ed in each verb, if the use of the other form is not particularly 
known. It must also be known, with respect to every one of the 

^enumerated tenses ; since it by no means follows, that a verb, 
which has the second aorist active, has also the second aorist pas- 
sive, &c. 

3. Here, however, prevails the following fixed rule, that all 
trisyllable and polysyllable derivative verbs, which have for the 
most part the following endings, viz. d(4u^ /{o), a/y<B, vpw^ eooi, 
00), a&i, £01, and are such as the following, viz. 

143 io(}TaC(o from iogxri^ vofilCoti from vogAog^ 

Grifdaivo) from atj/ia^ ~ ivOvvm from ev-dyg^ 

naidevm from natg, dovkdm from dovXog^ 

Tifiaoi from r^fci;, fpiXto) from (plkog^ 

form without exception, only the 1 Aonst active, 1 Perfect (in 

,xa,) 1 Aorist passive. 

Rebiark. Some of these verbal terminations, however, are to 
be regarded in several verbs not as derivative terminations, but as 
merely lengthened^ forms. This is the case when the verbs are 
not derived from a noun or adjective, but are only a mpre simple 
form of the present lengthened (§ 92). These latter are able, firom 
their simple form to derive some tenses, as the 2d Aorist, and are 
accordingly placed in the anomalous verbs, as 6liGd'aiv(o from 
OA'fl^hil^ 2 Aorist b*ha^ov\ dafidm from AEMSl^ edafAOv. The 
termination aif(o is always merely a lengthened form of this kind, 
and the verbs which have it, belong accordingly to the anomalous 

4. For all other verbs and for all forms which are not fixed to 
particular. cases in the preceding remarks, individual observation 
in reading the classics must be recommended. To aid. this obser- 
vation, however, lists of the baryton and contract verbs will be 
given, containing the verbs of most fre<}uent recurrence, particu- 
larly the primitives, with an enumeration as exact as possible ^of 
the forms in use. i 

§ 104.] 



Explanations of, the lists. 

1. As the lifits are intended to serve as collections of examples 
of the preceding rules^ besides the primitives the most common 
derivatives are also contained in them. 

2. It is to be' assumed of each verb, when nothing else is stated, 
that it has its aorists and perfect after ri/jiro), and that its whole 
inflection may be known from the preceding rules. The same 
holds of every tense not expressly given, so that when, for in- 
fitance, under aqy verb, nothing but the second aorist stands, this 
holds only of the second aorist active'^and middle,) while the aorist 
passive' and perfect active follow the paradigm. 

3. Where the second aorist passive is given, it is necessary 
also always to form the first aorist passive, as very commofily it ex* 
ists, as a less frequent form, together with the second aorist, and 
the verbs, which actually want it altogether, cannot be given with 
any certainty. 

4. The perfect active in many verbs is not in use; but this also 
can seldom be asserted with entire confidence ; and it is therefore 
necessary in each verb to form it according to analogy, and derive 
the perfect passive from it. 

5. The formation of the passive can without scruple be also 
applied to intransitive verbs,- as there are cases, in which the third 
person of the passive i»also used in intransitive verbs.' 

6. But to form also the middle of those verbs, in which that 
voice is not used, would be an exercise in barbarisms of no utility. 
In order, therefore, to do this with confidence, it must be marked 
an each single case, where it is found. It needs only to be noticed 
that in many verbs, where it is found, it is only in .compounded 
forms, which aretabe learned from the lexicon. For mere exer- 
cise, however, the simples may be made use of. Where nothing 
but MID. is g^ven, there the aorist and future middle are formed 
from ^hose tenses in^the active. 

7. All verbs are regarded as regular, whose tenses are con- 
structed by the preceding rules ; without regarding the signified' 
tion OT their anomalies. For this reason not only the deponents 
of the passive and middle voice (^113. 3) are here inserted, but 
also verbs, whose single tenses do not correspond in signification 
-with their forms ; as, in the more important cases, is especiaiUy 

,8. When future middle is immediately subjoined to the active, 
It signj^es, that such a verb has its future of the middle formation 
(according ^0 §143. 4,) though with the signiQcation of the active 

9. The expression ' PASS, has a' refers only to the first aorist 
and perfect^ and is found only under verbs, in which the a in these 
tenses is not a matter of course ; see above § 98 and 100. 



lAst ofbaryton verbs. 

ayalXoi adom^ MfD. am proud. 

dyytkko} announccj MID. — 2d Aorist active and middle, little 

ayiiQta assemble^ — Attic redup. — MID. 

£yX^ strangle^ traDsitive in tlie Act. — MID. intransitiye- 

idea contracted from aiidof aing^ Fot Mid. 

tt&QOii(o collect* 

tt'&VQOi flay. 

niKlCia abuse. 

uipiaaofAOLV^ TtOfiat^ Mid. conceal by a riddle. 

aigoi lift, § 101 Rem. 1, MID. 

uioam act.^ and depon. rwh, hasten, Attic ttTTOi. 

alaxvvoi put to shame, § 101 Rem. 4. PASS, am ashamed, 

ato} hear. Only the present and imperfect. For augment see 
§ 83 Rem. 2. 

axovt» hear, fut. mid. — 2d perfect axYjxoa, plop. iJxi;xof«y. (See 
§ 84 Rem. 2.) — PASS, has or, perfect without reduplication ^xoi^ir- 
. fiah 

dXaXaC(p haUoo, fut. ^ai, §92 Rem. 1. 

dkeig)(a anoint, perf. § 84. MID. 

dlKaoam, ttcu, change, — PASS, second aorist. 
145 akXofiai' Mid. spring, see § 101 Rem 1. 

dfi^Xvvw blunt. 

dfiiiffw change, MID. 

dfif'Xytu milk. 

dfAVvoj defend. Perfect wholly wanting. MID. 

dvalvofiai' (not a compound) MID. deny, has no other form 
except first aorist, which takes tj, § 101. 4. 

dvvfa fulfil, § 95 Rem. 3. PASS, has a. MID. 

dnoXavoi enjoy. Has the augment in the middle, though tUe 
jiimple id not used. See § 86 Rem* 1. 

dmw kindle. 

Snroi fasten. MID. ckave to, touch. 

S^dat irrigate. PASS, has only present and imperfect 

^ 104.] 



uQfAoim and dgfionto JU^ MID. 

ugna^fa tob^ commdnly dgniaoi &c. ijgnda^tjv. The dialects 
»ot Attic make d^d^m &c. i^gndytjv^ 8ee.§ 92. Rem 3. 
dgvoi draw out^ like dvvm, Mip. 
apjlfai rule, MID. 6«g«n. 
dandCofiai^ MID^ em6race, ^r eet. 
daniuigct} gasp* ' 

9 1 ^ ° * 

aargaTtrm lighten* i 

paolCof go^ future Mid. 

/JcTTKrcu dt/}^ chara(5teri8tic 9). PASS, second aorist. 

ffaardSoi) 6ear, fut aco. In the Passive it ^kes the other cbar^ 
acteristic, yfiM^ X^^^- ^^^ § ^^ Rem. 3. 

^ddkkcu mUh 

fifjaam^ rtat, cough, 
~ PidCofiat Mid. compel PASS, see § 113 Rem. 3. 

^idirtfa injure^ characteristic /f, PASS. 2 aorist. 

pUitoi see^ second aorist, PASS, see § 100 Rem. 4. 

/?Au?(wJ?0TW out. 

PovXivo) counsel^ MID. 

Pgifna sounds has no aorist nor perfect. 

Pgixoi moisten^ PASS, am damp^ second aorist. 

yffAto amfull^ has neither aorist nor perfect. 

y^voa cause to taste^ Mid. taste. 

ykvq,o} cut, augment of the perf. see § 82 Rem. 1. 

yvoiglioi recognise. 

/gdq>o} write, second aorist, PASS. § 100 Rem. 3. MID. 

dangvoi weep. 

dttveiCm loan at interest, MID. borrow at interest. 

Sigtojlay, PASS, second aorist. 

dianoCcii rule. 
^ dfvoa moisten. 

&fXOfia^ Mid. recevoe. PASS, see helow/ Anomaly of significa- 
tion,' Q 113 Rem. 3. 

^i»dC(o judge. Mid. . 

^(oixoi (not a compound) pursue, 






^ Sovkow enslave. 

dgim da^ act^ not to be confounded with the forms of the anom* 
alous didgiaum' 

dginta plucky, MID. 

i'&^Ca acautom^ augment h, 

tinaCot ctmjecture. Augm. see § 83 Rem. S. 

{ina yields aagm. see 6 83 Rem. 2 and 5, not to be confounded 
with the anomalous EIKSl, 

liqyta ihut out, augm. § 83 Rem. 2 and 5. 

iUyxoi rtfuie^ Att. reduplication, perf. pass. § 98 Rem. 6. 

ikiaao}^ rroi, wind^ augm. n. — MID. 

IXnw draw^ aug^. ii* — MID. 

IkniCco hope. 

iknoi cause to hope^ ilnofAai hope^ has besides the present and 
imperfect only the perfect and pluperfect, viz. ioXna, ioikmiVj 
§ 83 Rem. 7 and 9, with the signification of present and imperfect, 
hope^ hoped. 

ioQwaCfo celebrate a festival^ 9Jigm, § 83 Rem* 9. 

ineiym (not a compound) promote^ PASS* hasten. 

iniTfjdevoi apply myself^ augm. § 86 Rem. 3. ' 

igyaCofK!itc Mid. labour^ augm. ei — PASS. § 113 Rem* 3. 

, fgeido) prop^ Attic reduplication.— ^MID. 

iQtaata^ rrw, row^ fut. ata. 

igi^fjvevjo interpret* 

iQivyo} spit out^ second aorist. — MID. ? 

ip/fw contend^ rival^ Attic reduplication. 
147 t^TKo creepy Bugm. et. 

iraCco commonly i^erdCo)^ examine. 

iv&vvfa make straight^ direct. 

^vxofiM Mid.\pray, augm. §83 Rejn* 2. 

fjdo) please^ Mid. enjoy ^ rtjoice. 

fjKta come^ arnve. 

i^aAAco 9prout^ second perf. 

'd^alnio warm* 

/^iitTOi 6ttry, characteristic g»,' 2 aorist, PASS, see §18.3. 



'&avfAaC(o admire^ fut mid. - . ' 

^iXy a fascinate. 

^SQiCm reap, 

^/oi whet. 

^Upm erui^ second aorist, PASS. § 100 Rem. 3. 

^QttVfa breaks shatter^ PASS, lias a. 

^Qvjnu rub^ characteristic 9, 2d aor. pass, see § 18. 3. 

'dvat^ see anomalous verbs; 

Idgvm place^ put 

i&vvm straighten. 

iMmvcn supplicate, 

ifiaaam scourge^ fat am, % 

ifuififo act. and pass, depon. desire* 

iTinivm ride, 

iapim am able. 

xa&oclgto (not compounded) purify, 1 aorist has tj. — MID. 

xalwfo kill, 2d aorist. The perfect is wholly wanting. PASS. 
kas neither«perfect nor aorist. 

xakvTnm hide, MID. 

xafiTTTCtt 6«n(2, PASS. perf. ^ 98 Rem. 7. 

mlgm shave, PASS. 2d Aorist-^rMID. 

Mtlivio order, PASS, has a. 

nAioi land, fut. uiXao),see §101 Rem. 5. 

xiiiofAM care for, only present and imperfect. The active 
xfj^oi if^ure, only in the poets. 

uijgvaaw, ttoi, proclaim, 

mpviwiifa incur danger, 

«Aa(oi smnd, dtaracteristic yy, ( 92 Rem. 1. Perf nivilttyya, i4g 

inkilm shut, PASS, hoth with and without a. 

nlijtTai ^Mv^ut. mid.— Perf. see §97 Rem. 1.— PASS. 2d 
aorist / 

jcAiVoi bend, § 101. 8. b. — PASS. Ist and 2d aorist — MID. rarely 
used. ' 

nXvCo3 rinse, 

xWfoi iwUch, bum. 




164 LIST OF BARTTON VfiRBS. [^ l04. 

■ - ■■• • ■ ■ 

nolaCio punish^ fut. mid. 

xoKovfo mutilate^ PASS, with and without a* 

nofiiCia bring. — ^MID. obtain^ receive. ^ 

xof/oi be duatj {novlao}^ %{it6vi(iai,) 

NOTirai cut^ epic 2d perf. — PASS. 2daor. — MID. 

xpof'oi screamy characteristic y^ perf« niKgiYtf,^ 2d aor. — 3d 
fut. instead of fut. act. 

n^Qaiiffn fulfil. 

fcgivo) judge^ § 101. 8. h. MID* 

xgovo) knocks PASS, has a. — MID. 

xgimrw. hide^ characteristic fi. — PASS. Ist and 2d aor.-f-rMn>. 

itraOfiM Mid. acquire^ perf. tuinttifAah potseae. 

HTflvm H/l, see § 101. 8, 1st and 2d aor. 2d perf. 

xviCta found. 

KvUta roU^ PASS, has a. 

nmkuoii preioent. 

Xiym say^ MID. See this verh, for some of its compouads, in 
the list of anomalous verbs. , ' ^ . . ' 

Xiipm pour o?^, shed. 

Xeinm leave^ 2 aor. 2 perf. — MID. 

Xino)' shelly PASS. 2d aorist see § 100' Rem- 4v 

ki^yo} cease. 

loyi^fAtu Mid. reckon.^ conclude. * 

Xvfictivio destroy^ 1st aorist has t?, — MID. 
_ AiJo), see anomalous verbs. 

fAalvo(Aav depon. rave^ 2d aor. pass. — 2d fut. mid. or 2d fut. 
pass. The active is found only in the compound ii^fifiUvm mad" 
den. The perfect active /uf^iji^a has the intranffltiv^e sigDifiqatioD. 

fialaaacD^ rrw, soften, 

fAct^ixlvio withery 1st aorist has long a, PASS, 'saitker in its in- 
transitive sense. 

(AificpOfAai Mld« blame. 

jua/o), see anomalous verbs. 

^UQiCoi divide^ MID. 

fitjvtm interpret. 




paivoi pollute^ 1st aorist has 17. 

fiokvviu contaminate* 

Mxajoi, TTOf, JiU^ fat. |tti. It haft iq. the PASS, tiie other form 
o/fo^, a&fjv. See § 92 Rem'. 3. 

Wjuctf, see anomalous verbs. 

vivfa winkj fiod, 

vtiXOfAai Mid. nvtm. 

Wgi^oi mow. 

vofilim il^ink^ helieoe. 

odvQOfiM Mid. 2am«n^ 
. oimdgw bewaiL 

aificiita deplore^ fiit ^IfAwiofm*^ aop. ^ji4a)£«. 

oxAAcD disembark, trans. . , 

olivio sharpen^ stimulate. . ^ 

ovudi^ia reproach 
. ovoftaCfu name. 

onkiCfo arm, MID. 

op^ycj reacA, Att. redup. MID. 

0()iCo} limit. - 

o^t/affQ), rro), dig, Att. redap. MID* 

naidevo) educate, MID* 

Tiai'Cctf />2ay, fat nalloiAai and 7roe|oi;/uai, see ^ 95 iUoik 9, Bat 
the aor* is inaisu^ perf. pass. nina^afAai &c. see § 92 Rem* 3. 

nalm^ see anomalous veiibs. 

jioAa/oi wr«</e, PASS, has 0, ' 

TfaAAo) shake^ PASS. 2d atvist 

WoraQ» bextrem^ fut oai.-^MlD* 

3iecTa<roai strike^ ^^^' 

navo» piU to rest^ PASS. 1st aor. see § 14X) Rem* 1*— MID. rev(. 

nil^m persuade^ PASS. &«iiei7«, wbiohf sigoificatioa is shared al- ^^q 
so by the 2d perf. ninat^u. ' 

niiQOi perforate^ PASS. 2d aorist. 

niiinfa send, perf. § 97 Rem. 1, perf. pass. § 98 Ram. 7. MID. 

ndvOfAai dm poor^ used only in the present and ioiperlect 

negaivm ^niih^ 1st aorist, see § 101 . 4. 



[^ 104. 

■ i ■ « I I 


nuCoi comp^ess^ oppress. 

niOTSVo} believe* 

jskaim cause to wander^ cbaractemtic //, see §92 Rem. 1. — 
PASS, wander. 

nlaaam^ rtfo^fom^^ fut. ffoi, MID. 

nki%(a braid, PASS. 2d aor.— MID. 

nXvvoi 'woihy.see § 101 Rem. 8. 

nviyo} suffocate, trans. — Fut. mid. Dor. § 95 Rem. 9. — PASS. 
suffocate, intrans. 2d aorist, see § 100 Rem. 3. ' 

nogtvo} bring, lead, PASS, journey. 

n0Qi(m procure, MID. acquire, 

ngaaaw, rroi, do. It has a throughont^^lst perf. / have done, 
2d perf. ningaya I have been, MID. 

ngino} adorn, becom^ only in active. 

ngim saw, PASS, has a. 
, 7nr«/ai stumble, PASS, has o. 

nTf^aao) crouch. 

nrlaaoi stamp, fut am. 

itsvaatafold, MID. 

nn;(u tfpir, PASS, has J. 

ni^m rot. 

finrto sew. 

^inm sink. • 

^luTOjf, see anomalous verbs. 

aalpoi wag the tail,Jiatter, only in active, Ist aor. has 17. 

aaiQOi sweep, Ist aor. has ^. 2d perf. 

aulnlCa sound a trumpet, characteristic yy^ see § 92 Rem. 1. 

eifiofiai depon. reverence.' 

oilm shake, PASS, has ti, BflD. 

aiifiuivoi denote, mark, Ist aorist has tj, MID. 

ai^nm cause to decay, PASS, rot, has 2d aorist. 
eitends also to 2d perf. 

chofiai, injure. 

auiita litkp* 

fSKttntoi dig, characteristic 4p, PASS. 2d aorist. 

This meanii^ 

f 104.J LIST or iBARTTOK VERBS. 167 

• ; 

axmcti eorver, 

GKinto/Aai^ Mid. survey. 

amvaC<» prepare^ MID. 

akiimo} act. and mid. support myselfl 

csLfinTm seqffl 

anelgm s<m^ 2d perf. — PASS. 2d Aorist. 

anevim pour out^ shed, see ^ 96 Rem. 1. MID. 

anivdm hasten. , •• 

cnovda^o} pursue rinih zeal, fat. mid. 

araCoi drop, fut. ^m, see §92 Rem. 1. 

UTiyoi cover. ' t- .-j \ 

iniipm tread, PASS. 2d aorist. 

9m';f 01 «<«/?, 1st and 2d aorist. - i 

HThXkm s^nd, PASS, tst and 2d aorist, MID. * 

atepta sigh, only in the pres. and imperf. ^ 

artvaCof groan, fut< §oii, see §92 Rem. 1. ' ^ 

ardgyoi love, am satisfied. ^ 

atiffoijill, crown', MID. , , 

artigiCo} prop, fut. §a», see § 92 Rem. 1 . 

Qxo%a^O(iai MID. conjecture. 

atgaTevca act. and mid. take ihi field. 

argiifoi turn, trans, see § 98 Rem. 3, and § 100 Rem. 2. PASS. 
1st and 2d aorist, MID. 

GvgiCa> pipe. 

(Ti;()(» draw, PASS. 2d aorist.— MID. 

a<pakX(o deceive, PASS. 2d aorist. 

aiforrm slay, PASS. 2d aorist. 

aqiyym hind, PASS. perf. see § 98 Rem. 6. 

a<fvCoj palpitate, fat ^M,^ 9% Rem. 1, 

(F^/^oi split* - 

^/oAafo) am at leisure* 

^mguaaoi, rro), disturb, MID. 

taeyflrw, ttw, arrange, PASS. 1st and 2d Aorist.^MID. ^^^ 

rf/yw f^re^cA, § 101. 8. 


4.1 ■■ 

tenfiaigm Itmii^ 1st Aor.has i^.-^^MID. prove, testify, 
nnraivto build, Ist Aor. has ^. t 

^ Tc'AAoi, aD obsolete word little used bat in corapositkm, as in^- 
TiXXm commit. See & 101. 8. MID. 

rerix^ j^repar^, see § 98 Rem. 4, compare the anomalous rvy- 

797x01 soften, tnelt^ PASS, melt intrans. 2d Aor. — ^llie ^ perf. 
has the same meaning. 
. t/AAo) tear otU, see § 101. 4. 

t/oi, see anomalous verbs. 
^ r^t^affffo) shatter, MID. 

tgifim tremble, has no a<ir.«nor perf. 

T()^7roi ^fim, see § 97 Rem. 1, § 98 Rem. 3, and ^ 100 Rem. 2. 
The 2d aorist is the most common tense in ACT. PASS, and MID. 

T^t^M nourish, fnt S-^tpo), &c. § 18. 2. Pe^f* 7£r(>ogpa. — PASS, 
perf. xid'ontfAfAai, ted'Qaqj^ui, 2d aor. ivQCKpijp, 1st aor. (which is 
rare) i'&gaq)'&fjv. — Fut. mid. for pass. — MID,. 

rgipoj rub, 2d aor. PASS. § 100 Rem. 3. 

tqIC(o chirp, fut. |fti, perf. xiTQiyu. 

vpQiCo} to treat with indignity, abuse. 

vq:aiv(o weave, 1st aorist has r^. 

vo) rain, PASS., has a. 

<paiv(o show, PASS, together with the fut. mid. and 2d aorist 
pass, appears 

(pagfiaaacD, tt(o, physic^ 

q/eidofiM Mid* spare. . -^ 

qevy(oJly,Jle€, fut. (pev^ofAac and (fev^ovfAat, see § 95 Rem. 9. 
^ — 2d aor. — 2d perf. see § 97. 2» — Perf. pass, see § 98 Rem. 4. 

(jp^eyyoficct Mid. sound, perf. § 98 Rem. 6. 

(pd^eigoi destroy, 2d perf. — PASS. 2d Aorist. 

q^hyo) burn, trans. PASS. 2d Aor. § 100 Rem. 4; ^ 

ifgaCo) speak, indicate, MID. 
153 g>Qaaa(o,TTO}, surround, PASS. 2d Aor. — MID. 

q)giaa(o, tzoi^shudder, characteristic x, 2d perf. 

g>QOVTlS(o care for* 

'^ N 

§ 105.] . C0NTR4CT VERBS. 169 

^ qfQV/m roast, PASS. 2d aoriat, 8iee § 100 Rem. 3. 
gfvkaaaoi, ttoi, ^^rd, MID. 
qfvgm knead, fnt q>vQ(ffa, see §101 Rem. 5. ' 

^vnvoi plant, 

XagiSoftai Mid. dm kind, grani, 
XOQ€VW dance* 

XQiiCof'need, desire, only in pres. and imperf. Cpmpiure the 
anooddous jf()aai. <%» ^ 

XQifo an&int, PASS, has a. — MID. 
"^cilXoi strike the harp, sing. 
\pavio touch, PASS, has a. 
'ipiyia blame. 

\pevd(a decevoe, PASI^. lie. 
^(plCoi count, number, MID. decree by vote, 
'^vxof, see anomalous verbs. 
" oidho» travail. 


1. Verbs in aia, «(», ooi, in mosi of their forms, follow altogeth- 
the precedii^ rules and examples ; and reference is uniformly 

bad to these verbs, in the chapter on t)ie formation of the tenses. 
But in the present and imperfect, of the active and passive voiceSi 
i^hen the vowels a, i, o, immediately precede the vowel of the 
termination, (and in the Ionic dialect partly remain there unchang- 
ed,) a contraction take9 place in the Attic and common dialect 

2. This contraction is subject to the general laws, of contract 
tion, given above in § 27, with the exception of a few terminations 
in the verbs in doi. — While according to the general rule, oi$ 
should be contracted into ov, and oti into cf, the * of the second and 
third persons prevails m the verbs in ocu, and the terminations Oiig 
and opg are contracted into o&g, and qei and "Oi^ into o&, as follows, 
▼iz. ' 

" 2d pers. Ind. Act f^to^oi^ I , . .^a^%. 




eoimACT wutft. 

K 105. 


So also 2d pen. /nd a»d Su^f. Fam, (mf^ofi confr. §$Hi^au 

Inasnitich, moreover, as ooi is also contracted into oe, in these 
persons in the active voice, the three modes, indicatfre, svhjonc- 
tive, and optative, are alike. The infinitive ill osiv is reg;tilarly 
contntet^, viz. jM«a#Jf ii^, fJtteSoUt^. 

3. Also the verbs in am have the whole indicative and sob- 
jnnctive alike in the active and passive, in the contraction made 
according to the general rule, whereby both at and cnj are con- 
tracted into a, — ail and arj Into ^e,— ^nd ao, aov^ «<», into q». 


§ 105.] 

oommACT vMt«g. 




^ » » s-^ 
O O H; tg ^ 

o o p o o o o 



5^ 5^ ft 2 
. O O S ig to 

«V to H» O 
1 <^^^^^ 

I to to to to to 


s^ » ^ 


■ J..-S* 




1 X ;&. 8L 
1 ^ 5* 5^ 


3- 3- a- 




N 4« f* 








« V* •» 

•^ * S 
to to ti^ 







t« K» f» 

«u to 

«* H 




to 19 

to « 
to 9 


*« »a 

g H* *g 

s R t; « 

IS 3 2{ 



» ^ $ ^ 

to to s «u ^ 

I 5 5 § a s 

I to p to p to 

R g fe fe tt 



^ ^ ^ 


to to 



^ to •T' 

172 CONTRACT VEBJIS. [^ 105. 


i»«^.- .1.1,1.1.1 '3-'^'- 's-S's'~<^ ^ 

'3 So «8*3'3'8'3 ooo ^^Poo 

SLSL^ 5L;L5L5L^ 5L5L5L SL5L5.;l;L •» -5 -^ •S 



% ;^ 9k 

^ ^ ^ K^ •• !• 1^ 

2 2 3.2 5 a-« S?5.8 5 £ 5 

3^,K-. ^s-3?r3 ooo ooooo -t §: 

"o*o*o *o-o*o*o*p ^P*"©"!? *^ ^"P'^'IP 2 *^ 

bob|be6^6 bbbbbbbb 6 i 

«3«S»»- . «S»S'3«B«3 «8?3J»3- . * 3-^3^ 3^ 3-* 3- 


:L 3L 3L I SL :L SL 3. 9. SL X SL 9. 3L X 3. ^ SL * 

• ^ . R- 8 

0©S*uS S SS'aS'^ ^"R- R- 

.3.^.s-. .&.&.1-.&.I 's'l's 's-s'H'i 'S3, 

oooopooo poo ooooo ••^..'^ 

■,x-\ 53 o ® 

»-.R'.3^J^ .o.o^o ,o o^o^o^o •* .? 

OOO ooolooooo O 1 

^ • • • 




§ 105.] 



8 m 

g-h» M t<* to 

o ? o o © o^ 

-3. 5. S. 3. 1 S. * 


_ ^ H^ 8 P 
^-8 ft-S fi"§ 6 

^ ^ $ ^^ 5 5L 

<D 10 19 O (» b fa 

8L :s. 4. 3L 3. :l 

;^ >^ s^ 

5 «• S S ^ 

ooo ooooo 
*2^-2 I S 5 5 5*g^ 

S • 



s *^l5 



^O H) H) «u «w O «li O 

*^ -^ *^ ■«»«»*»«« •^ 

«L 3L ^ 5L.5. SL SL X •** 

Af^ ^%^ ^^ A|^^^■ #1^ Ai^ fi|^ - 

s ^ 

3 £ § b 

H ill 

3_ ^ a 

« 3 

3 o 3'«* 3-| 

^^ SL a. :l SL 9. N 

>• H t« (* M M 

«g«i^«!S . •«;! *>& A^f •£ •*«? 

I ^ 

^ ^ ;^ 1*1 a 

3o3m)3S *^^o» 
^-t S-S ft-S 2 ' 

^5L a. 3. :L X 3. fe 
*?• 5^ 5^ y y 3^ © 

N K H t« M K* 

0) S"3 

Xi Mi Hi 


» 2^ » 

« Q S i-S 9^S"tt s 

>• .t* ^** J* ^i* J* >» ,1* 
*Hv o^b **«(; *m *«u ««|^ "«u '*«u 


3 I 8 **• ^ 
«a -^ *^ "^ **» •^ 

^ 5J 51 S JJ 





S «* ^ 


p^ 2^ 5 « S fa 



P (^ 

O Ht «U 

•** *«i» •^ 

"m "vu *Hf 

5k ^ S 

«U tg O <V O 
^ « •* ^ ->S 

o o o o o 
R.R R.R R 

n^y *vy "mu "^ ''m/ 

9k !k <^ 

** -** 3- *• ^ 

^*u «w ^O *^t O 

3{ 2 S :S-^ 

o o o o o 

..^.K R R R 

n%y ti^% '^ijy ^m ^lO 









"'S" 3 2 




5 2 b 
o b s^ 


-» 2 ® 
g O ^ 

i*^ fa 

174 CONTRACT VIKBa. [^ 105. 


»«* ** ift** ^-ti a> Q Ds 0& 

see £ti isaB»St»6eo 

^51 2 i I 3 £ 2 

•p'O-o 5:o-3 »■•-« -• a ■« o-o 

sasal'Slsl 1* 1 II 

«.a.3.3.3.S.«.<.«. 3LS. a. 3.S. 

3- S- 3- 3- 3- 3- 3- 3- J 3-3- 3- 3- 1- 1- f- 5- 3- 3- 3- 


«. S S.S • ie • » a,' 3- K.-3-a'5.3-^ 

rriiiiiii ii 'rrrrrrrri 

1 as ass s s-s i a s »^ s S s * - = 


-^ I m ■■ ft b 

$ 105.] CONTRACT V»IBS. 175 

iiililiii iiiilS"- .|-.S-.i.|.-S-l-l>Sv5- 

-3-s Sos-a^.f-s a 

3-S 8*54-3 
l-S-S S-l I i 

s. .. 

3- 3- SS- 3- 3- 3- 9- 3. 









5- 3- 3- 3- 3- 3- o 5" 2" J 3" ^ s- 5- 5- 3- 

a-a'2's-2-3-13-3- «-,-,-^*jo h >. >. a yi a a - i 

ill s'i a s-3-3 i'5-5"5-3'5 I VSl Sl I 111 



[§ 105, 

150 All other tenses admit no contraction. But inasmuch as the 
declension of the perfect and pluperfeci pasme of these verhs is 
not sufl&ciently clear from the paradigms just given, they are here 
inflected at length. The -other tenses are inflected like rvnrw. 


lindieairoe, S. mnoivf^ai^ 



P. n€notnfiifa 




Stttjunctwe. nenoiwfiM* 

tji^ tixa^^ &c. 

Optatioe, S. mnoi^r^fitiv* 




P. neno^rifu^a 

Imperative, S. mnoitiao 

D. nenoifia'&ov 

P.' mnolijad's 


TBT l/Jlfjad'OV 




fi^ f3Ta&^ &C. 





tezifiijad'Oiv • 









* See ( 98 Rem. ti. 

§ 106.] 



S. inenoiiifitjv 

D. intnoii^fjied'ov 

P. imnQitifU^u 




iteTigifjTcT - 






1 Fut. n0lfid'1^(F0fAM 

1 Aor. inovri'd'riv 
3 Fut. TUTtoi^riaoiAav 





1 Fat jtoii^aofiai 
1 Aor. inoi>fjaotfiijv 


Verbal Adjectives* 





1. The uncontracted or original^form of these verbs is, in res^ 
pect to verbs in tm^ peculiar to the Ionic dialect. In the other 
verbs^ it is-wholly disused, with the exception of a few poetical 
forms in am. 

2. In the Attic and common dialect, the foregoing contractions 
are never omitted ; with the exception however, in general, of the 
shorter words in ecu (as t(>{oo), from which, though we say T()e7, 
IV(»f ^, nvfiv^ &C. we use, on the other hand, the full forms r^eco, 
y^iofAUi^ TpiOfiiVj nvi*ovGi, nvtrj^ &c« 

3. A few contract verbs in ao), instead of the vowel of contrac- 
tion a, have a Doric 17 ; see Rem. 9 below. They are principally 
tbe following, viz. 


^noiitod'ai to make for one^s selfy tifidtf'&ai to honor a^ io the active, 
ftiO'd'OVO'&at to eautt to let' to oneU telf^ i. e. to hire. 

23 ' 

178 CONTRACT VERBS. [^ 105- 

«■ ^ ■■11 ■ I * — ■ ■ ■ ■ ' 

' ifjv to live, y^^^a^a^ to tue, 

ne^vr^p to hunger oixpyv to thirst, 

from faw, ;f(^ttai, (see both amoDg the anomalotis verts below,) 
neimo), dtxpata^ Accordingly we have fi7ff, f^, *5|?, xgrirai, &c. 

Further remarks on the dialects, 

162 4* As the Ionics form the 3d pers. of the common conjugation 
in €d(, and «o, the verbs in tm are subject to a multiplication of 
vowels ; such as noifsai, fnatpi'eai, &c. which, however, with res- 
pect to ttj, is remedied by an elision of the ;, as inoiio. 

5. The Ionic dialect often converts a, in verbs^in aw, into e, 
as 6^t(o ogtofiev for o^dot ogaofnv, xgiixa^ for yigSiTM, &c. 

6. In the 3d pers. plur. ^here the Ionics, according to § 103. 
III. 5, change the o into a, and in particular use into for oi^to, 
they make use of the same termination, with the elision of one e, 
aldo for lOPTO of the imperfect, as if4ijxctV'taTO,{foT'UOVTO,'eovt6) 
commonly «^iy/avi»yro. In the perfect, they not only change ijv- 
Ttt* into tidtxav, but commonly shorten also the ri into £, as wr^/u- 
iatai for vfTifi-tji'Tai. 

7. The epic writers have the peculiar license, on account of 
the metre, to protract again the vowel of contraction by^ inserting 
before it the kindred long or short vowel, as (o^^a^/i^) ogav^OQnffP' 
(o{jda>) OQM, 6q6(o, Farticip. fem. {i^^aovGa) T^Qmoa, iq^tamaa^ &c. 

8. The Doric dialect, instead of contracting to into ov, com- 
monly contracts it into ev^ and that this is also done by the Ionics 
has already been remarked ; see §^27 Rem. 5. These dialects 
moreover not only saynoisvfisi/^ nouvaai, nouvvteg, inoUvv, from 
verbs in ^w, but also in the verbs in ocw, e. g. idixaUyp, nXr^Qevv* 
T£g, from Sixuiood, nh]^6oti. 

9. The Dorics, who uniformly use elsewhere a for ly, desert 
in this case this annlogy^ and make use of 17, without « subscript, 
instead of all contractions of aet and ff*, as oq^v for qq^v, ToAfiiy- 
T« for ToXfiaze, xoofATJi/ for xoofielv. 

LAst ofcontrojct verbs. 

The same explanations apply to this^ as to the preceding List 

of baryton verbs. 
ayanciia love. 

ayi/oiM am ignorant of, fut. mid. 

udvxito wrong, 

nidiofiai depon. am ashamed of, fut. eaofiai, perf. and aorist 

have a, 

ttlfiarofo make bloody. ' 



§ 106.} LIST or COHTRACT VEBBS. 179 

oipco), see anomalous verbs- 

aitim demand^ MID. 

mTidofAa& Mid. criminate. 

antofia^ Mid. heal fut. laofiai. perf. takes a^ 

axokov&icii fbUow. 

dngi^Oio know dccuratel^^ MID. 

axgodofini Mid. Aear. 

akao'fAai depon. wander^ 163 

aiL/£C0 staffer pain. ^ 

aki'at grinds retains e in its inflection/ Attic redup.-— PASS. 

has a. 
ikocim thresh^ fut. &c. § 95. 6. 
ifiaw mow, MID. 

ilAffiQ^tiTtm^ contest^ differ in opinion^ augment at the begin- 

iviifa (not a compound) Pass, with fut mid. am grimed. 

d|iO(u estimate. 

anapTttO) meet^ fut mid. — Augment in the middle. 

^netidia (not compounded) deceive* 

isuiXtia (not compounded) ikreaien* 

UQaofiat Mid. beg, 

dg^'d'fitm county MID. 

dgium suffice^ retains £ in its inflection. Pass, with the same 
meaning has a. 

igydofiui BUd. deny. 

agofnf plough, retains o in the inflection, Attic redop. Pass, 
without cr. 

ttQzacii hang, fasten, MID. 

uanem exercjise. 

avkfio pipe. 

fiiootf, see anomalous verbs. 

fioafo cry out^ see § 95 Rem. 5. Fut. mid. 

PovKokda/eed, trans. 

Pgovxiio thunder. 

yiktto) laugh, fut. mid, — Has a in inflection. PASS, has a. 



y£waM beget^ MID. 
' danavufo Act. and depon. expend. 
dalMOI/iai'}Aidi, salute wiih the rigM hand, 
^£01, see anomalous verbs. 
dfiXioi injure^ MID* 
dfjkom manifest. 
dtaiTaw (not a compound) am a judge^ PASS, cdnde^ Ihe ; for 

augment see § 86 ReoL 4. 
diaxovtw (not a compound) minister to, for ^ augment see § 86 
Rem.^4. — MID. same signification. 
164 dixpdw thirsty see Rem* 8 above. 
dovkom ^lave, MID* 

d^am do^ (different from diiQcta9Uo, see anomalous verbs.y 
dvatVKim can unfortunate, 
idm permit^ augm. ti* 

iy/vita (not compounded) pledge^ MID. guarantee, 
iym^UQifa deliver overj augm* § 86 Rem* 3* 
lAff 01 pity* 

ifim spiij has i in the inflection, Att. redup. — PASS, has if. 
ivavTiaofiai depon. am opposed to, augm. at the begmniDg. 
iv'&vfiiOfjia& depon. consider^ augm. § 86 Rem. 3. 
tvoxkioi annoy^ aug^. Q 86 Rem. 4. 
im^vfiita desire.^ augm. § 86 Rem.^3. ^ 
in&X^igtoi undertake^ augm. § 86 Rem. 3* 
iga(o love^ 1 aor. Pass has a with active signification. 
igevvcioj Act and Mid* investigate. • . 

igtjfAOOi make waste. 
igv'd'Q&am blush, 
igoitam ask. 

iatiao) entertain^ treaty augm.'e^. 
evegyertoi benefit^ augm. § 86 Rem. 5. * 

iva(^s(o am piouSif augm. § 86 Rem. 6. 

ci;oo/£ai feast trans^ PASS./€<i«< intrans; augment § 86 Rem. 5. 
£aa), see anomalous verbs. 
Sm boU intranSt retains e in its inflection. 


V £17 Add) emulate J am zealous for, 
iritita seek* v 

ioty^ufp^aj paint 
^^a(a am young, • 
iqytOfAQii Mid. ihink^ believe. 
^fjtfQOw tame, 

i^ptox^OD drvoe, ^ ^ 

^(soiofAai PAiSS. am inferior^ am overcome. 
i^X^^ ^^ho^ sound* 
'd'a^^tto, S-aQam^ confide am bold, 
^€aof4ai> Mid. befiold^ contemplate* 

&ijga(a hunt. 165 

•^Aaw cruskf a in the inflection.— PASS, has a,. 
'&vfiittm bum incense^ perfume, 
•^vfAOoi am wrathful. 
iiefiM Mid. heal. 

Idgooi sweat. * < 

iftam draw up^ MID. 
latogita inquire. 
siaxdcD injwre^ weaken. 
mavx^OfJiai Mid. boast, 
nevrio) prick^ sting. 

%wioi moroL 

%Xa(a break, a in the inflection. PASS, has fs^ (not to be con- " 

founded with xAaai, xAaioi, see anomalous Verbs.) 
Viktioito choose by lot^ MID. cast lots. 
Mvaoa scrape^ contracts ae into rj. See above Rem. 3. 
xo^juaoi put to sleep^ tranquillize^ PASS. (Epic mid.) sleep* 
»oiv6(o Act. and Mid. make common^ share. 
noLvtavifo partake* 
xoAAacd ghe, 
noXvfjipioi srvim* 
%ogm sweept (different from uogdvwfAi^ see anomalous verbs.) 

ftoofieoi adorn. 
' xorca> Act. and Mid. am angry^ resent^ retains * in its raflection: 
ngavim have power^ take hold ((f. 


• - ' 

MQOTem strike^ clap, 
XTOOfAai Mid. acquire, Perf. potsess. 
KTvnifa sound, roar* 
Kvfifgvaoi pilot, direct* 
lakeoi speak, 
kinageat implore. 

loido^fo) reproach, Act. Pass, and Mid. 
Xvnto) grieve, 
liaffaofi^ai Mid. abuse. 
l(a<pa(a remit, r^t 
(AaQTvgiio testify. 
fiHd&am smile. 
166 fifT^eoi measure, MID. 

(ifljiavioiAai Mid. contrvoe, devise. 

fiifjieofiac Mid. iffiitaie. 

(Ai^aeoi hate. 

vim spin, (for vita swim, see anomalous verbs.) 

v&xaw conquer. • 

void} think. 

vov&eTiw exhort, wam^ 

$£01 abrade, smooth, polish, retains the £ in the inflection, and la 

PASS, has ff. . 
olxio} dwell 
oixo^Ofiim build, MID* 
oxveo) hesitate, am not willing* 

ofAoXoyioi agree with, confess, , ^ 

OTiraoi roast, 
ogd^ooi set upright, MID. — For augm. of compound uvo^oto 

see § 86 Rem. 4. 
oginaoi Act. and Pass, hasten, strive. 
OQliiia lie at anchor. 
OQxiofAa^ Mid. sprir^, dance, 
Qvgim, augm- $B3 Rem. ^6. 
6xi(o drive traps. PASS, drive intransit. 
nuQWviio rage, augm. § 86 Rem. 4. 
y natioi tread. 

§ 105.] 



nepvaoi suffer hunger^ see above Rem. 4. 

nuQcicD try^ examine, — nHQaofJiM^ with fut. mid. and aor. pass. 

attempt^ undertake, 
jtsgam pass over^ fut. neQaato (long a) &c. 
negato bring troer^ fut. neQaata (short a), Att. fut. negfa^ atf, ^. 

&c. PASS, has (F. 
TiXavona mislead, PASS, wander, 
jikeoveuTiCD am coroetous, 

noveoi Act. and Mid. labor. 
megoto gvoe wings to, 

TTOlAcQI seU, , 

^iCoto cause to root, PASS, take root, 

crifAaifOw mark^ IHID. 

ayaco keep silence, fut. mid. 

mttOfAcii Mid. eatj feast* 

amnoua keep silenee^ fat mid. 

GxigTttOi leap. / . 

Cfiaoi scour^ contracts ae into ^. See above Rem* 3. 

anaw draw^ a in the inflection, PASS, has a. MID. 

ateq>av6w crown^ MID. 

avkao) plunder. 

Gipgiyaw swell^ am puffed up. 

TfUm finish^ fulfil^ retains « in the inflection, PASS, has ff. MID. 

xrigiia observe. 

T^doi honor^ MID. 

TififogicD help, revenge, MID. 

ToAjUMO)' dare. 

xgm tremble, see above Rem. 2. retains « in the inflection. 

tgvTido} Jbore, perforate, 
zgvq>a(o am effeminate, debauclu 
Tgvq)6oy make proud, PASS, am proud. « 
ff^ovifo en-py*^ 
q)tlt(a hve. 
qfO^iofinv depon. /ear 


184 VERBS IN fAt, [§106. 

XaXum yield, relax^ a in its inflection, PASS, has a. 
Xiigom Act. but more commonly Mid* wJbjtct^ 
X<ugtw go, yield, fat mid. 

i/;o(u rub, contracts ae into ij, see above Rem* 3. MID. 
niviofjiai^ Mid. buy, augm. § 83 Rem. 6. 


§ 106. VERBS IN fAtr. 

1. The first class of irregolar verbs arie those in fi&, a dass 

which contains but few verbs and parts of verbs, which differ also 

still further from each other in several points. 

168 Rem. 1. The verbs, which are given in the grammar as exam- 
ples of this formation, are almost the only ones in which it pre- 
vails in all those parts, to which it can be applied. Whatever else 
is governed by this analogy will be given in the list of anomalous 
verbs. For the most part, it is only single tenses of certain verba. 

2. All verbs in fii have a root, which, according to the usual 
formation, should terminate in cd pure. It is therefore usual in 
the grammar to deduce the more frequent from the obsolete form, 
and to say that xldirifiv is derived from SESi. 

3. The conjugation in fc« is peculiar only in the Present, Imr 
perfect and Second Aorist ; and the essentials of it consist in the 
terminations of inflection. Thus, fnv, rf , v, fiai, instead of being 
attached to the root by a connective vowel {ofiev, ere, ov, Ofia&)j 
are joined immediately to the radical vowel of the verb, e. g. 

rid'i-fjitv, lora-giai, dldo-n, i^elnvV'-Te, td'tj-v. 
See Rem. 8. 

4. In addition to this, there are some peculiar terminations, viz. 

(At — in the 1st pers. sing. pres. Indie. 

ai or Giv — in the 3d pers. sing. pres. Indie, 

^1 — in the 2d pers. sing. Imperat. 
Besides, the infinitive of those tenses always ends in vm, and the 
nom. masculine of the participle not in v, but in g, with the omis- 
sion oft', whereby the radical vowel is lengthened in the usual 

§ 106*]. VERBS IN fl*, 186 

manoer, as a^, eig^ ovg, vg^ which ending has always the acute ac- 

8. The subjunctive and the optative combine the radical vowel 
of the verb with their termination mto one long vowel/ which 
«hou!d regularly be always accented.— In the subjunctive, when 
the radical vowiel is u or *, this contracted vowel is to and i?, as 

But when the radical vowel is o, the contracted vowel is uni- 
formly CD, as V 

The optative has a diphthong with *, to which is subjoined the 
termination in tjv, as v^-eitjp^ lat-aitjif^ did-oiriv. i 

The verbs in viai most commonly form these two modes ac- 1^9 
cording to the analogy of verbs in iJoi. » , 

6. Several short radical forms connect with the abovenamed 
changes a rtduplicaium^ wherein they* repeat the first consonant 
with an «, as 

AOSl didwfit, SESi Tl&fifti. 
If the root begin with ar, nv, or an aspurated vowel, * alone is 
prefixed with the aspirate, as 

2:7'J!Si 7atfif*i, HTASi inraf^M, *ESl rtjfii. 
And it is onlj^ln this way, that the second aerist can be formed In 
rerbs of this kind; as it is only by the absence of this reduplica- 
tion, that it is distinguished from the imperfect, and, in the other 
modes, from the present (see § 96 Rem. 3.) as 

Ttd^i^fAtf Impf. hi^fiv^ Aor. t'^v. 
7* The radical vowel, in its connexion with the terminations 
of this conjugation, in the singular of the indicative always be- 
comes long ; viz. a and £ become 17 (1st pres. i^ju^), becomes ai 
(1st pres. a>ju^), and v is lengthened, as v(ai. In the other termi- 
nations it almost always appears in its original shortness, as r/^17- 
fi< — Tid-ff^iv^ t&eaav^ ri'&ivM^ Ti-^^r*, ri'd^^fto^, but with some ex- 
ceptions, which will 'be seen as they occur in the paradigms, and 
in the list of anomalous verbs below. 

8. All the other .tenses are formed in the^ usual manner from 


186 VERBS IN filf. \§ 106. 

the root and without redoplkation, as rl^tjfji^ {OESi)^ fat ^i^am. 
The verbs, however, of this class, have, as anomalous verbfi, even 
in these tenses, other ^peculiarities, which are not hicident to their 
character as verbs in /ut, and are therefore to be separately con- 
sidered. ^ 

Rem. 2. The twa verbs tat^fii and diitafu shorten &eir vow- 
el, even in those tenses of the passive voice, jwhich are regnlar. 
£. g. Act. oi^ao) perf. tajtina^ Pass. perf. taxifiai^ aor. iaTa{^fiv 

The verbs xl'^tifjib^ and 7i7/u^.(§ 108) do the same only in the 1 
aor. e. g. ite'&tjv (for i'&id'fjv^ from SESl^) 

i^ilg part. 1 aor. pass, (from '£Si,) 

In the perfect active and passive, these two change the radical 
vowel into f », e. g. 
' Ttd'nyta^ re'&Hfjiai' eTtta^ tifAM* 

Rem. 3. The three verbs tid'fjfii^ '^Vh''^ dldtafii have a form 
of the 1 aor. in xa wholly peculiar to themselves, as i'd-tjKa^ ^xa, 
I7Q idtana^ which must be carefully distinguished from the perfect. 

Rem. 4. In the imperative of the 2 aor* some verbs, inslead 
of ^i^ have simply ?, e. g. 

'd't's for i^fi^t, eg for t&i^ (^6g for dodi. 

Rem. 5. As the termination of the 2 pers. pass, in the common 
conjugation (i;, ov) had its origin in eaah €00 (see § lOSf-Rem. II. I^ 
2.) and as the connective vowel is dropped in the verbs in /u«, the 
termination of this person in these verbs is simply (ra^, oo, as in 
the perfect and pluperfect of the common conjugation. Accord- 
ingly we have ri^a-oat, fri^^-ao, YaTa-aai, &c. But here also 
a contraction with the radical vowel takes place, as r/i^ij, er/i^ov, 
^ I'oxy, i'arft), for iGtaaui.^ laraao^ &c. 

Rem. 6. The form in vfii belongs only to a few very anoma- 
lous verbs, which derive their tenses, with the exception of the 
perfect and imperfect, from a simpler form, as dfUvvfAi from 
AEJKSl, apivvvfAt from 2BE^ &c. and are therefore introduc- 
^ ed here as defectives (see § 112. 6.) In order to know with ease, 
when V is long or short, it is necessary only to compare the verb 
iGTfjfjii. Thus delnvv/ii has its v long, as YoTtifjii its 17, and ddx- 
vvfiiv has v short, as idTocfiev its a. Aor. 2 i'dvfitv has long t;, 
as tattifAfv has its penult long, &c. see dv(o in the anomalous verbs. 

Rem. 7. All verbs in (il increase their anomaly in this, that, 
even in the present and imperfect, in various persons and modes, 
they very often abandon the analogy of verbs in /u*, and are de- 
clined regularly like verbs in £q>, acu, d«o, that is, as contract 
verbs ; and those in i^i like verbs in vto ; retaining, however, 
the reduplication, that is, following an imaginary root, as 77- 

i 107.] 

YERfiS IN /<*. — ^PARADIGtf. 




I place 
(from SESi) 

D. — 


P. vi^ffiev 
T&^iaai (v) 


M. Ti^ii9{evtog) 
F. Tid-Hoa 


I). — 17T0t/> fJtOV 

P. ai(Aiv^i}T£^aiai 

S. Tt^eitiv 


D. — 

p. Tl^tltifUV 

(from -^2!^i2) (from^OiZ) 


lavfjai (v) 

laraai {v) 




/ ihffW 

(from detnyvfo) 


diixvviat {v) 

dunvvQif (v)* 

\iaravat \did6vav , \dHiivvvab 

larig («i^o^) 




. — 1JT0V, tjrov 


larai fjTi 

dMv, . 


— oiroy. mxov 





dnxvvg {vpxog) 






/ / 

* The tliird person plural in ag* is the Attic; the 
tid'iloB^ didov9i^ du^vvai^ M rather Ionic. 

clrcumflezed form 


V£BBS IN |U«^.^— PARApiQM. 

[§ 107. 

Of this optative there is in the daal and plural an abridged form, 
which ia the 3d pers. plar. is exclusively used, as follows, viz. 


P. tl^ilfAiV 


no)^ &c. 
3 PI. Tid^fTWtdap 
or Tt^ivTiov 

S. lti{^riv\ 
D. — 

p. iti'&tfuv 


lOTCc'&t, com. 
lOTtf^ aro) &c. 

or iatavttov 



orO), &c. 
or didovTiav 








^(f/xta!^^, com. 

dfli/tvv, 2;toi,&c. 
or da^vvvTonr 




Perf. Ttd^HTia 
Plup. iT€&iixHV 

Fut. -^^ffoi 
1 Aor. a&fiKoc^ 

ictrixtip or 




• With regard to xl^txv see k 18. 4. The second person in ^* is 1^- 
tle used in prose. Instead thereof, in the aht>reviated form, Itsxr^ and 
deixpv are used ; and in the verbs declined like contrcLcta^ xl'&fl and didov, 

t The singular of this tense, with the exception of lOXfj/ni^ is usually 
declined like the contracts, and like the form in 00), as 

ixid'ovv^ fig^ H. idldovp^ ovq^ ov. ideiKwov^ ig^ i {v), 

4 With respect to the perfect and pluperfect of iGXfjfAA the foUowiog; 
things are to be remarked^ yiz. 

1. The augment ; — inasmuch as the f, which stands instead of the re- 
duplication, is aspirated, contrary to the analogy of other verbs (see ^ 82. 
5), and the pluperfect often increases this augment by the temporal aug- 
ment ii, 

2. The ahhrtviaUd forms in use, instead of those of the regular conju- 
gation, which see below. ' 

3. The change in signifieationy which will also be mentioned below. 

( From this irregular aorist in HQ (see { 106 Rem. 3) no modes or par- 
ticiples are formed. 

i 107.] 



Second Aorist.* 


S. e^fjv^ 
like the 








like the 

•^f Iff, d^sTaa, d'tv 
'&tT€^ Ttaaav or 


mag, aruaa^ <nav 

axn^i § 

arijTf^ twaav or 


Sovg^ dovaa^ dov 

{do^i) dig 

Sotov^ dOTfOV 
doTe^ Tcoaav or 


* The 2 aor. eGTipf departs from the analogy of the imperfect and of 
the verbs in fii in g^eneral, by its long^ rowel in the dual and plural (^ 
106. 7.) — The 3d pers. pi. eaxijaav is the same with the 3d pi, Ist aor. 
ajad must therefore, as their sig^nifications differ, be ascertained by the 

t The singular (indie, act.) of t'&fjv^ idtav^ is very rarely used. 

"f. This tense, in these modes, is declined precisely like the present, 
a.pd the optative undergoes the same abbreviations in dual and plural. 

( The imperative OT'^'&i is in composition sometimes abbreviated, as 


VKRB8 IM /li.-^PARADI61l. 

K 107. 




S. ti&€ fiai 
ri'&faai or 

D. Tl&tfA€^OV 

P. ti^f'fif^a 

Inf, ri'd'ea^ai 
Part. TiSifievog 

S, Ti'&difiai* 

D. Tt'd'caf^i'&ov 

P. Ti^fjifif'd'a 


S. Ti&sif^ijv^ 

D. Ti'&flfjieS^ov 

P. ti'&€ijif^a 


laraoui or 





I aravtai 






























* The sabjunctive and optative are here formed according^ to the strict 
rales. In the common lang^uage and in sing^le verbs, some irregfularities, 
especially in the accent, take place* These irregularities consist in plac- 
ing the accent nearer thf beginz^ing of the verb, as Ti'&ODfiai^ iGtaitO^ 
and in the termination olfAtiv for (ifiijp^ as ri'&ono for t^Uto. 

5 107.] 




rl-&sao or 

iGtaGo 'or 

— r— — ' - ■ ■■— " ' 

di^OGo or 



. iffrct) 


zi^iO'&oi &c. 


SidoG^ta kc./ 

ieiKVVG'&OJ &LC. 




S. irt'&ififjv 
iri'diGO or 

iar«0O or 

ididoGo or 














P. irt'&efie'&a 







Perf. Tt&etfiai 
Flup. ixi'&eifAfjv 


lataGai &c. 

dtdoGM &c. 


From the other modes of the perfect it is easy to form the /n/int- 
twe tf'd^lG&at^ dfdoGf^i^ Participle z^'&eifiivoQ^ Imperative &- 
7o(T0, &c. The Subjunctive and Optative are not in use. 

1 Fut. xe'&riGOiAav* Gtad-i^GOfJiiu I do'&riGojiai 
1 Ao'r. hid'T^v iGzci'&ijv idod'ijv 


The 2d and 3d fut. and 2d aor. are wanting.* 

I Fut. '&riGOfA,a^% 
1 Aor. i'&^tjxdfjifjv 



dfjiGbfAai I from 
IdmxdiAtiv I J.E1KSI 


• In Ti'&tjG0f4at^ ite'&tjv^ the t£ is not to be mistaken for the redu- 
j^licative augment. It is ^he radical syllable #£, which however is change" 
ed to te,, in consequence of d" in the termination (( 1&.) Otherwise it 
would b^ i'&t'd'tiv^ {^e^tiGOfAai, 

t The aorists id'fjxdfifiv^ idonxdfAfjv belongs exclusively to the dia- 
lects. The common prose uses in th^ middle voice, onl^ the 2d aovist of 
these verbs. 





Second Aoriat 



{idoao) edov &c. 

decline according to the imperfect passive. 

Infin. '&eo&€U 

Part- S^ffifvos 

Subj, S'tofjiai 

Opt. Mfifjv 

avaaoy arto 


(^000) dov 

decline according to the present passive. 


Verhal Adjectives. 

tnarog Sorog 

axttxiog dotiog 



I from ' 

II. Remarks on lartifii. 

1 The verb Yatijfii is divided between the transitive significa- 
tion to place and the neuter to stand (§113. 5.) in the active voice 
the following tenses have the transitive signincatien^ viz. Present 
latfifii^ Itnperf. Ttni^v^ Fnt. ariyffoj, Aor. 1st tairjaa. 

The fpllowing have the intransitive signification of standi viz. 
Perfect I'ffTiyxa, Pluperfect ian^K^iv^ 2d Aor. hGttiv. 

The passive has throughout the signification to he' placed^ and 
the middle signifies vRriously to place one^s self^ to place^ to erect' 

2. In addition to this, the perfect active has the sigpiification of 
the present, and the pluperfect of the imperfect (see § 1 IS Rem. 2.) 

^OTf^xa J stand 
ioTYinBiv I was standing 
iatfjxcig standing &c. 

3. In this case there commonly prevails, in the dual and plural 
176 and in the other tnodes, an abbreviated form of the perfect and 

pluperfect, resembling the formation of the present of verbs in(i&^ 
which is found also in other verbs and will be explained below 
in §110. 

* The 2d Aor. middle of tarfj/ii is not found in the Greek writers, and 
is only inserted here as a g;aide in other verbs, e. g. for inxufi^iv from in^ 
xafJMtt (see among the anomalous verbs nixojiai). 


$ 107.] VERBS IN /Ui. 198 

Ferf, Plur. larofi^t^, ttnati^ iarSa^ 
Du. ?azuTOv 

Pluperf, Plur. taruficv^ iatare^ kaxiaav 
Da. iataTOP^ iotatti'if , 

Subjunc, effrctf, jfff, ^ &c. OpI. iaraifjv 

Imperat. iGTa&&^ ioxatfa &c. 

/n/ln. iatdvai 

Partic. {iorawg) iatcig^ iaxwaa^ ianig. G. ia%&Tog 

• (/on. iaTfuig^ eizog) 

It 19 hence apparent, that this perfect and pluperfect, in the 
gpreater part of their declension, have both the formation and the 
signification of the present and imperfect. 

4. In consequence of this present signification (and because the 
futurj ari^tfflii means IshaUfj^e^BudaTi^aOfiai Iskallplaeemi/seff,) 
there has been formed from iaztjKa I standi a separate anomalous 
future iani^oj or ian^^Ofiai I shall stand^ with which may be com- 
pared the similar future of •^i^axoi among the anomalous verbs. ' 

III. Remarks on the dialects iri the verbs in fit. 

}^. Several of the dialectical peculiarities of the regular conju- 
gation of verbs are found also in the verbs in fjii» Such are the 
imperfects and second aorists in axov^ which always before this 
termination, have the short radical vowel, as imperfect Ti^ionov^ 
dldoGKOv^ 2d aor. ardanov^ doanov. ^ In like manner the Infinitives 
Tk&if*ev for Ti'&tvcu^ dogiivai for dovvui &c. 

2. The Dorics use t^ for ff«, in sing. W^i^r^ for tl^ai &c. and 
ID the plural, replacing also the v which had dropped out according 
to § 103 Rem. IV. 1. as xi^ivtiy iatavsty iidovri^ for £?o«, a<F», ovqu 

3. Ther third pers. pi. in aav of the imperfect and of the 2 aor. 
act. is diminished a syllable by the Doric and epic writers, and 
ends merely in y with a preceding short or shortened root, as crt- 
'&SV for itid-eaav^ taxav for iattiaav^ edov^ tdvv^ for idoaav^ edvaav. 

The subjunctive undergoes in the Ionic dialect a resohUvm or 
2en^tAentng, as 

Tt^/oi, d'ioi^ 'trig "*?/ &c. for %id'm^ -d'cJ, -Jj, ^^, &c. 
iaxici^ axioi &c. for iaxoi .&& 
ffojciy dfir^g &c. for ^<», d^g &c. 
To which may also be added the mode of lengthening used by 
the epic poets, as ^iita, axi^ti &c. (see § 1^ Rem- III. 6«) 


194 * IRRE6l7l.Af( VBKfta.*— V^^^. [^ lOS. 

_ ' 

* ''"^ § 108. 'ESI, JSSi, AKp 7i2. 

Among the other irregulaT rerhs in ps are some small ones^ 
whose radical fomi is partly 'J^, and partly *ESi and '/fi, and 
which are therefore easily confounded, especially in composition, 
where the breathjog is partly lost. — Thus nQogtlpai may come 
from iJpai and from ityou^ and although in aqelvai and ajtfTva^^ 
the effect of the rongfa and smooth breathing respectively ia visi- 
ble, yet even this distinction disappears in the Ionic writers^ who 
do not aspirate the consonant. 

The radical form '£Si has three chief m^dQinga, vi& K I tmtd^ 
f. I phee^ 3. I clothe; *£Si has the signification I am; and '/A is 

I. ''ififM send^ throw, from 'ESi. 

This verb may be compared with r/^i^iu^, from the analogy of 
which h departs but little. The », according to § 106 Rem- 6, 
takes the place of a reduplication* When the short radical vowel 
e begins the word^ it it susceptible of the augment ha paadng ioto 
«#. See ^ 83. 2. 


ReuABJK* The comparison of this v^rb with u^im hi here 
necessary. Every tense and mode, therefore^ which Any wheie 
occnrs, is given uk the ftdlowiog paradigm* 



Sing, I>oal. Plur. 

\ ««a*v or UiQt* 


y»?v (or ?oi/y from I 'Utov.Utriv^ I YiMvJi^u.iiattit* 
^lESl) \ 

$ MS.] lRRmCfi.Aft nABt^'Jilfi$. 19$ 

First Aorist P«iftct . Pluperfect 

First Future. 

Second Aorist 
hi V9j ^, * I Irov^ &if IT, j /^«if, IVf, I'ffay, or with 

p * 178 

Present. , •, 

Second Aorist. 

•'^ i?^? Vi I ^l^O'', ^rOJ/, I tafJl€V^ ^Tf, cS<T« (if). 


««/^y, £*/»;ff, iVii? I Utvjrov^ Utritfjv^ \ klfifxiv i^/i^re, Ul^aav^ 

Second Aorist 



Sing. Dual. Plur. 

u^t (com. i'f*, fcVoi I I'fToy. Utcup^ \ Tew, thmauv* 
fromV^^ft.) I 

Second Aorist 

Present Second Aorkil. 


* Not OMd ill Qi« sii^gttlar, tiw ilM aoriift tftltiiig lit pl«^ 
t For which common use employs ilfuv^ iTje^ iUv, 

• 1 r 

196 IRREOULAB VBRBS. i^^*. [^108. 

I t 

Preflent Second Aorist. 

Ulg^ Uiott^ lev, \ elg^ etaa^ iv. 



Present (Passive and Middle). 
i<E-fia(, CM^ ro», I fie^ov, ad^ov, ad^ov^ \ fie^a, a^f, recti. 

Perfect (Passive and Middle). 
iT/A(u,€Taa^ieha&\ eifu^ov^eTa^ov^iTa^ov | ttiw&a^eTii'&e^eTvTai 

179 JFirst Aorist (Passive.) 

i^fjv^ or with the augment et&tiv. 


First Aorist (Middle.) 
Sin^. Dual. Plar. 

lin-afifjv^ Qi,. OTO, I cifit^ov^ aad'ov^ da&tjv^ \ afwO'a^ aad'e^ ayro. 


Second Aorist (Middle.) 
ifAfjv^ or commonly with the augment ci/JLtjv. 

Subjunctvoe (Second Aorist) £fiai. 

Imperative — oii 

Infinitive •— t'a&ai 

Participle -^ tuevo^. 

Verbal Adjectives. 
* *roff, ixiog. 

Remakk. Thi^ verb occurs but rarely in its simple form. It is, 
therefore, to be remarked chiefly for the use of the preceding 
forms in compounded verbs, as 2d aor. afpfivM^ Stq>ig^ eiviifuv for 
aveltifjiiv. Mid. nQoiad-av, dq)ifi€vog^ &c. The compound aq)lfifu 
often takes the augment in the beginning, as ligtUaav. 

§ 168.] 

iRREeuuiLR yvmBS.'^HfiiM. 


II. 'BSi place^ ^Iffiai sit. 

1. From this *£Si^ in a irdmUhe sense, the following forms 
only are in use, yiz. 

First Aorist *io[a, Middle tiaafiTjVy 
where the diphthong is properly an augment, but parses never- 
theless into other portions of the verb, as 

Participle eYaag, 

Future Middle ^tXaofiai, 

2. Another form of the perfect pc^ssioe from this root has ac- 
quired the force of an intransitive present^ viz. {/ua« I sit. 


Present. * * 

Sing. Dual. Plur. 

^fca«, ^GMj ritai, or I fjfiB'&ov, tjad'ov^ ^ad'ov \ ijfie^a, ^<F^«, fivTOA" 


W'^l^'i V^^% V'^0 OX y(no^ \ tifti'd'ov^ tjad-ovj ija'&tjVj | ^fiS'&'a, {a^£, 

I fjvto. 


^(70, ^'a^w I fia^av^ ^Wwv, | ??a^«, ^Wcoaav. 





I ^fAfv-og^ 17, ov. 

Of more common use is the compound xo^ijfcce^, inttd"tjfifiv^ 3d 
Sing. ixa&^TO or xa^^aro, iii/I K«'&vO'^<*h "^j- xft^o)/ua«, O/^t 
nad^olfAfiv^ xci'&oiTO. > 

III. "Evvvgii I clothe^ I pta on. 

IThiB verb is declined like dihvvfii^ and forms the defective por- 
tions from the theme 'JSSi, see § 112. 6. 

Except in composition its use is confined to the poets. Henoe 
we find 


IRRtiOUIAR VEB|l$*«^iS^« «ff|. 


Fut. eato, eaato. Ist Aor. i'aaa^ {Inf. ioai^) Mid* iaoafitiv. 
Perf. Pass. eTfiM^ itaai^ thui^ &c. also eaiaai. 
Plap. fid pers. laoo, 5d pefs. lirro. 

In prose, thecompooDd afAqiUPPVfi& is used, yi2. 
Fat afiipuam, Att. a/u^^oi. 1st Aor. ^fOfli^fa, 
Perf. Pass, (afi^^a/io^) com. lifiipUafiat^ iifi(fkoatj ijfiqfinnM^ &ۥ 



lY. JSlfil I am, fvim^ESi, 




S. £i)u^ 

* ilg or «7, 

eattp X)T iari^ 




P. £(I)UCV, 


ilolv^ daL 





S. w, 





^«oy, ' • 

P. eu^/un^, 


<ua^ (y). 




* ' 

S. £«i;v, 



' iifJTOV^ ( 

</^ri7#, ^ * 

P. iifjftev^ 


^ijuctp or «?«v. 


. P. 



iOTmattv or i'ottov. 


-*■ ' 

* Not to be confounded with lad'^ knoto^ ^ee o?da, i 109r 

^108.] IBREOVLAR VSMS.—- j6lju» ^0. 199 

S. ^j', ^ffcom.^<t^a(§176.6.) tjv^ 

The Future is borrowed from the Middle: 
S. laQfuni^ eati or eaei^ eaerat cdm.iarah 

D. iaofied'ovf eaeG'&ovy iaiC'&ovy 

P. ia6f4.6'&a^ tasad^s, eaovrat* 

InfinUvve preseut ehat, fut. taead^ai. PartieipU present (»v (Gen. 
woj,) oviWf, Qj/, fat. iaofievQ^^ 

Verbal A<iyectiTe imwj 

2. Besides the future tease there is also borrowed- fr^m the 
middle yoice the imperfect ^fft^v and tbci imperative iao, both 

• of the signification of the active voice, but rarely found in the old- 
^r writers. Of this, imperfect the 1st pers^ sinf. is most ia use, 
aod commonly with the particle iv x»ereX thoM /if,9ee§ 140.3< 

3. The present tense eifiij with the exception of the second ^on 
person aJ^ is enclitic. It is actually subject to inclination, where 

it is the mere copula of a proposition ; but wherever it «ignifie« 
real existence^ it retains the accent. The third person sin^fular 
in particular, has it in that case on ibe first syllable, as ^606 4(h> 
TCI'* iaTi fioi dovlog. "JSotiv^ moreover, is always accented on 
the first syllable at the beginnmg of a sentence, aAer the unac- 
cented particles cii^, oi)x, «/, and after rouro and aMa, when tliese 
words are isubject to apostrophe, as ovk ifm^ tovt taniv. When, 
however, the faicllnation is only obstructed (see § 14. 5), the ac- 
cent is placed on the last syllable, as in the other parts of the 
present tense, as )>ojQg iari^ nan^g d* itttip^ k/^iv /a^, &c« 

V. Ulixi, I go, from 7i2. 

Ind. Pres. S. flfii ». ilg com. 6 J dai (y) 

D. — hov iTOv 

Suhjunc, . Jw. Opt. ioifit or ioli^v 
Imperdt, li'&i, nw &c. 3. pi. hojaav or iovtoiv 
Infin, uva$ , 

Pari. imv (with the accent always on the last sylla- 

ble, as other verbs in the Part. 2d Aon) 

200 I&REOULAR VERBS. 0fifiL [^ 109. 

Imperf. S. ^hv com. tjia or ^a 

^f * or fjeiv 
D. ' '- 

f^flTOV or fJTOV 

yehfjv or ^rtjv 
p. ^fifisv or f?/M«i/ 
^«*T« or ijr« 

* The middle, with the signification of to Atirry, is also only us- 
ed in the present and imperfect, yiz. Ufjiai^ t^'H'Vv^ Rod is declined 
like lefjiai^ from ifjfjii» 

1B3 . Verbal Adjectives hov^ hsov^ and hrixiov: 

Rem. 1. In the common dialect no other parts of this verb 
occur, and it is therefore a true defective. It is to be noted, how- 
ever, that according to usage, the preceding active forms belong 
to the anomalous verb <j9;|ro/iat, f]Xbov^ (see the list of anomalous 
verbs,) of which they supply the place of several obsolete tenses. 

Rem. 2. With respect to the present indicative tifAt^ the fol- 
lowing rule must be carefully noted, viz. 

The Present eJfii has ike force of the Future I will co- 
lt accordingly takes the place of the rarer form iA«i;aof4a» (see 
the anomalous apxoficti)' 

The other modes of eJfAi may be used either as present or fu- 

Rem. 3. The epic language has also fat. tiaofuxi^ 1st aor.^iao- 
ffijv, the same as the corresponding tenses from iidoi (see Oid» 
§ 109), with which, therefore, they must not be confounded. 



I. (thjini I say^ from 0^SI. 

Ind, Pres. S. q>fjf4i (p^g q:fjal {v) 

D. — qtaxov qparoV 

P. (fafitv (fctxi qfaoi{v) 

Subj. q}(o Opt. ipalfjv I/Qperat. q>a^i 

In/in, qidvai^ Part* <fag 

§ 109.] IRREGULAR VERBS. Kfiflkttt. OlSa. 201 . 

Impf. S. €g)fiP . iOftfiQ com. eq^f^a i'ijpfj 

D. — lq>atov iq)aTfjv 

P. £g)«/u«v £9>ar« iquxaav 

Fut. 9>i{<roi. Aor. Ist ^q^tjaa* 
The middte ^cta^a^ iipifitiv^ is also used ; and, in a Passive ac- 
ceptation, some perfect tenses, as n^q^da^to be it saldt Jtsqiaafiivog, 

Verbal adjectives qaxoq^ qaxiog. 

Rem. 1. The present indicative, with the exception of 91}^, is 
subject to inclination, see § 14. 3. 

Rem. 2. This verb, like the foregoing, is a defective, which in 
use combines with' the anomalous verb eineiv^ and forms a whole 
with the tenses of the latter. 

f Rem. 3. The single tenses of this verb are arranged and nam- 
ed above, according to their formation. In practice, however, it 
is to be observed, that the imperfect i'qfiv is usually a genuine , 
aorist, and synonymous with fhov. To . this tqtjv is conformed 
the infinitive qavoti^ which is always a preterite.* 

Rem. 4. By aphasresis the following forms occur in the com- 1^^ 
mon language, viz. ^(aI Ijay^ inquam^ and in the imperfect V^rV^ 
ibr i(ffii^^ i'qftij or qtjv, <prj, in the phrases tjv f iyd said I, ^ o 
og said he» 

II. Kelfiai, / lie^ from KESl, 

Pres. xeJfAai^ xelaai^ K^hai &c. 3. pi. %elvxat^ 

Inf. xHG'&ai. Part. %d[A€vog, Imperat, i^nao &t. 

Suhj, Tteoiifiai^ Ttfti &c. Opt. vtioiiir^v 

Imperf. ikelfitiv^ ixeiao^ insno Sac. 

Fut. HeiaOf*ac 

Compound xexTax^^jUaf, xttrineioo &c« /tif* ncaTaHBia&mi* 

III. OUa I know, froBl ElJSi. 

1. The ancient verb ftdoD properly signifies I see ; a few of its 
tenses only signify / know. As these latter have several other 
anomalies, they are here considered separately. The significa- 
tion may be seen in the list of anomalous verbs below, under the 
head of elldw. ^ 

* Tliat is to say, where a direct proposition, as 6q)i] Hegiiiltjg 

Pericles 8aid^ is converted into an indirect, as q'avai tov Ilegixkia, then 

q)civat corresponds with eqt]' Whenever a present infinitive is requisite, 

resort is had to leyei^v or qdoneiv. - 



202 IRRBOULAR VEBBS.-^Ofi^a. [<^' 110. 

■ «.!«■■ 

2. Stiictly speaking, Oite Is the second perfect from (id<a (as 
ioifXa^ Ion. oixa, from f/xoi) ; but acquires with the signification 
^ know^ the force of the present tense, as the pluperfect does that of 
the imperfect (§ 113. 2.) In the. regular declension of oida the 
second person olStt$^ and the whole plural otdaf^fv^ oidati, oWaai^ 
are but little used. In the place of oUag is used ohf&u^ abbreri-* 
ated from the ancient form oidaa^a (see § 103 Rem. IV. 6); for 
the other part see the Rem. below. 

Perf. (Present) S. oldu I A»ow, ola^a oJdt {v) 

D. — iarov lazov 

P. iGfAiv €<fT€ ia«9» (v) 

Inf. etdtvat Part, iiddg 
Sub, etdci Opt, eloelijp 
Imperat. lO^^* Jffrw &c* 
Pl"perf. (Imperf.) S. ijdHv I knew 

P. ^dufiev or ^Ofiev 

^dnre or ^atB 

^dtaav or tjtfixv 

Future HGOfiav (more rarely fWtJffw) / shall know. 

^^^ Verbal adjective iatiov. 

The aorist and the real perfect are supplied from yiyvciffxat. 

Remark. Instead of TiTfi^i^ the Ionics say T^jU^y, from which it is 
apparent that ail the forms Ufniv or lOfAiv (§ 23. 2) 'iati kc. are 
fotmed by syncope from Oidafjiev^ oWaxe &c. (see § 1 10 Rem: 3.) 
In the Doric dialect there is a pecdliar present i9f;/ii (ivafi^) which 
has Ihe same origin, but is rare and very defectiTe.f 


1. One species of anomaly in verbs arises from Syncope. lo 
some verbs this takes place in the radical portion, from which the 

* Not to be confounded with <(r^f from f //«/. 

t It is to be obacrved that the lexicons commonly exhibit all these 
tenses under the head of the present iidn, ^idiio^ and latlfU, 


$ 110.] VBUBS^-^^NOHALy. 208 

" < t l » . ' .Ill 

Towe I Ifl dropped) m .netJurmj porf. pass. nAnufioi. S^ tfa^ ancmi- 
alons verb TtrrmwfA^. - v 

Rem. 1. lo some verbs the 2d Aorist is formed in this manner 
alone; as nhofiav^ (Imperf. inetoftfiv)^ Aor. intofitjv, S^e below 

2. The most common syncope is that of the connective vowel. 
To this class belong all the verbs in ^», as we have seen above. 
Some particular cases require separate remark here. 

Rem. 2. A few v^rbs have such a syncope only in some parts 
of the present and imperfect Most complete is xsifiai (for wtouat^ 
xiiogjiai.) Also the first person present and imperfect of (Hf*m$^ 
^fif^v^ for otofta^^ ^OfAtiv. See also Xovta below. 

Krac* 3. In the perfect and ploperfecty shorter forms mre some* 
tiraea-^oduced by syncope ; and when such perfects have the sig<p 
mfication of tke present (( 1 IS. 2) they have also an knpera* 
tive ini^A, as from xqHw 

Perf. Ki'ngaya^ 1st plun M€Hgaycif*fv^ 

Pluperf. — ixeK^dyiifiEv^ sync imtHQayfiev^ vtinQayiiiv^ 

Imperqt. ne'xgax'^^. 

Here too may be mentioned the example already referred to, 
of the shorte'r forms derived from olda^ which had their origin in 
tike abbreviatioa of the diphthong, as idfiev^ taf/iip^ and their deri- 
vatives m«, «ff'^«, ^<rfi£v lor ^diipiv &c. The poetical dialect 
fimiahes also se veial examples. This sort of abbreviation is very 
natural when the characteristic of the verb is a vowel, as Sfdia 
(which is another form or a second perfect from didoitta*) makes 
the following, viz. 

Perf. Phir. d^difuv^didire (for ^iSlafifv, w) 
Pluperf. — idtdif/i€v] ididm (for Idtdleifiav^ w) 
ImperaU dkdt'&t. 

Rem. 4. Hence is to be explained the transition of some very .186 
common perfects into the formation of those in jh«, as ^lows. In 
some perfects in ^xa of verbs in ioi^ there is assumed a skitpler 
form^ or a second perfect, in aa, several examples of which are 
actually preserved in the epic dialect,! and this is then in roost ter- 
minations syncopated in the manner shown above. Thus rAaoi, 
TiTXfjna (rcrAaee,) Plur. rsT^aaf/iiv^ sync. xitXaf^v (with short a.) 
Iwfi(n> TijKaivcu, sync* vitkavai (with short o). As this coincides 

* See the anomalous Terb AElSl. 

+ A»/?«/?««<FS /?*/^«»ff, for S^Piinioi, ^fin^wg^ from the anoma- 
lous verb PaiviO' 

264 V VERBS. ^ANOMALY. [^ 110. 

exactly with la^afASv^ i(Trdya», the greater part of the other forms 
of the verbs in fit are found, as well as these perfects, ia the verbs 
in question. £. g. 

Perf. Plur. xixXanev^ ttTkaze, reikuai (*/) 

D. xiiXuTOv^ 
Pluperf. Plur. iitTkafiev^ irttkaje, izizXaoav 
D. iTtlmov^ hhTXaiTiv. 
In/in. Tttkdi'ai (short a) 
ImptraU xezka&v^ reildKo &c. 
Opt' Tfikulriv. 

The Suhj, of this verb in this form is wanting ; see instead of 
it above (on lattixa in Rem. II. under lari^fAi) the subjunctive 
iard^, ^ff, tj &c. 

The participle alone is not formed upon the analogy of verbs 
in (u», but ends in oi^, contracted from aai^, so that the masculine 
aind neuter are the same, viz. aoi^ and aos^ G. aorog^ contr. oi?, 
f»ro$, and this contracted form has a feminine peculiar to itself in 
alao, as from ptfitjxa (see anomalous verbs 0ah(o) Fariicip, pepi^' 
xo)^, vfa, 6g 

G. pepuitog. 

Of the perfects govemexl by these laws, which are chiefly 
these four, viz. r*rAi/Ka, xi'&vriyta, ptfitjHa^ tarfjxa^* the singular 
alone in the perfect and pluperfect is used in the regular form 
(rtVAiyxa, ag, i^hixltixiiv, iig^ii\ while all the other parts have 
these abridged forms, which are more used than the regular forms. 

Rem. 5. Many verbs form by syncope an aorist in V, or a 2d 
aorist, which distinguishes itself from the imperfect, principally 
by the absence of the connective vowel, and in respect to the ra- 
dical vowel and its quantity, follows exactly the first perfect or 
perfect passive, as 

^i;q) (perf. nic^vxa) Imperf. eifvov, 2d Aor. iq)vp (longv). 

fiioco {^fplwuu) — {i^ 100 If) ifiiovv^ 2d Aor. i^iow. 

The greater part, however, of the aorists of this class occur 
only in very anomalous verbs, whose imperfects admit no compari- 
son therewith. In the other modes and participles they coincide 
with the formation in fu, except that the vowel and its quantity 
are quite variable, and in consequence every such aorist requires 
to be learned separately, from the list of anomalous verbs. See 
particularly the verbs paipw^ did^daxw^ dijia^ yiypfoatcw^ ndxofiai^ 

* See the anomalous TAuiSl^ 'O'Pfjaxoi, fiatvoD^ and i(JX7]fjit above. 


^ 111.] VERBS. ^ANOMALY. 205 

. — " I ' ■ ' .III. 

Rkm. 6. In the epic language there are also syncopated aorists 187 
in the passive yoice in fitiv, go^to, as kvto, i'XvTO (with short v), 
even when the characteristic of the verb is a consonant, as de^of*^^ 
idty/4i]p^ idexTO &c. 

3. The metathesis of a vowel with a liquid (§ 19. 2) alters the 
root of a verb, in the midst of its inflectioa. This, howeveif, rare- 
ly occurs. See the anomalous verbs dtQxo)^ ntQ'&m^ and also '9't^^- 


, 1 . By far the greater part of the anomaly in verbs, as in the 
declension of nouns, consists in twofold forms and variety tf themes^ 
which has been already treated above in § 92. Besides the cases 
there quoted, and which may be reckoned among the most com- 
mon changes of conjugation, there is a great number, where the 
new form departs much farther from the regular form, commonly* 
without the slightest change of signification. 

2. Often, njpreover, the two forms are jointly in use, and many, . 
as Af £71 01 and hfAnctvM I leave j^ttTilvo) and xrivvvfAi I */ay, are 
found both ways in the best prose writers. Often, however, the 
one form will belong rather than another to a certain dialect, (as 
^yivita for ay fa I lead^ qvyyavo) for cpevym IJly are more in use 
with the Ionics ;) or has remained in use solely with the poets, 
among which are to be reckoned most of the epiC; forms. 

3. Commonly the new form, created by lengthening the sim- 
pler, does not extend beyond the present or imperfect, see § 92. 8. 
If the simple form in these tenses is driven wholly out of use by 
the latter form, the verb is hereby constituted anomalous ; inas- 
much as the other tenses are then derived from a verb not in use, 
as /?aiVw, t^aivov^ fut. ^noofiav, perf ffe^rjxci, jk.c. from B/fSl, 

Rem. 1. Often several such different forms are in use together, 
so that a verb, in the course of its declension, will have a mixture 
from three or even more sources. Thus from the vooi If H^Sl 
or nJSS^ exists only the aorist tnadov. Another form, strength- 
ened by V, viz. TlENSSl^ from which comes the perfect 7i^7roi/i9^a 
^c. expelled the simpler form from use, but has, in its turn, yield- 
ed in the present and imperfect to TrcSap^w, which, in the lexicons^ 

906 V£|iP8.*^AK01fAIiY# [^ U^' 

19 placed at tbe head of the wboie Terb. From UETJiSi is form- 
ed 7i«riiffa> to. but m the perfect paw* the s^ocopated form ninrth 
f»9Hy and Iq the preseat and imperfect, ootbing but the increased 
form nezavvvfjii is used, &c. 
133 Rem. 2. Fioally there are ^ome verbs, which form single tenses 
from roots wholly diverse, whose present is more or less obsolete, 
as in Latin^ero, tuH^ latum. Such, particularly,^ in Greek are algiot^ 
einih^ ^gXOfkai, ia^iw, 6(ta(a, rp^'jjrw, f ^'i^, which are to be con* 
suited in the list of anomaJous verbs. 


1. Many new forms of verbs are of such a kind, that few or no 
examples precisely similar of sjach a change in the root are extant 
in tbe language ; as the example given above of ayivim from «/q», 
and naoyw from IIEN€fSl^ and among those quoted below as 
anomalous, iad^ita from i'do;, ikavpm from ikam^ &c. Most, how- 
ever, stand in some visible analogy with others, and must there- 
fore be comprehended in one survey, to be more easily remem- 

Note. When, in the following examples, two forms are con- 
nected by and., this word shows that both are in use ; where, how- 
ever, the wordyrom stands, the latter form is either wholly obso- 
lete, and only to be recognised. in the tenses formed from it, or 
belongs only to the ancient poets. 

2. One of the easiest changes is o» into £o> or ata (contr. cu) ; 
as ^inrcd and ^nttiof xrvntm from KTOCIISl (tfience €%Tvnov\ 

da^aco from AEMSl (thence eiafiov). 
As often, therefore, as the regular inflection of a verb was attend- 
ed with any difficulty, or even productive of indistinctness or want 
•of euphony, it wai^ inflected asV the present ended in £6i, e. g. 
£1^0), fut. iipi^aor av^fo^ av^ijam' fitvta^ fif/AavtjKW 
Tvmoi^ Tv%ffOD and JVTiti^am* jciAAo), fielktiifei. 

3. The verbs in ai pure sometimes take the termination axw, 
as ytiQctfa and 'yfjQaanfa, yiyi/oiaxot from P^^OSi, — . 

' OTtQim and an^aTcm, 

§ 112.J irJERBS.— -AWOMALtr^ 2M 

4. Before- the terminatioo, p is sometimes interposed, nsdAnvfa 
from AAKSi^ whence tdavtov. See also below t//ui/iu and nafiva. 

By this process, from toi and t;ai, come ivta and i;y«(i, as nlvta . 
from /7//2, r/<» and thia^ ^vn and '^i;i/o), — ^aod from ceoi come 
at/oi and aiViu, as <f^uvfa from OB^iSl^ fialvt^ from BASl, 

5. Trisyllables and polysyllables in <;eyoi and aiViu have, for the 1B9 
most part, as a radical form a theme in co, which at the same time 
forms some tenses as from ita^ viz. 

QXaQtavvi from BAAZlSi^ 2d Aor. tpiaajov^ Fut /^Aadrfjcroi. 
oAf<F'^oi'(u and iXiQ^alvta^ 2d Aor. wXig'&ov^ Fut. oAeo<d^i7(TO). 

Those in cevo) are accustomed to insert a nasal in the radical syl- 
lable of the word, but also to shorten the radical vowel, if it be 
long, in the following mstnner, viz. 

leinoi and Xtfinavo)^ (pevym and q^vyyavoi^ Xiq^(a and lav^apw. ' 
See also below S'lyydpo), XafiPapto^ lotyiavm^ /lav&dvoi^ nvv&dvO' 
jua^, Tvyxavw, 

Remark on nos. 4 and 5. The termination dvta has the penult 
short ; Ivm and vpcd^ on the, other hand^ have it long, both with very ^ 
few exceptions. 

6. A very common change is also on into vv(ai^^ as diUvvfn 
from AfllKSl^ whence idiio^ &c. See below &ypvf*&j ogvvfi$^ 
OfAO^ypvfii^ Csvypvfjii. 

When a vowel precedes this termination, the v is usually 
doubled, and o is changed into oi, e. g. 

M^ifiam and %g€fjiapwfii^ see i>elow Hff^dpwftt^ netavvvfit, 
n%edavvvfAif—im and Ciwvfit^ see below no^rpvfi^^ 
afitvpvfii^ QtQQivvvfUy-^Xom and %mvwfiki^ see below 
Ctovpvfik^^ gvivpvfi*^ a%Qoipviffii^ %Qaivvv^&„ 

7. Several also, like the verbs in ^*, have a redupUcation in 
the present, as ytyrwOHUf from FNOSl^ whence ypoi^Of*M. So also 
fi&^vi^axto^ niTiQaauw^ ^c. In like manner fiivf» and filfivm^ nltt^ 
Tta from IIJSTSi^ ytypofuii from FENSL 

* Se« above ? 106 Rem. ^ 

208 V£ftBS. ANOMALY. [§ 113. 

8. Sometimes from one of the lenses a new theme is fended, 
, and the derivations from this occur partly as anomalies in the com- 
mon dialect, and partly, and this more commonly, are osed ^ po- 
etical peculiarities; such as the Fut. iaiiil^o}^ (see above tbe.44it 
remark to laTfjfJii^) and nd'vi^^io (see d-vi^aHto,) from arrijxa and 
xi'^vrina^ derived as fjcom present tenses. Imperative olae as from 
Fut. oiaoii (see qffgta.) 
190 Particalarly does the 2d Aor. occasion in some verbs a new for- 
mation as from tco, — as well the 2d Aor. active on account of its in- 
finitive in e7p^ as the 2d Aor. passive when it has an active signifi- 
cation, by the .ending tiv. Examples of the former are several 
anomalous verbs belonging to no. 5 above, as fiw&eTv^ ivxitv^- 
f4tt-&f]G0fiai^ fiffAa&f^Ktt^ TfTv/fjxa* Of the latter is^;^cxi()(u, tia^riv^ 


1 . This whole subject belongs properly to the Syntax, where 
we must treat of the signification of the several forms of tbe con- 
jugations, which cannot be separated from the rules respecting the 
connection of words. Those cases only can here be enumerat- 
ed, in which the variation in 'sigfnification is in certain verbs so 
common, that this anomaly is to be observed as belonging to the 
formation itself, as in Latin adi^h^rior ; audeo^ ausus sum. Cases 
of this l^ind are in Greek far more numerous and more various. 

2. The perfect sometimes has the force of the present. The 
transition from the former tense to the latter, may be rendered 
conceivable, by reflecting, that in the perfect tense the mind rests 
often not so much on the past action, as on the present state or 
condition that resulted from it. Thus Tidiftixa signifies properly 
/ have died ; bnt regarding the consequent stAte as permanent, it 
signifies / am dead, and is accordingly a present tense. In some 
other verbs, the original perfect was still farther lost, as %taofi(» 
I acquire^ in the perfect xanrtifiai I have acquired. The conse- 
quence of acquisition is possession, and thus KiKzfjfAai came to sig- 
nify simply I possess^ without any thought of a past acquisition. 


IRRt<SrUtA]t COlH3V0Jf:TlOS» 


la evei^ stidif case, it k io be undetstood Anft tbe p^erfut h an 

Rem. 1. Sbmetimefl the perfect is to be nnde^ood, like the 
middle voice, r0€ciiv€ly. In this ease^ it becomes a present intran- 
sitiFe^as in the verb iatriiu I place^ ttrvtjxa I have placed ^ reflec- 
tively / have placed myself^ i. e. / stand. 

Rem. 9: It easily happens, moreover, where the ideas are neaf 
akin, that the present tense itself assumes the signification <^ the 
perfect made present in this manner, or the reverse ; whereby the 
present and perfect often come to have the same meanii^g, es- ' 
pecially in the poets, as fi^ksi it goes to the heatt^ fiiiitiXi it went to 
tke Aenr^lhat is, / take at» interest ; hence both mean I feel interest^ 
ed^ I care for* AiQuoa I perceive^ didoQxa / hjove percehed^ that is, 
/ see. It is particularly common that the perfect becomes present 
in vert)6, which signify to sdund^ to diUj as n^xgayu I scream, r^/foi 
and wglya I kiss. 

Z, To the anomaly of ^unification belongs a departure from 

the signification of the voice. The most prominent case of this is 

that of the deponent verbs, or those which, with a passive or n^id-^ 

die form, have an active signification. This irregularity is very 

common In Greek, as Is apparent from the lists of verbs already 


Rem. 3«* Several deponents of the middle voice are neverthe- ig| 
less used in the perfect passive in a passive sense, and form in ad- 
dition to this tense only a 1st Aor. passive ; see a)>ove, ia the list 
irf'baryton verbs, fiuiioficu, di%0(kai^ igyiCofnau 

- Future Middle* 
4. Very common is the case of verbs in tiie active voice, which 
make little or no use <5f the future active, and employ instead the > 
future middle, which then has the transitive or intransitive signi- 
fication connected with the active voice ; and of such a verb th^ 
remainder of the middle voice, with its appropriate signification, iA 
usually not employed. Thn occurs in severfd of the most familiar 
verbs, as axovot I hear, anovffOfiM (never auouaeo) I shall h»ar. ' 
Examples also of this are furnished , above in the lists of baryton 
and contract verbs. See also the 6th remark before the first of 
Hi^ lists. 

Rem. 4. Very often the future middle is used for the futui^ 
passive, 6 136. 3« 



210 ANOMALOUS VBRBS. [^ 114. 

5. Under the head of anomaly insignificsition, most also be reck- 
oned the distinction of ctiusatwe and immediate signification. This 
is commonly expressed by different verbs, olf which the one is de- 
rived ip part from the other. In all languages, however, and par* 
ticularly in Greek, thebe are verbs, which express in one form aa 
action both directly and as occasioned or caused. Thus (paivetv 
signifies immediately to appear^ and* causatively to make appear, 
that is, to show* Ka^l^evv^'m like manner, signifies to sit and to 
set In the older dialect, this appears to have been very common^ 
and thence it may be accounted for, that several verbs have one 
of these significations in one part, and one in another, and are 
hence accounted anomahmS't as we have seen above in laxtnn* 


Note 1. All wholly obsolete themes, which are (untrneJ merely 
for the explanation of those in actual use, are here, as throughout 
this grammar, printed (n capital letters* Every theme, on the oth- 
er hand, in actual use, is given in the common character. It is to 
be observed of those obsolete themes, moreover, which are not in 
every instance set down, but aipe occasionally left to the attentive 
student to supply, that they 'are merely formed by grammarians ' 
192 from analogy, and are not regarded as having any existence his- 
torically in the language* - ^ 

% To facilitate the use of the list, these obsolete themes, 
where it is requisite, are inserted alphabetically in the table. Sup- 
, posing then, that the learner is able to discover the regular theme 
^of the verbs, which occur in reading, according to the general 
rules, this theme is found in its alphabetical place, wjth reference 
to the form in common use. Thus Ingd&tjv is derived from 
tlPji^^ and this in the list refers to niuQaaytfo, 

Yet the merely apparent themes, which are formed by syncope 
or metathesis, are. given only by their first letters; thus ^i^\rixa 
by Bui whidh refers to pdXXw, 

3; Of every verb, not the anomalous forms only are given, 
but all the forms in use, except such as are of themselves appar- 
ent. Here the same remark is to be made, as on occasion of the 
first catalogue of the regular verbs, note 2. 

4. Whatever signification, active, passive, middle, or intransi- 
tive, prevails in the present tense, the same extends also to every 
other tense, where pass, or thid. or some other indication is not 
specially given. Thus when in povXof4ct& the future ^ovXi^aoftat 

^ 1 14.] LIST or ANOMALOUS TERB9. 31 1 

18 borrowed from the middle, and the aor« lifiovXijS'fiv from the pas- 
sive, we are to understand, that only these two forms occur in the 
signification which fibvXofia^ has in the present, and consequently 
tbat DO aorist i^fiovXtiaa/Aijv and no future fiifvXtjd^aofiM is in use. 

lAst cfanonuiova vtrht. 

• ■ ' ' A. 

a/a/Aa$ admire^ Pires. and Imperf. like larafidt^ fut uyaaofiM^ 
aor. ijyaa^fjv. 

uyvvfAi breaks forms from ^JIQ t a^m &c. (see § 11 2. 6.) and 
has commooly the syllabic augment, § 83 Rem. 6. Aor. ea^a^ aor. 
pass, iayrjv (short a). The! 2d perf. taya has the passive signifi- 
cation, am brokeiu 

ayoQ6vo3 see dntiv. 

Syw lead^ has a reduplication in the 2d aor. ijyayov^ iyayhiv &c. 
(see § 84 Rem. 3.) — Perf riya and with amanomulous reduplication, 
uyi^oxct. Perf pass, ijyfdtx^. — MID. 

aivfw praiie^ f. aiviam &c. — Perf JMiss* ^vtjfiM^ but 1st aor. 
pass, i^id-fjv (see § 95 Rem. 3.) 

al^t(0 iake^ algiiaa)'^ti()t^fiv (see § 95 Rem. 3.) — ^Aor. act 
fiXov^ iUlv &c. from ^EASl. — MID. The Ionics have in the per- ' 
feet a peculiar reduplication otQaigtixa^ iga^Qfifiat^ with the smooth 

aia&avOfiM percevve^ f. ah&iiaofjim kc — Aor. i^a^ofirjv (see§ i$3 


aA*g« aoert^ f fxA^li^ffoi (see § 112. 2.) Aor. Mid. iUSaa^M 
{from A AEK Si.) 

aXi<a or aXii^o) ^nd^ f dXtato {dXa) perf pass. ccAi^Af o^cxf. 

dUaMOfAai* am taptured, forms its tenses from 'AAO^^ as fol- 
lows, fut. dXdaofiai and (with active form but passive meaning) 
syncop. Aor. (5 110 Rem. 5,) ijXmv, better iaXdtv {p\: idXtoftet^^ 
&c.) Inf, aAwya*, Subj. aAw, qiff, &c. Opt. aXoitiv, Part dXovg. 
Perf (in like manner with passive meaning,) ^Xmna^ idXmxa,^^ 
'Av9iKh%(a see in its order. 

»_ *- 

Tlie active of this verb never occurs, but instead of it always €UQiiP> 


iifiafprntm van fraU^ err^ afia^niaOfiui, Perf. -^Ka.«-AcHr. ^ 
fW^ov. ^See § 11S« 5.) 

9^ffl^iaKQi miscarry, fut. afi8X(aa(o &c.,froin ifiplom. 

uiAntfm and aftnufxpovfia^, see below in e/oi. 

afiq}$evpvfi^<i ^MiP/ESi, see tpwpii, § 108. III. 

ivalvofAUi, see the list of regular verba. 

avakianm consume^ expend, forms its tenses from ai^Aooy. With 
the Attics it has no augment, as avakmatc. In other dialects it is 
(S|]teitiatel(j dvii^maa and ijt^Xwtfa, and the same in the perfect. 

apolfoi or avoiyifVfii, see otym. 

ujaianm satufy^pUase, Futa^^^croi &c. Perf. Pass. t^QsafJuxi.-MD. 

APSl ( ji^) Fut a^cFO), 2d Aor. ijgagop. — Perf. atjo^ja, with 
present signification. 

avloi and ai!|aycD increpae, Fut. ai)|92<TQ) (see § 112'. 2.) — PASS. 
with Put. JVUd. means increase intransitirely. 
X ux^oiuu am indignant, ajfiiaofAM, if^^eWi^v. 


fialpw go, Fnt fii^aoftm, Perf. /^i7xa, Sd Aor. ^i^y like mi^y, 
.mcftordingly.also tfiijftiv,, fiijvw ffij^i* fii^rw fiaitiv, ^m* ^omeof 
'the Gomponiids have also a passive, as nugafialvw I irawigress, Perf. 
Pass, nagapipifim, Aor. Pass, nagifiad^tiv. -Verbal Adjective 
Pmwqg — All these forms come from BAR, and conform entirely 
t94 to 'iatfifAh except in the Present. — ^The ablveTiated forms of the 
Perfect^ as ^paGi,§i§mg, (see 6 110 Rem. 40 are in this v6rb 
exclusively poetical. 

This verb h^ ^ith the Ionics also the caOSfttivBSigniQcationto 
jlnn^. This eignifics^tioia is exclusive in the Fut. Act /^i^cfft) &d^ 
the 1st Aor. ifififfa. S«e also § 1 13. ^. 

PakXfa ihr&w, Fut fiaX^, sometimes also fiakXi^an (§ 112. ^) 
Aor. i^«Aoi',( Perf. fiepXtjaa; Ut Aor. Pass, ifikii^fiv. See § UO. 
1.— MID. 

* Shortened iu oootpositioD, aji natafiot. 


t^'114,] List or ANOMALOUS TERB&. 213 

BASl^ see pulp^. . ^ . 

p&Pgmaxfa ea4, from BPOSi^ Fot. figciaw^ (fi^QOfmt^) be* Aov. 
ifigmv. See § no Rem. 6. 

/7m><» /iv«, Fat fiieiaofia^^ 1st Aor. ipionaa aod 2d Aer. //?W, 
4»f which, for the most part) the other modes only are In use, as 
pmviu^ Part, fiiovg^ Opt. fiu^tiv. See § 1 10 Rem. 5.-*^MlD. 

BA — see fiakkw, . ' 

pXamapm aprotU^ /^Aaim^aoi, efika^ov. See § 1 IS Rem* B. 

fi6ax4»feed^ Fut 6oani^cm^ &c..See § 112. d. 

PovXofiat'will^ PovXijaofJidi^ Perf. fiffiovltjfiai, Aor. iffovki^^ijv^ 
"^povXriirtjf, With respect to the augment, see § 82 Rem. 3. 

BPO — see p$fiQmou», 


yafidm marry, Fnt. ya/a'am, Att /ajum.*— Aor. iyijfia^y^fitt&^ kci 
from PAMSl, Perf. fffifAfi^u^ &c.-*-FASS. with Fot. Mid. toike 
Of /ktt«6afid, marry, 

FENSl, To this root, iv^ich corresponds with the Latin ^^pno . 
Ifenttt, heloQg two significations.; the causative hegei^ and the im- 
mediate or intransititre am hom^ hecom%. The voices are anoma- 
lously mingied. Of the Active nothing hut the Perfect fiyovu is 
in use ; all thfe rest of either signification helongs to the medto- 
pa39iv€ w<nce. The whole, as found in actual use, may be reduc* ^ < 
ed'to a twofold present as follows, viz. 

. 1) y€lvofia$ has only the sigpiification of birih^ (poetically 
in the present tense,) am bom* . The Aor. iyuvitfAfiv is used 
- transitiveiy, ktget^ hear. 

2) yiypOfia& (ancient and Attic ; more recently ylvofiai^) Fut. 
YSvaiao(4a&^ Aor. fyevo/iip^, Perf. yeydpfifux^^ or (in the active 
' Toice) yf'yova. All these parts of the verb signify intransitively 195 
6om, or simply become^ fieri. To these unites itself the signifi- 
cation of simply to be, since iyftfOfiijv ^and yiyavtn are also use A 
as preterites to^'Ji^a^. 

yiyvciaxco (ancient and Attic ; more recently yivdaxo)^) knom, 
from FNOSi, Fut. yvdaofAaiy Aor. ^yvew, Plur. iyvoifi^v, &c. Inf. 



K IH. 

yvwpui. Imp, yifOi&t^ /t^ciiroti, &c. Opt, ypolriv. Part yvQvg. Sec 
^110 Rem. 5. — Perf. tyvtanta^ Pass. iyviaafAai* . 


dinvm hiU^ (tbm AHKSl^ Fut. drilQfiav^ Perf. didfi%u^ &cA(ft. 
tdanov* See § 1 12- 4. 

dttfiiof^ see under ^^'/uo). 

^a(idai'» steeply Fot. Spi^&f](fOfiM^ Perf. d^dagd-fjxa^ Aor. £%^- 
^01^. See $112. 6. 

^«7, see ^/oi. 

S^iKPVfii show^ Fut. ^«i£qii, &c. See § 107. § 112. G.^.MID. 

A£! /Si Epic did). From this ancient present is derived the 
Ist Perf. didoixa (see 1st and 2d Perf. § 97 Rem. 1.) and the 2d 
Perf. didia (short »), hoth of which have the force of the Pres. / 
fear* From didta are derived the syncopated forms dihfiiv^ diSt- 
Tf, /J!«%(rav^ and an Imper. didi^i, See^ 110 Rem. 3. — Fut. dikfh 
ffiai^ Aor. tdaaa, 

difio) build, Aor, fdeifict^ Perf. dt'ifitjxa. Compare ^ 1 iO. Land 
^112. 2. — MID. The same theme furnishes tenses also to da- 
ftaat tome, >or. tdufiov^ Perf. dedfiijxaj Aor. Pass. ISantiv and 

• ^6|pxa>, commonly SfgxofiCti or Sadognta^ *ec, regard^ Aor. iSga- 
xoi', see § 96 Rem. 4, also iSgaxtiP and idigx^V^^i all active. 

^*'« hifid^ Sriam^ ?^aa — diStnia^ dtdffiai^^ idi'&fiv. See § 96 
Rem. 3. The 3d Fot. dedi^aofiai (see §99 Rem. Intakes the 
place of the 1st Fot di-&ri(sofAai which is not Attic. — MID. 

dmfail^ want^ Fnt, dfijaco^ &c. is commonly impersonal, as ^;', 
there is wanting^ Ufanty Subj, ditj^ Opt, J*b*, Inf. daiv^ Part, ^tof, 
Fut. dei^at^, ^c. The Pass, diofiat I need^ is never impersonal; 

AHKSi,^ see ^axt/oi. 
196 ^ M«ax(o tecLch, loses a in its formation; dMj^fa, SBdldaxa, &c. 

didgaano} escape^ run awcry, is found only in composition ((ktio- 
didgaaxm diadidga<Tx(ay-'fTom APASi^ Fut dgdaoftai^ Perf ^*!?p«- 
xa — 2d Aor. tdgiv, igy i, ifitp &c. 3d Plur. tigup {(or iigaoav)^ 

I I 


Subj. i^(S^ ^g^ ^ &c. OpL dgaifjw. Imper. Squ&u Ir^. dgivai/ 
Part, dgdg. See §110 Rem. 5. This must not be confounded 
with the regular 

igafo do^ see above in the list of Contracts. 

Sid&>fi$ gioe, see § 107, — MID. 

^xi(o seem^ thmk^ from AOKSl^ Fut. dolta &c. The Perfect 
is borrowed from the passive SfSoyfia$ have appeared. The regu- 
lar formation doycijam^ &c. is less usual. 

AOSi, see didoDftt. 

APASl^ see. did^aaxm. 

dvvauai eafh Pres. and Imperfect like ifSTaftav. 2d- pers. Pres. 
dvvaaai fetter than Svvtj^ which is only. Subjunctive. With regard 
to the Augment, see §B2 Rem* 3. Fut. dvvniaofim^ Aot^ i^dwri- 
^riv^ (also idvvao&riv)^ Perf. dedvvtifiCiL. Verbal Adjective ifAvaxig, 

dioa. This verb originally connects the immediate significa- 
tion enter^ with the causative inclose^ see § 113. 5. In the 
common us^e it has only the latter {to inclose,, to sink, &c.) and 
retains this meaninl^ in Fut. and 1st Aor. dvaco^ i'dvau^ Pass, idi- 
&t]v. See § 95 Rem. 3. The MID. dvofiav inclose myself^ diaO' 
lAai, iSvoa^fjp passes into the intransitive meaning entpr, submerge, 
&c. which, however, again reverts to a transitive meaning, as en- 
ter a garment, that is, dress. These signifnations of the unmedie^ 
kind are retained in the active voice in the Perf 6Mxu, and the 
2d Aor.' i'duv, dvvai^ dvg, dvdi, dvzf. See § 110 Rem. 5. To this . 
is to be added a new -active form Svv(a,^hkh is almost equivalent 
in signi^cation with the middle ivo/nM. 

iyelQOi awake transit, regular in the Act. — Perf iyrjysQna. The 
MID. has the immediate or intransitive signification awaA:e, and has 
in the Aor. rjy&ofif^v, see § 110 Rem. 1. The 2d Perfect with 


an anomalous reduplication 

iyQnyoQu 197 

belongs, like other 2d perfects, to th^nmmediate signification, but 



t^ 114. 


passes over into a new pret^t significatiori, / hAve intaM^ tkat is, 
/ tun amake^ I hak^* Plaper£ wifh foro^ of ioipC l^Qt^if^i>v, 

l9oi, see io'&uo. 

idovfiai^ see iCofnai. 

liofAuij xa&tCofiai^ sit. Fat nud'tdovfiak, See § 95 Ren. 8. 

ie^ikm and &tti» vtnH^ Fat. i^eXiiaw^ ^ekiiaw, kc- See § 112.2. 

i^w am TimU ; instead of this present, ose is made of the an- 
omalous perfect emd-a, 

'€idm tee, an ancient verb, of which, in this acceptation, odIj 
ildov^ Hhv^ Wia^ai^ inc. are in use as^e Aorist of the verbopcltt; 
and are to be seen under that verb. In the Epic langoage,- bow- 
erer, sotne other parts of c<dbi are found as ^tenses of the mme 
▼erb. See on this subject and on the tenses which have the sig- 
nification know ( oida^ ^(^t^v^ uaofiaiy) above ( 109 and $ 113. 2. 

Bitcm. Of this verb there is used as a Present the Perf. foita 
am Uke^ teem. Part. cVxwV, Ji<<. iiiifog^ J^euU tlnig^ (loo. oJxo, 
o/Ncti^, OfxoVv) Pluperf. io^mnf. See ^ 83 Rem. 7 and 9. The 
verb iiKOi yield, see amoi^ the regular verbs. ' 

«rmapraf, see MEIPOMAL 

€i(U and fJjUf, see ^ 108. 

tmijv tcry,iEd Aor. Indio. tlnov, Imper. itni. I^his is more com- 
aion than the 1st Aor. elna, see §96 Rem. 1. Imperat. tiniv with 
aoomahHis accent, einatta kc, /itf. elna^* 

With this Aorist, use has closely connected the Fut ig^ (Ion- 
igm) from tigm — and from PESi the perfect i/pipta^ §ee§32 
Rem. 2. — Perf. pass. eigtifAeu, Aor. pass, ip^^^fjv and ig^t^^^ 
3d Fut. instead of the common Fut. pass. dgriaofAai^ ' 

For the prd^nt of this verb, qnifil is used, see § 109, siDmetimes 
also a/opf tJeiy (properly to speak in public), particularly in com- 
position, as dnayoQfvm forbid, interdict, anftnov forbade. In some 
compounds A«/oi fumlAes the present, as avtiUfOi, innnof. 

6tge$, see ilmh and iqqjmi. 
eitod'a, see i&m. 

* In most lexicons this perfect is found jander iygfiyoQiei or /(^/0(»M», 
which are forms of a degenerate period of the Greek lan|^ua^e. 

§114.5 LIST OP ANOMALOUS Verbs. 217 

ikctvva drive^ Fat. iXaam (short a) &c. Perf. iktjXaxix — Pass, 
perf. iXi^Xafrtti, Aor. i^Xd^fjv^ Verbal adj. iXarog (less correct ijXa- 
O'O'fiv^ iXccaxoQ.) The theme iXcim is rare in the present ; but iXoi^ 
4^S, ^X^ &c. Inf. iX^v^ is the prosaic Attic future, § 95 Rem. 6. 

*JSjiSi^ see aige€9. 

JENErKSi, EI^EIKS^ kc, see (fdgm. 

ivvvfit^ see § 108. 

inlfnafiw, understand^ Imperf. i^niarafitiv (thus far like f ora- 
ftai) Fufc iniaii^aofJiM^ Aor. i^nnfrii'd'fjv. 

thio am employed^ pursue. This ancient verb, of which for the 
most part compounds only are in use, h'as the augment €t {dmnov)^ 
and an Aorlst tanov^ amTv^ imoiv^ {intanop^ Imantiv^ futaantov^ 
Dirhlch are rather poetical.) 

tntiuMfoilo'w^ dnofifjv^ tipofiai. This very; common middfe 
verb has an Aorist, which corresponds with that of the active Itioi, 
except that in the indicative it is aspirated, ianofiijv^ anead'ai^ 
ifnov^ which forms occur chiefly in composition. ~ 

EPrSl and Iju^oi, see ^«?ai. 

i^ioi, see igofiui and compare emiiv. 

tgofiai ask^ occurs in the common langtiage only as an Aorist, 
"^QOfifjv^ ^()<T0, whence also the other modes are found. The in- 
finitive nevertheless is written both egta^ai and igtO'&M^ — ^Fut. 
igilaofAui, The defective parts are supplied from Iganaiu^ 
The lonians however make use of the' present, but write it 
itgofiai^ eigo/trjv^ eigtiaofAui. The Epic dialect has an active form 

^Q^m go away J ig^rjaw^ VQP^^^^ see § 1 12. 2. 

tgXOfAoO' go^ from EAfJTSSi^ Fut. A^t/ao/uai, Aor. tjXv^ov com- 
monly ^Xd'ov^ iX'&elv^ Imperai. tX^t\ (see § 103 Rem. I. 3.) &c. 
Verfy iXiiXv&tt, — Besides this and especially in composition, sev- 
eral tenses ofelfAi are more in use than those which belong to this 
root See §108. 

io'&im eat^ from idm^ Fut. kdoiAat^ § 95. Rem. 10. Perf. liridoinu^ 
■* 28 

316 LIST or ANOXALOtS VERBS. [^ l^^' 

_ ,,,-.. .1 . . 

Perf. pBaa, idi^deafAaiji Aor* passu. j^iffWi^v. — Aor. act ii^o)^oy (from 
^^riajK-Verbal adj. idearog. 
190 iffwoK, 4q^o^i?y, aee iTWu,- ' > 

^vdfo^ na^ivdw »UtPi f. etS^i^ffoi, vitt^tvdfiaw* AtigmeDt xa-O^fiv- 
dov^ xa^frfcf , and ixi'&ivdov, 

ev^laxtDjind, from ^ TPSi^ Aor. evgov, Imper, fv(>«, Fat. f^^fijaw 
&c. See § 112. 2. — Aor. pass. £vgt-&tj»f^ Verbal adj. svgetog^'-^Afag' 
ment ^ 83 Rem. 2.— MID. 

ijifoi Aave, f. £^, with the aspir. (see § 18 Rem. . ^«)-^ Aor. (as 
if from -S!Xi2) iaxov^ ^X^^^i "Suft/. a;(cS', ox^q &c. (compound Tiapa- 
<F/ai, Tmgaa'Xr^g),> OpU oxoitiv. Imperai, o^tg. MID. ioxofitjPii Im- 
perat. axov {nagaaxovy Hence a new future oxn^oi^ P^rf. iax^ixa 
&c, Aor. pass. iax^'O'V^' Verbal ^dj. iKTog and QX^^og^ • 

From the aorist ax^lv is derived a new form of the pre3^t, 
u^X^^ which in particular significations, such as hold^ seize^ &c. is 
preferred, in which also the Fut. axv^to more properly belongs to 
this present. From <ex(» there are the following anomiJoys com- 
pounds to he remarked, viz. 

dve'xio which, only in the middle dv^x^ad'cci, with the signifi- 
cation to bear^ indure^ has the double augment in the imperfect 
and Aor. Vf^^X^f^V^t v'^eoxofifiv^ see § 86 Rem. 4. 

dfina'xfo enclose^ Imperf. ifinilxov, Fut dfn^^^ai^ Aor. ^}c&>- 
ajfoyj dfmiaxiiv. — MID. pt^juxfi^w, ov dfAniOXP0viAa& wear, 
dfKjpe^ofiai^^ Aor. i^fAniaxof^v^* 

VTiiaxvovfiair promise^ F. vnoaxfiQop'dLi^ Aor. vneax^f^H^t'l^P' 
commonly from the passive^ vnoaxi'O^fiti.-^FeTf, VTuaxtjjuti. 

«/>ft) cook, f. ixpriata &c. Verbal adj. iq>d'6g or ixltfjtog^ i'fpfjTdi^. 
*^i2 and 'JE'ii, see § 108. 

ium live, has according to § 105 Rem. S. ^cu, (^g, ^^, Sec Imj^eriT. 
l^cov^ iii}?^ &c. Inf. if}v, Imperat itj and ^^#«. -' ^ 

*The 71 stands here, on account of following x^ instead of ^: pn^r- 
^y dfiapix^a^ ^fiqiiaxov^ instead of dfiquioxov^ dfAtpiaxfiv &c. 


» ' I III I IM ■ I '< 'I ■ ' '■ ' "' ■ " 9 I ■ I ■ 

S^v/vvgiejain^ connect, f. Civ^fo &c. See § 1 12. 6.^-^d Aor. pass. 

ioivvvfii gird, {, Coiaa &c. Peif. pass. t^oMSfAM, see §112.6. 

^f««*, see § 108. 200 

J7fi/, ^i', see above in g>fjf*l^ 109. 

0^A^I2, Bee ^i/^^axo^. 

S^0S^j perfect as present red^na I am (u^onifW, where the 
se^ndo8pir$t)evi$. changed^ while in the Aoristira^v, the first 
18 changed; $^^ insptratef, § 18. This verb is to be distiogoished 
from !&u7rvt»^itwi^v^i m the lial of baryton vecbs. 

^£^01, see. 419*^01. . < , ' .^ 

^£<» run,i,^vaQfAaif.OT ^«iidQ(JfiM^.see §95 Kem* 5 and 9.' 
The other tenses are supplied as in r^x^i 

^lyyavai iwch, formed from^^i/o), Fiit ^/|o» and '^i^Ofuu, Ao^ 

&ifiiaHfu. die, from 6 ANSI, kot, i^nvov, Fut {tmovfiat^ FerL 
rd^vri%tn, as from SNASl, see § 110. 3. Hence in common lan- 
gos^e the foilowing abbreviated forms, according to § 110 Rem. 4. 
n&¥Ufiev, aT£, rt&vcioiv, iti^vuawp^ .^i^vivc^^ Ti^vaifjv, . Tt^f 
va0i* Part T^^i^ijxoiff, commonly masc. aD4 neut :M^i'F(i(!9^^ (de- 
rived from te&vacig, Ts^vaog,) G. scijog, fern. TiSmftS^a.-i-FroiA 
Tt^vti^a, however, is derived an Attic form of the fiit!|re,r<^^£<» 
or T«^i^So^a».. . ••».,. 

BPEO^ — ^eetgifprn, BPEX-^r^etQixm. 6 7^2^— see f ti^oi. 

^(o sacrifice, dvata &c.<~^lst Aor. pass. iTif&ijv (shoft v) see 
§ 18 Rem. 2. and § 95 Rem. 3. , ^ 

i?(o, xa^/f'co set, set myself; MID. set mysey\ sit, fat. f^i^oo), 
xa'&tCfjaoa, or xo^««i (for xftHow according to § 95 Rem. 7.) Aor. 
ini&iQtt &c. 

Inveo/um come, more commonly dq^iXpeofAct^, f. i^o/ia&, Aor, ixo- 
fcj^v, Perf. Tygjiai {aq!ly(nu\ Inf. iqlix^tti.) — ^The radical form intoi 
6 Epic. 



iXaanofiM Mid. expiate^ atone^ propitiate^ Fu^. IXauOfMii {ghovi ay 

inrafiui^ see nnofiai^, 

iOfjuij see oJ^a^ § 109. 

iatfjfii^ see § 107, with Rem. II. — iniatanai see in ^ 

ia;^iu, see 6^(o. 

Vi2, see fJ/4^, § 108. 

201 , K, 

xa^i'CofAtti^ xw&evdoi)^ xa&ijf^aij na&iC(o^ see i^f*€ti^ svdw, 

xa/oi ^m transit Att. xdw (with- long « and withoat contrac- 
tioD,) f. xav<roi &c. (see § 95 Rem. 5.) PASS. 1st Aor. ixav'&fiit^ 
and 2d Aor iKatjv (short a), Verbal adj. xavrog^ Kavazog^ navatio^. 
The Epic poets have also a 1st Aor. without- (f, eniia. 
I makim eall^ £• ttakeaat^ Att. aakiS and xakovfAOi^ — ixakeoa^ xix- 

kijna^ iitkti'&Tjv, &c.*— Perf. pass. minktifAai am called^ my name i$. 
Opt %6xktififjv^ MixkfiO &c. See §.98 Rem- 8.*-rMlD. -^^ 

xifivfa tire^ from KAMSl^ see § 112. 4. Aor. £xa^ov, Put xa« 
fiovfittii^ perf. Tttx/nfjHa^ as from KMASi^ see § 110. 3. 

xf r/ca^, see § 109. 

KeQavvvfjii mia^ from )e«()ixai, see § 1 1 2. 6. f. se^paacu, Aor. ^xt- 
(>«a« (with short a). — 'A sypcope with a long ct takes place in the 
Aorist Mid. IxQaaifxriv^ Perf. x«x(>axa, Pass, xexQa/jiai^ ixgaS-fiP. 
We also find xtxiQuafiat^ ixtgcas^tiv, — MID. 

xlXQtlt^i^^ see X^ivi. 

xkaiia weep^ Att. xka(0 (with long a and without contraction), f. 
xAcxi;ao/Kft^ or xAfti^aoi/juai, Aor. exkavaaySee § 95 Rem* 5. The 
Fut. xkmi^aw or xAai^aoo is rarer. — Verbal adjec. xkavrog^ xkavrog^ 
xkavareog, — ftllD. is rare. 

xogivvvfii satiate^ f. xoQtaoi &c. see § 112. 6. Perf. pass, x^xo- 
QiOfittv (Ion. xixoQtifAaC), This is not to be confounded with the 
regular xop^Vu, -tiata sweep. 

xQaita commonly xtxQciyot cry, see § 1 13 Rem. 2. xixQayfAiv^ 
xixQttX'&i &c. see ^ 110 Rem. 3. — Fut. xixga^ofnai, 

KPA — see xigiwvfit. ^ 


xQffiawvfii hang, Pass. nQtfiipvviiKi am kung^ and as MID* /^ang 
myae^; xgtfjiafjiai, (like larafiai) hang intransit. to which belong 
Sufrf. xQ^fioifJicti, Opt, ytQBfialfAtiv and xQefiolf^tiV.' — Fut Act. KQeiAn- 
aoi (short a), Att. x^f/uw, f 5, 9, &c. The Aor. pass, ixgefiaa'&rip 
is common to the Mid. and intransit. signification; but the Fut. 
pass. tt^efAaad-^aofia^ belongs solely to ngeiiavvvfuaif. In conse- 
quence of which the intransitive has a peculiar future, HQ£fiiiaofiJt^ 

otvpi(o hiss, f. fcvvi]aofiaij or (from KTii) xiiaw, ixvaa (short 
v.) The compound nQogKvvito kneel^ adore, is regular. 

^. 202 

Kayimfoi obtain (by lot or fortune,) from AHXSl, f. Xnlo^ai, 
Aor. tXa%ov, Perf. «*Ai?;fa^ §82 Rem. 2, or A£Aoy;fa (as if from 

Xdfjifiapo} take, from AHBSl, f. Ai;i/m|tiai, Aor. iXapov, Peff. 
«?^i7<^fir, see § 82 Rem. 2 — MID. The Ionics form XeXiptji^a, see 
§ 1 12. 8. and (from AAMBSl) Xaixyjofiai, iXocfi(f'&ijv, XiXafAfAfii. 

Xavd^avo), rarer Xi^'&to, am hid, Xi^aw, tXu'&op, AtAiy^a.— MID. 
Xcev&dvofiai, rarer Xri'&oiiai, forget, XfjGOftac, iXa'&Ofjnjv, XtXfjafJta&, 

Xiyta say, has in this simple form no perfect active whatever; 
in the pass, it has XiXeyfiat^, tXix'&riv. In its compounds, in the sig- 
nification of gather, it has eiXoxce {avv^iXoxa), ellXeyfiai (see ^82 
RemI 2,) 'Aor. pass. iXeyrjv, see § 100 Rem. 4, and a MID. Also 
dt,aXiyofiav converse, has dulXsyfiai, but in the Aorist duXiyfi^riv^ 

AHBSi, see Xafipivo). 

Xti'&m, see Xavd^dvco, 

AHXSl, see Xayy^avm, 

Xovon wash. In this verb the Attic dialect almost without ex- 
ception omits the connective vowel before the termination, as 3d 
pers. Impf iXov, 1st pi. iXovgAiv, Pass. Xovftai kc, Xova&ai, see § 
110 Rem. 2 — MID. 

Xv(u loose, Xvaoi &c. Perf. pass. XiXvftai^ 1st Aor. pass. iXv&tiv, 
§ 96 Rem. 3-— MID. 


• ■ - . 

ogvvfAi excite, from OPSl^ Fut. ogovt^ Ist Aor. cSpaa. S/ee § 
101 Rem. 5; — MID. ogwfAai ariae^ Aor. tuQOfiijv^ — to which belongs 
2d Perf. OQfoga, 

6aq>gahofta$ smeU transit. Fat 6aq)Qriisoiiai^ Aor. doipQOfJitiv, 
See 5112. 5. ^ 

6<fidXfa owe e. g. money, must, Fijit. o'^f^A^QOoi, ^. The 2d 
Aor. mq^ikov occurs only as the expression of a wish. See § 151. 

S^l(a and (more common in the present) 6<f>Xiaxavfo^ amguiUy, 
clmdemned, Fut. og)Xiio(o^ &c. 



Tialfo beat, Fut. commonly nai^ao}^ but the other tenses are 
inataa^ ninai^a^ inalaS-tiv. — MID. (Compare ntxiCo) in the regu- 
lar rerbs.) 

nuaxfo suffer^ from IlHB\i^^ Aor. inad^ov^ — from ITENSSi^ 
Perf. ntnov&a^ Fut. miaofAai^, according to the rule § 25. 4. 
Verbal Adjective nad'tjTog, 
i05 ndaofiai^ UENSR^ see niox^* 

jimQwtai^ see.ixo^Jy. 

TiCTrroi, see niaam. 

7i^g'9'(o destroy^ Aor. ingw&ov. See § 96 Rem. 4. 

ntaao)^ nmfo^ cook, Fut. nixpo)^ kc, from ntnTW. 

nBOHv^ see ni-mo}, 

TifTiivvvfjii expand^ Fut. Tuiaao)^ &c. See ^112. 6. Perf. Pass. 
ntnTafjiai (see § 110. 1.) but Aor. Pass, is again in£Taa&fjv> 

ni%0(iaifl'y. From this root is formed by syncope an Aor. in- 
toiAtiv^ Ttzia^ai^ &c. See § 110 Rem. 1. Fut. Tifrijao^o^, common- 
ly mrijaofia^, which may be derived from the lengthened form 
^eraofiai. To this also belongs a formation in /u», partly in the 
present mzafAai and imafiav^ partly in a second form of the Aor. 
iTttdfifiv^ mda'd'ai, &c. In addition to this there is a third Aor. 
inrtiVj TtTfjvat^ ntdg^ &c. and a Perf niTtrfixa formed from the 
active', which is entirely obsolete in the present. 

JJETSl^ see ninro). 

7Tiv-&0fA€ci^ see nvv^dvofiai. 

"5 114.3 ^^^'^ ^^ ANOMALOUS VERBS. 225 

niiyvvfA& makefasi^ f. ttiJ^w, &c. See § 112. 6. Aor. Pass. «7ia- 
ytfv^ 2d Perf. ninriya iatransit. I standfast ^ 

nif4nk7]f4ifill^ nifATtXdvai^ follows lattjfii in present and imperf. 
Fut. nltiao}^ &c. Perf. Pass. ninXriafittt, Aor. Pass, inki^a^tjv, from 
TLAu4Sl oTTtXfj'd'ot) which, last form, however, has in the present 
tense only the intransitive meaning am full — ^When, in composi- 
tion, /i comes before the first n^ the /» in the reduplication is 
dropped, as ifinin\rifAi^ but returns aasoon as the augment is in- 
terposed, as iv^i(ATtXtjv> ^ 

nifAn^rjfi^ bum transit. nifinQapai^ follows^ X'ariyfe^ in the Prea^ 
and Imperf. the rest from ILP^Si or 7i()^^w, as ljr(w}a^i?i'. — The 
same holds of if4ninQtjfA$^ ivimfiitgfjv^ as of m(Jinkfjfi&. 

Ttlvo) drink^ from J7/i2, Fut. jriOjuaf, see ^ 95 Rem. 10. Aor. 
tmoPy nulv &c. Imper. commonly nl'd'i. — All the rest frotn IlOSi, 
Perf. ninwita, Perf. pass. 7i«7iOfiai, Aor. pass, ino^tiv, Verbal adj, 
norogf TiOTfOf.-— The forms jkW, iniaa^ have the causative sense, 
give to drink^ § 113. 5, and have as present mniGKio. 

MTtQaaHw sell, Fut. and Aor. wanting. The remainder from 
IlPuiSl^ ninQSna^ ingd'&rjv, &c. 

nlntfo fall, forms from nETSi (see §112. 7,) in the Dorian ^^^ 
manner, the fut. niaovfUM, Aor. tneaov. — Perf. nkntianv;. 

UAASl, nXr'&oi, see nliAnXri(Ai,> 

nkioi sail, f. nUvaofjiai, nXivaovfiai — Inlevacc, &c. see § 95. 
Rem. 5. — Pass. ninXevafAM, inXivfj&tiv. 

nXnaofa, tiAiJttw, strife— 2d Perf.— This verb retains the ti in 
the 2d Aor. pass. inXi^ytiV, except the compounds which signify 
affright, i^enXaytiv, xarmXiynv* 

nvkta blow, f. nvivota or nvsvaovfiM &c. Aor. pass invivo^vv. 

nod^iia desire, f. nod^ioto and no^^am, Per£ nino^na, Perf 
pass, nmi^nt^ai, 1st Aor. pass. inO'&ia'&fjv, see §96 Rem. 3. 

noQilv, inoQOv I gave, a defective poetical Aorist. To the same 
theme (with the idea assign) belongs, by means of a metathesis 
(§ 1 10 3.) the perfect pass. nkuQiaxMii is destined. Part, Tiengoi- 




nglaad^ai buy, A defectiye verb, whose forms {in^wfifiv, itQi" 
aa^mv &c.) are used as the Aorist of iiviio'&ai,, 

JUPO — ^see noQUv, 

JITA — J7710— see Tiitavvv[Ai^ nhofiut^ nintm, 

Ttuv'&avofiai' hear^ from ntv&Oftat (poet.) Fat. nevaofjia^^ Aor. 
inv&6f»9iv, Per£ niTWVfJiai^ Verbal adj. mvoiog^ nevariov, 

^eifo and IJp^co do, Put. ^^gio or [from JSPrSi) ^^io§ &c. Perf. 

^oi^ow, f. ^evaoftai^ Aor. i^gevaa. More in use, however, in 
the same active signification is the 2d Apr. Pass, i^^vijv, with the 
Put. ^vi^eFO/ua^, and a new perfect i^^vrjncc^ formed from this Aorist. 

^fj^^ytz/u^^fiar transit, f. ^i{£(u, §112. 6. Aor. pass, ^(i^a/i^y. — 
2d Perf ejp^oi/a with the intransitive meaning, / am torn. « 

^Inro) and ^mttm throw ; both forms are used in the present 
and imperfect 4 the other parts are formed only from ^(7¥Ta», as 
^'ip(o kc, Aor. pass. iQQlq>tiv, 
' ^(apvvfi& strengthen^ ^oiooi &c. 5 1 1 2. 6> Perf* pass, e^pmafiai. 

Imp. tg^maofareweU^ Aor. pass, i^goio'&fiv. 

apipvvfit extinguish^ f. apeaot &c. iffPeafmi^ iapia'^ijv^ see 5 

112. 6.— The Perf «cT/?9?xa (with ^) and the 2d Aorist ^V^''^ plar- 

lapijfiev^ Inf. ap^vai^{see Q 110 Rem. 5.) have the intransitive sig- 

207 nification to go out^ for which meaning however, the passive o/^^V- 

vvfiai is more usual. ** 

aitedavvvfjn scatter^ f. amdaato &c. Perf. pass, iaxtiaaficii, see 

OfACKo wipe^ af4tig &c. see § 105 Rem. 3, Put. fffn^aot &c. — Aor. 
pass. iaiiii)i;&riv (from ^yjuij^fw.) 

aniiv^ antO'd'ai^ see Itico. 

2Tu4Sl^ see 'iattifAi. 

angm deprive, declined regularly ; but in the passive much 


i 114.] 



use is made of the simpler form OT^QOfAai, Part. M Aor. eugdgj ^ 
Fut. ati^aofia^, 

CTogivvvfAi^ OTogpvfAi^ and aTQ(uvtfVfi$^ spread^ extend^ form both 
inoQioa, ioTOQiaa^ and GtQtaGfa^ iargaoa. Perf. pass, eetgrnnai, 
Ist Aor. pass, iarogda'&tiv. Verbal adj. crgfotog, 

o%Biy^ iGxov &c. see e'^fw. 

eciCca iave^ has in Aor. pass, iaoi&tfv without ir, from the elder 
form amoto (Jaaoid^v.) — HID. 

Tag>Hv and ragp^va^, see BA^Sl^ and -^anro) § 104. 

TjiSl^ the apparent roof of re/vw, wrana &c. See § 101. 8. 

TEKSl, see r/xrw. 

tifivfa ctt<, forms from TEMSl, see § 112. 4, f. t^/moi, Aor.lV*- 
^ov.— terf. TiTfitiHa, Aor. pass. itfAfj'&riv. Less used is Aor. Ira- 
f«ov. The lonians have also lA the present tifivo}. 

T€vX(o. Two kindred verbs must be carefully distinguished, viz. 

1) tevxoi prepare^ regular, as xfujw, Irev^a^ tiTiv%a^ xi- 

Tvyfittj^i Ttvxrdff. 

2) tvyxivfa happen^ f. T^vgofia*, Aor. trvxov^ Perf. rt^ 

Tvxn^u. \ , 

The idea of ri;yx«ya> has its origin in the passive o(%ivx^^ 

t/xtw hear, from TiSlATii, f. T«gai commonly xilofiM, Aor. IV«. 
HOI', Perf. T«Vox«.— MID, poetical. 

t/i^oi, see r/oi. 

T^T^nxw 6ortf, from 7!P^/2, i:gn(sm &c. Another form, more 
used by the Attics, is tetgaivta^ httgtiva. The perfect is always 
from the radical 7!P^fl, rhgv^a, rirgfif^ai. 

Tngcianw (epic rpolco) wound, Fut. Tgciaa &c. 208 

r/cti honour, is used only by the poets, and is regularly declin- 
ed. Perf. pass. wV^jMa^.— In the signification of expiate, it derives 
its tenses from nVw expiate, f. Ti'oto, perf. pass. Tdriafiai., 1st Aor. 
pass. «T/a^y. The MID. T/vo/ua* (r/aojua*, «Teaiiiut?v) has the 
signification of avenge, pwnwA. 


TAASl' suffer^ a verb not used in the present, bat from which 
• the following teases are derived, Fat. rAiJao^a*, Aor. iVAiyv, rAiJww, 
zXaitiv, tXn^i see ^110 Rem. 5y Perf. rhkriKa^ whence the synco- 
pated forms xixXttfAiv &c. see § 110 Rem. 4. 

TJ!f— see xifivta. 

tgiqxa nourish^ f. '&QtJp(» § 18. Perf. TixQoq)u, see § 97 Rem. 1. 
Perf. pass. tt&Qttfifiai,t£d-Qciq;^ai^ Aor. pass, itgiftjp^ more rare- 
ly id-Qtq}'&tjv^ Verbal adj. d'QenTog. 

tgix^ run^ forms its tenses rarely from itself, as d^gi^ofiai, 
'ed^ge^a, (§18); but commonly from ^Pj&iJ/i2, Aor. i(^()afiov, Fat 
9QCL(JL0Vficttf^ Perf de^Qtifjifjxa, see § 112. 8. 

TP'lWSij see d^gvntw, 

tgotyia eat^ f tgw^ofiat^ — Aor. ixgayov (from TPAFSl!) 

TvyKvtPto^ see r«i;;f«. 

Tvnxia strike^ has in the Attic dialect commonly fut. xvuxi^go), 
Verb. adj. xvnxtjxiog. — Aor. pass, ixvntjv. — MID. 
, xvifw incense^ smoke^ hum^ f, d'ytpto &ic, § 18. Aor. pass. hvg>ijv. 


0uirSi, see ia^lm. 

<2>^i2, see g>tifii ^ 109. and <palvo3 § 101 Rem. 4. 

ifiQw bear^ has (ffiom 0/i2) f oiaco and a particular Imperat. 
olae^ for which see ^ 112. 8. Besides this it has (from EFKSl or 
ENEKSl) Ist Aor. r^v^yna^ 2d Aor. fjveyxffv, Perf. ivijvoxtt^ (com 

pare § 97 Rem. 1.) Perf. pass, ivi^viyfia^^ Aor. pass, rivix^tiv Fut. 

pass. ivex'^V^Ofiai, or oio'&ijaofAm, Verbal adj. oitnog^ oiaxiog, — 
MID. — The Ionics haye Aor. .^i^f^xa, iveiHat^ Pass. i^vtix'O'fjv. 

fp'&avoi come before^ anticipate^ forms from 0SASi either qt^iata^ 
eq>-&aaa^ or q^'O'i^GOficit'^ iqi'&tjVj {<p{>di^ q)d'fjvai^ (pd-ctg^ see § 110 
Rem. 5.) — Perf. eq)'^aHOi. 

(pvxa beget^ tpvato^ iifvaa, — But the Perf. niq>v%u^ and the 2d 
209 Aor. tq)vv^ q)vvai^ Part. <f>vg^ see § 110 Rem. 5, have a passive or 
intransitive signification, to be begotten^ to become^ to &e, of which 
meaning are the present and future g)vof4M, g>voofAm. 


^■^fc— — I^^^W— ^1— — ^— ^»i^^M^»^— I I ■■■■■II ■■l»l^ ■! I I I — ^M^— ^^— — ^— ^^ 



^uiQio rejoiee^ f. x'^^f^^^^* ^^^' (fiom the passive) i%iQV!^^ 
whence again a perfect with the signification of the present, mtxaQn' 
xa, commonly m^^QrifAav^ see § 112. 8. 

j^ctu jooiir ou<, f. ;f«uffw, Ist Aor. t^ea^ see §91 Rem. !./»»/*. 
X««*, /m/^, X^ov^ XiUTO} &c. Perf. ^ixvTta, Perf. pass. xexvfAM^ Aor. 
pass, ixv'&fjv, § 98 Rem. 4. — MID. 

;if(»a(u. Of this verh there are five different forms, with as 
many distinct meanings. 

1) ;|r^aeo J^x;eanoracu2arrej;po9Me, iieclined regularly f XO^^ 
XQ^v^ X9V^^ 4^« Aor. pass. ixQti^^W' 

2) xixQtjfit lend, like YaxrifAv, (but without 2d Aor.) — XQ^^^^ 
^XQV^ci &c. Mid. xlxQctfiM horriyaS, X9V^Of^^h'^X9^^^f^V^' 

3) jf()aofia^ ttfe, takes in its contraction (according to § 105 
Rem. 3) ti instead of a^ as XQ^^ 2d sing. xQV'^^h X^V^'d'ai &c. 
llie rest is regular, Aor. ix^v^^^Mv, Perf. xixQVf*^^* Verbal 
adj. X9V0t6g- ' 

4) tQ'h opartetj it is necessary, impersonal, is inflected partly 
like verbs in /m*, as Inf, XQVvai, Opt XQ^^Vt Sfibj. XQV'i Part, (ro) 
;fjp«Wvt, Imperf. ix^v (irregular accent,) or XQV*^ (never ixQ^'J*) 

— Fut XQVOi*^ 4^. 

5) anox^fj ^^ Slices, pi. unoxQ^oiv, Inf. inoxQriv, Pari. 
unoxQ^v, wact, mv, — Impf. inBXQV* — Fut aTio^jfpTjw* &c. 

XQfavvvfuv colour, f. ;f()W(7(o &c^ see § 112. 6, Perf. pass. Kix^oty- 

OfiOl, &c. 

Xoivvvfii heap, dam ; also the regular form ;fow, Inf. ;|roi;v, 
— X^p^^ &c. Perf. pass. xexwafJtM. 


W'&tm push, has the syllabic augment l^iaid'ovv) according to § 
83 Rem. 6, and forms Fut. d-^rfGw, and (from SlSSi) cSooi, — ecoffa, 
ioiXM, Joiafca^ &c. 

* This perfect is chiefly used in the sense of / need. 
t Has its orig'in in ^()aov, according to { 26 Rem. 7. 

230 F ARTICLES. [^ 115. 


210 i ^^^' PARTICLES. 

1. The particles are called by the 'ancient grammarians In- 
JlexUtles^ because they admit of no declension, nor conjugation. Ev- 
ery thing, therefore, which regards their formation or deriyation, 
belongs properly to the subject of the formation of words. Some 
points, however, which are closely connected with the other parts 
of speech, or by which several particles are placed in a certain 
relation to each other, and some small changes effected by posi- 
tion or euphony, shall here be detailed. 

2. The most common adverbial form is the termination f»^, 
which may be regarded altogether as a part of the adjective^, since 
it is necessary only to change the termination Off, nominative or 
genitive, into mg as follows, viz. 

q>lXog^ (jpiXcag* aog>6g^ aoq)mg, 

aciq>g(aVf {a(ig>QOvog^) a(oq>g6v(ag* xagUig, ^vrog^ xaguvj&ig. 

ivd-vg, log^ ev&mg, 

dXti^i^g^ iog^ contr. ovg^ iltjd'tmg contr. aktj^oig. 

3. Certain cases and fprms of nouns often /supply the place of 
particles, either by virtue of their signification, as will appear on 
the syntax, or by ellipsis. When such a form occurs very fre- 

' quently, it is regarded quite as an adverb. So with the dative, viz. 
nofiiSy properly voiih care^ hence very much, 

anovdfj with diligence^ labour, hence hardly ^scarcely. 

Also a number o£ feminine adjectvoes (originally agreeing with 
odcjJ from ?J odog Tmy^ mode^ method^) e. g. 

neC^ on foot^ xoivy commonly, ld{q, prvoately, dtjfAoaitj^ 
publicly &c. 
So also in the accusative, viz. 

^9X^^ properly in the beginning, in the foundaiionj hence 

totally. , , - 

ngoTxa gratis, for nothing, (from ngoi^ gift') 
fjituKQiiv (sc. odov) far. 

^ 116.J I PARTICLES. 231 

Rem. 1. Somejilso are cases with preceding, prepositions, e. g. 
naQaj[gijf4a immedUuly (pro^rly during the thing.'S 
9taha and xa&ansp (for Ha'6^' a^Kad'* aniQ^) a$, ^ih ^'^' 
ngovgyov (for ngo t(iyov^) to the end. 
Soijie such compound words bave small peculiarities of orthogra- 
phy and accentuation, as 

ixnodtiv out of the way^ anie^ (for 1% nodfov^ 

ifAnodoiv in the woy, ineonvenienty (grammatically irregular 

for iv noaiv.) ^^^ 

4. The neuter of the adjective is also an adveibial aocusative, 

when it stands instead of the adverh, as well in the singular as the 

• • • 

plural. This use, as far as the positive is concerned, is for the 
most part peculiar to the poets; and is used in prose, in only a 
few instances^ as ra;|rt; sranftly^ fiixQOv or fAintQi a little. ' 

' 5. In the comparative degree, it is very much the usa|[e,. that 
the neuter iittgular qfthe comparative and the neuter plural of the 
tuperlaiive serve also as degrees of comparison for the adverb, as 
ffoq)foTiQov noietg thou actest more wisely^ aiox^ora datik^a^ he 
lived most shamefully. The appending of mg to the form of corn- 
parison of the. adjective, as KaXXiovwg^ is far less common. 

6. Instead of oiff, the more ancient dialect formed the adverb 
in 01, hence ovrmg and oiirw^ § 30. 4. Here are to be reckoned 
aq^voi suddenly^ onlaoi behind^ and several formed from prepositions, 
as i^cD without^ eaia and eiOO) within^ Svo) above^ xarcn below^ nQO^ 
oat forwards^ n6()^(o far. These form their degrees of compari- 
son in the same manner, as avtotigox^ ai^oiraroi, — and in like man- 
ner degrees are formed of some other particles, as ano from^ v- 
ntoTatoj very far from; avdov within^ ivdotitoi inmost^ ixag far^ 
ixaarego}' iyxov near^ nyiQiaxoi'' fiumguvfar^ f^axgoregm. 

7. In all the particles, which take the degrees of comparison 
without being derived from adjectives in use, the analogy of the 
adjectives is observed in forming the degrees of comparison, as 
iyyvg near^ h/yvtigoi or iyyvngov &c. or eyyiov^ eyyiaray where* 
in just the same peculiarities and irregularities are observed as 
there, prevail, see Rem. 2 below. Particularly compare with 
^^ /oiy, iaroff," (§ 67. 3) and ^ irregular comparison^ § 68, the fol- 
lowing, viz. 


fjidXa very^ fiakkdv^ ftaXiara* 

And the adverbial neuter correspondiog to rjaamv, (§ 68. 2.) 

^aaov, ^ttov^ U^^ ^moxa least. 

Rem. 2. The following deserve notice, viz. 

niga on the other tide^ oroer^ nsganavm or neQuhara, 
nXfjGiov near^ nktjouUtegov and -tattgov^ 
ngovgyov (Rem. 1) ngovgyiahfgov. 
^1^ Rem. 3. A few forms of verb$ become particles, by common 
use, particularly interjections. Thus taqfikov, see the anomalous 
og>elX(o and § 151. idov see^ (see the anomalous 6gd(o.) 
So too ehv (from elltj) be it so ! well ! 

Sye^ (piQi^ come on^ wjiich is used without alteration as 

an address to several. 
id-t (to one), lire (to more), come on. 
. Rem. 4. The adverb dtvgo hither is also used as an impera- 
tive, come hither^ and in this acceptation it has a plural, when ad- 
dressed to several, devie ! which is explained as a contraction of 
06 vg n€» 


{Compare § 79.) 

1. Some relations of place are indicated by particles append- 
ed to words, and that as follows ; when the question is 

whence ? by '^f v, as aAAo^f v from some other place^ 
whither ? " <Jf , " alloas to some other place, 
where? " 'd'l, " ukXo'&i somewhere eUe. 
The vowel before these terminations is a matter of some vari- 
ety, which, however, is best learned' by observation, e. g. ^A^- 
vfjd^ev^ ovgavo'&ev, ctygo'di in the country, noxigoid'i on which of 
the two sides, ixigoi^t on the other side. 

2. When the question is whither, the enclitic da is also appen- 
ded, and that to the accusative without any change^ as oigavovda 
to the heavens, SXade (from cikg) into the sea, eg^posde (from to 
ige^og) to Erebus. 

Rem. 1. O'Uads home, from ol^oQ, and qtvyads to fl^ht,^ from 
qivyti, are departures from the analogy ; but in '-^^»}v«f<f , SiipaCe, 
the d of the particle de together with the a of the accusative plur. 




faare passed over Into i (§ 3. 2.) Sererd words, hoireyer, as- 
«ame the C, although not id the plural, as #i;^£« without^ from 
^(^a dqor ; 'OkvfAnUnCt from 'Olvfinia. 

Rm* 2. JVheD the questioo is where^ the teroninatioQ oip or 
m is attached to the names of several cities ; tiOi when a conso- 
nant, and aat when a yowel precedes, as 

from *u4'&fjvat^ Ilkataial, 'OXvfinltcJ^ 
Some other words take the termination o», as 

'/ff^feoi, IIv&oJ^ MeyctooT, 
from '/O'dfAog^ Jlv^ti^ ta MiyaQa^ 
which termination has always the circuBmez, except in oixo^ at 

3. To the three relations of the place quoted, refer the three 

following interrogations, viz. 

TTO^ev; whence? 
not J whither ? 


nov ; 

of which the first only coincides mth the terminatiottS quoted 
above under no. l.f On the other hand, these and sooije other 
interrogations, of which the most common are non and jtrjvlna 
when ? Ttmg how ? ntj in what direction ? in what way ? stand with 
tbeir immediate correli^iyes (indefinite, demonstrative, relative) 
in the^same analogy, which we saw above (^ 79) in the case of the 
correlative adjectives. 



no^iv ; 

ntivina ; 

all enclitic. 



• • • 





simple, compound. 

0T€ — OnOTC 

ow — Snov 

oT — OTIO* 

o&Bv — ono^iv 

cSg — onmg 
♦ "J. 

ij — onvX 
I fivlxtt <•— OTtfjvlxcc 

The signification of the foregoing correlative adverbs is obvious 
from that of the corresponding a43ectives in § 79. 


_ ■ ■ *■ — ' ■ ' ■ ■ " ' 

* Olvfjiniiai^ with short «, is the dative plural from 17 *Olvfiniccg. 

t The poets, however, have also nooe and nO'&i* 

% The Iota sabscript in.this series is omitted in those formi where no 
real nominative exists as a root. See Rem. 4 and 5. 

. 30 


Rem. 3. As the relative proDoan og^ besides the compooDd 
ogrtg, is also strengthened by neg {ognsg, &c.) the same is also 
' found' in several of the foregoing relative adverbs, as wgrng^ ^mg^ 
ovneg. For the Ionic forms %ov^ o%mg, &c. see § 16 Rem. 1. c. 

4. The demonstratives in this table are the original simple 
demonstratives, like o, ij, to among the demonstrative adjecti?es. 
None of them but tots then^ is in common use ; the others only 
in certain phrases or in the poets. It is also to be remarked that, 
instead of ro!?, we sometimes find wg used as a less common de- 
monstrative, and that ivHh the acute accent, to distingaish it from 
the relative particle (og. 
^^^ 5. With the foregoing must be reckoned two other demoostra- 
tives, which in signification belong to the questions nov ; no^iv ; 
but in form depart entirely from the preceding analogy ; yiz. 

tv&a here^ there / avd^tv thence. 
They are both, at the same time, relatives (like ov and S^iv\, 
and common in prose. 

. 6. The demonstratives Ttjvha^ iv^a^ evd^iv^ Ttj, and wg^ are 
capable of the twofold strengthening, mentioned above, § 79. 4, 
from which the demonstrative particles, most used in prose, have 
their origib, e. g.- 

Tfivina^ TtjviHcide, TfjvitiavTa 

ivd-a iv'&tidt l»d-avTa Ion. — ivToiv^a Att. 

tv^ev ivd'evde, iv&evTev Ion. — IvTiv&fvMt 

TV Tfjoe Toyrri 

wff (ode ovxmg or ovrco.* 

% The most of these demonstraiives with others, not iacladed 

in these analogies, take, besides this, a deawnstratwe f, see § 80. 

2. E.g, ^ 

0VT(agi, ivrev^evi^ ivd-adl^ eidi 

vvpL from vvv now, devgi from divgo hither. 

And the relatives^ (like the adjectives above § 80.) for the sake of 

streng^ening the idea of universality, assume 

ovv and dtjnoTe, 

* It is very obvious, that, as Ttj and tig are derived from the proper 
demonstrative 0, ^, To', the strengthened form is derived from the 
strengthened demonstrative o^f, ovrog* 


as onovovv wkereaoevern 6n(ogovv (and with the interposed t&^ o\t«- 
OfgTiovv\ onovdrinOTt &c. 

Rem. 4. As the corresponding adjectiTe forms (§ 79) create 
correlatives of still wider use, in appending their characteristic 
terminations to other general ideas, as iXkolog^ navxolog^ &c. (see 
§ 79 Rem. 2.) — so also it is with the adverhs ; as ceAAoTf anothtr 
time^ aklfi (in answer to the question ti^) in another way ) nav- 
v(og^navifj (in^ answer to niSg^ 71^) in every tucry, wholly; ccvrov^ 
avTod-i (in answer to nov^ 7io{ti) ihjthe sameplace^ there^ &c. — Very 
commonly are the adverbs of this kind, derived from SXkog^ noXvg, 
nag, and exaffro^,' lengthened ^by the insertion of ajf, as \ 

dXlaxov elsewhere^ navzaxov^ noXkaxov^ in every place^ in 

many places, > 9 

ixaoraxo'&fv /rom every side^ aXXaxVy &c. 
Rem. 5. Negatives ofmost of these relative particles are also 215 
found ; from nore and ttcj^, as from r/ff, by simple composition are 
formed ovnoxe, (Atinoti neoer, ovnmg, fii^TKog by no means. 

Most commonly however, the negatives are formed from the 
ancient adjective ovdafiog, fitidagiog, noncj as ^ ' 

oviagAoig by no means, ovdafi^, ovdafAOV, oviafiod'iv, &c. 


I. In the form. 

According to fixed principles, 01;, ovx, ovx are interchanged 
for the sake of euphony, see § 30. 5. In like manner £§ out of, is 
allowed to stand only before a vowel, or at the end of a clause, as 

€| ifjiov, £g 01;, 9tano$v eg. 
Before consonants it is changed into in, as 
ex TOVTOv, ex &ttldaafjg, ex ytjg* 

Rem. 1. ^That some particles, for the sake of euphony, have a 
moveable v or g at the end, has been already remarked in ^ 30, 
as also the changes of avv and iv in composition, § 25. 

Rem. 2. For ov not, and val yes, we find, for the sake of great- 
er emphasis, oi)^^ ^ff^/^9 (§ 1^ ^^^m* 4-) 

Rem. 3. Varieties of form, without any change of signification, 

are the following, viz. 

e«v,. tjv, av, tf. ^ ^ . 

GtifA^Qov, Att tiiffiQOv to day.-^x^^i ^^^ «Z^^ff yesterday, 
avv, anciently ivv, with. — ilg. Ion. Ig, in. 

236 t FORMATION OF WORDS. [^118. 

|y, Ion. ipL, in ; see also below do. 2. 
dii^ loD. and Foet. aUl and at^i a^tvayi. 
mica orcVfxff^, Ion. c<V<xo, <<V£jc£y, on aecotmt o^ — iiuna^ 
Ion. Sntmv afierwardi, 

II. CAan^e tn accent. 

SoTeral dissyllable prepositions, with the aecent on the last 
syllable, as nagm^ and, Tugi^ kc. undergo an anoftrophe^ as it is 
called, that is, th^ draw the cxeent back^ in two cases, viz. 
1. When they sland after the noon they govern, as 

TOVTOV nig$ for mgi rqvrov 
^e£v ano for ano '&icSv- 
^16 S. When they are used instead of the forms of the verb shm 
compounded with them, (in which case, instead of ^y, the lonle 
ivi is used even in the common dialect,) as 
ifoi naga for noLQUfit 
em^ €vi^ VTTO, for tiuOTv &c.* ^ 


1. The doctrine of the formation of words, as a subject of 
grammar, dt>es not extend to all words. This, on account of the 
obscurity attending the olrigin of language, is reserved for the 
particular investigation of etymology. It belongs to us here, 
to treat only of the formation of those words, which are derived 
from other words, according to a plain analogy^ embracing whole 
classes of words. 

2. In this place we have to treat only of Verh$^ Subsianihes^ 
Adjectkes^ and Adverbs ; sinc^ whatever might belong here res- 
pecting the other parts of speech, has already been discussed in 
former sections. 

. * To speak more exactly, in all tbese cases the preposition stands 

independently, the accent being changed and the verb iXvui, being under- 


III ■ M ■ ■ . ■ I ■■ >■ I a r I * , , 



I. Verbs. 

1. Those verbs only are here to be coDsidered, which are de- 
rived from DOQDS (substantive and adjective). This derivation com- 
monly takes plac6 by the terminations «(o, «(», d(u, evo), o^a», 

2. These terminations take the place of the termination of the 
nominative, if the radical word. follows' the first or second declen- 
sion, and in the third also if the nominative ends in a single vowel, 
or in ^ with a vowel preceding it; as n/ii? T^fcaoi, megov migooi, 
'd'avfict ^avfii^ta^ alfjihig clXfj'd'evw. In other words of the third 
declension they take the place of the genitive o^, as xoAa| xoXa- 
ntvcDj nvQ nvgim* 

Rem. 1 . The words of the third declension ending in a, a^, 
ig^ which take a consonant in the genitive, can be directly chang- 
ed only into kindred terminations of verbs (a and ag into oeo, a/i/co, 
and ig into /C<u), as •&oiv/jia '&av^ai(» and '&€ivfialv(o^ ilnlg IkniCw. 
Every other termination is attached to the consonant of the geni- 
tive, as q}vyag qivyadsvo)^ xg^fjia xgijfiocTiito. 

3. With regard to the signification of these terminations^ we 
can here consider only the most common usage of the language, 
and enumerate the chief signification of the majority of the<verb9 
of each termination. 

a) ^'oi and tvio. — These verbs are formed from almost every 
termination, and chiefly express the condition or action of that 
which the radical word denotes, as i^olgavog rti/er, xoigavfto rule ; 
motpmvqg partaker^ notvmvdm partake ;^dovXog slave^ ^vX^vta am a 
slave^ serve ; moka^ flatterer^ xokaxivoojlatter ; dXtj'&iig true^ aXti» 
^iv<b am true {speak truly); §aoilfig^ paaiXivta &c. most frequent- 
ly as intransitives ; yet sometimes as transitives, as qtlXbg friend^ 
qf$le<» love. . , 

In general these two terminations are the common derivations^ 
and are therefore used still farther for a variety of significations, 
which are also in part included in the terminations which fol- 
low ; thus in particular, for the exercise of that which the radical 
word denotes, as nolefiitv, ad-luv^ nofineveiv^ xogiVHv^ q)OviVHv^ 
PovX^vnv^ or for that to which it most naturally refers, as avXog 


Jlute^ avXslp to play on the Jlute ; iyogi assembly^ aydpivuv to ad- 
dress an assembly ; inneveiy to ride on horyback^ &c.-~Iq particu- 
lar, the termiDation £ai, the simplest of all, is used in most of those 
derlyatioDS, which arise from composition ; as evTvxioi^ imxHQi(o^ 
OixoSofjiioi, igyokapioi^ fivfjat^ntaxito &c. But in all cases these 
terminations are most commonly intransitive. 

b) a(o, — These verbs are most naturally formed from words 
of the first declension in a and 17, but also from others ; and imply 
chiefly the possession of a thing or quality in an eminent degree, 
and the performance of an^ action ; as xofitj hair^ xoX^ goZi,— xo- 
fi^v to have long hair^ j^oA^t^ to have much gall (to he angry) ; Unog 

fat^ Xm^v to have fat {to he fat) ; ^or^ outcry^ yoog lamentit^^ jlJof y, 
yofv zolfia boldness^ rokfiqiv to he bold. Hence, transitively) the 
e;cercise of a thing towards others ; as r^fiij honour^ ufA^v twu to 
honour any one: 

c) 00). — ^These verbs, formed for the most part from words of 
the second declension, express (1) The making or forming to iM 
which the radical word signifies, as dovXoat make a slave qf^ m- 
slave ; d^kos known^ dtiXoto make known, (2) The mamfactumg 
or working with the thing denoted by the radical word ; as XQ^- 
00 01 gUd, giiXtooi paint rtith ochre (jilXrog)^ twqow put into jire, 
Togvoo) make with the rogvog. (3) The pn/oiding xeilh the thing, 
as aT6(pav6o) crown^ ntegom give wings {ntcgov)^ tnavgofo crw^ 

d) aC<u and /^co. — Verbs with the firtt temiination come most 
naturally from words in «, ^, off, &c. and for the sake of euphony 
from nouns with other endings. Verbs with both terminations, 
however, embrace so many relations, that they cannot be reduced 
to definite classes. Yet it deserves notice that, if they are formed 
from proper names of nations and men, they denote the adoption 
of the manners, the party, or the language of the same; asfii?^/- 
ietv to incline to the side of the Medes^ eXXivlCew to speak Gretky 
dogiaieiv to speak the Doric^ g)iX^mui€w to be of the party of PhU- 

e) aivca and vvw. — The latter termination comes always from 
adjectives, and expresses the imparting of the quality of the ad- 
jective ; as i^dvvHv to sweeten^ ae/ivvveiv to make venerable. And 
here it is to be observed, that those adjectives, of which the de- 
grees of comparison {iojv^ tOTog) appear to presuppose an ancient 
positive in vg, form the verbs in vvo) after that positive, as alo- 
XQog (aia;(iW from AI2X. T2) aioxvvo}. So also fiaxgog^ xaAo?, 
— (ifixvvo)^ xaXXvpoj kc. The same signification often belongs to 
verbs in aiViu, as Xsvxaiveiv to mcJce white^ xoUaiv€iv to hoWm 
out &c. yet several of these have a neutral signification, as KaA^ 
nalvuv^ SvgxigaivHv to grow angry &c. They also sometimes 
come from substantives, especially in fia, with difierent modifica- 


tions of meaning; e. g. a^fia ngn^* afjf*ulv<» signify ; dnfia fear^ 
diifiaivai I dread, 

4. There is a particular method of forming verbs from nouns 

by merely changing their termination into cu, but the' preceding 

syllable, according to the nature of the consonant is strengthe^ied 

in one of the ways described above in § 92. 

£• g^ Thus from noiuiXog Troex/AAoi, ayyiXog ayyeXlm^ xo^ce- 
gog nad'algo)^ (AaXanog fiaXaaao)^ ipagfia^ov g)agfjiiiaa(a, nvgsTog 
nvgdaaoi^ XctXenog xaltmm^ &c. The signification is always that, 
which is most readily suggested by the radical word. 

5. To these must be added the following more limited classes 
of derived forms of verbs. 

a) Desideraiives^ denoting a dmre^ and most commonly formed' 
by changing the future in aco (of the verb cognate to the thing 
desired) into a present in a; ico, as yekaaeio) I should like to laugh, 
noX^fAfjaelfo desire war &c. 

Another form of desideratives is that in ica or taoi, j>roper1y 
from substantives, as '&avaT^v long for death, (ngaTtjyufv wish to 
he a general ; alsQ from yerbsL^ by first forming substantives from 
them, as civsjo-d'ai {(ovtiti^g) fovriri^v to wish to buy ; xXaioi {nnkctv- 
aig) nlavai^v to be disposed to weep. 

b) Frequentatives in Con, as gmTuCnv (from gintew) to throw 
from one place to another, Mid. to throw one^s self this way and 

that, to be restless ; azevuiivv (from azivHv) to sigh much and deep- 
ly; so tthitv to demand, ahiinv to beg ; tgnuv to creep, ignvCav 
to creep slowly > 

c) Inchoatives in anm, in part intransitive, as y^veiaanoi to get 
d beard, i^fidaxoi to grow to manhood, (the same as yevHaCca, p- 
^cim) ; in part transitive, as fisd-vaxoD to intoxicate (from (led'yon 
am tntpxicated.) 

II. Substantioes. 

6. Substantives are derived from verbs, adjectives, and other 

t A. Substantives derived immediately from verbs* 

With respect to these, we have to premise in general the fol- 
lowing remarks, viz. 

1) Those terminations which' begin with g, follow the ana- 
logy of the future ; those which begin >vith (i and t, the analogy 




of the perfect paasire ; thoee which begin with a Towel^ the ana- 
logy of the second perfect; eyen if the respectiye tense of the 
▼ert» in qoestion, is not in use- 

2) The terminations which begin with a vowel (as «?» o^, 
cvg)^ are also formed from contract' yerbs in in tmd aoi in such a 
manner, that € and a are omitted (as ^^oy^oi, ipd^ovog) ; yet the 
smaller verbs are excepted, which cannot lose their vowel, as it 
belongs to the root, but only change it, as ^m^ ^ori. 

Rem. 2. With reference to no. 1 next above, two particular re- 
marks are to be made, viz. 

a) The a which is to be inserted before /u and r, is retained in 
words formed from verbs which have a lingual for their charac- 
teristic. Those formed from pure verbs (verba pura), on the con- 
trary, sometimes assume it and sometimes not, uniniQuenced by 
the inflection of the verb. 

b) In regard to the vowel, when a is not inserted, the analogy 
of the future is to be followed> and e. g. ^fattig^ d'iafia^ &ufAa, 
have the vowel long, like '^iioofiM^ d'vaoi}^ with few exceptions. 

7. To express the action or effect of the verb, there are chiefly 

the following terminations, viz. fiog, fitj or /ua, aig^ o^a, 17, a, og 

masc.^ og neut. 

a) fiog^ fifj or /ni, (ta, — ^These terminations may,"it is tru€, be 
compared with the perfect passive ; but those in /uo^ commonly take 
tiie 0, when a vowel pnecedes in the radical word ; but the odier 
two do not always, even when the perfect passive does ; and those 
which do not adopt the <r, preserve the lonff vowel of the future, 
even where it is shortened in the perfect, ^yet in such a manner 
that some of them var^ between 17 and «,) e. g. r/^i^ju* (ri'&ufiiat) 
— d-tofjiog^ '^ifjia or d'tjpia' dio) {det^efiai) — otofiog^ ^'fi^i fcadi^ 
/wa* yt^voiaxoii {eyvcoafiui) — yvoififj' Ivto {kAvfiat) — kvfAa, As 
to their signification ; those in /iog properly denote the abstract, 
as ndXkm naXjAog shaking to and fro^ odvQOiiui odvpfiog lament- 
ing^i Xvioi (Ai;$o)) Xvy/iog hiccupping^ aeioi anafiog quaking. — The 
termination ju«, on the contrary, expresses rather the ejff^ect of the 
verb as a concrete, and even the object^ so that it for the most 
part accords with the neuter perfect passive participle ; as jrpa- 
yfACi {to nenQuyfAtvov) the deed^ fjiiufjfia the imitation i. e. the like- 
ness^ antigm (ro ianagfifvov) 9ntQfAa the seed, &c. — The termi- 
nation fAti varies between the two ; as (Avriiifi memory, inuniifi^ 
knowledge, xt(i7i howmr,'-^(niy(Ati a point, ygotftfii] the line, which 
in their signification have <ni]y a shadow of difference from orc- 
yfAfj a puncture, ygofifia a letter. 

§ 119.] PORMATIQN OP WORDS. 241 

b) aig^ ala. — ^These denote the abstract of the yerb, and very sel- 
dom deviate from this 8ignificati<«i^ as fitfttiats the imHaimg^ ngi^tt 
the aciion^ GHijxfug^ &c« — iQMfimU ike e;camtn«fi^, ^o/a the leiert- 

Of the following the signification cannot be so accurately given; 
yet the idea of the abstract, is the prevailii^ one. 

c) fi and «,^ for the most part oxytone^ as evyii prayer^ from «v- 
XOfAui' (Sd^ayri slaughter^ from aijpdCoi}^ fut. atpd^oi' didaxn doctrine^ 
from diSaoKm^ fut. -ajaj' x^9^ Joy, from ;f a/pw.— ^ So also, with a 
chanjg^e into the sound o Rafter the manner of the second perfect), 
TOfifj from rifiviOy (p&oga from (p^dgto, &c.—- Some also admit of 
a reduplication, which is similar to the Attic reduplication of the 
perfect, and always has an to in the second syllable, as dyooyi^ 
leading from a^cu, idtadtifood from tdm. 

Examples of paroxytooes, are fiUtfin kmt^ frcmi ffiantw^ fiXa- 
fito' vUm victory^ from vvmio}. 

Ha> — To the class of paroxy tones, also belong those nouns in 
ika which are formed from verbs in evta by merely changing ev 
Into H^ I as naidda from natSeinu. These nouns have always a 
long a, and therefore have the acute on the h. 

Rem. 4. Let the following rules be observed as to the accent of 
all nouns in ua^ viz* 

Properispomena^ are the feminines of adjectives in vg^ as 

Proparoxytona. 1) The abstract nouns from adjectives in 
^ff, asaA^^f^a, see no. 10. a. — 2) The feminines of mas- 
culines in fvg^ as iegeca priestess^ see no. 12. c. 4. 

Paroxy tpna, are the abdve menfioQed abetnict nouns from 
verbs in «i;a>. 

d) og masc. as rvnog hlow^ impression^ from rvTrroi. But by far 
the most have in the chief syllable an o, either by nature or in ex- 
change for f , as vtQOTog clappings from nooxtjo' qi'&ovog envy^ from 
ip&ovtw* Xoyog speech^ from Xtyto' ^oog \govg) from ^«(m. 

' To these may be added the substantives in ro?, which are com- 
monly oxytone, as dfifirog mowings reaping^ xwxvtog waiting. 

e) og neut. as to ti'^dog care, from m^dw Aaj^o? lot^ from Xayx^' 
«»' ngiyog^ the same aS7r(»a//ia, &c. ^ These verbals never have 
an in the chief syllable; hence to (ligog part^ from MEIPSl* 

8. The subject of the verb, as male, is designated by the fbl. 
lowing terminations, viz* 



a) tfjg^ rtiQ^ rwp. — Of these the termination xrig following the 
first declension is the most common, and the words are partly dxy- 
tone, partly paroxytone, as d&ktjTiig combatant from a^A^'co, /ua- 
•^ijT^'ff scholar from fictd-eh^ ^iaxriQ spectator from ^eaofiai^ d^na- 
aTtjg from diitaCf^n ^Q^Ti^g from xpiW, .&c.' On the other hand, 
mvpe^iiTfjg pilot from xvpeQvao)^ nkdazfjg (from TiAarroi, ninhxr 
axaiY dwatntig^ tpdktfjg kc. 

Tne terminations rijp and. roup are less frequent forms, as am- 
ti^ saviour^ qijto^q orator (from oaoo) and 'P£Si). 
^ h\ 6vg^ as y^aiftvg writer^ (pd-ogevg destroyer, 

c) 0$, for the most part only in composition, as ^(ayQciq)og paiiUr 
er, natQOHTOvog a patricide^ &c. 

d) rig and aff. Gen. ov. Only in some cases of composition, as 
HvqonmXrig vender of ointments^ "^Qf^VQ^QXtig (and -o?) captain of a 
galley^ 6 Qvi^od'tiQoig fowler ^ &c. 

9* The names of instruments and other ohjects belonging to an 
actibn, are formed from or after the preceding names of the sub- 
ject, viz. 

a) TtiQiov^ TQOv^ TQa (from the terminations of the subject trig 
or rrio)^ ^ lovrtiQvov bathing tub^ kovrgov water for bathings baUi^ 
. ixgoariigiov a plkce to hear tn, auditory^ IvGtga curry-comb^ ^9XV' 
arga place for dancing. . 

b) eJov (from the termination £vg\ as xovgiTov barber'^s shop from 
%ovgevg barber and this from niBtgHv to shear^ xgoipelov the recom- 
pense for being educated from rgogtevg^ &c. 

B. Substantives derived from a^ecHves, 

10. This is also a principal class of substantives, which serve 
chiefly to express the abstract of the abjective. To this class be^ 
long the following terminations, viz. 

a) l^a, always with long a (Ion. 17), as aoqiog wise^ aoqiia wis- 
dom ; in like manner, xaHia^ d^eA/a, &c. pkaxla stupidity from 
pia^ &c. 

From this termination arose the nouns in 

tia and oia 

by contraction; the a is here short, and the accent is on the an- 
tepenult ; the former come from adjectives in tjgj eog^ as dkij&eMx 
truth from dltid-fig^ the latter from adjectives in 01;?, as icvoia want 
of sense from Svovg. 

b) rtjg fem. G. rtjTog^ as laoTtjg equality from icog^ nmxvxtig 
thickness from naxvg* They are generally paroxytones. 

c) -ovvtjy as dixctioGvvrj^ most frequently from adjectives in 

^119.] FORKATION OF WORDS.' 243 

I ■*» 

tov^ G. ovog^ a8'^G(oq>^oavvij discreiion from adg^gcuv^ oxog. Those 
which have the fomth syllable from the end short, take an o) in 
the antepenult, as dyw&ioavvfi (compare the same rale in the com- 
I^arison by teQog^ ratog). 

d^ og neut. chiefly from adjectives in vg^ as Pd'&og depth from 
fia&vg^ jaxog sxanftness from Tut^vg* 

C. SfdfatarUioes derived /torn oiler substantives. 

11. Among these, some terminations are first to be mentioned 
which are formed after the analogy of the verbals, viz. 

a) Masculines in Tfjg (of which all those in ivfjg have long i ) 
often signify a man in sopie relation with the subject which the 
radical word denotes^ as nolktjg citixen. from noXig cUy^ onUxiqg 
an armed man from dnlov weapon, InnoTtjg horseman from innog^ 
g)vXiTfjg one of the same tribe from q)vkii, « 

b) In like manner those in ivg^ as legevg priest from hgov tem- 
ple (or rd Ugd sacri/ices^^ yQ&nsvg, dXievg^ fisherman, from yQinog 
net, ttXg sea ; yQUfAiAnaevg, &c. 

c) Those melov particularly denote a place devoted to an ob- 
ject, as Movoiiov &c. see no. 9 above. 

12. The rest may be reduced to the following divisions, viz. 

a) Those which designate a place where certain objects exist ^ 
in numbers ; such are those in cot/, G. Svog, masc. and "onvia, as - 
dfATiekciv vineyard, ^odmvia rose bed, avdgmf hall for men, 

b) Amplificatives in mv, tovog (masc.) as yaaxQfov he who has a 
large belly, &c. 

c) Feminine appellations, viz. 

(1) retQa, rg&a and rgig, G. TQ^Sog, properly from masculines 
in Tfjg and T(og, yet also from masculines in r^^, as aoiz€$Qa afsf 
male deliverer, oqxV/^'^Q^^ ^ dancing girl, avkfitgig a female player > 
on the flute (masc. OQ%riaTrig, «vAi?Ti/ff.) 

(2) i^g, G. i>dog, is the most common termination, which takes the 
place of that of the piasculine in f^g and a^ of the firat declension ; as 
d^anoTtig master, deanoxig mistress,* ixtTtjg suppliant, Init^g' JSkt)- 
'&figy ^KV'&ig' fiVQOncikijg vender ^ointments, /Avgonmk&g. 

(3) aiva, chiefly from the masc in wv, as ^egdnmv {ortog), 
^egdnaivu maidservant; Xifov {ovrog), Uawa lioness; wxxaw 
(jovog), xintai/va a female artisan ; also from some nouns in og, ^ 
^eog, '&iaiva goddess. 

(4) iia, from dome masculines in tvg,9Btegeia priestess from ii- 

gsvg, &c. 

(5) aaa, from several terminations in the third declension, as 
fiaaiX&aaa from paatXivg, Svaaaa from ava^, KlUaoa from Ki' 
X$i, Sgyoaa (Att BQqitta) from Og^i or Sg4h 


244 F6HIIAT10N OF WORDS. [^ 119. 

__j _____■■■ ' -'ill. I I 

' d) Dimumtives, qa folio WB, Tiz. 
{\) Wif or /ov (to), which is the chief terminatioD, as nottdiw 
a Mnall boy^ ao^iutukv a UiUe bodff^ ^a%tov from ro ^inog rc^, &c. 
— To streog^heo this dimiautive form, this termliiatioii is often 
lengtheaed by a syllable, esfiecially In 4dify9 and -igun^^ 9&%wod- 
diop from mt/u'i tablet^ nucdag&ov from naJg* 

Rem. 4. Several words ia lov have entirely lost their dimino- 
tive signification, as 'd'tj^op 6faf( from o' ^^(>, fi$pUov book from 

(2^ ioHOQ^ toxij^ as areq>avhxog^ naiilaxij, 

(3) Iq Gen. idog and 7dog^ always feminine, as ^(^utTuufii 
(from d^^^naiva)^ OKOivlg^ i^^, fh>m (r;^o7yo9 rope &c. 

(4) vlog (rather Doric) as *EQiatvkog ^cm^JEgtag. 

. ^5) idivg used only of the young of animals, as iniiivg from 

f ) GenHlia^ i. e. names designating one's country. These are 
partly mere adjectives of three terminations, in wg^ ct7og^ ifog^ %o; 
(&ee below), and partly substantives. 

A, Masculine, viz. 

(1) htig^ lUTfig^ mtfjg, as * ApitiQlxtig^ Xeg^ovtjakrig^ Inu^ 
Tiartjg^ ^xek^tuTtig, 

(2) tvg^ as Alokiig^ ^wn^vg Pheeian^ Amg^vgy MEyuQ^vg^m 
Miyaga^ Mccvvivevg from MavilvBia^ Ukatuisig from IRatuia^ 

« 0<Ditaievg^ better 0wxasvg, Phocaean^ from <2>aixa{(x, Eu^oik 
from Evfioia. 

B. Feminine. These either do but change (see c. 2, above] 
the fjg of the masculine termination into ^$, as JSnagtiav^g^ ^ 
pttfjlrig &c. — or they annex the terminations ig .and ag in tlie 
manner that the eupiiony of the radical word may require, as 
AioXig^ AoiQig^ Meyaglg^ CDcux/^, (DcuxalV, Atjkiag (from Jn^os). 
All these names, according as ywi^ or ytj is understood, are used 
of a woman and of the country. 

g) Patronymics. 

A. Masculine. Here the terminations are the following, viz- 
(l) /^i2ff,«^tj^, »a^i7^,Gen. ov^ the most common forms, of which 
that in idtig is derived from -the greatest number of tenmoatlooei 
while that in adfjg is used only in nouns of the first declension id 
ag and tjg^ as K^vog Kgovidtig^ ^KeHgoxjf KeHgoniinS^ 'Jktm 
^Akiviii'^gy ^InnoTfig 'Jhnorudfjg, The termioation liifjg comes 
chiefly from names in &og^ as Mevolxtog Mivomadijg^ but is also 
attached to many other nouns which have a long syUable before 
the patronymic termination, as Otgr^xiidrig from 0igrig» V^^^^ 
JkkofAiopMifig^ *Afiawttadtig &c. 

. {%) $ii$v Gen. (ovog (seldom ovog)^ commonly with a long «,,is a 
more rare form in use with the former, as Kgovioup from Kgoi^^S* 
^AnToglmv from" Axiwg^ agog. 

[§119. .FORMATION OT WQRBS. 245 

Rem. 5. Patronymics from nontis in eug and i^ktjg have orfgi- 
Daily «Mf7?, and hence in thie common language ^b^ contradtion 
ddfig^^sjlfilddrig^ Thief dtjg^ from TlvjXevg^ Ihiivg' 'HgaxXildiig 
from 'H^anl^g. The same is true with regard to the termina- 
tion iW, as IliXdmv. — So also o with i is contracted In nav^ol' 
&rjg, AfiToldrig^ from IJav^oog {TIav&ovg\ Atirm^ 6og^ Laiona. 

B. Feminine. These in general correspond with the mascn- 
Kne terminations, and for the forms in idtjg^ ad^?, we have the 
feminine in Ig and «ff, as Taviallg, 'AtXavrlg^ SBorwg. For the 
masculines in elStjQ we have the feminines in f]igj^SLS Ntigtn'g- For 
those in /oiy,, we have others in mvtj and /yi/, as An^iamv^^ 'A* 

III. ^(jtjectivei, . . 

13. .Of adjectives which clearly have the mark of analogical 

derivation, hy far the most terminate in og, and here it is the 

preceding letter or letters which are to he taken into account 

a) iog is. one of the most general terminations, of which it can 
only he said, that it comes immediately only from nouns, and that 
it signifies '.something belonging to the subject, having respect to 
it, or proceeding from it, kc as ovQavtog, notdfiiog^ ^oviog^ ia- 
Tid^iog &C. — By means of it a new adjective is also sometimes 
foi^med from an adjective in off, as iXev^sgog free^ ikev'O'e^iog lib- 
eralii^ becomitig ike Jree ; na'&aQog pure^ na^agiog cleanly ^ &c. — 
From this log^ by attaching the « to a preceding vowel, are formed 
the new terminations 

aiog^ eiog^ oiog^ t^og^ 

as ayoQuiog horn, iyopii, 'A&ijvaTogJrom *A'&iivui^ '&&g6$og frpfli 
-Stigog Gen. tog summer ; aidoTog^ vof»g^ from uiiiug Gen. Ooff, 17019 
Gen. oog. Yet usage has sometimes made one of these terminfr 
tions more particular in its signification and more expressive ;^as 
ntxTQiog relating to fathers^ ancestors^ country^ in general ; nuTQf^og 
relating to the father. 

In purticular, the termination ai^g is in use as a mode of deri* 
nation from such words as denote definite classes or individuals of 
living beings, as dv&Qoineiog human^ yvvatxeiog ko- next, of all 
.dasses of animals ; and in particular it is the most comoBon form 
of the derivation from proper names of persons, where the termi- 
nation admits of its use, as ^Ofn^gnog^ ^Emnovgiiog^ Ilv^ayo- 
^^g^ Evg^nlduog kc. 

' i>) €og signifies for the most part only the subject, from which 
any thing is made, and h contracted into ovg^ see § 60. 2. 

e) x6g is to be understood in a manner quite as general ais ^9, 
and extends also to verbs ( as yQtt(f>v%6g belonging to paintings 
nQ%ivi6g governing &c.) The most common form is Mog^ and if 


246 FORMATION OF WORDS. [^ 119. 

a& {irecedes, we usually find the forp ai'xog, as TQOxcitkog from 
•ggox«7og. From words in vg is formed -vxog^ as ^tj^vKog from 
S-fjlvg womanly. So also -oxd^ from the termioatioDS which are 
preceded by ao ^, as 'OXv/inia^ "Jliog^ — *OXvfi7uait6g, 'JKiaxog' 
anovduog^ OTi^diiaxog" Yet the termination laxog (like ladtjg^ 
is often nsed without having' an & preceding, as Kog^vd^iuKog from 

d) vog is a more ancient passive termination (like xog^ xiog) ; 
he&ce deivog dreadful^ atfAvog (from aafiof^a^) venerable^ axvyvog 
hated ^. 

ivag as proparoxytone almost always denotes a material, as 
^vXivog of wood^ Xl&tvog he. A single case is av^gfanivog^ as ex- 
tensive in its meaning as* dvd'Qfanuog^ — As an oxytone it forms 
adjectives from words expressing ideas of time, as r^fiigivog from^ 
i^fiega^ X'd'€Giv6g of yesterday^ from X'^^S» 

mdivog and the words in -Hvog show a fullness, or something 
prevailing throughout, as nedivog entirely plain^ oge&vog mountain- 
ous^ evdcivog entirely serene, &c. 

7vog, avig, tjuog, are merely names of nations &c. as Ihgav- 
Tivoff, 'Aaiavog^ TQuXXiavog^ Kv^txrivog, kc» 

e) log is a more ancient active termination ; hence duXog he 
who /ears. The lengthened terminations tjXog and (aXog^ which sig- 
nify an inclination or habit, are the most common, as anartiXog 
deceptive^ d(jiaQT(oXog he who easily errs^ habitually sins^ &c. 

f ) i^fiog is found only in verbals, chiefly denoting fitness for 
use both actively and passively, and is attached to the radical 
word according to very differeirt analogies, as X9V!'^^f*og (from 
XQccOfAai) fit to be used^ xQOfpifiog nutritious^ ^avaoi^fiog mortal^ no-' 
TifAog fit to be drank. 

g) Qog, egog^ VQog^ chiefly express the idea ofjull qf^ as o/x- 
rgogfull of grixf^ q}S'0vsg6g full of envy^ voaegog sickly. 

h) aXiog signifies nearly the same, as ^aggaXiog bold^ from 
'^ig^og confidence^ detfiaXiog fearful^ \p(agaXiog scabby, 
i) tog and xiog^ see § 102. 

14. The other adjective terminations are the following, viz. 

a) iig Gen. evxog^ as x^gUig full of grace^ vXi^tigfuU qfwojodsj 
nvgoiig full ofjire^ €vgw€ig of doubtful signification, from evgvg 
or tvgoig. 

We have already seen that those in i^eig and oi^ admit of a 
contraction, $41 Rem. 3. § 62 Rem. 2. 

•b) ^?) £^) ^CD* o^?9 aresfor the most part contractions (see § 
1 30) ; yet there comes from them the particular termination ddtjg^ 
£dcg^ Gen. ovg^ properly with a change in the accent from 
-Oftdtjff (from fliogform^ manner)^ as afptixoi^g wasp-like^ yi/wo- 
xdifjg wofnanlike ; commonly denoting full qf^ especially by way 

^ 119.] FORMATION OP WORDS. 247 

of reproach, as xpctfifiondijg, ctlfiarwdtjg^ iXvtodfjg^fiiU of sand^ bloocl^ 

c) f*(ov Gen. ovog^ verbals after the analogy of the substan- 
tives in fia^ and in part formed from these ; for the most part sig- 
nifying the active quality suggested by the verb, as voi^juoiv.from 
vos7v intelligent, noXvnQuyfitav from nolvg and n^ayfAu or nQot^ 
T€iv^ one who makes for himself much business &c. imli^aiJioiv for- 

Finally, a multitude of adjectives are formed nderely by con- 
traction, of which we shall treat in the following section. 

IV. Adverbs. 

15. Besides the simple method of forming adverbs bychangii^ 
the. termination of the declension of the adjective into otg (see 
^ 115), there are the following particular terminations of adverbs, 

a) / or c/. These denote a circumstance connected with the 
action which the proposition ex|>resses. — The verbals in particu- 
lar terminate in r/ or r; i, which are attached exactly after the 
manner of the termination to?, as ovofjiaaTt by name^ dyeXaatl 
without laughing ; ctvidgani without sweating, without toU ; dxt^QV^ 
unei without announcing^ — From this, and from what was said 
above (in no. 3. d) of verbs in /foi, comes the signification of adverbs 
In (TTc, viz. after the manner^ custom^ language of a nation, a class, 
an individual, as ilXtiviaxi after the Greek manner^ in the Greek Ian* 
guage^ yvvainiGTl after the manner of women ; so nvdQanodiQxi^ /?o- 

lOTl &c. 

Those formed from nouns have merely / or el added to the 
termination of the declension; as ixovri willingly^ navdrifAei as a 
vohole nation^ that is, with united force ; ajAa^ei without contest^ av- 
Toxilgi with one's own hand* 

b) driv belongs to verbals of nearly the same signification as the 
preceding, the termination being attached partly after the manner 
of the termination tog (yet with the necessary change of the char- 
acteristic of the verb, and never with a), as avXkti^dtiv collectively, 
that is, on the whole^ in general ; xgypdijv secretly^ ^adtiv by steps, 
dvidijv loosely^ Tsnthout jear^ (from avifjf*i^ dverog) j partly in the 
form ddfjv attached to the radical word with a change of the vow- 
^1 into 0, as anoQudriv scattered^, nQOTQonadtiv {(jpevynv) directed 

ybrwards^ without turning round^ &c. 

c) dov^ rfiov^ are chiefly derived from nouns, and relate for 
the most part to external form and character, as dyektjdov in herds^ 
Potgvdov like grapes^ nhvd^iov (from nXlv&og) laid like tiles^ nv* 


iffldov Uke a dog. — If they are verbals, they agree with those ii 
^17 V, as avafpavdov before meti^ openly. 

d) i, a rare form^ which is chiefly made by means of a pala- 
tic already in the radical word, and has a general adverbial signi- 
fication, as ava/Ei/| mixed together, promiecuomhf, ntt(f€dkai oiter- 


1. The first part of every compositioii is either a noon, or a 
verb, or a particle, either changeable 01^ inseparable. 

2. If the first word is a noan, its termination is commonly in 0, 
which, however, when the second word begins with a vowel, nsih 
ally sQffers elision. E. g. 

koyonoMg^ nett^orgifitjg^ cnftttTQq>vXeiiy /jf^OYiQiAf?? (from 

«X^^i ^og)^ d&»oygaq>og (from dlxi^). 
voftigxv^ from voftog and ipx^j neuiktfiafig from tmk'S and 
^y^Y^i if^xfilix from xaxog and iit^. 
Yet in most cases where t; or ^ is in the termination of the noun, 
no is adopted ; e* g. €v&piMog, noXvipiyos, Tiohnog^ogy firon 
ev'&vg^ nokvg^ nohg. 

The same is true after ov and av ; e. g. povqtOQfiog^ vavnajla^ 
from ^ovg, vavg. 

Frequently also after v, as fieXayxo^tn, fAiXafAnsnkog^ from^^ 
Aoff, ai'O^* nafig^ayog^ from nag^ navrog. 

Rem. 1. The sometimes keeps its place before vowels, as/^r 
pondiig^ fiivoHHi^g^ iyu^oeQyig, Yet in words compounded with 
Sgyov or EP FSl^ the is commonly contracted with the f , as H^lr 
fiiqv^og from ^Vfiiog and EPFSl. 

Rem. 2. An o) proceeds either from the Attic^ or from the con- 
tracted forms of declension, as vtmnigog (from o y«cJ^), igiw*^ 
fnog {fromoQevg^ 6. og^wg)^ ^Q^faqiifog (from v^giag 6. ao(, o^s} 
-^From y^ the earth we have in all contractions y«w-, as viafon- 
if>^g, instead of FJIO- from the ancient form F^J, see \ 26 Re- 
mark 7. 

R£M. 3. Some in ^a, G. «to^, often change their a into o, or 
lose it by elision, as aifAOotayrig^ arofiaXyla^, from aTfiu^ OTOf<o. 
' Rem. 4. In some contractions, especially such as are poetkal, 
the form of the dative Singular or the dative plural in cbosen for 
CMpposition, as nvglnvovg, nmrmogotgj fn^fftglii^t^Qg, ogitvoiios 

% 120.] 



(from OQOQj tog)^ pavo$ii6gog, ifxtaifivgog. The very common 
form in sg (from off, 6. eog), is a contraction of th6 -iast form, as 
Ttktgqio^og^ aaxegitakog^ from ro rAog^ aanog. 

. 3* If the first word is a verb, its termination is most common- 
ly formed in e with the characteristic of the verb unchanged, ot 
in ai^ e. g. 

aQXiiia%og from aQ^Hv, dumi&vfAOS from dinvm^ ?da%ov. 
Ivahiovog from Avai, TQiytlxQwg from tQinm^ iyegalxo^og 
' from iyeigm. 
Here too the vowel is struck out before another vdwel, as gpc- 
Quomg^ Qlxpaisntg^ &c. ' 

Rem. 5. The cases are more rare, in which i Is-used without 
<F, as in many from SiQXHv^ as ugx^^i^pog^ or in which -the verb 
assumes/an o, as in the case of those from Xdnuv^ as l^tnoTiliov, 

4. The indeclinable words remain unchanged in composition, 
with the exception of the. changes which follow from the general 
rules, and such as in the case of prepositions are effected. by eli- 
8ion (§ 29. 2) ; as ayx^^og from Syx^ and cikg' Twkaiyevrig from 
nilM' avapaivfo^ ivtgxofiai, from piva' Higxofiott^ infialvm^ ffom 
<!* ijjifiaiva) from iv ngoaym^ negiayoi^ (§ 29. 2.) 

Rem. 6. The proposition ngo sometimes submits to a contrac- 
tion, as ngovx(o^ ngovntog^ for ngotx^ ngoontog. Especially is 
this the case with the augment, as ngovj8(a%a for ngoidtaxa. 

Rem. 7. In the preposition negl^ elision does not take place. 
So also, sometimes, in dfAipl^ as ctfiq^iakog, dfAcpUttg^ from «Aff, 

Rem. 8. In dividing the syllables^ the rule is, that if the pre^ 
position ends in a consonant,. tills consonant in the division belongs 
to the first syllable ; therefore dg- e'gxofiou^ ngog- ci/or, «V- vdgog^ 
i$- igxofiM* But if the consonant in the preposition begfins the 
second syllable,' it does the same even when the vo^el suffers eli- 
sion in the composition, as na- gayto^ i- nansTv. 

5. Of the inseparable particles the most important are ^t;^, 
which denotes difficulty, hardship, and the like, (as ivgfiaTog 
HffieaU to tread on^ dvgdatfiovlu contrary faie^)' and the so called 

which is directly negative like the English trt- dnd i«»-, and the 




_L^ LI .I ___ - I " ■ 

Latin m*, as ifiarog impassable^ Sna^ childless. Before a vowel 
this « commoDly takes r, as utaijioq innoceni from mltitu 

Rem. 9. Yet several words beginoiog with a vowel, assume 
only an «, as aifrn^ro^, io^vog lio. Hence it is subjected to con- 
tractioD, as in akoii/ ynwiUiMly for daicuy, igfog tdk^ at leisure^ 
with a change in the accent from a€()fog. 

6. In all compositions^ if the second word begins nyith (>, be- 
fore which there is a short vowel, this g according to § 21. 2, is 
usually doubled, as laoQ^iit'^g from 'iaoe and ^inm^ nt^^^im, ef- 
Tto^^flTQQ^ uQ^TQ^ from tt and Qijxog, 

7* We have already seen (§ 25) in what cases the y, especial- 
ly of the prepositions iv and ow, remains in the composition un- 
changed, or pomes into another consonant, or is dropped alti^th- 

% 121. 

1 . The form of the last part of a compounded word decides, 
whether the whole word is a verb, a noun, or a particle. 

2. The most frequent compounded form of verbs, is that in 
which the verb remains unchanged, and preserves its own inflec- 
tion with the augment and termination. Strictly speaking this 
takes i^ace only with the common prepositions, «^9>/, iva^ ivti, 
cen:o, dti^ «iV, iv^ ^S, frti^ ttara, jw«ra, nfx()«, ni^i^ ngo, ngog^ <fvv^ 
vnig^ vn6> Every similar union of the unchanged verb with real 
adverbs and other parts of speech, is considered merely as juxta- 
position of words, and they are there&re commonly written sep- 
arately, as €v n^cimiv^ xaaoiig nou7v. 

3. Wiih other words besides these prepositions, and with all 
the particles which are always inseparable, verbs can be couk 
pounded only by submitting to a change in their own form ; that 
iS| there arise peculiar compounded verbal forms with terminar 
tions of derivation, as eco, «4u &c. and here k noon, compoiraded 
in a manner to be shown below (no; 4) usually lies at the foun- 
dation; as from €Qy^v and kafupapes comes ii^oAo/^?, and from 
this ioyola^Hv^ from £v and tgdm {EPFSl) comes evigyiri^q hen- 

^ 121.] COMPOSITION OF WOltDS. 251 

tfaetor and hence ivegynelT to do good : from ihg and cep^axoi 
comes SvgiQiffTOS dissatisfied^ ivgagsat^p to be displeased ke. and 
when instead of (ffldia'&ai tospare^ihe negative idea not to spare^ 
to neglect^ lyitfa a privatiTe Is required, iqittdiiv is formed from 
the ai^ective aipudtig. 

Rem. 1. If in such compounded words the yerh appears un- 
changed, the cause lies in an accidental coincidence hetween the 
derived termination and that of the radical verb, as noUta maki^ 
fi€Xo7to$6g, ft€konotdok mdbe songs. In like manner fivponoikim 
comes not from fivgov and ncuA^o), but from fivgonoilfis^ aq>QQviia 
not fipom a- and g>govem, but from Sq)Q(ov Gen. ovog &c. 

Rem. 2. In the same way verbs are sometimes compounded 
with prepositions, as dtfTipoleh from ivrlfioKog^ compounded of 
dvti and fiakkn, 

4* Substantives are seldom so compoundeci as themselves to 

remain the leading idea unchanged ; thus J^ivog the guest^ ngoie- 

pog the public or the nation^s guest ; odig the way, comtn^, avvodog 

tAe coming together. Adjectives, on the contrary, by this kind of 

composition may be simply modified in sigQification, as nitnifg tmst' 

worthy^ an&azog not trustworthy ; (plXog dear^ vnigipiXog exceedingly 


Rem. 3. When an abstract substantive, as raiij honour for ex- 
ample, is to be made negative in its signification (dishonour)^ an ad- 
jective, as tttiftog^ is commonly first formed, and from this a new 
^^ " ut&fiia (see now 1*) 

6. In most compounded nouns, of which the last word is an 
unchanged noun or came from a noun, this indicates only the near 
or remote object of the proposition, which is contained in the 
Whol6, as dHOidalftotv (from AJSlSi and taljumw ihe diMinity) one 
who fears the gods, inaig he who has no child, childless^ '(lantQix^iQ 
As who has a long hand, Snomog he who is remaoed from his own 
home, an exUe &c.^— So also, with die assumption of a particular 
termination of dedefision, tgex^'demvog (from tg/x^ d^^i dimvov) 
he who runs aftet feasts, fV^vd$Hog he who exerciser direct right 
{dtnfi), StifAog he who is deprived of honour, dishonoured, xuxoii'^g 
he who has a bad character {ij'&og), qisXoxQiifivrog he who loves mo- 

352 eonpoBiTiOH or woiios* [^ 121 


6. Yet mo6t frequently, when a compoimded noon is formed 
by the aid of a yerb, the verb takes the last place, and receives 
the termination of a nomi ; and then the preceding word contains 
either the definite idea or the object of the action of the verb ; 
as igyoXifioi he who undertakes a worJb, ImiOTgogiog he who notir- 
uhes horstt. The simple termination oq is in compositions of this 
sort the most common ; besides this we have for substantives the 
terminations 17^ and ug of the first declension (see the examples 
§ 119. 8« d) ; and for adjectives, tiQ of the thirds as BVfJia'&tig he 
who learns well ; also the other terminations of nouns, mentioned 
in § 119. 8, as 4f0fi0'd^hfjg from vo/jiog and ri^fifiij &c. 

7. From all such first compositions, other words are again form- 
ed by derivation, as ittfila, dHGidonfiovla^ vofjiO'O^sala^ vono^ixi^ 
%6g &c. and in like manner the compounded verbs mentioned in 
ho. 3, as innoTQoq>iO} from InnozQOifog^ evnad'im from cvTta^iqg, 

8. Among the changes which sometimes take place in the se- 
cond word in the compoisition, it is fiarticalarly to be observed, 
that the words which begin with short a, or with « and 0, very fre- 

. quently assume an 17 or en ; yet this does not apply to verbs com- 
pounded with prepositions in the manner described in n6. 2, bat 
does apply to the nouns derived from the same, and also to verbs 
oompotinded in the second manner (no. 3) ; as vnijxoog obedient 
jBrom VTtttitovm' uotTi^yogog accuser^ maTtiyoQim to accuse (from 
Naraxand iyoga, ayogivm); ivijpefiog from avefAog^ dvgi^XceTog from 
ilavvm^ apcifiorog from ofivvfii, &c. Those from ovofia^ more- 
over, change the second into 1;, as avoiffvfiog^ evmvvfiog &c. 

9. In relation to the accent,, the general rul^ is, that the ac- 
-cent of the- simple word (according to the established analc^ Q 

23. 2. a.) is thrown by composition as far back as the nature of 

I m 

the accent will permit. So e. g* from zexvov, S'tog^ we. have 
g}tl6tixifog^ ^iXo^eogr from odog^ Qvvodog^ from nu7g naidog 
comes Snaig Snatdog' from rifiii, Szifiog* from iraTgog^ nuQ^t- 
vog, come g)iXtraipog, cvnigd^ivog' from notiiemog come inaldev- 
Tog^ dvgTtuidevTo'g &c. 

§ 121.] 



Rem. 4. Words which are not themselTes compounded, but are 
derived from compounded wwds, follow in their accent the gen- 
eral analogy of their terminations ; thus the abstract Terbals in ^ , 
and a, as avXkoyi^^ nQog(pogi^ from avXlfjyw^ n()ogq>ioto. So too 
from adiMog^ udimlv^ comes adintiTHtos' m)m nago^wto Tiapolv- 
OfAog" &omni^ogdo%^v^ npogdoitfitoQ. fiut when* compositions are 
again made from these, the accent is thrown back, as ingoodi* 

liEMs 5. Compounded words of which the first half is formed ' 
from a noun, the second from a transitive verb, with the simple 
termination ogs (not tog, vog, and the like) usually have, when 
their signification is active^ the accent on the verb ; but when pas^ 
sioe, on the syllable preceding the verb. £. g, 

Xid'ofioXog throwing stones. 

Kt^ipoXog thrown at with stones. ^ 




1. The syntax teaches the we of the parti of speech, whose 
formation has been shown in the preceding part of the g^mmar, 

in the following order,, viz. noun^ verh^partieUy as stated ahore § 31. 

2. .We shall accordingly treat of, 1st The noun in itself, and 
connected with other kindred forms ; 2d. The noun in connex- 
ion; 3d. The verb ; 4th. Particles; 6th. Phrases and confitroc- 
tions of a more complicated character. 

<§ 123. THE NOUN. 

1. Every thing joined to the substantive of the nature of an 
adjective — whether adjective^ participle, pronoun, or article — 
must agree with it in gender, number, and case. 

Remark. In the Attic dialect, however, the feminine dual com- 
monly is joined with masculine adjectives, as Sfig>m rowco tqi /u«- 
/dAo) nokee^ for afig>m rama ta fnyaXa nolii, 

2. The adjective is often found without any substantive, with 
which it may agree, the substantive havii^ been omitted, or being 
easy to be supplied by the mind. In this case the adjective is said 
to be used substantively. £. g. 6 ooqto^ the lanse man^ n awdgog 
sc. y^ the desert^ if og&i^ sc. odog the straight road^pi noXkol the tmd' 
titude^ ra i/jia my property* So also the pronouns ovtog^ ineivog, 
tig, &LC. 


1. When the substantive is represented as a definite object, it 
regularly takes the prepositive article o, 17, to, the. 

§ 125.] ABTiCLi. 255 

8. The indefinite afticle of modern languages is not expressed 
in Gre^k. Wlien, hoitever, an indefinite object is to be distincdy 
pointed out as an individual, the pronoun rhy tl^ is made use of. 
£. g. yvvii r$g o^w ilx^if a ceriam woman had a ken. 

3. Proper names receive the article, as 6 SanLQCfrtig^ al 217 
*^'&nvm. It is however very often omitted* and always, when a 
more precise distinction with an article IbUows, as SfanQaxfig i 

Rem. 1. The Greeks use the article in many cases where the 
modem languages do not, and also often omit it, although the ob- 
ject is definite.-^With posnasive pronouns, however, the use is in- 
variable ; thus^GoV dovXog, (like ^vXog qov) can mean only a 
slave of ihee ; 6 aog dovXog (like o iovXog gov) means thy slave. 

Rem. 2. In the older dialect, o, 97, to was rather a demonstra- 
tive pronoun (see below ^ 126), and the substantives for the most 
part stood without the article, where we use the^ as they do al« 
ways in Latin. The more recent common dialect also frequently 
omits it. ' 

§ 125. 

1. The article is very often divided from its substantive, not 

<Hkly by the adjective, (as 0' fti^ag fiaaiXivg the gruU king^ ol 

vnaQ%iiVT€g vofiu the existing laws^) but also by^othei^ qualifications 

of the substantive, as IfiifivtiTO trig Iv fjiavlq: diatQiPfjg he remem- 

hered the time passed in insanity. Often a participle, like yevofiivtj 

&c.'may in these phrases be supplied by the mind; e. g. 

i^TtQog FaXixag jAaxti. 

1^ TiQiv ttQ^a^ avTOv a^iTii the virtue exhibited 
by him before he reigned. 

2. When the qualification thus interposed begins again with an 
article, two and even three articles may stand in this way togeth- 
er, if no cacophony ensue ; e. g. 

TO TTJg eigst^g naXXog the beauty of virtue. 

6 td Ttjgjioleiog ngdyficnm ngdrvwp. 

rov to trig ^Adjivag ayjtXfia igyaadfAivov,^ 

evoxog €GT(o rqi t^^ ro?!' iliv&egwv (fd'ogagvofif^. 

3. These qualifications of the substantive may for greater 

• 256 SYNTAX. [^ 125. 

emphasis or clearness come after, in which case the article u 

usaally repeated, and with participles tmut be repeated ; e. g. - 

TOP nalda tov aov thy son, 

6 xMoQXog 6 tag uyyMag eig»OfitCmv the eonmumder 

whQ it to bring the despatches' 
avvHfii iv^Qfinoig to7g aya'&o7g I (usociate with good nun. 

Rem. 1. The repetition of the article is necessary with the 
participle ; for otherwise the phrase becomes what is called the 
participial construction, which occurs very frequently in Greel[, and 
will be explained below in § 145. 

Rem. 2. When the adjective without an article stands before 
218 the article of the substantiye, the object is thereby distingn'ished 
not from others, but from itself under other qualifications, as ii^no 
inl nXovaioig Tolg noXlxa$g signifies, not ^ he rejoiced in the rich 
citizens,' but, he rejoiced in the citizens being ridi^ or inaimwh a 
they were rich. So ^V aKtQOtg to7g oQeoiv on the mountains where 
they are highest h e. quite up the mountains ; Sltjv rijv vvnta iht 
whole night' 

4. When the substantive is understood from the connexion, it 
ist>ften omitted, and the article stands alone with the qoalificatioD, 
as (jAog naxfiQ not 6 tod g)lXov my father and the father of my 


Rem. 3. Here foo are to be noticed certain standing ominionSi 
as in the case of the adjective § 123. 2. £. g. 

'jtkiiuvdQog 9- Q^Uinnov (sc. viog son) or simply 

2ioi(f>^oifiG)iov the son of Sophroniscus^ i. e. Socrates, 
iig xiqv (piXinnov (sc. yoipai^,) into the land ofPhilija.^ ^ 

* ra T^g nokfrng (sc. n^ayfiavu^) as above 6 123. 2 ra «jw«. 

^See§128. 2. 
-oiiv Saiet the people in the city, 
ra xarix Ilavaaviav the affairs of Pausanias, 
xtt fig xov TioXffAOV' 

01 ovv XM fiuaiXiT, 

5. As every qualification^ though indeclinable in itself, may be 

declined by aid of the article, adverbs without farther change are 

converted into adjectives by its being joined to them, as iiom 

fiixa^v between comes 6 fitxaj^v xonog Me intervening pku; froD 

TuXug near^ at niXug xcujua^ the neighbouring vUktges. 

oi x6x€ av&gwno&* 

oi ndXu^ aoq}Ot avdgig, 

1^ ai/m noXig the upper city^ 

tig xov avtaxdiw xonov^ see §115. 6* 

n ilalq>vtig iutaQtaQ$g thesMden removal. 

% 126.] ARTICLE. 257 

• Or 60, that the adverb with a repetitionof the article follows, 
as iitav iyHQija^c ix t^g dfitlilag Tut^i^ff i^^ i/ap when ye atvoAen 
Jrom this excessive negligence. 

Rem. 4. If in this case the substantive, which suggests itself 
from the context or the idea itself, be omitted, the adverb acquires 
the character of a substantive, as from avQiov tomorrow^ by the 
omission of H^ifia day^ is 17 uvqiov the morrow ; ij Avdlatl the 
Lydian mode, {a^fiovia being omitted) ; oi ron the men of that age ; 
ig lOvntGO) (for rd dniom) behind^ backward^ where fiBQog part^ 
may be regarded as omitted; although in the 'case of a neuter 
article, it is oeither necessary nor possible always to supply a par- 
ticular substantive. 

RtM. 5. By anotl^er peculiarity, the article rd, with whatever 2.19 
it is attached to, becomes jidverbial, some word being omitted, as 
Tjd TbXiVTUiov finally^ xavvv (that is, td vvv) for the present^ xa 
dno zovdefrom henceforth. Compare § 131. 8. 

6. From all these cases, in which various parts of speech and 
even phrases acquire the character of substantives, by virtue of ' 
the remaining article of an omitted idea, are to be disting^hed 
two cases, in which such words and phrases become substantives, 
by virtue of an article peculiar to themselves, viz. 

1) The infinitives^ ad to nQartBiv the doings to nanigliy^w^ 
the speaking ill^ i}dofiai rep niQinaTitv I take pleasure in walk» 
inff. How extensive this use of tiie infinitive is in the Greek 
language will appear from § 141. 

2) Every word and phrase, which is itself considered as a 
subject, as rd Xtyoi the word liyo}' ;|^()^Ta» t^ I\oid'i aavrov he 
uses the maxim, know thyself. 

§ 126. OP d, lj, TO, AND 6V, ^, 0, AS DEMONSTRATIVE. 

1. Not only the prepositive article d, 17, rd, but the postposi- 
tive Off, ^', ii, were in the elder dialect used as demonstrative pro- 
nouns for ovTog or iuiiwog^ which usage remained particularly in 
the language of epic poetry. 

. '' 2. The same usage also remained in the common language in 
certain cases, particularly in the division and distinction of objects. 
In this case, 6 fiiv commonly stands first, and afterwards once or 


258 ^ 8YHTAX. [^ 127 

. ■ ' ■ 

attend 6 Si^thu-*4h4U; ^ (when speaking of indefiqiU^ objects) the 

mte-rr^ atheri^^n^^ter^ te. through all genden and Domben, e. g. 

YoV fiiv hifia^ top di ov, he honour§ this one^ that one not 
TO fiiv ^OQ avoriTOVy to di fiai'fxoV, the onf action u fooUeh^ 

the other insane* 
Tciv (nyaTiwTtiv (or also oi orpar^curai) qI fdv iwfievov^ 

01 di inwov^ oi di iyvfavi^omo, of ike soldiers somephijfed 

at dice^ some draidi, some exercised themsehes- 
Tfiv CdoDv td fAiif £j[tt nodag^ id f iazlv Snodat, 
%Qeiaaov xaAcuff neveo'O-tti ij xancig nkovrelv' to fiip fig^ IX<- 

ov^ TO f intTifiijow (figsi, 
Isocrates says of the Athenians, who, on acconnt of the es- 

cessiye popalation|^ were sent to settle colonies, that in 
220 ^^'^ ^^J) eofaauv afAnpoTtgovg^ xmtovs dHoloy^^aavretg 

nal Tovg vnofidvavTag' toi^ fiip yd^t In^viqp t'^p q<kq« j^ai- 

gap KaTtkmov, ^o7g di nhlw^gx^^^^S inoQiaoip. 

Rem. 1. The postpositive article (off fijV, & #fr-r-a fi^VtJi di^ 
&c.) isjhus used, but less frequently, as nqUtg 'Eklijvidag^ ag fiip 
dva^geSp^ ilg £g di TOvg (fvyadag xi^TayoiP^ destroying some of the 
' cities of Greece and reinstating the exUes in others* Dchostbenes. 

3. In narration 6^ ij, to, is often used only once with de^ in ref- 
erence to an object already named, as o di fine, but he said ; Ttjp 
di dnoxag^oai (accusative with infinitive) hut that she went away. 

IIem. 2. When persons are spoken pf as the subject, such a 
clause may be connected by xal, in which case in the nominative 
the postpositive article o, ^, of, «f, but in the accusative (withjthe 
infinitive) top of the prepositivsi^ is used ; as xai Sg, muovaag raiJra, 
imaep avrov in T^g Ta^scog he hearing this^ thrust hirafrom the rankj 
nal oY^ diaXu&iPteg^ igi^atpop ig Tug p^ag (HERODoTUB).-^xai top 
nehvaai dovpcU and that he commanded to give it him* 


I. Tho three chief mea^h^ of the profioun a^pog (see § 74. 
2.) ai|r^ t9 hfi dktingijiiahe^ a^ follows. 

I. H signifies, «^« 

a) When it belongs to another i^ha so as to be in a sort of 
appositiloDi with it, thai is, after the nouBt^t op hefete its article, 
as fm^QM vqvTO ^Povn^ n top '6td»»TQu wkov I fear Ms 
more thafi> death itself; ^Q^ fiv §aaAm UTMiu ifiovkno he 
wished to slay the king himself 

§ 127.] 



b) When it dtands fbt myiey\ kimse^^ &c. the persbnal prb- 
fiOQB b^ibg oteittecl, 9A the context shows. In this way espe- 
cially It U ns^ in the noiiiikiatiTe, as atkSg l^i; hehitnselflutt 
said it ; nm^fyipofifji^ ittVt6g I myself went ; and hi the oblique 
cased only when they begin a clause, as aitiv yap it8ov for 
I scm Mm myself, 

II. It is tMK»d instead of the simple, pronoun of the third per- 
son only in the oblique cases ; and in this signification Can stand 
Miy after oth^r words in the clause, as idmxiv mmoTg to nvQ he 
gave themjire ; 6i% ita^netg avf6p hast thou not seen him ? to di' 09 1 
gag jiirixif l^coxfy, ixeivog di avro Ha'&iiXtaasv^ he gave the skin ta 
JEetes^ and he fuUkd it. — ^See aUo no. 6. 

III. When the article immediately precedes it, it means the 
same^ aa wirog ivi^g the same hmh, inikiutfs to aiho (or tavto) 
nomp he commaMtltd him t6 d6 the easne thing* Cdifipare § 133. 2. 

2. In the reflectlte pronouns i/AaVtoP, ifavtdv &g. (sefe § 1f4. 
3.) the pronoun avtig loses its peculiar poweir. Aitov tfi means 
ihee thyself^ but 9ea%n6v merely thee^ as a reflected pronoun, as 
«4^«£fi oamiv accuMtcm thysUf. It is also us^d^ like the Latin se^ 
to refer back to ih^ first subject Of two tobuected clauses, <is vofAi" 
£(& tovg noXltag vnijQne7v iavi^ he thinks that his feUow eitizins 
serve him. In thidoase the Simple avtov^ as also the simple f, 
{pVi kc. 0(pi7g^ OfpSg,) may equally be used. 

' 3. The indefinite pronoun tig is used in the same sense as the 
.French on and the German man^ as av&Qomov dvaidi^ategov ov% 
Sv tig iVQOi^ even where it is applied to a whole assembly or col- 
lection, as i^dti tig inidHMvvtoi iavtov^ that is, each one must now 
put himself forward'' 

Remjuix. The neuter ti often p^bsses into a particle of limita-* 
tion, in some degree^ hence ovti, p^V^h »o< atoll v ^ 

4. ^'^AAo?, without the article, is equivalent to the Latin alius^ 
another; Irfjooff, without the article, has the same signification, 
but with a stronger expression ot diversity ; 6 iVf ()o?, on the other 
hand, is used only when two are spoken of, and is the Latin cdter^ \ 
the others; compare ^ 78. In the plural, ilKoi means oMer«, ol aA- 



200 * SYNTAX, [^ 128. 

Xoi the othen^ ceteris ihf rest. 01 wqqi^ imi^ies a moFe difttlnctTef* 
erence to a 61 vision into two parts, as it were, the talker party. The 
singular 6 akkog expresses a whole with the exception of ^ certain 
part in contrast with it, as 17 iHtj x^(ta the rest of the land. 

5. The most of the pronouns, and the adjectives ntig and unag 
stand commonly before the article or after .the substantive, as 
Tovziuv rmp ivdQoiv of these men^d avtig ovxog ihisman^ dixi^ycri- 
i/B rmvTfjp he suffered this punishtnent^ nivreg 01 "Bklfjv^g aU the 
Greeks^ rrJ dtjfixa anavtt to the whole people. — ITcig in the 'singular 
without the article coinn^only stands for ixuGTog^aa nigaviqQ eiusk 
man. ^ 

. 6. The possessives of the third person (o^, aq>eT6Qog) are but 
little used. Instead of them use is made of the genitives of the 
pronoun avrog^ as ra f^Qtiiiata avrov^ avTfjg^ avrciv^ his^ hfr^ (Aeir 
property. Also of the two other persons^ the genitive is often ased 
instead of the possessive, but in the singular number only the en- 
clitic genitive, as vlog fjiov my son. As soon, however, as any 
emphasis is required, the possessive alone can be used. Bat to 
this is sometimes added a genitive, by a sort of apposition, as dw^ 
ndCovai ra ifiu, tov Hanadalf^ovog^ they plunder the property ofm 
the miserable. But most commonly, the possessive is altogether 
omitted in ideas that always stand in necessary connexion, as fa- 
ther^ son^ friend^ master^ hand^foot^ &c. and, its place is supplied bj 
the article alone. 


1. The neuter of all words of the adjective kind stands without 
a substantive^ or as such, for every object conceived or represent- 
ed as indefinite ; and particularly, as in Latin, extensive use is 
made of the neuter plural^ ^'S* > ^ / 

eJne ravra he said this (these things). 
T« xaXa the beautiful (that is^ all Imautiful things.) 
ovdi xa dvayxala dvvnvrui noglSsa&ai they cannottam euen 
the necessaries of life. 

Hence e. g. ra ffii also signifies not only my things^ but in 
general, wha$ concrens me. 

§ 139.] ' SUBJECT AND PREDICATE. " 261 

2. The neuter stngtilar on the other hand, expresses more dis- 
tinctly the abstract idea of the objects, e. g. 

TO xoAdy the beaui^d^ in the abstract 

TO ^HOv the dwinity^ and also every divine nature indistinct- 
ly conceived. 

TO trig yvvainog dovXov nal ^i^anivtixov the servile and sub' 
ject nature of woman, 


' Rem. 1. The neuter of the article standing alone with the gen- 
itive (§ 125 Rem. 3.)Js still more indefinite, and si^ifies onl^ a 
reference, as to t^i tSv j^^rifidtwv fiakiata nO'&sJTeaKOvaai^nooa 
nal 7iO'&6v earai^ in respect to money ^ you are particularly desirous qf 
knowing how much and whence it is ; td rwr &eciv (pigeiv det it is 
necessary to bear what comes/rom the gods. 

Rem. 2. Of the neuter adjective as an adverb, see above in § 


1. The nominative of the neater plural is generally joined with 

a verb singular, e. g. 

rdioHa TQex^i animals run. \ 

ravrd iottv dya^d this is Rood, 

* Jl'&fivaloiv tivi^Tft td nQayfiara the affairs qf the Athenians 

iOTi tavta this u, i. e. this is true* 
Tcglv ovTwv rd fAfv eat&v iip i^fuv^ rd if ovx i(p 17/uit^, (^9 

i^fiiv in our power), 

2. When the adjective, being a predicate, is separated from 

the substantive, it is often neuter, though the sirbstantive be mas- 

caline or feminine, and singular, though the substantive be plural ; 

the object, in this case, being considered as a thing in general; and 

the word thing being easily supplied. 

1? apiTfj iar&v inaivtTOv virtue is praiseworthy. 
£1^ 17(^1;, £<r aviagov naldeg ftyvovrcit^ ayvoH* 

3. As the dual is not a necessary number (§ 33. 2), every sen- 
tence which speaks of two, may not only be wholly in the plural, 
but in the same clause a plural verb may be joined to a dual noun 
and vice versa^ and different predicates 'pr references to the sub- 
ject may, as euphony dictates, be either dual or plural. 



262 87NTAX. . [^ 130. 

4. The mijeet, as in Lfttin, to commonly omitted where It is 
known of course from the verb or the connexion^ atid no stress is 
laid on it ; and where, in the modetn languages, It^ plate Is sup- 
plied by the personal pronouns. 

Rem. 1. The subject thus omitted may however be in apposi- 
tion with something else expressed, as o i^^ Muiagtiig*uiTlapTog 
dmMOvqvfAai avrotg, that is, and /, ilu «ofi ^ Maia the dau^^Uer 
qfAtlas^ waii on them. 

Rem. 2. The subject is also omitted, where the verb expresses 
an action usually performed by said subject, as oakniCn or OfifitU" 
^H ihe trumpeter gives a signal This usage also preyaUs where we 
supply il, and mean an operation of nature or of circumstances, e. g. 

224 ^^^ ^ rains, 

. nQoatifxaivii, it announces itself {as in the air.) 

idi^kmae di and so it showed itseff' 
Rem. 3. What are commonly called impersonals^ that is, verbs 
that belong to no subject or person, are different from the forego- 
ing. In them the subject is not, as in the foregoing, left in obscu- 
rity, but the action^ to which they refer, whether expressed by an 
innnitive or another dependent clause, is the true subject of such 
verbs, whose peculiarity therefore consists in this alone, that their 
subject is not a noun (as an infinitive with the article is also regar- 
ded), e. g' f^fotl fio^ antivM i. e. to iniiyat t^earl fjiot the goings 
away is Umfid to me. Of this kind are Sei^ X9*i^ ^t^^XQV^ 6o%n 
fsee all these in the list of anomalous verhs]!^ nginei it becomes^ 
ipd^X^tai it is possible, &c. 

6. When the nominative stands without the verb, some part of 

ilvai is commonly to be supplied, e. g. 

"JEXXtiv iyd I am a Greek, 
' ta toip cpikoiv KOipa. 
^ftmpiofi. ov ^4^iap eat^teip* aoipi^ y^p nsu ^HoQ 6 

^ayof naay^tp oxtovp SxoifAog (sc. ^^f(t)i ^^^ MV 7<xv^ 

^ 130. THE OBJ£CT««-OBLiau£ CASES. 


1. The object of an action, or that on which any action is 
exerted or to which it refers, must be either in the genitive^ da- 
tive, or accusative case ; and these three are called oblique ca- 

% 130,] OBU^UE CASES. 363 

f^. The immtdiau eiffeUofn. transitlTe verb, that on which the 
action is exerted, is qsoally in the acqusative case, as Icifipdvoj t^ 
uGntd^ I tah th ihield; the remote object which is found togeth- 
er with the accusative aqd also after an intransitive verb, Is join- 
ed with a preposition, as Xaftfiapm n^ aanlia ino tov naa~ 
aakov I take the shield from the nail ; larfinu ip tcf iditpei^ 
I stand on the ground, 

3. Of such relations as form a remote object, those which most 
frequently recur are usually expressed by a case only ; and in 
Greek, all three of the oblique cases are used in this manner. 

A. Yet languages which have a genitive and dative, differ from 
one another in this respect, and a preposition is often used in the 
one, where the other uses only a case. 

Rsif. K. When in Greek a relation is expressed by a case mere* 
iST) wtth(>ut a pr#pd#Uion, it must by no means be inferred, that a 
l^poftti^ was ever used in such cases and afterwards omitted 
for the 9^<^ of brevity. 

5. In the fmcient languages, both the near and the remote ob- 
ject, when mention of them has already been made, and the rela- 
tion of the Verb to them is sufficiently clear, are very frequently 
omitted (just as in other instances the subject of the verb, or the 
possessive § 127.-6); and in this manner the excessive use of 
pronouns is avoided. 

iv ^ it av tav qfvXmv nkeiaro^ mgiv aviQixdvaroty inajtvoV' 
ctv ol noXirai (here ravrfiv is understood before inmvQvoip.) 

inayyeiXafiepov tov *^yfja$kaov tijv orgatiiav ^esilaus offet" 
ing to take the command of the army didouaiv at .AaKe^aifiOviot 
(sc. avt^) oaaniQ ytijaev. 

OP ^p idfi rag x^^Q^S ovh dqie^sta^ (sc. an ccvroS). 

Yet the pronouns may be expressed, whenever emphasis or har- 
mony can thu^ be gs^ined. 

Rem. 2. Another case of the omission of the object, is that of 
the reHective ptonoun ieiwov^ //uavroai &c. which occurs or inay 
be assumed) wherever a verb otherwise transitive in its « significa- 
tion, becomes intransitive in certain connections ; as, for example, 
several compounds of aynp to lead, in which the intransitive idea 
to 00 prevails, yet with anTallusioB to a train or mulfftude, as «$<- 
X^HfV^'f ^ns. Oiij^Vf iifQsi^PXikg vmu fu^ipn^^ he went imtqf the 


264 stNTAX. [^ 131. 

way^ as ike tyrant drew near (as it were^ mcved hxmsdf forwardi). 
Such cases are^xplained in the lexicon ; yet it is to be observed, 
that the omission of iavxov i& not always to be presumed, since it 
is frequently-more correct to suppose that the verb had originally 
the tnrniediaU as well as the camatvot signification (accordmg tp § 
113. 5), as in OQfi^v io hasten and to isnpel. 

^ 131. ACCUSATIVE. 1 

1. The most obvious use of the accusative* as designating the 
near or immediate object (§ 130. 2) needs no further explanation, 
and we therefore limit ourselves to the cases, in which the usage 
of the Greek differs from that of other languages. 

Rem. 1. The cases in which the noun appears as the near ob- 
ject of the verb in the Greek language and not in others, must be 
learnt from use and the lexicon ; an example is rot;? 'd^iovg Afiooiw^ 
where we^say, he swore by the gods. Other verbs which in Greek 
take an accusative as the near object and in English are govern- 
ed by a preposition,^ are Xap4^avHv {riva) to lie coneeahd from^ 
inodtdQaamiv (r^ya) to escape from. 

2. Intrahsitive verbs are sbmetimes used transitively, and are 
joined with an accusative case, as al mjyal ^vat yaXa nai fuU 
the fountains flow milk and honey, 

3. Intransitive verbs govern an accusative of the noun, which 

expresses the abstract of the verb, e. g. 

xtpdwevaia tovtov tov xh^pov I vnU incur this danger. 
C^ fiiov ^^lOTOP he lives >a most pleasant life, 
q>apiQoig tov nok^fiov noXefAi^aofUP. 
fjpyt^ V adixia Ijp t^dUovp ae, 

ylvKvv vnvop xoifiaa&ai. 
inifiiXovpTttt, niottp inifjiikeMV' 

4. The 'Greeks also use the accusative in many phrases, for 
that which, according to the nature of the thought and the words, 
is the remote object Thus the near object of noieip is the acHon, 

. of Xfynp the words ; the remote object of each is the person- to 
whom something is done or said ; nevertheless, the Greeks always^ 
say xaxoii? nomv tipi to do d person p)il^ naxcig Xiysw tipa to 
speak HI of any one^ to slander him, Ther^ are some verbs which 
permit either of the two relations to be used as the near object ^ 

§ 131.] 



as ia English to fold, e. g. he folds himself (in the cloak), and he 

folds the cloak (round himself*) ' 

t^ From these two cases the pecaliarity of the Greek usage is 

to be explained, that all such verbs have both these relations in 

the accusative case. In other words : Many verifs^ especially such 

as signify to do^ to speak'^ to clothe^ to deprive^ to beg, to ask^ <^c. 

gorvem two accusatives^ of which the one usually denotes the person^ 

the other the thing ; e* g. . 

W noii^acti avTOv ; what shall I do to him* " 

noXkd tiya-d'ci ttjv noXiv inoitjaav he has done the state much 



didaaxovaif tovq ncudag aoiqfQoavvtjv they* teach the youths 

Stlfittlovg XQnfJi-ava ^zfja^v. 
ivdvHv tiva tOv )^iTciya, 

vnodeiv ttva Ha^^utlvoig to put toarse shoes upon a person, 
ov xriv xpvrrjv ifpalkew from whom he hath taken life* 
txegov nafoa ixSvaag Yitoiva^ tov iavrov inelvov r^fAtpUo^v, 
TOvg nok€fA.iovg Ttjp vavv amOTe^tjuafAev. 
zovTO lAti ctvayxaC^' fie. 
ov 06 dnoKQvxpo} tag ifjidg Svgngctyiag, 

6. The nom signifying the jpart, circumstance, or object, of 

which any thing is affirmed, is put in the accusative, e. g. 

X(^k6g iati^ TO acjfjia he is comely in person, 

Tcodag olxiJff swift of foot, 

noveiv xd oxilri to suffer in the legs, ^ -" 

aA/co tdg yvdd'ovg I am afflicted in the jaws, 

-^avfiainog id t(Sv nokifiov admirable in warlike affairs, 

JJvQog ^v rrjv naxQiSa he was a Syrian as to his country. 

JlooicgdTrjg Tovvofia Socrates by name* 

Rem. 2. This is the Greek construction so familiar to the Latin 
poets, as OS humerosque deo similis. Sometimes a preposition, as 
xara, is actually expressed to govern one of the accusatives ; and 
as a preposition must commonly be supplied in English, the learn- 
er is often taught to say, that one of these accusatives is governed 
by a preposition understood. It is so common a construction, how- 
ever, that it ought to be taught as a principle of the language. 
Compare § 130 Rem. 1. § 134 Rem. 3. 

7. The accusative of the pronoun is found in this way with 
verbs, which would not admit a similar accusative of the noun^ 

e. g. 


256 SYNTAX. [^132. 

■»— . . . . . ■ ■ . ^1 ■■ . I t II ■■■■ ■■....■ ■ .. ... 

ti x^t§.9t^jiVT^ for what shall I we it ^ 

0V9C olia o^ri qoi xq^iam I kntm not for what J shall employ 

nivra iidutfiovew to he happy in all things. 

226 ^ Rem. S. To tlie two preceding rales are to be referred iostan- 
cee of tlie doubly accusa^Fe, like the following, ivint^i rovg fia^ 
ffdgavg tfjv iv Jkfa^dd'fSpi f*dx^^ ^ conquered the barkarians in 
the battle at Marathon, ra fiiyiata tii<f'eXija6T€ rtiv nohv. noX- 
Act fit i^^lnt^afv he has ir^ured me in many respects^ 

For the accusatiye joined to the passive and middle, see below 
§ 134, 135. 

8. The noun expressifag duration of- time or measure of dis* 

^ tancei is put in the accusative, d. g. 

nokvv XQOvov nagiuBiviv he remained a long time. 
%ttd^tiVTO iv Mamoovltf rgng olovg iiijvag they remained in 

Macedonia three whole months. 
W 7U>lku Moi^evie^ he sleeps the greater part of the time, 
uTUxti 6ixa 9Tailiovg it is ten stadia distant* 

Rem. 4. Certain adjectives and pronominals of the neuter gen- 
der, standing in the midst of a clause and rendered in other lan- 
guages adverbially or with a preposition, are put in the accusative 
case, e.g. 

toitpaptlep (for xo ipavriov.) — oSvog ii^ nSv tovpuvtIov^ 17- 

PovXejQ fc^, Qvvt '^dvparo ^t\ but A^, on ih$ contrary^ witlh 

ed but could not. 
TO keyo/ASvov. — cikk' ^, to heyofiinov^maToniv iogtijg ijxO' 

(JI6V ; but do we^ according to the proverb, come after the 

TO rov notfjTOv &c. — dlXa yap, to tqv noitftov^ agyov ovdep 

Sptidog^ but^ as the poet saith^ no labour is a reproach. 

^ 132. GENfT^VE. 

1, The most familiar use of the genitive with another substan- 
tive belongs to the Greek as to other languages. Those uses of 
the genitive ^e a^ccordingly given here, which are more peculimr 
to the 6Eeek, especially those in which it is united with verbs, ad- 
jectives, and adverbs. 

S. The genitive includes in its leading si^ification, the idea 
of the prepositions qf and from. 

^ 132«] GBinrnvE. 367 

3. The genitive kr used in the Ibilowii^ cases, yiz. 

a) With qptost Terhs signiiyiB^ to 'l^efetU^ to rattain^ to cease^ 

to differ ; e. g. 

mnctkkaxM» thw vivovf t&ftte one from a dh^Base. 

it^yM 7M« ri^g ^alm09tfg to keep otitj^om ike Mtf. 

nttvm^ Tipci noiffav to eeme one toeeiaiofrom hit 4roubU$, 

Xriyeiv rijg &iip€ig to ee&so/rom the ehetse* 

cifAupMv £ddv tofitU (^the tmy^ 

dt^atpigf^v Toip oMotp to differ from others, 

iQ%(*iv dya^og ovdiv dvuqiiQU naxQog aya^ov a good nder 

diners in nothing from' a good father. (With respect to 

ovdtv see § 13f. 7.) 

b) The genitive is used in all expressions implying choice^ ex- 
eeption^ and part^ viz. 

(1) With adjectives and pronouns by which the object is dis< 007 
tingaished from others, e. g» 

fiovog dv&Qoinmv ahne of all men. 

avSilg '£Xhiwwp not one of the Greeks, 

oijp^ovifAOi xmv ttV'd'Qcinoiv the prudent port ^ mm ik md t. 

Toip uvdQoiv TO^g %ttXo7g Maya'&olg algdoitegov i^tk 'd'aviiv 
fj doviiv6w. See also the ajbove mentioned example (6 
130. 5) iv ^ f iv Ttov (fvkcip in which qf the {d^erent) 
tribes, i. e. in which tribe. 

Particularly with all superlativlBS, e^ g. 

1} fuyioTij twp voawp etpaiSsM shamekssness is the greatest qf 

mrifitnoip niptoap zifJimvaTOP iarw optig ipUog avpetog ic 

x«i evvovg. 

(2) In statements of time and place^ given as parts of a larger 
duration or extension, e.g* 

TQig Tfig 'jfifgag thrice daily. 

onoTg Tov iTOvg at what time in ike year ? 

utax ixtJpo iM&Qqv at that point of time, 

no7 yrtg dq)iK6fJifiv to what part of the earth have I come ? (like 

ii6t terrarwn ^^ ^ 
napxa^ov xiig dyogSg every where in the market, 
nog^m t'^g i^Xmlag advanced in years- 

(3) Wherever any thing is limited to a part, as /wtr^or/ (ioi xap 
ngay/Aoixoip J have a>part in the business ; and hence wherever the 
idea Qisomvahat or a part can be supplied^ e. g. 

268 silirrAX. [§ 132. 

I I ■ ■■ I I I ■ I ■■■■■■>ii III I i M i ■ I ,^m^^^ I ■ ■ I I ■ 

adtoxa aq,^ t&v x^f^^'^^v J have given thee of my wealth 

(4) The QOtm expressive of the thiag ecUen, drunken^ enjoyed, 

profited of, in the most general sense, e. g. 

' io'&iuv ^gmv^ nivetv vdatog^ {ia&ietv ta ngea would sig- 
nify to devour the Jlesh^ viz. all of it; and nlvitv iidtoQ 
may mean, to be a water-drinker.) 
anokaviiv rivog to enjoy a thing, 
ovivaad'ai rivog to profit of any thing. 

c) The material of which any thing is made, is in the genitive, 

even if the idea of to make is expressed ; e. g. 

GTtqiavog vfiiHtvd^oiv a wreath of hyacinths. 

ipog ^'^ov nSv nenoirixat it is all made of one stone. ^ 

228 d) Quality x)r circunistance is put in the genitive, e. g. 

divdgov nokX^v itiSv a tree of many years, 

t]v yag cl^Kofiatog fieycckovfor he was of greatest esteem. 

4. The following classes of words also take the genitive, vjz. 

a) Adjectives derived from verbs take the object of the verb 
in the genitive ; e. g. 

from inlatafT&ai ti to understand a things comes ijuoriifimv 

Tivog understanding in a thing, 
from iieraCeiv t« to investigate a things comes ilfTaor&Kog 

xivogjitfor the investigation of a thing. 
01 TtgaHTixol tcjv dixaio}p (from td diuaia). 

b) Words expressive of abundance or want^ value or worthless- 
«cw, e. g. 

[jieai;6$ d'ogv^ov j^ull of cotifusion. 

fieavov iatv to C^v q)QOvtido)v life is full of cares, 

dfTod-a^ XgrjfiaToov to be in want of money- Hence, also, 
when deiG'&ac means beg^ it governs the genitive of the 
person, as d&iO'&ai tcvog to beg any one that — 

a^tog Ti^^g worthy of honour. 

c) V^erbs of the following significations, viz. 

remember and forget^ as gjitfivi^fia^ xov XQ^vqv^ ttg dXxtig 1%$- 

Xav^dvezttt, , . 
care f or ^ admire,, and despise^ as xridtad'al xifvog to care for some 

one^ oXiyo}g£7v^ n^avaipgovuv^ d^avfTaCHv^ &c* 
spare^ (pddeGd^ai ztvog. 
' desire,^ natd6va^o)g int&vfAUv. To this class belongs the verb 

^ 132.] GENITIVE. 269 

eQ^v Tivog to love, with the primitive idea of desire ; hut 
q>iXHv tiva denotes the idea of an inclination. 
ruk^ excel^ (w&Qmmav ag^uv^ i^Sav^g kqclthv^ niQinvat rov 

accuse^ condemn^ vtuxtiyoQeiv^ utarayiyvdoKHv. 

All this, however, is not without various exceptions and limi- 
tations, since several of these verbs may have the accusative even 
In the same relation* 

d) Most verbs expressive of the senses (except of sight), e. g. 
oiitv fivQOJv to smell of ointment. 

vexQOu fAij anxBip&a^ not to touch a corpse, 

Tovg dovXovg iytvae trjg iXev&eQiag, 

ixovoi nuMov xXaloptog I hear a weeping child,* 

e) Especially is the genitive governed by the comparative de- 
gree^ e. g. 

fA^i^mv 4(Jiov greater than L ^*^ 

Goqidtigog lati'TOv dcdaaxaXov he is reiser than hismaster* 
MtiXXiov ipov ^de&g thou singest more sweetly than I, 
dgivfjg ovdip Kt^fici iatif aefAvongov, 

Rem. 2. The more full construction of the comparative is that 
with ^, the Latin quam (see § 150), which, however, is only used 
where the genitive cannot stand. 

5b In the following and other more remote references like 
them, the genitive case is used, although it i^ common to ss^ that 
it is govemied by a preposition, or other part of speech, under- 
stood. ' 

a) The more particular qualification of a genefal expression, 

made in English by the phrase in respect of^ e. g. 

iyyvTUTa ovrcJ ti/jii ytvovg I am very near Aim, in respect qf 
. kin, 
Snaig uQ^ivoiv naldoiv childless in respect to male ojff^spring. 
TtuQ^ivog aSgaia yifiov* 
daavg divdQfav. 

Under this head should be reckoned the g^enitives for which 
cWxa on account of^ is usually supplied, as evdaifiovi^oi ae tou 
TQonov I esteem thee happy on accqunt qf thy disposition* 

h) The price of a thing, where dvrl may be supplied, e. g. 

^Qcixfifig dyogd^eiv ti, to buy a thing for a drachm- 

* anhviiv most commonly governs the accusative of the sound, and the 
j^enitive of that which produces it ; but neither without exception. ' 

270 ^Yur£LX. ' [^ 13d. 

» ■ - ■ I ■ I I. ■ ■ II I. I . I I . m il I i i iiifc 

c) The time wAcn, If indefioHe uiA protiacted, e. g. 

vvxTog^ li^dgag noUiv T^^t»do amtf tkmg 69 nigbt^ by day. 
noXlSv fifUQ^v ov fitfMikhfina I heme not exercised myself for 

many days. 
iKs'iGf ovit iq}ixvi7Ta& irmv fivgiwv he comes not thither in 

ten' thousand years, 

Rek. 3. Verbs signifying^ t» take hM of, goTem the genitive of 
that part by which the whole is taken hold of^ e- g. 

Xupeiv com. kafiea&a^ ziva nodog, X^^9^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^V ^^'^ ^ 

thefoot^ the hand, 
Tiig X^ii^og ijft lead him by the (Air) hand, 
ToV kvKOv zojv 0}T0)v n^mt£ I hoid the wolf by the ears; 
This, therefore, must not be confeanded with la^€w TWuxeiQi to 
seize one with the hand. 

Rem. 4. Sometimes the omissf on of the Idea on which the gen- 
itive depends, is very obvions, as in the following phrases; 
230 tovTO ovx iaT$v avdgog GO<pov this is not the part of a wise 

ov nuwig slvsu nU to he the petrt of eoery one. 
t£v ^nmv isth U is one ^ the mnjusi aets^ k e.ii is unjust^ 

^ 133. uTivs. 

The dative case, the idea of which is properif Ae Feverae- of 
the genitive, is regnlarlj used in all ex]Mre8Bions where the idea of 
approa€h lies at the fbundatian, and in conseqaenee, in most of 
those where we supply the prepositions fi> and /or. E. g. dovvsts 
Tivi, to give to any one^ i%'^gog tiv$ hostile to any one^ Ttil&iO&at 
T0#$ vifto^ to be obedient to tA« laws^ &«. 

2. The dative case is also used in expressions like the follow- 
ing, viz. 

a) Of uniting^ or meetingy e. g* 
OfitkfTv Tivi to associate with any one. 
ftaX^a&ai ttvi tojight voilh any one, 

b) Of equality y e. g« 
Ofioiog Tivk like any one. 

Hence a mivog^esame^ governs the dative, e. g. 

^ ouro^ iqziv 9 avzog iKiUt^ this one is the smme as lAa^ 

And this even when the reference is direct, as 

Tft civToi naaxen oot I suffer the same the same things as thou. 


§ 134.] DATIVE. . . . PASStTE VOICE. 271 

' ? I 

S^ntvg mata tov avtov ^IHgankiT ytvofiBvog, 

c) Of benefit or injury^ e. g. 

JUsvekacf t6v&€ nlovv iaxdXafAtv we undertook this voyage 
for the advantage qfMenelau9. 

3. The dative is also used to express 1) the inttnment^ 2) 
the manner^ 3) the catue^ and 4) the Jixed time^ e. g. 

1) X9^^i^<*i "t^v^ to make use of a thing, 
nazaaiseiv ^ipSeo to strike with a stick. 
Ofjiiktj TttnoirifAivov made with a knife* 
riTQmoiiSTai ^i\e^ eg 701/ Sfiov, 

2) tavra iyivno ztSde tc} tgonw this happened thus, 
dgofiw nci(i'^k{hEP he Came running. 

fifyakfj anovdif navra inpoTTBTO. 

3) fopqi tnpuxTO^ I did itfronafear. 
itafivfiv voaca tivi to labour vnth a disease, 
iXyHv imto suffer pain at any thing, 
zeb-vtjxev ccnonAfj^iq^ he died j^ apoplexy. 
ov /ci^ if^omliii ngottrfa rovto. 

4) jwQffv Tji TQiTt] fjfiBQtf he arrived the third day. 231 
ry varepala trjp fiovktjv ixalpvp the following day they caUed 

the counctL 



1. As in treating vof the DOUD in connexion, the influence of the 
verb in its first and simple form, that is, in the active voice, was 
sufficiently explained ; It remains here only to investigate the use 
of the passive and middle. 

2. The passive, from its nature^ has as its subject in the nomi- 
Qative, that which followed the active voice as the near object in 
the accusative. The subject or nominative of the active voice 
90W becomes that yVom which I suffer ; and hence if it is express- 
ed, the passive voice is followed by the genitive (with the pre^ 
position vno ) of what was the w^ject of the active voice, e. g. 

Act. 0' *^¥$XX€vg meip€&, toV *'JEKtoQa. Pass. 6'*Emmg Ktei- 

Rem. 1. Often instead of vtio^ the preposition iigog is used 

272 SYNTAX. , K 1^4. 

with the genitive, as ngSg dnavx(ov '&egan€Via'&ai to be served by 
all Hagu is also sometimes used in the same sense. 

Rem. 2. The dative also not unfrequently stands after the 
passive voice, without any preposition ; e. g. 

ov yag eig negiovalav ingamxo avrpJg ta T^g nolemg the 
affairs of the city were not conducted by them for their ort»n 
advantage. Demosthenes. 
(AccTtiv iq(iiv navxa noielrat all has been done by ua in vain. 

^ Most commonly this takes place with the Perf. Pass, as xix- 
kotg Xikenxai gov it has been well spoken by thee, 

3. When the active (according to § 131. 5) governs two accu- 
satives, the one of the person and the other of the thing, the pas- 
sive often governs the accusative of the thing; e. g. 

oi naldeg dMaxovrav awg)goavvfjv the children are taught 

aq^aigid'elg r»;v cigxvv deprived of the sovereignty. 

4. 4n such instances, Ihe accusative of the person ia the active 
voice becomes the subject of the passive, and the accusative of the 
thing remains as the object of the passive. Further, the remote 
object of the active, expressed in the dative, often becomes the nominee- 
tive of the passive, and the accusative of the active remains as the ob- 
ject of the passive ; as from iniTgmecv tm 2!a)itgaT€v ttjv diaivtav 
to entrust to Sof^rates th€ decision, we have in the passive, 

^Mugaxrig iniTgenerai rijt/ diaitav Socrates is entrusted 

with the decision. 
Tfjv ^ ix )^eigotip dgna^OfiaL she is torn from my hands* 
diXrog iyyeygaufiBvi] ^vv&i^inaTa. 
vno 7tol€0}g rr^v f^ye/iovlav n^niozevTO. 
Ilgofitj&evg vn durov ixelgeto to ^nag (where mdguv 

means to teat out^ 

Rem. 3. The accusative with the passive in no. A, may often 
be referred to xara understood, in the manner mentioned in 
§ 131.6, as nXi^TTOfiav tfjv x€q)aXijv. — In other instances, the verb, 
even in the passive voice (as in the active, according to § 131. 3,) 
governs an accusative containing as a noun the idea of the verb, 
so that something more definite, as an adjective, may be added to 
it, as TvnTtxai nXriyag noklag, i. e. he receives many^ blows. 

Rem. 4. As the verbal adjectives in xog and xtog are of the na- 
ture of the passive voice (§ 102), they commonly have the sub- 
ject of the active voice in the dative case, according to Rem* 2 
above ; e. g. 

§ 135.J 



TOVTO ov ptjTOv hxi fioi, this is not to be spoken by me, ' 
17 nohg (oq)ehriTia aoi iari^ the city ought to be served by ihee. 

Yet veiy commonly the dative, when it is general in its na- 
ture, ^s omitted ; e. g. 

XvTiog 6 lOMVTog vofiog nal ov* lareog Kvgiog that. 

The neuter of the verbal in rfog^hoth with and without iarlv, 
corresponds to the Latin gerund in dum^ (faciendum est,) e. g. 
ravTu nuvxa noiri^iov /mo*, aUjhif must I do. 
To7g koyoeg nQogexteov zov vovp iottv, 
u^tTfjv sx^tv 7ii iQaxiov. 



1. In explaining the use of the Middle Voice, it is necessary 
to distinguish between Middle inform and Middle in signification / 
for the usage of the Greek language is by no means regular, in 
discriminating between the significations of the Passive and Mid- 
dle Voioes, even in those tenses, which have a separate form for 
each voice ; so that, under the name Middle^ we cannot always con- 
sider both form and signification at the same time. In the syntax, a 
true middle haa always a middle sigpdification with a passive form. 

Reh. 1. This statement includes of course also the passive 
aorist of all those verbs, where it has a middle signification. See 

2. That the leading signification of the Middle Voice is the 
reflective^ and that this arises naturally from the signification of the 
passive, has been shown above in § 89. 1. The proper reflective 
Signification, moreover, is that in which the subject of the verb is 
also its nearest object, and stands in the accusative with the active 
voice, as AotSoi riva I wash any one^ lovg^ai Pass* / am washed, 
Mid. I wash myself, that is, / bathe. So also tineiyx^tp, dniylav^ 
Tivd to strangle any one, to hang. Mid. wniyx^tsd'at, dndy^aa&^xi to 
hang one's self. So dntx^iv^ dnoaxtlv^ to restrain, Mid. dnixiod'ttv, 
dnoax^ffO^ai, to restrain one's self, 1. e. refrain. This true reflec- 
tive meaning of the Middle Voice prevails, however, in but very 
f&oB verbs ; principally in those which express some familiar cor- 
poreal actions like dress, sheer, crormn, &c. All other verbs, n^hen 


I ■ 

274 » SYNTAX. [§ 1S5. 



the raflective sense is to be expressed, require die proDoan 
ifiavvov^ ictvtov Sic. 

3. Tlie reflective sense of a verb may often more coDvenient- 
ly be stated as a new simple intfawiiwe sigmfication, so that the 
middle voice of many verhs becomes aa intransitive; as atiUew 
to s^^ (nMia&4ii$ io send <me*e selfu e. iofoumey ; nwjS4v to put 
to rest^ nawtr&at 1o put one*s self to rest i. e. to cease ; nXot^nv to 
drive about (any one), nkdC^Qd'at to wander ; ^vfajitliv to regale 
any one, ivtax^^o^ai to revel 

4. But, on the other hand, the middle often becomes a true 
transitive verb. This is particularly the case where the active 
voice has two objects ; as ivdv€&p riva xnmvu to clothe one in a 
robe^ Mid. ivdvaao'^ix^ ji^ixSvu to put on a robe (on one^s self.) 
Hence the following rule, viz. 

The middle voice often governs the accusative precisely as 
the active voice governs it ; e* g. 

niQaiovv tipa to carry one over (a river.) Mid. nsgaiovC'd'M 
to carry one*s self over^ i. e. to pass^ which middle verb, thus 
'Signifying actively to pass^ governs its accusative, as negutov' 
nS'iM tijf Ttyi^tp io pass ike Tigris. 

ipoPitv Tivn to affr^kt any one^ (pofitTo'&a^ {to affright one^s 
sdf)^ that is, io fear. Accordingly (pofiuG&m xovg ^lovg to 
fear the gods. 

rlkkew to pbick^ tllXia^m to pluck one^s self^ i. e. to pull out 
' one'3 omn hair ; and, since this is an action of moaming, xiX- 
ha^ul titvu signifies to mourn for any one by tearing the hair* 

5. When the active governs two objects, the middle often re- 
tains one in the accusative ; e. g. 

kvaaa'&ai tfjv Coivtjv to unfasten <me*s girdle, 
kovaaad'ai Ttjy ue^aXiiv to wash one^s head. 
wMtmHfjv 7K)Ua« nuQiamvaiffUiffj ,a4pami iuvtJ^v. 

Among middle verbs of this class also, there are many fiom 
which a new simple and transitive sense arises, as noflC^^^mi n^ 
to procure something for one^s self i. e. to acquire. 

'6. Sometimes, when the acftve ^vems two accusatives, the 

middle retans both, with the addition of the reflective sense ; e. g. 

tchei <fe tovxo I ask thee this (without its being defined 

tKhetber for my own sake or another^s.) 
ahovficti tsi tovto I ask thee this for myself 

<^ 135.] HiDPiiB votes. 375 

7. Id general any remote reference of the action to the suh- 
ject may be expressed by the middle voice ; e. g. 

inox^tsvto I lead through pipes upon or into, lnQ%mvofAai I 

dra» vUo mynlf. 
uXcUiiv zu nwfj rivoQ to wapfor any oni?i n^/ReringSy iHiav^ 

aifAijv 7« TtU'd'fi I weep for my ovon mjfFerings. 
evfAfiaxov nou7a^al tiva to tUake some person oneU dlly, 
ucLTaaxtiaaxs^ai apvXotKag to place guards fi^ oneU own take, 
mQ€iv Tt to raise .any thin^^ tuQiO'&ml tk the same^ hat only 

when it is raised for one's own use. 
iv^laxm I find, ivglaHOfjiM I find/or my ownuse, i. e. / obtain, 

intd^iiyfitvog tiQp itovfjgiuv he laoko has shofmn his own malice. 

8. The middle voice governs the accusative actively, signify- 
ing causation ; thus ttetgofiai I shave myself, but also / Ut myself 
be shaved ; (the passive ntuQ^va^ has only a passive meaning).— 
This too implies a more remote relation ; e. g. 

napatld-ifiai rgmiCav I cause a table to be set before me. 
fLiG'^oo} 1 Ut, u^a^ovfias r^ / cause let it to me i. e. / hire it. 
Siia^aa^ai %ov viov to cause to teach one^s son.* 
9t»Tad$»aaas nva to jcondemn any one, Xttteiixaaafitip aviiv 

I have caused him to be condemned i. e. / have gained a law- 

avk agavMt him. 

ftfeai. 2. The middle voice is often entirely active in Its use 

and sljgnMcatkm, without any trace of the reflective meaaing; e. g. 

anoipahHv and ino^hfa&ai to show, to make evident^ 

netgix^^^ ^^ ^tn^'X^tf&ei^ tojutnish, afford. 

Of two or more meanhigB belongiii^ to a verb, oiie, ihoo^h 

equally active, is often appropriated only to the middle voice ; 

in which case great care otq^t t6 be taken to avoid confusion ; e. g. 

uiQiiv Uptake, ai^sa^m to choose. 

ftiac* 2. The middle voice often expresses a reciprocal or 
mutual action, as povXiViiv to counsel, contrive, fiovleviv&ai to 
take counsel mth one another ; duilvHv to reeoncHe {others), isalii- 
a&eu to he reconciled with eaeh other. 

•*»-*»*«»«»«^*»-^— ^-••— •»<'4— •••"i*— ii*iiw»**"^*«» 

* Hus it perhapa rather a rhetorical tbaa a |;rammatical Qte, We 
say in ED^lish he cuUivaies a large farm, meaning he eautes to euiiiffote ; 
or applying the verb not to the instfumenial bat to the remete perforai- 
ance of the actiois. 

276 SYNTAX. K ^^' 




1. It was observed above (§ 89) tbat the forms, which com- 
pose the middle voice, are generally the present and imperfect, 
the perfect and pluperfect of the passive, and an aorist and fa- 
tore peculiar to the middle. 

2. The aorist middle accordingly has neither in form nor 
meaning any connexion with the passive. Nevertheless in many 
verbs the aorist passive has also a middle signification ; e. g. 

9t9ttaHXhea-&a9 Mid. to lay oneU self down. Aor. pass, xarf- 

xXl&tjv I lay myself doram. 
anakXaTTsa'd'at Mid. to depart {take one^s self away.) Aor. 

pass. cmrilXiyTiv I departed* 

The same holds mntQatovv, (jpofieTv^nel'd'ecv^ KOift^v^ ogey^iv^ 
daHHVn &c. e. g. 

kvaag xtiv nokio^xlav dntjUayfi having given up the siege he 

ptoifJifi'd'tjTi lie down to sleep* 
itfUTenldyij tov Oikmnov he was a/raid of Philip. 
iiaH'^-&tjv rixvriv 1 exercised myself in (he art. 

Rev. 1. In such verbs the aorist middle is generally obso* 
lete or rare. — Sometimes it has one of the significations of the 
verb appropriated to itself. Thus the aorist pass. ataXiivcu is at- 
tached with the medial -signification to atiXX^a'&fu to journey ; — 
whereas ^Mao'&ui^ the proper aorist middle, belongs only to 
GTtXXea^fiti to clothe one^s self or send for. 

Rem. 2. These verbs, even where the signification is a pas- 
sive one, cannot be explained (by §134. 4) as of the passive voice 
followed by an accusative ; for they have the subject of the ac- 
tive in the accusative ; in one of the above e^camples^were. xar«- 
TtXdytjv in the passive, it would be ytax^nXiyri vno rov OiXlnnov. 

3. With the fiiture middle tlie contrary usage holds ; for while 
it is rare that the future passive has the medial . signification, the 

' fiiture middle is used passively in many verbs, as in taqieXaiv^ ofio- 
Xoyeiv^ d(Aq>iapflTi7v^ yvfAvdinvy fpixXiiTHVy anaXXdtxHv^ TQi<fiiv^ 
nfA^v^ dffXovv, £(c. part of which have also a passive future, 

§ 138.] TENSES. 277 


The Second Perfect, or Perfbct Middle as it is commoDly cal- 
led, yibrates in its acceptation between all three voices; a cir- 
cumstance to be ascribed to the intransitive signification, which is 
peculiar to it. — If the verb be an intransitive verb, the Second 
Perfect bears the same relation to it as any other perfect, (as may 
be seen in the catalogue of regular verbs, in the verbs S^aXXw^ 
Mgd^to^ qi^iaaai.) If the verb possess both significations, the Se- 
cond Perfect prefers the intransitive, as in ngaaafa. — In many 
verbs, however, the original intransitive signification has passed 
over into the passive and middle voice (see § 113. 5,) and to this 
signification the Second Perfect therefore attaches itself where 
the verbs in question have the Second Perfect.* — See the follow- ^^^ 
ing words in the catalogue, viz. 

Syvv(4i {break transit.) — Sypvfiai {break intransit) 2 Perf. 

eciya atn broken, 
avoiyw^ uvitoxa^ — ttvoifffftai I Qpen^ avicttya I stand open* 
iy^i^OD^ iyiiyfQHa^ — iyovyoga I wake intransit. 
CA710) cause to hope^ — thnOfAav^ toXna hope. • 
oklvfity oAcuAfxa, — okkvfiai I perish^ Perf. oXtalcc, 
QQvvfAt^ oQvvfJUx^ I Originate intransit. Perf. 0(>(»(>a. 
nd'&oi^ TtinH%a^ — n^l&oi»^atf^ ninot^a trusty and as a near 

transitive, believe. 
nijyvvf**, — niiyvvfiai stand Jixed^ Perf. ni-ntiya. 
giiyvvfii^ — ^liyvvfAtt^ {tear intransit.) Perf. i^^wyu am torn, 
annoi rot transit. — aiinofiai rot intransit. Perf. Giotinn. 
njuoi melt trai^sit — t^xo^a^ meli intransit. Perf. ttrrjxa. 

Rem. 1. In the same way are to be explained the perfects of 
some deponents, as ylyvdjAat y^yova^ fialpofiai fiifAtiva, 

Rem. 2. In a few verbs, the 1st Perfect is sifidilarly situated; 
see in 'iavfjfii ^ndq^vm* 

^ 138. THE TENSES. 

1. As the prefent, the imperfect, the perfect^ the pluperfect, 
and the future, agree in the main with the corresponding tenses 
of other languages, it is necessary only to speak briefly of the' 
Aorist and the 3d Future of the Passive voice* 

278 «nrrAX. [$ 138. 

2. The l8t and 2d Aorist are of coane different forms of the 
same tenses, and differ not in slgnificsition. Few verbs have them 
both, and the 1st Aorist is found much oftener than the second- In 
order to understand the Aorist, it' is necessary to have an accurate 
idea of the other preterite tenses. The perfect tense, then, is 
properly speaicing not an hittorical tense. It does not relate the 
past as it happened, but brings the past into connexion with the 
present (as / know t(, for / heme seen it) ; although this connexion 
is not always expressed, but it is of itself implied in the mind; / 
have seen ti, i. e« I am one who saw it — novo^ at this time, it lias 
already happened.* The pluperfect removes this connected past 
and present time into the past time, connecting a more remote 
with a less remote past time, / had seen it. The imperfect relates 
the circumstances accompanying or attending the past action, / 
236 was seeing it. The aorist differs from all these, Jn expressing sim- 
ply a past action without any connexion in idea, with present or 
any other past time, / saw it. The past or imperfect tense in En- 
glish, th^refor^, is an aorist In Latin the perfect, and in other 
languages the Imperfect, is used to express the Greelc aorist E- g. 

— Hal ixdlivee ju^' iuiDtoS HOfiliHP^ Pyrrhus the king, jmsr- 
neying^ met wrm a dog watching a dead hodif, and comhanded .him 
to be brought along with him. By substituting has met, had met, or 
veds fheeting^ for fnet, the difference between the Aorist and the 
other past tenses will be felt. — So ollyatg ii SattQOv i^fidgasg 
i^evaaig tjv, aal nagtjv 6 nvap' idotv di rovg fpoviag, iitdguftt 
Mat xo^vAaxtf* avwvg, a few days after thet were hold- 

■' - — - -■- -■ - - , ^ ^ - . - - - — --^ _-. ■ ■ , 

* The pure perfect, especially in the Greek, always implies that the ac- 
tion is terminated or has ceased. He who Bays in Greek, ^ I have known 
it,' says that now he knows it no longer. He who says, oJxOV o^xodo-^ 
/Ec«^tt, cotisEderib the hduse as yet st^ihdif^ ; if &e lays, ifHoAci/uiptfa, 
« he leates it undecided, yet usde the same form if lie actvally knoi^ tbat 
it dtauds no loog^ef . 

§ 138.] TENSES. 279 

> I M H ill I -I .1 I. II. .f II. .1 % .. ■ ...- ■ I I ■ ■ I I II. 

tire « rmew, mid the dog Wia Avaamao* And he saw* iht mw' 
dererii and ban torth and REHAnrED barkino at them. 

3. The aorist may be used for the perfect, ^nd eveo for the 
pluperfect, where the circnmstance of tiD(ie is otherwise aufficieat- 
Ij clear from the coDnexioD. It occurs most frequfeoUy for the 
perfect; e- g- Xenopb. Memor. I. 6. 14, Socrates says, jovg 0ft 

0^ /^ai/iixKrc^— ^«^(P;f9/f«^ where the sense obviopsly reqwres 
ibe perfect, x»hich thty have l^iuin b^oie^ 

Rew. I. Elxamples of the aorist instead of the pluperfect ^. 

Xenopb. ^^ her husband was in Bactria as ambassador, enff*- 
t//c Si ttVTOv 6 *Aa(n>Qtog tuqI av^ayi^lttg^^ that is, had 
sent htm. ' , ,' 

2[0i iyivovxo* 

4. ,As the imperfect teose is used to express the limitation of 
civcnmstances upder which the thing related happened, a greater 
or less duration or continuance, of course, is suggested by it. 
Hence the imperfect, as in ntn^vXiuxH of the example in no. 9, is 
used to express a eontimued action, whilst the Aorist expresses a 
momeniary action* In consequence of this difference of slgnifica- 
tioui the imperfect and aorist are sometimes used alternately in a 
narration, the imperfect beii^ introduced so often as the action is 
of a more continued nature, as xovg ftiv ovv mktaotag ide^^vro 
oi pagpuQov {received, a momentary action) mat ifAujiovTO {and 

fc^ht with them, a continued action) infl ^ ifyvg ijaav ot onXlxM 
{yehen the heavy armed Tvere near, a regular imperfect, according 
,to the rule at the end of no* 2) itQunovro {they turned, a momen* 
ftary action), xai oi n^reiatal ev^vs iXnoyto {and the peUastae imr 
inediaiely purpued them, a continued acti<m.) 

In this way the imperfect came to be used wherever an habitur 
at or often repeated action was to be expressed in past time, as Ml- 
loiv KgoTOiPiaTijg ija^i^ f*vSg ngieiif iinoai Milo the Crotonian 
was accustomed to ecU twenty miaas ofjlesh. 

^— ■ ■ II — ■ — ■»- — -■ ■ ■■■-■■■■1^ ■ I ■! -- ■■i.Miiii. ■■■ ■ m^ I — fc ^ 

* IdoiU is here rendered by a verb^ because the English language has 
no Aorist participle. ^ Remained barking,^ because duration of action i^ 
expressed by the Imperfect. 

280 SYNTAX. l^ 138. 

I ______^^ . 

237 Rem- S. This differeoce of the aorist from the imperfect often 
suggests a difiereQce in the clauses, which is easily overlooked. 
Thus the imperfect in 6 xvoiv e^(d(jafi£ nai Kad-vXaxrei avrovs 
implies a continued barking; if it were xa'&vXaxTtjae^ it would be 
as momentary as iltdQuiAtv* 

6. It appears from the foregoing, that the aorist inclines to the 
expression of momentary action, or such as it is intended so to re* 
present, in contrast with some more continued action, in the pro- 
gress of the narrative. This distinction be^lween continued and mo- 
mentary actioi\ exists also both in the present and future. / exhort 
and / am exhorting ; I will exhort^ and / will be exhorting^ differ in the 
same way as / exhorted and / was exhorting. In the indicative mode 
there are no separate forms for this distinction, but in the other 
modes they aro discriminated. There are in fact two views to be 
taken of the other modes, in respect to tifoe* (1) Each has the 
definite time of its own indicative.^ — (2) They are also aoristieal 
as well in the present tense as the aorist, containing (like the En- 
g'lish infinitive) no exact expression of time, and corresponding 
in time as far as it is necessary, with the indicative on whidh they 
depend in ike construction. In this case, therefore, we have a door 
, blc form, without any distinction of time. Thus rvmeiv and rv- 
xpai are equally to strike^ (fiXr^g and qt^li^a^g Equally the subjunc- 
tive thou lovest ; with the difference that the present tense of these 
modes is usually employed for . a continued, and the aorist for a 
momentary action. Thus when Demosthenes says, 

T()tr^i^at>g neffti^xQVToc nagaaxevdaaad'ai (ptjfii deiVj 
eiT avvovg oiiTw Tcig ypciftag i'x * * i', 

he would say that they should immediately fit out the ships, and 
therefore uses the aorist infinitive ; but the state of opinion which 
he recommends by yvtofiag ix^iv, is to be permanent^ and there- 
fore he uses the present infinitive. He continues 

iV ij dia TOv (fofiov — rijavxlav t)^ tj tj nagiddv ravroi tt<jpV' 
XaxTog Xfj (jp&rj that either through fear he wiH remain quiet 
(a continued action), or overlooking these measures^ be taken 
(momentary) unprepared. 
So, too, in the imperative. 

§ 138.] 



n g k a fi fi a V i T e^l e. judge (momentary), while the state of 

mind expressed in the last clause is necessarily gradual in its 

formation, and therefore -7v(>oA«^/?e»'fr«. 

Rem. 3. It is to be observed, however, that this distinction is 
often very slight, conveying only a trifling modification of idea, 
and that therefore there is oflten no^ choice between the present 
and the aorist, and we may say indifferently kf'ye^p and A^lae, Ae- 
ye and A«|oy. For want of a distinction corresponding to it in our 
own language, it is often altogetlier impossible to retain it in the 

6. The participle of the aorist always es;presses past time, to 238 
be rendered either by the phrase after that^ or by the participle 
of the perfect tense having ; though in consequence of the latter, 
it is often equirafent to the present ; e. g. ano^aldv who has lost^ 
i. e. no longer possesses; fAU'&oiv who has learned^ i. e. hho knows; 
^uvmv having died, dead ; oi moovTsg the fallen^ the slain^ &c. 

Demosthenes says, the true author of an oration fuU of just 

reproaches is 6 nagiaxv^^'^S t« *Vy"i — ^^X ^ ^^X^f*/^^'^^S^ ^^^ ^ 
fAeQifivritsag xa dUaia Xhytiv^ i. e. one who has furnished actions^ 
not he who has carefully prepared himself and endeavoured to speak 
what is right. 

Rem. 4. Some verbs in their very sigpai6cation destroy the na- 
tural import of the tenses, as tjno} I come is always to be consid- 
ered as a praeter tense, I have arrived ; S^jti fjKng 17 naXai hast 
thou just arrived, or long since ? So oirofjitti I depart often signifies 
/ have gone^ whereby the imperfect Gjfx^'^^ attains the character of 
the pluperfect. Thus also zinTevv xi^pa^ besides the signification 
of beget or 6ear. has also that of to he father Or mother to any one ; 
and of consequence, this, in the present tense, may have the mean» 
ing of the perfect, as nolXov ae '&i^ijto7g a^tov tintH natriQ. 

Rem. 5. The perfect has also a subjunctive and optative, and 
the future an optative, which are really used, when tiie kipd of 
uncertainty, peculiar to these modes (§ 140), falls in with these 
lenses, as li^t 6 vlog vfvixi^xot. O that my son may have conquer' 
ed' As in most of such cases the modes of the present, and aorist ^ 
are sufficientt, those tenses are used bnly where distinctness re- 
quires it ; and even then it is more common to use the periphras- 
iical form, as neq/tXtjHcig tS and tiltiv. — The imperative of the par- 
feet occurs in the second person only in those verbs of which tne 
perfect has a present signification, as xfxpajr^^, fiffivrioo. ^i^t 
the third person often serves as an emphatic expression, e. g. 


282 SYNTAX. K^ 139, 140. 

I . — — ■^— «— .^i^^piM^^^—i I ■! I ■ I I I .1 ■ . Ill ■■ !■ I I ■ 

pCp ^i TOVTO TitoXfiiicd'io iinuv be U ventured^ i. e« / viU 

ntTUiQaod-ta he it attempted^ i. e. ^do but attempt, ^ 


1. The third or paiiIo*post future la properly, both ia form 

and sig^fication, compounded from the perfect and future. It 

places what is passed or concluded, in the future, e. g. 

ij nok&Tsia rtXimg xejcoa/ut^'a^rae, iav, 6 toiov'^og wuitiv hu- 
ghotit} qvka^^ the city will have been perfectly organized^ if 
ruch a watcftman oversee it; i. e* disponita erit not dispo- 
. fidtfiv ifiol xe»kavaita& I ^U hoot wept in vain. Compare 
^ 134 Rem. 2. 

Now as the perfect often siffnifies a continued state, (as e. g. 

iyy^yQafifiai signifies not merely I have. been inscribedj bqt I 'stand 

on the list^) this signification remains in the third future> e. g. 

ovdilg uarei anovdag fAeTt^yQuqu^aitai^ *^kX* oigrug ^v to 
ngStov^ iyyfYgot\p6Tm^ no one^s inscription shall be altered 
from favour^ but as ecxh was from the firsts so he shaU stand 
inscribed. Aristofh. 

2. Consequently this is the natural future of those perfects, which 

have acqilired a separate meaning of the nature of the present ; 

as XAemtai has been left^ i. e. remains ; XeXeixpiTai shall have been ' 

hft^ i. e. shcdl remain; XHqf^aetai will be left or deserted. So ki- 

nnjfAai I possess^ fAifjivrjfiiai I remember^ x^xrijcrojua^, fisfiv^aofim. 

Rem. 1. Besides this, the Attics employ the 3d future of seve- 
ral verbs in the passive, as a simple future passive. See the ano- 
malous ()Vai bind ; so too nsnavao/Aai^ xfxoipofiai^ &c. 
239 H^^* 2* In some verbs the third future has a peculiar import, 
either (1) It shall^ I wUl^ as ti^axpitai he shall \noi he wUt) be 
buried ; or (S) a hastening of the action, as g}gaCi x«t TUngaJi^ 
tai^ speak^ and it shall be accomplished immediately. — It is on this 
acceptation that the name of paulo-post future rests. 


§ 140. MODES. 

1. The Greek language appears to have the advantage of the 
Latin and of the modem languages, in the optative mode. On 

^ 140.J MODBS. 383 

I .. ■" . . ' 

eomparing, however, the use of this mode with the role given § 
68. 3, it will appear that the optative mode is nearly equivalent 
to the sobjoQctiye mode imporfect and pluperfect tenses, which 
accordingly are wanting in Greek. For instance, in the expres* 
sion of a wish, we. say, ^'had I but that;'' this is equivalent to if 
I had^ the subjunctive imperfect of our language, although the, 
time in reality is present. Hence the following rule is establish'* , 
ed» I 

2. The relatives and particles (except the compounds pf av^ 
which in connexion with the present and future require the sub- 
junctive), take the optative, in connexion with the historic^ ten- 
ses, e. g. . 

ovK i^n or ovn o2ifo, ono^ rganrnftoti non haheo quo me ver- 
vain, / knofw not whither I may turtt myself, 
ovx ilxov^ ovH fjSiiv^ bnot TQanoifiTiv quo me verterem ruM 

habebam^ I knew not whither I should turn myself. 
noLQHiAt, iva ideai, I am present that I may see. 
nag^p^ ivu idoifAi^ I rvas present that I might see. 

3. In consequence of this, the particles and pronouns which 

t ike the indicative mode in sermone directo^ require' the optative 

tn termone obUquo^ e. g. 

ijgitfi^ ei ovtmg ?X0^^ he Ofked^ ifU were thwsi 

iii^i (AOi^ OTi 12 ooog qtipot iig tijv noX^Vy ^^viuq OQtj^fjv. 

Use of £i and av. 

4. For the further use of the modes, it is necessary to under- 
stand particularly the force of the particles il and ay, which alohe 
and in composition are variously employed. 

. 5. The conjunction h signifies if and whether. In either ac- ^^^ 
ceptation it is joined by correct writers with the indicative or op 
tntive, never with the subjunctive mode. 

6. The particle av* can seldom be rendered by a correspond- 
ing Englirti word. It adds an expression of uncertainty or possi- 
6i/%, which not only strengthens or modifies the natural meaning 

* In the epic poets xf', %iv. 

284 stNTAj:. [§ 140. 

of the subjunctiye and optative, but commiinicates itself (though 
with the exception, for the most part, of the present and perfect) 
to the indicative and to other verbal forms. It always stands af- 
ter one or more words of the clause, and is thereby distii^ished 
from the Sv which is abbreviated from iciv. 

7. The particle av is attached to all relatives, and to certain 
particles, with some of which it coalesces into one word, as par- 
ticularly 0T€ — oral', ineidri — ineidav. With ei it forms iav^ 
and is abbreviated into the wholly synonymous forms iqv and 
uv^ which is distinguishable from the iw treated of in the forego- 
ing paragraph, inasmuch as like iav it regularly begins a clause. 
All words of this class attain by 'the addition of av an expression 
oi ponibUily^ and consequently take the subjunctive mode. When 
the clause which contains them comes in connexion with past time 
or the sermo obliquus^ it either remains unaltered — in the manner 
of words quoted ; or the simple particles («i, 07£, intidri^ og, og- 
Tig^ oaog^ &c) with the optative mode take its place, e. g. 

eq>fj naiJitvaij u xi diot or detjaoi. 

8. The Greek language is particularly rich . in the expression 
of hypothetical or conditional propositions. The most important 
principles, in this respect, are the following, viz. 

In every conditional proposition, the condition is either possi- 
ble or impossible. The possible cases either do or do not con- 
tain an expression of certainty i and in the case of uncertainty, I 
either do or do not hold out a prospect of a decision : hence the 
following cases. 

1) Possibility^ without the idea of uncertainty, is expressed by 

hi with the indicative, e. g. 

241 ^^ iffgovrtjoe nal f}GTgayj€v if U has thundered, it has also 

ti Ti i'x^ig^ dog^ if thou hast any things give it. 

2) Uncertainty with prospect of decision is expressid by iav 
with the subjunctive, e. g. 

iav TV ij^co^ei/, ddaofjiev^ should we have any things we will 
gioe it. 


^ I4O4] HODES« 285 

■ ■ ■ I II ■ » I I. ■ I .- '11 ■ - " ■ ■ 

iav tig Ttya rmv vnapxovrmv vofitav fjitj xaKmg tx^$v liyfj^ 
TO£, f(}ag)ead^mj should any one esteem any qf the existing ^ 
laws inexpedient^ let him enter a complaint. 

Here there is understood in the protasis of the sentence, ^ and 

that will appear,^' &c. 

3) Uncertainty^ without any such qualification, is expressed 'hy \ 
it with the optative mood, and in the apodosis the optative with 
«v, c. g. 

li tig tavta ngattoi^ f4iy^ /a av aigpf Ayjo^m, should any one 

do this^ he would render me a great seroice, 
ii tig tavTa xad"' avrai^eTaaeifv, iijQOiav^ should any one 

investigate this /or itself^ he would find — 

Here there is nothing supplied by • the understanding, but ^4t 
is problematical whether this be done.'' 

4) Impossibility or disbeliefs or an assertion in general that a 
thing is not so, is invariably expressed, in the Attic writers, by the 
imperfect tense, either for present or indefinite tiine, with av at* 
tached to it in the apodosis, e. g. 

tl 11 elx^v, ididov av^ had he any things he would gtoe iL 
.Here there is a necessary reservation of ^^ but he has not.'' 

9« When ib this last case both clauses are in past time, the ao- 
rist is necessarily used instead of the imperfect, at least in the apo- 
dosis, e. g. 

ii Ti i'oxiv^ i'dm%€v av, had he had any thingy he would have 
given it. 

In like manner, the clauses may be of different times, e. g. , 

H imlad'rjVj ovK av ^g^daTOvv^ had I obeyed^ I were not {now) 

Hem* 1. All these cases are frequently modified by their don- 
nexion with the preterite, according to the foregoing principles, 
as observation, in the single cases^ will show, e. g. 

xai, H tv ?XOh ixikfvai dovvai, and if he had any things he 
commanded him to give it, 
Here ixeXevae belongs not to the ftpodosis, but to the previous 242 
context ; the optative is used, in consequence of being preceded 
by a preterite, see above' no. 8^ 2, and Sovvai constitutes the apo- 

10. When the phrases and particles compounded with av have 
the aorist subjunctive, they constitute a conditional preterite, and 

/ . 

286 SITKTAX. [§140- 

" ' ■ I ■ ■ I — . _ - ^ . ^ — 


(if the context regard the future) a jfuture preterite, — the Latm 

futurum exactum^ e. g, 

X^V ^J orav (Aiv Tl&tiad-t tovg vo/jiovg, onoiol Tivhg uoi axo- 

you shall have passed them, 
imMv anautu axova^rf, UQlvats, when you shall have 

heard a//, then judge, 
avtti ^ 7ia£aax€vij^iafis7va^ dvin^aera^, etog av jifgiyfym- 

(i,£'&a t(oi/ ij^d-QMv till we shall have conquered the enemy. 

The future lies at the bottom of these constructions, and the 
aorist only has its own preterite. 

11. The optative with Sv is, according to no. 8. 3 above, only 
the apodosis of a supposition^ with |he suppression of which sup- 
position the optative often remains. In consequence, the optative 
is often used in any simple proposition, intended to be represent- 
ed merely as a wish, and where in> English mighty eoM &c is 
made use of, e* g. 

TO amgjiutoeidig iar&v^ ov rig iv itpano, the corpwreal is that 

which [if he wiU ] a man may touch, 
yevono o Hv nav iv rrji fAangt^ XQ^'^'V ^'^ ^^ lapse qf time 

all things may happen, 
i^Siatg av '&€uaaififjp roura gladly would I see tlds. 
akk' ovp, finot ng av — hut^ some one perhaps may say — . 
7aaiff &v ovv rivig inmfAt]Gtiav roTg eigijfitvoig perhaps now 

some fnay blame what has been said. 

And hence comes it^ that this phraseology, by the pioderation 
of language conspicuous in the Attic writers, became used in the 
' place of the most confident assertions and predictions^ e. g. 

ov yccQ av rdye tjdtj yfyiVfjfAtva rif vvvl fiofj^eujt xwkvaeti 
dvvi)'&6if3fiev for what has already happened, we could not 
with the present forces prevent, 

ovii iv (pfvyoig thou canst not escape, 

243 This mode of expression is often used for the simple future. So 

/ too for tjie imperative ; e. g. Xtyoig iv for iUy*. 

Rrm. 2. Every cooditional or uncertain proposition may be 
converted in Greek into an infinitive or'a participle, retaining ctf, 
wherein this language possesses an advantage, which others want, 
of imparting the expression of the Optative and Subjunctive to the 
Infinitive and Participle ; e. g. 

o'iovra^ dvufiax^oaa^ai &v avfiifAi%ovg hgogKiKfiovtfg, they 

^ i40.J MODS8. S87 

think^ they might recover themselves hy aequirif^ allies ; {^ov- 

, tSkXtt a&Q)nw, nokk* av ix^v iirniv^ though I have much that I 
could say, ^ 

01 dtfdifag inOHttvvvPTiS xac avafiionaKOfievoi y av^ ei ololx' 
fioai^^ who would readily kill and bring to Itfe again^ ifihey 
were able ; (Jot otvifiiiuaxovT* uv.) Plato. 
The sense of the Infinitive and Participle of the yutore is often 
also thus expressed ; e. g. 

oJae iativ iva Siydga ip dwfj&fjvai note anetvra ravra ngS' 
|«e^, it is not possible^ that one man should be able ever to do 
all those things, ydvvtj'd'fjval note ^without av must have 
referred to the past. See also the example below § 145. 

After oho'd'ai, ilni^Hv^ &c. this is the common way to express 
the future. 

Rem. 3. The position of av is wholly decided by euphony. 
This is to be remarked, in order that, by observing the connex- 
ion, it may always be brought to the verb to which it belongs; 
e. g. 

idoKH av i^fAiv i^diOjQ navia dianQa^ui. 
Here aV is to be separated from the verb near which it stands, 
and to be joined to dianga^ai^ he appeared to t/^, as if he would 
perform every thing tvillingly (or dian^a^et^v av.^ ^ Thus tovtov 
rov y)tj<piof4aTog nvoot'&tvtog av. el /miJ d\' i^jiag ^dixtivro at /%t- 
aiketg^ i. e. el, to ipfjqfiofia invgoi^ti (without av), oi paoiXiig ij- 
dl%tivt iv (would have been offended), el fjitj di i^fiag (i. e. had 
we not been.) 

vvv de (AOi> domer^nav aae^eiav el naxayiyvotanoi tig ta ngog- 
ilnovta noieiv, here the aV contained in »av belongs to the 
Inf nouly^ i.e. doxel /^oi^ xa2, el tig aat^eiav xatayiyvwoxoi^ 
ra TiQogrjxovta noielv av^ it seems to me also that^if any one 
should accuse him ofimpieip^ he would do right. 
Rem. 4. The particle av often gives to the Indicative the sig* 
nification of habitual performance of the action ; e. g. 

Demosthenes says, no one of the former orators has had so 
great influence in $o many respects at the same time^ aKX' 6 
fiiv y(iaq)wv ovk av in()tapevev^ 6 di ngfofietxov ovx av , 
eyQaq>e^ but he who proposed laws was not commonly an ambas* 
sador\ and he who went on embassies did not commonly pro* 
pose laws. 
Rem". 5. It is a peculiar use of the Optative, when it stands in 
the protasis instead of a preterite indicative, to signify the repeti- 
tion of an action ; ^. ff. , ^ 

oiig fiiv idoi evtttxto)g xal aiam^ lovrag^ ngogekavvmv av- 
tolg oitiveg eiev ^^wr«, xa« inel ixv^oixo, — inijvei^ ' whom 

288 ' SYNTAX. [§ 141. 

- -r - ,_ ij _ - - - _ ■ ■ ■ ^ . - 

he saw^ that is, ' so often as he taw any^ with which the inil 
nv'&oixo coxmeci» itself. 
ingaizev a do^eup avt^ he did what [in each case] seemed 

right to him, 
oaa inegoiT^to^ tu^^ aneuQlvato, what he wa^ asked, he anr 
swered immediately. 
In such constructions, care most be had not to attribute to the Op- 
tative any expression of uncertainty. 

Rem. 6. The Subjunctive is not used aUme except for exhorta- 
tions in the 1st person^ as mfAfv let us go (where in the 2d and 3d 
244 pc^oi^ the Optative would be used), and m dubious questions, part- 
ly with and partly without fiovXf$ or S^fkeig preceding ; e. g. 
n6'&€P ^ovki& agtODfiai ; whence wiU thou that I begin ? 
povkei ovv axonwfAev ; dost thou wish then that we examine ? 
tI noioi ; what shall I do ? y 

nii ^(S ; not tpdnwfAcii; whither shaU I go? whither shall I 

turn myself? 
una) ovv aoi to aiviov ; shall I teU thee the cause ? 
vvv aKOvao} av^ig ; shall I hear again. 


1. The infinitive mode is used in Greek in the same cases as 
jn the Latin' and modem languages, and in various others, partico- 
larly after verbs of sayings believing^ promising^ permitting^ b^- 
ging, &c. 

2. The infinitive is oAen used to express what is expressed in 

Latin by ad and the gerund^ or by the participle in dus, viz, end 

or destination ; . e. g. 

ido}X€v uvto dovkf^ (poQfjaai he gave it to a slave to carry, 
6 av&gwnog iieifvxs qiXfiv man vms formed to love, 
nagd^o) ifdavtov Jgwr^v I present myself to be questioned, 
innov naQelxe tin dvdgi dvajirjvai^, 
^k&ov ideiif ae. 

3. The infinitive is governed by an adjective (or substantive) 
expressing^me^j or ^tta/t/icci^ion, e. g. 

iTintjdeiog noutv rijit to do any thing. 

ov deii/og iar^ ktyetv^ uXk ddvvuTog oiy^v^ he is not powerful 
in speaking^ btii he is incapable of keeping silence. 

ShvuI yvifcuxig evQioaeiv xixvag women are skilful in invent- 
ing devices. 

§ 141.] , iNFiNrtivii. 289 

■ ■ — ' t 

It is also thus employed in a passive sense, wh6re, neverthe- 
less, the form of the active voice is commonly used, (in Latin the 

supine in «,) e. ^. 

^qidiog vorjaai easy to observe {to be observed), 

i^dv anoveiv pleasant to hear {suave auditu)* 

noXig XfJ^Xinri ka^eiv, ^ 

The form of the infinitive passive, however, is not wholly un- 
used ; e. g.. '^Xvq.nv'^Q oif^^vai /eminine in aspect^ as in Horace 
niveus videru 

4. Whenever an infinitive thus qualifying the preceding phrase 345 
or clause, does not admit of a sufficiently obvious connexion, par- 
ticularly in consequence of other words being interposed, it is 
commonly introduced by oigre^ (more rarely coV,) which also, in 

an entire construction, will be found to refer to a preceding de- 
monstrative, e. g. 

7JV di nenaidevfiepoQ oviotg^ £qxb navv ^ifdlmg h^Hv uQ' 

novvra^ he was so broitght up^ as very easily to have what \ 

sufficed him. 
apiXoTifAOrarpg rjv^ wgre navra vnOfH^Tpai tov inuivHO^ai, 

eVfxa, he was very ambitious^ so as to bear every thing fir 

the sake (^ being praised, 
vicirtgol eiatv ij oigre eidivui oXoiv naxigmv imigtivtait they 

are too young to know of what fathers they are deprived* 
oig fiixgdv fieyaXta iixaaai, (parenthetically,) to compare 

small things with great* 

5. The infinitive is used as a neuter substanfSve (§ 125. 6. 1) 
not only singly, but in connexion with phrases provided with an ar- 
ticle, which are thus subject to all the constructions of nouns, e.g. 

TO q>vka^ai tdyaS'tt tov xrijaaa-d'a* ;f aA*7ro»Tf poi' to preserve 
^ property is harder than to acquire it, 
to ftip ovv iniogxov nakilp ttpa, ipiv tov ra ntngayiAiva 

deiMpvpai^ XoiSogla iatip^ to caU one perjured^ voithout show- ^ 

ins his deeds^ is calumny, 
to Xe/np (fig dil^ fAeyiatov iati aijfAaTop tov q>QOPHP ev, 
to niovtfip iatip ip rcjJ jf(>^u^«* fiSkkop ij ip ro> KextTfOd'at^ 

Rem. 1. In this way, a preposition may be used, where other- 
wise only a conjunction would be admitted^ ^'iS\ 

'^&fjpa ig^iips tovgavXovg dtu to ttjp otptp avtfjg noi- 
i7v &(i0Qq)0P Minerva east away the pipesj because they 
disfigured her countenance. 


290 SYNTAX. [§ l4St, 143. 

Other subordinate clauses also m^y be iMerposed between the ar- 
ticle and its ipfinitive, e. g.^ ^ ^ ^ «.* , ^ 
TO dij'oGa y ijdeaig ij i^vx^i dtx^rai^ ravta ixavoig ittnoveiv 
idoxifiaCe^ he recommended properly to digest as much as na- 
ture receives with pleasure. 
Rem-. 2. The infinitive of some short parenthetical phrases ad- 
mits of explanation from the foregoing, constructions ; as from no. 
3, the phrase dnXoig fineiv in short* Thus too /juoi doiuiv means 
Htf / thinks which infinitive, though without rd, takes the place of 
the accusative ; see § 131. 6 and Rem. 4. 


246 1. When the infinitive has a subject, it is regularly put in the 

accusative case. Thus in the infinitive introduce^l by to, e. g. 

' TO dfjiagraviiv dvd'Qwnovg ov d^avfAaarov that men should 
err is not surprising, 
ovdiv ingaK&fj^ diet to ixeTvov fiij nagi7vai nothing was done^ 
because he was not there, 

2. The infinitive is thus construed with the accusative, when, 

after verbs on which another clause directly depends, especially 

verbs of sas/ing and believing^ the subject of the dependent clause 

passes Into the accusative, and its verb into the infinitive, e. g. 

^ol fiv'&aloyoi q)aal, sov Ovgavov ^ifaorevawi ngtizov 
Tov TiavTog^ mythologists say^ (hat. Uranus Jirst ruled the uni- 


3. The subject of the infinitive is often omitted, if it is in any 
degree already expressed in the preceding verb, as dionai oov 
nagafiivHy I pray thee to stay^ avvtineiv pfiokoyw 1 confess that I 
assented^ £q)f] anovddCetv he said that he r»as in haste. In a case 
like the latter, the Latin language, though addicted to this con- 
struction, would prefer the repetition of the subject, dixit SEfesti- 


1. If an adjective or substantive &c. be attached to the above 
mentioned subject of the infinitive, as a farther qualification of 



the idea, in tl^ way .of a predicate or attribute, such adjective or 
sabstantive is of course put in the accusative, If the subject-aCcu- 
sative of the infinitive be expressed, e. g. cp^i^i^ of nfUQCivw, fi d~ 

% If the subject of the infinitive be not thus expressed, an at- 
TEAcnoN, as it is called, lakes pkce^ whereby the afort^said wordi^^ 
of qualification are placed, not in the accusative, but in the same 
case as the object to which they refer in the preceding clause. 

Of this attraction there are two cases, viz. 

1) If the subject omitted with the infinitive is likewise nomi- 
native to the preceding finite verb on which the infinitive depends, 
the qualification must also be in the nominative, as 6 '^k^avdgog 
i(paG%ev eii/M Aiog vlog^ Lat. dikebat se esse Jovis filium ; which 
is also done, though the subject of the first verb is not express- 
ed, e. g. 

IvOfAi^ov ovd* avTOi am'&i^aea'&ai they thought thai they them" 247 

selves would not be saved' 
iqaaxig ilvai deanortjg. 
tuBtaa avTOvg ilvai ^Bog* 

2) If the omitted subject of the infinitive is the immediate or 
more remote object of the preceding verb, those qualifications are 
attached to the infinitive in that oblique case in which their sub- 

* • 

ject is governed by the foregoing verb as its object; e. ^. 

In the genitive, 

iSiovTO avTOv^ilvM uQO'&vfiov^Uiey begged him to be zealous. 

Or in the dative, 

i^f ar^ fiot^ yivta&at ex)dal(AOv&^ which may also be express- 
ed in Latin, licet illis esse beatis, 

anHntv CLVTo'lg vavTuig hvul he forbade them to he navi- 

Ta7g nokeat tovto jiaXkov kvotteXii^ tj Sovlaig otpd-tivai y*- 

Or, finally, in the accusative, in which case it coincides with the 
principal rule, as nikevto ae eivoii ngo^vfiov. 

Rem. 1. The same attraction holds, where the clause which 
contains the infinitive, has the article to before it, e. g. 

TiQog TO avfjKptgov fcJcF* diu TO fplXavTOi ihai they Itoe mere^ ^ 
ly for profit^ because they are selfisL 





t§ 144. 

AriiaoG^ivfig atfivvpetai Tcj» yQuifelg uno^pvyclv Demosthe- 
nes^ is proud in having escapedjwhen excused, 
pv yag tmrnfAnoptai Inl zci dovkoi^ akX* Inl jm bfioiot to7g 
XemofAtvo^g eivai they {colonists) are not sent out as being 
like slaves^ but as being like those which remain behind, 
lip i^fuv ioTi' TO inumtat %ul q.avk(Hg elva^ it depends up- 
on us to be reasonable or corrupt. 
If, however, the subject of the iofiDitive is included in the pre- 
ceding clause as accusative, the infinitive has as usual^ the accu- 
sative with it, as intdet^e Tag noXnaiag uQOfXovoag reji dixaioTi- 
gag elvai he showed that states had the advantage by being more just. 
Rem. 2. Also in the construction with oigte (see § 141. 4) the 
nominative is joined with the infinitive, if the first clause require 
it, as ovdelg rtiXt^xovTog eatm nag v(iiv^ oigte zovg vofAOvg naga- 
fioig (iri dovvai dlnfiv let no one be so great among you^ that^ break- 
ing the laws he ean go unpunished* 

Rem. 3. The infinitive is sometimes used quite absolutely, in- 
stead of wish^ request^ order ; and this, in' the third person, either 
with the subject in the accusative, as yvfivov anfigettf^ yvfipov di 
248 ^ooittiv (where the subject is to be assumed to be the indefinite 
third person, ti ?, though Virgil has rendered' it in the second, nu- 
dus ara^ sere nudus\ — or impersonally, as (a 2^v^ t^yfvta^av fio* 
^A'&fivalovg itaaa^a*, may it be conceded to me. Still more fre- 
quently the infinitive is used instead of the imperative of the «ec- 
^nd person, and in this case the subject and all that belongs to it, 
if expressed at all^ are exprej»ed in the nominative, e. g. 

*^XXd avy alxp u^x*^^*\ d'ioav inl vijag *Ay^amVy EItibIv. 

Stv f aga ri tcii fAijxei novojv ax^fl^ f^y] ifii ahtaai^av tov- 
xmVy blame me not therefor. 


. 1. The construction with the relatives og^ oaog^ oTog^ &c. (of 
which th*e construction with the participle is only^an abridged 
form,) is not used to express connexion alone, but also expresses 
the ground, cause, or other circumstance usually denoted by a 
conjunction, e. g. 

'^CLVfAaaxov noce7g^ og i^filv ovdlv diSmg^ thou doest strangely^ 

in that thou givest us nothing, 
at u^gy€7ai ifiaxdgiCov ti^v fitjrtga, o'mv xivtvoiv itcvgrjae^ 

i. e. OTA TOiovTeDv ttx, invg, the Argvve dames blessed the 

mother that she had such children. 

§ 144.] 



So, particulariy with the subjanctive^ to express design or ad- 

7)antage ; e. g. 

eig KaXov i^fi7v avrog Sis nafeKad'iSeTO^ ^ fAetad£/4^v tijg 
axtipewg opportunely has he sat down by us with whom we 
can share the inquiry, 

2. The nature of the relative construction properly requires, 
that the first verb have a noun, and the second a relative refer- 

vFing to it, and each in the case demanded by the clause in which 

it stands ; e. g. 

ovTog ioTiv 6 av^Q ov eldeg, 

fieridoixfv ijfuv itpLtrtoiv^ oaa nag^v, 

q}iXQp ovK 6)[0), MTivi niatevGtti av dvvaifitjv. 

• But the substantive of the first verb is often omitted, and attach- 
ed to the relative in the second clause, and in tfie same case, e. g. 

ovTog iaxiv^ ov eidsg avdgct. 

OVM aativ^ iivT ivtt ovx ^(^liv clgxv^^ there ds no office which he 

' hath not held. 

Ofleq, when emphasis requires it, the clause so constructed 

precedes, as ov lideg SivdQa^ ourog lattv* 

3. When the noun (either in the genitive or dative) to which ^7^ 

the relative refers, is without a demonstrative, like ovrog or tnel" 

vog^ the relative, otherwise in the accusative, is put in the same 

ease with the noun by attraction ; e. g. 

(leradldoig uyt^ rov aitov^ ovneg avvog ^X^^^ thouimpartest 
to him qfthefood^ which thou thyself hast* 

Here ovne^^ on account of the genitive ahovy to, which it re- 
fers, is in the genitive instead of being in the accusative ovn^Q^ 
which the' verb tx^t^g requires. In like manner the following. 
iZ jcgogqiBQezat tolg (piXotg^ oTg i'x^^^ he treats well the friends 

whom he has* <v «. * - ^ 

irqJ i^yefJiov^ niajevGOfjiev, e5 av Kv^og (^o), for ov av KvQog d^. 
^QatriGag /ueyaAwv x9Vf*otT(ov^ (ov 0* I\'lo)v imtgaji^TO 


Rem. 1. This construction became so prevalent as sometimes 
to remain, though the, first noun had a demonstrative expressed ; 
as ol dri^i>ovQyoi rovrwi/, cSi/ Inriveat^g* 

A* The noun, by which the relative is thus attracted^ is often 
transported into the clause with the relative, where, together 

294 9TIITAZ. [^ 144. 

with the relative, it staodii ia the case goyerned by the rerb od 
which it depends ; e. g. 

fieradidrng avtt}^ bvmp avrogfix^tg altov. > 

ey ngogq^ioetcu^ oTg ix^i^^^o&g* 

anoXavm otv iyta a/ab'oip. 

%gi»fAf¥Qi oTg tlnop nQoatutmig^ ivdmftoing ^aav (from xgtj- 
a&ai npoaTarti to have a magistrate) hcmng those magii- 
trates^ which I have named^ they were prosperous* 

Sometimes there is at the same time an inversion, which sounds 

very strange, as oTg e^^i q,iXoig^ ev ngogq-igira^^ the friends whom he 

hath^ he treats well, 

5. The noun is sometimes wholly omitted, giving to the rela- 
tive the appearance of belonging directly to the preceding clause, , 

e. g. ^ ^ , ^ * ' , 

fiefAVTjfiivog o)p enga^f^ for fxtfivtifiivog tw ngayfiatc»v^ wv 

i-ngalfv, an^ this for a Inga^tv. 
fiiTem'fATtiTO akko atgaxivfiu ngog m ngoo^ev el^i (for ngog 

Tif aigutiVfiaTi^ S ngoad'iv f 2/£.) 

250 And with the inversion, otg i^^ xgoifAoti^ for a ^jfoi, xoiroig XQ^- 

Rem. 2. In one case the nominatioe of the relative undergoes 
this attraetiofu When in an entire clause the nominative of the 
relative oTog would stand with the verb ihai (as nopv lidimg x^- 
gliovrai dpd'gl toiovT(^, oTog av ^ ?, they would gladly please such 
a man as thou aW,^ not only the demonstrative but the verb ^Jpm 
is omitted, and tne relative is then so attracted by the leading 
clause, that together with all the nominatives connected with it, 
it assumes the case of the noun, to which it refers, and is even in- 
serted before it, as navv ijdiO)g x^9*CopTai otm nol apdgL 

Rem. 3. When the relative, by means^f a verb like to be^ to 
name^ to believe, &c. is joined with a noan, in the «8ame case, it 
^conforms itself, in gender and number, to this noun, and not to 
that, which is its proper antecedent ; e. g. 

nageoziv avTM q:6pog^fiv aidoi Httkov(4€v^hehas afear^ which 

we call modesty- 
TOP ovgavov^ ovg dtj nokavg xakovaip. 

Or with omission of the first noun, e* g. ' . . 

uaip iv rt(Aip^ Sg iknidag ovofAaioiUP^ there are (emotions) tA 
ta, which we call hopes. ^ 



1. The Greek language, having participles for most of the 
tenses, makes a far more extensive use of them, than other lan- 
guages. By combining their use with that of the relative and in- 
finitive, many clauses can be interwoven with each' other, without 
confusion ; e. g. 

ixelva fiovov dtil^riii^ a rovg idovtag iqyMO Tt'&'vijxevai, 
Here a is the object of Idovtag^ this the subject of Tf&vtjHtvM^ 
and this dependent on ^yelro : he related only those things^ of which 
he believed^ that they had died, who saw them, 

2. Not only those verbs, which are connected with other verbs 
by relatives, but almost ever^ verb introduced^ in English with as^ 
because, after that, so that, although, (whose subject has been already 
named with the preceding verb) is, with the omission of those par- 
ticles, converted into a participle of the same case as its subject- 
verb ; as ineaxtntofifiv top italgov voGovvra, which may signify, 
according to the context, either, / visited my comrade, who was 
sick, or when or becatae he was sick, 

tdf fieycikw fiaaik^ ov natgiov iariv avSgog dxpoctG'&ai fitj 
7i()ogxvpfjaavTog^ it is not the hereditary custom of the great 
king, to hear a person who does not (or, if he do not) fall ^^^ 
doiBtn before him, ^ 

TO aw/cia GVpi^QfAoatai aoi, fi$Kgov fiB^og Xafiovn ixaorovj^ thy 
body has been composed by taking a stna,ll part from every 

Rem. 1. The participles, which express the ideas o{ after thai 
or in that, in translating both from Greek and Latin, may often with 
advantage be made to precede the verb, with which they are con- 
nected, with Jthe conjunction afu2 between; e. g. 

ovTtadtT rag yvoigiog ^X^t'V, nig, iav tt dtti, nXivaxtov iig tag 
vavg avTo7g i/ipSaiv, 
Here, as usual, the personal pronoun "^f/uv is omitted with nX^v- 
ariov (for avtolg here^ means sehes agreeing with ifipSai, and that * 

with iJ/m7v understood,) and the whole is to be rendered we must 
make up our minds, that we oursehes, if necessary, will embark on 
board the vesseb and sail. 

3. The participle oPlbe future is used to express the force of 
in order to in English ; erg. 


296 SYNTAX. [§ 145. 

ravta fAu^tov 6 Kvgog im/i^ffe tov roD^gvav ino^pofjiivov — 
Cyrus, having learned this^ sent Gobryas in order to see— 

TOV ddiKOvvza naga rovg dmaatag ayeiv del dUfjv dciaovTa^ 
, in order that he be punished. 

Tovg av(Afia%ovg del aojSft^if^ xat rovgiovio noi^Govrag Grpa^ 
ticirag ivniifATiHv^ and to send^ forth troops in order to ejfttt 

4. Certain verbs (which will appear id the examples) goyem 
a participle, Id cases where we should use a verb with that. As 
io other participial constructions, such a participle (regarded as a 
verb) has either the same subject as the preceding verb, and in 
that case is in the nominative, — or it has a different subject, and 
stands with the same in an oblique case, as an object more or less 
direct of the preceding verb. 

a) Exami^les of the nominative, where, as usual, the proper 
subject word may be omitted. 

aiajivvofjiai^ tavra ttoimv or Tioifjaag I am ashamed^ thai I do^ 

or have done this. WhereBS. aia)[vvOfjiai noutv would mean 

/ am ashamed to do this. 
fiifAVtiao ivd'gfanog oiv remember that thou art a man. 
ov Gvptaaav fidrrjv novovvteg they understood not that iHiey 

laboured in vain. 
dia§ip\ti(Atpog ov fiav&ivHg ; discemest thou not that thou 

hast been deceived f 
252 f^y ^ y^9 aviog evdaliimv rfiu yfyopcig noXiviiiji^ in which 

dty he was conscious of having become happy^ — oida yiyovdg 

meaning / know thai I have become. 
oinOTtovfAevog svgiGxop ovdafiojg av akko)g tovto t^^anga^d/ni' 

vog on re/lection I /bund that I could not do this otherwiie. 

IsocR. (§ 140 Rem. 2.) 
Hence too with a passive verb, e. g. 

i^eXtjkfyxTat lifiSg dnaToiv he is convicted of having deceived 

dnfjyyfk'&ij 6 0lhnnog r^V "OXvv&ov nohogHoiv^ it was an- 
nounced^ that Philip besieged Olynthus* 

b) Examples of the accusative. 

ol Tlfgaa^ diafipTj/iovsvovai t^v Kvqov i'^ovza qpvaiv — the 
Persians relate that C^rus had — , from which passively o 
KvQog diafJiPi]/40P€viTai i/oit^. 

oida avpoTaov rtS id ptkriaia einovri I know that tt will re-- 
dound to his advantage^ who shall give the best counsel^ (im- 
personal construction of avfA(f)iQU>) 


» I —-'-■■'■' ' " M ■ I . . I »^—| I,, .1 

c) Examples of the genitive and dative. 

pa&OfAtjif'aVTav oiofitvoiv slvai aoq)(ozut(ov I perceived^ that 
they thought thermelves very wise. 'JSoqxoraTOiv is for ao^^oo- 
zatovg by the attraction mentioned § 143. 2. 2. 
fiijdtnOTi fAmfAtXriat fAOt aiyijaavri^ <f)(^f/^a/4ive^ di noXXaxig, 
it has never repented me, that I kept silence, but t^ften that I 
spoke r (from fi^TafiiXH fioi it repents ffle<; Simontdies. 
ovdiv SiaqtiQit tcf mXimovTi^ fjihya 17 afAixQQv i(f^Xo(iivof, 
it differs not to the thief {ycL his punishment), whether he have 
stolen little or much. • ' 

Rem. 2. In such verbs as have the reflective pronoun, as avv' 
otia ifjiavt^ I am conscious^ this participle may be in a twofold 
case ; e. g. 

isivotdu ifiavtt} (roqpoV ^y* Plato. 

aavTM avvtidHS d^KovvTi, Demosthenes. 

iavTX}v ovdtlg ofAnXoyH xmttov^yog oiv. Gnom. We might also 

say HctHOvgyov ovra. 
Rem. 3. Also the verbs, which signify the cessation of an ac^ 
tion, have a participle, where we employ the infinitive ; e. g. 
inavaate xtVTOv (fTQuttiyovvra ye have made him cease to be 

jgeneral. . - . ; 

01; l7ji(a y^algoiv^ I wUl not cease to r^oice* 

Rem. 4. The participles of the verbs, from which a nominative 253 
depends, as ; i^ae, xaXttG^ui^ change this nominative commonly 
into the case in which they stand ; e. g. ^ ^ 

Vfjuv Si ovaiv 'A^rivuioig ov ngine^ to you, being Athenians^ 

it is not becoming' . ^ ' 

InoQiiovto did roiv MeXitfOtpdyfov vtaXovfAtvoiv Bg^nmv^ 
where, in resolving the phrase, Sg^Mg is the subject of 
^ KVLXilo'&qii. ' 

Rem. 5. Sometimes that which in signification would be the 
chief verb, is made a participle, and depends on another verb, 
which itself talces the place of an adverb; e.g. ^ ^ 

rvyxdvHv {happen) ; mg di ^X^op^ mxev oinitav\ as I came, 

he'happened to be going. ^ , . ^ 

Xap^dfHv {to be concealed) ; xavra nottjaag iXa&iv vntHqiV" 
yoiv having done this^ he escaped unperceived ; or In respect 
to the subject itself, tov qovia Xoiv&avH poifxmv he feeds ufi- 
consdously his murderer ; tXa^^ neaoi^ he fell unobserved* 
qy&dviiv {to anticipate) ; iqf&tiv dqieXoiv I took it away just 

before. ^ 

diat€Xe7v {remain) ; ditniXn nagrnvhe continues to be present. 
Xalguv (rc/otc«) / xalgovoiv inaivovvtig they gladly praise. 


298 SYNTAX- K ^^^' 


1. In the foregoing^ rales, the participle has depended on some 
of the nouns belonging to the leading verb of the sentence, and 
has been,' of consequence, in the same case as those nouns. If a 
new noun be introduced as a e^ubject, it is put with the participle 
16 k case fnclep^ndent of the verb, and called absolute- 

2. The most commoti instance id that, where « noon and par- 
ficrple are put absolute ib the genitive. The original force of the 
genitive absolute was an expression of time, according to § 132. 
5. 3. Now, as vvxrog means by night time^ so also 

ifnov tta'&svSovtog ravta lytvlko means at the thne that I slept^ 

this happened. 
nivTMP ovv ai(an(avt(av elnerotadf while all men were silent^ 

he ^pdke its follows* 
/U«r^ vavra HvfjidivoivTO^ ^9fj xov UeXOnowtjataxov noXifiov 

i'neiae xov d^/iov^ KaQKVQalovg inootiiXat fioi^&ffav. 

Rem. \, U this duration of time is ascertained by a historical 
person, the preposition *7ii is often used with these genitives. 
Thus inl Kvqov ^aailtvovTog^ Cyro regnante^ in the reign of Cy- 

3. This construction is adopted not only to express time, but 

every idea expressed in English by if, since, because, in that^ &c. 

e. g. ^ 

254 inMHfitvCDV di twv nokefiimp t^ nolii^ hfjiog ijutero rmv 

'Pwfiuloiv while the enemies besieged the dty^ famine assailed 
the Romans. 

Tiikvi^HOTog Tov patsikifag t(o vltS aviov ivervx^ inasmuch as 
the king luas dead, he applied to his son, 

d^iov didovrog^ ovdiv iajivei qrdovog^ if a god grant a gifi^ en- 
vy prevdileth not. 

TOVtOiv ovTtag i'ji^ovTfav^ ^iXrvov iarai ne^ftivew^ since things 
are thus circumstanced^ it will be better to wait. 

Rem. 2. If the noun be obvious froiii the cont^t, the partici- 
ple may stand by itself^ in the genitive, as na^ovra toif i^yffiova 
^dovvTO^ dnovTOg tifi i^mkyaivov^ where there Is an omission of «t5- 
t6v with anopfog when he was absent. The same holds of imper- 
sonals, as vet it rains, vovrog as it rained. 

Rem. 3. In certain cases, nominatives and accusatives absolute 
are used. With such impe]:8onals as iiiariv it is permitted^ ngi- 

^ ri j,_ ■-■■- ■ni— TTB— r^— -■--r mr g-T-w-f-jl timbii „ 

T^i^itu hwrni^ (see ^129 Rem. 3), the absolute .case is aitrays 
the noiDiDatiye or accusative of (he neuter participle, e. ^. 

ditt zl fitvug^ i^oi/ inuvui^ why dost Aou remain^ w^en it is 
lawful to depart ? . 

Rem. 4. Datives absolute are also used, particularly iu state- 
ments of tlme^ e. g. 

niQuavtv Ti^ iif&avTf^ nakiv (pctivovat q>QOVQuv iid tijy ^Hkiv 
a9< the YEAR elapsed^ they make another demonstration agairfit 
To this rule may be reduced such datives joined to the verbs 
fJvai^ or yiyvsa^at', as these, viz. * 

i'i GOV f^dofievca iail if it be agreeable to thee. 
u aai, fiovXofAivij^ iari if it be according to thy wish. 
Rem. 5. When a^ expression iDc|icates a reason in the mind of 
a third person, why be does a thing, this is commonly done with 
the conjunction oSg or oigneg^ and accusatives or genitives abso- 
lute,-e. 5. ^ ^ , » . . , 

iaitona^ tag nivTag ^idorag or nivToav ildotfav^ he Jid^ his 

peace, because all knew &c* ' 

ot natipfg uoyovai rovg vlng dno xotv novngcSv^ av&QfaiKav, 
oSg TTjv Tovitav ofiUiav didXvaiv ovoalf agti^g, fathers re* 
strain their children from bad men, as intercourse with them 
is the destrfiction qf virtue, 
in&x£kiV£& fiovatxij.p no^tv, oSg q)iXoaoiftug i^fyiaTijg ouatjg 

T(ov idiXqimv afiekovd^v, (SgniQ in rovrmv av y^^vofiivovg 
ijpilovg, they negkct their brothers, as if no friends cotdd be 
formed from tkem, 



§ 147. ADVERBS. 

1. Adverbs derived from adjectives, especially cemparativeci 
and superlatives, govern the same case as their adjectives ; as 
d^lfog ijfiwp nolifiiiaofiiv we Tmll wage war worthily of ourselves / 035 
ftaliara navrmv most of all ; oi nivfing rtSv ivdaifjiovtav fiSXXov 
divarai, ia'&luv te xal nud^fvdup better than the rich. See § 132. 

4» e. . 

2. Adverbs approaching the nature <tf prepositiqns, govern the 
case of the preposition which they resemble, as OfioS and offia tth 
gether govern a cjative, (like avv with^^S and are sometimes used as 
adverbs, sometimes as prepositions. Thus all prepositions may 
properly be called adverbs. 



[^ 148. 



Adverbs of time and place in like manner govern the gewUhe; 
as ifyvg near {iyyvg tivo^\ X^Q^^ apart^ without^ dl^a twofold^ <e- 
parate^ vnihout^ evd'v obvianij iowards. 

3. Other adverbs are related to verbs and whole sentences, and 
in this way connect two sentences ; especially the relative adverbs, 
as nagioofAav onoza nekevang I shall be present^ when you command 
it. This is the origin of conjunctions, and strictly speaking, ev 
ery particle connecting in this manner, should be called a con- 
jtinction, especially if it has an influence on the verb (like that of 
the preposition on the noun), and according to circumstances gov- 
erns a mode depending upon^ it. Thus axQi' or ju^/p^ and t(og gov- 
ern the subjunctive or optative mode, when uncertainty is express- 
ed, as nsQiftiVM e(0Q or f^ixQiQ av eXd-ri till he come ; but ^hen 
certainty is expressed, the indicative, as noitjoop tovto twg tt^ 
a^fOTi do this so long as it is still lawful. 

Remark. IlXfjv signifies except^ and may be connected with 
phrases, as nl^v h except if. It also governs the genitive, as tt^i^ 
navv oUyojv with the exception qf very Jew* 

4. It has already been observed^ § 125. 5, that particles joined 
with the article become nouns. 


1. The following are the most common prepositions, express- 
ing the most general notions of place, viz. 

oyr/, CC7I0, ij^ (ix), ngo governing the genitive 
«V, avv (|iif ) the dative 
ivoty eig^ oig the accusative 
#««, xata^ VTitf) the genitive and accusative 
aju^)/, £771, jucTcr, nagoi, negi^ ngog^ vno the genitive, dative, 
and accusative. * 

2. Those prepositions which govern different cases, aqswer, 
for the most part, to the question whither with the accusative, and 
to the question where with the dative. The genitive admits of 
various significations, though more or less connected with the idea 
out of, from* 

§ 148.] 



Rem. V, Of the forgoing prepositions, the easiest and dmplest, 
in respect to meaning, are Siese, viz. 
«7io, from^ ii, out of 

eig to or into^ in answer to the question whither ? 
iv m, in atiswer to the question where ? 
^ TiQO before^ avv voith. 
For most of the significations which' these prepositions hear, 256 
(with the exception of some peculiarities which the course of 
study will teach,) admit of being reduced to the leading idea here 
assigned to them respectively ; as when i^ implies the reason and 
is rendered on^account of e. g. 

ix TOVTOv on account ofthat^ {therefore). 
Or when it signifies mere sequence of time, e. g. 

vvv yikwfiiv ix jmv ngoo'&iv daxQVtav* 
So when iig^ like the Latin {», has the force of against^ or merely 
indicates reference or relation, e. g. 

twp tig noXifAOv iniGTvjfjKOp itnlv. 
Or finally, when ngo has the force of the Latin pro or the English 
in behalf of^ e. g. 

d^axivdvveviiv ngo aaiXfoig, ' 

In all these cases the connexion of the modified meaning of 
the preposition with its original signification is obvious. 

Rem. 2. On the other hand, the following are more arbitrary 
and difficult to remember. 

« ^ Avi signified at first on^ (comp. ceyai and its compounds.) But 
its most common signification in prose is tn, upon^ through^ under- 
stood of sotne large space or time ; e. g. 
ava jtaaav rijv yijv in the whole earth* 
V fVi*V ^A^«v «»'« Ti^v nokiv the report prevailed through the 

whole dty, 
oi ava to nsdiov those throughout the plain, 
ava naoav tijv fi(if()av throughout the whole day, 
*jivtl^ as a single preposition, has lost its original signification 
of against (see Rem. 8 below), and most frequently signifies in- 
stead^for^ m the ideas of change^ exchange^ purchase^ value^ &c. 

Aia tov^ through^ spoken of space and the means ; dia tov^ dn^ 
eiccount of; e. g. 

did Aaxidai(AOifiovg etpvyov they were banished on account of 

the Lacedemonians, 
did ai ^Id-ov I came on thy account* 
Aid with the accusative also expresses through^ when it signi^es 
cause ; e. g. 

did tovg S'eovg fv ngdtto) through the gods I am prosperous. 
Mitd tov, after {post) — (leid tov, witff — find rco, only in the 
poets^ among \intery 

'Afupl and mgl tov signify about ; which lies at tha j>ottom of 
all merely approximating specifications, e. g. 

302 SYNTAXf [§ 148. 

afiq>l rd ogij iyivtjo he vmi akM ihfi fnfimtains* 
For the idea dfjiq!l or n€gt tl or ^t'tfd ix^vv or elvat^ to belong to ov 
to be occupied about somethings see below § 151* 

ITegl ro), with the ide^ of care /or somethingj is attached to 
verbs of fear ^ anxiety ^ confidence^ or con^nlion. ^fitfi and ntgl 
Tov signify qf (rfc), concerning^ (as to speak of.) So too q>o0€7ad'at, 
f$kop€ine7v mgi tivog. '^(^.qii, however, is far leas common than 
m^i in this sense. 

' Tnig roV, oroer^ farther ^ beyond, {supra^ ultra,) — vnig tov, over, 
* above. This last receives the modified meaning of instead, in be- 
half of, particularly in a sense^of defence, care, e. g. 

ngamiv, einuv vnig tov KOivQv, to act, to speak in behalf of 

the public, 
dno'&avstp vnig tov q)lXov to die for his friend. 
257 Rem. 3. That the genitive inclines to the Idea oSfrom, depar- 
ture, inc. is- plain from naga, ngog and vno. These prepositions 
with the dative and accusative retain their peculiar significations, 
but with the genitive> they are all three most commonly to be 
translated hjfrom. The following instances of their use deserve 
particular remark, viz. 

nagd tov, to; but in answer to the question where,' near or 
next to. 
Besides this it has the signification of the Latin prater, besides, be- 
yond ,^ e. g.^ 

fX^tv oipov nagd tov Sgtov besides the bread to have meat. * 

inovn nagd tovg alXovg he laboured more than others. 

tarn a tGti> nagd tovg tmv ^i£v •&eof40vg this is against the 

divine la'ms. 
nagd do^av against expectation, (praeter opinionem.) 
Ttagd im means simply with ; — nagd tov means from, after 
I Terbs signifying come, bring, receive, karn, &c. and sometimes af- 
ter the passive. 

JTgog, to, with, has the accusative rather in answer to the ques- 
tion whither, and the dative in answer to where; ngog tov more- 
over, means against in evei^ j^ignification ; Tigog tov on Uu part of, 
after verbs signifying hedr, receive praise or censure, and often^after 
the passive. It is also used in obtestation, as ngog t£v ^amv by 
the gods. 

'Tno tov under, both to a place and in it ; vnO tff under, in a 
place ; vno tov from, after passives, and actives involving a passive 
^ense, as niaynv. So also 

'&avHv vno t^vog to die by means of. 
fiU'd'iiv vn dvdyKfig to be taught by necessity. 
Even actions may in thi$ way assume a passive form, as inoltjae 
Tovto vno diovg from fear. 

Rev. 4 The greatest attention is due to the prepositions inl 
and xfxra,%rith respect to which, though observation of t;he single 

§ 148.] \ PREPOSITIONS. 303 

cases of their use must be resorted to, the following principles 
preyail, viz. 

'Enl has for its leading idea on ; and in answer to the question 
whert most commonly governs the genltiVe, though sometimes 
the dative, (as e<jp'' irntov oxdtf&ai and KvgDg iq>' inn(» inopsif* 
to) ; in answer to the question whUhtr^ the accusative, (as inl Ao- 
qiov Tiva xttTtttpiv^^ he ftie$ to a oertain hill.) But at the same 
time it is applied m a more general sens^ for at or in, and, in an- 
swer to the question whither^ for towards or 4o, whenever the cop- 
nexion of the sentence sufficiently indicates the more exact idea 
of these expressions ; and with the accusative it particularly de- 
notes a certain direction to or towards. But besides this^ it gov- 
erns the genitive s^er the question whither^ meaning t^wardsy to, 
e. g. ^ 
> ino&fvovTO inl Uugdtwv. 

avtjyovTO {they saikd) inl rtig Xiov. 
UntnXtvaev in oiftov. 
*£nl Tov often fixes a time by a cotemporaneous person or thing, 

iq> i^fAoiv in our days, 

inl tUv i^fiSTiQwv nQoyovwv* 
*Eni TcJ, in denoting place^ signifies hard by, e. g* 

inl Ttj ragjgo^ on the verge of the ditch. 

nvQyovg inl rqi nototfi(a o^xod6f46i. 
It also expresses in addition tOi^ like ngoe^ e. g. 258 

ini niot tovtaig nktiyig iviwvh fioi. 
Very often it expresses design and condition^ e. g. 

nagccaxevdiead'ai inl tivi to prepare one'^s self for any thing. 

in inaipc^ novop vneSvero. 

inl toinoig ngrivfiv inoiiitravTO on these conditions they made 
peace. ^ Compare below § 151, fV *]?• 
Finally inl re! expresses power^ in such phrases as 

i^* rffiiv iari it is in our power. See § 1 43 Rem: 1 . 
The accusative also often expresses the design, the end, but 
with a distinction like the following, viz. 

ikd-uv inl revr^i to come to effect this. 

ikd'eTv inl roi;ro to come after this (i. e. to take this). 

Kati. TBe leading significa^tion of this preposition, (as appears 
from the comparison of xaroi and the compounds,) is from ; with 
the genitive down from ; e. g. 

xar« Tfwi' neTQOiv ^intetv Tvvi to cast one down from the rocks. 

rjkXovTO xatd tov Teixovg. ^ 
More frequently xara tov occurs in the sense of to, against, chiefs 
ly with verbs signifying speak, think, &c. e.^. 

ttnslv TO dXfj{^ig xard Tivog to speak the truth against any one, 
Kord TOV, spoken of a place^ expresses the being in a place, in the 
most general sense, without more particular specification, e. g. 

. \ 

304 SYNTAX. [§ 148. 

xara y^v xal nara d-alatTav by land and sea. 
ol %aja Ttjv 'u^aiav vno fiaaiktl ovreg those in Am svi^tti to 
* the king, 
Kata Tov expresses therefore every modificatioD of tinie^ place, 
aqd relation, resultlDfi^ from the ideas themselves, e. g. 
oinoSoi xara Koi/uaff they dwell in viUages (vicfitim) 
ianTii^ovv viaxtt id^ag they encamped in divisions. 
ravTtt flip iyipcTO naid jijif voaov this happened during h 

xaid tetvTijv xfjv diaqfogdv ovtoav AanBda^fAOvltav ngog tovg 
'A&fitfuiovg the Lacedemonians being at this variance M 
the Athenians. 
al xara to adifia ijSovixl corporeal pleasures. 
' xaro Tiavia xBtgvxfovxat they are in every thing exhatated. 
Very often is xaxa used to express the Latin secundum^ accord' 
' ing to^ e. g. 

xara tovrovrop loyov cifiHvov ionv ovtQ}g accordwg to tMi 

diiconrse il is better thus, 
xard Ukaxfova according to Plato. 
KocTci XTjp xd'&exop according to the plumb-line, 
^ no^tjaco xatd xa xov ^aaiXecog ygjafifiara I wUl act according 
to the rescript of the king, 
diofiai avxov xaxd ndpia xgonov I have need of him in mry 

Rem. 5. The preposition cig must not be confounded with the 
adverb or conjunction dg. It signifies <o, in reply to whither? and 
always refers to persons ; c. g. 

eigtjX&ev cig ifjit he came in to me. 
369 dt/ijX'&fjaap (ag ffaaikt'a they travelled to the king. ■- 

This preposition never enters into composition with a verb. 
■ Rem. 6. The CfV3e after the preposition is sometimes omitted; 

'when it would require to be repeated from what precedes; the 
preposition thus used stands adverbially. In prose the Greek lan- 
guage permits this only with n()6g^ as xal n()6g.ng6g^di^ mof«o- 
Dcr, and further^ besides. 

Rem. 7. That prepositions in the anastrophe^ that is, with 
change, of acqent, sometimes follow their case, and sometimes 
stand for the compounds with ehat. has already been observed 
above in § 1 1 7. 2. 

Rem. 8. ^Prepositions in composition ^have in general their orig- 
inal signification. The compounds of dpi l^ however, have mostly 
the signification against^ as apxtrdxxfip to array against^ antkfynv 
contradict ; those of dud to ascend^ and those of xaxd to descend^ ^ 
avafiaipeip^ xaxuPaii/^eiv, 

Of significations more or less remote from the primitive mean- 
ing of the word, the following de.Serve remark, viz. 


4 ^49.] NSOATIVBS. 305 

Uf*q)^ with the idea of two iidu^ as 4fi(plfioXo9 equwoeoLf ififpl' 

arofAog openmg on both M^. 
dpw ffl^aiM often back^ as dvankeTv to sail back, 
dka* acquires the idea of the Latin c^, apfiri^ as iiaan^v to 

mnd^^ ^iM^ivf^ifVpai disjungere^ to separate. 

xata- most freqaestiy has the idea of eomphtiouyzs xara- 

. ngitjuv peifieert^ to aeeompHsh^ to fulfil ; tsxgiqjiw to itim, 

Maraar^'^iv to turn around ; miAngivut^ to bum^ xaraiiifi-' 

npdvai to consume. Hence it has come to express the idea 

of destmetion^ as natanvfitveiv ■ ztjp ovalav to vmste a. for" 

^ tfsne at dice. In both cases it coi^esponds to thci Latin /?«* 

in composition. 
fiiTa- is used to express the idea of change and transposition^ 
/ (the Latin trans)^ as fietafi&fidCHv to bring to another place^ 

fiezuvoelv to change opinion^ to repent, 
naga- from its signification of pra£tei^ in some compounds im- 
plies failure^ and falsity^ as* napaPalvnp rovg vofiovg to 
break the laws^ nagogqiv (o overlook^ nfigianopdo'g a violator 
qftruce^ {ifnovdal^ 

§ 149. NEGATIVES. 


1. The Greek language has two simple negatiyes, ov and juif, 
frqm which all the more qualified negatives are formed ^by com-, 
position. Every proposition, however, containing one or more of 
these qualified negatives is, in general, affected in the same way 


as if the simple negatives only, of which it is compounded, occur- 
red in it. Every thing therefore, about to be affirmed of ov, holds 
equally of oi^d^V^^^^'V) ot^^ttf<<u^) &c. and the same with respect 
to /U7?, fiydtlg^ &Lc: 

2. But between ov and fjiii and their respective compounds, 
there is a total difference of use, which requires for its compre- 
hension an exact observation of the classical writei:? ; but of which 
the foundation is as follows. 

a) Ov is the direct independent negation, which utters, without 
. reference to any thing else, the judgment or decision of denial; 
as ovx i'&Jko) I will not^ oq q.iko) I love not, oi'x dyw&iv iattv^ ov- 
diig nagtjv &c. A direct negation of this kind can never be ex- 
pressed by f4i} or its compounds^ Such a denial may, however, be^ 260 
expressed as uncertain, as ovx Sv fiovKoifiriv I would not x»ish; or 

39 ,. 

30(5 SYNTAX. [§ 149. 

it m^ij be interrogatlTely expressed, as dia ti> yuQ ov niQeiJT& ; 
why is he not present f 

b) ill/17, on the other hand, is UDiformly a dependent negative. 
It is therefore used in all propositions where the negation is repre- 
sented not as a fact, but as something dependent on the concep- 

.tion of a subject. It is accordingly the necessary particle in neg- 
ative conditions and premises^ as ov kiixffofiui^ ei fii] av nekfveig. 

. And thus fii) is always used with h^ idv^ ^p^ orav^ inadiv^ Icoff, 
^1^, &c* since all these represent a fact, not as such, but as a 'sop- 
position or assumption. On the other hand £7r«/, intidri^ {since^ 
after that)^ take ot;, because they always refer to - actual facts, as 
fiii fAS MTi7v\ ind oux 6fioyaGTQio$" EmxoQog Hfii^ kill me not^ as 
I am not the bf other ^ Hector. Homer.. * Dependent also is every 
* proposition implying design; and hence fifi is used after iva^ eag, 
onottg^ oigie^ whenever these particles have that import. 

c) Mv^ without any such particle, and standing by itself, ex- 
presses design, voish^ prayer^ prohilfitionj in cases^ where the Latins 
use ne and not non^ 

d) In the multitude of cases, in which ftij is used after relatives, 
with infinitives, and participles, it is commonly easy to point out 
the dependent or conditional character of the negation. 

3. When /U17 expresses a wish^ it has always the optative, aa 
fjtfj yivotTO^ fdtj idoig tovzo. In negative prayers and commands^ it 
takes the present tense or the aorist, according as the action is 
conceived of as permanent or momentary, (which however is often 
arbitrary', according to § 138. 6.) with this rule, viz. That with 


the present it takes only the imperative mode, with the aorist only 
the subjunctive^ as fiti gjie paXke^ or jut? /uf Palrfg. 

4. The expression of a fear, which is positive in English, is 
made negatively in Greek as in Latin, dtdoixa fjitj ti Tnx^ij, vereor 
ne quid ticddat illi^lfear lest somewhat befal Attn* 

It is obvious from § 140. 2, 3, that this subjunctive in connec- 
tion with the past time and in dependent clauses passes into the 

Rem. 1. Sometimes the verb, which expresses the fear or the 
warning, remains in the idea, and /ut^ in this case makes of itself a 
proposition, e. g. 

fit] TOVTO aAAcoe e^fi I fear hst Ms be otherwise, 

5. Mti is oft^n only an emphatic particle of interrogation (whose 
^ negative quality is extinguished), somewhat stroi^r than /uwly, 

^ as ^92 ^ox^r oot TOVTO elvM evtjOeg ; does this seem to thee foolish f 


• ■ 11 

On tbe other haad, oi; is the negative question, when the asker 
wishes to be understood as affirniing the proposition ; as ov xa2 
nakov ioTv to ayad'ov ; iinot the good also fair ? This question ex- 
pects ^e^ in reply ; while 'the question by fci^ commonly expects 

6. When to a proposition already negatived^ other conditions 
of a general nature are to 4>e attached, such as ever,' any body^ any 
where^ it is usual to do this by compounds of the same negative 
term, e. g« / ' . 

ovn inolfjae tovto ovSafiOv ovdelg no man has any whiere dont 

this, ' ^ 

rakka reivufj oviiav ovdsvi ovdafiy ovSafjitxlg ovdi/ilav xo«- 

voivlav tx^i', Plato* 

Thus also to the negation of the whole is attached, In the same 
jsentence, the negation of the parts, e. g. 

ov dvvavai ovt ei kiynv 6vt €v nomv royg (plkovg. 

So that two negatives do not' (as in Latin) cancel each other. 

On the contrary they strengthen each other. 

Rem. 2. To this last principle there are some exceptions de- 
derying of note, as the phrase ov^dg ogrig ov {nemo non); e* g. 
ovMs ogng ov noir^OH nemo non fadet^ there vt no one who 

T^tii not do this* 
ovSevl ov(o ovH uQiGnei nemini nonj)lacet. 


1. The use of the particles in Greek is so various and in part 
80 difficult, that the most important will here be. given. 

01?, as a relative adverb^ has the following significations, viz. 
1) etf, so c», as if; hence 2) of time, as oiV di ^X'&ovj ov 

^ na(iriv as I came^ he was not present. 3) It strengthens the 
n«/>erZa^tTc, particularly in adverbs, as cSg Tax^OTa ^as quick as 
' possible^ and <^f some adverbs, tbe /xm^e, as eig aXtj^oig cer- 
tainly. 4) about^ hb dig nfVTi^novTa about Jifty. ^ * .^ 
As a eonjjunction^ it signifies 1) theU^ Bd'navng 6fioXoyoi> 
fiiv^ mg 17 uQiTi^ Kgauarov iazt, 2) in order that^ with the 
subjunctive, optative, or future indicative. 3) so that^ with 
the infinitive, (commonly cS^f,) see & 141. 4. 4) inasmueh 
«, (see § 146 Rem. 5.) b} quippe^/or, as xpa^oroi' iozai 262 


398' STHTAx) [^ 150. 

r lOlllll !!■ ' ■—■■■■ '■■' '■ ■ .■■ H ' " i ■ 

9vyxmQiiotu^ iig m) domw ovh iipiiaav fii^'ii^wiU be hut for 
me to yield, for it appears that thou voilt not give me up* 
foT the preposition oig see ^148 Rem* 5. 

wg with the accent (see § 116. 4) for ovttog^ is' very common 
with the poets, particularly the Ionics. In prose IMs chiefly 
used only in the ^phrases aal dig and even thus^ and its oppo- 

^ site ov^ tog nor thus» 

OTTOi?, as an adverb, means as ; as a con j auction, in order that. 

ii/o, as an adverb, where; as a conjunction (§ 140. 2) also in 
order that^ as Yva ri wherefore ? as it w^re ^ vn order that 
what ? [should happen^^ 

iSgrs so that^ commonly with the infinitive (§ 141. 4 and ^133 
^ Rem. 2.) With the other modes it means the same, but may 
be rendered therefore^ itaque. '" ■ ■ 

0T& that^ used before words quoted without change, as aiieit^i- 
vaio^ OTif ffaaikiiav ovx av de'iaif^tjv^ he ansrs/ered — / wHl not 

St I also signifies because^ elliptically for dia rovro Sn^ or the 
abbreviation of this phrase, diori. It strengthens all superla- 
tives, liice oiV, as oti fityiatog as great as possible^ ot& fLakir- 
07a, &c. 
. xovvfua^ (this is an epic form) therrfore» Ovvivfu 1) where- 
fore. 2) as a conjunction, because^ (for rov tpexa, ov ivexa,) 
H if; in the indirect question, whether, (see § 140. 5.) 

After -davfJidCo} and some other verbs of the affections, h 
should properly s^ify if, and be used of doubtful things ; but 
Attic caption, unwilling to assert too positively, uses this con- 
junction, not for. probable things only, but even for those 
- which are entirely certain, and so it stands for on, e. g. . 
JSonnQUTtig i^av/naCiv, ei fAt^ <f>aveg6v avzo7g iariv^ ott Ov 
dwatov ioTi rovto {he wondered that — ). 
H xai with the indicative, akhongh* On the other hand, xal ii 

and Ticiv « /, unless^ even if, 
m*ff, fhi^ properly if any one^ if any' things This word, how- 
ever, is used as wholly synonymous i^ith the pronoun ogtig^ 
for gre^t emphasis, as eq&tiQov ehi ^QV^if^ov r^v iv rc^ mdief. 
it yag is an optative exclamation, for which we otherwise find 

ei^a^ Qjhat(^ 
ine I after ^ then- 2) quoniam^ since^ Fr. puisque. Before ques- 
tions and imperatives, it has the force of for, as insi notg Af 
d&axQti^oif4iv avTO for how then could we distinguish it ? iml 
'^ddaai avrog for see yourself ^c. 
^onov where, 2) as a conjunction, siquidem^ since* 
Sv (poetically x*. xev) see & 140. 7 seq, 
iav^ lyv, ctv — OTUv^ tntiouv^ see ibid. 
luv^ particularly after verbs that signify to investigate^ to seCy 

§ 150.] 



has the force of the Latin an ; as a^onn iav iuapov ^ «f e jf 
it be adequate. 

ij or, which sigpufication it always retaiDS in questions, e. g. 
ouTwg ioxlp' n owx oUt ;Jm «i *o ? or thinkeH thou not ? 
xi zovv i^oiT^g-y n Qv S^kop^ ore — why do9t thou oik this? 
, or is it notpktin^ that — F 
In comparisoDS it signifies than^^ quam^ e. g. ' 

ool iQvto (AukXov ttyioKH^ V^f^oi^ thitplemes thee better than me. 
Wholly different is 

fi whose original signification is certainly ^ but which is common- 
ly only a sign of interrogation num ? 

Kui and li have the same significations in reference to each 
other, as et and que. When rt precedes xa/, the former sig« 
nifies not only^ the latter but also ; e. g. i 
*avv6g Ti li^awog iyiv^io^ i^al toTg nalai x^v xvQavvlda 

xai and df in one clause (but separated from each other in prose) 
sijfnify and also ; e^ g. ^ 

vvv m^l xpvx^v tcHp vfMixt^wv iaiiv 6 tiymv nal ti^qI yvvat- 
Ttc^p di Hal xtKpoiP the contest is now for your xywn lives and al- 
so Jor your wives and children. 

di but^ has by no means always a disjunctive signification* In 
most cases it is merely a pa,rticle qf transition to something 

« else, where in English either simply and^ or nothing whatever 
is used. For the Greeks use it, where no other particle could 
be used, to avoid the entire want of connex|pn between two 
sentences. "" 

fitv and di^ are two particles referring to each other, of which 
the same may be observed as of de alone. They form a con- ' 
nexion like that o£ indeed — but^ but are continually employed 
in Greek, where no such opposition of ideas is intended, as 
would be expressed in English by indeed in the protasis and 
but in the apodosis of a sentence. Nay, it is not unusual in 
the Greek, for a section or even a book to end itself thus, xat 
xauxu flip oiitrng ty^pixo. Jn which case, the following sec- 
tion or book would begin x^ d* vaxegai^ on the next day. 

\ The mode of division by o ftiv — o di\ or Sg fdip — og die, 264 
which has its origin in this opposition of particles, has been 
treated above, § 126. Similar modes of division are formed 
by aid of the adverbs united with the same particles; and not 
only are the 4emonstfative and relative forms, but even the 
indefinite, thus used ; noxi fiiv^-^noxe it\ now — now^ or at this 
time* — at that. - So also xoxt qr ixi (for xox§ and or^) and xti 
fiip — TiJ di\ or 7ji} fiiv — nij «fc', iv&a fiiv — tp^u de &c. With 
respect to all such constructions, it may be observed, that 
fitp, 6 f ov^ sometimes stands alone without a verb, with 


310 StHTAX.' [§150^ 


reference to a preceding proposition, in which case the iiiy 
contains a liLind of affirmation in itself;^ eg. 

ndprag <jpiXrjTBOv^ dkk* ov roV ftiv^ top ITov^ all are to be lav- 
ed^ ank not this one^ ittdetd^ but that one noU 
na^'^auv ovx o filv o ^' i^v' dkkd navrtg^ they were present^ 
not this one to be mre, and thai one not^ bitt aU, 

ovt€ B.nd (ifiie^ 

ovdt and fitjde. Both these forms express negation in connexion, 
andxorrespond to the Latin neque. Th^y signify 1) and not 
2) ovTf or fiiire repeated neither — nor. 

The forms ovde fn^df signify also 1) nor^ 2) not even, 
which last signification they uniformly have, in the middle of 
a clause. 

«AAa is de strengthened. It is often used emphatically where 
no ^ngie corresponding word in Elngiish can be given. 

yaQ for^ always follows other words, like the Latin etitm. It 
has an extensive elliptical use requiring a reference in idea 
to small phrases, such as ^^ 1 believe,'' or ^^ no wonder,'' un- 

ovv therefore^ follows other words. Of ow appended (as a$T^- 
ouy, &o.) see § 80. 1. and § 116. 7. Here are to be remark- 
ed the following, viz. 

1) ovikovy prdperly an interrogative of inference, as ovxovv 
evfid-eg tovto ; is not this then foolish ? Often, however, the 
interrogative force and with it the negation vanishes, and 
ovuiovv is to be translated simply therrfore^ ^nd begins a clause. 
265 ^) ov%ovv is the strengthened negation. In the significa- 

I tion therefore not (without a question,) it is better to write 
OVK ovv. 

av again, i) on the other side^ ince versd. 2i) farther^ then too* 

ngtv before^ is a comparative in signification, and therefore, 
when it refers to another proposition, takes the particle ^, 
commonly with an infinitive, as ngiv ij IX^elv ifid before I 
came. The ij however is oflen omitted, and nglv becomes 
itself a conjunction, 7i(}lv ikd^€7v ifia. But ngiv av A^oi re- 
fers to the future. ^ 

vvv dti just now^ and with preterites just brfore. 

w a^d niinore glance at past time, and commonly stand with 
negatives; ovno)^ fifjnoi not yet ; ovdfnmnoxi^ fitidinoinOTi^ 
never yet ; from which negatives, however, they may be 
disjoined by other intervening words. The idea thus far^ 
hitherto^ prevails in all these phrases. Thence ovStnote 
means neoer in general, and in reference also to the future ; 
ovdsnoinOTt neoer^ only in reference to the past. 

iti alone signifies yet^ farther ; and with the negatiYes ovtun^ 
jui^xer*, no more, no longer. 


* ^: ' .A 

lia aod vti are particles of chtutationj always goveniing the ac- 
cusative of the object sfworn by, as v^ Ala by Jupiter. Nri is 
always an affirmative oath ; fii^ on the contrary, is attached 
both to affirmative and negative obtestations, as vul fiu Ala^ 
and ot; fkd Ala. When, however, it stands alone, it is nega- 
tive, (AU Ala^ no^hy no meafM* 

2« These and other particles have an extensive use, which 
must be learned by individual observation. The older gramn^a- 
rians speak of expUtive particles ; but an expletive use of particles 
is the most that should be assumed. There are, in all languages, 
particles conveying shades of meaning so delicate as to prevent a 
translation, but not imperceptible to the skilful reader. The 
Greek language is preeminent for particles of this kind ; and 
though their force must be lefl to be learned by careful study, the 
following observations may be of use. 

ye (enclitic) properly signifies at leasts in which sense yovv is 
more common. Besides this, it is almost always used when- 
ever a single object or a part is naihed with reference to the 066 
whole or a greater number. For this reason it is oflen ap- 
pended to fyoi (aycjya,) whereby the individual thinks of 
himself in distinction' from the mass, as it were, / /or my 
part. It may often be translated by certainly. 

uga never stands at the beginning of the clause. It means, 1) 
and most frequently therefore ; 2) where it appears exple- 
tive, it has a shade of meaning like in the nature of things^ of 
course^ ex ordine^ rite. Hence it serves to mark the transition' 
to an expected proposition. 3) Aftei* f /, iap^ it signifies some- 
thing like perhaps. 

The interrogative Sga^ always placed at the beginning of 
the clause, signifies num ? 

roi (enclitic) is properly an ancient form of the dative for rep , 
and means in consequence of^ which signification, though it has 
vanished in the single word, remains in composition, as toir- 
yaQ^ TOiyagToi^^ TOiyagovp. Toivvv is used when in a con- 
clusion or ipference an idea like and now I say further^ hut 
now.^ is introduced. The ro/, which stands alone, retains the 
power of strengthening or rendering emphatic. 

xait at and certainly. 2) and, doubtless^ and yet^ indeed. 3) al- 

fiipTOi certainly ; hence 2) hut^ however^ a stronger expression 

dii properly now^ for which ijdij is commonly used ; whence it 
is used in various ways to strengthen the power of a phrase, 

312 SYNTAX. '^ [§151. 

as uyt dii come on then^ ti ^ what then f After rdalxoes^ as 
o^ig dri^ onov di^,* it adds generality to the ever ; whotoeverj 
fitiv a confirmatiye particle truly* 2) Bui certainly^ haweoer, and 
yi fAii^ certainly bul» It is therefore also a streogthened dd, 
Kal (JLtiv immo^ yea^ and id cootradictiOD atq^ii^ and yet. 

After interrog^tives, which folloi^ a negative of the inter- 
locutor, fii^if is used to signify ihen^ as nott firfv ; when then? 
rig (AtiP ; who then ? (that is, who else ?) tl fitiv ; why not ? 
fj firiv is the common form of swearing or asseveration, some- 
times with the iadicative, e. g. 

. i] fii^v /yoJ inot'd'Ov tovto I protest that I suffered this* 
26t Sometimes with the infinitive, depending on other verba ; e. g. 

Oftpvfii^ ^ /Jii^p dtuGiiv I promise solemnly to ^e> 
inidilaxo ^ fiijp firj anoQslv aviovg T(}oq.fjg he promised 
solemnly that they should not want food. 
ov fAYiv but not ; 2) a neg^sitive asseveration corresponding to the 
^ affirmative ^ fAtjp. 

vv^ vvv (short and enclitical, except in the Ionic dialect used 
only in the poets,) properly synonymous with vvv^ more 
commonly, however, equivalent to ow now, therefore, 
nig (enclitic) aUogether ; hence oigneg properly means altogether 
as ; xocineg although indeed^ in which sense mg alone often 
noxh (enclitic) emer ; in questions it has an expression of admi- 
ration, as Tig noth tanv ovxog who may this be ? 
Tiov (enclitic) any where ; 2) perhaps. 


aAA* ^ nisi, except, huU 

on (iti after a negation except^ but . ^ 

livjt^ yi nedum. 

ovx on and /i^ Sn^ oi)/ oTqv^ ovx Saov and ovy onmg. All 
these phrases have, in the main, the same signification. Orig- 
inally a verb was omitted with the negalidn> as ov ktyw I say 
not that^ &c. or /uij vnoXa^rjg think not that^ &cl 

a) If another proposition follow with aAAa, all the phrases 
just given signify not only. 

b) If oAA"^ ovde {but not eveti\ they all mean no^ only noU 

c) If the other proposition precedes, and ovx or*, &c. fol- 
low, it means not to mention^ nedum. 

* Usually written separate; but, when nOT€ is added, more commonly 
as one word. I^ee i 80 Rem. 1. aj^d i 116. 7. 

^ 151«] VAIllOUS PBRA^KS. ' 313 .. 

- — n-» -T 1— r^TT .— ^^--■—^^^_^^—^^^.^^.^-^—^-^-— —!>—,— ^^-^-^ , _, 


oaov ov or oaovov^ tantum non^ nearly^ almost^ oBtov fiAkorta 
%al oaovov nagovtanoXsfJiov the approaching and only fiot eoc- 
iitinff wavi 
oaog^ in d^avficcaTOv oaov^ resembles the Latin mirum quantum^ 
i. e. so fnuch that it is to be wondered at^ i. e. very much. In like 
manner, it precedes or follows superlatives of quantity, as . 
nlilora oaa or oau nkelavct^ quamplurima^ as many as pos^ 
sibU^ / . " 

avd^ oSv stands (according t.o the rule in § 144. 5) for dvrl i»eU 268 
vo}v a, as Xapi rovro, dvO'' civ edwxdg fiou take this in return 
for what you gave me. It is also used for avtl roirov oxi,for 
ihoX^ as %dQW ao« oli^a, dv^ civ tjk'ftes I thank thee for thai 
thou earnest* In like manner, 
I9' c^ properly stands for inl tomc^ 0, commonly, however, 
for inL rovrc^ cig^ and since inl with the dative carries an 
intimation of connexion (^ 148 Rem. 4.)/^' (^ signifies under the 
condition that ; as U^m aot^ i(p* c^ avytiang I wUl tell thee^ on 
condition thou keep it secret, 
iqf* care is, in like manner, used for /71c Tourqi wgre. It has^ how- 
ever, commonly an infinitive with it ; e. g. 
i^gtS-tioav i(p* tfte ovyy^dipai> vofiovg they were chosen on 
the condition that they should make ktws. 
egte (not eg t;, for it stands foT.ig on) till^ so long as. 
alog^ before an infinitive, so constructed that^ kc. e. g. 

oi TtQOG'&iv odovTfg nda$ C^oig 0T0& ttfAvttv hgIv^ oi di 
yofjKfto^ oToi nagd tovtcdv de^ufisvo$ keaiveiv^ so amr 
structed as to cut — as receiving from them to grind, 
ov ydg tjv oTog dno naviog negdaivHv he was not one ccd* 
cukUed to profit by any thing. 
oTog re .(oi* oTogte^ ologre) means, of persons, able ; of things, 
possible^ e, g. 

oTogze iaxi nivt dnodel^tti he is able to manifest every thit^. 

oAA' ovx oT6vt€ Tovto but this is not possible. 

raAAix, for xd aAAa, in other respects^ i. e. for the rest^ else^ as cff** 

Tiv anutg^ tdkka ev^aifiovei he is childless^ but^ in other re- 

spects^ happy ; hence 

ra te diXa — with xai io the following clause, as in other things 

— so^ particularly., in this ;• e. g. ^ ^ ^ 

'^ rd Tf. dXla evdMfioval.^ xal ncudag i'xu xotTfjxoovg avrd^ as 
in other things he is prosperous^ so particularly in having 
dutiful children. (Compare xai and rt in the preceding* 
^ section.) 

Hence is formed the elliptical phrase td re SkXa Ka/, which 
means strictly among other things also ; but which is to be 
translated, in an especial manner. 



314 SYNTAX. [§1^1 

■ III l» —■ I— — — PK^il^— — — »M^«^ II I ■ I — — ^J— — H WII . I ■ I I pi I 

alkms x$. nal ^ sigrnifies also especuMy. 
Touvavxi^y^ to Isyoiupov^ and other parentlietical phrases, see 

269 in \ 131 Rem. 4. ' , , , 
jcai t»v%a aud tn addMon to Mt^ as z^Xmaixipf na^ivov iv 

napak^ €&gfil)(xs^ x«i Tioniva evankav hast tkou had such a vir- 

jgin ii^ th^f head^ and that armed ? 

ifivrt}, amri^ £ic with the omu^ioa o^isiv^ signify together with; 

I e. g. aTioiAot/ro ai vijiS avrolg ca^dgaaiv the ships were destroy^ 

ed^^with their crews. .^ 

ff^o Tov^ better ngozov btfore^ formerly^ for tiqo tqvzqv rov 

tfkv Xomov (sG* jfpdt'Ot;) hemceforth^ rd ko$n6tt, ar Xot'MV from 
this tifhe forward, (Compare § 13S. 5- c) 

v^kkov ^ii^ impeTsonal, it wants much thereto ; for which is found 
fltoo noklQV dtm^ I am far from e. s. Xty€i¥ roi/iro sayiaeg this, 
Verj often the infinitive absolute (see ^141 Rem. 2) is used, 
nQklov ieiv as it were so that it isfarjrom^ L e. eertainisf not^ 
as TOVTO ydg nokXov delv eino^ rig iv for no one certainly 

^ WvM say thaU 

So too, for the opposite idea, use is made of fuugov or 
dUj^ov ^c/,^^<(f», Setvj to exptre» non mulifpn abest quin^ neiarly ; 
as dUyov dm eiiuiv I could almost say* Okiyov or fiingov is 
often found alone. In this sense. 

negl nokkoS iatt ftu^ ^ negl nokkav Ttatov^ni or iqyovfia^ I 
greatly prize^ it is highly importasU to me that ; so also tuqI 
nkiiovog^ lugi nkfhtov^ and, for the opposite idea, negl fit- 


fiikkov d^ standiog alone must alirays be trandated or rather. 

paksara fiiv (in reference to the following ei di (isi) it were best 
^fpossibley^ as natayiyvfOGMfTi avrov fidktara fii¥ S^avarov^ 
iidi fifi^ aHfjpvyietv, condemn Attn, it were best to deaths if not^ 
to perpetual eanU. 

c^ekov (in writers not Attic o^pskot) I should have; hence it ac- 
quires an optaixoe sense, partly alone, as foinox ciq^ikop noulv 
O that I had never done it t partly with ws ori^ith H^i^ it yag^ 
O that, utinam^ e,g» 

0£ ^^Xig nagfiveti O hadst thou, been present. 
^ el yag wqekov '&avaiv O that I had died. 

a^ikn heed not ; h^nce dovhtless^ certainly. 

lati^ stands before' relatives of all kinds; thus earsv ots est cum 
h e. someti^es^ iaziv 6g est gin, somp one> It even stands thus 
before a plural ; ^. g. 

270 ' neu eaup oTeiVTmw izngeiaxQSfta and some if theni were 

wounded* , 
eOTiv oTg ov% ovtfog i'do^ep there are sotne^ to whom it seemed, 
not thus. 
This phrase was then regarded altogether as one word, as 

§ 151.] VARIOUS PHRASKS. ^ 315 

- * ' ■ — .III! I III ■ ■ ■ I II ■ ■ I ■ 111 ■■— — — ip^-.»— — — — 1^^— — — ,— — ^^— ^,^,,aM^ 

dyaQ 6 rgonog tffr&v oTg dvgoQiQtilfor if ike manMr dw- 

please sdme* 
tcKenTHtf d^ iq}rjxfv eativ a he permitted to steal certain things. 
ohgncQ eldov ianv onov which I home somewhere teen* 
iotiv oiigr^pag ivd^novg Te^etvfMnxctg inl voipUf ; hast 
thou admired some men for their wisdom ? 
i(Fcvp^ e^eativ^ ivtati^ jidgsaz^ npaTTstv (with the dative of the . 
person or universally) all sonify it is lawfuL More accu- 
rately considered, however, eve&iiv refers to the physical 
possibility, it is possible ; eieariv to the moral possibility, it 
is lawful ; tari is bodi the one andthe other, as i» also nag- 
etn^v, with aq expression, however, of ease, 
(og m, in thi^ phrase ipi according to § 113. 2, stands for eviO" 
Tiif it is possible; hence with superlatives eSg ipi lAttliatu 
as mack as passible, 
mg inog eiiutv so to say. \ 

iv tolg^ when these words precede a superlative, they signify 
omnium^ among all^ before cdl^ &c. 
iv toTg ngtSroi naQtjaav ot 'jt^ijveuoi the Athenians were pres- 

ent before aU others. 
toVTO iyd Iv To7g paQmuxa iv iv6yimifJii& I should ftel* this 

more severely than cdl others. 
iv To7g ngcitfj nagtyeveTO Me arrhei before aU the qihers. 

Thes^ phrases are to be supplied by a pairtieiple, ai^ TOtg 
nagovaiv ivreiig fiagimg ipigova^v avto* 
oi ifAfpl or oi negl with'an accusative, as ol afig>t "uivvrov^ com- 
monly signifies not onl^ those with or about Anytus, but Anytus 
and his company ; all enfief^ Sak^v 3%tties «HMi his sdneoL The 
Attic writers even use this phraseology in some cases^ when 
a single person only' is spoken off but always with some un- 
certainty, whether it be one or more* 
fietaiv among^ between. This particle is placed as aa adverb 
before a ^rticiple^^as follows. 

fAita^v Tugmarciv while he was walking. 

fAfTuiv detnvovvra ifovivaav amov he kiUed km while at 211 
i'f^i^^ with an adverb, means to 6e ; e- g. 
nalmg ex^i it is well, 
(og ^1%^ as he was. 
Sonietimes with^a genitive of specification; e. g. 
eig eixi fiOgq^iig {in person). 

cSg vaxovg d%ov^ emovto they followed, with what svnftness 
their nature admitted. 
So too before prepositions ; e.g. ^ 

dfjuj^l xriv nofkivov i^m td noKku lam commonly at thestoie. 
01 anqil y^v ?y(OVTtg husbandmen. 



3t2 1, To the full understanding of what follows, it is necessary 
to . make a remark on the different sorts of verse and their con- 
nexion with the dialects. 

• r 

All the varieties of Greek verse proceed originally from these 
three sorts, vi^. 

The Epic or narrative. 
The Lyric adapted to singing. 
The Dramatic. 
3. Each of these dififerent sorts of poetry appropriated to itseUV 
in its perfection, one of the Grecian tribes. The Epic attained 
its highest cultivation among the lonians, the Lyric among the 
Dorians and Eolians, the Dramatic among the Attics. Hence it 
was, that each of these sorts of verse, in language, metre, and mu- 
sical character, united the character and more or less of the dia- 
lect of the tribe to which it belonged^ with the peculiarities which 
it possessed in its own nature. See § 1* 9 seq.* 

3. What particularly deserves notice in respect to the metre 
and poetical quantity, is,jthat the epic dialect inclines more to 
softness^ ai^d, in order to bring the narration more easily under the 
. restraints of vers^ to freedom in the formB and pronunciation of 
words. On the other hand, dramatic poetry, particularly the com- 
edy, having its origin in the language of r^al life, confines itself 
273 more closely to received forms^ and Df consequence to the lan« 
^ guage' and pronunciation of the Attic tribe, of which few sacrifices 

* It is here to be remarked, that when we speak of dramatic and Attic 
poetry, we alljide principally to the Iambic and Trochaic portions of the 
drama, in which the proper dramatic dialog^ae is contained. The remain- 
ing portions. belong more or less— the choral songs wholly— to lyric poetry. 



are jnade to tbe metre. The lyric poetry in this respect ap- 
proaches nearer to the epic, from which, as the mother of all 
Greek poetry, it derived a considerahle part of its poetical lan- 
guage and phraseol^y, uniting them, however^ with the rougher 
and harsher pecbliarities of the Doric dialect, and thus exempting 
the melody of the song from the monotony of narrative poetry. 


4. The alternation of long and short syllables. is called Rhythm* 
Inasmuch as this alternation is ascertained by certain laws regu- 
lating it by measure, it is called Metre. And a single portion, which 
can be embraced at once by the ear^ asa metrical whole, is call- 
ed a Verse. 

5. Verses are divided into smaller metrical portions called 
Feet^ of which the following are the most common. 

Spondee ( 




Trochee ( 

> — 

O ) 


Iambus ( 

^ o 



Pyrrhic \ 


V ) 


Dactyle 1 




Anapaest i 


•— 1 




L» V J 


Rbm. 1. In the examples here used, each word constitutes a 
foot ; but verses are measured by feet, of which the beginning and 
end may be in the middle of words. 

6. In measuring feet and verses, the short syllable is assumed 
as the fimt, and the long syllable is regarded as double the short. 
Every such unit is called a time ot mora; so that the Tri))rachys 
is equally long with the Trochee and Iambus, and the Spondee 
equally long with the Dactyle and Anapsst. 

7. The length and shortness of the syllables is ascertained by 
the rules given in the grammar under the head of Prosody (§ 7), 
to which may be added, for metrical use, the followiBg princi- 

a) Position takes place even between two syllables belonging 
to words in immediate succession ; and this without exception, 


when the two consonaats are rIso divided between tiie words, the 
274 one belonging to the foriber and the other to the latter ; as in 
Xoyog MaXog^ yog is long by position in consequence of the 9c, which 
follows it In respect) however, %o that position, where a short 
Towel closes a word, and the two consonants or a donble conso- 
nant begin the next word, the nsage fluctuates. 

b)^ Mvtes before liquids (see under Prosody § 7. 9, 10,) pro- 
duce position in t^e Ionic dialect. This position, therefore, gene- 
rally lengthens the syllable in the epic language ; while, on the 
other hand, a short vowel befpre the mute and liquid is always 
short in dramatic poetry, 

c) The long vowel and diphthong at the end of a word, when 
the next begins with a vowel, lose their natural length, for the 
most part, in the epic and lyric language^;, and become short, ex- 
cept when the stress falls upon them, as 

€7tk£v ctgiGTog eoaetai aXyog 

In Attic poetry this case could not occur, see below, no. 8. 

Rem. 2. In a few words^ particulariy in noutv^ the diphthong 
in the middle of a word before a vowel is short. See the exam- 
ple below, no. 17. 

d) . In most species of poetry the last syllable^ of the verse is 

^ Common; that is, the long syllable may be used, though the foot 

tequire a short one, and the reverse. 

8. With one or two exceptions, the Hiatus is wholly forbidden 
in Attic poetry.* In the other dlaliects, it oftenet occurs, particu- 
larly before certain words.! The long vowel, at the end of a 
word, does not constitute a hiatus in the epic language, bpt is 
merely made short, according to no. 7. c 

9. In all kinds of poetry, it is common for two vowels to be 
written at length, which in scanning are to be read in one sylla- 

M ay 

* See Hiatus and Crtisis^ i 28. 2. 

t This is particularly the case wit)i the pronotin 1^ also with /Afiy, ^- 
/ov, ava^, &c. from which has been inferred, that in the ancient lan- 
guagfe they had a strong^er breathings at the commencement, probably a 
digamma, see i 6 Rem. 2. and the appendix on th« D^amma below. 


b|#, as a cinsiA, a coatrfK^tioo, or an elkiioD ; as jui} 9V, and the last 
syllables of tel%ea^ nokiwg^ ntjktiiiideta^ &c. This is called by 
the Greek grammarians a £vvliri<ng or Swtnqxavrifsig, 

iO. In some sorts of verse^ a syllable sometimes remains at the 
end, when the verses have been divided into feet. Such a sylla- 
ble is called CatoXtdic. A verse whose l^tws require such a sylla- 
ble instead of a full foot at the end, is called a eataUctic verse. If 
the syllable be regarded as superfluous, the verse is called hyper- 
catalectic. , ■ - ' ^ 

\ The kinds of Verse. 

11. The most common kinds of ^erse are those which consist 
of the frequent repetition of one and the same foot ; and among 
these the dactylu^ the tam6tc, the trochaic^ and the anapcestic 
verse are the most familiar. 

IS. The best known among the dactylic verses is the hexani^ 
eter, of which epic or &<mc poetry avails itself in unbroken suc- 
cession to the exclusion of every other kind of verse. It consists 
of five dactyles and a spondee. ' 

Instead of either of the four first feet a spondee may be used, 
and in consequence of the last syllable of every verse b^ing com- 
mon (agreeably to no. 7. d) a trochee may stand instead of the last 
foot ; e. g. 

2 Kiklcfv Ti ia^ifiv, Tsviiiiiii rt l(f'i civuaoBig, 

3 J^fjuv&tv^ itnoTt T0« %ttQkrt ini vtjpv tgeiffct^ 

4 "^.Hh drs noti to* xarce niova fitjgi* inija 

5 IhtvQwv ^^ aiymv, ride fAO$ xqt^tivov iekdtog' 

6 Tiif€Hcv Auvaol ifta duKQvn ooloi fitKioat>v. 

1 — • MV j uu I — * — I — •— I — XJXt I — u 

2 — — I — uw I — wu I — uu I — ■ wu I — — 

3 — — — I — — Ut» I •'— \I\J I — ^ %jV I — • UO I — U 

4 — ^ I — uu I — uu I — uu I — — uu I — W 
6 — — I — uu I — uu I —— vw I — uu I - 





Rem. 3. Sometimes, instead of the daptyle in the fiflh place, a 
spondee is admitted, and such a verse is called Spondaic ; e. g. 

'uiH^OTQiTfi xo^vtpfj nokvdeigadog Ovlvfmoio 

— !• vu I — uu I — uw I — uu I — — I — u 

or ^ 

— vrv I — — I -— vu I — — I -^ — I — u 

13. The dactylic pentameter consists of two halves united by a 
final syllable, each of which halves contains two dactyles and a 
catalectic syllable^ e. g. 

s. — uu I — - w I — (I — \nM I — vu I ■— . 

The two first dactyles alone may be supplied by spondees. 
The middle syllable is always long ; the last, as the final sylla- 
ble, may be lopg or short. This sort of verse is commonly found 
in connexion with hexameter, the two sorts being used in alter- 
nately succeeding lines. A poem in this sort of verse, is called 
*'£keyoi^ Elegit for which, at a later period, the name Elegia was 
used ; and a nmxim or inscription consisting of one such couplet 
{SiOTix^v\ or a few, was called *EXfyitov ; e. g. 

'Ekmg iv txv'&goinoiai fiovfj d'Bog io'&kfl eveariv^ 

2kaq/goovvij^ Xagntg-r, m q^lXt^ yrjv ekmov. 
'^Ogxoi di^ ot)xm niatot iv dv&goinotat dlxaioi^ 

Ovdi {l^eovg ovMg Hftai d^avarovg, 
JSvaefiemp d* dvdgwv yevog i'qj&no^ ovdi /^efAiatag 

OvxfTt' yiypoianovd ovdi fifv avaefilag. 

%j xt 1 —— — — — u u 1 -7— u ir 

— w u 1 — V 

■ 1 l-l^ 

— u «/ 1 V 

u -^ — 1 — ■ V U 1 — • w V 

— uu 1 -i 

— w u 1 v" j — 1 — — V u 

-^ u 1 u 

— — vr u 1 — u \> 1 — — 

— u u 1 — — 

u 1 1 — ^ W 

— u u 1 — 

uu 1 u 1 — \J 

1 y 1 w 

— ou 1 — — 1 — ( — uu 

1 %}%t 1 rf- 




14. The iambic, trochaic, and anapaestic verse is measured by 
dipodes or pairs of feet, in consequence of which, tliose consist- 
ing of four feet, are called dimeters^ vjid those consisting of six feet ' 
are called trimetets^ &c. On the other hand, the Latin names of 
quaiemariw^ senarius^ &c. refer to the number of feet. 

15. Every iambic dipode^ instead of the first Iambus^ may have 277 
a Spondee ; accordingly we find, 


o — or •-r- — — • u — 

Hence it follows, that in every iambic verse in the odd place^ (in 
sede tm/vtn, 1, 3, 5, 7.) a Spondee may be foun^* 

16. In every foot, mereovev, a kmg syllable may be resolved 
into two short ones. Hence the Tril^acliys may be used in all 
places instead of the Iambus, with the exception of the last Iambus 
in the verse, in the place of which only the Pyrrkich, and that in 
virtue of the final syllable being common, is admitted. In the odd 
places, a Dactyle or an Anapaest may be used instead of the Spon- 

Rem. 1. In feet oT/bur times, the Anapaest may also stand in 
the even places. 

17. Hence follows for the iambic trimeter the following scheme. 

uuu uuu 

I "-, 

I — 


vuu, u o 






The irregular feet, however, particularly the trisyllables, must 
not be ao common, that the iambie character of the verse is ob- 

rXoiaoffg fiakiOToi navtaxov iitigm x^ctT^iv' 

. *JFtyk^(5(5u aiytjv niatgiav x^XTi^jUfViy. 

„ — ^ O — I MT- , U— I — -— , u — 


S22 . . APPENDIX* 

■ » 

£1 TO awiXfSg nal nolkd x«i taxtmi A«iU7y 
'*££v Tou g>QOvsiv noQaaij/AOP^ ai ^iUdopiS 
^Kkiyovi Slv ijfiotv awqt^oviattQM navv. 


278 JIXovTog di fiaaavos iaz&p ivd^Qiinov zgononf, 

*^0g iv ivnOQWv yccQ aiaxif^ ngiirtYi nQayfiuja^ \ 
Ti TOVTOv inoQriOttvt av ovx out noieiv ; 

-"— — , \ffj\j I u ■— , u — I — — — / u — 


jdeonoiVy otav rig o/ivvovrog naratpgovf^, 
*Sl& /ut/ ^vvoide ngoTigov inimQXijKOTA 
OvTog %aTaq)QQvHv twv d^etSv ifiot doiui^ 
Kal nQOxeQov ofAoaag umog iniotgxfiiuvai, 

— — — — ^ u — I 'u — , u ^— I — uUj u — 

■— — , O — \ UUU) uuu I — -—J UU 

— - UU, uuu I — — , Knjv I — — , u — 

18. Besides the setiarius^ the most common iamhic verse, is the 
tetrameter catalecticus ; e. g. 

i?< juof yjvotro nagd^ivog.xalii ti xal tignva 

— — — , u — I u — ", u — I u — > u 7^ I V — — , u 

The rules and licences of this verse are in the main the same 
as those of the senarius^ and the eataltctic syllable is common. 

19. The trochaic dipode may have a spondee m the place of 
the second trochee, e. g. 

— u, — ^ u or — u, — - — 

Hence it follows that in every trochaic verse, the Spondee may be 
admitted in the even placeg (in sede pari 2, 4, 6, 8.) Besides this 
the rule also prevails here, that « very long syllable may be resolv- 
ed into two short oqes. The Tribrachys accordingly may stand 






in all places, fod the Dactyle and Anapaest (instead of the Spondee) 

in the even places. ^ 

Rem. 5. Of the /our timed feet the Daclyle is also found ii\ the 
odd places. 

20. The most common trochaic verse is the tetrameUr, catalec' ' 

ticus ; e.g. ' - 

NoSg 6g^^ xul vovg cIhovh' talla nda^pa xal Tv<pka 

o, I o, — — I — u, — */ I — V, »* 

'Ireov tog avavdgov dnleSg xard'apciv* uilvoii tddt, '^279 

*r . 

*t . 

21. In anapaestic verse, hy uniting the shorts into a long, the 
Spondee may stand instead of the .Anapaest^ and by resolving the 
long again into shorts, the Dactyle may bje introduced. As an ex- 
ample, may be quoted a specimen of the tetrameter catakcHous^ so 
common in the comedians, as follows* ^ 

'Ot iyoi Tce dlnaia kfytov ^v^ovv netl aoMpgoevvti viv6(At(no> 

u w — ", W U *"" I V u ~— , — — - j — • — ^ ^ ^ — . ^ I ^ ^ — .^ y 

0av6QOv i/iiv iy(oy olf^oii yvoSva^ xovx* {Ivai naaiv ofioifag 
Ort Tovg XQV^'^^^S "^^^ dv&gwnoiv ev nguTTivv iarl dixa&ov, 
Tbvg di liovtigovg xctl tovg a^eovg tovtcov tavavvla dr^nov* 

"9 *> " — I 9 I -^ —, I u w — , — 

Ti — ^ I 5 I 9 I w u —, U 

Xalgere^ dalfAOv^g, oT At^idHetv^ Baimiov ovd-otg cigovgetg, 

22. That part of a foot, which receives the icttu^ the stress of 
the rhythm (the heat of the time) is called arsis or elevation^ To 
denote it, the common acute accent is used ('). The rest of the 
foot is called thesis or depression. The natural arsis is the long 

syllable of the foot, so that the Spondee ( ) and the Tribra- 

chys (u V u) leave it alike uncertain where the arsis falls. The 
fundamental foot of a verse, however, (that is, the Iambus in iam- 
bic, the Dactyle in dactylic verse,) determines the arsis for all 

u u 

394 ArpEHBix. 


Hia other feet, whkh mftj be used as feiubsltitates for it The 
SpoDdee, accordingly, in iambic and anapaestic revte, is accented 
thus -^ -^, in trbciaie Cindi in dactiflie^ thus -<^ — . Hence tovtov 
(without any respect to its prosaic accent),-«when it stands instead 
of an Iambus or Anapaest, most foe read rovro^ when it stands 
instead of a Trochee or Dactyle, tovtov, InasBiiich, too, as the 
stress or ictia of a long syllable, in oonsequence of the two mora« 
or times which it contains, falls on the first of them, it is to be pla- 
ced when the said long syllable is actually resolved into two short 
ones, necessarily on the first. 
280 Therefore, when the Tribr&chys stands* for the Iambus, it is 
pronounced www, when it stands for the Trochee it is pronoun- 
ced www. The Dactyle, instead of a Spondee, with the stress 
on the last syllable (— — )i Is to be read — w w ; but ttie Ana- 
paest, which is substituted for the Spondee with the opposite stress 

-! ^ Is accented w w — . It is therefore necessary to read A«'- 

yft^^ Kty€Tuit^ when these words stand as trochaic c^ dactylic 
feet, and Ityite, kifitm when they stand as iambic or anapaestic. 
Yet in reading, care must be taken not to consume more time in 
pronouncing the short syllable on account, of the arm, for this 
would make long syllables and so destroy the metre. 

The following are intended for examples in laying the metri- 
cal stress ; in doing which, of course, no regard is to be had to the 


natural or grammatical accent. 


—— UU j — XJKf I UU I %J\J I - — UU I — - 

e^yu vioii/, fiovXtti de fiemtiv^ £v,xw di y^^v^fav 

_L x/o j -^ I -^ oo I -J I — uo f ^-^ ' 

^ AU the foUdwijQ^ exai|»ple« of the vamous kinds of verse ^are of the 
hading t>r moit regular fcJt^eme, 



-— uw I — wo I — II — uu I =^ wU I — 

fii7 fiexQiiv a^oivii IliQOidi xr^v aoipiT^v 


Senarws. . 

1 111 * I « • 
u — , o — I u — , w — I u — , V — . 

• • I • * I t i 

\t — ^ u — \ — w o, u — I —— *— ', \t \J 

I II I 11 I 

' , lambie tHrea/ne^tt UttaUct. / 
I. Ill III ■ I I 


all' avTO TiiQi Tdi; ngonQog dnnv ng^tu dtaiiaxovfmi 


— ^j u — |vwu, w— I — V 05 w — I w — , u 

Trocftmc Uttaindet cmakct. 
I I II I 11 I ii't 

— U, — U I — - u, — u I — Uj — w I — Wi, — 


y u u, 1—^1 — — I — u, — I — u, w 

dU« fici' ^f' ot; ^diti^ iivtiig up uvrovg dliipvyig 
11 II I II • I ,• 

-7- u, 'J o •*— I — V, — — I — - Vj — — I w w u, u 
I I I I I 11 111 I 



« I I » 

Anapcutic tetrameter eaialect ^ 
I II I 11 I II I 

all* oXolv^dte g^aivofitvTioiv tatg igjiaialoiv A'&tivuig 

* xa^ ^avfiaatalg xm nokvvfivolg Iv 6 nclUvog dii/iog evolnu 
I III III 111 

- — U u, «-» U I <-» U| — - — I I ^ I u w — ^ — 

I III I I 'l II • 

— — , I — ^ ^ "1 — - — I *~ — ^? — — I ^ " -^? — 



23. Cae^ara is properly the division of a metrical or rhythmical 
connexion, by the ending of a word. There is accordingly, 1) a 
caBsura of the foot, . 2) a caesura of the rkiftkm, S) a caesura of 
the verse, which must be carefully distinguished, as the word Ccb^ 
«iira, without qualification, is applied to all three. 
282 24. The caesura qf die foot, in which a word terminates in 
the middle of a foot, is the least important, and without great in- 
fluence on the verse, as the division into feet is in a great degree 

25. The caesura of the rhythm is that, in which the arsis falls 
on the ^last syllable of a word, whereby the arsis is separated 
from the -thesis. Such a final syllable receives by the ictus a pe- 
culiar emphasis ; so that the poets often place a short syllable in 
this situation, which becomes long thereby, and sustains alone the 
arsis. This lengthening by caesura, as it is called, is particularly 
familiar in epic poetry, e. g. 

-ThjlefAax^ \ no76v as enog g^vyev ^guog odovrmv ; 
jivxaQ ineiT* avTo7at §ilog \ i^snivmig iq>ulg,* 

* As this usa^e is principally observed in the epic poets, and, as in 
hexameters, the arsis is always on the beginning of the foot, the caesura 
of the rhythm and the caesura of the foot coincide ; this has led to the er- 
roneous doctine, that the caesura of the foot lengthened the syllable. 
With this was formerly connected another error, that of defining a cae- 
sura to be the division of a word by the measure ; which would prevent a 
monosyllable from being in caesura, as it often is. 


26. The caesura of the verse exists, when the termination of 
a word falls on a place in the verse where one rhythm agreeable 
to the eav closes and another begins. The estimation of this be- 
longs to the minuter acquaintance with versification. In a more 
limited sense, by the caesura of. the verse is understood such* a 
caesura in certain places in the verse, one of which is necessary 
to every good verse of the kind. Reference is had to this when 
it is said of a verse, that it has no caesura. Whereupon may be 
remarked : 

a) That some kinds of verse have their caesura on a fixed 
place. Of this kind among the foregoing verses are 1) the pen- 
tameter which requires a word to end in the place marked above. 
This caesura can never be om|tted. (2) The tam6tc, anapaestic^ ^ 
and trochaic Jetratneter catalectic, which all have their natural cae- 
sura at the end of the fourth foot This caesura may be neglect- 

b) Other kinds of verse have mofe than one place for the cae- 
sura, the choice o£ which is left to the poet. One, however, gen- 
erally predominates over the rest. In hexameter this is common- qqq 
ly in the middle of the third foot, and either directly afler its ar- 
sis^ as 

Mfjvip aeide^ ^«a, | -.IlfiXfiiadeiu '^;f*A^off 

OvK UQU fAovvov ifjv I igidatv yivog^ ikk' inl yaiav 

or in the middle of the thesis of a Dactyle, e. g. 

^Avdija fioi evvan^^ Movaa^ \ noXvtQonov^ og fjidXa nokkci. 

The first species is called the' masculine or male caesura, the 
second the female or trochaic caesura. It rarely happens that both 
are absent from this third foot. Should they be wanting however, 
they are usually supplied by a caesura in the second or one in the 
fourth foot, which are generally masculine, and the verse is the 
more harmonious, if both are used. 

aAAa veov \ avvogcvofievai | mvwro <p4Xayyeg. 



Iti addition to the smooth and aspirated breathings, the ancient 
lan^age had another, which remained Ibngrest among the ^EoU- 
am. This is most commonly called, from the appearance ^f the 
character /, used to. denote it, Digamma, that is a double 1 ', It 
was a true consonant, and appears to have had the force of/* or v. 
It was attached to several words, which, in the more familiar dia- 
lect, had the smooth or the rough breathing- The whole doc- 
trine, however, of the Digamma, for want of literary monuments 
remaining from the period when it was most in use, is exceeding- 
ly obscure. With respect to the application of the Digamma to 
the criticism of the text of Homer, a subject of so much note in 
modern times, the whole rests on the following remarkable obser- 
vation. A certain number of words beginning with a vowel, among 
which the most common are the following, ov, of, ¥, iidtu^ oixa, 
HTuiv^ of^al, VA^oiT, qIvoq^ olxog^ ^Qyop^ tio^^ iKaaiog^ with their 
^84 kindred words, have a hiatus so often before them, tjhat if these 

- words be excepted, the hiatus, at present so common in Homer, 
becomes very rare, and in most remaining cases has some parti- 
cular justification. The same words, in comparison :with others 
beginning with a vowel, are very rarely preceded by an apostro- 
phe, and the immediately preceding long vowels and diphthongs 
are far less frequently made short, than before other Vowels. The 
observation of these fdcts authorizes the assumption of something 
in the beginning of those words, to prevent the apostrophe and the 
shortening of the long vowels and to remove the hiatus. Since 
even short syllables ending in a consonant, as og^ ov, are often 
made long before such words — although not in caBSura^ust as if 
a position existed, ^he conjecture has been advanced in modem 
times, that all those words in the age of Homer were possessed of 
•this initial breathing y* or v, of a force equivalent to a consonant, 
but had lost it before the poems of Homer, at a later period, were 

' committed to writing. Inasmuch as in this interval, as well as af- 
terwards^ the poems of Homer were subject to no inconsiderable 
changes and accidents, affecting the condition of the text, it is easy 
to account for those instances in which even these indications of 
the Digamma have disappeared from the Homeric poems. To 
which may be added, that the transition or gradual disappearance 
of the digamma may already have begun in the time of Homer, 

^ and several words have been pronounced sometimes with and 
sometimes without it. 

* The following account of the Digamma is translated from the author's 
larger Greek Grammar, page 19, {eighth edition^) and may be regarded 
as a supplement to what is stated above f 6 Rem. 2. 


\ « 


u^/rMxuK^r^ accusatives 
*.AXXon!»^tg^ ttanfiiUve. 
'^fieripoXa^ iflmotabkSf called 

' ^.j^wvviilcif pronouft* 
uioQtarog^ aorist. 
*ATtuQifAq)aTOQ^ infioitire. 
*.Anlovg^ positiTe. 
u^no&etMOv^ deponent. 
\/^nolekvfAivog^ positive- 
*udn6kvtog^ do. . 

u^g'&Qov^ article. 
*.AQi'&fi6g^ number. 
'^gaevinav^ masculine. 
AvltiOig, augment' 
Autonad'ig^ intransitive. 
^Aqftova^ mutes. 
BaQvg^ grave. 
JBagvTOvov^ having a grave on 

the last syllable. 
JiVoff, gender. 
TkvMfi^ genitive. 
jddtavg^ aspirate. 
Aii'&eatfg, voice. 
AlxQOvov^ doubtful. 
AoTi%ti^ dative. 
Avi%6g^ dual. 
^i^xAidt^, mode. 
"JSuc^h'ipig, elision. 
'JSv€(}yfiTixij^ active. 
'EvtOTfag^ present. 
*Evi^%og^ singular. 
^Enl^Bxov^ adjective, epithet. 
* Eni^QrifAa^ adverb. 
Exy^atix^ nominative. 


Evitxixii^ optaiive. 285 

*Eip^kKvaTin6v^ attracte<f, (je.g^ fi- 
nal V before » vewet.) 

*.^/^oiva, semi-vowels, i.e* the 
liq[»idfik,. and a. 

i^«ju«, theme. 

SetiKov^ simple, positive. 

SfllvmVf feminine. 

A'AijT^xi?, vocative. " 

Kklviw^ to decline. 

Kklatg^ declension, conjugation. 

KQuaig^ crasis. 

Kvg&ov ovofjia, proper name- 

MiXktav^ future. 

MiXkoiv fieir oXlyov^ paulo-post^ 

Miati ar^ffff, colon. 

Mtaog^ middled 

Mtvoxv^ participle. 

"Opofifx^ noun. 

'OvofiaouKii^ nominative. 

O^vg^ acute. \ 

'O^vtovov^ oxyton. 

*Oq&i^^ nominative- 

*OqiGii^firi^ indicative. 

OvdixB^fOVji neuter. « 

JZia^iywxti, passive. 

Ilapaxelfievog^ perfect. 

JJaQarciTiitog^ imperfect. 

IlaQO^vTOvojf^ having an acute 
on the penultima. 

nagmxefjtevog^ past. 

IlBgiancifievov^ having a circum- 
flex on the last. 

niuyiog^ oblique. 



286 nXtj^&wuxog^ plaral. 

Ilpivua, a breatbii^. 

UoGottig^ quantity. 

Ilgo^iaig^ preposition. 

JlgtmaQO^VTOvov^ haying an a- 
ctite on the antepenultima. 

IIgo7ugian(o/i€vov^ having a cir- 
cumflex on the penult 

ITQogriyoQMOv^ substantive. 

UgograKTix^ imperative. 

i7po?q)^ia, accent 

Ilgogamov^ person. 

ilroiffiff, case. 

JSro^jfeia, letters. 
2t«/|ui7, stop. 

HvyxgniHOP^ comparative. 
SvSvytix^ conjugation. 

^vkXafiii, syllable. 
2!vXlufiii€ii^ syUabic (augment). 
£v/jig)anfa, consonants. 
£vvalo^g>ii, contraction. 
^SwSiOfiog^' conjunction. 
JSw/^i^a^, contraction in verse. 
TiMa fmyfiti^ a full stop. 
TbVo?, accent 
*2v(><x, liquids. 

* Tn€^€tt%ov^ superlative. 
^TniQUvvziXiviog, pluperfect. 

* TnoOTiyfirlj conuna. 

* Tnot axTinfjj subjunctive. 
0(aivit}ivTa^ vowels. 
XuGfic^dla^ hiatus. 
Xgovii/ifl, temporal (augment). 
Xgovog^ time, tense. 

^dov^ soft. 


^bundans a case of the same noun nded in two different forms. 
Anacohuhon a construction in Which the end does not grammatically 

correspond with the beginning, used for brevity or emphasis. 
^fuutropAe moving the Accent back. 
Aphaereais the cutting off of one or more letters at the beginning 

I of a word, as iiipfa for lelfloij 17 for q^ij or tiptj, 
Apocope^ cutting off one or more letters at the end, as naf for na^a. 
Apodoais the last part of a sentence. 
Apponlion the adding of a noun to the preceding noun, in the 

same case, for the sake of explanation^ as Kv^og ficiatlivg' 

ifiol acjT Ttaaoi ' 
Atyndeton different parts of a sentence not joined together by a 

connective particle. 
Attraction see § 142 and 144. 
CcnucUioe verbs^ § 114. 1. note. 
Characteristic the letter preceding, the 01 at the end of a verb. Ip 

9ZT, jcr, /uy, the former letter is the characteristic. Q 91. 
Connective vowel (called also mode-vowel^) see § 87 Rem. 1: 
Correhitvoes^ § 78. 1. § ^16. 

Crasii a contraction of two vowels into a long one, § 28. . 
Diaeresis the division of a diphthong in two syllables as &wtvog^ 

§15. 3. ( 27 Rem. 3. 
Diastole and hypodiastole^ see § 15. 2 ^^ stops and marks." 
Elision the omission of the former of two successive vowels. 
EUipsis the omission of one or more words, as iv 'Alnifiiidov in 

the house of Alcibiades^ dcSfia being understood.. 
Epenlhesis the insertion of a letter in the middle of a word, as 

moXi/Aog for noXifiog. 
Heterodite a noun of irregular declension. 
Hiatus the concurrence of an initial with a final vowel* 




HyperhqUm a construction where words are placed out of their na- 

tu^ order, as iv «Uot£ JSOlt^ fi^ «JUot£ hf ilhf anadier Hme 

til another. 
Mtiaplasm the name given to a noun^ that forms its cases from an 

obsolete nominative. 
Metaihesu transposition of lettei^s, see $ 19 Rem^ 2« 
^^Q Paragoge adding a letter at the end^ as ivl for iv* 

Prosthesis addition of one or more letteiB at the beginning of a 

word) as ofAixQog for fHftQOS^ 
Protasis, tjie first part of a sentence* 
Synaeresis the contractioD of voweb. 

Syncope omission of one or mor^ letters in the middle of a word* 
Synizesis or synecphonesis, contraction in yer^* 
Tmms separation of the preponition of a compoond verb firom its 

T^erb, as an mv SSovt^q Ionic ior ini^QWo qvv> 





1 Of the Greek language and its Dialects in g^eneral 



2, 3 Characters and Pronunciation 

4 Division, of Letters, 

5 Diphthongs. • . . Iota Subscript 

6 Breathings .... 

7 Prosody . \ . . ^ 
6—11 Accents ^ . 

12 Place of the Accent . 

IS Qiange of the Accent . 

14 Enclitics . . , . 

15 Stops and Marks 

16 Change of Letters. — Consonantf 
17, 18 Aspirates. .... 
19—26 Multiplication and consequent change of Consonsmts 

26 Change of Vowels 

27 Pure vowels, — Contractions 

28 Hiatus and Crasis . . . 

29 Apostrophe 
90 Of V iqtslKVGTMOVi and other final Consonants 

31 The parts of speech . , . 

32 J^ount ; gender ... 




36 — 




89.^1 «. 



44 — 


first declension 


second declension 


third declension, gender .• 

■ inflection . 

' vdwel before the ending 

■■ ' examples 

' accusative singular 




~ 18 




45 Jfoufu ; third declension, vocative 

46 — ■ ■ ■ ■ datire plaral 

47 ^ ' syncope of nouns in tiQ 
48-<-55 — contracted (third) declension 





irregular declension. — Heteroclites, Metaplasm 
defectives and indeclinables 


in OQ 
contracts in ov^ 

in mg 

of various ending^s 

of one or two endings 

examples of declension 

anomalous and defective 

degrees of comparison 

comparison of those in v$^ aS^ fjS^ 

' by iiwy, i<nog 

irregular comparison 
defective comparison . • 

numerals. —Cardinal numbers 
■ ordinals &c. 


72'^74 PronouTu ; substantive and possessiye 

— the article 
— — demonstrative 

— interrogative and indefinite 
— — correlative &c. 

' • other correlatives 

I affixes ... 



















syllabic augment 

temporal augment ' . . : 

Attic reduplication 

augment as to modes and participles 

— in composition 
numbers and persons • 

modes and participles 

tenses .... 

characteristic 'of the theme 

' 55-^1 



' 76 


^ 96 









92 Ferbs ; twoibld theme 

93, 94 — formation of the tenses 

95 — future actiye.-^Attic and second future 

96 — first and second aorist 

97 — - first and second perfect 

98 — perfect passive 

99 — third future (passive) 

100 — first and second aorist passive 

101 — in it, fi, y, p 

102 — verbals in roff and riog . 

103 — baryton .... 

— paradigm of Tt^T^oi . . / 

— of various verbs 

remarks on the paradigms, dialects, &c. 
use of different parts of the same verb &:c. 
Lut mf baryton verb* 
contracted verbs . • 

— paradigm of verbs ^contract 
— ^ Lisi of contract verbi 

106 — infAl 

107 — - paradigm of verbs in fit 

— remarks on i(nfjfi$ 

108 — irregular verbs in /u«, as itifM &c 

109 — 9^/u/, xi7fAa&, olda 

110 — anomaly.— Syncope and Metathesis 

111 — anomaly from double themes 

1 12 — other anomalies . . 

113 > — anomaly in signification 

114 ^- IMt of anomaloui verbs 
lis Particles 

116 correlative 

117 _ inutation of 

118 Formation of words 

104 — 

105 — 


120, 121 

derivation by terminations.— Verbs 

■ Substantives 
— — Adjectives 

derivation by composition 

112, 113 




154— H7 









12£ GeDeral view . • 

123 The noun wifh adjuncts 

124, 125 Preposkiye article 

lf6 -i.— as demonstrative &e. 

127 PronouM and nSg 

128 Pettier adjective 

129 Ji'oitn in connexion / subject aad prtdfieat* 

130 _^— oblique cases 

131 ' accusative . 

132 I genitive 

133 dative 

134 Ferbs ; passive voice • « 



middle voice 

medial use of the aorist pasava. 

second perfect as intransitive 

use of the tenses . 

third future (passive) • 

modes.— -Use of H and av 

— with a subject - . 

— with cases.— wfl^/roc/ton 
construction with the relative. — ^Attraction 

with the participle 

— • case absolute 

147 Particle* ; adverbs 

148 ' " ■' ■ prepositions 

149 negatives 

150 ' various particles 

151 Various phrases . . * 

Appendix on Versification 
on the Digamma 

• Greek grammatical'ierms 
ExplawUien tf gmmmMtical termt 

















3 2044