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Unrietfoi GfaU* 9? 








443 & 445 BROADWAY. 



ENTMEED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1860, by 


In tlio Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for th Southern District ol 

New York. 


THE grammar which is here submitted to the public, is founded on the 
Grieckische Sckulgrammatik of GEORG CURTIUS, Professor in the University of 
Kiel. The work of Professor Curtius was first published in 1852, and was re- 
ceived ir Geriuany with marked favor: a second edition was called for in 
1855, a thi- in 1857, and a fourth in 1859. Having been led, soon after it ap- 
pear 'd, to study it with some care, I became satisfied that it possessed impor- 
tant advantages of plan and execution; and I was therefore easily induced, 
mor than ( three years ago, to undertake the task of bringing it before the 
Am<. rican -public. My first thought went no further than to reproduce it in an 
English \eition, with only such changes as might seem necessary to adapt it to 
the wants and habits of instructors in our country. But in carrying out thi/ 
purpose, it happened, by what is probably a common experience in such cases, 
that one change led on to another, until at length the alterations had assumed 
an extent out of all proportion to the original design. To give the book, as it 
stands here, the name of Curtius, would be to make him responsible in appear- 
ance for many things which he has not said, and might perhaps fajl to approve. 
Under these circumstances, it has seemed to be the only proper course, that I 
should assume the responsibility of the work, while making, as I cheerfully do, 
the fullest acknowledgments of obligation to the German scholar. Should this 
volume prove to be of service in the work of classical instruction, the result 
will be perhaps mainly due to his broad and thoughtful scholarship, and his 
sound, practical judgment. 

It may be proper for me here to follow the example of Professor Curtius, 
by calling attention, at the outset, to some features in the plan and arrange- 
ment of this Grammar. 

It is a fact generally understood, that the Greek, in common with the other 
Indo-European languages, has of late received, and is still receiving, much 
light from the scientific comparative study of the whole class to which it be- 


longs. The new views of Greek etymology and structure, developed and es 
tablished by that study, have been made the object of special attention in the 
preparation of this work ; and have been taken up into it, as far 9* seemed to 
be consistent with the practical ends which must always be paramour 
elementary grammar. 

The multiplicity of forms presented > ae different Greek dialects is the 
occasion of considerable embarrassme ' J to the grammarian. So-'; 
through the sections which describe the Attic language, they Interfere seri- 
ously with the unity of exhibition and impression which it 
secure : but when thrown together by themselves at the end < 
lose in clearness and significance, by being severed from tho 
and principles with which they are naturally associated. In tiii, Grammar, 
will be found a sort of compromise between the opposite difficulties The 
peculiarities of euphony and inflection which belong to the other dialects, are 
given in smaller type at the foot of each page, under the corresponding 
forms, so as to be kept clearly distinct from the latter, while yet pro. 
with them in the same view. 

It is hardly necessary to say that a complete exhibition of the dialects is 
not attempted in these pages. The multitude of forms which appear only in 
lyric fragments, or in ancient inscriptions, or in the writings of grammarians, 
are passed over without notice. The object has been simply to supply 
is necessary in this respect for a proper reading of the classic authors', 1 and 
particularly Hbmer, Herodotus, Pindar, and Theocritus. For the language of 
Homer, I have derived much assistance from the Homeric Grammar of Ahrens 
(Griechische Formenlehre des Homerischen und Attischen Dialektes : Gott 
1852) ; and for that of Herodotus, from the careful and thorough investiga- 
tions of Bredow (Quaestiones Criticae de Dialecto Herodotea: Lipsiae, 1846). 

In the sections on the verb, the forms of voice, mode, and tense are re- 
duced to a small number of groups, called " tense-systems." Under this ar- 
rangement, which is similar to those already adopted by Ahrens and Curtius, 
the inflection of the verb is represented as the inflection of a few tense-stems, 
which are formed, each in its own way, from the common verb-stem. It is 
hoped that the arrangement may commend itself in use, not only as consistent 
with the obvious analogies of verb-formation, but also as calculated to mak 
the structure of the verb simpler and more intelligible to the learner. 


Among these tense-systeins, the most prominent is that \vhich includes the 
present and imperfect, the tenses of continued action ; and it is also the ono 
which shows the greatest variety of formation. Hence the formation of the 
present is taken as the basis of a new classification, the whole mass of verbs 
being divided into nine classes, according as the stem of this tense coincides 
with that of the verb, or varies f ^ it by different changes. 

The special formation of partidaar verbs "anomalous" formation, as it 
has been generally, but to a great extent inappropriately, termed is exhibited 
with considerable fulness, and according to a uniform method, intended to 
assist the apprehension and memory of the learner. 

In the Syntax, the leading aim has been not to construct a philosophical 
system of human expression, with Greek sentences for illustrations but to 
represent, as fully and clearly as possible within the prescribed limits, the ac- 
tual usage and idiom of the Greek language. It has also been an object to 
accompany the full statement of rules and principles with brief phrases, de- 
ing their substance, and convenient for use in the recitation-room, 
in regard to the examples by which the Syntax is illustrated, it has not 
been thought necessary to give for each one the name of the author from 
whom it is cited. Only those taken from non-Attic sources, as Homer and 
Herodotus, are credited to their authors : those which come from Attic poets 
are marked simply as poetic : while those which come from Attic prose-writers, 
and Constitute perhaps nine-tenths of the whole number, are given without 
any indication of their source. The examples are translated throughout, un- 
translated examples being (if I may trust my own observation) of but little 
use, in general, even to the better class of students. Kegarded as illustrations, 
they are imperfect, since it is only with difficulty, and perhaps with uncertain- 
,t the learner recognizes their relation to the rule or principle to be illus- 
. And if we view them as exercises in translation, it may be questioned, 
wheth 3r detached sentences, torn from the connections in which they stood, 
and involving often peculiar difficulties of language and construction, are best 
for this purpose. A similar rule has been followed even in the earh'er 
poiv c is of the Grammar ; except, indeed, in the first part (Orthography and 
Euphony), where it could hardly be carried out with convenience : but in the 
second and third parts, which treat of Inflection and Formation, the Greek 
words introduced are accompanied regularly by a statement of their significa- 


tion. This course has been adopted, partly, from the feeling that a student 
cannot fairly be expected to take much interest in words that have no meaning 
to his mind ; and partly, in the belief that it is possible for a student, in this 
way, as he goes through his grammar, to acquire, with little trouble, a useful 
vocabulary of Greek expression. 

In preparing this division of the work, I have made frequent use of the 
Syntax der Griechischen Sprache (Braunschweig, 1846), by the late Professor 
Madvig of Copenhagen. But my obligations are much greater not for the 
Syntax only, but for almost every part of the book to K. W. Kriiger, whose 
Greek Grammar (like that of Buttmann before it) marks a new epoch in the 
scientific treatment of its subject. Important aid has been received also from 
the school-grammars of Buttmann and Kiihner, which are familiar to American 
students in the skilful translations of Dr. Robinson and Dr. Taylor. Nor must 
I omit to acknowledge myself indebted, for many valuable suggestions, to the- 
excellent grammars produced in our own country by Professor Sophocles an 
Professor Crosby. 

In the appended chapter on Versification, I have relied, partly on Munk'a 
Metres of the Greeks and Romans (translated by Professors Beck and Felt; 
Cambridge, 1844), but still more on the able treatises of Rossbach and "We 
phal (Griechische Rhythmik^ Leipzig, 1854; and Griechische Metrik, Leip- 
zig, 1856). 




11N J. ft \J JJ \J\JJi JLXMJI . 

Greek Language and Dialects, 


Comparison of Adjectives . 
Form, and Compar. of Adverbs 




'ronouns .... 









'aradigms of Verbs . 
Elements of the Verb . 


Diphthongs .... 
r^athings .... 
>nants .... 


Augment .... 
Stem and Changes of Stem . 


,ny of Vowels 
vels Interchanged 
,\ r els Lengthened . 
, els Contracted . 


Classes of Verbs . 
Tassive-Sign .... 
Connecting Vowels, Mode-Signs 


"' ~o \vels Omitted . 


Endings .... 


my of Consonants 
sonants Doubled . . 


Accent of the Verb 
Formation of Tense-Systems . 


>ny of Final Sounds 

; vJJQ 


Present and Imperfect . 
Future Active and Middle . 
First Aorist Act. and Mid. 


'Ion .... 


Second Aorist Act. and Mid. 


il Consonants . . . 


Perfect and Pluperfect Active . 


;ible Consonants . . 


Perf., Pluperf., Fut. Perf., Middle 




Aorist and Future Passive 




Verbal Adjectives 


; LLlJ-i-UJ .... 


Systems of the /it-form . 


Punc t'lation .... 


Enumeration of jut-forms 


Verbs in jut of Eighth Class . 



Verbs in fu of First Class . 


Verbs in pi of Fifth Class 



Second Aorists of /it-form . 



Second Perfects of jut-form 


Declension (A-Decl.) 


Dialectic Formations 


i Declension (0-Decl.) 


Irregularities of Meaning . 


Second Decl. 


Special Formation . 


Declension (Cons.-Decl.) . 


First Class (Stem-Class) . 


al and Palatal Stems . 


Second (Protracted) Class . 


ual Stems 


Third Class (Tau-Class) . 


id Stems 


Fourth Class (Iota-Class) . 


is in s 


Fifth (Nasal) Class . 


Stems in i and v . 


Sixth (Inceptive) Class 


Diphthong Stems . 


Seventh Class (Epsilon-Class) . 


Stems in o . 


Eighth (Reduplicating) Class 


Irregular Declension . 


Ninth (Mixed) Class 


Local Endings 


Index of Verbs 




Middle .... 





Formation of Simple Words 
Adjectives .... 
Denominative Verbs . 


he Tenses . . 
Tenses of the Indicative 
Tenses in other Modes . 
'he Modes 

. 695 
. 714 

Composition of Words 
Form of Compound Words . 
Meaning of Compound Words. 


finite Modes 
in Simple Sentences . 
in Compound Sentences . 
Indirect . 


. 724 


Final .... 

. 739 





. 755 



nfinitive . . 


Agreement (general rules) 
Omitted Subject, Predicate, and 


Dependence of the Infin. 
Subject and Predicate . 

. 763 

Object .... 


Infin. with Neuter Article 

. 778 

Number and Gender . 


Infin. with &v 


The Article .... 
'O in the Dialects . 


Infin. for Imperative 
> articiple ... 

. 784 

'O as a Demonstrative . 


Attributive Participle 

. 785 

C O as an Article 


Predicate-Participle . 


The Cases .... 


Circumstantial Participle. 

. 788 

Nominative . . . 


Part, with Case Absolute 


Vocative .... 
Two Accus. with one verb . 


Adjuncts of the Participle 
Supplementary Participle 
Participle with &v . 

. 795 
. 803 


Verbal Adjectives in reos 
Relative Sentences 

. 807 

with Substantives 


with Verbs .... 
with Adjectives and Adverbs 



Attraction, Incorporation 
Other Peculiarities . 

. 818 

in looser Relations . 


interrogative Sentences . 


of Influence .... 


Negative Sentences . 

. * 849 

of Interest .... 
of Association and Likeness . 
of Instrument, Means, Manner, 


Figures of Syntax . 

. 853 





of Place and Time 



. 887 

Prepositions with Cases 


Trochaic Rhythms . 


with Accusative only . 


Iambic Rhythms 

. 903 

with Genitive only . 
with Dative only . 
with Ace. and Gen. 
with Ace. and Dat. 


Dactylic Rhythms . 
Anapaestic Rhythms . 
Logaoedic Rhythms 
Cretic Rhythms . 

. 912 
. 922 

with Ace., Gen., and Dat. 


Choriambic Rhythms 


Adjectives .... 
Degrees of Comparison . 


Ionic Rhythms . . . .925 
Dochmiac and Bacchic Rhythms 928 

Pronouns . . . 


The Voices . . . 



page 332 

Active . 



page 356 


Greek Language and Dialects. 

1. The inhabitants of ancient Greece called themselves Hellenes 
(*EXA7p)i and their country Hellas ( e EAXs>). The name " Hellenes " 
was applied also to the members of the same race, dispersed by coloniza- 

ver the islands and coasts of the Mediterranean. By the Romans 
vere called Grecians (Graeci). Their language the Greek is con- 
I with the languages of the Indians, Persians, Romans, the Slavonic, 
anic, and Celtic nations. These are all kindred languages, and to- 
gether form the Indo-European family of languages. 

2. The Hellenes referred themselves for the most part to three prin- 
cipal divisions, Aeolians, Dorians, and lonians. To these belonged three 
principal dialects: the Aeolic, spoken in Aeolis, Boeotia, and Thessaly ; 

! le Doric, in Peloponnesus, Isthmus, and north-western Greece, 

also in Crete and Caria, Sicily and southern Italy : the Ionic, in Ionia 

and Attica, and in most of the Aegean islands. Each of them was early 
used in poetry, for a long time the only species of literature. They 
were spoken under many different forms secondary dialects in different 
and places. But as regards the written works which have come 
down to us, it is enough to specify the following forms: 

3. a. The Aeolic (of Lesbos), found in the lyric fragments of Alcaeus 
and the poetess Sappho (600 B. c.). 

b. The Doric, found in the lyric poetry of Pindar (470 B. c.) and 
colic (pastoral] ppetry of Theocritus (270 B. c.). Even the Attic 

dramas in their lyric parts contain some Doric forms. The language of 
Pindar has some peculiarities derived from the Aeolic, and still more from 
the Euic. 

c. The Ionic, including 

1) The Old Ionic, or Epic, found in the poetry of Homer (before 
c.) and Hesiod (before 700 B. c.). In all the poetry of later times 

(though least of all in the dramatic dialogue) we find more or less ad- 
mixture of Epic words and forms. 

2) The New Ionic, the language of Ionia about 400 B. c., found in 
tory of Herodotus and the medical writings of Hippocrates. 

1 L 1 . In Homer, Hellas is only a district in northern Greece, the Hellenes 
its inhabitants. For the Greeks at large, he uses the names 'AVOUCH, 'Apyeiot, 
Aaj/aoi, which, strictly taken, belong only to a part of the whole people. 

2 D. The division into Aeolians, Dorians, lonians, is unknown to Home* 



The following dialect, though in strictness the Ionic of Attica, and 
closely related to the two preceding, is always distinguished as 

d. The Attic, the language of Athens in her flourishing period (from 
490 B. c.), found in many works of poetry and prose, especially the tra- 
gedies of Aeschylus^ Sophocles, and Euripides, the comedies of Aristo- 
phanes, the histories of Thucydides and Xenophon, the philosophical writ- 
ings of Plato, and the orations of Lysias, Isocrates, Aeschmes, and De- 
mosthenes. The political importance of Athens and the superiority of 
her literature gave a great ascendancy to her dialect, which at length 
banished the others from literary use ; though the Doric and the Old 
Ionic were still retained, the latter for epic, the former for lyric and bu- 
colic poetry. The Attic thus became the common language of all culti- 
vated Greeks ; but at the same time began to lose its earlier purity. In 
this state, commencing about the time of Alexander (who died 323 B. c.), 
it is called 

e. The Common dialect (17 Koivrj SmAe/cros), in distinction from the 
purer Attic. On the border between the two, stands the great philo- 
sopher Aristotle, with his pupil Theophrastus. Among later authors, the 
most important are the historians Polybius (140 B. c.), Plutarch (100 A. D.), 
Arrian (150 A. D.), and Dio Cassius (200 A. D.), the geographer Strabo 
(1 A. D.), and the rhetoricians Dionysius of Halicarnassus (30 B. c.), and 
Lucian (170 A. D.). 

REMARK. There is a noticeable difference between the earlier and 
later Attic. The first is seen in the tragic poets and Thucydides ; the 
last, in most other Attic writers. The language of Plato has an inter- 
mediate character. The tragic language is further marked by many pe- 
culiarities of its own. 

4. For completeness, we may add 

f. The Hellenistic, a variety of the Common dialect, found in the New 
Test., and in the LXX., or Septuagint version of the Old Test. The 
name comes from the term Hellenist ('EXX^i/to-r^f from c AA^y /&>), applied 
to Hebrews, or others of foreign birth, who used the Greek language. 

g. The Modern Greek, or popular language for the last thousand 
years, found in written works since about 1150 A. D. It is also called 
Romaic from c Po>/j,moi (Romans), the name assumed in place of "E\\rjves 
by the Greeks of the middle ages. 

NOTE. Through the first two Parts of the Grammar, the forms of 
Attic Greek, especially the Attic prose, are described in the body of the 
text ; while the peculiarities of other dialects (particularly those of Homer 
and Herodotus) are added in smaller type at the foot of each page. 

Hm. stands for Homer, and Hd. for Herodotus ; cf. is used for Lat. 
confer (compare), se. for scilicet (to wit), ib. for ibidem (in the same 
place), i. e. for id est (that is), e. g. for exempli gratia (for example). 
KT\. for KOL TO. \onrd (Lat. et cetera). Other abbreviations will explain 




6. The Greek is written with twenty-four letters, viz. 

























*E ij/lX6v 














































A O fUKpOl/ 










c Poi 




0" S 











Y \l/"iXov 







P h 













O /xeya 



4 VOWELS. [6 

REMARK, a. Sigma has the form a- in the beginning and 
middle of a word, s at the end of a word : a-rda-is faction. 

The final s is retained by some editors, even when it is brought by 
composition into the middle of a word : thus the compound word made 
up of 8vs ill (never used separately), irpos to, and 686s way, is written by 
some SvsTrposodos, by others dvo-Trpoarodos, difficult of access. 

REM. b. Abbreviations. For many combinations of two or three letters, 
and for many short words in frequent use, the manuscripts and old edi- 
tions have peculiar forms, connected and abridged. Two of these are still 
occasionally used : 8 for ov, and r (named <rrt or cm'yfia) for or. 

6. REM. c. The term alphabet is formed from the names of the first 
two letters. The Greek alphabet is not essentially different from the 
Roman, and from those of modern Europe. They are all derived from 
the alphabet of the Phoenicians. 

NOTE. d. Various other signs, beside the letters of the alphabet, are 
used in writing Greek. Such are the breathings (14), the coronis (68) 
and the apostrophe (70). the accents (89) and the marks of punctuation 


7. The vowels are a, e, ^ i, o, w, v. 

Of these, e, o, are always short, 

if], w, always long, 

a, i, v, short in some words, long in 

others, and hence called doubtful vowels. 

8. The short sounds of a, t, v, are indicated in the grammar by a, r, a j 
the long sounds, by a, r, v. We have then 

the short vowels, a, e, t, o, v, and 
the long vowels, a, 07, I, a>, v. 

9. The long vowels were sounded as a, e, i, o, u, in the English words 
par, prey, caprice, prone, prwne, slowly and fully uttered. The short 
vowels had the same sounds, only less prolonged in utterance, a little 
different, therefore, from the English short sounds in the words pat, pet, 
pit, pot, pwt. 

10. The vowels (sounded as above) are close or open. The 
most open vowel is a ; less open are e, 17, o, w ; the close vowels 
are t, v. Thus we have 

the open short vowels, a, t, o, 

the open long vowels, a, ^, w, 

the close vowels, i, v. 



11. The diphthongs (6Y<oyyoi double-sounds) combine two 
vowels an open and a close vowel in one syllable. They are 
at, ei, otj av, cv, ov, 

a, y, a>, also f)v, wv, and vi : 

but in VL, both the vowels are close. 

Of these, a, 77, a>, are called improper diphthongs. Their 
second vowel is called iota subscript (written below the first). 
But when the first vowel is a capital letter, t stands upon the 
line : OIAHI = ' 

REM. a. In the diphthongs, as at first pronounced, each vowel receiv- 
ed its proper sound, while the two, being uttered without break, coales- 
ced in one syllable. Thus at, pronounced ah-ee, giving the sound of Eng. 
ay affirmative : av, ah-oo, like Eng. ou in our : e v, ot, ut, not quite like eu 
iufeud, oi in foil, ui in quit: et, ov, still further from ei in height, ou in 
youth; though ov afterwards assumed the latter sound (12 b). 

REM. b. In a, 77, w, the second vowel was at first written on the line 
and sounded, as in other diphthongs. But it early ceased to be pro- 
nounced, being swallowed up by the long a, 77, a>, before it. For a long 
time it was generally omitted in writing, and, when afterwards restored, 
was placed as a silent letter under the line. Hence a, 77, a>, were called 
improper diphthongs, their second vowel having no effect up'on the sound. 
The same name' has sometimes been extended to include 771;, &>v, and vi, 
which are distinguished from the other diphthongs by special peculiarities. 
Thus 771; is always the result of augment (310) or of crasis (68), &v of 
crasis only ; VL is composed of two close vowels, and is never followed by 
a consonant in the same word. 

12. In Roman letters the diphthongs were represented, 

at, et, ot, au, ev, ou, vi, a, 77, G>, 

by ae, e or I, oe, au, eu, u, yi, a, e, 6. 

Exc. a. Tor at, ot, in a few proper names, we have Roman ai, oi; 
ia Maia, Tpoia Troia or Troja, AiW Ajax. For w, in a few compounds 
of 0)877 song, we have oe: rpayw86s tragoedus. 

REM. b. From the representation of Greek words by Roman letters, 
it appears that at an early time (as early as 100 B. c.) several of the 
diphthongs had become simple sounds. Thus ei had assumed the sound 

11 D.b. The Ionic has rjv also in V-TJVS (lira. Hd.) Att. vavs ship, and yprjvs 
(Hm.) Att. ypavs old woman. - cav is scarcely Attic. The New Ionic has it in 
o>yT(fc, TWUT^, etc., by crasis for 6 avr6s, rb a.vr6 (68 D) ; also in reflexive pro- 
nouns, as fcavrov (235 D), which seems to have arisen by crasis from e'o aurot/; 
further in &(av/j.a. Att. &afyta wonder, and words derived from it; though 
here some deny the diphthong and writ 


of Eng. ei in rein or in seize most commonly the latter ; ov that of ou 
in your. For a, 77, a>, see 11 b. 

REM. c. It appears also that, prior to the same time, v had taken the 
sound of French -w, or German . intermediate between Erig. oo and ee 
which the Romans, not having this sound, represented (as they did the 
sound of ) by using the Greek letter for the purpose (y=v). The 
diphthong vi underwent a corresponding change. But v at the end of a 
diphthong retained its earlier sound. 

13. Diaeresis. Sometimes two vowels, which might coalesce 
as a diphthong, are separated in pronunciation. A mark of 
diaeresis (separation) is then placed over the second vowel: 
pa'i^ovTwv, TTpoinrdp^o), fiorpvi. 

REM. a. The diaeresis is sometimes omitted, when it is evident from 
a breathing (14), or an accent (89), or from t written on the line (11). that 
the two vowels do not unite as a diphthong. Thus in dvrr), l)&vi, \r)i6- 
/uei>oy, the vowels are evidently separate (= duV^, ^SuV, X^t^djuefos'), while 
in avrr), t^3vt, \Ti6pcvosi they unite as diphthongs. 


14. The weak sound A, at the beginning of a word, was in- 
dicated by the mark e placed over the initial vowel, and called 
the rough breathing (spiritus asper) : thus teVat (pronounced hi- 
e-nai) to send. 

The absence of this sound was also indicated by a mark 
placed over the initial vowel, and called the smooth breathing 
(spiritus lenis) : thus teVat (pronounced i-e-nai) to go. 

Words beginning with a diphthong take the breathings over 
the second vowel : avrov of himself, avrov of him. But in the 
improper diphthongs, t never takes the breathings, even when it 
stands upon the line : 'OtSij = wS>j song. 

15. All words which begin with v have the rough breathing. 
Further, the initial consonant p always has the rough breathing 
(thus p, Roman rh) : prjrup rhetor orator. -- pp appears in most 
editions as pp (Roman rrh) : Tivppos Pyrrhus / though some 

REM. a. Except in pp, the breathings belong only to initial letters j 
if brought into the middle of a word by composition, they disappear : rrpo- 
uvai (from 7rpd+ Uvat, and from 7rpd+ iVrai) ; though the Roman form in 
some such cases shows an h : eWSpts enhydris TroAiucrrcop Polyhistor. 

15 D. The Epic pronouns u/t/xes, #/*/, fyi/xe (233 D) have the smooth 
breathing. The Aeolic dialect had other exceptions. 



16. The consonants were sounded, for the most part, as we sound the 
Roman letters used to represent them (5). To c, g, s, t, we give a variety 
of sounds: the corresponding Greek letters *, y, o-, r, had only the 
sounds which are heard in Eng. coo, go, so, to : thus in Au/aa Lycii, &pv- 
yia Phrygia, Mva-i'a Mysia, Botama Boeotia. But 

Gamma (y) before K, y, x> or had the sound of n in anger, 
anxious, and was represented by a Roman n: ayKvpa Lat. an- 
cora anchor, eA-ey^os elenchus proof. 

17. The letters $, 3, x, seem to have had at first the sounds of p7i, th, 
ch, in Eng. uphill, hothouse, blockhead. But afterwards they came to 
sound as in Eng. graphic, p&thos, and German rnacAen (the last being a 
rough palatal sound no longer heard in English). 

REM. a. Every consonant was sounded : thus K was heard in wan to 
scratch, KTrjp.a possession, and </> in $3i'<riy phthisis consumption. Similarly 
eVor stranger, -^dp-fios sand, were pronounced tisenos, psammos, with Tt 
and p distinctly heard. 

Among consonants, we distinguish semivowels, mutes, and 
double consonants. 

18. The SEMIVOWELS are X, p, v, p, a- ; of which, 

o- is called a sibilant, from its hissing sound, 
^3 fa v, p, liquids, from their flowing sound, 

/A, v, nasals, being sounded with the nose. 

To the semivowels must be added also y nasal, that is, y be- 
fore K, y, x , (16). 

19. The MUTES are 

7r-mutes TT ft ({> or labial mutes, 
r-mutes T 8 ^ lingual mutes, 

K-mutes K y x palatal mutes. 

Those in the same horizontal line are said to be cognate, or 
mutes of the same organ. 

20. According to another division, the mutes are 

smooth mutes TT T K (tenues), 
middle mutes (3 8 y (mediae), 
rough mutes < # x (aspiratae). 
Those in the same horizontal line are said to be co-ordinate, 
or mutes of the same order. 

REM. a. The middle mutes /3, d, y, are so named from the place given 
them in the arrangement. They are also called sonant (sounding with 
voice), in distinction from ?r, r, K, 0, 3, x, which are surd (hushed 


or whispered). Of the latter, <p, 3, ^, are called rough, aspiratae, on ac- 
count of the h (rough breathing, spiritus asper) contained in them (17) ; 
While TT, r, AC, which have no h, are called smooth. 

21. The DOUBLE CONSONANTS are , , i^ ; of which, i// is 
written for TTO-, and for KO-. 

HEM. a. Zeta () is not written for ro-, a combination of sounds re- 
jected by the Greek ear as oifensive. But it has in prosody the force of 
two consonants, placed after a short vowel, it makes a syllable long by 
position (86). Many scholars pronounce it as dz ; but it is at least very 
doubtful whether it ever had that sound. 

22. The relations of the consonants may be seen from the following 

Semivowels. Mutes. Double 


Sibilant. Liquids. Smooth. Middle. Kough. nants. 


Labials /* TT J3 </> \j/ 

Linguals cr X, p, v r B # 

Palatals (7) K 7 X 

REM. a. <r, ^, , are surd like the smooth and rough mutes j the 
other consonants and all the vowels are sonant (20 a). 

23 D. DIGAMMA. The oldest Greek had another consonant sound, repre- 
sented by the sixth letter of the primitive alphabet. This was the semivowel 
F, named Fav Vau, named also from its form Digamma (Sfya^o i. e. double 
gamma, one placed upon another). It corresponds in place and form to Lat. 
f, but in power to Lat. u consonant (v), being sounded probably much like 
Eng. w. Thus ols sheep was originally OFIS Lat. ovis. It is sometimes called 
Aeolic digamma, having been retained by the Aeolians and Dorians long after 
it was lost by the lonians : thus eVos year Aeol. Feros, tSios own Dor. FtStos. 
It must have existed, however, in the old Ionic of Homer, although not written 
in the text of his poems. Thus it must have been sounded by Hm., more or 
less constantly, at the beginning of these words : 

&yj/vfMi to break, a\ts in numbers, enough, a\t< to be taken, #*/a lord, 
avdff(T(a to be lord, av8dv<0 to please, apai6s slender, &O"TV city, cap (ver) spring, 
e5j/ov bride-gift, edros host, people, efrcocrt twenty (Dor. FtK<m, Lat. viginti), ei'/cw 
to yield, e?Ao> to press, e/cr/rt by will of, eKvp6s father-in-law, kK&v willing, eATro- 
uot to hope, the pronoun-stem e (e'o sui), eVos word (eiTrov I said), epyoy work, 
(epfica to do), Hpyci) to shut in or out, Uppco to go to harm, epuco to draw, eV&Yjs 
dress, eT^ua vest (root Fes, Lat. ves-tis), eWepos (vesper) evening, frrjs clansman, 
yMs pleasant, t'a%<w to cry, root 18 (t'5e/ videre, oI8a I knoiv), root IK (i'/ceAos and 
efoeAos like', coi/ccc 7 am like, seem), "IXios Troy, T<ros equal, olicos house, olvos 
(vinum) fyine, os, $, ov suus, -a, -um. 

REM. a,. At the beginning of some words, Hm. has e at times in place of an 
original F : ^e him, eet/cotrt twenty, e'/'trrj fern, of Iffos equal. 

For effect^ of the digamma in Hm., see 67 D a, 86 D, 87 D. 



Vowels Interchanged. 

25. The open short vowels (a, e, o) are often interchanged in 
the inflection and formation of words : rpe<-a> to nourish, l-rpdff) 
v\v was nourished, re-rpo^-a have nourished / yeVos (for yeve?) race, 
Gen. yeVeos for ya/eo"-os ; XVKZ (for XVKO) from ATJKO-S 100//". 

In like manner, a (when made by lengthening t, 30) is inter 
changed with on XetV-w (stem AITT) &owe, Ae-Aoi7r-a Aowe fe/fc, Aot- 
TTOS fe/fc. - -And TJ is sometimes interchanged with o> 
o Ae^9, dpwy-o's helper. 

26. 0,0, aw, interchange with <o : vaos and vews temple, 

(for /xerdopos) raised aloft, renews (for re^v^ws, earlier form 

27. A cfostf and o^eTi vowel are much less often interchanged : eVri is, 
J7/cco, poet, foeo, am come; 6Vo/ja name, av^w^ios nameless; 

24 D. DIVERSITY OF VOWELS IN THE DIALECTS. The other dialects, in many 
words and forms, have different vowels from the Attic. The most important 
differences are these : 

a. The Ionic (Epic and New Ionic) has 17 for Attic a : Ion. verjvfrjs for 
Att. veavias young man, S-c6prj| for $-c6pa breast-plate : so also yevefi for yej/eoT 
to birth, vwvs for vavs ship. - But not so, when a arises by contraction, or 
^<m a is lengthened on account of v omitted after it (48, 49) : Ion. and Att. 
rl/jia, (for rf/xa-e) honor thou, VIK (for vucd-ei) he conquers, ^ueAas (for jueAcw-s) 
black. - (Conversely, Hd. in a few instances has a for ij : p.tffap.{$piri for yueer- 

ia mid-day, south.) 

b. The Doric, on the other hand, has a for Attic 17 : Dor. Sa^os for Att. 
OS people, jttarrjp (Lat. mater) for /U^TTJP mother, 'A&dva (found also in Trag.) 
' - 

for 'Afrriva the goddess Athena ; so yiotiffa. for Mover?? to a Muse. - But not so, 
when 77 arises from a lengthening of e : Dor. and Att. ri&r)/j.t (stem &e) to put, 
\il*.-i]v (Gen. Ai/teVos) harbor. 

The Attic dramatists in lyric passages use the Dor. a for t] (3 b). 

c. The Ion. often lengthens e to et, and o to ov : |e?j/os for |eVos stranger, 
guest, ctVc/co (found also in later Att.) for eVefca on account of, povvos for p6vos 
alone, ovvopa for ovop.a name. - Hm. sometimes lengthens o to 01 : ijyvoirjffe 
for T]jv6fiff from dy^oew to be ignorant of; and a to at : irapai for Trapei &?/, near. 

d. The Dor. sometimes has <w for Att. ov : Mu<ra, for MoGo-o (Aeolic MoTo-a, 
usual in Pindar and Theocritus), SwAos (Theoc.) for SovAos s^aw. So Sy Dor. 
(and Hd.) foio6V therefore. 

25 D. A similar variation of cu to ov is seen in etA^Aov&a (Hm.) for &\.^Avfra 
I have come (stem eAvd-, lengthened eAevfr, 30). Even in the Attic, we find 
ff-ffovS-f) haste from corevSaj to hasten. 

26 D. So Ion. 'ArpeiSew, originally 'ArpefSao, Att. 'ArpeiSov of Atrides; 
Ion. TrvAeW, orig. irv\d(0jf, Att. irvXwv of gates ; Ion. riotretSecw, orig. 

, Att. n0o-<=i5z/ the god Poseidon. 


poetic fj,5>^os blame, a^v^v Nameless, illustrious; TrdXt -s city, 

cubit, Gen. TroXe-cos-, Tr^e-coy; ovivrj/j.!, (for ov-ovr]p.i) to benefit; poetic 

jmruXXco (for ar-araXXco) to foster. 

Vowels Lengthened. 

28. Lengthening of Vowels (Protraction) is 

A. Formative, when it is used as a means for the inflection 
and formation of words. 

By this, a, c, i, o, v, 

become 17 or a, rj, I, w, v. 

Thus the verbs rt/iaco, </uXea>, <3*z/a>, dn\6a>, (/>ua> (S), 
make the futures rt/Lu^o-w, ^tX^o-w, <j>3t'o-o>, S^Xdxro), <j)vo-(o. 

29. After e, t, p, the lengthened form of a is a, not 77 : thus 
the verbs eaw to permit, tao^at to Aea, Trepaoo to j9$ss through, 
make the futures eacrw, iao~o/x,at, Trepacrw. 

EEM. a. In general, the use of 77 was avoided in the Attic after e, t, p, 
and a was used instead. 

30. The close vowels (t, v) are sometimes lengthened by a 
prefixed e, giving t, ev, instead of I, v. Thus from the stems 
A.ITT, <vy, are formed AeiVw o leave, favyu to flee. 

31. B. Vicarious, when it takes the place of an omitted 

By this, a, c, t, o, v, 
become a, et, t, ov, v. 

Thus for aTra-in-a-i, (TTre-vS-o-a), yt-y-i/o/nat, XUQ-I/-O-I, eTrXc^-cr-a, 
we have mrao'ij erTreicro), ytVo/zat, Xuoucrt, e7r\vva. 

For an exception in which a becomes 77, see 337 : for one in which 
e, o, become 77, a>, see 156. 

28 D. Hm. lengthens a short vowel in many words which would otherwise 
be excluded from his verse, or could only come in by crasis (68) or elision 
(70). This occurs chiefly under the rhythmic accent (in arsis, 894), and most 
frequently in the first syllable of a word. Thus, where otherwise three short 
syllables would stand in succession : fyvopf-r] (for avoperi) from 'civ-ftp man, elapivds 
from eap spring, ov\6/j.evos for oAo^wej/os destroying, oi/peos, ovpea, from opos 
(never ovpos) mountain, v\l/iireTT)\os from ireraXoy leaf, Tifr-fi/Afvos for Tt&e/uevos 
putting, Svscrficav for Susaeaa/ from Svsa-fjs ill-blowing . - Also, where two long 
syllables would stand between two short ones: OV\V/J.TTOIO (for TDAu/iTroto) oj 
Olympus, fi\-f)\ov&a (for e\r)\ov&a) I have come. 

29 D. In the Ionic (Old and New), the combinations erj, nj, prj, are not 
avoided : tro? for Irea willow, lrjTp6s for Idrp6s physician, ireipiiffop.aj. for TreipS- 

The Doric, on the other hand, uniformly lengthens a to o: rtjua<rw foi 
I shall honor (24 D b). 


Vowels Contracted. 

32. Contraction unites concurrent vowels of different syl- 
lables into one long vowel or diphthong. 

Concurrent vowels are generally contracted, when the first 
is short and open (a, e, o) . Thus, 

An open short vowel (a, e, o), 

a. before a close vowel (t, v), forms a diphthong with it ; 

b. before a, e, rj, goes into the open long ; 

c. before o, w, gives w. 

d. But ee gives a ; eo, oe, oo give ov. 

a. 6-1 1 TToXe-t TToXfi C. a-O* 0) 

o-i ot 7rei3o-t jreiSot a-co oo 

b. a-a a yepa-a yepa e-oo co 

a-e a rt/xa-ere ri/iare o-eo o> ^Xo-ooo-i drjXaxri 

a-rj a rt/za^re Tt/xare d. e-e et <^i'Xe-e ^)i'Xei 

e-a 77 ret^e-a ret/ X'7 e " ow yeVe-oy yeiovs 

f-rj 77 <j)i\e-T)T6 (f)i\fjre o-e ov dr)\o-e drj\ov 

o-a co al86-a aida) o-o ov TrXo-os TrXoOy 

0-77 co 77X0-7776 577XaJre 

KEM. e. d before i gives a : yjjpa-V, y^pa (but see 183). 

33. Concurrent vowels are not generally contracted, when 
the first is either long or close. But sometimes, 

a, e, i, after a close or long vowel, are absorbed.- - 1, when 
it is thus absorbed in an open long vowel, becomes t subscript. 
- yo gives <o. 

t^Sy-aff t^SOff vr)-o8vvos vaftvvos rjpa>-a fjpa> 

pa-Loot/ patov np.rj'-fVTi Tifj,r]VTi Xa>-Vo"ros Xc3o"ros 

32 D. The dialects differ widely in respect to tho contraction of vowels. 

e. The Ionic (Old and New) has uncontracted forms in very many cases, 
where the Attic contracts : v6os for vovs mind, Te%ea for Te%?j walls, <pi\eris 
for <j>i\fis thou mayst love, ae/cwy for &KOOV unwilling, dotS^j for ^55^ song. - In 
a few instances, however, these dialects have contracted forms, where the 
Attic does not contract: Ion. 'ip6$ (and Iep6s) Att. Up6s sacred, jQwo-o/iat for 
f3(rfl< from fiodw to cry. 

f. The Ionic (especially the New Ionic) contracts eo, eov, into eu (instead 
of ou) : iroieu)tter, irotevffiy (from iroie-ofjiev, Trote-ovtn,) for Att. iroiov/j.ev we do, 
iroiovffi they do. This contraction is found also in the Doric. 

g. The Doric often contracts oe, aet, to ??, y : tipy, 6p$s, (from fya-e, 
6pd-eis,) for Att. opa see thou, 6p%s thou seest. 

h. The Doric sometimes contracts ao, aw, to a : 'ArpeiSa, orig. 
Att. 'Arpeftfou ; Tloffeitiav (or noreiSaf), Hm. Tloffeitidoov, Att. rio<ret5wi/; 
orig. &ed<6V dearum, Att. 3-ec5j/. 


34. A simple vowel before a diphthong is often contracted 
with its first vowel ; the last vowel is then rejected, unless it 
can be written as i subscript. 

Exc. a. eot and oot give ot. 

a-6t a rt/xa-et rtjua 77-01 77 Xv77~at Xvy 

0-77 a rip-d-rj rt/xa 77-61 77 ripy-eis 

a-ot w rt/io-ot rt/iw 77-04 <u ju.6)u 

a-ou eo Tipd-ov TipS} TJ-OV o) ^u,r) ouy 

e-at 77 Xvf-at Xv?7 o-6t oi> olvo-fis olvovs 

e-i 6t <piXe'-6t ^>tXet o-ou ou 877X0-01; 77X00 

6-77 77 d)L\-TJ (J)l\7) 6-Ot Ol (f)l\f-Ot 0lXoT 

f-OTj ou <ptXe-ou (ptXoO o-ot ot 877X0-01 877X01 

35. In a few exceptional cases, the contraction is made with the last 
vowel of the diphthong. Thus, 

a. aet sometimes gives at instead of a : al<r]s unseemly from aetx^y, 
atpw to take up from aeipco. 

b. eat in the second person singular of verbs gives both 77 and et : 
\i>T) or Xvet from Auecu. 

c. OPI and o?/, in the second and third persons of verbs in oo>, give ot : 
drjXois from drfXoeis and 

36. Important cases of irregular contraction depend upon the follow- 
ing rules : 

a. In contracts of the vowel-declension (Decl. I. and II.), a short 
vowel followed by a, or by any long vowel-sound, is absorbed : oVre'-a, 
ocrra (not 00-777) ; pyupe-ai>, dp-yvpavj 071X0-77, 077X77 (not 077X00) ; cWXo- 
aty, StTrXaty. - Only in the singular, ea, after any consonant but p, is 
contracted to 77 : xpuo-e'-a, xpwfl- 

b. In the consonant-declension (Decl. III.), the contracted accusa- 
tive plural takes the form of the contracted nominative plural: thus 

Nom. PI. fvyfve-fs, evyevels) Ace. PI. evyevf-as, evyevels (not firyfVjjs) J 
Nom. PI. fj.fioves [/Met^o-es 1 ] fiei(oys r Ace. PI. p.eiovas \jj.(io-as] p.iovs 
(not jnei^cos). 

Other cases of irregular contraction will be noticed as they occur. 

37. SYNIZESIS. Sometimes two vowels, which could not form a 
diphthong, were yet so far united in pronunciation, as to pass for one 
syllable: thus Seo's god, used in poetry for one syllable. This is called 
synizesis (settling together). It is not indicated in the writing, and 
therefore appears only in poetry, where it is detected by the measure of 
the verse. 

f*7 D. Synizesis is very frequent inHm., especially after e: frvpeoov of doors, 
lots golden, ffrJibea breasts, ir6\ias cities, oySoos eighth, all used as irordfl 
A two syllables. 


Vowels Omitted. 

38. A short vowel between two consonants is sometimes drop- 
ped (syncope) : Trarpos (for Trarepos) from ira-njp father, yXSov (for 
r/A.v$ov) from epxo//,ai to come. 

39. v at the end of a stem is often dropped between two 
VOWels : /3ao-iAe-u>v (for /Jao-iAev-cov) from / foV^, aKO-rj (for 
aKov-r?) hearing from aKov'-w to Aear. 

In this case, v was first changed to the cognate semivowel, the di- 
gainma (/Sao-tXeFan/, a/eoF?;), which afterwards went out of use (23 D). 

REM. a. Similarly, i is sometimes dropped between two vowels : 
for /cat'-co to ~burn, 7rXe-ooi> for irXfi-w more. 

Consonants Doubled. 

40. The semivowels are often found doubled ; less often, the smooth 
and rough mutes ; the middle mutes and double consonants, never. Thus 
/SaXXco to throw, ^dfjifjios sand, cwea nine, Kopprj temple, racrcra) = rarrco to 
arrange, tmros horse, KOKKV cuckoo. 

REM. a. Double gamma (yy = ng) is not an exception ; the two 
letters, though alike in form, are different in sound. 

HEM. b. When the rough mutes are doubled (which occurs mostly in 
proper names), the first goes into the cognate smooth, making TT<, r3, KX, 
instead of <<, 33, XX thus 2a7r(/>&>, 'Ai-Su's-, EO.KXOS. 

41. Double tau (TT) occurs mostly as the later Attic form, 
for era- in the earlier Attic and the other dialects : Tarro) to ar- 
range, KpeiTTcov stronger, later Attic for rao-o-w, 

42. Double sigma (o-o-) is sometimes produced by composition of 
words: O-VO-O-ITOS messmate from <rvv with and crlTosfoo'd (52). But usu- 
ally it is the result of euphonic changes described in 58-60. Only in the 
latter case does it become TT in the later Attic. 

38 D. Syncope is frequent in Hm. : riVre for TliroTe wherefore, e'/ce'/cAero for 
6-/c6-/ceA.-eTO he cried. 

40 D. Hm. in many words doubles a consonant which is single in the com- 
mon form, espec. a semivowel : eAAajSe for e-AajSe he took, (j>t\ for (f)i\o- 
jueiSrjs fond of smiles, eiWrjros for etf-yrjTos well-spun, offffov for '6ffov quantum, 

biriffffca for oirlffca backward ; less often a mute: OTTTTUS for oirtas as, orri for 

'6n that, e5Seio"e for cSej<re he feared. In some words he has both a single and 
a double form : 'AxiAAevy, J OSv<r<reus, less often 'Ax^Aevy, 'OSvffevs. 

For some cases in Hm. (/ca550(rat, vjSjSc^AAetv, etc.), in which a middle mute 
is found doubled, see 73 D. 


43. Rho (p) at the beginning of a word is doubled, when, b} 
formation or by composition, a simple vowel is brought before 
it : pew to flow, e-ppei was flowing, Kara-ppeW flowing down. - 
After a diphthong, p remains single : eu-poos fair-flowing. 

REM. a. In other cases, pp is the later Attic form, for po- in the 
earlier Attic and the other dialects : /cop/fy temple, $appos cour* 
age, for Kopa-t], $apo-os. 

Consonant- Changes. 

44. Before a r-mute, a TT- or K-mute becomes co-ordinate. 

/3r and <pr become TTT yr and X T become KT 

rerptTrrai for Terpt/3-rat XeXexrat for XeXey-rai 

yeypanrat yeypafp-rat ' SeSexrat 

REM. a. The combinations allowed by this rule (TTT-, KT, /3S, y5, $3, x^j 
and the double mutes in 40 (TTTT, rr0, TT, r3, KK, KX)? are the only combi 
nations of mutes with mutes, which occur in Greek. 

45. A r-mute before another r-mute is changed to <r. 

i'are for iS-re TreVetorai for 7re7rei3-rai 

iVSt i8-3t eTTcior'Srjv CTre^-^rjv 

But rr and rS stand without change, when both letters belong to the 
Stem : rarrw, ' 


46. Before /A, a 7r-mute becomes ^ ; 

a K-mute " y ; 

a r-mute " a. 

XeXet/x/iat for XeXet7r-/xai for dede}(-fji,ai yeypa< 

TreTrXeK-juat TreVeta-fiat 7re7ret3-/zai 

43 D. In Hm., p sometimes remains single, even after a simple vowel : 
from pefa to do, uKv-poos swift-flowing. 

46 D. In Hm., a final /c^mute or r-mute in the stem often remains un 
changed before fj. in the ending : iK-p.Gvos favoring (stem IK : iKdvca to come\ 
aKax-pevos sharpened (stem UK or ax '. Lat. acuo), 08-^ Att. oa-fA-f} smell (stem 
o5 : ofy to smell, Lat. odor), fS-yuei/ Att. fofjiev we know (stem t5 : oT8a). 
uevos equipped (stem Kopvfr: ' N 


HEM. a. This rule seldom fails, when a final mute in the stem is fol 
lowed by n in the ending : UK-^TI acme. In other cases it is not much 
observed: Ke-K^rj-Ka am wearied out, e-r^-^v was cut^ pv-^p.6s rhythm 
i-aS/zo's isthmus. 

REM. b. Before the other liquids, X, p, i/, the mutes remain unchang- 
ed. Yet we find (TC/JLVOS revered for o-eft-vos (o-j3-o/xai to revere), and 
murky for epe/3-i/oy (epfjSos tliick darkness). 


47. Before <r, a 7r-mute forms ^ (= TTO) 

a K-rnute forms $ (= K<T) ; 

a r-mute is dropped without further change. 

for XeiTT-crco Kopa for KopaK-s (roofiao'i for cnwjuar-o'i 
Tpi/3-a-o) (pXo^ (p\oy-s eXnio-i f\7Ti8-<ri 

ypa<p-(ra) /3^ l^ r )X~ s opvi(ri opvft-cri 

M. a. The preposition c' ( CKS) in composition drops s before any 
consonant (54), but undergoes no further change : eVc-j3aiVo> to ^o ow^, not 
ey/3cui>a>, eK-arparevo to march out, not erpareua>. 


48. N before a labial becomes /* ; 

before a palatal becomes y (nasal) ; 
before X, p, is assimilated ; 

before cr is dropped, and the preceding vowel is leng- 
thened (31). 

for ev-rras (ruyKcuoo for aw-Kaico c'XXeiTrco for V-\cnra> 


eyea) ' fv-^eca KTCLS KTCV-S 

\vovo-i \vov-<ri 

49. So also vr, v8, v^, are dropped before o- (47), and the 
preceding vowel is lengthened (31). 

ftovs for dovr-s (TTreia-ct) for crTre^S-oro) TreiVo/iai for Trti/S-o-o/iai 

50. Before <ri of the dative plural, the vowel remains un- 
changed, when v alone is dropped : /^Aoun, X^la-i, oat/Aoo-i, for 
/x,Aav-<n, Xtjaev-o-t, 8ai/xov-o-t. But when vr is dropped, the vowel 
is lengthened ; Trao-t, $et<ri, Xijovcrt, for Travr-crt, ^ei/T-crt, Auovr-0-i. 

Exc. a. Adjectives (not participles) in -eis make -e <n, instead of -eto-t, 
in the dative plural : x a p' ie(Ti f r x a P LVT ~ cri ^ rom X a P^ ts pleasing. 

51. a. Before /* in the endings of the perfect middle, v is commonly 
changed to o- : Trecpao-pai for 7re<pctv-ftcu. 

47 D. In Hm., a r-tnute is sometimes assimilated to a following a", 
for 7ro8-<n Att. TTOO-^ <o feet. 


b. Before cr in the endings of the perfect middle, v retains its place , 
irecpav-crai. Similarly we find vs in the nominatives efyivs worm, Tipws 
Tiryns, for eX/zti/3-s, Tipw^-s (47). 

52. In composition, 

fv before p, cr, retains v : ev-puS/zos-, eV-crra&>. 
TTO.V, Trakiv, before cr, retain v : irdv-o-o(pos ; 

or change v to & I naXicr-crvTos. 
o-vv, before <r with a vowel, becomes trvcr- : O-VO--O-LTIOV ; 

before a- with a cons., or , becomes av- : o-u-crT^a, cru-vyos-. 

53. N, brought by syncope before p, is strengthened by an inserted 5: 
this happens in the declension of dvrjp man : dvdpos for avpos for avepos, 
Similarly, p, before p is strengthened by an inserted /3, in 

cfoy, s<mA, for p.earr}p.(e)pia from /netros- and fjp.epa. 

54. Sigma (<r) between two consonants is dropped : 
$ai for yeypa<po-$cu, eK/3aiV<o for e-/3giij/co (47 a). 

Not so, however, when initial cr is brought by composition between 
two consonants : eWrd&> not fv-rafa. 

55. When two sigmas are brought together by inflection, one of them 
is dropped : rei'^ecrt for Tet^f<r-cri, ecrTracrai for 

56. The combination erd, in some adverbs of place (204), passes into 

w for 

For <r omitted, in the nom. sing. 3d decl., see 156 ; in the 1 Aor. of 
liquid verbs, see 382 ; in the verbs et/ii to 1)6 and rj/ztu to sit, see 406. 

57. The liquids (especially /o, X) are subject to this change: 
$dpcros (43 a) courage, also $pacros ; thus, too, 
aorist e-Sop-ov, present 3po>-o-Ko> ; present /3aX-Xco, perfect jSe'-jSXq-Ka ; 

In the last four examples the vowel is also lengthened. 

53 D. In a few Epic words, p. before p or A is strengthened by an inserted 
j8 : ^i6-/ij8Aw-/ca have gone (from stem /ioA, by transposition ^uAo, p.\<a, 57). At 
the beginning of a word, /j. before p or A becomes j8 : /3Ac6<rK<w to go, from stem 
jiioA (cf. &o(ao-K(i> from stem frop, 57); Sports mortal, from stem ^op, /j.po (57), 
Lat. mor-ier, mor-tuus. 

55 D. In Hm., both sigmas are often retained : eVecr-cn Att. eVecn to words, 
fff-ffi Att. el thou art. 

56 D. The Aeolic nas cr5 for (^in the middle of a word ; this is often found 
1 K Theocritus : jueAfcrSw Att. weAi'&> to make melody. 

57 D. Metathesis is very frequent in Hm. : Kaprep6s and KparepSs powerful, 
K&pTiffros = Att. Kpdriffros most powerful, best, from Kpdros power ; arapirfo 
Att. orpaTTfJS path, Tpa.Trelop.ev for Tapireiofiev (stem repTr : reoTrco o delight) : 
eimilarly, e8pa.Kov from SepK-opai to see, eirpa&ov from irep^-w ^o destroy. 



58. The close vowel i, following a consonant, gives rise to 
various changes. Thus, frequently, 

1. Iota, after v and p, passes over to the preceding vowel 
and unites with it by contraction. 

for x f P~ t<x>v reiva) for rev-ia 

dorep-ia Kptvco Kplv-ico 

ptiv-iopai <rvpa> (rvp-ia> 

REM. a. In like manner we have -ei?, originally -eo-i, in the second 
person singular of verbs : \veis for Xv-eo-i. 

59. 2. Iota, after X, is assimilated. 

p.a\\ov for p.a\-iov aXXos for a\-ios Lat. alius, 

o-reXXco crreX-ico aXXojuat dX-io/xat Lat. salio. 

60. 3. Iota, after K-mutes (less often after r, $), forms with 
them cror (later Attic TT, 41). 

fj(7(r(i)V for r)K-ta>v eXa(rcra)f for eXu^-ieoi/ 

Qpaao-a Qpan 10. Kpfj<r<ra Kprjr-ia 

Tao"(rco ray-ico Kopvcrcrci) Kopv^-ico 

For TreVo-o) to C00& from stem TTCTT, see 429. 

61. 4. Iota, after 8 (sometimes after y), forms with it . 

tXTrt'^co for eXTTtS-tco p-ei^cov for pey-Kov 

For i/i'o> to was/i from stem j/i/3, see 429. 

62. 5. Tan, before t, often passes into <r. 

St'Sooo-t, originally Si'Scori TrXovo-ioy for TrXovrtoy from TrXoCros 

Xyoucri for Xuovcrj, orig. Xvovrt oratris for oraris" Lat. statio. 
REM. a. The same change occurs, though rarely, before other vowels : 
cru, o-o/, o-e', originally ry, TO/, TC, 0-rjfj.epov to-datffor rrjuepov. 


63. Sigma, when not supported by a consonant before or 
after it, often disappears. Thus, in many cases, 

1. Initial sigma, followed by a vowel, goes into the rough 
breathing: vs for crOs Lat. sus, la-Trjfju for cno-r^/xi Lat. sisto. 

64. 2. Sigma between two vowels is dropped : 
Thus \vrj contracted from Xvtat for Xueo-at, \vaaio for Xvo-ato-o, yevovs 

contracted from yeWos- for yevecros Lat. generis. 

REM. a. Similarly, v in some forms of the comparative is dropped 

between two vowels : jue/o> contracted from /xeiba for ^d^ova. 

62 D. The Doric often retains the original T : 8/5am, At5o*T<, Tt5, TO/, T 
Even the older Attic retains it in r^fj-epov and a few other words. 



65. To avoid the harshness felt when two successive syllables 
begin with rough sounds, a change was often made in one of 
them. Thus, 

a. Reduplications change a rough mute to the cognate 
smooth : 7re-cjta)-Ka, for </>e-</>u-/<a, TL-Srj-jjii for $L-$r)-fJii) e-K-p(u-/A?7V 
for e-^e-^v-/x^j/, Hm. a/c-d^7y-/x,at for a^-a^-/xat. 

b. The imperative ending $t becomes TL after 3t] in the first 
aorist passive : Xv-S-rj-n for \v-Sri-3i. 

c. The stems 3e, 3u, of T/3>7/u to put, 3ua> to offer, become re, TV, be- 
fore Sty in the first aorist passive : e-re-Sqi/, e-rv-Zrjv. 

d. Single instances are a^n^x^i a^ia-x^ to clothe, for apxp., c/cexetpia 
truce for t^e-^apm (from e^oo and x fl 'p)i au d a few other words. 

e. To the same rule we may refer e^o) to have, hold, for e-x&> (future 
eo>) originally o-e^oj (424, 11), and '{<rx<0 for to-^co orig. o-t-o-(e)x-&>. 

66. Transfer of aspiration is found in a few stems which begin with 
r and end with (p or x- When, for any cause, the rough sound is lost at 
the end of the stem, it appears in the first letter, changing r to 3. This 

a. In the substantive- stem rptx hair (gen. sing, rpixos, nom. plur. 
rpt'xe?, but) nom. sing. 3pi', dat. plur. 3pii. 

f>. In the adjective raxvs swift, superlative raxto-roy, but comparative 
3d<r(rcoi> (Sarrcoif) for ra^iw (222). 

c. In the verb-stems. 
pres. rpe'<pa> to nourish, fut. Spe'^a), subst. Spe'/zp-a nursling; 

weaken, " 3pti\^co, " rpvcprj delicacy ; 
> smolce, perf. 

KEM. d. We find e^pefp^rjv in the aorist passive, TtSpuffiai in the per- 
fect middle infinitive. In these forms, 3 was used as the first letter of 
the stem, because the last letter was supposed to be properly a TT, but 
changed to <p by 44. The same remark applies to the other stems in c. 

For the aspiration of a smooth or middle mute in the formation of the 
second perfect active, see 341, cf. 392. 

65 D. Hm. often has a smooth breathing, where the Attic has the rough : 
'At'STjs (from a privative and iSeiv to see) Att. "AiStis the god Hades, &fj.aa Att. 
ttjuo^a wagon, T?\JOS Att. %\ios sun, rjcfo (so Hd.) Att. eW dawn, ?pr)}- (so Hd., 
cf. 32 D e) Att. te/>a| hawk. Cf. Hd. ovpos Att. '6pos boundary. - A smooth 
mute used instead of a rough, is seen in aSrts (Hm. Hd.) Att. av&is again, oO/cf 
(Hm. Hd.) Att. ovxt not, 5e/co^iat (Hd.) Att. Sexofia,i to receive. 

66 D. Hd. shows a transfer of aspiration in KI&&V Att. x ir ^ v tunic, and ev 
vra there, e^eurev thence, Att. ej/rav&a, 

(>8] HIATUS. CEASIS. 19 


67. HIATUS. When a word ending with a vowel and another be- 
ginning with a vowel are pronounced in immediate succession, the result 
is a hiatus. This, though not agreeable to the Attic ear, was often en- 
dured in prose : often, however, it was obviated by crasis or elision or 
the addition of a movable consonant. Crasis and elision occur especially 
when the first of the two words is short and unimportant, or when the 
two words are often used together. 


68. Crasis (mingling) is a contraction of the final and initial 
vowels in two successive words. The two words are then written 
as one, with a coronis (hook) ' over the vowel in which they join. 
Thus TOVVO.VTLOV for TO IvavTiov, $oiyu,anov (72) for TO I/XCOTIOI/, Trpovp- 
yov for Trpo epyov, a>ya$e for w dya$e. 

Crasis is used chiefly after forms of the article, the relative pronouns 
o, of, the preposition wpo, the conjunction KUI, and the interjection w. It 
follows, generally, the rules already given for contraction. 

HEM. a. If the first word ends in a diphthong, its last vowel disap- 
pears in crasis ; if the second word begins with a diphthong, its last 
vowel remains (as i subscript or v) : KCLV for KCU V, K&V for KCII civ or KOI 
e'ai>, Kara for KCU etra, Kavrfj for /cat aiirr] (xco, ^6), poetic for Kal 6, KOI ot), 
for e'yob ot'/xat. 

67 D. HIATUS IN EPIC POETRY, In Epic poetry, the hiatus is allowed in 
many cases ; the most important are the following : 

a. when the second word begins with digamina : /carcfc dlnov Kara VOIKOV 
in the house. Here the hiatus is only apparent. 

b. when the first word ends in a close vowel (i, v) and seldom or never 
suffers elision : iraiSl oiracra-e he bestowed on his son. 

c. when the two words are separated by a mark of punctuation : /CC&TJITO, 
fj.y 5' firnrei&eo fj.v&u sit down, and comply with my saying. 

d. when the vowels, which make hiatus, are the two short syllables of the 
third foot : TUV ol \ e| lye- \ vovro e- | v\ jj.eyd- \ poiffi ye- \ ve&\ri. The two 
words are then separated by the feminine caesura of the third foot (910). 

e. when a long vowel or diphthong at the end of the first word gives up a 
part of its quantity, and becomes short before the following initial vowel : 
'ATpe?5at re /cat \Aot e'i)/a>^t5es 'Axaiol (-l-j!v/wJLww.i_Jlw^-L-). This 
is regarded as a weak (improper) hiatus, being relieved by the sacrifice of 

68 D. Crasis is rare in Hm. ; in Hd., it is not frequent. It is most exten- 
sively used in Attic poetry. In cases where a short initial vowel is swallowed 
up by a final long vowel or diphthong, the two words are sometimes written 
separately, with an apostrophe in place of the initial vowel : ^ 'y& for 

for ^'Sr? ee/>X 6TC ' 

20 ELISION. [68 

REM. b. The rough breathing of the article or relative pronoun, if 
these stand first, is retained, and takes the place of a coronis : av for a av 
(OUK, ovni, poetic for 6 e/c, 6 eVt, ovvena poetic for ov eveKa). 

REM. c. In crasis of the article, its final vowel or diphthong, when fol- 
lowed by initial o, disappears in it : avr\p (a) for 6 dvf)p(a), rdvdpi for ro> 
dvdpi, TauTo, ravrd, TUVTOV, for TO at/ro, ra at>Ta, ToC avrov. The particle 
rot in this respect follows the article : pevrav for uevrm av. 

"Erepos other enters into crasis under the form arepos (a) : thus arepos 
(a) for 6 erepos, Sarepov, Sarepov, for TO erfpov, TOV eTe 

69. SYNIZESIS (37). Sometimes the final and initial vowels, though 
not contracted by crasis, were so far united in pronunciation, as to serve 
in poetry for one syllable. This occurs only after a long vowel or diph- 
thong ; especially after the conjunctions eVet since, rj or, rj interrogative, 
ur) not, and the pronoun eyo> /: thus rei ov, as two syllables : and so py 

n'XXot, e'yoo ov. 


70. Elision is the cutting off of a final short vowel before a 
following initial vowel. The place of the elided vowel is marked 
by an apostrophe '. Thus CTT' avrw for e?rt avrC>. 

The following words are generally subject to elision : 

a. Words of one syllable in e, as ye, de, re. 

b. Prepositions and conjunctions of two syllables ; 

except Trep/, <ixp l , ^XP l i OTl - 

c. Some adverbs in common use, such as eVi, a/xa, eira, /zciXa, TO^O. 
Exempt from elision are 

d. The vowel v. 

e. Final a, t, o, in words of one sy liable. 

f. Final a in the nominative of the first declension, and t in the da- 

tive of the third. 

REM. g. Forms, which can take v movable (79), are not affected by 
elision in prose, except only eW/ is. 

Remark c is nearly confined to the Attic. Hm. has tipia-ros, u>vr6s (with 
coronis in place of the rough breathing) for 6 &PUTTOS, 6 avr6s. lid. has wv-fip 
for 6 avfip, TuXy&es for rb aA?7&es, tivfrpooTroi for ot &v&pcairoi (yet rav&ptairov for 
TOV o,v&p&irov\ courts, coyTot, TOIUTOU (cf. 11 D), for o auT^s, ot avToi, TOV avTOv, 
TOVTepov for T& eVepor. 

70 D. Elision is less frequent in Hd. than in Attic prose. It is most exten- 
sively used in poetry, even in Epic poetry, being applied not only to short 
rowels, but even to the diphthongs at and ot in the verb-endings jwat, o-at, rat, 
trfrai, and in the forms fj.oi, TOL. 

"OTt is subject to elision in Hm., never in Attic poetry. The same is true 
of t in the dative (sing, and plur.) of the third declension. Many forms, which 
might take v movable, suffer elision in poetry : and so, further, the particle pd 
(only used in Epic, cf. 865), the possessive pronoun o-t, and the nom. sing, in a 
of the first declension. 


71. Elision occurs also in the formation of compound words, 
but then without the apostrophe to mark it : a7raiTeu> from 0.71-0 
and cureo), ouSa's from ouSe and els, 8ie/3a\ov from Sia and e/3oAov, 
d/x/Trexco (cf. 65 d) from djatpt and e^co. 

72. A smooth mute and rough breathing, brought together 
by elision, give the cognate rough mute : 

(p' carlos for UTT(O) co-nay, Ka3' rjp.fpav for Kar(a) ^jue'pav, 

rjdixrjx vp,as for f]8iKr]K^a) v^as, V ^X^ o\r\v for i/t;KT(a) 6X?ji/ (44). 
So also in compound words : 

dcpatpeo) from UTTO and aipeo>, Ka%ir)p.i from Kara and t?7/^t, 

d(Xr)[j,pos from e*:a and J^f'pa, 6<p3??p.epoy from eTrrd and 17/if'pa. 

The same effect is seen also in crm's : Sarepov for ro erepoi/ (poet. x<*> 
for KUI o, 63oi>i/eKa for orou e 

HEM. a. The same change of mute takes place, notwithstanding an in- 
tervening p, in cj)povdos (from Trpd and oSos), (ppovpos (from Trpo and 6pao>), 
(from rerrapa and 

Final Consonants. 

74. At the end of a Greek word, 

a. the only consonants allowed to stand are v, p, s ; 

b. the only combinations of consonants are ^ (TTS), (KS), 

and y{ (nx). 

Exc. c. 'E //-orn (80 c) and OUK, o^ ^^i (80 a) have no accent of 
their own, and were hardly felt to be separate words. 

Exc. d. Final As-, v?, are found only in the nominatives a\$ salt, sect, 
e\fj.ivs worm and Tlpws Tiryns (51). 

72 D. In the New Ionic (Hd.), the smooth mute remains unchanged before 
the rough breathing : air' ov for o^>' nu, OVK ovrtas for ov% OVTWS, KariTjp.i for 
/co^(7j/it, rovrepov for T& erepov. 

73 D. APOCOPE. Similar to elision, but confined to poetry, is apocope, the 
cutting off of a final short vowel before an initial consonant. In Hm., this 
is seen in the conjunction &p for &pa, the prepositions &v, KC{T, irdp, for di/cf, 
Kar<L, irapd (and rarely in a?r, UTT for OTT^, wW). The apocopate forms are used 
both as separate words and in composition. The v of &v is subject to the rules 
in 48. The r of KCT is assimilated to the following consonant ; but before two 
consonants it is dropped. ' Thus ris T* &p ro)f, irap^eVere for TrapajueVere, kfj. 
irefiloi/ for dj/^i TreStor, d\Aua> for>, /cdp p^ov for /card p"<W, /cd/c Kopvfytiv 
for /card Kop-ixp^v, Kay y6vv (pronounced Jcag gonu) for /card y6vv, d8 5e for 
/card Se, /coS50(rot for /caroSCa'ai, /CCTT <bd\apa (40 b) for /card <{>d\apa, KaTfraveiv 
for KaTa^ai/er^, /ca/craye for /care/crcwe (aTTTre^^et for aTTOTre^ej, v$$a\\eiv for 
v7roj8aAA.e/). - Compare Kdfj./j.opo$ (Hm.) ill-fated for Kaic-fiopos for KaKo-popos 

Here belongs also Dor. TT^T (only before the article) for T = Att. TT^^S 
thus TT^T rdy (or irorrav) parepa. 

74 D. For some apparent exceptions (&/.i ireStov, Kay y6vv, etc.), see 73 D. 


75. Other consonants at the end of a word are dropped: 

o-cofta body, for, genitive o-co/xar-o?, 

fieXi honey, jueXtr, " /xeXir-or, 

ydXa ?m&, -yaXaKT, " yaXaKr-os, 

fja-av were, rja-avr, cf. Lat. erant, 

irai ~boy, TratS, genitive TratS-oy, 

yvyat woman, yvvaiK, " ywaiK-or. 

76. A final r-mute is also changed to s : 

repay prodigy, for rfpar, genitive repar-oy, 

<?, Trpor, from Trpori (Hm.), 

So3, frorn SoSt. 

77. A final ^ is changed to v, but after a it is often dropped : 
frtirjv I placed, originally erftrjn, present r/S^/xt, 
prj\ov apple, p.rfXo/j., cf. Lat. malum, 

VVKTO. night, i/u/crap,, cf. Lat. noctem, 

eXvcra / loosed, " 

Movable Consonants. 

78. N MOVABLE. Some words ending in a vowel annex v, 

a. before a word beginning with a vowel, and 

b. at the end of a sentence. 

Thus, a. Tracriv eftooKa, b. eScoxa Tracriv, I gave to all: but, before a 
consonant, rrao-i di'</xi I give to all. 

REM. c. This v is also called e'cpeXKuo-riKoV (dragging after} : in the 
first case (a), it obviates hiatus : in the second (b), it gives a fuller close. 
The poets, for the latter reason, use it generally at the end of a line or 
verse. Often, also, they use it before a consonant, thus making a final 
short syllable long by position (86). Even in prose, it would seem, from 
many inscriptions and old manuscripts, that v movable was often used 
before a consonant. 

79. N movable is added, 

a. after e in the third person singular : !'o\o/<e(v) he gave. 

b. after at in all words, viz. 

(a) in the third person singular and plural : didaxr^v) lie gives, 8t- 
Soacri(V) they give. So, also, e<m'(y) is. 

78 D. In the New Ionic (Hd.), which does not avoid a concurrence of vow- 
els, v movable is not used. 

79 D. In Hm., the pronoun eyc6(v), and the plural datives (233 D) &/iifj.i(v), 
Vjj,/ju(v), ff<l>i(v), have v movable. So also forms with the suffix tyi (206 D) : fre- 
6<j>i(v) to gods. Likewise most adverbs of place in d-ep (203) : &vevbe(v) away 
from, without, irdpe&f(v) before (in place or time). Further v6ff$i(v) apart, and 
the enclitic pirticles KC(V) = Att. &v t and vv(v) now. 

In Hd., some adverbs in dej/ reject v: so irp6ff&e before, tjTna&e behind, 


f/3) in the dative plural : Trao-t(f) to all. 

(y) in adverbs of place : 'A%f)vr)<n(v) at Athens. 

(d) in e iKocrt twenty, Trepvan last year^ Travrairacn altogether. 

80. a. The adverb ov not, before a vowel, becomes OUK, but before the 
rough breathing, ov% (cf. 72) : ov Xeyco, OVK. aurds, oi>x ovras. 

b. Mq not follows the analogy of ov, only in the compound /nTy/ceVt, 
like OVKCTI, no longer. 

c. 'E (es) /row and ouroos- thus drop $ before consonants : <' d*po 

but (K TTJS TTO\<JOS (cf. 47 a) ; ouroos a7re/3^, but oura> Seiko's. 


81. Every single vowel or diphthong, whether with or without con- 
sonants before or after it, makes a distinct syllable. Thus vyieia has 
four syllables. 

82. In the division of syllables, 

a. Consonants at the beginning of a word connect themselves with 
the following vowel ; at the end of a word, with the preceding vowel : 
irpo-edpff-ai', o-rpo-<pd-Xty (Hm.). 

b. Consonants in the middle of a word, between two vowels, are 
assigned to the following vowel. This is always the case with one con- 
sonant, even if it be a double consonant : I-KCI-VOS, O-V//-O-JMCU. It is the 
case also with most combinations of two or more consonants : e-a-xov, 
i-crS/ids, e-^3pOffj p'd-/3So?, d-p.vos. 

83. But in a combination of two or more consonants, the first con- 
nects itself with the preceding vowel, 

a. when it is a liquid or a nasal: ap-/za, e'X-Tn's, eV-SoV, /<ay-^d^<B. 
Only /ii/ go together : Kafiz>a>. 

b. when the same consonant is doubled: Sfao-o-eoi/, iir-nosi so too 
2a7T-(a>, 'Ar-Si's, Btk-xoy (40 b). 

84. Further, in the division of syllables, 

a. Words connected by elision are treated as a single word : aX-X* 
ai/-S' O-TOU. So in composition : f-ira-vd-yfiv from eVi, dvd, ayeiv. 

b. Compounds formed without elision are treated as if their elements 
were separate words : fl-pos-ae-riVco, not Trpo-se-KTivu. 

85. a. Pure Vowels and Syllables. When two successive 
vowels of a word belong to different syllables, the second vowel 
and syllable are said to be pure (not mixed with a preceding 
consonant) : TO/U-OS, />. 

80 D. A movable s is found, though used with little reference to euphony, 
>n the following adverbs : etju<|>t about, Hm. also &,/*(j>is ; &vriKpvs right opposite, 
S. ja. only aj/riitpv ; arpe/ta and arpefj-as quietly, mostly poet. ; &%pt, Ate^pt, ww^/, 
rarely ^%P ty > M^xpw ; eu&tf (Hd. t^tJ) straight towards, eu&us (Hd. /^vs) straight' 
way, but in Hm. only Ifrvs straight towards ; pea-riyv and nefftiyus between (Hm. 
<ro-.) ; iroAAct/cis o/ifew, Ton. also iro\\&Ki. (Hm. Hd.). 

24 QUANTITY. [85 

b. Ultima, Penult, Antepenult. The last syllable of a word 
is called the ultima ; the one next to the last, penult (penultima) ; 
the one before the penult, antepenult (antepenultima). 


86. A syllable is long by nature, when it has a long vowel 
or diphthong : Kpl-voC-fxqy. 

A syllable is long by position, when its vowel is followed by 
two consonants or by a double consonant : o//,-<a|. 

The consonants, which make a final syllable long by position, may 
be partly or wholly in the following word : thus the second syllable in 
a'AAof roVof, and in aAAo aTojua, is long by position. 

REM. a. In a syllable long by position, the vowel was sounded long 
or short, according to its natural quantity, without reference to the fol- 
lowing consonants. Thus the first vowel was sounded short in Ae'<, 
KaAAoy, TT/Trre, long in Ar^co, juaAAon, pus-re, though the first syllable in all 
these words was long. 

87. When a vowel naturally short is followed by a mute and 
liquid, the syllable is common, that is, it may be used as long 
or short, at pleasure : thus in re/cvov, ru^Xos, ri Spa?, the first syl- 
lable is common. But, 

a. The mute and liquid must be in the same word. Hence the pre- 
position eK before a liquid always (even in composition) makes a long 
syllable : e'/c ve&v, fVcAVyv. 

b. The rule applies to middle mutes ((3, 5, y) only before p ; before 
A, fi, i/, they always make a long syllable : thus in /3t'/3Aos, rciy/za, edva, 
the first syllable is always long. 

86 D. A long vowel or diphthong at the end of a word makes a short 
syllable, when the next word begins with a vowel : et 8)j 6/j.ov (- w ), /cof 
fjLoi 0/j.ocra-ov ( - ), see 67 D e. This rule is observed in epic poetry, and 
in the choruses of the dramatic poets. - But the long vowel or diphthong re- 
mains long : (1) when the rhythmic accent falls upon it (in arsis, 894) : / /te- 
yoAoj aSur&j (!- w - "-) ; (2) when the next word began with the digamma : 
eKaT&j/ /cal efitoffi (" * w ) ; (3) when it is followed by a pause in the sense. 
- A long vowel or diphthong is rarely made short before a vowel in the same 
word : Hm. olos ( w w ), j8eA.7jai oi5 5 ( ^ ). 

One of the consonants, which make position, may be the (unwritten) di- 

gamma : T0l6v 01 TTVp = T0l6v FOt TTVp (- - -). 

87 D. In Hm., a short vowel before a mute and liquid, generally makes a 
syllable long by position : TSKVOV, ri K^aieis (- - -^-), VTTUOS Trav^ajj.^Twp 
(_I.ww). - Even before a simple liquid at the beginning of a word, a final 

short vowel often makes a long syllable: Ka\-f]v re ^eyaArjz/ re (- - ^ - ) 
So too before a digamma : curb eo = airb reo (^ - v ). So also before S in the 
etem Sei (409 D, 5) and in S-f]v long. In such cases, the liquid or digamma waa 
perhaps doubled in pronouncing : Set and 5^ seem to have begun with 8r. 

90J ACCENT. 25 

88. The quantity of most syllables is obvious at once. Thus, 

a. with r], co, or a diphthong, are always long. 

b. with e, o, before a vowel or single consonant, are short. 

c. with e, o, before two cons, or a double cons., are long. 

d. with a, L, v, before two cons, or a double cone., are long. 
Rules c and d are liable to the exception in 87. There re- 
main, then, subject to uncertainty, only the syllables with a, i, v, 
before a vowel or single consonant. Even these are long, 

e. when they have the circumflex accent : Kplve. 

f. when they arise from a contraction : 'a/con/ from 'cte/cwv. 

g. when v or VT is dropped after the vowel : XeXvKdo-t for 

AeAvKccvcn, Sa/ci/us for SCIKVWTS : but see 50. 

REM. h. The quantity of a, t, v, so far as it is connected with inflec- 
tion, will be noticed in the course of the grammar. In other cases, it 
may be learned by consulting the lexicons, or by observing the usage of 
Greek poets. 


89. The accent of a word is indicated by a mark placed over 
the vowel of the accented syllable. The marks used for this 
purpose are themselves called accents ; they are the acute ', the 
circumflex ~, and the grave ^ : A.VO-W, Avo-ov, AeAu/oos. 

In case of a diphthong^ the accent stands over the second 
vowel ; but over the flrst vowel of an improper diphthong 
(cf. 14) : auTovs, avrots, avrw. 

The .accent follows the breathing, when both belong to the same 
vowel : oXor, cupco j but the circumflex is placed above the breathing : riye, 
OVTOS. "When they belong to a capital letter, they are placed before it : 
"EXX^v, S i2roy. "When a vowel, which has the diaeresis, is accented, the 
acute and grave are placed between the points, the circumflex above them : 
at'Sior, /Sot," Trpaijvai. 

90. To the Latin terms accent, acute, circumflex, grave, correspond 
the Greek TOVOS tone (straining or raising of the voice), ous sharp, Trepi- 
o-Trco/iez/off twisted round (in reference to the form of the circumflex 
accent), and fiapvs heavy, flat. From these words, together with the 
prepositions napd near and irpo before, are derived the names in the fol- 
lowing section. 

88 D. The quantity of o, t, v, varies in many words, especially in Hm. ; 
they often become long under the rhythmic accent (in arsis, see 894), when 
otherwise they would be short : 'fo/iey or 'iw^v let us go, ^Apey, v Ape*, 


91. The acute can stand only on one of the last three syl- 
lables of a word, the circumflex on one of the last two. A word 
which has the acute 

on the ultima is called oxytone : /Sao-iAeus. 

on the penult paroxytone : ySao-iAeiW. 

on the antepenult " proparoxytone : /3ao-tXevovros. 

A word which has the circumflex 
on the ultima is called perispomenon : 

on the penult " properispomenon : 

A word which has no accent on the ultima is called barytone. 
This name, of course, belongs alike to paroxytones, proparoxy- 
tones, and properispomena. 

92. The acute over a vowel shows that it was uttered on a higher 
(sharper) key than other vowels. The circumflex (made up of the acute 
and grave A ~) shows that the vowel commenced upon a higher key, but 
ended on the general pitch. The grave (flat) belonged in theory to every 
vowel that did not rise above the general pitch, i. e. to every vowel that 
had not the acute or circumflex. It was, therefore, the negation of an 
accent, and in general was not written ; not even over the last vowel 
of a barytone, although that name implies a grave accent on the ultima: 
thus ay3po)7roff,not aVSpwTros 1 . In actual use, it occurs only as a substitute 
for the acute, when the last vowel of an oxytone, in close connection with 
following words, sinks from its proper key (101). 


93. a. The acute stands on long and short syllables alike, 
the circumflex only on syllables long by nature. 

b. If the ultima is long by nature, the acute cannot stand 
on the antepenult, nor the circumflex on the penult. 

c. Final and ^, after a short vowel, exclude the acute from the ante- 
penult, but not the circumflex from the penult : thus we have ^At, but 

94. Using now the words long and short to denote natural quantity 
(of vowel-sounds) without regard to position, we have the following 

A word with short ultima, if accented 

a. on the antepenult, has the acute : A-uco/x,$a, 

b. on a short penult,lia$ the acute: 

c. on a long penult, has the circumflex: 

d. on the ultima, has the acute : XeXvi<6s. 
A word with long ultima, if accented 

e. on the penult, has the acute : XeXvKOT 

f. on the ultima, has either the acute or the circumflex: 


g. The foregoing rules include every admissible variety of accent. 
But an acute on the ultima may become grave (see 101) ; and a word, in 
addition to its proper accent, may receive another (see 107). 

95. It is important to observe, that 

a. Final at and ot have the effect of short vowels on the 
accent of the penult and antepenult : Xvovrai, Avo/xevoi (94 a), 
TOO-OVTOL, roo-avrat (94 c). 

b. Not so, however, in the optative mode: TraiSeuoi, TraiSeya-ai (94 e) ; 
and the adverb O'LKOL at home. 

96. Exceptions to 93 b. Some words which have o> lengthened from 
o, in the ultima, with e in the penult, are accented on the antepenult : 

dvtoyeav, TroXecos, dvsepws. 

Exceptions to 94 c. Some apparent exceptions (such as &STC, ^Se, 
etc.) are explained by the rules for enclitics (110). 

REM. a. The preceding rules enable us often to determine the quan- 
tity of vo\vels from the accent. Thus the ultima must be short in ne\c- 
*KVS, Trpagis (93 b), and long in orrcopa (94 c) : the penult must be short 
in riW?, for, if long, it would be written rives (94 c). 

97. The accent of words must be learned, to a great extent, from the 
lexicons, or by observation in reading. In the majority of words, it re- 
cedes as far from the end as the foregoing rules allow ; when thus placed. 
it may be called recessive accent. It is the accent of verbs, almost uni- 
formly, in their personal forms (that is, all forms except infinitives and 
participles). It is also the accent of most compound substantives and 


98. Contraction. If either of the syllables contracted had 
an accent, the contract syllable receives one. For a contract 
penult or antepenult, the accent is determined by the rules in 94. 
A contract ultima receives the acute, if the ultima had it before 
contraction ; otherwise, it takes the circumflex. 

Tip.a)fj.vos from Tifj.a-6fj.fvos rt / z 9 from rt/xa-fi 

<pi\icr%ai 0iXe'-ecr3ai ocrra) oare-6) 

drjXovfT^a) drjXo-ecr'Sct) ecrrcos eora-cos 

If neither of the syllables contracted had an accent, the contract syl- 
lable receives none : n'za from 

99. Orasis. In crasis, the accent of the first word disappears ; that 
of the last remains unchanged : rdyaSa from ra ayaSa. 

But the lengthening of an accented penult by crasis may require a 
change from acute to circumflex (94 c) : raXXa from ra a'XXa. 

97 D. The Aeolic dialect has recessive accent in all words : Tnfra/uos, irordfj.ov t 
rpaxus, AeA.6(4>&cu, for Trora^s, irorajuou, Tpax5s, AeAeT^d-at. But in the accent 
of prepositions and conjunctions, it agrees with the other dialects : TTC/)/, ardp, 


100. Elision. In elision, oxytone prepositions and conjunctions lose 
their accent ; other oxytone words throw it back on the penult : eV cu'raJ 
(fVt on), ot>8' e'Suva/ijyi' (ouSe neither), etju' 'Odvcrevs (et/zi I am), eTTT rjrrav 
(CTTTO. seven). 


101. Change of Acute to Grave. The acute, standing on an 
oxytone followed by other words in close connection with it, 
changes to the grave : airofrom^ but 0.71-0 rovrovfrom this, (3a<n- 
Aeu? king, but /SWiAevs eyeVero he became Icing. 

REM. a. The proper accent of an oxytone appears only when it stands 
before a pause in the discourse, or is used as an unconnected word. 

102. Anastrophe. Oxytone prepositions of two syllables sometimes 
shift their accent from the ultima to the penult. This is called anastrophe 
(retraction of the accent). It occurs, 

a. when such a preposition takes the place of a verb (eVrt being 
omitted) : Trapa for Trdpecm it is permitted (as prep. Trapa) ; e 

it is possible (as prep. /i poetic for eV). 

b. when nfpi follows the genitive which it belongs to : TOVTW 
instead of Trepl TOVTGOV. 

103. PROCLITICS. A few words of one syllable attach them- 
selves so closely to a following word as not to have a separate 
accent. They are called proclitics (leaning forward) ; also atona 
(unaccented words). They are 

a. The forms 6, 17, ot, at, of the article. 

b. The prepositions eV in, fls (ore?) into, <? (ei<)from. 

c. The conjunctions el if, cos as. that (also as prepos. to). 

d. The adverb ov (OVK, oi>x, 80)' not. 

REM. e. Ou^i, a more emphatic ot>, is always accented. 

104. Proclitics take an accent, 

a. when there is no following word to which they can attach them- 
selves : thus at the end of a sentence, as cprjs j) ov sayest thou so, or not ? 
- or when placed after the words which they belong to, as KCLKWV ? 
(Hm.) out of evils, 3e6s &s (Hm.) as a god. 

b. when the following word is an enclitic (107 c). 

100 D. The preposition with elided vowel loses its accent, even when it 
follows the word which it belongs to : ryffi Trap' elv&eres for ryffi irdpa (102) 
with them. 

102 D. a. In poetry, we have irdpa for ir&psiffi, and even for other forms of 
the compound verb : thus eycb irdpa (for Trdpeifju) I am present. Hm. has also 
&'* for iveiffi. 

b. In poetry, all oxytone prepositions of two syllables (except a/j.cpl, az/ri, 
&j/c{, 5*a) suffer anastrophe, when placed after their cases ; and (in Hm.) when 
placed after verbs, to which they belong in composition : oAetras &TTO for euro- 
\f<ras. - avoi suffers anastrophe in the form &va up ! arise / (= 

110] ENCLITICS. 29 

105. ENCLITICS. Some words of one or two syllables attach 
themselves so closely to a preceding word, as to give up their 
separate accent. They are called enclitics (leaning on another 
word). They are 

a. The pronouns of the first person, juoD, /not, /xe ; of the second, o-o, 
crot, ffe 5 of the third, ou, ot, e, and cr(pi(ri. 

b. The indefinite pronoun rt?, ri, in all its forms (including roi), r, 
for TIVOS, Tii>t) 5 and the indefinite adverbs TTOV (or ?ro3i), 7177, TTOI, TroSeV, 
Trore', TTCO, TTO>S. Used as interrogatives, these words are orthotone (erect 
in accent, not enclitic) : riV, r/, TTOU (rroSi), TTJ/, TroT, TrdSey, Trore, TTOOS. 

c. The present indicative of /u to fo and (pq/Ai to say^ except the 
second person singular, ef, <prjs. 

d. The particles ye', re, rot, Tre'p, and the inseparable 5e (not the con- 
junction 6V but, and). 

106. The usual effect of an enclitic on the word preceding it was this, 
that, in uttering its ultima, the voice was raised above the general pitch. 
Hence we find on that syllable either the acute accent or the circumflex ; 
the latter, only when the word was usually perispomenon. But a 
paroxytone was not required to sustain the acute or higher pitch through 
two successive syllables : its ultima, therefore, was not affected by a fol- 
lowing enclitic : in this case, indeed, the enclitic, if of two syllables, re- 
tained its separate accent. Hence we have the following rules : 

107. 1. The word before an enclitic 

a. preserves its proper accent, and never changes an acute 
to grave : o.ya$oV rt, auros (j>r)(Ti. 

b. if proparoxytone or properispomenon, adds an acute on 

the ultima : av$pw7ros TI?, Troupes rii/es. 

c. if proclitic, takes an acute : d TIS, ov 

108. 2. The enclitic loses its own accent ; except an enclitic 
of two syllables after a paroxytone : Xoyos TCS, Aoyot rti/es. 

REM. a. A properispomenon ending in or ^ is treated like a par- 
oxytone : <j) riff, <polvi eVrt. 

109. 3. Of several enclitics in succession, each one takes an acute 
from the succeeding, only the last appearing without accent : ei' ris p,oL 

(j)r}(ri ?rore. 

110. In some cases, a word is combined so often with a following en- 
clitic, that the two are regarded as one word : <usre for &s re, et're, pfjTf, 
olo'jre, oms-, ^Vot, Kalroi. The enclitic de is always treated thus: 6'Se, 
rousSe, oiKaSe. So Tre'p, in prose, almost always : fosirep. Most of these 
are apparent exceptions to 94 c. 

REM. a. Et3e, i/m^z from a, mi, are accented as if 3e and ^r were en- 
clitic particles. 

105 D. The personal pronouns p.iv, viv, <r<i, and <r$e are enclitic. So too 
the Ionic els and Epic eV<r thou art. To enclitic particles belong the poetic 
v6 or vvv, and Epic /ce or Key. d^i/, and pa (for &pa). 


111. The enclitics in some cases retain their accent (are orthotone) 

a. when there is no preceding word to which they can attach them* 
selves, as at the opening of a sentence : rives \eyovai some say. This, 
however, is not often the case. 

b. when there is an emphasis on the enclitic : dXXa ere Aeya> T)ut thee 
I mean (no other). For the personal pronouns, cf. 232; for eVri as 
orthotone, 406, 1 b. 

c. after elision, when the vowel to be affected by the enclitic is cut 
off: TO.VT ecrrl v/x-euS?) for ravrd eon. 

d. enclitics of two syllables after a paroxytone ; see 108. 

112. The following particles are distinguished by the accent : di/a 
preposition over, from poetic ava up ! (102 D b) ; apa therefore, from apa 
interrogative ; rj or, than, from rj truly, and r/ interrogative ; vvv now, at 
present, from poetic vv(v), enclitic, now (inferential conjunction) ; OVKOW 
not therefore, from OVKOVV therefore ; irepi round, about, from poetic 
exceedingly ; $ relative as, that, from cos demonstrative thus. 


113. The comma, period, and mark of exclamation, are the same as in 
English; but the last is rarely used. The colon, a point above the line, 
takes the place alike of the colon and semicolon : ecnrfpn rjv roYe ^X2?ei/ 
ayyeAos- it was evening : then came a messenger. The mark of interroga- 
tion is like the English semicolon : rl elrras ; what saidst thou ? 

HEM. a. The Diastole or Hypodiastole, though it has the form of a 
comma, is not a mark of punctuation. It is placed between the parts of 
certain compound pronouns, merely to distinguish them from particles 
of the same sound : thus 6',rt and o,re which ; but on that, because, ore 
when. At present; however, this mark is generally omitted, a space be- 
ing left instead : o rt and o re. 




114. Inflection belongs to nouns (both substantive and ad* 
fective), pronouns, and verbs. It gives to the same word differ- 
ent forms according to its different relations in the sentence. 
These forms have a common stem followed by different endings. 

The inflection of nouns and pronouns is called declension. 
Their endings are called declension-endings, or more commonly 
case-endings, since they mark the different cases. 

115. The Greek distinguishes in its declension, 

a. three GENDERS: masculine, feminine, and neuter. 

b. three ISTTMBEKS : the singular in reference to one object, 
the plural to more than one, the dual to two only. 

c. five CASES : nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, and 
vocative. In the singular, the vocative is often like the nomi- 
native ; in the plural, it is always so. In neuter words, the 
nominative and vocative are always like the accusative, and in 
the plural always end in a.^ The dual has but two forms, one 
for the nominative, accusative, and vocative, the other for the 
genitive and dative. 

116. The nominative singular is not to be confounded with the stem. 
Often they are alike : thus x^P a ^ an ^ * s at once the stem and the nomi- 
native singular. But oftener they are different : thus avSpujros man is 
the nominative singular of the stem av%pa>jro. 

In distinction from the nominative and vocative (casus recti), the 
other cases are termed oblique (casus obliqui). 

117. GENDER. Words which designate males are, of course, masculine ; 
those which designate females, feminine. Further, 

a. Masculine are names of winds (like 6 avepos the wind), of rivers 
(o TToranos the river), and of months (6 ^v the month). 

b. Feminine are names of trees (f) 8pvs the oak), lands (f) the land), 
islands (f) vrjaos the island), and most cities (f) no\is the city). 

Also, most abstract words are feminine ; that is, words which express 
quality, state, or action (bodily or mental) : thus raxvr^s swiftness, diicai- 
oa-vvrj justice, eXrris hope, VLKIJ victory. 


c. Neuter are many names of fruits (TO O-VKOV the fig} ; also, most 
diminutives, even when designating males or females : TO yepovriov dim. 
of 6 yepwv the old man, TO yvvmov dim. of r) ywf] the woman. The names 
of the letters are neuter : TO X0a, TO a-iy/ia. 

Any word may be neuter, when the object to be thought of is the 
word itself, rather than the thing which it signifies : TO timpano? the 
name man, TO 8iKaioo-vvrj the term justice. 

REM. The gender may often be known by the final letter of the stem : 
see 152. 

118. Common Gender. Some nouns are either masculine or feminine, 
according as they designate males or females : 6, fj 3eos the divinity, god 
or goddess, 6, 37 a^pcoTros- the human being, man or woman. These are said 
to be of common gender. 

Epicoene. In many names of animals, the same word with the same 
gender is used for both sexes : 17 aXarrrjg the fox, male or female. These 
are said to be epicoene. 

119. ARTICLE. Forms of the article 6, 17, TO, the, are often 
used with nouns in the grammar to mark the genders and cases. 
We therefore give here the inflection of the article. 

Sing. Masc. Fein. Neut. 
Nom. 6 fj TO 

Dat. TO) TT) TCO 

Ace. TOV r\]V TO 

Dual. Masc. Fern. Neut. 

N. A. TO) TO. TO) 
G. D. To1l> TOIV Tolv 

Plur. Masc. Fern. Neut. 
Nom. 01 at TO. 

Dat. Tols TOIS Tols 

REM. a. In the dual feminine, TOIV is often used for TCUV, and ro> almost 
always for (cf. 521). 

REM. b. The interjection o> is commonly used with the vocative: 2> 
yvvai woman (cf. 543 a). 

120. ACCENT. The accent of a noun remains, in all the forms, 
on the same syllable as in the nominative singular, or as near 
that syllable as the general laws of accent allow : ai/$pw7ros man, 
ace. sing. avSpuTrov, nom. pi. avSpuTroi but gen. sing. dv^pwTrov 
(93 b), dat. pi. di/^pw7rots: 6Vo//,a name, gen. sing, ovo/xaros (91), 
gen. pi. ovojaaran/ (93 b). 

121. An accented ultima, in general, takes the acute: but 
In the genitive and dative of all numbers, a long ultima, if 

accented, takes the circumflex : TTOTCX/XOS river, gen. sing. Trorajaov, 
ri/xrj honor, dat. sing, rt/xj, TTOVS foot, gen. pi. TroScoi/, /XT}V month, 
gen. and dat. dual ^yolv. 

REM. a. The nominative and accusative have a circumflex on the 
ultima, only in contracted forms, as OO-TOVV hone for ocrreov, pi. oo-ra for 
oare'a j and in some words of one syllable, as f*,vs mouse, ace. juGi>. 

119 D. For dialectic forms of the article, see 239 D. 




122. DECLENSIONS. Nouns are .-declined in two iirincipal 
ways, which, however, were originally one. These are 

1. The Consonant-Declension, for stems ending in a conso- 
nant or close vowel. 

2. The Vowel-Declension, for stems ending in an open vowel. 
The vowel-declension divides itself into two forms, according 

as the stem, ends in o (CD) or a. Hence we have 
I. The Vowel-Declension, including 

The A-Declension, commonly called First Decl. (a), and 
The 0-Declension, commonly called Second Decl. (b). 
II. The Gonsonant-Decl., commonly called Third Decl. (c). 
KEM. d. These three correspond to the first, second, and third declen- 
sions in Latin. The Latin fourth and fifth declensions are only modifica- 
tions of the third and first respectively. 

FIEST DECLENSION (A- Declension}. 

123. To this declension belong all stems (both masculine and 
feminine] that end in a. The gender may be known from the 
nominative singular, where the masc. takes a case-ending s, 
which is wanting in the fern. Thus the nom. sing, of feminines 
ends in a or 17 ; of masculines, in as or ^s. 



* Und 

f) yXaJcraa tongue 

f} TIM honor 

Sing. Nom. 





Tt M 

Du. N. A. V. 
G. D. 






Plur. Nom. 








Other examples: $ia force, o-Kid shadow, r)p.fpa day, Sdd opinion, 
a/cav3d thorn, Trv\r] gate, yvd>M judgment, dia^rjKTj testament. 

125. A OR H IN THE SINGULAR. In the singular, the final a of the 
stem is often changed to ?/. In reference to this, we have the following 
rules (125-7). 


In the Nominative Singular, 

a. after e, i, p, the a is retained (29 a) ; so also 

b. after <r (, ty, <ro- or TT), , M-> -w ; but 

c. after other letters, a is changed to 17. 

Thus, a. ycved generation, <pi\ia friendship, %v pa door; -- b. Movo-a 
Muse, auaa wagon, dn/ra thirst, SaXacro-a, later Attic SaXarra (41), sea, 
pi'a r00, o/iiXXa contest, Xeaiz/a lioness ; - c. /3o^ cry, vX^ wood, fjftovr; 
pleasure, apery virtue. 

Exc. d. The principal exceptions are, - to a. Koprj maiden, Se'pi? 
neck ; - to b. epo-rj dew, Kopo-rj (later Attic Koppr), 43 a) temple ; - to 
c. erroa pillar-hall, xP oa c l r i rdX/na courage, diaira mode of living. 

126. The Genitive and Dative Singular have a, when the 
nominative has a. pure (85 a) or pa (125 a) ; otherwise, they have 
rj ; nom. yej/ea, gen. yeveag, dat. yevea ; SO crroa, <7Toas, o-roa ; ^vpa, 
; but nom. Moi)cra, gen. Moro-^s, dat. Movcrrj ; Statra, 

Exc. a. A few proper names with long a are exceptions : AijSa, gen. 

127. The Accusative and Vocative Singular have the same 
vowel as the nominative : thus ace. ^ av ^o-o-av, TI/ATJI/, from 

128. The Genitive Plural has the ending i/, which with a of the 
stem makes acoi/, contracted cov. Hence it comes, that in all words oj 
this declension the Genitive Plural is perispomenon. Thus xP a -> en - pi- 
(xapdav, 93 b) xpcov (98). For exceptions, see 137 and 207 b. 

129. The Dative Plural had at first the ending on, before which an i 
was added to the a of the stem, making ato-t. This was shortened to an ; 
yet aicri is often found in Attic poetry, rarely in Attic prose. Of. 143. 

125-7 D. 1. In the Doric, a remains unchanged : ripd, n^as, rip.5,, 
2. In the Ionic, a is changed to rj in all cases of the sing. : yeve-fi, 
s, juofp??. - Short a generally remains unchanged : f}curi\eia, 
But abstract words in e<a, ota change it to i\ : aX-rj^elr] Att. aiV^&eia truth, 
cuTrAoirj favorable voyage; the same change occurs also in Kvioat] smoke of 
burnt fat, and in 2/cuAA?j. - Hm. retains d in &ed goddess and a few proper 
names. 3. From yv^rj maiden, bride, Hm. has Voc. Sing. vv^a. 

128 D. In the Genitive Plural, Hm. has 

a. -day, the original form : K\i<n&<av of tents. 

b. -eew/, the Ionic form (26 D) : TruAeW of gates. This -ewin Hm. is usu- 
ally sounded as one syllable, by synizesis (37). 

c. -wj/, the Attic form, mostly after vowels : irapeiuv of cheeks. 

The Doric form -civ, a contraction of -dcav (32 D h), is used also in the dra- 
matic choruses : &eaj/ of goddesses. 

129 D. In the Dat. PI., Hm. has (a) the Ion. form -riffi(v) : K\i<rtyffi , 
- (b) also often -ys : Trerp^s to rocks ; - (c) rarely the Att. -ais : beats. 




130. QUANTITY. In the Nominative Singular, a. a, after 

a vowel or p, is generally long ; b. after other consonants, it 

is short : (ro^t'd ivisdom, irerpa rock, /x-eAio-cra bee. 

Exc. c. The only exceptions to b are a few proper names, as A^Sd. 

To a, the principal exceptions are, 1. Female designations in rpta and 

eta : j3ao-iXeid queen (but /SacriXeid kingdom). 2. Most compounds in 

eta andoia: a-X^Seta' truth, (v-voia good-will. 3. Most words in pa 

after v or a diphthong : ayicvpa anchor, p.otpdfate. 

HEM. d. The quantity of a pure and pa may always be known by the 
accent, it being true for these, that 

In oxy 'tones and paroxy tones, a. is long / while in proparoxy- 
tones and properispomena, it is of course short (93 b). 

131. In the Accusative and Vocative Singular, abas the same 
quantity as in the Nominative ; in the other cases (gen. sing., 
ace. pi., nom., ace., voc., dual), it is always long. 

132. Contract Substantives and Adjectives. These follow the rule 

in 36 a: thus, p-vaf, /J.vq, pvav (for avd-a, etc.) mina, yrj, yrjs, yfii.yijv 

(for ye-a or ya-a) land. See f Ep^s (133), poppas (136 d), and cf. 208. 


6 vtdvias young man 

6 7ro\LTT]s citizen 

6 'Eppfjs Hermes 
'Epfj-d (for c Ep/xea) 

Sing. Nom. 



T f 



7T' \LTTj-S 





Du. N. A. V. 






'Eppa images 
'EpjtzaTv [of H- 

Plur. Nom. 









c Ep/zat 

So ra/zi'as steward, NiKi'as 1 , Kpirrjs judge, crrpancor^ff soldier, TratSo- 

Tpiftrjs gymnastic-master, aSoXeV^r prater, 'A.\Kipid8rjs. 

134. In the Singular of masculines, a is retained after a vowel 
or p ; and is always long (but see 135). After other letters, it 
is changed to 17. 

132 D. The Ion. generally has the uncontr acted forms. Ed. uses 777 (Em. 
yata or ola) ; but has /wea for 

134 D. The Ion. has 7? for a through the Sing. (125 D, 2). The Dor. haa 
a for rj ; and, in the Gen. Sing., has -a (contr. from -ao, 32 D h) for -ov : 


135. The Vocative Singular takes a short, when the nomi 
native ends in rjys: thus TroXtro, (nom. TrcAt-nys citizen). 

So, too, in names of nations and compound words, which make the 

nom. in rjs : Tlepcra (nom. neparjs Persian), yeco-^terpa (nom. yea>-[JL6Tpr)S 

land-measurer). Other words in rjs have rj in the voc. : Kpovldr] (nora. 
Kpoviftrjs son of Cronus). 

HEM. a. Aeo-Trora, voc. of deo-TroTrjs master, has irregular accent (120). 

136. The declension of masculines differs in only two points from that 
of feminines : 

a. The Nom. Sing, takes the case-ending s. 

b. The Gen. Sing, ends in ov. 

HEM. c. In the Gen. Sing, of masculines, the proper ending is o, which 
with a of the stem gives ao (as in Homer) j from this, by weakening a 
to c (25), and then contracting (32 d), comes ov the common form : n-oXi- 
ra-o (TToAtreo) TroXtVov. 

REJI. d. In the Gen. Sing, of poppas (contracted from /Sopeas- north 
wind), the original ao has the Doric contraction to a: ftoppa. This oc- 
curs also in some Doric and Roman proper names, and in a few other 
words : SvXAay /Sulla, opz^oS^pa? Mrd-catcher, G. S. 

137. Two masculines have an irregular accent in the Gen. PI. (128) : 

Xpf)0~Tr]s usurer, G. P. xprj&rcov (but xprjo-Tcav G. P. of the adj. xprjo-ros 

good), and enjcrieu annual winds, G. P. frrjo-iuv. So also the fern, dcpvrj 
anchovy, G. P. dcpvuv (but dQvuv G. P. of the adj. d<j>vrjs dull). 

SECOND DECLENSION (0-Declensiori). 

138. To this declension belong stems that end in o. They 
are chiefly masculine and neuter, with a few feminines. 

The masculines and feminines have os in the Nom. Sing., the 
neuters ov. The feminines are declined like the masculines : the 
neuters differ from them in two respects : 

a. The Nom. and Yoc. Sing, take v, the accusative-ending. 

b. The Nom., Ace., and Voc. Plur. end in a. 

136 D. a. In some masculine words, Hm. has a Nom. Sing, in ra for TTJS: 
tTTTaJra for iTnr6Tfjs horseman, alxfJt-Tird for alx^T^s spearman, etc. : also, with 
accent thrown back, yUTj-riVra counsellor, aKax^ra favorer. So too evpvoira far- 
sounding. Cf. Lat. poeta, scriba. 
b. In the Gen. Sing., Hm. has 

1. -ao, the original form : 'Arpeiddo. 

2. -eco, the Ionic form (26 D) : 'ArpeiSew. This -eo> in Hm. is always sound 
ed as one syllable (37). The accent remains as in the original form (96). 

3. -, a contraction of do, used after vowels : 'Ep/xetw (nom. 'Eppelas Att 
, Popeu (nom. /Sopeay, 136 d). 





6 ai>3p GO?? man 

77 odos way 

TO dwpov gift 

Sing. Nom. 











Du. N. A. V. 
G. D. 






Plur. Nom. 












So vofjios law, Kivftwos danger, ravpos bull, 7rorap.o'y river, TTOVOS labor, 

Qios life, sdraroy death, Sedy god (141),' -VTJCTOS (fern.) island, 

arvKovfig, fj,fTpov measure, tpdnoy outer garment. 

139. The feminines may be known, in part, by the general rules 
(117): 77 (prjyns kind of oak, 77 a'prreXoy vine, 77 ^Treipoy mainland, 77 2dp-os 
(the island) Samos, 77 Ko'pivSoy (the city) Corinth. 

Of the remaining feminines, the most important are 

a. Several names of mineral or earthy substances : \^dp.p.oy sand 
ytyos chalk, TrXiVSoy brick, aTroSo'y ashes, KdVpoy tZww^, ^<pos pebble, /3do-a- 
i/oy touch-stone. 

b. Several words that denote something hollow : xrj\6s coffer, yvd- 
Soy jaw, KiftaTos chest, o-opdy coffin, \rjv6s wine-press, KapSorros kneading- 
trough, xdpiz/oy oven. So Ta<ppos trench. 

c. Several words for way : 6Soy, KeXevSoy ; drpaTrdy foot-path, d/xa^tros 
wagon-road ; but 6 <rrei/co7rdy narrow passage. 

d. Several adjectives used as substantives : 77 Stdp.6rpoy (sc. ypap.^ 
line} diameter, <rvyK\T)Tos (sc. /3ovX?7 council) legislative assembly. 

e. Further, /3/#Xoy 5oo^, pd/3Soy sto^ 7 , dtdXe/croy dialect, vovos disease, 
dew, 8oKos beam. 

140. In the Genitive Singular, the proper ending is o, which 3 by con- 
traction with o of the stem, gives ou : ai>2fpa>7ro-o, dj/3pa>7roi;. 

141. In the Vocative Singular of masculines and feminines, o of the 
stem becomes (25). But the Nominative is often used in place of the 
Vocative; in Seo's- god, it is always so: o> Seo's (Lat. deus). 

HEM. a. The vocative singular of ddeX<po's brother is a'SeXcpe, with ir- 
regular accent (120). 

140 D. In the Gen. Sing., Hm. has two forms, -ou and -<w>; in the latter 

o of the stem is combined with an earlier ending to : avfrpdiroio. The Doric 

(but not Pindar) has sometimes w for ou (24 D d). 

Other peculiarities of dialect are the following : 

a. In the Gen. Dat. Du., Hm. has onv for otv : ia^ouv from SI/JLOS shoulder. 



142. In the Genitive Plural, o of the stem is always lost in the end- 
ing u>v : but this ending does not therefore (as in the A-Declension, 128) 
require the accent : av^pairo-wv, dv%pu>7T(t>v. 

143. The Dative Plural (formed as in the A-Declension, 129) ended 
at first in oto-t ; and this ending is found, not only in the other dialects, 
but often in Attic poetry, rarely in Attic prose. 

144. Contract Substantives and Adjectives. Words which 
have stems in eo, oo, suffer contraction. This takes place ac- 
cording to the rules in 32 and 36 a. 


6 vovs mind 

TO OO-TOVV bone 


Sing. Nom. 

(i>oo-?) vov-s 
(j>oou) vov 
(i>do>) V(u 
(yoo-v) vov-v 
(j/oe) vov 


ocrreov) OCTTOV 


ooreo-j') OO~TOV-V 

6<TTO-v) OQ-TOV-V 

Du. N. A. V. 
G. D. 

(yoco) i>co 

(VQOIV) Votv 

(ocrre'w) GOTO) 

(ocrreotv) ocrroTi/ 

Plur, Nom. 

(root) voi 
(yodov) vS)V 
tvoois) vois 
(coous) vovs 
(vooi) voi 

ourea) ocrra 
ocrrea)!/) 6o~Ta>v 
ooreots 1 ) oorois 
o<TTa\ oara 
oorea) ocrra 

So TrXoOs (from TrXcW) sailing, 7repin\ovs (frepiirXoos) circumnavigation, 
povs (poos) stream, KO.VQVV (from Kdveov, cf. 145 c) basket (of cane). 

145. The accent of the contract forms is, in some points, inconsistent 
with the rules in 98 : 

a. The Nominative Dual, when accented on the ultima, is oxytone : 
oo-rco (from ocrre'co) instead of oo-rw. 

b. Compounds keep the accent on the same syllable as in the con- 
tract Nominative Singular : TreptVXovs (from TrepiVXooy), dat. sing. Trepin-Xo) 
(from TTfpiTrXow) instead of TreptTrXw. 

c. Contracts are made in ovs 'from barytone adjectives of material in 
eoy, and oxytone names of kindred in e6s : dpyvpovs (not dpyvpovs, from 
dpyvpfos) of silver, dSeX^tSoCs- (not -ibovs, from -ideos) brother's son. 

Attic /Second Declension. 

146. The O-Declension includes a few stems ending in o>. 
This to appears in all the cases ; but takes i subscript where the 

b. In the Dat. PL, Hm. usually has on, Hd. always so. 

c. In the Ace. PL, the Doric (not Pindar) lias us or os for ovs: \VKWS ot 
\6icos for \VKOVS wolves. 

144 D. The Ionic generally has the uncontracted forms. 




common ending has i. This form of the O-Decl., though not con- 
fined to Attic writers, is known as the Attic Second Declension. 

o veu>-s 


TO dvd>yea)-v hall 

Nom. Voc. 

Sing. Du 


. Plur. 


Sing. Du. Plur. 


dvuyefp avwyews 

N. A. V. 
G. D. 



So Xecoy people, KaXas cable. 

147. Some of these words are produced by contraction : dyfoas, dyf}- 
pa>v free from old age (from dyjypaoy, -aov). Some appear under a double 
form with do and eco (26) : vews and i/do'?, Xeeoy and \a6s. 

148. Some words have o> or an> in the Accusative Singular : Xaycos 
hare, ace. sing. Xayco or Xaya>f. So the proper names "A3a>s, Ka>s, MiVcor. 
"Ecos dawn has only eo>. 

149. The accent of these words is peculiar in two respects : 

a. The long < in the ultima does not exclude the accent from the 
antepenult (96): dvvyewv, MeWXecos (= MeWXaoy) Menelaus. 

b. The Gen. and Dat., when accented on the ultima, are oxytone 
(cf. 121) ; yet most editions give the circumflex, except in the gen. sing. 

0-Declensions, the two branches of the Vowel-Declension (122), have the 
following points in common : 

Sing. Nom. Masculines take the ending $-. 
Gen. Masculines take the ending o. 
Dat. All genders have a long vowel with i subscript. 
Ace. All genders take the ending v. 
Du. N. A. V. All genders end in the stem- vowel (lengthened, if short). 

G. D. All genders add iv to the stem-vowel. 
Plur. Gen. All genders end in a>v. 

Dat. All genders take o-i or y, with preceding i. 
Nom. Masculines and feminines add i to the stem-vowel. 
Ace. Masculines and feminines take s (originally i/s), and 
lengthen a preceding short vowel on account of the omitted v (48). 

On the other hand, the two declensions differ from each other in the 
formation of the nominative and genitive singular of feminines, and hi the 
accent of the genitive plural. 

146 D. In the other dialects, this variety of declension is little used, except 
in proper names. For vetis, Aecfo, icd\(as, Aoycfo, Hm. has vrjts, \a6s, icd\os t 
\ayo>6s ; Hd. vt}6s, \a6s (or A7?<fe), /cc&Vos, \ay6s. For "Abas, Kcta, yd\a>s, Hm. 
has 'A&6cas, K.6cas, ya\6ws. For eW, both Hm. and Hd. have T}6s (182). 

The orig. ending -o of the Gen. is seen in TTerew-o Hm., Nom. 


THIRD DECLENSION (Consonant-Declension). 

151. To this declension belong, not only stems ending in a 
consonant, but also those which end in a dose vowel (t, v) ; to- 
gether with a few in o. 

HEM. a. In this declension, the form of the nominative singular is not 
sufficient to determine the other cases. It is often necessary to have also 
either the stem of the word, or the genitive singular, from which the stem 
may generally he found by dropping os the ending. 

152. GENDER. The gender may be known in many cases by 
the last letters of the stem. 

The following rules relate only to substantive stems ; and, where a 
stem is contracted, they apply to the primitive or uncontracted form. 
Neuter are stems ending in 

a. or : as Kepas (iffpor) horn, vdcop (vSar) water. 

b. ap : as veicrap nectar. 

C. ay, ey I as yeVoy (yevey) race, yrjpas old age. 

d. i, v, if s is not added in the nom. : aa-rv city. 
Feminine are those ending in 

e. TIJT '. as Ta^yrfjs (ra^vr^r) swiftness. 

f. d, 3 : as dairis (acnrid) shield, poet. Kopvs (*opv3) helmet. 

g. yov, $ov T as (TTaywv (crrayoi>) drop, ^eXtScoi/ (^fXiSoi') swallow. 
h. o : as TretScb (rmSo) persuasion. 

i. t, v : as 7roXi-y city, 6<ppv-s brow, vav-s ship. 

Except those under d and j. 
Masculine are those ending in 
j. eu : as ypcxpcv-s writer. 

k. VT '. as obovs (oSozr) tooth, revcov (re^ovr) tendon. 
1. TJT, COT '. as ToLTrrjs (raTrrjr) carpet, epus (f/awr) love. 

Except those in 7-777-. 

m. v : as /crei'r (KTC v) comb, Xetjua>i> meadow. Exc. those in yov, bov. 
n. p : as Kparfjp mixing-bowl. Except those in ap. 
o. Stems ending in a labial or palatal (TT, /3, (p, K, y, %) are never 
neuter, but whether they are masculine or feminine cannot be determined 
by general rules. 

REM. p. Several words which properly are masculine, especially 
words denoting persons or animals, are also sometimes used as feminine : 
as 6 also 17 pdprvs (iiaprvp) Witness, 6 also r} aXe/crpuo)i/ (aXe/crpuoi/) code or 
hen, 6 also 17 atirjp (atSep) aether. 

153. Exceptions. The following are the principal exceptions to the 
rules above given : we omit those in which the gender is obvious from 
the meaning, as in 6, 77 irais (77018) boy, girl, 77 Suydr^p (Svyarep) daughter. 

Exceptions to b, 6 -v|mp starling ; to f, 6 novs (770$) foot, 6, f] opvis 

(opwS) bird; to i. masc. e^t-y viper, opxi-s testicle, o(f>i-s serpent, 

Qorpv-s cluster of grapes, %prjvv-s foot-stool, lx%v-s fish, p,v-s mouse, veicv-t 


corpse, o-rd^v-s ear of corn, ireXfuv-s axe, rrrjxv-s fore-arm : also o, ^ 
Or -v-s hog ; - to 1, 77 ea%r]s (eo-^Tyr) dress, TO fp<os (<<WT) light. 

-- to m, fern. <ppr]v (<ppev) midriff, mind, OKT/J (HKTIV) ray, 
(yXcox"') point of arrow, 'is (iv) strength, pis (ptv) nose, o>i'y (cocW) pang ; 
a\Kvuv (aXxvov) halcyon, fiKwv (eiKov) image, rfiaiv (r)iov) shore, rfSvv (x? ov ) 
earth, x^^ (x lov ) snow, fiX^xuv pennyroyal, ^KCDV jpoppy. 

-- to n, fern, yaarrjp (yaorep) belly, Kr]p fate, x*'<-p hand; neut. irvp 
(irvp) fire. 

REM. r. The following in r stand by themselves: fern, dais (Sair) 
feast, vvf; (I/UKT) night, ^dpis (^apir) favor, and neut. yd\a (yaXaxr) milk, 

154. The CASE-ENDINGS are as follows: 

Masc. and Fern. 


Sing. Nom. 

s (or vowel lengthened) 


a or v 
none (or like nom.) 



Du. N.A.V. 
G. D. 


Plur. N. V. 






155. The nominative, accusative, and vocative singular of 
NEUTER words are like the stem. Final r of the stem is either 
dropped (75), or changed to s (76) : crw/xa (for aw/mr) body, repas 
(for repar) prodigy. 

156. The NOMINATIVE SINGULAR of masculines and feminines 
adds s to the stem. But stems in v, p, s, o, or, ovr, reject the end- 
ing 5, and lengthen e, o, to r), <o : thus 

]v (\ipfv) harbor, p^rcop (pr/rop) orator, rpirjprjs (rpiqpfs) trireme, 
mSo) persuasion, X\VKO>S (for XeXuxcor 76, St. XeXu/cor) having 
, Xeooi/ (for Xecovr 75, St. Xeoi/r) ZiOW, 
For the euphonic changes caused by s, see 47-49. 

153 D. n. Several poetic stems (most of them defective) in op, o>p, are 
neuter : &op swore?, ^rop heart, \cap prey, re/cjuwp = reK/j-ap bound. 

154 D. a. In the Gen. Dat. Dual, Hm. has ouv for oiv: irotioiiv. 

b. In the Dat. PL, Hm. has both <n and ea-ffi : irain (for iravr-fft) and it&vT- 
fffffi ; (rarely e<n : niiy-eo-i.) 

The e of eo-trt is sometimes omitted when the stem ends in a vowel : veicv-ffffi, 
9T6\K-<ro-t. The irreg. oe<T(n (from oi-s sheep) should perhaps be written &i-a<ru 
But in forms like eireo-en, = 67re<r + <n (55 D), the first <r belongs to the stem ' 
so in 8eira<r-<n, and iroffai iro5-ffi (47 D), tpiffffi = 


Exo. a. Stems in iv take $, though some of them have both forms : 
or SeX(iV dolphin. 

b. Participles in OVT take s, when o belongs to the verb-stem : Sous 
(= do-vr-s) giving. 

c. y appears also in ^e'Xdj ( /zeXai/-y) ~black, raXas- ( raXav-y) wretch' 
cd } els (^ ev-s) CW0, /crei? ( KTCV-S) conib, oSovs ( = oSoi/r-s 1 ) tooth. 

157. The ACCUSATIVE SINGULAR of masculines and feminines 
adds a to stems ending in a consonant : irovsfoot, ace. 7roS-a. 

v to stems ending in a vowel : TTOAI-S city, ace. TroAt-v. 
Exo. a. Stems in ev take a : /rWtXe J-s king, ace. /3ao-tXe-a (39). 
For the ace. sing, of stems in o, see 193-4. For v in the ace. sing, of 
certain stems in r, 8, 3, see 171. 

158. The VOCATIVE SINGULAR of masculines and feminines is 
regularly like the stem. 

For dropping of a final consonant, see 75. .But many words make 
the vocative singular like the nominative : thus 

a. Steins of one syllable, not ending in a diphthong : nom. voc. ni-s 

weevil (but nom. vav-s ship, voc. vav).- Only TTCUS (TTCU) child makes 

voc. sing. Tral (75). 

b. Oxytone stems ending in a liquid : nom. voc. TTOL^V (TTOI^V) shep- 
herd (bilt daifj.cov divinity, barytone, voc. dai^ov like the stem). 

For irregular vocative in Trarr^p father, dvyp man, see 173: also. in 
o-cor?7p savior, 'AiroXkav, Hoo-etScoj/, see 172 b. 

c. Stems ending in a mute : nom. voc. <pv\a (<vXa/<) watchman. 

But the following are exceptions, and use the stem as a voc, sing. : 

Exc. d. A few stems in i : voc. "Apre/xi (= Apre/uS), nom. "Aprepis. 
So voc. TTOL (= TratS), nom. TTCUS child. Also yvvai (= yvvaiic) with irregu- 
lar accent, nom. yvvrj woman. 

e. Substantive and adjective stems in vr, unless oxytone : voc. Xeov 
(= Xeoi/r), nom. XeW lion, x a p' ifv (= X a P tV7 ')y nom - x a P l/et? pleasing. 

REM. f. All participles of this declension make the vocative singular 
like the nominative. So also the adjectives rras (navr) all, every, and 
K(av (CKOVT) willing. 

For the vocative singular of stems in o, see 194 a. 

159. The DATIVE PLURAL of all genders adds <ri(v) to the stem. For 
the euphonic changes, see 47-49. 

160. ACCENT. In the accent of this declension, we have the follow- 
ing special rule, contrary to 120 : 

156 D. c. For o5oi5s, Hd. has oddav according to the rule. 

158 D. c. From &/a king, Hm. nas, beside the regular voc. sing. &/a, a 

form &va (for cu/a/cr, 75) used in addressing gods. e. From some proper 

names in -as (stem -CWT), he forms a voc. sing, in -a: IIovAu&cfyta (cf. 31), foJ 
lIov\v$a(j.av(T), nom. IIouAvScfyias Polydamas. 




Stems of one syllable, in the Genitive and Dative of all num- 
bers, throw the accent on the case-ending : if the case-ending ia 
long, it receives the circumflex (121) : 

Thus TTOVS (TJ-O) foot, ace. sing. 7ro'S-a, nom. pi. Tro'S-es ; but genitives 

Exc. a. All genitives and datives of participles : &v leing, gen. OVTOS, 

OVTOIV, OVTCOV, dat. oirt, OVTOIV, ovcri. 

b. The gen. and dat. plural of TTOS all, every : TrdvTav, navi. 

c. The gen. dual and plural of TTOLS ~boy. girl, S/xcos slave, %a>s jackal, 
Tpd>s Trojan, TO (p&s light, 77 <pcps blister, fj das torch, TO ovs ear, 6 O-TJS 

moth .* 7rai'5a>z>, fyiaxBf, Sooooi/, Tpcocoi/, <pa)TO)V, tywdwv, daScoy, wrcui/, cre'coj/. 

d. Some words in which a stem of two syllables is contracted to one : 
cap spring, gen. eapos or rjpos, dat. e'api or ^pi. 

161. QUANTITY. Several stems lengthen a short vowel in monosylla- 
lic forms: st. TTO&, nom. sing. TTOVS (for TroS-s-) foot; st. TTUVT, neuter nav 
all; st. nvp, nom. sing. Trvpftre; st. o-tf, nom. sing. o-C-s hog. 

162. The PARADIGMS of this declension will be given in the following 
order : 

1. Stems ending in a labial or palatal (?r, /3, <p, K, y, x). 

2. a lingual mute (r, S, 3). 

3. a liquid (X, v, p). 

4. the sibilant (<r). 

5. a simple close vowel (t, v). 

6. a diphthong (eu, av, ov). 

7. the open vowel o. 

163. I. Stems ending in a Labial or Palatal. 



i VI 



Sing. Nom. 




Du. N. A. V. 
G. D. 



Plur. N. V. 




So 6 yv-^f (yv-ri) vulture, 6 Ai3t'o\|/- 
TApa/3) Arabian, 6 p.vpfi.r] ^vp^K) ant, 
cough, fj <p6pp.iy (cpoppiyy) lyre. 

Aethiopian, 6 
pdo-Tig (jfeoriy) whip, rj 




For the gender, see 152 o. For the formation of the nominative, ac- 
cusative, and vocative, singular, see 155-8. For the change of aspiration 
in Spt, Tyco's, see 66 a. 

164. The stem aXa>77-e/< makes nom. sing, fj u\<anr]g fox irregularly for 
(gen. aXco7re/<oy, dat. aXoonre/a, etc.). On the contrary, the stems 

vK, (potvtK, make nom. sing. 6 Krjpvt; herald, 6 <pou/t palm, where the 
accent shows that v and i were sounded short (93 b) : but many editors 

II. Stems ending in a Lingual Mute (T, $, 
165. A. Neuter Stems. 

TO o~(Su,a body 

TO ^?rap Z^er 

TO Kepas horn 

Sing. Nom. 

croo/LiaT-os * 

o*o) /ua 



Kepdr-os (epaos) Kepcoy 
Kepar-t (xepai) icepa 

Du. N. A. V. 
G. D. 



Kepar-f (/cepae) Kepa 
Kepdr-oiv (Kepaoiv) Kepwv 

Plur. N. V. 





KepaT-a (/cepaa) Ke'pa 

KepaT-a (xepaa) /ce'pa 

So o-TO/Ma (o-TO/zaY) mouth, ovop.a (O^O/ZCIT) name, Se'Xeap (SeXeaY) /bait, 
repay (rfpar) prodigy. 

166. Here belong the stems in aT, together with yaXa (yaXa/<T) milk, 
p.e\L (jueXtT) honey, and cp&s ((pur) light. Of stems in QT, by far the 
greater part end in /ZQT : these drop r in the nom., ace., voc., sing. (75) : 
7rpay/ia (npaypaT) affair. 

167. Several in ar have ap in the nom., ace., voc., sing. : cppe'op well, 
gen. (ppear-os (also contracted (pp^Toj), aXexpap (also aXexpd) unguent, gen. 
d\ei<paT-os. It is supposed that these ended originally in apT, and that 
T has been dropped in the cases above named (75), but p in all the other 
forms. "YScop (yddr) water and o-Ko>p (awr) filth have a> irregularly for a 
in the same three cases. 

168. A few in ar have as in the nom., ace., voc., sing. (76) : Trepas end, 
gen. Trepar-os. 'Kepas (<epar) horn and repay (repar} prodigy sometimes 

160 D. For <f>S)s, Hm. has only <f>dos or Qocas (cf. 870 D a), dat. 0aer, plural 
<f)dos is used also by Attic (Tragic) poets. 

168 D. In Kepas,jfepas, the forms with T are not used in the Ionic. Hm. 
has the forms with a pure : /cepaos, /cepai'; and sometimes contracts them : /ce'pqc. 

Hd. changes a pure to e, and does not contract icepet, re/>ea. For nepas 

ireparos, Hm. has ireipap, Treiparos. 



drop r between two vowels ; the vowels are then regularly contracted. 
In such cases, it is probable that r was first changed to o- (62 a), and then 
dropped according to 64. 

For yow (gen. yovar-oi), $6pv (gen. dopar-oi) spear, and ovs (gen. 
o>r-oY) ear, see 202, 3, 5, 13. 

169. B. Masculine and Feminine Stems. 


hired man 



o r] opvis 



old man 

Sing. Nom. 












Du. N. A. V. 
G. D. 





Plur. N. V. 










So fj vvg (VVKT) night, f} \annds (Xa/A7ra6) torch, f] x"P ls 
6 yiyas (yiyai/r) giant, 6 \eo>v (\fovr) lion. For some irregular forms of 
opvis bird, see 202, 12. 

170. In the Nominative Singular, novs (Trod) foot lengthens the short 
vowel, contrary to 47. see 161. Adpap (Sa^apr) wife, chiefly poetic, re- 
jects s on account of the harshness j see 156. 

171. In the Accusative Singular, barytone stems in r, 8, S, 
after a close vowel, commonly reject the final mute, and annex 
v to the close vowel. 

This applies to barytone stems in IT, tS, t3, vS, v3. Thus x^P LS (x a P tr ) 
favor, ace. x"P lv -> rarcly x^P tT ~ a 5 ^ u t Kpijnis (^p^TTiS) fiase, oxy tone, ace, 
KprjnlSa, never Kpijiriv. Only the oxytone K\eis (/cXciS) Icey has in the ace. 
sing. K\elv (rarely /cXelSa), and in the ace. pi. /cXety or 

169 D. A few stems in CDT have forms without T (cf. 168 D). Xpc&s 
skin is declined in Ionic, xp<i> s > XP^ XP^ Xpta.. Hm. has also, but rarely, 
%/jwT(k, xP Ta ' Even the Attic has dat. ,sing. xp<? in. the phrase eV XPV c ^ ose 
by. From ISpdas (ISpcar) sweat, yeXws (^eAwr) laughter, epcas (epwr) love (also epos, 
2d declension, poetic), the forms with T are unknown to Urn. He has only dat. 
sing. i5/?(5, 7eAw, epw, and ace. t5pw, -yeAco (or ye\caj/, 2d decl.), ipov. 

171 D. In Hm., words of this class often form the Ace. Sing, in a: eptSa 
more frequent than epzv, yXavK<airtf>a. from yXavK&irts bright-eyed. 

For /cAe?*, Hm. uses the Ionic /cArjfs, ace. sing. /cArjISa; the Doric has *Aafj 
(Lat. clavis), rarely K\d%. 




172. III. Stems ending in a Liquid. 


6 dai/j-atv 


wild least 

o pjjreop 


Sing. Nom. 















Du. N. A. V. 
G. D. 





Plur. N. V. 







So 6 p.fjv (ji-rjv) month, 6 XI/JLTJV (\tjj.v) harbor^ 6 r)y/j.d>v (jjyefjLov) leader^ 
o Traidv (Trmav) paean, 6 dyav (aycov) contest, 6 aiS^p (atSep) aether, 6 Kpa- 
rfjp (Kparrjp) mixing-fiowl, 6 <pcop (cpcop) thief. 

a. The only stem in X is dX, nom. 6 aXs salt, fj aXs (poetic) sea. 

b. In the Voc. Sing., crcorrjp savior, 'A7roXX&>i>, and Hoo-etSco^ shorten 
the long vowel of the stem, and throw the accent back upon the first 
syllable : oroorep, "ATroXXoz/, Tloaeidov. - The accent is also thrown back 
in some compound proper names : 'Aya/xe/xi/cov, 'Apio-royeircov, voc. 'Aya- 


173. /Syncopated Stems in ep. 

Harfjp (Trarep) father makes the vocative singular like the stem, but 
with the accent on the first syllable, contrary to 120 : Trarep. In the 
genitive and dative singular, it drops e and accents the case-ending (cf. 
160) : Trarpoy,' rrarpi. In the other cases, it retains e and accents it : ?ra- 
re'pa, Trarepey. Only in the dative plural, by metathesis and change of 
VOwel, ep becomes pa : Trarpacn. 

The same peculiarities belong also to p^rr/p mother, Zvyarrjp daughter, 
and yaa-rrjp folly. - The proper name Aqp^p (vocative Aqp^rep) syn- 
copates all the oblique cases, but accents them on the first syllable : 
A^ju^rpos-, Ar]fj.T)Tpa. - 'Acrr^p (aorep) star has no syncopated forms, but 
makes dat. pi. 

172 D. b. The Epic Sa^p (Saep) husband's brother has voc. sing. 8aep. 

173 D. The poets often have the full forms in the gen. and dat. sing. 

repos and iraTp6s. In frvyaTyp, they sometimes syncopate other cases : frvyarpa, 
frvyarpes, ^vyarpoav^ this happens also in irarplav for Trare'pwy. In the dat. pi., 
the Epic -effffi may be used : ^vyarepeffa-i. From af-ftp, the poets use ' 
'a^epes, etc., as well as av$p6s, ^5pes, etc. ; in the dat. pi., Hm. has both 




vfp) man follows the analogy of Trarjjp, but syncopates all the 
cases in which ep comes before a vowel : it also inserts 8 between v and 
p, to strengthen the sound (53) : di>Spd?, az/Spes, 

Sing. Nom. 







r] "SvycLTrjp 



o ai/7^p 


Du. N. A. V. 
G. D. 





Plur. N. V. 






174. Comparative Stems m ov. 

Adjectives of the comparative degree in o>v (stem ov) drop v 
in certain forms, and then contract the concurrent vowels. 

Sing. Nom. 


Masculine and Feminine. 
neifav greater 


Du. N. A. V 
G. D. 

Plur. N. V. 

So jSeXrtcoi/ better, alax'^v more shameful, dXyiW more painful. 

175. a. In comparatives of more than two syllables, the forms which 
end in ov throw back the accent on the antepenult : jSeXnoy, aiV^tov. 

b. The forms with v and the contracted forms are both in use. The 
intermediate forms (as /mba) are never found. 

c. According to the same analogy, 'ATrdXXcoi/, Iloo-eiScoy make in the 
ace. 'ATToXXooz/a and 'ATrdXXco, IlocretScofa and Tloaeida). 

For substantive stems in nv which occasionally drop v, see 194 c. 

175 D. The statement in b. applies also to Hm. and Hd. The contract 

ace. of 'ATT^AAajf and UofffiSuv is not used by Hm. and Hd., but from 
mixed draught Hm. makes ace. sing. KVKW or KVKGIU. 




IY. Stems ending in 9. 
176. A. Stems in es. 

TO yevos race 

M. F. evyevrjs N. evyevts well-born 

S. N. 

(yeve-os) yevovs 
(yei/e-t) yevei 
yevos ' 

M. F. evyevrjs N. evyeves 
(euyeve-oy) evyevovs 
(evyeve-'i) evyevel 
(etryez/e'-a) fvyevrj N. fvyeves 

(yeve-e) yevrj 
(yeve-oLv) yevolv 

(evyeve-e) evyevrj 
(fvyeve-oiv) fvyevo'iv 

B. N. 

(yeVf-a) yevrj 
(yfve-av) ytvuv 
(yevfa) yevrj 

(ei/yeve-ey) cvyevels N. (fuyeve-a) evyevrj 
(evyeve-ccv) fvyevav 
(fvyeve-as} evyevfls N. (euye^e'-a) evyevrj 

So TO et'Soy form, KaXXoy beauty, /ze'Aoy song. Adjectives aa<prjs (neut. 
(ra<ey) clear, aKpifir]s (d/cpt/3ey) exact, evrfiys (evrfies) simple. 

177. The stems in ey are very numerous. The substantive stems are 
neuter, and change ey to oy in the nom. sing. (25). The adjective stems 
retain ey in the neut., but change it to rjs in the nom. masc. and fern. (156). 

'H rpir)pr]s (rptrjpes) trireme, and some others in fjprjs, though used as 
substantives, are properly adjectives, belonging to an implied vavs ship. 

178. Before all case-endings, y falls away (64). The vowels, which 
come together, are then contracted. ee in the dual gives 77 (contrary to 
32 d). ea coming after a vowel gives a (contrary to 32 b) : vyir)s (uyiey) 
healthy, ace. vyia (but also vyuf), XP* OS (^peey) debt, neut. pi. xpoz. But 
adjectives in 0u^y have both (pi;?; and <pva : ei^pv^y witty, evt^vrj and eixpua. 
For contraction of eay to eis in the ace. pi., see 36 b. 

179. Barytone words in r/s have recessive accent (97) everywhere, 
even in contract forms : Sco/cpurr;?, voc. Sco/cpaTfy (not SwKpaTf y, 120), 
avrdpKrjs self-sufficing, neuter, gen. pi. (auTapfce'co^) avrapKcov (not 
avrapKoov, 98). 

v 176 D. The uncontracted forms prevail in Hm. ; yet he often contracts ci* 

to in the dat. sing., and sometimes ees to ets in the nom. pi. In the gen. 

sing., he sometimes contracts eos to ew : &dp<revs from &dp(ros courage. /cAeos 

fame makes nom. pi. arAea for /cAeea. In the dat. pi., Hm. has three forms: 

/SeAe'-ea-o-j, j8e'Ae(T-<n, and jSeAe-trt (55), from ^SeAos missile. 
Hd. has only the uncontracted forms. 

1Y8 D. In Hm., a vowel before the e is sometimes contracted with it : eS- 
KAe^s glorious, ace. pi. eu/cAeTas for eu/cAeeas ; but aya/c A'/jos for aya/cAeeos gen. 
of aya/cAefc (in a.K^e'is for a/cAee'es, the first e is irreg.. lengthened to ??). 
o"7reos or tnreZbs cave has gen. oTreious, dat. <r7T7ji' (for (TTree-i'), dat. pi. ffirfaffffi (iot 
a"ircf-ffffi) and irreg. a"ir4ffffi. Seosfear has irreg. gen. 




The neuter dX^es (M. F. d\r)%r)s) true throws back the accent when 
used as a question : ii\r)%cs ; really f 

180. Proper names in K\frjs, compounded with K\COS (K\ees) fame, 
have in some forms a double contraction: nom. (neptKXe^s) nepiK\f)s y 
gen. (ZlepiKXeeo?) Hepi/cX/ovy, dat. (lleptKXeei, IlepiKXeee) tlepiK\el, ace. 
IleptKXf'a, VOC. 

181. B. Stems in a?, os, cos. 

TO Kpeas flesh 

77 atStby shame 




Sing. Nom. 

(*pea-oj) Kpfas 
(fcpea-t) Kpea 

(aio-oj) aiSoOff 
(eu'So-Y) at'SoT 
(ai5o-a) atfico 



Du. N.A.V. 
G. D. 


Plur. N. V. 

(ffpea-a) Kpea 
(Kpea-coz>) Kpe&v 
(/cpea-a) Kpect 


182. These stems are few in number, and all substantives. Those in 
as are neuter : TO yrjpas old age, TO Kve<pa$ darkness. Those in coy are 
masculine: 6 Zws jackal, 6 /^rpoos mother's brother. In or there are but 
two, both feminine : mScbs (atSo?) shame, and Epic rj<bs (jjos) morn (= At- 
tic CMS, which is declined according to 146 and 148). 

183. These all drop $ before a case-ending, like stems in es-. In the 
dat. sing., ai is contracted to a : yrjpa (for y^pat), though some would 
write yrjpai. -- The quantity of a in the contracted nom., ace., pi. is vari- 
able. -- In late writers, Kpeas has forms with r : KpeaTos, etc. (cf. 168). 

184. The dat. and ace. sing, of fjpas are usually contracted : i^pco, rjpcu 
(for fjpw'i, T^pcoa) ; so, sometimes, the nom. and ace. pi. : fjpats (for ^pcaey, 
Tjipcoaj). - Some of the stems in a>s have occasional forms according to 
the Attic Second Decl. : gen. sing. ace. 

180 D. Hm. declines 'Hpo/cAeV, 'HpaK^os (178 D), 'HpaK\TJ'i, 'Hpaic\rjo, t 
. -- Hd. 'HpoKAeV, c Hpa/cA.eos, 'Hpa/cAet, 'Hpo/cAea, 'Hpa/cAees, one e 
being rejected before endings that begin with a vowel. 

182 D. Stems in as. Hm. always has a for aa in the nom., ace., pi. : yepa, 
prizes, 5<?Va cups; he sometimes contracts in other cases^ cre'Ae?, Kpeuv or 
Kpei&v. - ovSas ground, floor, Ku>as fleece, /crepes possession, in all other forms 
take e for o : ot/Seos ovSeif ouSet, Kc6ea /ccoeor/, KTepea KTepewv funeral-gifts : so 
also poetic jSpeVay, /JpeVeos, image. Cf. ye'pea Hd. for yepaa. The only con- 
tract forms in Hd. are /cpe'a, /cpewy. - Dor. Kpijs = Kpeas. 

The two stems in os always show the contract form, even in Hm, and Hd, 

From stems in ws, Hm. has %pai and jjpy, Mfrwa and M(va>. 





185. Y. Stems in i and v (simple close vowels). 

f) TTO\IS 



TO acrrv 



6 p.vs 



Sing. Nom. 











Du. N. A. V 
G. D. 






Plur. N. V. 








fj,v-as Or 

So 17 8vvafjii-s power, f] o-raa-i-s- faction, 6 7re\eKv-s axe (like 7rrjx vs }i o ^ 
(like /^Os), 6 /3orpu-y cluster of grapes (like txSt'?)- 

186. The final t or v of the stem always appears in the nom., ace., and 
voc., sing. Elsewhere, it is generally changed to e. Contraction then 
occurs in the dat. sing, and in the nom. and ace. pi. For eay contracted 
to eis in the ace. pi., see 36 b. The nom. and ace. dual are seldom con- 
tracted (ec to 77, cf. 178) : 770X77, flurry. After e. the gen. sing, takes coy, 
the so-called Attic ending, which, however, does not prevent the accent 
from standing on the antepenult (96) : 77oXeoor, Tcr)x fa > s ' r ^ ne S en - P^ ^" 
lows the accent of the gen. sing. : 77dXfco^, Tn'eooi/. The neuter acrrv has 
gen. sing, ao-reos-, less often 

186 D. Stems in i. The New Ionic retains t in all the forms, but contracts 
u in the dat. sing, to r, and las in the ace. pi. to is. Thus Sing. TT^AIS, 7r6\ios, 
v6\L, ir^Atj/, ir6\l, PI. Tr6\ies, iroXiwv, Tr6\iffi, irttes. The older editions of Hd. 
admit other forms to some extent, as dat. sing. Tr^Aez, nom. pi. ir6\iSj ace. pi. 
ir6\tas Or Tr^Aets. 

Hm. changes t to e before i in the dat. sing, and <n in the dat. pi. Thus 
Sing. wjAis, Tr6\ios, ir6\fi or ir^Aet, ir6\iv, TrjAt, PI. Tr^Aies, TroAtwi/, ir6\effi or 
TroAiWo-j, ir6\ias. In the dat. sing, and ace. pi., he sometimes has the contract 
forms of the New Ionic : K&VI dat. sing, of KOVIS dust, aKolns ace. pi. of &KOITLS 
wife. He even uses ir6\eis for ir6\ias. 

From Tr^Ats itself, Hm. has also a peculiar form with TJ : ir6\r]os, TT^ATJ'*, TT^AT;- 
ey, ir6\i)as. - For the datives TrcAe/cca-o-t, faffffi, see 154 D. 

Stems in v. The Ionic always has os in the gen. sing. Hm. sometimes 
contracts et to e^ v'i to vt, in the dat. sing., and vas to vs in the ace. pi. : irtjX* 1 * 
iX&vlj ix&vs. - Hd. has only the contraction of vas to vs. - For the datives 
VfKvffffi, Trirvffffi, see 1 54 D. 




187. a. Most stems in i follow the formation just described. So too 
all adjective stems in v : these, however, take os in the gen. sing., and 
have no contraction in the neuter plural : y\vKv-s sweet, yXu/ce-oy, yXvKc-a. 
Even in substantives, such forms as TroXeoy, rrfjx OS ^ are sometimes found, 
especially in poetry. 

b. Most substantive stems in v preserve this vowel through all the 
cases, ve in the dual and plural may be contracted to a : ix%v (for ijfivc), 
ix%vs (for tx3veff) : the ace. pi. generally has vs for vas (33). 

188. "Eyx^vs eel is declined like lx%vs in the Sing., but like TTTJXVS in 
the PI. : gen. sing. ey^eXv-oy, nom. pi. ey^eXei?. 

The poetic adjective 'iftpis (ifyn) knowing retains the final i of the stem 
in all the cases. 

189. VI. Stems ending in a Diphthong. 

6 fiaai\ev-s 

6 77 /3oO-y 
ox, cow 

17 ypav-s 
old woman 

rj vav-s 

Sing. Nom. 

(/3ao-iXe-i) /Sao-tXa 







Du. N. A. V. 
G. D. 







Plur. N. V. 

(/3acnXe-e?) fiacriXels 







So 6 yovev-s parent, 6 lepcv-s priest, ' 

190. The final v of the diphthong disappears before all vowels, ac- 
cording to 39. The stem vav, after dropping v, becomes yq before a 

short vowel-sound, i/e before a long one. 

Jn regard to stems in ev, observe that 

a. the gen. sing, has o>? instead of os, cf. 186. 

b. the dat. sing, always contracts ti to el. 

189 D. Stems in eu. Hd. has only the uncontracted forms. Hm. has 77 in- 
stead of e, wherever v falls away : &affi\evs, /Joo-tAev, Paffi\evffi, but &a<ri\rjos, 
/3oo-i\7jt, etc., dat. pi. apto"Hje<r<n. Yet in proper names, he often has e: 
and IlTjAe'os, Urj\rj'i -and n^jAet, etc. ; rarely with contraction : gen. 
dat. 'AxiAAe?, ace. TuS?}. 

Eovs Dor. /3ws, ace. sing, ftovv Dor. /3wj/ (once in Hm.) : Hm. has in dat. pi. 

fr&effffi and $ov<ri, ace. pi. )8Jas and jSous. Tpavs : Hm. has only ypyvs (11 D) 

and 7p?ji5s, dat. yprft, voc. ypr)v and ypi)v. NaCs is declined by Hm., nom. 

sing, vrjvs (11 D), gen. (vr\6s,} v*6s, dat. j/rjf, ace. (j/rja,) veo, nom. pi. (yrjes,) j/e'es, 
gen. (j/rjwi/,) vew^, dat. vi\va( (vfaffffi, j/eWtrt), ace. (v^as,) yeas. The forms not 
in ( ) belong also to Hd. 


c. the ace. sing, and ace. pi. have a and remain uncontracted. 

d. the contract nom. pi. has 779 in the older Attic writers: thus 
&a<ri\rjs in Thucydides, instead of fiacnXfls. 

e. when eu follows a vowel, contraction may occur in the gen. and 
ace. sing. : netpcueu-s Piraeeus, gen. Tleipaicos, ace. Iletpcua (cf. 178). 

REM. f. The gen. in ecos and the ace. in ea, eay, arose, by interchange 
of long and short quantities, from the Homeric forms in rjos, rja, yds. 

191. Some compounds of TTOVS (nod) foot form the ace. sing, as if from 
a stem in ov : Tpitrovs (rpnroS) three-footed, ace. rpinow (but in the sense 
tripocl, ace. rpiVoSa). Oldinovs Oedipus makes OldtTrodos and 
t, Oi'SiVoSa and OidiVow, Ql&iirovs and Oldiirov. 

192. The only diphthong-stem ending in i is ot, Sing, oi-s sheep, ol-6s, 

' * f T>1 ?- * i ' ' T /f O5 Tk\ 

oi-t, ot-i/J Jrl. ot-ey, (H-coy, oi-cri, ot-s (CI. -60 -Uj. 

VII. /Stems ending in o. 

193. Sing. Nom. ^ 7m3o> persuasion. 

Gen. (7rfi3o-oy) 

Dat. (7rei3o-i) 

Acc. (7T6i3o'-a) 

Voc. TreiSoi 

So 77 7)^0) (77^0) ec^O, KaXv^co, AT;ra>. 

194. a. These are all oxytone feminine substantives. - The contract 
ace. sing, is oxytone like the nom. (contrary to 98). - The voc. sing., 
varying from all analogy, ends in ot. 

b. In the dual and plural (which occur very rarely), they are de- 
clined like stems in o of the 2d or 0-Decl. : Xf^w, nom. pi. Xe^ot. 

c. A few stems in ov have occasional forms as if from stems in o : 
elKav (eiKov) image, gen. etKoi}?, acJe. ei/cw, ace. pi. IKOVS, o??Scoi/ 
nightingale, voc. d 

195. DECLENSIONS COMPARED. The Consonant-Declension (Decl. IIJ.) 
and the Vowel- Declension (Decl. I. II.) agree in the following points : 

1. In all genders, 

a. the D. S. ends in i (in the Vowel-Decl., t subscript). 

b. the G. D. Dual end in iv (aiv, oiv). 

c. the G. P. ends in wv. 

d. the D. P. ended originally in an. 

2. In the neuter, (e) the N. A. V. P. end in d. 

191 D. To OlS r nrovs belong also gen. Ot'SwnfSa-o Hni., and in Trag. gen. 
ace. Oi'5wrj5aj> voc. 

192 D. Hm. (commonly) and Hd. have ot for or. vis, oios, etc., dat. pi. 
Hm. of 6 0*0*1 (once ofe<n) and oecro-i (154 D). 

193 D. Even the Ionic has only the contract forms. Hd. makes the ace. 
sing, in ovv : *lovv for 'IcS. 


3. In the masculine and feminine, 

f. the N. S. takes $ (or an equivalent for it). This, however, does 
not apply to feminine stems of the A-Declension. 

g. the A. S. takes v generally when the stem ends in a vowel. 
h. the A. P. ends in s. 

BEM. i. In the Ace. Sing., v (//) was originally applied even to conso- 
nant-stems, a being inserted as a connecting vowel ; but v afterwards fell 
away (77). Compare oSoV-d( with Lat. dent-e-m. 

In the Ace. PI., the ending was originally vs. Here also a was insert- 
ed after consonant-stems. When v fell away (48), a preceding a or o of 
the stem became long, as, ovs', but the connective a remained short: 
uS6vT-d-(v)s Lat. dent-e-s. 

196. The principal differences of ending are found 

a. in the G. S. of all genders, where the Cons.-Decl. has os (cos-). 

b. in the N. P. masc. and fern., where the Cons.-Decl. has ey. 

c. in the N. A. V. S. neuter, where the Cons.-Decl. does not take v. 

Irregular Declensio?i. 

197. In some instances, a word has forms belonging to two different 
stems. Such words are called heteroclites, when the Nom. Sing, can be 
formed alike from either stem (eYepd/cXira differently declined). Thus 
N. S. OTKOTOS darkness (stem O-KOTO Decl. II., or o-Kores Decl. III.), Or. S. 


198. Thus proper names in rjs of the 3d Decl. often have forms be- 
longing to the 1st Decl,, especially in the Ace. Sing. : Sco/epar?;? (stem 
2a>Kpares), Ace. ScoKparqi/ (as if from a stem ScoKpara), together with the 
regular Ace. SooKpcm;. But proper names in K\TJS (180) have only forms 
of the third declension. 

199. But usually the Nom. Sing, can be formed from only one of the 
two stems. Then forms belonging to the other stem are called metaplas- 
tic (from ^eTanXacr^os change of formation). Thus TO devdpo-v tree, D. 
P. SeVSpeai (as if from stem devdpes) ', TO dtiKpvo-v tear, D. P. 

197 D. In Hd., some words in 775 of the first declension have ea for T\V in 
the Ace. Sing. : Sea-irJrrjs master^A. S. Seo-Wrea. - From ~2,apinfi<!)V, Hm. has 
3,a.pTri]Uvos, etc., also ^apir^ovros, etc. - From MtVws, Att. Gen. MtVw, etc. 
(146), Hm. Mfoyos, etc. (182 D). 

199 JF Hm. aXK-l D. S. of aA/c^ strength, vfffuv-i D. S. of vfffj.ivrj battle, 
fj.dffri D. S., fj.dffTi-j' A. S., of iJ.dffTi!-(y) whip, t^ai (as if for t^;eo[o-"]o) A. S. of 
t%cp lymph, IcaK-a A. S. of ta>/c?j rout, \yi<pa Hes. A; S. of vi(pds(8) snow]," 
ajKa\iS-ffffi D. P. of ayKd\.rj elbow, av5paTr65-effffi D. P. of avtipdirotio-v slave, 
SeV/xar-a PI. of Sea"/j.6-s bond, irposuTraT-a PI. of Trp6s(airo-v face, ret Tr\evpd 
Ion. and poet. = cu ir\evpai PI. of ^ ir\evpd side. 

From ndrpoic\o-s, declined regularly, Hm. has also narpo/cATjos, 
UaTp6K\eis (stem riarpo/cAeey, 180 D). 

From yvioxo-s charioteer, declined regularly, Hm. has also ^ 
(stem rji/toxev, 189 D): cf. Afolairas and Alfriotrrjas, A. P. of Albio^ (163). 


(poetic N. S. Sa/tpu) ; TO irvp fire, PL ra nvpd (2d Decl.) watch-fires, D 
Trvpols j 6 oveipo-s dream (2d Decl.), but also G. S. oveipar-os, N. P. om- 
par-a (3d Decl.) ; f) aXco-s- threshing-floor declined like CMS (148), but 
sometimes G. aXa>v-oy, etc. : like aXa>y are 6 raws- peacock, and (in poetry) 
6 rv<p(as whirlwind. Of. 194 c. 

200. In some words, the Sing, and Plur. are of different genders 
(heterogeneous), though alike in stem. Thus 6 o-iro-s- corn, PL TO. arlra ; 
6 orra3/xos station, stall, PL often ra oraS/ua; 6 deo-pos band, PL often 
ra dea-pd J TO o-rddtov stade, PL commonly ot o-raStot. 

201. a. Many words are defective in number, often from the nature of 
their meaning. Thus aiS^p aether, only in the Sing. ; 01 eYija-uu annual 
winds, ra Aiovvo-ia festival of Dionysus, only in the Plural. 

b. Other words are defective in case. Thus ovap dream, vnap wak- 
ing, o(pe\os use, all neuter and used only in the Nom. and Ace. ; p.d\r] 
arm-pit used only in the phrase vno p.d\r)s (later vnb p.d\r]v). 

202. The most important irregularities of declension, which have not 
been noticed already, will be found in the following alphabetic table : 

1. "Aprjs (Apes) the god Ares, Q;"Apca>s and J/ Apeo$-, D. "Apei, A."Aprjv 
(198) and *Aprj, V. reg. "Apes. 

2. apv lamb, stem without N. S. ; hence (ro{5, TTJS) dpvos, dpvi, apva, 
apves, dpvda-t. The N. S. is supplied by a>i/o'y 5 2d decl., reg. 

3. r6 yow Tcnee (Lat. genu), N. A. V. S. All other cases are formed 
from stem yovar : yovaros, yovari, etc. 

4. f} ywr) woman. All other forms come from a stem ytvaiK : they 
are accented (all but the V. S.) as if this were a stem of one syllable, 
yvaiK. (160) : G. S. yvvatKos, D. yvvaiKi, A. yvvaiKa, V. yuvai ; Dual yvvatKf, 
yvvaiKolv ', PL yvvaiKes, yvvaiKa>v, yvvai^i, yvvaiKas. 

5. ro 86pv spear, N. A. V. S. All other cases from stem Sopor (cf. 
no. 3) : Soparoy, Sopart, etc. Poetic G. Sopo'y, D. Sopi and So'pet. 

200 D. Hm. 8pv/j.d PI. of Spv^s oak-wood, eWepo PL of eWepos evening, 
Ke\fv&a (also /ceAev^ot) PL of r] Ke\fv&os way. 

201 D. a. Hm. PL fyKara entrails, D. ZyKaori, offffe eyes, only N. A. Dual 
(in Trag. also PL, G. ijaffwv, D. offff f ois), PI. tr^eo, ox^W, oxtffQi, chariot (Sing. 
6 ox os not in Hm.). 

b. Only Nom. or Ace., Hm. 8w (for Sw/io) house, K/H (for /cot3^) barley, 
&<(>evos wealth, Se/xas body, %8os delight, $pa only in %pa <pepeiv to render a 
service, ^rop heart, re/c/iwp (Att. reK/j.ap) bound, all neuter. Only Yoc., 
rj\e or tjAee (Hm.) foolish, pete (Attic poets) my good sir or madam. Only 
Dat., Hm. KTecCr-eovi to possessions, (ev) Sat in battle. 

202 D. The dialects have the following peculiar forms : 

1. "Aprjs : Hm. "Apyos, "Aprfi, "Aprja, also "Apeos, "Apei (Hd. "Ape'i, "Apea). 

3. y6vv: Ion. and poetic yoiivaros, yotj/ari, yovvara, yowdray, yovvaat. 
Epic also yovv6s, yovvi, yovva, yovvwv, yovvfffffi. 

5. S6pv: Ion. Sovpdros, Sovpari, Sovpara, Sovpdrwj', 8ovpa<ri. Epic also 5ow 
(>6s t Sovpi, Sovpe, Sovpa, 5ovpcoj/, 


6. Zevs the god Zeus, G. AID'S, D. Au, A. Am, V. ZeO. 

7. 77 3eV t? (3*/8) r^JW, declined reg. : but in the phrase 3e'/xts eii/m 
(/as me, Indie. 3e/u ts fvrifas est), the N. S. is used for the Ace. Sept?. 

8. 6 77 Koivooi'd'-s partaker, regular ; but also N. A. P. Koiv&v-es, -as, 
only found in Xenophon. 

9. 6 fj MM dog, V. S. KVOV. All other cases from stem K.VV : KVVOS, 
KVVI, Kvvaj PI. KiWs, KVVUV, /cvort, Kvvas. 

10. 6 Xa-s on, COntr. from Xaa-s, G. Xa-os, D. Xa-t, A. Xaa-i>, Xa-i> ; 
PI. Xa-es, Xa-coi/, Xa-ea-a-i Or Xa-etrt. Poetic word for XtSos. 

11. 6 r; pdprv-s witness, D. P. pdpTv-o-i. All other cases from stem 
papTvp : pdprvpos, p-dprvpi, etc. 

12. 6 r) 6'pifo (opi/zS) bird, declined reg. (169) ; A. S. opviv, also opvfta. 
Less frequent forms, made from stem opvi, are N. P. opveis, G. opi/ecoi', A. 
opi/etr and rarely opvis. 

13. TO ovs ear, N. A. V. S. All other cases from stem <or : &>rdV, w 
PI. aira, wreoj/, &>a-t. These forms were made by contraction from 
oflaros, etc., see below. 

14. r} Hi/ii^ Pnyx, place for the popular assemblies of Athens, stem 
HVKV (57) : HVKVOS, TlvKvi, IlvKva. 

15. 6 Trpeo-fievTTjs (Trpevpevra) erribassador : in the Plur. commonly 
'is, 7rpecr/3ea)j/, irpea^eai. These forms come from the poetic Sing. 

-s embassador, also oZ^ wa/i, in which latter sense npeo-pvTrjs is the 
common prose word for all numbers. 

16. rav a defective stem, only in Voc. &> rdv, also writtea w Vai/, (9 
friend, rarely plural friends. 

17. 6 vto'-s sow, declined reg. : also from a stem vies, G. ufeos, D. wet 
(A. vie'a rare) ; Du. tuee, vitoiv ; PI. vtets, view, viewi, vie^s. 

18. r) x*i-p hand, stem ^etp ; but G. D. D. x^/wi/, D. P. x^po-'- 

19. o xvs congius, reg. like /3oCs, but A. P. ^das. Also G. S. x ^^ 
A. S. ^oa, A. P. xas (as if from st. xev, c f. 190 e) ; these are sometimes 
written xuS) x' a > X^as. 

20. r6 xP 6 'y delt, N. A. V. S. ; also G. S. xpeoas. Other cases are 
supplied by TO XP* OS debt, which is declined regularly (178). 

202 D. The following appear as irregular only in the dialects : 

21. 6 cWjp (fern, in Hm.) air. Ion. rjepos, rje'pt, 7je/m. 

22. 6 'AtSTjs Hm. (Att. "AtSrjs the god Ifades) 1st decl., G. 'AtSao or 'AfSew, 
D. *A%, A. J AfS77J/ : but also G. "Ai'Sos, D. "Ai'St (st. A5, 3d decl.). Rare N. 

, D. 'AXStmnft (189 D). 

6. Zei5s : Poet, also Zijv6s, Zrjvl, Zyva. Find. At for Att 

7. i&e/as: Hm. 3-e/tto-Tos, etc., Find, d-e/uros, etc. 

11. /icJprus : Hm. always ^cfy>Tt;po^2d decl. Cf. <f>v\aKos Hd. (once in Hm.) 
for ^>yAa| watchman. 

12. opm: Dor. opvixos, ftpvixh e *c., from st. opvtx. 

13. oSs: Dor. 5s, Hm. oijaros, PL otfaTa, oua<rt, once wa-L 

17. vl6s: Hm. often has utJs, vl6v t vie, other forms of the 2d decl. very 
rarely. Of the forms from st. vies, he has all (mostly uncontracted) except 
D. P. Further, from st. ut, he has uTos (gen.), vli, via, ufe, vies, vt'c&rt, vlas. 

18. %flp : Poet. x e P^ 5 i X P^ H m< -^- "? X P ff ' i a 


202 D. 23. rb SeVSpov tree, Ion. and poet. SeVSpeo;/, Sej/Speou, etc. For 
irreg. D. P. SeVSpeo-i, see 199. 

24. rb /capa head, Hm. /cap??, stems /capjjr and Kpar, also with inserted a, 
KaprjaT, /cpaar. 

Gen. Sing. Kdp-rjros Kap^aros Kpdaros Kpar6s 

Dat. KdprjTi (Trag. /capa) Kaplan Kpdari Kpari 

Ace. Kcipr), also /cap Kpara. masc. and neut. 

Nom, Plur. Kdpa, also Kaprjva Kop/yaro Kpdara 

Gen. Kap-fivuv Kpdrtay, Dat. /cpatri 

Ace. = Norn. (Kparas Trag. masc.) 

The Attic (Tragic) poets have only N. A. V. S. /capo, D. S. /capo, and the 
forms from St. Kpar. 

25. 6 Afc poetic for AeW ^ow, A. S. A/, defective. 

26. D. S. AiTt, A. P. ATra, smooth cover, Hm., defective. 

27. 6 (Mtis (for ^ej'-s, and that for MV-S), only Nom. Sing., Ionic and poetic 
form for 6 /a-f]v month. 

28. rj Tr\n&vs (declined like t'x^vs) Ionic for T& TTA^OS multitude ; of the 
latter, Hm. has only TrA^et, irA^et. 

29. (^ TTTUX?} /oW, not in Hm., who uses only the defective) D. S. irrvxt, 

N. A. P. TTTV^S) TTTV^aS. 

30. (6 ffrixos row, not in Hm., who uses only the defective) G. S. 
N. A. P. 

Local Endings. 

203. Closely analogous to case-endings are certain endings 
which mark relations of place. These are 

a. -$L for the place where : aXXo-^t elsewhere. 

b. -<#/ for the place whence : otKo-favfrom home / less fre- 

quently, for the place where. 

c. -Se for the place whither : olW-Se home-ward. 

These endings are affixed to the stem : y A%r)vr)-%ev from Athens, 
KVK\6-%fv from the circle (KVK\O-S^) ; hut o is sometimes used for final a of 
the stem : ptb'-3ei> from the root (from pi'a root) ; and after consonant- 
stems, o is used as a connecting vowel : iravr-o-^fv from every side. The 
ending 6> is often affixed, to the accusative form : Me'ydpd-Se toivard 
Megara, 'EXeuo-Tm-Se toward Eleusis ; ot'x-a-de (st. ot/co) is irregular : for 
the accent of these forms, see 105 d. 

204. Instead of 6V, the ending -are or -e is sometimes used : 
toward another place, 'ASrjvage (for A^ws-oV, 56) toward Athens, 
(for 9?7/3as-Se) toward Thebes, Zvpafc (for 3upas-Se) out (Lat. foras). 

203 D. The local endings are much more frequent in Hm. : oftco&t at home, 
'lAi^i frp6 before Troy, ovpav6&ev from heaven, ayopri&ev from the assembly. 

The form with Srev is sometimes used by Hm. as a genitive case : KO.TO. /cp)}- 
bev from the head down, wholly, e a\6^ev out of the sea. 

In Hm., 8e is commonly added to the Ace. (not to the stem) : oV/c<w8e home- 
ward, tivtie 86fj.oj>8e to his own house, f)/j.Tep6v8e to our (house), TrjAivSe to the 
city, <p6fiovd to flight : peculiar are <pvya8e to flight, epa^e to earth, v Ai'5<fcSe ti 
(the abode of) Hades (202 D, 22). 




205. For some words, we find an ancient Locative case, denoting the 
place where, with the ending i for the singular, and for the plural o-t(i/) 
without i before it : O'LKOI at home, EEv3ot at Pytho, 'lo-StyioT at the Isthmus, 
*A%T]vr]-o-i (79 b) at Athens, nXarcuacri at Plataea, Zvpdai (Lat. foris) at 
the doors, abroad, fopacn at the proper season. 



207. This is much the most numerous class. The masculine 
and neuter follow the O-Declension ; the feminine usually fol- 
lows the A-Declension. Thus the nominative singular ends in 
os, 77 (or d), ov (Lat. us, a, um). 

S. N. 


. A. 


M. good F. 

dyaSoG dyaSr/s 1 






M. friendly F. 
<pi\tos <pi\ 
(f)i\iov <f)t\ 






dyaSco dyaSa dyaSa) 

dyaSoTi' dyaSaii/ 

(piXtaiv (pt\ioiv 

P. N. 

dyaSoi dyaScti ayaSfd 

dyaScoi* dyaScov dyaScoi' 

dyaSoTs dya^aty dyoSoTs 

(pi\ioi (piXiai 



REM. a. The vowel a in the nom. sing. fern, is always long. It is 

shameful, fern. 
precedes it : &ir\6os 

used after a vowel or p : 8i<aios just, fern, ma-d, 
alarxpa. But 77 is used after the vowel o, unless 
simple, fern. 077X0/7, dSpoos collected, fern. dSpoa. 

REM. b. The Feminine, in the Nom. and Gen. PI., follows the accent 
of the Masculine : /3e/3aio$- firm, nom. pi. masc. /3e'/3cuoi, fern. Peftaiai, not 
/3f/3alai, as we might expect from nom. sing. /3<?/3cu'a (120) ; gen. pi. fern. 
/3e/3aiW, like the masc., not /3e/3aio>i>, as in substantives (128). 

206 D. EPIC CASH-ENDING <pi. A peculiar suffix of the Epic language is </>Z 
(or ^w, 79 D), added to the stem. The form with $i serves as a genitive or 
dative, both singular and plural. Thus (a) in the 1st declension, always singu- 
lar : /Jnj-<J>t (less correctly piytyi) with violence, K\i<rir](f)i in the tent, cbrb veupj^i 

from the bow-string ; irregular e?r' <r%ap<^i (for e(rxa/)7j-^)i) on the hearth. 

(b) in the 2d declension : 'lAt^-^t of Troy, &e<tyu with the gods. (c) in the 

3d declension, almost always plural : air' o%e<r-(/H from the car, irapa vav-<f)i by 
the ships, irpbs Korv\t]^ov-6-<pt (genitive) to the feelers ; irregular airb Kpareff-^i 
from t/ie head (202 D, 24). 

207 D. For Ionic rj instead of 6 in the Feminine, see 125 D. Hm. has SIo, 
fern, of Stbs divine, with short a: 5?a fredoov divine among goddesses. 





208. Adjectives in eos and oos are subject to contraction. Thus 
cbrAovs simple, apyvpovs of silver, contracted from aTrXoos, dpyupeos. 
The uncontracted forms may be known from 207 ; the contract forms 
are as follows : 

S. N. 
















P. N. 




077X0) i> 




For the peculiarities of contraction, see 36 a. For irregular accent in 
the contract forms, see 145. 

209. Many adjectives of this class have but two endings, the 
masculine form being used also for the feminine : M. F. ^/(ri^os, 
N". rjcrvyov, quiet. This is the case with most compound adjectives : 
M. F. a-reKi/os childless, M. F. Kap7ro-<{>6pos fruit-bearing. 

KEM. a. In many adjectives of three endings, the fern, is sometimes 
found like the masc. ; and conversely, some adjectives of two endings 
have occasionally a distinct form for the fern. These exceptional cases 
are especially frequent in poetry. 

S. N. 

M. F. fjo-i>xos quiet N. 

. F. 



ItioUS N. 




P. N. 




210. "lAeooff is a specimen of the few adjectives which follow the Attic 
Second Decl. nXeoos full is declined thus in the Masc. and Neut. 

208 D. For contraction omitted in Ion., see 144 D. 132 D. 

210 D. For r /A.o>s, Hm. has iXaos (also in Att. poets) : for wAews, Hm. irXet- 
os, irA.efoj, TrAeToz/, Hd. TrAe'os, 17, ov. Hm. has ffus (only in this form), but for 
o-wos he has (roos, ff6rj, ffoov, Comp. cra^repos. With a>os, "fi, 6v living, he has 
N. S. *, A. &v. 



but forms a Fern. TrXe'a of the A-Decl. The defective adj. M. F. o-ws. 

N. o-av (formed from o-aos safe) has A. S. o-<5i/, A. P. <r<as ; also era as N. 
S. Fern, and Neut. PI. The kindred <rcoos, crdm, croSoz/, is also confined to 
the Nom. and Ace. 

of these, when it differs from the Masc., follows the A-Decl. : it is 
formed from the stem of the Masc. by annexing ta ; but this addi- 
tion causes various changes (32. 58. 60). Here belong 

212. 1. Stems in v. The Masc. and Neut. have e, instead of v, 
in most of the cases (cf. 186-7). The Fern, has c-ta, contracted 
into eta. 

S. N. 




f <\ / C fc ' 

rjofias rjoe 
rj Sclav 









P. N. 

f) Set? 

ijSelai rj Sea 


p.e\aivais /ie'Xacri 

/ -/ '_ .. _ ' ' " 

So yXuKws sweet, fBpadvs slow, ftpaxys short, ra%vs swift, evpvs wide. 
KEM. a. In 3?)Xvs female, the poets sometimes use the masculine form 
for the feminine. 

213. 2. A few stems in v. In these, the t of the fern, ending m 
passes into the preceding syllable : /xeAds (pcXav) black, Fern. />te- 
Aaii/a, for /zeAav-ia (58). For full inflection of /xeAas, see 212. 

Similarly declined are rcxXas, roXaiva, roXav unhappy and 
repava, ripev tender. 

214. 3. Stems in vr. In these, the Fern, vr-ia. becomes -era, and 
the preceding vowel is lengthened. They are mostly participles. 

212 D. For fern. eTa, elds, etc., Hd. has 4a, eV, ^77, 4uv, etc. Hm. com- 
monly has eta, enjs, etc., but w/cea for w/cem, fta^el-ris and fiabe-ns, and 
j8o3-ear. In Hiu., ^Sus and irovXvs (for TroAiJs), as well as (%H?Avs, are sometimea 
fern. In the A. S., Hm. sometimes has ^a for vv: evpea, TTOVTOV the wide sea,. 

214 D. Adjectives in ets (*vr) are much more frequent in poetry : those in 
Tjets, of is are sometimes contracted : Hm. Ti/A??s=Ttydjeis honorable, \carevvra 
=\a>T<lej'Ta filled with lotus, poet. Trrepovff(ra,=irTep6eff<ra winged. Hm. some- 
times uses these adjectives in the masc. form with fern, names of places. 




Adjectives in evr have eo-o-a, not eicra, in the Fern., for 
For their D. P., see 50 a. 

Xvo>i/ \vovcra \vov 



\vovra Xvovaav Xvov 

Xvovcra \vov 


diSoz/roy Sidovarjs didovros 



\vovaa Xvovre 
Xvovcratv \VOVTOLV 

8i86vroiv StSoucraiv 



\vov(rai Xvovra 


\vovcrais hvovcri 

\vovcras Xuoi/ra 

StSdz/rtov SiSoucrcoj/ StSoVrooi/ 








Xi;crdcra \vaav 

Avaao"^? \\xravTos 

Xvo-aa-?/ \vaavTi. 

hvcrcHrav Xvcrav 

\vo~acra \ixrav 


eiKvvs deiKviaa dfiKvvv 
SCLKVVVTOS deiKvvarrjs deiKvvvros 
IKVVVTI deiKvvcrrj 



\i>(ravT XvcrcKra Xvcravre 
Xvcrdvroiv \vo-d(raiv \vvavToiv 


\va~avTfs Xixracrai Xvcravra 



Xvfrao"i XvorcKrais Xutrdo't 
\vtravTas \v(rdcras \vcravra 

deiKvvcrais deiKvixri 
dfiKvvvras SeiKvvo-as dfiKvvvra 






x a P i ^ VTOlv 

x. a P L tcra-ai 

KEM. a. The fern. adj. ^apieo-o-a arose probably from a form without 
i/, x a P lfT ~ La (60) 5 while the fern. part. XfSftera arose from Xu3ez>r-ia, 
Xi;3ey(o-)o-a (48) 3 Xtioucra, from Xuovr-ta, Xvoj/(o-)cra, etc. 

215. Participles which have orr after a, e, o, are contracted: 
rt/xawv (rt/xaovr), n/Jidovora, ripd-ov honoring, contr. rt/>uov, rt^wo-a, 
n/Awv; cpiXtuv (^)tXeoi/r), (piXeoucra, ^tXeov loving, contr. (ptAwj/, <ptA.ovcra, 



SrjXowv (S^Xoovr), SyXoovcra, S^Xoov manifesting, contr. $r)X<av t 
SrjXovv. The uncontracted forms are like tboso of 
(214) ; the contract forms are as follows : 

S. N. 








(ptXovaa <pi\ovi> 

(f)l\OV(TT) (f)L\OVVTl 

(piXovvra (piXoixrav <f)i\ovv 





(f)i\ovi>Tf (friXovaa ( 
(f)i\ovvToiv (piXovaaiv (piXovvroiv 

P. N. 



rt/zaxratj rt/xco'i 

(f)i\ovvras (f)i\ovcras 

A^Xcoi/ (contracted from drjXoav) is declined exactly like 0iXc5z/. 

21^. ^ems m or. These are participles of the Perfect Active. 
The ending or in connection with the fern, ta is changed to via. 

S. N. 

having loosed 
\e\vKtos \e\VKvla. XeXvKoy 


\e\vKoTi XeXvKvia XeXuKort 
XfXvKOTa XeXvKvtav XeXvicos 

eorco? eVrcoo-a earos 
ecrrcaro? ecrT&arrjs eorcoroy 
earcari ecrraxr?/ ecrrom 
ecrrwra ecrrcucrai/ eoro? 


XfXvKdos XfXvKvla XeXvKos 

etrrco? eaTo3<ra eoros 


XeXv/core XeXvicvia XeXuKore 
XfXvKoroiv XeXvKviaiv XeXvKoroiv 

eorwre eorcoaa ecrrcore 
ecrrcoroii/ eoT&xrati/ ecrrcoToiv 

i>. N. 


XfXvKores XfXvKvlai XfXvKora 


XeXuKOcri XeXvKviais XeXvKo&i 

forrcores ea-rcoo-at eo-roora 
f(TT(0T(i)v ecrrcocrcoi/ ecrra>r&)i' 
eVrcoo-t eVraxrcuff eorooo-i 


XeXvKoTas XeXvKvias XfXvKora 

earcora? earcooray ccrrcora 

REM. a. eVrcos is contracted from eVracos-, and is irregular in the forma- 
tion of the Fern. The neuter form eVrds is also irregular. 

REM. b. vm of the Fern, appears to imply a masc. and neut. ending 
VT (= or) ; vr-ia would give vo-ta (62), and then via (64). 

217. Adjectives of Two Endings. In many adjectives of the 
Consonant-Declension, the masculine form is used also for the femi- 
nine (cf. 209). Here belong 

a. Stems in s : M. F. dX^s (aX^es) true, N. dX^e's (cf. 176). 

b. Most stems in v : M. F. euScu/xcov (ev8at/xov) happy, N. e^'Sat- 
M. F. apprjv (apcnfjv, St. apcrev) male, 1ST. appev (cf. 172). 

c. A few simple stems ending in other letters, as M. F. 'idpi-s knowing 

217 D. b. Hd. has 

r &p<rr]v. 




N. t'8pi (cf. 188). Also some compounds of substantives, as M. F. oVa 

rcop (a-7rarop) fatherless, N. aVrarop ; eve\7ris (fv-f\mS) of good hope, N. 
ve\7ri ; (piXoTToXis- (<ptXo-7ToXiS) city -loving , N. <pi\6iro\i ; ev^apis (eu-^aptr) 
agreeable, N. etfvapi : SITTOVS (Si-7roS) two-footed. N. StVoui/, A. S. ferow 
(191) W" 

S. N. 

0X77377$' 0X7736$- 



0X773 es- 







P. N. 

41X77300 v 


evSa.ip.oves evdaip,ova 


ev8aip,ovas evSai 



vyevfjs well-oorn (176), 8v$p.vr)s hostile, do-cpaXrjs safe, .\ 

\fjprjs full, TreVcoi/ r*pe, a-axppwj/ discreet, p.vr]p(iov mindful, 

forgetful, noXvirpay^v lusy. 
For comparatives in wi/, see 174. 

218. Adjectives of One Ending. In these the Fern, is like the 
Masc. ; but, owing either to their meaning or their form, they have 
no Neuter : thus apzra (apTray) rapacious, <f>vyd<s (<vyaS) fugitive, 
ayv<os (ayvoor) unknown, a-Trais (avraiS) childless, /xa/cpo^etp long-armed, 
irtvrjs (Trevor) ^90or, yv/av^s (yv/ai/Tyr) light-armed. 

REM. a. Some adjectives of one ending, which belong to the A-Decl., 
occur only in the Masc., and differ little from substantives : thus e'3eXoi/- 
r77$-, G. <f3eXoi/ro{}, volunteer. 

219. Irregular Adjectives. Some adjectives are irregular, their 
forms being derived from different stems. So /xeyag (/x,eya and 
/zeyoAo) great, TroXvs (TTO\V and TroAAo) mrf, ??^7i?/. 

218 D. Hm. has many adj. which appear only in the Fern. : irArvia. (in Yoc. 
also TroTpct) revered, \&x fia ( or perhaps tx&xjeia. small}; evTrarepeia of noble 
father, o^pip.oirarpt] of mighty father, avruivGipa. match for men, fiuTidveipa 
nourishing men, KvSidveipa making men glorious, TrovXvftoTeipa much-nourish- 
ing, (ox^atpa arrow-showering, iTnrofidfffia. thick with horse-hair, Ka\\iyvvait<a 
A.. S. rich in fair women. To Fern. 3-etA.eta rich there is a Neut. PI. &cU.ea. 

219 D. Hm. and Hd. have iro\\6s, -f), 6v reg. like ayar6s (also neut. 
for iro\v as adverb). But Hm. has also the common forms TroAus, iro\v, 

as well as irovKtis, irovXb, irovXvv (24 D. c) ; and from the same stem TroAv, he 
makes likewise &. S. iro\eos, N. P. jroA.ees, G. TroAeW, D. TroAeeo-o-t or 7roA<n, 

The masc. r.po-js is found in Pind. Comp. irpavrepos in Hd. 




S. N. 




jneya /neydXr; /Lte'ya 








P. N. 

/icydXa) p.eyd\a 
/ieydXoiz/ /ieydXaii> 

/ieydXot /ueydXai /xeydXa 

p.fyd\a>v /icydXooi/ ju.eydXa>i 

p-eyaXoij /leydXais /zeydXoi 

/ifydXovy /zeydXa? /xeydXa 




TToXXai TroXXd 

TToXXcSl/ TToXXcSl/ 


TToXXdff TToXXd 


REM. a. Trpaoy 77^^7^ forms the whole Fern, from St. Trpav : Trpaeta, 
etc. The Masc. and Neut, Sing, are formed from st. Trpao, rarely 

Trpav: irpaov 

npaov. In the Masc. and Neut. PL, both forma- 

tions are used : Trpaot and TrpafTy, Trpaca and Trpqa. 

Comparison of Adjectives. t 

A. By repos and raros. 

220. The usual ending of the Comparative degree is repo (N. S. 
repo?, repa, repov) ; of the Superlative, (N. S. raro?, rari;, rarov) . 
These endings are applied to the masculine stem of the Positive. 

Comparative. Superlative. 

light KovcporepoSi a, ov Kov^oraroy, 77, ov 


p.e\as (/ 

o-a(pf}$ (<ra<pes~) clear 



'asing x a P l<J " rf Ps x a P t0 ' TaTOS 

nfveo-Tfpos Trevea-raros 

and 7TfV(TTpos arise from x a P iVT ~ Tf P os an ^ 
by change of r to s (45), before which v is dropped in the former (48), 
and TJ shortened in the latter. 

Hm. has some fern, adjectives which are not formed from the stem of the 
masc. : ftyoDp(8) impetuous, M. &ovpo-s ', irteipa fat, rich, M. iri<av ', irpsfffta and 
Trpefffieipa honored, M. Trpefffiv-s (202, 15) ; irp6<ppaff(ra (for irpo<ppa8-ia from 

<ppdfy) favorable, M. Trp6(pp<av (from (pptv). The following are made from 

the stem of the masc., but by an unusual mode of formation: x^Kofify* 11 * 
heavy with brass, M. x a ^ K0 ^ a P^l s 5 fyiyeveia. early-born (M. ypiyev-fis later); 
TjSue'Treto (lies.) sweet-speaking, M. ^Sueir^s; ftdKaipa (Find.) blessed, M. pdicap; 
and in the PI. only, d-djueiaf. crowded, rap<peiai frequent, M. ^a/xees, rap<j>ees. 

In Hm., cpiripo-s trusty, makes PL epirjp-es (only Nom. and Ace. in each 

64 COMPARISON BY repos AND TttTOS. [221 

221. The following adjectives depart more or less widely from 
tlie rule above given. 

a. Stems in o with short penult, lengthen o to o> : this prevents 
the excessive multiplication of short syllables : o-o<pdj-repos iviser, 
dic6-raTos worthiest, from o-o(po-s, aio-s. But if the penult is long 
by nature or . position, o remains : irovrjpo- repos more wicked, XCTTTO- 
raros finest. So always, when a mute and liquid follow the vowel 
of the penult : Trt/cpo-raros bitterest. 

b. The adj. yepaios (senex) always, TraXato's- ancient, and ax 0X0105 
irely, sometimes, drop o after ai : yepairepos, TraXai'raroy. 

c. pea-os medius, 'to-os equal, cvSLos serene, npvios early, fyios late, 
take ai in place of o or <u ! /ieo~atraros > , irp^'ialrfpov. 'fjcrv^os quiet has 
rjav^airepos and rjcrv^farepos ; (pi\o's dear, beside (piXwrepoy, -rarof, has 
(pi'Xrepoy, -raroy and (piXcu'repo?, -raroj. - From Tr\r)(riov adv. Tltftf'r come 
7r\r]criaiTpos, -TO.TOS ') likewise TrapaTrXrjcrtaLTfpos more similar / and from 
Trpovpyov (for 7rp6 epyov advantageous) comes irpovpyiai-Tcpos. 

d. Some adjectives take the irregular endings eo-repos, eo-raros. So 

1. Stems in oi/: o-axppooi/ (<raxppov) discreet, (raxppovea-Tepos, evdaipetv 
(cv8aifj.ov) happy, euSatjaoi/eV-raTos. - Special exceptions are Triav fat, 

nlorepos, -raroy, and ireTrvv ripe^ rreTratrepoy, -raroy. 

2. aKpdros unmixed, eppco/xeVos- strong, cia-^vos glad, and occasionally 

Some others in os : aKpare'o-repos, eppco/xfj/eo-repos. 

3. Some contract adjectives in (ooy) ou? : evvovcTTepos (for euz/oeore- 
poy) from evvovs (euVoo?) well-disposed. 

e. The adj. XdXos- talkative, TTT^XOS beggarly, tyocpdyos dainty, uo~ 
vo(pdyos eating alone, and some adjectives of one ending, as /cXeTrr^f thiev- 
ish, have tcrrepos', icrraros '. XaXiVrepoy, TTTco^icrraros 1 , KXeTrriVrepoy. 

f. Other adjectives of one gender in ??? (G. ou) follow the rule for 
stems in o : t>/3pio"roYepos' from i/^pttrr^s insolent. 

g. Compounds of xP 1 ^ favor, form the Comp. and Sup. as if they 
ended in ^aptro-s : eTrtxapircorepos 1 from eVi'^apt? agreeable. 

B. By tan/ and tcrros. 

222. A much less frequent ending of the Compar. is lov (Nom. 
M. F. ton/, N. tov), of the Superl. tcrro (Nora, wrros, wmy, tcrrov). 

221 D. The poets sometimes use w after a long syllable : oigvp&Tepos Hm. 
1 more wretched. - From 'i&tis straight, Hm. makes l^tvvrara ; from fya.iv6s 

shining, ^aeiwrepos, but <paa.vra.TOs (cf. 370 D a); from &^apis unpleasing, 
axapt^Tepos (for a%apn--Tepos). - The force of the ending is nearly lost in 
dTjAuTepos feminine, ayporepos wild (living in the country], opeffrepos living in 
the mountains, frewrepos belonging to the gods, Se|tTepos Lat. dexter, which 
differ little from fr^Avs, &ypios, opeios, &e?os, 8ei6s. 

222 D. The forms with iw, HTTOS are much more frequent in poetry : thus 
(the starred forms are un-Homeric), */3afriW, pd&iffros (&c&4s deep], - ftpda"- 
ffwv =*Ppa.fiiow, /3ap5icTTOs =*Ppd$i(rTOS (fipaSvs slow), - *^8pc(xto*Tos ($pa-)(\)s 
thort), -- yXviclcav (y\vKi>s sweet), - eheyxttfros (eAeyxees PL infamous), 


These endings are applied, not to the stem of the Positive, but to 
the root of the word. Hence a filial vowel in the stem of the Pos. 
disappears : 

Positive. Comparative. Superlative. 

f]-v-s pleasant (j^S-o/zai amploased) j^S-iW fjd-io-Tos 

rax-v-s swift ( ra^-oy swiftness) Sacro-cov (for ra^-icoi/) ra^-toros 
fj.ey-a-s great (/zey-eSos greatness) pfifav (for /zey-icoi/) 

Similarly po in the stem of the Pos. disappears: 
ex^-po-s hostile (e^3-os hatred) e^3-t'a)v 
atcr^-pd-y shameful (aiV^-os shame) alajf-fov 

HEM. a. In peifav, for jLtey-t<ov, the i passes into the first syllable, as 
in dfiftvuv for a/j-fv-iw (58). So also in zdo-o-av, 3ao-o-oi>, where a absorbs 
it and becomes long. Cf. p.a\\ov (for /zaX-ioi/, 59). 

223. In the following words, this mode of formation is found connect- 
ed with various peculiarities, especially the euphonic changes described 
in 58-61. 

Positive. Comparative. Superlative. 

1. dya%6s good d^iei'i/cof (for ap-ev-iav) 

[cipetcoi/ Hm.] apio-ros ("Aprjs, dpcrr) virtue) 

(Kpa'rra>i>) KpaTicrros (fcpdros Strength) 
\cooav AWOTOS 

KEM. a. d/M6iVcor, apioroy, refer more to excellence or worth; KpeiWa>i>, 
Kpario-ros, more to power and superiority. The opposite of KpetWwi/ is 


(deterior) x ^P lo " ro ^ 
fjcra-uv (inferior) TjWra adv. 

3. fUKpOS Small p,lKpOTpOS [HlKpOTClTOS 


4. oXi'yos little, few r oXiytcrroy 

glorious\ ftaffffuv, p.-f)Ki<rTos, Dor. 

long), oftcTttrros (oiKTp6s pitiable), irao'a'ow =*ira')(i<i)V) TTC^XIO'TOS (ira- 

X^s thick), Qihiwv, *<f)i\iffTos ($i\os dear), &KHTTOS (w/ciJs quick"). 

Hd. has jue^coi/ for neifav. 

In Epic and Doric poetry, the t of uav is short. 

223 D. 1. Hm. Comp. apeiw: Pos. KpartS powerful, Sup. Kdprurros (57): 

Comp. K<ai(v and Xairepos. Hd. and Dor. Kptfffftav for Kpeta-ffuv. Poet. 

jSeA^-epos, jSeAraros (not used in Hm.): tpeprepos more excellent, (pepraros and 


2. Hm. Comp. KSttdrepos : xepeicw^ (Dor. %ep7?W), xepet^repo^, xeip6repos: 
also the defective forms, D. S. x^P^h A. S. xfyWi ^- P- xfyv* 5 * Neut. 
or xP ta< Hd. eWwi/ for ^e 

4. Hm. Comp. oA./C""' 


Positire. Comparative. Superlative. 

5. TTO\VS much, many TrXeicov or TrXe'coi/ (39) TrXeurros' 

Neut. TrXe'ov, also nXelv 

6. KU\OS beautiful KdXXuey KaXXioros (KaXXoj beauty) 

7. pa'Sioy easy oaa>i> pacrros 

8. aXye iv 6s painful aXyiav aXyicrros 1 

224. Defective Comparison. The following adjectives are withoul 
the Positive : 

before) trporepos prior irp&Tos primus 

vorfpos Zater, footer tWaros fofestf, Z<zs 
REM. a. irpwros is probably made by contraction from Trpo-dros. The 
same superlative ending droy appears also in 

o-xdTos extremus ; and in the two following (mostly poetic) forms : 
vearos novissimus, last in place (from veos novus), and 
VTTCITOS supremus, summus (from vnep super, whence come also a 
poetic Oomp. {/TTf'prfpop, Sup. uyrepraros 1 ). 

Formation and Comparison of Adverbs. 

225. Adverbs are formed from adjectives by adding 005 to the 
stem. The stem takes the same form as before wv in the Gen. PL 
The adverb has also the accent of the Gen. PI. ; and is contracted, 
when the latter is contracted. 

Thus (j>i\o$ dear, (G. P. <pi'Xo>i>) Adv. <pi'Xo>s, Sixmos just ( 
yxpos cold (^v^pwi/) v^u^paiy, Tray whole, all (jravraiv) 
quick (ra^ecov) ra^ecoy, cra<pf)s clear ((ra<p<wz> COntr. from (ra<pea)i/) 
cra^cos contr. from <ra(pecos'. 

6. In the Comp., Hra. has also the defective forms irAe'es, TrAeas. - Hd. 
contracts eo to eu: TrAeuv, TrAewes, for irAeo^, TrAeWes. 

7. Hm. Pos. faiSios (also in Hd.): adv. fa'fiiws, often e?o, f>ea. : Comp. 
prjirepos : Sup. p-rfiTaros and ffiffTOS. 

To the above add for Hm. 

9. KepSW, /cepSio-ros (/cepSoAeos gainful, artful, KepSos gain). 

10. piyitov, piyurros more, most dreadful ({nyr)\6s Hes. chilling, plyos cold) 

11. K^iffros (KTjSeTos cZear, /cf}8os ca?*e). 

12. Poet, (not in Hm.) y^Wj i/\|/t(rTos (y^A({s 7w(/7i, vt//os height}. 

224 D. Hm. sometimes forms a Comp. or Sup. from a substantive : /3o<riAeu- 
repos, raros (from /8a<nAeus king\ Kovp6repos (/coOpos youth), Kvvrfpos more 
dog-like (KVOOV dog). 

Other defectives in Hm. arei.^TrA^repos younger, dirX6raros, - cupdprepos 
(atpap forthwith) ; - and several expressing place : eveprepos lower (Trag. 
j/eprepos, evepot inferi, evepS'ej' or vep&ev infra), - irapoirepos (Trdpot&ev before), 
- oTritTraTOS (oiri<r&ev behind), - iiracra'^Tepos (affffov nearer), - ^uu%o^Ta- 
roy (& fj.vxq> in a recess). - The ending aros appears also in ^.iffffaros from 
u.4cos middle, and TTV/JKITOS last = \o?(r&os (Trag. Aofofttos), Xotcrfrfjios. Hm. has 
jffrdrios vffraros, and in the same sense Seuraros (Sevrepos second), - A 
Strengthened Sup. is Hm. irp^Tiffros = ird/j.TrpwTos first of all, 




226. Very often, also, the accusative neuter of the adjective, either 
singular or plural, is used as an adverb. Thus p.cyas great, Adv. peya 
and /ueydXa, as well as ^eyaXws. 

227. An earlier form for adverbs ends in a : raxvs quick, Adv. rd^a 
quickly, in Attic prose perhaps, apa at the same time, p.d\a very, much. 
The Comp. of p.a\a is p,aXXoi> (for ftaX-toi/, 59) potius, the Sup. /idXiora 
potissimum. eu well is used as the adverb of dycftos good. 

228. Adverbs are also formed in <os from comparatives and 

superlatives : /?e/3aiorepa)s more firmly, KaAAioVcos more finely. But, 

generally, comparative and superlative adverbs are made by the 
accusative neuter of those degrees, used in the singular for the com,- 
parative, in the plural for the superlative: 

229. Adverbs in o> (such as ava> above, Karat below, ea-co within, ea> 
without) make the Oomp. and Sup. in o> : uj/a>repa>, Karcarepo). So also 
aTKorepo) further from prep, dno from, Trepatrepo) further from Trepa be- 
yond, eyyvs near, eyyurepa), eyyurdrco (or eyyvrepov, eyyvrara), and a few 




Sing. Nom. 

First Person, 
eyco / (ego) 

e/iot, poL 

Second Person. 
(TV thou (tu) 


Third Person. 

ou of him, her, it 

Du. N. A. V. 
G. D. 

(ywt) i/ca 
(ytoiv) v&v 



Plur. Nom. 

fjfjLfls we 

'iJ/xeTs yow 



o-fals they (N. o-<pe'a) 

tr0ay (N. cr0ea) 

The forms enclosed in ( ) are not found in Attic prose. 

227 D. Adverbs in a are more frequent in Hm. : Kapra valde 
223 D, 1), Aiya shrilly (Atyuy), tra^o c^mr/y (cra^s), d>/ca quickly (w/cus). 

For eS, Hm. has eu, whenever the v would be long by position : eu yvoirjv ; 
BO too in compound words: eiifyvos. But et is sometimes found before a mute 

and liquid : eu'TrAe/cros or fvir\eitTos. Hm. has also a defective adj. tiis or 

j)vs, A. S. evv or tfvv, also G. S. o}oy, and G. P. e'<W Neut. 

229 D. eKas far, Hm. e/cao-Tepw, T(TW, r^Ae or rrjA-oD far, Hm. TTjA-OTcCrw, 
^y%t or dyxoO wear, Hm. oo-(roi/ (for ay%joj/, 60) also afffforepta, &yx Lffr0i 
Hd.). The adj. ayx^repos, ayx^Taros, and &yx iffros are post-Horn. 


231. The stems of the Sing, are e^e (Lat. me), o-e (te), e f (se). But the 
Nona, is differently formed : e'yo>, av ; and in the third person is entirely 

The stems of the Dual are rco (Lat. no-s), o-c/xw, o-c^eo. 
The stems of the Pluftil are i^e, v/xe, a-cpe : e is contracted with most 
of the endings ; hence the circumflex accent (cf. 233 D). 

232. The forms mentioned in the list of enclitics (105 a) lose their 
accent, when there is no emphasis upon the pronoun ; and in the 1st 
person Sing., the shorter forms (/iov, p.oi, /xe) are then used. But if the 
pronoun is emphatic, it retains its accent, and the longer forms (e/iou, 
6/ioi, ffjLe) are used in the 1st person. So also, in general, after preposi- 
tions. Thus doKfl pot it seems to me, e/ioi ov o-ol TOVTO dpeo-Kfi this pleases 
me, not tJiee ; Trap ep.ov from me, not rrapa p.ov, eVi aoi upon, not 
CTTI o-ot : 'yet npos p.e to me frequently occurs. 

The Gen., Dat, and Ace. PI. of the 1st and 2d persons, when there 
is no emphasis upon them, sometimes throw the accent on the first syl- 
lable : rjpoiv, vfjLcov ; the last syllable of the Dat. and Ace. is then usually 
shortened : r^u/, vpas. The last syllable is sometimes shortened, even 
when the pronoun is emphatic : we then write rjp.iv, 

233 D. Personal Pronouns in the Dialects. Hm. has the following forms: 
those not in ( ) are found also in Hd. 

S. N". ., yc6, (eycav) ffv, (rvvt)} 

Q [e^ieo], 4/j.ev, fj.fv 0-e'o, (Tew eo, eu 

(e^ueTo, eyue'&ei/) (<re?o, o-e^ey) (efo, e'3^6^) 

D. ejuof, p.oi <roi, rot, (rdv) oT, (eo?, 23 D a) 

A. e^e, /xe are e, (ee), ptv 

Dual. (vu>'i, v<a) (<r<f>)i, <r^>c5) (cr^we) 

(vuiv) (<T(/>iV) (ff$iab>) 

P. N. -^/AeTs, (&/ y^e?s, (u^es) <r<pe'is not in Hm. 

G. r]fif(av, (rj/j-fiuv) v/j.e&)y, (u/xetcoj/) cr^ecoj', (fffyeiwv) 

D. ^/AiV, (^A") v/tiv, (V/A/J.I) ff(pi<Ti, (T(j)i 

A. ^/teai-, (& u/ieos, (w/i/ie) tr^eay, (tr^eTas), <r<jf)^ 

eyc^v is used before vowels (79 D). e^ueo cannot stand in the hexameter. 

The datives <roi and TO are distinguished in the same way as lp.oi and jitot 

(232). For, the Dor. and Trag. have vlv: both are enclitic, both used 

in all genders, and vlv is sometimes plural. In Hd. and Trag., <r<e is some- 
times singular.- In Hd. fffyiffi (not <r0f) is reflexive: he has also the neut. 
<r0e'a: but the forms ^ ' S fyiees, o^e'es in some editions of Hd. are probably 

The Dor. has N". S. ey&v even before a cons., ri5 (tu) for <rv, G. rev, reyy, 
Teou5, D. TO for <ro( ; also e^uiV, T^, iV for e^uoi, o-ot, of, A. re, enclitic TU, for 
tre. N. P. a/ies, u/ies, G. a^uewv, D. o/*fo', A. a/te, u^ue, and tye for <r^)e. Of 
these Pind. has only TV, Tot, TiV. 

234. INTENSIVE PRONOUN. Aro'-s, avr^, avro r se// 1 (Lat. ipse), is 
inflected like dya^os (207), except that the Neuter K A. V. S. does 
not take v (cf. the neuter article TO', 119). 

234 D. For Ionic crasis in cavrSs (Hm.), (avr6s (Hd.), see 68 D. 


Preceded by the article, 6 avros (avros, 68 c), fj avrrj (avrij), TO 
CLVTO (TOLVTO, also TO.VTW), it signifies the same (Lat. idem). 

235. KEFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. These are formed from the steins 
of the personal pronouns, compounded with 


Gen. M. N 

. F. 


N. F. 

Ace. M. 



1 st person 
2d person 




> 17 

euavrov -r)V 
creavrov -r]V 









3d person 



t ~ 




himself, Tier- 









self, itself 

In the plural, both stems are declined together : 
Plural Gen.M. F. N. Dat. M. N. F. Ace. M. . F. 

1st person f)p.a>v avrav avrols -ais fj[Jia.s avrovs -as OUTSelvCS 
2d person vp.a>v avruv v/juv avrols ~~ -ais v^ds avrovs -as yoUTSelveS 

3d person <r<f><av avrcov crfyla-iv avrols -ais <r(f)ds avTovs -as themselves 

Neut. <r<j)ea avrd 
Yet the 3d person plural has also the compound form : 

eavrcoi/ eavTols -ais eavrovs -as -d 

Or avrwv avrols -ais avrovs -as -a 

236. The indefinite pronoun aXXos other (Lat. alius) is inflected 
like avro's (234). 

237. EECIPROCAL PRONOUN. This is formed from the stem of 
aAAos (236), compounded with itself, a\X-rj\o (for a\X-aXXo). It is 
used only in the dual and plural. 

M. F. N. 

Du. G. D. d\\r]\oiv d\\rjXatv 

A. dXX^Xco d\\f]\a 

Plur. G. dXXTyXcov dXXJyXcov d\\rj\O)V 

D. dXXiyXois dXX^Xats dXXT^Xois 

A. dXX^Xous dXX^Xas oXX?;Xa 

238. POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. These are formed from the stems 
of the personal pronouns (231). 

e'/aov, 77, ov my. mine^ from fp.e. fjuerepos, a, ov our, ours, from j^/xe. 

o-dy, 77, 6v thy, thine, from o-e. v^erfpos, a, ov your, yours, from jue. 

os, rj, ov his, her, its. from e. o-^erepos, a, ov their, theirs, from afa. 

235 D. Hm. always has the separate forms, even in the sing. : 6jue avT<$v, 

of avroS, not efj.avT6v, eavr. For e^ovToD, etc., Hd. has ^uewuTou, etc.; 

and in like manner trecwrou, ecouroG (11 D). 

238 D. Hm. has also re6s (Doric, = tuus), *6s; 'dp.6s our (properly Dor.) ? 
'fjti^?, ff(j>6s ; also (from the dual stems v<a, <r<^)co) rwi'repos, (r^wtVepos, belonging 




REM. a. os is never used in Attic prose j o-fa'rcpos, only in reflexive 
sense, their own. The ending repos is the same with that of the Com- 
parative (220). 

239, DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. The two most important are 
OVTOS, avrrj, TOVTO this, that, 
6'Se, ^Se, roSe this (this here). 

ode is formed from the article and the demonstrative ending 5e (en- 
clitic) : it is declined like the article, with 6V added to each form. 

OVTOS follows the article in respect to the h or t at the beginning. It 
takes av in the penult, wherever the article has an A-sound (a, 77) j but 
ov, where the article has an 0-sound (o, o>). 

S. N. 

O 77 * TO 


TO) TTJ T6) 

ode rjde Tode 
Tovde Trjsde Tovde 
T&>8e Tflde T<uSe 
TOfSe rfjvo'e ToSe 




TO) TO. TO) 

TOIV raiv rolv 

T<i)Se TcoSe 
Tolvfte Toivfte Tolv8e 




oi al TO. 
T>V TO>V To>v 
Tols rais Tols 


otSe aide Ta8e 
Twvde Ttovde T&vde 
Tolsde Taisdf Totsde 
Tovs8e TasSe fade 

OVTOI gvTai TavTa 



REM. a. The adverb of ode is o>Se, that of OI!TOS is OVTUS or OUTCO (80 c) 
in tills manner, thus, so. 

240. The demonstrative e/cfti/o?, e/eu7, eKelvo that (that there or 
yonder) is declined like auTos (234). For OVTOS used as a demonstrative, 
see 669 c. 

241. Demonstratives of Quantity, Quality, and Age. These were 
ro'ote, rotos, -nyXtKos, which occur often in poetry. In place of them, 
the Attic prose uses chiefly the strengthened forms : 

Too^ouToy, Too~avTr), TOO~OVTO(V) such (in quantity or nutnber), 
TOLOVTOS, ToiavTr], TQiovTo(v) such (in quality), 

TTJ\IKOVTOS, TTJXlKaVTT), TT]\lKOVTo(v) SUCh (in tt^C Or SlZe). 

to us (you] both. 'ap.6s (also written *dp.6s) is found in Att. poetry for i/j.6s. 

'6s is sometimes used without reference to the 3d person, in the sense 

of own. 

239 D. In Hm., the article itself is usually a demonstrative, and has the 
following peculiar, forms: G. S. TO?O, G. D. D. TO?H/, N. P. TO, Taf, G. Fern. 
T<XO>J/, D. Toiffi) Tyffi or rys. For ToTs&e Hm. has ToiisSeffffi or roTsSeo't. The 
forms Toly Taf, are also Doric. 

When used as demonstrative, 6, ft, of, at are often written with an accent, 
, V, o</, al. 

Hd. has D. P. roiffi, ryffi ; also roicnSe, TyffiSe. 

240 D. For IKCIVOS the poets have Kfivos : cf. 249 D. 




These may be declined like OUT-OS-, by putting TOO, roi-, r^Xi/c- in place 
of the initial h or t of ovror. But the Neut. N. A. S. has two forms, 
TOCTOVTO and ToarovTov, etc. 

Emphatic demonstratives of similar meaning, roo-o'sSe, roio'sSe, TrjXi- 
KoVSe, are made by adding the enclitic de to the forms of TO'O-OS, rotor, 
njXiW, declined regularly (cf. oSe, 239). 

242. The demonstrative pronouns are sometimes rendered more em- 
phatic by appending to the different forms a long accented r, before which 
the short vowels (a, e, o) are elided : ourost, awi?r, rovri, ravri. 6Si, 

243. EELATIVE PRONOUN. The relative os, ^, o who, which, keeps 
the rough breathing throughout. 





D. N. 

A. & 













D. olv 
























REM. a. os is used as a demonstrative in the phrases KCU os tyrj and 
he said, rj 5' os hut he said. 

alike in all but accent: interrogative TI'S, TL, who? which? what? 
indefinite rig, rl, enclitic, some, any. 

Sing. Nom. 

M. F. ris N. rl 
rivos (ro) 
rlvt (TCO) 
rlva rl 

M. F. riff N. rl 
rivos (roC) 
rivi (TW) 
rivd rl 

Du. N. A. V. 
G. D. 



Plur. Norn. 

rives riva 
rivets riva 

rtves riva 
rivds riva 

HEM. a. The acute accent of n'y, rl interrog. never changes to the 
grave (see 101). 

243 D. Hm. has also '6 for 8s, tiov for ou, e'rjs for ^s : the nom. sing, and pi. 
he sometimes uses as demonstrative. 

Hd. has '6s, tf, o'l, at: for all other forms of the relative, he uses the article 

rJ, TOV, TTJS, etc., except after certain prepositions : trap <, e| ov. This use 

of the article (r-forms) for the relative is" often found in Hm., and sometimes 
even in Trag. 

244 D. The Ion. (Hm. Hd.) has G. S. re'o, TCU, D. rey, G. P. rcW, D. 


b. roi), r<w are often used for Vor, rtVt, and (with enclitic accent) for 
ni/o'ff, Tivi. They must not be confounded with roO, ro> of the article. 

c. Yra (never enclitic, Hm. aVo-a) is sometimes used for the indef- 
inite rivd. 

245. Another indefinite pronoun is SeTi/a some one, such a one (Lat. 
quidam). This is sometimes used without inflection; sometimes it is 
inflected as follows, without distinction of gender : 

Sing. 6 f] TO delva Plur. delves 


delva delvas 

246. INDEFINITE KELATIVE PRONOUN. The indefinite relative 
OSTIS, TJTIS, o TL who, which (indef.), is formed by uniting the relative 
os with the indefinite rts, each being separately declined. 

Sing. N. OSTLS fJTts o TI Plur. oiTivfs atnves ariva 


D. <j>Tivi fjTivi omi/i olsTia-i CUSTHTL OISTKTL 

A. ovnva TVTiva o TL ovsnvas asTivas ctTiva 

Du. N. A. &TIV O.TLVG &TIV G. D. olvTLVOiV dlVTlVOlV olvTlVOLV 

For the way of writing 6' TL or 6',-n, see 113 a. 

REM. a. The forms rou, r< (= TWOS, TW'I) are also found in connection 
with or, but before these the stem 6 is used without inflection : Gen. 
orou, Dat. oro). So also, but less often, Gen. PI. 6Ya>i>, Dat. 6'roio-t. These 
forms are masc. and neut., never fern. 

b. For anva, there is another form arra, not to be confounded with 
arra = TLVO. (244 c). 

247. CORRELATIVE PRONOUNS. The following pronouns, corres- 
ponding to each other both in form and meaning, are called coi*re- 

246 D. Hm. has the following peculiar forms, in most of which the relative 
stem is undeclined, as it is in 6-Tr6<ros, 6-Troios, etc. 

S. (Sris) N. (5'rrt) P. N. affffa (for arm, 60) 

#Tev (orreo, Srreu) orecoj/ 

gre^ (244 D) 6reWt 

(grtz/a) N". (fl TTJ) (fcivas) N". affffa 

The forms not in () occur also in Hd. - In the Nom. and Ace., Hm. haa 
also the usual forms ; so too in D. S. OTO>. 

247-8 D. For r6ffos, oros, Hm. often has rdffffos, offffos (once 
He often doubles TT in the indef. relatives : OTTTTCUOS, O'TTTFCOS (40 D). 

Hd. has K for ?r in the correlatives : K^repos, Koff6s, 6/coTos, KOV, 
etc. Cf. Lat. qu in quis, quot, qualis, etc. 





j Compar- 
J ative 




Relative, Indef. Rel. 

ris who ? 
which? what f 

TIS 1 


o'Se this (here), 
OVTOS this, that 

oy, osns 
who, which 


which of two ? 


one of two 

eTfpos the one or 
the other of two 

which of two 

TToVo? how 
much, many? 

some yuan. 
or number 

(roaros) so 
roo-o'sSe Imuch, 
TofrovTos (many 

oVoj-, OTTOO'OS' Of 

which quan., num., 
(as much, many) as 


noios of 
what sort? 

some sort 

(roTos) such 


olos, onolos 
of which sort, 
(sucJi) as 


7777X1*0 s- 
how old? 
how large ? 


of some 
age, size 

(TrjXiKos) $soold, 
TTjXiKosbe ( large 



of which age, size, 
(as old, large) as 

For the ending repos, see 220. The form TTJ\LKOS is never used in 
Attic prose j the forms roaos and roTos, seldom. 

248. CORRELATIVE ADVERBS are also formed from the same pro- 




Rel., Indef. Rel. 



where ? 



eVSlct, fV3dSe, 
eVravSa, there 

Of, 07TOV 


whence ? 

noZev from 
some place 

ev%ev, eV3ei/Se, 
evTv%ev, thence 

6%fv, oTrdSei/ 


whither ? 

TTOl tO 

some place 

ef3a, eV3d8e, 
cVra3a, thither 

01, OTTOl 



when ? 

Trore' some 
time, ever 


ore, OTrore 

TnjvtKa at 
what time? 

(TijviKa) ( at 
TTjviKa&e < that 
rrjviKavTa ( time 

TjVlKa, OirrjVLKCL 

at which time 


nrj which 
way ? how ? 

TTT; some way, 

Tfjde, ravrrj 
this way, thus 

y, yn 
which way, as 






cor, oi>e, ovTa>(s) 
thus, so 

COff, OTTCOff 

as, that 

The indefinite adverbs are all enclitic (105 b). 

248 D. Poetic are ir6fri = irov, iro&i = TTOU, 23"t = ou; rfoi there, r<& 

thence; also ^/tos, Typos (Dor. o^tos, rapos] = tire, rare. For Att. e 

as long as, recas so long, Hm. has also e'/ws, reicas (and sometimes eTos, re?o 
though not thus written in our texts). In the same sense, he has ofypa, roQp 
Beside ?/, he has the form fat, but uses both only in the local meaning, which 
way, where : for TTO?, Swot, he' always uses TrJo-e, 6irir6ffe. 
in Hd. see 66 D. 


249. To the pronoun e/ceu/os that (yonder), correspond the demon- 
strative adverbs of place, e/cet there, e'/eeiSei/ thence, eWZo-e thither. 

250. The demonstrative coy does not occur in Attic prose, except in 
the phrases KOL &s even thus, ovo' &s (p/' &s) not even thus. - For TT/VIKO, 
the Attic prose uses the strengthened forms in -dde and -aCra. - In 
Attic prose, ez/3a and tvZev are chiefly relative, eV3a being used instead 
of ov and of, ez/3ez> instead 

251. The indefinite relatives (pronouns and adverbs) are made more 
indefinite by adding the particles ovv, dy, $rj Trore, 17 TTOT' ovv : OSTIS ovv 
who (which, what) soever, OSTIS or), OSTIS 69 Trore, OSTIS df] TTOT ovv : these 
are also written as single words, OSTISOVV, osTisdrj, osrtsS^Trore, 6sTiso~r)TroT- 
ovv. With the same force, T\S is sometimes added to indefinite relatives : 
oTroto? TIS and even OTTOIOS TIS ovv of what sort soever. - The same par- 
ticles are sometimes used in the same way with the ordinary relatives, 
but hardly in the Attic writers. 

The enclitic nip gives emphasis to relatives (definite and indefinite) : 
00-01 vrep of which number precisely, &srrfp just as. ovv is sometimes added 
after it i 

252. Observe also the negative pronouns and adverbs : OVTLS, t yTts 
no one (poet, for ovdeis, /uT/Sets, 255 j in prose only OVTL, P.TJTI not at all), 
ovSerepos-, p.rjo'eTepos neither of two, ovdapov, /z^Sa/xoO nowhere,, 
p.rj8a^f] in no way, ovdap5)s, /x^Sa/iws in no manner, with some others of 
similar formation. 


253. The words which express number are of various classes , 
the most important are given in the following table : 

249 D. For e/ce?, etc., the poets use /cet&t, Ketfrej/, Ketore (240 D). 

250 D. The dem. &s (distinguished by its accent from the rel. &s as, 112) 
is frequent in poetry : in the sense yet, it is sometimes written us: /col &s and 
yet. The poets have also rcas = OVTWS. 

253 D. For the first four cardinal numbers, see 255 D. 

Hm. has for 12, ScSSe/ca, Suw&e/ca, and Suo/ca/Se/co ; SO, efrcotri and eefootn; 
30, TP^J/COJ/TO; 80, oyScaKovra ; 90, evevfiKovra and ewfiKOvra; 200 and 300, 
8iiiK6ffioi, rpn]K6<noi\ 9,000 and 10,000, ewec%iAo<, 5e/caxiA.ot. He has also the 
ord. 3d, rpiraTOS] 4th, TeTparos; 7th, ejSS^aros; 8th, oySoaros; 9th, efc/aroir; 
12th, SueoSeKaros ; 20th, eei/coo-ros; together with the Attic form of each. 

Hd. has Suc68e/ca (SuwSe/caros), Tpi^Kovra. (rpirjKcxrTos), oySwKovra, SirjKocriot 
(5if}KOffioffT6s'), rpir]K6ffioL : for tvaros he has eft/arcs, and so flvditis, 

Dor. eftcctTi for etitoffi. - Aeol. Tre/tire for TreVre, cf. ord. 




Cardinal Numbers. 


Num. Adverbs. 










































rpety, rpta 
reo'crapes 1 , Te(r<rapa 
or rerrapes', -a 





Sia/Kocrioi, at, a 
TptaKoo-tot, at, a 
TerpaKO(7tot, at, a 
at, a 
at, a 

eTrraKocrtot, at, a 
oKraKoo-iot, at, a 
eVa/cdcriot, at, a 
eWaKo'a-iot, at, a 
^iXioi, at, a 
Sts^iXtot, at, a 
rptf^t'Xtot, at, a 
fiuptot, at, a 

(6) Trpwros (the) first 
T PIT os 



ei/aro? (eVi/aroy) 





dfcraKocrtocrTds 1 


a7ra once 
pis ^ 



evaKis (evvaKts) 





254. NOTATION. The letters of the alphabet are sometimes used in 
unbroken succession to denote the series of numbers from 1 to 24. Thus 
v is used for 21, being the 21st letter of the alphabet. The books of the 
Iliad and Odyssey are numbered in this way. 

76 NUMERALS. [254 

But generally the letters are used as in the table. Those from d to 
3' denote units 1 9, r' (Stigma) being inserted after e' for the number 
6, Those from t to V denote tens 10 80, c/ (Koppa) being added after 
TT' for 90. Those from p to a/ denote hundreds 100 800, 5fr' (Sampi) 
being added for 900. For the thousands (1,000900,000). the same 
characters are used again, but with the stroke under the letter. Thus 
^r/xS' = 2344, ,aci/3' = 1859. 

EEM. a. Stigma (5 b) in this use takes the place of Digamma (23 D). 
Koppa and Sampi, like Digamma, were letters of the primitive Greek 
alphabet, which became obsolete except as numeral signs. 

255. The cardinal numbers from 1 to 4 are declinable: 

1. els p.ta ev 2. N. A. dvo 3. Tpels N. rpla 4. retro-ape? TeVcrapa 

evos fJLias evos G. D. dvolv rpt&v Teo-ffdpav 

evi /zta evi Tpivl rea-a-apai 

eva fxidv ev Tpels rpia Tevarapas reVtrapo 

Like ely, are declined ot/8etV, ouSe/zia, ot/SeV, and /^Se/y, no one : these 
are found also in the PI. They are sometimes divided by tmesis (cf. 477), 
av or a preposition being interposed : /^S' av efy, ovde Trap' evos. 

Avo is sometimes used without inflection. A rare form for dvolv is 
Sueu/ (used only in the gen.). 

For era- in reV crapes and all its forms, TT is also used (41). 

For both, we have /z<po> (Lat. ambo), G. D. a^olv j also the plural 
word d/^Kporepoi, at, a, to which belongs the neut. sing. a/i(po'repoi> used 
adverbially (228). 

The cardinal numbers from 5 to 199 are indeclinable. 

256. For 13 and 14, we often have separate forms, rpets KOI 
Tfaa-apes Kal de'a. Separate forms are also found for the ordinals 13th 
19th : rpi'ros KOI dtKaros, etc. 

When the numbers 20, 30, etc., are connected with units by Kai and, 
either number may precede : e'Uoa-i KOU Ti-eVre or irevre KCU CLKOO-I ; but if 
Kai is not used, the larger number must precede : eiKoo-t Tj-eVre 25. So 
also eKarbv dfKa 110, etc. The 21st is expressed by els KOL eiKoa-Tos or 
7rpa>Tos KOI eiKoo-Tos or eiKoo-Tos TTp&Tos j and in like manner 5 other ordinals 
of the same kind. 

The numbers 18, 19 are commonly expressed by evos (or Svolv) de 
e'iKoo-i twenty wanting^ one or two. So 28, 29, 38, 39, etc. ; vava-l 
deovcrais TrevTTjKovra with 49 ships. So too the ordinals : dvolv 
erei in the 2>8th year. 

255 D. 1. Hm. has also Fern. ?a, JTJS, 1$, tav, with D. S. masc. fy. 

2. Hm. has Svo and 5uto, both indecl. ; also Du. Soic6, PI. Soioi, ai, d, D. 
oiffi, A. SojotSs, ds, d. - Hd. with 5uo, Suo?y, has G. P. Suwv, D. Svoiffi ; also 
5uo indecl. 

4. Hm. with Teffffapes has iriffvpes (Acol.). - Hd. Tecrcrepes (so 14 recrcre- 
alSeKa sometimes indecl., and 40 Tearffep^Kovra). - Dor. re-ropes, D. 
QfovSeis, {j.T)$els, Hm. has only ouSeV, /ATjSeV, ouSev/; cf. 252. 

259] NUMERALS. 77 

257. The cardinal numbers from 200 on, and all the ordinals are re- 
gular adjectives of three endings. 

The ordinals have superlative endings (222) : only Sevrepos second 
has the ending of a comparative (220). 

To the ordinal class belong TroXXocrrdr (many-eth, following many in 
a series) and the interrog. TTOO-TOS (how-many -eth, having what place in a 
series ?), with a corresponding indef. rel. OTTOCTTOS. 

Mvpioi, paroxytone, has the meaning numberless ; also sing, /zvpios 

258. From the same numeral stems are formed several other classes 
of numeral words : 

a. Distributives, with o-vv : o-vvSvo two together, two by two, o-vvrpeis 

three l)y three, = Kara dvo, Kara rpeTs-, etc. 

b. Multiplicative^, in TT\OVS (from TrXoos, Lat. plex) : dnXovs simple, 
dwrXoCs twofold, rpinXovs threefold, TrfvrcnrXovs fivefold, etc., TroXXaTrXovs 
manifold. Also dia-o-os double, rpicra-os treble. 

Further, multiplicatives in vrXao-ios: dnrXdonos twice as many (Sis 
TocroCroi), rpnrXdcnos three times as many, etc., TroXXaTrXdo-ios many times 
as many. 

c. Adverbs of Division : p.ovaxfi (f^ovos alone) in one part, single, 
8/^a or dixfi i n two parts, Tpixfj in three parts, etc., jroXXaxfj in many 
ways, navTaxfj every way. 

d. Abstract Nouns of Number, in ds: /zomy (povad) the number one, 
unity, dvds the number two, rpids, rcrpds, irenirds, e|dy, e/3So/xa$-, oydods, 
evveds, deKas, eiKas, e/caroi/rasj YiXiay, uvpidsl hence rpels uupidSes == 

259. Closely connected with numerals are such general expressions as 
<dTpos (with comparative ending) either (of two), 

exao-ros (wijh superlative ending) each (of any number), 

Tray, rracra, irdv (TTCIVT) all, every. 

Observe also the general adverbs in dus ; TroXXd/cty many times, often, 
fKaa-raKis each time, rocravrdKis 80 often, otraKts as often as, 
very often, oXiydius seldom. 

257 D. Hm. uses only pvpioi proparoxytone, and always in the sense of 

258 D. b. Hd. 5t^s, rpi6s, for Sur<r6s, rpiffffSs ; 8nr\-f)(riosy Tpnr\-f}ffios, etc., 
for -TrAacrtos. 

c. Hm. has 8/%a and 8ix&&> Tpixa and Tpix&& } rerpax&d', also rpiir\y, 
TTpair\y. * 

259 D. Adverbs in dxis sometimes lose s in poetry : dffffdKt Hm., see 80 D, 



260. VOICES. The Greek verb has three voices, active, mid* 
die, and passive. 

REM. a. Many verbs are used only in the active voice : and, on the 
other hand, many verbs called deponent are never used in the active, 
but only in the middle voice (or middle and passive). 

261. MODES. Each voice has six modes: 

the indicative, subjunctive, optative, and imperative ; 
the infinitive, and. participle. 

REM. a. The first four modes (finite modes), taken together, make 
up the finite verb, that is, the whole verb, strictly so called. In their 
inflection, they distinguish, not only three numbers, singular, dual, and 
plural j but also three persons, first, second, and third, in each number 
(230) : thus they are more definite (finite) than the other two modes. 

REM. b. The infinitive and participle have a mixed nature. Essen- 
tially they are nouns, the infinitive being an indeclinable substantive, the 
participle an adjective of three endings j yet they both share to some ex- 
tent in the properties of the verb. 

REM. c. The verbal adjectives in ros and reos are analogous to parti- 
ciples, though much less clearly distinguished from ordinary adjectives. 

262. TENSES. The tenses of the indicative mode are seven : 
the present, and imperfect (for continued action) ; 

the aorist, and. future (for indefinite action) ; [tion). 

the perfect, pluperfect, and. future perfect (for completed ac- 

The tenses of the other modes are three : 
the present (for continued action) ; 
the aorist (for indefinite action) ; 
the perfect (for completed action). 

The subjunctive and imperative have only these three tenses. 
But for the optative, infinitive, and participle, there are two 
tenses more, a future, and future perfect. 

2(?3. The tenses of the indicative are also distinguished as 
*1. principal tenses : the present, future, perfect, and future 
perfect (which express present or future time) ; 

2. historical tenses : the imperfect, aorist, and pluperfect 
(which express past time). 

262 D. The future optative is seldom, if ever, found in Hm. ; the future 
perfect optative, never. 


264. a. The passive voice has a distinct form only for the 
aorist and future. In the other tenses, the middle form has 
both a middle and & passive meaning. 

b. The active has no form for the future perfect (394 a). 

The stem is that part of the verb which belongs to all the 

forms in common, and from which they are all made by the 
proper additions and euphonic changes : stem Av, Pres. Xv-w to 
loose, Aor. e-Xv-o-a, Fut. Perf. Xe-Xv-o-o/xat ; stem Ttjua, Pres. rtjaa-w 
to honor, Plup. ere-Tt/x-^-Ketv. 

From the verb-stem are derived also stems of nouns (both substantive 
and adjective) by adding the proper endings or suffixes (454) : \v-ai-s act 
of loosing, Xu-r^p looser, \v-rpo-v ransom (means of loosing) : riprj-o-i-s 
act of estimating, Tiprj-Trj-s appraiser. 

A noun-stem, formed thus with its derivative suffix, may be used 
(often with some change of form) as the stem of a verb. Such verbs are 
said to be derivative. Thus rt/za-co is said to be a derivative verb, be- 
cause its stem is that of the noun n/iij honor, and is derived, by the suffix 
/ia, from the stem of rt-co to esteem. These verbs are also called denomi- 
native (de nominibus), as being derived from nouns. 

But when the stem of a verb contains no derivative suffix, the steoz 
is called a root, and the verb is said to be radical or primitive : Xv-o>, 
rt-o). The roots are nearly all of one syllable (originally all were so) ; 
the derivative stems, of two or more syllables. 

REM. a. A derivative verb, as just described, comes from a primitive 
verb, through an intermediate noun (though often one or both of these 
are out of use) : thus ri/zao), from ri&>, through ri/z?/. Yet a few deriva- 
tive verbs are made directly from primitives, with no intervening noun 
(cf. 472 k). 

266. TENSE-SYSTEMS. In the formation of its different parts, 
the verb divides itself into the following systems of tenses : 

1. the present system including the Pres. and Imperf. 

2. the future system " Fut. Act. and Mid. 

3. the first aorist system " 1 Aor. Act. and Mid. 

4. the second aorist system " 2 Aor. Act. and Mid. 

5. the first perfect system " 1 Perf. and 1 'Plup. Act. 

6. the second perfect system " 2 Perf. and 2 Plup. Act. 

7. the perfect middle system " Perf, Plup., and. JFut. Perf. Mid. 

8. the first passive system " 1 Aor. and 1 Fut. Pass. 

9. the second passive system " 2 Aor. and 2 Fut. Pass. 

264 D. In Hm., the passive form is nearly confined to the aorist (395 D). 
The place of a future passive he supplies by the future middle used in a passive 
eense (379). 

80 VERBS IN ft AND MI. [266 

BEM. a. The tenses called second are of earlier formation , than the 
corresponding first tenses. The verbs which- have the former are com* 
paratively few, and are, nearly all, primitive verbs (265). Sometimes, 
though not often, the same verb has both forms of the same tense. 

HEM. b. Hardly any verb is used in all the systems. In general, 
ver'os of full inflection have but six of them (cf. Hem. a.). In many cases, 
the number used is less than this. Some verbs are confined even to a 
single system. 

HEM. c. In describing a verb, it is usual to repeat the first person in- 
dicative of every system used in it : thus Avo> (1) to loose, XIXTOD (2), 
eXvo-a (3), Ae'AvKd (5), Ae'Av/icu (7), eAvStyi/ (8) ; Aei7ra> (1) to leave, Aen/x-co 
(2), eXinov (4), AeAotTra (6), AeAet/x^iat (7), fXeifarjv (8) ; /3ouAojuai (de- 
ponent) to wish, (BovXfaofJiai (2), /3e/3ouA?7juai (7), ej3ouXi)3jp (8). 

267. VERBS IN O AND VERBS IN MI. Verbs are distinguished 
thus according to the inflection of the present system. The name 
in each case is taken from the last syllable of the first person 
singular, present indicative active : Av'-w, rt^-/xt. 

I. Verbs in <o. These take connecting vowels between the 
stem and endings in the present system. In number, they are 
more than nineteen-twentieths of all verbs. 

II. Verbs in /u. These are without connecting vowels be- 
tween the stem and endings in the present system. They are 
of earlier formation, and are, nearly aU, primitive verbs. 

A similar variety of inflection is also found, though less often, 
in the second aorist system ; and, still less often, in the second 
perfect system. In these systems also, the forms without con- 
necting vowels are called pi-forms, even though the present of 
the same words has the inflection of verbs in <o. 

268. Meaning of the 'Voices, Modes, and Tenses. This will be ex- 
plained at length in the Syntax. In the mean time, the English forms, 
which represent their ordinary meaning, are given with the annexed 
Synopsis of the verb Avco to loose. For the middle voice, the English 
forms are not given: but they are easily obtained from those of the 
active, by adding a reflexive pronoun, which, for this verb, must follow 
the preposition for : Avo-o/zat / shall loose for myself, \vov 1)6 thou loos- 
ing for thyself, AiWo-Sai to loose for one's self. 

EEM. a. When a verb is referred to in the dictionary or the grammar, 
it is usual to give the first person singular, present indicative; but, 
when the meaning of the verb is added, it is expressed by the infinitive : 
thus Auw to loose. 

NOTE. b. The vowel v in the present and imperfect of Avo> is usually 
long (in Hm. usually short). It is always long in the future and aorist^ 
active and middle ; always short in the perfect and pluperfect of all voices, 
the aorist and future passive, and the verbals. 




<1 5" 

3 a 
^ S 

i- a 



r* rts rr> 







^^ s 1 


f^'q "8 




like the middle 





^1 r 


^^i ^ 

. rn^^ 



<3J . 
. <s> 5H,.^. ?5 


o % ^ ^o 
. SJjOJ^ 

i s-r 



O I . 
CD "i 


U? UP IP U? 

CsCsO e^St^^tt. 

|a-| e |e 

like the middle 


rrs flll 








Present System. 

to loose 





Present. Imperfect. 




Xu-o-juat e-Xv-o-jJirjv 




Xv-?7, Xv-ei e-Xv-ov 




XiJ-e-rat e-Xu-e-ro 




f-\V-f- TOV 

Xu-e-o-Soi/ e-Xv-e-o-Soz/ 





Xf-6-(r3oi' e-Xv-e-o"3?^i/ 




Xu-d-jueSa e-Xu-o-^eSa 



e '_X^_ e _ re 

Xu-e-aSe e-Xu-e-crSe 




Xv-o-i/rai e-Xv-o-vro 

| Present. Present. 

S. 1 \v- 





























































P. 2 




Xu-e-roxraj/ or 

Xu-e~o"3cocrccz> or 


















\v-o- p,evr]$ 





Future System. 

7^'rs^ Aorist System. 






First Aorist. 



\VO~-T), \V(T-l 




e'-Xi; (7-0777 1/ 













\V(TO ifJLV 



Xvcraty, Xv(reias 
Xvcrai, \ii(rci 


Xuo-aiei/, \vo-etav 

\vo-ai jj.r)i> 





\va-aTa><Tav or 

Xvo - dcr3a)o p ai' or 

















First Perfect System. 


Perfect Middle 


1 Perfect. I 1 Pluperfect. I Perfect. I Pluperfect. 

S. 1 











1 Perfect. 


S. 1 


P. 1 





XeXvuc V-OS(-T].-OI^) o) 

S. 1 




\e\vKOis \e\VKoirjs 

\e\vKot \e\vKoir] 

\e\VKOlTrjV . \e\VKOlT)TT)V 
\f\VKOlT) /J.V 


XeXv/ieVa) (-a,-ca) ttnrov or flrov 

\e\vpev-oi (-ai,-a) et 




S. 2 


P. 2 







\f\VK6T<oarav Or 














First Passive System. 



Future Perfect. 

1 Aorist. 

1 Future. 

XeXucr?/, \f\va-ft 














to leave 

Second Aorist System. 

Second Perfect System. 




2 Aorist. 

2 Perfect. 

2 Pluperfect. 


S. I 










2 Perfect. 










XI'TTO) i/rat 

XeXo 17777? 












XeXotTTOl/Al OF XeXotTTOtqZ/ 
XeXotTTOlS XeXotTTOlT^ff 
XeXoiTTOt \e\OL7TOLT) 

\e\oi7roiTov XeXonroiTjTov 


XeXoiVot/jief \e\oi7TOLT] p.fv 
XeXoiVoire \e\ouroirjre 
\e\oiTroiev XeXoiTTOi'^crai/ 






S. 2 
P. 2 



Xi7reV<crai> Or 





XiTrecrScooray Or 

XeXotTreVcoa-ai' Or 




















to send 

Second Passive System. 


2 Aorist. 

2 Future. 




(rraX^a-?;, oraX 170-61 




oraXJ/s 1 




(TTaXeiTjTov or oraXeTroj/ 
(TTaXeirjTTjv araXeiV^v 
o-raXei'jy/xei' crTake'ifj.ev 
<TTd\eir)T oraXeire 
crToXcirjcrav crraXetev 





P. 2 

crraX^rcocrai' or 




\ Participle. 







to honor. 

Present System of 
Contract Verbs in aw. 











Tip, do^))-p,ai 





















' " 


















d-(T%Gdcrav or 





/ r \i 









to love. 

Present System of 
Contract Verbs in eo>. 




Imperfect. Present. I Imperfect. 







(e'j7) 77-7*0 v 



<J6iX(et)6i'-Ta>craj/ or 

tX (eo v) o!-(ra 





S^Xd-o) to 


Present System of 
Contract Verbs in ow. 




d^X(dei$ % )ois 
8rj\ o'et)oT 














8rjX (o o) OV-VT co y 


cr3cooraf OF 









Future System of 



First Aorist System of 
Liquid Verbs. 



Future (contrasted). 

1 Aorist. 









(fiav-o'LS, -01775- 








(prjvaTacrav OF 


<pr]vd(r?S(oo'av Or 







Perfect Middle and 


Pure Verbs, 
with added <r. 


to complete 

Liquid Verbs. 

crreXXci) (areX) 

aivd) (<pdv) 
to show 

S. 1 








7Tf0ao"/>iei/ot fieri 

S. 1 


P. 1 




evoi rj 

Per/. Sul 

eoraX/ie'i/os 1 &) 

Per/. Opt 




S. 2 


P. 2 




Perf. Inf. 

Perf. Par. 
Fat. Perf. 

I O~Ta\fJ.evos 









First Passive Systems of 

Mute Verbs. 

to throw 

dXXdoxro) (aXXdy) I e'Xe 

to exchange to convict 

to persuade 




Levoi fieri 







eppicp'Scoa'av or 






rjXXay/jLfvos \rj\yp.evos 

epptyofj-ai \ 






285. Synopsis of rl/xa-w to honor. 

Pr. Impf. Active. Future Active. Aorist Active. 
Tip. co 




















Tip. C0l> 


eYip.cop.77 1/ 

Tip. CO 



1 :: 


Perf. Plup. Active. 





M. P. 

TTlfJ.TJfJ,fVOS & 

TeTifj.ijij.evos e'irjv 




Passive. Fut. Pert 





















Pr. Imp A. 



to hunt. 

Future A. Aorist A. 

Perf. Plup. A. 





M. P. 



Te^rjpafJ,Vos f'irjv 







Pr. Impf. A. 





Future A. 

!>tA.e-co to love. 

Aorist A. 






Perf. Plup. A. 


Fut. Perf. 


Pr. Iinpf. A. 








reXe-o) to complete. 

Future A. Aorist A. 

TeXai (reXe'crco, 374) 


TeXoZ/ii, -OITJV TeXeo"at/>it 


TeXeTy reXetrai 

reXwj/ reXecras 

M. M. 





Perf. Plup. A. 





























Pr. Impf. A. 


77X01/^6, -OITJV 
77X01; v 
77X00 z/ 

M. P. 

877X0-0) to manifest. 

Future A. Aorist A. 

77X00 crco 

77X00 CT61I/ 

77X00 crcoj/ 



77X00 eras 









77X0036177 z> 

Perf. Plup. A. 

M. P. 



Fut Perf. 
77X00 cro/zai 

f 77X00 cr6O"3at 


Pr. Impf. A. 
ore XX co 










Sub. oreXXco/zot 

Opt. (TTe\\oip,r]V 

Imv. o-re'XXov 

Inf. o-re'XX60-3oi 







oreXAw (oreX) to send. 

Future A. Aorist A. 



o-reXoT/Lii, -oirjv oreiXot/xi 


oreXetJ/ o-reiXot 






2 Future P. 


2 Aorist P. 


Perf. Plup. A. 


M. P. 





291. <cuVa> (<{>av) to show (in second tenses, to appear). 

Pr. Impf. A. Future A. Aorist A. 

(j)aiv(j> (ftavoi) 



M. P. 


5 - g 


1 Perf. Plup. A. 2 Perf. Plup. A. 

-oirjv <pr]vaip.i 


M. P. 

2 Aorist P. 


d> (pava) 

r " 


1 Future P. 

1 Aorist P. 

2 Future P. 


Pr. Impf. A. 





AeiTrco (XtTr) ^o Zeave. 

Future A. 2 Aorist A. 










1 Future P. 

1 Aorist P. 

\e left's etyv 

2 Perf. Plup. A. 



XeXet/xjuez/os G> 
XeXetjUjLiei/off etir 

Fut. Perf. 
















Pr. Impf. A. 


PI'TITO) (/ 
Future A. 

Aorist A. 

2 Perf. Plup. A. 






M. P. 











Fut. Perf. 

eg *-Q M 








a. Less common are 2 Aor. P. 

', etc., 2 Fut. P. 



Pr. Tmpf. A. 
Ind. dXXd(rcra) 

Sub. aXXdcrtra) 
Opt. dXXdo-o-oi/u 
Imv. a\\acr(T 
Inf. aXXdcrcreiv 

Par. dXXdcrcrcai/ 
Ind. dXXd(r<To/iai 







Sub. ^^ 

Opt. ^ $ 

Imv. |* J - J 

Inf. ^^^ 


a. Less common are 

dAXdo-o-o) (aXXay) to exchange. 

Future A. Aorist A. 


2 Perf. Plup. A. 








M. P. 






2 Future P. 

2 Aorist P. 


1 Aor. P. faxdxbw, etc., 1 Fut. P. 



295. TTtiSa) (mS) to persuade, Mid. to 

Pr. Impf. A. Future A. Aorist A. 1 Perf. Plup. A. 2 Perf. Plup. A. 

TreiSo) Treio-a) TrenciKa TreVoi^a trust 

7ret3eii> Treicreiv 

irefaav irci<ra>v 

Pr. Impf. M. P Future M. 

Aorist M. 
not used 



Perf. Plup. M. P. 





Future P. Aorist P. 



a. Poetic are 2 Aor. A. emfrov, etc.. 2 Aor. M 

, etc. 


Pr. Impf. A. 

to accustom. 

Aorist A. 


Future A. 

e'SioJ (from e'3i- 

-o-o), 376) eforo-a 



Perf. Plup. A. 



M. P. 



ftiio-fj-evos f'lrjv 

^ fc 




Present System, 

(St.) tO put. 





Present. Imperfect. 



, er/3s 




e-rt-Se-tro, -Sou 



^y or rt-3ot-/ii 
r i-3 ei-o ri-Soi-o 



rt-3e-o-o, ri' 

rt-Se-rcocrav OF 

rt-3e-o-3coo-ai/ Of 





Mi-Form. 298. 

oY8u>/u (So) to give. 



Present. Imperfect. Present. Imperfect. 

8i~o&)-jLii f-8i-8o)-V) f8i8ow 

8i-8a>-s e-Si-Sco-ff, e8i8ovs 
8i~8(t)-cri -8i-8(0) eSiSov 
8i-8o-rov -8i-8o-Tov 

8l-8o-TOV -8i-86-TTJV 
8l-8o-fJ,V -8i-8o-fJLV 

8i-8o-re e-8i-8o-T 
8i-86-a(TL e-di-do-trav e-8i-86-fj.r]v 
8i-8o-crai -8i-8o-ao^ 
8t-8o-rai e-8i-8o-ro 

8i-So-/ie3a . . e'-8t-So-/ie3 
8i-8o-vrai e-Si-So-vro 











8i-8oir)-Tov Or St-SoT-rov 
8t-8oir)-rr)v 8i-8oi-TT)V 

8l-8oiT]-fJLV 8i-8ol-fJ,V 

8i-8oir)-T 8t-8ol-re 
8t"8oiTj-crav 8i-8olf~v 







8i-86-Tu(rav or 

81-80-0-0, 8i8ov 

di-86-(j-^co(rav or 









299. Present System, 

i(rr?7/u (crra) to set. 



Present. Imperfect. Present. Imperfect. 


1-OT77-/U -CTTTj-V 

-o-ra-/icu -<TTa.-pT]v 



-<TTT]-S 'CrTTJ'S 

-ora-crat -ora-cro, icrrco 


-Crrn-OT. -OT77 

-ora-rai -ora-ro 



-crrd-Tov -(rrd-rov 

-ora-a-Soi' -ora-crSoy 



-a-ra-rov -ord-r^i/ 

-o-ra-<r3o* -crrd-o-S^ 



i-crra-re -ara-re 

-ora-crSf -crrct-O"2Je 


t-ora-crt -a-ra-aav 

-ora-z/rat t-ora-vro 

Present. Present. 





































i-<TTair)-Tov or t-o-rai-rov 




i-crTatrj-TTjv t-orat-r^y 




i-orairj-nev i-crTai-fJiev 



i-araiy-re t-crrat-re 



i-arairj-a'av i-crTaif-v 




t-crrd-(ro, iorto 



















-ord-rcocrai' or 

r^t^ ai/or 






















8c0cw/U (SeiK-vv) to show. 



Present. Imperfect. Present. 


















8eiK-vv-Taxrav or 

8iK-vv-a^cocrav or 







Second Aorist System, 


2 Aoi . 


to put. 

tSMfjiL (So) to give. 







e-8o-crav e-So-vro 





36i-o 3oio 





3 el-pro 

doirj-craVi Or 






3e'-rco(rai' or 




d-ro;o"ay or i d-o"3a)crai' Or 

In/in. \ 3et-z/ai 





Set'?, 3eTo"u, 3e-i 
3e-j/roy, 3eto-77? 


-yros, dovcrrjs 

00-p.fvos, 77, ov 
o-/xei/ou, 779 




303. 304. 

Second Perfect System, 
Mi-Form. g Q5 

LcrTTjfJiL (ora). Sv-u> to enter. 

L&TrjfJU ((TTtt) ^0 S^. 

Active. Active. 2 Perfect A. 

2 Pluperf. A. 

e-(TTr)-v stood 


(eor^Ka) stand 


-0-4 S 




















2 Perfect A. 









' 8vr)TOV 





























(TTairj-craVi OT 



-<rav, or 





















a-T^-Tcoa-av OY 

8u-T0(rai/ or 

e-crrti-rcocrai' or 





arTT)-vai dii-vai e-ora-i'ai 

(TTas 1 , oracra, crra-v Suy, 8i)(7a, 5u-v 

e-crrcos 1 

, e-orraJcra, e-oros 

ord-i/Tos, a-rdcrrjs \ 8v-vTos, 8va~r]S 

e-crroiros, -O"T(i)O"rjs 



306. The elementary parts, which are combined in the different 
forms of the verb, are the augment, and reduplication ; the stem, 
original or modified ; the signs of voice, tense, and mode ; the con" 
netting vowels, and the endings. 


307. The augment is the sign of past time. It belongs, there- 
fore, to the historical tenses of the indicative, the imperfect, 

aorist, and pluperfect. It has two forms : 

1. Syllabic augment, made by prefixing e. 

2. Temporal augment, made by lengthening an initial vowel. 
KEM. a. The syllabic augment is so named, because it increases tho 

number of syllables : the temporal augment, because it increases the quan- 
tity (time) of the initial vowel. 

308. The syllabic augment belongs to verbs beginning with a 
consonant: Xva> to loose, %-Xvov, crreAAw to send, c-o-raA^v, puma to 
throw, t-ppuj/a (43). 

REM. a. The syllabic augment assumes the stronger form of 77, instead 
of e, in ^'-/jLf\\ov from /ueXXco to be about, ri-ftov\6fj.r)v from /3ovXo/iat to 
wish, fj-dwa/jLrjv from fiwajuai to be able. These verbs have also the com- 
mon form with e : e-/xeXXoi>, e-ftov\6p.r]v, e-8vvdiJ.r)V. So in the Aor., rj-peX- 
X^cra or e-/zeXX^cra, etc. 

309. The temporal augment belongs to verbs beginning with a 
vowel: r/Xawov from eXawco to drive, a>veiSioi> from 6VeiSia> to re- 
proach, 'iKerevcra from 'ucereixo to supplicate, 'vppLa-Svjv from 'v/3piw 
to insult. a becomes rj : ?jyov from ayw (a) to lead. 

307 D. In Hm., the augment, both syllabic and temporal, is often omitted: 
\ue, eAawe, %e, for Aue, 1j\awe, eTxe. So also in lyric poets, and the lyric 
parts of tragic poetry ; but seldom, if ever, in the tragic dialogue. 

308 D. In Hra., initial A is sometimes doubled after the augment (40 D) : 
^-A7uV<reTo (xiffffopai to pray). Similarly, /j. is doubled in e-^ofre learned, v in 
i-weov were swimming, <r in the verbs trevw to drive and <ret to shake, and 8 in 
the stem Set : %-ffffeva drove, e-85e<0-e feared. 

a. The other dialects have only e as augment in yueAAw, etc. ; so also the 
Att. Trag. 

309 D. In Hd., the temporal augment is often omitted; the syllabic aug- 
ment, only in the Plup. In the Dor., a by the temporal augment becomes 

a: a70;> (24 D b). 

312] AUGMENT. 107 

The long vowels remain unchanged ; only d becomes rj : ff%\ovv from 
to contend. - di<o (a) to Jiear makes aiiov (d). 

310. Diphthongs take the temporal augment in the first vowel: 
7v from atcr^avo/,',at to perceive^ w/oretpa from oiKreipa) to pity, 
from av<jt> to increase. 

But in av, ot, the first vowel sometimes remains unchanged : it is 
usually so in eu, and always so in ci, ov. Only ei/ca^co to conjecture 
sometimes has 77 : f]Kao-a. 

REM. a. If a verb has the rough breathing, it is always retained in 
the augmented form. 

311. Augment of the Pluperfect. The augment of the pluperfect 
is applied to the reduplicated stem : e-A.eA.vKen/. 

But if the reduplicated stem begins with a vowel, it remains 
unchanged: crre'AAeo to send, Perf. eo-TaA./<a, Plup. earaAKecv (not 
7?<rTaA,Keiv), oi/ceco to inhabit, Perf. w/c^/ca, Plup. w/c^xetv. But a/cova) 
to Amr, Perf. d/oj/coa, has in the Plup. usually rjKrjKoew. 

REM. a. The augment of the Plup. is often omitted, even in Attic : 

312. Syllabic Augment before Vowel-Initial. A few vdrbs be- 
ginning with a vowel take the syllabic augment : ayvvfja to break, 
eaa. This with e is contracted to et : e^t^w to accustom, el'$iov 
(from e-e^i^ov). Here belong 

ayvvp.i to l)reak eda* to permit 

dAto-KOjuat to le taJcen e3t'Ca> to accustom 

avftavo) to please eAio-o-w to turn 

avoiya) to open eX/to> to draw 

opaa) to see . 7ro[ to follow 

ovpe'a) to make water e'pya^bjuat to worlc 

a>3e'a) to push fpTra or ep7ru<B to creep 

Q> to l)uy e(7Tida> to entertain 

e^cD to have, hold 

Here belong, further, the aorists clXov (alpeco to take, 450, 1) and eura 
I set (431 D, 6). Of. 2 Aor. of ? W i (e) to e/id[ (403, 1). 

Or these, opaco to 5^e and di/-oi'yo> to c>/?e7i have both the syllabic and 
the temporal augment at the same time : eo>pa>z>, df-e&>a. 

311 D. Hm. fafaaTo for fafaaro Plup. 3 S. of e'AaiW (eAo) to drive, 
from eper'5-co ^o support, wpdpei for opdpe. from fyvvfu (op) to rouse. 

^312 D. To this series belong also efruo (cA.) to press, e)fpw (e/>) to join, 
(epv) to draw. Hm. forma tcpvoxtei from oivoxoeta to pour out wine, tfvSavov 
and e-fivSavov from avSdvot to please. In Hd., &yi/v/j.i, eA/cw,- eiro^tat, %&> arc 
augmented as in Att. ; oj/5cy w has Impf. V&aj/ov (ey8ayo' ?), 2 Aor. eoSoj/ : the 
rest usually (perhaps always) reject e, and take either the temporal augment 
(so a\tffKOfj,a.i, &pd(i>), or none at all (so avoiyw, tdw,, o>3-ea>, wveo/xat). 


REM. a. It is believed that all, or nearly all, of these verbs began 
originally with a consonant, F or a : ayvvpi, orig. Fayvvpi, Aor. eFaa, 
eaa | ep7ra>, orig. crepTra), Impf. e&epTrov, e'epnov, flpirov. 

b. Irregularly, eoprdco to keep festival has the augment on the 
second vowel: eaprafrv instead of rjopra&v, cf. 190 f. 


313. Compounds, consisting of a preposition and a verb, take the 
augment after the preposition : ets^epco to bring in, etse^epov, -rrpos- 
dyo> to lead to, Trposrjyov. 

The prepositions e, ev, o-vv recover tfieir proper form before e : 
c/crei'va) to extend, e^ereivov, e/x/3aAAw to invade, IveflaXXov, onAAeyoo to 
collect, o-we'Aea. - Prepositions ending in a vowel lose that vowel 
before e : cbro^epw to bear away, cbre^epov. But Trept and ?rpo retain 
the final vowel : Trpo is often contracted with e : 7rpo/3cui/co Zo advance, 
Trpovfiawov for 7rpoe/?aii/ov. 

314. Exc. In some cases the preposition has so far lost its separate 
force, that the compound verb is augmented as if it were simple : KaSseuSco 
to sleep. fKffafvftov (yet also KaSTjC&oz/), Ka3io> to sit, fKa%iov. Cf. afpirjp.1 
(403, 1) > KaSij/nai (406, 2), dpQiewvpi (440, 1). 

Some verbs have a double augment: dye^o/iai to endure, rjve LXO^V , 
avopSdoj se right, yvvp'Sovv ', eVo^Xe'a) to annoy, ^oo^Xour. - So, also, 
the two following, which are not in reality compound verbs : iairda> 
(from diaiTa mode of living}, eSiyTtov ; StdKoz/eco (from didicovos servant"), 

315. Denominative compounds beginning with a preposition (265). 
Some verbs, beginning with a preposition, are not compounds of a prepo- 
sition and a verb, but are derived from nouns already compounded : thus 
eVazrto'o/iai to oppose does not consist of eV and di/ndo/itu, but is derived 
from the compound adjective evavrios opposite. Such verbs are prop- 
erly augmented at the beginning : rjvavnov^-qv ; poet, evalpa) to Mil, 
2 Aor. fjvapovj jMerecopi'^oo to raise aloft (from /^erecopo? raised aloft), 
e'/zerecopifoz/. More commonly, however, they are augmented after the 
preposition: e/cKX^o-td^o) to hold an assembly (eVc^tr/a), egeK\r)o-iaov ; 


(KdTrjyopos accuser), Ka-njyopovv. - Irregularly, napavoueca to transgress 
law (from 7rapd-vop,o$ contrary to law) makes Troprji'dpow (as if from irap- 
, 7rupoii/e'a> to act liJce a drunken man (irap-oivos) makes fTrapcpvovv. 

316. Compounds of ev and Svs. Verbs compounded with dvs ill 
have the augment after the adverb, when a short vowel follows it : 
dvsapecrreto to be ill-pleased, bvsrjpfa-Tovv (but 8vsrvx^a> to be unfortunate 
idvsrvxovv). - The same thing occurs also, though seldom, in com- 
pounds of ev well : VpyeT0) to be a benefactor, cvepyerovv or evrjpyeTovv. 

317. All other compound verbs are augmented at the beginning: 
to be dispirited, 


Reduplication . 

318. The reduplication is the sign of completed action. It be 
longs, therefore, to the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect, through 
all the modes. It consists properly in a repetition of the initial 

319. Verbs beginning with a consonant repeat that consonant 
with e: Awo, Ae-Ama. A rough mute becomes smooth in the redu- 
plication (65 a) ; Svo) to offer, ri-SvKa. 

Exc. But when the reduplication-syllable is long by position, it 
omits the consonant and consists of e only. This applies to verbs 

a. with a double consonant , , <//-: ^evSopai to lie, ?-\|/-euoyu, not 

b. with two consonants, unless they are a mute and liquid : oWXXo> 
to send, e-crraX/ca, not av-<rraXKa ; ypacpoo to write, ye-ypa<pa. - But the 
stems KTCI and uva make /ceVn^ai possess and /LIC/UI^JUCU remember. Of, 
TTfTTTcoKa am fatten (449, 4), TreVrajuai am spread (439, 3). 

c. with yt>, yX, and, in some cases, /3X: yiyvuxrKu (yvo) to know, 
6-yvu>K(i, not ye-yi/coKa ; /3XaoTai/a> (/SXao-r-e) to Sprout, e-/3Xdo-r^/<n, also 

d. with p : piKTa) (pi<p) to throw, e-ppi(pa, not pe-ppi<pa (43). 

NOTE. e. Instead of the reduplication, we find ei in e'iXrjcpa from Xa/x- 
|3ui>co (Xa/3) &> &&<?, 61X77^0 from Xay^az/a> (Xa^) #<? obtain by lot, et'Xo^a 
from Xe'ya) to gather, Si-e/Xey/zat from Sm-Xeyo/^at to converse (although 
Xeyco ^o spealc makes XeXey/uat) ; also in e'iprjKa (pe 450, 8) have said, and, 
with rough breathing, in etjuaprai (/xep) ^ is fated. 

320. Verbs beginning with a wweZ lengthen that vowel (i. e. re- 
peat it in quantity). Thus the reduplication in these verbs has the 
same form as the temporal augment : eA.7uo> to hope, yX-mKa, 6p/xao>, 
to move, wp/xryKa, dTropea) to be at a loss, rjiropyKa, aipeco to take, 

318 D. The reduplication is regularly retained in Hm. ; yet we find 5e%a- 
TCU (for SeSe'xarat, Pf. 3 P. of Se'xojtiai to receive), - eT^at, eWot (orig. rea-^uor, 
FeoTai. from evj/vfjLi to clothe], - epx aTat *pX aTO or **PX aTO (fro m epyw or eepyw 
to s/ra) : cf. Pf. oT5a know in all dialects. The long a remains unchanged 
in the defective perfect participles, 'dSrjKus sated (Aor. Opt. 'aSrjo-ete might be 
sated], and 'aprjuevos distressed. In 2 Pf. ^vwya order, a is not made long. So 
in Hd., an initial vowel in some words remains short in the Pf. 

319 D. Hm. has ^pvirw^vos soiled (for e/Sptnr.); but, on the other hand, 
/i/iope (for fj.f~ij.ope) from ^efpo^at to receive part, ff<rv/j,ai (for (te-o-y^ot) from 
revca to drive, like the verbs with initial p. In 8ei-5oi/ca and Set-Siafear (409 D, 
5), Sei'-Sey^at ^ree^ (442 D, 3), the redupl. is irregularly lengthened. The Ion. 
nas reg. 


321. Attic Reduplication. Some verbs, beginning with a, e, o, 
followed by a single consonant, prefix that vowel and consonant : 
the vowel of the second syllable is then lengthened. This is called 
Attic reduplication. 

The vowel of the third syllable is generally short : dXa'cpa> (Xicp) to 
anoint^ dX-^Xtcpa, dX-^Xt/Lijuat ; uKoua) to hear, a.K-f]<oa (39)j but Perf. Mid. J opiKTCTto (pp^x) to dig, op-copula, op-a>pvy/icu J eXavvco (eXa) to 
drive, c\-r)\aica, e'X-^Xa/xat ; e'Xey^co to convict, eX-^Xfypai (391 b), etc. 
Irregularly, e'yei'poo (eyep) to wake has e'yp-^yopa, the last letter of the stem 
being repeated, as well as the first two; but the Perf. Mid. is regular, 

322. E as reduplication "before a wwel-initial. The verbs mentioned 
in 312 have e for the reduplication also, and contract it with initial e to 
et ! a-yvvfit to ~break (orig. Fayvv/JH, Perf. FeFaya), e'aya, e'3ta> to accustom, 
e'l^LKa (from -e%iKa). - 6paa> to see makes ecopaxa; di>-oiya) to open, av- 
e'wya or dz/-ex a - - The stem ei/< (not used in the Pres.) makes Perf. 
e'-oi/<a am like, appear, Plup. e-coKeiv. Similarly the stem c3 or 7/3 makes 
am accustomed. 

323. In compound verbs, the reduplication has the same place 
as the augment. 

Stem and Changes of Stem. 

324. Stems are named, according to their final letters, vowel- 
stems, consonant-stems, mute stems, liquid stems, etc. 

Verbs are named according to their stems : thus mute verbs, 
liquid verbs. Those which have vowel-stems are commonly called 
pure verbs. 

The original stem may be modified in form by various changes. 
They are especially frequent in the formation of the present system. 
In reference to these changes, we distinguish the following 

321 D. In Hm., more verbs receive the Attic redupl., and sometimes with- 
out lengthening the vowel after it : aA.-cU.77/mt wander from aA.ct-0/tat to wander, 
aA.-aA.u/CT7?juat am distressed (cf. Hd. aAu/crci^ to be distressed}, &p-r]pa am fitted 
from apapiffKco (ap) to Jit, ep-epiirro from epetirca (epur) to overthrow, o5-665uo-rai 
(st. oSus, Aor. uSuffdfj.'fjy, 55, became wroth], op-a>pa am roused from opvv/j.i (o/>) 
to rouse, etc. - and with inserted v, fp.v--tifj.vKa from ij^-w to boio the head; 
- also the defective perfects, av-f)vo&e issues (or issued), tir-tv-i)vo&G is (or 
was) close upon. For a/c-ax^ueVos sharpened, see 46 D. - Hd. has irreg. ap- 
atpTjKa from alpe-w to take. 

322 D. For et-co&a, Hm. has also -o>fra (Hd. only ea>&a) : the orig. stem 
was perhaps O-FTJ^, Pf. e-o-Fw^-a (25). - Further, Hm. has eAir-w (FeA?r) to cause 
to hope, Pf. &>\7ra hope, Plup. uA.iretv, and ep5w (vepy, Eng. work) to do, Pf. eop- 
ycc, Plup. 



325. I. FIRST CLASS (Stem-Class). The stem appears without 

change in the present : Xu-o>, T6/xa-o> (contr. rt/xw), /xeV-w to remain, 
TpeTT-w to turn, ay-co to lead. 

326. II. SECOND CLASS (Protracted Class). These lengthen a 
short a, i, v of the stem to 17, a, eu respectively. In most of them, 
the short stem appears only in the 2 Aor. and 2 Fut. 

Here belong a number of mute stems, as r^/c-w (T&K) to melt, Xet7r-o> 
(XtTr) to leave, <pevy<a (fay) to flee ; - also a few stems in v, which lose 
this vowel in the Pres. by 39 : thus 3e-o> (for 3ev-o>, st. 3ff) to run, ^e-ca 
(xv) to pour. 

Some verbs of other classes (especially cl. 5, 437 N) have, in particular 
tenses, a similar lengthening of the short vowel : Xa/ijSdiw (Xa/3) to take, 
Fut. Xqi/ro/iat (= \r)@-ao[jiai) ', cpxopai cl. 9 (ep^, eXvS) to come, Fut. e'Xeu- 

327. III. THIRD CLASS (Tau-Class). The stem assumes T in 
the present. Here belong many stems ending in a labial mute 
(TT, j8, </>) : TWIT-CO (TUTT) fc> strike, KaXuTrr-w (/caXv/J) cover, /Jcwrr-to 

REM. a. Whether the stem of these verbs ends in TT, or /3, or <^>, can- 
not be determined from the Pres. It may be ascertained by referring to 
the second aorist, if this is in use, or by referring to othdr words con- 
nected with the verb in derivation ; e. g. to the 2 Aor. e-rinr-r]^ e-j3d(j)-r]v, 
or the noun KaXv/3-r; cabin, cover. 

328. IV. FOURTH CLASS (Iota-Class). The stem assumes t in 
the present. This occurs in palatal, lingual, and liquid stems : it 
always occasions euphonic changes (see 5861). 

a. Palatals with t produce cnr (later Attic TT) : (vXao-o--co (for 
<f)vXaKL-w) fo guard, raaor-co (for rayt-co) to arrange, rapacrcr-co (for 

to disturb. 

cr<rco (rrco) may arise from a lingual, and even from a labial stem : 
see 429-30. 

HEM. The final consonant must be determined as above (327 a). In 
some instances, however, it can only be ascertained that the stem ends 
in a palatal, or lingual mute. This is shown in the future, which has 
co from a palatal stem, and <rco from a lingual. 

328 D. b. Aeol. <r5o> for fa, frequent in Theoc. (56 D) : ffvpl<rtiu for ffvplfa 
to pipe. In Dor., most verbs in fa have stems in 7: Kop.ifa to take care of, 
Aor. e/ccfyutra (for e-K0/a&-(ra), but Dor. e/c^t|a (for e-Ko[j.ty-(ra). In Hm. too, 
these verbs have 7 much oftener than in Att. : so in a\a.ird.fa to lay waste, 
Saifa to divide, tvapifa to slay, strip, uepfjnqptfa to debate in mind, iro\/j.tfa te 
war ffTvtXi to ush, etc. 


b. 8 (less often y) with, t produces : <pa-oj (for c/>paSi-co) tc 
tell, Kpa-oo (for Kpayi-w) to cry. 

HEM. Here also the Fut. will show whether the stem ends in a linguaJ 
(), or a palatal (y). For f arising from /3-t, see 429. 

NOTE. The 'following have stems in yy: /cXa-o> (/<Xayy) to make a 
noise, Ti-Xa^-co (vrXayy) to cause to wander, o-aX7ri'-co (o-aXTTiyy) to 
e trumpet. 

c. A. with t produces AA : /3aAA.-io (for /?aAi-w) to throw. 

Only o$a'X-a> (for o^eXi-w) to 5<? obliged follows the analogy of d, 
being distinguished thus from o$e'XX-a> (also for o<eXi-oo) to increase. 

d. v and p with t transpose it to the preceding syllable, where 
it unites with the stem- vowel : <atV-w (for <jkavt-a>) to sAoit?, <$a/>-a> 
(for <f>3epi-w) to destroy. - If the stem-vowel is i or v, it becomes 
long (33) : KptV-cu (for Kpti/t-w) ^o distinguish, o-up-co (for 

e. To this class belong further two vowel-stems in au: *ai'-a> (for 
Kav-i-a> by 39) to 5w?i. and KXcu'-w (for /cXau-t-o)) to weep. The Attic, 
however, uses the forms Kaco, KXdco (39 a). 

329. V. FIFTH CLASS (Nasal Class). The stem assumes v, or a 
syllable containing v, in the present : 

a. v : <$a-v-o> anticipate^ Ka/ji-v-w to be weary. 

b. av (alone) : a/xapr-av-w to err. 

av (with inserted nasal) : //,ai/$-aj/-a> (/za$) to learn, Xajjifi- 
dv-o) (X.a/3) to take, Aay^-w-a) (Aa^) to o5tom by lot. 

HEM. ai> is used alone, if the stem-vowel is long by nature or posi- 
tion : if otherwise, with an inserted nasal (i/, /A, y according as it precedes 
a lingual, labial, or palatal mute). 

c. ve : tK-ve-o/xat to come. 

d. vv : 8cuc-w-fu to sAo^ ; after a vowel, VKU : a-f^i-vw-^i to 

330. VI. SIXTH CLASS (Inceptive Class). The stem assumes O-K 
in the present, sometimes with a connecting t : dpe-o-K-w to please, 
evp-uTK-o) to Jind. 

KEM. a. This class is called inceptive, because some verbs which be- 
long to it have the sense of beginning or becoming : yrjpd-o-K-u to grow 

c. Hm. has efruo (eA) to press (not eAAw). But instead of o^e^Acy he com 
flionly uses the form o^eAAco. 

e. In Hm., some other vowel-stems annex t, see 434 D. 
829 D. A number of stems assume va, cbiefly in Epic, see 443 D. 


331. VII. SEVENTH CLASS (Epsilon- Class). A number of stems 
assume e in the present : So/c-e-w to seem, think, Fut. Sow (=SOK- 
a-oj) ; ptTTt-e-o) another form for piVrw (pi</>) cl. 3, to throw. 

Many verbs of ofAer classes annex e in particular systems to the stem, 
original or modified: /^a^-o/zat cl. 1, to jftght, Aor. e-p-a^e-ad^v ; ^aip-co 
(xap) cl. 4, to rejoice, Fut. x at pf)-< (335). This is the case especially 

with many verbs of the first, fifth, and sixth classes. Similarly, a 

few stems annex o : o/x-i/u/u to swear, Aor. Inf. 6p.6-aai. And a few, 
chiefly poetic, annex a, see 448 D. 

332. VIII. EIGHTH CLASS (Reduplicating Class). The stem as- 
sumes a reduplication in the present. This consists of the first 
consonant repeated with t : so TI-T/XX-CO to bore, TI-$?T-/U ($e) to put 
(65 a). 

Consonant-stems of this class omit the stem-vowel (339) : 
(for yt-yev-o/zat, St. yev) to become, riKrw (for rt-reK-co, TLTKO), 44 a, St. re*) 
to beget, bring forth. Nearly all vowel-stems have the /xi-form. In 
t;//u (= i-i)-/u, st. e) to send, the breathing is repeated as if it were a con- 
sonant. io-r77/u (a-ra) to set is for crt-0-r??-/u (63) Lat. sisto. tcr^co 

(jo-ex) to 7iold, another form of e'x&> cl. 1, is for tV^o) (65 e), and that for 
O-I-O-X-GJ (63) : with this are connected u/ to have on and VTT- 
la-xveopai to promise, which belong to the fifth class. The Attic re- 
duplication is seen in ovivrjpi (= ov-ovy-pi, st. ova) to profit. 

HEM. a. Several reduplicating stems are referred to the sixth class, 
because they assume O-K, as yt-yi/d>-o-K-&> (yw) to Jenow. 

333. IX. NINTH CLASS (Mixed Class). This is added to include 
the verbs in which different parts are derived from stems essentially 
different: <jf>ep-o> to bear, Fut. ot'-o-w, Aor. r/veyK-oy. 

Other Changes of the Stem. 

The stem is further modified in different parts of the verb, chiefly 
by vowel-changes. 

334. I. VARIATION (of vowels, 25). 

a. a, e, o may be interchanged : T/oe^-co to nourish, 2 Aor. e- 
7pdcf>-r]v, 2 Perf. Te-rpo<-a. 

This occurs chiefly in consonant-stems of one syllable, which have a 
liquid before or after the stem-vowel. Verbs which make this inter- 
change, have a in the 2 Aor. of all voices, o in the 2 Perf. But liquid 
stems of one syllable have a also in the 1 Perf. and the Perf. Mid. : ore'X- 
Xoo to send, e-crraX-Ka, ?-0TaA-fiai. 

b. et, arising from t, is exchanged for 01 in the 2 Perf. : 
(AITT) to leave, Ae'-AotTr-a. 

c. e is rarely exchanged for t : TTIT-WW (TTCT) to fall. 


- d. Cases which stand by themselves are pf)y-w(u (/jay) to break, 
2 Perf. ep-pwy-a (25) ; St. rpay, 2 Aor. e-rpay-ov, Pres. rp&>y-co (for rp^y-w) 
to gwaw ; st. e3 or ?;3, 2 Perf. ei'-o>3-a am accustomed. 

335. II. LENGTHENING (of vowels. Protraction, 28). 

1. Vowel-stems lengthen a final short vowel, wherever it is fol- 
lowed by a consonant, and hence, in general, everywhere out of the 
present system. The short vowels pass into the corresponding long 
</>iAe-w, Fut. <piA/)j-crco, 77X0-0), Aor. e-S^Aco-o-a. But a becomes a only 
after , t, p, elsewhere 77 : ^T/pa-w, Perf. Te-$?jpu-Ka, rt/xa-w, Aor. Pass. 

Exc. a. The stem ^pa (xp to give oracles, xpao/neu 
lend} is lengthened to xP 1 ! ' XPW m t *XP v l <T "l ja l v ' So to Tt-rpa-w to 
erpijo-a. On the other hand, aKpod-op,ai to tor makes dicpocio-o-pat, etc. 

For many vowel-stems which retain the short vowel, see 419. - 
For pi-forms of vowel-stems, we have the following special rule : 

336. 2. Mi-forms lengthen the final stem-vowel 

a. in the Pres. and Impf. Act., but only in the Sing, of the Indie. : 
L-o-TTj-pi (OTU) to set) e-dfiKvv-s 2 Sing. Impf. Act. of deUvv-iu to s/iozo. 

b. in the 2 Aor. Act., Ind., Imv., and Inf. : o-rq-Si 2 S. Imv., 071-0- 
dpa-vai 2 Aor. Inf. of ciTrodi-Spd-a-Kco to rwi away. Of. 400 n. 

337. 3. Liquid stems lengthen the short stem-vowel in the first 
aorist system, as a compensation for the omitted tense-sign a-. The 
vowels are changed as in pure verbs, except that e becomes et : TTC- 
patv-o) (Trepav) to bring to an end, e-Trepdv-a, <pau/-(o (<pai/) to show, 
.-<f>r]v-a, /xev-o> to remain, e-//,av-a, Kpiv-w (Kptv) to distinguish, e-KpIi/-a, 

338. 4. a is generally lengthened in the 2 Perf. of consonant-stems : 
Kpa-o> (*pay) to cry, Ke'-xpay-a, (paiis-a (<pa^) to S^6>ZO, Tre-(prjv-a. But be- 
fore aspirates it sometimes remains short : ypd<p-u to write, ye-ypd<p-a, 
rao-o--a> (ray) to arrange, re-rd^-a. 

339. III. Omission (of vowels, 38) : yi-yy-o^ai (for yt-yev-o/xat, 
st. yev) to become, O.KOV-O) to hear, 2 Perf. d/c-^Ko-a (for aK-yKov-a, 39). 

335 D. In Dor., the lengthened form of a is a after all letters (29 D) : r t . 

r)}', fcrrajiu, o-ra^t, e^ava, irefyava. In Ion., a is lengthened to 77, even after 
e, t, p : l-^ffo/nai (Idopai to heal), eii(}>pr)vai (eixppalva to gladden). Yet fdca to per- 
mit makes a (not ??) : eao-tw, 6?o<ra. The stem iro ^o yet (chiefly poetic, Pres. 
not used) always appears as TT:, ^Traffd^v^ possess. 

336 D. b. For stem-vowel lengthened in the (uncontracted).2 Aor. Sub of 
/w-forms, see 400 D i. 

338 D. In Hm., the 2 Pf. Par. Fern, sometimes keeps the short vowel, when 
it is lengthened in other forms of the tense: apypcas fitted^ Fern, apapvia, Ind. 
tf/rjpa (o/>a/nV/ca>), r&T]\<t>s blooming, Fern. re^aXum (dxAAa>). 


340. IV. Transposition (of vowel and liquid. Metathesis, 57): 
st. Sav to die, 2 Aor. e-Sav-ov, 2 Perf. 1 P. Te-$i/a-//,ev, Pres.o^vrj- 
o-Ku (335). 

341. V. Aspiration (of labial or palatal mute). This occurs in 
some second perfects (387 b) : TTC/XTT-CU to send, Tre-Tro/^-a, Taoxr-co (ray) 
to arrange, rc-ra^-a. 

For aspiration in Perf. Mid. 3 P., see 392. For transfer of aspiration 
in rpe^-w, Fut. 3pe\^co, and the like, see 66 c. 

342. VI. Addition of a- (to a vowel-stem). This occurs in the 
perfect middle and first passive systems of some pure verbs, especially 
such as retain a final short vowel (419-21) : reXe-co to complete, TC- 
reAecr-/>t,at, d/cou-a> to hear, f]KOvcr-$r]v. 

For v omitted at the end of a few liquid stems, see 433. 


343. The active and middle have no special voice-sign, being dis- 
tinguished from each other by their different endings. But the pas- 
sive voice affixes to the stem a passive-sign, $e in the first passive 
system, and e in the second. 

In both systems, the e is contracted with a following mode-sign : \v- 
Soi/zei/ for Xu-3e-co-jwei>, (TTa\eir)v for (rTa\-e-ir)-v. And in both, the be- 
comes ?;, when a single consonant follows it : cXvSty-j/, e'Xt&q (for eXvSty-r), 
o-raXq-o-o/icu ; but 3 P. Imv. Xv^e-vroov, Par. Fern. crraXelaa (for oraXe- 
i/a-a), Par. Neut. \v%ev (for 


344. In some of the tense-systems, the consonants K and o- are 
added to the stem, as tense-signs. Thus the tense-sign is 
K in the first perfect system: AeXv-K-a, 
o- in theirs t aorist system : eXv-o--a, 
cr in the future of all voices : Xv-cr-w, XV-O--O/ACU, 
a- in the future perfect : XeXv-a--o/xat. 

345. But a liquid before a- was a combination of sounds which the 
Greek generally avoided. Hence 

343 D. In the uncontracted 2 Aor. Sub. Pass., Hm. often lengthens e to e* 
(in 3 Sing, also to TJ) : Sa^t-ere for (Sa/xe-Tjre) Sa^re ye may be overcome 
^>avi]-ri for ((Jxzj/e'-j?) 4>aj/y he may appear. 

344 D. In Hm., the tense-sign <r is often doubled after a short vowel: d- 
truffffw for avuffu Fut. of dj/5w to achieve, lye\a(Tffa for eye'Aoo-a Aor. of 

to laugh. 

For Doric Future with (re as tense-sign instead of <r, see 377 D. 


1. Liquid verbs, in the future system, take e instead of u-: 
<av-e-u), contracted <avw, instead of (ai/-o--w, from <aiVw (<^ai/). 

2. Liquid verbs, in the first aorist system, lengthen the stem- 
vowel in compensation for the omitted cr : l-tfnjv-a instead of e-^>av- 
<r-a. For the consequent change of vowels, see 337. 

EEM. a. K was first used in pure verbs to separate the vowels : eWq- 
K-a for larrj-a. Homer uses it only in such verbs. But it was after- 
wards extended, as a tense-sign, to liquid and to lingual verbs. 

b. e in the Future of liquid verbs appears to have been originally 
inserted for the sake of euphony : 0az/-e-cra> for $ai/-o-a>. The o- after- 
wards fell away between the two vowels (64), which were then subject 
to contraction. 

TENSE-STEM. The elements already described, so far as they are 
found in any tense, form its tense-stem. The augment, however, 
being confined to the indicative, is not considered as belonging to 
the tense-stem. 

Connecting Vowels and Mode-Signs. 

346. In most cases, the endings are not applied directly to the 
tense-stem, but vowels are interposed between them. These, for the 
most part, are mere connecting vowels : they serve to facilitate pro- 
nunciation : when not required for this purpose, they are sometimes 
dispensed with. But the subjunctive is always distinguished by the 
lojag vowels r), to : the optative, always by the vowel i. These vowels, 
therefore, are properly called mode-signs. 


347. Subjunctive. The Sub. has w before a nasal (/*, v), elsewhere 
(for Av-co-/xt), \v-w-cn (for 

345 D. In Hm., several liquid verbs have ff as tense-sign : Fut. up-eco, Aor. 
Sip-era (op-vvfj.i to rouse), fnvpcra (Kvp-ew to fall in with), e/ceA<ra (/ceAAw to drive), 
fKepffa, (/ceipew to shear), - & (3-e/>-o/xat to grow warm), (pvpffw (Aor. Sub. 
of <p6p-co to mingle), eA<ra (e?A&> to press), and the defective air6epcra took away. 
The first four of these are found also in Attic poetry. 

In Aeol., a" of the 1 Aor. is assimilated to a preceding liquid : so in Hm., 
in one word, OxpeXXa (= catpeX-ffa) for &(pei\a, Pr. o^eAAw to increase. 

347 D. Hm. often has o, e, instead of w, 77, as mode-signs of the Sub. ; 
but the Sing, and 3 PI. of the active voice (and of the Aor. Pass., 354) hav 
only co, 77. i 

This formation occurs especially in aorists of the ^it-form and in the 2 Aor 
Pass. (395) ; the preceding vowel is then usually lengthened (400 D i, 343 D): 

r (56-d>/j.ev ) Scoyue?', 3-ei-o^uat for (&e-cajj.a,i) &wju,ai, ffr^-eroy (for 
', Sa^ei-ere for (Sa/xe-Tjre) 


REM. a. The t subscript of the 2, 3 Sing. Act. and the 2 Sing. Mid. 
comes from the original endings o-i, rt, and arai. 

b. The mode-signs of the Sub. were formed by lengthening o and t, 
the usual connecting vowels of the Ind. Hence the Sub. never has a con- 
necting vowel in addition to its mode-sign. 

348. Optative. The mode- sign of the Opt. is t : \voi-pi, 

Before active endings, 477 is often used instead of t. This is always the 
case in the Sing, of the passive aorists and of pi-forms, and frequently in 
their Dual and Plur. : Xv3ety>, fitSofy, o-raXel-re or oraXe^-re. It is also 
frequently the case in contract forms and in the Perf. Act. : r^aoir]-^ 
COntr. Tijuwry-j', TreTTOtSoiTj-i/. 

Before' y in the 3 Plur. Act., ie is always used. 

HEM. a. The mode-sign of the Opt. is usually joined to the 
tense-stem by a connecting vowel : it is always so, when the tense- 
stem ends in a consonant, t forms a diphthong with a preceding 
vowel : Xv-oL-J 


349. 1. The first aorist system has a throughout: A.v<r-at-/u, 

Exc. a. a is changed to e in the Ind! Ac{. 3 Sing. : eXvo-e, - to o 
before i>, in the Imv. Act. 2 Sing. : Xvo-oi/, - to at in the Imv. Mid. 
2 Sing. : XOo-at ; also in thfe Inf. Act. : Xvo-at. All these forms omit 
the ending, as does also the Ind. Act. 1 Sing. : eXvcr-a (for eXvcr-a-i>). 

EEM. b. In the irregular, but more common, forms of the Opt. Act., 

2 Sing, et-a-y, 3 S. et-e, 3 P. ei-a-p, the connecting vowel of the Ind. is 
thrown in after the mode-sign i, in consequence of which the preceding 
a is changed to e. 

350. 2. The perfect active indicative has a : AeAuK-a-re. But the 

3 Sing, has e : AeAvK-e. 

The same short vowels are frequent in the Sub. of the first aorist system : 
ve/j.eo"f)ff-fTe for ye^ecr^(r-7jT6 (ve/j.ecrd-(a to resent), tydfy-eat fer (tydty-rjai) e^cty?; 
(e^aTTTo^ot to touch upon). These forms are often liable to be confounded 
with those of the Fut. Ind. - In other tenses this formation is less frequent. 
It is seldom or never found in the Pr. Sub. of verbs in ca. 

348 D. Hm. almost never has (77 in the dual and plural. In contract verbs, 
ITJ is rarely used by Hm., never by Hd. 

349 D. In Hm., the 1 Aor. sometimes has the connecting vowels o, e (352) 
like the 2 Aor. : T|, T|of came (cw), e^a-ero went (fiaiva}), tSvffero went under 
(8u&>). So especially in the Imv. : fyxreo, fyxreu rise (opwtii), &ere lead (&yca), 
oI(T6 bring (^>e'pco),Ae|eo lay thyself, TT\dfffffTOV bring near (ireAci^w). 

350 D. In Dor., the Sing, of the Pf. Ind. may have the connecting vowels 
of the Pros. : AeAu/c-w for \eA.u/c-o, AeAu/c-ets, -et (the forms \f\vic-ys, -T) are 
probably incorrect) for AeAu/c-ccs, -e. 


351. 3. The pluperfect active has ei, but in the 3 Plur. com- 
monly e : eXeXuK-ei-v, eXeXu/<-e-(rav. 

REM. a. e\(\i>Kfo-av ought, in strictness, to be divided eXeXvAc-ea-a-j/(T), 
c Lat. pepend-era-nt for pepend-esa-nt. ecra here belongs to an old 
Impf. of el/jLL = t (T-/ZI, Lat. (e)s-um, Impf. era-m, for esa-m. In the other 
numbers and persons of the Plup., o- was dropped, and a formed by con- 
tracting the vowels. The Old Attic 77 for iv and et (1, 3 Sing.) was 
also formed by contraction from e(o-)a(v) and e(o-)e. 

352. 4. The other forms which have a connecting vowel, take 
o or e : thus 

a. The indicative has o before a nasal, elsewhere e : Xu'-o-/xei/, 
\vcr-ov-o-i (for XVCT-O-VCTL), XeXvcr-e-cr$e. 

In the Pres. and Fut. Act., o in the 1 Sing, becomes &> (on account of 
the omitted ending JLU) ; e in the 2, 3 Sing, takes i (derived from the 
original endings en, ri) '. Xv-o>, \va-ei-s. 

b. The optative has o : XeXuK-ot-/xt, Xv$r)<r-oL-[ji7]v. 

c. The imperative follows the same rule with the indicative : 

d. The infinitive has e, which becomes et in the Pres., Fut., and 

2 Aor. Act. : XVG-CL-V, XeXuKje-vcu, Xv-e-cr&ai. 

e. The participle has o : Xu-o-vreg, XVCT-OV-O-CLL (for Xvcr-o-vo-aL). 

353. 5. Forms without Connecting Vowels. There are no con- 
necting vowels 

a. in the perfect and pluperfect middle, the aorist passive, and 
the perfect participle active. 

b. in /x,t-forms (of the present, second aorist, and second per- 
fect systems). 

351 D. Hd. has in the Plup. Act. 1 Sing, ea for et-v, 2 S. ea-s for et-s, 3 S. 
ee for et, 2 PI. ea-re for et-re, 3 PI. only effa-v. - Hm. has 1 S. ea, 2 S. ea-s 
(also contracted rj-s), 3 S. et or et-y (contracted from ee, ee-p) : eYed^Trea wa 
astonished, eYed^Treas, 5e5et7rj/7jKetj/ he had feasted. The uucontracted 3 Sih^. 
is seen only in ?ySee, comm. 7/877 he knew. - In two or three words, Hm. 
forms a Plup. with the connecting vowels o, e, after the analogy of the Impf. : 
tfvccy-o-v (also yvdy-fa) Plup. of &vuya command, e^e^Tj/c-o-j/ Plup. of fj.f/j.r]Ka 
bleat, eye'ycoy-e "(also eyeycoy-et) Plup. of ytywva. shout. Still more irreg. are 

3 PI. yvuy-ew, yeyuv-evv (contracted from -eo-j/). 

352 D. Hm. and Hd. often have eet-j/ for e?-i> in the 2 Aor. Inf. Act. : 
jSaA-eet-j' to throw, tS-eet-v to see. 

The Dor. (Theoc.) often has e-s for et-s in the Ind. 2 Sing., and e-y for et-> 
in the Inf. : crvptffS-e-s for (rvpi-ei-s art piping, ael8-e-v for aef8-et-v to sing. 
The accent is the same as in the Attic forms. Rare is Dor. y-y for e?-v in the 
2 Aor. Inf. 

355] ENDINGS. 119 


354. There are two series of endings, one for the active voice, 
the other for the middle. The passive aorist has the endings of the 
active ; the passive future, those of the middle. 

The endings of the finite modes are called personal endings, 
because they have different forms for the three persons. 

355. INDICATIVE. The personal endings of the Ind. are 

Active. Middle. 

Principal tenses. Historical. Principal. Historical. 

8. 1. /U V [//,] [AOLL fJUTJV 

2. <s [crt] s <rat <ro 

3. cri [TI] [r] rat TO 


3. TOV nrjv crS-ov crSyv 

P. 1. /xev [jW-es] /xej/ [/-^es] /xe$a /x,e$a 

2. re TC <r$e o-$e 

3. (v)o~i [Vri] v [FT] VTat I/TO 

or crav [o"anr] 

The endings in brackets are earlier forms, not used in Attic Greek, 
but found in other dialects or kindred languages. For change of , 
jm, to o-t, (V)o-i, see 62 : for change of ^ to i/, 77 : for dropping of a final 
T, 75. The forms JLU, on, rt, i/n were weakened in the historical tenses, 
on account of the augment at the beginning, to p, $, T, vr. In the middle 
they were extended to /tai, o-at, Tat, i>Tai ; of these, again, the last three 
were weakentd in the historical tenses to o-o, TO, vro. 

355 D. a. The Dor. retains the earlier forms ri for (n, vn for (v)(ri, /ues for 
ftev. It has rdv for TTJ^, pav for JUTJ^, (r3~aj/ for ff^v (24 D b). Thus ri&rjTi, 
\VOVTL, XbffQiVTi, AeAuKoi/Tt, A.ucro/tey, e\v6fj.av, ^AeAuo-^az/, for ri&r)<n, Xvovtf^ 
\bfftaffij \e\vicaffi, Kvffop.fv y ^Kv6p.f]V^ f\e\v<r&r)v. 

b. Hm. sometimes has TO^ for TTJX and tr^oj/ for a&nv in the third person 
dual of the historical tenses. 

c. Hm. often has v for ffav in the Aor. Pass, and in /a-forms: \6&e-v 
(orig. eXv&e-vr) for \vSf}-ffa.v, fffra-y (orig. eoro-j'T) for effrrj-ffav. 

d. The poets often have ^eofta for /te&a : \v6-/j.eff&a for Au^eS-a. 

e. Hm. often has orat, OTO for vraz, I/TO in the Pf. Piup. Mid. This occurs 
chiefly after consonants (cf. 392), but sometimes after vowels : SeSaf-cmu (Sat'o- 
uai to divide), jSe/jATj-a-ro (jSaAAw to throw). Also in the Pr. Impf. of /ce?/tat to 

lie, $11*0.1 to sit: Ke-arai, C /-OTO. Hd. usually has emu, aro in the Pf. Plup. 

Mid., even after vowels, and often in the Pr. Impf. of /it-forms; a preceding 
a or 7? becomes e : oi/ce-OTOt for ^/CTJ-J/TCU (ot/ce-co to inhabit), ribe-arai for T&e- 

yTcu, e'8vj/e-aTo for eSwo-j/ro (5uva-/iot ^o 6e a&?e). The endings oTat, aro do 

not occur after a connecting vowel. Such forms as K7j8-e-aTcu for K^-o-vrai 
they care for, eyev-e-aro for tyev-o-vro they became, which are found in most 
editions of Hd., are probably incorrect. 


356. a. The endings of the three singular persons are clearly seen to 
be appended pronouns, /, ihou, that: thus /u, o-t, , the original forms, 
correspond to. the personal stems ^f, o-f (231), and the demonstrative 
stem TO of the article. 

The ending o-3a for s is found only in a few /^it-forms : e^-o-Sa thou 

b. The ending of the first person plural is also used for the first per- 
son dual. - A special ending /zeSoi/, for the middle first person dual, 
occurs only in Horn. II. ^, 485, Soph. El. 950 and Phil. 1079. beside two 
instances cited by Athenaeus. 

TTJV is sometimes used for rov in the second person dual of the histori- 
cal tenses. 

c. The ending o-av is found in the Plup. Act. and Aor. Pass. ; also 
in /^t-forms : eXeXvKe-o-af, 

357. SUBJUNCTIVE AND OPTATIVE. The Sub. and Opt. take the 
personal endings of the Ind. The Sub. has the endings of the 
principal tenses : the Opt., those of the historical tenses. 

Exc. a. The 1 Sing. Opt. Act. takes p.i: Xvoi-fu; unless irj is the 
mode-sign. In that case, the 1 Sing, has v\ XvSeijy-v; and the 3 Plur. 
has (rav I doty-crav. Or 8die-v. 

358. IMPERATIVE. The personal endings of the Imv. are 

Active. Middle. 

S. 2. & 3. TO> 2. o-o 3. 

D. " rov " ran/ " o-Sov " 

P. " re " Tcoo-ai/ " cre " 

or VTWV or 

359. INFINITIVE. The infinitive-endings are 
Act. v after et, elsewhere vat : Xvei-v, XeXv/ce-vat, X.v$f)-vai. 

357 D. In the Opt., Hm. and Hd. always have aro for VTO : for 
yiyvoi-vro \ though in the Sub. they always have vrai : yiyvw-vrai. In the 
2 Sing. Sub., Hm. often has ff&a for s : ebe\riff&a for eS-eA^s (e&eAw to wish) ; 
rarely so in ^he Opt. : K\aioi<r&a for /cAatoty (/c\ata> to weep). 

358 D. The endings rcocrav and crdrcoffav do not occur in Hm., and the Attic 
drama. Even in Attic prose they are less frequent than VTWV and ff&wv. 

359 D. For v or vai, Hm. often has jj.evai or p.w (also Dor.), \vith the accent 
always on the preceding syllable : irefjureiv or Trefj.Trefji.evai or Trefj.Trefj.ev to send. 
Hm. never uses fj.ev after a long syllable or vai after a short one : hence a-r^/j-e- 
vo.i or arrival, never ffTT]fj.ev, 8afj.i]fj.evai or $a/j,rjvai Aor. Pass, to be subdued, 
never $a/j,T]fj.ev, tffTap.eva.1 or e<rTafj,ev, never effravai. Yet we have levai as well 
as fytcvat, ffj,ev to go. 

In Dor., the Inf. of the Pf. Act. is sometimes formed like the Pres. : 
civ for AeAu/cej/ai. 


360. PARTICIPLE. The participle-endings are 

Act. M. N. vr F. (y}(ra : Xvo-vr-t, \vcra-(y)cra.-v : but 
Perf. Act. or via. : AeA/uK-or-cov, 

Mid. i^evo fjieva : At>o-/x,ei/o- 

The participle-stem is further declined by case-endings like an ad- 
jective: see 207, 214-6. For the feminine endings (VW> wa, see 214 a, 
216 b. 


361. 1. The active endings /, <n, 3i are dropped after a vowel : Avo-o> 
(for AUCT-O-/U and ALKT-GO-/LU), AeAvK-e (for AeAv/c-e-cri), X-e (for Au-e-2fi). 

But if the vowel belongs to the tense-stem, the endings are retained : 
ri'3j;-/it, deiKvv-art, o-raX^-St. /u remains also in the Opt. : Xtoi-/zt. 

For an exception in regard to 3t, see 401 b. For in XuSg-ri, see 65 b. 

362. 2. The personal ending (f)crt and the participle-ending (y)aa 
always drop v before a- : the preceding vowel is then lengthened in com- 
pensation, see 48. 

363. 3. The middle endings arai and o-o, after a vowel, drop o- (64) ; 
this is followed by contraction : thus \vo-y or Xvo-ei from Xi>o-e-((r)ai, 
\va~-rj from Xvo~-^-((r)at, e'Xu-ou from eXv-e-((r)o, eXutr-fo from eXicr-a-((r)o, 
Xuoi-o from Xvoi-(o-)o. In the last case (the optative), contraction is of 
course impossible. 

But if the vowel belongs to the tense-stem, or is generally retained . 
ri'Se-o-cu or n'Sfl (rfeet), icrra-o-o or toroi , it is always so in the Perf. and 
Plup. : Xe'Xu-o-tu, Xe'Xu-o-o. 

EEM. a. From e-(<r)ai are formed both rj and et. Of these, y is the 
usual form ; but the Attic, especially the older Attic, has also a : /SouXo- 
/uai to wish and oto/zai (oijuai) to think have only /SouXei, oiet, in the 
2 Sing. 

360 D. The participle of the Pf. Act. is formed like the Pres. Par., in 
KGK\ r fiy-o~vT-es Hm. for /ce/cA.Tj'y-^T-es (fcAfia> ^o make a noise). Cf. ire 
/c6%A.a5-o-^T-os in Pindar. 

Hm. often lengthens or to WT in the Pf. Par. : re^rjuros, Att. 
(&vf]ffKci> to die). 

361 D. Hm. often retains /tt, <n in the Sub. : &e\w/u, &e\ricri (more cor- 
rectly written e^-eATjori) for e'^eAw, e^eA??, way wsA. 

362 D. The Aeol. has ot<ra for outrct and cutra for a<ra in the Fern. Par. : 
rp^oiffa nourishing, &pfyai<ra. The first of these forms is used by Theoc., and 
both of them by Pindar. 

363 D. In Hm., the vowels, after 'cr is dropped, usually remain uncontract- 
ed: Avo-eat, Awryjcu, eAueo, etc. Hd. contracts you to y and sometimes eo to eu: 
2 Sing. Sub. jQouA?;, Imv. /SoiJAeo or /JovAeu wz'sA. Hm. contracts eat to et only 
in &J/et <Aow wz^ see. 

Hm. sometimes drops a- in the Pf. Plup. : ^vn-ai Lat. meministi, also con- 
tracted /ie^i/T?. So in Hd., 2 Sing. Imv. /ic/orc-o, with e for 77. 



364. 4. The first aorist system omits the endings in the 1 Sing 
Ind. Act., the 2 Sing. Imv. Act. and Mid., and the Inf. Act. : eXwa 
(for eAfcr-a-i>), \vcr-ov (for Aucr-a-3t), \v<r-ai (for Aucr-a-cro), ACcr-ai (for 
\vo--a-vai). The v in Xvvov is a euphonic addition. See $49* a. 

Accent of the Verb. 

365. As a general rule, the accent stands as far as possible 
from the end of the form (recessive accent, 97) ; on the penult, when 
the ultima is long by nature ; otherwise, on the antepenult : 

Final m and 01 have the effect of short vowels on .the accent (95 a) : 
\vovrm, Avcrai, AvStyoro/zez/ot. But not SO in the Opt. : Aucrai, AeAuKOi. 

For contract forms, the accent is determined by the rules in 98 : 
hence 8oK< (So/ce-co), e\a)fj.6v (e'Aa-o/zei> from e'Aauj/a), 435, 2), irecrovfjiai 
(ffre<7-o/MU from TrtTrro), 449, 4), 6\a>/iai (6\So-a>/>iai), Av3a>, \v%fjs (AvSe'-w, 
A vSe -77?). 


366. In the finite verb there is only the following exception : The 
2 Aor. Imv. .2 Sing, accents the connecting vowel 

a. regularly in the middle : XITT-OV contracted from Ai7r-6-(o-)o. 

b. in the following active forms : etV-e say, e A3-<? come, et>p-e find, 
i-e see, Aa/3-e ta&<s/ but not in their compounds: an-cnre. 

KEM. Of course, this exception has no reference to Au-forms. which 
are without connecting vowel. 

367. The infinitive and participle, which are essentially nouns, pre- 
sent numerous exceptions. 

a. In the 2 Aor. Act. and Mid., they accent the connecting vowel : 
the Inf. Act. is perispomenon, the Par. Act. oxytone : \ur-el-v, Ai7r-o>-i>, 
Ai7r-e'-cr3cu, \nr-6-nfvos. For the 2 Aor. Par. Mid., this gives the same 
accent as the general rule. 

b. In the 1 Aor. Act. and Perf. Mid., they accent the penult: ri/z?}o-ai, 
Tip,r]cras, rerifi7?o-3cu, reTip.r}fj.fvos. For the 1 Aor. Par. Act., this gives the 
same accent as the general rule. 

c. All infinitives in vai accent the penult : nSeVat, AeAuKeWu, 
o-raA 771/01. 

364 D. In all tenses, v of the 1 Sing, is dropped when a precedes : Hm. 
(orig. Tjtra/i, rjcrav} I was, tf'ia Iivent, j/Sec^ I knew. Only e/CTa-y I killed, where 
a belongs to the stem. 

867 D. a. In Hm., the Inf. of the 2 Aor. Mid. conforms in some words to 
the general rule: aycpe<r&ai (ayetpw to assemble), epecr&ai (efyoyucu to ask), 
ex&eo-i&cu (ex&cfo'Oyuai to be odious), eypea&ai (eyetpu to arouse). 

b. In Hm., the Perf. aAoATja^at, aXaX^^vos (a\do/ to wander), aitd-xn- 
tr&cu, a.K.a.x'hp-tvos or ^.K^X^^VOS (^%1/y^at to be pained), sffffvpevos (crsvo) to drive), 
conform to the general rule. 


d. All participles of the third decl.. formed without connecting 
vowels, are oxytone : 8i8ovs, XeXu/ctos-, XvSett, <rraXei?. This includes all 
third declension participles in y, except that of the 1 Aor. Act. 

REM. e. In the 1 Aor., these three forms, the 3 Sing. Opt. Act., the 
Inf. Act., and the 2 Sing. Imv. Mid., which have the same letters, are 
often distinguished by the accent : 

3 Sing. Opt. Act. TrXe^at * Traixrai TfXeVat S 

Inf. Act. TrXe^at Travcrai TfXecrai d 

2 Sing. Imv. Mid. TrXffat Trauo-at reXfo-cu d 

368. Compound Verbs follow the rules above given, but with the fol- 
lowing restrictions : 

a. The accent can only go back to the syllable next preceding the 
simple verb : cni-ax** hld on i <rweK-8os give out together, not 

b. The accent can never go back beyond the augment or reduplica- 
tion : a7r-?)X3e he went away, dcp-lnTai Tie has arrived, Trap-ijv he was pre- 
sent, not ayrjyXSe, a^tKrat, iraprjv. This is the case, even when the aug- 
ment, falling upon a long vowel or diphthong, makes no change in it : 
v-rr-flKe he was yielding, but fa-eiKe Pres. Imv. be yielding, dv-evpov 1 
found again. 


Present and Imperfect. 

369. FORMATION of the tense-stem : see 325-33 ( Classes of Verbs). 

INFLECTION (Paradigm^ 270). .The elements of which the forms con- 
sist are generally obvious. For Xvo>, \vfi, \vrj, and Xue, see 361 : for 
Xuoucri and Xvovtra, see 362 : for the middle \vrj, \vei, e'Xuou, Xuoto, and 

Xuov, see 363. For the present system without connecting vowels 

(pi-form), see 399 ff. 

370. CONTRACT VERBS (Paradigms, 279-81). The connecting 
vowels of the present system are contracted with a final a, e, o, in 
the tense-stem. Verbs which have this peculiarity are called Con- 
tract Verbs. 

For the rules of contraction, see 32-5. In reading the paradigms, the 
uncontracted form will be seen by omitting the syllable next after the 
parenthesis ; the contract form, by omitting the letters in the parenthesis 
itself: thus in rt/j(d-ei)a, Ttju(a-ov)co-o-t, the uncontracted forms are 
; the contract forms, rt/xa, 



Usage of Homer, a. Yerbs in aw are commonly contracted ; but often, with 
a peculiar Epic duplication of the contract vowel. By this a contract o> be- 
comes ow, or (after a long syllable, 28 D) o> : 
6p6a), from opdw, opu to see; opocpfM, from 6pdoijj.i, 6p/j,i', 
f>p6<n>ffi, " opdovffi, dpwffi; fuevoivdoci), " juej/owaco, [A.GVOIV> to long; 

opdovres, bpwvres', rjfi&caffa, " ?;j8aoy<ra, 7?j3wo*a being young. 

Under like circumstances, a contract o becomes da or act : 

from opdei, opa ; fju/daff&ai, from yuj/aeo*&at, [Lvaff&cu to woo 

dpdaff&e, " opdeff&e, opaff&e ; (the syll. before \ is long by position). 

cow becomes wo, when the latter syllable will not be made short by it : ^/3c6- 
cj/res, yfiuioifju. The duplicate form has the accent of the uncontracted form. 
It is only used where the second of the two syllables contracted was long : 
thus we do not find 6p6cafj.v for 6pdo/j.ev, 6p<t>/j.v* 

eow to permit has only the duplication of a, but often lengthens e before a 
to et : eaas, eiuxri. Irreg. forms are ^v(a6^evos (/wa<fyie/os), yeXdovres (yeAaoyres 
laughing}, vaierdiacra (vaierdovaa inhabiting^ xpe^jueyos (xpa6/j.evos using). 

ao is sometimes changed to eo without contraction in the Irapf. Act. : 
V\vrzQV (avrdfa to encounter), o/.io/cA.eo ( u6v (o^uo/cAaco to rebuke). 

b. Verbs in ea> are commonly unconti'acted, but sometimes ee, eet go into 
et; 0, eou, into eu: reAeet, reAeoytTi, reAeerat, TeAeOyuej/os, Or reAe?, reAeytrt, 
reAerrat, reAei5/xej/os. eo.may unite by Synizesis: f^p^vsov they ivere mourning, 
as three syllables. In the 2 Sing. Mid. e-e-az, e-e-o may become e?at, e?o, by 
contraction of ee, or e'at, eo, by rejection of one e: juu&eTai or /iufre'cu, for /iu^e- 
c-at thou sayest. The final e of the stem is sometimes lengthened to et : 
j/et/ceia) for rei/ceco to quarrel, ereAefero from reAeco ^o complete. 

c. Verbs in oo> are contracted as in Att. But sometimes they have forms 
with a duplicate 0-sound, as if the stem ended in a (see a above): aptcixri 
(as if for apa-ovffi, ap6ca to plougli), Sr)'i6yiJ.ev (as if for foji'a-o^uej/, S?jtow to treat 
as an enemy), virv&ovTas (as if for virva-ovTas, virv6(a to sleep). 

Usage of Herodotus, d. Verbs in aca commonly change a before o, ou, (a, 
to e: Tifj-eovrai, TI^^VOS^ Tiiitovffi, Tt^eco, Tt,uec6,ue.^o (the first three are often 
less correctly written Ti/.cecoyTot, Ttyiew/ievos, n/necixn. - eo rarely goes into 
eu: erifjievv, Att. erifjicav). In their other forms, they contract a with the fol- 
lowing vowel as in Att. : rifjias, rtjuarr, Tt/ic/^i^v, Tiu.aff&ai ; so also 2 Sing. 
Mid., Imv. T^iw, Impf. cTjjtio), from (e)rt/ia-e-(o")o. 

e. Verbs in ew are uncontracted, except that eo, eou may go into ey : 
<Ae<w, ^>iAeet, (pi\eoifj.i, $iAe'o/*cu or <pi\, <pi\eov<rt or <jAeo*i. But Sel ^ u 1 
necessary and its Inf. SeTy are usually contracted. Instead of 2 Sing. Mid. 
e-cu, <J>iAe-e-o, ee/)tAe-e-o, we find forms with only one e, <iAec, ^uAe'o, e 

but these are of doubtful correctness. 

f. Verbs in ocu are contracted as in Att., but sometimes have eu instead 
of ov '. SrjAw, 5?)Ao?, 8ir)\a>fJt,ai, STJAO^TJV, SrjAoScTi or 57jAeDo"i, eS^Aou or 

Doric Contraction, g. The Dor. contracts o with o, w (not in the ultima) 
to a instead of co : it contracts o with e, ?;, et, 77, to 77, ??, instead of a, a : ireiva- 
ties (for TretvcD^e^), Treivaj/ri (for ireivaxri), 6py)re (for opare), 6py (for opa), 6/37711 
(for 6/jaj/). The Ion. contraction of eo, eoy to ey belongs also to the Dor. 

371. Remarlcs on Contract Verbs. 

a. The connecting vowel of the Inf. Act. was originally e, not ei 
(352 d) : hence for a-v, o-ftv, the contract forms are not av, oiv, but Sr, 
wv (as if from ciei/, oep). ^ 


b. Stems of one syllable in 6 admit only the contraction into <rt. 
Wherever contraction would result in any other sound, the uncontracted 
form is used. Thus 7rXe-o> to sail makes in the Pros. Ind. TrXe-w, TrXel?, 
TrXet, Du. vrXeiroi', PI. TrXe'-o/^ez', TrXelre, 7r\e-ovai. Except de'-o> to Mnd, 
which makes TU dovv (for e-of), (for Se'-o/xai), etc., and is thus 
distinguished from e-o> to want, require, which follows the rule, making 
Sel it is necessary, but ro Se'-oi/ the requisite. 

c. A few steins in a take 77 instead of a in the contract forms : u-o> 
to live, ys (not as), 7, i)re, C'? 1 '? etc - ( 370 D g). So also 7mm-o> to 
hunger, t\//-d-a> to thirst, were* to scratch, o-/xa-a> to wash, i/m-a) to rw&, 
and xpa-ojuai to WS6. 

\ d. piyo-o) to &<5 c0?<# has o> and in contract forms, instead of ov and 
01 J Inf. piyoov, Opt. piyairjv. 

e. Xou-< to lathe sometimes drops v (39), and is then contracted as 
a verb in o<a r eXou for eXo(u)-e, \ for XO(I>)-O-/ACU, etc. 


Future Active and Middle. 

372. The future active and middle adds o- to the stem, and has 
the inflection of the present. (Paradigm, 271.) 

a. Mute Verbs. A labial or palatal mute at the end of the 
stem unites with &, forming \(/ or : a lingual mute is dropped be- 
fore a- (47). 

KOTTTOO (KOTT) to CM KO^CO raorcro) (ray) to arrange 

/SXaTrrco (/3Xa/3) to hurt /3Xa\^co opvcrcrco (opv^) to 6?^ 

ypd(f)-Q> to write ypa\^co <ppdu> (</>paS) to toZ^ (ppaa-ca 

TrXeK-co to twist TrXe^a) crTrevd-w to pour (TTreiVco (49) 

For rp(p-o) to nourish, 3pe\^a), and the like, see 66 c. 

b. Pwre Ferfe. A short vowel at the end of the stem becomes 
long before o- (335). 

e'ci-o) to permit edoru note-co to make 7roir)<ra> 

to honor Tifj-fjo-a) dov\6-a> to enslave ouXa>cra> 

For exceptions, see 419. 

871 D. c. Hm. has 2 Sing. Mid. O'/JTJCU with irrcg. accent for 6pd-e-cu. Be- 
fore ri]v of the 3 Du., Hm. contracts ae, ce, to 77 : irposa.v^rt]v (Trposavtiuw to 
address), ffwavr-hrtiv (ffwavrdo) to meet together], a7retA?jT??* / (aTretAeco to threaten). 
So, before juej/at in the Inf. : Treti/^uej/cu (ireivdoa to hunger], Trey 
to mourn), Tro3"7]jU6j/at (TTO^C'W to mz'ss), Qopjifievai and more irregularly 
(^>o-jeo> to bear). 

Hd. seldom, if ever, contracts ae, aei, to 77, 77 : %pao-id-at to wse, not 

e. Hm. has Impf. A^s uncontracted for e\o(u)e ; and, with e added to the 
stem, \6eov for e\o(u)e-oj/. In the Aor. he has eA.ou<ra and eA^cra. 

372 D. a. For Fut. in ^o> from Pres. in ^w, frequent in Hm., see 328 D b. 
b. For lengthened forms of a, Dor. T^atrw, Ion. l^aro/jiai, treip'fio', seo 
335 D. For a- doubled in Hm. after a short vowel (avfoffw), see 344 D. 


c. Verbs of the second class have the lengthened stem in the Flit. 
yret'So) (TU^) to persuade, ireicrco (not Trto-co) ; irveu> (TVVV) to breathe, Trvevcro* 
pai (not Trvvo-o/jiai). 

373. Liquid Verbs take e instead of cr in the future (345) ; e is 
contracted with the connecting vowels, as in the Pres. of c/>iXe'w : 
<aiVo> ((av) to. show, <aye-co, contracted <avo>. (Paradigm, 282.) 

Exc. *eXXa> (/ceX) to drive and /cvpew (iwp) to fall in with make Ke'X- 

(T&>, Kupcro), With o\ 

Contract Future from Pure and Mute Verbs. 

374. 1. Some pure verbs in e o> drop <r in the future, and contract : 
reXe-co to complete, reXeVw, TfXe-o>, reXeo, 1 P. reXot5jiiei>, etc. The Fut. thus 
made has the same form as the Pres. 

375. 2. Mute stems in aS (Pres. aa>) sometimes do the same : /3t/3aa> 
to caiS6 to go, /3t/3do-a>, /3t/3u-a>, /3ij3. Similarly e'Xavvco (eXa) to <Zrw0, 
f'Xd((r)a), e'Xoo, eXas, e'Xa, etc. 

376. 3. Mute stems in t (Pres. ia>), after dropping o-, insert e and 
then contract: KO/U'O> (KO/>U) to convey, Kofj-ia-co, Ko/Mt-e-w, KO/UOO, 1 P. 
Ko/^toujuei/, etc., Fut. Mid. Ko/xtoO/xai. The name Attic Future has been 
given to this formation. 

377. 4. Some verbs take o-e instead of a-, contracting e with the con- 
necting vowel : nW-co (jrvv, nvev) to breathe, Tryeuo-e'-o/xat, Trvevaovnai (also 
nvevaofjiai) J vrXe-o) (7rXi5, TrXeu) to 8(Z^7, 7r\ (also TrXeucrojLiai) ; favy-w 
(4>vy) to flee, 0fu|ov/xat (also 06u|o/zai). This formation is found only in 
the future middle, and only when it has an active meaning. It is called 
the Doric Future (377 D). 

378. Future without tense-sign. A few verbs form their Fut. with- 
out any tense-sign : ^eco (xv) to pour, Fut. xeo>, Mid. xe'opit. So the ir- 
regular futures ?do/uzi sAaZZ e0 (450, 3), TTI'O/KU *AaW drink (435, 4). 

379. Future Middle used as passive or active. Beside its proper 
meaning, the Fut. Mid. has in many verbs a passive sense : in not a few, 
it has an active sense. The latter is found especially in many verbs 
which express an action or function of the body : a/cova to hear, a8a> to 

373 D. The Fut. in ea> has in the dialects the samg forms, contracted and 
uncontracted, as the Pres. in eo> (370 D b, e). 

For poetic Fut. in <r<a from other liquid verbs, see 345 D. 

375 D. The Fut. in aw has in Hm. the same variety of forms as the Pres. 
in aw (370 D a) : thus e,\<ta, e\as, eAcfa. In Hd., it is contracted as in Att. 

377 D. In Dor., the usual tense-sign of the Fut. Act. and Mid. is o-e instead 
of cr: e is contracted with the following vowel: Xvffu (for Au-o-e-w), Au<re?s, 
Ay<rer, \vfftiToV) Autreu^tes, AtxreTTe, Avtreuyn; Mid. Au<reD/iat (for Au-cre-o/, 
\vffrj, Au<re?Tcu, etc., AucreTa'3'cu, \v(fev/j.evos. 

378 D. Similarly, Hm. has Fut. ^eto/ or jSeo/tcw (39 a) shall live connected 
with fii6u to live, 87? <a shall find connected with 2 Aor. Pass, e-dd-rjv learned, 

Kelto or Keo> (39 a) shall lie from /ce?/ic. Hm. sometimes omits cr of the Fut. 

after v : ipvo> Fut. of 4pvw to draw. 


sing, airavTiia) to meet, uTroXavu to enjoy, /3adt'o> (Fut. /3uio> to walk, 
/Joaa> to cry, yeXda> to laugJi, oijud>co to wail, o-tyuw and cricoTrdco to Ite silent, 
a) to le busy. 


First Aorist Active and Middle. 

380. INFLECTION (Paradigm,, 272). The connecting vowel is a through- 
out: for e'Xuae, \vtrov, Xvaat (Inf. Act., and Imv. Mid.), see 349 a: for 
e'Xvo-a, see 364. For the middle forms e'Xuo-co, \vcrr), Xva-aio, see 363. 
For the optative forms eta?, ae, etav, which are called Aeolic, but are 
more used than the regular forms, see 349 b. For the accent of certain 
forms, see 367 e. 

381. FORMATION. The first aorist active and middle adds o- to 
the stem. 

The future and first aorist systems, when formed with o-, have the 
same tense-stem : hence the rules in 372 apply also to the 1 Aor. 
KOTT-roi K.otya Tawa (ray) eraa ea-a> etWa 

/3Xa7rra> e/3Xa^a opixra'co (ppv^) copula ripd-co eri/Jirjcra 

ypd(p-a> cypaTJsa <ppa<T<a ((ppad) ecppacra Troie-co fTroirjcra 

7rXeK-a) eVXe^a arfevd-a) ecnreicra Sov\6-<o cSovXcocra 

rptcp-co eSpe^a TreiSco (jri%) eVeio-a TTJ/CO) (TTVV) errvevo-a 

Xe'a) to pour makes e^ea (for ex fv(ra ) corresponding to the Fut. xo 
(378). Of. the irregular etVa said (450, 8), rjvey<a (450, 6). 

For three aorists in KO, eZrjKa from ri'2ir;/it (2e) to put, eda/to. from Si- 
o)/Lit (So) to give, rj<a from fy/u (e f ) to se/i^ 5 see 402. 

382. Liquid Verbs. These reject o- in the first aorist, and length- 
en the stem- vowel in compensation for it : <atVco< (cpav), e^)7^va (for 
<f>avora) ; see 345. (Paradigm, 283.) 

KEM. a. The verbs tupo> (ap) to rafse and a'XXo/xcu (dX) to ?ea^ make 
dp and c aX in the 1 Aor., except in the Ind., which has 77 on account of 
tne augment : ^pa, ijXdfJtrjv, but opay, dXa^ei/off. 

b. A few other verbs have a where the rule (335) requires 77 : Kep- 
SaiVo) to gain, eWpSava 5 opyaivco to enrage, wpyava j or 5 on the contrary. 
have ?; after p, instead of a : rerpaiVco to bore, 

380 D. For 1 Aor. in Hm. with o and e, like the 2 Aor., see 349 D. 

381 D. For <r doubled in Hm. after a short vowel (eyeAaero-a), see 344 D. 
For e\6effffa=e\ov<ra from \ovca to bathe, see 371 D e. 

For e%ea, Hm. has commonly e%eu. Similarly, Hm. makes 1 Aor. e/oj-a 
(also written e/ceta) Att. e/cau<ra from /cata (/cau) ^o 6wrw, effffeva from trevcw (eru) 
/o drive, r)Xea.p.-r\v and i]\evdfjL7]v from aA.eo/iot or dXevo^at ifo avoid, and the de- 
fective Aor. Se'aro seemed (connected perhaps with f-Sd-yj/ learned). 

Hes. has Sareoor^-at from Sareo/uoi io divide. 

382 D. Hm. has 1 Aor. in era from some liquid verbs (345 D). - Hm. 

&<$>ei\a. from o^eAAw fo increase (345 D). 



Second Aorist Active and Middle. 

383. The tense-stem of the second aorist active and middle is 
the same as the verb-stem. It has the inflection of the present 
system, the second aorist indicative being inflected like the imper- 
fect. (Paradigm, 276.) 

For the change of f to a in the 2 Aor., see 334 a. For the accent of 
the 2 Sing. Irav., the Inf. and Par., see 366-7 a. For the second aorist 
system without connecting vowels (jii-forrn)^ see 399 IF. 

384. "Ay-6> to lead has in the 2 Aor. a reduplicated stem (332) : fjyay- 
ov, dyay-elv. Sjmcopated stems (339) are seen in I-TTT-O^V (TreV-o/xai to 
fly}) e-o'X'Oi' (for e-cre^-of, Pr. e^a) to have), e-crTr-o/^z/ (for e-freTr-o/ir/i/, Pr. 
erro/xai to follow), rj\%ov (for rj\v^-ov Hm., Pr. epxjucu to come), and some 
others : rjveyKov (for rjv-eveK-ov, Pr. (pepa to bear) has both reduplication 
and syncope. For rpcoyco to gnaw, 2 Aor. e-Tpdy-ov, see 334 d. 


Perfect and Pluperfect Active. 

385. The two perfect active systems have the reduplication (318 ff.) 
in common, and are alike in their inflection (Paradigms, 273, 277). For 
the augment of the Plup., see 311. For the connecting vowels of the 
Ind. 5 see 350-1. For the older Attic 77 in the 1, 3 Sing, of the Plup., see 
351 a. For <rav in the 3 PL Plup., see 356 c. For the forms \f\v<a 
and \e\vK, see 361. For the accent of the Inf. and Par., see 367 c, d. 

383 D. In Hm., a few stems which end in a mute after p, suffer transposi- 
tion as well as variation of vowel in the 2 Aor. : S^pit-opai to see, tSpuKov, irepfr-a 
to destroy, tirpa&ov. 

For Ion. e'eij/ instead of e?y in 2 Aor. Inf., see 352 D. 

384 D. In Hm., a considerable number of verbs have reduplicated stems in 
the 2 Aor. : e-ire^paS-oj/ ((ppdfa to declare], "iremdr-ov (7re/&a> to persuade), rera/JTr- 

o/j.rjv (repir-a to delight), TrecplS-eff^ai (^eiSo^uai to spare), etc. tfpap-ov (st. ap, 

Pr. apapio-Kci) to fit), &pop-ov (op-wfju to rouse). Reduplicated and syncopated 

are e-Ke/cA-ffyoyj' (KfA.-0/ to command), &\a\K-ov (st. a\e/c, Pr. oA.e|<w to ward 
off). Not used in the Pres. are Trtfyv-ov (st. (pev) killed, T^rp.-ov (st. re^t) came 

up to, reroiy-uv (st. ray, Lat. tango) taking hold of. Two verbs, epu/c-w to 

draw, eviir-TW to chide, reduplicate the final consonant of the stem, with a as a 
connective : ^pvK-a,K-ov, fyiir-aTr-ov (also ^vsviir-ov). 

Of syncopated stems, Hm. has also kyp-6/j.rjv awoke (found even in Att., 
from eyeipu st. eye/>), ayp-6fj.evoi assembled (Inf. ayep-e<r&cu 367 D, Pr. ayeipct), 
t-Tr\-6p.-riv (Tre\-of.iai to be). 

385 D. For Dor. ew, eis, et, instead of a, as, e, in the Sing, of the Pf. Ind., 

see 350 D. For Dor. eiv instead of ej/cu in the Pf. Inf., see 359 D. For 

Ionic forms of the Plup. in Hm. and Hd., see 351 D. For Ep. a~ instead 

of or in the Pf. Par., see 360 D. 


For the second perfect system without connecting vowels (uu-form) 
see 399 ff. 

The Sub., Opt., and Imv. have the inflection of the Pres. The Tmv 
is very rarely used, and only in perfects which have a present meaning. 
In place of it, the Perf. Par. can be used with the Imv. of elp.i to le : 
thus XeXuKo)? i'0-SJt, eVroo, etc. Even the Sub. and Opt. are quite generally 
made in this way: thus XeXuKwf <o, XeXuKoby e'irjv, instead of XeAu/o, XtXu/c- 
oi/j.1, which do not very often occur. 

386. FIRST PERFECT AND PLUPERFECT. The first perfect and 
pluperfect add K to the' reduplicated stem. (Paradigm, 273.) 

a. This is the only form for pure verbs (but see 409). It is the pre- 
vailing form for liquid verbs, and for mute verbs with lingual stems : 
the lingual mute is dropped before K : Kopigat (Ko/ziS) to convey, KfK6/j.iKa. 

The pure verb O.KOVU> to hear has the 2 Perf. 0/07*001 (321), 2 Plup. 
rjKrjKueiv or dKTjKoeiv (311), the only instance of the kind in Attic prose. 

b. Pure verbs, and verbs of the second class, have the lengthened 
stem in the 1 Perf. 

e-co cidKa Troie-co TreTrorjKa 

ripii-co TTi[jir]Ka 8ouXd-o> SeSouXcoKd irvea) (TTVV) 

c. Liquid stems of one syllable change e to a (334 a) : <rreAAo> (oreX) 
to send) eoraXfca, (pSelpu) (<3ep) to destroy, eCpSapKa. 

v is rejected in a few verbs : KpiVw (Kplv) to distinguish, KeKpiKa, reiVo> 
(rev) to extend, rerd/ca, etc. (433). If not rejected, it must be changed 
to y nasal : (patva) ((pav), TrefpayKa. 

Several liquid stems suffer transposition (340), and thus become 
vowel-stems : /3aXXo> (/3aX) to throw, fte-fiXrj-Ka, Ka^-vat to fie weary, KC- 


387. SECOND PERFECT AND PLUPERFECT. The tense- stem of the 
second perfect and pluperfect is the reduplicated verb-stem. 

(Paradigm, 277.) 

a. Vowel- Changes, e in the stem becomes o in the 2 Perf. 
(334 a) : (rrpe^)-o> to turn, earrpofpa, TI'KTW (TCK) to bring forth f riroKa.. 

Verbs of the second class have the lengthened stem, but change et to 
01 (334 b) ! T?7K-G) (TO.K) to melt, TfrrjKa, XctTr-ca (Xt?r) to leave, \e\onra, 
(pevy-co (<pvy) to flee, 

386 D. In Hm., only vowel-stems (or such as become so by transposition) 
form a first perfect ; and even these often have a second perfect form : ire<f>v-affi 
A.U. TTtQvKaffi (<pv-d) to produce), Att. KeK^Kcas (K&II.-V<I) to be weary], 
reriTy-cfo troubled (defective, used only in this form and in Pf. Mid. Tern/jucu, 
Par. reTir]fj.i/os troubled). 

387 D. a. In Hm., the Fern. Par. sometimes has a when other forms of 
the perfect have TJ (338 D). 

b. The aspiration of a smooth or middle mute in the perfect active is 
unknown to Hm. 



In other verbs also, a is lengthened (338) : Kpafa (itpdy) to cry, *e- 
Kpaya, ay-i/UjLti to l)reak, eaya, \ayxdva) (Xtt^) to obtain by Z0, ei'X^a, (pati><3 
((pav), vrecpr/pa. 

But the stem -vowel remains short, - 1. After the Attic reduplica- 
tion (321) : dX(fi(p65 (aXrcp) to anoint, dX^Xtcpa. - 2. In some instances, 
before a rough mute : ypd<p-< to write, yeypucpa, rdo-crco (ray) to arrange, 

For eppcoya from p^yi/u/u (pay) to 5r0a&, and eio>3a aw accustomed 
from st. 63 or 7?3, see 334 d. 

b. Aspiration of Final Mute. Some verbs aspirate a labial or 
palatal mute at the end of the stem (341), changing TT, fi, to <jE>, and 
K, y, to x : KXeTTTCD (/cXe-Tr) Steal, Ke'/cAcxpa, dXXacrcra) (aXAay) to ex- 
cfyznge, ^AXa^a. 

A few verbs have two forms, aspirate and unaspirate : Trpao-crco (irpay) 
to do, TreVpaya intransitive, am doing (succeeding, well or ill), Trerrpd^a 
transitive, have done ; dv-oiy-co to open, dz/ewya intrans. am open, di/e'w^a 
trans, have opened. 


Perfect, Pluperfect \ Fut. Perf., Middle (Passive). 

388. PERFECT AND PLUPERFECT. The tense-stem of the perfect 
and pluperfect middle is the reduplicated verb- stem. The endings 
are applied directly to the stem, without connecting vowels. 
(Paradigm, 274.) 

For the accent of the Inf. and Par., see 367 b. 

389. Vowel- Changes. The vowel-changes which occur in the 1 Perf. 
Act., are found also in the Perf. Mid. 

ed-o) et'ap,cu 8ouXd-o) deov\a>p,ai oreXXco (crreX) 

Tip.d-a> TeTLfj.rjiJ.aL TreiSa) (TTI^) TreTreicr/xai (pSeipco (03fp) 

7roie-co TreTrotTy/iat 7rXea> (77X1;) TreTrXeufrpat jSdXXco (/iaX) 

Further, the verbs rpe<p-o) to nourish, rpeV-a) to iwrn, and orpe'0-co to 
tUTn^ change e to a I reSpa/i/zai (66 C. d), reYpap./icu, ecrrpap-p-ai. 

390. Addition of cr. Many pure verbs add a- before the endings 
of the perfect middle: reXe-w to complete-) re-reAe-cr-jaai, ere-reAe-cr-ro. 
But the added cr falls away before endings that begin with o- (55) : 
re-reXe-o-at, ere-reXe-cr^e. (Paradigm, 284.) 

This o- is almost always added to the Perf. Mid. of pure verbs which 
retain a short stem-vowel (419) contrary to the rule in 335 : e'-o-7ra-o--juai 
(not -cT7rr)-[ from o-nd-o) to draw. Other pure verbs in which it 
occurs, are enumerated in 421 ; some have both forms, with and without 
tr : K\ei-co to close, KocXeio-p-cu and KK\ifj,aL. 

388 D. For Ionic forms such as n^vrj-ai or fj.ep.vri (Hra.), /^e/ive-o (Hd.), 
see 363 D. 


391. Liquid Verbs and Mute Verbs. The concurrence of con- 
sonants in the stem and endings gives occasion to a number of 
euphonic changes. These are shown in the Paradigms, 284. They 
take place according to the rules of euphony in 44-7. 

a. Verbs which reject v in the Perf. Act. (386 c), reject it also in the 
Perf. Mid. : /ce'/cptjuat, If not rejected, it becomes a- when the 
ending begins with p. (51) : <ai'i/a> (<pav), 7re(pacrp,ai ; - but sometimes it 
becomes p. : oui>-a> to sharpen, Before other endings, it remains 

inchanged : Trefpavcrat (51), & 

b. When /*/* or yy would be brought before /z, the first consonant is 
rejected ; TT^TT-U) to send, (for 7re-7Tfp.p--p.aL), e'Xey^-a) to con- 
vict, e'X-ryXey- (for (\-r]\ 

C. o-Trei/5-o) to pour makes (for eo-Treva-pai, for 

392. Third Person Plural of the Indicative. The endings i/rai, 
J/TO can only stand after a vowel. When the tense-stem ends in a 
consonant, the 3 PI. Irid. is made by using the perfect participle, 
With the auxiliary verb curt they' are for the perfect, and TJo-av they 
were for the pluperfect. See 284. 

HEM. a. The Ionic endings drat, dro (before which, TT, /3, K, y are as- 
pirated) sometimes appear in Attic, after a consonant : rfrdxarai, eYera- 
, for rerayp-evoi flai, rjcrav, from rear era) (ray) to .arrange. 

393. Perfect Subjunctive and Opta^je. The perfect subjunctive 
and optative are made by using the perfect participle with the Sub. 
and Opt. of et/u' to be. See 274, 284. 

HEM. a. A few pure verbs form these modes directly from the stem: to acquire) Perf. KeKrrj-pai possess, Sub. K6KTa>, K fiery, KfKTrjrai 
(contracted from KCKrq-a/zcu, etc.), Opt. KCKTW^V, Ke/mwo, KKTo>T-o (from 
KKTr)-oip.rjv, etc.), or KfK.rTjp.Tiv, KfKrfjo, KfKrfJTo (from KfKTr]-ip.r)v, etc., with- 
out connecting vowel). So jut/i^o-KO) (p-va) to remind, Perf. p.p.vr) 

394. FUTURE PERFECT. The future perfect adds o- to the tense- 
stem of the perfect middle. It has the inflection of the future middle, 

392 D. The use of arat, aro is much more common in Hm. and Hd., see 
355 D e. Hm. has rereux-arai, aro (1 S., Tev%a> to make) with eu for i, 
eprypeS-oro (1 S. eprjpeiarp.r]v, epeiSco to support) with e for et, the change- of 
quantity in each ease being required by the hexameter verse, cf. 28 D. Before 
these endings, he inserts 5 in a/c-Tjxe-S-arat (Par. oK-77%e'-/iej/os pained), eA.- 
TjA.e-5-OTO (ibr 6A.-77\a-5-aTO, St. eAa, Pr. eAowew to drive). In eppaSarat (paii/ca to 
sprinkle), pa8 appears to be the primitive stem, cf. Aor. And 8 be- 
longs to the stem in Hd. Trap-eovceuaS-arat (7rapaa7cevcco to prepare), and like 
forms from verbs in <a. In air-iK-arai, aro (Hd.) = Att. a.<piyp.evoi elai, ficrai/, 
K is not changed to %. 

393 D. Hm. has Sub. 1 P. p,e/j.j/((>p.f&a (Hd. jue^yc^ed-a), Opt. p,fp.viip.ijv t 
3 S. p.ffj.vea}To (fy for TJOI, dot, 26); also Opt. 3 P. \f\vvro (for \e\vi-vro, 33), 


from which tense it differs in form only by having a reduplication. 
(Paradigm, 274.) 

The Fut. Perf. is not used in liquid verbs, nor in verbs beginning with 
a vowel. Yet we have /Se/SX^o-o/zai, rerfi^o-ojum, from /3aX-Xa> to throw, 
Tf'n-1/co to cut, with transposition of the liquid (386 c). 

REM. a. There are two cases of a Fut. Perf. with active endings : in 
both, the stem is formed by adding a- to the stem of the 1 Perf. 
(ora) to set, 1 Perf. eor^/c-a stand, Fut. Perf. eorr^-co shall stand; 
(%av) to die, T&vrjK-a am dead, reS^-co shall ~be dead. 


Aorist and Future Passive. 

395. FORMATION. The tense-stem of the passive aorist is formed 
by adding a passive-sign to the verb-stem (343). The first aorist 
takes $, the second aorist c. These become Srj and 77 before a 
single consonant. - The passive future annexes o- to the tense- 
stem of the corresponding aorist (344). Tims the first future adds 
$770-, the second future 770-, to the verb-stem. 

INFLECTION (Paradigms, 275, 278). Both passive systems have the 
same inflection. The Aor. Pass, takes the endings of the Act. without 
connecting vowels, and thus refembles the /u-forrns. For the contrac- 
tion of e with the mode-signs OT the Sub. and Opt., see 343. For <rav in 
the 3 Plur., see 356 c. For the mode-sign of the Opt., see 343. For 
the ending instead of Si in the 1 Aor. Imv., see 65 b. For the accent 
of the Inf. and Par., see 367 c, d. 

The Fut. Pass, has the inflection of the Fut. Mid. 

396. Remarks on the First Passive System. 

a. In regard to vowel-changes, the 1 Aor. Pass, agrees with the Perf. 
Mid. (389). So also, in the rejection of v from liquid stems (391 a), and 
the addition of o- to vowel-stems (390). 

ed-co claSrjv TreiSco (yrtS) fTTC&rST?? /3aX-Xco 

Tip.d-a> fTifJ,r)%r)v TrXeco (77X1)) e7rXei;cr377i> (nrd-oj 

7roie-6J f7roif)%Tjv Tfivo) (rev) fTu^rjv reXe-<o 

395 D. Hm. v for <rcw in 3 P. Aor. Ind., see 355 D c : - the passive-sign 
e lengthened to et (or 77) in the uncontracted 2 Aor. Sub., see 343 D : - the 
mode-vowels of the Sub. shortened in the Du. and PL, see 347 D : - fj.fvat 
for vai in the Aor. Inf., see 359 D. 

In the Aor. Sub., Hd. contracts erj to 77, but leaves e&> uncontracted : Au&e'w, 

v&p, etc. 

lu lira., the 1 Fut. Pass, is never found ; the 2 Fut. only in ScwVo/iat (2 Aor. 
Pass. eSc^Tjy learned), /j.iyfia' (/j.ty-yv/j.1 to mix). 

396 D. Hm. adds v before & to some vowel-stems : iSpv-v-fryv became seated 
(18/>y-co), ap.-irvii-v-&riv revived (st. irj/v, irj/e'w to breathe}. In <f>a.v.v&t]v (tyaeivw to 
thine, fofew) he changes <f>aey to <paav (cf. 370 D a). 


But o-rpe'00), rpeTrco, and rpe<po> (389) have e in the 1 Aor. Pass. This, 
however, is little used, the 2 Aor. Pass. of these verbs being much more 

b. Mute Stems. Before 3, a labial or palatal mute (TT, /3, K, y) be- 
comes rough (<p, x) : a lingual mute (r, S, 3) becomes o-: see 44-5, and 
Paradigms, 284. 

For f%pe<f>3T]v, etc., see 66 d. For eVe'Styi/, erv^rjv, see 65 c. 

397. RejnarTcs on the Second Passive System. 

a. The verb-stem is only modified by variation of e to a (383) . 
oreX-Xa) to send) eo-rdXrjv. 

But TrXT/a-o-a) (rrXdy) to strike makes eVXqyqv ; yet in composition with 
ex^ind Kara, it takes the form -err\dyr]v. 

b. The second passive system is not formed from verbs which have 
a 2 Aor. Act. The only exception is rpe'n-ca to turn, erparrov and eYpu7rr?i>. 

Some verbs have both passive systems in use : /3Xa7rr&> (/3Xd/3) to in* 
jure, &\d(j)%T)v and e'/SXd/S^. 

Verbal Adjectives. 

398. The verbal adjectives are analogous to passive participles. 
They are formed by annexing TO or reo to the vejrb-stem. 

1. AV-TO-S, r}, 6-v loosed, looseable (solutus, solubilis). 

2. Xv-reo-s, a, o-v (requiring) to be loosed (solvendus). 

The verb T stem assumes the same form as in the 1 Aor. Pass., except 
that a mute before TOS and re'os- must be smooth (44). 

ea-o) e'droy, rcos TretSco TreioTo?, reos /SaXXa) /3X?^ros, reoy 

rt/ir/Toy, reop TrXeca TrXevoroy, reoy TrXexa) TrXeKroy, rc'o? 
reXecrros', reoy retVa) rarof, reos rdcrcra) raxros, reos 

'oy /cpi'i/a) Kpiros, reos rpe(pa) SpeTrrdy, reos 


according to the pi-form. 

399. Some verbs inflect the present system without connecting 
vowels. These are called Verbs in /JLL (267). 

In like manner, but less often, the second aorist and second per- 
fect systems are inflected without connecting vowels. These also 
are called pi-forms, though belonging for the most part to verbs in o>. 

(Paradigms, 297 305.) 

897 D. Hm. has rpa.Tr-elo/j.ej/ gdudeamus (2 Aor. Sub. 1 Plur. for TpaTT-w/j.ev 
343 D, from repir-a to delight, 2 Aor. Pass. erdpir-Tiv} with transposition and 
variation of vowel as in 383 D. f 

398 D. Hm. 5pa-T<fc,^by transposition, for SaprSs, from Sfp-oo to flay. 


400. Further peculiarities of this formation. 

1. In respect to the ending , 

a. fj.1 and a-t are retained in the Ind. : <j6?y-/it, (fry-ai. 

b. Si is often retained in the Imv. : <j6u-3i say. 

c. o-cu and o-o usually retain o- : to-Ta-o-cu, c'dcuot/Hro, 

d. the 3 PI. of the histor. tenses has crav : tya-arav, eSe-aav. 

e. the Inf. Act. has vai : <d-z/ai, 8ov-vai. 

f. the Par. Act. retains $ in the Nom. Masc. : 8i8ovs (not dibtov). 

g. for the ending a%a in the 2 Sing., see 356 a. 

2. h. A connecting wwel a is inserted before (z/)o-i in the Pres. Ind. 
3 PI. : rtSe-d-o-i (for riSfe-a-vo-i), (kSd-a-cri : this a is contracted with an 
a in the stem : laraa-i (for tVra-a-i/crt) ; and sometimes with e or o in the 
stem : nSelo-t, 1801)0-1, rare forms for riSeao-i, SiSdWi. - The same in- 
sertion appears also in the Perf. Ind, : dedi-d-a-t they are afraid, eorao-i 
(for ccrTa-a-wi). 

3. i. A final a, e, o of the stem is contracted with the mode-signs of 
the Sub. and Opt. : TiS&j/zat (for rt3e-a>/zcu), doirjv (=8o-tr)-v). 

k. Hence these modes have the accent of contract forms. Compare 
the accent of the Sub. and Opt. in contract presents (279-81), and in 
the passive aorist (275, 278). 

4. The stem-vowel m /it-forms is generally short; but 

m. the Pres. and Impf. Act. make it long in the Sing, of the Ind. : 

</7, but 0a-/*ep, <pair)v, <pd-vai. 

n. the 2 Aor. Act. makes it long before a single consonant : eon/-?, 
(for eo-z-jy-r), or^-St, o-rrj-vai ; but oraiTpv, o-ra-z/rcoi/, crrdz> (Neut. Par. 
for o-ra-i/r). 

For the aeeewtf of the Inf. and Par. Act., see 367 c, d. 

400 D. a. The Dor. has -n for <ri : <a-ri for ^TJ-O-*; and vrt for (>)(n: 
for ^ao-f. See 355 D a. 

d. Hm. v for trow, often : %$a-v for e^a-ow, t'e-j/ for 'it-arav (355 D c). 

e. Hm. /j.vai or ^tej/ for vat: 86-/Avai or 86-/j.ei/ for Sou-vat (359 D). 

g. The ending afro is more freq. in Hm. than in Att. : ri&qff&a, 8t5o?(r3-a. 
For orai, OTO used instead of j/rot, VTO (Hd.), see 355 D e. 

h. Hm. and Hd. always have T&e'ia-i, S:5ou<n, prjyvvffi, etc. ; but two prea- 
cnts insert a, eacrt (or etcri) they are, laffi they go. The forms ftrrl-ain, ecrre- 
o<rt (in Hd.), for iffrafft, kcrraffi, are doubtful. 

i. In Hm., the Sub. of the 2 Aor. Act. often remains uncontracted. The 
stem-vowel is then usually lengthened and the mode-vowel shortened : but in 
the Sing, and 3 PI. of the Act., the mode-vowel is always long : ffrrj-erov for 
(ffTa-nrov) CTTTJTOJ/, d-ei-ys or frf)-ris for (be-ys) frfis, 8d>-y<n for (80-77) 8w. Similarly 
we find 3ef-o,uat for (3-e-coyuat) fruftai in the 2 Aor. Mid. 77, lengthened from o, 
is sometimes changed to ei : o"ret-o,uei/ (instead of o'TTj-o^uey) for o*r&) J uez/. 

In Hd., only aw and eco of the Sub. remain uncontracted : a&> he changes 
to eco: oW-co^ef for (o-Ta-o>,uey) (rrcfyiej/. The same change is also found in Hm.. 

m, n. In Hm., the stem-vowel is sometimes long in other forms: thus in 
the Pr. Inf. Tifr-fi/Jievai, StSofVcu, arivai to blow, Pr. Ind. Mid. 8/fouat to seek, Par, 
Mid. ri&'hiJievos. 'For the 2 Aor. Sub., see i above. 


401. Remarks on the above peculiarities. 

b. In the Pres. Tmv., Si is commonly rejected, and the vowel before 
it lengthened : urrr} (not lord-Si), '3, 8t'5ov, 8eiKvv. -- In the 2 Aor. 
Imv., Si after a short 'vowel loses t, and 3 is then changed to $ : So'-s 
(not 8o-3t), 3/s. But 3t remains unchanged after a long vowel : arf}-3t, 
/3r}-3t, (in compounds sometimes o-rd, /3d: thus Trapacrrd, am//Sa, poetic). 

c. o-at and o-o drop o- in the 2 Aor. ; also in the Pres. Sub. and Opt. ; 
and occasionally in other forms : eSov (not eSe-o-o), 3$ (not Sjy-o-ai), StSoio 
(not iSoi-<ro) J icrracro and terra). 

h. A connecting vowel is sometimes found in the Sing, of the Impf. 
Act. : edi'Sow, e'8i'8ou?, cfit'Sou (contracted from eStSo-ov, -e ?, -e) are almost 
always used for c8i8a>v, e'Si'Swy, efit'Sw. So also eYfoeir, eYi'3 are more 
common than cViST/y, eri'3?/. 

The connecting vowel o takes the place of the stem-vowel e, in the 
Opt. Ti^oifjirjv for (riSte-t/iijir) T&cipnv. 

i. In the contraction of the Sub., 077, 017, or/ give 17, #, o> (not d, a, 01, 
32, 34): lon-qrai (for fora-^rat), o-rj/s 1 (for ora-^s), 5a5 (for So-?/). 

k. The Sub. and Opt. Mid. are sometimes accented without reference 
to the contraction. This is always the case with the deponents, 
to he able, eVt'o-rd/xat to understand, Kpe'/uz/uu to Jiang, together with the 
second aorists lirpidfjujv l)ougJit^ wvrj^v received profit: 8vva>nai, ovairo 
(not 8vv>, ovalro}. And it is sometimes the case with fy/u, Tt'3^/xt, 
St'5co/At : ri'Sco/xat, Si'Soiro. 

1. A close vowel (i, v) at the end of the stem, is not contracted with 
the mode-sign (33) : the Opt. then takes a connecting vowel o : i'-co, SetKvv- 
oifjii. In such verbs, the Sub. and Opt. are not distinguished from the 
ordinary formation. 

n. The 2 Aor. Act. of fy/u, TI'^/LU, dt'&o/u, lengthens only the Inf. : 
ei-i/ai, Set-cai, Sov-vat; though in tTy/xt, the 2 Aor. Ind. is long (er) by the 
augment (312) : elo-a^, et/ze3a. 

The poetic 2 Aor. Act. e/crav (KTO) is also short. On the other hand, 
the 2 Aor. Mid. ^vrj^v (ova) follows the rule for the Act. 

401 D. b. Hm. sometimes retains &t in the Pr. Imr. : SiSu&i and 8i8ov give, 

swear. He has Ko^-lffra, for Kab-iffTTj. Pind. StSot for 81801;. 
h. Hm. sometimes has a connecting vowel in the Sing, of the Pr. Act. : 
8t5o?s (cf. Sr/A.ots for STjA^-eis) and 8i8oto*>a for 8t8a>y, StSoT (and SiSwcrt), Ti^-ei 
(and Tt^Tjo-t), Veis (with irreg. accent) for njs* * 6t ( an d '/TJO-J). In Hd. t'ei, Ti^e?s, 
Tt3-e?, St8o?s-, SiSo?, terra, arc perhaps always used in place of the Attic forms. 
So too, Hd. has Impf. 3 S. 'terra (=. lerro-e) for 'Iffri]. 

The connecting vowel o takes the place of the stem-vowel a, in (j.apvoiij.&a 
(Hm.) Pr. Opt. of /j.dpva/ to fight. Hd. has &e-oip.i]v for (3-e-^Tjj') frci^J' 
2 Aor. Opt. of rtbiifu. 

k. So in Hm. and Hd., the Pr. Sub. Act. of fy/u: thus 7??<ri (Hm.) for hj. 
1. Hm. contracts i, v of the stem with tlie mode-sign of the Opt. in Sil/j 
(for 8u-ir?) 2 Aor. Opt. of Suw, 5aiz/Dro (for 8au/u-iro) Pr. Opt. of 8aiVu/tcu . ^o 
>as^, ^?TO (for <{>&I-ITO) 2 Aor. Opt. of j&i-vu to perish. 

n. Wiiii eft-rav compare Hm. oSra wounded; with wvfiM v > H m - TA.^TO a/>- 


402. Peculiar First Aorist in KCI. Three verbs in -JLL, ITJ/ 
t'Sa)/u, have with the 2 Aor. a peculiar 1 Aor. in KU (tense-sign K).- JBut 
this is almost confined to the Ind. Act. : r/Ka, eS^Ka, eSa>Ka. Here it ib 
very common in the Sing., of which number the 2 Aor. is not in use : 
thus eScoKa, eScoKas-, eSooKe (never ecoz/, eSco?, eSa>). It occurs also, but less 
often, in the Plur. : e'Sco/ca/uei/, e'ScoKare, edaxav (usually eo/*ei>, edore, 


403. Verbs in pi belong to the first, fifth, and eighth classes 
(325, 329, 332). Those of the first and fifth classes have the 
/Ai-form only in the present and imperfect (for one exception, see 
408, 9). We begin, therefore, with 

Verbs in pi of the Eighth Class. 

1. trj-jLi (e 332) to send, inflected, like TI'STJ/U (297, 301, and 403, 2). 
Act. Pr. Ind. fy/u (3 PI. always fao-t, 400 h) j 

Impf. Irjv, fyff, 177, etc. (also [tow], iW, t'et, 401 h ; a<j>ici and 

rjfpiei from d^-itnti^ cf. 314) ; 

Sub. ia>, Opt. tetV, Imv. tei, Inf. iVi/at, Par. leis (icvr). 
2 Ao. Ind. (rJKa, ^/cas, ^xe, 402) flro^, eirTjv, et/zez/, ecre, el<ray; 

Sub. a), Opt. fftjyi/, Imv. ey, Inf. elvcu, Par. ety (e^r). 
Mid. Pr. te/iat to hasten, strive', Impf. tV/^; 

S. ico/zat, 0. iei[Ji.T)v, Imv. tecro (or tof), Inf. leaSSat, P. te/zeyoy. 
2 Ao. f'ljjiijv, etoro, eiro, eiaSfoi', elia^rjv, 6t/u,^a, etaSle, fivro J 

Sub. &/^ai, Opt. ei^i/, Imv. ou, Inf. ecrKat, Par. epevos. 
Fu. 770-0), 1 Ao. r/Ka, Pf. ei/ca, Pf. M. efjuat, Ao. P. etS^f, V. eroy, ereoy. 

REM. a. The Pr. Opt. has also 1oip.i (tW, i'ot, etc.) for leirjv, loiprjv for 

ieipriv, 2 Ao. Opt., otfjirjv for et^r/t/: cf. 401 h.' 

2. rtSr/fit (3e) to put. For /u-forms, see Paradigms 297, 301. 

Fu. S^oru), 1 Ao. eSJ/yica, Pf. reSetKa, Pf. M. re'Setjuat, Ao. P. ereSrjv (65 c), 
V. Seroy, Sereor. Cf. 402. 

3. St'Sry/xt (8e) to Und, rare form for Sew (420, 1). 

4. t'So>/u (So) to p'^e. For /zt-forms, see Paradigms 298, 302. 
Fu. &oo-<, 1 Ao. eScoKa, Pf. Se'Sco/ca, Pf. M. Se'So/iat, Ao. P. eSo'3r;j/, 
V. Soro'sr, So-reos. Cf. 402. 

5. to-T?7jMt (o-ra 332) to se^. For jut-forms, see Par. 299, 303, 305. 

Fu. (TTrja'co, 1 Ao. earTrjcra, Pf. exmjJCO, Pf. M., Ao. P. 
Plup. eo-TrjKfiv Or i<TTi]K(iv, Fu. Pf. A. eo-r??a> (394 a), M. e 
V. o-rdro'r, o-rarto?. For irregularity of meaning, see 416, 1. 

403 D. 1. Hm. Impf. 1 S. tW, 1 Ao. rj:a and e/j/ca (312) : from av-ir)/j.i he 
has a Fu. cw/eVw, Ao. &yecra. - Hd. Ff. Ind. 3 P. cb/-s>j>Tcu irrc 
And Pf. Par. yue-^er-i-^ej/os very irreg. for /wsfr-ef-jiteVos. 

2. Hd. Impf. 1 S. eYi'd-e-a with irreg. connecting vowel a (408 D a, 364 D). 
4. Hm. Fu. Stiffta, and with rcdupl. 5i5c6(rw. 


G. ovivrjjjLi (ova 332) to "benefit; 
Mid. ovivapai to receive benefit, Impf. avtvaprjv, 

2 Ao. ojvrjfjLrjv, coi'rjo'o, QJZ//JTO, Opt. ovaip,r)V (401 k), Inf. ovacr'Sa.i. 
Fu. ofyycro),, Ao. covrfara, Ao. P. ajVTJ'iSTjv. 

7. 7ri/i7rX77/zi (rrXa) to fill, Impf. &rtfiir\Tjv, Inf. Tn^iikavai. ; 
Mid. TTLfjinXdnai to fill one's self, Impf. cirtpir\ap.T)V, Inf. Tn'jUTrXao-Sat. 
Fu. 7T\r)(T(t), Ao. en\rjcra, Pf. 7r7r\rjKa, Pf. M. TreVX 7707*01, Ao. P. fi 
V. TrXr/oTfor. A kindred form is TrX^co to be full, Lat. pleo. 

KEM. a. In this verb and the next, the redupl. is strengthened by the 
nasal /z. This, however, falls away in the compounds, if the preposition 
has ju, : e/i-7Tt7rX?7/xi, but Impf. 3 P. eV-eTri/XTrXao-ap. 

8. TTip-TTprjui (jrpa) to burn transitive, inflected like 

9. Kixpr]^ (xpa) to lend, Mid. Kixpa^ai to borrow ; 
Fu. xpijo-co, Ao, exprjara, Pf. Kexpr]Ka, Pf. M. /ce^pr/^ai : cf. 335 a. 


404. A. Stems in a. 

1. ^/u (cf. Lat. a-io) to say, used only in Pr. 1 S. ^/*t and Impf. 1, 8 
S. r]*/, r; (r;v S' eyw said /, r] ' 6's said he). 

2. ^/xi (0a) to say, (pijs, (pr]ai, (parov, (parois, (pap-tv, 0are, <>d(ri ; 
Impf. (pr]v, (prjs COmm. etprjo-'Sa, e(prj, e(paTov, ffpdrrjv, ecpapev, e(pa.Te,e(pao'av. 
Pr. Sub. (pw, Opt. cpairjv, Imv. <a3i or <^)a3t, Inf. fyavai (Par. 0as). 
Fu. 07/0-0), Ao. e(pr](ra, V. (paros, (pareos. 

KEM. a. The forms of the Pr. Ind. are all enclitic except the 2 Sing. 
(105 c). The Par. (pas is never used in Attic prose, which takes cpdo-Kuv 
instead: cf. 444, 8. 

3. xprj (xpa, xp*) it behoves, Impf. exPV v or XP*I V '> 

Pr. Sub. xPTli Opt. xP ' Lr l-> ^ n ^ XPn vat "> F" XP ( ^ V ( n ly neut., for xpaov 26). 
Fu. xP 7 ?' " 64 (3^5 a). Iii composition, 

iro-xpTf] it is enough, 8 P. (contract) aTro^pcoo't, Impf. dnXP r ] 5 
*r. Inf. drroxpTJv (371 c), Par. diroxpuv, -oia-a, -cor, both contract. 
noio-fi aTTOTa-ova-i Ao. OTreTo-e. 

5. Hm. 1 Ao. 3 P. eo-rao-a// as well as 

6. Hm. 2 Ao. Imv. 01/770-0, Par. oj^juevo*. 

7. Hm. Pres. Mid. also Tn^TrAaj/erat (329 a) ; 2 Ao. Mid. 3 S. TrA^To, 3 P. 
T\r>VTO, became full, and in comp. e/x7rA?7To, e^TrATjz/ro (in Aristoph. Opt. e'^u- 

^TJI/, Imv. e/iirA^cro, Par.\i / i/jLfvos}. IlA^w is chiefly poetic, 2 Pf. TTC- 
fj&a. 8. The form Trprj&co occurs only in eV-errpTj&oz/ II. t, 589. 

10. Hm. Pr. Par. ptfids, from st. )8a, common Pr. /3cuVa> to ^0 (435, 1). 
404 D. 2. Middle forms of ^TJ^' are rare in Att. (thus in Plato, Pf. Imv. 3 
Tre^ao-^co), but common in other dialects ; yet the Pr. Ind. Mid. is not used. 
Hm. has Impf. e'^a/^y, e^aro or tydro, etc., Imv. <pao, (pda&w, etc., Inf. 
Par. (fya/xei/os. 

3. Hd. has YPT?, YP^i XP')*' 6 "; ^ ut a 


To which add the following deponent verbs : 

4. to admire, Impf. Tjydp-rjv. 

Fu. aydo-o/zat, Ao. P. rjyda'Srjv (413, rarely M. rjyaa-durjv), V. ayao-ros. 

5. bvvd-fyu to 1)6 able, ftuvacrai (poet. ^vvy\ dvvarai, etc. j 

Impf. (Svvapriv, ftivva (401 c), eSui/aro, etc. ; Pr. Sub. dvvccpat (401 k), 
Opt. vvaip.r)v (401 k), Imv. 8vvoi) (401 c), Inf. dui/ao-3ai, P. $vvdp.fvos. 
Fu. dvvr)o-opat, Pf. *dww^MU, Ao. P. e^vvrj^rjv (413, seldom edwaoIJtyi/), 
V. Sui/aros- a&fe, possible. Augment often ?; (308 a) ; but never rjftwao-'Srjv, 

6. eVt'crrd-pu to understand, cirioTcurai, eViWarai, etc. ; 

Impf. ^Triard/zT/f, TjTn'arrca (401 c), ^TrtVraro, etc. J Sub. "eVifrrco^iat (401 k). 
Opt. eTno-raiprjv (401 k), Imv. eVi'ara), Inf. e7nVrao-3ai, P. eTTio-ra/zez/os 1 . 
Fu. e7rio~Tr], Ao. P. rjiriarfj'SrjV) V. firumfrdf. 

7. epa-pai to love (poetic for epd-a> 419, 3). Ao. P. TjpdaSijv (413) 
V. e 

8. KpfpH-juu to Jiang intrans. -(cf. 439, 2), Impf. cKpep.dfj.rjvj 

Sub. (401 k), Opt. Kpep.aip.r)v (401 k). Fu. 

405. B. Steins in t. 
1. ei/u (r, Lat. i-re) 

Pr. Ind. 

y ? T 

et/zt, 'ei, eto~t, 

irov, iroi', 

tjLiei/, ire, tdo"i J 


i)LV or ;/}a, 

^'et/zev or yp.V, 

r/eis " 7/etcrSa, 

ijeirov Or T^roj 

>, f/eiTe " jyre 

" 27", 

fllTT]V " ^TI/J 

-, fjecrav. 

Pr. Sub. 

t'a>, ijyy, r?7, 

t'jyrov, I'T^TOJ/, 

t'cojuer, t'r/re, i'coo-tj 


ioujv, tots', tot, 

totroy, toirjyi/, 

iot/Aey, lotre, iotei* 5 


i3t, irco, 

^/ >/ 


tre, LTtocrav or lovroyvl 


teVat t Par. to)i/, touo'a, toy, G. to^ro? (Lat. euntis) ; 


ITOS, Ireos (also 

IrrjTeov one must 


6. Hm. and Hd. have in Ao. P. only $vvdff&r)v. Hm. lias also Ao. M. 

6. Hd. Pr. Ind. 2 S. e'l-eTnVreat for e|eiri(rTa<rat. 

9. St. apa, common Pr. opao/iat ^o joray, Hm. Pr. Act. Inf. ap^/j-evat only 
Od. X , 322. 

10. St. tAa, common Pr. l\d<rKOfjLai (444, 5) to propitiate, Ep. tAa^at rare; 
also in Act., Imv. 'tXy&i Hm. (t'Aa&i Theoc.) be propitious. 

Hm. has the following ^ut-verbs of the first class with stems in e : 

a. &r)fu (ae) ^o 6/ow, 2 D. &r)rov, Impf. 3 S. &rj or #e<, Inf. a^at or ctTj^ej/ai, 
Par. aefy ; Mid. Impf. 3 S. #77, Par. Mipevos. 

b. St. 5te to make fee (in Mid., also to fee), Impf. 3 P. eV-S/etrav; Mid. Pr. 
3 P. Sfewcu, Sub. Sfayiat, Opt. 3 S. Sfotro (401 k), Inf. Sietrbcu. See 409, 5. 

c. ttfaijuu (Si^e) ^ *cA;, 2 S. 8f$?cu, Par. Sj^evoj; Fu. Si^iffofuu. 

d. St. Kf%e (from /ctx> common Pr. /a%oi/&> ^o come wp ^o, 436, 7), Impf. 2 
S. e/a%eis, 3 D. Kix'flTrij/, Sub. /Ci%6tco, Opt. KIX^WJ Inf- Kix^vai or Kixtp-evai, 
Par. Kixfis, Mid. KLX^^VOS (400 D m). 

405 D. 1. Hm. Pr. Ind. 2 S. eTtrdu; Impf. ffta (406 D a, 364 D) or jjfio? 
(401 h), 3 S. ^i'e or e, 1 P. f/0/j.ev, 3 P. ^i'oj>, %'iffav, or yo-of. Hm. lias also an 

Impf. with simple I: 3 S. fe, 3 D. fri^, 1 P. ^er, 3 P. 3f<rv. Hd. has in 

Impf. 1 S. #0, 3 S. ^i'e, 3 P. 


HEM. a. The present has a future meaning, especially in the Ind k 
fijj.1 lam going, i. e. about to go. 

b. The Impf. has the inflection of a pluperfect. The initial # is 
formed from the lengthened stem a by applying the augment. 

c. The Par! has the accent of the 2 Aor. (367 a). 

2. Kfl/jLai. (*ei) to lie, to le laid or set. 

Pres. Ind. Impf. 

xemu, KeorSoj/, * Kfivrai j exetro, exetcrS//!/, e/cetz/To j 

Pr. Sub. 3 S. KCIJTCU, 3 P. Kfcovrat j Opt. 3 S. Keoiro, 3 P. KCOIVTO (39 a) J 

Imv. KeTcro, KeurSco, Kelcr3oi>, KerSo>!/, KeTcrSe, fcetcrScocrai' Or ^'i- ^" 

Inf. KeTa-Sai ; Par. Ket'juez/os-. Fu. ' 

REM. a. The Inf. .<e!cr3a6 retains its accent in composition : 
contrary to 365. 

406. C. -Stems in s. 
1. etfii (ey, Lat. es-se) to T)e. 

Pr. Ind. Impf. 

- * 

/jz' Or ?;, 

, 7;cr3a, T)O~TOV Or rjTOV, fjre Or 

ecrrt, ecrrdv, eicrtj ^, rjo'rrjv 

Pr. Sub. Pr. Opt. 

6 T' 

ei^y, firjrov Or eirof, et^re eire 

etr?;!/, eir](rav " 

Hm. Sub. 2 S. fyo&o, 3 S. ftjo-i, 1 P. fo^tey (i) or r^ez/ (i), Opt. 3 S. 2fot (once 

tetrj), Inf. ieyat, i^evai or Y/iej/ ; Fu. e^cro/xat, Ao. ela'd/j.rjv, irreg. eeto*c{ ( u77V. 

5fe/Tat Od. x 304, sometimes regarded as Pr. Mid. of e^ut, should be written 

(403, 1). 
2. Hm. Pr. Ind. 3 P. /ce/rai, Keiarai (355 D e), /cearat (39 a); Impf. 3 P. 

/To, Ketccro, weoro; Sub. 3 S. jajrai; Iterative (410 D) 3 S. /ce'cr/cero; Fu. 

K6t<w or Kew (378 D). Hd. resolves et into ee, but only in cases where e 

might be used as a connecting vowel : KeVrcu, e/ceero, /ceetr^co, /ceeer^at (not ee- 
jitat, /ceejueyos). In the Ind. 3 P. he has /cearat, eKearo. 

Hm. has two or three /At-verbs of the first class with stems in o and v : 

a. ovo-pat to find fault with, 2 S. ovoffai, Opt. 3 S. ovoiro (401 k) ; Fu. 

a.i^ Ao. wvocrdfj.-r}v (Hd. wj/^tr^v). Hm. has also from st. oj/, Pr. 2 P. 

(24 D c) and Ao. uvd^v. 

b. epuo^at (epo, etpu 24 D c) to guard, preserve, Ion. and poet. The ^;-forma 
are Pr. Ind. 3 P. etptJarat, Impf. 2 S. epvaro, 3 S. eptlro, efyuro, 3 P. efyvvro, 
e/puaro, Inf. epua'&at, cl'putr^at. Fu. epiHrffofjLcu, (344 D ; fpvetr&ai, 37 8 D), 
etpiWojuai, Ao. eptKo-y^uTji/, e!pv(a')a'(fM}y. Cf. epueu ^o cfraw (420 D, 12). 

From pvo/ (pb) = epuo^uat come /tt-forms, Impf. 3 P. puaro, Inf. pvff&at. 
Fu. pvcro/jLai (Hd.), Ao. eppu<ro/^7?^. 

c. St. <TTu to starch #o, undertake, Pr. Impf. 3 S. <rTeuTC, (rreuro (Aesch. 


Pi*. Imv. orSi, ecrrco, ecrroz>, eVrcoi', eore, ecrrco crav Or ecrrcov $ 

Inf. e t i/at J Par. cov, oucra, ov (ovr). 
Impf. Mid. rjpriv (rare, and only in 1 Sing.). 
Fu. Mid. ecro/zat (3 S. ecrrai), 0. e'croijur/i/, I. ecreerSat, P. tcrojuei'os 1 . 

KEM. a. In the Pr. Ind., 1 S. /' is for ea-jut, o- being dropped and 
lengthened : 2 S. ef is for ecn (properly e'cr-cr/) : 3 S. eV-ri retains the orig. 
ending : 3 P. Vt has arisen from eo-zm. In the Impf., ^, ^o-3a, ^P 
are for T?(O-)-V, r;((r)-a-3a, r?(cr-r) : in ^o--a-^(r), a is a connecting vowel. The 
Sub. S) is for e<o (Ion.) from ecr-w : the Opt. flrjv is for eo-Lrj-v. The Imv. 
3 P. fo-Tcov is for ecr-i/rcoi> (a form ovrav occurs only 4n PI. Leg. 879 b). 
The Inf. dvai is for eo-z/ai : the Par. &v is for e'ooi/ (Ion.) from eo-wi/. 

HEM. b. The forms of the Pr. Ind. are all enclitic, except the 2 S. . 
After a paroxytone^ they have an accent on the ultima^ by 108. But 
the 3 Sing, takes the regular accent, eort, 

1. when it expresses existence or possibility : 

2. when it stands at the beginning of a sentence : 

3. when it follows ou, ju^, et, OK, KGU. 

Thus TOVTO o e'crrt that wliich exists^ earn pot /SouXo/zeVo) it is according 
to my wish, et eo-nv OVTUS if it is so. 

HEM. c. The Par. eSi/, ouo-a, etc., retains its accent in composition : 
Trapooi/, rrapovcra ; SO also the 3 S. Fu. eorat for eo-erat : Trapeorai. The 
retention of the accent in several other compound forms is not irrcg. : 
naprjv (368 b), Trapco, irapelev (400 k), rrapelvctL (307 c). 

406 D. 1. Hra. has many peculiar forms: 

Pr. Ind. 2 S. tffcri and els, 1 P. ef,ueV, 3 P. (etVf, and) !Wt not enclitic ; 
Impf. %&, ea, !W, 2 S. (^cr&a and) eyjovS-a, 8 S. (^j/ and) jjev, CTJ/', ^?jy, 

3 P. (faav and) eVa^ ; Iterative (410 D) etr/coj/ (for eo--(r:oj/) ; 
Sub. eo>, e^w, 3 S. e??, e?;(n, ^crt, 3 P. eWi (once &iri) ; 

Opt. (e^v etc., also) !W, eot; Imv. 2 S. !V-<ro (middle ending); 
Inf. (e?j/at and) e/x^e^at (for etr-^erai), l^u/ier, also e^ei/ou, e^uey ; 
Par. ec6v, eoucro, e^j/ (ec^r). Fu. often with <r<r : eo-o-OjUOi ; 
Fu. 3 S. (ecrerat, eWca and) effa-erai, also tffffeirai (as in Lor.). 

Hd. Pr. Ind. 2 S. els, 1 P. e*>eV; Impf. la, 2 S. fas, 2 P. lare; 
Iterative eoTcoi/; Sub. ew, ecocrt; Opt. once eWot; Par. ec^y. 

Dor. Pr. Ind. 2 S. eW, 1 P. e t >es, 3 P. eVn'; Impf. 3 S. fc, 1 P. ^es; 
Inf. eT^uey, ^je^; Par. ec6j/. Fu. eWeu^cu, ^, eTrar, etc. 

REM. a. Some of these forms have a connecting vowel : so Haffi for e((r)-a- 
(v)<fi, $0, for ri(ff)-a-(j>) or 77(ra,u Lat. eram, cf. 3 P. ^(r-a-y(r) Lat. erant. In eo, 
effav, the augment is omitted: ^ev is for 7)(<r)-e-v: CTJV, ij-qv come from ^j/ by 
doubling the E-sound : !W for e(<r)-o-z/ omits the augment, and has the usual 

connecting vowel o: this appears also in the Opt. eois, eoi. efaro Od. u, 106, 

sometimes regarded as Impf. Mid. of et>i, should be written e'/aro (406 D, 2). 

2. Hm. has Ind. 3 P. e'/arcti, e'/aro (355 D e), with irregular change of i\ 
to et, rarely e'arai, earo, only once 7\vro. Hd. always e'arai, earo. 

From two other consonant-stems, Hm. has /it-forms, viz. 

3. From e-w (450, 3) to eat, Pr. Inf. e5-yuez/at; cf. Lat. estis for ed-tis, 
isse for ed-se. 

A. From <<=/>-&> (450, 6) ^o 6?ar, Pr. Imv. 2 P. </>e'/>-Te; cf. Lat. fer-te. 


2. (T)<T) to sit retains <r only before r. 

Pr. Ind. Impf. 

rjcrai, rfar'Sov, T^crSe, ^"5 rjcrZov, rjcr^e^ 

i]cr'Sov, TJvrac j ^crro, ^ fjcr^v^ rjvro $ 

Pr. Imv. r/o-o, J^o-So), r/crSoi', fjor%av, r;0-3e, ?;<r2!a)crai' Or rjcr^cav J 
Inf. To-Sai Par. 

For r//mt, the Attic prose almost always uses the compound 

Kd%T] to sit down. 
Pr. Ind. KaST/joiai, KuStyo-at, /caStyrcu, etc. 

Impf. cKa%rnj.7)V) fKaS^ao, e/caS^ro, etc. (314) 
or Ka%T)iJ.T]v, KaS^cro, KaSJ/crro, etc. (368 b) 
Pr. Sub. Kctfffljtiat, Ka3^, ffaS^rai, etc. (400 i) 
Opt. Ka3ot'/i7;i/, Ka^loTo, KaSoTro, etc. (400 i) 
Imv. KaST/o-o, Ka3^o"3w, etc. Inf. Ka^^a-Sat, Par. Ka^^evos. 
REM. a. KaS^o-Sat irregularly keeps the accent of ^o-Sat'i cf. 
(405, 2 a). 

Fifth Class. 

407. In these, the endings of the present and imperfect are 
applied, not to the verb-stem itself, but to the syllable w or 
(after a vowel) vw, which is added to the stem : SeiK-i/i5-/u to 
show, Kepd-vvv-fjii to mix. The added v is short, except in the 
singular of the indicative active, according to the rule in 336 a. 
Paradigm, 300. 

REM. a. These verbs often take a connecting vowel, and thus con- 
form to the ordinary inflection : &e4Ki/ua>, deiKvveis, etc. ; especially in the 
3 P. Pr. Ind. Act. : SeiKvvovo-t. In the Sub. and Opt., they are never 
distinguished from verbs in o> (401 1). 

The enumeration of these verbs will be found in 439-43, under Special 
Formation, Fifth Class.. 

/Second Aorists of the pi-form. 

408. For the 2 Aor. of Verbs in pi, Iripi, see 403, 1 j rl^pi, 403, 2 ; 
i, 403, 4 j loTjjjLu, 403, 5 ; ovlvrjpi, 403, 6 ; iripn\i)pi, 403, 7. 

Stems in a. 

1. /Sai'wB (j3a) to (435, 1). 
Ao. e'/^i/, /35, ^ati/v, jS^Si (401 b), /3^ai, j3ay. 

408 D. 1. Hm. Ind. 3 D. frfa-riv and jSarrji/, 3 P. fpr)ffav, and 
(400 D d), once ?j3aow, Sub. ^etw (400 D i), 3 S. jSrjr?, 1 P. fciopev (Fid. 
Inf. jSTyai and Se^aj. 


2. yrjpd-o-Ka) to grow old (444, 1). 2 Ao. Inf. yrjpavm (poetic). 

3. StSpdor/cco (Spa) to run (444 : 2), used only in compounds. 

2 Ao. fdpdv, eSpas, e'Spa, etc. ; Spa>, Spas 1 , Spa, etc. ; Spat'qi/, SpaSt, Spai/at, 

4. KTflva) (KT/, Kra) l^ZZ (433, 4). 

2 Ao. (poetic) e/crdr, e/cray, exra ; Par. /eras, M. 

5. Trerop-at (TTCT, also TTTQ) ft) j% (424, 19). 
2 Ao. Act. (only poetic) e7rr?7i>, Trrairjv, Trrfji/ai, 

Mid. (also in prose) cnro/iip, TrrdcrSat, Trrdp-ez/os 1 . 

6. St. rXa to endure, rare in Attic prose. 

2 Ao. erX^i/, rXo, T\air)v, rXf)3i, rXfJfat, rXas. 
Fu. rX^o-tyieu, Pf. rerXiyjca (409 D, 10), V. rX^rdy. 

7. (p3uj/a> (<p3a) ^ anticipate (435, 3). 

2 Ao. e(p3^r, (pSia), (pSat'^f, (p^rjvai, <p%ds. 

8. St. Trpia, used for Aor. of a>i/eo/i(u to 5wy (450, 7). 

2 Ao. firpldpujV) 7rpta), 7rpia!.p.r)v (401 k), Trpia), TrptacrSai,* 

Stems in e. 

9. o-ftevvvfju (o-/3e) to j9wf o?^, extinguish (440, 3). 

2 Ao. e(T/3rjv W6?zi OWi (416, 5), Inf. trfirjvai. 

10. o-Ke'XXo) (o-jccX, o-KXe) to dry trans. (432, 15). 
2 Ao. e<rK\ijv became dry (416, C), Inf. o-feXiji/cu. 

11. e^o) (o-ex, 0-^0 ft? ^<J, fo&Z (424, 11). 
2 Ao. Imv. o-xe's (for o-xe^i, '401 b). 

Stems in o. 

12. dXicriMyiai (dX, dXo) to 5e taken (447, 1). 
2 Ao. edXcov or T^Xcoi/, dX<w, dXoi'^i', dXan'at, oXov/s 1 (a only in Indie.), 

13. /3td-ffl to ?zw (423, 2) 

2 Ao. e/BiW, /3iw, /Stw?;!/, ^icoi/ai, /3iovy. 

14. ytyi/coa-KO) (yj/o) to ^0tO (445, 4). 

2 Ao. eypcDi/, yyco, yvoirjv, yvca%i, yv&vai, yvovs. 

Stems in t and v. 

15. TTtVco (TTI) to dr^ra^ (435, 4). 2 Ao. Imv. TrTSt (poet. Trie). 

2. Hm. Par. 777,0^5. 3. Hd. eSpyji/, Inf. S/jfJz/ai, but Par. Spciy. 

4. Hm. 8 P. eKTaj/, Sub. urea/j^v (400 D i), Inf. /cra^ei/at, /cra/iev; Mid. 
8 S. CKTOTO was killed, Inf. /crcicr^at. 

5. The 2 Ao. Act. is not found in Hm. ; in Att. Trag. (chorus) it appears 
as Dor. eir-roy. 

6. Hm. 3 P. erAai/. Hm. has also Fu. raMffffw, Ao. eTaAowrtra (st. raAa). 

7. Hm. 3 P. 0&op, Sub. 3 S. ^>S^j/ or ^d-^ari (once Trap-^d-anjtn), 1 P. ^>3-- 
w/My, 3 P. ^^e'wa-t. 

12. The form with e is not found in Hm. and Hd. Hm. has Sub. 3 S. 
RA.COT? (400 D i), Opt. 3 S. aXoif) and aAy'??, Inf. aX&vai arid oAcfyiej/cu. 

14. Hm. Sub. 3 S. 7^17 and 7z/y, Inf. yvc^^fvai and yvavai. Pind. Ind, 
S P. fyvtWj Hyvov. 


16. dv-a> to pass under ', take on (423, 3). 
2Ao. 28w(304; 416, 4), va>, 8u3i, SDi/ai, Suy. 

17. $u-a> to produce (423, 4). 

2 Ao. e(f)vv (was produced, 'born, 416, 3), </>ya>, <pvvai, <pvs. 

408 D. The following second aorists of the /*i-form are peculiar to the Epic 
dialect : 

18. &-a> to satiate, Pr. M. 3 S. Aarcu (370 D a), Fu. &ro>, 1 Ao. 2<ra; 2 Ao. 
became sated. Sub. 1 P. ecw^e;/ (400 D i, wrongly &/**>), Inf. 'a^vai ; V. STOS 
insatiate (for KOTOS). 

19. air&vpd-co to take away, 2 Ao. Par. farovpas (M. airoupd/jLeuos Hes.). 

20. jSaAAco (j3a\, 0Aa) to *Arao at (432, 4), 2 Ao. 3 D. 

tered, Inf. gu/ijSAifj/iej/ai ; Mid. 3 S. eySATyro was /, wounded, Sub. 3 S. 
(400 D i), Opt. 2 S. j3Ae?o (for jSAyj-io), Inf. p\ijff&ai, Par. /3X^/j.evos. 

21. ovrd-ca to wound (423 D, 5), 2 Ao. 3 S. oura, Inf. ovrd^evai, 
Mid. Par. ovrd/j-evos wounded. 

22. 7reAao> (TreAaS) to coww wear (428 D, 21). From cognate stem 
come 2 Ao. M. 3 S. irXrtro, 7rA.7jTO, 8 P. CTTATJI/TO, irX^vro. 

23. irr-fiffffto (TTTTJ/C) ^o crouch (428, 7). From cognate atcrn TTTO come 2 Ao. 

3 Du. Kara-iTT'fiT'r)!', Pf. Par. TreirTfjais, TreTrrTjwTOS. 

24. /3ij8pcoo-KO) ()3op, )8po) #o ea^ (445, 3), 2 Ao. e/tywy. 

25. TT\(a-(*> Ion. and poet, for TrAe'cy (irAu) ifo se/ (426, 3), 2 Ao. (in comp.) 
eir\<0v, Par. TrAcfo. 

26. KTiYw (/cTiS) to found. From cognate stem /crt comes 2 Ao. M. Par. 


27. 4>&-w to perish (435, 6), 2 Ao. M. e>&w, Sub. 3 S.>d-ferai, 1 P. <f>bi6- 
Opt. <p$rip.t]v (for <p&i-i/j.-r)j/ 1 33), 3 S. </>d-tro, Inf. ^>3-tV3-at, Par. ^i/j.ej/os. 

28. St. Au (426 D, 8), 2 Ao. e/cAuo^ Aearc?, Imv. /cAv&t, 2 P. /cAure, also 

l, KK\VT (384 D). 

29. Au-w to Zoose (269), 2 Ao. M. AiV^" 3 S. AWTO and ACro, 3 P. AUJ/TO. 

30. Tri/e'w (TTVU) to breathe (426, 4), 2 Ao. M. 3 S. Zp-vvvro recovered breath. 

31. (reuw (tru) to drive (426 D, 9), 2 Ao. M. 3 S. afrro, Par. ffv^evos (Trag.). 

32. x> (% u ) ^ .P ^ ( 42 6, 6), 2 Ao. M. 3 S. X^TO, 3 P. X^TO, Par. xfyievos. 
Also the following (all in the middle) from verbs with consonant-stems : 

33. aAAo^a: (oA) to leap (432, 3), 2 Ao. 2, 3 S. aAcro, oAro (eVaATo), Sub. 
3 S. aAerai, OATJTOI, Par. ir-d\/j.evos (also eTrt-dhpevos}. 

34. apapiiTKu (ap) to join (447 D, 15), 2 Ao. M. Par. &pp.evos fitting. 

35. St. yev, only in 2 Ao. 3 S. ytvro he grasped. 

36. Se'x-o/xat to receive, 2 Ao. eSe'y/wjy, 3 S. 5eWo, Imv. Se'|o, Inf. Sex&at, 
Par. Sey/j.evos. 

37. Aey-co to speak, 2 Ao. eAey^Tjv counted my self , 3 S. Ae/cro counted (for 

38. St. Aex (no Pres.), 2 Ao. 3 S. lAe/cro /aic? himself to rest, Imv. Ae|o 
(as to Ae|eo, see 349 D), Inf. /cara-Aexifou, Par. KaTa-\eyfj.evos. Fu. Ae|o/xot, 1 
Ao. cAela^Tjj/, and Act. eAe|a Zaic? to res^. 

39. /j.iy-vufj.1 to mix (442, 7), 2 Ao. 3 S. ^UIKTO, ^?/CTO. 

40. op-vv/j.1 to rouse (442, 11), 2 Ao. 3 S. S/JTO, Imv. op<ro (as to optfeo, see 
349 D), Inf. tfp&eu, Par. ttp^vos. 

16. Hm. 3 P. j"v and 5d(rai/, Sub. 3 S. 8ur?, Opt. 3 S. SUTJ (for Su-tr/, 33), 
I P. Su^ci/ (for 8v'i/j.ei>), Inf. Su^uevat and Swat ; Iterative 

17. Hm. 3 P. e<>vj/. 


41. ir'f]j'vv/j.i to fix (442, 12), 2 Ao. 3 S. /ca-r-eTnjKTO stuck. 

42. irttAAa (?raA) to shake (432 D, 26), 2 Ao. 3 S. TT&XTO dashed himself. 

43. irep&-<a to destroy, 2 Ao. Inf. Tre'p&ai (for Tre^-crd-ai) fo 6e destroyed. 
Here belong also two adjectives, originally participles of the 2 Ao. Mid.: 

44. &ff/j.evos well-pleased, glad(st. 08, Pr. avSdvco to please, 437, 1). 

45. tufjievos favorable (st. IK, Pr. t/ccW to come, 438 D, 2). 

Second Perfects of the fju-forin. 

409. In the indicative, the //t-form appears only in the dual and plural ; 
the singular always has a connecting vowel : see paradigm, 305. 

1. to-Trim (ora) to set, 1 Pf ccrTrjKa (for o-e-a-r^/ca) stand (416, 1), with 
regular inflection ; 2 Pf. Dua. eWaroi', etc. Paradigm, 305. 

2. /SaiVa) (/3a) to #0 (435, 1), 1 Pf. pffirjKa have gone, stand fast 
(416, 2), regular; 2 Pf. 3 P. /3J3Scrt, Sub. 3 P. /SejSwo-t, Inf. /3e/3di/at, 
Par. j3fJ8o>y, /3e/3o>o-a, Gr. /3f/3a>ro? (contracted from /3e/3acoy). 

3. ylyvojjiai (yev, also ya) to become (449,1), 2 Pf. yeyova regular: 
2 Pf. Par. yfyooy, yeyoxra, Gr. yeycoroy (contracted from yeyacoy). 

4. Si/qcrKco (Sai/, Sva) to tfo'e (444, 4), 1 Pf. T&VTJKO. am dead regular 
2 Pf. PI. rcSvapev, T&vaai, 2 Plup. 3' P. eVeSmo-av, Pf. Opt. reSmiV, Imv. 
Te3i/a3t, Inf. reSi/di/at, Par. re^j/ecbs-, -wo-a, -dy, G. -coroy (26). 

5. St. St (S 30, Sot 25), 1 Pf. S 'Sot*ca, 2 Pf. S'Sta, fear; 2 Pf. PI. 

y, ScStao-t, 2 Plup. 3 D. e'SeStnji', 3 P. eSeSto-av, Pf. Sub. SeSi'o), Opt 
/, Imv. Sc'StSft, Inf. SeStcrat, Par. SeStcos-. Fu. dcio-opai (412 a), Ao. 

REM. a. Instead of the /xt-forms of this verb, forms with a connecting 
vowel are sometimes found : Se8t'q/w, 

The following have stems ending in a consonant, and are subject, 
therefore, to various euphonic changes : 

409 D. 1. Hm. Pf. 2 P. e<mjre, Inf. ka-ra^vai^ eaTo^o/, Par. etrro^s, 
({Toy. - Hd. Par. 6<rr6c6s, effrtuffa, etc., Ind. 3 P. co-ream (?). 

2. Hm. Pf. 3 P. /3ej8da<ri, Par. j8ej3ac6s, jScjBawa, G. )3e/3awTos. 

3. Hm. Pf. 3 P. 76ycaa't, Plup. 3 D. yeyaxTjv, Inf. yeydfj.ey, Par. 
'yeyauTa, G. yeyaciiTOs. 

4. Hm. Imv. re&raSh, Te3-yc{T<w, Inf. T^vd^vai, re^j/a^ej/, Par. G. 

TOS, also T&vr]6Tos (some write Te&j/etcDToy, Te^eiJros), Fern. re&vr)vir]s ; only 
once Teb/e&m, as in Att. 

5. Hm. has Set for the redupl., Sei&m, Se:5ot/ca (once Se5/6<rt), and dou- 
bles 5 after the augment, eSSeto-a, as well as after a short vowel in comp., ire- 
ptSSeiVas (once uTroSeicrare). Probably the original stem was 5Fi : hence Pf. 
SsSrja, Ao. eSFettra, which, after F was lost, were changed to Sei'Sta, eSSeio-a, to 
preserve the long quantity of the first syllable. For Sei'Sta, Urn. has also 5ei5o 
with present form, but only in the first person sing. He has also an Impf. 8/e, 
SiW, feared, jfled, always with irepi, though separated from it by tmesis (477V 
cf. 404 D b. 


6. St. id (8 30, oid 25), 2 Ao. d8ov saw, 2 Pf. o?Sa ^M>J. - The 
second perfect system of this verb presents several forms of the stem. 
The original t (i. e. nS, Lat. vid-eo) appears in the Pf. Ind. Du. and PL 
and in the Iinv. ; the lengthened etS, in the Pf. Par., and in the Plup.'. 
which changes it to r/S for the augment. etS becomes otS by variation of 
vowel in the Sing, of the Pf. Ind. : in the Sub., Opt., and Inf., it assumes 
e (331), giving ei6V. The 3 P. Pf. Ind. i'crdo-i is wholly irregular. 
Pf. Ind. oiS-a, o?-cr3a, ot-f, t'o roi>, tV-roi>, iV-fiei>, iV-re, iV-acri; 

Plup. jdeiv or fj8rj, |Sei/if v or 

" f]Sr)(r%a, ffdeirov or fjcrrov^ fjSfire " 

Pf. Sub. eiSco, elftfjs, 4^77, iS^Toi/, eiSijTOJ', et8co/xez/, eiSr^re, e iSaiort J 

Opt. eldeirjv, fiSei???, etSei^, etc. J 

Imv. tV-3t, iV-Ta), ur-roi>, t'cr-rcoi', i'cr-re, cV-rcocrav J 

Inf. elSe-vat ; Par. 6iSo>?, eiSuta, tiSoy, Gr. eiSoros-. 
Fu. f'ia-o/jLai (412 a) S^aZZ M(?^, V. lo-reov. 

HEM. a. The forms rJSs and ^Sr;? are also used for jJSfio-Sa and 
orSa : ouW for o?or3a is rare ; still rarer, ot'Sajuej/, otSare, ot'Sacrt, for ta 
etc. ; rare and poetic, fjdefjLev^ $Sere, for ^'Seijuev, ^Setre. 

7. St. IK (etK, ot/<), only in 2 Pf. e'otKa am like, appear, 2 Plup. CWKCIV ; 
2 Pf. 1 P. eoiKajitev, poetic eoty/Aei/, 3 P. eoiKdcrt, irreg. ei'^dcri (cf. iVdcrt), 
Inf. eoiKevai and ci/ceVai, Par. e'otKco? and eiVcoy, via, os. Fu. ei'a> rare. 

8. /cpa^oo Ocpay) ^ cry (428, 13), 2 Pf. KtKpaya as present ; 2 Pf. 


409 D. Add further for Homer, 

9. (jua, /t6j/, cf. ya, yev in 3 above) to reach after, seek for, 2 Pf. to 
press ow, desire eagerly ; 2 Pf. S. fj.4fj.ova, as, e, D. /ie/iarov, P. fj,fj.afj.ev, ^ue/iare, 
jUe^uaaa-f, Plup. 3 P. fj.efj.affaj'y Pf. Imv. 3 S. fj-efj-dra), Par. ^e^acfo, uTa, G. ^te/ta- 

WTOS Or fjLfJ.d6TOS. 

10. Pf. TerXTjKa (rAo) awi patient (408, 6) ; 2 Pf. 1 P. TerAa^ej/, Opt. re- 
Tji', Imv. rerAa^t, Inf. T6TA.cfytei/(at), Par. TerXTjcoy, uTa, G. <TOS. 

11. 2 Pf. avcoya, as, e (cu/ay) command, 1 P. avcay/j-ev, Imv. ^^a%^t, 3 S. 
^ 6 " (with middle ending ; so) 2 P. #pa>x&e : Sub. avcayw, Opt. aydayoifj.i, 

rare Iinv. ^j/wye, Inf. dycoye^ei/. Plup. ijvcayea, 3 S. T}v6ysi(v), commonly avcSye*. 
For irreg. Plup. fywyov (or ^wyoy), 3 S. fywye, 3 P. iji/cayevv, see 351 D. For 
Pf. 3 S. &v<aye he commands, avdyei is sometimes used : 2 D. av&yerov for d^w- 
yarov. Fu. avuw, Ao. tfj/w^a. 

12. e'yeipctf (eyep) ^o oaA;e (432, 5), 2 Pf. fyptyopa am awake, 3 P. eypyytp- 
baa-i wholly irreg., Imv. 2 P. eypjiyop&e (middle ending), Inf. eyp-fiyop&ai (middle 
ending, but accent irreg.). Hence Pr. Par. *yp-tiyop6<av. 

6. Hm. has Pf. 1 P. %ej/ (46 D), Plup. 2, 3 S. T^o-fta, 08q or ^See, also 
very irreg. rje^Srjs, fci'STj (perhaps for eFetSr/y, eFetSr?) ; Plup. 3 P! t<rav (for fi-ffav) ; 
Pf. Sub. eiSoi (t5ew ?), P. e^o^ev, etSere, et'Swo-t ; Inf. n/j,evai, 18fj,ev, Par. Fern. 
6i5u?a and iSv'ia (cf. 338 D); Fu. efcro/uu and etS^o-w. 

Hd. has Pf. 1 P. W/w, Plup. 1, 3 S. 7?5ea, ^See, 2 P. ^Se'are; Fu. 6(S^(r. 
The Dor., with o?So, has a peculiar Pres: icr'api, fffrjs, icran, P. Iffapsv, Iffavn. 
r. Hra. Impf. 3 S. eT/ce, 2 Pf. 3 D. ei'/croy, 2 Plup. 3 D. e't/CTTji/, 3 P. eoi/ce- 
yov, Plup. Mid. 3 S. tf'iKTo or if/cro. - Hd. has Pf. olica, Par. oiicds. 


1 3. epxopai to come (450, 2), 2 Pf. e\^\v&a, etc. ; also ejA^Aoud-a, 1 P. 
etAJjAoufyiej/ (25 D). 

14. 7ra(rx<tf (fr, Trev^) to sw/fer (447, 13), 2 Pf. ireTrov&a, 2 P. 7reVocr& 
(better TreVaafte, for TreTra^-re), P'ar. Fern. ireira&via. 

15. -7re&&> (ir&) to persuade (295), 2 Pf. -rreiro&a trust, 2 Plup. 1 P. eVeVtd- 
juev (Imv. 7rret(rd-f Aesch.). 

16. pippdffKu (fyd) to eat (445, 3), Pf. /3e<8p&ca (Par. N. P. j3e/3po>Tes Soph.). 

17. irivrta (irer, Trre, TTTO) to fall (449, 4), Pf. TreTrrw/ccc, Par. A. P. TreTrre- 
wras (ire7n-c6s, TreTTTWTOS, Soph.), cf. 408 D, 23. 


Some formations, which are unknown in Attic prose, occur 
more or less frequently in other dialects. 


The iterative imperfect represents a continued past action as repeated or 
usual : irejUTreovce he was sending (repeatedly), used to be sending. The iterative 
aorist has the same force in reference to indefinite past action, marking it as 
repeated or usual: e\dcraffKe he drove (repeatedly), used to drive. - Both are 
confined to the Indie., Act. and Mid. ; and are generally found without the 
augment (in Hd. always so). 

They are formed from the tense-stem of the Impf. or Aor., by adding the 
iterative-sign ovc, which takes the connecting vowels and endings of the Impf. : 
thus Act. -ffK-o-v, -<rK-e-s, -ffK-e, etc., Mid. -(TK-O-^V, -ffK-e-o, -ffK-e-ro, etc. 

These terminations are united with the tense-stem by a connecting vowel, 
viz. e for the Impf. and 2 Aor., a for the 1 Aor. : ^ev-e-ovcoz/ (^eVw to remain), 
<p{iy-e-ffKe (<>evy to flee), fprjTvo'-a-a'Ke (eprjTva) to restrain). - A very few 
iterative imperfects have a : Kpinrr-a-ffKov (KOVITTW to hide), piirr-a-ffKov (p'nrrw 
to throw). - In contract verbs, e either remains without contraction : /coA.e-e- 
ffKov (/ca\ew to call) ; or is dropped: &&e-ffKov (a^e'w to push). Verbs in a<w 
sometimes change ae to aa : vairraaffKov (vaierdco to inhabit), cf. vaierda. - 
The connecting vowel is omitted, when the ordinary Impf. or 2 Aor. has the 
pi-form ; Hcpa-fficov (e<pTf]v said), crrd-ffKov (^ffrt]v stood), e-ffitov (^v was), Ke-o'/cero 
(for /cei-tr/cero, e/cefyujj' lay), ptiyvv-ffKov (tffrfryvvv was breaking). 

The iterative aorist is found only in poetry. 


Several verbs annex 3- to the tense-stem of the Impf. or 2 Aor. : & is usu- 
ally connected with the stem by the vowels a or e. This formation does not 
modify the meaning : it is mostly poetic, occurring very seldom in Attic prose. 
It is found chiefly in the Impf. or Aor. Ind. The following are the most im 
portant of these forms : 
to pursue 
to yield 
to ward off" 

to shut out epyaSrov or 

to lift up yepe&ovrai, OVTO, float(ed) in air 

ayeipu to assemble fyyepe&ovrai, OVTO 

to perish 
% to hold 
titioy went, Aor. 



The most important irregularities of meaning are caused by 
using one voice in the sense of another, or by mixing transitive 
and intransitive senses in the same voice. 

A. Forms of one voice in the sense of another. 

412. a. In many verbs which have an active voice, the future middle 
takes the place of a future active (379) : p.av%dva> to learn, na^a-op-ai 
(not juaStya-w) shall learn. This is the case with a large proportion of the 
ve^s which compose the fifth and sixth classes. 

b. In many verbs the future middle has the meaning of a future pas- 
sive (379) : Xei7ra> to leave, Xen^o/xai (= \et(p%f]( shall T)e left. 

413. c. The deponent verbs are to be regarded as forms of the middle 
voice. Yet in the aorist, not a few take the passive form instead of the 
middle : fiovKopai to wish, Fu. /SouXTjo-ojuat, but Ao. f'jSovX^Styi/ (not e/SouX??- 
o-afjLrjv) wished. These are called passive deponents; and the rest, in dis- 
tinction from them, are called middle deponents. 

Of passive deponents, the most important are the following : those 
which in the future have a passive form as well as a middle, are marked 
with an * : thus *SiaXeyo/z<u to converse, Ao. SieXejfirjv conversed, Fu. 
and SmXcSo-owat sJiall converse. 

aya/zai to admire (419, 1) *fj$ to Ibe pleased 

*tSeo 1 uai to feel shame (448, 1) *eV3v/ieo/zat to consider 


to wander TrpoSv/ieo/^ai to l)e forward 

to contend *5taXeyo/itu to converse (424, 15) 

to deny eVtjue'Ao/iai to car e for (422, 11) 

to 1)6 grieved (422, 1) /ra/ieXojucu to regret 

/3ouAo/zcu to wish (422, 3) " aTroi/oeo/xat to despair 

dfofj-ai to icant (422, 4) *diavoo/jLai to meditate to see (424 D, 31) ivvotoptu to think on 

dvva/jiai to ~be able (404, 5) Trpoi/oe'o^ai to foresee, provide 

ivavrioofiai to oppose *CHOJU,CU to think (422, 15) 

to understand (404, 6) o-//3o/zai to revere 

to l>c cautious <>iai to l)Q cwibitious 

REM. (a). Some of these verbs, beside the aorist passive, have an 
aorist of the middle form : thus a-yo/zat, Ao. usually rj-yda-^rjv, but also 

414. d. Several verbs have an aorist passive with middle meaning : 
fiHppaivo* to make glad, fvcfrpdv'Sriv made myself glad, rejoiced ; vrpecpti) to 
turn, (arpdcprjv turned (myself) ; cpcuixa to shoio, ecpdvrjv showed myself, 
appeared, but e(pdv^rjv was shown. 

415. e. Several deponent verbs have a passive aorist and future with 
passive meaning : Idouai to heal, lan-d^v healed, ld%r)v was healed; Se'^o- 
uai to receive, fftegapriv receive'?, s^x^v was received.-^ In some, the 


middle forms of the present or perfect systems may have both an active 
and a passive meaning : /^ujueo/xcu to imitate, jue/zi/M77/xai have imitated or 
have been imitated. 

13. Mixture of transitive and intransitive senses. 

416. In some verbs, the forms of the active voice are divided between 
a transitive and an intransitive sense. The future and first aorist are 
then transitive ; the second aorist and the perfect are intransitive. The 
most important cases are the following : 

1. i(rr?7/u (o-ra) to set, place, M. to-ra/zai to set one's self; 
Trans., Fu. orqoroo shall set, 1 Ao. earrja-a set ; 

Intrans., 2 Ao. earrjv (set myself) stood, Pf. ea-rrjKa (have set myself) am 

standing, eVr^eti/ was standing, Fu. Pf. eVr^co shall stand. 
a. The same important distinction prevails in the numerous com- 
pounds of this verb : dcptcm^i to set off, cause to revolt, d-nto-r^v stood 

off, revolted, dcpeor^Ka am distant, am in revolt, tyltrnjiu to set over, 

erreo-Trjv set myself over, ((pearTTjKa am set over, Ka%i<TTri/j.i to set down, 

establish, KdTea-rrjv established myself, became established, Kcftea-niKa am 
established. The Aor. Mid. has a different meaning : /careo-r^o-are estab* 
lishedfor himself. 

2. /3aiVa> (/3a) to go (in poetry also cause to go) ; 

(Trans., Fu. /S^o-co shall cause to go, 1 Ao. e/S^o-a ; Ion. and poet.) 
Intrans., 2 Ao. e(3r)v went, Pf. /Se'/S^xa have-gone, standfast. 

3. (pv-a> to bring forth, produce; so <puo-cu, ecpvo-a ; intrans., e(pvv was 
produced, came into being, irtfyvKa am by nature. 

4. Su-o) to pass under, take on ; KaraSuco to submerge trans. ; so Syorw, 
fdvaa, but e&vv dived, set, evtdvv put on, egeSvv put off. 

5. o-pe-vwiJLi to put out, extinguish; 2 Ao. Zo-ftrjv went out, Pf. ea-^rj- 
KX am extinguished. 

6. o-Ke'AXco (o-/ceX) to dry trans. ; intrans., 2 Ao. ea-K\rjv became dry, 

FU. (TK\T](, Pf. (TK\rjKa. 

7. TTLVCO (rri) to drink, 2 Ao. eVioi/ dranlc; 1 Ao. erricra (Pr. TrtTrio-Kco) 
caused to drink. 

8. ydvopai (yev, cf. 449, 1) to be born, poetic ; 1 Ao. cytivdpriv begot, 
brought forth. 

417. In several verbs, the second perfect is the only active form 
which has an intransitive sense. 

avv-i to break 2 Pf. edya am broken 

to wake trans. cypyyopa am awake 

to destroy oXcoXa am ruined (oXcoXexa have ruined) 

to persuade ireirofta trust (TreiSo/zai comply) 

to fix Treirrjya am fixed 

jLi to break eppwya am broken 

to rot trans. aea-rj-n-a am rotten 

to melt trans. rerrjKa am melted 

<puiva> to show TTffava have shown myself, appeared 

(cpaivo/jLai to appear) 
For the difference between 

dveaya and ai/fca^a, Trerrpdya and Trerrpa^a, see 387 b. 



418. NOTE. The following lists exhibit the Attic inflection (tense- 
systems) of the verbs included in them. But other forms are introduced 
to some extent. Those marked late (1.), or enclosed in [ ], belong to the 
period of the Common dialect (3 e) ; for the most part, they are not met 
with before the conquest of Greece by the Romans (146 B. 0.). Other 
abbreviations used to show the character of the forms are fr. (frequent), 
r. (rare), r. A. (rare in Attic), n. A. (not found in Attic), n. A. pr. (not 
in Attic prose). 

Verbal Adjectives in ros, reos. These are seldom noticed in the fol- 
lowing lists, when the verb has a first passive system, as they are easily 
inferred from that. 

FIKST CLASS (Stem-Class, 325). 

419. The stem appears without change in the present. This 
is much the most numerous of all the classes. We notice here 
only those verbs of it which have peculiarities of formation. 

I. Verbs in pi of the first class , see 404-6. 

II. Vowel-stems in which the final vowel remains short 

(contrary to 335). 
a. The following retain the short vowel in all the forms : 

1. a'yct/zcu (404, 4) to admire, - Ao. P. rjyda^rjv (Ao. M. rjyacrdfjLrjV T. A. 
pr.), V. aya0"rdr. Pind. ayab/jcu. 

2. yeXacD to laugh, - Fu. yeXdo-o/zat, Ao. eyeXao-a, Ao. P. eye\do-%r]V. 
(Hm. also yeXotuco.) 

3. epdco to love, - Ao. P. rjpdo-%j]v as act. ( Ao. M. rjpao-a.iJi.rjv Hm.) : also 
Pr. cpn/icu (404, 7) poetic. 

4. SXdco to crush, -- Fu. SXacra), Ao. eSXacra (Pf. M. reSXaoyiat, Ao. P. 
e'SXao-ST/y, n. A.): also <Xdo> with same meaning and inflection. 

5. K\do> to break, - Fu. KXdo-w, Ao. cxXao-a, Pf. M. /ceKXao-juat, Ao. P. 


6. cnrda) to draw, - Fu. crTracroo, Ao. ecrTracro, Pf. ecrTraKa, Pf. M. fc 
juat, Ao. P. a7rda%T]V< 

7. xaXaa> to loosen, - Fu. ^aXaao), Ao. e'^aXacra (Pf. Ke^aXaKa, Pf. M. 
KexaXao-pai, n. A.), Ao. P. e'^aXao-3r;j/. 

8. aKeo/JLat to heal, -- Fu. a/ceo-o/zcu, Ao. r)Keo-dp.r]v [Ao. P. nuttoSty?]. 

9. dXe'a> to gri?ld, - Fu. clXeVco (aXa>, 374), Ao. fjXfaa, Pf. d\r]\eKa, Pf. 
M. d 

419 D. a. For tense-sign <r doubled in Hm. after the short vowel 

, sec 344 D. 

1. Beside &ya/ to admire, Hm. has ayooficu and ayaio/tcu to envy, Fu. 
, Ao. fiya<rcfyt7}j>, V. 


10. dpKfd to Suffice, - Fu. dpKea-co, Ao. [Ao. P. rj 

11. /ica> to VOmit) - Fu. e/neVa) (ep-S),, 374), Ao. rjp.ecra. 

12. ea) to ~boil, - Fu. e'(ra>, Ao. eeo-a, V. (^Vcrrds 1 . 

13. e'a> to scrape, - Fu. eVa>, Ao. efcra, V. eo-ror. 

14. reXe'a) to complete, - see Paradigm 288. 

15. rpeco to tremble, - Fu. rpeo-co, Ao. eYpecra, V. a-rpeo-rof ; r. A. pr. 

10. dpoa) to plough, - Fu. dpocrco, Ao. Tjipoo-a, (Perf. M. dpr]pop,ai Hm.,) 
Ao. P. r)po%r]V. 

17. di>ua> to achieve, - Fu. civi/cra, Ao. fjvv(ra, Pf. rjvvKa, Pf. M. f/vv(, 
Ao. P. rjvva-^rjv, V. awo-ros 1 , but a^-^i/uros. Att. PreS. also di/yro) 
or di/urw (327). 

18. dpv(o to draw water, - Fu. dpuaoo, Ao. ^'pixra, V. apvareos- Att. 
Pres. apvra) (327). 

19. eXKa> to draw, Fu. e'X^aj. Other tenses from st. e'X/cv, Ao. etXxvo-a, Pf. 

et\KVKa, Pf. M. ei'XKvcrjuat, Ao. P. eiXKuo'Styi', V. fXicreos and e\KV(TTeos. 
The forms e f XKuo>, e\Kvo-a>, elX^a, ?\x%r)v are late. 

20. Trruco to S?z 3 - Fu. TTTVCTCO, Ao. eTrrtxra, V. 

420. b. The following retain the short vowel in a/>ar of the 
forms. The first three make it long before cr. 

1. Seco to 5M, - Fu. S^cro), Ao. %0-a, Pf. .fie'Sera, Pf. M. Se'8e/xat, Ao. 
P. e'Se'Styz/, Fu. Pf. SeS^a-o/Liai. 

2. 3ya> to O^er. - Fu. Sucra), Ao. eSiJo-a, Pf. re'3tf/<a, Pf. M. r&, Ao. 
P. ervStyz/ (65 c), V. Zvreos. 

3. Xua> to toos^ - see Paradigm 270-5, and compare 268 b. 

4. alvto) to praise, - F,U. aij/ecrco, Ao. yveo-a, Pf. rjveKa, Ao. P. yve%rjv; 
t] only in Pf. M. fjvrjjjiai : in Att. prose used mostly in comp. 

5. KaXeco to C&K, - Fu. /caXeVa) (^aXw, 374), Ao. e'KaXe<ra; but ?; in Pf. 
' KK\r]Ka, Pf. M. KK\r}naL, Fu. Pf. KK\r](To^ai, Ao. P. eK\r)%r)v, all from 

syncopated stem Xe. 

6. /nuco to shut the mouth or eyes, - Fu. pv(ra>, Ao., but Pf. p-e^vKa 
am shut. 

17. Hm. Impf. 3 S. fyvro, as if from Pr. &vvp.i (Theoc.). Also poetic &va>j 
only Pr. Impf. 

19. Hm. also ePUce'w (331), Fu. e\/dj(r, Ao. %\Kr)<ra, Ao. P. ri\K^i]v. 
21. Ion. and poet, yet/cew to quarrel, upbraid, Fu. vei/ceVw, Ao. e^e(/cecra. 

420 D. 3. Hm. 2 Ao. M. AiV^?^, etc. (408 D, 29). 

4. Hm. Fu. cuVrj<rw, Ao. yj/rj(ra; Pr. also cuVi<fo/ictt (in Hes. 

5. Hm. also irpo-KaXi&, poet. KiK\-f}ffKa cl. 6. 

10. Hm. aao> (aa) ^o harm, mislead, Pr. M. 8 S. aorat, Ao. o(ra, 
contracted ocro, affd/j.rjv, Ao. P. adffbriv. The first a may become a by aug- 
ment. V. a-d&Tos. 

11. Hm. /corew (also /coreVat) fo 5e aw^rr?/, Ao. eWre<ra, Pf. Par. KeKorridds 
(386 D) aw^ry. 

12. Ion. and poet, epvco (o) io ?raM?, Fu. tyvffa (Hm. also epuw, 378 D), Ao. 
efytVa, Pf. tpv/ (}. Hes. Pr. Inf. (jui-form) elpvpsvai (28 D). Hm. 
has eipu only as result of augm. or redupl. (312 D). Different are eptSo/tat, puo- 
ttaj, to preserve (405 D b) . 


7. 8uo> to pass under, put on, - Ao. P. eSfarjv, V. Soros-, reos ; elsewhere 

v, see 423, 3. 

8, 9. 7ro3o to miss, and novta to toil, suffer, are inflected regularly with 
rj, but have e occasionally in the future and first aorist systems. 

III. Vowel-stems with added cr. 

421. The forms in which o- is added to the stem (342) are 
the perfect middle and first passive systems, with the verbals. 
Here belong the stems under 419, so far as they are used in these 
forms (only dpwa to plough has Ao. P. rjp69rjv). Further, the 
following in which the stem-vowel is either long, or, if short, is 
lengthened according to the rule in 335 : 

1. 8pdco to do, - Fu. Spacrw, Ao. e'Spaa-a, Pf. Se'SpaKa, Pf. M. Sc' 
(r. Se'Spa<r/u,cu), Ao. P. jr&pao^i/v. 

2. Kvda> to scratch (371 c), - Fu. KVTJO-O), Ao. eKvycra, Pf. M. Ke 
Ao. P. fKvrjcr'Srjv. 

3. xpaw to ffi ve oracle, - Fu. xp^a-w, Ao. e^pj/o-a, Pf. Ke'xpjjKa, Pf. M. 

4. \lfdc0 to rub (371 c), - Fu. -v^o-co, Ao. e\^r;(ra (Pf. M. ex/x-jjayiat Or 

e^rj^ai, both late, Att. fyriyptu from Pr. ^xa, ^ Ui ^Hl") : chiefly 
used in composition. 

5. i/eo) to heap up, - Fu. 1/7)0-00, Ao. evrjcra, Pf. M. Vfvrj(rp,ai and vevrjpai 
[Ao. P. vr](r'Sr]v and eV^S^v], V; VTJTOS. 

6. KvXfo> to roZ?, - Fu. KvXia-w, Ao. euXto-a, Pf. M. KfKv\KrfJ,ai, Ao. P. 

Pr. also KuXiVSco and 

7. Trpico to saw, - F. TTpfcrco, A. eVptcra, Pf. M. Trcirpicrpai, A. P. f 

8. XP tco ^ anoint, - Fu. XpiVa>, Ao. e^ptcra, Pf. M. xe^ptcr/iai (and 

, Ao. P. e 

9. x ( ' w ^ /*<#> {P, - Fu. ^ooa-co, Ao. e^coora, Pf. Ke^co/ca, Pf. M. 


t, Ao. P. e'xooo-S??!'. Late Pr. x^ vvv ^ L or 

10. |uco to polish, - F. ^uo-co, A. e^Scra, Pf. M. e^ucr/xat, A. P. fgvc 

11. i'a) () to ram, - Fu. uo-w, Ao. ^o-a, Pf. M. vir^at, Ao. P. {Jo-S^v. 

12. Ki/ata) to scratch, - Fu. Kvaicra>, Ao. fKvata-a, Pf. M. Ke'Ki/aiayictt, Ao. 
P. fKvaio-%r)v. 

13. Trai'a) to Strike, - ^Fu. iraia-co (and Trat^o-w, 331), Ao. enaicra, Pf. Tre- 
Trat/fa (Pf. M. TreTraicrjiiat late, Ao. P. fjrai&Zrjv poet. USU. TrejrX^y/zai, 
7r\r]yr)v, from TrXr^o'O'co 428, 5). 

14. TraXaico to wrestle, - Fu. TraXcuVco, Ao. eVaXatcra, Ao. P. eVaXat'a-f?7i> 

15. KXet'w to sAw, - ^Fu. AcXctarco, Ao. e/cXeio-a, Pf. KK\eiKCt, Pf. M. Ke 
K\eL(rp.rti and Ke/cXet/zai, Ao. P. eK\eiar'Sr)V. 

16. icXi/a) Att. for /cXet'co, inflected in the same way, but in Perf. Mid 

421 D. 15. Ion. K\7)?<y, Ao. e'/c\^iVra, Pf. M. Ke/cA^ito-^uat, Ao. P. 
V. K\-r)'i<rT6s. Dor. also Fu. K\a&), Ao. e/cA.o|a. 
24. Poet. 0ata ^o Aacr, Fu. afo-a>, Ao. P. 


17. <reuo to slialce, - Fll. (mcroo, Ao. ecretfra, Pf. aecreiKa, Pf. M. (retrctcr/iai, 
Ao. P. tatlv^v. 

18. 3paua> to break, - Fu. SpauVa), Ao. e'Spavo-a, Pf. M. re'Spau/xai and 
re'Sfpaucr/xat, Ao. P. e'SpaucrS^i'. 

19. Trai/a) to W&<? cease, Mid. to cmse, - Fu. Travcroo, Ao. eVaDo-a, P 
TreTrau/ca, Pf. M. TreTrav/zai, Ao. P. ^Travfr^rjv (Ion. and old Att. eVavStyi/), 
V. TravaTeos. 

20. /ceXfua) to order, - Fu. KeXeuo-co, Ao. eWXeucra, Pf. /ce/ce'XeuKa, Pf. Mi 
KeKeXev(r/, Ao. P. e'/ceXevcrS^v. 

21. Xeuco to Stone, - Fu. Xeucrto, Ao. eXeucra, Ao. P. eXeva^rjv. 

22. aKouoo to 7iear, see 423, 1, - [Pf. M. ^'/coua-fiat], Ao. P. ^KoJo-S^i/. 

23. Kpova) to beat) - Fu. Kpovo-co, Ao. e/cpouo-a, Pf. xe/cpov/ca, Pf. M. KeKpov- 
/uai (but /ce'icpouorrai), Ao. P. eKpov(T%r)v. 

IY. /Stems which assume e in some of the forms (331). 

Future. Aorist. Perfect. Passive. 

422. 1. a^3o/>iai to fo displeased. 

(413) ^le'o-STyi/ (413) 

2. /3o'o-*a> to /eecZ trans.. Mid. intrans. 

a. The primitive stem o appears in Y. jSorJs (also j8o<TK?/re'os). 

3. fiovXonai to wish. Augment, see 308 a. 

/3e/3ouX?7/icu ej3ov\r)%r)v (413) 

4. Se'oo to ?i^, Mid. to want, entreat. 

def](T(O ederjcra dedfrjica, e'Sfj^Sl^i/ (413) 

a. Impersonal Se? 7 s necessary (only once in Hm.), Impf. I5ei, Fu. 5e4j- 
<ret, Ao. eSeTjo-e. 

5. epojuat to S^, see 424, 9 ; Fu. epi^c 

6. eppa) to <7<? (to harm). 

fpprjo-a) rjppr]0-a 

7. fvda> to sleep, usually in comp. /caSeuSco. Augment, 314. 

Ka%evdf)<ra> V. 

8. e^co to boil: also e^eco cl. 7, rare. 

V. 6<>3cfc (for ty-ros) and e 

9. eSe'Xco and 3eXa> to wisA: Impf. fj%e\ov (never e3eXoi>). 

a. The Attic poets in the iambic trimeter have i&e'Aoj (not e&e'Aw) ; but 
is the usual form in Attic -prose, and the only one in Hm. and 

422 D. 3. Hm. Pr. Inf. jS^Aeo-dw, 2 Pf. ,. r ~ ^, -w. 

4. Hm. has in Act. Srjffe and e8eu7j(re, each once ; in Mid. always Seuouot, 


Find. The augmented forms in Att. always have i\ : thus Ao. 
but Sub. e&eA^o-w or &6A^<r<w etc. 

10. to fight. 

p.axov[ (374) efj.axfo-dp.rjv /uejuu^/icn V. /za^ereoy, 

11. /ie'Xa> to care for. 

a. The Att. prose has the Act. only as an impersonal verb, jteAet it con 
cerns, Fu. fj.e\r]a-et, etc. ; and in the Mid. uses the comp. 
(also eTfi/j.e\ cl. 7) passive deponent (413). 

12. /ie'XXco 50 about. Augment 808 a. 
/*eXX?7(ra) e/neXX^o-a 

13. /*e'i/a> to remain: also /LU/XI/CO cl. 8, poetic. 

e/j.iva [ V. pcveros, reos 

14. ix-'iw to distribute. 

a. ve/j-^ffu late ; eve(ji.e&r]v rare and doubtful. 

15. ot'o/xat (oi/nat) to think ; Impf. <n6p.rjv (<pp,r)v). 

olrjcrofj-ai [<arj(rd[J.r)v] (prjSrjv (413) 

16. o?xonai to l)e gone ; Impf. ^xM v was ff one or ww*^ 

(w^/iat n. A., used only in comp.) 

17. TT/p&o, see 424, 18 ; Fu. TrapSjyo-o/Aat. 

18. nerop-ai tofly, see 424, 19 ; Fu. 7r(e)Tr)( 

Y. Stems which form second tenses. 
423. a. Stems ending in a vowel. 

1. OKOUO) to A0<W. (Hm. also a/covab/xcu.) 

rjKOV(ra a.Kr)Koa (39, 321) rjKoiia-^rjv (342) 

a. 2 Plup. ijKijK6eiv, less freq. o/crj/c^eti/. Pf. M. f)Kovff/ late. 

10. Hm., also [, Par. ^to%6t(Jjuevos or /*a%6oi5/Aej/os (28 D), 
Fu. usu. ^uax^a-o^cw, Ao. ep.axeffdp.tiv or'n(fdfj.T}j/ 9 V. /*x?]T<fc. 
Hd. Pr. Par. fj.axe6/J-*vos, Fu. 

11. Hm. 2 Pf. fj.efj.rj\a t Pf. M. 3 S. /*e/tj8AeTca (for jue-/xAe-rat, 339, 53 D), 
Plup. fj.e/j.ft\eTO. 

15. Hm. Act. o^co or ofo, Mid. almost always with diaeresis 6'i', Ao. 
uiffdfj.r]v, Ao. P. ui'<r&nv. The r with diaeresis is long. 

16. Hm. also Pr. ot%yecu cl. 5, Pf. irap-^X'n Ka ' -HcL ofx wKa (f r l X~ c t } X~ a > ^^) 

19. Hm. aA&o/ to be healed, Fu. oAd^ffo/tcu. 

20. Hm. /crjSco ^o trouble, Fu. /cTjSijo-w, Ao. eK^riffa, (2 Pf. /ce'/ojSo, not in Hm., 
intrans. =) Mid. /c^So/^at am troubled, irreg. Fu. Pf. /ce/ca5^o-o^tat, different from 
Fu. Pf. of X C (428 D, 18). 

21. Hm. to attend to, Fu. fj.e5^ffo/ Cf. Hrn. /xeSwv (J/T), jueSeaf 
(VT) guardian. Cf. also jurj5o/u ^c intend, contrive, Fu.^o"o^at, Ao. efj.rjffdfj.riv. 




2. jSioo) to live. Of. ai/a-/3ia>(7KOjUcu cl. 6 '(445, l). 
/3ia><rofiai e'jSi'ai' (408, 13) /3ej3tWa 

1. e/3i(0(ra rarer /3e/3uo/zai 

3. Sva) to j^ass under, take on (416, 4) : also 

V. /3ia>rd?, reoy 

cl. 5. 

e8vv (408, 16) 

4. <j)i>(o to produce (416, 3). 
icrco e<j)V(ra 7re(j)vKa 

e(pvv (408, 17) 

424. b. Stems ending in a consonant. 

1. ayo> to lead. 

a> rjyayov (384) ^a (later 

ojiiat as pass. ^|a rare ay^o^a), 

2. apvo) to rw?<?, leqin, Mid. to Se^m. 




V. Stfrdy, re 

V. <j)VTOS 



ca to 56 heavy, rare in prose. 

epplo-a j3e'/3pl2!a 

6. ypdcpa to write. 

eypa-^fa yeypacpa, yeypau/zai eypdfpijv 

a. 1 Pf. yeypd(f)7]Ka and 1 Ao. P. eypd^rju are late. 

7. Sepoj to flay : Attic also Sat'pco cl. 4 (Hd. Se/pw). 

epa> eSeipa SeSap/Ltat (334 a) ffidpyv, V. Saprds 

8. eTTO/xat to follow; Impf. eiK-op.^ (312). 

e(T7r6[j.r]v ((TTrcojuat, (nrotp,r]v, crTroD, crTrea^ai, a"7rop,evos) 

423 D. 2. Hm. Fu. /3eo^ai or jSeVaf (378 D). 

3. Hm. has Pr. Impf. Act. only 5i1w (yet oi|/e Sucov Za^e setting), Mid. only 
i, both with same meaning. For eSuo-ero, Svo-eo, Suo-^evos, see 349 D. 

4. Hm. 2 Pf. 3 P. Tre^uatn, Par. -rre^uws, -WTOS (386 D, 360 D) ; Plup. 3 P. 

Hes. (351 D). 

5. Hm. oureta ^o wound, Ao. 8 S. ourTjo-e, comm. 2 Ao. oura (408 D, 21), 
2 Ao. M. Par. ouT^uevos wounded, Ao. P. Par. ovrri&fis. Also Pr. oura^w, Ao. 
oftTaffa freq., Pf. M. 3 S. ovraffrai, Par. o 

424 D. 1. Hm, also aytveco or ay^w (329); Ao. Imv. ^6Te (349 D). 
4. Hm. has also st. /3/je% ifo rattle, only in 2 Ao. 3 S. e'j8pa%e : - also St. 
o swallow, only in 1 Ao. Opt. 3 S. and 2 Ao. P. Par. 

be busy, Fu. e^w, 2 Ao. 

8. Ion. and poet. Act. (only once as simple) 
e(r;roy (eir-eoTroj/), Par. oTrciSj', 2 Ao. M. as in Att. The 


a. The orig. stem wasVeTr. 2 Ao. ko-K^v is for e-aie^-ofjLTjv (339) with 

irreg. breathing brought in from the Pr. eVo/mt (63). 
9. epo/xai to aslc. Pr. Impf. not used in Att., supplied from /paraa. 
(422, 5) rjpofJLrjv 

10. e'pvKco to hold lack ; chiefly poetic. 

envco fjpvga (II m. also rjpvKctKoV) 384 D) 

11. e'xco to have, hold; Impf. et^oi/ (312) : also ur^co cl. 8. 

eo>, o'X'70'to ecr^ov ecrs^Ka, eV^/Aat eV^eST/i* n. A. 

a. V. IKT^S, reos, and (rxeT<fc, re'os. The modes of the 2 Ao. are Zffxov, 
a"xw (=(rxe-&>, yet in comp. Trapc^x^ etc.), (rxoiyv (in eomp. Trape^trxot/it, 
etc.), <rx e/ s (408, 11), <rxe>, <rx^. I Q tne Pr., ^X 6 " is for X< ( 65 c )> 
and that for ffex~ a (63). The stem <rex is syncopated in eo^o? (339), 
beside which it assumes e in orx^ffu, etc. (331). 

12. 3e'po/icu to become warm ; in prose only Pr. Impf. 

13. 3Xi'/3o> to press. 

SXti/rw eSXt^a [re'3Xt(pa, -/ 

14. Xa/X7ra) to 5^^<S, Mid. XajUTro/ictt id. 
Xafi^o) eXafji^a Xe'Xa/iTra 

15. Xe'yw to gather. 

Xe'|o> eXe|a ttXo^a (319 e, 334 a) 

e?Xfy/iat eXe^S^f r. A. 

a. The Attic writers use this verb only in comp., and sometimes have Pf. 
M. \\yfjLai. On the other hand, Aeyw to S>ea& has no Pf. Act. (for 
the late AeAexo, earlier writers use ei'prj/ca, 450, 8) ; its Pf. M. is AeAey-, Ao, P. eAe'x^t'; yet Sia-\ (413) makes St-etAey^uat (319 e). 

16. di^oiyco to open; Impf. dvemyov (312): also av-oiyvv^JLi cl. 5. 
avoi^Q) dvew^a ai/ew^a, dvewya dvfco^i]v 

ai/ecpy/zat V. dvoiKTeos 

ka. For<pxa and aveyya, see 387 b. v The latter was avoided by Attic 
writers, and cu/epy/tat used instead. Rare forms are ^j/otyov, tfvoil-a. 
A comp. Si-olyu is also used, and in poetry the simple verb is found, 
but without the syllabic augment. 

jtc., in Hm. should prob. be changed to a-ira^iou, ffiroifji.rjv, etc., the preceding 
word being read without elision : 8.^0. o"JTff&<, not a^' ea-TreerS-w. Hm. Imv. 
o"7re?o for a"jreo. Hd. Ao. P. irept-e^Siji'. 

9. Ion. Pr. etpofiai (24 D c), Fu. el/^ja-o/iat. Hm. also Pr. epeo/tat cl. 7 (less 
freq. Act. epew) and ^eeivcw. He has irreg. accent in Pr. Imv. epeio (for epelb, 
from epeeo, 370 D b) and 2 Ao. Inf. epeoftot (367 D a). 

10. Hm. has also ipvK<Lva> (329 b), tyvitavdw (331). 

11. Hm. 2 Pf. oxco/co (for o/cwx), Plup. M. 3 P. eV-eoxaro irreg. Hd. 2 
Ao. M. 3 S. ijj/eVxcTO (814) for oi/eVxero. For poet, etrx^ov, see 411. 

12. Hm. Fu. Sr4pffon<u (345 D), 2 Ao. P. Sub. frepefo (343 D). 

15. Hm. and Hd. have no Pf. Act., in Pf. Mid. only Ae'Aeyjmt, in Ao. P 
^v (Hd. also (lAeyT?*'). For Ao. M. e'Ae'y/x?^, eAe/cro, see 408 D, 37. 

16. Hd. 1 Ao. &ia. Hm. Impf. M. 3 P. wiyvvvro. 


17. TrcxTro) to send. 

7re7ro/i(pa, TreT 

18. Tre'pSco, COmm. Tre'pSop-ai, Lat. pedo (422, 17). 

enapdov TreVopSa (334 a) 

19. mrofJLat to fly ; St. 7r(f)r, 7r(e)re, Trra. See 422, 18. 

7TTT], firrdfUiV) eTrrrjv (408, 5) 

a. Tre-Hjo-o/icct and ivr^v are poetic. This is the case too with tirrapat and 
7reTa,ucu, Ao. P. eTreracr^j/ (331). Poetic are also wordo/Aou, 

20. TrXeKco 

TrXe'^o) errXe^a TreVXe^a (7T7rXo^a) eTrXaK?;!/ (334 a) eVXe^S^j/ r. A. 

a. ir\K-r)v often appears as a various reading for 

21. TTi/tyw to choice. 

7rvico enviga neTrviy/jiai 

22. o-repya> to ?06. 

crrepga) corep^a eorop-ya (334 a) V. orepKTof, reos 

23. o-Tpefjxo to tfwrft. 

eorpc-v^a eoTpo<pa (334 a) eVrpacp?;!/ 

ecrrpa/^/xai etrrpe(p3^i/ r. A. 

24. repTTw to delight. 

25. TpeTTw to turn. 

ci) erpe-v/ra re'rpo^a, rerpa<pa eTpdirrjv 

fTpCLTTOV TTpa/I/iai Tp(p%T)V Y. A. 

26. rpe'^co to nourish (66 c). 

eSpe^a rerpofpa (334 a) frpd^rjv 

reSpa/LijMai e%pe<p%r]V r. A. 

27. Tpz'/3a) to 7^5. 

ta erpl^a rerpicpa erpt/S^z/ 

erpt'03?;j/ less fr 

23. Hd. 1 Ao. P. 

24. Hm. 2 Ao. M. era/mfyujv, and with re^dupl. (384 D) TTop7r^7?j/, Ao. 
P. erd'p^^nv and eTep^^rjj/, also 2 Ao. irdpirqv, Sub. 1 P. rpaTrefo/iei/ (397 D). 

25. Hd. has Pr. rpaTrw, Ao. P. frpd^Tjv (also in Hm.), but r/je^w, erpe^a. 
Hm. has also Tpaireco, rpoirea. For rfrpd^arai, see 392 D. 

26. Dor. rpd<p(a. Hm. has an intrans. 2 Ao. eTpa.(pov was nourished, grew, 
2 Pf. rerpo^a. 

30. Poet. St. 7coj/. Hm. has 2 Pf. yiywva shout, Plup. 3 S. eyeydavei (and 
eyeycoj/e, also 1 S. eyeywvevv, 351 D), Inf. yeyuvefj.ej', irreg. ytywvtiv, Par. ye- 

(not in Hm. are Sub. yeyiai/co, Imv. yeyoove ; Fu. yeywfjffw, Ao. 
; also Pr. yeywvlffKco or yfywtw, found even in Att. prose). 


28. rv(p(o to raise smoke (66 c). 

re'Sv/ijuai cTV(pTjv 

29. ^v\(t) to cool. 

fyv^o) e^vt-a c\lswynai eS^-u^S^i', also 

SECOND CLASS (Protracted Class, 326). 

425. A short a, t, v of the stem is lengthened in the present 
to 77, et, eu respectively. The following verbs belong to this class 

a. Mute Stems. 
1. X^3o> (Xd3) rare in prose, = \av%dvo) cl. 5, to lie hid. 

2. crqTreo (O-OTT) to r0 3 trans. 

ecr^x^a crecrrjTra (417) ecrdirrji' 

3. r^Ko) (rd/c) to wieft, trans. 

(417) fraKrjv 

CTrjjfirjv rare 

4. rpcoyco (for rpTjyw, St. rpdy) to <7?WM0. 
TpG)ofj,a.i crpdyov reVpo/yjuat V. 

a. The 1 Ao. r/>&>{a is also found in comp. : 

5. aXei^xo (aAt(p) to anoint. 


Xct/ijuat] rj\i<pr)v rare 

6. epciiroi (fptTr) to overthrow ; chiefly Ion. and poet. 

-o) ^'pei\^a epfjpnra am fallen rjpeifp^rjv 

fjpiTrovjfell epjyptju/^at Tjpiirrjv 

7. XetTrco (XtTr) to Zeai;0, see Paradigm 292 : also \ifjuruva cl. 5, rare. 

31. Poet. to see, 2 Ao. sSpaKov (383 D), 2 Pf. fteSo/Mea see, Ao. P 

(2 Ao. ISpdicriv Pind.). 

32. Hm. eAirw <o cawse ^o Aope, eA?ro/xat or &Airo/uai (23 D a) 
(= Att. \7r/C< cl. 4), 2 Pf. eoAira Aojoe, Plup. ffaireiv (322 D), V. 

33. Poet, taxw and toxew cl. 7, ^o sound; Hm. 2 Pf. Par. Fern, 

34. Poet. K\ to command, Fu. /ceA^tro^ot (331), Ao. K\rjffdfj.r]j/ rare v 
usu. 2 Ao. e'/ce/cA^uTji/ (384 D). 

35. Poet. ireAo/ucu (to move) ^o 6e, 2 Ao. fir\6fj.Tjv (384 D) often used aa 
pres. Less freq. Act. ire\o>, 2 Ao. 3 S. eTrAe. 

36. Poet, irep&u to destroy (in prose 7ropd-e'o>), Fu. Tre/xrco, Ao. firepffa. Hm. 
2 Ao. liTrpafro*/ (383 D), 2 Ao. M. Inf. Wp&ai (408 D, 43). 

37. Poet. st. irop, 2 Ao. tiropov imparted, Pf. M. 3 S. TreirpuTat (340) *< M 
allotted, destined, Par. ireirp<a[jii/os. 

38. Ion. and poet, re/acrobat ^o become dry, 2 Ao. P. eTfpa-rjv. Hence Act, 
o, Ao. ereptrrji/a (late Ireptra) wac?e c?ry. 

425 D. 6. Hm. Plup. M. 3 S. tpcpnrro for 


8. Trefew (TUSJ) to persuade, see Paradigm 295. 

9. o-ra'/Sco (W/3) to tread, chiefly used in Pr. Impf. ; rare in prose. 
oren//-w ecrreir/ra eart/Sij/icu (331) V. a-rftTrrdy 

10. 0Tctxa> (<fy) to march, go, chiefly in Pr. Impf. ; Ion. and poet 
crrei'^co earei^a and 


12. epevyopai (eptfy) to spew, chiefly Ion. and poet. Pres. also epvy 
ydvo) cl. 5. 

fjpvyov (in Hm. roared} 

13. Kev%o) (KV%) to hide, poetic. 

e/ceucra KeKcvSa as pres. 

14. Trei&o/icu (7^) poetic for irvv^dvofjiai cl. 5, to inquire, learn. 

15. re^x 00 (TVX, rfl/c) to wi$&<3 ready, make, poetic. 

16. favya (<j)vy) to flee ; also (frvyydva cl. 5. 

or e(j)vyov ircfavya V. (pevKros, Tfos 


426. b. Steins in u. 

1. Sea) (3v) to rw?l. Fu. 

2. pew (z>u) to swim. 

(377) evv<ra 

8. Hm. 2 Ao. irtir&ov (384 D) persuaded, whence Fu. Treirifrfjffw shall per* 
suade; but 7rt3^<rw (331) shall obey, Aor. Par. irifrfjffas trusting, 2 Plup. 1 P. 
^TreVifyiev trusted (409 D, 15). Aesch. 2 Pf. Imv. TreTrettrfo. 

11. Hm. 2 Ao. Tre^tStfyujj/ (384 D), Fu. ireQiSfooiJiai. 

13. Hm. also irev&bw cl. 5; 2 Ao. 3 S. /ci&e, Sub. 3 P. /ce/cud-axn (384 D). 
In Trag. Keu&w, Ke/ceu&a, may mean am hidden. 

15. Hm. 2 Pf. Par. TCTCUX^SJ Fu. Pf. TTGVO(JLCU, 2 Ao. rervKov, rervKo/J-ff^ 
(384 D) prepared. Also pr. rirtffKoo cl. 6 (for TJ-TU/C-O-KCW) <o prepare, aim. For 
TTeyx aTCU aro see 392 D. The forms Tereuyuai, ereux^' 1 ?*' are late. 

16. Hm. 2 Pf. Par. 7re$u$rey (cf. Hm. <t5a = <|>yy^ flight], Pf. M. Par. 

17. Ion. and poet. st. ra<J> or &air (cf. 66), 2 Pf. rfa-rjira wonder, 2 Ao. Par. 

18. Hm. T^ya (r^ay) ^o cwi = re^vw cl. 5 (435, 9), Ao. er^la, 2 Ao. 
', 2 Ao. P. eryuayTjv. 

19. Ion. and poet, epef/cw (ept) ^o rewc?, Ao. ^pet^a, 2 Ao. tfpiKov intrans. 
shivered, Pf. M. ^p' 

20. Hm. tyfv&ci) (epu3-) io ma^e re(f, Ao. Inf. epeutrat. Also pr. 
cl. 5, 

426 D. 2. Hm. has also VT)X, vfixoM-w, Fu. p^o/tat, (freq. in late prose.) 
t)or. j'ax&>> ydxofjt-ai. Hm. tvveov (308 D). 


3. 7rXe'c<> (TT\V) to 

OF eTrXeucra TreTrXevxa 

[;rXei;crco] TreTr\evo-fj,ai (342) V. 

4. irveo) (TTVV) to breathe, blow. 

Or 7rvV(ra rreTTvevKa [ 

7n>ev( [Treirveva-pai] V. 

5. pew (pv) to flow. 

eppevcra eppvrjKd (331) eppvyv, V. 

a. Instead of tppevcra and ^eucro^ot, the Attic writers generally use the Ao. 
and Fu. Pass, eppu^i/, ^cro/tcu. 

6. ^eo) (^u) to pour. 

(378) e)(ea (381) /ce^vxa, 

THIRD CLASS (Tan-Class, 32Y). 

427. The stem assumes T in the present. Verbs of this class 
have stems ending in a labial mute. 

1. aTrro) (d<) to fasten, Tcindle^ Mid. ^o touch. 


ejSa^a Pej3ap,[ f^d(f>r}v^ V. 

3. ^XaTrra) (jSXajS) to Aw. 

ff3\dfair)V and 

3. Ion. and poet. irAcow, Fu. ir\(affo/, Ao. eirAwtra, also 2 Ao. eTrAw (408 
D, 25), Pf. ireirAttJca, V. irAeor^. 

4. Hm. 2 Ao. Imv. tfjM-uwe, 2 Ao. M. 3 S. &fjL-irvvro (408 D, 30), Ao. P. 
ap-irvvv&'rjv (396 D), Pf. M. -ireirvvfjiat am animated, intelligent : connected with 
this is Pr. mpiWw (TIW) Aesch. to wia&e wse, Hm. Ao. eirtVu<ra. For intensive 
irotTTj/uw to puff with exertion, see 472 k. 

6. Hm. also x' (370 D b), Ao. usu. !x*wa (381 D), 2 Ao. M. 3 S. xvro 
(408 D, 32). 

7. Hm. a\ and a\ (a\v) to avoid (Act. aAeuw to avertf, Aesch.), 
Ao. yXedfj.-rjj' and ^AeueCjttrj*'. Pr. also oAeeiVw. 

8. Poet. /cAew (/cAu) ^o celebrate (i. e. ma&<2 men Aear of), Hm. w:Aefa>, but 
in Mid. /cAeo/ta*. 2 Ao eitXvov heard, Imv. /cAv^t or /ce/cAC&t, /cAure or 

(408 D, 28), also /cAue, /cAuere, Par. M. /cAfyiews = V. /cAurfo Aearc? o/, 

9. Poet, o-euw (<rv) ^o drive (also in late prose), Ao. e<r<reua (308 D), Pf. M. 
fcro-u/tai 7tasw (319 D, 367 D), Ao. P. eW^y, 2 Ao. M. 3 S. <riVo (408 D, 31). 
The Att. drama has irreg. forms of a Pr. Mid., 3 S. a-evrai or oroyrat, 3 P. ffovv 
*-ai, Imv. <rov, ffovff&v, covafre. From st. <TV comes also tretw to shake (= <rev~i< 
w, 328 e. 39) inflected as a verb of cl. 1 (421, 17). 

427 D. 1. Hm. Ao. P. 3 S. 
3. Hm. Pr. M. 3 S. 


4. yvd/JUTTGo (yrajuTr) to l)end. 

5. SaTrra) (ra<p, 66 c) to lury. 
3a\|/-a> e3cn|ra 

6. SpvTmo (rpv<p, 66 c) to l)reals down, weaken. 

7. KaXvnToa (xaXv/S) to cover. 

a) eKaXv^a KeKaXvjU/jai Ka\v<f)%r)V 

8. Ka/ATTTco (KO^TT) to T)end. 

e'/ca/x^a Ke/ca/z/xai (391 b) eKapffir)!/ 

9. KXeVroo (/<Xe7r) to steal. 

e/cXe-v^a /ce/<Xo(/)a (334 a) 6/cXaTTTji/ 

KK\e{J-p,aL K\f(f)^r]v n. A. pr. 

10. KOTJTO) (KOTT) to CW#. 

e/co^a KK.o<pa, xeVo/i/iat eKoTT^v, V. 

11. KpvnTco (*pv/3 or Kpvcf)) to hide. 

a. 2 Ao. P. eKpvpnv, sKpvfyTiv are hardly used in Attic : 
fKpv&6/j.iij/ occur only in late writers. 

12. *i;7rra> (KUTT) 

to S#Z0. 
) eppa\^a eppa/z/xat eppdcprjv, V. panros 

14. piWco (pi<p) to throw, see Paradigm 293. 

15. cTKaTrro) (cr/ca^)) to $<7. 

a) eV/ca-^a eonca^a, ecrKap-/Liai 


a. Instead of (r/ceTrro^uat, the Attic writers almost always use the kindred 
ffKoirea) in the Pr. Impf. ; but the other tenses of or/coTrew are found on> 
ly in late writers. 

17. (TKr]7rra> (O-K^TT) to prop. 


18. a-KcoTrra) (O-KCDTT) to jeer. 


5. Hm. Pf. M. 3 P. r&d<j>arai (392 D), Ao. P. 
10. Hm. 2 Pf. Par. /ce/co7r<fo. 6. Hm. 2 Ao. P. 

20. Hm. eViTTTco (eviTr) ^o cAeWe, also e^Vo-w cl. 4 (429 D, 3), 2 Ao. 
and evwnrov (384 D). 

21. Poet. fj,dpiTTw (iJiap-rr) to seize, Fu. /j.dpi]/ca, Ao. e]uapi|/a. In Hes. 2 Ao. 
ft6/ta/>Trov (384 D), Got. f^e^diroiev, Inf. ^uaTreetf, 2 Pf. /j.ep.apTra,. 


19. ruTrro) (TUTT, also TVTTT^ 331) to strike. 
TVTTTTjcra (eri^a, ervirov rerv/z/zat eruTr^f) 

a. eTVTTTtiffa is found in Aristotle ; Ter^TTTTj/ca, TeTuTrrr^a:, frvirT^ifjv arc 
late. The aorist, perfect, and passive systems are unknown to Attic 
prose, the aorist system being supplied from Trarda-ffto (ira-ray), the per- 
fect and passive systems from TTATJO-^W (428, 5). 

FOURTH CLASS (Iota- Class, 328). 

The stem assumes i in the present, always with euphonic 
changes. The verbs of this class are very numerous. We notice 
only those which have peculiarities of formation, especially all 
those which form second tenses. 

I. Verbs in o-a-co and which form second tenses. 

428. 1. aXXao-o-o) (aXXay) to exchange, see Paradigm 294. 

2. Krjpvcr(ra) (KT)PVK) to proclaim. 

> Kr]pva Kf/ci7pu^a, -y/zai eKf/pv^S^ 

3. /Ltacro-o) (pay) to Tcnead. 

efj.aa Wfjua^a, /ze/zay/iat 6/iay?;i/, 

4. opixrao) (opv%) to dig. 

a. Pf. M. tipvyftai (for op^pvy^at) late, 2 Ao. P. ojpvxw doubtful. 
5. TJ-XTJO-O-O) (nKrjy) to strike. (eK7r\r)yvvo-%ai cl. 5, Thuc.) 

ess freq. 

a. eKir\-fi(r<T(i), Ka.TairX'hffffw make -eirXayriv (397). Attic writers use the 
simple verb only in the perfect and passive systems, the other active 
tenses being supplied from irardffffoa (iraray), which in Att. is confined 
to the active. 
6. 7rpacr(ro) (jrpay) to do. 

firpat-a TreTrpa^a, Trerrpaya (387 b) 

7. TTT^crora) (TTT^K) to cower : also TrroxTcTco Ion. and poet. 


8. Tapao-o-o) (jdpax) to disturb : also Spcio-o-co (rpa^) mostly poet. 

rapa^w eYapaa rerapay/nai frapdx^f 

c'Spa^a (66 c) reVp^a am troubled (eSpa^S?;!/ r.) 

9. rao-o-co (ray) to arrange. 

raa> ifVa^a re'ra^a, reraypiai erdx^v (r. rra 

428 D. 5. Hm. 2 Ao. (^irXtiyov (384 D), 2 Ao. P. eK-ir^yvv, K 

7. Hm. has from kindred St. -TTTO, 2 Ao. 3D. Kara-TrT^Tijj/ (408 D, 23) and 
Pf. Par. TreTi-TTjcSy, -WTOS (386 D, 360 D). 


10. <ppiWw ((ppiK) to le rough. 

am rough 
11. (pv\do-o-a ((pflXd*) to guard, Mid. to guard (one's self) against. 

12. KXaa> (/cXayy, 328 b) to wia<? a loud noise. 

KXaya> e/cXaya Ke'/cXayya as pres., Fu. Pf. KK\ 

13. *paa> (*pay) to cry ; Pr. Impf. rare. 

K.payov KeKpaya as pres., Fu. Pf. KeKpd^opai 

a. Kpaco, e/c/>aa, late. Pf. Imv. Keicpaxbi, see 409 8 - 

14. peo> (pey) to do, Ion. and poet. : also epSco (for epo>, st. epy). 

pe|o> epe^a, eppe^a ^P^X^ 

ep|o) ep|a eopya, ecopyeti/ (322 D) 

a. Hd. has a Pr. Impf. e'pSw instead of ep5o>. 

15. o-(pdfa (vcpay) to slay, in Attic prose usu. o-<parra>. 
<r(bda) (r(paa ecr< ecr(pdyr]v, r. 

16. rpt'^co (rpty) ^o squeak. Ion. and poet. 2 Pf. reYpfya as pres 

17. (ppdfa (<ppa) to declare. 

(bpaaa) ecppaaa vre^paKa, 7re^) ecppacrStyi' 

18. x"C w (x a ^) ^ w #^ retire, Mid. ft? retire; chiefly poetic. 
Xda-op.a.1 e^ao-a/a^v 

19. x*'a> (x e ^) alvum exonero. 
Xco-ovpai (377) e^eo-a (e^ecroi/) Ke^oda (pass 

II. F^Js m 0-a-ft) <^^(^ 5 w^A other peculiarities. 
429. a. Labial stems (328 a, b). 

1. fl-eVcro) (Trerr) to C(?oX; .' also TreVro) later. 

ra) erre^a TreVf/xftat eTrefp^rjv 

2. yi^a) (yij3) to was^ Aawc^ or feet: also i/iVrco not Att. 


1.0. Pind. Pf. Par. Tre^pi/covras, see 360 D. 

12. Poet. 2 Ao. fK\ayoy. Hm. 2 Pf. Par. KeKXyyAs, G. -OVTOS (360 D). 

17. Hm. 2 Ao. e'ire>pa&oi/ (384 D). Hes. Pf. M. Par. Tre^aS^ueVos. 

18. Hm. 2 Ao. M. irreg. /ce/caS^i' (384 D) retired, but Act. Kenadov de- 
prived, Fu. KKd8^<ro) shall deprive. Cf. 422 D, 20. 

20. Poet, /c/nfc !fo creaA;; 2 Ao. 3 S. /c/jfoe (or Kpi'ye) Hm., 2 Pf. tteicpiya 

21. Poet. TreAci^a) (TreAaS,, TrAa) <o 5riw^ wear, Mid. to come near, Fu. 
), TreAw (375), Ao. eTreAaa-a, Pf. M. TreVAT^at, Ao. P. eir\d<r&r]v and Trag. 

v, 2 Ao. M. 3 S. 7TA9JTO, 3 P. eTrATjyro (408 D, 22). Pr. also ireAow, Ep, 
or TrtAvaw cl. 5 (443 D, 6), Trag. ireAa&w, 7rAc&&> (411). 

429 D. 3. Hm. eVWw (ej/nr)= eviirrot cl. 3, to chide (427 D, 20). 
4. Hm. offffopcu (OTT) to foresee, only Pr. Impf. ; cf. 450, 4. 

431] VERBS IN O-CTO) AND o>. 163 

430. b. Lingual stems which make o-o-co (TTW), 328 a. 

1. UPHOTTCO to Jit together: also &pp6a> not Att. 
dpp.dcra> rjpp.o(ra i]pp.6a'Sr]v 

2. /3XtVreo to take the honey (jiieXi, p.e'Xir-o<?, 53 D). Ao. e/3Xiora, 

3. /3pa0-o-eo to 5<9e7 [Ao. e/3pao-a, Pf. M. 

4. epeVo-co to r0W. Ao. 

5. 7ru<rcra> to sprinlcle. 


C. TrXdWco to form. 
a) eTrXacra TreVXao-jucu 

7. TrnWo) to pound. 

eTTTto-a eVrio-fiai 

431. c. Stems of variable form. 

1. dpTrci^o) (dpTraS, also apiray not Att.) to 
(ipTraoro) (-o/zat) T^pTracra rjpTraKa^ fjpTrao'iJiai 

a. 2 Ao. P. ypirdyrjv late. Verbal a.pira.ffT6s (apiraitrds n. A..). 

2. /3aarao> (/SaoraS, late /Saoray) to carry, poet, (late in prose). 
acrracroo e/3aoTa<ra [-^a] [/SejSaaray/iat] 

3. i/aWco (i/ay and m 

4. Trat'^a) (?raiS and ?raiy) to sport. 

-ovfj-ai (377) eVato-a TreVaicr/Liat V. 

a. e7raia, ire7roi%a, 7r/7rai7/*at, 67rat%3-7jj' are late : so also Fu. 

5. crco^co (crco, (rcoS) to 80/1)6. 

cVtutra (recrcaKa, creo'uxj' 

(Tcro) V. 

5. Hm. Aa^o/iai (AajS) = Ka^avu cl. 5, to ta&e (437, 4). Attic poets have 

430 D. 8. Hd. afdffffoo = atyda to feel, Ao. 

9. Hra. Ifjida-ffcD to lash, Fu. ipaffo), Ao. '(uacra; cf. t/xas /as/i, G. l^avr-os. 

10. Poet. Kop-uffffw (KopvSr] to equip, Ao. M. Kopva-ffdpevos, Pf. M. KeKopvfr- 
(46 D). 

11. Poet, (rare in prose) Ai<r<ro/iai (AIT) to pray, also AtVo^cu cl. 1. Hm. 
Ao. e'AAto-a^Tjv (308 D), 2 Ao. Inf. AireVfrat. 

12. Poet. j/ia-cro,uat to #o, Fu. viff 0^0.1. Also Pr. j/eo^at, usu. with future 
meaning. The orig. stem was perhaps w, whence yet (326) or J/IT (327); veo/ 
for j/eio/iai (39 a). 

431 D. 5. Hm. Pr. crci^w and <rc6w (shortened in Sub. cnfys, erJ?/, o-Jw<rt), Fu. 
), Ao. eVa&xra, Ao. P. f<rau>&r)j/. The orig. stem was o-ao (cf. 210), from 
which comes also a 2 Ao. (at-form) (raw Ae sawc? and save 


6. i<a (i^, ie, 331) to sit, seat, Mid. ?b/zcu, also cbfuu (e f ), to sit; 
found chiefly in comp. with Kara. Hence 
Ka3ico, Impf. eK<&iov (314) : also iai/o>, KaSi^ava), cl. 5. 
KaStai (37 G) e/caSto-a and /ca3i(7a 

Impf. eKa^e^ofJiTjv and 
(for Ka3ee(ro/-iat, 331, 374) 
Pr. Ind. efouat, /ca&efouat, is rare in classic Greek. The Pr. Inf. and 
Par. and the Impf. have usually an aorist meaning, and seem to have 
been originally aorists from the stem o-e5 (Lat. sed-eo) with Epic re- 
duplication (384 D) : etfpnv for etrSo^j/ (56) for ffe-fffyS-oMv (63, 38), 
cf. KeK\6/j.r]v (424 D, 34) from Kf\ From the same stem was form- 
ed ifc = tV5w = o><r(e)5-a> (332, 339), cf. TT/TTTW (449, 4) = 7rt-7r(e)T-. 

7. p.vfa (fiuy, juue) to suck: later /uuVo>, /xuao>. 


8. oa> (oS, o^e) to smell. 

(6'ScoSa as pres., Hm.) 

III. Liquid stems which form second tenses. 

432. 1. aye/peo (ayep) to gather. 
ayepaj ^'yetpa ayjyyepKa, -fiat 

2. aipo) (ap) to toy&e w^, foar <zwy ; contracted from aeipw 
apw (a) ^pa (382 a) ^pa, ^p/xat fjp%r]i> 

3. aXXo/wu (dX) to Zea/?. 

dXoG/zai rjXdjJirjv (382 a. 2 Ao. f)\6p.rjv doubtful iu Att. 5 cf. 408 D, 33) 

4. /3dXXa> (/3aX, ^Xa, 340) to throw. 

/SaXco e/3aXoi/ 

6. Hm. Ao. eT(ra (= e-treS-o-a, 6-4-(ra) seated, Imv. efcroj/ (better eWov), Inf. 
., Par. eVas (ai/eVas), Hd. c /<ras; Mid. trans. 3 S. e'eWaro (etWro Eur., 
Pind.), Par. ecrffdnevos, Hd. flffd/jievos] Pu. effffo/Aai (= ffeS-ffoftat). Iu 
comp. Ao. /co3-e?(ra and Ka&iffa. *o[ as Pr. is unknown to Hm. : for e^eoz 
Od. K, 378, read e^o 2 Ao. 

9. Hm. a^va-ffta (aQvy, a^v5) to draw out, Fu. o<iy&>, Ao. ^txra. Also 
once Pr. atyvoo. 

432 D. 1. Hm. Pr. Impf. 3 P. yyepefrovrai, -orro(411), 2 Ao. 3 P. aytyovro, 
Inf. &yepe<r&M (367 D), Par. ayp6^vos (384 D). 

2. Hm. has only Ao. M. 7j/?cfy?j/, 2 Ao. ap6/j.r)v (o), a.poip.t\v t apeff&ai, Ao. 
P. Par. ap&eis. He comm. uses Ion. and poet, defyxw (aep), Ao. tfeipa, Ao. P. 
Wpbriv, Plup. 3 S. />TO (for -rjopro): Pr. Impf. 3 P. a/epe'dwrat, -OJ/TO (411). 
The stem aep has the sense of ep (rep, Pr. e?pei> ^o join, 312 D) in Ao. 
II. K, 499, Ao. M. Sub. ffwaeiperat II. o, 680. 

4. Hm. Pf. 2 S. j8ej8\^ot (363 D), 3 P. ^Marai, (355 D e), also 
Par. ^8e)8oA7?/xeVos ; 2 Ao. M. 3 S. ejSA^ro, etc. (408 D, 20); Fu. once 


5. eyeipo) (eyfp) to rouse, wake trans., Mid. to wake intrans. 
eyepco fjyfipa eypfjyopa (321, 417) yyep'Srjv 

rjypo/jLTjv (339) cyr^yep/jLai 

a. The Inf. 2 Ao. M. has the accent of a present : e-ypecr&ot. A poetic 
Pr. eypw, eypo/iai is also found. 

6. 3aXXo> (3aX) to flourish. 2 Pf. re^\a. 

7. Kalva (Kent) to MIL 2 Ao. eKavovi other tenses doubtful. In 
prose only as compound, KaraxaiVo). 

8. Kei'pco (ep) to shear. 

eKfipa [KfKapKa] KfKapfjuu eftd/H/P, V. Kapros 

9. K\ivco (/cXij/) to make incline, see 433, 1. 

10. KretVco (fcrei/) to ^'K, see 433, 4. 

11. /xcuVojuai (/uav) to 5<3 wa<Z: poet. /LiaiVo) to madden, Ao. e/ 

fj, p.k\M)va am mad 

12. 6(pei\(o to 5^ obliged. 2 Ao. a></>eXoi>. From o^etXe (331) come 

13. Treipo) (vrep) to pierce. 

eVetpa (334 a) cTrdprjv 

14. craipco (o-ap) to sweep. 

trapo) ea-?;pa creo-jypa ^H^ 

15. o-Ke'XXo) (o-KcX, o-/cXe, 340) to dry (416, 6). 

<TK\f)(TOfJiai (TK\T]V (408, 10) (TK\r)Ka 

16. (TTT-etpCO ((TTTep) to SOW?. V. CTTTOpTOff 

etTTTfipa ecrTrap/Mai (334 a) etnrdprjv 

17. o-re'XXo) (oreX) to s<5?id, see Paradigm 290. 

18. o-cpaXXoj (o-(pdX) to make fall. 

ea(pr]\a [eV(paXKa] eV(paX/zat 

19. (pau/o) (^d^) to s^Wj see Paradigm 291. 

20. cpSet'pco (<p3ep) to corrupt, destroy. 

poet.) V. (p^apros 

6. Hm. Pf. Par. Fern. re&aAvTa (338 D), 2 Ao. 3 S. &a\e. Hm. Pr. 
Fu. frvXfao, Pr. Par. &o\e^wv (.411), 
8. Hm. Ao. e/cepo-a (345 D). 

11. Urn. Ao. ip'rivdMv, Theoc. Pf. M. 

12. Hra. in Pr. Impf. almost always o^eAAcy (different from 6<f>e\\ca to in- 
crease, Ao. Opt. o</)e\\eie, 345 D). 

15. Hm. 1 Ao. irreg. effK-rjXa made dry. 

19. Hm. 2 Ao. Act. iter. QdveffKe appeared. From older st. </> he has 
Impf. <ce (morn) appeared, Fu. Pf. Tre^fferai will appear. For Qaelva), Ao. P. 
tya.&vS>-r)v, see 396 D. For intensive ira^cui/w, ira^cwW, see 472 k. 

20. Hm. Fu. Sia-^epa-ca (345 D), 2 Pf. fo-ty&opa am ruined (in Att. poets 
trans, and intr.). H<3. Fu. M. 8ia.-(f)&apo/j.a,i intr. 


21. xai'po) (xap, also xape, X ai P*i 331 ) 

M. /ce^ap- e^apijv as act. 
or /ce^ap/xai V. 

IY. Liquid stems which reject v. 

433. A few liquid verbs reject their final v in the perfect and 
passive systems. They are 

1. K\ivu> (K\IV) to make incline. 

K\i%r)v and 

2. Kpiva> (KP?V) to judge. 

Kplv> tKplva KeicpiKa, Ke/cpfyiai 

3. 7rXvj/a) (7rXvi>) to wash clothes. 

7T\vi>5) eVXvi/a 7reir\ (eirXyStyv n. A.) 

4. KTfivo) (icrei/) to 2%ZZ; also drro-KTivvvfj.^ -tfca, cl. 5. 

fKTfiva dir-eKTova (later (e/craS^i' Hm.) 

CKTO.VOV poet. efcrayxa, e/craxa) 

a. For 2 Ao. poet, e/cray, see 408, 4. a7r-e/CTcj/&at and airo-KTaj/d^pat Inf. 
Pf. and 1 Ao. Pass, are late. For these tenses the Attic uses red-j^/ccc 
and Z&avov from frviiffKca (444, 4). 

5. reiVw (rev) to extend. 

eretva rera/ca, rera/zai cTtfyiyv 

NOTE. The stems of these verbs ended originally with a vowel, to which 
v was afterwards added: Kpt, Kpn>; TrXv, TrXfJi/; KTO, /crdv, /crei/ (334 a) ; 

21. Hm. Ao. M. exripdpr)!', 2 Ao. /cexa/xfyn?:/ (384 D), Fu. /cexapTjcrw, -o/taz, 
Pf. Par. Kxapr]6s (386 D). 

22. Hm. eUw (e\, Fe\) iJo j^ress, Ao. (e)e\(ra, Pf. M. eeA,uc, 2 Ao. P. e'<Arj;>, 
Inf. aATjvat. Pind. has 2 Plup. 3 S. e6\ei. In Pr. Impf. Act., Hm. has only 
et'Aecw (331). Even Attic writers have Pr. Impf. et ( \&> or etAew, also e^AAw : 

is old and poetic. 

23. Poet, fvaipw (e^ap) to slay, 2 Ao. tfvapov, Ao. M. 3 S. e^paro. 

24. Poet. 3-eu-co (^cj') ^o smite, Fu. frevcD, Ao. ed-etva, 2 Ao. (Ind. not used) 

25. Hm. [ (>ep) <o receiwe as one's par, 2 Pf. 3 S. e/^uope (319 D), 
Pf. M. 3 S. efym/mu (319 e) it is fated used even in Att. prose, Par. 

In later poets, jue/^p^fce, fj.e/j.6pif)Tai, fMsfj.oprjiJ.fvos. 

26. Poet. TraAA&j (iraA) to shake, Ao. eTnjAa; Hm. 2 Ao. Par. 
(384 D), 2 Ao. M. 3 S. -TraAro (408 D, 42). 

433 D. 1. Hm. Ao. P. tic\lvfrnv (396 D) and l K \for)v, Pf. M. 3 P. /ce/cAi'cmw 
(392 D). 2. Hm. Ao. P. eKpiv^y (so Hd.) and eKpl^-rjv. 

4. Hm. Fu. KTeyf'co and /craveo). 

5. From st. TO, Hm. makes also Pr . rayvw (once with ^t-form, Pr. M. 3 S. 
rdvvrai), Fu. ravvffw, Ao. erdviiffa, Pf. M. TTdvvff/, Ao. P. fTavvff&rjv. Also 
Pr. TtTaij/a>, Ao. eTiTrjva. The form TTJ in /Im. is perhaps an Imv. of st. ra 
'TT? = ra-e), reach t -take thou. 


ra, rdf, rev. They might therefore be referred to the fifth class. But 
as the added v has extended beyond the present to the future and aorist 
systems, they are here included in the fourth class. 

In imitation of these verbs, the v of other liquid stems is sometimes 
dropped by late writers before K of the 1 Pf. : reSep/mKa for TeSe'pjuayKa from 
to warm. But one verb belongs more properly to this series, yiz. 
6. KfpSatVw (xepSdv, KepSa) to gain. 
eWpSdm (382) 

Y. Vowel-stems of the fourth class. 

434. 1. Kcu'co (*av) to turn; Att. KOW uncontracted. 
eKava-a KKavK.a i 

V. KavoTOS) KCIVTOS veKau/zcu (eKcirjv Hm.) 

2. /cXata) (*Xav) to 200p / Att. /tXaco uncontracted. 

K\avcra Ke/cXau/icu V. /cXavros 1 and 

K\av(rovfJ,ai (377), also xXat^crco, KXarycra) (33l) K\avarTOs 

a. KeK\av<, eK\avff&riv (342) are late. 

FIFTH CLASS (Nasal Class, 329). 

The stem assumes v in the present, or a syllable containing v. 
I. /Stems which assume v. 

435. 1. /3cuVco (/3a) to go. (for /3<w-i-a>, cf. 328 d.) 

pf]( efirjv (408, l) /Se/Sr/Ka (409 r 2) e'/SaStyz/ in COmp. 

(416, 2) c/3rjcra /3ej3a/zai in COmp. V. jSardf, reo? 

6. Hd. Fu. KepS^a-Ojuat, Ao. 

7. Hm. st. </>/, orig. <a, 2 Ao. eiretpvov, irfyvov (384 D) H//ec?, Pf. M. 
Fu. Pf. 

434 D. 1. Hm. Ao. e/crja (also e/ceta probably incorrect), cf. 39. Attic 
poets have Par. /ceos (shortened from K-fjas). 

3. Poet. Safw (So) to burn trans., Mid. intr., 2 Pf. SeSrja intr., 2 Ao. M. 
Sub. 3 S. Sarjraj. 

4. Poet. (Sa) to divide, Fu. Saa-o^ot, Ao. ISaffdfjL'rjv (used even in 
Att. prose), Pf. 3 S. Se'Sao-rat, 3 P. (irreg.) SeSaiarat. Also Pr. SaTe'o/tcu (Hes. 
Ao. Inf. irreg. SareWd-at, 381 D). . 

5. Poet. [ (^ua, juev) to reach after, seek for, Fu. /j.d(, Ao. /*- 
(ra^rjj/, 2 Pf. fj.ffj.ova press on, desire eagerly, P. /u.e,ua,uej/ etc. (409 D, 9), V. ^uao-- 
rJs. In the sense of the Pf., Hm. has intensive fj.aifj.dca (472 k), Ao. fj,alfj.r]ffe. 
In Att. Trag. we find Pr. Par. fj.cafj.evos (= fj.a-ofj.evos). 

6. Poet, vaico (va) to inhabit, Ao. ei/acrera caused to inhabit, M. evacro'dfj.'rfv 
became settled in, = Ao. P. tvdff&qv. Pf. M. vevaffpai lat. Hm. has also Pr. 
roj6T<xo>, Par. Fern, vaierdioffa (370 D a). 

7. Hm. oirvtu (oirv) to take to wife, Fu. oTrr-crw Aristoph. 

435 D. 1. Hm. Ao. M. 3 S. e^o-exo (349 D). Pr. also pdffKot Cl. 6 (444 D, 
11). Pr. Par. fr&ds (403 D, 10), also 0<cDv (as if from 


2. eXauj/a> (eXa) to drive : also e'Xuco poetic. 

e'Xco (e'Xuo-o), 37o) fj\a(ra eX^XaKa, \r)\ r)\a%r)V 

a. e\at>vci> is prob. for e\a-w-d>, cf. 329 d. eA4}Aao>tc, ^Aao-d^z/ are late. 

3. <p%dva) (<p3a) to anticipate. (Hm. 

e'cpfyv (408, 7) e<2a/<a 

4. rnVco (TU, also TTO) drink. 

Tfio/zcu (378) fTTiov (408, 15) TreTTCo/ca, TreVojiiai eno^rjv 

a. Fu. also Tnofyicu, perhaps not Attic. The Attic makes t usually long in 
the Fu., short in the Ao. 

5. rii>a> (rt) to pay lack, Mid. to obtain payment : also riVv/zi poet. 
TICTOJ ertcra rerfKa, Tericrp-ai ericr^rjv (342) 

6. 03ti/w ((/>3t) to perish, chiefly Ion. and poet. 
0S iVw trans. effiio-a trans, e^ftfyuu 

a. Late e^^^cra, Icpfrivrjica (331). 

7. Sa/ct/co (SdK) to Z^to. 

(412) e'SaACOi/ de8r) 

8. Ka/^i/o) (xa/i, K/xa, 340) to 5e weary, 

fKdfJiov KfKftrjKa 

9. re'/xvco (rfju, T/xe, 340) to C^^. 
re/iai eTffiov (fTa.jj.ov) rer/i^Ka, 

II. Stems which assume av. 

436. 1. cuVSai/o/im (aio-S) to perceive : also aTorSo/icu rare. 
tjO'^ofirjv ^'crS^/iat Y. 

2. afjiaprdvco (d/iapr) to 67 1 ?'. 

rj/j,apTov T^juapr^Ka, -rj/j-ai 

3. avgdvoo (av^) to increase: also ai/'oo (Hm. ae 


2. Hm. Fu. e'AJw, e'Aaay, etc. (375 D); Plup. M. 3 S. c'A^Aoro, once 
Aaro, 3 P. eArjAeSoro (392 D). 

5. Hm. rfj/co. Hm. and Hd. have also Pr. rivvfj.i, rfvv/jiai. Different from 
is Poet. Ttw cl. 1, ^o honor, Fu. TEC-CO, Ao. erttra, Pf. M. Par. rertjuej/os, V. 

6. Hm. ^EW, 2 Ao. ^3-toz/, M. ^tf^ijv etc. (408 D, 27). Pr. also 0&i- 

8. Hm. Pf. Par. KSK^WS, -UTOS (386 D. 360 D). 

9. Ion. rcfyu'co, 2 Ao. era^o?/. Hm. has Pr. re^j/cw once, reftco once ; also 
yuay) cl. 2 (425 D, 18). 

10. Hm. Srvvta (Hes. 

436 D. 2. Hm. 2 A.o. ^^porov (for rj^paTo^, rj/j-poTOj/, 383 D. 25. 53 D). 

4.37] STEMS WHICH ASSUME ttV. 169 

4. /3Xao-rdVco (/3Xa<rr) to sprout : also jSAao-reo) cl. 7, rare. 

e/3Xacrrov (j3)<F/3Xdo-TJ7Ka (319 c) 

a. Later 1 Ao. ej8Aa<rT7j(ra. 

5. Sap3cu/a> (Sap3) &> 5?^. 

edapZov dedap^Ka (331 ) [edp3?;i>] 

a. The simple verb is used only in the 2 Ao. ; elsewhere 

6. aTT-e^dj' e ~ ^ ^ 6 hated. 

a. The forms e%3-a> to Aafe, ex&o/tat, cbrex&o/*cu, are poetic or late. 

7. /a^avco 0x) ^ c0w0 ^ ^0} Io n - and poet. 

CKIXOV V. d-Ki}(r]TO$ 

8. otSai/a) (oi5) and otSeco cl. 7, &? sicell. (oZSao), oiSaiW, late.) ; 

9. oXtcrSavo) (oXio-3) i(? S^. (oXiorSatVco late.) 

wXto-Soi/ (wXur^Ka and a)Xicr2!j;o-a n. A.) 

10. oar<ppatVojuai (oo-<pp) to smell, (for oo-cppai'-i-o/zai, cf. 328 d.) 
rjo'OfJiaL wcr(j)p6[j,rjv 

a. offtypdofjiai cl. 7, offtypalvca are late ; so also 1 Ao. 

11. ocpXio-Kaixa (o^>X, o(p\i(TK, 330) to incur judgment. 

a. 1 Ao. &<p\-n<ra rare. 2 Ao. Inf. and Par. are sometimes accented as 
present : o^Aetv, otyXuv. This verb is connected with btyei\Q> (o</e\), 
432, 12. 

437. The following have an inserted nasal. 

1. di>SaW (aS) fo please, Ion. and poet. 
o-o) Hd. eaSoi> Hd. eiaSa 

2. 3iyydVa> (Sty) i(? if(?WcA. 

V. a- 

5. Hm. 2 Ap. %o^ov (383 D). 

7. Hm. Klxdvo), Ao. once Kixfaaro. For jiti-forms from st. Ki%e (331), 
see 404 D d. 

10. Hm. Ao. 3 P. offtypavTo. 

12. Hm. aXSaveo (aA.5) ^o wa^e /ar^e (Aesch. aXSafrw); also aXtifoKu (ttA5e, 
331) cl. 6, to $rroz0 Zar^e. 

13. Hes. oAtrofj/w (oAir) ^o offend. Hm. 2 Ao. ^AT-rov, M. TjAmfyiTjv, Pf. 
Par. irreg. aXir^evos (331, 367 D'b). 

14. Eur. aXty&va) (oA^>) ^o procure. Hm. 2 Ao. facpov. 

15. Hm. tpiSalvw (eptS) <o contend ( = tyifa cl. 4), Ao. M. Inf. fpiti-fi<rafffrcu 
(831). Pr. also eptfyicuVtw to provoke. 

437 D. 1. Hm. Impf. ^vSai/oj/, f^avov (Hd. Ic^Scwn/?), see 312 D ; 2 Ao. 
euaSov (=eFFa5ov, cf. 308 D), 2 Pf. c'cXSa. For fopevos, see 408 D, 44. 


3. \ayxavo) (Xa^) to- obtain l)y lot. 
(326) eXd^oi/ eiX^a, 

a. 2 Pf. AeAo7x is chiefly Ion. and poet. 

4. \apfiava (Xd/3) to take. 

eXa/5oi/ ei'X^c^a, 

a. For there is a rare form 

5. Xay3az/a> (Xd3) *0 ^<? ^> Mid. to forget: also X^Sco cl. 2 (425, 1). 

eXaSJov XeXjjSa, XeX^ayzai 

a. The simple Mid. is rare in prose, lTri\w&dj/o} (more rarely e/c-Aaj* 
&& being used instead. 

6. navZdvo) (/na3) to learn. 

fjia%r](rofji,ai e/id3oi> /ue/xaST/Ka V. juaS^Toy, -reoj 

7. Trvv^dvo/jiai (jrHS) to inquire, learn : also 9retfeo/*at- cl. 2, poet. 
TTf 7rv^6p.r]v TTfTTVcrp-ai V. Treucrreos 

8. Tfy^d^cu (TI;^) ?<? 7i^ 3 happen. 
Tcv^opai Tvxv rerv^Ka (331) 

a. 2 Pf. rereuxa ojccurs first in Demosth. : TeVetry^cu, ereux&Tj*', late. 

NOTE on 435-7. Mute stems, which assume i/ or av in the present, 
have their proper form only in the 2 Ao. ; elsewhere they either lengthen 
the short vowel (like verbs of the second class, 326), or assume e (331). 

III. Stems which assume ve. 

438. 1. /Swe'o) (/3v) to stop up. 
/Svo-w eftva-a /3e'/3voyxai (342) 

(IK) to come. 

a. The simple verb is rare in prose : a^-iKv^op-ai is commonly used instead. 
The i of the 2 Ao. is short, but made long in the Ind. by the augment. 

3. Hd. Fu. \d^ (24 D a). Hm. 2 Ao. f\axov obtained by lot, but Ae- 
KO.XOV (384 D) made partaker. 

4. Hd. Fu. Ad^o^uat, Pf. AeAa?j:a, Pf. M. AeAa/i^at (391 b), Ao. P. 
', V. Aa/tTrnk, -reos. Hm. 2 Ao. M. Inf. AeAafcV&at (384 D). 

5. Hm. 2 Ao. eAa&oj/ Jay hid, but AeAo^ov (384 D) cawsed to forget, M. 

to forget, Pf. M. \e\aff pat have forgotten. The meaning cawse to 
forget is found also in rare Pr. Xri&dvco, Ao. eATjtra, and sometimes in Pr. Act. 
\7)&co. Dor. Ao. P. e\dfffrr]v. Late Ao. M. e'Aijorcfyoji/. 

7. Hm. 2 Ao. M. Opt. TreTru^otro (384 D). 

8. Hm. has also 1 Ao. eTwx?j<ra, and often uses Teruy^ai, ervx^w (from 
rei>x<> cl. 2, 425, 15) in the sense of reru^/ccc, ei-v^o;/. Hd. has 2 Pf. Terey%a. 

9. Hm. -)(a.v&a.v<a (%"^> X a;/ 5 X t/ 5) ^o contain, Fu. xe/(ro/xat (=%ej/5-tro/tat), 
2 Ao. e%a5ov, 2 Pf. /cexavSa. 

438 D. 2. Hin. has Pr. Impf. t/o/eo^at only twice, often i'/ccipw (also f/c^o- 
^at) and faw (i), 1 Ao. I|e, T|ov (349 D). For 2 Ao. Par. IK^VOS, see 408 D, 45 
Hd. Pf. M. 3 P. cbriWaz, forf/caro (392 D). 


3. Kweco (KU) to kiss. Ao. e 

a. The simple verb is rare in prose ; but irposHvvso) to do homage is fre- 
quent ; it makes TrposKvj/^ffci), TrposeKvvrjffa (irposeKvffa poet.). 

4. 7TiTvea> (rrer, 331 c) to fall, poet. 2 Ao. CTTLTVOV. Cf. TTiWo), 449, 4. 
a. Many grammarians recognize a Pr. irirvw, and regard tirirvov as Impf. 

5. (ap.7r-e^) = d/iTre^ojucu, to have Oil .' active 



is for o^t0(t)-t(r%-ve-o/iat. For change of <|> to TT, cf. 65 d. 
is for iVx> and that for <rt-<r(e)x, a reduplicated stem of e^cy (0-6%) 
^o /iaye (332. 424, 11). The 2 Ao. must be divided ^Trt-crxov; i here 
belongs to the preposition. 
6. -uTno-x^ofjiai (VTT-CX) to promise. See 5 a above and 424, 11. 

IY. Stems which assume vv (after a vowel vvv). See 4:07. 

439. Stems in a. 

1. Kpa.vvv}jLi (xepa, /<pa, 339) ^<? mix. 

Kfpaa-u> eKepd(ra /ceKpdKa, KeKpdjJiai fKpuSrjv Or 

V. Kpareos [Ke/cepacrjuai] Kfpdo''^rjv 

2. Kpejuawu/zi (Kpejj.a) to Jiang trans. : (also Kpc^do) late.) 

Kpe/xco (-acr<i)375) ficpffji&cra [Ke/<rpe/iatr/Aai] tKpefj.da'Srjv (342) 

a. For Mid. Kpe^a^ai to hang intrans., Fu. /c/>ejU^<ro/*ai, see 404, 8. 

3. TreTavvvfJit (Trera) if<? expand' (also TTfraoo late.) 

rrerco (-tzo-co 375) eWracra TreVra/xai (339) errfTao-^rjv (342) 

a. TreTreVa/ca late, TreTrerao'^at not Att. 

4. (TKeftavvvfjii (o-/<ea) ^c? scatter : also o-Ki'Si/j/^i rare in^rose. 
cr/ceSo) (-ao-co 375) eV/ce'Sdcra e'cnce'Sacr/zcn (342) faKeddo-^rjv 

440. Stems in e. 

1. ej/z/ujut (e, orig. Ff?, Lat. ves-tio) to clothe: simple verb poetic. 

d/LKptw (-eVco 374) Tj/j.CpifO'a (314) rji^fpie 

439 D. 1. Hm. also Pr. /cepc^co, /cepofo, Ao. Inf. *iri-Kpriffa.i : Pr. Sub. 3 P. 
rai is accented like the ^ut-forms in 401 k. For Kipvr)fj.i, see 443 D, 2. 

4. Ilm. Ao. also without cr, eKe'5a<r<ra, e/ceSaa-^j/ ; cf. KiSu-rj/ni 443 D, 8. 

5. Hm. (70) #e ^/ac?, Fu. < yayu<ra'o / uaz, late Pf. ysy&vv Cf. 
^ofw cl. 4, only in Pr. Par. yaluv. 

440 D. 1. Hm. Impf. ara-efvuoj/(=Fe(r-woi/), cf. Hd. eTr-etVytr^a:, Fu. eWa>, 
Ao. 0"(ra, Ao. M. 3 S. e((r)<raTO or eeircraTO, Pf. M. el]a,ai (= Fecr-^iat), fffffai, effrai 
(enroi?), Plup. 2, 3 S. cWo, eVro or eWro, 3 D. ftrdipr, 3 P. e'/aro (= Fea--aTo), 
Par. fl/j,vos. 


2. Kopewviu (xope) to satiate. 

Kopecrco e/tdpecra KeKopecrpu (342) eKOpeaStyv 

3. o-jSeWu/u (o-/3e) to extinguish (416, 5). 
o-/3e'cra> eo-fteo-a ecr^rjKa 

o-fir](ropai eafirjv (408, 9). eV/Seo-pat (342) eV/SecrST?!/ 

4. (rropei/z/upi (crrope) to spread out: also arpcofi/up-t (crropi/f/it). 
crropco (-ecrco 374) eardpecra [e<m$pforfiac] 

441. Stems in a>. 

2. p&wvpi (poo) to strengthen. 

pa>era> eppoocra eppcop-ai dm StTOng eppaxrfiTjv (342) 

3. crTpu)vvvfj.i (orpco) to spread out = trropfnvfu (and 
crrpcocrw eorpwcra ecrrpco/xai 

4. xptovwui (xpoo) to color = ^pco^co cl. 4. 

Xpcocrco e^paxra Ke^pcocr/zat 

442. Steins ending in a consonant. 

1. ayioyu (ay, orig. Fay) to l)Te(tk. 

a|a> eaa (312) eaya (417) [] 

2. cipwfjicii (ap) to wwi, chiefly poet. ; only Pr. Impf. For 

r)p6fj.r)v, see atpa) (432, 2). 

3. dfLKWfj.1 (Set) to show. 

4. iipyvv/JLL (etpy) to sM ^^ : (also etpyco late.) 

2. Hrff Fu. fcopew (374), Pf. Par. KeKoprfs (386 D), Pf. M. we/cc^at (also 
Hd.), V. o.-K6pf]ros. 

Add the following with stems in t : 

5. Poet. (KI) to move intrans., 2 Ao. e/ciov M>e?i#, Par. Kiwi/ (Trag. 
/cteis rare). For eitta&o)', see 411. From /ct is derived also /ape'w ^o move trans., 
inflected regularly. 

6. Hm. ctfvv/ (ai) to take away, in comp. o.ifoaivv\iai and 

7. Ion. and poet. Saivv/j.i (Sat) to feast trans., Mid. intr., Opt. 3 S. 
(401 D 1), 3 P. Satvuaro : Fu. 5cuVa>, Ao. eSattra. 

442 D. 1. Hm. Ao. eaa, rare ^a (Hes. Opt. 2 S. 
Kara-Fa|ats, 73 D). Hd. Pf. eTjya. 

3. Hd. has st. Se/c in 5e|w, eSe^a, Se'5ey^at, ^x 

jUt (/reetf (for SeSety^uai), 3 P. SetSe'^arai, -aro (392 D). In the same sense of 
greeting^ he has Pr. Par. SeiKi'Vfj.evos, as also Pr. dentai/dop-ai and Sei5fcr/co/toi 
( 8e-5et/c-cr/co^at, cf. 447, 9). 

4. Hm. has only forms with smooth breathing, even in the sense of sAw- 
ting in. As stem, he has epy or eepy instead of eipy. For e/>%aTc, 

see 318 D. For poet, efyyadw, Hm. (eX/jyadw, see 411. 


a. The forms of etpyw to shut out arc distinguished from these by their 
smooth breathing. 

5. ^evyvvp-i (uy, euy, 326) to join. 

(v(0 ?eva e^fvypai fvyr)V, (gevx^Tjv r. A. 

6. aTro-KTivvvfJii (KTZV, 334 c) to Mil, KretVw (433, 4). 

7. niyvvfju (pay) to mz'z : also /xtVyco cl. 6. less freq. in Att. 

r r-/i ~i //- 

8. oXXv/u (for o\vvfj,i, st. oX, oXe, 331) to destroy, lose (417). 

oXo> (-eVo) 374) ojXecra oXcoXe/ca (321) 

oXoi)/iat o)\6p.T]v oXcuXa 

9. 0/j.wni (op, O/JLO, 331) to swear. a>[j.oo~a o/zco/zo/fa (321) &>/Lto3^i/ and 

(z= o/A-e-o/icu) ofj.utfj.oTai and d)fj,6o~^r}v 

[op-dcro), -ojucu] o/io)jMO(7ra6 (342) V. OTT-CO^OTOS 
10. 6fj.6pyvvfj.i (ofj.opy) to wipe off. 

11. opwfjLt (op) poetic, to rouse, Mid. to 

oporto oipcra, wpopov opcopa intrans. 

opovfjiat wpofjLTjv opcope/Ltat (331) 

12. irrjywpi (nay, nyy, 326) to fix, fasten : (also TT^O-OTO) cl. 4, late.) 
TTJ^O) fnrj^a treTrrjya (417) eVayj/v, V. TTTJKTOS 

a. Pf. M. irc'mrx/Mu late ; 1 Ao. P. fir^x^W n- A. pr. 

13. irrapwftai (jirap) to sneeze, 2 Ao. cTrrapov: (also irraipa* cl. 4, 
Ao. eTTTdpa, 2 Ao. P. cTrrdpiyv, n. A.) 

14. prjyvvpL (pay, fay 326, pcoy 334 d) 
o epprjga eppcoya (417) eppdyrjv 

a. Pf. M. eppTjyiUat Hm., 1 Ao. P. eppfo^ n - A. 

7. Hm. and Hd. have only /Jo-yco in Pr. Impf. : Hm. once /nyeb/teH. 

2 Ao. M. 3 S. e^tt/cTo, /^KTO (408 D, 39). 2 Fu. P. ^i^o-o^at (395 D). 

8. Hm. also Pr. oAe/cw (formed from 1 Pf.); 2 Ao. M. Par. ov\6u.evos 
(28 D). 

11. Ao. Spo-a (345 D), less often dSpopot/ (384 D), 2 Pf. fy>a>/>a (321 D), Plup. 

3 S. opwpet and d^pet (311 D), Pf. M. Sub. 3 S. opdpyrai, Ao. M. Spro (oftener 
than &pTo}, opo-o, op&ai, op^evos (408 D, 40). For opcreo, see 349 D. Con- 
nected with opvv/j.i are oplvca to rouse, Ao. &piva, Ao. P. upiv^v ; and opovca to 
rwsA, Ao. tipovtra. 

12. Hm. 2 Ao. M. 3 S. Kar-emj/cro (408 D, 41). 

16. Urn. &xr$fuu (a%) ^o be pained (rare &, o/cax( ^o/iot) ; 2 Ao. ^/m- 

^MTJJ/ (384 D), Pf. ftttrfxtytai (321 D, 331), 3 P. o^xeSarat (392 D), Plup. 3 P. 

etKaxefaro (for aKa%?jaTo), Inf. a/caxrjcrd-cw, Par. a/cax>V e?/os J aicr]X e fJ.evos (367 D 

Act. a/caxt'C'" to ^paiw, Ao. tficaxov and atcdxriffa. - Pr. Par. intrans. 

17. Poet. Kaivvp.a.i (for icaff-w/uu) to surpass, Pf. KtKcurptu, Par. KeKa.ffp.fvoi 


15. (ppdyvvpi (<ppcry) rare form of (ppao-0-co cl. 4, to enclose. 

SIXTH CLASS (Inceptive Class, 330). 

444. The stem assumes O-K in the present, sometimes with 
a connecting i. Several verbs which belong here, prefix a redu- 
plication. Only a few show an inceptive meaning. 

Stems in a and e. 

1. yypdo-Ko) = yrjpd-a to grow old. 2 Ao. Inf. yrjpavai (408, 2). 
yrjpdara), -ofiai cyf]pa(ra yeyfjpaKa 

2. dtSpao-Kco (Spa) to run : used only in composition. edpav (408, 3) 6VSpam 

3. f]pdo-K<0 (?;/3a) to come to puberty : f)[3da> to ~be at puberty. 

4. Si/qa-Ko) (3<iz/, 3i/a, 340) to die; used also as pass, of Kreivu to Mil. 

e%avov T&VTJK.CL am dead (409, 4) 

a. Fu. Pf. Te&j'7ja> (refrj/^o/xat late), see 394 a. For Fu, &avov/, 2 Ao. 
H&avov, the Att. prose always uses airofravov/jiai, (never found 
in Trag.), but in the Pf. WdvqKo, not airo-T&i>riKa. 

18. Hm. opey-vvfj.i (ope?), = opeyw cl. 1, to reach, Pf. M. 3 P. op(apex aTai 
(321 D, 392 D). 

443 D. In the Epic language, several stems, which for the most part show 
a final a in other forms, assume va instead of it in the present. This is ac- 
companied in most instances by a change of vowel, and by inflection according 
to the /it-form. 

1. ^d/j.vr]/j.t, or 8afjivd(i) (Sc^c, Sa^ua, 331) to overcome, Fu. 5a/iaw (cf. 375), 
Ao. 'Sc/iao-o, Pf. SeS/i^ta (340), Pf. M. ScS/tij/tai, Fu. Pf. Sefy-fiffopai, Ao. P. 
eSa^uao-^Tjj' (342) or e'Sju^z/, more freq. 2 Ao. e'S^v. Pr. also Sapdfa. The 
forms eSa^tocra^Tj// and e5a(j.dcr&riv are even found in Att. prose. - The same 
Perf. Mid. ScSjuij/tat belongs also to the Ion. and poet. Se^uco (Att. oi/coSo/ie'w) ^o 

Ao. eSet/ia. 

2. KipvrjfJLi or Kipvdoo (/cepa), = Kpdvvv/j.i to mix (439, 1). 

3. Kp^fj.vd/ (Kpefj.a), = Kp^a^ai to hang (404, 8 ; cf. 439, 2). Active 
iifu very rare. 

4. pdpyafjiai (papa) to fight, Opt. 1 P. /j.apvol/j.e&a (401 D h). 

5. Trepvnfu (Trepa), irnrpdffKca to sell (444, 7), Fu. irepdco (cf. 375), Ao. 
ffa, Pf. M. Par. TreTre/JTi^eVos. 

6. iriXvrip.1 or Trt\vd<*> (TreAa), = 7re\ciw ^o iriw^r wear, Mid. cowe wea/ 
(428 D, 21). 

7. iriTVT]p.i or TriTfcicw (Trera), = verdyyvfii to expand (439, 3). 

8. ffKl8rniJ.i (tr/ceSa), = ffK^dvyv^i to scatter (439, 4) : also without <r, /ci'5 

444 D. 2. Hd. StSp^/cw, 8/j^<ro/xat, eS/^j/ (24 D a). 

445] VOWEL-STEMS. 175 

5. iXda-Kopai (iXa) to propitiate. 

iXa.a-op.aL JXacrdprjv l\d(r^rjv (342) 

6. p,ipvf)o-Kti> (JJLVO) to remind, Mid. to remember, mention. 
p-vfjo-a e/iz/7/o-a /ie/iv?7/xat(319 b, 393 a) p.vr)o-%r)v (342) 

a. The Fu. and Ao. Mid. are poetic; the Fu,/and Ao. Pass, take their 
place. The Pf. M. p.e/ is present in meaning, =: Lat. memini. 
Fu. Pf. p.ep.yfja'o/ will bear in mind. 

7. TTurpdo-Ku (Trpa) to sell; wanting in Fu. and Ao. Act. 
(aTroSaxro/icu) (aTreSo/i^i/) TreVpdKa, TreTrpa/xat eVpaSr/y 

8. <puo-K&> ((pa) = (prjp.i (404, 2) to say. The Pr. Ind. is scarcely 
used. Hm. has only the Impf. In Attic prose, the Par. is frequent 
(instead of 0ay, not used, 404, 2), but other forms are rare. 

9. xaovcoo (xa) to gape. From st. x av ( 329 a ? P r - x a ' LV<0 late), come 

10. dpecrKco (ape) to please. 
dpeVa) ^'pecra [dp^pexa] (rjpeaSrjv n. A. pr. ) 

445. Stems in o. 

1. dva-ftia>a-Kop.aL (/3to) trans, to re-animate, intr. to revive. 
Ao. dvepitov (408, 13) intrans., dvepivcrdp.^ trans. Cf. /3toco (423, 2). 

2. /3Aa>o-K( (p.oX, /xXo, /3Xo 53 D) to ^o, poet. Pr. Impf. only in comp. 

ep.o\ov jue/A/3XeoKa (340, 53 D) 

3. /St/Spcoo-Ko) (|3po) to #. 

[IjSpaxra] /3e/3pa>Ka, (3e(3pa>pat (e^p^rjv n. A.) 

a. The defective parts are supplied by forms of eo&fo cl. 9 (450, 3). 

4. ytyvooa-Ko) (yvo) to know : also yiva>(TKa> less freq. in Att. 
yvuxrop,ai eyvav (408, 14) ey^coKa, eyfcocr/.iai lyvoi(T^v (342) 

5. Spcba-Ko) (Sop, 3po, 340) to ^ap, chiefly poet. : also cl. 5 

%opovp,ai f%opov 

6. TirpoxrKo) (rpo) to wound. 
rpcocrco erpoxra rcrpco/xat 

5. Hm. also ('l\, Imv. '/Xrj^t (Theoc. '/Aa^t), see 404 D, 10 ; 
Pf. c /Ai7>ca. 

6. Hm. Pf. M. 2 S. /tl/ipqai, ^eVp (Imv. ^eV^o Hd.), see 363 D ; Sub. 
1 P. p.efj.j'd/j.e&a (Hd. p.fp.vecap.e^a), Opt. p.efj.vtfp.'rjj', 3 S. j ue^ve&J TO > see 393 D. 

7. Poet. Trepv-nfju (irepa), see 443 D, 5. 

11. Hm. /3ao-/cco (j8a) j8afj/a> ^o ^ro (435, 1), chiefly in Irnv. j8a<r/c' tbi haste. 
go; once eTrt^ao-Ke'juev <o eawse ^o'^o wpow. 

12. Poet. KiK\-f)<rK<0 (/c\e) = KaAew cl. 1, to call (420, 5). 

445 D. 3. Hm. 0efy>w&a>. Ep. 2 Ao. ejSpw;/ (not in Hm.). Soph. 2 Pf. Par. 
/3ej8/WTes (409 D, 16). 

4. Hd. 1 Ao. aveyvcaffa. Poet. V. yvtaros (for 
6. Hm. 


446. Steins in t and v. 

1. Trnria-Kc* (TH) to give to drinJc, Ion. and poet. Of. 7rtVo> (435, 4). 
TTiVo) eVicra 

2. KVio-KO) (KV) to impregnate, Ao. exiJo-a. 

a. Mid. KviffKo/ to become pregnant ; but KV , /cuew cl. 7, #0 pregnant 

3. ^eSucrKco (jueSv) to intoxicate. 

HC^IKTCO fp.e%vo-a [^ep-^va/JLat] f^f^iia^v 

a. Mid. jue&uo-KOyuat to become intoxicated; but n&vw (only Pr. Impf.) lo 

447. Stems ending in a consonant. 

1. dXi'a-Ko/zm (dX, dXo, 331) to 50 tafa, used as pass, to atpeco Cl. 9. 
aXcocro/iai eaXcov or edXcoxa or v. aXooros 

j^Xcoz/ (408, 12) fj\<*Ka 

2. di/-aXio-KO) (av-aX, av-aXo) to expend : also dmXoco. 
dvaXaxrco dmXcotra dmXa)Ka, dmXeo/iat 

dvfjXcacra di/^XcoKa, d^Xco/iat 

a. Rare forms, ^^A&xra, ^j/aAco^at (314). 

3. d/i/SXio-Kco (aju/3X, a/z/3Xo, 331) to miscarry : also e'-a/*/3Xo'o>. 

d/i/3Xa>cra> ^'/i/SXoxra ^'/x/SXcoKa, ^^SXco^iai 

4. d/xTrXaKia-Kco (ap.7r\aK) to miss, err, poetic. 

5. eV-avpiWo/icu (err-avp) to enjoy : also cVavpicrKco, eVaupe'co cl. 7. 

eTrrjvpov, enr]vp6p.rjv 
a. The word is Ion. and poetic ; in Att. prose, only 2 Ao. Inf. 

6. fvpicrKO) (fi>p) to find. 

(vpr)(TQ> (331) evpoi/ evprjKa, 

a. For 2 Ao. Imv. evpe, see 366. 1 Ao. M. evpd/j.r]j/ late. 

7. orepiWco (orep) = orepeco cl. 7, to deprive. 

eorep^cra cVrepTyxa, ?^|Liai 

a. Pass. ffrfpiffKo/ and ffrepov/ to be deprived; but oWpojiicu cl. 1, ^ 
6e zw a s^a^e of privation. 

8. dXea) (for aXe/c-crK&), st. aXf) to w#nZ o^*y Act. rare in prose. 

a. A Fu. aA.eo/tat is also found. 

9. dAvo-Koo (for aXi;/c-o-/cco, st. aXvx) to ^o^, poet.; Pr. Impf. rare. 
dXi>a) ^Xv^a (connected with dXfo/tat, st. aXv, 426 D, 7) 

446 D. 4. Hm. Tn<|>auer/ca> (^>oy) ^o show, declare. Akin to this is Hd. 8ia- 
or -^(txTKca to shine, dawn. 

447 D. 7. Hm. Ao. Inf. (TrepeVat. Eur. 2 Ao. P. Par. ffrepeis. 

8. Hm. Fu. a\e|Tj<ra>, Ao. y\er)ffa, 2 Ao. &\O.XKOV (384 D, 339). 

9. Hm. has also aAu<r/caw cl. 4 and aAvcr/caw cl. 5. 


10. StSao-Kca (for StSax-orK&>, st. StSax) to teach. 

11. Xdo-fcoo (for \ctK-o-Kti), st. Xdx) to speafcj poetic. 
Xa/c/jcro/Mai eXax^cra (331) \e\rjKa or 

fXdKov Xe'Xaxa (338) 

12. /it'o-yco (for fj.iy-crKO), st. /*iy) to mz'iC, = ply w pi cl. 5 (442, 7). 

13. 7rdo-x (for 7ra3-cr/ca>, St. 7ra3, 7rej/3, 329, 334 a) to suffer. 
ireicrofjLai (49) ejra%ov Trtnov'Sa. V. TraS^ros 

a. For the two forms of the stem, compare T& ird&os and TreV&os suffering 

SEVENTH CLA.SS (Epsilon-Class, 331). 

448. The stem assumes ein the present. Here belong 

1. mSeo/icu (aiS) to feel shame: also ai'So/mi poetic. 

e&dfjLTjv ^Secr/zat (342) ^8f(r'^rjv (413) 

/, in Att. prose, pardoned; in poetry, /e^ shame, = j/SeVdijv. 

2. ya/zeo) (ya/z) to marry (Act. uxorem duco, Mid. nubo). 
ya/zi ey?7fia yeyd/iT/xa, -?;/Ltat V. ya^err] 

a. Late forms yafA-fiffw, iydfj.t]ffa, eya^e&rjj/ Theoc. 

3. y?/3e&) (y^3) to rejoice, poetic ; ui prose only 2 Pf. 

yr)%r)<r<0 fyr)%r]<ra yey?y3a am ^?acZ 

4. SoKe'a) (8ox) to s^em, i/im^. 

So^co eSo^a de'Spy/xai (e8o^3^i/ r. A.) 

a. 5o/^(ra>, e'SJ/crjcra, SeSJ/crj/ca, Se5o/cr//tat, t5oK-f]&r)v are poetic or late. 

5. Kupe'co (/cup) to 7w ?^?o?i, happen, Ion. and poet. : also Kt^co rare. 
Kvpaa) fKvpo-a, eKvprja-a 

10. Ep. Ao. eSiSda-K-na-a (331, not in Eto.). The orig. stem was 5a, Hm. 
Fu. STJW s/i^ /we? (378 D), 2 Ao. SeSaoy (384 D, also e5ao/) tot^Ai, 2 Ao. M. 
Inf. 8e5c(rfrcu (for Se&aea-d-at), Pf. SeSarjKa (331) have learned, 2Pf. Par. 5e5aci;y, 
Pf. M. Par. SeSa^eW, 2 Ao. P. <&c*V learned, Fu. P. Sa-fiffopat (395 D). 

11. Hm. ATj/ce'w, 2 Pf. Par. Fern. AeAo/cuTa (338 D). 

13. Hm. 2 Pf. 2 P. TreVoo-d-e (409 D, 14), Par. Fern, ireirabvia (cf. 338 D). 

14. Hm. aira^icKw (<|)) ^o deceive, 2 Ao. tfircupgv (384 D), rare 1 Ao. ^TTCI- 
fn<ra (331). 

15. Poet. apaplffKca (ap) to join, fit, trans., 1 Ao. %p<ra, (345 D), usu. 2 Ao. 
fyapov (384 D) twice intrans., 2 Pf. apapa am joined, fitted (found even in Xen.), 
Ion. &piipa, Hm. Par. Fern. apdpv?a. (338 D), Ao. P. 3 P. fyfev (395 D), 2 Ao. 
M. Par. &P/JLWOS (408 D, 34). 

16. lira, fa/ecu (=viK-ffK(a) and e'/'o-/ca> (23 D a) to wioie like, consider like, 
cf. 2 Pf. &N/CCI (409, 7). 

17. Ilm. TiTv<TKo/ (= Ti-TVK-ffKOfjLai) to prepare (cf. revxw cl. 2, 425, 15), 
<o am (cf. Tvyxdvee cl. 5, 437, 8). 

448 D. 2. Hm. Fu. Mid. 3 Sing, yapea-fffrai will cause (a woman) to marry, 



n j /.taprupeco (jAaprvp) to ~bear witness^ inflected reg., but 
' \ p,apTvpop.aL cl. 4, to call witnesses, Ao. fp,aprvpdp.r]v. 

7 j upe' (up) to sJiave, Ao. e^vprjcra, Mid. upeo/xai, but also 

* I upofifu cl. 4, Ao. evpap.r}Vi Pf. f^vprjp.a.1. 

8. nareop-ai (TTCIT, orig. TTO) to , Ion. and poet. eira.o-ap.riv TreTraoy-iat V. a-Trctcrros- 

9. TreKrea) (Tre/c, Tre/cr, 327) to C0m&, stor. (Hm. 7re/Ka> for TT/KCO.) 
(7rea> n, A. eTre^a n. A.) firijpSijv 

10. piTrreco (pt<, ptTrr) to throw, = piVrco (427, 14), only Pr. Impf. 

11. coSeco (wS) to push; Impf. e'co^ouv (312). 

a)(ra), to'Sfjcro} (ocra [ecoxa] ecorr/zai e&cr'SrjV 

a. u^ffca is not found in Att. prose. The syllabic augment is rarel} 

omitted in Attic. 

EIGHTH CLASS (Reduplicating Class, 332). 

449. The stem assumes a reduplication in the present. For 
/xt-verbs of this class, see 403. There remain 

12. Poet. SovTrew to sound heavily, Ao. ftioinrqcra (even in Xen.), 
7T?j<ra (cf. epfySouTros loud-thundering), 2 Pf. SeSouTra. 

13. Poet. KeAaSe'co ^o >*oar, Fu. KeAaS^trw, Hm. Pr. Par. KeXciSwv. 

14. Ion. and poet. Kej/rew to prick, Fu. Keyr^a-w, etc., reg. ; but Hm. Ao. 
Inf. Kej/ffai( = KevT-(rai), V. K^ffr6s (^Ke^r-Tos). 

15. Poet. KTvireca to crash, clatter, rare in prose, 2 Ao. e/cruTiw, also in 
Trag. 1 Ao. e/cr^TTTjo-o. 

16. Poet, piye'w <o shudder, Fu. piy-fiffo), Ao. sppiyqffa, 2 Pf. tppiya used as 
a present. Different is pt-yJcu to 5e co/c? (371 d). 

17. Ion. and poet, a-rvyew to dread, hate, Fu. a-Tvyf)cro/, Ao. fffrvyt]<ra, 
etc., reg. Hm. has 1 Ao. ecrn;a 'made dreadful, 2 Ao. ecrrvyov dreaded. 

18. Pr. ^i\ew fo 7oi'e, inflected reg. as a verb of cl. 1, see Paradigm 287 ; 
but Hm. Ao. M. tyrA.tE/M?? (st. $i\). 

19. Hm. (xpaiff/j-ed) to help, ward off, Pr. Impf. not used) Fu. 
Ao. expafo^Tjo-a, 2 Ao. txpaHrp-ov. 

Add the following, which annex o in the present (331) : 

20. Pr. fipvx&op-a-i to. roar, Ao. tfipvx'nffd-p-'nv. In Hm., only 2 Pf. 
used as a present. 

21. Poet, yodw to bewail, Fu. yo-i}, Hm. 2 Ao. syoov. 

22. Hm. SrjpidofjLai to quarrel (Fu. S'f} Theoc.), Ao. eSTjptcrctjarjz/, Ao. 
P. eSrjptv&yv (396 D). Pind. 5r}pio/ t Sypidca. 

23. Poet. Arxjuoco, -o/taf, ^o ^c&, Fu. At%ju^o-o/*at, 2 Perf. Par. irregular 


24. Hm. MKdofj-ai (^ua/c, /ITJK, 326) to &&?, 2 Ao. Par. /ict/cc^, 2 Pf. Par. 
s, Fern. ^e/ia/cuTa (338 D), Plup. e>^7j/cov (351 D). 

25. Hm. /j.rjTid(i), -o^tat, ifo j9/a?i, Fu., Ao. tyirrurdfjniv. Pind. 

26. Pr. {j.vKdop.a.1 (P.VK) to low (used in Att. prose). Poet. Ao. 
Hm. 2 Ao. ffAvKov, 2 Pf. fj.4fj.vKa used as a present. 


1. yLyvo^ai (yei>) to lecome : also yivopai less freq. in Att. 
yei'qorojuat fyfvop.r]v yeyova (409, 3) have become, have been 

yeytvqpai (eyevrj^rjv 1.) 

2. 'i(rx<0 ((rex) to hold, another form of e^oo (424, 11). 

3. /ut'/zi/co (^ef) to remain, poetic form of /neVo> (422, 13). 

4. TriWo) (Trer, TTTO, 339, 331) to fall: cf. irirvetQ cl. 5 (438, 4) poet. (377) enecrov TreTrrco/ca 

a. 7re(roj/ is for orig. and Dor. firerov (62 a). 

5. TI'KTCO (for rtr/cco, st. re/c) to bring forth , beget. 
re^o/Jiai ere/coy re'roKa (334 a) 

Teco less fr. eWa rare (re'rey/zai n. A.) (ere'xStyi/ n. A.) 

a. Mid. T//CTO/ICU rare and poetic. 

6. rirpao) (rpa) bore : also rerpatVco (329 a, 328 d). 
TpTjo-co (335 a) e'rp^cra Terprjuai V. rprjros 
rerpai/o) eTfTprjva (later -dra) [ererpai'S^j/] 

For reduplicating verbs of the sixth (inceptive) class, see 444-6. 

CLASS (Mixed Class, 333). 

450. Different parts of the verb may be derived from stems 
essentially different : compare Eng. go, went. Here belong 

1. alpfco to take, Mid. to choose ; st. cupe, e f X (312). 
aipfjcra elKov (eXo> etc.) fjprjKa, ftpr/pai flp&iv 

a. Fu. eAw n. A. Ao. i\d/j.r]v late. 

2. to go, come ; st. ep^, *\3. 

(339) e'X^XiJSa (321) 

a. For 2 Ao. Imv. eA^e, see. 366. For e'Aeva-o/icw (326), the Attic prose 
generally has el^tt (405, 1 a). 

3. e'o-Stco to tfafl," St. fa3t, eS, 0ay. 

(378) (payov cdtjSoKa (33l) (r]^(T^rjv n. A.) 

edf)8e<T(i,ai (331, 342) V. e'Seoroy, reoy 

a. eV^tw comes from eofta (328), and that from eSw (411 D): all these 
forms of the Pr. are found in Hm. 

449 D. 1. 2 Ao. 3 Sing, eyej/ro Dor. (and Hes.), different from yeVro 
(408 D, 35). From st. yep comes also poet, yeh/ojitat cl. 4, to be born, Ao. eyej- 
vdpyv trans, begot, bore (ol yeivdfj.evoi the parents, also in prose). 

2. Poet, also l<rxdvu (329 b), iffxavdw (331). 

4. Hm. 2 Pf. Par. TreirTeooras, Soph. 7r67rTc6s, -uros (409 D, 17). 

7. Hm. tat^w (ou, aue 331, ae 39) ^o s?e&p, Ao. &e<ra (a, but by augm. a), 
once contr. 

450 D. 1. Hd. Pf. fyalfHiica (321 D). 

2. Poet. 2 Ao. tfxt&ov with u (but only in Ind., 1, 2, 3 S. and 3 P.), Dor, 

(not Pind.) v&ov, %\<rov. Hm. 2 Pf. elA^AouS-o, 1 P. ci\faov&nev (409 D, 13). 

S. Hm. Pr. Inf. ft/tow (406 D, 3), 2 Pf. Par. e'5?j$c6s, Pf. M. 


4. opaco to see, Impf. e f a>pa;i> (312) J St. opa, iS, OTT. 

eiftov (t'Sco etc. ccopaxa, ewpa^at axp^rjv, V. oparos 1 , 

Imv. ie 366) oircdTTd (321 ), wjM^at OTTTOS, re'os 
a. The Comic poets have Pf. efyo/ca : OTTCOTTO is chiefly Ion. and poet. : 
ewpa&rjj' is late. Ao. M. ^ap.t]v is rare ; etScfyiTji/ (for eTSoj/) is generally 
poetic (in Att. prose only in comp.), Irav. i5oD, but as exclamation 
ISov lo ! Poetic is also Pr. Mid. to appear, appear like, Ao. 

5. rpe'xa> run; St. rpe^, Spe/n (334 a). SeSpap-r/Ka (331) V. Spexreov (66 c) 

a. &pfo( t e^pe|a (66 c), and Sefycyta are found in poetry; 
occurs in composition. 

6. (pepeo ^0 l)CObT ) St. 06p, ot, eve/c. 

oiVa) ( ?}WyKoi/ (384) eV^vo^a (321, 334 a) 

o'tcro/JLai (as | fjveyKa (381) evrjvfyp,ai 
mid. and pass.) ^i/ey^u/iT/i/ V. oto-ro'y, reos 

7. wvfofjiai to ouy : Impf. fwovp.^', st. <az/e, 
<avf]( irptdfJO]V (408, 8) e'coi^/iat 

a. I(avf]<r6.p.i]v is late. The syllabic augment is rarely omitted in Att. 
f(avr) may have, ewy^rjy always has, a passive meaning (415). 

8. eiTroj/ 1 said; st. CITT, fp, pe (340). 

epoi jeTTroj/ etp^xa (319 e) epp^^v, Y. p//roy 

^ei'yra ei'p^/xai (eppeS^f n. A.) 

(Imv. eiTre'366) flprjao/JLat 

a. The Pr. Impf. are supplied by Aeyco, (/>7jjtu, and (especially in comp.) by 


ayopeva to discourse, as airayopevo) to forbid, Ao. airsiiTov. The form 
clTroj' comes from e-eir-oj/, orig. Fe-reTr-ov, a reduplicated 2 Ao. like 
irfiri&ov (384 D) : cf. eTroy, orig. FeTros, toord The stem of epw was 
orig. Fep (cf. Lat. verbum) ; hence efyrj/co for F6-Fp7j-/ca, fpp^iji/ for 
, f>Tf]r6s for 

4. Hm. Fu. 67Tt<tyo,uai s/m/Z choose, but fTrS^o/nai shall look on. Aeol. Pr. 

Theoc. For faffo/tat (OTT), see 429 D, 4. 5. Dor. Tpdxu. 

6. Hm. Pr. Imv. ^e'pre (406 D, 4), Ao. tfveiKa (rarely tfveiitov), M. 
jUTjj/ ; Ao. Imv. olcre (349 D), Inf. otW/^e^at), V. (peprds. Hd. has Ao. 
Pf. M. tvhveiyfj.a.1, Ao. P. ijveix^W- 

8. Hm. Pr. eipw rare, Fu. epeo>, Ao. elTro^ and in Ind. (with augm.) 
(= e-FeFeTiw). From st. O-CTT, ITT (63), comes ev-eVw or evveirci), 2 Ao. tvi-ffirov 
(339), Imv. fvi-ffire or cviffires (2 P. eo-Trere for ev-o-Trere), Fu. eVtyw(=:ej/t-(7Tr-(rco) 
or fvi-a-rr^ffw (331). Hd. makes Ao. usu. elira, Ao. P. etpe^Tjv and eip-f)frr)v as 
well as 

451] INDEX OF VERBS. 181 

of Verbs described in the foregoing Sections. 

451. In the following alphabetical list, the yerbs before described are not 
only referred to by the present; but one or more forms are generally added, 
to exhibit the stem and its changes, or to show the most important peculiarities 
of formation. 

In using this index, as well as in looking out verbs in the lexicon, the 
student should bear in mind especially the following points : 

I. At the beginning of verb-forms, 

a. e before a consonant (sometimes even before vowels) may be the aug- 
ment or reduplication (308, 312, 319, 322). 

b. fi may arise by augment or reduplication from e (312, 322). 

c. t\ may arise by augment or reduplication from a or e (309). 

d. (a may arise by augment or reduplication from o (309). 

e. et in a few words takes the place of Ae, ^e, pe, as redupl. (319 e). 

f. A consonant with e may be the reduplication, when followed by the 
same consonant, or when a smooth mute with e is followed by the cognate 
rough mute (319). 

g. A vowel and consonant may be the Attic reduplication, if the same 
vowel and consonant follow ; but the initial stem-vowel is usually lengthened 
after it (3 21). 

h. When prepositions are prefixed, there is danger of mistaking an initial 
stem-vowel for the final vowel of the prep. Thus Karavvw = Kar-avvw not KO.TO.- 
j/uco, OTroAeVas aTr-oAecras not airo-\ffas, eVtSoOo-a may be either eTr-tSouera 
(Pr. 0-o/>aa>) or e7ri-8ou<ra (Pr. eiri-StSatyu). 

II. In the middle of verb-forms, 

i. a or o may arise from e in the s|;em and present (334). So 01 may arise 
from e<, and <a rarely from i\. 

j. f\ may arise from a final a or e of the stem, and <a from a final o (335). 
In the first aorist system of liquid verbs, TJ may arise from a and et from e (337). 
In the second perfect system, 77 may arise from a (338). 

k. The relations of the consonants are shown in the following table, where 
any termination of the other tenses may correspond to any form of the pres- 
ent given on the same line : 
Fut, 1 Aor. 2 Pf. Perfect Middle. 1 Ao. P. Present. 

\ '' 
( -aa>, 

-ea>, -i 

Aa-a (Sacra, Sera, datr^T/v) 420 D, 10. dS^a-eze, d87?/cc6s, 318 D. 

&ya-/ (^yacriSTjv, ijya.a'd/ji.'rjv) 419, 1 ; ae (iavco, &effa) 449 D, 7. 

ayd-o/, dyaio^at, D. aetpea (aep, ijepei^oi/Tat, ^CO/JTO) 432 D, 2, 
iyeipca (ayep, ayfiyepica) 432, 1 ; (ruv-^etpe, ffwaeipeTai, ib. 

ijyepe&ojsTcu, ayp6[j.evos, D. de|-&>, r= aw|co, au|a)/&), 436, 3. 

Xyw/it (ea|a, eaya) 442, 1. ^,ut (ae) 404 D, a. 

ayp (ayelpo), ayp6^vos) 432 D, 1. aiS-e'o^uai (^SeV^Tjj'), ai'S-o^at, 448, 1. 

Sy-co (^70701/5 ^x a > 7^X a ) 424, 1 ; atW-a> (pvetra, jfi/1/*0 420, 4 ; 

ayivci), -veca, S^ere, 1). atj/ifouai, a^j/Tj^tt, D. 

aS (avSaj/w, e'aSov, e^/aSoy) 437, 1. cCi-vvp-ai^ air(o)aivv}, 440 D. 6. 


cupe'-w (fl\ov, 

apaiprjKa D. 
arpw (%pa, Ijpbiiv) 432, 2 ; &p-6fjaiv D. 

) 450, 1 ; 


aur-o^ai, 436, 1. 
ai-w (ai'oi/, eir-^ra) 309. 
a/c-ax from ax, 442 D, 16. 321 D. 
d/ce-o,uat (ijKfa'd/j.'rjv) 419, 8. 
aKov-ot (airfiKoa, yKovtrfrrji') 423, 1 ; 

aKOvdo/ Hm. 
axpod-o/ (i}Kpoa<rap.Tiv) 335 a. 
aA (eifAw, eaATjf) 432 D, 22. 

tfpapov, &pr]pa t 
&pp.evos) 447 D, 15. 

444, 10. 
318 D. 
dp/ce'-w (ijpiceffd) 419, 10. 
dp^TTco (Tfp/xocra), ap/ji6fy, 430, 1. 
dpj>e'-o,ucu (T)pvi]&i}v) 413. 
& 442, 2. 
dpj-co (TJpocra, i]p6frr]v) 419, 16. 
iy (apTraS, dpTray) 431, 1. 

419, 18 ; apvrw ib. 
424, 2. 

dAa- 0/ iiai (dAdATjiUai) 321 D. 367 D. 413. Sera 408 D, 18. 420 D, 10. 449 D, 7. 
dAS-ayco, -alvca, -^tr/cco, 436 D, 12. &a>evos (dS, dj/5ai/a>) 408 D, 44. 

dAei<pco (aA^Ai(pa) 425, 5. av^-dvca, au-co (jj^lTj/ca) 436, 3. 

447, 8; avp (eir-aup-ftrKo^at, -ew) 447, 5. 

avpa (aTT-aypa-w, d'jroupas) 408 D, 19. 

or a\i> (aAv, ^Ae[u]a/X7jv) cupda-ffca (tftpaffa) 430 D, 8. 
426 D, 7; dAeeiVw ib. aipvffcrca (cupvy, a(pyS) 431 D, 9. 

dAe-co (^Aea-a, dA^Ae<r^ai) 419, 9. ^x^-j" at (^X^ 6 ' "^") 422, 1. 

&\&-o/ (aX&' 422 D, 19. 
a\ (eaAwy, vjAwv) 447, 1. 

(-tlfj.evos, tfXiTov) 436 D, 13. 

447 D, 8. 

dAAaercrco (jjAAay^y, ^'AAax) 294. 
L32, 3 ; aAro 408 D, 33. 
(dAaAuKTTjjUcw) 321 D. 
dAuovca) (ff\i/fo) 447, 9 ; 
dv(a D. 
436 D, 14. 

442 D, 16. 

&-w (ao-a, a,uyt, aarot) 408 D, 18. 
&d}pro for Tjopro (deipw) 432 D, 2. 

436, 2 ; ,fji.$poTov D. 

(^>/3Aa?o-a) 447, 3. 
) 413.\aic-iffKCi) (-/jtrco, ^TrAa/coj/) 447, 4.> (TJ/J-VVO), d^iuj'a^w, 411 D. 
dv-aA-ia'/fa), d^-aA^-w, 447, 2. 
aj/Sarw (eaSov, d5?]<rw) 437, 1 ; 

k-tivSavov, aSoy, ewaSo?/, eoSo, D. 
dy-ex-OyUcti (jij/ei}( i 6/j.'r)v) 314. 
av-fjvo&e 321 D. 

-w (dye'f<3|o, di/e^ya, ludtpxa) 

424, 16; av-oiy-vvfj.i ib. 

^at 314. 


/Saovca;, j8)8as, jSt^cSj/, D. 
)8c{A-Aeo (ejSaAoj/, ^e^A^/ca) 432, 4; 
^e/3oA7jaro, ejSATjro, j8Ae?o, D. 
jSaTrrco (ej8a(/>7jf) 427, 2. 
&d-ffKw = ftaivw, 444 D, 11. 
)8ao-Taa> (/3a(TTa5, ^affray) 431, 2o 
falofuu, jBeo/uat ()8t(Jw) 423 D, 2. 

, j3tj3w) 375. 

(jSa) 403 D, 10 ; jStjSwv 435 D, 1. 
445, 3 ; /SejSpco^w, e/3pa>j/, D. 
/3t(^-co (iplcov) 423, 2; /Se/o/uu, ^Kf/uu, E 
dva-/3t(affKO/ (j3*o, d.V$l<av) 445, 1. 
A7}/ca) 432, 4. 
', /Se^Aa^a) 427, 3 ; 

v.Tr-a<p-l(TK6i} (^ 
a7r J-xpT? 404, 3 ; 
STTTW (a</>) 427, 1 
ap (af/>) 432, 2 

, 17; 
ib. ; cw/co D. 

409 D, 11. 
, -yard) 447 D, 14. 

436, 4 ; jSAao-rew ib. 
e'/3Ae<pa) 424, 3. 
(ej3At<ra) 430, 2. 

0oAe (j8aA-Aw, 
jSJovcw (/3o, /3oavc, 
(3ov\-o/ (e' 


, 2. 
, 4. 
422, 2. 
422, 8 ; 

, 9. 

(ejSpatra) 430, 3. 




, 424 D, 4. 
424, 5. 
445, 3. 

pu'xa) 448 D, 20. 
(?j3y<ra, /KjBiMyuu) 438, 1. 

Ta (yiyvofnat, yeyacfo) 409, 3. 
yajU-eco (eyTjjiia) 447, 2. 
yd-vvpai, yaicov, 439 D, 5. 
ye-yw^-a, ysycay-iffKca, -ea>, 424 D, 30. 
ydvofjiai (yev, tyewdfiriv) 449 D, 1. 
yeAa-co (eyeAa<ra, 4ye\dff&r]v) 419, 2. 
yey (yiyj/o^uat, eyej/o/x7?j>) 449, 1. 
7eV-ro 408 D, 35 ; Z-yev-TO 449 D, 1. 
ynb-fu (yeyrj^a) 448, 3. 
yTjpa-cr/ca?, yr)pd-G}, 444, 1. 
yi(y) (eyei/o^itT?!', yeyova, yeyeVij- 

f.iai) 449, 1 ; yelvofj-ai D. 
yi(y)i/a>o"Kco (eyj/coj/, 445, 4. 
yjfd/j.TT-T(a 427, 4. 
yj/o (yiyvuxTKO)) 445, 4. 
yo-ca> (eyooi/) 448 D, 21. 
ypd(j)-(a (eypdfprjv) 424, 6. 
ycwj/ (yeywfa) 424 D, 30. 

Aa (Saw) 434 D, 3 ; (SaiVat) 434 D, 4 

(e'S^v, S^w) 447 D, 10. 
8af-wjui (e5cuo-a) 440 D, 7. (e'Saa-a^Tj^, SeSao-rat), 

Sareo^iat, 434 D, 4. 
8afa> (SeSrja, SaTjrat) 434 D, 3. 
5a/c-y<w (e5a/coy, S^|o ( uat) 435, 7. 

i, -vdd) (eS^Tji/, lSafji.dff^r}v 1 

Cw, 443 D, 1. 
, Se5ap^?j/co) 436, 4; 

Soreo^at (Sareaor^-ai) 434 D, 4. 
Se-aro 381 D. 

5ei-5i-a (8e/5w), eSSetora, 409 D, 5. 
(Se'56i%a) 442, 3 ; &6K-,, 8et5tV/co/ta, D. 
Se'u-co (eSet^ua, SeS/Mi/tai) 443 D, 1 . (eSpaicov, 5eSop/c) 424 D, 31 

aj, 5e(pw, 424, 7. 
j SeWo) 408 D, 36. 
Se-w (e57j(ra, Se'Se/ca) 420, 1. 
5e-aj (5e?, e'SeTjere) 422, 4 ; Seu-o^tat D. 
5r] (eS-npiv&Tjv) 448 I), 22. 
St, Set, Sot (SeSotKa, Se'Sto, 4'Se(ra) 
409, 5; Sei'&ta, Se^Sw, S/e, J). 
StotTa-w (Se5tj;T7j/ca) 314. 
Sta/co^e'-w (SeSiTj/cJj'rjKa) 314. 

5t5a<mo (StSax) 447, 10; S/ja, SeSaov, 

5e5a7j/ca, eSaTjj', D. 
SfS^t = Se'-w, 403, 3. 
8t-5pa-(T/cco (e5pa>) 444, 2. 
StSco^t (5o, eSw/ca, SeSo^at) 403, 4. 
Ste (eV5i'e<r<w, Stw^uat) 404 D b. 
St'C^cu (St^e) 404 D c. 
8nJ/a-&> (5t4/??, S^V^) 371 c. 
5tc/c-a>, Stw/ca^w, 411 D. 
So (Si'Sw^t) 403, 4. 
8oK-e (^5o|a) 448, 4. 
SouTT-e'co (eySou7T7?o-a) 448 D, 12. 
Spa (StSpacncco, eSpa^) 444, 2. 
8pa/c (Sep/c-o^at, eSpa/co?/) 424 D, 31, 
Spa-w (Se'Spa^tat, eSpdcr&riv) 421, 1. 
Spe^u. (rp6X<w, eSpa/ioy, SeSpo^io) 450, 5. 
86j/a-fJ,ai (eSuj/'^77z/, -ao-^j/) 404, 5. 
Su-cw (eSuf, &I&TIV), Suw, 423, 3. 

'E (VO 403, 1 ; (eVi/yjUt) 440, 1. 
ec-w (ei'a?^, et'a/ca) 312. 
eyetpw (eyp^yopa, ey^yepjuaf, 

432, 5 ; eypw, -o^uat, ib. 
e5, eS-o, eS-e-o- (eV.Mw) 450, 3. 
(45) 431, G. 

> (^3-e\j(ra), ^eAw, 422, 9. 
(e^to-a, e^tKo) 296. 312. 
tS, opaw) 450, 4. 
(tS, o?8a, ySetj/) 409, 6. 
flitdfa (ei'/caa'a, r?/cao"a) 310. 
efrc-w (el|a), et/cd^w, 411 D. 
et/ccos (t/c, eot/ca) 409, 7. 
e?Aw (eAo-a, eeAjtcat, ec^ArjJ/, eo'Aet), 

etAew, e^AAw, ^AAw, 432 D, 22. 
effect, et'aro (eWy,ut) 440 D, 1. 
eijuf (es, ^^, ^) 406, 1. 
e?/u (t, ?;etj/) 405, 1 ; ^t'e, ^e, ^<ra?/, 

(^eta-^Tjj/, D. 
s'tvvov (eV^y/xt) 440 D, 1. 
elTT-oy (epw, eipTj/ca, eppe'3i?v) 450, 8 ; 

etpw, ^(^-eirftj, ej/iffirov, ej/f^w, D. 
elpy-vufj.t (ep^as), e?py-w, 442, 4 ; 

epy, eepy, ecpxaro, e^pya^oy, D. 
etp-o^at (= epouat) 424 D, 9. 
etpy, 405 D b. 420 D, 12. 
tfpw (epew) 450 D, 8. 
etpw (elp/ca, eep^uat) 312 D. 
eTo-a (eWat, eVas, '/^) 431 D, 6. 
e/'o-/cw, ro-KW, 447 D, 16. 
efofra (TJ&) 322 ; tuba D. 
4A (alptut eTAoi/) 450, 1. 
eAaww (eA-^Aa/ca), eAa-co, 435, 2. 

184 INDEX OF VERBS. [45) 

eAfr for eAufr (epxo^at, ^A3w) 450, 2. tffrid-w (dcrriacra, -KO) 312. 

f \iffffa} (e r /At|a) 312. ei>'5-co (ewS^a-w) 422, 7. 

e\K-ca (et'A/cucra, et'A/cytr/iat) 419, 19; evAajSe-o^at (euAa/STj^rjv) 413. 

eAKew D. eyp-tovccw (eSpoy, evprjKa) 447, 6. 

eATT-a) (eoAvra, ecoATretf) 424 D, 32. evcppaivca (eudjpcw^Tjj/) 414. 

eAyfr, eAeyd- (epxo/^at) 450, 2. aTr-ex^-a^Ojuai (-TJX^^ 
jue-co (^uetra) 419, 11. 436, 6; e'x^> -op,ai, ib. 

svaipa) (tfvapov, ej/^paTo) 432 D, 23. tX" w ( e ^X OJ/ ) f| ft> > ^ cr X 0}/ i o'X'Jjo'w) 424, 11 
eVayrto-Oyuai (iiva.VTi.fa&'riv) 413. oxw/ca, eTT-coxaTO. eVxc^w, D. 

eve/c (<>epco, ^jyey/ca, jjveyKo^ ey^voxa, i^-&> (?5i|/7j(Toc) 422, 8. 

-or, D. eotyiej/ (a-w) 408 D, 18. 
321 D 

i (eVe&y^^) 413. ^ ^' ' ? "*"^ IOn ' ^ ^ C * 

- VI ,'f7ra7ror, eVeWoj/) 427 D, 20. C^ 7 '^ WW J*?A' 

^fo-o-w (= eViV-rw) 429 D, 3. 6v W C f l%lTW) 419 > 12 - 

\^XA i " " ub-wwu (fCaxrucu) 441, 1. 

i) 440, 1 ; eivvov, ecrtra, - 

eWat, emro, D. 'HjSa-o-Kco, ^#a-a>, 444, 3. 

i/, et'/ccos) 409, 7. ^wat (^y) 406, 2 ; eiarat, earat, D. 

; 312 b. j}/w (^v, ^) 404, 1. 

eV(v)-e7r-a> (evurirov, Ivtyai) 450 D, 8. f/^u-w (ep.vTiiJ.vKa) 321 D. 

eirfo-Ta-juat (i]iri(rT^r}v) 404, 6. 0d"A-Aw (re^Aa) 432, 6 ; 

(fyi??*') 424, 8 ; ^TjAew, ^aAe'frcoj/, T^Aeid-awv, D. 

eV-co, ecrTrov, o^Teto, D. 3"ov (frvfiffKO), %&avoj/) 444, 4. 

(e?Troj/, epw) 450, 8 ; e^pw D. S-OTT (re^T/Tra, Tacpc&v) 425 D, 17. 

419, 3. ftaV-Tco (erdcprii') 427, 5. 

442, 4. &eU/a> (^ew, ^eVw) 432 D, 24. 

epSco (epy, eopya, ecapyeiv) 428, 14. fre'A-w (^eA^(ra)) = e^eA-a>, 422, 9. 

' 392 D. ^ep-o/tat 424, 12 ; frepffopai, frepelw, D. 

/, ep-fiptyfjiai) 425 D, 19. fre'cy (i^y, ^eixrofjiai) 426, 1. 

f, ep7?pt7ra) 425, 6. frtyyc^w (e^tyoi/) 437, 2. 

), 4. &Aa-w (e^Aao-a, f&\dor&r}v) 419, 4. 

i (^pyyov), fpvyydvu, 425, 12. dAi'jS-iw (re'^-At^a, e^AtjSrjj') 424, 13. 

t, 425 D, 20. &v4)<rK<a (t&avov, re^Tj/ca) 444, 4. 
i, -/j-aivd)) 436 D, 15. (&op (id"pco<T/cw, &\ 445, 5. 

ep-o/tai (epTj^o/^at, r)p6jj.r]v) 424, 9 ; &paffff(a (e^pa^a, Trp7;x) 428, 8. 

efpo/iai, epe-eo, -opai, -elv(0, D. &pav-u (r&pav[a r \p,ai) 421, 18. 

e'p7r-w, -u^ (etpTroy, etpTTucra) 312. (&-pe/c (rpex-w e^pe^a) 450, 5. 

epp-co (^ppTjcra) 422, 6. &pe7r (rpe^-co, e^pe^a) 424, 26. 

aTT^-ep-o-a 345 D. ftpim-ru (rpv<p) 427, 6. 

epu/c-co (Tjpu/ca/cov) 424, 10; \rpctXTK6) (e3-opoV), (S'jpvujuat, 445, 5. 

epu/cayco, -a^aw, D. ^u-vw, fry-veco (=,&y-a>) 435 D, 10, 

epyojuai (epy, etpu), pyo^uat, 405 D b. &y7r (rv(p-w, Tt&v/j./jiai) 424, 28. 

epy-&> (e^fpycra, etpv/nai) 420 D, 12. fry-a> (e^-ytra, re&y/ca, ery^Tj^) 420, 2. 
epX-o/xat (if AiSw, eAirjAy^a, eAeyoro^uat) 

450, 2 ; ^?Ay&oj/, ^v^o^, D. 'I (efyu) 405, 1. 

6S (et/if, e(TTt) 406, 1. (laa'dfJL'rjv, Id^v) 415. 

fff&iw (eSo/tat, efyayov, eo^So/ca, tayw (^etra, affap.zv) 449 D, 7. 

eS^Sea-juat), ea-^co, e5w, 450, 3. i^X'*'* * a X'^ w > 424 D, 33. 

e<r-<ra, eV-rat (evvvfu) 440 D, 1. tS (opaco, eTSoy) 450, 4; 

;t, eV<ro/iat (t^a>) 431 D, 6. (o!5a, elSccs, jTSetj/) 409, 6. 


I$pv-ci> (ftpvfrrjv, ISpvi/frriv) 396 D. 


Vr^u (I, rjfca, ef/ca) 403, 1. 
i/c (eoi/ca) 409, 7 ; (e-for/cw) 447 D, 1C., iK-di/ci), 438, 2; i'/c-w D. 
TJ&I, VAa&i) 404 D, 10. 
444, 5 ; ixd-o/*ai D. 
432 D, 22. 
1/j.dffa-ca (IfjMffa) 430 D, 9. 
'/TTTCtyicu = TTo/*at, 424, 1 9. 
fcrafw 409 D, 6. 
forca (IK), #CTK, 447 D, 16. 

(o-ra, eo-TTj/ca, larefo) 403, 5. 

, D. 

la"X& v(a i 

Ka5 (/ce/caS-oi/, -^<ra>) 428 D, 18. 
Ka&efouat (/ca&eSot^cu) 431, 6. 

406, 2. 

a> (KO&W) 431, 6 ; /ca&e?<ra D. 
Aai (/ca5, /ce/caeTjUcu) 442 D, 17. 
(e/caj/oj/) 432, 7. 
/catco, /cacw (/caua-co) 434, 1 ; 
e'/CTja (e/ceia), iceas, D. 
Ka\*-ca (e'waAf o-a, /ce/cATj/ca) 420, 5 ; 
7rpo-/caAtfouai, KiK\^<TKO> t D. 

(/caAu)8) 427, 7. 
(fKa/j.01/, Ke/c^yj/ca) 435, 8. 

427, 8. 
j 439 D, 4. 
405j 2. 

/cet'pco (/cepw, iKap-rjv) 432, 8. 
KeXaS-esd (/ceAaSajj/) 448 D, 13. 
K6Aeu-a> (/ce/ceAeua-yuai) 421, 20. 
/ceA-Aw (weAo-w, eKeAcra) 345 D. 
K&-O/JLO.I (ee/cA^7jj/) 424 D, 34. 
/cej/r-eo) (/ceVo"ai) 448 D, 14. 
Kepd-wvfju. (/ce/cpa/ca) 439, 1 ; 

Kepdca, Kfpaica, D. 

KepSaivco (/cepSai/w, /ce/cepSry/ca) 433, 6. 
/ceudw 425, 13; Kev&dvca, /cu&e, D. 
K?]S-co (/ce/caSvjo-o/xat) 422 D, 20. 
KT)pv(T(r<i) (/cyjpu/c, KeKJjpvxd) 428, 2. 
=: KeSd-vvvfu, 443 D, 8. 
Co (Ae) = /caAe'w, 444 D, 12. 
(e/ctov, ticia&ov) 440 D, 5. 
, -yaw, = KCpd-ywfJU) 443 D, 2. 
Kix-dv(o (ettixov, Kixfaofj.a.1) 436, 7. 
Klxpni" (xP a > eXP^o-) 403, 9. 
/cA (/ceA-o/xat, e/ce-KA-^Tjj/) 424 D, 34. 
428, 12; 
<wy ? D. 
, /cAaa> (/cAay<roG/iot) 434, 2. 

KXd-d) (e/cAa(ra, eKXd<r&-rjv) 419, 5. 

/cAe (KctAt'w, /cc/cATj/ca, /cj/cA^er/cw) 420, 5. 

/cAei'-w (K-e/cAc^o-J^at) 421, 15 ; 

KXfj't-ci)^ e/cAa^ct, D. 
/cAeta, KXeojuai (/cAu), 426 D, 8. 
KAeTT-To? (e/cAaTTTjz/, KewAo^a) 427, 9. 

KA?/-w jCCKAp/MU, K\yff^r7]f) 421, 16. 

K\ivct) (/cAtfa), KK 

KK\ 433, 1. 
/cAu (e/cAuov, /cAetw, /cAeV0 426 D, 8. 
(/ccyii-yaj, /ce/fjUTj/ca) 435, 8. 
i-o) (KeKvaiff/ 421, 12. 
(KVI/J KeKvr] 421, 2. 

(/ce/co^a) 427, 10. 
Kope-vyv/j.1 (KeK6peff/ 440, 2 ; 

KKopr}dos, re/cop7j|UOi, D. 
Kopvffffca (/ce/copu^/teVos) 430 D, 10. 
/core-ft) (eKOTe(ra, KKOTi]d>s) 420 D, 11. 
Acpa (Kepdwv[j.t, /ce/cpawa) 439, 1. 
/tpafc (/ce/cpaya, /ce/cpax^t) 428, 13. 
Kp/.ia-/ (/cpe^tro^oi) 404, 8. 
Kpe/j.d-vvvfj.1 (fKpfj.dff^r]v) 439, 2. 
/cp^m/iat = Kpe/, 443 D, 3. 
/cp/Cw (/fp^e, KCKpiya) 428 D, 20. 
Kpiv< (i<plvu>, /ce/cpt/ca) 433, 2. 
Kpov-ca (/ce/cpoy^wat, eKpovff^rjv) 421, 23. 
(Kpvft or /cpu<p) 427, 11. 

ct), HicTavov, H-KTa-v, 

-Krlvvvfj.i f 433, 4. 
KT^ e'u-KT^ej/os) 408 D, 26. 
o.iro-KrivvviJ.1 (KTCV) 442, 6. 

KTVTT-eCl) (eKTVTTOv) 448 D, 15. 

(e/cuo"a), /cua>, /cuew, 446, 2 
i-w (/ce/cuAt(T/xat) 421, 6 ; 

/cuAtVSw, /cuAa/Se'w, ib. 
-VW (fKvffa) 438, 3. 
TT-TW (/ce/cu<^a) 427, 12. 
p-ew (e/cup<ra), /cvp-a>, 448, 5. 

437, 3 ; Aa 0/ uat D. 
\dCofJ-ai = Xa^pdvoo, 429 D, 5. 
Xapfiava) (eAajSoj/, d\t]^a) 437, 4; 

\d/j.\l/o/, AeA^Tj/ca, D. 
\dfj.TT-co (AeAo^Tro) 424, 14. 
Xav&a.v<a (eAa^of, AeATy^o) 437, 6 

A^&co, A7j^a/a?, D. 
Aacr/cco (Aa/c, ATJ/C, Aa/ce) 447, 11 ; 

Ae'/cro) 408 D, 37. 
Ae'y-w (e'/Aoxa, etAeyMO") 424, 15. 
AetVw (eAtTTO^, AeAoiTra) 292 ; 

, 7. 




Xev-ca (faetifffrny) 421, 21. 
Aex (eAe/cro, eAea) 408 D, 38. 
\-f)&(o = Xavbavw, 425, 1. 

i, \ir-o fiat, 430 D, 11. 
* (AeAetXA"*T) 448 D, 23. 
Aoy-co (eAoy, Aou/mt, A<fe) 371 e. 
A.V-W 269 ; Kv^v 408 D, 29. 

Ee-w (e^ea-a, ^ea-T^) 419, 13. 
j-vp-eca, ^vp-o/, 448, 7. 
21, 10. 

(e,uaj/?ji/, fj.efj.-rjva) 432, 11. 
(fj.efj.ova, fj.ffj.afj.ev, fj,e(j,ad>s), 
Lfj.dco, 434 D, 5 ; /j.dfj.ej'os ib. 
(j.aK-cav (') 448 I), 24. 
fjiav&dvot (efj,a&ov, fj,afrf]<ro(jiai) 437, 6. (fj.apa) 443 D, 4. 
pdpir-TO) (fj.efj.dTroiev") 427 D, 21. 
fj.apTvp-eo),, 448, 6. (e/j-dyyv, 428, 3. 
fj,dx~ofiai (efj.axeffdfj.yv, fj.efj.dx' 

422, 10; jtaxe-o/iat D. 
[ (-r), fj.-f)8ofj,ai, 422 D, 21 
(e',ue3ucr,d-7ji/), yiie&uw, 446, 3. 
(efA.jji.opf, e'luaprai) 432 D, 25. 
(e>e'AA?7(ra or ^.) 422, 12. 
422, 11 ; 

D, 5. 

juey-a> ( 422, 13 ; 
fjLerafj.e\ (yueTe/ieA^^i') 413. 
fj.r] (jua/ccfo/, /j.efj.nKws) 448 D, 24 
fj,7]Ti-d(D t fj.fjTiofj.ait 448 D, 25. 

>, 442, 7 ; ^?/cro D. 

444, 6. 

^co) = ^eV-cw, 449, 3. 
p.icry(a (fJ.iy) = fj-iyvvfjii, 447, 12. 
ji>a (fj.t/j.vfjffKCi), fj,efj.vr]fjLai) 444, 6. 
/ioA ()3Acia-/cw, e^uoAo^) 445, 2. 
uuw (/ivy, juufe) 431, 7 ; /iuC 6 '> ^, ib 
/j.vK-do/ (e/iy/coj/, fj.efj.vKa) 448 D, 26. 
/u.u-w (ffj,vffa, fj.e/j.vica} 420, 6. 

Naterc-w (j/ateT^wfra) 434 D, G. 
j/cuou (ew.a-or-a, evdff^v) 434 D, 6. 
vda-ffui (i/ao, vay) 431, 3. 
veiKe-co (eVef.-ceo-a) 419 D, 21. 
i/e/A-o) (vvefj,r)Ka) 422, 14. 
j/e' 0/ iu 430 D, 12. 
j/eco (vu, tvevffa) 423, 2 ; 

321 D. 

(08, o>, i>Sa>5a) 431, 8. 
ot (^epco, o^crco) 450, 6. 
ofy-w (wi'|a), o?yvvfj.i, 424 D, 16. 
ola (f(ra(r:, etScis, f?5eiz/) 409, 6. 
ot'5-ayw (oi'S^/a-co), ot'Se'w, 436, 8. 
OiVo%oe-ru (e^voxJei) 312 D. 

olfiai (<?T)Sriv), 422, 15 ; 
co, o'/'-w, oi' (oi5/(r3 - 7?J'), D. 
22, 16 ; 

oA (efruo, ^Aet) 432 D, 22. 

, &\i<r&ov') 436, 9. 

, oAwAa, oAc^Ae/ca) 
442, 8 ; oAe/cw, oii\6fj,evos, D. 
oAir (eAirw, eoATra, ectfATrety) 424 D, 32. 

ofj.6py-vvfj.i (&fj.opa') 442, 10. 

ovtvrjfj.1 (ova, wvi\}j(.t\v) 403, 6. 

ovo-fj,ai (&voo~dfj,r]v, wv6ff&r]v) 405 D a. 

OTT (opdca, otyofj-ai, oTTWTra, Hnp^tjv) 450, 4 

OTTU^W (OTTUO-W) 434 D, 7. 

opd-u (ecapwv ttyo/mt, O7r^ra 

e75oy, t5e?j/) 450, 4. 
opy (epScw, eopya, edpyeiv) 428, 14. 
opyaivw (tipyava) 382 b. 
opey-vv/j.1, opey-ca, 442 D, 18. 
6p-vvfj.i (Stpffa, tipopov, opoopa, 

442, 1 1 ; cbpTO, opivca, opovca, 
6pvcro~<a (op&pvxa) 428, 4. 
u(fffofj,ai (OTT) 4*29 D, 4. 
6ff( (6cr<pp^ 436, 10. 
ovpe-ca (eovprja'a, -r]Ka) 312. 
oyT(i-aj (oSra), oyrcC<w, 423 D, 5. 
' 6<pei\w (ucpe\ov, b^eiK^ffw) 432, 12; 

ocph-iffKdvw (Sxp\ov, o^A^trw) 436, 11. 
X (^X 60 ? OX^KU, eircax^To} 424 D, 11. 

429, 2 ; J//TTTW ib. (vir) 430 D, 12. 
ixo-, 5ia-, ez/-,, 413. 

Ha (eiraffdfji.r]v, 335 D. 
ira& (Traa-xco, eTra^oi/) 447, 13. 
Trof^w (7rat5, Traty) 431, 4. 
7ra-cu (jrai-f](rca, tirai(r&r)v) 421, 13. 
7raAcu-a> (eTraAaitr^v) 421, 14. 
7raA-A&> (eV^Aa, -TreTraAciv) 432 D, 26, 
afj.(pav6(ay, 472 k. 
rap7)v6fj,r)ffa) 315. 
irapou/e-co (jreTrapcpvyKa) 315. 
(eTraora) 430, 5. 


/, TTfiffOfAat, 71 

447, 13; 7re7rocr&eD. 
7raT-eo, uat (fira.ffdfj.Tjv, Treiraffjjiai) 448, 8. 
irav-ca (Treirav/, eTraujVj&jjj') 421, 19. 

(TT^, Tre7ro;d-a) 295 ; TrfTri&ov, Trpia 


irpa (Trifj.irpTjfj.1 


w) 403, 8 ; 
444, 7. 

pa^oj/) 424 D, 36. 
(TreVpaya, 7re7rpa%a) 428, 6, 
08, 8. 

Tea, Tri&-f)ffca, 425 D, 8. irpi-a> (TreTrpia'/xai) 421, 7. 

//?, TTfivfjffca) 371 c. Trpo (eTTOpov, TTfirpcaTai) 424 D, 37. 

Tretpw (irepa), firdpr]v) 432, 13. Trpo&u^ue-o/mt (irpov&vfj.'fi&iiv) 413. 

irsK-TfCi) (67rex3-7jy), Tret/cw, 448, 9. Trra (TreTdvvviJ.i, TreTrra/iat) 439, 3 ; 

TreAa^w (TreAoS, TreAa, TrAa, TTA^TO), (Trero/iai, fTmjv) 424, 19. 

TreAaw, 7r(e)Aa^cw, Tri\vr]fj,i, 428 D, 21., Trrafpw, 442, 13. 
TreA-Ojticu (eTrA^Tjv), TreAcw, 424 D, 35. TTT^ffffca (7rr7j%a), TTTWO'O'CO, 428, 7 J 
Tre/xTT-co (irfTro/.t.(pa, TreTre^at) 424, 17. -irr^Trjv, 7re7rT?7ci>y, D. 

p 447, 13. TTTtWco (eTTTitro) 430, 7. 

(TrapS, TrapSe, TropS) 424, 18. TTTO (TrtTTTco, TreTTTajAca) 449, 4. 
irfp&-co (eTrpa.dw) 424 D, 36 ; Trop&fd) ib. Trri)-<a (firrvffa,, irrvffTds) 419, 20. 
(irepa) = Twrpdffia, 443 D, 5. 

(ireTr) 429, 1 ; TreTrrco ib. 
Trer, Tres (TT/TTTO.', e7re<roy) 449, 4. 
7reTa-j/j/y,ut (TreTrra/Aat) 439, 3. 

424, 19 ; 

'/TTTd/XCU, TTfTa/uLCU, TTOTdo/J.CU, It). 

dvo/ 425, 14. 
442, 12 ; -eirrjKTO D. 
-v&to)) = 7reAa-^a>, 443 D, 6. 
(?rAa), TrA^j^w, 403, 7. 
(irpa), Trp-fi&ca, 403, 8. 
426 D, 4. 
irt-vw (Trio/tat, CTTIOJ/, TreVw/ca) 435, 4. 
Trnricncci) (TTZ, eTritra) 446, 1. 
irnrpdffKO) (irpa) 444, 7. 

TTIXTO) (7T6T, fTTeffOV, TTeTTTClJ/Ca) 449, 4. 

sca (irer, firirvov) 438, 4. 

-vd(a, = ireT&-vvv[JLi, 443 D, 7. 

437, 7 ; 
'PatVco (eppaSarai, paffffare) 392 D. 

jj/) 421 D, 24. 
pcwr (e'ppcup^J') 427, 13. 
^e (efpTjica, fppr)&r]v, eppe^r;)/) 450, 8. 
p-efc (^7, lpe|a) 428, 14. 
p^eco (eppuijz/, eppUTj/ca, fppevffa) 426, 5 
p^iy-vvfj.i (fppdyrjv, fppcaya) 442, 14. 

=co (^70) 448 D, 16. 

-cy (piya>v, piy^ijv) 371 d. 

e'w, = /$ITTW (pi(p), 448, 10, 

^u-o/xat (pwaro, pvff&aC) 405 D b. 
pvir6-ca (pepuTr^uevos) 319 D. 
fxa-vvvpi (epp&ff&r]]/} 441, 2. 

(<>au) 446 D, 4. 2afpco (o"ap<, (TecTTjpa) 432, 14. 

TrA for TreA (Tre'Ao/ia:, eTrA^Tjf) 424 D, 35. <raA7rta> (eVc^ATrtyia) 328 b. 

TrAa (Tri/ATrA^/a, ir\-)]^ca) 403, 7 ; o"a^-a> (ecrc^axra) 431 D, 5 
(TreAafc, TrAfyro) 428 D, 21. 

TrAao-a-w (eTrAacra) 430, 6. 

7TAe/c-a> (e'TTAa/CTjv, ireVAoxa) 424, 20. 

irAew (TTAU, e7rAeu<ra) 426, 3 ; TrAcico D. 

ir\-f)ffffco (eTrA^yTj^, -eirAayTjy) 428, 5. 

ir\vvco (TrAuyeD, TreTrAu/xat) 433, 3. 

TrAw-w, = -n-Aew, 426 D, 3. 

Tire'a) (TTJ/U, eiryewtra) 426, 4; 

Tre'in/uyuar, Trivvaicd), D. 
vviy-w (eTn/fyrji/) 424, 21. 
TTO (TTi-^a), 7T67ra):a) 435, 4. 
jro^e-o) and TiW-a> 420, 8, 9. 

TTOiTT^U-W 472 lv. 

JTOp (fcTTOpOV, TTTrpCDTai) 424 D, 37. 

472 k. 

440, 3. 

ff eft-opal (eVe^Tjj/) 413. 
c"et-ctf (crea'eia'^uat) 421, 17. 

(eWu^at, (TVTo) 426 D, 9. 
(eVaTTTjz/) 425, 2. 

(T/ca^)7j^) 427, 15. 

(eV/ceSafr^tat) 439, 4. 
cr/ceA-Aw (eV/cATjy) 432, 15 ; eo-/C7?\a D. 

ffKTT-TO/ t (TKOTTe-Ca, 427, 16. 

427, 17. 

(rKeSd-yvv/j.1) 443 D, 8. 
ffK6ir-T(a 427^ 18. 

ff/j.d-(i) (<r/, ecr J u7j(T), (r^%G?, 371 c. 
<r^-r?s, 0-^77, o-Jaxrt, 431 D, 5. 
<T7r for (T67r (eVo^uat, eo"iro/j.r)v) 424, 8 j 
ivi-ffirov, eo-Trere, 450 D, 8. 




6 ; rerArj/ca 409 D, 10. 
Tj/ca) 435, 9. 
T(j.i)yca (eTjuayoj/) 425 D, 18. 
rpa (rirpaco, eTp7?(ra) 449, 6. (repiru) 424 D, 24. 
T/JOX (3-pao'a'aj, TeTp77X) 428, 8. 
rpeV-w (erpaTrov, Terpocpa) 424, 25 ; 

Tpdirci), rpairea), rpoTreco, D. 
rp(p-( (e^pe^o, erpa^Tjj/, Te^pa^af, 

Te'rpo<j>a) 424, 26 ; rpa^a? D. 

3"ird-Q) (ecnrao'a, eaTraa^cu) 419, 6. 
Trepw, co-Trap^?/) 432, 16. 
ev8-ca (fWei(ra, -ff/nai) 381. 391 C. 

(TT (t'<TT7?/.) 403, 5. 

(rrei)8co (<TTi/3, ecrTtjSryyUcu) 425, 9. 
<rreix (eo"Ttx oj/ ) 425, 10. 
<TTeA-Act> (e(TTe/Aa, eVraArjj/) 290. 
ffrepy-ca (ecrropya) 424, 22. 
errep-uTKa?, (rrepeco, ffrepofiai, 447, 7. 
areC-TOi, crreO-TO, 405 D C. 

orpecp-w (eVrpa^Tji/, effTpo(pa) 424, 23. 450, 5 ; 

ffTp&-vvvp.i 441, 3. Tpe-cw (erpetra, ^rp6(TToy) 419, 15. 

ffTvy-eco (ea-rvyov) 448 D, 17. rpiff-a ((Tpi&r)V, rerpupa) 424, 27. 

cr<pd(i) or crcpdrTW (effcpdyyv) 428, 15. Tpia> (rerpiya) 428, 16. 

<T<paA-Aco (e<T07;Ao, eV^aATjj/) 432, 18. rpu<|> (SfpviTTca) 427, 6. 

o*x for (rex (ex<w ^ ff X OJ/ t ff X^l a ' (a ) 424, 11. rp&yw (trpayov) 425, 4. 

<TaSco ((Tee, (TcoS) 431, 5. Tpct!a>, = TtrpcicrKw, 445 D, 6. 

TU for &V (fruw, eTufrqv) 420, 2. 

Ta (retVw, rera/ca, rai/ua>) 433, 5. TU < yx J/& > (^ Tl 
ray, reray^v 384 D ; rfoffw 428, 9. 437, 8 ; rerevxa D. 

raAa, erctAao-o-a 408 D, 6. TU/C (re^xw, rerv/cov, TtTucr/cw) 425 D, 15. 

Taj/v-ca (erdvuffa, reTdj/v<r/ 433 D, 5. rinr-ra) (rvTrT-fja-w, eru^a, eTU7roj')427, 19. 
rapda'a'oi) (eTapa|a), &p&<T(rw, 428, 8. 
ra<r(rco (erayTyv, reVaxa) 428, 9. 
ra<p (3-ct7TT(y, erdcpTjv) 427, 5. 
ra(p-tiaj/, Tefrt]ira, 425 D, 17. 
re for (9-6 (Tt'i\bj/u, ere&riv) 403, 2. 
retVa) (reyw, rera/ca) 433, 5 ; 

re/c (T//CTCO, ere/co^, rero/ca) 449, 5. 

(e're'Aetra, rereAeo-^at) 288. 
i, rer/iov 384 D. 

rafMOi/, reTfjir)Ka) 435, 9 ; 
rd/jivca, Te'^uw, T/^yw, D. 
repir-ftj 424, 24 ; TeTapTnfyujv D. 

/-&> (5(T/xot) 421, 11. 

424, 28. 

438, 6. 

, 404, 2; 

, repffaivca, 424 D, 38. 
(ererprji'a) 449, 6. 
Tuy/iai) 425, 15; 

T6TU/COV, TtTUO"Kft), D. 

) (for ro-6 ?) 433 D, 5. 
(irdiciitf) 425, 3. 

D, 6. 
^y, Tertrj/iat, 386 D. 

j/) 403, 2. 

/, TCTO/CO) 449, 5. 
ri-vca (eriera), rtvvfjn, 435, 5. 
Tiraivd) (rav) 433 D, 5. 
Tirpdca (rpa, erp^o*a) 449, 6. 
(rpo) 445, G ; rpww 
(TL-TVK) 447 D. 17. 
{- (erto-a) 435 D, 5. 

, 432 D, 19 ; 
D, 7. 
o, e^oyoi/) 450, 3. 

291 ; ^>t6, ?re- 

i, (paeivca, (padv^rjv, 432 D, 19 
<a-(T/ca>, = (p7],u.i, 444, 8. 
5ia-(pavffKco, -QuHrKW, 446 D, 4. 
(peiSo/jiai 425, 11 ; Trec/uS-^yiojjf, -^a'o/, D 
^t)6v, ^a (eTretpyoy, ire/pa/Jiai) 433 D, 7. 
(pep-co (oJf<rco ; tfyeyKov, tfveyKa, fvfjvoxa, 

evfiveyfjiai) 450, 6 ; $vez/ca D. 
tyevya (efyvyov) 425, 16 ; cpvyyduca ib a 

jre^u^Tes D. 
<H" (</>) 404, 2. 
(pfrd-vw (e^^ao-a, ^^77^) 435, 3. 

-epw, tybdpiiv) 432, 20; 
) 435, 6 ; 

448 D, 18. 

/) 413. 

a-w, = &Aa-w, 419, 4. 
ey-w (e^AeyTj^ late), (pheyebw, 411 D, 
for (/ (TT(f>vov) 433 D, 7. 
(ppdffffoi), 442, 15. 



fa ((ppafy 428, 17 ; eirf<ppa8ov D. X^-^ (Kex^^-(as t -oj/ros) 360 D. 

(jrefypiKo) 428, 10. X^' w ( K *X (a<r l jLat ) 421, 9 ; x& vvv V Ll '^' 

retyvp/dai) 345 D. e-Xpctcr^x-oj/, exp'0>?7<7' a j 448 D, 19. 

/, (pvffa) 423, 4. xP^'^ ai ( /ce/ Xf J7 ?/ ctat ) 335 a. 371 c. 

Xpd'M (K e/ X/ )7 ? (r i ua O 421, 3. 

(xaS) 428, 18; /ce/caS-oj/, -f]ffoD, D. xpt (%P a > XP e > ^XP^} 404, 3. 

432, 21 ; XP^' 03 ( /ce 'Xf u [']i uat ) 421, 8. 

' ,')419, 7. 

(exaSoy, x e ^o/"0 437 D, 9. Ya-w (i|/??, \|/TJ[(T]MO") ^X" w > 421, 4. 

Xa-ffKca (exavov, Kex^^a) 444, 9. ^yX' w (^"X 7 ?*'? e^uTTjv) 424, 29. 
X e/ C w (x 6 ^ ^ "' 'f^X ^ 01 ) 428, 19. 

X*> (^x a Ke'xuKa) 426, 6 ; 'fli^-ew (e&xro, ewa'/iot) 448, 11. 

0, 7. 



452. SIMPLE AND COMPOUND WORDS. A word is either simple, i. e. 
formed from a single stem: \6y-o-s speech (st. Xey), ypa.(p-a> to write (st. 

ypacpy ', or compound, i. e. formed from two or more stems : Xoyo- 

ypd(po's writer of speeches. 


453. VERBALS AND DENOMINATIVES. Words formed immediately 
from a verb-stem are called verbals : dpx-f) beginning, from the stem of 
apx't* to begin. Those formed immediately from a noun -stem are call- 
ed denominatives : dpxa-lo-s of the beginning, original, from the stem of 


454. SUFFIXES. Nouns (substantive or adjective), whether derived 
from a verb-stem or a noun-stem, are formed by means of added endings : 
these are called formative-endings, or suffixes. Thus \6y-o-s is formed 
from the verb-stem Xey by means of the suffix o ; apxa-lo-s, from the 
noun-stem ap^a by means of the suffix to. 

REM. a. The suffixes limit the general idea of the stem, by assigning par- 
ticular relations, under which it exists or manifests itself. Thus the verb-stem 
Trote (Trote-co) has the general sense of making or composing: from this are 
formed by various suffixes, Tronj-r-fj-s person composing, poet, -jroirj-cri-s act or 
art of composing poetry, irot7j-/ta (Troirj-fj-ar) thing composed, poem. From the 


verb-stem ypaty (ypci<p-<0 to write) come ypa<j)-ev-s writer, ypaty-i-s (7pct</>-i8) writ- 
ing-instrument, ypdfjL-fj(.a (for ^paty-par) written letter or document, ypa/j.-fj.'fi 
written stroke or line. Similarly, noun-stem 5t:a, Norn. S/KTJ right, S'uta-Lo-s 
righteous, jttst, SiKOLio-ffvvT] j'ustice ; noun-stem jSao-iAeu, Nona. fiaffiXev-s king, 
|8a<rtAe-ia queen, paffiXe-ta kingdom, ftacriX-iKo-s kingly. 

REM. b. A few verbal nouns are formed without any suffix : </>uAatr<ro; (tyvXaK) 
to watch, (/>uAa ((pvXait) ^vatchman. Such words change e of the verb-stem to 
o (cf. 25): ^Ae'y-co to burn, (p\6 ($Xo*y) flame. 

455. EUPHONIC CHANGES. The union of stems and suffixes gives oc- 
casion to many euphonic changes : 

a. Vowels, when they come together, are often contracted: apxaios for 
apxa-w-s, pacriXeia for j8ao-iAe(u)-m, aATjfreta truth for aXr)&e(a-}-ia (64) from aArj- 
&-f)s (aXrj&es) true, alSdios venerable for ai5o(d)-io-s from at'Scos shame, reverence. 

b. But a final vowel is often elided before a vowel in the suffix : ovpdv-io-s 
heavenly from ovpav6-s heaven, fcnrep-io-s belonging to evening from eoTrepa even- 
ing. Even a diphthong may be elided : pacri\-iK:6-s from /BamXev-s. 

c. Again, vowels are interchanged, e with o, ei with 01 : cf. 25. This oc- 
curs chiefly in verbals formed by the suffixes o and a (457) : rp6ir-o-s turning, 
manner, from Tpeir-co to turn, Xonr-6-s remaining from AeiTr-oj to leave,'f) 
sending, escort, from -Jre^ir-ca to send, aXoup-Ji ointment from oAe^-co to anoint. 
Also d/>o>7-J-s helpful from ap^y-co to help. 

d. Further, vowels are sometimes lengthened: X^-rj forgetfulncss from 

Aai/3ai> (Aafr) mid. ^o forget. Especially, vowel-stems lengthen their final 

vowel before a consonant : irotij-/j.a, Troirj-ffi-s, iroifi-r^-s, from Trote-w ; or annex 
ff before /j. or r : KeXuff-/j.a command, KeXevff-r^-s commander, from /ceAeu-co to 
command. In these changes they follow the formation of the Perf. Mid. : cf. 
ire-TTot^-^uai, -<rai, -rat, /ce-/ceAeu(r-^ot, -rai ; and, on the other hand, 6-p,a gift, 
56-ffi-s giving, So-r^p giver, from Sl5oo/j.i to give, Perf. Mid. Se-So-^oi, -ffai, -rai. 

e. Lastly, consonants, when they come together, are subject to euphonic 
changes : 7/3c,u-/ia for 7pa<^-^ua(T), Xets speaking for Aey-o-i-s, St/cacr-TTj-s judge 
for 5i/ca8-T?j-s from St/cc(^a> to judge, etc. 

456. ACCENT. As a general rule, neuter substantives take the accent 
as far as possible from the end (recessive accent) : \vrpov ransom, TrXfju- 
rpov instrument for striking the lyre, aporpov plough, KaiSapiov little loy 
or girl, ypu/z/xa writing^ irvev^a breath, noir^a poem. This is true with- 
out exception in words of the 3d decl. : for exceptions in the *2d decl., 
see 463 b, 465 a. 

Many masculine and feminine suffixes are regularly accompanied by 
recessive accent. Those which are not so will be specially noticed in the 
following enumeration. 


457. A. Many verbals are formed, especially from primitive verbs, by 
adding to the stem the suffixes, 

o, Nom. o-s, masculine : \6y-o-s speech from Xe'y-w to speak. 

a, Nom. d or rj, feminine : i^a^-r] fight from jucix-o/iai tofigfit. 
For change of vowel, see 455 c. 

a. These words are properly abstracts, expressing the action of the verb ; 
but actually they have a wide range of meaning: oreA-Aw to equip, send, 
7r6x-o-s a sending, expedition; hence that which is sent, an army QT navy. 


ffTo\-fi that with which one is equipped, clothing, dress ; - <J>uA,a<r<rw (<pyAcwc) to 
guard, ^>v\aK-^ act of guarding ; but also place of guarding, watch-station ; 
time of guarding, watch of the night ; party guarding, garrison. 

b. Adjectives also are formed by the same suffixes: \onr-6-s, -^, -6-v re- 
maining, from \ei7T-c<) to leave. 

c. Accent. Adjectives in os thus formed are oxytone: \onr-6-s. So too 
substantives in os, when they denote an agent : ay-6-s leader. So also most 
in a or 77 ; especially those which have the change of vowel (455 c) : 

or come from stems of more than one syllable : 

458. B. The AGENT is expressed by the following suffixes : in verbals, 
they denote the person who performs some action j in denominatives, the 
person who has to do with some object. 

1. ev, Norn, evs, masculine; always oxytone. 

Examples of verbals in evs. 

ypaty-ev-s writer from ypd^-ea to write 

yov-Gv-s parent yiyvo/ (yev) to be born 

Kovp-ev-s barber /ce:po (/cep) to shave 

Denominatives in evs. 

lirir-ev-s horseman, rider from 'tmro-s horse 

irop&fM-ev-s ferryman Trop&^-s ferry 

a. Several masculines in efo have corresponding feminines in (pro- 
parox.) : fiacriXevs (of uncertain derivation) king, fern. jScttrfAeta queen (later 

459. 2. r?7p, Nom. rrjp ~\ f reipa, Nom. retpa 

ra, rrj-s TiS, Tt-s 


avior } f fc p rff (4gl 

fern. J ' 

pTj-rwp (-rop) orator st. e, Fu. e>&> (450, 8) 

i-s (-TO.) judge st. /cpt, Pr. Kpivco 

- (-ra) porf ) ^^ ^ c e 



i-TTj-s (-ra) ci^2 from 

-s (-ra) A OM ^m;an< ) 
ot/ce-rt-s (^-Tto) iem. ) 

a. Accent. Verbals in ryp and rpis are always oxytone : so also most of 
those in TTJS, especially when the penult is long by nature or position. Verbals 
in TWO, retpa, rpta, and all denominatives, have recessive accent. 

460. C. The ACTION is expressed by the following suffixes: 
a. TI, Nom. rt-s ) 

o-*, <rt-s > feminine. 

<na, trm ) 

These belong to verbals only : <ri is for TI by 62, cf. Lat. ti-o. 
rttf-ri-s faith from irei&u (*#), 2 Pf. 


fit/j.t)-ffi-s imitation from ^ip.l-ofj.a.1 to imitate 

ovcetj/i-s consideration ovce7r-To/*at to view, consider 

irpai-s action Trpdiffffca (irpay) to act 

yeve-ffi-s origin (yev, yeve) to become 

SoKi/j.a-(ria examination 5oKtjuc&> (So/a^uaS) to examine 

b. JUG, Nom. p6-s, masc. and oxytone, belongs only to verbals. 
d5vp-fj.6-s wailing from to wail 
Xoyi(r-fj.6-s calculation Xoyio/ (A.o'ytS) to calculate 
ffira-<r-p.6-s spasm ffir<i-<a to draw 

^v-^-p.6-s (movement) rhythm peat (pv) to flow 

c. From verbs in euo> are formed substantives in em (for ev-ia) which 
express the action ; they are all fern, and parox. : nato'ela education, from 
TmiSeuto to educate ; jSaortXeta kingship, kingdom, from /3ao-tXeua> to Iti 
king (cf. 458 a). 

461. D. The RESULT of an action is expressed by the suffixes, 

a. juar, Nom. p.a, neuter ; only in verbals. 

irpay-pa (-/war) thing done, affair from irpAffffw (npay) to do 

(almost the same as rb irenpa.ytJi.evov, Lat. factum) 
) word from st. e, Fu. epw 

(cf. T> ctpTj/iei/ov, Lat. dictum) 

( section from re/tt/a) (rep., r/te) to cut 

(cf. rb rerp.'np.evov piece cut off) 

b. f p, Nom. 0?, neuter. 

(\axes) lot from Xayx&vw (\a.%) to get by lot 

%&-os (ed-es) custom st. e3-, 6^3-a am accustomed 

reK-os (re/ces) c/i^c? TKT (re/c) io bring forth 

In denominatives, the same suffix expresses QUALITY : 

/Jc&-os (j8o&es) cfcjo^/i from fta&v-s deep 

fidp-os (fiapes) weight Papv-s heavy 

) length p.aK-p6-s long 

462. E. The INSTRUMENT or MEANS of an action is expressed by 
rpo, Nom. rpo-v, neuter ; cf. Lat. trum. 

&po-rpo-v plough (aratrum) from ap6-ot to plough 

\ii-rpo-v ransom \i>-co to loose 

SiSaK-rpo-v teacher's hire 8i8d<rK<a (StSa%) to teach. 

HEM. a. The kindred feminine suffix rpa is less definite : ^v-ff-rpa. flesh 
scraper from |u-o> to scrape, 6px^-<f-Tpa place of dancing from opxe-o[ to dance , 
TraXal-ff-rpa wrestling-ground from 7roAo(-w to wrestle. 

463. F. The PLACE is expressed by 

a. rrjpio, Nom. rr]pio-i>, neuter ; only in verbals. 
aKpoa-rfipio-v Lat. audi-torium from aKpod-ofjicu to hear 
tiiKaff-T'fipio-i' court of justice St/ca^co (5i/co5) to judge 

b. eto, Nom. eto-j/, neut. ; properisp., contrary to 456 ; in denom. 
\oy-eto-v speaking-place from \6yo-s speech 

Kovp-eio-v barber's shop icovpev-s barber 

Wlov<r-eio-v seat of the Muses MoC<ra Muse 


c. coy, Nom. &>y, masc. and oxytone ; only in denominatives. 
This denotes a place where something abounds : ct/uTreA-cSy vineyard from 
&jj.ire\o-s vine, a.v$p-&v men's apartment from avfjp G. ay8p-6s man, olv-&v wine- 
cellar from dlvo-s wine, 

464. G. Substantives expressing QUALITY are formed from adjective- 
stems by the following suffixes : 

a. Tr)T, Nom. T7/f, feminine (Lat. tdt, tut, Nom. tas^ tus). 
vaxv-Tt]^ (-7-771-) thickness from iraxv-s thick 
yeo'-TTjs (-TTJT) youth vto-s young 
ur6-rr]s (-TTJT) equality tao-s equal 

b. crvi/a, Nom. (ruy//, feminine. 

5t/ca:o-cn5yrj justice from Sticaio-s just 

ffoxppo-ffvvf] discreetness crdcppcov (crcatypov) discreet 

c. ta, Nom. ta, feminine. 

<ro(p-la wisdom from <fo(p6-s wise 

v8aifjLOv-ia happiness euSafyteoy (eu8atyiioy) happy 

aA^ji^e-ta truth ctATj&Trjs (aA7j,9-es) true 

ftfvo-ia good-will etfvovs (cuyoo) well-disposed 

d. es, Nom. o?, neuter, see 461 b. 

465. H. DIMINUTIVES are formed from substantive-stems by the 
following suffixes : 

a. to, Nom. to-y, neuter. 

irafii-io-v little child from ITCH'S (TratS) child 

Kf]ir-io-v little garden K^TTO-S garden 

&K6vr-io-y javelin ct/ccoy (a/coy-r) lance 

Those of three syllables are parox., if the first syllable is long by nature or 
position: TrcuSioy. 

Other forms connected with to are 

t8to : ot/c-iSto-y little house from o?/co-s house 

apio : iraiS-dpio-v little child irais (iratS) child 

vSpio : /j.e\-vdpio-y little song /teAos (^ueAcs, yiieAe) song 

b. Masc. IO~KO, Fern, tcrxa, Nom. tV/co-s, IO~K?/, parox. 
w-iffKo-s Lat. adolescentulus from veavia-s young man 
iS-ia-Kr] young girl y irais (iraiS) girl 

little wreath ffrecpavo-s wreath 

466. I. PATEONYMICS (substantives which express descent from a 
father or ancestor) are formed from proper names of persons by adding 
" suffixes, 

So, Nom. 8^-y, masculine, paroxytone ; and 
8, Nom. s, feminine, oxytone. 

These suffixes are applied directly to stems of the first declension : 
[asc. Bopea-STj-s, Fern. Bopea-s, from Boped-s 

AtVeta-STj-y Aiveia-s 

Stems of the second declension in to change this to ia : 

Fern. 0e<pricJ-s, from e'cr-no-s 




All other stems take i as a connecting vowel, before which o of the 2d dec! 
is dropped. Those in eu lose v by 39. 

Masc. KeKpoTT-i-Sij-s, Fern. Ke/cpoir-i-s, from Ke'/cpo^ 

n^f-i-Sfj-s UnXev-s 

(Hm. has also a form Tl-rj^-id-fy-s, cf. 189 D.) 
A7]TO-t-5r)-s from ATJTCO (Aijro) 

and from stems of the 2d declension : 
Masc. TavTa\-t-8rj-s, Fern. Taj/ra\-i-s, from TovroAo-s 

Kpov-l-^rj-s Kp6vo-s 

a. A rarer suffix for patronymics is top, Norn, iuv : Kpov-iwv (Kpoj/-ioz>) son 
of Kp6vo-s. The poets allow themselves many liberties for the sake of the 

467. J. GENTILES (substantives which designate a person as belong- 
ing to some people or country) have the following suffixes : 

a. fv, Nom. eu-y, oxytone: cf. 458. 

Meya/>-ei5-s a Megarian from Meyapa (2d. decl. plur.) 

'Eperpi-ev-s an Eretrian 'Eperpta (1st decl.) 

b. ra, Nom. TTJ-S, paroxytone : cf. 459. 

Teyea-TTj-s from Teyea, Aiyivf)-Ti]-s from Afyij/a, 'HTreipco-rrj-s from "Hiretpo-s, 

c. The corresponding feminine stems end in , Nom. y: Meyap/s 
a Megarian woman, Tcyearis (-tS), 2iKfXicoriy (-18). The accent 
falls on the same syllable as in the corresponding masculine. 


468. 1. to, Nom. to-j, 

expresses THAT WHICH PERTAINS in any way to the substantive from which the 

adjective is formed : 

ovpdv-io-s heavenly from ovpav6-s heaven 

irXovff-io-s wealthy (for TT\OVT-IO-S) TT\OVTO-S wealth 

oliceio-s domestic (for ouce-io-s) oT/co-s house 

ayopcuo-s forensis (for ayopa-io-s) ayopd forum 

&epeio-s of the summer (for &epeff-io-s) frepos (3-epes) summer 

aiSo'to-s venerable (for aitioff-io-s) aiSds (atSos) shame 

j8a<rtAeto-s kingly (for jSaa-tAev-to-s) fia<n\v-s Icing 

a. This suffix is also used in connection with adjective-stems : 
liberalis, from e\ffoepo-s liber. 

b. It often serves to form adjectives denoting country or people (gentiles), 
which may be used also as substantives : MtA.^a--to-s (for MttojT-to-s) Milesian 
from M\TJTO-S, 'A3-rji/oTo-s Athenian from 'A&fjvat Athens. 

c. Adjectives in aio-s, oio-s are generally properispomena (euos, o?os). 

469. 2. KO, Nom. KO-S-, always oxytone, generally applied to the stem 
with a connecting vowel t. 

a. In verbals, it expresses ABILITY or FITNESS: apx-i-K6-s capable of gov- 
erning, ypa<p-i-K6-s fitted for writing or painting. - Many verbals insert, be- 
fore this ending, the syllable TI, which denotes the action (460 a) : ai(rfcr]-Ti-K6-s 
capable of feeling, irpaK-ri-itS-s suited for action. 

b. Denominatives in ic6-s express that which pertains to the noun from 
which they are derived : flaffi\-L-Ko-s kingly, <pv<r-i-K6-s natural. 




470. 3. (i/o, Nom. ii/o-s, and 

4. eo, Nom. eo-s-, contracted ov-s (145 c). 
These denote the MATERIAL : \ifr-ivo-s of stone from Aid-o-s, v\-ivo-s wooden 

from IvAo-v, (xpvff-eo-s) xp vff ~v~s golden from xp vff ' s - But tj/o, Nom. iv6-s, 

oxytone, forms adjectives denoting TIME : x^ eff ' ij/ ^' s belonging to yesterday 
hesternus, vvKrep-iv6-s nocturnus, 4ap-w6-s vernus. 

o. WT, Nom. M. ei-s, F. e<r<ra, N. ei/, 

denotes FULNESS or ABUNDANCE : x a pl~* l ~ s graceful from x&P 1 ' 5 * &M?-et-y woody 
from #ATJ. These are mostly poetic. 

471. 6. Adjective-suffixes of less definite meaning are 

v6-s> oxytone, mostly passive : 5ei-v6-s fearful (to be feared), ffep.-v6-s (tre/S-o^at) 
to be revered. 

\6-s, mostly oxytone and active : 8ei-\6-s fearful (timid), cbraTTj-Acf-s deceptive. 

o6-s, mostly oxytone and active : \a/ shining, <pofis-p6-s frightful (alarm- 
ing), also pass, afraid. 

u.o-5, active : ^a%-t-^o-s warlike ; or passive : aoiS-i-po-s to be sung of. And 
akin to this, 

ffi/j-o-s (o-L=:ri, 460 a): %p^-<rtjuo-s useful, <>u|t/to-s (= tyiry-<rip.o-s) avoidable or 
able to avoid. 

es, Nom. i)s, Neut. es, oxytone, chiefly in compounds, see 475. 


472. Denominative verbs are formed from noun-stems in many ways. 
The most important endings are the following ; they are given as seen 
in the present. In their effect upon the meaning, they are not clearly 
distinguished from each other. 

from /j.icr&6s hire 
Xpvffos gold 
np.ia, penalty 
ri/j.'f) honor 
curia fault 
y6os lamentation 
api&[j.6s number 
evrvx'fjs fortunate 
'iffrcap knowing 

b. a-ca 

to let for hire 
Xpva"6-(0 to gild 

to punish 
to accuse 
yod-ca to lament 
api&/j.e-<> to number 

-u to be fortunate 

to know by inquiry 
d. eu-a jSao-iAev-w to be king 

jSouAeu-w to take counsel 
to speak truth 
-d> to hope 

'-a> to speak Greek 
<pi\nriri-(a. to favor Philip 
5tKd-ca to judge 
pyd-o/ to work 
jSiaf-o/icu to use force 
g. aiv-w o"r)[J.a,iv-<a to signify 

\evKaiv-Q) to whiten 
XaA.e7rcuV-a> to be angry 
h. vv-(a T)8vv-(t) to sweeten 

\ap.Trpvi/-c-j to brighten 
ala"x^ to be ashamed 

j8a(nAeu-s king 

eAirts hope 
"EXAyv Greek 

SiKrj justice 
tpyoi/ work 
Qia force 
<n),ua sign 
\evic6s ivhite 

hard, angry 
\afMTrp6s bright 


REM. i. It happens occasionally, that from the same noun are formed 
several verbs with different endings and different meanings : thus from SowAo-s 
slave, 8ov\6-w to enslave, SovAeu-eo to be a slave ; from ir6\ejno-s war, TroAe/xe-w 
and iro\e/j.i-ci) to wage war, TroAe/^-w to make hostile. 

REM. j. Verbs expressing desire (DESIDERATIVES) are formed from verbs 
and nouns ; most frequently with the ending tretw : 7eAo<rei<y to desire to laugh, 
Spaa-flu to have a mind to do; also in aw, ia<o: tyovda) to be eager for murder, 
K\avffid(i) to be disposed to weep. Some verbs in acu, taa> express an AFFEC- 
TION OF THE BODY : d>xptao> to be affected with pallor, cxpkraXfjudo) to have sore eyes. 

REM. k. A few INTENSIVES (almost entirely poetic) are formed from primi- 
tive verbs, by a more or less complete repetition of the stem, generally with 
some change of vowel : paipd-ci) to reach after, long for, from fj.aio/ (pa) id., 
irop<pvp-(0 to be agitated (of the sea) from (pvp-co to mix up together, ironrvv-w to 
puff with exertion from irvtw (irvv) to breathe. Here belongs Ep. tra^aivuiv 
(once Sub. 3 Sing. Tra/jL<paivr)ffi)) also Trafj.(pav6wv t shining brightly, from tpaivca 
(Trafj.-(pav for (pav-<paj>, 65 a, 48). 



473. When a noun stands as the first part of a compound word, only 
its stem is used : vav-paxia (i/aOs-, pdxn) ship-fight, ^opo-StSacr/<aXoy {^o'poy, 
&Saor/aXo?) chorus-teacher. 

a. Stems of the 1st decl. change a to o, appearing thus like stems of the 
2d decl. : x^po'yp^ ' 5 (x^P a i ypd$v) land-describer. Stems of both these de- 
clensions drop their final vowel, when a vowel follows : xP"ny^ s (x^P os ) &7 W ) 
chorus-leader. It is retained, however, when the second part of the compound 
began originally with digamma : Hm. 8r]fjLio-epy6-s artisan, Att. Syfj-iovpySs. 

Stems of the 3d decl. commonly assume o as a connecting vowel before a 
consonant: avdpiavT-o-iroi6-s image-maker, ira.Tp-o-KT6vo-s parricide, (pva-i-o- 
\6yo-s natural philosopher, ix&v-o-<pdyo-s fish-eating. 

b. But the exceptions to these rules are quite numerous. Thus, the stems 
in s are often found in a shortened form : ^-O-KT^VOS (|t'<oy, st. |t<^es) slaying 

with the sword, Tet%-o-/ta%fa (st. Tei%es) battle at the wall. Stems of the 1st 

decl. sometimes retain the final a (as a or 77) : apeTa-\6yos prater about virtue, 

p07j-((pos bearing libations for the dead. Sometimes an inflected case is 

found instead of the stem : vecfts-oiKos ship-house, vavffi-iropos traversed by ships. 

474. When a noun stands as the last part of a compound^ its final 
syllable is often changed. 

This is the case especially in compound a'djectives : fyi\6-Tip.o-s (TI^} honor- 
loving, iro\v-TrpdyiJ.wv (Trpay/j.a) busy. So too in compound substantives, 

when the last part is an abstract word : Ati8-o-/JoA(a (jSoA^j) throwing of stones, 
va.v-iJ.axia. (M^X 7 ?) ship-fight, ev-Trpata (-n-pa^is) good success. Only after a prC' 
position can the abstract word remain unchanged : irpo-fiovX-f) forethought. 

475. A very frequent ending of compound adjectives, though seldom 
seen in simple words, is rjs masc. and fern., es neut. : it is found 

a. in many adjectives formed directly from the verb-stem: a-j3Aa-^ 
, st. )8Aaj8) unharmed, aur-ap/c-Tjs (op/ce'a>) self-sufficing, independent. 


b. in adjectives of which the last part is a substantive in es (Nom. os) : 
(eros) of ten years, /ca/co-^dT/s (fi&os) ill-disposed. 

476. Compounds in which the first part is made directly from a verb- 
stem, are nearly confined to poetry. They are formed in two ways : 

a. The verb-stem appears without addition, except a connecting vowel 
(e, T, or o) used before a consonant: ireib-apxos obedient to command, Sa/c-e- 
&v,uos (SaK-vo) to bite) heart-corroding, dp%-t-Te/cTw^ master-builder, iJuff-6-yvvos 

b. The verb-stem has cri added to it : this expresses action (cf. 460 a, 469), 
and becomes <r before a vowel : Xv-ffi-irovos releasing from toil, epv-ff-dpfj-ar- 
es, -as (nom. ace. plur., Hm.) chariot-drawing, ir\-f]-nnros (irA^a-crw, st. 7^777) 
horse-driving, <rrpeJ/t-5i/cos (crrpe^-w) per verier of justice. 

477. COMPOUND VERBS are formed directly or indirectly. They are 
formed DIRECTLY by prefixing a preposition to a simple verb. 

Originally the prefix was a mere adverb, qualifying the verb. Hence the 
augment was applied to the latter, not to the preposition (313). Hence also 
in the early language, as in Homer, the preposition was often separated from 
the verb by intermediate words, and even placed .after the verb : in the last 
case prepositions of two syllables suffer anastrophe of accent (102 D b). This 
separation of the preposition from the verb is called TMESIS (T/MJO-W cutting 
from re/Aw to cut). 

478. All other compound verbs are formed INDIRECTLY, being deno- 
minatives made/rom compound nouns: 

Thus from At&os and /S^AAw comes the compound noun \&o-&6\os stone- 
throwing, and from this the compound verb Aid-ojSoAeco to throw stones ; from 
vavs and /ua%o/xoi comes j/av-/j.dx os fighting in ships, and from this vav/*oo to 
fight in ships ; from eu and st. epy comes eiiepyer^s benefactor, and from this 
fvepysTfca to benefit. 

479. ACCENT. Compounds of the first and third declensions are ac- 
cented like simple words with the same endings. But many compounds 
in 77$- (3d decl., 471, 475) are paroxytone instead of oxytone. 

Compounds of the second declension are generally proparoxytone. 
But those formed from compound verbs, by adding suffixes, are common- 
ly accented like simple words with the same suffixes : o-v\\oyi(r-[j.6-s 
from av\\oyi^o^ai to infer, axroSo-reo-s from 0.7708180)^,1 to give back. 

a. Objective compounds (480) of the second decl., when the last part is 
an intransitive verbal, follow the above rule : \i&6-fio\os thrown at with stones, 
(jLT]rp6-KTOvos slain by a mother: But when the last part is transitive, and made 
by adding o (Nom. os) to a verb-stem, they accent the penult if it is short ; 
if long, the ultima : \i&o-&6hos throwing stones, fj.f]rpo-K.r6vos matricide ; arpar- 
tiy6s army-leader, general, \oyo-iroi6s story-maker, ^vxo-iro[j.ir6s conductor of souls. 

But compounds of ^X M an d ^PX ** w i tn some others, follow the general rule : 
(rein-holder) charioteer, 5a5oG%os (contr. from SaSJ-o%os) torch-holder, 
commander of horse. 


480. As regards their meaning, compound nouns (substantive and 
adjective) may be divided into three principal classes. The division re- 
lates properly to direct compounds, as 'vavTrrjyos ship-fiuilder, from vavi 


and irfpyyvfu; not to indirect compounds (derived from nouns already 
compounded), as vavnrjyia ship-building, vavTrrjyiKos belonging to ship- 
building, derived from the compound vavnrjyos. 

1. OBJECTIVE COMPOUNDS. In these, one part is related to the other 
as a grammatical object ; so that, when the two are expressed as separate 
words, one must be put in an oblique case, depending, either immediate- 
ly or by means of prepositions, on the other : 

\oyo-ypa<po-s speech-writer = \6yovs ypdtpwv 
ai6-\oyo-s worthy of mention = &ios \6yov 

earing the divinities = SeSt&s rovs o~a.lfji.ovas 
s made with hands = x e P ff i iroiyrSs 
harmed by the god = virb rov &eou jSejSAa^eVoy 
oiKo-ywf)s born in the house = eV ofay yev6p.tvos 

481. 2. POSSESSIVE COMPOUNDS. In. these, the first part qualifies the 
second like an adjective or adverb, while the whole is understood as be- 
longing to something ; so that, when the compound is expressed by se- 
parate words, a participle of e^a> to have, or some verb of -similar mean- 
ing, must be added : 

(jLa.Kp6-x^i-p long-handed fj.a.Kpas %e?pas %x<av 
apyvp6-rol-o-s with silver bow apyvpouv r6^ov %x <av 
dp.6-rpoiTo-s of like character = opoiov r rp6irov exeov bright-eyed = y\avKobs 6(p&a\iJ.ovs tyjav 
TTiKp6-ya/j,o-s having a (bitter) unhappy marriage 
Se/ca-e-Hjs (having) lasting ten years 

a. Here belong the numerous adjectives in -C^STJS (-o-etS^s) : ywaiKdSys = 
having the appearance or character of woman, woman-like. 

482. 3. DETERMINATIVE COMPOUNDS. In these also, the first part 
qualifies ^pr determines) the second, but without the added idea of pos- 
session ; so that the compound may be expressed by two words, the first 
of which is an adjective or adverb : 

&Kp6-TTo\i-s (summit-city) citadel =. &Kpa ir6\is 

fj.fff-T]fj,ftpia mid-day = yueo-Tj ^/xepa 

i//u5o-/c%n;!/a/se herald = tyevtys Kr)pv 

6fj.6-5ov\o-s fellow-servant = 5fj.ov SouAeuwj/ 

fieya^o-Trpeir^s (grand-appearing) magnificent 

btyi-yovo-s late-born = oi|/e yei/6/j.evos 
This is the least numerous of the three classes. 

REM. Prepositions may be connected with substantives in each of the 
above-described relations : 


syXcapios native = ev ry X<*>p& (&v) 

e^TTTrtos belonging to a horse = e<p' 'fairy (&v) 


fv&eos having a god in him, inspired, = sv (cai>T<) 3-ebi/ 
a/JupiKlwv having pillars round it = Ki6vas a/j.<p' (avrbv) e 


b.p.<$ndrta.Tpov amphitheatre = a surrounding or circular theatre 
airetevfrepos freed-man, = free from (the gift of) another, 6 air6 nvos 


483. ALPHA PEIVATIVE. The prefix av- (cf. avev without.! Lat. in-, 
Eng. un-\ before consonants a-, is called on account of its meaning 
Alpha privative. Compounds formed with it are determinative, when 
the second part comes from a verb or adjective ; when it comes from a 
substantive, they are mostly possessive : 

&-ypa(po-s unwritten = ov yeypafji.ij.fvos 

av-t\ev&epo-s unfrce = OVK eXe 

av-aiS-fis shameless = cu'SoD OVK 

&-Trats childless = TratSas OVK 

a. Determinative compounds formed with this prefix from substantives, are 
rare and poetic : uAirrip djurjTw^ an unmotherly mother = ^irtjp ov n'fiTrjp ovffa. 

b. Words, which began originally with digamma, have d-, not av-: 
v, unwilling, a-eiK-fis^alK'fis^unseemli/ (st. t/c, eot/ca). 

484. The inseparable prefix Svs- ill is the opposite of ev well, and expresses 
something bad, unfortunate, or difficult : 8vs0ov\os ill-advised (possessive) = 
KaKas fiov\as *X(av, Svsdpeffros (determinative) ill-pleased, 8vsd\caros hard to be 
caught. Here too, determinative compounds formed from substantives are 
very rare : Hm. Avsirapis wretched Paris. 





485. SYNTAX (o-wrais arranging together) shows how words 
are combined in sentences. 

A SENTENCE is SIMPLE, when the essential parts of a sentence 
are found in it only once. (For compound sentences, see 724.) 

The essential parts of a sentence are 

the SUBJECT, of which something is said, and 

the PREDICATE, which is said of the subject. 

The subject of a sentence is a substantive (or substantive 
pronoun) in the nominative case. The predicate of a sentence 
is & finite verb in the same number and person as the subject. 

a. The only nominatives of the first person are eyd>, v&, ^ue?s; of the 
second person, <rv y cr^d, t^eTs ; all other nominatives are of the third person. 

b. These are sometimes called the grammatical, in distinction from the 
logical, subject and predicate. The latter include, beside the nominative and 
finite verb, all other words in the sentence which belong to these respectively. 
Thus in the sentence pvpiuv fvavTL( r/ ^u%^ y*t*-ei T]/J.U>V our soul is full of 
numberless contradictions, ^u%^ and ye'/iei are the grammatical subject and 
predicate, y ^vx^) vpuv and pvpiuv eVcwrjoj/iaTcoj/ ye/tet the logical. 

c. The infinitive mode, though it is not the predicate of a sentence, 
has its subject. The subject of the infinitive is a substantive in the 
accusative case. 

486. OBJECT. The verb, beside its subject, may have an ob- 
ject on which its action is exerted. The object of a verb is a 
substantive in an oblique case (accusative, genitive, or dative). 

The object is direct or indirect, according as it is related 
immediately or remotely to the action of the verb. The verb 
is transitive, when its action passes over to a direct object : other- 
wise, it is intransitive. 

a. The remote relations of an object to a verb are expressed to a 
great extent by means of prepositions. 

b. The infinitive and participle may have objects, both direct and 
indirect, like the finite verbs to which they belong. 



487. A substantive may be qualified 

a. by an adjective in the same case, number, and gender. 

b. by a substantive in the same case. 

488. The adjective is called 

a. an ATTRIBUTIVE, when its connection with the substantive 
is taken for granted in the sentence, not brought about by it: 
6 dya^os di%> do-Ket rr)v St/caioo-vv^v the good man practises justice. 

b. a PREDICATE- ADJECTIVE, when it is brought by the sen- 
tence into connection with the substantive : 6 avyp dya$ds eon 
(yi-yverat, (JMwerai, KoXcirai, vo/u^erai) the rhan is (becomes, appears, 
is called, is considered as) good. 

KEM. c. The adjective in the former case is purely adnominal, belonging 
exclusively to its substantive : in the latter case, it is generally adverbial, being 
connected also with the verb. - Thus the Greek often uses a predicate-ad- 
jective, where other languages use an adverb, or a preposition with its case : 
rpiTcuoi oTnjA&oj/ they went away on the third day, A.aKeSai/jL6vioi vffrepot a.<piKovTO 
the Lacedaemonians arrived afterward, '6pKi6s ffoi \4yta I speak to you under 
oath. In some such cases, the adverb, used in Greek, would give a different 
meaning : irpwros MTJ&V/XJ/T? irposeftaX* he first (before any one else) attacked 
Methymna ; vpcfrr) MTj&ifytz/Tj Trposef}a\e he attacked Methymna first (before any 
other place) ; but with the adverb, irpiarov MTJ&I^U/?? Trpose/JaAe first (before 
doing any thing else) he attacked Methymna. 

489. In the same two cases (488 a, b), the qualifying sub- 
stantive is called 

a. an APPOSITIVE : Sav^d^ MtXndS^v TOV orpa-nyyov I admire 
Miltiades the general. 

b. a PREDICATE-SUBSTANTIVE : TTOiovcn (KaXovcrL, Ka$LcrTaari, vo- 
/uovo-t) MiXrtdS^v o-rpar^yov they make (call, appoint, consider) 
Miltiades a general. 

REM. c. The substantive qualified is called the SUBJECT of the attri- 
butive, appositive, or predicate-noun. This must not be confounded with 
the subject of a sentence (485). 

d. The attributive stands in the closest relation to its subje'ct, forming 
with it one complex idea, like the parts of a compound word. The appositive, 
in general, is less closely related to its subject, being added to it as an explan- 
ation or description. (But see 500 a.) The predicate-noun (adjective or sub- 
stantive) is still less closely related to its subject, being brought into connection 
with it by the sentence. 

e. The predicate-noun is sometimes called simply a predicate. It is oc- 
casionally preceded by us as, expressing comparison : rots ^rroffiv &s 8ov\ois 

they treat the weaker as slaves. 


490. Many verbs, from the nature of their meaning, are com- 
monly connected with a predicate-noun. Such are verbs which 


signify to be, become, appear, be called, chosen, considered, and 
the like. With these, a predicate-noun is put in the nominative 
case, agreeing with the subject of the verb : 6 avyp dya^os eon 
(yiyverai, <au/era6, /caAciTai, vo/xt^erat) ; see 540. 

a. The verb ei/ to le, when thus used, is called the copula, since it 
does little more than couple the subject and the predicate-noun. For the 
frequent omission of the copula, see 508 a. 

b. Yet all these verbs, even et/u to be, .are often used without a pre- 
dicate-noun, as complete predicates. 

c. Transitive verbs, which correspond in sense to the foregoing, take 
a predicate-noun in the accusative case, agreeing with the object of the 
verb. Such are verbs which signify to make, call, appoint, consider, and 
the like : TTOIOUCTI (/caXovo-i, KaSSiorao-t, vofiiov&$ MlAriaSqp (rrpar-qyov J 
see 556. 

d. The infinitives and participles of the same verbs are also connect- 
ed with predicate-nouns belonging to their subject or object. 


491. a. RELATIVE PRONOUN. A substantive may be qualified 
by a sentence : avrjp 6V Travres (piXovcn a man whom all love 
= avrfp TTOLO-L </K'AOS a man beloved by all. The sentence is then 
introduced by a relative pronoun, in the same number and gender 
as the substantive. The latter, as it commonly goes before the 
relative, is called its ANTECEDENT. 

once used, may be recalled .or referred to by a, demonstrative 
pronoun, in the same number and gender as the substantive or 

functions of the substantive and adjective, described in the fore- 
going sections, may be sustained by other parts of speech or 
forms of expression. 

The principal equivalents of the ADJECTIVE are 

a. the article : ol aVSpcoyrot the men. 

b. the adjective pronoun : rives Hifcpanroi what men f 

c. the participle : d^vpovvres av^pauoi dispirited men. 

d. The article is used only as an attributive. So too the adjective and 
participle are always attributive, when placed directly after the article. In 
like manner, other forms of expression, when they follow the article, have the 
force of attributives : especially 

e. a substantive in the genitive : ol rrjs Trdteus frvfrpuiroi the men of the city. 

f. an adverb : oi vvv &vSp<airoi the men now (living). 

g. a preposition with its case : ol eV ry ir6\ei ^V^OOSTTOL the men in the city. 
h. Even without an article preceding it, the genitive is often used as an 

Attributive : v6ynfffji.a apyvpov coin of silver = silver coin; also as a predicate- 


noun : rb v6^iff^a apyvpov tffrl the coin is of silver. A similar use of^the ad 
verb, and of the preposition with its case, is comparatively rare : ^ ^ffffa ovu 
&\\o ri <j>epei 1) ZvTiKpvs 5ov\elav defeat brings nothing else than utter servitude, 
eV TOVTO) r<? Tp6TTca tfffav of "E\\r)ves the Greeks were in this condition. 

For 'the use of a sentence (relative sentence} as equivalent to the adjective, 
see 491 a. 

493. The principal equivalents of the SUBSTANTIVE are 

a. the adjective, or any of its equivalents, when used without a sub- 
stantive : rrdvTfS 7rrjvecrc.v all approved, ol ev rrj TToAei exa\7raivov those in 
the city were angry. 

b. the substantive pronoun (personal or reflexive) : 
we assent. 

c. the infinitive, with or without the neuter article : e<5oez/ 
it was thought lest to depart. 

d. a sentence, used as the subject or object of another sentence : 
\eycTai on TavTa eyeVero it is said that these things took place. 

e. any word or phrase viewed merely as a thing : TO yi>o>3i o-tavrov 
Kal TO o-axf)p6vft earl ravrov the "know thyself" and the "be wise" are 
the same thing. 

The forms c, d, e, are equivalent to substantives of the neuter gender. 

f. A preposition with a numeral may take the place of a substantive : 
&irf^avoj/ avrtav irepl 48o^/coj/Ta there died of them about seventy, 8te<p&eipaj> es 
oKraKoa-iovs they destroyed to the number of eight hundred. So also the phrases, 
eirl iroXv a wide extent, eVl ftfya a great part, KO& fKdffrovs or /ca&' (eVa) e/cao-- 
rov each by himself, and a few others : a! vyes eirl iroXv rijs ^a\dffarrjs e-/Te?xov 
the ships covered a wide extent of the sea. 

g. All these forms are said to be used substantively, or used as sub- 


494. The subject of a sentence may be thought of in a manner 
wholly vague and general, merely as that to which the predicate 
applies. This is called the indeterminate subject, and is not ex- 
pressed in words : 

oi|/e 3\v it was late, T^tepa eyeVero it became day, Ka\ws e% it is well, Set 
V-a-XW 5 (it nee ds a battle) there is need of a battle, SyjAo? (there is something that 
makes clear) it is clear, iropefoei (there is something that allows) it is allowed. 

The same construction is seen in passive verbs, especially in the perfect 

and pluperfect : irapea-Kevcurral juo: (things have been prepared) preparation has 
been made by me. But it occurs most frequently when the verbal in r4ov (or 
reo) is used with et/Ai to be (expressed or understood) : OVK aSt/ojTeW eVr^ (not 
any thing is to be unjustly done) injustice n^st not be done, ry v6p.<f TreicrTeov 
(or TretffTea) obedience must be rendered to the law. 

a. These verbs which have the indeterminate subject, are most prop- 
erly called IMPERSONAL verbs. That name, however, is applied also to 
the more frequent cases, in which the subject of a verb is not a nomina- 
tive, but an infinitive or a sentence : egeo-riv evSaipovflv it is possible to 
be happy, dij\ov r\v on eyyvs TTOU 6 jSacriXevy TJV it was plain that the 
was somewhere near. 


495. The object of a verb may be similarly indeterminate : 

poet, orav 6 daifj-uv eu 8t8<, T( 5e? <pi\uv whenever the divinity may givt 
abundantly, what need of friends? Transitive verbs may thus appear as in- 
transitive : 6 \6yos /care^et the story (holds) prevails. 

496. The subject of an attributive is very often indeterminate. 
The attributive then is neuter, and may be either singular or 
plural. The indeterminate subject may be expressed by such 
words as thing, affair, condition, quality, space, time, and many 

aya&d (good things) goods, rb \j6fj.evov (the thing said) the common saying, 
rk xp^ifj-a (the useful things) that which is useful, ra TT}S TT^ACCOS the (affairs) 
of the city, rb rvpa.vviK.6v the (condition or character) of tyrant, rb Ka\6v the 
(quality) beautiful, eirl iro\6 (over much' space or time) to a great extent or for 
a long time, ev fj-fffy (in the midst) in public, a<f> ov (from what time) since, rb 
curb ToOSe (the time from this time) henceforth, TO vavriK6v the (naval force) 
navy, rb fiapfrapiKov the (barbarian world) barbarians, rb Koiv6v the common- 
yaealth, T& Aiovvcria the (festival) of Dionysus ; cf. 563 b. 

a. Neuter pronouns are very often thus used with indeterminate subject : 
other attributives, in this use, are generally preceded by the neuter article. 



497. a. A finite verb agrees with its subject-nominative ir 
number and person. But 

b. With a neuter plural nominative, the verb is singular. 
Cf. 514 e. 

EXAMPLES, a. eu <rv Trdvra e?7res, Kal irriv(ra/j.v rj/ue'is thou saidst all thingt 

well, and we approved. b. ra Trpdy/j-ara ravra. 8eivd effrt, these circumstances 

are fearful. For exceptions in NUMBER, see 511-17. For OMISSION of the 

subject or the predicate, see 504, 508. 


498. An adjective agrees with its substantive in case, num- 
ber, and gender : 

avfyp (pi\6Ti/j.os efreAei otcrxpwy Kepfiwj/ ewre^eo'&ai a man fond of honor is dis- 
posed to abstain from dishonorable gains.. This rule applies both to the 
attributive and the predicate-adjective. Similar rules may be given for the 


&nd GENDER, see 511-23. For OMISSION of the subject, see 509. 


499. The appositive agrees in case with its subject : 

els HeA/ras ir6\iv olKovfj.ev-f]v to Peltae, an inhabited city. A similar rule 

may be given for the PREDICATE-SUBSTANTIYE. 


500. Apposition is of several kinds : 

a. ATTRIBUTIVE APPOSITION : the appositive has the force of an attributive- 
oiri(rfro<t>v\aKes \oxayoi rear-guard captains, 

In this way, words denoting station or condition are connected with av-fif 
man or av&pwiros person (the former often implying respect, the latter contempt) : 
avSpes SiKaffrai judges (juror-men, cf. Eng. gentlemen of the jury), p.4roiKo% 
av&pwiros a foreign-resident. Names of nations in attributive apposition assume 
the character of adjectives : "EAArjves ire\TaffTai Grecian targeteers. 

Here belong also the cases in which an appositive is placed between the 
article and its substantive (534 a) : 6 EixppdTrjs the river Euphrates, 
6 Merayeirt/i^v fj.-f]v the month Metageitnion. 

b. PARTITIVE APPOSITION : the appositive is related to its subject as the 
part to the whole : 6 crrparbs, ITTTT^S Kal ireot the army, cavalry and infantry, 
\virai a! fj.ev xP r ) ffra ^ *' i ' / a ' 1 $* KaKai pains are, some good, others evil, at T*X- 
vai rb OUTTJS e/ccSo-TTj epyov epydfcrai the arts work each one its own work, OVTOI 
&\Xos &AAo Ae'yet these say, one one thing, another another. 

To words denoting person, in the accusative or dative, the poets often add 
an appositive denoting the part (head, hand, heart, mind, shield, etc.) which is 
specially affected by the action: AnioiriTwi' ovraffev 3>fj,ov he wounded Delopltes 
(in) the shoulder, icaS 8' &%os ol X" ro fJ-vpiov b^aK^oiffiv excessive grief overspread 
(him the eyes) his eyes, iro16v ffe Hiros fytiysv cpitos 6fi6j/Tcav what manner of say- 
ing has escaped the fence of thy teeth ? adds re fj.iv t'/cero $vfj.6v and satiety came 
to his spirit, col yap re ^aXiffrd ye \abs 'Axai&v ireiffovrai pfooiffi for thy words 
most of all will the people of the Achaeans obey. 

c. DESCRIPTIVE APPOSITION : the subject gives the name of something, 
which is then described by the appositive : fj r^uerepa Tr6\ts, }} Koivfy Karacpvy}) 
TWV 'E\\-fij/ui' our city, the common refuge of the Greeks, frdpfios Kal tydfios, 
&(j>poj/e vfj.fiov\oi> boldness and fear, inconsiderate counsellors, 'Ahej-avSpos 6 *t- 
A.t7T7rou (sc. vl6s) Alexander the son of Philip. 

d. DEFINITIVE APPOSITION : the subject vaguely indicates something, which 
is then definitely expressed by the appositive : 6 bdvaros rvyxdvet &u 8voip 
irpayfj-aToiv did\vffis, rrjs tyvxys Kal TOV ffufj-aros death happens to be a separation 
of two things, the soul and the body, rovrd ye avr6, f) v(3ov\ia this very thing, 
good counsel, So/ccS rb paffrov TrotetV, eTTiTifj-av rots a\\ois I seem to be doing thd 

easiest thing, censuring the others. In Hm., the demonstrative 6 5e, used at 

the beginning of a sentence, is often explained at the close by adding as an 
appositive the object referred to : ot 8' avrloi %yx e ' &*ipav Tp&es but they in op- 
position raised their spears, the Trojans, rb 5' virfpirraTo xd^neov Zyxos but it 
flew over him, the brazen spear. With 6 jieV, this is much less often the case. 

501. When a WORD and a SENTENCE are in apposition, the word may 
stand either in the nominative or the accusative : 

poet. KcTi/rot TT(r6vTfS, iriffris ov fffj.iKpa Tr6\ei they are fallen, no small 
ground of confidence to the city, poet. vSaifj.ovoif]s, fj.iff&bv ydiffTooj/ \6ycov may 
you be happy, a reward for the sweetest words. The word is put in the no- 
minative, as not depending in construction upon any other word (542). When, 
however, it is put in the accusative, it is brought into a kind of dependence 
on the verb of the sentence, as if in apposition with a cognate-accusative (547) 
supplied after the verb : v8aifj.ovolr)s (evSaifj.oviav) fj.ur&bi', etc. 

502. a. When the word is neuter, it is not certain from the form, which of 
the two cases is used. If, however, it stands in apposition with a dependent 
sentence, it must be regarded as an accusative. 


b. Neuter words often used in apposition with a sentence, are a"ijfji.eiov 
sign, reKfj-JipLov evidence, KeQdhaiov chief point ; also attributives with the neuter 
article, rb ptyiffTov the greatest thing, rb tvavriov the contrary, rb TTJS Trapoipias 
the expression of the proverb ; and neuter pronouns, as avrb rovro this very 
thing, ravrb TOVTO this same thing, dvoiv frdrepov one of two things, a/j.<p6Tepoi/ 
or afj.(p6Tpa both, etc. 

c. The sentence is sometimes introduced by yap for, especially after 0*77- 
peiov and re/c^/noy, which may then be regarded as sentences themselves : 
ouSej' eiriffrevoy e/ce?/ot o"rnj.iov 8e* ov yap Uv SeGp' 3\K.ov &s T] they had no 
confidence ; but proof (of this is here, follows) ; for they would not (otherwise) 
have come to us. 


503. The relative agrees with its antecedent in number and 
gender : 

tvTav&a $v Kpfyr], e</>' fj Aeyerat Mapffvas rbv ^drvpov ^t]pev<rat here was a 
spring, by which Marsyas is said to have caught the Satyr, irapdSeicros &fipiu)v 
ir\^pr]s, & Kvpos edr/jpeve a park full of wild beasts, which Cyrus used to hunt. 
- A similar rule may be given for the DEMONSTRATIVE OF REFERENCE. 

a. If the relative is subject of a sentence, its verb takes the person 
of the antecedent : jy/iet? ot TOVTO Xe'yo/xev we who say this. 

For exceptions, see 511-23. For attraction^ incorporation, and other 
peculiarities of relative sentences, see 807-23. 


504. The SUBJECT of a FINITE VEKB is often omitted ; 

a. when it is a pronoun of the first or second person. 

It is then sufficiently expressed by the personal ending of the verb : Ary 
I speak, a/cotWre hear ye. But the pronoun is not omitted, if there is an em- 
phasis upon it : a Uv eyk Ae-yw, fyiels a/couo-are whatever I may say, do you hear. 
Compare 6 67. 

b. when it is a pronoun of the third person, referring to a word in 
the context : 

Kvpos ras vavs ^ereirejLuJ'aTO, OTTUS 6ir\iTo.s airopi&da-eie, Kal Piaffd/j.evoi rovs 
TroAe^tous TropeAid-oiev, et (pvXdrToiev Cyrus sent for the ships, that he (Cyrus) 
might land heavy-armed men, and they (the army of Cyrus) having overpowered 
the enemy might effect a passage, if they (the enemy) should be keeping guard. 
The subject may be only implied in the context ; as the subject of irap&boie* 
in the example just given : vavriKa efyprveTO y 'E\\as, /cat rvjs &a\dff<rr)s avr- 
eixovTO (sc. of c 'EAA?jj/6s) (Greece was fitting out navies, and they (the Greeks) 
were applying themselves to the sea. 

c. when it is a general idea of person (ru^pcoTros-). 

Thus in plurals such as Qaffi, Aeyovcn, they (men, people) say. Less often 
in the singular : e<rc{Awy|e the trumpet sounded, lit. (one) sounded the trumpet. 
A subject of this kind is very often omitted, when it is the antecedent of a re _ 


lative pronoun ; the relative sentence then takes the place of a subject (810): 
\)v ol &eol <$>i\ovffiv faro&vhffKei veos (one) whom the gods love dies young. 

Here belong, at least in their original use, such verbs as t/et it raws, v'upei 
it snows, aarrpdirrei it lightens, ffeiei (it shakes) there is an earthquake, etc. ; 
these operations of nature being regarded by the Greeks as actions of a divine 
person, Zeus or freo's (which are sometimes expressed with these verbs). In 
later use, the idea of personal agency seems to have been lost, so that the sub- 
ject became wholly indeterminate ; see d. 

d. when it is the indeterminate subject (494) : 

&s Se avry ov irpovx<*>p*i but when (things did not advance for him) he had 
no success. Here also a relative sentence may take the place of a subject : 
poet, e/c rov fyiXo-Koveiv yiyve& Siv fre'Aeis Kpareiv from love of toil are produced 
(things) which you wish to possess. 

505. The OBJECT of a VEEB may be omitted in the same cases 
(the first, of course, excepted) : thus 

b. when it is a pronoun, referring to a word expressed or implied in the 
context : u.iwr\as airavrfav rfyv yvca/j-riv aTreTre^uTre (sc. aurous, referring to airav- 
r<av) filling the mind of all he sent (them) away. 

c. when it is a general idea of person : <pi\ori[ irapofaei (sc. av&pcairovs) 
KivSweveu/ inrep eu5oiccs re Kal irarpiSos emulation incites (men) to incur danger 
for fame and country, poet. 77X0; avSpw t>s attlvfivvov fiiov ee7repa<re / envy 
among men (one) who has passed a life without danger. 

d. when it is indeterminate : Sta^epei ir^iroXv fj.a&hj' p% p.a.3r6vros one who 
has learned (things learnable, i. e. truth, knowledge) differs entirely from one 
who has not learned, ol freol atv Se^ue&a /caTeoveeuctaaa-t 'the gods have provided 
(the things\which we require. 

506. The subject of an appositwe or predicate-noun may be omitted, 
when it is the same with the omitted subject or object of a verb : thus, 

of an APPOSITIVE : e/xjcrTo/cATjs ^KW irapa ffe (1) Themistocles am come to 

thee ; of a PKEDICATE-NOUN : p^ropes ecrre (ye) are orators, &*/ ol &eol <pi\ov<riv 

a.iro&v{}ffKi veos (one) whom the gods love dies young, ra /ca/ccos rpefyovra, x^P^ 
avdptiovs 7rote?(sc. av&pdbirovs) the places that furnish a poor support make (men) 

50Y. The PREDICATE-NOUN is seldom omitted : ri S'f) IGTI TOUTO, nepl ov avrbs 
firiffT'fj/j.cav effrlv 6 ffotyiffTTis, Kal rbv /ita^TjTV ( sc - ^iffT^ova) irotet what, now, 
is this, with which the sophist is both acquainted himself, and makes his pupil 
(acquainted) ? 

508. The VEEB itself is sometimes omitted: thus 
a. the verb et/u to be, when used as a copula (490 a). 

The forms ear/ and el<rt are very often omitted : 070^5 6 avfip the man (is) 
good, &eoov 8vva/ /j-eylffT-r] the power of the gods (is) greatest, ri TOVTO what (is) 
this ? what of it ? ravra /j.ev ovv Sty O&TUS 1 say, then, these things (are) so, ovx 
&pa Ka^revSfu/ (it is) not time to be sleeping, of &5iKoi ou8/ irpdrreiv ^ter' dXATjAwv 
(noire the unjust (are) able to accomplish nothing with one another, iinrtas CTTC^- 
tyev fpovvras on eV 65$ ^5?j irdvres he sent horsemen to say that (they are) now 

all on the way : especially with verbals in reov or rea (494) : ry vS/j-y ireto'- 

TCOJ/ (-Treiffrea) the laio must be obeyed, lit. (something is, or things are) to be 
done in obedience to the law.-: The omission of the copula in other forms is 

208 VERB OMITTED. [508 

comparatively rare : <piA^/coos tycoye (sc. el/j.i) I for my fart (am) fond of luar 
ing, ecas (sc. effre) er' eV do^aAe?, Qvhdfaff&e while (you are) yet in safety, be- 
ware, vv% (sc. ^v) ev ^eo-cf, Kal Trapse;/ ry vffrepaiy night intervened, and we were 
present on the next day. 

b. some common verbs of being, doing, saying, going, coming, bring- 

This omission is nearly confined to brief and pointed expression, especially 
in questions and commands. Thus, #AAo n tf or &AAo TI (sc. e<rrt, is) any thing 

else (true, than what follows?, see 829 a). 'Lva TI (sc. yeVrjTtu) to what end? 

lit. that what (thing may come to pass?, see 826 b). aypiwrepovs avrovs 

aire(pT]j/, Kal ravra (sc. fTrotrjcrej/) els avrov he rendered them wilder, and that 
(he did, viz. rendered them wilder) toward himself ; Kal ravra is especially used 
with concessive participles (789 f) : So/eels /J.OL ou Trpose'xew, Kal ravra <ro<pbs &v 

you seem to me not to observe, and that (you do) though you are wise. ri &AAo 

ovroi (sc. eiroif]ffav) 3) eTre/JouAeucra?/ what else (did) these men than plot against 
(us) ? oySey #A\' ?) ffvfjL&ov\vovffiv T\IV (they do) nothing else than advise us, ri 
Xpb fbv fj-erpioi TroXirr)!/ ; ra eavrov weipao-frai ffw&iv what should the moderate 
citizen (do) ? endeavor to preserve his own, eu ye, v$ rrjv "Hpai/, on op&o'is rbv TTU- 

repa (thou dost) well, by Hera, that thou art upholding thy father. /cat-rot Kal 

rovro (sc. Aeyco or Ae|co) though this also (I say, or will say), dA\ ? OVTTU irepl 
rovrcav but not yet concerning these things (will I speak), eTrei KaKetvo (sc. Ae/creoi/ 
eo-Ti) since that too (must be mentioned), >^7 /not pvptovs evovs (sc. Af'yere, tell) 

me not of ten thousand mercenaries. 0iAe QaiSpe, TTO? S^ (sc. el), Kal Tr6&ev 

(sc. fjwets) dear Phaedrus, whither, I pray (are you going), and whence (are you 
come)? es KopaKas (sc. eppe, go) to destruction, lit. to the crows, as their prey, 

OVK es KopaKas (sc. epp'ijcreis) wo'nt you go to destruction? u5<wp, vScap (sc. 

^epere), Si yetroves (bring) water, water, ye neighbors. For oi>x ori, p% ori, 

see 848 c. s 

c. any verb may be omitted, where it is readily supplied from a verb 
in the context : 

ffv re yap "EAA?jj/ el, Kal f]fj.eis (sc. ecr^ev "EAATji/es) for both you are a Greek, 
and we (are Greeks), rb ffaQes ouSels ovre rare (sc. el^ef) ovre vvv ex et "!> 
the certain fact no one either then (was able) or now is able to state. Such omis- 
sions are especially frequent in connection with conditional and relative sen- 
tences, cf. 754, 819. The infinitive and participle may be omitted in the 

same way : oure Trdo~xovres KaKbv ouSe^'buTe jueAAoyres (sc. Tratrxetj/) neither 
suffering any evil, nor being likely to (suffer any), b.vsyjkpfiGa.v Kal ol A&irjva'toi, 
e'jretSrj Kal rovs Aa/ceScu/iov/ous elSov (sc. avax^povvras) the .Athenians (also, 856 b) 

retired, when they saw tlie Lacedaemonians also (retiring). For ou jji/^v dAAc, 

Bee 848 e. 

509. The SUBJECT of an ATTRIBUTIVE is very often omitted ; 
a. when it is expressed or implied in some word of the context : 

el ruv fjt-vpiwv eATriSwi' {iia ris (sc. l\iri$) v 1v effri if of ten thousand hopes 
you have any one (hope of being saved), ris &p alff^wv fir] ravri^s (sc. 8o|7ys) 

8oa what reputation could be more shameful than this ? rovrov oAiyas iVatore 

(sc. ir\ir)yds) he struck this one a few (blows), &s fta&vv eKoi^^rjs (sc. virvov) how 
deep (a sleep) you slept, es fj.iav fiovAevew (sc. Pov\-f}v) to join in one resolve. 

b. when it is a word in common use, and readily understood from 
Jie meaning of the attributive or the connection of the sentence. The 
words most commonly omitted are dz^p or avSparros man, ywf) wwnan* 


Other words omitted are masc. KO\TTOS gulf, olvos wine; and a number of 
feminines, such as rjfj-epa day^ yfj land, x^P a country.! 6Sos way, ^eu> hand, 
Tfx vr ) ar t) an d some others. 

6 <ro<p6s the wise (man), 6 /3dpf3apos the barbarian, 77 Ka\^ the beautiful 
(woman), ol iroAAoi the many, common people, ol Qriffcuoi the Thebans, ol tiriyiy- 
v6/.ievoi the (men) of after times, ^KKXrjffid^ovffai (women) in popular assembly. - 
6 '\6vios the Ionian (gulf, =. Adriatic sea), 6 &KPO.TOS unmixed (ivine), r\ irporepaia 
the (da >/} before, 77 firiovcra the coming (day), fj avpiov the morrow, 77 frvvdpos the 
desert (land without water), 77 eftaurou my own (country), f$d$ie T^V ev&elai/ 
walk the straight (way), tfye T}\V eVl Me^opa he was leading on the (way) toivard 
Megara, 77 8etc the right (hand), 77 apiffrepd the left {hand), faropiid) rhetoric 
(oratorical art), Kara r^jv f^v (sc. yvdfjirii') according to my (judgment), ep-fj/j.r)v 
(sc. 5iKrji>) Ka/rf]yopovffi they bring as plaintiffs a deserted (suit, the defendant 
not appearing), einoo-T-fi (pepts) a twentieth (part), 77 jreTrpw/j.evr) (/j.oipa) the allotted 
(portion), destiny. 

_ (a) Feminine adjectives without a subject are often used to express di~ 
rection, manner, or condition. These uses may have grown out of an original 
omission of 65os way : e svavrias from an opposite direction, in front, fj.aKpdv 
a long u<ay off, h p.a.Kpdv at a long remove (in time), rj/ce T^]V raxiffT-rjv he sent 
(the quickest way) most quickly, \r)ffrevu/ avdyKf) r^]v Trpdirriv it is necessary to 
plunder (as the first course) at first, T?> &\\cas a5oAeo-x<2 lam prating to no pur- 
pose (the way that leads otherwise, to no, proper end), y t<ni /cal 6fAoia the equal 
and uniform (way of government), condition of civil equality. 

(/8) With an attributive genitive, vl6s son is often omitted : 'AhQavSpos 
6 $i\'nrirov (sc. vl6s) Alexander the (son) of Philip, 6 'Scixppovia'Kov the (son) of 
Sophroniscus, i. e. Socrates. So ol/cos house, or a word of similar meaning, in 
phrases such as ds n\dTwvos to Plato's (house), v "AtSou in (the abode of) 
Hades, eV Aiovva-ov in (the temple) of Dionysus, els rivos StScwr/coAou to what 
teacher's (school) ? 

REM. The omitted subjects mentioned under this head have been all masc. 
or fern. In like manner, neuter substantives might sometimes be supplied with 
attributives of neuter gender ; but almost all cases of the kind are better re- 
ferred to the following head. 

c. when it is indeterminate : the attributive is then neuter, and may 
be singular or plural. For examples, see 496. 

In cases b and c, the adjective is said to be used as a substantive : it 
may thus have another adjective joined with it as an attributive : 
very many enemies, avayKaiov KCLKOV a necessary evil. 

510. The ANTECEDENT of a RELATIVE pronoun (if the relative sentence 
has the force of an attributive) may be omitted in the same three cases, 
609 a, b, c ; cf. 810 : thus, 

a. when it is expressed or implied in some word of the context : i/ou^a%ia 
7raA.aiTc&T7j (sc. rcov vavfjt.axi(av) >v iffp.ev a sea-fight the most ancient (of the sea- 
Sghts) that we know of. 

b. when it is a word like fofrpwiros, avfip, yvvfi, etc. : e^ue?/ /cal yyv iroAAV 
Ka\ olrives TavTTjv epyda-ovrai we have both much land and (men) who will work 
it, ou5e,uia Trdpeffriv &s ^K^IV e'xprji/ there is no one present (of the women) who 
ought to have come. 

c. when it is indeterminate : d/teA-eTs v>v 5e? lm^\Ci^o.i you neglect (things) 
you ought to care for. 





511. Two or more subjects connected by AND may have a 
predicate-word (verb or adjective) in common. For this case, 
we have the following rules. 

With two or more subjects connected by AND, 

a. the finite verb (or predicate-adjective) is in the plural : 

b. with two singular subjects, the dual may be used. 
With subjects of different persons, 

c. the verb is in the first, if that is found among the subjects : 

d. otherwise, it is in the second person. * 
With subjects of different genders, 

e. the predicate-adjective is masculine, if they denote persons : 

f. it is neuter, if they denote things : 

g. if they denote persons and things together, it takes the gender of 

the persons. 
Often, however, 

h. the predicate-word agrees with one of the subjects (the nearest, 
or the most important), being understood with the rest. Especially so, 
when the predicate stands before all the subjects, or directly after the 
first of them. 

Kal Sus/coAfa Kal fj.avla ets rty Sidvoiav ^^iriifTOvffi forgetfulness and 
peevishness and madness get into the mind. - b. ytiov)) /cal A^TTTJ *v ry ir6\ei 
fiaffiteva'eToi' pleasure and pain will bear sway in the city. - c. Scti/ol Kal ffotyol 
eyc<> re /cal orb ^ev both land thou were skilful and wise. - d. ital ffv Kal ol 
aSeA^ol irap^ffre both thou and thy brothers were present. - e. /cal rj yvv^ Kal & 
av^p ayafroi elffi both the woman and the man are good. - f. TrJAe^wos Kal ffrdffis 
oAe3/ua rais ir6\f(riv ear* war and faction are fatal to cities. - g. j} rvxn fal 
&t\nriros ^ffav r&v epy<av Kvpioi fortune and Philip had control over the actions. 
- h. fiaffiXevs Kal ol ff\>v avry elsTTiirret els rb ffTpar6Tre5ov the king and those 
with him break into the camp, 'A^v^fft ol TreVrjTes /cal o 8rj/j.os irXsov ^x l a ^ 
Athens the poor and the common people have superior power, eTre^e ^ue 3 Apiaios 
Kal 'Aprdoos, iriffrol ijvres Kvpcp Kal vfuv ewot, /cal /ceAeuovtrt ^uAcCrTecr^-at Ari- 
aeus and Artaozus sent me, being faithful to Cyrus and well-disposed toward 
you, and bid you be on your guard, eycb \4y&> Kal Seu&rjs ra ai>rd I and Seuthes 

KEM. i. When there is a predicate-adjective in the neuter plural, the verb 
is regularly in the singular : oure ff^fji-aros /ccLvAos /cal Iffxvs SetAaJ ^vvoiKovvra 
Trpeirovra fyaiverai nor do beauty and strength of body, when dwelling with a 
coward, appear suitable. The predicate-adjective may be in the neuter plural, 
when the subjects (denoting things) are all masc. or all fern. (522): evyeveid re 
Kal Kal ripal SrjAa fffriv aya&a ovra high birth and power and "honor are 
manifest as being good things. It may also be in the neuter plural, when the 
subjects (or part of them) are persons, these being viewed merely as things : 
f] /caAA/cTTT? TToAtrefa /cal 6 /caAAtcrros av})p Aowra &v 7][uv efrj SieAd-e?? the noblest 
volity and the noblest man would be left for us to consider. 


612. a. A plural predicate is rarely used, wheA singular subjects are con-, 
nected by ^ or, ovre nor : ffj.e\\oy aTroXoyficrafffrai Afcoxdpr]s 3) AiKCuoyej/vis 
Leochares or Dicaeogenes were about to make a defence ; rarely, also, when a 
singular subject is followed by the preposition with: A^ocr&eVTjs pera TUV 
o-vffrpaTTiy&v oWi/Soi/rat Mavriveva-i Demosthenes with his associate-generals 
make a treaty with the Mantineans. 

b. The ATTRIBUTIVE regularly agrees with the nearest subject : -rravrl Kal 
\6ycp Kal jUTjxav/? ty every word and means. 

c. For the APPOSITIVE and PREDICATE-SUBSTANTIVE, rules may be given 
similar to those of 511 a, b : frappos Kal (p6&os, &(ppove u/ij8ouA<w daring and 
terror, unintelligent advisers, 'Hpa,K\TJs Kal Ori<revs virep rov fiiov rwv av&pdiroov 
a&\r}Tal Kar^ffri]ffav Heracles and Theseus became champions for the life of men. 

d. For the PRONOUN OP REFERENCE, the same rules may be given as for 
the predicate-adjective above (511): thus a and f, irepi iro\efjt.ov Kal elp4)vr)s 9 ft 
e%6i fMeyiffri^v 8vva/ lv T< j8i'<j> TCOJ/ avfrpdircov concerning war and peace, which 
have the greatest power in the life of men; so h, airaAAccyevTes iroX^uv Kal KIV- 
Svycay Kal rapox^y, ets *r\v vvv irpbs aX^Xovs /carecTTrj^ez/ delivered from wars and 
dangers and trouble, in which we have now become involved with, one another. 


613. a. A verb of incomplete predication (490) may agree with the 
predicate-noun, when this stands nearer than the subject, or is viewed 
as more important 

ai xoprjyiat luavbv ev5ai/j.ovlas ffiiiLsi6v effri the dramatic expenditures are a 
sufficient sign of prosperity, rb %<a^(ov irpATtpov 'Ewea 6Sol e/coAovz/ro the place 
was before called Nine Ways. So, also, participles of such verbs : vire^ej/ro 
ras frvyarepas ircuSt'a cWa they conveyed away their daughters being children. 

b. A relative pronoun, used as a subject, instead of agreeing with its 
antecedent, may agree with its predicate-noun : 

f] rov pevparos irrjyf) bv 'i/jiepov Zeus wv6^a<re the fountain of that stream which 
Zeus named Desire. The relative may even agree with a predicate-noun be- 
longing to the antecedent : ouSeVoT 1 &i/ eft? ^ pTjropiK^ atiiKov irpay/j.a, '6 7' aei 
vepl SiKaioffvvris rovs \6yovs TroieTrat rhetoric could never be an unjust affair, 
since at least it (rhetoric) is always making its discourses about justice. 

c. A pronoun of reference, which would properly be neuter, as re- 
ferring to an indeterminate subject, or to an infinitive or a sentence, may 
be masc. or fern, to agree with a predicate-noun : 

rovr6 effriv avota. this (view or conduct) is folly, but often afcy Iffrlv &voia; 
BO 7}8e apxh TTJS op.oXoyias, epeVfrcu ^juas avrovs this is a beginning of agreement, 
(viz.) to question one another, fyirep KaXov^v (j.d&ir}ffiv, a.vdp.v(i<rls fffri (that) 
vhich we call learning, is recollecting. 


514. COLLECTIVE SUBJECT. The singular is sometimes used 
in a collective sense, expressing more than one : eo-^rjs clot/ling 
(clothes), TivUV^os brick (= bricks), 17 tWos the horse (cavalry), 
77 do-TTts the heavy-armed. 


a. A collective subject denoting persons, may have a pre- 
dicate-word (verb or noun) in the plural: 

ir\ri&os otovTai "linrapxoj' Tvpavvov ovra airo&aveiv the multitude 
of the Athenians believe that Hipparchus was tyrant (of Athens) when he died, 
rb ffTpdTev/j.a eTropifcro (/ITOV K6irrovTts TOVS fiovs Kal ovovs the army provided 
itself food by slaughtering the oxen and asses. 

b. Such words as e/coo-Tos each, TIS any one, iras TIS every one, ou&et's no 
one, may have the construction of collectives, on account of the plural which 
they imply : KO.& o<rov Sw/cwrat fKaffros as far as each one is able, ovSels eoi- 
TOVS aTroAcwAcfras irev&ovj'Tes no one went to sleep, (all) lamenting the lost. 

c. A pronoun of reference, referring to a collective^ may be in the 
plural : 

napfffrai w^eAem, ot rwj/Se Kpeifftrovs elffi (assistance, i. e.) an auxiliary force 
will be present, who are more effective than these, ^eAerw croi TOV TrAvjiS-ous, Kal 
tte^apicr/xeycoj avrois &px e e careful of the multitude, and govern in a way ac- 
ceptable to them, ffvyKaXtcras irav rb ffTparicariK^, eAee irpbs avTovs ToidSe having 
called together the entire soldiery, he spoke to them as follows, T& 'Ajo/caSi/cbz/ o-n-At- 
TiKbv, wv ^px e Ktedwp the Arcadian heavy-armed force, whom P^.nor led, Tras 
TIS ofj.vvffi.V) oils o<pi\w Tuy%az/a> every body swears, whom. I ^ppen to owe, $iv 
aSi/ceTf TIS eirixeipfj, TOVTOIS Kvpos ITO\/JUOS eo-rat if any one attempt to do ii< 
justice, to these Cyrus will be an enemy. 

d. Any singular antecedent, though denoting an individual, may suggest 
the idea of other like individuals, and may thus have a pronoun of reference 
in the plural : frrjcravpoTroibs avfjp, ovs 8^ Kal eiraivei rb TrAvj^os a money-making 
man, just (those) whom the multitude even praise. Conversely, when the ante- 
cedent is plural, the pronoun of reference is sometimes singular, referring to 
an individual of the number : acnrd&Tai TrdvTas, w Uv TrepiTvyx^y ^ ie embraces 
all men, whatsoever one he may fall in with. 

e. When the collective subject denotes THINGS (not persons), the predicate 
is regularly singular. The neuter plural subject was regarded by the Greeks 
in this way, as a collection of things, and was accordingly connected with a 
singular verb. But if the neuter plural subject denote persons, then, like the 
collective, it may have a verb in the plural. Hence the following rules : 

515. NEUTEE, PLTJEAL SUBJECT. A neuter plural nominative 
has the finite verb in the singular : see 497 b. But 

Exc. a. A neuter plural subject, denoting PERSONS, may have a verb in the 
plural : TO; reATj vireo-xovro the authorities promised, TOffdSe juercb 'Ad^vaiW e&z/Tj 

oj/ so many nations were combating on the side of the Athenians. 
b. Other Exceptions to this rule, though rare in Attic, are frequent in the 
other dialects : thus Hm. ffirdpTa. \4\vvrai the cables are loosed. 

516. In a few instances, a plural subject, masculine QT feminine, has a verb 
in the singular. This can hardly occur, except when the verb stands first, the 
subject being then thought of indeterminately, but afterwards specified by the 
nominative : &OKOWTI St/cai'w eTyat yiyj/Tai cnrb TIJS SO^TJS apxal TC Kal yd/not to 
(a man) reputed to be just, there comes, in consequence of his reputation, both 
offices and nuptials. So with the dual : e<m TOUTW SITT& T& fiiw there are thest 
iwo different ivays of living. 

For effTiv o'i (oiTives), see 812. 


517. DUAL AND PLURAL UNITED. In speaking of TWO, the 
dual is used, if the specific number is prominently thought of; 
if not, the plural. Hence, 

The dual and plural are freely united or interchanged in the 
same construction : 

irposfrpex *' Sv veavlffKw two young men were running up, 
P\e\l/aj/Ts els a\\-fi\ovs they both laughed out on looking at one another, 
ft' f/8?7, x a/L P TOJ/ ht me 9 now -> fa ye well. 

518. PLURAL FOR SINGULAR. The Greek sometimes uses the plural, 
\\ ' are English idiom prefers the singular : thus, 

a. in impersonal constructions (494 a), a PREDICATE-ADJECTIVE may stand 
in the neuter plural : thus, with indeterminate subject, TroAe^reo 3\v it was ne- 
cessary to make war (things were to be done in war), TrXwi/juarepa e^ej/ero na~ 
vigation became more advanced (things became more favorable to navigation). 
So too, with an infinitive as subject : aSvvard effriv airo<pvyeiv it is impossible 
to escape. 

b. a NEUTER PRONOUN may be plural, when referring to an infinitive or 
sentence, which is then viewed as something complex : 6 av6t]ros &v&pa>iros rdtf 
&v onj&enj raura, fytvKTtov eft/at a?rt> TOV Seffir6rov a man without sense would per- 
haps think this, that it was necessary to flee from his master, KaroTnv foprrjs 
%Ko/j.v, Kal vffTepovfteif ; rovrcov ctfrios Xaip<p>v are we arrived after the feast, 
and too late for it? for this is Chaerephon to blame. 

c. in ABSTRACT SUBSTANTIVES, to express repeated instances of the quality : 
f/j.ol a! ffal euTu%iot OVK apeffKovffi to me thy (often repeated) good fortune is not 

Hm. often uses the plural of abstract words to express the various ways in 
which a quality is manifested: 'nnroo-vj/ris 6/ce'/ca<rro he was distinguished in 
(the arts of) horsemanship, acppaSirja'i v6oio in foolishness (foolish operations) of 
mind. Even in CONCRETE words, the poets sometimes use the plural for the 
singular: %CA. TOKevffi f\K6r<as &v/j.ovfji.ej/oLs forgive a parent justly indignant 
(as all such have a claim to indulgence). 

d. in the FIRST PERSON, especially when an author is speaking of himself: 
TOVTO Treipao-^uedu Snjy^araa-^ai this /(we) will endeavor to explain. The plural 
here is preferred as seeming less egotistical. 

This construction is much more often found in poetry, sometimes with 
abrupt change of number: ?i\iov /j.aprvp6/j,Gff&a, Spaxr' & Spay ov /8ou,\o/xat I call 
the sun to witness, while doing what I do not wish to do. The predicate-adjective, 
when plural, is masculine, even though a woman is speaking (520) : ireo-ou^e^', 
7> wrpl Ti{j.capov/j.evoi /(Electra) will fall, if need be, in assisting my father. 

519. SINGULAR FOR PLURAL, a. In dramatic poetry, a CHORUS is commonly 
treated as an individual, the Coryphaeus being regarded as speaking and act- 
ing for the whole body ; so that the singular is often used in reference to it. 

b. A NATION is sometimes designated by the singular with 6 : 6 Ma/ee5c6i/. 
6 nepo-Tjs, for the Macedonians, the Persians ; but this is nearly ctnfined to 
monarchical states, where everything centres in the sovereign : seldom 6 "EAArjj- 
for the Greeks. 

U used in speaking of persons, if sex is not thought of: 


ru>v evrvxovvrwv iravres fieri ffvyyeveis all (persons) are kinsfolk oj the, pros 
perous. Further - a. The masculine is used, when sex is thought of, if the 
same expression is applied to both sexes : b-jr6repos Uv ?i jSeArtW, eft* 5 6 ay-tip, 
efcy TJ yvv-fi, ovros Kal irXeiov fyeperai rov aya&ov whichever of the two may be the 
better, whether the man or the woman, that one also receives more of the good. 

521. MASCULINE DUAL FOR FEMININE. The masculine form is often 
used for the feminine in the dual of pronouns ; not often, in the dual of 
adjectives and participles. 

For TO, TOUTO, the forms TC*>, rovr<o are almost always used : rovrca T& 
rexva these two arts, rovroiv rolv Kivrjffeoiv of these two motions, 5vo Xeiirea-Srov 
u.6v<a fj.r)x ava on ty t wo means are left, rt/ji&v ev endo-rcp Suo rive tffrov I5eo apxovre 
Kal ayovrf in each of us there are two ideas ruling and leading us. 

adjective is often neuter, when the subject is masculine or femi- 

In this case the adjective is used as a substantive (509 c) ; it expresses, not 
an accidental peculiarity of the subject, but its essential nature : fftyaXepbi 
yyeuhv frpaffts a daring leader is dangerous (prop., a dangerous thing, with in- 
determ. subject), Ka\bv f) ah'fj&eia /cat in.6vip.ov beautiful is truth, and abiding, 
Seivbv ol 7roA\oi, orav KaKovpyovs %a>cn irpoffT&ras formidable are the many, 
whenever they have villains for leaders, rapaxal Kal (travels 6\e&pia rats ir6Xtffi 
disturbances and factions are ruinous to cities. 

So too, a PRONOUN OP REFERENCE may be neuter, when the antecedent is 
masc. or fern. : rvpavvtSa dnqpav, t> x^?A tacrtI/ a\lffKerai to pursue despotic power, 
(a thing) which is taken by means of money, S6^rjs eTrt^f/xe?, Kal rovro eQfi\wKe 
he longs for glory, and has made this his aim. 

523. CoNSTEUCTIO AD SENSUM (/cara cnSvetnv). A word in 
agreement often conforms to the real gender or number of the 
subject, instead of the grammatical. 

Thus, a PREDICATE-ADJECTIVE (participle) : TO fj.ox&ripa av&pcloiria rwv tiri&v- 
p.i(av aKpare'is elffi the miserable wretches are without control over their appetites, 
TOUT' tXeyev y fj,iapa avrrj KetyaX)], fe\r)\v&(as these things spake this abomin- 
able person (head), having come out. So, in poetry, an ATTRIBUTIVE : & irepiffffa. 
rifjirj&els rexvov greatly honored child ; or a PRONOUN OF REFERENCE ; reicvow 
Sav6vr(DV CTTTO yevvaiuV) ous TTOT' *A8pa(rros tfyaye seven noble children having 
fallen, whom once Adrastus led. 

a. To this head belong also the constructions with COLLECTIVE subjects, 
see 514. 

b. An adjective may be followed by an appositive, or a pronoun of refer- 
ence, agreeing with a substantive implied in it : 'A&ijva'ios &v, Tr6\eus TTJS /*e- 


being (an Athenian) a man of Athens, a city the greatest, ot/cio r] fy 
ot xP ! n ff & e (y ur house) the house of you, who use, ete. 

c. A*word denoting place may be followed by an appositive, or a pronoun 
of reference, belonging to the inhabitants of that place : aQiKovro els Korvapa, 
"Sivwirewv airo'iKovs they came to Cotyora, colonists of the Sinopeans, ep.iffroK\ijs 
tyevyei es KepKvpav, &v avrwv evepyerqs Themistocles Jlees to Corcyra, being a 
benefactor of (them) the Corcyreans. 


*O in the Dialects. 

524. The word 6 % r6 (like Eng. the) was at first a DEMONSTRATIVE pronoun, 
which afterwards, by gradual weakening of its force, became an article. In 
Homer, it is usually a demonstrative ; and, though in many cases approaching 
nearly to its later use as an article (especially when placed before an attributive 
with omitted subject : ol &\Xoi the others, ra foffdpeva the things about to be, 
rb irpiv formerly), yet in all such cases its use was allowed merely, not required, 
by Epic idiom. In the Attic, on the other hand, the word is commonly an 
article, the demonstrative use being comparatively unimportant. 

a. The language of Herodotus differs little in this respect from Attic prose. 
The lyric poets approach nearer to the Epic use ; so too the Attic drama in its 
lyric parts. Even in the tragic dialogue, the article is more sparingly used 
than in Attic prose. 

For 6 % r6 as a RELATIVE pronoun, in Homer, Herodotus, and Attic Tra- 
gedy, see 243 D. 

f O as a Demonstrative. 

525. Even in Attic prose, the word sometimes retains its primitive 
power as a demonstrative. Thus, 

a. in connection with /no/ and 6V ; and usually in CONTEASTED ex- 
pression, 6 /zeV . .. 6 de this . . . that, the one . . . the other : 

robs of larpol (a></>e\ot/<n), robs 8e ol <rvviKoi these (sick persons) the phy- 
sicians aid, those (persons in a law-suit) the advocates. Offcener, with INDEFINITE 
meaning, 6 /teV . . . 6 8e one . . . another, some . . . some, part . . . part, in which 
use rls may be added : e\eyou rou Kvpov, 6 /j.ev ris rty ffotyiav, 6 Se rV fapre- 
ptav, 6 5e rty TrpaSrijra, 6 Se ris Kal rb icd\\os they were speaking, one of Cyrus's 
wisdom, another of his fortitude, another of his mildness, yet another of his 
beauty. Often a different expression takes the place, either of 6 ^ueV, or 6 8e': 
ol ILGV (pxovro, K\eapxos 8e Trepie/zej/e they went, but Clearchus remained, ets- 
<e'petj/ e/ceA.uoy (sc. eyob /teV), ol 8' ovSev 8e?j/ tQaffav I was urging a war-tax, but 
others said there was no need of it. 

As adverbs, rb p.ev . . . rb 8e, T& jue'v ... TO 5e, (also with r\ t thus ra p.ev 
ri,) mean on the one hand . . . on the other, partly . . . partly (in which sense 
we find also rovro fj.ev . . . rovro Se). 

^a) After a preposition, the order is usually changed: tv fiev rots, ets Se rd. 

(j8) In later writers (even in Demosthenes), the relative pronoun is some- 
times used in the same way, but only in oblique eases : ir6\eis, &s p.*v avaipuv, 
els &s 5e robs (pvydSas Kardycav destroying some cities, into others bringing back 
their exiles. 

(y) Yery often 6 Se (without preceding 6 p.ev) means but he, but this; when 
thus used in the nominative by Attic writers, it refers almost always to a dif- 
ferent subject from that of the preceding sentence: 'Ivdpus 'A&rjvaiovs eTrrjyd- 
yero* ol 5 s fi\&ov Inaros called in the Athenians ; and they came. Similarly, in 
Attic poetry we have 6 ydpfor he, for this. 

b. in Kal r6v, Kal r^v, before an infinitive : Kal rbv airoKpivacr&at \eyercu 
and it is said that he answered. (In the nom., we have Kal os and he, Kal 17, 
tai o't: Kal ol fy&ruv and they were asking. Cf. ^ 8' 6'y, ^ S 5 ?J, said he, she.) 


Likewise in rbv Kal r6v, rb Kal r6, ra Kal rd, ra -/) rd : e5et yap rb Kal rb TTOIJJ- 
(Tot, KOI rb fji^j jroirja'ai for this and that we ought to have done, and this not to 
have done. The nom. fcs Kal os occurs in Hd. 

c. rarely before a relative : opeyerai TOO o effnv tvov he aims at that which 
is equal, irpos-fiKei p-HrtLV rovs oldsirep ovros it is proper to hate those of a char- 
acter such as this one. But here 6 may be regarded as a proper article, the 
relative sentence being equivalent to an attributive with omitted subject : rov 
tcrov, TOVS roLovrovs. 

d. in irpb rov (also written irporov} before this (time). Also in a few other 
cases of very rare occurrence. For ev rots with the superlative, see 627. 

C O as an Article. 

526. The article, as a weakened demonstrative, directs spe- 
cial attention to its substantive, marking it either 

a. as a particular object, distinguished from others of its 
class (restrictive article), or 

b. as a whole class, distinguished from other classes of ob 
jects (generic article). 

Thus &V&PWTTOS a man, one of the species (avfrpwiros el thou art a man) : but 
6 uvfrpuTros, a. the (particular) man, distinguished from other men (6 av&piairos 
byirdvres u.i<rovffi the man whom all hate) ; or, b. man as such, comprehending 

every one of the species (o fofrpcairos &vr)r6s effri man is mortal). With an 

ATTRIBUTIVE, aya&ol &v8pe$ good men, some of that character : ol aya^ol uvSpes, 
a. the (particular) good men, distinguished from others of like character, or b. 

good men as a class, distinguished from men of different character. So with 

ABSTRACT nouns, SIK aioavvti justice in any form or relation : TJ SiKaiocrvvr}, a*, justice 
in the particular relation, distinguished from other relations (77 SiKaioffw-r] rov 
freou the justice of the divinity) ; or b. justice in the sum of all its relations, as 
distinguished from other qualities (?) StKaioffvj/r] aper'fj etw justice is true man- 

527. A. RESTRICTIVE ARTICLE. The particular object is dis- 
tinguished from others of its class, 

a. as BEFORE MENTIONED, Or aS WELL KNOWN: fropvftov jJKOVffe, KOI ^>6TO 

TIS 6 &6pv{3o$ trj he heard a noise, and asked what the noise was, ol Tpu>es T& 
5e/ca err; avreixov the Trojans held out during the ten years (the well known 
duration of the siege). 


Media, f) ir6\is fyv iroXiopKovfi.fv the city which we are besieging, eV ra?y Kca/nais 
rcus virep TOV ireSiov rov Trapct rbv Kevrpir?)!' irorau.6v in the villages (which are) 
above the plain (which is) along the river Centrites. In many such cases, we 
might regard the limiting expression (attributive) as uniting with the one 
limited (subject) to form one complex idea: in this view, the article would 
have its generic use. 


oivov drink of the wine (here before you), ait-fiKoa rov ^ue'Aovs I have heard the 
song (just sung), e/SowAero rfy ^Xf\v iroiT)ffai he desired to engage in the (ex- 
pected) battle : particularly, as NATURAL, USUAL, PROPER, NECESSARY, etc., 

under the circumstances : al ri/ (JLGyd\ai, au atroKreivri ris rvpavvov if one kill 


a tyrant, the honors (usually resulting) are great, yevoird /J.QI rhs xp^os OTTO- 
Sovvat Trarpl be it mine to return the (proper) thanks to a father, rb (j.4pos rSn> 
^(pcav ov AajScbv aTTtTtffG ras irevraKoffias Spaxjj.ds not having received the (requir- 
ed) fraction of the votes (regularly cast), he paid the (prescribed) 500 drachmae. 

Greek generally uses this form for an unemphatic POSSESSIVE pronoun : Kvpos 
KaTcmriT}ffas airb rov apftaros rbv d-wpa/ca eve'Su Cyrus leaped down from his 
chariot, and put on his breastplate, olvos Iv ry Tribe? OVK ecrrt there is no wine in 
the (wine-) cask. 

e. as a SPECIMEN OP ITS CLASS, selected at pleasure. In this use, the 
article is often equivalent to an unemphatic EACH : eSw/ce rpia ^/xt&ap^/ca rov 
/j.r)vbs r<3 ffTparidorri he gave three half-darics a month to each soldier (lit. the 
month to the soldier). This use approaches very closely to the generic article. 

528. A NUMERAL may have the article, when distinguished as a part from 
the whole number (expressed or understood) to which it belongs : airr)(rav T>V 
\6x&v> 5e/co ovTdw, at rpe?s of the companies, being ten (in number), there were 

absent (the part) three, ra Svo p-fpt] two thirds (two parts out of three). So 

too, an approximate round number, as distinguished from the (unstated) precise 
number : aireSravov rovs [Mvpiovs there fell about ten thousand.- A number 
as such (without reference to any thing numbered) may have the article : u.}] 
epe?s on TO, ScoSe/ca eVr: Sis e will you say that (the) twelve is twice six? 

a. So too, the article is used with adjectives of number, as of ir\?o~Toi the 
most numerous part, the largest member (in a given total), ol TrAeWes (the more 
numerous part) the majority, and with much the same meaning ol iro\\ol (the 
numerous part) the larger number, often used for the democratic mass, cf. ol 
oAiyot the oligarchs. Also, rb TTO\V the great part. Ot erepot the one or other 
of two parties ; ol &\\oi the rest, but &\Aot others. 

529. B. GENERIC AETICLK This must often be left untrans- 
lated in English : 

6 &v&p<aTros <9w7T(fc effri man is mortal, Sis iraiSes ol yepovres old men are 
twice boys ; and generally so, when applied to ABSTRACT nouns : ^ tiinaioffvy*] 
justice, 7) yecopyla husbandry, 77 pfjToptK^ rhetoric, a\\' ol it6voi TiKTovffi T^V eu- 
5o|iaf but toils beget good reputation. 

a. To this head belong the cases in which a single object forms a class by 
itself: ^ 77} the earth, 6 &Keav6s the ocean, 6 tfXios the sun, fj (reX-fii/tj the moon, 
& fiopfas the north wind, 6 vSros the south wind, etc. These, however, often 
omit the article, like proper names. 

530. ARTICLE OMITTED. In many cases where the article could have 
been used with propriety, it was omitted, either, because the dcfiniteness of 
the subject was not thought of, or because it seemed unnecessary to ex- 
press it. This was most frequently true of the generic article, and espe- 
cially with abstract nouns, when used to express a mere idea : dittpa>Trov 
^sv^r] TOV Set'ou /nere'^ei the soul of man partakes of the divine, <p6j3os ^V^TIV 
Kir\r]o-o-fi fear drives out recollection : for the divinity (in general) Beds 
is used, but 6 Seo'y the (particular) god. 

a. Troper names of PERSONS and PLACES, being individual in their nature, 
are usually without the article ; yet they often take it, to mark them as before 
mentioned or well known (527 a), and sometimes for other reasons : OTI robs 
irapb. KAe'ojp%oj/ a,Tre\S6vTas eta Kvpos r 



cause their soldiers, who had gone to Clearchus t Cyrus allowed (the said) Cle> 
archus to retain ; 6 UKaraov the celebrated Plato, in plur. with generic article 

ol nAdYwj/es the Plato's, philosophers like Plato. Plural proper names of 

NATIONS or FAMILIES more often have the (generic) article ; yet are frequently 
without it : rbv irotepoi/ T&V H.eXoiroyvria'lwv teal ' A&nvaiow the war of the Pelo- 
ponnesians and Athenians (the article is here omitted with the second genitive, 
on account of the close connection, cf. ol ffTparrjyol teal \oxayot the generals 

and captains}. Bao-tAeus, used almost as a proper name for the king of 

Persia, may omit the article; cf. irpvrdveis the prytdnes (officers in Athens). 

b. Similarly, the article is omitted in many common designations of PLACE 
and TIME, made by such words as aVru, Tr6\is, city, a.Kp6iroXis citadel, ayopd forum, 
re?xos wall, ffrparAirtoov camp, ir&iov plain, ayp6s country, yrj land, &d\a<rcra 
sea, 5e|tc, apurrepd, right, left (hand), 8e|t^, ^ixavvp-ov (/cepas), right, left (wing}, 
fj.ffov centre, -^uepa day, vv\ night, ecus morn, op&pos day-break, SetAy? afternoon, 
etf-Trepa evening, cap spring, and the like, especially after prepositions or ad- 
verbs : els &ffrv to town, /caret yrjv by land, eirl 86pv to the (spear-side) right, 
irap 3 ao-iriSa to the (shield-side) left, evuvvp-ov el%oj/ they held the left wing, apa. 

77juep<? at day-break, vvKr6s by night, u<p' eo> just before day-light. These 

should perhaps be regarded as relics of earlier usage, which remained unaffect- 
ed by the developed use of the article. 

c. The omission of the article may have emphatic force, attention being 
given wholly to the proper meaning of the word, instead of its particular re- 
lations ; especially in copulative forms, as yvvaiices Kal ircuties women and child- 
ren, $vxb Kal <rw/j.a soul and body, o#re Trarpbs ovre ^rpbs (peto'erai he spares 
neither father nor mother (more forcible than his father, his mother}. 

531. ARTICLE WITH ATTRIBUTIVES. When a substantive, 
qualified by an attributive, requires the article, this is always 
placed before the attributive. 

This remark applies not only to adjectives, but also to a participle, an ad- 
verb, and (usually) a preposition with its case, when used as attributives ; but 
much less constantly, to the attributive genitive : thus 77 rov irarpbs oiKia and 
^ ot/cia ^ rov irarpSs the father's house, yet often 77 oMa rov irarp6s (but rarely 
77 e'TnjSovA^ uTrb TTJS yvvaiicSs the plotting by the woman, for 77 ITT. 77 virb etc.). 

532. A. Usually, the attributive stands between the article and sub- 

ret /j-aKpa retxn the long walls, 77 irporepa 6\iyapxia the earlier oligarchy (fol- 
lowed by another oligarchy), 77 irp6repov oAiyap%ia the earlier oligarchy (follow- 
ed by a different form of government), 77 KO.&' T^uepcw rpo<p-f) the daily food. 

a. When an attributive participle has other words depending on it, either 
these words or the participle may follow the substantive : of UTT' Alffxivov )3Aa- 
0^77/iicu etp7j ( uerai the slanders uttered by Aeschines, 6 KareL\ir)(f>&s K(V$VVOS rty 
ir6\iv the danger which has overtaken the city. When the attributive parti- 
ciple has a predicate-word connected with it, this is commonly put before it: 
o ffrparriyiKOs vop.i6[j.evos avf)p the man considered as Jit for a general, rb KOTII- 
Acuor waAou/xej/ov opos the mountain called Cotylaeum, ol avrol ySucrjicores those 
who have themselves done wrong. 

b. When two attributives precede the substantive, the article is not usu- 
ally repeated with the second: ol aAAo: TroAAoi u,u,uaxoi the other numerous 
allies, of vl rov ft-f)/j.aTos Trap' v/juv \6yot the speeches before you on the bema t 
yet also 7*7 'A-rn/ci; 77 ira\aia (pwf) the ancient Attic speech. 


533. B. Less often, the substantive stands first, followed by the 
article and attributive : (6) avrjp 6 dya%6s. The latter is then less closely 
connected with its subject, and has the general nature of an appositive. 
The substantive itself may appear either with or without the article, viz. 

a. WITH the article, when this would be required, even if the attributive 
were dropped : ol X?oi rb ret^os irepieihov rb Kaiv6v the Chians threw down (the) 
their wall, the new one. 

b. WITHOUT the article, when this would not be required, if the attributive 
were dropped: ri 5ta<J>e'pet &v&puiros aKparfys friipiov TOV a/cpare<rrarou how does 
a violent man differ from the most violent wild beast (but without the attributive, 
"from a wild beast*")? 

534. a. In general, any word or group of words standing "between the 
article and its substantive, has the force of an attributive (492 d). Ex- 
cept, however, the particles p.ev, 6V, ye, re', yap, 8?; : TOV p.ev aj/Spa, TJJV de 
yuz/at/ca, but with a preposition, irpbs 8e TOV avSpa or rrpos TOV av8pa Se 
(jrpbs TOV de avSpa, rare in prose) : also, in Ionic, T\S : T&V TIS Hepo-ecou 
one of the Persians. 

b. In most instances, where an attributive is used as a substantive (the 
subject, especially the indeterminate subject, being omitted), the article is found 
before the attributive, see 496 a. 

535. ARTICLE WITH PREDICATE-NOUNS, a. The predicate-noun, in 
general, rejects the article : ai/SpcoTros el tliou art a man. Hence we may 
distinguish subject and predicate in sentences such as TrpoSor?;? rjv 6 o-rpa- 
TT)y6s the general was a traitor. 

The reason is, that, in ordinary predication, the subject is said to be (or not to 
be) AN individual of the class denoted by the predicate. But if the subject is said 
to be THE individual or THE class, distinguished from others, the predicate-noun 
may have the article : rbv Ae^iirirov avaKaXovvrts TOV TrpofioTTjv calling Dexippus 
the (notorious) traitor, ol Ti&ejuewu TOVS v6/j.ovs ol acr^eveis fofrpcairoi eiVt Kal ol 
TroAAot the enactors of the laws are the weak men and the multitude (as a class). 

b. The predicate-adjective (or participle), if connected with a sub- 
stantive which requires the article, cannot stand between the article and 
substantive (534), but must precede or follow both of them : dya%6s 6 dvrjp 
or 6 dvrjp uya%6s the man is good. 

rb ffu>/j.a &vr)Tbv airavres e%o/iej/ we all have our body mortal (the body, which 
we all have, is mortal), curbs aya&bs, ffvv aya&ols rots nap* e/zoi good myself, 
with the men about me good (while my attendants are good), a,ua T$ ?ipi apxo- 
(j.fv(j) at the beginning of the spring (when it was beginning), of 'Afrrjvcuoi nap* 
*K.6vTU>v TU>V ^^v T"V Tiyenoviav eAa/3oj> the Athenians received the leader- 
ship from their allies acting willingly (these were willing to confer it), TCQGOV 
&yei TO 0-TpdTev/j.a how large is he leading the army (the army, which he leads, 
is how large) ? ei/ oiroia ry yfj Se? ^vTeveiv olSa / know in what kind of soil one 
must plant (of what kind the soil is, in which one must plant). 

536. ARTICLE WITH ADJECTIVES OF PLACE. Some adjectives of place, 
used in the predicate position, refer to a part of the subject : 

fifffr) T) x^P a or *) X^P a P*ff'n the middle of the country, but ^ /xeo-Tj x^P a ^ e 
middle country (between other countries) ; eo-xToj/ TO opos or TO 6pos eo-xarot 
the extremity of the mountain, but r5 (r%aroy opos the extreme mountain (oi 


several mountains) ; &Kpa TJ %elp or ^ %elp axpa the point of the hand.- - In 
like manner, Citrus 6 fiios or 6 /3ios ^picrus half of the life. 

537. ARTICLE WITH iras AND o'Aos. The adjective TTO.S (strengthened airas, 
<Tv/j.iras) all has usually the* predicate position, but sometimes the attributive, 
with little difference of meaning : iravres of TroAlrat all the citizens, of TroATraj 
iravTes the citizens all ; less often of iravres iroX'trai the whole body of citizens 
(cf. of irdyres with numerals, e/carbv of irdyres a hundred as the whole number, 
a hundred in all). Without the article, Traj/res iro\?rai all citizens ; and in the 
sing., TTKS TroAiTTjs every citizen. Yet the sing, may mean ALL : Traffav fyuV r^v 
aATj&em*' epca I will tell you all the truth; so even without the article: irdffp 
irpo&vfj.ia with all zeal, els airao-av ^>avX6rr,Ta to (all) utter meanness. 

Similarly, o'Aos whole : oA?j ^ ir6\is or ^ TroAts oKt] the city as a whole, f] O'ATJ 
TTO'AIS the whole city, y ir6\is f) oXi) the city the whole of it ; without article, O'ATJ 
Tro'Ais a whole city. 

538. ARTICLE WITH PRONOUNS, a. Substantives with 6'5e, cwror, e/m- 
ror, require the article, and the pronoun takes the predicate position : 

o'5e 6 ctjrfip this man, ra Trpdy^ara ravra these affairs (the subst., if used 
without the article, is a predicate : ev Uepa-ais v6/j.os effrlv OUTOS among the Per- 
sians this is a laiv). The same is true of &[j.(pc0, afupSrepos, both, titdrepos each 
(of two). "E/CCIO-TOJ each (of several) has the same position, if its substantive 
takes the article : IK^O-TTJ ?) ap%^ each magistracy : - and this is likewise true 
of the genitives of PERSONAL pronouns (pov, o-ou, avrou, yucav, etc.) when con- 
nected with a substantive which has the article (while the REFLEXIVE genitives, 
eftauToD, etc., have the attributive position) : ij yX&ffffd ffov thy tongue, ^uere- 
ire^aro 'Affrvdyrfs TTJV laurou &vya.Tpa Kal rbv iraTSa auTTjs Astyages sent for 
his daughter and her boy. 

Yet if the article is followed by an attributive, most of the above pronouns 
may stand between the attributive and its subject: ^-njTeW T^V play e'/cefo/^ 
KoXiTtiav we must seek for that one polity, jj ir&\ai ri^&v Averts our old nature. 

b. The pronoun auro'y, in the predicate position, means IPSE ; in the 
attributive, IDEM: UVTOS 6 dvrjp or 6 avrjp avros the man himself; but 6 
avros avrjp the same man : rarely (6) av rjp 6 avros. 

c. The POSSESSIVE pronouns take the article, only when a particular 
object is referred to : e/zos- (f>i\o$ a friend ofmine, 6 epos <pi\os my friend 
(the particular one). 

d. An INTERROGATIVE pronoun may take the article, when it relates to an 
object before mentioned: 7rco"%et Se 3-au J uao* / roV rb ri ; A. He suffers something 
wonderful. B. (The what) What is it? - So, even a personal pronoun : Sev 
8$) ei>&u TIIJ.&V irapct. rlvas rovs v^as; A. Come hither straight to us. B. (To the 
you being whom) Who are you, that I must come to? 

e. "Erepos (Lat. alter) one or other of two ; 6 erepos the one, the other ; of 
eVepoi the one, the other (of two parties], may mean the enemy. - "'AAAos (Lat. 
alius) another, 6 &\\os the other, the rest : ^-dprrjv re teal rV ^AAr/j/ 'EAAaSa 
Sparta, and the rest of Greece ; often used for all except a part mentioned 
AFTERWARD : T< &AA&) (TTpaT< ^o"uxae', e/carby Se 7reATao"Tas Trpoirffj.Trei 
with the rest of the army he kept quiet, but sends forward a hundred peltasts, 
- - These pronouns have sometimes an APPOSITIVE relation to their substau> 
tives: of iroKirai Kal of &AAoi |eVoi the citizens and (the others, being foreigners) 
the foreigners beside, yepwv X W P^ (*&' fofpov veaviov an old man comes with 
(a second person, a young man) a young man beside. 




539. SuBJEcr-JSToMiNATivE. The subject of a finite verb is 
put in the nominative. (For the rule of agreement, see 497.) 

540. PREDICATE-NOMINATIVE. The predicate-noun, when it 
belongs to the subject of a finite verb, is put in the nominative. 
This occurs with verbs which mean to be, become, appear, b( 
made, chosen, called, considered, and the like (cf. 490) : 

Ka^flffrarai fiaffttevs he becomes (established as) king, 'A\eaj/fyos &ebs uj/o~ 
)U<eTo Alexander was named a god, %Keis jwot ffaT'hp thou art come for me as a 

savior. To these verbs belongs a/cowo to hear, in the sense of being called : 

ol eV 'Afrfivcus Afrunrifarr** K6\aices Kal freoTs e%3;pol ^KOVOV those in Athens, 
who favored Philip, were called flatterers and enemies of the gods. 

541. NOMINATIVE FOR VOCATIVE: The nominative is often used for 
the vocative in address, especially in connection with OVTOS : 6 'ATroXXd- 

Scopos- OVTOS, ov irepipeveis you Apollodorus there, will you not stay ? 

also in exclamations : v^mos fool! 

542. NOMINATIVE INDEPENDENT. The nominative is used for names and 
titles, which form no part of a sentence : Kvpov 'Avd&affis Expedition of Cyrus, 

BijSAtoj/ Upurov Book First; and sometimes so, even when they become 

part of a sentence : irposeiXr]^ T^V TU>V irovtip&v KOIV^V iir(avvp.(av, ffvKO<pdvTr}s 
he obtained the common appellation of the vile, ''''sycophant," irapryyva 6 Kvpos 
ffvvfri)/j.a, Zet/s Iv/tjuaxos Kal ^ye/j.djv Cyrus gave out, as pass-word, "Zeus, our 
ally and leader." 


543. The person (or thing) addressed is put in the vocative. 

a. In Attic prose, 3> is usually prefixed ; but in animated address, it is 
)metimes wanting : ^ &opue?re, & &vSpes 'A&rjvaioi make no noise, men of 
[thens, cucoveis, Alffxiv-f] hearest thou, Aeschines? 

b. The vocative, like the interjections, forms no part of a sentence, and is 
jrefore enclosed in commas. 


544. The accusative properly denotes the OBJECT of an action, that 
on, or over which an action is directed j thus 

The DIRECT OBJECT of a transitive verb is put in the accusa 
ive : 

6 &ebs ffw&i rip.a.s ev KivSwois the god preserves us in dangers. For omit- 

m of the object, see 505 : for omission of the verb t see 508. 


a. Many Greek verbs are transitive and followed by an object* 
accusative, when the verbs commonly used to render them in English are 
intransitive and followed by a preposition : 

opvvvai robs freovs to swear by the gods, cv (/ca/ccos) iroieiv rovs av&p(*>irovs to 
do good (ill] to men, peveiv rivd to wait for one, Qevyeiv rivd to flee from one, 
\avSrdveiv rivd to escape the notice of one, tyvXarreo-frai riva to guard (himself) 
against one (act. (pvXdrreiv rivd to guard one), alde'iffSrai, ala"xyve(r&a.i rbv irarepa 
to feel shame before his father, frappeiv riva to rely on one\ Srapptiv ras pa^as to 
have no fear of the battles, irAelj/ r\]v &d\ao-(rav to sail over the sea, viicav 
/, yvcaprjv) to be victorious in a battle (a law-suit, a resolution). 

b. Conversely, many Greek verbs are intransitive and followed by 
a genitive or dative, when the verbs commonly used for them in English 
are transitive : 

av&pc&irwv to rule men, airrecr^rai TTJS Kdptyrjs to touch the hay, aKoveiv 
to hear a noise, treXdfeiv ri} elsoSy to approach the entrance, ap'h'yeiv rots 
<|H'AOJS to aid his friends, <b&oveiv rots irXovffiois to envy the rich. 

c. In many cases, the Greek itself varies, using the same verb at dif- 
ferent times as transitive and intransitive : 

ai ri or rivos to perceive something, ev&vpeiff&al rivos, ri to consider 
something, evox\eiv riva, rivi to trouble one, eTriffrpareveiv rivd, rivi to war against 
one (so too, other compounds of eVi), Se? poi rivos I have need of something, 
poet. Set" (xp^)) PS rivos. Especially in poetry, verbs usually intransitive some- 
times take a direct object : irpofSaiveiv rbv ir6$a to advance the foot, ^<r&at or 
frdffffeiv (/ce?o-^at, TTTjSav) r6irov rivd to sit (lie, leap) in a place, xopeveiv rbv &e6v 
to celebrate the god by choral dance, rovs evcrefieis &eol ^vrjffKovras ov xoi/3ou(Tt 
the gods rejoice not in the death of the pious. 

d. Many intransitive verbs become transitive from being compound- 
ed with a preposition : 

Siaftaiveiv rbv to cross the river, eicfiatveiv r))v f)\iKiav to pass out of 
the age, irapafiaiveiv robs v6p.ovs to transgress the laws, a7ro5e5/?OK(JTes irarepas 
having run away from their fathers. 

e. In rare cases, an intransitive verb in connection with a verbal noun, 
forms a transitive phrase with an object-accusative : eirio-r'h/j.oves $ffav TO; irpos- 
JlKovra, they were acquainted with their duties, ecrrt ra /xerecopa typovriffr-fis he is 
a student of things above the earth, etypvov elvai r^v Stair av to reject the settle- 
ment, re&vdvai r$ <p6fty rovs 0r?/3aioi;s to be mortally afraid of the Thebans, tre 
<}>viij.os (e<TTi) is able to escape thee; - so, in poetry, et Se /t' 55' aei \6yois 
er)pXes if you always thus begun your addresses to me, SeffTrSrav y6ois Kardpfa 1 
will begin with lamentations for my master. 

545. ADVERBS OF SWEARING. N^ and /ua are followed by the accusative 
(perhaps on account of G^wpi understood) : 1/17 is always affirmative ; 
/ia, unless val precedes it, is always connected with a negative, expressed 
or implied: vrj Am ly Zeus, val pa Aia yea, liy Zeus, ov pa At'a no, by Zeus, 
pa rovov crv ye not you, by (the name of the god suppressed with 
humorous effect) : rarely is pd omitted after the negative as in ov, ro'i/d' 
O\vp?rov no, by^ this Olympus. 

The accusative is sometimes found in other exclamations : OVTOS, w ere 
rot y<ru there, ho! you, I mean. 


546. ACCUSATIVE OF EFFECT. Many transitive verbs have, 
as direct object, the thing effected or produced by their action : 
ypdfai TIJV 7rio-ToA?ji/ he writes the letter. But many verbs, not 
properly transitive, take an accusative of the effect, denoting 
that which is made to exist or appear by their action : 

irpefffBeveu' flp^vtiv to negotiate a peace (form a peace by acting as embass- 
ador), opKia Tf/j.veiv foedus ferire (hostiam feriendo foedus efficere), xop^oGyra 
TTcuai Aioj/vffia celebrating the Dionysia by furnishing a chorus of boys, poet. 
r?8e (^ avapxia) rponas KarappTiyvvffi this (anarchy, breaks defeats) causes defeats 
by breaking ranks. 

Closely connected with this use is the following : 

547. COGNATE-ACCUSATIVE. This repeats the meaning of the 
verb in the form of a noun. It might be called the implied ob- 
ject, as being already contained in the verb. It is used with 
many intransitive verbs, and commonly has an attributive con- 
nected with it. Here belong 

a. ACCUSATIVE OF KINDRED FORMATION: p-a^nv en&xovTo they were fighting 
a battle, TTO^TT^V ircpirtiv to conduct a procession, Ka.KiffTt]v SovXeiav e5ouAev(re he 
became subject to a most wretched servitude, 2>s &j/ aplffrr]]/ povXfyv fiovKsvcrri who- 
ever may (counsel) give the best counsel, r^v Ivavriav voffov voffovp.ev we are (sick) 
suffering under the opposite disease, p-cydx^v rivet, Kpiffiv Kplj/erai he is undergo- 
ing a great trial. 

b. ACCUSATIVE OF KINDRED MEANING : tfiffeis fiiov Kpanffrov you will lead 
the best life, irXtiyty rv-n-rerai ^apvrdrrjif he is struck a very heavy blow, Trdcras 
v6(Tovs Ko.<.ivei he is sick with all diseases, ir6\e^ov fcrrpdreva'av rbv Upbv /caAou/te- 
vov they engaged in the so-called Sacred war, ypa(p^v Stditeiv to prosecute an im- 
peachment, effTiav yd/j.ovs to (entertain) give a wedding-feast. 

In many cases, the meaning of the verb is not actually repeated as a 
noun, but must be understood in connection with the accusative of an 
adjective or qualifying substantive. Hence two more forms of the cognate- 
accusative : 

c. NEUTER ADJECTIVE. For the indeterminate subject, we may supply the 
repeated meaning of the verb : ^eya tyetSerai (= ^ueya ^eu&os ^evSerai) he utters 
a great falsehood, irdvra, ireta-opai I shall obey in all things (render all acts of 
obedience), ravrb. Xvirov(j.a.i Kal ravrb x a ' i p (a T0 *s iro\\o'is I have the same pains 
and the same pleasures with the multitude, ff(juttp6v ri airopu I am in some little 
perplexity, ri xp^o/iot ro^ry what use shall I make of this? poet. ffp.vbv P\.tireis 
you look grave. 

d. QUALIFYING SUBSTANTIVE. This may be regarded as standing in defi- 
nitive apposition, its subject (understood) being the idea of the verb, repeated 
as a noun : ayiavifyvrai iraX-nv they contend in (a contest, aywva, viz.) wrestling, 
TOVTOV rbv rp6irov irpdfcas having acted in this manner (of action), Hm. Trvp o<p&a\.- 
ILoiffi SeSopKtias looking (a look of) fire with their eyes, Hm. ^ueVea Truetovres 'Axcuoi 
the Achaeans breathing courage. Cf. 5012, though the substantive there is less 
closely related to the verb of the sentence. 

548. The cognate-accusative is also used in connection with adjectives, 
iraffav KaKlav bad with all badness, bya&bs 7ra<*jcj/ aper-fju good -cith all ex- 


ccllence ; - especially the accusative of neuter adjectives (547 c): 6 iravra 
ffocpbs TroiTjTrjs' the poet wise in all things, aya&bs rouro good in this particidar 
(of goodness), ?) iroAts fjuSjv ouSez/ oaoia yeyovev titeiyois our city is not at all like 
them, off a fj.oi w^ffi^o'i eVre olSa / know for how many things (uses) ye are use- 
ful to me. Yet these constructions might be referred to the following head. 

549. ACCUSATIVE OF SPECIFICATION. The accusative is loosely 
connected with predicate- words (verb, adjective, substantive), 
to specify the part, property, or circumstance, to which they 
apply. It is also, but less often, used with attributives. The 
accusative specifies 

a. a part of the subject: KdfjLVca r^iv /ce^aA^i/ 1 have pain in my head, et 
%o/xi/ ra ffuiaara we are well in our bodies, poet. rv<p\bs rd T' 3>ra rov re vovt 
rd r fytjuar' el you are blind in your ears, your mind, and your eyes. 

b. a property of the subject (nature, form, size, name, number, etc.): TTATJ- 
&6s n r?V (pvffiy tcrrlv % ir6\is the city is in its nature a multitude, irap&evos 
Ka\$) rb eTSos a maid beautiful in hey form,, KuSj/os uvop.a, etipos Sue 
TrAefrpcov a river, Cydnus by name, of two plethra in breadth, a7re:poi rb 7rAf;&os 
infinite in their number, Si/ccuos rbv rp6irov just in his character. 

c. a circumstance not belonging to the subject : rb e/cetVou /tej/ UTyxe?s 
fcepos thou art happy, so far as he is concerned (as to his part), Kal ra piKpct airb &eoij/ 6p/ji.aff&ai even in little things, I endeavor to begin with the 
, f) Tr6\is elp^]vr)v ra Trepl rrjv y^pav ayei the city enjoys peace in things re- 
ig to its territory, rb /car' ^e oi5ei/ eAAei^et on my side there shall be nc 

550. ACCUSATIVE OF EXTENT (Time and /Space). The extent 
of time and space is put in the accusative. 

a. TIME : ej/raSdu Kvpos e/j.eivev y/j-epas TreVre there Cyrus remained five 
days, a! <nroj/5al eviavrbv fffovrai the truce will be for a year, SouAeuouo-t rbv Xonrb* 
ftiov they are slaves all the rest of their life. 

b. SPACE : Kvpos eeAawet 5ta rrjs Avfiias ffra^/aovs rpets, Trapaffdyyas e^Koffi 
Kal Svo Cyrus advances through Lydia three days' inarches, twenty-two parasangs, 
Meyapa aire'xci ~2,vpa,KOVffS>v oure ir\ovv iro\vv ovre o$6v Megara is not far dis- 
tant from Syracuse, either by sea or by land (no long voyage or journey). 

REM. c. The accusative singular is used with an ordinal numeral, to show 
the number of days (months, years) since a particular event, including the day 
(month, year) of the event itself: ej85o,u7jy ^ue/Hw r> &vydrr)p avraj eVeTeAeurrj/cei 
his daughter had died the seventh day (i. e. six days) before. The pronoun ovrocri 
is often added : e'f^A&o^ej/ eras rovrl rplrov s TLavaKrov we went out two years 
ago (this, as third year) to Panactum. 

551. OBJECT OF MOTIOX. The poets often use the accusative without a pre- 
position, to denote the object towards which motion is directed: rb Koi\oj/"Ap- 
yos )8as having gone to the hollow (low-lying) Argos, rov /cAeos ovpavbv 7/cet his. 
fame has reached to heaven, /j.vr)(TTfjpas a^i/cero sJie came to the suitors, ere rJ5 s 

irav Kpdros this whole power has come to thee. 

552. ADVERBIAL ACCUSATIVE. The accusative is used in many 
words and phrases, with the force of an adverb, 


This use may be explained, in most cases, by the principles already given 
(547-50, cf. 501-2). Thus roVSe (rovroy) rbv Tp6irov in this manner (547 d), 
Kavra Tp6irov in every manner, by rp6iroj/ in which manner, etc. Compare 
phrases in which 656v way is perhaps to be supplied (509 a) : r^v Tax/o-rrji/ T<$ 
ff(t>(j.aTi x a p'C eo "^ a ' to gratify tJie body in the quickest tvay. So (T^Y) op^rji', al- 
ways with a negative : apxV 8e frripuv ov TrpeVei Ta,u//x aj/a ^ ^ s n t proper to 
chase impossibilities at all (not to make even a beginning of it) ; - cbc/xV Ste- 
ficuvov they were just passing across (the acme of their crossing) ; - and, in 
like manner, (TO) reXos at last (as the end), irpoiKa. and Swpedv gratis (as a free 
gift). Xdpu/for the sake of (in favor of) takes a genitive, as also 8iicriv like (in 
the fashion of) : 0776101; SI/CTJI/ TreTrArjpcDcrfrat to be filled like a pail, rov \6yov 
xdpivfor the sake of the discussion, e/*V xdpivfor my sake. 

a. Many neuter adjectives are used in this way : jweya, fj.tya.Xa., greatly, 
TroAu, TroAAa, much, TO TroAv, TO TroAAa, for the most part, irp^repov before, rb 
irp6rpov the former time, irpSsrov (at) first, TO -rrparov the first time, TO \onr6v 
for the rest, for thefutiire (but TOU \oiirov at some time in the future), TVX&V per- 
haps, TOCTOVTOV so much, oorov as far as, rl somewhat (eyyvs n pretty near), ri 
why (ri K\ateis why are you weeping ?), TOUTO, ravra, therefore (auTos TauTa vvv 
^KO^V fbr these very reasons are we now come). Cf. adverbs of the compar. and 
superl. degrees (228), and the cases of apposition in 502. 

For accusative as subject of the infinitive, see 773. 
For accusative absolute with a participle, see 792. 

Two Accusatives with One Verb. 

553. DOUBLE OBJECT. Many transitive verbs may have a 
double object, usually a person and a thing, both in the accusa- 
tive. Thus verbs of asking, teaching, clothing, hiding, depriv- 
ing, and others. 

Thus aiTu> to request (Kvpov TrAoTa vessels of Cyrus), spurta to inquire (TOVS 
ai>To/j.6\ovs TO irepl TWV iroXtfj-tcav of the deserters as to the news from the enemy), 
StSaavcw to teach (TO^ TraiSa r^v fj.ovffiK'hv the boy music) irei&o) to persuade (upas 

of the contrary}, eVSuw or ajj.^iivvvp.1 to clothe (rivet TO;/ x"<j/a one 
, e/cSuw to 

in the tunic), e/cSuw to unclothe, strip (e/ue r^jv eo*3-^TO me of the dress), 
to hide (jiie TOWTO from me this thing), cKpaipovnai or airoffrepSj to deprive (TOI/S 
"EAATjj'as T^]V yijv the Greeks of their land), <rv\w to despoil, 7rpdTTO[, also 
irpdrTQ) or eisirpdTTd) to exact (TOVS v^ffiuras f^KOvra rdXavTO. of the islanders 
sixty talents), a.i/a/LLifj.v'fja'KQ) to remind. 

a. The passive of these verbs retains the accusative of the thing : 
SiSacrKo^uu TTJV p.ovo~iKr]v I cum taught music, d^p^rat TOV tTTTrov he has Itcen 
deprived of the horse. 

Several of these cases, and of those in 555, might be explained by the prin- 
ciple, that 

554. CAUSATIVE VERBS, with the accusative of the person, take the case 
which belongs to the included verb. Thus ava^v^ffat TOVS KWO'VVOVS I will 
cause you to remember the dangers. So, to ask is to make one give an answer ; 
to teach is to make one learn, etc. To the included verb may belong a genitive: 
yevew TWO. TI^S to make one taste of honor, yd\ p.* avap.vl]o"r)s KO.K&V remind me 
not of evils. 



verbs may have, beside the object, a cognate-accusative : 

ftpttooffav TOVS arpari^ras TOVS ^yiffrovs opxovs they made the soldiers swear 
the greatest oaths, MeAtros jpd^ar6 /j.e TT\V ypafyfyv TavTrtv Melitus brought this 
impeachment against me, Hm. t>v Zeus $iAe? iravToirjv ^ZA^TTJTO for whom Zeus 
feels all manner of love : e^te 6 Trar^p rV TUV iraiScav erpe^ev my father reared 
me with the training of the boys, Aiffx'wis KnjffK^uyTa ypa^jv irapav6f.ias eSuwce 
Aeschines prosecuted Ctesiphon on charge of an illegal resolution ; & T'LS TI aya- 
bv %\ KO.KOV irorfiffeiev avr6v if one should do him any good or evil, TroAAct OLV ns 
e%ot Sw/cpc^nji' eTraivtffai one would be able to bestow many praises on Socrates, 
.tv TOVTOV ouSey we did this one no wrong. 

a. Such verbs in the passive may retain the cognate-accusative : 
rjvat dfj.(poTepa$ ras Kpicreis to undergo Jjoth the trials^ ruTrretrSlai nevrr]- 
KOVTO. nXrjyds to 1)6 struck fifty blows, ov fiXd^ovrai (iia Xoyov (547 c) they 

will not suffer injuries worth mentioning. 

when it belongs to the object of a transitive verb, is put in the 
accusative. This occurs with verbs which mean to make, show, 
choose, call, consider, and the like (cf. 490 c). 

voiov/j.a.1 nva <piXov I make one my friend, aipeiff&ai nva <rr parrjy '6v to choose 
one as general, Trapzxo} f^.avr\)v eviret&ri I show myself ready to obey, oi /c^Ao/ces 
'AA.e'lcwSpoi' 3-ebv uv6fj.a^ov his flatterers named Alexander a god, ov rovs TrAcTora 
%XOVTO.S GvdaifAoveffTciTovs vo/j.ici) not those who have most, do I consider as happiest, 

eAajSe TOVTO Swpop he took this as a gift (but TOVTO rb Supov this gift). The 

predicate-accusative may be an interrogative pronoun : rl TOVTO iroisls (as what 
are you doing this) what is this you are doing ? Tinas rousS 3 elsopu who are these 
I behold? iroia TO.VTO. \tyeis of what nature are these things which you are 
saying? cf. 826 a. 

a. The predicate-accusative is often distinguished from the object 
by the absence of the article (535) : TO. Trepirra xPW ara Trpay/zara e^ouo-t 
they have their superfluous wealth for a vexation. 

b. In the passive construction, both of these accusatives become 
nominatives (540) : 'AXegavdpos Seoy o>z/o/>ia'ero Alexander was named 
a god. 


557. The genitive properly denotes, (a) that TO which some- 
thing BELONGS ; also, (b) that FKOM which something is SEP AB- 
ATED. In the latter use, it corresponds to the Latin ABLATIVE. 

Genitive with Substantives. 

558. One substantive may have another depending on it in 
the genitive. 


The two things, denoted by the substantive and the depend- 
ent genitive, may have a great variety of relations (expressed 
generally by English or). Thus the former may belong to the 

a. as a part of it : Genitive of the Whole^ or G. Partitive. 

b. as composed of it : Genitive of Material. 

c. as more definitely expressed by it : G. of Designation. 
(In a, b, c, the two things are more or less the same ; in the 

following, they are distinct :) 

d. as possessed by it : Genitive of Possession. 

e. as connected with it and pertaining to it, though not 
strictly in possession : Genitive of Connection. 

(The following may be regarded as special varieties of e :) 

f. as an action or attribute of which it is the subject : 

Genitive Subjective. 

as an action of which it is the object : Gen. Objective. 
as produced or accounted for by it : Genitive of Cause. 
as measured by it in extent, duration, or value : 

Genitive of Measure. 
REM. j. It is not intended here to give an exact analysis of the relations ex- 
pressed by the genitive with substantives ; but only to specify relations which 
the student may notice with advantage. 

It should always be remembered that the genitive does not express these 
relations distinctly, but only the general idea of belonging which is common to 
all of them. Hence the same construction may sometimes be referred to dif- 
ferent heads, the two things having more than one relation to each other : 
thus in ir6&os TOU a.iro&a.v6vTos regret for the dead, rov airo&avSvTos may be re- 
garded either as the cause of regret, or as the object regretted. 

659. GENITIVE PARTITIVE, a. The part is most commonly expressed by a 
word of number or a superlative, the whole by a genitive plural : iroAAoi TW> 
A.brij'aiav many of the Athenians, ir6repos r&v a$e\<p>j/ which of the two brothers, 
TrdfTcoif &pi<TTos best of all men, ol <nrou8cuot TWV iroXnuv the excellent among the 
citizens, rives ruv pf\r6p<av some of the orators, S-fjfj.ov avfip a man of the people, 
fjLiKpbv virvov a little (portion of) sleep, Ilm. S?a Se&wv divine among goddesses, 
fjv fj.ffov 7]/j.pas it was the middle of the day, /JeA/rtaTos eavrow in his best estate 
(lit. best of himself; the superlative referring to the man in one condition, the 
genitive to the man in the sum of all his conditions). 

b. The genitive partitive is used (with the article) to denote the district or 
region to which a place belongs : 0f)j8at TTJS Boicrrias Thebes in Boeotia, rrjs 
Xepo-ovfiffov eV 'EXaiovj/n in Elaeus of the Chersonesus. 

c. The genitive partitive with neuter adjectives (496) often denotes de- 
gree : firl ,1*670 Swd/j-eoos' ex^pr/crav they advanced to a great (degree] of power, 

els TOVTO avo(as ifAd-o;/ to this (extent) of folly did they come, ej/ Tovry rf)s napa* 
o-Kevijs faav in this (state) of preparation were they, ev ircu/rl KO.KOV in extremity 
of evil. 

d. If the word expressing part has the article, the genitive takes the po- 
sition of a predicate-adjective (535 b) : 6 rerapros rcav Traidcw the fourth among 
the children, 'Afrr]va.l(av 6 5?)/tos the people of the Athenians (i. e. the democratic 
mass, opposed to the aristocracy ; but 6 'Afrnvalwv 8?]uos the whole people). 


e. Adjectives which have a partitive genitive, usually conform to it in 
gender, so as often to appear in the masc. or fern., where we might expect the 
neut. : 6 (6 \oLir6s, 6 TrXeiffros) rov XP OVOV the half (rest, most part) of the 
time, TroAA'Jj rijs x&pas (also iro\v TVJS %c6/>as) much of f/te country. 

560. GENITIVE OF MATERIAL: apyvpov coin of silver, Kp^vt] yo'eos 
vSaros a spring of sweet water, PO&I/ aye\f) a herd of cattle, TrArj&os avfrpdoTruv a 
multitude of men, a/j.aai o~irov wagons (wagon-loads) of corn, TpiaK6cria rd.A.avra 
<p6pov three hundred talents of tribute, wo Korv\ai ofoov a pint of wine. 

561. GENITIVE OF DESIGNATION : rb opos r-Tjs *lffr&vr\s the mountain oflstone, 
ueya xp^a <rv6s a (great affair) monster of a wild boar. This construction is 
chiefly poetic : Tpoirjs Trro\i&pov city of Troy, Savarov reAos end of (life, i. e. ) 

562. GENITIVE OF POSSESSION : alicia irarpds a father's house, ot KIJTTOI rov 
/JacnAecos the gardens of the king, TO. ~2,vevveffios jScur/Aeta the palace cfSyennesis, 
rb hpbv rov 'A7rJAAcuj/os the temple of Apollo. 

For the omission of a word in phrases such as es 8i5acr/caAou to the teacher's 
(house, school), ^/"AiSou in (the abode of) Hades, e : 'ATr^AAwj/os -from Apollo's 
(temple), see 509 #. 

563. GENITIVE OF CONNECTION: Kvpara rrjs ^a\dffffris leaves of the sea, TJ 
Kprjirls rov reixovs the foundation of the wall, % rov Tret^eti/ re^j/rj the art of per- 
suading, &pa apiffrov time for breakfast. It is used especially with words which 

a. Connection in Family, Society, State, Army, etc. : 6 rqs /SatnAe'cos yvvcu- 
libs a8e\<f>6s the brother of the king's wife, oiKerys AT)(J.OO-&]/OVS a servant of De- 
mosthenes, fraipos Kifi&pos a companion of Cimon, jSatrtAeus Mo/ceSoyfas king of 
Macedonia, ol <pi\oi (TroAe^uot) Kvpov the friends (enemies) of Cyrus, ol KAeap^ou 
ffrpanfarai the soldiers of Clearchus. 

For the frequent omission of vl6s in phrases like 'AAe|ay5pos (6) 3>iX'nnrov 
Alexander (the) son of Philip, see 509 . 

b. The genitive after the neuter article (with indeterminate subject, 496) 
is usually to be regarded as a genitive of connection,' though sometimes denoting 
possession: ret TTJS Tr^Aews the (affairs) of the city, rb ryjs Te%z/?7s the (business) 
of the art, rb rys ohtyapxias the (constitution) of the oligarchy, ra r&v ~2,vpa.Kocriu>v 
the (resources) of the Syracusans, &^7]\a ra rwv iroXejjuav uncertain are the (issues) 
of war, 5e? fytpziv ra rwv i^eoji/ we must bear the (ordering) of the gods. In some 
such cases, the neuter article has little force : ra rf/s tyvxys (the soul with all 
that belongs to it) nearly the same as 97 $vx'h- 

564. GENITIVE SUBJECTIVE : 6 <p6fios ruiv Tro\tfji.i(av the fear of the enemy 
(which they feel), o tiraivos ru>v irpefffivrepcov praise of older persons (which they 
give), ri ifopeia rov /3a<riAea>s the march of the king, }] Xa^Trp^r^s rov ffrparevfAci- 
ros the brilliancy of the army, rb evpos rov irorapov the breadth of the river. 

565. GENITIVE OBJECTIVE : b (pSftos rG>v 7roAe/Ja>j/ the fear of the enemy 
(which is felt toward them), fTraivos r&v Trpecrfivrepca]/ praise of older persons 
(which is given to them), e^e'racm r&v 'EAA^vwy a review of the Greeks, o ote&pos 
ruv a-rparKarcai/ the destruction of the soldiers. 

Other prepositions are often to be used in translating : &eu>v cw% a ' prayers 
to the gods, ?; r&v Kpeiffcrovcav SouAeto servitude to the stronger, a<pop/j.'^ epycaf oc- 
casion for actions, svvoia rG>v <pi\cav affection for one's friends, e/reipta rcou iro- 
Ae/it/cw^ experience in the affairs of war, tyKpdreia ^ovr^s moderation in pleasure, 
\vffis fravdrov release from death, a.Tr6ffra<ris r&v 'Afrijvalwv revolt from the Athen- 


ians, Kpdros TT/S &a\d<ra"ris power over the sea, airSflaffis TTJS yrjs a descent tipon 
the land, )3ia rwv TroAtrwy (with violence toward the citizens) in spite of the 


566. GENITIVE OF CAI^BE : ypacp}) KAOTTTJS an impeachment for theft, Z 
TOS 'Avdpa<ns Xenophorfs Anabasis (by Xen. as author), poet. NOTOV 
waves raised by the south wind. 

567. GENITIVE OF MEASURE (Extent, Duration, Value}: TTOTO^S evoos irXe- 
frpov a river of one plethrum in breadth, rpiwv fuj.epwv 656s three days' journey, 
p.iffSfi)S Terrdpwv ^r\vlav four months' pay, rpidKovra TaXavTuv ovcria a property 
of thirty talents, ^i\icav 5/Jo% J ucoj' Si/crj a suit for a thousand drachmae. 

568. The GENITIVE OF CHARACTERISTIC so frequent in Latin (vir summae pntr 
dentiae) is rare in Greek prose, and scarcely found except as a predicate-geni- 
tive (5*72) : eerrt TOVTOV TOV rpoVov, T'Tjs auT-/)s yv&iJ.'qs, TUV aurcoj/ \6ytav he is of 
this character, of the same opinion, he uses the same language, poet. 6 rijs yffv- 
%ias fiioTos a life of quiet = a quiet life, poet. T6\/j.i]s trptsuTrov a front oj 
audacity = an audacious front. 

509. Two GENITIVES WITH ONE SUBSTANTIVE. The same substantive 
may have two genitives depending on it, usually in different relations : 

T&V av&pdirwv Seos TOV fravdrov (f and g) men's fear of death, Sto rV TOV 
ave/.iov &TTWO-IV TU)V vavayitav (f and g) because the wind drove the wrecks out 
to sea, 'iinrou o~p6fj.os r,/j.epas (f and i) a day's run for ft horse, Aiovvffov irpeffftv- 
ruv x^P os (^ an ^ b)'a Dionysiac chorus of old men, aevotyuvros Kvpov 'Avdfiaffis 
(h and f ) Xcnophoris Expedition of Cyrus. 

Genitive with Verbs. 

570. The genitive sometimes appears to be connected with a verb, 
when it really belongs (as genitive of connection) to a neuter pronoun or 
a dependent sentence : 

rovro v/j-atv jj-aXicrra frou^fouey for this we most admire you (lit. this of you 
we most admire), TI Se '/TTTTCOJ/ oiW but of horses, what think you ? & StcS/cet AtV- 
XIJ/TJS TOV ^t]<pifffj.a.TOs TO.VT' e(rrt the points which A.eschines impeaches in the 
decree, are these (lit. which points of the decree), ayi/oov/ a,\A.?]Aa>j/ o TI \4yo- 
[lev we misunderstand each other's language, TOV ot/ca5e ir\ov Stecr/c^Troyi/ OTTT; KO/J.I- 
ff^ffovTai touching their homeward voyage, they were considering (this question) 
by what course they should return. 

571. GENITIVE AS SUBJECT. The genitive (used partitively) 
is sometimes found as the subject of an intransitive verb : 

ou irpos-f)Kei /J.QI TT)S apx^s I have no part in the ^government (lit. to me be- 
longs not of the government), ei/ oAiyap%i'a irzvriffiv ou [AeTecrTi ffv/yvupris in an 
oligarchy, poor men have no share of indulgence, OVK airtfravoy avTwv TT\^V e? TIS 
VTTO Te-yeaTuv there were not slain (any) of them except some one (slain) by the 
Tegeans, tiuij.i'yvvvai ecpaffav ffcpuv irpbs Kap5ou%ous they said that [some] of their 
number had intercourse with the Carduchians. In such cases the genitive might 
be regarded as depending on an omitted form of TIS. 

572. GENITIVE AS PREDICATE. With verbs of incomplete 
predication (490), the genitive is often used in place of a predi- 


cate-noun. The subject (or object) of the verb is thus brought 
into various relations with the genitive, relations which cor- 
respond to those in 558. Thus we have the PREDICATE-GENITIVE 

a. PARTITIVE : of e<rffaXol rcav 'EXX^vuv ?iffav the Thessalians (were of) 
belonged to the Hellenes, e|7jj/ EuKpcSrei rwv rpidKovra yei/eVd-at it was in the 
power of Eucrates to become (one) of the thirty, effriv TJ UvXos rrjs Meffffyvitios 
TTore ovffrjs yrls Pylus belongs to what was once the Messenian land. 

b. OF MATERIAL: TO TeT%os \i&ov ireTroivjTat the wall is made of stone. 

c. OF POSSESSION : ff ot/a'a rov arparfiyov eyevero the house became the gen- 
eraVs (property), tavrov e/Vat (yiyveff&ai) to be (become) one's own man = one's 
own master. 

d. OF CONNECTION : TO iro\\a aTroXwAeyot TTJS ^aerepas a^te\e:as av TIS i^eiTj 
5iKaic>>s that many things are lost, one might justly regard as (the fruit) of our 
neglect, TO vavTiKbv re^j/Tjs effri the navy is (a thing) of art. 

The predicate-genitive of connection is especially used to denote birth or 
origin : Aapelov Kal Tlapvo-drtdos yiyvovTai TrcuSes Suo of Darius and Parysatis 
are born two sons, &ovKv$i8ris olitlas (Tro'Aecws) fjt,eya\.T]s fy Thucydides was of a 
great house (city). 

e. SUBJECTIVE : 6 \6yos Aij/jLoff^eyovs eoTi the speech belongs to Demosthenes. 
The genitive in this use is often connected with an infinitive, and denotes one 
whose nature, habit, or duty, it is to do something : iroXirov aya&ov vopifcrai 
frappe'iv it is considered (a* the part) of a good citizen to be courageous, rb ra 
aiffxph etS^ra evXafte'iff&ai <ro(pov re Kal ffctxppoi'os e/cptj/e to know and shun what 
is shameful, he judged (to be the part) of a ivise and discreet man. 

f. OBJECTIVE : ou rv Kaicovpycov ol/cros, a\\a rys S'tKrjs compassion is not 
for the evil-doers, but for justice. 

g. OF CAUSE : ?j ypcup}) KA.OTTTJS %v the impeachment was for theft. 

h. OF MEASURE (Extent, Duration, Value) : eTrl rbj/ Ev(ppdTir]v irora^v^ %v- 
ya rb evpos reTTaipci)]/ ir\4&p<av to the river Euphrates, being (of) four plethra, in 
breadth, ?iv ertSv a>s TpiditovTa he was (of) about thirty years old, TO Tfyt^ucJ eo'- 
rt TO rrjs x^pas e|oKtsxtA./&)y raXdvTfav the rateable property of the country is (of) 
six thousand talents. 

For the predicate-genitive of CHARACTERISTIC, see 568. 


573. Many verbs, which in Latin or English would take the accusa- 
tive, have the genitive in Greek, because the action is regarded as belong- 
ing to the object, rather than as falling directly upon it. Many verbs 
vary in their construction, see 544 c. 

The relations, expressed by the genitive with verbs, correspond, for 
the most part, to those of the genitive with substantives. 

574. The genitive is used with verbs whose action affects the 
object only IN PART (compare Genitive Partitive). Such are 
verbs of sharing (having, giving, or taking, part of something), 
touching (which affects only the surface), aiming (seeking to 
touch), enjoying (more or less of something), etc. Here then 

a. VERBS OF SHARING : av&pdiirov tyvx)i rov &elov /tTex man's soul has 
part in the divine (being) ; so ^raXa^avw to receive part, /xeraSiSw^t to give 
part (IT}S \eias nvi of the booty to some one), Koivicveco to participate, and the like. 


IJL^I eud-us Kaiear&ai it is possible that one touching fire should not be burned imme- 
diately ; SO aTTTO^cu, \|/ava>, to touch, exojucu to hold on to, be close to (rris iroAews 
the city), avrexo^ar, 67rtA.a J u/3ctj'o^at, to take hold of, &px<tyicu to begin (rrjs TTOI- 
Ssias the education). 

The same verb may have an accusative of the person, and a genitive of the 
part, touched : f\apov TTJS $6pip tlv 'Op6vrijv they took hold of Orontes by the 
girdle. So too, with verbs in which touching is only implied : &yei TT?S rivias rbv 
fa-nov he leads the horse by the bridle. The genitive of the part touched is seen 
also in /carecryeVai (ffvvrpi^vai) TTJS Ke</>a\7js to have one's head broken (bruised). 

TTOV the mark), opeyctyiat to reach after (ruv aAAorp W the property of others), e ? - 
(e<p-)iicj/ov/ to arrive at, attain (r<v KO.KWV what is honorable), Tvyx& vca t hit 
upon, obtain (TV &b\<0v the prizes), Aayxoi/w to get by allotment, and in poetry 
Kvped) to light upon. 

d. VERBS OF ENJOYING : airo\ava to enjoy (rSv p.^yiffT<av aya&<3v the great- 
est advantages), euo?%ou rov \6yov feast on the discourse, svbs avo'pbs eS (ppovfj- 
ffavros TTO\\O\ by a.iro\av<rfiav from one man who has thought well, many might 
receive profit. 

e. Other Verbs, when their action affects the object only IN PART : ruv 
vfj.cTcpci>]s efj.ol 5iS<Wi to give me (some) of your property, Aaj3<Wes row ftapftapiKov 
ffrparov having taken (part) of the barbarian army, acpi-^ffi rdSi/ alxfJ-^doTcoy he 
releases (some) of the prisoners, rfjs yijs ere/j-ov they ravaged (part) of the land, 
vtveiv olvov to drink wine, but irlveiv dlvov to drink some wine. 

575. The genitive is used with verbs which signify fullness 
or the contrary (compare Genitive of Material), i. e. with 

VERBS OF PLENTY AND WANT : TrfywrATj^i, irXrjptot, to fill, irA^&w, 7/tw, to be 
full, Sfopai (5e?juot) to want, TCI. S>ra lveK\i}aa.v daiftoj/ias <ro<pias they filled their 
ears with divine wisdom, $i\nnros xP" f H JL & r< ' )V tvitdpti Philip had abundance of 
treasure, ov %pucrfou irXovrtiV) aAAa ^ajrjs aya&fjs to be rich, not in gold, but in a 
good life, tree-ay^ eVos ir\ovrov T}]V tyvxhv having his soul glutted with wealth ; 

TToAAwi/ ei/e'Set avry he lacked much (provision), ol rvpavvot eiralvov oijirore 

triravifcre you tyrants never have a scarcity of praise. 

Here belong expressions such as ^ued-uo&Tj rov veKrapos he became intoxicat- 
ed with the nectar, % injy^ pel /ACACC ^u^poD (JSaros the spring runs with very cold 

a. The active 5ew, as a personal verb, is found only with genitives of quan- 
tity, TToAAou much, oAiyou, jut/cpou, little, roffovrov (also roffovro) so much : TQffoi)- 
TOV Sew Ka.ra(})poveiv I am so far from despising ; also impersonally, -rroAAov 8e? 
OVTWS elvai it wants much of being so. With omitted Se?, 6\iyov and [uicpov 
have the force of adverbs, meaning almost : irreoxovy opas 6\iyov ir&vTas thou 
scest that nearly all are beggars. After a negative sentence, oyS' bxiyov Set has 
the meaning, (nor does it want little) far from it; so ouSe iroAAoD Set (nor does 
it want much, but rather every thing). For participle SeW in designations of 
number, see 256. 

576. The genitive is used with many verbs which signify an 
action of the senses or the mind (compare Genitive of Connec- 
tion) i. e. with 

pat to taste (act. to cause to taste), oa-^patvofj-ai to smell (for verbs of touching, 


Bee 574 b), alo-^dvop-ai to perceive, fjujj.v^o' to remember (act. to remind), e7a 
Aavfraj/Oyuat to forget, /*eAei p.oi TWOS I am concerned for something, jUeTa,ueAe /xoi 
rij/os I repent of something , eTn^eAoyUcu to take care of, ej/Tpeiroiucu to regard, 
o^aeAew to neglect, oAfywpeaj to think little of, epdca to love, evidvfjLfu to desire, 
ifGivaw to hunger (xp'niJ-dTdov for property], S^aw to thirst (e\ev&epias for freedom), 
ireipdo/ to make trial of, Trvv^dvo^ai to be informed of (by inquiry) more comm. 
with the accusative. 

a. Many of these verbs vary in construction : aKovca and to hear 
usually have the thing heard in the ace., the person heard in the gen. (perhaps 
gen. of source, 582) : aKoveiv rbv \6yov to hear the discourse, but aitoveiv TOU 
StSaavcaAou to hear the teacher. 

577. The genitive of cause (566) is used with 
a. VERBS OP EMOTION: frav/j-dfy ffe rrjs ff<a<$>poffvvr)s I admire thee for thy 
discretion, ffvyxaipca T&V y^yevri^vtav I share the joy for the things which have 
occurred, TOVTOVS ot'/crei/xw TTJS 'ayav %aA6?r^s v6ffov I pity these for their very 
severe sickness, $>v lytib croi ov <p^oj/^ffca (for which things I shall not envy you) 
which I shall not grudge you, Hra. x&xfytez/os yvvaiK.6s angry on account of a 

woman. -Here belong also sTraivG) > AAe|ctz'5poi' rrjs ets rbv tratpov 
praise Alexander for his confidence in his friend, roOS' &i/ ouSeis eV5i/ccos ^4 1^0.1- 
TQ p.oi for this no one could justly blame me, evdai/j.ovi^iv nva TU>V aya&oiji/ to 
congratulate one on his advantages, o-vyyiyv&ffKeiv avro7s XP$) T ^?^ eiri&vfj.Las it is 
right to forgive them for the desire. 

b. VERBS OF JUDICIAL ACTION : KAOTHJS ypufyeaSai alffxpov to be impeached 
for theft is disgraceful, tf>6vov Sico/cetv to prosecute for murder, (pevyei -Kapav6;j.ii)v 
he is indicted for an illegal resolution, airetyvye KaKqyopias he was acquitted of 
slander, ed\ca<rav Trpodoffias they were convicted of treason, S&pcav o^Aelj/ to incur 
a charge of bribery, iro\\G)v ol Trartpes /X7j5i(r/xoy 8tdva.rov Kareyj/iacraj' our fathers 
passed sentence of death against many persons for favoring the Persians. 

avdrov, used with such verbs, is a genitive of value, giving a measure of 
the judicial action : ol"E(popoi rbi/ 3,(po5piav virfjyov (bttudrov the Ephori impeach- 
ed Sphodrias on a capital charge. 

REM. c. To these, add VERBS OF CLAIMING or DISPUTING : ^eraTroiotWat aperrjs 
they make pretensions to virtue, OVK ai>Tnroiov/j.e&a )3a<rtA rrjs apx'ns we do not 
contend for the sovereignty against the king, EV/J.O\TTOS fiff^>uf&rrrncrey 'Epex&el 
Tf)s TroAews Ewnolpus disputed with Erechtheus the possession f>f the city. 

578. The genitive of value (567) is used with 

a. VERBS OF VALUING, BUYING, SELLING : 6 o~ov\os ireVre pv^v ri/j-arai the 
slave is valued at five minae, TroAAoD ave'io'&ai to buy at a great price, ra\dvTov 
a.Tro$6<T&ai to sell for a talent, oiKia /x5' p.vuv vvoKfi^vri a house mortgaged for 
44 minae. 

b. Sometimes with other verbs : X9'ni J - a ' Tti}V tTucovpeiv to help fo^ *ioney, ol 
rvpavvoi /juff&ov (pv\aK<xs e%ou(n the tyrants have guards for pay, Tr6ffov fao'do'icei 
for how much does he teach ? irpoirziroTai rrjs TrapavTiKa xdpiros Ta rrjs v4\ecas 
Trpaypara the interests of the city have been sacrificed for immediate popularity, 
T^JV TrapavTiKa eATrtSa ou5ej/bs aAAarrecr^ai to exchange the hope of the moment 
for nothing. 

REM. c. The thing valued is rarely put in the gen. (of cause) : ^wKpar-ris 
ouSeVa TTJS ffvvovffias apyvpiov lirpdrreTO (553) Socrates for his society demanded 
money of no a u. 


579. The genitive is further used (as an ablative case) to 

a. that FROM which something is separated : 

b. that FROM which something is distinguished: 

c. that FROM which something proceeds. 
It is used, therefore, with 

580. 1. VERBS OF SEPARATION, i. e. verbs which imply removing, restraining, 
releasing, ceasing, failing ; also sparing (refraining from), yielding (receding 
from), and many others : ^ vrjffos ov iro\i) Stexet rijs ij-rretpov the island is not 
far distant from the mainland, et &a\dTTrjs stpyoivTo if they should be excluded 
from the sea, e%et rovs 7roAe//.ious rfjs els rb irpoff&tv Trap6Sov he keeps the enemy 
from advancing further, xpewi/ 7?Aeu&e / 0o'e he freed (men) from debt, POV\OV 

i' Ka&apeveiv wish to be clear from faults, et KaraKv^iv Treipdcrefffre TOV- 
rov rrjs apxtf 5 if li e shall try to put this man out of his command, Aco<>a TTJS 

Kal yeyri&e it rests from its pain and rejoices, ei^euo'i&Tj TTJS eAirtSoy he was 
disappointed of his expectation, rv ( a^etSvjo'aj'Tes effTt]ffav rpdircua 
having been unsparing of their bodies, they set up trophies, rfjs opyrjs aveVres 
resigning thfir anger, r:;s rv 'EXXrjvcay etev&epias Trapaxwprjffai QiXiirirw to 
surrender the freedom of the Greeks to Philip. 

a. Verbs of depriving sometimes take a gen. of separation (instead of the 
ace., 553) : TV aAAwj' a^atpov/jLevoi xpTjyuara taking away property from the rest, 
TroVcoy aTreo'TepTjo'i&e ; ou^l &cai( eas ; ovHv\as; of how many things have you been 
bereft? of the Phocians, have you not? of Thermopylae ? 

iro\v fj.a&hi' yu.^7 ua&6isTOs one who has learned differs altogether from one who has 
not, 'Ep/j.oKpoiTi]s vvecrii/ oi/Se^s eAefTrero Hermocrates was (left away from) 
second to no one in understanding (in 17 aperf rov 7rA?j3-ous TrepiyiyvsTai courage 
gets the better of numbers, e? ris eW/jou irpo^e'pet eTrto-T^?? if one is more advancea 
than another in knowledge, the gen. is probably owing to the preposition in the 
compound verbs). This construction is frequent with verbs derived from, com* 
parative adjectives: ripcus TOVT&V eTrAeoj/e/cTetre in honors you had the advantage 
over these men (but TrAeoi/eKTeij' ruv TI/JLWV to have more of the honors, gen. part.), 
vcrrspi^ovcri rwv irpaypaTav they are (later than) too late for their affairs, rjTTU- 
ff&ai TWV f-xSpuv (also inrb T&V ix&P&v or rots ex^poTs) to be worsted by their 
enemies; viKaffScu to be vanquished has the same constructions as r)TTa<r&cu. 
- Add further 

a. VERBS OF RULING AND LEADING : &eioj/ rb e'eA<Wi' apxew it is divine to 
govern willing men, "Epots r<2v 3-edJj/ jSatnAeuet Love is king of the gods, IToAu/cpci- 
TTJS 2a,uou ervpdvvei Polycrates was tyrant of Samos, Aax^s frnreW to-TpaT-fjyet 
Laches was general of cavalry, Mlvws T^S &ah.dff 0*775 eKparrjo'e Minos became 
master of the sea, Xeipiffo<pos yye'iTo rov o-Tpareu^aros Chirisophus led the army. 
The gen. with these verbs is perhaps more properly explained by 563, 573. 

582. 3. Other Verbs, to denote the SOURCE : TO.VTO, 5e ffov rvx^vres but ob- 
taining these things of you, 8e juou Kal rdSe but learn of me also these things, 
(jrvv&d.vot'TO 01 'Ap/ca5ey T&V a/jupl Kevo<p(2i/Ta, ri TO, Trvpa Karoo'/Seo'eiay the Arca- 
dians sought to learn from those with Xenophon, why they extinguished the fires. 
In the. above cases, the gen. might be regarded as depending, not on the verb, 
but on the ace. or sentence which forms its direct object (570) ; in other cases, 
it might be taken as gen. absolute with a following participle (593) : et 

V (pSeyyou&ov if you understand from my statement. 


a. In poetry, the genitive of the source is sometimes used with passive 
participles and verbals, to denote the agent : crfyayels Aiyicr&ov slain by Aegis- 
thus, (pcarbs ffTraTTj^ej/Tj deceived by a husband, Keivrjs SiSaKrd taught by her, <pi\cai> 
&K\avros unwept by friends. 

583. COMPOUND VERBS. Many verbs compounded with a 
preposition take the genitive, when the preposition, used by 
itself in the same sense, would have that case : 

-rrpcfaeiTcu rrjs 'Arnicrjs opt] fj.yd\.a in front of Attica lie great mountains, 
eTripdvres rov rei^ous having mounted the wall, virepfya,vi}ffa.v rov \6(pov they ap- 
peared over the ridge, virepftiKsiv rov \6yov to plead for the principle. Espe- 
cially many compounds of Kara, which have the sense of feeling or acting 
AGAINST : xpfy jti}/ Karatypoveiv rov TrA^&ous we should not contemn the multitude, 
ris OVK av Karaye\dffeiev V/J.MV who would not deride you ? 5t' e%3-pai/ KaTcuJ/euSoz/- 
rai fj.ov through enmity they attack me with falsehood, AecaKpdrris /careyi/co/cei 
avrov -TrpoSeSw/cei/at r}]v Trarpib*a Leocrates had convicted himself of having be- 
trayed his country, TO r&v rpioMovra afj,apr^/j.ara, e/j.ov Kari]y6povv they chargca 
on me the offences of the thirty, tvicav eireiffav v/jias KKpircav frdvarov itara^/rjcpi- 
ffcur&ai they persuaded you to pass sentence of death on some persons 'without trial. 

Genitive with Adjectives and Adverbs. 

584, The genitive is used with adjectives which correspond, 
in derivation or meaning, to verbs that take the genitive ; espe- 
cially with adjectives 

a. OF SHARING : /xero^os ffo<pla.s partaking in wisdom, Iff6fj.otpos r 
uv having an equal part of the patrimony. 

b. OF PLENTY OR WANT : /iecrrbs KO,KU>V full of evils, ir\ovffios 

rich in good sense, irevrjs xp'n^druv poor in property, Kevbs eTnaTTj^rjs void of 
knowledge. So the adverb a\is enough. 

Many compounds of alpha privative take a genitive of the thing wanted : 
&irais appej/uj/ ircu'5a?i/ childless as to male children, &$capos -^p-^^rdav taking no 
bribes of money. 

c. OF SENSATION OR MENTAL ACTION. Thus compounds of d/couw, eir-fjKoos 
\6ycav KaXSiv listening to excellent discourses, vir-fjicoos r&v yovewv obedient to 

one's parents. ru^Abs TOV /j.4\\ovros blind to the future, poet. &yevo~ros KaK<av 

without taste of evils, a^v^p-av ru>v Kivfivvuv unmindful of the dangers, e 
fflj.iKpS)v attentive to little things, &ireipos ypa/ unskilled in letters, 

rwv a^vrcav enamored of things cfisent. 

d. OF ACCOUNTABILITY : atrtos rovrcav accountable for these things, evoxos 
Sei\ias liable to a charge of cowardice, virdSiKos <p6vov subject to a trial for murder, 
virevfrvvos rys ap%7js bound to give account of his office, viroreX^s <popov subject to 
payment of tribute. 

e. OF VALUE : |tos eiratvov worthy of praise, avdios rys ir^Aews unworthy 
of the city, wvrir'os xpfip.oi.Tcav to be purchased for money. 

f. OF SEPARATION: bptyavbs ai/Spwj/ bereft of men, etev&epos alSovs free from 
shame, Kc&apbs iravruv rcav KaK&v clear from all things evil, yvp.vbs rov <ru>/j.aros 
stripped of the body. Some of these might be referred to b. 

g. o? DISTINCTION : Sidtyopos rcav a\\cav different from the rest, a\\a rut* 
SiKc^j/ things other than the just, erepov rb fj8u rov aya&ov the pleasant is dif 
fercntfrom the good. Here belong Adjectives 


585. h. OF THE COMPARATIVE DEGREE. The comparative de- 
gree takes the genitive : 

peifav TOV aSeA^oi) greater than his brother, vffrepoi atyiKovTo TTJS p.dx"ns 
they came (later than) too late for the battle (similarly ry vffrepata TTJS /^C^XTJS 
on the day after the battle), TOVT' ao-e/STj^ua eAarroj/ rtvos fiye'iff&e (as less than 
what, do you consider this impiety) what do you consider as a greater impiety 
than this ? ouSei/by Sevrepos second to no one, 8o/ce? eli/ai Aeu/core/ja TOV OVTOS, rf]s 
(pvcrews she appears to be fairer than (reality, nature) her real, natural com- 
plexion, Ka.Ta5et<rTpav T^V 56av TTJS e'ATri'Sos eAajSe the reputation he obtained 
came short of his expectation, 8J|a Kpeirruj/ ruv fy&ovovj/TWv a reputation (greater 
than the envious) superior to envy, Trapo'iaya-is eiriKu/SwoTepa erepcoj/ a proximity 
more dangerous than (the proximity of ) other men for rrjs erfpwv Trapoi/cTjcrecoy. 
i. Multiplicatives (in -ir^dcrios and -irAovs) have the same construction : 
fiAAojs Tro\\aTr\affiois VJJL&V eTroAe/i'/jo'ctyiej/ we engaged in war with others many 
times more numerous than you. 

586. a. When fj than follows the comparative, both objects compared 
are usually in the same case : xP^l JLaTa ^P' TT\LOVOS TroieurSai ?} <pi\ovs to 
consider money as of more value than friends; yet not always : dvftpbs 
Swararepov 77 e-yo> vlov son of a man more powerful than I (am). For fj 
between two comparatives, see 660 b. 

b. The genitive is freely used in cases where #, if inserted, would be fol- 
lowed by a nom. or ace. ; much less freely, where ^ would be followed by some 
other case or by a preposition : a^\idnfp6v eVrt ^ vyiovs <r<f>fj.a.Tos (= % ^ 
vyiet /j.fy uytel ^ U X9 QUVOIKGIV it is more wretched to live with a diseased 
soul than (with) a diseased body, jSAeTreiv els TTJJ/ epireipiav juSAAof T^S apeTrjs 
(=r -^ els rfyj/ aper^j/) to looJc at skill more than (at) courage. 

c. The superlative sometimes takes a genitive of distinction, like the com- 
parative : [Mfyiffros T&V &AAo/ (greatest in distinction from the others, = ^ue:W 
T&V aXXwv greater than the others), more properly psyiffTos irai/rcav greatest of 
all. Similarly fj.6vos TU>V &\\ai/ = ^.6vos iravruv alone of all. 

587. The genitive is also used 

a. with adjectives of TRANSITIVE ACTION, where the corresponding verbs 
would have the accusative : b^/i^a^s TTJS adiitias late in learning injustice (p.a,v- 
frdveiv rfyv aSj/acu/), KaKovpyos rS>v &AAa>;/ doing evil to the others (Kattovpye'iv TOVS 
&\Xovs}, ^(AavaAcDrai TWI/ aAXorpiuv ready to spend the property of others, ai)^- 
\l/r}(j)6s ffoi rovrov TOV vd/j.ov associated with thce in voting for this law : especially 

b. with adjectives of CAPACITY in IK^S : irapa.a'Ksva.a'TiKbs T&V els Tbv Tr6\efj.ov 
qualified to provide the (requisites') for the war, Si8a<rKa\iKhs ypa/jLfj.aTiKijs fitted 
to teach grammar. 

c. with adjectives of POSSESSION, to denote the possessor (562) : Koivbs Twt 
uv belonging in common to the three, ftios (otKe?os) tyov belonging to me alone, 

s TOV 'ATT^AAWJ/OS sacred to Apollo. 

d. with some adjectives of CONNECTION (563): ^776^5 TOV Kvpov akin to 
Cyrus, a/c^Aou^a aAA^jAcoj/ consistent with one another, ofj.6vviJi.os ^wtspdTovs a 
namesake of Socrates. 

e. with some adjectives DERIVED FROM SUBSTANTIVES, where the genitive 
may be regarded as depending on the included substantive : wpaia ydfj.ov ripe for 
marriage (&payd/j.ov age for marriage), Te'Aeiosrfjs operas perfect in virtue (reAos 
apeTTJs perfection of virtue), poet. o'up.dTW vTr&rreyot (= virb ffT 

under cover of houses. 


f. with some adjectives of PLACE (589), but seldom in Attic prose: Ilm. 
zvavrioi iffrav 'A%aiwv they stood opposite to the Greeks, Hd. tiriKapffias TOV H6y- 
TQV at right angles to the Pontus. 


588. Adverbs derived from the foregoing adjectives, may 
have the genitive : di/aoos rr t <s Tro'Aews in a manner unworthy of 
the city, Sta^epovrcos T&V aXXwv avSpojTTwv differently from the rest 
of men. 

589. The genitive is also used with other adverbs, especially 
those of place. 

It is generally to be explained from the uses in 590, 591, 55'9; but some- 
times from the ablative use of this case (579). - TTOU yris where on earth? of 
TrpoeA^Au^ev affeXyeias av&pooiros to what a pitch of profligacy the man has come, 
eVrbs (e/cr^s) T&V op<aj/ e^uei/e he remained inside (outside) of the boundaries, er 
(ew) TOV TGIXOVS tfX&ov they came within (without) the wall, TvXt}ffiov (eyyvs, poet. 
rov Sefffjuarripiov near the prison, Trp6<r&ev, f/jnrpoff&ei/ (oTrtcrfrei/) TOV ffrpa- 

in front (rear) of the camp, a[j.<poTp<i}&ev (e/carcpw^ej', ev&ev Kal 
rris 65ov on both sides (each side, this side and that) of the way, &v<a irora^v up 
stream, eufrt; TTJS <&a0^jA.i5o$ straight- towards Phaselis, fJ-fXP 1 SeCpo TOV \6yov to 
this point of the discussion, iroppu aofyias if)Kei he is far advanced in wisdom, - 
Trrjj/iKa TTJS T)/J.fpas at what time of the day ? oi//e TTJS &pas late in the hour, - 
TTOJS %X 61S T ^ s yv&ws i n what state of mind are you? a/coAcKricw (pevKreov us e%et 
TroSwi/ eKaffTos Tifjicav we must flee from license, as fast as we can, each one of us 
(according to that condition of feet in which he is), iKavcSs iiriffT^^-ris e'et he 
will be well enough off for knowledge, - x w /^ s TO V ff^aros apart from the body, 
eAeu^epos ouSefs eort ir\}]v Ai6s no one is free except Zeus, npixpa T&V 'A^j/afcoy 
(in concealment from) without knowledge of the Athenians. 

Genitive in Looser Relations. 

590. GENITIVE OF PLACE. The genitive is used in poetry to denote 
the place 

a. TO which an action BELONGS. The action is regarded, not as covering 
the whole extent of space, but as occupying more or less of it : vtfyos ov (pa'tvero 
ird<rr)s 70177$ no cloud appeared over (any part of) the whole land, 7e roixov TOV 
fTepoto he was sitting by the other wall, $ ovic "Ap-yeos ?icv 'A^cut/coy was he not 
(any where) in Achaean Argos? &eeiv Tredioio to run on the plain. 

In prose, this construction appears only in the adverbs of place which end 
in ou : TTOU where, etc. (248), aii-rov there, 6jj.ov (in the same place) together ; and 
in a few phrases : eireT&xwov T^S 68ou they ivere hurrying them on the way, 
eTrooeiWro TOV irp6ff(i) they were proceeding forward. 

b. FROM which something is SEPARATED: '/(rracr&e fidfrpccv stan d off" from the 
steps, viroiyeiv TTJS o5ou to ivithdraw from the way. 

591. GENITIVE OF TIME. The genitive is used to denote the 
time to which an action belongs. 

The action is regarded, not as covering the whole extent of time, but aa 
occupying more or less of it : T)p.spas by day (at some time in the course of the 


day), VVKTOS by night, TOV avrov %ip.)vos the same winter, Hepffai ovx ")ovtri 
Se/ca eruv the Persians will not come (any time in) for ten years, ovre ns eVos 
a<p'iKTai xpdvav ffv^vov nor has any stranger come within a long time, rpla %- 
Sapeiita TOV p.-riv6s three half-darks each month (527 e), e/cao-rou erous annually, 
TOV Aonrov (at any time) in the future^ but rb \onr6v for the future (for all fu- 
ture time). 

592. GENITIVE OF CAUSE. The gen. of cause is used 

a. in EXCLAMATIONS (with or without interjections), to show the cause of 
the feeling : <pev rov av8p6s alas for the man ! & fjLO.Kapi.oi fftyib rys ^avu.affri]s 
tyvfffws happy you for your wonderful nature ! S> nJcreiSoy, Seivuv \6ytav 
Poseidon, what fearful words ! TT\S rv-^s my (Q\\\) fortune ! 

b. in the INFINITIVE with neuter article TOU, to show the purpose of an 
action : Mivcas rb \riffTiKbv Kafrypei /c rrjs &ahdffa"ris ) rov T&S irpos68ovs /j.a\\ov 
Uvcu avry Minos was sweeping piracy from the sea, for the better coming in to 
him of his revenues. See 781 a. 

593. GENITIVE ABSOLUTE. The genitive is used with a par- 
ticiple to denote time, means, cause, condition, or concession. 
For examples, see 790. 


594. The dative is used to denote 

a. that TO which something is done (not the direct object) : 

Dative of Influence. 

b. that FOR which something is, or is done : 

Dative of Interest. 

c. that WITH which something is, or is done : 

Dative of Association and Likeness. 

d. that BY which something is, or is done : 

Dative of Instrument, Means, Manner, Cause. 

e. that IN which something is, or is done : 

Dative of Place and Time. 

The dative thus, beside its proper use, to denote the indirect object, 
ha%the uses of an instrumental and a locative case, which in Latin be- 
long mostly to the ablative. The dative of the indirect object is most 

commonly a person, or a thing regarded as a person. 

Dative of Influence. 

595. The dative is used to denote that TO which something 
is done (not the direct object, 544) : thus 

a. with TRANSITIVE VERBS. The direct object stands at the same 
time in the accusative. But if the passive is used, the direct object of 
the action becomes the subject of the verb, while the dative remains un- 


. Sioovai (uTncrxveTo'id'at, Tarreiy) rols crpartcorots to give (promise, ap- 

point) pay to the soldiers, ^lave^iv xp'hpara rots Tro\lrais to distribute treasure 
to the citizens, aff(pd\tiaj/ irapexeu/ rots ^/Aots to afford safety to one's friends, 
iTriTpeireLv ra Trpdyfj-ara rots e/j-TreipoTdrois to entrust the affairs to the most ex- 
perienced, XP^/AOCTO 7roAAo2s ofyeiXeiv to owe money to many (persons), @o-f]&eiav 
ire/nretj/ BoiWToTs to send aid to the Boeotians, Aeyeiv (Siriye'iff&ai, dyyeAAe/y, 
ofetSi'^e/v) T< /3acnAe? TO. ir^irpay^va. to tell (relate, announce, cast up as a re- 
proach] to the king what had been done. - With the passive : fioJi&eia ftrcp^hi 
Boicarots aid was sent to the Boeotians, ra TreTrpay^ueVa TO? /3acnAe? o/yyeAAtrew 
what had been done is announced to the king. 

(a) In some instances, the indirect object of the action becomes the sub- 
ject of the passive verb, while the accusative remains unchanged : ol eiriTGTpajut.- 
P.CI/OI T}]V <j)v\afcfiv those entrusted with the guard (for e/celvot ois lirirfTpaTrraL y 
(pv\aK-f)), &AAo ri fj-^ov eiriTax&'f) (reff&e ye will have some other greater command 
imposed on you (for &AAo n ^eToy eTrtTax^^a-eTat). 

b. with INTRANSITIVE VEEBS. Many of these express actions which 
in English are viewed as transitive, and connected with a direct object 
(544 b). 

euxe<r&ai rots &eo?s to pray to the gods, eftceiv rots KpeirTOffi to yield to the 
more powerful, SouAeueu/ ySovcus to be a slave to pleasure, Trei&ea&cu rots a 
to obey those who rule, Porj&etv TO?S <j)i\ois to render aid to one's friends, 
(irposTJ/cet) fj.01 Aeyetv it becomes (belongs to] me to speak, apeo-Kew ( 
rois &\\ois to please (displease] the others, iria-reveiv (airiffr^iv) rots \6yois to trust 
(distrust) the words. Especially with verbs denoting disposition toward an ob- 
ject : xaAeTrau/eij/ (opyt^W&cu, &v/j.ov(r&ai) rfj TroAet to be angry toward the city, 
fy&oveiv Tois TT\ovalois to envy the rich, ewoe?*/ T^ SCO-ITOTT? to be well-affected 
toward his master. 

c. with many ADJECTIVES, especially those denoting disposition to- 
ward an object: 

viroxos TO?S &eo?s subject to the gods, cnrpfTrfys ffrparrjyw unbecoming to a 
general, evavrtos ro?s v6/j.ois in opposition to the laws, <piXos r<$ aya&tS a friend 
to the good man, Susjuez/eVraTos ry ir6\*i most hostile to the city, %aA67rbs rots 
aSiKovcri severe toward wrong-doers, tiriKivfivvos iraffi dangerous to all, Ixaj/bs TO?S 
ffdxppoffi sufficient to the wise. 

d. sometimes with SUBSTANTIVES expressing ACTION : rot. irap* ^wv Swpa 
rots &eo?s the gifts from us to the gods, vj e^ r$ 3-ey vinipeffia. my^ service to the 
divinity. The same substantive may have also a genitive, denoting either tlie 
subject or the direct object of the action : fTravda-raffis pepovs TWOS r$ oAoj TTJ? 
^u%7js an insurrection of some part of the soul against the whole, /caraSouAwo'ts 
TWV 'EAA^coy rots 'A&nvaiois subjugation of the Greeks to the Athenians. 

Dative of Interest. 

596. The dative is used to denote that FOK which something 
is, or is done. It is connected, in this use, with verbs and ad- 
jectives ; sometimes even with substantives. A thing or action 
may be regarded as subsisting for a person, 

a. when it tends to his advantage or disadvantage. 

b. when it belongs to him in possession. 


c. when he merely feels an interest in it (ethical interest). 

d. when it is the result of his agency. 

e. when his interest is less definite than the foregoing. 

597. 1. DATIVE OF ADVANTAGE OR DISADVANTAGE (dativus commodi, in- 
commodi): eicaffTos yfyei/Tjrai ry irarpiSi each one is born for his country, 2($Acoj/ 
'A&rivaiois v6p.ovs e&rj/ce Solon made laws for the Athenians, ffTetyavovcr&ai r$ 
&e< to be crowned in honor of the god, fj.ty&\(av Trpay/j.dr(av Kaipol irpoe'ivTai ry 
TTJAei opportunities for great affairs have been thrown away for (to the detri- 
ment of) the city, at TO?S SeaTrJrats airoicei/j.evat fidhavoi the dates reserved for 

the masters, crocks eavTy wise for himself, xpfainos avSrpcfnrois useful for men, 

p\apepbs T$ (restart hurtful for the body, tcriravi&v rpoffis rots iroAXois they 

were in want of provision for the most, f \tri8a. e%et ffcar-nplas ry ir6\ei he has hope 
of safety for the city. 

698. 2. DATIVE OP THE POSSESSOR. This is used with /*{, ylyvoptu, and 
similar verbs : OVK eari xp^lf j - a ' ra yfuv we have no treasure, irpoyovuv /j.vpid$es 
tKdffTCf) yey6vacri every man has had myriads of ancestors, virdpx^t rots irapovffi 
ra T&V a.Tr6vT(i}v the possessions of the absent belong to those who are present. 
The verb may be omitted: T$ irarpl nvpi\dfj.Trr)s ovopa. (sc. &rr/, the father has 
Pyrilampes as his name) the father's name is Pyrilampes. 

a. The possessor is more properly expressed by the genitive (562, 572 c): 
the dative denotes rather one who has something for his use and service. 

b. The dative, in this use, is sometimes found in connection with substan- 
tives : Hd. o't fffyi &6es their cattle, ol fofrpcoiroi ev rS>v Krvj/jidTdtv rois Sfeots eiffi 
men are one of the possessions belonging to the gods. 

599. 3. ETHICAL DATIVE. The personal pronouns are thus used in the dative : 
ro{>TCf ir&vv /JLOI irposexere rbv vovv to this attend carefully (for me) I pray you, 
'ri ffoi i^a^ffo/j-ai (what shall I learn for you) what would you have me learn ? 
a/j.ov<T6Tepoi yevfiffovrcu VJMV ol vioi the young will become ruder for you (you will 
find them becoming so). 

600. 4. DATIVE OP THE AGENT. "With passive verbs, the agent is sometimes 
expressed by the dative (usually by vir6 with the gen.). In Attic prose, the 
only passive tenses often used with a dat. of the agent, are the perfect and plu- 
perfect : T& ffol TTTrpay/j.eva the things done by thee, eiretS^ TrapeffKevaffro rots 
Kopwibiois when preparation had been made by the Corinthians, poet. TaXy&es av- 
drptijiroiffiv oi>x eu/nV/cercu the truth is not found by men. 

With verbals in re'os, the agent is regularly expressed by the dative, see 805. 

601. 5. DATIVE OP INTEREST IN LOOSER RELATIONS: Sw/tpc&njs eSJ/cet n/uqs 
&ios eTj/cu ry ir6\t Socrates seemed to be worthy of honor (in relation to) from 
the city, re&vrjx' vp.1v ird\ai is he long dead for you ? Hm. Toiaiv avecrrrj (for 
them) among them he rose up. Thus the dative may denote one in whose case 
something is true : U7ro\a/ij8ai/i// Se? r$ TOIOVT^ '6rt ev-fi&ys effri in the case of 
such a man, one must suppose that fie is simple ; or one in whose view some- 
thing is true : poet. 6 tff&hbs evyev^s e^tot y' avfjp in my view, the good man is 

a. In these constructions, a PARTICIPLE in the dative is frequently used, 
and often with omitted subject : rififpa %v vepvrii eViTrAeoucrt rots 'A&nvatois it 
was the fifth day for the Athenians making their expedition, ffvv\6vn (or us 
ffvve\6vTi) eliretv to say it briefly (lit. for one to say it, having brought the 
matter to a point). The participle may denote the condition under which some- 
thing manifests itself: ?; StapdvTt rbv irorafibv irpbs eorirepav 656s the route toward 


the west (as it presents itself to one) after having crossed the river ; or the feel- 
ing with which something is regarded : ylyverai TOVTO e/xol jSovAo^er^ this takes 
place according to my wish, eTraveAS-ayte;/, e5f ffoi ^So^ey^i fort let us go back, if 
it is your pleasure to do so. 

Dative of Association and Likeness. 

602. The dative is used to denote that WITH which some- 
thing is, or is done : thus 

1. with WORDS OF ASSOCIATION OR OPPOSITION : 6/j.i\?v TO?S KctKois to asso- 
ciate with the evil, Kara\\dTreij/ iroXiv ir6\ei to reconcile city with city, Koivcaveiv 
&\\ois ir6vcav to participate with others in toils, o.uoAoyetV aAA?]Acuy to agree with 
one another, irXrjcrid^Ly T$ TOTTW to approach, the place, eireaftat ry yye/j-di/i to 
follow the guide, airayrav TW Izzvofy&VTi to meet with JCenophon, IvTvyx&veiv TOLS 
TroAe/xtois to fall in with the enemy, SjaAeyea'&cu ?<p SiSaer/caA/o to converse with 

the teacher, Kepdffai T}\V Kp^vqv cftvw to mingle the spring with wine, cbc^Aou- 

3"os Ty <f>v<Tei consistent with nature, Koivwvia rols ayaSots participation with the 

good, ndx^ff^rai Tir^r? to fight with fortune, epi&u/ (afj.(picr^rjTf?j/, 8iaycaj'ie(r&ai) 

aAA^Aois to quarrel (dispute, contend) with one another, SiacpepGa'&cu roTs irovnpols 
to be at variance with the bad. 

a. So with PHRASES : 'A&rivaiois Sta 7roAe,uou tevat to carry on war with the 
Athenians, els \6yovs (%e?pas) e/3%6a"3-af TIVI to come to words (blows) with any one. 

b. Here belong the ADVERBS o/ia at the same time, 6/.iov together, efps^rjs 
next in order : a/j.a ry 7)pep< at day-break, rb vSwp eiriveTO 6/j.ov rep Trr]\y the 
water was drunk along with the mud, T& TOVTOIS e^e|^s r^uv Ae/creov we must say 
what comes next to these things. 

603. 2. with WORDS OF LIKENESS OR UNLIKENESS. These are chiefly adjectives, 
or words derived from adjectives : ol irovripdl oAATjAois ofioioi the bad are like 
one another, ov SeT iffov TOUS KCLKOVS rots aya-frols %x* lv ^ ie ev ^ must not have 
equality with the good, &vXtfffifwi "t\cav ro?s auroTs Kvptp oTrAots they were armed 
with the same weapons as Cyrus, TOVTO\T]<n6v etrrt T$ 'Atrruaz/a/CTt, Kal 
oiKev 'EAATjj't.voTs TavTO, TO oi/6/j.aTa this (name) is similar to A.styanax, and 
these resemble Greek names, 6 iraTnros re Kal b^iLvv^os e/xot my grandfather, and 
of the same name with me, (TUyiuJ/i^os rjfuv el you are voting with us, T o^oiovv 
kavT^v &XX(f fj.i[j.ei<TSai effTi to make one's self like to another is to imitate, avo- 
(jLotus aAA^Aots in a manner unlike one another. 

a. In such cases, the form of expression, is often abridged (881) : ofioiav 
rais 5oi$Acus el%e r V eV^ra (for 6p.oiav Ty TUV SovXwv eo-3-rjTi) she had her dress 
like (the dress of) the female slaves. 

604. 3. with other words, as DATIVE OF ACCOMPANIMENT : rj/j-eis KOL 'ITTITOIS 
TQIS SvvaTouTdTOis Kal avSpd&i Tropeu^e&o let us go with horses the most powerful 
and with men, ol Aa/veSaijU^ytoi TO? re /cara y?/v trrparw Trpose'/3aAAoj/ T&5 Tet%icr/iaTt 
Kal TCUS vavfflv a/j.a the Lacedaemonians attacked the fortification with their land- 
army and their ships at the same time. This occurs chiefly in military expres- 
sions. The intensive atr<fc is often used with this dative : 6 'linrio.s irevTaKoffi- 
ovs iirireas eAajSev O.VTOIS TOIS oirXois Hippias took 500 horsemen with their arms 
(the arms themselves, arms and all). 

605. DATIVE WITH COMPOUND VERBS. Many verbs com- 
pounded with a preposition take a dative, depending, either on 


the separate force of the preposition, or on the general meaning 
of the compound ; especially verbs compounded with ej/, <rw, 
CTTI, less often with Trpos, Trapd, irepi, V7TO : 

eTTioTTj^j/ e/i7roie?j/ rrj ^"XJ? to produce knoivlcdge in the soul, ffvyyvw&i /JLOI 
forgive me (lit. judge with me, in my favor), eWfceij/ro rots TraXe/j.iois they press- 
ed hard upon the enemy, & &\\ois iiriTi}j.)fjt.v that which we bring against others 
an (ground of) censure, vposievai ry 8-fifj.cp to come before the people, Trapiffracr&ai 
(irapzlvai) r avfipi to stand by (be present with] the man, irepiiriirrGii' roTs /co/coTy 
to (fall about) be involved in evils, viroKe'ta-^ai re? &px VTl t oe subject to the ruler. 
a. Many of these verbs take also the accusative (544 c) ; or use a preposi- 
tion (often the same preposition repeated) before the object. 

Dative of Instrument, Means, Manner, Cause. 

606. The dative is used to denote that BY which something 
is, or is done. Hence the means or instrument by (use of) 
which, the manner by (way of) which, the cause by (reason of) 
which, something is, or is done, are put in the dative. 

607. DATIVE OF MEANS OR INSTRUMENT : ouSels siraivov ySovcus 
one has gained praise by pleasures, TCI. ^eAAoj/ra Kpivo^fv ro?s 

we judge of the future by the past, eyvdxr&ria'aj' ry a~Kevy rS>v oirKtav they were re- 
cognized by the fashion of their arms, ^ap^aKc? aire&ave he died by poison, frfju- 
ovar&ai fravdrca to be punished by death, eSe^oyro avrovs ry ir6\ei they received 
them (by) in the city, ftdxXeiv rwa Xt&ois to throw at one with stones, 6pa>/j.ev rails 
o^aX^ois ^ve see with our eyes, Hm. rlfffiav Aavaol e/ict SaKpva ffolffi j8eAe<r<rt^ 
may the Greeks by thy arrows (be made to) atone for my tears. 

a. Hence the dative is found with xp^ ^ 1 t use 0- e - * serve one's self) 
as in Lat. the ablative with utor. A predicate-noun is often added in the same 
case : TOVTWV rurl <pv\aiv e%pvjro he used some of them as guards. 

608. DATIYE OF MANNER : SpSfj.^ yireiyovTo they hastened (by running) on a 
run, Kauri rp^TTCf} Treipaff6/j.e&a we will try (by) in every way, ri>xy a.ya&y Karap- 
XCTOJ let him begin with good fortune, iroXXfj Kpavyrj e-jrla<n they advance with 
loud outcry, dreAe? ry VIKT) avfffrrjffav they retired with their victory incomplete. 
So j8i'< by force, forcibly, ffiyfj silently, ffirovSy hastily, earnestly, yevet"E\\r]v a 
Greek by descent, Qvffei Ka.K6s evil by nature, QO^OLKOS 6i/6fj.ari Thapsacus by 
name ; and many forms with omitted subject (509 o) : ravry (eKeivy, ?? , irrj) 
in this (that, which, what) way or manner, tStcc (STj^ocrto, Koivrj) by individual 
(public, common) action or expense. Often with the idea of ACCORDING TO : ry 
e/j.rj yi>(*>/j.ri according to my judgment, TOUT<JJ ry \6ya> according to this statement, 
ry aArj&eta in truth, r<p ovn in reality, epyy in act, in fact, \6ytp i'ti word, in 
profession, irpo<pdcrei in pretence. 

C09. DATIVE OF RESPECT. The dative of manner is used to show in what 
particular point or respect something is true : SiaQepeiv (Trpoe'xew, AeiVeo-dm) 
irA^j&et (/, xP"fll J - aa ' 1 ) (ppovfiffei) to be distinguished (superior, inferior) in 
number (size, property, sense), la-xyziv r$ crdj^art to be strong in body, rcus T//U- 
XTs fppcD/j.evcffrepoi Jirmer in their spirit, rb irpdrreiv rov \eyeiv vffrepov ^ov ry 
rc|et irp6r*pov ry $vvdjj.ti eVrt action, thoug\ after speech in order, is before it 
in power. 



610. DATIVE OF DEGREE OF DIFFERENCE. The dative of manner is used 
(chiefly with the comparative) to show the degree by which one thing differs 
from another : 

rerrapffi fjivats eAoTToj/ less by four minae, ry K<=(pa\y jj-eifav (greater by the 
head) a head taller, iroXXcus yej/ecus vffrepov rS>v TpcoLKuv many generations later 
than the Trojan war, Se/ca ereari irpb rys Iv SaAcfyuVt f^-dx^s ten years before the 
battle at Salamis. So, very often, the dative of neuter adjectives : iroAAp by 
much, (j.nKpcp by far, oAiyp by little, etc., iroXXy x e ' l P uv (also TroAu x s ' L P wv t 552) 
much worse, r$ iravrl Kpeirrwv (better by all odds) infinitely better, iroffu* juaA- 
Xov tt,v fj.iff6i(r&e how much more would you be hated? roffovra tfSiov o> oarcp 7rAeio> 
/ce/cTTjjua: / live more pleasantly (by that degree, by which) in proportion as 1 
possess more: and with the superlative, /Aaicpcj) apicrros best by far. 

REM. a. In many instances, the same dative may be regarded indifferently 
as expressing, either the manner of an action, or the means of its performance : 
TropeA&eo' OVK %v jSi'a it was not possible to get past in a violent manner, or by 
means of violence. 

611. DATIVE OF CAUSE : TroAAcfots 071/010 ej-a.fjiaprdvoij.fv we often err by rea- 
son of ignorance, <p6&cj> airqX&ov they departed through fear, ovSels ouSev Trevia 
Spdcret on account of poverty no one will do anything. 

a. Many VERBS OF FEELING take a dative of the cause : oySevi ovrca %afpas 
us <pt\.ois aya&ois you delight in nothing so much as in good friends, 6 3"ec>s pyois 
rois Sutatois TjSerat the divinity is pleased with just actions, a%&e<r&eh rrj tivaftoXfi 
vexed at the delay, rca 'EKarcavv^ x a ^- eira ^ i/OVTS T0 ^ elprj^j/ois angry with 
Hecatonymus for what he said, at(T\;tW,ucu rats Trporepoy afj-apTiais lam ashamed 
of the former errors, Tiy&irwv TT? ffcarripia they were contented with their safety, 
XaAeTrws (pepca rots Trapovffi irpdypaffi I am distressed at the present affairs. 

Dative of Place and Time. 

612. DATIVE OF PLACE. In poetry, the dative is often used without 
a preposition, to denote the place IN which something is, or is done : 

'EAAaSi vaicav dwelling in Hellas, Tlvhloiffi vaicav dwelling (in) among the Py- 
lians, TJIV T' o&peffi removes &vtipes e^era/iov which builders felled on the moun- 
tains, e58e (Av^Ci} K\ifftf]s he was sleeping in the recess of the tent, r6 &p.oiffiv 
%&5j/ having the bow on his shoulders, aypoiffi rvyxdvei he happens (to be) in the 
country, 65ois on the way. 

a. Seldom thus in prose (mostly in reference to Attic denies) : MeAfr?? at 
yMelite, TO rp^irata rd re Mapafrwi Kal 2aAa/ui/t /col nAaTOta?s the trophies at 
Marathon, Salamis, and Plataea. 

613. DATIVE OF TIME. The dative is used to denote the 
time in (at) which something is, or is done. 

This applies to words for DAY, NIGHT, MONTH, TEAR : ry avry f}/J.ep% the same 
day, rf/Se rfj vvtcri to-night, ry uorepcua on the following day, r< iiriovri (j.f}vi in 
the coming month, rerdprc? erei (Iviavru) in the fourth year; also to &pq : 
Xtiu-tovos &pa in time of winter ; further to FESTIVAL times : TO?S y O\v/j.Trlois at 
th- Olympic games. To other words, ey is usually added : *v rovry r XP& VC P 
(Kaipy) at this time (occasion), ev r$ irap6vn at the present time, ev r< r6re at 
that time. When time is designated by words denoting circumstance or event, 
eV is rarely omitted: ry irporepa e/c/cATja-fa (for eV ry etc.) at the time of th* 
former assembly : cf. poet. x^^P^V vfcy at ^ ie ^ me f tnc wintry south-wind. 



614. The prepositions have a twofold use : a. In composition with 

verbs, they define the action of the . verb, in respect to its direction. 

b. As separate words, connected with particular cases, they show the 
relations of words in a sentence, more distinctly than the cases alone 
could do it. 

The name preposition (Trpo'Seo-ts-) is derived from the former use. Such 
words, therefore, as civev without, ir\r)v except, eWa on account of, etc., 
which have the latter use only, not being compounded with verbs, may 
be called improper prepositions. They all take the genitive (cf. 589), 
except coy, which takes the accusative. 

615. All the prepositions were originally adverbs. Many of them are still 
used as such in poetry, especially in Hm. : irepi round about, and, with ana- 
Btrophe, irtpi exceedingly ; cvv Se and therewith. Hd. has eTri Se and thereupon, 
juera 5e and next, tv 8e or eV 5e S-f) and among the number ; also irpbs Se, /cal 
irp6s, and besides, which occur even in Attic prose. 

a. The preposition, in its adverbial use, may belong to a verb understood, 
and may thus stand for a compound verb : so, even in Attic prose, Zvi for &/- 
ecm it is possible ; in Attic poetry, irdpa for napei/Ai to be present. Hm. has also 
CTTZ, ittera, for TT(TTi, jctereort, etc. : similar is the imperative ava up! (= avd- 
ffrrj&i). For retraction of the accent (anastrophe] in this case, see 102 a. 

616. On account of this origin, the prepositions in Hm. are very free as re- 
gards their position, being often separated from the verbs (tmesis, 477) or sub- 
stantives to which they belong : ei/ 8' curbs eSutreTO vdopoira %aA/c<fr and he him- 
self put on the shining brass, aptyl 5e XCUTCU &,uo# aiffffovrai and round their 
shoulders wave the manes. In Attic prose, the preposition is separated from 
its substantive only by words that qualify the substantive (487, 492) : but par- 
ticles such as ^eV,.5e, 76, re, yap, olv, may be interposed after the preposition; 
other words, very rarely : irapa yap ol^at rovs vApovs for contrary, I suppose, 
to the laws. 

For anastrophe when the preposition follows the word it belongs to, see 
102 D b. In prose, this is confined to irepi with the genitive. 

Use of different cases with, the prepositions. General Eemarlcs. 

617. The accusative is used with prepositions, to denote the object 
towards which motion is directed (551) ; or, in general, the object to, on, 
or over which an action extends (544). 

The genitive is used to denote the object from which an action pro- 
ceeds (579), in expressions of departure, separation, or distinction: also, 
to denote the object to which an action belongs (compare genitive with 
adverbs, 589 ; and see 573). - 

The dative is used to denote the object in, ly, or with which an action 
takes place. 

618. The dative is properly used with prepositions, to express 
or remaining, IN a particular situation; for coming TO the situation, the 
accusative is used ; for passing FROM it, the genitive : pevci rrapa ra> /3ao-i- 
XeT he remains (by the side of) in the presence of the king, rjnei Trap avroV 
he is come to his presence, ot'^ercu Trap' avrou he is gone from his presence* 


a. Verbs of motion sometimes have a preposition with the dative, to de- 
note a state of rest following the action of the verb : & rcS iroTa/j.y eireffov they 
fell (into, and were) in the river. So too, in place of a dative denoting rest, 
we sometimes have an accusative or genitive, in reference to a following or 
preceding state ef motion : ffras els p.*ffov (lit. standing into the midst) coming 
into the midst and standing there, ro7s e IIuAou A.7j^er<rt to those taken (in, and 
brought) from JPylus, ol e/c TTJS ayopas K.a.Ta.Xnr6vTes TO. &via etpvyov those in the 
market left their goods andjled (from it). 

General View of the Prepositions. 

619. Prepositions used with only ONE case, viz. 
I. the Accusative : ets, cos. 

II. the Genitive : avri, COTO, e TT/DO, also aVeu, 

>e/ca, TrXrjv (614). 

III. the Dative : lv, o-vv. 
Prepositions used with TWO cases, viz. 

IV. the Accusative and Genitive : Sid, Kara, 
V. the Accusative and Dative : di/d. 
Prepositions used with THREE cases, viz. 

VI. the Accusative, Genitive, and Dative : 
7Tpt, Trpos, wo. 

I. Prepositions with the Accusative only. 

620. 1. fls (also ) into, to; properly to a position in something 
(= Lat. in with the ace.), opposed to e| out of. It is used 

a. of PLACE : 2i/ce\ol e 'IraAtas 5te/3j7<rai/ els St/ceAiav the Siculi passed over 
from Italy into Sicily, is SiKaffT-fjpiov elsiei/ai to (enter into) come before a court 
(of dicasts or jurors), \6yovs iroie'io'&ai els rl>v STJ^OV to make an address to the 
people, els &v$pas tyypAfyeiv to enrol among men (write into the list of men). 

b. of TIME: els VVKTO, (to) till night, els %/ to our time, es ri (to what 
time) how long ? els eviawr6v (to the end of a year) for a whole year, poet, eras 
els eras from year to year. An action may be thought of as taking place when 
a certain time is come to ; hence els is also used for the time WHEN (613): e'5<f- 
Kei yap els rV vffTepaiav %%eiv &a(ri\ea for it was thought that on the next day 
the king would arrive, els Kcup6v in good time, es re\os finally. 

c. of MEASUKE and NUMBER: els SiaKocriovs to the number of 200, about 200, 
els rerrapas to (the depth of) four men,/owr deep, els Svi/afjuv to (the extent of 
one's) power, according to one' 1 s power. 

d. of AIM or PURPOSE : xp^trtjuoi/ els rbv TrJAc^oi/ useful (toward) for the 
war, els T<5e ^K0[j.ev (to this end) for this are we come. 

In COMPOSITION : into, in, to. 

NOTE. In Attic prose, els is the common form : only Thucydides (like Hd.) 
has Is almost always. The poets use either form at pleasure. 

621. 2. o>y (cf. 614) to, only with persons : 

Hm. alel rlv dpoiov &yei fobs us rbv d^otoj/ a god always brings like to like. 


II. With the Genitive only. 

622. 1. civ' (compare Ep. avra, avrrjv; also avriKpv), as a separate pre- 
position, lost its original meaning over against, opposite to (cf. tiHivtt-os) j 
but this gave the idea of counterpart, substitute, and hence the common 
meaning, instead of, for : 

Hm. avrl /caoryj/rj-rov t,elv6s & faerys re Tervxrai in place of a brother (equal- 
ly esteemed and aided) is a stranger and suppliant, avrl d-j/rj-roi; ff^/j-aros a&dv- 
O.TOV 86av a\\da<r&cu for a mortal body, to gain in exchange immortal glory. 

In COMPOSITION : against, in opposition, in return. 

623. 2. OTTO (Lat. ab, a, Eng. off} from, off from, away from ; prop- 
erly from a position on something: 

a. of PLACE : Hm. od>' 'iTnrcav SA.TO %a^a^e from the (horses) car he sprang 
to the ground, cup' I'TTTTOU (j.&xzff&ai to fight (from a horse) on horseback. 

b. of TIME : OTT' e/ceivrjs TTJS ri^pas (from) since 'that day. 

c. of CAUSE : avT6vop.os airb TTJS elp^ivTjs independent (from) in consequence 
of the peace, airb UJ/&^CCTOS ?}/cei he is come by agreement. 

PHRASES : airb (TKOTTOV away from the mark, without aim, airb ravTO/j-drov 
(from self-moved action) without occasion, of itself, curb O-T^UOTOS \4yeiv to speak 
(from mouth, not from a thinking mind) by rote, ol airb ffKrjvr)s (those who act 
from the stage) the players. 

In COMPOSITION : from, away. 

624. 3. e' (before consonants : Lat. ex, e) from, out of; properly 
from a position in something (627) : 

a. of PLACE : e/c ~2,TrdpTr)s (j^evyet he is banished from Sparta. 

b. of TIME : e/c iraiSuv (from children, Lat, a pueris) since childhood. 
Hence of immediate succession : X6yov e/c \6yov Aeyew/ to make one speech after 
another, Hm. KaKbv e/c /ca/coO evil after evil. 

c. of ORIGIN : e/c irarpbs xp r l (r ' r0 ^ eyercTo he came of a worthy father. 
Hence with passive verbs (instead of vir6 with the gen.) : ripaffbai e/c nvos to 
be honored by some one : the agent is then viewed as the source of the action ; 
this construction is rare in Att., but frequent in other dialects. * 

d. of INFERENCE : e'/c T&v irap6vT<)v (judging from) according to the present 
circumstances, e'/c ruv 6iJ.oXoyovp.4vuv e/j.oi re Kal ffoi according to the truths ad- 
mitted both by me and by thce. 

PHRASES : e'/c Sc|ms on the right hand, e' Iffov (from equal ground) on an 
equality, 8rjffai (Kpep.dffai) ri e/c TWOS to bind (Jiang} one thing on another. 
In COMPOSITION : out of, from, away. 

625. 4. ?rpd (Lat. pro} before: 

a. of PLACE : irpb &vpwj> before the door. 

b. of TIME : irpb TIJS ftdxris before the battle. 

c. of PREFERENCE : Trpb ro'UTcav T&vavat. /j.a\\ov Uv eAoiTO before these things 
he would rather choose death. 

d. of PROTECTION (for one's safety, interest), a less frequent use : irpb irai- 

to f glit for one's children (prop, in front of them). 
PHRASES : irpb TTO\\OV iroi?(r&cu (to esteem in preference to much) to con' 
tider as valuable, important, Hm. irpb 6$ov further on the way. 
In COMPOSITION : before, forward, forth. 



5. avtv (poetic cirep) without, Lat. sine. 

6. 7r\r]v except; often used as a conjunction, see Kem. r. 

7. tt'xpt, fie'xpi, until; often used as conjunctions (877, 8). 

8. tvfKa (also evKv, etW/ca, poet. OVVCKO) has two meanings I 

a. o?i account of, /or Ae sa&e of (with gen. of the motive, Lat. causa) : 
rrjs vyieias eVe:a xp^l-^f- r< larpy for the sake of health, we employ the physi* 
dan (cf. Sid with ace., 630 b). 

b. as regards : afftyaXus e?7 eVe:c{ 76 TWJ/ ffvKotyavrcav he lived in safety, so 
far as the sycophants were concerned (without danger from them). 

KEM. r. The adverbs /iera|u between, 5i%a and x w p' is a pwrt (from), are often 

used as improper prepositions. On the other-hand, ?rAt)z/ except is often used 

without a genitive, as a conjunction: poet, OVK ap 'A%ato?s avSpes etoi TrAV o5e 
(with the same meaning as irXty roCSe) have the Achaeans no men but this one ? 

III. With the Dative only. 

627. 1. ei/ (Hm. eV, eV) in, = Lat. in with the ablative : 

a. of PLACE : fif ^Trdpry in Sparta : with a word implying number, it 

has the sense of among : & rovrois among tJiese, / 5-fj/j.y \eyew to speak (among) 
before the people. 

b. of TIME : ev Tovrcp T$ ere: in this year. 

c. of OTHER RELATIONS : ev TW &e$ rb TTJS /J-dxys Te\os (in the power of ) 
with God is the issue of the battle, ev Trapaovcevy elj/cu to be in (a course or state 
of) preparation. 

PHRASES : / oir\ois e?j/ai to be (in) under arms, ei/ airly %x eiv riv< ^ (* no ^ 
one in blame) to blame one, ev opyy e%6ij/ nvd to be angry with one, ireipd<ro[ 
ev Katpy ffoi elrat I will try to be (in good time) useful to you, > irpos^K-^s juepei 

in the (part) character of an addition, as an addition : also eV TO?S, rarely 

used to strengthen the superlative : ev rots Trpwros ^A^-e he came first of all 
(i. e. ev roiis eA&ovffi among those who came), cf. 665 a. For / with verbs of 
motion (lv xep<r\ ri&evai to put in one's hands], see 618 a. 

In COMPOSITION: in, on. 

]S*OTE. Rare poetic forms are e/, $ivi. 

628. 2. o-vv (also gvv, = Lat. cum) with, i. e. in company with, in 
connection with (cf. /nera with the gen., G44) : 

eTraiSeuero ffvv r$ o.tie\<pcp he was educated with his brother, avv ^A.v6\X<avi 
&iitit)ff6 he gained the victory with (the help of) Apollo, <T\JV v6p.y (in conformity) 
with law (opposed to irapd with ace., 648 e). 

In COMPOSITION : with, together. 

IY. With the Accusative and Genitive. 

629. 1. Sid through (connected with 8vo two, dl-xa in two, apart, 
Lat. dir, dis-. asunder : prop, through the space which separates two ob- 

5tc with the GENITIVE : 

a. of PLACE : Hm. 8ta affirtdos ^Ae (paeivys o^pi^ov iyyps through fht 
vhining shield passed the stout spear. 


b. of TIME : 8i VVKTOS through the night, 5ia iravrbs rov ftlov ap.rixa.vfiv t* 
be without resource through his whole life. 

c. of MEANS : 8i r&v 6(pSfa\/j.S>f 6pu>fj.v we see (through) by means of the 
eyes, 5t epwvews Xtyeiv to speak by an interpreter. 

d. of a STATE of action or feeling : O.VTOIS 5ia TroXeuov Uvat to proceed (in 
the way of war) in a hostile manner toward them, Sta <p6fia)v yiyveff&ai to come 
to be in a state of alarm. 

PHRASES : Sia a-rSparos %x* lv to nave in one ' s mouth (passing through the 
mouth), Sia x* l P"> v *X eiv t nave ^ n h an d, SioTaxecoj/ (by quick ways) quickly, 
Sia reAovs completely. - Aid with the gen. often denotes, not the space or 
time of the action itself, but that which separates it from something else : 5ia 
uaKpov after a long interval, Meercrrjj' 7 ?*' &a rerpaKofflav erwv fjLe\\ovffi KaroiKi&iv 
they are about to occupy Messene after (an exile of) 400 years, 5ia jroAAcSi/ rj/*e- 
o&v <55ov at a distance of many days' journey, Sta 8e/ca sirdx&oav wtpyoi %<fav at 
intervals of ten battlements, there were towers. 

630. SteC with the ACCUSATIVE : 

a. through, during, mostly poetic : Hm. 8i Scfytara through the halls, 8tck 
vvicra during the night. 

b. regularly, on account of (with accus. of the efficient cause, cf. eVe/ca, 
62G a) : 8t T)JV v6<rov xpcfy*ed-a T< larpy on account of the sickness, we employ 
the physician. 

PHRASES : avr^s Si' tavr6v by and for himself, 8t^ rl why, wherefore ? 
In COMPOSITION: through, also apart (Lat. di-, dis-): Sta^epw = diflfero. 

heights of 
b. doi 

631. 2. Kara (cf. adv. xarw lelow) originally down (opposed te dvd). 
Kurd with the GENITIVE : 

a. down from : Hm. jS?) 8e war* Ov\vfj.iroio Kap-fjvav he went down from the 
Olympus, TGI KO.T& yijs that which is (down from) under ground. 
wn towards, down upon : Hm. /COT* o^aA/xoDj/ K%VT' &-)(\vs a mist 
settled down upon his eyes, (peps Kara %etp&s uSwp bring_ water (to pour) on the 
hands. Hence towards: tiraivos icard TWOS praise (directed) towards one ; but 
usually in a hostile sense, against : iJ/euSeoftat (KO/C& \eyeiv, pdprvpas Trapexeo-^at) 
Kard TWOS to lie (speak evil, produce witnesses) against one. 

PHRASES : ir6\iv /COT' &Kpas eA.e?j> to take a city completely (from its highest 
point down), ACOTOI vdarov in the rear (of an army). 

632. Hard with the ACCUSATIVE, down along; passing over, through, or un- 
to ; pertaining to, according to : 

a. of PLACE : Kara fiovv down stream, Kara ytjv Kal bd\aa-ffav (over) by land 
and by sea*, Hm. Zeis e/Jrj Kara Satra Zeus came down to the feast. 

b. of TIME : Kar' e/cetVoj' rbis xP^vov at that time, Kara r^jv elp^t/Tjy during 
the peace, ol KO& f]/ our contemporaries. 

c. of OTHER RELATIONS : Kara, rovrov rbv rpdirov (according to) in this man- 
ner, Kara iravra. in all respects, Kara o~vva/j.iv according to ability, Kara rovs v6- 
/J.QVS according to the laws, /COT' e^ue as regards me, Kara TlivSapov, apiffrou u8w/j 
according to Pindar, water is best (of all things). 

d. in DISTRIBUTIVE expressions : Hm, Kara <pv\a according to clans, each 
clan by itself, Kara rpets by threes, three by three, KO^' ^epaj/ day by day, daily. 

In COMPOSITION : down, against. Often it serves only to strengthen the 
meaning of the simple verb, and in many such cases it cannot be translated. 

633. 3. VTT/P (Hm. also vn-ei'p) over = Lat. super. 
virep with the GENITIVE : 


a. of PLACE : 6 r}A.tos virep f)fj.wv iropeverai the sun journeys above us. 

b. in derived sense, /or, in behalf of : ^dxecrSrai virep TWOS to fight for one 
(orig. over him, standing over to defend), 6 virep rTjs irarpiSos nivSwos the 

(peril) struggle for the fatherland ; also in place of: eycb virtp aov airoKpi- 

vovpat I will answer in thy stead; and on account of : virep T/JS eAeu,3-eptas 

V/J.G.S evSaifj-ovifa I congratulate you on account of your freedom. virep in the 

sense of irepi concerning is rarely found before Demosthenes: rfyv virep rov iro- 
Ae/iou yvu>jj.r)v roiavrrjv ex flv to have such an opinion concerning the war. 

634. vTTfp with the ACCUSATIVE, over, beyond, of place and measure : Hm. 
virep oi>$bv i&fyrero he passed over the threshold, virep Svvafj.iv beyond one's ability. 

In COMPOSITION : over, beyond, exceedingly, in behalf of. 

Y. With the Accusative and Dative. 

635. ova (cf. adv. ava above) originally up (opposed to Kara). 

avd with the DATIVE, only in Epic and lyric poetry, up on : ava Tapydpy 
&Kpc>) on the summit of Gargarus, xpvffecp ava ffK-rjirrpy upon a golden sceptre. 

636. avd with the ACCUSATIVE, up along ; passing over, through, or unto 
(cf. Kard with ace., 632) : 

a. of PLACE : ava povv up stream, av& iraffav T^V yr)v over the whole land, 
Hm. ava ffrparSv through the camp. 

b. of TIME : ava naffav r}\v rj/Mepav (over) through the entire day. 

c. in DISTRIBUTIVE expressions : ava rerrapas by fours. 

PHRASES : ava Kpdros (up to his power) with all his might, ava \6yov (up to) 
according to proportion, ava <rT<fyta cxeiv to have in one's mouth, to talk about 
(cf. 5, 629). 

In COMPOSITION : up, back, again. 

YL With the Accusative, Genitive, and Dative. 

HEM. The proper meaning of the preposition is, in general, most 
clearly seen with the dative. 

637. 1. a/i<j5t (Lat. amb-) connected with a/x0o> loth, : properly on 
"both sides of; hence about (cf. Trepi, 649). 

apfyi with the DATIVE, only Ionic and poetic, about, and hence concerning, 
on account of: Hm. iSpdbffei TeAa/i&i/ aju<>! ffr^ecra't the shield-strap will sweat 
about his breast, Hd. a/j.<pl andSc? ry e/ irei( roi concerning my departure, 1 
will obey you, poet, o/t^l <p6&y on account of fear. 

638. a/jupl with the GENITIVE, about, concerning : Hd. d/x^l ravrris rrjs ir6\ios 
(about) in the neighborhood of this city, SiaQepeff&ai a/j,(pi rivos to quarrel about 

639. a/j.<pt with the ACCUSATIVE, about, of place, time, measure, occupation : 
aiJ.<pl ra opia (about) close to the boundaries, o^i rovrov rbv XP^ VOV aboitt this 
time, ajj.<pl ra e^icovra about sixty (Lat. circiter sexaginta), aptyl SeTirvov iroveiv 
to be busy about the supper. 

PURASES: of ojiKju riva a person with those about him, his friends, followers, 
soldiws, etc. ; hence even ot a/j.<pl riAarcoj/a Plato, as head of a philosophic school, 
In COMPOSITION : about, on both sides. 


640. 2. eVi on, upon. 
eiri with the DATIVE : 

a. of PLACE : Hra. eiri x&oj/l ffirov eSoz/res eating bread upon the earth, tirl 
rii &a\d(T(rr) oiKe?v to live (close upon) by the sea. 

b. of TIME : 7ri TOVTOIS after these things, thereupon. 

c. in OTHER RELATIONS : eirl To"is irpdyjiiacriv eiva.L to be (over) at the head of 
affairs, eirl rots iro\e/j.tois elvat to be (dependent upon) in the power of the enemy, 
eirl nvi x a ' L P eiv to rejoice (on the ground of) on account of something ; - espe- 
cially of the AIM, on which an action proceeds: eirl ircuSeia TOVTO efjM^es in 
order to an education hast thou learned this ; - and the CONDITION, on which 
an action depends : eirl rdicois Savei^eiv to lend on interest, eirl rovry on this 

641. eirl with the GENITIVE : 

a. of SPACE, - to denote the place where : Kvpos irpovtpalvero $' apf^aros 
Cyrus appeared upon a chariot, eirl rov ev<avvfj.ov (sc. Kepus) on the left (wing), 
eirl fiaprvpcaj/ in the presence of witnesses ; - or the place whither : eirl 2a^uou 
ir\eii/ to sail (upon) toward Samos. 

b. of TIME : eirl Kpolcrov apxavros while Croesus reigned, e(p* ^/*wy in our 
time, eirl KIV^VVOV in time of danger. 

c. in OTHER RELATIONS: eVl rrjs apxTjs P.GVGIV to remain in the office, \eyeiv 
eiri TWOS to speak (upon) with reference to some one, e<J>' eaurou oiKeiv- to live by 
himself (apart from others), eir' b\iywv r^Taj^voi drawn up with little depth 
(few men in depth). 

642. eiri with the ACCUSATIVE, to (a position) upon, unto : ava&aiveiv f<p y 'Lit- 
vov to mount on horseback, eiri 8etc toward the right. 

PHRASES : eiri iro\v to a great distance, us eiri rb iro\6for the most part, rb 
CTT' e'jue so far as lam concerned. 

In COMPOSITION : upon, over, after, toward, unto. Often it only marks the 
action as going forth upon the object, and in many such cases cannot well be 

643. 3. fjierd (akin to /xe'croj medius) a-mid, among. 

fjLerd with the DATIVE, poetic, chiefly Epic: Hm. "Ewropa bs &ebs <r/ce juer' 
Hector who was a god among men. 

644. perd with the GENITIVE, with, implying participation (cf. ffw, 628) : 
ruv ^v^dxoiv Kivfivveveiv to meet the dangers of battle (in common) with 

the allies, p.era Sa/cpucoj/ with (amid) tears, yypas {JieroL irevias old age along with 

645. juera with the ACCUSATIVE : 

a. to (a position) among or along with, poetic : Hm. l&v ^ercfc ebvos eTalpa>* 
going among the multitude of his friends, Hm. |i/j/ Sovpl ^ter' Auro^eSoyra j8e)8^/cet 
he went with his spear after (in pursuit of) Automedon. 

b. after (so as to be with something, and obtain or secure it), poetic : Hm. 
ffivai juera irarpbs a/couV to go after (in quest of) tidings of a father, Hm. ir6\e~ 
\i.ov /j-era &<ap4}affovTo they were arming for war. 

c. after, in TIME or ORDER : ^ler^ rbv TIe\oirowt](naKbv iro\e/j.ov after the Pe- 
loponncsian war, pera &eovs ^ix^ 3-etJraToy (after) next to the gods, the soul is 
(a thing) 'most divine. 

PHRASES : /j.era %e?pas e")(eiv to have in hand (prop, to take between the 
hands and hold there), petf 7](j.epav by day (after day comes, begins). 



In COMPOSITION : with (of sharing), among, between, after, from one place to 
to put in a new place). 

646. 4. Trapd (Hm. also ?rap, napai) alongside of, ~by, near. 

irapd with the DATIVE : Hm. irapa vrjvcrl Kopoiviffi iu/j.vdeiv to remain by (the 
side of) the curved ships, KO\ irap' e/j.oi ris e^veipia ecrrf with me too (as it were, 
at my side) is some experience. 

647. irapd with the GENITIVE, from beside, from, with verbs of MOTION and 
those which imply RECEIVING (outwardly or inwardly): Hm. airovocrTeiv irapa 
vi]u>v to return from the ships (from a position by or near them), Xapfidveiv (p.av- 
frdveiv, aKoveiv) irapd TWOS to take (learn, hear) from some one. Yery rarely, 
and only in poetry, without the meaning "from ": vaieruv irap' 'Iff/j-^vov pei&pwv 
dwelling by the currents of Ismenus. 

648. irapd with the ACCUSATIVE, to (a position) beside, unto ; also along by : 

a. of PLACE : Hm. rh 5' adris fnp irapa vijas but they two went again to the 
ships (to be by or near them), Hm. fry 5* a%eW irapa &?va &a\dff<ri]s he went 
sorrowing along the sea-shore. 

b. of TIME : trap* o\ov rbv &lov (along by) during his whole life. 

c. of COMPARISON : 8e? ras irpd^eis irap' aAA^Aas n&evai we must put the ac- 
tions beside each other, compare them, nfi6v TI irapa TOVTO somewhat larger in 
comparison with this. 

d. of CAUSE : irapa r^y rj/jterepav ajueAetai/ $i\nriros' afj^erai on account of 
our neglect Philip is becoming great (prop, by it, in connection with it). 

e. of EXCEPTION or OPPOSITION : e%o/ieV ri irapa ravra &\\o \eyeiv beside 
this we have another thing to say, irapa rbv v6/j.ov contrary to the law (prop, pass- 
ing by or beyond it, trans-gressing it) the opposite of icard with ace. (632 c). 

PHRASES : irapa p.iKp6v by little, within a little, irapa fj.iKpbv %h.&ov airG&avfi 

I came near dying, irapa iro\v viKav to be (victorious by much) completely victori- 
ous, irap' ovSev 7roter(r<2tai to esteem as naught. 

In COMPOSITION : beside, along by or past, aside, amiss. 

649. 5. Trcpi around (on all sides, cf. dpty 637). 
irepi with the DATIVE, not frequent in Attic prose : 

a. of PLACE : Hm. ei/5uz/e irepl ffT-fi&ecrffi yjLTwva. he put the mail-coat around 
his breast, Hm. irepl K?ipi (about the heart) at heart, heartily. 

b. of CAUSE: Hm. irepl oftrt /j.axeio/j.evos icredreffffi fighting (about) in de- 
fence of his possessions, eet<raj/ irepl re? x u P /iC i> ^ iei j became alarmed for the place. 

650. irepi with the GENITIVE : 

a. chiefly in derived sense, about, concerning (Lat. de) : jSouAeiWrcu irepl 
TOV iro\fj.ov they are taking counsel about the war, rlva 6av %x ls 7re / :) ^ rovraif 
what opinion hast thou concerning these things ? 

b. in Hm. (surrounding, and hence) surpassing, more than: irepl irdvTwv 
^fj.p.vai a\X(av to be superior to all others. Hence, in prose, such phrases as 
jrepl TToAAoy iroie'iff&ai to consider as (more than much) very important, desirable, 
vepl ovtievbs yye'ifffrai to esteem (just above nothing) very low, think little of. 

651. irept with the ACCUSATIVE, nearly the same as a/u(pi (639) : irepl AfyuTr- 
rov about Egypt, in the region of 'Egypt ; and in derived sense, irepl (pi\offo<piav 
ffvovfid^eu' to be busily engaged about philosophy. 

In COMPOSITION : around, (remaining') over, surpassing (with adjectives 
Lat. per in permagnus). 

For Hm. irepi. as adverb exceedingly, see 615. 


652. 6. Trpos (Hm. also Trport, TTOTI) at or ~by (the front of, cf. vrapcz, 
646), akin to rrpo. 

Trpos with the DATIVE : 

a. at : 6 Kvpos 3\v Trpbs BajSuAeDj/t Cyrus was at Babylon. Also with verba 
of motion (618 a) : Hm. TTOT! 5e ffKyirrpov j8cAe 70/77 but he threw the staff on the 

ground (so as to be, lie, there) ; and in derived sense : rbv vovv Trpose'xere 

Trpbs rovTif apply your mind to this. 

b. in addition to : Trpbs TOVTOIS in addition to these things, furthermore, 
irpbs TO?S &\\ois beside all the rest. 

653. Trpo's with the GENITIVE : 

a. in front of, looking towards : Trpbs pcf/tr/s Ketff&ai to be situated over 
against Thrace, -rb Trpbs loTre'pos rtx os the westward wall, cf. Trpo's with ace. ; 

similarly in swearing : Trpbs fre&v before the gods, by the gods. So Trpbs ira- 

rp6s (fjLT}rp6s) on tlte father's (mother's) side, Trpbs UpcaTaySpov elvai to be on the 
side of Protagoras, Trpo's TWOS Aeyew to speak on one's side, in one's favor, Hm. 
irpbs yap Atos ctVt eivoifor strangers are (on the side of) under the care of Zeus. 
Often, to express what is natural or appropriate on the part of some one : Trpbs 
larpov IffTi it is the way of a physician, OVK -f\v Trpbs TOU Kvpou rpdVou it was not 
according to the character of Cyrus. 

b. from (prop, from before, cf. Trap^, 647) : oA(3os Trpbs frewv prosperity 

from the gods; sometimes used with passive verbs (instead of vir6, 656 b) : 

Trpos nvos (piXeiff&ou to be loved by some one (cf. e/c, 624 c). 

654. Trpo's with the ACCUSATIVE : 

a. to (prop, to the front of) : p%ovTcu Trpbs ^uSs irpefffieis embassadors come 
to us, Trpbs rbv Srjjuoj' ayopevew to speak to (before) the people. 

b. towards : Trpbs Bopfiav towards the north ; especially of DISPOSITION 

or RELATION toward some one : iri<TT<as Sto/ceto'iS-at Trpo's rtva to be faithfully dis- 
posed towards one, Trpbs )8ao"i\ea ffirovdas iroie'ia'&ai to make a truce with the king, 
$iitae<T&ai Trpo's riva to carry on a law-suit against one. 

c. with a view to, in reference to : Trpbs rb eavry ffvfiupepov in order to his 
own advantage, Trpbs ri /*e ravr* epwrots (to what end) for what do you ask me 
this ? Trpbs ravra (in view of these things) therefore, Stcwpepew Trpbs aper^v to 
differ in respect to virtue, TOI Trpbs rl>v Tr^Ae/tov the things pertaining to the war, 
Trpbs rb apyvpiov rty evSaifj.oj'iai/ Kplveiv to judge of happiness (by reference to) 
according to money. 

PHRASES : Trpbs vfiovfiv, xfy lv w ^ a v ^ ew t phase, gratify (one's self or an- 
other), Trpbs jS/av by (resort to) force, forcibly, Trpbs dpyfjv in anger, angrily, ouSev 
fl-pbs e^ue it is nothing to me. 

In COMPOSITION : to, towards, in addition. 

655. 7. viro (Hm. also wrou) under = Lat. siib. 

vir6 with the DATIVE : uTrb ry ovpavtp under the heavens, uTrb r$ opet at the 
foot of the mountain, vir 1 'Afrrjvalois flvcu to be under (the power of) the Athe- 
nians, poetic in Hm. x f p ff ^ v fy* Tj^ereppo-tj/ aAovo-a (Troy) conquered (under) by 
our hands. 

656. vir6 with the GENITIVE : 

a. of PLACE : vTrb TTJS under the earth ; hence in some expressions of 

DEPENDENCE : vTr' auATjTwj/ xP e ^ eiy t dance under (the lead of) flute-players. 
But much oftener, under the working of a cause or agent : hence 

b. of AGENCY, with PASSIVE VERBS or those of passive meaning: rifjiacr&ai 
vTrb T&V iroXiT&v to be honored by the citizens, % TT^AJS et(Aw y?rb rS>v 'E\\-fjj/(av the 


city was taken by the Greeks, TroX\ol aireStavov fab TU>V Papfidpuv many died 
(were slain) by tlie barbarians. 

c. of CAUSE : virb y-fipos aff^ev^s ^v he was weak by reason of old age. 

657. vir6 with the ACCUSATIVE : 

a. of PLACE, prop, to (a position) under : Hm. virb TTOVTOV ISva-ero Kv^aivov 
ra. he dived under the surging sea; used also in expressions denoting rest (618 
a) : virb rb opos i)v\iovro they were passing the night at the foot of the mountain. 
Hence, in derived sense, of subjection : Tr^Aets re /cal t&vii v<p tavrovs 

to bring cities and nations under their power. 

b. of TIME (under a time either impending or in progress) : in 
before night (Lat. sub noctem) ; virb rV VVKTO. during the night. 

In COMPOSITION : under, secretly, slightly, gradually. It is sometimes used 
where the idea under is foreign to our conceptions, and in many such cases 
can hardly be translated. 


658. For attributive and predicate-adjective, see 488. For agreement 
of adjective and substantive, see 498. For omitted subject, and use of 
adjective as substantive, see 509. For peculiarities in number and gen- 
der, see 511-23. For use of adjective as adverb, see 226, 228. For neuter 
adjective used as cognate-accusative, see 547 c. 

Degrees of Comparison. 

659. POSITIVE FOR COMPARATIVE. The positive may express a quality 
as disproportioned to the circumstances of the case, and may thus have a 
comparative force : 

f) x^P a tffUKpa ty e iKavrjs effrai the territory, from being sufficient, will be- 
come small (i. e. too small, smaller than its inhabitants require). In most cases 
of the kind, an INFINITIVE follows, usually with &s or &sre : o\lyoi co/iey &s 
tlvai avruv we are too few to have possession of them. 

660. COMPARATIVE. The comparative degree may be follow- 
ed by a genitive, or by 77 than (see 585-6). 

a. The genitive is always used, when the comparative is followed by- a re- 
flexive pronoun : orav %v rivi Kivfivvqi &ffi, TTO\\U) ^Ipov eaurwi/ \eyovffi ivhenever 
they are in any danger, they speak much worse (than themselves, i. e. than they 
do under other circumstances) than they usually do. Compare P&TKTTOS eau- 
TOV (best of himself, better than in any other state) in his best estate (559 a). 

b. ^ is always used, when the two objects of comparison are adjectives : 
both of these are then put in the comparative : ffTpar-rryol TrAeiWes 3) 0e\.rioves 
generals more numerous than good, cvvro^Tepov ^ ffafyeffTepov SiaAe^^^rat to 
discourse more briefly than clearly. 

c. $ is used after the comparative, when the quality is represented as dis- 
proportioned to something : thus /) Kara with the aec., % or 7) cos or $ &sre with 
the infin. : vofj-ofreTiis /Je\TiW 7) /car' frvfrpuirov a lawgiver better (than according 
to man) than consists with man r s nature, petfa % KO,T& Sdicpva Tre7r6v&a<ri they 


have suffered things too great for tears, fie\rlovs ^ virb Swpcv Traparpeireff&ai too 
good to be seduced by gifts, eXdrrco 8vvafj.iv e'^et 2) &sre rovs <pi\ovs ax^eAeTi/ ht 
has too little power to serve his friends. 

d. tf is sometimes irregularly omitted, when TrAeoi/ (TrAelV) more or t\a.rrov 
(;ite?oj/) less is followed by a numeral not in the genitive : airoKreivovo't ruv ay 
Spay ov utiov TrevraKoa-iovs they kill not less (than] 500 of the men. The same 
adverbs, with or without ^, may be used for any case or number of the adjec- 
tive: thus in the last example, juet'oj' pe'iavas; aire&avov OVK eAarTOi/ (= e'Acir- 
roves) rav ("iKOffi there fell not less than 20, ey TrAeoj/ (= TrAeWtj/) % SiaKoffioty 
ereffi in more than 200 years. 

661. Instead of the genitive or the particle 77, other forms are some- 
times used with the comparative : 

atperdrepSs ecrrt 6 Ka\bs frdvaros avrl rov a<V%pov fiiov a noble death is more 
to be desired than (lit. instead of) a shameful life, fiTjSej/ irepl Trteiovos iroiov irpb 
rov SiKaiov consider nothing as of more account than (lit. before) justice, xei/i&j/ 
fjLeifaj/ irapa T^]V Ka&effTTjKv'iai' &pav a cold more severe than (lit. in comparison 
with) the ordinary season, irpbs airavras rovs &AAous ot e 2,vpaK6<noi TrAeiw e-jropt- 
ffaj/ro the Syracusans provided more than (lit. in relation to) all the rest, d ir6\e- 
fAos oy% oir\(av rb irAeov oAAa SaTrdvrjs war is not a thing of arms so much as of 
expense (lit. not of arms more, but of expense). 

662. The comparative is often used ABSOLUTELY, i. e. without any ob- 
ject depending on it. Such an object may then be understood from the 
connection : 

alperdrepov rb avrapKeffrepov the more independent position is more desirable 
(than another less independent), ^ ri ve&repov cb-ayyeAAeis do you report any- 
thing newer (than we know already) ? &p.eiv6v ea-ri virb freiov KOI <ppovi/j.ov &px*~ 
ff&cu it is better to be governed by a divine and intelligent being. - Thus the 
comparative may signify MORE THAN OTHERS, MORE THAN is USUAL or PROPER, 
and may be rendered sometimes by the positive with TOO, QUITE, VERY : ot ffo- 
(pwrepoi the wiser, men of superior wisdom, et Kal ye\oi6repov elire'iy though it is 
rather a funny thing to say. 

663. SUPERLATIVE. The superlative represents a quality as belonging 
to its subject in a higher degree than to any other individual of the same 
class. This class is most commonly designated by a genitive partitive 
(559 a), which may often be understood where there is none expressed. 
But the superlative is also used without definite reference to a class, to 
represent a quality as belonging to its subject in a very high degree : 

o-o(f)ti)TaTos a very wise man. 

664. Strengthened Forms. The superlative is strengthened by various 
additions, especially by a prefixed ws or 6Vi, less often 57 (in poetry also 

us eAax^rcoj/ 5e?0-&at to have the very smallest wants, on /j.d\t(rra as much as 
possible, OTI ej/ ^pax^rdrcf in the shortest possible spo,ce, 27 pacrra in the easiest 
manner. Sometimes &s and ori are used together: e/j.e &s 6ri fieXriffTov yeve- 
cr&ai that I should become as good as may be. The adj. pron. oTos has a similar 
use : opu> ra Trpdy/j.ara ou% ola fteXriffra ovra I see that our affairs are not in the 
very best condition, ovros irdyov o'iov Seivordrov there being a frost of extreme 


a. These forms of expression appear to have arisen by incorporation and 
attraction (810-11) : ovrws SeToftcu, &s \d^iffr<i ecrri to want (things) in that 
way, in which they (the things wanted) are least, fr TOVTC? '6 TL ^pax^rarSv effri 
in that space which is shortest, e^ue &s TOVTO o rt jSeATioWj/ e<rn yeveff&cu that 1 
should become as that which is best, irdyov TOIOVTOV olos ^eiv6raros Iffrt a frost of 
that sort which is most severe. 

b. In such expressions, words denoting POSSIBILITY are sometimes found 
(but not with ort) : Snfiy^ ws kv 5iW,uat 5to PpaxvraTwv I will state in the 
briefest terms lam able, ol AaKe5ai/J.6vioi ff'iTcp rj avvcnov ^rpKararcf rpefyovffi the 
Lacedaemonians support life with an amount of bread as moderate as possible, 
if ye ffTpa.ri.av offt\v irXtiffTyv e'SiWro he led as large an army as he could. 

665. a. The superlative is also strengthened by S-f] annexed : fj.4yi<nos 5^ 
the very greatest. For fr TO?S with superl., see 627. A negative form of ex- 
pression may be .used with emphasis : OVK t\dx iffros n t ^ eas ^ V6I 7 g rea * 

(an example of litotes). The superlative may receive emphasis from the 

numeral efs : irXe^ffra els avfyp SwdfjLevos w^)eA.e?y being able to render most aid 
(as one man, i. e.) beyond any other one man. 

b. Sometimes /mAtoTo is added to the superlative : 8i& rois v6p.ovs /jt-d^iffra 
p-eyiffToi ecrre through the laws ye are most of all greatest. So p.a\\ov is some- 
times found with the comparative : alffxyi/T^Tepos /j.a\Xov TOV SeovTos bashful 
more than he ought to be. 

666. The PARTICIPLES never form a comparative and superlative, but 
take /ia\Aoi>, /LiaXio-ra instead. This is the case also with many verbals 
in roy, and with some other adjectives. It is sometimes the case even 
with adjectives which usually form the comparative and superlative. 


667. The PERSONAL PBONOUNS, when they stand in the 
nominative, are emphatic ; otherwise they would be omitted 
(504 a) : 

Koi crv ttyet avT6v thou also wilt see him (thou as well as others). Yet they 
have little emphasis in some phrases, such as us fyw d/covw (irvv^fdvop.a.1^ oip.a.i) 
as I hear (learn, think). 

668. The pronoun o, of, etc., of the third person, is in Attic always 
reflexive (671 a) ; instead of it, avros is used as a personal pronoun : this 
also, when it stands in the nom.. is emphatic : fldov avrfv I saw lier, avros 
e(j>T) (ipse dixit) lie himself (the master) said it. 

669. INTENSIVE PRONOUN, a. Avros, in agreement with a 
substantive, is intensive or emphatic (= Lat. ipse) : 6 dn)p euro's 
or CUJTOS 6 dv?jp the man himself (538 b). 

So with various shades of meaning : eiriffT'fifj.r] avT-f) knoivledge in itself (in 
its own nature) ; ^ yewpyia TroAAoi /cal aur)? SiSdffK et agriculture itself also (as 
well as other pursuits) affords much instruction ; j) T^V fi/ACT/pav ir6\iv 
urV TroAu Kpeiffffca eiv<u I believe our city by itself (atone) to be much superior 
in strength ; avrol opyi6fj.tvoi ol oTpaTtaJrat the soldiers being angry of themselves 


(aside from the influence of others) ; CTT' avrots rots alyiaXois on the coasts them* 
selves (just upon, close upon, the coasts) ; rerrapas vavs eXa/Boi/ avro'ts avSpdtfi 
they took four ships, crews and all (604). It is used, by a peculiar idiom, with 
ORDINAL numerals : eo-rpaTijyei Nuctas rptros avr6s Nicias was general with two 
associates (being himself third and chief). 

b. It is often emphatic when it stands by itself (in agreement 
with a word understood) ; in the nom. it is always so (668), and 
sometimes in the oblique cases : 

Epaffio'as rfj QzcrffaAtav yfj Kal O.VTOIS (sc. ro?s Qeffff.) (piXos %v Brasidas was a 
friend to the country of the Thessalians and to (the people) themselves, irXtv&reov 
(sc. vfjuv) ets ras rpiiipeis avrois enPaffi (you) must sail, having yourselves gone 
on board of the triremes, ou% o16vr a/teA/fj aurbj/ ovra (sc. TWO) &h\ovs iroisiv eiri- 
p.f\ts it is impossible (for one) who is careless himself to make Bothers careful. 

c. But usually, when standing by itself in an oblique case, 
it serves as a personal pronoun (668), or a weak demonstrative, 
referring to a person or thing previously mentioned (491 b) : 

Kvpw irapr)<ra.v al e/c T\.e\oTrovvi]ffov vyes, Kal si? avrais Uv^aySpas the ships 
from Peloponnesus joined Cyrus, and Pythagoras in command of them, ovs 5e 
JUT; eupio-Koz/, KvoTacpiov avro'is eiroirjffaif such as they did not find, they made a 
cenotaph for them. 

For 6 avr6s the same, see 538 b. 

670. The REFLEXIVE PKONOUNS refer to the subject of the 
sentence : TO, apcara fiovXeveaSe vfuv avrots take the best counsel 
for yourselves. 

a. When connected with a dependent verb (finite, infinitive, or par- 
ticiple), they refer to the subject, not of the dependent, but of the prin- 
'cipal verb ; and are then said to be INDIRECT REFLEXIVES : 

TO vavdyia, offa irpbs ry kavruv (7$) ^j/, avet\ovTO they took up the wrecks, as 
many as were close to their own (land), 6 rvpavvos vo^t^et, rovs iroXlras vTrripereiv 
eavry the tyrant thinks that tfte citizens are servants to him (lit. to himself), 
rovroiv i?p|e Kvpos oi>x kavTcp 6poy\<t>TT(i)v OVTGOV Cyrus became ruler of these, 
though they were not of the same tongue with him. 

b. Sometimes, however, the reflexive pronouns refer, not to the principal 
subject, but to a dependent word: a,Trb ffavrov <re 8t8ao> from yourself I will in- 
struct you, ^TjA-oGre rovs /tiTjSej/ Ko.K6v fffyiffiv avrdis ffvveiSdras emulate those who 
are conscious (with themselves) in their own minds of no evil, rbv Kcafji.tipxw VX eTO 
r,Gvo<pu>js &yc0jr irpbs rovs eaurou oiKtras Xenophon went conducting the governor 
of the village to his own people (the governor's, not Xenophon's). 

671. The personal pronouns are sometimes used instead of the re- 
flexive : 

8oK< p.oi OVK a-rrapdffKevos elvai I (seem to myself to be) think that I am not 

without preparation; especially for the indirect reflexives : ov% eJ/ # Tt 

Xp-flffeff&z avry vofj.i^ei he thinks that you will not know what to do with him. 

a. The personal pronouns of the third person ( ou, of, etc.) are in Attic 
alwai/s used as indirect reflexives ; but ou and e are rare in Attic prose, and of 
is seldom emphatic : ey/cA^ara eTrotofWo, OTTCOS ff<picrtv ori fj.eyiffTyj irp6<j)a.(fis etij 
rov iro\efj.tiv they were bringing charges, that they might have the greatest pos- 


sible color for making war, A^yerai 'ATr^AAwy e/c8e?/>ai Maptrvav *ptovrd ol n epl 
ffotyias Apollo is said to have flayed Marsyas, when contending with him (Apollo) 
in respect to skill. 

b. In Hm., ou, of, etc., are freely used as personal pronouns (= Att. auroy, 
-T}S, etc.) : avr6/j.aros Se ol ?f A&e Mej/eAaos but Menelaus of his own accord came 

to him ; yet they are often reflexive : yaffr^p e/ceAev<re eo pv^ffavbai ai/dyKy 

the stomach requires one perforce to think of it. 

672. a. The reflexive pronoun of the third person is sometimes used for that 
of the first and second: Se? f)( avept<r$rai eavrovs we must question ourselves. 

In Hm., the possessive pronoun os (Us) has a similar use : ou yap eycaye 
%s (for eyu,7?s) yai-ris 8vva/ y\vKepiarpoj/ #AAo iSeVd-cu for I can look on nothing 
sweeter than (mine) own land. 

b. The reflexive pronoun, in the plural forms, is often used for the recipro- 
cal (aAA/jAw^, aAArjAois, etc.) : SieAeyo/iefra TJ/JUV avTots we were conversing (with 
ourselves) with one another. 

673. The forms e/ne avrov, avrov jue, tre avro/>, avTov (re, and the like, 
are emphatic only, not reflexive : 

rovs TraTSas rovs e/j.ovs KaTija-xwe Kal e^e avr6v he insulted my children and 
me myself, poet, avrcp ravrd ffoi S/Sco^ut to thee thyself do I give these things. In- 
stead of I OUT^, etc., in the third person, avr6v alone is used : \af.ifidvov(riv 
afoot/ Kal yvj/a'iKa they take the man himself and his wife. In the plural, %/j.>j/ 
O.VTWV, etc., may be either reflexive or emphatic ; avrcav ^u<j/, etc., emphatic 
only : but crfy&v avratv is only reflexive, and avrwv a~(puy is never, used. 

a. But in Hm., to whom the compound reflexives are unknown (235 D), 
such forms as I avT6v, oTavra, <rol avr$, etc., are sometimes reflexive and some- 
times emphatic. 

674. The reflexive pronoun may be made to receive emphasis by pre- 
fixing avros to it : 

avr6s in this use agrees, not with the reflexive itself, but with the subject 
to which it refers: avrbs avr'bv aireKreive he (himself) killed himself , rbv ffo^bv 
avrbv atrip fj.d\iffra Se? (rofov eTz/at the wise man must be wise especially for him- 
self. The two pronouns are separated by a preposition : TO. p.\v avr^ Si' avrijs 
7] tyvx)l eiruricoirei some things the soul surveys by itself; but not, usually, by the 
article : /caraAeAuAce rV avrbs avrov tivvaffrsiav he has overthrown his own do- 

675. POSSESSIVE PEONOUNS. The article is often used instead 
of an (unemphatic) possessive pronoun (527 d). (For the article 
with a possessive pronoun, see 538 c.) 

a. The genitive of the personal pronoun is very commonly used in- 
stead of the possessive: o-oO 6 vlos or 6 vlos o-ov (for the position, see 538 a). 
For the 3d person, the Attic prose always has airoO, -rjs his, her, its (in- 
stead of 6s) ; and avrwv their (instead of o-^erepoy). o-^e'repos in Attic 

prose is always reflexive : os or eos is only poetic. 

b. The possessive, being thus nearly equivalent to the genitive of a per- 
Bonal pronoun, may have an adjective or appositive connected with it in the 
genitive (cf. 523 b) : rj fyierepa r&v <ro<piffrG>v rex vr l 67n8e'5aj/ce the art of you the 
sophists has advanced, poet, ra^aa Svcrr-fivov Kaicd the ills of me, unhappy one t 
Hm. v/j.frepos 5 s e2 ^uey frvfjibs re^uea'i^erat avrwv if your (own) mind is offended. 


676. The possessive pronouns often have a reflexive use : 

T&V x/j^/mrwj/ ffoi T&V f^uiv Kixp W I lend to thee of my own property : as to 
fftperepos, see 675 a. In this use, r^e'repos, vperepos commonly take aiirwv 
(075 b): T]fji.Tepa avT&v ipya ov X^yo^v our own actions we do not speak ; for 
o-Qerepos avTutv, the genitive eavreav is frequent : ra ffcperepa avruv (or T& eau 
TUV) ev Ti&e<T&ou to manage well their own affairs. The forms e/^s O.VTQV (-T]S) 
(rbs auTou (-775) are poetic : the genitives G/J.O.VTOV (-5}s), o-eouroD (-^s) are used in 
stead ; and in the third person, tavTov (-rjs). 

677. A possessive pronoun is sometimes equivalent to an objective genitive : 
evyoia ^ e/*^ good-will to me (not my good-will to another) ; so trr/y x&pw (as a 
favor to thee) for thy sake. 

678. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. The oi'dinary demonstra- 
tive is OVTOS this, that. "OSe this (here) is used of something near 
or present; CKCIPOS that (yonder), of something remote. 

a. These pronouns, and especially o6V, are sometimes used almost as 
adverbs of place : 

ctfrios Xatpf(pcatf 6'5e Chaerephon here is to blame for it, poet. 6pu r^jvS' e'/c 
86fj.(i)v o-Teixov&av 'IoKdffri]v I see Jocaste coming hither from the house, tinreTs 
OVTOI Tro\fj.ioi tpatvovrai there are seen horsemen of the enemy (" those horse- 
men " would be expressed by of l-mreis oSrot), j/7jes e/cew/at eTrnrheovffi yonder 
are ships sailing towards us. 

679. In referring to an object already mentioned, OVTOS is generally 
used ; but o6V, in reference to an object yet to be mentioned : c\ci-av rfivra 
they said these things (before stated), eXegav rdde they said these things 
(which follow). The same distinction exists also between TOIOVTOS such, 
TOO-OVTOS so much, many^ TT]\I.KOVTOS so old, large, and the corresponding 
forms in Se, roiojoV, rocrosSe, T^AtKorSe. 

a. Yet OVTOS is sometimes used especially the neuter TOVTO in reference 
to a word or sentence following in apposition : ov TOVTO (j.6i/ov evvoovvTai, TI irel- 
ffoj/Tcu they think not of this alone, what they shall suffer. More rarely, 6'5e is 
used in reference to something before mentioned. 

b. 'EKtwos is also used in referring to an object before mentioned, even 
when mentioned immediately before, if the object is thought of as remote, 
or is otherwise especially distinguished : Kvpos Ka&opa $affi\ta Kal TO ap<p' e'/cel- 
vov ffTfyos Cyrus observes the king and the band around him (some way off, as 
leader of the opposite army). 'EKCW/OS may even refer to a word or sentence 
following in apposition: irapa eftreiyc^,, irapa Ttav ^UT/SeTrore iro\e/j.i(i}f from 
those, I think, (viz.) from such as never were hostile. 

680. OVTOS sometimes repeats the subject or object of a sentence with 
emphatic force : 

& TO <rirepfj.a "irapa.<rx&v t OVTOS T&V (ptvruv alTios the one who furnished the 
seed, he is responsible for what grew from it. So ai>T6s, but withouf emphasis : 
iretpatro/iat rw ir&Tnrw, KpaTiaTos &v tirirevs, ffvp.^axe'iv avTta to my grandfather, 
I will try, being a first-rate horseman, to act as an ally to him. 

For KO,} TavTa and that with omitted verb, see 508 b. 

a. OVTOS is sometimes used in addressing a person : ovroy, ri iroieis you 
there, what are you doing (678 a). 


681. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. For agreement of relative and antecedent, 
see 503. For peculiarities of relative sentences, see 807-23. 

a. The ordinary relatives (6'y, otroy, ofor, etc.) are often used where 
the antecedent is indefinite : Tretiovrai ovs av (= ovsrivas av) rjycovrai /3eX- 
TLO-TOVS clvai they obey (those, any) whom they may think to be lest. 

b. But the indefinite relatives (omy, OTTOO-OS, oTroToy, etc.) are not 
used where the antecedent is definite or particular. Where the antecedent 
is apparently of this nature, an indefinite idea is really connected with it : 
Hd. eVeSu/xTjcre IIoXvKparea UTroXecrut. di ovriva KCLKWS TJKOV<T he desired 
to destroy Polycrates, (as being a person) on whose account lie was ill 
spoken of. Yet in late writers, osrt?, etc., are sometimes used without 
any indefinite idea. 

For indefinite relatives used as (dependent) interrogatives, see 682, 
825 : as indefinites, see 816 a. 

682. INTERROGATIVES. A question may be - 1. one which the 
speaker himself asks (direct question) : rl /3ot>Xeor3e what do you want ? 
or - 2. one which he describes as being asked (indirect or dependent 
question) : ^pcbra rl [3ov\oivro he aslced what they wanted. 

The interrogatives (pronouns and adverbs, 247-8) are used in both 
kinds of questions. But in dependent questions, the indefinite relatives 
are more common: ypwra 6 rt fiovkoivro ; in direct questions, they are 
never found. 

For peculiarities of interrogative sentences, see 824-31. 

683. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. The pronoun rts-, rt, may express in- 
definitenesSj not in 'respect to the particular object, but in regard to its 
nature or quality : 

b ffo(piffT^s irtfyavTa.1 ris e/jnropos the sophist has been shown to be (not some 
one who trades, but one who pursues some trade) a sort of trader. In this 
sense, it is often connected with adjectives : ^ /3A.c TIS /cal y\i&ios jfvco/ 
lest I should come to be a sort of dull and simple fellow (not some one who is 
dull, but one who has some dullness) : so roiavr' &TTO. (not some things of that 
kind, but) things of some such kind, /zeyas TIS of some magnitude, ev /8/>axeT TIVI 
Xp6v< in a pretty short time, rpidKovrd vivas aireKreivav they killed (some thirty) 
about thirty, bxiyoi rives some few. 

a. So T\ with adverbs : ay&ov ri pretty near, yUTj&ej' ri iravv SiwK6fj,evoi 
scarcely pursued at all (lit. a sort of none at all). 

b. Has TIS, Kaffr6s ris, denote every one, each one, taken at pleasure. Tls 
is sometimes used ill the sing., when several must be thought of: 

o n TIS e%et whatever one (and another) has, he (they) must make a supper of it. 
c. Tls is sometimes used with an implied notion of importance : poet. 
rjv^eis TIS flvai you pretended to be somebody (of consequence), Ae-yeti/ TI to say 
something (worth while) : so ou/ Ae'yejy to say nothing (worth while). 




684. The active voice represents the subject as acting. It 
is transitive when the action passes over to a direct object, other- 
wise intransitive. 

a. The active voice of some verbs has both a transitive and an in* 
transitive meaning: 

*\a.vviv tr. to drive, intr. to ride, march ; irpdrreiv tr. to do, intr. e3 (ACC/CCOS) 
irpa.TTeu' to (do, i. e.) succeed well (ill) ; ex lv * r - t have, hold, intr. e%e S^j (hold) 
stop now, %x ^P e V a y ffv Xl> (hold) keep still, KO.\US c%ei Lat. benc se habet, it is 

well. In English, this is still more common, as in the verbs to move, turn, 

break, melt, increase, etc. 

In some verbs, the two meanings belong to different tenses, see 416-7. 

685. Some transitive verbs have an intransitive meaning only when 
compounded with a preposition : 

&d\\eiv to throw, perapoiXXeiv (to throw from one place to another) to change 
tr. and intr., eispd\\ew and /j.&d*.\eiv to make an invasion, also (of rivers) to 
empty ; 8id6vat to give, epSiScWi to give in, surrender tr. and intr., eiri^iSSvai to 
advance, improve ; /c^Trretv to cut, TrpoK^irreiv to make progress ; (pepeiv to bear, 
Siatyspfiv to differ. 

For intransitive verbs which become transitive in composition, see 644 d. 

686. A subject is often described by the active as doing what it only 
causes another to do (causative use) : 6 Kvpos KareKavo-e TO. /Sao-i'Aeia Cyrus 
burnt the palace } i. e. caused it ;o be burnt. 


687. The middle voice represents the subject as acting on 
itself, that is, as affected by its own action. 

It is, therefore, reflexive in meaning, the action, as it were, turning 
back upon the agent. Like the active, it is transitive when it takes a 

direct object: TrpuTT-eo-Sai ^p?)juara to get one's self money ; otherwise, 

intransitive: aTre'^eo-Stai (to hold one's self away) to abstain. 

The subject may be variously affected by the action. Hence we dis- 
tinguish the following uses of the middle : 

688. 1. The DIRECT MIDDLE, in which the subject of the 

action is at the same time its direct object : 

\ovea-Srai to wash (one's self), rpfirecr&ai to turn (one's self), einSei/fj't/a-frcu 
to shoio one's self, 'foraa-bai to set one's self, /coXuTrreo-^ai to cover one's self. In- 
stead of the reflexive form, an intransitive verb is often to be used in Eng. : 
vaveiv to make cease, iravear&ai (to make one's self cease) to cease ; tyalveiv to 
show, (f>atv<r&ai (to show one's, self) to appear; irei&eiv to persuade (cause to 
believe), Trei'deoftai (to make one's self believe) to trust, comply. 

260 MIDDLE VOICE. [688 

a. The xlirect middle is much less frequent than the indirect : instead of 
it, the active voice is generally used with a reflexive pronoun. Even with the 
middle voice a reflexive pronoun is sometimes^used for the sake of clearness 
or emphasis : (p&ijffovTat 3) KaKwffai ^uas vj fffyas avrovs ^e^ai^ffafffrai they will 
get the start either in harming us or in securing themselves. 

689. 2. The INDIRECT MIDDLE, in which, the subject of 

the action is. at the same time its indirect object, most commonly 
.as dative of interest, FOE, one's self: 

iropt^eiv to procure, Tropieff&cu (xpTjjuara) to procure (money} for one's self, 
<nra<r&ai TO l-ityos to draw (for one's self) one's own sword, &ye<r&cu yvvaiita to 
take a wife (to one's own house), /ueraTr^uTTOyuai nva I send after one (that he 
may come to me), Hm. avrbs e^eA/cercu &i/5pa ffiSrjpos the iron itself draws the 
man to it. Thus too, 6 j/Ojiio&eTTjs ri&rjffi v6/j.ovs the lawgiver makes laws (for 
others), but 6 drj/j-os Tifrercu v6/j.ovs the people makes laiosfor itself. 

a. It may be for the interest of the subject that something should be re- 
moved FROM it : afivveafrai Kivftvvov to ward off danger (for one's self, i. e.)from 
one's self, rpeTrS/j-efra TOVS 7ro\efj,iovs we turn the enemy from ourselves, put them 
to flight, airoo'6(r&ai vavv to sell a ship (prop, to give it from and for one's self, 
for value received). 

b. In some verbs, the indirect middle has a causative-ass (686) : 
SiSao-KOjUat rbv vi6v I procure instruction for my son (make others teach him 

for me), Semi/ov / have a meal served up to me (make others serve 
it for me) ; Saveifa I lend, Sco/effoiiai (I make one lend to me) I borrow; jj.ia&6w 
I let for hire, (I make one let to me) I hire ; Siicdfa I give judgment, 
Si/ccSfoucu (I make one give judgment for me, in my case) I maintain a suit at 

690. 3. The SUBJECTIVE MIDDLE, in which the subject is 

thought of as acting in his own sphere, with his own means and 
powers : 

irape^eiv to furnish in any ivay, iro/jr^ecr^at to afford from one's own property ; 
iroie'iv TrdAe^oi/ to make war simply, 7rote?(rd-cu Tr^Ae/ioi/ to make war with one's 
own resources ; Aa/j.pdveiv ri to take something, ActyijSaj/ecrfrai rivos to take hold 
of something with one's own hand; ffKoirtiv to view, ffKoireia'^ai to take one's own 
view, consider in his mind. 

a. Hence some intransitive verbs form a middle, which gives special pro- 
minence to the subject, as acting in his own sphere : ftovtei/eu/ to take counsel, 
fiovXeveff&ui to take one's own counsel, form his own plan; TroXireveiy to be a 
citizen, act as such, iroXirevefffrai to perform one's civic duties (espec. public 
duties), to conduct public affairs ; Trpefffievetj/ to be an embassador, negotiator, 
jrpea-peveff&ai (used of the state) to conduct its negotiations (by sending embas- 

691. The following verbs may be added to those already given, as showing 
various and important differences of meaning between active and middle : atpeiv 
to take, alpe'tff&ai to choose; awTeij/ to fasten, airrecr&ai (to fasten one's self to) 
to touch; e%etj/ to hold, e^etrid-cu to hold on to, hence to be close to; TL^wpziv nvi 
to act as avenger or helper to a person, ri^capeia-frai riva to avenge one's self on a 
person ; &px< I begin (in advance of others, opposed to vffrepw am behind), 
&PXO/J.CU I begin (my own work, without reference to others, opposed t 

694] PASSIVE VOICE. 261 

I cease); & p'fircap ypcfyet v6pov the orator (writes) proposes a law, 6 
ypafarcu T&J/ a^tKrjffavra the plaintiff brings his suit (indictment) against the 

a. The same verb may have different uses of the middle voice : thus 5t- 
8d<rKO[ indirect middle with causative meaning (689 b) ; but also as direct 
middle, / teach myself, learn. 

692. DEPONENT VERBS show the same uses of the middle voice, and 
differ from the verbs already given only in having no active : 

thus, Direct Middle, viriffxy^iff^ai (to hold one's self under) to undertake, 
promise ; Indirect, Se'xeo-frcu to receive (to one's self), KTacr&ai to acquire (for 
one's self), avapiuffafffrai causative, to (make live again) re-animate;^ Subjective, 
byuvifcff&ai to contend (with one's own powers), ofecr&ai to think (in one's own 
mind). - For passive deponents, see 413. 

For future middle used in passive sense, see 412 b. 


693. The passive voice represents the subject as acted on, 
or suffering an action. 

Hence the object of the active verb becomes the subject of the pas- 
sive. The subject of the active verb (the agent) is variously expressed 
with the passive ; sometimes by the dative (600) : usually by VTTO with 
the genitive ; rarely by other prepositions (624 c, 653 b). 

694. The passive is used in Greek more freely than in Latin, espe- 
cially in these particulars : 

a. Many verbs form a passive voice, which in the active take their object 
in the genitive or dative (not in the accusative) : Kara^povca TWOS I despise some 
one, Karatypove'iTal ris UTT' e/tou ; Triffrfvovffi ry $affi\si they trust the king, 6 

Aeus TTitrTeuerat vir' OVT&V. 

b. Neuter passive participles are formed from verbs wholly intransitive : 
rrpaTeixfytej/a the things done in making war, military operations, ret, ffol ire- 

uej/a thy political course or conduct. 

c. Deponent verbs (though properly middle, 413) are sometimes used with 
passive meaning : in this use, the aorist and future take the passive form : ftid- 
ea-&at to do violence, Aor. Pidffcur&ai ; but also pass, to suffer violence, Aor. /3ta- 
ff&fyai (cf. 415). So too in other verbs, a passive meaning may arise from that 
of the middle: alpeiv to take; Mid. alpeitr&ai, Aor. eAeVfrcu, to choose; Pass. 
aipeTtr^at, Aor. alpebvivai, to be taken, also to be chosen. 

HEM. d. On the other hand, the Latin impersonal passive from intransitive 
Verbs (curritur, ventum est, etc.) is unknown to the Greek. 
For Aor. Pass, with middle sense, see 414. 





695. The tenses of the verb distinguish the action 1. in 

relation to its own progress : 2. in relation to the time of 

speaking. Hence 

1. The tenses represent the ACTION as continued, completed, 
or indefinite. 

a. In the indefinite tenses, the action is viewed at the OUTSET of its pro- 
gress, as introduced into being, brought to pass, without reference to continu- 
ance or completion. In the continued tenses, it is viewed in the COURSE of 
its progress, as going on, without reference to introduction or completion. In 
the complete tenses, it is viewed at the CLOSE of its progress, as concluded, with- 
out reference to introduction or continuance. 

696. 2. The tenses of the indicative also express TIME, present, 
past, and future. Thus 

bro't to pass 



at the present time 
at a past 
at a past 
at a future 
at the present " 
at a past 
at a future " 

Action. - Time. Tense. Example, 

continued at the present time Present ypdtya) am writing 

Imperfect eypa(pov was writing 
Aorist eyf>a\\ra wrote 
Future ypax^co shall write 
Perfect yeypcxfia Tiave written 
Pluperfect eyeypdfaiv had written 
Fut. Perf. yeypd^ shall have 

\been written 

a. It will be observed that the above scheme has no form for action 
brought to pass at the present time, or action continued at a future time. 
But these deficiencies are usually supplied by the present and the future : 
thus ypdcpa I am writing, but also / write ; ypd^w I shall write, also 
/ shall l)e writing. 

b. The other modes of the present, perfect, and aorist represent the 
action as continued, completed, or indefinite, without reference to the 
time of speaking. But as regards the optative, infinitive, and participle, 
of tfie aorist, see 717 : for the same modes of the future, see 718. 


697. UNIVERSAL TRUTHS. A proposition which is always 
true, is generally expressed by the present, as being true now : 

fffrt &e6s there is a god, % a\-f)&eia siriicpaTti TT&VTWV truth prevails over all 

things. But sometimes it is expressed by the PERFECT or the FUTURE, as 

that which has been or will be true : iroKXol Sici, 8oav /j.eyd\a KCLKO, ireir6vSaffi 
many on account of glory have suffered great evils, av^p eViei/cT/s aTroAeVas n 
ba.ffTa otffft a reasonable man, when he has lost anything, will bear it very easily, 
For a similar use of the AORIST, see 707. 


698. PRESENT FOR PERFECT. The present of some verbs 
may be used to express an action which belongs to the past, but 
has results that continue in the present : 

aKovca I hear, also I (have heard and so) am informed; vticdw I conquer, or 
(have conquered) am victorious ; Qevyoo I flee, or (have fled) am in exile; a5t- 
Keco / do wrong, or (have done wrong) am a wrong-doer. The presents ?j/c&> 1 
am come, o?xo!J.afI am gone, are only used in this way. 

699. PRESENT FOR PAST OR FUTURE. In vivid narration, a 
past event is often thought of and expressed as present. 

The tense in this use of it is called HISTORICAL PRESENT ; it is freely inter- 
changed with the historical tenses (263) : Aapeiov Kal napvffdriSos TraTSes 747- 
vovrai 5vo of Darius and Parysatis are born two sons, eTrei -fjyeiro 'Apx^a/aos 
tirl rovs TroAejtuoyy, ej/rav&a ovroi OVK e8ecwro, aAA* tyKXivovffiwhenA.rchidamus 
was leading against the enemy, these did not abide the attack, but turn to flee. 

a. Even a FUTURE event, when thought of as immediate or certain, may 
be expressed by the present : fjunpb slirhv tfSrj Karaftaivca after having said a 
little, I am already coming down. This is the general use of e!fu I (am going, 
i. e.) am about to go (405 a). 

*700. PAST FOR PRESENT. Sometimes (especially in letters) a writer puts 
himself in the position of the reader, and views the moment of writing as a 
past time : irpaffffe /*er' 'Apraftd&v, '6v ffoi eire/ji^a, negotiate with Artabazus, whon\ 
/(sent) send to thee. 

a. A past tense is sometimes used, where a present fact or truth is thought 
of as perceived (or not perceived) at a past time : ov TOUT' 3\v fi>$ai(j.ovia KUKOV 
aTraAAayyj this deliverance from evil is not happiness (as we before supposed 
it to be). The future also may be used in a similar way. 


701. The imperfect is used especially where different past 
actions are conceived as going on at the same time. It is used 
also in reference to past actions frequently repeated, and in re- 
ference to past states or conditions : 

Hm. 8(ppa fj.\v ^s ?iv Kal ae|ero tepbi/ ^ua/>, r6<ppa jiaA* a/x^orepew jSeAe' T^TT- 
T6TO, TTtTrre 8e \a6s as long as it was morning and the sacred day was increasing, 
so long were the tceapons of both parties clashing, and the people were falling, 
oforoTe fj.iov a.TT(fTpa.TOir^evovTO oi fidpfiapot T<av 'EXX^vwv k^Kovra trraStW the 
barbarians never encamped (in their repeated encampments) at a less distance 
from the Greeks than sixty stades, robs eirdpKovs Kal aSiKovs us ev SotrXiff^vovs 
'<f>Oj8e?To the perjured and unjust he was afraid of as (thinking them) well armed. 

702. IMPERFECT OF ATTEMPTED ACTION. The imperfect often 
represents an action as attempted merely, not accomplished : 

KAeapx ^ T0 ^ s ffTpari^Tas /3iaeTO Uvcu ol Se a.vr'bv e^SaAAoi/, lirel tfparo 
Trpoi'eVoi Clearchus (was forcing) attempted to force his soldiers to march; but 

they were throwing stones at him, when he began to go forward. As this use 

grows out of the idea of continued action, it is sometimes found in the PRESENT : 
thus 5i5wfj.i I am (proposing to give) offering, Hm. repTrwres TTVKIVWS aKaxtpS' 
vw OVTI Se drvny repirero endeavoring to amuse (Achilles') in his grievous ajflu' 
lion ; but he was by no means amused in spirit. 


703. Verbs of OBLIGATION are used in the imperfect, to express that 
which ought to be, but is not : 

eei TOVS Ae-yoj/ras jUTjre irpbs %-)(\ r P av TroitlffSai rbv X^yov /x'/jre jrpbs X&P 1 " the 
speakers ought not to make their discourse with any reference either to enmity or 
to favor (i. e. they do speak with partiality, but were under prior obligation 
not to do so). Thus also XPV" ^ were prpw, et/cbs J\v it were fitting. 

704. The imperfect is sometimes used with at/, to express a customary 
past action (action which took place, if occasion served, at various past 
times) : 

a.vaXa.}jiftav(ii3V avr&v TCI. iroi'hfj.aTa Snqp&Tcw tut rt Xeyoiev taking zip their poems, 
/(would be asking) was often asking them (the authors) what they meant. 
The AORIST INDICATIVE with &v has a similar use, but without the idea of con- 
tinued action which belongs to the Impf. : e\e|e^ &v he (would say) was ac- 


705. The aorist is used in narrating past actions, when 
thought of merely as events or single facts, without reference to 
the time they occupied, or to other actions going on at the same 
time : 

TOIK))V Ka\ larpiK^v /cat IJMVTIK^V 'Kir6x.X<av avevpe Apollo invented archery 
and medicine and divination, Hni. T\\V 8e TroAu Trpuros 78e Tr)\ejj.axos S-coetS^s, 
j8r) 8' l&vs irpo&vpoto, j/e/tetro'Tj.d-rj 8' %v\ &vp.t ^sivov 5^a &vpr}(riv e^effrd/j-ev, e*y- 
yv&i 5e ffras x^ip eA.e 8e|tT6pV Kal e5e|aro XO-^ K * OV *7X OS oui l n t before others, 
godlike Telemachus saio her, and went straight toward the door-way, and was 
vexed in his spirit that a stranger should stand long at the door, and standing 
near he took her right hand and received the brazen spear. 

dicative is often used in Greek where the perfect or pluperfect 
might be used with more exactness : 

TU>V olKT(av ouSeVa /careAnrej/, aAA' airavras Treirpaice of his servants he (left) 
has left no one, but has sold them all, AapeTos Kvpov /uLeTaire/LnreTai (699) curb TTJS 
apxvs "ns avTbv ffarpdir^v eiroirjffe Darius sends for Cyrus from the government 
of which he (made) had made him satrap. The aorist is thus used with the 
temporal conjunctions, eTref, cos, ore, when, as in Latin the perfect with post- 
quam, ubi, ut : ws 6 Kvpos ya-^ero rijs Kpavyrjs, aveTr^rjirev ^TT! rbv 'tinrov when 
Cyrus (had) perceived the outcry, he leaped upon his horse. 

707. GNOMIC AORIST. General facts, established by experi- 
ence, are often expressed by the aorist indicative, referring to 
past instances in which the fact appeared. 

The aorist, in this use, is freely interchanged with the present ; and the 
English present indefinite is naturally used in rendering it: T$ %p6vtp f) 81*77 
\rdvrcas ^Aft' a.iroTiffap.evr} with time justice always (came) comes inflicting retri- 
bution, ras TU>V <pav\ow ffvvovffias oAiyos %p<fr/os SteAutre the associations of the 
bad a little time (is wont to) dissolve. It is called gnomic aorist, as being espe- 
cially frequent in proverbs or maxims (yv& By Hm. it is often used in 
similes or comparisons. 


708. INCEPTIVE AOKIST. In many verbs, the present of which 
denotes a continued state, the aorist expresses the inception of 
that state (695 a) : 

&PXW to exercise dominion,' 'ap^ai to attain dominion; e/Sao'i'A.eue he was king', 
e/3aorAey(re he became king ; la"xyeiv to be strong, Iff^vcrai to grow strong ; o~iyav 
to be silent, <nyri(rai to become silent; e%6ty to hold, possess, ff^lv to take hold of^ 
get possession of; 4>cuVe<r&ai to appear, be evident, fyavrivai to become evident ; 
Kivfiweveiv to be in danger, Kivftvvtvffai to incur danger ; voffeiv to be sick, voffTJ- 
<rai to be taken sick. - This use is found in all the modes of the aorist. 

709. The aorist is sometimes used, especially in the 1 Sing., to denote an 
action which began to be, just before the moment of speaking : eyeAatra I can't 
help laughing (was made to laugh by something just seen or heard), poet. &r- 
rivsff' epyov Kal irp6voLa.v V efrou I praise the work, and the forethought which you 

For the aorist indicative with &v, see 704. 


710. a. The second person of the future is used as a softened 
form, of command (future for Imperative) : 

OVTWS o?>v 7roj7j(reTe Kal ired&eo'&e (JLOI (thus then ye will do) do thus and obey me. 
With negatives, it expresses prohibition: OVK firiopK-^ffeis thou (wilt) shalt not 
swear falsely. But in negative questions, it forms a lively expression for urgent 
demand: ov irepifMeveis wilt thou not wait? ov /JL^ AaA^<re*s, aAA 1 a/coAov&irjo'eij 
tyoi (won't you not talk) don't talk, but follow me. 

b. With the future indicative, &v (Hm. KV) is sometimes used to mark the 
future event as contingent: eu oI5a on &ff(j.evos &v irpbs &v8pa olos ffi> el aira\\a- 
y^fferai I know well that he will gladly be reconciled (should opportunity be 
given) to a man such as thou art, Hm. 6 Se /cej/ KexoAcSo-erat, ov Ktv 'lic<i)/ but 
he will be angry, to whom I may come (= if I come to any one, he will be angry). 

c. In relative sentences, the future indicative is often used to express 
purpose: ov yap e^ojuei/ 6Vou O-ITOJ/ coi^o-o/MeSa for we have nothing with 
which (we shall buy) to buy corn. - For OTTWS with Fut. Ind. used in 
this way, see 756. 

711. PERIPIIKASTIC FUTURE. To represent a future action 
as immediately expected or intended, the verb />teAAw is used 
with the infinitive of the present or future, or (more rarely) the 
aorist : 

v/jt-as &yeiv (&ew, ayayeiv) els 'Affiav (in Asiam vos ducturus sum) 7 
am about to lead you into Asia. - Other tenses of /teAAw are used in a similar 
way : ir\-r]ffiov ^77 fa o trrad/ibs, eyfra e,ueA.A.oj/ KaraXixreiv the station was near, 
where tJiey were about to stop for the night. Cf. Lat. ducturus eram, ero, etc. 
The phrase iras (ri) ov ^ueAAw ; has a peculiar meaning, how (why] should 
I not ? TTOJS ou jueAAet rb <ro<pwTepov icd\\iov (palvefffrai why should not that which 
is wiser appear nobler / 




712. PERFECT WITH PRESENT MEANING. Several perfects ex- 
press a continued state, % the result of a completed action, and 
thus have a present meaning: 

jue/ij^/xcu (from /j.i/j.vf)ffK(i} : I have recalled to mind, and hence) I remember, 
Lat. memiiii ; Ke/cA?j^at (from /caAe'eo : I have received a name and still bear it) 
I am called ; ' Keitrijiw.1 (from KToo^uat: I have acquired) I possess ; ij/j.(t>iecr/ 
(from a/j.(j)ievvvfju: I have dressed myself ) lam dressed; ireVot&a / (have put 
confidence) have confidence in; iretyvKa /(have been produced) am by nature ; 
effTyita /(have set myself) stand; fiepyKo, I (have stepped) stand fast, also 1 
am gone; oAcoAa / (have suffered destruction) am ruined. Here belong also 
the perfects oTSa know, eoiKa am like, efa&a, am accustomed, 5e'8ot/ca am afraid, 
Keicpaya (Pres. upafa rare) cry, and several others : though it may be doubted 
whether some of these ever expressed completed action. 

a. In these verbs, the pluperfect has the meaning of an imperfect: 
eKfKTr)p.r)v I was in possession of, eo-rrjKfiv I was standing ; - and the 
future perfect has the meaning of a simple future: ^e/xz/qo-o/mi I shall 

For the aorist used instead of the perfect or pluperfect, see 706. 


713. This tense is formed only in the middle voice (264 b), though 
usually with passive meaning. In the active, its place is supplied by using 
the perfect participle with the future of f i/u to be : av TCLVT ciSoj/nej/, ra 
deovTa ecrdfieSa eyvuKores if we know these things, we shall have recognized 
our obligations. 


714. PEESENT. The other modes of the present represent the action 
as CONTINUED, whether in present, past, or future time: 

iuaii><fyie&a Trai/res, oTrdrav o/ryi<%ue3-a we are all insane, as often as we are 
angry, \eyov r$ EufruS^uy on iravrfs eroifMOi e?ev uavbaveiv they said to Euthy- 
demus that they were all ready to learn, ovroa iroi4}ffu) oiroos Uv ffb KeAeur;s I will 
act as you may command (be commanding) Lat. sic again ut tu me agere jube- 
bis, OVK e3-e'Aoy<n (tf&eXov, f&e\-f)ffovffi) fj.dxeff&ai they are not (were not, will not 
be) willing to fight, %rv)(pv zv ry asyopa Ka&evSovres they happened to be sleeping 
in the market-place. 

715. PERFECT. The other modes of the perfect represent the action 
as COMPLETED, whether in present, past, or future time : (etyoivnv, <f)avf](ro[ oi3ei> KO.K&V ffe Treiroi^Kcas I appear (appeared, 
shall appear) to have done thee no wrong, ov /3ouAeiW&at 8>pa, aAA^ (3el3ov\ev(r&ai 
it is time, not to be consulting, but to liave consulted (finished and decided), 
Repays ws eirv&eTO rbv 'EAA^cTTrovroi' e^eS^^at, irporiyzv e/c TUV 2ap5ecoy when Xer- 
xes learned that the Hellespont was bridged over (already, 6'rt I'^ey/cro), he led 
forward from Sardis, TIKSV &yye\os Xzycov on 2ueWe<ns AeAotTnis 6^77 TO 
there came a messenger saying that Syennesis had left the heights, 


iKavobs iroveiv irot^<ret, $v /*% irpScr^ev TjovcTjAcJTes &ffi no exhortation will 
make (men) able to endure toil, unless they have had previous exercise. 


716. AORIST. The other modes of the aorist represent the action a? 
BEOUGHT TO PASS, whether in present, past, or future time : 

ffv p.01 aTrdttpivai do thou answer me, IJ.TJ ^avfj.dffTjTe, eaj/ irapd8oov efira> n be 
not amazed, if I say something surprising, ol rptaKwra irposeTaa;> airayaydiv 
Aetwra, tV O.TTO&&VOI the thirty gave orders to lead away Leon, that he might be 
put to death, eTridujieT (eTred-u/zet, siri&v/j.r}<rsi) e\\6yifj.os yeveff&ai he desires (de- 
sired, will desire) to become famous. 

a. It is often difficult to express the difference between these modes as 
used in the present and in the aorist. In general, the present is used when 
continuance is naturally thought of; otherwise, the aorist, especially in refer- 
ence to single or transient actions : xaAeTrbv ^ iroieiv, rb 5e /ceAeuo-cu p$5iov it 
is difficult to execute (in continued action), to command (a single, transient act) 
is easy ; elf TTT? e%ets avriXsyeiv, avrt\eye el Se /j.-f], rravffai TroAAa/as Xsycav rbv au- 
rbv \6yov if thou hast any answer to make, answer (in continued discourse) ; 
but if not, cease (at once) repeating the same statement. - Yet the briefest ac- 
tion may be viewed as going on, and thus expressed by the present ; while the 
longest action may be viewed without reference to its length, simply as brought 
to pass, and thus expressed by the aorist. 

For the aorist used (in ah 1 modes) to express an incipient state, see 708. 

717. The AORIST PARTICIPLE, however, represents the action as prior 
to that of the principal verb in the same sentence : 

Kpoiffos "AXvv Siapas ^ydx^v apxfy /caraAveret Croesus having crossed the 
Halys will destroy a great empire, TraSr&v 5e re J/^TTIOS %yv(a (707) by (previous) 
suffering even a fool becomes wise. 

a. Properly, the Aor. Part, represents the action only as introduced 
(brought to pass) before that of the principal verb ; in its continuance, the 
former may coincide with the latter : Hm. SeiVas 5' e'/c &p6vov aAro ital fa%6 and 
(having become afraid) in fear he sprang from his throne and cried. Thus the 
Aor. Part., when joined to a principal verb in the aorist, may denote the means 
or manner : eu *ye eiroirjffas avafjiv^ffas /we thou didst well in reminding me. 

b. The aorist OPTATIVE and INFINITIVE, used in dependent assertions (734), 
may represent the action as prior to that of the principal verb with which they 
are connected : ol 'IvSol eAe|av on Tre^ete vfyas 6 'IvScav ftaffiXevs (Indie, on 
eVe^e) the Indians said that the king of the Indians had sent them, Ku/cAcoTres 
Aeyoi/rai ej/ 2t/ceA<? oiK^ffat the Cyclopes are said to have lived in Sicily. 

718. FUTURE. The future optative, infinitive, and participle represent 
the action as posterior to that of the principal verb with which they are 
connected : 

o n Se Troi^ffoi, ov Sieff^/iTjz/e but what he would do, he did not indicate, aSv- 
vara irpd^iv viri<rxyovvT<u they promise (that they will perform) to perform im- 
possible things, wyeffai' jSouAeuo-^uefot they came together for consultation (about 
to consult, cf. 789 d). 

a. The FUTURE PERFECT in the same modes has a similar use, representing 
the completed action as posterior to that of the principal verb. 




719. The INDICATIVE represents the action of the verb aa 
real ; the SUBJUNCTIVE and OPTATIVE, as possible / the IMPERA- 
TIVE, as willed by the speaker. 

The INDICATIVE expresses that which is, was, or will be. It 
is used when the reality of the action is affirmed, denied, or 
questioned : " He went ; he did not stay ; will he return ? " 

HEM. a. Reality must be distinguished from certainty. Thus the 
sentence, " perhaps he will not return," asserts a future reality, " he will 
not return," but expresses it as uncertain. 

For the indicative in hypothetical sentences (with or without m/), see 
745-6 ; in expressions of wishing, see 721 b. For the Ind. (Impf. or Aor.) 
with av to denote customary action, see 704. 

720. The SUBJUNCTIVE expresses that which may be. It re- 
presents the action as possible, with some present expectation 
of its being realized. Hence it is used 

a. to express something demanded or requested : this use is nearly 
confined to the first person : uw/zei/ (eamus) let us go, $epe 17, ras ftaprv- 
oias vplv dvayvS) come now, let me read you the testimonies. 

b. with ft?}, to express something prohibited or deprecated (723 a) : 
ufj TOVTO TToirjo-ys (ne hoc feceris) do not do this. 

c. in questions as to what may be done with propriety or advantage 

Thus chiefly in the first person : rl </>o> what shall I say ? (not " what am I 
going to say " as a future fact, but " what had I best say "), 5e|e<r&e ^as, ^ 
airica/jLev ivill you receive us, or sftall we go away ? Hm. TTWS ris roi TrpStypwv eirefftv 
Tre/d-Tjrat 'Axaiwj/ how shall any one of the Achaeans willingly obey thy words ? 

d. with /*"{], in expressions of anxiety or apprehension : jj.fy auypoiKOTepov y 
rb &\7j&es etTreTj/ 1 am afraid it may be too rude to say what is true. (In strict- 
ness, the sentence here expresses something desired, may it not be too rude, 

I hope it may not be, though I fear it is.) If the object of apprehension is 
negative, /i)j ou is used : Hm. p}] vv roi ou xpaiffpri a'KriTrrp'bv Kal erre^/ia 3-eo?o 
(there is danger) indeed that the staff and wreath of the god may not avail thce, 

e. In Hm., the subjunctive is sometimes used to denote future events, 
nearly like the future indicative : ov jdp TTCO roiovs "L$OV avepas, oi5e ftJcu^ai for 
never yet saw I such men, nor (may I hereafter) shall I see them. To the Subj. 
in this use, &v is sometimes added : OVK &v roi ^paifffir) 8wp' 'Ac^poStTTjs the gifts 
of Aphrodite (may probably) will avail thee nothing. Cf. 710 b. 

721. The OPTATIVE expresses that which might be. It re- 
presents the action as possible, but without present expectation 
of its being realized. Thus 


1. OPTATIVE OP WISHING. The optative is used without av 9 
to express a wish (that something might be) : 

ol Steal aTTOTia-aivTo may the gods requite (would that they might do so). 
From this use comes the name optative. 

a. Particles which serve to introduce a wish are et (Hm. cu), eft>e (Hin. 
crf&e), et ydpr&s: ^e <rb (pi\os yfuv yevoio that thou wouldst become a friend 
to us (i. e. "if thou wouldst do so", I should rejoice), Hm. &s epis air6\otro 
would that strife might perish (lit. how might it perish, for a way in which 
it might perish). 

b. WISH VIEWED AS UNATTAINABLE. When a wish is recognized as 
inconsistent with a known reality, it is expressed by a past tense of the 
indicative with efoe, d yap (746). The imperfect^ aorist, or pluperfect is 
used, according as the contrary reality would be expressed by a present, 
an aorist, or a perfect : 

et yap roffavTrjv Svvaijuv e7%oi/ that Iliad so much power (but I do not have 
it), eftd-e croi r6re ffvveyev6(j.T]v that I had been with thee then (as I was not). 
Such wishes are expressed also by &cpe\ov (ought] with the present or aorist in- 
finitive : &<pe\e jtiej/ Kvpos fjv that Cyrus were living : - the particles of 
wishing may be prefixed, elfc' tiQeXov, el yap 

722. 2. POTENTIAL OPTATIVE. The optative is used with av 
in assertions and questions : 

rovro yei'oir' av this might take place, iro\\as ~av evpois fj.Tf]x avas ^ lou couldst 
Jind many contrivances, OVK bv apvij^eltiv I would not deny it, irov SIJT' Uv elev 
ol |cVot where, I pray, might the strangers be? 

a. This use of the potential optative is not essentially different from that 
in the conclusion of a conditional sentence (748). In the cases here described, 
the condition on which the event depends is left indeterminate, not being ex- 
pressed, nor indeed distinctly thought of. Thus "this might take place" (if 
circumstances should favor), "you could find" (should you wish), "I would not 
deny it" (if I could), "where might the strangers be" (i. e. be found, if one 
should seek them). 

b. The potential optative is often used, where the indicative might 
stand. A known reality is modestly or cautiously expressed as some- 
thing possible. 

Thus OVK Uv \eyoi/ju I would not say (non dixerim, for "I will not say"), 
$ov\oifj.Tiv av I should like (velim, for "I wish"), &pa Uv ffvffKevd^(T^at eft? it 
might be (for " it probably is ") time to pack up for starting. Sometimes it ap- 
proaches the imperative, expressing a command as a permission : \4yois Uv &>s 
T&XiffTa (you might speak) speak at once. 

c. In poetry, the potential optative is also used without &v : Hm. |5e?a Sets 
y* &e\cov Kal TTjAtfoey avtipa ffadcrai a divinity willing (to do so) could easily 
bring a man in safety even from far. This is rarely the case in prose. 

723. The IMPEEATTVE expresses that which must be (by the 
will of the speaker). It represents the action as commanded, 
or, with negative words, 2& prohibited. 

a. For the second person, there are only two ways of expressing 
prohibition : by ^ with the present imperative, if the action is thought 


of as continued: JUT) ^aXeVaive do not ~be offended, ; otherwise, by ^ with 
the aorist subjunctive : JUT) x a ^^ v n^ do not take offence (720 b), ravrd 
juoi irpa^ov, TZK.VOV, Kal fj.rj fipddvve, /^S' emjJUyftr'Sns ert Tpoias do this fof 

me, child, and don't ~be lingering, nor mention Troy any more. 

b. For the third person, jtdj can be used also with the aorist imperative : 
oAAa yap fify &prjv6i' TIS rovrov r^v \6yov vofj.iaar(a but let not any one regard this 
discourse as being a lamentation. 

For the infinitive instead of an imperative, see 784. For the imperative 
in the conclusion of a hypothetical sentence, see 745, 747 : for imperative used 
in expressing the condition, 751. 


724. SUBORDINATION. A sentence may enter as a subordi- 
nate part into another sentence. The whole is then called a 
compound sentence : it consists of a principal, and a dependent 
or subordinate, sentence : 

ot 5e aireKpivavro (principal sentence) ort OVK evrav&a eft? (dependent sen- 
tence) but they answered that he was not there ; rlv ttaKbv Se? /coAa^ew (principal), 

'iv apeivtov y (dependent) we must punish the bad man, that he may be better; et 
&eof rt Spuffiv ai<rxpov (dependent), OVK eivlv free: (principal) if gods do any thing 
shameful, they are not gods. 

a. CO-ORDINATION. On the other hand, connected sentences are said 
to be co-ordinate, when they are mutually independent : 

KOLV}] f] rvx?), Kal rb ^ueAAov o.6parov fortune is fickle, and the future is un- 
seen, rovro e7tb OWT* efprjica ovre \fyotjjii &v this I neither have said nor would 
say. - For different conjunctions used with co-ordinate and subordinate sen- 
tences, see 853 a. 

b. The same thought may often be expressed either by two co-ordinate 
sentences or by one compound sentence : ^7j5ez/l av^opav ovetStVTjs, KOLV^J yap 
fj Tii-^t] reproach no one with misfortune, for fortune is fickle ; - or eTrei rj Tvx~n 
Koivi] e(TTt, ^iTjSej/} ffv^opav oveioiffris since fortune is fickle, reproach no one 
with misfortune. - The co-ordinate arrangement prevails especially in the 
Homeric language. 

725. A dependent sentence may have another sentence depending on 
it, to which it stands as principal. 

Thus in the compound sentence ^pS^riv^A^o^oy e? Tives irapTJffav oV cbreAcfyi- 
/3az/e TV TrpoT/ca / asked Aphobus whether any persons were present when he re- 
ceived the dowry, 6V a7reAcfytj8aj/e rV 7rpo?/ca depends on e? rives irap^ffav, and 
this again depends on ypSfj.rit' "AQoftov. So too an infinitive or participle may 
have a sentence depending on it : ofyuat O.VT'OV epeTy &s fatvpov ecrri rb ^(ptcrfj-a 
I suppose he will say that the decree is without force, OKVOVVTZS fj.i) cKpaipe&e'iGV 
Ty Ae|i7T7r(jj \4yovffi fearing that they might be deprived (of them] they speak to 

726. A substantive which properly belongs to the dependent sentence, 
is often transferred (usually with change of case) to the principal sentence. 
The object is to give it a more emphatic position. When the substantive 


is thus brought in before its proper place, the arrangement is called 
PROLEPSIS (npoX^Ls anticipation'). 

Thus Kat p.oi rbf vibv enre, et jue/iadij/ce T^\V T^VTIV (= Kai p.oi etTre el 6 vlbs 
/j.e/j.d&if]K T}\V Te;j/Tjf) and tell me whether my son has learned his art, Hm. Ty- 
SetSrjv S 1 OVK &v yvoif\s TroTepoian /teretT? you could not distinguish to which party 
Tydides belonged, /cal TU>V fiappdpcw ire^eA.e?TO &s iroXe^lv IKO.VQ\ e^ijffav he took 
care also that the barbarians should be in condition to make tear. On the other 
hand, a substantive may be transferred from a principal to a dependent sentence : 
Hm. jueTct 8" eff<rTai V TOT' ainjvpfav'Kovpifjv Epiffijos and among them shall be 
the daughter of Briseus, whom I then took away. Cf. 809. 


727. 1. The INDICATIVE in dependent sentences expresses a 
reality as conceived or assumed, not asserted, by the speaker. 

Thus in the sentences, rjyyeA&Tj on Meyapa d^eo-TTjAce it was announced that 
JSfegara was in revolt, et &eoi elffiv, Herri Kal epya &ea>js if there are gods, there 
are also works of gods, ravra eVotouz/ fiexp 1 V^TOS eyeVeTo these things they 
were doing until darkness came on, the (reported) "revolt of Megara," and the 
(supposed) " existence of gods " are not asserted, nor is it clear that they are 
believed, to be real : even the " coming on of darkness," though clearly be- 
lieved, is not asserted by the sentence. Indeed it is sometimes implied that 
the reality which the speaker would assert is directly contrary to that which 
he assumes : ifftas kv aTre^avov, et ^ fj rwv TpiaKovra apx$) KareXv^rj I should 
perhaps have been put to death, if the government of the thirty had not been over- 
thrown (but it was overthrown, and I was not put to death). 

728. 2. The SUBJUNCTIVE expresses possibility with present 
expectation that which may be realized in -present or future 

Thus in FINAL sentences : irapaKaXet larpovs, onus fify airo&djsr) he calls in 

physicians, that he may not die ; in CONDITIONAL sentences : eay IVa^ae;/ 

%p7]/mi3-', e'loyuev <pi\ovs if we have property, we shall have friends ;- in RELA- 
TIVE sentences : CITT' &v ffoi ^alvrjrai jSeATttrTa, ravra eTrtTeAei whatever things 

may appear to thee best, these execute : also Subjunctive of Deliberation in 

DEPENDENT QUESTIONS : oLiropw Tov (244) Tr/jwToy fj.vr)<T&ca I am in doubt what 1 
should mention first. 

729. 3. The OPTATIVE often expresses possibility with past 
expectation that which could be looked for, as a thing that 
might be realized, at some past time. 

In this use, it corresponds to the subjunctive in dependent sentences: 
the subjunctive being used, if the principal verb denotes present or future 
time : the optative, if it denotes past time. 

Thus in FINAL sentences : TrapeKdhea-ev larpovs, ehrws /t^ atro^dvoi he called 

in physicians, that he might not die ; in RELATIVE sentences : OTTO P&TKrra 

<paivoiTo t TavTa e7reTe\ei whatever things might appear best, these he was execut* 

ing; Optative for Subj. of Delib. in DEPENDENT QUESTIONS: vjirdpovv TOV 

VPWTOJ/ fjLVTjar^eiTjv I was in doubt what I should mention first. 


a. Very often, however, past expectation is expressed by the sub- 
junctive, the past time being lost sight of: 

ejSouAeuoz/ro et Ka.ra.Ka.vffwffi rovs avfipa,s they were consulting whether thei 
(sliall) should burn the men, "iv ol c*AAo: ruv Sucaitav rvxcaffi, TO vperep' avrw 
apTjAiovcere that the others (may) might obtain their just rights, you expended 
your own resources. 

b. In conditional and relative sentences, the optative is much used 
to express indefinite frequency of past. action ; that which occurred often 
being thought of as liable to occur as something to be expected at 
any time: 

e? ris avreliroi, fv&bs Te&Hj/cei if any one opposed (as happened from, time to 
time), he was immediately put to death, eire/jLTre ravra ols rjff&els Ti5%ot he was 
sending (occasionally) those things with which he happened to be pleased, eTmS^ 
TI e/j-tpdyoLev, avlffravro Kal eiropevoj/TO as soon as they had eaten something (one 
company after another), they got up and continued the march. 

730. 4. The OPTATIVE is often used to express mere possibility 
without expectation, that which might be realized in present or 
future time. 

This is the prevailing use of the optative in CONDITIONAL sentences : ri kv 
X OIS t7re?y, et Seoi ere Aeyetj' what would you have to say, if it should be neces- 
sary for you to speak? It occurs likewise in HYPOTHETICAL RELATIVE sentences, 
see 760 d. And here belongs the potential optative with &v (722), when it stands 
in an INDIRECT sentence : aireKpivaro KAeaVcop on 7rp6<r&ev &v aTrofravoiev ^ T& 
oTrAa irapafidisv Cleanor answered that they ivould sooner die than surrender their 
arms (direct irp6ff$rev Uv a.Trofrdi'oifAev, etc.) 

731. 5. The OPTATIVE is often used in place of the indicative 
in repeating past conceptions or expressions (oratio obliqua, 

T<$T6 eyvuxr&ri on ol fidpftapoi riv frvfrpcairov inroire/j.^aiev then it was under- 
stood that the barbarians had sent the man, avi]povro osns efy they inquired who 
he was, ot 'A&yvouoi Hepi/cAea fKdKL&v, on ffTpar-riybs &v OVK 7re^dyoi tirl rovs 
/ jro\e/j.iovs the Athenians were speaking ill of Pericles, because (as they said), 
though a general, he did not lead out agawist the enemy, tt ns ir6his tirl Tr6\iv 
<TTpaTuo-ot, eirl Toj)rr\v %<pt) Uvai he said that if any city should make war against 
(another) city, he would go against it. 

a. In all such cases, the indicative may also be used : but the opta- 
tive shows more distinctly that the speaker is not responsible for the 
thought which he repeats, since he gives it only as what might be. 

b. The subjunctive has no analogous use in reference to the present 
or future : ^ p av^prj ris dpi (never ris o>) do not ask me who lam, Lat. 
ne me interroges quis sun. 

732. PEOTASIS, APODOSIS. These are grammatical terms correspond- 
ing to each other : protasis, applied to the dependent sentence, final, con- 
ditional, or relative (but not to the indirect) ; apodosis, to the principal 
sentence on which it depends. 


I. Modes in Indirect Sentences. 

733. Indirect assertions are introduced by on or us that : 
indirect questions, by d whether, TTOTC/OOV . . . rj whether . . . or, and 
other interrogatives (682). The indirect sentence is the object 
of the principal verb ; or, if that is passive or intransitive, its 

734. OEATIO OBLIQTJA. .When the words or thoughts of an- 
other are stated in a dependent form, they are said to stand in 
oratio obliqua (indirect discourse) : in distinction from this, the 
original, independent form is called oratio recta (direct discourse). 

Thus or. obi. ol Se aireKplvavro on OVK elSeiev but they answered that they did 
not know, or. recta OVK fo/j.ev we do not know ; or. obi. OVK evvoei ri ireifferai he 
does not consider what he shall suffer, or. recta ri ireia op.a.i what shall I suffer ? 

a. A speaker may state his own words or thoughts, like those of 
another, in the oratio obliqua : 

Tjptfynji/ "Atpofiov ft rives irapyffav I asked Aphobus whether there uare any 
present, or. recta apa iraprio'dv rives were any present ? rovro yiyv<a<rK(0, Sri r6\- 
py SiKaiq, /col &fbs ffvKKafj.^avei this I perceive, that with righteous daring a di- 
vinity also co-operates. 

b. In many cases, the forms proper to the oratio obliqua do not differ 
from those of the oratio recta : thus in the example last given, the direct 
sentence would read roXp-r] Strata KCU Seop o-vAXa/u/3ai>ei. But often, where 
the proper forms would be different, we find those of the oratio recta used 
in dependent sentences, instead of those proper to the obliqua : 

of Se e!irov %ri iKavoi efffj-ev but they said (that) " we are able," instead of IKCC- 
vo\ elev or elffl they were able. Sometimes the two are found together in the 
same connection : perot. rovrov &AXos aveffrr] fTriSeiKVvs ws cC/Tj&es eft; (or. obi.) 
i]ye/j.6va alre'iv irapct, rovrov cj> \vfJLaiv6p.e^a (or. recta) rty irpa^iv after him an- 
other rose, showing that it was a foolish thing to ask a guide from this man 
(Cyrus), for whom we are ruining his enterprise. 

c. An INFINITIVE or PARTICIPLE is often used in the oratio obliqua, 
instead of a dependent sentence : 

tfyaffav rovs p.\v Jifj.aprr)Kevai, avrol 8e ff&fav rovs v6/*ovs they said that those 

indeed had transgressed, but they themselves were upholding the laics, or. recta ot 

- - 

, aurol 5e o-wo/j.ev, etc. ; Tiffffa<j>pvr)s Kvpov eiriffrparevovra irpca- 
ros tfyyei\e Tissapherncs was the first to announce that Cyrus was carrying on 
war, or. recta Kvpos 

735. USE OF MODES. In general, indirect sentences have the 
same modes-that would be used in the direct. This is regular- 
ly the case, when the principal verb denotes present or future 
time ; and often so, when it denotes past time. Thus 

a. INDICATIVE. When the Ind. is used, the tense is generally the same as 
Would be found in the direct sentence : Aeyet cos ovSev effriv aBiKtbrepov (p^ws 
he says that nothing is more unjust than fame, j5et "A</>oj8os ffatyws 'on 



^ffeTai Aphobus knew clearly that he (will be) would be convicted, 
ris ws 'EAareta KareiATjirrai there came some one announcing that JElatca (has 
been). had been taken, iroXvv x<p6vov 7]ir6povv TL Trore Ae /( yet o 3-eJs fof a long time 
I was in doubt what the god (means) meant. But when the principal verb re- 
fers to past time, the indirect sentence may take the imperfect, in place of a 
present in the direct : eVet'3-oj/TO T$ KAeapx^, op&VTes OTL /j.6vos I(j>p6vei ola Set 
rbv &p-)(pvTa (the soldiers) obeyed Clearchus, seeing that he alone had the mind 
which a commander ought to have (direct jiuWs typove'i he alone has the mind). 

b. SUBJUNCTIVE (of deliberation, 720 c) : /3ouAeuo,ua/ irws ere cbroS/xiD 1 am con- 
sidering how I shall escape from you, OVK elxoj/ o TL yevcavTai they knew not what 
(they should become) would become of them. 

. OPTATIVE (potential opt. with &v, 722): OVK oTS' o TL &v TLS xp"h ffailTO ffTpa- 
',s OVTUS a&VLius e%ou(rt Iknoiu not what any one could do with soldiers in this 

state of discouragement, flirey on 6 avfyp 'tiv aAcotrt^os eft] he said that the man 
would be easy to capture. 

736. But if the principal verb denotes past time, the indirect 
sentence may take the optative, in place of an indicative or a 
subjunctive in the direct : thus 

1. the OPTATIVE is often used in place of the INDICATIVE (731): eyvwffav ol 
ffTpari&Tcu OTL icevbs 6 <j>6fios eft; the soldiers perceived that their fear was ground- 
less (direct Kerbs 6 $6$os eVrf), TKTffatpfpvris 8mj8cAAet (699) rbv Kvpov irpbs rbv 
aSeAt/>oj/, ws eiriftov\i>oi avT(p Tissaphernes (accuses) accused Cyrus to his brother, 
(saying] that he was plotting against him, Kvpos eAeyev OTI y odbs eo-orro irpbs 
^Sao-iAea Cyrus said that their march would be against the king (direct ^ 65bs 
<TTCU), i)p<aTCi)v IIoAu/cAea et avaTrtevffeiev fX (av apyvpiov I asked Polycles whether 
fie had sailed away with money (direct apa oyeTrAevo-as ;), eAeyoy OTI Kvpos IJLSV 
re&vrjKev (735), 'Apiaios 8e irecpevyhs 6^77 they said that Cyrus was dead and that 
Ariaeus had fled. 

a. The hypothetical indicative (746 b) never changes to an optative in the 
indirect sentence : OVK ?iv o n &v en-oteire /j.6voi there was nothing which you 
could do (by yourselves) alone. 

737. 2. the OPTATIVE is generally used in place of the SUBJUNCTIVE (729): 
^ov\cv6/j.r]v TTUS <re airoSpainv I icas considering how I should escape from you 
(direct ira>s airotipfa how^shall I escape? Subj. of Delib.), ol 'E-jno'dfj.j'ioi rbv &eb? 
sirhpovro et TrapaSoTey Kopw&iois rfyv ir6Xiv the Epidamnians inquired of the goa 
whether they should give up their city to the Corinthians (direct TrapaSw^ei/ shall 
we give up ?). 

a. It must be observed that the form yyvdovv '6 ri iroolev (nesciebant quid 
facerent) may mean, according to the connection, either they knew not what 
they were doing, or they knew not what they should do. 

738. When two or more connected sentences stand in the oratio ob- 
liqua, depending on the same principal verb, these uses of the optative 
(73G-7) are not confined to the first (or leading one) of the connected 
sentences, but may appear in any of them. The same is true when an 
infinitive is used in place of the leading sentence (734 c). 

Thus eAeyoy TroAAol, OTL Travis &ia Ae'yet (735), %eiyticbj/ yap eft? (direct e'crri) 
many said, that he says things worthy of all (heed), for it was winter, HftSa ayeuf 
Tb cTTparey/Aa Kara p.effov T&V TroAejUicov, OTL e/ce? /3acnAeis eft] he cried out that he 
should lead the army against the centre of the enemy, because the king was 


there, t\oytoi>TO coy, et ^ paxpivTO, airoffrl)ffoivTo a! irSteis (direct lav jufy paxu- 
/xe&a, airoaT-fiffoi/Tai) they considered that, if they should notjight, the cities would 
revolt, 'Aj/ai/3ios aireKplyaro OTI fiovXeiiffoiro irepl TWV ffrpaTKOTUv o TL SVI/CUTO aya- 
6v (direct &ov\ o ri Uv SiWjUcu) Anaxibius said that he would provide 
for the soldiers ivhatever advantage he might be able. 

II. Modes in Final Sentences. 

739. Sentences expressing aim or purpose are introduced by 
the conjunctions Iva., d>s, 6Vcos (and Hm. 6'</>joa), that, in order that, 

fjirj, or OTTWS (ws, Iva) pr), that not. 

Present or future purpose is expressed by the subjunctive ; 
past purpose, by the optative (728-9) : 

6 Tvpavvos Tro\fj.ovs KiveT, tV fv xpeia ^ly^vos 6 STJ^OS y the tyrant stirs up 
wars, that the people may be in want of a leader, diavoeirai rfy yetyvpav Aua-ot, 
us fj.)} SiojS^re he intends to destroy the bridge, that you may not cross, - /ca&- 
fi\Kov ras rpifipeis, us & ravrais ff^oivro they were launching the triremes, that 
in these they might save themselves, eS^/cet cwnefai, ^ tiri&effis yevoiro ro7s Kara- 
AeAetjUjUeVo/y it was thought best to return, lest an attack should be made on those 
left behind. - In some elliptical expressions, the principal sentence is omitted: 
'Iva ffwr^w to be brief (sc. I say only this) ; 'Lv K TOUTCWV &pfo/, to begin with 
these things. 

740. a. But the subjunctive is often used in reference to a 
past purpose (729 a) : 

Tlep^LKicas fTrpaffffcv, '6ir<as ir6\efj.os yevr]rat Perdiccas was exerting himself, 
that a war (may be) might be brought about, 'A/3poK<fyiay T& 7rA.o?a /careKaua-ej/, 
'Iva /j.7} Kvpos 8iaj8?7 Abrocomas burned the vessels, that Cyrus (may not) might 
not cross. In such cases, the time is lost sight of, while the idea of aim or ex- 
pectation is made prominent. 

b. The optative is rarely used of present purpose, to represent the attain- 
ment as a mere possibility (730) : rovrov rbvrp6irov e%e: 6 v&p-os, 'Iva ^TjS 1 e^aira- 
r^rlvai ytvoiTO the law stands thus, that no deception might occur. The optative 
may be used with the same force, when the principal verb is an optative of 
mere possibility : et ^ <rv ye tiri/j.\oio oiras elw&eV ri ets^epotro unless you 
should take care that something should be brought in from without. 

741. With &s or '6irus, the particle av (Hm. /ce) is sometimes used, to mark 
the attainment of the purpose as contingent: us bv ^t^s, &KOV<TOV hear, that 
you may learn (as you will, if you hear). 

742. UNATTAINABLE PURPOSE. A purpose which could only be at- 
tained in an imagined case, contrary to reality, is expressed by a past 
tense of the indicative (746) : &VTI ?8 (703) fiorfielv Trai/ras-, OTTOOS fii/cai- 
drara e'V? they ought all to have aided him while living, that he might 
Tia-ce lived most justly (as he could have done, if they had all aided him). 

For OTTO)? with the future indicative, see 756. For the result expressed 
with <2>rre, see 770-71. 

743. FEARING implies aim or purpose that the apprehended event may 
not he realized. Hence 


After expressions of fearing, a dependent sentence is introduced by ^ 
lest, that ; or, if it is negative, by /n?) ov. The modes are used as above . 
present apprehension is expressed by the subjunctive; past apprehension 
by the optative, yet very often by the subjunctive: 

Se'Sot/co p.)] eVtAad-^e&a TT?S ot/ca8e 6$ov lam afraid ice may forget the home- 
ward road, e0oj8e?TO ^ ov Swotro he feared that he might not be able, 3>i\iinros 
eV <d/3w -f\v p.^) ettcpvyoi TO Tr/joy^tara Philip was in alarm lest his objects might 
escape him, ol 'A^rjvatoi TOVS ffv^^xovs eSeSietray /j.^ airoffTUffi (729 a) the Athe- 
nians were afraid that their allies (may) might revolt. Other words of fearing 
are (ppovTify to think anxiously, ( to beware, vTroirrevw to suspect, 6pdu 
to see to it, ovcoTrew to consider, etc. 

a. After expressions of fearing, /t/j and OTTCDS \i.4\ are occasionally followed 
by the indicative, the object of apprehension being thought of as a reality : 
(po&ov/ p.}) fjSovas evp-f)ffo/j.fv evavTias I fear that we shall find opposite plea- 
sures ; especially when the fear relates to something already past: <J>oj8ou- 
p.f&a fj,$) a/j.cpoTfpwv 7}jj.apri]Kafifv we are afraid that we have failed of both. 

b. After such words as opdca and (T/coTrew, /dj often introduces something 
suspected as probable, i. e. conjectured (rather than feared) : &&pet ^ ov TOVTO 
$ rb a.ya&6v take heed lest this may not be the (genuine} good. The indicative is 
then used in regard to something conceived as a reality : opa /j.r] iraifav eAeye 
(look to it lest he spoke in jest) see whether he did not speak in jest. 

III. Modes in Conditional Sentences. 

744. In the dependent sentence (protasis} something is supposed or 
assumed as a CONDITION, from which the principal sentence (apodosis) 
follows as a CONCLUSION. The former is introduced by the conjunction 
IF, Greek el, or edv (for ei av, cf. Hm. f'i *e) contracted fjv, av (a). The 
latter often takes av (a) to mark it as contingent (i. e. as only conditionally 
true). The whole compound sentence is called a HYPOTHETICAL PERIOD. 

There are four leading forms of the hypothetical period, corresponding 
to four varieties of supposition. 

745. 1. SIMPLE SUPPOSITION. The condition is assumed as 
real, but without implying any judgment as to its reality (727). 
We have then, 

in the condition, ct with the indicative ; 

in the conclusion, the indie, without av, or the imperative. 

Thus et TOVTO TreTrotTj/cos, ira.iviff&a.i &ios el if thou hast done this, thou art 
worthy to be praised, elf TI ireiffovTai M'/jSot, es Ile/xras rb Seivbv f}ei if the Medes 
(shall) suffer anytJdng, the danger will come to the Persians, <rol e5f Try &\\y So/eel", 
Aeye Kal SiSaffKe if to thee it appears othcnvise, speak and instruct me. 

a. The past tenses of the indicative may also be used in this kind of suppo- 
sition ; and care must then be taken not to confound this form with the follow- 
ing (746) : e|^j/ ffoi OTneVcu e: TTJS TroAews, t ^ ?ipeffK6v ffoi ol vopoi you were at 
liberty to depart from the city, if the laivs did not please you (in the present e- 
eoTi , et fjt/r] d/jecrKoucrt) ; e^ TI TOJV SetWcwi' 67rpa%i^?7, Tbv Kaipbv OVK e^e (pritfiv at- 
TIQV yeyevrjcr&ai if any of the necessary (measure.^ was carried out, he says that 

the occasion has been the cause (of it, and) not I. If oV is used with the past 

tense in the conclusion, the supposition is always of the second kind ; if fo 
is not used, it is generally of the first (but see 746 b). 


is assumed as real, but with an implied judgment that it is con- 
trary to reality. We have then, 

in the condition, with a past tense of the indicative ; 
in the conclusion, a past tense of the indicative with av, 
Both the condition and the conclusion imply a contrary reality; and 
in each, the imperfect, aorist, or pluperfect is used, according as the con- 
trary reality would be expressed by & present, an aorist, or a, perfect. 

Thus el r})V $i\nnrov rcfe Siicaia irpdrroj/Ta <apoav t ff<p6$pa "kv fbavfjiaffT^v yyov- 
jitTji/ avr6v if I saw Philip doing what was just, I should regard him as very ad- 
mirable (but I do not see , and do not regard him thus), OVK &v ^o(t\ff^v 'Ayo 

ffias ravra, et fjfii e'yw avrbi' e/ceAeu<ra Agasias would not have done these things, 
if I had not ordered him (but I ordered him, and he did them), el irepl KO.IVOV 
twos Trpdy paras irpovrifreTO \eyeiv, eVeVxoi/ &v if it were proposed to speak on 
any new matter, I should have waited (but this is not proposed, arid I did not 
wait), el fji.)i fyieTs ^A&ere, eVopeu^ue&a &/ irpbs Pa<n\ea if you had not come, we 
should be marching against the king (but you came, and we are not marching), 
et avrdpKr} Tcfc ^Tj^iV/xara "f\v, $i\nnros OVK &/ uj8/n/cet roffovrov xp^vov if your de~ 
crees were sufficient, Philip would not have insulted you so long (but they are 
insufficient, and he has insulted you). 

a. But the imperfect is sometimes used where the contrary reality would 
be expressed by an imperfect : 'Aya/te/ivwv OVK Uv rwv vti<r<av e/cparei, et pt\ rt 
vavTucbv eT%e Agamemnon would not have been master of the islands, if he had 
not been possessor of a naval force (but he was possessor of a navy, and was 
master of the islands). - And, less often, the aorist is used when the contrary 
reality would be expressed by a present (indefinite, 696 a) : elf rls <re tfpero, rl 
&j/ a7re/cpij/co if any body asked you, what would you answer ? (but no one asks, 
and you answer nothing). 

b. The indicative, thus used in the conclusion, is called the HYPO- 
THETICAL INDICATIVE ; the accompanying particle av is sometimes omitted : 
T)o~xw6iJ.rjv, ei vrrb Tro\ffj.iov ye ovros e^ijiraT^rjv I should 1)6 ashamed^ if I 
had been deceived l)y one who was an enemy. 

747. 3. SUPPOSITION WITH PEOBABILITY. The condition is 
assumed as possible and with some present expectation that it 
may be realized. We have then, 

in the condition, eav with the subjunctive ; 
in the conclusion, the indicative (principal tenses), 
or the imperative. 

Thus irdvr* iffTiv e|eu/je?v, e'ai/ ft)j r'ov irtvov (pevyr) ris it is possible to find 
out all things, if one shun not the toil, tfv ns av^iffrriTai, ?re<pa(rJ J uei9-a %ei/3ou- 
ffbai if one resist, we shall try to subdue him, ewAajSoG ras SiafioXas, K&V ^eu5e?s 
Sxri avoid calumnies, even if they be false. 

a. The aorist subjunctive in conditional sentences is often nearly equivalent 
to the Latin future perfect : veos av irovfiorys, yrjpas efeis ev&a\es (si juvenis la- 
boraveris, senectutem habebis jucundam) if you toil (shall have toiled) while 
young, you will have a thriving old age. 

b. Urn. sometimes uses et 3 alone, instead of e&/ (el &v, elf we), with the subj. 
In Attic, this is very rare : Soph. &vdpa, KC? ris y ffoc$>6s, rb fj.a.v&dpeiv ir6\\' 
Tuaxpbv ovUevfor a man, even if he be wise, to learn much (more) is no disgrace. 


is assumed as possible, but wholly uncertain, without expectation 
of its being realized. We have then, 

in the condition, ei with the optative ; 

in the conclusion, the optative with av. 

Thus e5f TIS KeKT77jiieVos efrj TrAouTW, %p TO Se aura? fJ."fi, ap' &i/ fvZa.ijj.ovoL if a 
man should possess wealth, but (should) make no use of it, would he be happy ? 
et aTraj/res /utjUTjtrafytefra TTJV Aa/ceSat/iOj'W 7rAeoveiaz/, airavres Uv cbroAofyte&a ij 
we should all imitate the rapacity of the Lacedaemonians, we should all perish. 
In Hm., &v (/ce 7 ) is sometimes inserted in the condition, and sometimes omit- 
ted in the conclusion. The former occurs also, though rarely, in Attic writers. 

The optative thus used with &v in the conclusion, is called the POTENTIAL 
OPTATIVE, cf. 722 a. 

749., There "is a very different use of the optative with , in which it 
denotes &past expectation (729), or &past conception (731). 

This occurs chiefly when the conclusion is itself dependent on a verb of 
past time : e'iropevAfJL'tjv, tVa, e? TI Seotro, ax^eAo^j/ avr6v I was going, in order 
that I might aid him, if he should have any need of it (present iropevofj-ai, 'Iva, 

tdv TI SeTjrat, axeAa>). In the oratio obliqua, after verbs of past time, the 

optative is often used with et, where the oratio recta would have the indicative 
or the subjunctive (i. e. with supposition of the first or third kind): KAe'cw/fyos 
elTrej/ or i Aenriroj/ OVK tiraivoirj, et ravra TreTrotTj/c&s efy Oleander said that he did 
not praise Dexippus, if he had done these things (or. recta OVK eiratvu, et TreTrof- 
7j/ce) ; e'STjAwtre Kvpos on TOi/j.6s effri (735) yticSxeo-frat, elf TIS e|epxotro Cyrus 
showed that he was ready to jight, if any one should come out (or. recta eroif^os 
etjut, cdv ris ^(px^rai). Cf. 738. 

a. The optative with el is also used to express indefinite frequency 
of past action (729 b), usually with an indicative in the conclusion : e'i TTOU 
ee\avvoi 'Aoruay^?, e(f) ITTTTOU xpvo~o%aXivov TTfpirjye TOV Kvpov CLS often (IS 
Astyages rode out, he took Cyrus about on a horse with gulden bridle. 

750. MIXED FORMS. The form of the conclusion does not always cor- 
respond to that of the condition. Thus, very frequently, when the con- 
dition has the^rstf or third form, the conclusion takes the fourth, being 
represented as a mere possibility : 

et rovro Xeyets, afj-aprdvois &v if you mean this, you might be in error, eai/ 
ed'eA'/jCT'TjTe Trpdrrew a^iws vfJL&v avrcau, ICTUS "b.v p.ya ri KT-ficraicr&e aya&6v if you 
will consent to act in a manner worthy of yourselves, you could perhaps gain some 
great good. A condition of the second form is rarely connected with a con- 
clusion of \X\Q fourth : Hm. KCU vv KCV ev3-' OTrJAotro, et ^ &p* oi> v6t]a'ev 'A(f>po- 
SI'TTJ and now would he perish there (his destruction being vividly conceived as 
an undecided possibility), if Aphrodite had not keenly observed him. 

751. OTHER WAYS of expressing the condition or conclusion. The 
most frequent is by a participle (789 e), or an infijiitive (783). 

The condition may be implied in other forms of expression : 5t' avrovs 
ird\ai &v aTroAciAetre by yourselves (i. e. if you had been left to yourselves) ye 
would have perished long ago. It may be implied even in a co-ordinate sentence : 
3VK ecr&iovcri. TrAetw ^ fivvavrai (pepeiv, o'tappaye'iev ybp &v they cat no more than 
they can bear, for (if they should eat more) they would burst. The imperative 


is sometimes equivalent to a condition of the third form : TrcuSes yeveff&oocrav 
(ppovriSuv ^5r? irdvra. TrAe'a let children be born (= if they are born), all thing* 

now arc full of cares. 

752. CONDITION OMITTED. This occurs especially in the second and 
fourth varieties of supposition. Thus 7]ftov\6fj.T]v av I should wish (d e8wd- 
^v if I had the power, as I have not), /3ovXoi/"7>' " I should wish (el dv- 
vainrjv if I should have the power, as possibly I might have). The poten- 
tial opt. with av, in simple sentences, may be explained in this way (722). 

753. CONCLUSION OMITTED. This occurs when et, ei'3e, el yap are 
used in expressions of wishing with the optative or indicative (721 a, b). 

a. When two opposite suppositions are expressed, the second by el 5e ^ 
(754 b), the conclusion of the first is sometimes omitted altogether, as suffici- 
ently obvious : et fj.ev ovv ey&) vf^as IKO.VUS SiSaovcw et Se fj.'fj, Kal irapa rcav irpo- 
yeyevrifj.ev<0v uav&dvere if then I instruct you well enough (fcaAws e% et ^ * s well, 
or ovTO) Sio'da-Keor&e be instructed thus) ; but if not, learn from the men of former 
times. - For aposiopesis, see 883. 

in the cases 508 a, b, c : 

Xapieff&ai ffoi ^ovXo^ai Kal yap av Kal uaivotuyv, el p.i) (sc. j8ovAof J urji') / 
wish to gratify you; for indeed I should be even insane, if I did not wish it, <f>o- 
fiov/jLevos, usirep &j/ et TTCUS, TO refj.veff&ai fearing, like a boy, to be cut (prop. &s- 
irep av fyofioiro, el TTCUS eftj as he might fear, if he were a boy). 

a. Especially, where the same verb belongs at once to the condition 
and conclusion, it is often omitted with one of them : 

e rty Kal &\Xos avfip, Kal Kvpos ai6s effrt &avfj,deff&ai if any other man 
(is worthy to be admired), Cyrus also is worthy (856 b), VTTO.KOVO'OV, efaep TT&TTOT' 
dvd-pcoTTco;/ TIVI (sc. v-jr^Kovffas) obey, if ever yet (you obeyed) any man, OVKOVV 
j]/ ye cr^aAAet, aAA* etVep ae (for efrrep riva ff(j>d\\ei, ff(pd\Xei ffe) us then it 
does not deceive, but, if (any one), thce, el S^j rep ffo^drepos (palriv elvat, Tovrcp av 
(sc. fyai'rjv, etc.) if in any respect I should say that I was wiser, in this (I should 
say it). - Hence et p.'f) gets the meaning of except : ov yap dpupfv, el u^ 6\i- 
yovs TOVTOVS for we see not (any, if we do not see these few) except these few. 
But et u}) Sid except for must be explained by supplying an idea of hindrance : 
eSdKovv Uv Trdvra KaraXa^etv, et ^ Sia ri]V eKeivov p.eXXi]ffLV it appeared that they 
would have taken all things, {if not prevented by) except for his delay, 

b. A supposition directly contrary to something just before supposed, 
asserted, or demanded, is expressed by et fie pi) : 

aTnyret TO xp^jUara et Se fj.'f], iroXe/j.'fio'eiv e<|)7j avrols he bade them restore the 
property ; but if not (if they should not restore it, et ^ cnroSo'iev), he said he 
would make war upon them. El 5e ^ is sometimes found where e'ai' Se a-fi 
>vould be more regular : e'av [lev vfuv SOKCO \eyeiv aXri&es, vvouo\oyf)<raTe et 
8e /j.-f), avTireivere if I seem to you to speak truth, agree with me; but if not, 
oppose. It is often used after negative sentences, where we might expect et 5 5e': 
ufy OVTW Xeye et Se p.'f), ov ibappovvrd jiie e|eis do not speak thus ; but (if not, if 
otherwise) if you speak thus, you will not find me confident. So too et Se' is 
Bometimr.s used where we might expect et Se p-fi : el fj.ev jSowAerat, evf/eVw et S 5 , 
'6 TI /SouAerat, TOVTO irotefrw if he wishes, let him boil me ; but if (he wishes some- 
thing else), let him do what he wishes. 


IV. Modes in Relative Sentences. 

755. Eelative sentences are introduced by relative pronouns or ad 
verbs. They show, in general, the same uses of the modes as occur in 
simple sentences. 

Thus SUBJUNCTIVE OFDELIB. (in indirect questions, 735 b), OVK i%o} o ri irpu- 
rov Xafica I (have not) know not what I should first take ; OPTATIVE OF WISHING 
(721), 6pu ffe SicaKoi/Ta $>v fj.7] TI>XOIS I see thee pursuing what (I pray] thou mayst 
not obtain; POTENTIAL OPTATIVE (722), fytels e<rre Trap &v Uv /ceAArra TOVTO 
ud&oi you are of those from whom one might best learn this ; HYPOTHETICAL IN- 
DICATIVE (746 b, 752), OVK tf&e\ov \fyeiv irpbs V/JLO.S roiavra of &v vfuv ^Siffr' ^v 
aKoveii/ 1 did not wish to say such things to you as would be most agreeable for 

you to hear (i. e. ei eAeyoi/ if I said them). Even the imperative may stand 

in a 'relative sentence: Se? mo'Teuo'ai rots epyois, *ov v/j.e7s tra^eVroToi/ eteyxov 
rov a\7)&ovs vou.i<ra.rG you must believe the actions, which (I bid you) consider as 
the surest test of the truth, poet, ola-fr' t> Spaffov ; knowst thou what thou art to 

do? or the subjunctive with imperative meaning: e/cafre^eTO "Avvros o'5e, $ 

fj.era5wfj.ev TTJS r)T-f)<rQ>s Anytus has set down here, to whom let us give a part in 
the investigation. 

756. The FUTURE INDICATIVE is often used in relative sentences to ex- 
press PURPOSE, see 710 c. Thus, in particular, onus liow, that, in order 
that, is very often used with the future indicative, after verbs which ex- 
press attention, care, or effort : 

ffK6iri oirtas ra Trpdy/j-ara ffw^fferai see to it that the state be preserved (lit. 
how the state shall be preserved), <pp6vTie faces ju?)8ej/ avd^iov TTJS fiaa-iteias 
iroi^a-eis consider anxiously that you may do nothing unworthy of the royal office. 
For OTTUS with subjunctive of purpose, see 739. 

a. Before OTTCDS with the future, in earnest commands and warnings, the 
principal verb is often omitted : oircas jrapeVet et's rrjv ea^re/jcw (sc. (T/ccfo-et look to 
it) that thou be present at the evening, otrus irepl rov iroAe^uou jurjSe;/ e/>els (sc. <pv- 
\drrov take heed) that thou say nothing- concerning the war. 

757. A relative sentence is indefinite, when the relative word refers 
to an uncertain (undetermined) subject or object. A sentence of this 
kind may have a hypothetical force, implying that /the event (conceiv- 
ed as possible) takes place, with whatever subject or object, the princi- 
pal sentence then holds good. This is called a 

the subj. with av, in a case of present uncertainty (728) ; 
the opt. without av, in a case of past uncertainty (729). 

The principal sentence commonly has the indicative (without 

av), or the imperative. 

Thus o rt bv /j.\Xr)s epe?y, Trp6repov eTritr/c^Trei ry yvw/j.ri whatever you may be 
going to say, first consider it in your mind (i. e. if you are going to say any 
thing, whatever it may be, consider it), Hm. bv &' av Srjyuov T' &vSpa if&ot j8o(Wra 
r' e(/>eupoi, rbf crK^TrrpCf) sXdffaffKe but whatever man of the people he (might see) 
saw, and found him bawling, him he struck with his sceptre (if he saw any 
one bawling, he struck him), bs Uv TOVTCDV n Spy, T&V&TW whoever may do any 
vf these things, let him die iKtrevovffiv (699) ory ^vrvyx^ 01 ^ /*$? ^euyetv they 


entreat whomsoever they might fall in with not to fee, $a<rav fyew/ 6ir<na kv Su- 
vwvra.1 Kpdria-Ta (729 a) they declared that they would say such things as they best 
(can) could, irdvras, offovs \dpoiev tv rrj &a\d<r<rri, to&p&fipw they were destroy 
. ing all, as many as they might take on the sea. 

758. Hypothetical relative sentences of time, place, and man- 
ner ^ are introduced by relative words denoting time, place, and 
manner. They show the same uses of the modes. 

Thus TreptejueVo/iej/ fKaffrore ecus avoix^ifi rb SecTjticoTrjptoj/ eTretS)) Se avoi- 
Xfref?/, yeifjiev irpbs T&J/ Sco/cpt^rrj we waited each time until the prison should be 
opened; but when it was opened, we went to Socrates (if it was opened at any 
time, we waited till then, and went then), 8e? rot/s yei/Ojuej/ovs, /iexp* &P C^crt, 
iroveiv those who are born must toil as long as they live (if they live for any 
length of time, they must toil so long), eVeafte far) &v ris riyr\rai follow where 
any one may lead you (if one lead you anywhere), els &v ns xp^o-Tjrat TO?S irpdy- 
uatnv, OVTWS avdyict] /cat rb reAos e/c/Jaiyetj/ in whatever way one may conduct his 
affairs, in the same way must the end also turn out. 

For conjunctions of time, place, and manner, see 875-9. For fl-ptj/with the 
infinitive, see 769. 

759. The particle av, which belongs to the subjunctive, is placed in 
immediate connection with the relative word : it even unites with some 
relative adverbs, giving compound forms, 6Vai>, OTTOTCLV, lirdy or eVqz/ (Hd. 
fitfdv), eiretddv, from ore, oTrore, eVei, cTretdq. - But av is sometimes omit- 
ted, even by Attic writers, where the rule requires it : tWao-rat, ^XP L 
ov fnav\^(ao-tv ol Trpeo-fleis a truce has fieen made, until the ambassadors 
shall have come lack. Still more rarely is av found with the optative. 

760. a. The aorist subjunctive with av is often nearly equivalent to 
the Latin future perfect (747 a) : eVeiSai/ iravra d/couo-^re, xptVare when 
you (shall) have heard all, then judge. 

b. The subjunctive with &v is sometimes found in cases of past uncertainty 
(729 a) : TroAe^ueT;/ OUTTW 8(taei Svvarbv clvm, irplv cij' fan fas /leTaTre^uil/cocrt it did 
not as yet seem to be possible to carry on war, before they should send for cavalry. 

c. The optative, used in hypothetical relative sentences, implies past 
expectation, and very often with the idea of indefinite frequency (729 b): 

OTrore 01 "~E.\\r)Vf s ro?y TroXe/nt'ots 1 eVi'oiez>, padi(os dnefavyov as often as tllQ 

Greeks might attack the enemy, these escaped with ease. 

d. But sometimes it is. used, espec. in poetry, to express a mere possibility 
(730) : poet, fci/ -rj ir6\is cTT^o-ete, rovSe xp"h K\veiv if the city should instal any one 

as ruler, him it is necessary to obey. This is regularly the case, when the princi- 
pal verb is an opt. of mere possibility : l/ccW Uv frptyais (or e< 

forts e&eAot aTrepuKetj/ TOVS aSiKovvrds ffe you would gladly support (or, that 
you might have) a man ivho would be willing to keep off those that injure you. 

761. A hypothetical relative sentence takes the indicative, when it 
expresses an event assumed as Teal (cf. 745) : ovs JMJ) fvpia-Kov, Kevord^iov 
avTots 7roirjo-av (= c'i rivas pr) evp ) if they failed of finding any, they 
made a cenotaph for them. Such sentences, though verjr common, have 
nothing peculiar in the use of the mode. But, if negative, they take fuj, 
not ou : see 835, 



762. The infinitive and participle are verbal nouns, a substantive 

and adjective derived from the stem of the verb (261 b). But they are 
unlike other verbals, being much more nearly related, both in form and 
in construction, to the finite verb. Thus, in particular. 

a. They are made from all verbs, and with different forms for the 
different voices and tenses. 

b. Words expressing the object are connected with them in the same 
manner as with the finite verb (486 b). 

Dependence of the Infinitive. 

763. The infinitive may stand as the subject or the object ol 
a verb : as a SUBJECT, 

chiefly with INTRANSITIVE or PASSIVE verbs : irao-iv afiiiv xaAeir^/ (sc. ecrr/, 
508 a) to please all is difficult, ev}j/ pevfiv it was possible to remain, e5o|e irpo'U- 
vai it seemed best to proceed, oi>x irpos-fiKei (irpeVet) TOVTOVS <j>o{3eicr&cu it docs 
not become you to be afraid of these, Xeyerai T})V Kvpov VLKrj(rai it is said thai 

Cyrus conquered. The infinitive may also stand as the predicate : TOVTO 

p.av&d.viv /caAenrat this is called learning* 

764. as an OBJECT, 

a. with verbs of THINKING, PERCEIVING, SATING, SHOWING (verba sentiendi 
et declarandi): ofercu 8e/ he thinks it is necessary, O.KOVOD Trdyras irap^ivai I hear 
that all are present, o^o^/care SiKacrew ye have sworn to give judgment, Kwet(r&ai 
TCI TT&VTO. cnrotyau/dfji.ei'os maintaining that all things are in motion. 

b. with verbs which imply POWER or FITNESS, FEELING or PURPOSE, EFFORT 
or INFLUENCE, to produce (or prevent) an action : StW/rat aTreA&elV they can 
go away, fj.e?dv ri e%w et7re?j/ 1 have something greater to say (can say it), ov ire- 
QvKas 5ouA.eueu> thou art not formed to be a slave, irXovTeiv e& he ivishes to be 
rich, </>o/3oG/icu \tyetv I am afraid to speak, tyvaxrav TOV TroTo-nov 8iaf3rjj/cu they 
determined to cross the river, rls avrbv KcuAiVet Sevpo @a5iiv who will hinder him 
from marching hither ? v^uv ffvpfiovXevo} jvwvai v/ avrovs I advise you to know 

yourselves, a.lrovvra.i rovs &eovs Si8Jj/at they ask the gods to give. So with the 

impersonal Se? it is necessary, xpt it behoves (strictly, something requires, urges, 
494) : Set (xp'fl) M' eA&e?j/ 1 must (should) come. 

c. sometimes with other verbs: ^ ir6\is eKivdvvevcre iraffa ^ta^apijvat the. 
city was in danger of being wholly destroyed. 

765. The infinitive is often used (as ail indirect object) to de- 
note the PURPOSE of an action : 

Eei/o^ay rb tf[ju<rv rov (rrparev^aros /careAtTre ^v^drreiv TO <TTpaT6ire^ov Xen- 
ophon left half the army to guard the camp, Trape^w ^JJLCLVT^V T($ laTpy TCfj-veiv 
ital Kaieiv I yield myself up to the physician to cut and cauterize, iritiv 5t5^yat 
Tivi to give one (something) to drink. 

766. The infinitive may stand in apposition with the subject or ob- 
ject : CLVTTJ P.OVTJ eVrt KCIKT) Trpaftr, eVicrT^/iT;? crTeprj^rjvai this alone IS evil 

fortune, to be deprived of 'knowledge (500 d). 


767. The infinitive may depend upon a SUBSTANTIVE or AD- 

oi>x &pa Ka&evo'eiv it is not a time to be sleeping, avdyKif) eTn^ueAeur&at it is 
< r >/ to take care, ^XiKiav ex ou(ri waiSeuecr&at they have the proper age for 
ag instruction, OKVOS ^v avt<rTa<r&ai there was an unwillingness 'o rise lip, 

ovSels (^Jvos Aeyeij' there is no (grudge) objection to speaking, irp6&v/j.os 

(eroT^os) Kivfivvov jj.4veiv eager (ready) to abide danger, t/ccwbs (5eiv6s, Tri&av6s) 
\eyew able (skilful, persuasive) in speaking, a|tos Tr\fjyas Aaj8e?y worthy to re- 
ceive bloics, xaA.eTrbi' eypetV hard to find, oiKia r]Si(Trr] evfiiaiTacr&ai a house very 
pleasant to live in, \6yoi xp r l a ' l l J - l ^ TaT01 aKov<rai words most useful to hear, aAA' o 
Xpofos fipaxvs tarn o'lriy'fjo'aff&ai TO, Trpax&evra but the time is (too) short to re- 
late what was done (659). 

For oTos, oT6sT, ocros, with the infinitive, see 814. 

a. The infinitive with substantives may be compared to the genitive of 
connection (563), or the genitive objective (565): with adjectives, it may some- 
times be compared to the genitive in 584-7, but oftener to the dative of man- 
ner (608) or of respect (609). The infinitive used as a dative of respect is 

sometimes found with substantives : fravpa Kal aKovffai a wonder even to Jtear of. 
The active is generally employed in these constructions, even where we 
might expect the passive : &tos &av/j.deiv worthy of admiration ("that one should 
admire him) = &ios &, worthy to be admired. 

768. The infinitive is used with ?/ than after comparative words : 
poet. v6a"t]fj(.a [j.eiov % fylpeiv a disease (greater than that one should bear it) 
too great to be borne, ouSei/ &AAo fy 5o/ceiV ffofybv eivai nothing else than appearing 

to be wise. wsre is usually added with the infinitive: yo-&ovTo"EK8iKov e'Aar- 

TU 5vva/j.u> ex ot/ra '*) & STe T v s <p'^ v s w(pe\iu they perceived that Ecdicus had 
too small a force to assist his friends. Cf. 659. For infinitive with rov after 
comparatives, see 781. 

769.. After irpiv (prius) before, rj is generally omitted (in Attic prose 
almost always so) : 

irp\v TV cipxV opSws uTroS-eo-^o:, fj.dra.iov yyovucu irepl rys TeAeimjs Aeyej*/ 
before laying down the commencement properly, I think it vain to speak about 
the end. Hm. uses irdpos in a similar way : irdpos ra&e epya yeveff&cu before 
these works were brought to pass. Instead of irpiv alone, we often find irporepov 
. ... irply, or Trp6ffSsv . . . irpl}/ (and in Hm. irpiv . . . irpiv^ or irdpos . . . irpiv) : 
otmo Tij/es U7ret3-ers eunj>, Sosre irplv ei'SeVat rb irposrarT^^vov irpdrepov Trei&ovTOi 
some are so obedient, that they obey before knowing the order. 

770. The infinitive is used with &sre to denote the RESULT : 

TO?S T]\iKi& ffvveKftcparo, S>sre oiKeias 8iaice'ia'&ai lie had mingled with 
those of his own age, so as to be on familiar terms with them. The infin. with 
&sre may also denote the PUKPOSE (as a result to be . attained) : irav TTOIOVO-IV, 

Stsre 5i/c7ji/ 1^ SiSdvat they do every thing, in order not to suffer punishment ; 

or the CONDITION (to be attained, in order that something else may be) : e|^j/ 
rots irpoyovois tipXGW TUV 'EAA^coj', &sre avroi>s viraKoveiv j8a(TiAe? it was in the 
power of your ancestors to be leaders of the Greeks, on condition of being theni' 
selves subject to the (Persian) king. 

For e'4>' $T(- with the infinitive, see 813. 

771. Both irplv and &sre are followed by a finite mode, when the action oi 
the verb is to be expressed as something real, probable, or possible : efc i-V 


cey, &S& ol "EXXyves e<pp6vTiov on the next day he did not come, 
so that the (J-reeks were anxious, ov xp"*) A 1 ' e^ei/Se oTreA.&eo' Trplv &/ 8w St/cTj;/ 1 
must not go hence before I have suffered punishment (760 a). 

772. INFINITIVK IN LOOSE CONSTRUCTION. The infinitive (with or without 
the particle us) is used in several phrases with loose construction, somewhat 
like the adverbial accusative (552) : cos tlirelv or cos tiros etVeTy so to speak, to 
use this (rather strong) expression, (o>s) ffvve\6vri elireiv (sc. TW/, cf. 601 a) to 
speak concisely, sp.ol So/ceTv as it seems to me, in my view, o\iyov (^t/cpoG) 5e/ so 
as to want little of it, almost, TO vvv elVcu for the present, Kara TOVTO elvai in 
this relation, and the like. 

For 4/ccW elvai, see 775 a. 

Subject and Predicate with the Infinitive. 

773. The subject of the infinitive stands in the accusative 
case (485 c). A predicate-noun, belonging to the subject of the 
infinitive, stands in the same case. 

tfyyeiXav TOV Kvpov yt/c7?crcu they reported that Cyrus had conquered, erw/ejSrj 
/xjjSeVa rcav ffTpaT-rjy&v TrapetVat it chanced that no one of the generals was pre- 
sent, - rbv cfiiKov &v5pa (pr)/j,l &&\iov elvai I assert that the unjust man is mis- 
erable, Kal ol fjiev evxovr &s So^iovs OVTO.S \r)(p^vai and some desired that they 
should be taken as being treacherous. 

a. The subject of the infinitive maybe another infinitive: ^lair^irpay^vos 
^/cet irapa fiaaiXsais So&ijvat ol ffw&iv robs "EAAjjj/as he is come having obtained 
from the king that it should be granted him to rescue the Greeks, where ff&feiv 
is the subject of 8o&rjvai. 

b. A sentence, when stated in oratio obliqua, is often expressed by the in- 
finitive (usually with subject-accusative) ; see 734 c. When two or more con- 
nected sentences are stated in oratio obliqua, the infinitive may be used, not 
only for the leading sentence, but for any of those connected with it: roiaCr' 
&TTCC fffyas ffpfj 5iaA.e%&eWas let/at lirel 5e yeveff&ai eTrl ry ot'/cfa, ai/(ayfj.ft/v]V /ca- 
Taha/.i&di'eiv rty &vpav " after such conversation" he said, '"''they went away: 
but when they came to the house, they found the. door open. 1 " 

774. OMITTED SUBJECT. The subject of the infinitive is fre- 
quently omitted : thus 

1. very often when it is an indefinite word : 

iracriv oSe?^ x a ^ iroi/ ( sc TtJ/c * f or an y one ) t P^ a ^e all is difficult, ou% &p<* 
Ka^euSei^ it is not a time (for one) to be sleeping, \6yoi xp^o'^wTorot a.Kov<rai 
words most useful (for me) to hear. - A predicate-noitn, connected with the 
infm. and belonging to the indefinite subject, is put in the accusative: rek 
roLavra e|60"Tt (sc. nvd) jUerp^(roj/Ta KO\ api^iMTiffavTO, etSerai such things (a man) 
vt a y know by measuring and counting. 

775. 2. when it is the same as the subject of the principal verb : . 

ofjua^Kare SiKdffeiv ye have sworn to give judgment (that you will give), <po- 
fiovfj-ai \eyeiv I am afraid to speak, irav iroiovviv wsre S//CT]!/ p.)] SiSSvcu they do 
every thing in order not to suffer punishment (that they may not suffer). - A 
predicate-noun with the infinitive is then put in the nominative case : 6 'AAe'cw- 
Spos ffpaffKev elvai Aibs vl6s Alexander declared that he was son of Zeus, lyu oix 


5(j.o\oyf)ff(D &KATJTOS %Kiv, aAA* virb ffov KeKXr^fvos I shall not admit that I have 
come unbidden, but bidden by thee, oi SOKOVVTGS iravrcov ffo^d/raroi flvai those who 
seem to be wisest of all. 

a. From KWV willing, connected as pred.-adj. with the inf. elvai used in 
loose construction (772), comes the phrase CK&V elvai (so as to be willing) will- 
ingly : rovro CKUV elvcu ov iroi-f)ff(a I shall not do this of my own will. 

b. But sometimes, for the sake of emphasis or contrast, the subject of the 
principal verb is also expressed with the infinitive ; it may then stand either 
in the nominative or the accusative : Hd. ol Aiyvirnoi *v6/ji.iov ecavrovs irpdrovs 
yweff&cu av&puirav the Egyptians believed that they themselves were created first 
among men, e! otefffre XaA:t5eas ^ Meyapeas r^v 'EAAcftJa ff&fftiv, fyieTs 8' airo- 
Spdffeff&ai ra Trpdy/j.ara, OVK 6p&u>s otecr&e if you think that the Chalcidians or 
Megarians will save Greece, but that you will escape the trouble, you are mistaken. 

776. 3. when it is the same as the object of the principal verb : 

ns avrbv KcaXvffei Sevpo fiafii^eu' who will hinder him from coming hither? 
rb tfniffv KareAtTre <pv\drreiv rb crrpaT6TreSov he left half to guard the camp, vfjuv 
ffVjUjSouAeu&j yvwvai v/ avrovs T advise you to know yourselves. - A prcdicate- 
Koun with the infinitive takes the case of the preceding object : Kvpov e'SeWro 
&s Trpo&v/j.oTdTov yevecT&ai they besought Cyrus to show himself as favorable as 
possible, iravT\ &PXOVTI TrposVjKet typovifjup elvai it becomes every ruler to be prudent ; 
- but sometimes it stands in the accusative, when the object is a genitive or 
dative : ffv/ji(bfpei avrois <pi\ovs eTVoj fj.a\\ov f) Jro\ffj.iovs it is advantageous for 
them to befriends rather than enemies. 

impersonal verb (494 a) with the accusative and infinitive, the Greek 
often puts the subject of the infinitive in the nominative case, and joins 
it as a subject with the principal verb. 

This occurs with So/cc? it appears, eotree it seems, Aeyerat it is said, a-yyeAAe- 
rcu it is reported, d^oXoye'irai it is agreed, and the like ; with try^jSaiVet it hap- 
pens ; and with 8iicai6v e'<m it is just, avayiccuSv eVrt it is necessary, eirir-fideiSv 
eVn it is fitting, and some similar phrases: 6 Kvpos ^776X^77 virfffai (Cyrus was 
reported to have conquered) = ^yyth&Ti rbv Kvpov vucrjffai it was reported that 
Cyrus had conquered, avr6s fj.oi 8o/cco ev&dSe Karafifveti/ it seems to me that I my- 
self shall remain here, Siicaios el &yeii/ av&pcairovs (thou art just to lead men) it 
is just that thou shouldst lead men, firiSooi etVt rb avrb Treiffeff&ai (they are prob- 
able to suffer) it is probable that they will suffer the same. - Yet the imper- 
sonal construction is also admissible : T/yye'Adij rbv Kvpov vt/c^<rat, <re St/catJv 
fffTiv &yeiv aj/frpcairovs, etc. 

a. The personal construction here maybe explained by prolepsis (726): 
thus, proper form TjyyeA&r; '6n o Kvpos J/i/C7j(T6, by prolepsis r/TyeA^T? 6 Kvpos 
5rt eVtKrjore, and, with ja/o}<rat in place of on eV/Krjo-e (734 c), ijyy&frri 6 Kvpos 

b. The ordinary construction of the ace. with the inf. (773) may be ex- 
plained by a similar prolepsis, when the principal verb is transitive : thus, prop- 
er form fiyyciXav tin 6 Kvpos IvlKrjffe, by prolepsis tfyyei\av r'bv Kvpov on evi/crjere, 
and with the infin. tfyyeihav rbv Kvpov viKr\ffcu. The construction was perhaps 
first established in connection with transitive verbs, and thence extended to 
cases where the principal verb was intransitive or passive. 


Infinitive with Neuter Article. 

778. The neuter article, prefixed to the infinitive, gives it more dis- 
tinctly the character of a substantive. Each case receives a form of its 
own, and may be made to depend on any word which would take the 
same case of a substantive. But as to words which depend on the in- 
finitive (its subject, predicate, and object), they are expressed in the same 
way, whether it has or has not the article. Hence the rules in 773-6 
and 7G2 b are applicable here. 

779. The infinitive with the neuter article prefixed may stand 
as a substantive in any case : thus 

NOMINATIVE : rb fypoviiv evSaifj-ovias irpurov virapx^i to be wise is the first 
(condition') of happiness, rb apapraveiv (sc. avrovs) av&pwirovs uvras ouSei/ &av~ 
[iaffrov (sc. effri) it is no wonder that being men they should err. 

780. ACCUSATIVE: Tretpw Karepydffaff&ai us iJ.a\iffra rb elSej/ai (sc. ravra) & 
j8ouA.6i if parr e iv endeavor to secure, as far as possible, the understanding of those 
things which you wish to pursue. Especially with the prepositions els or Kard 
in reference to, Sid by reason of, liri or irp6s in order to, irapd in comparison 
with : Sia rb |eVos elvai OVK Uv ofet aSiKfj^vai do you think you would not be in- 
jured on account of being a foreigner ? irpbs rb ^rpiwv 8e?<rd-at K.aXG>s irevaiSev- 
jueVos well trained to having only moderate wants. 

a. The infinitive with r6 is sometimes found in loose construction, analo- 
gous to the accusative of specification (549) : aveX-jriffroi eiffi rb es r^v yrjv y^wy 
fsfidxheiv they are without hope as regards the invasion of our land, T'IS Mij5v 
ffov cbreAe/^d-Tj rb /j.'f] ffoi aKoXov&fiv what one of the Medes remained away from 

you, so as not to follow you (as to the not following) ? Sometimes it resembles 
the adverbial accusative, see 772. 

781. GENITIVE : firi&vfj.ta rov iritiv desire of drinking, y rov irei&eiv r r*x v 'n the 
art of persuading, a-fiftys rov KaraKovew nv6s unaccustomed to obeying any one, 
fj.ol ouSej/ Trpefffivrepov rov on peXricrTov e/j.e yeveff&ai to me there is nothing 
more important than to become as good as possible, e'Tn^eXerrat rov &s ^povifjid)- 
raros elvai he is careful (of being) to be as wise as possible. So with many pre- 
positions, as e| from, in consequence of, irp6 before, prior to, irepi concerning, 
eVe/ca on account of, virep for the sake of, Sid by means of, &i/cv ivithout, aside 
from ; and with some adverbs, as e elvat rov KUKUS Trdcrxtiv to be out of reach 
of injury. 

a. The infinitive with rov is often used, without a preposition, to denote 
the PURPOSE (especially a negative purpose) : rov p.^ Sicxptv'yeu/ rbv Xaywv e/c 
r&v SIKTVW, (TKOTTovs Ko^fiffrafji^v that the hare may not escape out of the nets, 
we set watchers. 

782. DATIVE : ravra OVK $v / uiro8a>*' r rovs Q&Keas ff&&<r&ai these things 
were no bar to the preservation of the Phocians. Especially as dative of means, 
cause, or manner : KfKpdrrjKe r<$ irporepos Trpbs rovs iro\ep.iovs I4va.i lie has tri- 
umphed by marching first against the enemy, al Ka\S>s Tro\irev6/j.evai SiHJ-oicparicu 
irpoX va ' t T< ? SiKai6repai elvai well conducted democracies are superior in being 
more just. Also with prepositions, as *v in, eiri on the ground of or on condi- 
tion that, irp6$ in addition to : eV T< tKaarov SiKaicos apxeiv rj iroXireia ffca&rcu 
when each administers his office justly, the order of the state is preserved (in and 
through the just administration). 


Infinitive with dv. 

783. The infinitive takes av, where a finite verb, standing in- 
dependently, would take it. Thus the inf. with av corresponds 

a. to the POTENTIAL OPTATIVE with &v (722) : /n.d\iffra olpai %.v crov irv^ea-^ai 
(independent construction /j.d\icrra b.v Trv^oif.i.-nv) I think that I should learn best 

from you ; and with expressed condition (748): SQ/cetre juot (777) TTO\V /3eA- 

riov CLV Trepl rou Tro\e/j.ov Pov\ei>(racr&ai (indep. &e\riov cu> /3ouAeu<rcu(r3-e), el r~bv 
roirov rrts x&pas fV&vfji.'ri&elrjTe it appears to me that you would take much better 
counsel concerning the war, if you should consider the situation of the country. 

b. tO the HYPOTHETICAL INDICATIVE With &/(746): KvpOS el e/3lWej/, aplCTTOS 

"av 8oe? apxwv yevecr&ai (indep. apiffros bv e'yevero) it seems probable that Cyrus, 
if he had lived, would have proved a most excellent ruler. So with implied con- 
dition (751): robs ravra ayvoo vvras Scu/cpaTTjs avtipairoo'dafieis by KK\TJ<r&ai. fiytiTO 
(indep. e5f Tives ravra ?iyv6ow, avSpairoSwSeis Uv e/ce/cATji/ro) Socrates thought that 
persons ignorant of these things (if such there were) would be called slavish. 

REM. c. The particle av, though belonging to the infinitive, may be attached 
to the principal verb, or to other emphatic words in the sentence : see the fore- 
going examples. 

Infinitive for the Imperative. 

784. This occurs in the second (seldom in the third) person. It is 
rarely found in Attic prose. 

In this use of the inf., its subject, if expressed, is put in the nom. ; a predi- 
cate-noun belonging to the subject is put in the same case : Hm. iratSa 8' /j.ol 
Xvffai re ty(\f\v, rdr* airowa 8e'xe<rd-at release to me my dear child, and accept 
the ransom, Hm. Sapffwv vvv, Ai^rjSes, eVl Tpdeffcri /j.dxff&ai with courage now, 
Diomedes, fight against the Trojans, <rv, KAeap/So, ras irv\as cu/oias eVe/c 
do thou, Clearidas, having opened the gates, hasten out against (the enemy). 


For the nature of the participle, as a verbal adjective, but different 
. from other verbal adjectives, see 762. For the agreement of the parti- 
ciple with its substantive or subject, see 498. 

Attributive Participle. 

785. The participle, Like the adjective (488 a), may express 
an attribute of its substantive or subject (493) : 

jr6\is evpeias ayvias exovffa (= irfacs evpvdyvia Hm., or TT<$\IS ^ evpetas ayvias 
2%ei) a city having broad streets, at Ka\ov/j.vai Al6\ov vrj<roi the so-called islands 
of 'Aeolus, 6 irap&v tcaipjs the present occasion. The participle is always at- 
tributive, when it follows the article (492 d). 

786. The attributive participle is often found, with omitted subject, 
used as a substantive (509) : 


ot irapSyres the (persons) present, 6 TV^V whoever happens, irapk ro?s apiorrois 
SoKovcriv flvai with those who appear to be best, irAeo^ey eVl TroAAas vavs /ce/fTTj- 
P.CVOVS we are sailing against (men) who possess many ships. - Such participles 
arc often to be translated by substantives: 6 Spdtras the doer, ot Aeyoj/res the 
speakers, irpos^Kovris rives some relatives, TT^AIS TroAe/io w TOW a city of belligerents, 
ra Seovra the ditties, irp^s rb TeAeurcuoj/ e/c/3aj/ e/caaToi' T&V irp\v virap^dvTow ttpive- 
rai by the final issue is each one of the previous measures judged of. 

a. Participles thus used sometimes take a genitive, like substantives, espe- 
cially in poetry: TO, ffvp-fyspovra. rf?s ir6\ecas (563) the advantages of the state, T& 
So|a(bv TT)S ^v^ns (559) the thinking (part] of the soul, poet. 6 e/ce/i/ou TCKWV 
(563 a) his parent. 

b. The participle with the neuter article is rarely used in an abstract sense, 
like the infinitive : rb pty jUeAercSj' the not-exercising, failure to exercise (=rb fi^ 
lieXvrav). In prose, this is nearly confined to Thucydides. 


787. The predicate-participle, like the predicate-adjective (488 b), is 
brought into connection with its subject by the sentence. It is called 
CIRCUMSTANTIAL, when it is loosely related to the principal verb, adding 
a circumstance connected with the action; and SUPPLEMENT AEY, when it 
is closely related to the principal verb, supplying an essential part of the 

a. These subdivisions of the predicate-participle are not in all cases clearly 
distinguished, but run into each other. 

Circumstantial Participle. 

788. The circumstance, denoted by the participle, maybe re- 
lated in various ways to the action of the principal verb. Thus 
there is always a relation of 

a. TIME (for the tenses of the participle, see 714-18): ravra ennW airfeiv 
after saying these things, he went away, yeXwv ?7re he spoke laughing (at the 
same time), Trpose'xere TOVTOIS avayiyvfaffKo^vois rbv vovv give your attention to 
these things, while they are being read, 'AA/ajStaSTjs ert ircus &v efraujUttfeTo Alci- 
biades, while yet a boy, was admired (in such cases &v cannot be omitted), eVl 
'Apxvra fQopevovTos Avffavtipos els "Ecpeffov atpiKsro while' Archytas was ephor, 
Lysander came to Ephesus. 

Sometimes the participle may be rendered by an adverbial expression : apx6- 
(j.evos at first, reXevTcoi' at last, SmAMr&i/ yjp&vov after an interval of time, c3 
(fcaAcos) TTOIWV with right. Similarly TroAA?/ re'xz/p x/>c^ez/os with much art, TO.S 
vavs airea-TeiXav i-^ovro. 'AAwiSav they despatched Alcidas with the ships. Observe 
also such forms as ^AuapeTs e%a>j/ thou art trifiing (holding on to it) continually, 
&voiye avvffas open with despatch, TJ/cei T KO.KO. <pep6/ the evils are come with 
a rush (lit. borne on, with haste and violence). 

789. But the participle may denote also 

b. MEANS : Xf\l^6^vot faffi they live by plundering, OVK i<rnv abiKovvra Si5- 
fafj.iv j8e)8aiay KT-fiffaarfrai it is not possible (for any one) by wrong-doing to gain 
firm power. 


c. CAUSE : TOVTCDV r>v KepSwv aireixovro alffxpa vo/ufasres elvai from these 
gains they abstained, because they considered them to be shameful. - Thuo rl 
tfa^rav having sufcrcd what ? and ri /j.a&ui' having leanud what ? are used in 
asking, with surprise or severity, the reason of some fact: ri yap 

TOVS freous vftpl^frefor icith what idea did you insult the gods? 

d. EXD. The future participle often denotes purpose: irape\^\v^a 
\eva(i)v v^juv I have come forward to advise you, TOV aSiicovvra irapa TOVS 

ayeiv 5e? Si/crjj/ Swcrovra it is necessary to bring the evil-doer before the judges, in 
order that he may suffer punishment (lit. give justice). 

e. CONDITION : TO?S 'Afryyaiois i jro\eaovo'iv auetvov e<rrat it will be better for 
the Athenians, if they make tear. - Even an attributive participle may imply 
a condition on which the verb depends : 6 /j,-^ Sapels av&pwTros ov TrcuSetWai the 
man who is not whipped is not educated (if not whipped, he is not educated). The 
conditional participle with /xv'j can often be rendered by without : OVK ZffTtv 
&pxeiv ^ 8(5(Wa p.i<r$r6v it is not possible to command without giving pay (774). 

f. CONCESSION (cf. 874): TO vSwp fvcavdrarov aptffrov ov water is the cheapest 
(of all things), though it is the best, vue'is ixpopdo/j-evoi TO. ireTrpayuei/a Kal 8us%e- 
paivovres tfyere T^V elp^i/rjv oucas you, though you were suspicious as to what had 
been done, and were dissatisfied, continued to observe the peace notwithstanding. 

REM. g. It must be remembered that the Greek participle, while it stands 
in all these relations, does not express them definitely and distinctly. Hence 
the different uses run into each other, and cases occur in which more than one 
might be assigned : thus TOVS (pi\ovs evepysTovi/res Kal TOVS ex&pobs o'vvftffea'&e 
.Ko\deiv by benefiting your friends (means), OP if you benefit your friends (con- 
dition), you will be able also to chastise your enemies. 

Participle with Case Absolute. 

Y90. The circumstantial participle may be connected in its 
various uses (788-9) with a genitive (less often an accusative) 
absolute, i. e. not immediately dependent on any word in the 

GENITIVE ABSOLUTE. The participle with genitive absolute 
may denote 

a. TIME : TIeptKXeovs fiyovuevov, iro\\a Kal Ka\a Zpya aired eiai>TO o! 'A&?j- 
vouoi while Pericles was their leader, the Athenians accomplished many noble 
works, TovTtav Aexd-eVrcoj/, oveVrTjoraj/ Kal air^^oy after these things were said, 
they rose up and went away 

b. MEANS : TU>V ff<a;j.&T<av d-rj/Vvi/o^eVwj/, Kal at t|/v%al appuffT^Tepai yiyvovTai 
(the body being enfeebled) by the enfeebling of the body, the spirit also is made 

c. CAUSE : ovo~V TCOV SeAvrcav TTOIOVVTUV vuwi/, Kaicus e% ra TrpdyuaTa be~ 
cause you are not doing any of your duties, your affairs are in bad condition. 

d. CONDITION : OVK %.v ^A3w Sevpo, v^v u^ Ke\evffavT(av (= el /^ vpeis 

I should not have come here, if you had not commanded it, poet. 
ysvotT* &j/ Tray, ^eov T^vw\j(.ivov ( et i^t)s Te%^To) every thing would come to 
pass, should a divinity contrive. 

e. CONCESSION : iroXXwv Kara yr\v Kal 3-^Aarrai/- byplay ovrcav, TOVTO ueyur- 
r6v effTi though there are many wild animals on la^d and sea, this one is the 



791. The Greek construction of the genitive absolute differs from the 
Latin ablative absolute in several respects : 

a. The subject of the participle is often omitted, when it is easily under- 
stood from the context or from the meaning of the participle : ez/redd-ej/ irpo'i6v- 
rcav, e<paii/eTo s ix via> 'WTTGW as they (the army of Cyrus) ivere proceeding from thence, 
there appeared tracks of horses, vovros (Zeus raining, cf. 504 c) while it was rain- 
ing. The subject is omitted, also, when it is indeterminate, see 792 b. 

b. The participle of tipl to be cannot be omitted, where the sense requires 
it, as in <rov ircuSbs ovros (but Lat. te puero) when thou wert a boy. Except ia 
connection with the adjectives 4/c^i/ and &KWV, which closely resemble parti- 
ciples : f/jLov tc6vTos with my consent, e/ttov &KOVTOS against my will. 

c. The Greek, as it has perfect and aorist participles in the active voice, 
uses the construction of the case absolute much less often than the Latin : 6 
Kvpos rbv Kpo'iffov viK7)ffas Kareffrpe^aTO rovs AuSous, Lat. Cyrus, Croeso victo, 
Lydos sibi subjecit. 

d. The genitive absolute is sometimes used, even where the subject of the 
participle is at the same time dependent on other words in the sentence : raCr 5 
etVoWos O.VTOV, eSoe TL Xsyeiv ry 'Affrvdyei (=TO,VT' eliruj/ e5oe) when he had 
said these things, he appeared to Astyages to say something (important), SiajSe- 
&T}K6ros Ilept/cAeous, TjyyeA&rj avry ( = SiajSs^Tj/coVi UepiK^I 7?yyeA&7?) when Pe- 
ricles had crossed over, word was brought to him. 

792. ACCUSATIVE ABSOLUTE. Instead of the genitive abso- 
lute, the accusative is used when the participle is impersonal 
(494 a), i. e. 

a. when the SUBJECT of the participle is an INFINITIVE : ouSets, ebv slpfy-qv 
&yftv t TrJAe/ioi/ alp^fferai no one, (it being permitted him) when he is permitted 
to keep peace, will chpose war, irposrax^v /not MeVwj/a &yeiv els 'EAA^STiwroj', 
(fX^p-'nv Stct rdxovs (^ being commanded) when a command was given me to con- 
vey Menon to the Hellespont, I went in haste, Kpavyy OVK 6\iyp expwpTO, aSiifa- 
rov 'by *v VVKT\ &\\q> rep ffyp.riva.1 they made no little outcry, (it being impossible) 
as it was impossible in the night to give signals by any other means. The infini- 
tive is sometimes understood : ovSels TO uti&v alp-fitreTai, Qbv rb eAarroj/ (sc. 
aipz'ta'&ai) no one will choose the greater (of two evils), when it is permitted (to 
choose) the less. 

b. when the SUBJECT is INDETERMINATE : TOUTCOJ/ ou5e> yiyvcrcu, 8eV v&vruv 
p.a.\iffra yiyvecr&cu none of these things takes place, though it is above all neces- 
sary (something requires) that they should take place. - Yet in this case the 
participle is commonly put in the genitive, if the corresponding verb is not or- 
dinarily impersonal : ovrus ex VTOS or e%<Wo>z/ (it being thus, things being thus) 
in this state of things. So, also, when the subject is a dependent sentence : 

> A.ffTvdyei on Tro\e/j.iol eiffiv et> ry X^Pt w ^ en it was reported to 
Astyages that enemies were in the land (for the plural, cf. 518 a, b). 

'793. After o>$- (795 e) and ws-Trep, the accusative absolute is sometimes 
found, even when the participle is not impersonal : 

rovs vieis ot irarepes tfpyovffiv airb ra>v TrovqpcaV) &s T}]V TOVTQOV 6/j.i\tav Kara- 
Kvffiv oi>aav aper-^s fathers keep their sons away from eiil men, thinking that their 
society is the destruction of virtue, ffuaivy tdeiirj/ovv, tisirep rovro irposr^Tay^vov 
ot'ToTs they were supping in silence, just' as if this was enjoined upon them. -- 
Earely so, without preceding ws or wsirep : irposriKov avT$ rov K^ipov pepos since 
rf part of the inheritance belonged to him, S6^avra 8e ravra but these things having 
been resolved on (also S6av ravra, where perhaps iroteiv should be supplied). 


794. A participle with case absolute is often connected by conjunc- 
tions to a circumstantial participle in construction with the sentence : 

etSTjA&o/xei/ ets rbv TrJAe/xo;/ t^oi/res rpi-fipeis TerpaKCxrias, inrapxoi'Tuv Se XPT 
P.O.TUV TroX\$>v we entered into the war, having four hundred triremes, and (with) 
many resources belonging to us, T<y Tercet Trposefiahov aff&evei ital av&puiruv ov/c 
IVOVTWV they attacked the wall, because it was weak, and there were no men on it. 

Adjuncts of the Participle. 

795. The relations of the circumstantial participle, in its various uses 
(788-90), to the action of the principal verb, are rendered more distinct 
by adding certain particles, which may be called adjuncts of the parti- 
ciple. Thus, 

a. Tore, eTra, eVem*, ovrus represent the action of the principal verb as 
SUCCEEDING that of the participle. They are placed after the participle, and, 
as it were, repeat its meaning : KaraXiiruv (ppovpav ovrus eV' OIK.OV aj/e^doprja'e he 
left a garrison, and thus (after doing this) marched home again. 

b. ev&vs (placed before the participle) represents the succession as IMMEDI- 
ATE : TO; 8ei<S Kepa. eu&us cbro/3e)3?j:<$Ti eVe'/ce^TO they fell upon the right wing 
immediately after its landing. 

c. afj.a at the same time and /j.fra^i> between represent the two actions as 
CONTEMPORANEOUS : ot "EAA^es e/ic^opTO a/xa jropevo/j.evoi the Greeks were fight- 
ing while upon the march, Xtyovr6s (row, pera^ p.oi ysyove TJ <pwf] even while 
thou wcrt speaking, the voice came to me. They are commonly placed before 
the participle, 

d. are (also olov, old) with the participle gives a CAUSAL meaning : /care- 
Sap&e TrdVu TroAu, are it.ct.Kpuv ruv VVKTUV ovffuv he slept a great deal, because the 
nights were long. It denotes something actual (OBJECTIVE), and differs thus 
from the following. 

e. us with the participle represents its meaning as SUBJECTIVE, that is, as 
thought, felt, or uttered, by some person : ^uKpdrrjv iro&ovffiv us u^\ijj.urarov 
uvra Trpbs aper^s eTn/.ceAetai' they regret Socrates, because (as they think) he was 
most useful for the cultivation of virtue, &avfj.dovTai &s <ro<pot re Kal evrvx^s &v- 
Spes yeyevrjfj.ei'oi they are admired as having been (in the view of their admirers) 
both wise and fortunate men, Aeyet us StSa/cTot) ovcrrjs rrls aperijs he speaks in the 
belief that virtue is a thing that can be taught, poet. ee<rn <t><aviv, us fftov [id- 
vys TreAoy (sc. ovffi)s, omitted contrary to 791 b) you are at liberty to speak aloud, 
assured that I alone am near, 'iva irpbs TTJV e'/c/cATjo'i'cw' ?}/coiei>, us 5^ ^vyyeve'is fores 
TUV a.Tro\o>\6T<av that they might come into the assembly, pretending that they 
were kinsmen of those who had perished, cbreySAetyaTe irpos aAA-rjAous, us avrbs 
p.\v fKaffros ov iroi4]fftav rb 86aj', Tbv Se TrArja'toy irpa^oz/ra (793) ye looked to one 
another, expecting each that he himself would not do what was resolved on, but 
that his neighbor would accomplish it. 

f. Katirep (less often /caQ with the participle gives a CONCESSIVE meaning 
and is rendered though ; Kaiirep ovru crofpbs uv, jSeAr/ajj/ &/ ytvoio though thou 
art so wise, thou couldst become better. In tlm,, the icai and irep are often se- 
parated (cf. 477) : of 5e Kal axvvfj.voi irep evr' avrtp 7]5b ye\affffav but they, al- 
t/tough troubled, laughed pleasantly at him; or irzp alone is used in the same 

sense : ax^^voi ire/?. "O/j.<as yet with the principal verb, expresses the same 

meaning : Hd. vffrepov airiK^evoi TTJS (Tu^oAfjs i^ipovro Q/J.US befiffaa-frcu TOVS 
MTJ^OUS though they came too late for the engagement, they yet desired to look 
tpon the 


Supplementary Participle. 

796. The supplementary participle supplies an essential part 
of the predicate. It may belong either to the subject or to the 
object of the principal verb: 

a. to the SUBJECT : Traueo-Se det TTfpt rcoi/ avrS>v /SovXeuo/xei/ot cease con- 
sulting forever on the same matters, urSi XUTT^POS- &v know that you are 

b. to the OBJECT : 6 TroXf/nos eTtavaev f)pas del Trepi rail/ avroov /SovXeu- 
ofjifvovs the war compelled us to cease consulting forever on the same mat- 
ters, olSa avrov \v7rrjpbv ovra I know that lie is offensive. 

797. The action of the supplementary participle is represented, through 
its connection with the principal verb, 


So with elfj.1 to be, inrdpxco to be (orig. to begin to be), exo (to hold one's 
Self, and hence) to be, - <paivo/ to appear (802), (pavepos (S^A^s) el^ti to be 
manifest, eot/ca I seem. - So with verbs of SHOWING (causing to appear) : Sei/c- 
VV/J.L (5??A(ta, airo<f>aivca) to show, iroito) to represent, e|eAe'7x w to convict, ayye\\co 
to announce, 6/j.o\ojd) to acknoivledge. 

Thus et rots Tr\o<riv apefficovTcs ea^te*/ if we are acceptable to the majority, 
7rposr)K6j/ fffTi or SisiTep TrposrJKov as it is proper. For the participle used 

with e<> to supply certain parts of the verb, see 385, 892-3, 713. 
eX& I have proclaimed (lit. having proclaimed I hold myself thus) : this is 
chiefly poetic. Constructions like uvov^voi SouAous e^oim they purchase slaves 
and hold them, belong to 788. - airotyaij/ovo'i rovs Qevyoyras ird\ai irovrjpovs 
OVTO.S they show that the exiles were long ago bad, &i\nriros iravra eVewa lavrou 
iroiuy e|eA^Ae7/cTat Philip has been convicted of doing all things for himself. 

798. 2. as BEGINNING, CONTINUING, or CEASING, to be. 
So with & to begin (691), StareAeco (Stc&yw) to continue, iravca to make 
one cease, irai/opou (A^7<y, eTre'xtw) to cease, Sta- (CTTI-) AetV&j to leave off, intermit; 

also airayopetito) to give over, eAAe/Trw to fail. - Thus SiareAw efti/oiav e^coz/ 
vfuv I continue to bear good-will to you all, eirlcrxes 6pyi6/ cease to be angry, 
*A.yr\<ri\aos OVK O7re?7re fjieydXav ical KaX&v e^te^ueyos Agesilaus did not give up 
aiming at great and honorable things. 

799. 3. as an object of PEECEPTIC-NJ KNOWLEDGE, REMEMBRANCE, and 
the contrary. 

So with alff&dvofjiai to perceive, vopifa to consider, opdca to see, irepiopdoo to 
(overlook) allow, d/couw to hear, /j.av&dva) to learn (802), Trvv&dvofjiai to learn by 
inquiry, svpicntw to find, \a/j.^dfci) to (catch) detect, a\i( ((pcopdofjiai) to be 
detected, - oI5a (eTrtcrTa/^ot, yt-yj/wovcaj) to know (802), ayvoew to be ignorant, 
- ^e/iVTjjuai I remember (802), Tri\av&& to forget. 

Thus eZSov TOVS TroAc^ious TreAa^bj/ras they saw the enemy approaching, jfiews 
aKOixa ^(aicpdrovs StaAeyo^eVou I gladly hear Socrates discoursing, $v eirifiovXevow 
a\lffKf}rat if he should be detected in laying plots, evfi&ws Icnlv osns ayvozl rbi/ 
e/cei^ey (cf. 618 a) TrJAe^oj/ Sevpo vJloyra foolish is (any one) who does not know 
that the war subsisting there will come hither. 

a. ffwoidd p.oi may take the participle either in the nominative or in the 
dative : tavrcp w$8eu' ouSey ^iriffT&^vos or eiryrTCtyieVy he was conscious that he 

803] PARTICIPLE WITH 3.V. 293 

knew nothing. When it moans to know by privity with another, it may have an 
object and participle in the accusative. 

800. 4. as an object of ENDURANCE or EMOTION. 

So with (pepo) to bear, av^x ^ - 1 to support, Kaprepeoo to endure, x"V M 

t, repTro^ucu) to be pleased, ayairdca to be content, ayavaicreca (ax&o{, x a ~ 
<ppca) to be vexed, displeased, bpyi^ojj.a.i to be angry, atV%wo,uat to be 
ashamed (802), /iera^ieAouat (^erajueAe: /.toz) to repent : also Kafj.}/ca to be iveary. 

Thus 5warai \oiSopov/j.evos (pepeiv he is able to bear being reviled, xaipez 

eiraivovfj-evos he delights in being praised, ^era^eAet O.VT$ ^eu<ra/*eV<p he repents 
of having lied, /nav^dvcav ^ itdfj-ve be not weary in learning. 

a. The participle with verbs of emotion might be regarded as the circum* 
stantial used to express means or cause. 

801. 5. as talcing place in some general MANNER indicated by the 
principal verb. 

So, as taking place WELL or ILL, indicated by eS (icaKws) TTOIW ; WRONGLY, by 
dSt/ceco, apapTdvco ; WITH SUPERIORITY Or INFERIORITY, by viitdci),, BY 
CHANCE, by Twyxwui poet. Kvpeco ; WITHOUT NOTICE, by \av&dv<a ; BEFORE the 

action of another, by <d-dVo> ; etc. Thus dSt/cetre iroAe'jUou &PXOVTCS Kal <rirov~ 

8os Auoi/res ye do wrong in commencing war and breaking truce, %TV%OV OTrAtrat 
/ Ty ayopy Kaev8oi/Tes heavy-armed men, as it chanced, were sleeping in the 
market-place, eAa&e r^v Kvpov CTreAi^w^ he departed without the knowledge of 
Cyrus, eAa,&oi/ Sta^apeVres (sc. eavTovs unnoticed by themselves) they were 
ruined unawares, tybdvei. rot/s <pi\ovs evepyeTwv he anticipates his friends in con- 
ferring benefits. 

a. With Ttryxcw/co, the participle may be omitted where it is readily sup- 
plied from the connection : irepieTpexw oirg Tu%ot/*t (sc. ireptrpexcwy) I was run- 
ning about wherever I might chance. 

802. GENEEAL REMARK. With many of these verbs, an infinitive may 
be ufeed in the same sense ; but often there is a difference of meaning. 

Thus (paiveTai TrAourwv he appears to be rich (is rich and appears so), but 
(paiveTai irXovrtiv he has the appearance (perhaps deceptive) of being rich; 
atV%wo ( uai \eyuv I speak with shame, but cjtcrxuj/o^at Aeyety I am ashamed to 
speak (and therefore do not speak) ; ole (fj.av&di'ei) VIKUV he knows (learns) that 
he is victorious, but o!5e (nav&dvei) VIKUV he knows {learns) how to be victorious; 
[ne/ els itlvltvvov e'A&wi/ 1 remember that I came into danger, but fUfunifUU 
rbv KivSvvov (pevyeiv I am mindful to shun the danger. 

Participle with dv. 

803. The participle takes av, where a finite verb, standing 
independently, would take it (783). Thus the participle with 
av corresponds 

a. to the POTENTIAL OPTATIVE with low (722): Tas &\\as TroAets virfpedpav, 
&s OVK civ Suj/a^eVas jSorj^vjo-ai (indep. OVK av SvvaivTo) the other cities they over* 

looked, supposing that they would not be able to give aid; also with expressed 

condition (748) : 670; e^ rfav ?j5es av e'Aeyx&eVrwj', e? TI fj.}) dATj^es \eyco (*750), 
^Sews 5' Uv t\eytdvT<av, e5f TIS ^ dA^^es Ae-yoi (indep. ot &v eAe^X 1 ^ 6 ^ 6 ''* ^^y- 
eiav) I am one of those who would gladly be confuted, if I say anything untrue, 
but would gladly confide another^ if he should say anything untrue. 


b. to the HYPOTHETICAL INDICATIVE with &v (746) : QiXtinros TloriScuav eAcbp 
Kai Svvrj&els Uv aurbs ex ea/ * 0ov\'f)&ri t 'O\.vv&lois 7rape8co/ce (indep. e5wr/fr?7 &v) 
Philip, when he had taken Potidaea, and would have been able to keep it himself \ 
if he had wished, gave it up to the Olynthians. 

For the meaning of the verbal adjectives in rdy and re'os, see 398. 

804. The verbal adjective in re'or, when used as a predicate with 
has a twofold construction, personal and impersonal. The latter gives 
prominence to the necessary action expressed by the verbal ; the former, 
to the object of that necessary action. The copula et/zi is very often 
omitted, see 508 a. 

a. In the PERSONAL construction, the object of the action is 
put in the nominative (693), and the verbal agrees with it : 

ov Trp6 ye rrjs a\r)&eias rip.r)r4os avfjp a man is not to be honored before the 
truth, fj ir6\is rois iroX'nais w^eATjreo cart the state must be aided by the citizens. 
- With the infinitive or participle of efyif, the object and the verbal may be 
put in other cases : & TO?S \ev&epois rjyowro elj/at irpaKTfa things which they 
thought were to be done by freemen, TTO\\WV cri p.oi Ae/creW OVT'WV there being 
many things yet to be said by me. 

b. In the IMPERSONAL construction, the verbal stands in the 
neuter (reV or rea, cf. 518 a), and the object is put in an oblique 
case, the same which the verb itself would take : 

o/cTeop etrrt it is necessary to observe the peace, airreov rjfuv TOU 
we must take hold of the war, ovs ov TrapaSorca e<rr who must not be 

805. The verbal in TCOS takes the AGENT (or doer of the action) 
in the DATIVE, cf. 600. 

For examples, see the sentences given above. With the impersonal con- 
struction, the agent is sometimes put in the accusative (perhaps because the 
verbal was thought of as equivalent to 8e? with the infinitive) : /carajSareoj/ tv 
fjLfpei cKctffTOv each one must descend in turn, ouSevl Tptiircp kK6vras aSt/CTjreo^ by 
no means should (men) willingly do injustice. 

806. a. The verbal in reos may also have an indirect object, like the verb 
from which it comes : ot>s ov TrapafioTea rois 'Afrrjj/aiois ecrri who must not be 
surrendered to the Athenians. 

b. The'verbal in reos sometimes shows the meaning of the middle voice : 
ireiffTfov one must obey (irei&n) to persuade, mid. obey), <pv\a,KTeov one must guara 
against (<pv\d<Tffa to watch, mid. guard against), aTrreov one must take hold of 
etTTTOJ to fasten, mid. touch). 




Attraction. Incorporation. 

807. A relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in number and 
gender (503), but stands in any case required by the construction of its 
own sentence. Yet there is often an irregular agreement in case (attrac- 
tion) : as well as a peculiar arrangement (incorporation), which bring 
the relative sentence into closer connection with its antecedent. They 
occur only when there is a close connection in sense, the relative sentence 
qualifying its antecedent like an attributive. 

808. 1. ATTRACTION. The relative often varies from the case 
required by its own sentence, being attracted, or drawn into the 
case of its antecedent. 

Thus the relative may be attracted 1. from the ACCUSATIVE to the 

GENITIVE : /Lte'/zi//7cr3e TOV SpKov ov o/zcojuoKare (instead of ov o/n.) remember 
the oath which ye have sworn. 2. from the ACCUSATIVE to the DATIVE : 

TOLS dyaSois ols e^o/J-fv aXXa KT^cro/zeSa (for a e^ofjiev) l>y means of the ad- 

vantages which we have, we will acquire others. 

a. The relative is seldom attracted PROM any case but the accusative (the 
object of a verb), or TO any case but the genitive or dative. But when incor~ 
poration occurs, other varieties of attraction are sometimes found with it : Sp 
eVryyxcJi/w n&Xiffra & ffe (for TOVTOJV oTs) of those whom I meet with, lad' 
mire thee most, et <roi So/ce? /j./j.fveiv oTs &pn eSol-ei/ -TJ/MV (for rovrois a) if it seems 
to you best to adhere to those things which seemed best to us just now. Cf. 810. 

809. II. INCORPORATION, The antecedent is often incorpo- 
rated^ or taken up, into the relative sentence. 

The relative and antecedent must then agree in case. Hence 1. 

The antecedent may conform to the case of the relative : riva opwrj KU- 
Td(TKvdovTa TJS apxoi x^P ? (f r r *l v X^P av V s "PX0 \f^ 6 saw an y one 

improving the district of which he was governor. 2. The relative may 

conform to the case of the antecedent (attraction) : npbs als irapa Ava-dv- 
Spov eXa/3e vavai (for TCUS vaval as eXa/3e) in addition to the ships which 

he received from Lysander. 3. When both regularly stand in the same 

case, no change occurs : fi?) a(jf>e A^crSe vfj.S)v avrwv rjv 7rd\ai Kewqcr'Se bo^av 
KaXrjv do not take away from yourselves the honorable reputation which 
you long possess. 

a. If the antecedent in its ordinary position would take an article, thia 
usually disappears in the relative sentence. See the examples just given. 

810. ANTECEDENT OMITTED. When the antecedent is omitted 
(510), it is virtually contained in, and supplied by, the relative 
sentence. Constructions of this kind are regarded, therefore, 


as instances of incorporation. The relative sentence may then 
be compared to an attributive with omitted subject (509) : it has 
the use and construction of a substantive in the different cases : 

Thus NOMINATIVE : eyw /cat >v eya> Kparca ^.evoOyuef (for oliroi &v] I and (those) 

whom I command witl stay. ACCUSATIVE: T'LS fjufftiv Swear' &j> ixp' oJj e<5er>j 

aya&bs vo^6p.evos (for rovrov v<p o5) who could hate (the man] by whom he knew 

that he was considered as good? GENITIVE : 77 Tr6\is ^wj/ cov eAa/8e jue- 

Te'5a>/v-e (for rovrcav a) our city gave to all a sltare of (those things which) ivhat 

she took. DATIVE: evu^ov avv ois p.d\iffra <iAeTs (for rovrois oils) feast with 

(those] whom you most love. 

a. In explaining this construction, it is usual, as in the examples just given, 
to supply a demonstrative as antecedent. It must be observed, however, that 
the Greek idiom makes, a distinction between avv ens fj.d\iffTa <iAe?s with those 
whom you most love (your best friends, without other distinction), and <rvv rov- 
rots ols p.d\iffTa (piXdis with these (particular persons, mentioned before, or 
otherwise distinguished) ivhom you most love. We have also avv ois /j.d\iffTa 
<J>iAe?s ffvv TOVTOLS i>cax.ov (the demonstrative introduced after the relative sen- 
tence) : this has the same meaning as the form first given, but with an emphatic 
repetition (680) : with those whom you most love, with THEM (I say) feast. 

811. OTHER RELATIVES. These peculiarities of construction (attraction 
and incorporation) are not confined to.oy, but apply also to the other re- 
latives, ocroy, otoy, I]\IKOS, OSTIS, etc. I 

Sioi/cetV ras Tr6\eis TOIOVTOIS ij&efftv o'iois Evay6pas e?%e (for ofa) to govern the 
cities with such manners as Evagoras had, eistyepere cup o<r<av eKaffros e%ei (for 
airb roffovTiav offa) contribute from that amount of property which each one has. 
The use of indefinite relatives as dependent interrogates rests upon incorpora- 
tion (825 b). 

a. The same peculiarities extend to KELATIVE ADVERBS : &> v/ ej/&a TO 
TTpo.yp.oi. eyevero (for e/ceTa-e ev^-a) I will take you to the place where the affair 
occurred, rovs SouAovs a7ro/cAe/ou<nj/ obey *a,v ri AajSe?^ y (for e/cet^ez/ 6'3-ej/) they ex- 
clude the slaves from places whence it may be possible to take any thing. Often 
we may supply a pronoun as the antecedent : &<r/cet 6ir6&ev $6tis typovtiv (for 
TOVTO cTTf^ei/) practise that from which you will appear to be ivuc. An instance 
of attraction is seen in SieKOfj.iovTO ev&vs o&ev vTre^e^ei/ro TraTSas /cal yvvcuicas 
(for e/cel^ei' ol) they immediately brought over their children and women from the 
places to which they had withdrawn them. 

812. "EO-TIV 01. Here belongs the frequent construction of eo-riv CH, 
less often elo-\v ot, there are (those) who, that is some (= TtWy, but more 
emphatic) : in like manner eo-nv oirivts, used in questions. 

(For the singular ecrriv, see 516.) Thus: avaXafibv TUV ITTTT^V ?Aas iffnv 
as having taken some squadrons of the cavalry, VTTOTTTOI zyevovro fffriv eV ols 
they came to be suspected in some things, eWtj/ ovsrivas av^p^ircav Te3-av ( ua/cas 
iirl ffotyia hast thou admired any among men on account of wisdom ? ^<rav oj 
(also 3\v ot') /cal Trvp Trpostfyepov some too were bringing fire. (Compare the word 
fj/ioi some, made up of ew + o'/, where %j/i is for eVeoTt or eVeto":, 615 a.) Similar 
expressions are co-ny ore (eV/ore) sometimes, ivny ov or OTTOV someivhere, effrit 
oircas somehow, etc., in which the omitted antecedent is an idea of time, place, 
manner, etc. 


813. NEUTER RELATIVE. In some cases of omitted antecedent, the 
neuter relative has a free construction with the force of on or wsre : 

7T/30S7JK6t X^P lv O^TOiS %X flV V * O'CtSSlJtTaj' V<P* Vp.G>V (>V = TOVTCaj/ OTt, 518 b) it 

becomes them to be grateful for this, that they were saved by you. So av& u>v in, 
return for (this) that, e &v in consequence of (this) that (cf. oDVe/ca, 63-oiW/ca, 
869, 3). So also e</>' $, e(p' ^T (= eVl TOUTCO ojsre) on condition that, often 
used with the infinitive : oi rpiaKOvra ype^rjffav Ifi <re ffvyypdtyai v6/j.ovs the 
thirty ivere chosen on the condition that they should draw up laws. Hd. has eirl 
TovTcp CTT' o?Te with the same meaning. 

a. The neuter relative is used with prepositions in several expressions of 
time and place : e| ov (= IK TOVTOV Iv y from that point of time at which) since, 
afi ov since, eV c while, els o (= els rovro eV <) till, {J.exP l (&XP 1 ) v until, also 
to where (to that point of space at which). So with other relatives : e O'TOU 
since, fj.exP l ffov as f ar as where. Hd. sometimes uses ^XP 1 ^> ^ e A^XP'i 
with a genitive. 

For special uses of sentences which begin with neuter relatives, see 823. 

Other constructions which require particular notice are the following: 

814. olos (full form TOCOVTOS ofos-) is often used with the infinitive, 
and means of such sort as to, proper for. And so olosre in such condition 
as to, able to; oaos of such amount as to, enough to. 

Thus OVK $v &pa o'ia. ctpSew T& ireS/oi/ it was not a proper season to water the 
plain, oi>x oToire ?iffav jSoTj^o-at they were not able to render assistance, %(tytej/ 
offov airoffiv we have enough to live. 

815. Olos and oa-os are sometimes used where, in supplying the antecedent, 
we must supply with it an idea of " thinking," "considering": airK\aov r^v 
(j.avTov TU%TJJ/, o'iov avfipbs eratpov ^(frept](ji.4vos ef^y (sc. \oyi6/j.evos TOIOVTOV &v- 
Spa o'iov considering the kind of man of whom, etc.) I bewailed my own fortune 
in that I had been deprived of such a man as a companion, Hm. al^aros els 
oyaS-oTo, oP ayopeveis (sc. rivl \oyiop.tvtp TOiavra oTa in the view of one who 
considers, etc.) thou art of good blood, to judge from such things as thou art 
saying. Similarly evSai/j.wi' fj.oi avrjp e^at^ero, us oSecDs /cal yevvatus TeA.e^Ta 
the man appeared to me happy (considering the way in which) in that he died 
so fearlessly and nobly. 

a. The same relatives, ofos, ti<ros, and cos, are used in EXCLAMATIONS, where 
we should employ interrogates: & irdTnre, ova Trpdy/j.ara %x eis * v r <? Sefirv^ 

grandfather, how much trouble you have in your supper (oh ! the amount of 
trouble which you have), cos ?j8us el how pleasant you are (oh ! the way in which 
you are pleasant). 

816. When olos (seldom o'cros, ^Af/cos) would properly stand in the nomina- 
tive, as a predicate with ifj.i, the copula efyti is often dropped, and the relative 
with its subject is attracted into the case of its antecedent : ^5i5 tcrrt %a/>/ecr&cu 
oiq> ffoi avfipi (for TOIOVTOJ olos ffv ef) it is pleasant to gratify a man such as thou 
art. To this construction the article may be prefixed : rots o'lois yfuv to such 
as we are. Yet sometimes the subject of the relative remains in the nomina- 
tive : rovs o'lovs v/j.?s p.iffei ffvKo^a.vra.5 he hates sycophants such as you are. The 
form rovs oios ovros avfrpdairovs is also found. 

a. By a similar attraction ftsris gets the meaning of any whatsoever; and 
the same idiom extends to other indefinite relatives. This is always the case 
when -ovv is added : OVK ecrrt Sucaiov avSpbs fiXaitTeiv ovnvovv av&p&irwv (for rwck 
6sTisovv ecrrt any one whoever he is) it is not the part of a just man to injure 



any person whatsoever. So too osris (or os) jSouAet, like Lat. quivis, is used for 
rls l ov ouA : irepl HoXvyvcarov i!) &AAoy tirov &oi>\ei concerning Polygnotus or 
any other whom you please. 

b. A peculiar incorporation is seen in the phrases, ocroi fj.rjves (as if roffav- 
TO.KIS oo-ot Drives etVi as many times as there are months) monthly, ocrou yfjicpai 
(also 6a"r)/j.epai) daily, etc. 

817. INYERSE ATTRACTION. The antecedent, without being incorpo- 
rated into the relative sentence, is sometimes attracted to the case of the 

In most instances of this kind, the relative sentence comes between the 
antecedent and the word on which it depends : rfy ovviav V KareXnrsv ov TrAet- 
ovos aia tfv (for T) ov<ria T]V) the property which he left was of no more value, 
poet. Tcs8' asirep eisopys ^Kovffi irpbs o~e (for ot'Se as) these (maidens) whom thou 
seest, are come to thee. So with adverbs : /col ctAAotre OTTOL oz/ a^t/cj? ayair^ffovffi 
ere (for #AAo3"i) and in other places, wherever you may go, they will love you. 

a. In this way, ouSeis is attracted by a following osris ou : ot>5evl area OVK 
aTroKplverai (for ovSeis effTiv '6rcp OVK ait. there is no one whom he does not answer) 
he ansivers every one. 

b. By a somewhat similar change, ^avfj.affr6y effnv o<ros, o<rov, etc., passes 
into ^av/uLaffrbs o<ros, &av l uaa'Tov offov, etc. ; and in like manner, &avfj.aa'T6v effTiv 
ws, into fravfj-affTus us. A few other adjectives show the same idiom. Thus 
&av/j.affT})v oa"f]v Trepl ere Trpo&v/j.iai' %et he has a wonderful degree of devotion for 
you, v7re/xuo>s us xatpw I am prodigiously pleased. 

Other Peculiarities. 

relative may depend at once on two different verbs, even when 
these in their regular use require different cases. 

a. The two verbs may stand in the same sentence, the one being a finite 
verb, the other an infinitive or participle : /caTaAa/xjSdVotxn re?x<>s b Tetxitrcfytej/o^ 
Trore 'A-Kapvaves nowy SiKaffTtipicp e%pai;/TO (prop. $ e^pwyro) they take a fortress, 
which the Acarnanians, having once fortified (it), were using as a commonplace 
of judgment. 

b. The two verbs may stand in different sentences, one of them subordinate 
to the other: atpovp-e^a auro/j.6\ovs ofy, 6ir6rav TIS 7rAetoj/a /j.icr&bj' StSijJ, per* 
eKeivwv a.KoAov&-fiffovffi (prop, ot aKoAou^-.) we choose (as guides) deserters, who, 
when any one may offer them larger pay, will follow those (who offer it). 

c. The two verbs may stand in co-ordinate sentences : 'A/HCUOS, t>v rj^s' j8a<nAea Kafriffrdvai, /col eSc^/ca^aev /col eAajSojUej/ Triffrd (prop. ^ c5w/ca- 
pei/, afi ov eAojSo^ei') Ariaeus, whom we wished to make king, and (to whom) we 
gave, and (from whom) we received pledges, Hm. &vux&t &e y-w ja^eea-^ai T$ 
orew re irar^p /ceAerai, /col aj/Sayet avri) (prop. OSTIS av'Sdvei) bid her marry that 
one whom her father commands, and (who) is pleasing to herself. 

REM. d. In the last case (c), the Greek hardly ever repeats the relative, but 
t often uses a personal pronoun (commonly euros) instead : ot TrpSyovot, ots OVK 
ex a P'C OJ/| ^ ? * Ac-yci/res, ouS 3 f(pi\ovv avrovs our ancestors, ichom the speakers dia 
not try to please, and were not caressing them, Hm. avrifrtov Tlo\v(pr)fji.oi>, oov Kpd- 
ros etrrl ^yiffTov iraffiv Ku/cAcoTreo'0't, Qdwcra 8e fji.iv re/ce vv^fpr] the godlike Poly- 

Cmus, whose power is greatest among all the Cyclopes, and the nymph Thoosa 
e him* 


819. VEEB OMITTED. Where the same verb belongs to both sentences, 
antecedent and relative, it is sometimes omitted in one of them, especially 
in the relative sentence : 

poet. (f)t\ovs vo^'iCavo* ovsirep kv ir6ffis ff&ev (sc, vop.igri (pi\ovs) considering 
as friends those whom your husband (may consider so), ra yap #AAa offmrep Kal 
fytets eTTotetre (sc. eirotet) for all other things (he did) as many as you also wer* 
doing, 0/j.oiov e/xol SOKOVCTI ireTrov&evat, olov el ris ev ffireipuv ec^Tj rbv Kapirbv Ka- 
rappe'tv they seem to me to have suffered the same thing as (one would suffer) if, 
while sowing well, he should let the crop perish. - After relative adverbs, the 
omission is much more frequent : ej-effnv, &sirep 'Hye\oxos (sc. eXeyev), T}[UV 
\eyeiv it is permitted us to speak, as Hegelochus (spoke), &>s e/j-ov I6vros oirr) Uv 
v/j.e'is (sc. fojre) ovroo T7)v yvu>/j.rjv e^ere as if I were going wherever you also (may 
go), so make up your mind, eiretS^ ou r6re (sc. eetas), aAAa vvv 5e?ov since thou 
didst not then (show), now at least show. 

820. PREPOSITION OMITTED. When the antecedent stands before the rela- 
tive, a preposition belonging to both appears only with the first : ev rpial /col 
8e/co oi>x oAois ereffiv oTs eiriiroXdei (for ev oTs) in not quite thirteen years, in 
which he is uppermost, ol fj.ev CTT' ej-ovfftas oiroa"i]s i)&ov\.ovTo eirparrov (for e(/>' 

) they were acting with as much license as they pleased. 

821. TRANSFER TO KELATIVE SENTENCE. Designations which belong most 
properly to the antecedent, are sometimes taken into the relative sentence : 
els 'Ap/j.evlav ^^etf, ^s 'Opovras $px e ToAA?}s Kal ev8a.ifji.ovos (for iroAA^y Kal ei>8cu- 
/toz/o) they would come to Armenia, of which Orontas was governor, an extensive 
and prosperous country, ourot, eVci ev&ecos ytf&ovro rb irpay/na, a.irexApyo'a-v (for 

first) these immediately, when they understood the matter, withdrew. So 
(a>s, ore) Ta%torTa for rdxiffra eiret (cos, ore) : ireipa.ff6[Ji.&a. icapdivai orav rd- 
5ia.Trpa(f>fj.&a we shall endeavor to be present (most quickly when) as soon 
as we have accomplished. In like manner : ^7070^ 6ir6a-ovs irXeiffTovs e'SiW/xrjj/ 
/ have brought (the largest number which) as many as I could. 

For the use of relative words to strengthen the superlative, see 664. 

822. RELATIVE PRONOUN FOR CONJUNCTION. A relative pronoun is some- 
times used, where we should expect a conjunction, on or fisre (cf. 813): &av- 
fj.affTbj' TroieTs, t>s ijfjuv ouSev SiSas you are acting strangely, (who give) in that 
you give us nothing, ris ovrcas eVrl 8usTu%^s osns TrarpiSa irpoeff&ai ^ovX^fferai 
who is so wretched that he will be willing to betray his country ? airtpwj' eVrlv 
o'lnves e&eAoucn 8t' liriopKias irpdrTcii/ ri it belongs to men without resource, that 
they wish to pursue any object by means of perjury. - For the relative used 
with the fut. ind. to express purpose, see 710 c. 

823. LOOSE CONSTRUCTION. A sentence commencing with a neuter relative, 
is sometimes loosely prefixed to another sentence, either - (a) to suggest the 
matter to which it pertains : & 5' elTrev, &s eyca etui oTos aet irore ueTapd\\<!<r&ai, 
Karavo-fjffaTe but what he said, that lam such a one as to be always changing, 
(sc. irepl ro^rwv \4yd) concerning this I say) consider, etc. ; or - (b) wjth ap- 
positive force : & &pn eteyov, ^TjTTjTeov rives &PHTTOI tyvXaites (what) as I just 
said, we must inquire who are the best guards. In this case, the principal sen- 
tence is sometimes irregularly introduced by on or ydp (cf. 502) : 6 pev iravrav 
&av/j.affT6TaTOV aicovcrai, on ev eKatrrov u>v eirpvfffafj.V air6\^.vffi rfyv tyvxfiv what 
is most wonderful of all, (that) each one of the things which we approved ruins 
the soul. In like manner, after phrases such as &s Xeyovvi as they say, us eoi/ce 
as it appears, etc., the principal sentence is sometimes expressed as dependent: 
us yap tfKovffd nvos, an KheavSpos e'/c Bvfavrlov jueAAet %civforas I heard from 


gome one, (that) Oleander is about to come from Byzantium, rJSe 76 juV> <*>s ol- 
jncu, avayKaiSraTOV elvai (for cart) Ae'yetj/ this, however, as I think, it is most ne 
cessary to say. 


824. The question expressed by an interrogative sentence 
may relate, either 

a. to the EXISTENCE of an act or state denoted by the verb 
of the sentence ; or 

b. to something connected with that act or state, as its SUB- 



825. These are expressed by means of pronouns or adverbs, 
by interrogatives, if the question is direct, by interrogatives 
or indefinite relatives, if it is indirect (682). 

a. The pronouns represent an uncertain person or thing, quantity or qua- 
lity, to be determined by the answer : the adverbs, an uncertain time, place, or 
manner, to be determined in the same way. Thus ris Ae^et who is speaking ? 
T'I (Sia TI, TrJtra, Trom, ir6re, irov, TTU>S) Ae'yei what (on what account, how many 
things, what sort of things, when, where, how) does he speak? i)p6p.^v ris (r'i, 
7ro?a, ircas, also orrzy, o TJ, oirdia, OTTCOS) Aeyot / asked who (what, what sort of 
things, hoiv, he) spoke. 

b. Strictly speaking,, the indefinite relatives have no interrogative force : 
they are proper relatives, and have for antecedents the uncertain person, thing, 
time, place, etc., to be determined : it is the connection only which gives the 
idea of a question. Hence the simple relatives are occasionally used in the 
same way : e^KTro/cA.Tjs SeiVay <|>/>aei TO> vavK\vjpca, OSTIS earl, /cal 81' & (pevyet 
Themistocles in his fear makes known to the shipmaster, who he is, and on account 
of what he is fleeing. 

826. The interrogative word often depends, not on the principal verb 
of the interrogative sentence, but on a participle or other dependent 
word : 

rivos iiriffT'fifj.cav Aeyejy as acquainted with what, are you sptaking ? rov e/c 
iroias ir^Aecos ffrparriybv irposfioKci) Tavra irpd^iv (the general from what sort of 
city do I expect) from what sort of city must the general be, whom I expect to do 
these things ? T'I tScbv KpiT60ov\ov iroiovvra Tavra KareyvcaKas avrov (having seen 
C. doing what, have you brought) what have you seen Critobulus do, that you 
have brought these charges against him ? ol TraAcu 'ASrrjvatoi ov SieXoyicravro virep 
oTa (825 b) TreTroiTj/c^Ttoi/ a.v&pdaTrci)v Kiv^vvevffovffi (for men having done what sort 
of things) the ancient Athenians did not consider what sort of things the men 
bad done, in whose behalf they were to incur danger, aireiXSiv OVK eTrauero, Kal ri 
KO.KOV ov Trapexcoj/ he did not cease threatening, and (what evil not causing ?) caus- 
ing every evil. For TI ira.&&v and T'I fta&dtv, see 789 c. 

a. The interrogative may stand as predicate-adjective with a demonstra- 
tive pronoun, not only in the nominative, but in an oblique case : TIS 5' ovros 


(being who, does that one come) who is that coming? fayyeXiav <j>epco j8o- 
iva ravr-nv (sc. 

peiav Tiva ravri]v (sc. r-i]v ayye\iav ^>epeis) I bring heavy tidings: (being what, 
do you bring these) what are they ? poet, ri r65' auSSs what (is) this (which) thou 
art speaking ? Hm. iroilov rbv fj.v&o)/ Heiires of what kind (is) this saying (which) 
thou saidst ? 

b. So in a compound interrogative sentence, the interrogative word is 
sometimes connected with the verb of the dependent sentence : ir6re a xph "? 
ere; eTreiSai/ ri yei/rjrai (sc. TrpcU-ere) when will you do what you ought? after 
what shall have occurred (i. e. after what event, Avill you do your duty) ? 'Iva ri 
(that what may come to pass) to what end ? also 'iva rl (508 b). 

827. DOUBLE QUESTION. Two interrogative words are sometimes 
found in the same sentence: 

riva ffe xpb KaAetV, ws rivos eiriffr^fj-ova rex vr l s what must one call you, as 
being acquainted with what art? iroia oirolov ftiov fj.ifj.-fifj.arct, OVK e%<w Aeyety 
what kinds (of numbers) are imitations of what sort of life, I cannot say, Hm. 
ris, Tr6&ev e?y avdpcov who (and) from whom among men art thou ? 

For interrogative pronouns with the article, see 538 d. 


828. DIRECT questions of this kind are expressed with and 
without interrogative words : 

a. without interrogative words : "EXXr/ves ovres fihpfidpots SovXevcro- 
fj,fv being Greeks, shall we become slaves to barbarians f These are shown 
to ho questions only by the connection in which they stand, though in 
speaking they may have been marked by a peculiar tone. 

b. by means of interrogative particles ; these cannot usually be 
rendered by corresponding words. The most important are apa and ^ : 
ap el/ju ndvTis am I a prophet f % ovroi TroXe'/itoi etVi are these enemies ? 

KEM. c. Neither apa. and ^, nor ov and ^ (829), had originally the nature 
of interrogatives. The proper meaning of apa was accordingly (cf. apa, 865, 1, 
from which apa was made by dwelling on the rst sound), marking a question 
as naturally arising from, and suggested by, preceding circumstances or con- 
ceptions. The proper meaning of ^ was really, truly (852, 10), marking a 
question as directed to the real truth. - Both apa and ^ are often connected 
with other particles : apa 76, ^ yap, $ irou, etc. - Hm. never uses apa, but 
has ^. pa with much the same force. 

829. 9 Apa and ^ in general imply no expectation as to the nature of the 
answer, whether affirmative or negative. In tins they differ from ov and /dj, 
employed as interrogative particles ; ov (also apa ov) implying that an answer 
is expected in the AFFIRMATIVE : /^ (also apa /x^, and fj.<av for ^ ovv), in the 
NEGATIVE : thus apa ($) ^ojQeT are you afraid (ay or no)? ov (apa ov) 0o/6e? are 
you not afraid (i. e. you are afraid, are you not) ? ^ (apa ph, fj.wv) (jbojSe? you 
are not afraid, are you ? 

a. An interrogative expression which very clearly shows the nature of the 
expected answer, is &\Ao ri 77 (for a\\o ri ecrriv tf) is any thing else true than 
is it not certainly true that? also, with tf omitted, oAAo ri, in the same 
Beuse : a\\o ri /) aSt/cot^e*/ are we not certainly in the wrong ? &\\o ri ovv irdvra 
efy p.ia siriffr'hfwi would not then all these things be (but) one science/ 


830. INDIRECT questions of this kind are introduced by et 
whether (sometimes ecu/ with the subjunctive) ; also by apa, and } 
in Homer, 77 (^e) .' 

ffkoireire et St/ccucos %p^ TW A.J*y<p observe ivhether I shall conduct the dis- 
course rightly, Hm. $x eTO "vand/***M M eT <r ^ l/ t^X^os, tf irov IV' efys Ae went to 

inquire after news of tfiee, lehether perchance thou ivert yet alive. This use of 

et and 4dv is closely connected with their use as conditional conjunctions : thus 
the first example may be rendered, "observe (so that) if I shall conduct aright 
(you may know it)." Indeed, it is often necessary to supply an idea like eiVrf- 
fj.evos in order to know, before et and tdv (Hm. e/f /ce, at /ce) used as dependent 
interrogative*! : Hm. AajSe yovvcav, at Key irus e&e'A^irti/ apr)ai embrace his knees, 
(that you may find] whether in any way he may be willing to assist. 

831. DISJUNCTIVE questions of this kind are introduced by 
TroTepoi/ (TroVepa,) .../}; these are used both in direct and indirect 
questions. But indirect disjunctive questions are introduced also 
by etre . . . et're. 

ir6repov SeSpaicev ^ otf ; trSrepov &KUV % endov; has he done it or not? unwill- 
ingly or willingly? airopov^v ere &KUV ^ e/cob^ Se'Spa/ce we are in doubt whether 

he has done it unwillingly or willingly. For the use of etre (et + re), cf. 861. 

For the interrogative ir^repos, see 247 : TrSrepov SeSpaKev ^ off may be ren- 
dered, " which of the two (statements is true), he has done it, or (he has) not 
(done it)?" 

a. For disjunctive questions, especially when these are indirect, Hm. has 
also f/ (r?e) . . . ^ (^e): p.^ivovr' tirl xp6vov, ofypa Saoi/.tei' ^ erebv Kd\x as f*-wr*v- 
erat ^e /col OVK'I wait for a time, that we may know whether Calchas prophesies 
truly or even not so. 

For the use of the modes in indirect questions, see 735-8. For the subject 
of the indirect question drawn into the principal sentence (prolepsis), see 726. 


832. There are two simple particles, ov and /M}, used to ex* 
press the negation (non-existence) of a state or action. Ov ex- 
presses non-existence merely ; //,>} expresses it as willed^ assumed, 
or aimed at. The same difference appears in their compounds, 
as ovre, P'^) ovSets, /x,??8eis; oixSa/xws, pySa/xws; and many others. 

833. M>j is used with the SUBJUNCTIVE and IMPERATIVE in all 
sentences, whether dependent or independent : 

.}] areA.77 rbv \6yov Kara.Kiir(>}fj.fv let us not leave the discussion unfinished, 
ls oifff&co fj.e rovro \eytiv let no one suppose that I say this, Xeyere , sls'uo ^ 
fiirj say, shall I go in or not? edv ris K&, irapaicaXe'is Iarp6v, oircas ^ aTro^dvy 
if one is sick, you call in a physician, that he may not, die, ffa&p6i/ eVrt <pv<rei 
vav o ri tiv p/i] SiKaiws y irsirpa.yij.evov rotten by nature is every thing which has 
not been wrought with justice. 

But the subjunctive in its epic use for the fut. ind. (720 e) has ov. 


834. Independent sentences with the INDICATIVE and OPTA- 
TIVE have /XT; in expressions of wishing (721) ; but otherwise, ov, 

fyuaorej', &s ^TJTTOT' &<eA.e (sc. a^apr^iv) he missed, as I would he had never 

done, /j.T]$Gvl eTn^ovAevVatyu let me plot against no one,- $i\nriros OVK &y 

eip-fivnv Philip does not maintain peace, et p/ti XPV TO ro * s irapovffiv, OVK aj> evScu- 
p.ovo't if he should not use what he has, he could not be happy. 

For ov and /trj as interrogative particles, see 829. 

835. Dependent sentences with the INDICATIVE and OPTATIVE 
have /a?? when they express a purpose or a condition / but other- 
wise, ov : 

tences : eZirej/ on airievai /JovAotro, p.^ 6 irarfyp &x& lTO ^ ie sa id that he wished to 
depart, lest his father should be displeased, et /-wj ri KwAvet, e'&e'Acw avrois 5iaAe%- 
&riva.i if nothing hinders, I wish to confer with them, oTroVe ju^j TI Seuretcw, ov vj>- 
fjfffai/ when they had no fear of any thing, they did not come together. So in 
hypothetical relative sentences with the INDICATIVE (761): & /^ oT5a ov5e ofyuat 
etSeVat what I do not know (= e? TI ^ ol5o if I am ignorant of any thing} I do 
not even suppose that I know. 

a. So too, p."}] is used with the future indicative in expressions which imply 
PURPOSE (7lOc): \l/r)((>Lffaa'&e roiavra e >v jUTjSeTrore vfuv /ieTa/t6A.^(ret vote such 
things that in consequence of them you will never have repentance, opa oirtas jidj 
croi airoffT-fiffovTai see to it that they do not revolt from you. 

For (ji-fi in expressions of FEARING, see 743. 

836. Dependent sentences in the oratio oUiqua take the same nega- 
tives that they would have in the recta : 

eltrev oVt ouSev avry /JLG\OI rov ^erepou &opv&ov (direct ouSev /tot /xeA.6t) he 
said that he cared nothing for our disturbance. But after et in dependent ques- 
tions, either ou or /*^ can be used at pleasure : e/3<w-r$ et OVK al<rx^o/ (direct 
ov/c alcrxwy >') J ie & s ks whether I am not ashamed, ijpc&rcav et /tirjSej/ <ppovri^ei 
(direct ap ovSei/ (ppovrifas) they asked him whether he had no concern, O-KO- 
ircDjuez/ et TrpeVet ^ o& let us consider whether it is proper or not, rovr' avrb ayvo- 
eiSj et x a/l P els % ^ X a ' L P ls y u are ignorant of this wry thing, whether you are 
pleased or not pleased. 

837. The INFINITIVE commonly has p.r) (as expressing some- 
thing merely assumed or aimed at), especially when connected 
with the neuter article : 

ravra vfjias p.}] ayvoeiv i)/3ov\6fji.r]v I wished you not to be ignorant of these 
things, eteyov avroTs ^ aStKetj/ they told them not to commit injustice, etKbs a'fHpbi' 
&j/8pa p.}] Xtipsiv it is Jit that a wise man should not talk idly, <rol TO ^ jiyriffcti 
\oiirbv $v it remained for thee not to become silent, at 2etp?)i/es avfrpdirovs KaTf'ixof, 
&sre p.}] aTTje^at air' avrcov the Sirens detained men, so that they could not get 
away from them. 

a. Some exceptions are merely apparent : vjuas eitov<nj> ov ^v^ax^v a\\a 
tyvabiKeiv they demand that you should be, not allies with them, but partners in 
wrong-doing, where ov belongs properly to atovo-w. Similarly ovSevbs a^apreTji 
5iKai6s eVrt it is not just that he should fail of any thing. 

b. But ov may be used with the infinitive in the oratio obliqua (734 c): 

v KO.TO. TOVTOVS elyat fi-fjrwp I confess that lam not an orator after theil 


sort, els Aa/ceSot/iora e/ceAeuei/ levai ov yap etvai Kvpios avrSs he commanded them 
to go to Lacedaemon ; for (he said) that he himself had not the authority. 

838. In connection with verbs of NEGATIVE meaning, such as hinder- 
ing, forbidding, denying, refusing, and the like, the infinitive usually 
takes {j.T), to express the negative result aimed at in the action of the verb : 

Kca\v6/j,e&a ^ padreiv we are hindered from learning (so as not to learn), 
aireiTrov rois SovXois /j.^ yuere'xe"' T&V they forbade the slaves from shar- 
ing in the gymnasia (requiring them not to share), ypvovvro /*)] TreTrrwKeVcu they 
denied that they had fallen (asserting that they had not fallen), airfcrxovro ^ eVi 
T}]V eKarepav yriv ffTpa.Tzva'a.i they refrained from making war upon the land of 
either (so as not to make war). 

839. The PARTICIPLE has prj when it expresses a condition 
(789 e) ; otherwise, ov : 

TIS av ir6\is virb ^ Tret&o^eVwj/ aXoirj what city could be taken by disobedient 
men (by men, if not obedient), &GOV /j.r} 8i$6vTos, ovSev urx^et ir6vos unless a god 

bestow, toil avails nothing, Kvpos avefirj eirl ra uptj, ovSevbs KwXvovros Cyrus 

went up on the mountains, (no one opposing) without opposition, e&opvfis'iTG, o>s 
ov -jroi^ffovres ravra you were clamorous, as not intending to do these things. 
The participle with /^, after the article, may be expressed by a hypothetical 
relative sentence : ol ^ etS^rcs (= ot &j/ /i/J? elSufft) all or any who may not know 
(if such there are) : but Aeyo? ev rots OVK elSJo-t the particular persons among 
whom I speak, do not know. 

840. MT; is also used with ADJECTIVES, ADVERBS, and even with SUB- 
STANTIVES, to express a hypothetical sense : TO JUT) dyaSoV (= 6 av p.r] dya- 
%bv y) the not-good = wliatever is not good, 6 p.rj larpos the non-physician, 
whoever is not a physician. 

841. MT) FOR ov. Mrj is often used instead of ov with participles or 
other words, through an influence of the verbs on which they depend, 
when these verbs either have /i?y, or would have it, if negative : 

fj.}} x^P** 'ArpeiSr?, Kepfifffi rots ^ KaKols rejoice not, Strides, in dishonorable 
gains, yTreVxero eiplivnv Troii\ffeiv, fj.^re op.Tjpa Sous, ^tdjre ra Te/%>j Ka&eAwi> (/j.^ 
on account of Troika-civ, 837) he promised that he would make peace, without 
either giving securities, or demolishing the. wall*, t&v ri ctiff&r) a-eavrbv fjt-t) et'S^ra 
(fj.T) on account of ecu/ ctiff&ri, 835) if you perceive yourself to be ignorant of any 

842. Oi) FOR p.j]. Ov is sometimes used for ^, when it has a frequent and 
special connection with a particular word, as in ov <j>r]/M to deny, OVK ew to for- 
bid, ov iroXXoifeiv, oi>x 5i<rffov more, and the like : in such expressions, ov is* oc- 
casionally retained, when the above rules require JUTJ : iravrws ovrws exet, eo> 
re ou (pyre tav re (prjre it is so in any case, whether you deny it or affirm it. 


843. When a negative is followed by a compound negative 
of the same kind, the negation is repeated and strengthened. 

In English, only one negative can be used : the others may be rendered by 
indefinite expressions : poet. OVK etmj/ ovSev Kptiaffov % VOJJLOL irotei there is (not 
any thing) nothing better for a state than laws, &vev TOVTOU ovdels els ovSey ovSevbs 


&v 7)fj.wv ouSeTTore yevoiro &ios icithout this none of us could ever become of any 
worth for any thine/. 

844. "When a negative is followed by a simple negative ofHhe same 
kind, the t\vo balance each other and make an affirmative: ovfiets a^pa>- 
TTCOI/ ao~LK6ov riuiv uv.< an-oScocret no man that does injustice will not pay the 
penalty, i. e. every one will pay. 

845. Ou /*//. Ou followed by /^ is used with the subjunctive or future 
indicative in emphatic negation. 

This use may be explained by supplying after ou an omitted expression of 
anxiety or apprehension: ov ^ Troffjffca ( ou (o/3r]TeW fj.^ Troi^ffw it is not to be 
feared that I shall do it, no danger of my doing it, i. e.) I certainly shall not do 
it, ov5els p.i]iroTe fvp^ffei TO /car' e/ie ouSei/ eAAet^eV no one shall ever find that 
any thing, so far as depends on me, is neglected, ov ^TTOTS eapvos 7eVwficu never 
surely shall I deny it. 

846. Mrj ov. Mr] followed by ov is used in different ways. 

1. After expressions of fearing, where pr] is rendered lest, that (743), 
Hr} ov is rendered lest not, that not (Lat. ne non) : 

r; ou fre/xtToi/ y I am afraid that it may not be lawful : or, without 
the verb of fearing, p.^ ov 8rep.nov rj, the construction described in 720 d, which 
implies anxiety, but does not distinctly express it. 

847. 2. The infinitive takes p,f) ov instead of /^ (837), when the word 
on which it depends has a negative : 

ovSels di6sTe a\.\(t)s \zycw [ify ov /caTayeAacrros elvai no one speaking in any 
other way (is able not to be) can avoid being ridiculous. The ou here only re- 
peats the negation which belongs to the principal word (cf. 843). 

a. Hence verbs of hindering, forbidding, denying, etc. (838), when they 
have a negative, are followed by ^ ov with the infinitive : ou K<0\v6/j.&a p,^ ov 
/ua.&eIV we are not hindered from learning. In such cases, the neuter article is 
sometimes added to the infinitive : poet. /J.TJ -n-apys TO p.^ ov (ppdcrai do not forbear 
to make it known. 

b. M'/j ou is used in the same way, when the principal verb stands in a 
question which implies a negative : riv a oifet airapv'ficreff&cu /.fJj ou%l eiricrTa(T&ai 
ra SiKaia who, think you, will deny (= no one will deny) that lie understands 
what is just? 


848. For oure, jUTjTe, ouSe, ^Se, see 858-9. 

a. ouSeV, jUTjSeV, and OUTJ, /J.-(ITI, are often used (like Lat. nihil) as emphatic 
negatives in the sense of not at all (552). 

b. ou/ceVt, jUTj/ceTt, no longer, must not be confounded with OE/TTOJ, ^TTCC, not 
yet : OVKGTI 7roi^o"o>, ovirca TreTro'nfjKa. 

"c. ou% cm, ^i'/j OTI (probably for ou Xfyco OTI, p3] Aeye OTJ, (I) do not say 
that, it is not enough to say that, and hence) not only, usually followed by 
a\Xa Kai but also, or aAA.' oucie but neither : oi>x OTI 6 Kp'iTcav eV 7Jo*u%as ?iv, a.\\h 
Kal ol (j)i\ot O.VTOV not only was Onto quiet, but also his friends. Ou% OTTO;*, p/r] 
OTTCOS, are used, and may be explained, in the same way : ^ oirtas (sc. ou/c e'Su- 
va<r&e) 6px*?0'& ai *v pv&{j.<, aAA 5 ou8 5 op&ovff&ai 5ui/ao"3^e not only (were ye noi 
able) to dance in measure, but ye were not able even to stand erect.' 


d. fj,6vov ou, /j.6vov ovx'i, only not, hence all but, almost; and, in reference 
to time, offov ou (tantum non) almost : Ka.Ta.yeXa, vir avSpaj/ ovs ffv p.6vov ov irpos- 
/cuj/e?9 you are ridiculed by men whom you all but worship, offov OVK avriKa, (only 
so much as not immediately) almost immediately. 

e. ou fjL^v aXX&, ov fj.fvroi a\xd, nevertheless, notwithstanding. They are to 
be explained by supplying before a\xd some idea drawn from the preceding 
context: 6 'liriros fUKpov (575 a) eKeivov e^erpa-^Xiffev ov fj^v (sc. e^erpa^Xiffev) 
aA\a eirefj.eivev 5 Kvpos the horse almost threw him over its head; (yet it did not 
throw him, but) nevertheless Cyrus kept his seat. 


849. PRAEPOSITIVE AND POSTPOSITIVE. A particle is said to be prae- 
positive, when it is always put first in its own sentence ; postpositive, 
when it is always put after one or more words of the sentence. 


850. III. INTENSIVE PARTICLES. These add emphasis to 
particular words, or give additional force to the whole sentence. 

1. ye (postpos. and enclitic) even, at least, Lat. quidem, 
adds emphasis to the preceding word : Hm. efrreo ydp a* "Eicrwp ye KO.KOV /cal 
avdXKio'a fyfoei, aXX' ou ireiffovTai TpSies for though even Hector (himself) shall 
call thee base and unwarlike, still the Trojans will not believe it, /cal TroXXovs e 

e Xeyov rovs e&eX-fjffovras and they said there would be many even ivho 
would wish it, Hm. aAAa o"u, et o'vvaffal *ye, 7repo*xeo TrcuSo's but do thou, if only 
thou art able, protect thy son, irX-fifrei ye oi>x vTrepfiaXoiiJ.&' Uv rovs iroXe/j.iovs in 
numbers at least we should not surpass the enemy, o"u yap vvv ye fi/Awy eot/cas j8a- 
ffiXevs e1va.i for now at least thou scemest to be our king. - It is added with 
especial frequency to pronouns : eycaye I for my part, Lat. equidem, oye in Hm. 
even he, osye Lat. qui quidem, Hm. or is roiavrd ye peoi whoever should do such 
things (even such). 

a. re, when it belongs to a word which has the article, is usually put after 
the article : ^ ye a.v&p<airivi/] ffotyia human wisdom at least. So too after a pre- 
position, if the word depends on one : ovSels ^Kovffev ev ye r$ <pavep$ no one 
heard, in public at least. 

2. yovv (postpositive) at least, Lat. certe, 

contracted from 7e ouV (sometimes written separately), and hence stronger than 
ye. It is used especially after a general statement, to mark some particular 
case, or limited extent, in which that statement is certainly true : ou irXacrrfy 
rfyv <f>i\iav Trapei^ovro e&eXovffioi yovv avrcp ffvvefio'h&'riaa.v they offered no pre- 
tended friendship ; at least, they willingly joined him in giving aid. 

3. 7T(p (postpos. and enclitic) very, just, even, 

shortened from the adverb irepi very much. In Attic; it is used to strengthen 
relatives : osTrep just who, the one who, ftsirep even as ; also in etirep (e'ai/Trep, 
tfvirep) even if, Kaiirep though. In Hm., its use is very extensive: eyh S' e\eeu/6* 
rep6s irep but I am much more to be pitied, 7iy>TdV irep for the very first time, 


Tore ffTvy4ovffi &eol irep which even the gods detest ; and especially with parti- 
ciples, in the sense of /coiVep (795f): axvv^voi irep though grieved, Kpa.Tep6s 
irep t&v (or Kparepds irep without &v) though he is mighty. 

851. 4. drj (postpositive) now, indeed, in particular, 

marks the idea of a word or sentence, as being immediately present and obvious 
to the mind. It is commonly put after the emphatic word, and admits a great 
variety of rendering : ?roAAol 877 (obviously many) a great many, p.6vos 877 all 
alone, SvjAo 877 it is quite plain, vyieia /col /caAAos /col ir\ovros 877 health, ana 
beauty, and particularly wealth. It adds urgency to IMPERATIVE expressions : 
j/j/oeiTe 877 consider, I pray you, &ye 877 come now, (ify 87^ e/ceij/r? rfi eA7r5t eiraipdo- 
juefro let us by no means be elated with that hope. It strengthens the SUPERLA- 
TIVE : fjieyia-Tos 8J] the very greatest ; and gives definiteness to DEMONSTRATIVES 
and RELATIVES : bs STJ the (particular) one who, diroios 877 of whichever (particular) 
kind, OVTWS 877 (in this particular way) just so. So with other pronouns and 
particles : ri 877 what now ? what precisely ? irov 877 just where ? 877 TIS some cer- 
tain person, y/jLeTepov 8^7 epyov our own work (belonging to us only), et 877 if in- 
deed, if really. For /col 8)/ KOI, see 857. 

a. It is often used with something which is now present to the mind, as 
being MENTIONED, or at least SUGGESTED, BEFORE : oi>x OVTGDS %x l > ^X et ^TJ is it 
not so ? it is indeed (as you say), &s eV <ppovpa eo^ey, /col ov Se? 5r^ eavrbv e/c 
ravTTfs \veiv we are as if (set) on guard, and indeed (the obvious conclusion) one 
must not release himself from this. Especially so with demonstratives and rela- 
tives : e| &Ji/ STJ from which things now (already mentioned), OVTCO 877 thus then 
(as previously described) : and hence often in the apodosis (732), as ore . . . 
r6re S^j when . . . then, I say ; or with resumptive force, taking up a subject 
again after a digression. Hence, too, 

b. It sometimes approaches the meaning of 7^877, Lat. jam : /col iro\\h SJj 
&\Xa A.e'os eTTre and when now (already) he had spoken many things, he said, vvv 
8^7 even now, Hm. TO 8^7 vvv iravra reAetrot all these things are now already re- 
ceiving fulfilment. 

c. The Epic 87^ ydp, and poetic 8)/ r^re, may stand at the beginning of a 

852. 5. fir/7rou (or 8% TTOV indeed, I suppose) profidbly ', methinfts, 
often used, with slight irony, in cases which admit no doubt : rpfyerai 8e ^v%^ 
rivi; fiafr-fi/jLaffi 5-fjTrov with what is the spirit nourished? with learning, doubt- 
less. A stronger form is SijirovSfev. 

6. dijra (a stronger 5?;) surely, in truth, 

nearly confined fo the Attic : ou 877x0 surely not, iruis STJTO how in truth ? ofrc- 
re/pe STJTO do really pity. 

7. dfocv truly, forsooth, 

mostly in reference to a seeming or pretended truth. 

8. dot (an Attic form of 617), 

used only in questions, and chiefly in rl 801; TTWS 5al; what now? how nowf 
with surprise or passion. 

9. Epic %rjv (postpos. and enclit.) mefhiriks, Lat. opinor, 

has nearly the same meaning as STJTTOU, which last occurs but once in Hm. 

10. T) (praepositive) really, truly, 

(not to be confounded with ^ interrog., 828 b, and # or, than, 860) adds force 
to an assertion. ^ (J.TJV (Hm. $ jue'v) is used especially in declarations under 


oath : &p.offav opKovs $ yuV ^n fj.vija-iKaK-f]ffeiv they swore oaths that in very truth 
they would not (remember wrongs) bear resentment. 

11. roi (postpos. and enclit.) surely, doubtless, - 

may often be rendered you know, you must know, be assured, and the like : 

ovrot surely not. For ^weWot, see 864, 6 : for roivvv, roiyap, roiyapovv, TOI- 

jdproiy see 867. 

12. i\Toi (rj + roi) verily, only Epic, 

a naive expression of assurance : tfroi 07' &s flir&v KT' />' eero (in sooth] when 
he had spoken thus, he sat down. For the disjunctive tfroi . . . $ either ... or, 
see 860 a. 

13. /j.r)v (postpositive) in truth, Lat. vero, 

Ion. pep, Dor. /j.dv ; Hm. has JK/, pdv, and ^v : SSe yap e|epew,- Kal fjfyv rere- 
\ffp.evov ecrroi for thus will I speak out, and in truth it will be fulfilled. Even 
the Attic uses jweV for ^TJJ/, in yttej/ ovv, p.ev 5$. The word has also an adversa- 
tive use, yet, however; and this is always the meaning of fjLtvroi (864, 6). 

14. vai yes, surely ', vr\ and /za surely ^ 
used in oaths and .followed by the accusative (545). 


853. The conjunctions are particles used to connect one sentence with 
another. They are divided into classes, according to their meaning: 
though in some instances the same conjunction has various meanings, 
which bring it into different classes. 

a. The first four classes of conjunctions (copulative, disjunctive, ad- 
versative, and inferential) connect co-ordinate sentences (724) : so too 
the causal yap. The other classes stand with subordinate sentences, and 
connect them with the principal sentences on which they depend. 

b. A sentence introduced by a relative (or indefinite relative) is al- 
ways subordinate ; and all indeclinable relatives are reckoned among the 
conjunctions. The inferential cos-re, being a relative, belongs to a sub- 
ordinate sentence. The adversative O/MCO? is generally attached to a prin- 
cipal sentence, to mark its connection with the subordinate. 

854. In continued discourse, every sentence has, in general, a conjunc- 
tion, or some other expression, which marks it as connected with what 
goes before. Occasionally, however, a sentence appears without any such 
connective. This form of construction is called ASYNDETON (ao-vvderov 
not bound together} : it is most common in explanatory sentences (which 
only bring out what is signified in the preceding sentence). Sometimes 
it is preferred as a livelier and more striking mode of expression. 


The principal copulatives are KGU, re, and. Te is postpositive and en- 
clitic: it corresponds in general to Lat. que, as KO.L to Lat. et. The poeta 
have also ^Se, Ids, and (cf. Lat. atque) \ iSV is epic only. 

a. The copulative is often used with both of the connected members', 


Thus Kai . . . Kai, or re ... /cot, or re ... re : /col Kara yrjv Kai KOTOS SaXa 
both by land and by sea, Hm. 'ATpelSaf re /cal aAAot eu/cWj^tSes 3 A^;aio( ?/e sows o/ 
Atreus and other Achaean* with goodly greaves, Hm. atei 7^ rot epts re ^tArj 
I jr6\efj.oi Te f^o-x al T /' or olw(iy is strife dear to thee and wars and battles. In 
like manner, the Epic has r?/xeV . . . r)8e as well ... as a^so. 

b. Occasionally we find re ... 8e, the two members being at first thought 
of as simply connected, but afterwards as standing in a certain contrast. 

856. a. In the Epic language, re is used very extensively to mark the con- 
nection of sentences and parts of sentences, being often attached to other par- 
tides, as /cat, ^ieV, Se, ydp, aAAa 1 , and to relatives (o'sre, ofo'sTe). In such cases, 
it can hardly be translated into English. The common words lasre and 
found in all writers, are remnants of this early usage. 

b. To Kai belong further. the meanings ALSO and EVEN : Hm. -trap 

/col oAAot oi Ke ue rifj.i]ffov(n with me are others also who will honor me, /col KOTO- 
yeAas JJLQV you are even laughing at me, /col udAurra even most, /col j8po%ui/ xpdvov 
(even) only a short time. In the meaning also, it is often repeated with both 
members of a compound sentence : Kai fjfjuv TOUTO So/ceT aVeo /col /SatnAe? to us 
also the same things seem good, which (seem good) also to the king. In /cal Se, 
the proper connective is 5e, while /cot means a^so, even : S'IKUIOV Kai irp4irov 5^ 
auajust, and, at the same time, fitting also. 

c. After words of likeness, /cat may be rendered as : duoiws Kai Lat. 
aeque ac. 

857. "AAAws re Kai means both in other relations awo 7 (particularly in the 
following). Hence it may in general be rendered especially : xaAeTroV <rri Sta- 
fiaivew T})V TroTa/uibv, &\\(as re Kai Tro\/j.i(i)v iroXX&v eyyiis OVTUV it is hard to 
cross the river, especially when many enemies are near. So /col S^) Kai and in 
particular also, gives special prominence to that which follows it : lid. airiKve- 
OVTO.I es 2cp5ts tAAot re iravres e/c TTJS *EAAc5os ffocpiffral, Kai 8r? /cal ~2,6\cav there 
come to Sardis both all the other wise men from Greece, and particularly Solon. 
In like manner, ov p.6vov . . . oAAa Kai not only . . . but also, are used with con- 
nected sentences to give prominence to the second. For oi>x ori y ou% 
followed by dAAa /cat, with similar force, see 848 c. 

858. NEGATIVE SENTENCES are connected by ouS/, /^Se', or oure, 

Of these, ov8c, fi^8e take the place of Kai (standing singly) in affirmative 
sentences, and therefore signify 

a. and not, nor either ; in this sense, they connect a single negative mem- 
ber to a preceding sentence (usually negative) : Hm. /Bpcfyojs ot% cnn-eat ou8 
ITOTTJTOS thou touchest not food (and not drink) nor drink either, irpbs ffov ouS' 

v <t>pd(rci> I shall not speak for thy interest nor for mine. Sometimes ou5e 
) has the adversative meaning but not (862). 

b. a^so not (neither) : \iei(a ou5e roi/s TroAe^u/ous fievftv I expect that the 
enemy also will not remain (that neither will the enemy remain) ; - or, with 
emphatic sense, NOT EVEN, Lat. no quidem : ouSe TOUTO fj-yv not even this ivas 
allowed, Hm. 'iva ^uTjS' uvo/j.' avrov eV ajs$p(t>iroi<ri Xiir^rai that not even his name 
may remain among men. For oi)8e (^yjSe) with clV, see 255. 

859. Oi/Ye, pr']T take the place of re . . . re, or Kai . . . KOI, in affirma- 
tive sentences; thus ovre . . . otfre, or juryre . . . ju^re, neither . . . nor: 

(pavepol eicriv ovre rq> &ew Tret^^ceyot ouTe TO?S v6uois they are seen to obey 
neither the god nor the laws. Sometimes a negative member is connected with 
a following affirmative by ofrre (/U^TC) ... re (Lat. neque . . . et) : &p.offo.v p.-f)Ti 


oAA^jAous ffvuiaaxoi re eo'eo'i&ai they swore that they would not betray 
each other, and would be allies. 

a. If after two members connected by ovre . . . of/re, ^iTjre . . . ^re, others 
still are added, they may take oi5e, ju^Se. But if a single member with ovre 
(jurjTc) is followed by ou5e (^Se), this is an irregular form (of. re ... 8e, 855 b), 
and gives a special emphasis to the second member : a\\a yap ovre TOVTUV 
ouSeV ffriv a\T)&es, ou5e y* ft TWOS a/CTj/cJare us eycb TratSeverj/ eiri^ipia av&piairovs 
but indeed neither is any one of these things true, nor even if ye have heard from 
any body that I undertake to educate men. 


1. rj or, than, not to be confounded with r; (828 b, 852, 10) : 

a. OR ; and repeated, tf . . . ^ either . . . or; also #rot . . . #, with special 
emphasis on the first member : '$) TroXeuy KpaTtj&eis, 3) al &\Xov TWO. Tp6irop 
SouA-coftek either vanquished in war, or else subjugated in some other way. 

b. THAN, after the comparative degree and adjectives like a\Xos, erepos, 
Sid(popos, fvavrlosy which have a comparative meaning. See 586, 660. 

861. 2. eiVe . . . etre whether . . . or, Lat. sive . . . sive, 

presenting two possible suppositions which are left open to the choice of the 
hearer : etfre aA/^es e^re iJ/eG8os, ov Ka.\6v juot So/ce? rovro TOVVO/J.O. e% <J/ whether 
it be true or false, it seems to me not honorable to have this name. Sometimes 
the first etre is omitted, or ^ is used for the second. With the subjunctive, 
eai/re (^re, &/re) is used instead of efre. 

1. fie (postpositive) lut. and, 

marks a slight contrast with what goes before, being much weaker than 
aXXa. Hence, though it should generally be rendered ~but, it is often 
better given, especially in Hm., by and. 

a. The first of the contrasted members very commonly has ,uej/ (postposi- 
tive, originally the same as p^v, 852, 13) : thus . . . 5e indeed . . . but, on 
the one hand . . . on the other; though, in many cases, fj.4v can hardly be ren- 
dered in English. Thus 6 juej/ jSios j8pa%ys, r) 5e re'x^ paicpd life indeed is short, 
but art is long, Hm. ot irepl /uej/ Pov\y Aavaoav irepl 8' etrre yua%e0-&at you who 
in counsel (on the one hand), and (on the other) in fighting, are superior to 
the (other) JDanai. 

For 6 /j.4v ... 6 Se, sjee 525 a. Mev is often followed by other particles, 
a\\c, cmfy), etc. ; and sometimes the thought to be contrasted with it, is ex- 
pressed in other ways or omitted altogether. 

b. After a conditional or relative sentence, the apodosis (principal sentence) 
is sometimes introduced by Se: Hm. eW 6 rav& &pfj.a.iv Kara </>peVa /cal /cara 
3-u/w^, ^A&e 5' 'A3-^7j while he was revolving these things in mind and in spirit, 
then came Athena. Here 8e is used as if the former sentence were co-ordinate 
with, not subordinate to, the latter. This construction, which is rare in Attic, 
occurs frequently in Hm. 

863. 2. aXXa ~but, yet (from aXXos- other), 

marks a stronger contrast than 8e: Hm. /&' a\\oi /j.ev irai/res tTrev(j)'f)iun)<rai> 
'A%cuoi, a\\' OVK 'ArpeiSp 'Ayape/uLvovi rivfiave &v/j.$, a\\a KaKuis cupiei then all the 
other Achaeans shouted assent, yet it pleased not Atreus' son Agamemnon in his 
spirit, but harshly he dismissed him. 


a. After a conditional sentence expressed or implied, &\\d is often to be 
rendered at least : el ^j Trdvra, aAAcfc iro\\d 7' fore you know, if not all, yet 
much at least, & freol irarpwoi, ffvyyevefffre y' aAAa vvv gods of my fathers, be 
^vith me noio at least (if never before). 

b. 'AAAa is often used to break oif the previous discourse and introduce a 
question or demand: Hm. OVK airb O~KOTTOV /j.v&e'iTai )3acriAeta irep'Kppwj/ aAAai 

rifreff&e the prudent queen speaks not amiss : but do you comply. 

c. After negative expressions, dAA' tf (less often oAAc alone) is used in the 
sense of other than, except : apyvpiov p.\v OVK %&>, AA' ^ /j.tKp6v n I have no 
money, except some little. For ou ^v a\\d, see 848 e. 

864. Other conjunctions which express a contrast, or a transition to 
something different, are 

3. av (postpositive, properly again, hence) on the other hand, on the 
contrary. So Epic afire. 

4. drdp (praepositive, Hm. avrdp and drap) but, however. 

5. pi)v (postpos., it is true, Lat. vero) yet, however : see 852, 13. 

6. P.CVTOI (postpos. : from ^v for \ir\v, and rot) yet, however. 

7. Katroi (not in Hm. : from KCU and roi) and yet, though. 

8. 6fj,o)s nevertheless, notwithstanding, 

marks decided opposition. See 853 b, and for its use with participles, 795 f. 
It is originally the same with poet. in like manner, in the same case. In 
Hm., it occurs but once. 


1. apa (Hm. apa, ap, and enclit. pa, all postpos.) accordingly, 
therefore, marks an idea as following naturally from preceding circumstances 
or a previous course of thought. It is especially frequent in Hm., and may 
often be rendered by so, THEN : &s &p* e^rj thus then he said, 'AroetSTjs 8' &pa 
vrja 3-oV oAaSe irpotpvffffev and so (a thing to be expected) Atrides launched the 
swift ship into the sea : OVK &pa not then (as might have been supposed), et &pa 
if to-wit, if perhaps. For apa. (sometimes used in poetry for apa, but usually) 
interrogative, see 828 b. 

866. 2. ovv (Hd. and Dor. &v, postpos.) therefore, consequently, 
stronger than &pa : Hm. JJTOI v6ffros aTrcSAero irarpbs e^uoTo OUT' ovv ayyeXlrjs 
fTi iri^ my father's return is verily lost ; neither therefore do I any more put 
faith in tidings (of him). In connection with other particles, it very often 
means for that matter, at any rate, certainly : with relatives, it has the force of 
Lat. cunque : &STISOVV whosoever (816 a). For /j.v ovv, see 852, 13. 

a. From ou and ouV, arise both OVKOVV and OVKOVV. - (a) The first is prop- 
erly interrogative : OVKOVV aoi So/ce? ffv/jKpopov eli/ai does it not therefore seem to 
you to be advantageous? - () But since questions with ou look to an affirma- 
tive answer, OVKOVV came to be used without interrogation, as an affirmative : 
&yov(nv fifjL&v TO. xP^lf jLa ' Ta * OVKOVV xp)] e\avveiv rivas TJ/J-UV eV O.VTOVS they are 
plundering our property : therefore ought (= ought not therefore ?) some of us 
to march against them. -(y)' To express the sense "not therefore" without 
interrogation, OVKOVV is used (with accent on the negative) : OVKOVV airo\etyo/j.a.l 
ye (rou, e! TOUTO Aeyets I will not depart from you, then, if you say this. Some 
editors employ OVKOVV also in the first case (a). 


867. 3. vvv (Hm. vvv and i/u, postpos. and enclitic), 

a weakened form of vvv, like English now used for then, therefore. According 
to many critics, the word should be written vvv (not enclitic) in all prose-authors 
except Hd. ; and in poetry too, unless the verse requires a short syllable. 

4. Toiwv (postpositive) therefore, then, 

from vvv above, strengthened by rol surely (852, 11) ; never found in Hm. 

5. Toiyapovv^ rotyuprot, so then, tJierefore^ 

praepositive, like poet, roiyap, of which they are strengthened forms. 

6. &sre so that, see 876, 4. 


1. on that, Lat. quod, 

originally the same as o n, neuter of the pronoun Ssris. Like Lat. quod, 
it has both a declarative and a causal sense : 

a. THAT : 'HpditXeiTos Aeyet on Trdvra x^pe? Heraclitus says that all things 
are in motion. Hence the phrases S'/jAoy on (also written 5rj\ov6n) it is clear 
that, evidently, and eu o?S' on I knoic that, certainly : irdvTcav ev oiS' on (j>r)o~dv- 

ro)v y &v though all, I am sure, would say. For the forms of the oratio recta 

used after on, see 734 b. 

b. BECAUSE : Hm. x&xfyto'ot oV frpiffrov 'AXCUOIV ovo~ev enaas angry becaiiS6 

you paid no respect to the best of the Achaeans. Hm. sometimes uses o, the 

simple relative, instead of on, in both senses. 

REM. c. on p.1] is used after a negative sentence, in the sense of except : 
OVTTOT e/c rfjs ir6tecas e^Ai^es, on ju$? els 'Iffb/JiSv you never went out of the city, 
except once to the Isthmus (lit. what you did not go out that one time). For on 
with superlatives, see 664. 

2. Another declarative in general use is o>s tliat, see 875. Little used 
are 8i6n and ovWa that, see 869, 3. 


1. on because, see 868 b. 

2. ore and eVet since, see 877, 1, 5. 

3. dion, and poet. otW/<a, 63oTW*a, because. 

6i6n is for 5t' o n = Sta TOVTO on on account of this that (813). And so 
ovveKa, o&ovveita are for ov (orov) eVe/ca, = eVe/ca TOVTOV on. They are used 
also as declaratives, that, see 868, 2. 

870. 4. ydp (postpositive) for 

introduces a reason or explanation, mostly for a preceding thought, but some- 
times for a following one : vvv Se, ff(p6$pa yap (l/evodfj.evos So/fe?s aATjS-r) \eyeiv, 
5ia ravrd ere tyeya) but now since, in speaking what is utterly false, you think that 
you arc speaking the truth, for this cause I blame you. 

a. The thought which is explained, is often not expressed, but only implied 
in the connection. Thus especially in answers to questions : ayvviffTeov /mev apa 
f]/jut/ irpbs rovs &y$pas ; avdyicr) ydp, e^>7j must we, then, contend with the men ? 
(yes, we must contend) for it is necessary, said he. 

b. In questions, ydp is often used with reference to an unexpressed and 
vague idea of uncertainty, which is explained by the question: #AAe ydp; 
(possibly I misunderstood you) for is he (actually) dead? 


yf,(ra/j.ev $ yap we agreed that one should study philosophy (as I think, but per- 
haps incorrectly), for is it really so ? So TI yap, Lat. quinam ? 

c. In wislies, yap is similarly used .with reference to a vague idea of un- 
satisfied desire, which is explained by the wish: /ca/cws 70/3 i\6\oio (there is 
something I desire) for would that you might perish wretchedly. For et ydp, 
i at. utinam, see 721 a. 

d. Similarly we may explain /cal yap and (this is certain) for, =for indeed 
| 'wt sometimes ybr also, for even) ; aAAa yap and aAA' ov yap but for (for not\ 
where an idea must be supplied in contrast with what goes before : tyu e/tau- 
rov Seo/xat &zov(n TOVTOIS a/coAov&e?*' oAA' ov yap StW/iat / demand it of myself 
to keep up with these in running ; but (I do not keep up, for) / am not able. 
But ou yap aAAa is differently used : /*$j ovcwTrre { d>8eA<|>' ov yap oAA 5 lx /ca- 
K&S do not mock me, brother; for /(am not to be mocked, but) am in wretched 


These are named, and their uses described, in 739-43. They are iva 
(cf. 879, 6), dor (cf. 875 e), 8 s (cf. 876, 3), 6'0pa (cf. 877, 7), rf (cf. 743, 
832 ff). For 'iva ri (sc. ye'^rcu), see 826 b. 


eZ if; fdv (for el civ, or by contraction) ^V, av (a), */. 

For their use in conditional sentences, se*e 744 ff: in indirect questions, 
830 : in expressions of wishing (with et, e'/d-e, et yap\ 721. Et ^ is sometimes 
used for except, as Lat. nisi : r^uv ouSej/ Iffriv aya&bv a\\o et /*^ OTTAO ftal aper^j 
tt'fi Aawe 710 other good save arms and courage : so et /j.)j et except if, Lat. nisi si. 
E'/7rep (850, 8), Lat. siquidem, if indeed, as true as : v^ At 5 , etirep ye Aapelov eo-ri 
TraTs, OVK o^ta%el raur' eycb Arji//o/xat ay, fo/ Zeus, as sure as he is a son ofJDarius, 
I shall not get these things without fighting. 

873. av (a, postpositive) 'perhaps 

marks the sentence as having only a contingent or conditional truth : it can 
seldom be rendered by an English word. It is used with the (potential) opta- 
tive (722, 748) ; with the (hypothetical) indicative (746 b); with the indicative, 
implying repetition (704) ; with the future indicative (710 b) ; with the subjunc- 
tive in relative sentences (757 ff); with the infinitive (783), and participle (803). 

a. Not unfrequently, &v is found more than once in the same sentence : OVK 
&y op&ws 6 TOVTO iroi'fja'as irepl ovo"evbs &v \oyiffairo the man who did this would 
not reason rightly on any subject. 

b. Ep. /ce, KeV, Dor. Ka (postpositive and enclitic), 

almost exactly equivalent to &v (a), which is also freely used by Hm. [Some- 
times both &v and fee are found in the same sentence, cf. 873 a. 

874. XII. CONCESSIVE CONJUNCTIONS. These mark a con- 
dition as something which may be conceded without destroying 
the conclusion. They are 

1. et Kai (e'ai/ /cat) if even, although: 

poet. ir6\iv (726), et /cal jj/t] jSAeVets, tppoveis 5' (862 b) opus oia v6ffca vveffTi at 
for the city, (if even) though thou art blind, thou yet perceivest with w/tat a ma- 
lady it is afflicted. 



2. Kal el (KCU edV, K.UV) even if, Lat. etiamsi : 

^yerro aj/5pby eli/at a-ya&oD a>0eA.e?j/ TOI/S <tAous, Kal et /t^Sels jueAAoi tfffeff&cu he 
thought it was the part of a good man to assist his friends, even if no one were 
about to know of it. 

a. Both et KCU and Kal et represent the condition as unfavorable to the con- 
clusion, yet not incompatible with it. But the former gives special prominence 
to the condition, as being unfavorable ; the latter, to the conclusion, as holding 
good notwithstanding. Often, however, the difference between the two forms 
is very slight. 

3. KaiTrep (Hm. /cat . . . Trep) with the participle, see 795 f. 

b. After concessive conjunctions, the conclusion is often introduced by 
'6fj.(as notwithstanding, see 853 b. 

ly relative adverbs of manner. 

1. as as, that, Lat. ut } 

properly in which manner, a proclitic (103 c), and thus distinguished from the 
demonstrative us thus, so (250). Yet in poetry, the relative is sometimes oxy- 
tone, being placed after the word to which it Belongs (104 a). It has a great 
variety of uses, viz. 

a. COMPARATIVE use : us ouA as thou wilt. So with the force of Lat. 
tanquam : p.a.Kpci.v us yepovri a long distance for me as an old man. It cor- 
responds to Lat. quam in EXCLAMATIONS (815 a), prop. the manner in which ! 
Hm. US/J.OL Se'xercu itaKbv e/c KO.KOV cuet how does one evil always follow for me after 

another ! For us with superlative**: us Taxiffra Lat. quam celerrime, see 

664. With words of number and measure, it has the meaning about, not far 

from: us Se/ca about ten, us 7ri rb tro\v (pretty much over the greater part) 

for the most part. In expressions of action, it often denotes that which is 

apparent, supposed, or professed: airyei us irpbs TOVS irote/jiiovs he went away in 
the direction toward the enemy (as if he were going against the enemy), <j>v\dr- 
recr&G us -jroXe/Aiovs you are guarding against us as (supposing us to be) 
enemies. Hence its .use as an adjunct of the participle, see 795 e. For its use 
with the infinitive, see 772. 

b. TEMPORAL use, as, as soon as, when : us eT5', us (demonstrative) fj.iv /j.a\- 
\ov eSu %(AOS when he saw them, then did anger the more take possession of him, 
(lit. as ... so), o>s T<%{(TTo ecos viretyaivev, S&VOVTO as soon as dawn appeared, 
they were taking the auspices (Lat. ut primum). 

c. CAUSAL use, as, inasmuch as, seeing that : 8e? xp^aftat TO?S aya&o'ts, us 
ovoev o^eAos TTJS KT-f)ffws yiyvtTcu one must make use of his goods, since no ad- 
vantage comes from the acquiring (of them). 

d. DECLARATIVE use, that: TjKey ayyeXXosv ris us 'EA.ereta KareiXrjTrTai there 
came one with the tidings that Elatea is taken, cf. 733. 

e. FINAL use, that, in order that : us ^ Trayres o\<ai/Tai that all may not 
perish, cf. 739. 

f. CONSECUTIVE use, like usre so that, mostly with the infin. (770) : ovra 
lj.oi ffio-fi&rjo'as us vvv (re'crwayicu you so aided me that I am now saved, IKO.VO, irpos' 
yyov us SeiTryfjcrcu rV a-Tparidv they brought enough, so that the army could dine. 

g. For us in expressions of WISHING (Lat. utinam), see 721 a. 

876. 2. us-rrep (y + Tre'p) even as, just as, 
& strengthened us, but found only in the comparative use. 


3. OTTO)? as, that, in order that, 

is the indefinite relative corresponding to us (as oiroios to ofos, etc.). Its prin- 
cipal use is that of o. final conjunction, see 739. Like other indefinite relatives, 
it is used in dependent questions (825 a) how, in what manner. 

4. oSsre (856 a) used in two ways : 

a. COMPARATIVE use, as : this is Ion. and poetic, and is especially frequent 
in Homer. . 

b. CONSECUTIVE use, so that : in this it denotes result, and may be connect- 
ed either with fhe infinitive or with a dependent finite verb (770-71). 

5. are (in Hm. only as pronoun) as, 
chiefly used with participles, see 795 d: so also ofa. 

6. #, o7T?7, as, see 879, 4. 

7. Hm. ijvTf as, like as. In II. 7, 10, T, 386, it is a dissyllable (37). 

877. XIY. TEMPORAL CONJUNCTIONS. These are mostly re- 
lative adverbs of time. 

1. ore , oTro're, when ; and (with Sv) orav, OTTOTUV. "Ore is also used 
in a causal sense : whereas, since. 

2. eure (poetic and Ionic) = ore, both temporal and causal. 

3. TJVIKO, oTrnviKct, at which time, when, more precise than ore. In 
llm., rjv'iKa is scarcely found : on the other hand, 

4. TJ/J.OS when( = fjvi<a) is little used except in Hm. : it is found only 
with the indicative. 

5. eVei after, since, when; and (with av) enfjv or cndv (Hm. eV^, 
eVe/ *e, Hd. eiredv). 'Ewe/ is very often used as a causal conjunction, since, 
seeing that. 

6. r8q since now, when now, from eVe/ strengthened by drj (861) : 
it denotes thus a more immediate and particular relation of time or cause. 
With av, it forms eVetSav, which is much more used than eV^i/, eVai/. 

7. eare (not in Hm.) } ecoy, and poet. o<ppa, Hm. elsoKe (or els o e, ei? 
ore *e), until, as long as: 

euKi^ovrai TOVS a.v&p<3}irovs eerre &v ^pxaxni' avrwv they abuse men as long as 
they are masters of them, Trepif/j.fvop.ev e'cos a^ot^^etTj rb Setr/^cwT^ptoj' we were wait- 
ing until the prison should be opened. i"O^/)a is very often used as a final con- 
junction (739) : Hm. oQpa ^ olos 'ApyeW ayepcurros eo> that I may not be, alone 
among the Greeks, without a prize. 

8. p. X pi, "XP 1 ( cf - 626 ) 7 ) until - 

878. 9. irplv before (that), ere. 

In this use, it stands for Trplv % (sooner than, Lat. priusquam): it may be con- 
nected either with the infinitive (769) or with a finite verb (771). In its proper 
use (= prius, sooner, earlier), it has no relative force and is not a conjunction : 
this in Attic Greek is found only after the article (tvroTs irplv \6yots in the fore- 
going statements, T& irpiv before, formerly), but is very frequent in Hm. : ou yap 
4y& \vffw irpiv fj.iv yap y-Tjpas iireiffiv for I will not release (her) ; old age even 
shall come upon her before. He often uses it in correspondence with a conjunc- 
tion Trpiv (769) : ouSe TIS erA.?? irplv irieeiv irplv Aetyai nor durst any one (sooner) 
drink before he made libation. 


879. XV. LOCAL CONJUNCTIONS. These are relative adverbs 
of place. They are also occasionally used to denote position in 
time / and very often to denote situation, i. e, states, conditions, 
or circumstances. 

1. ov, 077-ou, where (Epic and Lyric o3t, OTTO'S t)- 

2. oSef, oTroSfy, whence. 

3. of, OTTO*, whither. 

4. 17, OTTT/ (Hm. also ^t), which way, in which part, where : also, in 
comparative sense, as. 

5. eV3a a which place, where, cvZev whence, more precise than ou, 
oSev. They are often used as demonstratives, there, thence. 

6. Iva where; but much oftener used as & final conjunction (cf. 739), 
that, in order that. 

REM. a. Adverbs which express the place where, are often connected with 
verbs of motion : they denote then the place of rest in which the motion ends : 
e/e TT)S ir6\(as ov Karetyvye from the city where (whither) he fled for refuge. 
Conversely, oT and Siroi are sometimes connected with verbs of rest, the adverb 
referring to a previous motion : poet. e%ets 8i8dcu 5% /* oiroi /ca^eVra^ev are 
you able to inform me whither we (have come and) are set down? Cf. 618 a. 


880. ELLIPSIS (defect} is the omission of words which are requisite to 
a full logical expression of the thought. 

For numerous cases of elliptical construction, see 504-10, 752-4, 818 
-20 ; but many of those constructions fall under the special head of 

881. BRACHYLOGY (brief expression) is a species of ellipsis, by which 
a word appears but once, when in the complete expression it would be 
repeated, and, usually, with some change of form or construction : 

ayafrol % ^ (sc. aya&ot) &v5pes good men or not (good men), ^irpd^a/j-ev ^/xe?s 
(sc. irpbs e/ceh/ous), Kal e/ceTi/ot irpbs ^uas eip-fjvrjv we made peace with them, and 

they with us. Very often the complete expression, instead of repeating the 

same word, would use another word of "kindred meaning: &s /3a&i/p fKoifj.'fifrqs 
(sc. viri/ov) how deep (a sleep) you slept (509 a), ol 'Afryvcuoi fji^^yvwffav Kep/cu- 
paiois tvupaxlav ^ iroi^ffaff^ai. (for peTeyvaffav Kal syvcaffav) the Athenians 
changed their resolution (and resolved] not to form an alliance with the Corcy- 
reans, afjL\-fjffas wv of iro\\oi (sc. e7rt/*eA.oiWai) neglecting things which th most 
care for. Thus eKacrros or rls must sometimes be supplied from a preceding 
ouSefs: ouSels i/ccov Si/catoy, aAAoi tyeyet T^> aSt/celV afivvarcav avrb Spay no one is 
just by his own will, but (each one] blames injustice, because he is unable to prac- 
tise it. 

882. ZEUGMA (junction) is a variety of brachylogy, by which two 
connected subjects or objects are made to depend on the same verb, when 
this is appropriate to but one of them : the other subject or object depends 
properly on a more general idea, which may be drawn from the inappro- 
priate verb : 


Hm. yx i txdffTCj) "irirot aeptrforoSes Kal -jroiKiXa rev-fte e/cetro where for each ont 
(stood, <TTa<ra.v) his fool-lifting horses and his curiously-wrought arms were tying, 
Hd. eff&rira <popeovffi ry 2/cu,^JK:y fyioir/z/, yX&ffffav 5e lU^v they wear a dress simi- 
lar to the Scythian, but (have, e'xovffi) a peculiar language. The figure is chiefly 

883. APOSIOPESIS (becoming silent) occurs when from strong or sudden feel- 
ing a sentence is abruptly broken oft' and left incomplete : Hm. efrrore S 5 avre 
XP* I W e'yue?o yevrjTcu det/ce'a \oiybv o.jj.vva.1 but if ever again there comes a need of 
me to ward off shameful ruin . It is a figure of rhetoric rather than of syntax. 

884. PLEONASM (excess) is the admission of words which are not re- 
quired for the complete logical expression of the thought. For a pleon- 
astic use of CIVTOS and OVTOS, see 680. This also is in most cases a figure 
of rhetoric rather than of syntax. 

885. HYPERBATON (transposition) is an extraordinary departure from 
the usual and natural order of words in a sentence. Thus words closely 
connected in construction are separated by other words which do not 
usually and naturally come between them : 

& irp6s ffe yovdrow (for irpbs yovdrav ere sc. f/cereuw) by thy knees (I entreat) 
thee, e ot/ TTJS aKpordr^s ekev&eplas SovAe/o TrAeicrTTj as a consequence, I sup- 
pose, of extreme freedom, comes utter servitude. It often gives emphasis to some 
particular word or words : TroAAw;/, J> uvSpes 'A&rjvaiot, \6y<av yiyvo/j-evow though 
many, Athenians, are the speeches made ; - especially by bringing similar 
or contrasted words into immediate juxtaposition : eyb |UJ/TJJ/ ^At/cz^rots rjS<fy*ej/os 
ydo/jievois efj.oi / associated with persons of my own age, taking pleasure in them, 
and they in me, Hm. irap' OVK ed-e'Aw;/ ed-eAovoT? unwilling with her wishing it. 

886. ANACOLUTHON (inconsistency). This occurs, when in the course 
of a sentence, whether simple or compound, the speaker, purposely or in- 
advertently, varies the scheme of its construction : 

al 5ia\ey6[A]/os OUTW, eSo^e fj,oi OVTOS 6 avfyp elvat ffo<p6s and conversing with 
him, this man appeared to me to be wise (for " I thought the man to be wise," 
&&fuov rbv avSpa, etc.), ^eroi ravra ?; |woSos -f\v^ 'Apyetoi p.\v opyy x (a P^ VTS 
after this the engagement commenced, the Argives advancing eagerly ('Apyeioi in- 
stead of 'Apyeicov, as if the sentence began with vvr)\&ov they engaged), robs 
"EAArjws eV ry 'Affix oiKovvras ouSeV irca aa.<pes \eyerai el eirovTcu but the Greeks 
that live in Asia, nothing certain is as yet reported, whether they are following 
(el eirovrai instead of eirecr&ai, the expression changing to an indirect question), 
Hm. fj.fjTepa 8' ? ot &vfj.b$ e^opfjiarai ya/j-eea-^ai, 6^/ i-rca Is /j-eyapov irarptis but thy 
mother, if her mind is bent on being married, let her go back to her father's house 
(&\// 5fro> instead of aTrSire^ov send back), tbsirep ol a&\r)rai, orav TUV avrayaviff- 
TU>V yevoavrai ^TTOVS, TOUT' avrovs aj/toc as the athletes, when they prove inferior 
to their antagonists, this troubles them (as if ol adA^Taf belonged to the relative 
sentence, prop. TOUTCO aviwi/Tcu are troubled by this). - Sometimes the anaco- 
luthon is caused by an endeavor to keep up a similarity of form between two 
corresponding sentences : roiavra yap 6 epus e-jriSeiKwrai Susrvxavvras p*v & 
fify \6vTjv Tots &\\ois Trape^ei aviapa iroie'i Po/ni^eiv evTv^o^vras 8e Kal rot. //.?? rjfio- 
vris 'dia Trap" IKS'IVCM iiraivov avayicd^ei rvyxdvetv for such effects does love exhibit: 
unfortunate persons he causes to regard as troublesome, things which give no pain 
to others; but fortunate persons, he makes it necessary that even things unworthy 
of pleasure should obtain praise from them (evTvxpvvras Trap 1 tKelvuv instead of 




887. METRE AND RHYTHM. To all forms of Greek verse belong 
metre (/icYpov measure) and rhythm (puS/jos- movement). They all have 
a definite measure .of long and short syllables, and a regular movement 
of times and accents. 

888. FEET. Verses are composed of metrical elements called feet 
The most important are the following : 

Feet of three (short) times. 

Trochee w Ae?7re Dactyl 

Iambus \nreiv Anapaest AtTreVoj 

Tribrach w u %\nroy Spondee 

Feet of five times. Feet of six times. 

Cretic AciTreTw Ionic a majore ^ 

First Paeon v u AetTnfyie&a Ionic a minore w. 

Fourth Paeon w f\nr6u.-nv Choriambus <->^ 

Much less important are the following : 

AiTTg Ditrochee 

%\eiirov Diiambus 

First Epitrite 

Third Epit. 
eAnroi'To Fourth Epit. 


Antibacchlus Acforoiofte Second Epit. 

Second Paeon 

Third Paeon 

Molossus AetTnWcw Dispondee 

889. GROUPS. A single foot, taken by itself, is called a 

two feet, taken together, a dipody ; three feet, a tripody ; four, five, six, 
etc., a tetrapody,pentapody, hexapody, etc. One foot with half of an- 
other is sometimes called triemimeris (three half-feet) : so pcnthemimeris 
= two feet and a half j Jiephthemimeris = three and a half, etc. 

890. VERSES. Verses are named trochaic, iambic, dactylic, etc., ac- 
cording to the principal (or fundamental) foot used in them. They are 
further distinguished as manometer, dimeter, trimeter, etc., according to 
the number of their feet. 

In trochaic, iambic, and anapaestic verses, each "-meter" consists of two 
feet : thus, an anapaestic dimeter consists of four feet ; an iambic trimeter, of 
six ; a trochaic tetrameter, of eight, etc. In other Jcinds of verse, each foot is 
reckoned as a " -meter " : thus, a dactylic hexameter consists of six feet ; a 
cretic pentameter, of five ; an ionic tetrameter, of four, etc. 


891. CATALECTIC AND ACATALECTIC. In many forms of verse, the clos- 
ing foot is incomplete. Such verses are designated as catalectic (stopping 
short). On the other hand, verses which close with a complete foot are 
called acatalectic. 

a. A verse is said to be catalectic in syllabam, in disyllabum, in trisyHabum, 
according to the number of syllables (one, two, three) actually used in the in- 
complete foot. 

b. The name hypercatakctic is sometimes applied to a verse which extends 
one syllable beyond a given measure : thus a choriambic tetrameter hyperca- 
talectic is a verse which would become a choriambic tetrameter by omitting 
its last syllable. 

892. RESOXUTION AND CONTRACTION. Many kinds of verse allow the 
use of two short syllables in place of a long one, which is then said to be 
resolved; or, vice versa, the use of a long syllable in place of two short 
ones, which are then said to be contracted. 

Thus, in the trochaic dimeter 'Apo/Jfas T* &p$iov &v&os ( * ), 
a tribrach stands by resolution in place of the first trochee. And in the dactyl- 
ic hexameter fora (re'd-e/, rov v&J, d-eou &s, TepTnfyted-' avSfj ( w ^ 

_ w w ) ? a spondee stands by contraction, in place of the second, fourth, and 
sixth dactyls.. 

893. CAESURA. When a pause in the sense, however sligHt, occurs 
within the verse, it produces a caesura (i. e. a cutting, or dividing of the 
verse). This division very often takes place in the middle of a foot 3 and 
in that case it may be designated as afoot-caesura. 

Thus, in the dactylic hexameter &J/TO, <re&ej/, rov vwi, &eov &s, repirS/jieS' avUy 

(_uw _ | | | _ww } before thee, by whose voice, as if it were a 

god's, we two are delighted), caesuras occur after cr&ci', vui t and &s ; and the 
first two of these are, at the same time, foot-caesuras. 

894. ACCENT, ARSIS AND THESIS. In pronouncing verse, one syllable 
of each foot was distinguished from the rest by a greater stress of voice. 
This greater stress is called the rhythmic accent. It is wholly independ- 
ent of the written accent, which was disregarded in versification. 

That part of each foot which has the rhythmic accent is called the 
arsis (raising) ; while the unaccented part of the foot is called the thesis 
(setting, lowering). 

Thus, in the dactylic hexameter fora ff&ev, rov vSX, freoO &s, TepTnfyiefr' avSj? 
(1 w w L .Is/u -L _ _i.vw \ the syllables which have the rhythmic accent are 
&v-, -3-ev, vS>-, -ov, rep-, av- (only half of which have the written accent). Each 
of these six is the arsis of its own foot ; while the remaining syllable or sylla- 
bles of each foot compose the thesis. 

HEM. a. When a long arsis is resolved into two short syllables (892), the 
first of them receives the rhythmic accent. Thus in the iambic dimeter Svaiffiv 
ouSey e7rt%rt\^s (*- ^> ^w w .-l) } the tribrach which stands in place of the 
third iambus is accented on its second syUable. 

895. SYNCOPE. Of many rhythms modified forms are produced by 
the omission of one or more theses. This omission is called syncope* 
The time of the omitted thesis was made up either by a pause, where the 
sense admits of one, or by a prolongation of the preceding long arsis. 


Thus the verse /Jetpemi /caraAAoyai ( - o ^ -I w -1) is an iambic dimeter 
modified by syncope of the second thesis : the place of the omitted thesis we 
mark by a letter " o." 

896. ANACRUSIS. An unaccented syllable (short or long) prefixed to 
rhythms beginning with an accent, is called an anacrusis (upward beat). 
Sometimes we find a double anacrusis, of two short syllables. 

Thus, the verses b, c, d, show the same rhythm as a, but with anacruses 
prefixed : 

a. -)(fpff\v d^offTr6poiffiv. w ^ ^ w 

b. Trpo/cTjSo/ieVa j8ape?of. J-w .. -Lv 

C. fj.'}) rapjQaAeo frdvoifu. - ^ 

d. rb 5e a-vyywes e>j8ej3a/cej>. wwv w .lu.iv/ 

KEM. e. The names iambic (903 if) and anapaestic (912 ff), applied to large 
classes of rhythms, though convenient from their brevity, are not indispens- 
able: the iambic rhythms might with propriety be designated as anacrusic- 
trochaic, the anapaestic as anacrusic-dactylic, i. e. trochaic and dactylic with 
preceding anacrusis. 

For BASIS, see 916. 

897. FINAL SYLLABLE. The final syllable of every verse is unrestrict- 
ed as to quantity (syllaba anceps). A long syllable may be used in that 
place instead of a short, and a short syllable instead of a long. 

Thus tiriffKoirovvr' ayvias ( - - ) is an iambic dimeter catalectic 
(for ^) ; and TSKVOVVTO. Kal T^KVOV^VOV ( w ^ ^ ^) is an iambic 

dimeter acatalectic (for ^- - - ^-). In marking quantities throughout 

the following sections, the final syllable of each verse will be marked long or 
short, as the order of the rhythm may require, without reference to its quan- 
tity in the annexed specimen. 

KEM. a. The reason of the freedom here described lies in the fact that the 
time even of a short syllable, when combined with the PAUSE which occurs at 
the end of a verse, becomes equivalent to a long syllable. For a like reason, 
HIATUS (67) is not avoided at the end of a verse, since the two vowel-sounds 
(at the close of one verse and the beginning of the next) are not pronounced 
in immediate succession, but are separated by the final pause. 

b. Yet we sometimes find a SYSTEM of lines, having the same or similar 
rhythm throughout, in which the liberties above described (syllaba anceps and 
hiatus) are allowed only in the closing line. A system of this kind might be 
regarded with .propriety as a single long verse, the lines which compose it be- 
ing metrical series rather than verses. Hence the lines of such a system are 
sometimes found ending in the middle of a word, which can never be true of a 
verse, strictly so called. 

898. A metrical composition may consist 

a. of SINGLE LINES (ort'^oi), in which one kind of verse (dactylic hex- 
ameter, iambic trimeter, etc.) is repeated indefinitely : the verse is then 
said to be used ~by the line. 

b. of DISTICHS, couplets of two lines, in which two kinds of verse, 
differing more or less from each other, are repeated in the same order to 
an indefinite extent ; see 911. 

c. of SYSTEMS, answering to the description just given in 897 b. 

d. of STROPHES, combinations of several lines, with more or less 
Fariety of verse. 


EEM. e. Strophes of a simple kind may be repeated (like single Lines or 
distichs) to an indefinite extent. But the longer and more complex strophes, 
which make up the lyric portions (choruses) of tragedy and comedy, are usually 
arranged in pairs. Each pair consists of a STROPHE and ANTISTROPHE, the latter 
of which is like the former, containing the same kinds of verse arranged in the 
game order. Such a pair is sometimes followed by a single strophe called au 
EPODE (after-song] differing from them in rhythms, and serving as a conclusion 
to them. In the lyric odes of Pindar, this is the general law ; most of them 
consist of trios, in which a like pair, strophe and antistrophe, are followed by 
an unlike epode ; but the successive trios of the same piece are all alike, show- 
ing the same kinds of verse in the same order of arrangement. 

In these complex strophes, it is not to be expected, in general, that the 
student will be able to determine the rhythms for himself, without direction of 
the text-book or the teacher. 

Trochaic HJiytlims. 

899. The fundamental foot is the trochee. A trochaic "-meter " (890) 
consists of two feet, the last of which may also be a spondee. Hence the 
monometer, dimeter, trimeter, etc., may have either trochees or spondees 
for the even feet (2d, 4th, 6th, etc.), but only trochees for the odd feet 
(1st, 3d, 5th, etc.). 

A tribrach may be used by resolution (892), in place of a trochee ; 
and an anapaest^ in place of a spondee. A dactyl sometimes occurs in- 
stead of a trochee, but only in proper names. 

The rhythmic accent is always on the first syllable of the foot, and 
the first foot of a "-meter " is more strongly accented than the second. 

900. The following are specimens of trochaic rhythms : 
a, b. monometer ; b, catalectic (cretic) : 


c, d. tripody (ithyphallic) ; d, catal. (penthemimeris) : 

<>XT' ev SdpOHTi (c). ^ 

Keio-erai Tci\as (d). - w 

e, f. dimeter ; f, catalectic : 

a\\' aj/a/^ofteWes, 3>v$pes (e). -- -! 

ft}) vVC0fJ.6TrjS TLS ?IV (f ). -Lw_w JL 

g, pentapody : 

Albs vTrayKd\ifffJ,a, ffGfJ.vbv "Hpo. \J^w w 

H, i. trimeter ; i, catalectic : 

Awpia <$>(ava.v vap/j,6ai ireS/A.^ (h). --- - 

apirayai 8e Siadpo/j-av 6/ (i). J-\j wvL 

j. dimeter and ithyphallic : 

aAAa p.oi rdS* fjj.jj.4voi Kal /i^iror' e/cra/ce/r/. 
k. tetrameter (= dimeter repeated) : 

tetrameter catalectic (= dimeter and dim. catal.) 
woAAoi P.GV yap e'/e &ah.d<ro"rj 



yiyverai &vr]TO?$, 6 fj.dffo'&v &IOTOS 3)v ra&rj 7rp6ffca. 

m. tetram. catal. scazon (ffipponacteari) : 

901. The following are specimens of SYNCOPATED FORMS: a is a syncopated 
dimeter ; b, a dim. catal. ; c, d, e, catalectic trimeters ; f, g, h, catalectic tetra- 
meters. Such forms as e appear to begin with a spondee, which, however, is 
really a syncopated dipody. 

vaS>v Kpvp.&a. _ -u o - ^ 

b. TTKS yap /TTTTTjAaTay. w o ^ 

C. ft)] Tvxova-ai &ea>v 'OAVjUTrtW. __ w _ O --w 

d. vvv Trapa.iTOVfj.Gvri juoi, trdrep. _ w _o o 

e. evcrr)iJi.6v re <a(Tjua vavfidrais. o O ^ ^ 

f. Zeus ci^a^ airoffTepoir) yd/AOv Svsdvopa. w wiw o- 

902. a. The CATALECTIC TETRAMETER is often used by the line (898 a), espe- 
cially in comedy : it generally has a caesura after the fourth foot. In the 

SCAZON (hobbling] a satiric verse it is modified by the use of a spondee for 
the last odd foot : this makes the verse unrhythmical (899), with humorous 

tensively used in lyric strophes (898 d). Systems (897 b) are sometimes 

found, in which a succession of complete dimeters (with, here and there, a mo- 
nometer) is closed by a dimeter catalectic. 

Iambic Rhythms. 

903. The fundamental foot is the iambus. An iambic "-meter " (890) 
consists of two feet, the first of which may also be a spondee. Hence 
the monometer, dimeter, trimeter, etc., may have either iambi or spondees 
for the odd feet (1st, 3d, 5th, etc.), but only iambi for the even feet (2d, 
4th, 6th, etc.). In a tripody or pentapody, only the first foot can be a 

A tribrach may be used by resolution (892) in place of an iambus ; 
and a dactyl, in place of a spondee. An anapaest also may occur in place 
of an iambus : this is very common in humorous poetry ; in other kinds 
the anapaest (unless occurring in a proper name) is restricted to the first 
foot. In all catalectic verses, the last complete foot is an iambus. 

The rhythmic accent is on the second syllable of each foot, but on the 
third syllable of an anapaest. The first foot of a "-meter " is more strong- 
ly accented than the second. 

904. The following are specimens of iambic rhythms : 

a. monometer: 


b, c. tripody; c, catalectic (penthemimeris): 

'EAAcw/f 5es K 6pai (b). _ I. w _ 

Kpdraiov syx os ( c ) w ~ w *" 


d, e. dimeter ; e, catalectic : 

&\U> ff T7JS fV&OV\laS (d). - - v -- - 

ayuvas evrbs Oi/ccoj/ (e). w - w w - w 
f, g. peutapody ; g, catalectic : 

vaes KO.vwXf&potffiv K/3o\ai$ (f). _.! 

irpopovA.6irais &<pepros aras (g). .1 w. 
h. trimeter catalectic : 

7r(peAr7<ra iroAeos eeAecr&eu. wlw w^wv 
i. trimeter (acatalectic) : 

5?os alfr^p, Kal raxuTrrepoi trvoai. -- .1 u 

7rel 5e TTATJ/JTJS cyber* 'Apyeltoy $x^ os - w ~ w -- ^ w 

eTrl Tw5e 5* v)y6peve AiOjUTjSrjs S^a|. uwu ww 
j. trimeter scazon (cholianibus, Hipponactean) : 

5u' fipepai yvvaiK6s deny jf)8iffrcu. uw_ww 
k. tetrameter catalectic (= dimeter and dim. catal.) : 
5 iraffLV av&p&irois (pavels fj-cyiffrov 


1. tetrameter (acatalectic, = dimeter repeated) : 
Se'|at /ie KU/j.d&VTa, 8e|at, \ (re, 

905. The following are specimens of SYNCOPATED FORMS : a, b, c, d, e, are 
dimeters, the first two being catalectic; f, g, h, i, pentapodies, the first two 
catalectic; j, k, 1, m, n, trimeters, the first two catalectic; o, p, q, r, tetra- 
meters, the first one catalectic. 

a. ju 6\ois & ir6<ris poi. J. o - 

b; StTrAa^eroi Tt^tc(. * w O 

C. &ape?cu /caroAAayaf. w-i-o - 

d. KO/COU 5e %aA/cou rptirov. 

e. fjLe\a/j.Tray})S ireAez. 

f. ev ayKwffi rcKva ^S> 

g. A^TOJ' 5' a/covet /iey ourts. 

i. j3e'0a/ce*> p^a St^ irwAaf. 

j. Satyviitydpois ftov^TOiffi TI/J.OIS. 

k. UTT' apxas 5' ourt^os ^ocJ^cof . w-i-o o- w 

1. fie/Haffi *yhp rolvcp aypdrai crrparov. w^.w o w w 

m. jStoi -)(aKivS)v S' d^ouSaj ftevei. w-lw o ^ o~ 

n. ciravx'fiffas Se To?(ri (ToTs \6yois. o 

O. jSapeTa 5' et rewov 8af|a>, 8J/*a>^ &ya\fj.a. w^.w 
p. TT^ot Sjjuwi/ veoi TraAaioTo-t ffvjj.p.iyeis KO.KOIS. -^ 
q. <5jwoC Se Ttaiava. iraiav' avdyer', & irap&evoi. v w o *^ O ww Lu 

r. uSajp Te AipKcuov eurpcupeffrarov ir(ap.&T(av. w w w ^ w o *> 

906. The IAMBIC TRIMETER is, next to the dactylic hexameter, the most 
widely used of all rhythms. It prevails especially in tragedy and comedy, the 
dramatic dialogue being mainly carried on in this measure. Of the six feet 
which compose it, the last is always an iambus. For the iambus in the odd 
feet (1st, 3d, 5th), a spondee is very often used, and sometimes a dactyl : but 
a dactyl in the fifth foot is almost unknown in tragedy. Each of the first five 
feet may also be a tribrach, and, in comedy, an anapaest. In tragedy, the 
anapaest is generally confined to the first foot : in a proper name, however, it 


may occur in any foot except the sixth. - The most common caesuras are 
those which divide the third and fourth feet (penthemimeral and hephthemime- 
ral caesuras), especially the former. But caesuras of less frequent use are 
found at almost every place in the verse : the least approved are those which 
divide the verse into equal halves or thirds. When the fifth foot is divided by 
a caesura, the syllable before that caesura (if it is not a monosyllabic word) is 
almost always short. 

a. In the trimeter SCAZON (hobbling) a satiric verse the rhythm is modi* 
fied by the use of a spondee for the last (even) foot : this makes the verse un- 
rhythmical (903), with humorous .effect. 

907. a. The CATALECTIC TETRAMETER is often used by the line (898 a) in 
comedy : it generally has a caesura after the fourth foot. Two syncopated 
forms of the tetrameter, 905 o, p (with fifth thesis omitted), were also used by 
the line. 

though sometimes used by the line, were more employed in lyric strophes 
(898 d). Systems (897 b) are sometimes found, in which a succession of com- 
plete dimeters (with, here and there, a monometer) is closed by a dimeter ca- 

c. In a few instances, we find iambic tripodies which (contrary to 903) ad- 
mit a spondee in the second or third foot. These are sometimes called iambic 
ischiorrhogic (limping) : cf. 906 a. 

Dactylic Rliythms. 

908. The fundamental foot is the dactyl. But a spondee is very often 
used instead (892) : at the end of a verse, it is much more common than 
the dactyl. A proceleusmatic, used for the dactyl (892), is rare, and only 
found in lyric poetry. The rhythmic accent is on the first syllable of 
each foot. 

909. Specimens of dactylic rhythms : 

a. dimeter (almost always logaoedic, cf. 917 a): 

juotpo 5tc>/cei. L _ 

b, c. trimeter ; c, catalectic (penthemimeris) : 

Trap&eVot 6fji.Ppo<p6poi (c). - ^ - v - 

d, e, f. tetrameter ; e, syncopated ; f, catal. (hephthemimeris) : 

ovpaviois TC 3-eoTs Sttp^uora (d). J. ww W w-l -- 

ouAo/iej/ 5 at/CiV^ara veKpiav (e). J.ww2-o ^^ 

e\,W eiro^ewit 5 vva^iv (f). JLuw-L^-luw-L 

g, h. pentameter ; h, syncopated and catal. : 

oAAa P.&TO.V 6 irp6&v[jios ael ir6vov eet (g). LwLwLwLwL 

^ Spvbs ?*) e'Aaras aKpon6^ois (h). Lwl-woJ.v 

i. elegiac pentameter ( = catal. trimeter repeated) : 

alffX^yr) Se (pi\ois ^juerepots eyeVov. .Li.iuV2. -Lv */ w v .1 

j, k. hexameter ; k, spondaic (with spondee as fifth foot) : 

&s 7raj/eo"T7jcrav, Treidwr^ re Trot^tej/t \aSov. u ^ --- L LwLwL 

aAA' avr6s re Kd&rjffO, Kal &\\ovs '/Spue Aaouy. Iww-lww-J. J.uw.1. 

k. TITTT' OUT', alyt6xoio Albs re/cos, elA^Aoufras. _^vww^.ww2._ 

I, m. octameter (= tetram. repeated) ; m, catalectic : 

5 Tr^Trot, ^ peydhas aya&as re iroXi<rffov6p.ov jStoray eireicvpffafJiev (1). 


SeivordTOiv ffTO/j-droiv iropia'aa'&ai fi'hfj.a.Ta K$ Trapa.Trptfffji.aT' iruv (m). 

The following are specimens of COMPOUND FORMS (dactylic and trochaic) : 
n. tetrameter, and trochaic monometer : 

8eiT6|00t Trporvxbv |eVioj/ fjidcrrevae Sovyai. -.ww ww ww --- 1 w _ w 

o. trimeter, and trochaic dimeter catalectic: 

/cewAure, TrcuSes vTrep&v/j.(av re tptarcav Kal 3-ewv. w w w w --- 1 w -- w 
p. trimeter (with anacrusis, and syll. anceps), and ithyphallic: 

rovroiffi 8' virKT&ev "irca (pfpcav 5i<ppov AvKovpyos. 

910. The HEROIC HEXAMETER (909 j) is more used than any other rhythm, 
being the established measure for epic, didactic, and bucolic poetry. Of the 
six feet which compose it, each may be at pleasure a dactyl or a spondee ; ex- 
cept the last foot, which can never be a dactyl. In the remaining feet, how- 
ever, the dactyl is the prevailing form ; especially in the fifth, where hardly 
one line in twenty has the spondee (909 k). 

The third foot is commonly divided by a caesura : this may be either mas- 
culine, i. e. after the long arsis of a dactyl or spondee (penthemimeral caesura), 
or feminine, i. e. between the two shorts of a dactyl. Often also there is a 
caesura after the arsis of the fourth foot (hephthcmimeral caesura) ; or at the 
end of the fourth foot (called bucolic caesura, from its frequent occurrence in 
bucolic poetry). Beside these, there are other caesuras, of less frequent use, 
at almost every place in the hexameter. 

911. The ELEGIAC DISTICH was not confined to the elegy, but was used for 
many other kinds of composition. Its first line is the hexameter, containing, 
of course, two complete dactylic tripodies : its second (909 i) is a verse contain- 
ing two catalectic tripodies, which are always separated by a caesura. Of this 
verse the first two feet may be dactyls or spondees at pleasure. The third foot 
consists of an accented long syllable (arsis): the time of its omitted thesis waa 
made up by a caesural pause. The fourth and fifth feet are always dactyls : 
the sixth, like the third, consists of an accented syllable. The usual name pen- 
tameter was founded on a mistaken division into five feet, the third of which 
was always a spondee, while the fourth and fifth were anapaests. 

Anapaestic Rhythms. 

912. The fundamental foot is the anapaest. But a spondee or a dactyl 
is very often used (892) instead of the anapaest; much less often, a pro* 
celeusmatic. The rhythmic accent falls on the final long sjdlable of the 
anapaest or spondee, and on the penultimate short of the dactyl or proce- 
leusmatic (894 a). An anapaestic '-'-meter " (890) consists of two feet. 

913. Specimens of anapaestic rhythms : 
a, b. monometer ; b, catalectic : 

a7roAe?s /*, a7roA.?s (a). w L 

C, d. tripody ( prosodiac) ; d, catalectic: 
^aAa/jLtvidcri ffrv(peA.ov (c). 
Ka\bv avSpl USTOIKGIV (d). 
e. dimeter catalectic (paroemiac): 
Kal (jfyv r6$e Kvpiov ?]/iop. 
vdvra yap tfSri T6Te'Ae0Tcu. 


f. dimeter (acatalectic) : 
<TKipT$ 5 s 

tetrameter catalectic ( dimeter and dim. catal.) : 
irp6ff-%TG T^V vovv ro'is a&avdrois vjfjuv, Tots aikv eoG(n, 
Tois ai&epiois, Toiffiv ayhpcps, ro'is 

914. ANAPAESTIC SYSTEMS (89*7 b) are composed of any number of complete 
dimeters (and, here and there, a monometer), with a catalectic dimeter (paroe- 
miac) always added as a close. They are widely used in tragedy and comedy, 
more widely than any other rhythm, after the iambic trimeter. They are of 
two kinds, stricter and. freer systems. The stricter systems differ from the freer 

in these respects : a. They avoid a succession of four short syllables: hence 

a proceleusmatic almost never appears in them, or a dactyl followed by an an- 
apaest. b. In the dimeter, they have a regular caesura, generally at the 

end of the second foot, but sometimes in the middle of the third. c. In the 

paroemiac, they allow a dactyl to stand only as the first foot, and almost al- 
ways have an anapaest for the third. 

d. The freer systems are not subject to these restrictions. They sometimes 
consist, for lines together, of spondees only, or dactyls only ; and sometimes 
they have two or more paroemiacs in succession. They are much less used 
than the stricter systems, and are mainly confined to the expression of com- 
plaint or mourning. 

915. The CATALECTIC TETRAMETER is much used by the line (898 a) in comedy. 
It consists of a dimeter and paroemiac. These two parts are almost always 
separated by a caesura ; and each of them is subject, in general, to the rules 
just given for dimeters and paroemiacs in the stricter anapaestic systems (914). 

Logaoedic RJiytJims. 

916. Dactyls are often mixed with trochees so as to form not a com- 
pound rhythm (dactylic and trochaic, 909 n, o, p) but a simple rhythm, 
which is called logaoedic. The dactyls may stand before the trochees, or 
after them, or interposed between them ; but trochees never stand be- 
tween the dactyls. Each trochee may be resolved into a tribrach; but 
a dactyl (unless it closes the rhythm) is very seldom contracted to a spon- 
dee. A trochee (or tribrach) standing as the first foot, is called a basis 
(step), and is treated with great freedom : a spondee is very often used, 
instead of it, as basis : less often, an iarribus or anapaest (and, in Aeolic 
poetry, even a,pyrrliic}. A logaoedic verse may have an anacrusis (long 
or short) prefixed to its first foot. Also a double anacrusis (two short 
syllables) may be used, in which case the verse is called logaoedic ana- 
paestic. The rhythmic accent falls on the first syllable of each foot. 

a. If two trochees precede the first dactyl, the second also is called a basis, 
but it is not treated with the same freedom as the first: only a spondee can 
be used here for the trochee (or tribrach). b. A spondee may be used, in- 
stead of a trochee, as the second foot, even when the first foot is a dactyl. 
c. Further, when a verse ends with an arsis, a spondee may be used, instead 
of a trochee, before that arsis. Thus 


a. offios 8' evvaios ya/^eras. ^^ - - w w L 

b. xa\KOKp6Twt> 'iinrfav KTVITOS. LwL J-vL 
C. ras ?i\eKTpo(f>ae'is avyds. .w-i .i 

d. Trochaic rhythms used in near connection with logaoedic, may have 
bases and anacruses, such as those above described ; as also a spondee, instead 
of a trochee, before a final arsis (c). Thus 

irpbs v/ eAeu&epwy. 'L LvLvL 

& r 6re froav vvptyav. vl- w .i -i 

917. The following are specimens of logaoedic rhythms with one dactyl. 
The Pherecratean is called first or second, according as the dactyl is its first 
or second foot : the Glyconic is called first, second, or third, by a similar dis- 

a, b. Adonic (dactyl and trochee); b, with anacrusis : 

ovfcv fr-'faei (a). 

roioTsSe Petefffftv (b). JL w w JL w 

c, d. Pherecratean (first, second) ; e, f, catalectic : 

TTTaTrv\oiffi Tweets (c). w w L w JL w 

Se'lercu T eirl purSy (d). -i w -Lw w J- w 

\l/evde<ri iroiKi\ois (e). LwLuL 

airrM ayyeAmi (f ). 3- - J- w w JL 

g, h. Pherecratean with anacrusis (logaoedic paroemiac) : 

e'7<i> 5e ^va Ka^euSw (g). w-iw.iv.iw 

cuSolov opjuart viKav (h). ZwJlwwJLw 

i, j. Pherecratean catal. with anac. (logaoedic prosodiac) : 
!ci> 7yeal jSpOTcDj/ f i). w J. w w -i. w -L 

ir&VT(ov Iffrtyopiav ( j). -i w .i w w -i 

k, 1, m. Glyconic (first, second, third) : 

/*^ KOT^I rbj' yeavtav (k). ,iww.iw.iw.i 

^as irap^ewos TT^ (1). i-.wwJLwI. 

o /ieyas oA/Sos o T' d/jerei (m). ^wwwww 

n, o, p. Glyconic with anacrusis, or added thesis, or both : 

veot Ka/j-druv (n). JlwXwJLwv 

s Sa.v6vra)V (o). i I.wv^.v 

' a <re\dva (p). JLwvJ.vJlvw 

q. Phalaecean (hendecasyllable) : 

/ pvpTOv K\a8l rb |i'4>os QopficrGO. L LwLvLvLv 

r. Sapphic (hendecasyllable) : 

iroiKiXo&pov' abdvar' 'A^poSfra. .iv-iv.iw.iv.iv 

s. Alcaic (hendecasyllable), begins with anacrusis : 

KaKoiffi frvft.})? firiTpeireiy. -iw-iv-iw-ivi 

918. The following have more than one dactyl: 


b. ix&ves w/j.ocpd'yoi v4jj.ovro. v 

C. fjif\i re ff<piffi Ka\\i6ira. i_ 

d. &j/e/j.os /car' opos Spua-lv epTreffdv. vv. 

e. olyos 5 ^)(\ ira? Ae-yerat Kal aAa^ea. w 

f. ^pos av&e/j.6evTOs tirdiov 

g. vapb&e r&v KetpaXcu' T& 5' 


The forms d, e, f, belong to the so-called Aeohc dactyls ; in d, the basis is 
a pyrrhic, and ip.Trs<r<av stands for a dactyl by 897. The form g is called 


919. The following have a double anacrusis (logaoedic anapaestic) : 

a. iKerevcraTe 5% 5 K6pai. wu-ivw-Lu-i. 

b. rb Se o-vyyeves e>j8ea/ce;/. uwJLv,v,-lw-Lw 
C. /careActyuJ/as, e5ei|os f/j.<pavTj. ww-L W w-lwJ. w 

d. 'EAo/aj/ eAucraro Tpw'i'as. w^-L^-L^w-lv,.! 

e. ore rbi' vupavvov /craj/eTTjy. w w -1 -L o u 

f. T/t ruv Trdpos, & /j-ditaipa 0y}j8a. ww-lww-Lw-I.w.L^ 

The form e loses the second thesis by syncope. - Trochaic forms with 
double anacrusis are also regarded as logaoedic anapaestic : 

g. Ne^ueoi Se rpis. v JL u _ 
h. ir6\iv, oAA' avdffxov. wu-Lw ^ 

i. Zetyvpov yiyavros avpa,, !. w _ w 

j. Xapirwy e/cart r6vde K&IJ.OV. w-i-w w w w 

920. SYNCOPATED FORMS are very numerous. They often give rise to chorir 
ambi or cretics. The following are specimens : 

a. vavTiXias etrxaras. -iwu-I-o 

b. ov ^/euSet reylcw \6yov. 
C. ei|/aua-as dAyeiv 

d. 8aKpv6e<rff<iv T' 

Some verses consist of more than one series : thus 

e. first Pherecratean catal., repeated : 

&v8pa rvpavvov "linrapxov eKaiverrjv. LwJ 

f. Asclepiadean ( Pherecr. catal., second + first) : 

g. greater Asclepiadean (has choriambus between two Pherecr.) : 

h. Priapean (= Gly conic and Pherecratean) : 

ev/ji.f^s S' 6 Awcetos form irdffa veo\aia. LvL 
i. Eupolidean (= Glyconic and troch. dim. catal.) : 

921. PHERECRATEAN verses are sometimes combined in systems (897 b); 
but much more frequent are GLYCONIC SYSTEMS closing with a Pherecratean. 

a. In antistrophic composition, when one form of the Pherecratean (first 
or second) is used in a particular line of the strophe, the other form is sometimes 
found in the corresponding line of the antistrophe. The second and third 
forms of the Glyconic may correspond to each other in the same way, and 
either of them may correspond to the logaoedic form in 918 a. Sometimes a 
first Glyconic corresponds to a choriambic dimeter (924 b, c) or to an iambic 
dimeter; and a first Pherecratean, to an iambic dim. catal. These irregulari- 
ties are mostly rare : only the interchange of a second and third Glyconic is 
frequent. The rhythms in which they occur are termed POLYSCHEMATIST 

Cretic Rhythms. 

922. The cretic often occurs, as the result of syncope (895), in trochaic, 
iambic, and logaoedic rhythms. Examples may be seen in 901, 905, 920. 
The name " cretic rhythms " is frequently applied to such verses ; espe- 
cially when the cretic either in its proper form, or as resolved (892) intc 


& paeon, first QY fourth occurs repeatedly in the same verse. But there 
are also rhythms, more properly called by that name, in which the cretic 
(or, by resolution, the first or fourth paeon) stands as the fundamental 
foot. It is not always cas} r to distinguish between these two classes. 
The following will serve as specimens : 
a, b. dimeter catalectic ; b, with anacrusis : 

/eg: T' eAayo.^Tjpet (a). v v 2. \j 

fj.iitp6v ye Kivovjj.ti' (b). - - 

c, d. dimeter (acatal.) ; d, with anacrusis : 

Hvbev Zfav e' 7 w (c). 

> Zeu, rt TTo 

e. trimeter: 

o>s e/ie Aaj8oD(ra rbv 

f. tetrameter catalectic 

ovKert /caT'/jA&e ird\tv ofrcaS' virb /j.lffovs. 
g. tetrameter (acatalectic) : ro?(rij/ i7T7rei/(rt Karri/para. iww u 

h. dimeter, preceded by trochaic dimeter: 

ovSeV cor: S-qpiov yvvaucbs o/xa%wT6po'. -i.w_v^.u 

i. pentameter : 

<roD 7' aKovcrwuei/; airo\i' Kard ere Y&ffou.ev rots \i&ois. 

923. The rhythmic accent falls on the first long syllable of the cretic (894 a) : 
at the same time there is a certain stress, though weaker, on the second long. 

a. Occasionally a spondaic basis (that is, a syncopated cretic) is prefixed to 
a cretic rhythm. In some instances, a trochaic dipody answers to a cretic, in 
corresponding lines of strophe and antistrophe. 

Choriambib Rhythms. 

924. The choriamlus occurs in Greek verse, not as the fundamental 
foot of a distinct rhythm, but only as the resu/t of syncope (895) in dac- 
tylic, anapaestic,' and logaoedic rhythms. For examples of choriambi 
thus produced, see 909 e, h, 919 e, 920. Yet the name "choriambic" is 
used as a convenient designation for verses which are made up either of 
pure choriambi, or of choriambi mixed with iambic dipodies. The follow- 
ing will serve as specimens : 

a, b, c. dimeter ; b and c begin with iambic dipody : 

ep<as aviKure fj-dx^-v (b). .! -luu 

Set^TOT* aireihovvTas eiruv (c). viw>w_-.wv 

d. trimeter : 

et 5e Kvpet TIS TreAas ol(avoir6\(iW. .1 u u .1 u v -. 

e. tetrameter : 

8e/a /xei' ouV, fieiva rapdcrffei ffocpbs olowo&eTas. 

f. tetrameter hypercatalectic (891 b): 

8' eV &AAois eVej'cfyia ffTV<pe\i<av peyas "ApTjs. 

330 IONIC RHYTHMS. [924 

g. dimeter, and first Pherecratean : 

apaTTETOjuat 8}; irpbs ^OAu^Tiw irreptiysffffi Ko6<pous. 

Ionic HJiytTinis. 

925. The fundamental foot is the ionic a minore (u w JL _). The rhyth- 
mic accent falls on the first long syllable. The two shorts may be con- 
tracted into a long ; and of the longs, each one may be resolved into two 
shorts. The verse, when catalectic, ends in an anapaest. 

a. ANACLASIS. Two trochees ( ^) may be substituted for the two 
longs of one foot with the two shorts of the next (JL-^u). This change 
is very frequent, especially in Anacreontic verses : its effect is to produce 
a breaking up (anaclasis) of the ionic rhythm, which passes into the 

926. Specimens of ionic rhythms : 

a, b. dimeter catalectic ; b, with anaclasis : 

"SiKeXbs Kopeks avf)p (a). w w - o -1 

ir6\<av T' avaffraffeis (b). w <-> 

c, d. dimeter (acatalectic) ; d, with anaclasis : 

rierai S 1 aio\6fiirris (c). wv_uw-L_ 

Tro\iol rj/j-lv rj$r} (d). w^Jlw vJl 
e. trimeter catalectic : 

Kardpas Ol5nr6Sa P\afyi$povos. vw.1 vw.1 uuZ 

f, g, h. trimeter (acatalectic); g, h, with anaclasis : 

ffrparlis els avrliropov yetroi/a %c6paj/ (f). uw^l wL ow-L 

e/c ir6va>v yevoiT*, ou&a/io ruvSe (g). ww-i.w_w_ww_ 

i, j. tetrameter catal. (Galliambic) \ j, with anacl. : 

fraydTCt) AujTi^eAe? dnfipalv opeiotffi $opav (i). w w ^. w 
(pixris OVK eSco/ce /j.6ffxy AdAov "'AiriSi ffro/j-a ( j) w Jl w , 
k, 1. tetrameter (acatalectic) ; 1, with anaclasis : 

fivsffefifs epyov (k). 

irarepcav re Kal reK6vTwv 7605 svfiiKos [tarevei (1). 

EEM. m. An ionic verse may show the* two forms (without anaclasis and 
with it) in corresponding lines of strophe and antistrophe. The rhythm is then 
termed polyschematist (cf. 921 a). 

927. Sometimes the last long of the ionic is omitted, even in the middle of 
a verse : thus 

a. iro\vyoLid)oif u^icruct. v w o ^ <^ -~ 

b. (ppevbs oijTror' 6(J)\^jcrei KOLKIO-V. u u .1 p ^^ 
C. y'SaeTiy K.aKh.ia'Toia't \iiraiveiy. w wi Loww-L 

Sometimes the ^rs sAor^ of the ionic is irregularly lengthened, but not at 
the beginning of a verse : thus 
d. irepivaiovrai iroXaioi. wv-L wJL 


Dochmiac and Bacchic Rhythms. 

928. The docTimius consists of a 'bacchius with a following iambus 
*---). The rhythmic accent falls on the first long of the bacchius : 
there is also a secondary accent on the long of the iambus. Each of the 
two shorts (in the bacchius and iambus) may be lengthened ; and each 
of the three longs may be resolved into two shorts. These liberties give 
rise to a great variety of forms, most of which are shown in the follow- 
ing specimens : 

a. l(a irpSsTToXoi. , vl. wJL 

b. ei/ y% Ta5e <eu. - -1 
C. ri /a' OVK O.VTO.IO.V, --- - 
d. e&eis 


g. /J.effo\afti Kevrptp. 
h. ir\a6[j.Gvov ^varffuv. 
i. &TITOV ert o"6 xp^j. 
j. pe? TroAus o8e Aecfo. 

k. O.XfJ.Vp'bv 7fl TTOVTOV. 

HI. OU7TOT6 KO.TaXvfflp.OV. vt 

n. aTa^eT* e/cr Jirtoi'. w vi 

O. rb// Ka.rapar6rarov. & 

p. crw T', 5 Atoyej/es. 
q. e*y o^pw ^j/w. 
r. Tvpavvov Trd&ea. 

REM. s. The dochmii are used in passages which express great mental agi- 
tation. They are often combined in dimeters, or longer systems (897 b). 

929. OTHER BACCHIC RHYTHMS are little used in Greek poetry, and only in 
connection with dochmii. Thus we find a bacchic 

a. dimeter (dochmiac hypercatalectic) : 
Xopev&evT* avavXois. 

b. trimeter catalectic : 

C. tetrameter: 





NOTE. The references are made in all cases to the sections, not the pages, 
of the Grammar. The letters ff, placed after the number of a section, show 
that the same subject extends into the following sections. 

For peculiarities of verb-formation, a special INDEX OF VERBS has been 
given in section 451. 

A, vow. 7 ff ; quant. 86 ff. 
a, e, o, interch. 25. 334 a. 

383. 387 a. 389. 397 a; 

a, i, 27. 
a after e, i, p, 29. 125 a. 

126. 134. 207 a. 335 ff. 
ofor724Db. 29 D. 125 D, 

1. 134 D. 309 D. 335 D. 

382 b. [338 D. 

a for 77 24 D a. 125 D, 3. 
a from ao, aw, see ao, aw. 
a from e, see e. 
o to at 24 DC. [a, d. 

a to e 168 D. 182 D. 370 D 
a to 77 28. 125ff. 134. 309. 

335 ff. 372 b. 381-2. 387 

a. 400m, n. 
a conn. vow. 349 ff. 400 h. 

410 D. 411 D. [584 b. 
a- priv. 483 ; in adj. w. gen. 
-o quant. 130. 134. 183. 

190 c. 207 a. 
a ace. sing. 154. 157. 171. 

195 i; voc. sing. masc. 

135 ; 115 c. 138. 

154. 195e. 

6 gen. sing, for ou 136 d. 
-a adv. 227. 

a diphth. llff. [370 Da. 
aa to a 32 ; aa, aa, for a, a, 
aaco 420 D, 10. 
aya&6s comp. 223, 1 ; adv. 

e5 227 ; TOVTO, iraffa 

apeTTji/, 548. 
ayaionai 419D,'l. 
aya/cAe7?s 17 8 D. 
aya^at 419, 1.404,4.413. 
ayavaKTfd) w. part. 800. 
ayd"o,iu419D, 1. 
iyairda w. dat. 611 a; w. 

part. 800. 

D ayvd 

pass. pers. 777 ; 
w. part. 797. 

aye 877 851. [D.411D. 
aye/pa>432, 1. 367 D a. 384 
ayeuo"TOS KctKcav 584 C. 

(aos) 147. 

aytj/eeo, -tVa>, 424 D, 1. 
dy/caAT? 199D. 
ayj/oe'cy w. gen. 570 ; w. par. 

799; 7?yj/oi77(re 24 DC. 
ay i/ofcj 611. 

ayw/tt 442, 1. 23 D. 312. 
322. 387 a. 417. 

s 218. [pr)&ey 203 D. 
ayopd wt. art. 530 b ; ayo- 
ay6s 457 C. 

384 D. 

dyp<fc wt. art. 530 b. 
dypoYepos, &ypios, 221 D. 
Xh ~Vi compar. 229 D ; 
w. gen. 589. [mid. 689. 
oyw 424, 1. 349 D. 384; 
" b,uai mid. 692 ; ird- 

547 D. 
a5 (aj/8aVa>) 437, 1. 

s voc. sing. 141 a. 
', d577/cc6s, 31 8 D. 
d5t/ce'co w. two ace. 555 ; 
w. part. 801 ; pres. for 
pf. 698. 

for afivvarov 518 
a; afivvarov uv 792 a. 
v a'8o> (Hm. aet'Sw) 379. 

ae (077) to a 32 ; to 

g. 370 Dg. 371 c; to aa 

370 Da. 

ae (mua>, a"e<ra) 449 D, 7. 
aet to a 34 ; to at 35 a ; to 
77 32 Dg. 370 Dg; to a 

371 a; to aa 370 Da. 

32 D oTfre 

35 a. 483 b. 
aet>o> 35 a. 432 D, 2. 411 D. 
aeW 32 D e. 483 b. 
ae'a> 436, 3. [fut. 375. 

-dfa denom. verbs 472 f; 
arj, a??, to a, a, 32. 34 ; to 
77, T?, 370 D g. 371 c. 
401 i. 

, ar?5o?, 194c. 
aTjMi 404 D a. 400 D m. 
a*V 202 D, 21. 
A&dVa 24 D b. [-rjffi 205. 
204 ; -TJ^CV 203 ; 

w. ^ 743 b. 
, -rfo, 207 a. 
148 ; 'A&W 146 D. 
at llff; for a24Dc; for 
o (co) in comp. 221 c ; to 
r? 129.D. 310. 
at elided 70 D; short for 
accent 95. 365 ; 2 sing. 
for o-at 363. 401 c. 
at for et 721. 
ala 132 D. 
Afas 12 a. 

eo^ot, afSoyUat, 448, 1. 
413; w. ace. 544 a. 
'AtSrjs ("AtS??*) 65 D. 202 D, 
22 ; "AfttsSe 203 D ; 'At- 
Scavevs 202 D, 22; to 
(ds) "AtSou 509 j3. 
at'5o?os 455 a. 
for ei&e 721. 
152 p. 201 a. 
163. 199 D. 
35 a. 483 b. 
-cuv dual 195 b. 
-aiva 1 decl. 125 b. 
atVeco 420, 4. 



ai, aZvr)fj.i, 420 D, 4. 
440 D, 6. 
-aivca denom. 47 2 g. 
alpeta 450, 1. 312. 321 D ; 

w. two ace. 656 ; mid. 

691; pass. 694 c. 
alpca 432, 2. 35 a. 382 a. 
-ais, -ai<n(v), dat. pi. 129. 
-aura for -affa 302 D. 
ala^dj/0/ (afy&OfMai) 436, 

1 ; w. ace. or gen. 544 

c. 576; w. part. 799. 
alffxpfc compar. 222. 
cdffxfooptu w. ace. 544 a; 

w. dat. 611 a; w. part. 

or inf. 800. 802. 
otreco w. two ace. 553. 
atnos w. gen. 584 d. 
alXMTd 136 Da. 
dtu 309. 

o/caKTjTo 136 Da. 
a/c-ox442D, 16. 
o/cax/weW 46 D. 321 D. 
d/ce'o^at 419, 8. 
adv. 259. 
17 8 D. 

46 a ; d/c^v 552. 
/cou)4j 39. 
&KOLTIS 186 D. 
aic6\ov&os w. gen. 587 d ; 

w, dat. 602. 
afcouafouai 423, 1. 
d/coua>423, 1.311. 321. 379. 

386 a. 421, 22; w. gen. 

644 b. 576 ; in comp. 

584 c ; w. part. 799 ; am 

called 540 ; pros. 698. 
&KPO.TOS compar. 221 d. 
a.Kpodo/ 335 a; w. gen. 

576. [530 b. 

a.Kp6iro\is 482 ; wt. art. 
aKpos w. art. 536. 
oK-risO) 153m. 
&KWV 32 D e. 483 b ; gen. 

abs. 791b. 

aA (et'A&j, edA?7i>) 432 D, 22. 
& 321 D. 367 D. 413. 
aA-aA/c (dAe|a>) 384 D. 
328 D. 

compar. 223, 8. 
, -otvco, -fjffKw, 436 

D, 12. 

426 D, 7. 


425, 5. 321. 387 a. 
'av 152 p. 
dAe|o) 447, 8.384 D. 

.e'ojitat, aAeuOjwat, 426 D, 
7. 381 D. 

dAe419, 9. [608. 

125 D. 455 a; dat. 
179. 217. 
422 D, 19. 
aAis23D; w. gen. 584 b. 
aAiW> / tiat447, 1. 23 D. 312. 
408,12; w. gen. 577 b; 
w. part. 799. 
.iraivw 43 6 D, 13. 
oA/c (dAe|ft>) 447 D, 8. 
\jcl, 199 D. 

dAAo* 863; after compar. 

661 ; ou [J-fyv (jueVrot) 

dAAa 848 e; aAAa yap, 

aAA' ou ydp, ou yap aAAa, 

870 d. [428,1. 

Aao-o-w 294. 284. 387 b. 

dAA4jAa>v 237. 672 b. 

aAAo&t 203. [D, 

aAAojuat 432, 3. 382 a. 

o"AAos 59. 236 ; w. art. 524. 

528 a. 538 e ; appos. 538 

e ; w. gen. 584 g ; 

SAAo 500 b; 

a.ue 233 D. 

586 -ay 

c; ef TIS o"AAos 754 a; 
&\\os tf 860 b ; &AAo ri 
($) 508 b. 829 a ; ri ^AAo 
tf, ovSev ^AA 5 ^, 508 b. 

o"AAoo-6 204. 

dAAuo>73D. [reKarS57. 

aAAws, rtyv &\. 509 a ; #A. 

a\6fov 203 D. 

aAs74d. 17 2 a. 

aAo-o, oAro, 408 D, 33. 

321 D. 

, 9. 

436 D, 14. 

&V 70 c. 227 ; w. dat. 
a; w. part. 795c. 
a (a,aa|a) 65 D. 
afj.air6s 139 c. [801. 

, 2 ; w. part. 

447, 3. 


[222 a. 
223, 1. 
w. gen. 576. 
, -eW, -7y, 233 D. 
a/j.'f)Tcap 483 a. 

, -t(),-e,233D.79EL 

w. gen. 584 c. 
, a^Js, 238 D. 

139. [5. 

, 65 d. 438, 
438, 5. 332. 
a[j.Tr\aKiffKca 447, 4. 

396 D. 

apvpuv 2J. [41 ID. 

mid. 689 a ; -ad-w 
aju^f 80 D. 102 D b ; w. case 
637 ff. 

cpievj/v/Ju 440, 1. ; w. two 
acc. 553; perf. 712. 
80 D. [w. dat. 602. 
STjTe'cu w. gen. 577 C ; 
; -oj/, -a, 502 
b ; w. art. 538 a. 

e'pubev w. gen. 589. 
25S. 637; w. art. 
538 a. 

5th class 329 b. 436-7. 
v- priv. 483. [D. 

av from -oW gen. pi. 128 
oVfor ^7 3D. 

& (a) 873 ; w. cond. sent. 
744 fif; w. pot. opt. 722. 
748 ; w. hyp. ind. 746 b ; 
w. fut. ind. 710 b; w. 
subj. for fut. 720e; w. 
final us, oV&>s, 741 ; w. 
subj. in rel. sent. 757 if; 
w. inf. 783; w. part. 803. 
&/(a)for e'aV744ff. 872. 
' for a av 68 b. [635-6. 
avd 102 Db. 112; w. case 
a^al02Db. 112. 615 a. 
ava voc. of oVa| 158 D c. 

. 692. 
445 D, 4. 
. constr. 777. 
w.'inf. 767. 
ai/aAiV/cw, ava\6co, 447, 2. 
afJu^ffKu w. two obj. 

602 aj/ay/caTospers. 



oVo| 23 D. 158 DC. 

a; to eou 370 D d. 

dpeiW 223, 1. [595 b 

avd\ios w. gen. 584 e. 

oV-for euro- 7 3D. 

dpea-Kca 444, 10 ; w. dat, 

dydVo*c0 23 D. 

dirayopevoD 450, 8 a; w. 

dp-f)y<a 25; w. dat. 544 b. 

ai/5dVa>437, 1.23 D. 312. 

part. 798. 

dp^ueVos 31 8 D. 

dj/SpdVoSoj/ 199D. 

d-n-aivvfjiai 440 D, 6. 

v Ap7?s 88 D. 202, 1. 

'dvcv w. gen. 626. 781. 

aTrats 218 ; w. gen. 584 b. 

-op:o> neut. 465 a. 

oVev&e(j/) 79D. 

diravrdw 379 ; w. dat. 602. 

dpttrrepa wt. art. 530 b. 

avex, uai 314 ; w. part. 800. 

dirapfffKca w. dat. 595 b. 

dp:o"Teus 189 D. 

avfjvo^-e 321 D. 

OTTOS w. art. 537. 

opto-ros (ayaMs) 223, 1. 

aviip 173. 53;'om'd 509 b; 

dTTOTOJp 217 C. 

dp/cew 419, 10. 

oVSpes fiiKaffrai 500 a ; 

dVaypa"w 408 D, 19. 

dpyU^TTOJ, apiJ.6(a, 430, 1. 

avrjp 68 c. 

diratyiffKu 447 D, 14. 

apv (dpj/Js, apj/es,) 202, 2. 

oVd-pwTTos 118 ; om'd 504 c. 

07T6iAe&> 371 DC. 

dpveojuai 413. 

605 c. 506. 509 b ; oVfr. 

aireipos w. gen. 584 c. 

apvvfjiai 442, 2. 

fieroiicos 500 a. 

a7re%&dVo,uat 436, 6. 

dp^w419, 16. 370 DC. 

&vtr)/jLi 403 D ; w. gen. 580. 

dTTiffreo) W. dat. 595 b. 

apirdfy 431, 1. 

avotyco, -vv/j.1, 424, 16. 312. 

OTTA^OS 208. 207 a. 258 b. 

apTra| 218. 

322. 387 b. 

oW 623 ; compar. 229. 

apffrjv, appTjy, 217 b. 

a.vofj.oi<as w. dat. 603. 

oTroaii/y^ot 440 D, 6. 

"Apre/jus 158 d. 

avopSrto) 314. 

aTToSiSayu 444, 7 ; w. gen. 

dpucu, apvTca, 419, 18. 

o>ro 622. 

578 a; mid. 689 a. 

apx^tos 455 a. 

avrdw 370 D a. 

aTroo^SpdV/oo 444, 2; w. 

dpxv? ; (rV) fyxfa ^^' 

ftVre for e'dWe 861. 

ace. 544 a. 

apx< 424, 2 ; w. gen. 544 

aj/Te'%0;tu w. gen. 574 b. 

dir6ep<ra 345 D. 

b. 581 a; aor. 708; 

&vTi]v 622. 

diro&v'ha'ltw 444, 4. [d. 

apxoinai mid. 691 ; w. 

cb"r102Db; w. case 622; 

dTToAouo) 379 ; w. gen. 574 

gen. 574 b ; w. part. 

after compar. 661. 

'ATr^AAcoy 175 c. 172 b. 

798; tV &pj-a>tuu 739; 

dvTiditeipa 218 D. 

a.TTOj' 413. 

dpx^e^os 788. 

dvTiicpv, avTiiepvs, SO D. 

aTropeco rt 547 c. 

dpwy^s 25. 455 c. 

492 h. 622. 

oTToo-repe'co w. two ace. 553 ; 

as stems in, 152 c. 181 ff. 

oWiTroieojuai w. gen. 577 C. 

\v. gen. 580 a. 

-as nom. from st. in ar 168. 

d.vvffr6s w. superl. 664 b. 

airovpas 408 D, 19. 

-as nouns of number 258 d. 

dVua> (aVuTco, OJ/VTCO) 419, 

atrcxpaii/G} w. part. 797. 

-as ace. pi. 154. 195 i. 

17. 344 D; oViW 788. 

aTro<peuyw w. gen. 577 b. 

oo-o 408 D, 18. 420 D, 10. 

aVa> adv. 229. 635; w. 

a.Trtxp'n 404, 3. 

449 D, 7. 

gen. 589. 

aTTTrejU^/et 7 3 D. 

aV,uej>os 221 d. 408 D, 44. 

&vw verb 419 D, 17. 

OTrpeTT^s w. dat. 595 C. 

do-7rts coll. 514 ; eV (wop 3 ) 

oVojyo 409 D, 11. 318 D. 

OTTTW 427, 1 ; mid. 691 ; 

do-TrfSo 530 b. 

351 D. 

w. gen. 544 b. 574 b; 

otro-o 244 c ; oV<ra 246 D. 

dv&yeow 146. 

e / ctf\f* "U 

5(T(roy229D. 224 D. 

O.V&MIJ.OS 27. [767 a. 

dirtoTepw 229. 

da-T^p 173. 

#tos w. gen. 584 e ; w. inf. 

ap stems in, 152 b; nom. 

affrpdiTTu subj. om. 504 c. 

oo, ew, interch. 26. 136 D 

in, from st. in or, 167. 

aa-Tv 23 D. 185-6 ; wt. art. 

b. 147. 370 D d. 

ap (a?pa>) 432, 2 ; (apaplff- 

530 b. 

oo to o> 32. 136 D b ; to ow 

KW) 447 D, 15. 

affvv^erov 854. 

370 Da; to o 32 D h. 

apfor ^pa 7 3D. 865. 

ar stems in, 152 a. 165 ff. 

134 D. 370 D g; to eo 

apa 865. 112. 

-orat, -OTO, 355 D e. 392. 

370 D a, d. 

apa828ff. 112. 

ardp 864, 4. 

oo for -ou gen. 136 D b. 

aptuts 23 D. 

drapes 57 D. 139 C 

ooi to (f 34. 

dpao/ioi 404 D, 9. 

are 876,5; w. part. 795 (i 

aoiSrj 32 De. 

dpapiV/co) 447 D, 15. 321 D. 

arep w. gen. 626. 

aop 153D. 

338 D. 384 D. 408 D, 34. 

aVepos 68 c. 

BOW to w 34; to ou 370 D 

'Apyeioi 1 D. 

'ArMs40b. 83 b. 



O.TlTd\\Ci) 27. 

-duy gen. pi. 128. 

jSAaoWctf 436, 4. 

-OTO for -VTO 3 pL, see -arai. 

aupTo 432 D, 2. 

#Ae?o 408 D, 20. 

&rpav6s 57 D. 

jSAeVw 424, 3 ; w. ace. 547. 

aTpepa(s) SOD. 

B, 19 ff; bef. r-mute 44; 

/3\'f]x cas/ 153 m. 

#TTa 244 c ; arra 246 b. 

bef. /t 46 ; bef. ff 47. 

$AITTO> 430, 2. 

ou diphth. llff. 

ft for u, 53 D ; in ju(j8)p 53 ; 

)8A^(r/cw 445, 2. 53 D. 

o5 864, 3. 

to <^ in pf. 341. 387 b. 

jSociw 32 De. 379. 

av&is 65 D. 

392 a. 

o77&eo> w. dat. 595 b. 

ctuccj/ctf, aua>, 436, 3. 

iSaBt'Cw 379. 

jSoAe (jSaAActf) 432 D, 4. 

avp (e-jravpio-KOfJiai) 447, 5. 

j8a&us212D. 222 D. 

jS^Aco-^at 422 D, 3. 

aupa (a7rau/>ca>) 408 D, 19. 

ftaivco 435, 1. 349 D. 408, 1. 

ftopeas 136 d. 

avpiov rj avp. 509 b. 

409,2.416,2; perf.712. 

P6o-Kw 422, 2. 

avrdp 864, 4. 

Bdi<xos 40 b. 83 b. 

^T/JW 153 i. 185. [690 a. 

avrapK-ns 179. 

j8aAA<w 432, 4. 355 D e. 386 

jSouAeuw w. acc. 547 ; mid. 

a5re 864, 3. 

b. 394. 408 D, 20; w. 

povX?] 139 d. 

airnft 13 a. 

dat. 607 ; in comp. 685. 

jSouAo^uat 422, 3. 308 a. 

csi)Tis 65 D. 

pdiTTOi) 427, 2. 

363 a. 413 ; e>ol jSouAo- 

aMs 234. 668-9. 671. 

pdpo-io-Tos (ftpaSvs) 222 D. 

u,4v(f 601 a ; ftov\oi/j.irjv 

673-6. 680; w. dat. of 

ftapvs 90. 

av, f^ov\6u.t]V &y, 752. 

accomp. 604; avrbs 6 

Pdo~avos 139 a. 

/3oGs 189. 

dvfip and 6 dvfyp aur6s 

jSao-tAeta 130 c. 455 a. 460c. 

j8po5us compar. 222 D. 

538 b ; ol avrol r)5iKrjK6- 

)8ao-iAeia 130 c. 455 a.458 a. 

Ppdo-ffco 430, 3. 

res 532 a; avrb TOVTO 

j8a(TiAeios 468. 

ftpax 424 D, 4. 

502 b; avTa raura 552 

0ao~i\i>s 189 ; compar. 

ftpaxvs compar. 222 D. 

a; 6 avT6s 538 b; w. 

224 D; wt. art. 530 a. 

PpeTas 182D. 

dat. 603 ; raurb TOVTO 

j8aa*iAevcy w. gen. 581 a; 

)8/>exw 424, 4. 

502 b. [590 a. 

aor. 708. 

jSpfid-w 424, 5. 

a&Tov gen. 538 a; adv. 

f$ao'L\iK6s 455 b. 

i8/)o (frifipAffKO)} 445, 3. 

avTOt) = kavTOv 235. 

fiaffiXiffffa 458 a. 

iSpoT^s 53 D. 

a<paipw w. obj. 553. 580 a. 

0c<r/ca> 444 D, 11. 

ty>ox 424 D, 4. 

atpap compar. 224 D. 

fiaffTdfa 431, 2. 

$ 448 D, 20. 

acpda-ffw 430 D, 8. 

jSe'jSATjai 86 D. 

jSu^eo) 438, 1. 

&$evos 201 D b. 

feftpdfru 445 D, 3. 

jSws 189 D. 

acpeiSeia w. gen. 580. [e. 

f$io/, jSeo^uat, 37 8 D. 32 De. 

a<pi7i/ji.i 403, 1 ; w. gen. 574 

jSeArepoy, -TOTOS, 223 D, 1. 

ftcaTidveipa 218 D. 392 D. 

pe\Tl(av, -iffTos, 223, 1. 

a<f>vr) 137 ; afywhs 137. 

tto 429. 

T, 16. 18. 19 ff; bef. r-mute 

acpvo-o-u 431 D, 9. 

jSto dat. 608. 610 a ; w. gen. 

44 ; bef. ff 47 ; to x in 

'Axato? 1 D. 

565; 7iy>bs )8tW 654 ; fti- 

pf. 341. 387 b. 392 a. 

&X a P ls compar. 221 D. 

ytpt 206 D a. 

ya (yiyvouai) 409, 3. 

a%e<wv, C4%euwy, 442 D, 16. 

ftidfrnai pass. 694 c. 

7<uo 132D. 

a X ^ 422, 1. 413; yr. 

0ic*Cw375. [435 D, 1. 

yd\a 153r. 166. 

dat. 611 a; w. part. 800. 

/8t)8as 403 D, 10 ; Pipuv 

yaiicv 439 D, 5. 

'AxiA(A)us 40 D. [392 D. 

)8i')8Aosl39e. [409 D, 16. 

ya\6<as 146 D. 

& 442.D, 16. 367 D b. 

fitppiaffKca 445, 3. 408 D, 24. 

yau.i<a 447, 2. 

#XP'(*)70b. 80 D. 877,8; 

0i(fe>423,2.378D.40S,13. 439 D, 5. 

w. gen. 626. [370 D d. 

dva-ftu&o'Ko/jLai 445, 1. 

ydp 870; co-ord. 853 a; 

ow, eo>, interch. 26. 128 D. 

j8A redupl. 319 c. 

after art. 534 a; after 

aw to o> 32 ; to ocw 370 D a ; 

)8Ao (j8cAA&>) 432, 4. 

prep. 616; after rel. 

to a 32 Dh. 128 D. 

j8Aa;86TOt 427 D, 3. 

sent. 823 ; d ydp 525 7 

dca denom. verbs 472 b ; 

frXd-KTia 427, 3. 397 b ; w. 

c! ydp 721 a. 

contract 370; fut. 375. 

cogn. ace. 555 a. 

7ao-r^ 153 n. 173. 

&408D, 18. 

Aao-T&> 436, 4. 319 c. 

77 40 a ; stems in, 328 b. 



ye 850, 1.70 a. 105 d; af 
ter art. 5 34 a; 

prep. 616. 
yeywa, -eo?, 

30. 351 D. 
yeyus 409, 3. 
yeivopcu 449 D, 1. 416, 8. 
YeAatretw 47 2 j. 
7eAaa>419, 2. 344 D. 

a. 379 ; aor. 709. 
7eAoiao> 419, 2. 
7eAo>s 169D. 
ye/Mca w. gen. 575. 
7ev ( 449, 
yevos dat. 608. [449 D, 1. 
76VTO 408 D, 35 ; eyevro 
yepai6s corapar. 221 b 
yepas 182 D. 
yevco w. two obj. 554; yev- 

o/ w. gen. 576. 
yri 132; om. 509 

art. 530 b. 
yybeca 448, 3. 
yrjpas 182-3. 

yr)pd<TKc>>, -dca, 444, 1. 408, 
yi to ffff 60. 328 a ; to 

61. 328 b. 
yi(y) 449, 1. 31. 332. 

355 D e. 409, 3 ; incomp. 

pred. 490 ; impers. 494 ; 

om, 508 b ; w. pred. gen. 

572; w. dat. poss. 598. 
yiyv6(TK(a 445, 4. 319 c. 

408, 14; w. gen. 582; 

w. part. 799. 
7\redupl. 31 9 c. 
yXavK&TTis 17 ID. 481. 
y\vicvs 212. 220. 222 D. 
7Aco%is 153 m. 
yv redupl. 319 c. 
yvd&os 139 b. 
yvdfjiTTTCi) 427, 4. 
yvo (yiyv&ffKai) 445, 4. 
yv&iM] 707; om. 50 

gen. 568 ; dat. 608. 
yodw 448 D, 21. 
yov stems in, 152 g. 
y6vv 202, 3. 
7ow/ 850, 2. 
7oy/, yovvar, 202 D, 3. 
ypa.^.jJL-t] 139 d. 

d; af- 

577 b ; w. two ace. 555 ; 

SefA- wt. art. 630b, 


mid. 691. 

SeiA^s 471. 

ypyvs, yprjlis, lib. 189 D. 

8wa 245. 

424 D, 

yvp.vt]s 218. 

8ei^Js 471. 

yv/j.v6s w. gen. 584 f. 

Setous (Seos) 17 8 D. 

yvv-fi 202, 4. 158 d; om. 

5ei7rz/ea) 35 ID. 


509b; wt. art. 530c. 

Se/pw 424, 7. 

yfyos 139 a. 

5e/c (Set/f j/v^ut) 442 D, 3. 

370 D 

yw>v (yeywva) 424 D, 30. 

Se/caer^s 475 b. 481. 

Se/ccts 258 d. 

A, 19 ff; bef. -arai, -aro, 

8e/ca%Aot 253 D. 

392 D; in j/(S)p53; to <r 

5e'/co/iat 65 D. 

45-6; dropped 47. 49. 

SeAeap 165. 


75. 386 a. 

SeAdn's, -fy, 156 a. 


8 stems in, 152 f. 169 ff. 

SeVas 201 D b. 


Sa (Sata) 434 D, 3 ; (8aio- 

Sfjiiw 443 D, 1. 


AICU) 434 D, 4 ; (e'Scfyz/) 

SeVSpov 199. 202 D, 23. 

447 D, 10. 395 D. 

8e|iJs 221 D ; 8e|tcJ, 8e|i^, 

I ; yev- 

Sa-fip 17 2 D. 

wt. art. 530 b. 

Sai 852,8; Sat 201 D b. 

Se^repJs 221 D. 

3; Wt. 

Satfa 328 D. 

Se'ojucu w. gen. 575. 

Salvvfjii 440 D, 7. 401 D, 1. 

Seos 17 8 D. 

SaiVat 434 D, 4.355 D e. 

SeVas 182D. 


Saipo) 424, 7. 

Se>j 125 d. 

1. 408, 

Sat's 153r. 

5epKO/, 424 D, 31. 383 D. 

; to c 

Saa> 434 D, 3. 

413 ; w. cogn. ace. 547 d. 

SdKj/ca 435, 7. 

Sepco 424, 7. 398 D. 

1. 332. 

Scwpv, Sa/cpuoz', 199. 

5e0><k 199D. 200. 


Sa^fc 443 D, 1. 

8eo-7r^T7js 135 a. 197 D. 

s. 494 ; 

Scfyiap 170. 

Sevofjiai 422 D, 4. 

d. gen. 

Sa^ii/77/it, -i/ca>, 443 D, 1. 

SeDpo w. gen. 589. 

,. 598. 

343 D. 347 D. 359 D. 

Seuraros 224 D. [585. 

319 c. 

Aaz/aot 1 D. 

Sevrepos 253. 257 ; w. gen. 

. 582; 

8aj/e/{a> mid. 689 b. 

Sey-^uepos 72. 

8ap (Se'pw) 424, 7. 

Se'xo/mi 65 D. 318 D. 408 

SapSdvot 436, 4. 

D, 36. 415; mid. 692. 


SareVai 434 D, 4. 381 D. 

Sea? to bind 420, 1. 37 Ib. 


-8e local 203; enclit. 105 

403, 3. 

d. 110. 239. 

Sew to want 422, 4. 370 D 

8e 862. 70 a; after art. 

e. 371 b. 413; w. gen. 

534 a; after prep. 616; 

57 5 a. Set w. gen. 494. 

re . . Se 855 b ; Kal . . 8e 

575 a ; w. ace. 575 a ; w. 


856 b. 

two cases 544 c ; w. inf. 

509 b; 

8earo 381 D. 

764b; eSer 703; Sety 


Set (eSSera) 409, 5. 87 D ; 

772; SeWacc. abs. 792; 

pf. 712; w. ^743. 

ez/bs (Suolz/) Seoz/res 256. 

Se?, see Se'co. 

5^7 851; after art. 534 a; 

SetSey^ai 319 D. 

w. superl. 665 a ; e%e STJ 

Sei8ja, Sei'8a>, 409 D, 5. 

684 a ; Kal 8>? Kai 857. 


SejS/cnco/icu 442 D, 3. 

Sr^ez/ 852, 7. 442 D, 3. 

5?ji'<ta 370 DC. 

Seiwvpi 442, 3. 300. 319 D. 

Svj/c (Sctaz/co) 435,7. 

vr. gen. 

400-01 ; w. part. 797. 

7jA(woTi 868 a. 



ST?AOS w. part. 797 ; 8r?Aa 

Ste (8/ayiat) 404 D b. 

Srj 851 ; SvjAoj/ oVt 868 a. 

Ste'xw w. gen. 580. 

STJAO'W 281. 289. 335; w. 

Sl^fjLtu 404 D c. 400 D m. 

part. 797. 

SirjKoVtoi 253 D. 

Ar/jU^TTjp 173. 

8iicdfy mid. 689 b. 

8ri(j.toupy6s 47 3 a. 

St/catos pers. constr. 777. 

8Jj/*os 559 d. 

Si/cTj om. 509 b ; SIKTJV w. 

8r)/ui.ocria 608. 

gen. 552. 

Sfa 87 D. 

8i6s 258 D. 

S-^TTore 251. 

Aiovvo-ta 201 a. 

STJTTOU, SijTToufrei/, 852, 5. 

S?os, S?a, 207 D. 

8-nptdofjLai 448 D, 22. 

Sf^rt 869, 3. 868, 2. 

-8r)s patronym. 466. 

StTrAaVzos 258 b. 

Syjro 852, 6. 

StrrArja-tos 258 D. . 

8^0.37 8 D. 

SiTrAo'os 258 b. 

Stto 61. 328 b. 

SITTOUS 217 c. 

St, 'Set, Sot, 409,5. 308 D. 

StoWs 258 b. 

31 9 D. 400 h. 

Sifpfroyyot 11. [626 r. 

At (Zeus, Aid's) 202, 6. 

St'xa 258 c. 629; w. gen. 

Std" 102 D b ; AV. case 629- 

Stxj? 258 c. 

30; w. inf. 780-81. 

Six^d 258 D. 

Sta 207 D. 

St^w 371 c; w. gen. 576. 

Siafiaivb) w. acc. 544 d. 

SiooKd&cio 411 D. 

Sidyo) w. part. 798. 

StcoKw w. cogn. acc. 547 b ; 

Smyow'^b/iat w. dat. 602. 

w. two acc. 555 ; w. 

8/atTa 125d. 

gen. 570. 577 b. 

Statrctw 314. 

8/j.a (8djj.vrjfji.i) 443 D, 1. 

Sia/foi/e'co 314. 

S/ie (Se>o>) 443 D, 1. 

SiaAe'yo/iat 319 e. 413. 424, 

Spiffs 160c. 

15 a; w. dat. 602. 

So (StSw^t) 403, 4. 

StaAeiTTcu w. part. 798 ; 5i- 

Sot (SeSot/ca) 409, 5. 

aXnrwv 788. 

SotcS, Sotof, 255 D. 

SiaAe/cTos 3 e. 139e. 

So/ceo) 448, 4 ; w. inf. 763; 

Sta/ierpos 139 d. 

pers. constr. 777 ; (us) 

8iai/ 413. 

/JLO} SoKe'iv 772 ; 86cu/Ta 

Siao-KOTrw w. gen. 570. 

(5^|a; f ) TaGra 793. 

StareAe'ctf w. part. 798. 

So/cJs 139e. 

8ta<>epa> prep. 630; intrans. 

So^oj/Se 203 D. 

685 ; w. gen. 581 ; mid. 

Soy stems in, 152 g. 

w. dat. 602. 

Sopu 202, 5 ; M, So> 530 b. 

Sta^&eipeo 432 D, 20. 

SouAewco, SouA^w, 4721. 

Sta'cpopos w. gen. 584 g; w. 

SouAeuw w. acc. 547 a ; w. 

ij 860 b. 

dat. 595 b. 

^I'vctjUjUCc 23 D, 

SouTrew 448 D, 12. 

StSao-Kw 447, 10; w. two 

Soup, Soupar, 202 D, 5. 

acc. 553 ; mid. 689 b. 

Spa (8t5pdV:a>) 444, 2. 

691 a. 

8pa& (Sap&dVa>) 436 D, 4. 

81877,111 403, 3, 

Spa/c (8epKo/ 424 D, 81. 

StSpao-Koi 444, 2. 408, 3. 

Spa^u (rpe'xw) 450, 5. 

UlSwfu 403, 4. 298. 302. 

5pao-efo> 472 j. 

347 D. 400-02 ; w. gen. 

Spares 398 D. 

674 e; in comp. 685; 

Spcko 421, 1. 

pros. 702. 

Spends dat. 608. 


8poVos 139 e. 
8pv/j.6s 200 D. 
Stvapou 404, 5. 308 a. 353 

De. 401k. 413; w. su- 

perl. 664 b. 

dat. 609. 
Svds 258 d. 
423. 3. 

Suo 253. 255. 629. 
SvoKaiSeica 253 D. 
Svs- 484. 316. 
Svsafav 28 D. 
Svsapeffreco 316. 
Susepws 96 ; w. gen. 584 C. 
8vsfj,evfjs w. dat. 595 c. 
AvsTrapis 484. 
Suco 423, 3. 304. 349 D. 401 

D 1.408, 16. 416. 420, 7. 

o>, -cDv, -o?o*t, 255 D. 
800 for Sw,ua 201 D b. 
SwAos for SouAos 24 D d. 
ScopedV 552. 

w. dat. 595 d. 

E, vow. 7 ff ; interch. w. a, 
o, see a ; w. t, 27. 334 c. 
e for a 349 D ; for 77 347 

D ; for digamma 23 a. 

to a 334 a. 383. 386 c. 

389. 397. 

to 77 28. 156. 189 D. 309. 

335-6. 343. 400m, n.' 
eto ct 24 DC. 31.312. 370 

D b. 337. 343 D. 400 D 

i. 401 n. 

to o 177. 334 a. 387 a. 

454b. 455 c; to w334 d. 

contr. by syniz. 37 D ; 

inserted 376; dropped 

173. 370Db,e. 384. 
e added to stem 331. 422. 

437. 448. 

augm. 307 ff; redupl. 

319. 322; w. augm. or 

red. 312. 322. 
e conn. vow. 349 ff. 355 D 

e. 410 D. 41 ID. 

pass, sign 343. 395. 

fut. tense-sign 345. 373. 
-e dual 154. [440, 1. 

(ti\fj.i) 403, 1 ; (eWu/u) 

pror. 230. 



ea to 77 32. cf. 36. 

-ea for -eta 212 D ; for -vv 

212 D; fr. stems in es 

178 ; fr. st. in ev 190 e, 

f ; in plup. 351 D. 
eat to 77 34. 35 b ; to et 35 

b. 363 a. 
e'dV 872 ; in condit. sent. 

744 ff; interrog. 830. 
e'oVTre/) 850, 3 ; e'dVre 861. 
ea/> 23 D. 1GO d ; wt. art. 

530 b. [190f. 

-fas to -eis 36 b ; from -yjas 
iWt 406 D, 1. 
earat 355 D e. 
cavroG 235 ; 670. 672. 674. 

676; w. e?;/at572c; w. 

peXriffTos 559 a. 660 a. 
6o>77 427 D, 1. 
6<fa> 312. 335 D. 370 Da; 

ou/c e<2 842. 

227 D. [253 D. 

258 d; IjSS^aros 
e'yyus compar. 229; w. 1 

gen. 589. 

e'y5ou7T77<ra 448 D, 12. 
eyei'pw 432, 5. 321. 367 D a. 

384 D. 409 D, 12. 417. 
ey/cara 201 D a. 
eypco, -o/iai, 432, 5. 
yXeAus 188. [850, 1. 

e'ycS 230. 69. 485 a ; eycoye 
ey<^ucu 68 a. 
ye6(i/)79D. 233 D. 
e<J, e5-o, eS-es (eV&tco) 450, 

3. 406 D, 3. 

e'5i/oj/23D. [77 371 DC. 
ee to et 32. 312. 371 b; 
- to -77 178. 186. 351. 
ee' 23 D a. 233 D. 
eetto et 34. 37 1 b. 
e'etWt 23 D a. 253 D. 
eet/cocrrcfc 253 D. 
eepy 442,4. 31 8 D. 411 D. 
-ees to -v)$ 190d. 
e&uat 431, 6. 
e?7 to 77 32 ; 77 to 77 34. 
e-Tjos 227 D. 
eV for *?* 243 D. 
218 a. 
422, 9. 
233 D. 
296. 312. 322. 

to e 

ei 11 ff ; for e 24 D c ; from 
e, see e ; from t 30 ; in- 
terch. w. ot 25. 334 b. 

et redupl. 319 e ; ei in 
plup. 351. 

-ei 3 sing. act. 352 a; 2 
sing. mid. 35 b. 363 a. 

et 872. 103 c; in cond. 
sent. 744ff;,indir. sent. 
733; interrog. 830; in 
wish (et 5 , e"ire, et yap) 
721.753; et'8e,ii77753a. 
754 b; et Se 754 b; et 
^, et [ify Sid 7 54 a; et 
/cat 874,1; Kal el 
874, 2. 

ei (eifjii) 105 c. 

-ezafem. 130. 212. 218 D. 
219 D. 458 a. 460 c. 
tpiv6s 28 D. [406 D, 1. 

ei'arat, -arc, 355 D e ; et'aro 
450, 4. 

el8os481a; ace. 549 b. 

et5c6s 409, 6. 

-et77 for -eta 125 D, 2. 
110 a. 721. 753. 
41 ID. 

eixds 258 d. 

efccaTf 253 D. 

efcceAos 23 D. 

efrcoo-t 253. 23 D. 79 8. 

er/ca> 23 D. 411 D; w. dat. 
595 b. 
t&v 153m. 194 c. 

clicAs 409, 7 ; eiids T> 703. 
; 25 D. 28 D. 

lAo?/ (alpeu) 450, 1. 

fAco,- etAeco, eiAeo?, e:"AA&>, 
23 D. 432 D, 22. 312 D. 
328 D c. 345 D. 

:l]cta23D. [D. 

l/itu (eVw/it) 440 D, 1. 318 

et>a/)rat432D, 25. 
' d 406, 1. 105 c. 364 D. 
400 Dh. 410 D; copula 
490 a, b ; om. 508 a ; w. 
pred. gen. 572; w. dat. 
poss. 598; w. part. 713. 
797; idTiV ol (o'lrives, 
ore, o5, etc.) 812; rb 
vvv efvai) Kara rovro e?- 
j/at, 772 ; e/c&v elvai 775 

a; &v circumst. 788; 
case abs. 791 b. 792 a; 
om. 795 e ; T &/TI 608. 
tt 405, 1. 359 D. 364 D. 
400 D h ; om. 508 b ; as 
fut. 699 a. 
etV for eV 627. 
etVaeres 100D. 

253 D ; - X tAtot ib. 
etVa/cJa-tot 253 D. 
tfvaros 253 D. 
etVe/ca, -/cev, 24 D c. 626, 
etVt for eV 627. 
etVuoj/440D, 1. 
efo 233 D. 
-eto?/ neut. 463 b. 
efos for eus 248 D. 
efrrep 850, 3. 872. 
elirov 450, 8. 23 D. 366 b 
us (eVos) elirsiv 772. 

442, 4. 

442, 4 a. 411D; w. 
gen. 580. 

424 D, 9. 
etpu405Db. 420 D, 12. 

312 D. 450 D, 8. 
-ets 2 sing. act. 58 a. 352 a. 
-ety, -eo"cra, -ev, adj. 214. 

470. 50 a. 

et's 103 b; w. case 620. 
618 a; w. num. 493 f; 
w. inf. 780. 
els 253. 255. 156 c; efj 

w. superl. 665 a. 
els 105 D. 406 D, 1. 
etVa43!D, 6. 312. 
elcrdfj.'rjv 405 D, 1. 
e'sjSd'AAco intrans. 685. 

447 D, 16. 
els6 K e 877, 7. 
23 D a. 

drTQ) w. two ace. 553. 
w. gen. 589. 
elra 70 c. 7 95 a. 

. 831. 110. 
322. 334 d; pf. 712. 
et'cos248D. [a. 103b. 

J/c624. 47 a. 74 c. 80 c. 87 
229 D. 


e/cao-ros 259 ; coll. 514 b; 
AV. art. 538 a ; supplied 
from ouSets 881; KC& 



493 f; 
ns 683 b. 

eKcirepos 259 ; w. art. 538 a. 
Karepco&ev w. gen. 589. 
eKarovrds 258 d. 
fK&aiva> w. ace. 544 d. 
/c5u&> \v. two ace. 553. 
t'/ce?, e/ce?de;/, 249. 
ejce/oy 240. 678-9 ; w. art, 
538 a ; verb om. 508 b ; 
fKeivrj 608 ; Ixeivosi 242. 
e/celo-e 249. 

65 d. 
23 D. 

dat. 613. 

, 5 a. 
397 a. 

w. gen. 589. 
e/cupo's 23 D. 

e/ccSj/ 23 D. 158 f; w. gen. 
abs. 791b; 
775 a. 
eA(e?A)432D, 22. 
eA (cupe'w, efAo;c) 450, 1. 
e'Aao-o-cw/ 223, 4 ; wt. ^ 660. 
e'AatW435, 2. 31 ID. 321. 
375. 392 D; sense 684. 
218 D. 


e'Acta 435, 2. [D. 

&.67X66?, eAeyXitrroy, 222 
&.67XW 284. 321. 391 b. 
eAeud- (epxo,uai} 450, 2. 
468 a. 

w. gen. 584 f. 
ca w. gen. 580. 

e'A/cw 419, 19. 312. 
eAAajSe 40 D. 
'EAAas 1. 

eAAeiVoj w. part, 798. 
1. 4g. 500 a. 
4 f. 


olb. 74 d. 

Tt'Cw 424 D, 32. [D. 

424 D, 32. 23 D. 322 
(epx<>! 450 D, 2. 
153 D. 

ov 235. 670. 676. 
e>j8aAAw intr. 685. [233. 
To, e^teo, e/^ev, 

9, 11. 
u 235 D. 
for e>of 233 D. 

, 406 D, 1. 
321 D. 

^38. 675-7. [575. 
403, 7 ; w. gen. 
w. dat. 605. 
ev w. gen. 589. 
-e(j/) 3 sing. 7 9 a. 
-ev 3 pi. aor. pass. 355 D c. 
eV627. 52. 103b;incomp. 
605 ; w. dat. time 613 ; 
adv. 615 ; w. inf. 782. 
tvalpco 432 D, 23. 315. 
3. 315. 

22 ; w. gen. 587 
f; w. dat. 595 c; w. ij 
860 b; rb evavriov 502 
b ; e'| eVaj/rtos 509 a. 
328 D. 

intrans. 685. 
. two ace. 553. 
veK (fyepa)) 450, 6. 
t 102. 615. [781. 
ee/ca, -Kev, 626 ; w. inf. 
450 D, 8. 
( 79D. 224 D. 
tvepoi, eveprepos, 224 D. 

321 D. [5. 

ej/3-a 248. 250. 811 a. 879, 

[gen. 589. 

248. 250. 879, 5 ; w. 

[544 c. 

413 ; w. case 
for eV 627. 
102. 615 a. 
f, eviore, 812. 
D, 20. 
450 D, 8. 
evlffffto 429 D, 3. 
258 d. 
'Aoi 253 D. 
450 D, 8. 
lvv4\Kovra, 253 D. 
ewoeo/^at 413. 
et/vv/j.1 440, 1. 

cw 314; case 544 c. 
w. gen. 584 d. 

eD^ej/ 248. 66 D. 
eVrf 406 D, 1. 

gen. 589. 
AV. gen. 576. 
w. dat. 602. 
15 a. [w. inf. 781. 
624. 47 a. 80 c. 103 b ; 
eapi/os w. ace. 544 e. 
c c. 544 e. 
258 d. 

. part. 797. 
impers. 494 a. 763; 

w. gen. 574 c. 
e|o> compar. 229 ; w. gen. 

589; w. inf. 781. 
eo to ou 32 ; to eu 32 D f. 
176D. 363 D. 370Db,e. 
eo 2S D. 233 D. 
ecu to 01 34. 
eot 233 D. 

e'ot/ca 409, 7. 23 D. 322 ; w. 
dat. 603; pf. 712; pers. 
const. 777 ; w. par. 797. 
Tafc 312 b. 

-cos adj. 470. 208. 145 c. 
16s 238 D ; see os. 
eov to ou 34 ; to eu 32 D f. 
370 Db, e. 

aiveci) w. two acc. 555 ; 
w. gen. 577 a. 

877, 5. 

firavdcTTao~is w. dat. 595 d. 
eiraffo-vrepos 224 D. 
avpiffKOfjiai 447, 5. 
eaj/ 877, 5. 

877, 5. 869, 2. 69 ; w. 
aorist 706; w. cvfrews, 


, eVeiSai/, 877, 6. 
w. part. 7 95 a. 

32 ID. 

w. part. 798. 
eTT-f)Koos w. gen. 584 c. 
^ 877, 5. 

/ 640-42; w. inf. 780. 
782; in corap. 544 c. 
60^ ; adv. 615. 
67ri for eTreo-r: 615 a. 

w. gen. 583. 
ovcco 444 D, 11. 

mid. 688. 
intrans. 685. 
7riSo|os pers. constr. 777 



eVi&ujueeo w. gen. 576. 

epiy 169. 171 D. 

errjalai 137. 201 a. 

t-Tritcdpffios w. gen. 587 f. 

'Eppelas 136Db. 

ert 70 c. 80 b. 848 b. [613. w. dat. 605. 

'Ep^Tjs 183. 

eros 23 D ; gen. 591 ; dat, 

eirucivSvvos w. dat. 595 c. 

ep|as 442, 4. [5. 

eu 11 ; interch. w. ou 25 D. 

eVt/coupe'w w. gen. 57 8 b. 

ep 0y uai 424, 9. 367 D a. 422, 

eu from u 30 ; from eo, eov, 

einAa/xjScta'o/ w. gen. 574. 

epos 169D. 

see eo, eou. 

eTnAaj/i&ai/Oyuai 437, 5 a ; w. 

epTTCo, epTru^iw, 312. [b. 

eu to e 189. 326. 426. 

gen. 576; w. part. 799. 

eppco 422, 6. 23- D ; om. 508 

eu stems in, 152 j. 189 ff. 

eiriAetTTft) w. part. 798. 

eppcoyUeVos 221 d. 

e3 227 ; eu 227 D. 

eVtATjoTuoz/ 217. 

epo-o 345 D. 

e5 233 D. 

eTrtjueATjs w. gen. 584 C. 

epo-i? 125 d. 

efoSoj/ (ai/5aW) 437 D, 1. 413. 422, 11 ; 

epo-Tjv 217 D. 

svtiaifjiovifa w. gen. 577 a. 

w. gen. 576. 

epvyydva 425, 12. 

6u8aiVa/ 217. 221 d. 

Mffrofuu 404, 6. 401 k. 

epv&aivofjLai 425 D, 20. 

eu'Sios. 221 c. 

413; w. part. 799. 

epu/cavco, -avdct, 424 D, 10. 

eu'Sw 422, 7. 

eiria'T'fifji.cay w. ace. 544 e. 

epu/co> 424, 10. 384 D. 

eueATris 217 C. 

firiffrparevco w. case 544 c. 

epuo^ot 405 D b. 

evepyereca 316. 

e7rto"X6S 368 a. 

epvffdp/nares 47 6 b. 

eu^u 80 D ; w. gen. 589. w. ace. 595 a. 

tpvca 420 D, 12. 23 D. 312 

eu&us 80 D ; w. part. 795 b. 

eirm^Sezospers. constr.777. 

D. 37 8 D. [409 D, 13. 

evK\ffis 17 8 D. 

eVm/mco w. dat. 605. 

epxojucu 450, 2. 326. 366 b. 

ei)KT^ez/os 408 D, 26. 

e7rirpe7ro/iat w. ace. 595 a. 

epws 169 D. [553. 

euAajSe'o^ot 413. 

e'lrixapis compar. 221 g. 

epwrao) 424, 9 ; w. two ace. 

eiWTjTOs 40 D. 

evofiat 424,8. 312. 384; 

es stems in, 152 c. I76ff. 

euyoe'o) w. dat. 595 b. 

v. dat. 602. 

-es nom. pi. 154. 196 b. 

euVoos 221 d. 

tVos 23 D. 450, 8 a. 772. 

es, e (et>f) 406, 1. 

euTrarepeia 218 D. 

eVw 424 D, 8. 

e's 620. 103b; see e<s. 

euTTAotTj 125 D. 

ep syncop. stems in, 173. 

e<r^s23D. 1531; coll. 514. 

euTTope'w w. gen. 575. 

ep (elvov, e'pw) 450, 8 ; (et- 

eV3-ico, eo-^w, 450, 3. 378. 

cvpiffKw 447,6. 366 b; w. 

pto) 312 D. 

eo-7repa wt. art. 530 b. 

part. 799. 

fpae 203 D. 

eWepos 23 D. 200 D. 

ei/poos 43. 

epa^ucu 404, 7. 

eWere 450 D, 8. 

eupos ace. 549 b. 

epdu 419, 3 ; w. gen. 576. 

effir6/j.r)v (eVo/iat) 424, 8. 

eupuoTra 136 D a. 

cp' 312. 

-eo-tra fern. adj. 214. [D. 

eupus 212. 

ep7oj/ 23 D ; dat. 608. 

eWo, co-rot, 440 D, 1. 318 

-eusmasc. 189 ff. 458. 467. 

j-pyct) (efyryw) 442, 4. 23 D. 

eo -a -at (?>) 431 D, 6. 

-eusgen. sg. 176 D. 189 D. 

318 D. 411 D. 

-effffi(v) dat. pi. 154D. 173 

eus 227 D. 

ep&w (ep7) 428, 14. 23 D. 

D. 176 D. 

eure 877, 2. 

. 322 D. 

eo-o-r 406 D, 1. 105 D. 

evfypaivw 414. 

epeeiva 424 D, 9. 

effffwv 223 D, 2. 

GV(f)vf)S 178. 

e'pe/8w 392 D. 

^o-re 877, 7. 

euxpts 217 C. 

e'pei'/ccy 425 D, 19. 

-eVrepos, -eo-raros, 221 d. 

fvxo/j.a.1 w. dat. 595 b. 

e'pefTrw 425, 6. 321 D. 

iff r iv o'l 812. 

-euw denom. verbs 47 2 d. 

epe/j.v6s from epe/Jos 46 b. 

la-rmw 312 ; w. ace. 547 b. 

eu^j/uyuoy wt. art. 530 b. 

tpee 43 D. 428, 14. 

eo-Tcis 216. 

eucoxf'w 574 d. 

e'peWw 430, 4. 

eo"xap<^' 206 D a. 

e^eAKuo-Tt/coV (j/) 78c. 

fpfvyojj.o.1 425, 12. 

eVxaros 224 a ; w, art. 536. 

e(pe\K(a mid. 689. 

e'peu>a> 425 D, 20. 

croi) compar. 229 ; cf. elfffa. 

e>e|7js w. dat. 602 a. 

epe'o>, -Ojtiat, 424 D, 9, 

eVepos 68 c. 247; w. art. ecp^/J-epos 72. 

iplytiowos 448 D, 12. 

528 a. 538 e ; appos. 53S ! e^iKj/e'o / tia w. gen. 574 o. 

eptSaww, -p.aiv<a, 436 D, 15. 

e; w. gen. 584g; w. tftyopdca 450 D, 4. 451 h. 

e'ptfr w. dat, 602. 

860 b. e'xfy 30 '* compar. 222. 

pi7jpos, -si', 21 9 D. 

eV>?s 23 D. X^ W J -ofuu t 436, 6. 367 D. 



& 424, 11. 66 e. 812. 884. 

408, 11. 411-D; w. ace. 

specif. 549 a ; w. gen. 

580; mid. w. gen. 574 

b ; impers. 494 ; intrans 

684; middle 691; aor 

708; w. part. 797; 


e%wi/ 788 ; OVTOOS 
f ros792b. 

etyw 422, 8. [ao, aw, 

ea> interch. w. ao, a&), see 
6D from verbs in aw 370 

D d ; in Att. 2 decl. 147 

ff; to w 32. 
-eft) gen. sing. 136 Db; 

verbs 370. 472 c; fut. 

fwa 322 D. 

eayie;/ (eaytej/) 408 D, 18. 
-eWg. pi. Idee. 128 Db. 
-ewsgen. sing. 186. 190 a, f. 
etas noun 65 D. 148. 182 ; 

wt. art. 530 b. 
e'ws conj. 877, 7. 248 D. 
ewurov 11 Db. 235 D. 

s- (Stigma) 5 b. 254 a. 

Z, 21-2 ; from 0-5 56 ; from 
St, yt, 61; inpres.328b. 

aw 371 c ; w. ace. 547 b. 

-e local 204. 56. 

^evyvvfj.i 442, 5. 

Zets 202, 6 ; om. 504 c. 

eo> 419, 12. 

ZTJZ/^, etc., 202 D, 6. 

-(w verbs in, 328 b. 428-9. 
431. 472; fut. 375-6; 
Aeol. -ffScD 56 D. 

d>vvvf*.i 441, 1. 

l<!>s 210 D. 

H, vow. 7 ff ; interch. w. eo 

25 ; w. r 27. 
t\ after e, *, p, 29. 
i\ for a 24 Da. 29 D. 125 

B, 2. 134 D. 370 D g. 

37 Ic. 335 D. 382 b. 
t\ from e, see e. 
i\ syll. augm. 308 a ; pass. 

sign 343. 395. 

77 11 ff; insubj. 347 a 

TV/v, ^iv, T}^^, 232. 

. -77 voc. sing. masc. 135 

rt/uLiffvs w. art. 536. 

in dual 178. 186; ace 

^os 248 D. 877,4. 

. sing. 178; in plup. 351 a 

i]fj.vw 321 D. 

-77 2 sing. 35 b. 363. 

t^'j/for e '^744ff. 872. 

ij or 860. 69. 112. 512 

^y 406, 1. 404, 1. 

interrog. 733. 830 ff. 

?iv&ov 450 D, 2. 

77 than 860; w. compar 

7>fo 248. 877, 3. 

586. 660 ; 1) Kara 660 c 

7)vio X os 199D. 

tf (f) us, $ Siffre) w. inf 

Tjj/opeT? 28 D. 

660 c. 768. 

f>7rep 850,3; ^re 861. 

T? truly S52, 10. 112. 

770 to ft> 33 ; Tjot to ($ 34 , 

^interrog. 828 ff. 69. 112. 

T?OU to w 34. 

$ said 404, 1. 

-7705, -770, -7705, 190 f. 

j; 248. 608. 876,6.879,4; 

TjTrap 165. 

w. superl. 664. 

ijireipos 139. 

^o (elfii) 406 D, 1. 

7]pa 201 D b. 

7704 to ?; 34. [D a. 

'Hpa/cAeV 180D. 

TJjSaovcw, ^j8aw, 444, 3. 370 

rjpiyeveia 21 9 D. w. gen. 58 la. 

7lpos(^apos) 160 D. 

rjyepf&ovrai 411 D. 

7)pws 181. 182 D. 184. 

r/8e 855. 

-rjs nom. pi. 190d. 

^877 68 D. 851 b. 

-TJS prop, names 198. [e, f. 

?j5(tyu 413 ; w. dat. 611 a ; 

-775 adj. 475 ; compar. 221 

w. part. 800; ??5o^e^ 

-ri<n(v), T?S, dat. pi. 129 D. 

<roi 601 a. 

-/Iffacav 223, 2 ; ov% fjffffor 



ridveireia 21 9 D. 

/Iffvxos 209. 221 c. 

TjSvs 23D.212. 222. 

7?T stems in, 1521. 

^e' 830-31 ; fc 831 a. 

tjroi 852, 12. 860 a. 110. 

T76t tO 77 34. 

r]rop 153 D. 201 Db. 

7)6(877 409 D, 6. 

JTTO'W pass. w. case 581 ; 

fjeiv 405, 1. 

w. part. 801. 

TjeAios 65 D. 

Tjv diphth. 11. 

^epe^oj/rat 411 D. 

il&s 227 D. 

T^epos 202 D, 21. 

77VT6 876,7. 

T}i<av 153 m. 

fa 248 D. 879, 4. 

f5/crTa 223, 2. [698. 

77X 193. 

*>w 27 ; om. 508 b ; as pf. 

77WS65D. 146 D. 182. 

T^Ae or 7)Aee' 201 D b. 

rj At/cm w. inf. 767. 

0, 17. 19. 22 ; to s 45-6. 

f,\lKos 811. 816. 

76. 401 b. 

TJAtos 65 D. 

3- doubled 40 b ; dropped 

^at (r^s) 406, 2. 355 D e ; 

47. 49. 386 a. 

w. ace. 544 c. 

& stems in, 152f. 169ff; 

yuas, V* 2? >2. 

formation in, 41 ID. 

^ees etc. 233 D. 

^Aao-ora wt. art. 530 b. 

77/iepa w. lyevero 494; om. 


509 b; wt. art. 530 b; 


gen. 591 ; dat. 613. 

^AAw 432, 6. 338 D. 

Wereptitie 203 D. 

fa/t&s, 3-a^teta/, 219 D, 

rjfj.T P os 238. 675-6. 

$av (^(T/cw) 444, 4. 

I/it 404, 1. 

SdvaTOS gen. '577 b. 



427, 5, 
ci) w. acc. 544 a. 

43a. 57. 17 6 D. 
w. acc. 544 c. 
(raxvs) 66 b. 222. 
Sarepov 68 c. 72; appos. 
502 b. 

D b ; w. inf. 767 a. 
^oj w. gen. 570. 577 a. 
offos, i&au/xacr- 
TUS ws, 817 b. 
S-e pass, sign 343, 395. 
&e, & (T&TJ/M) 403, 2. 
ect 125D. 
freibs 221 D. 
freivw 432 D, 24. 
% &e'Ao> 422, 9. 
&e/s 202, 7. 
-d-ey, -3-e, local 203. 
&e6s 37. 118. 141; om. 
504 c ; wt. art. 530 ; &e- 
6> 206 D b. 
frepeios 468. 

w 433, 5. 
424, 12. 345 D. 
dew (&u, &eu) 426, 1. 

221 D. 

pass, sign 343. 395. 
0j8ae 56. 
d-7?Aea> 432 D, 6. 
&vi\vs 212 a. 221 D. 
Ml" 852, 9. 105 D. 

to (To- 60. 

i local 203 ; imper. 358. 
361. 400 b. 401 b. 65 b. 
yydiret 437, 2 ; w. gen. 
574 b. 

fjSw 424, 13. 

444, 4. 394 a. 409, 
4. 433, 4 ; w. acc. 544 e. 


& (SpuffKu) 445, 5. 
3-oG/jts, bovpos, 219 D. 
fy>a7r (rpe^w) 424, 26. 
Srpdcros 57. 

o-trw 428, 8. 
uco 421, 18. 

66 C, 450, 5. 

bpeir (r/)e>o) 66 c, 424, 26. 
370 D b. 
66 a. 163. 
3-puTTTco 68c. 427, 6. 
445, 5. 

^Y. dat. 595 b. 
, -veto, 435 D, 10. 
(Tvcpca) 66 c. 424, 28. 
56. 204. 

&i5o> 65 c. 420, 2.435 D, 10. 
160 c. 182. 

11 Db. 

I, vow. 7 ff ; quant. 86 ff. 
i to et 30. 326. 425. |> 27. 
t interch. AV. e 27. 186 ; w. 
t omitted 39 a. 328 e. 405, 
2. [328. 

t changes prod, by, 58 ff. 
t subscript 11. 34. 68 a; in 
dat. sing. 150. 195 a.183. 
i of 4th cl. 328. 428 ff; as 
redupl. 332. 449 D, 7 ; 
mode-sign 348. 
i stems in, 152d, i. 185ff. 
(el/u) 405, 1. [154. 195 a. 
-t nom. pi. 150 ; dat. sing. 
-i loc. 205 ; demonst. 242. 
in for to 466. 
ICE fern. 464 c. 125ff. 
to. for /j.ia 255 D. 
Idofiai 415. 
449 D, 7. 

, -e'w, 424 D, 33. 23 D. 
-idea denom. 472 j. 
iS 450, 4. 409, 6. 23 D. 


-iSiov neut. 465 a. 
Wios 23 D ; w. gen. 587 c ; 

t% 608. 
ffi/iev 46 D. 

188. 217 c. 
, I8ptvbiit>, 396 D. 
e mode-sign 348. 
!e pa 65 D. 

32 D e ; w. gen. 587 c. 
-ifa verbs in, 472 e ; Att. 
fut. 376. 
, tCiw, 431, 6. 

mode-sign 348. 
.u 403, 1. 312, 332. 400 
Dd. 401 n. 401 Dh, k. 
402. [D. 

v(s) 80 D ; IMrraTa 22] 
tt to i 186D. 401 Dl. 
IK 23 D; (e?ot/ca) 409, 7. 
iKav6s w. dat. 595 c. 
//ccmo 438, 2. 408 D, 45.>5 w. gen. 589. 
t'/ceAos 23 D. 
iK^evos 46 D. 408 D, 45. 
iKveofJicu 438, 2. 
-jKcJs adj. 469 ; w. gen. 587. 

438 D, 2. 349 D. 27. 
A.a/toi 404 D, 10. 
i'Aaos 210 D. [D. 

i\dffKO/nai 444, 5 ; Ixdo^ai 
i'Aecos 209-10. 

23 D ; 'IA.M&I 203 D ; 

206 D b. 
i'AAw 432 D, 22. 
tfida-ffw 430 D, 9. 
ij/ stems in, 156 a. 
-iv acc. sing. 171; dual 

150. 195 b. 

Iv for oT 233 D. [508 b 
Iva, 739 ff. 879, 6; fra T 
-ivos adj. 470. 
-to gen. sing. 140 D. 
y, ftw/iej', 88 D. 
neut. 465 a. 
adj. 468. 

218 D. 
o8a<ma 218D. 

. 514. 
136 D a. 
424, 19. 
65 D. 
32 De. 
h 153m. 

409 D, 6. 
46 a. 

-IffKos, -iffKrj, 465 b. 
tffK<* 447 D, 16. 

/j-oipos w. gen. 584 a. 
s 23 D. 221 c; w. dati 
603 ; 7] "iff-n 509 a. 
-iffrepos, -tcrraTOs, 221 e. 

403, 5. 299. 303 
05. 63. 347 D. 359 D 



894 a. 400-01. 409,1. 

KaXXiytvaiKa 21 8 D. 

K6, KIJ, Kei (Kaica) 434, 1. 

410 D. 416, 1; mid. 688; 

Ka\\i6vus 228. 

Ke, KeV, 878b. 79D. 105D 

perf. 712. 

KaActa compar. 223, 6 

Kearot, Keerat, 405 D, 2. * 

io~xdv(i), -vaca, 449 D, 2, 

KoAos 146 D. 

/ce8awu/ 439 D, 4. 

I<TX"< aor. 70S. 

Ka\v&r] 327 a. 

KeZ&z, KeZ^ey, Ke?<re, 249 D. 

Jfcrx<o 65 e. 449, 2. 832. 

KaAiWeo 427, 7 ; mid. 688. 

Kclpcu 405, 2. 355 D e. 378 

ix&vs 153 i. 185 ff. 

Ka\(as 146. 

D. 410 D; TV. ace. 544 c. 

IX^P 199D. 

Kd/j-iJ-opos 73 D. 

K6H/OS 240 D. 

fy 255 D. 

Kdfj.ii/os 139 b. 

Keipw 432, 8. 345 D. 

icaK-f], laiKa, 199D. 

Kd/j.vca 435, 8. 386 c; w. 


i(av patron. 466 a. 

ace. 547 b ; w. part. 800. 

KeAaSew 448 D, 13. 

-W, -iffros, 222 ff. 

Kd/jurTw 427, 8. 

KeAeu&os 139 C. 200 D. 

Kay, Kay, 68 a. 

KeAeuw 421, 20. 

K, 16. 19ff. 22; dropped 

KoVeoj/, Kavovv, 144. 

KeAAcy 345 D. 373. 

75. [46 ; bef. <r 47. 

KaV, Kcp (Karti) 73 D. 

Ke'Ao^at 424 D, 34. 384 D. 

K bef. r-mute 44; bef. p 

wap (Ke^pcw) 432, 8. 

KVOS w. gen. 584b. 

K for TT, Ion. 247 D. [392 a. 

Kcpa, /capr?, Kcfp, 202 D, 24. 

Kej/rea) 448 D, 14. 

K to x in pf. 341. 387 b. 

KcpSo7TOS 139 b. 

KGpdvvv/j.1 439, 1 ; TV. dat. 

K movable in ovic 80 a. 

/c^pr?ya 202 D, 24. 

602; Kepda, -aici) 439 D. 

K tense-sign 344 ff. 386. 

Kapra 227 D. 

Kepas 165. 168. 

-KO 1 aor. 402. 

Kaprepetw w. part. 800. 

KfpSalvu 433, 6. 382 b. 

*cfor Ke S73b. 

KapTepSs 57D. 

KepSiW, -IO-TOS, 223 D, 9; 

Kdy, Kd"8, etc. 7 3D. 

KdpTio-ros 57 D. 223 D, 1. 

KepSaAeos ib. 

Ka5 428 D, 18. 422 D, 20. 

KoV (Karci) 73 D. 

/ceu^cw, -dj/b), 425, 13. 

Ka&apevu w. gen. 580. 

K^ra 68 a. 

Ke<pd\a.iov 502 b. 

Ka&ap6s TV. gen. 584 f. 

KOTO" 631-2 ; w. num. 258 

KT; ( K a.i(a) 434, 1. [os ib. 

Ka&efouat 431, 6. 

a; in comp. 583; w. 

K^iffros 223 D, 11 ; KTjSet- 

Ka&evSd) 314. 

inf. 780. 

K^j5a> 422 D, 20. 355 D e. 

Kd^r) 406, 2'. 

Karaye\dca w. gen. 583. 

K^p fern. 153 n. 

Ka&C 431, 6. 314. 

KurayiyvdffKOi) TV. gen. 577 

K?7pi; 164. 

Ka&to-TTtyu incomp. pred. 

b. 583. 

K-ripi)ff<r(i> 428, 2. 

490 c. 540. 

Kardyvvfju w. gen. 574 b. 

KI to o-o- 60. 328 a. 

Kal 855 ff. 68; w. num. 

KaTa8ov\<ao~is w. dat. 595 d. 

KificarSs 139b. 

256; w. two subj. 511; 405, 2. 

KiSvnfj.i 443 D, 8. 

w. part. 795f; Kal '6s 

KaraAAtCTTW w. dat. 602. 

Ki&cSi/ 66 D. 

525 b ; Kal &s 250 ; Kal 

KaraAvw w. gen. 580. 

KiKA4jo-Kft>444D, 12. [764. 

T6v, T^y, 525 b ; Kal ydp 

KaTairX-fiffffci} 397 a. 

KivSwevQ) aor. 708 ; TV. inf. 

870 d; el (cay) Ka/, Kal 

Karapp-fiyvvfj.1 TV. ace. 546. 

Ktvew 440 D, 5. 

el (<laV) 874. 

Kardpxn w. ace. 544 e. 

Klvvpai (tKioy) 440 D, 6; 

Kalvvpai 442 D, 17. 

KaTa(ppovfd) TV. gen. 683 ; 

eKlafrov 411 D. 

Kafvcw 432, 7. 

pass. 694 a. 

KtpyTjjut, -vcta, 443 D, 2. 

/cafo-ep 795 f. 850, 3. 874, 3: 

Karaxpa 404 D, 3. 

Kixdvca 436, 7. 404 D d. 

Kaip6s dat. 613. 

KOTat|/u5o^at TV. gen. 583. 

KtxpfJA" 403, 9. 

Kairoi 864,7/110. 

Kara;|/T]^>tbjuai TV. gen. 583. 

KA (KeAo^uat) 424 D, 34. 

ieaf 434,1. 381 D.- 

KaTeVrjKTO 408 D, 41. 

KAa"a> 428, 12. 360 D. 

KOLK (KOTO") 73 D. 

Karexw intrans. 495. 


KaK6s compar. 223, 2 ; TV. 

Karriyopeo) TV. gen. 583. 

KAai'a, KAd"a>, 434, 2. 357 D. 

ace. 548. 

KaT&aveiv 73 D. 

KAd" 17 ID. . 

KaKovpyos TV. gen. 587 a. 

KT&> 229. 631. 

KAaTr (KAeTTTO?) 427, 9. 

KO.KTaV 73 D. 

KOU (ofw) 434, 1. 

K\avffidca 47 2 j. 

KoAew 420, 5 ; incomp. 

Karats 442 D, 1. 

KAdJw 419, 5. 

pred. 490; perf. 712. 

Kaur^ 68 a. 

KAe (KaAew) 420, 6. 

(irpo)KaAifouat 420 D, 5. 

Kcfo 434, 1. 

-/cAeVlVSD. ISO. 198. 



K\eis 171. 

421, 15. 390. 
*, AcAe'o/icu, 426 D, 8. 

221 e. 
/cAeVrw 427, 9. 387 b. 
K\rjis 17 ID. 

K\r]ica 421 D, 15. [198 
-/cAf)s prop, names in, 180 
K\f,(a 421, 16. 

433, 1. 432, 9. 

206 D a. 
K\ocp (/cAeVrco) 427, 9. 
/cAu 426 D, 8. 408 D, 28. 
K/J.O, (/ca^uj/co) 435, 8. 
Kmiw 421, 12. 
A/aco421, 2. 371 C. 
Kvefyas 182. 

125 D. 

w. gen. 587 c. ; 77 
{} 3 e ; /coti/9 608. 

w. gen. 574 a ; 
w. dat. 602. 
Koivcavia w. dat. 602. 
KOIVUVOS 202, 8. 
K6Xiros om. 509 b. 
186 D. 

139 a. [685. 

427,10; in comp. 
K6pa!- ; es K6pa,Kas 508 b. 
Kopvvv[jt,i 440, 2. 
K6pt] 125 d. 

7, /c^?7, 125d. 43 a. 

430 D, 10. 
-K6s adj. 469. 587 b. 
Koa-6s 247 D. 
/core 247 D. 
Korepos 247 D. 
Korea? 420 D, 11. 
KOTv\ri$ov6<pi 206 D c. 
KOV 247 D. 

Kovpos compar. 224 D. 
Rows 146 D. 
/cpa (Kepdvvvfj.i) 439, 1. 
/cpcCw 428, 13. 338. 409, 8 ; 

pf. 712. 

Kpar (ndpa) 202 D, 24. 
Kpareffcpi 206 D c. 
Kpareci) w. gen. 581 a. 
fcpdriffTOS 223, 1. 
Kpdros 57 D. 

223 D, 1.227 D. 

181. 182 D. 183. 

223, 1. 
Kpe/j.afj.a.1 404, 8. 401 k. 
Kpendwvfj.1 439, 2. 
223 D, 1. 
203 D. 
ai 443 D, 3. 

for ic/n&T? 201 D b. 
w 428 D, 20. [a. 555 a 
w 433, 2 ; w. ace. 54^ 
vicov 466 a. 
/cpouw 421, 23. 
iWw 427, 11. 410 D; w. 
two ace. 553. 
Kpixpa w. gen. 589. 
/era, /crav, (/cre/i/co) 433, 4. 
31 9 b. 393 a; mid. 
692; pf. 712. 
earea-o-i 201 D b. 
/cretW 433,4. 364 D. 401 
n. 408,4. 432, 10. 


Krepas 182D. 
Tff 408 D, 26. 
a.Tro)Krivvvii.i 442, 6. 
TUTrew 448 D, 15. 
vStdveipa 218 D. 
Kv5p6s compar. 222 D. 
/cud- (/c eitoco) 425 D, 13. 
Kvi<TK(a, /cuw, /cuew, 446, 2. 

17 5 D. 

y 203. 

KuA^Scw, -5ew, 421, 6. 
438, 3. 

wvrepos 224 D. 
427, 12. 

Kvpfu, Kvp<a, 448, 5. 345 D. 
373; w. gen. 574 c; w. 
part. 801. 
KVUV 202, 9. 
*X for XX 40 b. 
was 182D. 

A, 18. 22 ; AA after augm. 

308 D. See Liquids. 
\aas 202, 10. 

(Aa,uj8ai/o>) 437, 4. 
146 D. 

a ; w. gen. 574 c. 
\ayd>s 148. 

;, 429 D, 8. 

, ,5- 
Aa/c (Adccr/coj) 447, 11. 
AaAos compar. 221 e. 
\o/A-j8j/w 437, 4. 319 e. 366 

b ; w. gen. 574 b, e ; mid. 

690; w. part. 799. 
\dfjLvu 424, 14. 

wSdva) 437, 5 ; w. ace. 

544 a; w. part. 801. 
Aao's 147. 
Aas 202, 10. 
AaV/cw 447, 11. 

'[319 e. 

Ae7&> to gather 424, 15, 
A670? to speak 424, 15 a. 

450, 8 a. 408 D, 37 ; om. 

508 b; impers. 763; 

pers. 777 ; Xeyovvi 504 

292. 276-7. 334 b. 
412 b. 425,7; gen. 581 
\evo> 421, 21. 
ex 408 D, 38. 
194 b. 

437, 4. 
. part. 798. 
126 a. 130 c. 
455 d. [5. 

, -aW, 425, 1. 437 D, 
A?7:ew 447 D, 11. 

139 b. 
\-n6s 146 D. 

437, 3. 
At to AA 59. 328 C. 
Afya 227 D ; \iyvs ib. 

AITT (AetW) 425, 7. 

= AeW 202 D, 25. 
\iffffofji,ai, AiTo/xat, 480 D 

11. 308 D. 
\tra, Atr/, 202 D, 26. 
\fXMw 448 D, 23. 
Ao(Aouco) 37 le. [602 
yos dat. 608 ; els Xoyovs 
Ao7X (Xayxdvod) 437, 3. 
AOITT (AeiTrw) 425, 7. 
AonrJs 455 c. 457 b, c ; ace, 
552 a; gen. 591. 
'Ta-3-os, -iosy -vji'os, 224 D 
-Aos adj. 471. 


kofa 371 e ; mid. 688. Luey&d-os dat. 609. 

AuTrew w. acc. 547 C. LueSo^ot 422 D, 21. 

\v X vos 200 D. [29. 420, 8.[p4frr 222 D. [1 du. 356 b. 

Auco 268-75. 393 D. 408 D 

-fj.f&a 1 pi. 355 ff; -yue&o?> 

ACD'/'&JV, -'/repos, 223 D, 1. 

fj.e&iij/j.t 403 D, 1. [575. 

AcuretWa 214D. 

(j.e&v<rK<i> 446, 3 ; w. gen. 

Awcpdoo w. gen. 580. 

jue&uw 446, 3. 

A<jW, \yffTos, 223, 1. 

/*e/J' 222. [319 D. 432 D, 25. 319 e. 

M, 18. 22; bef. p 53; bef. 

pets = p.fa 202 D, 27. 

A 53 D; mutes bef. p. 

/tetW 223, 3 ; p.eiov 660 d. 

46 ; /j./j. after augm. 308 

AteAas 156 c. 212-13. 220. 

D. See Liquids. 

/leAe 201 D b. 

*/ta neut. 461 a. 166. 

jueAt 153 r. 166. 

fj.d 852, 14. 545. 

MeAiTT? 612. [inf. 711. 

juad- (jUay&aj/cw) 437, 6. 

/xeAAw* 422, 12. 308 a ; w. 

-/ 1 sing. 355 ff. 

/*&.w422, 11; w. gen. 576. 

Mcua 12 a. 

^ue/i/SAerat 422 D, 11. 

fj.aifj.dca 434 D, 5. 472 k. 

fj.efj.eTifJi.evos 403 fa, 1. 

p.aivofj,aL 432, 11. 

fj,efj,(, w. gen. 577 a. 434 D, 5. 409 D, 9. 

-yuei/ 1 pi. 355. 

/j.aK (/ 448 D, 24. 

p.ev 862 a ; after art. 525 a. 

fj.ditaipa 21 9 D. 

534 a; after prep. 616; 

/xa/cop 220. 

for^j/852,13; p.ev ou>, 

/*o/cp<Js 222 D ; /xa/cpy 610 ; 

^ey S^, 852, 13. [D e. 

(es) (j,aKpdv 509 a. 

-fj.evai, -tj.ev, inf. 359 D. 400 

fj,aicp6xeip 218. 481. 

yiej/\eoos 149 a. 

iitdAa 70 c. 227. 222 a; w. 

fj.evoivdca 37 OD a. 

comp., sup. 665 b. 666. 

HevT&v 68 c. [aAAa 848 e. 

p.d\t) 201 b. 

fj.evroi 864, 6 ; ou /j.evToi 

/j.dv for jidjy 852, 13. 

fj.eva 422, 13 ; w. acc. 544 a. 

fj,ttv&dv&) 437, 6. 308 D. 412 

/j-epis om. 509 b. 

a ; w. gen. 582 ; w. part. 

fj.epfj.iipl fa 328 D. 

(inf.) 799. 802; rl p,a6v 

fj.e<rafj.&piii 24 D a. 

789 c. 

jueo*(o")aTOS 224 D. 

j^ttTT (jUCtpTTTw) 427 D, 21. 

/*60-((r)777u(s) 80 D. 

Wapa&wvi 612. 

fj,ea"r]fj.f3pia 53. 482. 443 D, 4. 401 D h. 

/tcrVos 221 c. 224 D. 643; 

fj,dpirTO> 427 D, 21. 

w. art. 536 ; wt. art. 

fiaprvpeo}, -po/, 448, 6. 

530 b ; eV pecrc? 496. 

fj.dprvpos 202 D, 11. 

p.e<rr6s w. gen. 584 b. 

jtapTus 152 p. 202,11. 

fj.frd 643-5; adv. 615; 

/ (fj.ay) 428, 3. 

jue'ra 615 a. 

fj.da-ff(av 222 D. 

fj.erafid\\(a intrans. 685. 

Aum 163. 199D. 

fj.eTaSiS(afj.i w. gen. 574 a. 422, 10 ; w. acc. 

p.era\a^dv(a w. gen. 574 a. 

547 a ; w. dat. 602. 

fj.erafj.e\et w. gen. 576 ; w. 

fte' 105 a. 230. 

part. 800. [800. 

fieyaAcos 226. 

/j.eTafj.e\ 413 ; w. part. 

peyas 219. 222 ; /ieya, ^e- 

uera|u w. gen. 626 r; w. 

7aAa, 226. 552 a; eVlj part. 795 c. 

/*67a493f; ^weyaw. gen.'^eTaTre'jUTrw mid. 689. 

559 c ; TO /JLeyiffTOV 502 b. 'yweTairAao* / uo's 199. 


345 w. gen. 577 c 
" / -' w. gen. 571. 
gen. 574 a. 


w. gen. 584 a. 
u 233 D. 

70 b. 80 D ; w. gen. 
,626; conj. 877,8; w. 
ou, 6Vou, 813 a. 
I 832 ff. 68 D. 69. 80 b; 
w. ind. 761; w. subj. 
720 b, d; w. impr. 723; 
w. part. 789 e; final 739 
ff; interrog. 829; ^ 
ftoi 508 b; fj^i ov 720d. 
743. 846-7 ; ou ^ 845 ; 
6Vt ft-fi 868 c; et ^, et 
^ el 872. 7 54 a. 

, -oi/, -ws, 252. 
e 858-9 ; ^7j5e eTs 255 ; 
^778' 55s 250. 
,7?Se/s255; neut. 848 a. 
Tj&eVepos 252. 
^o^uw 422 D, 21. 
-nKdofj-ai 448 D, 24. 351 D. 
j?Keri80b. 848 b. 

222 D. 
461 b. 
153 m. 

422 D, 11. 


432, 11. 
172; w. app. 
500 a; gen. 591; 2<rw 
Aoji/es 81 6 b. 
y t ^rw^A 852, 13. 864, 
5 ; ou ftty aAAa 848 e ; 
^ Ufa (% AieV) 852, 10. 
848 b. 
re 858-9. 110. 

173 ; wt. art. 530 c. 
-tOjuat, 448 D, 25. 
136 Da. 

,4\ris 252 ; ^rt 848 a. 
.jjTpcos 182. [399 ff. 

*i 1 sing. 355 ff. 361. 267. 
la (e!V) 255. ' [D, 39. 
iyvv/j.1 442, 7. 395 D. 408 
fj.iKp6s 223, 3 ; gen. 575 a. 

468 b. 
jiu/ieojuat 415. 



444, 6. 319 b. 
363 D. 393 a; w. gen. 
576; pf. 712; w. part, 
(inf.) 799. 802. 
fj.(/j.jsca, jui/xva^w, 449, 3. 
\t.(v 233 D. 105 D. 
MtW 148. 182 D. 197 D. 
447, 12. 442, 7. 
mid. 689 b. 
fj.v in div. of syll. 83 a. 
^va 132; fnvea 132D. 
o>) 444, 6. 
370 D a. 

,uo 230. 70 D. 105 a. 

fj.o'ipa om. 509 b. 

MoTo-a 24 D d. 

fji.o\ (p\6ffKu) 445, 2. 

p.ov ( 409 D, 9. 

fiords 258 d. 

ftovaxy 258 c. 

jwoVos 258 c ; fj.6vos ruv &V- 

ACOJ/ 586 c ; ,uoVoj/ ou 848 

d ; ou iJ.6vov aAAa (/cat) 


221 e. 
(Ppor6s) 53 D ; (peipo- 

li.a.1) 319 D. 

7*os masc. 460 b ; adj. 471. 
^uou 230. 105 a. 
/J.OVJ/QS 24 D c. 
ivo?, -e'w, -aw, 431, 7. 370Db. 
jtu/caojiiat 448 D, 26. 
fjivpids 258 d. 
ptpioi (fivptoi) 253. 257. 
jtus 153 i. 185. 
fj.vxoiTa.TOs 224D. 
fj.vw 420, 6. 
p.(afJLvos 434 D, 5. 
jiicDj/ (^ ouV) 34. 829. 
Mwcra 24 D d. 

N, 18. 22 ; bef. other cons. 

48 ff ; bef. i 58. 328 d. 
*/ doubled after augm. 308 

D ; dropped in pf. 386 

c ; inserted in 1 aor. 

pass. 396 D. 

v 5th class 329. 407. 435 ff. 
v movable 78-9. 
v stems in, 152m. 
v neuter 138 ; ace. sing. 

150. 154. 157. 195 g,i; 

1 sing. 355 ff. 364 D; 3 

pi. 355 ff. 400 D d ; in- 

fin. 359. 

va 5th class 443 D. 
-vai inf. 359. 367 c. 400 e. 
vat 852, 14. 545. [410 D. 
' 434 D, 6. 370 Da. 
vatxi 110 a. 
j/atw 434 D, 6. 
va6s 26. 147. 
ifxffffco 431, 3. 
vavs 189-90. 
vavffiiropos 473 b. 

206 DC. 
vS dropped bef. ff 49. 
ve 5th class 329 c. 438. 
veaTOS 2 24 a. 

j/et/ce'w4l9D, 21. 370 Db. 
veKvs 153 i. 
422, 14. 

*OD, 12. 
vepbev 224D. 
-'-tprcpoi 224 D. 
=up??^t 206 D a. 
=w (j/e) 421, 5. 
E'W (w) 426, 2. 308 D. 
j/ec6s 26. 146. 
veusoiKos 47 3 b. 
v-tl 852, 14. 545. 
vrjos 146 D. 

vs 11 Db. 189 D. 

X426D, 2. [51. 

dropped bef. ff 49. cf. 

f 429, 2. 

caw w. acc. 544 a ; w. 

gen., dat. 581 ; w. part. 

801 ; pr. for pf. 698. 
viv 233 D. 105 D. 
vtTTTu 429, 2. 

430 D, 12. 
i/t'^et wt. subj. 504 c. 
vofilfa incomp. pred. 490. 

556; w. part. 799. 
v6os, vovs, 144. 
-vos adj. 471. [708. 

v oo-e'w w. acc. 547 a ; aor. 
v6ffos 139 e. 

dat. 613. 
-(v)<ra fern. part. 360. 362 

-(v}ffi 3 pi. 355. 362, 

VT dropped bef. ff 49. 50 J 

stems in, 152k. 
-VTI 3 pi. 355 Da. 400 Da, 
-VTWV 3 pi. impr. 358. 
w (wv) 5th class 329 d. 

407. 439 ff. 

^a!25D. [867,3. 

0) 79 D. 105 D. 112. 
vvv 112. 867, 3. 

I 153 r; gen. 591; dat. 

613; wt. art. 530 b. 
vdSvvos 33. 
wt, rwiV, 233 D. 
vulrcpos 238 D. 

H, 17 a. 21-2. 47. 74 b. 
- masc., fern. 152 o. 163. 
etVos 24 D c. 
|ew 419, 13. 
= ffvv 628. 

'pew, 448, 7. 
|uw 421, 10. 

O, vow. 7ff; interch. w 

a, e, see a ; w. v 27. 
o for a 203. 349 D. 473 a ; 

for w 347 D. 
o from e, see e. 
oto i 27; to ot 24 DC. 
o to ou 24 DC. 31. 
o to w 28. 156. 221 a. 309. 

335-6. 400m, n. 
o dropped after at 221 b. 
o conn. vow. 203. 352. 401 

Dh. 47 3 a. 

o stems in, 152 h. 193-4. 
-o gen. sing. 136 c. 140; 2 

sing, for -ffo 363. 
, ?), TJ, 119. 239. 243 D. 

103 a ; demonstr. 525 ; 

6 p.ev, 6 5e, 525 a ; o 5e, 

6 ydp, 5257; TW for rd 

521 ; eV rots w. sup. 

627 ; rov w. inf. 592 b. 

781 a. 
'6 neut. of os 243. 68 ; foi 

os 243 D ; for oVt 868 b, 
oa to w 32. cf. 36. 
-oas to -ous 36 b. 

577 218 D. 
oySods 258 d. 
oySJaros 253 D. 



at- ot 

253. 37 D. 
wra 253 D. 
o'Se, v}5e, r^5e, 239 247. 

110; use 678-9; w. art. 

538 a; ^St 242. 
OO>TJ 46 D. 
656s 139 c ; om. 509 b ; 

gen. 590; dat. 612. 
o5ous!56c; 65wv D. 
o5uy 321 D. 

'O&ycr(o-)eus 40 D. 189D. 
oe to ou 32. [35 c. 

oet to ou 34. 371 a; toot 
-oetS^s adj. 481 a. 
&fa (o5) 431, 8. 
oi] to co 32 ; to ij 36 a. 
077 to ot 35 c ; to cp 401 i. 
&'&/ 248. 250. 879,2; 

traction 811 a. 
o>t248D. 879, 1. 
63-otWca 869, 3. 72. 
ot 11 ff; foro 24Dc; to t 

310 ; interch. w. 25.' 
-ot elided 70 D ; short for 

ace. 95 a. 365. 
-ot voc. sing. 194 a. 
ot (<e'pw) 450, 6. 
oT pron. 230. 105 a. 
oT adv. 248. 250. 879, 3 ; 

w. gen. 589. 
-ota fern. 130. [795 d. 

oTa conj. 876, 5 ; w. part, 
ofyco, ofyj/uyiit, 424 D, 16. 
oTSa 409,6. 23 D. 318 D. 

351 D. 364 D; pf. 712; 

w. part, (inf.) 799. 802 ; 

eS ol5' on 868 a; 

& Spaffov 755. 
ot'SoVco, ot'Seco, 436, 8. 
OtStVous 191. 
-otTjfor-ota 125D,2. 
oiCvpurepos 221 D. [D a. 
-ottj/for -oiv 140 Da. 154 
or/ca5e 203. 110. 
oliteios 468 ; w. gen. 587 c. 
' 355 De. 
)juew 443 D, 1. 

ofrco&t 203 D. 
of KOI 95 b. 205. 
oftcovSe 203 D. 
O!KOS 23 D ; om. 509 j3. 
w. gen. 577 a. 

oiKrp6s compar. 222 D. 


-ou/dual 154. 195b. 
olvos 23 D ; om. 509 b. 
h'oxoeca 31 2 D. 
oto gen. sing. 140 D. 
o%at, ofcat, 422, 15. 363 

a. 413; w. gen. 570; 

mid. 692 ; hyperb. 885. 

616 ; els e'yclj ol/xot 667. 
ofos247. 86 D. 681 a. 811. 

814 ff; w. sup. 664 ; olov, 

oTa, w. part. 795 d. 
ofoVre 814. 856 a. 110. 
o?s 23 D. 154Db. 192. 
-oto-a for -ouo-a 362 D. 
-ouri(v) dat. pi. 140 D b. 
i'X" 6/w 422 D, 16. [698. 
o?x<> 422, 16 ; pr. for pf. 
ofo, otw, 422, 15. 
g/cp 247 D. 
OKVOS \v. inf. 767. 
OKOIOS 247 D. 
o\ (efAco) 432 D, 22. 
6\iydicis 259. [dat. 610. 
oAfyos223,4; gen. 575 a; 
6\iyotpf<io w. gen. 576. 
223 D, 4. 
ot 436, 9. 
o\\vfu 442, 8. 417 ; pf. 712. 
o\os w. art. 537. 
OA.TT ^TT&>) 424 D, 32. 
dat. pi. 613. 
w. dat. 602. 
opvvfj.1 442, 9. 331. 401 D b ; 

w. ace. 544 a. 645. 

, 6(101600, w. dat. 603. 
o>oKAa"a> 370 Da. 

oAo7e w. dat. 602; w. 
^ part. 797 ; w. inf. 777. 
o/j.6pyyvfji.i 442, 10. 
6/j.ov 590 a ; w. dat. 602 b. 

^vvp.os w. gen. 587 d ; 

w. dat. 603. 
6p.u>5 864, 8. 
o>o>s853b. 864,8. 874 b; 

w. part. 795 f. 
ov compar. stems in, 174. 
8vap 201 b. 
oV5e MfjiovSe 203 D. 

199. [k, n. 

. 27. 332. 401 
^o^ua ace. 549 b ; dat. 608. 

o7(Tiy SfJLOlOS 

w. pred. 540. 556 
ovofj.a.1 405 D a. 

391 a. 
bvs 90. 

oo to ou 32 ; oot to ot 34. 
-oos adj. in, 208. 
oou to ou 34 ; b'ou 243 D. 
oir (opdoj) 450, 4. 

248.876,6. 879,4. 

248. 877, 3. 
t>7rt(r&e(j/)79D. 224 D; w. 

gen. 589. 
6vlff(ff)eo 40 D. 
oirto'Taros 224 D. 
6ir\6Tepos, -TO.TOS, 224 D. 
248. 81 la. 879, 2. 
6ir6bi 879, 1. 

6'Trot 248. 879, 3. [ff. 

<57ro?os247. 251. 681 b. 825 
67roVos 247. 681 b. 825 ff. 

dir6rav 877, 1. 
6ir6r 248. 877, 1. 

s 247. 
STTOU 248. 879, 1. [D. 

67T7rO?OS, OTTTTWy, 247 D. 40 

oWo-e 248 D. 


fans 248. 876, 3 ; fin. 739 

ff; interrog. 825 ff; w. 

fut. 756; OTTWS p4 743; 

oux (M^) 8wws 848 c. 
opc{cy450,4. 312. 322. 363 

D. 366 b. 370 Da. 37 ID 

c ; w. /i^j 743 ; w. part. 


opy (IfpSco) 428, 14. 
opyaivoo 382 b. 

yiCofiai \v. dat. 595 b; 

w. part. 800. 
opeyj/u/u, opeyco, 442 D, 18 ; 

w. gen. 574 c. 
opetos, opeo-repos, 221 D. 
op3-pos wt. art. 530 b. 

, 11. 
6pit6co w. two ace. 565. 

fowt 158 f. 169.202,18. 

wAii 442, 11. 31 ID. 821 

D. 345 D. 349 D. 384 D, 

408 D, 40. 
opov442D, 11. 



optffffto 428, 4. 321. 

op<pav6s w. gen. 584f. 

o> X isl53i. 

os stems in, 181 if. 

-os neut. 176 ff. 461 b. 

-oy gen. sing. 154. 196 a; 

ace. pi. 140 D c. 
os possess. 23 D. 238. 672 

a. 675 a. 

os demoust. 243 a. 525 b, j9. 
os rel. 243. 247. 681 a. 808 

ff; pi. for sing. 514 d; 

neut. for masc. fern. 522. 
offdicis 259. 
oo'TjjUepat 816 b. 
oo-os 247. 681 a. 811. 814ff; 

accus. 552 a ; dat. 610 ; 

offov ov 848 d. 
offosirep 251. 
o'sTrep 850, 3. 
offffa-Ki 259 D. 
o<ro-dVios 247 D. 
00-0-6 201 D a. 
oVo-Ojuat 429 D, 4. 
oWos 40 D. 247 D. 
6'sre 856 a. 
offTfov, bffrovv, 144. 
oVns 246. 247. 251. 681 b. 

811 ff. 825 ff. 110. 
offtypaivofjiai 436, 10; with 

gen. 576. 
OTUV 877, 1. 
ore 248. 113 a. 869,2. 877, 

1 ; w. aor. 706 ; w. rd- 

Xto-ra 821 ; ets ore ice 

OT(r)eu, oreo, orewv, ore'oi- 

<n, 246 D. 
ori70b. 70 D. 113 a; decl. 

868, 1.733 ff; caus. 869, 

1 ; w. superl. 664 ; ex 

pressed by pron. 813. 

822-3 ; oi>x on 848 c. 
oVts, oWa, oVwas, 246 D. 
t oTTt 40 D. 246 D. 
'ou 5b. 11 ff; for o 24Dc; 

interch. with eu 25 D ; 

from o, see o. 
9v gen. sing. 136 c. 140. 
'Ov 2 Ling. 363. 
ou, ou/c, oux, oi>xl, 103. 80 a, 

74 c. 832 ff; interrog. 

829; w. superl. 665 a; 

wt. fid 545 ; ou pji 845 ; 

o<?>e'A\a> 328 c. 345 D. 

^ ou 846-7. [671-3. 

o(j>e\os 201 b. 

ou, of, e, 230. 105 a. 668. 

o<pfra\<a 472 j. 

ou adv. 248. 250. 879, 1. 

tywl53i. [577 b. 

ovaros (ous) 202 D, 13. 

bfyXiVKa. 436, 11 ; w. gen., -ou, -ws, 252. 

fypa248D. 739 ff. 877,7, 

ou5e 858-9 ; ouSe els 255 ; 

ox(e X w)424D, 11. [Dc, 

ouS' &5s 250. 

oxos 201 Da; oxeo^t 206 

ou5e/s 255; w. pi. 514 b; 

o^e vr.fa 494 ;w. gen. 589. 

ouSels osris ou 817 a; 

6\l/ijj.a&-f]s AV. gen. 587 a. 

ouSeV 848 a. 683 c ; ou5e- 

ctyios compar. 221 c. 

v6s 578 b ; foil, by e/cao-- 

tyoQayos compar. 221 e. 

TOS or rls 881. 

oca to w 32; for ca 370 Da 

ouSerepos 252. 

-oca verbs 37 0.47 2 a. 

ou/c, see ou ; ou/c 68 b. 

ou/cert 848 b. 80 b. 

H, 19 ff; TTTT 247 D. 40 D. 

ou/cf 65 D. 

IT bef. r-mute 44; bef. ju 

ou/couV, ouKouy, 866 a. 112. 

46 ; bef. o- 47. [392 a. 

ouXoV^os 28 D. 

TT to (p in perf. 341. 387 b. 

OuAu^TTOtO 28 D. 

ira (Treirapai) 335 D. 

-ovv ace. sing. 193 D. 

iray (TT^VV^I) 442, 12. 

ouy 866; w. rel. 251. 816 

Trafr (Trdffxu) 447, 13. 

a; after prep. 616. 

Trat'Cw 431, 4. 

ouWo 68 b. 626. 868,2. 

irais 153. 158 a, d. 160 c; 


wt. art. 530 c. 

ovv o p.a 24 D c. 

TTOIW 421, 13. 

OUTTI' 68 b. 

TraXai6s compar. 221 b. 

OUTTW 848 b. 

TraAaiw 421, 14. 

ovpavo&ev 203 D. 

ird\ijf in comp. 52. [42. 

oupeco 312. 

TrctoAw 432 D, 26. 408 D, 

oVpeos 28 D ; oupos 65 D. 

ird/JLTrpcaros 224 D. 

-ous adj. 470. 208. 

Tra/xcfraii/coj/, (pav6(aj', 47 2 k. 

o5s!60c. 202, 13. 

432 D, 19. 

ovrda, -da>, 423 D, 5. 401 

TTO.V in comp. 52. 

Dn. 408 D, 21. 

na.VTa.ira.<n(v) 79 S. 

cure 858-9. 512. 

iravTaxn 258 c. 

ouTis 252 ; ourt 848 a. 

vdyroSKv 203. 

oSros 239. 247. 678-80; 

irdvT<as 225. 

fern, dual 521 ; w. art. 

n-ap (7re/pa>) 432, 13. 

538 a ; w. nom. for voc. 

Wp73D. 646. 

541. cf. 545; TOUTO 

irapd 646-8. 618 ; in comp. 

(raura) appos. 502 b ; 

605 ; w. compar. 661 ; 

w. verb om. 508 a, b ; 

w. inf. 780. 

pi. for sing. 518 b ; neut. 

irdpa 102 a. 102 D. 615 a. 

for masc. fern. 522 ; as 

TrapafZalvu) w. ace. 544 d. 

adv. 552 a ; w. gen. 559 

irapai 24^D c. 646. 

c ; w. yueV, 5e, 525 a. 

7rapavo/x6<w 315. [603. 

oyroo-i 242. 550 c. 

TrapcwrA'/jo-tos 221 c ; w. dat. 

OUTW(S) 239 a. 248. 80 c; 

Trapao-KeucxC^ 392 D ; im 

w. part. 795 a. 

pers. 494. 

ou%, ouxi, see ou. 

7rapari3-r?ui mid. 689 b. 

o^et'Aw 432,12. 328 c; in 

irapax&jpeco w. gen. 580. 

wish 721 b. 

TrapS (Tre'pSw) 424, 18. 



impers. 494. [605. 
406, Ic; w. dat. 
w. two acc. 556 ; 
mid. 690. 

w. dat. 605. 

7rdpoid-e(j/) 79 D; irapolrc- 
pos 224 D. 

?s w. inf. 769. 
Tras 158 f. 160 b. 161. 259; 
w. art. 537 ; iras TIS 514 
b. 683 b ; irav w. gen. 
559 c; TTUVTI 610. 
irdcrffca 430, 5. 
irdcrtrooj' 222 D. 
irdffxu 447, 13. 409 D, 14; 

ri ira&caj/ 789 C. 
TraToWco 427 , 1 9 a. 428, 5 a. 448, 8. 
TTOT^P 173; Avt. art. 530 c. 
ndrpo/cAos 199D. 

421,19; mid. 688; 
w. part. 798. 

compar. 222 D. 
wt. art. 530 b. 

). 284. 384 D. 
D, 15. 417. 425,8; pf. 
712; mid. 688; w. acc. 
547 c; w. dat. 595 b; 
Treto'Teoi' 806 b. 
ire'iKca 448, 9. 

371 c ; w. gen. 576. 
' 190 e. 

w. gen. 576. 
ireipap 168 D. 
ireipoo 432, 13. 
Tre/crew 448, 9. 
TreAd^u 428 D, 21. 408 D, 
22. 349D;w.dat.544b. 
?r(e)Aadw, ireActa, 428 D,21. 
ire'Ae/cus 153 i. 185. [384 D. 
7reAo,uat, ireAw, 424 D, 35. 
Tre^Tras 258 d. 
we/tire 253 D. 

?re>ira> 424, 17. 391 b ; w. 
acc. 547 a. [584 b. 

218. 220; w. gen. 
TrdVxcw) 447, 13. 

371 DC. 
iff via dat. 611. 

409 D, 14. 

509 b. 
(ireVera>) 429, 1. 

eVojj/ 217 ; compar. 221 d. 
ire'p 105 d. 110. 850,3; w, 
part. 795 f. 
pa compar. 229. 
Trepas 168. 

7n=p5a> 424, 18. 422, 17. 
'p&u 424 D, 36. 383 D, 
408 D, 43. 

pi 649-51. 70 b. 102 b. 
616; w. num. 493 f; w, 
inf. 781 ; in comp. 605 : 
uWp for ire pi 633 b. 
'pi 615. 112. 
piyiyvofjiai w. gen. 581. 
irepiopdca w. part. 799. 
fpiirlirrca w. dat. 605. 
epta'TTWjUeyos 90. 
4pvf]}j.i 443 D, 5. 
fpv<ri(v) 795. 
ires, Trer, (TT/TTTW) 449, 4. 
ireWw 429, 1. 
irtTdvvvp.1 439, 3. 

146 D. 

TOjUa/, irerajuat, 424, 19, 
384. 408, 5. 422, 18. 
409 irev&o^ai 425, 14. 
433 D, 7. 

(pvtfrfs 425 D, 16. 
>, irj, 248. 608. 105 b. 
\yyvfu 442, 12. 408 D, 41. 

w. acc. 544 c. 


248 ; w. gen. 589. 
153 i. 185. 
irt to a-o-429. 
irteipa 219 D. 

(ire^w) 425 D, 8. 

'da, 443 D, 6. 
403,7; w. gen, 

'pirpniu 403, 8. 
vvffKca 426 D, 4. 
irivw 435,4. 378. 408,15, 
416,7; w. gen. 574 e. 
wiffKw 446, 1. 
jrnrpd(rKCi) 444, 7. 

449, 4. 409 D, 17. 
u with dat. 595 b: 
pass. 694 a. 

460 a. 
tffvpfs 255 D. 

TTtrvew 438,4. 334 c. 

, -ydeo, 443 D, 7. 
iri<pav(TK(0 446 D, 4. 
7rtW219D. 221 d. 
TTA (Tre'Aojuai) 424 D, 35. 
n-Aa (vlpir\iipi) 403, 7 ; (ire' 
irAay (irXfaffu} 428, 5. 
328 b. 

rAeAcw) 424, 20. 
-TrAcunos mult. 258 b. 585 i. 

430, 6. 
IlAaTcucus 612 ; -acri 205. 

, -as, 223 D, 5. 
ir\<Tiv (TrAeV) 223, 5. 660 dL 
TrAeTos 210 D. 
7rAei(rTa/cts 259. 
jrAefcor, TrAecov, 223, 5. 
7rAe/cw 424, 20. 
TrAeofeKTea? W. gen. 581. 

, TrAeGi/es, 223 D, 5. 


(irAu, TrAeu) 426,3; 
377. 371b;w.acc. 544 a. 
TrAews 210. 

7?i^os acc. 549 b ; dat. 
609; w. pi. 5 14 a. 
7rAr?3-us 202 D, 28. 

, 7 ; w. gen. 575. 
w. gen. 589. 626. 
o) w. gen. 575. 
7rA7j<n<Ccw w. dat. 602. 
\t}ffiov compar. 221 c ; w. 
gen. 589. 

A^O-O-W 428, 5. 397 a. 
AiV&os 139 a ; coll. 514. 
-TrAoos, -TrAoSs, multipl. 258 
b. 585 i. [584 b. 

ir\ova-ios 468 ; with gen. 
TrAourew w. gen. 575. 
Aox (irAe/cw) 424, 20, 
TrAu (irAew) 426, 3. 
Xvvo) 433, 3. 
AcSw 426 D, 3. 408 D, 25. 
(TTI/U, irveu) 426, 4. 
377. 369 D. 408 D, 30 
w. acc. 547 d. 
wiyto 424, 21. 
202, 14. 

TTO TT^) 435, 4. [825. 
6&ev, Tro^eV, 248. 105 bk 
7ro^ew420,8. 371 DC, 



wA&f, TTO&/, 248 D. 105 b. 

wo?, vaL, 248. 105 b. 

Troteco incomp. pred. 490 c ; 
om. 508 b ; w. two ace. 
555; w. part. 797; 
mid. 690 ; mid. AV. two 
ace. 556 ; e3 (/ca/ccDs) 
jroiSa 788 ; w. ace. 544 a ; 
w. part. 801. 

7TOi& (irel&w) 295. 

iroios 247. 825 ff; voi6s 247. 
472 k. 426 D, 4. 
f, -<ta, 472 i; 

ir< 185. 186 D; wt. art. 
530 b ; dat. 607 ; Trfa 
37 D ; irrfAivSe 203 D. 

vo\iretu mid. 690 a ; pass. 
694 b. 

7roAAc/a(s) 80 D. 259. [b. 

TToAAaTrAacrtos, -TrAous, 258 

TToAAax?? 258 C. 

woAAooTtfc 257. 

iro \viffrwp 1 5 a. 

iroAtfs 219; compar. 223, 
5 ; w. article 528 a ; w. 
gen. 559 e ; ov irokvs 
842; (rb) iroArf, (*) 
TroAAcJ, 552 a. cf. 528 a. 
610 ; TroAAou 575 a ; TroA- 
A 610; eVl TroAu 493 f. 
496 ; TrAeW, TrAeW, w. 
art. 528 a; wt. ^ 660 d; 
o: 7rAe?<TTOt 528 a. 

irofM-rr-f) 455 c. 457 C. 

irO/J.(p (7TE/MT0) 424, 17. 

iroveta 420, 9. 

iroyd 1 (TTC^O-XCO) 447, 13. 

wop (eTTOpoi/) 424 D, 37. 

TropS (irepSw) 424, 18. 

wopbea 424 D, 36. 

Tro/ji'Cw mid. 689. 

"ir6ppo> w. gen. 589. 

jropfpvpw 472k. 

wJire 248 D. 

Hofff&cbv (-day, -ewi/, -a//) 

irtffos 247. 825 ff ; gen. 578 

b ; dat. 610. 
7roff6s 247. 

47 D. 154Db. 


iroTa/j,6s attrib. app. 500 a. 424, 19. [ff. 

wore, TTore, 248. 105 b. 82 
IloTeiSaj/ 32 D h. 
irdrepos 247 ; Trdrepov (TTQ- 

repa) 831. 733. 
TTort for vp6s 73 D. 652. 
ir6T]/a, 7r6rvia, 21 8 D. 
irorrdv 73 D. 
?roD 248. 105 b. 590 a. 
ff; w. gen. 589; TTOV 
248. 105 b. 
TrouAujSJrezpo 21 8 D. 
irov\vs 212 D. 219 D. 

js 153 f. 161. 170. 191. 
Trpa ( p-r^i) 403, 8 ; (irt- 

Trpd(TK<0) 444, 7. 
/>o&(irep&)424D, 36. 
paos 21 9 a. 

pda-ffca (trpay} 428, 6. 387 
b ; w. ace. 547 d ; 
ace. 553 ; w. eu, rca/cws, 
684; mid. 553. 578 c. 
peVw 595 b. 763. 
/jeV/8a, Trpfo-Pfipa, 21 9 D. 
n-peVjSeis, 202, 
15. [mid. 690 a. 

w. ace. 546 ; 
202,15. 219 D. 

202, 15. 
J4& 403 D, 8. 
irpia 408, 8. 401 k. 450, 7. 
>iV 878 ; w. inf. 769 ; w. 
fin. verb 771; rb 

vplta 421, 17. 
irpo (irtirptaTai) 424 D, 37. 
irp6 625. 652. 68 ; w. com- 
par. 661; w. inf. 781; 
n-pb rov 525 d. 
V o> w. ace. 544 c. 
rw 614. 

825 irp6ff 

irposavSdoo 371 DC. 
irp6stjj.i w. dat. 605. 

w. gen. 571; w. 
inf. 595 b. 763; vpos^ 
KOV 793. 797. 
irp6<r&e(v) 79 D; w. gen. 
589 ; w. vplv 769. 
u 438, 3 a. 

. abs. 792 a. 
<a w. TOU 590 a, 

199 D. 

trepos 224 ; w. art. 532 ; 
Trp6rfpov 552 a; Trp^re- 
pov irpiv 769. 
irpori 76. 652. 
irporov 525 d. [c. 

Trpovpyov 68 ; compar. 221 
Trp6<pao-is dat. 608. 

po^epw w. gen. 581. [D. 
Trp6(ppaff(ra, Trp6(pp(ai' t 219 

? impers. 504 d. 
Trpvravis wt. art. 530 a. 
irp&ios compar. 221 c. 


irpooros 224. 488 C ; (T&) 
ov 552 a ; TV Trpcu- 
509 a. 
Trra (vtrdnrvfu) 439, 3 ; 

TrpotKo. 552. 
TrpoKaXi^op.a.1. 420 D, 6. 
KeifAai w. gen. 583. 
irpoK6irT(i) intrans. 685 


652-4. 76. 73 D; in 
comp. 605 ; w. compar. 
661; w. inf. 780. 782; 
adv. 615 ; hyperb. 885. 

) 428 D, 7. 

rapw/xat, 442, 13. 
irrepoDo'o'a 214 D. 

:28,7.408D, 23. 
irpiv irrlffffco 430, 7. 

7TTO (TTtTTTClj) 449, 4. 

202 D, 29. 

TTTVU 419, 20. 

irT(ao~ff(o 428, 7. 

s compar. 221 e. 
: vv&a.vou.a.i) 437, 7. 

(ni/rff) 202, 14. 
vpaTos 224 D. 
Trvvfrdvo/ 437, 7 ; w. geu. 
576. 582; w. part. 799; 
us 70; TT. 667. 
7rJ}p 153 n. 161. 199. 
ir<p for 4><p 40 b. 
c6 105 b ; w. ou (^) 848 b. 
us 248. 105 b. 825 ff; w. 
gen. 589 ; TTOJS ov yueAA 
711; 7rc6s 248. 105 b. 



P, 18. 22; w. i 58; metath. 

in 2 aor. 383 D; see 

p% pp, 15. 43. 

p stems in, 152 n. [828 c. 
pa 865. 70 D. 105 D; ^ pa 
pdfiSos 139e. 
P7 (p^vfj.i) 442, 14. 
pa8(paiis(o) 392 D. 
pfoios cpmpar. 223, 7. 
paiVo> 392 D. 
paico 421 D, 24. 
pa7r427, 13. 
pcsW, paa-TOS, 223, 7. 
pe (tfpriKa) 450, 8. 
pea, p-e?a, 223 D, 7. 
pVo (^7) 428, 14. 
pew (p-y, pew) 426,5; W. 

gen. 575. [Dh. 

p%j/t7ii 442, 14. 334 d. 400 
pV&oy, pVrepos, 223 D, 7. 
pVye'w 448 D, 16. 
piyiuv (piyr)\6s) 223 D, 10. 
pt?o'a> 371 d. 
pi&bev 203. 

piTrrea, 448, 10. [14. 

piiTTca 293. 284. 410 D. 427, 
p"fc 153m. 
-pos adj. 471. 

pv (fa) 426, 5. 
puo^cot 405 D b. 
inr(fo 319D. 
pay (pfovvfu) 442, 14. 
, 2. 

2 (<r, s) 5 a. 16. 18. 22. 
<T after mutes 47. 372 a; 

after v 48-52. 
ff bef. cons. 54-6. 
ff from T, see T. [8 a. 

o-to A 63. 312 a, 332.424, 
ff omitted 54. 55. 64. 178. 

183; in -(rat, -cro, 363. 

401 c; in tense-sign 345. 

374-6. 378. 381-2. 
ff added to vowel-stems 

342. 390. 421. 455 d. 

476 b. [D.308D. 

ff doubled 40 D. 247 D. 344 
a tense-sign 344 ff. 372 ff. 

381 ff. 394. 395. 
y movable 80 c. 80 D. 

-s nom. sing. 123. 136 a. 

-ffi(v) 3 sing. pi. 7 9 a. 355 

150. 154. 156. 195 f. 

ff 361-2. 400 a, h. 

400 f. 

-ffia, -<ris, fern. 460 a. 

-s dat. pi. 129. 143. 150. 

(nydca aor. 708. 

-s ace. pi. 150. 195 h. 

0-47^ dat. 608. 

-s 2 sing. 355 ff. [467 c. 

-crtjuos adj. 471. 

s patronym. 466 ; gentile 

o-Tros 200. 

-era fern. adj. (part.) 214. 

cricairdca 379. 

-o-ai2sing. 355. 363. 400 c. 

o-/c6th class 330. 444 ff. 

ffaipca 432, 14. 

ovc iterative 41 OD. 

SaAa^iuVi 612. [504 c. 

(T/C^TTTO) 427, 15. 

o-aATTi^co 328 b; subj. om. 

tmmk (tr/ccip) 167. 

ffttfiwi 254. 

(T/ceSaVj/y^i 439, 4. [416, 6. 

-ffav 3 pi. 355 ff. 400 d. 

ovceAAw 432,15. 408,10. 

<ra6u 431 D, 5. 

ffKCTTTOfiai 427, 16. (ff^irea) 425, 2. 

(T/C^TTTCO 427, 17. 

2a7r$c 40 b. 83 b. 

a-KiSvrjfJLi 443 D, 8. 

2ap7T7]8ci>j/ 197D. 

(T/cAe (or/ce'AAw) 408, 10. w. gen. 575. 

ffKoireca 427, 16 ; mid. 690; 

a-avrov 235. 

w. ^743; w. O7rws756. 

<rd<t>a 227 D. 

ffK6ros 197. 

o-aQfo IV 6. 220. 227 D. 

2/cuAA7j 125 D. 

o-acSrepos 210 D. [416,5. 

O-K^TTTCO 427, 18. 

(T0ewv(ju 440, 3. 408, 9. 

(r/cwp 167. 

<rS for 56. 

ffp.dd}^ ffp/fix 60 ) 37 lc. [c. 

-ere local 204. 

-ffo 2 sing. 355 ff. 363. 400 

<re 230. 105 a. 

ffdys, crfy, cfaffi, 431 D, 5. 

ffeavrov 235. 670. 676. 

aW, crovl 230. 105 a. 

ffff$o/ 46 b. 413. 

ff6os 210 D. 

o-eib, o-e'&e//, 233 D. 

ffop6s 139b. 

-treta desider. 47 2 j. 

0-^238.675-7. [450 D, 8. 


O-TT (eVo^uat) 424, 8 ; (clTro^) 

9 ; subj. om. 504 c. 

ffiravifa w. gen. 575. 

ffcXas 182 D. 

<nr<eB419,6; mid. 689. 

0-e/ife46b. 471. 547 C. 

ffirdpct 432, 16. 

o-e'o, o-eu, 233 D. 

a-7reV5w 49. 381. 391 C. 

o-euw426D, 9. 308 D. 319 

o-Treos, o-7re?os, 178 D. 

D. 367 Db. 381 D. 408 

(T7ro5<fc 139 a. 

D, 31. 

o-TTOuSciCaj 379. 

ffewvTov 235 D. 

o-TTouSij 25 D ; dat. 608. 

a"nfj.<riov appos. 502 b, c. 

<ro- 41-2. 60. 328 a ; see ff 

(T'hu.epov 62 a. 


O-^TTW 425, 2. 417. 

-ffffw verbs 328 a. 428 ff. 

ff-fjs 160c. 

o-T abb rev. 5 b. 

<r& after cons. 54. 

ffra (i'tmjju:) 403, 5. 

-cr&a 2 sing. 356 a. 357 D. 

ffrdSiov 200. 

400 g ; in -^uea&a 355 D d. 

ffTa&fji.6s 200. 

-afre, -o'&oj', -o'S'Tjv, 355 ff. 

o-rao-w 62. 

-(T3-OJ, -cTiS'&'j/, -a'3'wo'aj/, 358. 

ffTdxys 153 i. 

-a-t 2 sing. 355-6. 406 a. 

(TTe/^CW ((TTi)8) 425, 9. 

-o-i(v) dat. pi. 79)8. 129. 

(Tret^a) (errix) 425, 10. 

143. 150. 154. 159. 195d. 

o-reAAw 290. 278. 284. 482, 

-ffi(v) locative 205. 797. 




ffrevwirds 139 c. 
ffrepyca 424, 22. 
(TTepio"/co), ffrepew, ffrepo- 

juai, 447, 7. 
ffTevrai, -TO, 405 D C. 
0-riy/j.a 5 b. 254. 
O-T/XOS 202 D, 30. 898 a. 
(Trod 125 d. 
crToA^, ffr6\os, 457 a. 
o-TOpy (crrepyu) 424, 22. [4. 

GrOpGVVVp.1, ffr6pVVfU t 440, w. gen. 574 c. 
ffrpdrev/j.a coll. 514 a. 
ffrparevca w. ace. 647 b ; 

pass. 694b. 

ffrparrjyeca w. gen. 581 a. 
(TT/mToVeSoj/ wt. art. 530 b. 
<TTpe>424, 23. 389. 414. 

441, 3. 
448 D, 17. 
328 D. 
<ru (o-eyw) 426 D, 9. 
<rv 230. 485 a. 
(Tvyyevf)s w. gen. 587 d. 
ffuyyiyifdcffKO) w. gen. 577 
a; w. dat. 605. 
139 d. 

- g en - 677 a. 
<ruAaw w. two ace. 553. 
SvAAos, SuAAa, 136 d. 
ffvfj.fia.ivd) pers. constr. 777. 
crv/j.iras w. art. 537. 
ffvfji.\l/-r)<pos w. gen. 587 a ; 
w. dat. 603. [adv. 615. 
<rw/628. 52; incomp. 605; 
ffvvaiped) ; (ws) ffvve\6vn 

elirdtv 601 a. 772. 
<ruwj'Td'a> 37 ID c. 
cri/?>vo 258 a. 
-ffvvn fern. 464 b. 

w. part. 799 a. 
; fro ffwrefAU 739. 
258 a. 

rvvTpifio/j.a.1 w. gen. 574 b. 
fo 185. 161. 153 i. 63. 
(o-^oy) 428, 15. 
( 432, 18. 

enjbaTTw 428, 15. [230. 
(T^e 105 D. 233 D; <r<p4a 
ff(peas, (T^eTay, etc. 233 D. 
238. 675-6. 
D. 105 D. 233 D. 
105 a. 230. 

c<p6s 238 D. [D. 

<r<jf>w, (rpooe, etc. 230. 233 
a-cjbcotTepos 238 D. 

compar. 221 b. 
, <nwS) 431, 5. 
179. 198. 

wt. art. 530 c ; acc. 
549 a ; dat. 609. 

(TWOS, (TCtiS, 210. 

OJT^P 17 2 b. 

dtxppuv compar. 221 d. 

T, 16. 19ff; tod 66; too- 

45-6. 62. 76. 
T dropped 47. 49 ff. 75. 

155. 165 ff. 355. 386 a. 
T 3d class 327. 427. 
-TO for -TTJS 136 D a ; voc. 

433, 5. 

Toy (reray&v) 384 D ; (rdff- 
<r) 428, 9. [D. 

-rai 3 sing. 355 ff; TOI 239 
rait (T^KW) 425, 3. 
dXas 213. 156 C. 
oAa (eTciAoo-cra) 408 D, 6. 
TaAAa 99. 
dpva> 435 D, 9. 
rdv (rav) 202, 16. 
Tavtip6s 68 c. 

433 D, 5. 
dat. 609. 

428, 8. 
TOpTT (repirco) 424 D, 24. 
rappees, rapcpeial, 219 D. 
rdffffw 428, 9. 338. 392. 
-raros superl. 220 ff. [234. 
ravrd, ravr6, ravr6v, 68 c. 
TOUT?? 248. 608. 

" ) 427, 5. 66 c. 
Tempos 139b. 
aQAv 425 D, 17. 
TOX 70 c. 227. 
axvs compar. 222. 66 b ; 
TTjv raxiffrrjjs 552. 509 a. 
TaW 239 D. 
rads 199. 
-Te 2 pi. 355 ff. 
Te for ^e (ri^rj/ni) 403, 2. 
Te 855 ff. 70 a. 105 d. 511; 
after art. 5 34 a; 
prep. 616. 

Te for (re 233 D. 

re&pnriros 7 2 a. 
TeiV 233 D. 
reivca 433, 5. 
-reipa fern. 459. 

y wt. art. 530 b. 
, Te?os, 248 D. 
reK (TI/CTCO) 449, 5. [D b. 
jUap, Te/CjU&jp, 153 D. 201 
p-fipiov appos. 502 b, c. 

w. gen. 587 e. 
e\evruv 788. 

288. 284. 370 Db. 
374. 419, 14. 
TeAos acc. 552. 
ref.<.vca 435, 9. 394 ; w. acc. 

546 ; w. gen. 574 e. 
Te,ua> 435 D, 9. 
Tea, reoiffi, 244 D. 
4ov (-Tea) 804 ff; subj. 
om. 494; eVrf om. 508 
a; plur. 518 a. 
-Te'os verb. adj. 261 c. 398. 
804 ff; w. dat. 600. 
<k for 06s 238 D. 
pos 168. 

repnv 213. [247. 

compar. 220 ff. 238. 
piro) 424, 24. 384 D. 397 
D ; w. part. 800. [38. 
repffo/j-at, repffaiva>, 424 D, 
reffffapes 255 ; reffffepes, 

reffffep-ffKovra, 255 D. 
rerp.ov (rep) 384D. 
reropes 255 D. 
rerpaivca 449, 6. 382 b. 
rerpairX?) 258 D. 

258 d. 

rerpaffi 255 D ; rerparos 
253 D ; rerpax^d 258 D. 
D 244 D. 

D, Teoi/s, .revs, 23 3D. 
Tei>% (rvyxdvw) 437, 8. 

437 D, 8. 

om. 509 b. 
244 D. 
reus 248 D. 
rfj 433 D, 5. 
p5e 248. 
^/CW 425, 3. 417. 
77Ae 229 D. 

2 D, 6. 



r, -JsSe, -OVTOS, 241. 
247. 679. 

TTjAoC, TTyAOTClTW, 229 D. 

r"f)/j.epov 62 D. 


-TTJ^ 3 dual 355 ff; 2 du. 

rrjvitca, -a5e, -aura, 248. 

-TT?p masc. 459 ; sync. 173. 

-rripiov neut. 463 a. 

-TT?S masc. 459. 467 b. 135. 

136 Da. 

-rys fern. 464 a. cf. 152 e. 
TJ?cr(i) 239 D. 
rd- for dfr 40 b. 
rt to ffff 60. 328 a; to <ri 

62 ; inserted 469. 
-Ti 3 sing. 355. 400 Da. 

406 a. 

Tie (TeTiT?) 386 D. 
Ti'd-Tj^t 403, 2. 297. 301. 65 

c. 347 D. 355 De. 400- 

402 ; mid. 689 ; Tt^jite- 

vos 28 D. 
ri/CTw 449, 5. 332. 387 a ; 

reit&v 7 86 a. 
Ti/iaco 279. 285. 335; w. 

gen. 57 8 a. 

(-fcis) 214D. 
mid. 691. 
riv for ffoi 233 D. 
TII/O>, rivvini, 435, 5. 
rfir(o)T 38 D. 
Tipvi/s 51 b. 74 d. 
-Tis fern. 459. 460 a. 
T(S interrog. 244. 247. 

b. 682. 825 ff; rt 552 a; 

TO TI 538 d; iVaTi 508 

b ; rl rovro 508 a ; 

TOUTO 7rote?s 556. 
rls indef. 244. 247. 251. 

105 b. 683; coll. 514 b; 

after article 534 a; om. 

bef. gen. 571 ; supplied 

from ouSei's 881; 

Ti 552 a; 6 5e T 

tiev Ti, etc. 525 a. 
riraiva) 433 D. 5. 
TiTp-aco 449, 6.' 335 a. 
5,6. [ 
447 D, 17. 425 
435 D, 5. 

, (er\T]v) 408, 6. 409 D, 


T^ycu (Tjrny) 425 D, 18. 

-Tpis fern. 459. 

T/XTJO'iS 477. 

rptffff6s 258 b. 


-TO 3 sing. 355 ff. 

rpiratos 488 c. 

To'd-ez/, T<i&i, 248 D. [d. 

rpiraros 253 D. 


TOI 852, 11. 68 c. 70 D. 105 

Tp^x (^Ptl) 66 a. 


TOI' for ol 239 D; for aoi 

rpixv 258 c ; rplxa, rpiv 

233 D. [TO:, 867, 5. 

bd, 258 D! 


roiyap, roiyapovv, roiydp- 

Tpofa 12 a. 

roivvv 867, 4. 

-Tpo^ neut. 462. 


ToToy, TOiosSe, TOiouTOS, 

TpoTrew 424 D, 25. 

241. 247. 679. 

TpoVos ace. 552 ; dat. 608 ; 


To?s8eo-(o-)i, TOto-iSc, 239 D. 

Trpbs rp6irov 653 a. 

TO/C (T//CTOJ) 449, 5. 

rpo(p (rpeTTca) 424, 25 ; (rpe- 

ToA/ia 125d. 

^eo) 424, 26. 


-rov 2, 3 du. 355 ff. 

rpv<p (Srpvirrd)} 66 c. 

ToVos 90. [666. 

rpdoyca 425, 4. 334 d. 


-T<fc verb. adj. 261 c. 398. 

TpcSs 160c. 

roffavrditis 259. 

Tpwco (rirpdffKCi)) 445 D, 6. 

ToVos, Too"os5e, Too"oim>s, 

TT 41 ; see o"<r, -<ro"o>. 


241. 247. 679; TOO-OUTO 

rv for &u (Mu) 420, 2. 


552 a ; roffovry 610. 

TU for at 233 D. 


ToVe 248; w. part. 7 95 a; 

Tuyx^w 437, 8 ; w. gen. 

eV TO? ToVe 613. 

574 c. 582; w. part. 801. 


TOU from ris, rls, 244 b. 

TvxjSv 552 a. 

rovvavriov 68. 

TU/C (Teux) 425 D, 15. 


rovrepov 68 D c. 72D. 

rvvt] 233 D. 

To^po 248 D. 

TU7TT6D 427, 19 ; w. cogn. 

Tpo for Tep dat. pi. 173. 

ace. 547 b. 555 a. 

-rpa fern. 462 a. 

rvpavvew w. gen. 581 a. 

Tpa (nrpdai) 449, 6. 

TutpAo's w. gen. 584c. 

Tpcry (rpcayci)) 425, 4. 

Tu<pw 424, 28. 66 c. 

rpay(t>6s 12 a. 

rvcpcas 199. 

rpaireiofj.ev (repiroa) 397 D. 

rvx ( Teux<w) 425, 15 ; (riry 

Tpciirw, -ecu, 424 D, 25. 

xdvci)) 437, 8. 

[ o r> 

Tpa<p 424 D, 26. 

rvxr) gen. 592 a ; dat. 608. 


Tpcx<* 450 D, 5. 

-TCW, -TWV, -ruffav, 358. 


TpeTs, Tpia, 253. 255. 

T^ from TIS, T!S, 244. 


TpeVco 424, 25. 389. 397 b ; 

TwATj^es 68 D c. 

mid. 688. 689 a. 

-To;p masc. 459. 


Tpt'cpw 424, 26. 66 c. 334 a. 

TC$S 250 D. [D c. 


389 ; w. two ace. 555. 

ra)vr6 11 Db; TOJUTOU 68 


Tpe'xw 450, 5. 66 c. 


Tpe'o> 419, 15. 

Y, vow. 7ff. 12 c; v- 15; 

yt 5 

Tprjx (frpdo-ffca) 428, 8. 

v- 15 D. 


-Tpfafem. 459 ; quant. 130. 

uto ev 30. 326. 425 ff. 

rpids 258 d. 

v intercb. with o, w, or e, 

rplpu 424, 27. 

27.186. [86 ff. 

rpi^ci) (rpiy) 428, 16. 

u not elided 70 d ; quant. 


rpi-fipys 177. 

u om. 39. 190. 328 e. 426. 


rpitfs 258 D. 

v stems in, 152 d, i. 185 f 


rpnr\dffios, rpiir\ovs, 258. 

uj8j3aAAe/ 73 D. 


rpnr\i) 258 D. 

vfipio-T'fis compar. 221 f. 

rpiiro'vs 191. 

vytfo 178. 



neut. 4 65 a. 
ye to v 187b. 
i/i diphth. llff. [D. 

vi to v 401 Dl; to vi 186 
-y?a fern. part. 216 b. 
wVte 202, 17 ; om. 509 /8. 
vft, vfifs 9 etc. 233 D. 
238. 675-6. 
v, v/ntjs, 232. 
e, etc. 233 D. 15D. 

vp.6s 238 D. 

-w ace. sing. 171. 

vva denom. verbs 472 h. 

for for fat 73 D. 

final 655. 

foro/> 201 b. [part. 797. 

virdpx& w-. dat. 598 ; w. 

rjiraros (virep] 224 a. [781. 

VTrep (viretp) 633-4 ; w. inf. 

vTrepdiKGw w. gen. 583. 


vireprepos, -raros, 224 a. 

virtptyalvoiuai w. gen. 583. 

V7rep0uft)s o>s 817 b. 

uTTewdwos w. gen. 584d. 

vTT'fjKoos w. gen. 584 c. 

fnrrjpeffia w. dat. 595 d. 

inriffxveofjiai 438, 6. 332 ; 

mid. 692. 
i>Tfv6a> 370 DC. 
vir6 655-7; w. pass. 600. 

693 ; in comp. 605. 
virSSutos w. gen. 584 d. 
vTr6Kei/ w. gen. 578 a; w. 

dat. 605. 

vTTOTrreuw 315 ; w. pt\ 743. 
vir6ffTeyos w. gen. 587 e. 
fis w. gen. 584 d. 
w. dat. 595 c. 

153 i. 63. 

199 D. 

vffTdrios 224 D. [613. 

iiffrepaia w. gen. 585 ; dat. 
vffTep^o) 691. 
iHTTepifa w. gen. 581. 
vffrepos (-TUTOS) 224. 

c ; w. gen. 585. 
fyltov, ttyto-Tos 223 D, 12. 
fynrerrjAos 28 D. 
80 421, 11 ; 0et 504 c ; 

VOVTOS 791 a. 

, 17. 19 ff; doubled 40 b. 
bef. r-mute 44 ; bef. p. 
46 ; bef. ff 47. 
0a (0cuVw) 432 D, 19; 
/ui) 404, 2 ; 
0a7 (eVdto) 450, 3. 

" , 0aaj/raTos, 221 D. 
0atVco 291. 282-3. 284. 343 
D. 386 c. 387 a. 396 D. 
414. 417. 432, 19 ; aor. 
pass. 708 ; mid. 688 ; w. 
part, (inf.) 797. 802. 
<pavep6s w. part. 797. 
0aos 166 D. 

444, 8. 404, 2. 
(5ia)0ouo-/cw 446 D, 4. 

425, 11. [D. 

(vtyvov) 433 D, 7. 384 


223 D, 1. 

450,6. 349 D. 384. 
406 D, 4 ; om. 508 b ; w. 
part.800; 0ep<fyiej/os788. 
0eS w. gen. 592 a. 

425, 16. 377 ; w. 
ace. 544 a; w. gen. 577 
b ; pr. for pf. 698. 

' 139. 
yd 404, 2, 105 c. 400-01. 
450, 8 a ; (pafft 504 c ; ov 


105 c. [part. 801. 
435,3. 408,7; w. 

2, 20. 386 c. 
41 ID. [D,27. 
. 401 Dl. 408 
03-oj/ew w. dat. 544 b. 595 
b ; w. gen. 577 a. 
t6vos w. inf. 767. 

(0&efp0) 432 D, 20. 
-<pi(v) 206 D. 79 D. 
5 (0 e r5o/iot) 425 D, 11. 
\avaX<aTi]s w. gen. 587 a. 
\ew 280. 287. 335. 448 
D, 18 ; ^y. two ace. 555. 

40 D. 
217 c. 

compar. 221 c. 222 
D ; w. dat. 595 c. 
\OTi/ 413. 
0Ac0 419, 4. 

0X670, -e^w, 41 ID. 
<t>x6S, 454 b. 

vtyvov) 433 D, 7. 

w. 743. 

203 D. 

7 2 j. 

eco 371 DC. 
s 166D. 
<ppdyi>viJ.i 442, 15. [D. 

428, 17. 384 
(j)pdffffd) ((ppa.'y) 442, 15. 


153 m. [D. 

w ((ppiK) 428, 10. 360 
dat. 609. 
w. /i^ 743; w. 

07TWS 756. 

w. ace. 544 e 

<f>povp6s 7 2 a. 
: 203 D. 

ipvyydvu (tyetyco) 425, 16. 
j. 178. [202 D, 11. 
457 a, c ; 0uAKos 
163. 454 b. 

428, 11 ; w. ace. 
544 a ; w. fi-fj 743 ; 0v- 
Aa/creW 806 b. 
'tyios 47 1 ; w. ace. 544 e 
>/>0 345 D. 

'iff is ace. 549 b ; dat. 608. 
;0 423, 4. 386 D. 408, 17. 
416,3; pf. 712. 
apdofjLai w. part. 799. 
os 160c. 

0c5j 1531. 160 c. 166. 
(5to)0c6o-Kw 446 D, 4. 

X, 17. 19 ff; bef. r-mute 
44; bef. p. 46; bef. <r 
47; doubled 40 b. 

iw) 437 D, 9. 
28, 18. 

432, 21. 331 ; w. 
ace. 544 c. 547 c; w. 
dat. 611 a; w. part. 800. 
XaAaco4l9,7. [611 a. 

w. dat. 595b. 
w. dat. 595 c. 



Xa\firus cpepca w. dat. Gil 

219 D. 

, (xa-**) 444, 9. 
437 D, 9. 
X ap (xalpu) 432, 21. 
Xapieis 214. 50 a. 158 e 

220. 470, 5. 
Xapis 163 r. 171. 221 g 

ace. 552. 677. 
Xaa-Ku 444, 9. 
Xefr 428, 19. 
Xzipuv gen. 591. 
X^ip 153 n. 202, 18; om, 
509 b ; els xe?pas 602 a. 
, -UTTOS, 223, 2. 

437 D, 9. 

426 D, 6. [2. 

epeW, X 6 /^ ctc 223 D, 
eo, ( X u, x*) 426, 6. 378. 
381. 408 D, 32. 

X&6v 153m. 
Xi to ffff 60. 328 a. 
X'Aias 258 d. 
XITWJ/, Kt^y, 66 D. 
Xiav 153m. 

XAaS (/cexAaScSs) 360 D. 
X o5 (xe'fw) 428, 19. 

\v. ace. 544 c. 
w. acc. 546. 
202, 19. 
X^u 421, 9. ' 
Xpa (Ktxpqpu) 403, 9. 335 a. 
Xpai(r/ 448 D, 19. 
Xpdofjuu 335 a. 37 1 c. 370 
Da; w. dat. 607 a; in 
part. 788. 
Xpdca 421, 3. 335 a. 

178 ; \ptcas 202, 20. 

, 3. 

404, 3 ; w. case 544 c ; 
w. inf. 764 b; impf. 703. 
>rJ,ua dat. pi. 609. 
137 ; 

w 421, 8. 
s 591. 613. 

xpw^cy, 441, 4. 
X" (xw) 426, 6. 
^> 6 8 a. 72. 
u^i 421, 9. 

w. gen. 577 a. 
om. 509 b. 
w. gen. 589. 626 r. 

, 17 a. 21-2. 47.74 b. 
-^ masc., fern. 152 o. 163. 
\l/d/j,/j.os 139 a. 
153 b. 

) w. gen. 574 b. 
i//aa>421,4. 37 lc. 
for o-(/)e 233 D. 
i//euSo/*cu w. acc. 547 c ; w. 
gen. 580. 
<pos 139 a. 

4:21, 4. [609. 

wt - art. 530 c; dat. 
424, 29. 

vow. 7 if; from o, see o. 
for o 360 D ; for ou 24 
Dd. 371 d. 
&>, r?, interch. 25 ; &>, u, 27. 
in Att. decl. 146 ff. [d. 
ydiphth. 11 ff; for 01 371 
fern. 193-4; gen. sing. 
136Db; adv. 229; 1 
sing. 267. 352 a. 
68; w. voc. 119 b. 543 
a ; w. acc. 545 ; w. gen. 
592 a. 


239 a. 248. 
12 a. 32 De. 
adj. 48 la. 
153 m. 

l. 312. 410 D. 
3> K a 227 D. 

wKvpoos 43 D. 

WKVS 212 D. 222 D. 

-^ masc. 463 c. [195c 

-cay gen. pi. 128. 142. 154. 

&v part. 406, 1. 

>24Dd. 866. 

450,7. 312; \v. 
gen. 57 8 a. 

wiros, 68 DC. 
wj/r)r6s w. gen. 584 e. 
<pa dat. 613 ; w. inf. 767. 
wpaia w. gen. 587 e. 

upiffTos 68 D c. 

CDS stems in, 181 ff. 

-us Att. 2 decl. 146; 3 

decl. 182 ; gen. sing. 

186. 190 a; adj. 210; 

pf. part. 216 ; adv. 225 ff. 
us 103 c. 112. 248; usea 

875a-g; w. pred. 489 e; 

w. gen. 589 ; after pos. 

659 ; w. superl. 664 ; w. 

aor. 706; in wish 721; 

indirect 733 ff. 868,2; 

final 739 ff;w. part. 793. 

795 e ; in exclam. 815 

a ; us Taxi ff TO. 821 ; w. 

princ. verb 823. 
us prep. 621. 614. 103 c 
us 112. 104 a. 248.250. 
usfor'ovs 202 D, 13. 
usirep 876,2. 850,3. 110. 

251; w. acc. abs. 793; 

usirep el 754; usirepovp 

Ssre 876,4. 867,6. 856 a. 

110; after pos. 659; w. 

verb. 770-71; subord. 

853 b ; expressed by 

pronoun 813. 822. 
car stems in, 1521. 
cav diphth. 11. 
uvros, uT<k, 11 Db. 68 D. 
ax? 1 47 2 j. 




Abbreviations 5 b. 

Ability, adj. 469 a. 

Ablative in Lat. = Gr. gen. 557. 579 ff. 
589. 590 b. 791 ; = dat. 594. 627. 

Absolute, gen. 790 ff. 593. 582; ace. 
792 ff; compar. 662. 

Abstract words 117; nouns of number 
258 d; verbals 457; in comp. 474; 
in plural 518 c; w. art. 526. 529 ff; 
participle 786b. 

Abundance, adj. 470. 

Acatalectic verse 891. 

Accent 89 ff; in decl. 120 ff; 1 decl. 
128. 135 a. 137; 2 decl. 145. 149; 3 
decl. 160. 172 b. 173. 175. 179. 186; 
adj. 207 b; pron. 232. 233 D. 239 D. 
244 ; verbs 365 ff. 370 D a ; jut-forms 
400k. 401k; et>U06b,c; informa- 
tion 456 ff ; in comp. 479 ; rhythmic 
accent 894. 

Accompaniment, dat. 604. 

Accusative 115 c; in decl. 127. 148. 
150. 154. 155. 157. 171. 195. 198; 
contr. 36 b ; with 8e 203 ; adv. 226. 
228; Synt. 544 ff; app. w. sent. 501 
ff; w. gen. 574 b; w. dat. 595 a; w. 
comp. vbs. 605 ; w. prep. 617 ff ; w. 
inf. 773 ff; ace. abs. 792 ff; inf. as 
ace. 780; rel. sent, as ace. 810. 

Action, suffixes 460. 469 a. 476 b ; ex- 
pressed by tenses 262. 695 ff. 

Active voice 260; fut. pf. 264. 394 a. 
713 ; no voice-sign 343 ; conn. vow. 
349 ff; endings 354 ff; trans, and in- 
trans. in diff. tenses 416 ff; Synt. 
684 ff; act. for pass. 767 a. 

Acute accent 89 ff. [680 a. 

Address, voc. 543 ; nom. 541 ; w. OUTOS 

Adjectives 207 ff. 114. 132. 144. 158 e, 
f. 174 ff. 177 ff. 187-8; formation 
468 ff. 457 b; comp. 473 ff; Synt. 
658 ff ; equiv. 492 ; adj. pron. 492 b ; 
w. subst. 487 ff ; agr't 498 ; fern. wt. 
subj. 509 a; of place w. art. 536; w. 
ace. 548 ff; w. gen. 584 ff. 559 c, e; 
\v. dat. 595 c. 596 ff; w. poss. pron. 

675 b ; w. rls 683 ; w. inf. 767 ; w. 
ph 840 ; Verbal, adj. 261 c. 398. see 
Tos (reoj/, rea) in Greek Ind. See 
Neuter, Attributive, Predicate-Noun. 

Adjuncts of participle 795. 

Adonic verse 917 a, b. 

Advantage, dat. 596 ff. 

Adverbial ace. 552. 772 ; part. 788. 

Adverbs, elision 70 c; enclit. 105; for- 
mation 225 ff; compar. 228 ff; de- 
monst. 239 a ; correl. 248 ff ; neg. 
252 ; numeral 253 ; of div. 258 c ; in 
fats 259; in comp., w. aug. 316; 
pred. adj. for adv. 488 c ; w. art. 492 
f, h ; w. ace. 545 ; w. gen. 588 ff. 781 ; 
w. dat. 602 b ; w. T\ 683 a ; w. ^ 840 ; 
prep, as adv. 615; rel. adv. 81 la. 
817. 819. 875 ff. 

Adversative conjunctions 862 ff. 

Aegean islands, Ionic of, 2. 

Aeolic, dialect 2. 3 a ; digamma 23 D ; 
aor. opt. 349 b; poetry (basis) 916; 
dactyls 918. 

Aeschines, Attic of, 3 d. 

Aeschylus, Attic of, 3 d. 

Affection of body, verbs of, 472 j. 

Age, demonst. 241 ; correl. 247. 

Agent, suff. 458-9. 457 c ; gen. 582 a ; 
dat. 596. 600. 805 ; w. pass. 693. 624 
c. 653 b. 656 b. 

Agreement, gen. rules 497 ff ; pecul. of 
number and gender 511 ff. [917 s. 

Alcaeus, Aeolic of, 3a; Alcaic verse 

Alpha priv., see a in Greek Ind. 

Alphabet 5 ff. 

Amphibrach 888. 

Anaclasis 925 a. 

Anacoluthon 886. 

Anacreontic verses 925 a. 

Anacrusis 896. 

Anapaest 888; anapaestic rhythms 912 
ff; logaoedic anap. 916. 919. 

Anastrophe 102. 

Anceps, syllaba anc. -897. 

Antecedent 491; agr't 503; om. 510 
504 c ; in rel. sent. 807 ff. 



Antepenult 85 b. 

Antibacchius 888. 

Antispast 888. 

Antistrophe 898 e. 

Aorist 262 if. 266 ff; augm. 307; iter 
410 D;