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1 according to Act of Congress, in the year 1838, by 


of the District Court of the District of Connecticut 


THE materials, of which this compendious 
Grammar is composed, have been drawn from 
the best sources. 

The examples given in the Syntax are taken 
from the following classic authors : Homer, 
Hesiod, Pindar, JSschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, 
Aristophanes, Theocritus; Herodotus, Thucydides, 
Xenophon, Lysias, Isocrates, jEschines, Demos- 
thenes, Plato, Aristotle. 

Those rules, which should be first read and 
which should be committed to memory, are print- 
ed in the largest type (as ^ 136. 1). 

E. A. S. 


October 20fA, 1839. 




The Greek Alphabet - 


Accent ... 


Vowels .... 


Enclitics ... 


Diphthongs . 


Contraction .... 


Breathings .... 


Cnuis .... 


Consonants .... 


Elision .... 


Euphonic Changes 
Movable Consonants 


Syncope, Metathesis, and ApheresU 
Punctuation - - 


Syllables .... 




Quantity of Syllables 



Puns of Speech ... 


Augment . 


Noun ..... 

First Declension ... 


Syllabic Augment 
Temporal Augment ... 


Third Declension - . "4fc - 
Syncopated Nouns of the Third Declension 



Augment of Compound Verbs 
Verbal Roots and Terminations 
Indicative Mood - 



Contracts of the Third Declension 


Subjunctive Mood 


Indeclinable Nouns - 


Optative Mood - 


Anomalous Nouns ... 
Defective Noun 


Imperative Mood 
Infinitive Mood ... 


Adjectives .... 


Participle .... 


Adjectives in o; - 


Perfect and Pluperfect Passive and Middle 


Adjectives in 


Aor ist Passive 


Adjectives in vc - 
Adjectives in >ij and 15 


Accent of Verbs - 
Formation of the Tenses 
Present Active ... 


Adjectives in 2c, lie, iiv ouj, Of, icv. KJ 


Imperfect Active ... 


Adjectives of one ending - 


First and Second Peifect Active 


Compound Adjectives 


First and Second Plu|icrfect Active 


Anomalous and Defective Adjectives 


First and Second Future Active 


Degrees of Comparison - 


First and Second Aorist Active 


Comparison by Tiaoz. TXTOC . . 


Present and Imperfect Passive 


C. L ' 
ompanson uy ^/av. KTTOC . 


Perfect Passive - - 


Anomalous and Defective Comparison 


Pluperfect Passive 
First and Second Aorist Passive 


Cardinal Numbers - . . 


First, Second, and Third Future PaMive 


Numeral Substantives. Adjectives, and Ad 


First ami Second Future Middle 


Article .... 


First and Second Aorisi Middle 


Pronoun - ... 


Contract Verbs - 


Personal Pronoun ... 


Verbs in ,ui ... 


Reflexive Pronoun 


Anomalous Verbs 


Possessive Pronoun - 


Adverb .... 


Interrogative Pronoun 


Comparison of Adverbs 


Indefinite Pronoun 


Derivation of Words 


Demonstrative Pronoun 
Relative Pronoun 


Derivation of Substantives 



Reciprocal Pronoun 


Derivation of Verbs - 


Pronominal Adjectives 


Composition of Words - . 



Substantive .... 


Passive .... 


Adjective .... 


Middle - - 


Article .... 


Deponent Verbs ... 


Pronoun .... 


Tenses .... 


Personal Pronoun ... 


Present, Perfect. Pluperfect, and Future 


Reflexive Pronoun 




Possessive Pronoun ... 


Third Future - 


Interrogative I'rononn 


Aorist ... 


Demonstrative Pronoun - 




Relative Pronoun ... 


Subjunctive ... 


Reciprocal I'rononn 


Optatire ... 


Subject and Predicate ... 
Object .... 


Imperative ... 
Inlinitive ... 


Genitive - - - ' - 


Adverb .... 


Dative .... 


Preposition .... 


Vocative .... 




Voices .... 


Interjection .... 


Active ... 


Irregular Construction 




Pet .... 


Dactylic Verse ... 


Trochaic Verse ... 


Anapestic Verse 


Iambic Verse .... 






276 | 





the next eight, tens, and the last eight, hundreds. The obso- 
lete letters ?, /*, ^j denote 6, 90, 900, respectively. 

Observe, that the letters denoting units, tens, or hundreds, 
have an accent above. 

Thousa7ids commence the alphabet again^ with a stroke 

Here follows a table of numerals. 
a 1 i' 11 i' 3a v 400 

2 if 1-2 fi 40. 9 500 

3 i/ 13 / 50 x 600 

4 <(T 14 t' 60 y/ 700 
c 5 if' 15 o 70 a/ 800 
' 6 if 16 ' SO >V 900 
^ 7 ^17 //' 90 a 1000 
V 8 n,' 18 ? ' 100 'j? 2000 
#' 9 <#' 19 ' 200 y 3000 
t ' 10 x 20 T 300 ' &c. 

Examples, ( rtw/.;/= 1S38, auo; = 1776, ataxa = 1821. 

NOTE 6. There is another method of writing numeralf, in 
which /, 77, z/, J^, II, JH][_ , X, J^L, 31, respectively denote, 
"loc, one, Jlinf, Jive, J t -/.u, t>.n, ntnitxi$ Jixtt, Jive times ten, or 
fifty, 'Exaror (anciently IWKJTO^}, hundred, 77fr'x/? f L?.a- 
tor,fve hundred, Xli.ioi, thousand, ntrjuxt? Xiiioi, Jive thousand, 

ten thousand. 
Here follows a table. 






































777777 800 
7/777777 900 

T*L xx 
HL xxx 



2. There are five short vowels, and five cor- 
responding long ones. The short vowels are a, , 
i, o, v - the long vowels are a, ??, i, G>, v. 

Tne mark (~) is placed over a short vowel, and the mark 
(-), over a long one. These marks, however, are necessary 
only in the case of a, i, and v, since the letters ij and w repre- 
sent long E and O respectively. 

NOTE 1. The vowels * and o are often called the short vow- 
els, r) and (a, the long vowels, and a, t, v, the doubtful vowels. 

REMARK. By the term, doubtful, we are not to understand 
that the quantity of a, t, v, is uncertain in any given syllable, 
but that in some syllables these vowels are always long, and 
in others always short. E. g. v in the words -dv^oq, nv^6<; wheat, 
is always long; in the words nvlr), vno, always short. 

There are, indeed, instances where the quantity of these let- 
ters is variable, as n in "AQT,:;, i in uvylxr], and v in xopt'vj ' 
but we should recollect, that the sounds E and O also are, 
in certain instances, variable, as li^ds and *gdc, I'auiv and 

NOTE 2. In strictness, the Greek alphabet has but five 
vowels, A, E, I, O, T. The long vowels differ from the short 
ones in quantity, but not in quality. 

NOTE 3. COMMUTATION OF VOWELS. (1) When from any 
cause the vowels e and o are to be lengthened, they are gen- 
erally changed into the diphthongs ft and ov, rather than into 
their corresponding long ones ij and w. E. g. ItJVos for &-Vo?, 
fiovro? for fioi'oc. 

(2) In some instances o is lengthened into 01. E. g. nola 
for 7jo. 

(3) The vowel << often passes into at or ij. E. g. aid from 
ail, T\97jA from 3uU<. 

(4) The vowels u and e are frequently interchanged. E. g. 
Ionic TsvofQts for rsaou^ff, Doric 7nw for 7mw. 

(5) The syllables o and ( 7&> are often changed into w. 
E. g. Attic Afw'i' for Afloj, Ionic Icfn^iutv for tffnuuiav. 

(6) The vowels and jj are interchanged. E. g. Doric 
a for i\, Ionic n^yua for nyiiyutx. 

3.] VOWELS. 6 

The use of for i\ is one of the leading peculiarities of the 
Doric dialect. The use of y for is peculiar to the Ionic. 

(7) The vowels a and w are sometimes interchanged. E. g. 
and XOM^OJ. 

(8) The vowels and o are often interchanged. E. g. 
TTQo<fu from T^STTW. 

(9) The vowels TJ and w are, in some instances, inter- 
changed. E. g. TiTijaaw and ji 


^3. 1. There are fourteen diphthongs, of \vhich 
seven, eu, at/, ft, v, ot, ov, and vt, begin with a 
short vosvel, and seven, a, di/, #, ??v, w, ov, and 
vt. with a long one. The former are called proper 
diphthongs, arid the latter, improper diphthongs. 

The t is written under the long vowel, and is called iota 
subscript. In capitals it is written as a regular letter. E. g. 
Till 'AFIAl, rij // TJll ZO<t>Sll, TW oo<p<a "Aidot, aSta. 

2. The diphthongs are represented in English as follows : 

Proper diphthongs. Improper diphthongs. 

at by ai ot by oi a by d w by d 

av " au ov " ou av " du tav " 6u 

ft " ei vt, " yi TI " e vi " yi 

tv " eu r,v " eu 

NOTE 1. The diphthong wv belongs to the Ionic dialect 
It may be doubted whether the diphthong v< was ever used. 

NOTE 2. In the improper diphthongs, the second vowel was 
nearly swallowed up by the preceding long one, which long 
vowel constituted the leading element of these diphthongs. 

often use <ui/ for av. E. g. duvija for &av t ua. ( 3. N. 1.) 

(2) The lonians use r,'i for a. E. g. ay/^'lov for ayyilov, 
{jaailrfiT) for fiaatliia. 

(3) They use >j for at. E. g. Tm/;tjt for Tt/za7at. 

(4) The Dorians use w for ou. E. g. ftuJaa for povaa. 
For ou before a they often use ot. E. g. poloa for 




4. 1. Every Greek word beginning with a 
vowel must have either the rough breathing ( c ), or 
the smooth breathing ('), over that vowel. E. g. 

NOTE 1. The vowel v at the beginning of a word takes the 
rough breathing. E. g. i^me, ino. Except the Epic pro- 
nouns vpni, vpmv, and V^E. ( 64. N. 2.) 

2. The rough breathing is placed also over g at the begin- 
ning of a word. E. g. 

3. When Q is doubled in the middle of a word, the first one 
takes the smooth breathing, and the other, the rough breathing. 

E. g. ttQQiyTO?. 

4. The breathing, as also the accent ( 19. 5), is placed 
over the second vowel of the diphthong. E. g. avid?, KIQIO, 
woe, ovrog 

Except the improper diphthongs n, y, w. E. g. Kdia, rfiov, 
udr). So in capitals, "AiSm, ~'j-Ldor, Jfetif. 

5. The rough breathing corresponds to the English h. 
E. g. I'TITIO?, ovio?, QKvtux, uQ^To?, in English letters hippos, 
houtos, rheuma, arrhetos. 

NOTE 2. The smooth breathing represents the effort, with 
which a vowel, not depending on a preceding letter, is pro- 
nounced. Let, for example, the learner pronounce first the 
word, act, and then, enact, and mark the difference between 
the a in the first, and the a in the second word. He will per- 
ceive, that the utterance of a in act, requires more effort than 
that of a in enact. 


5. 1. The consonants A, ^, v, p, are, on ac- 
count of their gliding pronunciation, called liquids. 

2. The consonants , |, T/>, are called double 
consonants ; because stands for 80, | for %<f, and 
> for Trtf. 

$ 6, 7.J CONSONANTS. 7 

NOTE 1. The preposition fx in composition never coalesces 
with the following a- E. g. fxaxoontZw, not f'xoojr/soj. 

Norz 2. It is not exactly correct to say that { stands for Sr, since, ac- 
cording to the Greek notions of euphony, a lingual is always dropped before r 
( 1O. 2). In strictness is a mixture of 2 and r, just as e is compounded 
of a and i, o of a and u, and 6 of m and j>. 

With respect to its making position v 17. 2), this was probably owing to 
its strong vocal hissing. 

3. The consonants TT, /3, <p, x, ^, #, T, #, #, are 
called mutes. They are divided into 

smooth rmttes TC, x, T, 
middle mutes /3, ^, #, 
rough mutes (f, /, &. 

These letters correspond to each other in the perpendicular 
direction. E. g. <p is the corresponding rough of -n. 

4. The letter a, on account of its hissing sound, 
is called the sibilant letter. 

NOTE 3. The consonants v, o, ?, I, if/, are the only ones that 
can stand at the end of a genuine Greek word. 
Except x in the preposition and the adverb orx. 

6. According to the organs with which they 
are pronounced, the consonants are divided into 
labials TT, /3, cp, ^ 
linguals T, 8, #, <r, A, v, g, 
palatals %, y, %. 

The labials are pronounced chierly with the lips ; the lin- 
guals, with the tongue ; and the palatals, with the palate. 

generally use ad for . E. g. *u,uua&ta for xwu^w. This takes 
place in the middle of a word. 

(2) The Attics use TT for aa. E. g. Ji^arroj for ngdaota. 

(3) In some instances ^ is used for pa. E. g. a^ij* for 



7. When a labial (TT, /?, <JD), or a palatal (x, y, 7), happens to 
stand before a lingual (T, S, &) ; the former is changed into its 


corresponding smooth, middle, or rough, according as the 
latter is smooth, middle, or rough, ( 5. 3.) E. g. 

TSTglTl-Tttl for TtTQtfi-TCtt T()l{f>-&r l r for IT^l^-dr}? 

yiygan-iai, " yiyqntp-rai, 

So tfidopog from emd, oydoog from oxrw, tmygapdqv for 


So in Latin, nuptum for nubtum, actus for agtus, vectum for 

NOTE. Except x in the preposition ex. E. g. IxSs^a, ht~ 
texa>, not fydegta, 

8. 1. A labial (n, ft, go) before^ is always changed into /*. 

mtt t u-(iai for ylyQotfi-ftai for yiyQa(f-^.oti. 

1TQL^,-fAUt, <C Tf.TQtfi-J.tOtl Tf.&QU[J,-[.lOtl, " Ti&(Jtt(p-ftni. 

2. A labial (/5, 9) before cr is changed into TT. According to 
5. 2, the combination TK; is represented by y>. E. g. 

TQtyo) for TQlfi-ata yQut^Kt for ygdcp-ao). 

So in Latin, nupsi for nubsi, lapsus for labsus. 

O. 1. A palatal (x,^) before ^ is generally changed into 

y. E.g. 

ni-rc'kfy-iint, for nln^sx-fiai Thivy-fiai for TTftyf-(Uat. 
NOTE. The preposition ex remains unaltered before ^. E. g. 
fXf^al-roj, fXfiiTQi(a, not tynaivv), F^UJT^S'W. 

2. A palatal (/,;?) before ff is changed into x. According 
to 5. 2, the combination x a is represented by |. E. g. 

Ae'lw for iiy-ata zfvjw for Ti^-aw. 

So in Latin, texi for ic^sz, <raa;z for trahsi. 

1O. 1. A lingual (x, S, &, ) before p is often changed into 
a. E.g. 

rja-^iai for 7?<S- ( ui nensia-fiai. for nini&-ni 

nlaa-fiu " Ttia^-fia (fgovna-^a " <p(>6vTi-na. 

2. A lingual (T, 3, #,) is always dropped before a. E. g. 
ns-aa for 7ttT-o(a nXd-aa for 

So in r.atiu, amans for amants, moncns for monents, lusi for 

^11, 12.J CONSONANTS. 9 

3. A lingual (r, d, &, ) before another lingual is often 
changed into a. E. g. 

)tf-Tfn for ?j5-Ti niniaa-rai for nenlad-Ttti 

la-re " ttf-re 

4. A lingual (T, 3, #,) before a palatal (x,y,x) is always 
dropped. E. g. f r xa for yS-xa, ninti-xa for nenti&-xa, 

NOTE 1. The omission of a lingual before or * does not affect the quantity 
of the preceding vowel. 

NOTE 2. In the Epic language the * of the preposition xxr is changed 
into the following consonant. E. g. xayyiiu for xaryonu for yew, 
xaXA/Tan for xarA.<frv for xariXiftr. 

Before two consonants the r of this preposition is dropped. E. g. xtif%t&t 
for XKTfx&i for **<r0-;tS. 

11. The letter a cannot stand between two consonants. 
E. g. yty^d(p-&ai for ytyQatf-a&ai, (ipab-9cii for {{^u^-a&ai. 

12. 1. Before a labial (n, /?, qp), >- is changed into ^u. E. g. 

for Iv-nlmta t[t,-q>ttvfo for 

" uv>- ( 5atVw tfn-yvxaq " 
So in Latin, imbellis for inbcllis, impius for inpius. 

2. Before a palatal (x, 7,^), v is changed into ^. E. g. 
avy-xalta for avv-xalta avy-ytv^q for o 

REMARK. The combinations yy, ^x, y|, y^, are repre- 
sented in English by n^, nc or Ar, nr, Tic/t, respectively. E. g. 
ayyog angos, ayxuv ancun or ankon, y|w anxo, ay%<a ancho. 

3. Before a liquid (A, ^u, p), y is changed into that liquid. 
E. g. 

ffvi-iyw for avv-liyoi ifi-ftivw for tv-fisrta 

l'i-/.o/o? " iV-Ao/o? ai'Q-Qtta " avv-qifa. 

So in Latin, colligo for conligo, commolus for conmotus, cor- 
ruptus for conruptus. 

I. Before ff or f, y is dropped. E. g. dalpo-at for 
av-^vyoq for ov^- 

5. In many instances, after y has been dropped before a, the 
preceding short vowel is lengthened. E and o are changed 
into it and ov respectively ( 2. N. 3). E. g. 

/xa'L?-? for pttav-s n&fi-ai for n&ev-at 

TiTV<pa-ai " TtTi/qpor-fft Tt/nrov-at 


This lengthening almost always takes place when vr, v8, v&, 
are dropped before ff ($ 10. 2 : 12. 4). E. g. 

for yquyavT-g Mov-ai for Isorr-at 

" rvtp&dvT-g antl-aco 

NOTE 1. We must not suppose that the omission of the lingual has any 
thing to do with the lengthening of the vowel before ( 10. 2, N. 1). 

NOTE 2. In some instances, v before a is changed into a. 
E. g. avaaoiftog for 

NOTE 3. The preposition lv remains unaltered before g, a, 
f. E. g. trauma), 

NOTE 4. In the following words v is not dropped before a 
xtvaat, (from xfvri'w), nsnuvaig, nicpuvaai (from qpim'to). Also in 
the ending rg of the third declension ( 36. 1), as iJipivg. Also 
in the word nahv, in composition, as nahraro^ita. 

13. At the beginning of a word ^ is generally doubled, 
when, in the formation of a word, it happens to stand between 
two vowels, E. g. 

from nsql and ^j'eu t'^evxa for tgtvxa. 

14. 1. When, in the formation of a compound word, a 
smooth consonant (n, x, T) happens to stand before a vowel hav 
ing the rough breathing, that smooth consonant and the rough 
breathing form a corresponding rough consonant ($>,%> #) E. g. 
a<f~lrjfii, for un-ir^n x#-/pfffi for M 

NOTE 1. In the words Ti&gimiov (liirw^fc, 'innog), tpgovdog 
(TTQO, odog), -froipaTiov (TO t/uartov), &aregov (TOV ITCQOV}, the 
rough breathing affects the smooth mute, although it does not 
immediately come in contact with it. 

2. When, of two successive words, the first ends in a 
smooth consonant, and the next begins with a vowel having 
the rough breathing, that smooth consonant is changed into its 
corresponding rough. E. g. 

ap' ou for an' ov [js& 3 ^//oJv for [AST* i^cov 

* savior " xca' kotvrov ov% vfiwv ' ovx vpcav. 

NOTE 2. The Ionic dialect violates these rules. E. g. ar/xfsda/ for */*i- 
ai, xctrtutu for xaSivSu, eu* eiof for i^ eiot. 

3. If two successive syllables would each have a rough con- 

15.] CONSONANTS. 11 

sonant (<p,j, #), the first rough consonant is often changed into 
its corresponding smooth (,-r, x, T). E. g. 

for (ii^u ii&r t ia for 

This change takes place in almost all reduplications. 

NOTE 3. The Jint aorist passive deviates from this rule. 
E. g. ceqpt'ibjr, //i?#ijv, not uTiiftrjr, fxv&r,t: 

Except sTiftr,v from ri&r^ut, and fiv&r,y from #vw. 

NOTE 4. The termination &i of the imperative active 
(88. 1) is changed into u, if the preceding syllable has a 
rough consonant. E, g. iry #jr for Ti'<f #;;#, ji'&tjt for ri&f&i. 

Except the imperatives (fd&i from qr.ul, and tefH-ad-i from 

NOTE 5. In the verb f EXSl, of which the future is f|o), the 
rough breathing is changed into the smooth breathing, f/w, on 
account of x m tne following syllable. 

4. A rough consonant (qr,*, &) is never doubled ; but instead 
of this, its corresponding smooth (n, x,i) is placed before it. 
E. g. anqivj, "/ax^oc, 'At&U, not utfifv;, 


^ 15. 1. All datives plural in /, and all ^7>rf persons in i 
and ?, are written both with aud without a final r. They are 
generally written with it when the next word begins with a 

vowel. E. g. 

\ > \ ~ 

\}r t ()aiv uyglois -dr^in xaxotg 

<ft)ulv OITO,- (f'i'H MXffc'tTr,-; 

tvjtmvai* avtovq IVJITOVOI TOI'TOI; 

laitQ^fv ptyct taitfj^f uiytt. 

2. Also, all adverbs of place in at ( 121. 1). E. g. nia- 

Also, the particles vv and xt, the adverbs -niqvat and roa<ft, 
and the numeral 

NOTE. In some Grammars, y moTable is written parenthetU 
C'.lly. E. g. drjgal (r). 

3. The words ovrta:, itzms, pt'zoi;, and fj (that is, .'), and a 
few others, drop the ? before a consonant. E. g. oi rw q-^ut, ex 


"-4zm; and uf/oic often drop the ^ even before a vowel. 

4. The adverb ov becomes ovx or ory before a vowel. E. ff. 

" ' ~ ' ' /C t 4 ON 

ov <pr f ai, ovx finf, 01% tmno (^ 14. 2). 



16. 1. There are as many syllables in a Greek 
word as there are vowels and diphthongs in it. 

2. Words of one syllable are called monosyllables ; of two, 
dissyllables ; and of more than two, polysyllables. 

3. The last syllable except one is called the penult ; the last 
except two, the antepenult. E. g. in iv-onlay-zvo?, xvo$ is the 
last syllable, onlay, the penult, and iv, the antepenult. 

NOTE 1. (1) Any single consonant may commence a Greek 

(2) The following combinations of consonants may com- 
mence a Greek word or a syllable : fid, /5i, /%>, y\ t yv, y$, dp, dv, 
tig, &)., &r, dp, x'f., xp, xv, xg, XT, pv, n\, TIV, ng, m, a/3, a&, ax, 
axi, a/x, on, anl, ar, crri, OTQ, utp, 0%, i\, T/J,, TQ, q>&, qpA, qpg, %&, 

xi> xv, xg< 

(3) The following combinations also may commence a syl- 
lable : yS, yp, dp, TV, <fv, xi>- 

(4) Further, any three consonants may begin a syllable, 
provided the first and the last pair may each begin a syllable. 
E - g- 

NOTE 2. Greek words are divided into syllables in the fol- 
lowing manner : 

(1) A single consonant standing between two vowels, or a 
combination of consonants capable of commencing a syllable 
( 16. N. 1), is placed at the beginning of the syllable. E. g. 
Si-a-).i-yo-n(ti, v-onlijyS, xd-To-nTgov. 

(2) When the combination cannot commence a syllable, its 
first consonant belongs to the preceding syllable. E. g. ft-tfoj, 

(3) A compound word is resolved into its component parts, 
if the first part ends with a consonant. E. g. nn-tiv-og-aoi;. 

But if the first part ends with a vowel, the compound is 
divided like a simple word, even when that vowel has been cut 
off ( 135. 3). E. g. 7r-^-Aa-/?ov. 

4. A syllable is called pure, when its vowel or diphthong is 
immediately preceded by the vowel of the preceding syllable. 
E. g. the following words end in a, at, &<;, og, pure : or,nl-a, 
i, ai]nl-a$, 



17. In any Greek word, every syllable is 
either lon or short. 

1. A syllable is long by nature when it has a 
long vowel or diphthong. E. g. in the following 
words the penult is long by nature : 


2. A syllable is said to be long by position, when 
its vowel, being short by nature, is followed by two 
or more consonants, or by a double consonant 
(f, |,i/>). E.g. in the following words the penult is 
long by position: 

tai, oxog, 

3. When a short vow r el is followed by a mute 
and a liquid, the syllable is common. E. g. in the 
following words the penult is either long or short : 

itxvov, vfigt;. 

4. But the syllable is almost always long, when its vowel, 
being short by nature, is followed by the following combina- 
tions : (ft, yi, yp, y v , 8ft, dv. E. g. the antepenult of f 

NOTE 1. In the Epic language the syllable is generally long 
when its vowel, being short by nature, is followed by a mute 
and a liquid. 

NOTE 2. In Homer and Hesiod, ax and f, at the beginning 
of a word, do not always affect the preceding short vowel. 
E. g. (II. 6, 402 : 2, 634.) 

5. Every syllable, which cannot be proved to be 
long, must be assumed to be short. 

NOTE 3. The quantity of a, i, v, must be learned by obser- 
vation. The following remarks, however, may be of some use 
to the learner : 



(1) Every circumflexed a, i, v, is long by nature. ( 21.) 

E. g. TtitV, VfUf, 8^Vf. 

(2) Every , t, y, arising from contraction is long by nature. 
( 23.) E. g. Tt/iw, Tro'Arv, poiyi'f, from T//*, 7ioi<j, {JOJQVI$. 

(3) Every acr, w, arising from 'io, vrra, is long by nature. 
( 12. 5.) E. g. jvyjuai, tvyt'vc, for tviffcanai, fyvyrvng. 

(4) Derivative words generally retain the quantity of their 

18. 1. The epic and the lyric poets often shorten a long 
vowel or diphthong at the cud of a word when the next word 
begins with a vowel. E. g. (Od. 5, 286) "jl nunoi, 1} fuiim dy 
&EOI AAaj?, where w Tro'/iot, -aav &tol, are dactyles. 

NOTE 1. This kind of shortening occurs also in the middle 
of a word. E.g. <Jr//bto (~--~), xoiuvil (~ ). 

2. A short syllable is often made long by the epic poets. 
E. g. ijitiSi] ( --- ), Aioiov ( --- ), qp/>U exrys (~ ~~ ). 

NOTE 2. It is supposed that the ancients generally doubled 
in pronunciation the consonant following the short vowel. 
E. g. they read InnnSq, AioMnv. 

There are instances, however, where the short vowel was 
lengthened without reference to the following letter. E. g. 
Sid for did. 


19. 1. The Greek has three accents, viz. the 
acute ('), the grave ( x ), and the circumflex ("). 

The acute can stand only on one of the last 
three syllables of a word; the circumflex, only on 
one of the last two, and the grave only on the last. 

REMARK 1. The place of the accent in every word must be 
learned by observation. 

NOTE 1. The following monosyllables (called atona) gen- 
erally appear unaccented : 

il, st? or f & or * f ' or f '* v or ol ^ x or *yfi a '> an( l tne 
articles o, rj, ol, at. 

20.] ACCENT. 15 

REMARK 2. When the articles ', fi, /, *', stand for demonstrative pronouns 
( 142. 1), they should be read as if they were accented. 

REMARK 3. '0 takes the acute when it is equiralent to the relative pronoun 
( 142. 2> For ,; see below < 123. N. 1). 

NOTE 2. According to the old grammarians, the grave accent is understood 
on every syllable which appears unaccented. Thus >STTJ, TUTT*, are, 
according to them, aSrc*r;, ri/Trw. It seems, then, that the grave 
accent is no accent at all. 

2. A word is called oxytone, when it has the acute accent 
on the last syllable. E. g. nturo;, flni, ayu&oL 

Paroxytone, when it has the acute accent on the penult. 
E. g. -&iJu>), uiuigla&iu. 

Propar oxytone, when it has the acute on the antepenult. 
E. g. UV&QUTIO:, |io, nc'/uwe. 

3. A word is called perispomenon, when it has the circum- 
flex on the last syllable. E. g. tmdta, Sia-nt^av, nodal*. 

Properispomenon, when it has the circumflex on the penult. 
E. g. Tot-Toy, [uprijo&ai, ftuiior. 

4. A word is called barytone, when its last syllable has no 
accent at all. ( 19. N. 2.) E. g. Tt/nzoj, TOVIOV, nipiipxoufi'os. 

5. When the accented syllable has a diphthong, the accent 
is placed over the second vowel of that diphthong. E. g. 
u'iuara, dtai'na. Except the improper diphthongs , r/, w. 
(See also 4. 4.) 

2O. 1. If the last syllable is long either by nature or by 
position ( 17. 1, 2), no accent can be placed on the ante- 

2. The ACUTE can stand on the antepenult only when the 
last syllable is short. E. g. ar&Qtoirog, 8ii<f&of)(r, niicxv;. 

NOTE 1. The endings t and 01 are, with respect to accent, 
short. E. g. ii/orrott, av&Qomoi. 

Except the third person singular of the optative active. 
E. g. Ttwijoai, Ttur,<jOi. 

Except also the adverb oJxoi, at home, which in reality is an 
old dative. 

NOTE 2. The endings w, w, we, tag, wr, tav, of the second de- 
clension, and we, tar, of the genitive of nouns in ic, re, of the 
third declension, permit the accent to be on the antepenult. 
( 33 : 43. 3.) E. g. ar&ytu, no'/Uwe, noiftar. 


NOTE 3. Also the Ionic termination w of the genitive sin- 
gular of the first declension permits the accent to stand on the 
antepenult. E. g. Tvdildw. (^31. N. 3.) 

3. The penult, if accented, takes the acute when it is short 
by nature, or when the last syllable is long by nature. E. g. 
loyog, fiovarjg. 

4. When a word, which has the acute on the last syllable, 
stands before other words belonging to the same sentence, this 
acute becomes grave ('). E. g. iovg novyQovg xal rovg aya&ov/; 
uv gunovg, not rovg novrjQOvg xal jovg uya&ovg 

<, 21. 1. The CIRCUMFLEX can be placed only on a syl- 
lable long by nature. E. g. -ii]g 

2. A penult long by nature, if accented, takes the circum- 
flex only when the vowel of the last syllable is short by nature. 
E. g. [JLU^OV, nlvs, XUTUITV^. So fivat, olxoi, ( 20. N.I.) 


22. 1. Enclitics are words which throw their accent 
back upon the last syllable of the preceding word. The fol- 
lowing words are enclitics : 

(1) The personal pronouns [tov, pol, pe, aov, aol, as, ov, ol, 
E, ocpcas, atptaiv, acpltov, acpeag, aq>la, a<plai, acflv, atpi, a<pdg. We 
must observe, that, of those beginning with ag>, only the oBlique 
cases are enclitic. 

(2) The indefinite pronoun rig, it, through all the cases, as 
also the words TOV, TW, for TWO?, rm. 

(3) The present indicative of tip, I, am, and gsrjfil, say. 
Except the monosyllabic 2 pers. sing, u or tig, and cpr,g. 

(4) The particles no&lr, no&l, not, nr\, nov, ntag, nori, ye, 
&r\v, xs or xtv, vv or vvv, nig, nci), TS, TO!, QU, and the insepar- 
able particle de, to. 

2. If the word before the enclitic has the acute on the ante- 
penult, or the circumflex on the penult, the enclitic throws 
back an acute on the last syllable of that word. E. g. uvdQ<a- 
nog iig, for uv&Qomog Tig ' BsV-ov (ioi, for dsi$ot> fiol. 

3. When the word before the enclitic has the accent on the 
last syllable, the accent of the enclitic disappears. In this 
case the acute does not become grave ( 20. 4). E. g. iyta 
<frj[ii, for tyda cpr^l ' 7ioAAo7j TIOI, for noMolg Tial- 


Monosyllabic enclitics lose their accent also when the pre- 
ceding word has the acute on the penult. E. g. TOITOV ye. 

4. An enclitic of two syllables retains its accent, 

(1) When the preceding word has the acute on the penult. 
E. g. atdot; Tirig. 

(2) When the syllable upon which its accent would have 
been thrown back has been elided ( 25). E. g. noti t<ni, 
for noild tan. 

NOTE 1. Enclitics, which stand at the beginning of a sen- 
tence, retain their accent. E. g. aov ydo xgdiog tori pfyunov. 

REMARK. The abovementioned personal pronouns retain 
their accent, when they depend upon a preposition. E. g. 
t'jii ool, not inl aoi. Except pi in the formula nqog /i- 

NOTE 2. When several enclitics succeed each other, the 
preceding takes the accent of the following. E. g. ovStnoii 
iarl ayiaiv, for ovSinotf tail ayiatr. 

NOTE 3. Frequently the indefinite pronouns and the par- 
ticles are not separated by a space from the attracting word. 
E. g. ovtt, ur t tn;, oaris, otoTiffix, 


23. A pure syllable ( 16. 4) and the one immediately 
preceding it are often united into one long syllable. This is 
Called contraction. It takes places generally as follows : 

aa are contracted into o, as into u, as zgvaia xyvaa, vytt'a 

UM.KI uiu. vyia. 

aa a, as uvaa [iva. tn jj, as zgvasa % ovafj. 

oat a/, as uviiai firai. tai TJ or at, as rvTrtfai rvmtj, 
as , as Ttuat rtuii. xyvatai gyoatS, 

ati n, as Tiudn ii^a. et 1 1, as (fiiti. Some- 
oij u, as Tiudr t ii Tiuore. times into ij, 

ar t , as Tiud^ nun;. fti ei, as 

at , as ai'aata aaa(a. ti) 17, as tpilir t Tf qnif,j(. 

ao a), as iiudouir iiuwuiv. trj ij, as (filing <filfj?- 

uoi w, as iiudoiufy Tiuotufv. it ti, as noit'i noiit. 

aov ta, as nudovai npoiai. to ov, as (filioutv (ftiotuir. 

aa ta, as iifidw HUM. toi 01, as rfit.iotuiv <fiiolury. 

ta >/, as yia /!}. Sometimes tov ov, as tfiiiovai tpilovoi. 


cot 6>, as (fillh) qpfAw. times into 7;, as 

ijs i], as Ttfirjsaaa Tt^aaa. nifj. 

vjti 77, as tipt'jfis TifJtj?. or) of, as dtjloijg $?jiot. This 

ijt TI, as Ogrfiaaa Oyfjoaa. contraction occurs only in 

te t, as ndhts noli?. verbs in ow. Verbs in u/u 

ti I, as noKu noti. ( 117) contract orj into . 

oa a) or a, as ^o' ij/fo>, o'i 01, as Tj^oi' rj%oi. 

an\6a unla. oo ov, as drf.ooptv dj)i.ovf*tv. 

oai on, as dinhoai Sinful. ooi 01, as drjkooi/Atr 

OE ov, as dt]).6n SjjAovre. oou ov, as dqkoovai 

oei ov, as dr^oeiv dyXovv. ow w, as 8r t lo(a dr t ).(a. 

Verbs in ow ( 116) con- ow -*>, as niooi nica. 

tract the endings osi and vs v, as l^&vfg 

ofig into 01 and o/c, as 5; ; Aoet. v'i vt, as n^dv 

drjloi, Sr^osit; dqkolc. <a'i o>, as iw'/'wv 
or to, as dr^orjit StjltoTf. Some- 

NOTE 1. (1) The Doric dialect contracts as and an into 
ij and TJ respectively. E. g. OQIXS OQTJ, oo?t o^. 

The Attic does the same in the following verbs, Stydw, 'w, 
ntirdto, a t uaa), ^ouofiai. 

(2) The Ionic and the Doric contract so into tv. E. g. 

NOTE 2. The contraction is often left to pronunciation. 
E. g. 4to(j,rid-fu (~ ~ -- ), Alyvm-imv ( --- ). This kind of 
contraction is called synizcsis or synecphonesis. 

NOTE 3. ACCENT. (1) If one of the syllables to be con- 
tracted has the accent, the accent generally remains on the 
contracted syllable. And if this syllable be a penult or ante- 
penult, the accent is determined according to ^ 20: 21 ; if 
it be a final syllable, it takes the circumflex, except when the 
word uncontracted has the acute accent on the last syllable. 
E.g. tpdeofit&a (piiov^e&a, HEISTS 

(2) If neither of the syllables to be contracted has the 
accent, the accent of the word generally retains its place. 
E. g. Tro'Aef? noifig. 


S4. Two contiguous words are, in many instances, con- 
tracted into one, when the first ends and the next begins with 

25, 26.] ELISION. 19 

a vowel. This kind of contraction is called crasis. The 

coronis (' ) is generally placed over the contracted syllable. E. g. 
Toivaniov for TO trartiof 

NOTE 1. The i is subscribed only when it stands at the 
end of the last of the syllables to be contracted. E. g. fyolpai 
for tyto oiuui, but xayta for xal tyia. 

NOTE 2. The crasis is sometimes left to pronunciation. 
E. g. (II. 2, Col) 'i'j i-u'/.lo) ardgityonp, to be read 'Ervaiitavd^si- 


25. When the first of two contiguous words ends with a 
short vowel, and the other begins with 3. vowel, the former 
often drops its final vowel, and the apostrophe (' ) is put over the 
vacant place. This is called elision. E. g. 

81' euoi' for <5i f'uov 

in* aiTDJ " 1 7i t amm 

tq>' fjfur ( 14. 2) for Inl ij/uy. 

REMARK. The prepositions nfol and 71^6 never lose their 
final vowel. E. g. ntgl ai-ror, TIQO 'A&r t rur. 

NOTE 1. The diphthong ai is sometimes elided by the poets, 
but only in the passive terminations fiai, aai, rat, and a&ai. 
E. g. poi'lop* l/ia, for t joi/.ount iy<a' xuiilod-' anay$cuptp' t for 

NOTE 2. The epic poets, in some instances, reject the final 
vowel even when the following word begins with a consonant. 
E. g. uv rixvac, for ava rdxvug ' nag Zr t vi, for TIUOU Zr,ri. 

NOTES. ACCENT. (1) In prepositions and conjunctions, if 
the elided vowel had the accent, this accent also is cut off with 
the vowel. E. g. ap<p uiioi, u'u tint. 

(2) In all other words the accent is thrown back upon the 
preceding syllable. E. g. <fr,u tya, for qr^l i-/co. 


1. Syncope is an omission of a vowel from the 
middle of a word. E. g. narpoc, for narioo;. 

2. Metathesis is an interchange of place between two con- 
tiguous letters in the same word. E. g. xgudia, for 


3. Apharesis is the taking of a letter from the beginning 
of a word. E. g. nov 'artv, for nov ianv. 

NOTE. The combinations ^X, (ty, >, arising from a syncope 
or from a metathesis, are changed into ^tfA, pfe, vdg, respec- 
tively. E. g. yappooy for yaprgos, avd6$ for otvtgog. 


27 1 The Greek has the following punctuation marks: 





Apostrophe ( 25), 

Coronis ($ 24), 

Marks of quantity ( 2), 
Marks of parenthesis, 
Mark of diaeresis, 
Mark of admiration, 

and [ ~ 

NOTE 1. The mark of diecresis is placed over i or v to 
prevent its forming a diphthong with the preceding vowel. 
E. g. yrga'i, durjj, are trissyllables, but y^gai, avrrf, are dissyl- 

NOTE 2. The mark of admiration is not much used. 


28. 1. It is supposed by many that the ancient pronun- 
ciation, that is, the pronunciation of the ancient Athenians 
and of the well educated in general, is in a great measure lost. 
The best expedient, according to some, is, to observe how the 
Romans expressed Greek, and the Greeks Roman names. 
This would be a very good expedient, if the ancient pronun- 
ciation of the Latin language was not as uncertain as that of 
the Greek. 

According to others, the best rule is, to observe how the 
ancient Greeks expressed the sounds made by particular ani- 
mals. This rule is, to say the least, very ridiculous, because 
dogs and sheep are hardly teachers of articulate sounds, and 
because there are as many ways of expressing the sound made 


by any animal, as there are nations upon the face of the earth. 
The frog, for example, in ancient Greek sings 0otxtxexi$ xoa*, 
xo|, in modern Greek, UTIUXU xtixa, in English, croak croak. 

2. Others maintain that the modern Greek language is the 
only source from which any definite notions concerning the 
ancient pronunciation can be derived. First, because this 
language is immediately derived from the ancient ; a circum- 
stance of no small importance. Secondly, because its pro- 
nunciation is remarkably uniform ; and uniformity in matters 
of this sort cannot be attributed to mere chance. Further, 
the modern Greek method is founded on tradition, while all 
other methods hang on conjecture. For the benefit of the 
curious we proceed to describe it. 

and are pronounced like a in father. After the sound 1 
(t, TJ, n, ot, v, n) it is pronounced like a in peculiarity. 

at like s. 

av, iv, r t v, tav, before a vowel, a liquid, or a middle mute 

(,?, y, d) are pronounced like av, ev, eev, ov, respectively. 

In all other cases, like of, ef, eef, off. 
ft like r. 
y before the sounds E and j is pronounced nearly like y in yes, 

York. In all other cases it is guttural, like the German g 

in Tag. 

yy and yx like ng in strongest, 
y* like nz. 
y% like ng-h, nearly. 
d like th in that. 

1 like e in fellow, nearly. 
n like i. 

iv, see i-. 

like z. 

13 and ; like i. 

r t r, see av. 

& like th in thin. 

i like i in machine. 

x like A-. 

I like I. Before the sound 7, like H in William. 

u like 77?. 

pn like mb, as tunooa&fv pronounced cmbrosthcn. 

py (JUTICJ) like tubs. 

y like n. Before the sound /, like n in oNion. 

The words TOV, jrjv, iv, avv, before a word beginning with 

x or *, are pronounced like TO/, ir t y, iy, ai-/ before x or |. 

(See yx, y^.) E. g. TOX xaijox, iv luiojfw, pronounced TO- 


Before n or y> they are pronounced TO/*, 
f//, (ji^i. E. g. Toy TtovtjQov, <svv yv%fj, pronounced 

T like nd, as IVTt^og pronounced endimos. 
| like x or Ars. 

like o in porter. 

01 like i. 

ou like oo in moon. 

TI, 9, like p, r. 

a like s in so/If. Before /?, y, S, ft, p, it is sounded like . 

E. g. xoa/ioc, afiiaat, ^fivgvi], pronounced xo'j^uo?, ftiaai, 

ZfiiiQvr). So also at the end of a word, TOU? (iaadfls TJJS yijs, 

pronounced rov^aadils i^y^q. 
T like t in ^//. 
v like t. 
vi like t. 
qp like ph orf. 

% like German ch or Spanish^". 
y; like ps. 
<u and a) like o. 
tav, see au. 

The rough breathing is silent in modern Greek. 

So far as quantity is concerned, all the short vowels are 
equivalent to the long ones. 

The written accent guides the stress of the voice. 

The accent of the enclitic, however, is disregarded in pro- 
nunciation. But when the attracting word has the accent on 
the antepenult, its last syllable takes the secondary accent. 
E. g. 8tl$ov juot, pronounced dilSorpoi, but JU'/Uxrt uoi has the 
primary accent on the first syllable Af, and the secondary on 



29. 1. The declinable parts of speech are 
the noun, the article, the pronoun, the verb, and 
the participle. 

2. The indeclinable parts of speech are the 
adverb, the preposition, the conjunction, and the 

3. The declinable parts of speech have three 
NUMBERS ; the singular, the dual, and the plural. 

The dual may be used when two things are 
spoken of ; but not necessarily. 


3O. 1. Nouns are grammatically divided into 
substantive and adjective. Substantives are divided 
into proper and common. 

2. The noun has three GENDERS ; the masculine, 
the feminine, and the neuter. The masculine is, in 
grammar, distinguished by the article a, the femin- 
ine, by r/, and the neuter, by TO. E. g. 6 av7?p, the 
man, y -yvvi^ the woman, TO ovxov, the Jig. 

Nouns which are either masculine or feminine are said to 
be of the common gender. Such nouns are, in grammar, 
distinguished by the articles o, rj. E. g. o, i\ avfrquno?, a hit 
man being. 



[ 31. 

3. The noun has three DECLENSIONS ; the first 
declension, the second declension, and the third 

4. The CASES are five ; the nominative, the geni- 
tive, the dative, the accusative, and the vocative. 

NOTE 1. All neuters have three of the cases alike, viz the 
nominative, accusative, and vocative. In the plural these 
cases end in except some neuters of the second declen- 
sion, which end in <u (^> 33). 

NOTE 2. The nominative, accusative, and vocative dual, 
are alike. The genitive and dative dual are also alike. 
In the plural, the vocative is always like the nominative. 


31. 1. The following table exhibits the endings of the 
first declension. 


N. 7, 

G. r,? 
D. r, 

A. 7^V 




7^5 or s 
?? or ? 



















} or u 

or a or a are feminine. E. g. 
;, muse, q oocpid, wisdom. 

Nouns in q$ or as are masculine. E. g. 6 
publican, b Tafias, steward. 







D. (two honors) 

P. (honors) 

N. T< ( U 

N. Tf,t' 

G. i/(/'<7>' 

G. TlflUJV 

D. T V H^ 

D. T|W7c 

A. T / 

A. T/ I( , ( ; ? 

V. T^ 

V. T/^*' 

Z>. (two muses) 

P. (muses) 

N. [tovaa 

N. (.lovaui 

f ', 

G. [tovnciH' 

D. [lOVUttlV 

D. fiiii'ddtii; 

A. [lOl'lHX 

A. juot'(js 

V f totai* 

V. (jiovadi 




S. o (publican) 



D. Tf/lto'>'7 


D. (two publicans) P. (publicans) 

N. tf't.tava N. 

G. Tt'tMl'ttlV G. 

D. Tll.liiMUV D. 

A. itifiira A. 

V. TtAwVa V. 

. o (steu~ard) 
N. lafilaq 
G. rafilov 
D. iitu'nt 
A. -ta t ulav 

Z>. (f?ro stewards) P. (steioards) 

N. ittfila N. raulai 

G. raulaiv G. Tu/jidJv 

D. Tceuiuiv D. Tiiuluig 

A. ruuiu A. ict^iLitg 


3. Nouns in a pure ( 16. 4), pa, and .some 
others, retain the a throughout the singular. E. g. 
co(fia.j ao(fiav gaga, %agds, 

P. (houses) 

N. or/.lfti 
G. olxtoJv 
D. oixlaig 
A. otxlag 
V. tux/a* 

<S. ^ (house) 
N. c/x/a 
G. olxlag 





D. (tiro houses) 
N. oixi'a 
G. olxluiv 
D. oix/aiv 
A. otx/a 
V. oix/a 

4. The following classes of jjouns in ijj have in the roca- 
<ire singular. 

(1) Nouns in TT;?. E. g. noUir,;, citizen, voc. ^ 
REMARK 1. In Homer, airatirtis, unhajtjrily brave, has voc. 

(2) Nouns derived from verbs by adding r t ; to the last con- 
sonant of the verb. ( 129. N. 3.) E. g. yfuuti^;, geometer, 
voc. ytufttifi. 

(3) All national appellations. E. g. Jxv^jjc, Scythian, voc. 

(4) A few^ proper names. E. g. nvgai^ur l? , Pyrachmes, 


NOTE 1. QUANTITY. (1) ^ of the nominative singular is 
always short when the genitive has r,c. E. g. /novou, [lovm* 
It is very often long when the genitive has ?. E. g. 009/5, 


All proparoxytones and properispomena have of course the 
a short. E. g. air,&tiu, pstoa. 



Further, oxytones and paroxytones, which have ag in the 
genitive, have long in the nominative. E. g. ZUQU, x a Q<*?' 
nsTQa, TikTQag. Except the numeral pla, and the proper names 
Kiqqa and nvgya. 

(2) Ag is long. E. g. laulag, aocflag. 

(3) Av of the accusative singular always follows the quantity 
of the nominative singular. E. g. povau, povauv' ootpla,aocplav. 

(4) A of the vocative singular from nouns in a? is always 
long ; from nouns in ijj it is always short. E. g. rapid?, 

(5) A of the nominative, accusative, and vocative, dual, is 
always long. E. g. 

NOTE 2. ACCENT. (1) The' accent remains on the same 
syllable as in the nominative, if the last syllable permits it : if 
not, it is removed to the next syllable. ( 20. 1, 2, 3.) E. g. 
frdlaaaa, -Salaaaav, -Oa^aaaat' &a).uaurjg, &aluaay. 

REMARK 2. dtanoirjc, master, has voc. dianoTa, not dsanoia. 

(2) The endings of the genitive and dative of all the num- 
bers take the circumflex, when the nominative has the accent 
on the last syllable. E. g. riuy, Tiuijg, ii/^f], n/uatj. 

(3) Jlv of the genitive plural of barytones also is circum- 
flexed. E. g. uovaa, novauv. 

Except the feminine of barytone adjectives and participles in 
og. ( 49. 1.) E. g. a!-iog, *, aS/wv TimToutvog, 

Except also the following nouns : ^pijfftijf, jt(p/i<mn> ' ol TJJ- 
alcci, tTyaloiv ' acpvy, ncpviav. 

NOTE 3. DIALECTS. (1) The following table exhibits the 
dialectic peculiarities of the first declension. 

Sing. N. Old for TJ?, as ITITTO'TM. 

G. Old MO, Ionic ew, Doric u, for ov, as 'Arqddri/;, 'ArQtl- 
duo, 'ATQfldia), 'ATQeiSu. Before a vowel tea drops e, 
as 'Eopda?, 'EQptico for EqiuUto. 

The Attics sometimes use the Doric genitive, es- 
pecially in proper names. 
Plur. G. Old uuv, Ionic iwv, Doric uv, for w>>, as fiovaa, uov- 

auwv, [tovascav, fiovaav. 
D. Old aiai, Ionic yai or yg, for aig, as poiioa, ftovaaiat, 

povuTjOi, uovayg. 
A. Doric ug for ag, as rixvr], rix 


Sing and Plur, G. D. Epic tjqct or r t <f.iv for r)$, y, ni>, cu$, as 

(2) For ij the Dorians use d, as T</m, ac, a, or, a. 
On the other hand the lonians use ij for a, but only in the 
singular, as aoqir,, r t g, r t , r,r, 17. ( 2. N. 3.) 

$} 32. Nouns in aa, to, tag, and 017, are contracted. ( 23.) 

E. g. 

[trace pra, mina, G. ^rac uvag, D. /iyn //ra, A. firaav fivav, 
V. //ro'a //ya, Ptiiral N. uvtia /"'!> G. uvw>- /ixwi', D. 
/zraaic ffvat:, A. fivdug /?, V. firuat ural. 
attxia fffxr", Jig-tree, G. avxiag avxr^, D. avxtf avxji, A. avxtar 
ovxfjr, V. avxf'a avxij, Plural N. avxiat avxat, G. avxtur, 
avxur, D. atxtat; ai'xo??, A. avxictg avxac, V. avxiai aixul. 

, of silver, G. uqyv^iag uqyvQag, &c. 
f^;, Hermes, G.'Eqpiov 'gpoi', D. *E{>uia 'fujj, &C. 
, simple, G. 7iioi? .i/.^,', &-C. 

NOTE 1. The vowels * are contracted into ij. But when 
they are preceded by a vowel or by p, they are contracted into 
o. In the accusative plural they are always contracted into & 

NOTE 2. The contracted forms of facias generally double 
the o. Thus, poqiai; 


$ 33. 1. The following table exhibits the endings of the 
second declension. 

-ST. M. <$ F. Neut. 

N. o; tag ov tor 

G. ov ta ov ta 
D. ta 

A. ov car ov tav 

V. aj ov tar 

X>. All genders. 
G. ojv wv 

D. 0(V MV 

A. M 
V. <a 

P. M. Sf F. Neut. 

N. 01 ta a ta 
G. cav tav 

D. oig tag oig oig 

A. ov; tag u ta 

V. 01 ti) a w 

2. Nouns in os or o? are masculine or feminine. 
E. g. 6 Ao^o?, word, i] vj/ffos. island, 6 vs o?. temple. 

Nouns in ov or oi> are neuter. E. g. TO ai/xov, 

fig, TO 




S. o (word) 

N. }.oyog 

G. loyov 

D. ioyta 

A. ioyov 

V. I6ys 

S. TO (fig) 
N. avxov 
G. avxov 
D. avxta 
A. avxov 
V. ovxov 

8. o (temple) 








, (two words) 

P. (words) 


boy to 

N. loyoi. 



G. ioytav 



D. loyoig 



A. Jk6yovg 



V. Ao'/ot 



P. (fig*) 



N. avxa 



G. avxtav 



D. avxoig 



A. avxa 



V. avxa 


(two temples) 

P. (temples) 






G. Vt&V 



JJ. vttag 



A. t>t tag 



V. rtta 


(two halls) 

P. (/W//5) 



N> / 
. ttvtoytta 



G. a^ftj/ftov 



D. avtaystag 



A. avw'vfw 



V. avtavtta 

S. TO (Aa//) 

N. avtayftav 

GJ / 
. avtaytta 

D. am^w 

V. a'w/a)v 

NOTE 1. The following neuters have o instead of ov in the 
nominative, accusative, and vocative, singular : AAo, vro, 
exiivo, o, TO, TOVTO, from AAo?, avrog, exurog, og, o, oinog, re- 

REMARK 1. Further, the termination tav of the accusative 
singular often drops the v. E. g. "A&tag, ace. "A&ta for 

NOTE 2. QUANTITY. ^ of the neuter plural is always short. 

NOTE 3. ACCENT. (1) The accent remains on the same 
syllable as in the nominative, if the last syllable permits it : 
if not, it is removed to the next syllable. (< 20. 1,2,3.) E. g. 
av&QK>nog, &.v&Q(an.ov, av&qtanoi' uv&qunta, avf) Qtanwv. 

(2) The endings of the genitive and dative of all the num- 
bers take the circumflex, when the nominative has the accent 
on the last syllable. E. g. &to?, dtov, -frfoir, ^tolf. 



Except the genitive singular of nouns in w;. E. g. 
gen. rfw. 

REMARK 2. For the accent of proparoxytones in us, >, see above ( 520. 
N. 2). 

NOTE 4. DIALECTS. The following table exhibits the dia- 
lectic peculiarities of the second declension. 

Sing, G. Old oio, Doric w, for or, as ioyo;, loyoio, \oyia. 

Nouns in tag have wo instead of oio, as /zrfw?, 


Dual.G. D. Epic o/iv for oiv, as tViTrof, rTurotjy. 
P/wr. D. Old oiai for o<c, as &QI/XOS, Sqiyxolai. 

A. Doric <w? or o? for oiv> as At'xo?, ii'xw?, ivxo$. 
fifing". 4* Phir. G. D. Epic 091 or 09^ for or, , wv, oi? 

^fO?, -dlOCflV. 


P/wr. . 

A. Doric <w? or o? for oiv> , , 

fing". 4* Phir. G. D. Epic 091 or 09^ for or, , wv, 

^fO?, -dlOCflV. 

34. Nouns in to;, oog, tov, oov, are contracted. ( 23.) 

S. o (mind) 


(too minds) 




















j wr 





























TO (bone) 


(too bones) 




















ooi wv 




























NOTE 1. The vowels fa in the neuter plural are always con- 
tracted into . 

NOTE 2. (1) The contracted nominative, accusative, and 
vocative, dual, take the acute ACCENT, contrary to the rule 

(23.N. 3). 

(2) The contracted genitive and dative of polysyllabic com- 
pounds in oog, oor, are accented contrary to the rule (ibid.). 
E. g. avTinvoog aviLnvovg, G. arrmroov anlrtvov. 

(3) Some of the contracted forms of adjectives in fog take 
the circumflex on the last syllable, contrary to the rule (ibid.). 
E. g. /DUOO? zgvaovg, 






35. 1. The following table exhibits the terminations of 
the third declension. 

S. All genders. 

Z>. All genders. 

P. M. Sf F. 


N. s 

N. 6 

N. g 



G. o? 

G. otv 

G. wv 


D. r 

D. OiV 

D. <() 


A. U, V 

A. 6 

A. a? 

V. s 


V. eg 

2. In the third declension the gender must be determined 
by observation. 

S. o (crow) 


(<wo crows) 

P. (crows) 

N. xo'paj 



N. xogcexf? 

G. xogaxof 



G. xoqaxav 

D. XO^KXt 



D. XOQU^(V) 

A. XftOX 



A. xoQUxag 

V. xo ? l 



V. x6axts 

fir. ^ (Jojoe) 


(^o hopes) 

P. (hopes) 

N. llnig 



N. DiTildfg 

G. e^nlSos 



G. eknldtav 

D. tknldi 



D. e).7iiai(v) 

A. ilniSa 



A. Ihntdas 

V. &Ji/ 



V. l).7ildfs 

<S^. o (giant) 


(two giants) 

P. (5-ianfo) 

N. ylyas 




G. ylyavro? 



G. p't^otvrwv 

D. ylyavri, 



T^ ' ~ ^ ' 

A. ylyavta 



A. ylyavtaq 

V. yiyav 



V. ylyavtfg 

S. o (weevil) 


(two weevils) 

P. (weevils) 

N. *fe 



N. xte? 

G. xjo'g 



G. xKwy 

D. xt/ 



D. xia/(y) 

A. x/v 



A. xt'a? 

V. X/ff 



V. X/fg 




S. o (age) 


(tico ages) 

P. (ages) 

N. atuv 



N> - 

G. alwros 



G. aiiororr 

D. aldjri 



D. al<aat(v) 

A. aloira 



A. alurag 

V. altav 



V. aiwte 

S. o (god) 


(two gods) 

P. (god*) 

N. diti'uoiv 



N. dalftorts 

G. dnlfiorog 



G. dutfiortav 

D. Sui'uort 



D. JtUOff((v) 

A. dai fiora 



A. dai'fiovag 

V. ditluov 



V. dalftong 

S. o (lion) 


(two lions) 

P. (//ons) 

N. few 



N. '/.sorng 

G . if ovrog 



G. /.fdvrov 

D. ii'orrt 



D. lcofat(r) 

A. Af'oria 



A. it or rag 

V. Ae'oy 



V. Hones 

<& TO (thing) 


(tico things) 

P. (rtii^s) 





G. TiQtiyftaiog 



G. Jioayudion 

D. nndj-uiiTi 



T) ' ( 

A. noHypa 



A. nqdyuaTU 

V. 71 pa yiia 


'. _ 

V. nodyuata 

NOTE 1. QUANTITY. (1) The terminations i, at, a, as, are 
short. E. g. xoQotxi, xopaft, xoox, xojiaxa?. 

(2) Nouns in n'+ ( 44) may have , Jc, in the accusative. 
E. g. fiaailivs, tu, tut;. 

NOTE 2. ACCENT. (1) In dissyllables and polysyllables the 
accent generally remains on the same syllable as in the nomi- 
native, if the last syllable permits it : if not, it is removed to 
the next syllable. ($20. 1,2,3.) E. g. xopal, xopaxoc, 

(2) JUonotyllablff throiv the accent in the genitive and 
dative of all the numbers upon the last syllable. In this case 
the terminations on>, car, are circumflexed. E. g. xtc, xio'c, xar. 

Except monosyllabic participles. E. g. dov;, SorTog, doni, 

Except also the dual and plural of nag' narrow, ndrtvrr, 
xdot, ( 53.) 



Except also the genitive dual and plural^ of the following 
nouns : diig torch, dpug, -&cag, KPA2 head, ovg, nuts, at'}?, 
(ftag blister, <pwg light. 

REMARK. For the accent of irctvrtji, (invni>t 
>, X.VM, and APHN, see below ( 40. N. 3). 


NOTE 3. DIALECTS. The following table exhibits the dia- 
lectic peculiarities of the third declension. 

Dual. G. D. Epic our for oir, as SJiorjr, ^ig^vour. 

Plur. G. Ionic eoir for >v, as ^y, %riviu>v. 
D. Old taai or tai, as Ssnng, dmusaai. 

Sing, and Plur. G. D. Epic a(pi(v) or (ft(r) for og, i, <av, at, 
as b%og, o^eacpi' vuvg, vavtfi. 

< 36. 1. The following table exhibits the endings of the 
NOMINATIVE and GENITIVE, SINGULAR, of the third declension. 

a gen. mo?, axrog, neut. 

e? aiiog, aiSog, all genders. 

av avoq, wi'Toj, mas. or neut. 

ag agog, onog, agrog, gener- 
ally neuter. 

ag aog, aiog, adog, avog. av~ 
TO?, all genders. 

uvg Hog, fem. 

SIQ siqog, igog, mas. or fem. 

sig fvog, tviog, tidog, mas. or 

sv evog, tnog, neut. 

ivg tog, mas. 

ij tjTog, neut. 

yr yvog, fvog, mas. or fem. 

i)g rjoog, fgog, mas. or fem. 

?? IJTOS, y&og, tog, mas. or 

t iog } nog, neut. 

tv ivog, mas. or fem. 

ig tog, nog, idog, i&og, ivog, 
mas. or fem. 

ig log. 

vg r&og. 

$ xog, yog, %og, XTog, mas. 

or fem. 

ov oi'oc, orTog, neut. 
oo ooog, neut. 
og oroc, tog, neut. 
ovv oSog, neut. 
ovg ovrog, oog, odog, mas. or 


v re?, neut. 
vv rvog, vnog, mas. or neut. 
VQ vgog, mas. or neut. 
vg vog, vdog, v&og, vrog, vr- 

tog, mas. or fem. 
y nog,poc, qpo$,mas.or fem. 
w ooc, fem. 
tav (urog, orog, ovrog, mas. or 

MO o'(ioc, oQog, generally mas. 

or fem. 

WOC, 00?, WTOJ, OTOS, 05o?, 

generally mas. or fem. 

2. Most nouns of the third declension form their NOMINA- 


TIVE SINGULAR by dropping the termination og of the genitive, 
and annexing g. E. g. 

xooa$ gen- xoonxog, ( o. 2) 
" Iltionog, (ibid.) 
" flntfe*, ( 10. a) 
ylyar-iog, (' 12. 5.) 

So 9>;UV ($ 8- 2), gwk/Jds- (J'| (9. 2), fnrk'JIte (ibid ), 
P r iX*' X<*Q l ? ( I. 2), xt*Q l *S' *>V vt ? (ibid.), Sori&og' ^iy 
( 12. 4), iro?' x/ (^ 12. 5), Ktfros' wytltlg (ibid.), Ti-qp- 
&drios ' 8ovg (ibid.), fortof, 

(1) Most masculines and feminities lengthen t$ into T/?, and 
04' into tag. E. g. r^tjj'oi^, T^IT^CO? ' TETt'ifOj,', rtrvqDoroj. 

(2) Many masculines lengthen rj into tv^. E. g. ^t 

(3) All neuter substantives change t? into o?. E. g. zzT^ 
. ( 2. N. 3.) 

(4) Some neuters change g into o. E. g. arfaQ, arlaiog. 

(5) The following nouns lengthen o? into ovg' (3ovg, /?ooj* 
, nodog' zovg, xo?, ( 2. N. 3.) 

(6) The following change ag into avg ' ygavg, yguos ' vavg, 

(7) '^AoJrrTjl, xo v ', changes the radical letter e into i) in the 

NOTE 1. "Ava$, uvaxTog, and i-r|, rrxro?, are the only nouns 
in | that have XTO? in the genitive. Originally they had gen. 
uvaxog, vi^o>. (Compare "Ai-axti;, Dioscuri, and viytog, noctur- 

"dig, (ilng, is the only noun in lg. 

3. Many form their nominative singular by dropping the 
termination og of the genitive, with such consonants as cannot 
stand at the end of a Greek word ( 5. N. 3). Masculines 
And feminine* lengthen and o, in the final syllable, into ij and 
w respectively. E. g. 

ttitav g6n. 
Sallow " daifiurog 
" Ae'orrog 

So xr t v, Zt)9Of h[iijr, It p frog' \)ir, diving' <j(inr,o, 
rtfoog ' dor, Oortog ' tpwo, cpoioo? ' I,TOQ, qiogog ' 
aiftjnt, air^mog ' Stixrvv, dstxvvrTog. 


REMARK 1. In reality the nominative is formed from the root, which is 
obtained by dropping of of the genitive. E. g. x^aSj, **{, root *. 

NOTE 2. Fula, TO, is the only noun in that has axiot; in 
the genitive. 

dapao, fj, the only noun in ay that has agrog in the genitive. 

Mih, TO, the ^>nly substantive in L that has nog in the geni- 

NOTE 3. Neuters in an are contracted when this ending is 
preceded by . E. g. tug i}^ } G. i'ugog r,oog. 

The neuters ddltug, arinQ, g>o'p, have gen. dfltarog dtlqrog, 
arr/ToV, tfqimoq <f{tr t Tog, contrary to the rule ( 23. N. 3). 

NOTE 4. Nouns in tig, tv, gen. ITOC, are contracted when 
these endings are preceded by 77 or o. E. g. rtfi^eig Ti^^g, 
tifii'itvrog Jtftf,vTog ' Tilaxottg nluy.ovg, n).ay.6eviog nlaxovwog. 

REMARK 2. Proper names in dtav are generally contracted. 
E. g. Jloatiduwv 

NOTE 5. The QUANTITY of the last syllable of the nomina- 
tive, and of the penult of the genitive, must be learned by 
observation. Nevertheless we remark here, that 

(1) Monosyllabic nominatives are long. E. g. nav, (jig, 
Except the pronouns Tig, il, ilg, il- 

(2) The vowels , i, v, in the penult of the genitive are 
short, when this case ends in og pure. E. g. yfjQug, uog ' 

Except yQavg, dog ' fetvf, (tog. 

(3) The penult of the genitive of substantives is long, when 
this case terminates in avog, irof, vrog. E. g. Tirdv, avog ' 2ala- 
fjlg, "ivog ' fl'oQxvg, vvog* 

37". 1. The ACCUSATIVE SINGULAR of masculine and 
feminine nouns is formed by dropping o? of the genitive, and 
annexing . E. g. 

xo'paS, xoQaxog ace. xo'ox. 

2. Nouns in ig, vg, arc, ovg, of which the genitive is in o? 
pure ( 16. 4), form their accusative by dropping g of the 
nominative and annexing v. E. g. 

nolic, nohog ace. noi.iv 



If the genitive is not in o* pure, they can have v in the 
accusative only when the last syllable of the nominative is 
not accented. E. g. 

ogrts, ogrldos ace. ogn&a Of ooriv 

s, XOQV&OJ " xoyvda or xoo 

NOTE I. In the Epic language, the following nouns often 
have a in the accusative singular, contrary to the preceding 
rule: /Soi-j, pou trgtv> ivyeu' tx&i'?, i/^i' ' rui's, via. 

REMARK. The accusative singular of the obsolete AI2 is 
always ^. 

NOTE 2. These three nouns, 'Axoiiow, HoatiSwv, xt'xfw?, 
have ace. 'Axoiitava and '^7ioJtJla>, noanStavu and noatidu, xv- 
xtava and 

38. 1- In many instances the VOCATIVE SIXGCLAR of 
masculine nud feminine nouns is like the nominative singular. 

2. Nouns in ?, 13^, cut 1 , w^), and some others, form their 
vocative singular by dropping o; of the genitive, with such 
consonants as cannot stand at the end of a Greek word 
(5.N.3). E.g. 

/a^, ylyavtog voc. ylyuv 
" 8tti t uor. 

3. Nouns in <c, D,% *r,-, ai-?j and oi;c gen. ooc, and the com- 
pounds of jroi-c, droj* the c of the nominative. The ending tv 
is always circumflexed. E. g. 

4. Ncus ia j; gen. toe, shorten ijj into ?;. E. g. 
voc. ^" 

5. Femmines in w, w^, gen. oog, have ol in the vocative 
singular. E. g. ^w, ?yfooc, voc. ^ol. 

NOTE 1. A few proper names in uq gen. avrog, have in 
the vocative singular. E. g. jtaoSapas, ano<;, voc. slaoSiiu<~t. 

NOTE 2. The following nouns shorten the final syllable in 
the vocative singular: \4xotiiav, "AxoUov noittdwv, 

36 INFLECTION OF WORDS. [ 39, 40. 

NOTE 3. (1) The following nouns throw the ACCENT back 
on the penult in the vocative : uvr}(>, uviq ' SUIJQ, duty 
oair/Q, ocoitp. 

(2) Polysyllabic vocatives, which end in a short syllable, 
often throw the accent back on the antepenult. E. g. 2'ioxpa- 

NOTE 4. "Ava$, king, when employed to invoke a god has 
voc. uva. Elsewhere its vocative is like the nominative. 

39. 1. The DATIVE PLURAL is formed by dropping og of 
the genitive singular, and annexing at. E. g. 

xoQaS, xuQnxog dat. plur. ttogaSi ( 5. 2) 

ilni'g, ilnidog iinlai ( 10. 2) 

yiyuSt yiyuviog ylytivi ( 12. 5). 

2. Nouns in nv, avg, and oi'c gen. oo?, form their dative 
plural by dropping g of the nominative singular, and annexing 
fft. E. g. fiaatKivg, fiuatkivai ' /5oiv, jSovai* 

NOTE. The omission of before <r< ( 12. 4) in this case does not lengthen 
the preceding short vowel. E. g. talfttiti laifuttt, ^aipon. 


4O. 1. The following nouns in rjQ generally drop the s in 
the genitive and dative singular. In the dative plural they 
change the e into , and place it after the Q. (}$) 26. 2 : 2. N. 3.) 

jQ, rj } belly, G. yatntgog yaargog, D. yuartQt 
D. Plur. uajiiai and 

^rrjQ, rj, Ceres, G. 4TjpT)TtQOf J^urjTQog, D. 

drilir t TQi. This noun is syncopated also in the accusative 

singular, /Irjfi^ifQa ^Jij^r^n. 
OnyutrjQ, rj, daughter, G. -dvyonlgog fhiytrtyos, D. dvyuitQi, 

dvyttTfji, D. Plur. \}vy<tj()nai. 
Mr,TTjQ, rj, mother, G. ^Tjif'^ioe /^rjTQog, D. prjii^i (tijTijl, D. Plur. 

jQ, 6, father, G. nmigog nvnqiiQ, D. ncnsqi naryl, D. Plur. 

'2. '41'TjQ, o, man, is syncopated in all the cases except the 
nominative and vocative singular, and dative plural : 

41,42.] THIRD DECLENSION'. 37 

'Ayr t Q, urtyog uvSyoz, D. aviqi uvSql, A. urtga uvSya, V. 

DualN. A. V. aviqt av8(jt, G. D. aviqoiv avSgolv, P/tir. N. 
(ii'iofs urdgig, G. avt^oiv urdodiv, D. didgdat, A. dvegug 
uvdgag, V. averts avdgis. For the insertion of d, see 
above" ( 26. N.). 

3. APIiy, o, Iamb, and xt'wv, o ^, dog, are declined as fol- 
lows . 

APIIN, G. M^ro'c, D. u$rt, A. pr, /?MO/ N. A. wpve, G. D. 

^'olv, Plur. N. uijvtg, G. a^ycuv, D. ajvcffft, A. aqrug. 
Kiiiav, G. xrvof, D. xi'n', A. xvvu, V. xt'ov, Dual N. A. V. 

xvrr, G. D. xtrolr, Plur. N. xtVfj, G. xvvtav, D. xvat, A. 
g, V. 

NOTE 1. The poets in some instances drop the t also in the 
accusative singular, and in the nominative and genitive plural. 
E. g. 

NOTE 2. *Aair t g t tgog, o, star, imitates aatr,q only in the 
dative plural, U 

NOTE 3. (I) The ACCENT of ihe full forms of av^g, APHN, 
yaair t (), ^^uj/rijp, xi'tuy, nai^Q, is regular ( 35. N. 2). 

For the accent of the vocative of arr t o and naiqo, see above 
(38. N. 3). 

The accent of the full forms of &vyaTrjQ and juijiiy^ is ir- 
regular in the cases which end in a short syllable. 

(2) In the syncopated genitive and dative the accent is 
placed on the last syllable. 


41. 1. Many nouns of the third declension, of which the 
genitive ends in og pure ( 16. 4), are contracted. 

2. The contracted accusative plural is always like the con- 
tracted nominative plural. 

43. Nouns in T-C, tg, og, gen. tog, nouns in ag gen. aog, 
and nouns in w, tag, gen. ooc, are contracted in those cases, 
in which the termination ( 35. 1) begins with a vowel. E. g. 







D. (two galleys'] 



S. TO (wall) 

N. TStfO? 

G. TEixfog tflxovg 




D. (two walls) 


G. D. 



8. TO (prize) 

N. yigag 

G. yigaog 

D. yf'pai; 

A. yigctg 



& ^ (echo) 

N. 7tf< 


D. (two echoes) 

N.A.V. ^01 
G. D. 

P. (echoes) 






D. (two prizes) 

G. D. 

P. (prizes) 

N. ytpaa yp 

G. ysgdwv ytQtai 

Di / \ 

A. yiqaa yiqu 
V. yigua ytgii 
NOTE 1. Proper names in xl^j?, contracted xi^?, undergo a 
double contraction in the dative singular, and sometimes in 
the accusative singular. E. g. 
S. o (Pericles) 


IZtQixieta JltQixkia 


REMARK. Sometimes proper names in xJU'ijc have x/U'o? in 
the genitive, and x/U7 in the dative. 

The noun '//^axAe'/;?, Hercules, has voc, also 

NOTES. The ending ta, when preceded by a "vowel, is 
generally contracted into a. E. g. v/ir t g, vyiiu vyia' xliog, 

NOTE 3. Ktgag and rigng, gen. ctrog, often drop the T 
and are contracted like yigag. E. g. xfgag, xfga-cog xsgctog xioiag. 
Kg dag, in the later Greek, has cnog in the genitive. 

NOTE 4. The dual and plural of nouns in ia, we, follow the 
analogy of the second declension. 

The uncontracted forms of these nouns a"re not used. 

NOTE 5. The Epic language often contracts ho? into rjog 
or tlog, dt'i into irf or tii, and into r t a or ttcc. E. g. 'ifgaxleyg, 
-xisto? -x/l^o?, -xij'fi' -xA^t, -xif'sa -xA^a ' aneog, ansfog anslog, 
anet'i anyi or aniii. 

NOTE 6. In the Ionic dialect, the accusative singular of 
nouns in w, tag, ends in ovv. E. g. ylrjTta, 

NOTE 7. The ACCENT of the contracted accusative singu- 
lar of nouns in w is contrary to the rule ( 23. N. 3). 

1. Nouns in ig, vg, gen. too, vog, are contracted in 

the dative singular, and in the nominative, accusative, and 
vocative, plural. E. g. 

S. a (serpent) S. o (fish) 

N. o<ptg N. 

G. o<fiog G. 

D. otfii otp i D. l%9v'i 

A. ovfiv A. ix&vv 

V. S(fi V. i X &v 

D. (two serpents) D. (two fishes) 

N.A.V. o(fts N.A.V. Ix&ve 

G. D. cnfloiv G. D. ix&voiy 

P. (serpents) P. (fishes) 

N. ocpttg o<fig N. 

G. offltav G. 

D. o<jp!fft(y) D. 

A. ocpiag SffTg A. ix&vctg 

V. cqc'tf? oqpr? V. 


2. The nouns 6, j fiovg, ox > 17 yynvi;, old woman, i] vuvg, ship, 
and 6, r t 6'iV, sheep, are declined as follows : 

/Jot;?, G. fioog, D. jSoi, A. {Sow, V. /Sow, -Da/ N. A. V. /3of, 
G. D. Oaoir, Plur. N. /? 'fg (toi's, G. /5owr, D. /Soviu, A. /3o' ff 
/Jot's, V. /So'fc fiovg. 

ygavs, G. yyfiog, D. ;''/', A. ynnvv, V. yQav, Dual N. A. V. 
/, G. D. yguolv, Plur. N. ygars yfJCtig, G. ygcuav, D. 
yQavvl, A. '/Quag y^avq, V. "/(jutg "/QUV$. 

vav? is regularly declined like yguvq. The Attics decline 
it as follows : G. rsw'?, D. rr/t", A. vavv, V. riJ, Plur. N. 
yijf?, G. j'tw*', D. vnvol, A. rai'g, V. j'^ff. 

The lonians change into 77, as vrivq. They have also 
G. vsog, A. vqa and via, Dual D. rcoly, P/wr. N. vitg, A. 

ot? oT?, G. oi'o? oto'c, D. oi't o' f A. otV otv, Plur. N. oi'f olf j 
ot's, G. ofay oltiiv, D. 6'tat, A. oiag oia$ oig- 

3. Most nouns in ig, i, vg, v, change t and v into 6, in all the 
cases, except the nominative, accusative, and vocative, singu- 
lar. Substantives in ig and vg generally change og into CD?. 
E. g. 

8. <% (state) S. TO (mustard) 

N. -nohg N. olvi\ni 

G. TIO'AHDC G. an'jjTTfo? 

D. nols'i noi.ii. D. atrjj'TlE 

A. noiiv A. alvyni 

V. noh V. a/'7j7it 

D. (too sfafes) D. 

N.A.V. TroAts N.A.V. 

G. D. TTOyliOiV G. D. 

P. (s^afcs) P. 

N. Tio'ie?? ?ro'>l? N. 

G. Tio'Xewy G. 

D. Tro'Affft(v) D- 

A. 7io>Ua? 7ioAz<? A. 

V. Trolfes 7io'i5 V. airynta 


S. o (cubit) S. TO (city) 

N. HTML'S N. Son 

G. nfaffag G. SffTfog 

D. nrtfti nrjxtt D. aar uam 

A. nijxvv A. aorw 

V. nf t xv V. 

Z>. (too cubits) D. (two cities) 

N.A.V. nfot N.A.V. Seme 

G. D. Tirtfioiv G. D. 

P. (cubits) P. (cities) 

N. Tirjftfg Jirtfsig N. acrrfa KOTJ; 

G. nt'xtcav G. aarttar 

D. 7rr^ftft(') D. mm(r) 

A. 7r?^? ^7y;? A. uana aari] 

V. Ti^tf? Jirjff<? V. uaria 

Ni TE 1. In some instances the genitive of nouns in v$ and 
w is contracted. E. g. jrjyav, nrgitav nrgwv f t utav, 
Such contractions belon to the later Greek. 

NOTK 2. The genitive singular of neuters in / and u very seldom ends in ttt 

NOTE 3. According to the old grammarians, the Attic genitive and dative, 
dual, of nouns in if and v; end in ?. E g. o-sA/s, <rXf>. Such forms, 
however, are not found in any Greek writer of authority. 

NOTE 4. Tlf\is, in the Epic language, often changes t into n. E. g. gen. 

NOTE 5. For the ACCENT of the genitive of nouns in is, us, see above 
( 20. N. 2). 

44. Nouns in tv$ are contracted in the dative singular, 
and in the nominative, accusative, and vocative, plural. They 
generally have tag in the genitive singular. E. g. 

S. 6 (king) P. (kings) 

N. fiaailivg N. fiaatlttg 

G. fiitaiiita; G. fiaailtGiY 

D. ftaaiii'i ^uaiitl D. (iaadtvai^) 

A. (jaatlta A. paaddag paaiitlg 

V. fictadtv V. fiaaiidtg {Saaiitig 

D. (two kings) 
N.A.V. fiaailtf 
G. D. fiaailioiv 

42 INFLECTION OF WORDS. [ 45, 46. 

NOTE 1. The genitive and accusative, singular, are some- 
times contracted. E. g. Iltiquuvg, nttquiiws IleiyanZs' avy- 

NOTE 2. The vowels ta are contracted into , when they 
are preceded by a vowel. E. g. 

NOTE 3. The ending itg of the nominative plural is some- 
times contracted into %g. E. g. Inmvq, lunitg I 

NOTE 4. The lonians very often change s into ij, except 
when it is in the diphthong tv . E. g. fiuoilfve, ^aadrjos. 


45. Indeclinable nouns are those which have only one 
form for all the genders, numbers, and cases. Such are, 

1. The names of the letters of the alphabet. E. g. TO, TOV, 
TW a)i<f, alpha. 

2. The cardinal numbers, from 5 to 100 inclusive. E. g. 
ol, oil, TCI, TWV, roig, TOVJ, TJ nivit, Jive. 

3. All foreign names not Grecized. E. g. o, rov, TW, iov 
p, Adam. 


< 4G. 1. All nouns which have, or are supposed to have, 
more than one nominative, are anomalous. Such are the fol- 

ovoc, y, nightingale, from FONA2, yoratog, yora- 

regular. From AIIASl, G. n, Dual yovure, yovaioiv, 

aydovg, V. atjdol. Plur. yovaTn, yornitav, yo- 

c, ov, o, the infernal re- vnai. 

gions, regular. From AT2, The poets have G. yovvog, 

G. aidog, D. StSi, A. S'idH. D. yowl, Plur. N. A. V. 

?, y, strength, regular. yovva, G. yovvtav. 

From AAS, D. ulxl. yvvr'j, r), woman. The rest is 

dov, ov, TO, slave, regu- from FTNAIS (oxytone), 

lar. From A~NAPAIIOT2!, yvvouxoc;, yvvaixl, yvvaixa, 

D. Plur.v<5pa7io'<5f(nn(EpicX yvrai, Dual yvvaixt, yvvai- 

yow, TO, knee. The rest is xoTv, Plur. yvrulxtg, yvvai- 




, ywai$i, ywciixas, yvral- 

The genitive and dative 
of aJl the numbers take the 
accent on the last syllable, 
contrary to the rule ( 35. 
N. 2). 

<V, ido?, r,, fight, regular. 
From JA2, D. dot. 
12, see ZV- 

ooi 1 , TO, spear. The rest is 
from JOPA2, floocrroc, do- 
Qoni, Dual depart, dvpdioir, 
Plur. dotard, doqdiwr, Sc- 

The poets have G. 6*000?, 
dovgoc, D. 8001, SOVQI, Dual 
doi-Qf, Plur. N. Sovoa, G. 
tfot'ow* 1 , D. uWofofft (Epic). 
orloo?, ov, o, spear-polisher, 
regular. From JOPTZO2, 
V. 3o0v|E. 

tlx(oi>, orog, y, image, regular. 
From EIKJl, G. tlxoi'c, A. 
fixoi, A. Plur. f(/ot',*. 

Zfi-:, o, Jupiter, V. Z*t-. From 
^/^, G. ^o'e, D. ^ii, A. /^/o. 
( 37. R. I.) 

Zt/y, 6, G. Zero's, D. Ziji7, A. 
Zijra, = preceding. 

dtftantav, OVTO:, 6, attendant, 
regular. From OEPAV, A. 
&i(>una, N. Plur. dfQants. 

t^ay, ago;, ichor, regular. Ace. 
Sing, also fcw. 

, ai or o)os, o, cable. From 
KA.10Z, Plur. N. xa'io/, A. 

(H Ionic xaoj;, TO, head, G. 
xapijrof, D. xdg^Tt, xdya, N. 
Plur. xo^eF. From KPA2, 
G. x^TOf, D. xoml, A. TO or 
Tor xoar, Plur. G. xoarwv, 
D. xgaal. From KPAA2, 
G. xrjduTo?, D. xoa'aTt, Plur. 

N. xgdara, A. Tor? 
From KAPHA2, G. . 
roc, D. xaoijrm, Plur. 

ic (me. 

e, xlddo?, ov, o, bough, regular. 
5. From K^1A2, D. xlaSi, D. 

Plur. xiddiat (Epic). 
xoirtaros, ov, o, partaker, reg- 

ular. From , 

Plur. N. xotrurt;, A. xot- 

KPAA2, KPA2, see xa'^ a. 

xotrov, ov, TO, //y, regular. 
From KPIXO2, Plur. N. 
XQir(a, D. XQtrtoi. 

XQOX>], r,?, TI, woof, regular. 
From KPOZ, A. xoo'xa. 

iac contracted ic, o, stone, 
G. Inaos lao?, D. iaett ii', 
A. Aacry Xav, Dual. Idaf iiif, 
Plur. N. h'tat; iiii$, G. iiaiuv 
ia'wv, D. Idtaat (Epic). From 
AAA2(--\ G idov. 

;, o, witness, A. (idgrvr, 
D. Plur. ftitQivai. From 
MAPTTP, jua'fTi-poc, fiaqrv- 
01, &C. 

il, /o?, ij, scourge, regular. 
From M.42TI2, D. JUKOTI 
(contracted from luaorti), A. 

r, TO, dream. The rest is 
from O^>'EIPA2, ort!aroc, 
orf toon i, Dual oW0re, ov- 
^'iotv, Plur. oitlouia, ovti- 
qdrmv, ovit'oaai. 

or.:, TO, ear. The rest is from 
the Doric c5c, euro's, wit, Dual 
wxf, wrolv, Plur. taia, attar, 


ngioSvs, o, old man, A. npe- 
a.JrT, V. nQta3v. The rest is 
from 7rpfff.?i'Tjc, ov. 

In Hesiod a Norn. Plur. 




ngiafivq, o, ambassador, Plur. From y 2TIS, 
N. A. V. TiQiapug, G. ngi- &C. 
ofttiov, D. 7i(jta(}e<n. The rest ramg, u>, o, peacock, regular, 
is from notnj3ivT^g, ov. From TA02, N. Plur. taol. 

jiQoaojnor, ov, TO, face, regular, vdwo, TO, water. The rest is 
From nP02JinA2 t Plur. from 'TAA2, vdawg, vdom, 
N. ngoataiiuTa, D. TiQoaojna- &-C. 

01. From vdog, D. Sing, vdei 

KQoxooq, ov, ^, ewer, regular. (Epic). 

From UPOXOT2, D. Plur. tlog, ov, o, son, regular. From 

'TIET2, G. vtio?, &-C. like 
fiuodevg. From 'TIS come 
the Epic G. vlog, D. vu, A. 
via, Dual, vlt, Plur. N. vlf?, 
D. vidai and t'iat, A. viotg. 
', vjq, ?;, battle, regular. 
From *T2MI2, D. vor^i. 

(like jSovai from 

nvg, nvQog, nvql, 10, fire. From 

J1TPON, Plur. N. A. -nvgu, 

G. nvQ(av, D. nvgo~iq. 
axMQ, TO. The rest is from 

2KA2, axaiog, axarl, &-C. 
arnycav, ovog, y, drop, regular. 

From 2TAS, N. Plur. az- 


ov, 6, row, regular. 

s, y, swallow, regu- 
lar. From XJMIJJl, V. 

, see ouj. 

2. Nouns, which have only one nominative, but more than 
one form for any of the other cases, are anomalous. Such 
are the following : 

;, to or wo?, ^, threshing- /j.vxi]g, ov or ^TO?, o, mushroom, 
floor. oQvig, i&og, a, f), bird, regular. 

ysliwg, <a or wroj, o, laughter. In the Plur. also N. A. 6'0- 
&t[jig, tog or nog or idog or jT? or ogvtig, G. ogvtoiv* 

larog, ri, justice. ndrQcag, w or (aog, o, paternal 

iSgwg, <a or wTog, 6, sweat. uncle. 

; ado'?, n, key. Also Ace. arjg, tog or IJTO'C, o, mo?7t. 

[^, ^t^o? and x f Q?> *!> hand, 
D. Plur. always xtqal. The 
forms G. x f Qo?> D. ^^/, Dual 
Xtigolv, are poetic. 

Sing, xtelv, A. V. Plur. 

, ta or (oog, o, maternal 

NOTE 1. All proper names in yg gen. tog ( 42), have ij or 
ijv in the accusative singular. E. g. 

'AQiaTOtpdvtjg, tog ace. *A()iaTO<f>dvr] and ijv. 

NOTE 2. Some nouns in ig have t5o? or iog in the genitive. 
E. g. 

gen. n^vidoq or (iqviog, resentment. 

47, 48.] ADJECTIVES. 45 

NOTE 3. In the Ionic dialect, the accusative singular of 
nouns in ijj gen. of, often ends in m. E. g. Fvyrjg, ov, ace. 
riiyta for I'vyyv. 

NOTE 4. A few proper names in 17?, ovg, and v?, are de- 
clined according to the following examples : 

'lavvi)s, G. 'lawfj, D. 'lawy, A. ^Iavrr,v, V. 'lawy. 
riovs, G. Jloii, D. Hot;, *A. riow, V. rSloi;. 
Jiovvs, G. Aiovv, D. ^toxv, A. Jiorvv, V. Jiovv, 


47. Defective nouns are those of which only some of the 
cases are in use. Such are the following : 

eiTjatat, wv, ol, Etesian winds. 'Olvpma, ttv, T, Olympic 

No singular. games. No singular. 

yga, an A. Plur. used only in 6Vap, TO, dream, used only in 

the formula, ^a yiguv, to the N. and A. Sing. 

show favor. O2 or 0220N, TO, eye, Dual 

"la&uia, (av, jet, Isthmian games. N. A. oaat, Plur. G. ooouv, 

No singular. D. oaaoic, old oaaoiai. 

Jug, o, lion, A. ity. ocptio?, TO, adcafitage, used 

, o, j/?ne /zncn, D. XtW, A. only in the N. Sing. 

Aha. Uv&ia, o>v, ^a, Pythian games. 

), TJS, ^, armpit, used only No singular. 

in the phrase vno pali}?, TV, used only in the formula 

under the arm, clandestinely. ta TUV, O thoit. 

IVt/4fa, 63v, T, Nemean games. Snag, TO, waking, as opposed 

No singular. to cVp, used only in the 

NIW, i), snow, only A. vlya. N. and A. Sing. 


48. 1. In adjectives of three endings, the 
feminine is always of the first declension ; the mas- 
culine and the neuter are either of the second or 
of the third. 

2. Adjectives of two endings are either of the 
second or of the third declension ; the feminine 
is the same with the masculine. 




3. Adjectives of one ending are either of the first 
or of the third declension. Such adjectives are 
either masculine, feminine, or common. 


$ 49. 1. Most adjectives in og have three endings, og, y, ov. 
E. g. 0090$, 00977, aocpov. 

When og is preceded by a vowel or by Q, the feminine 
has a instead of y. E. g. a$iog, dl-la, uiov' [naxgog., juaxoof, 

S. o (wise) 

^ (wise) 

TO (wise) 

N. aofpog 



G. 00901! 



D. 0090! 



A. aocpov 



V. coys' 




N.A.V. 00901 



G. D. aocpolv 




N. 0090^ 

G offal 


G. ao(p(0v 



D. 009015 



A. 00901^5 



V. 00901 



So all PARTICIPLES in og. E. g. 

^ (worthy) 

S. o (worthy) 

at 05 



D. t'i 

A. ai-i 

V. & 


N.A.V. J 
G. D. < 


alia iv 

TO (worthy) 

49-1 ADJECTITKS. 47 


N. iiot t&ot alia 




V. ttltoi altat 

NOTE 1. Adjectives in oog have TJ in the feminine. Except 
when oo? is preceded by g. E. g. 

anio'oc, arj).6rj, 
a&gooq, a&qoa, u&ooo'f. 

2. Many adjectives in o? have only two endings, o$, or. 
E. g. Tjar/oc, ^av/oy. 

Particularly, compound adjectives in o; have two endings 
E. g. fjn^jjiutOj, intyi,uiov. 

But compound adjectives in xog have three endings. 

S. o, 17 (guief) TO (quit?) 





V. ^ffi'^s T,avzov 


N.A.V.r>i> ar^w 

G. D. 




D. ^ai'^oic t;ai-^oi5 



NOTE 2. In Attic writers and in the poets, many adjec- 
tives in o:, which commonly have three endings, are found 
with only two. E g. o, r, eitv&f$oj, TO ii.ivSiqov, free. 

NOTE 3. The ending of the feminine is long. Except 
the feminine of o7oc, divine, and a few others. 

NOTK 4. For the ACCKKT of the genitive plvral of the feminxne of bary- 
tone adjectives and participles in , see above ( 31. N. 2). 

48 INFLECTION OF WORDS. [ 50, 51. 

3. Adjectiltiv in tog, ta, iov, and oog, or}, oov, are contracted 
( 32 : 34). E. g. 

xgvatag x^ va n?> golden. 

ayyvyovg, vtQyvQia ayyvgn, ayyvytov apyvgovv, G. 
ov, oiiuyv^iaq df>yv(jiii<;, / silver. 

an).6o<; unlov?, <JUI).OTJ unli), anioov ankovv, G. ankoov anhov, 
g, simple. 

NOTE 5. For the ACCENT of some of the contracted forms of adjectives in 
tag, oaf, see above ( 34. N. 2j. 


5O. Adjectives in we; have two endings, w, utv. They 
are declined like vtoig and uvtfyfwv ( 33). E. g. 

O 0, 1] 


10 (fertile 


















, fvyfta 


G. D. 




















51. Adjectives in vg, gen. tog, have three endings, 
tia, v. E. g. ylvxvg, ykvxila, ylvxv. 

S. o (sweet) ^ (sweet) TO (sweet) 

N. ylvxvg ylvxtin ylvxv 

G. ylvxeog yXvxtlag yXvxsog 

D. ylvxfi ylvxii yivxsi.a y/.vxti ylvxii 

A. yhvxvv ykvxtiav yJ.vxv 

V. ylvxv ylvxtla ylvxv 

52, 53.] ADJECTIVES. 49 


N.A.V. yivxtt yivxtla yiixie 

G. G. yivxioiv yivxsiaiv ylvxtoir 

N. yivxstg yivxtig yivxttai ylvxjp 

G. yivxeav ylvxtiuv ylvxswv 

D. yivxdai(t>) yivxtlaig yivxlai(v) 

A. yivxia; ylvxtig ylvxtlug yivxsa 

V. ylvxttg yivxus yivxiiai yivxsa 

NOTE 1. The Ionics make fern, ea or ty. E. g. ^tQ-vg, 
fia&ia or fia&tij. 

NOTE 2. The poets sometimes have mas. and fern, ty, neut. 
v. E. g. o, i\ ii$vg, TO i t dv. 


52* 1. Adjectives in r t g, gen. tog, have two endings, 
i) S -, tg. E. g. ; 

S. o, j (true) .'. to (true) 



D. airj&ii ulr t &il aJLij&ti 

A. a).r t dia 



N.A.V. a^ 

G. D. atoftiotv alrjdoiy 



G. alr-d-iuv euijtftuy airj&ftav 

D. ai.ijds'aifj') aijj^ff< 

A. air, Slag rtly&rtg tilr t dfa 


2. Adjectives in jc, gen. to?, have two endings, ig, i. E. g. 
o/?, i'dtji, G. ftgiog, knowing. 

ADJECTIVES IN A?, EIS, n^, or?, rs, Jix, JLS. 

53. I. Adjectives in ug, gen. arroc, have three endings, 
daa, av. E. g. na?, Tiacia, nav. 

































E. g. 






rvtfiaaa, ivynv, G. 

So all PARTICIPLES in ?. 

REMARK 1. These two adjectives in as, 
have aiva in the feminine. Thus, 

fii).uc, [isliuva, (j&av, G. ^uiiavoc, black. 
ruXug, Tulcuva, laknv, G. zAi'oc, unfortunate. 


2. Adjectives in tig, gen. IVTO?, have three endings, tig, 
taan, tv. E. g. ^p/f/?, x n Q' Lfa(}a > X<*Qi (V - 

S. o (graceful) r, (graceful) TO (graceful) 



G. D. , 




53.] ADJECTIVES. 51 

NOTE 1. The endings ijstg, riiaaa, ijtv, are contracted into 
, i)t: E. g. 

ifjg, Tifirjfaaa rifiTJaaa, Tiftrjtv Ti/iJjy, G. itfi^t 
g, valuable. 

The endings 6tig, oiaaa, otv, are contracted into ovg, ovaaa, 
ovv. E. g. 

nlaxofig Ti/laxovc, niaxosaaa niaxovaaa, niaxosv nlaxovv, Of. 
nlaxovno?, flat. 

REMARK 2. The dative plural of adjectives in us forms an exception to 
the general rule ( 1 2. 5). 

3. Participles in elg have three endings, tic, ilaa, iv. E. g. 
^~ ! g, ii&tiaa, Ti&tv. 

S. o (placing) % (placing) TO (placing) 

N. ?i&flg ^l&il(la iiSiv 



A. ri&dvra ii&iiaav n&sv 



G. D. ji&svjoiv ii&slaaiy ii&inoiv 


N. ti&ivtfg ii&iiaai ii-&ivia 

G. Ti&tvitav ii&tia<av u&ivitav 

D. n&ilai(v) iidelaaig ii&tiai(v) 

A. Ti&snag n&flaag Tt#eVr 

V. ii&tvifg iidtiaai ii&lvra 

4. There are but two adjectives in 77? o jsgyv, y . , 

TO riotv, G. rsosvog, tender ; and 6 agar t v or aq^rjv, TO Soasv or 
aggev, G. agaivog or ag'gtvog, male. 

5. Participles in ov? have three endings, ovg, ovaa, ov. 
E. g. didovg, didovaa, didov. 

S. o (giving) % (giving) T 6 (giving) 

JN. oioovg didovaa didov 

G. didovrog didovaijg didonog 

D. didovn didovarj didovii 

A. didovra didovaav didov 

V. didovg didovaa didov 




G. D. dldot'TOlV 




N. SidovTcg 



G. didovroiv 



D. didovai(v) 



A. 8i8ovjag 



V. diSovrtg 



6. Participles in vg have three endings, 

vg, wot, vv. E. g. 

ixvvg, dttxvvaa, dtixvvv. 

S. o (showing) % 


TO (sJtowing) 

N. dtixvvg 



G. dtixvi/vTog 



D. dfixvvvri 



A. dfixvvvra 



V. 5ftxvi;$ 






G. D. deixvvvrotv 




N. ^fiXVWTf? 






D. dXFV(J((v) 



A. dsixvvriag 



V. ^ftxrvVrf? 



7. Adjectives in wv, gen. 01 

>iog, have three 

endings, tav, ovaa, 

E. g. exw'v, exow, exo'v. 

/S^. o (willing) % 


TO (willing) 

N. exwy 



G. ixoVro( 



D. kxovTi 



A. ixoVra 









G D. IxOVttHX 























ex one? 



So all PARTICIPLES in wr. E. g. rvmaiv, rvmovaa, nmror, 
G. TTTTTorro; ' qpiifW, qiliovaa, cpdlov, G. (fiteonog, contracted 
(fiAojr, yUovaa, qiiovv, G. (pi 

Non 2. The feminine of adjectives in a,-, i/y, ai;j, Cj, , gen. wf, u 
formed by dropping o; of the genitive, and annexing tot. E. g. 

;, T<ti-i; fem. iraa-a 12. 5) 

Ti3-s/;, TiSi-^ ' TiihIVa ibid.) 

S;5)J,-, SiS/vro;, ^iliura (ibid.) 

Su!<';, Ss;xyT3; ' ^.tx.ivfa. (ibid.) 

lxai>, ixo'yra; ' \Kiufat ibid.) 

%*c'iti{, ^{/IT( ' %*itrra ( 12. N. 2). 

8. Adjectives in wv, gen. orog, have two endings, y, or. 



D. ntnovi 

A. ninova ninov 

V. ninov ninov 


G. D. TisTioroti' ntnoroir 


N. Titnorf? ninova 

G. ntnovtav ntnovav 

D. 7r7Toat(v) 7rjro(jt(v 

A. ntnovnf a r.,1- ninova 

V. Ji7iovf5 ninora 

9. Participles in ? have tnree endings, f, vlo, o?. E. g. 
Trv9>i;to, Tervqpo?, having struck. 




[ 54, 55. 





D. j^^^ 
N.A. V. Tmrqpo'te 
G D. 













54. The following are some of the adjectives which have 
only one ending : o /5A7j'e, frog ' f>, r\ /5pw?, wrog" o, ^ ayvwq t 
WTO?' 6, 7 adfiT)?, i}iog' o, T) aiyl\ty> t nog' o, i\ at'doy;, nog ' o 
ai'&wv, o)vog ' o CKX^UTJC, ^TO^ ' o, 77 uvakxig, iSog ' o, 17 unii\v, r)vog ' 
o, r\ agyris, ijiog Of irog ' o, rj ("^TT|, yog ' o /5Ad|, xog ' 6, J^ 
dgopug, ddog ' o l&doi'Ttlg, ov ' o, r\ iitr\lM\, yog ' o, T) 'dn^vg^ 
vdog ' r) tnirt!;, xog ' o, i] IVQIV, tvog ' o, ^ tvtoip, nog ' o, y yh$, 
xog ' o, f, ^fii&v^g, yrog ' o, rj Inndg, a-Sog ' o fidxvtg, agog ' o, i\ 
Qulfov, tavog ' o, r\ paxQxvxrjv, srog ' o, r\ ptavv!;, xog ' o, TJ 
dg, dSog ' o, TJ 7ra/5Aw'y/, nog ' o, q nagmt).^, yog ' o nivrig, 
Tjrog ' o ffoAvcti'l, xog ' o 7rpo/5i?;'?> ^fog " o, ^ vnoqdg, dSog ' o, n 

Add to these the compounds of #0/|f, ^wpaf, nlg 
E. g. o Qy&o&QiS, JQixog ' o, rj xaiUnaig, at 3g " o, 17 

Norn. Some of these are also used as neuters, but ooly in the genitive and 


55. Compound adjectives, of which the last component 
part is a substantive, follow the declension of that substantive. 


Such adjectives may have a neuter, when it can be formed 
after the same analogy. E. g. 

ivzagtg, i, G. irog, graceful, from ti; %dot?, nog 
ivtlmg, i, G. idoc, hopeful, from tv, ttmg, idog 
dinovg, ovv, G. oSoc, two-footed, from Sis, noi-g, nodog 
eedctxovg, v, G. voc, tearless, from a-, ddxov, vog 

v, ov, G. ovoc, happy, from tv, daluwr, ovog 
, oo, G. ooog, magnanimous, from uiyag, Tjr 

NOTE 1. The compounds of noiig generally have tdog in the 
genitive. E. g. 

uTioiig, i, G. tdog, vagabond. 

NOTE 2. The compounds of ur^r^, naryy, and y^r mind, 
change ij into w. E. g. 

uprjToiQ, OQ, G. oqog, motherless 
undidi/i, of, G. o^og, fatherless 
au(f()(i)v, or, G. orog, discreet. 

NOTE 3. The compounds of -/iicag, laughter, and xioag, horn, 
are either of the second or third declension. E. g. 
g, wv, G. w or fajog,fbnd of laughter 
g, <av, G. to or ujog, having three horns. 


56.. The following list contains most of the anomalous 
and defective adjectives. 

etv ar d y'vg, neut. tv and i]v, good, G. sf,og, A. uv and f t vv, neut. 
Plur. G. fumy, of good things. 

The neuter tv, contracted from fv, means, well. 
<og, Nom. mas. living, alive. The rest is from the regular 

uiya, great, is declined in the following manner : 

TO (great) 

S. o (great) 

y (great) 

N. ptyag 


G. utydlov 


D. utydlw 


A. utyav 


V. utydlt 



N.A.V. utydlta 


G. D. ptydioiv 









N. [tfydioi 



G. fitydkwv 



D. fifydioig 



A. (j.tydkovg 

V, tlSYuioL 



Observe, that all the cases, except the nominative and 
accusative singular, masculine and neuter, come from the 
obsolete METAA02. 

The vocative singular fifydcls is very rare. 

nUwg,full, borrows its feminine from nUog. Thus, nUtag, nUa, 
nUoiv. In composition it has only two endings, wg, tav, ( 50.) 

nokvg, nolly, nokv, much, is declined as follows : 

TO (much) 


o (mucli) 

% (much) 






















G. TioAAwj' TroAAw^ no),),mv 

D. noi.'kolg 7ioAA~5 Troi/tol? 


The dual is of course wanting. 

Observe, that all the cases, except the nominative and 
accusative singular, masculine and neuter, come from noUog, 
r), 6v, which is used by the lonians. 

The epic poets decline nolvg like ylvxvg' thus, nolvg, noliia, 
nolv, G. nokiog, 

UO?, meek, borrows its feminine and neuter from ngavg, nguiia, 

nQtxv, G. ngasog. 
atg, 6, v\, safe, neut. amv, A. atav, A. Plur. a<ag, neut. Plur. aa, 

the rest from the regular awog, a, or. The feminine aa is 

g>govSog, t], ov, gone, used only in the Nominative, of all genders 

and numbers. 




57. 1. Adjectives in og are compared by dropping g, 
and annexing tt^og for the comparative, and raiog for the 
superlative. If the penult of the positive be short, o is 
changed into w. E. g. 

aocpog, teise, aoffUTtgog, wiser, aocptuTcnog, wisest 

aiifiog, dishonored, aTiftoifgo 

atfivog, venerable, aipvoitgog, 

NOTE 1. In general, o remains unaltered when it is pre- 
ceded by a mute and a liquid. (^ 17. 3.) E. g. nvxvog, dense, 

REMARK 1. In a few instances Homer changes into even when the 
penult of the positive is long. E. g. xax%tiia{, *ax5jtjrso,-. 

NOTE 2. A few adjectives in o? are compared according to 
the following examples : 

anovSalog, anovdaisaitgog, anovSatsaiatog 

REMARK 2. Those in oog are always compared by 
taiarog. E. g. 

etnloog, anlosaTtgog, aniotaicnog, contracted u 

2. Adjectives in vg, gen. tog, are compared by dropping g, and 
annexing tegog, -ictiog. E. g. 

o$vg, sharp, oSvrtgog, ojJraro?. 

3. These two adjectives, fitlag and roia?, drop og of the 
genitive, and annex T^OC, TTO?. Thus, 

ftfotf, avog, 

tdiaf, avog, laldntQos, raidnaiog. 

4. Adjectives in ?j? gen. tog, and etg gen. trrog, shorten 
and tig into eg, and annex rtgog, jarog. E. g. 


NOTE 3. "Yivtr.t, ias, false, has also comparative ^ivViffri^f. 
Ylitm, tire;, ]>nor, follows the analogy of adjectives in tif, gen. tat ' thus, 
fttlffTt^ii, Ttviffrartf. 

5. Adjectives in tar, gen. orog, drop og of the 'genitive, and 
annex eaifQog, taTcnog. E. g. 

ovog, a(a(p^ortartQog, 

6. The adjectives w^7r, S^a^tg, /?A|, puxuy, are compared 
as follows:* 



NOTE 4. Substantives denoting an employment or character 
are sometimes compared like adjectives. E. g. paadivi;, king, 
fiaaile.iiT(>oc, more kingly, (Juadtmuiog, most kingly ; 
thief, xfamlaTetTog, very thievish. 

NOTE 5. The pronouns do not admit of different .degrees in their significa- 
tion. Nevertheless the comedians, for the sake of exciting laughter, compare 
xvTOf in the following manner : auras, himself, avrViga;, himself-er, avrdrarts, 
hinutelf-est, ipsissimus. 


58. 1- Some adjectives in vg drop this ending, and annex 
Tcot> for the comparative, and laiog for the superlative. E. g. 
tjdvg, pleasant, rjdicav, ijdiaTog- 

2. Comparatives in u>v are declined according to the follow- 
ing example : 

8. o, y (plcasanter) TO (pleasanter) 
N. rjdlcav r,Siov 

G. rjdlovog ijdlovoe 

D. rjdlovi rjdlovt, 

A. rjdi'ova rjdtut ydtov 


N. A. fjdiove rjSlove 

G. D. tjdiovoiv fidiovoiv 


N. r t dlovtg ySlovg fjdlova 

G. ydiovdH' ydiorwv 

D. r)5loai(v) r t dloat(v) 

A. rjdlovag rjSlovg rjdlova 


Observe, that the accusative singular masculine and feminine, 
and the nominative and accusative plural of all genders, drop 
the v, and contract the two last syllables. 

NOTE 1. A few adjectives in us form their comparative by dropping the last 
syllable of the positive and annexing ttut or TT. E. g. 
rcc%vs. Jut, -rifttn 
fxtSiti, (l?e]i, frirrtn. 

NOTE 2. KaaTv;, jxitKrful, changes a into i or u \a the comparative : thus, 
XCXTV;, xsxffrut, xeiff, xatirrai. 58. N. 1:2. N. 3.) 

The Doric x&fftn for x^'.tfut is formed in the following manner : xaar^i, 
xiitffi*i, xciiffur, xctfpm. . 5 > 58. N. 1 : 26. 2 11:6. N.; 

NOTES These two adjectives, p.i-y<t; and X/y/, form their comparative by 
dropping the last syllable, and annexing . Thus fdya.;, /** (Attic /) -, 
.%*,. (^ 2. N. 3.) 


59. 1. The comparison of an adjective is anomalous 
when the adjective has, or is supposed to have, more than 
one positive. 

2. The comparison is defective, when the adjective has no 
positive in use. 

3. The following list contains most of the adjectives which 
are anomalous or defective in their comparison. 

aya&6f, good audi-cov 

or xofinav xciiiiuio 
f.<a'i(i)i or ).o,(,tt> iiaiaroj or 

'Aft!m, the proper comparative of eifr>s, belongs to the Epic language. 
For jSsXr/&, ^utui, the epic poets have /SiX-rjasy, Xfnjf. 
KfTBf, the positive of xa<!ffur, xsaTurrc;, occurs in Homer. 
For fcilrirvt;, the Doric dialect has pitrirrsi. 

For xttiffTut, the Ionic has xfirrui, and the Doric //. 58. N. 2.) 
The poets have xaanrrt; for xearifTtf. ( 26. 2.) 

The Epic language has also compar. <pi(ri*, s , snperL <fitirr, f or fifrxrtt. 
The regular comparative and superlative, *ya$art, ts , a-ya$*T* r * t do not 
occur in good writers. 

Qo.: ( If^XT^), ugly, oia//tur, uia^taTog. The comparative 
f is not much used. 

, painful, alyin-6rt 9 os or aiyltav, oi/siro'raroj 



or ukytaTog. The regular forms alyetvoTtQos, 
are more usual in the masculine and feminine. 

aptlvwv, see aya&og. 

vtQfiwv, IxQiaiog, see ay ados. 

P&Titav, (l&Tiarog, see aya&og. 

fJ.vtXi'g, see pixoog. 

EAEFXT2, infamous, ttiyxicnog. The plural of the positive 
occurs in Homer (11. 4, 242 : 24, 239). 
j, last, a defective superlative. 
(EXOT2), hostile, fyfr^tyog or t'x&lav, tx&Qoraiog or 

f IIKT2, see xaxog. 

xaxog, bad xaxlwv xdxiaiog 

The forms %fffuv, rutirros, come from 'HKT2. ( 58. N. 1.) 
The regular comparative X.CCXUTIBS; is poetic. 
For %i!gvy and V<ra/y, the lonians have %tp'iut and 'i<rtrt*. 
xalo? (KAAT2), beautiful, xaUinv, xdUiaroi;. The doubling 

of the A seems to be an accidental peculiarity. 
XMQQQJV, see ayudog. 
K.EPAT2, crafty, xtgdlow, xsySiorog, 
XQUTVt;, see otyu&og. 

xvdgog (KT/IT2), glorious, xvSlwv, xvSiarog. 
XVVTSQOS, more impudent, a defective comparative, derived from 

xvoiv, xvvog, dog. ^ 

lio'i'ur, Xmiarog, see ayudog. 

fiaxQog (MAKTS, MHKTZ), long, unxyoTtgog and (tdaaov, pct- 
y.QOiaiog and ^xtarog. (^ 58. N. 1.) 

q, great, ^tl^wv (Ionic ^f'^wr), (ifyiaTog. (^ 58. N. 3.) 
small ibiaaav ei 

The forms \\tirfav, l^d^ifTti, come from iXa^wf. ( 58. N. 1.) The 
superlative purree is poetic. 

otiyog, little, oA/w', okiyiaiog. ( 58. N. 3.) 
olxiQog (OIKTTS}, pitiable, olxrltav, otxnarog or olxTQOiaiog. 
O^AOTJ^O?, younger, onioiarog, youngest, Epic. It is derived 

from onlor, weapon. 
nenwv, ripe, ninalifQog, ntnaliarog. 
nl(av, fat, moifgog, nioraTog. 
TroAt'c, much, nltlwv or n).itav, ninarog. 
nQOTfQog, former, nQwiog, first, derived from the preposition Ttpo, 

Qadtog (^PAT2\ easy, yuwv, Qn 




The lonians say ptii^nf, ftittn, f^7rrts. 
The epic poets have fitirtftf, 

(OAXT2), swift, tax'ttav commonly ddaatar, 
( 14. 3 : 53. N. 1.) 
e^ifQog, higher, vniqwioj, highest, derived from the preposi- 
tion VTISQ, above. 

, later, vaTonog, latest. 
2, high, vyiiuv, vyiaiog. 

, brighter, gpaavTcrro?, brightest, derived from 

QTUTos, qps'o/ffToc, see tt 
%fl{jiaTO?, xitjsiwr, see xaxoj. 

NOTK. In a few instances new comparatives and superlatives are formed from 
adjectives, which are already in the comparative or superlative degree. E. g. 
*rterts from -rurtt, ^teVjof from ^i/w. 



6O. 1. The numerals iig, 5vo, 
, are declined as follows : 

, and Tsaaa^f? or iri- 


o (one) 





D. TU, T, TW (fzro) 
N. A. Svo and 5i'ta 
G. dvolv and dviiv 
D. Svolr 


N. T? 


D. TpfO/(v) 


P. ot, at (four) 

N. itaactQtg 



A. Ttaauou; 

P. (/wo) 
N. A. wanting 

tu (three) 

ra (four) 





Jvo is found undeclined. 

2. The cardinal numbers from 5 to 100, inclusive, are in- 
declinable ( 45. 2). 







5. TttVTt 

6. I'| 

7. (.ma. 

8. 0X10} 

9. ivvia 

10. 8ixct 

11. ivStxa 

12. dudixa 

13. dsxmyeii; or 

14. dtxa: 


15. de 

16. dsxai^ or xxui.dt'xu 

17. dfxusTiiti or 7rrax 

18. (JtxaoxroJ or oxTcaxaidtxu 

19. dexaei'vza or iwtaxaibixa 

Of* " / \ 

ll. ftxoai^vj 

21. tt'xoat ft?, or tig xa? st'xoat 


NOTE 1. The compounds o 
?) have nom. plur. ovdivsg, ^ 


dtaxoaioi, ctt, a 
n, a 
at, a 

7iivnjcxo<Jioi, at, o 
sjuxo'cftot, at, a 
e.7iTttxo(jioi, at, a 101, at, a 
fi'i'txy.oaiOL, at, a 
^t'Atot, at, a 
dus^Liioi, at, a 
in 1 (11 oi, at, a 
20000. dtapVQtot, at, a 

(ovds, sic) and ^j^5f 
, insignificant persons. 

NOTE 2. The ACCENT of the feminine ^u/a is anomalous in 
the genitive and dative. ( 31. N. 2.) 

NOTE 3. /IfxotTQH?, dexctTtaaaQtc, and the first component 
part of Tfaaoigeaxaidfxa, are declined like TQSI*; and Tdaaagis 

NOTE 4. Thousands are formed by prefixing the numeral 
adverbs ( 62. 4) to ^t'JUot. 

Tt'ns q/ thousands are formed by prefixing these adverbs to 


NOTE 5. Instead of any number of tens -(-8 or 9, a circumlocution with 
Siv (from Jiw, to want) is often used. E. g. AwV JloKTt; dx.<iat, twenty 
wanting two, simply eighteen. 'Etas Siovris roiaxovra, thirty wanting one, 
simply twenty-nine. 

This principle applies also to ordinals. E. g. ' Jiav iixtffrot frag, the 
nineteenth year. 

The participle Sav (from Vtu, am wanting) with its substantive is sometimes 
put in the geniiive absolute. E. g. TLtvrrix,ov<ra. pia; Itnva-ni, forty-nine. So 
with ordinals, 'Eve; Ssavra; r^ntxagrca in/, in the twenty-ninth year. 


Nora 6. DIALECTS. The dialectic peculiarities of tbe cardinal number* are 
it follows : 

1. Epic 7* for pi*, JS for in. 

2. Epic $, $i/, declined throughout. 

4. Ionic -riffff^is, Doric rir-retti or T*<rjif, u-Eolic x'auoif, poetic dat plur. 

TTgst(7/ for TirTa***. 

5. Doric rifin. 

12. Ionic and poetic SM!?S and 2i>4xa<0i*' 

14. Ionic rtffftiff*xiliK<L, indeclinable. 

20. Doric UX.O.TI, Epic It'nufi. 

30, 40, 80, 2OO, 3OO. Ionic TJ/*T, Tievsjrxai'Ta, yS**aT, tni*irw, 

9OOO, 1000O. Old l>!< 


61. The ordinal numbers are, 

1st. TIOWTO?, i\, ov 30th. raiaxoaros, TJ, ov 

2d. dsvtSQoq, a, ov 40th. raaao^axoaroV, r)> * 

3d. ^QiTog, r), or 50th. TTfrrjjxoaTo'?, ^', oV 

4th. TT?roc, ?, oy 60th. gtjxoarog, y, ov 

5th. nifiniog, i\, ov 70th. k^So^xotnog, if, oV 

6th. "XTOC, TJ, ov 80th. o/^oTjxoardc, 17, ov 

7th. f8o[iog, i}, ov 90th. ryyfi;xooro,-, TJ, oV 

bth. oydoos, i], ov 100th. exaroaroc, ij, ov 

9th. ivvavog, T), ov 200th. diaxoaioarog, r h ov 

10th. dsxuTog, rj, ov 300th. To/xoaioaToc, y, ov 

llth. ii Ssxarog, TJ, ov 400th. TfT^axoaioaTo'c, ij, o'r 

12th. do)dtxaro?, rj, ov 500th. TiivTaxoaioaio*, y, ov 

13th. rQiaxaidfxmog, r n ov 600th. flwxoa/oaro?, r n ov 

14th. TtaaaoitxnidixaTOj, t], ov 700th. tmaxoatoajog, y, ov 

15th. iiinexaidixa-ios, rj, ov 800th. oxwxoaioare?, 17, ov 

16th.'txxt(5xroc, TJ, ov 900th. tVvaxoajoazoc, ij, ov 

17th. imaxaidfxctTog, r,, ov 1000th. ^itooTo'?, ij' f ov 

18th. oxTwxatdsxaroc, 17, ov 10000th. zn'oiodtoV, /', o'v 

19th. ivvfaxaidixutog, TJ, ov 20000th. diaiivQioaiog, r\, ov 

20th. ftxoaroc, r/, o'v <^ c - 

24 St. OxOOTOf TTOWTOC, Or TlOfU- 

TOJ xoi 

NOTE 1 . Homer has rir^araf for rirn^ra , l&iftetrei for t&eftas, iytox'rtt 
for y3?, ilturas for T<I; or inaro;. Herodotus has Ti<nri{ir**<2t*aT>i for 


NOTK 2. A mixed number, of which the fractional part is ^, is expressed by 
a circumlocution, when, it denotes a corn or weight. E. g. Tiifvrrn rtu.iuia.7ti 

64 INFLECTION OF WORDS. [ 62, 63. 

= 4i mints; but Hirrt rifjup.ia.~a, = I = 2i| mince. *EvvaT ripird^airit* 
= 8i| talents ; but 'Ema ^u/raAavra = | = 4 talents. Tirafrn *fi.ifi 
fiaKov = 3^ o6o#; but Ti(T<nzj fiftituGoXtt = 


62. 1. The numeral substantives end in ?, gen. a 
feminine. E. g. fiords, monad, unit, dvdg, tgidg, triad, ntvidg, 
'?, ifidofidg, oySodq, tvvtdg, dexdg, sxaiovrdg, jfiitag, [ivgidg, 

2. The numeral adjectives in Trioo? or nldaiog correspond 
to those in fold, in English. E. g. 7rAoo?, simple, SmXoog or 
dmidaiog, double, twofold, rgmloog or T(i7r>laaio?, triple, three- 
fold, iKtQa-nlooq or TTp7ria'aio?, quadruple, fourfold. 

3. The numeral adjectives answering to the question no- 
aralog, on what day 1 end in cilog. They are formed from the 
ordinals. E. g. dsvrtQciiog, on the second day, rQirdiog, on the 
third day. 

4. The numeral adverbs answering to the question noadxtg, 
how often 1 end in dxig. E. g. mQuxig, four times, nsvrdxig, 
Jive times. 

Except the first three, anal, once, dig, twice, and -iplg, thrice. 


63. The article o, the, is declined as follows : 





























































NOTE 1. For QUAKTITT, ACCKKT, and DIALECTS, see above ( 31. N. 1, 
2, 3 : 33. N. 2, 3, 4.) 

We only observe here that the Dorians have TW, rai, for w', /'. 

NOTE 2. The original form of the article was TO2, from which come the 
oblique cases, the Doric forms mi, rai, and the adverb r*f. 






64. The personal pronouns are iyu, av, 7. The nomi- 
native 7 is obsolete. 

8. (/) 

S. (tliou) 

S. (he, she, it) 

N. ty<a 

N. av 

N. 7_ 

G. fpov, pov 

G. aov 

G ou 

D. i poi, poi 

D. aot 

D. oi 

A. ips, ps 

A. as 


D. (we two) 

D. (you two) 

D. (they two) 

N.A.yeuV, via 

N.A. acpta'i, otftt') 

N.A. orqcots' 

G.D. vaiiv, vutv 

G.D. aqcwiV, acpiav 

G.D. aqcwtV 

P. (we) 

P. (ye, yew) 

P. (they) 

N. ijptig 

N. t^a? 

N. aqpfTf n. (jqpf'o 

G. tjpitiv 

Gc - 


D. ijpiv 

D. I'jUtV 

D. a(plat(v) 

A. rjpag 

A. i-pus 

A. aqfa? n. gqpj'a 

REMARK. The dual j w' and 
out the iota subscript ; thus, j- 

oj are very often written with- 

NOTE 1. The particle ye is often appended to the pronouns 
of the first and second person for the sake of emphasis. E. g. 
iy<a-/s, I indeed, for my part; at' yt, than indeed. The accent 
of tyw/t is irregular ( 22. 3). 

NOTE 2. DIALECTS. The dialectic peculiarities of the per- 
sonal pronouns are exhibited in the following table. 

>, Ionic and Doric e'^t/, //H5. 

Sing. N. Epic and Doric 
G. Epic tpio, fpsloj 
D. Doric ipiv. 
Plur, N. Ionic ijpieg, Epic cippi?, Doric jus; (long ). 
G. Ionic r^iuv, Epic )/mW. 
D. Epic wiujut or KW^UJV, poetic ^V (short i), yplv. 
A. Ionic 7/jus'a?, Epic apps, Doric /i (long a), poetic 
ypag (short a). 


Sing. N. Doric TV, Epic 

G. Epic aso, atlo, as&sv, rtolo, Ionic and Doric atv, 
Doric also TIV or rtvg. 

D. Doric TIV, rtiv, Ionic and Doric TO/. 

A. Doric TS, rlv, TV (enclitic). 
Plur. N. Ionic v^ef?, Epic 7^??, Doric vfisg (long v). 

G. Ionic VjUiW, Epic vptltav. 

D. Epic 8/jfit or v^tfiiv, poetic -u/uV (short i), v/iev. 

A. Ionic vfidas, Epic t/'^s, Doric V^E (long v), poetic 
Vfids (short a). 


Sing. G. Epic "o, flo, t&fv, etto, Ionic and Doric v. 
D. Doric iv, Epic tos. 
A. Epic it. 
Plur. N. Ionic dqpE'ff. 

G. Ionic a(pK(v, Epic cuptloiv. 
D. Epic and Ionic crept or acplv. 

A. Ionic c/()Dc, Epic and Ionic ays, poetic acpag (short 
), Doric ye (in Theocritus). 

The Attic poets use the accusative a<pl in all 
genders and numbers. 

NOTE 3. The accusative plv or vlv, Az'/n, her, it, them, is 
used in all genders and numbers. 

The epic poets and the lonians use, the Attic poets 
and the Dorians, vlv. 

65. 1. The pronoun UVTO? is declined like aotpog 
( 49. 1), except that its neuter has o instead of ov. Thus, 

ttvroq, he, himself, avTrj, she, herself, amo, it, itself, G. avtov, 
ijg, ov. 

2. With the article before it, amo? signifies the same, 
( 144. 3,) in which case it is often contracted with the arti- 

cle. E. g. TO.VTOV, TUVTat, TttVTIJ, for TOV CtVTOV, TW CtllJU, Tlj 

When this contraction takes place, the neuter has o or 
thus, TUVTO or ravioV, for TO 

The contracted forms Tavrjf and TWT must not be con- 
founded with lavry and Tawa from OVTO?. 

NOTE. The lonians insert an e before the endings of 
atnwv, CIVTO??. E. g. UVTCTJV for avryv. 





$5 66. The reflexive pronouns are ipavTov, afavtov, iavtov. 
They are compounded of the personal pronouns and ccvro?. 
They have no nominative. 

S. M. (of myself) 

G. ipavTov 

D. tuccino) 

A. tfiaVTOV 




(of ourselves) 


S. (of thyself) 


atai'Tov or aavroi! 




aeavrov or aouioi' 


(of yourselves) 


t'fioiv rrcijy 


vi/ty ai'TQig 


Vfiaq aviovg 


(of myself) 








(of ourselves) 


yuuv UVTOJV 


?j|Utr avtdiq 


riftag auras 


(of thyself) 


fffafTJjs or aaVTTjg 


aeavfj) or aavrjj 


atavrrjv or aavrrpr 


(of yourselves) 


i'jja)v avrtav 


vpiv ainal? 


Vfiag onndg 


(of herself) 


IKIT^C or cnrtrjs 


eavTTj or avxji 


luiij'fY or avrijV 


(of themselves) 


lairrwyor aviorv 


lavrcff? Or avtoug 


lavictj or avrag 

S. (of himself) 
G. ee.vTov or ctviov 
D. eairrw or t'Toii 
A. lai'idy or avjov 

P. (of themselves) 
G, ii;T<w' or avrwr 
D. tavTolg or oi;To7? 
A. eaviovg or aviovg 

The contracted forms of eaurov must not be confounded 
with the corresponding forms of arro?. 

NOTE 1. The third person plural also is often formed by 
means of the personal pronoun and OVTOC. E. g. ayuv avrur, 
for tuvT(i)v. 

NOTK 2. The neuter latn-i or vr, from tarrtv, sometimes occurs. 
NOTE 3. The dual au<rui of the reflexive pronoun \avriS is sometimes used. 

NOTE 4. In Homer these pronouns are often written separ- 
ately. E. g. ipiv tTJj?, for ip 


NOTE 5. The lonians use ewu for av. E. g. ('ufcavrov for 

. ( 3. N. 3.) 


67". The possessive pronouns are derived from the per- 
sonal pronouns. In signification they are equivalent to the 
genitive of the personal pronoun. 

ifiog, T\, or, my, from f'ftov 

voihsgog, a, ov, of us<two } " vta'i 

fjptTtgog, a, or, our, yfitig 

aog, ay, aw, thy, " aov 

i, <t, ov, of you two, " acpw'i 

a, ov, your, 

o?, %, ov, his, her, its, " 

a, ov, their, 

NOTE 1. DIALECTS. First Person Plur. Doric ^uo'c (long ), 
Epic otfj.6? (long ), for rj t uirf^og. In the Attic poets //o? is 
equivalent to the singular f\u6?. 

Second Person Sing. Ionic and Doric TSO'J for 06?, Plur. 
Doric and Epic v/*6s (long v), for vfthigog. 

Third Person Sing. Ionic and Doric to? for ot,-, Plur. Epic 
and Doric acpug for acpheijog. 

NOTE 2. The dual tuirtfn and afyuin^of are used only by the poets. 


68. The interrogative pronoun rig, who? which? what 1 
is declined in the following manner : 

S.M.F. N. D.M.F.N. P.M.F. N. 

N. rig iL N. -iLrs N. rives T/y 

G. rlvog,Tov tlvog, TOV G. ilvotv G. ilvwv rlrtav 

D. ilvi, rot Tin, TW D. ilvoiv D. x/at(p) Tt'at(v) 

A. tlvo. tl A. tivs A. rivets itVa 

The forms TOU, TW, must not be confounded with the articles 
rov, TW. 

NOTE. DIALECTS. Sing. G. Epic TSO, Ionic and Doric rev, 
for rov, D. Ionic ism for TW, Plur. Ionic, G. TW, D. re'ois, 

69, 70.] PRONOUN. 69 


69. 1. The indefinite pronoun it? (grave accent), any, 
certain, some, is declined as follows : 

S. M. F. 


D. M. F. N. 

P. J/. F. 


N. T> ? 


N. rive 

N. -rivt? 


G. TlVOg, TOU 

Tivoq, iov 

G. TlVOlV 

G. Ttreur 


D. TtV, TW 

TlVi, TW 

D. TlVOtV 

D. nal(v) 


A. liva 


A. TtJ' 

A. TiV 

Ttva, aaaa 

NOTE 1. DIALECTS. Sing. G. Epic ^io, Ionic and Doric TU-, 
for TOV, D. Ionic TS'W for TW, Plur. G. Ionic rduv, all enclitic. 

2. The indefinite pronoun (JIy, such-a-one, is declined as 
follows : 

8. All genders. P. All genders. 

N. Sclva N. folvf? 

G. dstvog G. Sslvtav 

D. Jjtvt D. - 

A. Sara A. - 

NOTE 2. Aristophanes (Tbesm. 622) has r*v Ji7*, for no 3i"*. 

7O. The demonstrative pronouns are odt, ovrog, and 

"O^s is simply the article with the inseparable particle 8i. 
Thus, ode, i^de, tode, G. jovSe, T^aSs. 

Ovrog is declined as follows : 

S. M. (this) F. (this) N. (this) 


















(these two) 

(these two) 

(these two) 

N. A. 




G. D. 

























3 Exf1vog, lie, that, is declined like oirog. Thus, f'xttvog, r;, o, 
G. extlvov, TJC, ov. 

NOTE 1. DIALECTS. D. Plur. Epic roiodsvai, roladeai, for 
lotadf, from ode. 

The lonians insert an s before the endings of TOVTOV, javj^g, 
rovrca, IOVTIHV, rovtovg. E. g. toviiov for TOVTOV. 

For fxtli'og, the Ionic dialect has xtlvog, the Doric, rfvog, 
and the ^Eolic, xyvog. 

NOTE 2. The letter / (long) is often appended to the de- 
monstrative pronouns for the sake of emphasis. E. g. ovioal, 
ctviTji, this here ; txsivoai, that there. 

The short vowel is dropped before /. E. g. 667, r'67, rodl. 
TOUT/, Tavil, for odt't, rjdi'i', rodti', TOVTO'I, 


71. 1. The relative pronoun 0$, who, which, that, is de- 
clined as follows : 

S. M. F. N. D. M. F. N. P. M. F. N. 

N. og ? o N. <u w N. o'i a'i a 

G. ov r t g ov G. olv niv olv G. wv wv <av 

D. to -ft o) D. o'tv aiv olv D. ot? aig oig 

A. ov %v 6 A. w o> A. ovg ag a 

2. The relative oang, whoever, who, is compounded of og 
and the indefinite pronoun rig, which are separately declined. 

8. M. F. N. 

N. oang %ng o it 

G. ovnvog, OTOV yanvog ovTivog, OTOV 

Dr 7 re; 

. (anvi, OT(O IJTIVI taxivi, orw 

A. ovTira ijvnra o n 


N. o'invtg a'inveg unva. TI 

Gr *< 7 r a 

. (avnviov, OTOJV wvTivtav wtTiriav, orwv 

D~ / \ t \ ~ / r / ^ " / \ 

. oiOTiai\v it oioiai\v\ cttoTiai\v oioTiai( v ], UTOIQI\V ) 

A. ovanvctg aanrag aura, ana 

The neuter o n is often written u,n, to prevent its being 
confounded with the conjunction on, that. 

72,73.] PRONMI-N-. 71 

NOTE 1. DIALECTS. Sing. Epic, N. ong for oatig, G. 
oTtv, OTTtv, for or-f, D. orrw tor O'TOI, A. ma, neut. orr, for 
orrtra, o u, respectively, Plur. Ionic, G. oiiiav for owr, D. 
OMOMH] fem. orcjjm. 

The accusative singular tmxa stands also for the neuter 
plural unva. 

NOTE 2. The particle nig is often appended to o$. E. g. 
oa^fp. r,7iiQ, onfQ, G. oviifQ, r^ntQ, written also separately o? 
nig, % TifQ, o ntg. 

NOTE 3. The particle ovv is often appended to the com- 
pound relatives oar/? and oantg. E. g. OOTHJOVV, 
whoever, written also separately, oang ovv, 


72. The reciprocal pronoun is ;.;.rfxo', of one another. 
The nominative case and the singular number are of course 
wanting : 

D. M. F. N. 

G. aiirjloir uU.r^utv uiir,'i.otv 

D. ui.i.i'^.'jiv iit.uli.niv uu.i]i.oiv 

A. uiii^iw iifj.i t /.u aJUifxw 


G. u).ir t io)v aii.tif.tav aiitjiuv 

D. aiirjioii; " i/.;iic itiijiois 

A. aiirjlovs uli^iag uiir,ia 



73. 1. From the obsolete /7O.T, what? 'OIIO2, who, 
and TO.T, this, and from the relative pronoun o.-, icho, come 
the following corresponding pronominal adjectives : 

Interrogative. Indefinite. Demonstrative. Relative. 

Tioaoz, how much ? noaos, of a icaog or ^oaoaSt oao; or 

hoto many 1 certain or TOOOVTOS, so onoao;, as 

quantity muck much as 


notog, of what 
quality ? 



notog, of a 

g, which of wanting 
the two ? 

noarog, of what wanting 
number ? 

noaTolog, in how wanting 
many days ? 

, how old? jrjjyU'xo?, of 
how large ? a certain 

age, of a 

nooanog, of what wanting 
country 1 

certain size so large 

ioio<; or toioads olog or 
or Totovro?, such analog, as 




rrjUxog or T^At- 
xoads or zjji<- 
xoviog, so old, 

of the two 

onoaTog, of 
what num- 
ber soever 

in what- 
ever num- 
ber of days 




rvvvog or rvvvov- 
TO?, so little 

as old as, 
as large as 

of what 


NOTE 1. Toaoviog, votoviog, and -ryhxovTog coincide with 
ovrog in respect to the diphthongs ov and av. E. g. TOCJOVTO?, 

In the neuter they have both o and ov. E. g. TOOOVTO or 

NOTE 2. The demonstrative forms often take / (< 70. N. 2). 
E. g. roaovToal, as much as you see here. 

Here also the short vowel is dropped before the letter '. 
E. g. Toaoadl for roaoadt'L'. 

NOTE 3. The particle ovv is often appended to the relative 
forms ( 71. N. 3). E. g. oaooovv, how much soever. 

2. The following adjectives also belong here : 
cittodu7i6g($).)iog),ri,6v, foreign. /KJPG>, both, G. D. apcpolv, used 
SUo?, i), o, other. ( 33. N. 1.) only in the dual. 

(Sfupto), a, ov both. txaarog, y, ov, each, every. 

^ 74.] VERB. 73 

, a, ov, each of two. navroSaitog (jiag), ij, ov t of all 
; a, ov, other, another. kinds. 

(jj.ueij), ;, ov, or vfttdanos (vfitlg), y, or, your 
countryman. countryman. 

o,% a, ov, proper, peculiar, 

his oicn. 

en . 


74. 1. The Greek verb has three VOICES; 
the active voice, the passive voice, and the middle 

2. There are five MOODS ; the indicative, the 
subjunctive, the optative, the imperative, and the 

3. There are six TEXSES, the present, the imper- 
fect, the perfect, the pluperfect, the future, and the 

The primary or leading tenses are the present, 
the perfect, and the future. 

The secondary or historical tenses are the im- 
perfect, the pluperfect, and the aorist. 

4. The indicative is the only mood in \\hich the 
imperfict and pluperfect are found. The subjunc- 
tive and imperative want also the future. 

5. There are three PERSOXS ; the first person, 
the second person, and the third person. 



Perfect 1. 
Perfect 2. 
Pluperfect 1. 
Pluperfect 2. 
Future 1. 
Future 2. 
Aorist 1. 
Aorist 2. 

Future 1. 
Future 2. 
Future 3. 
Aorist 1. 
Aorist 2. 

Future 1. 
Future 2. 
Aorist 1. 
Aorist 2. 



TUTtTO ivma 



IfTVTta fTV7lO 
















TTV[l(AVOS 6) 


$ 74.] 

cal Table. 















TfTVfJlfjllvOS 1- TflVlpO 


















Present. / strike, I am striking. 

S. TVTITW D. Tvmofifv I*, ivmontv 

Tvnrtiq TVTtTttov TVtfTiic 


Imperfect. I struck, I was striking. 

8. tivTnov D. eivmofifv P. Icvmofttv 

tivmt? eivmtrov tivmtTS 


-f"T!L../2 Perfect 1. I have struck. 

8. TETVtpa D. TfllHftXIJtV P. 

Perfect 2. Synonymous with Perfect 1. 
t, inflected like Perfect 1. 

Pluperfect 1. I had struck. 

S. hfTV(pflV D. tTflVCftl^tV P.. tTfTV(ftl[ltV 

lj(rv<ffiTov tttivcptne 

(Tt:TV(fUjr]v tinveptioav or -war 

Pluperfect 2. Synonymous with Pluperfect 1. 
hnvnuv, inflected like Pluperfect 1. 

Future 1 . / shall or will strike. 
8. Tvxa D- Ti'oev P> 

^vtjJSTOv rvytis 

Future ?*. Synonymous with Future 1. 

contracted ivnta, inflected like tpdsta (^ 116). 

Aorist 1. I struck. 

8. ITVyu D. KTVyafltV P. 

txvifia? tvfytnov 

tTVif>t(v) tTVi^ctujv 

Aorist 2. Synonymous with Aorist 1. 
nvnov, inflected like the Imperfect. 

74.] ACTIVE VOICE. 77 

Present. / strike, I may or can strike. 

S. TVTITO D. WTlTtOfllV P. IVTrCOlf-ltV 



Perfect 1. I have, or may have, struck. 
, inflected like the Present. 

Perfect 2. Synonymous with Perfect 1. 
, inflected like the Present. 

Aorist 1. I strike, I may or can strike. 
S. rvyxa D' TvyrMfttr P. 


Aorist 2. Synonymous with Aorist 1. 
TVTIW, inflected like Aorist 1. 


Present. / might, could, roould, or should strike. 
8. rvmoitii D. rvnroififv P. 


Perfect 1 . / might, could, would, or should have struck. 
i, inflected like the Present. 

Perfect 2. Synonymous with Perfect 1. 
, inflected like the Present. 

Future 1. I would or should strike. 
otui, inflected like the Present. 

Future 2. Synonymous with Future 1. 

contracted rvnolfii, like qtiioipi ( 116). 

Aorist 1. I might, could, would, or should strike. 
8. Tt'y/a//t D. ivyaipiv P. vvyjaipt 

V ivy ant 

Aorist 2. Synonymous with Aorist 1. 
nmotui, inflected like the Present. 



Present. Strike thou, be thou striking. 
n _ . f> _ 


-ivmtrtav rvmdTwaav or -movitav 

Perfect 1. Have struck. 
, inflected like the Present. 

Perfect 2. Synonymous with Perfect 1. 
, inflected like the Present. 

Aorist 1. Strike thou. 
8. - D. - P. 

rvtfiov Tvynrov rvtfiont 

TVJ//WIW Tvifxxiwv Tvyontaaav or -tivitov 

Aorist 2. Synonymous with Aorist 1. 
ivnt, inflected like the Present. 


Present, rvmsiv, to strike, to be striking. 

Perfect 1. -ttTvcpsvai,, to have struck. 

Perfect 2. xnvnerai, synonymous with Perfect 1 

Future 1. rvysiv, to be about to strike. 

Future 2. rvntiiv contracted Tvntiv, synonymous with Future 1. 

Aorist 1. Tvyai, to strike. 

Aorist 2. Tvniiv, synonymous with Aorist 1. 


Present. TVTTTWV, ovace, ov, striking. ( 53. 7.) 

Perfect 1. tsrvcpcag, via, 6q, having struck. ( 53. 9.) 

Perfect 2. immw'?, ma, 6?, synonymous with Perfect 1. (ibid.) 

Future 1. tvytov, ovoa, ov, about to strike. ($; 53. 7.) 

Future 2. Tvnstav, zovaa, iov, contracted rvnuiv, ovan, ovv. (ibid.) 

Aorist 1 . Tvif>us, aau, av, striking, having struck. ( 53. 1 . ) 

Aorist 2. TVHKtv, ovaa, 6v, synonymous with Aorist 1. ( 53. 7.) 




S. Tvntouai 
TVTTDJ or -7 


Present. 1 am struck. 

D. Tl' P. 




Imperfect. Iicas struck. 

D. iwnoftfdov P~ irvmope&a 
tivmtad'ov tivnita&e 

Perfect. / have been sfruck. 
D. itii't&ov P- 


Pluj>erfect. / had been struck. 
D. iitii-uut&ov P. 





Future 1. I shall or will be struck. 

S. rvtp&ijaouai D. ivyftrfioutSov P. -rvgi&^aofK& 

or -aft Tvcp&rfaia&ov iv<f9r,<jia&e 

Future 2. Synonymous with Future 1. 
rvn^aouai, inflected like Future 1. 

Future 3. / shall remain struck. 
mvyouai, inflected like Future 1. 

Aorist 1. I was struck. 

8 hvcp&ijv D. hvtp&r^tv P. 


Aorist 2. Synonymous with Aorist 1. 
, inflected like Aorist 1. 



Present. 7am struck, I may or can be struck. 
S. Tvmtafiai D. rvTttwfit&ov P. -ivmtopt&a 

Perfect. 7 have been struck, I may have been struck. 

S. reivfiftsvos (y, or) ta, }?, ^ 

D. TSivpfjterca (a, eu) ai^ucr, r^rov, rpov 

P. TSTVfifilvoi (at, a) w/m 1 , r)Tt, o)(ji(v) 

Aorist 1. I am struck, I may or can be struck. 

S. TV<&W D. TV>&tUJV P. 

Aorist 2. Synonymous with Aorist 1. 
, inflected like Aorist I, 


Present. I might, could, would, or should be struck. 
8. Tvmolfj.rjv D. Tvmolfisdov P. tvmolp.f.&a 
Tvmoto TVTtToia&ov Tvmota&t 


Perfect. 7 might, tyc. have been struck. 

8. TfTV[*nsi'o$ (rj, ov) fl'rjv, tl'r]?, ilr\ 
D. Tttvfifitvo) (a, a>) tl'rj(j.fv t ilrpov, ti-qTqv 
P. mvfiusroi (/, ) etTjjUSi', fl'rjTt, d'rjaav 

Future 1. I should, or would be struck. 
r, inflected like the Present. 

Future 2. Synonymous with Future 1. 
v, inflected like the Present. 

Future 3. I should or would remain struck. 
Tsmfioluyr, inflected like the Present. 

Aorist 1. I might, could, would, or should be struck. 

8. rvtp&slqv D. ivcp&tliintv P. tvcp&ilyptv or -tiper 
Tvy&eirjTov TV<p&tlr)Tf or -tije 

v or -etev 

Aorist 2. Synonymous with Aorist 1. 
, inflected like Aorst 1. 

$ 74.] 



Present. Be thou struck. 

ivniiodta ivmia&tav tviniaStaaav or -a&tor 

Perfect. Be thou struck. 
S. - D. - P. - 



or -( 

Aorist I . Be thou struck. 
D. - P. - 

or -( 

Aorist 2. Synonymous with Aorist 1. 
, inflected like Aorist 1. 


Present. -rvnTtadat, to be struck. 

Perfect. TfTv<p&ai, to have been struck. 

Future 1. TV(f&r t ata&ai, to be about to be struck. 

Future 2. ivnr,atadai, synonymous with Future 1. 

Future 3. xiiv^to&ai, to remain struck. 

Aorist 1. iv<f'dr t vai, to be struck. 

Aorist 2. ivnijvai, synonymous with Aorist 1. 


Present, mnopfvoi;, r\, or, being struck. 

Perfect. zm'/^sVo?, ij, or, struck, having been struck. 

Future 1. rv(f^aop.tvog, 17, ov, about to be struck. 

Future 2. ivii^aop.tvog, rj, ov, synonymous with Future 1. 

Future 3. Ttivyousvo?, about to remain struck. 

Aorist 1. rvqpvh/s, liaa, iv, being struck. ( 53. 3.) 

Aorist 2. rinmV, uaa, iv, synonymous with Aorist 1. (ibid.) 
All participles in o? are inflected like aocfo? ( 49. IV 




Present. I strike myself. 
, like the Present Passive. 

Imperfect. I was striking myself. 
, like the Imperfect Passive. 

Perfect. / have struck myself. 
, like the Perfect Passive. 

Pluperfect. / had struck myself. 
, like the Pluperfect Passive. 

Future 1. I shall strike myself . 
, inflected like the Present. 

Future 2. Synonymous with Future 1. 
rvnfO( contr. rvnovfiai, inflected like tpi^tofiai ( 116). 

Aorist 1 . / struck myself. 
S. hvijdTV D. fTVijdf&ov P. e 

Aorist 2. Synonymous with Aorist 1. 
, inflected like the Imperfect. 


Present. I strike, I may or can strike,myself. 
i, the same as in the Passive. 

Perfect. I have, or may have, struck myself. 
(17, of) o5, as in the Passive. 

Aorist 1. I strike, or may or can strike, myself. 

S. TVlf>0}f2CCl D. tVlfJWflt&OV P. JVIfJ(Oft&a 

Aorist 2. Synonymous with Aorist 1. 
, inflected like Aorist 1. 


Present. I might, &c. strike myself. 
, the same as in the Passive. 

74.] MIDDLE VOICE. 83 

Perfect. I might, &c. have struck myself, 
(i), ov) fl'rtv, as in the Passive. 

Future 1. / should or would strike myself. 
?jv, inflected like the Present. 

Future 2. Synonymous with Future 1. 
-ivniolur t v contr. rvnol^^v inflected like (fdfotur/v ( 116). 

Aorist 1. / might, &.c. strike myself. 
D. rvwceiui&ov P. 

TVif>ctrto rvyiaarjV 

Aorist 2. Synonymous with Aorist 1. 
, inflected like the Present. 


Present. Strike thyself 
iviriov, as in the Passive. 

Perfect. Strike thyself. 
, as in the Passive. 

Aorist 1. Strike thyself. 
S. - D. - P. 

Ti'ificiadwv Ti'ifiriu&coaav or -a9<av 

Aorist 2. Synonymous with Aorist 1. 
TDJIOV, inflected like the Present. 


Present. Timrf<j#<, to strike om's self. 

Perfect, invcpdai, to have struck ones self. 

Future 1. -ti'if/iafrat, to be about to strike one's self. 

Future 2. ivnhaQuL contracted Tvnua&ai, synonymous with 

Future 1. 

Aorist 1. Tt'(//aa#(, to strike one's self. 
Aorist 2. -tvniu&ai, synonymous with Aorist I. 


Present, ivmo^trog, ij, ov, striking himaclf. 

Perfect. -invpuivo:, r t , ov, having struck himself. 

Future 1. tvyofitvof, r h or, about to strike himself. 

Future 2. ivntopfros contracted rvnovutrof, ?;, or, synonymous 

with Future 1. 

Aorist 1. Tvif/nutro!;, 13, ov, striking or having struck himself. 

Aorist 2. Tvn6pivo$, r], ov, synonymous with Aorist 1. 



^ 75. 1. The perfect and third future of all 
the moods and of the participle, and the imperfect, 
aorist, and pluperfect of the indicative, receive an 
increase at the beginning, called augment. 

2. There are two kinds of augment ; the syllabic 
augnient, and the temporal augment. 

The syllabic augment is formed by prefixing a 
syllable or two syllables to the verb. 

The temporal augment is formed by lengthening 
the first syllable of the verb. 


76. 1. When the verb begins with a con- 
sonant followed by a vowel or a liquid, the augment 
of the PERFECT is formed by prefixing to the verb 
that consonant together with an f. E. g. 

ivnrta perf. is'ri'qpa, reri'/j^ai, 
yQficpca ysytjttcpu, yiyyttfjftcti. 

So fruta, TE&vxa' cpvta, nsq>vxa' XULIVVI, xt^r t t'a' XQ'' t(a > xiXQ 1 )- 
pcu. ( 14. 3.) 

This kind of syllabic augment is called reduplication. 

2. When the verb begins with a double con- 
sonant (, , i/>), or with two consonants the second 
of which is not a liquid, the augment of the PER- 
FECT is formed by prefixing an f. E. g. 


NOTE 1 . Some verbs beginning with a liquid take n instead of the redupli- 
cation. See the Anomalous Xay^avw, y.apZxvu, Xiyw collect, MEIPfi, 
'PEfl say, 

NOTE 2. Verbs beginning with ,5i, -/I, (iv, are variable in 
the augment of the perfect. E. g. ylixfw, i'ylvqut or yiylvtpa' 
vb), tfivrftovfvxa ' /u< ( uJ'>juxw, j' 

77-79.] AUGMENT. 85 

Those beginning with yv always prefix an i, E. g. 

NOTE 3. In a few instances, verbs beginning with <rr take the reduplication. 
See the Anomalous trttrrv, wrfrru* 

The verb Kta.tft.tu, possess, has perf. pass. lx.ry,puu and xf 

NOTE 4. The Epic language, in a few instance*, prefixes the initial consonant 
together with an u. E. g. I'm, 3i/3* for Vtlut. 

^ 77. 1. The augment of the PLUPERFECT is 
formed by prefixing an f to the reduplication of the 
perfect, ft 76. 1.) E. g. 

rvnio), Tf'rrqca pluperf. hnwpttv. 

2. But when the perfect begins with f, the plu- 
perfect takes no additional augment, ft 76. 2.) E. g. 

axi'tmoi, taxftffa pluperf. iaxuytir. 

NOTE 1. The additional augment t of the pluperfect is often 
omitted. E. g. Tf/.ii'Toj, #rmi*vnjn' or imlevtvjxttr. 

NOTE 2. The verb 7<rri/ often lengthens the syllabic augment i into u in 
the pluperfect active. See in the catalogue of Anomalous Verbs. 

. When the verb begins with a consonant, 
the augment of the IMPERFECT and AORIST is 
formed by prefixing an . E. g. 

TMKTM imperf. tri/mov aor. 

NOTE 1. These four verbs, du^ofttii, ^iinftai, X*J, and ftix).*, often take 
the temporal augment in addition to the syllabic. S<je in the catalogue of An- 
omalous Verbs. 

NOTE 2. In the Epic dialect the second (wrist active and 
middle often takes the reduplication through all the moods and 
participle. E.g. XM^IW, xixuuov ' inu3tii a, .j6ut,v. 

In some instances an t is prefixed to this reduplication, but 
only in the indicative. E. g. <fa^o>, niqgitdov or tniygudov. 

NOTE 3. The syllabic augment of the imperfect and of the 
aorist is often omitted by the epic poets. E. g. <^w, (figor for 
Tounour,? for t 

^ 79. When the verb begins with g, the aug- 
ment is formed by prefixing an , and doubling the 

eft 13). Kg. 

, imperf. tgyamov, perf. j-ggoKpa, pluperf. looaqtfiv, aor. 



NOTE 1. In a few instances, Homer does not double the j after the syllabic 
augment. E. g. pi%u> "iy-^a. for 1\fs\a., 

NOTE 2. The verb fvriu, in Homer, has perf. pass. part, fi^vru^iva. for 

NOTE 3. The verbs AEIfl, MEIPfl, and rcua, in some of the past 
tenses, double the initial consonant after i. See in the catalogue of Anomalous 


^ SO. 1. When the verb begins with a short 
vowel, the augment of all the past tenses is formed 
by lengthening that vowel. A and become 77, 
and o becomes o. E. g. 

axoiov&tea, imperf. ijxoAov#iov, perf. jjxoioi'ubjxa, pluperf. 

r])(ohovd~7)xEiv, aor. y 
tiseia, ijAeEOf, r)).t.r,y.a, rj^ 
OQ&OW, (aQ&oo^r)v, WQ 

So txnf u'co, "ixsrtvor, Txirtvaa ' vyiaivu, vyiuivov, vylara. 

2. If the vowel is already long, no change takes place ; 
except that (long) is commonly changed into 17. E. g. i 
' vdlvta, taSivov' uiaaia, ij'i$u. 

3. When the verb begins with a diphthong, the augment is 
formed by changing the first vowel of that diphthong in the 
manner above specified ( 80. 1, 2). E. g. aliioi, yitov' uSca, 

For the iota subscript, see above ( 3). 

NOTE 1 . Some verbs lengthen t not into u but into n. Such are la.a, ISig 
\\'tffffu, %>.KU, \\Kiiia, 'ioTTta, loru^u, l^ya^of^xi, \<nta.u. See also the AllOHluloUS 
"EAU, ITU, l%a, 'Eil, "rifti. 

NOTE 2. Some verbs beginning with a vowel take the syllabic augment. 
See the Anomalous a-yvv/At, i^irxo^ai, a.'ila.iu, itxu, tfalu, Einfl, l i\ i ru t 

iVVl/^f, EPTIl, OVOlCa, U$'iU, Ut'\1fJ.1i. 

NOTE 3. A few verbs beginning with a vowel take botli the ayUalnc and tem- 
poral augment at the same time. See the Anomalous avSavw, tSa, "*ip.i, tiyu t 
ogdu. See also the pluperfect of the anomalous I'IKU, 'i\ru, and EPF11. 

RKMAKK 1. The perfect of the Anomalous 'i$u lengthens the syllabic aug- 
ment i into /. (Compare 77. N. 2: 78. N. 1.) 

REMARK 2. The verb la^ra.^v, (originally iWa*/) changes it into lu in the 
augmented tenses. E. g. imperf. lnWai>v. 

$$81,82.] AUGMENT. 87 

NOTE 4. The temporal augment is often omitted in the 
Attic dialect. E.g. a^Sl^ofiai, ij(Jio'/jiji' ' ivglaxta, tvgiaxov' 
oitoca, onoor. 

Verbs beginning with the diphthong ov are never aug- 
mented. E. g. oviu'^u), ovra^ov, never aviator. 

Those beginning with u are seldom augmented. 

NOTE 5. The Epic and the Ionic dialect may omit the tem- 
poral augment in all verbs. E. g. ayoytva}, dyoQivov ' 
, oulitjtr. 

$ 81. 1. Some verbs beginning with , t, o, followed by 
a single consonant, form the augment of the PERFECT by pre- 
fixing the first two letters to the temporal augment. E. g. 

iiyiiGO} perf. jrjyfQxa, uy-r t yf^xa 
f'uiw " itfifxa, iu-i',uixa 

cove/aw " wft-jfa, oQ-<aijvza. 

This kind of augment is called Attic reduplication. 

Verbs which take the Attic reduplication : ultima, cdiu, 
fif/X 03 ' tiioaia, f\ui<a, i'e)iid<a, ogiyca, ofjvaato. See also the An- 
omalous ayi'iQta, ayta, uloita, A^'EQfL, ('cociotaxca., a%ita, r 
tlavvta, UdETOJl, ESTKTKJlt E^EOfL, irtlxta, igfinta, 
' ,0), o/J.i\ui, ourvui, OnJl, 

2. The PLUPERFECT in this case takes no additional aug- 
ment. E. g. aytiQO), ay^ytQ^a, ayriyifixtiv. 

Except dxoio>, dxijxoa, yxrpotiV ilavra, fir,ia[iai, ifaictu^r. 
See also the Anomalous EAETOfl. 

NOTE. The epic poets sometimes omit the augment of the second syllable. 
See the Anomalous a.**%uiiii, i/^xtfuu, iz/V, i%i*. 


83. 1. Verbs compounded with a preposition 
receive the augment after that preposition. E. g. 

imperf. Tigoa-syQucpov, perf. TiQoa-yiyoaffa, plu- 
perf. 7tQoa-iyiyoii(fitr, aor. 

So ip-nijiiu ($ 12. 1), tv-inimov iy-xqirto ($ 12. 2), h 
xgivov, ty-xixgixa- <jvl-i.vta ($ 12. 3), ow-eiror, avL-telvxtt' av~ 
' ($ 12. 4), avv-rZvuoov ' f'x-lvta f$ 15. 3 N , 


REMARK. Prepositions ending in a vowel lose that vowel before the syllabic 
augment t. (} 135. 3.) E. g. ao*oa-T, a.H-'ix.iTroi. 

Except srtf/ and rjo. E. g. 5T^<xwTu, vinnaiVToi ' vrp\i'ya, irpoi\iyt*. 

NOTE 1. Some verbs compounded with a preposition take the augment before 
that preposition. Such are apifiiirStiriea, ivT/Ai, tfj.-rri.riu, tvatncoftui. See 
also the Anomalous a/^mt//tu, aftfi^u, u,vaXi&x.u, avoiyta, af'itifti, xa&i0f&ai, 

NOTE 2. Some take the augment either before or after the preposition. 
. g. irgoS-vpief&eti, ivrg>>3-i/f*.io'ftr,ii or 7T(>o!Svfiioft:Vv. See also the Anomalous 

NOTE 3. A few verbs take the augment before and after the preposition at 
the same time. Such are enafteu, ^taurdu, $iax.o*iu, i*o%}.i&>, va^mvia. See 
also the Anomalous vaA.<Va), avi%v, Ko 

2. In verbs compounded with other words the augment 
stands first. ( 135.) E. g. 

t, derived from aa(^r t ? (-, of/hi); 

NOTE 4. From i#vn>TgoQtu, derived from }trverfi(fii (farts, rqiQu), Ly- 
curgus forms perf. /W!rTiTg^fj*a for /Vra<rgo^j*i6. 

3. Verbs compounded with the particles sv and 8va-, if they 
begin with , s, o, take the augment after these particles. In 
all other cases the augment precedes these particles, or, in 
compounds with tu, it may be omitted ( 80. N. 4). E. g. 



83. 1. The root of a verb consists of those letters which 
are found in every part of that verb. It is obtained by drop- 
ping oj of the present active ( 94 : 96). E. g. the root of 

2. The root of a tense consists of those letters which are 
found in every part of that tense. E. g. rvy/ is the root of the 
first future active of rvmia. 



$ 84. 1. The following table exhibits the terminations of 
the primary tenses of the indicative. 


Passive and Middle. 














GUI, ai 
















2. The following are the terminations of the secondary 
tenses of the indicative. 

Person. 1st. 2d. 3d. 

Singular, v g 

Dual. fltV TOV TTJV 

Plural. fitv it auv, v 

Passive and Middle. 
1st. 2d. 3d. 

flT]V OO, TO 

fit&ov a&ov adijv 
uf9a o&s no 

NOTE 1 . The terminations /u and / are found in the indicative of verbs in ft i 
( 177\ In the greatest number of verbs they are dropped. E. g. rurrn, 
f, nrvfa, rirvpi, for r^rffti, rv-rriTi, r 

NOTE 2. The first aorist active has no termination in the first person singular. 

NOTE 3. The third person singular of the secondary tenses of the active ha* 

no termination. 

NOTE 4. The termination r is found in the jilujKrfect. Also in the im- 
perfect and second aorut of verbs in ft i i 117 . Also in the aorist jtassive 
( 92 . In all other cases it drops fa.. 

The Alexandrian dialect frequently uses this termination in the im/ierfect and 
tecond aorist E. g. r^*^, ;<*<* for iir^/t| EAET0I1, j?AJW* 
for >fxS. 

NOTE 5. The terminations reu, ft, are found in the perfecl and pluperfect 
passive ( 91). Also in per6s in fti ( 1 17). In all other cases they drop r. 

The Alexandrian dialect sometimes uses rtu in the present passive of verbs in 
v. E. g. iltntiu, 2d pers. sing, ilvreiiraj contracted oiujafxi. 

NOTE 6. DIALECTS. The following table exhibits the dia- 
lectic peculiarities of the indicative mood. 

Active. Sing. 2d pers. Old a 9u t oT, for g. The Attic dia 
lect uses a&u in some instances. 

The old termination ai is found only in 
the old foal for *?$ from tlul, am. 
3d pers. Doric n for at, as didoipt, dldtaii for 


Plur. 1st pers, Doric psg for ptv, as Igl^o), 

for f(ilo/Asv. 

3d pers. Doric j> for vat, as 
ovn for no%Slovai (that is 

Passive. Sing. 1st pers. Doric ^MV for /^v, as hvmo^uv for 

Dual. 1st pers. Doric and poetic pto&ov for ps&ov, as 

Plur. 1st pers. Doric and poetic fj.ia&u for ^#, as 

TvnruiJ.KJ&a for jv7ir6 t itt&a. 
3d pers. Ionic and Epic rt, WTO, for vrat, TO. 
These terminations are found in the per- 
yc< and pluperfect passive. Also in the 
present and imperfect of verbs in pi ( 117). 
The termination io is found also in the 
imperfect of verbs in w ( 85. N. 6). 

85. 1. The vowel, which stands between the termination 
and the root ( 83 : 84), is called the connecting vowel. It 
is an o in the first person of all the numbers, and in the third 
person plural ; in all the rest it is an E. Except that, 

(1) The connecting vowel of the perfect active, and first 
aorist active and middle, is an . But in the third person 
singular of the perfect and of the first aorist active it is an e. 

(2) The connecting vowel of the pluperfect active is an ti. 
In the third person plural it is an ft or s. 

(3) The present and future active lengthen o into w, in the 
first person singular, and t into , in the second and third 
person singular. 

2. The following table exhibits the terminations and the 
connecting vowels united. 

Pres. $f Fut. Active. 
P. 1st. 3d. 3d. 

Pres. 4* Fut. Pass. 4* Mid. 
1st. 3d. 3d. 

S. to ei-g st 

P. 0-flEV 6-T8 OV(Jl ( 12.5) 

o-pat E-ai, y, f-rai 
o-pe&ov t-a&ov t-a&ov 
o-^E&a e-a&e o-vrai 

Imperf. Sf 2e? A. Act. 
P. 1st. 2d. 3d. 

Impf.Pass.SfMid. $ 2 A. Mid. 
1st. 3d. 3d. 

8. o-v E-g E 

D. 0-flEV l-TOV 8-TJJV 
P. O-fitV S-T8 O-V 

0-//7JV S-0, Ot 8-TO 

o-fti&'ov s-a&ov -a&i)v 
o-ut&a t-a&e o-vio 



Aorist Active. 


Aorist Middle. 













a-o, to 
















Perfect Active. 















uat, ( 12. 


Pluperfect Active. 
P. 1st. 2d. 3d. 

8. EI-V ti-g EL 

D. Ei-ftEV EI-TOV . Et-jr t v 

P. ti-fiEV it-is EL-aar, E-octv 

REMARK 1. For the terminations of the^rrf and third person singular of 
the active, see above ( 84. N. 1, 2, 3). 

REMARK 2. The endings tai, i, , of the second person singular of the 
passive and middle, are contracted into >i or /, au, u, respectively. In Attic 
authors, n is more common than r,. 

NOTE 1. In some instances the third person plural of the perfect active 

takes 5-t for a<ri, E. g. yiyiurxu, t"y>axat. 

NOTE 2. In the Alexandrian dialect the second aorist active and middle often 
takes the connecting vowel a, of the first aorist. E. g. EIAfi, i/? for tT3 
<Qwyn, ftywyat for ifuym ' tvo'itrxu, ivgafttm for 

On the other hand, the Jirtt aorist active and middle, in some instances, takes 
the connecting vowels ( , i) of the second aorist. See the Anomalous /5*i'w, 

Si/or, txt'eftxi. 

NOTE 3. The Doric dialect uses the short connecting 
vowel g in the second person singular of the present active. 
E. g. an&yta, un&yig for 

NOTE 4. The Epic and the Ionic dialect have, in the singular 
of the pluperfect active, ta, tag, IE, for EIV, EI?, EI. E. g. 

The Attics contract these endings into ij, r,g, rj. 
In some instances the ending t E of the third person singular 
takes v movable before a vowel. See the Anomalous ETJJl. 

NOTE 5. In the imperfect and aorist active, the Epic and the 
Doric dialect often use the endings axor, axfg, OXE, plur. 


axoptv, axfTs, axov. In the imperfect passive and aorist middle 
they often use the endings yxo/<jjv, axio, axtro, plur. oxopt&a, 
axta&t, axovio. 

In the imperfect and second aorist of Twwfe and liquid verbs, 
an stands between these endings and the root. E. g. 

ivTiiiaxov, Tvmea)CQ(ti)v for t'lfTrrov 
Tvncaxov, TV7itax6j4r)v ' srvnor, 
In the imperfect of pure verbs these endings are very seldom 
preceded by e. 

In the first aorist active and middle an a stands between 
these endings and the root. E. g. 

ivifjuaxor, mpaaxofjiqv for tTi'tfjn, iri'ifjaftrjV. 

In some instances the imperfect also prefixes an a to these 
endings. E. g. xyvTiiai, xyvniaaxov for txyvmov. 

NOTE 6. The Ionic dialect uses the termination aro in the 
imperfect passive ; in which case the connecting vowel be- 
comes f. E. g. yqaym, tyQUfpiaio for iyqdcpovro. In pure 
verbs the connecting vowel is omitted before TO. E. g. fiij- 


8O. 1. The subjunctive mood uses the terminations of 
the primary tenses of the indicative ( 84. 1). 

2. Its connecting vowels are w and 77. But the second and 
third person singular active have 17. 

3. The following table exhibits the terminations and the 
connecting vowels united. 

Passive and Middle. 
1st. 2d. 3d. 

IJCtl, fj IJTttl 



P. 1st. 2d. 3d. 
S. to r)-g r\ 

D. O)-UfV fj-TOV T)- TOT* 

TJ /T i rt cr \ 

REMARK. The ending *< in the second person singular of the passive and 
middle is contracted into >j. 

NOTE 1 . The perfect of the subjunctive active is sometimes formed by means 
of the perfect active participle and tipl. E. g. rtrv<fiis (v7a, is) , yi, y, for 
rirutfu, iff, ri- 



NOTE 2. The Epic language often uses taui, r,a&a, r,ai, for 
v, y$, i). ( 84. N. 6.) E. g. TI'/M/K, TVX!,o&a, Ti//;ffj, for n'z<, 
5?, 5- 

NOTE 3. Sometimes the Epic language uses the connecting 
Towels (o, e) of the indicative. E. g. fovxw, tf&iu, subj. igv~ 
OUE>', (f&iiiui, for t 


87. 1. The optative mood uses the terminations of the 
secondary tenses of the indicative ( 84. 2). 

But the first person singular of the optative active takes 
fu ( 84. 1) ; and the third person plural ends in tv. 

2. For its connecting vowel it has o*. But in the Jirst 
aorist active and middle it has ai. 

3. The following table exhibits the terminations and the 
connecting vowels united. 

Passive and Middle. 
1st. 2d. 3d. 


P. 1st 



S. Ol-Ul 



D. Ot-flfV 



P. ot-piv 



oi-pt&ov oi-a&or 

oi-a&t oi-vio 

First Aorist Active. 
P. 1st. 2d. 3d. 

S. ai-[*i ai-$ at 
D. ai-fiir ai-tov ai-ir/i 
P. ai-utv ai-Tf at-iv 

First Aorist Middle. 
1st. 2d. 3d. 

ai-pr/v ai-o ai-ro 
ut-ui&ov tii-od ov 
at-ii&a at-afrt 

NOTE 1 . The perfect of the optative active is sometime* formed by means of 
the perfect active participle and ilpl. . g. rtrv$>{ (MC, ;) *>, tine, tin, for 

NOTE 2. In many instances, particularly in contract verbs, 
the optative active takes the endings olr,r, OMJ?, o/i;, dual olrjor, 
o^ij'rijy, plural oir,uer, o/ijrf, oir t auv. E. g. yt\."/<a, myti-yoirp for 
nttf.ii yoifjit. 

NOTE 3. The first aorist active in the optative has also the 
endings ua t ttac, tit, dual tlortor, tiar^r, plural tid^iv, tlcnt, tiav. 
E. g. TI'TTTW, Tvy/tia for Tvipaifu. The second and third person 


singular, and the third person plural, of this form, are more 
common than the corresponding persons of the regular form. 
These endings are said to belong to the ^Eolic dialect. 

NOTE 4. In the Epic language the third person plural of 
the optative passive and middle often takes the termination io 
( 84. N. 6). E. g. dydufiai, ocQTjuulvno for 

NOTE 5. In some instances the second person singular of 
the optative active takes the termination a&a ( 84. N. 6). 
E. g. xAa/w, x).aioia&a for 

NOTE 6. The Alexandrian dialect uses, in the third person 
plural, oiaav, aiaav, for oisv, aitv, ( 84. N. 4.) E. g. 
v, Tvyaiaav, for rvnoiev, vvyaitv. 


88. 1. The following are the terminations of the impera- 
tive mood. 

Passive and Middle. 
2d. 3d. 

wo, o a&ta 


ads a&waav, 

P. 2d. 3d. 

S. &l TO) 


P. T6 TOJtfCfV, VTtaV 

NOTE 1 . The terminations S/, *, are used when the connecting vowel is 
dropped ( 91. N. 6, 7: 117). But when the connecting vowel is used, 
9v is dropped, and ft becomes a. 

2. The connecting vowel of the imperative is an e. 

But in the first aorist active and middle it is an . In the 
second person singular, however, the first aorist active ends in 
ov, and the first aorist middle in at. 

The termination vrtav is preceded by o. But in the first 
aorist active it is preceded by . 

3. The following table exhibits the terminations and the 
connecting vowels united. 



P. 2d. 




S. e 


c-o, ov 


JJ. e-Tov 




P. e-rs 

e-rtaaav, O-VTUV 




First Aorist Active. 
P. 2d. 3d. 


D. ct-ror a-Tior 

P. a-TK a-Ttoaar, 

ov a- TO> 

First Aorist Middle. 
2d. 3d. 


a-a&s a-ad(aaar, a- 

NOTK 2. The ending it of the second person singular of the passive and 
middle is contracted into to. 

NOTE 3. In some instances, the Jirst aorist takes the connecting vowel i of 
the second aorist. See the Anomalous iyu, AEXfl, Olf! bring. 


SO. 1. The terminations of the infinitive mood are the 

Active. Passive and Middle. 

Present, Future, 2 Aor. v All tenses, except Aorist Pas- 
Perfect vat sive ( 92), 

2. For the connecting vowel, the present, future, and second 
aorist, active, have an . In the first aorist middle the con- 
necting vowel is an . In all the other tenses it is an t. 

But theirs/ aorist active, infinitive ends in at. 

3. The following table exhibits the terminations and the 
connecting vowels united. 


Pres., Fut., 2 Aor. 

Passive and Middle. 
Pres., Fut., 2 A. Mid. t-a$at 
I Aor. Mid. a-adai 

For the perfect and aorist passive, infinitive, see below 
($$ 91 : 92). 

NOTE 1. The termination of the infinitive active in the Epic 
language is t utrai or ptv, which is always preceded by the con- 
necting vowel . E. g. nlria, Tiivi^tvui or mre t usr for nlvtiv. 

NOTE 2. In the infinitive active, the Doric has tv or r,v for 
ttv. E. g. .?offxoj, floaxtv for floaxuv' XUIQO, %aiQr t v for 

NOTE 3. The lonians change iiv of the second aorist active 
into if iv. E. g. /?'xJ.w, palseiv for 



OO. 1. The root of the present, future, and second 
aorist, active, participle, is formed by annexing OVT to the root 
of the tense ( 83. 2). E. g. 

Present, T-vmav, Tvm-ovT-og, ( 36. 3, R. 1) 

Future 1. ivyuv, TIUJJ-OVT-W;, (ibid.) 

Future 2. rvntow, rvns-ovj-og, (ibid.) 

Aorist 2. ^v7lb)v, rvn-ovt-oq, (ibid.) 

The first aorist active annexes art to the root of the tense. 
E. g. Ti'y/ac, -ivip-urr-os, ( 30. 2.) 

The perfect active annexes or. E. g. TtTvaxag, Ttrva>-6r-og, 
( 36. 2.) 

NOTE. The ^Eolic dialect uses ate, aiaa, in the first aorist 
active participle, for ug, caa. E. g. dtay.ioj, Siaxrjaaig for 

2. The participle in the passive and middle ends in 
But in the first aorist middle it ends in a^svog. E. g. 
rvTiTopsvog, Tvydfifvo?, ( 49. 1.) 

For the perfect and aorist passive participle, see below 
( 91 : 92). 


O1. 1. The perfect and pluperfect passive and middle 
have no connecting vowel ( 85. ]). E. g. navw, 


INDIC. S. ntTinv-fini, nsnutv-actt, Tisnuv-Tai, D. nfnav-fitSor, 
nsnnv-a&ov, ninav-a&or, P. ntnuv-fitdn, ninav-a&t, ni~ 

SUBJ. and OI J T., see below ( 91. 3, 4, 5). 

IMPERAT. 8. ntnnv-ao, nfTiuv-aOui, D- ninuv-adov, ninav- 
a&atv, P. ninav-a&t, ntnav-a&waav. 

INFIN. ntnnv-aftuu 

PART. nfJiav-fisvog, 77, ov. 


S. Insnav-fitjv, tntnuv ao, eJilnnv-To, D. tnfnuv-fjtdov, 
ininuv-adov, f'ntTtav-o&rjr, P. intnuv-fjt&u, tninuv- 


2. In mute and liquid verbs, the third person plural of the 
perfect and pluperfect passive is formed by means of the per- 
fect passive participle and da I, r t aar, from dpi. E. g. 

Perf. 3d plur. tsn-pptroi (HI, a) dot, for TIT.T-TJ. 
Plup. 3d plur. itTvppirot (HI, ) ijaar, for 

NOTE 1. The Epic 1-inguage in a few instances drops of the termination 
nu. E. g. /3aA.X, perf. pas. (Hfclnfieu, i/3a.q<u for fii>.r,reti. 

NOTE 2. The Epic and Ionic dialects form the third person 
plural of the perfect and pluperfect passive by annexing ctjai, 
aio, to the root of the verb. ( 84. N. 6.) E. g. (ftidyu, 

Perf. 3d plur. itfftc'iomui for fcp&riQuivoi dol 
Plup. 3d plur. ('q&doaio for ((fftaouiiot i]aav. 

(1) //is commonly changed into t before arai, tno. E. g. 
olxita, olxiujui, oixduio, for wxr t nui, wx>;rro. 

(2) The consonants n, ,5, *, /, are generally changed into 
their corresponding rough ones (<p, /), before arat, aio. E. g. 
iiyut, iiiijfuiui, i.fii^cno. 

(3) Z becomes d before cam, aro. E. g. uyiavl^ta, u 

3. The perfect passive SUBJUNCTIVE and OPTATIVE is formed 
by means of the perfect passive participle and dpi. E. g. 

Perf. Subj. Tfji-uftivog (rj, OK) w, ?,;, f,, rjor, eJu*r, r t if, eui. 
Perf. Opt. invuuivoe (rj,ov) tirp, tfr t :, tfij, tlrjor, d>-jr,r, d'r,- 

4. The perfect passive SUBJUNCTIVE of verbs in ata, tea, and 
ota, is, in a few instances, formed by prefixing the augment of 
the perfect to the contracted present subjunctive ( 116). 
In this instance as are contracted into r t . E. g. xiuouai, 

Perf. Subj. xfxTtuua/, i it f,rcti, otut&ov, ijo3o, upidu, fadt, 

5. The perfect passive OPTATIVE of verbs in , roi, and ota, 
is, in a few instances, formed by dropping uni of the perfect 
passive indicative, and successively annexing the regular ter- 
minations of the optative passive ( 87. 1 ) preceded by t . E. g. 

XT0f, XfXT 

Perf. Opt. 


NOTE 3. These two verbs, xraiftai and fttfuvriffx-ea, form the perfect middle 
optative also by prefixing the reduplication to the contracted present middle 

optative. Thus, xix.TUfJ.nv, ua, turo, &C., fttftvyf&riv, am, u<ro, &C. 

M'uvv/rxu often changes a into m, in the perfect middle optative. Thus, 
fHf<tvoi[>t,'riV, sto, aim, &C. . 

In the Ionic and the Epic dialect these verbs change u into ia>, in the perfect 
middle optative. E. g. xtxTstu/unv, fttfumfomTt f r xsx.TMu.fiv, 

NOTE 4. Ai/ is perhaps the only verb in uu, which forms the perfect passive 
optative after the analogy of verbs in a.u, ia, tu, ; 91. .5.) Thus, Xua>, Xi- 
y, ua, uro, &c., or, more analogically, \i~/ v'tftn-i, via, V~TO, &c. 

NOTE 5. In the perfect passive subjunctive and optative of verbs in a.u, ia, 
tu, vu, , 91. 4, 5, N. 4,' some grammarians place the ACCENT on the ante- 
penult, if the last syllable permits it ( 2O . E. g. they write xtKryfiti*, 

NOTE G. In some instances the SECOND PEIIFECT ACTIVE drops the connect- 
ing vowel in the dual and plural of the indicative, and throughout the impera- 
tive. In this, the SECOND PLUPEIUECT follows the analogy of the second 
perfect. See avuya, AEI11, lyi'i^a, EIAf!, itxu, EAET0n, *{, 
xaf^u, ft'&u, in the catalogue of Anomalous Verbs. 

NOTE 7. The SECOND PERFECT ACTIVE of a few pure verbs 
in ,), fd), is syncopated ( 91. N. 6) in the dual and plural of 
the indicative, throughout the imperative,, and in the infinitive. 
In the subjunctive and optative, it. follows the analogy of verbs 
in ui ( 117). In the participle it is contracted. E. g. from 

Perfect 2. 

INDIC. S. ^/?a, fiefiaa?, fisfias, D. {Hpapsv, ^epatov, /S 


P. fofiuiufv, f/CT, /?f/5t5a((')- 
OPT. S. fieflufyv, /5f/?/7jtr, fifftitiT], D. 

/3f^Mt7^TJjj', P. fitfiufyfttv, peftalritt, 
IMPER. S. /5s'/?5i ( 88. N. 1), ^diw, D. fli^mov, 

I'NFIN. / 

PART. /Je/SaoJ?, /5/?waa (sometimes {3t{3av1u), /?/5o'?, 
s, contracted /Sf^cJc, pt@(aaa, /5f,5w$, G. 

Pluperfect 2. 

v, iptfidft?, ffepun, D. t^lf 
, P. tfiE 

NOTE 8. The singular of the second perfect and second 
pluperfect of verbs in w, eo, is not used in the indicative. 


NOTE 9. The feminine participle of verbs in aca generally 
ends in act, in the second perfect. Its uncontracted form is 
not used. 

NOTE 10. The ACCENT of the third person plural of the 
indicative ( 91. N. 7) is placed on the penult, contrary to the 
general rule ( 93. 1). 


92* 1. The root of the first aorist passive is formed by 
annexing &t or &TJ to the root of the verb. ( 83. 2.) 

The root of the second aorist passive is formed by annexing 
e or ij. (ibid.) 

2. The aorist passive uses the terminations of the active 
voice, and, in its inflection, follows the analogy of the second 
aorist active (t&ijv) of ri&r,/jii ( 1 17) ; except that all the reg- 
ular terminations of the indicative, imperative, and infinitive 
are preceded by ij. E. g. -ivmu, 

Aorist 1. 

INDIC. S. iTVCp&TjV, rjc, rj, D. i\\itv, TI-IOV, rjjrjv, P. 
TjTf, r t aav. 

SuBJ. S. tvcf&io), e'i;c, fr,, D. i(autv, ir/jov, irpov, P. t 
tTjit, itaai, contracted Tvqptfw, >'?, fj, MUU . ijior, r^tov, 
rjTi, wai. 

OPT. S. Tvtp&eiyv, ilrif, tlrj, D. flr t uir, t/ijiox, iirflrp, P. flij 

The syncopated endings il^fr, flu, utr, (see the par- 
adigm,) are more common than the regular ones. 

IMPERAT. S. ti'g-tf^Ti (^ 14. N. 4), ; ( 'TW, D. r,Tov, r,itov, P. 
iftf, Tjiwaav or snuv. 

PART, n'tp&fl;, flan, ir, G. ivio:. 

Aorist 2. 
f'n'.Tjjr, throughout like Aorist 1. 

Nor* 1 . The Epic language often changes of the third person plural 
of ihe indicative into t>. E. g. xtefti*, xofpnSir for ixtrfif.Stureu. (117. N. 17.) 

NOTE 2. The Epic language often changes t in the uncontracted subjunctive 
into u. E. g. -nxf^'iu for rufd'm. ( 117. N. 17.) 

Norz 3. The Epic language often takes ftitai or for *, in them/iniwv. 
E. g. Tu$$jp.i'xi or rofSiifut for rvfSiiiau. ( 89. N. 1.) 

NOTK 4. The Epic language, in some instances, drops the connecting vowel* 
in the SECOND AORIST MIDDLE. See the Anomalous Z).).tfttii, ;agiVx, yi- 
%iuai, 'EAfl, Xiy, AEXfl, ftiynufti, tpupi, ri($*. 



93. 1. Ip polysyllabic forms the accent is placed on 
the antepenult, if the last syllable permits it ( 20) ; if not, it 
is placed on the penult. E. g. 

TVTITOfltV, reTVfpU ' TfTl'H[*r)V, IfVff&rjV. 

Compound verbs are not excepted. E. g. avaym, avays. 

2. In dissyllabic forms the accent is placed on the penult. 

3. The perfect active infinitive, the Jirst aorist active infini- 
tive, the perfect passive infinitive and participle, and the 
second aorist middle infinitive, take the accent on the penult. 
E. g. 

TSTvqoeVcu, cpdijaai, xtivy&ai, ifTV^i^iivoc:, tvnfa&ai. 

Also the Epic infinitive in per. E. g. nlt-ta, mvi/.ist>. 

NOTE 1. In the Epic language, the perfect passive infinitive and participle, 
in some instances, take the accent on the antepenult. See the Anomalous 
a.Kiiof/.a.i, a,\tra.'itu t u%iu, 'EH seat. 

4. The second aorist active infinitive and participle, and the 
perfect active participle, take the accent on the last syllable. 

E. g. 


NOTE 2. The verbs EIAH, Ellin, EAET0I1, ivtftxu, Xa^Cav*, in the 
second person singular of the second aorist active imperative, take the acute 
on the last syllable. In composition, however, they follow the general rule 
( 93. 1). See in the catalogue of Anomalous Verbs. 

5. The second person singular of the second aorist middle 
imperative usually takes the circumflex on the last syllable. 

E. g. IV7ITO), TV710V. 

6. In compound verbs the accent cannot go farther back 
than the augment. E..g. ngoatxw, n^oafi^ov not 

NOTE 3. In verbs compounded with a preposition, the ac- 
cent is placed on that preposition when the augment is omitted. 
( 78. N. 3.) E. g. e^uqpttiVw, s'fKpaiyor for fvtipaivov. 

NOTE 4. When the augment, upon which the accent would 
have been placed ( 93. 1), is omitted ( 78. N. 3), the accent 
is placed on the penult. E. g. nlmu, nlms for i 




94. 1. The present active indicative is the 
source from which all the other tenses are derived. 

2. Verbs are divided into pure verbs, mute verbs, and liquid 
verbs, according as the letter before w is a voted, a mute (TT, 
/?, y x, '/, x - t,8, &, also ), or a liquid (1, u, v, ? ). E. g. 
TiuuQi, if i/.sw, are pure verbs ; iffau, niixia, are mute verbs ; 
psiw, rt'//a>, are liquid verbs. 

NOTK. 1. These statements apply also to deponent verbs ( 2O8 1 !, as such 
rerbs are supposed to have been derived from a corresponding active voice. 
E. g. fftitftat, a pure verb ; Vt%t(uu, a mute verb ; tivsaftai, a liquid verb. 

NOTE 2. The title, " FORMATION OF THE TENSES," relates 
only to thejirst person singular of the tenses of the indicative. 
For the inflection of the tenses in the other moods, see above 

95. The penult of a pure verb ( 94. 2), if 
short, is lengthened in the perfect, pluperfect, future, 
and aorist. A, in the penult, when it is not pre- 
ceded by f, t, or p, is changed into 77. 

For examples, see below. 

REMARK. This rule does not apply to the second perfect, 
second pluperfect , second future, and second aorist. 

NOTE 1. Some pure verbs retain the short vowel through all 
the tenses. Such are alSdouat, axioucci, aiiw, UM'M, pxc'o>, 
ctQoa), agvco, ytbica, tpifo, -dldoi, xozt'w, [itfrvoi, ritxioi, $ica, TIJCOI, 
anata, tmrvm, itisw, rgia, faiati. See also the Anomalous uya- 
pai, aiiouui, autpiivvvut, uoieyiazw, aoianat, data divide, Sufiaca, 
Sinco/trti, docncu, fiuvna, irrvut, fgdio, fa&lw, "ir t ui, 'ddaxoucti, 
xaiico, xia'w break, uaiouai, uf&vw, valm, opvvui, ONfLMI, na- 
rioftat, ntrdvri'ui, ax(du^-vvfj.i. 

NOTE 2. The quantity of the penult of some pure verbs is 
variable. See the Anomalous alvlta, algtco, axaj/Jw, (3uiro\ 
bind, dlS<aut, Swetfuu, 3v<a, tgvw, tlolaxw, &vu, 
, xogivvvui, xofucivvvui, Ivw, Ufi^ouai, riuta, o^ta, 
t, JilunQTjui, nlvto, nim<a, no&eta, ' PEJl, oftiyvut, auoiu, 
i, Ti&7]ut t (f^ul, (f&dvia. 

NOTE 3. X^a* changes a. into *, contrary to the rule. E. g. xfjru, XZ*~ 
. 'A0fcufuu does not change a. into n, as **t&rfau. 
Q * 


NOTE 4. T&nfci lengthens i into u in the perfect active and passive. See 
in the catalogue of Anomalous Verbs. 

<> 96. The present in actual use is not always the foundation 
upon which the other parts of the verb rest. Many verbs have, 
or are supposed to have, more than one present. In order there- 
fore to be able to ascertain the original or simple present, the 
learner must become acquainted with the methods by which 
new presents may be derived from a given present. These 
methods are exhibited in the following paragraphs. 

1. Some verbs beginning with a consonant, followed by a 
vowel or a liquid, prefix that consonant together with i. E. g. 

didooo from AQSL 
Tir^ttw " TPAJl. 

A few verbs beginning with or, ox, m, prefix i. E. g. 
tara'w from 2TASI. Also the verb c EfL, thus, liia. 

NOTE 1. A few take the Attic reduplication, but without 
the augment of the second syllable. ( 80. 1.) E. g. AFAFJl 
from uyw. 

NOTE 2. The Attic reduplication of otlvupi from ONAH, and the prefix of 
( from pda, are anomalous. 

2. Many verbs, of which the root ends in a labial (n, /5, <JP), 
drop io and annex TW. E. g. 

from TTIIfL 

" KPTBJl, ($ 7) 
^'TITW " c PIH>fi, (ibid.) 

So IXTITO) (<p), pdijiTto ((f), p^amta (/5), d^vmta (tp), dourtw (<p), 
, xA7iTW (TT), XOTITW (n), vlniw (/3), 
(qp), axunrco (qo). 
Hence it appears, that the root of the simple present of 
verbs in m<a ends in a labial ; generally in n. 

3. Many verbs, of which the root ends in a palatal (x, y, x)i 
or lingual (T, d, &), drop w with the preceding consonant, and 
annex aata. E. g. 

from <I>PIKfL xuaaoi from TAFJl 

" UPAI'Jl ptiaaa " BAlTJl 

" BIlXfL xogvaaw " KOPTOSl. 

So uttdaao) (y), figdaaoi (T), tQsaara (T), ifidaaia (i), xrjQvaa* 
(x), AtWojUi (T), jUwAw'uaw (x), ndaaia (T), wiwaaw (#), raptfa 


Hence it appears, that the root of the simple present of verbs 
in oou ends either in a palatal or in a lingual ; generally in y 
or d. 

Nor* 3. T.'*T is formed from TEKfl by changing i into i and annexing 
r to the root 96. 16.) 

Nor* 4. The last syllable of the simple present of ifvfr* and i* either 
yu or \n. 

4. Some verbs, of which the root ends in a palatal (, y, %), 
or lingual (i, d, &), drop u with the preceding consonant, and 
annex u. E. g. 

xoJ> from KPAFJl aru^ from 2TAFSL 

(TTfra'sU " OTH'a/aj o^oi OJJl. 

So f^ouat (d), 

NOTE 5. In most cases presents in ;:&>, especially in poly- 
syllabic verbs, are considered simple. E. g. &niZte, 

NOTE 6. The last syllable of the simple present of <r'*<, /5*T^s ?rr- 
, trx'^v, raX^, is either y or X. 

Nor* 7. Some verbs have rru or in the present. Such are rf*rr* or 
from 2*.\rn, > or iffie'fr* from 'APMO AH. 

5. Some verbs annex r to the last letter of the root. E. g. 
tip-ia from if//cu, rtt'iw from J1JSI. 

6 Many verbs insert r before the last letter of the root. 

XA^'J.Q, from XAJSl 

AAMBfL " AABSl, ( 12. 1) 

LyLFKJl " LyLKSL, ( 12. 2) 

/?;.i w " BA^SI, ( 12. 3.) 

Here belong all verbs in iiia and g$ia, and some in yyu, as 

7. Some verbs annex o-w or airta to the root, E. g. aviy 
from i'|oj, cina&aina or oLaduxn from OAI20JI. 

Some annex am> to, and insert before the last conso- 
nant of the root. E. g. 

Har&arto from MAQSl 
iu5vo) " vAiTJJi, (12. 1) 

TV-'/a'rw " TTX.Q, (? 12. 2.) 

8. Some annex orxo) or 10x01 to the root. E. g. 
from yr.gdw, xt'Vaxw from xi w. 


Sometimes the vowel before axw is lengthened. E. g. 
^yij'axw from ONAJl. 

9. Some annex wta to the root. In pure verbs this ending 
very often doubles the v. E. g. 

from AEIKSl 
" 2HESI. 

Sometimes the vowel preceding this ending is lengthened. 
E. g. %(arvvia from XQW. 

10. New presents are very often formed by annexing aw, 
ta, ow, or via, to the root of a verb. E. g. 

Qimi(a from jjlmto 

11. New presents are formed by changing of the perfect 
into CD. E. g. 

(f\xa, perfect niyvxa, new present 

12. Sometimes the sound of the present is strengthened by 
the endings a&w, t&u, vfrai. E. g. Sitaxdd-ta from diioxca, 
S(a from cfkiw, (p&ivv&M from (pdlrta. 

NOTE 8. "EfDu comes from fia by annexing B-a to the root ; thus i5-3o>, 
Ir-Su, ( 10. 3.) 'E^S/w is immediately derived from trBta. 

13. Many presents are formed from dissyllabic presents, 
which have ? in the penult, by changing the K into o and annex- 
ing tw. E. g. nogSiw from USQ&U. 

Or by changing E into w and annexing aw, E. g. 

NOTE 9. YLiroftai gives vrar'iouai, rtTuaftai, and jruroioft.eti. 

14. A few verbs insert a before the -last consonant of the 
root. E. g. ftia/ta from MfJ'Jl. 

NOTE 10. A/S<r*<a comes from AI AAX11 by changing into * after the r. 
Tlar%v is formed from IIA0fl by inserting before 9-, and changing 9- 
mio x . 

15. A few verbs annex aw to the root. E. g. KV; from 
ATFSl, HE2SI from HETJl. ( 9. 2 : 10. 2.) 

16. A few change e into t. E. g. nhvu from nETSL, uxl- 
from 2KEJAJI. ( 96. 5.) 


NOTE 11. All the tenses of verbs in TTTM, aato, *ca ( 96. 4), 
via ( 96. 5), JUw, QOOI, ara> or airw ( 96. 7), axtu, laxto, vvta, 
a&u, tOm, v&w, w ( 96. 15), except the imperfect, generally 
come either from the simple present, or from a new present in 
tw ( 96. 10), or from both. 

17. In dissyllabic verbs the radical vowel is sometimes 
placed after the last consonant of the root. ( 26. 2.) E. g. 

O^'.l.'l from 

TMEfL " 


18. In many instances, the penult of the original present is 
lengthened : 

a becomes r, or at as AABfL, AHBSl &ANJI, 
f ft, and, before a liquid, I asP777/i, 


t at (rarely r,} ; as 2I1EPJI, anfloio. 
o ou ' as AKOJl, axoi'o). 
v ev, and, before a liquid, v as (ItTI'fL, qpn/w ' AI 

On the other hand, at, is shortened into u, ft, into T or t, 
tv into v, TJ into u (rarely into ), r into i, ov into o, v into v. 

NOTE 12. Sometimes tv in the penult is shortened into ?. 
See the Anomalous u).souiti, &iu run, nlita, nrtu, gito fioic, jriu. 

NOTE 13. ' conies from Ix by lengthening a into an, and annexing 
f to the root ( 96. 5.) 

19. The radical vowel is often either t, , or o (rarely w). 
This takes place chiefly in dissyllabic verbs. ( 2. N. 3.) E. g. 

NOTE 14. In some instances the diphthongs ti and tv are 
changed into ot and 01- respectively. See the Anomalous AEISl, 
L, li'xca, EAETO1L, 


97. To form the imperfect active, drop o of 
the present, annex ov, and prefix its augment. 

rtmrw imperf. 



98. 1. To form the perfect active, drop o 
of the present, annex xa, and prefix its augment. 

nav<a perf. nsnuvx 




( 95) 

10. 4) 

So Ti^aw, TETtfjyxa (<, 95) ; SQUOI, didyuxa (ibid.) ; rlta, rni- 
xu (ibid.) ; daxQvai, dtduxyvxu (ibid.). 

(1) The first perfect active of liquid verbs is always derived 
from the simple present. E. g. uy/eMuo, i t yytlxa yntt 
, Tiiyayxa' xot&otlgw, xixu&uyxa. (^ 96. 6, 18.) 

(2) When the radical vowel is either F, , or o, the first per- 
fect of dissyllabic liquid verbs takes . E. g. ort'Uw, taralxu 
, l'<p&HQxn. ( 96. 6, 18, 19.) 

NOTE 1. The verbs xX/v*, xj/vw, irXiJ<, drop > in the first perfect active. 

Thus, xuc/Uxa, KtKoixa., x'fx\vr.a,. 

2. To form the perfect active of mute verbs 
whose root ends in a labial (TT, /?, <p) or a palatal 
(x, ^, %\ drop a of the present, annex a, change 
the preceding smooth or middle mute into its cor- 
responding rough mute (9, ;y), and prefix its aug- 
ment. E. g. 


So TVTITW, rlrvcfH ' ngtiaao), nin^a^a. (^ 96, 2, 3.) 

The perfect formed .according to these rules ( 98. 1,2) 
is called the FIRST PERFECT ACTIVE. 

NOTE 2. The first perfect of the following verbs changes the radical vowel i 
into ( 96. 19): *Aia"r, xi*Xa0 tip**, xivtfttfiix. ' r^tcr*, vir(tlf> 
(sometimes Tirjaipa). See also the Anomalous uyu t K&, ENEFKH, xi- 
yw collect, and T/n<Qu. 

NOTE 3. The anomalous AEIfl, in the first perfect, changes n into ai 
( 96. N. 14). See in the catalogue of Anomalous Verbs. 


99. Some verbs form their perfect active also by drop- 
ping w of the present, annexing a, and prefixing the augment. 
E. g. 

oijTiu perf. ota^na. 

The perfect thus formed is called the SECOND PERFECT 

The following list contains nearly all the verbs which have a 
second perfect active. For the changes of the root, see above 

ttyrvui (AF<1), tuya. xtvdu, xixivda. 

axui-u) (AKOJl).. axjxoa. xr,doj, xixr,da. 

uiduiu (AjfL), I'uda. xid^a (KAAFSl), xtxirjya, xe- 

A^'ti&Jl, ut'ilfo&a. xiayya. 

utxayu, urtoya. xonidi (KOffJl}, xixona. 

UQuyiaxta (APJl), UQuga. x^ta (KPAl'Sl), 

j3i{jQ6iGx<u(BPOfL), part. "t^u;. itifino}, iiiaunu. 

fioi>).ouai (BOTAfL), 3i3ovla. luvduia, (AAOJl), ii. 

fioidb), fiijSQi&a. idaxoi (sUKJl), ifiuxu. 

yr t Oi(>> (I'HOJl), yiyrfiu. liiTiot, iiioinre. 

ylyrouui (rt'AVZ, FAJl), /f/0- palrot (MA^'Jl), 

ru, yiyaa. utc^nica (MAPHfL), 

FfL^<~fL, yiywvn. [tuia, ufunu. 

duiio (JAJi), dedr,a. MLIPfi (MEPfL), 

JAfL, dtdita. iiiJuo, fUfnjlLm. 

SfQxouai, didooxa. JILJi'Jl, [tiuora. 

dlta, didta. u),x(touui (3IAKJ~L) 

8-jvnt'(a (JOriJJl), Sidovna. o^tu (OJJl), odwda. 

dPl'^IfL, Stdooua. oiyu, twya. 

fytl'jM (EFEPfl), I/p7;/opa. oiii-^t (OAli), oiwia. 

i$ot, ?5ij(J. OfiJi, otiunct. 

i&u, tuaa. OOITUI (OPfL), 

toixa, oixa, uxct. 

J:ALTOSI (EATOH), &r t iv&a. 

rii.TO), toinu. 

J^'LOfl. f) ?;o5a. Hqynpn (flAFJl}, Ttirtr^u. 

niTiTw (/7T.a), part. 

(OAsifL), T#i;ia. Tii/Jaatu (nAAFJl), ni 

f&r,Tta. noaaatu (nPAFJl), 

O^fAJi), ri&raa. o i',yr Vf* i f PA FfL 

Jorijut (2TAJI), taraa. Qiyt(a ^PIFJl), ijjqiyu. 

108 INFLECTION OF WORDS. [$ 100-102. 

aalgco (2APJI), asayya- (psv/ca, nttptv/a. 

ay-no), asaqna. (pdtlgia (<I>OEPJl'), i(p&oga. 

(JsnEPJl), sanoga. (fglaata ( ftPlKSl), niyglxa. 

(2TEAJI), I'ffToAa. &TZSI, part, ntyv&ag. 

, 'iaroQya. tpvia, nitpva. 

TJJXW, xsTJjxa. %alvca (XANJl), xfxrjra. 

TtXTW (TEKJ2.), rsioxa. xavdura) (XAJfl), xtxavda. 

TAAJl, TtAa. ^w (XE/lSl), xt^oda. 

), X%luda. 

NOTE. In Homer, a few pure verbs in au, iu, form their second perfect parti- 
ciple by changing a, or i into and annexing us. . g. fta^iu, fiifiagtivf. 


1OO. To form the first pluperfect active, drop 
a of the first perfect, annex av, and prefix its aug- 
ment. E. g. 

1V71TO), TSTVCfHX 1 

5) 1O 1. To form the second pluperfect active, drop of the 
second perfect, annex tiv, and prefix the augment. E. g. 
vta, axrjxoa 2 pluperf. Tj 


^ 1O3. To form the future active, drop a of the 
present, and annex cro. E. g. 

fut. Tiavau) 

<f (piirjao) (^ 95) 

" drjlaaa) (ibid.) 

" Itiyw ( 5. 2) 

" TiAslw (ibid.). 

So rifido}, np.r,a(a ( 95) ; dgdtM, Syaau) (ibid.) ; T/M, rTaet 
(ibid.) ; &rwQV(n, daxQvu<a (ibid.) ; T(>//5o>, Tp/<//w (^8. 2) ; /pq)w, 
ygaym (ibid.) ; Uyw, >l|(u (^ 9. 2) ; TEI^W, TEV|W (ibid.) ; ndoi, 
aaoi ( 10. 2); ndd, Ttelaw (ibid.); ttnlga, tlnlaw (ibid.); 
antrdto, onflow ( 12. 5). 

The future thus formed, is called the FIRST FUTURE ACTIVE. 


NOTE 1. Futures in Taw, from verbs in jo>, often drop the 
a, and are inflected like contract verbs in tia ( 116). E. g. 

'iw, fut. xofilaw, xopiu, t?, ifi, dual mrov, plur. tovpsv, 


NOTE 2. Some futures in tro and tata often drop the a, and 
are contracted like verbs in w and iia. (ibid.) E. g. fut, f'Aaffw, tidai fAeu 

a " Siaaxtddato, diaaxtdua diaaxfSu 

NOTE 3. The Doric dialect, in the inflection of the first 
future active, follows the analogy of contract verbs in tot 
(ibid.). E. g. )'o ( im'o>, fut. voptvato, Doric 

NOTE 4. The Doric often forms futures in w from pure 
verbs or from verbs in w, which among the Attics have aw in 
the future. E. g. ytkuca, ytid^ca ' 

NOTE 5. The poets often use aata for aw, in order to make 
the preceding syllable long by position. E. g. vt'o>, avvoata * 

1O3. To form the future active of a liquid 
verb, drop a of the simple present, and annex to 
contracted to. E. g. 

fut. fifviia CODtr. fitra 
" xfitviu xgtrd), ( 96. 18) 

uiiii'ito ctfivvu, (ibid.) 

" xadagiai XU&UQU, (ibid.) 

" xnvita xT't3, (ibid.) 

cntiiu " areitoi aifAw, ( 96. 6.) 

The future thus formed has been called the SECOND FUTURE 


NOTE 1. A few liquid verbs have their future in <. Such are *J*>, xuer>' 
fuftt, /fuffu *i}.\u (KEAH), See also the Anomalous ijaj/Vxw, 


NOTE 2. The />?< and mute verbs have no second future active. In the 
paradigm rv-rrtt, the second future rtn-it, TV** is introduced merely for exam- 
ple's take. 




1O4. 1. To form the aorist active, drop o of 
the present, annex tfa, and prefix its augment. E. g. 

aor. i'navaut 

(fdsca " tcpllrjaa ( 95) 

JijAew " edfowacc (ibid.) 

lelnta " ntiya ( 5. 2) 

nHxfo " 7i>Ua (ibid.). 

So TijUMOJ, T//i7jaa ( 95) ; dyda, fdyuaa (ibid.) ; aviaaj, 
yvlaaa (ibid.); T/M, tritja (ibid.); dctx^vto, iddxyvaa (ibid.); 
"iQifiia, tTQiya ( 8. 2) ; yQayco, i'/0ay/a_ (ibid.) ; ie^a), &f|a 
(9.2); Tft^w, tsv|a (ibid.); (5w, j}aa (<5> 10. 2); nti&ta, 
tntiaa (ibid.) ; i'knl^oi, r^niaoc (ibid.). 

NOTE 1. A few pure and mute verbs annex a, instead of <r*. See the An- 

omalous a.\ii), $&rtop,a,i, 11111, ENEFKil, tyf/jtw, jtutu, fflva, %la. 

NOTE 2. Three verbs take ** instead of an. See the Anomalous S/Sw^j, 
"npi, and rlfhifti. 

NOTE 3. The Dorians often form aorists in from pure 
verbs, or from verbs in w. E. g. /d'w, tysia^a ' xofj,lio, 

NOTE 4. The poets often double the a after a short vowel. 
E. g. avvfo, yvvaaa ' yfXda, f' 

2. To form the aorist active of a liquid verb, 
drop a of the simple present, annex a, lengthen 
the penult, and prefix its augment. A, in the 
penult, is lengthened into T?, and into si. E. g. 

xQlvco aor. ixtjiva ( 96. 18) 

afivvca " T}n\>va (ibid.) 

vt/j.<a " svfifiu (ibid.) 

T/Uoi " Iwio (^ 96. 6, 18) 

aqpw'/Uw " tacpTjlct (ibid.) 

Those liquid verbs, which have at, in the penult of the pres- 
ent, take i) or in that of the aorist. E. g. cpulrta, tyr^u* 
xa&alca, ixd&riQa or ixd.&aQa. (^ 96. 18.) 

The aorist formed according to these rules ( 104. 1, 2) 
is called the FIRST AORIST ACTIVE. 

NOTE 5. A?f4> and a'xXo^a/ change a. into only in the indicative (in con- 
sequence of the augment). Thus, jjja, &fu, aja/^/, d{, aja/, ' aXXo^a/, 


', \*fuu, Zf.xt^j.i, i?.a>i,-. See in the catalogue of Anomalous 


NOTE 6. A few liquid verbs take r* in the first aorist actire. Such are 
xf<; (KEPH), Ixurx AX* (KEAfl), iiXr ', fjr /{ 
(TEPH , iTiffx. See also the Anomalous ifxt'irxv, ifxx, Sy 

1O>. Some verbs form their aorist active by dropping 
tu of the present, annexing or, and prefixing the augment. E. g. 

The aorist thus formed is called the SECOND AORIST ACTIVE. 

The following list contains nearly all those verbs which 
have a second aorist active. For the changes of the root, see 
above ($ 96). 

ayta, rtfayov. f'oitxu (EPIKfL), rjgixor. 

uxaxl^fa (AXSL), yxaxov. f'yfi (EPin.Q.), 

JU|oj (AAEKSl), r t lalxov. f'ovyydru (EPTFJl}, 

cuUia/ru (AAITJ1), vlnor. foi-xta, tovxaxor. 

. ' - ' 


upriiuxiaxhi ^AMUAAKfL), %[*- 0A&JL, tiayov. 

Jiiaxov or TjTiiaxov. &tyydrw (0/JVi), t&tyor. 

avdiiru ^-LJJl), tadov or iidor. \}ri.<jxia (OA^'Jl), i&avor. 

J.<PJ1^), r t na(f.ov. -ftGOJuxia (OOPfl), I&OQOV. 

(APSi), fyaQov. KAJfL, xixudov. 

ATPSl, UVQOT. xultoi (fAFfJl), txaror. 

fiuu.u (BAAJl), tpalov. xduvui (KAlfJl), txauov. 

fiiiu<jjdv<a(BAJLZTJl),tpla(nor. xtv&a (K.TOJI), txvdov. 

fiiuuxu (MOAJl), ipoiov. xt/tiro) (KIXJ1), txixov. 

BPAXJl, tfigaxor. xid^w (fLIAl'J!.), txltiyor. 

Siixrta (dAKfl), tSaxor. xo 9 'tu (KPAPfi), ixQafar. 

JAJl, tdaov. xiurta (KTE^'fl), ixravor. 

8aQ&dva> (jAPdJl), ISaQ&ov. xn-Tiita (K.TTIlfl), IXTVTIOV. 

dioxotiHi, tdoaxov. layxdru (AAXfl), Ha/or. 

JIKJ1, tdixor. inu&'crfa (AABfL), ilnfiov. 

APAMJl, idqaftor. , lav&iivta (A.4.QSI), iladav. 

ETJ.1 (Lljl), tiSor. Iduxu (AAK.o), l/axor. 

EIHSl, lino*. ifina (AlIISL), ilinor. 

EAETQfL (EAT0Jl),i]iv&oy. par&diHo (MAOJl], ipa&or. 

'AJl, t'dov. //a'priTW (MAPHfL), uiuuQTiov. 

E^ETKJl, rjvf/xov. MEIPfL (MEPSl), tfiuoqov. 

fV/nrw (E??infl} t frivlnov* ft^xcio^uai (MAKfL), tuaxov. 

(Vl{J7TO) t >'(JyZG?. 1/rXrtOilttl ( 1/7*/C^i) &UVXOV 

fnw, tonor. oij^a*Vw (OAlZOfL], <S'/ua&or. 

112 INFLECTION OF WORDS. [ 106, 107. 

), wcpflov. T/XTW (TEKJl), tnxov. 

ovphaxdrta (OG4JI), wqpAoi'. jnvaxoftai (TTKJl), trvxov. 

ndtto) (riA^fJl), inalov. i^yta (TMAFfL), 

nua%(a (llA0J~L), tna&ov. IOQIKI (TOPJl), tV 

(lllOJi), ini&ov. Tginia, tTQcmov. 

, tntngSov. T^eqnw, tTgacpor. 

Tpw'^w (TPAI'Jl^, iT 

nimbi (lIETSl), tntoor, tnt-iov. -ivyxdvw (TTXJl), 

nivw (nifL), zmov. &AFJI, tcpayov. 

7rA;atfw (jI^tAl'Ji}, tn^yov. <l>ENfl, nicpvov, tTtf<pvov. 

IIOPSI, tnoQor. cptvyw (frTI'Jl), itpvyov. 

mu'iQ(a (HTAPJl), tmugov. (fQot^ta (frPA/Ml), tcpgadov. 

OTBi'xoi (2TIXSI), i<m%ov. zu^w (XAJJl), xixaSov. 

uvvyiu) (2TTrJl),WTvyov. XMIVW (XANJi), t%avov. 

TATSl, iTayov. %avddv(a (XAJJl), f'xadov. 

rdfiva (T(UW), tTffj.ov, tTu^ov. XPA12MJI, 

NOTE. Some of these verbs have also a first aorist active. See 
Ellin, ENErKfl, xXa, *, ^vru, *&*%*>, *#>, *ifii 
in the catalogue of Anomalous Verbs. 


1O6. 1. To form the present passive, drop ca 
of the present active, and annex OJJLCU. E. g. 

tvmo) pres. pass, rvmo^iai. 

2. To form the imperfect passive, drop oftai of 
the present, annex o^v, and prefix its augment. 

T.VTIIW, TVTiTOfActt itnperf. pass, fivmofiyv, 

1O7. To form the perfect passive, drop a of 
the present active, annex /ucu, and prefix its aug- 
ment. E. g. 

perf. pass, nsnavnai 

" nfcpllrjfint ( 95) 

" Si8rj}.(a^c>ci (ibid.) 

" il^tiftfiai ($ 8. 1) 

" Tiinfaypat ( 9. 1 j. 


So TijUa'a), mtttr^ucti ( 95) ; firinai, ytictfiai (ibid.) ; T/OJ, ifif- 
fiai (ibid.) ; daxgvcv, diddxovuai (ibid.) ; rpt'/Sw, iiiQiu^.at 
{8. 1); /paqco;, yiyqaiiuui. (ibid.); \iyoi, >U'A6/ ( ua*' Tfv^ai, ze- 
( 9. 1) ; add), papal ( 10. 1) ; nddta, nintiapat (ibid.) ; 

For the inflection of the perfect passive, see above (91). 

(1) The perfect passive of liquid verbs is always formed 
from the simple j^esent. E. g. ayyiiia, rtfytipai ' (puiKa, 
nfyapitai. ( 96. 6, 13 : 12. 3.) 

(2) When the vowel of the root is either t, a, or o, the 
perfect passive of dissyllabic liquid verbs takes a. E. g. <m'A- 

tQbi, tcp&agpai. ( 96. 6, 18, 19.) 

NOTE 1. Some pure verbs, especially such as retain the 
short vowel in the penult ( 95. N. 1, 2), insert a before the 
terminations pat, TUI, pidov, piSa. E. g. 

Tsrj'isaroft, TEiiltafit&or, 

Norz 2. The liquid verbs mentioned above ( 98. N. 1), and a few others, 
drop the > in the perfect passive. . g. *X/, *f*X;/<;. 

NOTE 3. Some liquid verbs in yu change y before ^ into a. 
E. g. qpatVw, ni(fua t uai for ni(fau t uat. 

NOTE 4. If the terminations t uai, {is&ov, fit&a, be preceded 
by two consonants (except \v, iy, ox, yy, $%), the consonant 
immediately preceding them is dropped. E. g. TSOJIW, Tf'r 

NOTI 5. In a few instances, the epic poets retain the lingual (S, S^, un- 
changed before ft. E.g. KAAH, xixatftat ' ncutrtt (KOPT0H,), xixi- 


NUTE 6. The following mute verbs change i into 2 in the perfect passive : 
rrfifu, ' rairu, rirtaftfuti ' niipa (0PE<I>fl), r&e*ttu*i. 
( 96. 19.) 


1OS. To form the pluperfect passive, drop 
pai of the perfect passive, annex p/v, and prefix 
its augment. E. g. 

TJ/JITOJ, ittvuuai plup. pass. 

114 INFLECTION OF WORDS. [109,110. 


1O9. To form the aorist passive, drop to of 
the present active, annex xh?v, and prefix its aug- 
ment. E. g. 

navoi SLOT. pass, tnav&rjv 

f'q>d^T)v ( 95) 

idr]i(a9-t)v (ibid.) 

tisiy&yv (7) 

7i>U'xa) ln}.%{}r]V (ibid.). 

So Tifidw, tTipy&i]v ($; 95); arta'o), i)vn'i&i)v (ibid.); qrwpa'w, 
{(f(ag<Ji&i]V (ibid.) ; T^lflco, tTfjicp&rjr (^ 7) ; ygnyw, lyQot(p()r,v ' 
liyta, tltx&rjv (ibid.); TSI^W, litvxSrp' fidta, i t 'a&tjv ( 10. 3); 
nd&co, entla&T]v (ibid.) ; ^w^/^eo, ix(aola&rp> (ibid.) 

The aorist passive thus formed is called the FIRST AORIST 

(1) The first aorist passive of liquid verbs is always derived 
from the simple present. E. g. ay/iUio, yyyeWrjv ' qp/rw, 
tydv&TjV. ( 96. 6, 18.) 

(2) When the vowel of the root is cither F, , or o, the first 
aorist passive of dissyllabic liquid verbs takes . E. g. 

( 90. G, 18, 10.) 

NOTE 1. Some pure verbs, particularly such as retain the 
short vowel in the penult ( 95. N. 1, 2), insert a before djp. 

NOTE 2. The liquid verbs mentioned above ( 98. N. 1} often drop the 
in the first aorist passive. E. g. x\'ntt, Ix\iv9-r, commonly ix/i'Sav. 

11O. Some verbs form their aorist passive also by drop- 
ping w of the present active, annexing i t r, and prefixing the 
augment. E. g. 

kiyia aor. pass, f^iynv. 

The aorist passive thus formed is called the SECOND AORIST 


The following list contains nearly all those verbs which have 
a second aorist passive. For the changes of the root, see 
above ( 96). 

(AFJl), tdyi]V or lu'/rjv. attnaaw (.'LlAAFJl), fU 


, t3d<fr,r. 

(BJLABSL), I3id3rjv. 

JASl, idu^r. 

l), idlrp. 


xa'ow (KEPJl], ixdijTji'. 
ultima (K^LE 
xuru, tx't.irr,v. 
XO.TTOJ (KOlZJl), ex6nr)i> 
xatta or xw, txa'ijy. 

(KPTBJl), fx^t' 





(nAFJl), ina.yi\v. 


(PArfL), t 
, fOi}t 
, iacmrp. 


OTiti'gu (2IIEPJ1), tandgrpr. 

I), t(ndir,r. 
w (JSTEPJl), 

rdaaa ( 
ituvta (ruw), 

L), ia<pdli]r. 
, ia<fdyi]r. 


n'jxf) (TAKJl), irdxr,*. 

(fO} and T0('t<f(o, tiQatfrfv. 

tfnir (a 

y(o, t<fiiyr,r. 


Zuiou (XAPJl), f^('ior\v. 
V>vZ<a (VTFJl), tyv 


^111. 1. To form the first future passive, drop 
&rjv of the first aorist passive, annex frrjcoucu, and 
reject the augment. E. g. 

Tvnita, iiixf^rp 1 fut. pass, nup^aofiat. 

To form the second future passive, drop r,v of the second 
aorist passive, annex yaopai, and reject the augment E. g. 


2 fut. 


116 INFLECTION OF WORDS. [ 112-114. 

112. To form the third future passive, drop 
at of tta second person singular of the perfect 
passive, and annex ofiaL. E. g. 

tVilTOl, TSTVftflttl, Tkll'lfJai, 3 fut. TElVlpOflttl. 

NOTE. Liquid verbs, and verbs beginning with a vowel, very seldom have a 
third future passive. 


^113* The present, imperfect, perfect, and plu- 
perfect, middle, are the same as in the passive. 


114. 1. To form the first future middle, drop 
o of the first future active, and annex opai. E. g. 

TVKT&I, zvy/w 1 fut. mid. 

NOTE 1. Whfen the first future active ends in d> ( 102. 
N. 1,2, 3), the first future middle ends in ovpai. E. g. 

), 1 fut. mid. xo/jiovfiai, inflected like 
xctldca, xAw, 1 fut. mid. 

So in the Doric dialect, rvma, rvyw, 1 fut. mid. 
The Attics sometimes use the Doric first future middle. 

2. To form the second future middle, drop to of 
the second future active, and annex opoti. E. g. 

<m'/l/lo>, OTfAtw orTdw 2 fut. mid. aiflsofiai, contracted 

NOTE 2. In a few instances the second future middle is found in mute and 
pure verbs. See the Anomalous l&ftat, ftott&Ki, fta 



115. 1. To form the first aorist middle, drop 
a of the first aorist active, and annex ap?v. E. g. 

|'TVI// 1 aor. mid. 

2. Some verbs form their aorist middle by dropping 
a of the present active, annexing ofir t v, and prefixing the aug- 
ment E. g. 

*EASl aor. mid. 

The aorist middle thus formed is called the SECOND AORIST 


The following list contains nearly all those verbs which 
have a second aorist middle. For the changes of the root, 
see above (96). 

(APEPJl), ijyffjonrjv. xslopai, t; 

oiyot, tiynyoui]V. iafjfiurta {AABSi), 

aiQfa (APfi), riQOfir,v. AtwdaVw (AAOJl), 

flTjV. iftTTft) (AIIIfL), f, 

ainalvo) (AAITJl), rfinofiiyv. olki'(J,t (OAfi), takofiyv. 

n^w (AXJl), rjxrt^o^v. oorvfii (OPJl), (ago t 

oaffQaivopai (O^ 1 

yiyvopai (FENJl), iyivo\ii\v, ntid'ia {IIlOfL), 

lyiloo) (EFEPJl), iiygo^nv. nlyaaoi (iZAAFJi), 

EldfL, jt^OjUijv. WV' 

'EAfL, sllofirfV. 

iTita, ianojj.ijv. nn*' 

1-oouai, TjOOfj.rfV. i^uto) 

iVQiaxca (^ETPSl), fvpo/fjy. rd^nco, 

yf<w, laxour t v. rlxica (TEKJl), 

Ixviofiai (Vxw), Ixoj 

Some of these verbs have also a first aorist middle. Such are 



1 1 6. Pure verbs in ao, s a>, and oo, are con- 
tracted by the Attics in the present and imperfect. 

NOTE 1. Dissyllabic verbs in w are contracted only when 
and come together. E. g. nUw, nUsis niug, nliti nlu, nUo- 
IIKV, niters nhlrs, nliovai, 

REMARK. Ata>, bind, deviates from this analogy ( 116. N. 1). E. g. 

I'toutrt aevo-i, ^tafini ^ovfueci. 

NOTE 2. For the contraction of li^da, ', **, MU.U, /, X(**t 
ifrau, see above ( 23. N. 1). 

NOTE 3. The movable v ( 15. 1) is very seldom appended 
to the contracted third person singular of the imperfect active. 

NOTE 4. The Epic dialect sometimes changes the radical 
vowel E into . E. g. oxvtloi for o 

NOTE 5. The Epic contracts hut into slai, and E'SO into tio. 
E. g. aidttai aidtiou, aidsto uidtio, from alddofiai. Sometimes it 
drops the second . E. g. pv&sai for fiv&esat from 

NOTE 6. The Epic protracts or (contracted) into aa or 
act, and (t> (contracted) into ow or wia or coo, and w into oo>. 
E'. g. 

ayoQUO^tai, ayoQasa&s ayogaa&e, Epic ayoQaaa&s 
ntddoi, Titdm, Epic ntdoia ' niSdsig nidag, Epic 
fifidw, rjfluovaa fjjSaaa, Epic ^(ataaa ' rifidovrtg i 
Epic yficaovifg 

uluUOf.Kd, CttTldoiTO OtlTHUTO, Epic OtTtOWTO. 

In the Epic dialect, verbs in ow sometimes follow the analogy 
of verbs in aw. E. g. Sy'ioca, drj'ioorro dq'iovvTO, Epic drj'ioonvro ' 
dq'ioltv, Epic difiotusv, as if from drjidw. 

NOTE 7. In some instances the Epic changes the radical 
vowel a into to. E. g. aw, w'w. ( 96. 19.) 

NOTE 8. The Ionic very often changes the radical vowel 
into . E, g. (jpom'cu for (pondw. 

NOTE 9. The Ionic often changes o into eta. E. g. 
viwviai for ^r^avaovTni from fiijxavdo( 


/ honor 
8. tffidca 







I love 
S. qptJU'a; S, 









S. tn'juraov 







D. (piJiiofJiiy 




P. (flisOflEV 

(pilov t utv 


S. t(flifOV 



D. tcpiiic 






I manifest 



D. drjioofifv 




dr t l6ns 










[ 116. 

S. rifidai 















S. vdica S. 










S. (pdtoifu S. 3jiootjUt 






ojyptv, MTJTOV, w 




Or thus ( 87. N. 2). 

qplAfltJjV, OtJy?> OIT] 
ofyfltV, (H7JTOV, OiqTTjV 

oir)it, oirjaav 




8r t ).6oisv 

olyg, oil) 







S. (flits 

S. djloe 






D. CplltETOV 


D. 8r,).6noy 





Tijjdtcaaav or 



dr t ).oiT<aaav or 



tifidcav, dovaa, dov (fii.i(av, iovaa, iov 
waa, uv <fi).a)v, oi-au, ovv 

G. doviog, WTOC G. toy TO;, ovnog 


oovaa, oov 
', ovaa, ovv 
G. oovtog, ovrrog 





or -tn 

or -si 


D. -ti^aout&ov 


S. (fiiiouitt 
















S. lituao. 

itfiaouyv S, 





D. tTiuaot. 





















D. <pdf(a{it&ct 





S. 11 pool py v 








8, Ttjuoeou 







D. (plilOlf-lt&OV 



S. yiiioiurv S. 







S. (filiov 8, 





dr t ioiTO 


P. tpiitolfit&a 






P. qxtita&s 




Ttpda&ioaav or 


(pdftadtaaav or 





dyloiadtaaav or 

7, ov 

, ov 
,ov t ucro$, rj, ov 

*l> ov 
drilovpevos, ij, ov 



117. 1 . Some verbs in aa, so, oo, vo, form their 
present and imperfect, and their second aorist active 
and middle, by dropping o, and annexing the termin- 
ations without the connecting vowels. ( 84 : 85.) 

The augment of the past tenses of verbs in fit follows the 
general rules ($$ 78-80). 

NOTE 1 . All verbs in p.i may be inflected like verbs in a. E. g. nSiv, liif, 
in, for viS-iifu, tii, <ri, imperf. iri$-tr, us, it, for ir/dijr, r,;, n. 

2. The radical vowel (, s, o, v) is lengthened in the singu- 
lar of the present and imperfect INDICATIVE ACTIVE. ^4 and c 
become ij, and o becomes . 

The first and third persons singular of the present indicative 
active end in p, at, respectively. ( 84. N. 1.) E. g. 
laxdo) gives larrj^i, rj$, v\ai ' MTZJJV, 77?, i) * 
ti&iot " Tt&rjfit, r)g, i]ai ' tTi&rjv, yg, ij ' 
Sidoca " dldoifii, cos, Wff* ' sdldtov, (ag, o> ' 
dsixwa ' dsixvvfti, -ffg, vai ' idilxvvv, tTf, v. 

NOTE 2. The termination vat of the third person plural of 
the indicative active is often changed into aai. E. g. z/vhjp, 
u&saai for -ii&slai, that is, for Ti&dvai, ( 12. 5.) 

3. The INDICATIVE PASSIVE and MIDDLE generally retains 
the short vowel of the root. E. g. 

lard, 'lair\ni, pass. farttutCi, naou, OCTCCI ' lardn^r, aao, mo ' 
Ti&iw, rl&r^it, " ri&ffiai, taut, rt ' tTi&eprjv, too, rro ' 
didoto, 5t5o)|Uf, " 8ldo[*ai, oaat, OTUI ' tdidofirjV, oao, OTO ' 
Seixvvta, delxvvpi, " duxvvficti, vaai, meu ' idKixvvfirjv, vao, t/ro. 

NOTE 3. The terminations aai, oo, of the second person singu- 
lar, often drop the a, and are contracted with the radical 
vowel. E. g. il&r)[ii, il&tnai, rl&eacct,, TlOtai contracted rldy. 

The old writers (as Homer, Hesiod, Herodotus) generally 
use the uncontracted second person singular. 

4. The SUBJUNCTIVE of verbs in r^i and w^i takes the con- 
necting vowels and is contracted. In this case TJ and jy are 
contracted into ^ and 77 respectively. The subjunctive of verbs 
in vpi follows the analogy of nm<a. E. g. 

taraw, tajrjfii subj. larda, ays, ay contracted latta, jj?, j) 
T^eu, r/vhfjut " Ti&tco, eye, % TI&OJ, fj$, jj 

818601, dlSwpi " SiSoM, orjg, 6j] 8id(u, oJf, M 

117.] VERBS IN /. 125 

Non 4. In some instances the subjunctive of verbs in u/ti rejects the connect- 

ing vowel. E. g. J/-xi3*ri/,uj, )/ai3rC<r/ for 2jtrxi3xt^i. Such forms may 

be easily mistaken for the corresponding ones of the indicative. (J 86. N. 2.) 

5. The OPTATIVE ACTIVE of verbs in r,ui and taut, annexes 
to the root of the verb the endings r,r, ij?, 17, dual ijw, IJTJ/X, 
plural r t utv, jr?, your, preceded by (. E. g. 

icrraeu, \air t ui opt. act. Iviulr,?, cr//c, air] 

did6(a, didaiui Sidolr,y, ot'jjc, OIT}. 

The optative active of verbs in vfu follows the analogy of 
E, g. tfaxn'w, fatiarvfUj dtixrvoipt, voi$, 101. 

NOTE 5. The rfwa? and plural of the optative active often 
drop TJ in which case r t auv becomes er. See the paradigms. 

NOTE 6. In a few instances, the diphthong ti in the optative active of verbs in 
ttfu is changed into w. E. g. 1^-ju.i, 2 aor. opt. 2*n>, Jy'xf, for 3s/ii, 2/>if. 

6. The OPTATIVE PASSIVE and MIDDLE of verbs in yfti 
and aiui annexes the terminations ( 87), likewise preceded 
by an i. E. g. 

UOI, 'larval opt. pas. taTalfirfT, aio, OITO 
fco, rl&r^i ^l&(lur l v ) ilo, tiro 

StSota, didmfti di5oifii]v, oio, olio 

The optative passive and middle of verbs in r t m follows the 
analogy of ri'Tnta. E. g. fttuarvtt, delxrvui, Suxrvolpi)*, i-oio, t'ouo. 

NOTE. 7. In some instances, the optative of verbs in vpii is formed after the 
analogy of verbs in iifti or t/uj. E. g. IO.H-JH, tairvpu, pres. mid. opt. 3d pers. 
sing. Sa/rr (more analogically 3aj>t/.~rs . 

7. The IMPERATIVE annexes the terminations to the 
root. ( SS. 1.) E. g. 

wjTct), iarj/ut imperat. laia&i, OTOJ ' ToTaao, da&co ' 
Ttvh'w, rl&r,ut " ildeii ( 14. N. 4), e'rw ' ildtao, iadto ' 
diSow, 5l5o)ui " dldo&t, orta ' dldoao, oa&ta ' 
diixri-ca, Siixrvpi " dtixrv&t, vrea ' dilxvvao, va&ta. 

NOTE 8. The second person singular of the imperative active 
sometimes drops &t, and lengthens the radical vowel. E. g. 
1(jir t ui, 'tair/ for latuQ-i.' deixtvut, dftxrv for diixn&i. 

NOTE 9. The termination ao of the second person singular 
of the imperative passive and middle often drops the a, and is 
contracted with the radical vowel. E. g. ~<nr,pi, taraao, wrrao 
contracted Tarw. 

8. The INFINITIVE ACTIVE annexes rat to the root of the 
verb. E. g. 


IOTUCO, laTyfil infill, act. laidrtti 


dsixvvca, dslxvvfii 

9. The INFINITIVE PASSIVE and MIDDLE annexes a&ai to 
the root. E. g. 

larda, laiyfu inf. pas. & mid. 'iaraa&yi, oraa&cti 

ti&sw, Tl&r](u xl&ta&ai, &ea&at 

% didou, dldtafu dldoa&ai, 86a&ai 

dsixrvca, dtlxwfu dfixvvo&ai* 

10. The root of the PARTICIPLE ACTIVE is formed by an- 
nexing VT to the root of the verb. E. g. 

farad), 'tarrjfii part. act. lard?, otvrog, ( 36. 2) 
Tivfo'w, Ti&rjui Ti&tlf, Evrog, (ibid.) 

didota, dlSfafti didov?, ovTog, (ibid.) 

deixvva, Stlxvvfii dsixvvg, tWo?,(ibid.) 

11. The PARTICIPLE PASSIVE and MIDDLE annexes ptvog to 
the root of the verb. E. g. 

laidta, r i<jT7}pt part. pas. &. mid. l 

diS6(a, dldoi/Ai didofitvog, 


12. The SECOND AORIST ACTIVE lengthens the radical vowel 
throughout the indicative and imperative, and in the infinitive. 
A, when it is not preceded by Q, becomes t\. E. g. fiipd 

2 aor. ifiriv, tiq, 77, rftov t rjTyv, r^itv, TJTE, yaav ' imperat. 
TJ'TW, ffiov, TJ'TWV, r^Tf, rjKaaav ' infin. ^rjvai. 

NOTE 10. KTHMI and OTTHMI retain the short vowel in the second active. See the Anomalous X.TIIW and avraa. See also x).va. 

Aftufiii and <ri$rifti lengthen the vowel only in the singular of the second 
aorist indicative, and in the second aorist infinitive. See the paradigms. 

NOTE 1 1 . The second person singular of the second aorist imperative, in a few 
instances, takes f instead of 9-/. See the Anom. S/S/, t%a, "np.1, vi^nfti, Qgiu. 

NOTE 12. The imperatives (ZtiS-i and erriiSi, from fi'i&rifii and "irrnpti, in com- 
position, often drop Si, and change into a. E. g. xarafta, for xara/SwS*. 

NOTE 13. The verbs riSn/ti, Infii, and J/Sw/*/, lengthen t and into i; ar.d tit 
in the second aorist active infinitive : thus, Siivai, i7v*<, "Souvai. 

NOTE 14. KTIMI, HIMI, <E>0IMI, and HAflMI, in some of the parts 
of the second aorist follow the analogy of verbs in n/ti or upu. See the 
Anomalous KTIii, titu, /pSivu, and x\uu. 

NOTE 15. In a few instances, the SECOND AORIST MIDDLE lengthens the 
radical vowel in the indicative, imperative, infinitive, and ]>articii>le. See the 
Anomalous /SaXXn/, x.i%d*u, otitti/ti, irifvx't.tifii. 

NOTE 16. Those verbs in vpi, of which the present is used, 

117.} VERBS IN fit. 127 

have no second aorist. On the other hand, when the second 
aorist is used, the present is obsolete. E. g. delxw^i has no 
second aorist ; and fy Cv comes from the obsolete &TML 

In order, therefore, to complete the paradigm of verbs in 
vfti, the~second aorist of Jr.wis subjoined to deixwpt. 

NOTE 17. DIALECTS. (I) In the INDICATIVE the Doric has 
11, YII, for at, vai. E. g. Tt#jTt, TI&SVJI. ( 84. N. 6.) 

(2) In the imperfect and second aorist indicative, the Epic 
and Ionic dialects often use axov, axo/i^r, in which case the 
radical vowel always remains short. E. g. ri&ripi, -tldtaxov for 

tli&TiV ' lOTTlfll, OTCtaXOV for IffTTjV. ( 85. N. 5.) 

(3) The Epic often drops aa in the third person plural of the 
imperfect and second aorist active indicative, in which case the 
preceding long vowel is shortened. E. g. 'lairjfjit., taiav for fcrnj- 
oav ' Ti&Tjpi, tn&fv for lil&taccv' ATMI, idvv for 'idiaar. 

(4) The Ionic often uses mat, OTO, in the indicative passive 
and middle. E. g. ri&r^t, -ii&ionai, iudimo. ( 84. N. 6.) 

(5) The Epic and Ionic often use the uncontracted SUB- 
JUNCTIVE. E. g. il&T){ii, &iu for &oi. 

(6) Sometimes the Epic, in the subjunctive, lengthens the 
radical vowel e into ti or 77. E. g. TI&TJUI, &d<a, dr^;, for &tu, 
My?. ( 116. N. 4.) 

(7) It sometimes shortens the connecting vowels of the sub- 
junctive. E. g. -il&riui, ddoptv for &tia>ntv. ( 86. N. 3.) 

(8) In the third person singular of the subjunctive active, it 
sometimes uses at. E. g. dldoifji, dmat for do>. (5j 86. N. 2.) 

(9) Verbs in topi sometimes change the radical o into to in 
the subjunctive. E. g. SiSoifjii, daw, dear,*;, for 3c3, doig. 

(10) The epic poets sometimes lengthen the radical vowel 
E. g. rl&rjfii, ti&rjfifrai, Tidyfisvog ' dido>/4i, Sidovvai. 

NOTE 1 8. ACCENT. The rules stated above ( 93 ) apply also to verbs in ftt. 
We only observe here that, 

(1) The accent of the regular third person plural of the indicative active devi- 
ates from the rule ( 93. 1 '. 

(2) The dissyllabic forms of the present active indkalive of tip! and Qtift!, d- 
riate from the rule ( 93. 2>. In composition, however, they follow the rule. 

(3 } The infinitive active takes the accent on the penult. E. g. Irrami. Ex. 
cept the Epic infinitive in ftuat, as TiZMftttoj. 

(4) The participle active takes the accent on the last syllable. E.g. 'tr*is,T t $\'K. 

(5) When the syllabic augment is omitted ( 78. N. 3), long monosyllabic 
forms take the circumflex. E. g. y for lyiu from yiynirxti. 

( 6) For the accent of the subjunctive and optative passive of "frrtfti and Jfl*- 
fti, see the paradigms. 

Afivfu sometimes throws the accent back on the antepenult in the tubjunctive 
and optative passive, when the last syllable permits it ( 2O . 'Irrnpi sometimes 
does the same in the optative passive. 





Aorist 2. 

Aorist 2. 

Aorist 2. 



Present. Seixvvfu 
Imperfect. ISsixvvv 
Aorist 2. s8vv 

2 Aor. Mid. 

2 Aor. Mid. 

2 Aor. Mid. 

2 Aor. Mid. 









SiSopcu SiSupai 





cal Table. 
























I place 


I give 

I show 

8. 'iaiyfti 




D. 'iaTCtflSV 










P* 'iaiaptv 


Ti&slai(v} or 
8iSovai(v) or 



dfixvvai(v) or 


8. 'lOTTjV 








!) 'i<]T(t/JV 






P. 'iarufifv 






. erl&taav 






&r) V 








D. eairjfisv 









. saTTjflfV 









'id vanv 
( 117. N. 19.) 


D. MTTo" 4 fV 

P. I 






laifjTOv ii&r^ov 






Second Aorist. 

arw in- #w inflected 8co inflected " 8v<a ( 117. 4.) 
fleet, like like the like the 

the Pres. Pres. Pres. 



S. iajat 


D. 'unuir/i.ifv nd'sir t uiv 
laiahjTor TtSiirjov 

8tdotr t 

P. Igralijfiat 

laialrjf tt9eiirtt 

D. larunoi 
P r 



Or thus (117. N. 5) 
ri&iiiov didoHrov 

Tl&ftlljV dldo'l^V 

Tl&ftfifl' dtSoifltV 

Tl&llTt SldotTS 

TL&llfV SldoltV 







Second Aorist. 

cnnir^ in- &dr t v inflect. Sort,r inflect. 8vrp 
fleet. like like the like the 

the Pres. Pres. Pres. (117. N. 7.) 




S, 'iaTttfrt 


TI&STC dldo&i 

or dtlxvv 

D. 'iaraxov 




TI&ETWV did6r(av 


P. 'iaTCtTS 


rl&trs Sldojs 
Ti&i'Kaauv didorwaav 
or ji&?T(ov or ^t^ovrajy 

or 8uy.wvT( 

Second Aorist. 

S. ait) d'l 

&Ti, or ^65 do&i or ^o'ff 



D. airjTov 


or oiavion 

&T(l) duTM 

frt'ze doTS 
1 or -d-ivTtov or SOVTWV 

or dvt'iwv 


Trt_ _ r ' 

r^res. idTavai 
2 Aor. arrfvuL 

Tt&fvat didovai, 
&ivai dovvat 



Pres. loTug 
2 Aor. ffiV 

&tlg do vg 



D. laT(i(i&ov 




did op a i 













S. laiuur t v 

or 'ioru 

D. l(ndpi&ov 



S. I 

D. ISita, 

PC ' 


like the 


or iil&ov 

or ididov 






Second Aorist Middle. 







Second Aorist Middle. 


like the 

like the 







like the 

like the 

like the 









8. I 



P. larocifif&a 

like the 

or t'oTO) 


D. i'c 


P. 'iaraa&s 


2A.M. aida&at. 






8i8oilvio SSIXVUOIVTO 

Second Aorist Middle. 

like the 

like the 


rl&iao 8l8oao 

or rl&ov 

or didov 

(117. N. 7.) 


ti&ta&utv didoa&wv 

or larua&iav 

like the 

or Ti&ia&K>v or 8i86a&u>v 

Second Aorist Middle. 
#(jo or &ov 86ao or 8ov 
like the like the 

Present. Present. 


ti&ta&ai SiSoafrcti 



or 8tixvvcid<av 



Pres. laTaptvog. , 

2A.M. OTUfiivog dsptvog 8o t utvog 8vptvog 

REMARK. It is supposed that the aorist of verbs in pi originally ended in 
o>, eftut, ( 105 : 115. 2.) Hence its name second aorist. 




$ 118. 1. Anomalous verbs are those which have, or are 
supposed to have, more than one present ( 96). 

2. All verbal forms, which omit the connecting vowel ( 85. 
1), are anomalous ; except the perfect and aorist passive 
( 91 : 92). 

3. The following catalogue contains nearly all those verbs 
which are apt to perplex the learner. 

REMARK. In this Grammar, obsolete or imaginary Presents 
( 96) and Nominatives ( 46), are always printed in capitals. 
They are so printed " in order that the eye may not become 
accustomed, by means 'of the common letters, to a multitude 
of unused and merely imaginary forms, and thus rendered less 
capable of detecting barbarisms at first sight." 


AAfL, injure, A. Saaa contract- 
ed aaa, A. Pass. dda&r,v, A. 
Mid. aaadw. Pres. Mid. 
3d pers. sing, uuini. ( 109. 
N. 1.) 

aya^at (AFAfL, ArilMT) , ad- 
mire, A. Pass. riyd(j&r t v, F. 
Mid. ctydaopat, A. Mid. (not 
Attic) r t yaad(jiriv. ( 117 : 
95. N. 1 : 109. N. 1 ) 

The Present dydopai or 
uyulofim, am angry at, envy, 
is used by the epic poets. 

^ (96. 18.) 

aytlgto (AFEPSl), collect, ayt- 
g<a, TiytiQa, ayr t yioxa, ctyrjyfQ- 
fifti, TjytQ&rjV, 2 A. Mid. r,yt- 
q6ur t v (Epic), Injin. uytgi- 
a&ai, fart, uyyouirog for 

* ' /tCX f\* 1O Ol 

aytgoufyog. ($* yo. lo : 01 . 
^ 1 : 26. 1.) 
ayviui (AFJI), break, F. w, 

A. r a t (rarely ^), 2Perf. 

tuya, 2 A. Pass. tiiyr,f or 

tiiyr t v. ( 96. 9 : 80. N. 2.) 
NCTK. The simple ATfl wa? 

originally FAFfl, whence 
(see x.xTa.ytuu.1 , which originally 
was *FF|. ( 1. N. 1, 3 : 
10. N. 2.) 
Syto, lead, Jw, ;', Perf. faa 

2 A. ffyayorl^A. Mid! f,ya- 
yoW. ( 96. 19, N. 1 : 

81. 1.) The Perfect J^'o^a 
is not Attic. 

NOTE 1 . '\ynt%* is formed as 
follows: iyu, AFAFH, AFOFH, 

omission of the second y- is acci- 

NOTK 2. In Homer we find 
Aor. Imperat. 2d pers. plur. ;ir 
for |art. ( 88. N. 3.) 

\4JJ1, see urdi'tro). 

outgo) (AEPJl), regular, = 
ui'ottj. The epic poets have 
Pluperf. Mid. 3d pers. sing. 

nUQTO for f lf QTO. (96. 19.) 

eff'lw, Epic, = ctv$M. 
r t ui (AEfl),blow, Injin. ur^rai, 
fart, utl?, Imperf. ur t v (in 
Homer). Pres. Pass, ur.uai. 
a, praise, ia<a and ^'aw, t aa 



and tjaa, i^ 
($95. N.2.)' 

take, choose, r t a(a, rjxot, 
yum, #771-. ( 95. N. 2.) 
From C EAJI, 2 A. idov, 2 A. 
Mid. tttopijr, 2 F. aw (rare). 
In the Perfect, the Ionics prefix 
to this verb a sort of Attic redupli- 
cation with the smooth breathing, 

aocci^r,K., agxlotfiui. ( 81.) 

^ raise, ugia, TJQU, 
r,gxa, rJQfitxt, tjy&tjv. ( 96. 

18: 104. N. 5.) 
ala&avofiat ( II2OJI), perceive, 

feel, Perf. Mid. f/a^ca, F. 

Mid. aladrjaofiai,^. A. Mid. 

( 96. 7, 10.) 
(AXJ1), trouble, afflict, 

F. dxotfjjaw, A. Tjxa^aa, 2 A. 

qxaxov, 2 A. Mid. yxaxoprjv. 

Mid. axaxlo(tai, grieve, feel 

grief, am afflicted. ( 96. 
^ 10, N. 1.) s 
uxaxp&og, ^, ov, sharpened, 

pointed, a defective Perf. 

Pass. Parf. from AXJl. 
^ ( 81. N.) 
axovw (AKOJl}, hear, yxovaa, 

jjxovxa (not Attic), ovaficu, 

yva&jjv, avaofiou, 2 Perf. x?J- 

xoa, 2 Pluperf. rjxtjxosiv. 

(^96. 18:81: 107. N. 1: 

109. N. 1.), wander, rove, Perf. 

Mid. ajuxltipai synonymous 

with the Present, Injin. A- 
i, Part, 
. N.: 93. N. I.) 
aldulrto (AA/lfL), increase, Im- 

perf. (as if from A5Vw) 

^5j'ov. ( 96. 7.) 
attrfoxu (AJJJl),grow, thrive, 

cause to grow, F. aJLdtjaio. 

( 96. 10, 8.) % 

(AAEKSl}, ward off, F. 

[ 118. 

, A. Mid. ^JUIa/ 
2. A. r^xov. ( 96. 15, 
10, N. 1 : 26. 1.) 

NOTE. The Aor. *>* is ob- 
tained in the following manner : 

or uJavoftai, avoid, es- 
cape, A. Mid. ^fufiijv or 
r^svd^r. (& 96. N. 12: 
104. N. 1.) 
tt'?, see jl/Uw. 

(AAIGtfL), anoint, tiyo), 
tiya, Perf. Ajj'Ato;a, a/lijAiu- 
fit. (96. 18:81.) 

'AAI2KSI (AylJl), capture, 
Perf. 'icox and ^'Aoxa Aac 
6cew captured, F. uh<xjo^tni 
shall be captured. From 
*AASIMI, 2 A. ta'Awv and 
7;Awy was captured, aAw, aylo/- 
;v and aAwijv, aAw>'a^, aAoiV. 
Pass. aUaxonai, am cap- 
tured. ( 96. 8, 10 : 80. 

^ N.2: 117. 12, N. 6.) 

ahialvca (AAITJl), sin against, 
offend, F. ahryoa, 2 A. %h- 
ror, 2 A. Mid. yhTouijv. 
( 96. 7, 10.) 

The Perf. Mid. Part. 
ahiruttvog has the force of 
an adjective, that has sinned 
against, that has offended. 
(93. N. 1.) 

aUoftai ^AASl\ leap, spring, 
A. Mid. r^i^v, 2 F. Mid. 
alovnm, 2 A. Mid. ylouijv. 
( 96. 6: 104. N. 5.) 

NOTE. Forms without the con- 
necting vowel, 2 A. Mid. 2d pers. 
sing. a/.T-a, 3d pers. sing. XT, 
Porl. a*.fttu;, all with the smooth 
breathing, for 'Ai<rs, r[, aXo'^ci- 
. ( 92. N. 4.) 
eolo'w (AAfL\ used only in the 
compound aycdoa, which 



see. See also 'AAI2KH. 
( 96. 10.) 

divaxa (AslTKfL), sAwn, avoid, 
F. Ai&, A. v.fla. ($ 96. 


aitpaivd) or ax.qp<ww (AA3>fl), 

procure, bring, find, 2 A. 

rj/lqcoy. (^ 96. 7.) 
*AAfL, see diioxopat, uiota, al- 

ajuapr> w (AMAPTJl), err, sin, 

m/55, Perf. ^aa^Tijxa, Perf. 

Pass. qfioQirjfuu, A. Pass. 

^uorj#j', F. Mid. ufjiuo- 

Trjaouat, 2 A. 7;u>io>'. (vj 96. 

7, 10.) 
For Tjiuaorov Homer has al- 

so iju3(toTov, with the smooth 


NOTE. The Homeric^vrtt 
is formed as follows : 'AMAPTft, 

'AMOPTn, fuitTtt, riuftrtr, Hit- 

/S f T. ( 96. 19: 26. 2, N.) 

mjtfllioxit and uu3).rJai, miscar- 

ry, uu3t.o')at'i, fjp/ 

(^96.8.) The Present //- 
/JIo'w occurs only in com- 

Tif/w (otuqi, f^ta), wrnp a- 
roimd, clothe, Imperf. rtunfl- 
%or, F. a(t(ff*<o, F. Mid. ttu- 
tpi^ouai, 2 A. ^'(/Triajfor, 2 A. 
Mid. Tju.Ttiaxour t v. Mid. niATis- 
Zouat, wear, put on. (4 14. 
3': 82. N.I.) 

(dptpl, i 

tifiiilaxlaxfo and uu ; 3).axiax<o 
(AMIIAAKH}, miss, err, Y. 
au7iiaxjaw, 2 A. jjpniaxov, 
Itifin. uun).rtxc7v and some- 
times itTiiaxilv, without the 
. 96. 8, 10.) 

(wuqpt, svrvui), clothe, 

F. apiepteou) or (r<jr;oj, A. 
1,11'fli'j't, Perf. Mid. r,u<fis- 

aurti, A. Mid. ^LKfitijduTfV. 
Mid. dfjKfidvu'uai, put on, 
dress myself. ( 102. N. 2 : 
82. N. 1.) 

a-x,/<jxft) sometimes r/looi 
(aro, 'AAI2KJI, aio'w), J> 
penrf, consume, Imperf a*^'- 
iiaxov or araioi-y, F. r/.oj- 
oo), A. ara'ituaa or ariji 
Perf. dydiwxa or ai-ijx 
In double composition, A. 

7, 1 <Z/.0)'.lrt, 33 XT^lifcUCt. 

(^80. N. 4: 82. N. 1.) 
oyda'rw ^AJJl), please, delight, 
Imperf. ^rSavnv or idrdarov 
or eijY^crt'Of, F. ft(5i;aoj, 2 A. 
tadov or 55ox, 2 Perf. fu<J. 
(96 7, 10:80. N.2, 3, 5.) 

For ?a3 Homer has also tSmiat, 
with the smooth breathing. 

The Doric has 2 Perf. ?aJ, with 
the smooth breathing. 

NOTE. The simple 'AAfl was 
originally FA Afl, from which came 
2 A. iFF3 (like i^^.5 from 
MEIPH), which finally was chang- 
ed into luzlti. ( 1. N. 1, 3.) 

AXEOfL, spring forth, 2 Perf. 
ovrjro^a synonymous with 
the Present. ( 96. 19 : 

81-) , 

(aid, tjta}, hold up, F. 
Afid. a-|otii, 2 A. uxfa^oi, 
2 A. Mid. jjrfo^o/^v. Mid. 
*, endure, Imperf. ij- 

82. N. 3.) 
(drd, oi'/w), open, Im- 
perf. arew/or, F. aro/?w, A. 
ywja (later ^voiS), Perf. 
avityzn, Perf. Pass, drimy^m, 
A. Pass, uvfyz&rp, 2 Perf. 
dviy/a stand open, 2 A. Pass, 
(later) r>o//i;v. ($ 82. N. 1.) 



[ 118. 

's'w, Imperf. avmytov, rrr fol- 

avtoyco, command, order, |w, |, 
2 Perf. nvtuya synonymous 
with the Present. 

NOTE. Forms without the con- 
necting vowel, 2 Perf. 1 st pers. 
plur.'y/j.'v, Imperat. civa%9-i, 
avivfcQa, ccvu^^s, for civ&iyi, i<nu, 
ITS. (c; 91. N. 6: 88. N. 1.) 

The last two forms take the Pas- 
sive terminations <rSu, ir&i, a,tuy- 
' <r, &v*,r.<r$t. ( 11 : 7.) 

(uno, avQciia), take 
away, A. Part. anovQag, A. 
Mid. Part. unovQitpsvog. 
anucplaxfa (A<I>Jl), deceive, F. 

5 ' O A " 

Ct7lMCp1](!(>), 16 xV. fjTlilKfOV. 

($ 96. 8, 10, N. 1.) 
anolavw (uno, ii/w), enjoy, Im- 
perf. un&avov or ani^l 
F. 7ioAavoo), A. aTTs'^ 
aTT^auaa, F. Mid. a; 

g, see 

i, invoke, curse, aao- 
f, Had t uijv, regular. From 
APHMI comes Epic Infin, 
aqr^vai. ( 117. N. 17.) 
etgdtgicrxto (APJl), Jit, adapt, 
join, F. ctoafa, A. Tj^dre, Perf. 

PaSS. M^Tj'^fjUCM, 2 A. Ti()U(JOl', 

2 Perf. nyuQn (Ionic ^;o), 
Part. fern. dotxginK (4 ^6- 
8, 10, N. 1 :* 81. N.: 103. 
N. 1: 104. N. 6.) 

NOTE. The syncopated 2 A. 
Mid. Part, ccffntas has the force 
of an adjective, suitable, adapted-. 
( 92. N. 4.) 

0W (APJl), please, gratify, 
F. (i*V(j>, Perf. Pass. ^Qfdftrei. 
(5) 96. 10, 8 : 95. N. 1 : 
107. N. 1.) 

(APJl), procure, ac- 

quire, earn, save, Imperf 

jjfvvfiijv. ( 96. 9.) 
w^o'o, plough, till, 6am, oaa, 

ayriqoxu, otQij^of.iai, o&tjv. 

From APSIMI, Lifin. Act. 

(Epic) (taouufvai. ( 81 : 
^ 95. N. 1 ) 
tt^TTM^M, seize, snatch, uaoi or 

ico, u or |, x, aapat, 

or nyfMu, dv&i)t> or dx&yv, 2 

A. Pass, ^onnyriv. (<S 96. 

N. 6.) 
APfL, see tttio 

;Jw or t^''w (ATFJl\ in- 
crease, F. ai^jj'tfw, A. Tjv'lijaa, 
Perf. Pass, r^rjfiai., A. Pass. 
96. 15, 7, 10.) 
vylaxonai, (AT- 
PJi,)used in the compounds 
UTH/.VQIX.O), enavQiGi, enavgl- 
ay.of.mi, which see. ( 96. 
8, 10.) 

ATPJl, see the preceding. 

aqpfiWroti, see oKflr^fii. 

oKpirjfM (dnc, ITJJM), let go, Im- 
perf. a<pliov or rj(pltov some- 
times rjtfirjV, F. a(fir t a(a, A. 
(xqp^xa, Perf. (JD?X, Perf. 
Pass. oKfflfiai, A. Pass, dcps- 
$yr or nyfidyr, 2 A. <p7]', 
2 A. Mid. ucpiuijv or 9a'- 
/t)/ v. (82. N.I.) 

NOTE. The form itfiwrtu, in 
the New Testament, stands for 
Perf. Pass. 3d pers. plur. af-iTvrai. 
(See 'Irifjii.) 

gi'(/(/ai, draw forth (llquids\ 
F. wqnu'^w, A. 7/(jsi;a. (^ 96. 

; N. 4.) 

A'I'fL, see ttjia(fl(iY.<a, 
a%tw (AX SI],, ovaa, 
afflicted, grieved, Perf. Pass. 
t, fl/ fl/- 




jlicted, grieve, Infn. KXK^JJ- 
a&at, Part. axarjft?ro$ or 
dxrtfiutvog. ( 96. 10: 95. 
N. 2:81. N. : 93. N. 1.) 
Sj&opai (AXOJl), am offended, 
pained, ferl indignant, A. 
Pass. Tjt&fa&Tiv, F. Mid. 
nxMaopai. ( 96. 10 : 95. 
N. i : 109. N. 1.) 

cyfiTMWf OF it%riuni 

uxa^ouai, which see. (<s96, 

AXfL, see ax/w, a^/w, H^I~V- 

aw. blow, Imperf. Sov. ( 80. 
N. 5.) 

Sea, sleep, Aor. aWa or aa. 
( 96. 10.) 

aoj, satiate, Infin. uutvai (Ep- 
ic) for ay, waoj, ff. Pass. 
riouai, 3d pers. sing. T< 
Epicra*. (116. N. 6.) 

SCOIJTO, see f/oo>. 

/Sa/rw and 5axw (BASl), go, 
walk, F. ;?>;aw s/m// cause to 
go, Perf. /5f/9r;x, Perf. Pass. 
/9f/9a t uu( (only in composi- 
tion), A. Pass. f.^u&r,v (only 
in composition), F. Mid. 
(trjaofjai, A. Mid. (Epic) f'^ij- 
adfir t v and i^r t >joiir t v, '2 Perf. 

/Jcfri, Por<. ,??,?&>? From 

i, 2 A. f'/?^v, /?fili, (jrtir t v, 

(in composition often 
/?), firjrat, /Joe. ( 9(5- 5, 

18,8: 95. N. 2: 85. N.2: 
91 N. 7.) 

NOTE. The Homeric Qitftai or 
Pt'ifuxi, I shall live, is a 2 A. Mid. 
Subj. for ^1. ( 116. N. 8, 
4: 117. N. 17: 215. N. 7.) 

(BAAJl], tftrow, cast, 

F. paloi sometimes 
Perf. (tiplrjxa, Perf. Pass. 
Ptf^fiai, A. Pass, f.^&rjv, 
F. Mid. (frrjaofjiai (Epic), 
2 A. ?;?Ao>-, 2 A. Mid. ^- 

(96. 6, 10, 17.) 
From BAESl, BAIIMT, 2 
A. tfilyv, 2 A. Mid. f'{ftr r 
Subj. 3d pers. sing, 
for /?i?7ri, O/rt. (5At- 
, Jn^n. plria&ai, Part. 
/5ir,u(vof, all Epic. ( 117. 
N. 15, 17: 96. 19.) 
fidaxa, see ,?u w. 

carry, daot, aaa, a- 

r t v. ( 96. N. 6.) 
BASl, see ^aiVw. 

or ^iiofiai, see {Salvm. 
or /?/ f ?^ut (BAJ1), = 
aj, which see. ( 96. 1.) 
xa> (BOPSl), cat, F. 
Perf. ^t'.^wxcr, Perf. 
Pass. ijfflQtapai, A. Pass. 
f@j&&irr, 3 F. Pfftqwaopai, 
2 Perf Par#. /5 f ,/5otJc. From 
BPJIUTT, 2 A. r^wv. ( 96. 
17, 1,8: 117. 12.) 
/5<ow, /ii'f, waa, ojxa, ui{.tai, auro- 
^ut. From Bi&ytT, 2 A. 
/?/*>, (5(w, fiiofyv and fiitprp, 
ftturni, /Jiotv. ( 117. '12, 
N. 6.) 

/5/waxOjUi (^o'w), retire, bor- 
rows the other tenses, ex- 
cept Imperf, from the pre- 

(tlao-ravta (BAASTfL), bud, 
sprout, F. p't.aaTt]a(a, A. ^~ 
fii.runr t aa, 2 A. fjSJLaaiov. 
( 96. 7, 10 : 76. N. 2.) 

BAAJl or BAESl, see {Sdiito. 
(MOAJl), come, go, 




Perf. ulu^ioDxa, 2 Aor. I'^o- 

iov, 2 F. Mid. 

( 96. 17, 8 : 26. N.) 

NOTE. The Present (&ut*u is 
formed as follows: MOAfl, 
MAOn, MBAOn, ,*/3X*<r*, 
fcXajKu. The , is dropped because 
the combination ^</3X cannot begin a 
Greek word. ( 16. N. 1.) 

fiuiiw, cry out, yaw, TJOU, r t xa, 
yucu, ^dtjv, yaofiai, regular. 
From the simple BOfL come 
the Ionic forms E/?W</, t'/Soi- 
a&rjv, ( 109. N.I.) 

BOAESL (BAAJl), Perf. Pass. 

19, 10.) 

BO ASl, see fiovlouat. 

BOPJl, see /3(/?oco'axa>. 

/3<xrxw (BOJ2), /cce?, pasture, 
F. /3offx7j(jw, A. f^?offxja. 
( 96. 8, 10.) 

Povkopui (BOAJl), will, Imperf. 
t/Jovl6(i,i)l> or ^ l 5ovAo'jU/;', Perf. 
Pass. /3f(5ovi>i|U(w, A. Pass. 
e/3ov)(.T)&r]V or ij^ov/l.ij.'bjv, F. 
Mid. ftov^ao^ai, 2 Perf. /5i- 
/?ov/la comp. in Homer Trpo- 
/Je/Joi;l. ( 96. 18, 10 : 78. 
N. 1.) From the simple 
Present come Pres. Pass. J3o- 
Ao^ai, 2d pers. plur. fioha&t. 

BOfL, see fiouM, /Jo'axca. 

BPAXfL, crash, rattle, 2 A 

BPOfL, see 

(BPTXJl), roar, 
afhiv, Perf. ffefiQV- 
synonymous with the 
Present. (96. 10.) 


(FAMJI), marry, F. 

, A. I'/ij^a, (later ey- 
firjaa), Perf. yt'/apT)xa, Perf. 
Pass, yfyofiyftat, A. Pass. 

Part. fern, also 
yuftt&tlau, F. Mid. yaueaao- 
fiat (in Homer). ( 96. 10 
95. N. 2 : 102. N. 5.) 

FAfL, see riFNJl. 

yiywra and yfyavtta (rJlNJl), 
call aloud, 2 Perf. ylywra 
synonymous with the Pres. 

ytlvofiat, (TENJl), beget, bring 
forth, am born, A. Mid. 
(ytivdfAtjV begat, brought 
forth. ( 96. 18.) 

yirio, see yiyvouoti, EASi. 

FENfL, see ylyrouai. 

ytj&eo) (rilOJl), rejoice, ijofa, 
fjaa, 2 Perf. yiyij&a synony- 
mous with the Present. 
( 96. 10.) 

yriQnaxw and yyydm, grow old, 
(/o), nua, uxn, tiaoficu. From 
2 A. fyrJQur, yt]- 
yriQUS. (< 117. 12.) 
(ri'ZVJi, FAfL], pro- 
duce, cause to exist, Perf. 
Mid. yrytiT/fiui, Pass, iytvri- 
6r)r, F. Mid. yBVTj<jo/*ni, 2 
Perf. ytyorn (poetic also 
yi,yuu), 2 A. Mid. tytrofirjv. 
Mid. ylyro^ai or ylvo/.ti, 
produce myself, make myself, 
become. (< 96. 1, 5, 10, 
19: 26. 1.) 

The 2 Perf. yiyua is in- 
flected, as far as it goes, 
like f ^ ( 91. N. 7.) 

NOTE. For 2 A. Mid. 3d pers. 
sing. ly*nT, we find Jfymra or yii^ 
T. ( 92. N. 4.) 

know, A. fyvawn (chiefly in 
composition), Perf. Zyrtaxa, 
Perf. Pass, tyvtaapai, A. Pass. 
iyv(aa&T)v, F. Mid. 
From rNJIMT, 2 A. 




vrtu, yrotTjv, yiia&i, rr&rtti, 
wow. ($$ 96. 1, 8: 76. 
N. 2 : 107. N. 1 : 109. 
N. 1 : 117. 12.) 

yodia (FOJl), bewail, regular. 
Imperf. also jfyoov. From 
rOHMT, Infin. Epic yor,uf- 
vm. (96. 10: 117.N. 17.) 

rSiyfL, see ytyara. 

iu or data, give to eat, 

entertain, F. Saiaia, A. tdat- 

aa, A. Pass. i8uta&r t v,A. Mid. 

idaiodftrfV. Mid. dulvvuat, 

feast, Opt. 3d pers. sing. 

dairi-To. (^ 96. 9: 109. 

N. 1- 117. N. 7.) 
dalw (JAJl), divide, Perf. Pass. 

diSaapat, 3d pers. plur. dt- 

dalaTai (in Homer), F. Mid. 

ddaouat, A. Mid. idaaciu^r. 

(^96. 18: 107. N. 1: 95. 

N. 1.) 
8al(o (JAJl), burn, 2 Perf. di- 

dr\n, 2 A. Mid. ttttopip. Mid. 

dalouai, am on fire, burn. 

(96.' 18.) 
8dxrta (JAKJl}, bite, Perf. de- 

tirjit, Perf. Pass, didqypai, 

A.Pass. ^r^^ijv, F.Mid.'iJ,;- 

|o/w, 2 A. iduxov. (< 96. 5, 

dotuuw (J.4M.Q.}, subdue, tame, 

daffdaia, idduuaa, Perf. Si~ 

5ur,xu, didfir^ttti, A. ! 

(dpr r ^rjr, 2 A. Pass. iSHfi^v. 

(^96. 10, 17:95. N. 1.) 

(8a{id(a), Pass. Sf'tura- 
i, = preceding. ( 96. 5.) 
r(t(o (JAPOfi], sleep, Perf. 

8fduQ&r,xct, A. Pass. {8iio&r,r, 
F.Mid. taQdr^oum, 2 A. 
iSitqdov Or id ? a$ov. ( 96. 

7,10: 26.2: 11.) 

Satiouat, divide, share, A. Mid. 

i8aTtdur,r. ($ 104. N. 1.) 
JAfL, see Sulio. 
JAJ1, cause to learn, teach, 

Perf. 8tddr,xa have learned, 

Perf. Pass. dsddr)uai, F.Mid. 

Su^aopat, 2 A. tdaov, 2 Perf. 

St'tfaw ^are learned, 2 A. 

Pass. f8dr t r I learned. From 

/JEdAfL, Pass, didciouat. 

(96. 10, 11.) 
didioxouai or dtdiaaoftai, = 3ft- 

SH (8iu), it behooves, one must, 

Impersonal, F. 8ir,aii, A. 

diidiaaofiaiOT Stifiiiiopui (5/0)), 
frighten, scare, A.^Iid. edet- 

a<!/7y. (^96. 11, 8, 3: 

TO. N. 4.) 
5'3c<), see JEfJi. 

Sflxri-fti (AEIKfL), show, F. 

dtlia, A. r3f/|, Perf. Pass. 
didftypat, A. Pass. i 
( 96. 9.) 

The Ionic has &'!w, 
8idf/uat, idix&r,*. 
jEIfL or <5/w or 8tl8(a,fear, A. 
fdtioa (in Homer tiJJftao), 
Perf. dtdotxa am afraid, 
F.Mid. Stlaouai, 2 Perf. &[- 
3i aw afraid. ($ 96. 18, 
N. 14 : 9S. N. 3 : 79. N. 3.) 

NOTE. Forms without the con- 
necting vowel, 2 Perf. Si/jii, Sii- 
SJTI, Imjierat. Si/3*3/, 2 Plnperf. 
iJs/Vi.. (>S-5 91. N. 6 : 76. N. 4 : 
88. N. 1.) 

6aiW, A. tottpa, Perf. 

diSur,xtt, A. Mid. fdeiudu^v. 

(^'96. 17.) 
Siouttt, see Jaw, icant. 
dtoxouui, see, 2 A. fjpaxoy, 

2 Perf. dfSoyxa, A. Pass. 



^ A. Pass 
96. 19, 17 : 26. 2.) 
, receive, 


, regu- 

NOTE. Forn.s without the con- 
necting vowel, 2 A. Mid. tii<yju,tir, 
iSsxTs, (for t&i%oft.rit, ibi%iro,) Jn- 
Jin. 2/&ai ifor Ss^iu-3-*/' 1 , Parf. 
liy/tv/os as Present. ( 92. N. 4 : 
9. 1 : 7: 11.) 

dim (rarely 8i8rjfii\ bind, Tjaoi, 

jjcja, x, f/jctt, i&TfV; 3d F. 

Sf8r,aoitai. ($$ 95. N. 2 : 

96. 1: 116. R.) 
fc'w, am wanting to, want, F. 

fojjffw, A. t8ir,aa, A. Pass. 

tSs^&^v, F. Mid. dfr t oo[tai. 

Mid. titouai, want, need, 

pray, beseech. ( 96. 10.) 
For A. 3d pers. sing. 

tdeyatv, Homer has dijasr. 
AlIKSl, see ddxra. 

(4ASI), as Future, 

3i5'axo) (41/iAXSL), teach, F. 
3i5|w (poetic also (MaaxrJ- 
aw), A. fdiSuSa (poetic also 
iiiSdax-rjaa), Pert dtSiSaxa, 
Perf. Pass. StSiSayftai, A. 
Pass. i8idaz&nv. ( 96. 10, 
N. 10.) 

i, see Ss'w, 6/wt?. 
8Qd<jy.<a (JPAJl}, run away, 
Perf. didqaxa, F.Mid. 5p'ao- 
^au From /I PI I MI, 2 A. 
i'dynv, SQW, SfaltjV, dqa&i, 
Sqavai, SQU?. (^96. 1, 8 : 
117. 12.) This verb occurs 
only in composition. 
8*iu and 3t5dw (40Jl},ffive, 
F. 5waw, A. i^wxw, Perf. 
8i8(oxa, Perf. Pass. 8idopcti, 
A.Pass. 186&TIV, A. Mid. id<a- 

(not Attic), 2 A. t(5cu>', 

<5w, 8uiTj-, do&i or do's*, Jou^ai, 
d'oi'c, 2 A. Mid. i86ftijr. 
(^96. 1 : 117: 104. N. 2: 
95. N. 2.) 

8lt>i, seek, F.Mid. Si^aopai. 
Mid. Sl^fiai, seek, retains 
the r, throughout, as Part. 
Sitfpiros. ($$96. 10: 117. 


JIKJL, cast,jltng, 2 A. t 
(Jew,, see AEISI, dt 

AMESl, see 


8uonai or Siarui, it seems, Im- 
personal, A. Mid. wMnwa- 
TO, Subj. douaaiTui, Epic. 
( 102. N. 5: 86. N. 3.) 

Suxita (JOKJl), seem, think, 
F. 5o'|w, A. f'Jo|, Perf. Pass. 
8e8oypat. The regular forms 
5ox7jaw, Tjffa, Jj/xa*, are not 
common. ( 96. 10.) 

8ovnto) (JOTIIJl), resound, 
sound heavily, A. f<5ov7ijaa 
(also i'"/8ovjirjtnt\ 2 Perf. 3s- 
3or7i. ( 96. 10.) 

NOTE. The A. iyliv'rnra. comes 
from TAOrnEfJ, which is formed 
after the analogy of xrvria from 

Trim. ( ?.; 

APA1MSI or JPl'iTJl, Perf. <5t- 
Sguftrjxu, Perf. Pass. SiSyd- 
HTJuai (little used), 2 A. f'fya- 
^ois 2 Perf. 8i8Qopa (Epic), 
F. Mid. 8^ot}iov(ftti, = rQfxoi, 
which see. ( 96. 10, 19.) 

8vrapai (JTNAJI, JTNIIMl}, 
am able, can, Imperf. t8wd- 
Hqv or r)3i;i'/iijr, Perf. Pass. 
dfdvvr^ai, A.Pass. tSvrijdyv 
or rfiwy&ijr (and I8wa&w), 
F.Mid. 8vnlao[jiui, A. Mid. 
(in Homer) 




NOTE 1. The Attic reduplication 
of {ysv.ytt* is anomalous. 

NOTE 2. Homer has 2 Perf 3d 
pers. plur. 1-ytnyifia.ti for iyf*y- 
( * ft , as if from ErEP0H. 

NOTE 3. Forms without the con- 
necting rowel, 2 Perf. Itnperot. 
2d pers. plur. iyy*Sf, In/in. 
iyir.yieSxi, with the terminations 
of the Passive, r$t, r$*i. 
iSa, see ta&io). 
'EJfi., see the following. 
f^ouui (EJJL), scat myself, sit, 
Iiuperf. 6>ijv, A. Pass, f- 
adr.v (later), 2 F.Mid. iSov- 
pm. (96.4: 114. N. 2.) 
This verb is chiefly used in 
the compound xafriZouui, 
which see. 

iSiiid or $i'/.o), will, F. i&tirjau 
or dfiiiaii), A. ij#t'iijaa, Perf. 
fr&rpa. ( 96. 10.) 
t&w, am accustomed, 2 Perf. 
(Epic), ifa&a (Ionic Zu&a) synony- 
. tytloouai rise. mous with the Present. 
xjj 96. 18: 81: 26'. 1.) (96.19: 80. N. 3, R.I.) 

EL4-1 (MSI), see, F. tlSr,au (rare) shall know, F.Mid. rfaoucu 
shall know, A. Mid. fladftrjv seemed, 2 A. tlSov (rarely ttov) 
saw, idu, idoipt, ids and ISs, Idtiv, Iduv, 2 A. Mid. tlS6ur,v sato t 
tdupai, idoiuT t v, Idou (as interjection, idov, benefit!), Idia&ai, 
tdoutfo;, 2 Perf. olSa knotc, sldu, tidffyr, I'a&i, fldirut, fldas, 
2 Pluperf. r t dfiv knttc. Pass, il'douat, seem, resemble. ( 96. 
18, 10, N/14: 93. N. 2 : 80. N.' 4.) 
The 2 Perf. olSu, and, 2 Pluperf. 
follows : 

Perfect 2. 

IND. S. olda . D. 


( 78. N. 1 : 95. N. -2 : 
109. N. 1.) 

5va> and diva, enter, set, cause 
to enter, F. di-ata, A. tdi-oa, 
Perf. 8i5vxa, A. Pass. i5i-&r,r, 
F. Mid. dvaouai, A. Mid. 
idvt}dui,f (Epic also idvao- 
pr t v), Part, dvaoutvo: as 
Present, scttitig. From 

3l'iKi, <Jl',. ( vy 9t). D : 

95. N. 2: 85. N. 2: 117. 

12, N. 7.) 


tcf&r) or (uif&r/, teas fastened, 
Aor. Pass. 3d pers. sing., 
found only in Homer. 

(EFEPSl), wake, rouse, 
i-/t{)U, A. fytiQ'*, Perf. 
^ f?x , Perf. Pass. *>;>o- 
, A. Pass, i.yiod-rv, 2 Perf. 


ouv, 17310 
. Mid. iil 

are inflected as 

SlfBJ. ^. *t<Jw, j(J^?, 3^, D. ildijTor, P. fl 

OPT. S. tidilqr, 3ft7j?, flSiiTf, D. fldtlr^or, tidtirjip; P 

tidurifjkiv, ilSurjs, tldtl^aar. 
IMP. S. foi D. r<rrov P. MTTE 

farw I'aiwy forwaox 



[ 118. 


PART, eldtog, via, 6s, G. OTO$. 

Pluperfect 2. 

S. rjdsiv, ijSt] D. ijSfifiEV, fiafisv 

jjdtig, fidfia&a, ydtixov, yaxov 



i, 1]5l), rj 


t aav 

NOTE 1. Perfect. IND. 2d pers. sing. eir$& stands for eT&a&a. ( 84. 
N 6: 91. N. 6: 10. 2.) In the dual and plural, the forms lor, Jfftn, 
?, stand for ft, ftfitt, ftrt. ( 91. N. 6 : 10, 1, 3.) 

SUBJ. and OPT. ifiu, tlliiinv, come from EIAEfl, whence also the F. 
/%Va/. ( 91. N. 6.) 

IMP. 3VS/, 1, ru , &c. for fS0/, ftra, &c. ( 91. N. 6 : 88. N. 1 : 10. 3.) 

Pluperfect. For 1st pers. sing. p>>, and 3d pers. sing. $ or ybtti, see 
above ( 85. N. 4.) For 2d pers. sing. jfSue-S-a or -fitHrSit, see above 
( 84. N. 6 : 85. N. 4.) For the syncopated forms yff 
see above ( 91. N. 6 : 10. 1, 2. 3.) 

i, ear, 

NOTE 2. The regular forms of the Perfect oilas, tftafitt, a/3, belong chiefly to the later Greek. 

NOTE 3. DIALECTS. Perfect. IND. 1st pers. plur. Epic and Ionic TJ^iv 

for ir pi*. 

INF. Epic ft/tutu for ttipuai for ttiitai. ( 89. N. 1.) 

Pluperfect. Epic and Ionic tiiiint, ?, u or , plur. titiSufiiv, un, 3d pers. 
1ta.t. ( 85. N. 4: 91. N. 6 : 10. 2.) Here the prefix n seems to be 
the syllabic augment lengthened. ( 8O. N. 2.) For 3d pers. sing. ySti, 
Herodotus (1, 45) has jfoii. 

tl'xca, seem, resemble, 2 Perf. tllita or tl'ita or siAf' 

foixa, sometimes slxa (Ionic roll up, drive to, F. tUif 
olxa), synonymous with the A. eftqaa, JTJ/?W. also |>lorat 
Present, 2 Pluperf, tmxtiv. or Isiaat, Part, also !'Ao?, 
96. N. 14 : 80. N/2, 3, Perf. eilijxa, Perf. Pass. 

dfiai, A.Pass. tij- 
, 2 A. Pass. e'^i', Infin. 
alyvai, Part, aisle. ( 96. 
18, 10, 6: 104. N. 6: 80. 
N. 2.) 

NoTE The fomj |( / XflT4 for p lu . 
pelf p ass gd pers- sing t -^ r , t js 

formed as follows : EAft, OAEft, 

For 2 Perf.3d. pers. plur. 
i L we sometimes find 
e r?K. 

NOTE. Forms without the con- 
necting vowel, 2 Perf. fy^i, 
ir*T, for 'wKBfiit, it!**, 2 Plu- 
perf. !(*TV for i*/T. ( 91. 

N - 6: 9> L) 

The epic poets have also pun or 

?r*T for iwxn, with the Passive ter- 
mination <r ( 84. 2). 

13 8O N. 2.) 
ilpuQftttt, see MEIPfi. 


etfii (ESI, EZfL), am, cl, II'TIV, Ivdt, iivcu, <av, Imperf. ijy (some- 
times ijfit)v), F. 'iaofiai, taol^v, tatadai, iao t ueros. 


IND. S. tlfil D. tufitv P. taplv 

*u-, ei IOTOV tats 

fail(v) torov iial(r) 

SL T BJ. S, <a, i,,:, f t , D, w^v, IJTOV, TJTOV, P. (aptv, ijif, w0t(y). 
OPT. S. ?(>;, ft'ij?, fit}, D. tl'rjuiv, iir t iot>, ttJJTijv, P. *rijjuy, 
ti'jjri, ( liiauv or fiir. 

IMP. jS'. 'id&l D, tOTOV P. E(TT 

IJTW iareox raituffay, tanuv 

INF. f7rcf(, ^t> 6e. 
PART, frfv, ov<j, or, G. OVTO?, being. 


S. ffV, ij -D. riutv _ P. *il*8r 

rig, i]a9a IJTOV, ijoror i]rt, rjare 

r/, TJV ^i'i'> ^irr^v i\aav 

IND. <S. taouai, tar t or m, tafrat or t'arat, D. iao^t&or, 

ivso&ov, tuea&ov, P. taoutdu, tofa&f, laovvai. 
OPT. S. lool^TjV, i'aoio, Taoiro, D. f'aoi^f^ov, taoio-&ov,iaol- 

a&r t r, P. f'uo//<fd, tooiatff, i'you'to. 
IXF. tatadai, to be about to be. 
PART, laounoz, y, or, about to be. 

NOTE 1. Present Isn. The 2d pers. siug. T Ix-longs to the Middle 
voice. Compare Qilitfiai, 2d pers. ^Xn or <fi).iu contracted ifn^tT. ) 
The forms trri, io-pit, ifTot, irri come from the original ESQ. The 3d 
pers. plur. tlrl is formed from EH after the analogy of <r&iiti from T'&II/UJ. 

SCBJ. and OPT. u, t'r.t are formed from Eli after the analogy of riB-u, 
T&im>, from TtSxiu. 

I .\ir. "<rSi, Irru, &c. come from the original E2fl. In the 2d pers. 
sing, the radical vowel becomes ;. 

PART, ui, eZox, , stands for u, livrec, . (See next Note.) 

Imperfect. The 1st pers. sing. J is contracted from ?a. 'See next Note.) 

For the 2d pers. sing. <rS, see above 84. N. 6.} The !3d pers. 
sing. Jv is contracted from ?. (See next Note.) The forms r.rrci, nrrm, 
rirrt, come from the original E2fl. 

NOTE 2. DIALECTS. Present. Ixn. 1st pers. sing. Doric luftl for i'i/e.1. 

2d pers. sing, old ifti for il;, frnm the original E2H. ( 84. N 6.) 
3d pers. sing. Doric ITI, not to be confounded with the 3d pers. plur. 



1st pers. plur. Ionic>, poetic i/m. 3d pers. plur. Ionic luci (like 
nSiccai from v'&nftt), Doric IVT'I ( 117. N. 17'. 

SUBJ. uncontracted tu, i'jjs, ij, lupin, iyri, 'itam(v , Ionic. 

OPT. uncontracted lupi, 'ins, in, &c. Ionic. 

IMPER. 2d pers. sing, 'in, after the analogy of the Middle. 3d pers. 
sing. %TU for 'iaru. 

INF. Epic ip^ivxi, iftpsv, ipti/eti, iftiv, Doric AIJ.II, n/j-ti. ( 89. N. 1. ) 

Imperfect. 1st pers. sing. Ionic la. or , tan, t>rxtv. ( 85. N. 5.) 
2d pers. sing. Ionic $, IVxtj, Epic jfur&t. (S 84. N. 6 : 85. N. 5.) 
3d pers. sing. Ionic (), JVxi, Epic tjv, KU, Doric $. ( 8O. N. 2.) 
3d pers. plur. Ionic and Doric 10-0.1. 

NOTE 3. The 3d pers. sing, trr! takes the ACCENT on the penult, trn t 
when it signifies he, she, or it exists. Also when it comes after ti, elx, ui, 
aXA.' (for XXa), and ravr (for nun] ; as ou* trn, XX* JITT-I. 

/it (7J1, ESI, EUl), gn, shall go, l'ia, t'oipi or lolrjr, l&t, Itvm, 
iuv, Imperf. f t fiv, F. Mid. fM^fim (Epic), A. Mid. (Epic) 
thaw (^'96. 18: 87. N. 2.) 

The Present and Imperfect are inflected as follows : 

IND. S. ttfu D. i'fitv P. I'fifv 

f?C, fl I'lOV ITS 

ztat(i') I'TOV J(J^(') 
SuBJ. 8. "t>t, i'i t g, i> t , D. i'wptv, trjTOV, i'rjror, P. i'wfttv, IIJTS, 


OPT. *S>. totfii, Tut?, tot, D. i'otfifr, 't'onnv, lolrijr, P. l 

Ions, I'oifv. 

IMP. S. i'&i, ti D. I'TOV P. ITS 

fraj t'rwv t'rtui/M*' or 

INF. teVat. 

PART, iutv, lovaa, lov, G. lovrog. 

S. j',uv D- ftfififv, jf ( P- yti 

r/tig, ijtta&a fifnor, yiov 

NOTE 1. Present. IND. The 2d pers. sing. iT, like iT from i/>/, follows 
the analogy of the Middle. The 3d pers. plur. fe*-/ follows the analogy 
of ri$i&ffi from T&H/M. ($ 117. N. 2. > 

TMP. 2d pers. sing. sT is used only in composition, as ?!/ for i^/3j from 
J'|fj,/. (Compare ! 117. N. 8.) 

INF. HMO.I comes from the imaginary IEH, IHMI, after the analogy of 
T/9-sva/ from T/Ssw, ri&tifii. 

Imperfect. The forms f,ta, run, &c. follow the analogy of the Pluperfect 



NOTE 2. DIALECTS. Present. INB. 2d pers. sing. Epic 7rS for 
J f . (J 84. N. 6.; 

Isr. Epic r^frm or f^iir, without the connecting Towel i. ( 89. N. 1.) 

Imperfect. 1st pers. sing. Ionic 57*, {*, Epic 7, J. The Ionic forms 
are often used by the Attics. 3d pers. sing. Ionic [/, Epic 7i. 3d pers. 
dual Epic iTtir. 1st pers. plur. Epic jv"'- & f ers ' P' ur - J D '- C ?'"'' 
Epic f.rat, 'rat. 


SCC {//Of. 

(EH."-), say, 
2 A. linov, fjrrrri 
;i, tiTitiv, tlno'iv. (^x O'i. 

18: 104. N. 1: 93. N. 2.) 
From 'PEJI (which see 1 !, 
Perf. iiQT t xa, Perf. Pass. i\- 
Qr,uai, A. Pass. iQ^tjdrjv Of 

From (iQO), F. tQsto foca. 

The epic poets have also 
2 A. r7ro>- ( 80. N. 2.) 

or f'ioyca (old IQ'/W, 
, inclose, include, shut 

F. ti'^loi, A. fi^i or 
ipfa, Perf. Pass, tiuyuat or 
ttgyuat or loyuai. (^ 96. 
18,9: 80. N. 5.) 

(EPfL), F. i'ptw f'pm, 
EI1IJTL, which see. ( 96. 

or I'axca (tfxtt), liken, 
compare, Imperf. jjiaxor or 

(96. 14.) 
see i'dta. 
liuvrw (rarely tinai), drive, 
march, F. f/U'uw or t'/.o>, A. 
f^.f.aa, Perf. ti.r^.^ Perf. 
Pass, fi.rfirtunt, later tlrj/.u- 

i, A. Pass. r/.'fr7jj-, later 
96. N. 13:95. 
N. 1: 1027N.2: 107. N. 1: 
109. N. 1.) (EATOfL), F. Mid. 
lifvaouai, 2 A. liivdov com- 
monly rji^oy, titfw, tiftoiin, 
ji&i, tidtir, &9ur, 2 Perf. 


li.rji.vdu (rarely 
i'oZ'iuat, which see. (fy 
18 :' 26. 1 : 93 N. 2.) 

NOTE. Homer has 2 Perf. il).f.- 
XefS-o, 1 st pers. plur. ii*.n)>.tv$ftit 
for f/Ai)X<vSa^(. i^ 96. N. 14 : 
81 : 91. N. 6.) 

TO, cause to hupp, give hope, 
2 Perf. tolna as Present, 2 
Pluperf. Minn* as Imper- 
fect. Mid., cause 
myself to hope, simply / 
hope. ( 80. N. 2, 3.) 

tiior, tlw, fi.ritnt, iif, fitir, 
iio'iv, 2 A. Mid. fli.6ur,r 
(Alexandrian a/.ur i r), =: 
(of'oj, which see. (<&$ 80. 
N. 1 : 85. N. 2.) 

NOTE. It may be supposed that 
EAP. was originally FEAO, of 
wl ich the 2 A. Mid. Sd. pers. 
sing., without the connecting vowel, 
would be FS>.T or FiT like 
/siNr/-Tj for iA-<rr*f). The 
form FIT was finally changed into 
yitrt, he seised, which is found in 
Homer. (;; 1. N. 3: 92. N. 4.) 
EAfL, see //<. 

x-t, PertV 

rn,> tj-nrt!, 

2 A. r, fr 

;^-/;KJI). A. >?;- 
i-rpoxu, Perf. Pass. 

A. Pa?S. T^'iz&TfV, 
ur, (fso(t), which 

N. 1: 

see. (<596. 6: 104. 
93. N. 2: 81.) 
^J:OJl, foot, lie on, sit, 2 
Perf. irr t m9a. ( 96. 19 : 





evsma or fwinti or ENTIIJi or 
ENI2IIJI (t, E11SL), F. ivi- 
amjaio or my/at, 2 A. tviaitov, 
poetic, = EIT1SL, which see. 
( 96. 14, 1C, 10.) 
ivlmta or eriaato (ETXTIIfL), 
chide, 2 A. ivirlnov and (as 
if from ENIHA1UI), yvlna- 
nov. (96.2, N. 1.) 
ENI2HJI, see eVe'Troi. 
IvvsTiot, see irinta. 

(ViJ2), pw on, clothe, F. 
Perf. Pass. tl//i or 
t, Pluperf. Pass. H/I^ or 
or ksaurjv, A. Pass. 
A. Mid. iedrcuMji', 
poetic. ($$ 96. 9 : 95. N. 1 : 
107. N. 1 : 109. N. 1 : 80. 
N. 2.) 

see {"/Uca. 
tTtuvglta or fhavQtaxopai \lnl, 
avQtM, otv<jiaxojj,ni), enjoy, 
F. Mid. enavQ^ao^at, 2 A. 
iTirjvgov, inavgta, InavQtlv, 
2 A.Mid. in^vgofiijv, eTiav^oi- 
pai, tJiavgta&ai, and triav- 

2TJIMl) t understand, Im- 
perf. Tjniarufirjv, A. Pass. ^Tit- 
OT^&IJV or ejiiaTq&yv, F. Mid. 
tniaiijijouai. (^ 117; 80. 

/zj>, see EinfL. 

inw, am occupied with, am 
busy, Imperf. stTrov, F. Mid. 
i'yoficti,, 2 A. tanov, an<a, 
antlv, anav, 2 A. Mid. iaTio- 
JUTJJ', onM^ai, anolfirjv, anov, 
anta&ni, anofitvog. Mid. tTro- 
pou, follow. ( 80. N. 1.) 

The old poets have 2 A. 
Mid. Subj. taniapai, Inf. 
kaniadai, Part, kaxofievof. 
NOTE. It seems that ?<ra was 

originally SEIIfl, whence 2 A. 
Ifffrov, syncopated Itvn. (Compare 
vt, rvf, sus ; tirifien, sequor ; v<ri{, 
SV]>er ; WTO', Sw6 ; t, se ; r.pifv;, 
semis; igopai or rather 'EAH, 
sedeo ; Af, s/, salum.) 

Ifiiiia (poetic toa/nui, inflected 
like i'ar|Ut), love, am in love 
with, A. Pass. i]f><'m()r t v, A. 
Mid. ij(tua<i^r]v (poetic) fell 
in love. (<& 95 N. 1 : 109. 
N. 1.) 

EPrJl or t'ydco, see gifa. 

((jsinta (j'.PinJl), demolish, 
throw down, igtlifita, i](ttiifia, 
ijQfiifidnrjv, 2 A. i'lQinuv fell 
down, 2 Perf. foi]Qinit have 
fallen down, Pluperf. Pass. 
3d pers. sing. 
(96. 18: 81. N.) 

Ifista, see tyofjat. 

fQidulvfo (EPrdJl), quarrel, vie 
with, A. Mid. Inf. 
o&ai. (^ 96. 7, 10.) 

iQOfini (EPfL), Ionic 

Epic also fqeoj, ask, inquire, 
F. Mid. fQr,aofiui, 2 A. Mid. 
ijv, tgov, 
96. 18, 

is not 


ioiatiui, tQOUtvo 


The Present 

toow (EPJl), go forth, go Jo 

perdition, F. tgbrftta, A. ?"?- 

^a. ( 96. 6/10.) 

NOTB. From the simple Present 

comes the Homeric A. 3d pers. 

sing, igfi, in composition -TJ-I, 

he caused to go forth, he hurried 

away. ( 104. N. 6.) 
tqvyyavta or tyivyeuai (EPTFJl), 

eructate, 2 A. t'^vyov. ( 96. 

7, 18.) 
tevttuhta, (EPTOfL), make red, 

F. ((fv&^aw, A. r,Q\>di]aa t 

Perf. ^u3ijx. ( 96. 7, 10.) 


iovxta or tamtam or /fvxemrw, 
impede, keep, 2 A. (Epic) 
iovxaxov (as if from .L'/T- 
K-IKQ.), I n f' foixaxifiv. 
( 96. 7, 10 : 89. N. 2.) 

F >' xJ * W 

pl'W Of flOVQ), (trClWy fOVGWj 

Perf. Pass, ci'jjvpai, A. Mid. 

- ' /'N 0=; TV 9 A 

flQl'OUUTjV, (J^ tfO. 1". -<i.y 

From EIPTMI, Pres. //. 
flgv t utvai, Pres. Pass. //. 
jpv<j#a or igvaSai, Imperf. 
Pass. 3d pers. sing. fipvTo or 
f'puro, all Epic. 
loxofioti, 4*0, come, Imperf. 13^0- 



see), F. Mid. tlsvaoftai, 2 A. 
ijiutfov commonly 

ik&OJ, tid'Olfll, ti.d'K, fi 

EPSl, see \qouai, tQ<5(0. 

E20ESI, Perf. Pass. 

fa&r]f.ifro: or i^^r^uivo^, iy, or, 
clothed, dressed. 

tffih'w, poetic I'a&o) or i'5o>, eorf, 
Perf. Pass. fi^Stoftm, A. 
Pass. jjiJtu^jji', 2 Perf. j'^r^a 
(Epic). Pres. Pa?s. I'Saimi, 
as F. Active, shall eat. From 
<J>Arsl (which see), 2 A. 
r<p/ov. (96.10, 19, N. 8: 
9S. N. 2 : 81 : 107. N. 1 : 
109. N. 1.) 

Homer has Inf. Act. fi 0.11x1 
(for iSiuiva/ , and Perf. Pass. 
tifiift*i. ( 89. N. I.) 

I'a.Tw (E1ISI), used only in the 
Imperat. 2d pers. plur. ?a^e- 
TS (poetic), EinSl, which 
see. (96. 14.) 

ivadf, see uvddvci). 

tvSoi, sleep, Imperf. r t vdov, F. 
ii'8r t ao). ( 96. 10.) 

tvoiaxo) (ETPSi),Jind, F. rvpif- 
^w, Perf. eupijxa, Perf. Pass. 
tvoijfiai, A. Pass. fv^r&r)v, 
2 A. fvpor, 2 A. Mid. fi-po^tjv 
and, in writers not Attic, 
i)oojiijr. ( 96. 8, 10 : 95. 
N. 2 : 85. N. 2.) 

a/#o), Aotfe, Perf. Pass. Tyftf^ucet, 
F.Mid. fy&jaonai, 2 A. Mid. 
rJx&oprjV. Pres. Pass, r'x&d- 
rouai (later %#out), used 
chiefly in the compound 

J , 9 A J 

ctTify&ctyoucctj ciin /icttcct, 
( 96. 10, 7.) 

J<H ^EXSl), have, Imperf. il- 

Xov, F. t'|w, 2 A. fb^ov, ff^w, 

oxoir t v, axflv, G&W, 2 A. Mid. 


( 14. N. 5 : 80. N. 1 : 
87. N. 2.) From 2XESI, 
2XHMI, 2 A. Imperat. 
ttff'c. ( lU. N. 11.) 

The forms *-^w4/, tf%nxtt, 1fx*t- 
ftai, tf^'i^rr, which commonly are 
subjoined to ?, in strictness be- 
long to *rx.<*, which see. 

NOTE 1 . Homer has a 2 Perf. 
";** (II. 2, 21 8\ formed as fol- 
lows ; ?, OXft ( 96. 19, 
u-fca., 'X.v'X,'*", %uxtt contrary to 
the rule.;} 14. 3,. 

NOTE 2. It would seem that the 
original form of i%* was 2EXI1, 
whence 2 A. tn^n, syncopated 
1r%n. Compare ?>. ) 

fyo) (rarely eyew), cook, boil, 
F. iifiTjoia, A. f'y/ijaa. ( 96. 

J2, /, see flfiL 

'ESI, put on, see ivrvfu. 

*ESl, send, see i'^m. 

C J1, p/acc, cause fo sit, set, A. tlaa, Perf. Mid. ^uat st<, Pluperf. 
Mid. WTJV sat, F.Mid. ria^t, A.Mid. dad^r. ( 80. N. 1.) 


The Perfect and Pluperfect Middle are inflected as follows : 
Perfect Middle. 

INC. S. ijjiai D. ITUE&OV P. Tiut&a 

naai riadov 

i 7 ? _ 


SUBJ. (,'i-uru, used only in the compound xtx&rjfiat, which 

OPT. o'lfirjv, only in the compound xd&yfiai. 

IMP. o. yoo D. iju&ov P. rjfj9s 

INF. i 

-, i, ov, ( 93. N. 1.) 
Pluperfect Middle. 

S> y{J,T)V D. 


P. r,fit&a 

r t vio 

NOTE 1. For the forms rifrai, nffra, see above ^ 107. N. 1.) 
NOTE 2. For Jitrtti, w<r, the Ionic has Hurai, 'icera. ( 91. N. 2.) 

7)1' 5' f'yo'), said I ; r\ d' 6V, 
said hi'. 

vm, bend down, regular. 
Homer has Perf. 3d pers. 
sing, funjftvxf (in composi- 
tion vjtivuvxf] for j'uvxe. 

( 116. N. 2.) 
From ZflMf, Imperat. ^tii 
(sometimes ^), Imperf. 'i&v. 
( 117. N. 8.) 

i (ZTFJL), yoke, F. 
A. tiv$a, Perf. Pass. 
i&vypat, A. Pass. f'^i^9jv, 
2 A. Pass. ^/'J". ( 96. 
18, 9.) 

i<avrv(j,i (ZOJl}, gird, F. ^wao>, 
A. tSwi/a, Perf. i^ft)xa, Perf. 
Pass. i'(o/uai, A. Pass, fi^oj- 
a^v (^90.9: 107. N.'l: 
109. N. 1.) 


l, place. 

l, say. The Imperfect jr, 1], 
is used chiefly in *-he formulas 

OANJl, see x 

&<infiai and dyfopai, admire, 

F. Mid. di)t,aonai, A. Mid. 

f&t](j(>t/.tr}v and 

( 96. 18, 10.) 

(OA'ljfL), bury, #t/,w, 
t, TsSaftfiai, 2 A. Pass 
v . (^'96.2: 14.3.) 
OA'l>Jl, am astonished, 2 A. 
tiacpor, 2 Perf. itOrjna (con- 
trary to 14. 3) synonymous 
with the Present. (96. 18.) 
I, suckle, suck, A. Mid. 


r. Pres. Mid. Inf. OOPJl, see v>ow'axw. 

(contracted from QPEl'fL, see rosgrw. 

23. N. 1). OPEXJl, see T^>W. 

, see id MM. -&{fV7iT(a (OPTftJl), crumble, 

OEPfL, warm, F. Mid. &iqao- dqiyiw, e&fvif/n, 2 A. Pass. 

(irn, 2 A. Pass. tf 9 r,r. Mid. /r e pijr. (96.2:143.) 

digopai, warm myself, dowuxio (OOPJl), leap, spring, 

( 103. N. 1.) 2 A. r0o ?0 r, F. Mid. & gov- 

dw (OETfL), run, F. Mid. ^ at . (96.17,18.) 

frivaofiat, \tivaov/.trti. (96. OT>PfL, see ri-qai. 

N. 12: 114. N.I.) ^Cw, sacrifice, &iata, t&iaa, 

diu, put, see li&qpi. it&vxa, tiv&r^: ( 95. N. 

3r,io{tai, see ^aouai. 2 : 14. N. 3.) 
&iyyuv<a (Q/JTlfl), foucA,F.Mid. 
^('louai, 2 A. i'&iyov, &tyitv, 

&i/(ar. (^ 96. 7.) I5;Ji/ ! o;, locate, va<a. vaa, vxa, 

^vyjxw (0Li<2VJZ), rfie, Perf. rui, A. Pass. i3<m&ijv and 

Ti'^rijxa aw dead, 2 A. #- $tjvv-9r t v, (^ 95. 5.) 

i oi', 2 Perf. itdraa, tf&vulrfV, TJfL, see ETJJl. 

tifiva&i, Tf&yavai, ifdrfw? itai, see Vrwi. 

(Epic Tf&n,(a; or rf 5i f<ojV)i J s 'o< and I^wro) (?E4Jl), seat, sit, 

F. Mid. darovpui. From F. law and ioi, A. Van, F.Mid. 

F. T^;|O), [;^. ($ 96. 16, 4, 7, 

,*&T#or*u. r 96. 17,8, 10: 102. N. 1.) 
11: 91. N. 7: 99. N.) 

u( and lica ^EJl), send, Imperf. 'ir t r or Ton-, F. 7,'ao, A. r,xn, 
Perf. flxa, Perf. Pass, tljuat, A. Pass. f^>' or Vdjv, 2 A. %r 
(not used in the sing, of the Ltd.), w, t'ir.v, ?&i or Tc, tiro/, 

f , O A H.C *^1" " W t ** c* ^"ert 

fi^, ^ A. iUld f/4jy or ftiii^r, toftui, nut t r, too or OL-, toaut, 

fpiro;. (^ 96. 1 : 104. N. 2 : 80. N. 1 : 95. N. 2 : 117. 
N. 11, 13.) 

The Present and Imperfect, and the Second Aorist Active 
and Middle are inflected as follows : 

Present Active. Present Passive and Middle. 

IND. S. i'jjiut S. Zfpai 

?? Itaai, 'it] 

'ir t ai(r) ujai 

D. tf/iey D. lifitdov 
"TOX Ita&ov 

t"OF ?ta&ov 

P. 'iffitv P. Ifutdu 


SUBJ. tw, like TI&W from SUBJ. iwuat, like 

OPT. Islrjv, like Ti&tlyv. OPT. Islftrjv, like 

IMP. S. tsd-i, Him, D. is- IMP. S. l'ao or iov, lea&o, 

TOV, iertov, P. 'isit, D- lea&ov, lia&tav, P. 'ita&e, 

isT(aa<xv. Isa&caaav. 

INF. livai- INF. 'iea&ai. 

PART. hi$, elaa, eV. PART, tipsvos, ij, ov. 

Imperfect Active. Imperf. Passive and Middle. 

S. 'irjv, 'iris, 'irj, D. 'ifpsv, S. IS/JTJV, hao or iov, ieto, 

VETO*', iivrjv, P. 'if^iv, D. li^t-d'ov, 'ita&ov, lie 

I'srs, leaav. P. ilpsfra, 'isa&s, ISVTO. 

Second Aorist Active. Second Aorist Middle. 

IND. S. yv S. tfjrjv, s'tf, 


tro, ino 

D. EflfV, tlflSV 

D. fflf&Oi', fl'flS&OV 

txov, t'nov 

tadov, tia&ov 

P. IfltV, SI/J.SV 

P. f'pt&tt, ufjsda 

til, firs 

ia&, da 9s 

rr 7 

tauv, ttauv 

tno, fivTO 

SUBJ. w, inflected like the SUBJ. aifiai, inflected like the 
Present. Present. 

OPT. ui)v, like the Pres- OPT. u^r, like the Present. 

IMP. t&i, like the Present. IMP. iao, like the Present. 

INF. slvai. INF. satfca. 

PART, tig, tlaa, tv. PART, t^ivo?, y, ov. 

NOTE 1. The Present Ind. 3d pers. plur. !Zfi is contracted from #. 
(117. N. 2.) 

NOTE 2. For Imperf. Act. 'far, there occurs a form "uv, found only in 

NOTE 3. Homer has F. ?<r*. A. ?<r, ?*. ( 95. N. 2 : 8O. N. 3.) 

NOTE 4. The form tavrai for Perf. Pass. 3d pers. plur. i7r/, is obtained 
a follows: 'EH, 'OH, pa,,1ft*i,1>Tai. ( 96. 19 : 80. N. 3.) See 



Ixvfouai and txcrrw and 'ixai, 

come, Perf. 'r/ui't, F. Mid. 

't$ouai, 2 A. Mid. ixouyv. 

($ 96. 5, 10, 7.) 

NOTE. Homer has A. Act 3d 

per*, plur. J$ for '?>. ( 85- 

N. 2.) 
'JAIIMI L1AJI\ am propitious, 

Imperat. until or 'urj&i, 

Perf. (as Present) Subj. Uij- 

xw, O/. i/./jxoiiiJ, F. Mid. 
liuaouai, A. Mid. uuoctftrjV, 
Mid. iicHjxoura (rarely IAO- 
uui), propitiate. ( 96. 8 : 
95. N. 2.) 

. Mid. mrlaouui, 2 A. i- 
wijjv, 2 A. Mid. fmdur,v,= 
TitTouai, which see. ( 96. 1.) 
t(a, see ti'axo). 

(2TAJI), place, cause to 
stand, F. arjoa>, A. latijoct, 
Perf. IcFTJjxa stand, later 
IWttxa Aave placed, Pluperf. 

standing, Perf. Pass. ?OT- 
/i<, A. Pass. iaTu&r,r, 2 Perf. 
Fffiaa stajid, <jrw, it}iutr t v, 
taia&i, ecmivui, ktno)^, 2 A. 
larfp stood, arw, aral^v, ai/]- 

jut, cause myself to stand, 
stand, ( 96. I : 117: 77. 
N. 2: 91 N. 7: 95. X. -2 ) 
NOTE. The augment of the 
Perfect and Pluperfect, in this verb, 
takes the rough breathing. 
mv<tm and iqgarti, = MJ^W, 
which see. ( 96. 7, 10.) 
fvsouai, = t'o/ouai. ( 96. 5, 


K< (&oO, take hold of, hold, 

restrain, F. a/Jaia, Perf. 

i'ax^xu, Perf. Pass. 

A. a/i#r,', F. Mid. 

jmi, 2 A. ea/ov. Mid. la 
uai, restrain myself. (< 96. 
1, 10: 95.2.) 

Tfi, see (i t ui, go. 
KAASl, see xalwuai. 

\itti (xaid, t^ouai), sit 
down, Imperf. Ixadt'^ourfV, A. 
Pass, f'xrtftiuftrjv (later), 2 F. 
Mid. y.a&fdovum. ( 14. 1: 
82. N. 1.) 

O r 

, F. x 
14. 1 : 82. N. 2.) 

Suly. xddo>fj.ui, Opt. xadoi- 
jUjjv, Imperat. xudr^ao (later 

o$, Pluperf. Mid. xa- 
drfUt,? or fxu&tjuw sat down. 
(^ 14. 1 : 82. N. 3 ) 

xufriydi and xa&i^ttrij) (xara, 
'iy>, l^ict'(ii\ seat, cause to sit 
down, sit dincn, Imperf. ixa~ 
fri^qp, F. xafiitfw or xud'io}, 
A. f'xii&iaa, Perf. xtxdfhxa, 

F. Mid. x/^/iijtfo/ioi. ( 14. 
1 : 82. N. 1.) 

xuii'vuin, surpass, fieri, Im- 
perf. exitiriuy, Perf. Pass, 
(from K4Jfl), xixuaum or 
xixuSum. ( 107. N. 5.) 

xcuut or x<o>, burn, A. (Epic) 
f'xfj or t*xf or txtim, 2 A. 
Pass. (xitr t v. From KATfL, 
F. xi'aw, A. ixnvan, Perf 
Pass, x&xuvuai, A. Pass. <? 
x^ijv. (96. 18: 104 
N. |.) . 

XA*'O) (K'AslfL), call, F. xnliata 
or XK/.OJ, A. fxdhaa, Perf. 
xf'xirj/tt, Perf. Pass, xf'xiijt 
i/;,^, /"/ 



[ 118. 

a&ai, Part. xxAtj/m j os, A. 

Pass. AcAiftfijK. ( 96. 10, 

17: 95. N. 1: 91.5: 102. 

N. 2.) 
xdpvw (KAMJl), labor, am 

weary, Perf. xtxfiijxa, 2 A. 

sxotfior, F. Mid. xa^iovfiui. 

($96.5, 17.) 
xardyvv^i (xatd, ayvvfii), break 

down, break to pieces, F. 




the augment of the Aor. 
Ind.), A. xarf'wla, Part, xa- 
T'|c with the augment of 
the Indicative, 2 Perf xais- 
a/u am broken to pieces, 2 
A. Pass. xaTfuyrjr. 

NOTE. For Aor. Opt. 2d pers. 
sing, xara%aif, Hesiod (Op. et D. 

692) has xavii%ag (see u.yivfu). 

xavd$aig, see the preceding. 
K.AT11, see xi'w. 

xflfiai, (xf'u, xet'w, KEIM1), lie down, recline, xdfapai, xtoipi]v t 
xttao, xBia&iti, xftfitvog, Imperf. exilurjv, F. Mid. xilaofiai. 
(96. 18: 117.) 

The Present and Imperfect are inflected as follows : 


IND. S. xtlfiat D. xtlpt&ov P. xtl[it&a 

xelaat xtla&ov xtla&s 

P. xtia&s 

SUBJ. xifa(iai, like 
OPT. xtolprjv, like 
IMP. S. xiiao 


S. exti/j.r]V 

D. xsla&ov 

D. exilfis&ov 

P. exslfit&ot 


NOTE. The Present xla or mlu 
lie down ; also, desire to lie down. 

xsio^ai, command, F. Mid. xs- 
Aij'yo^ua/, A. Mid. txt'j.7]od/.iriv, 
2 A. Mid. txsxlourjv for txe- 
( 96. 10 : 78. 

has the signification of the Future, thall 

xdofirjv. ( 
N. 2 : 26. I.) 

to, prick, regular. From 
KENTJl, A. Inf. xivaai. 
(96. 10: 12. N. 4.) 

(poetic xf^a>), mix, 
F. xfgdau, A. IxtQuaa, Perf. 

xtxgnxri, Perf. Pass, 

or xexsgaapai, A. Pass, e- 

xod&yr or f'xfotiaf)rjr. (^ 96. 

9 : 26. 1 : 107. N. 1 : 109. 

N. 1.) 

For Aor. Act. Inf. *ifr. 
Homer has *jfir<u> 
Qdvtliu (KEPASl}, gain, F. 
xtgdnrd) (in writers not Attic 
xfp<5jato), A. IxipSava (not 



Attic txiitSr^au), Perf. xfxio- 
daxa or xtxiod^xu. ( 90. 

xiu, see xiluui. 

xtjdoi (KAJfl), trouble, vex, 
worry, F. Mid. xtxuStjaouui, 
A. Mid. Impcrat. 2d. pers. 
sing. x/j'<5iiri, 2 Perf. xixrfia 
am anxious. Mid. x/;<Soi, 
am anxious about, rare for. 
($5,90 IS, 10, 11:95. N. 2.) 

xldrrjut, Mid. xiorituui, ^r axl- 
8n:ui, -auiti. 

xixii'jaxia (KAAfi), = 
( 90. 17, 1, S.) 

xlot'^ui and xtovao)), = xfouv- 
rvui. ($ 90* 10, 0.) 

xi/iitoi (K/XJi), reach, find, F. 
-Mid. xifijOQuut, A. Mid. ixt- 
Zt^uurp, 2 A. ixt^of. From 
XIXIIMI, 1 A. *x<>/,i, 5u6/. 
jc/^tu (Epic xi^tloi), Opt. xi- 
\ir t v. Inf. xi%f t i-ui, Part, xi 
i.V- 2 A. Mid. P;7. x.y.i- 

N. 17, 15.) 

xlx>jr,ui (/paw), lend, the rest 
froin/j aa>, which see. (^ 90. 

. L > 
x(w, g'o, Imperf. Ixtov. 

xio-> (KJAFfl), clang, F. 
x/.<//Jw, A. fxiav, 2 A. ?- 
xia/of, 2 Perf. xxi,/ or '- 
xiuyya. From xfxii'iyw, Pres. 
Part. xfx~*.r-j'(av. ( 90. 4, 
0, 13, 11.) 

xA/a or x/.w, tccep, F. xiau^jw 
or xi>;'<ju. From K^tATJl, 
A. Ixxai-aa, F. Mid. xirtvao-r 
fiat, xiitvjovucu. (~\ 90. 10 : 
114. X. 1.)' 

xiaw, break, xlctato, txlaaa, xl~ 
xixa, xixiuaucu, txlua&vr. 

From KAHMI, 2 A. 

xlo'c. ( 95. N. 1 : 107. 
N.'l: 109. N. I : 117.) 

xJU'w, hear, Imperf. ty.~i.vov sy- 
nonymous with the Aorist. 
From KATMf, 2 \.Impcrat. 
xiv&i and xixivfri, 2 A. Mid. 
Part. xf.vutroi as adjective, 
celebrated, famous. (^78. 
N. 2: 117"X. 10.) 

KMAJl, see xauj-w. 

xopivrvut (KOPJl), satiate, F. 
xootata, A. ixoyfaa, Perf. 
xfxoojjxrt, Perf. Pass, xtxoot- 
auui (Ionic xfxociF;t/ai), A. 
Pass. ixoosa9-t}r. (^ 90. 
10, 9:95' N. 2: 107. N. 1: 
109. N. 1.) 

xpeuw (KPAI'Jl), cry, F. xou'loj, 
* F. Mid. x ? Sb.iii, 2 Perf. 
xixouyu synonymous with 
the Present. From KE- 
KPA1-J1-, F. Mid. xfxQtl- 
Sourti, A. (tutor) fxixuu~-a. 

NOTE. Forros without the con- 
necting vowel, 2 Perf. 1st pers. 
plur. x.'iK*xyii.ii, Imjvrat. 2d pers. 
sing. *ix*%$t, 2 Pluperf. 1 st pers. 
plur. Ixixzxy-uit. .. 91. N. (J. 

xofuaunt (xotiu'tu. K /-"/.I ///I//', 

Hltplllfl Hll/Srff, tldiirr, .^ 

i, Opt. xijtii't'urp or 

F. Mui ' 

xofuinrvui (later xpam'w), 5M5- 
yjt/U/, //m/,?, F. xoffi'iuio Of 
*, A. fxoiuttait, A. Pass. 
69: 95. 

N.I. 102. N. 2: 109. N.I.) 

XQqftrqfu, xor^rufiat, Imperf 
fxo^urtiur^, m preceding. 
(^ 96.0: 117.) 

xrdouat, possess, Perf. Mid. xi- 
xt^uai and txrijuai, Subj. xt- 




XTW(, Opt. xtxii'ff^ijv and 
xtxTM^v (Ionic xtxjfoip ),)), 
Iiifin. xfxTjtf#(, Part, xe- 
XTiiptt'o;, F. Mid. xrrjaopui, 

A. Mid. fXT^(/|U?yV, (?(). 

N. 3:91. N. 3.) 
xruVcu and xiivvvfti (K'l'JlNJl, 
KTAJl), kill, F. xrivia, A. 
I'xiEiPu, Pert'. k'xTixxa and f'- 
xro'i jx, Perf Pass, i'xrufiai, 
A. Pass. xr#r/v (sometimes 
fxiiii'9-ijv), 2 A. f'xTui'oi; 2 
Perf. Exxon*. From K.THMI, 

2 A. tXTUI', XTtil, XTftllJt', XI- 

ru/, xn/'j, 2 A. Mid. ('Kiitiitji', 

5, 19, 18, Hi, 9, 13: 117. 

N. 10.) 

Homer has also F. xra/nu t xra- 


KTIJL, KTfJlIf, build, 2 A. 
Mid. Part, xrlpfrot;, i], or, 
built. (^ 117. N. 14.) 

xrimi'w (KTrilJl), make noise, 
thunder, >;'(jw, ja, TJX a, i)[iiti, 
TJ&TJV, 2 A. ixru^or. ( 9G. 

xtj-fw (KTfL), kiss, F. xi'uw, 
A. t'xi-(/a. The compound 
nooaxvviw, prostrate myself, 
adore, is generally regular, 
as F. nootjxv>'i]<i(n. (^ 9(5. 
5, 10: 95. N. 1.) 

xvto or xvi<a or xi'V'uxw, co- 
ccjc, to be pregnant, F. 
xr/(/a), A. f'xvqaa, A. Mid. 
fxi'TjuwjU^'', poetic ixiWjUfji'. 
(^90. 10,8.) 

AAHfL, see Xufj^uvu. 

iivw (AAXJl), receive ly 
lot, obtain, F. Mid. ).j^ 
(Ionic A|o//i), 2 A. il 
Perf. ui.i]xu and 

(^ 90. 7, 18, 19, 6 : 76. 

N. 1.) 

AAOSl, see lavdavw. 

AAKSl, see Aaxw. 

ui'fo (AABJl), receive, take, 
Perf. tl'AjjqpM, Perf. Pass, t?- 
hliipui, A. Pass. fli)(f&i]v, F. 
Mid. Irjtfjofittt, 2 A. &/3ov, 
2 A. Mid. ;'/..? //>'. (^90. 
7, 18: ?<). i\ f . I.) 

From AAMBH, the Ionic has 
Perf. Pass. XEA,M/*,*/, A. Pass. 
iAa,t!pS!v, F. Mid. A.a^i/'Sjttixf. It 
lias also Perf. X.'A./3xa. ( 5 96. 
C, 10 107. N. 4.) 

lui-Uiii-ai (J.LOIL, Ay*oi\ r/wt 
hid, cxcapt: tiutirt , Perf. Pass. 
itbjt^tui. (in Homer AtAw- 
itfiui), F. Mid. iy<toftat, 2 A. 
t).ttd-ov, 2 Perf. Mb] t) a, 2 A. 
Mid. ttu&oiiiiv. M'u\. lavd u- 
roum (sometimes ty&opeu), 
forget. ( 9(5. 7, 18.)' 

Aa'uxw (sl.-l/\JL), talk, gabble, 
A. f).uitiiUi(, F. Mid. Ax>J<;o- 
IUHJ, 2 A. tiMxoi-, 2 Perf. AJ?- 
A"x (Ionic Aili;x), 2 A. Mid. 
(Epic) Adxo//ji'. ( 90. 
14, 10: 78. N. 2.) 

AMIW, tkuvov or ^(/I'DV, AM raw, 
t/U/uuw, used only in the 
compound .-ioAuw, \vhich 
see. ($78. N. 1.) 

J-IXJL, see ).,'-/ x ,in,i. 

Af'/oi, collect , $M, S-<, Perf. ffAo- 
^, Perf. Pass, nhyu/n, 2 A. 
Pass. f 'Af>/)>'. ({> 70. N.I: 
98. N. 2 ) Jiyoi, say, is 

NOTE. Forms without t!> con- 
necting vowel, '2 A. JM'ul. tXt 
3d pers. sing. XIXT, for sXij/ 
iXsjTo. ( 92. N. 4: 7.) 

, cause to lie down, jw, J, 
A. Mid. f/fSf/'/t'/" 




Impcrat. (in Homer) 
Inf. ifSua&ai, 2 A. Mid. 
iify}ii)v fay doicn, 3d pers. 
sing,, Jiiipcrat. M* . 
(88. N. 3: 92. N. 4: 9. 
1: 7.) 

Jlilill, sec i(tii.j('tv(a. 

li t &uru or /.) ; 'tfw, cause fo fnr- 
fftt, F. ii'aw, '2 A. (Kpic) 
itii>oi-, 2 A. Mid. (Cpic) 
/.>/.,'< OH >;>'. ( **0. 7: 78. 
N. 2 ) See also t.uvduiw. 

itjxitu, Ionic, = Au'uxw, which 

st/IXJL, see '/.yxiii(a. 

AUI-UI (old iow, Aof'o*), irath, 
bdt/tc, iovaoi, tlovau, Atiofxa, 
ii'iovuiii. Mid. luvopui, com- 
monly j.oiuftt, ica*/i myself, 
bat lie. ( UO. 18, 1U.) 

The Present and Imper- 
fect commonly drop the con- 
necting vowels o and t. 
E. g. Pres. Aoi';ufv for Aovo- 
ptv, lovtui for Aoufrai, iovr- 
Tt for Aouoyrw/, ).oia^ui for 
iovtadui, Imperf. i/.orr for 
novov, fiovro for f/.oi'fro. 

iwu, /oo*T, solve, 

N. 2.) 

From ATM 1, 2 A. Mid. (Epic) 

3d pers. sing. Xi/rt as Passive. 

For the Perf. Pass. Opt. 3d pers. 

sing. XiXui-a, see above (^ 91. N. 



M.lOJl, see t uai't>dfu. 
f^ufiau, see jucio;. 
/.u/o^t (,u'w), /ff/, touch, 

haiifllc, F. Mid. naaofiui, A. 

Mid. f'ftuauurtr. (<&<& 96. IS: 

95. N. I.) 

MAKJl, see n^xaofiut. 

ta (MAO ft), learn, un- 

, Perf 
F. Mid. pnStaoiiai, 2 A. 
tftador,^ F.Doric 
contracted from 
t^90. 7, 10: 114. N. 2: 
2:3. N. 1.) 

i, jight, Opt. nugrai- 
or juo'o/wr ( r, Imperf. 
inflected Jike 

(MAPJIfL), take hold 

of, SCIZP, F. uttuy-w, A. 
I'udtjya, 2 A. i'uitijTor (also 
tfiunur, without the 5). 2 
Perf. [tifiuQira. ( 90. 2.) 

(Ionic ^a^io(iai),fgkl, 
combat, Perf. Mid. ^f ( u/j- 
, F. Mid fnrjVoo/iai (Epic 

), A. Mid. 
, 2 F. Mid. 

(96.10: 95. N. 2 : 114. 
INI. 2.) 

and fAui^tuat, dtsirc, am 
eager, ftricr, fcil a strong 
impulse, 2 Perf. ^*'ua sy- 
nonymous with the Present. 
Mid. m'toum, di*ire, scrk, 
Impirat. ua'ifo, Inf. inLa&cu. 
(96. N. 2: 116. N. 7.) 

The 2 Perf. it.iu.ta. is inflected, 

as far as it goes, like ia*. ($ 91. 


ftvoxo) (tifdi'tu), make drunk, 

intojricatc, F. .uitii-vo), A. 

{fufrvoti, A. Pass, lut&w&iiv. 

Mid. ptdvoxofieit, am intoxi- 

cated. (4J96. 8: 95. N.I.) 
[ti&vw, am intoxicated, equiva- 

lent to the Middle of the 

MEIPSl(MEPfL), divide, share, 

Perf. Pass. 3d pers. sing. 
it is fated, Part. 
vo; fated, destined, 



[$ 118. 

Pluperf. Pass. 3d pers. sing. 
it was fated, 2 A. 
I obtained, 2 Perf. 
have obtained. Mid. 
receive a share, 
obtain. ( 96. 18, 19 : 76. 
N. 1 : 79. N. 3.) 

The augment n of the Perf. 
and Pluperf. Pass, takes the rough 

The forms ftiftoowrctt, fitftvnfiivo; 
are sometimes used for tip-agrai, 
tlft.aigpc.ivaf. (\i 96. 13.) 

iu), am about to be or do any 
thing, shall, F. /mA^uco, A. 
tpsUiiiau. (^ 9G. 10.) 
(<>, am a concern to, F. pi- 
Xijaw, A. fpil^aa, 2 Perf. 
(Epic) iif^ijAa. ( 96. 10, 

The epic poets have Perf. Pass. 
3d pers. sing. ft,ip$\iru.i for pz/ui- 
XIT/. ( 26. N.) 

nnd pi prut, remain, F. 
, A. ffifiva, Perf. utfis- 
. (96. 1, 10:26. 1.) 
MElSfL (not to be confounded 
with the preceding), intend, 
purpose, 2 Perf. fj.ffj.ora sy- 
nonymous with the Present. 
( 96. 19.) 

lii)xao{ (MAKfL), bleat, 2 A. 
tfiaxov, 2 Perf. fitfjijxa. 
From fiffjyxto, Imperf. f^- 
v. (96. 18, 10, 11.) 
, stain, regular. Homer 
(II. 4, 146) has A. Pass. 3d 
pers. plur. fiinv&rjv for ^lav- 
&fv for f^iav&r t auv. ( 92. 
N. 1.) 

and utaw (MTFJl), 

NOTE. Form without the con- 
necting vowel 2 A. Mid. 3d pers. 
sing. 'ifiixTO or uir for Ift'iyirt. 
( 91. N. 4: 7.) 

fitfivr,ax(a (MNAJl), ravse to 
remember, remind, F. 
A. I'fivrjau, Perf. Mid.' 
fiiti remember, Subj. 
ficei, Opt. fiffir/ l /.tr l vOr (j,f(jvoj- 
fjTjV or fisfivolurjv (Ionic 
juf/ii'ew/tjjj'), Imp. {.it/jryao, 
Inf. /.iffiiiju&at, Part, 
/jii'og, A. Pass, i 
3 F. p f pri anf , tt ,, F.'Mi'd. 
fifty, A. Mid. ff.iv7jOtt{ir)V. 
Mid. utuvriaxouai. remind 

myself, rtinnnbir. ( 96. 
1,8: 91. N. 3: 109. N. I.) 

mix, F. //t'|w, A. t(ii*a, Perf. 
Pass, fiifiiynai, A. Pass. 
ftn%9-r t r, 2 A. Pass, 

( 96. 9, 14.) 

ulftvAf, see 

MNAfL, see 

MOAfL, see 

fi\jy.uo^(u (MTKJi), bellow, quo-, rjai/tfjrjv, 2 A. tfivxov, 
2 Perf. ps^wxa. ( 96. 10.) 


vatw (jYJ/i), rfzrc//, A. cYaaa 
caused to dwell, placed, Perf. 
Pass, vfvuafim, A. Pass. '- 
adyr, F. Mid. tdaouai, A. 
Mid. f'raauftw. ( 96. 18: 

95. N. 1 : 107. N. 1 : 109. 

N. 1.) 

vonidw, pack closely, stuff, F. 
j'ajw, A. <, Perf. Pass. 
vivuafiai. ( 96. N. 4.) 

NAfL, see vMtw. 

), distribute, F. rf//w OF 
vtpyaia, A. tvtnia, Perf. vrrf- 
fiqxn, Perf. Pass, vfre^fiai, 
A. Pass. Ei'f/jyftrjv or f'rfjiie- 
V>^. (96.10: 95. N. 2.) 
w (2V/J.TJ2), swm, A. 
Perf. vevtvxa, F. Mid. 




fiat, vtvaovuai. ( 96. N. 
12: 114. N. 1.) 

rt^t) or rljiTta (]\'fBJl), wash, 
rti^'ta, ivtwa,, tviq&r.v. 

( 96. 2.) 

yoe'w (jVO-ft), think, yojj'aeu, 
r t au, riror)xa, vftoijfiai, 
j&r}>: ( 96. 10.) 
The Ionic has , iiura., &c. 
all from the simple Present. 

dyO>, feel sleepy, rvard*a 
and yvardaoi, tvvara^a and 
i. ( 96. N. 6.) 

y |i/^aa) (ZTPJl), shave, 

regular. JMid. vosoucn, tto 
jui, commonly fi'noueu, shave 
myself, shave. 

oj'w (OJJl), emit an odor, have 
the smell of, smell, F. o^Voj 
(Ionic o;'(jw), A. u s -jjaa, 2 
Perf. Sdoida synonymous with 
the Present. ( 96. 4, 10 : 
95. N. 2.) 

oi'yia or oi'/vvftt, open, Imperf. 
tor/or, F. o^o,, A. fw|, Perf. 
%, Perf. Pass, i+rpw, A. 
Pass, tyxdrp, 2 Perf. Fw/ 
s^arf o/jen. ( 96, 9 : 80. 
N. 3.) See also arolyto. 

The epic poets change the diph- 
thong */ into /" as J| for $. 

oI<J, see ETdfL. 
otdaiKa or olSiirta or olStia, 
swell, F. olSftow, A. toSr.aa, 

Tfe <* >/ * ' 

rerf. q>Jijx. 

oTxoitru, depart, am gone, Perf. 
OI^OJXK (in Homer also &?/ij- 
x), Perf. Pass. M^fiai, F. 
Mid. owaouui. (' 96. 10.) 

ofoj or o/w (both Epic), M/nA-, 
suppose, A. Pass. f j^^ y 
(Epic ftm/tfjjj'), F. Mid. o/r- 

aopai, A. Alid. 
(Epic). Mid. ol'ouai or oi t ucti 
(Epic oi'opai), synonymous 
with the Active, Imperf. 

(aourjV or d>ur,v. ( 96 10 : 

109. N. l.'j 

OlfL, F. ot'ciDj, A. wu (rare), 
Imper. otat, F. Pass. om#j- 
aourjti, =. (fiota, which see. 

^ (^ 88. N. 3 : 109. N. 1.) 

olto&airm and oiid^arw (OAI- 
2O Jl), slip, slide, F.oiia9r,a<a, 
A. ulla&^au, Perf. o'tiia&r^a, 
2 A. wAm^o^. ($ 96. 7, 10.) 

oLlii^t (Cb/J2\ destroy, cause 
to perish, F. oiUac.) or JioJ, 
A. wifaa, Perf. oAcJirxa, 2 
Perf. 6'ia/Aa ^flre perished, 
F. Mid. o/lor.uat, 2 A. Mid. 
talofjijv. Mid. o).t.vuai, perish. 
(96.6, 10: 81.) 

NOTE. The poetic 2 A. Mii 
Part, faiftiisi or tvt.ift.iit} has the 
force of an adjective, destructive, 
fatal, pernicious. 

oftrvfu (OM.'i), swear, A. MUO~ 
act, Perf. ofiupoxa, Perf. Pass. 
oufaiicHjuut and optifiopat, A. 
Pass. o)u6^r,r, F. Mid. o//ot;- 
^<. ( 96. 9, 10: 95. N. 
1 : 107. N. 1 : 81.) 

ouon-/ivtn (OMOPFJl), wipe 
off, F. ou6o$(o, A. oi^uoQ^a, 
A. Mid. o5ot>;aW. (<^ 96. 

ovivr tf ii ( OXAfL, O^'HMl}, bene- 
Jit, F. oi'Tyaw, A. ottTjOn, 2 A. 
Mid. (avdur t v and VMMT. 
Mid. ovLvauat, derive benijit, 
e "joy. (96. N. 2: 117. 
N. 15.) 

ovopat (inflected l\kedldo[iai 
from dldiafii), blame, Jind 




fault with, insult, A. Pass. 
(aroa&Tjr, F. Mid. orouofint, 
A. Mid. uyoffofuai and tor- 
wv. ($ 96. 10 : 95. N. 1 : 
109. N. 1: 117.) 

The form iW3i (II. 24,241) 
stands for Pres. Pass. 2d pers. 
plur. SvtfSi from ONil. 
O7/-T', Peri'.Pass. w/^w/, A. Pass. 
wqpi/Tj)', F. Mid. otyofiai, A. 
Mid. ot}>nfirji' (little used), 
2 Perf. o7TW7i (poetic), 
o^aoj, which see. ( 81.) 
oo<<i, see, Iraperf. iwywov (Ionic 
wyiav), Perf. 6o!^x, Perf. 
Pass, iwycepvti. From 2i7J/i 
(which see), 2 A. adov, idea, 
I'dotfii, Idi, id sir, tdmr, 2 A. 
Mid. (ISofiijV, idafAiti, idoi{ir)v, 
idov, idiatfai, ISoufvoc;. From 
OHJl( which see), Perf. Pass. 
wfi^ai, A. Pass. (Stpdrjv, F. 
Mid. fyopai. ( SO. N. 3.) 
(OPSl), rouse, excite, F. 
j, A. tt)(>a, Perf. Mid. 

i, 2 Perf. 6' 
risen, 2 A. Mid. 
Mid. oyrv/jai, also 

jni, rouse myself, arise. 
96. 9, 10: 103. N. 1 : 
104. N. 6: 81.) 

NOTE. Forms without the con- 
necting vowel, 2 A. Mid. 3d pers. 
sing. WJTS, Impernt. 2d pers. sing. 
S^/ra and o,j<ri, /(/". flgS-ai, Parf. 
i;. (' 92. N. 4: 11.) 

(OZI'PJI), smell, 
F. Mid. o(/qp7jttO|U<t, A. Mid. 
taaqgrjanfiiiv (later), 2 A. 
Mid. o'xjqpoojUTjr rarely ourqppa- 
^, ; r. (^ 96. 7, 10 : 85. 
N. 2.) 

e'oj, mingo, Imperf. fovqtov, 
F. Mid. ovrfaopai. ( 80. 
N. 2) 

OVTUM, wound, regular. From 

OT111MI, 2 A. OL'T', //(/' 

(Epic) ovrajufrm or ovniutr, 
2 A. Mid. Part, owdfitro? 
as Passive, wounded. ( 117. 
N. 10, 17.) 

oiftttto (G<l>EjlfL), owe, must, 
ought, F. oqpnX^oiu, A. ttxftl- 
iijtf,*. ( 96. 18, lO*.^ 

The 2 A. wptXu* and ipe>o, (, 
t, always expresses a wish, that ! 
would to God! ( 217. N. 3, 4.) 
o<phaxdrta (O<I>Ml), incur, for- 
feit, F. oqpAj/'uw, Perf. wqpA?j- 
x, 2 A. tJ^ov. ( 96. 8, 7, 


I1AOJI, see 
nal'ito, play, jest, tnaiaa, ni- 
i, fnataftrjv, F. Mid. 
In later 


ennl^dijv. ( 96. JN. 6 : 
114. N. 1.) 

nuiw, strike, F. not its to and 
jitnr,a(a, A. tnniaa, Perf. ne- 
netixn, Perf. Pass, ninmafnti, 
A. Pass, fnnio-dr^'. ( 96. 

10: 107. N. 1 : 109. N. 1.) 
Tiditfw (HAOSl, IIWOJl), suf- 
fer, A. i'jiT/tfw (not common), 
F. Mid. mlifofini (rarely TT;- 
aofiai), 2 A. titnOov, 2 Perf. 
ninurfhx (rarely TisTijjfla). 
( 96. 6, 18, 19, N. 10: 
12. 5.) 

NOTE. The form via-airSt Od. 
23, 53 , for irW9-Tt, is ob- 
tained as follows: IIA0n, DO- 
011, fifo^a-, xiro-ffSt -for TiroS-- 
irSf with the Passive termination 
ff$t. ( 9G. 19: 10. 2.) 
mniopai (//AJl), eat, Perf. 
Pass, ninotauat, A. Mid. 


: ; 

. ( 95. N. 1 : 

107. N. 1.) 

, Perf. Mid. ninunai, pos- 
sess, acquire, A. Mid. ina- 
adur t v. 
/^w (77/0/2), persuade, nd- 

auat, fJifludr/v, 2 A. tm&ov, 
(poetic), 2 Perf. 
trusl, '2 A. Mid. tJ 
Mid. Tiilfroiiai, trust, believe, 
ofay ( 96. 18, N. 14.) 

NOTE. The form ia-sr/S^ir 
stands for 2 Pluperf. 1 st pers. plur. 
i3H<r&ttpi. ( 91. N. 6.) 

jisi.iiyi't and 7ii).doi, cause to 
approach, bring near, ap- 
proach, come near, -ntldata, 
inilaaa, iTitli.aa&r t v and inid- 
&r t v. From n.AH'Ml comes 
2 A. Mid. inlwv. ($ 26. 
1: 117. N. 15.) 

nilm, revolve, move about, am, 
Imperf. 3d. pers. sing, tnle 
for tTisie. Mid. nilouai sy- 
nonymous with the Active, 
Part, jtioufrog used only in 
composition, Imperf. 2d 
pers. sing, wito s'rr/Uv than 
art, 3d pers. sing. J'TUJIO he 
is. (26. 1: 23. N. 1.) 

IJENOJl, see Tida^'j). 

ninoadt, see ndazw. 

Ttir>8<a, pedo, F. Mid. mt^d^ao- 
fiai, 2 A. innqdor, 2 Perf. 
Tiinogda. Mid. niodouai, sy- 
nonymous with the Active. 
($ 96. 19, 10.) 

Tts<)9ia. sack, nigam, IJISQOU, 
2 A'. 7r ? a5ov. ( 96. 19 : 
26. 2 ) 

NOTE. Homer has 2 A. Mid. 
7n/l wijS-*/ without the connecting 
vowel for *-< ? 9VS. ( 92. N. 
4: 1O. 2: 11.) 


), later Trt-TTcn, 6(?;/, diz'.-'f, 
F. nii/joi, A. t'niijju, Perf. 
Pass. jii/ifutiKi, A. Pass. 
ini<fr t v. (96.2.) 
iavrvpt (nETAJl], expand, 
spread, F. nfrdata or Jiftoj, 
A. iTitjaaa, Perf. Pass. TTS- 
jrrofuai, A. Pass. fomi*di)7< 
( 96. 9 : 95. X. 1 : 102. 
N. 2: 109. N. 1: 26. 1.) 
at, Jly, F. Mid. Tifrjjyo- 
<, 2 A. tiio(.ir t v (for tnno- 
/uij>'), 7ii(ai.iai, Tiiolur t v, nii- 
a&ai, Tiro^jro?. ( 96. 10 : 
26. 1.) 

IIETSL, see TiirtTta. 

IJEr&fL, see -ivv&dvouat. 

niqiov, see <&7jr\V2. 

nr/11'f.u (IJAI^Q.), later 7rj'aaoj, 
jix, fasten, F. rr?;|w, A. .TJ|, 
Perf. Pass. jitifr t yuai, A. Pass. 
tJir^&r^', 2 Perf. ninr k yn 
stand fast, 2 A. Pass. eW- 
yjjv. ( 96. 18, 9, 3.) 


niOr.Sl (uiOfL ] , obey, follow, 
trntt, ni&i'^ot also 7ieni&i'ja(a, 
inittiivu. ( 96. 10, 11.) 

IlfOJl, see Tiil&ta and the pre- 

xAvMM and niirdta (iifid(a), 
Mid. m'ivaftai, = Tif).d<u, 
which see. ( 96. 16, 6.) 

nl/iiii^ut and ntu7i).d(a(n^lAJl}, 
Jill, F. 7iJU;a, A. s.^li/aa, 
Perf. jif';ujjxa, Perf. Pass. 
nin'i.r^juai, A. Pass. f^A/j'- 
o^ijr, 2 A. Mid. f-it.i^i^v, 
Opt. Tiiftjiujv, Imperat. 
ao, Part, n^ufvo;. ( 96. 
1 : 107. N. 1 : 109. N. 1 : 
1 17. N. 15.) 

The letter ,M, in the first sylla. 
ble, is dropped when, in composition, 



another ft. comes to stand before the 
first syllable of this verb ; as \pt- 
w/TXfi/t/, not ip-vifiv^rifti. The 
same is observed of trlpx-grifti. 

nlp.n(ji](.ii and mjmyiitii (iJPAJl), 
burn, F nqyati, A. knyrjuu, 
Perf. Pass. Tmr^v^mi, A. 
Pass. fn^adr,v. ( 96. 1 ; 
107. N. 1 : 1G9. N. 1.) 

For the omission of ft, in com- 
position, see r'ip.-rlrip.i. 

nlvta (llIfL), drink, 2 A. i'mnr, 
2 F. Mid. niovuni (later). 
Pass, Tilouut, as F. Active, 
shall drink. From 770/2, 
Perf. nintaxa, Perf. Pass. 
ninopui, A. Pass. Ino&rjv. 
From niMI, 2 A. Imperat. 
2d pers. sing. jntfi. ( 96. 
5: J14. N. 2: 95 N. 2: 
117. N. 14.) 

niTtlaxta (nfJl), cause to drink, 
give to drink, F. nlata, A. 
i'mmx. (96. 1,8.) 

7it.nQuay.ta (nfyturf), sell, Perf. 
TieTiQuxa, Perf. Pass. ni-Jinn- 
um, A. Pass. tJiQiiftTiv, 3 F. 
niTignaouai. ( 96. 1,8: 
26. 1.) 

(flETJl), fall, A. e;rea 
(little used), Perf. ne 
2 A. f'Timni 1 (Doric f'T 
2 Perf. Fart. TitnTfok; ns- 
a/?, 2 F. Mid. 71 - 
( 96. 1, 19, 17, 
15: 114. N. 2.) 

and niTi'rjf^t, (///7/V//Z), 
= nnurt'i'iii, which see. 
( 96. 16, 6: 117.) 

7iiTi'e'o>( 77 ETJl),nln-iv>, which 
see. ($ 96. 16, 5, 10.) 

ntqpttorxo) or nupnvaxai ( QiAfL), 
show, make known, communi- 
cate. ( 96. 1,8.) 

flfJl, see 

HAArSl, see 7i).i/yO), 

nid'^a) (nAAf'Jl), cause to wan- 
der, F. nluySw, A. in\tty$a, 
A. Pass, tnluyxdriv. Mid. 
7tldo[iai, wander about, rove. 

sw (llAETJl), sail, inlevoa, 
Perf. ntn).fvxa, Perf. Pass. 
l, A. Pass. TI>II;- 
', F. Mid. 7iltvao{iai, 
( 96. N. 12 : 
107. N. 1: 114. N. 1.) 

jiA;V(/ (flA.-irSL), rarely TrA^'- 
yr5|Ut, strike, F. 7i).r)*(a, A. 
tnlr^a, Perf. Pass, ninlrj- 
Yinu, 2 A. nin'kriyov (Epic), 
2 Perf. ninlriytt, 2 A. Pass. 
in\r\yr\v (in composition e- 
ni^v), 2 A. Mid. (Epic) 
ittrtriyouTjv. ( 96. 18, 3, 
9: 78. N. 2.) 

TTAOIW (TrAeco), tu'aw, j&c. 2 A. 
(from IIAfLMl) tnlwv, Part. 
nltac, G. nlwvios, Ionic, 
TiAf'fti, which see. (<,<5, 96. 
19: 117. N. 14.) 

ttwfw (nNETJl, HNTJl), blow, 
breathe, A. invtvaa, Perf. 
Jtinvevxct, Perf. Pass, ninvsv- 
afini, A. Pass, tnnva&w, F. 
Mid. nyfvaofjni, nvewjdyjjai. 
( 96. N. 12 : 107. N. 1 : 
109. N. 1 : 114. N. I.) 

Poetic forms, Perf. Pass. iriVvy- 
,!*/, am prudent, animated, intelli- 
gent, A. Pass. 3d pers. sing. i-rvvuS-ii 
used in the compound a/et-n-vtJvSx, 
from ayeffttu, 2 A. Mid. (from 
I1NTMI) ltrSftn. ( 96. 6: 
117. N. 15.) 

no&iw, long for, desire, miss, 
no&saco and ao&ijaia, 
aa, ntno&yxa, 
t7to&fa&r,r. ( 95. N. 2 : 
109. N. 1.) 



IIOPfL, givt, 2 A. I'rrooor, Perf. 
Pass. 3d. pers. sing, nin^a- 
iui it has ban decreed by 
faff, Part, ntnoa^tvo? des- 
'tincd. ( 96. 17.) 

7/0/2, see nirta. 

JlPAfL, see nlfiJiQrui. 

21 PI AM AI, buy, 2 A. Mid. 

nolaao or nQioi, H 
JiQn'iutro;. (117. N. 9.) 

IlPOSl, see UOPJl. 

JITAfL, see 'ixiriutu, nr;./c/o). 

icTifoott, crouch, F. Trrjj'fw, A. 
inT),|tt, Perf. t/TTjj/a. From 
IlTAJl comes 2 Perf. Part 
7if:TT7;&)V. From HTJIMI, 2 
A. 3d person dual mi' r 
Tr t r, in composition 
nTr,rr t r. ( 96. 3 : 99. N. : 

117. 12.) 
11TOSI, see niTTtM. 

(/ITOJl), poetic 
, inquire, Perf. Mid. 
, F. Mid. ntiaouai, 
2 A. Mid. f'Tivitoiujv. ( 96. 
18, 7.) 


'PATfL, see ur.yn-ui. 

(jairia, sprinkle, regular. From 

'PAJJl, A. Imperat. 2d pers. 

plur. o'acjif, Perf. Pass. 3(i 

pf-rs. plur. fQudSuiat, Epic. 

104 N.4: 91 N. 2.) 

^' s 'o) or fydfd or l.PI'Sl, F. t t ( ,), 
A. iQOf^a (Epic also fo5), 
2 Perf. oo/, 2 Pluperf. ta'i<j- 
/eir. (^ 80. N. 2, 3. 

^w (PETSl, 'prfL), flmo, A. 
TooM-af*, Perf. fonvr.y.a, F. 

M 1 ' ' ' " 

Mia. (j*vaoiirti Or oi'ljtioprtl, 

2 A. Pass. f ^oi;V. (96.18, 
10, N. 12.) 
2, Perf tt^xu, Perf. Pass. 

ffiir,fifti, A. Pass, ifjoi'^^v 
or igjittiTfi- (not Attic 1/4-^'- 
dT^r, tiqt&rji}, 3 F. tifj^uo- 
fiat, = EIIMI, which see. 
( 76. N. 1 : 95. N. 2.) 
,/tTfit {PAFJl), later ^ij'aaoj, 
f/fly, burst, F. ^;^|w, A. i'^ij- 
|, 2 Perf. Tpow/a ow 
to puces, 2 A. Pass, 
( 96 18, 9, 3, 19.) 
/t'w (Pfl'Jl), shudder, Qiyi^ta, 
&LC. 2 Perf iQijiya synony- 
mous with the Present. 
(96. 10.) 
.C, see QUVVVJII. 
., see otco,jl(nc. 

'PfLlJl, see $r,yri'ui. 

oian fjut ( X P OJ2), strengthen, F. 
Qoiaw, A. i'noomu, Perf. IQQM- 
xa, Perf. Pass. i'oijf,>uitt, Imp. 
i'oyoioo fareicill, &,c. A. Pass. 

>W#V. ( 96- 9 : 109 
N. 1.) 

tf/..-n' B *G (ZAjillirn.), sound a 
trutnpit, F. (rwin^lbj, later,}!>>, A iuu).nty$ii. later 
initinion. (^ 96. 6, N. 6.) 
o'w (rarely ///w), sorp, uo;- 
oo), &c. From ZAn.M[ 
comes Imperf Act. 3d pers. 
sina. (Epic) oo>. ( 96. 
10: 78. N.3: 117.) 
niui (^L!j;jl), rzlinguis/i t 
F. uSiaia, A. i'optun, Perf. 
Pass. tn3fi}fini, A. Pass, jtyfr- 
o.^iir. From JZ> //.I//, 2 *A. 

i-fjt/r, o.jflt,r, (i3f t r(ti. ( 96. 

9! 95. N.2: 107. N. I: 109. 
N. 1.) 

'w (j:T/i), shake, move, agi- 
tate, F. afi'tfw, A. taatvn, 
Perf. Pass. tuarpai, PluperC 
Pass, iouvfij/r, A. Pass. <a- 




sometimes favftqv. 
From 2TMI, 2 A. Mid. 
and avuyv. Mid. 
and, without the 
connecting vowel, atvpai. 
(96. 18: 104. N. 1: 78. 
N. 3 : 79. N. 3.) 
axtdavvvpt (2KE4AJI), scatter, 
disperse, spread, F. axtdnaoi 
or axetfw, A. faxiSousa, Perf. 
taxsSaxa, Perf. Pass. eaxiSa- 
afiat, A. Pass. saxEddia&rjv. 
($96.9: 102. N. 2: 107. 
N. 1: 109. N. 1.) 


cause to wither, F. axd<a, 
A. taxr)).n, Perf. i(jxA?j 
dried up, F. Mid. axiy 
From 2KAIIMI, 2 A. 

iriv, ax^vai. Mid. f- 
wither. (96.6,17,18.) 
pi (2KEJAJI), Mid. axt- 
8ra/jai, ^^ OTttdnvvvfitj which 
see. (96.6,16.) 
vfjuxi (atvai), Imp. 2d. pers. 
sing. aVffo, 2 A. Pass. 3d 
pers. sing, taaova, in compo- 
sition uTTtaaova (Laconic) 
he is gone,, he is dead, =. 
atvuiu from atvai, which see. 
( 96. N. 15.) 
aoca, see aajjo). 
aniv&ai, see fVrco. 
2TASI, see 'lairjfii. 
aitQ(o or aTf(ji<jy.(a (2TEPJI), 
deprive, bereave, F. (m^'aco, 
A. saTl^au, Perf. am'pfjxw, 
Perf. Pass. larKQ^^nt, A. 
Pass, laxf&rjp, 2 A. Pass. 
f4- (poetic). Pass. 
. or arlyopai. ( 96. 
8, 10.) 

OQSfrVfll Or OTTOO'V|t Or (JTOWJ'- 

vv//t (2TOPfL), strew, spread, 
F. aioKaw, ajo'ww, A. s'aro'- 

e'ar^oxra, Perf. Pass. 
i, A. Pass. toTogi- 
&ijv. (<S 96. 10, 
9, 17 : 95. N. 1 : 109. N. I.) 
aivyiw (2TTFJI}, fear, hate, 
arvyrjato, Stc. 2 A. tuivyov. 
Aor. also Eari/la / terrified. 
( 96. 10.) 
a/sti', see f^w, t'a^co. 
aw'^w (Epic ao'w), sac, orwaw, 

a&jo) ((/a'w),=rpreceding. (116. 

N. 7.) 


TAFJl, see T^J2, /a&e. 
TAAAfL, bear, suffer, venture, 

A. frwAwcra, Perf. Ts'zA^xa, 2 

Perf. TTvla, O/f. 

Jwp. T7ia#/, Infin. 

From TAHMI, 2 A. li 

tlag. ( 26. 1 : 95. N. 2 : 
91. N. 7: 117. 12.) 

TUflVO), F. TW^Us'w, Ionic, iz: T- 

7'.-//Z, TAFJ1, take, Impcrat. 
2d pers. sing. TJJ (contracted 
from T) #A;e </o?^, 2 A. 
Part. TfTtt/coV, Epic. ( 23. 
N. 1 : 78. N. 2 ) 

tetroj (TXNJI, TASl), stretch, 
extend, F. rtvu, A. Irstva, 
Perf. xtTotxa, Perf. Pass. TT- 
/.(, A. Pass. Ird&^v. ( 96. 
19, 5, 18.) 

TEKfL, see T/XTO). 

T^' w (rarely Tt'/uw), cwf, F. TE- 
H/w, Perf. TTjUT;xa, Perf. Pass. 

TET[tr)[lUl, A. PaSS. fTjUJ^Tjr, 2 

A. tTfpov and |'T|UOV, 2 A. M. 
trattOMV. (96.5,17,19.) 
TfTfinv or trfTfiov, I found, met 
with, a defective 2 A. Act 
( 78. N. 2.) 



TETXJl, see 

-it t , see 7'.//2, 

TIEfL, Perf. Part. rnir,(ag af- 
flicted, Perf. Mid. zmif/zaj. 
am afflicted, am sorrowful. 
(99. N.) 

tld-ijfii (rarely n&fta, &ici), 
put, place, F. rhjaw, A. I'dij- 
x, Perf. Te&iixa, Perf. Pass. 
ri&einui, A. Pass. fii&r t v, A. 
Mid. itfjjXM.ujjv (not Attic]', 
2 A. I'c/jji', #w, &ilr)v, &iri 
or #tV Stiiui, dtlc, 2 A. 
Mid. ^-/njv. ( 96. 1 : 
104. N. 2:95. N. 2, 4: 14. 
3, N.3. 117. N. 11, 13.) 

T/XTW (TEKfL), bring forth, F. 
Ti'Sw, A. Pass, (later) fiixdr,r, 
F. Mid. ri^ofiai, 2 A. f Vexor, 2 
Perf. Tcroxa, 2 F. Mid. 
p, 2 A. Mid. (poetic) fr 

.3: 114.N 2.) 
rlrrvfii, ' == - r/fti, ^on- 
or, which is regular. (^ 96. 

Tiroa'w (TPASi), bore, F. T^IJ- 
ffw, A. tig^act, Perf. Ttrpijxrx, 
Per. Pas. rijor^ntt. (96. 1.) 
(TOPJl), tcound, F. 
j, A. 'iiQwaat, Perf TS- 
rt, Perf. Pass, rrrpoitat, 
A. Pass. ITOW^IJI-. ( 96. 
17, 1, 8.) 

TiTtaxopat (TTKfL), prepare, 
take aim at, 2 A. Tt'rrxor, 
2 A. Mid. TfTTxo'jur/v, Epic. 
(96. 1, 14: 78. N. 2.) 

TAAJl> see TAAASl. 

TMEfl, TMAR, see T'urw. 

Tops'tii (TOPSL), pierce, TOO^OM, 
&c. 2 A. tiooo.-. ( 96." 10.) 

TOPJl, see Tirpw'oxcu, Tootw. 
'i, loaaaf, = 
from ivY%nria, which see. 

TPATSl, see 

TPAJi, see nroOT. 

PEI'fL), nourish, feed, 
support, F. #'ip), A. f^os- 
y/, Perf. rijyoqu, Perf. Pass. 
it&Quftuai, A. Pass, i&gl- 
(f.&r,v, "2 A. iT(ttt(f-ov (Epic), 

2 A. Pass. ij(fiiffr,v. ( 14. 

3 : 96. 19 : 107. N. 6.) 

W ( OPEXJl), run, A. t'#0f- 
|M, F. Mid. ,9-i'!ojui. From 
JPAMJl or JPEMJI (\vlfich 
see) come Perf. dtd^tiur^.tt, 
Perf. Pas?, didoii^tr^uui, 2 A. 
f'dgnuor, 2 Perf. didyofia 
(Epic), F. Mid. 3ui< t uovuui. 

(k I-*- 3.) 
TM*VM (TPATJl), eat, gnaw, F. 

Mid. Tpo>|- !/, 2 A- tTqayov. 

( 96. 19. 
Ti7/Vw (Trx.fl), happen, at- 

tain, A. fti'xijau (Epic), Perf. 

Ttn'^^xa, Perf. Mid. (poetic) 

rtTi-yuui or Ttrsryfiui, F. Mid. 

Tfl/Jot, 2 A. 4TI/OI 1 . ( 96. 

7, 10, 18.) 

TUTirw (TT/IJl], strike, F. Tt' 
commonly rr.7rv.-f", A. 
Perf. TiTKjTM, 2 Perf. rtj 
fiat commonly ifTi'jiir,fim,A.. 
Pass. (jv(fftr,r, 2 A. Pass. 
ftr.-niv. ( 36. 2, 10.) 

see r,uvfa. 

and vjiiaxouui (vno, 
fiat), promise, 
Perf. Pass, vnio^uai, A. 
Pass. vnKixi&nr, F. Mid. 
qaiwat, 2 A. Mid. vTrt- 

1'ATJl, 2 A tqnyor, Pass. g- 
yoi (later) as F. Active, 
= ia&iw, which see. 


see fptjfiL (which see), A. 7/rf^xa, Perf. 

<I>AJl, see nupdaxa), &ENJI, *V;i'0, Perf. Pass. frr t rfy^iu, 

(frifjiL A. Pass. rjvix&r t v, 2 A. r;Vf^- 

( ftAJl], kill, Perf. Pass. xor. 

cc, escape, 

TH-ov or 7if<pvo'. ( 96. F. Mid. mei&mat, <ptv*ovuai, 
5, 19 : 95. N. 2 : 78. N. 2 : 2 A . e^'/ov, 2 Perf. ^1 

26 - !) y. (96 18: 114. N. 1.) 

ow, bring, carry, bear, Im- 

' r * rv' . ' ^ Homer has also 2 Perf. Par/. 

perf. t(ptQO v. From 07^2, F. ^^.-^ (as form orzn), and 
oi'aw, A. Impcrat. 2d pers. Perf . Pass< Pnr/ . ...^^^j,., /, ar . 
sing. otas. From ENEl'KJl ing escaped. 

i and (pdaxw (&AJI), say, Imperf. tqpr/r, F. (fijata, A. tyrant, 

Perf. Pass, nscpaapui, 2 A. Mid. itpnpijv, Imperat. quo (Epic), 

/n/n. cptia&ni. ( 96. 8: 95. N. 2 : 107. N. 1 : 117. N. 9.) 

The Present and Imperfect Active are inflected as fol- 

lows : 


IND. S. qpijjtit D. (papev P. (papiv 

977? tpmov (fare 

tpr)al(v) tpmov qpaat'(j') 

SUBJ. S. cpu, cpfjs, (fit, D. (fUfj,sv, cprjTov, (pyior, P. 

OPT. 8. (fKitjv, (fctlrjg, (fulri, D. (pali]fitv, <falr t iov, 

P. fpairjfitt', <jDi f T;rt, fpalrjaixv OT cpctisv. 
IMP. S. 95i(14.N.4) J9. <JPTOV P. (pars 

(jDw'rw tpdicav qoMrwaav, <fvT(av 

INF. (pnvcti. 
PART. qpaV, (puaa, <puv, G, (puvrog. 


S. tfpqv D. tffa^iiv P. t(fotfitv 

icprjg, i(frja&a tifUTOV i'cpais 

t(fi] tfparrjV i'yotaav 

NOTE 1. The 2d pers. sing, of the Ind. is very often written fyt. 
NOTE 2. For the 2d pers. sing, of the Imperfect, see above ( 84. N. 6). 

Suvw (<I> OAJl), come before, MJ, 2 A. i'(p&r t v, q0,9w, tpftnl- 

anticipate, F. (fduaat, A. r\v, qp.^jj/'w/, (p9dt, 2 A. Mid. 

t(f>&aaa, Perf. tyftaxa, F. ttpn[ir,v, (pftdfirro?. (96. 

Mid. (f&faonai. From a>OII- 5 : 95. N. 2 : 117.) 



&lvu, <ff>lu, consume, ptrish, 
(f&laia, ifp&iaa, ttp&txct, tif&i- 
pai. From voiMf, 2 A. 
Mid. l(f&l^r t v, Subj. (p&ioi- 
fiai, Opt. tf&I t ur t v, Inf. qpth'- 
a&ai, Part. <p&Iutvo:. 
(96. 5: 117. N. 14.) 

dsto, love, regular. From the 
simple rpHfL, A. Mid. t<ft- 
).ii i ur l v, Impcrat. 2d pers. sing. 

(f"tiril, Epic. 

O^J'W, carry, bear, wear, regu- 
lar. From 'I'OPllMl, Inf. 
(in Homer) qcooijiw. ( 117. 
N. 17.) 

osw ((fsow), qpgvjG), &c. used 
only in composition. From 
tPHMt comes 2 A. Imp. 
<toi?> ( 96. 17: 117. N. 

rrfl, 4>rzfl, see iftvy*. 
i'o), product, ifvatt, tqvan, TIS- 
qivxa am, 2 Perf. 7ii<fvrt am, 
2 A. Pass, (later) 
From &T3II, 2 A. 

(ffa, Opt. (fi-r^i', Inf. 
Part. (fvg. (S 117. 
N. 7, 16.) 


XAdSl, see gu^o), zarddtoi. 
Xuja (XAJfi, KAJfl), yirld, 
give way, F. xfxttSi'^M shall 
deprive, 2 A. xtxctdov I made 
to give way, deprived, 2 A. 
Mid. xx<Jo'ujjv. (^ 96. 4, 
10,11: 78. N. 2.) 

ITJl, XAfi], com- 
monly -jfuaxta. gape, 2 A. 
l^avov, 2 Perf. x^jjm, F. 
Mid. zarovuai. ( 96. 5, 13, 


(XAPJL), rejoice, F ^<- 
Perf. xf^pijx, Perf. 

^S. y.fxrtor.uni (poetic x- 

), A. Mid. 

(poetic), 2 A. Pass, f^uo^v, 
2 A. Mid. xcxago^v (Epic). 
Homer has also F. X^K^IJ'OW, 
xt^apjj'ao^at. ( 96. 18, 10, 
11: 78. N. 2.) 

(XA4SI, XA^JfL, 
XE^'JfL), contain, hold, re- 
ceive, F. Mid. xilaoftai, 2 A. 
i'xadov, 2 Perf. xfxf-<5a. 
( 96. 6, 7, 19 : 12. 5.) 

Xaifxd), see xalvot. 

Zi^ta (XEdfL], caco, A. %a 
and ?/?ao-, Perf. Pass, y.i-^t- 
(jiiui, F. Mid. ^i'(/o,i//, ztaov-, 2 Perf. xi%oda. (^ 96. 
4, 19: 85. N. 2: 114. N.I.) 

^i'w (XETJ1, Xr.Q.), pour, F. 
jfs'w sometimes xii-mo, A. 
f/f sometimes r^ft-(/ (Epic 
t^ffa), Perf. xixvxu, Perf. 
Pass. xe%v[*ai, A. Pass, ^i'- 
#;. From xr.17/, 2 A. Mid. 
f >r//iiv. ( 96. 18, N. 12 : 
9.5. X. 1: 102. N. 2: 104. 
N. 1 : 117.) 

XOGI, see /cJiTi^ui. 

XPAfZMJl, In lp, F. 
A. f'xGuiiJii^aa, 2 A. 

(juoK (^ 96. 10.) 
jfou'w, deliver an oracle, 

Stc. Mid. xounuui, use. 

(95. N. 3: 116. N. 2.) 
/;-) (,jfow), 2^ /.> necessary, Im- 
personal, &6/. /oi;, O/>;. 

XQfir,, Inf. ZQ^tut, Part. 

neut. XQWV, Imperf. f'zo^f 

or xf4"i'' F. Z( } r,oti. 

The compound i/^^oj, it 

is enough, has //>/. un 

Imperf. ani/or,. 

Nora. The IND. ^{ regularlj 
would be ^y, i 116. N. 2. 

The OPT. ;/i and the INF. 




%l>rivai come from %%'nu (Ionic, 
XPHMI. u-i 116. N. 8: 117. 

N 17 

The PART, ^i*', stands for 

x^sv. : 116. N. 9.) 

The Imperfect t^j?v is contracted 
from ixfaw ( 116. N. 3'. For 
#{, set- above (!) 78. N. 3: 
93. N. 4 : 23. N. 3 . 
iKni-i'pi (Xl'OJi}, color, F. 
^^oj'wo), A. 1'%'jMiiu, Perf. xs- 
/OOXK, Perf. Pass, xt'^ ^oniftiei, 
A. Pass, f^wtfdijp. (M 96- 
9: 107. N. 1 : 109. N. 1.) 
vvvfit (x<j(), heap vj>, dam, 
F. /waoi, A. I'zMoa, Perf. xt- 
;wxn, Perf. Pass xr- 
A. Pass. fyuuOrir. (ibid.) 

{>ass - 

, &c. 2 A. 

(as if from 

& (JIOJL), ^ptisk, Imperf. 
f'ol&for, F. Mihjow or aVaw, 
A. twy, Perf. twx, Perf. 
Pass, f'oxr^iui, A. Pass, f'of- 
u.')r,v,l?. Mid. wuofiui. (96. 
10 : 80. N. 2.) 

ftoaiu, buy, Imperf. fW*J/<;'' 
Perf. Pass. e(an* i /.ti, F. Mid. 
b>rr l an/.t(tt, A. Mid. (not Attic) 
H'U'j(;' ( w7;v or u>'t t isu^i.r t v. (80. 
N. 2.) 

NOTF,. In the catalogue of Anomalous Verbs, tenses of 
easy formation (as F. Pass.) are not generally given.' 


11O. 1. Many adverbs answering to the question Jiw?, 
HOW? IN WHAT MANNER? are formed from adjectives, pro- 
nouns, and participles, by changing oj of the nominative or 
genitive into MS. E. g. 

acHfoIc, wisely , from aoqro'c, wise ; 

%nQiivimi;, gracefully, from ^(J/HC, froc, graceful; 

>l,7ji'>W, contracted aA^cac, truly, from 

OI!TWC, //JMS, from (,VTOC, <A5 ; 

, indeed, from ciV, oVro?, being. 

2. Some adverbs of this class end in 8r t r or a'd^v. Such 
adverbs are derived from verbs. E. g. "/Qdfidqv, scratchingly, 
from youyw, scratch ; loyudyv, selected/?/, from At'/w, select, 
collect. (\ 7 : 96. 19.) 

3. Some end in 86v or r t dov. Such adverbs are derived from 
nouns. E. g. aydrjSov, in herds, from txysir], herd ; TiToanodr]- 
dov, like a quadruped, from TCTOUTIOVS, odog, four-footed. 

4. Some end in ( ' or H, iL or rti. E. g. i&tlovil, voluntarily, 
from idiltov, OVTOC, willing ; fiHQfaytarl, like a barbarian, from 
/?4)/?4)t' s 'w, act like a barbarian. 

120, 121.] . ADVERB. 169 

5. Some end in . E. g. tvaUd$, by turns, crosswise, from 
ivaihioGio, place across. 

6. A few adverbs of this class end in Ii3r t v. E. g. nlovtiv- 
Sijv, according to (his) wealth, from nioinoc, riches. 

12O. Adverbs answering to the question noadxic, 
HOW OFTEN ? end in amg. Such adverbs are derived from 
adjectives. E. g. ai^ax/?, often, from <jr%} o,-, frequent. 

For the numeral adverbs, see above ( 62. 4). 

121. 1. answering to the question no&i or 
', WHERE? IN WHAT PLACE? end in # t or oi(v}. E. g. 

avro&i, in that very spot, from UVTO$. 

The termination ai(v) is chiefly appended to names of towns. 
It is preceded by y but when the nominative singular of the 
noun ends (or would end) in pure or QU, it is preceded by a. 
E. g. Ijtfij'j.jjai, at Athens, from "Adf t vai t Athens; Otamaot, at 
Thespia, from esomat, Thespice. 

^(1) Some adverbs of this class end in ov or a^ov. E.g. 
avrov, there, from ainog ' Tiavir/^ov, everywhere, from n'eg, nav- 

(2) Some end in I. E. g. Yafyol, o^ Me Isthmus, from 
'lo&fifs, Isthmus. 

(3) The following adverbs also answer to the question 
WHF.KE? uyxi or v/or, if X r<j, i p w, ///t'c, '?, *x, /XTO'?, w-^oy, 
tV^ or iv d life or irinv&a (Ionic tv&nvia), 'io',, 1'lw, ?aw, Txrap, 
Mrra, 7T/.c, 7iso and ntouv, Tiiija/or, TICOOW, Tiooata, Ttjis or 

'ljf, and some others. 

NOT* 1. The adverb ?*, af Aoie, from 7s, Aoiwe, takes the acute on the 
penult ( 20. N. 1.) 

2. Adverbs answering to the question nodtr, WHEXCE? 
FROM WHAT PLACE ? end in &n: E. g. 

3 A(tr t ^9 fr, from Athens, from l45>t, Athens; 
ov(ja>6&iv,from heaven, from or^uio'c, h< aven. 

Here belongs IV^fv or eV^iV3 or Ivtiv&iv (Ionic f'v&fvitv), 
hrnre, thence, whence. 

3. Adverbs answering to the question jio'ar, WHITHER? TO 
WHAT PLACE ? end in ai, 8t, or ^. E. g 

f'xfiuf, thither, from ^x, there; 
otxo'i'Jf, ^o iAe Aowsf , home, from olxoc, Ao 
6),'?f<;'f, ^o Thebei, from 6>r ?at, Thebes. 



122, 123. 

NOTE 2. In strictness, the ending Si is appended to the accusative singular or 
plural of the noun. 

NOTE 3. The adverbs olxaSt, home, and 
<t>T2?, whence accus. 7*, tftuyx. 

to Jliglit, imply nom. OIH, 

4. Adverbs answering to the question nfj, IN WHAT DIREC- 
TION ? end in TJ or ?J. E. g. 

ovda[iji, in no way, from ot'Jauoc, none ; 
ex>U/?ji, in another din ct ion, irom a). 

NOTE 4. The ending n becomes i only when the nominative of the adjective, 
from which such adverbs are derived, is not obsolete. 

122. The following adverbs answer to the question 
nore, WHEN? IN WHAT TIME? asl, nvfjiov, txtiaioTf, inina, 
tX&*'? Of %&iq, vttaail, ruxiwo, vvv, oy/i, nuiou, nuviore, negvat, 
Tioti', ngoxO'dg, Tr^un/*', nyou, cn'jfityov, rrjttg, vaitgor, and some 

1 23. The following table exhibits the adverbs derived 
from I1O2, 'OH02, TO2, and '6g. ($ 73. 1 : 63. N. 2 : 71.) 

Interrogative. Indefinite. Demonstrative. Relative. 

TTOU or no&i, 
where 1 

TIOU or no&l, 

TO&I, here, 
in this 

ov or ofti or 

OTIQV Or 0710- 


&i, where 

no&tv, whence i 

' no&iv,from 
some place 

Tod'fi 1 , thence 

o&sv or OTTO'- 
&v, whence 

Trot or noof, 
whither 1 

nol, some- 


oi or O'TTOJ, 

TTT?, in what 
direction 1 

nrj, in some 

jtj or rjjds or 
jenny, in this 

y or OTTT;, 
in which 

norf, when 1 

TIOTS, at some 
time, once 

roif, then 

OT Or 07TOT8 


noig, how 1 

TIM'?> some- 

TW'C or (!)dt or 
ovuag, thus, so 

tag or onutg, 

nrjvlxn, at 
what time ? 



at this or that 

r^vlv.a Or 


which time 


** ... IL ** 9 
nrj^og, when : 


Ty/nog or ii\- 
fioadt or TTJ- 
[AOVTog, then 

7 >, c " 
ijfiog or oTijj- 

pog, when 



Tftog, so long 

tag, until 



To'qpocc, so long 

oqrp> as l n * 

124, 125.] ADVERB. 171 

NOTE I. The forms T&I, rS/, r&i, t$i, T3, T, rut, *f*ti, *(*{, *(Mt, 
rift*, <f(, are poetic. 

Instead of *;, the poets sometimes use s, with the acute accent 

Nor* 2. The letter ' is annexed to the demonstratives murri, Sit, turns, for 
the sake of emphasis. Thus, ravrrii, 3i, tlntiri. ( 7O. N. 2.) 

NOTE 3. Also the adverbs liuft, Ud-aSi or iinu$i>, and , take /. Thus, 

Sine/, ivSatS/ or inrauS/, lTw3i, rtnr/. 

NOTE 4. Some of the relative adverbs are strengthened by ri( or ivr, or 
by both united. E. g. j, utftf, vrngovt, as ; TV, irevtvr wherever. 

124. 1. Some genitives, datives, and accusatives are 
used adverbially. E. g. drjuoaln, publicly, from Sr^ooio,-, pub- 
lic ; -cuog, finally, lastly, from lo?, end. 

2. Especially the accusative singular or plural of the neuter 
of an adjective is often used adverbially. E. g. fiovov, only, 
from ^uovo?, alone ; nokv or Jioiia, much, from TZOAI/V> much. 

NOTE. In some instances, a word with the preposition, which goyerns it, is 
used adverbially. E. g. a-xja^jV* (**; %t*f**) instantly s rftvfyev (rj 
Ifytv, to the purpose i xaOreirif (xttS' aria , as. 


12t>. The comparative of an adverb derived from an 
adjective is the same with the neuter singular of the compara- 
tive, and the superlative is the same with the neuter plural of 
the superlative, of that adjective. E. g." 

aoqpolj, wisely, aoqxaifQov, more wisely, oo<p<aTona, most wisely, 

from aoqpo'c, wise. ( 57.) 

rfiiwg, pleasantly , ydior, more pleasantly, r t Si(na, most pleas* 
antly, from r^i-g, pleasant. ( 58.) 

NOTE 1. Some adverbs of the comparative degree end in >,-. E. g. Ai- 
;, xecktrairifttf, from ^aXiiraj. 
Superlatives in ; are rare. 

NOTE 2. Some comparative and superlative adverbs end in , particularly 
when the positive ends in t>. E. g. >, u/>, iinri^n, 

NOTE 3. The following adverbs are anomalous in their comparison : 

*YX' or ^yX'"' near > "> iy%ttrs. (Compare 58. N. I.) 

!;, afar, ixxr-riea, Jjeaa-raT*. ( 125. N. 2.) 

i?o, within, l^irifti, f>Sretrv. (ibid.) 

fiaXx, very,, more, rather, ftakirra, very much, especially. 

txTi(, nightly, by night ; iu*rmlrt(tt, farther back in the night, that is, ear- 

lier in the morning, </XT</TT, very early in the morning, 
f ifm., farther, beyond, -rii/urica or ftfttirtftt, naa.nirt,. \ ibid. ) 
vpvf-yav, to the jmrpose, *(t*(yt*!Tt(n, more to the purpose, ratu^yio.'nx'tei, 

very much to the purpote. 

172 INFLECTION OP WORDS. [ 126, 127. 


12G. All words, which cannot be proved to be deriva- 
tive, must be considered as primitive. 


137. Substantives derived FROM OTHER SUB- 

ISrjg, ddrjg, iddrjg, /toy, Ig, dg, Irrj, uavr\, patronymics : 
tor, iSiov, UQIOV, vlhov, vdyiov, v<piov, laxog, viiog or vlog, laxrj, 
Ig, diminutives : 

to?, Ttrjg, UTfjg, IJTJJ?, luTtjg, itorrjc, uvog, rjvog, Ivoq, tvg, a, ig, ag, 
tov, tavid, xrjg, rig, aaa, laaa, appellatives. 

1. PATRONYMICS, that is, names of persons derived from 
their parents or ancestors, end in idqg, adyg, iadr t g, gen. ov, and 
iwv gen. tavog, masculine: ig gen. idog, ag gen. adog, and ivi\, 
ttavr], feminine. 

(1) Patronymics from nouns in rjg or ag, of the first declen- 
sion, end in adiig (fem. ag). E. g. 'fnTiorrjg, 'innoTadyg son of 
Hippotes ; Bogeag, Bogtddyg son of Boreas. 

(2) Patronymics from nouns in og and iog, of the second 
declension, end in idyg (fem. t?) and ictSyg (fem. iag) respec- 
tively. E. g. Kgovoq, KQOvldrjg son of Saturn ; 'Aaxlrjmog, 
3 Aax)irjTiiu8ijg son of jEsculapius. 

In this case, the poets often use iwv (fem. irr), iwvri} for idyg 
E. g. Kyovlwv for Kgovldrjg ' "Ad^arog, 'Ad^arlvrj daughter of 

(3) Patronymics from nouns of the third declension are 
formed by dropping og of the genitive of the primitive, and 
annexing idijg (fem. ig) or lad^g. E. g. n&oy, nog, neloTildrjg 
son of Pelops ; fttyrig, TJTOC, 0^x1018^ son of Pheres ; "Arlag, 
VCTTOC, 'Ajlavilg daughter of Atlas. 

The poets sometimes use itav for idijg. E. g. ITijlevg, log, 
v son of Pcleus. 

NOTE 1 . The epic poets often form patronymics from nouns in tv( , by drop- 
ping os of the Ionic genitive ( 44. N. 2), and annexing i$vs, /;. E. g. TIi- 
Ktvt, es, nxXa$ son of Pdeus : ~B^nin, M, Bo/<r^ daughter of Briseus. 

Feminine patronymics in ~f are sometimes contracted in the oblique cases. 
E. g. NMJH/'(, f, Ni{i?f daughter of Nereus, Nereid, gen. plur. Nj?J. 

2. A DIMINUTIVE signifies a small thing of the kind denoted 
by the primitive. 


Diminutives end in /or, idtov, agio?, viitov, vSgiov, vtptov, 
neuter : iaxo:, viio? or vJoc, masculine : toxrj, /? gfcn. idog, fem- 
inine. E. g. av&Q&noi, man, avSotaniov, a little fellow ; 
vog, crown, oTfqpawrxoc, a little crown ; fitiqaS, xoc, girl, 
xiaxT], a little girl. 

NOT*. 2. The first syllable of <?/ is contracted with the preceding vowel. 
E. g. ;, ; , or, friditt, a little or ; Xi'J/f , i*>;, wore/, Xd-i(3, a /i/.'/<? u-orrf. 
In this case, the ending tiJiax often becomes ilin. 

NOTE 3. Many diminutives in tn have lost their diminutive signification. 
E. g. sri3>, rttiit, plain, 

3. National APPELLATIVES end in to;, nr^, air t q, T/TIJ?, iair t ;, 
twr;c, aro.-, TJIO?, /roc, gen. ov, and ti'c gen. toe, masculine: a, 
/c gen. idoc, and ? gen. o<Joc, feminine. E. g. KoQivdo:, Cor- 
inth, Koolv&ioe, a Corinthian ; Siuytiqa, Stagira, Siaynqlir,;, 
a Stagirite ; Ttyia, Tegea, Tiytdtr,:, a Tegean. 

NOTE 4. When the nominative singular of the noun denoting the place ends 
(or would end) in * or n, the ending us is generally contracted with the preced- 
ing vowel. E. g. 'Ai|ME/, 'A^r.taTs;. 

4. Nouns denoting a place, where there are many things of 
the same kind, end in o>v or w>-/. E. g. tfaqpvij, laurel, dacpruv, 
laurel-grove; oodov, rose, qodurtd, ruse-garden. 

5. Many masculine appellatives end in TTJ? gen. oi 1 . E. g. 
Tto'Lc, city, 7ioUir t <:, citizen ; VTI-TOC, hurse, ixTioir,?, horseman. 
Those in trr^ have the t in the penult long. 

Feminine appellatives of this class end in n?. E. g. jioim$, 
female citizen. 

6. Some masculine appellatives end in tv$. E. g. ITITIO?, 
horse, Imttvg, horseman. 

7. Some feminine appellatives end in aaa or taaa. E. g. 
pn|, a Thracian, Ogaaaa, a TJtracian woman ; (iaaiiti'j, king, 


Substantives derived FROM ADJECTIVES end 
in la, TJJS gen. TJTOC, avvrj, 03 gen. toe, a gen. c, and ij. Such 
substantives denote the ABSTRACT of their primitives. E. g. 

xuxla, vice from xoxo'c, wicked 

oliinje, sharpness " o^vc, sharp 

dixaioavvTi, justice " dlxaiog, just 

j3d&o$, depth " (ia&vq, deep. 

NOTE 1 . If the ending m be preceded by i or , a contraction takes place. 
E. g. Xn$, truth, from X9iff, its, true; /, folly, from it 


174 INFLECTION OF WORDS. [ <, 129. 

The ending i/ often becomes la. E. g. aftaSia. for a./udSua, ignorance, 

NOTE 2. Those in TJJJ are always feminine. They are generally paroxy. 
tone. ( 19. 2.) 

NOTE 3. If the penult of the primitive be short, the ending ttriiin becomes 
wtri/yj). E. g. iigurvvn, priesthood, from itgos, sacred. 

NOTE 4. Those in at are always derived from adjectives in vs (51), by 
changing us into e;. 

NOTE 5. Abstract nouns in a. or r>, from adjectives in ei, are always paroxy- 
tone ( 19. 2). E. g. %%9-git, enmity, from i^fyes, enemy, 

129. Substantives derived FROM VERBS end in 

, TJ, os, T?j, Tijg, rug, fvg, yg, ug, at?, ala, uog, fia, ur). 

1. Verbal nouns in a, ij, and o? gen. ov or tog, denote the 
ABSTRACT of the primitive. E. g. 

joy from XUIQW, rejoice, ( 96. 18) 

i battle " pdxon<xi, fight 

g, confutation " tUj/^to, confute 
nquyog, thing " ngdaaio, do, ( 96. 3.) 

NOTE 1. When the radical vowel is either s, a, or o, (^ 96. 
19,) verbal nouns of this class ( 129. 1) have o in the penult. 
E. g. }.6yog, word, from Hyw, say. 

NOTE 2. Feminines in j/ come from verbs in iuu. E. g. /Sar/Xi/at, sove- 
reignty, from p>a,<ri*.tviu t reign. 

2. Verbal nouns denoting the SUBJECT of the verb ( 156) 
end in TTJ^ (fern. TSIQU, TQHX, TQIC gen. ISoc), TTJC, TMQ, tvg, ij? 
(fem. ig gen. Ido?}, c, and o? gen. ov. The penult of those in 
rrjQ, rijg, TWQ, is generally like that of the perfect passive 
(107). E.g. 

IIQ, one who draws from'PTfL, draw 
qg, maker " nottw, make 

, speaker " *PESl, speak 

v?, writer " ^jpw, write. _ Jj f ' 

NOTE 3. Those in TJ?, ag, gen. ov, annex these endings to 
the last consonant of the verb. They are chiefly found in 
composition. E. g. T/SW/IS'T^S, geometer, from yia, earth, and 
fiBTQsoj, measure,; (pvyado&riQotg, hunter of fugitives, from 
fugitive, and #7, hunt. 

NOTE 4. Those in og are generally found in composition 
E. g, jUT/T^oqpo'j 'og, a matricide, from /iji/;(> and QMNfL. 


3. Nouns denoting the ACTIOX of the verb end in ate, a/a, 
poc. Their penult is generally like that of the perfect passive 
($107). E. g.^ 

uQaai:, vision from oydm, see 

flxaaia, conjecture " ilxu^ia, I conjecture 

5it/u6c, pursuit " diMxta, pursue, ( 9. 1.) 

4. Nouns denoting the EFFECT of the verb end in uu. Their 
penult is generally like that of the perfect passive ( 107). 
E. g. 

xouuu, that which is cut off, piece, from xoTrrea, cut, ($$ 96. 
2: 8. 1.) 

5. Verbal nouns in ^77 sometimes denote the action and 
sometimes the tfftct of the verb. E. g. rrKmJwij, knoioledge, 
from intaTaunt, understand; ^oa/i/zij, line dratcn, from yodifta, 
write, ( 8. 1.) 

/:*<*<} :>jh-jq 


13O. Adjectives derived FROM OTHER ADJEC- 

TIVES end in 10?, aiog, xo;, axe?. E. g. iltvdtgoc, free, e).fv- 
&it)io:, liberal; Ixoir, OITOC, willing, Ixoi'uro?, voluntary, ( 12. 
5 ;) ;/ i/.r.-, 'female, & ^/.i-xo.-, feminine. 

131. Adjectives derived FROM SUBSTANTIVES 
end in 

fi f '~, oc:;, fc/'j; ' ixv* ' fo.-, titoj, *voj ' ^5>o;,;, Jj/.O;, cu/.o's ' iuo; ' ;?($. <f'i o*' " w^ijc. 

1 . The endings jo.-, oc, t<o?, oo?, wo?, <xoc, denote be- 
longing to or relating to. E. g. aiftr,o, tipoc, e//ur, aldigios, 
ethereal; @^5i, Thtbfs, 0r (i >To.?, Theban ; 7ioir,rr^, poet, 
notijTixoc, poetic. 

2. The endings for, ?;ro?, <o,-, generally denote the material 
of which any thing is made. E. g. jprac'?, ^oW, /fi'aeo?, 
golden; dot;, oak, d^i-lro?, oaken. 

3. The endings t^oc, T;OOC, /.?oc, }lo?, wioc, denote quality. 
E.g. Tovq:;, luiitry, ioi-(ffo6:, lururious ; -ddoooi;, courage, 
&a<), courageous. 

4. The ending i^/oc generally denotes Jitness. E. g. tfuSr), 
food, idwoiuof, eatable. 

5. The endings 7,f(c, m^, o?ic, generally denote fulness. E. g. 
iijui;, value, Tifir t tnj, vafoablt. ; /('(.,-, grace, ^a^uu, graceful. 

176 INFLECTION OF WORDS. [ 132-134. 

6. The ending udyg denotes resemblance. E. g. nvq, Jire, 
nvQ(odt)$, like fire. 

132. Adjectives derived FROM VERBS end in TO'?, 

tiog, log, rog, t)g, og, fjitav. 

1. Verbal adjectives in TO? are equivalent to the perfect 
passive participle. E. g. noiiu, make, noirjiog, made. 

Frequently they imply capableness. E. g. dtdopai, see, 9ia- 
tcg, visible, capable of being seen. 

NOTE 1. Sometimes verbal adjectives in T; have an active signification. 
E. g. xaXvrru>, cover, xaXwrras, covering. 

2. Verbal adjectives in ifo? imply necessity, obligation, or 
propriety. E. g. noiiia, make, jtou/iioc, to be made, that must 
be made. 

NOTE 2. The penult of adjectives in rn and nei is generally like that of the 
perfect passive ( 107). 

3. A few verbal adjectives end in log, vog. E. g. JEIfL, 
fear, deilog, timid, dtivog, terrible. 

4. Many adjectives are formed from verbs by annexing 77? 
gen. iog, og gen. ov, to the root. Such adjectives are generally 
found in composition. E. g. n^uf>^g, ignorant, from - and 
(tav&dvQi, ( 96. 7: 135. 4;) nolvloyog, talkative, from nolvg 
and liyu, (| 135. 1 : 96. 19.) 

5. Verbal adjectives in ^wv are active in their signification. 
E. g. tniaTi'ifKav, knowing, from inlmu^ui, know. 

133. A few adjectives in ivog are derived FROM AD- 
VERBS. E. g. x&t'g, yesterday, x&tairog, yesterday's, of 


134. Derivative verbs end in dta, soi, o'w, tvu, '^w, Ifa, 
alvia, vvta, atloi, ido). 

1. In verbs derived from nouns of the first and second de- 
clension, the verbal ending takes the place of the ending of the 
nominative ( 31. 1 : 33. 1). E. g. 

honor Ti/iaeu, / honor 

og, partaker XOIVOJVEOJ, partake 

icages fiia&oo), let, hire 

dlxi), justice dixd(a, judge. 


In verbs derived from nouns of the third declension, the 
ending takes the place of the termination oc of the genitive 
( 35. 1). But when the nominative singular ends in a vowel, 
or in g preceded by a vowel ( 36. 1), the verbal ending 
generally takes the place of the ending of the nominative. E. g. 
ot'ctj, xof, ruddtr olaxi^w, steer 

ia, wonder -davud^ta, admire 

NOTB 1 . Verbs in mitt, in*, generally come from adjectives in ts, *t gen. 
f, respectively. E. g. ft&aes, foolish, pive*irv, act in a foolish manner} 

aS-J;, deep, pxSvnu, deepen. 

NOTE 2. Verbs in afim express a desire, and are formed by 
annexing this ending to the root of the primitive verb. E. g. 
d(juu>, do, dgaafio), desire to do. 

Also some verbs in iau or w express a desire. Such verbs 
are derived from substantives. E. g. oi^r;/oc, general, orga- 
do), disire to become a general. 

2. Some verbs are formed from nouns by changing the end- 
ing of the nominative into 01, and modifying the penult accord- 
ing to 96. E. g. jfJlf woV, injurious, ^utnTO), injure, ( 96. 
2;) palaxog, soft, ^oJlotaao), soften, ($ 96. 3;) a/'/sio:, mes- 
senger, uy/ii.'tM, announce, ( 96. 6 :) x9apo'c, clean, 
I clean, ( 96. 18.) 


133. 1. When the first component part of a word is a 
noun of ihejirst or second declension, its ending is dropped, 
and an o is substituted. E. g. 

ioZy singer from /jovaa, 
r^, holy " if^o'c, 

But when it is a noun of the third declension, the termina- 
tion os of the genitive is dropped, and an o is substituted. E. g. 
TolSr^, instructor,, from nulls, naiSog, TJ/.JW. 

NOTE 1. The o is generally omitted when the root of 'the 
first component part ends in av, i, of, v. ( 36. 1, R. 1.) E, g. 

g, city-destroying, from TIOJ.I;, 

NOTE 2. The o is often omitted when the last component 
part begins with a vowel. E. g. ytwnjto?, newly bought, from 


NOTE 3. The is sometimes omitted when the root of the first component 
part ends in . (jbid.) E. g. /j.tKa.yxa.q*<>s, producing black fruit, from f^iXas, 
-atof, xcc^ro;. (12. 2.) 

NOTE 4. When the first component part is y'ta, earth, the a is changed into 
ca. "Ei. g. yiu-y^afai, geographer, from yia, y^ityu, 

2. When the first component part is a verb, the connecting 
letter is or i. Sometimes i becomes a:. E. g. 

, brave from ^icrta, HH%I\ 

c, thunder-ruling' " uyxm, xifjavvog 
, receiving presents " di^uui, dtayov, ( 9. 2 ) 

NOTE 5. Sometimes n drops i before a vowel. E. g. fi^xcirn (for fifm- 
rvrif, that is, //a-- gi-aa vif, coward, from fivru, itrx'ts. ( 96. 2 : 8. 2.) 

3. The primitive PREPOSITIONS are the only ones with which 
other words are compounded. ( 226. 1.) 

These prepositions generally lose the Jinal vowel, when the 
word, with which they are compounded, begins with a vowel ; 
except ntQl and UQO. E. g. 

uv-uyta, lead up from avd, Syta 

in-airsia, praise " inl, alvioi 

jttQt-sxto, contain " ntgi, tyta 

iiQo-ixta, excel " TtQQy tya- 

NOTE 6. In TTQO, the o is often contracted with the following 
vowel. E. g. nQoi'xw lor 

NOTE 7. 'ApQt often retains the / before a vowel. E. g. afttfiinvftt from 
&fi<pi, tvtvfii. 

NOTE 8. The Epic language often drops the final vowel of a 
preposition even before a consonant. E. g. an-ntfinui for ano- 

4. The negative prefix - (called alpha privative) corre- 
sponds to the English prefix un-, or to the suffix -less. Before 
a vowel it generally becomes av-. E. g. 

S-aocpos, unwise from -, oo<po$ 

a-XQTjarog, useless " -, 

av-dj-ios, unworthy " -, 



^ 136. 1. A substantive annexed to another 
substantive or to a pronoun, for the sake of explana- 
tion or emphasis, is put in the same case. E. g. 

StQzr,? Suatifvc, King Xtrxes. Here (iuodtvs is an- 

nexed to Ziijzr,;. 
*Efti tof Trjoia, Me Tereus. 

A substantive thus annexed to another substantive is said to 
be in APPOSITION with it. 

No 1 . Sometimes the substantive u rejteated for the sake of emphasis. 
E. g. A*S| Svyeinit *AAr y'timtf ' "Ainu, S; \i\iyirn ^Xrr- 

\\ftnrn i>a.rr u, LaothJS the daughter of old AUes ; of AUes who rules over ike 
warlike Leltfges. 

NOTE 2. The repeated noun ( 136. N. 1) is, in some instances, put in the 

nominative. E. g. *A5j|t*;i, vyi<rr.i u.'.yxf.f.-rec>; '\\tritirtc' *H I - 
ri tit, S; tHTt !!/.* vlvirrn, Andromache the daughter of magnanimous 
Eelion ; Eelion t who dweU at the foot of tcoody Plants. 

Nor* 3. Sometimes a substantive supplies the place of an adjective. E. g. 
2cm Wx/f 'Exx*f, SanS, a Grecian city, where the substantive 'Exxf, 
Greece, stands for the adjective 'ExXvxxii, Grecian. 

REMARK. Personal or national appellatives are often accompanied by the 
word *. mnn. E. g. Bzr,;.s:/,- airj, a man u-ho is a ting, simply a king. 
*AS;if 'AS!r, men of Athens, simply Athenians. 

NOTE 4. An abstract noun is often used for the corresponding concrete. 
E. g. Tlxixttt, ^t y-ittrit, Oceania, the parent of the gods, where the 
abstract -yitint, production, stands for the concrete ymrn, producer. 

NOTE 5. The limiting noun, which regularly is put in the genitive ( 173 N , 
sometimes stands in apposition with the limited noun. E. g. Ai (timl 
d, for Aiue fit*t t'irfiia, a contribution often mine*. 

2. A substantive in apposition with tico or more substantives 
is put in the plural. E. g. 

, xa jrua^f, ra/o 
a<ar, Amistrcs, Artnpherncf, and Megabazes, leaders of 
the Persians. 



[ 137. 


137. 1. An adjective agrees with its substan- 
tive in gender, number, and case. E. g. 

'Avrjp aoq>6$, A wise man. *Av8Qos aoyov, Of a wise 

"Ardgtg aoffol, Wise men. 'Avdgcav ao<pwy, Of wise 

This rule applies also to the article, to the possessive, inter- 
rogative, indefinite, and demonstrative pronouns, and to the 

NOTE 1. A feminine substantive in the dual often takes a 
masculine adjective, article, pronoun, or participle. E. g. 
TK> tf,%vn, for Tuvru tu Tf%ra, These two arts. 

NOTE 2. Sometimes the gender of the adjective or participle has reference to 
the gender implied in the substantive. E. g. ~Yv%)i &n^ttitv Tufuriae, 
Xfurttv ffxrif-Tge* t%uv, the toul of the Theban Tiresuis, holding a golden 
sceptre, where the masculine t%ca* is used on account of Ttitiritz/>. 

NOTE 3. In some instances the gender and number of the adjective or par- 
ticiple are determined by the noun governed by its substantive. E. g. II TD- 
</u a.y'tXu.1 uira^iia-avrti,Jlocifs of birds fearing, where the masculine 
&-x-o1tlffa.i<ris refers to Trryvun, although it agrees in case with ay'i^ai. 

2. If an adjective, pronoun, or participle refers to two or 
more substantives, it is put in the plural. If the substantives 
denote animate beings, the adjective, pronoun, or participle, is 
masculine, when one of the substantives is masculine. If 
they denote inanimate beings, the adjective, &c. is generally 
neuter. E. g. 

Bovv vLai 'innov xutl xce^tjlov oidVf omovc, An ox } a 

horse, and a camel, roasted whole. 
jli&oi if xal nllv&oi xt |i;A rr/'xTO>c Jo o ijj/n era, 

Stones, clay, wood, and brick, throion togttlur without 


NOTE 4. The adjective often agrees with one of the substan- 
tives. E.g. "A).OXOL xat v^nia ix>'a nojid i/(itvat, wives 

and infants expecting. 
j r is 

NOTE 5. The adjective or participle is often put in the dual, 
if it refers to two substantives. E. g. 7C/i/ xal \4lxi- 
(5 1 dd rig rjxtrrjv u'/om TOJ' llgoSixov, both Callias and Al- 
cibiades came bringing Prodicus. 

$ 138, 139.] ARTICLE. 

3. A collective substantive in the singular often takes an 
adjective or participle in the plural. E. g. 

Tgoirp kf.ant; '^4gyil(av atoio?, The. army of the Greeks 
having taken Troy. Here the plural participle tlontg 
agrees with the singular substantive oio/.o$. 

NOTE 6. A noun or a personal pronoun in the dual often 
takes a participle in the plural. E. g. iVw xaia t 3dvit ?, we 
both going doicn. 

On the other hand, a noun in the plural sometimes takes 
a participle in the dual, in which case only two things are 
meant E. g. Aiyvxiol xiu^ortt, tiro vultures uttering 
loud shrieks. 

re 7. la Homer, the dual nouns irn and &vn are accompanied by plural 
adjectives. E. g. "Qert fmnriL, two bright eyes. *AXx;,u Itift, two 
stout ^ -ears. 

NOTE 8. The duals 2i* and ip.$u are frequently joined to plural substantive*, 
E. g. Ai/ ^u-^a.s, for A</ <</, two touU. 

138. 1. An adjective is often used sttbstantivcfy, the 

substantive, with which it agrees, being understood. E. g. 
ffriio? sc. r t o, A frit nd. 
Ol &VTJJOI, sc. ar&Qt>moi, Mortals. 

2. The neuter singular of an adjective or participle is often 
equivalent to the abstract ( 128) of that adjective or participle. 
In this case the article precedes the adjective or participle. 
E. g. To xrtio'v, the beautiful, beauty. To piUor, the future. 

Noi E 1. Masculine or feminine adjectives often supply the 
place of adverbs. E. or. Zfiv z&io? i3r n Jupiter went yester- 
day, where the adjective ^^/Joc, hesternus, is equivalent to the 
adverb ^,9f'c, yt^ttrdai/. 

So all adjectives in 7oc answering to the question noaruloc, 
onifhatdny? ($62.3.) E.g. Tgtralo; dylxtro, he caine 
on the third day. 

NOTE 2. It has already been remarked, that the neuter of an adjective is often 
used adverbially. ( 124. 1.) 


1M9. 1. In its leading signification the Greek article 
corresponds to the English article the. E. s- 

C O rrj(>, The man. O I urdgt;, The men. 
'///'i-rfj, The woman. A\ }i'raixtc, The tromen. 
To ditdfior, The tree. Tu divdoa, The trees. 

182 SYNTAX. [ 140. 

2. A Greek noun without the article is equivalent to the 
corresponding English noun with the article a or an. E. g. 
UVTIQ, a man ; /vvrj, a woman ; Sivoyov, a tree. 

3. Proper names very often take the article. But the article 
is generally omitted when the proper name is accompanied by 
a substantive with the article, (<, 136.) E. g. 

'O "OiiVftno?, Olympus. 

JIiTjuxbg o MnvAyvutuf, Pitlacus the Mitylcnian. 

NOTE 1. The article accompanies the leading character of a well-known story 

Or anecdote. E. g. T lgp/y \iyotTi, art [i[jit<Trox.).rij~\ ou S/ at/ret, 
aX\a 3/a TJV TX/ iii$ax.ifi.i>7, to a Seripliian saying, that he [Themistocles] had 
become famous not through himself, but through the city, where the article T is 
used, because the remark of the Seripliian and the reply of Themistocles were 
well known in Athens. 

NOTE 2. The article sometimes accompanies the second accusative after verbs 
signifying to call (166). E. g. 'E-ri-^ti^vffi /SaAXsiy TV Ai&rvev, a. tux. a.- 
*. />u v r t ; rat v (} o T **, they attempted to strike Derippus, exclaiming, 
M The traitor I " not calling him. a traitor. 

14O. 1. The article is very often separated from its 
substantive by an adjective, possessive pronoun, participle, or 
by a genitive depending on the substantive ( 173). E. g. 

<J xaikitnijs 'Ayd&cav, The elegant Agdthon. 

Tov Ifiov ITIJIOV, My horse. 

'0 Qsaaakwv fiaadsvg, The king of the Thessalians. 

The article is also separated by other words connected with 
the substantive, in which case a participle (commonly ytro^ii- 
vos or wV) may be supplied. E. g. TOV xai' UUTQCC Z//i ( /V, 
,of Jupiter, who dwclh among the stars. 

REMARK 1. Two or even three articles may stand together. E. g. To T 
r'o\u rvu.$io/iv, that which is profitable to the city. T rtif rvi <rXXai> 
^v^rn opttocra, the eyes of the souls of the majority of mankind. 

NOTE 1 . In Ionic writers, the article is often separated from its substantive 
by the word upon which the substantive depends ( 173). E. g. Tut TI; 
ff r go. T i a swv, for Ta/v fT^aniariuii n;, one of the soldiers. 

REMARK 2. Sometimes the article is separated from the word, to which it 
belongs, by an incidental proposition. E. g. ' AcraTaiW,- T i u, a-r'an /Sai/Xwvr* 
'ixaffroi, yu\ttix.a. JtytrS-ui, for 'Afafeturas rau yma,7x.a. ayirSai, tvrtTl fiau- 
X/Ta ixaffTti, having slopped them from marrying whenever they wished. 

2. The words connected with the substantive are often 
placed after it, in which case the article is repeated. The 
first article however is often omitted. E. g. 

XAti/sVi;? o fi i x p o c, Little Cligenes. 

Tag wgag T? Jrf'pa?, The other seasons. 

140.] ARTICLE. 183 

This arrangement is more emphatic than that exhibited 
above ( 140. 1). 

NOTE 2. In some instances this order is inverted. E. g. T X X x riyzSei 
for Tiy*&a raXX*, /Atf ofAeT good things. 

3. The participle preceded by the article is equivalent 
ID t'xHio,- o,-, Ae M?A, and the finite verb. E. g. Tov? 
n oJ.f fir, a arT as roT? fiuqfidfOis, those who fought against the 
barbarians, where roi's nuLuilaurTag is equivalent to ixilt-ovs oi 
txolsuyoar. But not.t[U}<jtmas roTj puyfiuyois would mean hav- 
ing fought against the barbarians. 

NOTE 3. Hence, a participle preceded by the article is 
often equivalent to a substantive. E. g. ol cpdoaoqovntg, equiv- 
alent to Ol qdoaotpoi, the philosophers. 

NOTE 4. When the adjective stands before or after the sub- 
stantive and its article, the substantive with the article involves 
the relative pronoun o?. E. g. Ov /Suvmaov xr t v 
cja.uijr, equivalent to '// rifty, f t v txTtioapijr, ov 

lutavaos eaiiv, 

the art which I possess is not low. 

4. When a noun, which has just preceded, would naturally 
be repeated, the article belonging to it is alone expressed. E. g. 
Tov ftlov TW' ididiifvonan', i) rov TWV -ivyctrt'tvoriiav, The 
life of private persons, or that of those icho are rulers* 

NOTE 5. In certain phrases a noun is understood after the 
article. The nouns which are to be understood are chiefly the 
following : 

y fj, land, country, as z.'tV ^ r, v lavftav, To their own country. 
1, opinion, as Kuid ys ir t v tpr,v, In my opinion at least. 

_ e state. 


5. The demonstrative pronoun, and the adjective net? or 
tin as, are placed either before the substantive and its article, 
or after the substantive. E. g. 

OVTO? o OQVI$, or C oyviq ovjocy This bird. 
To fiuQo? TOVTO, or TOVTO TO /?fo?, This burden. 
*Aiiaria$ iov$ UQ i & fi o v :, or To v$ aQt&fiovg anar- 
TC, Jill the numbers. 

The article, however, in this case is often omitted. E. g. 
Oil oe urr t o, this man. IJuvTf$ av&gtanoi, oilmen* 

184 SYNTAX. [$ 141, 142. 

NOTE 6. Has in the singular without the article often means every, each. 
E. g. lias at* we, every man. 

NOTE 7. "OXo; and 'inarTtf often imitate <rf. E. g. Tow rua^avs 
\ov, of the whole skip. Tv aa->.(T txae-Ta, every Iwuvy-armed sol- 
dier. 'Exafms <rns 01 xi as, of every house. 

NOTE 8. TaiouToi is sometimes preceded by the article. E. g. 'E ra7s 
-roiituratf i T if* iXi '. a. i;, in Such pursuits. 

NOTE 9. The article is sometimes placed before the interrogative pronoun 
r/f and the pronominal adjective -xaloi. E.g. T ri; what is it? T a treia 
TUUTO, ; such as what ? 

NOTE 1O. The indefinite pronoun ~&itvu is preceded by the article. E. g. 
'O Ss7, such-a-one. 

I. An adverb preceded by the article is equivalent 
to an adjective. E.g. 1 rort avbowitoi, the men of that 
time, the men who lived iti those days. 

2. An adverb preceded by the article, without any substan- 
tive expressed, has the force of a substantive. E. g. 'll av- 
sc. tca, the morrow. 

NOTE 1. Sometimes the article does not perceptibly affect the adverb before 
which it is placed. E. g. To Wx/ or ra<ra^ai, in olden time, anciently. 
T or TU, now, at t/te present time. To avrix*, immediately. 

3. The neuter singular of the article often stands before an 
entire proposition. E. g. To o/*o/oj? ap(p6iv OCXQOUO&OII, to hear 
both impartially. 

4. The neuter singular of the article is often placed before 
single words which are explained or quoted. E. g. To vptls 
oTctv fl'nw, rrjv nohv yU'/, when I say you, / mean the state. 
TM lira i xyya&ai, xul TO! xwqls, to use the words tlrat, 
and jftaoli;. 

NOTE 2. Sometimes the article is of the gender of the substantive which refers 
to the quotation. E.g. KaXrjv tfw -ra^aiitfii uvai T j) v mMtlttMfHt 
igS/, he snid, " To sacrifice to the gutis according to thy power," is very 
good advice, where the gender of the article before the expression *aS$i/'v^/ 
tebtiv is determined by the substantive rajamavv. 

NOTE 3. In grammatical language, every word regarded as an independent 
object takes the gender of the name of the part of speech, to which it belongs. 
E. g. 'H iyu sc. avra/vi^u/a, the pronoun lyu, I. 'H u*e sc. (TjoSia-;;, the 
preposition v<re, under. 'O ya.^ sc. tvnitfftts, the conjunction jnt,for. 

1. In the Epic, Ionic, and Doric dialects, the 
article is very often equivalent to the demonstrative pronoun, 
or to (twos in the oblique cases. E. g. 

143.] PROXOCN. 185 

Tov orfit>ar, equivalent to Tovroi' TOV oi-fioor, This dream. 
7';]? Si (//K>OJ r t ).&' 'EroislxSwi', And the Shaker of the earth 

came ntar her. Here r;;? is equivalent to win",'. 
The Attic dialect also often uses the article in this sense, 

particularly in the formula o piv o Si, the one the other, 

one another. E. g. 

"Oiav o (tiy itivy fitaioK, 6 d' f'naraaTQSCffii' Svvrjiat, When 
the one pulls violently one way, and the other is able to 
pull back. 

Tolg per JiQoafj(.onaf TOV vovv, r<av 8t oi'ds ir t v qc(ur>;x 
MI F/o/isYoiv, Paying attention to some persons, but not 
tolerating even the voice of others. 

NOTE 1. The article is equivalent to the demonstrative pronoun, when it 
stands immediately before (he relative t;, ares, or titf. E. g. OuJta$ TJ trm 
aiT%u>ni ifri Q'ifirrx, none of those things which bring shame. Mirur rtin 
elt; rig tunt, lo hute those who are like this man. 

NOTE 2. The proper name to which t pit refers is sometimes joined with it. 
E. g. 'O ft it *UTO.T' ' A.<riiftim e^ii 2tvai, 'Atr i'X^;f, lite ont, namely, An- 
tilochus, pierced Atymnius with the sharjt spear, 

NOTE 3. 'O ftit and e )i are not always opposed to each other, but, instead 
of one of them, another word is sometimes put. E. g. Ttuayif fiit ili, J) 
ilxildpit, the one a husbandman, the other a builder of houses. 

NOTE 4. The second part ( 3i> of the formula p.\t It generally 

refers to a person or thing different from that to which the first part ( /*) 

2. In the Epic, Ionic, and Doric dialects, the article is 
often equivalent to the refatirr pronoun. E. g. "O^viq loo?, TW 
ovi-npit (foivi*, a sacred bird, the name of ichich is Phenix, 
where TW stands for w. 

NOTE 5. The tragedians (.lEschylus, Sophocles, Euripides) sometimes use 
the article in this sense. 



<> 143. The personal pronoun of the third person may refer 
either to a person or thing different from the subject of the 
proposition, or to the subject of the proposition, in which it 
stands. E.g. (II. 4, 5335) 0pi}?xt?, o'i e OHJUV ano ayxlcav, 
the Thracians icho drove him away from their position, where 
t refers to the person driven away, and a<ftlwv to Ogtl'ixt^, the 
antecedent of oV. 


186 SYNTAX. [ 144. 

It often refers to the subject of the preceding proposition, 
if the proposition, in which it stands, is closely connected with 
the preceding. E. g. ^Qdjp&saiv ^r\ il ol ytvyTui xxov, 
fearing lest any evil should befall him, where ol refers to the 
substantive with which a^wdewi- agrees. 

NOTE 1 . In Homer and Herodotus the pronoun of the third person generally 
refers to a person or thing different from the subject of the preposition, in which 
it stands. In the Attic writers, it is generally reflexive, that is, it refers to the 
subject of the proposition, in which it stands, or of the preceding, if the second 
be closely connected with it. 

NOTE 2. In some instances the personal pronoun of the third person stands 
for that of the second. E. g. (.11. 10, 398 : Herod. 3, 71.) 

NOTE 3. The personal pronoun is sometimes re/tented in the same proposition 
for the sake of perspicuity. E. g. 'Epei fi.iv, il */ /*)> *&' 'E>.X'v&/ 
X&erct', XX' iui |iwra ftoi SaxtTi Xtytiv, to us, although we 
have not been brought up in the land of the Greeks, nevertheless thou seemcst to 
speak intelligible things. 

NOTE 4. The forms tfiov, Ipol, tfis, are more emphatic than 
the corresponding enclitics ^ov, /to/, /ue. E. g. do? e'fioi, give 
to ME, but /tog |u 01, give me. 

After a preposition only tftov, tftol, t'/jE are used. Except pa 
in the formula nyos fit, to me. 

111. 1. AUTOS, in the genitive, dative, and accusative, 
without a substantive joined with it, signifies him, her, it, them. 

C vofios avTov ovx m, The law does not permit him. 

"j^/fi neol avTov ilvn yrmpriv ; What does she think of him 1 

NOTE 1. Avris in the abovementioned cases is sometimes used in this sense, 
when the noun, to which it refers, goes before in the same proposition. This 
happens when the noun is separated from the verb, upon which it depends, by 
intermediate clauses. E. g. 'Eya< pi* ovv fia<ri*.ia, u ft>}.\a. OUTU; l?<ri TO, 
rvftf*a%et, ilvria Tai>^u/x.t7rcci YI/J.XS aTi*.i<rai, avx oiba. o TI oil mtfSf if/.oirai, 
now, for my part, I do not see why the king, whose resources are so great, should 
swear to us, if he realty meant to destroy us. 

REMARK 1 . Auras in the oblique cases is sometimes joined to the relative 
pronoun for the sake of perspicuity. E. g. r n i ^iv aiirat, one of whom. 
Examples of this kind often occur in the Septuagint and New Testament. 

2. AVTOI;, joined to a substantive, signifies self, very. In 
this case, it is placed either before the substantive and its 
article, or after the substantive. The article, however, is often 
omitted. E. g. 

1 Tn* avTov jovQctvov tbv xvTTctgov, Under the very vault 
of heaven. 

145.") PRONOUN. 187 

NOTE 2. The personal pronouns iy<a, av, tang, vpt?s> 
which avTo? is put in apposition, are very often omitted ; in 
which case aviog has the appearance of these pronouns. E. g. 
AvtoL (vditliG ia^tv riav x^ J r^t'^ar, ?rc are in want oj our 
daily bread. Avroi (fulvftj&t iialiiov roinoig moitvonfg, 
you seem to place more confidence in these men. 

NOTE 3. Avraf often signifies potts, alone. E. g. Aurei yaf iffftti, xoS-rti 
%iti rdgiifftv,Jor we are by ourselves, and strangers have not yet come, 

REMARK 2. AUTOS is used when a person or thing is to be opposed to any 
thing connected with it. E. g. HoXXaf 3' if&ipwi $o%as "Ai'S/ vfi'ia-^tt 
ilfvar, KVTOVS S iXugia nv^i xuvurni, and sent prematurely many brave 
souls nf heroes to Hades, and made their bodit's the prey of dogs, where tturtus, 
them, that is, the heroes, or rather, their bodies, is opposed to 4-u^a;. 

REMARK 3. Auras denotes the principal person as distinguished from servants 
or disciples. E. g. (Aristoph. Nub. 218- 19) Tit eurts o Mf ; MA0. 
hurts. 2TP. Tit auras ; MA0. 'S.uxfttTtt, Who is that man? 
Disc. It is UK. STR. What as f DJSC. Socrates, 

NOTE 4. Alrtf is often appended to the suiject of a proposition containing 
the reflexive pronoun laurau, for the sake of emphasis. E. g. Tlet^anrrtit ivr 
x-agaffxivagtreii i-r' auras auru, lie is preparing a combatant against himself. 

In such cases auris is placed as near \a.urtv as possible ( 232;. 

NOTE 5. Avrof is often used with ordinal numbers, to show 
that one person with others, whose number is less by one than 
the number implied in the* ordinal, is spoken of. E. g.'HtQtdri 
Tji; f,- ./taxtSulftora ctvToxQaiwQ, dtxarog avioq, he, 
nine others, was appointed plenipotentiary to Laccdamon, 
where dixarog BVTO; is equivalent to' u).).a'v ivvia, with nine 

NOTE 6. In some instances, auras is equivalent to the demonstratwe pronoun. 
E. g. * AiriTruff' alrrii, I desjrise that (woman). 

3. AVTOS, with the article before it, signifies the same. E. g. 
llf()l TOIV avTtav trji; avrijg rjfifQae ov tavia yiyvmaxo- 

fitv, We do not have the same opinion concerning the 

same things on the same day. 


1.45. The reflexive pronoun refers to the subject of the 
proposition in which it stands, or to the subject of the preced- 
ing, if the second be closely connected with it. E. g. 
2a.vtT]v tTuStlxvv, Shoto thyself. 

Ztjiflrt avfifiovlovg rot'c ttftemj* ffnoroi-nreg ruoir av- 
i (a v, You wish to have those for your advisers, who reason 
better than you. 

188 SYNTAX. [146-148. 

NOTE 1. Sometimes the reflexive pronoun of the third person stands for that of 
the first or second. E. g. Ai? hftas avigirSxi lavreus^we must ask ourselves, 
where 'mvrau; stands for rifta; a#Ttvi. Megan TOO avrtjf oir&a., thou knowest . 
thy tot, where ai/Ttjs stands for troLu-rfit. 

NOTE 2. Sometimes this pronoun in the third person dual and jtlural stands 
for the reciprocal pronoun. E. g. Ka$' a.!iro7t, for Kar' IXXjjXoiv, against 
each otlier. QBouvvrtf tavratf, for ^^anvtrif aXXjXf, envying one 


1'SG. It has already been remarked, that the possessive 
pronouns are, in signification, equivalent to the genitive of the 
personal pronouns (67). E. g. 

Oly.og o (jo's, equivalent to C O olxog aov, Thy house. ( 173.) 
Jlulg ao'c, equivalent to Hat? uov, A son of thine, (ibid.) 

NOTE 1. The possessive pronoun is sometimes used objectively. E. g. 2ej 
iroS-as, my regret for tkee, not thy regret for others. ( 173. N. 2.) 

NOTE 2. In some instances the possessive pronoun of the third person is put 
for that of theirs/ or second. E. g. <3> 4 -i<r<v ^ <r/, for <&*} ip<x7s, in my tout. 

NOTE 3. Sometimes is;, his, stands for eripirtgtf, their, and e<pi<rt0f for lit. 


14:7. The interrogative pronoun tig is used either in 
direct or in indirect questions. E. g. 2"v ilg il; who art 
thou ? Ol8t 1 1 flovifiui, he knows what (it~) wants. 

This head includes also the interrogative pronominal adjec- 
tlvr.s (73). E. g. KUTU no lug nting doi^&sg , through what 
gates did you come in ? 

NOTE 1. It is to be observed that rig does not always stand 
at the beginning of the interrogative clause. 

NOTE 2. Tig is sometimes equivalent to nolog. E. g. Tiva 
aviov (jii}aofitv fh'ai ,- what kind of person shall we call him ? 


1 48. 1. The indefinite pronoun rig annexed to a substan- 
tive means a certain, some, or simply, a } an. E. g. "O^n&eg 
itvtg, some birds, 'jfiofiuv xiva, a well-rope. 

2. Without a substantive it means some one, somebody, a 
certain one. E. g. \4vrto frdrrjv rig xAftfT<w, let some one 
call Antisthenes. 

149."] PROXOT-X. 189 

NOTE 1. TJf is sometimes equivalent to Itxrrts. E. g. Eu T/J Joju 
rSu, let every one sliar]>en his sjiear wt'lL 

NOTE 2. Sometimes T); refers to the person who speaks, and sometimes to 
the person addressed. E. g- II7 nt fry* ; wlu^re can une (that is, /; go? 
*H.xu r* *>, misfortune is coming to some body t that is, to thee;. 

NOTE 3. T5; is often joined to adjectives of quality or quantity. E, g. Tin* 
utmtroirn n;, a most blooming woman. <t>/XairA.j? TJ? IS-' i ittiftnt, the 
god is friendly to the city. Hires f'S", haw great? 'Hf*ia*t ^S/<x>r 
nrees, some seventy days, or, about seventy days, 

NOTE 4. TJ; sometimes means somebody, in the sense of a distinguished 
person, a man of consequence, and ri means something great. E. g. <&/v""' 
r<* JijKif, / jeew to be some body, that is, a man of consequence. *E3|i 
n i'<rt~i, he seemed to say Something great. 

NOTE 5. Sometimes the poets double rif. E. g. *E*r/ rif tw -retsu 
2a-fTif r'i).i{ rif, there is a certain city not far from Sparta, 


14 9. 1- OVTO? and oSt regularly denote that which 
is pirsent or near in place or time, or something just men- 
tioned. E. g. Oi-ro? o KMJ'O, this man. "l/dt tj yvvr lt this 
woman. 'Jui-ra aMwaf, hearing that things. 

NOTE 1. Ovras and ?3 are sometimes equivalent to the adverbs Ur*<&, iftt, 
here. E. g. A urn 3i y?f rtait^tt,;. 'Offi ; A 7J I /tin 'AS^JNU. 
Ifere thou hast a map of the whole earth. Seest thou ? Here it Athens, 

2. J xa7voc regularly refers to a remote person or thing. 
E. g. Toviovl yovv old' f'/w, xuxfixovt, / know this one 
and that one. 

NOTE 2. *xiivo$ often refers to that which immediately 
precedes, in which case it corresponds to the English he. E. g. 
*xtlvog fixe roy Tf nytadixov &g6rov, he had possession of the 
tragic throne. 

NOTE 3. Sometimes the demonstrative pronoun refers to a noun which goes 
before in the same proposition, if that noun has been separated from the govern- 
ing word by intervening clauses. E. g. Tan fttirti, t; ilrtrt TJ? rr^a-r/jf 
vetvrn, Miyirr>r> ret 'AxiJa, ..... rtvrti T ;'r*>r* ix T ifar 
fiii>.iTaL rfi i*5'/, ifettitis Im \ivit4xs anrifirv*, it is evident that 
JLeonidas tried to send away the soothsayer Mesistias the Acarnanian, who 
fallowed this crmy, ..... / mean the one who jrropheiied what would hajipen to 

NOTE 4. The demonstrative pronoun sometimes follows the 
relative in the same proposition. E. g. 'ivSov TTOT^UOX, Sg XQV- 
xoditJLovg dfviigog OVTO? itniapwv mmnw* Tiapt^iai, the river 
Indus, wkich is the only river in the -world, except one, that 
produces crocodiles. 

190 SYNTAX. [ 150. 


15O. 1. The relative pronoun agrees with the 
noun, to which it refers, in gender and number. 
Its case depends on the construction of the clause 
in which it stands. E. g. 

Nsoxltldyg, og tan TV (flog, Ncoclldcs, who is blind. 

TKtaw nokiTrjv, oarig toqtflilv ndr^av {Sgadiig nd<pvxe, 2 

hate that citizen who is slow to aid his country. 
7'wv dtaSfxce uvwv, g f'A,/Sec, Of the twelve mints, which 

thou recdvedit. 

The word, to which the relative refers, is called the ante- 

This head includes also the relative pronominal adjectives 
(y "*) E- S- ^iiii.o* oaoig uhtaTi rov xgrjarov TQOTIOV, as 
many others as possess a good character. 

NOTE 1. In some instances a masculine relative pronoun in 
the dual refers to a feminine noun. E. g. 'llfiuv tV exa'arw dvo 
TIVE laiov Idea uyxoris xnl uyovit, oiv inofie&vt, in each one 
of us there are two ideas governing and leading us, which 

we follow. 

NOTE 2. Sometimes the gender of the relative is determined by the gender 
implied in the antecedent. E. g. Tag 'A9'vaf, ol <yt tftt xai irarifa ret 
t/u,an v-rriga.* iD>ix,a. mitvvri;, Athens, which city began Jirst to injure me and 
my father, where e" refers to the inhabitants of Athens, 

NOTE 3. The relative often agrees in gender and number 
with the noun which is joined to it by a verb signifying to call 
or name, to be, to believe, ( 166.) E. g. "AKQ^V, at xahvvrai 
Kli'i'iofg, a promontory, which is called Cleides. '0 qpo'/?o?, 
ijv aid (a elnofitv, that kind of fear, which we called respect. 

2. If the relative refers to two or more nouns, it is 
generally put in the plural. If the nouns denote animate 
beings, the relative is masculine when one of the nouns is 
masculine. If the nouns denote inanimate objects, the relative 
is generally neuter. E. g. Alug xal Tevxyog, o? piynjiov t'/U/- 
%ov tdoaav Tyg aviwi' vtrdglag, Ajax and Teucer, who gave the 
greatest proof of their valor. jisQt nolepov xal el^r]vgs,a 
(jLtylaTt]v t%ti diivauiv, concerning war and peace, which have 
very great power. 

NOTE 4. The relative often agrees in gender with one 

150. J PRONOUN. 191 

of the nouns to which it refers. E. g. ''AnaM.uyivits 

x* xtrSvi-tav xul Tp^Jc, t< f, y, x. T. L, being delivered from 

tears, dangers, and trouble, to which, $c. 

3. The relative is often put in the plural, when it refers 
to a collective noun in the singular. E. g. Aunt iaov ov? 
raqppo? tjji-xfv, he left the people, whom the ditch kept back. 
//<<, T/? ofirvai, oI 9 - oq-iiiu, every one, to whom I happen to 
owe money, swears. 

REMARK. The relative is put in the plural also when it 
refers to a whole class of persons or things implied in a singu- 
lar antecedent. E. g. 'An}o, ai'tovgyos, o'intQ ata'^ovat, yrjv, 
a man of the working class, which class are the safety of the 

NOTE 5 The relative in the singular often refers to an 
antecedent in the plural, when one of the persons or things 
contained in that antecedent is meant. E. g. Oivog as rpwft 
[tfliiqSt!*, o," T y.cil aftifv? fiinmst, b> itv uiv j^avSov F/U,, sweet 
wine affects thee, which injures whoever else takes it freely, 
where o? refers to any person contained in 

4. The proposition containing the relative is often placed 
before the proposition which contains the antecedent, when 
the leading idea of the whole period is contained in the former. 
This is, called inversion. E. g. Ovs V TOJ*- /.o'/on' i/w xiuW, 
T 01 ads xal xiiutiuHi (jir;-w, 7 Jo not dare to do those things, 
which it gives me pain to hear. Mti^oy' oaxig uvii ii t $ aiiov 
miitjft; (f-ii.>>v rnuiyti, roviuv oudupov iiyoi, whoever thinks 
that he lias a dearer friend than his own country, him I call a 
contemptible man. 

This inversion often takes place also for the sake of emphasis. 

NOTE 6. This remark applies also to the relative adverbs. 
($ 123.) E. g. Ol S oit dt] 6' 'ixurov, o&i axoJiov "Exrooo^ 
txntr, Hvfr* 'odvuaii? piv tgi^e twcvc i^Tiofc, and when they 
i it nit there ichire they had killed the spy of Hector, then 
Llijsscs stopped the swift horses. 

5. The antecedent is often omitted, when it is either a gen- 
eral word (xy^uu, noiiyuu, OITO.-, t'xtTroj), or one which can be 
easily supplied from the context. E. g. "A t 3ovita&t Uyoniq, 
saying what you like, where refers to nQiiyuuTa governed by 
ii'/ovrf,-. To [tiyt&os, i'-tig a') v tjiftir l ).i'fr<tusr, the magnitude 
of the business, for ichich ice are assembled. 

So in the formula Eialv oV liyovair, there are who say. 

192 SYNTAX. ' [ 151. 

NOTE 7. In some instances the antecedent is implied in a 
possessive pronoun. E. g. '^vavS^ln rfi fin trey a, o'irivss as 
ov difaitianfiiv, through the cowardice of us, who did not save 
thee, where r^ntf/n is equivalent to rj^uv, to which the relative 
in reality refers. 

151. 1. In general, when the relative would 
naturally be put in the accusative, it is put in the 
genitive or dative, according as the antecedent is in 
the genitive or dative. This is called ATTRACTION. 

*j:x Tovrta v, w v liyti, Prom these things, which he says. 

Here dtv stands for the accusative after Uyti. ( 163. 1.) 
Jv uvTots oic tnuy/iM.o>7ai, In those things which they 

profess. Here o/j stands for u after dnayysilovtai. (ibid.) 

REMARK 1. If the antecedent be a demonstrative pronoun, 
this pronoun is generally omitted ( 150. 5), and the relative 
takes its case. E. g. 2TpyovTu$ o I ? av I'^M^IKV, for ^xi^yona? 

(xtii'oif, ilv i-YMiizv, hemp satisfied with what we have. 

, ... " , r " , ^ r J ,.- . - 

J'sSifjEv f^ at v TVMavofitv ixoviig, lor jLi fxiu'oiv, a Tvyjfavppev 

tjovifs, we go away from those possessions which we happen to 

REMARK 2. In attraction the noun joined to the relative 
pronoun by a verb signifying to call, to be, to believe, ( 166,) 
also takes the case of the relative. E. g. Tovitav, wv av 
df u TT o i 'o> v^Hf, for 'TovTtar, c av Stanoivaq xctkiig, of these, 
whom thou callest mistresses. 

NOTE 1. In some instances the relative, even when it would be in the nomi- 
native, is attracted by the antecedent. E. g. (.Herod. 1, 78; OwMv xu tlVorii 

rav nv -JCi^i 2aaJ;;, fur OiSiv xia I'tb'ori; IX.IIMUV & ni 'T'.oi 2ajS/;, as yet know- 
ing nothing of what happened in Sardes. 

REMARK 3. The nominative of the pronominal olo; is often attracted by the 
antecedent. E. g. Ilgos avSja; -rohfttifous, o'lou; xai 'A&ntaiauf, to 
during men, such as the Athenians are, where e'i'ovs xeu ' ASyv&iavf stands for 
elat xai ' ASttnoiTo! I'ifi. 

EEIIARK 4. In some instances the personal pronoun, connected with eiti, 
remains in the nominative, thougli cis has been attracted by its antecedent. 
E. g. Ntav/a; Si, o'tout av, S/aSiSj * T&S, but young men, like thee, 
decamping, where o'ltus rl stands for oltf ru ii. 

REMARK 5. 'Hx/xsf sometimes imitates OIK ( 151. R. S). E. g. *E*i~ 
Siivo* <rt7irit fi>.ixnffi nut, that is n hard thing to men of our years, where 
riXixuffi vtut stands for r,\ixii tea Ifftiv. 

152.] PRONOUN. 193 

NOTE 2. Relative adrcrbs ( 123) also are attracted by the 
word to which they refer. E. g. 'EX yrjg, o&tv HQOVXHTO, 
from the place where it lay, where o&tv stands for o#t or onov. 

2. On the other hand, the antecedent is sometimes put in 
the case of its relative. E. g. 

~\Iti.itr/ri!>; rug uiv rip etc ug tictfif qavfQal, The honors which 
Meleager received are well known, where T nuca; stands 
for nl Tu/t. 

Oi'x oiirfta (jLoiuag r t g tv^iiv avryr %Qt(av ; Knowest thou not 
the fate which she must meet 1 for uoiouy %?. 

NOTE 3. The same is true of relative adverbs. E. g."Ai- 
iout on 01 uv uifixrj ciyaTiiloonjl at, they will lore in 
other places whither thou mayest go, where ukioas stands for i or 

3. Very frequently, in case of attraction, the antecedent is 
put after its relative. E. g. 

g ugxoi XWQCK;, for Karaaxfva^ovTa ir,r %<a- 
I, Improving the country, which he governed. 

REMARK 6. Frequently the principal words are attracted by, 
and placed after, the relative. E.g. Ofynm (fiv'/uv, ov ^ytq 
ftuQTV^a, for C ^^TV?, ov r^ytg, otynai ytvywv, the wit- 
ness whom you brought has decamped. Ol nalatoi fxtlvot, 
a>v ovouaia uf/<tiut JLiyfiat tnl aoqlre, HtTTax o it ^t xa] Biav- 
TOC, those ancient persons, Pittacus and Bias, who are re- 
nowned for wisdom, where vv attracts only the proper names. 

REMARK 7. The antecedent may be placed after its relative 
even when apparently no attraction takes place. E. g. 'Anoq v- 
yotg ur /j)Ti'' 6flvlf 5/x;;', you can get clear in any 
lawsuit you please. 

NOTE 4. Sometimes only the adjective belonging to the antecedent is placed 
after the relative. E. g. Ao<yE>; iziutn, iSf ru 3vrTv%t7{ XX.M ipie*i, for 
A.yu; aziuTai ^uiTu%<7;, au; ni ttxa flgm, hear tlie melancholy news which I 
have brought ti> thee. 

1 52. The relative pronoun often stands for the demonstra- 
tive pronoun, especially in the Epic language. E. g. nu^Qoxiov 
x).tiliuti' o yitQ yi(fttg tail &avoruav, let us mourn Patroclus, 
for this (that is, to mourn) is honor to the dead. 

So in the formula <, ukv ---- oV Si, equivalent to o uh.... 
6 , ( 142 U 


194 SYNTAX. [153-156. 

So in the formula Kal og, for Kal oviog. E. g. Kut og, /u- 
ftnoay jU/o!, &*a{ty*pqxu, and he, uttering a laud cry, jumps up. 
So in the formula V/<S' op, said he, used parenthetically. 

NOTE I. Frequently the relative is apparently put for the 
demonstrative. E. g. (II. 10, 314, etseq.) *Hv diimg iv Tqutoai, 
doltav, vfti)dfo^ vlog ...... og $a TOTS Tqwaiv Tt xetl "t'xro^u uv- 

f>ov 'itmfv, there was among the Trojans a certain Dolon, son 
of Eumedcs, ..... that man, I say, spoke to the Trojans and 

to Hector. 

NOTE 2. This rule ( 152) applies also to the relative ad- 
verb ti s . ($ 123. N. 1.) 

153. The relative often stands for the interrogative -tig, 
but only in indirect interrogations. E. g. n>Q<iti TM vttvi&nQta 
oarig tail, he declares to the captain of the vessel who he is. 

NOTE. "OuTtg is particularly used when the person, who is 
asked, repeats the question before he answers it. E. g. (Aristoph. 
Nub. 1496) "Av&Qomt, il noiHc; , 2TP. "O TL noiu ,- Man, what 
are you doing 1 STR. What am I doing 1 

154. Frequently the relative has the force of the con- 
junction Iva, in order that, that. E. g. ngta^dav 
i)Ti<; TUVI' igEi, to send an embassy to say these things. 


155. The reciprocal pronoun regularly refers to the 
subject of the proposition in which it stands, which subject is 
either in the dual or plural. E.g. Toiavin nyot; 

, such things were they saying to one another. 

NOTE. Sometimes <zXX<)Xaiy stands for \a.urut. E.g. 
they destroyed themselues, that is, each destroyed himself. 


156. 1. The subject of a proposition is that of which 
any thing is affirmed. The predicate is that which is affirmed 
of the subject. E. g. 'Aim^idSrjg tlntr, Alcibiades said, where 
\4lxifi i <ior t c is the subject of the proposition, and tlntv, the 
predicate. *Ey<a uroluoc flui, I am timid, where tyto is the sub- 
ject, and aToluos slui, the predicate. 

2. The subject is either grammatical or logical. 


The grammatical subject is either a substantive or some 
word standing for a substantive. 

The logical subject consists of the grammatical subject with 
the words connected with it. E. g. in the proposition 'Ax ova as 
lavra o Kvgo? fnil&tio, Cyrus, hearing these things, was 
persuaded, KVQOS is the grammatical, and outovaag TWITCI 6 
oi, the logical subject. 

is put in the nominative. 

A finite verb agrees with its subject-nominative 
in number and person. E. g. 

jB/oJ isyia, I say. 

Zv Ityei?, Thou sayest. 

*%t1vos ii/ti, He says. 

2. The nominative of the neuter plural very often takes the 
verb in the singular. E. g. 

7'<i tfipar? vuara u/tavl^trai, The armies are jighting. 
Ta v at tyivft o, These things happened. 

NOTE 1. Sometimes masculines and feminine* dual or plural take the yerb in 
the singular. E. g. SaSa) xifieti *TiiS uui-j;, her auburn hair 
was Jliiifing over her shoulders. 'H~ ix Irn xft/' ic $afti%{ 2vX 
ra*fpirrtv*Tt <rt~i $t*fiitat{, we do not exhibit two slaves throwing nuts 
out of a basket to the s/iectators. 

So in the phrase *E*T/ 7, ( 150. 5,) there are who. 

3. If the verb belongs to more than one subject, it is put 
in the plural and in the chief person. The chief person is 
the first with respect to the second or third, and the second 
with respect to the third. E. g. 

TOTS /iJjTJo'wyro Uoatidufav xnl 'Axoilojv Jii^o? /*!- 
Svrat, Then Neptune and Apollo resolved to demolish the 

NOTE 2. Frequently the verb agrees in number with one of 
the substantives, and especially with that which stands nearest 
to it. E. g. 2vv d' EVQOC T .ZVO'TOS T' t Tit at, Zi^vgog it dvoatjs, 
xt BO^'TJC, Enrus and Notus rushed together, the blustering 
Ziphyrus and Boreas. 

REMARK 1. The verb ts often put in the dual, if it belongs 
to two substantives in the singular. E. g. 'H ivoonouxr) xal r\ 
xt&nQimixT] noliv 8ta<pQf>v uUifletK the art of making lyres, 
and the art of playing on the harp^ differ much from each other. 

196 SYNTAX. |_ 157. 

NOTE 3. When the substantives are connected by the con- 
junction %, or, the verb is put either in the plural or in the 
singular. E. g. El Si * "Ayy? p^w t ;t ^^e, 77 <7>o7/5o? ^Anol- 
Aw, but if Mars commence the, figkt, or Pliaibus Apollo. "Ov 
xsv tyta a. yd -/a, ij AAo? 'A^aiaJv, whom I or any other of the 
Achfsans may bring. 

4. A collective noun in the singular very often has the verb 
in the plural. E. g. 

To nktj&og ol'ovtai, The multitude think. 
fj'daur r) nlti&vi;, The multitude spake. 

This rule applies also to the pronominal adjectives txaaiog 
and uHog. E.g. 'ii^ueAAov f.u$fa&ai o^7j<5uv sxaaroi; Sixa 
af, each person was to have for his share ten drachma:. 

NOTE 4. A noun in the dual often takes a plural verb. 
E. g. ,>'<jp w a w T , you two will save. 

On the other hand, a noun in the plural takes a verb in the 
dual, when only two persons or things are meant. E. g. 
(II. 3, 278-9) Ot Ttvva&ov, you two who punish, where di 
refers to Pluto and Proserpine. 

NOTE 5. The nominatives fyw, vu, yptf?, are of the first 
person ; ov, crqpw, vfjfi?, are of the second person ; all other 
nominatives are of the third person. 

The nominatives of the first and second person are usually 
not expressed, except when emphasis is required. 

NOTE 6. The verb which agrees with the relative pronoun 
is in the first or second person, according as the antecedent is 
of the first or of the second person. E. g. l Hp?v ov -frvtrt, 
ct'ijivfc rrjQovufv v/.i(i$, you do not sacrifice to us, who pre- 

serve you. AfJ.tT()r t T Al]Q, O? l%fl? Jn V 7*l v fltltQlQOV, O t/lOU 

immeasurable Air! who holdcst the earth suspended. 

So when the antecedent is implied in a possessive pronoun 
( 150. N. 7). E. g. 'Avavdytn T] 7/|UfT^, ot'r /'<,- ae ov 
duao'iau^fv, through the cowardice of its, who did not save 

REMARK 2. Any noun which is in apposition with the omitted personal pro- 
noun ( 136 : 157. N. 5) of the first person, may have the verb in the first 
person. E. g. &i/jnrrox\ri; rf*i jraji ', /, Themistoclss, have come to tliee. 

NOTE 7. Sometimes the verb agrees in number with the nominative in the 
predicate 160. 1 ). This takes place chiefly^'hen the nominative in the pred- 
icate precedes the verb. E. g. 'E<rT> Ive \i<fu fi 'V&oftiin v$t>)*u, equivalent 
to ii 'Do^ivn If -rt Ivo >.'o<fu v^ri't.u, Idomene is two fiigli /tills. 


NOTE 8. The third person of a verb is often found without 
a subject, 

(1) When any thing general and indefinite is expressed. 
E. g. OvSl xtv iv&a itov yt ftiro? xal x f ^? ce ? OVOITO, SC. T?, 
tvcn here no one would Jind fault with thy valor and strength 
steyovat or qra/ sc. uv&qwnoi, they say. 

Frequently the word noayun is to be supplied. E. g. dr t l(a- 
&TjafTai, the thing will show itself . OVTOJ? >ft, it is so. Iloi- 
iov 8tl, it wants much, far from it. Jti$ti dt) i^a, the event 
will soon show. 

(2) When the verb indicates the employment of any person, 
the word denoting that person is generally omitted. E. g. 
J^xtjoi'!-t Tote '/i>J.>;u( THtqoujxsvd<Jua&ai, sc. o x^'gi'J, the herald 
proclaimed to the Greek.-; to prepare themselves. Tov vo' ( uo> 
i-tur ui'iov uvnyrta at mi, sc. o ygaftftmtvf, the secretary shaO 
read to you thr law itself. 

(3) Frequently the verb is changed into the third person 
singular pnstive, and its subject-nominative into the dative 
(206 2). E. g. Tot; Tio).fuloiz tvivxr)Tat, for Ol no'/.iuiot 
tvngwmM, the enemy have succeeded. Kulois aoi untxixono 
for A'wia'c 7ifxfxf)iao, thou hadst answered well. 

(4) The subject of verbs denoting the state of the weather 
or the operations of nature is not expressed. E. g. "Tit, it rains- 
j\liffi, it snoics. "Eatiat, there was an earthquake. 2vaxordti, 
it groics dark. 

NOTE 9. Frequently the subject of a proposition becomes 
the immediate object (^ 163. 1) of the verb of the preceding 
proposition. E. g. </c'pe vvv a^pijriai noujov rovrovJ, o zt 
S^n, for Wigs YVV U&QIJOM, o 11 dqit ovroat, now let me seejirst 
what this fellow here is doing. 

NOTE 10. The verb tlpl, am, is very often omitted, but 
chiefly when it is a copula ( 160. 1). E. g. "Jlqa amivai, sc. 
fan', it is time to go. 

REMARK 3. Other verbs also may be omitted, but only when 
they can be supplied from the context. 

NOTE 11. The nominative is often used for the vocative. 
E. g. */Aos, for f/xf, friend. 

MOOD is put in the accusative. E. g. 

Bovlto&t avTov tl&elv; Do you wish him to come? Here 

the accusative avtov is the subject of the infinitive 
EIVO.I &ioi>s tvofii&v, He believed that there are gods. 
1>aalv avvov 'ftfioiltvtiv, They say that he reigns. 

198 SYNTAX. [ 158. 

2. The subject of the infinitive is not expressed 
when it is the same with the subject of the pre- 
ceding proposition. E. g. 

Oipni ivQT)xivni, I think I have found. Here the sub- 
ject (fj~) of fVQrjxivai is not expressed because it refers to 
the subject (f'/ol) of oH/itu. 

yrwrai Soxil TOVTO, A blind man seems to know this. 
an o ;i f t> ft >, Q ! a i, I wish to doze. 

NOTE 1 . Sometimes the accusative of the personal or reflexive pronoun is 
expressed before the infinitive, contrary to the preceding rule ( 158. 2). E. g. 
'F.ftt <p*ifti >.i*.ix<rftivov tfr tv a. i Xx?y, / say that I have forgotten my valor, 

NOTK 2. The subject of the infinitive is frequently put in 
the case of the subject of the preceding independent proposi- 
tion. This takes place chiefly when both subjects refer to the 
same person or thing. E. g. 

No[tlti<; rj/iiii; /.tsv avi^ia&al aov, ainbq de ivmr^ativ; 

Dost thou imagine that we shall tolerate thce, mid that 

thou canst strike 1 Here avtvs stands for aavrov. oi'ead'' \ifuv flaoiosif, v^islc; 8s v t^ifla-fr at ; Do you 

think that I shall contribute, but that you will enjoy the 

contribution 1 Here tfTc stands for 

So "E qp i] a fr a Kgovtwn ol't] ).oiyov npiiv ai, thou saidst that 
thou alone avert cdst destruction from the son of Saturn. Here 
O\'YI stands for oluv agreeing with as understood. 

NOTE 3. Frequently the subject of the infinitive is wanting 
even when it is different from that of the preceding independ- 
ent proposition. E. g. nr^jtovnlui[tni, nua%iv aiyti- 
vaiatv, I am afflicted with sufferings painful to endure, where 
the subject of nuuxtiv (nrii understood) is different from that 
of xapmofiau (See also ^S 219. N. 3.) 

3. The subject of the infinitive is not expressed 
also when it is the same with the object of the pre- 
ceding proposition. E. g. 

!/i<5nro ainwv /?o>;^stv fftoi, He prayed them to aid me. 
Here the subject (aviovq) is not expressed, because it re- 
fers to the object (MVTWV) of iSilto ( 181). 

ytiltv rnj.1v xndfvdtiv, He commanded us to sleep. 
Here the subject (rj/nn?) of xnO-ivSriv is omitted because it 
is the same with the object (JjjuTv) of nuQi'iyytilfv ( 19G. 2). 
vdge dvto ntJifvo^ifv aU$k<ov 7i 1 1 gq &rj vat, IVe 

$ 159, 160.] SUBJECT AND PKEDICATE. 199 

two men to try each other's skill. In such instances the 
accusative denoting the object of the verb ( 163) must 
not be mistaken for the subject of the infinitive. 

NOTE 4. A participle agreeing with the omitted subject of 
the infinitive is very often put in the accusative. E. g. */& 
r w r dioitai xaTaifjrjfpiaaa&ai Oio/jr r t <j-rov, ir-fri-fto v t u - 
yovc, or* orx av yirono TOVTOV ftft'^iv afttv fiot, I beseech you 
to condemn T/icomncstus, when you consider that I could not 
have had a severer trial than this. Zfrlrt r,xttv nagr.y/fdt, 
A,.?O>T TOIV tirdtja:, he requested Xenias to take the men and 
come. ( 158. 3.) 

NOTE 5. When the infinitive has the force of a neuter sub- 
stantive ($$ 159. 2 : 221), its subject is frequently omitted, in 
which case the accusative of ?/.. or cu'roc is to be supplied. 
E. g. Jnnv Tf'i zoi'j, sc. nrcc, one inn ft do these things. 

159. 1. In general, any word or clause may be the 
subject of a proposition. E. g. 

'I'L'IO uiv foitv uoxri Tor xaxov, The word <l>IsiO indeed is the 
beginning of the ceil. 

2. Particularly, the subject of a proposition may be an 
injiiiitive with the words connected with it. E. g. 

ITpoxfiQov f'ariv inaiviaai itjv aotrijv, It is easy to praise 

rirtnr. Here f'natviani Tt t v aotrr^ is the subject of the 


NOTE 1. The subject of SH, doxil, trdiznui, n^nit, 7iooar t xtt, 
upu'vu, /o^', and some others, is generally an infinitive. 

Jtl tut li/fir, I inn ft say, or It is ncccssrtry that I should 
say. Here tfii >U;-m- is the subject of dd. 

NOTE 2. Verbs, of which the subject is an infinitive are called D 
Such verbs must not be confounded with those, of which the sulject is not 
expressed ( 157. N. 8;. 

3. The subject of an injinitirr. is frequently another infini- 
tive with the words connected with it. E. g. Ov <fr t <ji zQy- 
vat TOIV j-f'oiy irjr y).oxnjitr uuy.ilr, he says that young men 
.ought not to exercise the tongue, where roiv viov$ TJJV yiuaar 
is the subject of xtfrni ( 159. N. 1, 2). 

; 16O. 1. The PREDICATE, like the subject ( 156. 2), 
-s cither grammatical or logical. 

200 SYNTAX. [161. 

The grammatical predicate is either a verb alone, or a verb 
(commonly a verb signifying to be, to be called), and a sub- 
stantive, adjective, pronoun, or participle. In the latter case, 
the verb is called the copula. 

The logical predicate consists of the grammatical predicate 
with the words connected with it. E. g. ~Hv Kavdavli)*; rv- 
Qavvog ZaQoiwv, Candaules was king of Sardcs, where rjr 
Tvparvof is the grammatical, and i]v tvquvvog 2aQOi<av, the logical 

2. A substantive in the predicate is put in the same case as 
the subject when it refers to the same person or thing. ( 136 ) 

E> , g> I 
'Eyu ilfit nhovTog, I am Plutus. Here /zAoi'ro? agrees in 

case with iyta. 

IIv K nrS n v),t] g Tvyavvog -Z'><5/<u', Candaules was Icing 
of Sardcs. Here tvgavroq in the predicate agrees with 
the subject Kavdaviqs in case. 

3. The gender, number, and case of an adjective, standing 
in the predicate, and referring to the subject, are determined 
by 137. E. g. 

# ' >' at 6$ tiff i, I am immortal. 

avrov ytvsa&ui ao<pov; Do you wish him to be- 
come wise ? 

NOTE 1. When the subject is any word but a nominative 
( 159), the adjective or pronoun in the predicate is neuter 
(commonly neuter singular). E. g. Ov dlxaiov tan roiig 
xQfiTTov? T.KIV rfTtovwv ayxeiv, it is not right, that the stronger 
should rule the weaker. 

NOTE 2. Frequently a neuter adjective in the predicate 
refers to a masculine or feminine noun. E. g. (PtAotxTtarov 
ywr\ tan, woman is a very tender-hearted thing. 

In such cases, the word ngay^ia is sometimes expressed. 
E. g. JTvratxa <5' ilvou ngUy^ I'qpTj vovfivaTixov, but wo- 
man, he said, is a prudent thing. 

1. When the subject of the infinitive is not ex- 
pressed ( 158. 2, 3), the substantive or adjective, standing in 
the predicate and referring to the omitted subject, is generally 
put in the case, in which the subject has already appeared. 

'jlXQtt tit' at doxii?, Thou sccmest to be pale. Here the ad- 
jective is put in the nominative on account of ov with 
which doxiis agrees ( 157. N. 5). 

162.] OBJECT. 201 

Kvgov itiiono JIGO vH'/uoiaiou ytvi&ai, Tliey besought 

Cyrus to be very eager, 
dtaxflivaopai iot I ova iv tlva i n qo&v P.OTUT oiq, I unit 

command those who go to be very eager, 

NOTE. This construction ( 161. l) may take place also when the infinitive 
lias the article before it ( 221). E. g. *O Air%v*.et <r*X; i-xutn tiKali, 
J(i T funTis tlieti, JEschylus returns home because fie is u-ise. 

It takes place also when the infinitive comes after the particle UTTI ( 220'. 

Also when the infinitive depends on a participle ( 219). E. g. nXA< 
T <r g a ff r a i n ff itfiir u t tJteci fHpirrur, for Fl^ txi'ivut af trgofi- 
rctjrxiTi itttti fifirral, many nf those who pretended to be sophists, ( 140. 3.) 

2. When a proposition is made the subject of another propo- 
sition ( 159. 2, 3), the substantive, adjective, or participle in 
the predicate or subject of the former proposition is often put 
in the case of the noun which is in the predicate of -the latter. 
E.g. Etp' yulv I'ffiai TO enttixtai xai qpai/'Aoie fix at, for 
To fjftag initixiig xal qiaviovg tlrat taiat t(f r/pj[v, to be respecta- 
ble or worthless will depend upon us, where the proposition zc 

imtixfai ilvai is the subject, and tq>' ^filv lorat, the 


In such cases the predicate always precedes the subject. 
Further, this takes place only when the attracting word in the 
predicate is in the dative. 


169. 1. That on which an action is exerted, or to 
which it refers, is called the object. 

The object is put in the accusative, genitive, or dative. 

2. Participles and verbal adjectives in TSOV 
(^ 132. 2) are followed by the same case as the 
verb from which they are derived. 

For examples, see below. 

NOTE 1. The verbal in reov with earl (expressed or under- 
stood) represents dti ( 159. N. 1) and the infinitive active or 
middle of the verb from which it is derived. E. g. 

UXOVM, hear, axovajeov equivalent to Set uxotftv, one must hear. 

fiiptouat, imitate, ^iftrjiioy equivalent to du pi t uila&at, one 
must imitate. 

In some instances it represents dfl and the infinitive passive. 
E. g. ^Tia'o^at, am surpassed, i]nr,Tlov, one must be surpassed. 

202 SYNTAX. [ 163, 1G4. 

NOTE 2. The neuter plural of the verbal adjective in reov 
is often used instead of the singular. E. g. axovatia for 


3. Any word or clause may be the object of a verb. E. g. 
Kvqog extlvqt dairiu idwxf, 'innov XQvao%d).irov, xctl argsmov %QV- 
aovv, xctl rrjv %K>Qav [tijxsTi a(>Tidfa& ui, Cyrus gave him 
presents, a horse with a golden bridle, a golden necklace, 
and that the country should no longer be plundered, where the 
proposition TTJV xmqav (tyxsTi, aynd&a&ai is one of the objects 
of tdiaxe. 


^163. 1. The immediate object of a transitive 
VERB is put in the accusative. E. g. 

Tavra no io), I do these things. 

TavTot, Having done these things. (162.2.) 
ravTa, One must do these things, (ibid. ) 

2. Many verbs, which are intransitive in English, are transi- 
tive in Greek. E. g. 'A&avdrovq dliiTsa&ctt,, to sin against 
the immortals, 

Verbs of this class are dJUicuVw, anooiOQaaxw, 

, innQontvoi, ).av&dr<a, and many others. 

164. The accusative of a substantive is often joined to 
a verb of which it denotes the abstract idea. ( 129.) In 
this case the accusative is generally accompanied by an adjec- 
tive. E. g. 

Jlsaflv TrTw^ai' ovx draoxsrd, To fall an insupportable 

*Hi$av dgoprifia dsivov, They rushed furiously. 

So in English, To die the death of the righteous. To run 
a race . 

NOTE 1. A substantive is, in the poets, often joined to a verb signifying to 
see, to look, (j3Xs<ra/, li^Ko/^ai, \turffa, i^tta,) to mark the expression of the look. 
E. g. <J>e/3 /} X i T <w v, looking terrible. 'H Bot/X^ jf/}X^i TI/, the 
Senate looked mustard, that is, looked displeased. 

Sometimes the substantive Sijy^a is to be supplied after these verbs. E. g. 
oy /3Xtai(, he looks thievish. 

NOTE 2. Verbs signifying to conquer (as nxMto) are often 
followed by the accusative of a noun denoting the place or 

1G5.] ACCUSATIVE. 203 

nature of the conquest. E. g. Ma^Tjv vixnv, to gain a battle. 
'Olvpntu rtvixr t xtaq, having conquered in the Olympic games. 
The nouns following verbs of this description are chiefly 
ayuv, jmifuf, fii'txi, ravua/la, TroAfjuo,-. Also the names of the 
public games, 'Oivpxia, flv&ia, IVV/uea, "la&pux. 

Sometimes an accusative denoting the name of the person 
conquered is added. E. g. Mdjid8r t ; o ^r t ^ iv 3/o#om pd- 
XTJV Tovg puofidooi'z vix yaas, Sliltiades who conquered the 
barbarians at the battle of Marathon. 

1 65. 1. VERBS signifying to ask, to teach, to take 
away, to clothe, to unclothe, to do, to say, and some 
others, are followed by two accusatives, the one of 
a person, and the other of a thing. E. g. 

TOUT a pi eg fa in?, Thou askest me about thfse things. 
AiTtHv TOT dijpov 9>vlaxa;, To ask guards of the people. 
Tor dijpov xlalvav ^UTIKJZOV, I clothed the people with 

Verbs of this class are aliiia, dpm'zta, apytjawf 
avaSlot, arranto), ttTioo~Tt<jlu, uffuioiouai, didiiaxia, dociM, fx 
txovro), irSvrta, t*atgtouai, ff-timlr, f*tTa<a, fodta or 
o[*ai, toouai, iqtaidta, xovTirai, iiyoa, naifievca, 7itif}), nmlaxta, 
noiia), ngdaaouai, aifcpat-oaj, aviuta, and a few others. 

Norm 1. Sometimes the accusative of the thing denotes the obstruct of the 

verb ( 164'. E. g. 'O <J>*x;x3; //.(; 7ir T/Si/a auTtuf 
iT('3ii/*-i, the Phocian war taught t/tem an ever memorable lesson. 'Ev- 

r Aiv/5Ta/ }.unt iir.xi r T n, he injures himself incurably. 

NOTE 2. Frequently verbs signifying to do, or to say, are 
followed by an accusative and the adverb tv, well, or xaxta;, 
badly. E. g. Toys ffiiovg tii n o i o it a i, they do good to their 
friends, where tv notovai is equivalent to dyct&u noiovai. Ku- 
xwj f. i -/ova iv ol uya&ol rov? xnxovc, the good speak 
HI of the bad, where xaxia? ityovai is equivalent to xrtxa 

NOTB 3. Sometimes the word denoting the person is put in the dative ( 196. 
4). E. g. IlaXXi **' it^aunini iujyn, he did much evil to men, 
MSir iy*$ii xttr.ta.t ry rt>.si, having done no goxl to the state. 

REMARK. 'ArtrTigiv, and, in the later writers, afmaiiftxi, are often followed 
also by the accusative of the person and the genitive of *the thing. ($ 181. 2.) 

2. Verbs signifying to divide take two accusatives. E. g. 
To (jTQttrtvua xinirtiut Siadtxa ^.ior t , he divided the 
army into twelve parts. 

204 SYNTAX. [ 166, 167. 

The preposition tlf is often found before the accusative 
denoting the number of parts. E. g. .2T(p'u$ avrov? lg e 
d i ell or, they divided theitist-lves into six parts. 

NOTE 4. Sometimes the noun denoting the thing divided is put in the geni- 
tive ( 173 , and depends on the accusative denoting ihe jxtrts. E. g. AiuXo- 
jued-a TJJS E <S&> Xaira;/* xs t'tjr, 'out, equivalent to A/uA^us^a TJV si'SwXa- 
;/** n'; ti'S> St/, wt j divided the art if nutking images into two parts. 

16O. VERDS signifying, to name or call, to choose, to 
render or constitute, to esteem or consider, are followed by two 
accusatives denoting the same person or thing. E. g. 

2TQitTt)ybv (xiiTov <*ni8ti$fr, He appointed him general. 

Tov vlov Ijrniot fdidd^otTO ayu&ov, He caused his son 
to be brought up a good horseman. 

NOTE 1. In the passive such verbs become copulas ( 16O. 1). E. g. 
2TT>iy a-reSs/^Su, he ivas appointed general. *O vlos lSiSa^;Si Ixvuis 
ay.$l>s, the son was brought up a good horseman. ( 206. 1.) 

NOTE a. Frequently the infinitive tivai is expressed before the second accu- 
sative. E. g. ~ofirr>it avofiti^outri TOV avSja tlrmi, they call him a 
sophist, or rather, they say that he is a sophist. 

So in the passive, "A^riSi^S*; rns "ma iTvai Ivra^^et, he was ap- 
pointed master of the horse. 

. The accusative is very often used to 
limit any word or expression. E. g. 

oiaoi; r t v Avdoq TO yivog, Crossus was a Lydian by birth. 

Here the accusative yivoq limits or explains further the 

meaning of ^tvdog. 

TavTot ysi'dorjoti, They lie in these things. 
C JI -Q-dkaaaa ovStv yr/vtjai nltltav, The sea docs not become 

larger, literally The sea becomes larger in nothing. 
The accusative thus used is called the SYNECDOCHICAL 


REMARK. The neuter accusative il (from iV) often means 
for what 1 why 1 E. g. Ti ravrn pavduvu), for what am I 
learning these things 1 

NOTE 1 . Here belong most of the accusatives which commonly are said to 
be used adverbially ( 124). 

NOTE 2. Hither we may refer parenthetical phrases like 
the following. To liyofifvov, as the saying is. To TOV 'O/jq- 
qov, as Homer has it, or according to Homer. Hav rovravtlov, 
on the contrary. 


NOTE 3. Sometimes the preposition *BT* or i!{ is used before this accusative. 
E. g. K*So xxi x.arat r tip a. xat T>J ^v^nt, pure in body 
and in soul. AIM/? i^nteirrn Stjiif tii tifa. isix.ii, site astonishingly re- 
sembles the immortal goddesses in looks. 

NOTE 4. The accusative is sometimes subjoined to a clause 
in order further to qualify the contents of it. E. g. Kai us 
&i;iti'tti' TiuiifQ dvr^w nag* uidyi, T<Lrd* unoiv , TjrdyxHaiv, and 
the father compelled me to serve, with a mortal man as a rccom- 
ptnsc for these. Toi natdt rw ao') uii.3i.nov, Tot-u^uai" aiaxtOTa, 
uorouaztiv, thy tico sons are about to jight a duel, a most dis- 
graceful act, where Toiur,uuTa qualifies ici Ticiidi TW aw ui't.lnov 
fUtOfieyiiv. Eyui 8 ar, at'oy d'oiftdnov duxivz rodt, Tig 6 (fa- 
air, i'<fuaxot; and I, shoicitig to her this garment here, as a 
pretert said. 

168. LA noun denoting DURATION OF TIME 
is put in the accusative. E. g. 

Js'xa tirj y.oiuu~t'T<et, They sleep ten years. 

TOVTOY ftna 2ncslxovc tnivov Toy xgorov, During this 

time I was feasting with Sitalces. 
nolvv x^ovov vfiyixt, He has insulted a Jong time. 

2. Frequently the accusative answers to the question WHEN ? 
E.g. /ii'rHAt^ufj'Ow' T i] v o'joTjr inuyiriiiv acflai TUZ niyi^, com- 
manding (him] to bring the goats to them at the regular time. 

NOTE 1. When the substantive is accompanied by an ordinal 
number ( 61), it denotes duration of time past. E. g. 3 Ewd- 
1 1, t.uiyitr ytyuu ?;>',, married nine days ago, or having 
been married nine days. 

Also when it is accompanied by cardinal numbers. E. g. 
"0? Tt'5-i;x ruvia rota tTr t , icho has been dead these three 

NOTE 2. Sometimes the accusative is equivalent to the 
genitive absolute ( 192), particularly the following neuter 
accusatives : 8fooyuivov, doxoi-v, S6$ay, from Soxio) ' tlor^utrov 
from ' PEfL ' f|ov from t$tiui ' ov from tluL' naoi^ov from na- 
(jf/oj ii()oai)xov from TTOOCI^XW TI^O'V from rvyyam ' and a few 
others. E. g. 

|6v ai'Tolg anoSovaiv 'Ei.frr,v nni)idx&at riav TtuQOvjcav 
xaxuv, Although it was in their power to give up Helen, 
and be delivered from the impending danger. The con- 
struction of the clause *E$bv aiioi? xaxojr, in the 

indicative would be "E&aiiv avroT? xaxwv, (^ 159. 

2, N. 1,2.) 


206 SYNTAX. [$ 169-172. 

NOTE 3. Frequently, for the sake of emphasis, a preposition (chiefly Iff) is 
placed before this accusative. E. g. 'Esr/ xai it nan 'i<rtot %{>wi T 
'Afltis el 2*i/Sa/, the Scythians ruled Asia for eight and twenty years. 

^ 169. The accusative is used to denote EX- 

Aiia%Qv d&ir l i(>u' jgidxovTa or d Si, a, They were thirty 

stadia from each other. 
2i ad I ov$ de nivi s xal Teaattyaxovin Siaxofilaaintf ctnl- 

XOVTO t$ TO IQOV, And carrying (her) forty-jive stadia they 

arrived at the temple. 

17O. Sometimes the accusative answers to the question 

WHITHER 1 E. g. 

Al/Xr/ Tiau(favo(aatt Si* euSf'po? ovQarov, The bright 

effulgence went to heaven through ether. 
* Ay la as t/3? t] paq, Thou earnest to illustrious Thebes. 

171. The accusative follows the particles of protesta- 
tion fid and vr\. E. g. 

Mu TTJV 'Arnnrorjif, fiu TO Xaog, /in TOV AfQot, I3y Breath, by 

Chaos, by Air. 
N r t TOV Iloasidu q>d<u at, By Neptune I love thee. 

NOTE 1. Ma is used only in negative, and v>5 only in affirmative, propositions. 
But when vat, yes, certainly, is placed before /<, the proposition is affirmative. 

NOTE 2. Sometimes (to. is omitted. E.g. Ov, v'ovV "Oxu^vrav, no, ly 
this Heaven. 

NOTE 3. Sometimes the name of the god sworn by is omitted after these 
particles, in which case the article of the omitted name is always expressed. 
E. g. M a rev \-yu /j,tv oi>$' at 'friScftr,!/, by I should not believe it. 

172. The accusative is put after the following 


' AfiCf 1 1 about, around. ' A pep I dfl).i]v, about evening. 'Afiqt' 
UVTOV , around him. So in connection with numerals, \4ficpl 
rot exxaldexa tTt] ytvopfvoi:, being about sixteen years old. 

3 Avd, on, in, through, throughout, during. *Ava TOV TioJitfiov, 
during the war, throughout the war. 'Avu OTQUTOV, in tlie 
army. 'Ava /u v Q i x y v, on a tamarisk. 

With numerals it means at the rate of, a-picce. 'AVU nevTe 
nctQaadyyct? T?]? rj^sQUi;, at the rate offivcparasangs a day. 

dui, through, on account of, in. "A viiv oqpf/Aw 5ia as, which 
I now owe on your account, din vvxra, in the night. 

Els, to, into. Els K i A t x i a v , to Cilicia. 

173.] GENITIVE. 207 

With numerals it generally means about. Elg tnqa- 

xHfXtllovs , about fmir thousand men. 

Frequently c is found before a genitive, the noun, to 

which it properly belongs, being omitted. 15 naidoiul- 

ftov, sc. olxor, to the teacher's house. 
*Eni, upon, against. 3 _,-r &QOVOV, upon a throne, ' En 

a v i 6 v, against him. 
Kara, according to, in relation to, in, on, near, during. Kara 

tov "Ourfoot, according to Homer. Kcna TO cupa, inre- 

lation to the body. Kara lov no\tp.ov, during the war. 
Mtia, after. Mtia ds t a v i a , and after these things. 
nctQu, to, besides, along, contrary to, on account of. ZZaga 

Kau/Svata, to Cambyses. nay a ta\na, besides these. 
After comparatives it means than, riroiai' av xal nag a 

ii\v tcavToiv cpvoiv author ff, they might become superior to 

their nature. 

ni(>l, synonymous with a/uq. 
Uf6c, to, in respect to, towards. II QO? -ndviag, to aU men. 

Kalbg ngb$ dqouov, good in running, or a good racer. 
'TniQ, over, beyond, against. 'Tniq rovg aLlovg, over the 

c TJIO, under, at. 'mb yijy, under the earth. 'Tnb "liiov, 

under Hion. 
C J2?, synonymous with n,*. It is always placed before nouns 

denoting intelligent objects. 


173. A SUBSTANTIVE which limits the mean- 
ing of another substantive, denoting a different 
person or thing, is put in the genitive. E. g. 

To -lipivos rov &tov, The temple of the god. 

Tor 'innuQZov Saratov, The death of Hipparchus. 

2xv&oiv fiaoiJirts, Kings of the Scythians. 

This rule applies also to the personal, reflexive, and recipro- 
cal pronouns, and to the indefinite pronoun dslra. 

The genitive thus used has been called the ADNOMINAL 


NOTE 1. The adnominal genitive denotes various relations, 
the most common of which are those of possession, quality, 
subject, object, material, source, a whole, component parts. 

208 SYNTAX. [ 174, 175. 

NOTE 2. The adnominal genitive is called subjective when 
it is equivalent to the subject-nominative ( 157. 1). It is 
called objective when it denotes the object of an action ($ 162. 
1). E. g.^Egyov 'llipalaTov, the work of Vulcan, that which 
Vulcan did, where the genitive is used subjectively. 'H UXQO- 
aaig rear ktyovrtav, the act of hearing the speakers, where 
the genitive is used objectively. 

NOTE 3. A substantive is sometimes followed by two geni- 
tives denoting different relations. E. g. TTJV nelonos unu- 
arjs IZshoHovviiaov xcndlijiifjiv, the taking of the whole of 
Peloponnesus by Pelops. 

174. POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS and adjectives implying 
possession, are frequently followed by a genitive, which is in 
apposition with the genitive implied in the possessive pronoun 
or adjective ( 67: 131. 1). E. g. 

Tov i^ibv ceVTov TOV TctlamraQov filov, The life of me, 
a miserable man. Here avrov rov Tahumutgov is in appo- 
sition with fyov implied in ipbv. 

ro(iyir]V xt(pa).T]V, dsivolo ntkuiQov, The head of Gorgo, 
a terrible monster. Here ro^ydrjv is equivalent to the 
genitive IOQ/OVS with which TiJlwpou is in apposition. 

NOTE. Under this head belong the adjectives fS/f, hfos, xotvos, elxtTts. E. g. 
T7f O.VTWI ilitit *afi%iiti rev t/ovy, to attend to their private affairs, 'ligos 
yag OVTS; ran XKTK %Savos <.uy , for he is consecrated to the iiiferrud deities. 
"Efyov xnvoy Aa *?a*ft yia v rt utti 'A9-*i ta! an, a work performed by 
t/te LaccdfB-monians and Athenians in common. "A /*i7 rut xaX*>; /3- 
fi^tvovTuv Ifft'i, which belong to those who rule well. 

175. The genitive is put after verbs signify- 
ing to be, to belong, to denote the person or thing 
to which any thing in any way BELONGS. E. g. 

C O Tidig yiuxedai^ovloiv earl, The boy belongs to the 

3 Avolas eoTi TO &T]Qui}&ai xtvd, It is characteristic of folly 

to be in pursuit of vain things. 
Elvat ixiav -tqidxovTa, To be thirty years old. 

Verbs of this class are ylyvo[, flfil, xvgtta, ntcpvxa and 

NOTE 1. This genitive is often preceded by the preposition wjof. E. g. 
Ac<0i7 vrpos B3gf Ifri, it is the characteristic of a man of parts. 

NOTE 2. Frequently the genitive after these verbs denotes 
the person or thing from which any thing proceeds. E. g. 
dagtlov xal naQvadndog ylyvovrai naldss dvo, of Da- 

176, 177.] GENITIVE. 209 

nws and Pary satis tico children were born, or Dar'ms and 
Parysatis had iwo sons. Or^rov niqvxag narpoc, thotl 
art the offspring of a mortal father. 

Sometimes the geniiive, in such instances, is preceded by in. 
E. g. nangos ix tavToii ytywg, being born of the same father. 

NOTE 3. Frequently the adjective Jf or the pronoun rig is to be supplied 
before this genitive ( 175,. E. g. Tvr> ymv, become one of thex. 

1 7G. The neuter of the article followed by a substantive 
in the genitive denotes something to which that substantive is 
related. E. g. 

Jtl tpiyfiv TO Tftjy &f<av, \Ve must bear what conies from 

the gods. 
To toil c Ofir,gov, That which Homer says. 

NOTE. This idiom gives rise to phrases like the following : 
Ta TJJJ o?/qc, for c /7 on/q, anger, wrath. Ta rr,q iftnu^lag, for 
c ll ffimiQiu, experience. Ta TW Ofiialiuv, for Ol Omaiol, the 
Thessalians. To TWV tnidvpiuv, for Al eni&vfiiat, desires. 

VERBS, denoting a PART, are followed by a genitive 
denoting the WHOLE. E. g. 

lExaarij TWX noltiav, Each of the states. 

OvStig f<av pdijaxlfor, No one of the young men. 

IIov -/r,? ,- TT7(c?-e 6n earth ? 

'O rimavq tov (tQt&ftov, Half the number. 

Tr,v niflaTtjv rjjg (ngutia?, The greatest part of tfo 

Tys uaoD-r^ av^v^v, A good deal of coal-dust. 

This rule applies to the genitive after numerals ( 60 : 61 : 
62. 4), after interrogative, indefinite, demonstrative, and relative 
words ( 68-71 : 73 : 123), after superlatives, and in general, 
after any adjective or adverb designating a part. 

NOTE 1. A participle preceded by the article is often fol- 

lowed by the genitive. ( 140. 3.) E. g. Qi xaTa^vyopre? 

a \JTUV, equivalent to 'Exeivoi avnav ot xortiyvyov, such of 
them as escaped. 

Sometimes fx is used in such cases. E. g. 'EX TUV ar#pw- 
i, to the prospering part of mankind. 

NOTE 2. The nature of the noun denoting the whole determines the number, 
in which the genitive is put. 


210 SYNTAX. [ 178. 

NOTE 3. The adjectives 2a//twf, 5rj, ra^a;, (r^trA/s;, and a few others, are 
often followed by the genitive plural. E.g. ATar yvvcuxuv, divine woman. 
TaXa/va ragSii/cut, unfortunate virgin. '2^ir\i' avl^ui, unfortunate 

It is supposed by many that the idea of superlativeness lies in these adjectives. 

2. Frequently the genitive denoting a whole depends on a 
neuter adjective, participle, or adjective pronoun. E. g. 
Mdaov ijpEQa?, The middle part of the day. 

aT()UTif)g TO noMbv, The greater part of the army. 
6 TtTQtxftfidvov rdav fiaQfiuQw, The defeated part of 
Hie barbarians. 

To this degree of necessity. 

NOTE 4. In some instances the neuter plural is used before this genitive 
( 177. 2). E. g. " A <r t> p. & fioiis, for "Air^sy pens, indistinct noise. 

NOTE 5. The genitive of the reflexive pronoun often follows 
an adjective of the superlative degree ; in which case the 
highest degree, to which a person or thing attains, is expressed. 
E. g. "On dsivoTUTog auvTov TUVTU i]a&n, when your skill in 
these matters tvas highest. Ty tvyvTaxr] sari amy ttovTijs, 
where it is widest. 

^ 178. 1. The genitive maybe put after any 
VERB, when the action does not refer to the whole 
object, but to a PART only. E. g. 

Hd/ATiEi TWV Av8wv, He sends some of the Lydians. But 

JIt[mti Tovg slvSoi'c, He sends the Lydians. 
Ttav xQfoJv Exlsmov, I stole some pieces of the meat. 
A a ft 6 v TO. Toiv raivKuv, Taking some of the fillets. 

2. Particularly, the genitive is put after VERBS 
signifying to partake, to enjoy, to obtain, to inherit, 


& yd a toy, I partake of courage. 
dvvafi^cag xotvcovovai, They partake of the power. 

Verbs of this class are avudm, <xno).ai'(o, arvxiw, tnavqiaxo- 
ftat, xlr^ovofj.eo}, xoiviaviw, xvgtia, layxavw, ^JTaAa^ai'w, 
/jccra), [iTt%(, ovlvctuai, avvatQOftat, Tvyxdrca, and some others. 

NOTE 1. Sometimes /ttifa;, part, is found after /tn-aXay^axw and fttri%*. 
E. g. MfS^i^t/y Ttttfeu ftlfnf, about to partake of burial. 

Miri%a is also found with the accusative in which one participates. E. g. 
MinT^if rett ifui irXtfyaf fftii, thon di'Lst receive the same number of 

strijtes with me. 

179.] GEXITIVE. 

'A<rAai;, Itt.yx.a.'iti, and <ru-y%iint are often followed by the accusative. 
E.g. 'Aa-*Xcu'i<> ? i , to enjoy any thing. 'Ayxunc <rv%*i, hitting the 

K).r,tiitu.'it>, inherit, in some instances takes the accusative of the thing in- 
herited. The name of the person of whom one inherits is put in the genitive, 
and depends on the thing inherited. E.g. K A tif titfult to. xrrifixr* 
rtiet, to inherit the possessions of any one. Later authors put even the name 
of the person in the accusative. 

?SOTE 2. The genitive in connection with fiirton and nqoa- 
r t depends on the subject (expressed or understood) of these 
verbs. E. g. 'tlv ur/dir fisQog TOIC Troi^ooTc [ttTtaTi,in ichich 
the wicked do not participate. Ovx w'fio nnoa^nftv ovdfvl 
UQXI]:, he thought that no jterson ought to rule. 

NOTE 3. The preposition t| or i* is sometimes used before this genitive 
( 178. 1). E. g. A/3*r lx rtii ifff'^uj, taking some (or one) of the 

^ 179. 1. VERBS signifying to take hold of, to 
touch, to fed, to hear, to taste, to smell, are followed 
by the genitive. E. g. 

Terror, Take hold of this man. 

atTciJi, To touch them. 
Ft van i Tijs ^rprcc, Knock at the door, literally Taste of 
the door. 

Verbs of this class are ala&uvopai, a'toi, oxot'o), axQoaoftcu, 
uniQiiHt, ytvouai, doitaaouai, i^oudi, -tity/firo), xlita, laftpcrrouut, 
o.To, oa<foairouat, TKIOUOIICU, 7[vrftdro/.iai, tfiava), and some 

2. Verbs signifying to take hold of are frequently followed 
by the accusative of the object taken hold of, and the genitive 
of the part by which it is taken. E.g. 'EldfiovTo if)g 
TOX 'OfjovTtjv, they took Or antes by the girdle. 

NOTE 1. 'Axavv and its synonymes, and Siyyjiiti and ^ai/w, are frequently 
followed by the accusative. E. g. 'A*y<r; rttvrm, hearing these things, 

NOTE 2. Frequently aJ and its synonymes take that which is heard in the 
acciuntire, and that from which the thing heard proceeds, in the genitive. E. g. 
T a>S <Jri/>, inquire of the travellers about the 

NOTE 3. Ttiiu, cause to taste, is followed by the accusative of the person, 
and the genitive of the thing. E. g. Tiunr niirii ruts, to make him 
taste of any thing. 

Frequently this verb is followed by two accusnliivs . E. g. Fivr* ft 
iSv, I trill gioe thee wine to taste. 

5212 SYNTAX. [ 180, 181. 

18O. 1. VERBS denoting to let go, to cease, 
to desist, to free, to miss, to separate, to escape, are 
followed by the genitive. E. g. 

To VTOV /j,s&iea&ai, To let this man go. 
*Ayafj.i[iv(av lyy' tQidos, Agamemnon left off his wrath 
Jiiagov aMyltov, They separated from each other. 

Verbs of this class are aAvaxw, (tfictQTuivfa, dftnlttxlaxta, ans- 
%oficii, (XTioAttTro/uat, uTiouTUTttt), vKplfpai, 8ii%M, ti'xu) retreat, ix- 

td/jj^ut commonly fis&iiftttt, fis 
ita, tptvyw, %(aqiw t and some others. 

2. Transitive verbs of this class are followed by the accusa- 
tive of the immediate, and the genitive of the remote, object. 

Jlavco OK TOVTOV, Intake tJiee cease from this. 

Tffv *Aalr\v diovyl(av iijs Aifi\n]<;, Separating' Asia 
from Libya. 

Such verbs are aftvvm, anctMtxaata, anexta, a<plaTijfii, dioQi^oi, 
tl^/ca, tltv&sgow, lpi]TV(a, mx&ptfoQi, xwlvw, kv(, Tfotvw, and some 

NOTE. The genitive in connection with verbs signifying to free, to cease, 
sometimes depends on the preposition i* or aora. E. g. Hetu<rer ix x,a,*.ui 
ifti, deliver me from evil. 

implying fulness, emptiness, bereavement, are fol- 
lowed by the genitive. E. g. 

IJfvlctg r) TTO/US t/ffiev, The city was full of poverty. 
Ktvuv doSaaftdrcav nlriQtii;, Full of vain notions. 
TKIV TS&vijxoTwv alis, Enough of dead persons. 

Words of this class are adr)r, uhq, ttft^ardta, anoxia, ai 
acpvfio?, PQI&CI), YifiK>, dio) and dio t uai, tntStr'jg, i'grjfto?, 
xsvog, fisaroc, 7iivr\g, nivofiai,, nliwg, nlri&w, n).i]QTi?, 
anavlfya, x^rj^w, and some others. 

2. Transitive verbs of this class are followed by the accusa- 
tive of the immediate, and the genitive of the remote, object. 

voa<pit?s (5lov , Thou wilt deprive Paris of life. 

Such verbs are anoartgim, l^rjfiom, xfrdw, xogivvvpi, 
voa(pi/a(a, 7tifiJiJ.j}f^i, nlygow, and some others. 

$$ 182, 183.] GENITIVE. 213 

NOTE 1. Jii and %or t are followed by the accusative of a 
person and the genitive of a thing. E. g. Aviov at dtl 
r,& iu t , thou thyself ncedest a Prometheus. Tea at 
what wantcst thou? 

NOTE 2. Jil sometimes takes the dative of the person and 
the genitive of the thing. E. g. Jttrtor aoi @ovltvpdj<av 
toixt 3 fir nQog aviov, it seems that thou must employ profound 
reasoning against him. 

1 82. VERBS signifying to remember, to for- 
get, to admire, to contemn, to desire, to care for, 
to spare, to neglect, to consider, to understand, are 
followed by the genitive. E. g. 

fiov, Remember me. 

TIJ? aytirj?, To admire virtue. 

sTu&vftiHg, Thou dcsirest great things. 

Verbs of this class are a-/apai, aityl^w, antnoiio/jai, 

f(ftf t uai, 

&avo[, /.if.utriuiti, uifirr^uxofKa, urr.uorfvoi, ttitjrtMttt, OQf 

ciTi'tjut, vTifonoiio), (ffloofiai, qr^ori/ 3 *o>, and some others. 

NOTE 1. Most verbs of this class often take the accusatire instead of the 
genitive. E.g. 4>{T/*Tf T THHUTM, caring about such things. 

NOTE 2. Mifiijirx* and X*Sa or }.r,$a, and tlicir compounds, are followed 
by the accusative of the person, and the genitive of the thing. E. g. '**.- 
ftttfif <ri I rtTf if , and lie reminded him rf Iris father. 'E * 2i fti r*f- 
rui X i) & * > 1 1 , and makes me forget all things. 

Sometimes [UUIJICKU is followed by two accusatives- E. g. O< ''E-ytrraTti 
Zvfifia.%ia.t axtftiftftfictrris 'ASi>/4;, the Egestians reminding 
the Athenians iif their alliance. 

NOTK 3. MiXu, it is a care, it is a concern, is generally followed by the 
dative of the person, and the genitive of the thing. E.g. Mt'Xu rti -rturtv, 
thou carest fur this. ( 157. N. 8.) 

NOTE 4. The genitive in connection with some of these rerbs sometimes de- 
pends on a preposition. E. g. Hm.Ais rift rtv ifttu ftn pnt<r$tirt 
In, as la my son, make no mure mention nfliim. TLiol <r*i in \\yj-r-ru xj 
l ~S.ixsf.ta. iutxtSai $trritii t to be able to take care of the affairs of Egifltt 
and Sicily. 

^ 1 83. 1. VERBS signifying to accuse, to prose- 
cute, to convict, are followed by the accusative de- 
noting the person accused, and the genitive denot- 
ing the crime. E. g. 

214 SYNTAX. [ 184. 

*l as 8 n lifts;, I will prosccutr. you for cowardice. 
dwyiav kilo riff, Convicting Clean of bribery. 

Verbs of this class are itloiw, alrninptti, diy.ii^M, ditaxia, ilau/6ii, 

REMARK 1 . <I>ji/y, am accused, and ?./;, to be convicted, are followed 
only by the genitive. E. g. 'Aft&i'i*s (fivyaira, accused of impiety. 
'Ev T/J X x A. ?;, if any one shall be convicted of theft. 

A.lria.efio.1, accuse, is sometimes followed by two accusatives. 

2. VERBS of this class compounded with the 
preposition XCCTCC are followed by the genitive of 
the person and the accusative denoting the crime 
or punishment. E. g. 

2savTov xcna8 ixdti? d-dvatov, Thou condcmncst thy- 
self to death. 

Such verbs are xaTaytyrfaaxtit, xaiaftixa&i, xctTny.Qivta, 

REMARK 2. The accusative is often wanting after these verbs ( 183. 2). 
E.g. K.etTH'yagtT* avrav, to accuse him. 

NOTE 1. Karnyegiu is sometimes followed by two genitives. E.g. !!- 
fftffttit ctvrov xKrtiy>ogt7v, to indict hint for wifuitlifuHy discharging 
his duties as ambassador. 

NOTE 2. The noun denoting the punishment is sometimes put in the genitive. 
In classical Greek, however, only SavaT^u is found in connection with verbs of 
this sort. E. g. Q a, v 0,70V vva.ya.yui ALX/r/aSta tileoxi, he accused Militia- 
des capitally. 

NOTE 3. "Evoxoi;, under sentence, guilty, which generally is 
followed by the dative ($ 196. 1), sometimes takes the genitive. 

'Tntv&vroc:, guilty, is followed by the genitive denoting the 

184. 1. VERBS signifying to begin, to ride, 
to surpass, are followed by the genitive. E. g. 

"Agz* f*<*X'n i >' Begin the fight. 

^Tiagrris dvuoawv, Ruling Sparta. 

nd VTiav SianQsnti?, Thou surpasscst all men. 

Verbs of this class are aravaa, agioTtvia, HQXO>, fiaodivia, 8t- 
ano^ta, Sianginw, dieufigw excel, inunoniia, xaliiaitvofiat, 
xoipaveio, xQareo), ntyiytytofittH, ittQttifit, Tipof^w 
nrjuuli'ta, ojQattiyta, -IVQUVVIVW, inigfidiMo), vntQtxu), and some 

185, 186.] GENITIVE. 215 

NOTE 1. Those derived from substantives or adjectives may be said to take 
the genitive in consequence of the noun implied in them. EL g. T 3-* 
ix-jTiii; iiScu-Tui afirriuratrn is equivalent to a^irrti *S" 
utoTivf iiSturai r,r**, having surjtatsed the men of their times, ( 177.) 

NOTE. 2. Some verbs of this class are sometimes followed by the dative or 
accusative. E. g. Ki^'ixirr' ataeirnt aiarrvt, ruling over the 

NOTE 3. 'Atxtrrv is, in Homer, sometimes followed by the preposition fttrti 
with the dative. E. g. (II. 1, 252.) 

2. Causative verbs of this class are followed by the accusa- 
tive and genitive. E. g. ;v<x ut- f t 'otn) rj? tz&^ag, his 
valor affects me more than his enmity. ( 205. 2.) 

Such verbs are nxatt, liQoxaraxilrm, ntjoxglvo], and some 

1 85. Many VERBAL ADJECTIVES which have 
an active signification are followed by the genitive. 

Tqiptav 'mitixrjg , Skilled in konemimtltip. 
'AQZIXOS av&go)7i(r, Qualified to rule men. 

Adjectives of this class are pWwf, 5o;.% nJVio.% ttxaldnnof, 
td(fi<;, Ivaaria;, To;'3oiv. Also many adjectives in jj^/oc, ixo?, as 
iiixrijjio.:, o^xd,-, (^^ 131. 1 : 129. 2.) Also many adjectives 
in ijc, oc, IIMV, as 0*9x00$ <5jjV, SttTjuoir, ( 132. 4, 5.) 

NOTE 1. Sometimes adjectives of this class are followed by the accusative, 
provided the verbs, from which they are derived, take the accusative. E. g. 
T;//3 T T/3i, skiile:! in such tfuu^s. 

NOTE 2. Adjectives of this class, which are derived from verbs followed by 
the genitive, are often said to take the genitive in consequence of the verb im- 
plied in them. E. g. atr.xus takes the genitive because i*sya is followed by 
the genitive ( 179). 

NOTE 3. Sometimes the genitive or accusative, in connection with adjectives 
of this class, depends on the preposition trtf/. 

^186. 1. The genitive is put after ADJECTIVES 
and AB VERBS of the COMPARATIVE degree to de- 
note that with which the comparison is made. E. g. 

TOVTOV, Superior to this man. 

NOTE 1. When the substantive which is compared is the 
same as that with which it is compared, the latter is omit- 
ted, provided it be limited by a genitive ( 173). The 

216 SYNTAX. [ 187. 

ambiguity which may arise from this construction can be re- 
moved only by considering the nature of the statement. E. g. 
XWQO.V fyne ovSev yTTOV rffj,MV tvTifiov, for Xwgav t^trs 
ovdsv fjtTov Trjg x^Q'*? ^/"wv tntuov, you have a country not less 
valuable than ours. 

2. The genitive is put after some positive adjectives and 
adverbs implying a comparison. E. g. 
other than those who noio arc. 

Adjectives of this class are dAAoto?, /.Ao?, wA 
dLoupoyo? different, IVfpo?, ^jU/o'JUoc, ntgitTog. Also numeral ad- 
jectives in nloog or nlaaiot; ^62. 2). 

REMARK. A/pgf and aXXerg/as are sometimes followed by tlie dative. 

NOTE 2. 'Eyr/f, which commonly is followed bv the dative, sometimes 
takes the genitive. The following example shows, th;it the idea of comparison 
lies in this adjective : Tal/vay rim l^uv, ri ^aftjx.' aura voiuv, doing contrary 
to what he ought to do, (Aristoph. Plut. 14.) 

NOTE 3. Aia<pi{u, differ, and its derivative S;^sjTf, differently, are fol- 
lowed by the genitive, because they imply a comparison. E.g. A*pu 
v>) <ruv XA.w ^utav, mem differs from the other animals. 

NOTE 4. Sometimes this genitive depends on atr! or rot. E.g. Mf<'* 
aTi Tjjf avrau rocT^as ip/Xv vo/At^ti, he loves another wore than his oum 
country. Oiiriv YI <rvgttwi{ trjtf tXeuSs/>is Jv eif^ritffrdriftt, to whom 
tyranny was more welcome than liberty. 

NOTE 5. When the conjunction \], than, is introduced, the 
word compared, and the noun with which it is compared, are 
put in the same case. E. g. Millttg in urdoa? ajQanvmOui 
antlvora? % 2xvQ a? , tliou art about to march against men 
superior to the Scythians. To I? (Suaiiifvat, ruiv slaxidmpo- 
vLwv adixttv TJTTOV l'|f0Ttv ij rolg id Kara ic, the kings of the 
Lacedcemonians have less power to do harm than private indi- 

NOTE 6. Sometimes the nominative is used after %, the context determining 
its verb. E. g. Tt~s itwrigait xai ,<aAXsv uit/u.a^/>ufif * iyw, aratrivu, 
sc. uxftei^v, I advise the young who are more vigorous tlian I am. 'H,tt> 
cifAiivav, txtfvn, TO ^lAXov foavotofttvav, SC. srjja;vTa/, we foreseeing tlie 
future better than they. 

187. 1. The genitive is often used to denote 
that on account of which any thing takes place. 

ZijAco as Trig tiifiovilag, I admire you for your wisdom. 
Tt) vpniQa nolti Tje yiqq r^$ in 'jlgcaTiltav dsSofiiri]? cp&o- 

vovai, They are jealous of your city, on account of the 

land given to you by the Oropiani 

188.] GENITIVE. 

2. The genitive, with or without an interjection, is used in 
exclamations. E. g. 'Ji n6ati8ot>, TOV ^a'xpovc, Neptune, what 
a length! Kal TV '<5 JieJjrors /5oi-$ xqipuvliaq ,- TUV aAao- 
v s vp a T w , anc? *rAo ever s?0 whole oxen roasted in the oven ? 
tohat tough stories ! 

3. The genitive after verbs signifying to entreat denotes 
the person or thing, for the sake of which the person entreated 
is to grant the request. E. g. Mr, // yovvtav yovvdfo, 
jitds Toxt;'o>r, do nut entreat me by my knees, nor by my 
parents. Frequently the preposition vniq, unl, or TI^O'C, is 
placed before this genitive. 

4. Sometimes the genitive, in connection with a passive 
form, denotes the subject of the action. E. g. Iliijytls 
d-vyaTfioe -iris f*ys vitiq xdoa, being struck in the head by 
my daughter. 

5. Sometimes the genitive denotes the instrument of an ac- 
tion. E.g. ntjfjoai TIVQOS Sr t 'i'oio dvQttQtt, to burn the gates 
with burning jure. 

^188. 1. The genitive is used to denote that 
in respect of which any thing is affirmed. E. g. 

tqatrog yorov, Childless in respect to male of" 
spring, in other words, Having no sons. 
a vv TOV ye titoi {tt.dniovai xtlev & ov, Rut the gods now 
injure him in respect to his way, that is, hinder him. 
*Eo\njav rjdt] uvSpug uiiitl^v, Being now of the right age to 
be married. 

2. The genitive is used to limit the meaning of the following 
ADVERBS : tiyxi or uffav t uvoi, oljfn, t'/yvz, fxV, l&v or l&v$ t 
r/.iieo, xTO7r<i', xuro), xovcpK, A#, ntiag, Triijotov, .T>'<;OOI, Ttgdaw, 
n 4 ).ui', T^io&ir, and some others. E. g. 'yyvg nvog,ntar 
any thing. 

NOTE. *E; and Sxu, Kmhed by an adverb, are often followed by the 
genitive. E. g. 'fit <! * uf , a* fatt as he could run. El n*it 
6 ! a v, to be well off" as to -property. 

3. The genitive is put after verbs denoting to take aim at, 
to rush against, to thrmo at. E.g. 'EOT o% 'fi o TOI- pfi- 
QUXIOV, he teas taking aim at the stripling. *O'i'<jTfvaov 
M frilaov, shoot an arrow at Meneldus. Avio~io 

TO, he took aim at him. 


218 SYNTAX. [$189-191. 

^ 189. The genitive is used after VERBS and 
ADJECTIVES to denote the MATERIAL of which any 
thing is made. E. g. 

Xulxov Tioiiovtai ayul[iaia, Statues arc made of brass. 
'P.i vov 7i o t 77 r 77 v , Made of ox-hide. 

NOTE. The prepositions i, iva, are often used before the genitive. E. g. 
Ejjua.ra v | v X v rr i * < i|/t ( r* , garments made of cotton cloth . 

^ 19<K 1. The noun denoting the PRICE of any 
thing is put in the genitive. E. g. 

raq yvvtxag nctqu TWV yovwv XQ 
l.<av, They buy their wives of their parents for much 

Tor v novMV Titalovaiv i]uiv navrce inyn&' ol #ao/, The 
gods sell to us every good thing for labor. 

NOTE 1. Sometimes the thing -bought is in the genitive, in which case the 
verb of the proposition does not signify to buy or to sell. E. g. "A raj <r'i %fif 
i/3a /u,t fit-rot TO* Ilair/av ; T j i7s ftva.7 S / <f />! <rx av, Then wluit debt came upon 
me next to Pasias's ? Three minee far a little cnrrifige. 

NOTE 2. The dative ($ 198) is sometimes used for this genitive. E. g. 
OjVvT, aXXa; pit %a\x.u, aXX 2* a79-&/y; ffilv^a, they bought wine, 
some for brass, others for bright iron. 

2. 'l'/Stoc, ^'w?, and WI-JJTOC are followed by the genitive. E. g. 
Ji'Ti o v d ij 5 1 1 a , deserving serious consideration, 

NOTE 3. *A%iei is sometimes followed by the dative ( 196. 1), in which 
case it meansjit, proper, becoming. 

NOTE 4. The verb <oo). think worthy, is followed by the 
accusative of a person, and the genitive of a thing. E. g. 
'A$ t ova iv ptyulwv, they think him worthy of great 

^191. 1. The genitive often answers to the 
question WHEN ? E. g. 

Tijg vvxio? vffioviai, They feed in the night. 

2. Sometimes the genitive answers to the question HOW 
LONG SINCE? E. g. Holov % Q 6 v o v nt TiogdriTtu ; how 
long since the city has been taken? Jl oil air fi<av ivftude 
ovx t7iidtdi]fiT]xfv, he has not been at home for many years. 

3. Sometimes the genitive answers to the question HOW 
SOON? E. g. TQIHXOVTU Ti(jitQb)v uno Tuvii)q Tijg r t fii(>ag t 
within thirty days from this day. 

192.] <;ENITIVE. 219 

Sometimes the adverb / rro? accompanies this genitive. E 5. 
'ATO? ov jioAAot- xyorov, jcithin a short time. 

^ 192. A substantive with a participle is very 
often put in the genitive, to denote the TIME or 
CAUSE of, or any CIRCUMSTANCE connected with, 
an action. E. g. 

TIT' Inoaj^f, Aorwro? aiQmr t yovvTo : , These things 
were done when L'onon was general. Here the genitive 
denotes the time when raiii' {ngn/th,. 

Tslt VT jffavioc ^flvaxTCM, izediSaio rijv /SuaiAJjtijv KQOI- 
aoc, After the death of A li/attcs, Crcctm received the king- 

The genitive thus used is called the GENITIVE ABSOLUTE. 

REMARK 1 . Strictly speaking the genitive absolute is a modification of the 
genitive of time ' 191). 

NOTE 1. In some instances the genitive of the participle ai is wanting. E. g. 
r n vfnynrSt, who being leaders, where OT> must be supplied. 

NOTE 2. Frequently we, UUTIIO, war?, utt, oia, that, as if, in- 
asmuch as, on the supposition that, stand before this genitive. 
E. g. 

-J2{ tod {XOVTWV Tolrfl' ixtaTao&ai of /o>l, Thou must 
know that thetc things are so. 

REMARK 2. Instead of the genitive, the accusative is often used in connection 
with the abovementioned particles. E. g. Oi^ vfyu Xiy* ?', XX' i*i7- 
Jf *u.{iT'a tiit, I do not say these tilings out of wantonness, but because 
I believe that lie is near us. 'flf i| >f3; rtuTi <tlr>7;, i <ri *> faultiiTt, 
inasmuch as they Itad now the liberty to do what tltey ]>leased. (See 1 68. N. 2.) 

NOTE 3. When the subject of a proposition is not expressed 
( 157. N. 8), the participle alone is put in the genitive abso- 
lute. E. g . "royroc TTO/UW, it raining heavily, which in the 
indicative is "Tti TIO//.W, it rains heavily. 

NOTE 4. The genitive absolute is used also when the sub- 
ject is a proposition commencing with on, .that. ($ 159. 1.) E. g. 
^itfftii; dijAfc) &iri o g OTI tv nil; rrtv<,l ntv 'BUujrmr, x. r. i., it 
being quite apparent, that in the ships of the Greeks, fyc., 
which in the indicative is .^gro"? idr^u&n on iv rate, x. r. L, 
the subject of which is on iv ruis, x. i. L 

In such instances, the genitive plural is sometimes used. 
!. g. EiaayytlQ-ivTiav OTI fliolnoaai injf? en* avrov; r'ni- 
nlfor, it bung announced that Phoenician ships were sailing 
against them, where, however, the plural vijej may be said to 
affect the participle. 

220 SYNTAX. [ 193, 194. 

NOTE 5. But when the subject of the proposition is an in- 
finitivc ( 159. 2), the accusative is used instead of the geni- 
tive absolute. For examples, see above ( 108. N. 2.) 

1O3. Frequently the genitive answers to the question 
WHERE? E. g. Ovu "Agyeog i]fv ; was he not in Argos / 
A a i a? x f iQ? olxovai Xalvfiic, on the left hand dwell the 

194. The genitive is put after the following 


3 Afji<fi, synonymous with nt^l. 

"Aviv, without. "Aviv iftev, without him. 

Avil, instead of, for. Av&*, ipariov fyfiv Juxpf. to have a 

rag instead of a garment. 'Avrl no lug alt laq , for what 


It is often used in comparisons with respect to value. 

rwatxos p' uvtl T8Tv*o, you are now equivalent to a 

woman. (See also 186. N. 4.) 
3 An6, from. *Anb 'j/Ato vn6liog,from, Heliopolis. In general 

this preposition denotes motion from one place to another. 
"AHQ, synonymous with Svev. 

"AXQIS or UXQI, until. "AXQI xveyao?, till evening. 
Jiu, through, by means of, with the assistance of, in. Aia. ir t q 

TidAea)?, through the city. Jia vvxrog, in (or during} the 

"Evtxa, on account of, for the sake of, in respect of, as to. T ov 

inaivtla&at iv txa, for the sake of being praised. Uutdu 

TE aov uTtJJUora rov (fvluoaovrog t'ivty.iv ngouSoxu TO* 

aTiovoarr^eiv, so far as his guardian is concerned, expect 

thy son to return safe. 

'E$ or Ix, out of, from, of. 3 Ex Trjg olxlag, from the house. 
In connection with passive forms it is equivalent to vno, 

by. Ta Ifx&tv-iu *$ 'AliStivoQov, the words spoken by 

*Enl, on, upon, to, during. 3 Enl TWV xtrpaiwv, upon their 

heads. 3 Enl Snydnav, to Sardes. 3 Enl UQ%OVTOS Ev- 

&vxJi.eovg, during the archonship of Euthycles, or when 

Euthycles was archon. 

Kami, against, down from, on, upon. KUT* tftov, against me. 
Mnd, with, together with. Mtia TMV nuldiar, with my 

MixQ 1 ? or (jifx? l > until, as far as. Mex? 1 IOVTOV, until this 


195.] DATIVE. 221 

Ilugn, f rom i of. JVorotW nay a aov iaptar, receiving gold 
from thee. 

Ilttjl, concerning, about, in respect to. neql *A&iiv<av, about 

Irtr,v, except. 

II{jo, before, in preference to. 77oo &VQUV, before the doors. 
II qo TOVTOIV TOJV xaxdav r,u1v ps xotaaov xat otiuv AAo 
na&ifiv fvtl, it is better for us to suffer any thing else than 
thfse ttils. ( 1?6. N. 4.) 

77poV, of, for, on the side of. IT $6$ TjctTod? i 
a tomb-breaker on his father's side. 77^05 Ttuv 
in behalf of the rich. 

So in protestations, ^i TIOOC rov aov idxvav Ixvavpai, 
I btficrh thce by thy child. 

In connection with passive forms it is equivalent to vno, by. 
IZ&eifav pad s fir TO TioifVfitvov nqbg *daxtdaifiovl(i>i : , 
wit/ting to know that which was done by the Lacedaemonians, 
io, over, above, in behalf of , for the take f. 'TTIIQ rifiuv 
*;, passing ever ns. Ta If got rn &vo t ufva VTISQ 
Troifwc, the victims ofered in behalf of the city. Ala- 
anfi' VTIIQ V v /^?> I beseech thce by thy life. 

' J*7io, under. 'Tq>' fiof.imo:, under the car. In connection 
with passive verbs, by. ngoaxwovpsvog r,dr, we 3<tffilfv$ 
vno Twir aucp' orrov, being noic saluted as king by his at- 


^ 195. 1. The dative is used after ADJECTIVES, 
ADVERBS, and VERBS, implying resemblance, union, 
approach. E. g. 

"fxflo? 4 it, Resembling Jupiter. 

^laxrdaifiovloig Si ctfiajf ta &ai, To jight with the Lace- 

Words of this class are adtitfog resembling, axolovfrlta, axo'- 
Aoi'^oc, Mfin, rAcfToc, dirr/favi^ouai, diadf^o^ai, diais/Of^ai, tlxo- 
Tw?, ic/.oj look like, resemble, tnopni, tQr(a, I'xtlos, J'ao,', facac, 
[uHzopai, o t uoi; and its compounds and derivatives, nalulw, 
TiaQmtirfUio;, nl.r t aiog, noit/jtu, wacti'Kag, and many others. Add 
to these the adverbs a/^o?, J//KC, TI&WC, which commonly take 
the genitive ($ 188. 2). 

2. Transitive verbs of this class are followed by the accu- 
sative of the immediate, and the dative of the remote ob- 

222 SYNTAX. [ 196. 

ject. E. g. Kgatfi nQoasfii^e 3t OTIOTIJV, Tie led his master 
to victory. 

Such verbs are tixa(o, [tlyvvfjn, O/AOIOIO, and some others. 

NOTE 1. The adjectives opius and a2sX<pf, and those compounded with <rv* 
and epov, are sometimes followed by the genitive ( 188). Ks<v',-, common, 
which usually takes the dative, is followed by the genitive, when it implies pos- 
session, ( 174. N.) 

NOTE 2. When the substantive, which depends on luof or 
o'juotoc, is the same as that with which I'aog or o^oiog agrees, 
the former is omitted, and the noun which limits it ( 173) 
is put in the dative. E.g. jKoficti XvtyiTtaaiv ofiolui, for 
KoyLtti ofjoiai -tetig xofjiaiq TOJV Xugiifar, hair resembling that of 
the Graces. Ov [iirttxeg rag I'aag nk^yuq Ifiol, t/tou didst not 
receive the same number of stripes with me. 

NOTE 3. The pronoun o a in 6?, the same, ( 144. 3,) is 
often followed by the dative. In general, however, the dative, 
to which 6 aviog directly refers, is omitted, and the limiting 
noun (^ 173) is put in the dative, ($ 195. N. 2.) E. g. Ovdiv 
TOJV avttav txelvoig n^aTTOfier, we do nothing like the things 
which they did, where iwr UVTMV refers to the deeds, and Ixilroig 
to the doers. 

NOTE 4. Eft sometimes imitates < aMs. E. g. "0; ifte) ftiZf lyiiir* 
ix ftaTtgas, who jrroceeded from the same mother as I. 

^ 196. 1. The dative is used to denote that to 
which the quality of an ADJECTIVE or ADVERB 
is directed. E. g. 

rot? (pilot?, Dear to his friends. 
&ol?, Most hateful to the gods. 

Adjectives of this class are uya&oe, oto^ooc, eravtlo? tixgr]- 
aro?, t'x&go?, rjdvg, xodog, no&fivos, Qadiog, ipllng, xalsnog, and 
many others. 

2. The dative is used after VERBS, to denote the 
object to or for which any thing is done. E. g. 

Eor)$s~tv T>J ndrQtt, To aid the country . 

Tolg &HVOVCH nXovrog ovStv wytlsl, Wealth in no way 

benefits the dead. 

jtvfictivofievri TW vsxgta, Abusing the dead body. 
'flZQot Ural fioi doxelg, Thou seemest to me to be pale. 

This rule applies also to the dative after IMPERSONAL VERBS 
( 159. N. 1, 2). E. g. Joxtl (io i, it seems tome 

197.] DATIVE. 

Verbs of this class are ali M, avddvta, aQtaxta, a^'/ca, o- 
/3or t &i(a, doxtco, ii'xca yield, iro^iita, inriyxiw, tnixovgitt, 
, xctTuxovoi, lajyfvto, ivuuirouai, i-vatniio), Ao'.5ao;uat, 
, nufftyyvuta, nti&<j t uai, noinw, jigorjiumjai 
r;rxoi;w, ntlxtt, VTiom^aata, imoiidifiat, ffdoriio, 
, and many others. 

Nora 1. Many verbs of this class are sometimes followed by the accusative 
( 163. 1) instead of the datire. 

3. The dative is used after verbs signifying to be, to denote 
that to which any thing belongs. E. g. 

7V>U(. nalSf; r t aar xalol re xdyadoi, Ttllus had good and 
noble children. 

NOTE 2. The substantive in the dative after that, 
is often accompanied by a participle signifying wt//ing-, being 
phased, expecting. E. g. Ol /vporwnarfu tirror, ovx > afftai 
Poviofiirois t>'t, the Crotunians said that they should not 
be willing. 

The participles, of which the dative accompanies the sub- 
stantive, are /?ofio//tvoc, f'inofitros, $4o/Mrof, &il<av, n^oadfxofzoog. 
Add to these the adjective Sxur. 

Verbs signifying to come sometimes imitate iltai. E. g. 
/(/roj'axoj 5' o>^ ogpcuty ftldofifvotair txorw, / know that 
you longed for my arrival. 

4. Many transitive VERBS of this class ( 196. 2) are fol- 
lowed by the accusative of the immediate, and the dative of the 
remote, object. E. g. 

J id at u i aoi loi'To, I give this to thee. 

NOTE 3. A few verbs denoting to give apart (as uiTudlStoui) 
are often followed by the dative of a person, and the genitive 
of the thing imparted ( 178. 1). 

5. The dative is put after the INTERJECTIONS of, w, iw, and 
oval. E.g. O I ft o i , woe is me. 

197. 1. The dative is often used to denote 
that with regard to which any thing is affirmed. 

Jlfaiiffra anovdris 5$ia rij no'/Ut, Of the utmost considera- 
tion with regard to the state, or Deserving the most serious 
attention of the state. 

2(piav (tiv frroif] ACoq ?# rtiog 8r}, As to you two, the com- 
mand of Jupiter is now done. 

224 SYNTAX. [ 198. 

So Ano ). opart Ivi^g no).iog Vw lovti uvantf tan TO %to()lor, 
to a person going up from the city Elephantine the country ap- 
pears steep. 

NOTE 1. This dative is often preceded by the particle w?. 
E. g. 'EnilntQ ti yivvuioq wq IOOVTI, since thou art of noble 
descent to one who sees t/iec, or rather, as thy appearance in- 

Hence the_ phrase Jlg t^ol, or "jig y' l^ol, in my opinion. 
E. g. KQ&UV t]v ?jAonoc, a*; ejiol, nori, Crcon was once, in my 
opinion, in an enviable condition. 

NOTE 2. Frequently the dative of the personal pronoun is 
apparently superfluous. E. g. Elni^frid poi, Tguf$, ayavov 
Ihovr t og TIUCTQI (plim fnjTyl yorjfitrai, O Trojans, do tell the 
beloved father and mother of illustrious llioncus to bewail, 
where /H might have been omitted without any essential in- 
jury to the sense. *Atta a' ig 'lllioiov ntdlov a&dvuioi nifiifjov- 
aiv, ovrfx' f'xfi? f E\ivr t v, aapiv ytt^oof diog taai, but the 
immortals roill send thee to the Elysian fields, because thou hast 
Helen for thy wife, and art son-in-law to Jupiter, where the 
dative acplv, referring to aOnvami, implies that the person, to 
whom tre refers, is a favorite of the gods. 

2. The dative is often used to limit any word or 
expression. E. g. 

dvvaTol ytvopivoi ro7,$ ataftaai xal rats ifiv^als, Be- 
coming strong both in body and soul. Here the dative 
denotes that in which they became strong. 

fxsxauTo, He was eminent icith the spear. 

NOTE 3. The dative is put after comparatives to denote the 
excess of one thing over another. E. g. /Zo'it loyifiy ij 
Vi>U? /f.yovs aa&EvtarsQi], Greece has become weaker by one 
distinguished city. 

NOTE 4. Particularly, the dative is often used to limit the 
meaning of a substantive, in which case it is nearly equiva- 
lent to the adnomi.nal genitive ( 173). E. g. 

Orjpaiaiv ava$, King of Thebes. 

Joan; av&anoiaiv, A gift to men. Here the dative is 
used objectively, (173. N. 2.) 

198. The dative is used to denote the cause, 
manner, means, and instrument. E. g. 

199, 200.] DATIVE. 225 

Tot? ntTigayuivoig a/a/wo'/m-oi, Being ashamed of their 

past acts. 
A^opo) I'tno t$ TOV? j&xp.&xpov?) They went running against 

the barbarian*. 
Tw a co ft an f^ya'^o^ivoq, ^Vorking with his body. 

NOTE 1. The dative after the verb xQriouai, avail myself, 
use, and its compounds, may be referred to this head. E. g. 
X o<a uf &a avToj, we use it. 

NOTE 2. This dative sometimes depends on it, rvi, u-r't. E. g. 'Bsi/r* i ? 
i ft. u ttr 11, seeing with my eyes. "I *' " T> Aii/ Sa^i/j), that he might 
fall by the hands of JEneas. 

199. The dative is used to denote that by which any 
thing is accompanied. E. g. ^3or l &r,aar zolj Jwgitvatv ioi-idiv 
it 7i tviaxoa to i g xai jfjAt'otc onilraig xal raJr $vuua}(Kiv 
HVQIOH, they assisted the Dorians teith one thousand Jive 
hundred heavy-armed soldiers of their men, and ten thousand 
of their allies. 

The nouns, of which the dative may thus be used, are chiefly 
the following : Imiivg, vavg, OTT/U'TIJ?, ntZ.og, nflraaryg, erroiog, 

NOTE 1. This dative is frequently accompanied by the da- 
tive of urroc- E. g. TQir t Qfig avtolg JKl*fV^aai discp&d- 
(tfaar, galleys were destroyed with every thing on board. 

NOTE 2. Sometimes the preposition avv is found before this 
dative. E. g. "Ekf/ov avrov V7ionnt\aai rtaoac avTy aiiv noil, 
they said that he burned them alt together with the city. 

OO. 1. Frequently the dative, in connection with a 
passive form, denotes the agent of the action. E. g. 

Hg oanolotg (pvldaaftat, He is taken care of by the 

servants, the active construction of which is J7o6ano).oi 

(fvldaaovoiv aviov, The servants are taking care of hint 

($ 163. 1.) 
Jo tola i xafft/vijTOtfft dapst'if, Being slain by two 


NOTE 1. The preposition tnri is often used before this dative. E. g. 'fit 
v*o Tt/Si/3>i rvxuai xX>ir* $<i).ttyyts Tfiitn, thus were the dose ranks 
of the Trnjans routed by Tydides. 

2. The dative after verbal adjectives in TO? and ttog ( 132. 
1, 2) denotes the subject of the action. E. g. ElntQ jtuaa&ai 
favlu, vxpsJitjTsa a 01 i\ nohs lavlv, if thou wishest to be hon- 
ored, thou must benefit the state. 

226 SYNTAX. [201-203. 

So when the neuter of the verbal in Tto? is equivalent to dii 
with the infinitive ( 162. N. 1), Ov yvvaixtav ovStnofr' io&' 
^TTIJTEH fifiiv, we must never be conquered by women, where 
yiTTjida -tjfnv is equivalent to Su r t ^ag rjnaa&ai. 

NOTE 2. When the verbal in Ttov is equivalent to Sii with 
the infinitive, the accusative is often used instead of the dative. 
The accusative in this case denotes the subject of the infini- 
tive implied in the verbal adjective ( 159. N. 1.) E. g. OVTE 
ftia&ocpOQrjTEOv uHovg r] Tovg a T garevo p,iv ov$ , nor 
must others, than those who serve in the army, receive wages, 
where uia&ocpo^rsor is equivalent to Su 

^ 3O1. The dative often answers to the ques- 

tion AT WHAT TIME ? WHEN ? E. g. 

TavTy rfi ijftsQff ovx fua%lucno fiuviltvq, The king did 
not fight on that day. 

NOTE 1. Sometimes this dative depends on i. E. g. Tjf V l %par/, on, 
this day, to-day. 

NOTE 2. Sometimes the dative is equivalent to the genitive 
absolute ( 192). E.g. IIo tyaavTt Q>fvrlgtp dyoiua Mtl.r\- 
lov ahtaaiv xnl Stdti^nvTi '? duxuva tntas TO &faiOf>v, when 
Phrynichus wrote a play, entitled, The Capture of Miletus, 
and acted it, the spectators tocpt. 

2 O2. The dative often answers to the question IN WHAT 
PLACE 1 WHERE? E. g. Ma Q ad (a vi oY ri^v, idiwxouw, when 
we were at Marathon, we pursued (the enemy). 

2O3. The dative is put after the following 


'j4uq>l, about, on, concerning. E. g. 'Apyl ultvQnlg, about 
the sides. 'Apy I tyc/ini ai?, on the tables. Apyl yv- 
vaixl, about (that is, for the sake of) a woman. 

3 Avd, upon, only in the poets. 

'.tV, in, at. E. g. *Ev TOVTW TW TO not, in this place. 

Sometimes tv is found before a. genitive, the noun, to 
which it belongs, being understood. E. g. *Ev "Ai Sov, sc. 
do t uoig, in the palaces of Hades, simply in Hades. 

*Enl, upon, on account of, on condition that. *Enl TW yti.a$ ,- 
what dost thou laugh at? *Enl Tola tie TOV$ 7rpa/5t? in' 
UQKJTOV xuita, on this condition I invite the ambassadors 
to dinner. 

204, 20.3.] VOICES. 227 

.IfEitt, among, with, onlv in the poets. "Oyo / ttiJw, oaao* 

f/tii una naaiv unuoTiirr, \)to; jut, that I may well 

/enow, how much I am the most unhonored goddess of 

Jluod, at, by the side of, with, flag a aol, with thee, at thy 

i, about, on account of, fur. Htgl $iq>ti, about (ow) 

the sword. Iltoi yug Sle noiusvi t.uu>v, for he feared 

for the shepherd of the people. 
Uoo?, with, in addition to. rigoq aol, with thee. Hoog 

i o v T o i ?, in addition to these things. 
^vv, with, by means of. 2vv aol, with thee. 2vv pazaig, 

by means of battles. 
'THO, under. 'Tub rot; ovvauivoiaiv tov, being under the 


In connection with passive verbs, vno means by. 'Tno 

TvdflSr; xiovfovTo (fu't.u-/Y^, the ranks were routed by 



^ 2O 4. 1. The vocative forms no part of a 
proposition. It is used simply in addressing a per- 
son or thing. E. g. 

, Jios dvyaifo, Tioiiuov, Depart, daughter of Jupiter, 
from war. 

2. The vocative is often put after the INTERJECTIONS , lu. 
E. g. Vi \-lztlti; O Achilles. 



2O5. 1. The active voice comprises the greater num- 
ber of transitive or active, and intransitive or neuter, verbs. 
E. g. xoma), cut ; TO^W, run. 

NOTE 1. The accusative of the reflexive pronoun is fre- 
quently omitted ; in which case the verb has the appearance 
of an intransitive verb. E. g. f/.i'w sc. luui'tor, impel myself , 
proceed, march. 

228 SYNTAX. [ 205. 

NOTE 2. The perfect and pluperfect active of the following 
verbs borrow the signification of the passive or middle. 

'AAI2KSI, capture, 

am captured, kukuxa, have 
been captured. 

fiQVxdoutu, roar, pffi(ji'%a, roar. 

ril'NJL, produce, ylyvo^ui, am 
produced, become, yiyora, 

SHIM (transitive), burn, dnio^ai 
(intransitive), burn, SiStjoc, 

dASl, teach, StSaa, have learn- 

Se'gxount, see, dddoQxn, sec. 

iytiQw, raise, tyilaouai, raise 
myself, rise, fygyyoQa, am 
awake. But the first per- 
fect f'-/r,yf^y.a means have 



i, cause to stand, 
cause myself to stand, stand, 
I'ffTJjxw, f'ornn, stand. But 
the later form Farwxw means 
have placed. 

xtvdo) (transitive), hide, xsxtv- 
&a (intransitive), hide. 

xijdo), afflict, xrfdofKu, care for, 
xiy.rjSn, care for. 

/u'o>, madden, fialrofien, am 
mad, usuyva, am mad, rave. 

(.n/xnouni, bleat, usuyxnt, bleat. 

fivy.iio^tni, bellow, ut/.tvxa, bel- 


ol'/co, open, ol'yopai, am opened, 
loiya, stand open. But the 
first perfect i'tpxa means have 

oiivfit, destroy, SHv/uai, perish, 
oinlct, have perished. But 
the first perfect 
means have destroyed. 

o^j'C'^ut, rouse, BQVVftui, 
OIJMQU, have arisen. 

niiUoi, persuade, Ttel&ofiai, am 
persuaded, ninoi&u, confide 
in, trust. 

m'iyvv[ii,Jix, TT-qyrvuai, am fix- 
ed, nenr^/a, stand fast. 

(jriyvvpi, tear, tgywyu, am torn 
to pieces. 

ufiirvvut, extinguish, apKrwpai, 
am extinguished, I'a^tjxa, am 

(transitive), to rot, ar\no- 
i (intransitive), to rot, 

x, to be rotten. 
), cause to wither, axillo- 
fun (intransitive), wither, 
taxir,xn, am withered. 

rtjxia (transitive), melt, 
(intransitive), melt, 
am melted. 

fpnlvw, make appear, qr 

appear, nitpyra, have ap- 

<pv<&, produce , tpvouni, cm pro- 
duced, ntffvxa, niyva, am. 

REMARK. Sometimes the perfects vl-r^v-ya, from tr^rifffu, and i^9-{, 
from <p3-iig&>, take the signification of the passive. 

NOTE 3. When the verb is both transitive and intransitive, 
perfect is transitive, and the second perfect (if there 
be any), intransitive. E. g. Tignaam, transitive, do, has 1 perf. 
ntTiQnxn, have done ; but nqaaata, intransitive, am or do, has 
2 perf. ningaya. 

< 206 ] VOICES. 229 

NOTE 4. The fccond aorist active of the following verbs 
takes the signification of the passive or middle. 

*AAIKL, aUaxofiai, iJiwr, was fivxuoput, fpi-xor, bellowed, 

captured. t 3i)iiui, o3itn\uai, fa(ft]v, was 

iiyxouai, idyaxor, sate. extinguished. 

eQft'xoi (transitive), break, f t oi- axi)J.ta,, taxirjr, with- 
xor (intransitive), broke. ered. 

tqttTita, f'tjtirtoftai, j'tjinor, fell qct'w, qvofiai, t'qtr, was prodltc- 
down. ed, am. But the first aorist 

t<jTiju<, litiuiuni, t'arijr, stood. i'tfvaa means I produced. 

(.tijxtioutti, ifjuxov, bltuttd. 

2. Causatire verbs, that is, verbs signifying to cause (one) 
to do any thing, belong to the active voice. E. g. ytvu, cause 
to taste ; ^i^vr^xw, cause to remember, remind. 


"" 2O6t I- The passive takes for its subject that which 
was the immediate object of the active ($ 163. 1). That, 
which was subject-nominative in the active ( 157), becomes 
genitive in the passive, and depends on VTIO, naod, noo$, or t*. 

'llptls f'Ja TI a Tojji i 5a VTIO TWV ngiaptiav, IVe are 
completely deceived by the ambassadors. The active con- 
struction of this example would be Ol nQta^ns f^anaiuaif 
rfuug, The ambassadors are completely deceiving us. 

2. The dative without a preposition is often used instead ot 
the genitive with VTIO, particularly in connection with the per- 
fect and pluperfect passive. E. g. 

?p i; T o Tavra T w i'&v5 r, u 01 , These things had been 
said by Eut/iydemus, equivalent to EiQ^xti iu\na o Evd-v- 
oc, Euthydetmts had said thtse things. 

REMARK. The context will determine whether a dative in connection with a 
passive verb denotes the subject ( 200; or the object ( 196) of that verb. 

3. When the active is followed by two cases, the 
passive retains the latter. E. g. 

'TTIO Jio? tnnoavvrtg ididdx&r,c, Thou wast taught 
horstmanship by Jove, the active construction of which 
would be C Zii'$ Innoovvag at idi&a$tv, Jove taught thee 
horsemanship, ( 165.) 


230 SYNTAX. [ 207. 

rill TMV voftlfKav uJco TIJ'OC, 7/c zs deprived of 
vrivi leges by somebody, the active construction of which 
would be Ely/si us: uviuv ruiv roplpur, Somebody deprives 
him of privileges, ( 180. 2.) 

NOTC 1. The object, which was in the genitive or dative, is 
sometimes made the subject of the passive. E.g. 'jtxtlvoe 
XHT ty>r,(pla&r], he was condemned, ( 183.2.) Ol slnxs- 
dutfiovioi nniarovvTat VTIO nuvjutv flfkonovvrjoiwr, the 
Lacedccmonians are distrusted by alt the Pcloponnesians, the 
active construction of which would he IldrTtg ndonow-qaio* 
amtnovoi rot? slaxt&xiporlots, ( 196. 2.) 

NOTE 2. The aorist passive frequently has the signification 
of the aorist middle. la such cases the aorist middle is either 
rare or obsolete. E. g. unuttuaaw, deliver, u7irjU.tiyt)v, delivered 
myself, not was delivered. 


9O7. 1. The middle is often equivalent to the active 
followed by the accusative of the reflexive pronoun. E. g. 
riTiTOfim equivalent to rim a ipavrov, wash myself. 

So ncyd^io^ni, avaQtuo^iai,, andyxofiai^ anfyoptft, tvdvo^iai, 
xfiQOfiai, xTiviouni, ioi'Ofiut, ^v^no^cet, JifQaioofiai, nagaaxtvafr- 
pui, arid some others. 

When the active is followed by two cases, middle verbs of 
this class retain the latter. E.g. 'jivdvnai jov duyaxa, 
he puts on the cuirass, of which the active construction would 
1)6 'ErSitfi ta'vTov TOV 3awt'.y.a, (^ 165.) 

NOTE 1 . The accusative after xti^tftai, -rigeciooft.tii, Qafiiofteci, and some others, 
is properly speaking synecdochical (^ 167). 

NOTE 2. Some middle verbs of this class ( 207. l) have apparently be- 
come intransitive, E. g. Xtra*, cause to hope, ii.irt/j.a.1, cause myself to hope, 
simply hupe ; <rA<w, cause to wander, <rXaa/<t/, cause myself to wander, 
simply wander. 

2. Very frequently the middle is equivalent to the active 
followed by the dative of the reflexive pronoun. In this case 
the middle is used transitively. E. g. 

Iloi.tlad-ai iriv flgi]vriv, To make a peace for one's self. 

But Ho i fir rfjr fiQr t rr t v, To make a peace for others. 
Htt()a9xsva{o'[ittt rt, I prepare something for myself. 
But UfitQnaxfvn^fa n, I prepare something for somebody. 

$ 207.] VOICES. 231 

3. The middle is sometimes used transitively to denote that 
the object of the action is a thing belonging to the subject of 
the verb. E. g. 

XQVOT,S i]).&t Ivaouivog &I-/UTOU, Chry set- came in order to 
ransom his own daughter. 

NOTE 3. Sometimes, for the sake of emphrsis, the reflexive pronoun is an- 
nexed to a middle verb used transitively ( 207. 2, 3'. E. g. Yiy^tift- 
ft xi I ft a vr Si raurK, I huve written these things for myKff. 

4. Sometimes the middle is equivalent to the corresponding 
active with the reciprocal pronoun. E. g. Xoidoooi-fifda equiva- 
lent to /.otdoQovufv u'/.i.i'i'i.oi;, we are reviling one another ; but 
lot8oQoi< t ui&a, in the passive, would mean we are reviled by 

5. Sometimes the middle is used transitively to express an 
action which takes place at the command of the subject of the 
proposition. E. g. 

3 d id a Ic^u r\ v at, I caused thee to be taught, I have given 
thce an education. But 'Edlda*u at, I taught thee. 

NOTE 4. Frequently the middle does not seem to differ from 
the active. E. g. idia&ai, in Homer, is equivalent to Idtiv, 
to see. 

NOTE 5. The future middle is often equivalent to the future 
active. In such cases the future active is either rare or obsolete. 
E. g. fraxfiafrt, admire, &ai'iinao[iai, shall admire, not shall 
admire myself. 

Verbs, of which the future middle is equivalent to the future 
active : (t-/voiw, adta, U-/.OI-M, auugntrto, ajiaviaw, anoinvo), /?- 
dl^o), puli'ta, fitoia, /U*0Mt, fiouta, yiino), y^Quar.M, yr/vtaaxta, Sd- 
xrw, ouQdurta, JEffi, didQuaxu, JPA3IJI, */xw^ia s 'w, EldfL, 
ilul am, EslETOfL, tnaivioi, ImoQxiw, d-uv^ia^ta, ffiai run, &r,Qa(a, 

oat), and some others. 

NOTE 6. Sometimes the future middle is equivalent to the 
future passive. E. g. oxfiUbi, benefit, Jxpttfoouai, shall be 
benejited, not shall benefit mysr.lf. 

Verbs of which the future middle is equivalent to the future 

SYNTAX. [ 208, 209- 

passive : adixtw, ir'iiMfora>, planuo, yuftva^u, t^uoo), TiQOTi(jia.o), 
, and some others. 

NOTE 7. The aorist middle is in a few instances equivalent to the aorist pat- 
tive. E. g. ^ittriu,Jeave, \*.nrip.r>v, was left, not left myself. 


2O 8. Deponent verbs are those, which are used only in 
the passive or middle voice. They are called deponent passive 
or deponent middle, according as their aorist is taken from the 
passive or middle. In respect to signification, they are either 
transitive or intransitive. E. g. 

i, take care of, eTitftttffrr,); is a deponent passive. 
t, work, fiQyaaK/.irjv, is a deponent middle. 

NOTE 1 . Some deponents have both the aorist passive and the aorist middle. 
E. g. Svtaftai, am able, $t/i3-7v, in Homer t&'jvr<riif4t!. 

NOTE 2. Some deponents have, in the perfect and pluperfect,, also a passive 
signification. E. g. ifya.^afi.a.1, ivor/c, perf. tioyarft ai, have worked, sometimes 
have been worked. 

NOTE 3. Sometimes the aorist passive of a deponent verb has a passive signi- 
fication ; in which case the aorist middle follows the present. E. g. xara^n- 
fi^ofMii, condemn, xi*T^^/<r3-y, was condemned, x.u.T^n^, condemned. 



SOO. 1. The PRESENT INDICATIVE expresses an ac- 
tion or being which is going on now. E. g. yquyw, I am 

The present in the dependent moods (subjunctive, optative, 
imperative, and infinitive) and in the participle expresses a 
continued action. Its time in this case is determined by the 
context. E. g. "flxovaa OTI IIiQixiijg nflUaf (nwdag eniarai- 
TO, c enaOMv ri) Tro'iet enolei nvrijv (piltlv aviov, I heard 
that Pericles knew many enchantments, which singing to the 
city he made it love him. 

NOTE 1. The present is frequently used for the aorist in an 
animated narration, in which the past is represented as present. 

E. g. lltt IS I XT TO OTSQVOV, Xt 1 IT Q 0> O X f I dltt 1OV &(D(>n- 

xof, he strikes (him) in the breast, and wounds him through the 
cuirass, where nulu, wgwoxtt, stand for i'ntxiat, 

209.] TENSF.S. 233 

Nor* 2. The present of ?.*.* has the force of the perfect, have come. The 
imperfect of this verb has the force of the pluperfect, had come. 

NOTE 3. Sometimes the present has the farce of the future. E. g. tifu 
regularly means shall go, and sometimes am going. 

2. The PERFECT in all the moods and in the participle ex- 
presses an action which is now completed. E. g. yiyoayu, I 
have written. 

NOTE 4. The perfect of some verbs has the signification of 
the present. In this case the pluperfect has the signification 
of the imperfect. E. g. il'xu, setm, i'otxu, seem. 

Verbs, of which the perfect has the signification of the 
present, are uyvvui, arolyo), urojyca, 3ov%uouai, ylytouui, fJl^'Jl, 
dalw burn, AEUl, Sioxoum, fytluia (only the 2 perf.), i&oi, 
EI/ifL, ft'xoi, tlnw, iffrjjui, x/.o), xo<i^<i>, xiriouat, t.itazw, uiita, 
(utlvot, (ifJuo, ur,xuouni, fiiftrrfffxtt, fti-xdouai, ritl&u (only the 
2 perf.), jji'jyn-ui, ocJiiTu , TQt^oi, (fi'ta. 

NOTE 5. The perfect is sometimes used for the present to express a cus- 
tomary action. E. g. 'O xar> /* 7>>r& ru>r,trax,i, the conqueror 
tnkes possession of every thing. 

NOTE 6. The perfect is sometimes used for \.\\efuturc to express the rapidity 
or certainty of an action. E. g. "Ox.X*,-, tJ rt TMT' l^rtfuii **l,*, 
than shaU certainly perish, if I a sic t/tee aguin the same question. 

NOTE 7. The second person of the pirfict imperative is 
rarely used, except in verbs of which the perfect has the 
signification of the present ($ 209. N. 4). E. g. A">, 
xixgayu, xiy.oa^Ot, cry out; uiiinlaxu, ^urr,iiai, (jiftvr^o re- 
member thou. 

NOTE 8. The third perton of the perfect pa}?ive imperatirt 
of any verb may be used to denote the" complete termination 
of an action. E. g. Tavia fitv ovv ntnaia&u i-utv, note you 
have had sport enough, or let there be no mure joking about this. 

3. The PLUPERFECT expresses an action which was com- 
pleted in past time. E g. jytyot'tyttv, I had written, implying 
that there was a time when I could say " I hare written." ' 

NOTE 9. In the old writers 'as Homer\ the pluperfect sometimes has the 
force of the aoritt, and sometimes of the imperfect. E. g. (H. 5, 66 /Ji/Un- 
i/ for f0xi, from ^xx-, strike- (II. 9, 671) Ju3J^r., they welcomed, from 
See also above ( 209. N. 4.) 

4. The FUTURE in all the moods and in the participle ox- 
presses an action or event which will take place. E 3. yo,'ca> u 
I shall or will write. 

on * 

234 SYNTAX. [210-212. 

NOTE 10. The future is often used to denote a probable 
occurrence. E. g. ftr/atis vont&u&ai uv nnidos rovro Tovqyov 
tit ML, you will probably say, that this is considered as the busi- 
ness of a child. 


S 1 O- The imperfect expresses a continued past action. 
E- i'yyucpor, I was writing, not simply / wrote. 

NOTE 1. Sometimes the imperfect expresses an attempt not brought to a 
successful conclusion. E. g. (Herod. 1, 68) 'EfturSovra rnv ix', he 
tried to hire the court-yard. 

NOTE 2. The imperfect frequently denotes a customary ac- 
tion. E. g. Tovg noUrag [iefr' onkiav H-entunor, they 
were accustomed to send out the citizens armed. 

NOTE 3. The imperfect is frequently used for the aorist, 
especially in Homer and Herodotus. E. g. TOTE drj 
xAt'j;? xfivov TS xal TOVS KoQivdiovq noMii TE xal xaxa 
then Tliemistocles said many and bad things both about him 
and about the Corinthians. 

NOTE 4. The imperfect ? (from tipi) sometimes stands for !. E. g. 
avx Sf' n 3-f> Cyjrris then is not a goddess fas we thought ). 


211. The third future passive expresses a completed 
action, the consequences of which will be permanent in future 
time. In other words it transports that which is already com- 
pleted to a future time. E. g. fyyQaqxu, fy/fy^a^o/.ioti I shall 
remain enrolled, implying that I have already been enrolled. 

NOTE 1 . The third future is the natural future of verbs whose perfect has the 
signification of the present ( 209. N. 4). E. g. xratft&t, x'utrnftai, KIKTJ- 
repeii shall possess. 

NOTE 2. In many instances the third -future does not differ 
in signification from the common future passive. E. g. dita, 
bind, dfdr'jUo^ui, shall be bound. 

NOTE 3. The third future in some instances expresses the rapidity or cer- 
tainty of a future action. E. g. rfeifffu, rttrfafyrai it shall immediately bt 


2 IS. I- The aorist in the indicative and participle 
expresses a transient past action, without any reference to 

213.] MOODS. 

another action. It simply narrates that which took place. 
E. g. tygaya, I wrote, not / teas writing. 

2. The aorist in the dependent moods (subjunctive, optative, 
imperative, and iiifinitive) expresses a momentary action, its 
time being determined by the context. E. g. Jii^l nlilovos 
lnoir t auio IVUIJXHV, ^xuijiaua&ui TU dipnoi nuqu 10 Slxatov, 
he thought more of being just than of pleasing the multitude at 
the expense of justice. 

REMARK. We see then that the present in the dependent moods (' 209. 1) 
marks a continued action ; the aorist in these moods marks a momentary action ; 
and this is all the difference between these two tenses in the dependent moods. 

NOTE 1. The Greeks often use the aorist indicative and parti- 
ciple where, properly speaking, the perfect or pluperfect should 
be used. It must not be inferred, however, from this that the 
aorist may express the time marked by the perfect or pluper- 
fect. E. g. (Aristoph. Nub. 238-9) KaTtifafr' oV (\ui, IK* u.' 
exdidd$>;?, ur Jifo ovtfx' llifiv^dr. 2JIK. Hl&tf de xona T! / 
Come down to me, to teach me those things for which I have 
come. Soc. What have you come for 1 where r t l&fs is parallel 

NOTE 2. The aorist indicative is often used for the present 
to express a customary action. E. g. IjJU' UTI' f'x&gujv Srjia 
JioAAa put'&avovatv ol aocfol. UCCQU fiiv ovv cpliov ov pa-d'otg 
av Toi'&',o d' t'x9(>bs fvdi'g I $r)vd'/xaatv , But the wise learn 
many things from their enemies. Now from a friend you 
might not learn this ; but the enemy (as a common thing) com- 
pels you to learn it. 

NOTE 3. The aorist is used for the future to denote the 
rapidity or certainty of an action. E. g. 'ATI a 16 pi a&' UQ , 
tl xaxbv TiQoaolaouiv viov nalaiai, then we are undone, if we 
add a new evil to an old one. 

NOTE 4. The aorist of the verbs aravrvu, despise, yt>.diu, traniu, ritfteei, 
and a few others, is, in conversation, often used for the present, in order to 
express a decided feeling of admiration, contempt, or pleasure. E. g. "Hr3-* 
TiiXa4s, it amuses me to hear (your) threats. 


213. 1. The indicative is used in independent propo- 
sitions. E. g. '0 dfxxxiov ear* paxQor, the dragon is a long 

236 SYNTAX. [ 213. 

2. The indicative may be put after interrogative and relative 
words (68: 71: 73: 123). E. g. Tl noifH?; what art 
tlwu doing 1 Olds rl fiovktTai, he knows what (it) tcants. 
O uvrjQ, og TOVI inoiriae, the man who made this. 

3. The indicative may be put after the following particles : 
el, if, whether ; Ind, tneidq, after, when ; on, that, because ; 
tag, that ', wars, so that. 

REMARK. In a sentence containing a condition and con- 
sequence or conclusion, the former is called PROTASIS, and the 
latter APODOSIS. The protasis begins with the particle tl, if. 

4. The indicative may be used in conditional propositions. 
E.g. dtiva nstaoueafta, fl aiyyaoutv, Jf we shall keep 
silence we shall suffer terrible things, where tl aiyyanufv is the 
protasis and Suva ntiaopfu&u the apodosis. (213. R.) 

5. When the condition and the consequence are both past 
actions, the indicative is used both in the protasis and in the 
apodosis. In this case the apodosis contains the particle ur. 
E. g. 

OVTOI fl rjanv ctt'Sgfs Mya&ol, ovx av HOTS -ravin tTiaa^ov, 

If they had been good men, they ivould never have suffered 

these things. 
Ovx av 7i()0f}.yfv, *l [*T] tnlartvatv A;#fwm', Had 

he believed thai he should prove a false propJiet, he would 

not have predicted. 

NOTE 1. Sometimes the optative is used m the apodosis, especially in the 
epic writers. E. g. Kati vu xtv I'vS-' a.v'o\atra uvct% avjjav Aitt'ixg, tl p.* 
at' o|u vanffi A<of Svyairtig 'Affaiirn, and now jEneas, king of men, had 
perished, had not Venus, daughter of Jove, quickly perceived, 

NOTE 2. Sometimes ay is omitted in the apodosis. E.g. E< >af r, v o.xu.n 
a-joSjjXa ra, ftiMiOVTO. ytw<rtffa.i, oiS' evTtis x^rafTaTiOY TJ? a-Xw THUTUI y, 
for if those things, which were to happen, had been manifest to all, the city 
ought not even then to have given these things up. 

NOTE 3. The particle uv may accompany all the tenses of 
the indicative, without any protasis expressed. E. g. "Eftov- 
iofirjv fjiiv civ ovx iqt&iv iv9(*8t, I could have icished not to 
be contending here. Ov yi*Q av yip on* avitav, he could not. 
have touched them. "Jlars rrjg tiQ^vr^? oiv dirjuuQTi'jxti, so 
that he would have missed the peace. 'Jl? axij^/w av aywv 
ovrog ovx soSttsTai, for this contest cannot possibly admit 
of any evasion. 

NOTE 4. The particles orcwe, Aow>, in order that, Vp, in 
order that, py, lest, and the double negative ov /uJ, not, are 

214.J MOODS. 237 

frequently put before the future indicative. E. g. (Herod. 2, 
121, 2) Anoidfjivtiv aviov TI\V xccfairjv, ox cue pr t Tigoaano- 
itati xal txmor, to cut off his head, lest he might bring 
destruction upon him also. 

NOTE 5. Sometimes the future indicative with OJTOJC and 
ov n^ supplies the place of an emp^itic imperative. E. g. 
"On tag dt roi/ro ^ didrt$ti; prfieva, but see that you do not 
communicate this to anybody. Ov IIT\ iy groans, you shall 
not talk nonsense. 

In such cases it is customary to supply the verb ogn, see, or 
axonti, consider. 

NOTE 6. The historical tenses of the indicative are some- 
times put after tV, ug, or ^ lest, in which case the leading 
proposition also contains an historical tense. E. g. Tigiov 
oidfta kinoi/a' t{3av, Zv* vno dtiodoi Ilagvuaov xa Tsvda& i\ v, 
leaving the Tyrian surge, I came in order to dwell under 
the summits of Parnassus. 


214. 1. The subjunctive is put after the following 
particles : 

e'v, av, TJV, if, fiy, lest. 

tnttddi 1 , tndv, inr\v, when, after, onus, w> that, in order that. 

!'<m, until. ScfQa, synonymous with ! or 

auj, UXQK;, fjti^gi?, until. ontng. 

Zva, that, in order that. Ttglv, before. 

2. The subjunctive is put also after interrogative and rela- 
tive words ( 68 : 71 : 73 : 123). 

3. The verb of the proposition upon which the subjunctive 
depends expresses time PRESENT or FUTURE. (<<$ 209. 1, 2, 4.) 
E. g. 

"Avoiye TTJV vAijv tv' iStl-O-m, Open the forest, that I may 

come out. ( 209. 1.) 
Jtdoixd at fir, nlr^utv Siy, lam afraid thou icilt need 

stripes. ( 209. N. 4.) 
El <so fit &a avTtxa, av noti-jaia/iiv y/o'yov, We shall im- 

mediately know, if we make a noise. ( 209. 4.) 
x/5t' ( 5aov airtTjv, tva &faa(afii&a ri t v arfiovu, Bring 

her out, that we may see the nightingale. ( 212. 2.) 

238 SYNTAX. [ 215. 

4. The interrogative, and relative, word?, and the particles 
&ZQIC, ('are, i'oic, 'iva, ^%ois, OTTWC, oqppa, TIQIV, (< 214. 1,2,) in 
connection with the subjunctive, are generally accompanied 
by the particle uv. E. g. 

Zo> ov tnvia xulflg, av tfiv%iiv Kxy ; Do you not call 
animals those whia^havc life 1 

OnoxtQ av uTioxglr rjiai TO (ittguxior, e$tltyz d r t a K- 
rai, Whatever answer the young man may give, he will 
be confuted. 

All noioiifjiv TOIU& xa'azo#', orav rua yvwfieff novr^iav 6Vr' 
fQaarrjv n^ajf(tatin' f J ta g nv ctviov t^^aloi^ttv tig y.uxoi', 
on tag av tid ;/ rov? &EOV? Ssdoixtrott, We always do these 
things, wlien we find out that a person is a. lover of evil 
deeds, until we place him in a dreadful situation, that lie 
may learn to fear the gods. 

NOTE 1. The subjunctive often depends on a verb express- 
ing time past, contrary to the rule ( 214. 3) ; in other words, 
it stands for the optative ( 216). This substitution generally 
takes place when emphasis is required ; or when the verb after 
the particle denotes an action which is continued to the time 
of the speaker. E. g. (Eurip. Hec. 26-7) Krartar if onS/*' 
A6? fit&jjx', IV avroi; j^waoi' iv dopotg t'xjh killing (me), he 
threw me into the surge, in order that he might keep the gold 
in his house. 'Enoist oe u(i(f6jiQu TUVTU, (ag o is nonxfibs 
j3()txdvTF(jog il'rj, ol nXooi iuiai axohiol f$ ri]v Bafti'loira, 
she did both these things, in order that the river might be 
slower, and that the navigation up to Babylon might be 
crooked. 'jtyiH) cpn^rjO-tic /u>) ioiSogla ytrrijni, nukiv xme~ 
iiQnvvov rov Kjr'^nnrov, I, fearing lest abusive words should 
be used, again appeased Ctesippus. 

NOTE 2. Mi, lest, is sometimes accompanied by ?*?. E. g. At$oi%' ox-t>f 
pot p.)) >./ax /pcevys ffo<f, I fear lest you prove to be very artful. 

NOTK 3. Instead of ftj, lest, wth the subjunctive, tn, o-r*s, or us, with 
the indicative, is sometimes used. 

NOTE 4. Sometimes the verb, upon which p.j, lest, depends, is omitted. 
E. g. (II. 22, 123: Plat. Crit. 9.) 

NOTE 5. Sometimes the subjunctive is put after the particles tl, Itri't, \ritin, 
lirirt, en, unaccompanied by at, ( 214. 1, 4.) 

215. 1. The first person plural of the subjunctive is 
often used in exhortations. E.g. Tov Mfr dinar 
let us imitate Meneldus. 

$ 216.] MOODS. 239 

2. The first person singular also of the subjunctive, pre- 
ceded bv the imperative u/t or cpj'pf, is often used in exhorta- 
tions. E. g. tyiof uxovuai, let me hear. 

NOTE 1. Hcmer uses the first jierson singular of the subjunctive in exhorta- 
tions without ayi, <fitt, or any auxiliary word. E. g. (II. 22, 450) "13*1^*' 
fnir' to ya. rirvxrai, let me see what deeds have been dame. 

3. The first person of the subjunctive is used also in questions 
of doubt, when a person asks himself or another what he is to 
do. E. g. 7/w,- (f a~> ixtaraadut; how can I say that I know? 
Jb'tTiw T< / may I say any thing ? 

Frequently the question begins with the second person of 
the present indicative of ^uv'f.ouui or &t).u. E. g. Uoi/.ti 
,- wilt thoti that we placet In such cases fi.niti or 
t? usually precedes the subjunctive. 

NOTE 2. Sometimes the interrogation disappears after &iXf<; or /WXu 
( 215. 3). E.g. E?TI TI /Jsi/Xn rgtrSi/t * pixif, whether thou 
wisliest to add or take aieay any thing. 

4. The first person of the subjunctive is used also in 
questions expressing indignation. E. g. (Aristoph. Ran. 
1132-4) _4i(//i'if, nuyairu) am OIUTIUV. A/X. 'l^yM at tort (a; 
^schylus, I adi-ise thee to be silent. ^EscH. Am I to be 
silent ? 

NOTE 3. The subjunctive is often used after tv p.* for the future indicative. 
E. g. OuTt yi-yttrcci, tun y\yni, i5i Jv firi yirnroii, it is not, it has not 
been, it will not be. 

In Homer, the subjunctive, with or without xir, is sometimes equivalent to 
the future indicative. E. g. ^.vffifteu tit '\ilxt, xoii i nxvirei ifxtita, IteiU 
go into Hades, and sJdne among the dead. 

5. In prohibitions, the second person of the aorist subjunc- 
tive is used after ( uJ and its compounds. E . 

Mi] (foprjSfjt:, fear not. 

NOTE 4. The third person of the aorist subjunctive is rarely found after /trf 
in prohibitions. 


216. 1. The optative is put after the following parti- 
cles : 

if- ontag, us, that, in order that. 

in f I, (midy, wlien, after. OIL, that. 

tatf, until. o<f(>a, synonymous with iVa or 

tug, until. OTTO)?. 

tr, that, in order that. n^lv, before. 

ft-n, lest. 

240 SYNTAX. [ 216. 

2. The optative is put also after interrogative and relative 
words ( 68: 71 : 73: 123). 

3. The verb of the proposition, upon which the optative 
depends, expresses time PAST. ( 209. 3 : 210 : 212. 1.) E. g. 

'llhu^ovsveft' lira (p o(3r)& tlijv e/w, He was telling great 
stories that I might fear, or in order to scare me. 

HfJiara STJ tnina tig ti'i), *' no&fv th&oi, Then he 
asked who he was, and whence he came. 

NOTE 1. The optative often depends on a proposition 
which contains a verb expressing present or future time. In 
this case it generally denotes uncertainty or probability. E. g. 
Kuktaov TQOcpov JUvQ^tiiioer, urpg tn;>g ttnoi^tt, call nurse 
Euryclea, that I may say a word to her. 

NOTE 2. When the present is used for the aorist ( 209. 
N. 1), it is regularly followed by the optative. This is no ex- 
ception to the rule ( 216. 3). E. g. Bovtijv InnrxvaTui, 
o neat; prj a'kia&il.iv 'ASr^vdloi, he contrives a plan which 
should prevent the Athenians from assembling. 

NOTE 3. Sometimes the particle 0.1 accompanies the words which precede the 
optative ( 216, 1, 2). Thus the optative is sometimes found after iav, 'fritidv, 
'iva, 0.1, I/LYI tit, c'tfui eiv, ivc'rav, GTU.V, cfeu civ, us av. 

4. Particularly the optative is used when any thing that has 
been said or thought by another is quoted, but not in the 
words of the speaker. The action denoted by the optative 
may refer to present, past, or future time. E. g. 

ort nav&uvoisv ol [ictvd'uvontg, ovx 
, He answered that those, who learn, learn 
what they do not know. v oTt d'nvfjiaaTMq anovdd'^oi^ifv, I said that we 
were ivonderfully in earnest. 

uQ, OTI. f$ aiiiwv ttaiov n uvaxvyono TCUV fQoni}- 
V, For I knew that something good would come out 
of these questions. 

NOTE 4. Sometimes an or uf is omitted before this optative ( 216. 4). E. g. 

Taur' ifrayyt/Xan ir'neu yvva.~Ka. xifrn* S' in ^ifitoif tufti, announce 

these things to my husband ; and that he will fold his unfc faithful in the 


"On may be omitted also when it has already been expressed. E. g. TL(Z 
fitti ir^ot Ilagixvevs nvaf i'Xiyiv, STI Mq'Saxo; /* &ta tin ta&ncet fiftifur 
a-xl SaXuff/rris 'So> 2ii/'3j,- Jt &%uv feei-re, and first he said to some 
Parians, that Med.'cus was up twelve days" journey from ttie sea ; and (that I 
Seuthes would be the leader. 

217.] ODS, 241 

NOTE 5. Instead of the optative after it, Sri, ;, the indicative is often used. 
E.g. IIji/a-iT4( Sn riif 'Ex>.5 i^'.uSitevfi, having proclaimed 
that they liberate Greece, where fXtt/SijaTfj might hare been used. 

217. 1. The optative is used in the expression of a 
wish. E. g. 

.2bi 8s &iol loan So"isv, oaa (petal a7 t ai fttronn.:, And may 
the gods give thee as many likings as thou longest for. 

NOTE 1. Frequently the particles fl, tl yuo, tf9?, we, O that, 
are placed before this optative. E. g. El yuo (yuv Jt6,- THUJ 
nlyir>xoio ttrjv , O that I were a son of ergis-bcaring Jove! 

Homer sometimes adds xir to these particles. 

NOT* 2. If the wish refers to past time, the aarist indicative is used after the 
abovememioned particles (5 217. N. 1 . E.g. ETS' j|*irif, that I 
had been cut off! 

NOTE 3. Frequently the aorist ^sX from ^/X > ) with the infinitive follows 
the particles t!3-s, si yaa, ;. E. g. E'3-' ti<f iX<r ftti xij5<u* iliai, 
that he were my guardian. 

Sometimes v$t).n with the infiDitive is not accompanied by any particle. 
E. g. *n^sXt (iribiis i't.i.t; 'AaifTa-ytiTttt %ftstr, that no other man had 
delighted in Aristoglton ! 

2. The optative (generally with the particle V) in an in- 
dependent proposition, very often implies uncertainly, doubt, 
possibility, or inclination. E. g. 

Ovxovr fir i' t 5r, ruv fttaruv Tt; iiyoi, j\ow some one of 
the spectators might (perhaps) say. 

"Jata: oi'v ilnoiii- uv , They might perhaps say. 

'Hdiio; iiv oi-f nvibiv TI v&o tu ij r, Fain would I ask them. 

Uf T<e footro fit, TI rofitui [tfyiarov tirat To'r Lvayogot 
TitTioityutrMr, ?i,- noliqv UTIOQIUV uv xurna z / r t r, should 
any one ask me, which of the deeds of Eragoras I con- 
sider greatest, I should find myself in great perplexity. 

NOTE 4. Frequently the indicative is used in the protasis, and the optative 
with it, in the a/wlosis. E. g. EJ ya.^ ftnci rar IJ, J ?* ita^art- 
3i/i ^auX4rtf at i*n, / should be more worthless then the slaves, if f did 
not kni-w (hex things. 

Also the optative is used in the jrrotasis and the indicative in the ajiodosis. 
E. g. OSs 3n c?f; rxaay=>ir$xi rfttTff-ria, t* rt iaa. ftii Tii%tt- 
ftin ru; It&jfr&ivt, who were to come in the night irith the entire army, in 
case success should not attend those u-ho had entered. ( 213. R.) 

NOTE 5. The subjunctive with ia, a, or is sometimes used in the pro- 
tasis. and the ojrtalive in the ajmdosii. E. g. *H r(i^*-i -r7s ttipitu; tl 
ai?5 ^X/Mtf, rlttifTrif *pZi uSi,' a, Xa'/3/ rtri, if the fullers furnish 
the needy with gaums, pleuri'sy will never afflict any of us. ( 213. li.) 


242 SYNTAX. [$ 218, 219. 

3. The optative with uv, in an independent proposition, often 
supplies the place of the indicative. E. g. 

Ovx Siv fts&ilur}v TOV &QOVOV, I will not give up the throne^ 

where psdilurjv is equivalent to ps&riaoftai. 
Avioq fiivTot syofjul rot, xnl ovx uv iiicp&tlrjv , I will 

hoivever follow thee, and I will not be left behind, where 

4. Frequently the optative (with or without V) has the force 
of tlie imperative. E. g. El Ss [it], Xiiylaoyo? ftiv ij/otTo, 
TCU* 1 8s niivytov xnTt(JMv 8vo iwv nQtafiv'taTWv aiQtinr/yd) tni- 
fitHola&tjv, and if not, let Chirisophus take the lead, and let 
two of the oldest generals take charge of both wings, where 
rj'/tladM, faifiilsta&iav, would be less polite, sliyoiq av, you 
may speak, softer than Uyt, speak thou. 


9 1 8. 1. The imperative is used to express a command, 
an exhortation, or an entreaty. E. g. 

<piv/f t begone! qitvytTw, let him depart, (psvynf, depart ye, 
(fiv/ituxjiiv, let them depart. 

2. In prohibitions the present imperative is used after ^ 
and its compounds. E. g. My key* luvrn, say not these things. 

NOTE 1 . Sometimes p* is followed by the aorist imperative, particularly by 
the third person. E. g. M)S fit ftiXtiraru, ami care not. 

.NOTE 2. The second person of the imperative is sometimes used for the third 
person, when the speaker is in great haste. E. g. X<wj i< Ssu^a ra; vrnftrns ' 
T01;iz/i ifcif rit, let every servant came hither; shoot, every one J 

NOTE 3. The imperative in connection with a relative pro- 
noun or relative adverb, is sometimes found in a dependent 
proposition after olaOn (from oldo., know}. E. g. OlafJ-' ovv o 
doiiaov,- knoioest thou what thou must now do 7 Ola$' w? 
nolyoov ; dost thou know how thou must do? Ola&a rvv a 
pot yivia&w ; do you know what I desire to be done to me ? 

319. 1. The infinitive depends on a VERB, 


c Tutlg /Jo4$Alc. y f t i H u i Rt'ror troyjx / Do you wish 
him to become wise 1 



TOV \)tlov routing dvi r,ata &ai 

noir t aui niiitta&ai aoi , Do you think that you will 
be able to make all the Athenians, together with your uncle, 
follow your advice ? Here nd&fa&ai depends on noir,aat, 
noif,aon on SvrqataHiu, and 8vrijata&m on tmpJQuf. 
Jtivog ro}tiZ6utro> ui-ut leyeiv, Being considered an 
eloquent speaker. 

The infinitive may depend on the verbs cryyiiiouai, aigiouai, 
dxoi'io, ut'ayxd^w, arlijfu, dr<ayoi, d$io<a, unayogtvo), untutta 
threaten, untmilv, g/w begin, fioviouai, diofiat, diavoioftat, 
diSuijy.ta, Ooxita, Oiivafiai, fdw, i&ilu, tfta), tidopni seem, ilnt^o), 
tinouiti, lnay'/&}.ouai, tnuyopai, fltirillopai, innQina, fTit^ftotw, 
cvxouai, ixto can, utatvttt xaTtgya^oncti, xfAii'w, y.i/.ouai, iiyta, 
hlaioftai, Uaaofjiai, (tartar , /u/.Ab<, vifjtai^ouai, rout'^w, oida, 
ol'ouiti, opvvpi, opo)ioyi<i), OQfiuto, OTQVVIU, ocptlkw, naoayyt^ta, 
titty atria, Jia^naxtvn^ofiai, naQCUfijfii, nfl&o), TtttQctouui, 7ii(prxa 
and tepvv (from qva), Itttnt9i, noiita, ngoatQtouai, Jig 
HQoanoieopat, 7r^oaraow, aivydta, aitlrjui, totfMti, v 
<patvoftai, <fr t ut, and some others. 

It may depend on the adjectives aSvvaios, 5<oc, otivog, 81- 
xaioc, Svrmoc, f.Trjj'3fioc, FTO///O.-, ifdvf, IXKVO?, xaxoc, o|r, ni&a- 
vog, Radios, ^alfTio'c, and some others. 

2. The infinitive is often used after verbs, participles, and 
phrases, to denote a cause or motive. E. g. 

Oviar* *4yafUfirort I fine ^ooijrai, Thyestes left it to 
Agamemnon to carry (it). 

NOTE 1. MiXXw, followed by the infinitive (present, aorist, or future) of a 
verb, forms a periphrastic future. E. g. MfXXi< nS'tixi, he is about to 

The infinitive is frequently omitted, when it can be supplied from the context 
E. g. (Aristoph. Plut. 1JOO-2,) E!V lft.ii, to w &u ? > itor-rts turttri 
flfafyet ; EPil. Mi Ai", XX* i^elXXof, SC. XTTIIJ, Tell me, WOS it you 
that knocked at the door so furiously 9 MER. Not I, by Jove, I VMS going (to 

NOTE 2. The pronominal adjectives noio?, Toioatit, olo? or 
olo'.: TI, and Ttjilxoc, are sometimes followed by the infinitive, 
in which case they imply capableness. E. g. oi% o\o$ t' tip' 
anoaopijaai ror yilwv, I cannot drive away my laughter. 

NOTE 3. It has already been remarked ( 158. N. 3), that 
the omitted subject of the infinitive is frequently different from 
that of the proposition on which it depends. We remark now 
that this takes place chiefly after adjectives. E. g. 77uqpa^? 
uotriQ Idflv, a star all bright to behold, where the subject of 
idftv would be nvu. 

244 SYNTAX. [ 220. 

NOTE 4. In narration the infinitive often seems to take the 
place of the indicative ; in which case some part of (p-ripl or 
liyoi may be supplied. E. g. (Herod. 1. 86) TOV psv dt] 
noidtiv TavTtt, now he was doing these things, equivalent to 
O ftiv drj enoits javia. 

NOTE 5. The infinitive of verbs signifying to go is in some 
instances omitted. E. g. (Aristoph. Ran. 1279) 'Eyoi piv ovv 
is TO fivtkavfiov /JouAo/ucu, sc. iivott, for my part I wish to go to 
the bath. (Id. Av. 1) ' OQ&T,V xdivsis ; do you command us to 
go right on 1 

NOTE 6. The infinitive frequently stands for the second 
person of the imperative ; in which case the imperative I'tftJU 
or xh'Ae is usually supplied. E. g. MynoTt av yvrcttxl rjnios 
eiVcu, you must never be indulgent to your wife. 

NOTE 7. The infinitive sometimes stands for the third person 
of the imperative, in which case, the subject, when expressed, 
is put in the accusative. It is thus used especially in com- 
mands and proclamations. E. g. Tiv/,ia av^aaq (ftohio xot'iag 
enl vfjotg, awfia de ol'xwd' f'/^ov du/tEvai, taking my arms, let 
him carry them to the hollow ships, and let him give my body 
to be carried home. 'Ar.ovnt, isw, TOV? oniiTots anitvai, 
hear, ye people, the heavy-armed soldiers must retire. 

NOTE 8. Sometimes the infinitive is put for the Jirst person 
plural of the subjunctive ( 215. 1), in which case Su may 
be supplied. E. g. Nvv tv z? c -L'M,'<5i xuTotftdravTa? i t fii(av av- 
Tstav l7ii}iE).ri&j)vat, for the present, remaining in Greece, 
let us take care of ourselves. 

NOTE 9. Sometimes the infinitive expresses a wish, in which 
case do*; may be supplied. E. g. Ztv nuTfQ, rj Alarm Aa^eTv, 
r] Tvdiog vlov, Father Jove, grant that the lot may fall upon 
Ajax, or upon the son of Tydeus. 

22O. 1. The infinitive is frequently put after words and 
phrases signifying so that, so as; especially when its connec- 
tion with the preceding clause is not very obvious. E. g. 

AvTOxnqtq iaxod6[it]aav t daz davfiu^tiv f^iK, They built 
it with their own hands, so that I wondered. 

Ov yotQ i'jifi&e Tovg Xlov?, aiaTt laiirrw dovvai via<;, For 
he could not persuade the Chians to give him vessels. 

The words and phrases, after which the infinitive is put, are 
l(f' (a, iff wre, on condition that, oaor, ouw, <a?, ware, so that, 
so as. 

221.] MOODS. 245 

2. The infinitive is put also after words signifying before, 
before that, (as n<>ii', nqlv i',.) E. g. Jlolv TOV rouov i9J- 
> a i , before the law was made. 

NOTE 1. The infinitive with a>?, oaor, ova, o ji (from 
is often used in parenthetical phrases. E. g. c /2? inog tlntlv, 
so to speak. l fi; tixtiaai, as one might conjecture. 'jig iv 
nJisori ioyia dqiwaai, to explain more fully. 'Jl^ avrtlortt 
tlntlv, sc. x.o/w, to express it briefly, or to be brief. "Oaov 
Y f'u' tldivai, at least as far as my knowledge extends. "O 
11 xu[S fidir at, for aught I know. 

NOTE 2. In parenthetical phrases (<, 220. N. 1) c5? is often 
omitted, in which case the infinitive appears to stand abso- 
lutely. E. g. Ov Tiott.oi ioyoj linf^ir, not to use many words. 
*$ -to axqi3h tlnilv , strictly speaking, to speak strictly. 
Jcxtlv fiiol, as it appears to me. 'OU/ov 3tlr, almost, nearly. 
noliov SBIV, far from it. 

NOTE 3. In phrases Mke'oiiyov Stir, ( 220. N. 2,) Snr is 
sometimes omitted. E. g. "O 8>) oiiyov nuaai eel nigl ^o 
aoiuu tjSoral i'zovai, which almost all the bodily pleasures have. 

3. The infinitive is frequently accompanied by the particle 
ur, in which case it has the force of the indicative, subjunctive, 
or optative, with >-, (<, 213. 5 : 214 : 217.) E. g. 'Enl noi- 
iuv nv iiq I Stir doxu itiot, it seems to me that one might see 
on many occasions. But 'Enl 7ioD.o>v T<C Idtiv doxu uoi, would 
mean it seems to me that one saw on many occasions. 

. Frequently the infinitive has the force 
of a neuter substantive ; in which case the neuter 
of the article ( 141. 3) commonly precedes it. E.g. 

KgtlTiQv tart TO afatptiortlv TOV tiolvTifttf/fiovilv, To 

act discreetly is better than to meddle with other men's 

2ifivvv6(jif&a tnl TW fliinov ytyovlvai TUV ui'f.wv, IVe pride 

ourselves upon being of nobler descent than others. TO IsVo? tivai ovx uv ol'tt adixr,&r)vai ; Do you sup- 

pose that you will not be icronged, because you arc a 

foreigner 1 

NOTE 1. Frequently the infinitive with the article TOU is 
equivalent to the genitive denoting that on account of which 
any thing takes place ( 187. 1). E. g. ju>; flf i'noi(i3r l? ov 

b$ TO ngaypa <ftiovtixovvra isyiiv, TOV xarucpati^ ytvta&ui, 




lest you suppose tliat I do not argue in order that the thing- 
may become, evident. 

NOTE 2. The infinitive with or without the article TO is sometimes used in 
exclamations of surprise or indignation, in which case ato'vrn, n>-'i$iov, tvvSis, 
or fiu^ IfTi, may be supplied. E. g. (Aristoph. Nub. 268) T Si p.* xuvi 
c'xeStv i \9-sio Ifit rov je*oS//to' t^ayrot, /, a wretch, have been foolish 
enough to come from home without a helmet ; literally, that I miserable should 
have come from home without a helmet. 

NOTE 3. The infinitive jfva/ ffrom tiftl, am'' seems to be superfluous in some 
instances, particularly in connection with the adjective l*5, willing. E. g. 
(Herodot. 7, 104) 'Exut rt ilvoti ovS' y f^aayiftta^iaifti, I should not jight 
even against a single man, if I had my way about it. 

So in the phrases T Tripi^ov tTva/, to-day. T vvv i*tKi, now. T 
!//* t7v, generally, on the whole. 

NOTE 4. The infinitive is often put after the substantives 
nvdyxri, &i[ii<;, wyn, and a few others, in which case it has the 
force of the adnominal genitive ( 173). E.g. 'Aruyxri as 
ndvTct snlarao^ai, sc. sari, thou of necessity must know all 
things. "Jlga fiadl^Etv, sc. tail, it is time to go. 


1. In general, the participle is equivalent to the 
indicative, subjunctive, or optative, preceded by a relative pro- 
noun, or by a particle signifying if, when, after, in order that, 
because, that, altltoitgh. 

For the participle with the article, see above ( 140. 3). 

2. The participle in connection with verbs signifying to 
knmo, to hear, to see, to perceive, to show, to relate, to remem- 
ber, to forget, to be ashamed, to rejoice, and a few others, is 
equivalent to the indicative or optative preceded by the con- 
junction on. E. g. 

TOVTO fii^ivriiini aqxa InayytMopsvta , I remember that 

you both profess this. 

I'vovg ftami^o^fvov 10 uttBaUWtr, Perceiving that the 
stripling was overwhelmed, 

Verbs of this class are nladavopai, nla%wouan. axovw, 
axa>, dttxrvfii, drjiota (also dtjio$ /ui), duxuvtjfiiiv^vi 
SiutptQio relate, Iv&Vfitofictt, STUU> prove, fjidnvf^nrofini, /nlara 
fiai, tVQiaxw, IdBiv, xaiiiyoQto) denote, x/lvoi, ftnv&dvca, fiffivypat, 
voso), oldot, opaw, nvv&dvofiai, (fctlvta, xaifi ta, and some others. 

222.] PARTICIPLE. 247 

NOTE 1. The participle after avroida and avyyiyfxuaxta, fol- 
lowed by the dative of the reflexive pronoun, is put either in 
the dative, or in the case with which these verbs agree. E. g. 
EuaiiTta 1 1- v i'j 3 f t v oiStv fjiiaTa pevoi, I teas conscious to 
myself that I knew nothing. Jio'^ oi-v tpuvw TOVT' t'/w $vvsi- 
ao/.iui, (ftiiyort dnoivoag urdga , now how shall I endure 
the thought that I have let a defendant escape? 2vyyivo'y- 
axopfv avTolai f, ulv ov noir^aaai ootfol,, we are conscious 
of not having done right. 

3. Verbs signifying to endure, not to endure, to overlook, 
to be contented with, to be satisfied, to cease, and some others, 
are connected with the participle. E. g. 

To Svvaa&ai diifjiavra dvtxea&ai, To be able to endure 

Jlctvuut vplvagtav, Stop talking nonsense. 

Verbs of this class are ayanata am contented, tm/o/uxt, 
dnrtiidaaouai, UQXW begin, fxiftTiu, ipatbtlufUUj fx ftv adijv, 
xapvw, xK^Tf^f'ta, l.r t yta, TIUVOJ, niQioqdut, Tt'iATjxa and tirjvat, 
tiiiofiirto, and some others. 

4. The participle is often put after the verbs Siaylyvo^m, 
diityw, dimfiio), />. i9'o), ii-y^arta, <f&urfa, and a few others, in 
which case the leading idea is contained in the participle. 
E. g. 

Iloioiv diayf/tvr^at, He has been doing. 

dtdyovai pavd dv ovt tq, They pass their time in learning. 

JiaifJiovai dixd^ovrtg, They are continually deciding 


jiilr t &a tuavrov ao(fog iuv, I did not know that I was wise. 
Tvyxdvopiv Int&v^ovvits, We happen to be desirous. 
<&& dvei dvafids, He went up before. 

NOTE 2. "E%io is frequently followed by a participle ; in 
which case the verb, from which the participle comes, would 
have been sufficient. E. g. Kgvifiaa' /?, for txQVipag, thou 
didst conceal. E~i% xaiaaTQtyidusvos, for xarunQtyicno, 
he subjugated. 

The same may be observed of ol/oum and the Homeric ^f t . 
E. g. "Jlizcxo (fsvytav, he escaped. Eij tftvytav Inl Tionor, 
he jftcd to the sea. 

5. The future participle is regularly put after verbs of 
motion, to express the purpose of the action of those verbs. E. g. 

Hi&f TIOO? rov 'Ayr\att.aov danaaouevof, he came to Age- 
sildus to bid him farewell. J id d!-(av cayu t]i*ai , I am going 
to skxa. 

248 SYNTAX. [223,224. 

NOTE 3. The present participle \s used after verbs of motion, 
when the time of the action marked by it is the same as that 
of the verb. E. g. nifinsi fid aoi cfiyovTu ruao" tnujroldg, 
he sends me in order to bring these directions to thce. 

NOTE 4. The adverbs ctvtlxa, e$al<prr,s, fv&vg, fisrn^v, Hurt, 
are frequently followed by the participle. E. g. MtraSv 
&vtov, while he was sacrificing. "Apa xetTct).ufi6vT f g, as 
soon as they had overtaken (them). 

6. The participle with the particle av has the force of the 
indicative, subjunctive, or optative, with V, ( 213. 5 : 214 : 
217.) E. g. Ta Sixalcog av Qij&svTa y.ctrn rr t g TroAfM?, thoze 
things which might justly be said against the state, where 
ra dixaltag av j>ri&ivia is equivalent to sxilrn dixaliag nv (>r,f}ti>j' 
but T dixalwg q^&tvia would mean those things which were 
justly said. 


233. Adverbs limit the meaning of VERBS, 

O v T w n o i to , / do so. 
Kalta? noiwv, Doing well. 
*Ennridsio<; ndvv, Very convenient, 
ndw y.u).Mi;, Very well. 

224. 1. The Greek has two simple negative particles, 
ov, no, not, and ^17, not. ( 15. 4.) 

2. Ov expresses a direct and independent negation. E. g. 
Ov as xpv^w, / will not conceal it. from thcc. O vx nida, I do 
not know. Ov% olog T' elfil, I am not able. 

So in direct interrogations, Ov nnQitfitt-tlg ; wilt thou not 
wait 1 Ovx yyoQivov , did not I say ? 

3. Mij regularly expresses a dependent negation. Conse 
quently it is put after the particles IV, onig, war?, we, o(f(ta, 
tdv, ft, inav, infiddv. Also it is put after all relative, words, 
when they do not refer to definite antecedents. E. g. Orx V 
Tigosltys, tl fir) Iniarsvasv dirjd'fvaKiv, had he not believed that 
lie should prove a true prophet, he would not have predicted. 
Ear 8i rig iStfatfoy rovg aqxortaS, xnl /j,i] tejfifteet, and if an if 
one shall drive away the magistrates, and shall not receive them. 

224.] ADVERB. 249 

4. 3h\ is used also in propositions containing a iris/*, an 
entreaty, or a prohibition. E. g. ffavaarl^ xr/ovy^a noir t aa^t- 
rt>s, fir) Sir a unri<j&ui rij? Irfa:, Pausanias proclaiming that 
no one should touch the booty. 

In prohibitions, the present imperative or the aorist subjunc- 
tive is used with rf. ($$ 215. 5 : 218. 2.) 

5. 3/ij, after verbs implying ./ear Or anxiety, signifies lest; in 
which case it is followed by the subjunctive, optative, and some- 
times by the future indicative. ($$ 214 : 216 : 213. N. 4.) 

6. Mr\ has also the force of an interrogative particle. E. g. 
Jlfq' TIIJ doxovuiv aoi ; do we nnt seem to thee? where the per- 
son asked is commonly expected to say no. But Ov nr, doxov- 
uiv ooi ,- expects or presupposes the answer yes. 

NOTE 1. The negative particles very often correspond to 
each other. The following are the negative formulas : 

ovif. ..... ovie neither ..... nor 

ovfil ..... ovds neither ..... nor 

ov ..... ovif not ..... nor 

OVTOI ..... ov8s neither ..... nor 

OVTO* ..... ovie neither ..... nor 

ov ..... ovds ..... OVTS not ..... nor ..... nor 

OVTS ..... ov neither ..... nor 

ovis ..... ovSs neither ..... nor even 

ov ..... oi'dt neither ..... nor ..... nor 

it ov neither ..... nor 

^uij're neither ..... nor 

fti)Ss neither ..... nor 

fj neither ..... nor 

prfil neither ..... nor 

NOTE 2. The formulas ov ..... re, ovtt ..... it, (sometimes 
TS ov ..... T, ovif ..... xnl, ovit ..... Si,) are equivalent to 
ovif ..... ovTf, when both clauses have the same verb. E. g. 
(II. 1,603 4)0 v utv <f('>outy/ng TifotxnlifO?, tjV I/' 'stnoiliur, 
Movnnmv &\ tti fiftdor, neither of the. harp of surpassing beauty, 
which Apollo had, nor of the Muses, who were singing. 

But if the verb of the second clause is different from that of 
the first, the second member (it) of the formula has an affii- 
mative meaning. E. g. OVK noorfQov r,utl$ r,^autv noltuov 
JIQO? vpms ' vi'v r' f&dloiifv anovSu^ noiiio&ut, we never began 
the war against you ; and now we are willing to make a treaty, 
where the verb of the first clause is fjofcuiv, and that of the 

250 SYNTAX. [$225,236. 

NOTE 3. The first negative particle of a negative formula is sometimes 
omitted. E. g. Tjwa; oi'3-' 'EAxW?, for OiVi Tguas ai'3-' 'ExA.v<f, neitlier 
a Trojan woman nor a Grecian woman. 

1. TW or more negatives, in Greek, strengthen 
the negation. E. g. 

"Orav fir} cf.ijTs xctAov tlrai firjdsv, When you say that 
nothing is beautiful, or When you deny that there is any 
thing beautiful. 

2. The double negative ov fit] is put either with the future 
indicative or with the subjunctive. (<, 213. N. 5 : 215. N. 3.) 

The double negative fir) ov is commonly put with the infini- 
tive. E. g. Ovx ivartiwjo^Kti TO fi-i] ov yiytavtlv, I shall 
not object to saying. 

NOTE. Two negatives destroy each other in the formula 
Ovdtig oang ov, no one who (docs) not. E. g. OvSsr u n ovx 
r^ana, nothing which he did not ask. OvStlg ov TWV jn*(j6v- 
iwv vntQfTiijvsas lov hoyov, there, was no one of those who were 
present who did not much praise the discourse. In this case 
both negatives belong to the same clause. 

3. Verbs and expressions, which contain a negation, are 
often followed by the particle ^ with the infinitive. E. g. 
Tov TK vofiov fSfixvvTTjv KVTM ro7g vioiq anfi7idrr)v fit] dia- 
leysa&ui, they showed him the law, and told him not to hold 
any conversation with young men. 'llStQvaafjyv fioorovg tov 
fii] diaQQaia&WTag rig "Aidov fiolilv, I delivered the mortal race 
from being utterly destroyed and sent to Hades. 

Verbs of this class are anuvSato, wTrw^o^t'w, ant^ofitti, omi- 
aiim, uQviofiat, (also the expression tSayvog clfJi), ttyyca, int^M, 
i, and a few others. 


236. 1. The following eighteen prepositions are called 
the primitive prepositions : 

3 j4uifi, about, around, with Genitive, Dative, or Accusative. 
*Ava, upon, on, in, through, with Dative or Accusative. 
*Anl, instead of, with Genitive. 
*An6,from, with Genitive. 
Jid, through, for, on account of, for the sake of, with Geni- 

tive or Accusative. 
Ely or 'Eg, to, into, with Accusative. 

226.] PROPOSITION. 251 

*r, in, at, with Dative. 

!fc'i or !x, from, of, out of, with Genitive. 

*Enl, on, upon, to, towards, with Genitive, Dative, or Accu- 

Kurd, down from, against, according to, in, in respect to, with 

Genitive or Accusative. 
Miid, with, among, after, with Genitive, Dative, or Accu- 

IlaQu,from, by, with, to, besides, along, with Genitive, Da- 

tive, or Accusative. 
i, about, around, concerning, of, with Genitive, Dative, 

or Accusative. 

O, before, in the presence of, in behalf of , in preference to, 

with Genitive. 

OS, to, towards, by, in addition to, with Genitive, Dative, 

or Accusative. 

2vv and Zvv, toith, together with, by means of, with Dative. 
*7xio, over, beyond, in behalf of , with Genitive or Accusative. 
'THO, under, by, with Genitive, Dative, or Accusative. 

NOTE 1. Most of the dissyllabic prepositions throw the ac- 
cent back on the penult, when they are placed after the nouns 
to which they belong. This is called anastrophe. E. g. 
.ZYf (i) v 7i o , for Ano v t o> v , from the ships. '% 3 QWV v n i o , 
for f Tx i p 1% & o o) v , for the enemies. 

NOTE 2. Some of the dissyllabic prepositions throw the 
accent back on the penult also when they stand for il t ul, am, 
compounded with themselves. In this case, the Attics use 
the old tn for ( 226. N. 6). E. g. nnqa for -nd^iart from 
m for tvian from 

NOTE 3 In the early writers (as Homer and Herodotus), the 
preposition is often separated from the verb, with which it 
is compounded, by other words belonging to the same propo- 
sition. This is called tmesis. E. g. 'A no fjiiv t&avt o urpa- 
*r t y6q, for 'Ani &uvt piv o aiQuir^/6?, on the one hand, the gen- 
eral died. 

NOTE 4. In cnse of tmctis (^ 226 N. 3), the preposition is 
sometimes put after the verb. E. g. Via* <5' a no otror 
llftog, and the stone knocked oif thp shield. 

NOTE 5. In case of tmesis, when the same compound word is to be repeated 
several times, after the first time the preposition alone is sometimes used. E. g. 
Kara fj.\i t/.iufai ttu-rao <rrt* ytnaLrxx, xr Ji TO, r'txr*, for Kar*Xii>- 
tui H.II acini/ T ywmnm, **riA tufat ?! T Tixta, on the one hand, they 
stoned his wife, and, on the other, they stoned hit children. ( 226. N. 3.) 

252 SYNTAX. [ 227, 228 

2. The following particles very often have the force of 

"Aviv or"Aitg, without, with Genitive. 
"AXQI? or'Axgi, until, as far as, with Genitive. 
"Evfxa or "j^vexsv, on account of, in respect to, so far as con- 
cerns, with Genitive. 

MexQig or Mf%Qi, until, as long as, with Genitive. 
77>Ujv, except, with Genitive. 
f Jl?, to, with Accusative. 

NOTE 6. The old language lias airal for O.TO' &/ for 3/ In', iJ, tiv, for 
Iv * Kara! for KO.-TO., only in composition ; ra.^a.i for Ttaoa. ' ir^nr'i, -T/, for 
<ro; * iiirtia for vsri ' v<rtti fur ucra. Tlie Ionic has t'lvtxu or c'/yneiv for mxoc. 

NOTE 7. A preposition without a case has the force of an 
adverb. E. g. Kaiaxitvta / ipo'i,-, in addition to this I will 
kill (thee). 

NOTE 8. In the old writers, a preposition is sometimes repeated. E. g. 
'Ev li it Mi /*<?<> and in Memphis. 

NOTE 9. Sometimes the preposition, with which a verb is compounded, is 
repeated. E. g. 'Av V 'O'&uftrivi atirretre, and Ulysses arose. 

397. A preposition in composition is often followed by 
the same case as when it stands by itself. E. g. 

'TnsQtvsy xorr tg T? vavg tov '/ a & p o v , Carrying the 

ships across the Isthmus. 
3 liaJi1i&e fie, ft came into my mind. 


328. 1. Conjunctions signifying and, but, or, 
than, connect similar words. E. g. 

JIols^ov xt jua'^Tj?, Of war and battle. 
J ix it lug xaSixw?, Justly and unjuttly. 
'Ayanav % fiiatlv, To love or to hate. 

Conjunctions of this class are xal, and, ^i t and, atta, but, 
TJ, or, tf, than. 

NOTE 1. The conjunction ??, or, means also otherwise, else. 

The formula J ij, means either or. The formula 

noitgav or nottgn ^, means whither or. 

NOTE 2. The conjunction #, than, is used after compara- 
tives ( 186. N. 5, 6). 

$ 228.] COXJUN-CTIO.V. 253 

A comparison between two qualities of the same object is 
expressed by means of two comparatives, expressive of those 
qualities, with f t , than, between them. E.g. 
^ a vd Q f t oTf go i , more rash than brave, '/.'rro/jj 
ij aoipureQot, I acted more quickly than wisely. 

NOTE 3. The conjunction xal, in the formula xal xal, 

means both and, as well as. 

After adjectives and adverbs implying resemblance, union, 
approach, it may be rendered as. E. g. 'Ojt/otwc ntnoitlxaot 
xal "Ofirjoo:, they have acted in the same manner as Homer, or 
they and Homer have acted in the same manner. 

Sometimes xui means even, also. E. g. Kal '^liivg TOVTW 
t(ior/ am3oi.f t aai, even Achilhs is afraid to meet him. 

NOTE 4. Te is always enclitic (< 22). The formula T 

xui means both and. The formula TE xal (not separated) 

means both and. The formula xal T?, or xal 

Tf, is a little stronger than xui. 

, NOTE 5. Sometimes a possessive pronoun or a possessive 
adjective and a genitive are connected by xni ' in which case 
the genitive is joined to the genitive implied in the pronoun or 
adjective. ( 67 : 131. 1.) E. g. naidf; i/nol xal naiqos 
cnaa&uiov, sous of me and an indiscreet father. 

2. The following list contains most other conjunctions. 

at, Doric, tl. It is used also by the epic poets, but only 

in the formulas uly.n, I ydy, uldt, O that, 
atxu (T, xu\ Doric, = iuv. 
ar, a particle implying uncertainty and ind<Jimtencs$. It may 

accompany all the moods and the participle. ($$213- 


Sometimes it is doubled. E. g. (Eupol. apud Athen.} 

Ovs ovx av t'ilfa&' ovd' uv olromaq nooiov, whom far~ 

merly you tcould not have appointed even inspector's of 


, see titr. It must not be confounded with the preceding. 
<tijtt (paroxytone), therefore, consequently 
taja (properispomenon), an interrogative particle, 
cm (, TS), inasmuch as, because. 
itvifiQ or itTf'to (avrt, Son), but. 
;, Doric, =. ye. 

/(c'o, for, never stands at the beginning of a proposition. 
yi, a particle of limitation, at hast. (See also 64. N. 1.) 

254 SYNTAX. [228 

yovv (yd, ovv) = ys and ovv united. 

dal, = 3ij. 

3s, and, but, for, never begins a proposition. (See also ^iv.) 

flij, now, indeed, in truth, prithee. Its compounds are dynov- 

&sv, Srj&sv, drjja. 
lav or av or Ijv (ft, Sv), if, with the subjunctive. ( 214. 

1 : 216. N. 3.) 
el, if, whether, followed by the indicative or optative. (^ 213. 

3 : 216. 1 : 214. N. 5.) 
yaQ, for if. It expresses also a wish, O that ! ( 217. 

N. 1,2,3.) 

indv or in-qv (end, av), when, after, as soon as, with the sub- 
junctive. ($$ 214. 1 : 216. N. 3.) 
Insdv, Ionic, tnuv. 
tml (tnl), since, after, inasmuch as, with the indicative or 

optative. ( 213. 3 : 216. 1 : 214. N. 5.) 
enitddv (tntidrj, uv), nr fndv. 
inti8r) (insl, drf), ewet. 
^TTftjJ, poetic, r= Inndij. 
inriv, see e'Tiw'j'. 
^, truly, certainly. It is also an interrogative particle. It 

is often followed by p^v, nov, TO/, yug, or (Jij. 
i^Se, and. See also i^iiv. 
ys, Epic and Ionic, = ij', or, than. 

riper yds, both and, as well as. 

ijv, see iuv. 

$101 (%, TO/), used commonly in the formula ^Vot ^', or 

; rjroi, either or. 

In Homer ^TOI is equivalent to p{v. 
dip, a particle of confirmation, 
ids, "=. tjds. 
iV, that, in order that, with the subjunctive, optative, or with 

the historical tenses of the indicative. (214. 1 : 216. 

1 : 213. N. 6.) 

As an adverb it is equivalent to nov or O'TTOV, where, 
xii, Doric, xe. 

xi or xtv, Epic, = V (different from Sv, if). 
p.iv, commonly used in the formula ph di, indeed 

but, on the one hand on the other. 

pyv, a particle of confirmation, really, indeed, certainly. It 

is often preceded by ys, rj, xal, fiy, ov, and by interroga- 
tive words ($ 68 : 73 : 123). 

fiwv (nrj, ovv), an interrogative particle. ( 224. 6.) Some- 
times it is followed by ^ or olv. 

229.] INTERJECTION. 255 

tv or rvv (short i/) is a weak rvr, now. The form i' is found 

only in the Epic language. 
ou<a;, yet, still. 

onu;, that, in order that, with the subjunctive, optative, or 
future indicative. ( 214 1 : 216. 1 : 213. N. 4, 5.) It 

must not be confounded with the adverb O.TOJ?, as. 
otav (ort, av), when, with the subjunctive. ( 214. 4: 216. 

N. 3.) 
on (oung), that, because, with the indicative or optative. 

(213.3:216. 1.) 

It strengthens the meaning of superlative adjectives or 

adverbs. E. g. "On -nltloiov ZQOYOV, as much time 

as possible. 

Also, it stands before words quoted without change. 

E. g. E'mtv oil. Etg xaigov Tjxiig, he said, " You have 

come at the right time." 
oir, now, therefore. (See also 71. N. 3: 73. N. 3 : 123. 

- N ' 4 ->, 
ovvtxa (ov, fn**), on account of which. As a conjunction it 

means since, because. 

oifga, poetic, = ?v or oncag. (See also 123.) 
nig, very, quite, although. (See also $ 71. N. 3 : 124. 

N. 4.) 

gn, Epic, ^r aga. 

101 (for aol, 64. N. 2), certainly, indeed. It often corre- 
sponds to the English parenthetical phrases you know, 
you see. 

civ, that, in ordi-r that, with the indicative, subjunctive, opta- 
tive, or infinitive. ($ 213. 3 : 214. 1 : 216. 1 : 220. 1.) 
It strengthens the meaning of superlative adjectives and 
adverbs. E. g. C J2 ? ra^iara, as quickly as possible. 

uoTt (a>g, ii), su that, with the indicative or infinitive. 
(213.3:220. 1.) 


229* Interjections are particles used in exclamations, 
and expressing some emotion of the mind. 

The following list contains most interjections. 
a, ah ! of sorrow and compassion, 
a, a, ha! ha! of laughter. 
at, of wonder. 
alpot, of wonder. 

256 SYNTAX. [^,229. 

annanai or unoaftct, of approbation, 
f, of joy. 
ia., oi sorrow. 
, irt, or unuinn't$, of sorrow and disgust. 

(tafiai or ftaftuiaS, of astonishment. Followed by the geni- 
tive ( 187. 2). 

e or , a/t / of grief. 

ti'a (sometimes ei'a), on / courage ! 

eliv, loell, be it so. 

tlslfv, of grief or joy. 

tvys (tv, yi), well done! bravo! 

evol, the cry of the bacchanals. 

yv, rji'l, yvidf, = idov, which see. 

iatTUTal or tuiTotTatu'S, of sorrow. Followed by the genitive 
($ 187. 2). 

lav, lavoi, ho ! in answer to a call. Sometimes it is equiva- 
lent to Iov, tw. 

Idov (oxytone), lo ! behold! (See also ETJJl in the cata- 
logue of Anomalous Verbs.) 

It), of exultation. 

Iov, alas! of sorrow. Followed by the genitive ( 187.2). 

tw, of joy or grief. Followed by the dative or vocative 
($ 196. 5 : 204. 2). 

fiv, pv, of pain. It is made by breathing strongly through 
the nostrils. 

od, woe ! alas. 

oi', woe. Followed by the dative ( 196. 5). 

ol'/ioi or oi' fioi (ol, fiol), woe is me! Followed by the geni- 
tive ( 187. 2). 


oval, woe ! used only by the later writers. Followed by the 

dative ( 196. 5). 

mxnai, nrniaia^, of pain, sorrow, joy, wonder. 
n6ita%, nonot, or w nonot, O gods! of complaint. 
nvna$ or nvnna$, of wonder or admiration. 
Qvnanal, a cry used by rowers. 
v v, expresses the sound made by a person smelling of any 

<ptv, alas ! Followed by the genitive ( 187. 2). 

(fV, = (ffV. 

w (with the acute accent), oh ! of wonder or grief. Fol- 
lowed by the nominative, genitive, or dative, ( 187. 2 : 
196. 5.) 

a] (circumflexed), O! Followed by the vocative ( 204. 2) 
', used in encouraging rowers. 

$$ 230, 231.] IRREGULAR CONSTRUCTION. 237 


23O. 1. Frequently a NOMINATIVE stands without a 
verb. E. g. (Xen. Hier. 6, 6) "/>a;rfo oi uffi^tal ov%> OTOCV 
idiuTur yiviaviai xqiitTov;, TOITO (u'roiv fvyguirii, aii', orar 
TaJv di'TM/amuraJr ^ITOIV, TOIT' KITOI,- itvtu, literally, as the 
athletes, ichen they become superior to inexperienced men, 
this does not gladden them ; but when they prove inferior to 
their opponents, this grieves them, where one might expect 
oi d&).t,iul roi/rw twpfttfoomn TOITW ttntmmt, 

2. If in the formula o pit- 6 8i a whole is expressed, this 

is put either in the genitive ( 177), or in the same case as 

6 uiv o di. E. g. (II. 16, 317 22) yiaiogldat 8', 

o ftiv oi'Taa AiVfiviov ojt'i Sovyl, Ariiiozog tov d av~ 

ri&to; O^aai'fAijdrjg i<p&rj oQt*nptrog, nolv oviaaat, the sons 
of Nestor, one, that is, Antilochus, pierced Atymnius with the 

sharp spear but godlike Thrasymedes directed his spear 

against him before he struck. (Soph. Antig 21, 22) Ov yaq 
ru<fov riav TW xaaiyf^rta Kyttar, TOV [iiv TTQoilaag, tov d* 
nnuitaai i%n ; has not Crion given one of our brothers an 
honorable burial, and left the other unburied 1 

3. Instead of the nominative, the ACCUSATIVE is sometimes 
found. E. g. (Odys. 1, 275) Mr,iioa 8', 11 oi dvpos itfOQ- 
ftiiiai yauifa&ai, aif> li<a ('; [tiyatyov Timqo:, as to thy mother, 
if she very much desires to be married, let her go back to her 
father's house. 

4. Instead of the infinitive, sometimes the INDICATIVE with 
ti, OK, or on is used ; in which case the subject-accusative 
stands alone. E. g. (Aristoph. Av. 1268-9) Jsiror yt tov 
XTiQVXfi, iov niiQu Toiig fyoiovg oixofttrov, tl [tqSirtoit ro- 
oTJjast nnlir, it is a terrible thing, that the herald who was 
despatched to the mortals should tint rtturn. (Ibid. 650-2) 
'Jig fv Aiuo'nov loyoiq liiil liyontrov 8t) TI, ii\v aifantjr , tag 
qpiavow; txoirtavr t ae v data nort, that in the fables of ^E sop 
something is said about the fox, that she was once scurvily 
treated by her partner the eagle. 

931. Sometimes with ftro or more substantives only one 
verb is put, which can belong only to one of them. This irregu- 
larity of construction is called zeugma. E. g. (^Eschyl. Prom. 
Vine. 21, 22) "/>' ovrs (f.<avr\v, ovts iov 


258 SYNTAX. [$ 232. 

oyti, where thou wilt neither (hear) the voice, nor see the form, 
of any mortal, where fptovyr, properly speaking, depends on 

232* The Greeks were fond of connecting kindred 
words as closely as possible. This often occasions a confused 
arrangement. E. g. (yEschyl. Ag. 836) Tots avrbc UVTOV 
TTTj'juatfi (JotQvvtTtti, he is oppressed by his own misfortunes. 
(Id. Choeph. 87) Haya tpL^^g rfi^Kt yvvaixog arSy!., from 
a dear wife to a dear husband. 



$233. 1. Every Greek verse is divided into portions 
called feet. 

Feet are either simple or compound. A simple foot con- 
sists of two or three syllables ; a compound foot, of four. 


Spondee, .......... two long ; as 

Pyrrhic, .......... two short ; as 

Trochee or Choree, ..... a long and a short ; as 

Iambus, ........... a short and a long ; 


Dactyle, a long and two short ; as 

Anapest, two short and a long ; as 

Tribrach, three short ; as dflopfv. 

ATolossus, three long ; as itr&Qwxot. 

Amphibrach, a short, a long, and a short ; as 

Amphimacer or Cretic, a long, a short, and a long; as 


Bacchius a short and two long ; as 

Antibacchius, two long and a short ; as a* 


Dispondee, a double spondee ; as af. 

Proceleusmatic, ... a double pyrrhic ; as 

Ditrochee, a double trochee ; as 

Diiambus, a double iambus ; as 

Greater Ionic, .... a spondee and a pyrrhic ; as 

Smaller Tonic, a pyrrhic and spondee; as anol<alta$. 

Choriambus, a choree and an iambus ; as olouivtav. 

260 VERSIFICATION. [ 234. 

Antispast, ....... an iambus and a trochee ; as 

Epitritus I, ...... an iambus and a spondee ; as nu 

JEpitritus II, ..... a trochee and a spondee ; as 

Epitrittu III, ... a spondee and an iambus ; as 
Epilritus IV,.... a spondee and a trochee ; as 

P&on I, ......... a trochee and a pyrrhic ; as 

Paon II, ........ an iambic and a pyrrhic ; as 

Paon III, ....... a pyrrhic and a trochee; as 

Pceon IV, ....... a pyrrhic and an iambus; as 

2. ARSIS is that part of a foot on which the stress (ictus, 
beat) of the voice falls. The rest of the foot is called THESIS. 
The arsis is on the long syllable of a foot. For example, the 
arsis of an iambus or anapest is on the last syllable ; the arsis 
of a trochee or dactyle, on the first. 

NOTE. The arsis of a spondee is determined by the nature 
of the verse in which this foot is found. E. g. in trochaic or 
dactylic verse the arsis is on the first syllable, thus (-' -) ; in 
iambic or anapestic, on the last, thus ( -- '). 

The tribrach has the arsis on the first syllable, when it is 
found in trochaic verse, thus (-' ~ ~) ; on the second syllable, 
when it stands in an iambic verse, thus (- -' -). 

The dactyle in anapestic or iambic verse has the arsis on the 
second syllable, thus ( -' -). 

The anapest in trochaic verse has the arsis on the first 
syllable, thus (-' ~ -). 

334. 1. Verses are very often denominated from the foot 
which predominates in them. For example, the verse is called 
dactylic, when the dactyle predominates in it. 

2. A complete verse is called acatalectic. A verse, of which 
the last foot is deficient, is called catalectic. 

Particularly, a trochaic, iambic, or anapestic verse is called 
catalcctic, when it has an odd number of feet and a syllable : 
hypcrcatalcctic, when it has an even number of feet and a 
syllable : brarhyratalr.ctir, when it has only an odd number of 
feet. For examples sec below. 

3. The trocltaic, iambic., and anttpcttic verses are measured 
by dipodies ; (a dipwly is a pair of feet.) Thus, an iambic verse 
of four feet is called iambic dimeter ; of six, iambic trimeter; 
of eight, iambic tetrameter. 

235-237.] TROCHAIC VERSE. 261 

235* CAESURA is the separation, by the ending of a 
word, of syllables rhythmically or metrically connected. There 
are three kinds of caesura : 

1 . Caesura of the FOOT ; 

2. Caesura of the RHYTHM ; 

3. Ccesura of the TERSE. 

1. The caesura of the foot occurs when a word ends before 
a foot is completed. E. g. 'tf.iov \ (Soda- | na$t no- \ hv, M- \ 
QOMJS d' a- | yviag, where t^ut.u7iul^, xijowaf terminate in the 
middle of the foot. 

2. The casura of the rhythm occurs when the arsis falls 
upon the last syllable of a word ; by which means the arsis 
is separated from the thesis. This can take place only in feet 
which have the arsis on the first syllable. E. g. 'AQK, *A- \ $15 
PQOTO- I loi/f, pi- | ui(foyf, \ ifi%Fai- \ jii.r^a, where the arsis 
(p?) 01 the second foot falls upon the last syllable of 'Agig. 

This caesura allows a short syllable to stand instead of a 
long one ( 18. 2). E. g. l^utg \ ptv xiay- \ ytj T' Ivo- \ ny 
i* iaav | OQVI- \ &($ a>+, where the last syllable (#tc) of ogvi- 
&t$ is made long by arsis. 

3. The caesura of the verse is a pause in verse, so intro- 
duced as to aid the recital, and render the verse more melo- 
dious. It divides the verse into two parts. 

In the trochaic, iambic, and anapestic, tetrameter, and in 
the elegiac pentameter, its place is fixed. (fy$ 240 : 245 : 250. 
4: 255.) 

Other kinds of verse have more than one place for this 

336. The last syllable of most kinds of verse is common, 
that is, it can be long or short without regard to the nature of 
the foot. 


237. The fundamental foot of the trochaic verse is the 
trochee. The tribrach can stand in every place instead of the 
trochee. The spondee or the anapest can stand only in the 
even places (2d, 4th, 6th, 8th). 

In proper names the dactyle can stand in all the places, 
except the 4th and the 7th. 

2G2 VERSIFICATION. [$$238-243. 

238. The TROCHAIC MONOMETER Consists of tWO feet. 

It is generally found among trochaic dimeters. E. g. 

$ 33O. 1. The TROCHAIC DIMETER acatalectic consists of 
four feet, or two dipodics. E. g. 

l4i^ J M- | vafirt]- | a&tvisg, \ (a 
Ttav re \ naiam- \ (av f- \ xtivav. 

First with trembling hollow motion, 
Like a scarce awakened ocean. 

2. The TROCHAIC DIMETER catalectic consists of three feet 
and a syllable. It is found among trochaic dimeters acatalec- 
tic. E. g. 

JTovro piv ys ygog otltl 
BittOTavii, xal oCxojparrEi. 

Tov 8e | %tin<a- | vog nix \ tiv. 

Could the stoutest overcome 
Death's assault and baffle doom, 
Hercules had both withstood. 

$ 24O. The TROCHAIC TETRAMETER Cdtdhctic Consists of 

seven feet and a syllable. Its verse-caesura occurs at the end 
of the fourth foot. This caesura is often neglected by the 
comedians, but very seldom by the tragedians. E. g. 

Ela | drj <pi- \ Aot Ao- | xlrai, \\ roigyov \ ovx s- \ xag TO- \ 8s. 

Judges, jurymen, and pleaders, || ye whose soul is in your fee. 


$ 341. The fundamental foot of the iambic verse is the 
iambus. The tribrach can stand in every place instead of the 
iambus. The spondee or the dactyle can stand in the odd 
places (1st, 3d, 5th, 7th). 

The ariapest can stand in all the places except the last. 
The tragedians admit an anapest in an even place only when 
it is contained in a proper name. 

$ 343. The IAMBIC MONOMETER consists of two feet. It 

is found chiefly in systems of iambic dimeters. E. g. 
Km roig I xo).oig> 

$ 24t. 1. The IAMBIC DIMETER acataltct'ic consists of four 
feet. E. g. 

244.1 IAMBIC VERSE. 263 

a fin 

Tov dr r | .uoy 

Zxordag \ noitj- \ aupfro? \ ipav- 

Tw, JiQot- \ "/(untav \ it, xcu 

Trust not for freedom to the Franks, 
They have a king who buys and sells. 

2. The IAMBIC DIMETER cotalectic consists of three feet 
and a syllable. It is found among iambic dimeters acatalec- 
tic. E. g. 

*Avr t q avfVQtjxir 11 TaL' 
Znoidaiaiv fjdv ' xovs. rot 

Kiv ov- \ dtrt [At- | T<Jw- | auv. 

That Sylvia is excelling. 
Upon this dull earth dwelling. 

244:. I The IAMBIC TRIMETER acatalfctic consists of 
six feet. It never has a tribrach in the last place. 

Its verse-caesura occurs after the second foot ; sometimes 
after the third foot. Sometimes the verse-czesura is entirely 
neglected. E. g. 

" Oaa dt] | Stdr t - \ yftai \\ rijr nirev- \ tov XUQ- \ Siav, 
dt ( 5i/t - | , || -navv \ df pitt- \ a, rtt- \ ruga' 
&r t y, \\ y/r<u- | pnxooi- \ oyao- \ yuou. 

NOTE. The tragedians admit a dactyle only in theirs/ and 
third places. E. g. 

Kiuutgi- \ xov r t *fi:, ov ^^navaninyjfro)^ at XQIJ. 
Tr t q ofBoftov- | ioi' Qffii- \ doe ulnvur^u nai. 

They admit an anapest only in thr first place. E. 3. 
aSapav- | iiviar dsauoiv fv MOOJXTO(? nfSrii;. 

But in proper nnmfs they admit an anapest in any place 
except the last : in which case the anapest is contained in the 
proper name. E. g. 

*Jl Tiitrirt ro:o)r, Tfi- \ omtfi, Sidrty.ja Tt. 
Luoi fisr ovSnc uvftiic, Ar- \ Ti/otr,, cfiioiv. 

2. The scazon or chnUambu? is the iambic trimeter acatalectic 
with a spondee or trochee in the list place. E. g. 

/,'/ ffninnu: \\ f. 'nlfar 
Jivinvda /r t i;ff \\ rty iiux^ 

264 VERSIFICATION. [245-249. 

. The IAMBIC TETRAMETER CCttdlectic Consists of 

seven feet and a syllable. Its verse-caesura is at the end of 
the fourth foot; but this caesura is often neglected by the 
comedians. E. g. 

Ovxovv | naiui, | dqnov \ fayta ; \\ av 8' uv- \ TO? ovx \ uxov- \ si(, 
'() SB- | anorrig \ yaq <fr t - \ aiv v- \ pag %- \ dftag \ anav- \ ra?. 

A captain bold of Halifax, || who lived in country quarters. 


246. The fundamental foot of the dactylic verse is the 
dactyle. The spondee may stand for the dactyle. 

247. 1. The DACTYLIC DIMETER dcdtdlectic consists 
of two dactyles. It is found among dactylic tetrameters. 

Mvarodo- | xog 8o t uog. 

2. The DACTYLIC DIMETER catdlcclic on two syllables con- 
sists of a dactyle and a spondee or trochee. E. g. 

248. 1. The DACTYLIC TRIMETER catalectic on one syl- 
lable consists of two feet and a syllable. E. g. 

'A/.fir/- | tVTot no- \ QOV. 

2. The DACTYLIC TRIMETER catolcctic on two syllables 
consists of three feet and two syllables forming a spondee or 
trochee. E. g. 

- mot? e- 


sists of four feet, the last of which is a dactyle or a cretic. 
E. g. 

* | nr t g cpaog, 

2. The TETRAMETER cdtdlectic on one sylldble consists of 
three feet and a syllable. E. g. 

JlokXu /?>o- | TUP diet- | [tfi()o[ie- \ va. 

250, 251.] DACTYLIC VERSE. 

3. The TETRAMETER cotalfctic on two syllables consists of 
three feet and two syllables forming a spondee or trochee. 
E. g. 

OovQiog | oovig \ Tivxaid' in \ uiuv. 

Ov&' vno- ] xiaiwv, | oi'#' vno- \ it i far. 

Sj*5O. 1. The DACTYLIC PENTAMETER acatalectic con- 
sists of five feet, the last of which is a dactyle. E. g. 

(>oi upa. 

2. The DACTYLIC PENTAMETER catdhctic on one syllable 
consists of four feet and a syllable. E. g. 

Tov }ttya- \ itav Java- \ av vno- \ xlfcopf- \ rav. 

3. The DACTYLIC PENTAMETER catolectic on tico syllables 
consists of four feet and two syllables. E. g. 

3 Aiqti- | dag fta%i- \ fiovs, Ida- \ r\ la-/o- \ SutTi*,\ 

4. The ELEGIAC PENTAMETER consists of two trimeters cata- 
lectic on one syllable ( 248. 1). The first hemistich almost 
always ends in a long syllable. The verse-caesura occurs after 
the second foot. This kind of verse is customarily subjoined 
to the heroic hexameter. E. g. 

Bovlto d' tvotfitttv otiyoiz avv xgr^aatv olxrir, 

'H niov- | itiv, ddi- j xtag \\ ^^^erra | nuaapt- \ ro$. 

2il. 1. The DACTYLIC HEXAMETER acatalectic consists 
of six feet, the last of which is a dactyle. It is used by the 
tragedians in systems of tetrameters. E. g. 

AM? (o | navtoi- I ug tpilo- | TIJTOJ d- | f^fi^o t uf- | vr.ti %aoiv. 

2. The DACTYLIC HEXAMETER (or heroic Jifiamittr] cata- 
lectic on tico syllables, consists of six feet, the last of which is 
a spondee or trochee. The fifth foot is commonly a dactyle 

The predominant verse-cccsura is that in the middle of the 
third foot ; either directly after the arsis, or in the middle of 
the thesis of a dactyle. E. g. 

iwms, \ fiovoit, \\ no- \ Ivraonov, j og t uai.u nuiia 
], i- | rrii Toot- \ yg \\ li- \ aov molt- \ t&oov f- \ mqotv. 

Sometimes the verse-casura occurs immediately after the 
arsis of the fourth foot. E. g. 

j}v is yvyrp, xce vo<nov saoon. 

266 VERSIFICATION. [252-255. 


. The fundamental foot of the anapestic verse is the 
anapest. The spondee, the dactyle, or the proceleusmatic, may 
stand for the anapest. 

A dactyle very seldom precedes an anapest in the same 

253* The ANAPESTIC MONOMETER consists of two feet. 

roov o- I $vgoav. 

2541. 1. The ANAPESTIC DIMETER acatcilertic consists 
of four feet, the last of which is either an anapest, a spondee, 
or a trochee. 

The legitimate verse-caesura is in the second arsis. It is 
often made, however, in the short syllable immediately after 
the second arsis. E. g. 

Ti av nQog \ ps).a&Qoic ; \\ ?i av tr t - \ 8s. nohig, 

adi- | XH? av, \\ ripus \ ft'Qcm> 
i- I o[.itvo$ || xwt xaia- \ TIUVCOV. 

Tabourgi, tabourgi, || thy larum afar 

Gives nope to the valiant || and promise of war. 

2. The ANAPESTIC DIMETER catalf.ctic consists of three feet 
and a syllable. It has no cssura. E. g. 

v- \ rig. 

NOTE. Anapestic dimeters consisting wholly of spondees 
are not uncommon. E. g. 

dtiltdu Stdniov "/i]Q(ac, 
4ov),ti</$ TtJf ov T^uiiiq. 

25t5. The ANAPESTIC TETRAMETER catahctic (called 
also AristophaneMn) consists of seven feet and a syllable. 

The verse-caesura comes after the fourth foot ; in some in- 
stances, after the short syllable immediately following the 
fourth foot. E. g. 

Ovnia | naof^T) \ ngogTO&s- \ CUTQOV \\ Aflcov, | dag df- \ $i 

8' vno tiav \ tyfryKtv \\ iv 

c /2? xw- | /Mpdfi | rr\v nohv | rjfiwv, \\ xai rov 


In the following indexes, the figures designate the sections () and their 
divisions : N. stands for NOTE, and R. for REMARK. 


a, 1. 2. changes of, 2. N. 3. 

quantity of, 2 : 17. N. 3 : 
31. N. 1 : 33. N. 2 : 35. 
N. 1: 36. N. 5 : 49. N. 3. 
privative, 135. 4. 

-o pure, nouns in, 31. 3. 2 
aor. act. in, 85. N. 2. 

-, voc. sing, in, 31.4. nom. 
sing. masc. in, 31. N. 3. 

-a, gen. sing, in, 31. N. 3. 
voc. sing, of the third declen- 
sion in, 38. N. 1. 

ayt or yt (it followed by the subj., 
215. 2. 

aSflyos, with dat., 195. 1. 
with gen., 195. N. 1. 

-adrjv, see -Syv. 

-adrj$, patronymics in, 127. 1. 
at contracted into ?j, 23. N. 1. 
-d&ia, -i&<a, -vdoi, verbs in, 96. 


r. for , 2. N. 3. 
-at permits the accent to be 

on the antepenult, 20. N. 1 . 

elided, 25. N. 1. 
aivagsTT)?, voc. sing, of, 31. R. 1. 
-aivca, dvoi, verbs in, 96. 7. 
-otto?, adjectives in, 62. 3 : 131. 

1: 138. N. 1. 

-aig, -ataa, aor. part, in, 90. N. 
-aiai, dat. plur. in, 31. N. 3. 

with ace. and gen., 
183. 1. with two accusa- 
tives, 183. R. 1. 
xig, adverbs in, 120. 

axot'w with gen., 179. 1. with 
ace., 179. N. 1. with ace. 
and gen., 179. N. 2. 

-alio$, adjectives in, 131. 3. 

K/Uo<3ct7idc, 73. 2. 

toioiOi, with gen , 186. 2. 

alioc, 73. 2. neuter of, 33. 
N. 1. with a plural verb, 
157. 4. _ with gen., 186. 2. 

diloTQiog with gen., 186. 2. 
with dat., 186. R. 

Sig, 36. N. 1. 

iw'i with gen., 183. R. 1. 

aiomijl, inflection of, 36. 2. 

, 73. 2. 

, 73. 2. agrees with a 
plural substantive, 137. N.8. 

->-, gen. plur. in, 31. N. 3. 

-uv, perf. act. 3d pers. plur. in, 
85. N. 1. 

>tt'/xj, &iui?, (ag, followed by 
the inf., 221. N. 4. 

aV|, 36. N. 1. TOO. sing, of, 
38. N. 4. 

dr^'p, inflection of, 40. 2. ac- 
cent of, 40. N. 3. sub- 
joined to certain nouns, 136. 
R. ' 



-avog, national appellatives in 
127. 3. 

e&oc, w&'ws, with gen., 190. 2. 
with dat., 190. N. 3. 

c&o'w with ace. and gen., 190. 

o and uca changed into tw, 2. 
N. 3. 

-Go, -aav, gen. in, 31. N. 3 

wTioXwvw with gen., 178. 2. 
with ace., 178. N. 1. 

'^Tio'A/Uuv, ace. sing, of, 37. N. 
2. voc. sing, of, 38. N. 2. 

7ioorjHo, with two accusa- 
tives, 165. 1. with ace. 
and gen., 165. R. 

-ay, accent of the contracted 
forms of some nouns in, 36. 
N. 3. 

APIIN, inflection of, 40. 3. 

-UQIOV, diminutives in, 127. 2. 

-ag, neuters in, 42. adjec- 
tives in, 53. 1, R. 1. nu- 
merals in, 62. 1. fern, pa- 
tronymics in, 127. 1. 

-aaxov, -aaxcfiyv, see -faxor, 

iiQ, dat. plur. of, 40. N. 2. 

art with gen. absolute, 192. 
N. 2. 

c, national appellatives in, 
127. 3. 

-avq, inflection of nouns in, 
43. 2. 

atVoe, inflection of, 65. 1. 
Ionic forms of, 65. N. 
neuter of, 33. N. 1. com- 
parison of, 57. N. 5 how 
used, 144. superfluous, 
144. N. 1. subjoined to 
the relative pronoun, 144. 
R. 1. signifies self, very, 
144. 2. has the appearance 
of f'yca, av, fj}t tig, vptlg, 144. 

N. 2. signifies ^roq, 144. 
N. 3. used in cases of 
contrast, 144. R. 2. de- 
notes the principal person, 
144. R. 3. in connection 
with WVTOV, 144. N. 4. 
with ordinal numbers, 144. 
N. 5. equivalent to the 
demonstrative pronoun, 144. 
N. 6. with the article be- 
fore it, 65. 2 : 144. 3. 
.ouQsopai, with two accusa- 
tives, 165. 1. with ace. 
and gen., 165. R. 

u<pvi], accent of the gen. plur. 
of, 31. N. 2 
jj, see -ij. 

-nxv, see ov. 

n^oig or u^Qh 15. 3. with gen., 

<M, see MO. 


(lav, 1. N. 3. 

pj) with a part., 222. N. 2. 

{ft, a short vowel before, 17. 4. 
augment of verbs begin- 
ning with, 76. N. 2. 

Pootag, contraction of, 32. N. 

Povlti or dilttg with subj ,215. 
3, N. 2. 

(3ovg, nom. sing, of, 36. 2. 
ace. sing, of, 37. N. 1. 
inflection of, 43. 2. 


, inflection of, 36. N. 2. 
ijp, inflection of, 40- 1. 
accent of, 30. N. 3. 

yelmg, compounds of, 55. N. 3. 

ytvta with ace. and gen., 179. 
N. 3. with two accusa- 
tives, ibid. 

yrj omitted after the article, 
140. N. 5. 

yi, yv, a short vowel before, 17. 



4. augment of verbs be- 1 
ginning with, 76. N. 2. 
, a short vowel before, 17. 4. 
omitted after the article, 
140. N. 5. 

, nominative of, 36. 2. 
inflection of, 43. 2. 


ddpag, inflection of, 36. N. 2. 
_fo, _ af) _ s> adverbs in, 121. 3. 

-ds appended to what, 
121. N. 2. 

5(1, subject of, 159. N. 1. 
with gen. and ace., or with 
gen. and dat., 181. N. 1, 2. 

dtlv omitted in certain 
phrases, 220. N. 3. 

dtlva, 69. 2. with the article, 

140. N. 10. 
dtanoir^, accent of the voc. 

sing, of, 31. R. 2. 
dfVTfqog, 61. with gen., 186. 

Jripi]TriQ, inflection of, 40. 1. 

accent of, 40. N. 3. 
-dr,v, -udr t v, adverbs in, 119. 2. 
dia<fi()(a, dta<f>to6vT(ag, with gen., 

186. N. 3. 
didcpoQot; with gen., 186. 2. 

with dat, 186. R. 
diyctuua, 1. N. 3. 

dp, Sv, a short vowel before, 

-56v, -ijdov, adverbs in, 119. 3. 

dovQB and Saas take plural ad- 
jectives, 137. N. 7. 

dvo, 60. 1. agrees with a plu- 
ral substantive, 137. N. 8. 

dva~, see ev. 


t, why called ydtv, 1. N. 1. 
changes of, 2. N. 3. 

-ea, ace. sing, in, 46. N. 3. 
pluperf. act. in, 85. N. 4. 

-i.tiv, 2 aor. act. infin. in, 89. 

N. 3. 

, see -e 
it for t, 2. N. 3. augment of 

verbs beginning with, 80. 

N. 4. 
-', see -/. 

-tin, aor. act. opt. in, 87. N. 3. 
ttfil, am, omitted, 157. N. 10. 

with gen., 175. with 
dat., 196. 3, N. 2. infin. 
of, 221, N. 3. 

i~ivai apparently superfluous, 
221. N. 3. 
voq, adjectives in, 131. 2. 

-tig, adjectives in, 53. 2. 
dat. plur. of adjectives in, 
53. R. 2. participles in, 

I?, 60. 1. omitted before the 
gen., 175. N. 3. with dat., 
195. N. 4. 

t'x in composition, 5. N. 1 : 7. 
N. : 9. N. before a con- 
sonant, 15. 4. 

?, 73. 2. with the ar- 
ticle, 140. N. 7. with a 
plural verb, 157. 4. 
htoog, 73. 2. 

extirog, inflection of, 70. dia- 
lects of, 70. N. 1. neuter 
of, 33. N. 1. how used, 
149. 2. corresponds to the 
English he, 149. N. 2. 

n', tui, more emphatic 
than ^oi5, fiol, fit, 143. N. 4. 

after prepositions, ibid. 
-tv, infin. in, 89. N. 2. 

tv before Q, a, , 12. N. 3. 
tvavilog and am'oTpoqFO? with 

gen., 186. N. 2. 
ti-o^o? with gen., 183. N. 3. 
f| becomes 1%, when, 15. 4. 
to contracted into tv, 23. N. 1. 



, augment of, 80. R. 2. 
-so?, adjectives in, 49. 3 : 131. 2. 
ini(sr t [jLu, I N. 3. 
-tQog, adjectives in, 131. 3. 
-sg, neuters in, 42. 2d pers. 

sing, in, 85. N. 3. 
-faxov, -f(ixo[ti]v, -aaxov, -otaxo- 

(.ir\v t see -axov, -axoftrjv. 
-tot or -faat, dat. plur. in, 35. 

N. 3. 
iitgo?, 73. 2. with gen., 186. 


hyaloti, accent of the gen. plur. 
_of, 31. N. 2. 
iv and dva-, augment of verbs 

beginning with, 82. 3. 
(v and xaxoic with certain verbs, 

165. N. 2. 
-ue inflection of nouns in, 44. 

ace. sing, of nouns in, 
44. N. 1. norn. plur. of 
nouns in, 44. N. 3. Ionic 
inflection of nouns in, 44. 
N. 4. appellatives in, 127. 

eV w, ey wia, with infin., 220. 1. 

t X (a with' gen., 188. N. 1. 
with part., 222. N. 2. 

-eta, e'oii', gen. in, 31. N. 3. 

-eoi, contraction of dissyllabic 
verbs in, 116. N. 1, R. 

, power of, 5. 2, N, 2. at 
the beginning of a word 
does not, always make posi- 
tion, 17. N. 2. 

-s, see -ds. 

-w, verbs in, 96. 4, N. 5, 6, 7. 

i], original power of, 1. N. 1. 
changes of, 2. N. 3. 

-ij or -n%r,, adverbs in, 121 . 4. 

becomes -r\, 121. N. 4. 
tj, than, 228. 1. after com- 
paratives, 186. N. 5, 6. 

between two comparatives, 
228. N. 2. 

g for at, 3. N. 3. 

-7<5o', see -ddv- 

-t d' os, 152. 

-Tjac, adjectives in, 131.5. 
contraction of adjectives in, 
53. N. 1. 

ij'i for , 3. N. 3. 

r;'xw with gen., 188. N. pres- 
ent of, 209. N. 2. 

fjlixog, 73. 1. attracted by 
the antecedent, 151. R. 5. 

-TjAo'?, adjectives in, 131. 3. 
$, 73. 2. 
with gen., 186. 2. 

-Tjj', adjectives in, 53. 4. in- 
fin. in, 89. N. 2. optat. in, 

87. N. 2. 

-jjro's, national appellatives in, 

127. 3. 
-TJQ, syncopated nouns in, 40. 



-TJC gen. fo?, inflection of nouns 
in, 42. ace. sing, of proper 
names in, 46. N. 1. ad- 
jectives in, 52. 1. 

-ijg, nom. plur. in, 44. N. 3. 

-r t c or -r t (ft, dat. plur. in, 31. 
' N. 3. ' 

-7/Tt?c, national appellatives in, 
127. 3. 

-W> S en - an ^ d a *- ' n ^' ^' ^' 
-ijtag, perf. act. part, in, 99. N. 


&cn(Qf>v, 14. N. 1. 

, see 

, see 

-&tr, adverbs in, 121. 2. 
-di, 2d pers. sing, imperat. in, 

88. N. 1. becomes n, 14. 
N. 4. 

-&t, -at, adverbs in, 121. 1. 
Siyyavw with gen., 179. 1. 
with ace., 179. N. 1. 



r, 14. N. I. 

, inflection of, 40. 1. 
accent of, 40. N. 3. 

-i, inflection of neuters in, 43. 

-I annexed to the demonstra- 
tive pronouns, 70. N. 2 
annexed to the demonstrative 
pronominal adjectives, 73. 
N. 2. annexed to demon- 
strative adverbs, 123. N. 2, 3. 

-i, -el, adverbs in, 119. 4. 

-la, nouns in, 128. 1. 

-i'J;c, see -I8r^. 

-Idr^, -tudr,:, patronymics in, 
127. 1. 

-Idior, diminutives in, 127. 2. 

Idioc, 73. 2. with gen., 174. 

-feic, adjectives in, 131. 5. 

tfooV with gen., 174. N. 

-txog, adjectives in, 131.2. 

-iui, verbs in, 117. N. 14. 

-i/<oc, adjectives in, 131. 4. 

-Irdi,?, adverbs in, 119. 6. 

-Irr,, -lu'nr}, patronymics in, 
127. 1. 

-iro:, adjectives in, 131. 2. 
national appellatives in, 127. 

-tor, diminutives in, 127. 2. 

-10?, adjectives in, 131. 1. 
national appellatives in, 127. 

-ig gen. to:, ?wc, inflections of 
nouns in, 43. 1, 3. 

-ic, gen. tdoc or <oc, 46. N. 2. 

-<c, adjectives in, 52. 2. pa- 
tronymics in, 127. 1. di- 
minutives in, 127. 2. na- 
tional appellatives in, 127. 3. 

-laxoc, -t'axij, diminutives in, 
127. 2. 

-laxoi, verbs in, 96. 8. 

boc with dat., 195. 1. with 

gen., 195. N. 1. refers to 
the limiting noun, 195. N. 2. 

-ioroc, see -lo>r. 

-til}?, -ttarr^, nouns in, 127, 3, 

-3, fut. in, 102. N. 1. 

-{'on-, -mroc, comparison by, 58. 

-loir, patronymics in, 127. 1. 

-itai'Tj, see -liTj. 

-iojri;c, see -/T/,J. 

x oc, 152. 

xnxoK-, see iv- 

xmt't, changes of, in composi- 
tion, 10. N. 5L 

xarri'/ooita with g*n. and ace., 
183. 2. with two geni- 
tives, 183. N. 1. with 
part., 222. 2. 

xtyttg, inflection of, 42. N. 3. 
compounds of, 55. N. 3. 

-xitic, contraction of nouns in, 
42. N. 1. 

xlygorofiiio with gen., 178.2. 
with ace. of the thing, 178. 
N. 1. with aec. of the 
person, ibid. 

xoiroe with gen., 174. N. 
with dat., 195. N. 1. 

xonita, 1. N. 3. 

xof';, ii$ug, inflection of, 42. 
N. 3. 

xvxuar, acc. sing, of, 37. N. 2. 

xvwr, inflection of, 40. 3. 


(a with gen., 178. 2. 
with acc., 178. N. 1. 
&ta, ir,9drcn, with acc. and 
gen., 182. N. 2. 

-3J.oi, verbs in, 96. 6, 

-un, nouns in, 129. 4. 

IIK, vij, with acc., 171 differ- 
ence between, 171. N. 1. 
uu omitted, 171. N. 2. the 



name of the god omitted 

after, 171. N. 3. 

'/IK? and T>la?, inflection of, 

53. R. 1. comparison of, 


with gen. and dat., 182. 

N. 3. 

fish, inflection of, 36. N. 2. 
pe'Uu with infin., 219. N. 1. 
-psvcu, -f*fv, infin. in, 89. N. 1. 
UtTalayxdvw with gen., 173. 2. 

with ace., 178. N. 1. 

and nooa^xfi with gen , 
178. N. 2. 

with gen., 178. 2. 
with ace, 178. N. 1. 

or (JLS/QI, 15. 3. with 
gen., 194. 
-firj, nouns in, 129. 5. 
pj, 224. 3, 4, 5, 6. after 
negative expressions, 225. 
firjdtlg, plural of, 60. N. 1. 

inflection of, 40. 1. 
accent of, 40. N. 3. com- 
pounds of, 55. N. 2. 
-pi, 1st pers. ind. act. in, 84. 
1, N. 1. subj. in, 86. N. 2. 

verbs in, 117. 
fiifivyaxQ), with ace. and gen., 
182. N. 2. with two accu- 
satives, ibid. 

[JLV, augment of verbs beginning 
with, 76. N. 2. 

-fiog, nouns in, 129 3. 

fiov, fiol, fit, see tfiov, f/.wl, tfte. 

-fiotv, adjectives in, 132. 5. 

v before a labial, 12. 1 . before 
a palatal, 12. 2. before a 
liquid, 12. 3. before a or , 
12. 4, 5, N. 2, 4. in the 
preposition tv. movable, 
15. 1, 2. 

c, nom. sing, of, 36. 2. in- 
flection of, 43. 2. 
i see fid. 

with ace., 164. N. 2. 
with ace. and gen., 184. 2. 

-wvot, see -vvo). 

ri& inflection of, 36. N. 1. 

-vva, verbs in, 96. 9. 

-<f, adverbs in, 119. 5. 


o, why called [MXQOV, 1. N. 1. 
-o, neuters in, 33. N. 1. 

for Sff, 19. R. 3. 

o<5f, inflection of, 70. dialects 
of, 70. N. I . how used, 
149 1. as an adverb, 149. 
N. 1. 

6 ds, see 6 fiiv. 

086$ omitted after the article, 
140. N. 5. 

-or is, adjectives in, 131. 5. 

01 for o, 2. N. 3. for ov, 3. 
N. 3. 

-01 permits the accent to be on 

the antepenult, 20. N. 1. 
-7, adverbs in, 121. 1. 

with gen. absolute, 192. 

N. 2. 

rjv, opt. in, 87. N. 2. 
-otiv, gen. and dat dual in, 33. 

N. 4 : 35. N. 3. 

ol'xndf, (f'VynSf, 121. N. 3. 
with gen., 174. N. 

ol'xm, accent of, 121. N. 1: 
20. N. 1. 

-oio, gen. in, 33. N. 4. 

-otoc, adjectives in, 131. 1. 

olo?, 73. 1. attracted by its 
antecedent, 151. R. 3, 4. 
with infin., 219. N. 2. 

o'4'. inflection of, 43. 2. 
' o dooiaov, 218. N. 3. 

-oiai, dat. plur. in, 33. N. 4. 



with part., 222. N. 2. nvroic, OVTOI, 15. 3. 
oio? with the article, 140. N. 7. -oyi, gen. and dat. in, 33. N. 4. 
o uiv 6 Si, 142. 1. the II. 

proper name subjoined to nuliv in composition, 12. N. 4. 

6 (iiv, 142. N. 2. are not T'/irotVr-ro'c, 73. 2. 

always opposed to each nv,.- with the article, 140.5. 

other", 142. N. 3. o Si re-j without the article, 140. N. 

fers to something different! 6. 

from that to which o pir re- naii'.Q, inflection of, 40. 1. 

fers, 142. N. 4. 

accent of, 40. N 3. com- 

ouoiog with dat., 195. 1. with; pounds of, 55. N. 2. 

gen., 195. N. 1. refer? to'-juooc, -niiiato?, numeral ad- 
the limiting noun, 195. N. 2 jectives in, 62. 3. with 

ouov, compounds of, with gen , gen., 186. 2. 

195. N. 1. 
-ooc, inflection of nouns in, 34 : 
49. 3. accent of the con- 

JTO/OC, 73. 1. with the article. 
140. N. 9. with infin., 219. 

N. 2. 

traded gen. and dat. of*wUc, Epic inflection of, 43. 

polysyllabic nouns in, 34. N. 4. compounds of, 55. 

N. 2. comparison of ad-j N. 1. 

jectives in, 57. R 2. \IIO2, derivatives of, 73. 1 : 

-oc, ace. pi. in, 33. N. 4. 123. 

-o.-, inflection of neuters in, 42. //o(if<(5wr, ace. sing, of, 37. 

adjectives in, 49. ab- N. 2. voc. sing, of, 38. 

N. 2. 

stract nouns in, 123. N. 4. 

og fifv ..... oc Si, 152. 

oaov, ouw, with inf., 220. 1. 

oatff, see dui-tif. 

OUTIS, inflection of, 71. 2. 
has the force of the inter- 
rogative pronoun, 153. N. 

o'ffw, see cool". 

ov'for o, 2. N. 3. 

-ov, or -ajov, adverbs in, 121. 

I'V, nom. sing, of, 36. 2. 
iij'un, omitted after the arti- 
cle, 140. N. 5. omitted 
before the relative, 150. 5. 
omitted before a verb, 
157. N. 8. omitted in the 
predicate, 160. N. 2. 
/J with subj., 214. 1. with 
opt., 216. 1. with infin., 


ov, ovx, or/, 15 4. ho\v used, nooat',x(i, see fit 
224. 1. Low, verbs in, 96. 2. 

ov, augment of verbs beginning \ p. 

with, 80. N. 4. , at the beginning of a word, 

ov3f,' ? , nom. plur. of, 60. N. 1. 
ovdtli ouric ot 1 , 225. N. 
iV, participles in, 53. 5. 

4. 2. doubled, 4. 3: 13. 
augment of verbs begin- 
ning with, 79. 

ovios, inflection of, 70. Ionic - , gen. sing, of feminines in, 
forms of, 70. N. 1. how 31.3. 
used, 149. I p'.i for M, 6. N. 



, verbs in, 96. 6. 
ota, reduplication of, 79. N. 2. 

f final, l.N.4. movable, 15. 3. 

-c, imperat. in, 117. N. 11. 

a between two consonants, 11. 

ad for f, 6. N. 

aav or aufnil, 1. N. 3. 

-at, see -5s. 

-a&u, 2d pers. sing. act. in, 84. 
N. 6 : 86. N. 2 : 87. N. 5. 

-ai, 2d pers. sing, in, 84. N. 6. 
3d pers. sing, in, 84. N. 
1 : 86. N. 2. 

-at, adverbs in, see -#t. 

-ai?, -alot, nouns in, 129. 3. 

ax does not always make posi- 
tion, 17. N. 2. 

-axov, -oxoprjv, imperf. and aor. 
in, 85. N. 5. 

-axw, verbs in, 96. 8, 14. 

aa changed into TT, see TT. 

-aau, feminines in, 127. 7. 

-aatu, -TIG), verbs in, 96. 3, N. 7. 

-aaav, -ITWJ', comparatives in, 
58. N. 1. 

g for at, 1. R. 

ovyyiyvtaaxia, see avroida. 

~avvr\, nouns in, 128. N. 3. 

avvoida and avyyiyvtaaxta with 
part., 222. N. 1. 

-a<fi, gen. and dat. in, 35. N. 3. 
riQ, voc. sing, of, 38. N. 2. 
accent of the voc. sing, of, 
38. N. 3. 


tat for ai, 63. N. 1. 

id).ag, see [islng. 

-ii&Qinnov, 14. N. 1. 

-Tftoa, -TQia, -iQtg, feminines in, 
129. 2. 

-reog, verbal adjectives in, 132. 
2. neuter of verbal adjec- 
tives in, 162. 2, N. 1, 2 : 
200. N. 2. with dat., 200. 2. 

, see x(uW. 

,-TMIOC, comparison by, 57. 
73. 1. inflection 
of, 73. N. 1. 

lyy, -TJJC;, -TWO, verbal nouns 
in, 129. 2. 

ii)$, voc. sing, of nouns in, 31. 
4. abstract nouns in, 128. 
N. 2. 

1$, inflection of, 68. dialects 
of, 68. N. with the article. 
140. N. 9. how used, 147! 
does not always stand at 
the beginning of a proposi- 
tion, 147. N. 1. for 7ro7oc, 

147. N. 2. 

TIC, inflection of, 69. 1. dia- 
lects of, 69. N. 1. how 
used, 148. for txaarog, 148. 
N. 1. refers to the speak- 
er, or to the person addressed, 

148. N. 2. with adjectives 
of quality or quantity, 148. 
N. 3. denotes importance, 
148. N. 4. doubled, 148. 
N. 4. 

TO/ for ol, 63. N. 1. 

jotoaSt, 73. 1. with inf. 219. 

N. 2. 
roiovroc, 73. 1. inflection of, 

73. N. 1. with the article, 

140. N. 8. 
-TVS, verbal adjectives in, 132. 

1. with dat., 200. 2. 
TO2, 63. N. 2. derivatives 

of, 73. 1 : 123. 
TOOOUTOC, 73. 1. inflection of, 

73. N. 1. 

-T(jt, -TO/C, see -Tfi^a- 
TT for aa, 6. N. 

, with gen., 178. 2. 

with ace., 178. N. 1. 


\v, why called y/iAoY, 1. N. 1. 



breathing of, 4. N. 1. 

quantity of, 17. N. 3: 36. 

N. 5. 

-v, contracts in, 43. 3. 
-vdotov, diminutives in, 127. 2. 
-v&ttt, see -ad (a. 
vi, improper diphthong, 3. 1, 

N. 1. 
vioj, omitted after the article, 

140. N. 5. 
-viiior, -t'i/Lo^, diminutives in, 

127. 2. 

vufdunos, 73. 2. 
-v t ui, subj. of verbs in, 117. 4, N. 

4. optat. of verbs in, 117. 

5, 6, N. 7. 2 aor. of verbs 
in, 117. N. 16. 

vnsv&wo;, with gen., 183. N. 3. 

-t,-, contracts in, 43. 1,3. 
adjectives in, 51. parti- 
ciples in, 53. 6. 

i'<fior, diminutives in, 127. 2. 


<f(Qi, see u/f. 

(fivyut with gen., 183. R. 1. 

-<pi, gen. and dat. in, 31. N. 3 : 

33. N. 4 : 35. N. 3. 
qrojfv, compounds of, 55. N. 2. 
tpoovdoc, 14. N. 1. 
(fvyadf, see ol'xuSs. 


%ov?, nom. sing, of, 36. 2. 
X'juouai with dat., 198. N. 1. 
Xgrj, with gen. and ace. 181. 

N. 1. subject of, 159. 2. 
jf^jjuijj?, accent of the gen. 

plur. of, 31. N. 2. 
;?o)o omitted after the article, 

140. N. 5. 

yav<a with gen., 179. 1. with 

ace., 179. N. 1. 

w, why called fid/a, 1. N. 1. 

changes of, 2. N. 3. for 
ov, 3. N. 3. 

-co, acc. sing, in, 33. R. 1. 
gen. sing, in, 33. N. 4. 
inflection of nouns in, 42. 

dual and plural of nouns 
in, 42. N. 4. Ionic acc. 
sing, of nouns in, 42. N. 6. 

accent of the contracted 
acc. sing, of nouns in, 42 
N. 7. 

-udijs, adjectives in, 131. 6. 
-**V, opt. act. in, 117. N. 6. 
-ciuo,-, adjectives in, 131. 3. 
-oir, gen. and dat. dual in, 43. 

*N. 3. 

-toy, -<aviu, nouns in, 127. 4. 
-cor, adjectives in, 53. 7, 8. 
inflection of comparatives in, 

i ? with gen., 190. 2. 
, see -tav. 
-coo, gen. in, 33. N. 4. 
coa, see avuy/.r t . " 

-o>;, acc. pi. in, 33. N. 4. 
fem. in, 42 gen. sing, in, 
43. 3: 44. adjectives in, 
50. participles in, 53. 9. 

adverbs in, 119. 1. 

w ? with dat., 197. N. 1. 

with gen. absolute, 192. N. 

2. with acc., 192. R. 2. 

with inf., 220. 1. 
c3 ; for TtJ.-, 19. R. 3 : 123. N. 

1 : 152. N. 2. 

with gen. absolute, 192. 

N. 2. with acc., 192. R. 2. 
ware with gen. absolute, 192. 

N. 2. with acc., 192. R.2. 

with indie., 213. 3. 
with inf., 220. 1. 

, diphthong, 3. 1, N. 1. 
for av , 3. N. 3. 




Abstract Nouns, 128: 129. 1, 
N. 1,2. for concrete, 136. 
N. 4. ace. of, after kin- 
dred verbs, 164. 

Acatalectic Verse, 234. 2. 

Accent, 19-22. kinds of, 
19. 1. place of, 19. 1,2,| 
3, 4, R. 1. words without,! 
19. N. 1, R. 2. 3. grave,! 
19. N. 2. place of, inj 
diphthongs, 19.5. on the 
ajitepenult, 20. 1,2, N. 1,2, 
3. on the penult, 20. 3. ! 
acute becomes grave, 20. 4.' 
circumflex, 21. circum- 
flex on the penult, 21. 2. 
of contracted syllables, 23. 
N. 3. of words whose last 
syllable has been elided, 25. 
N. 3. of the first declen- 
sion, 31. N. 2. of the sec- 
ond declension, 33. N. 3 : 
34. N. 2. of the third de- 
clension, 35. N.2: 3*. N. 3: 
42. N. 7: 43. N. 5. of 
verbs, 93. of verbs in pi, 
117. N. 18. 

Accusative, 30 4. sing, of 
the third declension, 37. 
how used, 163. - 172. de- 
notes the subject of the in-j 
finitive, 158. after tratisi-l 
tive verbs, 163. denoting! 
the abstract of a transitive' 
verb, 164. after verbs sig- 
nifying to look, ($fc. 164. N. 
1. after verbs signifying 
to conquer, 164. N. 2. two! 

accusatives after verbs sig- 
nifying to ask, Sfc. 165. 1, 
N. 1. to do, to say, 165. 
N. 2. to divide, 165. 2. 
to name, fyc. 166. synec- 
dochical, 167. in paren- 
thetical phrases, 167. N 2. 

subjoined to a clause, 167. 
N. 4. denotes duration of 
time, 168. 1, N.I. of time 
when, 168. 2. for the gen. 
absolute, 168. N. 2. de- 
notes extent of space, 169. 

of place whither, 170. 
after pd, vt], 171. omitted 
after ftt i, rij, 171. N. 3. 
with prepositions, 72. af- 
ter adjectives, 185. N. 1. 

Active Voice, 74. 1. forma- 
tion of the tenses of, 94 - 
105. how used, 205. as 
passive, 205. N. 2, 3, R. 

Acute Accent, 19. 1,2. on 
the antepenult, 20. 2, 3, N. 
1, 2, 3. becomes grave, 
20. 4. 

Adjective, 30. 1. inflection 
of, 48-59. of three end- 
ings, 48. I. of two endings, 
48. 2. of one ending, H. 
3:54. in nc, 49. in wg 
gen. oi, 50. in r;- gen. tog, 
51. in i t i:, <c, 52. in c, fig, 
ovg, d;, MI', hie gen. oroc, 53. 
compound, 55. anomalous 
and defective, 56. com- 
parison of, 57-59. deriva- 
tion of, 130-133. derived 
from other adjectives, 130. 



from subst., 131. from 
verbs, 132. from adverbs, 
133. agreement of, 137. 
mas. adj. with fem. subst., 

137. N. I. referring to two 
or more substantives, 137. 2. 
N. 5. agrees with one of 
the substantives to which it 
refers, 137. N 4. referring 
to a collective noun, 137. 3~ 

plural agrees with a dual 
subst., and vice versa, 137. 
N. 6. used substantivelv. 

138. 1. neuter, 138. 2. 
used adverbially, 138. N. 1. 

Admiration, Mark of, 27. X. 2. 

Adverb, 29. 2. of manner, 
119. _ of quantity, 120. 
of place, 121. of time, 122. 

derived from nO-, 123. 

comparison of, 125. an- 
omalous comparison of, 125. 
N.3/ with the article, 141. 
1,2, N. 1. with gen., 177: 
181 : 186: 188.2, N. 1. 
with dat., 195. 1. limits 
what, 223. negative, 224: 

Alphabet, 1. 1. division of 

the letters of, 1. 2. 
Alpha Privative, 135. 4. 
Anapestic Verse, 252 - 255. 
Anastrophe, 226. N 1 . 
Antecedent, 150. 1. 
Antepenult, 16. 3. 
Aorist, 74.3. augment of. 78. 

reduplication of, 78. N. 2. 

1st pers. sing, of 1 aor. 
act., 84. X. 2. in axov, axo- 
[ir,v, 85. N. 5. inflection 
of aor. pass., 92. 2 aor. 
mid. syncopated, 92. N. 4. 

formation of, 104 : 105 : 
109: 110: 115. 2 aor. act. 
of verbs in jm, 117. 12. 


how used, 212. for the 
perfect or pluperfect, 212. N. 
1. for the present, 212. X. 
2,4. _for the future, 212. 

Aphseresis, 26. 3. 

Apodosis, 213. R. 

Apostrophe, 27. 

Arsis, 233. 2. 

Article, 29. 1. inflection of, 
63. quantity, accent, and 
dialects of, 63. N. 1. old 
form of, 63. N. 2. ho\v>- 
used, 139 - 142. with 
proper names, 139. 3. ac- 
companies the leading char- 
acter of a story, 139. N. 1. 
with the second accusative 
after verbs signifying to call, 

139. N. 2. separated from 
its noun, 140. I, X. 1, R. 2. 

two or three articles stand- 
ing together, 140. R. 1. re- 
peated, 140. 2. with the 
part., 140. 3, N. 3. adjec- 
tive standing before or after 
the substantive and its article, 

140. N. 4. alone, 140. 5. 
without a noun, 140. N. 5. 
with pronouns, 140.5. with 
olog and fxoroc, 140. N. 7. 
with TOtorro.% 140, N. 8. 
with IK- and nolo;, 140. X. 
9. with Sum, 140. N. 10. 

before adverbs, 141. 1, 
2, N. 1. before a proposi- 
tion, 141. 3. before any 
word, 141. 4, X. 2, 3. as 
demonstrative, 142. 1. be- 
fore 05, o'ao?, oio?, 142. X. 1. 

as relative, 142. 2. neu- 
ter with gen., 176. 

Atona, 19. "X. 1. 
Attraction with the Relative, 



Augment, 75. kinds of, 75 
2. syllabic, 75. 2: 76-79 

of the perf., 76. of the 
pluperf., 77. of the imperf. 
and aor., 78. of verbs be- 
ginning with o, 79. tem- 
poral, 80 : 81. of compound 
verbs, 82. omitted, 78. N 
3 : 80. N. 4, 5. 


Barytone, 19. 4. 
Breathings, 4. of v, 4. N. 1. 

of ? , 4.2,3. place of, 4. 
4. power of, 4. 5, N. 2. 
rough changed into smooth, 
14. N. 5. 


Caesura, 235. 
Cases, 30. 4. how used, 162 


Catalectic verse, 234. 2. 
Causative, see Verbs. 
Circumflex, 19. 1,3:21. on 

the penult, 21. 2. 
Collective Nouns, 137.3: 157. 


Colon, 27. 
Comma, 27. 
Comparison by regog, retro?, 57 

of substantives, 57. N. 4. 

of pronouns, 57. N. 5. 
by Icai', WTO?, 58. anoma- 
lous and defective, 59. of 
adverbs, 125. 

Composition of Words, 135. 

Concrete, see Abstract. 

Conjunction, 29. 2. how 
used, 228. 

Connecting Vowel, 85. 1. 

Consonants, 1.2. division of, 
5:6. final, 5. N. 3. eu- 
phonic changes of, 7 - 14. 

movable, 15. 
Contraction, 23. accent in, 

23. N. 3. 

Copula, 160. 1. 

Coronis, 27. 

Crasis, 24. left to pronun- 
ciation, 24. N. 2. 

Dactylic Verse, 246-251. 

Dative, 30. 4. plural of the 
third declension, 39. how 
used, 195-203. after 
words implying resemblance, 
Sfc. 195. after adjectives, 

196. 1. after verbs, 196.2. 

after impersonal verbs, 
ibid. after verbs signify- 
ing to be, 196. 3, N. 2. 
with interjections, 196. 5. 

denotes with regard to, 

197. 1. preceded by eu?, 
197. N. 1. apparently su- 
perfluous, 197. N.2. limits 
words, 197.2. with com- 
paratives, 197. N. 3. with 
substantives, 197. N. 4. of 
cause, 4*c. 198. with %Qao- 
[jLai, 198. N. 1. of accom- 
paniment, 199. of wuTo'e, 
199. N. 1, denotes the sub- 
ject, 200 : 206. 2. with 
verbal adjectives in TO? and 
TJO?, 200. 2. of time," 201. 

for the gen. absolute, 201. 
N.2. of pi ace, 202. with 
prepositions, 203. 

Declensions, 30. 3. 

Defective, see Noun, Adjective, 

Demonstrative Pronoun, 70. 
dialects of, 70. N. 1. with 
I, 70. N. 2. pronominal ad- 
jectives, 73. 1. how used, 
149. as adverb, 149. N.I. 

subjoined to a noun in the 
same proposition, 149. N. 3. 

subjoined to a relative, 
149. N. 4. 



Deponent Verbs, 203. perf. 
and pluperf. of, 208. N. 2. 
aor. pass, of, 208. N. 3. 

Derivation of Words, 126-134. 

Desideratives, 134. N. 2. 

Diaeresis, 27. N. 1. 

Digamma, 1. N. 3. 

Diminutives, 127. 2. 
' Diphthongs, 3. improper, 3. 
N. 2. commutation of, 3. 
N. 3. improper, in capitals, 

Dipody, 234. 3. 

Dissyllables, 16. 2. 

Dual, 29. 3 : 30. N.2: 137. N. 
1,5,6,7,8: 150. N.I: 157. 
N. 1, 4, R. 1. 

Elision, 25. before a conso- 
nant, 25. N. 2. 

Enclitics, 22. retain their ac- 
cent, 22. 4, N. 1. suc- 
ceeding each other, 22. N. 2. 

Euphonic Changes, see Conso- 


Feet, 233. 1. 

Final, see Consonants, Syllable. 

First Declension, endings of, 
31. 1. gender of, 31. 2. 
voc. sing, of, 31. 4. quan- 
tity of, 31. N. 1. accent 
of, 31. N. 2. dialects of, 
31. N. 3. contracts of, 32. 

Futuf^, 74. 3. augment of 
the third, 75. 1. formation 
of, 102:103:111:112:114. 
how used, 209. 4, N. 10 : 
211. periphrastic, 209. N. 


Gender, 30. 2. how distin- 
guished in grammar, ibid. 
masc. for fern., 137. N. 1. 

implied, 137. N. 2, 3 : 
150. N. 2. 

Genitive, 30. 4. of the third 
declension, 36. 1. how 
used, 173-194. adnomin- 
al, 173. relations denoted 
by the adnominal, 173. N. 1. 

subjective and objective, 
173. N. 2. two adnominal 
genitives, 173. N. 3. sub- 
joined to possessive words, 
174. with Idiot, &c. 178. 
N. with verbs signifying 
to be, fyc. 175. after the 
neuter article, 176. denot- 
ing a whole, 177. after a 
participle with the article, 
177. N. 1. after Saiuovio:, 
&.c. 177. N. 3. after neu- 
ter adjectives, 177. 2, N. 4. 

of the reflexive pronoun, 
177. N. 5. after verbs re- 
ferring to a part., 178. 1. 
after verbs signifying to par- 
take, %c. 178. 2. to take 
hold of, Sfc. 179. to let 
go, 4*c. 180. after words 
denoting fulness, Sfc. 181. 

after verbs signifying to 
remember, fyc. 182. to 
accuse, fyc. 183. to be- 
gin Sfc. 184. after verbal 
adjectives, 185. after com- 
paratives, 186. denoting 
on account of, 187. 1. 
after exclamations, 187. 2. 

after verbs signifying to 
entreat, 187. 3. denoting 
the subject, 187. 4. of in- 
strument, 187. 5. denot- 
ing in respect of. 188. af- 
ter adverbs, 188. 2. after 
verbs signifying to take aim 
at, Sfc. 188. 3. of mate- 



rial, 189. of price, 190. 

of time, 191. absolute, 
192. --of place, 193. with 
prepositions, 194. 

Grave Accent, 19. 1, N. 2. 
for the acute, 20. 4. 

Historical, see Secondary Tens- 


Iambic Verse, 241 - 245. 

Imperative, 74. 2. termina- 
tions and connecting vowels, 
88. how used, 2 18. in 
prohibitions, 218. 2. se- 
cond person of, for the third, 
218. N. 2. in connection 
with the relative, 218. N. 3. 

perf. of, 209. N. 7, 8. 
Imperfect, 74. 3. augment 

of, 78. in axov, axopyv, 85. 
N. 5. formation of, 97 : 
106. 2: 113. how used, 
210. denotes an attempt, 
210. N. 1. denotes a cus- 
tomary action, 210. N. 2. 
for aor., 210. N. 3. for 
pres., 210. N. 4. 

Impersonal Verbs, 159. N. 1, 
2. with dat., 192. 2. 

Indefinite, Pronoun, 69. pro- 
nominal adjectives, 73. 1. 

adverbs, 123. how used, 

Indicative, 74. 2. termina- 
tions and connecting vowels 
of, 84 : 85. of verbs in pi, 
117. 2, 3. how used, 213. 

in independent proposi- 
tions, 213. 1. after inter- 
rogative and relative words, 
2f3. 2. after particles, 
213. 3, N. 4, 5, 6. in con- 
ditional propositions, 213. 4, 
5. withuV, 213. N. 3. 

Infinitive. 74. 2. termina- 
tions and connecting vowels 
of, 89. of verbs in ftt, 1 17. 
8, 9. subject of, 158. 
after verbs, participles, and 
adjectives, 119. 1 . denotes 
a cause, 119. 2. for the 
indie., 1 19. N. 4. omitted, 
119. N. 5. for the im- 
perat., 119. N. 6, 7. for 
the subj., 119. N. 8. ex- 
presses a wish, 119. N. 9. 
with WOTS, &c. 220. 1. 
with Tiylr, &c. 220. 1. in 
parenthetical phrases, 220. 
N. 1 , 2, 3. with &v t 220. 
3. as a neuter substantive, 
221. for the gen. of cause, 
221. N. 1. in exclama- 
tions of surprise, 221. N. 2. 
superfluous, 221. N. 3. 
after dru'/xr], &c. 221. N. 4. 

Inflection of words, 29- 135. 

Interjection, 29. 2. how used, 

Interrogation, 27. 

Interrogative, Pronoun, 68. 
dialects of, 68. N. pro- 
nominal adjectives, 73. 1. 
adverbs, 123. how used, 

Intransitive, see Verbs. 

Iota Subscript, 3. 1. 

Irregular Construction, 230. 
K. * 

Koppa, 1. N. 3. 

Labials, 6. before linguals, 
7. before p and a, 8. 

Leading, see Primary Tenses. 

Letters and Syllables, 1-28. 

Linguals, 6. before /j, a, and 
before palatals and other 
linguals, 10. 

Liquids, 5. 1. 




Metathesis, 26. 2. 

Middle Mutes, 5. 3. 

Middle Voice, 74. 1. tenses 
of, 113-115. how used, 
207. as active, 207. N. 4, 
5. as passive, 207. N. 6, 7. 

Moods- 74. 2. terminations 
and connecting vowels of, 
84-90. how used, 

Movable, see Consonants. 

Monosyllables, 16. 2. 

National Appellatives, 127. 3 

Negative, Particles, 224. 
formulas, 224. N. I, 2, 3. 
two negatives, 225. 

Neuter, 30. 2. has three 
cases alike, 30. N. 1 . ad- 
jectives with the article, 138. 
2. plural with a sing, verb, 
157. 2. adjective in the 
predicate, 160. N. 1, 2. 

Nominative, 30. 4. sing, of 
the third declension, 36. 
how used, 157. for the 
voc., 157. N. 11. without 
a verb, 230. 1 . 

Noun, 30. indeclinable, 45. 
anomalous, 46.- defective, 47. 

Numbers, 29. 3. commuta- 
tion of, 137. N. 6, 7, 8: 
157. N. 4. 

Numerals, Marks of, 1. N. 3, 
5, 6. cardinal, 60. or- 
dinal, 61. substantives, 
adjectives, and adverbs, 62. 

Object, 162. immediate, 163. 

Optative, 74. 2. terminations 
and connecting vowels of, 
87. periphrastic perf., 87. 
N. 1 . perf. pass., 91. 3, 5. 
of verbs in pi, 117. 5, 6. 

of verbs in i-uj, 1 1 7. N. 7. 

how used, 216: 217. 
after particles, 216. 1. 
after interrogative and rela- 
tive words, 216. 2. after 
the past tenses, 216. 3, 4. 
after the present or future, 
216. N. 1,2 expresses a 
wish, 217. 1, N. 1. in in- 
dependent propositions, 217. 

2. for the ind., 217. 3. 
for the imperat., 217. 4. 

Oxytone, 19. 2. 

Palatals, 6. before linguals, 

7. before p and o, 9. 
Parenthesis, Marks of, 27. 
Participle, formation of, 90. 

of verbs in //, 117. 10, 11. 

with the article, 140. 3, 
N. 3. followed by the case 
of its verb, 162. 2. how 
used, 222. with verbs sig- 
nifying to knmc, Sfc. 222. 2, 
N. 1. to endure, $c. 222. 

3. with diayr/iouai, x. T. i. 
222. 4. with f^ w , x. T. L 
222. N. 2. fut., 222. 5. 
pres., 222. N. 3. with ad- 
verbs, 222. N. 4. - with S,, 
222. 6. 

Parts of Speech, declinable, 
29. 1. indeclinable, 29. 2. 

Passive Voice, 74. 1. tenses 
of, 106- 1 12. how used, 
206. subject of, 206. 1, 2. 
N. 1. retains the latter 
case, 206. 3. as middle, 
206. N. 2. 

Patronymics, 127. 1. 

Penult, 16. 3. 

Perfect, 74. 3. augment of, 
76. syncopated, 91. N. 6, 
7, 8, 9. formation of, 98 : 
99: 107: 113. how used, 



209. 2. as pres., 209. N. 
4. expresses a customary 
action, 209. N. 5. for the 

fat, 209. N. 6 imperat., 

209. N. 7, 8. 

Period, 27. 

Perispomenon, 19. 3. 

Person, 74. 4. 

Personal Pronoun, 64. dia- 
lects of, 64. N. 2 . how 
used, 143 : 144. of the 
third person, 143. N. 1,2. 

repeated, 143. N. 3. 
tfiov and pov, 143. N. 4. 

Pluperfect, 74. 3. augment 
of, 77. in fa, 85. N. 4. 
passive, 91. 1. syncopated, 
91. N. 6, 7, 8. formation 
of, 100: 101: 108: 113. 
how used, 209. 4. as im- 
perf. 209. N. 4, 9. as aor., 
209. N. 9. 

Polysyllables, 16. 2. 

Possessive Pronoun, 67. dia- 
lects of, 67. N. 1. how 
used, 146. used objective- 
ly, 146. N. 1. third pers. 
of, 146. N. 2, 3. 

Predicate, 156 : 160. noun 
in, 160. 2, 3. 

Preposition, 29. 2. how used, 
226 : 227. primitive, 226. 
1. after the noun, 226. N. 
1. for >', 226. N. 2. 

separated by tmesis, 226. 
N. 3, 4, 5. in composition, 
135. 3, N. 6, 7, 8. with 
ace., 172. with gen., 194. 

with dat, 203. 
Present, 74. 3. formation of, 

94 - 96. simple or original, 
96. how used, 209. 1. 
for the aor., 209. N. I. for 
the perf., 209. N. 2. for 
the fut., 209. N. 3. 

Primary or Leading Tenses, 

74. 3 terminations of, 

84. 1. 

Privative , 135. 4. 
Pronominal Adjectives, 73. 
Pronoun, 64 - 72. how used, 

Pronunciation, 28. Modern 

Greek, 28. 2. 
Proparoxytone, 19. 2. 
Protasis, 213. R. 
Punctuation Marks, 27. 
Pure Syllable, 16. 4. 


Quantity, 17: 18. of , t, v, 
17. N. 3. Marks of, 2:27: 

of the first declension ,31. 
N. 1. of the second de- 
clension, 33. N. 2. of the 
third declension, 35. N. 1 : 
36. N. 5. 


Reciprocal Pronoun, 72. 
how used, 155. for the re- 
flexive, 155. N. 

Reduplication, 76. 1. of the 
2 aor., 78. N. 2. Attic, 81. 

Reflexive Pronoun, 66. dia- 
lects of, 66. N. 4, 5. how 
used, 145. of the third 
person, 145. N. 1. for the 
reciprocal, 145. N. 2. 

Relative Pronoun, 71. dia- 
lects of, 71. N. 1. how 
used, 150 - 154. referring 
to two or more nouns, 150. 
2. referring to a collective 
noun, 150. 3. before its 
antecedent, 150. 4 : 151. 3. 

refers to an omitted ante- 
cedent, 150. 5. refers to a 
possessive pronoun, 150. N. 
7. attracted, 151. 1. 
attracts its antecedent, 151. 
2. as demonstrative, 152. 



as interrogative, 153. 
for tV, 154. verb of, 157. 
N. 6. 

Relative Adverb, 123. be- 
fore its antecedent, 150. N. 
6. attracted, 151 . N. 2. 
attracts its antecedent, 151. 
N. 3. as demonstrative, 
152. N. 2. 

Root, of nouns of the third 
declension, 36. R. 1. of 
verbs and tenses, 83. 

Rough Consonants, 5. 3. in 
two successive syllables, 14. 
3, N. 2, 3, 4. not doubled, 
14. 4. 


San or Sampi, 1. N. 3. 

Secondary or Historical Tens- 
es, 74. 3. terminations of, 

Second Declension, endings of, 
33. 1. gender of, 33. 2. 
quantity of, 33. N. 2. ac- 
cent of, 33. N. 3. dialects 
of, 33. N . 4. contracts of, 

Smooth Breathing, see Breath- 

Smooth Consonants, 5. 3. be- 
fore the rough breathing, 14. 

Subject, 156- 159. of a fi- 
nite verb, 157. omitted, 
157. N. 8. of the inf., 158. 

of impersonal verbs, 159. 
N. 1, 2 

Subjunctive, 74. 2. termina- 
tions and connecting vowels 
of, 86. periphrastic perf, 
86. N. 1. perf. pass., 91. 
3, 4. of verbs in fit, 1 17. 4, 
N. 4. _how used, 2 14: 215. 

after particles, 214. 2. 
after interrogative and rela- 

tive words, 214. 2, 4. after 
pres. or fut, 214. 3. after 
past tenses, 214. N. 1. in 
exhortations, 215. for the 
fut. ind.,215. N. 3. in pro- 
hibitions, 215. 5. 

Substantive, 30. 1. deriva- 
tion of, 127- 129. in ap- 
position, 136. as an adjec- 
tive, 136. N. 3. 

Syllables, 16. 

Syncope, 26. 1. 

Synecdochical, see Accusative. 

Synecphonesis or Synizesis, 
'23 -\. -2. 

Syntax, 136-232. 

Tenses, 74. 3. root of, 83. 2. 
terminations of, 84. 
how used, 209 -2 12. 

Thesis, 233. 2. 

Third Declension, endings of, 
35. 1. gender of, 35.2. 
quantity of, 35. N. 1. ac- 
cent of, 35. N. 2. dialects 
of, 35. N. 3. formation of 
the cases of, 36 -39. syn- 
copated nouns of, 40. con- 
tracts of. 42-44. 

Tmesis, 226. N. 3, 4, 5. 

Trochaic Verse, 237 - 239. 

Vau, 1. N. 3. 

Verbal Roots and Termina- 
tions, 83-92 

Verb, 74 - 1 18. accent of, 
93. division of, 94. 2. 
penult of pure, 95. con- 
tract, 116. in m, 117. 
anomalous, 118. subject 
of a finite, 157. transitive 
and intransitive, 205. 1. 
causative, 205. 2. passive, 
206. middle, 207. de- 
ponent, 203. 



Verse, final syllable of, 236. 
Versification, 233-255. 
Vocative, 30. 4. of the first 

declension, 31. 4. of the 

third declension, 38. how 

used, 204. 
Voices, 74. 1 . how used, 


Vowels, 1 . 2:2. doubtful, 2. 
N. I, R. commutation of, 
2. N. 3. short, before a 
mute and liquid, 17. 3. 
long made short and vice ver- 
sa, 18. connecting, 85. 1. 

Zeugma, 231. 





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ISOillatn 0tmt, fiartforlr, 

Has recently published the following works, introductory to the 


LEARNERS. By E. A. SOPHOCLES, A. M., author 
of " Greek Lessons." Seventh edition, pp. 284. 12mo. 

* * * The parts seem well suited, in respect to length, to each 
other, and there is a decided spirit of unity pervading the work. 
In the first place, I was struck with the happy manner in which 
the laws of euphony are laid down, by which so many seeming 
anomalies are explained. In the second part, the tables of 
anomalies are excellent ; and those of second aorists and second 
perfects, appear in a Grammar, I believe, for the first time. 

The Syntax, too, is equally happy, and the author's transla- 
tions of the examples under the rules, are as good as any I have 
ever seen. On the whole, I know of no elementary Grammar 
which fulfils the demands which are made by the present state 
of this science, more completely than that of Mr. Sophocles. 
T. D. WOOLSEY, Professor of Greek in Yale College. 

The merits of Mr. Sophocles' Greek Grammar have come to 
be well understood ; and it is gradually passing into general 
use in our schools and academies. The clearness and condens- 
ation, which are its marked characteristics, will strongly recom- 
mend it to instructers. Mr. Sophocles is well known as a gen- 
tleman of extraordinary attainments in Greek literature, and of 
a clear and logical mind. The fact of his being a native Greek, 
added to his familiar acquaintance, from long and laborious 


study, with the ancient classics, gives him a great advantage 
over the authors of most of our grammars ; an advantage that 
will be more highly appreciated, the more the modern Greek is 
studied in connection with its ancient mother. To such a man. 
the Greek is far from being a dead language. In his mind, its 
words excite the living images of country and of home, the sen- 
timents belonging to his nationality, the feelings native to his 
heart. Many a delicacy of expression, many a refinement of 
construction, must be perceptible to him, that escapes the notice 
of the learned Hellenists of other nations. And when he com- 
poses a grammar of the ancient language of his country, he 
does it riot from books alone ; but he writes with the conscious- 
ness of " inward Hellenism," and with a confidence and clear- 
ness that no other can. 

The first edition of this Grammar was noticed in a former 
number of this Journal. The second edition contains many im- 
provements upon that ; some important additions ; some in- 
stances of filling out the forms more completely than before. 
The rules of the Syntax are worded with admirable precision ; 
and the examples to illustrate them are taken from the best 
authors. We have no hesitation in saying, that, for thorough- 
ness and completeness, for lucid order and terseness of expres- 
sion, this Grammar is unsurpassed by any in the English lan- 
guage ; and we hope, for the sake of classical learning in the 
country, that it will come into extensive use. Second notice by 
North American Review, July, 1840. 

It is a work of great original research, eminently fraught with 
learning, and generally arranged with skill. I shall not fail to 
commend it to the use of my pupils ; and I do not hesitate to 
recommend it for general use. I am particularly pleased with 
the copiousness and pertinence of its examples, and its very 
full enumeration of exceptions. Mr. Sophocles' manner of pre- 
senting the second aorist and the second future, is far more sat- 
isfactory to me than the usual way. The Syntax is at once 
simple and philosophical ; and the whole work is constructed on 
that happy medium which makes it an invaluable book of refer- 
ence for the advanced scholar, and, at the same time, a simple 
and easy introduction for the beginner. W. S. TYLER, /'ru- 
fessor of Greek in Amherst College. 


I have examined, with some attention, the grammar prepared 
by Mr. Sophocles. It appears to be a work of great care and 
research. The author has spared no pains to make the work 
perfect, and if he has not reached entirely the point at which he 
aimed, he has succeeded in supplying us with a work better 
adapted to the wants of the community than any of its predeces- 
sors. With the laws of euphony, and the tables of anomalies, 
and of the second perfect and second aorist. I am well pleased. 
The Syntax is full, simple, and well arranged. I consider the 
chapter on versification, though brief, valuable. I have no hesi- 
tation in recommending it to general use. ASA DRURY, Pro- 
fessor of Gre.zk in Waterxille College. 

The editor has generally referred, in his notes, to the Greek 
Grammar of Mr. Sophocles, because he is satisfied that it is the 
Grammar best adapted to the wants of American classical 
schools. The clearness and precision of the rules, the excel- 
lence of the arrangement, and the felicitous selection of exam- 
ples, place that work at the head of the numerous elementary 
Grammars of the Greek language, that are at present used in 
the United States. Mr. Sophocles has that accurate knowledge 
of all the niceties of the Greek language, which can hardly be 
expected of any other than a native Greek ; and without dispar- 
agement 10 the valuable labors of other able scholars in this de- 
partment, the preference is justly to be awarded to him. Ex- 
tract from Professor FELTON'S preface to the Greek Reader. 

SOPHOCLES' GREEK GRAMMAR. A second edition of this 
Grammar, in a beautiful style of typography, has appeared from 
the University Press at Cambridge, Mass. We have already 
called the attention of teachers anfl students to the work. Its 
value has become widely known, and it has been adopted as a 
text book at Yale and Harvard, and in many of our best classi- 
cal schools. Philadelphia Xorth American. 

I have no hesitation in recommending Sophocles' Greek 
Grammar to the notice of classical teachers. Indeed, the fact 
of its having reached its third edition in so short a time from its 
first publication, is a proof that its merits are already apprecia- 
ted. S. TOTTEN. D. D.. President of Washington College. 


II. GREEK LESSONS, adapted to the author's Greek 
Grammar. For the use of beginners. By E. A. 
SOPHOCLES, A. M., author of a " Greek Grammar," 
" Greek Exercises, with a Key." 18mo. pp. 116. This 
work is designed by the author to take the place of 
the First Lessons in Greek, by the same author. 

This is a useful work for beginners in the Greek Grammar. 
It contains a series of well selected sentences to illustrate the 
grammatical forms, followed by brief notes, and a vocabulary 
of the words used. The arrangement is judicious, and the book 
is marked by the author's usual precision, terseness and skill. 
North American Review, April, 1843. 

SCHOOLS : containing selections in Prose and Po- 
etry, with English notes and a Lexicon : adapted par- 
ticularly to the Greek Grammar of E. A. SOPHOCLES, 
A. M., by C. C. FELTOJV, A. M., Eliot Professor of Greek 
Literature in Harvard University, pp. 422. 12mo. 
2d edition. Stereotyped. 

The text of the second edition of the Greek Reader has 
been revised, and broken into shorter paragraphs. No al- 
teration has been made, except to change the arrangement 
so far as to bring the extract from Herodotus directly be- 
fore that from Homer ; and nothing has been added except 
a selection of one page from the Greek epigrams. The 
notes have been corrected and enlarged, and the deficien- 
cies of the Lexicon have been carefully supplied, so far as 
known, both with regard to the words and definitions. 

This work, from the hands of one of the most distinguished 
Greek scholars in the United States, has just issued from the 
press. The publisher had already, within a year or two, offered 
to the public two of the very best elementary books on the Greek 


language which have ever appeared, either in this or in any 
other country. We allude to the Greek Grammar, and First 
Lessons in Greek, by E. A. Sophocles. In publishing the pres- 
ent work, he has rendered the cause of Greek learning another 
very essential service. It is such a work as might have been 
expected from a gentleman of the taste and scholarship which 
distinguish Professor Felton ; containing some of the choicest 
selections from the choicest portions of Greek literature. The 
fables of JEsop will interest the young learner by their pointed 
wit ; the dialogues of Lucian, by their satire and humor ; the se- 
lections from Xenophon will engage his attention by the simpli- 
city and elegance of their style ; Herodotus and Thucydides 
will afford him a refreshing draught at the very fountain of 
historical knowledge ; the odes of Anacreon will amuse him by 
their light and playful fancy ; while the extracts from Euripides 
and Aristophanes will serve to give him a taste of the Grecian 
drama, and awaken a desire for a more perfect acquaintance 
with its peculiar character. 

The extracts from the different authors are neither so long, on 
the one hand, as to weary the learner with too much of the same 
thing, nor, on the other, so short as to fail of interesting, by hur- 
rying from author to author, without giving him more than a 
glimpse of any one in particular. Professor Felton has not 
hashed up ^sop, and Lucian, and Herodotus, and Xenophon, 
and Anacreon, and presented them to the student in the form of 
mince meat, but he has given enough of each author to initiate 
the learner into his peculiar manner and style. Not only so, 
but he presents him with something from each of the different 
departments of Greek literature fable, history, dialogue, ora- 
tory, and poetry in its different forms of the ode, the epic, and 
the drama. 

The notes to each author are prefaced with a brief account of 
his life, so much of it as it becomes the student to be acquainted 
with before commencing the study of his works ; and instead of 
being written in the Latin tongue, as such notes used to be, 
they are, together with the Lexicon, written in good plain 

On the whole, the work cannot fail of being pronounced, by 
good judges, an admirable introduction to the study of the Greek 
writers, adapted to an admirable Greek Grammar, and in the 


hands of apt teachers and learners, it cannot fail to contribute 
to the formation of admirable scholars in that most perfect of all 
the infinitely diversified modes of human speech the Ancient 
Greek. Congregationalisl. 

The work which lies before us, and which has called forth 
these remarks, is a new selection of extracts from the most cele- 
brated Greek writers, by Professor Felton, entirely different, as 
regards the passages selected, from any heretofore known on 
this side the Atlantic, and varying somewhat, although slightly, 
in its plan, from those in general use. 

We will premise that the Greek type is excellent, and al- 
though of rather a small face, singularly distinct, clear, and 
legible. The fables selected from JEsop are the best and most 
elegant of his beautiful collection ; nor ao we at all think the 
editor has inserted too many. With regard to his next author, 
Lucian, we cannot go quite so far ; notwithstanding his popu- 
larity with the young, and the general accuracy of his style, 
yet he is not a favorite of ours, nor ever has been. 

With Professor Felton's extracts from Xenophon, that purest 
and most entertaining of all ancient writers, we are delighted. 
He has done well in not limiting his selections to the Cyropae- 
dia, the least able and least interesting of all his works ; and he 
has done well in giving place to the beautil'ul episode of Abra- 
dates and Panthea, instead of the usually extracted puerilities 
about the wondrously loquacious childhood of the Persian prince. 
From the Anabasis, also, the very best of the whole, in our esti- 
mation, has been culled out, the spirited and graphic second, 
which, with all the authenticity of the gravest history, blends all 
the interest of the wildest fiction, commencing with the desper- 
ate situation of the Greeks after the battle of Cynaxa, and the 
death of Cyrus, and ending with the characters of the five 
Greek commanders taken off by the base treachery of Tissa- 
phernes, the portraits of Clearchus, of Menon, being the master- 
pieces of that age, the models of all later eras, as specimens of 
historical portrait painting. From the Hellenics, we have the 
stirring tale of Thrasybulus when he sat " sublime on Phyle'a 
brow," and how he conquered the oppressive thirty. These 
three selections give a very complete specimen of all the vari- 


ous powers and various beauties of this accomplished general 
and statesman, and philosopher, and author. A portion of the 
Sicilian expedition has been chosen, and that we think with 
judgment, from Thucydides. A single long extract from Herod- 
otus, and a part of the superb funeral oration of Lysias, com- 
plete the prose selections, which we have no hesitation in pro- 
nouncing, as vastly superior to the collection in Jacob's, or any 
other Greek reader we have seen. lu the omission of Plutarch. 
we agree generally with Mr. Felton. In his preference of the 
Anabasis and Hellenica to the mere Cyropgedia, we are quite 
with him. We prefer his passage of Thucydides to those in 
common iise, the Plague and the Speech of Pericles, which are 
too difficult for any youthful readers ; and we greatly applaud 
his admission of a specimen of Greek oratory to this goodly array 
of sages and historians. 

It is, however, in his poetical selections, that Professor Felton 
has differed the most widely from former selectors, and done 
himself most honor in the difference. He has here shown that 
he is not a mere book-worm, a decliner of nouns and conjuga- 
tor of verbs, but a man of taste and fancy, of a spirit thoroughly 
imbued with the spirit of old classic poetry who, if he has 
neither " steeped his lips in the fountain of the horse, nor slum- 
bered on the twain-topped Parnassus," has, at least, bathed his 
soul in the rich streams that have flowed thence, and risen from 
his bath full of high tastes and glorious sentiments, and keen 
appreciations of all beauty caught from the godlike contact. 

He commences with a selection from the Odyssey Ulysses 
and Polyphemus a beautiful one, it is true ; but why from the 
Odyssey, Professor Felton ? Why not from the great glowing 
Illiad. so singularly set aside by all compilers of Greek Read- 
ers ? Then we have some sweet odes of Anacreon and Sap- 
pho's Venus ; then that most lovely lyric of all ages, the Danae 
and Perseus of Simonides, the untranslated, untranslatable, 
though hundreds have tried their hands at it ; and then the 
magnificent war-song of Callistratus, " In a myrtle branch my 
sword will I bear." After these, we have a long extract from 
the Hecuba of Euripides, the noblest, in our estimation, of all 
his lyrics, with the one exception of that in the Iphigenia at 
Aulis, which we wish he could have found room to insert; 
another from the Orestes of the same author, highly character- 


istic of the poet, and of considerable intrinsic value. A portion 
of the Plutus of Aristophanes follows. 

The notes which follow are chiefly distinguished by a brief 
preamble to each extract, giving a slight notice of the writer's 
life, character, and style ; and discussing shortly, but with a 
master's hand, the characteristic beauties or peculiarities of his 
composition and manner. Several of these preambles possess 
a very high degree of excellence in a literary point of view ; 
are themselves not only very instructive, but full of feeling and 
poetry, and evince clearly how much the mind of the editor was 
with his subject. New York Quarterly Review. 

ONE little volume which finds its way into the list at the head 
of this article, may perhaps be specially singled out, as it does 
not fall into the same class with the rest. This is Felton's Greek 
Reader, which is one of the best and completest school books 
we have ever seen, containing in one short volume a course of 
reading, in prose and verse, from ^Esop and Anacreon, to Thu- 
cydides and Aristophanes. Like the editions we have just de- 
scribed, it is illustrated by notes and historical explanations, 
and concludes with a Lexicon of all the words, so that the stu- 
dent may use it with no other book but his grammar. It resem- 
bles the collection of Professor Dalzell, being at the same time 
more condensed in form. We recommend it to the considera- 
tion of our own school authorities, only counselling them to take 
advice with Prof. Felton himself, and re-print it honestly, if they 
re-print it at all. London Examiner. 

lish and Greek Vocabulary, adapted to Sophocles' Greek 
Grammar, pp. 195, 12mo. By E. A. Sophocles, A. M. 
author of " Greek Grammar" and " Greek Lessons." 
Second edition. Stereotyped. 

The design of the present work is to furnish the learner with 
a series of exercises adapted to the rules of the Author's Greek 
Grammar. Grammatical rules can be perfectly understood and 
fixed in the memory only by means of such exercises. Mere 



translation will never form accomplished scholars in any lan- 
guage. In order to become well acquainted with the structure 
of a language, we must practice writing it This work affords 
the learner important facilities in his first attempts to write the 
Greek. It presents him with a series of exercises grammatically 
arranged, and a vocabulary, in which he can readily find the 
\vords to be employed. A Vocabulary like this, in English and 
Greek, we do not recollect to have seen annexed to any similar 
work. A part of the edition, we observe, contains a Key for the 
use of instructors, which will doubtless serve greatly to facilitate 
and lighten their labor. Connect icut Courant- 

NEW SCHOOL BOOK. In another column will be found an 
advertisement of the excellent school-books introductory to the 
study of the Greek language by Messrs. Sophocles and Felton. 
Of these works we have already spoken, excepting the " Greek 
Exercises" by Mr. Sophocles, which has just been issued from 
the press. This appears to us to form a very valuable addition 
to the list. It differs from other books of Latin and Greek Ex- 
ercises, in at least one important respect, viz., that after a suffi- 
cient series of exercises in which the words are given, the pupil 
is left to select the icords, as well as to inflect and arrange them 
properly. To furnish the means of doing this, an English-Greek 
vocabulary is subjoined to the exercises ; and this part of the 
volume will be highly valued, as it supplies a want which has 
long been felt, and as it has been prepared by a scholar who, in 
fitness for such a task, has no superior in our country. We 
commend the " Greek Exercises" to the notice of instructors. 
Philadelphia North American. 

Extracts from Letters written to the Publisher by Professors Sturges and Butler. 

Hanorer College, Hanover Indiana, August 9th. 

Dear Sir : Subsequent and more thorough examination of 
Felton and Sophocles' series of Greek books has only confirmed 
my opinion of their very great merit. I hope Mr. S. will fulfil 
kis design of enlarging his First Lessons, at least by adding 
more reading matter, so as to make a more complete introduc- 
tion to the Reader ; in other respects, it seems excellent. I am 
not sure but the Exercises, (which has lately fallen into my 
hands,) is the best of the set, however; it is certainly an im- 
mense improvement on all preceding works. The rules and 


examples in the first part are far superior to any to be met with 
elsewhere, and the admirable praxis in Greek composition and 
vocabulary are novelties in a work of this kind. Certainly no 
reason can be assigned why composition should not be tried in 
the Greek language as well as in the Latin, in which its utility 
is acknowledged by all. In short, these works must be ranked 
with the Latin series of Prof. Andrews, (no mean praise) and 
will certainly mark an era in Greek study in this country, as 
those have done in Latin. Yours truly, 

Prof, of Languages Hanover College, Indiana. 

Louisville, July 10th. 

Prof. Sturges has requested me to give my opinion of the 
series of Greek books which you have published. I do this with 
the greatest pleasure, as I consider these books as forming the 
best introduction I have ever seen, to that noble language. I 
think improvements may be made in the " First Lessons" and 
the Lexicon is defective. The best evidence of my good opin- 
ion is, that I intend to introduce them among my students. 

Prof, of Languages, Louisville College, Kentucky. 


And will be published about the 1st of October, in one volume, 8vo. 




Composed with constant reference to the illustration of the 
domestic, religious, political and military condition of 
the Heroic age, and containing an explanation of the 
difficult passages, arid of all mythological and geographi- 
cal proper names. 

From the German of 



Professor of Greek in Marietta College. 



The following extracts from Letters to Prof. Smith show the estimation in which 
the Lexicon of Crusius is held by Prof. Woolsey of Yale College, Prof. Felton of 
Harvard, and Mr. Sophocles. 

NEW HAYEK, April 7th, 1841. 

Dear Sir : You did me yesterday the favor to leave with me, for exami- 
nation, the Homeric Lexicon of Crusius, and your translation of the 
same, which you stated to be only the first copy and to need revision 
before it should be put to the press. As far as time allowed me, I exam- 
ined Crusius, selecting such words, as, owing to their importance or their 
difficulty, would test the manner in which he has executed his task. So 
far as I am able to judge, he has made a good school Lexicon, fitted for 
practical purposes ; on the one hand, possessing that brevity which a 
school Lexicon needs ; and on the other, entering into the interpretation 
of all the difficult places in the Homeric poems, and when the best schol- 
ars differ in their explanations of a passage, not omitting any explanation 
which is at all tenable. I think, therefore, that it will be useful and 
desirable to bring this Lexicon before the American public, and that the 
bookseller who should undertake it, would probably meet with encoura- 
ging sales in many of our Colleges and higher schools. 

I have examined your translation of the preface and of parts of the 
Lexicon in the letters A and E, and think it fortunate that this task is 
undertaken by one who seems to have so good a knowledge of German, 
and to have the power of putting the German into appropriate English. 

In conclusion, I express the hope that you will go forward and print 
this work. If any should object to a Lexicon fora particular author, 
they should recollect that there is no accessible Lexicon from which our 
young students can draw sure and full information about the words in 
Homer ; and the Epic style being as distinct from that of Attic prose, 
or even of Attic poetry, as the style of Chaucer from that of our time, 
certainly has some good claim to be treated as a separate dialect. With 
this Lexicon and the simple text, the student may supersede the use of 
commentaries. In the Odyssey, which we now study in this College, 
such a Lexicon would be particularly valuable, because there is no com- 
mentary with which the student can provide himself. 

I am, Dear Sir, truly Yours, 



PROP. SMITH, CAMBRIDGE, April 10th, 1841. 

Dear Sir: I have examined your manuscript translation of the Ho- 
meric Lexicon by Crusius, with as much attention as the short time I 
have had it in my hands allowed. The original work was an invaluable 
contribution to the resources of classical students who were acquainted 
with the German language. Mr. Crusius is distinguished for his philo- 
logical attainments, and particularly for his profound knowledge of the 
Homeric poetry, as his elaborate editionof the Odyssey, published in 
1837-39, abundantly manifests. 

Your translation of the Homeric Lexicon, I am confident, will be a 
most acceptable work to the classical scholars of the United States, It 
will render very important aid, both to teachers and pupils, in the study 
of these great poems which have exercised so wonderful an influence upon 
the minds and hearts of men, and which continue to form the tastes and 
warm the imaginations of the young in the present age as they did in 
Athens twenty -five centuries ago. 

I have compared as many articles as the time permitted, with the 
original, and I do not hesitate to say, that in my opinion you have been 
singularly successful in translating the German into felicitous English. 
You will certainly be entitled to the thanks of the literary public for hav- 
ing accomplished so well a most difficult and laborious as well as impor- 
tant undertaking. 

I hope your work will be published in such a form as its high character 
deserves. There is no doubt in my mind that it will at once take its 
place among the most useful and distinguished classical works that have 
appeared in the United States. With great respect, Yours, 


I fully agree with Prof. Pelton : s opinion of the merits of the Homeric 
Lexicon of Crusius. and of the importance of the publication of Prof. 
Smith's translation to the American student of Homer. 



Ho. 180 Main Street, Hartford, 

Has a general assortment of the most approved editions 














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