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This work contains all the facts of any importance in the Phon- 
ology and Inflection of the Greek language, as it appears in literature 
up to the late period. After an Introduction on the History of the 
Greek Language, it is divided into four parts : Phonology, Inflections, 
Dialects, and Formation of Words. The List of Attic and Dialectic 
Verbs is very full. The general arrangement of the book, especially 
the employment of the tabular form in the sections whenever possible, 
greatly facilitates the use of the work both for general study and for 













IN compiling the present Greek Grammar, my aim has been to 
bring together in convenient and accessible form all the gram- 
matical facts and rules of any importance in the Greek language 
as it appears in the literature of ancient Greece up to the late 
period. The work is in two volumes, issued separately. The 
first volume contains a brief History of the Greek language, the 
Phonology, the Inflections of Attic Greek, the Inflections of the 
Dialects, an extensive General List of Verbs containing all forms 
presenting any difficulties or peculiarities, and the Word-Forma- 
tion. The second volume is devoted to the Syntax. The typo- 
graphical plan of the work is as follows : The pagination of the 
two velum- ^ i^ independent, but the numbering of the sections is 
continuous from the first volume into the second : thus Volume I 
ends with section 1200, while Volume II begins with section 
1201. All cross-references are by sections; and although there 
are no section or page-references from one volume to the other, 
the plan of continued section-numbering was adopted to avoid 
any possible confusion. In the first volume the tabular form 
was employed whenever in any way possible, as this tyjx^raplii- 
cal arrangement greatty facilitates the use of the book both for 
study and for reference; and in }x>th volumes lri.-f running si.l- 
titles were used for sections whenever practical. The word 
IK after the number of any s.cti.n m.-ans that such section 
is subordinate to the nearest preceding section without that indica- 


tion ; thus in Volume I, section "525, NOTE " means that this 
section is subordinate to section 524; in Volume II, section 
" 1264, NOTE" means that this section is subordinate to section 
1263 ; naturally an independent section may be followed by a 
number of subordinate sections bearing the indication " NOTE ". 
In the Syntax volume, all the sections devoted to poetic or 
dialectic syntax are printed in shorter lines. The quotations cited 
in the Syntax have all been verified and are printed as they 
appear in the texts, omissions not bearing on the rule cited being 
indicated by dots. In concluding these explanatory remarks, 
the author desires to state that he will be thankful to have 
pointed out to him any errors of any kind for future correction. 


September, 1910. 







1201. Subject and Predicate 1 

1202. Object 1 

1203. Appositive Noun 1 

1204. Predicate Noun 1 

1205. Copulate Verbs 2 

1206. Attributive Adjective 2 

1207. Attribute 2 

1208. Predicate Adjective 2 

1209-1215. Subject of a Finite Verb 2-4 

The Verb 

1216-1218. The Copula tltf Omitted 4-5 

1219-1221. Other Verbs occasionally Omitted 5 

1222. The Vtrbs tlfii and >VM< with Adverbs as Complete Predi- 

cates 5-6 

1223. The Verb yiyvofMt with Local Adverbs* ami* ... <> 



Peculiarities in the Use of Numbers, Genders, and Persons 


1224-1226. Singular 6-7 

1227-1238. Plural 7-10 

1239-1241. Dual 10 

1242-1244. Genders 10-11 

1245. Persons 11 


1246-1247. General Principles of Agreement 12 

1248. Construction according to Sense 12-13 

1249-1264. Subject Nominative and Verb 13-15 


1265-1269. Various Parts of Speech and Phrases used as Attributes 15-16 


1270. Remark 16 

1271-1280. Masculines and Feminines 16-19 

1281-1301. Neuters 19-25 

Predicate Noun and Adjective 

1302-1310. Agreement with its Substantive 25-28 

1311-1313. Assimilation of Demonstrative Pronoun to the Gender and 

Number of its Predicate Noun 28 

1314-1315. Predicate Adjective with some Part of ei>f understood 28-29 

1316. Predicate Adjective expressing Purpose, Character or Quality 29 


1317-1318. Predicate Adjective used where the English uses an Adverb... 29-30 

1319. Different Meaning where an Adverb is used instead 30 

1320. Predicate Adjectives p-eyas, iro\vs, &<j>9ovos, tvavrios with fr4<a 

and 7jW 30 

1321. Predicate Adjective iro\vs with Other Expressions 30 


1322. Noun in Apposition 30-31 

1323. Adjective with Article as Appositive to a Personal Pronoun ... 31 
1824. Appositive belonging to two or more Nouns in Plural or Dual 31 
1325. Noun denoting Place with Appositive denoting Inhabitants ... 31 



1326. Appositive denoting Part of the Subject 31 

1327. Genitive as Appositive toan Adjective 31 

1328. In Homer Noun or Pronoun denoting a Person with Apposi- 

tive denoting a Part 31 

1329. Appositive may agree in Gender with its Subject 82 

1330. Noun as Appositive to a whole Sentence 32 

1331. Position of Appositive Names of Rivers, Mountains, Islands, 

Lakes, and Cities 32 

1332. The Expression ^ jSouAf; ot Trei/Ta/ctfo-ioi 32 

The Adjective 

1333-1336. Agreement of Adjective 32-33 

1337. Adjectives and Participles used as Nouns 3S 


1338-1339. Positive Degree 33-34 

1340-1354. Comparative Degree 34-37 

1355-1366. Superlative Degree 37-38- 

The Article 

1367-1368. The Article in Homer as a Demonstrative Gr Personal or 

Relative Pronoun 39' 

1369. The Article in Homer used as a Demonstrative emphasizing 

a Noun 39-4a 

1370. Adverbial use of r$ and r6 in Poetry 40 

1371-1375. The Article used as Article Proper 40-41 

1376. The Article in Lyric and Tragic Poetry ; as Relative in 

Herodotus, Doric, and Aeolic 41 


1388. Use as Pronoun or Demonstrative 

1889-1393. Use as Article Proper 43-44 

1394-1395. Use of Article in forming Substantives ; 

1896-1405. Insertion and Omission of the Article... .. 45-49 

1406-1417. Position of Attributes and Predicate Adjectives relating to 
Nouns which have the Article..., 





1418. Nominative used only when Emphatic .............................. 53-54 

1419-1420. Uses of l^ov, ^uo/, e> and of Enclitic Forms ........................ 54 

1421-1422. Oblique Cases of avr6s as Personal Pronouns of the Third 

Person ..................................................................... 54 

1423-1431. Various uses of atrt* ...................................................... 54-56 

1432-1434. Indefinite English one or you or they, how expressed ............ 56-57 


1435-1439. General use of Reflexives ................................................ 5758 

1440. Uses of the Forms ^ue avr6v, etc ........................................ 58-59 

1441. Reflexives of the Third Person used for the First or Second... 59 
1442-1443. Plural Reflexives used for Reciprocal Pronoun, etc ................ 59 

1444-1448. Reflexives inHomer ......................................................... 59-60 

1449-1452. Personal Pronoun o5, of, etc., in Attic Prose as Reflexive ...... 60-61 

1453. Personal Pronoun o5, of, etc., in the Dialects ........................ 61-63 


1454-1459. General Uses of Possessive Pronouns ................................. 63-65 

1460-1464. Reflexive Possessive, my own, etc ..................................... 65-66 

1465-1466. Simple Possessives sometimes Reflexive ........... . .................. 66 

1467. Genitives of Personal Pronouns seldom Reflexive .................. 66 

1468. Genitives of Demonstratives used instead of Reflexives for 

Emphasis ............................................................... 66 

1469. Synopsis of Simple and Reflexive Possessive Forms .............. 66-67 


1470-1477. Uses of oSros, 58, IKWOS ................................................... 67-68 

1478. KoUSros ........................................................................ 68 

1479-1483. Position of olros, 88e, IK* Ivos with the Article ........................ 68-69 

1484-1486. Otros as Antecedent Relative ............................................. 69 

1487. Demonstratives as Predicates .......................................... 69 

1488-1489. Demonstratives roarovros, TocroVSe, TOIOVTOS, iWo-Se, rr)\iKovros, 

T-n\tK6<r8e .................................................................. 69-70 

1491-1492. Use of erepos ................................................................. 70 


1493-1508. Particular and Indefinite Relatives .................................... 70-73 

1509. "Or as a Demonstrative ................................................... 73-74 

1510. Relative as Predicate .. 74 



1511-1520. Agreement of Relative 74-77 

1521. Governing Preposition of the Relative omitted 77 

1522-1528. Omission of Antecedent of the Relative 77-78 

1529-1539. Assimilation and Attraction with Relative 79-83 

1540-1541. Relative not Repeated 88-84 

1542-1544. Relatives ofos, 8<ros, and us in Exclamations 84 


1545-1547. Use of Interrogates and Indirect Q uestions 84-85 

1548. Interrogatives as Predicate-Adjectives 85 

1549-1551. Interrogative belonging to a Participle or Dependent Word... 85-86 

1552. Two or more Interrogatives belonging to one Verb 86 


1553-1557. Usesof rls, rl 86-87 

1558-1562. Usesof AAAOS... 87-88 

The Cases 
1563. General Remarks... 


1564. Nominative as Subject or Predicate 88 

1565. Nominative used independently 89 

1566. Nominative and Changes of Construction (Anacoluthon) 89 

1567-1572. Vocative and Nominative used as Vocative 89-90 


1573. General Remark 90 

1574-1586. Accusative of Direct Object 90-93 

1587-1594. Cognate Accusative 93-95 

1595-1596. Accusative of Specification 95 

1597-1598. Adverbial Accusative 95-96 

1599-1601. Accusative of Extent of Time and Space 96 

1602. Accusative of Object of Motion (Poetic) 96-97 

1603-1604. Accusative with Adverbs of Swearing '->7 


1606-1608. Double Object- Accusative . 97-98 

1609-1614. Object- Accusative and Predicate- Accusative 98-100 

1615-1618. Object- Accusative and Cognate- Accusative ... . 100-101 




1618. General Remarks 101-102 

1619-1630. Genitive with Nouns (Attributive Genitive) 102-105 

1631-1637. Predicate-Genitive 105-107 


1638-1640. Genitive with Verbs affecting the Object only in Part 107-108 

1641-1643. Genitive with Verbs of sharing and enjoying 108 

1644-1647. Genitive with Verbs meaning to touch, to take hold of, to tread 

upon, to begin, to try 109-110 

1648-1652. Genitive with Verbs meaning to desire, to aim at t to claim, to 

attain, to hit, tomiss 110-111 

1653-1662. Genitive with Verbs meaning to remember, to forget, to care for, 

to neglect, to despise 111-113 

1663-1668. Genitive with Verbs of Mental or Sensory Perception 113-115 

1669-1673. Genitive with Verbs meaning to rule and to lead 115-116 

1674-1679. Genitive of Material with Verbs of Plenty and Want and 

Filling 116-118 

1680-1685. Genitive with Verbs expressing Separation 118-120 

1686-1687. Genitive of Distinction with Verbs meaning to surpass or to 

be inferior 121 

1688-1691. Genitive of Cause or Regard with Verbs expressing Emotion 121-123 

1692. Genitive of Source with Verbs 123 

1693-1698. Genitive of Price or Value with Verbs 123-125 

1699-1703. Genitive of Crime with Judicial Verbs 125-126 

1704-1713. Genitive with Compound Verbs 126-128 


1714-1720. Genitive with Adjectives similar to Verbs governing the 

Genitive 129-132 

1721. Genitive with some Adjectives similar in Meaning to Transi- 

tive Verbs 132 

1722. Genitive with Adjectives expressing an implied Noun 132 

1723. Genitive after Adjectives of Comparative Degree 132-133 

1724. Partitive Genitive with Adjectives 133 

1725-1728. Genitive with Adverbs 133 


1729-1731. Genitive of Time 133-134 

1732-1735. Genitive of Place 134-135 

1736. Genitive in Exclamations ". 135 

1737. Genitive expressing in regard to 135 

1738. Genitive Absolute... 135 



1739. General Remarks 135 

1740-1741. Dative of Indirect Object with Transitive Verbs 135-136 

1742-1753. Dative of Indirect Object with Intransitive Verbs 136-139 

1754-1756. Dative of Indirect Object with Adjectives and Adverbs 139-140 

1757. Dative of Indirect Object with Nouns 140 

1758. Dative of Association and Resemblance (General) 140 

1759-1765. Dative of Association and Resemblance with Verbs 140-142 

1766-1769. Dative of Association and Resemblance with Adjectives 142-144 

1770. Dative of Association and Resemblance with Nouns 144 

1771-1772. Dative of Association and Resemblance with Adverbs 144 

1773-1775. Dative of Association and Resemblance as Dative of Accom- 
paniment 144-145 

1776-1785. Dative with Compound Nouns and Adjectives 145-147 

1786. Dative of Interest (General) 147 

1787-1790. Dative of Interest as Dative of Advantage or Disadvantage... 147-148 

1791-1794. Dative of Interest as Dative of Possessor 148 

1795. Dative of Interest as Ethical Dative 148-149 

1796-1799. Dative of Interest as Dative of Relation or Standpoint 149-150 

1800. Dative of Interest as Dative of Agent 150 

1801-1803. Dative of Instrument or Means 150-151 

1804-1809. Dative of Cause 151-152 

1810-1814. Dative of Manner 152-153 

1814-1815. Dative of Measure of Difference 153 

18161822. Dative of Time 153-154 

1823-1827. Dative of Place..., 155 


1828-1830. Prepositions as Adverbs 155-156 

1831. Tmesis 156-157 

1832-1836. Place of Prepositions 157-158 

1837. Preposition used for a Compound Verb 158 

1838. Improper Prepositions never used in Composition 158 

1839-1842. General Use of the Prepositions 158-160 

1843-1861. The Prepositions in Detail (alphabetically) 160-175 

1862-1864. Improper Prepositions 176-177 

1866. References to PeeuliaiitieH in the Use of Adverbs . 177 


The Verb 



1866-1867. The Active Voice 177-178 

1868-1880. The Middle Voice 178-181 

1881-1890. ThePassive Voice 181-184 


1891-1893. General Character of the Tenses 184-186 

1894-1900. Present Indicative 186-187 

1901-1909. Imperfect Indicative 187-190 

1910-1920. Aorist Indicative 190-192 

1921-1927. Future Indicative 192-193 

1928-1935. Perfect and Pluperfect Indicative 194-195 

1936-1937. Future-Perfect Indicative 195 

1938-1944. Tenses in the other Moods not in Indirect Discourse 196-197 

1945-1948. Optative and Infinitive in Indirect Discourse 197-198 

1949-1956. Tenses of the Participle 198-199 

1957. Primary and Secondary Tenses 199 

The Moods 

1958-1959. General View of the Moods 200 

1960-1972. The Particle ft? 201-203 


1973. Different Kinds of Independent Clauses 203 


1974-1975. Indicative in Direct Statements and Questions 204 

1976. Potential Indicative 204 

1977-1978. Strong Denial in Future expressed by ov uA\ followed by Sub- 
junctive or Future Indicative 204 


1979-1981. Expression of Command by Imperative 204-205 

1982. Perfect Imperative 205 

1983. Prohibitions expressed by ^ with Pres. Imperative or Aor. 


1984. Prohibitions sometimes expressed by Aorist Imperative 205 

1985. Prohibitions sometimes expressed in the Dramatists by ov uA\ 

and the Second Pers. Sing, of Fut. Indie, or Aor. Subj. 205 




1986. Hortative Subjunctive 205-206 

1987-1990. Deliberative or Interrogative Subjunctive or Indicative 206 

1991. Subjunctive equivalent to Fut. Indie, in Homer 206 

1992. Subjunctive and Future Indie, as expressing Expectation 207 


1993-1998. Potential Optative 207-208 

1999-2003. Optative of Wishing 208-209 

2004-2007. Unattainable Wishes expressed by Past Tenses of Indicative 209-210 


2008-2009. Direct Simple and Double Questions 210-211 

2010. Answers, how Expressed 211-212 


2011. General Reference to the Various Constructions 212 


2012. Use of Optative in Indirect Discourse 213 


2013-2015. Direct and Indirect Statements 213-214 

2016-2022. Rules for Simple Dependent Declarative Clauses introduced 

by fc-ioriy 214-218 


2023-2025. Direct and Indirect (or Dependent) Questions 218 

2026-2033. Rules for Dependent Questions 218-221 

9084-2036. Dependent Clauses after Implied Inquiry 221-223 


3037-2039. Meaning and Kinds of Final and Object Clauses 223 

2040-2047. Final Clauses of Absolute Purpose ... 223-226 

9048-2049. Final Clauses of Unattainable Purpose ... 22f> 

9050-2057. Object-Clauses after Verbs of Effort, etc . . 226-229 
9058-2061. *Oirc*s and r M 4 in Commands. 

9062-2070. Clauses and Various Constructions after Verbs of Fearing ... 980-233 

2071-2076. Cauaal Clauses.., ,.983-236 




2077. Meaning of Consecutive Clauses 235 

2078-2079. Consecutive Clauses with Finite Mood 235-236 

2086-2087. Consecutive Clauses with the Infinitive 236-237 

2088. "O<ros and olos used instead of Strre in Consecutive Clauses ... 238 


2089-2091. General Remarks 238-239 

2092. Particular and General Suppositions 239 

2093. Four Classes of Conditional Sentences 239-240 

2094. Synopsis of Conditional Forms 240-241 

2095-2097. Simple Present or Past Particular Conditions with Nothing 

Implied 241-242 

2098-2101. Simple Present or Past General Conditions with Nothing 

Implied 242-243 

2102-2108. Present and Past Conditions Contrary to Reality 243-247 

2109-2112. Future Conditions of more Distinct Form 247-248 

2113-2115. Future Conditions of less Distinct Form 248-249 

2116. Various Peculiarities of Conditional Sentences 249 

2117. Mixed Forms of Conditional Sentences 250 

2118. Disjunctive Conditional Clauses 251 

2119-2123. Ellipsis and Substitution in the Protasis 251-252 

2124-2127. Ellipsis and Substitution in the Apodosis 252-254 

2128-2132. Omission of the Verb in Conditional Clauses 254-255 


2133-2134. Construction and Peculiarities of Concessive Clauses 255-256 

2135. Concession also expressed by a Participle, or by a Clause with 

&ri 256 


2136. General Remarks 256 

2137. Explanatory Relative Clauses 256-257 

2138-2139. Causal Relative Clauses 257 

2140-2141. Consecutive Relative Clauses 257-258 

2142-2146. Final Relative Clauses 258 

2147-2160. Conditional Relative Clauses 258-261 


2161. Temporal Particles 261-262 

2162. General Remark . 262 



:!1G3. Correlatives of Temporal Particles 262 

2K14-2165. Temporal Clauses expressing Actual Occurrence 262 

216G 2171. Temporal Clauses not expressing Actual Occurrence 263-265 

2172-2175. Te.nporal Clauses introduced by " Until" 265-266 

21*2. Temporal Clause* introduced by ' Before 1 ' 266-270 

2184. Assimilation of Mood in Relative and Temporal Clauses 270-271 

The Infinitive 

2185. Nature of the Infinitive 271 

21.M. Subject and Predicate-Noun with the Infinitive 271-274 

2200. Infinitive without the Article in Indirect Discourse 274-277 


1. Summary of the following uses 277 

2202-2215. Nominal Infinitive 278-281 

Supplementary Infinitive 281-284 

Infinitive |in other Constructions (Conditions, Result, Pur- 
pose, Commands, Wishes, Resolutions, Infinitive Absolute, 

Idiomatic Expressions, Infinitive with irp(v) 284-286 


2280. Character of the Articular Infinitive 286 

:_'37. Uses of the Articular Infinitive . . 286-290 

The Participle 
s. Nature of the Participle 290 

Various Uses of the Attributive Participle 2'.K>-2'.'1 


I/. /'.I/."/'/!//'// 

2246-2258. Various Uses (Time, Cause, Means, Accompanying Cir.-um 

stance, PurpOKc, Condition, Concession) 292-295 

' 2264. Genitive Absolute.. 
2265-2268. Accusative Absolut. 
M69-'227r,. Particles used will, th.- Cin uin,t ;l ntml I',irti,-i,,l,. 

2278. Omission of &r belonging to a Predicate-Noun or Adjective... 301 





2279. Nature of the Supplementary Participle 302 


2280-2283. With e>f, ylyvofjMi,brdpx< 302-304 

2284. With? x 304 

2285-2288. With Verbs of "being" 304-305 

2289-2290. With Verbs of beginning, ceasing, stopping, persevering, wennj- 

ing, and. permitting 30< 

2291-2295 With Verbs of Feeling or Emotion 309-310 

2296. With Verbs meaning to do well or ill, to surpass, be inferior, 

etc 311 

2297. With 0-v/j.fiy.ivei, O-UJUTJTTTTO), 0f\ri(av (a/j-fivcw, Kptiaawv] fifii, and 

with Verbs meaning to be full of, to be sufficient 311 

2298. With Verbs of Coming and Going 312 

2299. With Various other Verbs 312-313 


2300. General Principle of Participle of Indirect Direct Discourse... 
2301-2310. Verbs of Perception governing Participle of Indirect Discourse 313-318 

2311. Verbs of Perception governing Participle or Infinitive of Ind. 

Disc 318-321 

2312. Omission of the Supplementary Participle &v 321 

2313. Use of us with the Supplementary Participle 321 -M-2 


2314. Used personally and impersonally 322 

2315. Personal Construction 322-323 

2316-2319. Impersonal Construction 323-324 

Indirect Discourse 


2320. Direct and Indirect Discourse 324 

2321-2323. Principal Clauses of Indirect Discourse 324-325 

2324-2328. Subordinate Clauses of Indirect Discourse 325-329 

2329-2333, Indirect Discourse Implied ..,.,.. 329-332 




:i. Ouand/trj 332 

2335. Ou and ^ in Principal Clauses 332 

2336-2837. Ow and ^ in Subordinate Clauses 332-333 

2338-2340. Mrj with the Infinitive 333 

Ov with the Infinitive 333-334 

47. Ou and w with Participles, Adjectives, and Nouns 334 

2349. Ou and ^ as Interrogative Particles 334-335 


2350. With Finite Verb 335 

2351-2355. With the Infinitive after Verbs of Negative Meaning 335-337 

2356. With the Infinitive after Verbs and Expressions of Inabiliti/, 

Impossibility, Impropriety, etc 337 

2357. MT; oil with Participles and Nouns 337 


2358. General Remarks 337-338 

J361. Negative followed by Compowul Negative(s) of the Same Kind 338 

-'^63. Negative followed by Simple Negative(s) of the Same Kind... 338 

2364. Place of the Negative 339 

2365. Various Negative Expressions 339 


2366. Particles Defined ; Interjections 339 

2367. Classes of Conjunctions 339-340 

2368. Emphatic Adverbs 340 

Postpositive Particles Defined 340 

2370. Asyndeton 340 

. Alphabetical List of Particles 340-359 

Some Figures of Syntax 

2372. Ellipsis . 

2373. Pleonasm 359-360 

2374. Brachylogy 

2375. Zeugma . :u;o 

Aposiopenis :u;<> 

Anacoluthon .... <m 


Order of Words and Clauses 


2378. Usual Order 361 

2379. Inverted Order 361 

2380. Postpositives 361-362 

2381. Position of Dependent Clauses 362 

2382. Hyperbaton 362 

2383. Juxtaposition 362-363 

2384. Chiasmos 363 

2385. Hysteron Proteron 363 

2386. Insertion of Words .. ,. 363-364 


INDEXES ... 369 




1201. Subject and Predicate. Every sentence is composed of 
a subject and a predicate. The subject is that of which something 

lid. The predicate is that which is said of the subject. Thus, 
in the sentence, Ktyjo? 7ro\\a Wwr) Iviicria-ev, Cyrus conquered many 
nations, Kvpos is the subject, and TroXXa Wvrj evt/crjo-ev is the 

1202. Object. The object is that upon which the action of the 
verb is exerted. It may be direct or indirect. Thus, in the 
^'ntence, eSwtce TO ftiftXLov rut TraiSl, he gave the book to the boy, 
fti$\iov is the direct object of the verb, and TrcuSi is the indirect 
r remote object. Verbs which can take a direct object are called 
transitive verbs ; others are called intransitive. 

1203. Appositive Noun. A noun added to another noun to 
<l'-vrril>r it, is called an appositive noun ; as 2a)/cpdTrjs 6 <^t\o<ro<^o?, 

'ales the philosopher. 

1204. Predicate Noun. When a noun forms part of tin- 
predicate and is asserted of the person or thing to which it refers, 
it is called a predict r us Eei/o</>o>i/ a-rparrjyo^ <rrw t Xeno- 

ral ; KaOuTTaTcu, $a<7tXei;<?, he is established as king ; 
Kvpov (TarpdTrrjv eTroirjo-cv, Darius made Cyrus satrap ; 
t\ovro, tlici/ rJnw Alribiades general 

2 SUBJECT 1205 

1205. Copulative Verbs. 1. When the verb et/u, be, connects 
the subject with a predicate noun or a predicate adjective, it is 
called the copula. Some other verbs, signifying to become, to 
appear, to be chosen, to be made, to be regarded, and the like, are 
also termed copulative verbs. 

2. But elju, and these other copulative verbs may form complete 
predicates, without predicate nouns or adjectives; as ecrn 0eo9, 
there is a God. 

1206. Attributive Adjective. An adjective is said to be at- 
tributive when it simply qualifies the substantive without the 
intervention of a verb ; as o dyaObs dvtfp, the good man. 

1207. Attribute. Besides attributive adjectives, all parts of 
speech and expressions with the force of attributive adjectives, 
are termed attributes. See 1265. 

1208. Predicate Adjective. An adjective is said to be pre- 
dicate when it forms part of the predicate, and is asserted of the 
person or thing to which it refers ; as o dvrjp dyaOos ea-riv, the 
man is good; croQbv rov avbpa vo/jfov<ri t they consider the man 
(to be) wise. Every adjective and participle not attributive is 


1209. The subject of a finite verb is in the nominative case ; 
as Aapelos /3ct(n,\Vi, Darius is king. 

For the accusative subject of the infinitive, see 2189. 

1210. The subject-nominative of the first or second person is 
omitted, except when specially emphatic ; as \eya), I say ; \eyere, 
you say ; but eyco fiev \eyay, av 8e ou Xeyet?, I say, but you do not say. 

1211. The subject-nominative of the third person is omitted 

1. When it is implied in the context ; as Kvpos rots vavs /xcTeTrc^aro, 
OTTOOS oTrAiTds d-Tro/Jt/Jao-eie, Cyrus sent for the ships that he (Cyrus) 
might land troops (Xen. Anab. 1, 4 5 ). 

2. When it is a general expression for persons ; as Aeyovo-t, </>d<ri', 
they say, it is said. 

1214 SUBJECT 3 

3. When it is implied in the verb. Such verbs are : <raA7rt'et, 
the trumpeter (eroATny/cTiys) sounds the trumpet; KT/piJo-o-a, the herald 
(*77pv) proclaims ; cn//xatVct, a signal is given, tliey signal ; KwXvct, a 
hindrance occurs. Similarly in the impersonal use of the passive, as 

t, it is said ; especially in the perfect and pluperfect, as ?rap- 
JJ.OL, preparation has been made by me ( = things have been 
prepared by me). See 1800, 23142319. 

4. In verbs like vet, it rains ; vf<, it snoics ; /fyorra, it thunders ; 
atrrpaTrrei, it lightens ; o-et'ei, there is an earthquake (lit. it shakes). 
With such verbs 6 0co's or Zcvs is sometimes found as a subject. 

5. When it is indefinite. The verb is then called impersonal. So 
SOKCI, it seems good ; Sd, xpy, it is necessary, one ought ; irpeirci, Trpoa-rjKti, 

proper ; m, l^cm, it is possible ; 8*7X01, it is evident, it shows ; 
xoXtos, KttKois l^c, it is well, ill ; o-v/u/fruVct, it happens ; Suufrcpci, tJie 
difference is ; o^e ty, it was late ; eis TOVTO r)\0e , it went so far ; ^/At'pd 
eyeVcro, it became day. Similarly in the impersonal construction of 
the verbal in -rtov, which often omits cVn.'; as TU> vo/xw TTCUTTCOV, we 
must obey the law (Plat. Apol. 19") : see 23142319. 

6. The indefinite TIS is often omitted ; as ea/ /x^ vibv KaraXiTrr) 
yvr)<riov, if one does not leave a legitimate son (Isae. 6, 44). 

1212. NOTE. Many impersonal verbs may have an infinitive or a 
whole sentence as the subject. 

Zi i-/3i7 tpiv ir(i(T0f)vai, it happened to you to be persuaded (Thuc. 2, 61 a ). 
Afl c'7rur<im TUV lirirov, it is necessary to saddle the horse (Xen. Anab. 3, 4 :w ). 
AT/XOI/ TJV on tyyvs irov 6 /3a<riXcvy rjv y it was evident that the kin;/ was 80intwli< r> 
near (Xen. Ann!'. 2, 3"). 'HyyA^r; art Mf-yapa dQfffrrjKf, it was reported (hut 

irn hful revolted (Thuc. 1, 114 1 ). It is hardly proper, although quite 
common, to call these impersonal verbs. 

1213. NOTE. Occasionally the subject must be supplied from some 
word of the sentence. 

Tix'f * Tai ' T( *<" 7^7 vifas \ap&av(i (TO Tix^)> the wall is being I milt, 
and i already advancing to some height (Thuc. 1, 91 1 ). Qfoyoviav 
&if<p\ovrai, ytvoptvoi rt &>f npbs d\\f)\ovs otfttXija-ftv (ot 6coi) f they narrate th' 

h< nods, and how, after they were born t they behaved tt>- 
,tntl ,- (I'lat. I.KJ. H86 6 ). 

1214. 1 Tin- Mibject of a dependent clause is often emphati- 
cally placed at the beginning <>f its <-];ui^ -. 

rov (iri\tt,pr]<Tu>iLtv ttirtlv, dv&ptta ri rror' <(rriv, lit u* Jirxf tru to 
definr 11 /,. H is (Plat. Lach. 

4 THE VEEB J215 

2. The subject of a dependent clause is very often drawn into 
the principal clause, and its case made to depend on the leading- 
verb. This is called prolepsis (^poky-tyis, anticipation}, and occurs 
mostly with verbs of saying, perceiving, knowing, fearing, and with 
, take care. 

I A I 7T 7T OV TOIVVV TIVCS T O X p. 00 CT I X 6 J I V U>S OV& ^OV\fTO QrjfBdiOlS 

napadovvai ( = roX/ioxrt roivvv rives \eyfiv as (piXiTnros ov8\ etc.)^ 
some persons venture to say that Philip did not wish to deliver Orchomenos- 
to the Thebans (Dem. 5, 22). Olvov e<ppao-cv evGa rjv Karopcopvy/ztVos- 
(= <ppao-v fvBa olvos, etc.), he showed where the wine was buried (Xen. 
Anab. 4, S 29 ). "Hi Set /SatriXf'a on /j.crov fX 01 T v Hepo-ncou <rrparevp,aror 
(= 08 on (SaaiXcvs p.eo-oi>, etc.), he knew that the king held the centre of the, 
Persian army (Xen. Anab. 1, 8 21 ). "\px VTa ^d ra>v dpxope v uv fm- 
fj.e\el(r6ai oncos ais jSe'Xrtcrroi ecroi/rcu ( ap^oi/ra 8el (Trip.fXela'daL OTTCOS oi 
dpx^p-fvoi cos ^eXrtorot e<roi/rat), it is the duty of an officer to take such care of 
those whom he commands that theii m<nj be. as brave as possible (Xen. Cyr* 

2, I 11 ). T r)v v TT e p (BoXr) v T&V opa)i> f S 6 8 o t K e (T a v pr) 7rpOKaTa\Tj(p6cirj 
(= fdfdoiKCO-av pf] r) v7rep@o\T) TO>V opa>J/ 7rpo*:araXr;0^fir;), they feared that the 
pass over the mountains might be occupied in advance (Xen. Anab. 3, 5 18 ). 

1215. NOTE. The subject of the dependent clause may even be- 
come a genitive depending on a noun of the principal clause. 

'HX$e rols ' A.0r)vaiois evBvs 17 riyycXi'a rail/ 7roXfa>i/ on d(pe(TTa(Tiv (= ?j\6f 
TOLS 'Adrjvalois evtiiis f) dyyeXi'd on at Tro'Xtiy d(pf(TTa<riv ), to the Athenians came 
immediately the announcement that the cities had revolted (Thuc. 1, 61 1 ). 


1216. The copula eipi, be, is often omitted, especially the forms 
ea-ri and elai. This occurs chiefly in pithy and proverbial sayings ; 
with verbals in -reo? ; with certain nouns, adjectives, and parti- 
ciples, as avdytcr), necessity ; &pa, time ; Oepis, justice ; paSiov, 
easy ; $r}\ov, plain ; xaXeTrov, difficult ; Svvaros, able ; </>poi)So9, 
gone ; erot//,o<?, ready ; Beov and xpecw, needful ; e^ov, possible, and 
the like. 

nXeoj/ei'a peyiarov ai/#paWoiy KOKOI/, greediness is a very great evil to men 
(Men. Mon. 549). Srpana yap r) paarrj (sc. 68os) ra^to-r^, to an army the 
easiest way is the quickest (Xen. Cyr. 2, 4 s7 ). &tpeiv dvdyicr) ras 
rvx<is, it is necessary to bear the present evils (Eur. Or. 1024). "Qpa 
it is time to speak (Xen. Anab. 1, 3 12 ). A^Xov on roC opdv eveKa o<p 
8f6fjL0(t, it is plain that we need eyes for seeing (Xen. Symp. 5, 5). 


, it is necessary to i. minim' (Dem. 3, 1). 'Ideli/ a OVK (bv air/;, to see 
it-hat ii-fix m>( fit rm/ttrd to her to nee (Isae. 6, 60). To> vo/za> Tretoreop, the 
///// must be obeyed (Plat. Apol. 19"). Ufipartov op0a>s Xeyeu/, it in necessary 
to speak correctly (Xen. Mem. 1, 2 s4 ). 

1217. NOTE. Other forms of et/xt are seldom omitted. 

'E-yo) Trao-xftf OTIOVV eroi/xoy (sc. fi/*t)> I an> reailii to suffer anything (Dem. 

i. L' ' : '.. 1 . Aiicato? (ru ^ytlaBai (sc. ), 1/0 W ?////// ^ ta/,r /fo fead (Plat. 

I'mtai/. 351 e ). Ilfpt rourov cToi[j.oi r&> Xdyeo 6ta/xa^eo-^ai (sc. tV/ic'i/), we are 

/f oit/ conerrninji tJii* (Plat. ^^>. 499 d ). *Eo>r (sc. eVr<) 

<r' eV d<r<aAet </>u\a^ao-^6, w7<//r you are ?/r/ //j xnfetii, be fare (Dem. 19, 262). 

1218. NOTE. Occasionally the imperfect is omitted. 

"Hpfro ft ot TfQvewTcs avT&v na\o\ Kayadoi (sc. %<rav), he asked if those U'h<> 
ill> n m / honourable and brave -men (Thuc. 4, 40 2 ). 

1219. Some common verbs of being, happening, going, comhuj, 
doiny, $ai/iu<i, wliich are easily understood, are sometimes omitted for 
brevity or effect, especially in questions and commands. 

"iva T'I (sc. y(vr)Tcn) ; to n'hat purpose ? = lit. that what way haj>j>< n 
(Dem. 19, 257). Q $iXe *at5p6, irol 8f) (sc. ) KOI iroBcv (sc. ijiJectO, ( ^ v/; ' 
I f ha> ili-nK, irhithi-r, j>rai/, are you going nrf whence are you come!* -Plat. 
rit'ii if,-. 227*). Oi'&j' rTXX' (sc. Troiouo-if) ^ avfJL^ovXfvova-Lv fjfuv, they do nothing 
else than mli'txe. us (Isoc. 8, 37). Ti XXo (sc. eVotr/o-ai/) ourot ^ (TTcpovXfvvtiv ; 

i (H(l Mr*/' >/>r// //jff/j yy/o/ (HJdiiixt UK ? (TllUC. 3, 39 2 j. Ilepl TOUTO)!/ 

( sc - ^I O / Z ')> ^"' Ihi *r "v trill sj,, ak /// leisure (Dem. 24, 187). 
(vovs (sc. X^i/rf), tell me wtf r*/ /r// thmisami moroen&iie* 
D . 

1220. XOTE. In proverbs, official statements, and inscriptions, 
omissions of other verbs occur ; these are readily supplied. 

rXfitV fls '.\0f]vas (sc. <f>(p(iv). Of ffvpfMXOt dpKTTflov TJJ '\0ijva (sc. 
aviOftrm- . //<' '////'> / // ,1 ,i ,,,, ,///'<// /i .\tln-m- (Dem. 22. 72). Of o-il/i^ui^ot 

,uoi' dvttpayaBias (Vftta KOI ftiKaio<rvvT]s (sc. (orTtfpdvaMTai'), tin allirs rroii'neil 
th> /, ,,(>,(' thtir brai-i rn anil Justin- ib'nl. . 

1221. NOTK. The above cases of omission (1219 and 1220) must 
not be confounded with the very numerous cases in which an omitted 
verb is easily supplied from a preceding, seldom from a following one. 

^nXfTrwy fx* ' *t JMi ^ { *"' F/io>i' rovf iro\\ovs (sc. ^aX(7rwj <^fiv\ / 

'////< / /'/< a bail ii'ii a, but I think inn mi /' i/nii <l<> also 1'lat. Si/nifi. I , 
v piv vftup (so. Trti'ftj, f-ya) fit oM'or Trti'o), ///M //<'/// drinks " "/' /. but I 

' I)rni. 1!' 

1222. In coim.-rtiMH with al\ i-rhs. tin- \-rl.s /V// anl 
;in- not mpulat i\ , l,ut 


'Eyyus- rjcrav ol oTrXtrm, the hoplites were near (Xen. Anab. 5, 4 !4 ). 
ea-rai, fy 6cbs 0c\y, it will be well, if God wills (Xen. Anab. 7, 3 43 ). *E<mv 
OVTOS, it is thus (Plat. Phaedo, 71 a ). Teyevfja-dai Ka\a>s, to be of good descent 
(Dem. 60, 3). IVyoi/a? <a<S)s, you are of low birth (Ax. Eq. 218). 

1223. NOTE. -With local adverbs, yi'yco/xai is to be rendered by 

'Eyyvrcpov eylyvovro, they were coming nearer (Xen. Anab. 1, 8 8 ). IIai> 
onov cyevcTo TO 'E\\r)viKov (= (rwri\0c), the whole Greek force came together 
(Xen. Anab. 4, 2 122 ). 



1224. The singular sometimes has collective meaning, and then 
stands for the plural. 

1. It may denote the material or mass. 

\i6ovs KOI n\ivBov, stones and bricks (Thuc. 4, 90 2 ). 'I x $ v v fyciv, to 
cook fish (Xen. Cyr. 8, 2 6 ). Srpupvriv K<U co-dqra, carpets and clothes (Xen. 
Cyr. 4, S 39 ). "Epirci 8d<pvov o/x/iarwv ano, the tears trickle from our eyes 
(Soph. El. 1231). 

2. The singular of a noun denoting a person is sometimes used 
collectively, but much less often than in Latin. 

'O apxw, 6 8iKao-TT]s, 6 Iduarrjs, the archons, the judges, the private citizens 
(Lye. 79). 'OrrXfr?/?, <TKfvo(j>6pos, imrevs, hoplites, sutlers, cavalry (Xen. Oec. 
8, 4). C O iroXffjuos, the enemy (Thuc. 4, 10 3 ). C O ire\as, the neighbours 
(Thuc. 1, 32 4 ). Thus d<nris is used for oTrXtrat and (^) liriros for innd* ; as 
a o- TT i $ /xupi'a TCTpaKo<rid, 10,400 shields = hoplites (Xen. Anab. 1, 7 10 ). Tqi> 
diaxoo-iav tirirov, the (troop of) 200 cavfili-y = horse (Thuc. 1, 62 2 ). 

3. Oftener than in cases like the above a nation may be denoted 
by the singular, especially if it is a monarchy. 

'O Ufpoys, the Persians (Hdt. 8, 108 5 ). C O M^Soy, the Medes (Thuc. 1, 
69). 'O AaKom (Hdt. 8, 2 3 ). T6^ "EXX^i/a (Hdt. 1, 69). The monarch may 
thus represent the people ; as 6 'Ap/i vios (Xen. Cyr. 3, 3 1 ), 17 KtXto-o-a (Xen. 
Anab. 1, 2 12 ). The representative of a state may use eyo> for fads (Thuc. 1, 
137 6 ). 

4. The singular is sometimes used in a distributive way, referring 
to several persons or things individually, in cases where the plural 
would be expected. 

Ata0opot TOV rpoirov, different in their characters (Thuc. 8, 96 5 ). Toi> 


..... eVi rov i/o>rou ((ptpov, the;/ carried the day on their backs (Thuc. 
4, 4 2 ). Mrr' dcnridos KOI Soparos l<a0(o~av T&S irop,iras notflv, thru n'ere in 
the hahit of celebrating the procession >////< spcdi-x and xliicld* (Thuc. 6, 58 2 ). 

5. The neuter singular of adjectives (especially of those in -IKOS) 
with the article is often used collectively ; occasionally the neuter 
singular of participles is so used (compare 1301). 

To KOSTIKOV = 01 TToXtrcu, the citizens (Hdt. 7, 103 s ). To "EXXrjviKov = oi 
"'EAXipey, the Greeks (Thuc. 1, I 1 ). So TO oirXiTiicov, TO IrnriKov, TO\iKov, 
etc. To (vavTiov = ol cvavTioi, the enemy (Thuc. 7, 44 s ). Et TOVTOVS rt KOI TO 
vnoptvov ( = TOVS viropcvovTcis] (v Sn-apr// (caraorpf (peat, if you subdue these, 
unit those remaining behind in Sparta (Hdt. 7, 209 6 ). 'OpS>v iro\v TO vvf- 
OTTJKOS (= TOVS ^u/6o~n;<dray), seeing that those leagued together were many 
(Thuc. 8, 66 2 ). To KpaTovv (= ol KpciTovvTfs) TTjs TrdXfcof, (he rulers of the cit ii 
(Xen. Mem. 1, 2). 

1225. NOTE. A dramatic chorus is generally treated 
as one individual, the coryphaeus speaking and acting 
as its representative. It is therefore commonly denoted 
by the singular, sometimes by the plural. 

T Q e I v o i, pr) OTJT doiKrjdw o- o I nio-T(vo-ds, friends, Jet 
me not suffer wrong, having placed mij faith in you (Soph. 
Oed. Col. 174). ' 776*9 rrav TfTot-tvrcu /Sf'Xoy, p.fvo) 6V, 

// shaft has now been shot by us, and I wait (Aesch. 
Eum. 676). So the dual may be used of two semichoruses, 
as \fvo~o~cTov TrdvTa, do you both look every where (Aesch. 
Eum. 255). 

1226. NOTE. These singulars also denote plurals occasionally. 
T\t, Thuc. 2, 37 1 ). Tis ; who ? (Thuc. 3, 39"). OuoVit, no one 

(Xen. A.i'ib. :',, 1-). 'O with a participle (Thuc. 5, 38 1 ). 


1227. The Greek frequently uses the plural (or dual) of abstract 
imuns, nouns of material, and proper names. 

1228. Proper names are used in the plural to designate several 
persons of the same, as Sv> KpaAot, two Cratylmes (Plat. Cratyl. 
432*) ; or to denote men like -- , as oi 'HpaKAc'cs *ai 07/o-5, men like 
Heracles and Theseus (Plat. Tlieaet. 169 b ). 

1229. The plural of names of material is used to denote the 
separate parts of which the substance is composed, its various kinds, 
its nn-nniiilutinji or mass, or various quantities of the substance. 


'ETTI \lfap.ddois, on the sands (beach) (II. 1, 486). 'Ev KOVITJO-I, in the dust (II. 
12, 23). Oii/ovy TroXvreXety, expensive wines (Xen. Mem. 2, I 36 ). T&v \ap.7rpS)v 
Kal ^v^pcov vddrav (Xen. Hell. 5, 3 19 ). lit/pot nal KpWm KOL ocnrpia, wheat, 
barley, and vegetables (Xen. Anab. 4, S 26 ). Ou/ouy TraXatovy, old wines (Xen. 
Anab. 4, 4 9 ). 'Ei/ yaXat rpe(po/iei/ot, brought up on milk (Plat. Leg. 887 d ). 

1230. NOTE. Some concrete nouns occasionally have different 
significations in the singular and plural. 

Sv\ov, one piece of wood or wood, but i>Xa, pieces or a mass of wood (Xen. 
Hell. 3, 3 7 ). So also xpe'ay and *pea, meat, <peas, piece of meat (Thuc. 4, 16 1 ). 
For a\s, salt in the lump or a grain of suit, the plural aXey is generally used 
in prose. "HXiot may mean suns (Eur. Bacch. 918), but also rays of the xim, 
heat of the sun (Thuc. 7, 87 1 ), and days (Eur. El. 654, Hel. 652). 

1231. The plural (and dual) of abstract nouns is used to denote 
various kinds, instances, or manifestations of the abstract idea ; also 
to denote that the abstract noun refers to several persons or things 
(i.e., is distributive). 

'H yeeopyta fyt>\r) re x ft f JL ^ )VOS Kai ^dX-rrr] Bepovs e'#i'et Kaprepety, agriculture 
accustoms us to endure the colds of winter and the heats of summer (Xen. 
Oec. 5, 4). Kot x ^ n t fat if a x v a i, hails ami f fusts (Xen. Oec. 5, 18). Av' 
fo-rov rive /3ta>, there are two lives (Plat. Leg. 662* 1 ). Tcus rjXtKiais KO.\ rais 
( fun c i p { a is 7rpo^ovTs, thos* h>i i't n<i ml t'n n tti<i> 'in m\i ii nil experience (Isoc. !>, 
200). EldoTcs T!IS fie i' a TT o p i a s 8ia rfis d py ids yiyvoptvas, ras 6e K a K o v p- 
yids 5ia ray aTropi'ay, AV/O//-//M/ ^/i^ //-<o/f <^' im-tuis arises from idleness, ami 
Mciowhcibifofrom want of means (Saoe. 7,44). 'Evnorois ml uKoXaa-iais 

KCU p a 6 v p. i a i s KOI TT a i 8 i a i s rrjv fjKiXiav didyovcriv, tin-it sfn-nil tin n tutu m 
drinking, in //V< /(/M///.S/M.S.S. intumi*, '///r///.s ami in /*>////,< x Isoc. 15, 286). y l8ov(ra 
veovs Bavarovs, luti-'unj wn (these} ren-nt il> /// ;-Siph. Trm-li. 1276). Qarn- 
TMv TTo\\(0v...Tvy\dv(iv, to sM/fr/ 1 inn mi <lf<ith* (Plat. Ley. 869 b ). At 
<rai /zeyaXai t \jrv\iai, thy (frequent iiiManci's <f) <ir><tt /,//////,, (Hdt. 3, 40 s ). 
At /Lui^ai KpivovTcit p.d\\ov raty \^ v \ a t y ?J raly TWV O"a)/zaro)i/ p&fuus, battles are 
decided rather by the mind than // *tri-n<itlt of body (Xen. Cj/r. 3, 3 19 ). SraVctr 
17 dStKt'a Kat fito-?; irap\i, injustice breed* <Hrisi<>it* ami aniin<>it'n' (Plat. Il> />. 
351 tl ). Ilav&avids v TT o \ls i d s TroXXay Trapii^fv, Ptinxaniax <iai; rnnm, fnr ma mi 
xnxi>icions (Thuc. 1, 132 s8 ). Of ai/Spetoi OUK altrxpovs <p6ftovs (po^ovvrm ovd' 
atV^pa ^ dppT) Qappoixriv, courageous nn-n liar>- no base fear or base confidence 
(Plat. Prot. 360 b ). NtKac eV re Tratfitat? at cV o-Trovdaif, to conquer in 
pi n>fing and in earnestness (Plat. Ley. 647 d ). Styrfy re roiv i/ewreptoj/ Trapa 
irpco-ftvTfpois KOI v-rrav a<rr d<r e is nal yovf&v #e p a Tre t'a y, silence oftheyoinn/ 
before their eldera, riximj up (;it their entrance), ami aHmfion to parents (Plat. 
Rep. 425 a> b ). Tovs KpartVrouy ra e t 77, Me 6e,s< ii appearance (Xen. Hell. 3, 2 18 ). 
Xeai/t'ai ray o^ety, youn<i in a/>/>rai'ance (Lj'S. 10, 29). 'OpOol ray ^iJ^rfy, 
righteous in tfidr xouls (Plat. Thrai't. 173*). 


1232. NOTE. Some abstract nouns have particular meanings in 
the plural. 

Ni'/crey, the hours of night, so p.c<rai VVKT(S, )iiidni<jht. Aurr/W, setting, 
sinking, so fj\iov dva-pai ; Suo-fiat rov ftiov, decline of life (Plat. .Legr. 770*). 

1233. The neuter plural is regarded as one mass, and is therefore 
regularly construed with a singular verb (1255). 

1234. NOTE. Hence also the frequent (predicate) use of the 
plural of verbals in -rcos and other adjectives (2316, 1310). 

1235. NOTE. Some neuter plurals of pronouns are used as singu- 
lars ; especially ravra, raSe, this ; e/ccu/a, tliat ; TO. erepa, Odrcpa, the 
other, one of two ; d/x^orepa, each, both ; ovSeVepa (//.r/SeVepa), neither ; 
a, which. 

Tavra e/zorye paAAoi/ doKcl dycuTra flvai, this wems to me to be more ad- 
mirable (Xrn. A unit. 1, 9 >24 ). *Ap' oi>x vfipis raSe ; is not thi* Intuit? (Soph. 
Oed. Col. 883). 'E<p~(VT(ov rjpayv 8voiv 6 AT ( pa, rj irfLBfiv jy/iay T; irotflv, TOVT&V 
ov&(T pa noicl, ice offering the ali> rn<itir< <>f tn-o things, either to convince us 
or to obey, he does neither (Plat. Crito, 52 a ). To /xi/Strtpa TOVTW fo-tf ^Iv 
oTrtof Qiirtpa yevoir av; that which is neither of tli< *, <-<n> it / itln>r? (Plat. 
/'/;/. 43 e ). Example of a (Thuc. 4, 13 2 ). 

1236. 1. The speaker occasionally uses the plural for the singular 
for 7) as a more polite form. This is uncommon in prose, more 

frequent in poetry. 

Tavra ir(ipa<T6p.(6a 8irjyf)(ra(T0ai, tln-xi" things we ( = 7) will endeavour t<> 

X- n. ''"/. 1, I 6 ). 'H/iftf dftvol ra rmavTa fofv, " "/ / MMI 

*l;illl in .%//</, thiiiy* (Xen. Mem. 1, 2*"). So often the phrase pm 

1 . _' . 

2. A woman speaking of herself thus in the plural always 
uses adjective words in the masculine. nTovfjL(0' d XP*I, 

Trarpt ripotpovpfvoi. I Mlcctra) //// full, if /..</ /.. , 
a/V&t<l<ti>i ni'i t'oflii r Soph. /.'/.:>'.'. : si i alsn <nirep in Kur. 
M'-il. 1241. 

1237. Non;. The singular imperatives, ciVe, .SYI//, ay, ^e'p 

nou . are sometimes addressed to several persons ; see 1254. 

1238. NOTK. Occasionally in prose, often in poetry, a singular 
vocative is addressed to several persons, the singular thus denoting 
the chief person addres 

' i 'yaOf, rovrn piv ital \a6li> (prjO-aiT* ai> rpv, /"'/, /<<"/ fri< /</*, 9O 
,/.//,/ s,m th<it thin escaped you (I^-.t- '.'>. 7". *Q riicvni', / r. 


Trpoo-A&r', & Trat, Trarpi, my child, are you both here? Come to a 

father's arms (Soph. Oed. Col. 1102). 


1239 In speaking of two, the dual as well as the plural may 
be used. Moreover, in matters of agreement, the dual and plural 
are freely interchanged or joined. See 1252, 1260. 

*Ey TO) Kodopvatro) IT 68' fvQds, having put my feet into the buskins ( Ar. 
Eccl. 346). IIai8ff 8vo, two children ; ro> TraiSf , the two children (Xen. Anab. 
1, I 1 ). Avo (x<* ^vxas, I have two souls (Ken. Cyr. 6, I 41 ). Avo etrrbv 
\lrvx a > there are two souls (ibid.). Uprxrirpfx * 8i>o i/f ai/i'tr K a>, two 
young men came running up (Xen. Anab. 4, 3 10 ). 'Eyc\a<rdTr)v ovv apffx* 
/3Xe'^ai/r e s els aXAqXovr, they both burst out laughing on looking at each 
other (Plat. Euthyd. 273 d ). 

1240. NOTE. The supposition that the dual is used in speaking 
of things in pairs does not appear tenable. In fact, in most cases it 
is used where each of two subjects is considered by itself. 

Several passages occur in the older poetry in which 
the dual is applied to more than two ; as airorivtrov 
(Horn. II. 8, 186). 

1241. NOTE. In adjective words of the first and second declension 
the masculine dual is usually used for the feminine, especially in the 
nominative and accusative. 

To) yvi/aocf, tin- tn-n u-omen (Xen. Cyr. 5, 5 2 ). Tovra> ra> rj^(pd t these 
two days (Xen. Cyr. 1, 2"). IIcuS' e/i> my two daughters (Eur. Suppl. 

140). *l8f<r6t T d) 8 f TO) KfKTtyvfjTd)) <f)i\Ol, & TOV TTdTptoOV OIKOV (TO)<rdTT)V, 

behold these two sisters, who saved their father's house (Soph. El. 978). The 
duals TO, TCUV, rflfif, rcui/8f, ravra, ravrati/, and the like are very rare. 
The dual of a masculine participle of the third declen- 
sion is occasionally found in poetry ; as TrXrrycvTt in H. 8, 
455 ; 7rpoAi7roi/T in Hes. Op. 199 ; IX OVT in -^ ur - Hipp. 
387 ; \KOVT in Ar. Eccl. 1087. So in Plat. Phaedr. 237 d . 


1242. The masculine is used in speaking of persons in general 
and may mean females as well as males. 

( C O) avOpvTTos, any person male or female (but 17 avfyxoTroy, the female 


person) ; ol yovds, the parents ; a8\<poi, brothers or brother and sister. 
'On ore pos &v y ftfXrttav, (W 6 dvrjp c*& f) yvvq, ovros xal ir\iov foptTcn TOV 
ayadov, whichever -in the better, f/nY//*-/- th> num or the woman, he receives also 
more of good (Xen. Oec. 7, 27). Taw CVTV \OVVT a>v IT dv r t s * tVi o-uyytvc'is, 
<>f the prosperous all are relations (Men. Mon. 510). TJ>i/ SUOTV^OUI^-WK 
(vrvxqs ovdds 0iXoy, of the unfortunate, no one who is prosperous is a 
frirti<l (Men. Mm,. .~>0*2). 

1243. NOTE. When a word is considered as a part of speech, the 
Grammarians often prefix to it the article 6, fj, TO, the name of the 
part of speech being omitted. 

1 1 sc. djTooi/vfu'd) e K t v o s Kcu f) (sc: oWo>i/v^ud) OVTO s, the pronoun c ne Ivor 
and the pronoun OVTOS. To (sc. p)/Aa) ypd0o>, the rcrb ypd(/>&>. "Earw o 
(sc. (rvvd(a-fjios) dXXd di/rt TOV 8t, the (conjunction] dXXd /.s instead of 6V (Soph. 
Oed. Col. 237, schol.). AecVct f) (sc. irp60f<ris) 8 id, the preposition dui in 
wanting (Soph. Oed. Col. 1291, schol.). 

1244. NOTE. For the infinitive as a neuter noun, see 2230. For 
clauses used as neuter substantives, see 1520. For any word or 
phrase considered merely as such and then taking the neuter article, 
see 1394, 8. For the neuter relative used in reference to a whole 
clause or phrase, or word, see 1520. 


1245. A change of person sometimes occurs. 

(a) A person speaking of himself in the third person, may in the 
course of the speech return to the first. 

'KiTaGfl* ouda/ioC Arj po <r 6 VTJ v ycypafav oud' amdv ovo~(p.iav MBr'VfftOV* 
here he nowhere mentions (me) Demosthenes nor does he imntinu <tny charge 
against me (Dem. 18, 79). Tovff A. ids rovrros vvrarov Qpod rd o' XX* V 
"Aidou role icdra) nv 6 y & o, f/ji.s Inxt mtrd does Ajax speak to you, all else 
I shall speak in Hades to the dead (Soph. .I./. 864). So ofte 6 avtjp is often 
used for rya> in the Tragedians. 

(b) In addressing a company (or a person), a speaker may change 
from the second person to the first and thereby include himself among 

irrra o' Av irapovv6(irjs optyta-ffai rtav caXa>i' tpyotv, tl (cara/iddotf, 
wri KH\ T(it f)oovhs (K TovTutv fuiXurra yvrfviws ix ?'** ^ ou twm ^ ^ ^ 
on to strive after noble deeds, if // //,//. isto.,,1 ///<.S-O>.N /, in the truest 
tense, we get from them (!HOC. 1, 46). So also Isoo. 7, 9. 

12 AGREEMENT 1246 


1246. 1. The verb agrees with its subject in person and 
number (1249). 

2. An adjective agrees with its substantive in gender, number, 
and case (1333). 

3. A predicate or an appositive noun agrees with the sub- 
stantive to which it ivtVrs in case; and if the sense permits, also 
in number and gender (1302, 1322). 

4. A pronoun agrees with .the noun to which it refers in 
number and gender (1511 1520). 

1247. NOTE. To the above general rules there are a number of 
exceptions, some of which are quite regular. All these rules and 
their exceptions are given below in their proper places. See Subject- 
Nominative and Verb, Predicate-Noun and Adjective, Apposition, 
Adjectives, Agreement of Relative. 

1248. Construction according to the Sense. A word often con- 
forms to the real rather than to the grammatical number or 
.gender of the word to which it refers. This is termed construction 
according to the sense (constructio ad sensum, Kara avvecriv). 

(a) Thus a collective singular noun may take a plural verb (1257, 
1258), or a plural predicate participle (1307) ; a noun denoting place 
may take an appositive denoting the inhabitants (1325) ; a neuter or 
feminine noun denoting a male person sometimes has its predicate 
participle in the masculine (1307) ; in poetry an attributive adjective or 
participle may conform to the real rather than to the grammatical 
gender of the noun to which it refers (1336) ; a relative pronoun with 
a singular collective antecedent may be in the plural (1513) ; a relative 
pronoun may conform to the real rather than to the grammatical 
gender of its antecedent (1518), it may also at the same time be in 
the plural if its antecedent is collective in meaning (1513, 1518). 

(b) Construction according to the sense is particularly frequent 
with pronouns, especially after ris, rl. 

'Ynriyov eVt Nevptdo, Tapaa'(rop.fv( t )v 5e icai TOVTO>J>, thnj proceeded t<> 
Xi'iirix, <tn<l f/ too (i.e., the inhabitants) beimj ilixtm-l>ed (Hdt. 4, !-"> . 
Qffjii(rTOK\T)S favyci cs K p K v p a i/, &t> avT&v (UfpyfTrjs, Themistode* flees to 
<7orq/ra, being a bemfactor of them, i.e., of the Corcyreans (Thuc. 1, 136 1 ). 

1253 AGRKKMIM 13 

'Er 8e TTJV SirdpTTjv d>9 rjyye\0r) TCI ycyfvrj^iva Trepl IIuXoi>, f8oi/ aurotf, ir/ ( -/i 

'cwrrences a PI//MS were reported at S f >,ui<i. it /-,> ,/, t, ,-,n'i,<.<1 /,,/ //,, ,. ;., .. 

by the Spartans (Thuc. 4, 15 1 ). 'Edv TIS (pavtpbs yivr^rcu K\tirruv ...... , 

TOVTOIS Bdvaros f<rTiv f) fi/fua, */ any one is found xt<'nlin<i, <i>ath /.s tin- ;/u //*/- 
ment for them (Xen. A/e/n. 1, 2 s2 ) ; so also Xen. Cj/r. 1, 2 2 and 7, 4 s , and A,il>. 


1249. A finite verb agrees with its subject-nominative in 
number and person. 

('Eycb) ypd^co, / write. OVTOS yXa, this man laughs. 'H/ity xaipop.(i>, ('< 
rejoice. Oi avdpfs Xtyovo-iv, the men say. 'Eya>, os cXf^a, / who said. 

1253. NOTE. 1. Sometimes the verb agrees with the predicate 
nominative, or with the appositive. 

At 8f ci(T<popa\ <al xopjj-yi'eu evdainovias tKavbv (TTJ p.dov forii/, hi-S taxes 

,"i>;i,i- /</> for choruses are a sufficient sign of prosperity (Antiphon 2, y. 8). 

Oi?/3ai, rrdXiff aoruyeirwi', p.ctf Tjpfpav p.iav K p.(TTjs rrjs 'EXXd^oy a v i) p~ 

IT a a T a i, Thebes, a neighbouring city, has been blotted out from the midst of 

Oreect n-itl,;,, lt day (Aeschin. 3, 133). 

2. When the subject has in agreement a predicate-adjective 
in the neuter plural, the verb is regularly in the singular. 

Oi/re o-w/zaro? /cdXXoy KOI l<r\is eiXa> VVOIKOVVTO. TrpcTrovra <paiv(T(u, 
l<> hi tint <i and strength of body residing in a coward appear becoming (Plat. 
Menex. 246). 

1251. NOTE. A preposition and a numeral may take the place of 
the subject of the verb. 

'ATT (Bavov avrtov irfpl TpiaKoo-iovs, about three hundred of them died (Xen. 
//<//. 4, 6"). 

1252. NOTE. A plural subject denoting two persons or things 
may have its verb in the dual, and a dual subject may have its verb 
in the plural. 

Au* a7roxpf)<Tov<riv /uoi/o>, two alone will suffice (Ar. Plut. 484). npwrirp*x ov 
dvo vtaviffKu, two young men came running up (Xen. Annh. 4, .'1'"). 

1253. NOTE. Very seldom, a masculine or feminhn* plural subject 
has its verb in the singular. This occurs especially after i.<rnv and 

here is or there exists. 

r i fjuv rrov Kni tv rals aXXmt iro\t(Tii> n p % o v r < s r c <c a i d 9 /* o r, thtre, 
are sureln state* also, botli ;/ / /'opk (Pint. Rrp. 463*). 

AOKOVVTI dccata> tivai yiyvtrat dirtt r^y toi't^rfs dp^ai rt rai yapm. 1<> <i maii 

14 AGREEMENT 1254 

reputed to be just, there come, in consequence of his reputation, both offices and 
nuptials (Plat. Rep. 363 d ). See the expressions CO-TIV ot, etc. 

1254. NOTE. The singular imperative forms aye and <epe, come 
now ! eiTre, say ! iSe, see ! are occasionally addressed to several persons. 

EtVe pot & Soxcpares re icat 'imroKparfs, ri fv v<p e^ere ^ e ^ me > Socrates 
and Hippocrates, what have you in mind ? (Plat. Prof. 311 d ) ; so also Od. 
3, 332, and Soph. Track. 821 (i'6V). 

1255. A neuter plural subject regularly has its verb in the singular. 
Ta a>a rpe'xet, the animals run. TaOra eyeVero, these things happened. 

To. eVtr^dcia cVc'Xcirc, the provisions failed (Xen. Anab. 4, 7 1 ). nXoia 8' vfuv 
7rdp(TTiv, vessels are here for you (Xen. Anab. 5, 6"). 

1256. NOTE. But when a neuter plural subject denotes per- 
sons, the verb may be in the plural ; as, To<ra8e /xera 'Atfo/patW IBvt] 
-eo-Tparevov, so many nations were warring on the side of the 
Athenians (Thuc. 7, 57 11 ). Also when the different parts of the noun 
Are considered as separate parts of the mass ; as tpavcpa 77 o- a v *ai, 
ITTTTO)!/ /cat dvfyxoTrwj' l^vr) 7roAAa, there were many traces of horses and 
men (Xen. Anab. 1, 7 17 ). Other exceptions are rare in Attic (as 
Xen. Anab. 1, 2 23 , Thuc. 6, 62 4 ), frequent in poetry and in the 
dialects (as Horn. //. 2,135). 

1257. A singular collective subject denoting persons may have its 
verb in the plural. 

'O oXAos VT paras dirtftaivov, the rest of the army marched away (Thuc. 4, 
32 a ). To TT X fj 6 o s tyrj<t>i(ravTo no\fp.flv, tfie majority voted for war (Thuc. 
1, 125). *H IT 6\is *Ayr)(Ti\aov eiXovro /ScurtXf'a, the state chose Agesilaus king 
(Xn. Hell. 3, 3',. 

1258. NOTE. Occasionally IKCUTTOS, each, has a plural verb. 

Telii/ tavrov cKturros KOI 7rai8a>v KOI xprjfjidTw apxov<ru>, each man rules hu 
own, both children and property (Xen. Rep. Lac. 6, 1). 

1259. When two or more subjects are connected by and, the 
verb is regularly in the plural. If the subjects are of different 
persons, the verb is regularly in the first person in preference to 
the second, and in the second in preference to the third. 

Aetj/oi *ai <ro<pol e'-ya> re /cat <ru rj^fv, both I and thou were both skillful and 
wise (Plat. Theaet. 154 d ). Ou av povos ovde of o-ol <pi'Xoi irp&rov TOVTJJV 86av 
(rxfT, it was not you alone, nor your friends, who first conceived this notion 
(Plat. Leg. 888 b ). Atoi/rai *cat TJ yvvrj KOI 6 dvrjp, the woman and the ///"/< 
require (Plat. Meno, 73 b ). 

1265 ATTRIBUTE 15 

1260. NOTE. Two singular subjects may have their verb in the 

Mfrcos KOI \vKovpyos vofjiovs fdfTTjv, Minos and Lycnrgus gave laws (Plat. 
Leg. 632'). 

1261. NOTE. Sometimes the verb agrees with one of the subjects 
(the nearest, or the most important) and is understood with the rest. 

"E7T(p.\lf fie '\piatos KOI 'A/jruobs, Aria&U and Artaozus sent me (Xen. 

'. 2, 4 16 ). 'E-yw X<yo> KOI 2,(v0T)s ra aura, / and Seuthes say the same thing 
(Xen. Anab. 7, 7 16 ). Bao-iXfi/r *at ot a-vv aura> dvirinTfi els TO orparonfo'ov, the 
kiu<j and hi* followers break into the camp (Xen. Anab. 1, 10 1 ). SdpKts KOI vevpa 
(' aifiaros yiyverat, flesh <n,>l fmevM < ire formed from blood (Plat. Tim. 82). 
Ot TTvrjTes KOI 6 dfjpos TT\(ov f\ fl ^ ^ ne P or a1l d ^e common people have more 
en. Rep. Ath. I 2 ). 

1262. NOTE. Barely a singular subject followed by /xero, with, 
has a plural verb. 

Ar; /xoo- 6 i vtj s fjiCTa T>V <r v <rr p ar rj y a v (nrevdovrat MavTivtwi, 
Demosthenes with his fellow-yenerals makes a treaty with the Mantineans 
<Thuc. 3, 109 2 ). 

1263. When several subjects are connected by rj, or, or ^...^, 
either... or, or ovre...ovT, neither... nor, the verb agrees with the 
nearest subject. 

*Qv &v fj <ri> t) oXXor TIS TT p a T r ?/, if you or any one else do any of which 
tfiintjs (Plat. Euthyphr. 6"). Our' &v f-yo), OVT* &v <rv, ovr oXXor ovdds av6pa>n<ai> 
&i air &v fjM\\ov ddiKflv fj do'iKfl<r0ai, neither you nor, I nor any one else would 
j>r>f>r to do I/TO/I;/ than to .su/fr f/v./M/ Plat. Gorg. 475 e ). 

1264. NOTE. When singular subjects are thus connected, the 
verb is rarely in the plural. 

Et irepl TOVTOV ffM\\ov d7ro\oyfj<ra<r0ai \(o>xdpr)S fj AiKaioyfvrjs, if Leofh-n- - 
or Dicaeogenes were about to make a defcn<-> nhmit Hii* (Isae. 5*). 


1265. n-si.l;.s adjectives, participles. ^cniti\rs of nouns (except 
til-- partitive genitive), advert, un<l propositional phrases, in t\ 
serve as attributes. 

*O irapvv Ktv&vvos, the present danger, oi rwv Qrjftaivv OTpanjyoi, 
the general* of the Thebans. *H <ifo> rr.iXu, // rrti 

, i 


1266. NOTE. Occasionally a dative serves as attribute. 
'Ei/ rep 'EXeuo-ti/t iepo>, in the temple at Eleusis (Lys. 6, 4). To ro> 6Wt 
the real falsehood (Plat. Rep. 382% 

1267. Attributive nouns denoting station, occupation, age, or 
nationality, are often joined to the words dvijp, man, yvvr), woman , 
(6, 77) av0pa)7ros, person (the last usually in a contemptuous sense). 

'Ai/iyp IditoTTjs, a private man, one in private station (Aeschin. 3, 233). 
'Ai7p p?ro>p, an orator (Aeschin. 3, 253). 'Av0pa>7rovs iro\iras, citizens (Dem. 
19, 172). *Av0pa>7ros yorjs, a mountebank fellow (Aeschin. 2, 153). Tpaiis 
yvvr], old woman (Ar. Thesm. 345). *Q av8p(t 'AQrjvaloi, Athenians. *Q avSpe? 
StKeurrat (Dem. 20, 1). In addresses, iivdpts has the force of our " gentlemen ". 

1268. NOTE. The names of nations often appear as adjectives. 
Ot "EXXqi/er TTfXraorat, the Greek targeteers (Xen. Anab.). Tic pays ai>j)p, a 

Persian (Xen. Anab. 1, 6 1 ). 

1269. NOTE. Attributive nouns are seldom joined to other nouns 
than those mentioned above (1267, 1268), but a few cases are found. 

*Qmo-0o(pv\aKes Xo^dyot, rear-guard captains (Xen. Anab. 4, 7 8 ). ri^i/T/rfs 
raiapx<>L H<iltt-i nf<i at m '-'i/ifniits (Xen. Anab. 4, I 28 ). "O/uXos o-rpaT-toorj/s-, the 
mass of the soldiery (Thuc. 6, 24 :{ ). Ad-yos- Ziraivos (Plat. Phaedr. 260 b ). For 
6 Evfppdrrjs irorapos and tin- like-, see 1331. 


1270. The noun to which an attribute belongs is often omitted. 
Often it is expressed in the context. 


1271. Thus a person may be denoted by a masculine or feminine 
adjective, participle or pronoun, with or without the article ; or by 6 or 
rj with an adverb, or a local dative, or a preposition and its case. 

C O Cronos, the wise man. KoXi?, a handsome woman. 3?t\os, a friend. Ot 
TrXovo-toi, the rich. KaXeu, handsome women. 'O Xe'-ywi/, the speaker. Ot 
those present. 'Eptopevrj, a beloved. "Oa-Tis yap.fl novrjp&v p.wp6? 
, whoever marries a wicked woman is a fool (Eur. El. 1097). OVTOS, this 
man. 'EKfivr), that woman. 'O TOIOVTOS, such a person. Otr' evdov (rvv(\ap,~ 
t3dvovro KOI ot CKTOS KarfKOTTrjo-av, those within were seized and those without 
were cut down (Xen. Anab. 2, S 32 ). StoKpar?;? dvrjp rG>v rare rjv . 
Socrates was the best man of the men of that time (Plat. Phaedo, 118). 
vvrcpos &v T a) v f < e t, not inferior to any of the people there (Plat. Tim. 20*). 


*Ho-av TroXXol TQ>V TrpoTcpov (TTTouSalot, warn/ of the men of former times were 
estimable (Dem. 20, 114). Of Mupatfaw teal 2aXa/iIi/i, thwe (who fought) at 
M'i,-ti,on mid Salami* Dem. 19, 312). Of fir I r<u Sfia> K ( p a i, those on the 
i-i-iht "'ing (TllUC. 1, 50 1 ). BaviXevs Kai of <r v v avrto SICOK ....... K<I\ of 

/it TO 'Apia to v ovKfTi loraiTai, the king ami those with him pursued... and 
thna, /;//, A riai'iis * longer stood their ground (Xen. 4na6. 1, 10 1 ). Of fV ri; 
rjXiKta, those in the prime of life (Thuc. 6, 24 3 ). Tol?7rap'f'aura> Trapijyyf tXf 
...... dflv, he gave the order to A/.s "///, me n (= o f/iose a6ou himself) to run 

(Xen. Anab. 4, S 29 ). *HKOI> of nap a rov Nixt'ou, those from Nicias arrived 
( = the messengers) (Thuc. 7, 10). Of ncpl 'Aptmoi/, Ariaeus and his friends 
\ 11. M/ia6. 2, 4 2 ). Of dia nXcio-Tov, those most distant (Thuc. 4, 115 s ). 

1 272. NOTE. The expressions of d/x<i and 01 iripi followed by the 
name of a person, mean the person with all his attendants, associates, 
partisans, etc. ; or they may simply mean the person himself, especi- 
ally in later Greek. 

Of 8f dp.(p\ Ti(ro-a(p(pi>T)v, Tissaplu'rm-x uml //KW m'//i A/i (Xen. Anab. 
3, 5 1 ). Of TTfpl 3fvo<p>vTa, Xenophon with his men (Xen. A nub. 7, 4 16 ). Of 
irpi KfKpoTra, simply Cecrops (Xen. Mem. 3, 5 10 ). 

1273. So also 6 or fj with a genitive may denote the son, daughter, 
or husband, or any person connected by relationship, or service or 
dependence with the person indicated by the genitive. 

QovKv8idrjs 6 'OXdpou, Thucydides the son of Olorus (Thuc. 4, 104 3 ). 'EXtvrj 

car' olicovf earl TOIHT& fj TOV Atoy, Helen the daughter of Jove is in this house 

// /. 470). Tov rr)f (rrpaTTjyov TOVTOV ov 0avp.dcT( ; do you not admire 

Inisband of our (female) general? (Ar. Eccl. 727). MryuXa av ^^uolo, ft 
TOVS artavTov xara/catVotf , you would be severely punished if you put to death those 
that belonged to you (Xen. Cyr. 3, I 16 ). Ilopeuo^ai npos TOVK c/iavroC, / 
to mine own (Soph. Ant. 892). Ei^f TO Mwp.ov KXtapx * Kai ' 'iVaw, 
Clearehus and his men held the left (Xen. Anab. 1, 2 18 ). "HXavi'ci' tiri 
, he advanced against Menon's soldiers (Xen. Anab. 1, 5 13 ). 

1274. The masculine article with the possessive pronoun also 
denotes a per iected by relationship or service or dependence 

with the person indicated by the possessive pronoun. 

inv ot'irnv (TrtTpoTTov (x (lv 0"* *<" rols tro If, it is necessary that th* 
steward have good will to you <nl .//*,-.* = your family (Xen. Oec. 12, 6). Ti 
tvi'tKiv V* * a TO If t pois (yo> rrp<0)Tov irtipoifjMi iraio'tvfiv, I try first f<> teach 
<inil trill tinrtinl im <iml ui'nti- 111V family il>i,l. . I' r. i v <r f/> r ,> < \ v 
virp.Tr<>i'T< v, "'<'//,///,////.</ ^/i.s< ir/i< llonyed to /' 
l av fioi TWI/ vpfTifxav oirivts TTJV fi^oi - ''OlW you *eiu 

(him) on '/ "/.' ( X-n ' '"' ^> -' k ' 



1275. Certain nouns denoting things, to which an attributive 
adjective belongs, are often omitted. 

1. Few masculine nouns are thus omitted : 

[KoATro?] TOV loviov, the Ionian Gulf (Thuc. 6, 34 4 ). [Srarqp] 6 KV&KTJVOS, 
the Cyzicene stater (Xen. Anab. 6, 2'). [Oii/of] 6 dupdros, unmixed wine (Men. 
Mon. 420). [Rarely o-rparoy] 6 ne6$, the foot-soldiery (Thuc. 1, 47 2 )- 

2. The principal feminines thus omitted are : 

['H/ic'pd] Tfi vo-TfpaLq, Ty rpirrj, on the folloinng, <>n the third day (Xen. 
Anab. 3, 4 s7 ). [r^ or x^P"! & TroXefuar, through hostile country (Xen. //ier. 

2, 8). 'H rpaxtia, 17 6/LuiX^, the rugged, the level land (Xen. Anab. 4, 6 U ). 

r7i> evSflav, walk the straight way (Men. -Mon. 62). [MepiY] 

, they exacted the twentieth part (Thuc. 6, 54 5 ). [MoZpa] 17 
allotted portion, destiny (Isoc. 1, 43). [Xet'p] 17 8cid, 77 dpttrrepa, </ie 
right, the left hand. Tvirropcvos rats TrXaret'ats fyvyev, being beaten with tin 
flat of the hands (Ar. Ran. 1096). [nXT/y^] rovrov oXiyas trraio-fv, he struck 
this man a few blows (Xen. Anab. 5, 8 12 ). [Te^i/?/] povo-iKTj, music, mn*i<-<il 
art. 'PrjropiKT), rhetoric, art of speaking. [At'*?/] eprj^rjv Karrjyopovo-i, they bring 
'(.s plaintiffs an abandoned suit, i.e., the defendant not appearing (Plat. ApoL 
18). [tyfjfpos] rr)v fvavridv Aa^i/f Ni*ct'a fdfro, Laches put in a vote opposite to 
that of Nicias (Plat. Lach. 184 d ). [rVa>p/] e rrjs VIKOXTTJS, according to the 
/>/< i<<i i ling opinion, according to the vote of the majority (Xen. Anab. 6, I 18 ). 
[Apaxw] rpia raXavra KO\ rpio-^iXids- fiX;<p6, 4 talents and 3000 drachmae 
(Dem. 29, 44). [6pi'|] rroXta, ^rej/ hairs (Men. Man. 705). ["Yin/or] us 
ficoifjiT)0r)s, how deep a sleep you slept (Lucian, Dialogi Marini, 293). [ 
17 virarrj, the highest chord. [ v Ayci;pa] OVK <7rt TTJS avTTjs 6pp.d rot? TroAAots, he 
rides not on the same anchor with the people (Dem. 18, 281). 

3. Few neuters are omitted. 

To fvuvvpov [icc'paff], the left wing (of an army). Qtpp.^ [vSan] AoCo-0at, 
to bathe in warm water (Ar. Nub. 1044). In most neuter adjectives ii^i-tl 
substantively no Articular noun is to be supplied (see 1281). 

1276. Some of the above nouns may be omitted with a possessive 
pronoun, with the article and an adverb, and with the article and a 
preposition with its case, and with the article and a genitive. 

1277. NOTE. 1. IVw/Aiy may be omitted after rj and a possessive 
pronoun. Kara -ye TTJV fpfjv, according t<> ,n\j opinion (Plat. Phil. 41 b ). C H 
fp.r} VIKQ, my opinion /.s right (Plat. Leg. 862*). 

2. 'H/xepd may be omitted after 17 and an adverb. 'H avpiov, the 

C H e/ff, the next day. 

3. Trj may be omitted after 17 with a genitive. Swifty \UH (pcvy* v 
p.avrov err) fiwxTi, it ""< //'// /</ to be banished from my country twenty 

years (Thuc. 5, 26 5 ). 


4. 'O8os may be omitted after T/ and a preposition. T H-ye r^v eVi 
. / / mi th<- r,l tit Mfyara (Xen. Hell. 4, 4 13 ). 

1278. NOTE. Locality may be denoted in a very general and 
indefinite way l>y TO and TO. with the genitive. 

^{ev cis Ta TOV d8(\(pov TOV CIJLOV. /" <r<(x f/o/m/ tn mil />/W/i /'* 

1279. 1. If the word house is understood after the prepositions 
fs or eY, a genitive attribute omits the article. 

Els "Atdov, fo (f/if home O/) //"</*. 'Kr "Atfim*. // Ifmli'x. Et/zt eiV 'Aya- 
&oi>oj, 7 am ^oif/ <o Aython** (Plat. N/m/. 174 a ). *Ira> ety e/xoG, /'f A//// come 
</> Ar. L>i*'i*1i-. 1211). 

2. In the expression V rj/jifT^pov [sc. OIKOU Sai/xao-ti/], z?i oz*r palace, 
in our court (Hdt. 1, 35 5 ; 7, 8 14 ), there seems to be a double ellipsis. 

1280. Many feminine adjectives are used to express direction, 
extent, condition, manner; some of these are adverbial accusatives 
(1597), some are datives of manner (1810), and some are governed by 

"OS* ot- panphv airf<rTir. In i* n<>f fur <itr,uj Eur. Phoen. 906). *H<civ TTJV 

raxitmjv, t<> <<>,,<> ,/.s y///V/,-// .% f>,>.^il>l>' (Xen. Hell. 4, 5 s ). So also rtjv a\Xo>y, 

is TTJV aXXcoy aSoXeo-^w, / am prating in vain (Dem. 6, 32). For more 

examples of these adverbial accusatives, see 1597. 'l&'ci, privately, drjpoaiq, 

fnilil'trlii. and many others, see 1810. 'K tvavriiis, from an opposite ///.//.. /i. 

mi iX.-n. //.'./-. r>. 8). 'E? paicpiiv, at a long extent (of time) off (IVm. 

18, 36). \\iro irptoTTjs (Thuc. 1, 77 :; ). 


1281. Neuter substantives are often formed by attributes used 
alone or with the article. Thus adjectives, participles, and pronouns, 
with or without the article ; and the neuter article (TO, TU) with an 
adverb, with a preposition and its case, or with a dependent genitive, 
often forin> ^uh-tautivi- id ;l ^. In these cases, however, no definite 
noun, to which the attribute is considered to belong, is understood. 

;i neuter substantives are used to express a great variety of ideas, 
being in effect adverbial phrases. 

1282. The neuter adjective, participle, or pronoun, may express a 
general idea of space, locality, <//.v/<///r, 


p,ea-(o TT/S 'EXXdSor, in the middle of Greece (Isoc. 4, 42). 
fvdfv8e TO orpdreu^a ; hoiv far off from here is the army ? (Xen. Cyr. 6, 3 l ). 
t TCI peer a <a\ T a TT p o s Boppav rfjs vr](rov f^ona-iv, the Silicians /</*/ 
the central and northern parts of the island (Thuc. 6, 2 4 ). ScoKpaTTjs del rfv eV 
ro) (pave pa, Socrates was always in public (Xen. Mem. 1, I 10 ). 'En-i TT X <' o K 
OVTOI Kctdfwpwv rj oi CK TOV 6/xaXov d<p' v^rjXore pov Kadop&vres, these looked 
out on a wider prospect from their higher perches than those others from the-level 
ground (Xen. Hell. 6, 2 129 ). 'ETrfStWov /*e'xpi r o v I TT IT a a- 1 p. o v, they pursued as 
far as was practicable for cavalry (Xen. Hell. 7, 2 12 ). Qpovpia e-rrl T >v 
Kdprc pa>v cyKOToiKodop.e'iTai, forts were built on the strongest points (Thuc. 3> 
18 3 ). 3vp.<pfpop,vovs avTovs (S 6\iyov KOI iruvTas es TO auro, being crowded 
together into a small space, and all at the same point (Thuc. 7, 36 s ). 

1283. The neuter article with an adverb of place or with a prepo- 
sition and its case is sometimes used in the same way. 

Eir ro nvo> opai/, into looking upwards (Plat. Rep. 529*). Aie'/Si; els TO nepav, 
he crossed over to the opposite coast (Xen. Hell. 1, 3 17 ). MOIXTIKT; xara8ornt fls 
TO fvTos Tqs ^vxijs, music sinks into the depths of the soul (Plat. Rep. 401 d ). 
To }Mv KOTO) TTJS \\<rir)f ...... , rot Sc ava> av-rrjs, the lower (c= coast) regions of 

Asia ...... , the upper parts of Asia (Hdt. 1, 177). *Ei/ rour&> r<u pfTagv, in 

tlrix strait (= place between) (Thuc. 4, 25 1 ). To irepdv TOV TrorafioO, tfie 
opposite side of the river (Xen. Anab. 3, 6 2 ). To rrpor eo-Trepai/, to the west (Xen. 
Anab. 6, 4 4 ). Ta nfpl TTJV ^copdv, the affairs of the country (Isoc. 7, 1). 'A<p<ts- 
TO es TTJV \iov f-rrXtt f's TTJV Kavvov, giving up going to Chios, he sailed to 
Caunus (Thuc. 8, 41 1 ). 

1284. NOTE. Here belong also expressions like eVl ?roXv, TO (or TL) 
7Tt O&Tfpa, tV VTT^KOO), and the like. 

C H 'EXXdy e'lrt 770X1; (TvpawtvQr), Greece was for a long time ruled by 
tyrants (Thuc. 1, 18 1 ). EtV/3dXXfti' f\ TOV cirl 6 AT pa, to make an incursion 
from the opposite side (Xen. Anab. 5, 4 10 ). 'Es T a TT I 6 d r f p a TOV Trorapov 
irapao-TavTfs, standing on the other side (bank) of the river (Thuc. 7, 84 4 ). Els TO 
e TT* e AC e T v a TTJS yr)s 6pp,a KOI ts TO e TT \ T a 8 f, it rushes that way over the earth,. 
and this way (Plat. Phaedo, 112 b ). 'E v firrjKoto Ka^eio-r^ft, he stood within 
hearing (Xen. Anab. 7, 6 8 ). 

1285. NOTE. Figuratively such a neuter denotes standpoint, con- 
dition, degree, and the like. 

'Ev T o> 8 f del pfvf IT' cv a> Kad(o~TaTf, you will always remain in the same- 
condition in which you are (Eur. Bacch. 1261). Nvi/ 6paT6 17 eV ota> eo-Tf, 
now you see in what condition you are placed (Xen. Cyr. 3, 2 12 ). 'Eo'io'ao-Kt 
/ue'xpi OTOU Se'ot ep.irei.pov elvai CKaorov TrpdypaTos TOV opda>s nfTraio'fvp.fvov, he 
taught to what degree a well educated man ought to be versed in everything/ 
(Xen. Mem. 4, 7 2 ). 


1286. NOTE. Prepositions and such neuters are often to be 
era n slated quite freely. 

Kif p,(<rov <ptp(Tf o n enaa-ros f-rriaratrdc dyaOov, you contribute to the 
tun nunt fund //. /rvr ruliinhl,- i-ach one knows (Xen. Symp. 3, 3). 'E v /ic'<r<g> 
Ktlrai rai-ra ra dyadci, f/i< J .sv advantages lie exposed as prizes (Xen. Auab. 3, I 21 ). 
Ki rii'a fx fr( l&Xrfw, Gfvrfs els KOIVOV Xe'yere, if you have anything better, 
r'ni- ,ni i- common Ix-ui'tit (Plat. Leg. 796 e ). To rots- apxovai 
irciQcvQai ndo-tv cv KOIVU Kctrot, obedience to our rulers is enjoined to at I in 

iion (Xen. fin: '2, 3 s ). 'E v (ro>) KOIV& e^o/xei' (sc. yptypora), we havt 
mom// in iff /iiilili,- tr<,isiir,/ (Thuc. 1, 80 s ). Els Ka\bv rJKfis, you have come in 

'"k of tint- (Xfii. .1m///. 4, 7 : )- ^vv fv K aX a> (frpovclv, to be wise in good 
time (Soph. EL 384). "EKCHTTOV ev raJ SCOVTL Trpdrrovo-iv, they do everything 
<it t)i> ii;*.ary moment (Isoc. 3, 19). Tffy fV7ropids... Is 8fov yty- 
vofitvas] Set-to, / tnll show that the affluence.. .is to your advantage (Dem. 
20, 26). 'E or OTTO (roO) io-ou, on a level, in the same circumstances, equally 
(Xen. //'/. 8, 5; Thuc. 4, 63 l ). 'Ev rw cpfavcl (Xen. Anab. 2, S 23 ) ; eic 
TOU fp.<pavovs (Xen. Hell. 2, I 2 ) ; d-rro or tie. TOV Trpocpavovs (Thuc. 1, 66 l ; 6, 73), 
all meaning openly. 'Ev roi ^ai/epoi (Xen. Cyr. 8, I 31 ; Anab. 1, 3 21 ) ; roO 
(pavtpov (Thuc. 4, 79 9 ), openly. *Ev rw a<ai/et, in secret (Xen. Oj/r. 8, I 31 ). 
'K cTalpov, at once (Xen. Afem. 2, 6 16 ). 'Arro roD avro/xrfrou, spontaneously (Plat. 

1287. The neuter adjective or participle may express general ideas 
of time. 

Uo\v npo T&V TpuiK&v rj\6ov oi'HpaK\(ovs naifics KOI p.1 < pov IT pa TOVTO>V 
*A.&pcurros, a long time before tin Trj,in n-<n: fix <-)iil<lr< n of II, racles came, and 
a short time before, Adrastus (Isoc. 4, 54). 'H A4Uccda^MH e *c TraXatorarou 
fvvop.T)0T), Lacedaemon was well <i< Horned from the most am /'< nt times (Thuc. 
1. Is-., ^itrplftf rptls p,fjvas teal TrXet'a), he remained three months and more 

i ////. '_'. L"' 1 . ZatvTfs p.f\pi TOH> c<r\aT<i>v TOV ftiov, living to the 
utni Plftl / '.Ul e ). 'Ei' rw irapovTi, for //. /////. 

Thu To/AcXXr, in th' -fiitu /v (Thuc/ (), (>'.>' ; ). To fi/^mor, nn''i t -,,tl ; i 

'Thur. L'. D9 2 ). Ta Trpiw-a, uf ./ifvrf, ra XOITTU, /or f/ie rest (Dem. 2, 8). 

1288. The neuter article with an adverb of time or with a pre- 
position and its case, is also used in the same way. 

r<a npiv, formerly (Thuc, 4, 3.V). To Tr.iAm, //'./<//// (I Mat. /'/' 

I'M i I Mat. N../.A. I'.".'!"). To /iei- rnVvu. /''/' // /-/-.>,/,/ (Thuc. 

6, 6'. i I* . rvvftr, loii"f"ith (Siijih. .I/. i:>7<). To 

1289. Xon: D.-monstrative and ivlativ.- pronouns with prepo 
sitions are most fiv.ju.-nt I \ thus used. 


*E v TOVTW KOI en irportpov raSe eVpfio-o-fTo, in the meantime and even 
earlier these negotiations were being carried on (Thuc. 8, 45 1 ). 'E v <a nepl 
rjyepovids SICTTP&TTOVTO ....... eV TOUT&) ot \aKc8aipovioi ({fffa'av, while they were 

deciding about the command, the Lacedaemonians in the meantime passed over 
(Xen. Hell. 4, 2 13 ). 'E o v (plXos clvai Trpoa-noif'tTai, c K TOVTOV TrXelora f{-T)ndrrjK(i>, since he pretended to be a friend, from that time he /<> 
deceived you most (Dem. 23, 193). So also npb roO, formerly (Ar. Eccl. 224). 
IIpo Tovratv, before this (Thuc. 2, 8 3 ). Mtra roOro, pera raCra, after this (Xen. 
Anab. 4, 6 4 ; 3, 3 6 ). 'ATTO TouSe, OTTO TOVTOV, from this time (Thuc. 4, 114 5 ). 
Mexpt Tov8e, ^XP L vrov, till then (Thuc. 2, 72). Me'xpi oo-ov, for so long a 
time (Hdt. 8, 3 :< ). 'Ey ToSe, TOVTO, ip to the present time (Thuc. 1, 69 1 ; 
8, 73 3 ). Me'xpi rov for a time (Thuc. 4, 135). 'E* o, a/ar as (Thuc. 5, 66 2 ). 

1290. NOTE. Some expressions may be local as well as temporal. 

'KTTC TroXi', iri, It-Ill ; e< TroXXoO, nt <lixt<ni<-> (Thuc. 4, 32 4 ). 

1291. The neuter adjective or participle may express in a general 
way an object or thing to which the attribute belongs. 

"EOTIJ/ x0i<TT(i TCI e v a v TtcoTaTa, T\rvxp<> v & f PP<p, IT t K p b v y\v K ( 1+ 
{rj pbv vyp<p, the most h*tilt //i///.s are the most opi><>*ifi , flf hot to the cold, 
the bitter to the sweet, the dry to the moixt (Plat, tfymp. 186 di e ). "O /u o t o v 
ofjLOttodd TrfXtifet, like almi i/s ,i/>/n;><i<-li,* ;//'/; (I'lat. >'//////*. lM5 b ). II a v T a 
icai o v 8 v (j.i>ft, all things move ami nothing is at rest (Plat. Cratyl. 402 H ). 
fMcyd\a V7rtcrxvovp.fvois ov irpfnei TTfpl p,~.Kpa diaTplftciv, it does not 
those who promise great thinifs to occupy themselves n-itli //'///. tliin<i* (Isoc. 
4, 189). Tbarirdviov T I p. t o i/, what is rare is valuable (Plat. Euthyd. 304 b ). 
XaX^Tra Ta xaXd, the beimftful is iliifimlt (Plat. Rep. 435). Ta e <r<rop.f v a, 
the future (/?. 1, 70). To rjT ov p. v ov aXcoTov, K(pfvya Se Tap.f\ovp.vov> 
whcst it searched m<inl <>l>tninfil, l>nt n-lmf .s unregarded escapes (Soph. Oed. 
Tin: 110). So dtgiov and ev<avvp.ov or dpurrcpov, the right and the l>ft "//,</ 
(of an army), TO /^fVoi/, tin- <;ntre. For predicate neuters like <a\bv 7 
d\^dia (Plat. Leg. 663 e ), see 1309. 

1292. The neuter article with an adverb is sometimes used in the 
same way. 

To v KOI TO KoX>s, the good and the noble (Plat. Leg. 667 C ). To (pavfp&s rov 
\ddpa Kpclrrov, what is done openly is better than what is done secretly (Dem. 
20, 74). To \iav rjvarov tiraivS) rov prjo'ev ayav, I praise what is extreme />> 
than the sentiment "nothing in excess" (Eur. Hipp. 264). 

1293. The neuter denoting a class of objects often refers to persons,. 
and some neuter plurals include persons and things. 

To appcv rrpos TO 0r)\v (frvcrfi ....... KpeiTroi', the male, compared n-ith 

the female, is by nature superior (Aristotle Pol. 1, 2 12 ). Tv(p\ovTai ncpi TO, 


<piXov/ifi'oj> o (ptXoh', the hrer is blinded in rrtjnrd to the beloved (Plat. Leg. 
731* ). To ftapfidptov -yc SoOXa TT dvT a TT\T]V cvos, of barbarians all are slaves 
6i*< one (Eur. Hel. 276). Ta 0-<uo(popa,-/ie beasts of burden in the train of <ui 
i (Xt-n. Jmf/i. 1, 3 7 ). Ta mx/iXa)ra, booty (Xen. .4 nab. 5, O 4 ). MaXXoi/ 
fjni^oivr' i', ft ra t X r a r a irapfirj, they fight better if their dearest objects are 
present (Xen. fi/r. 4, 3 2 ). 

1294. The neuter singular often has collective meaning. 

'Iiririnov, <-<irlrii. To iroXiriKav, t) fitizi us. Mii/toy TO \TJ(TTIKOV naBffpei 
(K TTJS flaXao-oT;?, Minos swept piracy from the sea (Thuc. 1, 4). To TraXaioi/ 
ieoi', ft" <n-i, -,,t ff reeks, the old Greek world (Thuc. 1, 6 4 ). Kparel cv 
TrdXet ro np^oi/, the ruling body in every city has the power (Plat. Rep. 
338'). NaiTi/coV may mean fleet (Thuc. 1, 4), or naval affairs (Thuc. 1, 142 4 ). 

1295. The neuter may denote a body or parts of a body or anything 
perceptible by the senses. 

T HTTOI> dvarpfTTfTai trdvTa TCI TrXare'a, broad objects are less easily over- 

turm-d (Xen. Cyr. 6, I 29 ). Ma&ti' Set a TOT( Tols d(iots TOV o-&)^iaros eVotti, 

TO'IS apiorepotf Trotfti/, one must learn to do vith f)n //<//// part of the body 

it-hut ,,, dill f,r, riniixlit irith tin- Irft (Xen. Eques. 7, 3). Ta Se op.e v a o-KfTrys 

TOV avQpa>irav <TK(iru(i 6 0topa, the corslet CO/T/-.S tlmx*- //<///> nf <t man n<,<l\ n (j 

protection (Xen. Mem. 3, 10*). IItKpa> y\vx.i> fifp.LK.Tai, the sweet is mixed 

Plat, I'h il. 4H (1 ). 'HKOVTIOV etc TrXayt'ou irapaQeovTfS es ra yvpvd, 

/M/>. i "nning from the s-ide, at the exposed flanks (Xen. ////. 

4, B). 

1296. The neuter attribute used substantively may express pro- 
' V, means, power, concern*. <///'<///*. interests, rights, party, and the 

Af I <iir(^f(r6ai T o> i' 8 1 & TT o<r v v a> i>. l mutt lutphii hand* from A/.s nmxt,r's 

\ u. Ore. 14, 2). "Ii'...^3pa^fi /xopt'o) {vfjiTrapciyfi'tip.d'oi ueydXa 

OVMTiyTV, 40 tfari (ixxitfiinl iritl, ,/ small /o/v, , //(/ ///,<// y</v .s, // j//va/ ////< /' .s7s 

^Thuc. . '._'). 'Apxfi /.lot piKpa KOI /it^oi/a>i/ atV^pwy OVK cVt^ii/z&>. //<v 

small ///"/ /';/ suffices mr, <m<l I have no sha)n< ful d<*ir> for n <i/-t< tii r (Aeschin. 

IS;. 'Y it piv KOIVOV gvvo'fi, TO 8c ifitoj' Stao-7ra T^y TrdXtu-, /"'/'/M (/OIK/ 
oiruZ taf together, but prirnt> ./;.s//-.n-/.s- //im (Plat. Le</. 876*). */*< vCv 

roi- KJ TO rrrji/ (nrcvdfW!, /"//'' /ia J am zealous ,iln,ut i/uur ii,< 

(Plii' I"*")' . 'Kl' TOtf TTfpt TOO 7ToXf'p>V, /// IIKtftif* <> u ', r n I ll<f tilt H',,,- 

(Dem. 4, 36). TrtV /^\.>. A'//,,,/,, ,,//,,;, ^ ( M,. n . .W../-. 71-i. i Vi TO>I' Trapdi-Ta))'. /// 
interests of those present (Pl;f I."i8 b ). TA raw xptyfumw''* nnnnn ,//. /.N 

(Dem. 4, 28). To T<Lr aXucoi-, /A. ///<./ of jUktrwH* (X.-n. " Ld 
A yvvaiica tr<*{<ir T a (v'f>ni>, n;,, n ,,,, mn/hf t take care of wltt 

. (foUMtlM i. 'l' 8 ). 'I 

U< T (/ f'l'^fidf Ot'lC (TriKV\f(Ttl, ill' 


those parts will be easier to handle, and those here will not be an 

obstacle (Thuc. 6, 17 6 ). Ovdev eidores OVTC ratv ry^e ovre T&V nap* 
t piv, knowing nothing of what happened here or among yourselves (Plat. Tim. 
23 b ). "Eva <acrTov ev 8ft f-mTqb'cvfiv r&>> ntpl rrjv rroXtv, every one might to 
have some one occupation in the state (Plat. Rep. 433 tt ). UoXewv at piv rd 
f)p.Tpa, at 8e TO. u/ze'repa (ppovovat, of the states some support our 
views and some yours (Xen. Hell. 6, 3 14 ). Koii/d rd r&v (piXov, things of 
friends are common (Eur. Or. 735). 'Ai/a-yxj; rd T&V 'E\\r]vo>v (ppovflv, 
to feel disposed in favour of the interests of the (r/w/r.s (Dem. 14, 34). To rrjs 
dvdyKrjs detvov, terrible is necessity (Eur. Tro. 612). EiXea-^e rd y A.0rj- 
vaivv, you took the part of tin- .I///- -niantt (Thuc. 3, 63 3 ). 'ATroXXiWi rd 
avT&v, to destroy their property (Plat. Rep. 555 C ). To rd avrov 
to attend to one's own business (Plat. 433"). TapoVrfird r&v 
he disturbs the affairs of the TV. <.sr//i. ///. (Dem. 1, 21). 

1297. The neuter attribute used substantively may express con- 
dition, feelings, behaviour, relations, services, actions, events, thoughts, 
sayings, causes, influences, opinions, and the like. 

To aKtvdvvov f) ftpfjvr} naptxtt, peart' /r/i//-/.s freedom from danger 
(Thuc. 5, 16 1 ). 'F.\iri8os (v T q> aTrcipa) rj tV^dy, th> xtrt-nyth of hope i* in 
ilitfii-nlti's (Thm. L\ '/'). Af'ytoi/ (v p*v ra> <r(p(Tcpq> KaX&), (v 8e ra> 
fKflvtav drrpf-rrd TOV TroXe/zoi' ara/l(i\\t(rOai, xnifimj tlxtt it IVOS to tlifir 
>iii-, i honour, <nul to tin if /////..' tlisi-i-xlif to IKI^IIIIIH tin if, ir (Thue. 5, 46 1 ). 
Ei w icad(tis yXaio-o-av, (trrat <roi KOK a, if you <lo,,'t hoi, I your tongue, you'll 
h an' trouble (Men. Mon. 662). To ditaipiov iravraxov \virrjpov, what /.s 
iiHSKixoiKilih ,ilir,i,i* ; /.s /Kiinfnl (Isoc. 1,31). Ma^cov dvri rov fta<ri\iKOv 
TO Tvpavvinov, h'li-iiui Imrniii irhut /.s tiii-niuiirnl inxtfud of what is royal (Xeu. 
Cyr. 1, 3 18 ). To p.f\\ov dn t )(~iT(>i\ th> fntnri' .s ini-isil>l<- (IsOC. 1, 29). Tai 

uftoKTiTw ^(-rr\rj^fi', h< .s^/'i/c/,' (tin m) >////( ilixiiHuj at the unexpected move 
(Thuc. 4, 3() 2 ). 2a)Kparr;y 5td r o> v ^wiXtara 6 poXoyov p.f v a> v enopcvfro, 
Socrates proceeded upon propotitiont m<>xt <j> n> rully acknowledged (Xen. Mem. 

4, () lr> ). OVK dp.(\T)(TCl TO)V Si 8a<TK O p. f V G) V, *h< "'/'// not iHxi-<'<f<l I'd H'hat IS 

taught (Xen. Oec. 7, 8). Mi) rd nap* cp.ov ovra>s dnodf^ov a>y Trai^oi/ror, '/" 
nut accept these statements of mine as if uttered in jest (Plat. Gorg. 500 b ). Td 
TO>V o-rpartcoreoi/, the condition of the soldiers (Xen. A nab. 3, I 2 ). Td p.ev 
Kara Ilavo-ai/tar, the fate of Pmixniiiax (Thuc. 1, 138 10 ). So also in expressions 
like : ro xor" e/x, <isf<n- as I am concerned (Dem. 18, 247) ; rd nepl Ilpogevov, 
the fate of Proxenus (Xen. Anab. 2, S 37 ) ; ro T&V dXieo)i/, the habit of >'>//' ,,, 
(Xen. Oec. 16, 7) ; SeSieVat ro TWV Traio'tov, to hare the b&yish fear (Plat. Ph<il. 
77 a ) ; TO roO I,o(f)OK\fov$, n-hiit IN .sairf by Sophocles (Plat. Rep. 329) ; ro TU>V 
7rvfvp,aTa)v, the state of the winds (Dem. 49, 7). 

1298. NOTE. The neuter plural, especially of adjectives in -IKOS, 
denotes an aggregate or particulars or the whole mass. 


Ta TpauKd. >.< of Troy (Thuc. 1, 3 1 ). Ta npb TWV MqSiK&ii/ 'EXXiji/uca, 

. hixtory before the Pn-*i<tn n~ars (Thuc. 1, 97 2 ). Ta VOVTIKU, naral /r 
{Thuc. 1, 142 4 ). Mtra ra cv IlAaraia TG>V fVfXQovTwv Qrjftaiaiv ycvo^fva, the 
events at Plataea caused by the Thebans who entered it (Thuc. 2, 19 1 ). 

1299. NOTE. Names of festivals are thus in the plural. 
Tu Atoi'Oo-ta, //c />< <t'n;il. 'EnivlKia, festival of rictory. Evay- 

sacrifices for glad tidings. 

1300. NOTE. Sometimes an expression like those in 1296 and 1297 
is merely a periphrasis. 

To TU>V 6fO)v (Vfifvfs <a\ TO TTJS TV^TJS o~vvayu)vi^Tai = ol 6co\ (vpd'ds fieri KOI 
o~vvayo>ri(fTai, the yods are propitious, ami fortune aids (Dem. 4, 45). 

1301. 1. The neuter singular of an adjective with the article is 
often an abstract noun expressing nature, essence, or quality. 

To jcaXoi/ ( = TO icaXXor), l>t><ti/. To 8' ATT\OVV KOI TO d\rj6es, xitn- 
plicitu mill truth (Xen. A nab. 2, G 22 ). To x a ^ f7rov Tol ~ irvevpaTos, th- 
roughness of the '//(// (Xen. A nab. 4, 5 4 ). To y c'pbv npodvfMov, my zeal 
Eur. .U"/. 17<^). Zii'tfir) TOV ffiov \6yov fv r&> u/xtrepa) do-Qfvd T^S 
fj opQbv <f>aivo~dai, it happened that my advice did not seem straight 
</o/ir ir,;if:mxx f / )// inn (Thuc. 2, 61 2 ). To a TT p ay fiov ov 
<r<a(Tai p.t} p.(T<i TOV R o a<TTTj p i o v reray/ze'i/oi/, quietness is not safe unless 
ranged -ith a.-tirit,, (Thuc. 2, (io 1 ). 

2. The neuter singular participle with the article is occasionally 
used as an abstract noun, like the infinitive. 

To /zi/ Of ft i (>s (= TO dto'ifvai) airoO, his fear (Thuc. 1, 36 1 ). To fttn>\<'>- 
fjifi-ov (= TO fiov\fo~0ai), the wishing, desire (Thuc. 1, 90 2 ). 'Ev ra> pfj p.f\(T(oi'Ti 
(= (v TO) p.i) ft.(\(T(ii'), in 1h> tniiit f i>ri-i'n-< lit. in the not pr>-t'i*'>n>i (Thuc. 
1. lt_' TTJV opyfjv KO)\v(iv (is TO /if r a p. t X rj o~ dp. f v o v npottvai, to pr>-i; ,,t 
,>>i*n/,ii- as to caust /-//./ < \-n. M<m. '2, O- 1 ). This construc- 
tion is confined chiefly to Thucydides. 


1302. 1. A ] iv, licate-noun agrees in case with tin- ^il>M;inti\ 
to which it refers . a predicate-adjective agrees in case, number, 

v (<m fta&iXfvs, Cyrus is kiii. imriXtia r;r, Toinyris wa 

KAW flpi&TJ K (ITU <T K O IT n v. ''/,,,,, ( r,/.s ,/,.s,; ( .-,,,,, if (Tluif. 1. 

Tvpavvot 6 "Kputs Xf'yTm. / .illril n tin-nut (IMat. /.'/-. .'.7:; >, H 

fppovpiov KaTforr), th< if a I" ,i (Time. 7. --^ > 

I >-in. '.. :'! 


they ivill be called law-givers (Plat. Leg. 681 a ). EWf <f>i\or 
ycvoio, that you may become a friend to us (Xen. Hell. 4, I 38 ). To 
ddveia o"ov\ovs rovs f\ev6(povs iroicl, loam make free men slaves (Men. Mon. 
514). Nofit^f d8f\<povs TOVS d\r)0ivovs <pi\ovs, consider true friends (to be) 
brothers (Men. Mon. 377). Swri/pa rm> $>i\nnrov fjyovvTo, they reganl',1 
Philip their preserver (Dem. 18, 43). 

2. The predicate-noun may often be of different gender, sometimes 
also of different number. 

OUTOI yf (pavfpd tori Ato/^j; rt Kai StcxpOopti TU>V vvyyiyvoiifvav, these men 
are a manifest dishonour and a corruption to their associate* (Plat. Meno> 
91 C ). 

1303. NOTE. The predicate-nominative of passive verbs represents 
the predicate-accusative of the active form (1609 1614). 

1304. NOTE. By a change of construction (anacoluthon), a predi- 
cate-participle sometimes differs in case from its subject. 

*E5ofi> avrols ( = cty) <pi<ra I/TO) ...... , e IT t K aX o v v re $, it seern<<! l*f I" 

them (= they voted) ...... , alleging (Thuc. 3, 36 1 ) ; other examples in Thuc. 

1, 62'; Eur. Hec. 970; Soph. El. 479. 

1305. NOTE. For predicate-nouns and adjectives after the in- 
finitive, see infinitive, 2186-2191. 

For demonstrative, relative, and interrogative pronouns used as 
predicate-adjectives, see 1487, 1510, 1548. 

1306. NOTE. (a) A predicate-adjective relating to several sub- 
stantives is generally in the plural, or may be in the dual if it relates 
to two. If the substantives denote a masculine and a feminine, 
the adjective is masculine ; if the substantives denote persons and 
things, the adjective follows the gender of the person ; if all the nouns 
represent things of the same gender, the adjective follows their gender, 
or else it is in the neuter plural ; and if all the nouns denote things 
of different genders (or persons regarded as things], the adjective is 
commonly in the neuter plural. 

Evpvfj.f8a>v KOI 2o<poK\fjs d<piKopvoi fs KepKvpav ffrrpdrfvaav, A" "///- 
medon and Sop&oefot, /"</<</ come to Corcyra, carried on war (Thuc. 4, 46 1 ). 
KaAXt'oV re /cat 'AXici/Stodgc f)Kfrrji> ayovrt rov np6Sicoi/, Callias am/ AI'-H 
came bringing Prodicus (Plat. Protag. 317 e ). C H rvxrj <al &i\iiriros TJO-OV TWK 
cpyw KV pioi, fortune and D<Hi/> J/T/V nm^f-rs of the actions (Aeschin. 2, 118). 
Evytvfiai T KOI. 8vvdp.(is KOI rt/im S^Ad eWt d-ya$a o v T a, good birth mi<t 


power and honour an- clearly <jood thimj* (Plat. Kuthyd. 279 b ). 'H 
TroXiTftri T( KOI 6 KO\\I(TTOS dvfjp Xot TTO ar yp^i' fit] 8if\6flv, the noblest common- 
wealth and the noblest man would l><- left for )/.<? to conxidiT (Plat. /'/'. oliif 1 ). 

(6) But sometimes the predicate-adjective conforms in number and 
gender with the nearest or most important noun. 

BacriXfiT KOI ol o"iv aura) 81 a> K o) v elcrirlTrrd (if TO <rrparo7re8oi>, the king and 
,,ll,,n; r* i>tirsniii l>r(k into the camp (Xen. A nab. 1, 10 l ). IIp6ppios- 

avros, fj yvvr), ra naioia naKurr dnoXoi^v, may I perish mo*t //</N. //>/</, root 

i n<l fn-nin-h, myself, my td/e, my children (Ar. Ran. 587). 

1307. NOTE. A predicate-participle may conform to the real 
rather than to the grammatical gender or number of the noun to 
which it refers. 

Ta p.f i pan ia rdoc irpos a\Xr)\ovs OIKOI 8 taXey o p.c v 01 6ap,a (irip.fii'TjvTai, 
2o)cpdToi;y, tl<>*' lud* t<ilkin<i to <>m another at home often speak of Socrate-s 
(Plat. Loch. ISO 6 ). TaOr' eXe-ytj/ TJ piaph avrrj K((pa\r), t*\lj\v6&t t tlm* 
spokt //I/.N- /i-sfil, i,t f,ll,,ir, lini-iiiij come out (Dem. 21, 117). 'O o^Xoy fj^poia-Bij 
ff av fjid o vTfs teal I8fiv j3ov\6 p, v 01 TOV 'A\Kif3ido'T]v, the c-rou'd was assembled, 
wondering and n-;*),;,,,, f u . S( < Al<-il>i<ides (Xen. Hell. 1, 4 1S ). Ta re'X; *cara- 
#ai'Tnf. th< Authorities having gone down (Thuc. 4, 15 l ). 

1308. NOTE. In the participial construction, the participle of c/'/xt 
agrees in number and gender with the predicate. 

TTJV fjoovrjv SIWKCTC o)$- dyaQbv oi/, you pursue pleasure as being som rth'm ./ 
(PLit. Prot. 354 C ). KaraXa/A/3avou(rt BpiKivvias Sv cpvpa tv TTJ Aeoi'rfi/i;, 
take Bricii r rt in Leontine (Thuc. 5, 4 4 ). 

1309. NOTE. (a) A masculine or feminine noun may have its 
predicate-adjective in the neuter, the adjective then has the force of 
a noun denoting a class. 

Ka\nv f) dXqdfia. truth i* l>,;int;ful n l,,,nit'if,il //M'/IJ/ ( Plat . !.",/. 63 f ). 
linn' rj ^i'\T], ""' - s '""' /s iiitniorfid sonii-tliiiiii iinntorto-l (Plat.. /'//.' 

(6) Sometimes rl, something, is added to the predicate. 

'ifXTT^v K(i\tii> n (prjs firm, ////</../,/,. 

(Plat l'.). 

If the predicate-adjective is considered wholly a substantive, 
it may also be qualifi'-d ly an adjective. 

n f'y n. love is a grit , ,-,t i \-\\\\-. M..I. ; 

1310. Nnri: If the subject of a verb is an infinitive or an in- 
ive phrase, a predicate-adjective is regularly in the neuter singn! 
hut the neuter plural is sometimes used. 


A i K a t o v aTroXAvo-tfeu rovs e-mopKovvTas, it is just that the perjurers perish 
(Xen. Anab. 2, 5 41 ). 'A.8vvara TJV TOVS \o<povs ap.vvo-0ai, it was impossible 
to resist the Locrians (Thuc. 4, I 3 ). So also the verbals -Teoi> and -rea in their 
impersonal construction; as TTJV Tru\iv &><p eXj/reoi/, we mws aid the state 
(Xen. Mem. 2, I 28 ) ; gvp.p.axoi dyaOoi, our ou TrapaSorea rots y A.drjvaiois fVriV, 
</ood aWies, u;/iow we rattstf not abandon to the Athenians (Thuc. 1, 86 :i ). Com- 
pare 2316. 

1311. When the subject is a demonstrative pronoun, it is 
usually assimilated in gender and number to its predicate-noun. 

Mm avrrj TrdpoSos eorti/ rjv opas, this is the one appoach which you see (Xen. 
Anab. 4, 7 4 ). Oipcu ffirjv ravrrjv Trarpt'Sa clvai, I think this is my nt'n; 
country (Xen. Anab. 4, 8 1 ). 

1312. NOTE. The same assimilation occurs if the demonstrative 
is the object. 

Tavrrjv f'/zmmu p.m>rji> rjyov^m fftoTrjpiav, I r<m.<<iil>-r thix to be my "/</.'/ 
xiilrntioii (Lys. 1, 5). 

1313. NOTE. 1. The assimilation does not take place and the 
demonstrative is in the neuter, if this is wholly indefinite and general 
and equivalent to this thing or this matter. 

*Ey<ay <PT;/ZI ravra </>Xuapt'ay firm, / declare this to be //o//.s. /( .s, (Xen. 
Anab. 1, 8 17 ). 

2. Similarly in questions W must be used when what ? is equivalent 
to what kind of thing ? 

HvQayopas (pwrrjQds, ri fVn (ptXos, aTreKpivaro " oXXor e*ya)," Pythagoras, 

Inu-inii IK i ii <isb-il it-hut is ,i fri>- ml , replied, lt anutln r I " (Stobaeus, iv., 168, 13). 

1314. The term predicate-adjective includes all adjectives and 
participles which are not attributive. Where a predicate-adjective is 
not connected with its noun by a copulative verb, the relation always 
implies some part of the verb et'/u ; and the predicate force of such an 
adjective must often be expressed in English by a periphrasis. 

\\davarov TTJV pvT]p.Tjv KaTa\(tyov<riv, im-mortal is the memory tin-it "''// 
leave = lit. //<// "/'// l,,ir, tln- memory immortal (Isoc. 9, 3). IlTTjvtis 
Stw/ceiy T&S (\Tri8as = al (\iri8cs &s dianeis imjvai tl(Tiv, you pursue hoj* n-liirh 
are winged = lit. hopes briny ii'intjed (Eur. Fray. 273). ^IXfjv f^cor T^I* 
KeQaXrjv, having his head bare (Xen. Anab. 1,8 s ). Ilap* CKOI/T<I>I/ rS>v vp.- 
fj.dxo>v rrjv fjyefjiovidv eXa/3oi/, they received the leadership front I////.N 
who were willing to confer it (Isoc. 7, 17). Aia <ptXt'a? rrjs x^P" s " 7r " 

a^fi, he 1 1' ill lead US throinjh tin' miititnt H'l, ',,-}, ,rill In fr'n-mlli/ (Xen. A nub. 
1, 3 14 ). Et ....... rf)s rvxn* cvdaipovos ru^otrf, if ....... th>' lt yo 


a happy one (Eur. Hd. 698). "Orav aKoixa avdpos ntpl dperf/s 

, /'//< / hear a man discoursing <tl><>nt rirtue, I rejoice (Plat. Loch. 188). 
io-xvov rp(<pa), I nourish truth (In ing) ati'nntj (Soph. Oed. Tyr. 356). 
*o make the allies zealous (Xen. Cyr. 4, 2 s8 ). 

1315. NOTE. The predicate-adjective can often be known from its 
position with regard to the article ; see 1415, 1416. 

1316. The predicate frequently expresses the purpose, character, 
or qualitij in which a person or thing appears ; especially where 
we use as or for or a similar word. 

\\7r((rra.\Kd aoi TOVTOV TOV \oyov 8o>pov, I have sent you this discourse as 
a gift (Isoc. 1, 2). 'EKVo> aim? 17 x^P** 8a>pov CK f3a<n\f<os edoOrj, this country 
MOOS gii-fii to him as a gift hi/ th< kiny (Xen. Hell. 3, I 6 ). "l-mroi fjyovro 6 v p,a 
TO) 17X40), horse* were brought as an offering to the sun (Xen. Cyr. 8, 3 13 , 
actively ITTTTOVS aytiv Blip a). SV/I/KZ^OVS t(ts tieovs, you will have the 
gods for allies (Men. Mon. 126). Tivos 5t8ao-/eaXoi fJKfTt ; as teachers of 
<>me? (Plat. Euthyd. 287*). Taty rc'^j/atg ravrcus napa-rrfTa- 
(r^acriv (xprjro, they use these arts as cloaks (Plat. Prot. 316 e ). y Eirtpo'a>v 
irpoo'O'ria'ffai poi 8oK(l p.66a)i> ert TIVG>V, he seems to me to still need some words as 
} -it it in (Plat. Leg. 903 b ). So with <W prefixed; as e^eort ro> /SovXo/ie'j'o) 
Xprja6cu rjdrj TOVTO> o>y dv8pan68<f, it is in the power of any one who wishes to use 
him as a slave (Xen. Cyr. 4, 2F). Compare also 1314, 1611, 1487, 1510, 1548 


1317. A predicate-adjective is often used where the English- 
would require an adverb or an adverbial phrase. 

l \<piKvovvTcu TpiTaioi, they arrive on the third day (Xen. Anab. 5, 3 2 ). 

'OpKiof dt aot X<yo), and under oath I tell thee (Soph. Ant. 305). "OpOptos 

rJKfir, you have come early (Plat. Prot. 313 1 '). Ot oT/jartcarat (tnovro o-/if vot, 

the soldiers followed ;//.!//// (Xen. Anab. 7, 2*). Bt'a rt KOI>X ewi>, by force 

Soph. Oed. Col. 935). Udpeifu &KO>V, I am present unwil- 

~~ >\<]\. Ant. 276). Tovt venpovs vnoo-irov&ovs aTrrjyovro, they bore off their 

dead under cover of truce (Xen. ////. 4, 4 IS ). 

1318. NOTE. The adjectives most frequently used in this way 
are : (a) those expressing time, as 8vrcp<uo9, on the second day, Tpmuo?, 
an the third day, etc., upOpios, early, O-KOTCUO?, after dark ; (b) those 
expressing order, as irpwros, first, Trporcpos, former, vo-raros, last, v 
later; (c) IKW and u'illiuyly, &KW, umcillinyly, 

gladly ; (d) certain others, as {nrwrtrovbos, under treaty, op*tos under 



oath, etc. Adjectives expressing locality are seldom used in this way 
in prose. 

2<T)vovp.(v viraiQpioi, we are encamped in the open air (Xen. Anab. 5, 5 21 ). 

1319. NOTE. The use of the adverb often gives a completely 
different meaning. 

'\\(av8pos -rrparros erae TOVS \^I\ovs, Ali-.finuli-i- irux tin fi,-*t ir)to drew up 
the light-armed troops. 'A.\^av8pos irpvTovs era|e TOVS -^rlXovs the first troops 
Alexander dren- "/' cv/v the light-armed. But AXtgavdpos trpcoTov eragf TOVS 
v//iXouy, first (of all he did) Alexander drew up the light-armed troops. A 
similar distinction exists with irportpos, vorvpor, VO-TOTOS, and povos, and their 
adverbs. Thus -rrpoyrov e'daitpve TTO\VV xP ovov i CITO eXtf roiuSe, <(t firxf 
he wept a long time, tin /< / xftoke as follows (Xen. Anab. 1, 3 2 ). But nporfpos 
evpiiKT) avrov 77 (Kfivos f/i, / .S//C- hi 111 before he saw me (Plat. Rep. 33G' 1 ), here 
TrpoTfpov would be expected. 

1320. NOTE. With the verbs pco>, flow, and TTI/CW, blow, the ideas 
greatly or strongly, richly, aiminst, referring to wind or water, are 
expressed by the adjectives /icyus, woXi's, a<f>0ovo<s, tvavrios. 

Kpijvrj a<p0ovos pfovtra, x/>rin<i r'n-hlif fiinriuii (Xen. .\itnl>. 6, 4 4 ). "Avt/zos- 
ftoppas tvavTtos envfi, //" .\nrth "/'//'/ // " mjnin.^ /N (Xen. .4/ia6. 4, 5 s ). 

1321. NOTE. With other expressions TroXi's is sometimes used 
where the English idiom would use an adverbial expression. 

*O o-Iros (v Ti) TroXft no\vs fVfOTiv, th> corn iii tin' ton-,, irns }>li ntifiil (Xdi. 


1322. A noun in apposition with another noun agrees with it 
in cast . 

S&xpaTTjs 6 <pi\6cro<pos, $<n'rntrx // fthili^itftln-r. Bi)/3m TTU\IS /ze-yaXi;, Thebes, 
a grrea< ct</. ^iX^atoy KCU AVKCOI/ ot 'A^moi, Philesius and Lycon, tlw A <!,,! 
(Xen. A nab. 5, G 27 ). ZO^O/VCTDV TOV Srv/i^dXiov /cat 2ocpar?;i/ TOV 'A^atoi/, 
fvovs ovras KOI TOITOVS, Sophaenetus the Stymphalian and Socrates the Acha- 
these being guest friends (Xen. Anab. 1, I 11 ). 'Hp,a)v T>V > A>0rjjrauv ) of ux th>- 
Athe)ti<.tiix. ~Yp,as TOVS <ro<povs, y<>"-, tl' n'ixe ones. Ge/xioroKX^y TJKO) (sc. eya>) 
irapa (re, I, Themistocles, am come to you (Thuc. 1, 137 6 ). KoXaxt, Seu/w di?ptq>, 
^o a fiatterer, a terrible beast (Plat. Phaedr. 24^- b ). Ew Ile'Xrar, n-dXii/ OIKOV- 
, to Peltas, an inhabited city (Xen. Anab. 1, 2 10 ). C H ^ercpd TrdXty, 17 
KciTcxpvyr) T&V 'EXX^tor, our ci<y, </ie common refuge of the Greeks 
(Aeschin. 3, 134). C O Qavaros rvy^dvet &v 8volv TrpdypdroLv diaXvcrts, TTJS ^v\fjs 
KOI TOV (Tco^tarof, <l'<ith /'.s a xi-pu ration of two M ///*, ^" s "" / "'"/ the body (Plat. 
Gorg. 524 b ). 


1323. NOTE. An adjective with the article may be an appositive 
to a personal pronoun expressed or implied. 

'H TaXaiv' -y&), /, tin irnffhed one (Soph. El. 1138). 'O T\rjp.a>v...TjKa J 
I n-i-'t'-hed one, have come (Eur. And. 1070). Tbv aat^fj p.e, the impious, 

//(Soph. Oed. Tyr. 1441). 'Opas p.f ....... rbv <50Xioi/, thou set'tt ,, //., 

Kur. H '/>}>. 1395). 2i ....... o TrpfcrftvraTos, ;/<w, '/< ( Ken. 

Oyr- 4, 5 17 ). 

1324. NOTE. An appositive belonging to two or more nouns is 
generally in the plural or dual. 

'iff 7TOVOS Tf, KVplOl iyi/O)/ZOTCU, sleep CLKtl toil, fnnr, rful i'niix/i'i ;'-/ /' -; x 

{Aesch. K a in. 127). Qdppos KOI (p6ftov a<ppov( ^v/i/3oiXc), boldm:** <nul fear, 
' nsellors (Plat, Tim. 69* 1 ). 

1325. NOTE. A noun denoting place may have an apposition 
denoting the inhabitants. 

'A^fKoi/To cis Koruwpa, 2t>a>7rW aTrot'/couff, they came to Ooiyora, 
<tm (Xen. ^7u6. 5, 5 3 ). 

1326. NOTE. The appositive may represent a part of its subject. 

OtKtai at /xv TroXXai 7r7rra>Ke0-a>, oXi'yai 5f Trtptr)<rav, most of the luni.-o * // 
. /'i/f a /eu? remained (Thuc. 1, 89 4 ). OVTOI aXAoy nXXa Xe'-yct, the-sr >n< 11 
say different things (Xen. Anab. 2, I 15 ). At re'^i/at TO avr^s e<a(rn; fpyov 
, the arts do each one its own work (Plat. Rep. 346 d ). 

1327. NOTE. An adjective implying a genitive may have a geni- 
tive in apposition to it. 

' \0r) i/at off &>v, TToXftor rr/ff /ifytWrjr, briny (a eitiwn) <>f Athens, the yr- 
(Plat. Apol. 29* 1 ). 

1328. NOTE. 1. In Homer a noun or pronoun de- 
noting a jH'.rson often has an appositive denoting a part. 

A T) to TT ITT) v ovravcv 2)p.or, h< tr,,n ,,,l,;l / ), 'i, ,/,',(. N in the 
shoulder (II. 11, 420). Kad 8' d^os oi \VTO pvpiov otpQaXpolariv, 
immeasurable sadness overspread his eyes, lit. him the eyes (II. 
20, 282). \\XX' OVK 'ATpct&fl ' \yapt pvovi rjvftavf 6vp.u>, but he 
was not pleasing to the spirit of Agan ' Atreus, 

lit. to Agamemnon to his heart (II. 1, L'4). "A^off r fuv iKm 
fcfjLov, and satiety came to his hcnrf. lit. f<> him, t<> his heart 
1 1 . H8). 

2. For o 8c followed by an appositive in Homer, see 


1329. NOTE. An appositive may be made to agree in gender with 
its subject. 

"HAioff ....... 7rdvT<av Xa/i TrpoTdTos, the sun, the brightest (sc. thing} of all 

things (Xen. Mem. 4, 7 7 ). Here Aa/i7rporaroi> might have been used, conforming 
to the gender of rravrav. 

1330. NOTE. 1. When a noun is in apposition to a whole sentence, 
it is in the nominative if it refers in a general way to the subject ; and 
in the accusative if it denotes the result of an action. 

Kdvrat TTfo~6vTs, Trorrif ov <rp.iKpb TrdXet, they lieproxtrntc no small ground 
of confidence to the city (Eur. Rhes. 415). EvSai/zoi/oi'jyr , picrObv T]0~io-Ta>v Xdytov, 
mayest thou be happy, a reward for tf *//<./*/ ;/<,/</.> (Eur. El. 231). 

2. Such expressions appositive to a whole sentence are : TO K<j>a- 
AaTov, the chief point, TO TeAevTaiov, last of all, TO Xeyoptvov, the saying, 
TO TT)S Trapot/juds, the proverbial saying, avro TOVTO, this very thing, ravro 
TOVTO, this same thing, o-rjpctov, sign, TK/xrJpiov, evidence, and the like ; 

comparatives, as eVapycorepa, (what is) more dear (Plat. Phaedo, 96 e ) ; 

frequently superlatives, as TO /xcyio-Tov, TO ocworarov, TO ^av/xao-roVaTov 
(see 1520) ; so also ovolv QdTcpov or ovolv OaTtpa, one of two things. 

Avoti* &6.T(pa, fj ti>pri<rop.(v, (<f)' o tp^6^f6a, ^ TJTTOV oiTjaofifda eio'tvai, o l(, one of tn:<> things; either we shall find what we seek, or we shall 
l>, /.s.s lif;> I >i to think m- knnir irhat we do not know (Plat. Theaet. 187 b ). And 
dp.(f>oT(pov or a/i(^)dT(pa, botlt ; ovSfTtpov, neither of the two ; irav TOVVCLVT'IOV, 
tin- o//Mw>7', etc. 

1331. NOTE. Names of rivers are inserted between the article and 
o's, as 6 Eu^pan/s 7rorafu>9, the river Euphrates. Names of moun- 

tains, islands, and lakes (seldom cities and other places) may have the 
same position if they are of the same gender as the appositive. 

To HrjXiov opos, Mount Pelion. At KvxXaSey vr)(roi, the Cyclades. 'H BoX^j; 
\ip.vr), Lake Bolbe. 'H McVfii; no\is, the city MendS. But with different 
genders : Hdpvrjs TO opos, Mount Fames; fj Atri/^ TO opoy, Mount Aetna; TO 
opos 17 'la-TtovT), Mount Istom; 17 \ TO aKp&Tqpiov, the promontory 

1332. NOTE. Observe also the fixed expression 77 /JovAr/ ot 
the Council of the Five Hundred. 



1333. Adjectives agree with their substantives in case, number^ 
and gender. This rule applies also to the article, adjective-pro- 
nouns, and to participles. 


'O dya&bs dvrjp, the good man, TOV dyaflov dv8pos, ro> dyaQw dvdpi, TOV 
dyadov dvpda, reor dyaQ&v dvdpoiv, etc. Aim; 17 yvvr), this woman, ravrrjs TTJS 
yvvatKos, ravrrj rf) yvvaiKi, ravrds r&y yvvolKas, etc. TIapd8fi<Tos p,(yas dypiwv 
Orjpiutv -rr\ripr)s, a large park full <>f n-ild beasts (Xen. Anab. 1, 2 7 ). Towards 
Kpf)Tas Siaieoo-iW, 200 Cretan archers (Xen. Anab. 1, 2 s ). Ta> nalfa dp.<poTfpo>, 
both th.- (Xen. Amib. 1, I 1 ). 

For the agreement of predicate-adjectives, see 1302 1316. 

1334. NOTE. An attributive adjective relating to several nouns 
usually agrees only with the nearest or most important ; sometimes it 
is repeated (for emphasis or clearness) with each noun ; sometimes it 
is in the plural. 

Tov KO\OV K&ya0bv avftpa nal yvvalKa, the honourable man and woman 
(Plat. (rorj/. 470*). 'EKfti'Off o tempos <al fj f)p.fpd f<fivrj, that occasion and Unit 
day (Dem. 18, 172). Saxppovav eV-ri cat dvdpbs <al yvvm<6s oura> iroiflv, it i-8 
the business of a riyht- minded man and woman to act thus (Xen. Oec. 7, 15). 

1335. NOTE. Avo, two, is often used with a noun in the plural. 
Ilatdfr 8vo, tti'u i-hildren (Xen. Anab. 1, I 1 ). 

1336. In poetry an attributive adjective may agree 
with the real rather than the grammatical gender of its 

*i'\ TfKvov, dear child (II. 22, 84). T fi (pi\rar, S> 
ir(pi(T(rd Tip.r)0(ls TCKVOV, 0, dearest child, thou prized 
<il,<; (til tlii/ifjs (Eur. Tro. 736). So when the noun forms a 
periphrasis with the genitive with a genitive ; as </> t X r a r* 
\lyia-6ov /3t'a, dearest majesty of Aegisthus (Aesch. Cho. 893). 


1337. Adjectives and participles are often used as nouns, 
generally with the article. 

'O <ro$or, the wise man. Ol dyatioi, the good. *tXor, fri>-nd. KaX/;, 
l )i<in<lxn,n4> irniniin. Tcoi' KrtKa>i', <>f th> IKK!. Toll' <To</m<V, in tin iri*> . 'I',', 
p*<rov or pi&ov, the middle. Ta Qvrjrd, mortal fliinii*. K<i>(i, rilx. '() X*'ya>', 
the tpeaker. Ta>v IgSvovpfvuiv, of thns> <! f> mli/i'i. Ol ypa^rdptPOl 2a)rpdrr;i', 
the accuser* of Socrate*. To \ -yd/if vov (the thing said), /// .',,/*//,,,/,>,/,/,/,,/. Ta 
Atnvdffta, the festival < ( f />i<,nii*iug. See also 12701300, 22412245, nn<l !:>! . 


1338. The positive degree in Gre k mm-spontls to tin- |i>iiiv.- 
degree in En^linh. But with a<lj ctiv.-s and adverbs 


non-jitness, non-ability, disproportion, and the like, the positive joined 
to the infinitive (with or without OJO-TC or &>?) has comparative 
meaning ; this is expressed in English by too. 

To v8(op \lfv\pbv coare Xoucra<r$eu ecrnv, the n'nt> i" /.s too cold for batltim/ 
(Xeu. Mem. 3, 13 3 ). 'OXi'yoi (O-pev a>y fytcpards elvai TO>V TroXt/itW, "v an 
toofeiv to yet the better of the em-iny (Xeu. f '/'' 4, 5 13 ). Tantivr) vp.&v rj diavoia 
fyKaprepflv a ryvwrt, your mind is too proxtnitt </ to ////>* /-,/ // irlmt ijoii 
resolved (Thuc. 2, 61 2 ). Ma<poi> ai/ et?y ypdfaiv, *< would <afce <oo lony t<> / 
(Xen. ^(/c.s. 7, 1). So also with nouns ; as yepw pfv fKflvos torrre e'fiot ftnq 
that person, is too old a man to help me (Antiph. 5, 79). Tpavs cl, o>r 
TTjXiKavra Trpao-o-civ, you (ire too old n;,n,ii to <lo such yrcnt HIIH<IX (Plutarch, 
Pericles, 10). 

1339. NOTE. Observe also the idiomatic combination of an adjec- 
tive with TroAvs. 

IIoXXoi KOI <rya$oi tivftpfs, in<ni>j <joml // //. 

1340. The comparative degree convsj.nnds to the comparative 
in English. Used alone, it often expresses excess or tendency, and 
may be rendered by too, very, rather, somewhat. 

Mi? dypoiKirrcpov fj TO (IXqQes flndv, lest it be too (rattier) ntde to tell thf 
truth (Plat. Gory. 462*). reXotorcpov, rather (aomewlwt) funny (Plat. Ajml. 
,30*). nXetto \(\KT(u, too 1 1 inch has been said (Em. .!/<-. 706). 

1341. The comparative degree is followed by the genitive or by 
Y), than. 

'Eyo) vfdwfpos tip* <roO or tyw var(pos elfju. tj a~v, I "/// i/mi //</</ ///// i/ou. 
Qoftovfjicda rovs OTrXfras' p.a\\ov fj TOVS TrcXTacrray or (poj3ovfj.c6a. TOVS oTrXlray 
p,a\\ov T>V n-eXrao-raij', ir<- fear the hoplites mor< tli<m thf /H-ltuxt*. \\v8pos 
SwaTtoTfpov t) ey<* vlos, son of a man more /><>ir t //// tho-n I am (Xen. Cyr. 
5, 2'*). OUTTO) TOVTOV f)8iovi oTvo) fVerv^oi', tin '/ in r,',- ,,i't ii-',fh ,r',,,> xit'eeter than 
thi* (Xeu. A null. 1, { ,P'}. 'Ec dcivoTtptov TJ rotatvo'c fcrwBrjcrav, tln'U //<//-. //. . // *<irl 
from ifi-i-nti-i- <l<in<i<-rx th>ui fh>'w (Thuc. 7, 77 1 ). Tavra rot? oTrXfrcur oi>x r}cr(rov TOJV 
vavT&v ( = t) rols vdvrais) TrapaKfXcvo/zcu, I enjoin these things no lexx f<> tin Imnl'iti-s 
than to the sailors (Thuc. 7, 63 2 ). (BXfTreiv) els TTJV epTrctpiav pa\\oi> r^y dpfrf/s 
(= ^ els TTJV dpcTTjv), to look at skill more than at courage (Aristotle, Pol. S. 
When r\ would be followed by any other case than the nominative or accusa- 
tive without a preposition, as in the last two examples, the genitive is less 

1342. NOTE. For brevity the genitive denoting the possessor 
instead of the thing possessed is sometimes placed after the compara- 


'Ey<i) otKiav KfKTrjum ov ^fi'/Jco (rov = f) tru, / jiussfss a /IOM.NV not \nl< rlur 1u 
''. Xen. C>ir. 4, 3~). Ot ruXoTroi/j/Tjo-ioi TrXet'txri vav<rl ro>i/ 'Afyvaiw 
irapf/a-ai' fj ol '\dqvaioi, the Pdoponneriattti <if>/i'(i f>'<l irHh nion */,///> tint,, 
//.- Atlfninii* (Thuc. 8, 51 

1343. NOTE. After comparatives, such dependent genitives as 
roi/xTy?, Kutpov, TOU //crptbv, TOV Stoi/ro?, and the like, must usually 
be rendered by periphi 

npoo-ajrf'po) roC KcupoO Trpoioirfr, ilr<m<-i IK/ furtltt-r tlnm CM.S mlrixtililf 
i. .l/c(/). 4, o' 4 ). Kpftrror eVrt roG Xdyou ro xaXXoy ri)y yui/aiKor, /A l<ititu 
,,f flii I'-,,,, in it is <ir>'it' r tlinn <'<n< he told nltun- dc^cri/ttimi (Xeu. Mi'tn. 3, II 1 ). 
fXrrtSoy, /re /tope. Compare the Latin innju* .>/ . 

1344. NOTE. The comparative, usually with uvrrk, is followed by 
the genitive of a reflexive pronoun (never r/) when anything is com- 
pared with itself under different circumstances. 

\\v8peiorcpos ylyvcrai avros ruVof', // l>rfi>nn-x inon- )init<lt/ tlnin IK n-,is 
before (Plat. R< i>. 4il c ). Similarly with the superlative, see 1357. 

1345. NOTE. A comparative followed by T) Kara (sometimes T) 
with an accusative denotes more than accords or is fitting to the mailer. 

"Erv^f atfjivoTfpas fj KOTO, livdpwirov ra<p^y, he (ilitaiin-il <i Inirinl more 
at tluin that of a mere man (Xen. //<//. ;}, 3 1 ). 'Ei/SfeoTfptof ....... fj 

Trpor TTJV f^ova-inv, less than accorded with the resources (Thuc. 4, 39 <J ). Compare 

1346. NOTE. After the adverbs TrAeW or 7rAeu>, more, and 
and ^lov, less, ^is sometimes omitted before a numeral without change 
of case. 

nip.\lra> ftf)i>fts ir\tiv fdKO<riovs rov dpi&p.ov, I n'HI * ml hints m<>n HI. 

i .1251 . [Dsteadof theedverbe,tiieoorre6ponding 
adjectives in the plural, with or without rf, or with the genitive an; usrtl. 

X^atOt 7T\tlOVS f) T(Tf)(lKHT\l\l<ll K(ll TTf 1'TllK l'l(Tl lit . lin>l'< t/nln \ . UU 

. I- -hut-tilts (Xen. .1 /////. l>. li"'). "Err; ycyovvs TrXf/co (^opi]K(>i'T(t. 
'-/ (Pint. .I/'"/. 17 d ). 'OTrXirnis 8( ir(vT(iKi<r\i\i<i>i' 

r tl ., ,/;//, no />> limn ">ooo li { ,iit.-s (Tim 

1347. NOTE. When two adjectives or adverbs are compared, >} is 
always used, and both are in the comparative. 

STponjyoi 7rXt'oi'r r] #Ar MOD mnm-nni* tli< \ .1.7,. 

I"7' s ). I,vvTopo)Tff><n' if (Tnrj>i<n<,H>r TT< i(aX^^i'(n. to fl 

, //, ,-/<,/-/ /// //.,-, (Is... 


1348. NOTE. In Homer and Herodotus sometimes, 
in the Attic poets rarely, yuaAAoi/ is omitted (especially 
with (3ov\ofjLai) before r?. 

BouAo/u.' fyo) \abv o~oov fj arroAeV^at, / wish the people 
to be safe rather than perish (H. 1, 117). 'E/^tot niKpbs TfQvrjKfv 
77 Kfivois y\vKvs, his death has been more bitter to me than sweet 
to them (Soph. Aj. 966); Hdt. 3, 124 4 ; Eur. Andr. 350. 

1349. NOTE. Instead of T( or the genitive, avrC or irpo with the 
genitive, or irapd with the accusative, may be used with the compara- 

AvKoiipyos KaTftpydtraTo fv rrj rroXft aipfTtoTfpov fivat TOV K(i\bv Sdvarov dvri 
TOV alo~xpov /3t'ov, Lycurgus made a noble death more desirable in the state than 
(lit. instead of) a base life (Xen. Rep. Lac. 9 1 ). MrjTt iraloas irtpl nXfiovof 
iroiov p.r)T( rb ijv ....... irpo TOV otitaiov, consider neither children nor life of more 

account than (lit. before) justice (Plat. Crit. 54 b ). Xei/iobj/ pfifav napa TTJV 
KaQfa-TTjKvlav wpai/, a cold more severe than (lit. in comparison with) the actual 
season (Thuc. 4, 6 1 ). 

1350. NOTE. The second part of the comparison may be omitted. 
Ot p\Tiov(s, the better ( = those better than the others). "Kpftvov eVn iravrl 

VTTO Oflov <cai <ppovip.ov (ipxta-Gai, it is better for every one to be governed by a 
divine and intelligent being (Plat. Rep. 590"). Note also vf&Tfpov (in poetry 
also i/f'oi/), something new, often in a bad sense, as in Plat. Prot. 310 b ; 
also ov x^pov (Plat. Phaedo, 105*). 

1351. NOTE. When the clause containing /xaAAoi/ is negative, y ov 
may follow in place of simple TJ. 

Ot> irfpl TU>V fp.S>v tSt'eov p.a\\ov Tip.(opr)(r((T0 TIo\VK\fd r) ovx vnfp fyioii/ 
avratv, you will punish Polycles less for my private interests than for your own 
good (Dem. 50, 66). 

1352. NOTE. For /xaAAov, we sometimes find TrAcW (TI) and TO w\fov r 
especially in Thucydides. 

Mro-ci ir\fov % 8i<r) KpivavTfs, having decided by hatred rather than by justice 
(ThllC. 3, 67 5 ). Tovs vovv fxovTas Tr\fov TI T&V aX\<av Trfpi. TroAAou rroiov^ 
esteem highly those who have judgment more than other people (Isoc. 2, 53) .. 
Am TO ir\fov r) (pi\iq, by fear more than by friendship (Thuc. 3, 12 1 ). 

1353. NOTE. Our still with the comparative is In ; as Irt 
, still more difficult (Plat. Polit. 298 ). Much with the compara- 
tive is TroAv or TroAAw ; as TroAv TrAei'ous (Xen. Cyr. 5, 3 24 ) ; TroAAoJ ^eyurTovs 
(Hdt. 4, 82 1 ). Other words qualifying the comparative are /xa/cpoJ, 6Aiyw ; 


ov, old ani new Ion. ; ficya, poetic ; irdvTa, in all respects ; , some- 
orSeV (fjitjotv), in no wise ; ovrcos, so much (late). 

1354. NOTE. MaAAoy is sometimes joined to the comparative. 
Ai<rxvvTT)poTCf)<i> p.a\Xov rov SCOVTOS, more ba-shful than they ought to be 

(Plat. Gory. 487"). Similarly piXicrra with the superlative, 1365. 

1355. The superlative degree corresponds to the superlative in 
English ; as o /3e\Tio-Tos TTU.VTWV TGJV TTO\ITWV, the best of all the 
citizens. Often it expresses a very high degree of the quality, it 
tli'ii stands without the article; as avrjp ^>i\orl^oraro^, a very 
{most) ambit iou-s man. 

1356. NOTE. The highest degree between two is expressed by the 
comparative. Thus the Greek carefully distinguishes : Trporepo?, former, 
and TTpwTo?, first ; vo-rtpos, later, and vo-raro?, last ; exarepos, each of 
two, and IKCMTTO?, each. 

Tlarfpos \((i Trporepor; which (of the two) is to speak first? (Ar. Nub. 940). 

1357. NOTE. The superlative, usually with auros, is followed by a 
genitive of the reflexive to denote that the subject possesses the quality 
in a higher degree than ever. 

Afti'oraror (ravrov ravra %<r0a, you were at your best (lit. most skillful of 
yourself) in those things (Xen. Mem. 1, 2 40 ). "li/a avros avrov rvyxavct 8e\Ti(r- 
roy wr. '/ / ! is <it his best (Eur. Frag. 183). See a similar use with c<>m- 
paratives 1344. 

1358. NOTE. The superlative may be strengthened by (irapa) TroXr, 
much, also by TroAAoi, ^taKpw, by far. 

ll\i K('I\\HTT<>*. iini'-li tl handsomest (Xen. Cyr. 1, 3 2 ). IloXXa) icaXXiaroj, 
/iaxpo) icnXXta-Tov-. //.'/.''"'' ^" l"i ii<l*<nnest. Also by (ra) iravra. ; TroXXdi', old and 
new Ion. ; fw'ya, poetic ; irXdrrrov and p.(yi(rrov, poetic. 

1359. Tin- suj)ri-l;iti\ .-. sti-.-ii^tlicn<'l by a prefixed o><? or on, 
lees often //, indicates the highest degree possible. 

'Qt fttXrurros (Latin <//<///( <>/<iuiius), as good (U possible. 'Qt ra^tord, <i> 

My as possible (Xen. f '</,-. 1, 6*). "Ort n\i(TTovs, ,s many as possible 

r \lt fi/itrrrov cat rj&i<rrov, <i.s in-// <(/jJ a.s <i<fr< <>!>! ij tut possible 

"*). Occasionally d>r and art are used together ; as <wr on ft('\Titr- 

'p* ytvtffBm, that I .%/nu*/./ /. a>m O 0OO</ CW ponsil>l, (I Mat. NI/I/I/'. L' 1 

M i -Mines before the superlative, o>r <T rTr< CMUM-S lir^t : as &>f ^<T<I 
ya^o>f, H'j</j JM HI,,I/ ./,,./ things OS pos*il>l> >\ I) J Jrt V 

'/""' " time as posxiblr (Thuc. 3, 46'). 


1360. NOTE. The pronoun olo? is similarly used. 

XcopiW ailov KaXXttrroi/, a place as beautiful as possible (Xen. Anab. 7, I 24 ). 
'Opoi ra rrpdyp-ara ov% ola (3(\Ti<TTa ev rfj noXei ovra, I see that our affairs in the 
city are not in the very best condition (Lys. 13, 23). 

1361. NOTE. The poets sometimes use oo-ov and oV^s ; 
as ocrov ra^to-Ttt, as siviftly as possible (Eur. Rhes. 672) ; 
OTTWS a/oiora, as well as possible (Soph. Phil. 627). 

1362. NOTE. Sometimes fuller expressions are formed with <I>s or 
fi or 00-05, oTToo-09, seldom with 07777 or orrotos (never with on) and a verb 
or expression of possibility. 

AiTjyf]( vp.1v o> $ v ftvrttflAI 8ia ftpax VT dr a> v, I Witt duCUSS fa 

the briefest terms I am able (Isoc. 21, 1). 'Eiropcvovro fi eo"vv avro ra^ttrra, 
they proceeded as fast as they "/ "/'/ (Xt-n. .limit 6, 3 21 ). 'H-yt oTpaTifir 
OO-TJV -rrXfio-TTjv ( 5 v v a T o , /" tin > n ijlit <*.s' luni' in, iiriini c.s / coi//i/ (Thuc. 

7. -I 1 ). "Hyayov OTrdcrovr (crvp.p.d)(ovs) cyia rr\(i(TTOvs (8vvap,rjv y 

I briruyht '/.< IIKIIII/ (r////r.s) .s / ctnilil (Xen. <'///. 4, o 25 *). 'YTrto-^voCrrat 

ftorjOf'iv rp()7ra) OTTOIO) AJ> Sui/wi'Tai ttr^vporara), ^/<^J/ promise to help m 
H'lniti-i'rr sti-iniii,xt H;, ij tin ;l iniiil I" "/'/' (ThuC. 5, 47^). 

1363. NOTE. The numeral t? (usually in the expression ei? 
is sometimes used with the superlative for greater emphasis. 

'E^y Ki7pw 0T)(ravpovs \pv<rov TrXetorovs' fvi yc avftplfv r<a O*K< 
dfvdai. f<> ('in-"* it tool /IM.SN/'/./.- / >//-. <//, ;, ( A.W /totwe f/- //i/W treasures of <tl<I 
nf ,11,11 our (Xen. (7i/r. 8, 2 1:> ). 

1364. NOTE. The expression eV rotg is sometimes prefixed to a 
superlative ; it can usually be rendered by of all, by far. 

'Ev TOIS Trpcoroi 'A^i/i/mot, flu- A tlti-ni<i H* ti r*t of all (Thuc. 1, 6 :1 ). 'Ev rols 
TrXflo-rai VTJCS, by far most of tin' ../ i'/*.s (Thuc. 3, 17 1 ). 'Ev mis /zaXioTa, //c-.s/ 1 
O/all (I'lnt. Crito, 52 R ). 

1365. NOTE. Occasionally /AaAtora (poetic also TrActovov or /xeytorov) 
is joined to the superlative. 

Toil/ p.d\i<rra nvoj/rartov, o/ f/f/ rm/ stupidi'st (Plat. 7 T i w. 92"). Similarly 
/zaXXov witii the comparative, 1354. 

1366. A strong superlative is obtained by adding the positive to the 

\\ya0(i)v 'nnrfoyv KpaTKTTos u>v tTTTrevf, being the best of yood hort&nen 
(Xen. Cyr. 1, 3 15 ). A stronger form than this is obtained by doubling the 
superlative, as eV roTy p.fyia-rois p.(yi(rrov, <jr>i<^ ninny flu- yr<-t*'xt (Plat. 
Cratyl. 427 e ). A less emphatic form is made by doubling the positive, as 
, horrible of the horrible (Soph. Oed. Tyr. 465). 

1369 THE ARTICLE 39 



1367. Originally the article was a demonstrative 
pronoun. In Homer it is generally used as a demon- 
^trative or personal pronoun ; sometimes as a relative 
pronoun (but for 6 usually the relative 09, and for roi 
usually the relative o't). 

'O yap ftacri\i]'i \o\d)0c\s voixrov ava (rrparov Stpcrf, tn in <(/</< / 
it tin kiii<l flit a /iliitliit iifian tin- )iv*t (77. 1, 9). T rj v 8' f'yot 

ov Xfo-w, lint I //// nut fnt h>r (II. 1, 29). ToO 8* ocXi* 
(pciiftos 'ATToXXetfc, ami I'iioilms A/>n<> Innnl hint (II. 1, 43). 
T Hoy o rw TroXe/LU^e, wkile hf fniujht iritli him ( /"/. 15, 539). 
As a relative pronoun : ^TrftXr/crev p.vffov, o 8) rereXe<r/nf' vos 

fWl'l', /" 'iff i fl <i tlii'Klt (lit. fftfi'iitinul <i *ii;-lt) ir)ii,-h is niiir 
ui/i/ixliKl (II. 1, 388). Tfv\(a 8' ct-(vdpit;f, ra ol Trope 

him (II. 7, 146). \\e6\ovs TroXXouy, TOVS $>air)K(s 

(ir(ipr)(ravT 'OSuo^ov, IIKIIUJ rniitf*tx ,it //-///cA tin /'/(/ iifimix 

tried Ulysses (Od. 8, 23). Uaa-iv rot ^Xt'oj fyycydamr , 

to all "/" nrt' I", m in ir,n,,, (II. 5, 493). 

1368. NOTE. With this use of the article compare 
the uses of the German article der, die, this, which may 
be employed as an emphatic demonstrative (its original 
meaning) ; as " der mann " = " that man " ; and as an 
ordinary relative pronoun, as " der mann den ich gesehen 
habe" "the man whom I saw ". 

1369. In Homer the article used with a nun is 
usually a demonstrative emphasi/in-- it ; in very 
many cases tl ! noun is an appoeitive to the artirl- 
(especiallx- too Se). 

(urtv V6 ytftw. tl'<it nl.l MMM /,,,,, {,;,! (II. 1, 3:i). 

Tov (jivtiov tvurirrjao), I ii-ill i-'l'if' tin, nMjiM-vt. . 98). 
'O (<td. 8, 388). TM rr.M' ,.. 

tli (II. 1. L'07,. '!',' ;i l>t <rTnr. him. ti 17. 

. 'O tf tftpax* X'**'*' * * A P?f '""' '" 

40 THE AETICLE 1370 

(II. 5, 859). 'O 8e gvfjLftXrjTo yepaios, but he, the aged man, 
met them (II. 14, 39). 

1370. NOTE. The dative TO) is equivalent to therefore 
(so in a few places in Tragedy, as Aesch. Pro. 237 ; Soph. 
Oed. Tyr. 510) ; sometimes to then. The accusative TO 
is sometimes used adverbially, wherefore, on which ac- 
count ; as TO /<ai K\ouovortt TtrrjKa, therefore I pine away 
weeping (II. 3, 176). See 1377. 

1371. The article in Homer is, however, found in 
a number of places used as the definite article proper 
in Attic. 

'O ytpatv, the old man (often). C O gdvos, the stranger 
(often). Oi/ fj,tv pot 8oKfcis o KnKKrros 'A.^niS)v, thou 
dost not appear to me to be the worst of the Greeks (Od. 17, 415). 
Ot n\ov(s irarpbs KciKiovs, the most are worse than their father 
(/></. 2, 277). *Oy 7/89 TCI T favra TCI T tWo/ifi/a, who knew 
the thiinjK tlinf nn inn! thus, tlmt are to be (H. 1, 70). 'O VIKTJ- 
fais, the MMgttntai (//. 23, 663). Tovs vovs, thine, i.e. /// 
steed* (II. L'O, 572). To <ca<rra, each of these things (II. 11, 
706). Of aAXoi, the others (often). Ta>i/ oirifav, those left 
behind (Od. 11, 66). Ta ^aKporara <y\ta, flu Inmost shears 
(II. 14, 373). Of evtpdc 6coi, the gods below (It. 14, 274). 
'H Xlpo/id^oto 5a/ia/;, tin- irife of Promachii* (II. 14, 503). 
\r)8r)v ft8ov, Trjv Tvi/Sapeoy irapdnotTiv, I .<.<"/ L><l<i the wife of 
Tyndareus (Od. 11, 298). Ma\dovi TW 'Ao-KXijTriao 1 ?/, Machaon 
the son of Asch-i>iu* (II. 11, 614). 'E/i* TOI' dixmjvov, me the 
unhappy one (Od. 7, 223). 

1372. NOTE. The transition to this ordinary use as 
the definite article proper can be seen in some examples 
in which the noun is in apposition to the article (1369) ; 
also in cases where a pronominal dative is interposed 
between the article and the noun. 

AvTap 6 YoTcrt yfpwv 68ov rjyffj-ovfvev, buthe, the old inmi, 
showed them the way (Od. 24, 225). To> 8e of oo-o- vi> fK(iXv\^f 
fjif\aiva, and black night covered his eyes (II. 14, 438, 439). 

1373. NOTE. Commonly the article is omitted in 
those cases where its ordinary employment would be re- 
quired in Attic. 

1377 THE ARTICLE 41 


Arpcidao nor d(nri8a 7rdvTO(r' eicrrjv, ouS' fppr)fv \a\ic6v, dvt- 
yvdp.(f>6j] 8f ol aixfiq da-rri8i cv Kaprcpfj, Alexander JSni tlir<>r 
A/.N loiiy-shadowcd afn-nr <(j/<n'/i.s/ /Ac shield of the san of Atreiis, 
l>inl <>n nil .s-/f/..N-, // f/i// -if hwiA- //if brass, for the point was 
l.,,,t a/,,,,, t),, stmnii .s/i/.7/ (//. 3, 346349). 

1374. NOTE. The use of the article with adjectives, 
participles, pronouns, and adverbs, to form substantive 
ideas (compare 1271) occurs also in Homer. The article 
proper with the infinitive (as in 2230) does not occur 
in Homer. 

1375. NOTE. The article has thus four uses in 
Homer : as a personal pronoun, as a relative, as a de- 
monstrative, and as the definite article proper. Of these, 
the last-named is the least common, and often cannot 
be distinguished exactly from its use as a demonstrative. 

1376. 1. The lyric poets generally use the article as 
it is used in Homer. The Attic tragic poets sometimes 
use the article as a demonstrative or relative, especially 
in the lyric parts. 

2. Herodotus uses the article generally as it is fo.ind 
in Attic prose. Of the relative he uses the forms os, T}, 
o*, cu ; for the other foims all beginning with T, he uses 
the article (TO, TOI-, T/}S, TW, etc.). 

\vpov TOV Koi vvv otKt'ovtrt, the place which almi n<f 
uitilnt (Hdt. 1, I 2 ). But he uses the other relative forms 
after an elided preposition, as an' &i/, &' ov ; and in certain 
conjunctional expressions, as *V oi, "/"/ , es o (fats ov, axpt ov, 

ptXpi ov), until, till, f ov, Kim-' . 

3. In Doric and Aeolic the T- forms of the article 
are sometimes found as relatives. 


1377. In Attic prose, tin- ]ii-niininiii;i] us,- ,if the article is re 
in the following cniiiliiiatiin- 

42 THE ARTICLE 137& 

1. 'O fj,ev...6 Se (in all cases and numbers), the one... the 

Of pev avra>v (r6evov, of 5' eo-<pi>8dVcoi/, some of them shot with bows, avid 
others used slings (Xen. Andb. 3, 3 7 ). TS>v iroXcwv al ptv rvpaj/i/ovi/rm, at fie 
SrjpoKpaTovvTai, al 8( dpuTTOKparovvTat, some of the states are ruled by tyrant*, 
others by democracies, and others by aristm-i-in-H's (Plat. Hep. 338 d ). 

2. 'O Se, rj Se, TO Be (in all cases and numbers), and he, but he, etc. 

Kvpos St'Soxrt K.\(dp\<j> pvptovs SapeiKovs- o Se Xa/3o>v TO xpixriov OTpaYev/za 
(Twc\((v, Cyrus yam (^learchus 10,000 tlm-'n-s, mid ) (Clmrchus) collected an 
army with the money (Xen. Anab. 1, I 9 ). *Idp*s...'A0ipHitovs cirriyaytro* 
ol 8* rj\Bov, Inaros called in Athenians ; and they came (Thuc. 1, 104 1 ). 

3. Kal rov, /cal TIJV, as accusative subject of the infinitive. 

Kat TO i' dTTOKpivaaOai Xf'yeTat, ti<l it is *<ii<l tfxit h< tuisa; r,d (Xen. Cyr. 
4, 2 13 ). Km TOV Kf\fva-ai Sovvai (sc. Xfytrai), "//-/ (it i* s<ii<l) he commanded him 
to give it (Xen. Cyr. 1, 3"). 

4. Tov /cal TOV, tJiis man und that ; TO /cat TO, this and that ; TCL 
teal TCL, these and those ; ra r) rd, these or those. 

'Affntcvnvfjiai a>f rov KOI T<V, J coilH' to this nnni anil tlini tun- (Lys. 1, 23). 
"ESft yap TO xat TO Trot^trat, cat TO p,^ Trot^o-at, for H'' nmjht t<> Inn; ,l,,n> //i/.s and 
flint, ninl unt t'o Ixiri </<>/,, //,, other (Dem. 9, 68). Ta cai Ta irfTrov6a>s (Dem. 

21, 141). 

5. Adverbially: TO /ie/'...TO 8e or Ta fiev...ra be, partly..* 
partly (Plat. Symp. 211 a ; \<-ii. Aimh. 5. (I- 4 ); similarly TOUTO pev 
...rovro &e (1475). 

So also: rf) ptr TTJ bt, /// tin n-, <>n tin <>,,, Inuxl on 

tin utlnr h.,,,,1, i^rtl,, , Mll H,, (Plat. Leg. Sii'.r : \, n. .\i,nb. 4, 8 10 ). 

Hpo TOV or Trporoi), before this, formerly (Plat. Ni/mp. 173* ; Ar. Nub. 4). 
Toi, therefore (Plat. 7V.../,/. 179 d ), very rare in prose (see 1370). 

1378. NOTE. With prepositions, the expressions under 1377, 1 
and 2 are usually inverted. 

'Ei> pcv Tots avp.(f)(i)vovp.(v, (v &e rois ov, iii *<nm' tli'imj* m- agree, in others 
not (Plat. Phaedr. 263"). 

1379. NOTE. If o /xeV 6 8c refer to no particular person, T!* 

may be added to make the expression more indefinite. 

"EAe-yoj/ TOV KOpov 6 p.v ns TTJV (ro<j)iav, 6 Se TTJV Kaprcptav, 6 de rf]v TrpqoTTjTa, 
6 Se Tt? xat TO KciXXoy, they were speaking, one of Cyrus' wisdom, another of his 
fortitu<{>\ another of h-i* mildness, yet another of his beauty (Xen. Cyr. 3, I 41 ). 

1380NN^TE. Eardiy the article ajone is used pronominally before 
a relative.Y 

'Opeytrdi T(iv o e an toibj', hi nim* t that n-hj<-h i*i'ynal (Plat. /*//, i/,.. 75 1 '). 


1381. NOTE. Sometimes the singular of 6 //.e^.-.o 6V means one 
part . . . the other part . 

'H XX^ (TTpaTib 8i\a 17 piv npbs rfjv iroXiv fx&povv, 17 6 e npbs TO OTOV- 
pa}^La.t! r.sfnfthe annii nilr,iiii-i-il in tiro divisions, on? part ttwarila tin- city,, 
the other toward* th, stuchtde (Thuc. 6, 100 1 ). 

1382. NOTE. To &V, without a preceding TO /*eV, is sometimes used 
adverbially to introduce an opposing statement, especially in Plato. 

Otovrai p.( <ro<f>bv fivaf TO 5e Kivo'vvfvci r<a OVTI 6 6tbs (ro^oy eti'm, thfii 
think I a tn irixt : hut in truth ( ,'<>,! (i/i/// /.s iriw (Plat. Apol. 23 R ). 

1383. NOTE. '0 /xeV is occasionally found without 6 8e following, 
as in Hdt. 1, 59 1 . 

1384. NOTE. Often (6) /*eV is wanting and 6 8e follows. 

Ai'o Xe'-yto d8rj KU^TMK, aXXoi'axrtv, ri)i/ df TTfpKfropttv, I .saj/ </!</' r< fn-<> 
kinds of motion, "<-hmw" and " motion in place" (Plat. Theaet. 181 d ). 

1385. NOTE. Instead of 6 with /xeV or &V, some other word may 
take its place. 

reupyus fifv fls, o 8e ouco&o/zoy, n h nxb(tn<lin'ln fin- <//,-, tln-n i 

butider (Plat. /.'/. : 

1386. NOTE. The forms 6, 77, ot, a?, when used pronomhially (as 
above and in Homer) ought to be accented (o, ^, of, at) ; but this is 
generally not done. 

1387. NOTE. For TO in expressions like TO iravTw Oavfj-ao-TOTaTov, 
TO TrdvTwv fuyurrav t see 1520. 

1388. NOTE. For the relative 09 /xtv.-.o? 8e used in the oblique 
cases like 6 //r 6 &V, see 1509 ; also for o *ai ?W in Hdt. 


1389. 1. The Greek article ordinarily convspnmU t< tin- 1 
lish !.- finite article. 

I'fjp, the in<in. Tan' yvvaiKGH', <>f tin- inninn. Tiv Tro\f<ru\ to tin 


2. The article may be us-.l in ,i nae, mai-kin- :\ -in-u 

lar noun as representative, or a plural n<>un a^ tli- totality. 
class. A.lj.--ti\.- ati'l pai-tij-iplrs an .'t iciilarly us.-.l in this 
way. 'I'll*- iC'-neric article must often he l.-t't untran^lat.-.!. 

: d/io>7ror, iimn. Ol ytpovTty, th> >i<il. '() .r<.r/, 



dyaOol avdpo)7roi, good men. Oi ai/Sptloi, the brave. 'O /SouXo/ieyoy, any one 
who wishes. 

1390. NOTE. At the beginning of a clause, the article is some- 
times separated from its noun by yueV, Sc, re, ye, yap, 8?, ovv ; and by 
TIS in Hdt. 

T&v TIS IlepcreW, one of the Persians (Hdt. 1, 85 4 ). 

1391. NOTE. Sometimes the article is found alone, its noun being 
omitted through change of construction (anacoluthon) or by a sudden 
or strong emotion. 

H T&V XXo>i> 'KXX^J'wi' - , fir* xpr) KOKtav f*Tf ayvoiav...i7r~iv, 

the , whether one should say cowardice or folly of the rest of the Greeks 

(Dem. 18, 20). Ma rbv , ov trv -yt, not you, by , the name of the god 

being omitted (Plat. Gory. 466'). 

1392. NOTE. For the use of the article in place of an unemphatic 
possessive pronoun, see 1454. 

1393. NOTE. Our English indefinite article a has no equivalent 
and is not expressed in Greek ; when it means a certain, it can be 
rendered by ris, r\. 

'Opo> (ivdpa, I see a man. But 6po> av8pa rtva, I xer a <> rtn'm num. or 
simply / see a man. 


1394. The article often unites with other parts of speech to 
form substantives (12701301). 

1. With adjectives and participles (1271). ol TrXovo-toi, the rich, oi 

n-apovTfs, those pi'wiii. 

2. With possessive pronouns (1274). Of o-ot, you, //</,/,. Ta 
j]p.(Tfpa, our postirxxian*, itij'ii'irs. 

3. With genitives (1273). Qovnvbi^s 6 'OXopov, Thucydide* tfa- (*<>i<) 
of Olonis. KXcapxos not ol ttfivnv, Clearchus and his men. Ety rf)v 

(sc. yr]v\ Into ///*// <xrn <;nii<tni. 

4. With local datives (1271). Of MapaSwvi /cm 2aXa/iTi/t, tin*'- 
Jotiilht) at Marathon a ml Su/iiniis. 

5. With adverbs (1271). Of vvv, the people of to-day (lit. the now 
people). Of TOT*, those of thf />///<. Of Kt, the people aver there. Ta otcoi. 
//' JI-N, f/M/ij/.s at home. C H avpiov, the tnorron-. 

1396 THE ARTICLE . 45 

6. With prepositions and their cases (1271, 1272). Ot cv T ort, 
those in the city. Ta irpos rov nokepov, the thimjs (needful) for the war. Ot 
Vi TO> ia> Ktpai, those on the right wing. 

7. The infinitive which is a verbal noun (2185) very often has the 
neuter article. T6 /3a8t'Vii/, u-ilkin>i. T6 c&cVat, the kiuri,,,i. 

8. The neuter TO is prefixed to any word or part of speech con- 
sidered merely as an expression. T6 Xyi, the word " \iyci ". To 

avtipunos, the word " avOpanos ". To "EXXar, the Word ""EXXaff". 
Similarly with a whole sentence, as TO yv&6i vavrov, the saying "know 


1395. NOTE. For the great variety of meanings of the neuter 
article with an attribute, see 1281 1301. 


1396. The article is inserted in the following cases: 

1. Generally with names of countries, as these are adjectives by 

C H 'EXXar, Greece. 'H 'ATTIKTJ, Attica. Also names of nations ; as of 
, the Greeks. 

2. With a cardinal number : 

(a) When it denotes a part or fraction of some number. 
To>> TrcvTf rhs 8vo poipas, two-fifths, lit. the two parts of the five (Thuc. 
10 2 ). 
(6) With an approximate or round number, especially after d/n<t, 

(*?, VTTt'p. 

"Yjpdvav Tjfj.(f)(it d/x0t T&S TptflKoi/Ta, they remained about thirty days (Xen. 
Anab. 4, 8 1 *). TaXavra nXdu) TW v Tpio-^tXta)i/, more than three thousand talents 
(Xen. Cyr. 3, 1 M ). 

(c) When it denotes a number in the abstract. 

Ta Sis nfvrt 8(Ka e<rriv, twice five w ten (Xen. Mem. 4, 4 7 ). 

3. Often with proper names if the person is already well-known or 
mentioned, so also with things. 

'O 2e>KpaTT)e (the famous, well-known) Socrates. Ot Tpo*r TO d^ca fny 
<ii rfl^oi/, the Trojans held out the ten y the " // -known ten years of th> 

$iege (Thuc. 1, II 3 ). Compare the Latin Hie Socrates. 

4. To denote a thing as particular, proper, or customary under the 

Kpivti 4>(Xovr ft Kotpor ut xpva&v TO irvp, the (particular) occasion ttut* friend* 

46 THE ARTICLE 1397 

s fire does gold (Men. Mo it. 270). Ot irXova-ioi TO is xP*)P- a(Tlv fa>vovvTai 
rovs Ktvdtvovs, the rich buy off dangers for money (Lys. 24, 17). 

5. With appositions, especially if the apposition distinguishes the 
person from another of the same name. 

s, Silanus the seer (i.e. no other Silanus) ; but SctXqi/or ptivris, 

6. An apposition to the personal pronoun of the first or second 
person has the article, if the same apposition would retain it as a third 

'Hp.fls of o-TpaTTjyoi r)x&6fji(0a rols yeycvrjpcvots, "'< </ /< rl* <//v /v.rr,/ <if tin 
,,1-i-in-i-t /MT.S (Xeii. .I//"/'. .">, 7' JI )- 

7. When it has distributive force, where we use each or a. 

T/mi jy/iififipfiica rov p.rjvos ra> orpfiTKOT//, tlif" li<tl f-<l<iri<-x <i month to each 
W,/;,,-(Xcn. Anal,. 1, 3-'). 

8. A noun with a possessive pronoun or a dependent possessive 
genitive of a personal, demonstrative, reflexive, relative, or interrogative 
pronoun, takes the article if it refers to a definite person or thing. 

'O troy p.a0T)TTjs or 6 /jia^i/r^r crou, //<>/// /m/nl ; but (Toy p.Tj0rjrr]s or fjLadrjrrjf 
o-ov, " /"'/"' "/ .'/"'/>. Ta roi/rou- ^p^ara, f/u'.s limit's money. 'O fpavrov 
rji), IIK.I <'" f'ttlnf. but Trmr eavroO, <( -/i//i/ .(' /M'.S ur. Ti'i/or eto 

</<,// s, , // / Am, V ou rai tfp 

9. A noun qualified by a demonstrative takes the article. 

o avqp, //I/N ,nnn. See 14791483. 

1397. NOTE. Observe: iroAAoi", man//, ol TroAXoi, ^e many, the 
great mass ; oXiyot, few, oi oAiyot, the few, the minority, the oligarchs ; 
ot TrAetovcs, ^e majority ; TrA-eio-rcx , ^/te most numerous part ; aAAoi, 
others ; ot aAXot, ^e others, the rest ; TO TTO\V, the great part. 

1398. NOTE. Names of nations denoting the people or state as a 
whole often omit the article ; as in Thuc. 1, 144 2 . 

1399. NOTE. (a) Occasionally the article is prefixed to an inter- 
rogative pronoun when the pronoun refers to an object before mentioned 
or understood. 

Tpvyaios. -rrdaxfi 6 davpfHrrov . 'Ep/z^y. TO TI; T. A strange thing is 
him. H. (The what) what is it? (Ar. Pax, 696). 2. Nvi/ 817 
&> 4>aI8p6, 8vvd[jL(0a <piveiv. 4>. Ta Trota; Soc. Now then, 
Phaedrus, we can decide about that conclusion. Ph. Al><it //// 
<Plat. Phaedr. 277"). 

1401 THE ARTICLE 47 

(6) So also before a personal or reflexive pronoun, especially in Plato. 

Toi/ o-e /cat cp.f, (Plat. Phil. r>J> l) ). Aeupo 817 tvdv f)>v. irapa rivas rovs 
VIMS: \. Come hith< / ati-night to us. B. (To the you being whom) who <// 

n,,f I mv*t '-'.//it- to? (Plat. Lys. 203 b ). Tor Wdi/ (the himself ) A/N -/ 
1'lat. Pfcaedr. 258"). 

(c) Similarly with a pronoun of quality or quantity, and even with 
one already combined with the article. 

Trjjr TTjXiKavrrjv dpxi'ji', M'<7 <m i in /><>rf<i nt <>&<< (Plat. Leg. 755 b ). To 
TOIOVTOV uvap, N"7( n 'Irmin <i* tlii* (Xell. Anolt. 3, l u ). To re OuTfpov KOI ro 
tin otlin- mill 1li< an tin' (Plat. Tim. 44 b ). 

1400. NOTE. In Attic poetry the article is often omitted 
where it would be necessary in prose, especially with 


Mf.s advanced t<> / /,,,,/, / ni'tln- .^I'-rifice (Eur. Hec. 224). 
Kf mu Kovei <j>6povaa dvfmjvov Ktipa, she lies defiling her ill-fated 
head with the dust (Eur. //" . 4%). Muur/za rovro, thi* xtn'm 
(Soph. Ant. 1042). 'O yfvvrjTup fp,6$ for 6 ycvvrjro>p 6 ep.6s, 
my father (Eur. Hipp. 683). 

1401. The article is omitted in the following cases: 

1. Abstract nouns especially names of virtues, qualities, arts, 
sciences, occupations, and materials generally omit the article. 

'.\p(Tr], virtue. 'Prjro/H/c//, rhdoric. \pvo-6s, gold. But the article must 
be used if the noun refers to a particular person ; as 17 2&>Kparouy npcnj, tin 
"' of Socrates. 

2. In many familiar designations of time and place, which probably 
arose before 6 became the article. 

'\\H*> Ni'KTiiy, I''! ni'ilit. "A// <o>, tif ilium. "A/A* f)\iu> ai>- 

'Ev 8|ta, <it // ri'iht. 'Kr iiy/j. in tl mark, t-place. Kar' aypm-, in th- 
country. Kara yrjv, f>>l luml. Kara $&atnrmVi ''.'/ *'. 'ETrt 8<>pv drcurrpffpf- 
<r0(u, to wheel to the right (lit. xfM-nr). IIu// ucnrifta aytu>, to lead to the li-ft (lit. 

/). Also fiK^iiTToXiv. ifinl'l. Ti\ov, *///, npftpiix. <1< ///'. <lA', 8(1X1}," 

noon, ?np .ii.l otli-r>. S.-r ;il.s.. I I'M , .,. 

3. The article is frequently omitted in specifications of </ 

, and tlie like, whether they are accusatives of 
specification (1595) or datives of similar meaning (1812). 

Kvdvoy oi>o/ifl, upor 80o ir\i6p<av t n n> / . ' /;/ miwr, (^ /A. 

brwltli <>f (;, /,/, //i/-,i 1. L^'). IlX^op <W Ato-^i'XwM, 0601^ two 

</u>" \. n. .I/'"/'. J. L'-'). Ot (J>v<T(i d(r0fv(<rraT(H, 



by nature (Xen. Mem. 1, 6 7 ). FcVei Trpoo-rjicuv /3atrtXei, a relation by birth to 
the king (Xen. Anab. 1, 6 1 ). 

4. Bao-iAeu's, designating /N? fcm</ o/ Persia, is usually without the 
article ; similarly, /xe'yas /?ao-tA.V9, /te </rea king ; Trpvravejs, the prytanes, 
often omits the article. 

5. Frequently with ordinals and superlatives. 

Km TpiTov CTOS rc5 Tro\(p.o> fTcXfVTa. <//c/ //if third year of the war ended 
(Thuc. 2, 103 2 ). Etr 'lo-0-ov?, rr/y KiXiKm? fV^ari;!/ TrdXii/, o Jm, Me Zastf eifaf 
o/ CiJicia (Xen. Anab. 1, 4 1 ). 

6. The article is sometimes omitted before ovpavo?, s%, yi}, ear^/i, 
T/A.IOS, s?m ; also<ra when it means the sea in a general sense. 
Similarly the article may be omitted before names of family relationship 
when one's own relations are meant, before Trarpis, native country,. 
7rdXi5, native city, ao-rv, town. 

'fjTTTpf\^aTf aura) 7rarpt'8a KOI naidas KOI yvvalicas, you committed to him 
your country, your children and your wives (Lys. 12, 69). Etr a<rrv Kara/3atWti/, 
to go to town. Note also (\ rratSdy or K Trcu'Swi/, from boyhood ; and 0dr, the 
(/in'/ufi/, but 6 titns, the (particular) God. 

7. Names of festivals are usually without the article. 

Ar/Xta fKfivov TOV P.TJVOS ffv y the, Delian festival was in that month (Xen. 
Mem. 4, 8 2 ). 

8. A predicate-noun or adjective stands without the article. (For 
exception, see 1403.) 

'fjfjuropiov 5* r)v TO x&>pt'oi/, the place was an emporium (Xen. Anab. 1, 4 6 ). 
"E^i; TTJV yttpyiav ru>v XXo>v T\vS)v fjujrepa not rpofybv fivai, he said that agri- 
culture is the mother and the nurse of the other arts (Xen. Oec. 5, 17). 

1402. NOTE. Observe that possessive pronouns, comparatives 
and superlatives, and ordinal numbers omit the article when they are 

\mpp>v ( craipos rfv, Chaerephon was my friend (Plat. Apol. 21*). 
For 6 aurdy, see 1423, 2. 

1403. NOTE. When the predicate refers to a particular individual 
or a class, it has the article. 

'A-veicaXovv Kvpov rov fi/fpyeTTjv, TOV av8pa TOV dyaffov, they call&d Cyrus the 
(real, true) benefactor, the (really, truly) good man (Xen. Cyr. 3, 3 4 ). Euri S* 
oroi of ei&ores rriX^tfe'y, and are these those (whom I mean) who know the truth ? 
(Plat. Hipp. Maj. 284"). 

1404. NOTE. So also the predicate participle takes the article 
when it denotes the same particular individual as the subject. 

fju. 6 f>pas o-a>a>i>, I am your preserver (Xen. Mem. 2, 7 14 )* 


1405. NOTE. When two or more substantives are connected by 
aii'1, and the first has the article, it may be omitted with the others. 

Tovs & dypovs TOVS tavTov KOI oiKias, /H'X ///< !<tnds and hwises (Thuc. 2, 


1406. 1. An attributive adjective qualifying a noun with the 
article usually stands between the article and the noun, as in 
English ; or it stands with greater emphasis after the noun with 
the article repeated. In the latter case, the first article is some- 
times omitted. Thus : o dyaOos dvtjp, or o dvrjp 6 dyaOos, or dvrjp 
6 dya06s, the good man. These three positions of the article are 
termed attributive positions. 

T6 0/}Xu yfvos, the female sex (Plat. Leg. 805 d ). Tovs <vvas TOVS xaXfTrou?, 
savage dogs (Xen. Anab. 5, 8 24 ). 'AvOpv-rrois rols dyaOols (Xen. Mem. 2, I 32 ). 

2. Tli.' same rule applies to all attributes (1207, 1265), to the 
]> >^sessive pronoun, and to dependent genitives of pronouns 
(except of personal pronouns). 

( )f napovTfs TToXtrcu or ol Tj-oXIrat ot Trapovrts, the present citiz* /i.s. 'H TOV 

irarpbs olicia or 17 oiKia f) TOV iraTpos, the father's house. 'H ai/o> rroXis or 17 no\is 

fj <ii'it), flu "/'/" ' >''^\l- 'H fv Mapad&vi fui^r; or 17 paxn "7 * v Mapa$a>>i, the battle 

ir<ithon. 'H TOV narpos oiKtd or fj otKt'a f] TOV Trarpor, tfi>' fofhir'* liauxi . 

'O (fjios TTdTrjp or o iraTrjp 6 f'/iop, my father. 'H e/xaurou p.tjTijp or 17 fjLrj-njp ff 

ffiavrni. iin/'iii'n mother. Ta TOVTOU ^p^ara or ra ^pJ7/iara ra TOVTOV, this umn 's 

money. 'H ovopa(opfVT) dvopia, the so-cull,-,! /-/./-. ni (Plat. Phaedo, 68 C ). Tot? 

TU>V 'AGrjvaiwv (rrpaTrjyo'is, n-ith fl 'i-inrals of th< .\tlnnimix (Thuc. 4, 132 1 ). 

H mv vncp ro>i> 'HXfiwv opovs Kopvtfrr), the summit of th< hill n'hich is over the 

Kit-inns (X3li. ////. 7, 4"). To i'nrX : TiKiir TO yt rJ)i- 'K\X/;ru', flu h> m-ii-<i rml 

troops of the Greeks (Plat. Loch. 191 b ). Ths oxptXdas Tas eic Trjs orpaTfias Tyr 

eV tKtivnv fo-ofjLt'vas, fli> <i>l ruiitiiift:^ irhich trill ,//-(.sy from th> c m/xi i<in <i<i<iin*t 

(Isoc. 4, 15). To TW oirt V"^"v. '/ iil falsehood (P\&t. Rep. :382). I 

KXfuo-Ivt i(pa), in fl<- t> tittle at Eleusis (Lys. 6, 4). 'Ei/ Ttj dvaftda-fi TIJ ^i*ri 

, ! ,///;,,/, ,ritl, ( 'yrus (Xen. Atuib. 5, I 1 ). Of Xlot ro rI^of n-f puIXni' 

TO KmiMii', ^//- Aroto </<(//, /A,;,- neio '// (Thuc. 4, 51 1 ). 'Ei' rw 

r^/ Xoyo), ii the previous narrative (Xen. !/<-//. r>, I 1 ). ToOrtrr< (laaiXius, 

then king (Xen ' T;r otc5< ofioi'. 'A- /in// 

r A*X^)oif xpTj<TTr)pi<n , </ th- />>i/>lu (Xen. Cyr. 

7,2"). 'Aro ffaXtifrn-rjy r^f Iwi'oir. />..,,, // .\ 50'). 

iQVTfS T^jv Sro'/>Jii-rov. /../'/ /. Xi-Huplivn ( ''. 6, 4 1 "). 


50 THE AETICLE 1407 

'H (Kfivov vfipis KOI f) f)fj.Tpa vno^ia, their insolence and our suspicion (Xen. 
Anab. 3, I 21 ). Tov ftiov TOV e/iauroi), my own life (Plat. Gorg. 488 a ). 

1407. NOTE. Several articles may thus stand together. 

Ta rr/s TO>V 7roXXa>v ^vxys o^ara, the eyes of the soul of the many (Plat. 
Soph. 254 a ). Insertion of a genitive is avoided (except occasionally in later 
writers) if similar forms of the article would thus meet ; thus, not irfp\ TOV 
TOV ftiov TcXovs, but Trept TOV reXovy TOV ftiov, concerning the end of life. 

1408. NOTE. The attributive genitive of a noun (but not the 
partitive genitive) may have either the attributive or (less often) the 
predicate position (1415). 

'H TOV Trarpor oiKta or f) oiKia f) TOV Trarpos, and rj OIKIO. TOV -rrciTpos Or TOV 
TTdTpbs 17 otKia, the father's house. Tfjv T>V #ap/3apa>j/ (ptXidv, the friendship of 
the barbarians (Xen. Anab. 1, 3 5 ) TTJV Qvyarcpa TTJV jSao-tXfW, the king'* 
<l<i xghter (Xen. A nab. 2, 4 8 ). 'ETTI O-KTJVTJV IOVTCS TTJV Sfvo<p(avTos, going to flu 
t'-nt of Xenophon (Xen. Anab. 6, 4 19 ). ToC KVK\OV fj ncpioo'os, the length of the 
circle (Xen. Anab. 3, 4 n ). Ti/ TtXfvT^ TOV /3t'ou, at the end of life (Xen. Anab. 
1. '.P). Trjv y op06rr)Ta r^r /^ouX^o-ewy, the righteousness of the purpose (Plat. 
Leg. 668). Aia TOV o\cOpov T&V o-i><rrparia>ra)i/, by the death of their fellow- 
soldiers (Xen. Anab. 1, 2*). Sometimes the attributive genitive in predicate 
position is rather partitive in meaning. 

1409. NOTE. Occasionally a relative or temporal clause is inserted 
as an attribute. 

Ti)r ota Trap" fjfjuv eort -rroXiTfias, of such a state as there is among us (Dem. 
19, 186). O oioiVfp fyim avdpfs, men such as you (Xen. Cyr. 6, 2 s ). T^ 
onov povXio-0< oXiyapxias, of an oligarchy wherever you please (Dem. 22, 52 ; 
24, 163). 

1410. NOTE. 1. The partitive genitive (1619, 6) of a noun is not an 
attribute, and therefore does not have attributive position ; it takes 
the predicate position (1415). 

T&>v 'AOrjvaioiv ol yepaiTciToi (commonly) or oi -ytpatrarot TU>V 'Atfi/i/cuW, the 
oldest of the Athenians. TW 'Atiyvaiov 6 8ffp.os or 6 Si/fioy ra>i/ 'AtfTji/cuW, the 
common people of the Athenians (i.e., in distinction to the upper classes). 
But 6 T>V 'A0r)vaia>v d^pos or 6 S/j/tos 6 ro>v 'A&ji/aiW, the Athenian people, 
the Athenian state. So 77 2a)cparous <piXoo~o(pia or 17 <pt\ocro(ptd f) Scoxparovs, the 
philosophy of Socrates = the Socratic philosophy, i.e., no other philosophy ; but 
17 <pi\o(To<pia Saxcparous or StoKparouy fj (ptXoo-ocpia, the philosophy of Socrates, 
i.e., nothing else of him, the genitive being here partitive. 

2. Yet the partitive genitive is occasionally found in attributive 

1412 THE ARTICLE 51 

Tots fvdaof i>p.(t>v aSiKou/ifVoiv, to tlnutt- of you here who were being injured 
(Thuc. 6, 8r). To 8' avr&v pfyicrrov, the great part of it, i.e., of the palace 
(Hdt. 1, 98 2 ). Tols 'EXXqixui/ TrXovo-ttorarot?, to the richest of the Greek* (Thuc. 

1. 25 ).' 

1411. NOTE. 1. When a noun with the article is qualified by two 
or more words which have attributive position, they may all stand 
between the article and its noun, or each may take an article and 
stand in attributive position. 

*E7rf/A7roi/ els ray uXXdy 'ApxaSiKiis TroXeir, they sent to the otlirr Arai'lnn, 
cities (X en. ////. 7, 4 s *). 'Ei> TQ dpxaiq Trj f)p.cT(pq </>a>i>?/, in </ /.</ d\al-t 
(Plat. Cnttyl. 398 b ). Tbv oXXoj/ TOV ftiov ytyvaxrKdv, to kiiotr my other 
life (Lys. 24, 5). Ta rtlxn ra favrwv ra /zacpa, their own lo,<<i n-tiUs (Thuc. 

I, 108 2 ). C O TOKOS 6 fyyeios 6 f<p(KTos, tif //I/I'/VN/ on tl' liiml <it the rate of 
one-sixth of the principal (Dem. 34, 24). *u<rty f) dvOpunivT) rj ^Xeia, th> 
human female character (Plat. Rep. 452 e ). Ei'y TO /xtya nXoiov TO ^OLVIKIKOV, 
into the large Phoenician ship (Ken. Oec. 8, 11). Trjr eV 2aXa/itrt irpbs TOV 
TlfpaTjv vavpaxias /z/ii/^o-dat, to remember the nawl battle <tt S<tl,nni# against 
the Persian (Aeschin. 2, 74). 

2. Occasionally one qualifying expression stands between the 
article and the noun, while another follows the noun without the 

Tbv OVTOV (8<oKv aypbv 'E X e v a I v t, l </"'' /(/> nn-n land at Eleusis (Isae. 

II, 41). Ot dirb TU>V (v Trj 'Ao-i'a TToXfotv 'EXX?;i/t5ft)i/, those (coming) from 1l 
Greek cities in Asia (Xeii. Hell. 4, 3 15 ). Mlpovpfvot TTJV f^r^v ovva^uv ntpi 
TTJV bpfTcpav y ( v art i/, imitating my power in your <,> nti.,,i (I'lat. Tim. 
41 e ). 'H vvv fiptTtpa opyrj (s MvriXrjvaiovf, j/oj/r pi-twitt on</ir <i gainst the 

lenaeans (Thuc. 3, 44 7 ). Tffs TO>V yvvain&v <j>i\ias npbf TOVS avdpas, th, 
love of wives to their husbands (Ken. Hier. 3, 3). 

1412. NOTE. 1. With nouns denoting an action or condition, an 
attribute consisting of a preposition and its case sometimes foll<>\\ - 
the noun without repeating the article. 

'H ^vynoiuorf ( K TOM' ayputv <V TO aorv, //< <i'itln ///// r/../// // ,<i//////-i/ into 
thecitii (Thuc. 2, 52'). 

2. Words qualifying a participle or adjective are often not inserted 
between the article and these words, but are made to precede the 
article ; this occurs generally for emphasis, but sometimes from 
negligent construction. 

IlAf/orv frroi-Tm f p. n v 01 f'Xt'y -^oi-rt v. //"/. ir'ill l>< inr< OCCIUeTS of //"'/ 
Apol. 39). nXtjpuxravTat (Ti Tttt \mirht TO>I' i-tui', ///./,/,-/,./ flo ir.tilt / 

52 THE AKTICLE 1413 

1413. NOTE. 1. When an attributive participle with words de- 
pending on it qualifies a noun with the article, either the dependent 
words or the participle may follow the noun. 

'O K OTC i\r)(p as KIVO'VVOS rqv TroXti/, the danger which has overtaken the 
city (Dem. 18, 220). T6i/ peovra irora^ov 8ia rrjs 7r6\t>s, the river which runs 
through the city (Xen. Hell. 5, 2 4 ). At VTTO TOVTOV ^Xao-^r/p'at t Ip^n cv at, 
the slanders uttered by thin man (Dem. 18, 126). 

2. A predicate-noun connected with an attributive participle gen- 
erally precedes it. 

T6 KOT v\aiov 6vop.a(6p.fvov opos, the mountain called Cotylaeum 
(Aeschin. 3, 86). 

NOTE. For the position of article with possessive pronouns, 
see also 1396, 8 ; and 1455, 1457 ; with the possessive genitive of per- 
sonal, reflexive, and demonstrative pronouns, see 1455, 1460, 1468. 

1415. An adjective which either precedes or follows the article 
with its noun is always a predicate-adjective (see 1208 and 1314). 

'O dvfjp dyados or dyados 6 dvrjp (sc. mi'), the man is good or good is the 
in >in. Me-yaXj; 777 (pwfj, with loud vo-ice (Xen. Hell. 2, 3 s6 ). 'idpovvrt ra> 
tTTTro), with his horse sweating (Xen. Anab. 1, 8 1 ). 'Hyou/zei/oi avrov6p,a>v T&V 
{vp.p.dx<i>v, being leaders of allies u-hn i/v/v independent (Thuc. 1, 97 1 ). For 
other examples, see 1310, 1314, 1316; compare also 13171321. 

1416. 1. The adjectives a/cpos, /xo-os and co^cn-os, when in predi- 
cate position, mean the top or point, the middle, and the last or end of 
the noun they qualify. 

T6 opos aKpov or aKpov TO opor, the top or point of the hill. C H ^flp <i<pa 
or a/cpa fj x t 'p t ne P^ n ^ f ^ ne h<Mid ,' but TO anpov opos, the high hill (there 
being others). 'H vr)<ro$ p.<rr) or /xfVr; ^ viyo-or, the middle of the island; but 
17 ploy vri<ros, the middle island (between other islands). To opos eo-^aroi/ or 
(o-\aTov TO opos, the end of the mountain ; but TO to-^aroi/ opos, the last 
mountain (Thuc. 3, 107 4 ) ; Xen. Yen. 3, 4 ; Dem. 29, 12 ; Hdt. 5, 101 ; 
Xen. 1, 8 13 ; Plat. Phaedo, 109 d ; Thuc. 4, 35 1 . Compare the Latin 
summus, medius, extremus. 

2. Iltt? (strengthened also aims o-v/xTrd?), all, usually has the pre- 
dicate position. 

Ilao-a 17 TroXif, all the city ; nao-ai at noXfis, all the cities. When it means 
all together or the sum total, it takes the attributive position ; as at Trao-at 
noXeis, the cities all together ; TO irav TrXrjBos, the collective mass ; 6 iras 
dpidpos, the s^im total ; ol TrdvTfs avQpviroi, all mankind (Xen. Anab. 5, 6 7 ) ; 
but ndvTfs avQpwiroi = everything belonging to the species "man," all in> /*. 

1418 PRONOUNS 53 

B. 12, 60). 'O iras or of irdvTfs with a numeral means in all; as rptrjpfat 
p*v TOIS TrOtrais Ttacrapai nal rpiClKovra KOI fKarov, with one hundred and tiiirty- 
//'/ trtr>-in<'t in nil (Thuc. 6, 43 2 ). Has in the singular without the article 
before a noun means every; as iracra TrdXir, m-n/ city. Similarly before a 
participle or adjective having the generic article (1389, 2) ; as iras 6 AO'IKOS, 
t r, ni unjust person (Plat. Leg. 5, 731 C ). liar 6 J3ov\6(ji(vos, every one who wishes 
(Plat. Rep. 416 d ). When iras means all kinds of, completely, all that, the noun 
does not take the article, it being then predicate ; as irdvra KUKCI (pyd(r6ai 
TT)i> ird\iv, to do the city all manner of evil (Dem. 19, 314) ; tv irda-rj dvap\ia, 
i;,in f ,l,t>ly in onarchy (Plat. Rep. 575 R ). 

3. Similarly, 0X05, whole. 

"O\rj f) iroXis or 17 iroXis 0X17, all the city. 'H 0X17 TrdXir, the whole city, tin- 
city as one body. "O\rj noXis, a whole city. 

4. MoVos meaning alone has predicate position. 

Mcij'os- 6 vios or 6 vibs p,6vns, the son alone; when it means only, it takes 
attributive position ; as 6 povos vios or 6 vibs 6 p.6vos t the only son. 

5. "H/Mt<rvs, half, usually has attributive position. 

T6i/ fjpurvv fflrov, half as much corn (Xen. Hell. 5, 3 a ). See 1417. 

6. "EKflurro?, each, cKartpo?, each (of two), a/x^xo and d/x^drepoi, both; 
take the predicate position. 

"Ejcao-roj 6 dvrjp, each mmi. Of these, e<aoTo? alone may omit the article. 

7. Nouns qualified by the demonstratives OUTOS and oSe, this, and 
Kii'o, that, always take the article ; the position of the demonstratives 
is predicate. 

Ovros 6 dvfjp or 6 dvfjp OVTOS, thin num. Simikrly avros when means it 
*elf; as avrbs 6 dvrjp or 6 dvrjp avros, the man himself. See also 1479, 1489. 

1417. NOTE. The neuter TJ/XKTV, half, as a noun, often stands 
without the article, rjfjuo-v TOV o-TpaTer/Maro?, half of the army. The half 
of a number of persons is usually expressed by 01 ^/itVrcis, cu ^/uo-ctm 
with the partitive genitive (1416, 5). 

Tcov <}irt(T0o(pv\dKuv rovs T]p.i(r(is, half of the rear-g\u\rd (Xen. A nab. 4, 2"). 
In other cases, even, rjfua-vs is s.niu'tiiues assimilated in gender and numU-r 
with its defjendent partitive genitive ; as iirfj.irov rS>v />rwi mvs fjiuo-tis, they 
tent half the loaves (Xen. '*'//. 4, 5 4 ) ; but tipratv ^/i/o-ca, half-lour,. (X.n 

-I n.lh. 1, 9). 



1418. The nominative of the personal pronouns is only used 

for 'in|,li;isis ; when not mphatir. it is omitted. 


'Errft #fie Is ffwl OVK 0\(T TTfidcvdm ovdf f-rrfo-dm, -yo> (ruv i} rv//-o/jat, 
you do not ivish to obey me or to follow me, I will follow you (Xen. Anab. 
1,3"; 2, l u ). 

1419. 1. The forms C/AOV, /xot, e/ne are used instead of the enclitics 
/AOV, /*ot, /ue, whenever they are emphatic, and generally after preposi- 
tions ; in these oases o-ov, <rot', ere are accented. 

"OTTCHS 8e K<U fyictr e/x f-rraivea-fTf, e/xoi /itXiyo-ct, i itfiM 6e mi/ care /ia you 
s/ia commend me (Xen. ^4?ia6. 1, 4 16 ). OuYf trv (Kfivas <pi\fls, ovr eWtz/ai o-f> 
in ither do you love them nor they ymt, (Xen. Mem. 2, 7 9 ). Ilap' e/ie, napa tr. 

2. npos /M is used for TT/JOS e>c. 

1420. NOTE. If two prepositions with the same dependent pro- 
noun are contrasted, the enclitic form is used. 

'En-t at i) (Tvv o-ot, against you rather than ivith you (Xen. Anab. 7, T 32 ). 

1421. The oblique cases of auro? are the personal pronouns of 
the third person ; as 670) avrov elSov, I saw him, eBtaxa avru> TO 
j3i/3\iov, I gave him the book- In this case, it cannot stand at the 
beginning of a sentence nor in emphatic position. 

For the use of of, of, ?, etc., see 1449 1453. For the possessive 
genitive of the personal pronouns, see 1455. 

1422. NOTE. When two verbs, which govern different cases, have 
the same object, the case of the object depends on the first verb ; and 
no pronoun takes its place with the second verb (as in English). 

Ot>x tajpaica npvrayopav irunrrrrf ot>8' aKqitoa ovStv, I have never seen 
Protagoras nor ever heard inn/thin^ of him (Plat. Prot. 310"). TW 6(oi<ri xp*l 
Qvovras alrclv T(tya#a, it beh<>' sacrificing to the gods, to <ixk fr <i<><l 

things (Eur. Hel. 754). 

1423. AVTOS has three uses : 

1. In all cases, it may be an intensive adjective pronoun, him- 
self, herself, itself, myself, thyself, themselves, etc. (Latin ipse). It 
may stand alone, the noun or pronoun in agreement being under- 
stood; or it may be joined to a pronoun; or it may qualify a 
noun. As regards the article and noun, avros intensive takes the 
predicate position. 

AUTOS 6 TTarrip or 6 Trarrjp avros, the father himself. 'Eyo> OVTOS or avrbs 
f'-yd), I myself. AVTOS Mcvwv, Meno himself. Avros t<pr), (he) himself said if. 
Avrjj rf) ^vxfi, with the soul itself (Plat. Phaedo, 66*). Tqi> aKpififiav avrrjv, 
tin- liti-Hil <;-iir<i<->i (Thuc. 1, 22 1 ). Avrol Vfjids fnivraaQt, you yourselves know 


(Xen. A nab. 7, 6 12 ). SvpfiteVoxrc cat ra cmXa KOI avrbv e/*f, /ie rescued both 
me and my arms (Plat. Syrup. 220"). Avrot r^i/ yip to-^oi/, </iei/ seized the 
/>/</ themselves (Thuc. 1, 114 6 ). 'O Epaaridas TTJ Qc<r<ra\>v yfi KOI avrols 
(sc. rois 6e<ro-aXoIy) (piXos TJV, Brasidas was a friend to the country of tin 
Thessalians and to (the people) themselves (Thuc. 4, 78 4 ). nXf voreoi/ ds rain-as 
avrols cpfiaaiv (sc. vp.1v), you must xttil, embarking in these yourselves (Dem. 
4. L . 

2. Preceded by the article, it means the same. 

'Ei' TTJ avrf) otict'a, in the same house. 'O avros dvyp, the same man. Tyv 
avrfjv firjTtpa Kal rov avrov irarcpa, the same mother and the same father. 'Ey<J> 
p*v 6 avros clfu, I am the same (Thuc. 2, 61 2 ). Ti/ Se avr^ rjiiepq, and on the 
Xen. Atiab. 1, 5 12 ). 

3. In the oblique cases, when not at the beginning of a sen- 
tence nor in emphatic position, it is the personal pronoun of the 
third person. See 1421. 

1424. NOTE. In the sense of the same, Homer some- 
times uses avrds without the article; aMiv 686v, the same 
/ (Od. 8, 107 ; 10, 263). 

1425. NOTE. For the difference between the emphatic forms CMC 
i , fTf. aiVoV, etc., and the reflexives c/mavrdv, o-cavrw, etc., see 1440. 

1426. NOTE. For the oblique cases of avro'sused reflex- 
ively in Homer, the personal pronoun being understood, 
see 1447. 

1427. NOTE. AUTOS after an ordinal numeral may denote a person 
as the head of a given number. 

'Hipt'Or) irp(rfi(VTr)s (It \aK(8aip.ova 8e KOTOS oirros, In- \i;i 

M // head o/ien 'lit. him^-ifth. t,,,th) Xt-n. //.//. 2, 2 17 ). 

1428. NOTE. AVTO? intensive has various shades of meaning. 
(a) Kal avros = also, even he, of himself. 

'H ytdifiyin rroXXa icai avrf] 8i8(i(TK.u, <i<iri<-ulf u > it*> //<//>< (as well as t her 

troche* maun //M'*//.S (Xen. Oec. 19, 18). 
(6) Airds often = just, the very, close to. 
'"Yirtp avrnv TOV TrorafioO, jnxt over the river (Xen. Aimb. 4, 1 s ). 'Etr' avrots 

IhiK-. 1.7). II/Mur fnVf.) roi (rrpaTtvpoTi, close 

fn fin ////../ ' \.-li. .\n'il>. 1. S"J. \,'T -i. -if this limn. 

(c) AVTO? sometimes - alone, by oneself ', apart, of one't own accord, 
real or pure. 


Xcopet avTos, he goes alone (Xen. Anab. 4, 7 11 ). Avroi yap fV/^ev, for we 
are by ourselves (Plat. Leg. 836 b ). AVTOVS rovy (rrparrjyovs dnonaXfaas, h<trin<i 
called the generals apart (Xen. Anab. 7, S 35 ). "H^i yap avra, for this will come 
to light of itself = of its own accord (Soph. Oed. Tyr. 341). Avrol "EXXr/i/es, 
ov /iZo/3ap/3apoi, pure Greeks, not half barbarian (Plat. Menex. 245 tl ). 

(d) Plato uses avro with masculines and feminines, as well as 
neuters, to designate the abstract idea of a thing. 

Atr6 diKaioo-vvTjv, justice in the abstract (Plat. Rep. 363 n ). 

(e) Avros is said of the master by a pupil or a slave. 
AUTO? c<pr), the master (Pythagoras) said it. 

1429. NOTE. For the dative of accompaniment strengthened by 
see 1775. 

1430. NOTE. For the personal pronoun used instead of the re- 
flexives, see 1437. 

For the personal pronouns used as accusative subject of the infini- 
tive, see 1438. 

1431. NOTE. Kai euros denotes that a person is or does of his own 
accord something which another already is doing or has done ; it is 
then translated by I myself also (you yourself also, etc.). 

'fjTT(i8fj <ra(p<i>f dirtovras fj8r) (rovs ftapfidpovs) cu>p<*>v ol "EAXiji/er, Inopfvovro 
K at avrot dvacvai>T>;, "/"/ /"<' n-hi-u the Greek* saw that the barbarians were 
clearJif .'/'>'";/, tlti-if also l>r<>k- ;/ <//</ /n:fned their march (Xen. Anab. 3, 4 37 ). 

But Kai ovros is used when a statement is made concerning one 
person or thing, which has already been made concerning another ; 
we then translate it by and this also. 

'Pel o Mat'afftpos Sta rr)s TroXftoy tori 8e KO.I /3acriXfta tv KfXaivals eVt rais 
irrjyals TOV Mapavov iroTapoii pd 8e K al o v T o s dia rffs rroXf toy, the Meander 
Jlows through the city ; there is also a palace in Celaenae on the sources of the 
Marsyas and th-ii /.s_^i'-.s through the city (Xen. Anab. 1, 2 s ). 

1432. The indefinite English one or you (they), is variously ex- 
pressed in Greek. 

1. Most frequently by ris. OIOITO ns V, oJfrd ns v (1553), out 
would think. 'Ecii> ns with the subjunctive and et TIS with the optative, 
if (any) one, or oorty nv with the subjunctive and Sorts with the optative 

2. Often by the participle with the generic article (1389, 2). O 
$ovXo/zei/oy, (any) one who wishes. 


3. By the third person plural active, especially with verbs of 
saying ; as \iyov<ri, they My. 

4. By changing to the passive construction ; as Xcyerat, it is said. 

5. By impersonal verbs (1211 1213); as d*I, o> must. 

6. By the potential optative (2113), here the second person singular 

is often USed. At? cs rbv avrbv TrorafMV OVK civ (pftaiijs, you would not go 
twice into the same rirer (Plat. Cratyl. 402 a ). 

1433. NOTE. For the omission of the accusative nva with the 
infinitive, see 2191. 

1434. NOTE. They say = it is said, they report = it is reported, 
can be expressed impersonally by passives, as Aeyerat, ayye'AAercu 
(1211, 3) ; but they went, they have come cannot be rendered by passive 
impersonal forms, as in Latin itur, ventum est (1883). 


1435. The reflexive pronouns refer to the subject of the sen- 
tence. Often in a dependent clause, they refer to the subject of 
the leading verb ; they are then called indirect reflexives. 

rvaiQi (Tavrov, know thyself (Plat. Prot. 343 b ). Aidw/zi <roi ffiavrov 8ov\ov, 
I give myself to you as a slave (Xen. Cyr. 4, 6 J ). 'AfaTnrevci tVi rfjv eaurov 
<TKT)vf)v, he rides back to his own tent (Xen. Anab. 1, 5 12 ). Of ^rra>/ii/oi c a v r o v s 
T( Km ra (civT&v ndvra dirofidXXovo-iv, tin- i-iimfiiished lose both themselves 
and all that belongs to them (Xen. Cyr. 3, 3 48 ). Hapfdoo-av oi ndvT(s <r <f> a s 
avrovs, they all surrendered themselves (Thuc. 7, 82 :t ). Ta apiara ftov- 
\(v((r6( tfjilv avrols, you advise the best for yourselves (Thuc. 1,. 43 4 ). As 
indirect reflexives: e/SouXero 6 KXe'ap^os atrav TO orparfu/Aa irpbs favrov 
f\t.v TTjv -yi'to/iiji/, Clearchus ivixhed the whole army to b<" >l> rtl to himself 
(Xen. Anab. 2, S 2 *). Et<rtVat (K(\(v<Tfv, d p(\\ois a~vv aura) (Kir\(lv, he bade 

< ome in, if you should wish to mill trith him (Xen. .\iil>. 7, l :w ). *Eircur<v 
'A.0T)VMovs favrov Koruyciv, In- penuadtd the Atln-ii'mnx to restore him {from 

i (Thuc. 1, 111 1 ). Tfjv no\ixt")v (Ttix^ov, i rt faoi <r<f>i(riv avrols, they 

began to fortify Polickna, in '.<' it mi<iht he necessary t<> tln-m (Thuc. 8, 14*). 

p<vos avrltt firifypiovs civai trauTO), n-<iiinlin<i th> in /" /. harmful to you 

i. Mem. 2, 7*). Twv f'Bvuv TOITOJV r)p<v (sc. KOpor) ov& (avr<p 
yAdrrrciM' orrwi' nvrt XXr)Xotf, (<'i(rus) becani- 1U though they 

wtrt not of the same tonyue with /H//I.S*// nor irith >,i<-h nth, >ir. 1, 1 B ). 

'luayta, oaa jrp/iv rtj iavruv (y/}) jjr, i'fiXoi-To, th>-ii t,,k //- tl,, irrecfo, Of 

y Of Were dote t<> flair '//, I, mil (Time. L'. '.!') Of <ro<pt<rrai 


rS)v fjLaOijr&v o)r ddiKov<Ti <r<f>as avrovs, the sophists accuse their pupils of 
wronging them (Plat. Gorg. 519 C ). 

For the possessive genitive of the reflexive pronoun, see 1460 1467. 

1436. NOTE. Sometimes the reflexive refers neither to a leading 
nor to a dependent subject, but to some dependent word. 

'A? (Tovrov 'yd> ere Si8ao>, / will instruct you from your own case 
from yourself (Ar. Nub. 385). T6i/ K a> pdpx r l v TOTf ^X fTO "7 G)|/ irpbs rovs 
f avrov operas, Xenophon then went leading the governor to his own (i.e., the 
governor's) people (Xen. Anab. 4, S 36 ) ; also Xen. Hell. 6, 5 21 , Lys. 32, 16. 

1437. NOTE. (a) The personal pronouns are often used instead 
of the reflexives. 

hC/xay KfXfi'co f /it fjilp.f'io'&ai, I enjoin 1/011 t<> imitate me (Xen. Cyr. &, 6 1:! ). 
AOKCO pot aio-8dv(o-t)at, I seem (to myself) to feel (Xen. Jfier. I, 6). AOKOJ ^iot 
is more frequent than 80* o> (pavTa*. 

(b) Similarly the oblique cases of avros are often used instead of 
the indirect reflexives. 

\(yov(rtv, on /iera^ieXot avrols, they said that they were sorry, lit. th<it it- 
repented thtm (Xen. Anab. 5, 

1438. NOTE. As accusative subject of the infinitive, the personal 
pronouns are used, not the reflexives (compare 2188). 

'Eyo> <>ip.m Kai ( p.f KOI a f KOI rovs <i\\ovs avdpairovs TO dftiKflv TOV o&iKeur&u 
KaK~ov fjyflaSai, I lli< M tl,<tt you and I and the rest of men believe it worse 
to wrong than to be wronged (Plat. Gorg. 474 U ). 

1439. NOTE. Sometimes the reflexive is rendered more emphatic 
by prefixing to it auros in agreement with its subject. 

Oi>x olos Tf faTiv avros ai>T<u ftorjflflv, he is not able (himself) to fn //> /*//- 
6-c//(Plat. Gorg. 483 b ). To yiyvdxrKfiv avrov f a v r 6 v, for one (himself) to Jnunr 
himself (Plat. Charm. 1(55''). 4>atVtrat ra p.(v avrrj d C CIVTTJS fj ^^XT 
cTTKTKoirflvy the soul appears to view some thimj* /// it*-lf (Plat. Theaet. 185 d ). 
When the noun belonging to the reflexive is preceded by the article, avro? 
is occasionally inserted immediately after the article ; as KaraXeXvKa rf]v 
avros avrov Sui/aoTft'av, he has overthrmvn his own dominion (Aeschin. 
3, 233). 

1440. 1. The forms /xe avrov Or avrov fj. (or rarely avrov e/xe), o-e 

avrov or avrov o-e, and the like, are not reflexive, but emphatic (see 1423). 

Tov? naldas rovs epovs y(T\vvf <al }*( avrov v{3pto~cv, he duffWCfd ni>( 

children a ml i nxiilti'tl me myself (Lys. 1, 4). 'Hfie'coy av TrvdoipLrjv avrov <rov y 
I n-,nili1 ijltnllii iwi-tnin from you yourself (Dem. 56, 32). 


2. But tavror, eavraJ, etc., are never separated into o? aurov, etc. ; 
the emphatic auTov, arrw, etc., being used instead in emphatic position 
(1421) or in contrasts. \ap.f3avov(Tiv avrbv K.a\ yvvatKa, they take the man 
himself and his wife (Xen. An<ti>. 7, S 22 ). 

3. The plurals rj^v au-noi/, etc., are either reflexive or emphatic ; 
but avrStv fjfjLw, etc., are in most cases emphatic. Yet <r<o>i/ avrw is 
only reflexive ; while ai-i-wi/ o-^tuv, etc., are never used. 

*AXXo TI f)pa>v avrotv TO p.fv cratfia eVrt, TO Se ^ux'/> ** 7M) ^ one part of us 
limlii, .!/,/ nnnther part soul? (Plat. Phaedo, 79"). Ovftev avrov xaradijo-ct tzXXa 
ra vp.(T(pa avrois OTroStoo-ft, /ie it?ti? io< lay dawn any of his own 
property, but n-ill r>t^m t<> iin ii<ir <>n-, t (Lys. 29, 8). Ov dvvcifjuii iravra irfpi- 
Xaftflv, aXX* avrovs 6fiay XP*I K(lt r " TTfpiXeXfi/z/it'i/a <rvviBfiv, I cannot embrace 
everything (in my discourse), but you might yourselves to reflect on what is omitted 
(Isoc. 14, 63). 

4. In Homer forms like ot avrw, ? avrov, etc., may be 

reflexive or emphatic. 

1441. The reflexive of the third person is sometimes used for that of 
the first or second. 

Aft TjfjLaf dvfpfvQai e CIVTOVS, we must question ourselves (Plafc. Phaedo, 78 b ) 
' A.7ro<f)aivfTf a Kaiordrovs eavrovs, you show yourselves most awkward (Lys. 8, 
This occurs in poetry as well as prose. 

1442. The plural of the reflexives is often used for the reciprocal 

'Hpiv avrols 8ia\(<>fji(8a, we shall convert with </// <in<>tln /. lit. amorwjr 
ourselves (Dem. 48, 6). QBovovvres favrols p. r <rov(riv d\\r)\ovs y they hate each 
other through envying e?}i <>fli>r (Xen. Mem. 2, 6*). 

1443. For other reciprocal expressions, see 1875 and Part II. of the 

1444. As the reflexive forms ftavToi), orcavroi), and 
do not occur in Homer, he uses instead the ortho- 
tone personal pronouns alone, ?o (eto, cv, Wtv), ol, c, 
ox^uW, o-^uVi, a-<^ta? ; or the personal pronouns with 
avrov , avroi, etc. ; Or avrov, avra, etc., alone. 

9 f>< XiVopii, / ./;// KOOM myt0i/ (JI. n>. :;:s). '.\w. 

/. II. }:, ,,l (II. 

15, 241). *Q<r av 7ro </> i' W |. (//. 4, 536). 
4>i/^ti/ /3ovXfOov<f( ^ra crfyaiv (//. 1<>. iill). K<i7/r trfytas 
lta X <'"rt (II. 2, :566). "Kp*v avrv <"'. I 1 ' M 
I'.*,. M,, V ^ K r* >* n.'mr ( //. 


avrov (II. 23, 312). 2ol avr<u (Od. 1, 279). 2' avrov (II. 
10, 389). "Eo avrov (II. 19, 384). OI avrai (J7. 5, 64). *E 
avrfjv (Od. 17, 387). 'H/ze'ay avrovs (I/. 8, 529). 2<v avrwv 
(77. 12, 155). 2<iVii> avrol? (Od. 20, 213). 2<eas avrovs 
(77. 12, 43). Avrov for avrov /xov (Od. 22, 38). Avra> for 
avrw o-ot (II. 17, 152). Avrov for avroV o-e (77. 2, 263). 
Avrovf for q/ias- avrovy (Od. 10, 26). So reflexively : ovrov for 
e/zavrov (Od. 21, 249) ; CIVTT) for e f avr# (Od. 2, 125) ; uvr&>i> 
aTTcoXo/ietf' a(j>pa8ir)(riv, we were undone by our own folly (Od. 
10, 27). 

1445. NOTE. Enclitic forms of a personal pronoun 
are also found before an oblique case of avro?. Mot avrai 
(Od. 5, 179). M(...avr6v (II. 15, 722). Tot...avT^ (II. 6, 272). 
OI..MVTTJ (Od. 4, 66). Mtv avrov (II. 21, 245). 

1446. NOTE. When avrai and avroV come first, only 
an enclitic form of a personal pronoun is used. Avr&J ^toi 
(II. 5, 459). Avroi rot (Od. 22, 345). AV piv ot (Od. 2, 
190). Avrov <r (II. 9, 680). 

1447. NOTE. The reflexive use of the personal pro- 
noun of the first person is found mostly in the accusative 
with the infinitive ; of the second person there are per- 
haps no examples ; of the third person there are many 
examples of the singular, very few of the plural. Ex- 
amples of the personal pronoun with an oblique case of 
avrds are not frequent. Uncommon are the oblique 
cases of avrds used reflexively. 

1448. NOTE. For ^iv used reflexively, see 1453, 4. 

1449. Of the old personal pronoun of the third person ov, the 
forms ol, <7</>6t9, a<J>a)v, o-^iai, cr<a<? are used, in Attic prose, almost 
always as indirect reflexives or in dependent clauses. Of these ol 
is enclitic. 

'Ei/rav#a Ae'-yerai 'A7roXXa>i> f^cSeipat Mapcrvav viKr)(ras rptfovra o t Trept o-o^ias, 
here Apollo is said to have flayed Marsyas, havin<i i; (l i,jiiish,<l I, im in a contest (with 
himself 01) of skill (Xen. Anab. 1, 2 s ). 'EyjcX^/iara ftMOv/jifvoc, OTTOS <r oj> t o- 1 v 
OTI peyio-Tr) npo^aa-ts (*r) rov no\(p.(lv, making charges that they might have the 
-strongest poss-ible pretext for war (Thuc. 1, 126 1 ). *EX*ai> on trf^tif o-<f>as 
.6 'Ii/Swi/ /3ao-tXfvy, ti'i/ *ii,l fjuit the king of the Indians had sent them (Xen. 


''-//. 2, 4 7 ). \(yfiv T (K(\(v(v avrovs, on oi8eV &v TJTTOV creels aydyoifv, he 
!,,i,l, tin in .in;! that they could lead no less (Xen. Anab. 7, 5 9 ). Oi 'Adipatoi, a>s 
(6 ^Ayis) Trapr)\&( KOI f^K\Ivfv dirb o~<f>)v TO ffTpdrfvpa, Ka$* fjo~v^idv fo~to6r)<rav, 
the Athenians, as Agis passed by and withdrew from them, escaped at their 
leisure (Thuc. 5, 73 s ). 

1450. NOTE. The forms ou and I occur, in Attic prose, only in a 
few passages in Plato (in part, poetic). 

*E0i; 8e, fTTdftfj o v K@fjvai rrjv ^u^r/i/, nopt i>o~dcu, he said that hi-s soul, 
it had [/OIK nut of hnn, t run-lied (Plat. Rep. 614 b ). *A\\ovs nvas e(prj a 
oroSrj/AOj' o1\fo~Bai. dirtovras, * 5c (sc. 'ApioTo^/iov) virvov \af3clv, Aristodemus' 
thnt NO//I.- otln-rs n; ,,f ,m;tij, that he himself fell asleep (Plat. Symp. 223 b ). 
Ov also (Rep. 393 e (epic), 617" ; Symp. 174 d ). ^E also (Rep. 327 b , 617 e ; Symp. 
175* 1 '). For ov is used eavroC or airrov. 

1451. NOTE. The form ot occurs rarely in the Orators ; except in 
Antiph. 1, 16 and 5, 93 ; Lys. 23, 13; Andocides, li5-38.40.4i, 42. i sae ^ 
6, 27. The Attics have it rarely accented ; except Plat. Symp. 174" ; 
Xen. Hell. 7, I 38 ; Pep. Ath. 2, 17. 

1452. NOTE. The form oxpwi/ occurs often in Thucydides, now and 
then in Plato (as in Rep. 618*), seldom in other Attic prose (as in Xen. 
Cyr. 3, 2 25 ), perhaps never in the Orators ; for n-^v possessive eavruiv 
or o-<^Tpo9 avrwv is commonly used (1460, 1462). The other forms be- 
ginning with <r<- (without aurwv, etc.) are seldom used by the Orators. 

1453. 1. The personal pronoun of the third person 
(ov, ol, etc.) is generally used as a personal pronoun 
in Homer. It is then enclitic. (For its reflexive 
use, see 1449). The genitive singular is seldom found 
as a personal pronoun ; the nominative plural <7<pefr 
is absent from Homer. 

<v (v dKr)&(o-cv f no one neglected him (II. 14, 427). *E7rt 
oo c 6 ( v tort xtpeia>v, since she is not inferior to her (II. 1, 114). 
Tfjv o I Trope *ot/3or, which Phoebus gare him (I I 1 . 7- ). 2vv 
ovoKoidfta vrjvcri, at ot t-rrovTo. tritli tin-lve ships which full<>n:<l 
(in, (II. 11, 228). Kat <pu\a<ro-f, and watch him (R. 3, 

408). TtOf d< f Tta-VdfHl.lotnr, III' ;l /.-/,,,/,,,/ //, /' ,(f 

oxen(n. 23, 705). Tt'r r p o-<f> a>t...vvt'i]Kt iMxr6tu; who 
then engaged them to fight together? (II. 1, 8). "O o-<pa>i > 
...t \tunv ^atr/io>v car<^*i', "/ /// 
(II. -i>. 281). 'K* ycip <T c a> v (fipivat <I\T{> IlnXXrir ' 


for Pallas Athene bereft them of their senses (II. 18, 311). "En 
yap cr<pi(ri KV&OS opeo>, for I will still give them glory (H. 
17, 453). Ou a <p i 6a\a(rcria fpya /if/zqAct, naval works were no 
care to them (II. 2, 614). 'AXXa a (peas Kparepbs Aiop,f)8r)s 
e^vdpi^ev } but them the strong Diomedes slew (II. 5, 151). Kat 
<T<peas (pa>vr)(ras enea rrrepoevra TrpoaTjvo'a, and addressing 
them, he spoke winged words (II. 4, 284). Km yap <r<pe... 
eldev, for he had seen them (II. 11, 111). 

2. In Herodotus the personal pronouns are used 
as in Homer ; but eu and ol are never direct reflexives 
nor orthotone ; afylai is always reflex. Herodotus 
has <7</>er<? ; also a neuter plural cr<ea ; for e he has 
piv (1453, 4). 

^rffjLOKi'jdrjs fit o'fia'as, p.Tj fu eKneipatTo Aapctor, Democedes 
fearing that Darius was making a trial of him (3,135 5 , the 
only example of ev). Aurtxa Be o I evBovn (TT((mj ovcipos, 
and soon a dream came to him in his sleep (1, 34 2 ). To rrpoa-a) 
, <rvv 8e ol 6 ne6s orparor, he proceeded forward, and 
him the lan<l-<tninj (7, 58 1 ). Ot, oca>y ir(J)eis Karayoiaro 
-rfi vtji, (fxvyeo-Kov, who fled whenever they came to land with 
their ship (4, 43 5 ). 'Apyeiot 8c a~(f>f(av eiK6vas...(ivc6eo'av ) the 
Argives dedicated statues of them (1, 3P). 'E^f/i7roXj;/ifV&)i/ a (f> t 
<r^('5oi/ iravTtov, when nearly all their goods had been sold (1, I 4 ). 
"2vv &( a- <f> t, with them (2, 85). Kat o- < e a s KaTaXafjiftdixi, it 
has befallen them (7, 38 :< ). \(y6vTd>v...a>s a- (pea (i.e. xpfjfui- 
Ta) (ii'aynaifas fx fl BfKaTfvBrjvai r<u A, let them say that it t* 
necessary that they ( = the things) be tithed to Zeus (1, 89 4 ). 
2 <f> c encl. for <r<fteas or <r(j>ea in Hdt. is now rejected. 

3. The form ov hardly ever occurs in Attic poetry (ov 
orthotone, Soph. Oed. Tyr. 1257 ; lB(.v orthotone, Aesch. 
Supp. 66). The dative ol is rare in Attic poetry (enclitic, 
as in Aesch. Ag. 1147 ; orthotone irap ot, Eur. El. 924). 
The accusative I is absent from the Dramatists ; it is 
very rare in Pindar. The nominative plural <r<eu does 
not occur in the Dramatists nor in Lyric poetry. The 
genitive plural o-^wi/ does not occur in the Dramatists. 

The dative plural <r<i'v is sometimes found in the 
Dramatists (as Aesch. Pro. 252) ; also o-<tW. The 
accusative plural <r<as occurs a few times as enclitic in 
the Dramatists (as Eur. Med. 1378). The accusative 


o-^ s often occurs in Tragedy, sometimes as a singular 
(as Aesch. Pro. 9 = him, Eur. Ale. 834 = her). Even 
<r<f>iv is rarely singular (Horn. Hym. 30, 9 ; Aesch. Pers. 

4. The accusative pJ.v (never orthotone) is frequent in 
Homer and Herodotus. 

'Apvfin fjitv ryovye fiima> 3 / compare him to a ram (II. 3, 
197). Tlporr8f6fj.(6d (rev vfrjvids (rvpTTfp.\^ai ij^iiv, o>y av p,iv 
f(\a>p(v < rffs x ( ^P r ) f ) we as ^ c ofthee to send with us young w// 
hat we may destroy it out of our land (Hdt. 1, 36 4 ). Miv 
is never reflexive in Homer, rarely indirectly reflexive in 

5. The Doric viv (enclitic) is used by the Tragedians 
and by Pindar for all three genders, also as a plural ; so 
viv = him in Aesch. Pro. 333 ; = her in Eur. Ha. 515 ; 
it in Soph. Track. 145; = them masc., fern., neut. in 
Soph. Oed. Tyr. 868 ; Soph. Oed. Col 43 ; Aesch. Pro. 


1454. The possessive pronouns are not used as often in Greek 
a- in English. Where the ownership is obvious, the article is used 

KOpor KOTa7rr}8r)(rds diro TOV appMTos TOV Batpana ve8v KOI dvafiils eVt rov 
imrov TO irdXra fit ras \flpas \aftf, having leaped down from his chariot, Cyrus 
j't OH his breastplate, and after mounting his horse, he took his javelin* in his 
hands (Xen. Anab. 1, 8 3 ). 

1455. Instead of the possessive pronouns e/^o? and cro?, the en- 
clitic possessive genitives of the personal pronouns, pov and a-ov, 
are often used ; less often T^erepo? and fyueVepo? are replaced by 
rjfj.o)v and vpwi> ; for the third person, his, her, its, their, the pos- 
srssiv*- genitives avrov, avrr}<;, avrwv are always used in Attic 

se. As regards the article, the possessive pronouns have the 
attributive position (1406, 1 and 2), the possessive geniti\ - luiv- 
tlir predicate position. 

1 1 * fir/ nUia or 17 otKid 17 epf) or oi'ci 17 t'w or fj OIK id pov or (after another 
word) fjMv 17 ojKtd, my house. Ol nalfa? avrov or avrov oi iraiftts, Aw r/n7 

tjp or o rrarrjp n i)p,(Ttpns or rrarrjp A tfju'rtpnt or o irarfjp tipvv OF 


/xo>i> 6 Trarfjp. 'ili/d/iao-e pov rrjv IT p 6v oiav SeiXidv, he called my foresight 
cowardice (Ar. Plut. 207). C H yXSxra-a <rov, thy tongue (Soph. Aj. 1124). 
'H/iaiz/ 6 /3iW, our life (Eur. Supp. 550). Teas ^u^air f)p,S>v, with our souls 
(Pkt. Leg. 808 b ). To5 <ro>/iari avrov, for his body (Xen. Anab. 1, 9 23 ). Kara 
yv<i)p.r)v rfjv eprjv, according to my opinion (Plat. Soph. 225 d ). At'/iar TO <rov 
(Aesch. Pro. 1019). 'H fjpeTepd virotyid, our suspicion (Xen. Anab. 3, I 21 ). 
Taiy *bp.f repair TroXecri (Plat. Leg. 836 C ). 

For the use of the article with a npun qualified by a possessive 
pronoun or by a possessive genitive of a personal pronoun, see 
1396, 8. 

1456. NOTE. 1. Poetic 05 and cos, which are regularly 
reflexive are occasionally used as simple possessives in 
Homer. Mfra ols tTdpoiviv, with his companions (Od. 9, 
369). 'Eov did KaXXos, on account of her beauty (Od. 11, 

2. The Old Ionic also rarely uses ev and o-<eW as 
simple possessives. Ef Kpdros, whose strength (II. 24, 293 
and 311). *(W< <r<^W, their eyes (Od. 20, 348). 

1457. NOTE. If the article is followed by an attribute, the posses- 
sive genitive may stand between this and the noun. 

C H n-aXai 17/10) i/ (pixris, our old nature (Plat. Symp. 189 d ). 'H 8oKov<ra 
>7/io>i/ n-poTtpov (ra>$po<rvvr), u'hat seemed before our prudence (Thuc. 1, 32 4 ). 
Tvaxrto-df rrjv a\\r)v avrov -rrovrjpidv, you will know his other villainy (Isoc. 
18, 52). 

1458. NOTE. 1. As the possessive pronoun implies a genitive of a 
personal pronoun, it may have an adjective or appositive in the geni- 
tive connected with it. 

T<i/ia 8va-TTjvov KUKO, the woes of me, unhappy one (Soph. Oed. Col. 344). 
TTJV bp,T(pdv r>v (ro(pi<rruv T<XVI\V , the art of you Sophists (Plat. Hipp. Maj* 
281 d ). 

2. In poetry it may have a dative connected with it. 

~A.p,fTepov [= ^/AIV] TTOT/IOU K\(ivois Aa/3&aKi'8ai(ri', the 
doom for us, the famed race of Labdacus (Soph. Ant. 860). 
> E/ioI<rii> ( = e /iot) o(T(roiy 6/it'^Xa 7rpoo"^e... t (TiS ov <ra, a 
mist has suffused my eyes, beholding (Aesch. Pro. 144). 

1459. NOTE. The possessive pronoun is sometimes equivalent to 
the objective genitive (1619, 7), rarely to the subjective genitive (1619, 8). 

Eftvoia 17 6/117, their good-will, rarely my good-will (to others). Eui/oi'a ica! 
through their good-will and friendship to me (Xen. Cyr. 3, I 28 ). 


2^ xapti/, M a f avour t ih ee = f or ih y sake (Plat- Soph. 242*). 4>tXt'a r# <rfj> 
love to you (Xen. Anab. 7, 7 20 ). 

1460. The possess! ves are reflexive (as my own, thy own, etc.), 
wlien the possessor is identical with the subject of the sentence. 
My own is expressed by epavrov, epavrris ; thy own by creavrov, 
o-eavTijs : his or its own and her own by eavrov, eavrrjs ; our own 
by riperepos avra)V, your own by ijperepos avrwv; their own by 
eavrojv or o-^erepo? avrcov (or rarely (r^erepo?) . These reflexive 

ssives have the attributive position as regards the article. 

'O e /i a u r o vtdy or 6 vlbs 6 c p.av T o v, my own son. ' H <r e av rf/ s fj.r)TT)p 
or fj p.r)TT)p f) (r e avrfj s } thy own mother. 'AoTuayr/s p-freirfp-^aTo rr/i/ avr o v 
Qvyartpa, Astyages sent for his own daughter (Xen. Cyr. I, 3 1 ). IIi<rr*vf re roiy 
tfjifTfpots avratv 6(p6a\fM)ls, trust to your own eyes (Lys. 24, 14). 'ETT* 
(\fv6tpiq TT) rail' vp.irdvT<i)v re /cat r^iy/xere'pa avTwv KivSvvfiHravrfs, htii'imi 
faced danger for tin- Hl>rty of all and of ourselves (Thuc. 6, 83 2 ). Of Aa/ee&u- 
poviot roil/ e'avraiv (rv/i/^ia^a)i/ Karf(pp6vovv , the Lacedaemonians despised their 
own allies (Xen. Hell. 4, 4 17 ). OtKeray TOVS o~<f)CTpovs avratv f7riKa\ov<ri 
~ pdprvpas, they <v/// //<!> own servants as witnesses (Antiphon, 1, 30). Tovr 
a-<p(T(povs dnoiKovs, their own colonists (Thuc. 1, 34 1 ). 

For the use of the article with a noun qualified by a possessive 
genitive of a reflexive pronoun, see 1396, 8. 

1461. NOTE. The reflexive possessive may also refer to some other 
word than the subject (1436). 

1462. NOTE. For i^ic'rcpos avrw and i/ucrcpos avrw we very rarely 
find iffMttv avrwv and v/xo>t' avrtttv ; for their own, also o~<pw avrw. 

'H/xcoi/ avT 5>v TTJS &6r)s eVSeeort pour, falling short of our own reputation 
(Thuc. 2, II 1 ). Ta 6/iaii/ avrStv oTrXa, our own weapons (Xen. Cyr. 6, 3 21 ). 
_ Ta ovofjLara 8ian pOrrovTai ar<J>(i>v avrtov 7rpo<rypa(p 771/01 els rr)i/ (rrTjXrjv, //MI/ 
manage to have their own names added to the monument (Lys. 13, 7-). 

1463. NOTE. Poetic are e/xo? avrov, o-os avrov, and d? 
avrov or os auTov. These forms occur sometimes in 
Homer, rarely in Attic poetry. 

'/*/ atroC XP" OS > m y own necessity (Od. 2, 45). 2a> at-rou 
KpOarif with thy "i'-n head (Od. 22,218). r Qi avroO Biipy. ni 
his own mind (II. 10, 204). E6i/ airoC XP (IOS > some d*bt f 
his own (Od. 1, 409). 

1464. NOTK. When the genitives of reflexive pronouns are par- 
titive, they take the predicate position. 



y A.7TOKa\fcravTes a v r a> v rovs ^\TI(TTOVS eVi rois ^etpiVrois 1 TCOV TroXircoi/ 
yfyovacriv, having driven away the best men of tin ir number, they have fallen into 
the power of the worst (Isoc. 6, 64) ; Thuc. 4, 42 4 . 

1465. 1. The simple possessive pronouns ep.os, o-o's, ^ueYepo?, //,e- 
repos are sometimes used as reflexive possessives. 

Tcoi/ KTrj^droiv (rot ro>i/ c p,a>v <i^prjp.L, I lend to thee of my own property 
(Dem. 53, 12). UfiroirjKas rovs (rovs Trpoyovovs flprjviKovs, you have represented 
your ancestors as pacific (Isoc. 12, 241). *Y/4s rovs ti/ifrtpovs- naldas 
ayairart, you love your own children (Dem. 40, 8). Toty ra o-(eYepa <r&>fij/ 
8ov\op.(vots, to those willing to save their own (Lys. 24, 19). 

2. So also aurou (with or without the addition of cjcetVov) in attribu- 
tive position. 

OVTOS fKO(Tfir}(T( TTJV ^v\r)v ovK aXXorpiw aXXa TO) avrrjs K 6<r pa, this man 
adorned his soul not with foreign but with its (i.e., the soul's) own ornament 
(Pint. Phaedo, 114 e ). A.VTOV in these cases = Latin 

1466. NOTE. Poetic o* or d is always reflexive. 
TQ>I/ &v T(Kvo>v, hlfi <ni" n I-/M'/I//V/ (Soph. Track. 266). 'E&>/ 
TreirXuv, her own robes (Eur. El. 1206). And so often in 
Epic poetry. -Herodotus has oy once (1, 205 1 ). 

1467. The genitives of the personal pronouns (/xou, o-ou, etc.) are 
seldom used as reflexive possessives. 

'.Kyo) vTTfp TOV narpos pov T(6vfo>Tos aiTovfiai, I appeal to you on behalf - 
of my dead father (Antiphon, 1, 23). Tovs u/ifiax ov$> cdedifcrav arcp&v, tln-tj 
feared their own Allies (Thuc. 5, 14 1 ). AT. Plut. 55 ; Eq. 565. In late Greek 
the reflexive use of these genitives is very common. 

1468. The genitives of the demonstratives, especially of exfivos, are 
used instead of the ordinary reflexives of the third person for special 

'AcpiKvoCirai napa ' A.pialov KOI Trjv cKtivov (rrpaTidv, they cd'The up to Arioeus 

nnil ///'.s iinnii (Xen. A nub. 2, 2 8 ). 

Examples of the use of CK for e/xo? (as in Od. 9, 28) ; 
o? for <r<Tpos (as in Hes. Op. 58) ; o-^Yepos for os (Hes. 
Scut. 90) ; are very rare, and some are doubtful. Com- 
pare 1456. 

1469. 1. Synopsis of Simple Possessive Forms. My, t/w,os or /xov ; ( 
thy, o-ck or <rou ; his, her, its, aurov, aurr/s ; sometimes in Homer os or 
os ; and Ionic e? ; our, ^/xe'repos or i}fj.wv ; your, ft/xeYepos or $IMW ; their, 

tov and Ionic o-eW. 


2. Synopsis of Reflexive Possessive Forms. My own, f/uturov (-^9), 
/xo?, seldom /AOV (poetic cuds UVTOV) ; thy own, o-eavrov (-179), <rds, seldom 
o-ov (poetic 0-05 ai-rov) ; his, her, Us own, euvroi) (-7/9) (poetic os and to?, 
or os aurov and o? ai-roD) ; ow own, ^/zeVepos avroii', 7//u.trpos, seldom 
fjjjiwv, very rarely ^/Moii/ at-rtoi' ; ?/OMJ* OHW, f^e'repos avraii', d/xcVepo?, seldom 

', very rarely fyuur UUTU>I> ; /tezY OMW, eaviW, o-^/repos avrw, rarely 
;, rarely <r<u>i', rarely <r<pu>v 


1470. OLJTCK, f ///*-, /ia, refers back to something already nu-n- 
tioned; 6'8e, ^/ti.v (here), refers forward to what is near or present 
in place or time: ercelvos, that (yonder), refers to what is remote. 

Ovros 6 dvtjp, tlii* itimi (just mentioned). "Qfte 6 dvrjpj tl<i* ///"" (here, 

before us). "H8e 17 noXis, thin (/(/) ,-if ; i. "H8f f) rj^f^a, tin- ft resent day. 

'l&Kfivos 6 avrjp, flint in-iii (yonder). v EXe| ravra, he said thi* (just mentioned). 

"KXff raSe, he spoke as follows. TCK/UJ/MOV 5e roi'/rou xai roSe, proof of this 

nifiitioned) is th> flh>ir'm<j (Xen. J/c(/). 1, 9' i) ). 

1471. NOTE. But ofros (especially the neuter rovro), sometimes 
refers to a word or thought following. 

Oy TOVTO p.6vov (vvoovvTcu TI ir(l(TovTaL, tln'ii think not of this alone, n'lmt 
//!/ shun *!# r (Xen. .I/M//I. :5, I 41 ). Rarely oSe is used to refer backward. 
Occasionally tKclvos is us-jd to refer to what follows ; as etelvo ert duovaarf 
pov, hear this yet of me (Dem. 20, 160). 

1472. NOTE. 1. Ouro? used in a local sense differs somewhat from 
oSc used locally. While oSc local refers to something in the immediate 
proximity of the speaker, and may then be called a demonstrative of 
theirs/ person ; ouros local refers to something face to face with the 
speaker, and may then be termed a demonstrative of the second person. 

'AXX'j u> iralfas, XtytTt p>t, 08' tori 2o)Kp(ir^s, ire pi ov (KtioroTf p.fpvi)<r0 ; 
init ttll me, boys, is this th< >'</-,//,>, ,,f n-h-nn /.// /unv .> <>it,-i> .</</., n '. upon 
which the boys facing Socrates reply : Haw p*v ouv, 2> narfp, ourot, ccrtainhi 
father, this w he (Plat L<-h. 181*). 

In this way is explained the vocative use of owros (1474), also the 
use of ovro as equivalent to an adverb of place (1482) ; also the use 
of OVTOS and ovroart by an orator to denote the present antagonist (the 
article being here omitted). 

'Atrtfttias <pcvy<i> virn MXr/Ti' T.uroii. / -ty Inj this 

I'i.-it. .\l>"l. . 


2, In tragedy ooe 6 avrjp is sometimes equivalent to 
eyo>; as in Soph. Aj. 78, 422, 446. 

1473. NOTE. Ouros sometimes repeats emphatically a preceding 

Subject Or Object. 'O yap TO cnreppa Trapao~%<i>v , o v r o s TWV (pvvTtav curios, for 
he who furnished the seed that man is responsible for the harvest (Dem. 18, 159). 

1474. NOTE. OVTOS is sometimes used in calling out to a person. 
Ovros, ri Troifls; you there! what are you doing? (4r. Ran. 198). Oror 
here has local force. 

1475. NOTE. Tovro/xeV...(TouTo) of, partly. ..partly, first... secondly, 
is practically the same as TO /XCV...TO 8e (Soph. Oed. Tyr. 603). See 
1377, 5. 

1476. NOTE. Observe the colloquial expression roV e/mi/o or rdS* 
cjccu/0, that's it, there it is ! (referring to something already mentioned 
or understood), Eur. Med. 98. 

1477. NOTE. For ovroo-f, 68f, cVeivoo-f, ovrwo-t, d)8f, etc., see 1472 and 
Part II. of the Grammar. For ovroo-i, in specifications of time, see 1601. 

1478. Kai ovro?, and that too, is used predicatively to qualify 
more definitely a person or thing ; /cat ravra, and that too, although,, 
and yet, and also, qualifies more definitely a verb, usually a participle. 

HavTairacn.v diropatv tort KCU d/i^ai/o>i/ <al dvaynrj c^o/ieVwj/, K at rovrutv 
novrjp&v, oinves fdeXovcrt 8C fniopKias Tf irpbs Otovs KCII &wt*rias irpbs avBptoirovr 
Trpdrrfiv n, it belongs to persons wholly without resources and held down by 
necessity, and wicked also, to seek to do anything by means of perjury to the 
gods and faithlessness towards men (Xen. Anab. 2, 5 a ). 2u fie /*oi 8oKty ov 
Trpocrcxciv rbv vovv TOVTOIS, K a t ravra <ro(pbs a>v, you do not seem to me to pay 
attention to these things, although being wise (Plat. Gorg. 508*). For cat ovros 
= and this also, see 1431. 

1479. When the demonstrative pronouns OVTOS, oBe, and etceivo? 
qualify a noun, it takes the article and has the predicate position. 

OVTOS 6 dvTjp or 6 dvrjp OVTOS, this man. "H8e 17 yvvrj or 17 yvvrj rjdf, this: 
woman. 'EKCII/O TO /St^Xioi/ or TO /3t/3Xioi/ eneivo, that book. Tavrrjs TTJS x^P 1 !*) 
of this country (Hdt. 1, 7 4 ). Hepl etclvov rbv roirov (Plat. Leg. 638 b ). Tbv 
avdpa TOVTOV (Xen. Anab. 1, 6 9 ). Tits yvvatKas rain-as (Plat. Rep. 457 e ). 

1480. NOTE. For the omission of the article here in 
poetry, see 1400. 

1481. NOTE. If some other qualifying word is added, the demon- 
strative may stand between it and the noun. 


Tfjv /it'ai' fKfivrjv iroXircidv, that one polity (Plat. Polit. 297 C ). *H 
avrr) 6Soy, thin n irrow road (Xen. Anab. 4, 2 s ). At ra>v UfXaTrovvrjo-ivv avrai 
these ships of the Peloponnesians (Thuc. 8, 80'*). 'En-i TOV avrbv rovrov 
v, towards this very knoll (Xen. Hell. 3, 4 13 ). Toi a^)t<o/ifi/a> roura> 

thi* xti-nn;!' i- "/ /<"< arrirnl (Plat. Prof. 313 b ). 

1482. NOTE. The noun does not have the article if it is predicate. 
Hen 36 the article is omitted with O&TOS, oSe, and cVeu/os. When the 
demonstrative is equivalent to an adverb of place, as here, there, and 
calls attention to an object in sight. 

'Opwpev oXiyovs TOVTOVS dvdpta-rrovs, we see few men here (Xen. Anab. 4, 7 s ). 
Nijey fKflvai eViTrXf'ouo-i, yonder are ships sailing towards us (Thuc. 1, 51 2 ). 

.)! x iT <* va * rovTovo-i, taking these coats here (Xen. Cyr. 8, 3 6 ). Xa>prjs yap 
f\<t> TO Kpdros aurf), of this land here I have the power alone (Hdt. 4, 9 1 *). 

1483. NOTE. The article is also often omitted with a proper name 
and a demonstrative. \mpf(j>S>v o8e, Chaerephon here (Plat. Gorg. 447*) ; 
Euthydemus here (Xen. Mem. 4, 2 3 ). 

1484. OtSro? is used as the antecedent of the relative pronoun 
in the sense of he (who), those (who) ; in this case it is very often 
omitted, especially when unemphatic (1522, 1523). 

( )i nvOpa>7TOL TOVTOIS fjidXtara eBeXova-i rreideo-dai, ovs av rjyvvTai /3fXrt'oTouf 
*ivai, men are most willing to obey those whom they consider to be the best (Xen. 
MaKapio? oarts oixridv <cat vovv f\ft t happy is he who has property 
mud tense (Men. Mon. 340). 

1485. NOTE. This use of orros explains OL-TWS wore, so tliat = 
in this way that. 

1486. NOTE. After a relative, an oblique case of owros occasionally 
takes the place of the antecedent ovros. Ovs w fvpi<r*ov, Ktvardfyov 
avrols eiroir](rav ptya, they placed a large cenotaph // tl,,.s, i '-horn they did 

>'>. 6, 4 9 ). 

1487. The demonstratives are often used as predicates. 

2u ovros (vpfdijt, you were fn n<l t<> / that /mm (Dem. 18, 282). ndo-- 
Xovtri TOVTO r avrov rait riK.Tovtrais y they feel the same pangs as women in 
Krtt ( . Theaet. 151*). Tat cXirtdar x r o c a u r a p, these ar? th. I 
I hate (Isoc. 6, 69). 

1488. The demonstratives TOO-OUTO? and rorcxr^e, so much, so many, 
TotoDro? and roto<r8r, such (in quality), and rr;A.ifcoi}ro? and r^XtKocrSc, so 
old, so great, are distinguished like ovro? and o8c. 


1489. NOTE. Nouns qualified by these demonstratives take the 
article, in attributive position, if a definite person or thing is meant or 
a noun is used generically (i.e., as representative of the whole class). 

'O TOIOVTOS nvfjp, such a boy, i.e., the boy in question being such as he is ; 
but such a boy = any such boy is nals TOIOVTOS. 

1490. NOTE. Too-ovro? and roo-oo-Se do not denote that a thing is- 
great in size, but only compare its size with that of another object ; 
hence they often mean so little. Thus TOTOVTOV often means only so 
much. The plural rorouroi (relative 00-01) is used to denote numerical 
greatness as well as size (= Latin tanti quanti or tot quot). 

1491. The demonstrative crepo? with the article means the other 
(of two), with reference to the one already mentioned, as 01 lrp>i, the 
others, the other party ; or the one of ths two, no matter which, hence 
one or the other. 

IluXrzSf/p (K\i'if0' ftTfpos Trpas Qartpnv, one oftlfin /' i< <//<*/ /'///m/.'x //</ tin 
other (Kur. l}>h. Tmn-. L'49). "E^poy without the article means <ni<>tli> r, with 
reference to some one already mentioned ; or a second, as Zrfpot TOO-OVTOI, 
so mi n >i utlfi-x, fTcpos TOIOVTOS. <nr>tloT xiirh, <f xi'ftiii'l (= SfvTfpos) ; or it may 
mean a different, of another A-*/*-/. 

1492. NOTE. For Ircpos used in the sense of besides, see 1562. 



1493. The relative 09, who, refers to a definite antecedent; 
OO-TK?, whoever, refers to an indefinite antecedent. Similarly the 
relative pronouns o<ro?, olo?, 17X6*09, and the relative adverbs ov, 
oOev, ol, ore, rjviica, 77, o>9. are related to O7roero9, oiroio9, 


*Eo-Tiv 8iKijs 6<p6a\nos, os TO iravff opa, there is an eye of justice whi / 
(/// flt'imf* (Men. Mon. 179). Su/i./SouXeucroi' TJP-^V, o TI o~oi 8oKfl naXXicrrov <al 
(ipio-Tov fivat, advise us ich<if> r< / wins best and worthiest to you (Xen. An<il>. 
2, I 1 "). "OoTi? Se TT\OVTOV T) uy(Vfiav eiVtScai/ yafj.fl Trovrjpdv, fiatpos f&Tiv > 
whoever looking to wealth or nobility marries a wicked woman is a fool (Eur. 
. 1097). 

1494. NOTE. In Epic poetry the particle re' is often 
added to the relatives ; as 05 re, 016? re, oo-os re, 061 


re ; it adds little OT nothing to the meaning of the rela- 
tive. This also occurs sometimes in lyric poetry, rarely 
in tragedy. In Attic Greek ofds re means able, capable. 

1495. NOTE. For oo-ns, the definite relative os is sometimes used, 
especially with /XT} and Sv. 

Ovs iutpa (QeXovras Kivftuvfvfiv, TOVTOVS KOI ap^ovras ciroifi, whomsoever he 
saw trilling to //// <inti<i*-r, these he made governors (Xen. Anab. 1, 9 14 ) ; ex- 
amples with pr) and av in 2148. 

1496. NOTE. The indefinite relative OTTIS is used with a definite 
antecedent when who is equivalent to s-uch as and is used to char- 

'ixavoi ( " TTtfji^ai vavs re KOI avftpas, atr-ivcs> <rvp.fJui^ovvTat 
re KOI rfjv 656i/ rjyTjo-ovTcu, we can send you shift* <m<l m<n n-hn {fill aid yon in 
fighting and who' will conduct iin <>n the road (Xen. Anab. 5, 4 10 ). 'Opart 5e 
rrjv Tia-a-aptpvovs anHrriav, ocrris Xe'-ytoi/..., see the perfidy of Tissapherne*, 
(a man), who saj/f/...(Xen. Anab. 3, 2^). Otherwise oorts is never used for 5s 
in classical writers. 

1497. NOTE. For oo-rts in indirect questions, see 1545. 

1498. NOTE Herodotus sometimes uses OOTM for os (as 
in 1, 7 4 ), sometimes os for oo-ns (as in 1, 56 2 ). 

1499. NOTE. Observe also ovSa's (co-nv) OO-TIS, (there is) no one 
who ; TIS O-TII/ oo-r.s ; who is there who ? WTW OO-TIS, there is one who ; 

^ (plural usually Traces 00-01), every one who. 

1500. NOTE. (a) A simple relative is sometimes used for a relative 
of quantity or quality. 

'KTrt^t/Ktv roiavnjs 86r}$ TJ s (=otds) rroXXol Tvy\avov(riv > to dest-re such 
glory CM ('///) in ///;/ ultnin (ISOC. Epist. 2,10). Tr)\iKavrt)s...fjv ( = Trj\iKJjv), 

80 great as (ibid.). "Eaxnrfp av TJS os (= rotoOro? olos) t, as long as you are 
what ( = such as) you are (Plat. Phaedr. 243'). 

(b) A relative of quantity or quality is sometimes used for a simple 

TaOra ...... %pT) TTOKIV, o<ra (for a) 6 6(os ftcfXn-irir. '/"" must do thixi things 

( as many asj //.<.-/< //' /',/ has commanded (Xen. Aimh. 3, I 7 ). Uav, 
r tyia f&vvapijv, nil (= as much as) (I,, it I ,;,nl,l (Xen. Anab. 7, 6*). 

1501. NOTE. A relative adverb is sometimes used for a relative 
pronoun, mostly in designations of place, time, and manner. 


Eir x a> P lov ) odev o\lfoi>Tai OdXarrav, to a place (whence) from which they 

would behold the sea (Xen. Anab. 4, 7 20 ). To euro tr^/za &<nrfp, the 

same order as (Xen.. Anab. 1, 10 10 ). 

1502. NOTE. (a) Several relatives may belong to the same sen- 
tence without a copula intervening. 

rVooo-erat 6 drjp,os olos olov 0pfp,p,a r)vl;r)(rev (for olds eVrt KOI olov K.T.X.), the 
people, will know how feeble they are and what kind of nursling they have reared 
(Plat. Rep. 569 b ). Ai5ao-<ca>v oia ova-a ^v\^ i'0' ol<av \6y<av fit' fj v air Lav 
c dvdyKrjs TTfiOfTai (for oia eVrt ^iJ^rj KOI v<p' oia>v \6yu>v KOI 81* fjv), showing 
how the soul is so constituted that it is persuaded by such particular kinds of 
arguments and for what reason (Plat. Phaedr. 271 b ). And so with relative 
adverbs ; as evdipflo-df odev ol 6V/3?; (for o6tv ri\0f KOI ol Sitfir)), observe from 
what place he crossed and to what place (Dem. 23, 160). 

(b) One relative may belong to a participle, and the other to a 
finite verb. 

OVK dyvow rj\iKos &v oa-ov tpyov fvi(rrci[, I am not unaware how great 
a work I am uiulcrtiikimj fo-r <>n> .so old as I am, lit. being how old, how great 
a work (Isoc. 12, 36). 

1503. NOTE. ^Sometimes <Ls with an adverb or with an adjective 
is added to a relative and its noun. 

Svvietf ov TpdTrov 6 2oXo>' rovs vdpovs &) s K a X co s K(\(vfi Tidfvai, you observe 
in what m<niii< i\ lnur mlniirnhlii, Xolon <Hri-<-tx /<//r.s to />c y^rs.svv/ (Deill. 20, 93). 
"lore olwv vdp.o)v Vfiiv <eip.(v<av a> s K a X <u v KCI\ (raxppdvtov TfTd\fj.rjK Tf/xap^oy 
drjiJ.Tjyopf'ii', .'/"" L'nnii- in */>itt <>f irl,,if lawSj and laws so good uml moral, 
Timarchus has dared to play the demagogue (Aeschin. 1, 20). 

1504. NOTE. The plural of ocros and 671-00-09, as those of TOO-OVTO? 
and Too-oo-8e, have also numerical signification : (as many) as. 

Ot yovtls TOVS Tratfiay firoir)(rav T o o~ OVT a caXa tSeti/ KOI r o o~ o VT a>v dyaBiav 
fj.fTci(rx f w ocr a of 0ol Trapc'^ovo-t, parents make their children view so many 

beautiful //M//I/.S ami *ln-< m N //////// //>.-< //ij/.s as the gods give (Xen. Mem. 
2, 2'*). T o (r a v T a Trptiyp-ara f^oixrrjs d n d <r a \(yeis rrjs rvpavviftos op.a)s npn- 
TreTws <pcpr6( fls avT7)v , although royalty has so many fnmlrfps as you .sv///, 
yet you are strongly drawn towards it (Xen. Hier. 7, 2). 

1505. NOTE. (a) A relative may depend on a participle alone. 

i rivds (pcuriv fTTtodas as ol eVio-ra/xei/ot cVaSoi/rey ofy &v fiovXwTat (piXovs 
TToioiWat, they say there are certain incantations which those vh<> kmm- 
them chant to those whom they wish and make them friends to themselves (Xen. 
Mem. 2, 6 10 ). 'AfcoXowAyatoi' evTavdcu ol d(p i K d //.e v o s cvftaipavrjcrfis, follov // 
there, ichi-re o-n yow (///'(//, IK>H fill be happy (Plat. Gorg. 527 C )- 


(6) When a participle or a subordinate clause belongs to the rela- 
tive clause, the relative is commonly made to depend on the participle 
or on the verb of the subordinate clause. 

A.VOTJTOV ' TTt ToiovTovs ievcii, >v K paTT]o~as fj.r) K.a.TO.<T\r)(Tfi riff (for o v t, 

fnfto'av avTwv K parpen), p.f) K.aTao~\r]o~(i Tiff), it is foolish to go against men whom 
one cannot keep down when one has conquered them (Thuc. 6, II 1 ). (Aipovfifda) 

tonovs TOVS pxv aTroAidaff, TOVS 8' avTop.6\ovs, o i s onorav TIS 7r\fiova* fKfivwv aKO\ov6i](To\)O*iv (for o7, oirorav TIS avTols 8i8o>), (we 

are chooxn . *ome homeless, some deserters, who will follow, whenever any 

one offers them more pay (Isoc. 8, 44). 

1506. NOTE. Sometimes qualifying words which belong to the 
antecedent are drawn over to the relative clause. 

Of 8c (s To"ff vavs, at e(ppovpovv 8vo, Kara(/>uyo/Tes 8ia(r<aovTai (for s rhs 
8vo vavs), some, baring fad to the ships (there were two keeping guard), escaped 
(Thuc. 4, 113 2 ). Etr 'Apfifviav fjfiv, r}S 'Opdi/ras- rfp\f -rroXXrjs KOI cvftai- 
fiovos (for 'Ap/*f vidv ITO\\T)V KOI v8aipova), they would come to Armenia, a 
large and prosperous country of which Orontas was governor (Xen. Anab. 3, 5 17 ). 
To ret^t(r/xa o TJV avrodi r otv SvpaKOO-ieoi/, for TO T6i^r/ia T>V 2vpa.KO<ri<i>v 
(Thuc. 7, 43 3 ). Compare 1362. 

1507. NOTE. ^Os Trcp refers to something known; os ye implies a 
cause (= Latin quippe qui) ; as in Xen. Anab. 1, 6 5 . 

1508. NOTE. For oto? and o<ros with the infinitive, see 2088. 


1509. 1. The <l'iii(jnstrative 09 is to be distinguished from the 
relative. Remains of this demonstrative are the following. 

Ki or, rat fj, K<H ot, nt the beginning of a sentence, and )> , ../. /// ; as 
Tjyc'urdai tuiXtvo-f TOVS 'Ypxaviovs' K at ot fjpdjTtav K.T.\., In /</// /// // 
i/j.s // /,-//. ami //M// (/.s/,T*/....(Xen. Anab. 4, 2 I:I ). 
7 H K off, % 8' 17, xai<l In . >""/ >/ (>} inij>erfecfc of ^/xt, wij/, inquam). 
'Off Ka\ ov. tlii." inn n nml ilmt one (in Herodotus, 4, 68 1 ). 
Kai oif, I'reii so ; ov&' aiff and ftr/fi* &s, not en-n no ; &>o-airro>ff, jnxt so ; a>v 
A;0iff. See Particles, L': ;; I . 

2. Also o /xV os 8e in the oblique cases is occasionally used 

for 6 fUv 6 8c, in late writers and even in Demosthenes. 

\ Aiji/t'o'aff, At p.fv dvaipSiv, (It At d( TOVS (pvyd&as Kardywi', <li tiroying 
*omcQre*l nd rettorimi 1I *<> ntln-rs (Dem. 18, 71). Qtf pfo 

MowtTiv, otV V ii<fnn t to tome God <iivt* and from others he tab > (Mm. 



3. Homer has a number of examples of the demon- 
strative 09 ; as KO.I 09, II. 21, 198 ; II. 22, 201 ; Od. 1, 


1510. The relatives are sometimes used as predicates. 

OVK fidci o 1 01 s Or) piois 7r\T)o-ia( rols avdpwnois rovroty, he did not know 
what kind of beasts these men were that he approached (Dem. 35, 8). Qvfcv 
dqXovvTfs OTTO To i/ TI TO fi\\ov 7r(HT)(rov<riv , not at all showing what future 
plan they would carry out (Thuc. 7, 38 2 ). 'Enta-rao-dc nepl oiov nvof 
o vros e'/ioC ^(piflo-df, you know what kind of man I am concerning whom you 
are to decide (Lys. 21, 1). Otav ( \iftvav r 771/5* 60u<ray), what </'// It 
this woman ifhi > in thou hast begotten (Eur. Ion 1262). 


1511. A relative agrees with its antecedent in number and 

gender. Oi $1X01 ovs fl\ov, ///// //</.s flint I lm,l. \i ywaiKas As eiSoi', tl 
womi n that I saw. To it pay para a av cirpaas, the fliimj* tlmt //>/ ///. 'O 
Kiv8vi'os e| ov (crd>6i)r. th> /.////. r fnnii n-hifli I IMtMfceci. 

Observe that when the relative is the subject of a sentence, it 
the person of its antecedent. 'Eyo> 6s TOO (Afa, I who /./ thi*. 

ot TOVTO TT o 1 17 crart, ;i<i ifh,, ,1'nl this. 

1512. NOTE. A relative referring to two or more antecedents 
follows the rules given for the predicate-adjective (1306-1309). 

Hfp\ TToXf'^lOV KOl (IpTJVTJS, <5 f^ft 0~VV(lfJilV V TO) &IO> TO>V av 

COnCt'i'iiiiKI H-iir ilinl fun,-, /////'</( IIKIT tin iirxitixt finir, r in tin lif> i,f 

(Isoc. 8, 2). 'AnaXXayfVTfs rroXtfiOiv KOI Kivdvvw Kal rapa^s, fls f/ v vvv 

aXX^Xous Ka&Vra/zei'. <l> li r, ,-< ,l f,-n,,, n;i,-n ,in<l danger* and confusion in n-i,ich 
we are now involved with one another (Isoc. 8, 20). 

1513. NOTE. A relative referring to a collective noun may be in 
the plural. 

To 'ApKadiKov o-rrXiTtKov , 2> v fjpxf KXeai/eop, the Arcadian heavy -armed force 
irli irii Cli'unnr commanded (Xen. Anab. 4, 8 18 ). IlapfOTat &0fXta 01 rtavSc 
Kpciao-ovs fla-i, mi <i.'-iH<i ru for,; //'// /< ut hand who are better t1m //.".< 
(Thuc. 6, 80 1 ). 

1514. NOTE. A singular antecedent may indicate a whole class 
and thus take a plural relative. 


Qrja-avponoios avrjp, ovs 8rj KOI tiraivf'i TO TrX^oy, a money-making mnn. 
just (one of those) whom the great mass jyraise (Plat. Rep. 554"). n o X /i o v 
yivriv CvyMfyw, e & i/ /*dArra raty TrdAeo-iv KOKCI yiyvfrat, H'c }inr< tr<-l tit* 
origin of war to sources frotn i7i/YA rery great ceil* /o states arise (Plat. Rep. 

1515. NOTE. On the other hand, a plural antecedent may have 
its relative in the singular referring to any one of the number. 

At yvvaiKfs iKfrevov ndvras, oro> tvrvyxavoifv, p.f) (pfvyav, the women 
begged all whom they met not to flee (Xen. Cyr. 3, 3 67 ). 'AvTrdfrrai TT a v r a s 
a> av nfpiTvyxdvfi, he gre*-tx nil , n-liomsoever he happens to meet (Plat. Rep. 566 d ). 

1516. NOTE. A masculine or feminine antecedent considered as 
a thing may have its relative in the neuter (compare 1309). 

'H yij fyVVTj(Tv (ivQptonov, o o'ui'fO'ci virfpe^ft T&V aXXoav, th>' c<tiih }ni.< 

created man, a creature which surpasses all the others in understand) ng (Plat. 

.C. 237 d ). Tvpavvioa drjpav, o ir\r)d(i xphl*-" & a\i(TKTai, to puffin,- /-x- 

potic power, a thing '-/V/i i* r//*/(//vf/ !/ iiumhrrx ,m<l n;-,rfth (Soph. Oed. T<jf. 


1517. NOTE. (a) A relative subject of a verb may agree with its 
own predicate-noun or even with that of its antecedent. 

4>t'Aoi>, 6 fityicrrov ayaQbv ctvai fpacrii', a fr'n ml. n-liich ///.</ ,1,,-lm'v to be 
the greatest good (Xen. Mem. 2, 4 2 ). OudcnoT av clr) TJ prjropiKri admov 
IT pay pa, i y af\ Trept SiKaioavvrjs TOVS \6yovs rroiflrai, rhetoric can never be an 

'-t thing, since it is alien <i* nnil;iii<i <lis<-<>nrx<-s <<>/((/////;/ justice. (Plat. 
Gorg. 460 e ). 

(b) The same assimilation may take place when the relative is the 

i, as (Xrridas oi/o/ia^o/ici', n-m-ila ////.-/ n-i ,-nll /n/ -N (Plat. /'///. 
40*). 'O (pofios o (K. T&V vofj.(av ytyovots, f) v aldta iro\\a.Kis cv roty tivta \6yois 
ciiropcv, the ft'iif ii-hi<-h i* l>rn </ fin l<in-s mnl i/7i/V// /' off,,, ,-,///,./ /-. c- 
-/. //* preceding discourse (Plat. /. 

1518. NOTK. The relative may also agree with the real, rather 
than the grammatical gender of its antecedent. 

">v t A.0jjvai<av vavriKov, ot wpfjuivv tv TIJ MnAta, tin . I tin /'"' " ll> < t 
'/ Mnli'd (TllUC. 3, 4 :> ). llXrjBd oiirfp ftiKaa-tn-in, In/tin 

many who will jud'j .!*). 

1519. NOTE. The relative may agree with an am. ( ,1, nt implied 
in a pronoun. 


Kai oiKtd ye 770X1; /Lietcoj> fj t/xere'pa TTjy fp-^s, o i ye oiKta xpj;o-#e yrj 
re <al ovpava, (your house) the house of you, who use the earth and the 
sky as a house, is greater than mine (Xen. Cyr. 5, 2 15 ), here u/iere'pd implies 


1520. NOTE. (a) The neuter singular of the relative can refer to 
a whole sentence. This is most frequent with o or oTrep and an ad- 
jective without the copula in announcing something which follows ; 
in this case TO in its demonstrative signification can be used (com- 
pare 1330). 

Illvfiv OVK c&t\<av , OTTOTC dvayKacrBflrj, Traz/ray eKpdrd <ai, o 7rai>Tcoi> 0avpM.(r- 
TOTOTOV, 2coKpar?7 p-edvovra oi>6Vty 7rci>7rore cwpaKfv dv6pa>ir<av, though not willing 
to drink, when he was compelled, he surpassed all, and most wonderful of all ! 
no one has ever seen Socrates drunk (Plat, tiymp. 220*). To trdvTwv davpacrro- 
rarov, firaivoiKTL rravres rd roiavra (TriTT)8(vp.aTa, plp.(i(r6ai S* aura ouSep'a 
TroXiy cQfXfi, and what is the most marvellous thing of all, while all praise such 
remarkable institution*, no state wishes to imitate them (Xen. Rep. Lac. 10, 8). 
Xen. Cyr. 5, 5; 4, I 1 ". 

(6) The neuter relative o or oVep or a may be connected with a 
verb, and announce something which follows. 

*O X t'y to, rpvfpas vno n\ovrov rfjs (rocfrids, as I say, you give yourself airs 
from wealth of wisdom (Plat. Kuth ;//>///. 12 a ). *O apn cXeyov, T)TTJT(OV rives 
apteral <pv\aKs, as I just said, we must find out who are the best guards (Plat. 
Rep. 413 C ). "O TT e p KOI dp%6p.cvos e i ir o v TOV \6yov, TrapprfO'iaa'op.eBa rrpos 
bp,ds, as I in In -ij i nning my remarks said, we will speak candidly to you (Plat. 
Lach. 179). Ov cvcKa 6 \6yos o> p p.r)0r), vvv \ r&s Kt'pou Trpdgus, 
now we will relate the actions of Cyrus on whose account tin //.///<//;'/ was 
underfill:' H (Xen. <'<//'. 1, 2 16 ). *A d' tiirtv, its tya elfu olos dci Trore /ira- 
ftd\\((T0(it, Karavorjaarf, etc., but as to what he said, that I am such as to be 
always <-li<tit<i'ut<i, <-o,,xi<l< r, etc. (Xen. Hell. 2, S 46 ). 

(c) After such an introductory relative expression, the principle 
clause is occasionally introduced by on or yap. 

*O fjifv irdvrwv Bav^acTTorarov aKovaai, or i cv CKCUTTOV wv (7rT)v(rap,(v 
rr)s (pvcrfdis aTToo-Tra (pi\o<ro(pias . n-hut /.s strangest of all to hear, that each one of 
the qualities of nature which we approved, distracts from philosophy (Plat. 
Rep. 491 b ). *O 5e iravrw Sfivorarov rrfv yap noXiv oi>x ofoo-r' tyei/ero 
Xftp<i><ra<r9ai, and what was most remarkable, he was not able to subdue the city 
(Isoc. 9, 64). Similarly a principal clause is sometimes introduced as depend- 
ent on an expression like <$ Af'you<rt, coy eoiK, coy fJKov<ra, etc. ; as coy yap 
..... rjKOva-d TIVOS, on KXe'ai/Spoy 6 ex Bvfavriov ap/xoo-r^y /zt'XXft fj&iv, for as 
..... I heard from some one (that) Cleander the governor nt liir.'intinm, intend* 
to come (Xen. Anab. 6, 4 18 ). 



1521. When the same preposition governs both the antecedent 
and the relative, it is usually expressed only with the antecedent. 

'ATTO TTJS avrr/s dyvoids rj<nrfp woXXa 7rpoir$e T>V KOIV>V } by the same sense- 
lessness by which you sacrifice many of your public interests (Dem. 18, 134). 
'Ey rpuri KOI 6V*a ov% o\ois frcviv ols cTrtTroXa^Vt, in not quite thirteen yearn in 
which he has been uppermost (Dem. 9, 25). 


1522. The antecedent of a relative is often omitted when it is 
indefinite or when it is easily supplied from the context. 

*Ov of 6to\ <f)i\ov(Tiv dirodvrja-Kfi veos (for OVTOS ov, etc.), he wJwm the gods 
love dies young (Men. 3/on. 128). *A SpSxriv ol Kparovvres ov% 6pS> (for ravra 
<$, etc.), / do not see what those in power do (Soph. Oed. Tyr. 530). 'E-ya> *ai 
lv -yo) Kpa. pfvovpev (&v for OVTOI &>v), I and those whom I command will 
remain (Xen. Cyr. 5, I 28 ). 2nry&>i/ pev rj p CTIKTCV (fj for cKfivrjv fj), hating her 
who bore me (Eur. Ale. 338). KaXoi/ TO QVTJO-KCIV ols vfipiv TO tfv (pepei (for 
Tovrois ols , etc. ), death is agreeable to those to whom living bears shame (Men. 
Mon. 291). *H 0i-ya> d^ff 01 p e<pvo-av (for TOVTO>V 01), shall I touch those who 
begot me ? (Eur. Ion 560). "Oo-ois fTrirvxoifv vi>eXa/x/3ai/ov (for roa-ovs oVoty), 
they seized all they met with (Thuc. 8, 14 1 ). "Eoriv ora> n-Xeia) fTrtrpeVets ?; rfj 
yvvaiKi ; (for eori TIS 6V<a, etc.), is there any one to whom you trust more affairs 
than to your wife ? (Xen. Oec. 3, 12). To fwvddvftv eWi ro <ro(p<arfpov yiyveo-dai 
IT t p I 6 pdi'Qavfi TIS (for nfpl TOVTO o), to learn is to become wiser in that which 
ice learn (Plat. Theaet. 145* 1 ). 'EyyiyvcTai /xoi evvoia IT po s otis &v viro\dfto> 
(vro'iKJas fX flv ""P ^ V (^ or irpos rovrovs ovs), a kindly feeling springs up in me 
towards those whom I regard as kindly disposed toward me (Xen. Mem. 2, 6 :M ). 

1523. NOTE. It should be noted that the omitted antecedent is 
always unemphatic and corresponds to the English unemphatic per- 
sonal or demonstrative pronoun used as the antecedent of the relative. 
In a sentence like a fi\ov, auraJ 8<i>*a, what I had I gave him, the 
antecedent of d is indefinite and easily supplied from the context. 
But in a sentence like a tl\ov, ravra a&rcp <8a>Ka f what things 1 had, 
those (particular things) I gave him, ravra is emphatic referring to 
something definite, and is not, strictly speaking, the true antecedent 
of a. 

1524. NOTE. For the oblique cases of avrds sometimes used in 
place of the omitted antecedent, see 1486. 


1525. NOTE. For attraction and assimilation of the relative to 
the case of its omitted antecedent, see 1530 1539. 

1526. NOTE. The relative adverbs very frequently omit the ante- 

Toi> ra<^)oi' p.TfveyKlv oinrep (tTreOavev (for fvravBa ovnep), to remove 

the tomb where he died (Thuc. 1, 134 7 ). *A|co ZvQa TO Trpaypa eyevcro 
(for <el(T tvQa), I will lead you to the place where the affair took place (Xen. 
Cyr. b } 4 21 ). *A.CTKCI 6n6Bfv 86^eis (ppovelv (for TOVTO onoQfv, a pronoun here 
being the antecedent), practise that from which you will seem to be wise (Plat. 
Gory. 486 C ). For attraction in this case also, see 15331539. 

1527. NOTE. (a) Observe the expression, eo-nv ot (S>v, ok, ous), 
.some, there are (some) who, more frequent than the regular eto-iv ol 
which, however, is almost always preferred for the nominative ; also 
rriv o?Tiv9, some (especially in questions). 

EiVti> oc 8ia\(yovrai, there are some who i//.sr//.s.< (Xen. Hell. 6, 4**). T Hcrai/ 
& ot Kal nvp npo<r((p(pov, there were some who brought fire (Xen. Anab. 5. 2 14 ). 
H\rjv \\x ai ^ v K(tl * <rriv ^ v (&^to v f&vatv, except tin Arh'Kuiis ,(ml sotn.1' <>th< r 
peoples (Thuc. 3, 92 7 ). "Efrrtv ols f&Xrlov rcQvavat fj r)v, there are person* t<> 
whom it is better to be dead than t I in- (Plat. Phaedo, 62 a ). "YTTOTTTOI tyivovro 
<OTII' (v ols, tht'H cant*- t<> ! .is/,i,;l j,t .so,,/, thi,,,^ (Thuc. 5, 25 2 ). "Ecrnv 
oixmvas (iv0p<i>irovs TfQavpaKas eVi <ro(pia ; are there any men ivhom you admire 
for then gcnhu? (Xen. .Urm. 1, 4 2 ). 

(b) Occasionally the indefinite antecedent is added. EiVt nvfs ol 
KcoXiJo-ouo-u-, //(/ "/ tomt "/' "'ill hinder (Lys. 13, 17). 

(c) Observe these expressions : lo-ny ou or OTTOV and lo-rtv ti a, some- 
where ; eo-Tiv art, sometimes ; ICTTW $, in some way ; Ivrw on-ws, some- 
how ; OVK IcrTiv OTTWS, nohow ; ovK l<TTLv OTTO)? ov, in every possible way. 
See 2371, 62. 

1528. NOTE. 1. Observe that oo-ov sometimes means about. 
ncXraorai o o- o v 8ia*:60-ioi, about (or as many as) 200 targeteers (Xen. 7, 2 20 ). 

2. So oo-ov is often used substantively or adverbially. 'EXeiVtro T^S 
WKTOS otTov (TKoraiovs dieXQclv, enough of the night remained for them to cross 
in the dark (Xen. Anab. 4, I 5 ). *O<roi> airoijiv, sufficiently to line (Thuc. 1, 


3. So TOLOV and TOO-OV are used in Epic poetry with- 
out the corresponding relative. Tv^ov...f7rifiKa roiov, 
a tomb such as is fitting (H. 23, 246). *Os TO pev oXXo r oo-ov 
(polvig r)v, u'hich in every other respect, was red (II. 23, 454). 



1529. Assimilation of Case of Relative. A relative in the ac- 
cusative as the object of a verb is usually assimilated to the case 
of its antecedent if that is a genitive or dative. 

'Ex rcof iroXeaiv o>> Ti(TO'a<pepvT)s ert Tvy%av(v f^wv (for as ervy\avv c^av), 

n-hii-h Tixxafhi nn-fi still ha/ifx if<l to hold (Xen. A)uib. 1, I 8 ). 

T&ji' f'0va>v &i fjp.fls ?o>tei> (for a 10-p.fv), of the nations which we ktww (Xen. 

M- ill. '2. I 10 ). "OlTtoS OVV fO-<T0 (ivdpfS lOt TTJS fXd'dfplds TfS KCKTr)<r6 (for f}V 

K(KTTj<T0f), sec that yon prove yourselves men vortlui of the freedom which you 
possess (Xen. Anab. 1, 7 :! ). To> fjycp.dvi 7ri(rrcvcrop.v w av Kvpos 5o> (for ov av 
&, " *hll tmxt t)<> gui,I t ichom Cyrils may give us (Xen. Andb. 1, 3 16 ). Tils 
TroXftf 8ioiK("iv TOIOVTOIS fjdTiv otois EvayApas fi\ fv (^ or a f iX V )> to govern the 
cities by such natural gifts as Evagoras had (Isoc. 9, 48). 

1530. NOTE. (a) If the antecedent, which would be a genitive or 
dative, is omitted, the same assimilation takes place ; and a preposi- 
tion, which would govern the genitive or dative of the omitted ante- 
cedent, passes over to the relative. But a relative in the nominative 
masculine or feminine or a relative depending on a preposition remains 

'AfifXai 2> i/ fj.f 8(1 irpttTTfiv (for (K.fiva>v a), I neglect what I ought to do 

(Xen. Cyr. 5, I 8 ). \fip,a>vos ovros otov Xeycis (for TOIOVTOV olov), the bad we<ttl-r 

Xen. Aii<il>. 5, 8 ! ). 'A<' a>v urre aurol ra irpa.yp.aTa npivciv 

8t (for airo TOVTW a), from, what you know you must decide the case (Dem. 

I' 1 . _'!> ndvras clcr(pcp(iv a(^)' oo-coi/ eKa<rros (\ f i- (f r """ TOO-OVTO>V oaa), tlit 

nil shall contribute from xm-li iin'<nt.-< n* each <>n< ha* (Dem. 2, 31). B\dirrrdai 

<^>' &>v irapf(TKva(TTai (for a^' (Ktiixav a), to be //'/"/'*</ /"/ n'liat has been 

Thuc. 7, <)7 :! ) To p.y(6os v TT ( p &v <rvv(\r)\v0ap.fv TIJ\IKOVTOV 

fortv, *<i great is th>' ningiiifiia'i' <>f tin things (/(. ruing irhwh we have met to 

"ss (Isoc. 8, 2). 'V.p.p*vftv ols aprt (8o^v (for TOVTOIS a). t<> aliide, by 

. Iff, ,1 just nn,r (Plat. /'/'../. ;{53''). 2lI/ OlS (IX V V l ""P"* r<V) ^'X" s 

marched against tl<> n;ill ,rith n-hat tmn/,* !,, li<l (Xni. //.//. 3 ? 5 18 ). But ^ 

^tyw &rj0' 01 /*' tyvvav; (for TOVTW ot), shall I tmi,-h th<>*, trho begot me? (Ear. 

1 . 'Ai/ayKaZoy avrols 8ia\cy((r8ai nap* lav av Xdftoiev ror futr^oi' (for 

us irap t &i/), it is necessary for thi-m to talk u'ith tlio*- frmn u-hom //// 
receive pay (Xen. Mem. 1, 2*). 

(b) An emphatic demonstrative may take the place of the omitted 
antecedent in spite of the assimilation. 

*A<* lav Trptxratrft cat ftai/et'fcrcu, o?rA rovrutv dtayci (for <i7n' rorrajr 
what he begs and horron-*, ,>,< I/. .ilo,,g (Dmi. Bj 


(c) By this assimilation <5f , di/0' on/ and e a>v are used where we 
would expect TOVTWV on or some similar expression and mean for this, 
that, or simply, because. 

Hpo(rf]Ki x**P tv avT ^ *x fiv ^ v c&to&ija'a.v v<fi fjp,>v, it is proper for them to- 
be grateful for this, that they were saved by you (Dem. 16, 13). L TTOI^O-O) 
rrjpepov 8ovvai di<rjv a v 0* 2> v ep.e ^rttroi/ evOevS* a(pai/i'<rat, I will make you give 
satisfaction because you sought to drive me hence (Ar. Plut. 434). OVK e 2> i/ 
&v xaplfrcrOc aKpoS>vTai ijpa>v, aXX' f & f a> tV^ut Trepiyevrja-Qc, they obey you 
not because you grant them any favours, but because you are superior to them 
in power (Thuc. 3, 37 3 ). 

(d) In the same way (as in (c) above) oo-w is sometimes used with- 
out a preceding rocroimo, and means since, because, inasmuch as. 

4>i\o? &v tKav&s av dxpeXoi'qi/, o(ro> ra pev 'AtftyVafoy oiSa, ra 5' ti/Wrfpa 
j}<aov, being a friend, I could help you because I know the plans of the 
Athenians while I only guessed yours (Thuc. 6, 92 4 ). 

(e) For '<' a>T ( = cVi rovrw OJO-TC), on condition that, often with the 
infinitive, see 2226. Similar expressions are <!<' oC and ' ou, si?icc ; 
cV <J, w/i^e ; cis o, <i/Z ; /xc^pt (a^pi) ov, until, also <o where, and the 

1531. NOTE. Occasionally a relative which would be in the dative 
is assimilated to the genitive of its antecedent. 

r Qv tvTvy\av(t> paXurra ayapai (re (for roi/rcoi/ ofs), of those whom I meet, I 
admire you most (Plat. Prot. 361*). Ilap* &>v fBotjfa'is OVK aTroXtyfi x^P tv (f r 
Trapa (Kfivav ols), you will get no thanks from those whom you help (Aeschin. 
2, 117). 

1532. NOTE. Cases in which assimilation (as in 1529 and 1530} 
does not take place are not rare, and occur mostly for euphony or 

Tois (ro<pi<rr(iis OVK (yx&pci- p.(p<f>( crQat, rovro) rc5 TT p Ay p. ar i 6 avrol 
iraiofvovo-iv, it is not for the sophists to blame that thing which they themselves 
teach (Plat. Gorg. 520 b ). T Ap' oiet rovs Seovs oxpeXfio-^at OTTO r o v r eo v a Trap' 
f)p,)v Xafiftdvovo-iv ; and do you imagine that the gods are benefited by the gifts 
which they receive from us ? (Plat. Euthyphr. 15*). 

1533. NOTE. Assimilation also occurs with the relative adverbs, 

oOev for fKf.Wv ov or CKettfev ot. 

AieKO/jiifbi>ro fvOvs oBfv VTre^e&evro iraio'as KOI yvvaiKas (for fKfWfv of), they 
immediately brought over their children and women from the places to U-/M> A 
they had withdrawn them for safety (Thuc. 1, 89 4 ). 


1534. NOTE. (a) A peculiar assimilation occurs with 0105 when 
this relative is to be the predicate in a sentence with the copula d^i. 
In this case the copula is omitted and its subject as well as the pre- 
dicate 0109 are put in ths case of the omitted antecdent roiouros. 

Upos avftpas ToXfjujpovs otovs KOI 'AOrjvaiovs (for ofoi KOI \\0rjvaioi cio~tv\ 
''h li<!<l in- it if* tli- Atlo'iiiiitt* (Thuc. 7, 21 3 ). \api6p.fvov oto> croi 
av&pi (for roiouro) olos o~v fi), pleasing a man such as you are (Xen. Mem. 2, 9 s ). 
Tov apxovTa Set avrbv civai olovirep TOV ayaBov l8io>Tr]v (for TOIOVTOV oloa-irfp 6 
ayaQbs ISivTrjs fWtV), it is necessary that the commander himself be just like a 
good private (Xen. Cijr. 2, I 33 ), \a\firov tfpov KOI o-^fSoi/ eiirflv oiea e'/xot ye 
iravTairaGiv airopov (for rotovro) olos ty<&), you ask a hard thing, as, for a man 
like me, alm-mf ('together impossible (Pkt. Soph. 237). So also when the 
antecedent of ofoy is nob omitted ; as, OVK av TTOV Trepi roO TOIOVTOV o \6yos 
cu; otou ToO fvos, the hypothesis will not be concerning such a thing as the one 
(Plat. Par. 161 b ). The same peculiar assimilation occurs with f)\i<os ; as, 
(Kt'ivo bfivbv TO I a- iv fj\i K oi<r i vwi/, that is alarming for such as we (Ar. 

Observe that in this peculiar assimilation of otos (and //Xucos), the 
article nuy ba prefixed to oto? and ^AAo? when the antecedent is 
omitted ; as in rot? OUHS V/MM', to such as we are, and in the last ex- 

(6) The nominative of the predicate OLOS is sometimes not assimi- 
lated in case to the antecedent. Tovs olovs ti/nety p.lo-o>v O-VKO- 
<p d v r a s (for 6/ias), hating such informers like you (Antiphon, 5, 78). 

(c) Sometimes neither the subject nor the predicate olos is assimi- 
lated. 2iiXa)j' (p.ia-(t TOVS olos OVTOS <ir6po)rrovs, Solon hated men such as this 
Dem. 19, 254). 

"QOTTP is also assimilated like olos. *E5>t po<povvTa nivfiv tio-irtp 
ftovv (for uxrirep fiovs nivfi), lie had to drink sipping up like an ox (Xen. Anab. 
4, 5 ; Cj/r. 1, 4"). 

(e) By the same assimilation oorio-of-v, oori? 8^, even oo-rt? alone, 
are used as adjectives meaning any whatsoever. 

'Ky<i> nda-xf w ortovv (Totftos (for rt OTIOVV t <rrt), I am ready to suffer any- 
/ whatsoever (Dem. 4, 29). *E? TTJV " A.o-nfvo'ov jyrti/t ^17 yvtopu a</>i*'n-m, 
with whatever intention it may have 6een, he wenf t<> A*/ //.> Thuc. 8, 8T 6 ). 
Other indi-tiniti- r.-latives have the same ]>eculiarity. 

(/) Similarly oVn in OO-TIS y3ovXet, any one you please, is assimilated. 

DO'. \lif>i llnXvyvurrov f) d\\m> OTOV /3ou\ct T<av ypafytw (for ovnva 
vXti), about /'f././j//M.^/.s / ,i/ ( i/ other painter you pleas* ( /-/n, 633*). 
(g) Note the stock phrases : it, monthly (as if Too-avraK 



ocrot /j.f)vc<s eio-iv) ; oVcu rj^pai or oo-r/yaepcu, daily ; ocra Zrr) or o<rtTr) t 

1535. Regressive Assimilation of Case of Antecedent. The ante- 
cedent is sometimes assimilated to the case of the relative. 

Trjv dvvap.iv r)v f^eiy (paTf fX fLV / Lte > Tavrrjs Bea-norrjs yevrjo-opai (TTJV 8vvap.iv 
TJV for rijs 8vvdp.(i)s rjv), I will become master of that power ivhich you say I 
have (Ar. Plut. 200). Trjv ovo-idv r)v KarfXirrev ov rrXfiovos did eort f] rerrapoai/ 
Kal SCKU ToXdvrtov (rrjv oixridv rj for 17 ova-id TJV), the property which he left i.s not 
worth more than fourteen talents (Lys. 19, 47). "EXeyov OTI TT a v T a> v 2>v 
deovrai TT fir pay ores clev (TTUVT^V >v for iravra &v) } they said that they had 
gained all things which they needed (Xen. Hell. 1, 4 2 ). So with adverbs ; as, 
Kal a\\o<r oTTot av d(f>iKTj dyanrja-owi o-f (aXXoa-e for a\\o6i), and in other 
places, wherever you may go, they will love you (Plat. Crito, 45 C ). Compare 
the Latin, urbem quam statuo vestra est (Verg. Aen. 1, 573). 

1536. NOTE. In this way, ov8et? is regressively assimilated to 
OOTIS in the expression owSei? oo-rt? ov (for evict's eo-nv oo-n? ou), everyone. 

O v ft v 6 s orov ov 7rdvTd)v av v~p,>v naff* ffXiKidv narffp ftrjv (= ovdfis tort 
irdvTu>v vfj.S)v orov av aaB > rjXiKidv irarrjp f"if)v), there is no one of you all of 
whom according to age I might not be the father (Plat. Prot. 317). O v 8 v t 
oro> OVK diroKpivfrai (= ov&fis (ariv crrw OVK dnoKpivfrai), he answers every one 
(Plat. M- ii<>, 70). Ov&eva f<patrav OVTIV' ov 8a<p6ovTa dirooTpetfKcrBai 
(= ovfals T)V ovTiv* OVK <pa<rav SaKpOovra dirocrrpifyfcrQai), they said that u<>t 
nn< turned back without shedding tears (Xen. Cyr. 1, 4 515 ). Ovftfls oorts OVK. 
a0'frcu, there is no one who will not refrain (Xen. Ven. 12, 14). 

1537. NOTE. (a) Similarly 0aiyAao-Tos (tfauftao-tos) <mv oaos, oo-ov, 
etc., passes by regressive assimilation into 0av/uaoros 00-05, Oavpao-rov 
oo-ov, etc. 

Qavpaarrjv ooyv ire pi ere irpoQvpidv e^ft, he has a wonderful amount of good 
will for you (Plat. Ale. II. 151*). Mera i8p>Tos davpao-rov oa-ov, with much 
perspiring (Plat. Rep. SSO 11 ). The same idiom occurs with several other 
adjectives ; as vircpfpvrjs, dp,r]^avos. 

(b) In the same way 0auyu,acrroV (tfau/xao-toV) ws becomes fl>s a>? eVe^O/i^o-a ravrrjs T^S a-ofpids, I was wonderfully desirous of 
that philosophy (Plat. Phaedo, 96 a ). Oau/xao-iajy eos ftOXios yeyovcv, he is extra- 
ordinarily miserable (Plat. Gorg. 471 a ). '"Yfreptpvtos ws ^aLpat, I am immensely 
pleased (Plat. Symp. 173 C ). 

1538. Attraction of Antecedent. The antecedent is often drawn 
into the relative clause and then agrees with the relative in case. 


Els 8f 17 v d<f>ticovTO KMfJiTjv, p.fyd\T) rfv (for 17 K<ap.r) els f)i> d<ptitovTo), the 
/' nt trji'n'h they arrived was large (Xen. Anab. 4, 4 2 ). My d<p(\rjo-de tp.o>v 
f) v 8id rravTos aet rov xpovov doav KKTT)o-0( KO\TJV (for TTJV <a\tjv Soai' 
, do not deprive /m/ //*$ of the good reputation which you Inn-, 
<il<i-<tys possessed through all time (Dem. 20, 142). Observe that the article 
is here regularly omitted with the attracted antecedent ; except sometimes 
in Plato and in the poets. 

1539. Attraction and Assimilation combined. When an ante- 
cedent in the genitive or dative is attracted into a relative clause, 
the case of the relative is generally assimilated to that of the at- 
tracted antecedent. 

TOVTOVS apxovras eVot'ti f) s Kareo-Tpe'c^ero ^topaj (for rijs x<wpay r/r KaTcarpc. 
<}>CTO\ he made them, governors of the country he subdued (Xen. A nab. 1, 9 14 ). 
\\fia0fo~TaToi rre, lav eya> otSa 'E X X 17 v a> v (for rail/ 'EXA^ixoj/ ots 0180), '/<"' 
in tnost ignorant of the Greeks whom I know (Thuc. 6, 40 1 ). 'E ^ s TO 
f<r\f yvvaiKOs (for e< Tr/s yvvaiKos qv TO irparrov eo-^t), from the wife 
f took first (Dem. 57, 37). 'E-rropfvfTo <rvv rj ei^e dvvdpei (for <rvv TT/ 
r)v *l\fv), he marched with the force whwh he had (Xen. Hell. 4, l w ). 
Observe that here also the attracted antecedent loses its article. 


1540. When two relatives belonging to the same sentence lia\ < 
tin .same antecedent but would stand in different cases, the second 
n-lative is commonly omitted and it is then usually replaced by a 

often by demonstrative pronoun. 

\\fitaios 5, oi> f)p*is fjdfXofjLfv fta<riXtd KaOuTrdvai, KOI (8diKap.(i> ncnt e'Xa/3o/xfi' 
fl-wrra (for o> (fttoKdfKv KCU d<^)' ov (XdftofMtv), and Ariaeux, trl>ni > irixln-il f,, 
makr k'ni'i. <iml f<> <////// u;- </n-( u ml from whom we r<r ii-<l /il<-<lyes, etc. (Xen. 

''. 3, 2 s ). Tt <m TOVTO 6 $fls o~v p.yi(TTOv dyadov ftvai TOIS dvflpwirois KO.I 
ffi Krjftiovpyov firm avTOV (for >cat ov o~c drjfjuovpyov) ; H'hat ixthix n'hi<'h flox x<ni 

greatest y<>il t<> nm <md of which you are tin /'//<'/ / (Plat ''"</. 452*?). 
'H/zaj, ots KT)8tp.u)i> pxv ovo"(\s ndpcoTtv, ( o~ T p a T ( v o~ apt v 5' CTT' avrt'tv, o>r 
doOXov dvT\ ftam\(b)S Troirjo'ovTfS, TI av oldptda naflriv ; n~> n'ln> Imri //</ i-il<itmn- 

'/:///( tin' l.'iml , iiml lidfi imi i'fli< il iKIiiinst liini I iifinili in/ to ///<//,'< /(/;/( 

*law instead of > /...,. ,,-!,,, t ,1,, , ,.,'ftect to auff< r <it his !,> \, n. .\,ml>. 

>. *O ifj oi<iiK(i fjui' ttTrdo'n ^rv\r) Km TOVTOV tvtua ndi'Ta np^TTfi, tin* 
h every soul pursue* <nul // //. >-.//.-. f n-lii<-li <ln,.-< , n /(//////(</ (IMat. 
606* ; Lys. 25, 11). In this \\ay a <lrm..iistrative adverb tak-s tin- plao- 
relative adverb ; a, tvBa 000vXcvf n piyaf Mocrov 7rou'*riu, KU rwi' xi )r ll' 


ol Qrjo-avpol evravda eiVi, where the Great King has his residence and where 
the treasuries of his money are (Hdt. 5, 49 11 ). 

1541. NOTE. But the relative is sometimes repeated, especially 
if the second is in the same case as the first, also if the demonstrative 
antecedent of the relative follows. 

"OTTO)? ovv ecrecrdf (iv8pes aiot rrjs fXfvdepids rj s K(KTT)O'0( KCI\ rjs $p,ds euSat- 
ftoi/t^a), see that you prove yourselves worthy of the liberty which you possess and 
for which I account you happy (Xen. 1, 7 3 ). *Oi> f<pao-Kv v<p* tptov rjvSpairo- 
8i(rQai Kal nap' ov Toarovra xpr)para f)p.ds *X tv > TOVTOV egaipovpcvos fir 
(\fv9cpiav, claiming this man as a freeman who, he said, was carried //// 
slavery by us, and from whom we had so much money (Isoc 17, 14). 


1542. The relatives olo?, ocro?, and &>? are used in exclamations. 
Ota 7rotty, 2) fTaipf ; what are you doing, comrade ? (Plat. Euthyphr. 15"). 

*O<ra TTpdyfjiara fx ts > how muc,h trmible you have ! (Xen. Cyr. 1, 3 4 ). 'Qs f)8vr 
(i, how sweet you are! (Xen. Cyr. 7, 3 W ). 'Qs icaXds pot 6 irdiriros, how hand- 
some my grandfather is ! (Xen. Cyr. 1, 3 2 ). 

1543. Sometimes these relatives are used where the sentence 
on which they depend contains the idea of "considering," "regard- 
ing" (A.oyio/xevos). 

y \n(K\aov rf)v epavrov rv\r)v olov dvdpos fraipov f<rrfpr)fj.evos ffyv, I 
bewailed my own lot, consideriii n-hut /,//.// / mnn I had been deprived of 
companion (Plat. Phaedo, 11 7 C ). Karf'cauo-f rcis Kco/zay, OTTCOS (poftov evOdr) Kal 
roty aXXotr oia nfia-ovrai. In In rm<l Ike villages in order to throw terror into 
the others as to what they would suffer (Xen. Anab. 7, 4 1 ). Ev8aip.a>v /iot dvffp 
e<paiv(To a>r ddf>s *cat ytwaivs T(\fvTa, the man seemed to me to be happy r 
considering how fearlessly and nobly he died (Plat. Phaedo, 58'). 

1544. NOTE. The indefinite relatives OTTOIOS and OTTOO-OS are seldom 
used in exclamations, here some imperative like etW is understood 
(Lys. 30, 4; Plat. Gorg. 522"). 


1545. The interrogative pronouns and adverbs are used in 
direct questions; the indefinite relatives are used in indirect 
questions ; but the interrogatives are very often used in indirect 


Tt'y Ae'yei ; who is speaking ? Tt /SouXerm ; what does he want ? Hot rj\0( v ; 
n-ltitl,, r did he go? 'HpofjiTjv OOTIS (or TIS) \eyoi, I asked wh# was t*/>f<ikin<i. 
y Hp6p.Tjv o TI (or ri) /SouXotro, I asked what Ar <>/<//. 'Hpofjajv orroi (or TTOI) 
\0oi, I asked ichither he had gone. "Hpfro o TI ea; ro a-vvdrjfjLa, he asked w}i<it 
the signal was (Xen. Anab. 1, 8 16 ). At yvva'iKfs ypdiTtov avrovs, rivts eiei>, the 
women a*/.-*./ tln-m u'ho tfi> -j/ were (Xen. Anab, 4, 5 10 ). 'Hpamjo-e TOVS irpo- 
<pv\a<as nov av "801 IIpo&vov, he asked the advanced guards where they could see 
Proxenu* (Xen. Anab. 2, 4 15 ). 

1546. NOTE. For interrogative pronouns with the article, see 1399. 

1547. NOTE. When the question is repeated by the respondent, 
he always uses the indefinite relative. 

A. (rv 5' fi ris dvSp&v ; B. oarts et/i' ; cya> Mertov, A. who of men art ///" '' 
B. Who I am? I am M eton ( Ar. A v. 997). A. TTJ/VI'K' eWli/ apa r^s f)p.epds ; 
B. oirrjvtKa ; o-piiipov n pcra fjiffrtjpPpidv, A. What time of day then is it ? B. 
li'h. it 1 1 ni' ? A little past noon (Ar. Av. 1498). 

1548. An interrogative is often used as a predicate-adjective. 

Tt ro Or' f\tas; what is this that thou hast said? = lit. being ir/m/, li<(*t 
tlnm said thi-s? (Eur. Bacch. 1033). Tivas TOVO-& (l<ropa> ; who are these 
flint I see? (Eur. Or. 1347). Ilota ravra \cyfis ; what is this that >JH 
say? (Plat. Cratyl. 391 c ). Tis ovros o-w/xa rov/zoi/ OVK eay Kfl<r0ai; who art 
thou that dost not permit my body to lie ? (Eur. Hec. 501). Tis 6 iroBos 
avrovs item ; u-h'it /.s /// i* I<>,i<ii,i<i irhich has come upon them ? (Soph. Phil. 601) 
llrroi> n ayfi TO (rrpaTfvfjia; how large /* tin- nnnif ifh'n-h //' is l*'<i<liini '. (Xen. 
J. 1 s ). 

1549. The interrogative may belong to a participle or to some 
other dependent word. 

Tt d8tKTj0\s VTT' cpov vvv TO TpiTov f7rtftov\tv(ts fJioi ; in irluif li n re you 
been wrowjul f>n //< that //**// j>l<>t nyu'uixt /// /// for flu flnr<l (inn .' lit. I m ring 
been wronged in what ? (Xen. Anab. 1, 6 8 ). 'Hpwra TOV 6*ov, rl iroiuv m> 
1'iKtji' X(i,ini, you asked the god what to do to obtain victory, lit. by doing what 
(Lycurg. 99). Tovs ntos dia K 1 1 pc v ov s Xa/3oii/ av pa0T)T<is : li<>ir ir<>i(l<l 

tli- y,i/y//x that //(/ i/, / In i/;,/ /' din rnrtt'T ? = lit. those Ituir disposed (IOC. 
l-. ~'2'2 . IIo^' A xpf) npa(T( ; (n(i8av rt y(i>rjTni ; i/'/ir/i */(// you <!<> i/oiir 
f what are you waiting for? = lit. "/(// /'/,/ Im* lm/>i n<>d? (Dem. 4, 
10). Kpcofra ur0t...f)oi>Ta..."Oir<t>s ri 8p<l<ri] ; l;n<>n- that <'r>n is >-min<i. In 
order to do what? (Soph, ft,, I. Cut. 396). 

1550. NOTE. An interrogative expression which belongs attrihu- 
v to a noun with the article, stands between the article and the 



TTJS 7T(p\ ri TTfiQovs T) prjTopiKTj eWi rfx vr ) ; concerning what is rhetoric the 
art of persuasion ? (Plat. Gory. 454 a ). Tbv CK iroias TroXewy (rrpaTrjyov 7rpoo-So*ca> 
ravra npdgfiv ; from what city do I expect a leader to do this ? (Xen. Anab* 
3, I 14 ). 

1551. NOTE. For a/a T/', see 2047. For ri /xa0un/ and ri iraOw ; 
why in the world ? see 2252. 

1552. Two or more interrogative words can belong to the same 
verb without a connective intervening. 

Tivas VTTO Tivtov fvpotpcv &v pfifrva fvcpyfTrjpcvovs f) naidas VITO yoveav ; 
whom could we find more benefited by any one (lit. by whom) than children by 
their parents ? (Xen. Mem. 2, 2 s ). 'Avrl noi&v noia ^trarfdivra cvftaifiova 
TroXiv airepyd^oiT (iv ; what things substituted for other things (lit. for what 
things) would make a state happy ? (Plat. Leg. 683 b ). Tt'y iroOtv p.o\d>v <roi 
papTvprjo-d ; who, and whence <<>,;,,,/, ,/;// l,,,ir iritm-mtto you? (Soph. Trach. 
421). Has cildfv oTrota oTrot'otr 8vvara K.oiv<avtiv ; does every one know what 
letter* /'/'// n.ntr irith what? (Plat. Koph. 253*). 


1553. Tlie indefinite pronoun ri?, rt, some, any, often equivalent 
to a certain or simply a or an, may be used substantively or ad- 
jectively. Being enclitic it never stands at the beginning of a 

Sv\a TIS o-^to-aro), let some one sjtlit wood (Xen. Cyr. 5, 3 50 ). Ta^' ovv 
S av, perhaps, then, some one might say (Xen. Cyr. 5, 4 s8 ). *Hv n rov 
aaticves, some part of tin n;ill //-<r.s /-.<//, (Thuc. 7, 4 2 ). *A.v9pu>7r6s TIS, 
some man, any man, n (////'// ///.(//, or simply " (certain) man. KiSov (iv6pa>- 
nov Tiva, I saw a (certain) man. 

1554. NOTE. (a) Sometimes ris, ri, means indefinitely, a sort of r 
about, rather, somewhat, and the like, especially with adjectives and 

'O O-O<PHTTTJS 7T<pavTai f P.TT o pos r is, the sophist has appeared as a kind of 
trader (Plat. Soph. 231 d ). 'E-yw TIS, a>s OIKC, dv & padrj s, I am, as it seems, 
a rather dull fellow (Plat. Rep. 358 a ). Toiaura arra dif\(xdr)(rav, tinny* 
of some mch kind were discussed (Plat. Symp. 174 d ). 'E-ycb (p tXerai pos TIS. 
flfUf I am somewhat fond of IH<J fri< ml* (Plat. Lys. 211 e ). *Ev TIV i ft p a ^ t 
Xp6va>, in a pretty short time (Plat. Leg. 698). IIoo-o v n TrX^o? o-u^d^coi' ; 
about how great a mass of allies ? (Eur. Heracl. 668). 'ETTTO TIV as, about 
seven (Thuc. 7, 34 5 ). Hoo-ot TIVCS; about how many? (Xen. Cyr. 2, I 3 ). 


'OXt'-yot rive s, some few (Xen. Hell. 6, I 5 ). Ov TroXXot rives, some few 
(Thuc. 6, 51 2 ). 

(b) Kmilarly rl is joined to adverbs. 

AicufxpovTus TI, particularly (Thuc. 1, 138 3 ). ^xtoov n, pretty nearly 
(Thuc 3, 68 6 ; Plat. Charm. 164 d ). Ma\\6v TI, rather more (Xen. Anab. 4, 8 87 ) 
Ou iraw TI, even somewhat (Xen. Anab. 6, I 98 ). 

1555. NOTE. Sometimes ris, ri, means somebody (something) of 

ris (tvai, thou di<l*t run at thyself to be somebody (Eur. El. 939). 
TI, to say mmn'thiiHj, of note, to the point (Plat. Loch. 195 C ). Qtovrai 
i, ovTts ovdcvbs agioi, th>>if think they are something, when they are worth 
nothing (Plat. Apol. 41 e . Similarly av&cv is used ; as, ovdfv \cyeiv ofyuu <re, 
T //,//,,-, ,1,, n ,n-e saying nothing sensible (Ar. Av. 986). 

1556. NOTE. Observe Tras TI and eKao-rd? rts, any oe or every 
one (you please). 

1557. NOTE. Sometimes rt? in the singular refers to more than 
one person, and is then equivalent to many a or to each one. 

Toil/ (v TTJ oXiyapxia airo6av6vTa>v *cra>s TIS r^v novrjpos, perhaps many </ one. 
,,f tin is, n-ha perished in the oligarchy was bad (Lys. 30, 13). Xp>7 dcinvflv 5 n 
TIS (\(t, whatever (every) one has he mu#t dine on (Ken. Anab. 2, 2 4 ). Ev 
/*<! TIS oopv 0T)d<r9<,>, let every one m-ll shar/H n his *f,,-ar (II. 2, 382). 

1558. The indefinite a\Xo<? means another, as a\\7j TroXt?, an- 
other state. With the article, 6 a\\os generally means the. rest, 
<>IIH -times, the other. 

'U n\\r) 'KXXar, the rest of Greece. Ot aXXot <rvp.fjMx<>i* Hit- <>th> / (/ 
<fc re< o/ <^ allies. 

1559. NOTE. The object with which aAAos is contrasted regularly 
precedes it. 

fj>u>v KOI ol oXXot (rrparrjyoi, Xenoflion nnd tin nil, r </< n< -rain (Xen. 
Anal*. 6, 6 s ). Hut if the contrasted object is emphatic, tiXXos precedes ; as, 
Kara t v T) fit XXa rt cat TO nAatryncdi', according to th> <lifl''r< nt ///..>. 
and especially th< /'./,/.%/;,<// (Thuc. 1, 3 8 ). So also oXXwy and ra <1\\a us <1 
adverbially; as, */ ^...T r' riXXa erl/i^a-f >cai pvpiovs fdotct SapfiKin-*. l 
gave in- / /< fhii*<m'l <l<incs t besides honouring me in th> r /.>// (Xen. ^m/. 
l. :; ' '/-. 1,6"). 

1560. NOTE. The article is always omitted in the combination 
oAAo, used like the Latin alius aliud, one one thing and another 


another or the one this and the other that ; also in aAAos aX\o6i, alius 
alibi, aXAos aAAoo-e, alius alio, dAAos aAAofei/, alius aliunde, etc. 

Ovrot aXXor aXXa \cyci, these say, one one thing, and another another (Xen. 
Anab. 2, I 15 ). Ate'Scoxa aXXa aXXois- ayeiv, I distributed some to one man, some 
to another (Xen. Anab. 5, 8 7 ). But if the relation is reciprocal, the reciprocal 
pronoun is used ; as, *)\va-ov<Tiv d\\r)\ovs /zo^eo-flat, they prevent each other 
from fighting (Xen. Cyr. 6, 4 17 ). 

1561. NOTE. "AAAos /cat aAAos means one and then another, one 
or two, several. 

Mera TOVTOV a\\os ai/e'on; o/zotW KOI aXXos, after thin m<nt one man arose in 
the same way and then another (Xen. Anab. 7, 6 10 ; Cyr. 4, I 16 ). 

1562. NOTE. Often aAAos, and sometimes erepos, are joined attri- 
butively to a substantive, where the substantive is properly to be con- 
sidered as an appositive to them ; they are then to be translated by 

Tovs OTrXtras KOI TOVS aXXous tTrrre'd? (for rovs a\\ov$, TOVS iirneds), the 
hoplites and the cavalry besides (Xen. Hell. 2, 4 9 ). Ov yap TJV \6pros ov8e 
XXo ovdfv ftevdpov, for thf'r>' n-n* //< ;//v>xx, n> itln-r any tree (Xen. Anab. 1, 5 5 ). 
opet n0* ere pov vf avion, an old man comes with a young man besides, 
with another person, a young man (Ar. Eccl. 849). For povos T&V 
see 1719. 


1563. The original Indo-European language, from which the 
Greek is descended, had eight cases, of which the Greek lost three : 
the ablative, the locative, and the instrumental. The functions of these 
lost cases were assumed by the genitive and dative. The Greek geni- 
tive stands for the ablative with expressions of separation, source, and 
comparison. The Greek dative corresponds partly to the Latin dative, 
partly to the Latin ablative. It is equivalent to a locative, in answer 
to the question where ? and when ? and to the instrumental in answer 
to the question with what ? 


1564. The nominative is used as the subject of a finite verb 
(1209) ; and in the predicate after a finite verb signifying to be, to 
become, to be called, etc. (1204, 1208). 


1565. The nominative is used independently: (a) in names and 
titles ; as, Kvpov 'Ava/fotn?, the Expedition of Cyrus ; Bi/?A.iW ITpwrov, 
Book First; (6) in speaking of names or ivords as such. 

HpO(Ti\TJ<f> TT)V T<OV TTOVTJp&V KOlVTfV f TT WVV p.lO.V , (T V K. O <p O. V T T) S, 1l6 obtained 

/A* common appellation of the vile, ( ' sycophant " (Aeschin. 2, 99). Ilapeyyua 
/> Kvpos <rvv0T)p.a, Zevs ^u/x/xa^oy K a I fjyep.<i>v } Cyrus gave out as the 
u',it'-li-"-,n-<l. " Z> I/N, on,- ,(//)/ ttnd leader" (Xen. Cyr. 3, S 68 ). 

1566. 1. The nominative is sometimes used in beginning a sentence, 
although the construction is then changed. 

'Etrifivfjitoi' 6 Kvpo $..., Z8o(i> aur&i, Cyrntt desiring,... it seemed best to 
Aim(Xfii. Oyr. 7, 5 :>7 ). 

2. Similarly the nominative is occasionally used in specifications. 

"AXXoVC S* o /ityay-.-NeiXoy ene^fv Souorio-Kfli/r/s, nr/yaoTa-ywi/, aitdothers 

'*t Xili- Inttli *-nt. Siurisecmes, Pegastagon (Aesch. Per*. 33). 
Such changes of construction are called analcoluthon and occur 
much oftener in poetry than in prose. 

1567. The vocative, with or without w, is used in addressing a 
person or thing. 

T Q avopes \\0Tjvaioi, men of Athens ! (Plat. Apol.&JF). T Q KO 
TT<J!>V \\piaif, ! most wicked of men, Ariaeus ! (Xen. Anab. 2, 5 s9 ). 

1568. NOTE. In exclamations, the nominative is used. 

w, n ,r,;t,-h<-d me! (Soph. Aj. 981). 

1569. NOTE. An appositive to a vocative is in the nominative. 
*Q Sv&pes 01 Trapovrey, you gentlemen who are present (P)afc. Prot. 337). 
"I0t /A<V oui> trv, 6 irpco-ftvraTos, go, then, you who are the eldest (Xen. Cyr. 4, 5 17 ). 

1 570. NOTE. When a nominative with the article appears to stand 
in the vocative, it is to be considered as an appositive to trv or 

*Q Kvpe Kai ol XXot ncptrat, Cyru* and y<n< othrr /Vi-.s-/i.s ;( Xcii. 
3, 3**). 'O Trait, (iKo\nv0ei devpo, boy, fnllmr *f ruightways (Ar. R<n<. 

1571. NOTE. Observe the use of OUTO? as a vocative, equivalent 

-oAAofico/ior, nil irtpipei'tis ; .'/"" /A- /T, .{ />"lln,l,,rns, irill //,,// /M./ 

*f<iy . ? (Plat. >'////'. I7i"). Here also o-v is understood. 

1572. NOTK. The nominative is occasionally used for the vocative, 
especially in poetry. 


T ii yq Koi fj\t xal o-vvfo-is, earth and sun and common sense (Aeschin. 
3, 260). In prose the nominative of a name is probably never so used if it 
has a vocative form. 


1573. The fundamental use of the accusative is to denote the direct 
object of a transitive verb. Besides this, it is also employed adverbi- 
ally and in various other functions which cannot be reduced to a single 


1574. The direct object of a transitive verb is put in the ac- 
cusative; as 01 r 'E\\rjvs eviicrja-av rr/v aep^ov arpanav, the 
Greeks conquered the army of Xerxes. 

When the sentence is changed to the passive construction, the 
object-accusative becomes the nominative ; as rj "stpgov a-rpana cvlKrjQrf 
VTTO ran/ 'EAA^vtor, the army of Xerxes was conquered by the Greeks. 

1575. NOTE. In tragedy we sometimes find a noun 
becoming a direct object by attraction from its proper 

Case. Aeo-TTorav yoois cnrapa>, / in'// Imi'in !,un> -ufaf'timx 
for my master (Eur. And. 1199). 

1576. NOTE. Occasionally an adjective or noun of verbal force 
takes an object-accusative in the place of the regular object-genitive. 

'ETTKrTTjpOVfS TJ<TCIV Til IT p O (T T) K O V T O , ///'</ "' /' iir,/ //<///(/.,/ //;//( //Ml/' 

ilntii* ; (Xen. r///-. 3, 3 9 ). "V.{-apvoi flat TO. co /zo X oy o v fj. f v a, fix <j '//(// n'lnif 
/rs been acknowledged (Is&e. 5,26). Ta fiere'copa ^poi/noT^s, a ponderer <>n 
the things above (Plat. Apol. 18''). 2...(pit/zos, able to escape thee (Soph. 
Ant. 788). 

1577. Many verbs which govern a direct object in English take in 
Greek the genitive or dative or a prepositional construction. On the 
other hand, the accusative in Greek follows many verbs which in 
English take different constructions. Among the latter the following 
are specially important : aTroSiSpdcncu), run away from ; Swa/xai in the 
sense of to be equivalent to ; eViAeiVw, fail, be wanting, give out ; ITTL- 
opKc'w, to swear falsely (by) ; XavOdvw, lie hid, escape the notice of ; p.eV<o, 
wait for ; o/xvv/xt, swear or swear by ; o-Iyao> and O-KDTTCIW, be silent about; 
<evyo>, flee from ; <0avw, anticipate, catch up to ; cv (*aKois) Xe'yw, speak 
well (Hi) of; v (*a*a)s) Troie'w, treat well (ill). 


C O irais pe d-rrfdpd, the boy ran away from me (Plat. Prot. 316). 'O 8* 
<riy\os 8v v arat cirrd 6 ft o X o v s, tfie siglus is equivalent in seven oboli (Xen. 

>>. 1, 5 6 ). To o-Tpdrfvpa 6 <rlror eweXiTre, the grain failed (yaw out) 
the army (Xen. Anab. 1, 5 6 ). OI!TOI 0eovs f TT iv p KTJ K d<rtv, these //</< 
have perjured themselves before the gods (Xen. Anab. 3, I 22 ). Qeovs... \av6dvctv, 
to escape the notice of the gods (Plat. Rep. 365 d ). Of...*c<upoi ov p.t'vov<ri TTJV 
f) p.fT pd v ftpadvTTJTa, the times do not wait for our slouiiess (Dem. 4, 37). 
*O p, v v m (ov s cat 6 f a s, I swear by gods and goddesses (Xen. Anab. 6, 6 17 ).. 
"Qp.o(T TTJV (iprjvijv, he swore the peace (Dem. 18, 32); and passively, 
Ztvs o/id>/iOT<u, Zeus has i> n inrokril ; f) ipT)vrj o/ito/iorot, the peace has been 
sworn. Tas fi> /*fVo> <riy> rv^ds, I am *il<nt about the misfortuntx (////// 
intervened (Eur. Or. 16). Ucvrjra (pcvyei irds ns cKiroSwv (pt\os, every 
friend flees away from a poor man (Eur. Med. 561). QOdvova-iv eVi rov 
uKpa> yevofjifvw TOVS n o\ c p.iov s, they arrived on the height before the enemy 
(Xen. Anab. 3, 4**). Ev \fyfiv rov ev \eyovra, to speak well of one who speaks 
irrll himself (Xen. Mem. 2, 3 8 ). Tovs dyadovs ev noielv, treat well the good 
(I&oc. 1, 29). Passive to u (naK&s) \eyetv and iroiflv are fv (KQ<WS) aKoixtv 
and irdcrxfiv (see 1888, and 1617, 2). For other cases in which the Greek 
and English constructions differ, see the Genitive and Dative. 

1578. NOTE. 1. Av/Muvctr&u Tim, or TU/I, to maltreat, outrage, per- 
secute. 'Ei'o^AciV TWO. or nyi, to trouble, molest, annoy. AotSopeu/ nva t 
but \oiooptio-0ai Tin, both meaning to a^use, revile, rail at. M//.<eo-0<u 
TWO., to blame, disparage ; /tc/x^co^cu TIM, to reproach any one (with 
anything, T<). 

2. AvorreAcu', to benefit, fiorjOtlv, help, f-rrea-Oat and aKoXovOclv, follow, 
govern the dative. Q<eAtV, to help, benefit, with the dative, is poetic 
(also late). 

1579. NOTE. Observe these expressions: 

TvirTfortiai nva, to mourn for a i><rx<>n //// xlrikinii <>n,x>li' 
(in Herodotus, as 2, 132) ; so also Koirrco-ftu ni/a (Eur. Tro. 
623). TiXXco-dac' rti/a, to mom n /,,,- ,/ //</>-,,// h, ( tnir'nig 
hair (II. 24, 711). Similar to these are xopcvccp 0t6v, to 
celebrate a god by a choral *//<. (I'iml. Ixth. 1,7; Soph. Ant. 

ll."^). 'K\i(T<Tdv 6c6v, t" .,/.//-,/, ,i ,jm{ In/ <! <t n<'< inj (Eur. 

//./-. Fur. 690). 

1580. NOTE. The poets sometimes use the imper- 
sonal Set, there is need, with the accusative of the person 
and the genitive of the thing (thus >c ofl TWOS for e>i 


2e Set IIpop/tfe'cDS', you have need of a Prometheus (Aesch. 
Pro. 86). In epic poetry xp*l is similarly used ; as, ov <re xp*1 
tT aldovs, thou hast no longer need of modesty (Od. 3, 14). So 
also xp f< (which is sometimes combined with fxei, yiyverai, 
or eWi') ; as Od. 6, 136; Od. 4, 634 ; R. 21, 322. 

1581. 1. Verbs signifying to feel shame before, to be afraid, and 
.to guard against are transitive and take an object-accusative. 

OVK ala-x^vcfrBf ovre Qeovs ovre dvQpwirovs, you feel no shame either before 
gods or before men (Xen. Anab. 2, 5 39 ). Tovs evavTtovs eWeTrAqy/ieVos' dpi, I am 
in great dread of the adversaries (Thuc. 3, 82 4 ). Tils pi^ar Qapptiv, not to fear 
battles (Xen. Anab. 3, 2 30 ). MaXXoi/ et>Xa/3oi) ^6yov rf nivdvvov, guard against 
reproach rather than danger (Isoc. 1, 43). 

2. Such verbs are : al&lo J.O.L, feel shame, respect ; a&rxfoo/Mu, be 
ashamed ; atcr^iJi/o/xat v-n-fp TWOS, be ashamed of any one ; 8e8ta, <o/?e'o- 
/xat, be afraid of, fear ; eKTrA^cro-o/xai, KaraTrAr/a-cro/xai, be in great dread 
of ; Tpew, dread, tremble before ; ^uAao-tro/xat, et-AaySt'o/xttt, guard against ; 

w, take courage, fear not (Oappiu TLVL, confide in}. 

1582. NOTE. Here belongs the expression TfOvdvai. TU> Sect (or 
vd (TI), to fear any one (or aw///// w;/) like death (as Dem. 4, 45 ; 

19, 81). 

1583. Some verbs are used both transitively and intransitively, 
especially such as denote feeling and motion. 

nXclv, to sail ; nXflv Bakacrarav, to sail the sea. OiKcIv, to reside ; ol<elv 
olnidv, to iiilinhit or to manage a house. 'Odov Itvm, iroptveffBai, to go (over) 
a road. 27reu8eti>, to be earnest; <nrfv8(tv rt, to luixf,-n mnith'nnj. AaxpOfiv, 
to weep ; daitpdciv rqv drvxidv, to weep over the misfortune. Auo-^6paiVo> rfjv 
, I l <n- nui irmiuj </// randy. Tpe'^eti' TO (rrdBtov, to run in the course. 

1584, NOTE. Verbs signifying to lead can also take an accusative 

OI the way. 'PaBidv KCU ftpaxclav 68ov eVt rfjv fvdaipovidv ao> (re, I shall 
l> <nl ijnu mi r^.si/ mid short road to h<i/>/>ini'xx (Xen. 3/r/n. 2, I 29 ). 

1585. Many intransitive verbs become transitive by being com- 
pounded with prepositions. 

^ididtrtn- TTOTapov, to cross a river. Aie'p^ecr$ai TO opoy, to go over the 
mountain. 'YTrep^aXAety rd<ppov, to cross a trench. napanXelv vfja-ov, to sail 
along n inland. Tlapa^aivetv TOVS vopovs, to transgress the laws. Mere'p^eo-^at 
-rtva, to go after any one. Ilepiurrao-^ai \6(pov, to stand around a hill. 'Y?ro- 
i TToi/oi', to submit to labour. *Ec/3a/rcy ra rpiaKovra CTTJ, to pass beyoml 
i/i III'K. 


1586. Many verbs have as the direct object an accusative of 
effect, which expresses the result of the action of the verb; as 
y/>a(p&> 7ria-To\iji>, I write a letter. 

Tfjjivfiv t/ifiiras 1 , to ci/f N//V//X. Attopu^a repvfiv, to cut a canal. 2rrov8as 
Tf'/za)/i6i', l''t i/.s iin(k>' d truce (Eur. Hel. 1235). nptofitvctv clprjvrjv, negotiate 
a treaty, as ambassadors (Dem. 19, 134). Xop?;ya>i/...Aioj>iJo-ia, celebrating the 

nysia (Dem. 21, 64). Nd/ittr/in Konrftv p,o\vfi8ov, to strike coin of lead 
(Hdt. 3, 56 2 ). Compare such expressions as, to break a hole, to strike a bridge, 
with to break a *ti>-!:, t<> strike a man. 


1587. 1. Many verbs, transitive as well as intransitive, may 
take an accusative of kindred meaning. Such an accusative,, 
usually with an attribute, repeats the signification of the verb. 

2. The cognate -accusative becomes the nominative in the passive 
construction. See 1882, 7. For the cognate-accusative and ordinary 
object-accusative with the same verb, see 1615 1617. 

1588. 1. The cognate-accusative may be of kindred meaning and 
formation with the verb ; as vitc^v vl/cav t to win a victory. 

dpxyv, to hold an office. Md^rjv p-dx^crdm, to Jight a battle.]v 
, to conduct a procession. 'A-ywj/a dy<i>vir6ai, to undergo a contest. 
SIKTJV, to judge a law-suit. ^vXanas <pv\do-<rciv , to keep guard (Xen. 
Anab. 2, 6 10 ). Kotvfj TOV no\fp,ov noKf^oiivroiv, let them, wage the war together 
(Thuc. 8, 58 7 ). AouXevetv 8ov\eidv alvxpav, to be subject to a shameful servi- 
tude (Xen. Mem. 1, 5 6 ). 'ETptr/pap^r/o-e Tptrjpapxids, he performed the duty of a 
trierarch (Dem. 45, 85). Mai/tar fiaivfaQat, to rage with madness (Ar. Thesm. 
793). Oyic &v (irta-f TOT TOIOVTOV 7rrw/ia, it would not then have had such a fall 
(Plat. Loch. 181 b ). Kivdvvfixav TOV f(r\arov KIVO'VVOV, being in the greatest 
danger (Plat. Apol. 34'). Swc(pvyf rfjv <pvyf)v Tavrrjv, he shared in this banish- 
ment (Plat. Apol. 21*). nturds fjdovhs rj8fa-0m, to enjoy all pleasures (Plat. 

2. The cognate-accusative may be merely of kindred meaning , 
as %rjv fftov, to lead a life. 

Mdxrfv VIKOV, to win a battle. Atd>Kfti/ bi<rjv, to prosecute a suit. Qcvyav 
&IKTJV, to defend a suit. Qtvydv ypd<prjv, to defend an impeachment. 'Qt d*iv- 
ftiov (atfjuv, how secure a life we lead (Eur. M> -/. 248). nda-ds vda-ovt 
i, they are sick with all diseases (Plat. Rep. 408"). 'E}A0dv nvat *ai 
<^odovf, thr.y alto went on other expeditions (Xen. // //. 1 , 2 17 ). Tbv i<pov 
((TTpdTfvtrav, //</ engaged in the Sacral II '.// (Tlnu-. 1, 112*). 


1589. NOTE. The attribute is required with the cognate-accusative 
when its omission would cause a mere tautology; thus /foo-iAemv 
fia<ri\f.vtiv Or TrdXe/xov 7roA.e/mj/ for simple flaa-iXcvciv or TroXc/zetv would 
be inadmissable. But when the cognate-accusative alone is more 
definite than the verb itself, the article may be omitted. 

'Apx^i' apxeiv, to hold an office. &6pov avrols 0epoi>, they paid them tribute 
(Xen. Anab. 5, 5 7 ). Oi TTJV 7r6p.irf)v irt^avrt^^ those who con(ln<-tnl the pro- 
ioM (Thuc. 6, 56 2 ). 

1590. The cognate-accusative may limit the meaning of the 
verb ; as vl/cdv 'OXuyiiTrm, to gain an Olympic victory (Thuc. 1, 126 6 ). 

NIK a i/ 8iKT)v, to win a suit. 'Hrra<r0m 8tKTjv, to be beaten in a suit. Of 
viKoivTfs rcis yvwpas, th<w f>r> r,iil i n<i iritl, tln'ii' opinions (Plat. Gory. 456*). 
77(^)107x0 VIKCI, he carries a decree = he <'//<* n-lth a, decree (Aeschin. 3, 68). 
rdpovs (ivr'invfv , he celebrated a wedding-feast (Isae. 8, 18). Bo?;S/j<yua 7re/*7reii/, 
to celebrate the Boedromia with a ;>/<",./,, Dem. 3, 31). So also, petYo> yoXo, 
let it t1n,r milk (Theocr. 5, 124). 'H ^ovX^.-.e^Xf^e vairv, the Senate looked 
mustard (Ar. Eq. 629), and the like. 

1591. NOTE. Here belongs the poetic ySatVeii/ 7ro8a, 
to step the foot (as in Eur. Heracl. 802), formed on the 
analogy of ftaiviv ft^a, to step a footstep. So also other 
similar poetic expressions. 

1592. The cognate-accusative may be a neuter adjective or 
pronoun, the noun being understood or implied ; as TrrjSdv yu,et- 
bi>a (sc. TTT/Sjj/zara), to make greater leaps. 

'Yftpitiv dftvd (= vftpiv 8civT)v), to intuit grievously (Xen. Anab. 6, 4 2 ). 
BXa\/rai /icyaXa, to injure greatly (Xi-n. A nub. 3, 3 14 ). Me'-ya \(y&v, speaking 
loinllif (Plat. Prot. 310 b ). Me'io Vf <t)0(yyf(r0a l , to apeak louder (Plat Prot. 334 d ). 
KXeVroi' jSXeVei, he looks thievijh = a thii-rish look (Ar. Vesp. 900). Totai>ra 
TTfTroirjKtj such acts he has committed (Xen. Anab. 1, 6 9 ). yirjdfv ^(vdeo-dai, 
to utter no falsehood (Xen. Anab. 1, 9"). Tavra Xv-rrdcrdai KOI ravra xaiptiv, to 
have the same griefs and the same jays (Dem. 18, 292). T t /SowXerai 17/10' XP^~ 
<r&m ; what use ( = r'tva ^pet'ai') does he wish to make of us ? (Xen. Anab. 1, 3 18 ). 
Tovr' dyavaxTfl, about this is he vexed (Aeschin. 3, 147). 

1593. The Tragic poets sometimes use a cognate- 
accusative with verbs of sitting, standing, or lying. 
Ka0f)a0ai eSpav, to sit on a seat (Eur. Heracl. 55). Qa<ovs 
ovs tfao-tra), the seat which I occupy (Eur. Tro. 138). "EOTTJKC 
, stands on a rock (Eur. Suppl. 987). T6irov...ovTtva 
, the spot wherein he lies (Soph. Ph. 144; Aesch. Ay. 183). 


1594. The cognate-accusative is also used with adjectives and 
\ . u nouns. 

Tavrrjv (TTJV vofyav] fivai o~o<p6s, to be wise with f/n'x joWowi (Plat. Apol. 
2O 1 ). KaKovs irao-av Kaiciav, b<.ul ivith all bodiless (Plat. Rep. 490 d ). AouXos- 
-ras p.fyio-ras...8ov\ias, a slave to the direst slavery (Plat. Rep. 579 d ). 


1595. The accusative of specification may accompany a verb 
or adjective or noun, to specify the part or property or character to 
which the expression is applied. 

Tov daKTvXov dXyd, he has a jmin in his finger (Plat. Rep. 462 d ). Be'Xrioi/ 

'<rrt (rwfjLa y rf i\rv\r)v vac-civ, it is better to be sick in body than in mind (Men. 

M"n. 7-~)- Of TCI <rd>paTa fv e^oi/rey, those that are well in their bodies (Xen. 

". 3, 12 4 ). Tv(p\6s TO. r' Srra TOV Tf vovv TO. T oji/zara, thou art blind in ears, 

and mind, and eyes (Soph. Oed. Tyr. 371). Aeivos- TTJV T^V^V, skilled in the 

Vr. Eccles. 364). Of apioroi ra? Qvo-fis, the best in character (Plat. Rep. 

526). TOIOVTOS Tr)v (frvo-tv, such by nature (Isoc. 9, 24). Tlorap-os Kvdvos 

oi/o/ia, fvpos 8vo Tr\f6pa>v, a river, Cydnus by name, of two plethra in breadth 

i. A nab. 1, 2 s3 ). \\ircipov TO nX^dos, infinite in extent (Plat. Par. 143 a ). 

Qavpd&iai TO KciXXos <al TO pfyfQos, wonderful in beauty and in size (Xen. Anab. 


1596. NOTE. In late writers we find expressions like 6 TOV KavSw 
(sc. c^wr), he with the cloak (Lucian, Deorum Concilium, 9). 


1597. A large number of accusatives, having the force of ad- 
verbs, are practically fixed adverbial expressions. 

Tovrov TOV Tponov, in this way. Tfjv Ta^io-rrjv (sc. 686v), in the quickest 

tcay. Tfjv tvBtlav (sc. odov), .s//vnj//i/c-.///. Ti'i'a T/JOTTOI- ; in trhat way ? *Oi/ 

n which manner. (Tfjv) apx 1 ?"* at first. (To) Trpwroi/, at first, for the 

time, in the first place. To Sfirrtpov, TO TpiTov, in the second place, in the 

/ plan. To Xot7r<i'. ' [hut TOV Xoiirov, at some future time). To 

TtXfvraiov, finally. 'IVAos, at th>' >'n<l, tiinilly. (Tfjv') apxqv ov or fiij, not at 

TovvavTiov, on the contrary. Tt; why? in irl,,< \ >in> 

respects, somewhat. Ovdc'v, in no respect, not at all, in nothing. Touro, raGra, 

lib respect, therefore. ToOro IUV...TOVTO dc, ./?/-.s///....s-. .-///./. <.r ////;/... 

partly. T^XXn. //< tli>r respects. lloXv or TroXXci, //u/<A. ft,n. T 7roXX, 

ntOftl'i. i . in all respect*, roj//< t<lii. TocroOroi', so much. *O<r<u 

Jar a. Tu^bY. -Mjuc/nir. / length, tedioujthi. \i 


for a pretext. npouca, for nothing, gratis. Aa>pfai>, as a gift. &IKTJV (TIVOS)* 
in the manner (of). Xdpiv (nvos), for the sake (of). 

1598. NOTE. Some of these can be explained as accusatives of 
specification (1595), others as cognate-accusatives (1587 1594), while 
others are of uncertain origin. 


1599. The accusative is used to denote extent of time or of space . 

'Eiravtfa (pcivcv ly/ue'pa? eTrra, there he remained seven days (Xen. Anab. 
1, 2 8 ). 'EdaKpvc TTO\VV xpovov, he wept a long time (Xen. Anab. 1, 3 a ). At 
<nrov8al c v i a v r 6 v ea-ovrat, the truce is to be for a year (Thuc. 4, 118 7 ). 'A.TT- 
%(i f] nXaraia rtov QqfB&v crraS iov s f/SSo/x^Kovra, Platcea is seventy stades 
distant from Thebes (Thuc. 2, 5 2 ). Meyapa antxti 2upa*ouo-a>i' OVTC TT\OVV 
TroXvv ovrf o86v, Megara is not a long voyage or land-journey distant from 
Syracuse (Thuc. 6, 49 4 ). Mi *c po v Trpo'iovrfs, advancing a short distance (Xen. 
Anab. 2, I 8 ). 

1600. NOTE. The question "how old?" is answered by yeyoi/ois 
(Lat. natus] with the accusative of the years. 

Qv8(nv C'KOO-IV err) yeyovas, not yet twenty years old (Xen. Mem. 3, 6 1 ). 
Compounds of eror, year, can also be used ; as rpiaKovraer^y, contr. Attic 
s, thirty years old. 

1601. NOTE. The question " since when ? " is generally answered 
by the accusative with an ordinal number, counting in the current day, 
month, or year ; ovroo-i is sometimes added. The article is omitted. 

Ilpeorayopay fVi8f &)/*;* Tpirijv 778/7 rjpcpav, Protagoras has been in town 
now two days = since the day before yesterday or is now in town the third day 
(Plat. Prot. 309* 1 ). 'E,@o'6p.r)v ffpepav rrjs OvyciTpbs auroi T(T(\(vTr)Kvias y 
when his daughter had died six days before = was dead now the seventh day 
(Aeschin. 3, 77). Tr}? orparet'ay, 77^ fv^inarov p.rjva rovrovl &iXnriro? 
(v QpanT) Troiftrei, the campaign which Philip is now carrying on over ten months 
in Thrace, lit, this the eleventh month (Dem. 8, 2). 

1602. 1. In poetry the accusative without a pre- 
position is often used to denote the object towards 
which the motion is directed. 

Kvio-r) 8' ovpavbv uce, the savour ascended to heaven (77. 
1, 317). *E/3ai/ vcas, they went to the ships (Od. 3, 162). To 
KoTXoi/ v Apyoy fids, going to hollow Argos (Soph. Oed. CoL 


378). *Hfi*]S T f X o s paXovras, coming to the end of youth 
(Eur. Med. 920). Less often with persons, as Mvr)<rr^pas 
d<piKcro, she came to the suitors (Od. 1, 332). 2 e r68f e\r)\v0f 
irav Kpdros, this whole power has come to thee (Soph. Phil. 141). 

2. In prose we usually find ts, Trpos, or eVt and the accusative for 
places (also eVi with the genitive) ; and eVt", Trpos, -n-apa., or d>s with the 
accusative for persons. With places the local endings -8e and -e are 
also used ; as 'EA.euo-ivao'c = eis 'EXeua-iva, ' 


1603. The accusative accompanies the adverbs of swearing vrj, 
and fid, by. Of these, vr] introduces an affirmative oath ; fid a 
negative oath (unless accompanied by val, yes). 

Nrj Am, yes, by Zeus (Xen. Anab. 1, 7 9 ). Ma TOVS Beovs, no, by the gods 
(Xen. Anab. 1, 4 8 ). Nat pa At'a, yes, by Zeus (Xen. Anab. 5, 8 6 ). 

1604. NOTE. 1. Rarely a negative takes the place of /xa. Ov r6v8 y 
"oXv/zn-oi/, no, by this Olympus (Soph. Ant. 758). 

2. Sometimes the name of the goi is omitted for effect. Ma 
rdi/ -- oil <TV ye, by -- , not you (Plat. Gorg. 466"). 


1605. Double Object- Accusative. 1. Verbs denoting to ask, to 
demand, to teach, to remind, to conceal, to convince, to clothe, to 
itnclotJte, to deprive, take two accusatives, one of the person, and 
the other of the thing. 

2. Such verbs are : C'/WOTUW and epo/tai, ask ; airew, aTratrcw, demand ; 
, collect (money] ; Trparrw, eto-TrpciTTw, exact ; StSao-Kw, teach ; 

), VTrofJUfJLvnrj<TKO), remind ; KpuTTTW, aTroKpi^rrto, conceal ; 
convince ; cV3ua>, d/A^icVvu/xt, clothe ; CK^O), unclothe ; dTroorepew, 
t, deprive ; <rvXa<i>, ro6. 

ToOr' fpvTo) <T(, I am not asking i/mi /A/.s (Ar. ^Tit6. 641). KGpoi/ 
<o (wfc Ct/nw /or vessels (Xen. ^4na6. 1, 3 14 ). Swicpar?;^ TOI/JT tauroC 
OVK eVpaVrero XP 1 ?/"""". Kocrates did not collect fees from those 
desiring his co>///u<</ (X-n. .\/r//j,. 1, 2). Tovs i/i/atwrap t^Kovra raXai/ra 
fi<T(7rpaTTov, they exacted sixty talents from the islanders (Aeschin. 2, 71). Tl60tv 
TJparii a* fti&(i(TKii> rfjv trrpanjyiai' ; 'ith n-fmt <l'nl In In, /in /< ti<')i i/<ni military 
science f (Xen. Mem. 3, 1 s ). 'Ai>api7(ra> tp.ds rovt rS*v npayovuv r&v {jptrtpw 
/ will remind you of the dangers of your ancestors (Xen. Anab. 3, 



2 11 ). Aio j yetTa>i> rf)v Bvyarepa fupvirrc TOV Bdvarov TOV dvdpos, Dioyeiton concealed 
from his daughter the death of her husband (Lys. 32, 7). 2 ravra p.rj rreiOwv, 
not convincing you of this thing (Soph. Oed. Col. 797). Tov cavrov (sc. x^wva) 
(Keivov r)p,<pico-e, he put his own (sc. tunic) on the other boy (Xen. Cyr. 1, 3 17 ). 
'Ec8oG>i> fj.e xP r )< rrr lp' t -< lv ' * <r0rjra, stripping me of the oracular garment (Aesch. 
Ay. 1269). 'EKfivovs TCI on\a d^rjp^fBa, we have deprived those men of th-'ir 
arms (Xen. Cyr. 7, 5 79 ). TTJV 6(bv TOVS o~rf<pdvovs ao-v\TjKa(Tiv, they have robbed 
the goddess of her crown* (Dem. 24, 182). 

1606. NOTE. In poetry some other verbs have the 
double accusative. 

At/ia Kd6r)pov...'S,apnT)0'6va, wash the blood from Sarpedon (II. 
16, 667). Xpoa vifTo...a\p.T)v, he washed the dried spray 
from his skin (Od. 6, 224). Et p.r) rr' a&eX^rjs alfui rifio)- 
prja-frai, if he shall not avenge on you the blood of his sister 
(Eur. Ale. 733). So also vpr)o-avTa piv T&S rpi'xar, having 
shaved off hi* hair (Hdt. 5, 35 4 ), and a few other verbs. 

1607. NOTE. Some verbs of this class admit also of other con- 
structions. Thus aiTflv TL Trapd TWOS, to demand something of some one ; 
fla-Trpdrreiv or fla-Trpdrrfo-Oai TL irapd TWOS. Verbs of depriving can take 
a double accusative, as d^aipelo-^ai rtva TL ; or a genitive of the person 
and an accusative of the thing, as d^cupeto-tfai TWOS TL (1682) ; or less 
often an accusative of the person and a genitive of the thing, as 
d<cupei0-0(u Tivd -wos (1682). Verbs of reminding may take an accusa- 
tive of the person and a genitive of the thing ; as ttva/xi^tn^o-Kciv ru/a 

TIV05 (1655). 

1608. NOTE. When the verb is changed to the passive construc- 
tion, the personal object becomes the nominative, and the accusative 
of the thing remains. 

Movo-iKriv...7raidv6fis, having been taught music (Plat. Menex. 236*). TTJV 
o-^-iv dcpaipflTcu, he is deprived of his sight (Xen. Mem. 4, 3 14 ). Oi nXevves T>V 
<rrpaTrjyS)v OVK (irtiQovTo TO. e^ayyeX^eVra, the majority of the generals were not 
convinced of the report (Hdt. 8, 81 2 ). 

1609. Object- Accusative and Predicate- Accusative. 1. Verbs de- 
noting to call, to regard, to make, to choose, to appoint, to show oneself 
as, can take a predicate-accusative belonging to the objective-ac- 

2. Such verbs are : 6vo/j.d<D, KaXcw, aTroKoAe'w, Xeyw, TT poo-ay op f ro>, 
to call, to name ; vo/u'w, ^yc'ofuu, KpiVw, to regard, to consider ; 


to mdke ; a'plopMt, to cJlOOSC ; aTroStiKi v/xe, Ku#io-TT7/xt, to appoint ; 

ov, to show oneself as. 

e/ic fxaXetre, you called me father (Xen. Anab. 7, 6*). Tt rf)v 
; what do you call the state? (Plat. Rep. 428 d ). Ovs oi 
0covs fvdfjuoi>, whom the Syrians esteemed gods (Xen. Anab. 1, 4 9 ). Ov8f ovros 
ffjif tfriKov av ncrr T)yrj(raiTo, nor would //MX man ever consider me a friend (Xen. 
4, 6 s ). Aapfior Ki>po> (rarpcdrfy eVoi;(re, *at (TTpa-njyov Se avrbv dircda^f, 
Darius made Cyrus satrap, and appointed him general (Xen. ^4a&. 1, I 8 ). 
"Oorty o' &v (avTov \r)Tm orparf/ydi/, whoever chooses himself general (Xen. 
Anab. 5, T 88 ). Hape^fiv cavrbv evirfidrj, to show himself ready to obey (Xen. 
Cyr. 2, 1). 

1610. NOTE. Sometimes the infinitive eii/at connects the two ac- 

No/it'b> yap \}pMS tpol elvai KOI irciTpida KOI (pi\ovs, for I deem you to be my 
try and my friends (Xen. Anab. 1, 3 5 ). Scx^ttrn/i/ 817 rot oi/0/Lui^ovo-t...roi' 
avopa t i/at, they name the man (to be) a sophist (Plat. Prot. 31 l e ). 

1611. NOTE. With many other verbs a predicate-accusative may 
be used in connection with the object-accusative ; as ISw/ca Swpeai/ ra 
Xvrpa, I gave the ransom as a gift (Dem. 19, '170). See 1316. 

1612. NOTE. 1. With verbs signifying to grow, to nourish, to lift 
up, and the like, the adjectives /ue'ya?, great, vi/o/Xo's, high, /xcrt'wpo?, 
raised up aloft, on high, and some others, can be added as a proleptic 
predicate (prolepsis, Trpo'Arji/as = anticipation), showing the effect of the 
action of the verb The active construction has two accusatives, the 
passive two nominatives. 

"Eva nva act 5^/xof f ta>$e rpifaiv rt <a\ av(iv p-tyav, the people always have 
the habit of w"i'<"/<//<</ nn<1 exalting some one man to be great (Plat. Rep. 
565"). Mtyus (K fjiiKpov *t'Ai7r7ror rjv^rjrai, Philip has grown great from / 

(I)fiii. '>, '21). M(T0povs c(K6p.i(rav rat Apdas, they carried the waggon* 
raited up (Xen. Anab. 1, 5 H ). 'Hip* ro fyos TOV rtixovs /'y a > ^ e height of 
the wall was made considerable (Thuc. 2, 75 4 ). Dem. 19, 249. 

2. The proleptic predicate is seldom a noun ; as IIcpucAT;? TOW vle'dc 
iTTTre'tt? c5t8o^cv y Pericles taught his sons to be horsemen (Plat. Meno 

1613. NOTE. When the verb is changed to the passive, both 
accusatives become nominatives. 'O Trora/xo? KoAetTai Mcyxrv'as, tJic 
river is called Marsyas (Xen. Anab. 1, 2 s ). 

1614. NOTK. The passive of verbs meaning to call is sometime 

100 ACCUSATIVE 1615 

O.KOVW ; as vw Ko\aK^...aKovov(riv, now they are called fawners (Dem. 
18, 46). So Xayxavw serves as passive to /cX^pow, choose by lot; as 
v's, I was chosen (by lot) priest (Dem. 57, 47). 

1615. Object- Accusative and Cognate-Accusative. 1. A transitive 
verb may have a cognate-accusative in addition to the object-ac- 

"EKCLOTOV wcpyfTfiv TTJV futyforqv ewpyfo-iav, to do the greatest good to each 
one (Plat. Apol. 36). 'E/z yap 6 irarr^p TT)V TWV iraidwv iraio'fiav avros eVm'devei/, 
my father taught me the discipline of boys (Xen. Cyr. 8, 3 37 ). KaXoOo-t p.e TOVTO 
TO ">vop.a, they call me this name (Xen. Oec. 7, 3). Ilard^ai nva rfjv arlpov 
TOVTTJV 7r\r)yr)v, to strike any one this shameful blow (Plat. Gorg. 527 d ). Me'Xi/ror 
p.f typa.tya.To TTJV ypafyr^v ravnyi' . Mil<tnx brought this impeachment against me 
(Plat. Apol. 19 C ). "QpKoxrav ndvTas TOVS (rrpartcoray TOVS peyiaTovs opxovs, they 
made all the soldiers swear the strongest oaths (Thuc. 8, 75 2 ). ndvra tycvo-dpqv 
auroi/, I deceived him in all things (Xen. Andb. 1, 3 10 ). 'HSiK^o-a/iei/ TOVTOV 
ovdev, we have done him no wrong (Xen. Anab. 7, 6 M ). "Orai/...aXXj7Xovy ra 
60-^ara Xfycotrtv, when they say the ii-nrxt things of each other (Xen. Mem. 2, 2 9 ). 

2. Here belong verbs signifying to do anything to or to say 
anything of a person or thing. 

Tavri p.c noioixriv, th< >j tin these things to me (Ar. Vesp. 696). Et ris TI 
ayadov tj KOKOV irotTja-fifv OVTOV, if any one did him any good or evil (Xen. 
Anab. 1, 9 11 ). Kac' tpf&v cvKvr)p.i8as 'Axaiovr, he did many evils to the well- 
<ir<red Greeks (Od. 2, 72). 'Hdovrj TIS yvvaii fir^dev vyies aXXj^Xdf \(yiv, to 
women there is a certain pleasure to say nothing wholesome of each other (Eur. 
Phoen. 200). Ov (ppovrHrriov o TI fpova-iv 01 TroXXot ^ay, we must not regard 
what the multitude say of us (Plat. Crito 48 ft ). 'O Qffu(rroK\tr)s Kflvov TC KOL 
TOVS KopivQiovs TroXXa rt teal KOKU f\y, Themistocles said many bad things of 
him and of the Corinthians (Hdt. 8, 61). 

3. Verbs signifying to divide also belong here. Kvpo? TO 
o-rpdrVfj.a tcar6Vi,fjL &o!)$Ka pefw, Cyrus divided the army into 
twelve divisions (Xen. Cyr. 7, 5 13 ). 

1616. NOTE. 1. Verbs signifying to do anything to or to say 
anything of a person often have c5 and Kaxto? instead of the cognate- 
accusative ; as TO^.-.Tretpco/xevov C/A aviav OVK av 8waL/jir)v ovre v Xeyctv 
ovre ev Troieiv, / should not be able to speak well of, or to treat well, one 
who tries to vex me (Xen. Mem. 2, 3 8 ). 

2. Ilptto-o-eiv rtva TI is hardly ever used in the sense to do anything 
to any one, but means to exact something from any one (1605). So cv 

1618 GENITIVE 101 

and KCIKWS irpua-o-cLv are nearly always intransitive, meaning 
to be well (badly) off or to be well (ill). 

3. The verbs TTOICW, epyao/xcu, and Trpao-o-w, may have a dative of 
the person and an accusative of the thing ; as ayaOov Trpaai rrj 7roA.ce, 
tj do something good to the city (Lys. 13, 48). 

4. With verbs meaning to divide, /xe'pr/, parts, is sometimes preceded 
in Attic by ek, into, or Kara, used distributively ; as oiatpilv Kara in 
Plat. Soph. 220 b and Rep. 580 d , in Aeschin. 3, 197. 

1617. NOTE. 1. When the verb is changed to the passive con- 
struction the cognate accusative remains. 

Tiis ftrxdras XuTrftrcu \vnas, he sniffers the extremest pains (Plat. Gorg- 
494"). 'H Kpi<ris, TJV cupidrj, the judgment which was passed upon him (Lys. 
13, 50). ToCro OVK (\lrcv<r0T)(rav, they were not deceived in this (Xen. Anab. 2, 
2 13 ). TuTrro/iffos- 7ro\\ds (sc. TrXrjyiis), struck many blows (Ar. Nub. 972). 
avnj rj dyopd rerrapa pepr], this agora u divided into four parts (Xen. 

2. Passive to ? (KaKoi?) Troulv is tv (xaKai?) ird(T\f.iv ', as /xeyaAa cv 
, greatly benefited. Passive to Ae'yeiy is aKovw (poetic K\VIV). 

VTTO ra>v -rroXiroiv aKoveiv, to be ill spoken of by the citizens (Isoc. 4, 
77 IloXXa *cat iravroC aKovoixras KCIKU. (women) called all kinds of a/> ><>. 
thing* (Ar. Tltesm. 388). KOKCOS K\vova-av, being in evil repute (Soph. Trach. 
721). Compare 1888. 


1618. 1. The genitive case may be connected with nouns, adjectives, 
adverbs, verbs, or may be used independently to express various rela- 
tions. Its principal and most natural use is to limit the signification 
of a noun. But just as the accusative, which originally was used only 
as the direct object of a transitive verb, came to denote also indirect 
objects, in the same way the genitive came to be used to limit the 
meaning also of verbs and adjectives. 

2. Every verb has in itself the idea of a noun ; as orifo/xt'oj, to 
desire, implies Ivi0vfudv t a de ire; TrXr/o-o-w, to strike, implies TrX^yi/i/, 
a blow. If the verbal idea prevails in the verb, it governs the accusa- 
tive : as Tr\i')<r<rtn TH-U, /< xtriki' <unt our. But if the nominal idea 
prevails it governs the genitive ; as Vi6ff/x<?> T>/<; r!pcr?} / lii-xire virtue, 
equivalent to eVt^D/i?j cVitfu/uav rrp d/icri/c. / have (lit. desire) a desire 
for virtue. In some cases the same verb may govern either the 



genitive or the accusative. In some constructions with verbs, as in 
the partitive genitive, the genitive seems to depend on some omitted 
word denoting some or apart (ris or /xtpos). 

3. Used as an ablative, the genitive case expresses also that from 
which any thing proceeds (the genitive of source), or is separated (genitive 
of separation), or is distinguished (genitive of distinction and of com- 
parison). The genitive is also used in a looser way to express time and 
place ; and in exclamations. 


1619. The genitive depending on a noun is called attributive, 
and denotes the following relations. 

1. Genitive of Possession, expressing ownership. 

'H TOV IlpiK\ovs otKta, the house of Pericles. ^(OKpdrrjs 6 2a><ppoi>t'o-cov, 
Socrates the son of Sophroniscus. 'Hfia>i/ 6 rrarrjp, our father. To Mtvwos 
<TTpdTfvp,a, the army of )f<-n<>. * \ ("iXrjfa TTJS TroXetos a7ro8a><r, what of 
the city he has taken, he will return (Dem. 19, 151). BorjOc'iv (ftovXovro rots 
(avr)v vyy(v('(riv t they desired to help their own kinsmen (Thuc. 6, 6 1 ). ToSe 
avr>v ov \apifv ; is not this quality of theirs charming ? (Plat. Rep. 426 a ). 

2. Genitive of Source or Cause. 

'Op.f)pov l l\ids, Homer's Iliad. T Aio-/za 2ip,a>i>i#ov, a song of Simonides. 
rpcKpr) do-ffidds, an indictment for impiety. M-ydXa>i/ d8iKr)p.dra>v opyr}, anger 
for great wrongs (Lys. 12, 20). 

3. Genitive of Measure, to express size and time. 

'OKTG> (rradiw ret^oy, it n'<tll of eight stades in length (Thuc. 7, 2 4 ). Tlora^os 
tvpos TrXfdpov, a river of one plethrum in breadth (Xen. Anab. 1, 4 4 ). Tpioii/ 
f)fjL(p)v 686s, a journey of three days (Xen. Hell. 3, 2 11 ). Mr06r rerrapa>/ 
WvS>v> pay for four months (Xen. Anab. 1, 2 12 ). 

4. Genitive of Material or Contents. 

"\\(ros fjpfpwv Sevdpuv, a grove of cultivated trees (Xen. Anab. 5, 3 12 ). 
BOCOJ/ 076X7;, a herd of cattle (Xen. Mem. 3, II 5 ). Kprjvr] fjdcos vSaroy, a spring 
of fresh water (Xen. Anab. b, 4 4 ). "A^a|ai orVou, waggons ( = waggon-loads) 
of corn (Xen. Cyr. 2, 4 18 ). Srar^p ^piJo-oi), a stater of gold (Plat. Euthyd. 

5. Genitive of Valiie. 

TpiAKovra Ta\dvTu>v ovaid, an estate of thirty talents (Lys. 29, 2). XiXtW 
dpaxpwv diKT), a suit for a thousand drachmae (Dem. 55, 25). 

6. Partitive Genitive, denoting the whole, the governing word 
expressing the part. 

1621 GENITIVE 103 

'Aj'7p TOV fypov, a man of the people (Xen. Cyr. 2, 2 s2 ). "H/ZMTV TOV oXou 
s, half of the whole army (Xen. Anab. 6, 2 10 ). Me'o-oi/ fjfifpds, the 
i i,;<l</l. <>f f}n' tlaii (Xen. Anab. 1, 8 8 ). 'Hp.S>v ovftfis, none of us (Xen. Anab. 
3, I 16 ). IIoAAu TG>V virovyt<>>v, many of the draught-animals (Xen. Anab. 1, 
5 5 ). *Hi> TI TOV Ttixovs daQcvts, a part ( = something) of the wall was weak 
(Thuc. 7, 4 2 ). 'EV rols dpicrrois npo-S>v, among the best of the Persians (Xen. 
An'd>. 1, (5 1 ). T Q <piAa yvvaiKMVi beloved of women (Eur. Ale. 460). Tovs 
dyaffovs T>V dy$pd>7ra>r, the good among men (Ar. Plut. 495). 2ii/ rois Trapovo'i 
rd>i' 7rto-reoi>, K'if/j //lose presert of his faithful attendants (Xen. Anab. 1, 5 15 ). 
Toir /ii> aiTtoi/ aTrexTfti/*, rovs S* c^fftaXcv, slew some of them and banished 
Xi-n. .1 /Mt6. 1, I 7 ). 

7. Objective Genitive, expressing the object of an action or feeling. 
C O </>o0oy rutv tro\pio)v, the fear of the enemy (which others feel toward 

them). Aia TO Uavaav iov /zuroj, through the hatred of ( = against) Pausanias 
(Thuc. 1, 96 1 ). AidS>...favTov, respect toward himself (Xen. Anab. 2, 6 19 ). 
'\PCTTJS o~i8d<TKa\os, a teacher of virtue (Plat. Meno, 93). Ilpoy ras TOV 
X(ip.&vos KfipTfpTjvcis, as regards endurance of the winter (Plat. Symp. 220*). 
Tovs T &i v 6 ( a) v opKovs, the oaths (sworn in the name) of the gods (Xen. Anab. 
i. Bt'a fj /z aii/, in spite of us (Thuc. 1, 68 4 ). TTJV r&v K. pc I<T <r ov u>v 
&ov\fidv, servitude to the stronger (Thuc. 1, 8 3 ). Ai' dp,iidv d\\r)\u>v, 
,iuii-iiit'-r<-iiiii-xt n-iih each other (Thuc. 1, 3 4 ). 'ETTI TTJV ra>v /3ap- 
(TTpaTfiav, to a war against the barbarians (Isoc. 15, 57). Qf&v 
(v\ds, prayers to the gods (Plat. Phaedr. 244 e ). 'Ei/ diroftdo-f i TJJS y i) r, in a 
descent /////< //. l<ind (Thuc. 1, 108 4 ). T^y TWV '\6rjvaivv (vvoids, from 
good fill ton-itrd the Greeks (Xen. Anab. 4, 7 20 ). 'E-yKpareta rjdovr)s, mode- 
ration in pleasure (Isoc. 1, 21). 

8. Subjective Genitive, expressing the subject of an action or feeling. 
*O <^>o/3of TO>V TroAfpW, the fear of the enemy (which they feel). 'H ((podos 

TOV oTporcvpiTof, the approach of the army (Xen. Anab. 2, 2 18 ). 

The above list gives the most important classes of these genitives. 
Many genitives are peculiar and hard to classify. 

1620. NOTE. IT Such masculine and feminine participles as have 
completely become nouns can thus govern the genitive ; as ap^utv t 
archon ; TrpovrJKw, relation. 

2. Examples like 6 cicciVov TCKWI/ (for a tKtlvov TCKW), 
hisjather (Eur., El. 335) are poetic. 

1621. NOTE. The name of a locality may have a dependent geni- 
tive denoting the country or people to which it belongs. 

/fl/iop KOTH (hey take Pergamon in ( = o 

104 GENITIVE 1622 

place in) Mysia (Xen. Anab. 7, 8 8 ). Kopii>0iW eV 'ApftpaKiav \r)\v0c ; did 
he not advance against Ambracia (a colony) of the. Corinthians ? (Dem. 9, 34). 

1622. NOTE. 1. In poetry we find a genithe of specifi- 
cation in examples like these : Tpoo?? TrroXic&pov, the city 
of Troy, like Lat., urbs Bomae (Od. 1, 2) ; 'I\iov TTOA.IS, 
the city of Ilium (Aesch., Ag. 29) ; so in Hdt. Ka/mpf^s 
TO ao-Tv (Hdt. 7, 156' 2 ). Here the genitive stands for an 

2. Similar are paraphrases like Ilpia/xoto /3o/, the powerful 
Priamus, for Hpia/xos (II. 3, 105). In prose as well as 
poetry we find xP^M a so used. 

2u6y XPW /"?"> " I ''".I tl' lii y ( r monster) of a wild boar 
(Hdt. 1, 36 1 ). 2<f)v8ovTjToi)v rra/iTToAv rt ^p^/xa, a very large 
body of sllinji i -N Xen. Ctyr. 2, I 5 ). 

1623. NOTE. The Latin genitive or ablative of quality is expressed 
in Greek by the accusative of specification (1595), or by an adjective 
and an infinitive (2221). A genitive of characteristic occurs some- 
times in Greek, but only as a predicate-genitive (1634). 

1624. NOTE. Expressions like the Latin quid novi ? what new ? 
are rendered in Greek by ri xatvov, not by ri KCUVOV. The adjective 
must here agree with the pronoun. 

1625. NOTE. An adjective generally agrees in gender with the 
partitive genitive depending on it. 

'O \onros TOV xpovov, the rest of the time (Dem. 15, 16). TTJS- yfjs 17 dpia-nj, 
the best part of the land (Thuc. 1, 2 3 ). 2irov TOV T)p.i(rvv, half of the corn 
(Xen. Cyr. 4, 5 1 ). But sometimes the neuter is used, fu-'por, part, being 
understood ; as T&V iro\futa>v TO TTO\V (for ot n-oXXot), the greater part of the 
enemy (Xen. Anab. 4, 6 34 ). 

1626. NOTE. A substantive may have two genitives depending on 
it ; usually they are in different relations. 

Aia TO a v r a> v fie'os TOV Qavarov, through their own fear of death (Plat. 
Phaedo, 85 a ). "Iirirov Spo/zos- ^/le'par, a day's run for a horse (Dem. 19, 273). 
T a> v *Ia>i/a>i/ rrjv r]yfp.ovirjv TOV irpbs Aaptioi/ n o \ e /z o u, the leadership of 
the lonians in the war against Darius (Hdt. 6, 2 1 ). "ATOTTOS Atoi/Co-ov 
xP s ) a strange Dionysiac chorus of old men (Plat. Leg. 665 b ). 

1627. NOTE. The partitive genitive depending on a neuter pronoun 
or adjective is often used to denote the degree or extent. 

1631 GENITIVE 105 

Ei's roffovrov fl(Ti r6\firj s d<plyp.fvoij to so great a degree of boldness 
/// ///"/ (Lys. 12, 22). Eis TOVTO 5* dpaQias TJKCIS, thou art come to thi* 
pitch of ignorance (Eur. Andr. 170). 'Enl peya dvvdfjifws f^wpr/o-ai/, they 
advanced to a great degree of power (Thuc. 1, 118 2 ). 'Ev iravrl d6ip.itis, in the 
of despondency (Thuc. 7, 55 1 ). 

1628. NOTE. The partitive genitive alone seldom appears as the 
subject of a verb. 

*E<f>aaav ftrip-iyvvvai <r <p a> v re Trpos fKivovs KOI CK.flv<av npos favrovf, 
th> !i said some of their own men had mingled with them, and some of them 
icith th> ir iiii-n nun (Xen. Anab. 3, 5 16 ). *Ho-ai> *A.vdpioi...Kal \lylvr)T5>v rfav 
eirocjctti', therr Irian*... and Aeginetans of the colonists (Thuc. 8, 69 2 ). 

Here the genitives may be said to depend on ris or /ne'poy understood. 

1629. NOTE. Instead of the objective genitive, the dative is often 
used (as in 1757, 1770) ; so also a preposition and its case. 

TTJV Trapa 6(<*v fvvotav, the good will of the gods (Dem. 2, 22). 'O diro T>V 
(pofios, the fear (which we have) of the enemy. 

1630. NOTE. The attributive genitives take the attributive position 
as regards the article (1406, 1408) ; but the partitive genitive (1410) and 
the genitive of personal pronouns (1455) take the predicate position. 


1631. With copulative verbs (1205) a genitive may form a 
predicate like a noun or an adjective. Such a predicate-genitive 
stands in relations similar to those of the attributive-genitive. 

1. Possessive Genitive. 

Boicorwi/ fj no\is Wcu, the city will belong to the Boeotians (Lys. 12, 
58). 'H VIKT) TU>V \\0ijvaitov tyiyvfTo, the victory belonged to tin Athenians 
(Thuc. 1, 63 11 ). TOVTO roCvopd e<m fixpyfTovvTos, this name belongs to a 
benefactor (Xen. Cyr. 8, 2). 

2. Genitive of Source or Cause. 

'O i/d/iof f'a-riv ovros Apdnovros, this law is Draco's (Dem. 23, 51). Totovrwi' 
ftrrt npoyovw, from M/7i ancestors are ye (Xen. Anab. 3, 2 14 ). 2i> rrciXfcor 
fityifTTTjf f( T , /"" are from a very great city (Xen. A nub. 7, ;ii). 

3. Genitive of Measure, to express size and / 

I TUX*) (TTa&ivv rfv OKTU, th< a-, ills n; re eight staden \n l,n<itl< (Thuc. 
4, 66*). Tov Map<rvov rn (Vfn>s <<mv fttcotrt >cat irtvrt iro&vv, the 
breadth of the Marsyas w twenty-five / .\,il,. 1, ir>. 'HI> irvv >r 

he was ab<'t tliirfn / (Xen. Anab. 2, (J*). Tn^tlv di 

106 GENITIVE 1632 

Tci)v y Tts TptflKoi/Tct, one ought to marry when one is thirty years old 
(Plat. Leg. 721). 

4. Genitive of Material. 

Ot aT<pavoi OVK uoi> TJ p68(ov ricrav, the wreaths were not of violets or of 
roses (Dem. 22, 70). &OIVIKOS at Bvpai 7rnoiT)p.vai, the doors being made of 
the palm-tree (Xen. Cyr. 7, S 22 ). 

5. Genitive of Value. 

Oi ccipya(rp,voi dypol TT o A A o v dpyvpiov yiyvovrai, well-cultivated 
lands cost a great deal of money (Xen. Oec. 20, 23). T p i a> v Spa^/zeoir 
irovrjpov oi/ra, being a villain for three drachmae (Dem. 19, 200). 

6. Partitive Genitive. 

SoXcai/ TWV TT T a & o (p t & T > v K\T)6ij, Solon was called one of the seven 
wise men (Isoc. 15, 235). *Hv KOI ovros KOI SwKpdnjs T fov dp.(pl MlXrjrov 
<TT pare vo p. v a> i/, both he and Socrates were of those who served at Miletus 
(Xen. Anab. 1, 2 3 ). T o v r a> v ycVov, become one of these (Ax. Nub. 107). 

7. Objective Genitive. Ov TWV KdKovpywv OI/CTOS, aAAa TT}S 8tKr;s, 
compassion is not for the evil-doers, but for justice (Eur. frag. 272). 

1632. NOTE. Instead of a predicate-genitive of measure to express 
size, a predicate-nominative m*y be used; as TOV Mcuai/8pov TO vpo9 
8vo TT \eOpa (for SuotV ir\c6poiv) t the breadth of the Maeander is two 
plethra (Xen. Anab. 1, 2 5 ). 

1633. NOTE. A peculiar expression is cavrov yiyvta-Oai, to be oneself, 
in one's right mind (Dem. 2, 30 ; 4, 7). So ou^ eavroi) eu/ai or yiyvtvOa.^ 
to be no longer master of oneself, to be beside oneself, to be rapt (Plat. 
Phaedr. 250*) ; similar to this are (OVK) tv tavrov *lvai and (OVK) eVros 
avrov tlvaL and !eo avrov ttvai. 

163^. NOTE. 1. Tho possessive predicate-genitive is often used to 
denote the one whose peculiarity, characteristic, business, or duty it is 
to do anything. The subject is usually an infinitive. 

T o fitv a p %o v T 6 s eVri TO 7rpo<rra.TTfiv o TI \prf iroiclv, T o v 8e ap%op.fvov 
TO irdQevdai, it is the business of a commander to order what if i* necessary to 
'In, and that of the one commanded to obey (Xen. Mem. 3, 9 n ). Ais t^anaprflv 
TCIVTOV OVK dvSpbs a-o(J)ov t it is not in the nature of a wise man to err twice in 
the same thing (Men. Mon. 121). Toil/ VIKVVTW eVrt KOI TO favrotv 
ata^fiv KOI TO. TO)!/ i7TTto/icVa)i/ \anJ3dvftv, it is the privilege of the victors both 
to save their oivn property and to take that of the vanquished (Xen. Anab. 
3, 2^). 

2. Note the possessive pronoun equivalent to my (thy) business ; 

1639 GENITIVE 107 

as 0-6 v Ae'yeu', ToXpav 8' c/xoV, 'tis thine to speak, and mine to dare 
(Eur. Ion, 1020). 

1635. NOTE. The material of which anything consists or is made 
may be expressed by IK (as in Xen. Anab. 2, 3 10 ) ; also by the dative 
of means (as in Xen. Anab. 2, 4 1 -). 

1636. NOTE. A genitive of quality (as Lat. vir summae sapientiae) 
is occasionally used, but only as a predicate-genitive. 

TOVTOV TOV rpoTTov woo? tip a* I, I am always somehow of this turn 
(Ar. riot. 'J4li). "Oo-oi Tys avrfjs yvoip-rjs rjarav, as many as were of the 
same *;<//< I'M/I (Thuc. 1, 113 :t ). Tov#' opoo TroAAou TT oi/ou, I see this to be of 
,,tnrh ,r>rfi<-,,ltti (Eur. Phoen. 719). 

1637. The predicate-genitive may relate to the object of a 

Ou a~v KpiTO$ouAoi/ (vop,ics fivat T <a v (TbXppoviKtav avflpuTrotv 
pd\\oi> ff TO>V ffpaa-foiv; did you not regard Critobulus as one of the modest 
rut h> r //m one of the forward? (Xen. Mem. 1, 3 8 ). Bao-iAtuy vopift KOI 6/xar 
eavrov fivtu, the King looks upon you as belonging to him (Xen. Anab. 2, 
I 11 ). AovXov r65' fin-ay, what you mention belongs to a slave (Eur., Phoen. 
392). Tov 8i<f>pov TOIS fjvi6\ois cTrolr)(r(v io-xvp&v ^uAtoi/, the seat for drivers he 
made of strong pieces of wood (Xen. Cyr. 6, I 29 ). 'E/xe 6fs r a> v 
, count me as (one) of those convinced (Plat. Rep. 424 C ). 

pLVd) TT)V TO)V 7T pay^LOTdiV <T(t)TT)pidv O.VT\ TfJS CV TO) \fyflV 

I think it j.s the duty of an upright citizen to prefer the 
of public business to the yi-ntin'<-ntion given in making a speech (Dem. 3, 21). 
KaAAapov fTTtypdtyaTo r a> v e p.> v SovAa>i>, he made Callarus, one of my 
slates, defendant (Dem. 55, 31). 


1 638. Any verb whose action affects its object only in part may 
take the genitive (1619, 6). 

\aftdvras TOV ftapftapiKOv orporoO, talcing a part of the barba, 
(Xen. Anab. 1, 5 7 ). T>v <*c rffs (rrous <iir\u>v KaQ(\m>T(s, Iniriini t<il;> n <lirn 
some of the weapons from the portico (Xen. Hell. 5, 4*). y \<pl(\s rtav mxp.nAo!>ra>i/, 
sending away some of the prisoners (Xen. Anab. 7, 4 5 ). Tfjt yf^t jrcp>i>, /A"/ 

r<u;t<ii |xirt of th l<in<l (Thur. 1, IJO-). 'I'<or (dtTo>i- K\t'^ni-Tm. tlfii '/'// strtil 
,- otm(Xen < '../,. 7, 4 13 ). 

1639. NOTE. *E<rdia> in the sense of to cat up has the accus.i 
also when the object merely denotes the kind of food habitually taken ; 

108 GENITIVE 1640 

similarly -n-ivw, to drink. Thus : Triveiv TOV olvov, to drink up the wine ; 
irivf.iv olvov, to drink wine habitually ; irivw olvov, to drink some wine. 

1640. NOTE. Here belong the expressions KarcdyeVat rfjs 

to have one's head broken, and o-vvrpifttiv r?}s Kc^aXJ??, to bruise one's 
head; as Ar. Ach. 1180, Pax, 71 ; Isoc. 18, 52. For the genitive the 
accusative may be used ; as Lys. 3, 14 and 18. 

1641. 1. Verbs of sharing and enjoying have their object in the 

2. Such verbs are //.T\w and KOLVWV^, to have or to take a share ; 
v<*>, to get a share ; /cA^povo/xe'to, obtain a share, inherit ; 
, to give a share ; //cTaXay^avw, to have or to get a share ; 
i (pot TIVOS), to have a share ; Trpoo-i/Kct (/xot TIVOS), to have concern 
in ; arroXavw, enjoy ; o\ tVa/mi, to enjoy, to have advantage of a thing ; 
vo>^co/xat to feast on ; r^fnrofuut to delight in, enjoy. Aay^avw rtcos, to 
obtain by lot a share in anything, but Xay^avw n, to obtain by lot the 
whole of anything. 

/;? fopr/Jy, tht-y dm rl in (he festival (Xen. Anab. 5, 3 9 ). Ta>i/ 
TadidovTfs, imparting our joys (Xen. Oec. 9, 12). UoKtpov <a\ 
avrrj, of war and battle there fell to her no share (Xen. Cyr. 7, 
2 28 ). OVK Q)TO irpo<rf)K(iv ovdfvl apxys* he believed no one to have concern in 
(lori-rnini'iit (Xeii. Cyr. 8, I 37 ). Of a-rroXavovrts T&V <r&v aya^cov, those enjoy in <j 
your good fortune (Xen. Oec. 12, 7). "OvaicrBf TOVTWV, may you enjoy these 
(Dem. 28, 20). Eva^ou TOU Xdyou, feast on the discourse (Plat. Rep. 352 b ). 

1642. NOTE. When the whole object is referred to, these verbs 
have the accusative (/XC'TCO-TI and Trpoo-7/Kct the nominative). 

Ou /AfTf'Xa/St TO TrcpnTov nfpos TWV ^(fxavj he did not get the fifth part of 
the votes (Plat. Apol. 36*). 'A.ird\avfiv iravra, to enjoy all things. 'Ev 8rjp.o- 
Kparia fieVeo-ri ira<n TO uroi/, in a democracy there is equality for all (Thuc. 2, 
37 1 ). ' 

1643. NOTE. 1. To this class belong some poetic 


"Europe rl^r/s, he obtained honour (II. 1, 278). Tr/zas a/zeipeti/, 

to deprive of honour (Find. Pyth. 6, 27). no<raa-#ai...oTTou, 

to be fed with food (II. 19, 161). "Iva rravrfs eVat>pa>i>rai 

jSao-tX^oy, that all may enjoy their king (II. 1, 410). 

2. Koivova-dat (nvi) nvos, to partake (with some one) of 
anything, in Euripides (Andr. 933). 'Oi/iVao-#ai (rt) nvos, to 
have profit from any one or anything ; as //. 16, 31. 

1647 GENITIVE 109 

1644. 1. Verbs signifying to touch, to take hold of, to tread upon, 
to begin, to try, are followed by the genitive of the object. 

2. Such verbs are : Oiyydvv and if/avtu, to touch ; airro/uu, to touch, 
to engage in; Ka0a7rro/zcu, dv#a7rro/xai, Aa/^avo/zcu , CTTI-, avrt-, o~v\-\afjL- 
fidvofjiai, to take hold of ; exo/xat, to hold on to, to border on; eVt/JcuW, 
to tread on ; apx w and, to begin ; 7reipa<o and 7re<pao//,ai, to 

IIvpos (m Qiyovra pi) v0i>s KcuW&u. it is po&ible for any one touching 
fire not to In- Iirnl ///i /////"//</ (Xen. Cyr 5, I 16 ). Qvdcvbs <r7rov8atov epyov 
...ctya<r0ai, to touch (engage in) no serious work (Xen. Hell. 1, 4 12 ). 'EAd/Sero 
rrjs x fi P" s avrov, he took hold of his hand (Xen. Hell. 4, I 38 ). 'Ai>riAd/3eo-0e 
TWV rrpaypfra>>, take hold of affairs (Dem. 1, 20). NO/LKBI/ e^fo-^at, to hold on 
t th, I, urn (Men. 3/o)i. 380). 'Ei> r^ e'xop-cvr) c p,ov nXivrj, on the couch next 
to (= touching) me. (Plat. Symp. 217 d ). Teov op&v TTJS ^d)pay...eVi^aii/ti/, to 

i UJHIII tl horili rs of the country (Plat. Leg. 778 e ). ToO Xoyov fjpx CTO ) he 
began his speech (Xen. Anab. 3, 2 7 ). (f>vyr)s apxtiv, to begin flight (Xen. 

'. 3, 2 17 ). Ilfipao-avTcs rov ^wpt'ou, having made an attempt on the 
place (Thuc. 1, 61 3 ). Uftpa>p.(voi TOVTTJS TT/S raea>r, trying this order of march 
(Xen. Anab. 3, 2 38 ). 

1645. NOTE. To begin with anything is apxo/ncu d or IK 
(Plat. Symp. 186 b ; Xen. Cyr. 2, 2 2 ). 

1646. NOTE. Poetic and Ionic Spao-o-o/xat, to grasp, 
and Epic Terayon' (ray-), taking hold of, also govern the 
genitive (11. 13, 393 ; II. 1, 591). Poetic Aao/xcu, grasp, 
takes the accusative ; so also the Attic poetic Aou//cu. 
In Pindar Oiyydvu and aTrro/Aai are also found with the 

1647. NOTE. 1. The actives Xa/A/?dVu>, l\^ and <up'o>, 
are found in poetry (especially in Homer) with the 
genitive of the part held or grasped. 

\a$dv nva IT o S 6 s, to take any one by the foot (II. 10, 

490). 'EAIi/ nva xttpos (II. 1, 323). Xfipoy <x"" Ttva (** *> 


2. Similarly ayo>, to Zeac?, and verbs of pulling. 

BOVP aye (i/ K(()do)v, to lead an ox by the horns (Od. 3, ! 

"KXicfti- Tii-fi n-ofifiv, '" <lrag any o> /./ /A. // (//. 17, 289). 

rtv (On. 17, 479). Ko/z^y (irurndv (Kur. Tro. 882). T^v- 
'MToc Apndffdf (FMT. Cycl. 400). Aftv iro&6s, to bind by !) 

i II. 23, 864). 

110 GENITIVE 1648 

3. Such poetic constructions as above are very rare in 

"EXaftov TTJS a>vr)s TOV 'Opovrav, they seized Orontes !/ 
the girdle (Xen. Anab. 1, 6 10 ). "\yetv TTJ $ f) v id s TOV linrov, 
to lead the horse by the bridle (Xen. Eques. 6, 9). Ta vrjTrta 
TraiSi'a de ov<ri TOV Trodos o-rrdpTq>, they tie the infants by thf 
foot with a cord (Hdt. 5, 16 5 ). 

4. In cases like ye'porra x f <- P s aviary, he raised the old 
man by his hand (II. 24, 515), a verb of grasping, like 
cAwv, is implied. Similarly with verbs of supplicating 
(AurOttfUU, Airayeuu), yoinao/Luu). 

'E/ie \i(T(TfcrKTo y o v v a> v, she implored me by (claspin'i) 
my knees (II. 9, 461). \iravfvco (Od. 10, 481). rWafo/uu 
(II. 22, 345). Here are also counted such cases as XiWo/um 
rjptv Zrjvbs 'OXv/iTrtou T)8e Gf/iioror, / implore by Olympian ./</ 
and by Themis (Od. 2, 68). 

1648. 1. Verbs signifying to desire, to aim at, to claim, to attain, 
to hit, to miss, are followed by the genitive of the object. 

2. Such verbs are : CTTI^V^CW, e'<f/M<u, to desire ; TTfivdu), to hunger 
after ; 8i\f/da>, to thirst after ; <rroxao/>uu, to aim at ; tipey 7-"", to reach 
after; yXt^o/xat, to strive after; AvrnroUufjiai,, to claim; 
Tvy^ai/w, to attain, to hit upon ; c&Kvcofiai, c^iKi/co/iat, to hit, to arrive 
at ; dfj.apTdv(j), a.7roTT;y^ai/(u, to miss ; aTv^tw, to fail, to fail to obtain ; 
<r<aAA.o/xai, to be mistaken ; ^euSo/xat, to be deceived. 

Tqs Ka\\i(m)s dpcrfis ((pita-ai, you desire the most exalted accomplishment 
(Xen. Mem. 4, 2 n ). neivuxri ^p^/zarcuv, they hunger after noney (Xen. 
Symp. 4, 36). \\v0p<i>7ro>v (rro^a^a-^at, to aim at men (Xen. Cyr. 1, b 29 ). 
""'H/ctara ru>v aXXorpt'tuv' ope'yovrat, they are furthest from reaching after other 
men's goods (Xen. Symp. 4, 42). OVK dvTtiroiovfj.(6a /3ao-tXft rf)s apx^> we do 
not pretend to the dominion against the king (Xen. Anab, 2, 3 2:< ). 
HfTcnroiflo-dai, to lay claim to sagacity (Thuc. 1, 140 2 ). Nfr;$- re 
x.a\ o-tor?7ptay, we have attained victory and safety (Xen. Cyr. 4, 1 2 ). Twv KO.\O>V 
T KuyaBSav fpyaiv fj-tKvcWai, to arrive at noble and good works (Xen. Mem. 
2, I 20 ). OVK. (<piKi> TOV p.ye6ovs TU>V 7rpay/iara>v, / do not attain (with my 
speech) the greatness of the matter (Isoc. 4, 187). Ovdels ^/lapravfv dvSpos, no 
one missed a man (Xen. Anab. 3, 4 15 ). Ta>v 8iKaio>v ovdevos drvxwfis, you 
will not fail in getting what is right (Xen. Hell. 3, I 22 ). 2<paXet? 
having missed ( = having been mistaken in) the truth (Plat. Rep. 451*). 
<r0ai rfis d\T)0(ias, to be cheated out of the truth (Plat. Rep. 413*). 

1653 GENITIVE 111 

1649. NOTE. The compounds cV-, -napa-, Trtpi-, aw-rvyxdvu, hit 
upon, meet, take the dative (1776) ; so mostly fTri-rvyxdvu. 'Epaw, 
love, takes the genitive of the object ; <, love, and iro6t<a, long for, 
take the accusative. 

1650. NOTE. Tvy^avtu is rarely found with an object-accusative; 
as Xen. Hell. 6, 3 16 ; Plat. Rep. 431 ; Eur. Phoen. 1666. Verbs of 
aiming at, desiring, and missing occasionally have the accusative of 
a neuter pronoun in connection with the genitive. 

Ot dp(Tf)s ri p.fTa7roiovp.(voi, those laying claim to something of rirfn< 
(Thuc. 2, 51 7 ). So also epd&>, as TU>V dya6u>v ri epd ; what of good things does 
he lore ? (Plat. Symp. 204 d ). Similarly dpaprdi/a> n, fpyov, etc. ; as Men. 
Mon. 724. 

1651. NOTE. 1. A number of poetic verbs of this class 
govern the genitive. 

'Ai'5p<ui' Tot-d&ai, you shoot (with the bow) at men (Od. 22, 
27). 'OtWevo-oi/ MevtXdov, shoot arrows at Menelaus (II. 4, 
100). *EKvp(ras...<TK67rov, thou hast hit the mark (Aesch. Ag. 
628). Aatros r)VTT)<raT, you have met with the feast (Od. 3, 44). 
'Ai'ridw TroXe'poio, / oppose battle, lit. meet (II. 12, 368). 
'Em/Weo J/OOTOV, you strive for the homeward journey (Od. 5, 
344). TroXe'poto, being eager for war (II. 3, 133). 
TtnWopai, aim at (H. 13, 159). "EXdopat, long for (Od. 5, 
210). "Ipft'pa), yearn for (Aesch. Ag. 940). 

2. Some prose verbs are thus used with the genitive 
only in poetry. 

Tofi*T dvttpos roCdf, you discharge your shafts at this one, 
i.e. me (Soph. Ant. 1033). A.vTop*8ovTos dttovTurf, he hurled 
//i, ,<ir, li,< ut Automedon (II. 17, 525). 'Op/ndopat, to rush at 
21, 595). 'I'lWco, throw at (Eur. Cycl. 51). 

1652. NOTE. Kvpo is also found with the accusa- 
tive of a neuter pronoun ; as Eur. Hf.racl. 374 ; Soph. 
Oed. Tyr. 1298. Kt X ^o>, find, to light upon, has the 
accusative in Homer, and mostly in tragedy. The Ionic 
and poetic dvTto<o, to meet, usually has the accusative, 
sometimes the genitive or dative. 

1653. 1. Verbs signify ini;- / remember, to forget, to care for, to 
neglect, to detpise, are followed by the genitive of the object. 

112 GENITIVE 1654 

2, Such verbs are : /AI/AI/TJ'O-KO/ZCU, to call to mind ; /xe'/xv^cu, to 
remember ; //i/rj/xoyeva), to call to mind ; l-m\a.v6d.\ oftat, forget ; <p<>n-i'a>, 
Trpovoew and Trpovoco/xou, cTri/ze'Xo/xai, to care for, to take care of ; 
, to lay to heart, to take concern for ; eVrpeVo/xai, to give heed 
or care to ; /nc'Xti (/W rtvo?\ ^ is a care (to me) ; /uera/AeXet (/W TU/OS), 
o repent ; d/xvry/Aoi/cw, o &e unmindful of ; a<f>povTio-Tfw, to be heedless 
of ; d/xcXeco, to neglect ; 6Xiy<opea>, to regard lightly ; /caTa<povw, to 

Tovrwv ovdfls /if'/zi'jjreu, no one remembers these things (Xen. Anab. 5, S 25 ). 
Tys dpxfjs p.vr)[j,ovvop,fv t we call to mind the beginning (Isoc. 1, 47). Ae'dot*a 
p-rj e7ri\ad<i)p.eda rrjs oifcaSe 6oC, / am afraid lest we may forget the way home 
(Xen. Anab. 3, 2 s " 5 ). T>v eVteiKOTara>i/...$poi>ri'eii/, to take into consideration 
the excellent persons (Plat. Crito, 44 b ). 'Eavrov KTjBerat 6 rrpovo&v d8e\<j)ov, 
he who cares for a brother cares for himself (Xen. 8, 7 15 ). 'EvOvpflo-dai r&v 
TOTTCOI/, to take heed of the localities (Xen. Ven. 9, 4). To>> vopav eVrpeVft ; 
do you pay heed to the laws ? (Plat. Crito, 52 11 ). Tt fjfuv r r\ s r&v TroXX&ii/ 
86r)s pf\i ; what care is there to us of the opinion of the many ? (Plat. Crito, 
44 b ). TS)v ayadadwv afjLvrjfwve'iv, to be unmindful of the good (Lys. 31, 25). 
Tfjy dpcTTJs afifXeTi/, to neglect virtue (Isoc. 1, 48). Mrjdtvos oXtytopfire p.r)8e 
KdTafppovf'iTe TVV Trpo(rTTayfjifv<i>v, do not regard lightly or despise any of my 
injunctions (Isoc. 3, 48). 

1654. NOTE. With verbs of remembering and forgetting, the 
object may be in the accusative, and is always so if a neuter pronoun. 

*Eav ra 7rap(\T)\v06ra p,vrjp.ovi>rjs, if you remember the past (Isoc. 2, 35). 
EWf...rcis ri>\ds rcls KaKas irf\d6ovTo, would that they had forgotten the evil 
chances (Eur. HeL 262-265). Tt yap, & TTCU, pep-vyo-at fue'iva; do you remember 
these things (Xen. Cyr. 1, 6 6 ). 

1655. NOTE. The active dva-, VTTO-^I^V^O-KU), remind, usually governs 
a double accusative (1605) ; occasionally an accusative of the person 
and a genitive of the thing ; as ^ // dva/xv^o-^? KaKwv, do not remind 
me of ills (Eur. Ale. 1045). See 1607. 

1656. NOTE. v Ei'0v/te / o/>iai governs the accusative when it means 
to take into consideration ; as in Thuc. 5, 32 1 . 

1657. NOTE. Me'Xei sometimes has the nominative instead of the 
genitive, but rarely in prose. 

'Eopral Tracri pf\ovcriv, festivals are the care of all (Plat. Leg. 835"). Taura 
to-coy aXX<u /xeXi^a-et, these things will be an object of attention to another (Xen. 
Hell. 7, S 36 ). So also /zera/ze'Xet, repent (impersonal) ; as ro> 'ApiVrcoi/t TO 

1663 GENITIVE 113 

v fjL(Tfp.\e for TOV (Iprjpevov, Ariston repented of what he had said 
(Hdt. 6, 63). 

1658. NOTE. Verbs of this class sometimes govern accusatives 
like rl, ovSeV, /xiKpoV, TToAAa, and the like (1654). 

1659. NOTE. For ^ct'o/uu, spare, and d<ei8e'o), not to spare, see 

1660. NOTE. To the poetic verbs of this class (1653) 
we add also those whose simple forms only are poetic, 
and forms of other verbs which are not used in prose. 
T<i> vvv piv p. v rj <r a a" a Trape^Vo, of these things now 
reminding him, sit beside him (II. 1, 407). Mr)ira> ns... 
VOOTOIO \a6rjrai, lest any one should forget the return (Od. 
9, 102^. Mffia>/if$a Oovpidos d\Kr)s, let us be mindful of im- 
petuoils valour (II. 4, 418). Mq o-avrov a K 17 S f i dvo-rvxovvros, 
do not disregard thyself in thy distress (Aesch. Pro. 508). 
\\\(yo), to have a care of (Od. 9, 275). MerarpfTro/mt, care for 
(IL 9, 630). Ti^Xc'w, to take care of (Eur. Iph. Taur. 311). 
In II. 6, 222, we find /W/ii/if/icu with the ace. : TtSe'd ov 
; similar examples are rare. 

1661. NOTE. Tragic are /xe'Xw and /AC'AO/UU, to care for ; 
in poetry both also in the sense, to be a care to. 
Bpar&v p.(\(iv, to care for mortals (Aesch. Ag. 370). Strwr 
/xAf<r#f, prepare (= have a care of) the viands (Eur. Hipp. 
109). 'E/iot KC ravra p.(\r)<rfTcu, these things shall be my concern 
(II. 1, 523). In Homer peprjK&s, caring for (II. 13, 297). 
iff, active in Soph. Aj. 1185. 

1662. NOTE. Occasionally prose verbs meaning to care 
for, which regularly take the accusative are found with 
the genitive 

OIIK &v (TTpa<pfir)v (Soph. Aj. 1117). 'Evvofopai (Eur. Med. 

1663. 1. Verbs of mental or sensory perception, as to perceive, 
to understand, to hear, to smell, to taste, govern the genitive. 

^\ich verbs are : al^Oavo^ai, to perceive ; arvvtrjfju, to understand ; 
, accept (a statement) from ; UKOVW, uKpoao/^at, to hear ; 
, to smell (active) ; oo>, to smell of ; yevo/xai, taste. Fcvw, 
to give a taste of, has the accusative of the person and the genitive of 


114 GENITIVE 1664 

the thing, as in Plat. Leg. 634 a ; so sometimes co-rtaw, to entertain, to 
feast any one (Plat. Phaedr. 227 b ). 

TTJS upavyrjs ffo-dovro, they perceived the shouting (Xen. Hell. 4, 4 4 ). 
'AXXjjXwi/ (rvvtc<Tav, they understood each other (Thuc. 1, 3 5 ). Oopvfiov fjnovo-e, 
he heard the murmur (Xen. Anab. 1, 8 16 ). Ta>v /uaprtipa>i/ a^Koarf, you have 
heard the witnesses (Lys. 1, 43). A.6yov aicpoa0-0ai, to listen to a speech (Thuc. 
6, 17 3 ). 'AKpoeo/iei/eu rou adovros, hearing the singer (Xen. Cyr. 1, 3 10 ).>i> 6<r(ppaivofjiai, I smell onions (Ar. Ran. 654). "Ofovai dpfipoo-ias KOI 
vcKTapos, they smell of ambrosia and nectar (Ar. Ach. 196). 'OXi'yoi crfrou 
fyfva-avro, few tasted of food (Xen. Anab. 3, I 3 ). OVK dnodf^opai <rou, 7 '/// 
not take this from you (Plat Rep. 337 b ). 

1664. NOTE. The same construction is found with many other 
verbs expressing to see, to know, to find out, to consider, to say, and 
the like ; often such a genitive may be rendered by about, concerning. 

Aia0 e a> p.f v os avrotv, o<rr)v xa>paV f^oitv, contemplating about them 
what a great country they had (Xen. Anab. 3, I 19 ). "E y v a> arona e p o v 
TTOIOVVTOS, he knew about my doing absurd things (Xen. Cyr. 7, 2 18 ). 'A y v o- 
ovvTts a X X 17 X a> >, o TI Xtyopcv, misunderstanding what we say, lit. each 
other in what we say (Plat. Gorg. 517). 'Eirvtiovro TTJS II v \ o v 
p.fvrjs, they found out about Pylus being taken (Thuc. 4, 6 1 ). ToO 
TrXov 8i<rK07rovv O7TJ/ KOfju<T0T)<TovTai, concerning their homeward voyage, 
they \rere t'<m*i<l*'rin\i // n'hat way they should return (Thuc. 1, 52 3 )' 'Ei>- 
6vp.ov T to v (ISoTtov o rt \fyov<ri KOI 6 TI 7roiov(Tiv, contemplate those who 
have knowledge, what they say and what they do (Xen. Mem. 3, 6 17 ). ToO 
ro|drov ov taXus f^ei Xtyeiv, art..., it would not be right to say of a 
bowman that... (Plat Rep. 439 b ). These genitives may usually be considered 
as depending on an omitted roOro or r68(, which is actually found in some 
examples; as To{5To...*Vat'eti> T&V dvdp&v, to praise this in (of) the men 
(Plat. Menex. 241 b ). We thus have a possessive genitive (1631, 1). 

2. So the genitive may depend on an interrogative or relative. 

Ti 8t rSiv tTTTTo)!/ oTet ; what then do you think of horses? (Plat. Rep. 459 b ). 
Tr/s pr]Tp6s...<f>pd(r(t>v fv ols vvv CVTIV, about to tell of my mother, in what 
circumstances she now is (Soph. Trach. 1122). 

1665. NOTE. Verbs signifying to perceive, to learn, to hear, and 
the like, often take the accusative of the thing. If a word denoting 
the person from whom anything is heard, learned, etc., is also given, 
it is in the genitive of source (1631, 2). 

Ti ^aXfTroi/ y<r0Tj<Tcu rovpov /3i'ou ; what have you perceived disagreeable in 
my mode of life ? (Xen. Mem. 1, 6 4 ). Uc irvrrp.r)v ravra ra>v <ra<p' flSorw, I 
h<l learnt this from those that clearly know (Ar. Thesm. 596). Made pov KOI 

1669 GENITIVE 115 

, learn also then* th'in<j* //// me (Xen. Cyr- 1> 6 44 ). "H&O/ZCU aKovw <rov 
<ppovip,ovs \6yovs, / rejoice in hearing from </<>" wnxible words (Xen. Anab. 2, 
5 16 ). Ta>i/ KopivQiatv aircdcavTO TOVS Xo-youy, f/iei/ admitted the arguments of 
the Corinthians (Thuc. 1, 44 1 ). 

2. A sentence may stand for the object-accusative. 

OVK ai<r6dvofiai vov oirolov vopifiov \eyeis, I do not understand what you 
<-<il! conformable to l<ui- (Xen. Mem. 4, 4 ia ). Tourcoi/ nporcpov n<ov ri Xe'yovo-ii/, 
hear of these Jirxt tin i/ *>/ (Plat. Lack. 181 d ). Tovrwi/ nvvdavop-ai on 
OVK afiarov C'OTI TO opos, from them I learn that the mountains are not im- 
passible (Xen. Anab. 4, C 17 ). 

1666. NOTE. 'AKOVQ> with the genitive of the person may also 
mean to obey ; as S/xe'pSto? j3a.o-iX.fjos d/coveti/, to obey King Smerdis 
(Hdt. 3, 62). 

1667. NOTE. -"Ooj, to smell of, may take a second genitive of the 
source of the odour ; as TT}? Kt<<> oo> /xvpov, / smell of perfume from 
the head = my head smells of perfume (Ar. Eccl. 524). 

1668. NOTE. A number of verbs of perception are 
poetic or dialectic. They may take a genitive of the 
person or of the thing or of both ; but K^VW, to hear, 
has only the accusative of the thing (except in the 
formula K*K\VT fjLfv piQw, hear my speech, as Od. 10, 
189). , 

Tivos <\vovTs ; obeying whom ? (Eur. Cycl. 119). 'AKOU- 
d(ovTai ooi8ov, they listen to the bard (Od. 9, 7). Kc'xXvre' /*eC 
pvQov, hear my speech (II. 3, 86). "Ate <rou Trarpos, obey your 
father (Ax. Nid>. 110). Harpos OVK avrjKoixmja-fv, he did m>t 
disobey his sire (II. 15, 23(5; but with dat., Hdt. 6, 14 :! ). 
*T)Kov<m)<T( 6(as, he hearkened not to the goddess (II. 20, 14). 

1669. 1. Verbs signifying to rule and to lead are followed by 
the genitive. 

2. Such verbs are : apx 4 "* ^ ru ^ e > /foo-iAewo, to be king over, to rule ; 
Tvpawfvu, rvpjivvw, to be absolute ruler (tyrant) over ; Kvpitvu, 8oTro'a>, 
to be lord or master over ; Kparc'w, to be master of ; ^yeo/xai, T7y/xo/evw, 
to lead ; o-rpaTi^ye'w, to command, to be general ; vavapxito, to command 
(ships), to be admiral. 

\\v6pu>iT<av upxfiv, to rule men (Xen. < "/. I. 1 : ). *K/>a>r rStv ftturtXittv 
&<HTiX(v(i, Love is I. 'In- gods (Plat. >///</ I'.lfV). noXvupdrrjs 2ap>u 

rvpavvw. * being ruler of Ramos (Thuc. 1, 13*). '() Mfpur rffs vvv 

116 GENITIVE 1670 

6aXda-(TT]s...KpdTT)o-ev, Minos became master of what is now the 
Greek sea (Thuc. 1, 4 1 ). 'Hyeiro rod (rrpaTevfiaros, he led the army (Xen. 
Anab. 4, 1). Aa^s oTrXtroii/ KOI iinrctov eWparTjyfi, Laches commanded the 
hoplites and cavalry (Thuc. 5, 61 1 ). Aao/Lte'5a>i> ir\oi(ov ei>auapxT, Laomedon 
commanded the ships (Dem. 18, 77). 

1670. NOTE. These verbs sometimes have the accusative of 
kindred meaning (1587). 

'Op> jSporoiy rrjv yXaxrcrav , ov%l r&pya TT d v & T)yovp,fvr)v, I see among 
mankind the tongue and not the deeds bearing rule in everything (Soph. Phil. 
99). (MfiStas) ray 7rop,7rhs rjyelro, Meidias conducted the processions (Dem. 21> 

1671. NOTE. 1. Kparew with the accusative means to conquer. 
KpaTT](ravTs TOVS ftapftdpovs, having conquered the barbarians (Isoc. 4, 35). 

ndvTas f<pdrfi, (Socrates) vanquished all (Plat. Symp. 220*). But with the 
genitive it means be become or to be master of; as Kparciv xoopi'ou, TTJS 

2. 'Hycofiai with the dative means to be a leader, to govern. 

Oi roiovrot avdpcs fjyovvfo rait iro\c<Tiv (Plat. Meno, 99 b ). So eVicrraTco r 
have charge of } be set over ,* as 17 ^v%r) roi cr <a p. ar i eTrtoraTet, the soul is set 
over the body (Plat. Gorg. 465 d ). 

1672. NOTE. These govern the genitive on account of the pre- 
position they contain. 

npot(m)p.i nvd TIVOS, to set over (Plat. Lach. 197 d ). npoiora/zat' TIVO? 
(Dem. 24, 3). npoorare'a) or TrpooTareuco rtvos, to be set over, to preside over 
(Plat. Lach. 197 6 ; Xen. Hier. 11, 7). 

1673. NOTE. 1. The chief poetic verb of this class 

is avda-a-u), to be lord, to rule over ; as 'ApyeiW rjvao-crfv, 

he ruled over the Argives (II. 10, 33). 

2. In Homer, not often in other poets, some verbs 

of this class occasionally govern the dative. 

"Apyet 7rai/ri dvdcro-civ, to be lord of all Argos (II. 2, 108). 

Tpaxrlv ^ye/xoi/eve, he leads the Trojans (II. 2, 816). 

1674. 1. Verbs of plenty and want govern the genitive of 
material (1619, 4) ; verbs signifying to fill take an object-accusative 
of the thing filled and a genitive of material 

2. Such verbs are : ye/Aw, 7rA.?j0(o, to be full (of) ; evrrope'o), to be well 
off, to be provided ; TrXovrew, to be rich ; 8ei, there is need of (1677) ; 
cpSeo/uu, to need, to lack ; aTropew, to be in want of; eAAeuro), to 

1677 GENITIVE 117 

lack, to come short of; <nravi<*>, to be in want of ; ir&ofuu, to be needy, 

to have need of ; 7rAT7poo>, Trt/XTrAiy/xi, dva7rt'/x7rA7;/xi, e/xTri/ATrArjyui, to Jill ; 

yc/>uco, to fid, to freight ; O-UTTW, to load ; TrAeovcKrew, to have too much 

of ; /AetoveKTeaj, to have too little of. 

Kupas 7roAAa>i> cat ayaQ&v yefioixras, villages stored with many excellent 
'*ions (Xen. Annh. 4, ft 27 ). &i\nnros xP r )l"* ro)V fviropfl, Philip has plenty 

>i#ure (Dem. 18, 235). Ov xpiio-iov, a\\a...^(oijs aya0f}y. to be rich, not in 
gold, but in a good life (Plat. Rep. 521*). o-<pei/Soi/77Ta>i>...Set, there is need of 
*l infers (Xen. Anab. 3, 3 16 ). Af^o-erai 8opv<popo>v, he will have need of guards 
(Xen. Hier. 10, 1). y \v6po>tra>v atrop&v, wanking in men (Xen. Anab. I, 7 3 ). 
TOUTOV f\\iTrop.v, we are deficient in this (Thuc. 1, 80 4 ). > E7raiVou...oi/7rore 
<riravifT(, you nerer lack praise (Xen. Hier. 1, 14). 'Avdpav ray vavs TrXqpovv, 
to furnish ( = fill) the ships with men (Xen. Hell. 6, I 11 ). 2* <raypvos TrXoi'rov 
TTJV ^v\r]v to-ofiat, I shall have my mind loaded with wealth (Xen. Symp. 4, 64). 
Meioj/fKTeii' oTra>i> <al nor&v, to have less of food and drink (Xen. Hier. 2, 1). 

1675. NOTE. The genitive is also found with ^OVO-KO/JML, to get 
drunk, and pew, to flow. 

Mf0v<r8cls TOV vcKTapos, intoxicated with the nectar (Plat. Symp. 203 b ). 
'H irrjyT} pel /xoXa \jfvxpov vdaros, the spring runs with very cold water (Plat. 
ri,, t .,lr. L>30 b ). 

1676. NOTE. Ae'o/wu, to beg, to request, may take a genitive of the 
person (from whom) and a cognate-accusative of the thing ; as 8e>;<ro/Aai 
fjfjuav pcrpidv ocrja-w, I shall ask of you a moderate request (Aeschin. 3, 

1677. NOTE. 1. The active 8to, used personally, occurs only with 
genitives expressing quantity (TroAAov, oAiyov, /xi/cpov, TOO-OVTOV, also 
TOO-OVTOV), and means to be far, little, etc., from; as TT}? TrcuSci'ds... 
rotrourov 8'<o KaTa<f>povflv, I am so far from despising the education 
(Isoc. 12, 26). 

2. Similarly with the impersonal 8. 

IIoAAof foi, if is far from it. 'OXt'you del, it lacks little of it. Uavros #<I, 

nts everything (Plat. Lys. 215"). 

3. So ^Ai'yov Sw, IUKPOV Sell/, almost (Xen. Mem. 3, 10 13 ; Dem. 18, 
269) ; see 2228. The genitives alone are used as adverbs, meaning 
almost. 'OXiyov ndi'Tat, almost all ( IM.-it. ll,>p. 552*). Mr*cpou (Dem. 19, 234). 

4. Demosthenes has the phrases ov&i TroAAoi) Set (lit. nor does it 
want much) and o8* oAiyov Set (lit. nor does it want little, i.e. it wants 
all) ; both expressions mean far from it, not at all (Dem. 54, 40 ; 19, 

118 GENITIVE 1678 

1678. NOTE. 1. Ac'w appears personally in Homer 
only in II. 18, 100, impersonally S only in 11 9, 337. 

2. For Set with an accusative of the person (instead 
of the dative) and a genitive of the thing, see 1580. 

3. The expression XPV ^ TLV ^ I have need of some- 
thing, is epic. 

Tt p. xpy p-rjripos alvov ; ivhat need have I of praise for my 
mother ? (Od. 21, 110) ; so the equivalent xP f( * M 6 TWOS (some- 
times with Dci or yiyvfrat or eWi) ; as II. 9, 608, and Od. 4, 

1679. NOTE. Examples of poetic verbs of this 
class : 

NOOTOIO xarifav, wishing for a return (Od. 8, 156). O*> 
TTovav KfxPW f & a > do I not experience cares ? (Eur. Med. 334). 
-Ao-fo-fa KAavfyioto, sate yourselves with wailing (II. 24, 717). 
'E-yd) (re . . .atfuzror xopftro), / will satiate you with blood (Hdt. 
1, 214). ACVO/MU, to lack (II. 1, 602). Bpvv, to be full of 
(Soph. Or,/. Col. 16). 


1680. The genitive of separation denotes that from which 
anything is separated, and follows verbs signifying to separate, 
to remove, to free, to hinder, to restrain, to deprive, to yield, to spare, 
to cease, to be distant, to be different, and the like. 

2. Such verbs are : x<opi'<o, to separate ; vocr0iw, to remove ; Avw, 
to loose, to free; uTroAAao-cra), (\tv6ep6to,>, to free ; KwXlJw, eipyeo, 
to hinder, to restrain ; ci/cco, VTTCIKU, -n-apa- and vTro-^wpcoo, to yield, to 
make room for (TT/S o8ov) ; f^o, cTre'^co, to hold off; dW^o/xai, to refrain 
from ; faiSojjuu, to spare, and a<i6e'o>, not to spate ; Trav'w, to cause to 
cease, to stop ; A-^yw, Travo/xat, to cease ; ^Oi^^aL, v^fe^tai, to abate ; 
Xw^wiaj, to have relief from ; crrcpio-Kw, aTrotrrepe'a), d0aipeo/Aat, to deprive 
(1682) ; o-Tepo/Acu, to be deprived ; K/OO>, yv/xvooo, p.ovoa>, to deprive, to 

bereave ; aTrei/u (a7ro, fl)J.C), aTrc'^o), 8t^o, to be distant ; Sia<e'pto, 8acrTa/xai, 

to be different ; KaOaipw, to cleanse from ; Kaflapcvw, to be pure, free 

'ETrioTTyp; xwpito/ifV?; operas, knowledge separated from virtue (Plat. 
Menex. 246 e ). 'ATrrjAAay^eVoi TOVTQ>V (ra>v TTOI/COI/), released from these tH* 
(Xen. Anab. 4, 3 2 ). 'ATroXua) vpas TTJS amas, / free you from blame (Xen. 

1684 GENITIVE 119 

Anab. 6, 6 15 ). Qi QerraXol (KU\VOV rov 'AyjjoriXaoi/ TTJS irapodov, the Thcxxtdin n* 
hindered Agesilaus from the march (Xen. Ages. 2, 2). Et tiaXdrnis etpyoivro, 
if they should be excluded from the sea (Xen. Hell. 7, I 8 ). 'Odov irapa- 
X o> p fj (r a i... TO) 7rpe<r/3irrepo> sat \6ya>v V7rftai, to yield the path to the 
l<l>r. <md to give place in conversation (Xen. Mem. 2, 3 16 ). Tovrovs rrjs 
ayav KoXameids fVto-^i^o-^Tf, restrain these people from their adulation (Dem. 
45, 88). *Ene(rxov rfjs Tft^to-fcoy, they ceased from building the wall (Xen. 
// //. 6, 5 4 ). Xpfj p.rjT xpr)p,aT<>>v (peiSfardai firjrf 7rdi/a>i>, it is necessary to spare 
neither money nor toil (Plat. Phaedo, 78*). "Eirava-av Tlp.66fov TIJS crTprjTrjyids, 
the]/ dt'fxist'd Tiint>thi'U.<i from the c(nn)iiund (Xen. Jft-11. (i, 2 1:i ). "EXr/^e rf)s 
0r)pas, he ceased from the hunt (Xen. Cyr. 2, 4 21 ). Ov iravevBf rffs noxfypias, 
'.<' from your rawal-ity (Ar. Lysist. 1160). Tvp-vaa-itov petite vrat, 
leave off bodily exercise (Plat. Rep. 537 b ). Aox^a TTJS odvvrjs, it rests from 
pain (Plat. Phaedr. 251 d ). 'H vrj&os ov TTO\V Ste'^et TTJS fprcipav, the island is 
m >f far distant from the nt<iinl<in<l (Thuc. 3, 51 3 ). Ovdev 8toio-(is Xaipf(p<0)vTos, 
you will not differ at all from Chaerephon (Ar. Nub. 503). 

1681. NOTE. Instead of the genitive alone, d with the genitive 
is sometimes used. 

1682. NOTE. 2re/xo-Kci> and dTrocrrepcw, to deprive, usually have the 
accusative of the person and the genitive of the thing, seldom the 
reverse, sometimes a double accusative (1605). 

p. TWV xpijpzTO)!/, he deprives me of my money (Isoc. 17, 35). 
of how much have you been deprived ? (Dem. 8, 63). 
Srcpo/icu, to be deprived, has only the genitive. 'A<paipe'o/<uu, to take a 
usually takes the double accusative (1605) ; sometimes the genitive of 
the person and the accusative of the thing, seldom the reverse ; as row 
fTAXcoi' d<paipovp(vot xp^pzra, t<ikin<i <ni;iii /<;(//// n front "tin r* (Xen. Mem. 
1, 5'). 

1683. NOTE. The poets (chiefly Homer) use the 
genitive of separation with verbs of motion in cases 
where a preposition would be necessary in prose. 

OuXv/iTToto KaTr)\tiop.(v, we di>s<-rn<lf<l from Olympus 
<H. % JU, 125). 'Oduo-^a 8td)c(To oio dofioio, he wished to 
drive Ulysses from his own home (Od. 18, 8). RdOpuv icrrcurtie, 
riie from the *i'/> > . 7V. 142). llvtiS>vos (pas, th<i 

didst come from Pytho (Soph. Oed. Tyr. 152). 

1684. NOTE. 1. Some verbs which govern a genitive 
of separation are poetic. 

COITO KfXtvtiov, they retired from tin way (II. 11, 

120 GENITIVE 1685 

504). OVK d\verov popov <a<i(TTov, they shall not escape 
a most wretched fate (Soph. Ant. 488). Mrjira) ns e poaeira) 
TToXepxuo, let no one ever retire from the battle (II. 17, 422) ; 
so epvoficu, defend (II. 5, 456), and others. 

2. Some prose verbs govern a genitive of separation 
only in poetry or in dialectic prose. 

2x7(re(r#e "Aprjos, ye shall be restrained from war (II. 
13, 630). At Kfv Tv8eos vibv air 6 <r x*r) -lA/ou tpijs, if she will 
restrain the son of Tydeus from sacred Ilium (II. 6, 277). 
*Eo- x ov T0 r *l s ayvyrjs, they abstained from the carry ing -off 
(Hdt. 6, 85). Ztvs Kfjpas ap.vvv Traidos eov, Zeus averted 
the fate from his son (II. 12, 402). 2 o> 6 r) v a i irovw, to be 
saved from troubles (Eur. Tro. 684). Tov ye 6fo\ ft\tiir r ov a- 1 
K(\cvdov, the gods hinder him from his journey (Od. 1, 195). 
So dTroKovcpifa, to relieve, to set free (Eur. Or. 1341) ; &f&>, to 
bind (Od. 4, 380) ; opi'fw, separate (Hdt. 2, 16) ; /zoi/ow, deprive 
(Hdt. 8, 62) ; x<*P*<> withdraw (II. 15, 655). 

3. In poetry verbs compounded with a-n-o sometimes 
govern the simple genitive where in prose the preposition 
with the genitive would be used. 

So pfQio-njfjii, to remove, to liberate, in tragedy (also Thuc. 
2, 67 1 ). Me0f;/zi, to let go (Horn., Hdt.). 'Ynitvai, to let go 
(Hdt.). 'Ai/Dj/u (Eur., Ar. ; also Thuc. 7, 43 7 ). 

4. Homeric araTiWw with the genitive, to rest from, 
lit. to breathe again ; as ovru> KCV Tpoic? avtTrvcva-av KO.KO- 
rrjros, thus would the Trojans have had a resjnte from 
destruction (II. 11, 382). 

1685. NOTE. 1. Av/yw, to cease from, also has the 
accusative in Homer, besides the genitive or participle. 

2. Some verbs of depriving which govern the genitive 
are only poetic. KexaSoi/, deprived (Od. 21, 153). 'A/Att'pa), 
(Od. 8, 64). 'AXaow, to blind (Od. 9, 516). 'Are>/3a>, 
disappoint (Od. 9, 42). 

3. 'ATr-avpaco, to deprive, to rob, is used by Homer 
with two accusatives (II. 6, 17), sometimes also with a 
dative of the person and an accusative of the thing (II. 
21, 296). He uses eVapia> and aTroppat'to, to despoil, with 
two accusatives. 

1688 GENITIVE 121 


1686. 1. Verbs signifying to surpass, to be surpassed, or to be 
inferior, and those derived from comparatives are followed by the 

2. Such verbs are: Trcpm/xi (TTC/H and ct/ui), to be superior; Trepi- 
yiyi/o/Acu, to overcome ; VTrepe'^w, 7rpoc\a>, to surpass (v7rep/?aAAa> has the 
accusative) ; Trpo^pot, to excel ; ^o-o-ao/xcu, to be worsted, to be inferior ; 
i, to be vanquished ; ActVofuu, to be inferior, to be left behind ; 
ew, to have or to gain an advantage (more) ; /XCIOI/CKTCW, to have 
less, too little ; eAao-o-oo/xat, /xado/tai, to fall short of, to be inferior to ; 
vo-Tfpt'a>, vo-rcpe'w, to be behind, to be late, to be worsted. 

T<ov idi<i>T(i>v ircpielvai, to be superior to private individuals (Xen. Ag. 5, 
Ufpiyevtadai rf/y fBa(ri\(<t>s 8vvdfj.i>s, to overcome the power of the king 
(Xeii. A nab. 2, I 13 ). 'E/A7reipt'a TTO\V Trpo^xtTe TG>I/ aXXa>i/, in experience you 
far excel the others (Xen. Hell. 7, I 4 ). 'H Naos cvSaipoviq T>V vr)<ra>v 
irpotfapc, Naxos surpassed the other islands in wealth (Hdt. 5, 28 2 ). Tovrov 
ov% rrm)<r6p.(6a fi> TTOIOVVTCS, we shall not be outdone by him in kind offices 
(Xen. A nab. 2, 3 33 ). Ovdcv nXrjOfi ye f)p,o>v \d(f)6ei>Tcs vTreldv (rot, when they 
were not at all inferior to its in numbers, they submitted to you (Xen. Anab. 
7, 7 S1 ). Tov diKaiov Tr\ov<Tclv, to go beyond (obtain more than) a just man 
(Plat. Rep. 349). Metoi/e/crovo-i ru>v t'SiwTwv, they have less than prir>if> 
individuals (Xen. Hier. 1, 18). ^axpd-njs Ova-ids 66<av fUKpiis ovfev ^yetro 
Hfuiia-flai TO>V fjifydXa QVOVTW, when Socrates made small sacrifices, he thought 
he was not at all inferior to those who offered great ones (Xen. Mem. 1, 3 :t ). 
Havo-avidf v<rrcpr)(rfv cs 'AXiaprov TOV \vo-dv8pov, Pausanias arrived later than 
Lysander >it Hr tltr tus (Xen. Hell. 3, 5 25 ). 'Yorfpi^ouo-i rS>v rpay/iaro)i/, they 
are too late for the business (Isoc. 3, !'. 

1687. NOTE. 'Ho-o-aofiai and vlKaofuu. may have three dififerent 
constructions : with the genitive, as above ; with the dative, as Kc'pSco-i 
VUCW/AO/OS, conquered by lucre (Aesch. Ag. 342) ; with wo and the 
genitive, as TO oAAo o-TparoVcSoi' ^o-o-aTo VTTO roil/ ' A.6rjvai<Dv, the remaining 

was beaten by the Athenians (Thuc. 1, 62). 


1688. 1. Tli'- lenitive of cause follows some verbs rxj.ivsMn- 
an emotion, as to wonder, to admire, to pity, to envy, to conynttulnti', 
to be vexed, to forgive, and the lik<-. Th- -.-iiitiv here denotes 
on account of or in regard to. 

122 GENITIVE 1689 

2. Such verbs are : aya/xai, 0av/xaw, to wonder, to admire (1690) ; 
otVcrcfpco, eXee'io, to pity ; <p0ovew, to envy ; 77X00), to emulate, to envy ; 
eu8ai/>toi/ia>, to congratulate, to esteem happy ; <yx a 'P w > 1 rejoice ; 
to praise ; /Me/A<^o/<u, to blame ; 6pyto//.ai, to 6e vexed ; 
6ear ill-will or a grudge ; o-vyyiy^wo-Koo, to forgive. 

Tovs 0(\oi>Tcis QcpaiTfveiv ras noXfis OVK ayaaat rrjs avBpdas rt KOI 
do i/ou not admire those willing to serve the cities for their courage and 
dexterity? (Plat. Rep. 426 d ). Tovs 7rpi<po/3ouy vp*is TTOIOVVTCIS rf/s ^fv roXp;sr 
ov Qavfuifa, rr)s 8e avv(rias, I wonder at those making you terrified, not for 
their audacity, but for their folly (Thuc. 6, 36 1 ). Tovrovs ottcrctpo/ T^S ayav 
Xa\eTTT)s voo-ov, I pity these for their very severe disease (Xen. Symp. 4, 37). 
Miy /zoi <f)0ovT)<TT}s TOV fiadtifjiaTos, do not grudge me the knowledge (Plat. Euthyd. 
297 b ). IIoXXaKis (rf...(v8aip.6vi(ra TOV rpo-rrov, I often esteemed you happy on 
account of your character (Plat. Crito, 43 b ). 2uy^aipo) T>V ycyevrjufvaiv, I 
share the joy for what has happened (Dem. 15, 15). OVITOT' dvdpl rwSt 
KrjpvKcvfMTtov pxp.Tfaj, never nhalt thou censure me for my tidings (Aesch. 
Sept. 653). Ta>i' a8iKT)p.dTvv opyir0m, to be angry at wrongs (Lys. 31, 11). 
Ov pvr)(TiKaKr}(r(i f3a<ri\i>s avrois rfjs (irurrpaTfias, the king will not bear them 
ill-will on account of the expedition (Xen. Anab. 2, 4 l ). SvyyiyvdxrKciv avroir 
Xpr) rr)s eVt^v/Atar, u* must forgive them for their desire (Plat. Etltinl. 306 C ). 

1689. NOTE. Here belong verbs of disputing, the object of con- 
tention being in the genitive. 

1710X77-09 f)p(pi(rftr)TT)(rcv 'Epfx&i rf)s 7roXfo>y, Eumolimx tH^niti-il irith 
Erechtheu* for //( <-itij (Isoc. 12, 193). OVK dvriTrotou/xe^a /Sao-tXfi r^y apx^ s 
we do not (/'*//// tr',tf t tl hi mi fur /M'N Dominion (Xen. Anab. 2, 3 23 ). So 
dta<pc'po/uu' rti/t (Dem. 40, 29) ; cvavTioojMi nvt (Thuc. 1, 13(5"). 

1690. NOTE. "Aya/uu and ^av/xo^w may have various constructions : 
(1) the accusative of the person alone, or of the thing alone, as clav- 
/x,aov TOUS Kopti'^t'ovs, they wondered at the Corinthians (Thuc. 1, 51-); 
(2) the genitive of the person and the accusative of the thing, to 
admire (or wonder at) anything in any one ; as Fopytov //.aXio-Ta ravra 
aya/xat, I admire this especially in Gorgias (Plat. Meno, 95 C ) ; (3) the 
genitive of the thing with a dependent genitive of the person ; as 
0av|Maa) fjLoALo-Ta. TOVTOV T*}? Sta^oids, I wonder at his sentiment (Lys. 3, 
44) ; (4) the accusative of the person and the genitive of the thing 
(seldom), as above (1688) ; (5) 0av/xau> may take the accusative of 
the person and eVt /i (1852, 2 (d)) ; (6) 0av/ma> may take the 
genitive of the person and a dependent clause with *l or on expressing 
the cause (2074). 

1693 GENITIVE 123 

1691. NOTE. 1. The genitive of cause is very 
frequent in Homer ; the other poets also use it freely. 

2. Examples with poetic verbs : 

\\Xi>vp.(voi ncp craipov, though <iri>>red for their comrade 
(II. 15, 651). Xwopfvos ZapTTTjSovos, enraged on account of 
Sarpedon (II. 16, 552). Tfjo-ft* arranjs Koreans, angry on 
account of this deceit (II. 4, 168). Tijr 8 8fi\ias (rrvya>, / 
abhor thy cowardice (Soph. El. 1027). So do-^aXaw, to be 
vexed (Od. 19, 534), /ii/i>ia>, to be wroth (Soph. Ant. 1177), and 

3. Ordinary prose verbs, which could not take such 
a genitive of cause in prose, are occasionally so used ; 
as TrcuSos OVK dXyeiv SOKCK ; do you not think I suffer 
for my child ? (Eur. Hec. 1256). 


1692. 1. A genitive of source accompanies many verbs. 

Tavra df aov n^di/rer, obtaining this of you (Xen. Anab. 6, 6 32 ). Ov 8e 
8fj iravratv olop.fda Tfv<r6ai fnaivov, which praise we expect to obtain from 
dU (Xen. Anal). 5^ 7 <!3 ). Adptiov KOI Hapvar&ridos yiyvovrai Traidcs 8vo t of 
Darius ,ni<l I'arysatis are born two sons (Xen. Anab. 1, I 1 ). For more 
examples see 1665. 

2. In poetry the genitive is sometimes found with a 
few passive participles denoting the agent; o-as dXd^ou 
tr<ayi9, slain by thy wife (Eur. El. 123). So with the 
verbal StSaKrds ; as vovOfTrjfjLara Ktivq<> &toaKT(i, admonitions 
taught by her (Soph. El. 343). 


1693. 1. With verbs denoting to buy, to sell, to value, to exchange* 
and the like, the price or ntlur. is in the genitive. 

2. Such verbs are : oWo/ouu (cVpia/x?;!/), ayopdfa, to buy ; ir<oA.e'a>, 
iriTTpd^KU), aTrooYSofuu, to sell ; a^ido), Tt/xaw, to estimate ; dAAao-o-o/xat, 

A'lTrro/Aai, to exchange. 

Aoa Of xMl^* K uvT)rr], ylinry is not to be bought for nwney (Isoc. 2, 

32). lIpiatrQtu raXi'rm>. '" '"'// for " //// ( \ -n. Mem. 2, 5 8 ). To>v irovvr 

iru>\ov<Tiv r)piv nfivra r&yada ol Otoi, </' gods sell U# all <i<u><l //M'/</.S 1<>r /.//// 

M> m. 2, 1^). Oi-ic &v dircbofjajv rr o X X o rAr (\ni8as, I n;>,il<t not 

nltl ;/i i/ /lo/.r.s /,/ r/ i//Tri/ /,//,', (|l;it. I'li'l',!,,, < .S > ). < >i 



Qcfj.i(rroK\ea ra>v pfyioraiv d(pfa>v rjia>crav, the barbarians esteemed Themistocles 
worthy of the highest gifts (Isoc. 4, 154). Me io v o s aura ri/icorrai, they 
value them more (Xen. Cyr. 2, I 13 ). Mrjde dvraXXdaer0at pjSe/itay xdpiros 
fjuytf axpeXei'ay TTJV fls TOVS ^EXX^yny cvvoiav, nor to barter your good-will to 
the Greeks for any favour or benefit (Dem. 6, 10). 

1694. NOTE. The genitive of price occurs also with other verbs. 
Tpi&v 8paxp.o)v Trovrjpos eWi, he is a villain for three drachmae (Dem. 19, 

200). TdavTcs dpyvpiov iroXXov, rating (the food) at a high price (Thuc. 
4, 26 5 ). MicrtfoO o-TpaTfi/ovrai, they serve for money (Xen. Cyr. 3, 2 7 ). Of 
rvpawot JJLKT&OV (pvXaKas CXOVQ-IV, tyrants keep guards for pay (Xen. Hier. 6, 
10). Mrjdcvbs Kpdovs...Trpo<r6ai, to abandon for no gain (Dem. 6, 10). nocrov 
8i8d<TKd ; rieVre p.vS>v, for how much does he teach ? For five minae (Plat. 
Apol. 20 b ). TIpOTTfTTOTai rrjs irapavTiKa ^dptroj rd ri/y TroXcws 7rp<Ty/uara, the 
interests of the city have been complimented away for immediate favour (Dem. 
3, 22). 

1695. NOTE. The thing bought is sometimes in the genitive. 
rioXX^ x"P lv o</)f('Xft) rr)s QfairtjTov yvwpio-fois, I owe you many thanks for 

the acquaintance (Plat. Pol. 257*). OvSeva rrjs a-vvovo-las dpyvpiov Trpdrrn 
you exact no money of anybody for your society (Xen. Mem. 1, 6 11 ). 

1696. NOTE. Observe the judicial expressions rl/xai/ nvi TII/OS (used 
of the judge), to estimate the penalty for any one, and rl/xao-^ai TO/I 
TIVOS (used of any one of the litigants), to propose a penally for any 

Tpt'a (Trj df8eo'0ti) 1 fhv prj TO dtKaoTrjpiov TT\IOVOS aura) %povov rt/x^tr/;, 
he shall be imprisoned for three years, u/Jr.s.s the court assign him a longer 
term (Plat. Leg. 880). Tiparai 8* ovv p.oi 6 dvqp tiavdrov, so the man proposes 
for me the death-penalty (Plat. Apol. 36 b ). 'Eai/ /ieV $ ro> Qavdrov Ttripripfvov, 
if the death-sentence has been decreed against any one (Plat. Leg. 946 e ). 
Compare 1702. 

1697. NOTE. To estimate highly, etc., is usually trtpi 
7r\fL<TTov) 7rottio~@ai TI (1856, 1 (c)) ; and SO Trept oA.tyov 

ov8cVos) TToularBaL TI, to estimate a thing as little (less, 
nothing). Similarly -n-po TroAAov rroiefo-tfai (1857, 1 (c)), Trap' oXtyov 
7roiio~0ai (1855, 3 (/)), Trap' ot'Sev rjyelo-Oat. 

1698. NOTE. The genitive of price or value seems to lie in these 
two passages in Demosthenes : 

Tfjs To>v 'E\\r)va>v e\v0pias KOI o~ co r TJ p i a s, for the liberty and 
safety of the Greeks (Dem. 18, 100). Toi nepl ^oxe'a? 6\e0pov, for the de- 

1699 GENITIVE 125 

strut-lion of the Phocians (Dem. 19, 76). "Evena, for the sake of, is naturally 
expected here before the genitives. Similarly in the genitive of the infinitive 
with TOV (2235). In all these cases the idea seems to be that of an equivalent 
or else of a purpose or object aimed at (1693). 


1699. 1. The genitive of crime accompanies verbs of judicial 
procedure (not compounded with /card) denoting to accuse, to indict, 
to prosecute, to condemn, to convict, to acquit, and the like ; also to 
revenge or to punish. 

2. Such verbs are : amao/xcu, eTraiTiao/xcu, to accuse ; etcraytu, V7rayu>, 
to bring before court, to prosecute ; SIWKU>, to prosecute ; cireet/u' (TIVI), 
i (rua), 6rMnafvro/ial (TLVL), to proceed against, to prosecute ; 
, to summon, to accuse; Aayxd/a> (TIVI TIVOS), to sue any 
one for something, to prosecute ; Kpa/w, 6\Kaa>, to judge ; ypa<, to 
indict ; 8ticao/uu, to go to law (about) ; <f>cvy<t>, to be accused or prose- 
cuted ; aipc'o), to convict ; dAi'o-Ko/Aai, to be convicted ; o<, to lose 
a suit ; aTroAcw, a<pir)fu, to acquit (1680) ; evOtvopai, to be called to 
account (for) ; Ti/A<ope'u> TIVI TWOS, to avenge some one for something ; 
rlfuapcofjuu Ttva TIVOS, to avenge oneself on (or to punish) any one for 
anything (rl/Awpetv TIVI Ba.vo.rov, to avenge any one's death). 

Amao-dat d\\T]\ovs r a> v y ey f v ij p.f v a> i>, to accuse each other of what 
has happened (Xen. Ages. 1, 33). Aid>ofuu o-e 8 f i\ids, I will prosecute you 
for cowardice (Ar. Eq. 368). 'ETre^t'rco (ft 6 v o v ra> KTfivavri, let him proceed 
against the slayer for murder (Plat. Leg. 866 b ). npoo-KaXoC/ncu are pXdfiijs, 
I summon you for injury (Ar. Vesp. 1407). (Oi/xat) 6 v o v &v CIKOTVS 
'fiavra> X a ^ f T v. I might fairly institute proceedings against myself for 
murder (Dem. 21, 120). ap tar t a s, they go to law for 
ingratitude (Xen. Cyr. 1, 2 7 ). A a> p <a v Kpi0r)<rav, they were found guilty 
of bribery, lit. gifts (Lys. 27, 3). '/*< 6 Me'Xi;roff da-f^fids cypd^aro, 
Meletus indicted me for impiety (Plat. Euthyphr. 5 C ). 'A <r t ft f i a s (pcvyovra 
virb MeXi/rov, brought to trial (or accused) by Meletus of impiety (Plat. Apol. 
35 a ). (KAWa) daipcoi/ \6vT(s KOI K\OTTT)S, having convicted <'li<>n f 
bribery and theft (Ar. Nub. 591). * tvbo paprv piv <iAd>0-e<r0at trpo<r- 
doKui', expecting to be convicted of false testimony (Dem. 39, 18). K&v 
dtrrparfidf ns o</>X/, ami if <unt one is convicted of shunning military 
service (Dem. 24, 103). 'Afl t *c 17 par v>v <v0vv6rj, he was censured for wrongs 
(Thuc. 1, 95 5 ). TlfjuapTiartiv <rot TOV naidos rov <poi>td vma-^vovfjiai, I 
promise to take vengeance for you on the murderer of your */. lit. n the 
murderer /or your son (Xen. Cyr. 4, 6"). 'E^v. . .rovs napovras rfjt < airdrT) r 

126 GENITIVE 1700 

a, if we take revenge on those present for their deception (Xen. 
Anab. 7, I 25 ). 

1700. NOTE. The genitive of crime sometimes depends upon a 
cognate-accusative (1587) like SIKT/V or ypa<prjv. 

Tpau/iaros ex Trpovoids ypa(pas ypcKpopfvos, making charges for injuries 
committed with premeditation (Aeschin. 3, 212). 'O<p\vv yap dpnayfjs re 
xat K\OTTTJS 8i<r]v, having been cast in the penalty for abduction and theft 
(Aesch. Ag. 534). The usual omission of this cognate-accusative gives rise 
to the genitive of crime. 

1701. NOTE. 'O<>, to lose a suit, may have other accusa- 
tives ; as /Awpt'dv 6<j>\L<TK(ivo>, I am convicted af folly (Soph. Ant. 470). 

1702. NOTE. With verbs of this class Oavarov is the genitive of 

Kai Qavdrov St ovrot Kpivovo~iv, they take cognisance of matters of life and 
death (Xen. Cyr, 1, 2 14 ). 'Y-rrayopevo* tiavdrov, tried for his life (Xen. Hell. 
1, 3 19 ). Of c<popoi TOV 2<po8piav virrjyov GavaTov, the ephors indicted Sphodrias 
-on a capital charge (Xen. Hell. 5, 4'-' 4 ). 

1703. NOTE. For verbs of this class compounded with Kara, see 


1704. Many compound verbs govern the genitive through 
prepositions they contain ; especially those ; compounded with 
^TTTO, ef, TTpo, and vTrep. 

\\TTOTptirfi /if TOVTOV, it turns me away from this (Plat. Apol. 31 d ). 
Ovdcvbs XP 1 ? irpdyparos TOV eu TTOVOVVTO dnoyv>vai TTOTC, one who 
ivorks well ought never to despair of anything (Men. 3fon. 133). ^Ta <pa\dyyia 
rov <p pov flv e^io-rrjo-iv, tarantulas deprive men of their reasoning power 
(Xen. Mem. 1, 3 12 ). 'E^T/pr^/if^a TG>V c \ rr i 8 a> i/, we *are dependent upon 
hopes (Isoc. 8, 7). II p 6 K e i T a i TTJS ^ to p a y fjfiotv oprj /ze-yaXa, high mounta i us 
lie in front of our land (Xen. Mem. 3, 5 35 ). noXXois ^ yXanrra n por p e ^e i 
TTJS 8 to voids, in many the tongue runs ahead of the thought (Isoc. 1, 41). 
c YTTpe<pdvr)o-av TOV \6<J)ov, they appeared above the hill (Thuc. 4, 93 3 ). 
'Ayeo-iAaor OVK. dv 6 p a> ir co v vTrepcfppovei, Agesilaus did not exult more 
than becomes men (Xen. Ages. 11, 2). Ovra>s t^otv vne pa\y>, so do I 
grieve for you (Ar. Av. 466). Xpj) v TT e p 8 1 x. civ TOV \ 6 y o v, it is neces- 
sary to plead for the principle (Plat. Phaedo, 86 e ). 

1705. NOTE. 'A7royiyi/<oo-K<o with the genitive, to despair of; with 



the accusative, to give up as useless (Xen. Hell. 7, 5 7 ). 'YTrepopaw and 
v7Tp<poWu>, to despise, to disdain, may take the accusative (Plat. Grit. 
120 e ; Thuc. 3, 39 5 ). So also airo<rrp<f>opai, to turn oneself away from, 
abhor, as ov* cbruo-rpe'^ci /nt, you will not turn away from me (Xen. 
Cyr. 5, 5). 

1706. NOTE. Less often do we find compounds of other preposi- 
tions, as fort, with the genitive, unless they fall under the previous 
rules (so cirt/?<uVa>, to tread upon, 1644); as -n/s vvv d/xaprtds 
avTiOtlva.1 TTJV TO'TC Trpo6v[j.idv>, to set against our present error our 
former zeal (Thuc. 3, 56 3 ). Still less often compounds of prepositions 
which may govern more than one case. 

1707. NOTE. In Homer some compounds of Bid, 
d/u^t, and Trept are found with the genitive; as oirj\@tv 
(II. 20, 100); d/A^a^oi/Tai (11. 18, 20); TrepiSec'Sm (II. 

10, 93). 

1708. NOTE. In general, with verbs like the above (1704), the 
repetition of the preposition (or some similar one) before the genitive 
prevails ; especially with verbs whose component parts still strongly 
retain their original meaning and have not acquired a new sense, like 
d7ro-ytyvo><7/co>, to despair of, vircp-opdw, to despise. 

1709. 1. Compounds of Kara which express a judgment or a 
feeling against take a genitive of the person. Some may also take 
in addition an accusative of the thing (the crime or punishment}. 

2. Such verbs are : KarayeAdw, to laugh at, to deride ; Kara<p(Wa>, 
to despise ; Karrjyopw f to accuse, to indict ; KaTtnrtlv, to denounce ; 
*aTaxpiVu>, Karayiyvtao-Kd), KaTa8i*aw, to pass judgment against, to con- 
demn ; fcara^i7^io/A<u, to vote against, in condemnation of; Karate uSo/uai, 
to tell lies against ; Kara/Jodw, to cry against, to decry. 

>v noXcfjuov ovfavbs KaTfycXa, Menon laughed at (despised) no enemy 
(Xen. Anab. 2, 6* 1 ). Ou Karatppova) '-ya> ra>/ #ea>i>, / do not despise the gods 

; . Bacch. 199). K.arf)p6vT)<rav ru>v 'A#;i/aia>i> d8vva<ridv, they despised th> 
M for their weakness (Thuc. 8, 8 3 ). Ovfals avrbs avrov Karrjyoprjfff 
TTWTrore, no man ever accused himself (Dem. 38, 26). OVK tiv ra T&V rpidKovra 
ApapTT)para e'fioO Ka-njyopovv, they would not accuse me of the offences of the Th irtu 
(Lys. 25, 5). Mi) /iou KOTCITT^P, do not report it against me (Plat. Tln-n.-t. UJ)"). 
Ti Tc\tvTr)(rai iravrw fj irtirpu^Uv^ cnrecpti>ii>, fat*' has mm I tunned all 
to die (laoc. 1, 43). Ot 'A^r/ralot Bavdrov Kariyvuxrav atVof-, the Athenians 



condemned him to death (Thuc. 6, 61 6 ). 'Y/ioii/ Se'o^ai /LIT) Karayvtivai 8w 
, / beg of you not to declare me guilty of bribery (Lys. 21, 21). 

Kara>//77(pio-a<r#at, to condemn yourselves (Lys. 12, 91). 'E v i CD v 
a K p ir a) v 6 a v a T o v Ko.Td'^frjfpto'curOa.i, (they persuaded) you to condemn some 
to death without trial (Lys. 25, 26). At' e^^pai/ Kara^evdovTai /xou, they tell 
lies against me through hatred (Dem. 21, 136). T>v aAAa>i/ 
roioOro npayp.a, you tell this lie about others (Plat. Euthyd. 283 e ). 
...rail/ 'Atfrji/auoi/, Mey decried the Athenians (Thuc. 1, 67 1 ). 

1710. NOTE. 1. The genitive of the crime or punishment with 
these verbs is rare. 

IIapav6p.(i>v...avTov Karrjyopflv, to accuse him of an unconstitutional measure 
(Dem. 21, 5). Kare^c^to-^T/o-ai/ Qavarov tj 0vy)y, they have been condemned to 
death or exile (Plat. Rep. 558*). 

2. But those meaning to condemn may take, in addition to the 
genitive of the person and the accusative of the penalty, also a 
genitive of the crime ; as TroXXwv ol Trarepes T^/AWV /w, 77 8 i (r /A o v Odvarov 

KaTe'yi'wo-aj', our jathers condemned many to death for favouring the 
Persians (Isoc. 4, 157). 

3. For the genitive of value with other verbs expressing the 
punishment, see 16991703. 

1711. NOTE. The accusative of the person with these verbs is 
rare ; as TO Kara^povc'iv TOV? cViovra?, to despise the assailants (Thuc. 
6, 348). 

1712. NOTE. In Herodotus /carayeXaw often governs 
the dative; as Hdt. 3, 37 2 . Other examples of com- 
pounds of Kara with the dative also occur in Herodotus 
and Homer. 

1713. NOTE. In the passive construction of the verbs in 1709, 
the genitive of the person becomes the nominative (1882, 2) ; as KU.V 
voyu.a) rts Kara-yvwa-Orj, and if any one is condemned by law (Xen. Hell. 
4, 4 2 ). But if the active verb governs at the same time a genitive of 
the person and an accusative of the thing, the accusative becomes the 
nominative of the passive construction. 

'A-TravTw Sdvaros nareyiyviao-KfTo, the death penalty was pronounced 
against all (Lys. 13, 38). KaTrjyoprjTai 'ETriKparovs l<avd, enough has been. 
charged against Epicrates (Lys. 27, 1). 

1714 GENITIVE 129 


1714. The objective genitive accompanies adjectives which are 
of similar derivation or meaning to verbs that govern the genitive. 

1. Adjectives of sharing and their opposites, especially those 
compounded with a privative. 

Thus /AeVoxos, sharing ; io-o'/xoipos, sharing equally ; a/xotpo?, d^Ar/pos, 
having no sliare in ; aytvo-ros, not tasting ; d'??*coos, not hearing ; dfledros, 
not seeing ; very many other compounds of d privative ; also eVrjySoAos, 
liar in i attained, possessed of. 

fjxroxos, )><tiikiti<i of wisdom (Plat. Leg. 689* 1 ). 'lo-o/xopoi T>V 
i/, sharing equally their patrimony (Isae. 6, 25). TS>v KaXtav KO.I 
apoipos, not sharing in the fair and good things (Plat. Symp. 202 d ). 
"\yevoTos KCIKUV, not having a taste of evils (Soph. Ant. 582). Ta>v rpirjpapxi^ 
aTfXr/y, exempt from the trierarchies (Dem. 20, 27). Tlaidfias eV^/SoXoy, 
possessed of education (Plat. Leg. 724 b ). 

2. Adjectives denoting mindful, experienced, and their opposites. 
Thus fiy^fuaf t mindful ; &funqfuiv t unmindful ; ep.Tretpos, firio-TTJfjiwv, 

experienced in ; ofo-tipcs, di/cTriorq/Luoi', unskilled in ; iin^Xr^, careful ; 
tt/MA77<?, careless. 

t \p.vrjp.otv TO>V Ktvdvvuiv, unmindful of dangers (Antiphon, 2a, 7). IloXf pw 
(Hir*ipos, experienced in wars (Thuc. 1, 80 1 ). 'EiripeXels (T/xiKpaii/, atti'ntirc /< 
Uttl,- thin,,* (Plat. Leg. 900). Plat. Phaedo, 117 a . 

3. Adjectives denoting power and capability, especially those in 

Thus cyKpar?/?, master of; d/cpaTiys, having no control over, im- 
moderate in ; avroKpanap, master of ; Ki'ptos, having power or authority : 
and very many in -1*05. 

\\nvTw Kvpia, mistress of all (Aeschin. 2, 131). T&ii/ fjdov&v tra<rS>v 
f'yicpaTcaTaTos, most perfect master of all pleasures (Xen. Mem. 1, ii 14 ). 
rXwr&Tjs aKpaTTjs, having no control over my tongue (Aesch. Pro. 884). 

mv aKpdrwp, not master of himself (Plat. Rep. 679). napao-*cfua<rrtc6f 
ruv fls ritv miXf/ioi'. <-<i]>al>lt' of procuring the necessaries of war (Xen. Mem. 
< 1 '). AiiWicaXiKoj rfff avrov <ro<J)ias, capable of teaching his own science 
(Plat. A 1 .///...//,/./-, fr). \>-n. Mem. 3, I 8 . 

4. Adjectives denoting possession and some expressing con . 

Thus TSuK, oticccb f belonging to, peculiar to ; KOIVOS, common to ; 
ot, sacred to ; dAAorpios, foreign to, another's ; avyytyr)^ related to ; 


130 GENITIVE 1714 

8eX0o?, brother to ; CTTWI/V/XOS and o^wvu/xo?, namesake, named after ; 
CLKO\OV&O<>, following. For the dative with these, see 1756. 

*l8ios auroji/, belonging to themselves alone (Aeschin. 3, 3). 'KKUO-TOU 
oiKflos, peculiar to each (Plat. Gorg. 506 e ). Koivbv iravrvv, common t nil 
(Plat. Symp. 205 a ). 'Icpbs rfjs 'Apre^tSos, sacred to Artemis (Xen. A nab. 5, 
3 lif ). Ayp-oKpariay dXXorpta, foreign to democracy (Lys. 31, 34). Svyyevrjs 
d/coXao-t'ay, related to wantonness (Plat. Rep. 403*). Tovr&v d8e\(pd, similar 
t<> these (Xen. Hier. 1, 22). 'Op.o>wp.os ScoKpurour, a namesake of Soc ><//<> 
(Plat. Soph. 218 b ). \\Ko\ov0a d\\r)\a>v, connected icith each other (Xen. 
<0ec. 11, 12). 

5. Adjectives of plenty and want. 

Thus 7rAeo>s, 7r\rjprj<;, /u,<rrds, full of ; TrAowrtos, rich; aTrXrjfm s, 
insatiate ; cVSei/?, tTriSer/?, eAAiTr^s, lacking ; TreVrjs, poor ; K-cro?, empty. 

Qrjpitov ir\r)pr)s, full of animals (Xen. A nab. 1, 2 7 ). Meoroi/ KUK)V, full 
of evils (Men. Mon. 334). nXovo-i&rrepor (ppoi/^o-ecoy, richer in gonil 
(Plat. Poi. 261 e ). nXeiWo)!/ v&ee<Traros t most lacking in most things (Plat. 

/i''/'. r7'-'"). \/>l/paTO)I' TTt'l'VTfV. /<)<; (/I f rrH .-< ll i',' (Kill'. A,'/. 37). 

xei/dff, roi</ o/ knowledge (Plat. -Re7>. 486 C ). 

6. Adjectives of value. 

Thus rr/xioj, valued, esteemed ; ato?, worth or worthy ; 
worth just as much ; omos, purchasable ; dva^tos, unworthy. 

Agt'n $(K.n fjiVG&v, worth ten mincic (Xen. ^4'ucto. ^, o ). Agn 
worthy of praise (Plat. Legf. 762"). 'Ai/aios r^f irdXeur, unworthy of the //// 
{Lys. 20, 35). \iparos d>vta, purchasable for blood (Aesch. 3, 160). 'Ai-ra^toi- 
tivai TWV irdvrwv xprjpaToiv, worth all riches (Xen. Hell. 4, l :t5 ). 

7. Adjectives of separation and distinction. 

Thus yv/xi'ds, naked, uncovered, stripped ; ^1X6?, 6are, stripped ; 
KaOapos, pure, clean, free from ; epry/xo?, destitute ; 6p</mi/os, orphan, 
foereft ; eAevfopos, free ; <pet8a>Ao5, sparing ; ta<popos, different ; aAAos, 
io?, the other, different from ; aAAotos, of a different kind ; 
;, another's, of different kind ; also /xcVo^, middle, 
f) TOV (r<0fjMTof, stripped of the body (Plat. Cratyl. 403 b ). Kadapos 
<povov, innocent of murder (Plat. Leg. 864 e ). y Apcrfjs cpqpMs. destitute of 
virtue (Xen. Cyr. 7, 5 84 ). \\vdpwv op<pavr), bereft of men (Lys. 2, 60). 
AtSoGr fXcvdepos, free from shame (Plat. Leg. 699 C ). OetScoXol ^pi/^arwi/, 
.sparing of money (Plat. Hep. 548 b ). 'ETrKTr^p-j/ eTrtcrTTy/z^y 8id<popos, knowledge 
distinct from knowledge (Plat. Phil. 61 d ). *AAAa rS>v dixat6>i/, things other 
than the just (Xen. Mew. 4, 4 ;5 ). "Erepoi/ ro f)8v TOV ayaQov, the pleasant is 
different from the good (Plat. Gorg. 500 11 ). 

8. Adjectives of accountability and liability. 

1718 GENITIVE 131 

Thus amos, (juilty, blameworthy, causinj ; V7ro8xo<;, subject to 
trial ; ei/o^os, chargeable; vTrevQuvos, liable to give an account, respons- 
ible ; vTTOTeX.779, subject to taxes. 

Tovrov airios, responsible (causative) of this (Xen. Anab. 2, S 22 ). &6vov 
?, subject to trial for murder (Dem. 54, 25). "Evoxos SeiXi'ar, charge<ihl> 
( Lit*. 14, 5). Tffs apx^s virfvGvvos, liable to give an account 
of his office (Dem. 18, 117). 'YTroreXei? <f>6pov, subject to tribute (Thuc. 1, 
19 1 ). 

9. Adjectives of feeliny and sensation. 

Thus <v8aiiMDv, happy ; Suo-e/xo?, passionately in love with; o-vy- 
/, fo rytiimj ; Tv<A.o9, blind; and especially tV-, /car-, VTT-, o-vv-, 
?, from d/como, hear. 

TOV Tpoirov, happy in his disposition (Plat. Phaedo, 58 e ). 2uy- 
TU>V avQptoirivav, foryiri atf in human affairs (Xen. Cyr. 6, I 37 ). 
TOU p*f\\ovros, blind to the future (Plut. Solon, 12). \6yo)v Ka\a>v 
listening to fine discourses (Plat. Rep. 499 11 ). 'YTT^KOOS TG>V yovtw, 
obedient to one's parents (Plat. Rep. 463 d ). 

1715. NOTE. In some cases an adjective with a dependent genitive 
is to be considered a noun. 

1716. NOTE. 1. To these adjectives belong natur- 
ally some which are entirely poetic ; as cViXT/tfo*,, causing 
forgetfulness ; C/A/UO/MK, partaking of, fortunate ; d/c^vos, 
fasting, without food ; cvus, bereaved; and others. 
2. The poets freely join adjectives to the genitive in 
ways inadmissible in prose. 
AvGdfys <j>p(i>t>v, self-willed in mind (Aesch. Pro. 908). 

TToXf/xou, skilled in war (Eur. Or. 1400). "YTroTrror... 

(iXoxrctor, suspecting the capture of Troy (Eur. Hec. 

1717. NOTE. For cVamos, opposite, with the genitive, see 1768, 2. 
Herodotus has TOV ITovrov cirucd/Mruu, at an angle with the Pontos 
(Hdt. 7, 36.). 

1718. NOTE. Compounds of d privative occasionally govern a 
genitive of kindred meaning. 

Tov rjo'ioTov aKoixrpMTot OVTJKOOS, not hearing the sweetest sound (Xen. 
Mem. 2, 1 M ). "\ncut apptvutv -rraibutv, childless in regard to male chil<lr< /. 
(Xen. Cyr. 4, 6 a ). Xpijpfrwv ddcopdraror, mont free from t 
(Thuc. 2, 66"). 

132 GENITIVE 1719 

1719. NOTE. 1. Observe the expression /xovos riav aAAwi/, altogether 
alone, i.e. separated from the rest (Xen. Cyr. 1, 4- 4 ). 

2. Similar to this are inaccurate expressions in Homer, 
like : 

"Apio-roi TVV ttXXcoi/, the bravest of the rest (11. 12, 104). 
'GKv/iopooraroy aXXa>i>, most short-lived of others, i.e. of all (II. 

1, 505). 

1720. NOTE. Karroos, VTT^KOO?, and cTTT/Koos, in the sense of 
obedient to, may also have the dative. For the genitive with cVai/n'os, 
see 1768, 2. 

1721. 1. Some adjectives similar in meaning to transitive 
verbs govern the genitive. 

Such are : /cuKovpyos, doing evil ; o-wcpyds (rwi TWOS), working 
ivith ; <iAo/xa0T/<j, fond of learning ; oi/a/x,a0ij<?, late in learning ; o-v/x- 
i(/r)<p6<; (TIVL TUOS) voting for (with any one) ; o/jwrraOrj*;, feeling th: same. 

KaKovpyos rail/ aXXvv, doing evil to others (Xen. Mem. 1, 5 3 ). &i\op.a6r)s 
Airavroiv, fond of learning all (Xen. Cyr. 1. 6 s8 ). y O^ip.adf]s T^S dSiKt'ds, /"^' 
in learning about injiixt'u-e, (Plat. Rep. 409 b ). ^.vp.^Tj<pi'ts croi et/u TOVTOV TOV 
vopov, I vote -with you for this law (Plat. Rep. 380). 'Op-o-rraOds \6irrjs re 
KOI rjdovfis, feeling the sm> /"iin mid pleasure (Plat. Rep. 4t)4 d ). 

2. In poetry such examples are much more frequent; 
often the adjective is really used as a noun ; as CK v 
dAir?7p<W TWV rr}? Otov, from those sinful toivards the 
goddess (Ar. Eq. 445). 

1722. Some adjectives govern the genitive by virtue of the noun 
which they imply. 

Td/iov iapair), ripe for marriage (Hdt. 1, 196; like &pa ydpov). Te'Xetos 
rffs TOV npayparos aper^s, perfect in the excellence of the thing (Plat. Leg. 
643 d ). 

1723. 1. The comparative degree is often followed by the 
genitive (see 13411343). 

2. The genitive follows also Scvrcpos, second to ; vo-repos, later or 
too late ; f) Trporepcud, the day before ; rj vo-repata, the day after ; 
TTcpia-o-d?, above the average, above measure (also rrepto-o-evtu, to be over 
and above, more than) ; multiplicatives in -nXd rtos, -TrXoi)?, and -o-ro's. 

Ovdfvos Sevrfpos, second to none (Hdt. 1, 23 2 ). "Ycrrtpot TTJS o-vp.j3o\r)f, too 
late for (= later than) the engagement (Hdt. 6, 120 2 ). TJ? v<rr(paia 

1729 GENITIVE 133 

on th>' il'i'i a ft,- 1- the battle (Plat. Menex. 240). Td>i/ dpnovvrav Trfpirrd, mr>- 
than is surti<-i>'nt (Xen. ('ID: 8, 2 21 ). HfpHTtrfvovra rijs dandv^s, more than 
the expenditure (Xen. Symp. 4, 35). noXXcnrXrjariov rov ^/xerepou (sc. crrparfv- 
fiaros), many times our army (Hdt. 7, 48 1 ). 

1724. The partitive genitive occurs with adjectives as with nouns. 
See 1619, 6. 


1725. Adverbs derived from adjectives which govern the 
genitive also govern the genitive. 

Aia(pfp6vT<i>s ra>v oXXtoj/ avQptoirwv, differently from the rest of men (Xen. 
//' /. 7. 4). 'A|iW rjfjiwi', in a mmuH-r n-nrtky of us (Xen. Cyr. 7, 3 n ). Ta>v 
fjifyioTwv 7rai8fvp.dT(i>v dndptof (^ovo-iv ( = arrfipoi fi(riv), they are inexperienced 
in tfic most important lessons (Xen. Cyr. 1, 5 11 ). 

1726. The genitive is also found with adverbs of place (as TTOV, 
77-01, Travraxov, etc.), of time (as Trrjviica, Trput, oi/re, etc.), of manner 
and condition (especially with e^o>) ; and with aXt? and aSriv, 
enough, abundantly. 

Uo\> yrjs ; where in the world? (Soph. Track. 236). 'EvravQa TOV ovpavov, 
there in the sky (Xen. Mem. 4, 3 8 ). Ili/Wita eVrt T^S rjpepas; what time (lit. 
when) of the day? (Ar. A-v. 1498). 'O^ -nfs upas, late in the day (Dem. 21, 
84). Ev o-w/iaToj *x flv > t be well in one's body (Plat. Rep. 404 d ). 
ex (i * 8 6 T) s ; what is your opinion ? (Plat. Rep. 456 e ). *Eir\tov o> s 
rd^ovs tKocTTos fVt TOVS \\6ijvaiovsj they sailed as fast as each could 

th> Atlf ni'llIK (ThuC. 2, 90 4 ). 'iKaVWS fTTKTTTjfJiTJS f I, he H'ill 

enough of kinm-h-dye (Plat. Phil. 62 a ). Tovrwv oXtr, a8r)v, enough of thin 
d' Polit. 287*). 

1727. NOTE. Here belong also a number of adverbs which have 
been classed as Improper Prepositions (1862) and of which all except 
afjua and ofjMv and d>9 govern the genitive. 

1728. NOTE. --In cases like the following the genitive is partitive. 
FIpodtKOf T o> v trfXpKTTtoi' cdXXtaTa T(\ fM'd^nrn fttt'ipci, ProdicuSj of all 

ft" sophists, ?/*'>/ *I.H full if /mils // u-ni-ils t<> />i-,s (Piat. Loch. 
7ri'To>i', <ihove all (ThuC. 4, 52*). 


1729. Grnitiveof Time. The ^<-iiiti\- is ofton used to 
the time at some part f which, something takes place. 


KOL rjfj.fpds <ai VVKTOS rjyev (ir\ TOVS 7ro\fp,iovs, Clearchus 
used to march day and night against the enemy (Xen. Anab. 2, 6 7 ). ArjXia 
f K e Lv ov TOV fj,r) v b s yv, the Delian festival took place in that month (Xen. 
Mem. 4, 8 2 ). Bao-iXev? ov /xa^tiTat e K a if pcp-mv (= cv 6Vca rjptpais or 
(vros Seica T)p.epa>v), the king will not Jight within ten days (Xen. Anab. 1, 7 lfi ). 
Tov eiriyiyvofMvov xei/ia>i>os, during the following winter (Thac. 8, 29 1 ). OVTTO) 
TT o X X o v %p 6 v ov TOVTOV fjo'tovi o"v(p fiTfTv^f, he has not for a long time met 
with pleasanter wine than this (Xen. Anab. 1, 9 25 ). TaOra T fj s f)p.cpas 
this happened during the day (Xen. Anab. 7, 4 14 ). Tpia r)p.i8apeiKa 
three half-darics each month (Xen. Anab. 1, 3 21 ). Plat. Prot. 

1730. NOTE. Without the article, such a genitive as ^e'pds means 
simply by day, in the day ; with the article, as rrjs ^/xepT?, it means 
within the day (mentioned) or every day. So with other genitives of 

1731. NOTE. Tou \onrov, in the future, or more exactly, at some 
time in the future ; but TO \onrov, for the future, throughout the future. 
The genitive of time thus means only a part of the time mentioned ; 
while the accusative means durin-j the whole of the time mentioned. 

1732. Genitive of Place. In poetry the genitive is 
sometimes used to denote the place in which anything 

NV$oy 8' ov <paiv(To TrAffrjs yairjs, but no cloud appeared 
OMf (in) //i' whole land (II. 17, 372). *H OVK "Apyfos fa 
\\XCUIKOV ; was he not in Achaean Argos? (Od. 3, 251). r l(i> 
...roixov TOV (Tfpov, he was sitting on the outer wall (II. 9, 

1733. NOTE. So we sometimes find in Homer 68010, 
on the way. 

68oto, to hasten on the journey (Od. 1, 309). 
(Od. 2, 404). Much oftener Trt&'oto, on the plain ; 
as 6(fiv TTtSioto, to run on the plain (II. 6, 507). At&ceo-#ai 
(II. 21, 602). 

1734. NOTE. Tfjs boov, on (over) the road, is found in the drama- 
tists, in Herodotus and in Thucydides. 

'ETTfTa^Cvoi/ T f) s 6 8 ov TOVS a")(o\airfpov eiriovras, they hurried on the 
those coming up more slowly (Thuc. 4, 47 3 ). So TOV Trpdo-a), further, 
; as livai TOV irpoo-u, to march further (Xen. Anab. 1, 3 1 ) ; and 



on ^" '''/' hand (Hdt 2, 169 8 ). Other similar expressions 
are very rare even in poetry ; as irpo\ap,ftdvovTfs rfjs (pvyf/s, getting in a start 
u, tkejUfkt (Thac. 4, 33 :{ ). IV rJ/crS*, in th- land (Soph. Oed. Tyr. 236). 

1735. NOTE. Homeric are expressions like 
Trora/xoio, to bathe in the river (II. 6, 508); 
Trvpos, to burn in fire (II. 2, 415) ; and the like. 

1736. Genitive in Exclamations. The genitive is used in ex- 
clamations of surprise, vexation, and the like, to express the cause 
of the feeling. 

Tqs pmpias, what folly ! (Ar. Nub. 818). J Q Zev jSao-tXtv r^y A* TrrdrrjTor 
ra>j' <f>p(v>v, King Zeux. flint subtlety of mind! (Ar. Nub. 153). 4>ev roi> 
dv&pos, alas! for the man (Xen. Cyr. 3, I 39 ). Ar. Pint. 389. 

1 737. Occasionally the genitive is used to express in regard to ; as 

/7T7T05 7/1' KOLKnvp-yf,, TOV ITnrcd KttKt^O/XV ' T^S St yVVaiKO?, t /CaKOTTOltl, 8iKaia>5 ap 17 yvi'T/ T^K at tav \oi, if a horse is mischievoiis, we 
blame the r.der ; but as to a wife, if she conducts herself badly, perhaps, 
she ought justly to bear the blame (Xen. Oec. 3, 11). 

1738. Genitive Absolute. 1. The genitive of a noun with a 
]:irticiple in agreement is used absolutely, i.e. as grammatically 
independent of any other word in the sentence, like the Latin 
ablative absolute ; as ravra eTrpd^drj K 6 v co v o 9 a-rparrijovvro<;, 
thin ira* done while Conon was general = Conon being general (Isoc. 


2. The genitive absolute is treated in detail in 22592264. 


1739. The dative case is primarily the case of the indirect or 
remote object (as the accusative is that of the direct object) and 
expresses that to or for which anything exists or is done. Besides- 
this it is also used as an instrumental case denoting by or with which 
anything is done ; and as a locative case to express the time at which, 
and (in poetry) the place in which, anything takes place. 


1740. With Tnuisitive Verbs. Many transitive verbs may t.ik- 
IM sides an accusative of the direct object, al.-n a l;iti\- 1< not in- 

136 DATIVE 1741 

the indirect object. Such verbs are especially those meaning to 
give, to 1 say, to send, to promise, to advise, and the like ; in English 
such an indirect object is usually preceded by to. 

T fj (TTpaTia Tore oVe'StoKe Kvpos pi(rObv Tfrrapmv prjvwv, Cyrus then 
gave the army four months' pay (Xen. Anab. 1, 2 12 ). Ai8a>p.i cr o i epavrov, 
I offer myself to you (Xen. Cyr. 4, 6 2 ). Ovros Kt7po> CITTCV, this man said 
to Cyrus (Xen. Anab. 1, 6 2 ). Hf^naiv avrtp ayyeXoi/, sending a messenger 
to him (Xen. Anab. 1, 3 W ). 'YTrto-^eo-^ai d&pa rfj orpartjj, to promise gifts to 
the army (Hdt. 5, 30). *Y plv o-u/z/3oi>Xua> e'-yw yvwvai fyias aurous, I advise 
you to know yourselves (Xen. Hell. 2, 4 40 ). So in passive constructions ; as 
6u>pa.Kfs a trots liropio-drjo-av, breast-plates were furnished to them (Xen. 
Anab. 3, 3 20 ). 

1741. NOTE. Verbs of saying may also take Trpos riva, to or 
against any one. 

1742. With Intransitive Verbs. Many intransitive verbs govern 
the dative. 

Here belong verbs signifying to seem, to befit, to be becoming, to 
be permitted, to be a concern to, to be a regret, to be possible, to belong, 
to be necessary ; to help, to benefit, to satisfy, to defend ; to please, 
to trust, to favour, to fo'low, to obey, to serve, to yield ; to pray to, 
to enjoin; to reproach, to be angry loith, to revile, to threaten, to 
envy ; also their opposites. Many of these take in English a direct 
object or a prepositional construction. 

'E 8 d K 6 1 avrols virovpyelv rots SvpaKocriois, it seemed best to them to 
help the Syracusans (Thuc. 6, 88 1 ). Tf) 17 X t K I a tirptirf, it suited his age 
(Xen. A nab. 1, 9*). NGi> trot f((mv dvSpi yfvfo-Qai, now it is possible for 
you to become a great man (Xen. Anab. 7, I 21 ). Hdt. 1, 138 1 ; Aesch. Eum. 
899. Ti T) p t v rfjs ru>v 7ro\Ao>i> Sot-rj s p.4\ti; what do we care about the 
opinion of the many ? (Plat. Crito 44 C ). "A TT da i TT poa-rj K e i irepl TTO\\OV 
irotfi&Oat TTJV (ppovrjaiv, it befits all to set high value on wisdom (Isoc. 9, 80). 
Aet a- 01 TTJS avrrjs epwr^o-fcoy, you need the same question (Plat. Meno 79 C ). 
Toiy a 8 1 K o v a- 1 fioTjOovvrfs, helping those who do wrong (Lys. 14, 22). 
Auo-treXei ra> e^oi/ri, it benefits the possessor (Plat. Rep. 392). *A/iOi/i> 777 
Ti-oXei, to defend the city (Thuc. 2, 60 3 ). Tots nXeoa-iv dpfo-Kovres, 
pleasing the majority (Thuc. 1, 38 3 ). Aurot? ^apt'^eo-^ai, to gratify themsf.l r-x 
(Lys. 14, 22). 'ETrtWeuoi/ atrai at -rroXas, the cities trusted him (X n. 
Anab. 1, 9 8 ). Tots Trovrjpols aTria-relv, to distrust the bad (Isoc. 1, 22). 
"K^oi'rat C/iii/, they will follow you (Xen. Anab. 3, I 36 ). Tots vopois 
treiQovrai, they obey t)n' Imrs (Xen. Mem. 4, 4 1:{ ). Mr) Sepia 8ov\tv( r<av 

1744 DATIVE 137 

f)8ov(av, MftM /<"/< <>f tin' i Measures (Isoc. 2, 29). 'Aperj? vneiKfi, // 
/ i-'irtui (Plat. .V' /<. 240 d ). Tots tfeois fu^o/zai, / pray <o </ie gods (Dem. 
18, 1). IlapaKeXevo i/rat rots rroXirats opovoelv, they enjoin the citizens to 
be of one mind (Xen. Mem. 4, 4 16 ). Tt eyxaXtov fjn'iv ftrigtyMtc aTroX- 
\vvai ; flint fault do you 1in<l n'ith us that you attempt to destroy us? (Plat. 
<'rito 5O 1 ). Of orpariajrai ^a\7raivov KOI <apyi(ovro tcr^upcor T<O K X 6 a p ^ a), 
t)n >i tihim-,,1 ,i,-it resentment and were angry with Clearchus (Xen. A nab. 
1, 5"). 'En-i/pea^'ovo-ii' dXX^Xoir KOL <f)Qovov(riv eavroty, they revile one 
'/id are enrious to themseln-x (Xen. Mem. 3, 5 16 ). 

1743. NOTE. 1. The verbs of this class are numerous, as: 
seem ; TrpeVct, be becoming ; Trpoo-jj/cei, it concerns ; Set, be necessary ; 
/xe'A.i, it is a care ; /*cra/ucAci, it repents, rues, is a regret ; I^eo-Tt, it is 
possible ; ftorjOtw, eTri/coDpe'o), virr)pT<o t V7rovpy/w, Ti/xcapea), help ; Xvo-i- 
rcX (o, o-u/x^e'pw, benefit (but <5^eA.c'co and ovtVi/fu govern the accusative) ; 
apKu>, satisfy ; Ttyoui>pew, d/xtVw, defend ; dpeo-Ktu, please, gratif ; \a.pi- 
^o/xat, please, favour ; dp/xoTTo>, io ^?^ ; aTrape'crKw, displease ; Tricrrevoo, 
TreiGofjMi, trust (but 7m0a>, persuade, governs the accusative) ; a7rrre'a>, 

distrust ; aKoXoufo'w, cTro/xat, follow / Trct^o/xat, Trei^ap^ew, V7raKOva>, obey ; 
a7T(t.@((a, disobey ; Xarpivia, SovXevw, serve ; CIKCD, inrciKd), Trapa^wpeo), 

yield, make room for ; tv^o/xat, pra?/ ^o, vow ^o ; TrapaKeXcro/zai, '- 
enjoin ; v7r<m'0T7/ui, vTroTt^cfiai, suggest, advise, enjoin ; 

eTTtrt'/dw, oreiS a>, (e7ri)yu,e'p:<po/xat, reproach, blame ; 
grudijc : opytop:at, ^aXcTraiVw, ^D/xoo/>tat, 6e angry with ; Xoi(5o- 
t, em)pcdfyo t revile ; aTreiXe'to, threaten : <t>0ovtw, envy (but 
governs the accusative). 

2. Poetic and dialectic are di/Sdvco, o please ; 
^oXdo//cu, \tt)OfjMi, to be wroth or angry ; Korti 
(o 6ear a grudge, to envy ; aydaa-Oai (from dya/nai) in the 
sense to 6c indignant at, to envy ; o-Kv'o/nat, to 6e angry 
at ; I'c/xctrdw, veyw-co-dopaf, pff/MOTtopuu, to 6e angry, dis- 
pleased. Homeric (Iliad) is /?oi,'X.eor#ai ni/t VIKT/V, to ww/i 
any one victory (II. 16, 121). 

1744. NOTE. 1. Verbs cf enjoining and commanding also take the 
dative in connection with an infinitive. 

'KWrnffii' TO) Hr;pa/i(i'(i d i/ < X *' <r ^ a i royf i/avdyoi'v. //(/ tuiunn mii-il 

/<> ,,,i i,, i tht- in-i-rhs (Xen. //f//. 1. 7 17 ). But a 

in the accusative may be added; as roty 7rXrao-rn?r traa-t 

i)i ?; y c i> X o/i v n \ \ i'r</ ( . /'.. .///,./-./ <// // f,,'H,i^^ /,,,/,/,, 

138 DATIVE 1745- 

holding their javelins by the thong (Xen. Anab. 5, 2 12 ). For the ordinary 
accusative subject of the infinitive after these verbs, see 2207. 

2. KeA.i;u>, to order, always takes the accusative with the infinitive 
in Attic (for the poetic construction, see 1753, 2). 

1745. NOTE. For Av/jUuVo/iat, eVo^Ae'co, AoiSopew and A.oi8opeo/xai, 

/*,'/A<o/xat, a><cA.a>, see 1578. For Ti/xwpe'w and Ti/^wpeo/uut, see 1699. 

1746. NOTE. Efyeo-tfat, to wish any one, also takes the dative of 
the person ; with the dative tftots, it means to pray to the gods for 
something, or to vow something to the gods ; in the sense to pray for 
something, it may also take irpos with the accusative and an infinitive. 

EV^OVTO avT<0 TToXXa KOI dyadd, they wished him many blessings (Xen. 
Hell. 5, I 3 ). Tols 6(ois cvxovrat noXvuapTridv, they pray to the gods for 
abundance of fruit (Xen. Mem. 3, 14 3 ). 'H p-rjTijp noXXd rots 0fols efyfrm 
dyadd vntp vov, your mother entreats the gods for many blessings on your 
behalf (Xen. Mem. 2, 2 10 ). ^axpdnjs fi^ero irpbs TOVS dcovs dnX&s rayadd 
8i86vai, to the gods Socrates simply prayed that they would give him good 
things (Xen. Mem. 1, 3 2 ). 

1747. NOTE. &0ove<a t to envy, takes the dative of the person and 
may have a genitive of the thing ; as /A/} p.oi (pOovrja-ys rov jjiaOrj- 
paTos, do not begrudge me the lesson (Plat. Euthyd. 297 b ). 

1748. NOTE. 1. Aei and xPn regularly take the accusative when 
connected with an infinitive. 

2. We occasionally find Set with the dative (instead of the accusative) 
and infinitive ; 8t eVt(ra<u rov linrov Iltpoy dvopi, it is necessary for a 
Persian to saddle his horse (Xen. Anab. 3, 4 s5 ). 

3. Xp^ c/M>i (for /*), with the infinitive is rare in the 
dramatists. For 8i /*' /os and xp 7 / /*e rtvos, see 1580 
and 1678, 3. 

1749. NOTE. 'YTraicovtu is also found with the genitive, to heed, to 
give ear to ; as in Xen. Oec. 14, 3 ; Anab. 4, I 9 . TLftQcvfou TII/OS (for 
TIVI), to obey, is very rare in Attic (Thuc. 7, 73'-'), and also occurs in 
Herodotus (1, 126 6 ). 

1750. NOTE. "ETTO/UU and aKoXovOw, to follow, may also have <rvv 
TIVI or p.trd TIVOS instead of the dative ; as Xen. Cyr. 5, 2 30 ; Hell. 5, 
2 19 . 

1751. NOTE. 'EyKuA.ew rwi n, to bring a charge against some one, 
to censure some one for something. So eViTt/Aato, to censure, and ov8tu>, 

17C4 DATIVE 139 1 

to reproach, may take the dative alone, or the dative of the persons 
and the accusative of the thing. 

1752. NOTE. 'Apco-Kw, to please, and aTrape'cncou, to displease, are 
also found with the accusative in Plato and in the dramatists. 

1753. NOTE. 1. Certain poetic verbs and constructions 
require mention. Epic is ^par/xco TLVL TI, to ward off 
anything from ant/ one, and ^pato-/x<o TIM, to defend, to 
help any one (II. 7, 143 ; II. 3, 54) ; similarly the poetic 
second-aorist a\a.\Kov (from cUc'^co), which may also take 
the construction rtvds n (//. 10, 288). 'AAeo> and -//Wo; 
in the sense to ward off, also have the construction TWL 
TI in poetry. So also a^vvw which may also take TU/O'S 
TI, to ward off anything from any one, and TWO. TWOS, to 
hold off any one from anything (II. 18, 128 ; II. 4, 10 ; 
II. 15, 731). 'ApT/yw may also take TLVL TI in poetry. 
Epic is o-rrd&iv TWO. TLVI, to cause to follow (Od. 20, 364), 
and oTraZ.tiv TLva, to folio w hard upon (II. 8, 103). 

2. Poetic Ke'Ao/xcu, to command, to exhort, takes the dative 
in Homer, so also KcAtwo (II. 12, 274 ; Od. 17, 193). 
With a dependent infinitive, Ke'\o/xou has the accusative 
(Od. 9, 100) ; K\vw oftener the dative than the accusa- 
tive (II. 2, 151 ; II 14, 62). 

3. For the dative with verbs of ruling, see 1671, 2 and 
1673, 2. 

1754. With Adjectives and Adverbs. Many adjectives (am! 
adverbs) similar in meaning to the verbs in 1742 are followed by 
the dative. 

Such are adjectives meaning faithful, friendly, hostile, agreeable , 
useful, necessary, and the like. 

n< IO-TOI, faithful to all (Xen. Cyr. 8, 7 1S ). 'AAA^Aoir f'^dpoi, 
hostile to each other (Xen. Mem. 2, 6 19 ). 4>i'Aoy paviXd, friendly to th<- /,-// 
(Xen. Anab. 2, I 90 ). 'Ai>0po>7roir xP^ (Ti ^ ov > *we/ui o men (Plat. /'/<- 
389 b ). 4>vXa^(i/ dnp(iri(rraTot>, most unl>, ;,,,iui<i /< f/imrdMMU < T'-'it . /.'/ 
398 f ). BAapA o-wpnrt, harmful to thr IHH!II (I'lat. /,'./-. f59 b ). "Yn-o^n 
ffto'if, subject to th god* (\-n. I /">//. 2, 5 7 ). 'Eiroptvtas ra> rti/ib). nfi mulilif 
t the law (Plat. Leg. 844"). rip7rd>ra>r....m'T,>. / // <i nummr /../// 



1755. NOTE. <t>t'A.o?, friendly, t\0p6<: and TroXc/xtos, hostile, may be 
nouns and then take the genitive. So SovAo?, a slave. 

1756. NOTE The adjectives mentioned in 1714, 4: 18105 and 

oi*to<, Koikes, iepr>s, dAAdrpio?, (Tvyycvr)*;, aSeX^os, 6/x<uvv/xo5, aKoA.ov#os have 

the dative or genitive. So UTT^/COOS and Karroos, and CTTI/KOO? (1720). 

1757. ir^/t Nouns. Some nouns similar in meaning to the 
verbs in 1740 and 1742 may take this dative. 

Ta Trap' f]p.(ov 5 <u p a rols 6 e o t s, the gifts (given) by us to the gods (Plat. 
Euthyphr. 15*). Tfjv f^v TO> 0eo3 vtrijpfo-iav, my service to the divinity (Plat. 
Apol. 30"). Bot)0ia eaurai, defence of oneself (Plat. Gorg. 522* 1 ). Tots 0eols 
dovXcidv, service to the gods (Plat. Leg. 762*). So also with a dependent 
objective genitive; as cn\ KUT a8ov\dxr fi ra>v 'EXXrjvav \\0ijv a lots, 
for the subjugation of the Greeks to the Athenian.* (Thuc. 3, 1<) :! ). 


1758. The dative of association and resemblance follows all 
words expressing association (friendly or hostile), likeness, near- 
ness, and approach. 

1759. With Verbs. Here belong verbs meaning to unite, to mix, 
to associate with, to communicate, to approach, to meet, to converse 
with, to attack, to ayree with, to reconcile, to differ with, to quarrel, 
to contend or to war, to make like, to equalise, to resemble, and the 

"Y5o>p p.Iyvvp.fvov TTCUTI rots' Tp(<pov(rtv f)p-(is, n'nti-r ui'isi-il with all 
things that nourish .s (Xen. Mem. 4, 3 6 ). Oivv K(pd<ras TT)V upr^vrjv, har'uiy 
mingled the spring n-ith */// (Xen. Anab. 1, 2 1:< ). Kaicots o/uXai/, asso- 
ciating with bad men (Men. Mon. 274). 'EKOivdavrjo-av TWV Kiv86vd)v f) p I v, 
they shared in the dangers with us (Isoc. 6, 43). n\T)<rideiv rots iro\epiois, 
to draw near to the enemy (Xen. Anab. 4, 6 6 ). neAa<rcu...T77 eto-o5a>, to 
get near the entrance (Xen. Anab. 4, 2 :< ). 'An-aira ra> Sfixxpuvn EvK\tdrjs, 
Euclides meets Xenophon (Xen. Anab. 7, 8 1 ). AiaXe^^i/at rols ap^ova-iv, 
to speak with the commanders (Xen. Anab. 4, 4 5 ). Tols T\fvraiois 
, they attacked the hindmost (Xen. Anab. 4, I 10 ). Hpoo-e/SaXXe TG> 
attacked the wall (Xen. Hell. 1, 2 2 ). No/iovr . ...(r<pi<rtv avrols 
s, laws agreeing with each other (Isoc. 2, 17). Xprj-.-xaraXXa- 
yrjvm TroXtv TT o X e t, it is necessary for city to be reconciled to city (Thuc. 4, 
01-). Toi/f (ptvyovTas (Tvva\\dt-ai (r(pi<riv, to reconcile their exiles to them 
(Thuc. 1, 24 5 ). Totr irovTjpols 8 tufa peer 0m, to It? <it rn riant* "/'/// the bad 

1761 DATIVE 141 

(Xen. 2, 9 s ). 'A/z^to-^rovo-i ptv <a\ 6Y evvoiav ol (piXoi rols (pt'Xoty, fpiov(rt 
8e ol 8ia(popoi re icai c'xdpoi a X X 77 X o i y, fV/rm/.s ilis/mtf in good-nature with 
///' /K/.S-, />(// -;jewtS quarrel iritJi ,<//< mith> / (Plat. Prof. 337 b ). OUK di>ri- 
Troiovp.(Ba ^SatriXf i T^S dpxrjs, we do not contend with the king for his 
dominion (Xen. .-1/iaft. 2, 3 23 ). OuSetr aurai e^a^ero, no one fought with 
him (XtMi. .!/? aft. 1, 8 s3 ). Tat? evnpdyiats noXepova-iv, they icar against 
good conduct (Isoc. 15, 142). To opoiovv eavrbv aXXa>, #o make himself ///. 
another (Plat. .Re/). 393 C ). Enrtp rots- ^eXri'o-rot? ci'icafo aurdj/, i/ 7 ///,<// 
fci fo f/e ftfsf (Xen. Symp. 6, 9). C O a-idrjpos av tvol TOVS da-Ocvels rols 
lo~xvpols (v r<a TroXe/io). />/ //iff// i-t^ml'ise the weak to th- vtrtDig in battle 
i. Ciir. 7, 5 W ). 4>tXo<rd^)a) coi<as, you resemble (are like) a philosopher 
(Xen. Anab. '2. 3 13 ). 

1760. NOTE. 1. Verbs of this class are the following: 
and fdyvvfu (rf rivt), io mix (one thing with another) ; 6/uA.c'co, 

^o associate with; /Ltcrc^cu, Koivuvem (T.I-I ru'09\ ^o s/z-are wt^, ^o cow- 
municate ; <'ivaKot.v6u) (rivt n), to communicate (anything to any one) ; 
pi nv ?), io consult (any one about anything) ; 
^a), 7reA.aa>, ^0 approach ', aTravrdw, fV-, CTTI-, ?rapa-, Trept-, oa>v- 

cowte across ; 8taXyo/xat, ^o converse with ; e 
i (mid.), o attack ; O/AOI/OCW, 6/x,o\oy(o, 
(see 1771) ; 81-, /car-, o-w-aAX.a(ro-(o, o reconcile ; 
to wafce a zrea^ or Jrwce wt^ ; 8ta</>po/xai, to 
<i.fJi<f>i<r/3r)Teo>, 8iayuw'o/>icu, to quarrel, to contend with ; di/rurote'o/MU (nvt 
, to /ay c/aim to (anything against any one), to contend for ; 
, to 6e at law with; d/u\, to vie with ; 7roA./x(o TUI, to 
against ; /xa^o/xat n-i, to fight against ; o-rao-ia^w, to revolt against r 
to quarrel with ; 8iao-K(07rro/xai, to contend in jests with ;, 
to balance accounts with ; 6p.otou>, to raa&e iiA:e, to /*A:e?i to ; fiKa^w, to 
compare, to make like ; iVoo), Avur6<a 9 to equalise ; cotKa, to resemble. 
2. Some are poetic or dialectic : /xapvapuii, to contend ; 

w, to fight ; di/Tioo/xai, oppose ; dnraco, di/Tidw, 

a), to meei ; di/riySoAew, to meei w/'^/i, to /w wjuo/t ; 
*MTKW, to liktu ; di/Ti<^pt^oj, to match oneself with. 

1761. NOTE. 1. Here belong also many phrases with fpxt>//cu and 


T 'AXKt/Siddi; rt'f <j Xoyovr ^X^oi/, certain f>row Aarf an 
interview with Alcibiades (Thuc. 8, 48 1 ). Kit ^ftpaf cX^ctv (or iVvcu) rcn, / 
put oneself <// // /,,/,, ,,/' ,/,/// one (Xen. w4naft. 1, 2*; Xen. (7j/r. 8, 8). 
dta iroX^/iov atroir t'/at, we propose to be at war with 

142 DATIVE 1762 

them (Xen. Anab. 3, 2 8 ). Bov\ev6p.fda avrols 8ia <pi\ids If vat, we 
intend to be on friendly terms with them (Xen. Anab. 3, 2 8 ). 

2. Phrases formed with Troteo/Atu more commonly take Trpos with 
the accusative ; as cnrovftas (<rvp.p,a.\iav, ciprjirjv, (friAiav, 7roA.e/AOv) 7roieur0ai 

Trpc's Tiva, o wafce a truce (alliance, peace, friendship, war) with 
some one ; less often o-n-ov&as (crv^a.-^iov, etc.) irotctcrfat Tin. Similarly 
r] Trpos TWO.^La., the alliance with some one. 

1762. NOTE. Instead of the dative, some of the verbs in 1760 
often take Trpos with the accusative, especially verbs of contending 
(dywi/to/>uu almost regularly). Upos i8to>rar dywifrvOm, to contend with 
private individuals (Xen. Hier. 11, 6). UoXtp.f'iv (Thuc. 2, 15 3 ). 

1763. NOTE. IIoA.ciicii' TWI, to make war against some one; but <rvv TIH or 7roA./u,u> fjLfTa Tii/o?, to make war in alliance with 
.some one o-v/xTroA.c/xcti' rivi or 

1764. NOTE. IlAaa>, ^o approach, rarely has the genitive; as 
Tuif a/cpun', i/tez/ approached the heights (Xen. Cyr. 3, 2 8 ). 

1765. NOTE. 1. Several other verbs expressing ap- 
proach are also found in poetry with the genitive of a 
thing, especially the poetic ai/rtaw in the sense to go in 
quest, of. 

Nfon-epot avTioavratv tpy<av TOIOVTWV, let younger men go in 
quest of such deeds (II. 23, 643). Koirrjs f^nfXaa-dTJvat, to 
approach the bed (Soph. Trach. 16). For atraco, see 1651, 1. 
2. Several are also found with the accusative in poetry 
and late prose ; so regularly dvuau> in Herodotus. 
Thus d^rtaa, (II. 1. 31); dvTui&o (Hdt. 4, 118 2 ). 

1766. With Adjectives. 1. Adjectives similar in meaning to 
the verbs in 1759, govern the dative; especially such as denote 
friendly or hostile disposition, nearness, likeness, and compounds of 


2. Such adjectives are fwov?, CU/AC^S, well-disposed ; 
&vo-ucvrj<;, ill-disposed ; <5ta<opos, at variance with (1768, 1) ; 
in opposition to (1768, 2) ; 10-09, equal to ; 0/10109, TrapaTrAT/o-ios, like ; 
dvofxoios, unlike ; o/xopos, neighbouring, bordering on ; 6 avT<k, the same ; 
-and others. 

rjv rrf ir 6 \ 1 1, he was most ill-affected toward the city 

1768 DATIVi; 143 

(Lys. 12, 59). "itrovs rovs \6yovs r<a pcyeBd ra>v tpyw e^tvpflv, to 
",,,-ils equal to the greatness of the subject-matter (Isoc. 4, 13). *H op-oiov 
ovros TOVTOIS TI dvopoiov, being like or unlike these (Plat. Phil. 74 C ). "Opopoi 
rots 2Ticai'oir, neighbours of the Sicanians (Thuc. 6, 2 :t ). To avrb TG> 
tjXtQiw, the same thing as foolishness (Xen. Anab. 2, G 22 ). 

1767. NOTE. For <I'AOS, c\0pos, 7roA./>uos, and others which take 
the genitive or dative, see 1755 and 1756. For the dative with some 
compound adjectives, see 1781. 

1768. NOTE. 1. Aia^opo? with the dative denotes opposition ; 
with the genitive, different from. 

'O 'Prjyiov rvpavvos 8id<f>opos rottri ZayKXatoi<rt, the despot of Rhenium 
being in opposition to the Zanclaeans (Hdt. 6, 23 2 ). Ata^o/joi/ rov erepov, 
different from the other (Plat. Rep. 360). 

2. Similarly eVayrtos, opposite, opposed to, against, contrary, takes 
the dative or genitive, but the latter rarely in Attic prose. 

No /xo is evavrios, opposed to the laws (Dem. 0, 25). 'Evavriot farav 
*Aj(aAr, they stood opposite the Achaeans (II. 17, 343). To oa-iov rov 
a v o <r i o v iravrbs f v a v r i o v, the holy is opposed to everything unholy 
(Plat Euthyphr. 5'). 

3. Poetic and Ionic (Wo?, and the adverbs avrid. (poetic 
and Ionic) and avriov have the same meanings. Hero- 
dotus uses these, in the sense of opposite, with the 

'H Aiyv7rrof...K t X t K i 17 s...dvrirj Kffrai, Egypt lies opposite 
to Cilicia (Hdt 2, 34 3 ). 'Ai/Tt'oi/ Kvirpov (Hdt. 1, 72 3 ). 
'Ai-Tia rrjr tnnov (Hdt. 1, 80 5 ). In the sense of opposed 
to, contrary, dvrios with the dative ; as ^117 Xf^fio-eW yi>a>/ia>i/ 
dvrifoiv d\\t)\Tj<ri, no opinions contrary to each other 
having been said (Hdt 7, 10*). 'Ai/nW, ai/na, and dvriov 
with the dative also when they form, as it were, a kind of 
compound with their verbs ; as 'Apyetot ?OI/TO dvrioi rots 
\aKt&aip.oi>ioi(Ti, the Argir>-* , n<-<i n< /<! uf>f,,isite to the 
Lnce,l,-ni,tninnx (Hdt. <), 77'). * H >' i co rr t di'Titi II i ptT y tr i 

tf pdxrjv, if they come to stand against the Persians (Hdt. 7, 

). Tw * xitTw (Hdt 2, 34'). In poetry 

di-rins is found with the genitive and dative, in Homer usually 

wjth the genitive: 11. 11, 219; Eur. Or. 14ii ; K.u. S,i.pp. 

067 and 198 ; probably the genitive is quite regular when it 

means ;//MMJ/', and the dative when it nu-aiis /</;*.x. */ in. 

Homer uses the adverbs m-Wor and nvrin with the 

144 DATIVE 1769 

genitive : II. 7, 160 ; II. 20, 88. Pindar has avria with dative 
in Pyth. 4, 507. 

1769. NOTE. After adjectives of likeness and equality (6 afro's, 
to-os, oaoios, 7rapa7rA?7o-ios), a coniensed form of comparison is often 

'O poidv T a! s 8ov\ats ei^e rrjv eVtf/Jra (for ofioidv 777 T&V 8ov\a>v 
rfl)ri), she had her dress like (the dress of) the slave-girls (Xen. Cyr. 5, I 4 ). 
'Sl7T\t(rp.fvoi TrdvTts rj<Tav. . . .T o I s avrols Kupa> OTT\OIS, they were all armed 
with the same weapons as Cyrus (Xen. Cyr. 7, I 2 ). Tas to- a? TrXrjydy e'/Aot, 
Me same number of blows with me (Ar. /Jan. 636). See also 2371, 44. 

1770. With Nouns. The dative of association and resemblance 
may even follow nouns. 

rep Tf i x i (rp.ciT t, an assault on the wall (Thuc. 4, 23 1 ). 
rols dv8pd<ri. /><irti< '< iiti,,n inth men (Plat. Rep. 4<5(i c ). 'H 
7rt/uia 7r6\e<riv, the intercourse of cities with cities (Plat. Leg. 
949"). Ts rots X / a- r a t s evrcvgcis, meetings with pirates (Plat. Polit. 298 d ). 
Moucrtci7 fx et T *) v op.ot6rr)Ta TO> roi) KaXoO p. i p. r\ p. a T t, //M/.S/C //".>> ///^ resemblantt 
to an imitation of the good (Plat. Le(/. 668 b ). 'ETravdfrrao-is pepovs nvos ro> 
oX a) rrjs ^u^?)y, (t revolt of one part of the soul against the whole (Plat. Rep. 

1771. With Adverbs. Adverbs similar in meaning to the 
adjectives in 1766, are followed by the dative. Here belong also 
a//,a, at the same time ; OJJLOV, together ; and e'cpef 779, next in order. 

'Ei/arrt'toy *x l r< P & <& <f> p o v i 6 aKoXaoroy, the intemperate man is the 
opposite of the moderate (Plat. Gorg. 507)- 'AXX^Xotr di/opnW, in a 
manner unlike one another (Plat. Tim. 36 a ). > E/i7ro8o>i> rfj avro v o pia, 
obstructive to independence (Xen. Hell. 6, 3 7 ). "A/xa rfj ^e'pa, at daybreak 
(Xen. Anab. 2, I 2 ). To v$a>p eVrvero 6/iov rai TT rj X a>, Me water was drunk 
along with the mud (Thuc. 7, 84 s ). Ta TOVTOIS ((pfgris r) XtKTt'oi/, we must 
say what comes next to this (Plat. Tim. 30). 

1772. NOTE. The adverbs 5/xa, 6/xoC, e<pe^s are also classed as 
Improper Prepositions (see 1838). 

1773. Dative of Accompaniment. The dative of accompaniment 
is used chiefly to denote an accompanying military or naval force 

'H/iels KOI tTTTrotff rois SuvaTcoTaroif KCU dv8pd<ri 7ropeua>/i*0a, let us go 
with the most powerful horses and with men (Xen. Cyr. 5, 3 35 ). Ol \aKfb~ai- 
udz'ioi TO) T( cara yrjv arparai irpocrfftaXov T> ri^i'o"p,ari KOI rais 

1778 DATIVE 145 

apM, the Lacedaemonians attacked the wall both with their land n/n/ ami 
t'-ith their ships at the same time (Thuc. 4, II 2 ). 'OXtya> <rr p arcv par i ov 
To\nr)<T(i e<p(ir(r6ai, he in'// not venture to follow with a Kin-all army (Xen." 
Anal,. '2. 2 12 ). 

NOTE. la Homer a personal accompaniment is seldom 
so used ; as II. 21, 45 ; Od. 11, 161. 

1774. NOTE. For this dative (which may also be considered a 
dative of means) c^wi/ with the accusative may be used ; as TTO\VV l^wv 
o-rdAoi', having a large force (Xen. Anab. 2, 2 12 ). 

1775. NOTE. The dative is sometimes preceded by an emphatic 

avroi? Or avrais. 

Ttrrapas vavs eXa$oi/ avrois dv8pd(riv, they took four ships, men and all, 
lit. -ith t) >t ' men themselves (Xen. Hell. 1, 2 12 ). Xen. Cyr. 3, 3 40 ; Xen. 
.!/"//>. 1, 3 17 ; II. 20, 482. The preposition a-vv is here seldom inserted. 


1776. The dative follows many verbs compounded with avis, 
eV, 67rt ; some compounded with TT/JO?, Trapd, Trepi ; and a few 
compounded with viro. 

Ot 0(ol r)p'iv (rvvpyov(riv, the gods work with us (Xen. Mem. 4, 3 12 ). 
Sui/frroXt/m K Op<u irpbs avrov, he joined Cyrus in the war against him (Xen. 

. 1, 4 2 ). Tolf vopois cppcvwvi (ibiding by the laws (Xen. Mem. 4, 4 4 ). 
"Hdrj pot firifiovXfvovat rqv ^cyi(mjv ftovXqv, they make the vilest (greatest) 
flint tiifiiiiiKt mi' (Dem. .~K), l<i). IIoXXaKts 1 Trovrjpols (TTi^dpovari TT p dy p. a tr i v, 
tin, i Miter "/ evil deeds (Ken. Mem. 4, I 4 ). Tainy rfj 65u ot vroXc'jLuot 
trpo<Ti\o\)<Ti TOV i/oCi/, to this way the enemy turn their attention (Xen. A nub. 
4, 2 s ). Tlpoa-ifvai rai d>7/ia>, to come before the people (Xen. Mem. 3, 7 1 ). 
HapfffTdt r)piv ToX/zt'&jy 6 Kr/pv, let Tolmides the herald be with UK (Xm. 
Anab. 3, I 4 *). HapitrravBai dXXiyXotr, to stand by one another (Xeii. ////. 

). Tavrcus rals <r v p<p o pats rrepttTreo-ei/, he fell into these NttybfitMMJ 

I t. l"l i. 'KK TOJV p.tyi(rr<t)v KivftOvav xal rr <> X e t (cat t 8 i e!> r y fjifyurrai 

Tipa'i nfpiyiyi'tn'Tai, from tin- greatest dangers the greatest honours arise both t<> ,!,,<! f<> th> sfnti' (Time. 1, 144 4 ). 'Yrrojcftrm TO Kippalov ir(8iov 

TUI iffo>. fl" ( 'irraean plain lies below the temple (Aeschin. 3, 118). 

1777. NOTE. With some of these compounds the dative depends 
on the general meaning of the verb, especially with compounds of eV/ 
and TTfx'ts ; with others the dative depends on the preposition. 

1778. NOTE. The compounds of lv may also express motion. 


146 DATIVE 1779 

'E\iridas ayaBtls fp-Troulv avdpairois, to f/(''' <JO<H! A/'x to tin- nun 
(Xen. Cyr. 1, to' 19 ). Ol evedpais e/iTrfTrroi/rfs, those that full into mi 
ambuscade (Xen. Hipparch. 8, 20). 

1779. NOTE. 1. When the compounds of cV are used simply with 
a local reference, they are not followed by the dative alone, but by 
tv with dative, or ei? with the accusative ; as {/uftctvayrc? tv TTJ 'ATTIKTJ 
(Thuc. 2, 23 3 ); cW/JaXe <nv>a/i>...c's MtA^rov (Hdt. 1, 14 8 ). 

2. Similarly the compounds of o-w, CTTI, Trpos, Trapu, TTC/K are often 
followed by the same (or another) preposition and the required case 
instead of the simple dative. 

1780. NOTE. 2iW8(i iW , / know something as well as (with) 
another ; a-vvoLoa <->avra> , I am aware or conscious of somethui /. 

Ov8e gvvTfdd a-oi ns f K 6 r i v TCKVOV; did no one knoir n-ith >IH tin' 
exposure of the child? (Eur. /"" '.")<). 2w6t8aj? aurai TroXXa cai rroi/^pa, 
being cow ion* <>f minni (///// - i \-n. ( .> H ). 

1781. NOTE. Some adjectives compounded with prepositions, 
especially with eV, o-rv, TT^OS, are followed by the dative. 

tyvxfj ftiaiov ov8fv fppovov /ici^r//io, no forced study remains rooted in 
fin mind (Plat. /?/. ."uMi 1 ). 'AXX^Xotr crv^^vn, i.j//vi-;/;/ i-/V/ r.r/ I//M / 
(Plat. Lej/. 74' 

1782. NOTE. The compounds of 6/AoD (1766) are followed by the 

1783. NOTE. In epic poetry we occasionally find com- 
pounds of ftcTot used like the verbs compounded with eV. 
)\tTtnp(7T( Mvp(u86vr<riv, he wax <listin'inished aim>n<i tin 
Min-iniilnn* (II. 16, 596). Mra8aiVurm r]^lv, he feasts with us 
(II. 22, 498). In the oldest Greek pcra was sometimes 
synonymous with eV. 

1784. NOTE. 1. The tragic poets only seem to have 
cTTiorpaTeu'w with the accusative, as Soph. Track. 75 ; see 
also Thuc. 4, 60 2 and 4, 92 5 . Isolated examples of 
compounds of cn-t- with the accusative also in Homer 
and Herodotus ; as f<f>op/ (II. 15, 691) ; e7rotrai/ 
(Hdt. 7, 16 10 ) ; eVaWetv (//. 12, 308). 

2. Several poetic compounds of Trpds also have the 
accusative ; as Trpoa-.riTvo) (tragic), to fall down before, 
to supplicate (Bur. Supp. 10). 

1789 DATIVE 147 

1785. NOTE. 1. Compounds of ck do not often take the dative, 
the compound of cV being then preferred ; as c/u/?aAA<i> for eto-/2aAAa>. 
With cto-tcVai and eurcpxeo-flat the accusative is preferred to the dative, 
but a personal accusative or dative occurs in Attic prose only when 
these verbs mean to come into one's mind ; as Plat. Phaed. 58* and 
59\ Otherwise these and other compounds of ets generally repeat the 

2. In the above sense, the poetj have eurieVat and 
ci.repxeo-^at usually, and the equivalent vTrepyeo-tfcu always, 
with the dative : II. 17, 157 ; Eur. Med 931 ; //. 20, 44. 
We also find da-e^ /AOI in this sense (Soph. Track. 


1786. The dative is used to express that for which anything 
i- <>r is done. 

1787. Dative of Advantage or Disadvantage, The person or 
tiling for whose advantage or disadvantage anything occurs is put 
in tli- dative. 

Ou roi Trarpl cat rfj firjrpl povov yyevr)p.(6a, aXXa cat ri] Trarpi'Si, 
we are born not only for our father and mother, but also for <T i-mmli'ii 
(Dem. 18, 205). A v T o> o-oc^o?, wise for himself (Men. Mon. 332). Has dvijft 
atrai Trove?, >>< , // //<<//( toils for himself (Soph. Aj. 13(56). M<yaAa>> npdy- 
tcaipoi irpof'ivTai rfj jroXet, OppOfflMMfiM for great deeds Jun-,' //// 
>uvay for (= to the disadvantage of) the city (Dem. 19, 8). AXXo> 
6 TotoOros TrXoirrd, ov% e'aurai, such a man is rich for another's benefit, n<>f 
for hirmttlf (Pint. Me net. 246*). Oi>x aira<rtv qpiv ol avrol vopoi ytypa^i- 
pti'm tta-iv ; have not the same laws been made for us all? (Dem. />.">. l.). Of 
tTTtrot avrois &(o'(i>Tai, the horses are tied for them = they hare their A 
tied (Xen. Anab. 3, 4 35 ). 

1788. NOTE. This dative is also found with nouns ; as <K\i7T7ro' 
<"/T( TTo'Aei? *KAA7/i>/8as avopaTrooifo-@ai 01 aTropiav c<^o8ta>v TO is 

o-Tpareuo/xcVois, you let Philip enslave Greek cities for lack of 
provisions to the soldiers (Dem. 3, 20). 

1789. NOTE. Observe the expressions oTc^Kwowr&u' nw, to crou-n 
oneself in honour of some one, and K<iprOai nvi, to shear one's hair for 
some one. 

148 DATIVE 1790 

'E<f\fvf (TT(pavovcr0ai Trdvras ro> deut, he ordered all the men to crown 
themselves in honour of the god (Xen. Hell. 4, 3 21 ). Kopai Kfpovvrai 
troi, the maidens shall shear their hair to thee (Eur. Hipp. 1425). 

1790. NOTE. 1. In poetry the dative of advantage or 
disadvantage is used more freely than in prose ; as 
Tola- iv fjivOuv ypxtv, he began to speak for ( = before) 
them (Od. 3, 68). 

2. Poetic and especially Homeric is ot^o-Oai nvt, to 
receive (or take) from any one : as 6e'aTo o I o-K^Trrpov, 
he took the sceptre from him, lit. for him (II. 2, 186). 

1791. Dative of Possessor. With eifii, yiyvopcu, vrrdp^a), and 
similar verbs, the dative denotes the possessor, or the person for 
whose use anything is or is placed. 

'EvTcivOa Kupw /3curi'Ata r)v, here Cyrus had a palace (Xen. Anab. 1, 2 7 ). 
'Ho-ai/ fj^tv fvbov (TTTa /ivat, we had at home seven minae (Lys. 19, 2). 
Avrd/iiara T&ya&a TO> (p iXov p. v a> yiyvtrai, all blessings come (are) spon- 
tiiiH-ously to him who is beloved (Xen. Hier. 3, 5). OiKtta TO re era f)p,lv 
i>7rdp(i, Kal a- 01 ra rjpcTfpa, your relations with us will again revive, and 
ours irith you (Plat. Lach. 181*). *Hr vibs TU> 2 (pod pi a, Sphodrias htl 
son (Xen. Hell. 5, 4 25 ). With the verb sometimes omitted ; as in Xen. Cyr. 

1792. NOTE. Sometimes eVri or curt' is omitted. 

Ot n-oi/ot fyov rois- dya^oty, labours are a relish to good things (Xen. Cyr. 
7, 5 80 ). To) TrciTpl Ilvpi\dp.7rrjs ovopa, the father's name is Pyrilampes (Plat. 
Farm. 126''). 

1793. NOTE. The expression ri /xol Kat a-ot (co-ru/) ; means what 
have [ to do with you? Thus r\ <Vr' 'Epc^" K( * L xoVotots Kal KWL; 
what has Erechtheus to do with jackdaws and a dog ? (Ar. Eq. 1022). 

1794. NOTE. Occasionally we find a possessive dative used with 
nouns instead of a possessive genitive. 

Tot) t-evov r)p.iv, of our guest (Plat. Soph. 216 d ). *Ei/ T&V KTiypaTtov 
TO Is titols, one of the possessions belonging to the gods (Plat. Phaedo 62 h ). 
This construction is more frequent in Herodotus and in poetry. 

1795. Ethical Dative. The dative of personal pronouns is 
sometimes used in familiar language with mere expletive force, 
or for liveliness of expression, to denote some one as interested. 
Sometimes it cannot be conveniently translated. 

1797 DATIVE 149 

Ti o-ot pa0rj<rofuu ; " m li'<t "//' / /<> l<-nni for you? (Ar. Nub. 111). Tovrto 
traw p.oi irpocrf\fTf TOV vovv, to f/n.s. / /'",'/. ;/// //<// </,>, Attention (Dem. 
18, 178). 'H p.r)Tr)p o-f f'a Troicti' o rt av /3otX/, JV avrfj /xa /captor jjr, i/ottr 
moth* > / nnit* inm t<> <lo anything you J/-JN/I so </ia j/ow may be happy for her 
(Plat. Lys. 208 d ). Ovrtos ^ /A t v of pyropfs 6Vtot do-iv, thus are our rhetoricians 
xkilfnl (PLit. !5 C ). Oi/rcof f^fi crot TCIITCI, thus rests the matter to 

you (Soph. Ant. 37). 

1796. Dative of Relation or Standpoint. 1. The dative is often 
used to denote the person from whose standpoint (view] or in 
relation to whom a statement is made. 

TfQvrjx TroAai, / am long dead to you (Soph. Phil. 1030). "Arravra 
TO) <poftovp,v(0 \lro<pd, everything sounds to one who is in fear (Soph. Frag. 
58). 'O p.i> yap eV^Xo? fvyfvrjs fpoi y dvfjp, the honest man is noble in my 

'">n (Kur. Frag. 345). 'Y7ro\ap.ftdvfiv 8d TW rotovro) oTt fvrjQrjs eWt. in 
regard to such a man, we must suppose that he is simple (Plat. Rep. 598 d ). 

2. Such a dative often has a participle in agreement expressing 
feeling ; especially ftov\ofjievu> (poetic also 0e\ovri), rjSojjLi>(i), 
d<7fjLV(D t and d%0o/jLvq). 

Kt e K 1 1 v (o |3 o v X o p. e v to TOUT' COTIV, if that is according to his wish = 
lit. if that is to him, n-ishing (Xen. Hell. 4, I 11 ). 'E7rai/'X0o>/ifi>, i o-ot 
f)8op,(v<*> eWtV, let us go back if that pleases you (Plat. Phaedo 78 b ). \\<rp.evois 
rait dvQptoirois CK TOV (TKOTOVS TO (p&s tytyvfTo, to the joy of men does light come 
after darkness, lit. to men rejoicing (Plat, dratyl. 418 a ). 

3. This dative, especially with a participle in agreement, may 
also be used in connection with a statement of time or place ; the 
participle alone may be so used. 

T Hr ripfpa ir(p,7TTTj (ntirXfova-i Tols 'A B 17 v a. i o i s, it t<'<tx the fifth 
day since flu Athenians sailed out, lit. it was the fifth </</// for the Athenians 

"/ .// ( Xcii. ////. 2, I 37 ). Evpr)(Tfi....8(Ka 6tprj roi Trptoro) TroXfpo) 

&iayfy(vT)fjxva, he will riml flint there were ten x HI //..-/* / tln-rir*t '<ir (Thuc. 
5, 20'). 'KTri'fia/ii'dr <Wi roXty eV 8(ta c<rir\fovTi TOV 'Idi/toi/ KO\ITOV, 
Epidamnus i a city on the right as you sail ( = to one sailing) into the Ionian 
1 (Thuc. 1, 24'). Ot VTTtppdvTi \lfjLiH' iVrm. //" <,'>( //,.!/ //! 
ETO1IMH (Thuc. -J. '.Hi'). 

1797. NOTK. When no noun is used in agreement with the 
participle, nvi or i!iVW7nu is understood. Thus is explained the 
phrase u> <rwcXwTi ciVci^ or m-rcAflrri ctn-cu-, to speak hi iffli/ (lit. for me 
to * i// it, hut- iny made tli nin't"r //// . <A<MTI alone may be so 

150 DATIVE 1798 

used, as in Isae. 4, 22. Note also u>< e/xoi', in my opinion, for a man 
like me. 

1798. NOTE. Tip,ios nvt, honoured or prized in any one's estimation 
(Kur. Phor.n. 431)). *\ios nvi TIVOS, deserving of anything in unit mn-'.t 
estimation (Ken. Mem. 1, 2 ti2 ). 

1799. NOTE. The dative of any participle may be used with 
impersonal expressions signifying it is proper, useful, good, agreeable, 
acceptable, and their opposites, also such as express fear and the like, 
seldom with other impersonal expressions (compare 1796, 2). 

Tovro /cat n pen civ poi SoKet...o t o p. ( v a> oivvs (X (lv '> ** seem* t<> m< t<> 
In- fitting to think it is so (Plat. Phaedo 114 d ). Oi? ovde arrag e\v(rTf\Tj(Tf 
wciffoptvoiSi to whom it <li<l not profit to obey even once (Lys. 25, 27). 
Kt To5' avTot 0i'Xoi/ KfK\rjfji(v(a, if it is agreeable to him to be thus called 
(Aesch. Ag. 156). Et Xoioi/ Km (ip.ivov (trj ^ j' rfi iro\(i ovrca Kara- 
(TK(vaop.fvT], if it were better and more advantageous to the state regulat- 
ing itsi'lfin thix way (Xen. Vect. 6,2). T Qi /xr} Vrt dpvvri rap/Bos, ovd* 
enos <^)o/3et, him who hut n<> ft-r of (lin<i, <i >n>i-<l <!<>?.* not frighten (Soph. 
<>.,/. Tyr. 296). 

But the infinitive is more common with such impersonal expressions. 

1800. Dative of Agent. 1. The dative is sometimes used instead 
of UTTO with the genitive to express the agent with the perfect 
and pluperfect passive. This dative expresses that the thing done 
by the agent is ready at his disposal. 

Ta rovTot irfjrpayniva, the things done by him (Dem. 29, 1). 'E^-ftSi) 
avTo'is 7rapf(TKva<rro, when preparation had been made by them (Thuc. 1, 
46 1 ). IloXXai Ocpanclai ical irai'TodaTral rots tarpoTs cvpyvraij many and 
nirinl ci//v.s fiiit-f been discovered by physicians (Isoc. 8, 39). 

2. With other passive tenses this dative is rare ; as rd^fe? 
dv0pa>7Toio-iv OL>X evpicrcTa<, truth is not found by men (Men. Mon. 

3. In the personal construction of verbals, the dative of agent is 
regular ; see 2315. 


1801. Dative of Instrument or Means. The dative is used to 
denote the means or instrument with which anything is done. 

1805 DATIVE 151 

c rjy a K e vfj TWV o7rXo>i>, recoynixt'il li the fashion of their arms 
'Time. 1, 8 2 ). Tot? 176*77 yfycvTjp,voi$ T(Kp.aipf(r6ai, to judge by what /m.s- 
.ilrfi'lt/ }<{>}>< /("/ (Isoc. <i. ,">M). K a K ot?.. .lacrOai *caica, <o cnr* 1 <//* />/ erts 
(Soph. Frag. 75). 2^ Stats SiaftaivovTes, <-roxsin<i with rafts (Xen. -4no6. 
1 .' '). KiVqo-ftr ra> cra> part. mon-HH-iits with the body (Plat. Le</. 631 C ). 

1802. NOTE. 1. With ^/AIOW, to punish, to fine, and KoAao>, to 
punish, the punishment or fine is in the dative; as Plat. Rep. 492 a ; 
Xen. Cyr. 6, 3 27 . For other verbs of punishing, see 1699-1703, 1709- 

J. Au>peto-0ai' rim nvt, to present any one with anything, for the 
regular 8<i>pcur0<u nvi TI, to present anything to any one, probably does 
not occur in Attic prose. 

1803. NOTE. 1. The verb xpao^at, to use (properly to serve one's 
! by), to associate with, takes the dative of means ; sometimes a 

predicate dative is added. 

rols tvois, he employed the /<//',/ /,,>* (Xen. Anab. 1, 3 1S ). Ti 
lv xPW& ai : f" r "'h'<t does he wish to use us? (Xen. ^4na6. 1, 
i i' X o i s CXP&VTO rot? re ot<rroty /cat yeppois, they used the arrow* 
//;'/, r sliifltls us rirf-ii-ooil (Xen. Ann-It. 2, I 6 ). 2ot 0t'Xa> xprfao^ai *cai 
/ '/// /.s^ i/ou <(s (; fr'n-nd and a brother (Xen. ylna6. 7, 2" JS ). 
Similarly many idiomatic expressions; as xprjo-tfai re'^i/i/, to follow ,i trade; 
opytj xpri<r0~ '" indulge in anger. 

2. Sometimes vo/xi^a> is used in the same way. *<>'/... i'op'bi'o-t, /A- / 
/M language (Hdt. 4, 117 1 ). evo-i'aiy...eV<i/itCoj', /// ol>*,rr,<l sacrifices 
(Time L>. 38 1 ). 

18M. Dative of Cause. The dative is used to express muse. 

\\TT<>dvil<TKti v oo-o), he dies through disease (Xen. Anab. 7, 2 :lu ). Ov\ 
vftpti, <iXX* ai/ayici; \afi.^' ra (iriTr)8(ia, ', /,/., fn-tn-isinn.^. not from 
. /.<// //<,//, Hi-t'i'snitti (Xen. J/ia6. 5, 5 16 ). ' \yvniu. ..tgaftap- 
TnroriTi. //<(/ i n- from > Bta<J/i i'ot ____ roi) Trtfti^ 

* IT 16 v pi- I'll the desire to ilrinl: (Thuc. 7, 84 1 ). Flni/rfs- rjdovro rff 

(tpfivT),all rejoiced on account of th- / Xen. Cyr. 3, 3 a ). 'H^^d^f^a 

-/fytvijuiriiiv. ire were re.r,>l f n-h<it li> is A \cn. A n<tb. 6, 

7*). \ltTx^ vo f- (li Tnl T "' v irpt'rrtpov Ap-apriuis, I <nn ash" 

.. /;-/. UM 

1805. NOIL. TcpTTccrftu' rii't, to delight in anything, is 
very rare in Attic prose. In poetry the dative of cause 
with tli ii occasionally a person ; as TWort 

rcp<t>0tis, being delighted with the children (Soph. Oed. 
Col. 1139). Od. 14, 244. 

152 DATIVE 1806 

1806. NOTE. 1. With /?ape'tos <(>cpciv and ;(aXe7rcos <epiv, to be 
distressed, to bear grievously, either the dative or accusative may be 
used; as Plat. Menex. 248; Xen. Hell. 3, 4 l> ; Xen. Rep. Ath. 2, 6; 
Xen. Anab. 1, 3 3 . 

2. When dyaTraw and o-repyo) mean to be satisfied, they may also 
take the dative or accusative ; as dyaTroWes T-JJ o-wT^pta, being content 
with their safety (Lys. 2, 44); o-Tt'pyciv (with dat., Plat. fltpjj. Maj. 
295 b ; with ace., Lys. 33, 4). 

1807. NOTE. 1. With verbs of feeling, the cause may be expressed 
by 7rt with the dative ; as ITTL rots xaKois Sucr^cpaiVovra?, being grieved 
at ills (Isoc. 1, 26). See 1852, 2(d). 

2. For the genitive of cause with some verbs of this class, see 1680. 

1808. NOTE. An external cause is often expressed by vn-6 with 
the genitive ; as OVK fovvavTo KaQev&eiv VTTO XCTTT/?, they could not sleep 
from sorrow (Xen. Anab. 3, I 3 ). 

1809. NOTE. The cause on account of which anything happens is 
expressed by 8m with the accusative (1842, 2) ; the cause for the take of 
which anything occurs is expressed by IVSKO. with the genitive (1862, 4). 

1810. Dative of Manner. The dative is used to express manner. 

Kpauyj) TroXXJ; eVtam, they <it{r<nn > n-jth loud outcry (Xen. Anab. 1, 
7 4 )- "Qa-rnp opyfi (K(\(vcr(, he commanded as in anger (Xen. Anab. 1, 5 8 ). 
Tovrw TO) rpoTra) (7rop(vdr)(rav, in this way they proceeded (Xen. Anab. 3, 
4 3:l ). 'ArtXtt rfi vinrj dvecmja-av, they withdrew with their victory incomplete 
(Thuc. 8, 27 6 ). Thus many adverbial expressions ; as Sp6/z<u, on a run ; 
<f>vyfjj in flight ; /3ta, by force ; a-novd^ with difficulty, scarcely , earnest/ >t ; 
<rlyfi, silently ; rfj (pf) yi'to/xj/, according to my opinion ; (ra>) Xdyw, in word ; 
7rpo<pd<T(i, in pretext; rfj dXrjdfia, in truth; rw OI/TI, r<u fpyw, in reality, in 
fact ; ravTij, this way ; irff ; which way ? drjpoo-ia, publicly ; tdi'a, privately ; 
Koivf), in common ; 7rej/, on foot ; these datives are used without a qualifying 

1811. NOTE. Otherwise, when the dative of manner would have 
no attribute, a prepositional phrase is usually preferred ; as /xera 8i'*o/5, 
with justice ; 81 d/cpi/foas, with accuracy ; Trpos /Jtai/, by force ; Kara 
/cparos, with all one's might. 

1812. NOTE. Sometimes the dative of manner is a dative of 
respect, and is then practically equivalent to the accusative of specifi- 

1816 DATIVE 153 

Tfl <pwf} rpa^vt ( =rf)v (frtovrjv), rough in roice (Xen. Anab. 2, 6 9 ). Ot 
<p v a f i ao-tfei'c'oraroi, those weakest by nature (Xen. Mem. 1, 6"). n X rj 6 e t 
fs, having been inferior to us in number (Xen. Anab. 7, 7 :n ). 
rrj Kal Kpelrrov t<mv, it is before it and superior in power 
(Dem. 3, 15). Atcu^epci? apT#, to be distinguished in virtue (Plat. Charm. 
157*). Ild\is...Qd\jfaKos oi/d/xari, a city Thapsacus by name (Xen. Anab. 1, 

1813. NOTE. A peculiar dative of manner occurs with oV^c/mi, to 
admit to; as TU>? TroXewv ov 8f\ avrov? ay op a, the Cities not 
admitting them to market (Thuc. 6, 44 2 ). 

1814. Dative of Measure of Difference. The dative is used to 
denote the degree of difference, especially with comparatives. 

B p a x f i xpova> vartpov, a short time later (Xen. Cyr. 5, 3 s2 ). T fj 
Kpa\fi pLfifav, a head taller = taller by a head (Plat. Phaedo 101*). 
IV^i/i; 5' dvdyKTjs d<rdfv((TT(pd p, a < p o>, and art is weaker than necessity by far 
(Aesch. Pro. 514). Totrourw ijdlov o> o<ro> TrXei'o) KKTT)(JMI; do you think 
that I live so much happier the more I possess? (Xen. Cyr. 8, 3 40 ). 'E v lavro) 
7Tp(o-f3vrfpos, older by a year ( Ar. Ran. 18). JldXt \oy i p. a 17 'EXXar yeyove 
do-tifvfoTfpT), Greece has become weaker by an illustrious city (Hdt. 6, 106 3 ). 
Af'ca Tf(ri Trpo rrjs (v 'S.aXap.'u'L vavp,a\ids, ten years before the sea-Jight at 
Salamis (Plat. Leg. 698 C ). M a K p KaXXtoTa, by far the best (Plat. Leg. 

1815. NOTE. Often the adverbial accusatives 0X170? and TroXv are 
found for the dative ; as Plat. Prot. 317 e ; Men. Hon. 782. Note that 
TI; by how much ? ri, somewhat ; ou8? and /xT/Se?, by no amount, are 
always used, never the dative. 


1816. Dative of Time. The dative without a preposition is 
u^'-<l to "It-note time at which anything takes place. So are used 
chiefly the nouns denoting day, night, month, and year, when they 
have an attribute ; and names of festivals. 

T/ vtrrtpaia (sc. fjp-fpa), <i 1h,' following day (Xen. A nub. 2, 5 17 ). 
- P<OTJI tot qptpa dfyiKovTo, thi'ij <-,ini' H flu tirxf <l<m ( XtMi. A nub. 4, 
('Kppal) pia vvxri ol TrXetorot ircpKKonrj&av, mont of th> ///////- were 
IV iii'ihf (Tlnuv i. L'7 1 ). To> (TTK'WTI p.rji'i, in th> ,-<nniii>i nmnth 
(Plat. Ley. 7*>7''J. 'Yfrdprta (rtt fcuvf'ftrjtrav, in the, tiiith y<~<ir tln-i( came to 
i 1 l"i:;'). 'Oftyfivtiai IlavaQrivalmv. f" </"" ./ tt>. 

154 DATIVE 1817 

1817. NOTE. When the above datives have no attribute, eV is. 
always prefixed. 

'Ev VVKTI, at night (Men. Mon. 150). 'Ei/ r&> x fi p-<*> vl i in the winter (Xen. 
Oec. 17, 3). The exceptions are only apparent ; as vovurjvia (on new-moon 
day), on the first of the month (the adjective is here in the nominative) ; 
<upa, in the winter season (the genitive serving as attribute). 

1818. NOTE. 1. When the attribute of the temporal dative is. 
oSe, OUTOS, eWi/os, or 6 avro?, the preposition eV may be inserted or 
omitted. Thus 7778* (raviy, CKfivrj) rrj rj^pa or eV ryof (ravi-fl, e/cetVfl) rrj 
and rf *//Apa or cv 17 ^/xepa. But we have regularly kv TOVTU> 
or *aip<, a /ws (that) time or moment ; ev T< Trporcpov 
v, at, the former time ; and usually V roiSc r<S or TOU'TW TW 
or raj auruJ firjvi (Of pa, summer, ^i/x.o>i/i, winter, erei and evtaurw, year)*. 
Yet we find vore'p u XP^ w ^h eV (TU>) vore'p o xpoi'U). 
2. But eV is never omitted in phrases like eV v 
> TouVo), V TW TOT, etc., when \ is understood. 

1819. NOTE. Alongside of /ua ^/xe'pa and the like, we find also eV 
rjucpa. With greater cardinal numbers as well as adjectives like 
s, oA/yos, etc., the temporal dative regular takes iv. 
i/ atravrt TO> ^p(ivQ), JH </i^ whole time (Lys. 2, 54). 'Ev 
(Lys. 19, 60). 'Ei> TroXXoi (piKp 

1820. NOTE. When nouns that in themselves do not express time 
(as 7r6A./u.o5, iprjvr]) are used as temporal datives, they are regularly 
preceded by cV. 

Ta TriTr)8(viJ.aTa Koiva ev rroXe/AO) re K. at f I p TJ v rj tivai 8el, there 
ought to be community of pursuits both in peace and in war (Plat. Rep. 543"). 
'Mr 777 irpoTfpa npffffaiq, at the time of the previous embassy (Aeschin. 2, 123). 
A few examples occur without eV, especially in Thucydides ; as Kfivrj rf^ 
}, during that incursion (Thuc. 2, 20 1 ). Thuc. 1, 128 6 . 

1821. NOTE. Kara nva, in any one's time (see 1853, 2(6)) 
, in any one's time, under the rule of any one (see 1852, 
For the genitive of time, see 1729 1731. 

1822. NOTE. In poetry we sometimes find eV inserted 
(except with names of festivals) where in prose it would 
be omitted, and the reverse. In a few cases wxrC is found 
alone; as Od. 15, 34; Eur.'Hipp. 106. 


1823. D.i tire of Place. In prose the dative of place occurs 
only with the names of Attic denies, very rarely with names of 
other plao v 

Ta rpoTrata ra ft M a p a 6 a> v i *cat SaXa/xti'i KOI nXaratai?, tin 1 tfOjtk/iu 
if Mnrnflinii, t N(/////n'.s, mill <tt Plataea (Plat. Min<'.'\ 245*). 'lo-0/ioi *at 
N*/*i, (f Isthmus <tn<l \-m>',i (Lys. 19, 63). But *V 'Adqpatr. 

1824. NOTE. Here belong old locatives or datives like OIKOI, a 
/cj'*cXa>, all aro>ind, in a circle ; also adverbs like 

See the Locative Case in Part II of the Grammar. 

1825. Several isolated cases of the dative of a place for efc or Kara. 
with the accusative occur with x ' v ^ ^wid a ^ / as Thuc. 3, 29 1 . 

1826. In poetry the dative without a preposition is 
often used to denote the place where. This occurs 
mostly in Homer, much less often in the tragic and 
lyric poets. 

'E \\d8i oiKia vaitoi', inhaliitiny dwellings in Hellas (II. 
1>. 595). Ev8f nvx<*> K\ia-irjs t he slumbered in a corner of 
the tent (II. 9, 663). Mt'/ii>ei aypoi, he remains in f/<* count ni 
(Od. 11, 187). T H<r#at So/ioty, to sit at home (Aesch. Ag. 
862). Nvi/ aypoto-i rvyxavci, now he happens to be in tin 
country (Soph. El. 313). 

1827. NOTE. Sometimes in poetry the dative denotes 
the object towards which a motion is directed. 
0aXdor<ri; fX<rai 'A^aiowy, to ilrin- tin Arhaeans toward 
the sea (II. 18, 294). Hiirr*tv TreSw, to full t<> // //V//M/ 
(Soph. El. 747). 


1828. Prepositions as Adverbs. 1. The prepositions were all 
n ally adverbs and as such could be used alone without a 
dependent case. 

2. The only remnants of this use in Attic prose are the expressions. 
oe (or Trpos bt *cu) and *cu Trpos, aiid besides (Dem. 20, 112 ; Plat. 
/. 469 b ). 

1829. NOTK. Herodotus has besides Trpo? 8c and * ,' 
irpd, also liri Sc. and thereupon (Hdt. 7, 75 1 ) ; 


and next (Hdt. 8, 67 2 ) ; and eV 8, and among them (Hdt. 
2, 43 3 ). 

1830. NOTE. In poetry, especially in Homer, the ad- 
verbial use of the prepositions is more frequent. 

1. Homer has Trpos 8e (as II. 5, 307) ; eV Se (as II. 16, 
551) ; /Aero. <$, equivalent to and next or and then (as //. 

2, 446 ; Od. 21, 231) ; o-w 8e, ani a orace, and therewith, 
and besides (as //. 8, 86). So other prepositions are 
used by him adverbially ; as irepi, around, exceedingly 
(E. 19, 362; 21, 65); fa-4 (Od. 11, 527); ir P 6 (II. 13, 
799) ; Trapd (Od. 4, 636) ; Aptf (Od. 17, 208). 

2. In tragedy we find Trpos Se and KCU Trpos (rarely re 
Trpos) ; also eV 8e'; o-i'v 8c (n-apa oY, Eur. Ip/t. ^4w/. 201); 
eVi, and besides (Soph. 0^. Tyr. 183). 

3. Homer sometimes joins two prepositions either ad- 
verbially or with a case ; as n-ept T* d/x^t' T ra^po", around 
and about the trench (II . 17, 760) ; apfaircpi (II. 2, 305 ; 
21, 10) ; (iTTOTrpo (7Z. 7, 333) ; harpo (II 5, 281) ; Trtpnrpt 
(11. 16, 699) ; SU'K (JR. 15, 124) ; and others. In tragedy 
this sometimes occurs in lyric passages. Herodotus 
has facie in 3, 116. 

1831. NOTE. Tmesis. 1. The preposition of a com- 
pound verb may be separated from its verb. This is 
called tmesis, and occurs frequently in poetry (especially 
in Homer), occasionally in Herodotus, and very rarely 
in Attic prose. 

'Eirl 8* f^fovrat oXXoi 0eoi (ctye^roprat), the other gods 
trill follow (II. 4, 63). Kar' ap' f (f TO (itaOi{ero), he indeed 
sat down (II. 1, 68). 'E n t Ki/e'(^)ay rf\dfv (ctrri\dfv), dark- 
ness came on (II. 1, 475). IIoXc'/i<uo vf<pos IT c pi iravra 
KoXv-rrrfi (7TpiKa\virTi), the cloud of war overshadows 
everything (II. 17, 243). 'E avrbs p.tra rovs SO/AOV rjXvdfv 
^ioy 'O8vo-<Tfvs (e^rjXvBfv), after them the divine Ulysses himself 
went out of the house (Od. 21, 190). 'OXetray airo irdvras 
iraipovs (aTroXe'o-as), having lost all thy companions (Od. 13, 
i>40). Ata 8' oXXuo-ai = &dXXv<rai (Ear. Hipp. 594). 2wv 8' 
tXtVtrfrai = (ruveXtfrcrfrai (Soph. J&^. 746). *E TT i 8e K d X e <r o v 
(Xi.Lysist. 1280). Mfra TTOV ^wpetTf (Aesch Pro. 1030). 


1834 ' PREPOSITIONS 157 

*E ic roi iif T j] e i f (Eur. Or. 1047). 'E TT' d^\vs ir f n 6- 
r a T a t ( Aesch. Pers. 667). 'A vd Tf (dpapov (Hdfc. 1, 
60 1 ). Oftener with &v intervening in Herodotus, as a v &i> 
tyavri (Hdt. 3, 82 s ). 

2. When a compound verb which has undergone tmesis 
would be repeated, Homer repeats only the preposition ; 
as (rvv p @aX.ov pti/ovs, <r v v 8* ty^ca (sc. /?aAov), 
they dasJied together their ox-hide shields and their 
spears (II. 4, 447). Similarly Herodotus usually repeats 
only the preposition with Se when a preceding /*eV has 
intervened between the preposition and the verb ; as 
Kara fJitv Icrvpav &a.\rjpoi>, Kara 8e ____ TroAAovs &rj/j.ov<s t 
they devastated Pkalerum and many demes (Hdt. 5, 81 3 ). 

3. In Attic poetry and in Herodotus, cases of tmesis 
with the preposition following the verb probably never 
occur. In Homer such cases are sometimes found. 

4. In Attic prose examples of tmesis are exceedingly rare, 
and the reason for them is always obvious. Thus 
TraperKCvatr/xevot, av /xeV TIS fv Trooy, a v T' ev TTOL?.V, 
prepared if any one does us a service, to do him a service 
in return (Xen. Anab. 5, 5' 21 ) ; there being no such verb 
as oi/revTroieo), a tmesis is resorted to so as to form an 
antithesis to ev 

1832. Place of Prepositions. In prose prepositions regularly 
precede their cases. But evtKa (1862, 4) often follows its case ; some- 
times Trcpi which is then accented Wpt (see anastrophe in Part I. 
of the Grammar) ; and occasionally ai/u (1862, 2) with a relative 
(Xen. Hell. 7, P). 

1833. NOTE. In Attic prose a preposition is seldom inserted 
between an adjective and its noun ; as rotoSe V Ta, in the following 
manner (Plat. Critias 115 C ). 

1834. No IK. Attic prose admits only the insertion of words 
qualifying the noun between the preposition and its substantive; but 
postpositive conjunctions (as /xeV, Sc, yc', ow, etc.) are usually placed 
immediately after the preposition. Sometimes ot/xm, / think, is found 
inserted (Dem. 20, 3). 


1835. NOTE. In poetry the prepositions often stand 
after their cases. 

Max/ji/ es (II. 15, 59). 'Apre>t8i vv (Od. 15, 410). <bi\a> v 
TTO (Od. 7, 152). 'AXi?0ctar VTTO (Kur. And. 321). For the 
change of accent, as vno for VTTO, sue mm strophe in Part I of 
the Grammar. 

1836. NOTE. Besides postpositive conjunctions and 
words qualifying the dependent case, other words are 
often inserted between the preposition and its case in 
poetry, especially in Homer. 

Mra yap Tf K al aXyt <ri (Od. 15, - 400). 'E* d d p v yairjs 
(Od. , 167). Aia rot o-t TT.U/OUS- t^co (Ar. Eccl. 976). Note 
the frequent insertion >f ' between Trpik and its genitive 
with a verb of supplicating expressed or understood ; as npt'is 
af TO)v8( yovdrw (so. tKerevui), />// tlnj knees I entreat th<-<' 
(Kur. ///'/r- 007). 

1837. Preposition used for a Compound Verb. 1. In Attic prose 
In is found for lycon, it is possible. 

2. Homer has Ivi for WTI and eVeitrt (//. 18, 53 ; Od. 
11, 367); irdpa for Trapeori and TTtt/jcio-t, is (are) a /z-anrf 
(//. 5, 603; Od. 4, 559) ; I for cVeoTt (Od. 11, 367); 
/xTa for /LuYcoTi ( 0^. 21, 93 j. ^Ai/a, w/) .' is found in 
poetry (chiefly in Homer) for dvda-TrjOt. 
'6. Herodotus has tvi for cvto-rt, irdpa. for Tra^ecm, /u,Ta 

for /xcVeo-Tt. The Attic poets have a and irdpa. (also 
for TTttpet/xi). For the accent, see anastrophe in Part I 
of the Grammar. 

1838. Improper Prepositions. The prepositions proper may all 
be compounded with verbs. The improper prepositions are never used 
in composition and are really adverbs, several are nouns (1862 1864). 


1839. When a preposition with its case is used in a local sense, 
the dative denotes in general rest in or near ; the accusative denotes 
motion towards, along, or upon; the genitive denotes that from which 
anything starts. 

2r^i/ot Trapa roi /3a(riXeI, to stand by (or in the presence of) the king. 
'leVat Trapa rov /3a<7iXc'a, to go to the king. 'EX&Ii/ Trapa TOV /SacrtXc'a)?, to come 


tlt> /,//(/. \\TTO ((<) rfjs rroXetoy eXtfeii', (Is TI}I> TTI)\IV icvai, (i> Ttj 


1840. 1. (a) With verbs of motion the Greek sometimes uses lv 
with the dative with reference to the rest which follows the completion 
of the action of the verb. Here we naturally would expect e/s with 
the accusative. 

TO) Trora^o) fTreo-oi', tin- if fell (into and thus were; in the ///<</ 

Xt n. Age*. 1 . 32). 'K ?' \cvnabiq. ciTTT/eo-ai/, </ie/ feud f/o?ie to (and were in) 

-frfia (Thuc. 4, 42 :l ). So often rLBr^iL (v for ri6r)p.i ds ; as Xen. Oi/r. 8, 

7 -So are found occasionally /i<pt, wepi, cVt, Trpos-, and (rarely) napd, with 

the dative where the accusative would be expected. 

(6) In Attic Greek this construction is found principally with the 
perfect and pluperfect ; as V TOI'TW TU> TO? KUTaTre^euyeWi, to have 
one's escape in that region (i/lat. Soph. 260 d ). 
In poetry (especially Homer) it occurs more frequently 
and also in forms different from those in prose ; as eV 
Tpu>o-i...opouo-av, they rushed on the Trojans (II. 16, 258). 
i'. With verbs meaning to arrive, to assemble, to land, and the like, 
the Greek often uses tts with the accusative, thus referring to the 
motion denoted or implied by the verb. Here cV with the dative 
would be expected. 

2v\\cy<)fifvoi fti>0(v (Is TO 8ina<TTTjpiov, in I>1 <<! <it <l<u/lir<'<il; in th< 
justice (Plat. Phaedo 59 d ). Hap)(rai/ els Sdpbfis, they (came to 
omd) were in Sardi* Xt n. Annli. 1, 2 2 ). 2r&r (s p.(<rov, having come into 
tht- middle and standing there = stamlin<i in the middle (Hdt. 3, 62 1 ). 

:i. With verbs meaning to sit, to stand, to hang (up), to tie (on), to 
depend, and the like, the Greek uses the prepositions a-n-6 and cV when 
the verb expresses or involves the idea of a motion or a removal from 
tin- object of the preposition. 

Ka0rjp.(8' n K f> o> v (K Trdyw, 10 n,it <m and looke I down from //< 
fa hill (Soph. Ant. 411). 'K < r&v anv<ov fiaicrvXtoi 

* impended limn th< t ,m /.//.% of the bit (Xen. /v</. 10,9;. 
$(vo"p<i>v rovf tirirovs, th> <i til thf kornes to trees (Xen. Hell. 4, 4 10 ). 
r f) r aXtia- o-t) s aira<ra fjprrjTai fj trwri/ptn, (ill our safety depend* 
" f/ir ea (Xen. ////. 7, I 6 ). 

4. In some phrases answering to the question where / the Greek 
uses '*, thus expressing a direction from the object to the observer. 
Thus ^K Sc&as, (a dextra) on the right, i{ dp7T/>s, on the Iff'. 
irAaycbr, an (Ae /Zan^r, and the like. 


5. By an anticipation of local relation we find d, *, and -n-apd 
with the genitive instead of ei/ or -n-apd with the dative, when the verb 
of the sentence expresses a removal of the thing in question from the 
place in which it is. 

AiTjpTraoro KOL avrd TCI d IT o r a> v niKiaiv v\a (for eV rat? oiKiais), 8WH 
the very timbers in the houses (lit. from the houses) had been carried off (Xen. 
.(nub, 2, 2 16 ). Oi e< rrjs ay op as KaTa\nri>vTfs TO. wvia c(pvyov (for ev TIJ 
dyopa), the market-people (the people in the market) left their goods and fled 
(Xen. Anab. 1, 2 18 ). Ot Trap 1 'A/3poco/a /Luo-$o<p(>poi "EXX^i/fy aTroaravref 
rj\6ov Trapa Kvpov (for Trapa 'A/SpoKo/xa), the Greek mercenaries having deserted 
from Abrocomas came over to Cyrus (Xen. Anab. 1, 4 3 ). Similarly els is 
occasionally found for ev ; as o dnooroXos c ? rrjv yiiXrjrov ^i/, the messetnj 't- 
was in Miletus (Hdt. 1, 21 2 ). 

1841. NOTE. The above constructions are termed constructio 
pregnans and occur sometimes with adverbs which may be similarly 

Kflvos 6* o IT o v (for OTTO*) (ScftijKfv, ovdds oi8( , where he has yone (and 
remains) no one knows (Soph. Trach. 40). *O IT o t (for OTTOU) Ka^eoT-a/if v, 
where we (have arrived and) are. *tn<l'>n<i 'Soph. Oed. Col. 23). Tt'r dyvod 
rov ftiflBfv (for eieri) TroXf/xoi/ 5ei)po fjovra ; who do not know that the war 
in that quarter will come hither (Dem. 1, 15). Tovs evdoOev (for evftov) 
irdvras f^yf-, he brought out all who were loithin (Xen. Cyr. 5, 2 5 ). So 
(vBt v <ai fvdfv, on this side and on that ; eKarepco^v, on either side. 

1842. Construction of Prepositions. 1. The prepositions proper 

are construed in Attic prose as follows : 

With the genitive only : dvri, diro, IK (c), irpo. 

With the dative only : iv and o-vV. 

With the accusative only : dvd and ci? or s. 

With the genitive and accusative : d^fa (rarely), 8ia, Kara, /xera, v:rep. 

With the genitive, dative, and accusative : eVi, Trapa, Trepi', Trpd?, VTTO. 

For the improper prepositions, see 1862 1864. 

2. In poetry we find a/x<i, dvd, and /x-ra also with the 
dative ; Herodotus also uses d/x^i with the dative. 


1843. In the following sections the principal uses of the prepositions 
are illustrated by examples. For further details the Lexicon must be 


1844. dp.4>t (Lat. amb-, compare a/x<w, both) : original meaning on 
both sides ; hence about. 

1. WITH GENITIVE, about in local sense (very rare and 
poetic, once in Hdt.) ; about = concerning (very rare in 

'A/i4>i ravrrjs TTJS noXtos, about this city (Hdt 8, 104 2 ). 'A/x<i 
wi' fl%ov 3ia(p(p6p.(vot, quarrelling about what they had (Xen. 
Anab. 4, 5 17 ). 

2. WITH DATIVE (only Ionic and poetic), about, con- 
cerning, on account of. 

'A/i$* u>', about his shoulders (II. 11, 527). 'A/i</>i r<5 
Oavdra avrrj?, concerning her death (Hdt. 3, 32 1 ). 'A.p<pl </>o/3o>, 
on account of fear (Eur. Or. 825). 

3. WITH ACCUSATIVE, about (mostly of place, time, number, also other 

*\H<pl rrvp Kafyptvovs, seated about the jire (Xen. Anab. 4, 2 5 ). *A/i(|>i pta-ds 
VVKTOS, at about midnight (Xen. Anab. 2, 2 s ). *A/i0i ra TrfvrfjKovra trr/, about 
fifty years (Xen. Anab. 2, 6 15 ). 'A/i$i 8f~urvov dx fv > he was at supper (Xen. 
Cyr. 5, 5 44 ). Eti/cu dp.(f>\ ra if pd, to be engaged in the sacrifices (Xen. Cyr. 7, 
I 1 ). Ta dp(pl TOV TrdXe/iov, the things relating to war (Xen. Cyr. 2, I 21 ). Of 
dp.<f>i nva (as Xen. Mem. 1, I 18 ) means the same as of irtpi nva (see rrcpt, 
1856, 3). 

4. /A" COMPOSITION about, on both sides : d/x^)t-Xoyos, 

5. Homer also has the form d/A^is which he also uses 
6. In Attic prose inpi (1856) is generally found in most of the uses of 

1845. dkd (compare aw, above),, originally up ; opposed to Kara. 

1. WITH DATIVE (only epic and lyric), upon. 

'Ai/a (TKrjiTTpy, upon a staff (II. 1, 16). *Ai>a vava-iv (Eur. 

////i. Aul. 754). 

2. WITH ACCUSATIVE, wjo along, over (of motion), through (of place, 
time) ; also in distributive and in a few other expressions (compare 
Kara with the ace.). 
(a) Of Place. 

'ArA ritv irorapdv, up the river (Hdt. 1, 194 7 ). *Ava iraarav rrfv yr)v, orer tht 
whole land (Xen. Ages. 9, 7). nXavao-dm dva ra Zprj, to wander through the 
mountains (Xen. Cyr. 2, 4"). 



(b) Of Time. 

'Ava rrao-av fjpepav, every day (Xen. Cyr. 1, 2 s ). *Ai>a TOV noXtpov TOVTOV, 
through this war (Hdt. 8, 123 1 ). 'Ava xpwov, in the course of time (Hdt. 1, 

(c) Distributive Expressions. 

*Ai>a cKaTov, by hundreds (Xen. Anab. 5, 4 12 ). 'Ai>a TreVre Trapao-d-yyas rfj? 
fjfjifpds, Jive parasangs daily (Xen. ^4?ia6. 4, 6 4 ). 

(d) CMer Expressions. 

'Ai/a Kpdros (up to one's power), wiM aW /m wi(//i< (Xen. Anab. 1, 8 1 ). 'Ava 
(TOV avrov) \6yov, according to the same proportion (Plat. Phaedo 110*). 'Ava 
0-Top.a (x fLV i t have in one's mouth, to talk about (Eur. Jf. 80). 'A 

3. 1^ COMPOSITION, up, back, again : dva-^atVco, dv-ayw, di/a- 
, ava-0pove'a>. 

1846. din-i, instead of, for (the original meaning against, opposite, 
remains only in composition). 


'Air' dpyvpt'ov dXAdao-#cu rt, to exchange anything for silver (Plat. Rep. 
371). 'Ai/Tt TToXtftou (Iprjvrjv (\<i>pf0a, instead of war let us choose peace (Thuc. 
4, 20 3 ). 'Avrt dyaOvv Kcutoi yfycvTjvrm, they have become bad instead of good 
(Thuo. 1, 86 1 ). 'Ai/0' Z>v, because, lit. for that which (Xen. Anab. 1, 3 4 ). 

2. IJV COMPOSITION, against, in opposition to, in return, instead : 

1847. dir<5 (Lat. ab),from, off from, away from ; denoting separation 
from anything. 

(a) Of Place. 

*Qpp.aTo OTTO 2(i/;ficoi', /ie se< oit< from Sardis (Xen. Anab. 1, 2 4 ). 'A0' ITTTTOU 
4i)pv(iv, to hunt (from a horse) on horseback (Xen. Jnafc. 1, 2 7 ). ndXtr.... 
xfirnt aTro rrjs 0a\d<T(TT)s, a city lies at a distance from the sea (Thuc. 1, 46 2 ). 

(b) OfTitne. 

'ATTO TOVTOV TOV \povov, from (since) this time (Xen. Anab. 7, 5 8 ). *A<p' ov, 
since (Xen. Anab. 3, 2 14 ). 

(c) Of Cause, Source, Material, Means. 

'ATTO TOVTOV TOV ToX/i^/xaros cTryveOr], for this act of boldness he was praised 
(Thuc. 2, 25 3 ). 'ATTO rov avrov <n//zi'ov, on the same signal (Xen. Anab. 2, 
5 3a ). 'ATTO TO>V 2t/<nj'a)i' 2icavid rare 17 vfjo-os e/caXetro, </ie island was called 
Sicania from the Sicanians (Thuc. 6, 2 3 ). Ot OTTO rov Ai;pxiprfrov, </i descend- 
ants of Demaratus (Xen. Hell. 3, I 8 ). Kat TIVOS TO>V a-rro TOV 


on of the popular faction replying (Thuc. 4, 130 :{ ). \\irb araatwi/, on account 
of factions (Thuc. 1, 12 3 ). 'A ^wB^aros, by agreement (Thuc. 6, 61 2 ). 
EtfMTa dirb v\an> 7Tfiroirjp.fva, garments made of tree-wool = cotton (Hdt. 7, 
65). Zfjv OTTO ro)v eXa^t'oTwi' xP r )f JL ^ TfOV t t ^ ve on ^ ne smallest means (Xen. 
Mem. 1, 2"). 

(d) Partitively and Possessively. 

'OAt'yoi OTTO iro\\a>v, few of many (Thuc. 1, HO 1 ). $66va> d-rrb rSav Trpoxreoi' 
dv8p<ov, through hatred (on the part) of the most prominent men (Thuc. 4, 
108 7 ). 

(e) Of Agent with passives (seldom) : Trpdx@'fj oar avrw ot-Sev cpyoi' 
oioAoyoi', no noteworthy deed has been accomplished on their part 
(Thuc. 1, 17 1 ). 

(/) Various Phrases. 

'ATTO (TKOTTOV, away from the mark, amiss (Plat. Theaet. 179). 'ATTO rov 

irpdyparos, foreign to the subject (Dem. 24, 6). 'A^' e'auroC, on one's on-,, 

account, of twe's self, voluntarily, unforced (Thuc. 5, 60 1 ). 'ATTO Tavropdrov, 

of itself, without cause (Thuc. 2, 77 4 ). 'ATTO yXoxroi/y, orally (Thuc. 7, 10). 

'ATTO ffroparos cinflv, to repeat by heart, lit. from the mouth (Xen. Mem. 3, 

O 9 ). 'ATTO rov npotyavovs, openly (Thuc. 1, 66 1 ). 

(g) For dTro with verbs meaning to sit, to hang (up), to tie (on), etc., 

see 1840, 3. 

2. I.v COMPOSITION, from, away, in return : a7ro-/?aAAo>, <bro-rt'0i?fu, 

aTT-icvcu, aTTo-St&iyu, give in return, pay ; drr-an-ao, demand back. 

1848. Bid (Lat. di-, dis-), through ; originally through between 
(related to 8w>, two). 
(a) Of Place. 

'Enoptvovro 8ia ^t'oi/op TroXX^ff, they set forward through deep snow (Xen. 
Anab. 4, 5 1 ). Ata roO Qvpaitos, through the breast-plate (Xen. Anab. 1, S* 8 ). 
(6) Of Time. 

Ai' intpas, through the day (Ar. Nub. 1052). Ata iravros rov /3/ov, throughout 
hit whole life (Xen. Mem. 1, 2 61 ). 

(c) Of Intervals of Place or Time. 

Ata d'ica 'rraX^ai/ irvpyoi faav, at intervals of ten battlements there I 
tourer* (Thuc. 3, 21 4 ). Aia rcrpaicoo-twi' iruv, after (an interval of) f<mr 
hundred years (Isoc. 6, 27). 

(d) Of Means. 

"Y.\tyt At' ippTjvfvt, he spoke through an interpreter (Xen. Anab. 2, 3 17 ). At' 
VtopK('ar, 6y man of perjury (Xen. yliva6. 2, 6 fl ). 


(e) Various Expressions. 

Aia (piXta? if vat nvi ..... dia iravrbs TroXc'/iov tei/ai TIVI, to be in friendship with 
any one ..... to be in constant war with any one (Xen. Anab. 3, 2 s ). Aia (po/3a>i/ 
yiyvfcr&ai, to get to be in a state of fear (Plat. Leg. 791 b ). Aia oro/iaroy ?x flv > 
to have in one's mouth, to mention always (Xen. Cyr. 1, 4 25 ). Ata xetpor 
fX flv > to hold in one's hand (Thuc. 2, 13 2 ). Aia /zaxpcoi/ ..... dm /Spa^vraTcov rovs 
\6yovs 7roiei<r#ai, to make the speeches long ..... very brief (Plat. Gorg. 449 b ). 
Aia ra^e'coi/, quickly = by quick ways (Xen. Anab. 1, 5 9 ). Ata pa/cpov, at a 
great interval (Plat. Theaet. 193 c ). Ata \povov, some time later (Xen. Mem. 
4, 4 B ). Ata T\OVS, thoroughly, through to the end (Soph. Aj. 685). 


(a) Of Cause or Agency = through, by the help of, on account of. 
Ata Kau/xa, through (on account of) the heat (Xen. Anab. 1, 7 6 ). 2a>e<r#ai 81*, to be saved by us (Xen. Anab. 5, 8 13 ). Ata p.(yddv p.ov 'Adrjvrjv, by the 
help of great-souled Athene (Od. 8, 520). Ata roOro, Sta ravra, 810, through 
this, for this reason. Aia rt; why? With the accusative of a person, 8ia 
denotes that the person acts of his own impulse; with the genitive, the 
person acts under command or request. 

(b) Of Place or Time, through (poetic, mostly epic and 


Aia Sti)/iara, through the halls (11. 1, 600). Aia VVKTO, through 

the night (II. 2, 57). 

3. IN COMPOSITION, through, thoroughly, asunder or apart (Lit. di- t 
dis-} : 8ia-/A6i/a>, 8t-ayo>, 8ia-< 

1849. els or *$, into, to, up to ; originally to a point within anything, 
as opposed to K, out of. Of Attic prose writers, Thucydides uses es 
(so also Herodotus) ; other Attic prose writers have eis. The poets 
use both indifferently. Both forms are from original and Cretan eVs 
(see V). 

(a) Of Place. 

Aicfirjffav fs TTJV 2iKfXi'aV, they passed over into Sicily (Thuc. 6, 2 4 ). Els 
Kap8oi>xovs c'/i/SaXXeti', to make an incursion into the land of the Carduchi 
(Xen. Anab. 3, 5 16 ). Els *a>Keas...eVopveTo, he went to the Phoceans, i.e. into 
their country (Dem. 9, 11). OtKoo/ieti> reLxn fs QaXaaaav, to build walls down 
to the sea (Thuc. 1, 107 1 )- The accusative of a person here implies the land 
or dwelling. 

But in Homer, seldom in other poetry, els is also found used 
like a>s or rrpos with a person ; as ds 'A^tXiJa, to Achilles (II. 
15, 402). 


With the accusative of a person, tls may also mean among, against or towards, 
before (with notions of speaking) ; as rbv KUKHTTOV TT\OVTOS fls irp&rovs nyti, 
wealth brings the worst among the highest (Eur. Alcmena frag. 8). Ov yap 
fs a' dfjMprdva), against thee I en' not (Eur. Hipp. 323). Ae'yeiv fls vp.ds, to 
speak to you (Xen. Anab. 5, 6**). For els with verbs meaning to assemble, 
tn nrrive, etc., see 1840, 2. 

(b) Of Time. 

'Er tjo), till d<iirn (Od. 11, 375). Mvr]p.elov els airavra xpovov, a memorial 
for all time (Isoc. 11, 10). Els evtavrov, for a year (Od. 4, 595). *E? o, 
until. So of an expected future date, as els rr\v vcrrfpaidv ov% TIKCV, on the 
foUnirniii ,l,iii he did not come (Xen. Anab. 2, 3 25 ). 

(c) Of Number. 

Ei%f Towards icat (rfpfvdovrjTds fls TfTpa<o(riovs, he had archers and slingers to 
// number of four hundred, about four hundred (Xen. Anab. 3, 3 6 ). So dis- 
tributively in military expressions ; as dvo, by twos (Xen. Anab. 2, 4 s8 ). 

(d) Of Purpose, of Regard to, of Extent. 

To els rov TroXe/ioi/ fpya, the exercises of war (Xen. Anab. 1, 9 5 ). Haibeveiv 

dvQptoirovs fls dpfTT)i>, to train men for virtue (Plat. Gorg. 519 e ). Evdo 

fit <ro<j>iav, (a city} most famous for wisdom (Plat. Apol. 29 d ). Els 

up to one's strength (Xen. Anab. 2, 3 23 ). Els TOVTO Qpaaovs, to this point of 

/m/i/m-** (Dem. 21, 194). 'Es re\os, finally (Eur. Ion 1621). 

L\ COMPOSITION, into, in, to : ci<r-pd\\<o, to--ayo>. 

1 850. lv ( Poetic often eVt ; sometimes eti/, rarely dvl), in, corres- 
ponding to Lat. in with the ablative. 
1 . WITH DATIVE only. 

(a) Of Place. 

rrj noXfi, in the city. 'Ei> ^Trdprr), in Sparta. H6\> ra> Ev^eiVa) 
TTorra), u fit if on thr Eusinc Sea (Xen. Anab. 4, S 22 ). With words implying 
a number of persons, among; as ev MqSois, among the Medes (Xen. Cyr. 1, 
3 s ) ; tv ircurtv dvSpwnots, among all men (Xen. Cyr. S, 5 23 ). And so also 
before = in the presence of; as Ac'ycii/ eV, to say before you (Xen. Annb. 
5, 7 10 ). For ev with verbs of motion, see 1840, 1. 

(b) Of Time. 

*Ki> Tiivrta TO) xpmxp, at that time (Xen. Anab. 4, 2 17 ). 'Ev ro> \fi^a>vi, in the 

17. ;>). *Ei- TTfvre fipfpaiSi '" ."' v ll "!' s (Xrii. M< in. 3, 

13 s ). 'Kr mis o-TTOi/datf, tltirin<i th> tn. (\.-ii. . I </>. 3, I 1 ). 'Kr a r >, ii'hile ; 

'/i i/< ( Xi'ii. ////. f>, 2 s "). 
/rtcws Relations. 

rrXws nnfit'ii-m, 1<> l i>r<-si nf in (//'//IN (\- 11. 1 / I. i3). *Ei' ff-oi Trdl/ra 
*Wi', >> r lit It i n , '// liuii'l 7. 11) I ) TrnfKKTKfvfj etvat. (> 

be OCCVpi?<l in />// ! . ' - " i- (\nifti fivm, t I"' in /<"/" 


(Thuc. 4, 70 2 ). 'Ei/ alria exftv nvd, to hold any one (in fault) responsible 
(Thuc. 1, 35 4 ). 'Ei/ opyfj tx flv rivd, to be angry with any one = to hold any 
one in anger (Thuc. 2, 18"). 

2. 'fir was used in Aeolic also with the accusative, like els. 

So occasionally in Pindar ; as cV & ap/Aara (Find. Pyth. 

2, 11). 
3. IN COMPOSITION, m, on, c>-/?aAAw, eV-oucew. 

1851. g or ^K (Lat. e#, e), o?^ of, from, properly from within 
(opposed to ct?). 


(a) Of Place. 

SXpt-qs fK rf/s 'EXXaSoy d-rrtx^pft, Xerxes was returning from Greece (Xen. 
Anab. 1, 2*). Ta c K. rfjs yijs (pvopfva, the productions of the earth (Xen. 
Mem. 4, 3 10 ). For e with verbs of hanging (up), tying (on), etc., see 1840, 3. 

(b) Of Time. 

'Ex naXaiov, from ancient times (Xen. Mem. 3, 5 s ). 'Ex nai86s, from a boy, 
from boyhood (Xen. Cyr. 5, P). 'E ov, e' orov, since (Xen. Anab. 5, 7 34 ; 
7, 8 4 ). So K rov aptWov, a/ter dtnner (Xen. ^4wa6. 4, 6 21 ) ; \6yov c\ \6yov 
\(y(tv, to make one speech after another (Dem. 18, 313). 

(c) Of Origin or Source, Cause, Means. 

'E avTvv T>V 0(uv ycyovorfs, born of the gods themselves (Isoc. 12, 81). 'E* 
TOiovde oveiSeos, on account of such a disgrace ( Ildt. 6, 67 1 ). 'Ec 7roXe'/ioi 
(iprjvr) fM\\ov ftcfiaiovrai, by war peace is made more stable (Thuc. 1, 124 2 ). 
So of agent with passive verbs (for inro), the agent regarded as the source ; as 
f< 0ao-i\(a>s 8(8op.(vm, (the cities) given by the king (Xen. Anab. 1, I 6 ). 

(d) According to : iftov\tvovro e* rw TrapdvTWK, they took counsel ac- 
cording to the present state of affairs (Thuc. 3, 29 2 ). 

(e) Various Expressions. 

'Ec 8fias, on the right (Xen. Cyr. 8, 3 10 ). 'Eic TTUVTOS rponov, in every way 
(Lys. 16, 1). 'E* TroXXoi), at a great distance; c urov, in equal condition 
(Xen. Anab. 3, 4 47 ). 

2. IN GOMi'osiTiON, out of, from, away : K-^aXA<u, eV-ySaiVw. 

1852. liri, on, upon. 

(a) Of Place where or whither. 

'ETT! TWV ovpeav, on the mountains (Hdt. 7, 111 2 ). *Eir\ TTJS KftyaXrjs ^epetv rt, 
to carry anything on the head (Xen. Anab. 4, 3 6 ). 'ETTI yrjs, on the earth 
(Plat. Menex. 246 d ). n6\is eVt QpaKrjs, cities in Thrace (Dem. 9, 26). 
Metvat Vt TOV Trora/ioi), to remain at the river (Xen. Anab. 4, S 28 ). " 


eV Af<rou, to sail toward Lesbos (Xen. Hell. 1, 2 11 ) ; here the idea of 
reaching the destination or the desire to do so is involved ; enl \e<rftov simply 
expresses the direction of the motion. 'Xva\a)piiv eV CHKOV, to return to the 
house (Dem. 9, 48). 

(b) Of Time when or during. 

'En-l ra>v fjpfTfpw npoyovw, in our forefather's time (Xen. Cyr. 1, 6 31 ). 
'ETT' f 'pov, in my time (Dem. 3, 2). 'En-' flprjvrjs, in time of peace (II. 2, 797). 
'ETTI Kivdiivov, in time of danger (Time. 6, 34 9 ). 

(c) Of Various Relations. 

AiVot e<p' eairr&ii> c^povv, they began to march by themselves (Xen. Anab. 2, 
4 10 ). 'EraxOrjaav eVi rfrrapa>i>, they were drawn up four deep (Xen. Anab. 1, 
2 15 ). Ta topoXoyTjpcva eVl roC dtKCKmjpiov, the things admitted before the court 
(Isae. 5, 1). 'En-i /iaprvptoi/, before witnesses (Xen. 1/eM. 6, 5 41 ). KaXcIo-tftu 
eVt rii/oy, to be named for (after) something (Hdt. 7, 40 4 ). 'ETTI' Ttvos Xe'yeiv, 
<o speak with reference to some one (Plat. Charm. 155 d ). Tovs eVi T>V npay- 
fjnirav, those in charge of (public) affairs (Dem. 18, 247). 'Enl 0^0X7)?, at 
leisure (Plat. Theaet. 172 11 ). 'ETT' aXrjdfms, truthfully (Dem. 18, 17). 

(a) Of Place. 

Mi'/ii'* Tr\ nvpyat, remain on the tower (II. 6, 431). KX^pov^ovr eVi 
XetVouo-t, </iej/ leave in the land holders of allotments (Hdt. 5, 77 3 ). 
twl rfj ffaXdrrij oiKovpfvT)v, a city situated upon (by) the sea (Xen. Anab. 
1, *'). 

(b) Of Succession in Time or Place. 

'Avforrrj 5' <V auroi 4>epayXdy, Pheraulas stood up after him (Xen. Cyr. 2, 3 7 ). 
'KTT! rovrocr, thereupon (Xen. Cyr. 5, 5 21 ). 4>oi/oy eVt ^oi/o), murder on murder 
(Kur. Jpfc. Taur. 197). 

(c) O/ rime (mostly poetic) : firl WKTI, in the night (II. 
. 8, 259). 

(d) Of Condition, Purpose, Cause. 

'KTTI TOVTOIS (Xaftov KOI cdoarav Travrts TO mard, on these conditions all received 
and gave assurances of friendship (Xen. Cyr. 3, 2*'). 'E<p' a>, <<p' air<, on 
condition th<it. &avci(eiv tnl TOKO>, to lend on interest (Plat. Leg. 742 C ). 
aya^w ecdXa<7a nva, I punished some one for hi* (<>im) good (Xen. Anab. 
). Ov% <ri rt\vrj (paQtf, you did not fhe sake of a profession 

(Plat. I'r-'t. .'r2 b ). 'Errt rivi fitytcrrov (ppovds ; on what do you value yourself 
most ? (Xen. Symp. 3, 7). 'E^rt eir>v iroirjva "Op;poi/ p.(i\i(rra TtBavpciKn. I 
Homer the most for epic poetry (Xen. Mem. 1, 4 3 ). 

(e) Of Various Relations. 

"Trt X'yi', it is in ;/""/ ///./ (,, s-<// > \. 11. Mem. 2, tt*). 'Erri ro> 
in the power of his I, ,:,(!,., (Xt-n. .4na6. 1, I 4 ). Ol <n\ ro'ts rrprty- 


JJUUTIV, those at the head of affairs (Dem. 8, 76). 'Epfi eVt rols anodavovo-i, he 
will speak over the dead (Plat. Menex. 234 b ). Tov vopov e$' vp.1v auroTr. ... 
077<rere, you will make the law against yourselves (Thuc. 1, 40 6 ). 


(a) Of Place (to, upon, towards, against). 

'Ai/a^Tji/ai eVt TOV "Kirov, to mount the horse (Xen. Anab. 3, 4 35 ). 'ETTI Sta, 
toward the right (Xen. Anab. 6, 4 1 ). 'leVat firl rhs /3a<riXe'a>y Qvpas, to go to 
the gates of the king (Xen. Anab. 2, I 8 ), 'icvai eVt rovs 7ro\cp.iovs, to march 
against the enemy (Xen. Anab. 3, I 42 ). 

(b) Of Extension over Space or Time. 

'ETTI naa-av Evpuirrjv, throughout or over all Europe (Plat. Critias 112*). 
'ETTI rpcls f)p.fpas, for three days (Xen. Anab. 6, 6 s6 ). 

(c) Of an Object or Purpose : mo TIS <' vo<op, let some one go for water 
(Xen. Cyr. 5, 3 50 ). 

(d) Various Expressions. 

'ETTI TroXv, widely. To <Vt 7roXi, for the most part. Aia<e'po>v eVi irpa&v, 
differing in practical ability (Plat. Uep. 370 b ). To e TT* /x or TO fV e/xt etVat, 
as /ar a / am concerned (Xen. Ti/r. 1, 4 12 ; Thuc. 4, 28 1 ). 

4. IN COMPOSITION, upon, over, after, toward, at, against, moreover : 

7rt-yi'yf o/xat. 

1853. Kard (compare xarw, below), originally ^oww (opposed to 


(a) Down from, down upon, underneath. 

'AXa/zei/ot Kara TTJS irerpas, jumping down from the rock (Xen. Anab. 4, 2 17 ). 

Mvpov Kara TTJS K<pa\r}s Kara^e'ai/rfp, pouring perfume on his head (Plat. Rep. 

398*). Kfi'o-o/iot Kara x^oi/op, / shall lie beneath the earth (Eur. Heracl. 1033). 

Tov Kara yr)s, the one buried (Xen. Cyr. 4, 6 5 ). 

(6) Against (of speaking, and the like). 

*O reXtvratoi/ Kar' epov flirt, what he last said against me (Xen. Hell. 2, 3 M ). 

MdpTvpas 7rape'xo-0oi Kara nvos, to offer witnesses against any one (Plat. Gorg. 

472' 1 ). \tytiv Kara nvos, to speak against any one (Xen. Hell. 1, 5 2 ). Rarely 

in a favourable sense, concerning ; as p.(yi<rrov...Ka0 y tp-wv fyK.wp.iov, the 

greatest encomium on you (Dem. 6, 9). 

(c) Various Expressions. 

"OXa? otKi'ay Kat noXfis Kar' a<pds faipflv, to overthrow utterly whole houses 

and cities, i.e. from the top down (Plat. Leg. 909 b ). Kara -rravros, naff 1 oXov, 

wholly, in general. Kara vun-ov, in the rear of an army (Thuc. 1, 62 3 ). 

'Qp.vvvai Kara ifp&v reXft'coi/, to swear by full-grown victims (Thuc. 5, 47). 

2. W T ITH ACCUSATIVE : downwards (of motion) ; of motion or extension, 
over, throughout, among, against, at, on ; also for = in search of, 


according to, relating to, during, by (in distributive expressions), nearly 
(of number). 

(a) Of Place. 

Kara irorapov, down stream (Hdt. 4, 44 2 ). Kara yjjv KOI Kara TTJV OaXarrav, by 
land and by sea (Xen. Anab. 3, 2 13 ). At t^tSi/at Kara TTCKTOV TT)V yf)v da-i, 
vipers are distributed throughout the whole earth (Hdt. 3, 109 6 ). npoeX$eii/ 
Kara TTJV 686v, to proceed on the road (Xen. Anab. 4, 2 16 ). Ilm'et avrov KOTO. TO 
<rr(pvov, he strikes him on the breast (Xen. Anab. 1, S 26 ). Kara Sivvirrjv 
TroXii/, opposite the city Sinope (Hdt. 1, 76 1 ). Toup Kara T&S 7rv\ds (pv\a<as 
KTfivova-t, they kill the guards (standing) at the gates (Thuc. 4, 67 :< ). 

(b) Of Time. 

Kara TOV irporepov Tr6\ffjiov, at the time of the former war (Hdt. 1, 67 1 ). Ot 
naff 1 avrov, the people of his time (Xen. Hell. 6, 4 28 ). 

(c) Distributively. 

Kara $CXa, by clans (II. 2, 362). Kar' ei/tavrdi/, yearly (Thuc. 2, 13 3 ). Ka^' 
f)fj.(pdv, daily (Xen. Cyr. 3, 3 s5 ). Kara piav KOI 8vo (Dem. 20, 77). Similarly 
KOTO a<f>as avrovs, by themselves, apart (Thuc. 1, 79 2 ). 

(d) According to, relating to, etc. 

Kara TOV vofwv, according to the law (Xen. Anab. 7, 3 23 ). Kara ndvTa Tpoirov, 
/// ""/ (Xen. Anab. 6, 6 30 ). Kara a-rrov8r)v, with zeal (Thuc. 2, 94 s ). 
Kar' rprvxliivi quietly (Hdt. 1, 9 5 ). Kara Kparoy, with all one's might (Xen. 
Anab. 1, 8 19 ). Kara Trai/ra, in all respects (Dem. 24, 108). To Kar' e//e, < 
regards myself (Dem. 18, 247). Ka0' 6p-rrayr]v, for (in search of) plunder 
(Xen. Anab. 3, 5 2 ). Kara Ifajcio^giXiovc Kat TtTpaKoo-iovs, nearly 6400 (Hdt. 

3. Av COMPOSITION, down, against (often it merely strengthens or 
intensifies the meaning of the simple verb) : *aTa-/?aiV<o, 
>, Kara-yeA.aa>. 

1854. fiT<, amid, among ; with (compare <rvv). 
1. WITH ( iKMTivE : With (implying association, union, or aid). 
Mf7/i UiHurrwv (pd^ovTo, they foiujht in (illi<tn<-> n-iffi the Btteotians (II. 13, 
KaBrivGcu p.(Ta T<av aXXa>/, to sit down among the others (Plat. Rep. 
369*). Atrdr re not ol /zcr' avrov, both he himself and those with him (Xen. 
////. ;>. i>"). M<Tfi (Iftixias, with (by means of) injustice, wrongfully (Xen. 
'lK*T(v(iv p,(Ta TToXXwi/ ddKpvov, t<> sn f,f ,1 i ,-,if , >rilti many tears 
(PLi; I ). 'YiripftftXov dTroKTfivovvi p.(T(\ \apfuvov, they kill //.'//' rholua 

by the aid of Charminus (Thuc. 8, 7 

2. WITH DATIVE, poetic (chiefly epic), among, with : 
i>.... fjLT<i irptitTOKTi faivttTKf, Hector appeaTed among 
the first (11. 11, 64). 



(a) After (in time or order}. 

AeKoro) erei pera avrfjv (i.e. rrjv tv Mapadtovt pax^v), in the tenth year after the 
battle at Marathon (Thuc. 1, 18 :< ). HoXiv . . .TTJV 7rXovo-ta)rarr;v.../ifra Baj3vAa>va 
a city the richest after (or next to) Babylon (Xen. Cyr. 7, 2 12 ). 

(6) Among or iwto or a/er. of motion (poetic). 

Z !KOVTO para Tpwas, they came among (into the midst of) the 

Trojans (II. 3, 264). *Epxto....p.Ta "Exi-opa, go after Hector 

(II. 15, 221). 

(c) In quest of = after (poetic): 7rA.cW..../xTa xa\KoV, 

sailing in qiiest of (after) copper (Od. 1, 184). 
(d) Phrases. 

Mf#' fjp^pav, by day, after daybreak (Xen. Anab. 4, 6 12 ). M-a ^eipas cx flv > 
to have in hand (Aoschin. 1, 77). 

4. JA T COMPOSITION) with (of sharing), among, after: /Aer-e^u), /ACT-cuVto?, 
/xT-cu'x/u,tos, /ACTa-Tre/ATro/xat. It also denotes change, /xcra-voeoj, o change 
one's mind ; /xrra-rt^/Ai, <o ^?w m^o another place ; /xera-TjWa), io re- 

1855. irap<{ (Horn also Trap and Trapa'), beside, alongside of, near, 
by ; from near ; toward, etc. 

(a) From, from beside. 

Ilapa /3ao-iAe'cos 7roAXot...n7rf)X0o', rnani/ i/ /( f airny from the king (Xen. Anab. 

1. 9 28 ). TaOra rrapa croi) cp.a6op.fv, we learnt this from you (Xen. Cyr. 2, 2*). 
Dap' cavrov Trpocrrt^eVai rt, to advance anything from one's self = from one'* 
own means (Xen. Hell. 6, I 3 ). 

Earely and only in poetry it may denote alongside of = 
Trapa with dat., as Soph. Ant. 1123. 

(b) Of Agent, as source, with passives for VTTO with gen. (not frequent) 
ra Trapa <rov Acyd/xcva, the things said by you (Xen. Cyr. 6, I 42 ). Com- 
pare 1858, 1 (e). 

2. WITH DATIVE, with, beside. 

Ot Trapa jSao-tAfi OVTCS, those with the king (Xen. Anab. 1, 5 1 ). (Sirovi/rai) 
Trapa rai 8tSao-KaA<u, they dine with the teacher (Xen. Cyr. 1, 2 s ). Ta Trap* 
e/iot, affairs with me (Xen. Anab. 1, 7 4 ). With things, mostly poetic, as Od. 
6, 97. Note expressions like Trap' ^/iT>, in our opinion (Soph. Track. 589). 

3. WITH ACCUSATIVE, to, to (a point) near ; alonj, beside ; beyond or 
beside, except ; contrary to ; during ; in comparison with ; on account 


(a) Of Place. 

'A7riKdp,j/oi napa Kpolaov, having come to Croesus (Hdt. 1, 36). Uepirei napa 
Tovs*E\\r)vas irpco-ftfis, he sends ambassadors to the Greeks (Xen. ,4 nab. 6, I 2 ). 
"irrjv napa vyas, they (two) went to the ships (II. 1, 347). T Ho-ai/ *a>/zai TroXXat 
napa rov irorapov, there were many villages along the river (Xen. Anab. 3, 5 1 ). 

(b) Of Time : irapa -jravra rov \p6vov, throughout (during) the whole time- 
(Plat. Phaedi 116 d ). 

(c) Of Comparison. 

Ilapa ra oXXa axi, in COJ/J/KJ/'/NO// \rith the other animals (Ken. Mem. 1, 4 14 ). 
'En-wet napa rovs a\\ovs, he toiled more than the others (Xen. Ages. 5, 3). 

(d) Of Cause : ov Trapa rrjv cavrov pw/xr/v, not on account of his own 
strength (Dem. 4, 11). 

(e) Contrary to, besides. 

Ilapa rovs vo/iouf, contrary to (= beyond) the laws (Xen. Mem. 4, 4 2 ). OVK 
eon napa ravr aXXa, there are no others besides these (Ar. NiJ). 698). 
(/) Various Expressions. 

Ilapa piKpov, within a little, by a little (Isoc. 7, 6). Ilapa TroXv, by much, by 
a great deal (Thuc. 1, 29 3 ). Ilap* oXiyov Trottto-^at, to regard lightly (Xen. 
Anab. 6, 6 11 ). Ilap* ovdev fjyc'icrdai, to consider as nothing (Dem. 18, 164). 
4. L\ COMPOSITION, beside, passing by, aside ; hither ; wrongly r 
amiss ; beyond (of laws) : Trap-ciWi, Trap-ep^o/xat, Tnipa-KoAew, 7rapa-7rA.o) r 
irapa-ftatvw, Trapd-vo/JiO^. 

1856. irept, around (on all sides), about (compare a><pi'). 
(a) Concerning = about, on account of. 

KTjpvmas (-rrfp-^f ntpi <nrovo'<i>v, he sent heralds concerning tKe truce (Xen. 
Anab. 2, 3 1 ). Ilfpi oi/o/xaTcoi/ 8ia<ppca0ai, to differ about naws (Lys. 11, 3). 
'Ecpo/SoCiro nfp'i rfjf ^a>pas, they were in fear about the country (Xen. An>il>. 

(b) Around or about locally (rare and poetic) : 
oWovs, around the grotto (Od. 5, 68). 

(c) Above, superior to, surpassing (Homeric) : TTf 
/x/x'ai, to be superior to all others (11. 1, 287). In prose 
this use survives in the common phrases Trcpt TroAAoC 
(TT\(LOVO^, TrAcurrou, 6\iyov Of <r/xicpov, eAarrovos, cXa^iVrov, 
TrarrtK, ouScvov) Troteia^ai Or ijytlo-fau TL, to think much 

(more, most, little, etc.) of anything, to esteem highly, 
etc. (Xen. Mem. 2, 3 10 ; Anab. 1, 9 7 ; 1, 9 lrt : Lys. 31, 


2. WITH DATIVE (uncommon in Attic prose). 

(a) Around or about locally : OwpaKa. t^et -n-epl TOIS orepvois, he has a 
cuirass round his breast (Xen. Cyr. 1, 2 13 ). 

(b) About = concerning. 

Zevs fSeto-e Trept ro> yevet r)p.5>v, Zeus feared about our race (Plat. Prot. 322 C ). 
Note TrrcuW or o-<peiXXeo-0ai Trepi rti/t, to get a /aW over anything, to fail, to 
make a mistake (Thuc. 1, 69 5 ). 

3. WITH ACCUSATIVE (nearly the same as d/x^>t), about. 

Qeo-0(u TO. oTrXa -rrepl TTJV (TKTJVTJV, to arrange their arms around the tent (Xen. 
Anab. 1, 6 4 ). Ilepl rov 'EXXrjo-Trovrov, about (near) the Hellespont (Dem. 8, 3). 
Tlepl TOVTOVS rovs xp vovs > a t about those times (Xen. Hell. 1, 2 33 ). 
TTfVTTjKOvTa Kcil 8iaKO(riovs, about 250 (Xen. Hell. 4, 5 17 ). Ilept ravra 
they were occupied with this (Xen. Hell. 2, 2 4 ). MaQdv ra nepl TTJV 
to learn what relates to husbandry (Xen. Oec. 20, 1). For the expression ot 
irfpi (apxpt) ni/a, see 1272. 

4. IN COMPOSITION, around, about, very or exceedingly (like Lat. 
per- in per-magnus) : 7rpi-j3d\\tD, 

1857. irpo (Lat. pro), before, for, 


(a) Of Place, npo rS>v irv\S>v, before the gates (Xen. Hell. 2, 4 : "). Hpo 
<6doi, well forward on the way (II. 4, 382). 

(b) Of Time. Upb r^s nd x is, before the battle (Xen. Anab. 1, 7 13 ). Upb 
rjpfpas (Xen. Cyr. 4, 4 14 ). Upb rov, formerly. 

(c) Of Preference or Exchange. 

Atpeio-tfai TTpo* TJTTTJS Tf K.a\ SovXfias Bavarov, to choose death in preference to 
defeat and slavery (Plat. Rep. 386 b ). IIpo rv5f, for this (Soph. El. 495). 
npo 7roXXoO 7Totto-#at, <o regard highly, to consider important (Isoc. 5, 14). 

(d) Of Protection : in behalf of. 

Ma^ea-^ai irpb Traidatv, to fight for their children (II. 8, 57). IIpo Cpaii/ 
aypv7rvr)<ras, having watched in your behalf (Xen. Anab. 7, 6 s6 ). 

2. Jjv r COMPOSITION, before, forth, forward, in defence, in preference : 

1858. irpos (Horn, also Trport and TTOTI' ), a^ or by (properly in front 
of) ; related to Trpo. 
(a) Looking towards = in front of. 

Tlpbs TTJS Bot&m'as Kctrat, it lies over against Boeotia (Dem. 23, 182). To npbs 
, the wall facing Sicyon (Xen. Hell. 4, 4 l8 ). 


(6) Of Origin and Characteristic. 

'.\\Ki^id8rjs Xf'yerat npbs irarpbs 'AXxpaiwidtov eivcu, Alcibiades is said to be of 
the Alcmaeonidae on his father's side (Dem. 21, 144). Upbs ywatKos rji>, it 
was the way of a woman (Aesch. Ag. 1619). 

(c) On the side of (of partisanship), for the benefit or advantage of. 
KoXXtay /zoi Soicei irpbs Uparrayopov flvat, Callias seems to me to be on the side 
of Protagoras (Plat. Prot. 336 e ). Sirovftas ciroirjo-aro.... irpbs Orj/ScuW, he made 
a truce for the advantage of the Thebans (Xen. Hell. 7, I 17 ). 

(d) In swearing (by), of opinion (in the eyes of). 

npbs #fa>i>, by (before) the gods (Xen. Anab. 5, 7 5 ). AIKCUOV.... irpbs Of&v <a\ 
irpbs dv0pd)ir<i>v, just in the eyes of gods and men (Xen. Anab. 1, 6 6 ). 

(e) From. 

"EX<>V firwvov iroXvv irpbs f/iaii/, having much praise from you (Xen. Anab. 7, 
6 33 ). So occasionally (rarely in Attic prose) of agent with passive verbs (like 
viro). *A8oo{)i/rcu irpbs T&V ir6\(u>v, they are held in no esteem by the states 
(Xen. Oec. 4, 2). 

(/) Occasionally in Homer, under the protection of, as 

Od. 6, 207. 

(a) At, near. 

npbs rfi olitia, near the house (Xen. Rep. Lac. 15, 6). Upbs EaftvX&vi yv b 
Kvpos, Cyrus was at Babylon (Xen. Cyr. 7, 5 1 ). npbs rols irpdypao-i yt'yi/eo-tfcu, 
to be occupied with affairs (Dem. 8, 11). 

(6) In addition to, besides : TT/OOS rovrots, besides this, furthermore (Xen. 
Cyr. 1, 2). 


(a) To ; against ; towards (of time, direction). 

"HJCW irpbs a-f, I am come to you (Xen. Mem. 2, I 27 ), npbs &t\iirirov TrpeV/Sftc 
irtpnciv, to send ambassadors to Philip (Dem. 18, 24). A'|are irpos pt, say to 
me (Xen. Anab. 3, 3 a ). 'leva* irpbs rovs noXfpiovs, to go against the enemy 
(Xen. Anab. 2, 6 10 ). npbs taircpdv, towards evening (Xen. Hell. 4, 3 22 ). 
npbs floppav, towards the North (Thuc. 6, 2 4 ). 

(b) Towards (of disposition friendly or hostile). 

Tr)v tvvoiav TTJV irpbs yuas, the good-will towards us (Isoc. 3, 61). npbs rovs 
1 \6rfv aiovs <f>t\iK<as (f\(tv), to be disposed in a friendly way to the Athenians 
(Xen. Hell. 4, 8 17 ). ^vvSrjKds iroitlvBtu irpbs aAXiyXovr, to make agreements 
with each other (Aeschin. 1, 161). 

(c) With a view to ; with regard to ; in relation to, in comparison with, 
according to. 

Upi>s ri p* TOVT' *p<#ras ; to what purpose to do ask me this f (Xen. Mem. 3, 
7*). n<ircu&tvnt6a irpbs rr)v dprnjv, we haw been educated for valour (Isoc. 6, 


102). Toi/s api<rra npbs dpfrrjv Trtcpvuoras, those best by nature in regard to 
virtue (Isoc. 15, 284). npbs ra Trdpovra eXt^e roiaSe, with regard to the 
present subject he spoke thus (Thuc. 6, 41 1 ). Ta npos rbv TrdXt/nov, what 
pertains to the war (Xen. Anab. 4, 3 10 ). Mfa>...irpbs tracrav xvprjv, greater 
in comparison with any country (Hdt. 2, 35 1 ). Ov8f npbs dpyvpiov rrjv ei/Sat- 
poviav cKpivov, nor did they judge of happiness according to money (Isoc. 4, 
76). npbs av\bv a>pxr)<ravTo, they danced to the flute (Xen. Anab. 6, I 6 ). 
(d) Various Expressions. 

npbs x<*P LV or il$ ov h v t with the object of pleasing (Isoc. 8, 10, and 8, 9). 
npbs fiiav, by force (Soph. frag. 701). npbs opyrjv, in anger (Ar. Ran. 998). 
Ilpbs <J>i\iav, in friendship (Xen. Anab. 1, 3'"). Ov&tv npbs cpe, nothing to 
me (Dem. 18, 21). 
4. Ix CvMi'oxiTioy, to, towards, by, besides : 7rpoo--aya>, 7rpoo--teVat, 

1859. auV or older Attic |oV (Lat. cum), with, in company with, in 
union with. Except in the expression <rvv (rots) tfeots, with the help of 
the gods, <rvv is confined almost wholly to the poets and to Xenophon ; 
the other prose writers use /xera. 

1. WITH DATIVE only. 

(a.) In company with : cVaiScu'cTo <rvv TO> dScX^xp, he was educated with 
his brother (Xen. Anab. 1, 9 >2 ). So of help : oVtfeoIs (Xen. Cyr. 6, 4 19 ). 

(b) In conformity with : <rvv TOIS i/o/tois, in conformity with the laws 
(Xen. Mem. 4, 4). 

(c) Sometimes of Instrument like the dative alone : TO o-oi/xa yv/xva- 
(rrtov (rvv Trdvoi?, the body must be exercised by toil (Xen. Mem. 2, I 28 ). 

(d) Sometime* of Manner : irpotcWt <rvv icpavyrj, to advance with a shout 
(Xen. Anab. 1, 2 17 ). 

2. ly COMPOSITION, icith, together, at the same time : 

1860. uWp (Horn, also vn-ap; Lat. super), over. 

(a) Of Place, also of Motion. 

1 O rjXios vTTfp Tjn&v iropevopfvos, the sun journeying above us (Xen. Mem. 3, 
8 9 ). 'Y-rrfp rfjs K&MS yr)\o(pos rjv, above the village was a hill (Xen. Anab. 1, 
10 12 ). 

(b) In behalf of, for, on account of. 

*Y7rep ri)f 7r6Xeo)f dnodv^a-Kftv, to die for the state (Isoc. 4, 77). Ilovelv vnip 
<rov, to toil in your behalf (Xen. Anab. 7, 3 31 ). 'Yirtp ra>v irpaypdrw <, 
I am in f tar on account of public affairs (Dem. 9, 20). 


(c) Concerning = irtpi (mostly in the orators) : TT/I/ vTrep TOV TroXe'/Aou 
-yvup.riv l^oiTa?, having such an opinion about the war (Dem. 2, 1). 

2. WITH ACCUSATIVE : over or beyond (of place or measure). 
*EiroXe/zft TOIS 0pat TOIS i7rep 'EXXi^crTroi/Toi/ ot(cov(rt, /ie waged war against the 
Thrm'ian.t lirhi<i l><->i<>nd the Hellespont (Xen. Anab. 1, I 9 ). Ot virtp ra 
<rrpaT(va-ifjia err) yryovorfs, those beyond the years of military service (Xen. 
<'>ir. 1, 2 4 ). 'YTrcp SvvapAv, beyond one's strength (Dem. 21, 69). 

3. Lv COMPOSITION, over, beyond, excessively, for the sake of : 

1861. UTTO (Horn, also VTTCU ; Lat. sub), under. 

(a) Of Place. 

Ta UTTO yijr, Me things under the earth (Plat. ^o. 18^). Occasionally from 
under (mostly in poetry), (rovtrde) vno x^ovos *!<* <p6a><rdf, them he sent to the 
light from under the earth (Hes. Theogon. 669). Also of musical accompani- 
ment, as UTTO 0-0X77 iyyu>v, accompanied by trumpets (Hdt. 1, 17 ;< ). 
(6) Of Cause. 

'YTTO Xiiirrjs, through grief (Xen. Cyr. 6, I 35 ). 'YTTO Xi/xoO, through hunger 
(Xen. Anab. 1, 5 5 ). 'Yrro r^y ^doi/^r, through joy. 
(c) Of Agent with passive verbs. 

ETiparo VTTO TOV drjpov, he was honoured by the people (Xen. Hell. 2, 3 1S ). 
* \iri6av9v VTTO NTfcai/Spov, /ie ta* siain 6y Nicander (Xen. ylna6. 5, I 15 ). 

2. WITH DATIVE, under. 

'Yn-o TO> Tfi'x, unckr </ie u;a{{ (Xen. Hell. 5, 2 41 ). 'YTTO T^ dtpoiroXti, under 
the acropolis (Hdt. 6, 105 4 ). 'Ywo fiaviXfl ovrts, being under (in the power 
of) Me A-mgf (Xen. Cyr. 8, I 6 ). 

For UTTO with dative as agent in poetry, see 1868. 


(a) Of Place, under (of motion towards). 

'\nfi\0ov VTTO TO. btvbpa, they went under the trees (Xen. Anab. 4, 7 8 ). 'Ynit 

irovrov idco-tro, he dived under the sea (Od. 4, 425). ndXfir rt na\ fdvrj 

av6pu>iru>v v<p* tavrovs rrouto-^cu, to bring cities and races of men under th<ir 

dominion (Plat. Rep. 348 d ). 

(6) Of Time, towards, occasionally at or duriny. 

'Ywo VVKTO, sub noctem, towards night (Thuc. 1, 115 s ). 'Y?r6 rf)v 

VVKTO, during the past night (Hdt. 9, 58*). 

4. Is C<t.\ii'nxiTin.\, under, by degrees, slightly, secretly: 
un-o-oTpaTrryw, V7r-dyw, to advance by degrees or unnoticed ; 
to send secretly. 



1862. 1. axpi and fie'xpi, until, as far as. 

TOV MrjSids Tti'^ouy, as far as the wall of Media (Xen. Anab. 1, 7 15 )* 
fXevT^s, until the end (Dem. 18, 179). 

2. fiyeu, without, apart from. 

"\vfv TrXoiW, without boats (Xen. Anab. 2, 2 3 ). *Avcv TOV KO\T)V Sot-civ 
iv, apart from (in addition to) bringing good reputation (Dem. 18, 89). 

3. -n:\r\v, except : -n-Xrjv Ato's, except Zeus (Aesch. Pro. 50). HXrjv 
may also be a conjunction and be followed by some other case ; as 
Xen. Hier. 1, 18. See 2131, 2234 and 2371. 

4. IKCKO, or cpcieei' (Ionic eu/tKa or fivfKfv), on account of, for the sake 
of, as regards, generally placed after the noun. 

Tivos cvfKfv ; on account of what ? (Xen. Anab. 2, 3 20 ). AeVSpa Otpa-rrevciv 
TOV icapirov fvfKfv, to raise trees for the sake of the fruit (Xen. Mem. 2, 4 7 ). 
'Aer(aX&>? eW cvend yt TU>V o-vico<pdvT<i>v, he lived in safety as far as the 
sycophants were concerned (Isoc. 15, 163). The dramatists also have ovvcua. 

5. Examples of other improper prepositions of frequent use : 
EvBv \vKtiov, straight towards the Lyceum (Plat. Lys. 203 a ). 'Eyyvf 

dyadov, near the good (Men. Mon. 400) ; in the sense of related to, akin, it 
takes the dative, as eyyvTfpov ro> #ai>aro>, more akin to death (Xen. Cyr. 
8, 7 21 ). n\r)Q-iov TOV ^(o-pd)TTjpiov, near the prison (Plat. Phaedo, 59* 1 ) ; in 
poetry seldom with the dative. M * r a. v <ro<pias not dpaQias, between wisdom 
and ignorance (Plat. Symp. 202'). *Qv IVTOS, inside of which (Thuc. 1, 
46 6 ). 'EKTOS roii/ op<ui/, outside of the boundaries (Plat. Leg. 854 d ). Ei<ro> 
TOV epvp-aros fXtiriv, to go within the fortijication (Xen. Hier. 2, 10). 'Ex<apovv 
?&> TOV Tfixovs, they came without the wall (Thuc. 3, 22 8 ). 'Evavriov 
TroXXcoi/, in the presence of (before) many (Xen. Mem. 2, 5 1 ). TlpotrOev 
TOV orparoTre'Sov, in front of the camp (Xen. Hell. 4, I 22 ); so fnrpoo~6fv 
(Plat. Prot. 340 d ). Karai/TtKpv Kv^pcai/, opposite Cythera (Thuc. 7, 26 1 ). 
*O TT t o- & v TOV orrparoTre'Soi;, behind the camp (Xen. Cyr. 3, 3 28 ) ; so 
KaTontv (Plat. Gorg. 547*). "A v o> & e v <c(pa\f)s, above the head (Xen. Eques* 
5, 4). *A/i< MTcp a) Of v TT)S 68ov, on both sides of the road (Xen. Hell. 5, 
2*). 'E KdTf pa>d(v avrov, on each side of it (Thuc. 7, 78 5 ). *E v 6 e v K. a 1 
tvOfv TTIS 68ov, on this side and that of the way (Xen* Cyr. 8, 3 9 ). n 4p a v 
rov Trora/iov, across (on the other side of) the river (Thuc. 6, 101 6 ). 'A>rt- 
Tre'pas *HXi8oj, over against Elis (Thuc. 2, 66 1 ) ; so avTinepdv and 
K CLTCIV T t IT e p a s, over against (Xen. Anab. 1, I 9 ). n e p d or TT e p a, 
further than, beyond: ire pa. TOV /xerpi'ov, beyond measure (Dem. 14, 35). 

1867 THE VEKB 177 

n 6 p p o> and IT p 6 a- a>, far into, advanced, far from : ir 6 p p o> rov /3iou, 
advanced in life (Plat. Apol. 38 C ) ; TT p 6 <r o> roC 'EXXrjo-Trdi/Tou, /ar /row the 
Hellespont (Hdt. 5, 13 4 ). X apis, without, apart from : % a> p I 5 rov o-oa/iaror, 
apart from the body (Plat. Phaedo 66). 

"A r 6 p (poetic) = arfu (II. 15, 292). 

A a & p a or X a # p a, secretly, without the knowledge of : X a $ p a T>V 
<rrpana>ra>j>, without the Knowledge of the soldiers (Xen. Anab. 1, 3 8 ) ; so 
Kpv<pa (as Thuc. 1, 138 9 ). \apiv (ace. of x<*P ls )> f or the sake of, on 
account of: irarpbs ^dpii/, for his father's sake. Similarly BIKTJV (ace. of 
SIKTJ), after the manner of, like : diicrjv Kparrjpoy, like a bowl (Plat. Leg. 773 d ). 
These two are really adverbial accusatives. There are a number of other 
similar adverbs used, like prepositions, with the genitive. 


1863. ajia, OJAOU, and ^<j>e$Tjs, see 1771. 'E<er}9 is occasionally found 
with the genitive, as in Plat. Tim. 55* ; similarly ^s (Plat. Cratyl. 
399 d ; gen. Ar. Ran. 765). 


1864. ds, to, used only with the accusative of a person, like Trpds or 
eis. Ilopfverat a>s /3ao-tXf'a, he goes to the king (Xen. Anab. 1, 2 4 ). Ue^ovaiv 
a>f avrovs irpeo-ftfis, they will send ambassadors to them (Thuc. 1, 90 3 ). 


1865. As in English, adverbs relate to verbs, adjectives, or other 
adverbs. For adverbs used as attributes, see 1265. For adverbs 
governing the genitive, see 1725 1728 ; the dative, see 1771. For 
adverbs used prepositionally, see the Improper Prepositions, 1862. 
For adjectives used where the English uses adverbs, see 1317 1321. 




1866. The active voice simply represents the subject as acting ; 
as 6 Trafr rp%i, the boy runs ; ypd<fxt), I write. 

1867. 1. The active of some verbs is used transitively as well as 


178 VOICES 1868 

'EA.awa>, tr. to drive, intr. to ride, to march ; a?pu>, to raise, intr. 
to set out, to depart ; e^w, to have, to hold, intr. to steer towards a 
place ; *x (&?), S ^P now '> w ^h an adverb, l^ei = to be, as KaXws or cv 
l\i, it is well, Lat. bene se habet ; ayo>, to lead, intr. to advance ; 
TrpfiTTw, to do, intr. (ev, KCUOOS), to a*o (we//, badly) ; reA-cvraw, to end, 
intr. to a\'e ; cKA-ciVa), to abandon, intr. to cease ; aTrayopev'w, to forbid, 
intr. to #row weary ; *aTaA.i7a>, to dissolve, to destroy, intr. to feaZJ. 
The original object can often be easily supplied. 

2. The intransitive meaning sometimes belongs only to certain 
tenses. See Mixture of Transitive and Intransitive Meanings, in Part 
II. of the Grammar. 

3. Some transitive verbs are used intransitively only in certain 

3>epo>, to bear, to carry, Sia^e'pw, to differ ; /?aAAa>, to throw, /txera- 
/3aXXa>, to become changed, etV/?aAAu> and c/i/?aAA.o>, to make an incursion, 
to empty (of rivers), 7rpoor/?aAAa>, to advance against ; lypi, to send, 
dytyfu, to relax, to give over ; St'&u/u, to give, eVtSiSw/xi, to improve, to 
make progress, b&ffityu, to griye t'w, to awe way ; /xfyvi}/xi, to miic, 
Trpoo--, (rvfjLfjiiyvv^L, to meet with, to encounter. 

4. Some intransitive verbs become transitive in composition ; see 

5. For the active of some verbs used as passive to others, see 1888. 

6. The active sometimes has causative meaning. Kvpos C^CKOI^C rov 
7rapa8eroi/, Cyrus had the park destroyed (Xen. Anab. 1, 4 10 ). 


1868. The middle voice represents the subject as acting upon 
himself, or with some regard or concern to himself. 

1869. Direct Middle. In the direct middle, the subject is 
represented as acting directly on himself. This use of the middle 
is confined only to certain verbs, mostly such as denote an action 
performed on one's own body. 

Such verbs are: AWo/nai, to wash one's self; dAei'^o/Aai, ^pro/xat, to 
anoint one's self ; yv/xvao//,cu, to exercise one's self ; aTrayxo/ncu, to hang 
on.'s self; Kctpo/uu, to cut one's hair ; Koa-^o^a.i, to deck ones self ; 
o-T^>avdo/xai, to crown one's self ; KaA-vVro/Mat, to cover one's self ; TVTTTO- 
fj.a.1, KoVro/xat, to beat one's self (esp. for grief) ; TpeVo/xat, to ?mt one's 

1874 VOICES 179 

self ; dircxo/uu, to restrain one's self ; To-ra^ai, to set one's self ; rao-o-o- 
/xat, to draw one's self up in the ranks ; tTriSeiKi/u/u-ai, to show one's 
self ; Trapa-, <rv-<rfccvaofuu, to prepare one's self. So yeu'w, to let (any 
one) tiste, ycu'oyncu, to let one's self taste, to taste ; TTOVW, to stop, 
i, to stop one's self, to cease. 

1870. NOTE The direct middle may have causative meaning; as 
(x&fvov aTroypd<f>(T0ai Trdrra?, he ordered all to have their names written 
dmvn (Xen. Hell. 2, 4 8 ). 

1871. NOTE. 1. Ordinarily the reflexive action is expressed by 
the active with a reflexive pronoun ; as CKCU/OS a-n-ear^a^v eaurdv, he 
killed himself (Dem. 9, 62). Plat. Apol. 33". 

2. For the sake of clearness, the reflexive pronoun is sometimes 
added to the middle ; as cauroi/ a7roo-<aao-#eu, (some say) that he slew 
himself (Xen. Anab. 1, 8 29 ). 

1872. Indirect Middle. The middle is most frequently used to 
express an action performed for one's self, or with regard to ones 
self, or on something belonging to ones self. 

Thus /xtTaTTc/ATro/Aat TIVO, I seni for some one to come to me : air >- 
W/ATTO/XCU rtva, I send some one away from me ; 7rpo/3dAAo/zai TTJI/ a<nrioa, 
I throw before me a shield for protection ; d/^i/o/aai TroXe/xtor, I ward 
off an enemy from me ; *A.cuo//,ai ra TrdOrj, I bewail my sorrows ; l 
1 set up for myself ; eupto-Ko/xai, I find for myself, procure ; Ka 
to pick out for one's self ; T<$eo-0ai rrjv </^</>o/, to give one's vote ; 
<rOai TOV? TroXc/uov?, to turn the enemy from one's self ; a7ro</>atVo/ncu 
yv<Ap.-r)v, I exp ess my opinion; O.TTO-, 7ri8eiWu/xat TTJV TratSct'di', 
my education ; Trote'ofuu TWO. <t'A.oi>, I make some one my friend ; dyeo-0cu 
ywcuKa, to take a wife. 

1873. NOTE. The indirect middle sometimes has causative mean- 

'Kyo> yap at ravra c'Si8aa/ir/i', for I had you taught these things < 
Cyr. 1, 6*). Tpd7T((av ntptriKTjv Trapfridfro, he had a Persian table set // 
him (Thuc. 1, 130 1 ). Iloiijo-ao-^at x^^a T) npia<r6ai, to have a coat mad> or 
to purchase one (Xen. Cyr. 1, 3 17 ). 

1874. NOTE. In contrasts, the reflexive pronoun is added to the 
indirect middle for clearness; as ri TTJV ir6\w, Aur^u^, TT/XXT^KC irtnm, 
nft\rjv Kal Tvpavvl&a. rCtv 'EXA.T/vwi' bpwa-av iavria Karaa-Kci'a^d; 

180 VOICES 1875 

<I>tAi7r7ro/ ; ivhat, Aeschines, should the commonwealth have done when 
she saw Philip preparing for himself empire and tyranny over Greeks ? 
(Dem. 18, 66). 

1875. NOTE. The middle may have reciprocal meaning when the 
subject is in the plural j as TJJV d<f>av7j ovcrta? ci/ei'/xavro o[ dSeA<oi', the 
brothers divided the personal property among themselves (Lys. 32, 4). 

1876. Subjective or Dynamic Middle. The Middle sometimes 
denotes an action performed with one's own powers or means. 

Ilape'xw, / furnish, irapc^o/uu, I furnish from my own means ; 
A<U, I lose, Avo/xcu, I ransom with my money ; o-tyA/JaAAo/xai, I con- 
tribute from my own ; Xapftdvciv, to take, Aa/A/?ui/eo-0ai and eVtAafi- 
ftdvfo-Bcu TII/OS, to grasp, to take hold of anything ; 0iW, to sacrifice, 
Otfo-Oai, to take the auspices ; 0-Koireu/, to view, o-KOTrcwrtfcu, to look at 
closely, to examine; e*c8i'8w/xi, I give out, eVSt'So/xai Ovyarepa, I give 
away a daughter in marriage ; TroAe/Aoy iroieiv, to cause a war (as a 
third party), TroAc/otov Troieto-tfai, to carry on a war ; so aTroAoytdi/, Selirvov, 

eU^T/V, TTLfJLf\iaV, TTOieur&U. 

1877. NOTE. The passive to the subjective middle 7roieur0cu is 

yiyveo-0cu ; as oA^i/ rr]v ly/xe'pdj/ 17 ayd/Sao-is avrois eytVero, the going-up 
lasted the whole day (Xen. Anab. 4, I 10 ). 

1878. NOTE. Some intransitive verbs have a dynamic middle : 
<rrpaTvw, to undertake an expedition, of the general (Xen. Anab. 2, 
I 14 ), orpaTeu'o/xcu, to perform military service, to serve, of the soldier 
(Xen. Anab. 3, I 10 ) ; TroAZrevW, to be a citizen (Xen. Anab. 3, 2 2(; ), 
7roAtTeu'eo-0(u, to perform the duties of a citizen, to take part in the 
government (Xen. Cyr. 1, I 1 ) ; Trpfo-ficvfiv, to be ambassador (Xen. 
Anab. 7, 2 23 ), Trpeo-yScveo-^at, to negotiate as ambassador, also (of the 
state) to negotiate through ambassadors (Thuc. 1, 67 2 ) ; ySouAev'w, to 
take counsel, to be counsellor (Xen. Mem. 1, I 18 ), /?ovAeuW0cu, to take 
one's counsel, to form plans. 

1879. Some verbs acquire, in the middle, meanings quite 
different from those of the active. The following are especially 
important from their frequency : 

Atpc'w, to take, atpeo/xai, to choose = to take for myself ; a7ro8i8o)/xi, 
to give back, a7roSi'8o/Aai, to sell = to give away for one's interest ; 
, to fasten, oWo/not' rtvos, to cling to = to fasten one's self to, to 

1882 VOICES 181 

engage in ; apx<>, to rule, to bejin, without regard to continuation of 
the action which another may take up (Xen. Anab. 1, 6 5 ), 
begin one's own work, or for one's self (Xen. Anab. 3, 2") ; 

a, to marry (of the man), ya/Aco/xai rtvt, to marry (of the woman), 
0vyaTc'pa TIVI, o 0HJ0 a daughter in marriage to any one (of 
a parent) ; ypdfaw vo/zous, to write or to propose laws, ypdfaa-Oai 
vd//.ovs, to pass laws (of the people), ypd<t>co-0ai riva, to indict, to bring 
a law-suit against any one = to write any one down in a document of 
prosecution ; 6apia>, to lend, 8aveio/tat, to borrow = to have another 
lend to one ; 8iKcia>, to judge, to pronounce decision, 8tKao//ai, to go 
to law, to plead ; l^w, to have, to hold, l^o/xat TWOS, to hold on to 
anything, to be close to, or to border on ; A.avtfavw, to lie hid, tTriAai/- TWOS, to forget ; /uo-tfow, to let out for hire, /zio-0oo//,ai, to hire = 
to have Another let to one ; Trepaiow, to convey over, 7repcuoo//,ai, to go 
across ; o-re'AAaj, to send, o-reAXo/xat, to set out, to travel; rt/xwpew iW, 
to avenge a person, rlfwopco/x-at riva, to avenge one's self on a person, to 
punish ; <o/3e'a> nvd, to frighten any one, <o/3eo/xai rii/a, to fear any 
one ; TWO, to pay a penalty or debt, rtVo/xat, to make another pay, to 
avenge one's self on, to punish ; <vA.arTa> rtva, to guard any one, 
rti/a, to be on guard against any one. 

1880. 1. In many cases the middle or active may be employed 
indifferently ; the reflex action being sufficiently clear, the active will 
often answer quite as well ; as Ila^Xayovas ^u/x/xa^ovs iroi-qo-co-Oc 
<t>i\ov TT 01770-0 ptv TOV Ila^XayoVa, you will make the Paphlagonians 
allies,.. ..we will make the Paphlagonian a friend (Xen. Anab. 5, 5 22 ). 
In some verbs the use of the middle form is poetic, mostly epic. 

2. For passive deponents, see Part II. of the Grammar. For the 
future middle used passively, see Part II. of the Grammar. 


1881. The passive voice represents the subject as acted upon ; 
as (f>i\ovpai, I am loved ; 6 TTCU? rvTrrerai, the boy is struck. 

1882. 1. The direct object of the active verb becomes the 
subject of the passive. 

2. A personal passive can also be formed from verbs which govern 
a genitive or dative ; the indirect object (genitive or dative) here 

182 VOICES 1882 

becomes the subject of the passive. In this way a personal passive 
can be formed from dp^o), to rule, Kara^povew, to despise, KaTayeA.aa>, to 
laugh at, d/AeX?<o, to neglect, which verbs govern an object-genitive ; 
7ri(TTv<D, to trust, dTTicrreaj, to distrust, <f>6ovt<*>, to envy, eVi/?ouXeu'w, to 
plot against, aTmXew, to threaten, eyKaXew, to censure, TroXc/xew, to war 
against, these governing the dative. 

'YTTO fiovXov apx(o~0ai, to be ruled by a slave (Plat. Lys. 208 C ). "Qpd 
ftov\ci>(r0ai, KdTa(ppovT)da>p.fv, it is time to deliberate lest we be 
despised (Xen. Anab. 5, 7 12 ). HKTT cvr Q at VTTO TTJS Trarpidos, to be trusted 
by one's country (Xen. Symp. 4, 29). &0ovr)0(ls virb TOV 'OSurcreaK, 
envied by Odysseus (Xen. Mem. 4, 2 33 ). 'Yn-' 'A&ji/aiW eTrtftov\cv6p.e0a, 
we are conspired against by the Athenians (Thuc. 1, 82 1 ). OVKCTI an-nXou/iot, 
I am no longer threatened (Xen. Symp. 4, 31). OUK ttKorcos ir o X e pov v r at, 
they are not rightly warred against (Thuc. 1, 37 1 ). 

3. When the active has two objects, a dative of the person and an 
accusative of the thing, the accusative of the thing generally remains 
and the dative becomes the nominative of the passive. 

Ot (7riTCTpap.pvoi T f) v (pv\a<rjv (actively firirpfirtiv TOVTOIS rf)v (f>v\aKT]v), 
those entrusted with thr ^//<n</ (Thuc. 1, 12tt u ). "AXXo n ^icl^ov cvdvs 
(TriTax0^o-(r0f (actively cntTaTTctv vp.1v a\\o rt /ieifoi/), you will straightway 
have some other greater command imposed upon you (Thuc. 1, 140 9 ). But 
sometimes the dative is retained and the accusative of the thing becomes the 
nominative ; as n-pay/xa dfivov...o rots Qcols airavtv irif3ov\fi>(Tai, a terrible 
thing which is being plotted against all the gods (Ar. Pax 403). 

4. With verbs governing a double object-accusative, the accusative 
of the thing remains, the accusative of the person becomes the 
nominative of the passive. See 1608. 

5. When the active has a part of a person as its object-accusative, 
the passive may have the person as the subject, and the part remains 
in the accusative. 

'A.iroTfj.Tj0VTfs rhs <((pa.\(is, having had their heads cut off (Xen. Anab. 2, 
6 1 ) ; this accusative thus becomes an accusative of specification. Actively 
rov d8f\<pov anfTcp.f rrjv K((pa\rjv (Xen. Anab. 3, I 17 ), which could become 
o a&eX<po a.TTTfj.T)0r) rrjv Kf(pa\T)v. 

6. With verbs governing an object-accusative and a cognite- 
accusative, the cognate-accusative remains and the object-accusative 
becomes the nominative of the passive. See 1617. 

7. A cognate-accusative is sometimes found as the subject of a 
passive. 'O <iv8vvos KivBvvfvfTat (actively TOV <iv8vvov Kiv8vvv(iv), the risk 
is run (Plat. Lach. 187 b ). Evn^rai (Thuc. 7, 77 3 ). 

1888 VOICES 183 

8. In this way passive neuter participles from intransitive verbs 
are used substantively. 

Ta o-ot icd/xot /St^ieo^eVa, the lives led by you and by me (Dem. 28, 265). 
MtKpa ap.apTrjdfVT(i, xitmll //<) r.s 1 (Xen. Anab. 5, 8 <iW ). At rSav TreiroXlrcvuevav 
fvdvvai, the accounts of tln-ir public acts (Dem. 1, 28). Ta fja-e ^rjp.v a, the 
acts of iiiifi-tif committed (Lys. 6, 5). Ta Ktvdvvv0fvTa, the risks which 
were run (Lys. 2, 54). Ta Sixm^^e'ira, the misfortunes suffered (Lys. 2, 

1883. NOTE. An impersonal passive from intransitive verbs, like 
the Latin itur, curritur, ventum est, does not occur in Greek. 

1884. In changing from the active construction to the passive, the 
subject of the active, if a person, is usually expressed by VTTO with the 
genitive (1861, l(c)) ; if the subject is a thing, it is put in the dative. 

1885. NOTE. For the dative of personal agent, especially with 
the perfect and pluperfect, see 1800. For the agent expressed by 
irapd with the genitive, see 1855 l(b) ; by oVd or c with the genitive, 
see 1847, l(e) and 1851, l(c) ; by Trpo's with the genitive, see 1858, l(e). 
For the agent with verbals, see 2315. 

1886. NOTE. In poetry the agent is often expressed 
by VTTO with the dative. 

'E<f>6ftr)0(v v<f>* "EKTopi, they were put to flight by Hector 
(77. ir>. ti.;7). In Attic prose this occurs only with verbs 
meaning to bring up or to educate ; as virb 7rat5orpt/3/ a-ya#o> 
irfTrat&evpfvot, having been educated under a good master 
(Plat. Lach. 184 e ). 

1887. For future-middle with passive meaning, for deponents 
with passive meaning, for passive aorists with reflexive or middle 
meaning (middle passives), see Part II. of the Grammar (Irregularities 
of Meaning). 

1888. 1. Some intransitive active (or middle) verbs serve as 
passives to some other verbs and are construed as such (with VTTO). 

2. These are especially important : ev TTOLO-X^ (lit. " to suffer well "), 
to be treated well, passive to cv TTOUO ; ev d/cowo, poet. * K\I'O> (lit. " to 
hear well "), to be praised or to be well spoken of, passive of ei* Aey<o ; 
ticn-im-to (" to fall out "), to be cast out, expelled, passive to cV/3aAA<o ; 
<f>vyo> (" to flee"), to be banished or to be prosecuted, passive to &u^< ; 
to be acquitted, passive to aTroAita ; aA/o-KOfuu, to be 

184 TENSES 1889 

captured, passive to cupe'w ; aTroOvrjo-KO) (" to die "), to be killed, passive 
to a7ro/cTtva> ; SiK-rjv Si'Sw/u (" to give satisfaction"), to be punished, 
passive to ^/xtdw. 

Ei5 iradovres UTT' avrS>v, having been well treated by them (Plat. Gorg. 
519). K a G> $ a<ovciv VTTO TQ>V iroXiT&v, to be ill spoken of by the citizens 
(Isoc. 6, 41). 'A.\Kp.aiovio'as <pd(riv vrrb ra>i> rvpavvotv caneo'clv, they say 
that the Alcmaeonidae were expelled by tyrants (Dem. 21, 144). 'Ao-e/Sei'dr 
cpfvyw VTTO MeXrjrov, I am prosecuted for impiety by Meletus (Plat. Apol. 
35 d ). 'AireQavev VTTO NiVai/Spou, he was slain by Nicander (Xen. Anab. 
5, I 18 ). 'YTT' avruv TOVTW SIKTJV f8i8o<rav, by these very ones they were 
punished (Xen. Cyr. 1, 6 45 ). 

1889. NOTE. The passive to TLKTW, to bring forth, to bear, is 
ytyvo/xat eV (Xen. Hell. 6, 4 37 ). The passive to reflet/ca, I have placed, 
is often Kct/xat, to lie (Isoc. 1, 36). For Xayxavw as passive to /cAr/pcw, 
to choose by lot, see 1614. 

1890. NOTE. There is some tendency also to use an active verb 
like x w or Tvyxavw or Xa/x/Savw with an object, instead of a passive. 

noXX^ TTJV a IT i a v fi\ov virb ru>v oTparid>ro)i', t hey were severely blamed 
by the soldiers (Thuc. 6, 46 s ). Toa-aimjs eru^e Tiptop ids viro faatv, he 
obtained so much honour from the gods (Xen. Ven. 1, 11). nXrjytls 
Xa/3a>v VTT' aXXou, receiving blows from another (Xen. Rep. Lac. 6, 2). 


1891. 1. In English the tenses simply express the time of an 
action. In Greek the tenses not only express the time when an 
action takes place, but they also qualify the action as being in progress 
or going on, as simply taking place or occurring, or as actually com- 

2. The distinction of time always occurs with the indicative mood, 
and somewhat in the other moods and in the participle. The quali- 
fication of the action as going on or taking place or actually completed, 
belongs to all the moods and to the participle. 

1892. 1. The aorist and future express the action of the verb as 
simply taking place or performed ; the present and imperfect as going 
on ; the perfect, pluperfect, and future -perfect as completed. 

2. It is often difficult to render in English the different shades of 
meaning denoted by this three-fold character of the action ; but the 
following examples will make this distinction clear : 




TToifj<rai, to do. 

<t>vydv, to take to flight, 
t<> '{*>?, to be banished. 
diroOavdv, to die. 
yv&vai, to form an opin- 
to decide upon. 


rroiflv, to be occupied 
with, to be in the act 
of doing. 

/, to be in flight, 
to be in exile. 
diro0vij(rK(iv, to be dying. 
yiyv(i)(TKiv, to get to 
know, to gain know- 
ledge of. 
dv0f)<T(u, to blossom forth dv0clv, to bloom. 


TfrroiTjKfvai, to be done 
with anything. 

C (pfvytvai, to be in safe- 
ty, to have escaped. 

edvrjKfvai, to be dead. 

yvoxfvai, to know, to 
be aware of. 

<pofir)0fjvcu, to take fright. <po^fl<r0ai, to fear, to be 


i, to be getting. 

KTr)<ra<r0cu, to get, to ac- 

K\T)0fjvcu, to get a name. 

, to be called. 

iQfiv, to be persuading, 
to talk over. 

i, to prevail uj>n, 
/" jitrsuade success- 

TTtorfvo-oi, to put faith 

tiavpdo-ai, to be struck 0avfj.dciv, to wonder at, 
with wonder. to admire. 

to be in blos- 

7re</>o/3r;(r0ai, to be in 

KfKTr/a-dai, to possess, to 

have acquired. 
KK\ri<r0ai, to have a 

name, to be called. 
Treireta', I am per- 

suaded, I believe. 

, tO 

t, to have a 
fixed confidence. 
Tcdavfj.a.Kcva.1, to be in a 
state of wonder or 

1893. 1. The three-fold character of the time is shown in the 
following table : 





dneSavf, he 
(ypa^a, I wrote. 

a7ro$ai>etT<u, he 
will die. 
ypd<f>a>, I shall 


diroflvijo-Kci, he 
is dyiii'i. 
ypd0o>, / am 

dir(6vT](rK.t, he 
was dying. 
(ypa<f)ov, I was 

writ in <i. 


TfdvjjKt, he is 
<l>'n<l, fi< hnn 
yjypa<f>a, I hare 

(TcBvrjKci, he wan 
dead, he had 
tytypdfa, I had 

T(6vt)ti, he will 
be dead, he 
will have died, 
ytypdtytrai. it 

186 TENSES 1894 

2. -We should expect special forms to express an action simply 
taking place in the present, and an action going on in the future. 
But the former is hardly eve" required ; and the simple future will 
answer for the second, as dirdavetrai, he will be dying, ypd\}/<D, I shall 
be writing. For the (gnomic) aorist, the present, and the perfect to- 
denote a general truth, see 1914, 1899, 1933. 



1894. The present tense denotes an action going on now : 
ypdcfxo, I write or I am writing. 

1895. Historical Present. 1. In lively narrative the present is 
often used for the aorist, and interchanged with past tenses. 

At 5e TpiaKOvra vfjes TU>V 'A0T)vai<i>v dffrtKvovvrai '$ ra eVt QpaKrjs, 
the thirty ships arrived at the ton-UK /////<</ /<>ir/u-//,s Thrace (Thuc. 1, 59 1 ). 
Adpdov KCU Ilapuo-arifiof y Ly v ovr at iralo'f s 8vo, of Darius and Parysatis are 
born two sons (Xen. Anab. 1, I 1 ). 

2. The historical present is absent from Homer. It is 
often found in tragedy, sometimes in a rather unusual 
way ; as Soph. El. 99. 

1896. Present for Future. The present is sometimes used for the 
future, as in English. The future action is thus conceived as already 

'ETTI ye TOVTOVS yo) avrbs napcp^opai, I am going to those myself (Xen. 
Cyr. 7, I 80 ) ; so Dem. 19, 32 ; Thuc. 6, 91 3 . The verb dpi has this future 
sense, am about to go, quite regularly in Attic and Ionic prose in the indicative ; 
the infinitive and participle may also have present meaning. In Homer fipi 
sometimes has present signification. 

1897. Present of Attempted Action. The present is sometimss 
used to express an attempted action. 

Ta drjpia 8 1 8 a> p. i aroi, I offer you the animals (Xen. Cyr. 1, 3 14 ). n e i- 
& ova- iv, they are trying to persuade you (Isoc. 6, 12). Tovs ptv 
\ciKo'aipoviovs dvaipcl, ovs S' a7rd>Ae<rai> $a>eear, vvv troifei, the Lacedae- 
monians he is trying to overthrow, and the Phocians whom he destroyed he is 
IIOH- trying to preserve (Dem. 6, 15) ; so with the infinitive (as dtSovai, Dem. 
18, 103), and the participle (as 8t86i/r, Thuc. 4, 19 1 ). For the corresponding 
use of the imperfect, see 1907. 

1902 TENSES 187 

1898. Present of Customary Action. The present is often used to 
denote an action which is habitual or repeated. 

Ovros pev yap u8o>/>, ey&> 5' olvov irtixo, he drinks water, but I wine (Dem. 
19, 46). For the corresponding imperfect of customary action, see 1908. 

1899. Present in General Truths. The present is used to express 
a general truth. 

TIKTCI Kopos vfipiv, satiety breeds insolence (Theog. 153). For a similar 
use of aorist (gnomic) and the perfect, see 1914 and 1933. 

1900. Present with Force of Perfect. 1. Some presents may 
denote an action already begun, and continuing in the present time. 
A present so used is practically equivalent to a perfect. 

So especially VLKOHH, I am victorious = 1 have conquered (lit. I 
conquer) ; frrrdopai, I am beaten = I have been beaten ; dSiKew, / do 
wrong = I have done wrong ; d*ovw and TrvvOdvo^a.^ I hear = I have 
heard ; yiyvwo-Kw, I know = I have found out ; SKOKU> or ypa^o/xat 
avrov, I am prosecuting him = / have brought an action against him ; 
$evya>, I have been banished or I have been accused. For the cor- 
responding use of the imperfect with the force of a pluperfect, see 

2. The presents 77*00, 7 am come, and ol^o^ai, I am gone, always 
have perfect meaning. Their imperfects TJKOV and uxM v serve as 
pluperfects or (usually) as aorists. 

3. An adverb or expression of past time joined to the present 
gives it the force of a continued perfect action prolonged into present 
time. In prose, TraXcu, of old, long ago, is chiefly so used. Thus : 
OUTOS TTttAcu Ae'yei, he has long been saying (Plat. Meno 91 ; Gorg. 489 C ). 

The imperfect here may be used as the pluperfect (Xen. Oec. 19, 


1901. The imperfect denotes an action _i:iii^ on in past time: 
ypa<f>ov, I was writing. 

1902. NOTE. 1. Some actions are preferably n-. > '/;/;/ 
rather than as fully past. So in narrative, the imperfect is often used 
in speaking of actions fully past ; sometimes imperfects and aorists 
being used alongside each other. This use of the imperfect is 
especially frequent with verbs of going (running, hastening) 

188 TENSES 1903 

sending; with verbs of saying and asking, the imperfect and aorist 
are used in narrative without any difference ; the imperfect of (prjpi 
usually has aoristic meaning, as also the infinitive <f>dvai in indirect 
discourse. "EXcyev art, he said that (Xen. Anab. 1, 4 n ). 'Hpwra, ri 
irdOoifv, he asked what had happened to them (Xen. Cyr. 2, 3 ltt ). 

2. In Homer this use of the imperfect occurs also with 

other verbs; as /JaAAcro and /?aA.ero (//. 2, 43 and 45) ; 

AtVe and Xclirc (11. 2, 106 and 107), SWKC and otoov (H. 

7, 303 and 305). 

1903. NOTE. 1. In narrative the imperfect is often used to 
describe the gradual development of an action ; frequently such an 
imperfect can be rendered by began or proceeded to. 

'E7roir)<ravTo TTJV (ru/i/ia^iai', TOV xfip&vos Tf\fvra>vTos fjfy KOI Trpbs eap KOI 
TO IlavaKTov K a 6 17 p fir o, they concluded the alliance when the winter was 
now closing towards spring, and Panactum immediately began to be destroyed 
{Thuc. 5, 39 3 ). 

2. Similarly an action performed by a number of persons, but not 
simultaneously, is usually expressed by the imperfect ; see Xen . 
Anab. 4, 7 18 ; 5, V* ; 5, 8 20 . 

1904. NOTE. (a) An action which was going on at the same time 
or before some other past action took place, is expressed by the 

'ETret 8f f) <r 6 f v i Aapf Tor KCU virwirTfvt rt \fvrrjv TOV ftiov, e/SovXero 
TO) Traifie dp^ortpa irapdvai, when Darius was sick and suspected the end of 
his life near, he wanted both of his sons to be present (Xen. Anab. 1, I 1 ). 

Sfvias 6 '\pKasra \vnaia (Overt na\ dyutva fdrjuf e & ( u> p f i 8e TOV dyStva KOI 

Kvpos, Xenias the Arcadian celebrated the Lycaean sacrifices and held public 

games Cyrus was a spectator at the games (Xen. Anab. 1, 2 10 ). 'ETret ctdov 

avrov oiirep TT p 6 <r 6 v TTpotrfKifvovv^ KOI TOTf 7rpo(rKvvT)(rav, when those 
saw him who had previously been used to bow to him, they bowed before him 
then also (Xen. Anab. 1, 6 10 ). 

(b) So we often find the imperfect for the present in geographical 
expressions, with reference to the time of the narrative. 

'\<plKOi>TO eVi TOV Trora/idj/, 6s topi^f (for 6piei) TTJV TC TG>V Maxptoi/toi/ 
X<*pav KOI TTJV TO>V 2,Kv0iva>v, they arrived at the river which separates the 
t'Tritorii of the Macrones from that of the Scythini (Xen. Anab. 4, 8 1 ). 

1905. NOTE. The imperfect is sometimes found instead of the 
present to denote that the truth of a present statement was not 
formerly recognised, but is now admitted. 

1908 TENSES 189 

Ov TOVT' yv cvdaipovid,...KaKOv a7ra\\ayr], this thing deliverance from 
evil is not I> is we formerly imagined (Plat. Gorg. 478 C ). OVK ap 

ayaBos TO. iroKiriKo. H(piK\rjs rj v CK rovrov rov \6yov, then according to this 
view, Pericles was not a good statesman (Plat. Gorg. 516 d ). 

1906. NOTE. For imperfects like ISei, exw v ' LK * 5 y etc - denoting 
obligation or possibility, and referring to present time, see 2105 2108. 

1907. Imperfect of Attempted Action. Corresponding to the pre- 
sent of attempted action (1897) is the imperfect of attempted action. 

Ne'wi' (TTtiBfv avrovs airoTptTTf(r6ai ot 8e ov% VTrfjKOvov, Neon tried to 
persuade them to turn f>n<-k, but they did not heed him (Xen. Anab. 7, 3 7 ). 
KXfapxos rovt avTov (rrpaTKaras f/3 torero ot 8* avrbv cfta\\ov, Clearchus 
tried to force his soldiers to march, but they began to stone him (Xen. Anab. 
1, 3 1 ). 'Ptyti air 6>\\v p.* 6a, we were in danger of perishing ( = we were 
perishing) from cold (Xen. Anab. 5, 8 2 ). ' AXovvrjo-ov cdidov, he offered 
(tried to give) Halonnesus (Aeschin. 3, 83). 'Op.rjpovs OVK idldotrap, they 
were not willing to give (= tried not to give) hostages (Xen. Anab. 6, 3 9 ). 

1908. Imperfect (and Aorist) of Customary Action. 1. Corre- 
sponding to the present of customary action (1898) is the imperfect 
of customary action. 

SvKpaTTjs axr-rrtp fyiyvaxTtt ev, OVTUS fXryei/, as Socrates thought, so he 
used to speak (Xen. Mem. 1, I 4 ). Compare below a similar use of the aorisi 
with TToXXaKis. 

2. The imperfect of customary action with the particle av denotes 
that the action used to take place under certain circumstances. 

\\vaXapfiiii'(av avrwv TO. rroiTjfjuiTa B IT; p cor o> v av avrovs, ri Ae'-yoiev, 
f/ up their poems, I would often ask them (or I used to ask them) what 

they meant (Plat. Apol. 22 b ). For a similar aorist with av, see below. 

This use of the imperfect with av must be particularly distinguished 

from the apodosis with av in conditional clauses (2102, 2113). 

3. The repeated occurrence of a single act is expressed by the 

aorist with TroAAaKis. 2i>i> ye'Aam TToXXaKif 17 IT t i\ij <r c tptpav avrovf> 
with laughter he often threatened to hang them (Plutarch, Caesar 2). 

4. The aorist indicative with dV is used of customary actions like 
the imperfect with av, to express what used to take place under 
certain conditions. 

IIoXXaKir T) K ov <r a p( v av...topMs, we often used to hear you (Ar. Lysint. 
610). Et Tivtt iAot'i> irav rovt <r<p(T('povs (iriKpaTovvrat, av t 6 dpirij trav av, 
if any saw their own men victorious anywhere, they would be encouraged 

190 TENSES 190d 

(Thuc. 7, 71 3 ). This aorist with av must also not be confounded with 

the apodosis with av in conditional clauses. 

5. The Ionic has also iterative forms in -O-KOV and 
-a-KOfjirjv in the imperfect and aorist (see Part III. of the 
Grammar). In customary actions, Herodotus some- 
times adds av also to these forms (as in Hdt. 3, 119 4 ). 

1909. Imperfect with Force of Pluperfect. The imperfects of 
presents frequently used as perfects (1900) are correspondingly used 
as pluperfects. 

So cviKw, I was victorious = I had conquered ; ^TTW/A^V, etc. (see 
1900). For fjKov and <?x6pr) v use< ^ as pluperfects or (generally) as 
aorists, see 1900, 2. 


1910. The aorist indicative simply represents an action as 
taking place in past time ; as fypa-fya, I wrote. 

1911. NOTE. For the aorist of customary action, see 1908. 

1912. NOTE. The name aorist, dopio-ro? (indefinite, indeterminate), 
is a compound from d-, without, and opos, boundary, and denotes that 
the tense simply expresses a past event without any regard to its 
development or completion or repetition. It is the tense of narration, 
and is thus used like the Latin perfect or the English simple imperfect 
(preterite), as typa\j/a, scripsi, I wrote. 

'Ev KeAmvair ffifivf Kvpos f)p.(pas rpiaKovra, Cyrus remained thirty days at 
Celaenae (Xen. Anab. 1, 2"). *H\6ov, eidov, fvitcrjo-a, veni, vidi, vici (Plutarch, 
Caesar, 50). The Greek imperfect is equivalent to the compound form of 
the English imperfect : fypa<pov, I was writing. 

1913. NOTE. With ri ov the indicative aorist is used in impatiently 
asking why something has not already happened, and is thus equi- 
valent to a present exhortation or command. 

Ti ovv ov...t\eds poi ; (lit. why did you not tell me?) tell me (Xen. Cyr. 
2, I 4 ). Tt ovv ov KOI npodiKov fK<i\(o-ap.i> ; (lit. why then did we not call also 
Prodicus?) let us then call also Prodicus (Plat. Prot. 317 d ). The present may 
also be thus used ; as ri ovv OVK (paras ; (Plat. Lys. 211 d ). 

1914. Gnomic Aorist. 1. The aorist indicative is often used to 
express a general truth or maxim. It is then called the gnomic aorist 
and is to be translated by the English present. 



"Hi* TIS TOITW rt irapaftaivy, j^/a'ai/ avrols tw46fvav, if any one trnx- 
<jress any of these precepts, they impose a penalty (Xen. Cyr. 1, 2 2 ). Tas T&>J> 
<f>av\(av o-wTjdfias oXiyos xp vos S i X <r e, a short time dissolves the intimacies 
of the bad(Isoc. 1, 1). 

2. The aorist is so used on the principle that what happened once 
can happen again under the same circumstances. It is called gnomic 
from its frequent use in proverbs and maxims (yvu>/xcu). For the 
present and perfect in general truths, see 1899 and 1933. 

1915. NOTE. In poetry, especially in Homer, this 
aorist is frequent in similes ; as rp.7re 8' u>s ore ns 8pO? 
T/PITTCV, he fell as when some oak falls, lit. -as when 
some oak fell (11. 13, 389). 

1916. Ingressive or Inceptive Aorist. With verbs whose presents 
denote a state of being, the aorist may denote the entrance into that 
state ; as TrAoimo, am rich, cTrAovrT/o-a, J became rich. This use occurs 
in all the moods and in the participle. 

Thus ex* 1 *' I have, e<rj(ov, I got, took possession of ; xp^^an., I use, 
cXpT/o-a/xT/v, took into use; ap^w, 1 rule, ^pa, obtained dominion or 
office ; /3a<riA.eva>, am king, tftaa-i \eucra, became king ; (rrparryyoi, am 
general, to-TpaTrryrjo-a, became general ; 8ouA.wo, am a slave, 8ovAev<ra, 
became a slave ; /JouAevw, am a member of the council, eySovXcvo-a, 
became a member of the council ; so towrfiriv and f&wda-Orjv, obtained 
the power or ability to do a thing ; fjp-rjo-a, arrived at man's estate ; 
t<r^vcra, became Strong ; evwrrja-a and rja-Ocvrjara, fell sick ; 7roA.'/M?7<ra, 
began war ; tVeS^/xT/a-a, came home ; tKoi^Orfv, fell asleep ; euSoKiV^o-a, 
became famous ; <r;(oA.cura, obtained leisure ; iy&acra, burst out laugh- 
ing ; dcicpwa, burst into tears ; eVfyr/o-a, became silent ; ripdvQ-qv, fell 
in love ; c0ap<n;<ra, took courage ; vTrwTTTcvo-a, became suspicious ; ivo- 
7]ryri<Tdp.rjv, (a^Orjv, became of the opinion ; ^\6ia-0-qv, got angry ; 
, IScta-a, got afraid. 

1917. NOTE. The same aorist sometimes has the ordinary meaning, 
sometimes the ingressive; as cVoXc/xT/o-a, sometimes means waged //-,//-, 
sometimes began war. 

1918. NOTE. In conversation, the first person singular of the aorist 
indicative is sometimes used to express a feeling or emotion which, 
although now in progress, just began before it is mentioned. In English 
we use either the present or the auxiliary verb must or an equivalent. 

192 TENSES 1919 

'E-ytXatra, I must laugh or I can't help laughing (Lucian, Deorum Dialogi 
16, 2). 'En-fli/to-' epyov KOI Trpovoiav TJV fBov, / praise the deed and foresight 
which you exercised (Soph. Aj. 536). 

1919. Aorist Equivalent to Perfect or Pluperfect. Often the 
aorist is used where the perfect or pluperfect is expected. Especially 
in temporal and relative clauses, the aorist indicative is equivalent to 
a pluperfect. 

Toov oiKfT&v ov8(va KareXtrrcv, aXX* a-rravras TrcTrpaiccv, of his servants 
he (left) has left none, but has sold them all (Aeschin. 1, 99). 'EnVi Kvpos- 
Ti<r<ra<pepim ( TT o\ p.Tj (r f, iracrai at TroXeu ctcoixrai Kvpov tiXoi/ro dvrl Ti<r<ra- 
(pepvovs, after Cyrus had begun to wage war against Tissaphernes, all the 
cities willingly preferred Cyrus to Tissaphernes (Xen. Anab. 1, 9 s ). 'ETropfu- 
ovro fVi TO xcapt'oi/, d<p' ov 777 nporfpaia. ol $ap/3apot e r p 4 (p 6 rj a- a i/, they 
proceed toward the place from which the barbarians had been repulsed the 
day before (Xen. Anab. 5, 4 23 ). So no\\aKts e'&zv/iao-a, I have often wondered 
(Xen. Mem. 1, I 1 ) ; ovira> dov, / have not yet seen. 

1920. Epistolary Aorist. In letters the writer sometimes places 
himself into the time of the reader and thus considers the time of 
writing as past. 

Mer' 'ApTajSafbv..., ov <roi ??rf /*\^a, n-pao-o-e, arrange with Artabazus> 
whom I send (sent) to you (Thuc. 1, 129 3 ). The perfect is sometimes thus 
used j as a7roraX>ca trot rovbf TOV Xoyov, / send (have sent) you this 
discourse (Isoc. 1, 2). 


1921. 1. The future denotes an action that will occur or will 
be in progress ; as jpd^co, I shall write or I shall be writing. 

2. With verbs whose presents denote a state of being, the future 
(like the aorist) may denote the entrance into that state ; as a/>x w > I 
rule, apu>, 1 shall rule or / shall attain dominion or office. 

1922. NOTE. The second person of the future sometimes ex- 
presses a permission ; as TT p & e i s otov av O&ys, you (will) may do 
as you please (Soph. Oed. Col. 956). 

1923. NOTE. 1. The second person of the future sometimes 
expresses a mild command; with negatives a mild prohibition. 

HdvTots 8e TOVTO 8pa<reis, but (you will) do this, by all means (Ar. Nub. 
1352). Xeipt 5' ov \lsavcrets irore, but (you will) touch me not with your hand 
(Eur. Med. 1320). 

1927 TENSES 193 

2. The second person of the future with the negative sometimes 
appears as a strong command ; as OVK a&ff w? rdxia-ra ; (will you not) 

'y (her) away instantly (Soph. Ant. 885). For a similar future 
with ov fjirjj see 1985. 

1924. NOTE. Herodotus uses the second person singular 
of the future in geographical and other descriptions, as 
though directing a future traveller ; as -ryv X^v-qv Stc*- 
TrXtoo-ds es TOV Net'Xou TO pteOpov 7/et9, etc., having 

sailed through the lake, you will come to the stream of 
the Nile (Hdt. 2, 29 2 ). 

1925. NOTE. In Homer the future indicative sometimes 
takes av or *e', with very slight change of meaning. 

Kal K f TIS &' f'pe'ei, and some one will (or may) speak 
thus (II. 4, 176). Ilap' e/ioiye jcat aXXot ot <e p.c rl^rj- 
<rov(riv, there are also others with me who will (perhaps) 
honour me (II. 1, 174). Ou&? K e TIS Bdvarov KOI Kfjpas 
dXvei, -w or will (can) any one escape death and the Fates 
(Od. 19, 557). "\v (II. 9, 167). A few rare cases of av with 
the future indicative occur in Attic, but they are disputed 
(Xen. Anal. 2, 5 13 ) ; see 19l>7. 

1926. Periphrastic Future. 1. An immediate future action is 
expressed by /xe'AXw, am about to, with the infinitive present or future 
or (less often) aorist. Such a future expresses an action immediately 
expected or intended. 

M t \ \ <u tfMS A i 8 a i v 56(v fjMi fj 8ia/3oAi7 ye'-yoi/c, / am about to show 
you whence this calumny has arisen ayainst me (Plat. Apol. 21 b ). 'Eyo> 6/*ar 
fji(\\u) ay (iv ls 4>a<rii/, / am going to lead you to Phasis (Xen. Anab. 5^ 
7 i /if XX ci KOKOS yei/<r^at, if he is to become bad (Plat. Prot. 

2. Of the other tenses of fie'XAw, only the imperfect is frequent. 

'O oratf/iof (v6a fpt\\( xaraXOfti/, the station where he was about to halt (Xen. 
Anab. 1, 8 1 ). 'E/xAXTjo-fi/ tKirXtiv, he was about to sail away (Isoc. 6, 44). 

1927. NOTE. Observe the expression TTW? or /mcXXu ; or n ov /xcXXw ; 
how (why) should I not ? with the infinitive present (which often has 
to be supplied). 

v or fjifXXti TO (TofJMiiTf ()()}> KuXXiov (foaivf&dai; why should not 
//.// irtii'-li is \ffittr .//-;...// in-iivr? (Plat. Prot. 309). Tt ov ptXXft 
y<Xoiov tlvai ''-I surely be ridiculous f (Plat. Rep. 530*). Xen. 

////. 4, !. 


194 TENSES 1928 


1928. The perfect represents an action as completed in present 
time ; yeypa^a, I have written. 

1929. NOTE. For periphrastic perfect forms, see 2280, 2281. 

1930. Perfect with Present Meaning. 1. Some perfects denote 
that the action which has been completed has passed into a present 
continued condition ; such perfects thus have present meaning. (For 
the pluperfects, see 1935, 2;. 

Thus KtK\r)fjLa.i. (KaAew), have acquired a name = am called ; (fj,LfjLVfja-K(t)) , have called to mind = remember, Lat. memini ; 

KKT77/xm (, have acquired = possess ; eyvwKa (yiyi/wa-Kw), 

have recognised = know ; Se'Se/xcu (So), have been bound = lie bound ; 

rjfjL&fo-fjMi (dfj.<t>Lcvvvfju.), have clothed myself in = have on; TcOvyica 
(Ovyo-Kd)), have died = am dead ; retfaTrrcu (0a7TTw), has been buried = 
.lies buried ; o-co-fy/jKa (o-Zyau>), have become silent = am silent ; 
pfftrjKa (/ftuVcu), have stepped = stand, also have gone ; eo-n/Ko. (?cm//u), 
have set myself = stand ; TTI^VKO. (<co>), have been produced = am by 
nature ; TreVottfa (7rei'0u>), have put faith in = trust ; Kc'x/)r//xai (\pao- 
jnai), have taken in use = use. So Kc'xAayya (Aaw), clang ; KcVpdya 
(*paa>), cry out, and others. 

2. Some have no regular corresponding present forms. So oT8a, 
know, Lat. novi ; eicotfa, am accustomed ; louca, am like ; SeSouca and 

3. The perfect of verbs denoting a feeling or condition, denotes 
that the subject continues in that feeling or condition. 

'EvTt0f>p.T)(jMi, I am strongly considering (Xen. Anab. 3, I 43 ). 'ETriretfo/ir/Ka, 
/ am full of desire (Plat. Phaedr. 227 d ). TcQopvpTjfjuu, I am in perturbation 
(Aeschin. 2, 4). 'E^Xoxc*, he is zealous (Dem. 2, 15). T(0avp.aKas ; do you 
not admire ? (Xen. Mem. 1, 4 2 ). 

1931. NOTE. A past action, which has already ceased but whose 
consequences are still noticeable in the present, may be expressed by 
the perfect. 

ScoxpaTT/s 8tc<f>6apK rovs veovs, Socrates has corrupted the young men 
(Plat. Apol. 33 C ). Here the perfect expresses, from the standpoint of the 
writer, that either Socrates or the young men may be still living. 

1932. NOTE. The perfects yeyeV^/nai and ye'yova (from yiyvopsu) may 
mean 'to have become or to be now, to have happened or to have been. 



1933. Gnomic Perfect. Sometimes the perfect is used to express 
a general truth, like the aorist (1914). noXAot dia 86gav <al noXtriKrjv 
dvvapiv firyaXa *aa TTfirovQacrir, m-iiiiif suffer great misfortunes through fame 
and political power (Xen. Mem. 4, 2 35 ). 

1934. Perfect as a Vivid Future. 1. The perfect is sometimes 
used emphatically to express a certain future action. 

i(<p6opas, it is all over with you (II. 15, 129). Ei ^^o-erat, 
oXaiXa, if she perceives me, I am undone (Soph. Phil. 75). 

2. The aorist is occasionally so used ; as a TT o> A. 6 /JL e a- ff ap\ el 
KOKOV Trpoj-ota-ofjLv viov iroAat'o), we are undone, then, if to the old we 
add a new ill (Eur. Med. 78)! 

1935. Pluperfect. 1. The pluperfect denotes an action as 
completed in past time; as eyeypd^r/, I had written. 

2. With verbs whose perfects have present meaning (1930), the 
pluperfect has imperfect meaning ; as ^^v-q^v, / remembered ; 
, 1 possessed, rjor], I knew, etc. 


1936. The future-perfect represents an action as completed in 
future time ; as yeypdtyerai, it will have been written ; eyvwtcw 
eo-o/icu, I shall have recognised. 

1937. Future-Perfect equivalent to Future. 1. When the perfect 
has present meaning (as in 1935, 1), the future-perfect has simple 
future meaning. Thus fccKAipro/uu, shall be called ; /ne/xi^o-o/wu, shall 
remember ; KCKTT/O-O/ACU, shall possess ; co-n^o), shall stand ; rcOvrj^u, 
shall be dead, etc. 

2. The future-perfect is sometimes emphatically used for the 
future to denote that something will positively occur. 

2ot y cep(a>, o>y KOI rfTf\r^tvov eorm, but I will declare it to thee 
and it xhall surely be brought to pass (II. 8, 286). *paf , K<U TT t n p rt | r a t, 
speak, and it shall immediately be dour, lit. .sA// lmr> he.en done (Ar. Pint. 
1027). So KoraufKovorff ttro^Ba (Xen. Anab. 7, 6 s6 ), Karayo>y tcrrai and 
&tt<Txi<Tnivov ftrrcu (Plat. Gory. 469* 1 ). 

3. The future-perfect of some verbs is regularly used in Attic for 
the simple future. Thus TrcTiyxio-o/xtu, shall be sold (irpaOrja-ofjML is late) ; 
x7rat'<ro/Acu, shall cease (irav^ijo-o/xat rare in Attic) ; 8e8/<reyuu t shall he 
bound (Bthrja-ofjint less often) ; KCKO^O/XUI, shaW be cut (Kom/a-o/xai late or 

in composition). 





1938. 1. The tenses of the subjunctive, imperative, also of 
the optative and infinitive, when these two latter do not stand in 
indirect discourse, do not express time. 

2. The aorist here simply denotes that the action takes place, 
without any reference to time ; as Trorfaai,, to do. The present 
here expresses the action as going on or continued or attempted ; as 
Troieiv, to be doing, to be occupied with, or to try to do. The perfect 
(which is not often found in these moods, except in the indirect 
discourse) expresses the action as already completed ; as TreTrot- 
rjtcevcu, to have done anything or to be done with anything. See 1892-. 

3. The actual time of the action is not denoted in these con- 
structions by the tense itself, but must be inferred from the 

'A < ovo-vpiv TOV dvfyos, let us hear the man (Plafc. Prot. 314 b ). 
Ei7r<o/Afi/ r) o-iya>p.(v; shall we speak or shall we remain silent (Eur. 
Ion 758). Ta n-Xota KOTcnavo-fv, iva py Kvpoy dt/3#, he burned the shij>x 
so that Cyrus might not cross (Xen. Anab. 1, 4 18 ). Ae'Soiica /AJ? /zoi ft ft rj K y 
6 irarfjp, I fear lest my father may prove to have died (Soph. Phil. 493). 
'Eai> ffjrj/f KaXto?, (vprja-eis, if you seek well you will find (Plat. Oorg. 503 d ). 
Harpts yap e'crri ird<r, 5V av TrpOrrj} TIS fv, one's fatherland is everywhere 
wherever one does well (Ar. Plut. 1151). 'Hi/tV av TIS tipds dSiKfj, fatls vnep 
ip.S>v p.a^ovp.(da, whenever any one attempts to wrong you, we will fight for 
you (Xen. Cyr. 4, 4"). 

Tt av a tr eo^eXoI/i' eyw ; how can I help you? (Soph. Ant. 552). 
*iXoy fjfjLtv y v o i o, may you become a friend to us (Xen. Hell. 4, I 38 ). 
ArJAos' ^....eVi^vjicoi' e ap^tiv, oirats 7r\cio> \ap.[3a.voi, he was clearly 
desirous of ruling, so that he might get more (Xen. Anab. 2, 6 21 ). El d* 
avaynalov fir) adiitelv r) a.8i<d<rdai, c\oip,rjv av p.a\\ov ddiKelcrOai, if it 
should be necessary to do wrong or to suffer wrong, I would prefer to suffer 

wrong (Plat, (rorgf. 469). OVK av cicv (v0i>s 8eSo)>c6rey, they would 

not have proved to have paid at once (Dem. 30, 10). 

Tovr pv deovs <p o /3 o 0, TOVS 8e yovtas Tipd, fear the gods, honour your 
parents (Isoc. 1, 16). B X e \^ o v npbs TO. oprj, look towards the mountains 
(Xen. Anab. 4, 1 ?0 ). Mr) Bav^d^crf OTI ^aXeTroof 0epa> roty Trapouo-i 
-rrpaypao-t, do not be surprised that I am vexed at the present affairs (Xen. 
Anab. 1, 3 3 ). 'A v a y I y v to a- K e TTJV papTvpidv, proceed (or continue) to read 
the testimony, but a v a y v w 6 1 ray pap-rvpids, read (once) the testimony 
(Isae. 3, 14 and 15). 

1945 TENSES 197 

5 H|tou So Or) vai of ravras TUs noXeis paXXov ) Tio-o-a(p(pvr)v ap^fir 
avTvv, he demanded that these cities be given to him rather than that Tissa- 
/ nih them (Xen. Anab. 1, I 8 ). 'OTTOOXH IKOVOI rja-av T&S a*cpo- 
(pvXaTTc iv, as maitii f.s n-<>uld be necessary to garrison the citadels 
(Xen. A nab. 1, 2 1 ). Nvr ovv paXa <roi <aipos f(mv 67rifit'|ao-0ai TTJV nai- 
8dav, now indeed tht is <nt </>///// ,;// fur //</ to show your education (Ken. 
Anab. 4, 6 15 ). Ov ftovXtvca 0ai ert wpa, aXXa /SejSovXeuo-^ai, </ie7'e 
is no longer time to be plnn in<j< but to have a plan made (Plat. Crito 46 R ). 

1939. NOTE. Except in indirect discourse, the aorist infinitive 
seldom expresses past time. 

Ilpos (piXiav p-eya. p*v v-rrdpxei TO CK TWV avr&v <p v v a i, p.iya 8f TO 6/zoO 
Tpa<j>f)vai, it conduces greatly to friendship to have been born of the same 
parents, and to have been bro\ight up together (Xen. Mem. 2, 3 4 ). 

1940. NOTE. For the perfect imperative, see 1982. 

1941. NOTE. The perfect infinitive sometimes denotes that a thing 
shall be positive and permanent; as el-rov Trjv Oupav KCK\cto-6ai, 
they commanded the door to be (kept) closed (Xen. Hell. 5, 4 7 ). 

1942. NOTE. The future optative is found only in the indirect 
discourse corresponding to the future indicative of the direct discourse 
(2016) ; and in final clauses introduced by OTTW? when these follow a 
past tense (2050). 

1943. NOTE. The future infinitive is used in the indirect discourse 
to represent the future indicative of the direct discourse (2193). It is 
also used with verbs of promising, swearing, and hoping (2195). For 
fie'AAco with the future infinitive, see 1926. 

1944. NOTE. Occasionally the future infinitive is found for the 
present or aorist infinitive after verbs expressing intention or wish or 

Tbv noXtfjiov dttvoovvTo 7rpo0Vp.a>s oi(rctv, they desired to corn/ on th>- 

war with spirit (Thuc. 4, 121 1 ). 'EftnvXovTo Tipuprjaco-Qai, th< >i n-'^hed to 

avenge themselves (Thuc. 6, 57 2 ). Thuc. 6, (5 1 ; 1, 27 s ; Soph. Phil. 1394. 

makes the idea of futurity more emphatic, and occurs oftenest in 



1945. When the words or thoughts of a person are quoted and 
made to depend, as a dependent clause, on a verb of saying or thikinif 
or the like, they are said to stand in /-////Y.v/ discourse. The original 



words or thoughts would be the direct discourse. Thus oT8a, I know, 
is direct discourse. But lAeye on eiSeir;, he said that he knew, or 
<pr)orl etSe'i/a i, he says that he knows, is indirect discourse. 

1946. When the optative and infinitive are used in indirect 
discourse, they express time, and their tenses stand for the cor- 
responding tenses of the direct discourse. 

*E\yev on TOVTO TTOIOITJ, he said that he was doing this (he said " TOVTO 
Trotoj," "/ am doing this"). *E\cyfv on TOVTO TT 01170-01, he said that he 
would do this (he said "roirro Trot^crw," "/ will do this"). "EXe-yei/ on rouro 
TT o t f) a- i (, he said that he had done this (he said " roCro eVoij/o-a "). *E\cyv 
Sri TOVTO TT ( re o i r} K<u s fly, he said that he had already done this (he said 
' ' roOro TTfTroiTjua "). 

&rjo~i roCro Ttoiflv, he says that he is doing this (he says "rouro n-otw "). 
4>^(7t roOro TTOITJO-CIV, he says that he will do this (he says "roOro Trot^o-o) "). 
*/;o-i roOro Trot^o-at^ he says that he did this (he says "roOro eVoi'^o-a "). */;o-i 
roOro TTfiroiTjKfvat, he says that he has already done this (he says "rouro 
ircTToiTjKa "). *E<t>q TOVTO noidv, he said that he was doing this (he said " TOVTO 
Troteo"). *E(f)T) TOVTO Troirjo-fiv (rrotyarai, TrcrroiTjKfvai), he said that he would do 
thin (had done this, had already done this). "Ec^i; rovro ircirpa^eo-Bai, he *<ti<l 
that this will already have been done at that time ("roOro -rrcrrptit-eTai."). 

1947. NOTE. The indirect discourse is explained in 2320 2333. 
For the participle in indirect discourse, see 2300, 2301. 

1948. NOTE. The present optative and infinitive of indirect dis- 
course may also stand for the imperfect of the direct discourse ; while 
the perfect infinitive may stand for the pluperfect. See 2018, 2193. 


1949. The tenses of the participle denote the same time as the 
corresponding tenses of the indicative. But the time expressed 
by the participle is relatively present, past, or future, in respect 
to the time of the verb to which it belongs. 


TfX&v Xf'yei, laughing he says; -yeXoii/ eAry* (and eX*f), laughing / 
said; ycX&v Xe, laughing he will say; yf\>v (IprjKt, laughing he has 
said. Here y\>v is always present with regard to verb. 

ypd-^as Xe'yet, having written, he says; ypd-^as (\fyc (or c \fj-c), 
h tiring written, he said; ypfyas Xt'^et, having written, he will say ; "Ep^fTai 
TOVTO \e a>v, he is coming to say this ; anTJXOf TOVTO X i o> v, he came to say 

til /.s. 

1957 TENSES 199 

Oi8a avrov diro&vija'KovTa (airoBavovvra, dnoBavovTa, rfdvrjKOTa), I know 
that he is dying (will die, died, is dead). 

1950. NOTE. In some cases the aorist participle does not express 
time past with regard to the leading verb, but coincidence ; see 2296. 

1951. NOTE. The aorist participle may have inceptive meaning 
(1916); as Kvpos eTriyeAacras etTrc.', bursting out into laughter, 
Cyrus said (Xen. Cyr. 1, 6- >7 ). 

1952. NOTE. The present participle may denote an attempted 

action (1897). 'A7ro8i8pfl<rKOi>ra p.rj 8vva(rdat aTrodpavcu, trying to 
escape and not to be able to get away (Plat. Prot. 317*). 'ATroXXu/ievof, in. 
danger of perishing (Lys. 13, 61). 

1953. NOTE. The present participle may express customary action 

(1898). \(~yov(Tiv o>s e'yo) vo~<ap n Iv o> v ftKortoy 8v(rrponos KOI dv(TKo\os /zi TIS 
avOptairos, they say that <f* I <l rlnl; irnter (habitually), .Z" am a rather stubborn 
and peevix}( ///<*// (Dem. 6, 30). 

1954. NOTE. The present participle may also have the force of 
the perfect (1900) ; so I>ZK<O, am victorious = have conquered, ot viKwi/res, 
those victorious = those having conquered. 

1955. NOTE. Like the present and perfect of the infinitive and 
optative (1948), the present and perfect participles may stand for an 
imperfect and pluperfect indicative respectively. 

of Kt>pfioi irpoa-fav (TVV fjplv raTTo/ifi/oi (=oi (TarrovTo), the Cyreans 
who formerly stood up with us (Xen. Anab. 3, 2 17 ). "Qs <f>d<rtv ol irapovrts 
(oi -irapfjfrav), thus speak those who were present (Dem. 8, 14). ^ax^poyoCvrc 
(Xen. Mem. 1, 2 18 ). Ta> npoa-d' epov K(KTrjp.(v(f, to him who owned before 
me (Soph. Phil. 778). 

1956. NOTE. For the future participle, see also 2243 and 2256. 


1957. The present, perfect, future, and future-perfect are 
called primary or principal tenses ; the imperfect, aorist, and 
pluperfect are called secondary or historical tenses. But the 
gnomic aorist (1914) is a primary tt-nsr. anl the historical pre>-nt 
(1895) is a secondary tense. We must also regard as equivalent 
to primary tenses all forms of the verb which do not express past 
time (2012, 3). 

200 THE MOODS 1958 


1958. 1. The moods are those forms of the verb which indicate 
how the action of the verb is related to reality. 

(a) The indicative is the mood of reality and indicates an actual fact, 
that something is taking place, took place, or will take place. (b) The 
imperative mood expresses a command or prohibition. (c) The sub- 
junctive is the mood of expectation (1986-1992), expressing the ex- 
pectation that something will happen. (d) The optative is the mood of 
simple conception and indicates that the action of the verb is merely 
conceived in the mind. (e) The past tenses of the indicative serve 
also as the mood of unreality, and imply that the action expressed by 
the verb does not or did not take place. 

2. There are two principal classes of sentences : (1) declarations or 
assertions ; and (2) commands or wishes. The negative of the former 
is ov ; that of the latter is prj. 

3. The subjunctive, optative, and the mood of unreality take the 
particle av when these moods are used to express a declaration or 
assertion ; when these moods express a command or wish, they do not 
take av. 

1959. NOTE. Yet the (Homeric) subjunctive in declarations (1991) 
generally does not take av. A protasis expressing an unreal condition 
does not take av (2102). Final clauses occasionally take av (2045). 


1960. The participle av (Epic /te, Doric ted) is used to represent 
a statement as conditional or contingent. It is employed in 
various constructions, of which a synopsis is here given. 

1961. "Av in Independent Clauses. 1. With the secondary tenses 
of the indicative, av is used to denote that something would happen 
or would have happened, but actually does not or did not happen, 
because the condition (expressed or implied) is not or was not 
fulfilled. See 2102. 

'ETTOIOW av TOVTO, I would do this (so. if I could) ; the opposite is 
implied, but I do not do this because I cannot. 'E-rroirja-a av TOVTO, I would 

1964 THE MOODS 201 

have done this (sc. if I had been able) ; the contrary being implied, but I 
did not do this because I was unable. OVK av rjXOov, el /u) cKaXfa-as, I 
xh<ild not have come if you had not called (hence = 7 did come because you 

2. For dv with the imperfect and aorist indicative to express 
customary action, see 2099. 

3. With the present and perfect indicative av is never used. 
For the use of av with the future indicative, see 1925. 

4. With the optative av is used to denote that something might 
or would happen, if some condition (expressed or implied) should 
be fulfilled. See 1993. The future optative never takes av. 

El TOVTO 7rpa(K, KaXvs av fx ol > tf he should do this it would be well. 
*lo~a>s av TIS CITTOI, perhaps some one might say. TOVTO OVK av yevoiTo, this may 
(or might) not happen, as a inild future statement. So \eyois av, you may 
say ( = \fyc), as a mild command. 

5. For dv with the subjunctive in Homer, as equivalent to a 
future indicative, see 1991. 

1962. NOTE. In the above uses, av is rendered by words like 
may, would, should. In the use with the subjunctive mentioned in 
1964, it cannot be translated. 

1963. NOTE. For the omission of av with the indicative in certain 
cases, see 21052108. 

1964. "Av in Dependent Clauses. 1. The particle av is used 
with the subjunctive in all kinds of subordinate clauses. In 
these clauses it does not belong so closely to the verb, but rather 
to the introducing particle or relative. 

2. In conditional clauses, av unites with ci, if, forming idv (rjv or 
&v). In temporal clauses, av unites with ore, OTTOTC, eVei, eVaS?/, forming 
otruTav, ITTUV or iirrjv (Hdt. wcav), fTTctSdv ; with other particles it 
is simply added, as ^vtV av, -os av, Itrr av, etc. In relative clauses av 
is added to the relative, as os av, oirn? av, oto av, d>? av, oirov av, etc. 
In final clauses it is occasionally added to d>>, 0^(09, (poetic) o<f>pa, 
never to ZW ; as w? av, OTTWS dv, typo, av (never iva.- dv, which means 

l<> //MX. "()rav TOVTO 7Toi/v, H'li'ii i/ ou do this. 
Ott ': kom he nvay take. "Qf av p.ddr}f, avTaKowm-. lin w in turn 

fh<if ifi, ii //)-;/ /.,/;/( (Xcli. .\lKili. 'J, ."''' ; luTf ("u- is UniH'C'^sa|-\ ). 

202 THE MOODS 1965 

1965. NOTE. For av occasionally omitted in such clauses, 
see 2101, 2110. For rare Homeric d KC with the opta- 
tive, see 2115. 

1966. "Av with the Infinitive, and Participle. 1. The particle av 
is joined to the infinitive or participle when they represent a 
finite verb which would take av. See 2193, 2194, 2300, 2301. 

Etrt f\ot, e(f>Tj ftovvai av, if he should have anything, he says he would 
give it (doirj av). Ei TI flxfv, f^ 1 / dovvai av, if he had anything, he 
says he would have given it (edvKcv av). Ei TI ftr\fv, ((frrj 8 o v v a i a i>, if 
he had had anything he would have given it (eSoxa av). Oida avrov TOVTO 
iroiovvra av d eWXeuov, I know that he would do this if I commanded 
(eTrotft av). Oi8a avrov TOVTO IT o IT) a av T a av fl eK(\fv<ra, I know that he 
would have done this if I had commanded (eVot^o-ei/ av). Ol8a avrov TOVTO 
TTOIOVVTO av d Kf\vaaifu, I know that he would do this if I should 
command. Whether the infinitive or participle with av stands for an in- 
dicative with av or for an optative with av must bo determined by the 
context. The protasis will usually decide it. 

2. The infinitive with av is used chiefly in indirect discourse ; 
the participle with av is used chiefly as supplementary to a verb 
(2300). But in other constructions the participle with av occurs 
more frequently than the infinitive with av (2125 2127). 
3. The infinitive with av is found very rarely in early 
poetry, once only in Homer (11. 9, 684), and only several 
times in Pindar. The participle with av is absent from 
both Homer and Pindar. 

1967. NOTE. Corresponding to the very rare and perhaps wholly 
Homeric future indicative with oV (1925), we find (but only in Attic) a 
few cases of the future infinitive of indirect discourse with oV ; as in 
Thuc. 2, 80 1 -. In such passages, oV is considered suspicious by many 
scholars, even in spite of the MS. Pindar has /cAeteu/ with KtV in 01. 

1. 113. A few cases of av with the future participle are also found in 
Attic, as Plat. Apol. 30 b . 

1968. Position of av. 1. "Av never begins a clause. 

2. Generally av follows its verb ; as rjA#ov oV, 8otr/ oV, typatya av. 

3. But av precedes its verb in subordinate clauses with the subjunctive ; 
also usually after an interrogative and after a negative or other 
(accented) particle. 

1978 THE MOODS 203 

Ovs av opuxri. 'E7T6iSai> TOVTO ytvijTOt. Tt av (frairjs ; flats &v TOVTO ytvoiro ,- 
ToCro OVK av ytvoiTo. "laws av ano<plvaivro. Ta^' ay, paSt'co? oV, tdra)t 
ar, /zoXtOT* aV, etc. 

1969. NOTE Sometimes av is drawn out of a subordinate clause 
and joined to the verb of the principal clause ; so especially with ou* 
o?8' av ci Or or* av otd* . Thus OVK oto av ft TreicrcuyjU, TreipacrOai 8c XP 7 ? 
(Eur. Med. 941) ; so Plat. Tim. 26 b . 

1970. Repetition of av. Sometimes av is repeated emphatically 
with the same verb ; this occurs in long sentences or when some other 
word than the verb is also to be qualified by it. 

lloiav riv* ovv 1781(77-' av otKotr' av TTO\IV ; what sort of city would you then 
Hk. best to inhabit? (Ar. Ac. 127). Lys. 20, 15; Soph. fr. 608; Thuc. 2, 
41 1 (av three times). 

1971. "Av belonging to two Verbs. With two or more co-ordinate 
verbs which require av, the particle may be joined to the first and be 
understood with the next one or more ; as ftta ovr av I A. o i s ovre 
KaTcio-^oi? <i'/W, by force you can neither gain nor keep a friend 
(Xen. Mem. 3, II 11 ; av is understood with Karao-^ot?). 

1972. *\v with Verb omitted. "Av may stand alone, with its verb 

Ot oiKtrai peyKowiv, aXX' OVK av irpb TOV (sc. eppeyicov), the slaves are 
snoring, but they wouldn't have done so before (Ar. Nub. 5). So ir>s yap av 
(sc. <uy), how can it be? (Plat. Soph. 237 C ). For oxrTrep av ', see 2130. 


1973. The following are the different kinds of independent 

clauses : 


1. Indicative (ov): nee 1974. 

[Homeric Subjunctive with (or without) av (ov) : see 1991.] 

X. Optative with av (ov) : see 19931995. 

4. Past Tense of Indicative with av (ov) : see 1976. 


I. Imperative (/^) : see 1979-1984. 

J Sulipnictivr without av (pi?) : see 1983. 

' )ptative without av (^;) : see 19992003, 2007. 
4 Past Tense of In-licative without av ): see 200k 

204 THE MOODS 1974 


1974. The indicative mood is used in making a direct statement 
and in asking questions ; as \eyei, he says ; ypd^fre^ he will write ; 
OVK rj\6ev t lie did not come ; rl Xe^et? ; what do you say ? 

1975. NOTE. For the imperfect and aorist indicative of customary 
action with av, see 2099. For the future indicative ia final clauses, 
see 2050 For the indicative in wishes, see 2004 2006. For the in- 
dicative in conditional sentences, see Conditional Sentences. For the 
indicative (and subjunctive) with ^ or rf 01* in independent clauses, 
see 1977. 

1976. Potential Indicative. The past tenses of the indicative 
with av are used to express what would happen or would have 
happened, if some condition (expressed or implied) were fulfilled or 
had been fulfilled. See Conditional Clauses. 

1977. A strong denial in future time may be expressed by the 
double negative ov /-u; followed by the subjunctive (generally 
aorist) or by the future indicative. 

Ov ^17 Trauo-to/zai (iXo(ro0a>i/, / shall never cease philosophising (Plat. Apol. 
29<i). OvSfv pr) deivov ird0r)T(, ifim trill surely suffer no harm (Dem. 6, 24). 
Ov a-oi p.rj /iftfnj/'o/iai' Trort, m-r,T trill / follow thee (Soph. El. 1052). Ov ^17 
*i<riT)s, you will not enter (Isae. 8, 24). 

1978. NOTE. For the same constructions used as a strong pro- 
hibition, see 1985. 


1979. 1. The imperative expresses a command; as \eye, speak ; 
-e\0e, come ; d/covo-dro), let him hear. 

2. For the difference in meaning between the tenses, see 1938. 
For the infinitive used imperatively, see 2229. 

1980. NOTE. In dramatic poetry an imperative is some- 
times found connected by an object-relative with a 
question, especially after olvOa ; do you know ? Thus 
oicr0' o Spao-oi/ ; do you know what you must do ? lit. do 
you know what (Eur. Hec. 225). Soph. Oed. Tyr. 543. 
Eur. Iph. Taur. 1204. 
1981. NOTE. The imperative is often preceded by aye (8^), <f>epe 

1986 THE MOODS 205 

(877), or tOt, come/ These expressions are used indifferently for the 
singular or plural, and for the second or third person. 

1982. Perfect Imperative. 1. The perfect active imperative occurs 
only in verbs whose perfects have present meaning ; as io-Qi, know 
thou ; K*xn v0iT i gape (ye). 

2. The second person singular imperative middle, which seldom 
occurs, expresses an emphatic or urgent command to be immediately 
fulfilled ; as TreVaurro, cease (Dem. 24, 64) ; Trio-rot Otdv TreTroiT/o-o, give 
at once the pledge (Xen. Cyr. 4, 2 7 ). 

3. The third person singular perfect imperative passive usually 
expresses that something shall be positive and permanent. 

Eiprjo-Qu) pot, let it have been said by me once and for all (Xen. Mem. 4, 
2 19 ). TfTax&<0, let him have been definitely placed or let him take his place 
(Plat. Rep. 562*). Taura irtiralcrQa*, let this joking of yours now be 
>l (Plat. Euthyd. 278). 

1983. Prohibitions. 1. Prohibitions are expressed by fir} with the 
present imperative or aorist subjunctive ; as pr/ ypd<f>e or prj ypd^rjs, 
do not write ; fir] <f>o/3ov, be not afraid ; ^LTJ <f>o/3rj0fis t do not take fright. 

2. For the difference between the present and the aorist, see 1938. 

1984. NOTE. In prohibitions the third person of the aorist im- 
perative with /AT; is sometimes found ; as ol /M/Sefc fytan/ Trpoa-SoKtj- 
a-drta dAAo>s, and let no one of you expect otherwise (Plat. Apol. 17). 

The second person of the aorist imperative with /AT/ occurs very 
rarely; as II. 4, 410; Aeschin. 1, 161. The present subjunctive in 
prohibitions occurs only in a few doubtful passages. 

1985. NOTE. The dramatists sometimes use the second 

person singular of the future indicative (also of the aorist 

subjunctive) precede! by ov /AT/ to express a strong 


Ov nf) \a\T)o-fts, don't prattle (Ar. Nub. 505). Eur. //'/'/' 

498. Ov /x^ <TKo//7;f, do not jeer (Ar. Nub. 296). These are 

considered by some to be questions ; compare 1923, 2. 


1986. Hortative Subjunctive. 1. Exhortation is expressed by 
the first person of the subjunctive (usually plural, seldom singular) ; 
the negative is /*//. Thus to>/iei/, let us go ; dva\oyi<T<M>fj&0a, let us 

206 THE MOODS 1987 

reckon up ; firj rovro 7roto>//,ef ; Xeye 77, iSco, come, let me see (Plat. 
Rep. 457 C ). 

2. This subjunctive (like the imperative) is often preceded by aye 
(Srj), <c'pe (8>;), or i0i, come ! In the singular it is always preceded by 
one of these or an equivalent expression. 

1987. Deliberative or Interrogative Subjunctive. The first person 
of the subjunctive (not often the third) can be used in questions 
expressing doubt as to an action ; as Iv^v ; shall we go ? The 
negative is pr]. Often /3ov\et or fiovXeaOe precedes (in post- 
Homeric poetry also rarely OeXei? or 0eXere). 

*<u/zei> OVTUS r) pf) (pfopfv; shall I speak thus or not? (Plat. Gorg. 
48O 1 ). Ti e p to fj. a i ; what shall I ask ? (Plat. Gorg. 447)- BovXet <roi f*iro> ; 
do you wish me to tell you? (Piat. Gorg. 521 d ). IIoi ns ovv (pvyrj; whither 
can (or shall) one flee? (Soph. Aj. 404). 

1988. NOTE. The first person of the future indicative is sometimes 
used in the same way ; as lir^^v 7} <riyo>/A/ % ri 8 p & a- o /A e v ; shall 
we speak or be silent, or what shall we do ? (Eur. Ion 758). 

1989. NOTE. A deliberative question is expressed in past time by 

Tt e 8 t /Lie IT o iff <r a t ; orrt' T) p. t\\ov TT o irj a" f t v ; what was I to 
do ? A periphrasis is often used for the present ; as r^ifis de npoa-p-f va>p( v ; 
T) ri xpn rroitlv ; shall we still wait ? or what must we do ? (Soph. Trach. 390). 

1990. NOTE. The expression ri -rdOu; ichat will become 
of me ? is chiefly poetic (Aesch. Sept. 1057 ; Od. 5, 465 ; 
Ar. Pint. 603; Hdt. 4, 118 4 ; Plat. Euthyd, 302 d ). 
Compare 1991. 

1991. Subjunctive equivalent to Future Indicative (in 
Homer}. In Homer the subjunctive (with or without 
av or /ce) is sometimes used like the future indicative, 
and indicates an expectation that something will 

Oi yap roiovs idov avepas, ovde i8o>/iai, for never yet saw /, 
nor shall I see, such men (II. 1, 262). Kat TTOTC TIS tnrjyo-i, 
and some one will (or may) hereafter say (II. 7, 87). OVK 
av rot xpat'tr/iT/o-t fros, nought will (or can) your bow 
avail (II. 11, 387). 

!994 THE MOODS 207 

1992. The above is evidently the primitive use of the subjunctive; 
namely to denote an expectation that something will happen. In its 
other uses the subjunctive mostly contains the idea of futurity. The 
ordinary future tense originally expressed the same idea of expectation. 
This is manifest in the use of the future in final clauses with OTTOOS 
(2050), in relative clauses (2142), and in the use of the future participle 
with the generic article (1389). 

riw/if'i'n 8i eVi/ieXficr&u, o n &> $ trciat c&ovTai at oits, the shepherd 
must take care that his flock be safe (Xen. Mem. 3, 2 1 ), or rather, the shepherd 
must take care so that we may expect that his flock will be safe. 'E8ofv T 
8r)p&> rpiaKovra avdpas aipfitr^ai, ot rovs irarplovs vofiovs a'vyypd'^/'ovo'i, 
tin- )n'<>i>l>' rexol r,'<{ to choose thirty men to compile (or who should compile) 
the laws of the country (Xen. Hell. 2, 3 2 ), i.e. thirty men who would be 
expected to compile the laws, or who are fitted to compile the laws. 'O 
fryrja-opfvos. "in n-ho will lead (Xen. Anab. 2, 4 5 ), i.e. one who is expected 
to lead OT fitted to lead. 


1993. Potential Optative. 1. The optative with av is used to 
express a future (or present) action conceived as possible. Thus 
\eyot, av, he may speak (might, could, would speak). 

Aiy ts TOV avTov irorapov OVK av ( pfta i TJ s, you could not (or cannot) step 
twice into the same river (Plat. Cratyl. 402). *Ev6a n-oXX^i' (ruxppoa-vvrjv 
K CIT a^aB o i av nt , there one might observe many an instance of self-control 
(Xen. Anab. 1, !) :l ). Tt av & I T axpe Xot/x' eyw; how may I benefit thee? 
(Soph. Ant. 552). 'Hdf'wy av bpaiv -rrvdoi^v, I would gladly learn from ii<ni 
(Dem. 50, 67). Ta^' ovv (iiroi rtv av, perhaps, then, some one may say 
(Xen. Cyr. 5, 4 :t *). TtV OVK av 6 poXoyrj &< K v ; who would not admit? 
(Xen. Mem. 1, 1 s ). BovXot'/iqi/ av, I should like = velim (compare cfiovXoprjv 
av = rellem, 2102). 

2 The potential optative often appears as the apodosis of a 
conditional sentence (2113). Thus, AVyoi av, ci lpoi^v t he might speak 
asked him. In all examples a condition may be conceived as 

1994. NOTE. 1. The potential optative which regularly refers to 
the future, sometimes expresses what may turn out to be so ; as 
Brjr av tltv ol Voi; where may the strangers be ? i.e. where will the 
strangers prove to be when looked for ? (Soph. El. 1450). 

2. In the same way the potential optative may express what may 

208 THE MOODS 1995 

turn out to have been so in the past. This occurs occasionally in 
Herodotus, very rarely in Attic writers. 

E*r)<rav 8' a v ovroi Kpr/res, these were probably Cretans, i.e. would 
prove to have been Cretans (Hdt. 1, 2 2 ). Avrat 8e OVK av TroXXat efyo-av, these 
were probably not many (Thuc. 1, 9 5 ). 

1995. NOTE. In poetry the potential optative is some- 
times found without av, especially in Homer ; as ov TL 
KaKurrepov aAAo 7ra0oi/u, I could not suffer anything else 
that is worse (II. 19, 321). Aesch. Ag. 620. 

1996. NOTE. For the potential optative in Homer used 
with reference to past time, see 2104, 2. 

1997. NOTE. The potential optative of the second person is 
sometimes used as a mild imperative. Thus, ^wpots av eto-w, 

go in or you may go in (Soph. El. 1491); OVK av p.w amo'wo, do not 

accuse her (Od. 20, 135). 

1998. NOTE. There is no optative future with av ; compare 1925, 

1999. Optative of Wishing. 1. The optative is used to express 
a wish referring to the future. The negative is fir]. 

^Y/xii/ p.ev 0eoi oolf v eKTTfpo-ai npm/zoio iroXiv, may the gods grant to you 
to destroy the city of Priamus (II. 1, 18). Tovrovs oi Beol aTrorro-aivro, 
may the gods requite them (Xen. Anab. 3, 2 s ). MTJK(TL VTJV, may I no 
longer live (Ar. Nub. 1255). For the difference in the meaning of the tenses, 
see 1938. 

2. This optative is mostly introduced by eWe or el yap, that. 

E*#e <rv...</>iAor fjfjCiv ye'poto, that you may become our friend (Xen. 
Hell. 4, 138). Et ' yfrp ytvotro, that it might be (Xen. Cyr. 6, I 38 ). 

2000. NOTE. In Homer the optative is found a few 
times expressing a permission rather than a wish ; as 
'EXeVr/v Mei/e'A.aos, let Menelaus carry away Helen 
or Menelaus may carry away Helen (II. 4, 19). In such 
cases the optative is equivalent to our English may. 
This was probably the original use of this mood. Com- 
pare 1995. 

2001. NOTE. 1. Homer introduces wishes also with 
aWe and at yap. In poetry t alone sometimes occurs 
(Eur. Hec. 836). 

2004 THE MOODS 209 

2. In poetry, especially in Horner, a wish is sometimes 
introduced by <!>?; as d>s IpK-.-.d-n-oXotTo, that strife 
would perish (U. 18, 107). 

3. A wish is occasionally expressed by TTW? oV with the 
optative ; this is always a question in form. It occurs 
in Homer, oftener in dramatic poetry, very rarely in 
prose. Thus TTWS av oAot/ni/v ; how can I perish ! = 
that I would perish! (Eur. Ale. 864). Od. 15, 195. 
Plat. Rep. 430 d . Very seldom we find W? oV with the 
Optative SO used ; as TIS av Oe&v crot roi/8* apia-rov oV8p* 

loflv Soirj; that some god would grant thee to see 
this most excellent man (Soph. Oed. Col. 1100). 

2002. NOTE. For the present optative in unattainable 
wishes in Homer, see 2007. 

2003. NOTE. In II. 10, 536, we find an aorist optative 
used to express the wish that something may prove to 
have occurred ; at yap. ...cAao-ac'aro /LtwvD^a? ITTTTOV?, 

that they may (prove to) have driven away the 
single-hoofed horses. 

2004. Unattainable Wishes. 1. A wish referring to the present 
or the past and conceived as unattainable, is expressed by a 
secondary tense of the indicative with eWe or el yap. The 
negative is nrf. The imperfect here refers to present time, the 
aorist to past, as in the protasis in 2102. 

E*0c (i\ff P*\TIOVS <ppe'i/ar, O that thou hadst better understand imj 
El. 1061). Ei yap roa-avrrjv Svvafuv et^o/, that I had so great 
a power (Kur. Me. 1072). Eftff <roi rare a-vvfytvitfju^v, that I had 
then been with you (Xen. Mem. 1, 2 W ). E 1 6 e o-f ^iror ftdd/xdi/, that I had 
never seen thee (Soph. Oed. Tyr. 1218). In all these the contrary is, of 
course, implied. 

^uch an unattainable wish is also expressed, but chiefly in 
poetry, by the aorist <eXoi> (wc^eXe?, &<f>\c, etc. from o<et'\&>, 
owe), ou'jht, with the present or aorist infinitive. The negative 

"Q<f><\t p*v Kvpot iji, would that Cyrus were now alive (Xen. Anab. 
2, I 4 ), lit. Cyrii* nuyht t<> lie alive, bufc is not. MI^TTOT' u><f>t\ov Xtntlv 
rq v 2upoi/, O that I had never left Scyrus (Soph. I'hil. 969), lit. / ouyht 
never to have left Scyrus. 


210 THE MOODS 2005 

2005. NOTE. The negative with <Z><J>f\ov and the infinitive is /AT/. 
Sometimes the particles of wishing tWc and ei yap are prefixed to 
as in Eur. Med. 1 ; Plat. Crito 44 d ). 

2006. NOTE. Forms like d yap et^ov and tWc o-wcyevo'/AT/v (2004), 
also ei yap ycYoiro (1999, 2) and the like, were originally protases (2089) 
equivalent to if I had, if I had been, if it might be. 

2007. NOTE. 1. Homer expresses a present unattainable 
wish by (o^eA-ov with the present infinitive (as 11. 1, 415). 
He also uses the present optative (generally with ct#e 
Or ci yap) ', as i yap ourto y Aios TTCUS aiyto^oto c t T/ v, 
that I were the son of aegis-bearing Zeus (11. 13, 825). 

2. For past unattainable wishes Homer uses <50e\oi/ 
with the aorist or (rarely) perfect infinitive ; as in //. 19, 
59 ; 11. 24, 253. 

3. Homer does not use the past tenses of the indicative 
in unattainable wishes. 

4. Homer sometimes has the imperfect w<f>\\ov for 
a><J>(\ov', as in 11. 6, 350. 

5. Often in Homer, rarely in Attic poetry, J>s precedes 

; as in II. 3, 428 ; Od. 14, 68 ; Ar. Ran. 955. 


2008. Direct Interrogative Particles. 1. Questions are expressed 
by interrogative pronouns or adverbs (see 1545) or by inter- 
rogative particles. 

The interrogative particles used in direct simple questions are apa, 

T/ ', apa ov, ov/covr, ov, /j.utv ov ', apa. /AT/, /U.T/, fjL.wv (from ^ ^^) /Aaii> fj,y. 
Of these apa and 77 simply ask for information (like Latin -ne) ; apa ov, 
ouKoDi/, simple ou, and pw ov expect the answer yes (like Latin nonne) ; 
apa /AT/, simple /AT), /AO>V, and /Aoiv /AT; expect the answer no (like Latin 
num). Simple apa or 5 may be omitted, the question is then indicated 
by the tone of voice. For aAAo T} or aAXo n, see 4 below. 

2. Direct double or alternate questions are introduced by Trorcpov 
(or 7roTpa)....T/, whether.... or (Lat. ; but Trorcpoi/ may be 
omitted. For rj /AT/ and T) ov, see 2349, 2. For disjunctive or alternate 
questions (direct and indirect) in Homer, see 2024, 3. 

2010 THE MOODS '211 

3. The moods used in direct questions are the same as in 
direct statements; i.e. the indicative (1977), the potential optative 
(1993 1995), and the potential indicative (1976). For the inter- 
rogative subjunctive, see 1987. 

*A p a c0(\r)(rfi(v &v ia\t)(Qr)vat. ; would he be willing to start a 
discussion with us? (Plat. Gorg. 447 b ). *H ovrot jroXffuoi clo-iv ; are these 
enemies? (Xen. Cyr. 1, 4 19 ). T Ap* OVK &v cVi irav e\6oi; would he not 
resort to every means? (Xen. Anab. 3, l ld ). OVK ovv a-ot ooKel <rvp(popov 
ftvw ; does it not seem to you to be advantageous ? (Xen. Cyr. 2, 4 15 ). O v x 
ovrats \fyes; did you not say so? (Plat. Rep. 334 b ). M o> v oi>x <V9* >' 
dost thou not see? (Soph. Oed. Col. 1729). *Ap* ovv /A 17 eVai/rtoxrerm ,- 
will he, then, oppose us? = he will not then oppose us, will he ? (Xen. Anab. 
7, 6 5 ). M rf (roi 8oKovp*v ; do we seem to you ? = we do not seem to you, do 
we ? (Aesch. Pers. 344). M v (Soph. Phil. 734). MS>v rf (Plat. Lys. 208 d ). 

Direct Double Questions : 

HoTcpov cqs apxfiv r) uXXov KadiaTTjs ; do you let him rule or do you 
<i}>l>oint another ? (Xen. Cyr. 3, l ia ). 'Eypqyopas r) Kadfvdets ; are you awake 
or .uleep? (Plat. Prot. 310 b ). 

4. The interrogative expression aAAo n ^ ; (lit. is it anything else 
than ?) or more commonly aAAo n ; is used in simple direct questions 
and expects the answer yes. 

*A\Xo TI T) o/toXoyoO/xei/ ; do we not agree? = are we doing anything 
else than agreeing? (Plat. Gorg. 470 b ). "AXXo TI </>tXemu vnb 9( a>v ; > // 
not loved by the gods? (Plat. Euthyphr. lO 1 ). Xen. Anab. 2, 5 10 ; 4, 7 5 . 
Plat. Rep. 343-. 

2009. NOTE. Occasionally we have an interrogative sentence 
with TTorepov (Trdrepa) and the second clause with rf is wanting or 
understood : Soph. Aj. 460 ; Thuc. 1, 80 3 . 

2010. NOTE. Answers. Questions like the above can be answered 

1. By repeating the emphatic word of the question, with or without 
some confirmative adverb. Thus Xcyct? ovv TOVTO ovru> x ea/ ^ y u 
then say that this is true? Answer: " At'yw " or "OVTW Srj (<x et )" 
/ do say it ( = yes). -*Apa o~v yt eXe^a? rovro ; Answer : OVK <fA.e. 

2. By 4>rjfju, eyoj, cywye, negatively by ov <^T//xt', OVK eyui, OVK (.yittyt. 
Thus ipa trv yc iirmyouf TOVTO ; did you do this ? Answer : cywy. (yes), 

>y( (no). 

I iy affirmative or negative words or phrases ; as wu, yes . 

yt, KapTa yc, (Ttftonpa yc, most surely ; irdvv p.v ovv, .of T' TOI 

212 THE MOODS 2011 

Am, yes, by Zeus ! dAr/^w? (6p0us) Ae'yeis, yes (lit. you say truly) ; 

(-= maxime), certainly; ov (foy), no; ov Sr/ra, no truly; 

(/tAT/Sa/xais), by no means ; ^Ktcrra, ^Kto-ra ye (minime), least of 
all, not at all. 



2011. In the following sections (2012 2184), besides the finite 
moods in dependent clauses, these infinitive and participial construc- 
tions are conveniently mentioned : 

1. Infinitive with /A 7 after verbs of caution (2056, 1). 

2. Infinitive with or without TO or TOV for OTTHH and the future 
indicative (2056, 2). 

3. Infinitive as object of a verb of fearing (2065, 2, and 2070, 1 
and 2 ; with wore, 2070, 3). 

4. Infinitive in consecutive clauses (2077, 2080, 2081, 2082, 2086, 
2087, 2088). 

5. Infinitive as apodosis after verbs of declaring, thinking, per- 
ceiving, commanding, desiring (2125, 2126). 

6. Infinitive with TTPW (2176, 1; 2177; 2179; 2182, 4); with 
Trporepov v (2182, 1) ; with iWepoi/ TI (2182, 2) ; with Trapo? (2182, 5) ; 
with Trplv y (2182, 6). 

7. Participle after verbs of fearing (2070, 7). 

8. Participle preceded by U>O-T or <I>s and depending on a supple- 
mentary participle (2084). 

9. Participle standing for a protasis (2121, 2122). 

10. Participle standing for an apodosis after verbs of declaring, 
thinking, perceiving, and the like (2125, 1). 

11. Participle standing for an apodosis and not depending on 
another verb (2127). 


2012. 1. In order to indicate that a dependent clause represents 
the words or thoughts of another and not of the speaker (or 
writer), the Greek sometimes uses the optative. This is called 
the oblique optative or optative of indirect discourse. But this 
oblique optative is used only to a limited extent. 

2. The oblique optative is only used when the verb of the 

2013 THE MOODS 213 

principal clause is in a past (historical) tense ; and even then it 
is only used in place of the indicative of direct statement (2016) 
and the interrogative subjunctive (2026) ; the interrogative sub- 
junctive may also be changed to the optative when the verb 
of the leading clause is in the optative (2033). Other forms of the 
verb in subordinate clauses remain unchanged in indirect discourse. 
3. Not only is the gnomic aorist (1914) a primary tense, but we 
must also count as equivalent to primary tenses all forms of the verb 
which do not express past time ; thus also, the aorist subjunctive, the 
optative aorist in conditions (with or without av), the aorist optative 
in wishes, and the aorist imperative. As the optative is often used 
after secondary tenses, but is not allowed after primary tenses, the 
grammarians sometimes speak of a sequence of mood. But the 
following sections will show that this sequence of mood is by no 
means an absolute rule. A sequence of tense, as in Latin, does not 
exist in Greek. 


2013. 1. A statement or assertion may be made directly or 
indirectly. A direct statement or assertion is one given in the 
original words of the speaker or writer (oratio recta). An indirect 
assertion is one in which the original words of the speaker are 
incorporated in a sentence as a subordinate clause dependent on 
some verb of saying, knowing, thinking, also showing, hoping, ap- 
pearing, and the like (oratio obliqua). 

Thus ypa<w 7rto-To AT} v, / am writing a letter, is a direct 
assertion ; while in Aeyct on ypd<f>i e ?r i o- T o A. 77 1/, the original 
words are indirectly quoted as a clause dependent on Ae'y, and are 
said to stand in indirect discourse. 

'2 When an indirect assertion does not pass into the infinitive 
construction (2192), it is introduced by on or cl>?, that. The 
negative in such dependent assertions is ov. After verbs of 
believing and <iuit<- regularly after (f>rjfu, the infinitive construction 

'I. Verbs of *<////;/./ introducing clauses with on or UK are: Acyo, 
tlirov, say; < nurriiti'. . aTruyyc'AAo), announce; aTroKpiVo/ucu, 

reply ; ftiniut, ui/a*pa'o>, cry out ; ST/AOU, show ; SI&MTKU), to teach. 

214 THE MOODS 2014 

But a clause with on or u>s may also follow verbs of perception (see 
2302) and feeling or emotion (see 1688, 1690). 

2014. NOTE. Sometimes on introduces a direct quotation and is 
then practically equivalent to our comma or colon. 

Ilpogfvos drrfv on avros fifii ov r)Tts, Proxenus said, "I am the 
one whom you seek' 1 (Ken. Anab. 2, 4 16 ). Thuc. 1, 137 4 . Dem. 8, 31. 
With later writers <ur is also used thus ; as Plutarch, Themistocles 2. 

2015. NOTE. 1. The conjunction on is properly the accusative 
neuter of oVng, while UK properly means as or how ; but both on and 
ws, that, are used indifferently, except that <I>s seems to be preferred 
when the assertion is made less positively, especially after a verb of 
denial or opinion or hope (at/TcAr/eii/, u>? in Dem. 8, 31 ; v7ro\a/A/?aVets, 
d>? in Xen. Cyr. 8, 3 40 ; oieo-0<u, 015 in Xen. Mem. 3, 3 14 ; e\.iricLv, a>s in 
Thuc. 5, 9*). 

2. Occasionally orrws is used in the sense of o>?, that, seldom in Attic, 
but oftener in Herodotus (after a negatived verb) ; as roVSe ^ rj K e r 
c ATT 1 o-fls OTTCUS rcvci TTOT, take no longer any hope that thou shalt 
gain these things (Soph. El. 963) ; Xen. Cyr. 3, 3 20 ; Hdt. 2, 49 7 . 

3. Atort ( = 8ia TOVTO on), which is mostly a causal conjunction, 
because, is occasionally used declaratively like on, that, in Eerodotus 
and the Orators, often in later writers ; as in Hdt. 2, 50 l ; Isae. 3, 50 ; 
Isoc. 4, 48. 

4. Poetic ovvfKo. (from of; cvKa) and tragic bOovvtua (from 
OTOV tvfKa, both causal conjunctions, are also occasionally 
found used declaratively like d>s ; as (OVVCKO) in Od. 15, 
42; Soph. Oed. Tyr. 708; (60ouWa) in Aesch. Pro.. 
330; Soph. Oed. Col. 944. 

5. Homer seldom has o (neuter of os) for cm, that ; as 

r^tcis ib/icy, o TOI K\VTCL reu^e' Z^OVTCU, we know that they 

possess thy famous armour (II. 18, 197) ; Od. 4, 206 ; 
II. 1, 120. 

2016. The rule for simple dependent declarative clauses intro- 
duced by OTI or &>? is as follows : 

1. If the verb of the leading clause is a primary tense, the 
dependent declarative clause retains the same mood and tense it 
would have in direct discourse. 

2016 THE MOODS 215 

2. If the leading verb is a past tense, an indicative (without 
av) may be changed to the corresponding tense of the optative, 
but very often the original indicative is retained as a more vivid 
form of expression. The potential indicative, potential optative, 
and indicative of unreal condition (2021) remain unchanged. 

\iyti OTI y pa <e i, he says that he is irriting (he says " ypa<p<o ''). 
Ae'y on y p a <p e y, he says that he was writing (he says " eypcxpov "). 
\eyfi on ypax/ret, he says that he will write (he says " yp<n//-o> "). 
Aryfi art cypatyc v, he says that he wrote (he says " eypa^a "). 
\iyti ort ycypa<p(v, he says that he has written (he says " ye'ypa<pa "). 
art e'y e y p a <p e 1 1>, /ie saj/s Ma< /ie /lad written (he says " tyt- 


'yf i ori yeypa\^erat, /ie ai/s that it will have been written (he says 

The same construction also if the leading verb has A.cei, / 
say, Lprj< he has said, XeA.^Tat, z7 will have been said (at that time). 

Einfv on ypd<f>ci or y p a o i, /i said /ia he was writing (" ypacpw "). 

EtVfv art ypa<poi/ (or ypa(poi), /ie said </ia< /ie was writing (2018) 
at the time (he said " Zypafov "). 

EiTTti/ tJrt ypa^-et or ypa^ot, he said that he would (will) write (he 
said " yptn//-eo "). 

on eypatytv or ypa^ttev, he said that he wrote (he said 

EC? P art yf'ypatpfv or yfypa<f>u>s tirj, he said that he had written 
(he said "yc'ypacpa," / hnrr n-rittrn). 

EiVi/ art ey e y p a<pe 1 1/, A-e said <Aa< /ie /iad written (2018) at the time 
(he said " yrxpa<p; ") 

EtVfv ari ytypa^erat or yfypa^otro, /J-e sai^i that it will have 
been written (he said " yc ypa^frcu "). 

The same construction also if the leading verb is any other past 

Indicative unchanged. 

Ayi o>f vftptoTTjs <t/ii, he says that I am insolent, i.e. " vftpurrTjt ci" 
(Lys. _'l. l.i \f'y<t yap a>r ovdtv <<mv ddiKtoTtpov <f)T)p.T)s, for he says that 
"I is more unjust than rumour, i.e. "ovdtv toriv" (Aeschin. 1, 126). 
*E/3oa <Jri ftcurt\(vf irpo<r*px fTat i he shouted that the king was advan 
(Xen. A nab. 1, 8'), he said " irpotrtpx**" w ^^h might have been changed to 
irpo<T(f> XITI >. t \i'Kpnyni' in nnfun'Tts OTI. ( fj o ai/ijp, the persons present 

that thf man was lirin<i ( \ n A nab. 5, 8 10 ), "C" might have been 

216 THE MOODS 2017 

changed to arr). 'EroXfia \eyfiv &>$ inrep tp.o)v e^^povy e'oV eavrov fiX 
he dared to assert that he drew enemies upon himself on your account (Dem. 
22, 59), " ft \Kuo-t " might have l>een changed to e\Ki>creif. r H*e 8' ayye'XXo>i> 
TIS tos 'EXart ta K ar c i\rj TTT a t, some one came announcing that Elatea (has 
been) had been taken (Dem. 18, 169), " KaTciXrjTrrai " might have been changed 
to the optative. y AnoKpivdp,fvoi OTI TT ' p \jf o v o~ i TrpeV/Seis, evdvs dirr)\\a{-av , 
having replied that they would send ambassadors, they immediately dismissed 
them (Thuc. 1, 90 3 ), Trep^oifv might have been used. 

Indicative changed to Optative. 

Ot Qa^aKTjvol e\(yov OTI ovntoiroP OVTOS 6 Trorapos dtaftaTos y t v o i r o, the 
Thapsacenes said that this stream had never before been fordable (Xen. Anab. 
1, 4 18 ), they said "eytvcro" which might have remained unchanged. Kvpos 
e\fytv on f) oSos etrotro Trpos /Sao-iXea, Cyrus said that the march would be 
against the king (Xen. Anab. 1, 4 n ), he said "eorat" which might have 
remained. "Eyvoxrav ol orpartwrat ort <vos 6 (poftos elrj, the soldiers perceived 
that the fear was <//< nnll, '.s.s- (Xen. Anab. 2, 2 21 ), the direct form nevos 6 
0d/3oy tort might have remained. 'E.irdptop.rjv avrta o~eiKvvvai, Sri ototro fjitv 
ftvai o-o<pof, fir] 5' o0, / tried to show him that he imagined himself to be 
wise, but was not so (Plat. Apol. 21 C ), "oifrat" and " f OTI 6 ov " might have 
remained. 'EXe';^ as ol UfXaTrovvfjo-ioi (pdppaKa c /i/3f ^X rj K o if v es TO. 
(ppeara, it was said that the Peloponnesians had thrown (" e/i/Sf/SX^Kao-i ") 
poison into the wells (Thuc. 2, 48 2 ). Optative after historical present in 
Xen. Cyr. 8, 2. 

2017. NOTE. Very often one of two subordinate clauses retains 
the indicative and the other is changed to the optative ; as lAeyor on 
Kvpos fjifv rtOvrjKfv, ' Apiaios <$ Trc^evyw? flrf. they said that 
Cyrus was dead and that Ariaeus had fled (Xen. Anab. 2, I 3 ). 

2018. NOTE. 1. The imperfect and pluperfect indicative are 
seldom changed in indirect discourse to the optative (present and 
perfect), lest, if they were so changed, they might be supposed to 
represent the present or perfect indicative (compare 2193). Thus 
CITTW on ypd<t>oi would regularly be equivalent to cl-rcv "ypacpw," and 
<t7TV on yeypa<o)9 eir; for tlirtv " yeypa<pa " ; very seldom would ctTrev 
OTI ypa<poi Stand for ctTrev " ypa<pov ". 

2. Very seldom do we find such an imperfect indicative changed 
to the optative, and only when the context makes it clear that the 
optative does not represent the present or perfect. 

AtTjyoui/To 6Yt auTot eVt TOVS noXepiovs TrXeotei/, they stated that // / 
themselves had been (or were) sailing against the enemy (Xen. Hell. 1, 7). 

2021 THE MOODS 217 

Here the context shows that nXcoiev stands for eirXcopcv and not 

so in Dem. 30, 20, the context shows that napfirj represents irapffv and not 


2019. NOTE. Observe that tlrrtr on ypa< (ypa'<oi) and etTrev ort 
typa<pv are both rendered in English by " he said that he was writing," 
there being apparently only one way in English of translating the 
Greek present and imperfect of the indirect discourse ; although etTrev 
ort lypa^ev may be expressed by "he said that he was writing at the 
time ". Similarly CITTCV cm ye'ypa^c (yypa<p<jbs 07) and fl-rrtv ort eycypa'</>cti' 
are both translated by "he said that he had written " ; the latter can 
also be expressed by "he said that he had (already) written at that 

2020. NOTE. 1. Very seldom, after secondary tenses, a present 
or perfect indicative is changed to an imperfect or pluperfect (as in 
English) instead of remaining unchanged or becoming an optative. 

'Ej/ TToXX); 817 diropiq r)<rav ot "EXX^i/ey, cvvoovp,(voi fteV, ort e TT! rats /3aertAf'a>$' 
tivpais T) & a v, ..... TrpouSfStoKfcrai/ Se avrovs of . . ./3dp/3apot, the Greeks were 
in <irif il-x/i'iir, reflecting tJiat they were at the gates of the king, ...and that 
the barbarians had betrayed them (Xen. Anab. 3, I 2 ). Here faav stands for 
"Tficv" and npovfcSuiKfo-av for " TrpoSeSoxcao-t," which might have been 
retained (fo-pfv naturally becoming eto-i) or changed to the optative. The 
imperfect and pluperfect may be considered as expressive of the writer's 
opinion that all this was the case at that time. 

2. In Homer this is the regular construction with 
indirect assertions ; as II. 13, 674 ; //. 5, 433. Homer 
does not use the oblique optative in indirect assertions ; 
but he uses it in indirect questions (2024, 3). 

2021. NOTE. The potential optative, potential indicative, indicative 
in unreal conditions (2102), and optative with ct remain unchanged. 

A'yft (or f \fytv) ort eypa-^ftv ai/, he says (or said) that he would have 
written. .Wy (or f\cyfv) ort y pa (pot av t he said that he would write. 'O 
0fu<rrocX^ dnfKplvaTo, ort our' & v avros 2*pfc/>tor &v ovofjuurrbs c'yt'vero, 
o&r tKflvot 'Adtypaibr, Themistocles replied that he would not have become 
famous himself if he had been a Seriphian, nor would the other if he had been 

Athenian (Plat. Rep. 329"). '. \irtKpivaro ort npoa-Bfv av airoBavoitv 
i] rti orrXa IT apadot rj <r a v t he replied that they u-ul<l t ather die than give 
'<// their arms (Xen. A null. L*. 1 i. <liruot. npntrBtv &v airotiavoiptv. *F.( 
tl fjifj tfyQatrav (unreal condition) v\\aftnvrts rove liv&pas. Trpobotiijixu &v 
rt)v TroXti/ (infin. with i/i-), '' "/'/" "'"/ ('" ^/tm) that if they /"/ 

218 THE MOODS 2022 

men beforehand, the city would have been betrayed (Thuc. 6, 61). Etn-ev ore 
A & o i av tls \6yovs f I 6p.r)povs A a /3 o i, he said that he would come to a 
conference with him if he could receive hostages (Xen. Hell. 3, I 20 ), direci 

2022. NOTE. For the treatment in detail of dependent verbs of a 
complex sentence which is put into indirect discourse, see Indirect 


2023. Dependent or indirect questions are of the nature of 
dependent or indirect assertions (2013). Thus ri ypdfai ; what 
is he writing ? is an independent question ; while epwrto TI ypdfai, 
I ask what he is writing, is a dependent question. 

2024. Indirect Interrog itive Particles. 1. Indirect single questions 
are introduced by i, whether (if), occasionally by apa. 

2. Indirect double or alternate questions are introduced by irortpov 
....T}, i....Tf, eir. . . . c?T, whether.... or ; ironpov is occasionally omitted. 
For rj P.YI and rj ov, see 2349, 2. For pronouns and adverbs in 
indirect questions, see 1545. 

3. Homer seldom introduces an indirect single question 
by r) (r)c) ; as <*>X TO 7TU(ro/u.evos /U.CTO, <rov /cXc'os, TJTTOU Ir 
1775, he went to ask for news of thee, if ihou wert yet 
alive (Od. 13, 415). Homer never uses Trdrepoi/. For 
direct double questions (2008, 3), he has 5 (50 ---^ (?) as 
in Od. 4, 632. For indirect double questions, he has rj 
(^e')...7} (r)), as in //. 5, 86 ; the first member may stand 
without any particle, as in Od. 11, 464. 

2025. NOTE. After verbs expressing uncertainty, doubt, or inquiry, 
the Greek uses only el, whether, even where the English idiom has 
whether not and the answer yes is expected. 

2KO^<ur$e ti apa TOVTO <al /icoporaroi/ irfTroirjKaa'iv ol ftdpftapoi, see whether 
the barbarians have not done this most foolishly (Xen. Anab. 3, 2 s2 ). The 
answer, yes, they have, is here expected. 

2026. The rule for dependent questions is the same as for 
dependent assertions (2016). 

1. If the verb of the leading clause is a primary tense, the depend- 

2026 THE MOODS 219 

ent interrogative clause retains the same mood and tense it would 
have in direct discourse. 

2. If the verb of a leading clause is a past tense, an indicative 
(without ay) and an interrogative subjunctive (1987) may be changed 
to the corresponding tense of the optative, but very often the original 
indicative or interrogative subjunctive is retained. The potential 
optative, potential indicative, and indicative of unreal condition remain 

'Epo>ra> TI ypd<pft, I ask (him) what he is writing (direct, I ask ri 
ypdfais ;). So f'pcor&> rt eypatpei/ (ypd\//-ei, fypaA/x-ev, ye'ypa(p*i>, 
eyypd<pt), I ask him what )\f /VN n-r it-ing (will write, wrote, has written, 
had trritt'it): e'pa>ra> rt yeypd^trat, I ask what will have been written. 
The same construction if the leading verb is any other primary tense. 

'Hpd/iiji/ rt y p d<pf t or y p d <p o t, 7 asked him what he was writing (i.e. 
I asked rt ypdfpeis ;). So r)p6p.r)v rt eypa<pf v (or yp depot, see 2018, 1) ; 
f)popj)v rt ypd\ls(i or ypd^ot; rjpopjjv ri eypa^fv or ypa^tf ; ^po/ii/u 
rt ye'ypa<p>oryypa<pa>y t / ; qpopyv ri t y e y p a (p e t (or yeypa<pa>y 
f 1 77, see 2018, 1) ; fjpopjjv ri ytypa-v/rerat or yfypa^otro. 

'Ayvow rt ?r o t oi (subj.) or TT 01170- a> (subj.), / know not what I am to 
do (directly rt TTOIG> or Trot 770-0), subj.). OIK o?5a et 5tSa> aft, / know 
not if I am to give always (directly 6\8a> at ;). Ou< o?8a et ravra f t n &>, 
/ A-/I nir //./ irhi-ther I should say this (directly etTreo ravra ;). 

'E/3ovX<w)x/ro <t an-tcoo-t or dirioifv, they were deliberating whether 
they should depart (directly an-teo/xei/ ;). 'E/3ou\iioi/ro ' roOro noi^craxri or 
v, they were deliberating whether they should do this (directly 

Indicative unchanged. 

OtffQa E.vQvo'Tjuov 6iro<rovs oddi/rar f X 

de.mux has (Plat. Euthyd. 294 C ), direct " Troo-ovt ofidi/rar ? 
rtV fta-ii/, ^nd out first who they are (Xen. ^4na6. 4, 8 s ), direct " n'vep etVti/ ; '* 
*pdo-at, et ^ o-aawmr, consider whether you will preserve me (II. 1, 83), direct 
o-aaKTftf ; Oi/r< rai orparr/ytKO) 5i)Xoi/ (sc. eWt), ft <rvp.<pfpci {rrpcrnjyc'iv, 
nor is it clear to one fit to be general whether it is expedient to be a gent ml 
(Xen. Mem. 1, 1"), direct " o-v/bt0'pet ; " *l8<ap.fv ap* ovraxri y i y v c T a t 7rai>ra 

'< see whether everything is so produced (Plat. Phaedo TO 11 ), direct "n/m 
yt'yvTi;" 'Hn-opow ri TTOTC Xf'y^t, / u?a* at a loss what he meant (Plat. 
Apol. 21 b ), direct '*rt irort \iytt ; " Scvixpav fjiropdro o ri trot^cret, 
//"n too* a< iow tc/iaf he should do (Xen. ylna6. 7, 3* 1 ), direct "ri 
rrotjjo-a) ,- " future indicative for interrogative subjunctive. In these two last 
xampleH we might have had Xc'yot and 

220 THE MOODS 2027 

Indicative changed to Optative. 

*H prjTTjp 5i77po>ra TOV K.vpov iroTfpov fBo v\o IT o p,eviv 77 . dirievai, the 
mother asked Cyrus whether he wished to remain or go away (Xen. Cyr. 1, 
3 15 ), she asked "/SovXet;" for which /SouXerat might have stood. "Hpero o rt 
177 ro o-vvQrjpa, he asked what was the watchword (Xen. Anab. 1, 8 l6 ), 

* l ri eWt;" might have remaiaed unchanged. 'EnvvOavovro , rt ra Trvpa 

K arav ft e o~( lav, they enquired why they had put out the fires (Xen. Anab. 

6, 3 95 ), "rt Karf o-/3<?o-are ; " might have changed simply to the third person 

Karca-ftfo-av . 'Hpwrrjo-av ei 77877 a TT o K f K p i p e v o i fjtv, he asked whether 

they had already given an answer (Xen. Anab. 2, I 15 ), " a 

might have become simply diroKeitpivTai. "O rt Se Trot 770*01, ov 

but what he would do he did not indicate (Xen. Anab. 2, 1 2:{ ), here 71-01770-61 

might have stood. This change also in Homer (as Od. 17, 368). 

Interrogative Subjunctive unchanged. 

OVK f^to rt c T 7T o>, / know not what I should say, Lat. non habeo quid 
dicam (Dem. 9, 54), direct "rt etTrco ; " 'Eptora 6 Kpt'ra)i/, TTCOS- /xe BanTy, 
Crito asks how he should bury me (Plat. Phaedo 115 C ), direct " rreoy a-f 
QaTTTU) ; " Ta 8f Kira>fiara OVK o?8' ft Xpwravra TOVTO> 8 w, I do not know 
whether I should give the drinking-cups to Chrysantas here (Xen. Cyr. 8, 4 16 ), 
direct " 8a> ; ' ' 'EftovXtvovro firt KaraKavo-axri rovs Oyftaiovs.. ..(ire n 
aXXo xpr)(ra>vTai, they consulted whether they should burn the Thebans or 
do anything else with them (Thuc. 2, 4 6 ), direct " Karanava-^p-fv ; " and 
" Xp^o-aifjLfda ; " for which *cara:auo-etai' and xpf)<raii>To might have been used. 

Interrogative Subjunctive changed to Optative. 

'E#ouXeuro, <t TTf/irrote'i/ rivas 77 iravrfs toiti/, he consulted whether 
they should send some or oil .s/i // f/o (Xen. Anab. 1, 10 5 ), direct " irf^iru)- 
ptv" and "io>/if>;" which might have become simply Tre/zTroxrt and ttoo-t. 
Tov Qebv (irffpovro fl Trapadolfv KopivOiots rr^v TroXtv, they asked the god 
whether they should give up the city to the Corinthians (Thuc. 1, 25 1 ), direct 
*' 7ra/ja&a>/Af i> ; " for which rrapad&o-i might have stood. This change also in 
Homer (as II. 1, 18891). 

2027. NOTE. Observe that t (not eaV), whether, stands before 
these interrogative subjunctives. 

2028. NOTE. Very often the construction varies (as in 2017), one 
of two subordinate questions retaining its original mood, and the 
other changed to the optative. 

'EnvvtiavfTO avr&v KCU orrocrrjv ^d>pai/ S 1 77 X a o- a v K.a\ fl o t K o t r o f) X^P"' 
he asked of them what distance they had gone over and if the country was 
inhabited (Xen. Cyr. 4, 4 4 ). So Hdt. 1, 53 1 has one interrogative subjunctive 
retained and another changed to the optative. 

2034 THE MOODS 221 

2029. NOTE. For the imperfect and pluperfect indicative, see 
2018, 1. For the rare change of a present and perfect indicative to the 
imperfect and pluperfect, see 2018, 1, and 2020. 

2030. NOTE. As the oblique optative may stand for the indicative 
as well as for the interrogative subjunctive, an ambiguity of meaning 
may arise. Thus rjyvoovv o r i TTOIOICV or o T i TT o i Y) <r f iav (like 
Latin ignorabant quid facerent) may mean they knew not what they 
were doing or what they did, as well as they knew not what they should 
do. The subordinate clause " o TTOIOUV (Trot^o-etai/) " may stand for 
the direct question "TI Trotov/xcv (cVotTJo-a/xei/) ; " as well as for "TI 

2031. NOTE. The potential optative, the potential indicative, and 
the indicative in unreal conditions (2012) remain unchanged (compare 

'Hpomjo-f rovs 7rpo<pv\aKas, TTOV iav tdoi Ilpo^evov 77 KXeap^oi/, he asked 
nlvanced guards where he could see Proxenus or Clear -chus (Xen. Anab. 
2, 4 15 ). OVK old* on av cTToirjo-fv, I know not what he would have done 
(Isae. 5, 20). 'Hde'cay &v f}fj.)v 7rvOoip.r)v, riv* a v Trore yvatprjv irfpi cpov 
e t^f re, (I P.TI 7riTpir)pdpxr)<ra, I would gladly find out from you 
" l it opinion you would have of me if I had not been trierarch beyond the 
legal time (Dem. 50, 67). 

2032. NOTE. For the treatment in detail of dependent verbs of a 
complex interrogative sentence which is put in indirect discourse, see 
Indirect Discourse, 23202333. 

2033. NOTE. If the leading verb is an optative, an interrogative 
subjunctive may be changed by assimilation of mood to the optative. 

OVK &v xoir...o rt XP<? <VT<?I yu would not know what to do with 
yourself (Plat. Crito 45 b ) ; similarly Plat. Gorg. 486 b . So also X aptcvra yovv 
rratfot/z' -, d ^117 \otfi onot ravra ttaraQ (irjv, I should be nicely off if 
I should not know any place to put these down (Ar. Eccl. 794). As we 
regard the optative in conditional clauses as equivalent to a primary tense 

7), this change is contrary to the general rule that the optative (without 
av) follows only secondary tenses. 

2034. Dependent Clauses after Implied Inquiry. 1. A dependent 
question may depend on a verb which does not of itself signify, but 
really implies, an inquiry. Such a dependent question has the form 
of a protasis of a conditional clause (2089), with cuV or c. Some idea 

222 THE MOODS 2035 

like in order to find out or in case that, is here implied ; the force of 
the particle edv or et may also be rendered by if perchance. 

2. After primary tenses, edV with the subjunctive is generally 
found (but also ci with the optative) ; after secondary tenses ei with 
the optative (but lav with the subjunctive may be retained). 

y<TK(rdf, eav dXrjBf) Xeytw, call to mind if I speak the truth 
(Andocides, 1, 37). Hap\r)\v8ap,cv els rfjv iro\iv t v 8vva>fj.e6a Trap' 
vp,a)v dya&ov n fvpia-Kcardat, we have come into the city ..... to see if we could 
obtain some service from you (Xen. Anab. 7, I 31 ). 2Ko//m eav KOI trot 
v v 8 o K fj, consider if you also agree (Plat. Phaedo 64). E?/u yap ts 
Sirdp-rrjv ____ voarov trtva-op-fvos irarpbs (ptXov, rj v TTOV a K o v <r eo, I am going 
to Sparta to ask about my father's return, if (or to see if) I can hear 
anywhere about him (Od. 2, 360). Qtridos ds dvd<Topov $a<r<ra> rdS' (\9ov(r', 
Sjv /it K at \Va-rj davflv, having come to the temple of Thetis here, I sit here 
to see if (or in the hope that) she will hinder me from being put to death 
(Eur. And. 43). 'Ixe'rat ____ d^iy^ifda, ft riva noXtv (frpdo-ftas rjfiiv Vpov, 
we have come as suppliants, to see if, perchance, you could tell us of some 
city of good wool (Ar. Av. 120), or we have come in the hope that, etc. Toi/ 
SIKTTTJVOV oio/xat, ei iroBfv (K&iav dv8pa>v p.vr)(rrf)p<av <rK(O'ao'iv...6 i rj, I am 
expecting the unhappy man to see if perchance he should come and scatter 
the suitors (Od. 20, 224). 

'EfioKft KaXf'oru (Kfivovs, fl #ouXoii/To (TU/i/xa^tai/ Trotiyo-ao-^ai, it was 
resolved to call them to inquire if they wished to make an alliance (Xen. 
Anab. 5, 4 :l ). nf^avrts Trap' '\0rjvaiovs rrpfo-fteis, ft 7ra>y nfia-fiav fu?... 
vf<i>Tfpi(iv, they sent ambassadors to the Athenians to see if they could 
persuade them not to take any new measures (Thuc. 1, 58 1 ). 'ESt'ovro roO 
'Apiora-yopfo), t Ka>r aurot<7t TT a patriot dvvap.iv, they besought Aristagoras 
if he could in any way furnish them with a force (Hdt. 5, 30*). ? H<rro KOTO) 
opowv, iroriSfypfvos ft ri piv eirrot, he sat looking down, waiting if she 
would xj>f<ik to him (Od. 23, 91). Subjunctive with edv retained after 
secondary tense : 178' 17 Kco/uu&ia frrovcr' r)\&, fjv irov Virv^j? Qedrals ovrot 
o-ofpois, this comedy has come seeking, if perhaps it meet with spectators so 
clever (Ar. Nub. 634). 

2035. NOTE. These dependent clauses are really protases of 
conditional sentences (2089) ; but they resemble indirect questions 
so closely that they are introduced here. 

2036. NOTE. 1. Such dependent clauses are especially 
frequent and varied in Homer, who has et /ce (a? *ce) and 

2. Karely Homer has ? KC with the optative in such 

2040 THE MOODS 223 

clauses; as i^vaiyei ____ etTre'/xcv, et K irf.p v/n/u <t'Aov... 

yevoiro, he bade me speak, if perchance it should be 
agreeable to you (II. 7, 387). And rarely he has et with 
the subjunctive; as in II. 15, 16 (ov prjv oi<5' ei.... 

7ra v prj a i). 


2037. Final clauses express purpose. They are introduced by 
Iva, ox?, OTTO;?, and (Epic and Lyric) ocppa, that, in order that = Lat. 
ut ; and by.tW /AT;, &>9 /AT;, O7ro>9 ^, oc^pa //,/;, or simple /AT;, /ia 
not, in order that not = Lat. w. 

2038. NOTE. The origin of Iva is uncertain, 'fi? is originally a 
relative adverb of manner, in which way, hou\ "OTTCO? is by origin an 
indefinite relative adverb of manner. *O<f>pa is originally a temporal 
particle, meaning while, until (2172). 

2039. Final clauses are of two kinds : those expressing absolute 
purpose (2040), and object-clauses after verbs of effort, care, or 
attention (2050). For object-clauses after verbs of fearing, see 

2040. Final Clauses of Absolute Purpose. Final clauses take 
the subjunctive after primary tenses, and the optative after 
secondary tenses ; but the subjunctive is very often retained after 
secondary tenses. Thus <ypd<f>a) iva /A a #779, I write that you 
may learn ; eypa^jra 'iva /JLO. 6 o is (or /judOy^, I wrote that you 
might learn. 

Kvvas rptfais, Iva trot TOVS Xi>Kovs....d IT ( pG K a> <r tv, you real dogs, that 
th>-\i tint'/ k'ji off i/'o/rr.s for //"" (Xen. M< in. 2, '.-). lltipaKiiXdf uiT/)fn\-, 
OTTWJ d-rroddvTj, you call in />h i/xician$, that he may not die (Xen. 
Mem. 2, 10 2 ). 'E/ioi 8os avra, 5 IT u> S....8 in 8 <a, give them to me, that I may 
distribute (Xrn. ''//. 1, 4 lft ). Ktrrw rt STJT* K&\\\ JV opyi<rr) nXtov ; shall 
I say still more, that you may be"jnore angry ? (Soph. Oed. Tyr. 364). Qv\ 
otrov rd)(os ^TT* avrov tit Sfvpo, p.rj rtf a v a p ir d <r r; ; will you not bring 

here as quickly as possible, lest some one may seize him? (Soph. I 
987). Karavfixropai, o(ppa TT rr o t'# ; r, / trill nod that Hum //mi/of hurt 
1, 524). Tourou (vfna (pi\(>v O>TO ftdrrQm, w s trvi'fpyovs tx ni < 
for this purpose he thought he needed friends, that he tni<iht h<n-i <-,I-H-,, 
(Xen. Anab. 1, 9 al ). Kltrdyti (historical preaent) dcipirr, Ti-' 7XXor pq rtr 

224 THE MOODS 2041 

18 firj rdSe, she led me into the tent, that no one else might know it (Eur. 
Hec. 1148). <fri\os e/3ovXfro dvai rots /ieyierroi/ dvva/j.evois, Iva ddtK&v p.r) 
diSoir) diKrjv, he wished to be a friend to the most powerful, that he might 
do wrong and not suffer punishment (Xen. Anab. 2, 6 21 ). Subjunctive 
retained: Ta 7r\ora...KareKavo-ei/, Iva /zr) Kvpos 8ta/3j/, he burned the 
vessels, that Cyrus might not cross (Xen. Anab. 1, 4 18 ). Navy of KopivOioi 
7r\r)povv, oTTcas- vav/ia^iaf dTroTTipa<ra><ri, the i Corinthians manned 
ships, that they might try a naval battle (Thuc. 7, 17 4 ). 

2041. NOTE. The subjunctive in final clauses is the subjunctive 
of desire (2064, 1986) ; the optative is the oblique optative. 

2042. NOTE. 1. The retention of the subjunctive in final clauses 
(also with verbs of fearing) after secondary tenses is much preferred 
by Thucydides (especially), Herodotus, and Aeschines ; somewhat by 
Lysias and Isocrates. The optative is much preferred by Homer, 
Pindar, the Attic dramatists, Isaeus, Plato, and especially Xenophon. 
In Demosthenes the usage is about equally divided. 

2. The optative and subjunctive may be used in the same sentence ; 
as in Thuc. 6, 96 1 . 

3. The few rare cases of the optative in final clauses 
after a primary tense (as in 11. 1, 344), are perhaps 

2043. NOTE. 1. "Iva final is almost exclusively used in Plato and 
the orators, and mostly in Comedy. "OTTW? final is largely preferred by 
Thucydides and Xenophon. 'Os is by far the favourite final particle 
in Tragedy ; it is rare in Aristophanes and Herodotus ; it is less common 
than OTTOJS or iva in Xenophon ; while it is almost entirely absent from 
other Attic prose. In Homer cty/xx is greatly preferred as a final 

2. For that not in final clauses, simple /XT; is largely preferred to 
iva /XT;, 0)5 /XT;, etc., by Homer, Hesiod, and the lyric poets ; simple /XT; 
is also somewhat preferred in Tragedy. Herodotus and Aristophanes 
decidedly prefer Iva /XT;, etc. In Attic prose Iva /xrj, u>5 /XT;, and OTTWS /XT; 
are the final negative particles in regular use. Simple /XT; in final 
clauses is rare in Attic prose : Plato and Xenophon together have over 
thirty examples ; Thucydides only about five ; in the orators it hardly 
ever occurs. 

2044. NOTE. Assimilation of Mood. A final clause may be in the 
optative when it depends on an optative. 

2046 THE MOODS 225 

OVK eVi0Ta/i$a, ort f3a(ri\fvs fjfias aTroXeVai ?repi Travros av n o irj & a IT o, 
i v a nal rots dXXou "EXXqo-i <f)6ftos etrj ; do ire not know that the king would, 
abort' nil. //Av to i/.-.^rn/ H.S-, .so f/r$ </ie Greeks might be afraid? (Xen. 
2, 4 s ). Compare 2033 and 2048. 

2045. NOTE. Addition of av (*'). The final particles us, OT 
and o<f>pa sometimes add dv (KC), which hardly modifies their meaning. 
But tva final and urj final never add av. "Iva av means wherever (1964, 
2), and ^ can be used with the potential optative with av after verbs 
of fearing (2066). 

1. 'Qs dv with the subjunctive occurs in Xenophon (almost never 
in other Attic prose); as o>9 8' av pd6r)s,...avTdKov(rov, that you 
may learn, hear the other side (Xen. Anab. 2, 5 16 ). 

2. "On-tus dv with the subjunctive occurs in Attic prose and poetry ; 
as d9 ly/ia?, oTTcos av e i S u> /x, e v, you shall lead us, that we may 
know (Xen. Cyr. 5, 2 21 ) ; Soph. El. 41 ; Ar. Lys. 1223 ; Dem. 19, 298. 

3. 'Ds av and <!>? K with the subjunctive are more 
common in Homer than <os alone ; as Od. 5, 144 ; II. 1, 
32. Herodotus also has u>s dv ; as in 1, 36 4 . 

4. *O<f>p av and o<pa KC rarely occur in Homer ; as Od. 
3, 359 ; 17, 10. 

5. 'fls oV and d>s KC sometimes occur in Homer with the 
optative after secondary tenses, rarely after primary 
tenses; as //. 12, 26; Od. 2, 53. *O<j>pa KC and 6<j>p av 
hardly ever occur. Herodotus has w? av and OKW? av 
with the optative in a few cases after secondary tenses ; 
as 1, 99 3 ; 7, 176 7 (after a primary tense in 1, HO 4 ). In 
all these cases the optative with dv is potential rather 
than final. So also u>s dv and OTTWS dv with the optative 
(after secondary tenses) are very rare in Attic prose : d>? 
ui with the optative occurring mostly in Xenophon (as 

7, 5 37 ); o7r<os dv occurring very rarely in Xenophon 
(Hell. 4, 8 l ), and only once in Thucydides (7, 65 s ). 

2046. NOTE. Future Indicative for Subjunctive. With 
,;, and very rarely with d>s, o<f>pa, and ^ the future 
indicative is also used in final clauses. This occurs very 
rarely, and only several times in prose ; as o-Zyatf', o TT o> s 
p.r) iTfvfr e T a i TIS, be silent, tliat no one may hear 
(Aesch. Cho. 265). 


226 THE MOODS 2047 

2047. NOTE. Ellipsis of the leading verb occasionally occurs with 
tra, rarely with <I>s; as Iva o-ui>TeV<*> ravra, to cut this short (Dem. 
45, 5) ; d>5 (rvrre7/.u> (Eur. Tro. 44=1) ; some expression like I (wish to) 
say this, is understood. So Iva. re, that what (should happen) ? (Ar. 
Nub. 1192). 

2048. Unattainable Purpose. In Attic Greek iva, and sometimes 
also OTTOX? and &>?, are used with past tenses of the indicative to 
express a purpose which is not or was not attained. Such an 
imaginary purpose depends on some unreal condition or state- 
ment (2102, 2004) or unattainable wish, or on some unperformed 
action ; the tenses of the final clause here have the same force as 
in unreal conditions (2102). Thus eypatya av, Iva e/^afle?, 1 
should have written, that you might learn, implying 1 did not write 
and you did not learn. 

TIpo TroXXoO av ciroirjo-dfiTjv fVioTfiXat (rot raCra, ti>', et iwfitr6qt, pr] 
TTjXtKovrto Ktvddvto irfpi(ir((r(s, I should have esteemed it as very important 
to have sent you this little, so that, if you had been persuaded, you might not 
have fallen into so great a danger (Isoc. Epist. 2, 12). Ei yap a>(pt\ov oloi re 
flvai ol TroXXoi Wi /ieyiora *cacn f(pyd(O'6ai, iva oloi T' rftrav av <al dyada 
ra peyurra, that most persons were able to accomplish the greatest mischief, 
that they might be able to accomplish the greatest good (Plat, d-itn 44 d ), 
implying that they cannot. Tt' p ov Xa/Swi' etrtivas evBvs, a> s eSft^a 
fjLTj-rroTf epavrov ; why did you not seize and instantly slay me, that I might 
never have shon-n nnj*-lf? (Soph. Oed. Tyr. 1391), implying but you did not 
slay me and / have shown myself. 'Expfjv o-e n^-yao-ou *vai irrtpbv, o IT co s 

(tpaivov TpaytKtoTtpos, >in tnujht t<> h<u-i' xmlillnl fh<- wing of Pegasus, 

that you might appear (Ar. Pax 135), implying but you did not, and 
therefore did not appear. Plat. Leg. 959 b . Eur. frag. 442. Lys. 3, 21. Dem. 
29, 17. In prose <is is so found only in Xen. Anab. 7, l aj ; and OTTCOS in 
Dem. 36> 20. 

This construction is an assimilation of mood, as in 2033, 2044. 

2049. NOTE. In several instances we find av added after Iva and 
OTTUJS, to these indicatives : Isae. 11, 6 ; Plat. Leg. 959 C (OTTWS w lyiyvero) ; 
Pseudo-Plat. Sisyph. 387 H . The av probably does not belong here. 

2050. Object-Clauses after Verbs of Effort, etc. 1. After verbs 
denoting effort, care, or attention, object-clauses are introduced by 
OTTO)? and OTTO)? /jurj, and regularly take the future indicative after 
primary and secondary tenses. After secondary tenses the future 

2053 THE MOODS '2 "2 7 

op ative is occasionally used. Thus (f^pomi^oj OTTCO? rovro 
7 evi] crer at, I take care that this may happen; <f>p6vTiov 
o TT CD ? ft 77 roOro y evrfa" Tai (or 7 e i/ 77 <r o i r o), I oo& care 
Mrt /iis should not happen. 

Tov noiptva tVi/if Atta^m Bet, o ?r to y (rawu ? <r o i/ r a i at otey, a shepherd 
must take care that the flock be safe (Xen. Mem. 3, 2 1 ). *pdi/rie OTTCDS /^Sfv 
avaioi> r^y rf/zf/s 1 TOVTTJS irpdfts, take care that you do nothing unworthy 
<>t thiit rank (Isoc. 2, 37). 'EKflvo p,6vov (Trjpovv, OTTO)? p.rjo'ev ra>i> irarpiotv 
xaraXoo-ouo-t, /ar that only they cared, no< to abolish any of the institutions 
of their fathers (Isoc. 7, 30). *Eirpa<ro-ov onus ns ftorjOcia j^ei, they were 
truing to effect that some help should come (Thuc. 3, 4 H ). Optative Future: 
f7Tfji\('iTo 5 TT o> s p. r) a&iToi iroTf f <r o i v T o, he took care that they should 
never be without food (Xen. Cyr. 8, 1 4;{ ), here fo-ovrai would he more usual. 
For OTTO)? and onus pt) with the future indicative in commands, see 2058. 

2. Such object-clauses may also take the subjunctive present 
or aorist, but this is much less common. The optative present or 
aorist occasionally stands after secondary tenses. 

*Eirpa<T(Tov o TT o> s tr6\fws y e v rj ra t, he was trying to effect that a war 
ini'iht be brought about (Thuc. 1, 57 3 ). Dem. 6, 25. Optative Present and 
Aorist: Xen. Symp. 3, 5; A nab. 1, 8 1:< . 

3. For object-clauses after verbs of caution, see also 2055. 

2051. NOTE. Such verbs of effort, attention, and care are : eVi- 
/xcA.e'o/A<u, /xe'Aci /xot, </H>!>T<.'<I>, to take care, to strive for ; TT/pe'w, to give 
heed to ; irpoOvpcofAai, o-7rou8tto>, to be eager or zealous ; Trpcuro-w, to do, 
to effect ; irapao-Ktvd&pai, to prepare, to work for ; /A^ai/ao/ucu, to 
contrive ; bpdo>, GTKOTT^ to see to it, to consider ; and the like. The 
future after these verbs is the future of expectation (1992). 

2052. NOTE. As on-w? is properly a relative, how, in such a ira// 
as, it is occasionally replaced by OTTTJ or OTO> TPOTTW, or e' OTOU rpoirov 
(Thuc. 1, 65 2 ; 4, 128 5 ; Dem. 16, 19). We occasionally find o^r^, 
thus, so, with the leading verb, corresponding to OTTWS with the 
subordinate (Xen. Cyr. 1, 6 7 ). 

2053. NOTE. 1. In Attic Greek we occasionally find 0?? di/ with 
the subjunctive in object-clauses, but very rarely except in Xenophon, 
Aristophanes, and Plato. The original relative force of on-ws, //<//, 
is here more apparent. Thus TWV oAXwi/ e'Tri/^A^rTcu OTTW? av 6^ t , .:.- 
a iv, he takes care that the others hunt (Xen. Cyr. 1, 2 l ) ; Ar. Eq. 

. Plat. Hep. 

228 THE MOODS 2054 

2. In a few cases Xenophon has w; or (very rarely) o>? av with the 
subjunctive in object-clauses ; as eTrt/u-e/VoiWai <!> 5 I x 11 OUTWS, they 
take care that this may be done (Xen. Oec. 20, 8) ; Hipparch. 9, 2 (d>? 
av). He has u>? (like OTTWS) with the future indicative twice, once with 
the future optative (Cyr. 3, 2 13 ; Hell. 2, I 22 , opt.). 

3. Cases of on-ws av with the optative, which are occasionally found 
in Xenophon and almost never in other Attic writers, are potential 
optatives ; as in Xen. Oec. 2, 9 ; Cyr. 7, 5 70 . 

4. Herodotus has d>s with the future indicative in two or 
three places (as in 3, 84 1 ) ; ws av with subjunctive only 
in 3, 5 3 . He has OKWS dv with the optative several 
times (as in 2, 126 2 ), OKWS av with subjunctive in 1, 20 2 . 

2054. NOTE. 1. In Homer object-clauaes with OTTWS or 
u>s nearly always take the subjunctive after primary 
tenses, and the optative (not future) after secondary 
tenses. The particle AC usually accompanies J>s and 
the subjunctive, sometimes also O7rw9. 

Hfipd o TT o> y n v 8rj o~r)v Trarpida yalav t K rj a i, try to reach 
at length thy native country (Od. 4, 545). 4>paofi#a 'Apyd- 
oi<rtv o IT a) $ o^' apiara y 4 v o i T o, we were deliberating how 
the best might occur for the Greeks (Od. 3, 129). 4>pa<7<rTai 
to s * t v t T) T a t, he will devise that he may come home (Od. 
1,205). Touri 5c rrdXX* cVcVeXXff ..... neipav a>r nenidotev 
d/zo/zoi/a Ur)\fi<ova, he gave them many orders to try how they 
might persuade the blameless son of Peleus (II. 9, 179). 

2. Rarely does an object-clause in Homer take the 
future indicative : Od. 1, 57 (OTTWS) ; 4, 162 (o<J>pa) ; 17, 
6 (o/>pa). 

3. Where OTTWS is found with the future indicative, it is 
mostly an indirect interrogative (" how ") ; as <f>pdto ivv 
OTTTTCO? KC 7rdA.u/....o- a di o- i s, see now how you are to 
save the city (II. 17, 144). 

NOTE. Object-Clauses with py. 1. After verbs expressing 
caution, Attic writers and Herodotus sometimes use simple fj.rj with 
the subjunctive (rarely future indicative), as well as the regular OTTWS 
pri with the future. Such clauses belong also under 2065. 

Tovr 8f av&panrovs av <pv\dr), fir) <r....a T I p, a. & a> tr i v, you will also 
have regard to the opinion of men, lest they should despise you (Xen. Mem.. 

2058 THE MOODS 229 

2, 2 U ). Hdt. 7, 103 4 . Future: opd ^77 noXXvv cudo-To* x fL P< v 8q<rei, 
tub- ,-u/v /.-.s/ each one of us way need many hands (Xen. Cyr. 4, I 18 ). 
Compare the occasional use of OTTWS /zq for ^T] after wer&s of fearing (2068). 
2. In Homer /j with the subjunctive or optative is 
always used in object-clauses for the regular Attic oVws 
fjLj'l : see II. 5, 411 ; and 21, 517. 

2056. NOTE. 1. Verbs of caution may also be followed by the 

infinitive with /xy (2070, 1); as crAa/foviro /Ar/SeTrore c/UTTO&i)!/... 

civai, /*e?/ /oofc care never to be in the way (Plat. Prot. 315 b ). 

2. Sometimes the infinitive with or without TO or TOV takes the 
place of OTTWS with the future indicative, especially after eiri/ieAe'ofuu. 

'Aei rtva eVe/zeXoiro <r(p&>i> avrfav fv rdis appals iv ai, they always took 
care that one of themselves should be in the offices (Thuc. 6, 54 6 ). 'AvayKdovrai 
TO VTTO olvov P.T) cr<pd\\r0ai eVi/xeXelo-^ai, they are obliged to take care 
not to stagger from the effects of wine (Xen. Rep. Lac. 5, 7). 'ETrt/^eXov/uu 
ToO ape <rat roi apco-Koi/Tt fioi, I take care to please him who pleases me 
(Xen. Mem. 2, 6^*). See the syntax of the infinitive. 

2057. NOTE. Some verbs which regularly take an infinitive, are 
sometimes followed by an object-clause. These are verbs of desiring, 
contriving, requesting, commanding, and the like. 

IIapfCrKvdoVTO 7T CO S f <T ft d\ O V (T I V ($ TT)V KaTC0 MdKfdoviaV, 

prepared to make an incursion into lower Macedonia (Thuc. 2, 99 1 ). 
'E 8 i. o v T o TQ)V orpaTTjytov o K a> s d TT dy o ic v <r<f)cas oTrt'trco, they requested 
the commanders to lead them home (Hdt. 9, 117). IIeipao-$at O7r<or....0-eoayie0a, 
t<> try to save ourselves (Xen. Anab. 3, 2 :{ ). Ot (vScKa TT apayy (\\ova- 1 
o TT a> j a v -rfjdf rff rjpfpq r t\ ( vr tj <r y, the Eleven commanded him to die on 
tli ix . ilmi ( Plat. /'// AtnceXei;oi/rat OTTO)?, (irttSdv dvrjp ycvrjrai, 

TipvpTjo-fTai. irdvras rovs TOIOVTOVS, they exhort him to take vengeance on 
/i// sm:h when he becomes a man (Plat. Rep. 549"). 

2058. "OTTOI? and ' OTTWS fir} in Commands (Fut. Indie.}. In 
Attic Greek the future indicative with OTTO)? or OTTOX? pr] is some- 
times used independently in commands or exhortations, or even 
warnings. This occurs mostly in the second person. Sometimes 
<f>ep or aye, come now, introduces these clauses. 

"Oireor ovv t <r t & 6 f nv8p(t tot rr;r eXevfcpias, (prove yourselves to) be 

men worthy nf f,-< <!<>, n (Xn. Analt. 1, 7 :< )- "O rr w 9 pot p. 17 f'pftr art Vrt 

T bd>b<Ka bis t, (see to it that yu) '/o not, tell me that twice six are twelve 

<Mp &T) on <ot p.(p.vrja-(tp.6a ravra, come not' 1 , M .s 

re m> / I |06 < > TT u> f raiVa p.rj&tls irV(T(Tai, I ft no 

one find ti I. I 1 In U.K. an example (3, 142). 

230 THE MOODS 2059 

2059. NOTE. This construction is probably due to the omission 

of some imperative like o-KoVei (cncoTreiTe) O1* <f>v\a.TTOv (<vAarTeo-#e) and 
occurs only in conversation. 

2060. NOTE. Barely OTT^S /XT; is so used with the subjunctive ; as 
in Xen. Symp. 4, 8. 

2061. NOTE. In several cases oVws /XT; is used independently with 
the subjunctive to express warning; as OTTWS ye /XT) 6 O-O<IO-TT;S.... 
ia.7raTr]<rr] T;/xa9, don't let the sophist deceive iis (Plat. Prot. 313). 


2062. After verbs and expressions denoting fear, the object of 
the fear is introduced by ^, that, lest, or ^ ov, that not, lest not. 

2063. If the fear is expresssed that something may happen or 
may not happen, the object of the fear takes the subjunctive with 
pri or fjLr) ov after primary and secondary tenses ; but after 
secondary tenses the optative may be used. Thus <o/3oO//,at /u, r) 
TOVTO yevrjTai, I fear that this may happen ; <f)o/3ov/j,riv fir) ov 
TOVTO yevrjTcu (or yevoiTo), I feared that this might not happen. 

#oeirai p. rj ra to-^oTa TT a ;, he is afraid that he may suffer the 
severest punishment (Xen. Cyr. 3, I 33 ). At'dotica py ov oa-iov ^....a-rrayopfv- 
(iv, I fear it may be sinful to lose heart (Plat. Rep. 368 b ). 'E<pofir)0T)<rav p. rj 
cat CTTI <r^>as o (rrparos ^cop^o-/;, they feared that the army might also advance 
against them (Thuc. 2, 101 3 ). Thuc. 1, 91 3 . Subjunctive changed to 
Optative : OvKf'rt fircriQfvro ol rroXe'/xtot..., 8(8otKOTfS p.rj a TT or prj & e iij <r a v, 
the enemy no longer made attacks, fearing that (or lest) they might be cut off 
(Xen. Anab. 3, 4 29 ). "Edfta-av p rj Xirrrn rts &<T7Tfp K.VO\V cp.irirT<aicoi f 
they feared that some madness like that of dogs may have seized our men 
(Xen. Anab. 5, 7 38 ). Af'Soixa p.f) p.oi 0(prjKT) 6 narrjp, I fear my father may 
prove to have passed away (Soph. Phil. 493). Dem. 18, 33. 

2064. NOTE. The subjunctive is originally a subjunctive of desire 
(1986 and 2041). Thus <o/fcnyxat /XT) TOVTO yeVi/Tai would mean " 7 am 
afraid: this must not (or should not) happen". The optative is the 
oblique optative. 

2065. NOTE. 1. Verbs and expressions denoting caution, danger, 
or the like, are also followed by this construction, as they imply fear. 

Such are Apo?r&0) 6We<u, d^v/xco), d7rio-Tca>, VTTOTTTCVW, <uAaTTO/xcu, evOi- 

2067 THE MOODS 231 

/xe t/j.0.1, euA.a/?eo/tai, evvoeo/xcu, 6pao>, O-KOTTCW, cu^iW/zai, KtVSvvos eort, and 

<J>poi/Tio> pr] KpaTKrrov r/ /tot (riyav, I am "// /'</* /est i< mat/ 6e best for me 
in ! xilfnt (Xen. Man. 4, 2 39 ). 'Oici/a> /irj /MH 6 Auo-tay Tan-fi^oy (pavfi, 
I <un afraid that Lysias appears tame (Plat. Phaedr. 257 C ). 'HOvpTjo-dv 
Tivts, vvoov/j.voi p r) TCI 7riTT]8(ia, fl Kdioiv, o v K f \oifv 6no9(v Xapftdvotcv, 
sow /v;v disheartened, heiny afgMvfcMtfftM MY if the;/ xhould linni ihi'in they 

'</ /iare no place whence to get supplies (Xen. ^lna&. 3, 5 :< ). 'Yn-coTrrfve 
/A ?7 airdrTjs tvfua \tyoiro, he suspected that it might be said for the sake 
ofdei-fptiint (Xen. Hell. 6, 2 :u ). EvXafiov ^ <f>avf)s KCIKOS ytyus, beware, lest 
you appear to be born of base spirit (Soph. Trach. 1129). "Opd p 17 irepl rols 
<PI\TOTOIS K v /3 v rj s, see that you do not gamble for your dearest interests 
(Plat. Prot. 314*). 2jco7rei> prj 86av ftplv IT ap da- ^o> pai irepl fUKpov TroXXa 
\fyftv, 1 am considering lest I offer the appearance of talking too much on a 
small subject (Plat. Leg. 641 e ). 'Yncp U/zoiv ato-^Cvo^iat, ^17 86rj TO npayfjui 
nrai'o'piq TIVI ncrrpd%0ai, I am ashamed of you lest the thing appear to have 
occurred through cowardice (Plat. Crito 45 e ). Kivdvvos tort, p.f) p. e r a- 
,4 <i A CD i> r a t. there is danger lest they change (Isoc. 14, 38). 

2. For the construction of aurg&'o/Mu, see also 2294 ; of KiVStros 
eVn, see also 2206. When verbs of fearing express fear or hesitation 
to do anything, they take the infinitive ; <o/3o{Wcu TravTa^ov Acycii^ 
they are everywhere afraid to say (Xen. Cyr. 8, 2 12 ). 

2066. NOTE. A verb of fearing may be followed by a potential 
optative ; as in Thuc. 2, 93 2 . 

2067. NOTE. Leading Clause Omitted. The verb or expression 
of fear, caution or danger, may be wanting, and the subjunctive (or 
indicative) with ^ or prj ov be used independently. 

1. Most commonly such an independent subjunctive with /IT; or /XT) 
ov expresses an apprehension that something may or may not be so, or 
is equivalent to a careful or mild assertion. It is properly a desire, 
may this not happen (as I fear it may). 

t'/fHHKi'rrffiin' / TO (l\r}0cs fitrelv, (I am <tfr<ii<l <>r / siisfn-i-f) it 

too rude to ay what is true (Plat. '/"/;/. 4rJ- ). M// i TOUT' r/ 

Qavarov (K<f>vyriv, (I suspect) this may not f // tmnl thin<i, 1<> *>.//*. <l,<ii}i 

1 '). This construction is t"n-<jMrnt in Platxj and occurs also in 

lldt. only i Dmi. "iily 1. _'). Very rarely onus rf 

with the subjunctive in so found, as in Plat. fYi/i//. 43O 1 . Rarely Plain 

uaee ^ with the subjunctive as a ipn-stiou with the - expected ; as 

in /;./,. 60 

232 THE MOODS 2068 

2. Not often do we find /xr/ or /ur) ov with the indicative to denote 
an apprehension or mild statement that something is taking place or 
took place (compare 2069) ; as /A rj ov TOiavnrjv A,a/x/?avi<j o-ov rrjv 

pa.^ eo-0-0ai, (1 suspect) you do not imagine your learning will be 

like this (Plat. Prot. 312 a ) ; Plat. Meno 89 C . 

3. In Homer independent clauses with ^ and the 
subjunctive may express apprehension (as above, 2067, 
1), but the idea of a desire is also prominent ; as /A 17 
XoAwcra/xevos p|7 KO.KOV vtas 'A^aituv, (I am afraid) he 
may in his wrath do some harm to the sons of the 
Achaeans or may he not do harm, as I fear he may (II. 
2, 195). 

2068. NOTE. 1. Occasionally a verb of fearing or the like is 
followed by an object-clause (2050) with OTTWS ^ and the future 
indicative, or the subjunctive (optative). 

Af'SoiKn o TT o) s p. T) dvdyKT) yfvrjO'eTai, I fear that a necessity may 
arise (Dem. 9, 75). 'Opart oiro>s prj aicrxioi/...7r pfl O>/A v, see that we 
do not come off more disgracefully (Thuc. 1, 82 5 ). Xen. Mem. 2, 9 3 (opt.). 

2. Very rarely do we find /x>j alone with the future indicative after 

verbs of fearing; as otSoiKa /J.T) fj.0ca>, I fear that I shall have a 

share.... (Xen. Cyr. 2, 3 r> ) ; so with future optative after past tenses 
(Isoc. 17, 22). 

2069. If the fear relates to something present or past, the 
indicative is used with fir] and ^ ov. 

'Qp&pcv p.T) NIK tar otcrat n Xcyetp, let us be careful lest Nici* i* 
thinking that he says something (Plat. Lath. 196). Ar. Nub. 493. "Opa 
firj Traifav e\fy(v, be careful lest he was speaking in jest (Plat. Theaet. 145 b ). 
Od. 5, 300. 4>o/3ov/if0a fj. 17 dp.(poT(p<i)v apa 17 p. a prr) K a p.t v, we fear that 
we have missed both together (Thuc. 3, 53 3 ). 

2070. Other Constructions with Verbs of Fearing. 

1. Object-Infinitive. (a) A verb of fearing may take an object- 
infinitive (2207), sometimes with the article, to express the object of 
the fear ; as <f>o(3o\>fj.aL 8ic\fyxw ore, I am afraid to refute you (Plat. 
Gorg. 457 e ), different from <o/?ov/xai py SteAcyx^ (subj.) ere, which would 
mean I am afraid that I may refute you ; Seio-ds TO fjv, becoming afraid 
to live (Plat. Apol. 28 d ). (b) After verbs of caution this infinitive often 
has /x>/ (2351) ; as <vAaeTcu o-vj/aTrreci/ /xax 7 / 1 '* he will guard against 
joining battle = <puA.aeT<u //.r) o-uvaTrn/ ^a-xn v (Xen. Mem. 3, 4 11 ) ; 



L, taking care not to become hated or being 
an.rious not to incur enmity (Xen. Cyr. 3, I 27 ); fyvAoaro /AT) aTrtc/Tos 
yei-e'crtfai, he guarded against being distrusted (Xen. Ag. 8, 5). 
When the infinitive is here used without the article, the verb of 
fearing expresses unwillingness or hesitation to do anything (see 
2065, 2). 

2. Future Infinitive. A verb of fearing may be used with the 
future infinitive to express a fear that something may happen ; as 
ou </>o/?ov'/x0a 'Aao-o-a)o-o-0at, we do not fear that we may get the 
worst of it (Thuc. 5, 105 3 ). 

3. The infinitive with ware may be used after verbs of fearing to 
express the result (2080) of the fear or of the cause of the fear. 

vaiois dirx0f<r0at, the Corcyraeans alleged that they were afraid to keep 
him, on account of the danger of becoming hated by the Lacedaemonians and 
Athenians (Thuc. 1, 136 1 ). 

4. A causal clause with on, because (2072), may follow a verb 
of fearing ; as in Xen. Hell. 3, 5 10 . 

5. An interrogative clause with e/, Ws, or SITUS, or other interroga- 
tive, occasionally follows a verb of fearing ; as ou ScSouco, ei <&iAt7T7ros 
77, I have no fear whether Philip is alive (Dem. 19, 289) ; Plat. 
TJieaet. 195 C (5 ); Eur. Iph. Taur. 995 (Srcus) ; Xen. Cyr. 4, 5 19 

6. A declarative clause (2013 ; 2015, 2) with <[>? or OTTOJ? occasion- 
ally takes the place of ^ with the subjunctive, but usually only the 
verb of fearing is negatived. 

Mr) <f>ofiov a)s dnoprjo-f is, do not fear that you will want (Xen. Cyr. 
6, 2 1S ). Mi/ dfio-TjTc, o> s oi>x ijde'ws *c a 6 e v 8rj a- r e, do not fear that you 
will not sleep comfortably (Xen. ''///. <>, - "). M'} r^e'oT/r, o TT o> s o-e ns 
airotrirdo-fi, do not fear that any one will tear you away (Eur. Heracl. 

7. A participle is rarely used; as &&OIKO. (o-) Xtdv rjoovr) I/IKW- 
fjivrjv, I am afraid about you, because you are too much conquered by 
joy (Soph. El. 1272). 


2071. 1. Causal clauses express a cause or reason. They are 
introduced by the causal particles on, Sum, SioVe^, J>9, because ; cVet, 
r<, since. 


2. Poetic are oiWa and (tragic) 60owe/ca, because (11. 1, 
111 ; Soph. Aj. 123) ; eSre, since (Soph. Oed. Col. 84). 
Homeric are o or o re, because (II. 18, 197; 1, 244). 
New-Ionic is o*ou ( = oVou), st'wce (Hdt. 1, 68 2 ). 


2072. 1. Causal clauses are dependent assertions (2016) and 
take, according to the sense, the indicative, the potential optative, 
or the potential indicative. The negative is ov. 

'Ei>o/ubi/ T)<T(ra<r6ai, on ov no\v viica>v, they thought they were beaten 
because they were not decidedly victorious (Thuc. 7, 34 7 ). 2vi>j?8ero ro> 
Svo<f)ti)vTt or i e <re o-wo-ro, he congratulated Xenophon because he had 
escaped (Ken. Anab. 7, 8 1 ). Xen. Mem. 1, 2 54 (&ori). Plat. Euthyd. 
280 11 ($). Xen. Mem. 4, 8' (Sioirfp). Ov yap fip-els ftcdvov ert (rrpanSiTai 
co-pcv, f TT i ytov o-uffTTo/ietfa aura>, /or tc;e are no longer soldiers of his, 
since we no longer follow him (Xen. Anab. 1, 3 9 ). Dem. 1, 1 (ore). 
POTENTIAL OPTATIVE or INDICATIVE : Xen. Mem. 2, 7 14 ; Soph. Phil. 1037. 

2. After a secondary tense, the optative (of indirect discourse) 
may be used to denote that the reason given is not the speaker's, 
but some other person's. 

> EcaKtbi' TOV lltf)iK\fd< or t OTpanjybs &v OVK eire^dyoi, they abused 
Pericles, because being general he did not lead them out (Thuc. 2, 21 3 ) ; this 
is the Athenians' reason, and not that of Thucydides. Thuc. 4, 65 3 . The 
oblique optative in causal sentences is absent from Homer. 

2073. NOTE. Sometimes cW is used in the sense of although ; as 
eyoj 8 TO. fj.aKpti ravra ttSvvaros, e TT t iftovKofj^v av old? r ii/ai, I dm 
unable to master these long speeches, although 1 would wish to be able 
to (Plat. Prot. 335 C ). 

2074. Use of el for ore. 1. After verbs of emotion, expressing 
wonder, delight, vexation, approval, satisfaction, shame, and the like, 
the cause of the emotion is often expressed by the protasis 
(2089) of a conditional clause introduced by et. The negative is 
here ^77, but ov is occasionally found. 

Gau/jta^o) 6 eycoye I p.r)8df Vp.(ov fj.r)r' evdvpelrai P.TJT' opyi^erai, but I am 
surprised that (lit. if) no one of you is either concerned or angry (Dem. 4, 
43). ' et ouraxri a i/oco firj olos r' tt^tl flnflv, I am vexed that I 
am so unable to say what I mean (Plat. Lach. 194 a ). OVK ayaira e t py 
diKTjv 8 8 o> K. f v, he is not satisfied that he has not been punished (Aeschin. 
3, 147). KaTf/j.p.<pfTO KOI avrov KOI TOVS (rvv avrip, f I ol oXXoi dufMafciv fiaXXoK 
So KOVV, he was angry with himself and with those with him, 



because the others seemed to outshine them (Xen. Cyr. 4, 3 3 ). With ov for 
prj : Dem. 15, 23. For the optative after past tenses, see Indirect Discourse 

2. The verbs after which this construction is found are chiefly : 
0au/xou>, wonder ; x al/ P w > rejoice ; awrfSofjuu, congratulate ; dyaTraoo, to- 
be satisfied ; dyavcwcTew, to be vexed ; xa\fjraiv(D, to be angry ; xa 
, to bear impatiently ; aio-^vvofuxi, to be ashamed ; Seivov 


2075. NOTE. For cVi T< and an infinitive with these verbs, see 
2231. For the participle, see 2291. 

2076. Other Ways of expressing a Cause. 

1. Frequently by 8ia TO or eVi TO> and an infinitive ; see 2234, 2231. 

2. By a participle ; see 2251, 2252. 

3. By a relative clause ; see 2138, 2139. 

4. By a genitive absolute ; see 2259. 


2077. 1. Consecutive clauses express result. They are intro- 
duced by a><TT or (seldom) &>?, so as, so that, and have either the 
infinitive or a finite verb (usually the indicative). We find &>? 
consecutive mostly in Aeschylus, Sophocles, (Herodotus), and 
Xenophon ; rarely in other Attic writers. 

2. Homer has wore (better ws TC) only twice with the 
infinitive : //. 9, 42 and Od. 17, 41 ; elsewhere it means 
as (= like). 

2078. 1. With Finite Mood. If the consecutive clause expresses- 
a result which actually does occur in consequence of the action 
of the leading verb, it takes the indicative. The negative is ov. 
'I'll us TTOLV eTToirjaev, a><rre ej3acrl\V(Tv, he did everything so that he 
became king. 

'K/A & ovT<af ota>r Karfldcv, WOT* acrtfttias f'ypa^aro, he looked at 
me to sharply that he has indicted me for impiety (Plat. Knthiii>hr. 5 C ). 

M fiyi'w/ioi'cof (x (T( > ^ or .... X TT ( ^"(T , you are so senseless that you 
expect (Dem. 2, 26). Xen. Anab. 7, 4 3 . Isoc. 12, 103. With <i>c : Ed*, -'. 
136; Xen. Cyr. 5, 4"; Aem-h Part, 730. 

2. The potential indicative may be used with <u<rrc, also an 

236 THE MOODS 2079 

TlaQtov p.ev dvTf8pa>v, oio- re, ei <ppov>v fTrpdcra-ov, ovS' & v 2>8' cyiyv6p,rjv 
KCIKOS, having suffered, I retaliated, so that if I had done it in consciousness, 
I should not have been thus reprobate (Soph. Oed. Col. 271). "Qore Odppei, 
so take courage (Xen. Cyr. 1, 3 18 ). "Qo-re...^, so do not wonder 
(Plat. Phaedr. 274 a ). So also the potential optative ; as TrXoTa 8e 
n-dpevTiv, & <r T e ^ai(pvijs av e' TT i TT e' o- o i r e, there are ships here for you 
so that you might suddenly make a descent (Xen. Anab. 5, 6 20 ). But 
with the infinitive is usually preferred to the potential optative (2080). 

2079. NOTE. Very rarely do we find wo-re with the optative of 
indirect discourse after a past tense; see Xen. Hell. 3, 5 23 ; Isoc. 17, 

2080. With the Infinitive. If the consecutive clause denotes a 
result which is possible or necessary or intended, in consequence 
of the action indicated by the leading verb, it is expressed by 
wore (or &>?) and the infinitive. The negative is pq Whether 
the possible result actually does or does not take place, is not 
indicated. Thus TTCLV eTroirj&ev ait/re j3acri,\vo-cu t he did everything 
so as to become king (efiao-iXev&ev would mean that he really did 
become king). 

OVK f)( dpyvpiov wort dyopd(ftv rd fVirr/Sfia, we have no money 
to buy necessaries (Xen. Anab. 7, 3 5 ). Kpavyqv iroXXrjv enoiovv naXovvTcs 
d\\T)\ovs, co <7 r f KOI Tovf Tro\(p4ovs d K ov iv, they made a great noise calling 
each other, so that the enemy could hear (Xen. Anab. 2, 2 17 ). Ov8cls Tremor' 
fls TOO-OUT' dvaidcids d<plKfro axrTf TOIOVTOV n roX/iJ/trat noic'iv, no one 
ever arrived to so great a degree of shamelessness as to dare to do such a thing 
(Dem. 21, 62). Ilav irotoixriv o>ore diKrjv p.rj 8 1 8 u v a i, they do everything 
so as not to be punished (Plat. Gorg. 479). Mrj^avas evpTjo-op-fv Star cs TO 
irdv ore T<HI>O a TT a X X a | a t, we will Jind devices so as to free you entirely 
from these troubles (Aesch. Eum. 82). Epa^u TI XeXax^i^Ka/zei/, wore xai 
\pr)yM(ri not <ro>iui(ri y $ iy <r 6a i, we have recovered a little, so as to have 
improved both in money and in our bodies (Thuc. 6, 12 1 ). Hdt. 3, 146 1 (&>$). 

2081. NOTE. Sometimes w<rre with the infinitive expresses a 
condition ( = on condition that). 

\pTjp.ara edidoaav, wore p.rj p.ftd\\fiv TOV \\yrja-i\dov, they offered 
money on condition that Agesilaus should not enter their country (Xen. Hell. 
5, 3 14 ). But e'0' w or ty cor* is here more common (see 2226). 

2082. NOTE. After a negative leading clause, wore always takes 
the infinitive ; as in the first example in 2080 above (Xen. Anab. 7, 

2087 THE MOODS '2-M 

3 5 ). So also after a comparative, we always have 17 wore or T/ w? ; see 
2224. For 17 wore or fj J>s after a positive with comparative meaning, 
see 1338. 

2083. NOTE. For consecutive relative clauses, see 2140. 

2084. NOTE. We sometimes find wo-rc or w? with a participle 
depending on a supplementary participle. 

Ta TOV TToXepov TOiavra fyiyvaxruov ovra a> s p.r) v<rrepifiv deov rbv 
apxovTdj I kio'ii- th<- affairs <>f "<(/ to be of such a nature that a commander 
,,n,iht nut t<, I,, 1,,-hiinlha-nd (X.en. Cyr. 7, 5 4B ). Dem. 3, 1. Plat. Rep. 519". 

2085. NOTE. For wore sometimes used redundantly before subject- 
infinitives, object-infinitives, adjectives, and nouns, see 2203, 2210, 
2223, 2225. 

2086. NOTE. "Qa-rt (w;J and the Infinitive with av. We sometimes 
find a consecutive infinitive clause with av ; such an infinitive may 
correspond to a potential optative or potential indicative. 

'Ei> T6> a<r0aAet fj8r) cVo/zai, a> s prjo'ev av ert KOKOV IT a 6 f lv, I shall then 
be in safety so as no longer to suffer any ill = ovdev av ert ird6oip.i (Xen. Cyr. 
8, 7 37 ) . 'ATroreret^to'ftti'Ot av rjaav, & rr r fjuyd' el p(T(7r(p.\f/ i av ert 6p.oia>s av 
avroi/s a> e \ T v, they would have been walled in so that, even if they had 
sent for them, it would no longer anyway have helped them = ovtf en o/Wa>f 
oi ax^eXovi/ (Thuc. 7, 42 s ). This consecutive infinitive with av is usually 
found in indirect discourse (see 2087). 

2087. NOTE. 1. "fto-re and the Infinitive in Indirect Discourse. 
A consecutive infinitive clause may stand in indirect discourse (2193) ; 
the infinitive here takes av if the finite verb (either indicative or 
optative) would have av in direct discourse. See Xen. Cyr. 1, 3 W ; 3, 

Compare 2086. A consecutive clause with a finite verb is very 
commonly changed to the infinitive in indirect discourse. 

2. The negative is naturally ^ but ov is found when a single word, 
and not the whole clause, is to be negatived (2337) ; as w<rr* o v 8' 
i x v o s y Tix*uv tlvai o-cu^'?, so that there is not a clear vestige of the 
walls (Eur. Eel. 108); Aeschin. 3, 96 (fut. inf.); Dem. 18, 283. 
Yet we sometimes find doT ov with the infinitive even if the negative 
does refer to the whole clause ; apparently the original ov of the direct 
discourse is here retained with wore and the infinitive in the indirect 
discourse ; as in Thuc. 5, 40 2 . 

3. Very rarely do we find wore av with the infinitive ; as in Dem. 



2088. 1. After the demonstratives TOO-OVTOS, so great, so much, and 
such, of such kind, the corresponding relatives oo-os and otos 
with the infinitive are often used instead of oWe. The case of oo-os 
and otos is assimilated to that of TOO-OUTOS or rotouro? (compare 1529). 
The subject of the infinitive is the person or thing denoted by TOO-OVTOS 
or ToiotiTo? ; but the infinitive may have its own subject, which is then 
always in the accusative. The demonstrative may be omitted ; oo-os 
then means sufficient or enough, 0109, fit for, such as. 

'A7TT)yyf\\ov..., art TOO- a Or a fir] ev8ov dyaBd, oaa eV dvdpwTrwv yfveciv 
...p.f] av ciriXetTTfiv TOVS evdov OVTUS, they reported that there was such a store 
of provisions within as could not in a generation of men fail those within 
(Xen. Cyr. 5, 2 4 ). Toiouroy 6 ^rda-imros rfv, olos prj ftov\((rdai TTO\\OVS 
d-n-oKTivvvvai T<av TroXFran', Mus'ifi/xis a- as a man of such character as to be 
unwilling to put many of the citizens to death (Xen. Hell. 6, 5 7 ). *o/3o{)/iai 
vncp TOVTOV, fir] TIVL aXXa> fVTv\r), otto TOVTOV 8ia<f>6flpai, I fear on /i/.s 
behalf, lest she should meet some other person able to corrupt him ; here ota> 
is assimilated to TOIOVT<O understood (Plat. Theag. 127 C ). "HKOVOV dvdpos 
ovfia/icos oiov T6 -fyfvbfaQai, I heard from, a man not at all capable of telling 
falsehoods, f or TOIOVTOV olov (Dem. 2, 17). 'EXeiTrero rfjs VVKTOS 5<rov a-Korai- 
ovs 8i\d(lv TO 7Tf8iov, enough of the night remained for them to cross the 
valley under cover of darkness, for roa-ovrov o<rov, the subject of 8i\0dv is 
avrovs understood, which agrees with a-Koraiovs (Xen. Anab. 4, I 5 ). 

2. In this way arises the expression olos re I/AI, to be able. 

Tt oiot rf f<rf<T&t qpiv <rvfjurpdai ; in ti'lmt n'lll you be able toco-operate 
tritli .s (Xen. .l/i<*6. 5, 4 tt ). Ov% olov rt r\v di<o<ctv TOVS ftapftdpovs, it was 
impossible to pursue the barbarians (Xen. Anab. 3, 3 s *). 


2089. In a conditional sentence, the clause containing the 
condition (that is, the z/-clause) is called the protasis ; the clause 
containing the conclusion is called the apodosis. 

2090. 1. The protasis is introduced by et or lu.v (also ty or o>), */. 
The protasis is in the indicative or optative if it is introduced by ci ; 
and in the subjunctive if it is introduced by edv (ijv or 5^). The particle 
av is regularly added to the apodosis with the optative ; and also to the 
apodosis when non-fulfilment of a condition is implied. 

2. Attic writers use cuV, fjv, and &v (all from d av) ; but the trage- 
dians and Thucydides probably never use av, if. 

3. Herodotus has fy (never eui/ or av). For ei the Doric 

2093 THE MOODS 239 

and Aeolic dialects have <u, which occurs also in Homer. 
For oV Homer also has *e' ; Doric *u. For edV Homer 
has c? *e (a? KC) or fjv ; he has et 8' oV once (II. 3, 288) ; 
? Trep' av twice (I/. 5, 224 and 232) ; and ty... (K) in 
Od. 18, 318. 

4. For Epic av or ice with the future indicative in the 
apodogis, see 2117, 4 (6). For Homeric KC with the 
subjunctive in the apodosis, see 2110, 3. For simple d 
with the subjunctive in Homer, also in tragedy, see 
2110, 1. For ci *e with the optative in Homer, see 2115. 
Various other peculiarities are also given in their 
proper places. 

2091. The negative of the protasis is /XT/, that of the apodosis is OL-. 
If the protasis has ov, the negative refers only to a single word and 
not to the whole clause (see 2337). 

2092. Particular and General Suppositions. The supposition 
expressed by the protasis may be either particular or general. 

1. A particular supposition relates to a definite act done at a 
definite time. Thus : if he is doing this (now), it is well or it will be 
well ; if he did this (then), it was well ; if he had done this (then), it 
would have been well ; if he shall do this (at that time), it will be well ; 
if he should do this (at that time), it would be well. 

2. A general supposition relates to any act or acts belonging to a 
class or series of acts, any one of which may happen or may have 
happened at any time ; in these cases ei or edV is equivalent to if ever 
or whenever. Thus : if (ever) he has money, he (always) gives it ; if 
(ever) he had money, he (always) gave it ; if (at any time) he had had 
money, he would (always) have given it ; if (ever) any one shall wish 
to go, he will (always) be permitted ; if (ever) any one should wish to 
go, he would (always) be permitted. 

3. The distinction between particular and general suppositions 
iriHiU'ii<;es the form of construction only in present and past supposi- 
tions with nothing implied as to the fulfilment of the condition. 

2093. Four Classes of Conditional Sentences. Suppositions may 
refer (a) to the present or past, or (6) to t\\u future. Tin- distinction 
of time, that of mlity, aixl tin- implication as 
to fulfilment, are th- grounds of classification. 

240 THE MOODS 2094 

There are four classes of conditional sentences : both the two 
first classes are for present and past suppositions ; the two last 
classes are both for future suppositions. This first class has two 
special forms for general suppositions. There are thus six regular 

2094. Synopsis of Conditional Forms. The following is a syn- 
optical view of the conditional forms : 

I. Present or Past Supposition with nothing implied as to reality. 

(a) Particular: Protasis has el with indicative... Apodosis any 

form of the verb. 

Ei TL xi, Suio-et, if he has anything, he will give it = Lat. si 
quid habet, dabit. 

So also ? n x, A.e'ye /AOI, if he has anything, tell me (imper.) ; 

or Soirj, may lie give it (opt. of wish) ; or dTran-w/Aei/, let us 

ask it of him (subj. of exhortation) ; or Sou/ av, he might (or 

may) give it (pot. opt.) ; or lA^cv av, he would have said (pot. 

ind.). See 20952097. 
(6) General : 

1. Protasis has edv with subjunctive... Apodosis present in- 

'Ecu/ TL ex??, &8<xn if he (ever) has anything, he (always) gives it. 
-See 20982101. 

2. Protasis has el witli optative... Apodosis imperfect indicative. 
Et TI CXQI, e'&t'Sov, if he (ever) had anything, he (always) gave it. 
See 20982101. 

II. Present or Past Supposition implying non-reality of condition. 
Protasis has el with past indicative. ..Apodosis a past indicative 

with av. 

Et rt elxev, c8i8ov av, if he had anything, he would give it. 

Et TL Z<r\fv, t8ti>Kv av, if he had obtained anything, he would 

have given it. 

Lat. si quid haberet, daret ; si quid habuisset, dedisset. See 

III. Future Supposition of more distinct form. 

Protasis has edv with subjunctive... Apodosis any form of the 
verb referring to future. 

2096 THE MOODS 241 

(\a dry), Soicrei, if he (shall) receive anything, he 
will give it = Lat. si quid acceperit, dabit. 
So also lav TI \d,3rj ( Aa/x/?ar?;) , Aeyt /AOI or 8007 TJIJLLV Or aTraiTw/xev 

or ooirj dr. See 21092112. 

IV. Future Supposition of less distinct form. 

Protasis has et with optative...Apodosis optative with av. 

Et TI e^ot, Sot?/ *" */ ne should have anything, he would give 
it = Lat. si quid habeat, det. So other forms may be in 
the apodosis. See 21132116. 

(a) Particular Suppositions 

2095. The protasis here simply expresses a particular supposi- 
tion referring to the present or past, without implying anything 
as to its reality. The scheme then is : 

Protasis : et with the indicative ; 
Apodosis : any form of the verb. 

Thus el rovro \eyeis, KaXw? e^et, if you say this, it is well. 
Et 6foi TI dpaxriv alff^pov, OVK ftVt 6eol, if gods do anything shameful 
tl </ are not gods (Eur. fr. 294). Et 6cov r) v, OVK rjv atV^pojcepKiyf, if he was 
tf" son of a god, he was not avaricious (Plat. Rep. 408 C ). KXeap^oy ft irapa 
rovs opicovs (\vf T&S a-novo'ds, Trjv dtKTjv f\ fl i if Clearchus, contrary to his 
oaths, was trying to break the truce, he has his punishment (Xen. Anab. 2,. 
5 41 ). 'AAA* ft doxd <roi, o-rft^f, if thou art resolved, go (Soph. Ant. 
98). KaKurr' d ir o \ oip rj v, Savtiiav d pr) <pi\a>, may I perish miserably 
<lo not love Xanthias (Ar. Ran. 579). 'AX A' tl doted, 7rA<a)/iei/ r 
but if it seems good to you, let us sail (Soph. Phil. 526). IIoAAi) av nr 
(vbatpovia (irj ntpi rovs vcovs, ft (Is pxv p.6vos auroi/j &ta<j>0(ip(i, ol 5' 
aAXot u><p(\ov<riv, there would be a happy condition for young men, if 
only one person corrupted them and the others benefited them (Plat. Apol. 
25 b ). II. 6, 128. Et ovTu) raOr* (x ei i 7r ** s ^ v ^oXXot ptv c TT f 6 /xov v 
rvpawtlv ; if this is so, why should many be desirous of reigning f (Xen. 

2096. NOTE. 1. When the future indicative is used in the protasis 
in this form, it expresses a present purpose or necessity. Thus: alpt 
ir\riKTpov ti ^ a x < i ( * /Ac'AActs iMi\i<rOai), raise your spur if you are 
going to fight (Ar. Av. 759). Xen. Mem. 2, I 17 . 


242 THE MOODS 2097 

2. This uncommon use of the future indicative of present intention 
or necessity, is entirely different from its ordinary use as a future 
condition equivalent to xv with the subjunctive (see 2111). 

2097. NOTE. For a potential optative or indicative rarely used as 
a protasis, see 2117, 1. 

(6) General Suppositions 

2098. The apodosis here expresses what regularly takes (or 
took) place, if ever the condition expressed by the protasis takes 
(or took) place. The scheme then is : 

1. For present general suppositions: 

Protasis : lav with the subjunctive ; 

Apodosis : present indicative or some equivalent expressing 
present repetition. 

2. -For past general suppositions : 

Protasis : et with optative ; 

Apodosis : imperfect indicative or some equivalent express- 
ing past repetition. 

Thus edv Tt9 TOVTO iroirjarj, /coXaferat, if any one ever does this, 
he is punished ; edv TA? TOVTO Troiijo-eie, eVoXafero, if any one ever 
did this, he was punished. 

*Hv fyyvs f A0fl Bavaros, ovdfls /SovXcrai dvija-Kfiv, if death comes 
near, no one is ever willing to die (Eur. Ale. 671). 'Eai/ ns TOV ffXtov 
araificor cy x fl pf) 6tatr6ai, TTJV fytv a<aipetrai, if any one recklessly 
tries to gaze on the sun, he is deprived of his sight (Xen. Mem. 4, 3 14 ). 

2<i)KpaT7)s OVK enlvfv, d p.rj 8i^<pr), Socrates did not drink if he was 
not thirsty (Xen. Mem. 1, 3 5 ). E i TOV <j)i\o)v /SXe'^etei/ otVfrwi/ dt^as, 
K\aiv, if ever she saw the form of one of her beloved slaves, she wept 
(Soph. Track. 908). 

2099. NOTE. Equivalent forms for the present indicative are the 
gnomic aorist (1914) and perfects with present meaning ; for the 
imperfect indicative, we may have the imperfect or aorist with av 
(1961), a pluperfect with imperfect meaning, or rarely an aorist 

* H v d TIS rovrtov TI 7r a p a ft a i v fl, fruitiv avTols 7Tf6c<rav, if 'i n ii 
one transgresses in any of these matters, they always impose a penalty 
(Xen. 1, 2 2 ). Et Se TIS auro> irepi TOV dvTi\fyot,...fTT\ TTJV V7r60<riv 

2102 THE MOODS 4 243 

riyfv &v irdvra rov \6yov, wh e never an y one contradicted him on <// 
h> u-nulil wall th<' whole argument to the first proposition (Xen. 
Mem. 4, 6 13 ). Xen. A nab. 2, 3 11 (firaia-fv m/). Et ns avrtiirot, cvtivs 
rfOvrjKd, if any one jv/" .-/, he was instantly put to death (Thuc. 8, 66 2 ). 
Simple aorist in Xen. Anab. 1, 9 18 . 

2100. NOTE. Indicative in Protasis. Occasionally the indicative 
is found in the protasis in general suppositions ; the form of a parti- 
cular supposition (2095) is thus used in a general sense. 

Ei yap TIS...T o\ fjid ftorjQelv rols napdvop.a ypd(pov<riv, Kara\f>i rrjv TroXT- 
reidv, if any one ventures to help those proposing unlawful measures, he is 
tr;ii ay t<> ,1,-xtroy the state (Aeschin. 3, 196). 'E/ifo-et OVK i ns tanas ndaxuv 
rj n v e T o, oXX* 6 7 TIS (vepycrovfjifvos d^dpi(TTos <p a i v o i r o, he hated not 
a man if, when injured, he defended himself, but if, when benefited, he 
./ li'iiHf-lf ungrateful, here both forms occur together (Xen. Ag. 11, 3). 
Xen. Anab. 5, I 16 ; 5, 5 14 . 

2101. NOTE. 1. In Homer the subjunctive in general 
suppositions usually has ct ; besides this we find >/r 
(twice), e? K (twice), and et Trcp av (once). 

Et ncp yap T oXXoi -ye Kaprj Kopoavrfs 'A^otoi daiTpov 
IT Iv o> a" i v, (TOV Sc TrXelov 8(Tras aid fon^^', even though the 
other long-haired Greeks drink by measure, thy cup alii'iiu* 
stands full (II. 4, 262). This is very rare in Attic poetry ; 
as in Soph. Ant. 710 ; Oed. Tyr. 198. Compare ' with the 
subjunctive in future conditions, 

2. Homer has t with the optative in a past general 
condition only in II. 24, 768. 


2102. The protasis here expressly implies that the condition 
is not or was not fulfilled (mood of unreality). The scheme then 

Protasis : et with past tense of the indicative ; 
Apodosis: past trust* of indicative with dv. 
The imperfect here refers to an action taking place in present 
rim.-, s, ,1,1, times to an action going on or performed repeatedly 
in past time (2102); the aorist n-f.-rs to an action simply taking 
place in past tinu- ; ;uil tin- uncommon pluperfect t<> an a<ti<.n 

244 THE MOODS 2103 

completed in present or past time. The tenses of the protasis 
and apodosis may naturally be different. 

Thus el eypafa, /cakw av eiroiei, if he were writing, he would do 
well ; el eypatye, tfaXtw? av eiroirf(rev t if he had written, he ivould 
have done well; el eypatye, /caXw? av el-^ev, if he had written, it 
would be well. 

4>a>s el prj etftofjifv, opoioi rails rv$Aois &v>, if he had no light, we 
should be like the blind (Xen. Mem. 4, 3 3 ). Tavra OVK av e'Svi/ai/ro, 
Troielv, e I p,T] KOI SiaiTrj p.tTpia f^pStvro, they would not be able to do this if 
they did not lead an abstemious life (Xen. Cyr. 1, 2 16 ). Hdt. 1, 120 9 . OVK 
av TT o ir} ere v 'Ayao-ias ravra, e I pf) ey<a avrov e K t \ e v a a, Agasias would 
not have done this if I had not bidden him (Xen. Anab. 6, 6 15 ). Avuovpyos 
ovdev av 8id(popov TU>V aAAa>i> no\(a>v TTJV "S,TrapTr)v f IT o ir) & ( v, fl pr) TO 
TT(i6((r6ai rols vopois /zaXwrra cveipydo-aro avrfj, Lycurgus would not have 
made Sparta at all different from other states, if he had not established in it 
particularly obedience to the laws (Xen. Mem. 4, 4 15 ). Et /*?) vpcls rj\6fTe, 
f7ropfv6p.eda av eirl rbv (OatriXt a, if you had not come, we would now be 
marching against the king (Xen. Anab. 2, I 4 ). Et Tpianovra p.6vm 
f7T((rov TU>V \lrr)<pa>v, a IT e n e <p f v y rj av, if only thirty of the votes had 
fallen differently, I should have been acquitted (Plat. Apol. 36). Dem. 1, 9 ; 
3, 14. Lys. 24, 11. 

2103. NOTE. 1. The imperfect sometimes expresses continuance 
or repetition in past time. 

OVK av vr)<r<i>v...f K par e i, fl pr) rt KCU VOVTIKOV ?^fi/, he (Agamemnon) 
would not have been master of islands, if he had not also possessed some naval 
force (Thuc. 1, 9 3 ), implying he did have a navy and really was master of 
islands. So Plat. Gorg. 516 e . 

2. After a protasis with the imperfect, an aorist of the apodosis 
may have inceptive meaning (1916) and then refer to present time ; as 

et eTre^O/xet? Tavrrjs rfjs o*o</>ta?, rl av a IT e Kp f v a> ; if you desired 

this ivisdom, what answer would you give ? (Plat. Theag. 123 b ) ; so- 

Plat. Euthyphr. 12 d . 

2104. NOTE. 1. In Homer, who has the ordinary con- 
struction in unreal conditions as in Attic, the imperfect 
always refers to the past. 

*Ev6a KC \oiyos ei/z/...i fifj ap* 6v vorja-f, then there would 
have been ruin if he (Zeus) had not quickly perceived it (II. 8, 
130). Kcu vv <e 8r) TrpoTfpo) er' epis yfvfr ap(poTfpoi(riv, elpr) 
j avros dv i <rr aT o KOI K ar f pv K e v, and now 

2105 THE MOODS 245 

surely the strife wo>il<l /XMV yone, further for both, if Achilles 
himself had not risen and restrained them (II. 23, 490). 
( )nly once does Homer have ei *e with a past (aorist) in- 
dicative in an unreal condition (II. 23, 526). 
2. In very few cases Homer expresses a past unreal 
apodosis by the optative with *e. 

Kai vv KCV fvd y aTrdXoiro az/a dv8p>v \ivcias, ei p.rj tip 
6v vorja-f Ato? dvydrtjp 'Ac^poSfrr;, and here Aeneas, lord of 
men, inmlil have perished if Aphrodite, child of Zeus, had 
not quickly observed him (II. 5, 311). "Evffa KC pcla (pepoi 
K\vra rfv^ea, et p,rj ol ayd<T<raTo <&oll3os 'A7roAAa>i/, he would 
/ ///( i-nrrii'tl dtrmj the famous armour, if Phot'lm* 
Apollo had not grudged him (II. 17, 70) ; here an-coXfro and 

cfape would have been the regular Homeric construction. 
With a past indicative in the protasis only in the above 
examples, in II. 5, 388, and in Od. 1, 236. Occasionally Homer 
has potential optatives expressing past time (without a cor- 
responding protasis) ; as ovdc e (paiijs, nor would you have 
said (II. 3, 392) ; ov< av yvoirjs, you would not have known (II. 
5, 85). The context must here show whether the potential 
optative can be translated as referring to the past. 

2105. Omission of av. 1. When the apodosis is an imperfect 
expressing an unfulfilled necessity, propriety, or possibility, with an 
infinitive, the particle av is omitted. A present infinitive here 
refers to present action or to an action going on or repeated in 
the past ; while an aorist infinitive refers to past time 

2. Such imperfects are I8ct, \f>fjv or e\pr)v, 7rpoo-^Kv, (fjv, fvfjv ; Kcupos 
ty, OLLOV rjv, CIKOS rj\-, 3tWtov ^r, otos r rjv, al(T\pov yv, KaAxus ti\w, and 
others ; also verbals in -re'o? with ^v. 

Thus : OL <rt TOVTO TTOLttv, you ought to do this (but do not) or you 
ought to Jiave done this (but did not), both equivalent to cVom? av TOVTO, 
you would do this or you would have done this, if you did (or had 
done) your duty . 8*t o- TOUTO iroifjo-ai , you ought to have done this 
(but did not), equivalent to cVot'??<ras av TOVTO, you would have done this, 
if you had done your duty. The real apodosis in such cases is the 
infinitive, the contrary of which is implied. 

\I)T) V & o-f, (Intf) fftrOa xpT)<rr(\t,...fjir]vvTT)i' ytvtrrBai, if >IH hml l>n 
honest, you ought to have laid an information < Lvs 1 _'. :ii). K( fftrav 
aya6oi, avrols TTJV aptTrjv bciKvvvai, if HH-II n; , ; ImtiMt 
they COUld show their virtue (Thu< 1. ''>). KnXnv A* r; >-, ft Km 

'24() THE MOODS 2106 

ravoiKv, roto-Se plv dai 777 fafTepq opyf), even if we were wrong, it would 
have been honourable for them to yield to our temper (Thuc. 1, 38 4 ). Ov8* 
ovTos aTTOO-TarfOv rfj noXfi TOVTWV y v, enrtp 77 dor)s r) irpoy6v(av...fl\f 
\6yov, not even then should the commonwealth have given up her intention, 
if she had any regard for glory or ancestors (Dem. 18, 199). Dem. 9, 6 ; 
28, 10. Plat. Crito 44 b . Eur. Med. 586. 

For examples without a protasis, see 2119, 3. 

2106. NOTE. As such imperfects originally express a past necessity 
or propriety or possibility, they may have three possible meanings. 
Thus : c8et <re rovro TTOICU/, may mean you were obliged to do this (and 
therefore you did do it) ; or it may mean you ought to do this (but do 
not) ; or you ought to have done this (but did not). 

2107. NOTE. If it is implied that the obligation or propriety or 
necessity is not or was not true, the particle av is very generally added. 
Thus : t OVTWS et^ey, * ei (T To**" Toteu', if this were so, you ought to 
do this (but you do not do this) ; but 8 av o-e TOLTO TTOLCLV means there 
would be necessity for you to do this (but there is no necessity). In 
the latter example the necessity is denied ; in the former, the action of 
the infinitive is denied. 

Ei yap ryo> CTI v dwdfia TJV TOV pq8ia>s nopfixa'dai irpbs TO HOTV, ovfev a v 
a-f fdti dtvpo Itvai, if I still had the power to go easily to town, there would 
be no necessity for you to come hither, implying that there is necessity (Plat. 
Rep. 328 C ). Xen. Anab. 5, I 10 ; Cyr. 3, 3* 7 . Dem. 19, 58. 

2108. NOTE. 1. A few other imperfects with the infinitive are 
occasionally used in this way without av. So ef3ov\6fj.r)v, I would wish 
(for f/3ov\.6jj.r)v av), r t o-\i>v6fj.rjv, 1 would be ashamed, and 1/x.eAAoy. 

*E j3ouA op. rj v ovv rfjv ftov\f)v....op6<ii>s 8ioiKfl<rdai, I would (wish) 
that the Senate were properly managed, implying that it is not (Aeschin. 3, 
2). 'Htcr^vvo/ij;v, I should be ashamed (Xen. Anab. 7, 6 21 ). Ei ye irap* 
'E\\r)va>v Aa/3oi> ovvopd rev 8aip.ovos, TOVTWV . . . /zaAiora 6/zfXXov p.vr]\u]v 
(av, if they had received from the Greeks the name of any divinity, they (the 
Egyptians) would have preserved the memory of these most of all (Hdt. 2, 
43 4 ). Dem. 19, 159. Od. 13, 384. 

2. The aorist eVivSvi'evo-a, I ran a risk, is also used thus; as 17 
TrdXi? e K iv&vv cv cr TTtttra SiaffrOaprjvai, ct av/x,o? eyevero, the city ran 
the risk of being wholly destroyed if a wind had arisen (Thuc. 3, 

3. In Homer we find the imperfect w<eAAov or 


and the aorist M<f>e\ov or o^cXov, ought (from Epic 

= Attic o<e'XA.aj, owe), used in this way. 

Tlfirjv irtp /zot o <p c X X o v 'OXvpirios fyyva\icu Zcvs, Olympian 

Z> /.s ought to hare conferred honour on me (II. 1, 353). This 

is the origin of &(p\ov with the infinitive in unattainable 

wishes (2004, 2). 


2109. The protasis here expresses a future condition which 
may possibly be realised (like the English if you shall do this or 
if you do this), and then has edv with the subjunctive (mood of 
expectation). The scheme then is : 

Protasis : edv with the subjunctive ; 

Apodosis : future indicative or some form expressing future 

Thus edv ypd<f>rf (ypdyfrr)), /ca\cos e^et,, if he (shall) write, it will 
be well. 

*Eav {TJTJJS caXa>y, (vpf)(rcis, if you shall seek well, you will find (Plat. 
Oorg. 503 d ). \dpiv ta-op,cu, tav UKOVIJTC, I will be grateful if you will list, /< 
(Plat. Prot. 310*). *A i> fit ns a v 6 1 <TT }rai, <rvv fjfuv irfipao-o^fOa \(ipov- 
adai, if any one shall oppose us, with your help we will fr;i t<> >//!// hint 
(Xen. Anab. 7, 3 11 ). Xen. Anab. 4, 5 8 . Isoc. 8, 18. H v iroXc/jop 
aipijtrOf, fjajKtTt TJK(T( 8fvpo avtv o7r\a>v, if you choose ir<n\ <!<> n<>t come 
here again without arms (Xen. Cyr. 3, 2 13 ). *H v o-f....d <J> X a>/*cu,... 
diroXoifjujv, if I deprive you of them, may I perish (Ar. Ran. 586). 'Eai/ 
cara pfpos <pv\aTT a p.f v KOI <r K o TT Sip. ( v, rjrrov av SvvaivTo qpas drjpav 
ol rroXf'/uot, if we watch and keep guard by turns, the enemy n-il' In' less able 

itch tw (Xen. Anab. 5, I 9 ). So also in the apodosis a subjunctive of 
exhortation (as in //. 3, 283); a present referring to the future (as Plat. 
Rep. 473 d ; Xen. Cyr. 6, 5 13 ) ; or a perfect equivalent to a future perfect (as 
Xen. Anab. 1, 8 18 ). 

2110. NOTE. 1. Homer occasionally has ei alone with 
the subjunctive instead of ft * or rjv ; i rrcp yap crc 
KaraKTdvy, if he kill you (11. 22, 86). This also 
occurs in a few cases in Attic poetry ; as in Aesch. Pers. 
791; Soph. Oed. Col. 1442; Eur. Iph. Aul. 1240; Ar. 
Eq. 698. The rare examples in Attic prose are doubtful ; 
as Thuc. 6, 21 1 . 

248 THE MOODS 2111 

2. In Homer we find ct KC or at KC several times with 
the future indicative ; as I K ' In <r u</>atVoKra Kixy- 
<r opal.. ..(II. 2, 258). 

3. Homer sometimes used the subjunctive with KC' for 
the future indicative in the apodosis ; as ct 6V KC ^ 
Swrjfriv, cyo> Sc K c v avros cXw/Aat, and if he does not give 
her up, then I will seize her myself (H. 1, 324). For KC 
or av with the future indicative in the apodosis in Homer, 
see 2117, 4 (b). 

2111. Future Indicative with el in Protasis. 1. The future 
condition is very often expressed by et with the future indicative. 
This form of future condition does not differ from the form of 
iav with the subjunctive ; except, perhaps, that it is somewhat 
more distinct. 

E f fjiT) Kadf(is yAwo-a-ai/, carat o-ot xaica, if you do not hold your tongue, 
you will have trouble (Kur. fr. 5). Et T t/i<op 77 o-ct s ZlarpoKXa) r<u erai'pa) 
T(JV (frovov icai, "Exropa a7rocrci/ctf, avros d-rrodavd, if you shall avenge 
the murder of your companion Hector, you yourself will be slain (Plat. Apol. 
28). Od. 12, 382. Hdt. 1, 32 4 . Aesch. Cho. 683. 

2. This use of the future indicative in future suppositions must 
not be confounded with its occasional use to express a present purpose 
or necessity (2096). 

2112. In indirect discourse, both the subjunctive and the future 
indicative of the protasis may pass into the oblique optative (without 
&v) after a secondary tense. Thus, direct discourse : c a v TOVTO 

(or t TOVTO 7r o 1 7/ <T c t ?), KaAois eei. Indirect discourse: 
c^civ c t TOVTO 7rot^o-ta5 (opt. aor.) or Trooyo-ois (opt. fut.), he 

said that it would be well, if you should do this ; but e'dV TOVTO 

or ct TOVTO TrotTo-ctq could be retained. 


2113. The protasis here expresses a possible future case less 
distinctly, as if you should do this ; such a vague supposition is 
properly only conceived by the speaker. The scheme then is : 

Protasis : el with the optative (never future) ; 

Apodosis : optative with av (never future). 
This form is especially frequent with Attic writers, who use this 

2116 THE MOODS 249 

form to politely intimate that a future statement or supposition, 
even if quite true, is only conceived by the speaker and thus 
holds good only for him. 

Thus el ypdifreie, /caXws av e^ot, if he should write, it would be 
well. The optative with av in the apodosis is the Potential 
Optative (1993). 

Ei $ avaynaiov ft?; abinfiv fj a8iKl<r6ai, eXoi/ir/i/ av /xaXXoi/ d8iiccl(r0ai, 
if it should be necessary to do wrong or to suffer wrong, I should prefer to 
suffer wrong (Plat. Gorg. 469). 'E IT i X I IT o t av 6 iras ^pdi/oy, e i 
Trdo-ay ras tufivov irpa^fis KaTapi0p.r)<raifjL6a, all time would fail us 
if >r. -ore to enumerate all his doings (Isoc. 1, 11). OIKOS 6 avros, ct 
<pOoyyrfv \ a /3 o t, o-cu^e'orar' av \( e ic v, the house itself, if it should Jind 
> could tell most plainly (Aesch. Ag. 37). Xen. Anab. 5, 6 9 ; 7, 
7 11 . Od. 3, 223. Dem. 57, 44. The future optative is never so used; see 

2114. NOTE. 1. Other forms of apodosis may also occur (2117). 
In indirect discourse after past tenses, an optative of the protasis may 
represent an original indicative or subjunctive of direct discourse ; see 
Indirect Discourse, 2324. 

2. The potential optative is sometimes found without av ; 
see 1995. 

3. Homer rarely uses an optative with K* in unreal 
apodoses ; see 2104, 2. 

2115. NOTE. Homer sometimes has ct KC with the 
optative in protasis ; as TTW? av <yo> o-e 6Yoi/u..., ? Kfv 
"ApT/5 o?x<> t TO, how could I bind you, if Ares should 
escape (Od. 8, 352). Once he has p av (II. 2, 


2116. 1. The regular forms of ordinary conditional sentences 
are given above in 2094 and 20952113. The following sections, 

2117 -2\:\'2, treat of various peculiarities which cannot conven- 
iently be grouped under the typical forms. 

2. For dependent clauses with edv or el after verbs of implied 
in.piiry, see 2034. For el used for on, because, see 2074. J 

250 THE MOODS 2117 


2117. The apodosis sometimes does not correspond in form to the 
protasis. The following are the possible cases (of these 1 and 2 were 
already given in 2095, 2109) : 

1. The protasis may be a present or past indicative, and the 
apodosis a potential optative or potential indicative. 

E i TroXf /xtop ye &v (r<o8pa e fi\ airrov, KOV <pi\os 2>v iicav>s a> <p e X o t rj v, 
if as an enemy I injured you greatly, I could also benefit you sufficiently as a 
friend (Thuc. 6, 92 4 ). II. 6, 128. Dem. 18, 223. See also the two last 
examples under 2095. 

2. The protasis may be a subjunctive or future indicative, and the 
apodosis a potential optative. 

Qpovpiov I irotrja-ovrai, rfjs fitv yrjs /3Xa7rroii> av n pcpos, if they 
shall build a fort, they might injure some part of the land (Thuc. 1, 142 3 ). 
See also Xen. Anab. 5, I 8 , given in 2109. 

3. A protasis is occasionally expressed by ft and a potential 
optative (with av) or a potential indicative (with av). 

E*7T6p oXXo) TO) dv0pa>na>v irddoiprjv av, KU\ trot nfiBo^ai, if I would 
trust any man, I trust you (Plat. Prot. 329 b ). E I roivvv & v epai rort o> p y i- 
((T0 (, on OVK firfTpirjpdpxn^^ ""*>$ ^X^ v ^ v Tpooyxd TOVTOV fl<rirpaai p.oi ra 
ava\d)/iara, if you would have been angry with me then, for not serving as 
trierarch beyond the legal time, why ought you not now to compel this man to 
pay me for the expenses (Dem. 50, 67). Such forms are really present or 
past suppositions with the real verb of the protasis suppressed : if (it is so 
that) or if (it was so that) you would, etc. 

4. (a) A protasis with the optative is occasionally followed by a 
future indicative, also by a present indicative (with or without future 
meaning). This is not frequent in poetry and very uncommon in 

Et ftov\oip.0d TO> (Trirptyai % Tralftas appevas iraidfixrai r) Ovyartpar 

TrapQtvovs o"ia<pv\dai fj xprjfjMra 8ia<ro)<rai, <5p' d^iorr KTTOV fls ravra fjyr) a 6 fj.f a 
TOV dupa-Tr) ; if we should wish to commit to any one our sons or unmarried 
daughters or our money to take care of, would we think an intemperate man 
worthy of confidence for that purpose ? (Xen. Mem. 1, 5 2 ). Thuc. 2, 39 5 . Hdt. 
1, 32 s . II. 10, 222. 

(b) Homer occasionally has K* with the future indicative 
(2110, 3) ; as Od. 17, 540. For the future indicative, 
he also has the subjunctive with oV (2110, 3) ; as //. 11, 
386 ; 2, 488. 

2120 THE MOODS 251 


2118. Disjunctive suppositions are introduced by ir....iTe and 
tdv T(....dr TC, whether.... or. Their construction is like that of other 
conditional clauses. 

To (pt\ovp.fvov apa ra (ptXovvTt <pi\ov forty, fdv T( <pt\fi, fdv T( fjitofj, the 
Ixloredis dear to the lover, whether it love or hate (Plat. Lys. 212). Xen. 
//-//. 1, >: Oyr- 3, 3 17 . 


2119. 1. The protasis may be completely suppressed. When an 
apodosis of the fourth form (optative with av) thus stands alone, we 
have the potential optative ; as Aeyoi av, he may (might, could, would) 
speak. See 1993. 

2. When an apodosis of the second form (indicative with ai/) stands 
alone, we have the potential indicative. This expresses a past possi- 

'E IT fpp co O-&T) 8' a v TIS KaKf'ivo t8a>i>, any one seeing that would /mr 
been encouraged (Xen. Hell. 3, 4 18 ). *Eda>icc yap TOT* -ye 6 0os avrols fpyov, 
olov ovfi* ( v a v r o TTOT a i/, the gods then gave them such occupation as they 
could not even have wished for (Xen. Hell. 4, 4 12 ). Soph. Oed. Tyr. 523. 
//. 4, 421. 'O\^e TJV, KOI T&S ^ftpay OVK av K a& t a>pa>v, it was late, and they 
could not have seen the raising of the hands (Xen. Hell. I, 7 7 ). Tip d v nor 
Afro; who could have thought (Soph. Aj. 430). "Evda 817 t y v a> ns a v, // ; 
one might have perceived (Xen. Cyr. 3, 3 70 ). Eur. Iph. Aul 1582. Xeiu 
Anab. 1, 5". 

3. Similarly the imperfects #>, cxpnv* *&l v * etc - without av. 
*ETIV avTols fajdfva XITTCII/, they might have left not one of us (Xen. 

// fl. 2, 3 41 ). OVK dnoKpivfo-Oai \pr)v, one ought to be answering (Plat. Rep. 
343"). "A 1 6 v y qv aoC<reu, it would have been worth while to hear (Plat. 
Euthyd. 304"). Xen. Anab. 7, 7 40 . Dem. 20, 63. 

2120. NOTE. 1. The imperfect with av here refers to present time 
chiefly in the expression f/3ov\6fjir)v av, I would wish, Lat. vellcm (Xen. 
Cyr. 7, 2"; Aeschin. 3, 115). 

2. With the potential indicative, compare such Latin subjunctive 
imperfects as putares, crederes, diceres, ritlrrc.s, you might (would] 
have thouyht, believed, said, seen. The presents pvtes, credos, etc., 
correspond to the potential optative ; as tfiois n\>, you could (mitiht) see. 

3. For the periphrastic forms <8i, etc., wi f ,h the infinitive, see 


2121. The protasis may be represented by a participle or it 
may be implied in some word or phrase. The tense of the 
participle is the same as the finite verb would have had ; the 
present representing also the imperfect, and the perfect also the 
pluperfect. The negative is, of course, /JLTJ. 

Thus e\iav TL may represent el TL l^w (^x i ^> *X l ) or * av Tl *X (Z> or e * 

TL I^Ol/Xl Or 1 TL Ct^OI'. 

2i de K\v<i)v elffft ro^a, but if you will listen, you will soon know, i.e. 
edv K\vys (Ar. Av. 1390). Tavr' av.,.,6 avros dvrjp p.rj dia(p6ap(\s eroX/iT;- 
<rev el-rrelv ; would this same man have dared to say this, if he had not been 
corrupted ? i.e. el w 8if(p0dprj (Dem. 19, 308). Xen. Mem. 1, 4 14 . N IK a> v- 
T e s p.fv ovSfva av <aTa<dfoiev, if they were victorious they could not kill one 
of them, i.e. ' vltuev (Xen. Anab. 3, I 2 ). Andoc. 1, 5. Xen. Cyr. 8, 7 28 ; 
Ag. 10, 2. T & v a 6\rj T a>v 8\s TO&avTTjv ptofjuyv \af36vTa>v ovdev av TT\(OV 
yevotTo Tols aXXoty, if athletes should acquire twice as much strength, no benefit 
would accrue to others, here the genitive absolute stands for el ol ddXrjTal 
\dftoiev (Isoc. 4, 2). Od. 1, 390. "\vev rov ra roiaura c^tii/, OVK av olos 
T' TJV, without having such things, I should not be able, i.e. el pr)...etxov (Plat. 
Phaedo 99*). O VT u> yap npos TO eirievat roty evavTiots euv/^u^oraroi av elev, for 
in this way, they would be most full of courage in attacking the enemy, here 
oureo = el ourcoy e^oiev (Thuc. 2, II 6 ). Aia ye v^ds OVTOVS TraXat av 
aTToXwXere, by yourselves (if it had depended on yourselves) you would have 
been ruined long ago (Dem. 18, 49). 

2122. NOTE. The future participle is only so found in the sense of 
a present intention or necessity (2243, 2256), and does not stand for el 
with the future indicative in future suppositions, because the present 
or aorist participle may always represent a future supposition with 
4d.v and the subjunctive. 

2123. NOTE. Observe the Homeric el b* dye, come now I 
(II. 1, 524). 


2124. 1. The apodosis is sometimes suppressed in vehement or 
passionate language ; as elirore 8' avre xP t< ^ V "> yei/^rat , but if ever 
any need of me should arise, very well (II. 1, 340). In Attic this is 
specially frequent when two suppositions are introduced ; one by el 
(tui ) per, and the other by el (eav) oe ^. The apodosis of the first is 
then sometimes omitted. 

2126 THE MOODS 253 

'Eai/ pev KO)V rfftyrm* ft fie ^117, cvtfflvovo-ii' tiTreiXaty xat TrXrjyals, if he 
obeys willingly, well and good, but if not, he is straightened by threats and 
hln'.r, (Plat. Prot. 325 d ). Xen. Cyr. 4, 5 10 . 

2. In wishes with eZ or t#e or ci yap with the indicative or optative, 
the apodosis is of course suppressed. 

2125. 1. The apodosis may be an infinitive or participle 
depending on some verb of declaring, thinking, perceiving or the 
Hk.> (2192, 2193 ; 2300, 2301). If the finite verb represented by 
the infinitive or participle would have taken av, the infinitive or 
participle in indirect discourse also takes it. The present and 
perfect infinitive or participle may here represent also the imper- 
fect and pluperfect (1948, 1955). 

&rjo-lv, ei TOVTO TTomrf, xaXws c x f lv > he says that it is well if you do this, 
i.e. " caXa>r f\(i ". &TJO-IV eai/ TOVTO Troiijrf (TroirjcnjTf), KaXvs eeii>, he says 
that if you shall do this, it will be well, i.e. " xaXcos Zei ". "Ecpj/i/ ft TOVTO 
firoiT)o-aT(, *caAd>? av cx (tv , ne said that if you had done this, it would be well, 
i.e. " KaXcoy &v X 6J/ " O?a travTa, (av TOVTO Trotwo-t (iroif)o-a)o~i), KaX&s 
eovTa, I know that if they do this, all will be well. Oi8a 7rai/ra, ft TOVTO 
iroiolev (7roiT)o~(iav), KaXa>? &v \ovTa (= KaXa>? av fx ot )> ^ knoiv that if they 
xhoidd do this, all would be well. 

2. The infinitive may depend on a verb of commanding or 
desiring ; this is the regular form of indirect command (2207). 

Et pot TOVTO Xryrrc, KfXevw fyiar air f\6 civ, if you tell me this, I bid you 
to depart. 

2126. NOTE. Sometimes the infinitive with oV is found where it 
evidently does not stand in indirect discourse. In such cases a 
protasis is expressed or implied, and the infinitive with av represents 
an indicative or optative with av. 

KOI /iOt n't 6fo\ ovTots v Tots tfpotf fo~T]p.T}vai', COOT* nm ldt.o>TTjv av y v o> v a i, 
and the gods gave me such signs in the sacrifices, that even an untaught pcr*n 
would have understood (Xen. Anab. 6, I 31 ; like ft ns t'&omjr qv, tyva> av). 
'ftaXl for) (ffopat, us prjo'cv & v cri KOKOV IT a B ( I v, I shall then be in 
safety, so as not to suffer any evil (Xen. Cyr. 8, 7 37 ; like ov&v & v 
rratfoi/ii). Thuc 7, 42 :l . Plat. Meno 94 d . CO^Xw) 

7rotot/ivot (v nfXdyci OVK av (\pu)^.(6a &ia TO ftXtinTftv TO Trjs 
av TV fiapvTTjTi TU>V vtSv, infighting a naval Imltlr in the open sea, we c<il<i 
not use the multitude, through the interference with our skill by the i/vii//i/ >/ 
our ships (Thuc. 7, 62 3 ; like on n n X \os <p\airT(v av d aury <xp<p<6a). Plat. 
Symp. 174". 

"254 THE MOODS 2127 

2127. NOTE. 1. The apodosis may be a participle not depending 
on another verb. 

2a)Kpar/s pq$iu)S a v d(p c 6 el s VTTO rutv 5iKa<rra>i/, el K(U p.Tpia)S n TOVTWV 
fTroirja'f, rrpoetXero dirodavc'iv, whereas Socrates 'might easily have been ac- 
quitted (d(pci0r) av), by the judges if he had done any of these things even 
moderately, he preferred to die (Xen. Mem. 4, 4 4 ). Ilai/ra raXA' e t n <a v av 
Tjdws, cao-o), although I would gladly say everything vise, I will omit it (Dem. 
8, 52; like dnov av). Avvijdfls av avros t\(iv, cnrep cftov\r)0r), Trape'Saxce, 
although he would have been able to hold it (Potidaea), if he had wished, yet 
he gave it up (Dem. 23, 107). Plat. Crito 48 C . Xen. Anab. 6, 4 7 ; Mem. 
4, 2 6 ; Anab. 1, I 10 . 

2. Such participles are either circumstantial or attributive. 


2128. The verb of the protasis or apodosis is sometimes omitted 
when the sense makes the omission sufficiently clear. 

E*7rep rives KOI oAXot, atoi vop.i^op.(v dvai rois ntXas fyoyov fircvfynflv, we, 
if any, believe we are worthy of administering a rebuke to our neighbours 
{Thuc. 1, 70 1 ). With the verb of the apodosis omitted, Plat. Apol. 29 b . 

2129. 1. In this way arise conditional clauses of comparison or 
simile introduced by wo-Trep ai> ci, as, just as if, even as. 

Hapa.7r\f)(riov ol TOIOVTOI Trd(r\ov(nv & <r IT p av (* TIS ITTTTOV Kri^trairo 
Kd\<>v KCIKWS tTTTTfixiv firi(rrdp.(vos, such persons are affected nearly in the same 
way as any one (would be) who acquired a good horse and knew only how to 
r'uli 1 badly (Isoc. 1, 27). &ic(pddpr)(rav axrirep av fl npbs anavTas dvdpai- 
irovs f TT o X ( p.ij a~ a v, they perished just as if they had fought against the whole 
world (Isoc. 4, 69). 

In such conditional clauses of comparison, av (with optative or 
past indicative) really represents an apodosis with the verb suppressed. 

The full forms would be Trd.(T^(ov(Tiv o>o-7rcp av TIS ird.(T\oL i KTi](rai,TO , 
and 8i<pOdprj(rav oj(T7Tp av 8 t <p 6 a pr] <r av t tTroAe'/xr/o-ai/. 

2. So in Homer d>? et and ws t re ; as in Od. 9, 314. 

2130. NOTE. 1. With oio-Trcp av t both the protasis and apodosis 
may be suppressed ; Jio-Trep av ft (also written txnrfpavei) then means 

Simply as Or like. Thus <po/?ov/3evo5, iomrep av et Tral?, TO T[jLVor&ai, 

fearing, like a boy, to be cut (Plat. Gorg. 479 a ). The full form would 

be <pO/3oVfJ.VO<S WO-TTCp O.V IfpofifiTO L TTttt? ^V. 

2. So in poetry, especially in Homer, we find o>s d or d>s 
e? T, as or like (Od. 7, 36). 


THE MOODS -J ;);') 

2131. Ei /XT;, ci /XT; OLOL, ir\r)v d (ei /XT) ei). These expressions arise 
from the (conscious or unconscious) omission of a verb. 

1. Ei /XT; without a verb, except ; as irpiacrOat ou*c T;I/, ei /XT; eV TT; 
Avdia dyopa, it was impossible to buy any except in the Lydian market 
(Xen. Anab. 1, 5) ; Xen. Anab. 2, I 1 -'; Ar. Nub. 229. 

2. Ei /XT; Sid, except for; as ei /XT) Sia TOI> TrpvravLV, eVeVeo-ev <zV, 
except for the Prytanis (= had it not been for the Prytanis) he would 
have been thrown into the pit (Plat. Gorg. 516 e ). Dem. 19, 74. 

3. IIA.T/V i standing without a verb, except (like ei /XT)) ; as orSei? 
o?8ev TOf Qrjvavpov TOV e/xov TT A T) t' e i ns ap' opvis, 710 0716 hlOWS of 

the treasure except some bird (Ar. Av. 601). 

4. Ei /XT) i, eax^ z/, is rare; as in Thuc. 1, 17 1 ; Plat. Gorg. 

2132. NOTE. Ei Se /XT;, but if not, otherwise, follows a preceding 
assertion or condition or command, which it negatives. Ei Sc /XT; can 
be used even if the preceding clause was introduced by cai/ /xeV ; and 
it may even stand after negative clauses, when ei 8e would rather be 
expected. So i 8e is sometimes found where i Sc /XT; is more logical. 

Ei (Bov\((r0f (Tvvairitvai, TJKCIV rj8r) KfXfvci TTJS VV<TOS cl 8e p.r), avptov 
Trpwi dirifvat (f>Tj(riv, if you desire to return with him, he bids you to come this 
very night, but if not, he says he will set out early in the morning (Xen. Anab. 
2, 2 l ). Aet ndpatrdai, OTT<I>S, r) v p.ev dvv<i>fji0a, Kd\a>s viKa>i>Tfs (T<a(o)p.e6a 
ft de /*!], <iXXa xaXcof yc d-rroOvflo-Kfiv, we must try, if we can, to save ourselves 
by conquering gloriously ; but if (we can) not, then to die nobly (Xen. Anab. 
:. _''). M^ ovro) Af'ye, ei d /x 17, ov Qappovvrd p.f ffis, do not speak thus; 

i mise (if you do speak thus), you will nut find me confident (Xen. Cyr. 3, 
I-' 5 ). Ei f*ei> ^wX,...i 5, if you wish,. ..but if not (Pkt. 8ymp. 212*). 


2133. A conditional clause becomes concessive if icai is pre- 
fix ! or added to el or lav. Thus el tcai or eav icai, if even, 
although, Lat. quamquam ; KOL el or fcal lav (tc&v), even if, Lat. 
etiamsi. The construction is the same as that of conditional 
clauses. The apodosis often contains the adversative particle 
O/LUU?, nevertheless, yet. 

'lit pi v ftiKdid ndvTtf, tdv K a t fit) ftov\(t>i>Tai,<r\tivovTai p.rj nparTtn-, 

'ill penon* are ashamtd not to do what is just m // if ///*// tl<> not u-i*fi t<> ,/,. 

Dem. 16, 'Jl }\-/nvfitvos dv&pos civai dyaQov uXpfXtlv TOVS <pi\ovs, 

256 THE MOODS 2134 

f I fj.yo'ds ^te'XXot e'io-co~0ai, regarding it to be the duty of a good man to help 
his friends, even if no one should find it out (Lys. 19, 59). Et <ai (Soph. 
Oed. Tyr. 302, with o/xtoy in apodosis). Kat lav or K&V (Plat. Menex. 248 d ; 
Men. Mon. 19). 

2134. NOTE. 1. Kat ei or Kat eav emphasises rather the condition ; 
but often there is hardly any difference between ci (eav) /cat and KQI ei 

2. Sometimes with t Kat the Kat does not belong to ei, but to the 
next or oftener to some following word ; as in Soph. Ant. 90, Aj. 
1127; Xen. Mem. 1, 6 12 . 

2135. NOTE. Concession is more frequently expressed by a parti- 
ciple with or without KaiVep (or KOI) ; see 2258, 2274. T^TTC/ may also 
express concession (Plat. Protag. 333 C ). 


2136. 1. Relative clauses are introduced by relative pronouns 
or relative adverbs. 

2. The antecedent of a relative is said to be definite, when the 
relative refers to a definite person, thing, place, or manner. It 
is said to be indefinite when the relative does not refer to a definite 
person, thing, place, or mariner. The antecedent may be under- 

2137. Explanatory Relative Clauses. The antecedent is here 
definite. Such clauses may have the construction of any simple 

Tlapr/v 6 Mrjo'oo-do'Tjs ro> 2cv0T), 5 v IT e p twpi<rft*V*V avro> TrdvToore, 
Medosades, who acted as ambassador for him on all occasions, was present with 
Seuthes (Xen. Anab. 7, 2 23 ). Dem. 18, 35. Potential Indicative : 'iTrnoKpdrTjs 
trap* cfjif d<piKop.cvos ov Tret'trfrat, tinep av c IT a 9 f v aXXa> ro> (rvyyevopfvos 
ru>v <ro(pi(rra>v , Hippocrates coming to me will not have the experience which 
he would have in meeting with any other of the philosophers (Plat. Prot. 318 d ). 

Potential Optative: 6 TlapQevios Trorapas aftaros COTIV, c<p' ov c '\6oirf 
av, i TOV "AXvv 8ia/3atT/r<i the river Parthenius, to which you would arrive if 
you should cross the Halys, is unfordable (Xen. Anab. 5, 6 9 ). Hortative 
Subjunctive : "Avvros 58f irapeKa6itTo, a, pcTao'a>p.fv rrjs rjTT)(T(a>s, Anytus 
has sat down here, to whom let us give a share in the inquiry (Plat. Meno 89*). 

Imperative: 7rtoT6V(rat...r<a ^poi/co v ftp^s cra(p<rraTov e\fy%ov TOV aXrjffovs, to trust to time, which I enjoin that you consider the clearest 

2140 THE MOODS 257 

>ifh (Lys. 19, 61). Optative in Wishes : oio/wu yap av fjfias roiavra 
TraOtlv, ola TOVS f \0povs ot dfoi IT o irj <r c t av, I believe we should be so 
I pray the gods may treat our enemies (Xen. Anab. 3, 2 3 ). 

2138. Causal Relative Clause. A relative clause expressing a 
cause has the same construction as an ordinary causal clause. 

Bavfiafrrov iroifls, o s fjfuv ov8ev Stfto>?, you do a strange thing in that you 
thing (Xeu. M<>m. 2, 7 1:l )- Xen. Anab. 3, I 17 . 

2139. NOTE. When the negative is /xrj, the cause is considered 
as conceived rather than absolutely true; as TaAatVo>pos...av0pa>7ros 
ct, u> fjLrjTf Oeol 7raTpu>oi fl(nv ftr/Te itpd, a wretched being are you to whom, 
as appears, there are neither ancestral gods nor shrines (Plat. Euthyd. 
302 b ). 

2140. Consecutive Relative Clauses. 1. A relative may 
express result. It then has any tense of the indicative, sometimes 
also the potential optative or potential indicative. 

"Tis OVT<I>S (vr)6r)s (tOTtv) f)fji)v, ocrrty dyvocl TOV cKtWtv iroXc 
fjoi>Ta : "/<" f '.ion i* *<> *i tuple as not to know that the war in that part 
come hither? (Dem. 1, 15). Xoyav . . .TOIOIT&V ols av vpas 7r<ra, of 
such as I could hr> persuaded you with (Plat. Apol. 38 d ). Dem. 18, 43. 
'I'oiotTos yiyvov irfp\ TOVS yovtls, olovs av (vaio irtpl (rtavrbv y(V(tr6ai 
rovs (avTov TratSas, be such toward your /M/JV/I/N a* ;/on icould pray for \inr 
hildrento become toward yourself (Isoc. 1, 14). Isoc. 8, 52. In such 
cases the consecutive relative clause is used like wore with a finite verb (2078). 

2. If the consecutive relative clause denotes a result which is 
possible or jiecessary or intended in consequence of something 
mentioned in the leading clause, it takes the future indicative. 
The negative is ^77. Such a consecutive relative is equivalent 
to oxrre with tin- infinitive (2080). For the future indicative 
we sometimes have the potential optative. 

<(' ((T^itv fyiii' Tri^ai vavs re nal avdpas, oinvcs <r\>^fJiaxovvral 
T( KO\ TTJV oflov 177170- oi' rat (= a>rrr fn'/i/i(i^(r^m), ir- ruv (// fa .%// >i<m 
hot), ships and men, '/ /;// /* //./-, !/./*. frj-.s nd irill ijuide you on the 
way (Xen. Anab, 5, 4 10 ). 'Ee ov rrXota <OTI/, olt arrorXcu<rovfi<^a 
( &0T an-otrXfCcrai), there are no vessels there by which we can nail n/-i/ 

I nab. 6, 3 16 ). Ilatdf s d< /xot oijirot tlo\v o t /if 6 ( p a IT t v <r o v <r t v t 
I 1,'in- mi lon'i>r fh II ili-iii i/'/ic ( = such as) might support me (Lys. 24, 6). 
*E&i ^rf)<purpa vlnr)<Tai TWOVTO, d t* o v *o>c is aTroXoOirat, it tea* necessary 
for a decree to pas* by which the Phocians would be destroyed (Dem. 19, 43). 


258 THE MOODS 2141 

Xpi7 ..... 8L\0tv TO&OVTOV fj.fpos TOV Xoyov, o <T o v p,rj A v IT 1) (T 6 i 
i is necessary to run over such a part of the discourse as will not weary the 
spectators (Isoc. 15, 12). Plat. Euthyd. 306' 1 . Isoc. 4, 89 (pres. for fut.). 
Potential Optative: OVK exP fv az/Spar, ous av aft ifi av at. pf v av eVi 
rourouy rota ITTTTOVS, we have no men to mount upon these horses (Xen. Cyr. 
4, 5 50 ). 

2141. NOTE. Instead of a relative clause with the future indicative, 
the future participle with the generic article (1389) may be used. 

2142. Final Relative Clauses. When a relative clause expresses 
purpose, it takes the future indicative. The negative is fir). 

"E,8o^e ro) S^fto) Tpid<ovTa civdpas eXecrBai, ot TOVS iraTpiovs vopovs avy- 
y p atyov <r iV) the people resolved to choose thirty men to compile the ancestral 
laws (Xen. Hell. 2, 3 a ). QaXda-a-iov eVpr^ar', e v 6 a /X^TTOT' e I <r o \}s e <r G* 
ert, throw me out into the sea, where ye may never more see me (Soph. Oed. 
Tyr. 1410). Tldvra rroielv e' 2>i/ /i) X e IT o v pyrj a- e t s p.fp.d6r)Kas, you have 
learned to do everything so as not to perform public duties (Dem. 42, 23). 

2143. NOTE. For the future indicative, /mc'AAco and an infinitive 
may be used ; as in Xen. Cyr. 1, 4 16 ; 2, 1-". 

2144. NOTE. Instead of a final relative clause, the future participle 
is much oftener used (2243, 2256). 

2145. NOTE. 1. Barely is the indicative changed to the future 
optative after past tenses ; as Xen. Hell. 2, 3 11 . 

2. So rarely do we find the optative aorist or present after 
secondary tenses or after another optative ; as in Ar. Ran. 96 ; Soph. 
Track. 903. 

2146. NOTE. 1. In Homer final relative clauses take 
the subjunctive (usually with *') after primary tenses, 
and the optative (not future) after secondary tenses. 

Thus tTriOrjcrfi <ap/xax' a /cev TT a v or 17 o- 1, he will apply 

remedies to give relief (II. 4, 191); ayyeW fjxav, 09 
ayyei'Aetc, they sent a messenger to announce (Od. 15, 
458) ; II. 3, 287. 
2. Homer perhaps never uses the future indicative here. 

2147. Conditional Relative Clauses. 1. When a relative clause 
has an indefinite antecedent, it is of the nature of a conditional 

2U9 THi; MOODS 259 

clause, and is then called a conditional relative clause. The 
negative is?//,?;. A conditional relative clause can be changed to 
an ordinary conditional clause with el or edv. 

'2. Conditional relative clauses have the four regular forms 
of conditional sentences (2094). 

2148. First Class. (1) Simple Present or Past Particular Sup- 
positions. The relative clause (protasis) has a present or past tense 
of the indicative ; the antecedent clause (apodosis) may have any 
form of the verb. Compare 2095. 

*A fi7 0180, ouSe oio/iat ftdfvai, what I do not know (= et nva prj o?8a), J do 
not even think I know (Plat. Apol. 21 d ). Ta>> 'E\\r)vwv ol p,rj erv\ov tv rats 
Tdnv 5vTSj fls ras rd(is e#eoi/, those who did not happen to be in the r<mJc< 
( = ft rives p.r} frvxov (v rms raf<rii' oi/rts), ran to their places (Xen. Annh. L', 
2 U ). The conditional character of the relative clause is only recognised by 


The conditional relative clause may also have the future indicative 
to express present purpose or necessity (2096) ; as in Thuc. 2, 8 6 . 

(2) General Suppositions. If the general supposition is present, 
the relative clause (protasis) takes the subjunctive with av, and the 
antecedent clause (apodosis) takes the present indicative or some 
equivalent form. If the general supposition is past, the relative clause 
(protasis) takes the optative, and the antecedent clause (apodosis) 
takes the imperfect indicative or some equivalent form. Compare 

Ot Iltp<Tai & v av y v (iixr i dvvdptvov ptv \^P lv 7ro8i86i/at, W dirodio'ovTa 
<', Ko\d(ov<riv lo-^upaiy, whomever the Persians find able to return a &</_"'/ 
and not returning t<, they punish severely (Xen. Cyr. 1, 2 7 ). O v a v ris vw' 
apX OVTOS Ta X^fli fvravBa bcl \iivovra. KtvSvvcveiv, wherever a man has been 
placed by his commander, there he ought to remain and bear dangers (Plat. 

'. 28 d ). narpit ydf) tan -nad ti>* &v (wherever) IT parry ns tv, /n'\ 
country is even/ <-unti-ii <// ;/,> a man is well off(Ar. Plut. 1151). Kvpos 
ov<TTivat /iaXtara <>p(frj ra caXa didxcovray, rovrovs ira<rms Tipais cycpcuftf i . 
whomever Cyrus saw the most : '.'// in'/i// unhlr /Ji/nwita, thr*- 

rewarded with all kinds of honours (Xt-n. ''///. s. 1 '). o; rmXtfuot KOI on / 
<ti; (TTfvitv xvpiov TrpOKaTaXapftdvovrfs (ttuXvov T&s irapooovf, wherever ////- 
was a narrow place, the enemy by pre-occiif/i n<i it, obstructed the adi 
(Xen. Am 

2149. NOri:. General relative suppositions sometimes have the 
indicium- instead of the subjunctive or optative (2100). 

260 THE MOODS 2150 

' AyrjcriXdos onov <u e r o rfjv TrarpiSa rt axpeArjtreii/, ov irovwv v(f)lfTo, whenever 
Agesilaus thought that he could benefit his country in anything, he did not 
shrink from toils (Xen. Ages. 7, 1). Thuc. 2, 64 6 . 

2150. NOTE. Occasionally we find the optative instead of the 
subjunctive, when the relative clause belongs to an infinitive depending 
on a verb in the present. 

Tot! /zeV avrov \eyciv a prj (ra<pa)s e 18 f i 17, flpyccrBai Set, it is necessary for 
him to be restrained from. x<n/i ,i<i what he does not clearly know (Xen. ('//>. 
1, 6"'). Dem. 3, 14. Soph. Oed. Tyr. 134. This is against the general rule 

2151. NOTE. In general relative conditions with the 
subjunctive, Homer usually omits av or ice ; as ov fy- 
vcuds, o ? dOavdrouri p. <> x *] T a L > he is not long-lived ivho 
fights with the immortal gods (II. 5, 407). This occurs 
sometimes in other poetry ; as in Soph. Oed. Tyr. 1231. 
Examples in prose are rare and doubtful. 

2152. Second Class. Present and Past Suppositions contrary to 
Eeality. The relative clause (protasis) has a past tense of the in- 
dicative, and the antecedent clause (apodosis) a past tense of the 
indicative with av. Compare 2102. 

Ov yap av avr o t fTT^ipovp.fv TrpOrrciv a ^7ricrra/ie$a, we 
should not ourselves be trying to do (as we are) what we did not understand 
(Plat. Charm. 171 e ). Kur. //>&. Aul. 1213. Lys. 32, 23. 

2153. Tliird Class. Future Condition of more Distinct Form. 
The relative clause (protasis) takes the subjunctive with av ; the 
antecedent clause (apodosis) has the future indicative or some form 
referring to the future. Compare 2109. 

Toi ai/8pt, ov av c \Tjv0f 7Tio-o/iat, whatever man you select, I will obey 
(Xen. Anab. 1, 3 15 ). \\noKptvai 8 n av <re e'pa>ra>, answer whatever I shall 
ask you (Lys. 12, 24). 

2154. NOTE. In indirect discourse, the subjunctive with av may 
be changed to the optative without av, after secondary tenses. 

2155. NOTE. The future indicative is not used here for the 
subjunctive with av as in 2111. 

2156. NOTE. In Homer we occasionally find the sub- 
junctive without av or KC here also (2110) ; as KaraXe^ov 
o s T t s apioros avrjp KCU TrAe terra TT 6 p r) cr i v y 



tell her to marry whoever may be the best man and may 
offer the most (Od. 20, 335). 

2157. Fourth Class. Future Condition of less Distinct Form. 

The relative clause (protasis) has the optative, and the antecedent 

clause has the optative with oV. Compare 2113. 

'OKVOIIJV av e Is TO. TrXoTa ffjifBaivfiv a 8007, I should be r?l nctnt to 
'//.- in any vessel* tht In' miijht <jire us (Xen. A nab. 1, 3 17 ). Xen. M> m. 

2158. NOTE. In Homer a relative clause depending on 
an optative of wishing, takes the optative ; after an 
optative with *ccV (av), such a dependent clause takes 
the optative with or without *eV. See 2183. 
Miy davot os TIS ffMoi yc $iAor fir;, may not any one die who 
is a fr'H-ml to me (Od. 15, 359). Od. 18, 142. 'Avdpl K OVK 
fl^fitv Aids os GVTJTOS 6*?;, Ajas i>'iU i/i<'lil to no man who 
may be (= is) mortal (II. 13, 321). Od. 13, 291. C H 8* K 
fTTdTa yt)p.ai0' os K( TrXetora Trdpoi, <ni<l .s//c tin // n-ould 
marry whoever miylit firing the most gifts (Od. 16, 392). Od. 
21, 162, same sentence. 

2159. Peculiarities of Conditional Relative Clauses. Most of the 
various peculiarities of conditional clauses (21162132), as mixed forms 
and substitutions, occur also in conditional relative clauses. 

2160. Assimilation of Mood. For assimilation of mood both in 
relative and temporal clauses, see 2183, 2184. 


2161. 1. Temporal clauses are introduced by the following tempo- 
ral particles : (a) ore, fWorc, us, ^I'IKO, oTrvyi/cKa, when, <f.s . OO-UMS, < r >-<><raKis, 
as of ten as; cV <J, while, as long as ; /ne'xpi, ( " L XP L > o- T <"*< -while, 
as long as ; (b) cTret, eVeiST/, ichen = after, since ; i$ ov, c orov, d</>' or, 
dv, aft' o>? Ta^io-ra, cVei ra^urra, 7Ti8T/ rri^urra, eTrctSr; irpwrov, 

O8 SOOn as; (c) TT^'I , ~,,]v , also irptntfHn' T), before ; //^pi, <i\pi, 
i TT(, ecu 5, f*.t\f>i or Or *i\(H f*r, until. 

2. Add also : Ionic err* = ore ; ("xnrtp d>s (Hdt.) ; OTTO*? 
(Hdt. OKO>), Ionic, also Attic poetic ; T//XO? = ore, Ionic, 
tragic, lyric ; 5<f>pa, as lony as, until, Epic, lyric, tragic 
in lyric parts; jirctrc, Ionic = (* : -/>M on, Horn. * 
iv, irdpos = irpiv, Horn, but only with inf.; W '. 

262 THE MOODS 2162 

until, Hdt. \ 5 o, ? ov, Hdt. \ Hom. 19 o K or 

as long as, until ; Hom. ttw? or etos for tW "Bo-re is 

not in Homer. 

2162. Temporal clauses have in general the same construction 
as relative clauses ; but those introduced by particles meaning 
until or before, have peculiarities of their own (2172 2182). 

2163. NOTE. The correlatives to the temporal particles are seldom 
expressed ; oftenest Tore, then, corresponding to ore or orav, and TrpoVepoK 
to TrptV. So IWS...TCWS (poet.) ; ^o? (poet.)...r^/xos (poet.) ; o<pa (poet.) 
...rotppa (poet.) ; f)viKa...Tr)viKa (poet.) or TrjviKavra ', v < rovVa) ; w? 
...w? (Horn.) ; etc. 

2164. Temporal clauses which express an actual occurrence 
take the indicative. The negative is ov. 

"Ore 8( (yyvTfpov cyiyvovTO, rd\a o"rj KOI ^O\KOS TLS rjarpairTf, when they 
l>l>r<nirhed nearer, brazen armour began to flash (Xen. A nab. 1, 8 8 ). *HpKt, 

Tjj TToXfl T(l TIX1 5taO-a>I>, OTTOTf Ot AaKfoYu/XOI/tOi V /3 O X O I/, it Wttf 

*ntficient for tin' */'/// tt> ., /7.s n-tills u-ln-n tin Lacedaemonians invaded 
(Xen. Hi/i/xi fi-h. 7, 4). 'HI/IK a fie fifiA;; tyiyvfTO, tydvrj Koviopros, when 
it was afternoon, there */////(</ /.// /i/.sf (Xen. ^4 nab. 1, 8 8 ). 'E v a a> n X t- 
f OI/TO, ^KOV ot Trponfp<p6(vT(s o-KOTTot, ivhile they were arming themselves, the 
scouts that had been sent forward returned (Xen. A nab. 2, 2 15 ). "Ecus ear I 
avn\ap(rdc rutv Trpa-y/zartoi/, trAi70 <^re t a chance, take hold of the 
(Dem. 1, 20). 'E TT I $<r6lr l Aapetoy. ..,j3ovX6ro ot T&J rraiSe dp.<po- 
irapfivat, after Darius had f<illfn *ick, he wanted both of his sons to 
attend him (Xen. .\nnl>. 1, I 1 ). 'E orovTrcp fyevofirjv, KaT-^fTj(pi(rp.(vos 
rjv p.ov viro TTJS (pvo-fws o Odvaros, from the moment that I was born, death was 
1 1 1' i- reed for by nature (Xen. Apol. 27). 'Q s ftdov raptor a TOVS 7ro\(piovs> 
<TWfppaav, as soon as they saw the enemy, they engaged with them (Xen. 
Hell. 7, 5 1 *). So <W (Hdt. 7, 7 1 ) ; eVt^ '(Thuc. 1, 18 1 ; Xen. Cyr. 2, I 1 ) ; 
e| o5 (JL 1, 6 ; Od. 2, 27) ; d<p* ov (Thuc. 1, 18 1 ) ; eV (cirtt&rj) ra^tora, as soon 
ft* (Xen. ^4nab. 7, 2 ; Plat. Pro*. 31O 1 ) ; /i>pi, n^pt (ov), ttrrf, while (Thuc. 
3, 10 4 ; Xen. HeM. 6, 4 37 ; Xen. Anab. 3, 1") ; 6o-acir (Xen. Mem. 3, 4 :{ ). 
So also fvrt (Od. 13, 93) ; o>o-7rp (Hdt. 6, 41 2 ) ; OTTUS or OKWV 
(Hdt. 7, 229 2 ) ; fas (II. 11, 86) ; ttypa, a* long as (II. 4, 220) ; 
67rir (Hdt. 7, 8 :< ) ; ts o, until (Hdt. 1, 115-) ; cs ov, until 
(Hdt. 1, 67 s ) but some prefer to read ts o in Hdt. 

2165. NOTE. Observe the use of ore with verbs of remembering ; 
as /Ac'/Avry/xat ore, I remember when for I remember that (as Thuc. 2, 2 1 1 ). 
See 2303. 



2166. When temporal clauses (apart from those introduced by 
before or until] do not express an actual occurrence, they have 
the construction of ordinary conditional clauses. When av is 
required, it is either added after the temporal particle, or it 
coalesces with it, forming regularly orav, oTrorav, eTrav or TTIJV 
(Hdt. eiredv), lire&dv, also ty'iK? av. 

1. The temporal clause may be general, expressing a repeated 
occurrence ; it then takes the subjunctive with oV after the present 
tense, and the optative (without av) after a past tense (2098). The 
negative of the temporal clause is p.rj. 

2. The temporal clause may express an unreal condition ; it then 
takes a past tense of the indicative ; the antecedent clause has a past 
tense of the indicative with oV (2102). The negative of the temporal 
clause is /t>;. This form is very uncommon with temporal clauses. 

3. The temporal clause may express an expected future occurrence 
of the more distinct form. It then takes the subjunctive with oV ; the 
antecedent clause has the future indicative or some form referring to 
future time (2109). The negative of the temporal clause is /XT). This 
form is very common. 

4. The temporal clause may express an expected future occurrence 
of the less distinct form. It then takes the optative (2113) ; the 
antecedent clause has the optative with oV. The negative is ny. This 
form is not common. 

1. Ot XoXdmot fjiKrdov <rrpaTvovTat, orrorav TIS avrotv df'rjrnt, // 
Chaldaeann perform military service for hire, irh> /< < / any one requests it 
of them (Xen. C^yr. 3, 2 7 ). 'H v I ' A v OIKOI y t v o> v r a i, fipwo-ti/ OVK avaa-\(ra, 
< r /A. </ <ire at home they <!<> infl< rhl,' thin<ix ( Ar. /'(. 1 179). SotKpanjs 
nivfiv OVK (B(\(M)v, n IT ft T ( a. v a y n a <r 6 i i/, navras tKpuTti, Socratt'X, although 
unwilling to drink, always *vi/jy?n' .<// */// (/-/i'/i In- n-<i* <(///(/..//. <l t<> drink 
(Xen. Symp. 220). "O r t K rov Stivov yevoivro, TroXXoi rov KXtap^nv 
dntXiTTov, whenever they were out of danger, m<tn<i tr,,nl,l <l,*,rf Clmrchus 
(Xen. Anab. 2, 6 12 ). *E<rr' &v t) ^fi/zo)i' f) iroXtfuovs 8f i o-oxrt I',...TI 
K(\(v<tp(va iravra iroiovffiv, as soon as th< <i l>iin to dread a storm r , mies, 

>ll orders (Xen. Mem. 3, 6"). Plat. Phaedo 108 C . Od, 8, 147. 
J. Km i'i TT ij v i K a (' <p a i v c T o ravra ircrroir)K.<i>s, w^ioXfryflr* tiv f) KfiTtjyopia 
<~l>yots avrov, and whensoever (= if ever) he appeared to hare done these 
.'<, his accusation would agree with his acts (Dem. 18, 14). 

11 77 ( T n v KOipitS ft, 17^0), ir/ ii if *li<ill I,, tin />!<>/ r fun,. I irill .///. 
(Xen. Anab. 7, 3 s *). *E r t i&av & fttair p4p< A 

264 THE MOODS 2167 

I have accomplished what I wish, I shall come (Xen. Anab. 2, 3 29 ). 'H v i *' 
a v ris a 8 1 K 77, f)p.el$ v-rrep fyieoz/ paxovpeda, whenever any one shall wrong 
you, we will fight for you (Xen. Cyr. 4, 4 n ). KOpos- V7re'<rxero avbp\ CKOOTO) 
dwcrciv nfVTf dpyvpiov p.vas, cirav els Ba/3vXaii/a TJKQHTI, Cyrus promised to give 
to each man Jive minae of silver when they should arrive at Babylon (Xen. 
Anab. 1, 4 1:< ). "Eoxmep av e/iTri/ea) KOI olos re &, ov pr) Trai'trco/uai 
<pi\ocro<pa>v , as long as I live and am able, I shall never cease to philosophise 
(Plat. Apol. 29 d ). Xen. Oec. 1, 23. Od. 2, 124. In indirect discourse the 
subjunctive with av may pass into the optative without av, after past tenses. 
4. 'A7rioi/iei> av 6 TT o r e TOV pitrBov e^oitv o'tTavraijp.'iv KaraTrpd^avTfS, when 
those who have effected these services for you have received their pay, we shall 
be ready to depart (Xen. Anab. 7, 7 17 )- Xen. Cyr. 1, 3 11 ; 3, I 16 . "E o> s 
la-ov firj avra tavrw, as long as it should remain equal to itself (Plat. Theaet. 

2167. NOTE. Observe that <I>s av with the subjunctive is never 
temporal in meaning ; o>s av means either in what way soever (1964, 2), 
or in order that (2045, 1). 

2168. NOTE. In general temporal clauses, the indicative is seldom 
used ; as in Xen. Anab. 4, 7 1(i ; Xen. Cyr. 2, 3 23 . Compare 2100. 

2169. NOTE. As with conditional relative clauses, 
conditional temporal clauses have certain poetic pecu- 

1. In general temporal conditional clauses, Homer 
usually omits av or ice'; as in II. 1, 163. This occurs 
rarely in other poetry. 

2. Homer occasionally has the subjunctive without av 
or K in future conditions ; as in Od. 18, 132. 

3. In Homer the optative occasionally has av or *e' in 
temporal clauses ; as in II. 9, 304. 

2170. NOTE. Homeric Similes with J>s or o>s re, as, <!>? 
ore (rarely d>s OTTOTC), as when. 1. In Homer similes 
introduced by these particles often take the subjunctive 
like general relative clauses. 

'Qs fie yvvr) K \ a i rj <r i...,&s t O8v<rcvs...o'dKpvov fifttv, a* <i >/> 
weeps..., so Ulysses shed a tear (Od. 8, 523). "iJo-rc /xe'ya 

KVfJM...V7Tp To'l^UiV K a T Cl (3 T) (T ( T (I I (fOT KClTaftTjOTjTai), OTTTTOT* 

fTrdyy "s avfpov, as a mighty wave.... dashes over the sides of 
<i shi/i >rhen the force of the wind urges it (II. 15, 382). 'Q $ 
5' ore 7rop<pVpTj TTfXayos , &s 6 yeptov &pp.aivf, as when the 

2173 THE MOODS 265 

sea surges,.. meditated the old man (II. 14, 16). 'Qs OTTOT* 
(Od. 4, 335). The subjunctive has av several times with o>r 
or*, as in II. 10, 5 ; otherwise neither av nor <e. 
2. The simile sometimes begins with the subjunctive 
and continues with the indicative ; as in //. 6, 506-514. 

2171. NOTE. Conditional temporal clauses are also liable to the 
various peculiarities mentioned in 2116 2132 ; but they occur much 
less frequently. 


2172. 1. The particles ^XP 1 -XP L > rr > * (epic and lyric o<pa, 
epic cis o K or eio-d**, Herodotean es o), are all used both in the sense 
of while, as long as, and in the sense of until. After a negative leading 
clause u>s and irpiv have the same meaning (Xen. Mem. 4, 8 2 ; Plat. 
Phaedo 58 b ). 

2. When these particles are used in the sense of while, as long as, 
their clauses have the ordinary constructions of temporal clauses 
(2162). The tense used is mostly the present. 

2173. When these particles mean until, they have the following- 
constructions, mostly with the aorist : 

1. When they refer to an actual occurrence, they have the indicative, 
mostly aorist. 

TaOra tiroiovv p. i x P * O-KOTOS c y t v e r a, th<'i/<li<l f/n'x //// //<*;/.-//>> 
.on (Xen. Anab. 4, 2*). <>,!. 1. ;><>3. Xn. Hell. 1, l; Oyr. 7. B. Hdt. (5, 
83 1 . Thi> i> like a relative clause with a definite antecedent. 

2. When the temporal clause with until depends on a clause 
implying non-reality, it takes a past tense of the indicative without 
ofv (2102). 

OVK &V tTTtlVOpTJV, ftoff ilTTf 7T ( I p <1 T) f , I ultnllhl l,<>1 MOM ""''/ / /""/ 

OH "tf.'inpt (Plat. I'mtiil. 396 C ). 'Epavdvitov &v p<\pt ov avrols 

( 8 o < f i, //< it /'////,/ ,/u, >/;,,/( tin-in mill, i- fnrfin; ./> Inng as they pleased 
IlcVon */i- KaXXt<cXet roi/r<u <n 6tXyo/x/i', fwr aiTai rr)v rov 

*Af*<^roi'of aTTf^WKa pricrii', I irmilil ,jl,nllii hurt' ijain an <lincussing with 
('nil. nitit I ///.///-./< hi 111 //'.7.//,, x,iiiiu,i ,,f A ni/>hii< (IM.'it. G 

506 b ). Compare 2184. 

3. When the temporal clause with until expresses an exj>c<-tali<>n, 
it takes the subjunctive with ",v after a primary tense or its equivalent ; 
and the optative (without av) after a past tense. But the subjunctive 
with av may be retained after past tenses. 

266 THE MOODS 2174 

TIcpipivfTe, c <r r' a v cy<>> eA a>, wait till I come (Xen. Anab. 5, I 4 ). 
27roi/Si eo-oi/rai pexpis &v fiao~i\l ra trap vpaiv d i a y y f \ 17, the truce 
u'iW as< till what you say be reported to the king (Xen. Anab. 2, 3"). Xen. 
Cyr. 3, 3 18 ; ^na6. 2, 3 2 . ' II 15, 332; 2, 332. Hdt 2, 115 7 . Compare 2109. 
avrois (o7r\io~apvots irpoitvai cis TO irpoo~6fv, c <o s KCpa> o~vp.- 
i seemed best to them to pack up their baggage and to march 
forward till they could effect a junction with Cyrus (Xen. Anab. 2, 1 2 ). Xen. 
Anab. 1, 9". Od. 12, 437. This is on the principle of indirect discourse,. 
2324. With subjunctive retained after past tense : Xen. Hell. 5, 3 25 . 

4. When the temporal clause with until expresses repeated or 
customary action, it has the construction of present and past general 
suppositions (2098). 

To Tcrriytov y(vos...aftft t o> s av r f A f VT TJ a- 17, the race of grasshoppers 
sings until it dies (Plat. Phaedr. 259). Ufpie^vo^fv ovv cKciaroTf, fo>r 
dvoixOftT] TO Setr/zwr^ptoi/, we used to wait each day until the prison was 
opened (Plat. Phaedo 59 d ). 

2174. NOTE. 1. Thucydides occasionally omits av with the sub- 
junctive in clauses introduced by fte'xpt* ^XP 1 ^ an ^ ^XP L ^ un ^ / 
as p.r)$eva (K/3rjvat ^.e^pt TrXov? yev^Tat, that no one should leave 
the ship until she sailed (Thuc. 1, 137 3 ; 4, 46 ; 3, 28). Compare the 
similar omission with irptv (2178). 

2. This occurs with the same particles in Herodotus, 
also with & o and ov ; and with la* and other particles 
in tragedy; as Hdt. 4, 119* ; 1, 117 4 ; 3, 31 3 ; Soph. 
Oed. Col. 77 ; Aj. 1183. This occasional omission of 
av occurs mostly in Tragedy. 

2175. NOTE. Clauses introduced by until and taking the sub- 
junctive with av or the optative (after past tenses) without av (as in 
2173, 3 and 4) often resemble final clauses and have a similar con- 
struction, except that the final clauses regularly take the simple 
subjunctive, and the temporal clauses with until take the subjunctive 
with av. After past tenses, the original construction may pass into 
the optative without av ; with the temporal clause this is usual ; with 
final clauses the usage varies (2040, 2042). 


2176. The temporal particle irpiv, before, until, has the follow- 
ing constructions : 

1. If the leading clause is affirmative, irpiv, before, usually takes 

2177 THE MOODS 267 

the infinitive. Whether the action expressed by the temporal clause- 
really occurs, is not indicated (as in wore with the infinitive, 2080). 

2. If the leading clause is negative or interrogative, irpiv, before, 
until, usually has the same constructions as ?a>s (2173). 

'ETT! TO axpov dva(3aivt Xf ipro<os, IT p i v riva a I cr & i <r 6 a i ra>v TroXe/iiW,. 
Cheiri-sophus mounted the summit before any of the enemy perceived it (Xen. 

!'"'/>. 4, I 6 ). Hplv TO^fVfJM flKVfl(T0fll, KK\IVOV(TIV Ol fidpftdpOl KCU 

<p(vyov<riv, before an arrow could reach them, the barbarians gave way and 

//"/ (Xen. A nab. 1, 8 19 ). Mfa-a^vrjv tiXo/nci/ irpiv IIcp<ras Xa/Sfti/ TTJV 

8a<riXciav, -, {<>!: Messene before the Persians acquired their kingdom (Isoc. 

1. ') Hp\v TJIJMS a TT i e v a t, /xa^ eyeyovft fv rfj IloriSata, before we came 

. Imttlf took place at Potidaea (Plat Charm. 153 b ). Naif 8e Ilqdatoi', 

IT p\v f\B dv via? 'A^aiwv, he dwelt in Pedaeum before the sons of the 

ne (II. 13, 172). Hdt. 6, 119 2 . Lys. 16, 4. 

OVK fj&\( KI/J&J fls \clpas teVat, ir p t v T) yvvr) avrov 7rei(T, he did not 
wish to go into the power of Cyrus before his wife persuaded him (Xen. Anab. 
1, 2 as ). Ov irpo&Qfv (7rav<ravTo nplv f^fTroKiopurjtrav rov *O\ovpov, they did not 
cease before they had reduced Olurus by siege (Xen. Hell. 7, 4 18 ). Dem. 8, 65. 
Tins form is like that of a relative clause with a definite antecedent. 

X/>r;r \(7rTivrjv p,r) npoTfpov TiOfvai rov cavrov vop,ov, jrplv TOVTOV f\v<T 
ypa^dp.fvos, Leptines should t>t lir>', /<u.s.svr/ ///.s law before he hail in<li<-tl 
and repeal* <! this one (Dem. 20, 96). This form (2173, 2) depending on an 
unfulfilled condition is very uncommon. 

'Eyco vt ovKf'n d<pr)(To>, irpiv av p.oi a farfoglpnM diro8(it-Tjs, I 
rill n> -i- /!/ you go before you have shown me what you h<n; ///V.//MS. </ (Xen. 
Oec. 3, 1). Mi) dirf\8rjT( IT p\v bv a K oixrrjrf, do not go away before you 
have heard (Xen. Anab. 5, 7 1J > ). Kur. M.<l. 276. Hdt. 1, 32 7 . This f,,rm 
is very common : compare 2173, 3. 

'AflnfydjpClM fjajo'fva /SoXXfii/, rr p i v Kvpoc c p. TT\T) <r 6 ( iij 6r]p<i)v, hf forlnuli- 
any one to shoot until Cyrus should be satisfied with the hunt (Xen. Cyr. 1, 
4"). //. I'l. 580. Soph. Phil. :,:,!. XIMI .//-//. 6, 5 19 ; Anab. 1, 2 2 . 'This 

M optative of indirect discourse, as in 2173, 3; the original Huhjunctive 
with m> is often reUiin.-l. 

Ou nparepov olds r< irotdv (sc. iroujrrjs), n pi v Av tvfaof yfvrjrat, a 
poet is not able to compose <,,til) he is inspired (Plat. Ion 534 b ). 

AntiplK.n, 1, 29. Compare 2098. The optative is perhaps never used \\it h 
npiv in such general MI|.; 

2177. NOT i-:. When the leading clause is an optative with or 
without av, the clause with irpLv very rarely takes the optative by 

268 THE MOODS 2178 

Ov yap av ftdfirjs dvdpbs voov ov8f yvvaiKos, TT p\v TTfipTjBfirjs, you 
cannot know the mind of a man or a woman before (until) you have tried it 
(Theog. 125). Soph. Phil. 961 (after an optative of wishing). But oftener 
the infinitive is used (2179, 3 (c)). 

2178. NOTE. Like cu>, etc. (2174), irpiv occasionally has the 
subjunctive without av in Herodotus and Attic Greek, even in prose. 

Mi7 (rr(vaf Trpiv fiddys, groan not ere you have learnt (Soph. Phil. 
917). Bur. Ale. 848. AT. Ban. 1281. Hdt. 4, 157 4 . Thuc. 6, 10 5 ; 8, 9. 
Xen. Oec. 12, 1. Pl>t. Tin > -t. 169 b . Some editors consider the omission 
of av iii ]>n>M> suspicious, and restore it in the texts. 

2179. NOTE. (a) Occasionally -n-piv, before, takes the infinitive 
after neyative clauses. 

1. So for a past indicative : 

Ou, Trpiv TT do- x* l VJ...TOVS vp.p.dxovs rou<r irapfKoXfcraTf, not before we 
suffered have you called in the allies here (Thuc. 1, 68 2 ). Dem. 30, 33. Lys. 19, 55. 

2. For a subjunctive with av : 

Kat p.oi p.T) fiopvftrjo'T) p.i)o"(is, ir piv a K o u cr a t, and let no one cr>/ nt 
In /,,,; ln,-'m<i me (Dem. 5, 15). Soph. Aj. 1418. Kur. 3fed.94. Dem. 3, 12. 

3. For the optative : 

'lutTfvov fjLTj8ap.a>s diroTpfir((r6ai, irplv cpftaXelv (is rrjv rwv AaxeSat- 
p.oriwv \a>pav, then entreated them on no account to return before tin / //"</ 
made an iin-nr*ii>ii intn tin- / rritnrij <>f the Lacedaemonians (Xen. Hell. 6, 5 23 ). 

(b) Hpiv is also found with an infinitive for a past indicative after 
an unattainable wish or a clause implying unreality. 

'liy o)0(Xoi/ irdpoiOfv (KXiirclv /St'ov, IT p t v ts (vr)v at yalav f K rr e p. \}s a t, 
woul<l that I hil ij/iittid life, before I sent thee out to a foreign land (Soph. 
El. 1133). Km /x' ov& o H\ovT(i)vos Kixav ovB* ovn\ KWTTT) ^iixoiroprros av \dpo)v 
eo-^oi/, TT p t v fls (pats <rbv K ar a VT fj <r a t /3t'oi/, neither the dog of Pluto nor 
the Charon at his oar, the ferryman of departed spirits, should stay me before 
I had brought thy life into the light (Eur. Ale. 362). 

(c) After a leading optative clause, irpfv generally takes the infinitive. 
OI-K av peddro, irplv naff f)8ovr) v K \veiv, he would not let him go up 

before hearing (or until he had heard) to his satisfaction (Soph. Track. 1 ( .7). 

"OXoiro..., -rrplv efjiov (vdopelv So/zoi/, way he perish before he bnrxt 

4nto my dwelling (Aesch. Sept. 451 54). For the rare assimilation to the 

optative, see 2177. 

(d) In Homer Trpiv, before, until, regularly takes the 
infinitive after both affirmative and negative clauses. 

Ov X^co TT p I v Tpowiy a8r)v e \do~ai TroXe'/zoio, / -lfi/7 not 
cease before the Trojans are fully satiated with war (II. 19, 

2182 THE MOODS 269 

423 ; here the Attic would have irplv av with the subjunctive). 
See also 2180, 2181. 

2180. NOTE. 1. IIpiV with the indicative is found after affirmative 
clauses in Thuc. 7, 71 5 ; Aeschin. 1, 64 ; so Thuc. 7, 39 ; 1, 51 2 ; 1, 118 2 ; 
3, 29 l ; 3, 104 9 . But in several of these a negative idea is implied. 

2. IlptV with the indicative is absent from the Iliad and 
Odyssey. Except in the Homeric Hymn Apol. Pyth. 
178, in Pindar (01. 9, 57 ; 13, 65 ; Nem. 4, 28), and in 
Herodotus ; we do not find irpiv with the indicative 
before the Attic authors. 

3. UpLv with the indicative is found in Attic poetry very 
rarely ; as in Aesch. Pro. 481 ; Soph. Oed. Tyr. Ill 
(after affirmative) ; Ar. Av. 700 ; Eur. Iph. Aul. 489. 

4. ripiV y ore, until, occurs with the indicative in Homer 
in II. 9, 588 ; 12, 436 ; Od. 13, 322 ; 23, 43 ; 4, 180 ; 
Horn. Hymns Apol. Del. 49 ; Cer. 96, 195, 202. 

2181. NOTE. 1. In Homer and Hesiod the few cases 
of Trpiv with the subjunctive have neither av nor KC. 
They are II 18, 135 and 190; 24, 781; Od. 10, 175; 
13, 336 ; 17, 7 ; Hes. Theogon. 222 ; Op. 738. 
2. Homer has -rrpw y or av ( = Trpiv) with the subjunctive 
in Od. 2, 373 and 4, 477. 

2182. NOTE. 1. Ilporcpov rj (= irplv rf) 9 sooner than, before, occa- 
sionally occurs in Thucydides and Herodotus : with the infinitive after 
past tenses ; with the subjunctive without av ; and with the indicative. 

'ETTI rovt TTO/iTre'dy rovs oirXlTas irporfpov rj aivOf&Bat avrovs...ev6vs 
(X(i>pT)<Tfv, he proceeded immediately to the armed men in tin /<n v.s-.s/o/i In-fore 
they perceived it (Thuc. 6, 58 1 ). Hdt. 7, 2 2 . (Xp?j) pi) nporcpov <igun-v 
dno\6((rdai, ^ Tovj...o7rXrray a7rapar;rf, it i.s m-ct -.s.sfm/ to determine not to 
separate before you have swept off the soldiers (Thuc. 7, 63 1 , his only c tse). 
Hdt. 4, 196 3 . Oid fl&rav (ov<rav (rr]V arpairov) IT por t pov fj ir(p ( IT v- 
BOVTO TpTjxtvtw, th'-ii '//'/ nt /,-/M/- nf flu I'.i-ist, in-, <>f the path before they 
found it out from the Track in inn* (Hdt 7. 17-- ). Thuc. 2, 65 13 . But 
irp&rtpov fj i B\O in general use when it merely connects two independent 

2. Thucydides once has vrcpoF ^, later tlian (Thuc. 6, 4 2 ). 

3. In Attic Greek we often find Trpurepov or irp6<rB(v in the leading 
clause, with irpiv in the temporal clause. 

270 THE MOODS 2183 

Ov TT p or f p o v K.a.K.u)v iraiHTOVTat at iroXfis, TT p\ v av avrals ol (pi\6(ro(poi 
*i p o) <ri v, the cities will not have relief from troubles before the philosophers 
rule them (Plat. Rep. 487')- Xen. Anab. 3, I 16 ; 6, I 27 . 

4. So Homer often has 7rpiV...7rptV (as in II. 7, 481). 
He very rarely has 7rapos...7rptV. 

5. Homer uses Trapos like TrpiV, but only with the in- 
finitive ; as TT a p o s SdpTToio /A c 5 o- a i, before taking 
thought of supper (11. 18, 245). 

6. Ilplv rj, sooner than, before, is found twice in Homer 
(H. 5, 287, and 22, 266, with infinitive) and often in 
Herodotus, who uses it in the same constructions as 
Trporepoi/ TJ above (2182). 

Ov irpartpov iravo-opai irplv % eXto rt icat Trup&xro) rSs 
'Adfjvas, I shall not cease until I take and burn Athens (Hdt. 

7. 8 9 ); 2, 2 1 (inf.); 6, 46 3 (indie.). Although irplv fj is found 
occasionally in Attic prose, the fj is usually eliminated by 


2183. A conditional relative or temporal clause, depending on a 
subjunctive or optative, is usually assimilated in mood to its leading verb. 

"Y,\fy\os df (sc. e'tmi/), OTO.V & v &v tlirrj TIS rdXrjdts opoii Sft'^jy, it ix <i 
proof whenever any one shoics th>- truth of what he says (Dem. 22, 22, here 
Siv av f'i'rrjj is assimilated to orav 8tirj). Ou5', cirtidav lav av npirjTai 
Kvpios yfvrjraij roi -rrpodorr) (rv^oi>\(f ircpl r&v \otiro)v eri ^pi)rat, nor, when he 
has got possession of what he has bought, does any one use the traitor as an 
adviser concerning future matters (Dem. 18, 47). Ef airoBv^not fjxv irdvra 
o (T a ToC fjv ^iraXa/3ot, (irtidrj 5 drro^ai/oi, p.f) ndXtv ai/a^iaxTKOtro, 
ap* ov 7roXX>7 dvdyKT) (cuy av) reXfirreii/ra irdvra Tfdvdvai; if all thi>i<i* tltnf 
partake of life were to die, and after they had died did not come to life again, 
would not necessarily all things at last be dead? (PI it. Phaedo 72 C ). Such 
examples fall also under the general principles of 2109 and 2113 ; and are 
like ordinary prota> 

Tfdvairjv art pjoi p.r)KfTi ravra p.e\oi, may I die when these ar*' n<> 
longer my care (Mimnermus 1, 2). AT. Vesp. 1431. See 2157 and 2158 
for Homeric usage. 

2184. A relative or temporal clause, depending on a clause 
implying non-fulfilment, takes by assimilation a similar form of 
verb, i.e., & past tense of the indicative. 

Svv(ytyv<i)O'KT( drjTrov av /xoi, et ev fKfivrj rfj (paivfj re xal roi rpoTrco fXtyov, 


olo-nep Tftipdp.p.T)v, you would no doubt pardon we, if I were 
in tht /.(m/iM;/i' n<i innnner in which I had been brought up (Plat. 17 M. Xen. Rep. Ath. 1, 16. Dem. 8, 1. Xen. Mem. 3, 5 8 . Ei Trepi 
Kaivov TIVOS trpAyparos irpovriBfro \eyfiv , cVeo-^ov av etoy oi TrXturroi TU>V 
-eltoOvruv (sc. \eyetv) yvu>fjajv a TT e (p rj v a v T o, if the question for discussion 
were anything new, I should h<t<-<- n-nitf! till most of those accustomed to 
speak had expressed their view (Dem. 4, 1). Such examples have the form 
protases implying non-fulfilment (2102 ; compare also 2173, 2). 


2185. Nature of the Infinitive. 1. The infinitive is a verbal 
neuter noun and as such can stand with or without the article. 
It may be th-j subject or object of a verb, and may have the same 
general government as nouns. 

'2. It shows its verbal nature by the following characteristics : 
(a) it can be qualified only by adverbs, as TO *a\<w<? /-ta%a 6 'at, 
(the act of) fighting well or to fight well ; (b) it retains the govern- 
ment of its verb ; as (TO) eV^eXeto-^a^ re^vrj^, the caring for an 
art ; (TO) '^pfjaQai, re\i>rj, the using of an art ; (TO) da-fceiv re^vrjv^ 
the practising of an art ; (c) it may have a subject in the accusa- 
tive ; as TO dfiaprdveiv dvOpcoirovs ov&ev OavpaGTov, for men to 
err is nothing wonderful ; (d) each verb has various infinitives 
according to voice and tense; (e) the infinitive may take av 
an-1 represent a finite verb with av. 

3. The infinitive with the article TO often corresponds to the 
Kn^lish participial noun in -ing; as nom. TO ypdfaiv, writing; 
gen. ToO ypdfaiv, of writing ; dat. Tc5 ypdfaiv, to or for or by 
writing ; ace. TO ypdfaiv, writing. 

4. Often the infinitive is translated by an ordinary English 
noun ; as TO Baveiv, death ; TO d&iKelv, injustice. 


2186. Tlie suhject <!' tlu; infinitive is not expressed when it is 
id-nti(yil witli the subject of the leading verb and is not emphatic. 
A predicate- n on n or predicate-adjective belonging t<> the infinitive 
is here put in the same case as the subject of the leading 
usually in the nominati 


ai vop.iei u<' rjp&v, Tie believes he is wronged by us (Xen. 
Anab. 1, 3'). To irvpa OVK c'fpr) I e 1 v, he declared not to have seen the 
watch-fires (Xen. Anab. 4, 4 16 ). 'O/AoXoytir ovv ncpl cpc adiKos ycycvr)- 
a-6 at; do you then admit to have been unjust to me? (Xen. Anab. 1, 6 8 ). 
Tlcpo-r)s c(prj civai, he said he was a Persian (Xen. Anab. 4, 4 17 ). So 
when a participle takes the place of the subject : aTraXXaytis TOVTW TO>V 
(pao-KovTav Si K aora>i> elvai, being rid of those professing to be judges (Plat. 
Apol. 41"). Isoc. 15, 221. 

So with the infinitive and article: 'Ec TOV -rrpoTcpos \cyctv, o 
8i<i)K(t>v to^uei, by speakliKi ///*/ the prosecutor gains strength (Dem. 18, 7). 
Xen. Cyr. 5, 3 48 . Thuc. 7, 28 1 . TIcpt.K\^s npbs rto fixfivrjs civ at CKTT]O-(ITO 
TO v\lrr)\6vow, Pericles, in addition to being naturally gifted, acquired loftiness 
of thought (Plat. Phaedo 270*). Thuc. 1, 34 1 . C H rfjs ^vx^s <pi\iti dia TO 
Ayvr) ctv at <a\ aKopfarorepa <mv, the love of mind, through being pure, 
/.s rf/.so less liable to satiety (Xen. Symp. 8, 15). 

2187. NOTE. An interposed 8eu/ or xP*) vaL ^ oes not prevent this 
assimilation of case. 

'E/celi'oi f TTt rto (rfro) otoi/rat 8 flv (ppovipoi KOI per p 10 i (J)aiv(cr6ai t 
they think they ought to appear discreet and temperate at their meals (X* n. 
Cyr. 5, 2 17 ). Lys. 25, 18. Dem. 51, 1. 

2188. NOTE. If the subject is emphasised, especially in contrast 
with other persons, the nominative or accusative of the personal pronoun 
is inserted for the first and second persons, and the nominative of 
avros for the third. 

'Eya> f0^o/juu, irplv ravra (Trtddv u$' vp.&v yevopeva, pvpias e'/ze ye Kara 
rfjs yys opywbs ytvtvBai, L pray that before I see this done by you, I may 
be ten thousand fathoms below the earth (Xen. Anab. 7, I 30 )- Ei 5' oieo-0* 
\a\Ki8fas TJ]V 'EXXaSa (rncrav f) Meyape'ay, f) 8' air o 8 p acr a 6 a t TCI 
TrprtyfUM-a, OVK op6o>s olfcrBfj if you think that the Chalcideans or the Megarimix 
will save Greece, and that you will escape the trouble, you do not think right 
(Dem. 9, 74). KXe'a>i> OVK <f>r) avTos, dXX' tufivov CTrparT/yeti/, Cleon said that 
not he himself, but that man (Nicias) was commander (Thuc. 4, 28 1 ). The 
emphatic, and not the enclitic, forms of the personal pronoun are here used. 

2189. If the subject of the infinitive is not identical with that 
of the leading verb, it stands in the accusative. A predicate-noun 
or predicate-adjective referring to the subject of the infinitive is 
also in the accusative. 

"O.ip.r]v TT]V ffjMVTOv yyvalKO. 7rao~S>v o-QXppovfo-TaTrjv ftvai T>V cv 
TTJ n-dXet, / believed wy wife to be the most prudent of all in the city (Lys. 1, 
10). Tov Kd\bv KdyaObv avftpa KCii yvval<a v 8 a i po v a clvai 


I assert the virtuous man and the virtuous woman are happy (Plat. Gorg. 
470*). l^pavyffv iroXXfjv eiroiovv KaXovvTfS aXXrjXovs^ oxrrf /cat TOVS IT o X e /i I ov s 
oKovfiv, they made so much noixi' in railing each other that even the enemy 
'd hear them (Xen. Anab. 2, 2 17 ). The subject of an infinitive mny be 
another infinitive ; as o~o6f)vai avra> o-wfetj/ TOVS "EXXr/i/ay, that it should be 
ir<int"l t<> him to save the Greeks (Xen. Anab. 2, 3 25 ; here o-a>>iv is the 
subject of 8o6f)vai). 

2190. When the subject of an infinitive is identical with an 
object in the leading clause, it is here also omitted. A predicate- 
noun or predicate-adjective referring to such an omitted subject 
of the infinitive, is either assimilated in case to the object in the 
leading clause, or else it takes the accusative. But the assimila- 
tion to the genitive occurs only with adjectives, very rarely with 

K p O V O~fOVTO to? irpodvp,OTllTOV TTpOS TOV 7r6\fiOV yeVCQ-Qaij 

i begged of Cyrus to be as favourable to the war as possible (Xen. Hell. 1, 
5 3 ). Isoc. 4, 71. With accusative: Ata0pv7rT6p.vos vnb rwv 8cop.fva>v pov 
IT poa-T UTTJ v yfi/c<rdat, corrupted by those requesting of me to be leader 
(Xen. Cyr. 7, 2 a3 ). ACO/MU p.a>v p. p.v rj p.e v ovs T>V flprjp.v<i)v TCI oi<ma 
\lrr)<pio-ao-0ai, I beg of you to be mindful of (lit. remembering) what has been 
said and to vote what is just (Isoc. 19, 51). *A.v8p>v ayati&v fartv 
aft i K ov p( v ov s f flprjvrjs 7ro\cp.dv, it is the part of brave men, when 
injured to go from peace to war (Thuc. 1, 120 5 ). Rarely with a predicate- 
noun assimilated to a genitive ; as in Hdt. 5, 80 2 : AlyTv^rtrnv ofto-Qat... 
TipapTjTTjptov yevco-Qai, to ask the Aeginetans to become our helpers. 

rroi (c(mv av8p\ y ( v c <r 6 a t, now it in in your //nir/r /"//,-,,,/), 
a (great) man (Xen. Anab. 7, I 21 )- ^ K cv&wropcv npo^aa-tv ov8tvi K a K a> 
ytvftrQai, to no one will we give a pretext to be a coward (Thuc. 2, 87 U ) 

i Cyr. 6, 4 9 . Hdt. 6, 11*. Dem. 3, 23. With accusative: Sv/^cpt 
avrois (friXovt etvai /iaXXoi/ f) noXtfjuovs, it behoves them to be friends 
Cither than enemies (Xen. Oec. 11, 23). *E((rrtv t/iIi/... v e py t ra t 
<j>avr)vai r<av Aatctdat/iOfuDi/, it is in ijonr power to show yourselves the 
benefactors of the Lacedaemonians (Xen. Hell. 4, 8 4 ). Plat. Polit. 274*. 
Xen. Anab. 1 .:; // /. 4, 1". 

'Kc(o-f fi \\ovf TTf-n-dKa <r v fi fji a TJ T a s /xot (froiTtiv , there I persuaded 
others to go a* my f 1 1 o I Mat. Knthiiil. :', 

So after participles assimilation iu regular : llov\optvw tptv it p o- 
6vpui> tit- in, if you will be zealous, lit. you willing to be zealous (Thuc. 
1.7 -/i\urtv fir i T &i K p i T T o v t TOV *Ep<irrot tfrao- K oi> T i Tvai, 

he laughed at him who declared he was stronger than Love (Xen. 
tt, I 14 ). 



2191. An infinitive often has a predicate-accusative with no 
subject-accusative expressed ; some indefinite subject of the infinitive, 
like TWO. (any one) or avOpu-rrov?, is then understood. 

<bi\dv0p(anov flvai Set, one ought to be a lover of mankind (Isoc. 2, 15). 
Apuvras ^ ^17 dp&vras rjdlov Qavelv, 'tis sweeter for men to die acting than not 
acting (Eur. Hel. 814). 



2192. The infinitive is used in indirect discourse afcer verbs 
of saying and thinking and the like. The verb (fa pi, say, regularly 
has the infinitive ; Xeyw passively in the sense, is said, regularly 
has the infinitive, but actively it usually takes a clause with on, 
or &><?. Other verbs of saying usually take on, or o>9. See 2198. 
For verbs of promising, hoping, expecting, and swearing, see 2195. 

2193. When a dependent assertion is expressed in indirect 
discourse by an infinitive, the tense of the infinitive represents 
the tense of the finite verb which would be used in direct dis- 
course ; the present and perfect infinitive may here represent the 
imperfect and pluperfect respectively (compare 1955, 2018, 2300). 
If the verb in the direct discourse would take av (potential 
optative or potential indicative), the infinitive must also take av. 
The negative is ou (but see 23412344). 

Ot fjyepovcs ov <pa<riv flvai oXXi/v 686v, the guides declare that there is 
no other road (Xen. Anab. 4, I 31 ; direct OVK <mv oXX?; 686s). 'AKOVG> KOI 
oXXa 0i>T) TroXXa roiaura e I v at, / hear that there are many other such nut ion* 
(Xen. Anab. 2, 5 1:l ; direct dcri). Tovs 8' at^/iaXon-our ot>&' cv0vp.T)6r)vai 
fprjo-i Xotrao-^at, he says he did not even think of ransoming th<' /> ;''*"//> 
(Dem. 19, 39; direct ovtf fvf6vp.r)&rjv). *</... a ^ ( i v TOVS Aaxcdcu^ov^ovr, 
he said he would bring the Lacedaemonians (Thuc. 4, 28 4 , he said ao>). 
EiKafoi/ T) ditoKOvra oi^eo-^ai ?} KaraXij^ofjifvov TI npOfXrjXaKtvai, 
they conjectured that either he had gone off in pursuit or had pushed forn-nrii 
to take some point (Xen. Anab. 1, 10 1 ', they thought fj 8ia>KQ>v ot^erat rj 
K(iT(i\T)\ls6p.v6s n 7rpo(\r)\ciK(v). For an example of the fut. perf. inf., see 
Xen. Anab. 1, 5 16 ). "$77 Kvpov (ipxfiv rov \6yov &8f, he said that Cyrus 
opened the inquiry thus (Xen. Anab. 1, 6 6 , here ap\fiv stands for rjpxc). 
'AXi'o-K e o- 6 at e<pa<rav, they said they were about to be captured or came 
HI-HI- l>,iii'i cii)>tnrt-(J (Xen. Anab. 5, 2 31 , they said ^Xto-Ko/zf^a, impf. of 



attempted action). Dem. 19, 130. Xen. A/Vw. 2, 6 :u . Arycr<u ui>8pa rn- 
* K TT ( TT X ?; %0 a t...Vt TO) KciXXct TGI) Ktfpou, i is said that a certain man had 
itntck u-ith u-under at the beauty of Cyrus (Xen. Cyr. 1, 4 27 , here 
CK.iTfir\Ti\6ai. stands for fcrrc7r\r)<To). *Ev6fju(ov Trapa KiJpo) ovres aya&oi 
dgiwTfpas av Tlprjs rvy \avfiv 17 Trapa /SatriXei, they believed that by being 
l>r<tr> luitler f'i//'''-s //'/ H'ould obtain more adequate reward than under the 
kimj (Xen. .-i/tab. 1, 9 29 , direct Tvy\ av). AoKeire p,oi iro\v fteXriov a v 

irtpi TOV TToXe'/xou /3o vX e u (7 a <r 6 a i, et rov TOTTOV r^f ^ebpay, 77 TroXe/zetT^, 

cv0vp.T}0(iTjT, it seems to me that you would deliberate better concerning f/u 
war if you should consider the position of the place where you are Jightin<i 
(Dem. 4, 31, direct ftov\v(raio'6f av). K.vpos tl fftioHTtv, apurros a v Bond 
apxatv yfv(r6ai, if Cyrus had lived, it seems to me that he would h<n; 
become a most excellent ruler (Xen. Oec. 4, 18, direct aptaroy av eyevtro ap\o>v). 
O*i av rovs Bfovs rols dvOpoiTrois 86av e p. (p v (r a t,...ei fir) dvvaroi r)(rav ; do 
you suppose that the gods would have implanted an opinion in men if they 
were not able (Xen. Mem. 1, 4 lt$ , direct (vc(pvo-av av). Dem. 49, 35. Lys. 
L>7, '. (for perf. opt. with av). Dem. 19, 312 (for pluperf. ind. with av).- 
For the rare and doubtful fut. inf. with av, see 1967. 

2194. NOTE. The context must determine whether the infinitive 
with av represents a potential optative or potential indicative of the 
direct discourse. 

2195. Verbs of promising, hoping, expecting, threatening, and 
swearing, take either a future infinitive of indirect discourse or 
an aorist or pn sent infinitive as object (2207). So tXTrtfo) TOVTO 
Troiijo-eiv, I hope I shall do this, or e\7rtf&) TOVTO Troujcrai or Troielv, 
I hope to do this. The negative with the infinitive is regularly 
/i>; (but see 23382340). 

'"YiruTxvovvTo p.rj8(v xa\firbv avrovs ndvtvBai, they promised that //K-I/ 
would suffer n<> harm (Xen. ////. 4, 4 s ). 'Y7r'<rx<ro /ioi ftovXtvo-atrOai, A- 
promised me to consider (Xen. A noli. 2, ;{-"). Xen. Anab. I, 2 3 (pres. inf.). 
t E\iri(ti padivs t(Ms (' a IT art} v t iv, he expects to deceive you easily (Dem. 
29, 54). 'EX7rt'o> (Kfivovs (Xtidv, I hope that they will come (Xen. <'<n. 
2, 4 ia ). Plat. /.'/. ."i7:V : . Tbv trrpanjyov irpoo-SoKu ravra irp<i(iv, I expect 
that the general will do </n ( \,,, Anab. :;, V*). Andoc. 3, 27- NOv 
aTTftXoCo-ti' tptiaXciv (Is rfjv \\TTiKrji-, 1h>' lini-i>1iiiiM now threaten to // 
an incursion inf<> Alton \.-n. M> ///.;>.."'). \i-n. //<//. 5, 4 7 . A i K <i o- < i r 
'^<i)/Ao<car, yon have sworn tlxtt */"" "'// ;/" ju<l<inn i<t (l>em. ii'.'. 1" 
'\vayKa((i rin- Kf/xro^XtrrTT;i' ofju'xrai fivai piv rfjv />\'/i' Kotrr/i-..., inivrat 5* 
ilptv airoo'ovvai. TTJV ^upav, /"' r/;/i/< /\ KtiMObltffat to swetir that //c 
government should / thnt nil should give up the land to you 

(Dem. 23, 170). With the infinitive and ,7,- : \.-n. Anab. 7 


2196. NOTE. 1. 'EA.7riio (or eATrts) rarely has also these construc- 
tions: OK with a finite verb : Thuc. 5, 9 2 ; 6, 30 2 ; Eur. EL 919 ; OTTWS 
with future indicative : Soph. El. 963 ; infinitive with av : Xen. 
Mem. 2, 6 88 . 

2. 'ATrctXew may take cm with the indicative or optative future ; as 
in Xen. Anab. 5, 6 34 ; Ar. Pint. 88. 

2197. Personal and Impersonal Constructions. 1. Some verbs, 
which may be used impersonally and be followed by an accusative 
with the infinitive in indirect discourse, may also be used person- 
ally in the passive form. Thus we may say \eyercu rov Kvpov 
TeOvdvat, it is said that Cyrus is dead, or \<yTcu 6 Kvpos redvavat, 
Cyrus is said to be dead. With the impersonal passive construction 
the infinitive is the subject. 

2. With verbs of saying, announcing, and admitting, the personal 
and impersonal constructions are used indifferently ; with verbs of 
thinking, the personal construction is regular. Compare SIKCUOS ei/u, 
etc., for SiKcuoV eVn 2204. 

'E X e y ( T o Kvpa Sovvat xpq/iara rroXXa, she was said to have given Cyrus 
considerable money (Xen. Anab. 1, 2 12 ). *Es TOVTOV rbv xP v ^eycrai 
dniKfo-Oai rov orparov, it i.s *<//</ tlmt the army reached this place (Hdt. 3, 
26 2 ). 'O 'Acrcrvptos fls TTJV x&pav (pftaXelv dyyeXerai, it is announced that 
the Assyrian has made an incursion into the land (Xen. Cyr. 5, 3 30 ). v Epa>s- 
6 fio\oy clr a i irapa ndvrav ptyas 0(bs civai, Eros is admitted by all to be a 
mighty god (Plat. tSymp. 202 b ). 'O/xoXoyfirat TTJV no\iv rjfj.S)v dpxaiord-njv 
ij/at, it is admitted that our city is the most ancient (Isoc. 4, 23). 

2198. 1. Of <f>r)fj.i, fl-n-ov, and Ae'yo), all meaning to say, 
(a) <f>r)fjii nearly always takes an infinitive construction ; 
(6) fLTTov takes em or tus ; 

(c) Xeyw takes indifferently ort or tus, or an infinitive construction ; 
but passively Aeyw regularly takes the infinitive, and actively it takes 
generally cm or d>s. 

2. Verbs of thinking, and oWco when it means to think, regularly 
have the infinitive. 'O/xoXoye'w, to admit, nearly always takes the 
infinitive construction. 

3. Acyco and CITTOV with the infinitive usually mean to command. 

4. $>r}fj. ; . with on or o>s occurs several times : as Xen. Hell. 6, 3~ ; 
Dem. 4, 48. EITTOJ/ with the infinitive in indirect discourse occurs 
occasionally ; as Hdt. 2, 30 8 ; Thuc. 7, 35 2 . 


5. For TTiiOtiv <k, see 2211. For the construction of verbs of 
disputing, doubting, and denying, see Eedundance of Negatives, 2350 

2199. Assimilation of Relative and Temporal Clauses ?o Infinitive. 
1. When a relative or temporal clause (with u>s, ore, CTTCI, lirti&rj) 

depends on an infinitive in indirect discourse, it sometimes has the 
infinitive by assimilation instead of an indicative or optative. 

To 8( fifyirrra rcoj' eV roiVois 1 <f)r) TOVS 6(ovs eairroi? KaraAei7r6(r0ai, & v 
ovdfv 8fj\ov fivai rols dvQpvTTois, he said that the gods reserved to them- 

- th< inoxf i 111 1 ><>rtant particulars attending these matters, of which nothing 
is apfir.nt tn n (Xen. Mem. 1, I 8 ). Plat. Rep. 616 b , 490. 'Qs a K o C o- a i 
TOVS irapovTas, Bopvftov y(i>(<r6ai (<pd(riv), they say that there was a tumult 

* thus,- preMiU foord if (Dem. 19, 195). Thuc. 2, 102 7 (ore). Plat. Prot. 
353- (eW) ; Rep. 614 b (eVftSi?). 

2. In Herodotus this occurs also with et, if, and &<m, 

because : Hdt. 3, 108 1 ; 3, 55 3 . 

3. The use of the infinitive in indirect questions is uncommon ; as 
Sioptou<ri (ra<to5 e<' ots e^eti/at aTroKTtvvvvat, they define 
cleirly under what circutnstances it is lawful to kill (Dem. 23, 74) ; 
compare Dem. 36, 25. 

2200. Historical Infinitive. Sometimes in narrative, the infini- 
tive appeai-s to stand "alone, even throughout a series of sentences, 
where the indicative would be expected; but it here defend ; on 
some word of saying either expressed or understood. 

" 'AAA', 2> not," (frdvai rov 'A <TTV ayrj v, " OVK. dxSofjifvoi ravra ircpi- 
7r\ai/ft/i^a," etc., " hut, c-hilil," said AdyagUi "it .-// irith pain that / 
// these windings, etc. (Xen. ^'t/r. 1, 3 5 , see this passage and its 
continuation) ; similarly in Hdt. 1, 24' ; Plat. Rep. 614 b . 

(b) /.v/v.\7/7i-A .\</y /.v UTD1RBOT D19OOI I 

22D1. The infinitiv not in indirect discourse may be us.- 1 

1 Like a noun, as a subject, object, predicate, or appositive 
(Nominal Infinitive). 

2. To complete or limit the meaning of verbs, adjectives, nouns, 
or adverbs (Supplementary Infinitive). 

3 In various constructions; i.e., to express conditions, commands, 
wishes, resolutions ; it is also used absolutely, and in certain idiomatic 



2202. Infinitive as Subject-Nominative. The infinitive (with or 
without a subject-accusative) is used as the subject of a finite 
verb, especially of impersonal verbs and expressions. 

Such are xp*7> ocl, it is necessary, SOKCL, it seems good, irpcVet, irpoa-- 
rJKti, it is proper, cecm, it is permitted, co-n, it is possible, dSw/ardi' (or 
t&Wra) e'ori, ou% otoV re cart, it is impossible, *aA.dv cWi, it is honour- 
able, aiia-xpov tori, it is base, VO/AOS eori, i W fo law, a>pd cirri, 2 is time, 
eori, Mere is opportunity, and many others. The negative is 

Tt xpq TT o t f I v ; irlnit i.s if necessary to do ? (Xen. ^nafr. 2, l le ). 
avrols...rrpo'i(vcu, it seemed best to them to proceed (Xen. Anab. 2, I 3 ). <f>6v- 
y ( iv avrois ao-<^aXoTfpdi/ (OTIV, it is safer for them to fly (Xen. Anab. 3, 2 19 ). 
Ov\ ^v (<Wt) rroXXovs (\6povs c \ ( iv, it is not pleasant to have many enemies 
(L)em. 19, 221). \l(r\pov dtcovaavTa xpT)<rip.ov \6yov p,fj p.a0flv, it is 
disgraceful for one who has heard a useful discourse not to learn (Isoc. 1, 18). 
"Qpd /3ou\ ( v t <r 6 a i, it is time for us to consider (Xen. Anab. 5, 7 12 ). 
Xen. Hell. 7, 1". 

2203. NOTE. 1. With verbs meaning to happen, oWc sometimes 
precedes the infinitive. 

'Eyci/cro airo) ware \pr)p.a<Tiv (ittpytTflv, he happened to have the 
means of benefiting /ViVm/.s u-ith mom-ii (Xen. Cyr. 8, 2 3 ). Svvt{iT}....&<rr( 
TroXtpov p.rj8fv (Tt a-^aa&ai p,T)8(T(povs, it happened that neither party applied 
themselves any longer to war (Thuc. 5, 14 1 ). Hdt. 3, 71 2 . 

2. Barely WO-TC appears before such an infinitive after other verbs ; 
as a8vvarov i(mv wore Xl/xoraydpov rovSt <ro<f>u)Ttpov rtva cAecrdai, it 
is impossible for you to select a wiser man than Protagoras here (Plat. 
Prot. 338'). 

2204. NOTE. Personal Construction. 1. Instead of the impersonal 
construction, the Greek here often uses a personal construction, as 
with the infinitive in indirect discourse (2197). Thus we may say 
SIKCUOV t(TTLv avrov (ifpunotou or &KCUOS tort {ty/uo&rfat, it is right for 
him to be punished. 

2. The personal construction is almost regular with SOKC'CD, coi/ca, 
, 1 seem, and o-u/x/faiVei, it happens ; it is wholly regular with 
CI/M.I, it is expected that I - , also with 8ca> TroAAov (//I/cpoC or 
, TOO-OVTOI;), it lacks much (little, so much) that I - , or I am 

2207 THE INFINITIVE -J7 1 .) 

far from , and Trap \ JJUKOOV Ip^o/xat, I come near ; it is usual 

with oY*aio9 cr/xi, it is' just that 1 , atds i/xt, eTrrrqo'eids et/xt, and a 

few similar expressions. 

A o K o> fjun aSvvaros flvai, I seem to myself to be unable (Plafc. Rep. 368 h , 
impers. Xen. Anab. 1, 4 18 ). 'EotKao-t, they seem (Xen. Oec. 7, 11). 'Qs 
<f>aivct, as J/OU seem (Plat. Polit. 280 b ). IIoXXj? TIS a\oyid vpftaivi 
yiyvc<r0ai, there would be a considerable absurdity (Plat. Phil. 55* ; impers. 
Plat. Rep. 375 C ). y Eiri8o6s fipi ru\iv rfjs Tip;? ravTrjs, / expect to 
nttnin tit thin honour (Isoc. 6, 8). IloXXot) 8e'a> uTrtp epavrov aTroXoyeio-tfat, 
/ K/n /ar /row speaking in my defence (Plat. .4poJ. 3O 1 ). Isoc. 9, 62. Lys. 
17, 1. At'icaior ci fiorjddv TO> avSpi, it is just for you to help the manor 
you are right to help the man (Plat. Pro*. 339"). Ar. Nub. 1434. Xen. 
//.//. 5, 2 s3 . 

2205. NOTE. A^Xdi/ <rri and favtpov <m, it is clear, take only a 
clause with on ; as in Xen. Anab. 3, I 10 . We have also 77X09 or 
<avcpos '/AI on; as in Xen. Anab. 5, 2* 6 , Cfyr. 1, 4 2 . For 817X09 i/it 
and ^>ai'epo9 t/xi and a participle, see 2301. 

2206. NOTE. KtVSui/ds eon takes either the infinitive or else the 
construction of a verb of fearing. 

Ov apiKpbs KIVO'VVOS COTIV (airaTT)0rii>a.i, there is not a little danger of being 
decei red (Plat. Cratyl. 436 b ). KivSvvos (<mv p.f) ol "EXXrjvts <TUO-T&> <ri v, 
there is danger lest the Greeks combine (Xen. Hell. 4, 8*). Kti/ftui/cvo) with 
the infinitive means to run a risk (Xen. Mem. 4, 7 8 ). 

2207. Infinitive as Object. 1. The infinitive is used as the 
object of many verbs an 1 expressions which d mote an action 
influencing another action which is its object; as j3ov\o/j,cu TOVTO 
TT o 1 77 a a i, I wish to do this. The negative is pi). 

^uch verbs are those meaning to wish, to desire ; to command, 
to compel, to permit, to demand, to beg ; to advise, to persuade ; to 
attempt, to begin, to dare, to intend ; to teach, to accustom ; to resolve, 
to choose, to fear ; those meaning to take care, to be unwilling ; to 
forbid, to dissuade, to hinder, to avoid, and others. Such constructions 
are usually the same in Greek as in English. 

BouXrrw K fir ti p. fir at rr)v (rrpari&f icat TroXii' otKicrai, he wishes the 
army to remain and to found a city (Xen. Anab. 5, 6 17 ). Tour oTrX^rdr 
cKcXcvircr avrnv ptivai, he commanded the hoplites to remain on the *pot 
(Xen. Anab. 1, 6 1J ). lluvrtt fXeyov rovs ptv rovrotv (ipfcavras doOt/at 
A i K rj v, rov & Xotnov prjKfri t^flvat dvofjuas tipfcm, <iU xaiil that the 
leader* of these proceeding* should xuff* i /.i//i/>/i//i'/i^, <J/K/ that far fl' i"' 


it should no longer be permitted to enter upon lawlessness (Xen. Anab. 5, 7 :f4 ). 
'E/36o>i> 8e d\\r)\ois fj.r) & e I v Spd/io), dXX' ev rdt-fi e IT e cr 6 a i, they called 
out to each other not to run, but to follow in order (Xen. Anab. 1, 8 19 ). 
So ciirov, commanded (Thuc. 7, 29 1 ), Kijpva-a-o), command by herald (Xen. 
Anab. 7, I 7 ), ypd<J>a>, decree, move (Xen. Hell. 6, 3 l ' J ). S'/iTi/ cru/z8ovXfua> ey" 
y v Si v a i fyzas avrovs, I advise you to know yourselves (Xen. Hell. 2, 4 4 ). 
'ETTfxfiprjo-a X t y f i v eV ra> typ*), / ried tfo speak in public (Lys. 16, 20). 
Tupai/i/fti/ eVii/ofi, /ie intends to be ruler (Ar. Thesm. 338). 'EXoi/^v ai/ 
/zaXXoz/ aSiKfio-^m T) dSiKeli/, / would rather choose to suffer wrong than to do 
wrong (Plat. Gory. 469c). Xen. Anab. 1, 3 1 . Lys. 1, 25. Isoc. 10, 3. 
Xen. Symp. 8, 23. Ar. Eccl. 238. Plat. orgr. 457 e . fcojSoiWai Xyi/, Mey 
/ear to tell (Xen. Oj/r. 8, 2 la ). 

For those meaning to take care, to be unwilling, to forbid, to dissuade, to 
hinder, to avoid, see Redundance of Negativ<3S, 2351.. Tt TO KO>\VOV avrbv 
farai j3 a 8 i f i v OTTOI /^ovXfrat ; what will hinder him from marching whither 
he pleases (Dem. 1, 12). 

2208. NOTE. Observe that verbs of saying may express a command 
or request. As a command or request takes the infinitive like an 
indirect assertion, the nature of the infinitive, whether expressing an 
indirect assertion or an indirect command, can only be recognised by 
the negative if the infinitive has one ; otherwise only by the context. 

2209. NOTE. In poetry and in the dialects, especially 
in Homer, the object-infinitive may accompany other 
verbs which do not take this construction in prose. 

Olov (irop<rfiav 7roXf/iteti> {II. 7 , 42). Md.<TTi(v cXdav 
(//. 5, 366). "Oaiov i>8p' tppvo-dfjujv Oavfiv, I delivered a 
I >inns man from dying (Eur. Ale. 11). Hdt. 7, 11. With o-<uo> 
(Kur. Phoen. 600). Frequent in Homer are /3^ tVi/m or l^vai, 
he proceeded to go (Od. 6, 130), and #? Ottw (II. 2, 183). 

2210. NOTE. Occasionally we find WOTC prefixed to an object- 
infinitive with some of the verbs in 2207 ; as i/^io-a/Ao/ot <Vre...a/xiWi/, 
having voted to defend (Thuc. 6, 88 8 ) ; Thuc. 1, 119 2 ; 3, 25 3 ; especially 
with TTcitfw (2211)'. 

2211. NOTE. IIct0a>, to persuade any one to do anything, takes 
the infinitive ; in the sense to convince, it usually takes J>s and a finite 
verb, less often an infinitive. 

At rjdoval TT t 6 o v or i TTJV ^ri>x^v prj aaxppovelv, pleasures persuade the 
soul not to exercise self-control (Xen. Mem. 1, 2 23 ). *Hi/ -rrfio-wpev i>p,ds, 
^ s XP'I wd* d(ptlvai, if we persuade you that you ought to let us go (Plat. 


Hep. 327'). Xen. Mem. 1, I 1 . 'E TT e ( <r 6 77 tr a v 'A^i/aioi 2a>cpaTT;i> rrepl 
TOI/S ^eoi/$- /i 17 <roi<p pov civ, /ie -4Mema?is ttere persuaded that Socrates 
did not hare right sentiments concerning the gods (Xen. Mem. 1, I 20 ). 
UeiBovtnv a><rrf...ciri X cipfi<rai (Thuc. 3, 102 7 ). Thuc. 3, 31 1 . Hdt. 7, O 2 . 

2212. NOTE. MeVw, wait, await, and its compounds, may take an 
object-infinitive ; as oiV dve'/xeu'ei> ^/xe'puv ycveo-fat, /*e?/ did no wait for 
day to appear (Thuc. 4, 135 1 ) ; Plat. Theaet. 173* ; it may also take a 
clause with !<os ; also in poetry a participial construction (11. 13, 38). 

2213. NOTE. The verbs of commanding sometimes take a clause 

with OTTU>S ; as SittKeAeiWrtu TO) i/tw, OTTWS, . . . Ti/x.o>pr;<Trat TOVS aoiKOvvras , 

///c// t >.rhnrt tin' young man to take revenge on those who do wrong 
(Plat. Rep. 549 e ) ; e'SeWo OTTWS (Thuc. 5, 36 2 ). 

2214. NOTE. For the construction of verbs of causing, see 2216, 2. 

2215. Infinitive as Predicate and as Appositive. An infinitive may 
be used as a predicate or as an appositive. 

To yap yvtovai f-rrLfrrri^v rrov \aftfiv eWir, to learn is to acquire 

rl.-ilifp (Plat. Theaet. 209"). IlTco^ov yap /3toy...^r f(mv /xr/Sei' e^oira, 

//-. lift- of a beggar is to live possessed of nothing (Ar. Plut. 552). Els 

olwvbs apioros, dptivfo-dai ncpi TraTprjs, one omen is the best, to fight for our 

country (//. 12, 243). Isoc. 4, 38. Xen. Cyr. 2, 2 s . 


2216. With Verbs. 1. The supplementary infinitive is used to 
iplete the meaning of verbs expressing power or ability or 


2oi OVK av Hwaifjujv a v T t \ ( y ( i v, I should not be able to contradict you 
(Plac. Symp. 201 C ). 'Evriorafuu vtiv, I can swim, I know how to swim 

ri. Anab. 5, 7 s "). MavGdvovtriv ap%eiv rt ital px 6<7 ^ ai ""'." '"" " 
t" rule and to be ruled (Xen. Anab. 1, 9 4 ). 'Atfrjvcu /^aXtora 7re</>0ca<rti' iv 
fiprjvfi av*(T0ai, Athens is the best mliifitfil In/ iintim- t jlmirish during 
i-r.ace (Xen. Vect. 5, 2). So CXM in the sense, / can: rfjs x<*P s 
ov&v t'xofitv Xa/i/Sai/ (tv, We can get n1hni frm tin- / /if ;;/ (Xen. 
Anal. 2, 2"). 

2. It is us. .I with verl UK aniu^ to cause, to briny about. 

rrjf KiXtKidt np^ovra 2v(vvriv 8vvaardai Kara yr;i ( 
ti-m'TiawrQtu KOpy, he prevent"! S ; i> inn-sis fh> /.- 
able to oppoM Cyrus by land (Xen. ////. 3, I 1 ). KX/u/>^ov 5iinrpfaro TTVT 



<rrpaTT)yovs ifvcu, Clearchus succeeded in getting Jive generals to go (Xen. Anab. 
2, 5 30 ). 

3. It is also used to express purpose, especially with verbs of 
giving, leaving, and choosing. 

Tavrrjv TTJV \a>pav eVeYpe^e BiapTraa-ai TOIS "EXXijcriv, this country he 
turned over to the Greeks to plunder (Xen. Anab. 1, 2 19 ). 'Apiorapxo* fSore 
f)/j.(pav air o\oyrj <ra<r0 at, you gave Aristarchus a day to defend himself 
(Xen. Hell. 1, 7 38 )- To fjpj.(rv (TOV orparevp.aToy) (puXarreii/ KarfXnre TO 
o-rparoTr &>>, he left half the army to guard the camp (Xen. Anab. 5, 1 ). 
IHapt^a) cpavrbv epotTav, I give myself up to be questioned, lit. to question 
(Plat. Apol. 33 b ). To) KOpeo irpoa~f)VfyKav oi BfpanovTfs fp-irtelv Ka\ 
(pay f Iv, the attendants brought Cyrus something to drink and to eat (Xen. 
Cyr.7. I 1 ). EiXoi/ro Apac6>rioi> SarapTian/i/ 8po/iov r c n i p.\r) rj v at KOI 
TOV ayvvos Trpotrrar^o-ai, they chose Dracontius a Spartan to prepare the 
course and to preside at the contest (Xen. Anab. 4, 8 25 ). 

4. Often in poetry (especially Homer), and very rarely 
in prose, the infinitive is connected with an intransitive 
verb as an accusative of specification (1595). 
'ApioTfvfoxf /no^fo-^at, he way the first in fighting (II. 6, 
460). II. 16, 195. "Oarif 8ia<p('pi f)fj.S)v 7rpo/3i/3a<rat ls 
dptrfjv, if any one is superior to us in advancing virtue (Plat. 
Prot. 328*). 

2217. NOTE. With some verbs of power, fitness, and causing, we 
occasionally find wore before the infinitive (2216). 

To dvva&dai, wore ay<avt<rrr)v T\(tov ycvfcrtiai, to be able to become a 
finished orator (Plat. Phaedr. 269 d ). 'ETTOIIJO-G, &<rr( 86at TOVTQ> TOV 
Trpbs c^( iro\(pov Travo-curQcu, I caused this man to resolve to cease from war 
with me (Xen. Anab. 1, 6 6 ). 

2218. NOTE. The infinitive of purpose is usually active, even 
where the passive would be expected ; the passive rarely occurs (Plat. 
Charm. 157 b ). 

2219. NOTE. Ilm/rct iroitlv, to do everything, takes an infinitive 
clause with oWe, or a final clause with OTTO>S or o>5, or an object-clause 
with cW (Xen. Mem. 2, 9 6 ; Anab. 3, I 35 ; 3, I 18 ). 

2220. NOTE. In prose verbs of going, coming, and sending usually 
take a future participle of purpose (2256) instead of an infinitive of 
purpose ; examples with the infinitive : Soph. Oed. Col. 12 ; 11. 9, 442 ; 
Thuc. 6, 50 4 . 



2221. Infinitive with Adjectives. As in English, the adjective 
is used to complete c-r to limit the meaning of adjectives. 

Such adjectives are especially those expressing power, ability,. 
fitness, u'illinyness, and those meaning good, beautiful, agreeable, easy, 
worthy, and the like, with their opposites. In poetry this use of the 
infinitive with adjectives is much more extended than in prose. 

'IK a i/ or dvfjp diayvvvai, a man able to distinguish (Plat. Gorg. 
489*). Oi Xf-yeiv dcti/ot, those skilful in speaking (Isoc. 21, 5). ^aytlv 
fcivos, a terrible fellow for eating (Xen. A nab. 7, 3 2a ). "Eroipor ciraivf'iv, 
ready to approve (Plat. Gorg. 510 b ). Pwrj (virpcirr)* 1 8 civ, a woman comely 
to behold (Xen. ^fem. 2, I 82 ). KXc'ctpgor 6pav arvyvos fa, Clearchus was 
gloomy to look upon (Xen. Anab. 2, 6 9 ). Oi/u'a qfit'an; ei/dtatrao-dat, a- 

M most agreeable to live in (Xen. Mem. 3, 8 8 ). Ov padiov an to-rclv, 
not easy to disbelieve (Plat. Rep. 331 e ). Moi/apx/d avopos \ a X e TT i) cai 
fiapvTaTT) vvotKT)<rai, a monarchy when lawless is most disagreeable and 
oppressive to live in (Plat. Polit. 302"). *Aioy 6avpdo-ai, worthy to 
admire (Thuc. 1, 138 3 ). 'O xp vos ft P a X ^ s at-itas 8iTjyrj(raa-8ai, the time 
is (too) short for relating it fitly (Plat. Menex. 239 b ). So with TOIOVTOS...OIOS 
or olof alone, such as, fit, capable (Xen. Hell. 2, 3 45 ). 

2222. NOTE. The infinitive is here also generally active even 
where the passive would be more natural, but the passive sometimes- 
occurs ; as RopvrrOfvrp Trivfo-OaL fiords eo-Tt, the Borysthenes is most 
pleasant to drink (Hdt. 4, 53 2 , irivw would be more common) ; 

(Xen. Yen. 3, 3). 

2223. NOTE. We seldom find OKTTC before the infinitive with these 
adjectives; as ^povifuorepoi wo-re jj.aO f.1v...r) av&pts, inore intelligent 
in learning... than men (Xen. Cyr. 4, 3 11 ). 

2224. Infinitive after Comparatives. After comparatives, ?) ware 
(less often r) o><? or r\ alone) is used with the infinitive. 

()< \aK(8aip6viot fj(r0ovTo *Ec5tcoi/ cXflrro) 8vvap.iv f^ovra ff oSorf rovr 
<^>tXovf <a<p(\tlv, the Lacedaemonians perceived that Ecdicus had too sum 1 1 
a force to h>l/, their friends (Xen. Hell. 4, 8 M ). Xen. Mem. 3, 5 17 . Ot 
\iyvirrioi rdy ua-irio'as p(i(ovs (xovcriv r/ to f mutlf n KOI opav, the />/.</// ini.- 
have their shields too large to act and to se' irHh (Xcn. d/r. (. 4 17 ). \noTjpa 
P*l(ov TI (pjpfiv, a disease too great to bear (Soph. Oed. Tyr. 1293). 

2225. Infinitire with Nouns and Adverbs. The infinitive may also- 
be used with nouns, when they express a fitness or willingncx* f i 
anything ; seldom, and chiefly with faC/m, to limit their meaning 


like an accusative of specification (1595). A limiting infinitive with 
adverbs is very uncommon. 

'HXiKtdv c^ovcri TraiSeveo-Oai, they are of the age to be educated 
(Plat. Lach. 187 C ). 'EKpaQclv o-irovo'r)v exa>i>, have great desire to know 
(Eur. And. 1050). n<m <a6i&tr6ai, grass to sit down (Plat. Phaedr. 229 b ). 
Rarely with oo<rre prefixed ; as $ ava.yx.riv K.aB(<rra^fv wore Ktvo'vvevciv, we 
have stepped into the necessity of incurring danger (Isoc. 6, 51). GaC/ia *ai 
aicoOo-ai, a wonder even to hear of (Plat. Leg. 656 d ). aC/xar' dvdp&Trois 
opav, wonders for men to behold (Eur. Ion 1142). *o$os a/coCo-at, a terror t<> 
hear (Hdt. 6, 112 4 ). KaXXiora id elv (iroitlv) TTJV efYao-iv, to make thr 
muster in a manner most beautiful to behold (Xen. Cyr. 8, 3 5 ). 


2226. Conditions. After <' <J or c<* tore, on condition that, the 
infinitive is used, less often the future indicative in Herodotus and 
Thucydides ; sometimes eVl rou'rw precedes. Sometimes oWre with the 
infinitive expresses on condition that (2081). 

*A0ff/LieV tre, eVi rovrta /xe'iroi, e<' o> r e fjujtcfn 0iXo<ro0tv, we release 
you, but on the condition that you shall no longer jtiiilnsujiliize (Plat. Apol. 
29c). Xen. .l/M//>. 4, 4". Xen. Hell. 2, 3 11 . Ewtfaaav...*^ Jre e|iacrtv 
CK TlcXoirovvTja'ov VTTO&ITOVO'OI nal p.T)8tTror( c IT i fir) a o v r a i avrfjs, they made 
an agreement with the condition that they should leave Peloponnesus and 
never set foot on it again (Thuc. 1, 103 1 ). Hdt. 3, 83*. 

2227. Result, Purpose; Infinitive with irp'.v. For the infinitive 
expressing result, see 2080 ; purpose, see 2216, 3 ; for irptv with the 
infinitive, see 21762182. 

2228. Infinitive Absolute. 1. The infinitive, generally prec -1<'1 
by 0)9, is used absolutely in a number of phrases. Ths most 
common of these are the following : 

'O? ITTOS iVii/ or u)5 177611', so to speak, the most frequent of these 
phrases (Plat. Gorg. 450 d ; Xen. Oec. 12, 8) ; <I>s owcAovri (or oruvro/xtus) 
cl-n-flv, to speak briefly (Xen. Anab. 3, I 38 ; Oec. 12, 19) ; u>s TO oXov, on 
the whole (Plat. Eep. 377") ; d> aTrXw? ctVetv, to speak simply (Isoc. 4, 
154) ; ok yc TdXiydi; tipfjvOat, to tell the truth (Plat. Gorg. 462 b ). ^/xoi 
or u>s e/xoi 8o-cct/, as ^ seems to me (Plat. Euthyd. 273") ; (<os ye) 
i aKovo-at, at first hearing (Plat. -Lys. 216* ; Dem. 20, 18) ; d>s 

, SO ^0 judge (Eur. Or. 1298) ; oo-ov ye /M' ct6cVai, S /ar as / 

(Ar. Ntt&. 1252). Note particularly oXiyov oelv and 
aim st, lit. fo wan^ a Zt/e (^schin. 3, 165 ; Dem. 18, 269). 


Herodotus has many infinitive expressions of this sort ; 
as o>? Aoyu> (iTreiv, SO to speak ; <I>s cv eAa^icrru) Br)X.C)(rai, 
to shoio very briefly ; ws t/xe ev /xe/xvT/o-tfat, as far as 1 
remember correctly ; ov 7roAA<p Xoyw eiTrciV, in short, besides 
others (Hdt. 2, 15 4 ; 2, 24 3 ; 2, 125 5 ; 1, 61"). 
2. In some expressions, to/at seems to be unnecessary. Such are r 
c/cobv ?vat, willingly, usually in a negative sentence (Xen. Cyr. 2, 2 15 ; 
Plat. Apol. 37*) ; TO vvv emu, at present (Isoc. 15, 270) ; TO eV 
eivai, as /ar as depends on them (Xen. TeM. 3, 5 9 ) ; a>s 7raA.ata 
considering their antiquity (Thuc. 1, 21 1 ) ; so in Herodotus, <I>s 
as u)5 eT^ai Aiyu7rrov, for (a country like) Egypt (Hdt. 2, 8 4 ). 

2229. Infinitive in Commands, Proclamations, Wishes. 1. The 
infinitive is sometimes used as an imperative of the second person ; 
the subject is in the nominative. This use is rare in Attic prose ; it 
occurs mostly in Homer. 

2t> 6, av TI (\ys ftcXrtov iro6fv Xa/3eu>, Trcipa<TQai KOI e/xoi p.erao'to'ovat,, 
if you have anything better to bring from any quarter, try to communicate it 
to me (Plat. Cratyl. 426 b ). QapcrSiv vvv, Aid/iTjSfr, eVt Tpo)6o-(rt pd^fo-Gaiy 
courage, Diomedes, Jight now against the Trojans (II. 5, 124). Hdt. 1, 
32 12 . Od. 11, 72. For the infinitive in commands of the third person, see 
2 and 3 below. 

2. As an imperative of the third person, the infinitive with a 
subject- accusative is often used in /a?#s, treaties, and public or formal 
orders (legal language). Some word of command may be regarded as 

Qoti<r0ai dt rrfv atpta-iv ev tepoi, let the election be held in a f' ////// 

(Plat Leg. 753 b>c ). "Errj 8e civ at ras o-irovd&s irfvrr)KovTa, and that the 

' >i shall be for fifty years (Thuc. 5, 18 3 ). 'Aicovrre X* oi rovs yeatpyovf 

a IT t ( v a t, hear, ye people ; let the husbandmen depart ( Ar. Pax 551). II. 

3,285. Xen. A nab. 6, 3 13 . 

3. In poetry and in Herodotus, the infinitive with a 
subject-accusative may express a wish or an entreaty. 
Ztv iraTfp, r) \lavra Xa^fti/ f) Tvftfos IMOI>, Father Zeus, 
may Ajax or the son of Tydeus draw the lot (II. 7, 179). 
0<ot TroXtrat, p.rj pt 8ov\das \a\flv, (> (foils of onr rntnitrii, >n>ni 

I not f.iil int., itovtry (A.-sch. N.-/./. >:.:<). ' Ar. Ach. 816. 'Q 
(\ytv(<r6ai fiot *\0r)vaf rio-turOm, O %eun, yrant that I uiy 
revenge myself on the .\th>! (Hdt. 6, 106 1 ). Some 
word of prayer or entreaty in considered understood, aa 
or 3or, grant; the latter is sometimes expressed 


(II. 3, 351). For a similar exclamatory infinitive in prose 
and poetry, see 2237. 


2230. 1. With the neuter article prefixed, the infinitive assumes 
more clearly the character of a substantive, while it still retains 
its verbal qu ilities. It is declin ible (as TO ypdfaw, rov ypdfaw, 
TO> vpdfaw, TO vpd<f>iv) ; it retains its government ; its subject, 
if it has one, is in the accusative ; it can stand in most of the 
relations of a noun. 

2. The articular infinitive is absent from Homer; it is not very 
frequent in Herodotus and the dramatists, being here chiefly a nomi- 
native or accusative ; it is most common in the Orators, especially 

3. Often the articular infinitive can be conveniently translated by 
4< that" or "the circumstance that'' and a clause. The infinitive 
with the article may not only have a subject and other adjuncts of 
a verb, but it may even have a clause depending on it or on its 
adjuncts, the infinitive with everything depending on it appearing 
like any ordinary substantive. 

Qavp-acrrbv & (paivtrai /zoi KOI r it tr(i(T6rjvai nvas, a>y 'S.oxpd'njs TOVS 
vfovs 8t(<p6fip(v, (the circumstance) that some persons were persuaded that 
Socrates was corrupting the young, seems astonishing to me (Xen. Mem. 1, 2 l ). 
here TO to 8if<p0cipfv is the subject. Ta p*v aXXa ua...irci0((r6(u>6dvovo-iv, 
* K T o 0, orcif aircitiflv t irixttpoHri, KoXa*<r#ai, the other animals learn to 
obey by being punished whenever they try to disobey (Xen. Oec. 13, 6). Xen. 
Mem. 2, I 8 . 

2231. The infinitive with the article may be a subject-nominative, 
appositive in any case, object-accusative (especially with verbs different 
from those which take the simple infinitive, 2207), also sometimes in 
indirect discourse after verbs of saying and thinking. 

The infinitive with TO is sometimes used with adjectives and nouns 
which usually have the simple infinitive (2221), not often with nouns. 

The infinitive with TOV may be used as a genitive with nouns, 
genitive after comparatives, partitive genitive, genitive of cause, genitive 
after verbs or adjectives, genitive absolute. 

The infinitive with TO> may follow verbs or adjectives which take 
the dative ; or it may be a dative of instrument or cause. 


The infinitive with TOV, T, TO, often depends on a preposition or 
on an adverb used as such. 

The negative with the articular infinitive is /AT). 

NOMINATIVE: To K0\dccr0ai rfj ^vxjj apdvov eo-riv rj fj acoXa<mi, 
chastisement in better for the soul than intemperance (Plat. Gorg. 505 b ). 
Ov TO p,rf \ a ft (1 v ra aya&a ouro> ye ^aXfirov (eorii>), axnrfp T 6 Xaftovra 
O-T c pi>) 0f) v at Xvirrjpov, it is not so hard not to have acquired advantages, </.s 
it is painiul tj be depi-ived of them ajter having acquired them (Xen. C//r. 
7, 5 88 ). ToCrd eWi TO dStKcIv, TO Tr\eov TU>V aXXeoi/ {ijTflv e^civ , thu is to 
commit wrong, to desire to have more than others (Plat. Gorg. 483 C ). 

ACCUSATIVE : Movov 6p>v TO n a i i v TOV d\io-n6p,fvov, seeing only the 
beating of the captive (Xen. Cyr. 1, 4 21 ). AUTO TO air oQ vrjrr K. * LV ovdcls 
<po$etTot, nobody fears mere dying (Plat. Gorg. 522*). To p*v cvvocciv T( 
<ai irpoopdv ayapai vcv, I admire your friendly disposition and your 
foresight (Hdt. 9, 79 1 ). To irpoeidfvai TOV 6cov TO p.c\\ov...ndvT(s 
Xf'youo-i, all men say that the divinity knows the future beforehand (Xen. 
Apol. 13). 'Eo/iii TO p. T) (idtvai; will you swear that you do not know ? 
(Soph. Ant. 535). To pr) {TJTOVVTO. eniTv^flv TIVI T&V Sfdi/Ttov fVTv\La.v 
otpai (ii-ai, for any one to light upon something he wants without seeking lor 
it, I consider to be good fortune (Xen. Mem. 3, 9 14 ). To 8e ftia. noXtTuv 
b pav (<pvv d pfj \av os, I am incapable of acting against the will of the 
citizens (Soph. Ant. 78). Ma<pos TO n pi vat TaOra ^&> XOITTOS \p6vos, the 
left is long enough to decide this (Soph. El. 1030). Thuc. 2 53 4 . 'AXX' 
ovtf fftoi TOI Tov^avKTTavai iroXfcas 81% (o~ri 0dpo~os, but I too lack boldness 
without the city's authority to dislodge thee (Soph. Oed. Col. 48). Thuc. 2, 87 1 . 
HnmXfW dyadov TOVTO fpyov fv6fu(f, T 6 TOVS dp^op^vovs a>s TrXetara aya^a 
IT 01 civ, he believes this to be the business of a good king, to do as much good 
as possible to those governed (Xen. Ag. 7, 1). Aia TO A^Xia CKCIVOV TOV P.TJVOS 
civai, on account of the Delian festirnl ///<;/ in that month (Xen. 37- ///. 
4, 8*). lip or TO p.fTpio)v 8 e t (T & a t ircirai8cvp.(vos (Xen. Mem. 1, 2 1 ). 
Dem. 1, 4. Xen. Cyr. 1, 4=' ; 1, 3 1 . 

GENITIVE : 'Er c X TT i 8 a rjXOov TOV (\dv, they entertained a hope of 

taking the city (Thuc. 2, 50 4 ). T o -n i c 1 v ciri6vp,ia, the desire to drink 

1C. 7, 84'). Xen. Cyr. 1, 4 4 . Plat. Leg. JttT/ 1 . NcW TO arlyCiv K p c I T T i v 

(<TTI TOV \a\ctv, for the young silence is better than i>r<titlin<i (Mm. Mon. 

'A<pop/*^ TOU KdKus <ppovc1v, thf /irj/Ni /i i/i;/ of foolish thin ki nil 

(Dem. 1, 23). Z;Xi o-...ToC WQCV (ppovclv, I envy thee.. ..for that thou 

.</ nothing Kur. //'/i Anl. 077). 'Hpfls TOV f o/)/*)} cr<i < cai 
TOVS iXAovy TT rr;r df>(TT)v, let us be the first to excite others to ml- 
Anab. 3, I 14 ). 'EiripcXtlo-Bcu TOV vs (ppovipMraTov civ at, toslmlii' 
at intelligent a$ possible (Xen. M<m. 1. *J a8 ). 'A^cw ToO Kara*' 
accustomed to obeying (Dem, 1, 23). KaTrjpdo-aTo TO* mViw TOV w nn\<n 


OTT 08 f fioo- 6 a i TOV, he cursed him who was the cause of the wages 
not having been paid long before (Xen. Anab. 7, 7 48 ). ToC dpaircreveiv 
drreipyovo-t, they restrain them from running away (Xen. Mem. 2, I 16 ). "AIOS 
. . .r o v TOiavr' a K o v i v (Dem. 21, 134). T ov y diroBavtlv v TT a p- 
XOVTOS j;6>7, death being already imminent (Lys. 12, 13). Ti rovrov 
pa Kaplan- fpov, TOV yrj p,lx6f)vai; what can be more desirable than this, to 
be mixed with the earth? (Xen. Cyr. 8, 7 35 ). 'Ayrjo-iXaos OVTI'TOV eV! 
Kapi'dr i v a i evSvs dvTiarptyds eVi Qpvyias e nopevfTo, Agesilaus, instead of 
advancing towards Caria, turned in the opposite direction and proceeded 
straight to Phrygia (Xen. Ages. 1, 16). npo 8t TOV avafiaivtiv TOV? 
pdpTvpas ftpaxea /SouXo/xai StaXe^^i^i/at fiti>, before the witnesses go up, I \rish 
to say a few words to you (Lycurg. 20). "Erot/zot d<riv OTIOVV iraaxcti', v TT p 
TOV pf) IT oitl v TO irpooraTTopfvov, they are ready to suffer anything for the 
sake of not submitting to dictation (Isoc. 7, 64). So Isoc. 1, 19 (eWxa) ; 
Xen. Mem. 4, I 2 (CK) ; Dem. 5, 5 (ftera) ; Xen. Mem. 4, 3 1 (avcv) ; Plat. Leg. 
670" O^tfH). 

DATIVE : Y I v a an IO~T >o- 1 T <o e/i r TI prj o~ 6 at virb fiai/idvcoi', that 
you may disbelieve my being honoured by the gods (Xen. Apol. 14). T a> 77 v 
ftrrt TI f v a v T i o v, 8>o~irtp ra> cy prjy o pe v at TO KciQfvdciv is there any- 
thing contrary to living, as sleeping is to waking '( (Plat. Phaedo 71 C ). 
Kf KpaTrjKf...T oi nportpos Trpbs rots np(iypao~i yiyvto-Qai, he has conquered 
by being quicker in action (Dem. 8, 11). C H /3a<riXe'a>y dpx^j do-dfvrfs rjv...Tu> 
&ifO"irdo-6ai rfty Suva/iety, the empire of the king wa* n-i-nl; fh rough the 
dispersion of its forces (Xen. Anab. 1, 5 9 ). Mevtav fjyd\\(Tro rw f^atrarav 
ftvvao-dai, Menon delighted in being able to deceive (Xen. Anab. 2, 6 2(} ). 
TOVTO) Suxpcpfiv..., TO) Ttfji^s opfy0~6ai, to differ in this, namely, in 
seeking honour (Xen. Hier. 7, 3). 'E^au/id^ero cir\ TU> fvOvp-tas Tf <al 
(VKo\u>s Cqv, he was admired for his living cheerfully and calmly (Xen. 
Mem. 4, S 2 ). IIpos T ai /zij&V K TTJS Trpeo-ftfids Xafte'iv, besides receiving 
nothing from the embassy (Dem. 19, 229). So Soph. Aj. 554 (eV) ; Plat. 
Rep. 468 (a/za). 

2232. NOTE. For the peculiarities of verbs of hindering, see 2351 

2233. NOTE. Many verbs which regularly take a simple object- 
infinitive sometimes take the infinitive with TO ; even a few which 
govern a genitive sometimes take an object-infinitive with TO. This 
usage is common in tragedy and occurs also in prose. 

T 6 7T\OVO~i(OTpdv TTJV 7TO\iV TTOlflv d V d ft d\ O V fJL C d, W6 Will put 

off making the state richer (Xen. Mem. 3, 6 6 ). "Eonr, os o-e KcoXdo-ci TO 
8pdv, there is one that shall prevent thy executing it (Soph. Phil. 1241). 
TO KorBavfiv, I shall endure to die (Aesch. Ag. 1290). To opdv OVK 


0(\r)o-av, they did not wish to act (Soph. Oed. Col 442). KXe'ap^oy piKpov 
* f <pvye TO pf) KaTaircTpQ>0rjvai, Clearchus barely escaped being 
Atoned to death (Xen. Anab. 1, 3 2 ). 'Avayxd^ovTai TO VTTO otvov fj.f) o~(pd\- 
\o~0ai ori/icXct<r0<u, they are compelled to be careful not to slip from the 
effects of the wine (Xen. Rep. Lac. 5, 7). For the negative here with verbs 
of hindrance and separation, see 2351 2356. 

2234. NOTE. 1. We find TO with the infinitive after 8td, f-n-t, ek, Kara, 

Trapd, Trpos ; TOV with the infinitive after dvrt, O.TTO, 8td, e, yLtera, Trept, 
Trpo, V7rp, and after CVCKO,, ^aptv, dvtv, ^o>pi9, ^te^pt, ^o>, Troppa) 5 T(3 with 
the infinitive after i/, CTTI, Trpds, and d/xa. The adverb TrX?/!/, except, 
which is used also as a preposition with the genitive, often takes the 
infinitive alone; as TrX^v.-.o-Tpa-n/AaTeiv, except in warring (Ear. Or. 
718) ; see 2 below. 

2. An infinitive depending on a preposition must have 
the article. But Herodotus omits it after avri in a few 

*Oy avTi fjxv 8ov\a>v tTroirjtras cXevOepovs etvai, a v r \ dc ap\t- 
<r 6 a i VTT' aXXcof ap%fiv &navT(t>v, who didst make them free 
instead of slaves, and instead of being ruled by others, to rule 
all nations (Hdt 1, 210 s ), here perhaps on account of the 
antithesis to di/rl p.(v SovXw ; but in 6, 32 2 dirt fivat without 
any antithesis. For TT\T)V with simple infinitive, see above. 

2235. NOTE. Purpose. Sometimes TOV with the infinitive ex- 
presses purpose, especially a negative purpose ; as crctxurfi? 'ATaXdiri; 
17 vfjcros, TOV ftrj XT/OTCIS KaKovpyclv rr)v Ev^oiav, the island Atalanta was 
fortified that pirates might not ravage Euboea (Thuc. 2, 32 1 ) ; Xen. 

1,3 9 ; Thuc. 1,4. " 

2236. NOTE. Sometimes TO with the infinitive stands in loose 
construction like an accusative of specification, in respect to. 

<1 PX*) V M Kapvdv TO (rrpaT(vp.a, TOVTOV crot 8d p.4\civ, you ought to 
make this your care, that the army man diseased at all (Xen. Cyr. 1, 

6 W ). M^ v <TT c p i {c tv dfi TOV apxovTa p.T)Tf TO tldfvai & fid fjLrjTf T o 
n pfiTTt iv A &v Kdtpb s ft, the commander ought not to be the last to know 
what ought to be known, or to do what occasion may require (Xen. Cyr. 7, 
6 4 "). *I(rwf tyti) atTioy, TO ere air o K ptv atr at pr) TOVTO o rjpopijv, perhaps I 
am at fault that you did not answer what I asked (Plat Lack. 190*). See 
also the examples in j: i 1 

2237. Infinitive in Exclamations. The infinitive, mostly with the 
article, is used in exclamations. 



TTJS p.a>pias, TO Am vopi^eiv, what folly ! to believe in Zeus! (Ar. 
Nub. 819). Xen. Cyr. 2, 2 3 . Without the article : Aesch. Bum. 837 ; Dem. 
21, 209. 


2238. Nature of the Participle. -1. The participle is a verbal 
adjective. It shows its verbal nature by these qualities : (a) it retains 
the government of its verb ; as *paTo{We<; T^S 0aA<xo-o-?79, commanding 
the sea ; rrj larpiK^ xpw/Aevos, employing the medical art ; vlK^crds TOV? 
TToAe/zt'ous, having conquered the enemy ; (b) it may be used as the 
equivalent of a protasis or apodosis ; it may be used with av for a 
finite verb with av ; (c) each verb has several participles, according 
to voice and tense ; (d) it expresses the same time as the indicative. 

2. The participle has three general uses which sometimes blend 
into each other, (a) It may be used attributively, like an adjective. 
(6) Predicatively it may be used as the equivalent of a subordinate 
clause, to express time, condition, cause, manner, concession, purpose, 
etc. (circumstantial participle) ; or it may be used absolutely, (c) It 
may be used predicatively to complete the meaning of many verbs ; 
here it may refer to the subject or to the object of the verb (supple- 
mentary participle). 


2239. The participle may qualify a noun attributively like any 
adjective ; it then has attributive position with respect to the article. 

Ol TrapdvTes TToAtTat Or oi TroAtTcu ol irapovrcs, the citizens who 
are present; TTCUS KoAu>s TreTratScu/xc'vos, a well-educated child; 
ol eVoi ot ei' 177 TrdAei /caToiKovvTes, the strangers living in the city ; 
ol 7rpo-/?ets ot Trapa /2ao-iAe'a>s TT //,<$ e'v T e?, the ambassadors sent by 
the king ; -n-dXis KaAAst Sta^epovo-a, a city excelling in beauty ; 6 
avyp 6 ^yr/o-oftcvos, the man who will lead. Observe that the 
participle is often conveniently rendered by a relative clause. 

2240. NOTE. Our " so-called''' is expressed in Greek by KaAou/^vo?, 
Aeyo/xeyos, oi/o^ta^d/xevo? ; as rov tepov K aAou jjLfv ov TrdAe/xoi', the SO- 

called Sacred War (Thuc. 1, 112 5 ) ; Plat. Phaedo 68 e ; Rep. 493 d . 

2241. The attributive participle may be used with the article 
alone as a substantive, like an adjective or any other attribute. 


It is then often to be translated by a noun or by the one who or 
those who. 

C O Ar/oof, the speaker, the one now speaking ; 6 TOVTO 8/>a<ras, the 
doer, the one who did this, 6 ou TOVTO 8p<io-ds, the one who did not do 
this; 6 <cvya>v, the defendant; oi 7re7Tio>ieVoi, those who have been 
persuaded ; oi ypa^a/xcvot ^Kpdrrjv, those u'ho accused Socrates ; b 
(3ov\6[jLvo<;, any one who wishes ; 6 TV^WI/, any one, the first one you 
meet ; oi TroAiTcvo/net'ot, statesmen ; 6 ^y^o-o^ei/os, one who will lead. 
TO o-v^epoi/, the advantage ; TO StaXctTrov, the space between TO fj.c\\ov, 
ihc future. 

2242. NOTE. Even without the article the participle is used 
indefinitely as a noun ; as TroXt/xotWcui/ Tro/Uq, a city of belligerents 
(Xen. Cyr. 7, 5 73 ) ; Plat. Lys. 221 b ; Xen. Hell. 5, I 19 ; Eur. Phoen. 

2243. NOTE. As the participle expresses the same time as the 
indicative, the future participle strictly means the one who is to do 
anything or who is expected to do something. 

'O Tjyr) <r 6 pe v o s ovdcls eo-rai, there will be no one who will lea<l /.- 
(Xen. Anab. 2, 4 s ). Ovo' 6 c o> X t5 o- o> / Trapfjv, there was not present any on- 
to /in- rr nt it (Soph. Ant. 261). Ov (nravi(i TU>V /So^^j/o-dvTtoi', / 
n want of people to lend him aid (Xen. Anab. 7, 7 42 ). 

2244. NOTE. 1. A few participles are so completely felt to be 
nouns, that they may even take the genitive instead of the case which 
the verb governs. 

Bao-tXc'wr Trpoa^KovTfs Tivts, certain relations of the king (Thuc. 1, 
128 8 ). Ilapa TO avufopov T^ TrdXfwr, against the interest of thf xt<it<- 
(Lycurg. 130). Ta vvpfopovTa dvdpunois, the advantages of men (Plat. 

2. But such constructions are generally poetic; as 6 
e * i v o v TCKW, his parent (Eur. El. 335, for 6 cfcct 

2245. NOTE. Like the infinitive, the neuter participle with the 
article is sometimes used as an abstract noun. This occurs mostly in 
Thucydides, also in the poets. 

To hows, the fear (Thuc. 1 . 90 ,>yi(6fjLtvov TT)S yvuprir, th- 

of thtir feelings (2, 69 4 ). To Tl^^tvov tys rrdXcwr, the honour of th> 
(2, 63'). 'Ev TW /XT) /AXT(.>rn, '// not practising (1, 142*). Ti votrovv, 
(Soph. Phil. 674). 




2246. The participle is used to state a circumstance connected 
with an action. It expresses various relations, often more than 
one at the same time. The negative of the circumstantial 
pmiciple is ov\ but when it is equivalent to a condition, the 
negative is yu-/;. For the omission of a>v, being, see 2277. 

2247. Time. The participle may simply express time and be thus 
equivalent to a temporal clause. 

Kvpoy v7roAa/3o>' rovs (ptvyovras, crv\\fa$ orpaTev/za, 7roAiop*cet 
MiXrjTov, Cyrus, having received the exiles and having assembled an army, 
laid siege to Miletus (Xen. Anab. 1, I 7 ). Tavra IT oirj <rav T t s eVt T&S 
XXovf vrjo-ovs dvdyovro, having done this, they set out against the other islands 
(Hdt. 6, 96). NCi> fanrvfirf 8 iir v rj & a v T c s 8e aneXavvcrf , now pray 
dine; and after dinner (= having dined), depart (Xen. Cyr. 3, I 37 ). Oi 
"E\\r)Vs 8 1 a ft e /3 17 K or f s dirfl^ov TTJS ^apaSpar o<rov OKTCO <rra$iovs, the Greeks, 
having crossed, were about eight stadia distant from the ravine (Xen. Anab. 

3, 4'*)^ 'A K ov & a a* t rots OTpaTrjyols ravra, edoc TO arpdrcvfjui (rvvayayelv, 
when the generals heard this, they resolved to collect the force (Xen. Anab. 

4, 4 19 ). 'Ayj/o-iXaos en veos &v eru^f rrjs fiacriXeias, Agesilaus, while yet young, 
obtained the kingship (Xen. Ages. 1, 6). 

2248. NOTE. As in the last example above, the participle on/ 
cannot be omitted. 

2249. NOTE. These temporal participles are practically equivalent 
to adverbs : dp^d/xecos, at first ; reA-cimoy, at last ; SioAi7T(W xpovov, 

pwoV) ajter a while ; SiaXeiVcDi/ \p6vov, at intervals of time. 
KCU dpxop.fvos iirov, as I also said at first (Thuc. 4, 64 1 ). 
KOI OTTO rot) ufiaroy fipyov avrovs of Qpaitcs, at last the Thracians 
shut them off even from the water (Xen. Anab. 6, 3 8 ). 'OAryoi/ ^povov 
8 1 a X i TT a) v cKivTjQr), after a little while he moved (Plat. Phaedo 118*) ; 7roAi> 
diaXnr<i>v (Thuc. 5, 10 n ). Ou iro\vv S' ovv %povov 7rto-^o)i/ TJKC, after 
waiting no long time he came (Plat. Phaedo 59*) ; fUKpbv eVio-^eoi/ (Aeschin. 
3, 10). AtaXftTroua-ai/ %p6vov, at intervals (Plat. Rep. 617). 

2250. NOTE. Time is often expressed by a noun with a participle 
in agreement depending on eVi, with the genitive, during ; with the 
dative, just after ; //era with the accusative, after ; seldom -n-po, before ; 
VTTO with the accusative, at about, towards ; ap*. (seldom <rvV) with the 
dative, at the same time with, just as. 


'ETTI \lvrjo-iov c<popov, while Aenesias was ephor, during the ephorate of 

.-<** (Thuc. 2, 2 1 ). 'ETTI ^tdi/t irc<rovo#, after snow had fallen (Hdt. 2, 22 4 ). 

Mera SdXcora oi^6p,(vov, after Soton was gone (Hdt. 1, 34 1 ). IIpo 17X101; ftvvovros, 

before nun aft (Aeschin. 1, 12). 'YTTO TTJV Trpojrrjv fTreXOovcrav VVKTCI, on the lirxt 

tiling of night (Hdt. 6, 2 1 ). "Api fj\i<o avtV^oi/rt, with the rising sun 
(Xen. Anab. 2, I 3 ). 2vi> (Xen. Cyr. 4, 5 21 ). 

2251. Cause. The circumstantial participle may express cause. 
'OXeler^e 5' rjdiKrjKOTfs TOV avdpa rov8f, ye shall perish lor having 
>red me (= this man) (Soph. Phil. 1035). Uapavo^ovo-tv apa Xanfdaipovioi 

ov ftidovrcs CTOI xpvviov, they then act contrary to law in not giving you 
gold (Plat. Hipp. Maj. 285 b ). Tt yap &v ftovXo p.fvoi av8pts <ro<pol us 

d\T)d)s 8(rTr6Tas dfifivovs avrS)v (pfvyoifv ; what can be the reason that trufif 

wise men tr,,>il,] n-ink to Jlee from masters better than themselves? lit. 

what? (Plat Phaedo 63*). 

2252. NOTE. The expressions TL iraOw (lit. having suffered what ?) 
and TI fj.a.0i!>v (lit. having learned what ?) both mean wherefore 1 or 

T t yap p. a 6 ov r e s TOVS Oeovs 6/3pif ere ; why on earth (or with what idea) 
did you insult the gods? (Ar. Nub. 1506). Tt IT a 6ov<r i i...6vrrrcus ei|ao-i 
yvvaiiv ; what on earth makes them look like mortal women? (Ar. Xul>. 
340). So also o rt na6a>v, become, used dependently : Plat. Apol. 36 b . 

2253. Means, Manner, Accompanying Circumstance. The participle 
may express means or manner or an accompanying circumstance. 

\r)(6fjifvoi (oxriv they live by plunder (Xen. Cyr. 3, 2 25 ). Tovs "EXXrjvas 
to'io'a^av, ov rpoirov 8ioinovvT(s rtis avrtav irarpiSas KOI Trpoy ovs TroXe- 
fjiOvvTff p.yd\rji> av TTJV 'EXXelSa 7rotr)o'iav, they tmtiiht the Greeks by what 
means of governing their own stuti-*, and by carry 'my <>n </ or against what 
peoples, th< 'i mi'ilit make Greece great (Isoc. 12, 44). npoatpoiWat pa\\ov ovru> 
Kfpo^iii'fir ajr' dXX^Xcov ^ & v v to <p t X o v r t s avrovs, tin // }>ri'1<'r tlmx to get 
gains from each other than to unite for thiir mat mil benefit (X-n. M>m. 3, 
5 16 ). Kat 77 y<Xoo-a<ra...e(pr;, <ul she. said with a laugh (Plat. Symp. 202). 
Hpoti\(T<> p.a\\ov ro'if vofiois ( p p. ( v u> i> airoBavtlv t) napavofjLOiV Cv'S ^" 
f,, ili, nliiiHiHi // 1h> laws than to live transgressing them (Xen. 

-.4,4*). Ao>c< i<pos dpyvporjXov . . .<p ( p o> v, /<././. ///'// ( //, *'il,-, r-*tn< /// 

//. 7, 303). "Kpxcrai fj Mai'firr/...Toi' Kvpov r6r 

^oi'<ra, Mnndane comes with her son Ojffnt (X0H. ' 1. .'' r, . , rJ K (iv 
iraprjyti\f \a$6vra TOVS ai/dpar, h ordered Xeniax to <-<>mi <m<l briny all 
hit men (Xen. Anab. 1, L"). Hoi) x /'/ " * "''"' " s/ '"" / 'I'l"" '-' 84 s ). 

<ttos...})\6fv tivov ay ui', Piratut came brimiimi the, stranger >/. 17. 


2254. NOTE. The participles aywi/, ^a)i/, <f>tpw, A.a/?wr, and ^PW/ACI/O?, 
may be generally translated by with. See the last four examples in 

2255. NOTE. These participles of manner are practically equivalent 
to adverbs . e^v, constantly ; tpspuv, hastily, rapidly ; <epo/*,ei o, with 
a rush ; avvcras, quickly ; ^cupo^, with impunity (rejoicing) ; KAcuW, to 
one's sorrow, at one's peril ; Qappw, boldly ; <0uo-as, before (having 
anticipated) ; XaQwv, secretly (having escaped notice). 

\rjpfls % o> v, you trifle continually (Plat. Gory. 497"). Els TOVTO <pe p a>v 
rrpie<TTr)<rf ra Trpftypara, he rapidly brought matters to this point (Aeschin. 3, 
82). 'Qs (TfTr((Tov <pep6p.voi es Tovs "E\\r)vas ol Mj/Sot, when the Medes 
(Persians) fell upon the Greeks with a rush (Hdt. 7, 210 :< ). "Ai/ory' a v v <r a s 
TO <ppovTi<rrf)ptov, make haste and open the thinking-shop (Ar. Nub. 181). Ow 
Xaipovrcs bv a7raXXaaire, you will not get away with impunity (Xen. 
Anab. 5, 6 3U ). KXtieoi' a\^t i ra>i>8e, you will touch these at your peril (Kur. 
Heracl. 270). \eyt roiwv dapp&v, speak then boldly (Plat. Phaedr. 243"). 
For (pOda-as and Xa0o>i>, see 2286. 

L Purpose. The future participle is used to express purpose, 
especially in connection with verbs of going, coming, sending, and 
calling. Occasionally the present active participle is used. 

*O S' dvrjp Xaywy <?x (TO & *} P & " ' w "> ^ ne man was gone to hunt hares (Xen. 
Anab. 4, 5 a4 ). Ou< s Xdyouy f\r)\v6\ aXXa tre K r f v a> i/, / have not come for 
words, but to kill thee (Eur. Tro. 905). "Eirt^i nva e povvra on vvyyfvc- 
(T0ai aurai xpfjfci, he sent some one to say that he wished to meet him (Xen. 
Anab. 2, 5 3 ). Ot 0;//3atoi <ruv(Kd\fcrav dirb rS>v 7r6\(a>v Airacrcov d K o v tr o- 
p. e v o v $ rfjs napa /3ao-iX6o>s eVioToXi)^, the Thebans summoned deputies from 
all the cities to hear the king's letter (Xen. Hell. 7, I 39 ). Xen. Anab. 5, 5 8 . 
Hdt. 6, 70 1 . Plat. Crito 51 b ). TaOr' ec8iKda>i/ rf\6ov, I went to avenge 
this wrong (Eur. Supp. 154). "E7rp.^av...7rp(r^fis dyyeXXovras, they 
sent ambassadors to announce (Thuc. 7, 25 9 ). 

2257. Condition. The participle may be used as the equivalent of 
a protasis. For examples, see 2121. 

2258. Concession. The participle may express concession. Its 
force is then usually expressed in English by although. 

IloXXot ovres vyevels eltrtv KUKOI, many, although born noble, are 
base (Eur. El. 553). 'OXi'-ya 8vvdp,fvoi Trpoopdv avOpwrrot ncpl TOV p.\\ovTO$ 
TroXXa f-rnxfipovp-cv irp&TTftv, although we men are able to foresee little with 
regard to the future, we undertake much (Xen. Cyr. 3, 2 15 ). 'H ^irdprrj T>V 
o\iyav6pa>ir<yrdT<iiv iroKfatv o v <r a dwaruTaTT) tv rff 'EXXaSi f<pdvrj, Sparta, 


although being one of the least populated states, proved the most powerful 
(Xen. Rep. Lac. 1, 1). Plat. Lach. 197. Xen. Oec. 15, 3. 

Genitive Absolute 

2259. When the circumstantial participle agrees with a genitive 
which is grammatically independent of any word in the sentence, 
the two (genitive and participle) are said to be in the genitive 
absolute. Regularly, but not always, the subject (genitive) of the 
participle does not occur in the main clause. 

iij eVt TCI op;; ov 8 f v o s /co>AiJoi>ros t , he ascended the heights, no 

ii'nnlrri-tig (Xen. Anab. 1, 2 W ). TOVTWV A * ^ 0e' i> r o> i/ dveorrjo-av, these 

thing* saiil, tin- if arose (Xen. Anab. 3, 3 1 ). QffucrroK\^s r/px^ Mcryi^cn'aff 

&OVTOS fia cr i\ <i> s aura), Themistocles governed Magnesia which the king 

had gi iv h i in (Thuc. 1, 138 8 ). T a> v a- a> p. a T to v 6 rj \ v v o p e v a> v, KCU at 

\lrvxal no\v dppaxrroTfpai yiyvovTcu, (our bodies being weakened) by the 

n ing of the body, the spirit also becomes weaker (Xen. Oec. 4, 2). TStv 

d 6 A T) T oj v 8ls roa-avrrjv po)p,rjv \aftovT a>v ovdfv &v ir\eov ytvoiro rois oXXotf, 

if athletes were to acquire twice their strength, no advantage would accrue to 

man (Isoc. 4, 2). *O v T o s yf ^ t v 8 o v s cariv dird-rrj, where there is falsehood, 

is deceit (Plat. Soph. 260). 'A^f/etro 8(vpo TO n-Xotoi/, yvovTwv T >v 

Ke <f) aXX T) v a> v, dvTiirpclTTOVTOs Zrj v o 6 c pio" o s, ...KaraTrXeiv, the ship 

>i/>l>roached, the Cephalenians having resolved to sail in, although Zenothemis 

opposed it (Dem. 32, 14). II. I, 88. Xen. Hell. 5, 1. Thuc. 7, 13 2 . Dem. 

2260. NOTE. The participle w, being, cannot be omitted ; but see 

2261. NOTE. 1. The subject (genitive) of the participle is some- 
times omitted when it is easily supplied from the context or when 
some indefinite subject, like dvOpu'i-rrw or TrpaypaTw, is understood. 

Qarrov ir potoi/rto v...dp6p.os (yivtTO TOIS vrpaTuiyrais ('TT\ rAf VKijvdt, (the 
soldiers) proceeding fatter, a run was made by the soldiers to\c<ir<l ih< / nt.- 
(Xen. Anab. 1, 2 17 ; the subject is (rrpaTi<*Ta>v understood), 'invrw tis 
fui^i/, ichen men go to battle (Xen. (';/>. ."., :V %4 ; sc. dv6pu>ir<av). Ovrto yt 

i -T CD v, things being so (Xen. Anab. 3, I 40 ; sc. irpayps'iTw). n/Hirro/u<Wr 
(Xen. Vert. 6, 3 ; sc. irpayptiTuv). Xen. Anab. 4, 8 5 . So tpov m-iy be 
omitted; as ipwra us diroKptvovpJvov, ask, at I will answer (Plat Farm. 
137 C ). 


2. So with impersonal participles like TWros, when raining (Xen. 
Hell. 1, 1 16 ; Ar. Vesp. 774) ; with such expressions AID'S was originally 
understood. Other impersonal expressions like dS^Aov oVros (Xen. 
Hipparch. 4, 2), otmos I^OI/TOS (Plat. Rep. 38 l c ), are uncommon, the 
accusative absolute being here regular (2265) ; but see 2262. 

2262. NOTE. The passive participles of verbs of announcing, 
showing, etc., are sometimes used in the genitive absolute with a 
dependent declarative clause, introduced by 6Yi, serving as a subject. 

*E<rayyc\QfVT(t)v on $oivi<T(rai vrjes eVt TOVS > A.6rjvaiovs 7rAeov<rii>, 
it having been announced that Phoenician ships were sailing against the 
Athenians (Thuc. 1, 116 3 ). ScHpar 8 rj \ <> & e v r o s OTI ev rals vawl ro>i> 
'EXXrjvwv ra rrpayfiara fyevero, it having been clearly shown that on the fleet 
of the Greeks their cause depended (Thuc. 1, 74 1 ). Xen. Cyr. 1, 4 18 ; 6, 2 19 . 
The plural participle is used when the subject of the dependent clause is 
plural, or when several facts are related. 

2263. NOTE. As the Greek has active aorist and perfect participles, 
it can in many cases use these dependently ; whereas the Latin, which 
lacks an active perfect participle, is obliged to employ the less clear 
construction of the ablative absolute or to form a subordinate clause. 

Taura 6 Kaitrap \cas aTTJ/et, having said thtse things Caesar went away ; 
Lat. his Caesar diet in nhiit. 'E\0c*v 8( 6 Sevtxf&v tVjjptro rbv 'ATroAAeo, 
having arrived there, Xenophon asked Apollo (Xen. Anab. 3, I 6 ; Lat. quo 
quum venisset, Xenophon consuluit Apollinem). Xen. Anab. 3, I 5 . 

2264. NOTE. The genitive absolute is usually employed when the 
subject of the participle does not already occur in the sentence in some 
case to which the participle might be joined. Yet sometimes, for 
greater emphasis of the participial clause, the genitive absolute is 
used, even when the subject of the participle does already occur. 

AtafttftTjuoTOs fj8r) HfpiK\(ovs orparta es Eify3oiai', ryyeXBrj avra), 
ori Mcyapa a(pe'on;Ki>, when Pericles had already crossed over, it was announced 
to Euboea that Megara had revolted (Thuc. 1, 114 1 , for dia^c^Kori fjdr) 
nepucAfT qyyeXdr)). Xen. Anab. 5, 2 24 . Thuc. 3, 22 2 (for accusative). Thuc. 
3, 13 9 (for nominative). Usually the genitive absolute in these cases stands 
for a dative. 

Accusative Absolute 

2265. 1. Instead of the genitive absolute, the accusative absolute 
in the neuter singular is used of impersonal participles and of 


impersonal expressions composed of an adjective and ov ; as Seov, 
it being necessary ; Trpoa-ra^dev, it having been commanded ; bwarov 
ov, since it is possible. 

2. Such accusatives are impersonal participles like Se'ov, c6v, 

7rpoo~f)KOV, Trape\ov and Trapao-^dr, p.f.\ov, /xcra/Ae'Xoj', OOKOVV, ooav t and 

others ; impersonal passive participles like 7rpo(no.\6iv, elprj^vov, yo/d- 
/jicvov ; impersonal expressions with or, as Svvarov ov, aicrxpov ov. The 
accusative absolute begins with Herodotus and the Attics. 

Ov8( Sinaiov /iot SoKfiy ^1Tt^Clp<U> 7rpay/za, <raur6v TrpoSovi/ai, %ov o-todrjvai, 
you do not seem to be doing right in betraying yourself when you might be 
saved (Plat. Crito 45 C ). 1 Y/xfi9 &v ov xp f v PX"* y u cannot properly 
maintain your rule (Thuc. 3, 40 7 ). KaXwr IT a pacr x.ov, ov gvvcftrjo-av, they 
did not treat when they had a favourable opportunity (Thuc. 5, 14 1 ). A o K o v v 
avax<*pelv, it being resolved to retreat (Thuc. 4, 125 1 ). Ae'ov (Hdt. 3, 65 6 ). 
(Isoc. 15, 284). Uapov (Eur. Heracl. 177). Merov (Lys. 31, 32). 
pot VTTO TOV S^/zou MeVcova. . .ayciv ety 'EXXjyo-Troi/ror, a)^d/ir;i' 
5ta rd^our, when the command was given to me by the people to 
convey Menon to the Hellespont, I put to sea in all speed (Dem. 50, 12). 
Eiprjfjifvov, when it had been said (Ar. Lysist. 13). UapeKfXfvovTo Kpavyfj OVK 
oXiyrj ^po)/if i/ot, aovvarov ov eV VVKT\ aXXa> ra> aTjp.TJva.1, they cheered each 
other with no little shouting, as it was impossible in the night to give signals 
in any other way (Thuc. 7, 44 5 ). Ala-xpov ov dvn\eyetv t it being infamous to 
deny (Xen. Cyr. 2, 2 20 ). Ov\l ca-<o<rapfv o-, oiovre ov, we did not save you, 
ulthnugh it was possible to do so (Plat. Crit. 46). 

Were a genitive absolute used in these cases, the gender would be 
uncertain and the impersonal character of the expression would thus 
be unrecognisable ; except in the case in 2262. 

2266. NOTE. For the omission of 6v, see 2277. 

2267. NOTE. The neuter participle TV%OV (lit in case that) is 
altogether an adverb, meaning perhaps (Xen. Anab. 6, I 20 ). 

2268. NOTE. 1. With Zxnrtp or a>?, the accusative of a noun with 
a personal participle in agreement may stand absolutely in any number 
or gender. Without taanrtp or u>s this also occurs in the neuter, but 
very rarely. 

Tovt virir ol TTartpff dno irovrjptav dv0ptair<i)v cipyoixrir, o> r r 17 v p.ii' rwr 
Xprj<TT<av 6 p. TX i' v n(TKrj(riv o v a a v rfjs dpcrrjs, r f) v 8( rotv irovrfpatv Kord\v<rtv 
(*c. ovvai from bad m< n in th > H> -f tlit th? associa- 

tion with the good is an exer< ' < , /// tlmt >- > i(h the bad it 


a destruction of it (Xen. Mem. 1, 2 20 ). (lloXXot) ro>i> 
co o~ TT 6 p < TroXiTCDV p.V y i y v o [i e v o v s (p i\ o v s, c dSeXcptoi' 011 yiyvo- 
pvovs, many neglect their brothers, as if friends were made from fellow- 
citizens and were not made from brothers (Xen. Mem. 2, 3 :{ ). Xen. Mem. 1, 
3 2 . Hdt. 9, 42 3 . 

Without <wo-7rep or a>s : Aoai>ra 8e ravra KOI TrfpavBivra, ra 
o-rpareu/zara anr]\6fv, this having been resolved and settled, the armies drew 
off (Xen. Hell. 3, 2 19 ). Tavra 8e yivopeva, when this happens (Hdt. 2, 
66). *A X X o T i 5 6 a i/ ^ai(pvrjs, some another sudden resolution = lit. 
something else suddenly having been resolved upon (Thuc. 5, 65 3 ). Plat. Leg. 
844 C . 

Observe the occasional Soai> ravra (= enel eSof raOra), this resolution 
being passed = lit. this having been resolved upon (Xen. Anab. 4, 1 1:( ). 

2. Otherwise with added subject (as rot-rov, TOVTOH/, and the like), 
we have the genitive absolute ; as So^avrtav TOVT->V, these resolutions 
having been adopted (Xen. Hell. 5, 2 24 ). Plat. Tim. 30 C . Xen. Hell. 
1, I 36 . 


2269. Certain particles are often added to the circumstantial 
participle, both dependent and absolute, to mark more clearly 
the relation of the participle to the verb of the sentence. 

2270. Particles used temporally. 1. These are : a/na, at the same 
time ; /u.Tav, between, while ; avTiKa and cvOvs, straightway, immedi- 
ately after; e^ai^^s, on a sudden; apn, just now, at this moment. 
They often belong to the verb, although closely connected with the 

'E/bta^ovro a p. a Troptvofifvoi oi "'EXXrjvfs, the Greeks fought 
marching on (Xen. Anab. 6, 3 5 ). To roC 0eoO o-?7/ieIoi>...7roXXaxo{; /ie e 
\cyovTa per a v, the sign of the divinity often restrained me while speaking 
(Plat. Apol 40 b ); with genitive absolute Plat. Euthyd. 275 e . Atdi/uo-ov... 
avT i K a y v 6 fj.c v o v es TOV p.r)pov avfppa^aro Ztvs, as soon as he was born, 
Zeus sewed up Dionysus in his thigh (Hdt. 2, 146 3 ). 'HTriora/ietfa evdvs 
ycvofifvoi ^vpTravTa ra rotavra, we knew all such things immediately after 
being born (Plat. Phaedo 75 C ). Trjv ^vx*l v Qfvpovvra fai(pvT)s Qavovros 
cKacrrov, viewing the soul of each one just as he is dead (Plat. Gorg. 523 e ). 
Plat. Cratyl. 396 b . 

2. These are often joined to the principal verb : IvraiOa, ctra, 
iTretra, TOTC, rare ^817, ovTuj?, ovTio ST/, evOv? ] all implying a succession in 
time, then, thereupon, after. 


TO>V 2a/xt'o>i> >cat o^oi/raw TTJV ZdyK\rjv v 6 a v r a ot ZayK\aioi 
, after the Samians obeying and having seized Zancle, the Zan- 
<tns set out to help it (Hdfc. 6, 23 3 ). Xen. Anab. 4, 7 13 (etra). Plat. 
Gorg. 456 d (wira). Xen. Symp. 4, 23 (rore). Andoc. 1, 9 (TOT* ijfti;). Xen. 
. 3, 10 2 (ovros). Plat. Phaedo 61 d (ofW 817). Thuc. 2, 54 7 ((v6vs). 

2271. (7se o/are, otov, ota, a>s, and wonrep w*7/fc Participles. 1. The 
particles arc, olov, ola (also are 8j, olov By, ota o"ij), inasmuch as, as, are 
used with the participle expressing cause to denote that the cause is 
real and that the writer or speaker is responsible for the statement. 

C O Kupoy, are Trniy a>i>..., qSero 7-17 oroAi;, Cyrus, inasmuch as he i.s </ 
6oy, teas delighted it-it h tin- robe (Xen. Cyr. 1, 3 :{ ). Kat are &ta>ncva>v 
T<av craipoiv, and inasmuch as their companions were viewing them (Xen. 
Anab. 4, 8 a "). O f o v & 8ia %p6vov d^iyp-evos do-pews yet eVi ray t-vvr]6fis 
8rrpt/3ar, inasmuch as I had arrived after a long time, I gladly went to my 

'xtomed haunts (Plat. Charm. 153 a ). Ota VTTO 'loTtat'ou TroXiopKi;- 
6 v r f y, inasmuch as they had been besieged by Histiaeus (Hdt. 6, 40 2 ) ; 
with genitive absolute, Hdt. 1, 189 4 . "Are 6Vj, olov 817, ofa 8^ : Hdt. 1, 171 3 ; 
Plat. Symp. 203 b ; Xen. Hell. 6, 4 2ti . 

2. The particle o>s, as, as if, is used either to denote that the 
participle expresses an apparent or pretended fact, or that the participle 
expresses merely the thought of some prominent person in the sentence, 
not necessarily the writer's or speaker's. With the future participle 
it may be rendered by in the hope of or with the intention of. 

BOI&KOS 6 ITVKTTJS Tore 8ifpd^fTO o>? K d fiv to v da"rri8a pr) (pe'peii/, Boiscus 
the boxer then strove earnestly by pretending to be sick (lit. as being ill) not 
to carry his shield (Xrn. An-ab. 5, 8 23 ). "Q s ovv air r)\\ay pc v o i rovrav 
fjbtats tKoif4T)0rj(rav, having escaped from these evils, they gladly took repose 
(Xen. Anab. 4, 3 s ). Tavrrjv TTJV x<apdv ir(rpf\^( 8iap7rd(rai rotr "li.\\Tj(Tiv o> $ 
TToXc/uat/ ov<rav, this count ru In fnrnl <>,-,r f,, fh<- ^///,.s- t<> I,, Blundered 
since it wag, as he regarded, hostile (Xen. Anab. 1, 2 1 "). 'Q s TCI /SArtora 

(5ov\(vovT(s iffxvpifcn'Tti, flu ii r< ni'ii IK <l firm, us tlnii ir, r< ,-<>n nsi-lli ng the best, 
as they believed (Thuc. 4, 68"). SiAAa/i/Savft Kvpov a>r a7rocrfi'a)', he 
seizes Cyrus with the (declared) intention <>f iitti,i<i him in death (Xen. Anal). 

1, 1 "< A^Tji'moi 7rap((rK(vd^ovTO o>r TT o\ ( p,rj a~ o v T f s t the Athenians 
prepared with the (declared) intention of tjnlnti to u;ir (Thin-. L', 7 1 )- Hdt. 

2, I 9 . Plat. Mews. -Ml Xen. Anab. 4, 7 

With genitive absolute : Ov dfi ddv^f'iv d> s OVK (irdKTwt- <* v T w 'AtiqvoliUH 

one ought not to despair as tli<>u<ili the Athenians were not lovers of <>/>/' / 

\- M \l>-m. 3, 6 80 ). 'Qs dvap-fvovvros KOI OVK d TT 06 av ov pt v ov 

(SC. c'ftov), oi/rw napa<TK(vd(ov, ;/(//. </i/,- />i> /><u<ifion in fli> .'/<< . lufion that 

I shall remain antl >/<// i,,,f <li, (XL ' VT, 8, 4 37 ). \n.. // //. r>. 4 ;< ; 

3, l u . Isoc. 6, 86. 


With accusative absolute impersonal : Haprjyyvrjo-e rot? Ilepo-ais irapa- 
o~Kvdeo-dai, a> $ avTiKa 8 e 77 a- o v eTridiwKeiv, he ordered the Persians to be 
ready as it would be necessary (as he supposed) to press forward (Xen. Cyr. 
3, 2 8 ). Plat. Rep. 424 e ; 427 e . For as with the personal accusative absolute, 
see 2268. 

3. The particle uWep, as if, as it were, with the participle, merely 
expresses a comparison. 

'QPXOVVTO...& <r TT f p oXXots 8 e t K v v p. e v o i, they danced as if showing 
off to others (Xen. Anab. 5, 4 34 ). Genitive absolute: & <nr * p rj crvos 
dypiov TI e\d(p ov (pavevTos, as if a wild boar or stag had appeared (Xen. 
Anab. 5, 7 24 ). Accusative absolute impersonal: KaraKfip.f6a o&o-Trep ebv 
rjo-vxidv aynv, we lie down as if it were permitted to enjoy rest (Xen. Anab. 
3, I 14 ). Eur. Hipp. 1307. Xen. Symp. 1, 11. 

2272. NOTE. 1. Herodotus uses also ait/re in the same 
way as are ; as Hdt. 1, 8 2 ; 1, 73 3 - 5 . This is very rare 
and doubtful in Attic : Thuc. 7, 24 2 . 
2. The above use of are, otoj>, ola, wo-Trcp, and wore, with 
the participle, is post-Homeric. So u>s with the participle 
rarely occurs in Homer, and not with the force explained 
in 2271, 2. 

2273. NOTE. These are used in a causal sense and belong to the 
principal verb : rov8f tvfKa, 8ta ro8e, oia TOVTO, oia TCLVTO., IK rovrov, 
OVTC05, for this reason. 

Tovdf flvfufv dv(f3ifBci(Tf (rbv Kpoltrov) eVl 717^ nvprjv /3ovXd- 
Htvos fifieVai, K.T.\., therefore he caused Croesus to mount on the pyre 
wishing to know, etc. (Hdt 1, 86 a ). Thuc. 7, 13 2 (6ia rofie). Xen. Anab. 1, 
7 3 (8td TOVTO) ; Anab. 5, 8 15 (e< TOVTOV). Plat Lach. 178 h (ourco). 

2274. Concessive Particles. 1. The particles used to strengthen a 
concessive participle are : KatVep and (less often) KOI, though ; KOL ravra, 
and that too ; ovoe (/AT/SC), thoutjh not ; /caiVot, though (very rare, 
especially in early writers). 

'ATroTrAf! oiKao'e, Kaiirep fiecrov xdfi&vos o v T o s, he set sail homeward 
though it was mid-winter (Xen. Ages. 2, 31) ; Anab. 1, 6 10 . 'AfX<p&> (piAo> 
ovTf K a I TroXv S i e or T 5> T e, brothers being friends although far distant from 
each other (Xen. Mem. 2, 3 19 ). II. 9, 655. 2u 5e p.oi doKfls ov Trpoo-f'^ft^ TOV 
vovv rovrotr, /cat ravra ao(pbs a> v, you do not seem to give attention to 
these things, and that too though you are wise (Plat. Gorg. 508*). O v 8 e 
TreTrovBtos *caKwy f^dpov fii/ot p.01 TOVTOV 6/xoXoyo), although I have not 
suffered ill, yet I admit that this man is my enemy (Dem. 21, 205). 


fjioi vopja> flprjO'Sai, K a trot TroXAa ye TT a p aX i rr a> v, Z believe I have said 
enough, although I have passed over much (Lys. 31, 34). 

2. Homer often has Trep, which occurs also in Aeschylus, 
rarely in Euripides and Herodotus, once in Sophocles 
(Phil. 1068). In Homer fcat'....irep generally stand sepa- 
rated ; this is uncommon in tragedy. The tragedians 
sometimes have ovSeVep (wSeTrtp), Homer has ou8e...7Tp 

Ov TI o~vvT)(rcu a %v i> p, f v 6 s TT e p ^paKrpflv, although much 
grieved thou wilt be unable to help them (II. 1, 241). Aesch. 
Sept. 1038. Eur. Ion 1324. Hdt. 3, 131 2 . Toi/ p*v eTretr 
eldaf Kal d^vvp,fvos IT e p eraipov Kfl&Oai, although griev- 
ing for his companion, he then let him lie (II. 8, 125). Ewe. 
Or. 680. Ovfe'wep (Aesch. Supp. 399; Eur. Phoen. 1624; 
Ar. Ach. 222). o&'...r/> (Od. 13, 294). 

2275. NOTE. 1. In Attic, o//.o>s, yet, nevertheless, is often joined to 
the principal verb, when the sentence contains a concessive participle ; 
the participle may also separate o/xw? from its verb. 

To 7r\fj6os apfrpov 6p5>vrfs, o p, to s er oX p.r] tr ar f levai tV avrovs, though 

seeing their number was countless, you nevertheless had the courage to march 

against them (Xen. Anab. 3, 2 le ). 2vr <roi op.<os <al tv rfj TroXepia ovres 

0appovp.fv, with you, though we are in the enemy's country, we fear not (Xen. 

5, 1 2 ). Eur. Med. 280. 

2. The particles cu-a, oreiTa, Kara, KaTmra, and OVTCOS are also used 
like ofuix;: Ar. Nub. 861; Plat. Charm. 163*; Xen. Mem. 1, I 5 ; Plat. 
Phaedo 98 C ; Dem. 28, 5. 

3. So also are used C/XTTT/S (epic and tragic), *ai <Ss and 
o$' fc (epic) : 11 15, 339 ; Soph. Aj. 1338 ; II. 3, 159 ; 
Od. 1, 6. 

2276. OVTWS is occasionally found with the leading verb when the 
participle expresses a condition ; as in Xen. Cyr. 1, 6 5 . 


2277. The participle v, belonging to a predicate noun or 
adjective, is sometimes omitted. 

1. (a) This occurs after are, ola, KcuVep, and <I>? ; occasionally with 
predicate nouns, oftener with adjectives. 

Avrovr tls rqv iro\lrtiav ov ?rapad< (!/*< da art rvpavvi&os vp.vr)T<is, we 
will not receive them into the state, at they are singers of the praises of tyranny 


(Plat. Rep. 568 b ). Xen. Cyr. 1, 3 2 . riyvwvKto o-a^coy, Kai-n-ep (ncoreivos (sc. 

&v\ I know well although my sight is darkened (Soph. Oed. Tyr. 1326). 'Q s 

f'p.ov fj.6vrjs Tre'Xas- (sc. ouo-qs), as I alone am near (Soph. Oed. Col. 83). 'Q. s 

Ka\bv (sc. ov)...dyopfvf<T0m avrov, as it is good for the oration to be spoken 

(Thuc. 2, 35 1 ). 

(b) Without these particles, &v is very rarely omitted in 
poetry ; as opi/Zs, div ixfrrjyrjTMv (sc. OJ/TOJI-), birds, under 
whose guidance, like Lat. quibus ductbus (Soph. Oed. 
Tyr. 966) ; accusative absolute, Soph. Ant. 44. 
2. The adjectives CKW, willmg(ly), and SKUV, unwillingly), are 

treated like participles from Homer on, and thus omit <5r. 

'E/iou p.fv oi>x e K 6 v T o $, ayainxt m // n-ill (Soph. Aj. 455). Totr /3ap/3apoir, 

Z>v A K ovTtov TTJV x<>>pav e^ouo-tj/, to the barbarians, against whose will they 

possess the country (Isoc. 4, 122). 

2278. NOTE. A predicate adjective or noun connected by a 
conjunction with a participle, usually has <av ; as in Ar. Plut. 751 ; 
Vesp. 507. But sometimes the predicate noun or participle here 
omits <5v; as in Thuc. 3, 69 1 ; 11. 10, 342. 

(B) M'l'l'LK.MKXTMlY /'.I RTK'U'L I:. 

2279. The supplementary participle completes the meaning of 
the verb, and may refer to the subject or to the object of the 
verb. Moreover, it may be used either to qualify the verb by 
limiting its meaning to a particular circumstance ; or else it may 
be used as the equivalent of a proposition introduced by cm or <w?. 

Thus : 2wKpar7/5 O-KOTTOJI/ 8i7/ycv, Socrates was continually 
enquiring ; Traverw <re dcu/covrra, / will stop you from doing wrong ; 
but oI8a a v T o v TOUTO SeSpaKora = oI8a on TOVTO Sc'SpaKcr, I know 
that he has done this ; olSa floras <Z>v = oI8a on ^I'T/TO? i/xt, / know that 
1 am mortal. 


2280. 1. With dpi, ^Lyvo^aL, vTrdp-^o). Like any adjective, 
the participle may be used predicatively after the copulative 
verbs */u, be, yiyvofiat, 9 be, become, and virapxco, used in the sense 
to be or to be taken for granted. 

Et rots- ir\4oa-iv apetTKovrcs etr/iev, if we are acceptable to the 
majority or if we please the majority (Thuc. 1, 38 3 ). *H <rav an urrovvTf s 


rives 4>tXt7rrro) /ecu vovv f^ovres, there were some persons distrusting Philip, 
and having intelligence (Dem. 19, 53). F ty v a> a- < a> v irov avrbs eavrov TOT* 
eorat, he will know himself then or he will be knowing himself (Plat. 
Charm. 169 9 ). Ovre yap dpa&vs ovr ovv irpodeia-ds f i pi ro> ye vvv Xoyo>, 
/ am neither emboldened nor yet prematurely alarmed by thy present speech 
(Soph. Oed. Tyr. 90). T H v yap 6 Se/uoroKXiJy /3e/3aiorara 77 <pu<re&>? l<r)(tv 
5 T) X to a- a s , Themistocles was a man who pre-eminently manifested his strength 
of genius (Thuc. 1, 138 :< ). 'Ey<i> ro n-pay/ia I p i roCro SeKpaxcuy, I am the one 
who has done this (Dem. 21, 104). Ou8' fo^orro ore rj v rereXevrj/Koos- 
'Ayvt'ar, they did not even hear of it when Hagnias was dead (Dem. 43, 64). 
KareiXrj/i/ieVoi eo-oirat, they will be surprised (Xen. Cyr. 4, 2 21 ). M Icrovvrts 
yiyvovrai rovs KdKovs, they get to hate the wicked (Plat. Leg. 908 b ). Touro 
v ir a p x f * v "tpat fidoTds fjyovfiai, I think it may be taken for granted that 
you know this (Dem. 18, 95) ; with uTrap^w this occurs mostly in Demosthenes. 

2. So with poetic rcAofuu, be ; as eyxeto XcXtto-yu-evos 

I TT X v, thou wert forgetful of me (II. 23, 69). 

2281. NOTE. In these constructions with ei/u, the verb expresses 
a continued state of being resulting from the action of the participle ; 
hence the present and perfect participles are mostly so used. The 
simple perfect and pluperfect may express the continued state in the 
same way, but not so distinctly and sometimes not at all (1928). 
But the periphrastic form with the perfect participle has the ordinary 
force of a perfect or pluperfect when it can only be formed periphrasti- 
cally, as in the third person plural of the perfect and pluperfect passive 
and middle of mute and liquid verbs ; also in the usually periphrastic 
future perfect active, as cyvwKores !<ro/ne0a, we shall have known ; and 
in the periphrastic form of the future-perfect passive, as c^eva/xeVos 
CO-O/KU, 1 shall have been deceived. 

2282. NOTE. The construction of the predicate participle 
with ei/u, especially with the aorist participle, occurs 
oftener in poetry than in Herodotus or in Attic prose : 
//. 5, 873 ; Soph. Oed. Tyr. 970 ; Eur. Cycl. 381 ; Ar. 
Ran. 36 ; Hdt. 9, 51 2 . 

2283. NOTE. 1. Occasionally we find an impersonal participle, 
like (rvfjL<f>ipov, used predicatively with ct/xi ; as (rvp.<f>tpov ty TQ 7rdAi, it 
was advantageous to the state = <rwt<j>pv (Dem. 19, 75). Isoc. 12, 

2. We even find <<mv O>K or ytyvo/xevos, forty (ovrws) i\<t)v ; rarely 



on/ with another participle. Thus: mro^yu-a rja-av OVTCS ola-r^avoi, 
the crowns, ivhile existing, were a memorial (Dem. 22, 74) ; Thuc. 4, 
54 3 (^o-av yevd/xei/oi) ; Dem. 20, 113 (eo-T<v...xvTa); Plat. Leg. 963 b 

2284. With e%&). 1. The verb e%a> (eZ^oi^), feave, with an active 
or middle aorist or (seldom) perfect participle, denotes possession 
as a result of the action expressed by the participle. In the 
dramatists this construction is sometimes merely equivalent to 
the simple tense. 

Trjv Trpoi/ca TOVTOV TOV rpoirov ftx f ^afttov, he got the dowry in this 
way, and held it (Dem. 27, 17). IloXXa xP^t JMTa fxP- fV avrj p-jr a K or s, 
we have much money that we have seized = lit. having seized it (Xen. Anab. 
1, 3 14 ). *A vvv Karaa-rpc-^afifvos e^tts, which you have now sub- 
jugated and possess (Xen. Anab. 7, 7 37 ) ; Anab. 4, 7 1 . Soph. Oed. Tyr. 701. 
Eur. Med. 33 ; Bacch. 302. Hdt. 1, 28 ; 3, 65 10 . The first example of this 
usage is in Hes. Op. 42. Herodotus uses also eo-^t in this way, as in 1, 75 1 . 

2. The intransitive e^ 00 * s a ^ so found in this use to express a 
condition or state, but mostly in tragedy. 

eav/iao-as fx, / stand wondering, lit. having wondered, I stand 
(Plat. Phaedr. 257). ToCr' dnfi\T)(ras fx ls ! have you made this threat ? 
(Soph. Oed. Col. 817). Dem. 19, 288. AT. Thesm. 236. Soph. Trach. 37. 

2285. With verbs of " being ". 1. The supplementary participle 
is used with verbs denoting being in some definite manner. In 
translating into English, the participle is generally made the 
principal verb, and the verb is rendered by - some adverb or 
phrase like continually, by chance, secretly, first, away. 

2. (a) Such verbs are : 8iartA&, 8iay<o, Stayfyrofuu, o\a/xeVu>, Starpiy&o, 
to be continually; 0a/u'<u, to be wont, to be frequently ; Tvy^ai/w, to 
happen (to be by chance) ; \av6dvo>, occasionally oia\av0dva>, to escape 
the notice of (to be secretly), also aTro/cpirrrTo/xai ; <0av(o, to anticipate (to 
be first) ; oi^o/Adi, am gone away. 

(b) Add poetic SIOKVQ), to bring to an end, to arrive at ; 

poetic Kvpeco = rvy^avw ; crvyKvpcw only in Hdt. 8, 87 5 ; 

poetic XvjO<a = Aav0ai/(o. 

'AO-KOVVTCS 8icr\f(rav, practising continually (Xen. Cyr. 1, 5 8 ). *E TT i- 
p,f\ 6 p,e v o s S>v del Sta^o), studious always of the things one ought to be 
studious of (Xen. Cyr. 7, 5 85 ). OvdcV aXXo iroi>v diaytyevijTai t) 
Stao- Ko-rrStv rare dtxata KOI ra aSt<a, ?ie Aas passed through life doing 


>-lse than oom/ideriHQ <'/</ is just and what is unjust (Xen. Afern. 
4, 8 4 ). Aia/zcVu (Xen. Mem. 4, 7 7 )- Aiarpr/3o> (Ar. ^ccL 1151). O0 rt 
Ko/iio/iros ye 6 d pi c v, he was not accustomed to being thus cared for 
(Od. 8, 451). "Ervftov oTrXtrai eV 777 dyopa Ka0fv8ovr(s a>s TrevrfjKOVTa, 
ilinnt fifty hoplites happened to be sleeping in the market-place (Thuc. 4, 113 2 ). 
"Onov Tvx fV fKa<rros f&TTjKvs, wherever each happened to be standing 
(Xen. Anab. 1, o 8 ). Od. 14, 344. *E\a0fv aTrodpds, he escaped unobserved 
(Xen. Hfll. 1, S 22 ). *E\a0ov f<rc\06vTes, they entered unobserved (Thuc. 2, 2 5 ). 
BovXot/wjj' av \a0 eiv avrov aTrcXQcov, I should like to depart without his 

'ledge (Xen. Anab. 1, 3 17 ). 'E\d0op.fv fjpas avrovs iraidav ovSev 
8ia<pi povTfs, unconsciously we found that we did not differ at all from 
,/,(7<//v/ ( (Plat. Crito 49 b ). Isoc. 8, 32. Plat. Gorg. 471 b . Isoc. 1, 16. 
Hdt. 1, 44 2 . AtaXai/0ai/o> (Isoc. 3, 16). 'ATroKpun-ropu (Xen. Mem. 2, 3 14 ). 
&6dvov<riv tVi rw a/cpa> -yevo/iej/oi rovs TroXepiovs, they arrive at the 

niit before the enemy do (Xen. Anab. 3, 4 49 ). XaXeTroi/ rjv aXXoi/ <p0do-ai 
TOVTO Troiiyo-ai/Ta, tt t/;as difficult for another to do this first (Xen. Cyr. 

1, 3 12 ). Kovwi/ a>s <p0r) virb T>V TroXf/it'wJ/ K ar a K ct)\v i s, T]vayK.d(r6rj 
vau/za^^o-cu, Conon, having been stopped by the enemy before he could go any 
farther, was compelled to fight a naval battle (Xen. Hell. 1, 6 17 ). Plat. Rep. 

. Hdt. 4, 136 3 . II. 23, 805. O^erai Oavvv, he is dead and gone (Soph. 
Phil. 414). "Q.I\OVTO dTTc\avvovTs, they rode away (Xen. Anab. 7, 6 4a ). II. 

2, 71. Xen. Hell. 4, 8 8 ; Anab. 7, 6 42 '. 

"Oarts f'xQpbs &v Kvpcl, whoever happens to be my enemy 
(Eur. Ale. 954). Soph. Aj. 87 ; Oed. Col. 119. A^o> (H. 
10. 279). Atavvo> (Od. 17, 517). 

2286. NOTE. Tvyx ^* [icvpew], Aai/0ai/w, <}>6dv<>>. 1. With any 
tense of these verbs, except the present or imperfect, the supplementary 
aorist participle does not express time past with reference to the verb, 
but time coincident with it. See the examples above, 2285 and 2288. 

2. The few cases of <$>Qa.vv> with the infinitive in classic Greek (as 
in Ar. Eq. 935) are very suspicious ; so the one of \avOdvu with 
infinitive in Plat Rep. 333 e . In late Greek only are these verbs found 
with the infinitiva 

3. (a) With \av0dvv and <f>0dv(t> we occasionally find the regular 
construction reversed, the participle of these verbs being used, and the 
finite form of the other verb. 

"Oirtas pf) n o t o> v r a i ftirXovs avroBtv \av0dvovrcs, so that they might 
not tail out from thence unobserved (Thuc. 3, 61 s , for OJTWP pr) \av0dvaxriv... 
irounifJMVOt). Soph. Ant. 532. 4>0dvovT(t fjdrj djjov^tv rr)i> (Ktivutv y^f, 
we waste their land before they know it (Xen. Cyr. 3, 3 18 ). Od. 4, 547 ; //. 
12, 390 ; Ar. Plut. 1102. 



(b) So very rarely in poetry with Tvy\dvw and Kupe'w : 
Eur. Iph. Aul. 958 ; Soph. Phil. 371. 

2287. NOTE. Ov* av <f>0a.voi<> (^Odvotre). This expression, meaning 
you cannot be too soon, or the sooner you. ..the better, with a supple- 
mentary participle, is equivalent to an urgent request or command ; 
much less common is this expression in the third or first person. 

OVK &v <f>0dvois \('ya>v, the sooner you speak the better = speak at once 
(Xen. Mem. 2, 3 11 ). Hdt. 7, 162 2 . O v K &v <f>0dvot TO n\q0os robots roir 
tiqpiois 8ov\ fvo) v, the people might as well be slaves to these beasts at once 
(Dem. 24, 143). OVK &v (f>0dvoifu (sc. Xe'-ywi/), 7 will speak at once or I may 
as well speak at once (Plat. Symp. 214"). 

2288. NOTE. Ov <f>Qdv<o...Kai. When ov <f>6d\ <*> is followed by /cat 
or KGU fvOvs, the meaning of the expression is no sooner... than. 

OVK e<f)0r](ra.v irv06pcvoi TOV Trcpl 'A.TTiKr)v ir6\fiov K al...^KOV 
dp.vvovi>T(s, no sooner did they hear of the war in Attica than they came to 
help us (Isoc. 4, 86). Isoc. 8, 98. 

2289. 1. The supplementary participle is used with verbs of 
beginning, ceasing, stopping ( = causing to cease), persevering, enduring, 
wearying, and permitting. 

2. (a) Such verbs are : ap^o/xat, begin, also vTrdp^ta and Kardpx^ ; 
Travo/xai, X>yya>, cease ; TTUV'W, stop = cause to cease (with ace.) ; 8mA.- 
\ao-o-oo, reconcile, get to cease (with ace.) ; dTraXXao-o-o/xat, get free from, 

leave off ; ov StaAetVa), not to Cease ; /M0f/xai, dvirj/jLi, i-rravirj^L, a7roA.t7ra>, 

KA.t7ra>, cTrtAetTTw, leave off ; sometimes KwA.i'o/xai, be hindered, and 
KwXiJw (with ace.), hinder ; XtTrapew, persevere ; dvcxofjuu (with nom. or 
ace.), Acaprepc'oo, vTro/xeva), endure ; /ca/xvu), aTrayopevca (aTretTro^, aTreipijKa), 
weary ; cv oAiywpia iroteo/xat, ov 0povTt^o>, not to care, disregard; 
7rpiopao>, e<^>opao>, uropaa>, see = permit, let go on ; irpofc/xat, neglect, 
permit ; rarely eV^e', permit. 

(b) Add also : ap^w with part, in II. 2, 378 ; l^w = Travw 
and CTre'xo) = Travofjuu (poetic) ; arraye ( = Travcrai), cease 
(poetic) ; cAliow = iravofjuu (Hdt.) ; in poetry /ie^i/fu = 
fjitOiffjuii ; root r\a- (rXfjvcu), endure (poetic) ; rarely in 
poetry roX/xaw, endure, have courage ; in poetry 6paw = 
TTcpiopaw, permit, let go on ; seldom in poetry 


*Apo/xat ano rrjs iarpiKfjs X y a> i/, / shall begin my speech with thi' 
medical art (Plat. Symp. 186 h ). 'Yrrap^co (Xen. Anab. 5, 5 9 ). Kardpxv 
(Xen. Cyr. 1, 4 4 ). IlaCo-ai Xe'youo-a, so/> talking (Eur. Hipp. 706). AIKIO- 
p.c v ai...oviraTc \rjyov <riv, they never cease plaguing (Xen. Oec. 1, 23). 
Xen. Anab. 3, 1 19 ; 3fen. 4, 6 1 . Tour Papftdpovs cirav<rfv vfipi^ovras, 
)i> stopped the barbarians from committing injuries (Isoc. 12, 83). AtaXXacro-a) 
(Plat. Phaedo 60). 'A7raXX<i<ro-o/u (Plat. Leg. 800 6 ). Ov aramo SicXtnov 
fijTwi', / never fe/fc o/f seeking (Xen. ^4/>oL 16). Touro re/xi>a>i> OI/K 
e TT a i> i; K t, he did not desist cutting (Plat. Phaedr. 266 a ). Kal aXXa ye 8^ 
fivpia firiXciirto Xe'ya>i', and I omit saying ten thousand other thing* 
(Plat. Phil. 26"). 'Ai/fy/u (Hdt. 4, 28')- 'ATi-oX*/ (Xen. Oec. 6, 1). 'E*- 
XetVo) (Plat. 3/6)iex. 249 b ). M>7 Ka>\6<i)VTai...7rpaiovp.(voi, lest they should be 
hiinl> rl in y/ii.N-.sf'/jj/ (Thuc. 1, 26 2 ). AmKcoXco) (Isoc. 14, 44). 

\nrapT p*vovr(s, persevere, holding your ground (Hdt. 9, 46 5 ). OVK 
dv(opai ^wora, / shall not endure living (Eur. Hipp. 354). 'lito-wv naldas 
f^av^Tai nda-xovras; will Jason endure to have his children suffer '! 
(Eur. Med. 74). Kaprepf'o) (Xen. Cyr. 3, 2 5 ). C Y TT 0/i e / c t y ^ roi/ pX6i' 
K T) & v 6) i/, </iow dos< sw&witf <o curing for me the blind (Soph. Oed. Tyr. 
1324). Mi) K(ip.T}s (pi\ov ai/Spa et>e/)yera>i>, do >io< weary of doing good 
to a fri'-rtil (Plat. Gorg. 470 C ). OVK dirayopfvopfv 6 ( pair (vovr f s, 
we are never weary of paying homage (Isoc. 10, 56). 'AireiprjKa ff8r) 
<rv<r K fva 6 p.f v os KOI rpt^atv, I am now weary of packing up <nnl 
nmning (Xen. Anab. 5, I 2 ). 'ATTCIITOV (Isoc. 6, 47). Ov (ppovrifa (Kur. 
Hec. 256). *Ei> oXiytopt'a Troit'o/iat (Thuc. 4, 5 5 ). 

Mfi'^o) yiyvd/ifi/oi/ TOV avdpwrov irptop>pfv, we allow the man 
t<> In-come greater (Dem. 9, 29). Mfj n p n'8a> pc v v ft pia-0 ti<rav rrji> 
\aK&aipova, do not let us see Lacedaemon insulted (Isoc. 6, 108). Thuc. 1, 
86*. 'E<popd<a (Isoc. 4, 96). EtVopaw (Kur. Med. 712). Ilpoifpai (Thuc. 2, 

73*. ETTlTpfTTV (LSOC. 12, 170). 

*\p\<* (II 2, 378). *EXO> = rrava (Pind. Isth. 3, 72). Tao-cra>i' 
cn((rxov, by arranj///*;/ / /- trained (Eur. Phoen. 449). "A7ray< 
...avovv, cease speaking (Eur. Phoen. 1733). 'EXtvvta = navofMt 
(Hdt. 1, 67; 8, 71 5 )- Mc^r^/u (//. 24, 48). TX 170-0^4 ,TXyi 
7ra<7^a>^, / in' endure to M //'.-/ /r./N (O,/. 5, 362). Od. 20, 
ill S'ljdi. FA. 943. ToX^ta 5* tpaio-a, /iae </ie courage to 
love (Eur. //>/ 476). "'/. 24, 162. Mi) / tfi^Iv ^ai/oi/^* 
VTT* d<rru>v, not to see me killed by citizen* (Eur. Or. 746). 
/'. 13, 37). 

2290. NOTE. Some of the above verbs are also used with the 
infinitive, but their meaning is then commonly somewhat changed. 

1. *Apx<yuu with the participle means to begin by actually doing 
something, to begin with something, to be beginning, in distinction to 


ending. With the infinitive it means to begin to do something; as 
r)pavTo...Ta /xa/cpa rfi^rj 'AOrjvaioi oiKoSo/xeiV, the Athenians began to 
build the long walls (Thuc. 1, 107 1 ) ; II 7, 324. 

So apx<*> with the infinitive : 11. 2, 84. "Ap^u with the 
participle is nearly always explained differently from 
2289, 2 (b), as to rule in Soph. EL 522. 

2. Ilavo) with the participle means to stop = to cause to cease; 
with the infinitive it means to prevent from occurring in the future 
( = KtoA-Ow), as pa\f/(poov<; tTrauo-e dyaw'^ccrtftti, he prevented the rhapsodists 
from contending (Hdt. 5, 67 2 ) ; Plat. Rep. 416 e . 

3. MfOirjfjLi with the infinitive, to omit, to permit, in prose and 

McOlao-t TCI beovra Trpfirrciv, they neglect to do their duties (Xen. 
Mem. 2, l a:{ ). 'E/i.../i-es if vat, permit me to go (Hdt. 1, 37 s ). Soph. Oed. 
Tyr. 131 ; El 628. Medina with the participle is poetic (2289). 

4. (a) 'Ai/e'^o/xai and vTro/xeVw with the participle mean to endure, to 
hold out ; with the infinitive, to venture. 

'Av e (TXOVTO rbv eniovra tirl rr)v x < ^ ) P r J v ft^ <T a , Mey ventured (or 
TiaeJ </ie courage) to receive the invader in their country (Hdt. 7, 139 8 ; dve'^o/iai 
with infinitive is very rare). 'Yirop.eivavTa ra wdvra TT a. <r % e i v, to 
endure the suffering of any extremity (Plat. Leg. 869). So ToX/xao) in prose 
and poetry (2207). 

Also rXa- (rAi^ai) in poetry when it means to venture. 

With the participle ToA/xaw and rXa-, endure, are very 

rare and poetic. 

(b) 'AWxofuu may also be accompanied by a genitive absolute ; as 
o? TU/O, avegfo-Qai vov Ae'yovTos, do you think any one will 
tolerate you saying (Plat. Phil. 13 C ). 

5. 'A7roKa/xi>u> with the participle, to weary of an action ; with the 
infinitive, to leave off from weariness, as /xT/re aTroKa/AT/s o-avrbv o-aio-at 
(Plat. Crito 45 b ). 

6. Hepiopaw with the participle means to overlook, to let an action 
go on without attempting to stop it ; with the infinitive, it means to 
allow a thing to happen without attempting to prevent it. 

Tovs yap 'A-dyvaiovs TJ\irifv...Tr)v yrjv OVK &v Trcpiidclv r fir) B f) v a t, 
for he hoped that the Athenians would not allow their land to be ravaged 
(Thuc. 2, 20 2 ). Hdt. 1, 24 6 . Thuc. 1, 35 4 . Sometimes there is practically 
no difference between the infinitivejor participial construction. 


7. 'ETriTpeVw, to permit, to give up, with the infinitive is the regular 
construction (Xen. Anab. 1, 2 19 ) ; with the participle it is very rare. 

2291. With Verbs of Feeling or Emotion. 1. The supplementary 
participle accompanies many verbs signifying to be satisfied, to 
rejoice, to be pleased or displeased, to be vexed or angry, to be ashamed, 
to repent. 

2. (a.) Such verbs are : dyaTruw, be satisfied ; xatpa>, ^o/xat, ytyrjOa, 
rejoice, be pleased ,- dydXXo//,ai, to delight in, exult in ; dpicew, to suffice ; 
dXye'a), be troubled, grieved ; Xvire'o/uat, grieve ; a.^6opia.i, dyava/cre'co, be, 
vexed, discontented; opyio/A<u, be angry; ^aXcTrws <epw, be vexed, 
displeased; paS u>s <epu>, bear easily ; atV^ci/o/xai, be ashamed; 
/xot, /xeTa/A'Xo/xai, repent, and others. 
(6) 'Ao-xaXdw (Horn.), be impatient, vexed; Treptry/xc/crew 
(Hdt.), be sad, angry ; poetic di/atVo/xat when it means 
to be troubled, to regret, to repent ; in poetry ouSt'o/xcu, be 
ashamed; ^tXe'w with nom. part, in Ar. Plut. 645: 
<iA.ts 8c Spuio-' avTo, you are fond of doing it ; 
(epic), to have care, regard; /xeXw, be an object of care 
or interest or thought, used personally with part, in Od. 
5, 6; Od. 20, 21 ; <9av /A d<o with part, in Soph. 
. 289. 

arp.iKpoT(pa>v...Tip.<ap.voi dyairaxriv, they are contented to be 
honoured by smaller people (Plat. Rep. 475 b ). Tlp*>p.(voi 
delight in being honoured (Eur. 7f t/>jt>. 8). Xatpovo-tv e 
roif oiopfvois piv flvai trotyols, ov<rt 8' oft, they delight in having those examined 
who consider themselves wise but are not (Plat. Apol. 33 C ). 'iftvv rja-ffrjv, I 
was delighted in behnhli n<i (Plat. Prot. 315 b ). Tf-yrjOas {uv, you live in exulta- 
tion (Soph. Phil. 1021). 'AydXXo/xat (Xen. Hier. 8, 5). 'Apice'a) (Thuc. 5, 9 l ). 
<o (Plat. Phil. 47)- \\>ir4opai (Thuc. 2, 65 3 ). 'EXey^d/ici/ot fJx0 VTO > 
they were vexed at being exposed (Xen. Mem. 1, 2 47 ). Tovs pcv <j> pov ipovs 
dyavaKTf'iv d tr o 6 v y <r K o v ra s upend, it is proper to grieve when the 

tri.o <li> (Plat. rinifiluW).- '.\ ft i K itv p f i' a i <>i art)()WTriii paXXin 1 npyi^in-- 

rai f) ftia{6p*voi, when injured, men are more angry than when treated with 
violence (Thuc. 1, 77 6 ). XaXro>r </>pov OIK car K araX iir 6v r s nai 
itpd, they are grieved to Jean thiir houses and their temple.t (Thuc. 2, J<>). 
OVTOJ pnftiws <{> i p 1 1 s fjfuis aTroXftVcoi', ti<m In-ar it .so fi,.s//i/ to leave US 
(Plat Phaedo 63*). ToOro OVK at <r \ Cv op at \tyav, I *;/ this without 
shame (Xen Offt >. 1 '). Mcrc/ieXoiro r&s <nroi>8hs <>v df^a /A !"<. 
repented at not having accept*-'! //,,- /.,, (Thuc. 4, 27'). M < r /* X TJ <r * 


01 TOV 'EXXrjo-rrovTov p.a(TTiyG>cravTi, he repented having scourged the 
Hellespont (Hdt. 7, 64*). Thuc. 5, 35 4 . Xen. Anab. 7, I 5 . 

Homeric ao-^aXaco (IL 2, 293). Hdt. Tr^pi^e/cre'co with gen. 
part, in 8, 109 1 . N iKotfjifvos \6yoto~iv OVK, 
I do not deny being overcome by the tidings (Aesch. Ag. 583). 
A 1 8 cr a i IT are pa... IT p o X i TT <u v, be ashamed of deserting 
your father (Soph. Aj. 506). -Epic S6opai (II . 5, 403). 

2292. NOTE. Most of the participles used with the above verbs 
express a cause and could thus be placed under 2251. 

2293. NOTE. 1. With o^o^ai a genitive of the participle can be 
used (genitive absolute) ; as ov&tv T/X&TO avrdv TroXc/xouWwi/, he was 
not vexed because they were fighting (Xen. Anab. 1, I 8 ) ; Thuc. 1, 95 1 . 

2. In poetry x"P w , jJSo/wu, and yi/fc'io, rejoice, may have 
the accusative; as o-c /if <v -n-pua-o-ovT ftrtxa^Mi, / 
rejoice at thy faring well (Soph. Aj. 136) ; Eur. Hipp. 
1340 ; Soph. Phil. 1314 ; II. 8, 378. So also c'Aea/po, 
pity, and a X Oo^a L (II. 13, 15 and 352). 

2294. NOTE. 1. AiV^wo/Aai with the participle means I do some- 
thing and am ashamed of it ; with the infinitive it means I refrain 
from doing something because I am ashamed. 

TOVTO OVK a lo- x*> v o pat Xc'-ytoi/, / say this without shame (Xen. ( '*/>' 
5, I 21 ). But ala-x^vopai ctTrt'iv Ta\\rj6ij^ I am ashamed to tell you the 
truth = I do not tell you the truth because I am ashamed (Plat. ApoL 22 b ). 

Xen. Anab. 2, 3 22 ; Rep. Lac. 9, 4. So alotopai with the infinitive: Xen. 

Symp. 8, 33 ; 8, 35. So ai8o/>tat with the infinitive : Xen. Symp. 8, 

33; 8,35. 

Also epic 000/Acu with the infinitive ; as TOV 8' OVK o^erat 
<i'Aoi/ r}Top....<f>do-Oai, but his heart fears not to assert (II. 
15, 166). 

2. Other verbs of feeling or emotion rarely take the infinitive ; but 
o-rirye'w, hate (to do), always has the infinitive from Homer on. 

2295. NOTE. Verbs of feeling or emotion are often followed by on 
and a causal clause (2071) ; sometimes by el and a conditional clause 

2296. Explanatory Participle. 1. The supplementary participle 
may be used to explain the action of a verb, as an appositive 
explains a noun or pronoun. This occurs chiefly with verbs 


meaning to do well or ill, right or wrong ; to surpass, to be inferior , 
and the like. Here the aorist participle in connection with a 
verb expressing a past action does not denote time past, but time 
coincident with the verb. Compare 2286. 

2. Such verbs are cv (KOAWS) TTOIC'W, to do well ; d8iKu>, to do wrong ; 
XCL/HV <^>/xi> Tti>i, to do any one a favour ; i/I/cato, KpaTew, 
, to conquer, surpass ; ^rraop-ai, A.47ro/xai, to be surpassed, 
to be inferior ; and others. 

Eu yt firoirjo-as dvapvrj<rds fit, you did well in reminding me (Plat. 
I'lnifdo 60). 'AdtKtr noKepov &p%ovT*s t you do wrong in beginning 
war (Time. 1, 53 1 ). ToSt px>t x a p i o- a i air o K plv a pcv os, do me the 

ir In/ i-'/>J]fiiig(P\At. Gorg. 516 b ). Hdvras Treipco vlxav v iroiatv, try 

ni'fiiixh nil in doing good (Xen. Hier. 11, 14). Ot^ rjrrrj a- 6 p.f 6 a tv 
iroiovvTfs, ice shall not be surfm** <! in doing good (Xen. Anab. 2, 3 33 ). 
EvfpyfTcii/ ovdfvbs X e t ?r f T a i, he is inferior to none in doing good 
services (Xen. Mem. 2, 4 7 ). Lys. 28, 8. AT. EccL 1045. Plat. Phaedo 89". 
Hdfc. 9, 79 2 . Xen. Hier. 11, 15. Xen. Mem. 2, 3 17 . 

The participle here may also be regarded as circumstantial (2246). 

2297. 1. The supplementary participle is sometimes found with 
<AyA/?aii w and o-up-TrfTTTo), to happen ; SO also yScXrfwv (ap:iVo>r, Kpeuro-wi') 
fifju are sometimes used personally with the participle where an 
impersonal construction with the infinitive would be expected. 

Oi/ro) o"i/i/3aij>ei apa KCU 17 roii'Se (vytvaa K OJT/ftOV/fttf Pip, n< //*' 

/(/(/. />j;i/i t pi'aised (Plat. Afe?iex. 237 C ). IIai/ra...o- vp/3a t v c t 
ytyi/o/ici/a, aW happens (Plat. P/ii7. 42 d ). 2vv7r7rrd)(Cfe eptp fovaa, 
there happened to be a quarrel (Hdt. 1, 82 1 ). 'Apioraydp^ <rvv i irlirr (... 
irdvra ravra (r w c\0 6v ra, it happened that all these things occurred to 

fagoras (Hdt. 5, 36). Plat. Phil. 47 d ). K p f / <r a- a> i/ ^o-^a p-i^icfV A v 
^ f a> i/ rv</>Xdf , t/iou wert better to live no longer than to live blind (Soph. 
Oed. Tyr. 1368). Hdt. 1, 37 3 . Lys. 26, 4. Dem. 3, 34. 

2. The supplementary participle is sometimes found with verbs 
meaning to be full of, to be sufficient. Such are t/xTriVXapiat, be full t 

;*<rTos (TrA^pf;?) dpi J apKCto, tKai'os tp:t, a?7l sufficient. 

Ov ../3X< r a) v < p TT i TT X a pa t, / <-<i nn< >f *<itiate myself with looking (Kur. 
rror ^i/ Bv^ov^d'of, I IOOI /'/// </ an^er (Soph. O*^/. ^''/. 768). 
IMt 7. 146 4 . 'ApKc'<ra> 6vij<rKov<r' <ya), V / /// be enough for me to die 
(Soph. ^4n<. 647). Thuc. 6, 9 1 . 'Ijcov^r ?0; avr&t arvx^v (iva, he said 
it was enough (i /.. /.. tmlmjtpy (Isae. 2, 7). But dpKtt or j/ 

(mi with the infinitive would be more common. 

So in poetry 0X19 cip.i = Uavck ci/xt ; as in Soph. Oed. Tyr. 


2298. With Verbs of Coming and Going. 1. With verbs of going 
and coming, the supplementary participle is used to explain the 
action, the participle expressing the main thought. When the 
future participle is used, the whole expression means to be about 
to or to be going to. 

2. Thus are used ^K<O, I am come ; cp^o/xai and cT/xt ; for oixofvu, 
am gone, see 2285. 

"Iva fldfjs ovs <pe p <i>v TJ K co \6yovs, that you may know the words which 
I bring (Eur. Or. 1628). Nvv 8' av crepov TI ijKfis e^tav, now again you 
bring another thing (Plat. Gorg. 491 C ). *E p x p t yap &i f TT t ^ e i p o> i/ trot 
o~fia(r0ai rrjs alrids TO eiSoy, 7 am now going to try to show you the nature of 
the cause (Plat. Phaedo 100 b ). "Hie ravr^v alvtw, he went on praisimi 
her (Hdt. 1, 122 3 ). *Epxopai e'peW, I am going to say, am about to say, like 
the French je vais dire (Hdt. 1, 5 5 ). Xen. Ages. 2, 7. Km e-ya> /AeV j a r5s 
(per)s pS)v, I ivas going to speak of them in order (Plat. Rep. 449*). "Hueis 
ayyc\S>v (Eur. Phoen. 1075). Plat. Prot. 313 a . 

Homer uses the aorist of /StuVw, go, in this way. 
Bf; (pcvyuv, he took to flight or he fled (II. 2, 665). Ovs /AT) types 
eftav Qavdroto <pcpov<rai, whom the Fates of death did not 
carry off or whom they did not go to carry off (II. 2, 302). B }... 
*<pov cgevapigwv, he went to slay Antiphus (II. 11, 101). 

2299. With other Verbs. 1. The supplementary participle is 
occasionally used with Treipdopat,, to try ; TTO\V<; ey/cei/jbai or 
eyKetfjiai alone, to importune, to urge, to be urgent; Trdv-ra Troiew, 
to do everything ; rarely with <r7rov$dco, to be zealous ; with Trapa- 
<ricvdo/jLcu, to prepare, the future participle is found, usually 
preceded by 009. 

Nvi/ TT e i p da- 6 ^t Oa (\cyx<>vTcs, we will now try to prove (Antiphon 
3, 1). Plat. Theaet. 190*. HoXvs CVCKCITO Xeywv, he was very urgent in saying 
(Thuc. 4, 22 1 ). Thuc. 2, 81 8 . Udvra tiro low IT f iBovres TOV /SacriXeo 
<rvyxa>pr)<rai raOra, they did everything to persuade the king to comply with 
this (Xen. Cyr. 5, 4 26 ). Plat. Euthyphr. 8 C . 'H yvvrj ebotfi aoi inraKOveiv Z>v 
<ri> eo-TT ovdacs 8 i8d<r K a>v ; did your wife appear to attend to those 
matters which you took pains to teach her? (Xen. Oec. 9, 1). Plat. Polit. 
310 b ). Hpo<rj3o\a.s irapfffKcvd^ovro ro> ret'^tt 7roiTj(r6fjievoi, they 
were preparing to make assaults on the wall (Thuc. 2, 18 1 ). But oftener with 
a>s preceding the participle, as in Thuc. 2, 7 1 ; Plat. Phaedo 98*. 


2. Herodotus often uses the participle with Trctpao/xcu, to 

try ,- also with TroAAds ei/Uj TroAAo? cy/cei/xou, and TrarTotos 

et/xi, all meaning to importune, to urge, to be urgent ; 
very rarely with eTreiyo/zai, to hasten, to press on. 

'E7rcipT)6r)v rr f\av v o> v eVi TOVS avdpas TOVTOVS, I tried 
marching against these men (Hdt. 7, 9 1 ). TLo\\6 s % v Xi &- 
o-d fjifv o s o {-elves, the stranger was urgent in entreating 
(Hdt. 9, 91 l ). Uo\\os fyKfipai (Hdt. 7, 158 1 ). Ilavroios 
flp.i (Hdt. 9, 109 4 ). *Hi/ pf) e 77 e i x 77 s iroifvpfvos (sc. 
vavfjM%iT]v), if you do not hasten to fight a naval battle (Hdt. 
8, 68 5 ). 


2300. The supplementary participle is used with certain verbs 
in a manner similar to the infinitive of indirect discourse (2192). 
In this case the participle with its subject is equivalent to a 
clause with cm or o>9. If such a clause would have av, the 
participle also takes av. The participle may refer to the subject 
or to the object of the verb. If the subject and object are 
identical, the object is usually not expressed and the participle 
then agrees with the subject in case (compare assimilation of case 
with the infinitive, 2190). 

Oioa O.VTOV TOVTO noiovvra (iroir)(rovTa, rroirja'avTa, TT err 0117 cora), / 
know that he is doing this (will do this, did this, has done thin). OiSa TOVTO 
TT o t o> v (TTOITJO-W, 7roit](ras, irc7roiT]Kd>s), I know I am doing this (shall do th i*. 
did this, hare done this). O?8a UVTOVS (\0ovTas av fl p.rjijfjif'is eVccoXcorarf, 
/ //<-,,/ they would have come if you had not prevented it (like rjKQov av). 
Otoa avTovs f \0ovTas av fl ^ fjp.fls KcaXOcratrf, 1 know that Hun irtil<l 
come if you should not prevent it (like tXtfoifi' av). 

The present participle may represent the imperfect (see 1955, 2193) ; 
as otSa avrov TOVTO TTOLOVVTO., I know that lie was doing this at that time. 

2301. The supplementary participle is used with verbs of 
perception (sensory or mental) and such whose action may be 

trde<l as causative of perception. Such verbs signify: to see, 
to hear, to jyerceive, to know, not to know, to learn, to jhul (out}, to 
detect, to remember, to forget, to show, to appear, to assume (suppose), 
to prove t to admit, to announce (ayyeXXco), to represent (in art). 



The following examples give most of the verbs so used : 

Ei8ov avrovs n(\dovTas, they saw them approaching (Xen. Cyr. 1, 4 2 ). 
'Op> ndvra d\rj0fj ovra a Xe'yere, we see that everything you say is 
true (Xen. Anab. 5, 5 24 ). C O 0ebs ra peyiora n p (ITT at v oparai, God is 
seen in the performance of his very great works (Xen. Mem. 4, 3 1:< ). *H K o v <r e 
Kvpov (v KtXiK/a ovra, he heard that Cyrus was in Cilicia (Xen. Anab. 
lj 4 5 ). *H K o v o~ ( TOV QpcKrvftovXov TTpocTiovTa, he heard that Thrasy- 
bulus was approaching (Xen. Hell. 4, 8 29 ). For duovo) with object-gen, and 
part., see 2309. "Hio-0eTo Kvpov 7re7rra>Kora, he learned that Cyrus had fallen 
(Xen. Anab. 1, 9 31 ). "Hto-0T f)8iKrjp.vrj, she knew that she had been wronged 
(Eur. Med. 26). For ai<r0dvop,ai with object-gen, and part, see 2309. Oi8d 
(T XcyovTa act ( = on t Xeyes dd, 2300), 7 know that you used to say (Xen. 
Cyr. 1, 6 s ). "Hi8 f i...a7r f iprj K OTOS TOVS orparicoTdy, he was aware 
that the soldiers were tired (Xen. Anab. 2, 2 16 ). "I o- & i /zeWoi dvorjros <5 v, 
know, however, that you are foolish (Xen. Anab. 2, I 13 ). *H TT iararo TOVS 
"E X X TJ v a s OVK e 1 6 i o~ p.c v ov s inropAvfiv rfls povap^ids } he knew that the 
Greeks were not accustomed to put up with monarchies (Isoc. 5, 107). Kare'- 
padov (pdpfjLdKov avrov t-y^eai/ra, I learned that he had poured in 
poison for you (Xen. Cyr. 1, 3 10 ). Xen. Anab. 6, 6 17 . Aia/3e fiXrj os 
inro \\fjMo~ios ov pavQaveis ; dost thou not perceive thou hast been deceived by 
Amasis? (Hdt. 3, I 8 ). 'E TT v0er O...TO Tl\rj p. p.v pio v virb T>V SupaKotriW 
e a X a> K 6 s, he found out that Plemmyrium had been taken by the Syra- 
cusans (Thuc. 7, 31 2 ). Thuc. 4, 50 3 . For with object-gen, 
and part. , see 2309. To TOV rr o\ p.ov rotavra f y iy v a o~ K ov oi/ra, 
/ knoiv that the affairs of war were such (Xen. Cyr. 7, 5 4 ). Thuc. 2, 13 1 . 
rvG>o-0r)o~6p.f6a vv c\ 6v T t s dptivco-0ai } we shall be known to have 
assembled to defend (Thuc. 1, 124' 2 ). For ytyvwo-Kv with object-gen, and 
part., see 2309. 'Evvor)o-as yfvos enidices d^Xtcor 8ian0fp.fvov, perceiving that 
a respectable race was badly situated (Plat. Criti. 121 b ). With nom. Eur. 
Hipp. 435. For cvvotn with object-gen, and part., see 2309. Ti's ovrus 

VT]0t]S O~T\V Vp.Q)V t OCTTIS d y V O f t TOV CKfWfV 7T O X p. O V 8(VpO TJ O V T O, Who 

of you is so simple as not to know that the war from yonder will come here 
(Dem. 1, 15). KpiTia roiSe vv6vTa cr e (=ort ^vvrfvOa), I 
remember when you were with Critias here (Plat. Charm. 156*). Mfp.vTjp.c0' 
fs KtvSvvov f\06vTs p*yav, we remember to have encountered a great 
danger (Eur. H ec. 224). M e p, v TJ p. a i TOIOVTO aKovo-as trov, I remember 
having heard such remarks from you (Xen. Cyr. I, 6 fi ). For pf/xi^/im with 
an object-gen, and part., see 2309. 'ETT tX e \TJO~ p, t 0' f)8(a>s ytpovTfs OVT f s, 
gladly ive forget that we are old men (Eur. Bacch. 188). 'O *r)pv{; a<pt/ed/iei/o$- 
e v p TOVS a v 8 p a s 8if<p0app.(vovs, the herald on his arrival found the 
men slain (Thuc. 2, 6 4 ). *Ep. d\rj0r} Xe'yovra evprjo-fis, you will tintl 
that I speak the truth (Xen. Cyr. 2, 2 14 ). Apa>i/ c<p(vpio-Ki /ca/ca, you 
are detected in doing what is base (Soph. Oed. Col. 938). II. 1, 330. : &v 



riva \ap.$dvrj ty f u 8 6 p. c v o i/, if they find any one (guilty of) lying 
(Plat. Rep. 389 d ). "Orav \Tj<p6rj ddiK&v, when he is caught doing wrong 
(Plat. Rep. 609). KaraXa/^/3ai/ouo-t TOVS <p v X a K a s dp.<pl nvp K a 6 17- 
P.CVOVS, they* surpri*"! tl iiunnls .fitting around a fire (Xen. Anab. 4, 2 5 ). 
Tour vofjMvs KdKovpy&v ftXijTrrai, he has been caught violating the la irx 
(Dem. 24, 65). Ov TTOT* TOVTOVS irpoo'io'ovs dXcotro/zai, / shall ne-rer be 
found lit'traiiinii tin in (Xen. < 1 iir. 5, I 32 ). Tavrov 8rj TOVTO Set <pa>pd(rai 
>P<I>VT<IS fj p. a s, we may catch ourselves doing this very same thing (Plat. 

r>;> ' \....irapd TOVS vop.ovs irpaTTw TIS (po>pdrat , ir hat one 

is caught iloiitg ngiiinut // laim (Dem. 21, 41). Examples of the parti- 
ciple with av I 2i> ft evopas nva iropov KOI air* cp.ov av yvop.(vov, 
Xf'yf, if you see any means of obtaining supplies depending on me, tell me 
(Xen. r'j/r. 1, 6 9 ). E v p i a K a> fit &>df &v ylv 6 p, v a ravra, et Xa/3otp TTJV 
fpr}v o-Kfvrjv, I find that this might happen if thou shouldst take my attire 
(Hdt. 7, 15 5 ). EiptOTKO) ravTTjv p.6vrjv av yfvofjievrjv T&V irapovratv 
KdKu>v aTTaXXay^i', / see that this would be the only escape from pn'>'i<t ills 
(Tsoc. 7, 16). Eu t (T & i fja)8ev av p. c TOVT&V fTTi^fiprja-avrd (re ireiOtiv, 
el Swaoreiav povov KOI TT\OVTOV fa>pa>v ( avrwv yevrjo-opfvov, be assured that I 
troiiltl not have attempted to persuade you of any of these things if I had seen 
flint niilii lion r funi-er and wealth would come therefrom (Isoc. 5, 133). Thuc. 
1, 76 l (with nom.). Isoc. 15, 7 (with nom.). 

'E7T(8(i^a (A.l(rx ivy v) ovftev dXrjdts d TT TJ y y X K or a,^ I have shon-n 
that Aeschines has reported nothing true (Dem. 19, 177). Dem. 29, 5. Xen. 
M> in. 1, 2 18 . Aeix077<rerai TOUTO TT e TT o irj K d> s, he will be shown to hare 
done this (Dem. 21, 160). Aft|a> irp&ra o-o<f>bs ye y coy, / in'// *hmr first I have been wise (Eur. Med. 548). A^Xoco : Dem. 45, 34 ; Thuc. 3, 84* ; 
Antiphon 38, 5. AfjXov irouw (Hdt. 6, 21 3 ). 'A TT o <p a i v o v <r t rovs (p v- 
yovras irdXcu irovrjpovs 5 v T a y, //(// .s/ioir the defendants to hare been long 
since evil-doers (Lys. 3<), 1). Ei </> a v rj a- f r a i ravff w/ioXo-y^Ktoy, if he 
shall be shown to / / >nfessed this (Dem. 27, 16). Qavepbs % v KOI 
OTJUOTIKOS KOI <piXdv0puiros to i/, /c MOOS evidently a friend of the people and 
humane (Xen. Mem. 1, 2 BO ). AfjXoy tlpi (Thuc. 1, 140 4 ). 'Eot'<arf...^<>^'oi, 
/../ <//,/,// tn I,, y,/, ,>-,!/ (XtMi. ////. r, :r). Kr <"oi:(i with inf. HIU! \\itli 
dat. of part., see 2307- 'O po\oyov p,(vrj ova a ttnvXij, it ini.s ,niinif(l 
she was a slave (Isae. 6, 49). 'Op.o\ oy ovp. c 6a c'Xddi/rcr, '" >i>l>mt 

hiiriiiif <ln, (L\s. 4. 7). '\'it)i)p.i ^r^ np.aXt>y<ni>T<i, I ussiiiin Unif H"H <i<ll'"' 
(Plat llinri rnvra dcdoy/zci/a 17/111' I'ti/ii^e, consider >!-' 

'is as agreed to //;/ <ill I Mat. /J<?p. 450*). *Adue<nWa *tXi7T7roi/ 

'^Xry|a, / convicted Phi!>/> ,,f injustice (Dem. 18, 136). EvMs (Xtyx^^' 
trtrai ycXoior a>i/, /w wnW at onc 6e proved to be ridiculous (Xen. 3/m. 1, 
7 s ). THTarupt'pvTjt ftaiTiXd KOpoi/ tiriffTparfvovra npwros rjyy(i\tv, 
Tissaphernes was the first to announce th>ii Citrus was march > > the 

king (Xen. Jna6. 2, 3). Xen. //.//. 7, 6 10 . 'An-iyyyc X^i; *tXtrrroy... 


'Hpatoi> rei^oy rroXiopKav, Philip was announced to be besieging the 
Heraean wall, see 2311, 2 (Dem. 3, 4). Xen. Hell. 4, 3 13 . 

For o-woiSa and o-uyytyvuxr/cw (with or without a reflexive pronoun) 
and the participle, see 2306. For Troiew, to represent in art, see 2311, 
13. For /ca0iu>, to put in a condition, see 2311, 14. 

Herodotus has eVcuoTos yu/o/xat, to become known or heard 

of (like <av P os clfu) : 2, 119 3 ; 6, 74 1 . 

2302. NOTE. Construction with on or a>s. The verbs of perception 
and their causa tives (2301) may also take a dependent clause with on 
or ws ; &rj\6v eo-ft and <f>avepov con, it is clear, much less often used 
than SI/A.OS (<avepo?) torn, always take em or <I>s ; e/0v/Ao/Acu, to /ay ^ 
heart, to consider well, almost regularly takes cm. 

'Op>p,V OTl Ol O~G><ppOVS OV$V 8f)7TOV a8lKOV Ov8c dv6(TlOV TTOIOVCTIV, 

we see that honourable men do nothing unjust or impious (Xen. Hell. 7, 3 6 ). 
AKOUO> ori (Xen. Oec. 15, 7). AiV^ai/o/xat ori (Xen. Anab. 1, 2' 1 ). OtSa ori 
(Xen. Cyr. 3, 3 45 ). 'Qs(Ar. Nub. 458). Ma/0ai/a> <ur (Thuc. 1, .'54 1 ). Ttyi/wo-KO) 
a>r (Eur. Ale. 418). Mc/ii^pat ori (Ar. ^. 1254). A;Xda> ori (Plat Farm. 
160c). 'A-yyAXto ort (Xen. Anab. 2, I 4 ). A 17X01 (sc. rjtrav) on eVtKet- 
o-oi/rat, i< was cear </ia< </te/ would attack (Xen. 4na&. 5, 2 2tt ). A;)XdV (f'ariv) 
Sri (Xen. 4na&. 1, 3 9 ; Cyr. 2, 4"). *ai/epoi/ (eWti/) ori (Xen. Mew. 3, 9^). 
"Evdvpeo^ai ori (Isoc. 1, 48 ; with part. Thuc. 1, 120 6 ). 

2303. NOTE. Construction with ore. With verbs of remembering 
and occasionally others, a clause with ore, when, is sometimes used. 

M.cp.vrjo'a.i OT ou8' dvaypvfceiv poi fovo~idv fTroir)o~as, do you remember 
when you did not give me leave to utter a sound (Xen. Oec. 2, 11). Lys. 18, 
:26). 0?o-0' ore (Eur. Hec. 112). 'AKoyo/zei/...6r (Plat. Leg. 782). 

So in poetry also 5/*os and rjviKa : Soph. Oed. Tyr. 1134 ; 

Aj. 1273. 

2304. NOTE. When the participle of an impersonal verb or 
expression is used, it stands alone in the accusative. 

'O p o> KOI o-oi rovro>' 8 rj o~ o v, I see that you will have need of this (Xen. 
Mem. 2, 6 29 ). Eifioi> aSvi/aroi/ ov Tifjuopclv Tols ai/Spao-i, they saw it was 
impossible to aid the men (Thuc. 4, 15 2 ). 

2305. NOTE. When the subject and object are identical, the 
object is usually not expressed and the participle agrees in case, by 
assimilation, with the subject (see 2300 and examples in 2301). But 
sometimes the object, a reflexive pronoun, is emphatically expressed 
in the accusative, and the participle naturally agrees with it in case. 


O i 8 a yap /x a v r 6 v otri'tos 1 KOI Smaitos K.f\pr]^ievov avrols (for otSa 
, I know that I have made a virtuous and just use of them, i.e. my 
speeches (Isoc. 15, 321). Dem. 27, 14. 

2306. NOTE. SvvotSa and <rvyyiyi/ujovca>. 1. SvvoiSa (and o-vyyty- 
e/iairro), to be conscious of, with the reflexive referring to the 

subject, may take the participle either in the nominative or dative. 

*Eyo> ovre p-tya ovrf (TfUKpbv v void a e/xauroi (ro(pbs & v, I am not 

'ious of being wise, either in great or in small degree (Plat. Apol. 21 b ). 
'Ejiauroi j-vvijdciv ovdfv f TT t <r T a /z e v o), I was conscious that I knew 
nut hi mj (Plat. Apol. 22 d ). Xen. Cyr. 1, 5 11 . 2 vy y i y v oxr K o p.fv avroio-i 
f) fjilv ov TT oirjo- d(r i op6a>s, we are conscious within ourselves that we have 
not acted rightly (Hdt. 5, 91 2 ). Lys. 9, 11. Suyyuti/axrica) e/zavro) occurs 
mostly in Herodotus. 

2. When the subject and object of o-vVoiSa are different, ovVotSa 
means to share in the knowledge, to know with another. The object 
and its participle may then be both in the dative, or less often in the 
accusative, very rarely the object is in the dative and the participle in 
the accusative. 

Svvoidapfv t e'ovo-t 7rpo^{5/iordrort, we know that you have been 
the most zealous (Hdt. 9, 60 4 ). Plat. Symp. 193 e . Svi/t'o-do-i rovs rerv- 
p av * v K 6Tas...dvT)pr)p.vovs, they know that those who have been despots 
have been put away (Isoc. 8, 113). Aesch. Cho. 216. 'Eyo> o-oi <rvvot8a 
...Trpou av KTrdptvov, I know that you rise early (Xen. Oec. 3, 7). 

2307. NOTE. ^EoiKa. The verb lotKa may have three constructions : 
with^the nominative of the participle, to appear clearly ; oftener with 
the dative of the participle, to resemble, seem like ; with the infinitive, 
to seem to be or to do. 

'Eot'iear...^do/ii>oi, you appear clearly to be rejoicing you are clearly 
rejoicing (Xen. Hell. 6, 3"). *E o t * a t ye opBSts \eyov n, you seem to say 
what is true (Plat. Cratyl. 416*). OVK eo i K f v flStvat, he does not seem 
to know (Xen. Apol. 29). 

2308. NOTE. When a verb with a dative has an infinitive with a 
supplementary participle referring to the dative, the supplementary 
participle stands in the dative. 

2.Vpfi(&T)K( To'lt 7T po t (TTTJ K. Off t... TTpOXTOVf (dVTOVS TT ( TT p O. K O <T 1 dl- 

<r Qta 6ai (=oJ irpotarrjKOTts nparrovs cavrovp ir fir paK 6r s jj<r0rjvT(u), 
H hat happened to those who were in power to perceive that they have told 
themtelve* first (Dem. 18, 46). 


2309. NOTE. Object-Genitive with Participle. When a verb of 
perception takes its object in the genitive, a supplementary participle 
referring to the object is also in the genitive (compare 1693). This 

OCCUrS mostly with d/couto (poet. *cA.vuj), cucpoao/Acu, alcrOdvofJiai, 

a.Kova> SooKpa-rot/s 1 8 i a\ y o p. c v o u, / gladly hear Socrates 
talk (Plat. Syrup. 194 d ). KAvo> (Od. 4, 505). 'Aicpoao/zm (Plat Apol. 37 d ). 
QVK yaddvovTo ir poviovTwv ro>i> TroXe/AiW, they did not- perceive the enemy 
approaching (Xen. Hell. 4, 2 19 ). Et y iy v <b<r K t is e p.ov $ 6 eyy o fif v o v, 
you understand me when I am speaking (Plat. Cratyl. 435"). Mfp.vr) 
TOVTO (rov Xeyovros, I remember you saying this (Xen. Cyr. 1, 6 8 ). 
*Evvv6rjKa <rov \cyovros, I heard you saying (Plat. Hipp. Min. 369*). 'Qr 
f-rrvOovTo TTJS UiiXov KaTfi\T)p.^vr)s^ when they heard of the capture of Pylus 
(Thuc. 4, 6 1 ). 

2310. NOTE. In poetry verbs of saying and denying 
occasionally have a participial construction instead of an 
infinitive or a clause with cm or to?. 

Qavovr > Ope'(m/i'...X e y to, / declare that Orestes is dead 
(Soph. EL 676). Ou -yap eurv^wv api/i^o-o/uat, / will 
not deny being happy (Eur. Ale. 1158). Eur. Hel. 1076. 
Soph. Oed. Col. 1024. Eur. Tro. 478. Eur. Or. 1581. 
Isolated cases in prose : Plat. Phil. 2V ; Soph. 235 C . 

2311. NOTE. Verbs of Perception with Infinitive. A number of 
verbs of perception are also used with the infinitive as well as with 
the participle, with more or less difference of meaning. 

1. Aio-flavo/Atu, TrvvOdvofjiaL, and especially d/ccu'to, take the infinitive 
when the thing perceived is not stated as an absolute fact, but as 
indirectly perceived, as by hearsay or report. 

'AKOVCO nXXa cdvrj TroXXa roiaura fu/ai, / hear there are many other such 
nations (Xen. Anab. 2, 5 13 ). nvdopcvoi rovs \aice8aifjioviovs e'e<rrpa- 
T v <T & a i, having heard that the Lacedaemonians had ended their expedition 
(Thuc. 5, 55 4 ). Ai<r6av6p.cvos avrovs p-fya napa /3a<rtXf T Aapeta> Sui/ao-^at, 
perceiving that they had great influence with King Darius (Thuc. 6, 59 3 ). 

2. 'Ayye'AAw with the participle means to announce something as a 
fact ; with the infinitive, to announce something as a report. 

'O 'Atrcrvptoy fls TTJV -^utpdv f^i/SaXXtij/ dyyeXXtrai, the Assyrian is 
said to have invaded his territory (Xen. Cyr. 5, 3 30 ). The statement is only 
a report, and is not yet known to be really so. 


3. Tiyvtoo-Kco with the participle means to perceive, to know ; with 
the infinitive it means to judge, to decide, or to resolve, to decree. 

PVOVTCS TOVTOV tv at Tov Kcupov, judging that this is the crisis (Thuc. 
1, 43 2 ). Hdt. 9, 71 6 . "E y v <o o- a v Iltto-iWa e/xoi 7rapa8oi)i/ai TOV nalda, 
they decided that Pasion should deliver the child to me (Isoc. 17, 10). Hdb. 
1, 74 5 ). Xen. Hell. 4, 6 9 . 

In poetry ytyvaxr/co) with the infinitive occasionally means 
to learn iww ; as (tW) yv<j> rpe<^eif r-qv yAeooxrav 
^o-u^wTpav, that Jie may learn to keep his tongue more 
quiet (Soph. Ant. 1089). 

4. (a) OlSa and eirior.xfuu, with the infinitive, mean to know how to 
do anything. 

\CTTIJV fvvovt oldfv I a or 6 a i $iAoy, a benevolent friend knows how to 
heal a grief (M.en. Mon. 319). H. 7, 238. Soph. Aj. 666. 'E n tor arai... 
prj&fis IT a p.p.r) K as iroiflv, he knows how to make very long speeches (Plat. 
Phaedr. 268 C ). H. 4, 404. Soph. Ant. 472. 

(b) OlSa and fTrio-ra.^ are also found with the infinitive in the 
sense to know or to have a conviction ; this use of olSa is rare and 
chiefly poetic, while tTricrraucu in this sense often occurs in Herodotus, 
occasionally in Attic poetry. 

Ot8a yap act paprvp rj & * a- 6 a I /xot, on..., I know that they will always 
bear witness to me.... (Xen. Mem. 4, 8 10 ). Ev la-Bi TOVTOV (cat 8airava>vTa 
taxvpus a v t a <r 6 a i, be assured that he will also feel much annoyed at 
spending (Xen. Cyr. 8, 3 44 ). Soph. Phil. 1329. Eur. Med. 593. 'Eiri- 
o-ra/iifvoi avrov rare Tf\VTT)o~ai, having the conviction that he had 
then perished (Hdt. 1, 122 1 ). Hdt. 3, 66 3 ; 3, 134 J ; 3, 140 1 . Soph. /;/. 
616; Ant. 1092. 

5. MavBdw, fjLtfjivrjaat, eViXav^ai/o/xat, take the infinitive when they 
mean to learn how to do, to remember to do, and to forget to do 

Tovs npobordf yap p.lo~flv (p,a0ov, I have learnt to abhor traitors 
(Aeach. Pro. 1068). Xen. Andb. 3, 2 38 . //. 6, 444. M* M i/ ^o-^w ni-r},, 
ayaQbs tlvat, let him remember to be a brave man (Xen. Anab. 3, 2 3 ). 
Xen. Anab. 6, 4 n ; Cyr. 8, 6". *E IT <\a& oprjv TOVS Kaoia-Kovs K e p 1 1 v, 

rget to bring out the urns (Ar. Vesp. 863). Plat Rep. 663 b . With the 
participle thene verbs mean to learn, t<> r- m- mi /-, In f<-<j<'t, that anything 
takes place ; but (iriXavQdvopai here seldom takes the partioiple, generally a 
clause with <~n. 

6. 4>atVcyuu with the participle generally means to be evidently, 
clearly ; with the infinitive, generally to seem to, to appear (as if). 


'H ^vxy dddvaros (paiverai oucra, the soul is evidently (manifestly) 
immortal (Plat. Phaedo 107 C ). Ev A c y c i v <p a i v e t, |/<m seem <o speak well 
(Ar. ^1*6. 403). T^ <pa>i>T7 <rcxpa>s K\aic iv c (p aiv CT o, by his voice he 
seemed clearly to be weeping, but he was not (Xen. Symp. 1, 15). 

7. "EotKa, see 2307. 

8. (a) &.IKVV/JLI with the participle means to show ; with the infinitive, 
to show how to do anything. Thus : 8tam;pia rot? dv0pco7roi9 fTrcSeiK- 
WOV...TOV 0epovs l^ctv i/a^ea/a, J taught (showed) the men how to 
keep their dwellings cool in summer (Xen. Oec. 9, 4). 

(6) AT/AGO) in the sense to order, to command, takes the infinitive. 

Kj)pvyp.ari. e 8 77 A o v TOVS c\cv6cpids 8eop,cvovs a>s Trpos o~vp.fjLa.vov avrov 
irapflvat, he commanded by a proclamation all those desiring freedom to 
come to him as an ally (Xen. Ag. 1, 33). 

(c) ArjAow and dTro^cuVto, to show, declare, occasionally take an 
infinitive instead of the usual participial construction. 

A^AoTy yap avrov o~ti>pbv rj K t v xpr)p.dTO)v c^ovra, for you show that he 
has come with a heap of money (Ar. Plut. 269). &TJ\OVVTS n po<rie<rd at 
ra KCKrjpvypcva, showing that they accepted the proposal (Thuc. 4, 38 1 ). ('H 
/SouAr) A.lo~\ivTjv) KOI TrpoSon/i/ civ at KOI KO.KOVOVV i> d7rc(pr}vcv, the 
council declared Aeschines a traitor and an enemy to you (Dem. 18, 136). 

9. Evpto-Kw, find = judge, rarely takes the infinitive. 

Evpio-Kc ravra Katptcorara civ a i, he found that this was the most convcn " nf 
(Hdt. 1, 125 a ). Plat. Leg. 699 b . So rarely in the middle in the sense to 
obtain by request ,' as irapa. 8f o~<pio~i evpovro irapa. Hav&avicu) ccrrdvai 

Tovs...rpiTjKo<riovs, they obtained permission from Pausanias that the three 

hundred stand by them (Hdt. 9, 28 4 ). 

10. 'O/xoAoyeoj, to admit, to acknowledge, generally takes the infini- 
tive, rarely the participle; as "Ep<os 6/AoAoyetrai -rrapa TTCIVTWV ftya9 

0os etvat, Eros is acknowledged to be a great god (Plat. Symp. 202 b ). 
Xen. Anab. 1, 9 20 . 

11. TiOrjfjiLj assume, suppose, vo/>u'a>, think, are seldom found with 
the participle, as in the examples cited in 2301. 

12. AoKi/Aaw with the participle, to test, to prove , with the 
infinitive, to show, to explain; as Lys. 31, 34; Xen. Oec. 6, 8. 

13. IIouw with the participle means to represent in art. 

*A.K\T]TOV c7roirj(Tv ("Op.rjpos) \66vra rbv McveXeuv cirl TTJV 0oivr)v t 
Homer represents Menelaus coming to the banquet unasked (Plat. Symp. 174 C ). 
Iloieo) with the infinitive means to effect, bring about (see 2216, 2) ; also to 
assume, suppose a case; as iroi> fyia* c^airaTrjdevras VTT* cpov TJKCIV fls Qdaiv, 1 
suppose (or assume) the case that you have been deceived by me and arrive 
at the Phasis (Xen. Anab. 5, 7 9 ). 


14. Ka0io> with the participle, to put into a condition, to cause* 
as kav K\aiovTa$ avTov-9 KaOiorw, if I make them cry (Plat. Ion 
535') ; Xen. Cyr. 2, 2 14 . 

15. 'Opaw, see, has the infinitive only in Thuc. 8, 60 3 : a>p<i>v...oTov 
T c7v<u... ; perhaps here (according to Runner, Griechische Grammatik, 
484, 2) equivalent to judge, decide, like yiyvwo-/co>. 

16. SvyyiyyaxTKco, to admit, acknowledge, occurs with the 
infinitive in Herodotus and late writers: Hdt 1, 89 5 ; 
1, 91 8 ; 4, 43 7 . 


2312. The supplementary participle <3v is occasionally omitted in 
the constructions given in 2285, 2289, 2297, and 2301. 

1. This occurs frequently with rvyx a (poetic /cvpew), also with 
8iaT\co and Siaytyvo/xai, rarely with frv/x/JeuVoo and Trepiopato. 

Ei TIS fvvovs rvyx^vfi (sc. a>v), if any one happens to be friendly (Ar. Eccl. 
1141). //. 8, 430. Thuc. 1, 32 3 . Plat. Rep. 369 b . Xen. Hell. 4, 3 3 . 
Kipf'o> (Kur. Hiftji. 1421). 'AvvTrodrjros rt KOI a^trai/ SiarfAcis (sc. <uv), 
you continue both shoeless and coatless (Xen. Mem. 1, 6 2 ). Xen. Hell. 6, 3 10 . 
Aiayiyj/o/iai (Xen. Cj/r. 1, 2 15 ). *Ap' ovv (rvpfiaivct /icytoroi/ KOKOV fj afiiKt'a 
cai ro ddiKflv (sc. oi/) ; is it not a fact the injustice and the doing of injustice 

'" greatest evil? (Plat. Gorg. 479). Mrjfava (sc. ovrd) cv trv^opa T>V 
rroXiTtav 81 (vSeiav ire piopav, to permit n<> one of his countrymen to be in 
.'.// (Dem. 19, 230). 

2. It occurs sometimes with verbs of perception and their causatives. 
K&v "b 6 paxr iv dffCfjMvs (sc. Svras), and if they see you dispirited 

(Xen. Anab. 3, I* 8 ). Eur. Hipp. 905. Ei'dwr fvnpfnfls ti/xar (sc. 

"ing you to be prepared (Dem. 4, 18). 'Eav ev Xcppovrjo-u irv 
* t X i TT IT o v (sc. ovra), if you hear that Philip is in Chersonesus (Dem. 4, 41). 

< y< (vpri<r(T( ov KUKOV, j/ou will not find me to be bad (Isae. 7, 41). 
*Qs <r( brjXaxru KOKW. that I nmii /<rre you base (Soph. Oed. Col. 783). 

yAXf iratrvv ddXnaraTijv /xf (sc. ov<rav), tell that I am the most 
miserable of all women (Kur. Hec. 423). 


2313. 1. With verbs of perception, saying, and the like, we often 
find a genitive-absolute preceded by <I>s, where we should expect a 
clause with on or an object-accusative with a participle or an accusative 
with the infinitive. The use of <!> here is the same as with the ordinary 



circumstantial participle (2246) : it denotes that the thought is that of 
the subject of the verb or of some person in the sentence. 

'Q s Toivvv OVT a>v r > v 8 e troi paOtiv ndpa, it is in your power to learn 
that this is so, assuming that this is really so (Aesch. Pro. 760). 'Qs e p.ov 
ay co v t o v p. e v o v ovrws yLyvo)(T<f, know that I shall contend (Xen. Cyr. 
2, 3 15 ). Aiavor)0fVTs...ns I ov T a>v Tf &ir dv T eo v del KOI p OVT w, 
thinking that all things were always in motion and in flux (Plat. Cratyl. 
439 C ). MS)v ovv \cycis <u s TOV Mlvco (p o IT & v T o s... ; do you tli>'ii 
believe that Minos went... ? (Plat. Leg. 624*- 1 '). Soph. Aj. 281. Xen. Anab. 
1, 3". 

2. This use of d>s also occurs with the ordinary supplementary 
accusative or nominative participle after verbs of perceiving, thinking, 
saying, and the like. 

'Q s p.r)0v fifior' i<T0i p &>v avioTopds, understand me as knowing 
nothing of what you ask (Soph. Phil. 253). n a re' pa TOV a-ov dyyt\&v 
0)$- OVKCT' OVT a, (he comes) to announce that your father is no more (Soph. 
Oed. Tyr. 956). 'Qs orpari^y^o'oi'ra e p. e...pT)o'(is t>p.(0)v Xeyt'ra), l>'t 
no one of you speak of me as one who is to be commanding.... (Xen. Anl>. 
1, 3 15 ). 'Qs P.TJ '[JUT o\r) a-o) v IfrBt TT)v tfjiTjv (ppfvci, know me as one ivho 
will not sell my intention (Soph. Ant. 1063). A^Xos eo-Tiv &s n 
d p a a- e i a) v KUKOV, it is clear that he wishes to do some evil (Soph. Aj. 326). 
Xen. Anab. 1, 5 9 . K.ap./3v(rT]s*l(i)vas KOI AtoXedr a> $ 8ov\ovs TraTpatovs f ov T as 
v6f*ic, Cambyses regarded the lonians and Aeolians as slaves inherited 
from his father (Hdt 2,1). 'Qs ov% virtifav ov8e TT IVT c v <r a v \eycis; 
speakest thou as one who will neither yield nor obey ? (Soph. Oed. Tyr. 625). 

3. Sometimes the participle preceded by u>s is practically a circum- 
stantial. It will be seen that verbs of thinking and saying, which 
seldom take the supplementary participle, are apt to take it with ws. 


2314, The verbal adjective in -reo?, -red, -reov, is used both 
personally and impersonally. It is chiefly Attic and is found also 
in Herodotus, but not in Homer. 

2315. Personal Construction. Only verbals formed from transi- 
tive verbs can be used personally. The verbal then agrees in 
gender and number with its subject; and is passive in meaning, 
expressing necessity (what must be done, like the Latin gerundive 
in -ndus, -nda, -ndum). The agent is in the dative. The copula 

is very often omitted. 


'H dpfTT) trot ao-KTjTfa (eWu-), virtue must be cultivated by you, Lat. rirhm 

olenda est. Ov irpo ye r^y aXrjQfias rl pyre os avrjp, a man must not be 

honoured before the truth (Plat. Rep. 595 C ). 'Q^eXr/red (rot TJ noXis etrriv, 

the city must be aided by you (Xen. Mem. 3, 6 :1 ). "AXXaff..../icra7re/i7rrcaff en/at, 

I (sc. fcij) wiw* be sent for (Thuc. 6, 25 3 ). Xen. ^na6. 2, 4 6 . 

2316. Impersonal Construction. In the more frequent imper- 
sonal construction, the verbal is active in meaning, and also 
expresses necessity. It stands in the neuter singular (-reov), less 
often in the plural (-rea); and its object is in the case which 
the finite verb would govern. The agent is usually expressed by 
the dative ; but sometimes by the accusative, perhaps because the 
impersonal verbal may have been regarded as equivalent to tt, 
one must, with an infinitive. The copula elpL is very oft"ii 

'AffKTjTfov (or da-KrjTfa) eWi <roi rrjv a p f r TJ v, you must cultivate virtue. 
*E TT t & v P.TJT ( o v (or c7riQvp.r)Ta) f OTI rols avflponrois TTJS a p ( r fj y, men must 
desir> rirtm. 'E ir i^ 1 1 p TJ T e o v (or eVi^fip^rf'a) eWt <TOI rai tpyto, you 
must take hold of the work. Toiis (friXovs euepyer^rcoi', ..... TTJV TTO\IV ax 
....TWJ/ fioaKTjfjidTUiv firifj.f\TjTfov, one must serve one's friends, one must 
the city, one must bestow care on herds of cattle (Xen. Mem. 2, l a8 ). 
@or)0T)Tcov fivat rols TT p ay pa <r iv vfiiv, I say that you must aid // 
public cause (Dem. 1, 17). Ovs ov irapadorca roiy 'A0r)vaiots ftrrir, irhin 
we must not give up to the Athenians (Thuc. 1, 86 :t ). Ov yvvaiK&v ovdcTror* 
tarff TjTTTjTfa, ice must never be beaten by women (Ar. Lysistr. 450). 
Plat Gorg. 49<>*. Xen. Cyr. 1, 6 9 . Plat. Euthyphr. 8 d . Hdt. 7, 168 3 . 

\\ith the agent in the accusative: TOP f$ov\6 p.c v ov fv8aip.ova firm 
(Tux^potrvvrjv 8i<i>KTfor. n'h'i desires to be happy must pursue temper 
(Plat. Gorg. 507 d ). 'Ire'oi/ &v tirj 0fao-op.(vovs, H'e ouyht to go and see (X n 
Mem. 3, II 1 ). Sometimes both dative and accusative are used in the SHIM- 
sentence ; as in Thuc. 8, 

2317. NOTE. In Latin the impersonal construction in -ndum is 
used only with such verbs as do not govern an object-accusative ; but 
in archaic Latin the impersonal construction with transitive verbs is 
occasionally found ; as habendum est canes (Varro). 

2318. NOTE. Sometimes an impersonal verbal construction is 
followed by an infinitive construction in the same sentence, some 
word like otl or \prf being understood, or implied with the latter ; as 
iroiiyTtoK & nv Kt\vij T) voXifjJ) TT c i f i v avTrjv, one must do what the 
state orders or convince it otherwise (Plat. Crito 51 C ) ; Xen. Mem. 1 . > . 


2319. NOTE. The verbal adjectives used impersonally sometimes 
appear with middle as well as active meaning ; as <f>v\a.KTov, one must 
guard and one must guard oneself against ; TreioWoi/, one must persuade 
(TWO.) and one must obey (nvi) ; dTraAAaKTeW, one must release and one 
must release oneself, get off. 

&v\a KTf ov (narfpov rov e/xwra, one must guard against one of these two 
loves (Plat. Symp. 187 d ). H 1 1 a- r 4 o v -rrarpos \6yois, I must obey my father's 
words (Eur. Hipp. 1182). EiTrev OTI e/ere'ov p.ov fir], he said that I ought 
to be retained (Xen. Hell. 6, I 1:t ). 




2320. 1. An assertion or question is said to stand in direct 
discourse when the original words or thoughts of the speaker or 
writer are given in the form of an independent sentence. 

2. When the words or thoughts of the speaker or writer are 
incorporated in a sentence as a subordinate clause, and their 
construction is thus made dependent on a verb of saying, thinking, 
knozving, and the like, they are said to stand in indirect discourse 
(oratio obliqua). 

2321. Principal Clauses of Indirect Discourse. Principal clauses 
of indirect discourse are such clauses as would be principal or 
leading (independent) clauses also in direct discourse. 

1. Those which contain an assertion are expressed by a sub- 
ordinate clause with on or ax; (see 2016) ; or else by an infinitive 
construction (see 2192). For the subject of the infinitive, see 
2186, 2289. 

2. Those which contain a question are introduced by inter- 
rogative particles or by interrogative pronouns or by indefinite 
relatives, and are construed according to 2008. 

2322. NOTE. Sometimes one leading clause of indirect discourse 
is introduced by cm (u>s) and the next is joined to the first by yap, 
ovv, 8e, etc. 

"EXeyoi' TroXXoi on iravrbs aia Xt-yoi Sevdrjs %fip.(i>v yap fo/..., many 
declared that Seuthes uttered proposals of great advantage, for it was winter. . . 
(Xen. Anab. 7, 3 13 ). Hdt. 7, 13 1 - 2 . Dem. 50, 50. 


2323. NOTE. In longer indirect discourse one clause may be 
introduced by ort or to?, and the next may have the infinitive con- 
struction : Lys. 13, 78. 

2324. Subordinate Clauses of Indirect Discourse. Subordinate 
clauses of indirect discourse are such clauses as would also be 
subordinate or dependent clauses in direct discourse. 

1. If the verb of saying, thinking, knowing, etc., on which the 
indirect discourse depends, is a primary tense, all such subordinate 
clauses retain their original mood and tense. Thus: \eyei on 
fjfcei iv a iBrj, he says that he has come to see (direct " ijtcco f ( v a 
iSw," and tSo) simply becomes the third person %, the mood 
and tense remaining). 

2. If the verb of saying, etc., is a past tense, subordinate clauses 
may be changed to the optative of the same tense ; but subordinate 
past indicatives (see 2325), must remain unchanged in mood and 
tense. These rules apply also to subordinate clauses whose 
leading or governing clause has been changed to a participial 
construction after verbs of perception (2301). Subjunctives with 
av, which are changed to the optative, naturally drop dv. 

(a) Subordinate Clauses changed to the Optative after Past 
Tenses : 

'O KXc'avdpor tiirtv OTI Aci-i-mrov OVK f-rravoirj, i raCra nf7roiT)K<as ft 9, 
Cleander said that he did not approve of Dexippus if he had acted in this MM// : 
Le. he said " OVK ciratvw e t ravra IT f TT o irj K 6 " (Xen. A nab. 6, 6 25 ). *E\(y(v 
OTI (Toipos ("TJ Tjyf'io-ffai avrots..,, ev6a rroXXa KOI ayaQa \ 17 >// o i vro, he x<t><l 
that he was prepared to conduct them..., where they would find plenty of good 
th'mijs; i.e. he mid "crot/ior cc^i ^ycio-dat d/tup..., v 6a...\ rj-^f & 6* " (Xi-n. 
Anab. 7, 1 M ). *.\tyfv 6 Qrjpa^fvrjf on, f I prj TIS KOIVWOVS iicavovs \t)\lroiTO 
ra>v npayparw, ddvvarov <<rotro rrjv u\iyap^iav dtapivtir. Tin r<nii< // ,s xaid ihni 
if one did not <i<l // m>ngh MWMtatel /'// the. measures, if n-ould be impossihli- 
for t.' -/ Lfl IM- said "e* /xr; rtf. ..X r; ^ ( r a t.. , dSvvarov 

form .I"). Tto-o-a<p('pvT)s utpovtv 'Xyrja-iXaut, d (Tirfi<raiTo 

tvs <\0oi(v obs irc/i^rctc irpot ftntnXfa dyytXovs, 8iairp<i((r0ai 
a<f)0fjvat avrovopovt rhs tv r// \\frm TT swore to Agesilaus 

iron!,! make a truce till the mess<n<i< -/-.s n-htnn h< \nnil<l * ml t- 
king won/ .//,- / l,',,,i that the Greek cities in ' 

would be left independent ; i.e. he < v <r IT t i <r r/. t o> t A v i X 6 w <r t v 

ots nifji^ &..., buiirpaopiu I. |Oj. f \irtKptvaro on pav- 

Buvottv a OVK i n iff rat. vro, he replieit II,. irhnt they did 


not understand; i.e. he replied " pavQdvovo~i a OVK. e ir I <rra vrat " (Plat. 
Euthyd. 276 e ). 'ATTfupivaro ori....j3ov\vo-oiTO Trepi ratv o"rparta>rcov o rt 8 u- 
v a i T o dyaGov, he answered that he would contrive for the soldiers whatever 
good he could; i.e. he replied "/3ouXfuo-o/im... o n av 1 ' (Xen. 
. 7, I 34 ). "HtSet Kvpos ort, 6 7 rt pax*]? 8 e q o* o t, CK rcov (piXw aura> KCU 
KOI eVtoraray X^TTTCOV ea;, Cyrus knew that if he had to fight a 
battle, he would have to take companions and leaders from among his friends ; 
i.e. "ft rt /za^y 5e 77 <r i } ...\r)7TTeov e'ori " (Xen. Ci/r. 8, I 10 ). TT^I/ airmi/, 17 
irpodrjXos rjv eV oceiVou? ^oiKra, * rt iraBoi \api8rj /xor, ^/ie charge which 
would be clearly advanced against them if Charidemus suffered anything ; i.e. 
" fjet, edv rt nddrj Xapio'rjp.os (Dem. 23, 12). More examples: Xen. An<il>. 
3, 5 115 ; ^ei. 4, 8 2 ; V, 4 : < 4 . Plat. .Re/?. 455". Thuc. 1, 90*. 

In all these and similar examples, the original mood and tense of 
the subordinate (and principal) clause might have been preserved. 

(b) Subordinate Subjunctive and Indicative retained after Past 
Tenses : 

OVK f(pa(rav teVat, e a v pf) nr avrols ^/j^/xara 8 1 8 <j>, they said they would 
not proceed unless some one gave them money ; i.e. they said "OVK t/j.ei>, cav 
prj ris...8i8(p" (Xen. Anab. 1, 4 12 ). "(/>; xpfpcu, ot &v 6|eXe-y^^o5o-t 
o*iaftd\\ovTfs, a>s Trpo86rds ovras Ttp.a>prjdf)vai t he said that whoever should be 
proved guilty of uttering calumnies must be punished as traitors; i.e. he said 
"ot &v $f\yda>a-i 8iapd\\ovT(s, XP*)---" (Xen. Anab. 2, 5 37 ). : *E<pa(rav 
avTtov rovs avftpas dnoKTcvdv, ovs f^ovtrt a>vTas, they said they would put 
to death the men whom they had alive in their hands; i.e. they said " dno- 
ovs e^o/ii/ ' (Thuc. 2, 5 b ). Karao-^tVeti/ ray Tr^Xay e<^a(Tai/, e t pr) 
dvoiovcriv, they said they would break down the gates if they tli<l 
not open them willingly; i.e. they said <e Karao-^t'o-o/i('...6 t ^17 (xovres dvoi- 
^oucrt " (Xen. Anab. 7, I 16 ). Touro np68rj\ov r)V ((rofifvov, (I p.r) ijp,fls 
K a>\io- CT c, it was clear that this was going to happen unless you should 
hinder it (Aeschin. 3, 90). 

(c) Subordinate Past Indicatives retained after Past Tenses : 

"Hce v ayyeXos \cy<t>v } on AeAotTrcos 1 fir) 2v(Wfo~is ro aicpa, eTrei fj <r B T o 
TO Mfvavos oTpdrfvpa ort fjSrf ev KtXtKta rjv, a messenger came saying flint 
Syennesis had quitted the heights since he had found out that the army of 
Menon was already in Cilicia (Xen. Anab. 1, 2 21 ). *EXyoi> <$ Si>o(pa>i> 
ot^otro a>s 2cv6r)v oiK^o-Qiv KOI & vTrco-^tro aurai aTroX^^o/zei/oy, they began 
to say that Xenophon was going to Seuthes to live, and to receive what Seuthes 
had promised them (Xen. Anab. 7, 7 55 ). 'turfotya*.... \tyovrts py f-rrrjyyeXOat 
TTo) ev \aKc8aip.ova rtis o-jrovo'ds, or' e o~ e n e p. -^r a v TOVS o-rrXirds, they pleaded 
declaring that the truce had not yet been proclaimed at Lacedaemon wh'-n 
they sent the troops (Thuc. 5, 49 2 ). Dem. 30, 19 (&v evavriov a7r5o<rai/). 


Xen. Anab. 2, I 3 (o6fv...&pwvTo). Hdt. 1, 87 1 ^...fdupydr)). For the reason 
<>f the necessary retention of the subordinate past indicative here, see 2325. 

(d) Subordinate optatives, and subordinate indicatives of unreal 
conditions, naturally remain unchanged : see 2012. 

2325. NOTE. 1. The necessity of preserving the past tenses of 
the indicative of a dependent clause in indirect discourse unchanged, 
arises from the fact that it would otherwise be generally impossible 
to distinguish the past time, which is only marked by the augmented 
form. Compare these examples : 

(a) A<oo-u> Travra a ai/ A.a/?a), I will give all that I (may) receive. 
Indirect : lAeyei/ on 8(*)<roi Travra a A.a/?oi or eXeyev on, Swo-ei TraVra a av 

Aa/fy, he said he would give all that he might receive. 

(b) Acoo-w TrdVra a IA.a/?oi/, I will give all that I (actually) 

Indirect: lAeyev OTI Soxrot (or Sowrci) TruLVTa a I \aj3fv (not Xdfloi), 
lie said th-at Jie would give all that he has received. 

Obviously if a \d/3oi could be used in the second indirect example 
(6), it would not be possible to tell whether it represented " a IAa/3ov," 
what I (actually) received, or "a av Aa/?<o," what I may (or shall) 

2. But where no confusion is possible, as in causal clauses, the 
past indicative can pass into the optative. 

E?^f yap A'yeu> o>y Aaxfo'at/idi'tot fita rouro 7ro\f(j.r]O~fUiv avrols, on OVK 

(B(\r)<raitv' t \yrj(ri\dov (\6tlv fV avrbv ovSe &v<rai fAa-fiav avrov 

\ifti TJI ' Apr ' /it fit, /(' a <t x able to say that thr Lace-din>in-<>nitinn iniycd war 

against them (the Thebans) because they had refused to march against him 

(the Persian king) n-itl, .\<i< -xilaus, and had not even permitted him (Agesilaus) 

to sacrifice to Artemis at Aulis (Xen. Hell. 7, I 34 ) ; the direct statement was 

" (iro\(p.T)<rav fjfJiiv, OTI OVK ( & ( X rj o~ a p. f v...f\0dv...ov8 6vo~ai (tiio~ap.fv 

e also Hdt. 2, 121. 

3. The present optative is not used to represent the present indica- 
tive of a subordinate clause, after a past tense, whenever a confusion 
would be possible as to whether it represented a present indicative or 
present subjunctive with Y. Thus in a sentence like the following: 

i on (Wi-oicr TTarru . t \otcv, it would generally be impossible 
to tell whether " <i ^md " represents an original " a IXQ^V" what we 
(actually) have, or " a av CXW/ACV," what we may (or shall) have. For 
this reason a dependent present indicative is mostly retained. 


But the optative may be used when the context makes it perfectly 
clear that it represents an original indicative, and not a subjunctive 
with av. 

Oi ' fXeyov, OTI TO. (sc. ^wpi'a) npbs p.O~r)fjif3piav T^S eVi Ba/3uXe3>a (sc. ofiov) 
t?7 KOI Mrjbidv 8 1' TJ o~ TT c p fj K oic v, they said that the regions toward the 
south were on the road, to Babylon and Media, through which the Greeks had 
come; i.e. they said "ra irpbs pc<ny/i/fy>iflb'...d*' r/cnrcp TJKCT*," (Xen. 
Anab. 3, 5 15 ) ; so Plat. Euthyd. 276% quoted in 2324, 2 (a). 

2326. NOTE. Occasionally a dependent (or leading) present or 
perfect becomes an imperfect or pluperfect in indirect discourse after 
a past tense ; whereas regularly such a dependent present or perfect 
would either be retained or changed to the optative. Compare 2020. 

*E\(yov ov KoXws rrjv 'EXXaSa c\cv0fpovv avrov, e t av8pas SiccpOeipfv 
ovTf %flpas avraipopevovs ovrt Tro\p.iovs, they said that he was not liberating 
Greece in the right way by destroying men who were neither raising their 
hands against him nor were hostile; direct, " ov Ka\a>s...c\fvdpo'is, el dvdpas 
Sia(p& ( i p c is" (ThuG. 3, 32 2 ). *Ev TToXXjy drropia r)O~av ol 'E\\rjvfs , (vvoovpevoi 

f*ev, OTI enl rats /Sao-tXewr Ovpais qo~av, ayophv de ovSels ert rrapt^fiv ep.(\- 

Xev, npovdf od>K 0-av 8' avrovs ot....^ap^apoi, the Greeks were in great 

perplexity, reflecting that they were at the king's gates,.... that no one would 
furnish them with a market,.... that the barbarians had betrayed them (Xen. 
Anab. 3, I 3 ). Dem. 48, 16 (oo-ov ^ TJV a v ? X a> /z 4 v o v). Dem. 19, 151 
(<S fi\T)<pf t). In such cases the writer uses his own standpoint of time, the 

2327. NOTE. 1. In the same sentence, the principal clause of the 
indirect discourse may retain the original indicative, while the sub- 
ordinate clause may change its verb to the optative ; rarely does the 
reverse take place. 

UpOTjyopfVfv avrols, o> $, ei /XT) e K IT e p.\^ o i f v TOVS \OKf8atpoviovs, iroXf- 
p.ov (oi(rci -rrpbs avrovs, he declared to them that unless they would eject 
the Lacedaemoni<(nx, he, would bring war against them; direct, "et ^77 
tWe/i^erf..., TroXepov tgoiirto" (Xen. Hell. 4, 8 6 ). Xen. Hell. 5, 4 36 ; Ages. 
2, 31 'ESoKti S^Xoi/ fu'ni, on a Ip T) o~ o v T a t avrbv, e t ns n i -^ rj <p i o i, 
4t seemed to be evident that they would elect him, if any one put the ques- 
tion to a vote, i.e. " aipTjo-ovrai avrbv, fav nr favfatfrifa" (Xen. Anab. 6, 
I 25 ). -"EXf-yov OT I...TJ K o i v f)yfp.6vas e^ovres, ot avrovs, fav o~7rovo"ai y - 
vwvTat, at-ovo~tv fvdtv covo~i ra fVir^Seia, they said that they had 
come with guides, who, if a truce were made, would conduct them where they 
would get provisions (Xen. Anab. 2, 3 6 ; here more regularly ot avrovs, d 
a-novdai yevotvro, a^oifv evOev e^oiev). Xen. Anab. 5, 6 34 . 


2. Neither leading nor dependent clauses of indirect discourse are 
necessarily put into the oblique optative. The Greek here prefers 
variety ; sometimes employing the original construction where the 
oblique optative could be used, and sometimes making sudden transi- 
tions from the oblique optative to the original construction. 

2328. NOTE. Very rarely do we find a subordinate subjunctive 
clause, introduced by a relative with av or a conjunction with av, pass 
into the optative and retain av. See Dem. 30, 6, direct eVeiSou' ooKipaaQu) 
which would regularly remain or become eVet&j; So/u/xao-fooyi/. Xen. 
Cyr. {, -2" ; Mem. 1, 2 6 . Many scholars consider such passages corrupt 
and emend them accordingly, making them conform to the general 
rule. Compare 2332. 

2329. Indirect Discourse Implied. 1. The general rules govern- 
ing dependent clauses of indirect discourse after past tenses 

-!4). also their various peculiarities (2325 2327), apply also 
to all dependent clauses which, although not standing in indirect 
INcourse, yet express a past thought of some person in the leading 
clause. The dependent clause may retain its original mood or 
pass into the optative. 

'2. Such a dependent clause may be conditional (with et), or 
relative or temporal (as with !<?), or causal (with <m) ; and may 
also depend on an infinitive after verbs of wishing, commanding, 
permitting, persuading, choosing, and the like. 

Oud* r)v rov noXffWv ircpas ov8' aTraXXayr) 4>iXi7T7ra), ft p. rj Qr/ftaiovs *al 
QtTToXovs fx&povs 71-0117 cr it, there was wither end of the inn- m 

/ /'/<;/;/>, as he saw, unless he should make the Thebans ami 7V.s- 

salians hostile to the city; i.e. Philip's implied thought (or apodosis) \sa>> 

/ cannot end or avoid tl MOT, and the protasis. Yn ITOITJVV, could hu\v 

been retained in the third person tav ^ noirja-rj (Dem. 18, 145). Ot fi' aAXoi 

Oty/Satoi, ott O'fi...irapay(V(O'6cn iravorpariq, < i n npa Trpo^tapoiTj TOIS 

f<rf\T)\v6<>(Ti,...t7r<jj(>q0ovi>, the- rest of the Tli'-lmn.*. irho were to /// joined 

tfi-in iritli nil th>'n- fur,-,-* if 'tin/tliimi *h<>ttl<l <i<> irr,i<i ififh fli<>*> //< /</ 

entered, advanced to help; i.e. the thought was (dv n dpa ^ npox^^/ (Thu.-. 

). OM TOVS avtiptairovf (ftivicov i/7ro0tfi(i/z<i/ot, *i TTCOJ < 6 ( X } tr c la v of 

Kapdoi/xot buivcu avrovs tos dta (piXias ^w^uv. nr //'/ th< // /M//-.S//* /A, UK n. l>< m<i 

ned to spare them, if ///<"/. mniht n-ish t<> !>+ 1h<in pass 

<runtry a* tl'<n ; i.,-. t h.-ir t hdi-ht \v as ,V,, (0<Xi)<r<o(ri 

Ol y <$KT(ipov, ti AXattrtuvw, and others pitied them 


if they were to be captured; i.e. the thought was et dXcixroi/rcu (Xen. Anab. 

1, 4 7 ). 'E/3ovXoi/ro yap cr<pi'crii>, f i rtva \dfioic v, virap^fiv di/ri rcoV tVSov,. 
for they wished that if they should capture any one, he should remain a hostage 
for their friends within ; i.e. cav Xa/3co/iev (Thuc. 2, 5 4 ). 

"Ecpfvyov evQa p.r)iroT 0-^oip.rjv, I Jied where (AS I believed)/ should 
never see; i.e. the thought was tvOa p.r]iror o-^opai, rel. object clause (Soph. 
Oed. Tyr. 796). "Av8pa ovSeV evronov (fcopcoi/), o<rTirdpcetreiJ/ / saw 
no one in the place who could assist me ; the thought was av8pa ovdtva 6pc 
o<ms dpK(arr), interrog. subj. (Soph. Phil. 281). EvavTo crcor^pia dv<r(iv> 
fvBa rrpwTov els (pi\idv yr)v dcpinoivTo, they offered sacrifices for their 
safety as soon as they should reach a friendly country ; the thought was (v6a 
...&v dcpiKUfjLetia (Xen. Anab. 5, I 1 ). Xen. Cyr. 7, 3 7 . Hdt. 6, 49 7 . 

XX^Xoiy (iroiTj(ravTO, etor aTrayyeX^etj; TCI \(\6tvra t$ AaK6- 
they made a truce with each other (to last) until what had been said 
should be reported at Sparta ; the thought was eo>y av dirayyc\6y (Xen. Hell. 

3, 2 20 ). 'iTTTTOKparj/y, on ore naipbs *;, e/xeXXe (rrparfiifiv fs rovs BOIWTOVS, 

Hippocrates intended to march against the Boeotians when it should be Jit 
time; i.e. oirorav Kaipbs fj (Thuc. 4, 77 1 )- *E8oej/ ovv avro1s...7rpo'ievai els ro 
irpoo-Qev, e coy Kopco <r v p. p. i e i a v, it seemed best to them to march forward 
till they could effect a junction with Cyrus; i.e. (as &v cr\}p,p.i^rrrf (Xen. Anab. 

2, I 2 ) napjyyyeiXay, CTTCI^T) 8fnrvr)<Tfiav t <rvcrK.fvaofifvovs rrdvras dva- 
7ravcr9ai, KOI errcadai TJVIK' av TIS napayy(\\T), they gave orders that when the 
soldiers had supper they should all pack up their baggage and go to rest, and 
to follow whenever any should give the signal ; i.e. cnfiddv dfnrvTjo-rjTe, and 
TJVIK' av TIS Trapayye'XX?/, the latter retained (Xen. Anab. 3, 5 18 ). 

For causal clauses with this principle, see 2325, 2. 
In all these cases the original mood could be retained. 

Examples with original mood retained : Tbv Evrjvov ffMUt&puFa, e i cos- 
aX;0coy e^ c i TCIVTTJV TTJV Te'^i/i/v, / congratulated Euenus if he really possessed 
this art (Plat. Apol. 20 b ; e^cu could have been used). Tco /iT/Sei/ eavra> 
(rvvfi86ri faivbv ftcny'et, i TTOVTJP&V epywv 8 6 ( i Koivavdv rco crtco7r^(rat, it 
seemed terrible to one conscious of nothing wrong, if he was to appear, by A/.s 
silence, as an accomplice in infamous acts (Dem. 19, 33 ; here *i Sooi could 
have been used). 'EnecrrfiXfv, TJV pev avrbs (raflfj, aurco a7ro8oi!i'at fj v 6e 
ri TT a 6 rj, dvaQclvai irotrja-dp-fvov TJJ 'ApTfjii8i on oTotro ^apifladai TTJ c^tco, he 
enjoined him, if he escaped, to return the money to him, but if he met with 
disaster (lit. if he suffered anything), to make such an offering as he thought 
would please the goddess and dedicate it to her (Xen. Anab. 5, S 6 ; we might 
have had ei (rvQeir) and *i ri TTQ^OI). Toiovrovs fj\irtov ccrecr^ai KOI TOVS aXXouy 
ofoi'rrep &v Sxrtv oi TCOV 7rpay|iaTcov eVicrrarovi'rtf, they hoped that the rest 
of the people would be like those at the head of affairs (Isoc. 7, 22 ; we might 
have had olo'nrep tlfv). *Hv 17 yvdoprj, OTCIV 'A^vatoi eVt a~(pds ^copcocrti'^ eV 


p.(ru> nou'iv avT&v rovs jroXepiovs, the plan ivas to enclose the enemy between 
thn irht-n th>- Athenian* should advance against them (Thuc. 1,62 s ; or ore 
XO)pot(v). "Einov p,rj8eva TU>V oirurBtv iciWur&u, nplv A v 6 Trpoardfv rjyrjrai, 
I ordered thai no one of those behind should move before the man in front lead 
fh- n;i,i (Xfii. ''//'' -, - 8 ; or TTplv Tjyolro). Tovs "imrovs fniXtva-f (pvXdrTfiv 
TOVS dyayovras, cats nv ris o" rj p. *} v /, the horses he ordered those who had 
nrouifht t h> in t<> iratch until *oie one should give a signal (Xen. Cyr. 4 5 36 ; 
or eW TIS <rrjp.rjvfic}. 'YTreV^ero dvdpl e*caara) 8a)(rciv TTCVTC dpyvpiov /xvas, 
fir av els Eaftv\(Hva rj K a> <r i, he promised to give each man jive minae of 
r //(' // tlf it diniiltl 1 1 rr in>- at Babylon (Xen. Anab. 1, 4 13 ; or eVet TJKOKV). 

Mixed constructions as in 2327 are also very common. 

2330. NOTE. 1. The aorist indicative is regularly retained for the 
reason given in 2325, J. and 2. So the present indicative is retained 
when a confusion would be possible as to whether the optative re- 
presented an indicative or a subjunctive with ai>, as in 2325, 3. 

2. A relative clause seldom changes its aorist or present indicative 
to an optative ; and then only when the context makes it clear that 
an indicative, and not a subjunctive with av, is represented. This 
occurs principally in Herodotus. 

AvSotcrt rrd(ri irpoflire Oveiv iravra nva avr&v roi/ro), o rt f%ot eVcaoros 1 , 
he proclaimed to the Lydians that every one should make sacrifice of what he 
had (Hdt. 1, 50 2 ; direct #ue'ra> TTOS TIS...O rt f\ el f<a<rros). H.aprryyfi\fv 
6 Ttpt'/3ao9 napdvai TOVS ^ovXofj^vovs inraKOva-ai TJV fiao-iXfvs fiprjvrjr 
KciTaircniroi, Tiribazus ordered those to In- ///v.s> -nt that wished to hear 
what terms of peace the king sent down (Xen. Hell. 5, 1 3 ) ; direct fjv cipfjvrjv 
cara7r('^i7Ti). KaXet TOV \diov, fj.vrjp.rjv 7raXa5i/ <Tn(ppMT<av f^ov<r\ v(p' 2> v 
Qdvoi p*v avroy, rrjv dc TIKTOVO-OV XtTroi..., she cries on La'/ws, bearing 
memory of that ancient issue by which (as she asserted) he himself had perished, 
and had left her procreatress (Soph. Oed Tyr. 1245 ; here Bdvoi and XtVot 
stand for (Bavf an-l 

2331. NOTE. The present and perfect are occasionally represented 
in these clauses also by the imperfect and pluperfect, as in 2326 

Kvpos ifir(T^(T(t rot? MtXi^trt'otf (pvydrrtv, d ncuXoos- KnraTrpd^fid', <^>* A 
((TTparfvfTO, p,rj np6<rfav naixrai -rrnii' aiVoi/y Karaydyoi otca5f, hf promised 

\filesian exiles that if he successfully Accomplished the objects for which 
he undertook the expedition, he would not rest before he had n-ix/"/'/ />// 
'tune (Xen. Anab. 1, 2 a ; direct fjv cararp<f<u, <'<' A <rrpar-, ov irav<TO(jMi, nplv tiv *carayaya>). 'Krot/moy T)V...K.pivf<r6ai i rt rovrtov 
< I py a <r p.t v oe fjv...Km, fi TniTtav TI (ipyao-ro, docrp doOi'at, he was ready 
to make an answer as to whether he had done any of these things, and if he 

332 NEGATIVES 2332 

had done any of them, to be punished (Thuc. 6, 29 1 ; direct erot/xdy dpi <piv- 
<rdai, i...ipya(Tp.vos cip.i...Kal, fl...tlpytUffttUf 8i<rjv 8ovvai). Thuc. 3, 33 2 
Andocides 2, 16. 

2332. NOTE. Occasionally we find a subordinate subjunctive 
clause introduced by a relative with av or by a conjunction with av 
pass into the optative and retain av (as in 2328). 

'TL^rjCpicravTO nXfixravra TOV Ylfi(rav$pov KOI 8e<a (iv8pas* avrov 7rpS<r(reii>, 
o TT 77 a v avrols 8o< o irj aptara f eii>, they resolved that Pisander should sail 
with ten commissioners and conclude negotiations in whatever way it might 
seem to them to be best (Thuc. 8, 54 2 ; direct irptio-o-ovTuv oiry &v 80*77). 
Xen. Hell. 2, 4 18 . Andocides 1, 81. 

Such passages are considered corrupt by many scholars, who 
amend them accordingly. 

2333. NOTE. It is on the general principle of implied indirect 
discourse (2329) that final (and object) clauses (2040) and clauses 
after verbs of fearing (2063) admit the optative or retain the original 
mood after past tenses. 


2334. Ov and ^77. 1. There are two negative adverbs in Greek, 
ov and pr). Rules applying to these particles apply also to their 
various compounds ; as ovSefc and /^Set?, ov&e and //,?/8e, ovre and 
>L67;T6, outcert, and pijiceTi, ouSa/xw? and Au/SayLKw?, etc. 

2. As a general rule, ov is the negative of simple declaration ; 
while fj,r) is the negative of an expected or wished action or condition 
(protasis), also of the infinitive. 

2335. Ov and prj in Principal Clauses. In principal (or in- 
dependent) clauses expressing an assertion (1973), ov is used ; in 
those expressing a command or wish (1973), pr] is used. 

2336. Ov and fiij in Subordinate Clauses. Of subordinate 
clauses with a finite verb, the following take /JLIJ : final clauses, 
clauses after verbs of fearing; conditional clauses, concessive 
clauses ; consecutive relative clauses which express a possible or 
necessary or intended result, final relative clauses, conditional rela- 
tive clauses ; and conditional temporal clauses. Other subordinate 
clauses take ov. 

2344 NEGATIVES 333 

2337. NOTE. We may have ov for ^ whenever a single word, 
and not the whole clause, is to be negatived. Thus : c\ei OVTWS, lav 
T( ov <f> 77 T f, cdv re ^Te, it is so whether you say it not or do say it 
(Plat. Apol. 25 b ). 

2338. M/; with the Infinitive. The infinitive, when not in 
indirect discourse, is negatived by //.?;. 

2339. NOTE. For wore ov instead of wore 7*77, see 2078. 

2340. NOTE. 1. Apparent exceptions occur when ov belongs to 
a preceding verb, or when ovSets (ovSev) is to be regarded as equivalent 
to ov and rts (ri) with the negative belonging to the principal verb. 

Acvpo TjKovo"iv....i)fjMS vvv a^iovvTfs ov ^v/i/xa^eii/ aXXa t-vvadiKf^v, they 
come hither )to\c requesting not that you should join them in alliance, but in 
wrong-doing (Thuc. 1, 39 3 ). Aeschin. 3, 204. Tr/y dperr/y ovSe'i/a Set 
iSta>reveti>, no one ought to make virtue a private possession (Plat. Prot. 327*) : 
here ovSeVa Set is equivalent to ov Set nva or rather ov Set ovdtva (2359); 
Soph. Phil. 88 ; Xen. Anab. 2, 4 6 . 

2. So with participles and comparatives with ovoeis (ovoev). 

Ovdfv ftiaiov iroirjo-ovTfs irap\Tj\v6ap.v, we have come with the intention of 

nitt'tng no violence (Xen. Anab. 7, I 31 )- Ovfiei/oy r/rrov ' \&r)vaia>v 
TrXouo-tof, not less rich than any of the Athenians (Lys. 32, 23). 

2341. Ov with the Infinitive. The infinitive standing in indirect 
discourse takes ov. But there are certain exceptions; see 2342 

2342. NOTE. After verbs of promising, hoping, expecting, and 
swearing, the infinitive takes py (2195). 

2343. NOTE. After verbs of saying and thinking, the infinitive 
takes fj^rj when saying or thinking expresses a command or belongs to 
a protasis. 

fl ('(rare vfimrra not yfjpas avfv aXX^Xwi/ prj d ( v 8vva<r6at, be convinced 
that youth and old age can do nothing without each other (Thuc. 6, 18 4 ). 
Isoc. 1. 41. 

2344. NOTK. Sometimes we find fjuj in other cases where ov 
would be expected; as after ot/x<u( Xen. Mem. 1, 2 41 ) ; yiyvoxrKw (Xen. 
Hell. 3, 2 31 ) ; <%u' (Plat. Gorg. 449 C ) ; 6/xoAoye'u) (Plat. Rep. 456 b ) ; 
vo/uw (Xen. Cyr. 7, 5 69 ) ; vTroTrrcvw (Xen. Anab. 2, 3 13 ) ; 

(Xen. Hell. 3, 3 11 ). 



2345. NOTE. Sometimes the negative is drawn from the infinitive 
to the leading verb. 

Ov (prjp.1, I say that.. .not (Xen. Anab. 1, 3 1 ). Ov vopifa, I believe that... 
not (Xen. Hell. 2, 4 30 ). OVK ai5, I request that... not (Thuc. 2, 89 1 ). 

2346. Ov and nrf with Participles, Adjectives and Nouns. 
Participles, adjectives, and nouns, are negatived by pr) when 
they express a condition ; otherwise by ov. 

Thus 6 /XT/ t8<os, any one who does not know, or if any one does not 
know ; but b ov K eiSws, the particular person who does not know. 
In the same way are distinguished 6 /t T/ Sward* and 6 o v Swards. So 
also f) o v K e/xTTtipia, the actual non-experience ; but rj /x T) e/xTretptd, the 
possible or eventual non-experience. 

2347. NOTE. Participles, belonging to an imperative or to a pro- 
tasis or to an infinitive which would take /XT/, are negatived by /XT/. 

Vr)(pi(Ta<r6( TOV TroXf/zov, u.rj (poftrj0(VTfSTO avriKa Scivov, vote for war, 
not being afraid of the immediate danger (Thuc. 1, 124 a ). Xprj TOV dyaffbv 

TToXlTTJV p, T) (K(poftoVVT(l TOVS dvTfpOVVTdS, aXX' OTTO TOV *(TOV <paiVf(r6ai (ifJ.(LVOl> 

Xeyovra, a good citizen ought to show himself the better speaker not by terrifying 
the opposing speakers, but by meeting them on equal terms (Thuc. 3, 42 7 ). Ti 
TTII>, ti XP*I / i '7 Kf^fvo-Qflcrav Xeytiv; what is it if it befits me to 
speak when not bidden ? (Eur. Iph. Taur. 1288). 

2348. Ov and fir] as Interrogative Particles. Used as Interroga- 
tive particles, ov expects the answer yes, and prj expects the 
answer no. See 2008. 

2349. NOTE. 1. In indirect single questions, introduced by ct, 
whether, either ov or /XT) can be used. 

'Eptora? e t ov <a\r /xot 8 o K e I dvai T) prjropiKT), you ask whether rhetoric 
does not seem (&)fine (thing) to me (Plat. Oorg. 462). Bov\6p.fvos epco-dai e t 
fj.a0a>v ris TI KCU pfp.vr)p.fvos prj o?8e v, wishing to ask whether a man who has 
learned something and remembers it, does not know it (Plat. Theaet. 163 d ). 
Here ov implies that the matter is decidedly true, while prj expresses it as 

2. In double questions, or not is expressed by 17 /XT/ or by 77 ou (cn-c 
/XT; Or etre ov). 

Ei St dXrfSes ) /x 77 Trfip&<rofuii fia6(1v, I will try to learn whether it is tni>' 
or not (Plat. Rep. 339*). 2/co7ro)/Aei> el r)p.1v npcirci TJ ov, let us see whether it 
is proper or not (Plab. Rep. 45 l d ). But when the double questions are 

2351 NEGATIVES 335 

introduced by relatives, the second member takes ^ when the verb is not 
repeated, otherwise w or ov : Plat. Gorg. 472* ; Xen. Oec. 16, 3 ; Aeschin. 


2350. With Finite Verb. After verbs of denial, and the like, 
a dependent assertion with OTI or o><? very often has ov which 
appears superfluous to us. 

'A vrt \tytv OTI OVK eyx^poirj, he contended that it was not possible (Xen. 

. 2, 3 16 ). Ti ovv, eav ap^KT^rfrfi &s OVK a\Tjdfj Xe'-yo/xej/ ; well then, 
if he should cnnt-n<{ that what we say is not true? (Plat. Rep. 476 d ). 
\\pvT)0f)vai vs OVK dn&Q>Ka, to deny that I have paid (Lys. 4, 1). Plat. 
Gorg. 508*. 

This is explained by the Greek conception of such a clause. He 
does not say exactly, I deny that this is so, but he says I deny this ; 
it is not so. 

2351. With the Infinitive. 1. An infinitive depending on a 
vi-rb of negative meaning usually takes JJLIJ. This negative only 
expresses that the object is negative, and it must be omitted in 
translating. If the verb of negative meaning is itself negatived, 
the infinitive usually takes firj ov which must also be omitted in 
translating. Thus: aTrayopeva) <TOI fir] rovro 7roir}a-cu t I forbid you, 
to do this ; OVK aTrayopeva) <TOL /JLTJ ov TOVTO Troiijcrai,, I do not forbid 
you to do this. 

< )ften the infinitive is preceded by TO ; and if the governing 
verb might govern a genitive, by rov ; but TOV with a negatived 
infinitive is perhaps never found when the principal verb is 
already negative' 1 . 

3. Such verbs of negative meaning are : dpye'o/xat and c^opvo? ei/u, 
to deny ; dmAe'yw, to speak against, gainsay ; d/i^ur^rcw, to dispute ; 
e'to, to doubt, to distmst ; ct/ryw, to restrain; KoAcoj, to hinder { 

cc/ii, be in the way ; a.vT\ta and drrtoo/xat, to oppose ; a7rayof)tr> 
(&TTiirov), to forbid; aTroA&o, to acquit; dircxo/tai, to refrain; diroytyrn')- 

. to depart from a judgment, to give up a design ; ci'XajSco/iat, to 
take care ; <f>tvyu>, to escape ; and others. 

'ttpvovvro fjiff rrciTTWKfvai, they denied that they htnl /<///<// (Ar. /.'/. 
572). 'Ktapvos CI/M (Plat . //>/. Maj. 288). 'A^t<7/37r*r p f, dAr;^^ X y < t ,. 
>, he <fo/m*e (calls into doubt) that I speak the truth (Dem. 19, 

336 NEGATIVES 2352 

(Thuc. 4, 40 2 ). No/io>> ypd(pat etpyouo-t ^p^o-flat /i 17 Kara yvwp.rjv 
<7ie dictates of the laws restrain one from adopting manners according 
to one's conviction (Eur. Hec. 867). KeoXvo^if^a p.rf p.a6 flv, we are prevented 
from learning (Eur. Ion 391). 'Hvavruo^j/ p.ij 8 ( v TT o telv napd TOVS vop.ov$, 
I was opposed to doing anything contrary to the laws (Plat. Apol. 32 b ). Ot 
tarpot dnayop(vovo~i rols do~0vovo~i p.rj % prj <r a i eXat'o), physicians forbid the 
feeble to use oil (Plat. Prot. 334). Aeschin. 1, 138. 'AncXvdr) /u,j) d8i<flv, 
he was acquitted of doing wrong (Thuc. 1, 128 3 ). 'ATrfcr^ovro P.TJ...O-T par ev- 
o- a t, they refrained from making war (Thuc. 5, 25 :! ). EvXafieopm (Plat. Legf. 
843 C ). *fvop,60a p.rj Oavelv, we shall escape death (Eur. Heracl. 506). 

With TO ^ij). OVTOI elo~iv... ep,7ro8a)v ro /IT) TjSr; rival, i>$a TraXat 
o"irv8op.v, these are in the way of our already being where we have been long 
hastening (Xen. Anab. 4, 8 14 ). Mtxpoi/ ee'<pvye TO p.r] KarttTrerpeo^jji'ai, 
he narrowly escaped being stoned to death (Xen. Anab. 1, 3 2 ). Kip-ava Trapa 
rpels a<peurai> ^/rjcpovs r 6 p, rj BavciTtp f^/ztaia'at, ^/iey allowed Cimon, by three 
votes, to escape punishment by death or they refrained, by three votes, from 
punishing Cimon by death (Dem. 23, 205). 

With TOV p.r). Tovrovs roiavra \eyaiv <tr^e rov pfj eKnenXfj^dai, by so 
speaking, he prevented them from being overcome with fear (Xen. Hell. 4, 8 5 ). 
'ATToa-oftovvTfs &v ffjLTTo8<i)v yiyvoivTO TOV p,r) opav avTovs TO o\ov orparev/Aci 
o-ou, by scaring them away they might prevent them from seeing the whole 
army (Xen. Cyr. 2, 4 a:< ). Plat. Leg. 832 a . Xen. Anab. 3, 5 n . Isoc. 15, 122. 

With p.T) ov. O v 8 f v edvvaTO dv T e %e iv pr) ov %a p i ^ o~ & at, in 
nothing was he able to resist favouring him (Xen. Cyr. 1, 4 2 ). Md\ds OVK 
a p v o v p. a i p.rj ov o~vp.f3(tBr)Kcvai p.oi, I do not deny that I had Ji<il< /< 
(Aeschin. 1,136). Ov8ds TrcbTrore dvTclTTf p.T) ov KaXws fx flv vs 
vopovs, no one ever denied these laws to be good (Dem. 24, 24). Eur. Hipp. 

With TO ^117 ov. O v K diro~\6p.r)v T 6 prj ov n...f\ 6 ( iv, I could not refrain 
from going (Plat. Rep. 354 b ). Mr) Trapfjs TO pr) ov <ppdo~ai, omit not to say 
it (Soph. Oed. Tyr. 283). Aesch. Pro. 918. Xen. Symp. 3, 3 ; Hell. 3, 3 8 . 

2352. NOTE. When the principal verb is interrogative and implies 
a negative, /AT) ou is also used. 

T t e p. IT o d o) v /ij) oi^i irdvTa TO. SfivoraTa traOovTas vj3piop,fvovs d TT o- 
6 a v I v ; what is to prevent us from dying ignominiously after having suffered 
the most dreadful outrages ? (Xen. Anab. 3, 1 13 ). T t v a old dir a pv t]<r f o~ 6 at 
prj ov x^ avTov f 7rt'oTao-0ai ra diKaia ; who, do you think, will deny that he 
understands what is just ? (Plat. Gorg. 461 C ). 

2353. NOTE. Sometimes ^rj is omitted ; after /cwXtro) this is usual. 
EX?; <re trrjddv, I will stop thee from springing (Eur. Or. 263). Ei 

TOUTO TIS fipyft. o~pdv OKVOS, if some hesitation prevents one from doing this 
(Plat. Soph. 242*). Ot 6()v f)p.ds opxot KO)Xuouo"t 7ro\p.iovs clvai 

2358 NEGATIVES 337 

<>nr oath* $>c<>rn to b\i tJie </<></.< /// >< xt us from being enemies to each other 
(Xen. Anab. 2, 5 7 ). Xen. Ages. 11, 7. Plat Phaedo 61*). With TO : Xen. 
Mem. 1, 3 7 ; 4, 4 11 . With roO : Xen. Mem. 2, I 16 ; 1, 2 34 ; Cyr. 3, I 9 . 

2354. NOTE. Occcisionally ^ ov is omitted ; this is usual with 


Ap a a- a I...OVK apvovp.0a, we do not deny having done it (Aesch. Eum. 
611). Ovdf duiK(i>\vov(ri TroieiV, o>i> &v Tri6vp.f}s, nor do they hinder you from 
doing - '//>/ (Plat. Lys. 207 e ) ; Plat. Euthyd. 305 d . 

2355. NOTE. Barely prj alone stands for ^ ov. Thus : ovrt 
rifj.<t>urJ3riTTj(Tf /AT) \ftv (TTJV irpolKa), nor did he deny having the dowry 
(Dem. 27, 15) ; Soph. Track. 226 ; Phil. 349. 

2356. 1. Analogous to verbs of hindrance are verbs and ex- 
pressions of inability, impossibility, impropriety, and the like. If 
an infinitive depending on these expressions is to be negatived, 
it usually takes /XT) ov, much less frequently simple /-IT;. 

2. Such verbs and expressions are : ov Svro/uu, I am unable ; 
aovvarov ccrrt, ov^ oiovT f<TTL, it is impossible ; ovSe^it'a pr))(avr) cart, 
there is no device or way; ov StVaiov, ov% ocnov, dla-\p6v ( = ov KaAov), 
otwov, ai'orjrov tern ; alcr\vvr) O~TI, it is a shame, and others. 

OuoVis 1 olos T' (TT\V rtXXcov Xeycov p. 17 o v K.arayt\a<rros ttvai, no one 
it able to speak otherwise without being ridiculous, i.e. no one is able not to 
be ridiculous (Plat. Gorg. 509*). 'Afivi/ara r\v /zi7 ov /xeyaXa pXanrfiv, 

is impossible for it not to do much damage (Thuc. 8, 60 1 ). O v x o<ri6v 
<roi 6i/ 1*17 ov ^ o ?; 0f1v oittaioovvr], it being imp ious for you not to give 
aid to justice (Plat. Rep. 427* ) At o* \p ov c <TT tv e/zot <ro<f)iav <al fVto-n^iqi/ 
pt) ovx irdvTvv updriarov <f>dvai (tvai, it would be base for me to say that 
wisdom and knowledge are not the best of all things (Plat. Prot. 352 d ). Xen. 
//.//. 2, 3 18 . Plat. Symp. 218 C . Xen. Anab. 2, 3 11 . With simple rf : Plt. 
/'/,,/. 50*; Xen. Cyr. 8, 7 18 . 

2357. Mil or with Participles and Nouns. Occasionally ^ ov (Lat. 
nisi, except) is found with participles or nouns. 

1'ip.r] s rv\('iv ai'x nluv T( p,rj ov iro\v TJJ yv<i*p.fl fiia0tpopra, to meet with 
honour it not possible, except that one be much superior in intelligence (Isoc. 
1". 47). Al no\(it \a\<ira\ \a0tlv, /x^ ov XP V< ? * al iroXiopKiq, cities 
difficult ( = not easy) to take, except by time and siege (Dem. 19, 123). 


2358. 1. Apart from the use of M ov with the infinitive 
(2351), the negatives are often doubled; in some cases this 


338 NEGATIVES 2359 

doubling merely strengthens the negation, in others it de- 
stroys it. 

2. For fj,rj ov with verbs of fearing, see 2062 ; with the leading 
clause omitted, see 2067. For ov /JLTJ with the subjunctive (or 
future indicative) in strong denials, see 1977 ; for ov prf with the 
future indicative or aorist subjunctive in strong prohibitions, 
see 1985. 

2359. When a negative is followed by one or more compound 
negatives of the same kind, the negation is simply made stronger. 

Ov P.TJV ovSe ftapfidpovs tiprjuf, he does not yet even speak of bavarian* 
(Thuc. 1, 3 4 ). Ovdevl ovdap&'s ovdfpidv Koiva>i>iav ex fl 
they have no communion anywhere in any way with any one (Plat. Farm. 
166*). Xen. Anab. 2, 4 23 . ("O/Avv/it) p. rj 8 ( TT o r ( trot trtpov \6yov /z rj 8 v a 
prjo'e v b s pr\T eirib'fi{;civ p-rjr' cayyf\f u>, / swear I will never show you a )i <i 
speech of any one or tell of any to you (Plat. Phaedr. 236 e ). 

2360. NOTE. Instead of the negative compounds, the Greek 
might have the ordinary indefinite pronouns or adverbs. 

OvTf T i s (vos d<plnTai xpovov (Tu^i/oG (KtWfv, nor has any stranger arrived 
from there for a long time (Plat. Phaedo 57*, for the more common ovre eVor 
ovfifir). Miadbs ovo'cis n co c<paiv(To, no pay as yet appeared (Xen. Anab. 7, 5 18 , 
for p.i<r0bs ovftcls ovnd) ((paivfTo). But the Greek usually prefers to use the 
corresponding negatives in such cases. 

2361. NOTE. Simple ov or ^ is always separated from its following 
compound by one or more intervening words. 

2362. When a negative is followed by a simple negative, each 
always has its own negative force, and the two are often equiv- 
alent to an affirmative. 

Ovdtls OVK tTra<r\c TI, every one was somewhat affected = no one was 
not affected (Xen. Symp. 1,9). O v 8 e rov *op/iiW (Kflvos o v % opa, nor does 
he not see Phormio = he sees Phormio surely enough (Dem. 36, 46). Isoc. 
8, 52. OVK dyvoia...ov Karedei^fv avrd, not through ignorance did he not make 
it known (Plat. Rep. 406 C ). Mi) QVV...&V tfws OVTOS f^r/Trarr/o-f /JLTJ dora 8t'*cj/i/, 
let not this man escape punishment for the deception he practised on you = 
ic do not let him not be punished " (Dem. 19, 77). 

2363. NOTE. Observe the difference according to the rules : OVK 
tTToirjo-ev ovSeV, he did not do anything ; but ovSev OVK firoirprcv, he 
d-id everything. 

When ov is followed by /*?;, or ^ by 01), both negatives retain 
the separate force. 

2367 PARTICLES 339 


2364. 1. The negative particle regularly stands before the word 
that it negatives. Hence the difference in meaning : 

Ov TTfivra. KO.\^ cTroirjo~cv, not all things did he do well (i.e. only 
some) ; 

Havra ov xaXoi? Iwoirjo-fv, hi did all things badly (i.e. none well). 


2365. See, under Particles (2366) these and other negative ex- 
pressions : /MOI/OI/ ov or fjiovov ou^i, ocrov OL', o'x ort and fj.rj on, oi'x OTTOI? 
and firj 07TOJ5, ov fj.rjv <iAAa and ov fj.e< TOI dAAu, etc. 


2366. 1. The Particles are adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, 
and interjections. In the alphabetical list in 2371 are given tin- 
conjunctions (particles which connect words or sentences), certain 
emphatic particles or adverbs, the interrogative and negative particles. 

2. The Interjections are numerous, and some are the same as in 
English ; among them are : * ; a ; # A 1 ; a a ; ? ; c ; ? 2 ; I f ; ? ; !, 
<o ; cu, ha ! at and oucu, alas ! cu, Lat. vah ! ha ! ta and poetic em, 
Lat. eja ! on 1 up I away ! cvot, Lat. ecoe ! (Bacchanalian) ; /or, 
ho ! hallo ! ah ! lavoi, )w ! ho ! (joy) ; iov, Lat. heu ! alas ! (occasion- 
ally expresses joy) ; tci, io ! ! (joy), also may express grief; oa .- 
alas .' 01, ot, oh ! alas ! woe ! ovd expressing astonishment or abhor- 
rence ; oucu', Lat. vae ! ah ! woe ! WOTT, mariner's or rower's call ; 
ar(T)arcu, OT(T)OTOL, exclamations of grief or pain ; e'WAev, a war-cry. 
any cry; /xO, expressing u-eejiimj or xiyhimj or mdignattim; 
Lat. papae, expression of deep grief or astonishment or joy 
comic) ; fav, expression of grief or astonishment. 

2367. The conjunctions are divided into eleven classes. Several 
belong to more than one class. 

1. Copulatii , poetic -fjot, epic lot. 

2. Disjunctive : TJ (or), ?rc, orrc (MT<), ovot (fJ.rjni). 

3. Adversative : aXA Hom. also ;. ^, y^rr. ...&', 


340 PAKTICLES 2368 

4. Comparative : ws, ua-rrcp, oVo*?, wore, rf (than), Horn. ^vrc and 


5. Declarative : on, Swm, w?, poetic 

6. Final : wa, u>s, OTTWS, /AT;, poetic o<f>pa. 

7. Consecutive : wo-re, a>s ; apa, 8>7, vw (poet, also vvv, Horn, vvv 
and vv, Hdt. vvv), ow; TOIWV, rotyapovv, TOiyaproi, poet, roi'yap. 

8. Conditional : el (cav, ^> a^)- 

9. Causal : on, Sam, u>s, 7rei, yap, are, ore, OTTOTC, poet, ov^c/ca and 


10. Concessive : fl /cai, Kai i, KaiVoi, KatVep, oyaws. 

11. Temporal : ore, OTTOTC, a)?, 7rt', eTTCiS?/, a^pt, f*.fXP l > Tpwy tyiKO-t 
oTrrjviKCL, 6o-aKt?, oTrocraKt?, (09, lore, ^ ou, d0' ov, ey w ; poet, cure, o<pa, 
Trapos, Hom. ^A 10 ^ and ts o(re) Ke. 

2368. The emphatic adverbs are : yf, yow, 8ai, 8>;, 

, ^, /xct, /xeV, fj.r)v, vat', vr;, OVF, Trep, rot. 

2369. Postpositive Particles are such as cannot stand first in a 
sentence, but must follow one or more words. The enclitics of course 
are all postpositive. 

2370. Asyndeton. In ordinary discourse every Greek sentence 
is connected with the preceding one by means of a conjunction ; most 
frequently 8e is thus used, but often *cu or ovi>. The omission of such 
a connecting particle, termed asyndeton (ao-vvScrov, not connected), 
sometimes occurs for lively effect, naturally oftener in poetry than in 
prose (as Soph. El. 1234). 

A connecting particle is not necessary when a demonstrative 
referring to what precedes stands first in the sentence. After an. 
announcement of something to follow by words like oSe, rotoVSc and 
the like, the new sentence is usually joined to the preceding one 
without the intervention of a particle ; but sometimes yap is here 

2371. List of Particles. In the following list the more important 
particles are mentioned, and quoted examples are given when neces- 
sary. The prepositions are given in 1843 1864. For the syntax of the 
ordinary adverb, see 1865. The negative particles are explained in 
2334 2365. Certain interrogative particles are explained in 2008 and 
2009. Certain affirmative and negative particles used in answering 



questions are also mentioned in 2010, 4. The sections of the syntax 
are also indicated in which the uses of certain other particles in the 
list are explained. 
1 . 'AXXd, but, yet, the ordinary meanings. 

(a) Often dAXd introduces a reply or sudden transition, and may 
then be rendered by well, or need not be translated. 

*Hv fjfjiiv f)yfj(TT) ..... , KCU 6 SevOrjs ((prj u dAX<i oi'Sa TroXXflr ...... ," 

if you lead us ..... , and Seuthes replied, "Well, I know of many villages 

..... " (Xen. Anab. 7, 3 9 ). Xen. Anab. 2, I 4 ; 3, I 35 . Km /xot eVt'8ti' 
..... TTJS /Spa^uXoyt'ay -rroirja-ai ..... 'A X X a IT o 1 77 o- a>, show me an example, of 
brevity of speech. I will do so (Plat. Gorg. 449 C ). 

(b) A sudden exhortation is introduced by aAAa, come now ! Ti 
8e? trt Xt'yctj/ ; d X X' ..... Ire. et? MT^OUS, what more need I add ? come now ! 
.....join the Medes (Xen. Cyr. 1, 5 14 ). 'A XX' (Plat. Prot. 311*). 

(c) After a conditional clause dAXa often means at least ; dXXd ye, 
(but) then at least; dXX' ovv, but then; dXX', m then. 

Ei o-oyia doOXoi/, dXX' o vovs e\v6epos, even if the body be captive, the 
>(/(// ,it dust /.s free (Soph. fr. 855). Ael ..... nfipcurdai onus, fjv p.v o~vv<ap.f6a, 
....trw^w/xe^at, et 8c /x^, dXXa Ka\a>s y c a.Tro6vr)O'K<i)p.v, we must try if we can, 
..... to save ourselves, but if we cannot, then at least to die nobly (Xen. Anab. 
3, 2' ; 7, 7 4 ' ; 2, 5 19 ; Ag. 2, 21). The condition may be omitted ; as 2> 0ot 
Trarpoxu, (rvyy(v(o-0( y d X X a vvv, gods of my ancestors, help me at least now, 
if (<>r as) you did not before (Soph. El. 411). 

(d) Sometimes dX\d is to be rendered by rather, on the contrary ; 
a preceding negative clause is understood. 

Kiv&vvof TTO\\OVS aTroXXvtrBai r)v dp.(\a)s T Kd\ d</)vXaKTO)f irop(vrj<r0ai (ir\ ra 
(niTTjo'tia dXXd poi boKfl <riiv irpovopals Xapftdvtiv TCI (iriTT)0*(ia, there is danger 
tit-it in 'i it if may be killed if you go out in quest of provisions heedlessly and 
unguardedly ; it seems to me that we should rather seek provisions in foraging- 
parties (Xen. Anab. 5, J 

(e) *AXX* rj after a negative means except ; as dpyvptov OVK l^w a X X* 
rj pinpov TI, / have no money except a little (Xen. Anab. 1, 7 53 ; 4, 6 11 ). 
Probably dXX' ^ stands for uAA -> ,/. 

(/) See under ov (67 below) the following : ov (nrj) /ioi <.. .....'. A Aa <cat, 

dXX' or and dXXa fXT/, I \Xa KOLI, prj on. ...dXXa Kat, ov fA.rjv 

2, "AXXo TI (fj), in questions, see 2008, 4. 

3, "AXXws, in another way, otherwise, in vain, at random (Soph. 

342 PARTICLES 2371 

Oed. Tyr. 1151 ; Xen. Anab. 5, I 7 ). T^ aAAw?, to no purpose (1280). 
"AAAw<? re Kat means especially (Xen. Anab. 5, 6 9 ; Xen. Hell. 6, 3 10 ). 

4, "Afjia, together with, improper prep., see 1771 ; with participles, 
see 2270; a MI... .mi, no sooner.... than, see under *at 44, 8, below. 

5, "AK (Epic keV, ice*), modal particle, see 19601972. 

6, "Apa, Horn, also ao and enclitic pa, all postpositive, then, of 
course, so, therefore, accordingly. 

'AXXa -rravra p,ev apa avdpa>7rov ovra irpo<r8oicav 5ft, a inan might then to 
expect everything (Xen. Anab. 7, 6 11 ; 4, 6 15 ). Plat. Gorg. 476 e ; Od. 4, 107 ; 
//. 2, 482. 

() Ei apa, i/ really (Dem. 56, 28). Et ^ apa, unless indeed, Latin nisi 
forte (ironical), as Xen. Mem. 1, 2 8 . *Hi> apa referring to the future (Xen. 
Anab. 5, I 13 ). Et apa interrogative, whether or if indeed (Xen. Anab. 3, 2 22 ). 

7, *Apa, interrogative particle, see 2008. -"Apa (postpositive), see 6. 

8, 'Ardp, Horn, also avrdp, but, yet (Xen. Anab. 7, 7 10 ; Hell. 5, 
4 17 ). 

9, "Arc, with participles, see 2271, 2272. 

10, Au (postpositive), on the other hand, in return, moreover (Xen. 
Anab. I, 10 11 ; 2, 6 5 ). Epic at. 

1 1 , Aun'Ka. With the participle, straightway, see 2270. Also for 
example, as avriKa yetafA-frptdv /xe^pt TOVTOU !<T/ Seiv pavOdvctv...., fof 

example, he said that one ought to learn geometry to this extent 

(Xen. Mem. 4, 7 2 ). 

12, fdp (postpositive = ye apa), for, introduces a reason (Xen. Anab. 
5, 6 6 ; Ag. 1, 5). Sometimes the reason explains what follows; 
as in Plat. Prot. 347* ; this following clause often has ow, as opart 
yap.. ..Set ow, for you see it is necessary therefore (Xen. Anab. 3, 


(a) In answers we usually find yap, which is then equivalent to 
" certainly," " indeed ". 

'O/zoAoyets ovv rrtpl e/xe nfit/coy yfy(vfj(r0ai ; *H yap avdyKT), do you then admit 
having wrotiged me ? Yes, I certainly must (Xen. Anab. I, 6 8 ). Plat. Rep. 381 e . 

(6) In lively questions, yap is equivalent to " what? " or " why? " 
or " can it be ? " or simply " then ". 

Otft yap (rot /za^fto-^ai TOV do~f\(p6v ; why, do you think your brother irill 
fight against you? (Xen. Anab. 1, 7 9 ). Soph. Oed. Col. 1575. So the 
formulas ov yap ; = " is it not so ? " and ^ yap = " is it really so ? " expecting 
the answer " yes " ; as Xen. Mem. 2, 3 16 ; Plat. Euthyd. 288 d . So ri yap ; 
= "/or how?" (Plat. Phaedr. 2o8 d ). 



(c) Kut yap may mean "for" (etenim), as in Xen. Anab. 2, 6' 2 , the 
KUI only serving to connect the thought closer to what precedes. It 
may mean "for also," the /cat belonging to the following thought, as 
in Xen. 2. 1 \ It may be followed by a second KCU: thus *ai yap.... 
*at = "/or both.. ..and " or " for.. well as " (Xen. Anab. 1, 9 10 ). 

(d) 'AAAa ydp, " but" (at enim) = " but that is not so, for " or " &w 
say no more of it, for ". So Xen. Anab. 3, 2 25 ; 3, 2 26 . AAA' ov yap = 

'-<7//// not (Hdt. 9 27 ; Xen. C?/r. 2, I 13 ). 

(e) Or yap dAAa is an elliptical expression meaning "/or " ; the 
ellipsis after yap being some expression like "it is not so" or "this 
ought not to be". Thus: ^ o-K^irre /A' a>8eA.c'' ov yap dXA.' e;(a> 
Ka*o>5, do not mock me, brother, for I am ill (Ar. Ban. 58). 

13, fe (enclitic), an intensive particle, serving to emphasise the 
preceding word (Lat. quidem), may sometimes be translated by at 
least, crcn, indeed, just; but in most cases is best rendered by 
emphasising the particular word or giving it a prominent place in the 

Xetpajt'off y oi/roj, otov Xf'yeis, the winter being just as you say = during so 
severe a winter as you say (Xen. Anab. 5, 8 :{ ). Auro> evL yt avSpi, and indeed 
f himself (Xen. Anab. 1, 6 s ). It is found particularly with pronouns: as 
os yt. icho = L;it. i/ui <i><idem ; fyooyt, I for my part. So eVet'y*, just because. 

Very often ye is inserted between the article and its noun, or 
between the preposition and its noun : thus ot ye ayaOoi, a-vv ye TOIS 
dya0oi5. So ye' may also be separated from the word it emphasises by 
/ieV or 8e', as 6 8e' ye <ro<o5. 

14, PoCi' (= ye ovv, postpositive), at any rate, at least, then, in truth 
(Lat. ce> 

2v &( fiot bonus ravavria rfjf <^>tXo<ro(|)tar dn-oXeXaviceVat fjs yovv ovrtut, 
>vo"' &v (If floCXor virb &t(nri'mj ^tatrto/ J ii'o$ > pdi'df, you (Socrates) seem t 
have enjoyed the opposite from philo* /'/./ : "' / "**. .'/'"* live in a way in which 
nut to lire irith hi* master (Xen. Mem. 1, 6- ; 4, 3 ln ). 

15. A<u, an Attic colloquial particle (postpositive), used only in 
urgent questions and in the formulas n Bat; (= "what then ?" or 

by then ? ") and (less frequently) TTWS Sat ; (" how then ? " or " how 
now?"). Xen. Cyr. 5, I 8 . Ar. Nub. 1266. Compare &/. 

16. A^ (postpositive), but, and, usually does not introduce any- 
thing contrary, but merely something else or something new ; in 
numberless oases it only serves to. connect a sentence with what 

344 PAKTICLES 2371 

precedes (see 2370), and is then seldom rendered by but ; usually it 

is equivalent to and, and very often it need not be translated at all. 

For ov 8e we usually find ov /JLWTOL to avoid confusion with ov8e. For 

/xV....8c, see below 48 (B). 

17. At] (postpositive), an emphatic particle, has a variety of 


(a) Originally temporal, it may mean now, already, just. 

'O rrarr^p KOI T) p>r)rr)p ir d\a t 8r)....TfT\VTT)K<rav CIVT&, his father 
and mother had long since (= already long ago) been dead (Xen. Cyr. 8, 7 1 ). 
Ta v v v 8rj ycycvrjucva, the things wKich have just now occurred (Xen. Anab. 
7, I 36 ). Ar. Ran. 604. 

After a temporal clause, orj often follows the first word of the 

principal clause (= just or just then); as cTret-.-.^ao-iAev? rJKovo-ev 

kvrav ia. 8 77 a0poici, K.T.\. (Xen. Anab. 1, 10 5 ). 

All commands or requests are made more urgent by adding By. 
Thus : Aeye 877, say it then or do say it or say it, pray (Xen. Cyr. 8, 
4") ; > 877, just wait (Plat. Gorg. 470*) ; Xen. Anab. 2, 2 10 ; Xen. 
Cyr. 1, 3. 

So 87} is found in questions expecting an immediate answer ; as ri 
8r) (Xen. Cyr. 1, 3 10 ). For 8eu similarly used, see above 2371, 14. 
In Homer and in lyric poetry 877 may stand first in the 
sentence (mostly in the forms 8r) yap and 877 rdre). 

(b) As a particle emphasising a word or a thought or even a whole 
sentence, 8r/ may be rendered by of course, naturally, evidently, indeed, 

'Yyt'eia >cat (V^vy KOI xdAXoy KOI nXovros 8r) (and also riches, of course, Plat. 
Meno 87 e ). Ou^ ourcor e^tt ; *E^ei 8r), is it not so ? Of course it is (Plat. Apol. 
27 C ). AT}XOI/ 817, S^Xa 817, it is quite clear, evidently (Plat. Gorg. 478 b ; Rep. 
387 C ). 

So, often with superlatives and words expressing number or 
quantity : /cpa-run-os 8rJ, the very greatest (Xen. Anab. 1, 9 20 ) ; iroAAa 877 
KCU KaAa Ipya (Plat. Menex. 239*). 

(G) Very often 877 adds emphasis to other particles and to pro- 
nouns ; as et 877, if really ; ore 877, just when ; <I>s 877, Iva 877, just that ; 
OVTWS 877, just so ; o? 877, just the one who ; ooris 877, quicunque, etc. 

Kcu 8?) Km, and also in particular, and also of course (Hdt. 

1, 29 ; Plat. Phaedo 59 d ). 

For 877 in 877^0x6, etc. see 

2371 PARTICLES 345 

(d) To oc is sometimes added 8?/ to emphasise the thought ; as ets 
Se orj cr, but one even said (Xen. Anab. 1, 3 14 ; 7, I 28 ). So oAAa 87; 
(Xen. ^wafe. 6, 3 1 *). 

(e) As a particle of inference, orj means therefore, accordingly, hence. 

*"E\fy6v (nvfs) OTI Karidoifv orpareu/Aa, /tat vvKroap iro\\a nvpa (paivoivro. 
*E8oKfi 8r) rotr aTparrjyols ov< d<r(pa\fs elvat 8ia<TKr)vovv, some said that tfnti 
had seen an army and that mn-mj rin-s had appeared in the night. It seemed 
therefore unsafe to th>- .nliln-rs to encamp separately (Xen. Anab. 4, 4 10 ). So 
6*17 is often used in transitions referring to something preceding already 
settled ; as &fpav\a$> 8 17 ovras clncr dvioravTO S Kal oXXot TroXXot, 
then spoke ; and many others stood up (Xen. Cyr. 2, 3 16 ). 

(/) For 8rj added to indefinite relatives, see under ow below. 

18, ArjOeK, 05 it appears, mostly ironically, forsooth, of something 
pretended or only apparent (Thuc. 1, 92 ; Xen. Cyr. 4, 6 3 ). 

19, Ar)irou (postpositive, sometimes written S?j rrov), doubtless, I 
suppose, surely; often used ironically. Ou STJTTOV <rv tl TWV TOIOVTW 

, you surely are not one of those men (Xen. Mem. 2, 3 1 ). 
is a stronger form (Dem. 14, 34). 

20, ATJTCI (postpositive), a stronger form of ST}, of course, surely ; 
as or orfra, no, surely not (Plat. Crito 49 b ). With questions, as TTWS 
^^ra ; how then ? (Plat. Gorg. 469 b ). 

21, AIOTI. (a) Causal (= 8ia TOUTO on), because, see 2015, 3. (b) 
Declarative (rarely), that = on, see 2015, 3. (c) Relative and 
indirectly interrogative, wherefore (Xen. Cyr. 8, 4 13 ). 

22, 'Edv (= ci* fa), if, conditional particle, see 2090, 2098, 2109. 
For tdv in certain indirect questions, see 2034. For lav Tt....idv T, 
see 2118. For lav teat and KCU cai/, see 2133. 

23, EL (1) Conditional particle, if, see 2090. For i in certain 
indirect questions, see 2034. For i KCU and ai ci, see 2133. For ci 
because, see 2074. For c, whether, in indirect questions, see 2024. 

(2) Ei uri, if not, unless, Lat. nut. Without a verb after a nega- 
tion - except (Xen. Anab. 1, 5"; 2, I 1 -'), see 2131. So on rf (see 
66 (b) below). 

(3) I except if, Lat. >m/ */, sometimes occurs (Plat. < 
480"). 8ee2i:*l. 

(4) K/ /XT/ tlftn, unless indeed, see 6 above. 
(6) Ei w o,a, except for, see 21:* 1 . 

(6) IU^K ci, see irA^f below and 2131. 

346 PAKTICLES 2371 

(7) Ei TIS (TI) is often found for OO-TI?; as IKO.LV KCU \l\bv Kal ei TL 
a\\o xpwipov tyi they burned all the fodder and whatever ( = if any- 
thing) else was of use (Xen. Anab. 1, 6 1 ). 

24. Ei yap and eiSe, particles of wishing, that, see 1999, 2 ; so in 
poetry ei (2001). 

25. Elos, elws, Horn, for IMS (2161). 

26. Eiirep, with the indicative, means if really (=if, as is really 
the case), Lat. si quiden. Xen. Anab. 1, 7 9 . 

27. Els 3 K, Horn. = 2o>. 

28. Elra and lircira, then, thereupon, used temporally and in 
enumerations ; after -n-pwrov JJLCV often = in the second place ; even 
when yaeV precedes they are usually found without Se, as in Dem. 2, 1. 
Use with participles, see 2270, 2. In ironical questions, tru (l^cira, 
K(i7riTa)= and then ? (Dem. 1, 24). 

29. EiT....eiT (sire. ...s ive), whether.... or. Used in disjunctive con- 
ditional clauses (2118) ; rarely one eire only is found as in Plat. 
Leg. 907 d ; occasionally we find eiVe....^ as in Plat. Phaedr. 277 d . 
For ire....?T in indirect questions, see 2024. 

30. 'Eiret. (1) Temporal : when, after (2161) ; with regard to the 

future, e-n-dv or V>/v, Hdt. eVcav, Hom. cVci K (2166) ; cVci ra^io-ra, as 

soow as (Xen. Hell. 2, 3 11 ). (2) Causal: since, seeing that (2071). 
(3) Concessive, although (2135). 

31. 'EireiSii (from era and 8>y), temporal particle, since, after (2161); 
with regard to the future, 7rei8ai/, which is more frequent than cirdv or 
eTTTfv (2166) ; cTTciSr) Ta^ioTa, as soon as (2161). Rarely cVettii/ is causal 

32. "Ecrre, until (2161), not in Homer. 

33. Eure, poetic and Ionic for ore, when, since, temporal and 

causal (2161, 2071). In Homer occasionally = ^vre, as, 
like as. 

34. "Ews, until, as long as, Hom. cta>s and etos; see 2161, 2172. 

35. *H (at the beginning of the sentence). (1) Truly, really; usually 
r) fjLijv (Hom. r) p,w) or rj TOL (Xen. Anab. 6, 6 17 ) ; rarely alone (as Xen. 
Cyr. 5, 4 13 ) ; for rj yap, see 12 (b) above ; ^TTOV is milder than rj ^v 
(Xen. Hell. 6, 5 48 ). (2) For 7) interrogative, Lat, -ne, see 2008. 

36. "H (Hom. also ^), or, see 2008, 2024 ; ?.... ^, either. ...or, 
often the first T? is strengthened by TOI, thus : 

2371 PARTICLES -U i 

37. "H, th in, after comparatives (1341). Also after words expres- 
sing difference, like a\Aos, Ircpos, evavrt'os, Sia<opo9, 8ia<f>cpiv and the 
like. IIoAu 01 Xoyoi avriot eiovv 17 ovs eyw rj/covoi' (Xen. Anab. 6, 6 34 ; 
A nab. 3, 4 s3 ). For Kara, see 1345. For JMTTC, see 2224. For ^ 
sometimes omitted after certain comparatives, see 1346. For aAAo TL 
(7;), see 2008, 4. 

38. 'Hfios Horn. = rjvtKa, it-hen, with the indicative. 

39. 'Hure, Horn., as, like as. 

40. 'Hmca and OT^IKCI, at the time when, when, see 2161. 

41. Qr\v (enclitic), epic, very rare in Attic, Aesch. Pro. 930, surety 
. often sarcastic (II. 12, 620; 10, 365). 

42. '!&, and, see iJ/xeV and iJ8e under 

43. "I MI. (a) As a relative, where. 

Tim-pis yap e'ort irav JV ai> irparrrj rty u, one's country is every land /< ; 
ow </>* veil (Ar. /'/</. 1151). Soph. Aj. 386. (6) As a final particle, tht, 
/MI/ (2037) ; tva TI (sc. y(vr)Tai) = why ? (Plat. Apol. 26 ). 

44. Kai, and, also, even, Lat. ei ; W (enclitic), amZ, Lat. -que. 

Toil' trw/iarcoi' QrjXvvofjifvwv K a i at' >/r i) ^ a I TTO\V apptoararcpai yiyvovrai, 
I f/i.- /../;, .s- 6* come weakened the minds also become weaker (Ken. Oec. 4, 2). 
"Eart^ d^ta 17 \<u>p(i K. a\ vno travT&v (ira.ii'do'Om, ov p.6vov ixf)" Tjp.far. tltf 
land is worthy of being praised even by everybody, not only by us (Plat. A/enex. 
-''7 ). When there are more than two members connected they are all con- 
nected with each other by Kai ; as 'AyijtriAflo) eavrbv K a t rrjv ywalna K a i ra 
TfKva teat TTJV dvvafuv fV(^ipi<Tf (Xen. Ages. 3, 3). For KOI CIVTOS and KOI 
olros, see 1428, 1431, 1478. 

(1) Kcu....u, both.. ..and, the two members considered separately. 

ApXovTfs \miv ettrt K a t ot ftovKoXot TO>V fio&v K at ot iniro<f)optjoi T<av 
iirirwv, herdsmen are rulers of oxen and hr.- -t',,<lt rs of hor* > (Xi-n. C%r, 

1.1 : i'.. /:.///, ,,/,/,,-. 7 d ). 

(2) Tc in prose is mostly TC....TC to connect clauses, and T* KOI to 
connect thoughts or words (both.. ..and, not only....lmt a/.sp, on the 
one hand... .on the other hand). 

ToC <T(i>/xaror avros re OVK rjptXft. rovs T' dp.<\ovvras OVK <rr//i'ft. h> <li>l ,mf 
neglect the body and did not praise those that did (Xen. Mem. 1, L'- : .I/,./'-. 
3, 2 3t ). 'KdtyMvop dtro i-nirov, om'rrt yvfju'tiinn HT<'>I> rt K a t TOI/J mTrouf /^oi/Xoiro, 
/i hunted on hortebu>-k " /< / Ptr /< />//, ( / /.. , ,, /,/.< himself and the horses 

n. w4na6. 1, 2 7 ). For uAXwr TC <cat, see 3 above. 

(3) Kai often stands between an adjective of quantity or number 
(like iroAi* and <>A/yos) and another adjective relating to the same sub- 

348 PAKTICLES 2371 

IIoXXoi -yap K a I dyadol <pi'Xoi, many good friends = many friends and 
good ones (Xen. Cyr. 5, 2 12 ). Sometimes we find r* KCU between no\vs 
(oXiyos) and a following adjective ; as TroXXfly re K a t evdaipovas <al peydXas 
many rich and large cities (Xen. Anab. 3, 2 23 ). 

(4) Kai....Se means and.. ..also (even), here 8e meaning awd and /cat 

AapeZoy K.vpov (raTpdnrjv eTroiijcre K a t crrparTjyov d e oVe'dei^e, Tie made him 
satrap and even (also) appointed him commander (Xen. ^4na6. 1, I 2 ; 2, 6 8 ). 
But in this sense double <ai is also used with a particle intervening ; as 
KCU drj <ai, and of course also, and in particular (Plat. Phaedo 59 d ; Hdt. 1, 
29) ; KCU Ti KOI vvv, and even now yet. 

(5) Before superlatives /cut strengthens, like the Latin vel ; as /cat 
/laAio-ra, and most particularly (Xen. Cyr. 2, I 13 ) ; at /xo>poVaToi/, even 
very foolishly (Xen. Anab. 3, 2' 22 ). 

(6) After words of likeness, KCU, like Latin atque, is equivalent to 

\v8ol vopois TT ap anXr) <riot s xP^ VTal K a ' "EXXjyi/f r, </ie Lydians use 
nearly the same laws as the Greeks (Hdt. 1, 94); opoiws KOI irpiv (Thuc. 
7, 28*). 

(7) In clauses of comparison (in English often = as.... so) KOI, also, 
is used in both clauses ; often it is used in the relative and omitted in 
the demonstrative clause. 

A*I {)fjL(is 60(T7rep *at rl^wv /if $(', o{/ra> K a t riav Kiv8vvo)v p.Tf%(iv, as 
you share the honours, so you ought also to share the dangers (Xen. Hell. 2, 
4 9 ). "Go-* o'Sa K y<o, travra. ciri<TTr)<r(i, whatever I know you also will know 
(Soph. Oed. Col. 53). So arise the formulas ( i rts KOI XXor, toy ny KOI oXXoy, 
fiirarf men aXXore, where icat is not translated ; as ei rts KOI 3X\os dvfjp, KOI 
Kvpos aios c<rri 6av[jidc(r6ai, for Cyrus, if any man in the world, is worthy of 
admiration (Xen. Cyr. 5, I 8 ) ; Anab. 2, 6 8 ; 6, 4 12 . 

(8) In English, clauses expressing a sudden or decisive action inter- 
vening on what precedes, are introduced by when. In Greek such 
clauses are usually connected with what precedes by simple KOI. 

OvTTd) rovTO) 8v' r) rpcls 8pop.ovs rrfpi(\T)\v06r rjcrrr)v K a t eto-e'p^erat KXeu'- 
tdy, they had not yet taken more than two or three turns ivhen Cleinias 
entered (Plat Euthyd. 273*); Thuc. 1, 50 5 ; Xen. Anab. 2, I 7 . For ov 
<p6dv{i)...Kai, see 2288. Rarely does the Greek use a temporal conjunction in 
such cases, as in Xen. 1, 8 1 (fjvtKa). 

(9) Occasionally we find clauses contrasted by rc....Sc : Soph. Phil. 

(10) In epic poetry ri is often found with conjunctions ; 
as /xsV, 8e, ouSc, Kai, yap, ore ; also with other particles, 

2371 PARTICLES 349 

especially in os pa re (Od. 12, 39) ; also with trip ; with 
5, really ; in questions, r apa ; with relatives, as 09 re. 
In Hdt. OTOV Tf = about (Hdt. 2, 71) ; in Attic wore, are, 
otos T are relics of this early extensive use of re. In all 
the above cases TC cannot be translated. 

45, Kaiirep (Horn. KCU. ...Trep), although, always with a participle 

46, KCUTOI, and yet, although, always introduces an independent 
clause (Xen. Mem. 2, 3 15 ). 

47, Md particle used in swearing (1603 1604). 

48, MV (postpositive) originally = prjv, indeed, truly. 

(A) (1) The word is used alone with its original meaning, indeed f 
truly, in a few isolated cases ; as in Xen. Anab. 1, 7 6 ; 7, 6 11 . 

(2) It is always found for ^v in the phrases : -n-aw pJev ovv, paXurra 
/ACV ovv, Kofju&rj /xev ovv, yes, most assuredly ; Trai/raTrdtrt /xev ovv, yes, by 
all means; K al /*ev STJ, and surely yet; dAAa /xev 817, but surely yet 
(Plat. Gorg. 471*) ; ov /xv 877, yet surely not (Xen. Anab. 2, 2 3 ) ; ov /xev 

/w, tw^mi not (Plat. %mp. 201 C ). 

(3) The expression /x e v ovv may mean according to the context 
either yes, indeed or no, rather (Plat. Phaedr. 230*; Onto 44 b ). 

(4) Mei/ ovv, like JACV STJ (17, e), is very often used in transitions, 
now (Xen. Anab. 2, 5 15 ). 

5. In Homer and Herodotus we find the formulas rj /xev, 
ov /xcV, prj fj.ev in strong assertions. Homer has much 
oftener KOL /xrv than *cu /xo' 877. 

(6) In questions /xeV is equivalent to /XTJV (Ar. ^4v. 1214; Plat. 
Charm. 153). 

(B) (1) The ordinary use of /*V is in connection with a following 
8 or /icVrot, one particle belonging to one thought or sentence, and the 

other particle belonging to another, thus forming a contrast (/xev oV, 

/ACV //C'VTOI). This is a favourite Greek idiom. Occasionally this 

may be translated by indeed but or on the one hand on the 

other ; but usually /iv is left untranslated, and 3< is rendered by but 
or and. 

*O fuv ftios ftpa\vs, f) 8( Tt'x>'t] paxpa, life indeed is short, but art if long 

l[,:rm. 63). For & piv 6 6V, see 1^77 

In cases of anaphora (the repetition of the same word in two 

350 PARTICLES 2371 

succeeding sentences) /Aev....8e are generally employed, 8e here = but 
(and) also. 

2vi>et/ii /z e v 6(ois, (rvveifju 8' dvQpvTrots rols dya6o1s, I associate with the 
gods and also with good men (Xen. Mem. 2, 1 3<J ; Anab. 7, 5 14 ). 

(2 1 Instead of 8c or /ueVroi, the particles dAAu, drdp, p.rjv, ov ^v 
aAAd, TOLVVV are sometimes used to correspond to /xeV. Sometimes the 
contrasted thought is expressed without any of the above particles, in 
some other way. 

Homer has, besides 8*', also dAAd, drdp, dvrdp, av, avrc, 
and /cat, corresponding to /*V. 

(3) If more than two members are contrasted, only the first has 
/xeV, all the others de. 

(4) Within a contrast indicated by 8e, there may be another 

Contrast also indicated by /xev 8e. *O /xev dvJ/p roiavra TreTron/Kt, 

TOiavra 8e Aeyci v/xwv Sc trv 7rpaJ709 aTru^r/vat yvw/x^v (Xen. Anab. 

1, 6*). 

(5) When two relative or conditional clauses are contrasted, double 
/MeV..../x/ is followed by 5c....8c; but the second 8c is usually omitted. 
Ola fjicv t/caara e/Aot </><uVerai, roiavra /^t e v tortv /u.ot * ola 8 e o-ot', 

roiavra b* av (rot (Plat. Theaet. 152 a ). Dem. 2, 18. 

6. Clauses are often co-ordinated by /*/.. ..Se' when in English one 
is subordinated to the other by a conjunction like while. 

Ato'xpoi' fcmv rovs \i I v ep-Tropovs TrjXiKavra rreXay^ diairepav va rov 
rrXfito TTOifja-ai TTJV V7rdpxov<rav ovaiav, rovs 5< vtwrepovs firj8f Kara yijv Tropeias 
vTTOfjitvdv fni TO) ft f \Ttto KaTaCTT^a-at rf)v avratv dtdvoiav, it is shameful that 
merchants travel through so many seas to increase their wealth while young 
men, etc. (Isoc. 1, 6 ; here al<rxp6v does not refer to the first but to the 
second clause). Dem. 24, 31. Xen. Mem. 1, 2 3 . 

(7) On the other hand, an apodosis to a relative or conditional 
clause is occasionally introduced by 8e = then ; as in II. 1, 193 ; 1, 137. 

(8) The member with 8e may be omitted, especially after eyw /xeV, 
I at least, I for my part. 

'E\v0cpov dvai e-yoi) p. v oi/zcu dvrd^iov flvat ra>v iravrcov xP T JP^ Ttl)V i !> 
for my part, consider that to be free is worth all riches (Xen. Hell. 4, I 38 ). 
(9) From ^ and /u,eV and 8c are derived rjnev and ^8e, 
and. 'H/xeV is epic, often found with ^8e corresponding 
(= TC....K<U). 'H8e is found alone often in epic poetry, 
and occasionally hi the tragedians (mostly Aeschylus). 
Horn, also i8e, and. 



(10) Position of fuV and 8e. When several postpositive particles 
meet, /xcV and Bt come first ; as oo-a S^.-.-eyeVero (Xen. Anab. 4, I 1 ). 
When the words contrasted are nouns with their articles, /*eV and 
&f come between the article and the noun ; if the contrasted words 
are prepositional phrases, /xcV and 6V come after the preposition. 

Ta nc v <ra>/zara...., f) 8 ( ^VXTJ (Isoc. 1, 12) ; els p f v rovs vfipiovTcs, rot? 
df dov\fvovrc s (Isoc. 4, 151). In cases like TOVTOV 8c TTJV VVKTU pev o^o-ere. 
TTJV 5< T]p.(pav d<pT)<r(Tf (Xen. Anab. 5, 8 34 ), the position of ptv gives a stronger 
emphasis to the noun ; similarly 8c in Xen. Anab. 4, 8 1 : eVopeutfqo-ai/ 
araBfjMvs rpfis Tfl TTpwrrj 8e d<piKOvro, K.T.\. 

49, MVTOI (postpositive, from /xcv = /xiji/ + rot) : in narrative, truly, 
certainly ; in answers, of course, indeed ; in questions with ou expecting 
an affirmative answer, then; in contrasts, yet, however, often with 
preceding /to/. 

Mt'/ij'f/o-oi fKflva; Nat /xa Aia, p*fj.vTjpai pevrot TOiavra aKOixras <rov, 

do you remember those things? Yes, by Zeus, I certainly remember 

hearing such remarks from you (Xen. Cyr. 1, 6 tt ). Ov <ri> fievrot 'Orfpov 
fTraivfTTjs i; are you not then a praiser of Homer? (Plat. Prot. 309"). *iXo- 

o-o<^a) picv eoiKas- *<r0i fjLfvroL dvorjros a>v, you seem like a philosopher, 

but know that you are foolish (Xen. Anab. 2, I 13 ). Xen. Anab. 1, 9 6 (truly). 

50, Me'xpt, dxpi. until, 2161 ; as preposition, up to, 1862, 1. 

51, Mr|, not, as a negative, 2334. In final clauses, 2037. After 
verbs of fearing, 2062 ; without a principal clause, 2067. For ^ and 
fj.rj or with the subjunctive = perhaps, perkap* not. For ^ in questions, 

52, Mt]S^ see ovoV below. 

53, Mi]K (postpositive), partly strengthening, in truth (II. 23, 410) ; 
oftener adversative, yet., however (Plat. Tim. 20 h ). In questions, then ; 
as nVos /ut7/v o'*u fiavOdvT( To^eu'cii/ ; (Xen. Cyr. 1, 6 28 ). Tt fjujv ; what 
then ? in Attic = of course (Plat. Leg. 690*). For ^ ^v see 2371, 35. 

'AAAA prfv (at vero), yet truly, -and K<U /x^ (et vero t et sane), a?ki 
yet, nay more, introduce objections or merely something additional 
(Xen. Anab. 3, I 17 ; 1, 9 18 ; Ar. Han. 106). For or ^v after /xV, and 
ou /x> dXAfi, see below under or, 2371, 67 (/). 

54, MTITC, see ovr below under ou in 2371, 67 (d). 

55, Mi] TI ye (S^), not to say, to say nothing of, Lat. nedum (Dem. 
21, 148). See rf on under ou in 2371, 67 (d). 

56, Mw^ (= /i v o.'r), interrogative particle expecting the answer no, 
like Lat. nwn (2008). 

352 PAKTICLES 2371 

57. Nai, yes, surely, in answers. For vat //a, see 1603 1604. For 
other ways of expressing yes, see 2010. 

58. N^j, see 16031604. 

59. NGy, now, at present. After a conditional sentence (2089), :av 
Se means but then, but now, Lat. nunc vero (Dem. 1, 9). 

Nw or vvv (enclitic, weakened from vvv), used inferentially, then, 
therefore, with an imperative synonymously with orj (as Xen. Anab. 7, 
2 26 ). See TotVw. 

In Homer vvv and vv are not confined to the imperative. 

60. Ota, otok, with participles (2271). 

61 1 "Opus, nevertheless, notwithstanding, with participles, 2275. 

62. "Oirws, as, that, in order that. As an indefinite relative adverb : 
OVK IVTIV o TT to 5 fjpdpTerc, in no way have you erred (Dem. 18, 208). 
Use as final conjunction, 2037 ; with verbs of striving, 2050. For 
OTTO)? without a principal clause, 2058. For ou^ oVtos, not only, see 
67 below. For OTTOJS declarative, that, see 2015, 2. 

63. Oau....ToaouTu>, the.. ..the (1814). 

64. "Ore and oirore, when, as, 2161 ; /AC/U^/MU ore, 2165. For ore, 
OTTOTC, tTTfiorj, sometimes causal = because, since, whereas, see 2071. 

65. 'OW, distinguished by the accent from ore, found in ore Se, 
but sometimes ; and in ore /xeV.. .ore 8e, Lat. modo....modo, now., 
sometimes.... sometimes, at one time.... at another time. Equivalent 
expressions are TTOTC /uev....7rore 8e, and TOTC /xeV....roT 8c. 

66. "On. Declarative, that, 2213 ; with verbs of perception, 2302 ; 
causal, because, 2071 ; for on with superlatives, 1359 ; for ^ on, not 
only, 67 below. "On TI; sc. coru/, for what reason ? (Dem. 23, 214). 
'Ortry, because, colloquial for on, as in Ar. Nub. 1046 ; see rlrj. 

(a) The expressions S^Xoi/ on (sometimes written o^Xovon), it is clear 
that, evidently, clearly, and (ev) bTS* on, I (well) know that, certainly, 
are almost used like adverbs, and are added to or inserted in the 

*A eVi'trrai'Tai 8f)\ov art, with regard to what they know (they are wise), it 
is clear (Xen. Mem. 4, 6 7 ). ndpet/u 8' Haw ovx Kov<riv, old' on, I am 
unwilling here to unwilling hearers, I know (Soph. Ant. 276). 

(b) 7 On fjirj after a negative = t /XT;, except (67 below and 2131) ; as 

OVK 7Tt OtUpiaV 7TO)7rOT K T^S TToXctU? C^X^CS O T I fJ. T) a.TTO.% IS 'ifrBfJLOV, yOU 

never went out to see the games except once to the Isthmus (Plat. Crito 
52 b ). 

2371 PARTICLES 353 

(c) Like the Latin quad, <m sometimes means that = 05 far as this 
is concerned. 

"EtiroiiJ.' av cyaryf on ra p.fv aXAa op&ar j^KOutraj 1 , or t 8 at cp.f otei etTreTu 
TOVTO, irapf)Kov<ras, I should aay that you heard the other things right, but that 
when you think I said this, you heard wrong (Plat. Prot. 330*). Oftener o 
is soused, as in Xen. Hier. 6, 12 (o 8' e^Xwo-ar....). 

(d) Homer also has simple o in the sense of that ; as 
in Od. 3, 146 and 166 (2071, 2 ; 2015, 5). Originally on was 
identical with o n. 

67, 00, not, treated in detail with rf in 2334 2365. Ov\ no, as in 
Xen. Mem. 6, 6 2 , see 2010, 3. In questions = ap* ov or OVKOVV, as in 
Xen. Anab. 3, I 29 ; see 2008. 

(a) MoW ov, p.6vov ovxi (lit. only not, Lat. tantum non), almost, all 

Ovs (rv povov ov irpoo-Kvvcls, whom you all but worship (Ax. Vesp. 
517). "Oa-ov ov (also followed by 17877), 5<rov ovira>, almost, with reference to 
time. Toy o o- o v ov Trapovra noXepov, the all but present war (Thuc. 1, 36 2 ). 
'Enfpxovrai not o<rov ovrr<o 7rdpci<riv (Thuc. 6, 34 8 ). Xen. Hell. 6, 2 16 . 

(b) Ov (or fjirj) /xo/ov....dA\a KCU, not only but also, Lat. non solum 

....sed etiam; as in Xen. Mem. 1, 6 2 ; Aeschiu. 3, 65. 

(c) 'AAV ov, oAAa /MT}, but not, and not ; as Isoc. 1, 30 ; Xen. Hell. 
7, 4*>. 

(d) These expressions are elliptical : 

Oi>x oTi....aAAa Ktti, p.ff ori....a\\a K a i, not only. ...but also. 
Ov\ on fjMvos 6 Kpiroav tv ri<rv\ia qv, aAAa K at ot (piXoi avrov, nf <>nlu 
was Crito himself unmolested, but also his friends (Xen. Mem. 2, 9 8 ). M^ 
art 6(0 f aAAa cat avQpunot, not only a god, but also men (Xen. Cyr. 7, 2 17 ). 
Xen. Hier. 8, 5. 

Ov% o IT a> s aXAa K a t, not only not. ...but also. *H yf) oi>x oira>r 

nva xaprrbv ffvcymv a A X a K a I TO vfto)p tv fKtivto TW fViavroi (K T>V <ppraro>i' 
('ntXtnfv. not only did the earth bear no fruit in that year, but the water in 
the wells also failed (Dem. 60, 61). Lys. 19, 31. Dem. 18, 271 (without 

0*?) oirr....A,A* ouft or p.rj&{, not only not.. ..but not even. 
ur r^t KOIV^S t\(v0(piat p(T<\optv aAX* ovd 8ovAc'ar firrptaf rjuo- 
iv, not only have we no share in the common liberty, but we are 
not even deemed worthy of meeting with moderate slavery (Isoc. 14, 3). M f) 
oirus <>px<itr0(u tv p'vfyuji aAX' oio 1 ' op0ou<r0ai tbvi>a<r6*, not only were you 
not able to dance in measure, but you were not able even to stand straight 
(Xen. Cyr. 1, 3 10 ). X/^ rov w rvx^vra yvupris o\>x Z**e (THUOVV aAAA 


354 PABTICLES 2371 

/i T) 8' dripM^av, the state ought not only not punish the man who is wrong in 
his opinion, but ought not even to degrade him (Thuc. 3, 42 7 ). 

O v Sf'....fii7 on, not even ..... much less (not to say). Ata rov ^et/ucoi/a 
ovdf TrXfii/, p. r) on dvaipclo-dai rovs dv8pas dvvarov yv, on account of the 
storm it was not even possible to put to sea, much less to rescue the men (Xen. 
Hell 2, 3 35 ). Xen. Symp. 2, 26. Plat. Rep. 398". 

Of the above, the expressions beginning with ov stand for OVK e'pw 
(Xcyco) OTTWS, / will (do) not say that : those beginning with ^ stand 
for some expression like /j.rj CITTW ort, not to say or yur) CITTT/S on or /XTJ 

fiTrrj TIS OTI. 

(e) Ov pip after /xcV = ov /xWot (Isoc. 4, 15). 

(/) Ov jjirjv ttAAa and ov /xcVrot dXAd, nevertheless. These are ex- 
plained by the omission of something before dAAa which is contrasted 
with what follows. 

'O l inirOS...-fjilKpOV (KflvOV f ^fT pa\T]\l(T fV ' OV fJiT]V oXXa (ITffJiClVfV 6 KvpOS, 

the horse almost threw him over its head ; nevertheless Cyrus kept his seat 
(Xen. Cyr. 1, 4 8 ; i.e. yet it did not throw him, but [= nevertheless] he kept 
his seat). Example of the uncommon ov /itVrot aXXa, Thuc. 5, 43 a . Compare 
ov yap dXXa, above, 12 (e). 

(g) MaXXov rj ov is sometimes found for simple /xaAAov ^, rather than 
(instead of), the ov being superfluous. ndA.ii/ oA^F oia<t>6clpai. p a X A. o v 
y ov TOV? amovs, to destroy a whole city rathtr than (instead of) the 
guilty (Thuc. 3, 36 4 ). 
68, OuoV (p)&^), connecting negatives. 

(a) And not, nor, connecting a negative member with a preceding 

negative member. Ovoc/jua yv eXTris Tt/xwpt'd?, o v8c dAXry o-wrr/ptd Iffai- 

VTO, there was no hope of aid nor did any other means of safety appear 

(Thuc. 3, 20). 

In poetry, especially in Homer, ovoV (/x>/Se) may also thus 
occur after an affirmative clause; also in Herodotus. 
"H/x/SpoTfr o v 6 Tv\s, thou hast missed, nor hast thou reached 
thin* aim (II. 5, 287). Od. 4, 825. Soph. Oed. Tyr. 1434. 
Hdt. 1, 82i. 
In Attic prose, after an affirmative clause, and not is KCU ov or 

ov (Thuc. 2, 5 7 ). 

(b) Not even (Lat. ne....quidem), is ovSe'. 'AAA' ovSe TOVTWV 
vovrai, but not even of these shall they be deprived (Xen. Anab. 1, 4 8 ). 
Xen. Symp. 6, 2 ; see below KCU ov8c (g). 

(c) Ov8' ws (ovro>9) = not even thus, not even then (Xen. Anab. 1, 

2371 PARTICLES 355 

(d) OvX fl = not even if (Xen. Cyr. 2, I 8 ). 

(e) Ovo*....&, and not, nor indeed, or simply nor (Xen. Anab. 1, 8 20 ). 
(/) Ou8e'....ot>Se = no ei>ett....wor (yef) or and not. 

2v d y< ovSe op&v yiyv<ao~Kis ov8c aKovoiv p.cp.vr]o~ai, you do not even know, 
nr do you remember (Xen. Anab. 3, I 27 ). In ovoe ..... ov8(, the first ovo4 has 
adverbial force, " not even" ; compare ovrt ..... ovrt, neither... .nor, below (t). 

(g) Kcu ovof, and not even, nor even (Isoc. 19, 40). 

(h) Ovot //.cYroi (Xen. 4, I 36 ), and ou ^ o'-Se (Thuc. 1, 3 3 ), and ov 
fjLfvroi ovot (Plat. Prot. 331 e ), all mean yet (hoivever) ..... not, but ...... 


(*) Neither.... nor is not ou8c....ovof, but OVTC....OVTC (see below, 
2371, 72). 

69. OuKouy and OUKOUK (from OI-K and ovi'); in the former ovv, tfierefore, 
is accented, in the latter the negative. 

(a) OVKOVV, therefore, then, accordingly. 

Tt (f)Tjcro^fv ; ..... jy TOVS d^vvfcrdai KtXfvovTas rroXffJMV iroitiv <f)T)<TOfjit v ; 
ov K ovv viroXoiirov SevXfvfiv, what shall we say? ..... shall we declare that 
who are bidding us to defend ourselves are making war? therefore it i* 
left for us to be slaves (Dem. 8, 59). Plat. Rep. 353 d . 

(b) OVKOIV as an interrogative particle ("not therefore?"), 
expecting the answer "yes" (see 2008). This is the original use of 
the word. In this sense some also write OVKOVF. 

(c) OVKOW, therefore not, surely not, the negative accented (Lat. 
non iyitur, while OVKOIV = nonne iyitur ?). 

OVKOW afroXftS/fo/juu ye o~ov d TOVTO Xe'-ytif, / will not therefore leave you 
if you say that (Xen. Cyr. 4, I 83 ). " OiVtfa rt ovv Mvos" <0i;, ' ' t)\i0uur<poi> 
patytooiav ; " '' Ou fta rov At* " <f>rj o Nucijparoy, '' o C K o v v tpoiyc oomt," " do 

fhtn know a sillier tribe than the rhapsodes?' 1 " No, by Zeus," said 
Niceratut, "if surely doet not teem so to me " (Xen. >'_////. 3, 6). 

70. OUK (postpositive ; Hdt. and Dor. &v), therefore, then, consequently. 

I. The usual meaning is therefore, then, consequently. 

Tovroit jjo-Qtj Kvpot ftovXtrai ovv KOI o~i rovratv y(vo~a(r6ai, <'j/ru enjoyed 
these things, therefore he wishes you also to taste of them (Xen. An<i(>. 1, 9 M ; 
1,6; 3, 2"). 

After a parenthetical remark oi>, then therefore, like Lat. iyitur. 
Xen. Anab. 1, 5 U ; Plat Apol. 29-. M^ oh, then ; see 2371, 48 (A) (4). 

II. In certain phrases, surely, in truth, certainly. 

(a) lldw fttv ovv, paXurra piv ovv, KOfuoy /ACV ovv, yes, most assuredly ; 

356 PAETICLES 2371 

fv ovv, yes, by all means ; ov ftev ovv, no, indeed not; for 
these expressions see 2371, 48 (A) (2). 

(b) McV ovv, yes, indeed, or no, indeed ; see 2371, 48 (A) (3). But 
/xev ovv in transitions (then) ; see 2371, 48 (A) (4). 

(c) 'AAA' ovv, but then; see 2371, 1 (c). A' ow at any rate, 
hoiveverit is certain (Xen. Anab. 1, 2 12 ). 

III. Attached to indefinite relatives, ovv (like orj, ST/TTOTC, 877 TTOT' ovv) 
makes the indefinite relatives still more indefinite ; as OOTIO-OVI/, who- 
ever, any one who ; OTTWOTIOVV, in what manner soever ; ov8* 67nocr(Ti)ow, 
not in any way whatever, not in the least. Plat. Gorg. 516 H ; Dem. 3, 
7 ; Xen. Anab. 1, 6 27 . 

71. Oufcica and 66oui'Ka (poetic, the latter tragic), because, 

sometimes declarative, that. 11. 9, 505; Soph. Phil. 
232. Sometimes Tow*a, for that reason, therefore, is 
used as its correlative (//. 13, 727). 

72. OUTC....OUTC (^TJT....fjLT)T), neither ... .nor \ 

"Epyov KaXbv ovTf Btiov ovrt av6pu>irivov xo>pir cfwv yiyvfTai, no 
honourable deed, divine or human, is done without me (Xen. Mem. 2, I 3i ). 
Qvre diro8f8paKao-iv....o{jTf diro7rp(vya(Ti, they have not Jied secretly ........ 

nor have they completely escaped (Xen. Anab. 1, 4 8 ). Mrjre ..... [lyre (Xen. 

Eques. 9, 11). Our* ...... ufa (Dein. 19, 149). 

(a) OvTt (fjL^rf)....T = Lat., not only not. ...but also, on 
the one hand not.. ..and (but) on the other. 

OVT( yap fir I fviq rbv KTjpvKa fd^avro, ircpi Tf rrjs ftorjQfias ovdcv dirf- 
Kpivavro, not only did they not show hospitality to the herald, but they gave 
no answer to the request for help (Xen. Hell. 6, 4 20 ). Xen. Anab. 2, 2 8 ; 
7, 3 13 . 

(b) OvTf....ovo, fjL-ijT....fjiTjo &T6 the negative of T ..... ot (see above, 
2371, 44 (8)) ; Thuc. 2, 93 2 ; Xen. Anab. 7, 6 22 ; Find. Isth. 2, 44-45. 

(c) Ovre....ovand /iifre....^ are poetic (Eur. Or. 41, 1086). 
Barely T OV....TC for OVTC....OVTC (Eur. Iph. Taur. 1367). 

73. OUTI or ov rt, not at all (Plat. Rep. 331*). 

74. OUTOI (pjroi), surely not, in nowise (ov or ^ + TOL ; Xen. Mem. 1> 
4 10 ; Aesch. Prom. 625). 

75. "Ctypa, poetic; temporal, until, as long as (2161); final, 

that, in order that (2037). 

76. r\Apos, formerly, poetic. Epic also before with the infini- 


2371 PABTICLES 357 

77, Hep (enclitic, weakened from older Wpi), very, much, just, eceu, 
used to strengthen relatives to which it is attached, as oWe/), just the 
one who ; also in ciTrcp, if really = since (2071) ; eVciVep, since really, 
ortTrep, just when, just as. For KfluVcp with participles, see 2074. 

In Homer Trcp is also used with other words. 
Twain! ircp (Od. 11, 441). Upayrov nep, for the wry jirxt time 
(II. 14, 295). "Ei/ TT*P oWp< (Od. 19, 541 ; note the position 
of TTfp). Rarely with verbs, as o>s eo-erm ncp (Od. 21, 212). 
Several isolated examples in Herodotus (as in 3, 131 : d&Kcvrjs 
Trcp <i>v) ; in Sophocles only Phil. 1068 ; several in Euripides, 
as in A Ic. 2 ; and in Aeschylus, as in Sept. 1038. 

78, nXrJK, except. 

(1) As a preposition, except, see 1862. 

(2) As a conjunction, except that. 

AuHTireipovTCii KOI of KOpov f^aKoatoi fls TO diaxeiv 6pp,rf(ravTcs ' IT X rj v irdvv 
oXryoi dp.<p' avrov K(iT(\fi<pdr)<rav, Cyrus's six hundred, having rushed to the 
pursuit, were scattered, except that a very few remained with him (Xen. 
Anab. 1, 8 a5 ). Occasionally without a verb ; as irdvrts avtipuiroi fjSevs -rrpoa-- 
bfxovrai T&S (oprds, TT X tj v of rvpawoi, all men gladly look forward to feasts 
except the rulers (Xen. Hier. 1, 18). 

(3) II A. rj v ft without a verb is equivalent to ct p.rj, unless, except 
(if), Lat. nisi, as Ar. Av. 601. 

79, HoXXdicis, often, many times. In Attic, especially in Plato, i 
TToAAa/as, if perhaps, if perchance, Lat. si forte, and Iva. firj iroAAaKi?. 
lest perchance, Lat. ne forte. Plat. Lack. 179 b ; Prot. 361 C . 

80, rioW (enclitic) (1) At any time; TTOTC /xv....7roT 8c, at one time 
(sometimes) at another time (sometimes). 

(2) Questions are made more urgent by adding TroTt = &rj, ever, 
possibly (Xen. Mem. 1, I 1 ). So Sr/Trore, postpositive (Xen. Mem. 3, 

2' J ), and &rj TTOT nrr. 

81, Hou (enclitic) (1) Any wiiere, somewhere. 

(2) In any way, perhaps, probably, apparently. 'ETrurrcurflc' TTOU ort probably know....(&Qn. Anab. 5, 7 13 ). Xen. Hell. 2 f 2 s . A>/ 
see above, 19. 

82, npi*', hcfore, ere, see 2161. As an adverb, formerly, before, 
tooner ; in Attic only as an attribute with substantives, as lv rot* ~,,\\ 

'i the foregoing statements (Thuc. 2, 62 1 ) ; also TO irpiv, formerly. 
In Homer irpiv - sooner is found with the indicative 
(2180 ; 2182, 2). 

83, riw (enclitic;), up to this time, ever yet, hitherto, mostly with a 

358 PARTICLES 2371 

negative. OVTTW, not yet. IltoTroTe, ever, ever yet, often in protases. 
Ov&cTrwTrt.Tf, never yet (up to the present time) ; ovSeWre, never (at any 

84, Te (enclitic), see /cat. 

85, T&us, before this, antecedent to Iws; TCW? /xev, for a time (Xen. 
Anab. 5, 4 1 ' 5 ). Tews is sometimes used for Iws, until, as long as, while 
(Horn. JEfyw. Cer. 138) ; Hdt. has twice, 1, 173, and 4, 165 (re'ws ftev 
..... ol of,.fj Se) ; Plato once, Symp. 191* ; Dem. often, as in 1, 20 ; 2, 21. 

86, Toi (enclitic), in truth, surely, doubtless, therefore, accordingly; 
particle of firm conviction (Xen. Mem. 2, I 10 - n ; Plat. Euthyphr. 5 C ). 

(a) Toiyapow and roiya/mu (prepositive), therefore, indeed, then, so 
then ; similar are KO.L yap ovv und *at ydp TOI (Plat. Soph. 234 e ; Phaedo 
82 d ; Xen. Anab. 1, 9 8 - 9 ; Isoc. 7, 30). KatVot, see above. Or rot, see 
above. MeVroi, see above. *HTOI, see above. 'Hrot....^ see above. 
TotVw, see below. 

(b) Toiyap, poetic ; rapa for TOI apu, dramatic. 

87, Toufcica, for that reason, therefore, see oiWa. 

88, Toivuv (postpositive, from rot and wv, not in Homer nor in 
Pindar), therefore, then, surely now. 

Ae'yt 817, rt (f>rjs ivai TO o<riov ; ...... Wyco TOIVVV, OTI TO oo~iov COTI ..... ro> 

adtKovvTi ..... (ne^ifvai, say now what you declare to be holiness....! say then 

tin it holiness is to prosecute any one who acts unjustly (Plat. Euthyphr. 5 d ). 

(a) So rarely /ncv TOLVW is used in transitions like /xev ow or /tcv 8^ 
(Isoc. 4, 28 : Xen. Mem. 2, I 10 ). 

(b) Moreover, for, Lat. atqui (Xen. Mem. 1, 2 s * 9 ; Cyr. 1, I 2 ). 

(c) Sometimes it merely connects like 8e (Xen. Anab. 5, I 9 ). 

89, c fls (proclitic), as, Ma, Lat. ut ; it has various uses. 

(a.) As a relative, 05, sometimes with a corresponding ovrws, so 
(Lat. ut, ut....ita). 

'Q s TToXepiois avrotr xpwi/rat, they treat them as enemies (Xen. Cyr. 3, 1 39 ). 
'EKf'Aeixre TOVS *E\\r)vas & s vopos avTo'is (Is p^X T 1 v VTO) Ta\9^vai KOI o-rfjvat, 
he ordered the Greeks to be so marshalled and to take their places as was their 
custom for battle (Xen. Anab. 1, 2 15 ). In exclamations like Lat. quam (as 
<W rjovs, how sweet, see 1542). With superlatives like Lat quam (a>s /3e'Xricrror), 
see 1359. Considering that, for, like ut in cases like this : Bpaa-idds yv ovdt 
ddvvaTos, o> s AaKeSai/ioiuos-, flirfiv, nor was Brasidas unskilled in speaking, for 
a Lncedaemonian = considering that he was a L. (Thuc. 4, 84 2 ) ; Xen. Anab. 
4, 3 31 . Before numbers, about ; as as pvpids SpaxpGs (Lys. 19, 40). So in 
expressions like a>s (eVi) TO n-oXv, for the most part (Plat. Rep. 330 ; 377 b ). 


/or, of what appears to be ; as irapTKvd^fro o> ? $ paxnv, he 

> aged them as if for battle (Thuc. 4, 93 1 ). So with participles (as, as if; 
L'i'71. '-ft. With participles to express purpose (2271, 2). With independent 
infinitive (&>$ fnos dr-riv), see 21'L'S. 

(6) As a demonstrative (so, thus) in certain expressions. 

so M<?/< (Thuc. 3, 37 5 ). Kal a>s, ecen so (Thuc. 7, 74). 
air, /i.f >// 10, /ia* no* so (Soph. .4>i. 1042; Thuc. 1, 74 2 ). 

ilso with other adverbs as in cases like the following: c ii $ 
(&> o- a v T a) y), in Jita manner, jusf so (Plat. Phaedo 102 - ). C Q ? c r c p o> r, in 
//i. <//(,/ way, but Tpws ira>s = in some other way (Dem. 18, 85). 'Q s 
d \ TJ 6 y, truly, most OMtMwUy (Plat. Phaedo 63 a ). In these cases a>? is the 
adverb from the article 6, ^, TO (originally a demonstrative). 

(c) '1)5 temporal, as, when, as soon as, see 2161. Causal, as, since, 
because, seeing that, see 2071. Declarative, that, see 2013. Con- 
secutive, so that, like wo-re, see 2077. Final, that, in order that, see 
2037. In wishes (Lat. utinam), see 2001, 2. As a preposition, to, see 

90, "Qtnrep (from d>5 and wep), eyen as, just as ; only comparative. 
ip ar 6i, see 2130. 'Oo-Trep with participles, see 2271. 

91. "flare, so </wii, with resttZJ-clauses, see 2077. With verbs of 
^ing and impersonal verbs of happening, see 2217, 2203. With 

adjectives of fitness, see 2223. Sometimes wo-re = on condition that, 

see 2081. 

NOTE. Homer uses WO-TC with resw^-clauses as above, 
only in II. 9, 42 ; Od. 17, 21. He uses it for comparisons 
synonomously with wo-n-ep, as. Herodotus uses wore 
with participles in the same way as are, ola (Hdt. 6, 94). 


2372. Ellipsis (defect) is the omission of words essential to the 
thought. Many cases have already been treated. For asyndeton 
or the absence of connectives between sentences, see 2370. Other 
oases require no special mention. 

2373. Pleonasm (redundance), the reverse of ellipsis, is the 
Auction of words not essential to the sense; sometimes this is 

done for greater clearness. Some cases have already been treated. 
1. The apparent redundance of negatives is treated under 2350 
>7 ; see also 2358 2363. For ^oAXoi/ and /xoAiora redundant, Me 


1354, 1365. For the repetition of av see 1970. So OVTOS is sometimes 
used pleonastically (as in Dem. 18, 159). For example of pleonastic 
repetition of on, see Xen. Anab. 7, 4 5 . 

2374. Brachylogy (brevity in speech) is a condensed form of 
expression in which words essential to the thought are to be inferred 
from the context. Thus, a predicate verb may have to be supplied, 
especially an infinitive; an affirmative expression from a negative; 
in a comparison, the owner may be compared instead of the object. 

" Hol6v nva TOVTOV vop.iois &v TOV civdpa clvai;" " ArjXov art," <prj, "/jiaXaKOi/ 
Tf teal deiXoV " (sc. tivat j>o/ii'a>), lt what kind of person would you consider this 
man to be V " Evidently," he said, " a weakling and a coward " (Xen. Mem. 
3, 7 1 ). TaCra eyeo <roi ov nfiOopMi, &> Me'Xfjre, o'/xai 8f ovde aXXoi/ av6pa>7rav ovdeva 
(sc. irfi&fvBal o-ot), in this I cannot believe you, Meletus, nor do I believe any 

ether man would believe you (Plat. ApoL 25 e ). Oidcv ort ov8e\s cuvv 

ftiKaios, dXX' VTTO avavdpias TJ ytpas rj TIVOS XXi^y do'^evftar \lseyei TO ddiKflv, 
He knows that no one is willingly just, but that each one blames injustice 
from cowardice or age or some other weakness (Plat. Rep. 366 d ; here ctaaros 
or Ttr is supplied from oi>8ds). X<apav f\fTf ov8ev TJTTOV rm&v (vrifjiov, here 
f)p.a>i> for rfjs fjpfTcpas, you have a land no less prized than our own (Xen. 
Cyr. 3, 3 41 ). See also the pregnant construction of prepositions (1840, 1841). 

2375. Zeugma (yoking) is the grammatical connection of one 
verb with two or more subjects or objects while it is appropriate only 
to one. 

XprjfjMTo. TfXovvTfs not \dpiTas, paying them money and thanks (for 

XapiTdf 8i86vTfs, Plat. Crit. 48 C ). Oi/re (pavyv ovre TOV p.op<pr)v fSporatv o^ei, 
thou wilt see neither voice nor form of any mortal (for <po>vt)v aKovo-fi Aesch. 
Prom. 21). 

2376. Aposiopesis (becoming silent) is the sudden interruption of 
the sentence, from emotion or for effect, leaving it unfinished. 

EiTrep yap K.' ed(\Tja"iv 'OXu/irrtoy daTepoirrjTrjs e' edfoav o~rv(p(\i^ai, what if 
the Olympian, the lord of the lightning, wish to dash us from our seats (II. 1, 
580). Many examples are like cases of ellipsis. 

2377. Anacoluthon (inconsistency) is a change or interruption of 
the grammatical construction begun in the first part of the sentence. 

'ETTI^U/ICOJ/ 6 Kupo s....fdocv auroi, Cyrus considering...., it seemed best 

to him (Xen. Cyr. 7, 5 37 ) ; Thuc. 3, 36.' ' vevvrtov TJTOI c\7riov- 

TCLS, we must swim, or hoping (Plat. Rep. 453 d ). 

In these and in many similar cises, the construction becomes 
grammatically inconsistent. 



2378. Usual Order. Owing to its great wealth of inflections, the 
Greek language is very much less restricted than the modern languages 
in the position of words in a sentence or of clauses to each other. 
The usual order of words is : (1) the subject with its qualifying words 
at the beginning ; (2) the predicate (verb, or the copula ctvcu with a 
noun or an adjective) at the end. Oblique cases and adverbs and 
prepositional phrases belonging to the verb, may come before or after 
the verb. 

Tio-<ra<pfpvr)s Sia^oAAei rov KOpoi/, Tissaphernes accuses Cyrus (Xen. Anab. 
1, I 3 ). Kvnpioi ndw 7rpo0VpM>s avrta (rvvcarpdreva-av, the Cyprians very readily 
joined him in the expedition (Xen. Cyr. 7, 4 1 ). 

For the position of adjectives with their nouns, of pronouns, and 
of particles, see the appropriate sections. 

2379. Inverted Order. Deviations from the regular order, for the 
sake of emphasis, are very frequent. As the beginning and the end 
of the sentence are the strongest places, important words, or words 
which it is intended to emphasise, may be placed at the beginning of 
the sentence or kept back to the end. 

OVK dyaffbv iroXvKoipavir) fls noipavot eoro), a multitude of masters is 
not a good thing, let there be one master (II. 2, 204). Km yap, (fyavav, 
iroXvxpva-os 6 dvr)p, for, they said, the man is very rich (Xen. ' '</>. ;>, 2 84 ). 
Et^ov & ot \a\8aioi ycppa T KOI iraXra 8vo ical 7roXf/*iica>TaTot dt Xcyovrai 
ofrot TO>V ntpl fKtivijv n?i/ %<J>pav tivat, the Chaldaeans had each a shield and 
two javelins, and they are said to be the most warlike of all the people in that 
pwri of the world (Xen. Cyr. 3, 2 7 ). Ou&* av cXirir ffv ravra ytvivQai /3 * X r i <*, 
there would be no hope of this situation becoming better (Dem. 9, 5). Evdaip.(i>v 
yap ftoi tti'Tjf) ('(paivtro K al rov T p 6 IT ov K al T ta v Xdycof, the man 
appeared to me to be happy both in manner and in discourse (Plat. Phatdo 

2380. rnxtjtoxitives. The following words cannot stand at tbe 
beginning of their clause or sentence ; i.e., they are postpositive : 

1. The indefinite pronouns and adverbs : rU, ri, TTOIO?, 7r<xr6f, iru>?, 

2. av (modal partu -1. -. llpic KC; except ai> = idv, if); apa, Epic d/> 
and pd (except apa) ; av (poetic avrc), again ; ydp, yc, yoiV, oai, &t, orj 
(except Epic OTJ yap, orj rdrc) ; 8r/7roi', bifTToiOtv, oi'/iroTt ; ofjOtv, 


Oqv ; /jifv t fto/Toi, p,rjv ; vvv (Epic i>v, except vw) ; ovv ; Wp ; r ; TO^ 


2381. Position of Dependent Clauses. 1. Clauses introduced by 
ort, a)?, Iva, OTTOOS, etc., regularly follow their leading verbs; but they 
are sometimes placed first for emphasis. 

"iva (ra(pcrTfpov 8r)\(i)0fj nacra 17 Hepo-cov TroAireia fjuKpov cirdvcipi, that 
the whole form of government of the Persians may be shown more clearly, I 
shall go back a little (Xen. Cyr. 1, 2 15 ). 

2. For the placing of the relative clauses before the principal clause 
for emphasis (as ov cISes avSpa, ovrds fcrrtv), see attraction of relative 
(1358, 1359). 

3. A dependent clause is sometimes inserted within its principal 
clause ; and a principal clause is sometimes inserted within its 
dependent clause. 

TOVTOV &', IT I 7T 6 p % I p d S T)\6(V CIS f'/Zfly, OVK <TTl BvTjTWV OOTIS 

faipr)<rTai, but this man, since he has come into my hands, there is none of 
mortal who shall take him from me (Eur. Heracl. 976). 'E^ie/uei/oi yap 
Kfiv(i)v oiS' on Koi TJ psis nai8(v(rov<riv, for longing after them, I know they will 
instruct even us (Plat. Euthyd. 272*). The inserted clause is the less emphatic 

2382. Hyperbaton. For the sake of emphasis, two words belonging 
closely together are separated by other less important words. This 
is called hyper baton (transposition). Usually the first of the two 
words is emphasised thereby, but often both, especially if both are 
placed in strong positions in the sentence. 

Ov0' fjdopcu Tolo-8* our' eVax^o/.tat K a K o I s, I am neither pleased nor 
troubled at these ills (Eur. Hipp. 1260). IloXXcoi/, <L avbpfs 'Atfi/i/aToi, 
Xoywv y ty v o p.f v tttv, though many, Athenians, are the speeches made 
(Dem. 9, 1). 'A^iai ...... p.rj8( p.iav poi 8ia TOVTO Trap' U/iwr opyrji/ yfi><rdai, 

I beg that there be no resentment on your part towards me for this (Dem. 9, 
3). Ilpdf o-e yovarav, for irpbs yovdrw (re (tKertuw), by thy knees, I implore 
thee (Eur. Hipp. 607). 

2383. Juxtaposition. 1. Words expressing similar or opposite 
ideas are often placed side by side for emphasis ; in this juxtaposition 
the nominative case precedes the oblique case. 

Ilap' OVK. e 6 X &) v e 6 f \ o v o- TJ, unwilling with her willing (Od. 5, 
155). SWTJV T)\i<iayrais fj86p.fvos r)8op.evois f'fiot, / associated with my 
comrades, delighting in them and they delighting in me (Xen. Hier. 6, 2). 


2. Thus ai'ros avror, etc. 

Tols T alro s avrov Trrjpcuriv ftaptvcrai, he is \ceiyhed down by his own 

sufferings (Aesch. Ag. 836). Also V avros avroC for avros eft aurw (Aesch. 

921); and similar juxtaposition of pronouns, as irpos avros avrov 

K(vo<pp6vtov ftov\(vfjMT(ov, himself by his own senseless counsels (Aesch. Pro. 

: op* ovv f) 8v T) 8 ( o s or tov v orovov v 8ia(ptp(i for f)dv OTIOVV j;&'o? 

orovovv, anything whatever pleasant differs from anything else whatever pleas- 

ant (Plat. Hipp. 1, 299* 1 ) ; anb T>V tp.T(pa>v iroXfp.t'i (rvp.(juix(t>v,he 

maintain* war against you through the resources of your allies (Dem. 4, 34). 

3. Similar are the frequent forms oAAos oAAo(i') = alius (alium) 
aliud, oAAos aAAoflt = alius alibi, aAAos aAAoa-c = alius alio, aAAo? 
aXXo^fv = alius aliunde, aAAos aAAa>s = alius aliter, and others ; in 
English such expressions must often be rendered by two clauses, 
" the one (some) ..... the other(s) ". 

*AXXor oXXoi/ ft\K(i, one drew up another (Xen. Anab. 5, 2' 5 ). Ovros... 
aXXor aXXa Xe'-y, these men say, one one thing, and another <n>//i / thing 
(Xen. Anab. 2, I 15 ). 'O crepes TOV erepov, alter alterum (Xen. Anab. 6, I 6 ). 
KaX6f GUI' av /iot o Qios (*T) ..... a\\rjv ( j~ <i\\ijs Tr6\ca>s apfiftopcvo), a fine 
life I shonhl l>nd icandering about from one city to another (Plat. Apol. 37 d ). 
a\\or oXXoi/ for irpos oXXoi/ oXXort (Aesch. Pro. 276). 

2384. Chiasmos. When two pairs of words are contrasted, the 
order of the second pair is often inverted, thus a : b x b : a. This is 
called chiasmos (imitation of a X), and is also very common in Latin. 

KaXoi' TO yrjpav, aXX' vTTfpyrjpav KOKOV, old age is a MtMtfl^, /"// dotage an 

I'il (Men. Mult. 008). Al/>fTa>Tf/xiJ' ((TTi K <i X (7) v <i rr <> fl n r t i ! T; ( T/ r 

ato-^pciy, it is more desirable to die nobly than to live shuiin-fiiHy (Isoc. 4, 
96). *E otpit Tys d K por arr) s \e v B e p ids Bov\ c id n\( iffrij, from 
nwst extreme liberty, arises, / suppose, the great <'*t .s/nvr;/ (Plat. Rep. 
664'). II. 4, 63 and 64 ; 5, 839. 

2385. Hysteron proteron. Two predicates or expressions are 
sometimes placed not in the logical or natural order of occurrence in 
time, but in the reverse order. This is called hysteron proteron (the 
last first), and is employed when the naturally last expression is 
regarded as the more important and is thus placed first. 

Y.ipara T' (ipfpi((rd<ra Qvubta KOI \ovtr HIT a, li /// /</</ him in perfumed 
garments and hating washed 5, 264). //. 2, 547 and 548. 0<i. 12, 

Ml i',-.' AMTTOI/ i tr x f> o v T d rt KOI (. t't him l>oth strong ami living 

(Sop) 234 and 235). Tpo^qi/ cm ytvt<rn>, the education and / 

ft 10 ). 

2386. Insertion of Words. 1. A word may be effectively empha- 


sised by inserting immediately after it particles like 8r/, Trep, ye ; the 
modal adverb av ; expressions like ot/xai, I suppose ; the address u> 
avSpes 'AOrivaloi. Examples : Thuc. 2, 4 8 ; Xen. Cyr. 5, 3 4 ; Dem. 1, 
18 ; II 6, 242 ; Aesch. Sept. 1038 ; E. 19, 334 ; Soph. El. 1188 ; (Plat. Rep. 564 a ) ; o> ai/Spes 'A^vatot inserted Dem. 4, 2. 

2. When the verb ^^L introduces a direct quotation, it is regularly 
inserted in the quotation itself. 

Kai 6 ^oxpdrrjs Iva roivvv, e </)/, /i7 d/z(^)t/3oXoi/ t ^, opurarc /xoi, <.r.X., "that 
it may not then be doubtful," said Socrates, "define for me," etc. (Xen. 
Mem. 1, 2 35 ). 

3. In the introduction of a direct quotation, the subject of </>r//xt is 
generally placed after the verb. 

" *AX\a ^dxpdrrjs y , " f<j>r) o Karrjyopos, l( rovs Trarepas irpoirr)\aKi^iv 
*8i8ao-K," " but Socrates, 1 ' said the accuser, " taught children to show contempt 
for their parents " (Xen. Mem. 1, 2 4 ). 



(In other cases the name or title is given in full) 

Aesch. .... Aeschylus 

Ag Agamemnon 

Cho Choephori 

Eum. ..... Eumenides 

Pers Persae 

Pro Prometheus 

Sept Septem 

Supp Supplices 

Aeschin Aeschines 

Ar Aristophanes 

Ach Acharnenses 

Av Aves 

Eccl. Ecclesiazusae 

Eq Equites 

Lysist. ..... Lysistrata 

Nub Nubes 

Plut Plutus 

Ran. Ranae 

Thesm. .... Thfismoj,hnri'izns 

Ve*p Vespae 

Aristotle .... Aristotle 
Pol Politica 

Dem Demosthenes 


Ale Alcestis 

And Andromache 



Cycl Cyclops 

El EUctra 

Hec Hecuba 

Hel Helena 

HeracL .... Heraclidae 

Here. Fur. .... Here-ides Furens 

Hipp. ..... Hi />/><>! iftus 

Iph. Aul Iphigenia Aulidensis 

Iph. Taur Ifihiyenia Taurica 

Med Medea 

Or. ..... Orestes 

Phoen. ..... Phoenissae 

Rhes. ..... Rhesus 

Supp Supplices 

Tro Troades 

Hdt Herodotus 

Hes. ..... Hesiod 

Op. ..... Opera et Dies 

Scut. ..... Scutum 

Theogon Theogonia 

Horn. ..... Homer 

1 1 uni. ..... Hymns 

//. Iliad 

Od Odyssey 

Isae Isaeus 

Isoc Isocrates 

Lye Lycurgus 

Lys. ..... Lysias 

Men Menander 

Afon Monostichi 

Find Pindar 

Isth. ..... Isthmian Odes 

Nem. ..... Nemean Odes 

01 Olympian Odes 

Pyth Pythian Odes 

Plat Plato 

Ale. 1,11. . . . Alcibiades /, // 
Apol Apology 


Charm. .... Charmides 

Cratyl. . . . Cratylus 

Crit Crito 

Critias . . . Critias 

Euthyd Euthydemus 

Euthyphr. .... Euthyphro 

Gorg. ..... Gorgias 

Hipp. Maj Hippias Major 

H</>p. Min Hippias Minor 

Lack. ..... Laches 

Leg Leges 

Lys Lysis 

Menex. .... Menexenus 

Meno Meno 

Par Parmenides 

Phaedo .... Phaedo 

Phaedr. .... Phaedrus 

Phil Philebus 

Pol Politicus 

Prot. ..... Protagoras 

Rep Republic 

Soph. '. Sophistes 

Symp. ..... Symposium 

Theaet Theaetetus 

Theag Theages 

Tim. ..... Timaeus 

Soph Sophocles 

Aj Ajax 

Ant. . . . . . Antigone 

El Electra 

Oed. Col Oedipus Coloneu* 

Oed. Tyr Oedipus Tyrannus 

Phil Philoctete* 

Trach. .... Tnichinia* 

Theog Theognis 

Thuc. Thuoydides 

.... Xenophon 

..... Agexilans 

Anab Anabasis 

Apol Apologia Socratis 

Cyr Cyropaedia 


Eques De Re Equestri 

Hell Hellenica 

Hier. ..... Hiero 

Hipparch. .... Hipparchicus 

Mem. ..... Memorabilia 

Oec Oeconomicus 

Rep. Ath. .... Respublica Atheniensis 

Rep. Lac. . . Respublica Lacedaemonia 

Symp. . . . . Symposium 

Vect. ..... De Vectigalibus 

Fen. . . . De Venatione 


The numbers refer to the sections. See also the Table of Contents, the Preposi- 
tions 1828-1864, the Negatives 2334-2365, and the Particles 2366-2372 


Ablative case, how expressed in Greek 

Accompaniment, dat. of 1773-1775 

Accompanying circumstance expressed 
by participle 2153-2155 

Acountability and liability, adjectives of, 
with gen. 1714, 8 

Accusative 1573-1617; as direct obj. of 
transitive verb 1574 ; direct obj. in- 
stead of object-gen, (with adjectives 
or nouns) 1576; Greek verbs with 
direct obj. for English verbs with 
different constructions 1577-1584; 
with verbs meaning to feel shame or to 
be afraid 1581, 1582 ; with intransi- 
. erbs 1583 ; ace. of the way with 
verbs of leading 1584 ; ace. with in- 1 
transitive verbs compounded with a 
prep. 1585; ace. of effect (as ypetyw 
ivHrrolfa) 1586 ; cognate accusative 
1687-1594 ; ace. of specification 1595 ; 
adverbial accusative 1597 ; ace. of 
extent (time or xpace) 1599; ace. of 
obj. of motion (in poetry) 1602; ace. 
with verbs of swearing 1603 ; double 
object-ace, with one verb 1605-1608 ; 
object-ace, and predicate ace. with one 
verb 1609-1614 ; object-ace, and cog- 
nate ace. with one verb 1615 1 

with verbs meaning to (say) do any- 
thing, and to divide 1615, 2 and 3 ; 
also 1616 and 1617 ; accusative 
absolute 2264-2268 ; accusative of 
specification, r6 and infinitive some- 
times so used 2236 

Active Infinitive used for passive 2222 
Active Voice : transitive and intransi- 
tive use, causative meaning 1866, 

Adjectives 1333-1366; adjectives with 
adverbial force 1317-1321 ; adj. with 
object-ace. 1576 ; agreement 1338- 
1336; adj. and part, used as nouns 
1337 ; comparison 1338-1366 ; posi- 
tive degree with comparative meaning 
1338; adj. with n-oAvs 1339 ; com- 
parative equivalent to too, very, 
rather, somewhat 1340 ; comparative 
followed by gen. or by 6 (than) 1341- 
1343 ; comparative followed by wr6s 
and gen. of reflex pron. 1344 ; corn- 
par, expressing highest degree between 
two 1356 ; comparative with J) Hard. 
or f) wp6s 1345 ; occasional omission 
of $ after wAW (irXTv), faarrov, ptlov 
1346 ; two adj. or adv. compared by 
f) in comparative 1347 ; omission of 
na\\ot> before 4 in lion, and Hdt. 





1348 ; use of avri (or irp6] with gen. 
or vapd with ace. instead of tf 1349 ; 
second part of comparison omitted 
1350 ; still, much, and other words 
with comparatives 1353 ; superlative 
1355-1366 ; expressing a very high de- 
gree 1355 ; superlative with avr6s and 
gen. of reflexive pron. 1357; super- 
lative strengthened by (irapa) iro\v, 
naxpf, TTO\\$, and other words 1358 ; 
superl. strengthened by us, 8-n, tf 
ofos and other words 1359-1366 ; ad- 
jective agreeing in gender with de- 
pendent partitive gen. 1625 ; adjec- 
tives with gen. 1714-1725 ; adjectives 
followed by dat. 1754-1756 

Advantage or disadvantage, dat. of 

Adverbial ace. 1597 

Adverbs 1865 ; emphatic adverbs 2368 ; 
see also Particles, gen. with adverbs 

Adverbs followed by dat. 1754-1756 

Age, how expressed 1601 

Agent, expressed by preposition and a 
gen. 1885 ; by a preposition and a 
dat. 1886 ; dat of agent with verbals 
2315; dat. of agent with perf. and 
plupf. pass. 1800 

Agreement 1246-1248 

Anacoluthon 2377 

Answers, how expressed 2010 

Aorist tense 1910-1920 ; with rt ov indie, 
aor. equivalent to exhortation or com- 
mand 1913; aor. of customary 
action 1908 ; gnomic aor. 1914, 1915 ; 
ingressive or inceptive aor. 1916- 
1918; aorist equivalent to perf. or 
plupf. 1919 ; epistolary aor. 1920 ; 
aorist as vivid fut. 1934, 2 ; aorist with 
&v in apodosis referring to present 
time 2103, 2 

Apodosis 2089 

Aposiopesis 2376 

Apposition 1322-1382 ; app. to a per- 
sonal pronoun expressed or implied 
1323 ; app. to two or more nouns gen. 
in du. or pi. 1324; app. denoting 
inhabitants to noun of place 1325; 
app. representing part of subject 
1326; adj. with app. in genitive 
1327 ; app. denoting part of a person 
in Horn. 1328 ; app. agreeing with 
subjects in gender 1329 ; noun app. 
to a sentence 1330 ; names of rivers, 
islands, lakes, cities, as appositives 

Appositive infinitive 2215 ; appositive 
noun 1203 

Article 1367-1417; in poetry and dia- 
lects 1367-1376, 1400; in Attic Greek 
1377-1417 ; as pronoun or demonstra- 
tive 1377-1388; as article proper 
1389-1395 ; insertion and omission of 
article 1396-1405 ; position with attri- 
butes and predicate adj. 1406-1417; 
article with attribute (see attribute 
used substantively 1270-1301) ; article 
with apposition 1396, 5 and 6; 
article used in forming substantives 

Assertions : dependent 2013 - 2022 ; 
declarative particles 2013 - 2015 ; 
moods in declarative clauses "2016; 
impf. and plupf. seldom changed to 
opt. 2018 ; pres. or perf. indie, 
seldom changed to impf. and plupf. 

Assimilation of mood: in final clauses 
2044 ; in relative and temporal 
clauses 2183, 2184; assimilation of 
relative and temporal clause to infini- 
tive 2199 

Association and resemblance, words of, 
followed by dat. 1758-1775 

Asyndeton 2370 



Attribute 1207, 1265; used substan- 
tively 1270-1301 

Attributive adjective 1206 ; attributive 
adjective and noun with article 1406- 
1414 ; attributive gen. depending on 
noun 1619-1622 ; attributive parti- 
ciple, see Participle 

" Before," temporal clauses introduced 

by 2176-2182 
Beginning, verbs of, with gen. 1644- 

Brachylogy 2374 

Cases : see Nominative and Vocative, 
Accusative, Genitive, Dative, Pre- 

Causal clauses 2071-2076 ; causal par- 
ticles 2071 ; el used in causal clauses 
= 9ri 2074 ; causal clause after verb 
of fearing 2070, 4 ; causal rel. clauses 
2138, 2139 ; other ways of expressing 
cause 2076 

Causative meaning of act. and mid. 
voices 1867, 6 and 1870 and 1873. 

Cause: expressed by participle 2251, 
2252; gen. of cause 1619, 2; 1631, 
2; 1688-1691 ; dat. of cause 1804- 

Caution, verbs of, with infin. 2056 

Chiasmos 2384 

Cognate-ace. 1587-1594 ; with verbs of 
sitting, standing, lying poet. 1593 ; 
with adj. or noun 1594 

Collective singular with plural verb 

Commanding, verbs of, with dat. 1744 

Commands : expressed by fut. ind. with 
brut (/*4) 2058 ; sometimes expressed 
by infinitive 2229, 1 and 2 

Comparative degree followed by gen. 

Comparatives : infinitive after 2294 

Compound verbs followed by dat. 1776- 

Concession expressed by participle 2258 

Concessive clauses and particles 2133- 

Conditional sentences 2089-2133 ; con- 
ditional particles 2090 ; particular 
and general suppositions 2092 ; four 
classes of conditional sentences 2093 ; 
synopsis of conditional forms 2094; 
simple present or past conditions with 
nothing implied 2095-2101 ; present 
and past conditions with supposition 
contrary to reality 2102-2108; 
omitted in apodosis with certain verbs 
2105-2108 ; future conditions of more 
distinct form 2109-2112 ; future con- 
ditions of less distinct form 2113-2115 ; 
mixed forms of conditional sent- 
ences 2117 ; disjunctive conditional 
clauses (with tire . . . flrt and ifo -rt 
. . . ttv rt 2118 ; ellipis and substi- 
tution in protasis 2119-2123 ; ellipsis 
and substitution in apodosis 2124- 
2127 ; &v omitted in! protasis or apo- 
dosis 2128-2132 ; bonditional rel. 
clauses 2147-2159 ; condition ex- 
pressed by participle 2257 

Conjunctions 2367, see also Particles 

Consecutive clauses 2077-2088 ; con- 
secutive particles 2077 ; consec. 
clause with finite mood 2078, 2079 ; 
with infinitive 2080-2088 ; with Sxrrt 
or us and participle 2064 \-Sxrrt and 
infinitive in ind. disc. 2087 ; &ror and 
ofoj (instead of <TT) with inf. in 
consec. clauses 2088 ; consecutive 
rel. clauses 2140, 2141 

Construotio pregnans 1840, 1841 

Construction according to sense 1248 

Contents, gen. of 1619, 4 

Copulative verbs 1205 

Crime and punishment gen. of, with 



verbs 1699-1703, 1709-1713 ; with adj. 
1714, 8 

Dative 1739-1826; of indirect obj. 
with transitive verbs 1740 ; dat. with 
intransitive verbs 1742-1753 ; dat. 
with adjectives and adverbs 1754- 
1756; with nouns 1757; dat. of 
association and resemblance with 
verbs 1759-1765 ; with adjectives 1766- 
1769; with nouns 1770; with ad- 
verbs 1771 ; dat. of accompaniment 
1773-1775; dat. with compound verbs 
1776-1785; with compound adjec- 
tives 1781; dat. of interest 1786- 
1800 (dat. of advantage or disadvan- 
tage) 1787-1790 ; dat. of possessor 
1791-1794; ethical 'dative 1795; 
dat. of relation or standpoint 1796- 
1799; dat. of agent 1800; dat. of 
instrument or means 1801-1803 ; 
dat. of cause 1804-1809 ; dat. of 
manner 1810-1813 ; dat. of measure 
of difference 1814, 1815; dat. of 
time 1816-1822 ; dat. of place 1823- 

Declarative clauses, see Assertions; 
declarative clause after verbs of fear- 
ing 2070, 6; declarative particles 
2013-2015 ; see also Particles 

Deliberative or interrogative subjunctive 

Demanding, verbs of 1605, 1607 

Demonstrative pronouns 1470-1492 ; re- 
ferring back ward or forward 1470-1471 ; 
local meanings 1472 ; in calling out 
(ovros) 1474 ; position with article 
1479, 1481, 1482, 1489; without article 
when predicate 1482; with proper 
name and without article 1483; as 
antecedent of rel. pron. 1484 ; re- 
placed by oblique case of a.vr6s 1486 ; 
demonstratives as predicates 1487 ; 

gen. of demonstratives for emphasis 

instead of reflex, of third pers. 1468 
Denial and hindrance, verbs of : followed 

by ov in dependent assertions 2350 ; 

followed by p-ft (/j.^ ov) with infinitive 


Depriving, verbs of 1607 
Desire, aim at, etc., verbs principally 

with gen. 1648-1652 

Disjunctive conditional sentences 2118 
Distinction, gen. of 1686, 1687; adj. 

with 1714, 7 

Dividing, verbs of, with ace. 1615, 3 
Dual, peculiarities in the use of 1239- 

Dynamic Middle, see Middle Voice 

Effect, ace. of 1586 

Ellipsis 2372 ; ellipsis and substitu- 
tion in conditional clauses 2119- 

Enjoying, verbs of, with gen. 1641- 

Ethical dat. 1795 

Exclamations, gen. in 1736 ; exclama- 
tions with olos etc. 1542, 1543 ; infini- 
tive with r6 used in exclamations 

Explanatory rel. clauses 2137 

Extent of time or space, ace. 1599- 

Fear, verbs expressing, with ace. 1581 

Fearing, clauses after verbs of 2062- 
2070 ; verbs of caution, danger, etc. 
2065 ; leading clause omitted 2067 ; 
verbs of fearing followed by object- 
clause 2068 ; clause of fearing 
followed by indie. 2069 ; other con- 
structions with verbs of fearing 2070 

Feel shame, verbs expressing, with ace. 

Feeling, verbs expressing, with ace. 1584 



Feeling and sensation, adjectives of, 
with gen. 1714, 9 

Figures of syntax 2372-2377 

Final clauses 2037-2661 ; final particles 
2037; clauses of absolute purpose 
2040-2047; unattainable purpose 2048, 
2049 ; object clauses with . verbs of 
effort, etc. 2050-2057 ; 8vu>s and BTWS 
H-tl in commands, etc. 2058-2061 

Final particles 2037, 2038 

Final rel. clauses 2142-2146 

Future tense 1921-1927; inceptive fut. 
1921, 2 ; 2 pers. fut. expressing per- 
mission 1922 ; 2 pers. fut. expressing 
command or prohibition 1923 ; 2 pers. 
sing. fut. in geographical and other 
descriptions (in Hdt.) 1924 ; fut. 
indie, with &/ in Homer 1925 ; peri- 
phrastic fut. expressed by fjLt\\o> and 
infinite 1926 

Future-indicative for subj. in final 
clauses 2046 ; future-ind. (or subj.) 
with ou ^ expressing strong denial 
1977 ; future-indie, used like de- 
liberative subjunctive 1988 ; future- 
indie, in conditional clause 2096; 
future-indie, in protasis 2111 

Future-perfect tense 1936, 1937 ; 
equivalent to fut. 1937, 1 

Genders, peculiarities in the use of 1242. 

Genitive 1618-1738; with nouns 1619- 
1630; predicate gen. 1631-1637; 
gen. with verbs 1638-1713 ; with ad- 
jectives 1714-1724 ; gen. with adverbs 
1725-1728 ; gen. of time 1729-1735 ; 
gen. in exclamations 1738 ; gen. 
with regard to 1737 ; gen. absolute 
1788, 2259-2264 ; gen. for apposition 
1622 ; gen. of quality 1636 

Gnomic aorist 1914, 1915 ; gnomic per- 
fect 1988 

Historical infinitive 2200 
Hortative subjunctive 1986 
Hyperbaton 2382 
Hysteron proteron 2385 

Imperative in independent clauses 
1979-1985 ; with obj. rel. 1980; 
preceded by &ye (5^), ftpc (ty), fa 
1981 ; perf . imperative 1982 ; pro- 
hibitions 1983-1985, with ov ^ 1985 

Imperfect tense 1901-1909; inter- 
changeable with aorist in certain 
verbs 1902; in narrative 1903, 1904; 
impf. of attempted action 1907 ; 
impf. and aor. of customary action 
1908; impf. with force of plupf. 
1909 ; imperfect with &v in apodosis 
expressing continuance in past time 
after unreal conditions 2103, 1; 
imperf. with &v in Homer referring to 
past time 2104, 1 

Imperfect and pluperfect seldom changed 
to opt. in ind. disc. 2018 ; seldom 
standing for pres. and perf. of direct 
disc. 2020 

Impersonal participles 2265, 2; im- 
personal verbs 1211, 1212. 

Implied inquiry, mood of dependent 
clauses of 2034-2036 

Improper prepositions 1838, 1862-1864 

Inceptive aor. 1916-1918 

Indefinite article a = rls 1553 

Indefinite English pronoun, one, you 
(they), how expressed 1432-1434 

Indefinitive pronouns rl$ and &AAor 

Indicative in independent clauses 1974- 

Indirect discourse 2320-2888 ; principal 
clauses in indirect discourse 2321- 
2323 ; subordinate clauses in ind. 
disc. 2324-2388; subordinate past 
indicative retained in ind. disc. 2324, 



2 and 2325 ; subordinate past indi- 
catives occasionally passing into op- 
tative in certain cases 2325, 2 and 3 ; 
leading or dependent present and 
perfect indicatives occasionally pass- 
ing into imperfect and pluperfect in 
direct discourse 2326-2331 ; sub- 
ordinate subjunctives with &v rarely 
passing into optative and retaining 
&v 2328, 2332 ; dependent clauses of 
implied indirect discourse 2329, 2330 ; 
infinitive in indirect discourse 2192- 

Indirect object with trans, verbs 1740 ; 
with intrans. verbs 1742-1753 

Infinitive 2185-2237 ; nature of infini- 
tive 2185 ; subject and predicate- 
noun with infinitive 2186-2191; 
infinitive without the article 2192- 
2229 ; infinitive in indirect discourse 
2192-2200; in assertions 2193, 2194, 
2198; after verbs of promising, etc. 
2195, 2196; personal and impersonal 
constructions 2197 ; assimilation of 
relative and temporal clauses to 
infinitive 2199; historical infinitive 
2200 ; infinitive not in indirect dis- 
course 2201-2229 ; nominal infini- 
tive (as subject) 2202-2206, (as object) 
2207-2214; infinitive as predicate or 
appositive 2215 ; supplementary in- 
finitive 2216-2225 ; with verbs 2216- 
2220; with adjectives 2221-2223; 
after comparatives 2224, with 
nouns and adverbs 2225 ; infinitive 
with ty $ or ty' fre or fare to ex- 
press condition 2226 ; infinitive to 
express result 2080 ; purpose 2216, 3 ; 
infinitive with irpiv 2176-2182 ; in- 
finitive absolute 2228 ; infinitive in 
commands, proclamations, wishes 
2229 ; infinitive with neuter article 
2230-2237 ; after prepositions 2234 ; 

TOV with inf. expressing purpose 2235 ; 
r6 with inf. like an ace. of specifica- 
tion 2236 ; infinitive in exclamations 
2237 ; infinitive after verbs of fearing 
2070, 1-3 ; infinitive in consec. 
clauses 2080-2088 ; infinitive as 
apodosis 2125, 2126 

Insertion of words 2386 

Instrument, dat. of 1801-1803 

Intensive pronouns, see Personal Pro- 

Interest, dat. of 1786-1800 

Interjections 2366, 2 

Interrogative clause after verbs of fear- 
ing 2070, 5 

Interrogative or deliberative subjunctive 

Interrogative particles 2008, 1 ; see 
also Particles 

Interrogative pronouns 1545-1552 ; 
with art. 1399: as pred. adj. 1547; 
two or more interrog. words belong- 
ing to same verb without connective 

Intransitive verbs with dat. 1742-1753 

Inverted order of words 2379 

Juxtaposition 2383 

Leading, verbs expressing, with ace. of 
way 1585 

Locality indicated by r6 (rd) and geni- 
tive 1278 

Manner, dat. of 1810-1813; manner 
expressed by participle 2253-2255 

Material, gen. of 1619, 4; 1631, 4 ; 

Means, dat. of 1801-1803; means ex- 
pressed by participle 2253-2255 

Measure, gen. of 1619, 3; 1631, 3; 
measure of difference, dat. of 1814 

Middle voice 1868-1880 ; direct midd^j 
1869-1871 ; causative 1870 ; reflex- 



ive 1871 ; indirect middle 1872-1875 ; 

causative 1873, 1874 ; reciprocal 
1875 ; subjective or dynamic middle 
1876-1878 ; middle voice different in 
meaning from active 1879 

Moods, general view 1958, 1959; see 

Motion, obj. of, with ace. (poet.) 1602 ; 

verbs expressing motion, with ace. 


Negatives (ov and /^) 2334-2365 ; in 
principal clauses 2335 ; in subordin- 
ate clauses 2336, 2337 ; with infini- 
tive 2338-2345 ; with participles, 
adjectives and nouns 2346, 2347; 
ov and fi-ff as interrogative particles 
2348-2349 ; apparent redundance of 
negatives 2350-2357 ; doubling of 
negatives 2358-2363 ; place of nega- 
tive 2364 ; various negative expres- 
sions 2365 ; see also Particles 2366 ; 

and Denial and Hindrance etc. 
verbs of, also o, ^, n^, ov 

Neuter adj. or pron. as cognate ace. 

Neuter participle as abstract noun 

Neuter plural with singular verb 1255, 

Nominative: as subject or predicate 

1564; as appositive to a voc. 1569- 

1571 ; in exclamations 1568, 1571 ; 

as vocative 1 
Nouns followed by dat. of indirect obj. 

1768 ; noun with obj. -ace. 1676 
Numbers, peculiarities in the use of 

Object of verb 1 1 

Object clause, see Final Clauses; 

object clause after verbs of fearing 


Object-infinitive after verbs of fairing 
2070, 1 and 2 ; with &<rr* 2070, 3 

Objective gen. 1619, 7 ; 1631, 7 ; 1714- 

Oblique optative 2012 

Optative in independent clauses 1993- 
2007 ; potential optative 1993-1998 ; 
without &v in poetry 1995, as mild 
imperative 1997 ; opt. of wishing 
1 ( J'J9-2007 ; unattainable wishes ex- 
pressed by past tenses of indie, with 
ef0 or (I yap, also by &<pf\ov and in- 
finitive 2004-2007 ; optative in in- 
direct discourse 1945-1948 ; optative, 
oblique 2012; optative with *' as 
apodosis in Homer expressing un- 
reality 2104, 2 

Oratio Obliqua, see Indirect Discourse 

Order of words 2378-2386 ; usual order 
2378 ; inverted order 2379 ; post- 
positives 2380 ; position of dependent 
clauses 2381 ; hyperbaton 2382; 
juxtaposition 2383 ; chiasmos 2384 ; 
hysteron proteron 2385 ; insertion 
of words 2386 

Participle 2238-2313 ; attribute 
2245 ; used as substantive 224 1 
neuter participle used as abstract 
noun 2245 ; predicate parti, i pi e 
(circumstantial and supplementary) 
2246-2319 ; circumstantial participle 
2246-2278; equivalent to tei 
clause 2247-2250; expressing cause 
2251, 2252 ; expressing means or 
manner or accompanying circum- 
stance 2253-2265; expressing purpose 
2256 ; expressing condition 2257; 
concession 2268 ; genitive absolute 
2269-2264 ; accusative absolut, 
2268; particles with < ircumxtautial 
participle 2269-2276 ; omission of *r 
with c reuinstautial participl 



2278 ; supplementary participle 2279- 
2313 ; limiting meaning of verbs 2280- 
2299 ; equivalent to a clause with 8n j 
'2300-2313 ; omission of the supple- 
mentary participle &v 2312 ; use of i 
us with supplementary participle 2313; 
tenses of participle 1949-1956; 
participle after verbs of fearing 2070, 
7 ; participle representing protasis or 
apodosis 2121, 2125, 2127 

Particles, see Prepositions 1828-1864;! 
particles 2366-2372 ; particles used 
with circumstantial participle 2269- 

Partitive genitive 1619, 6 ; 1631, 6 ; | 
1638 ; 1714, 1 ; 1728 ; partitive 
gen. and noun with article 1410 ; 
partitive gen. depending on neuter 
noun or adj. to indicate extent 1627 ; 
part. gen. as subject of a verb 1628; 
partitive gen. agreeing in gender with 
governing adj. 1625 

Passive Voice 1881-1890 ; object of 
active subject of passive 1882, 1; 
personal passive from verbs governing 
gen. or dat. 1882, 2 and 3 ; part of 
person retained as obj. ace. and 
person as subject 1882, 5 ; cognate- 1 
ace. retained and object-ace, becom- i 
ing nom. of pass. 1617 ; cognate-ace, 
as subj. of pass. 1882, 7 ; one of two 
object-accusatives becoming subj. of 
pass. 1882, 7 and 8 ; agent of passive, 
how expressed 1885,1886; intransi- 
tives serving as passives to certain 
verbs 1888-1890 

Perception (mental and sensory), verbs 
of, mostly with gen. 1663-1669 

Perfect and pluperfect tenses 1928- 
1935 ; perfect with pres. meaning, 
1930; gnomic perfect 1933 ; perf . 
and aor. as vivid fut. 1934 ; plupf. 
with impf. meaning 1935 

Perfect imperative 1982 

Periphrastic fut. /tc'AAu and inf. 1926, 

Personal and impersonal constructions, 
with infinitive 2197 

Personal construction with infinitive 

Personal and intensive pronouns 1418- 
1434; omitted when not emphatic 
1418; ^oO, c/iof, */*6 used when 
emphatic 1419 ; enclitic forms with 
two contrasted prepositions 1420; 
oblique cases of avrts as pers. pron. 
1421 ; pronouns omitted with second 
of two verbs governing different cases 
1422 ; avr6s, uses 1421, 1423-1431 ; 
personal pronouns used as reflexives 
1437, 1438 

Persons, peculiarities in the use of 

Place dat. of 1823-1827; gen. of place 
(in poetry) 1732, 1733 

Plenty and want, verbs of, with gen. 
1674-1679 ; adj. 1714, 5 

Pleonasm 2373 

Pluperfect, 8ee Perfect 

Plural, peculiarities in the use of 1227- 

Position of clauses, see Order of Words 

Possessive genitive 1619, 1 ; 1631, 1 ; 
1634 ; 1714, 4 

Possessive pronouns 1454-1469 ; re- 
placed by article when ownership is 
obvious 1454 ; possessive genitives of 
personal pronouns used instead 1455 ; 
position of possessive pronouns and 
possessive genitives with respect to 
article 1455, 1459 ; adj. or appositive 
in gen. (dat.) with possessive pron. 
1458 ; poss. pron. equivalent to sub- 
jective or objective gen. 1459 ; re- 
flexive possessives 1460-1469 ; parti- 
tive gen. of reflex, pron. in predicate 



position 1464 ; simple possess! ves 
tpAs, <r6s etc. as reflexives 1465; 
avrov as reflexive 1465 ; gen. of pers. 
pron. (nov, <rov, etc.), as reflexive 
possessives 1467 ; synopsis of posses- 
sive forms 1469 

Possessor, dat. of 1791-1794 

Postpositive particles 2369, 2380 

Potential optative 1993-1997 

Predicate-adjective 1208 ; see also 
predicate noun 1302-1316 ; predicate- 
adj. and noun with article 1415 

Predicate-infinitive 2215 

Predicate-nom. to express measure 1632 

Predicate-noun 1204 ; with infinitive 
2186-2191 ; predicate-noun, adjec- 
tive, participle 1302-1316 ; agreement 
of pred. noun 1302-1313 ; expressing 
purpose, cJiaracter, or quality 1316 

Predicate-relative 1510 

Prepositions 1828-1864 ; as adverbs 
1828-1830 ; tmesis 1831; place of 
prepositions 1832-1836 ; prep, used 
for compound verb 1837 ; general use 
of prepositions 1839-1841 ; preposi- 
tions in detail alphabetically 1843- 
1861, and improper prepositions 1862- 

Present tense 1894-1900 ; historical 
present 1896 ; present for future 
1897; present of attempted action 
1897 ; present of customary action 
1898 ; present in general truths 1899 ; 
present with perfect force 1900 

Primary and secondary tenses 1957 

Prohibitions 1983-1985 ; with ou rf and 
fut. indie, or aor. subj. 1985 

Prolepsis 1214 

Proleptic predicate 1612 

Pronouns, see Personal and Intensive, 
Reflexive, Possessive, Demonstrative, 
Relative, Interrogative, Indefinite 

Protasis 2089 

Purpose, see Final clauses ; expressed 
by participle 2256 ; sometimes ex- 
pressed by rov and infinitive 2235 

Questions : direct questions 2009-2011 ; 
interrog. particles 2008 ; moods in 
direct questions 2008, 3, 4 ; answers 
2010 ; dependent questions 2023- 
2036 ; indirect interrog. particles 
2024 ; moods in dependent ques- 
tions 2026-2036 ; after verbs of im- 
plied inquiry 2034-2036 

Reciprocal pronoun replaced by reflex- 
ives 1442 

Reflexive pronouns 1435-1454 ; refer- 
ring to subject of sentence or object of 
leading verb (indirect reflexives) 1435 ; 
referring to a dependent verb 1436 ; 
personal pronouns as reflexives 
1437, 1438, 1465 ; reflexive with ai,r6s 
prefixed for emphasis 1439 ; reflexive 
of third person sometimes used for 
first or second 1441 ; reflexives in 
Homer 1444-1448 ; personal pronoun 
ol, of etc. as reflexives 1449-1453 (in 
Homer 1444-1448) ; reflexives used 
for reciprocal pronoun 1442 ; simple 
possessive pronouns used as reflexives 
1465, 1466 ; partitive gen. of reflex- 
ive pron., predicate position 1464 ; 
gen. fjiov, ffov etc. as reflex, poss. 1467 

Relation or standpoint : dat. of. 

Relative clauses 2136-2160 ; explana- 
tory relative clauses 2137 ; oausal 
relative clauses 2138, 2139 ; consecu- 
tive relative clauses 2140, 2141 ; final 
relative clauses 2142-2146 ; con- 
ditional relative clauses 2147-2159 ; 
assimilation of mood in rel. and 
temporal clauses 2188, 2184 



Relative pronouns : particular and in- 
definite relatives 1493-1508 ; os as 
demonstrative 1509 ; relative as 
predicate 1510 ; agreement of rela- 
tive 1511-1520 ; preposition govern- 
ing relative omitted 1521 ; ante- 
cedent of relative omitted 1522-1528, 
1526 ; assimilation and attraction 
of case of relative and antecedent 
1529-1539 ; relative not repeated 
1540, 1541 ; relatives in exclama- 
tions 1542-1544 ; relative depending 
on participle alone 1505 ; qualifying 
words belonging to antecedent, drawn 
to relative 1506 ; simple relative used 
for rel. of quantity or quality and the 
reverse 1500 ; rel. adv. for rel. pron. 
1501 ; several relatives in same sen- 
tence without copula 1502 

Remember, forget, etc. verbs principally 
with gen. 1653-1662 ; adj. with gen. 
1714, 2 

Reminding, verbs of, 1605, 1607 

Result, ace. of 1586 

Rule and lead etc., verbs, mostly with 
gen. 1669-1673 ; adj. 171 

Saying, verbs of 2013, 3 

Separation, gen. of 1680-1685 ; with 

adj. 1714, 7 
Sharing, verbs of, with gen. 1641-1643 ; 

adj. with gen. 1714 
Similes with &y, &s T*, us 8r* , us 6ir6rf 

in Homer 2170 
Singular, peculiarities in the use of 


" So-called," how expressed 2240 
Source, gen. of 1619, 2 ; 1631, 2 ; 1692 
Specification, ace. of 1595 
Subject and predicate 1201 
Subject of finite verb 1209-1215 ; in 

nom. 1209 ; subject-nom. omitted 

1211; infinitive or sentence as sub- 

ject 1212; subject supplied from some- 
word 1213 ; subject of dep. clause 
emphatically placed at beginning 
1214, 1 ; subject of dep. clause drawn 
into principal clause (prolepsis) 1214, 2 
Subject of infinitive 2186-2191 
Subject-nominative and verb 1249- 
1264 ; agreement with predicate- 
nom. or appositive 1250, 1 ; with 
pred.-adj. verb in singular 1250, 2 ; 
preposition and numeral as subject 
1251 ; dual subject with plural verb^ 
plural subject with dual verb 1252 ; 
masc. or fern. pi. subject with singu- 
lar verb 1253 ; singular imperative 
&yf etc. addressed to several persons 
1254; neuter plural with singular 
verb 1255, 1256 ; collective singular 
with plural verb 1257 ; subject* 
connected with and, construction 
1259-1261 ; singular, subject with 
/j.fTa used with plural verb 1262 ; 
subjects connected by or, eitJier or, 
iieitlier iim , construction 1263, 1264 
Subjective gen. 1619, 8 
Subjunctive in independent clause* 
1986-1992 ; hortative subj. 1986, with 
&y< (5V>), <j>6>6 (54). Wi 1986, 2; de- 
liberative or interrogative subj 1987- 
1990; subj. used like fut. indie, in 
Homer expressing expectation 1991 ; 
similar use of fut. indie. 1992 ; 
subjunctive or fut. indie, with ov ^ 
expressing strong denial 1977 
Substitution in conditional clause* 


Supplementary infinitive 2216-2225; 
with verbs 2216-2220 ; with adjec- 
tives 2221-2223; after comparatives. 
2224 ; with nouns 2225 
Supplementary participles with various- 
verbs 2280-2299 ; equivalent to a 
clause with 8n 2300-2313 



Suppositions, see Conditional Sentences 
Swearing, ace. with verbs of, 1603, 1604 

Temporal clauses 2161-2184 ; temporal 
particles 2161, 2163, 2172, 2174, 2176, 
2180-2182 ; temporal clauses express- 
ing actual occurrence 2164 ; with 
&rt and verbs of remembering 2165 ; 
temporal clauses not expressing 
actual occurrence 2166-2171 ; tem- 
poral clauses introduced by " until " 
2172-2175 ; temporal clauses intro- 
duced by " before " 2176-2183; as- 
similation of mood in relative and 
temporal clauses 2183, 2184 

Tenses 1891-1957 ; general meaning of 
1891-1893 ; tenses of indicative 1894- 
1937 (see also Present, Imperfect, 
Aorist, Future, Perfect and Pluper- 
fect, Future-Perfect) ; tenses in 
other moods 1938-1944 ; optative and 
indie, in indirect discourse 1945-1948 ; 
tenses of participle 1949-1956; 
primary and secondary tenses 1957 

Thinking, verbs of, construction 2198, 

Time. dat. of 1816-1822 ; gen. of 1729- 

1731 ; time expressed by participle 

2250 ; of ten expressed by a noun 

and participle depending on preposi- 
tion 2250 

Tmesis 1831 

Touching, etc. verbs of, with gen. 1644- 

Transitive verbs with ind. obj. in dat. 

44 Until," temporal clauses introduced 
by 2172-2175 

Value, gen. of 1619, 5 ; 1631, 5 ; 1693- 

1698 ; 1714, 6 

Verb 1216-1223 ; omitted 1216-1221 
Verbal adjectives in -Teas -red -TeW 
2314-2319 ; personal construction 
2315 ; impersonal construction 2816- 
2319 ; sometimes -with middle as well 
as active meaning 2319 
Voices 1866-1890; see Active, Middle 
and Passive Voices 

Wishes : expressed by opt. 1999-2007 ; 
unattainable wishes expressed by 
past tense of indie, with tide or cl ydp, 
also by &<j>e\ot> and infinitive, also (in 
Homer) by opt. 2004-2007 ; some- 
times expressed by infinitive 2229, 3 

Zeugma 2375 


constructions 1690 
ayairdw construction 1806 
ayy\\u with infin. or part. 2311, 2 
&yt (Jty) with imperative 1981, with 
hortative subj. 1986, 2 ; 76, <p*pf 
etc. addressed to several persons 1254 
oWe, at yap, see fWe (l ydp) 

with infin. or part. 2311, 1 
with infin. or part. 2294 
as pass, of verbs meaning to call 
1614 ; dKovu> with infin. or part. 2311, 1 
dKp6s 1416, 1 

d\iffKo/uLdt as pass, to alpeu 1888 
oAAo n (ff) ; 2008, 4 
&\\os 1558-1562 

of, modal particle 1960-1972 ; AV omitted 
in apodosis expressing unreality with 
some verbs 2105-2108 
ova 1837 

with infin. or part. 2290, 4 
1530 (c) 

with gen. for ff after comparatives 

avrios, avriov 1768 
a|i(fe rwl nvos 1798 
airtiAew constructions 2196, 2 
airo8vTJ(TK(D as pass, to a-iroK-rtivu 1888 
with infin. or part. 2290, 5 
with part, or infin. 2311, 8 (c) 
vyw as pass. oiroArfw 1888 

>s, re\finuv etc. 2249 

dints, oblique cases as personal pronouns 
1421 ; as reflexives 1437 ; use of dirts 
as intensive pronoun 1423 ; 6 dirts = 
the same 1423, 2 ; durts with ordinal 
numeral 1427 ; various meanings of 
dvrts 1428 ; Kdl dvrts and Kdl olros 
1431 ; dvrts prefixed to reflexive for 
emphasis 1439 ; dints in oblique cases 
used as antecedent of a rel. 1486 

dinbs dvrov 1344 

dinov etc. in emphasis or contrasts 
1440, 2 

dvrw THAW etc. emphatic 1440, 3 ; rarely 
for j)/j.fTfpos dVT&v etc. 1462 

(&rifjid) 1591 
cus Qtpeiv 1806 
i\(vs without article 1401, 1 


ycyora 1932 

ytyovus expressing age with ace. 1601 

yiyvofidi as pass, of dynamic middle 
iroiovfj.a.1 1877; yiyvo/jMi IK as pass, to 
rlKT<a 1889 ; yiyvonai witli adverbs 
1222, 1223 

yiyvuffKu with infin. or part. 2311, 3 


Jipxo/ and 
2290, 1 

T 1748; with ace. of person and gen. 
of thing (poet.) 1580 
tKrifjLi with part, or infin. 2311, 8 (a) 
part, or infin. Seurfpos etc. with gen. 1723 
Se^o/xat ayopa 1813 




iffTi 2302 

with part, or infin. 2301 ; 2311, 8 

construction 1768 

as pass, to CW 1888 
construction 2198, 2 
with part, or infin. 2811, 12 
Mtav raGro 2268, 1 
&vo with pi. noun 1335 

tavrov yiyveffOai etc. 1633 

t&ov\6ni]v without &v as apodosis of 

unreality 2108, 1 
Act, txw* etc - without &v in apodosis 

expressing unreality 2105 
i often used for 3ri, because, after certain 

verbs 2074 
(I 5t nj as substitute for conditional 

clause 2132 
<18e (or ci yap) in wishes 1999, 2001, 2004, 

ci/u as copula 1205, 1216-1218; ci/J 

omitted 1216, 1217, 1218, 1792; 

and yiyvonai with adverbs 1222, 1223 
t /vcu connecting two ace. 1610 
f/n-ov construction 2198 
t fr (iujp) with super!. 1363 
'j (tv) with gen. and House omitted 1279 
tKotrros 1416, 6; (KCUTTOS with pi. verb 

1258 ; iKcurnfj 1556 

without 4v as apodosis of 
unreality, 2108, 2 
far/* as pass, to l*0c(AA 1888 
?Keu etc. 2228, 2 

Xir 'i constructions 219' 
or auT<iv M (t^r^ '/*) etc 
1440, 1 
tm\\ov without 4y as apodosis of un 

reality 2106, 1 
4*&* auroC etc. in poetry 1468 
Irft, eh etc. M reflexive* 1466 

oC, 4/j.ol, faf used instead of pov etc. 

v TO?S with superlative 1364 
varrios construction 1768 
vi 1837 
S>v 1530 (c) 
outa constructions 2307 
irft sometimes used in the sense of 

although 2073 
iri 1837 
Tri\ayedvofjiai with part, or infin. 2301 ; 

2311, 5 
ir/o-ra/ioi with part, or infin. 2301 ; 2311, 


TTtTpfiru with infin. or part. 2290, 7 
Wiw with gen. and ace. 1639 
l<rr(, flat omitted 1792 
TIV and yiyvfrcu with plural masc. or 
fern, subject 1253 
&TXOTOS 1416, 1 

1491, 1492 
in (still) 1353 
5 "and <r<j>eW reflexives as simple pos- 

sessives in Old Ionic 1456, 2 
ft aKovw as pass, to c \tyu> 1888 
5 (KCUCWS) iroterf Tva 1616 

as pass, to 6 rotai 1888 
with part, or infin. 2301 ; 2311, 9 
' $ or 1$' ^r< with infinitive expressing 
condition 2226 

with aor. or perf . participle 2284 ; 
with obj. used instead of pass. 1890 

etc. 1688, 2 

4 after comparative 1341 

J) or J) ij or 6<rr with infinitive after 

comparatives 2226 

I) Korci (^ p<Jf) after comparative 1846 
^ with superl. 1359, 1362 
4 8' , ^ 8'* 1609, 1 

ol irerroic^ioi 1882 



T}/CO> = am come 1900, 2 

fa'iKos 1493; peculiar assimilation o 
1534 (a) 

fourvs 1416, 5 ; 1417 

r)t*uv av-ruv etc. reflexive or emphatic 
1440, 3 

^]<TX^VOU.I\ V without av as apodosis of un- 
reality 2108, 1 

fa constructions .1690 

oVos assimilated 1537 
4avfj.a<TTws us 1537 

Mi with imperative 1981 ; with hortative 
subj. 1986, 2 

with part. 2311, 14 
xal 3s etc. 1501, 1 and 3 
Kal OVTOS 1431, 1478 
Kal ravra 1478 

Kal r6v (r-fiv) as ace. subj. of inf. 1377, 3 
Kal &s 1509, 1 
Ka\ovutvos etc. 2240 

Kurd, compounds of, with verbs, govern- 
ing gen. 1709-1713 

TTJS Kf<pa\ris 1640 
as pass, to T(8etKa 1889 

nvi 1789 

nva 1579 

with supplementary participle 

with obj. used instead of pass. 


\av6a.v<a with supplementary participle 


\fy6/jLfvos etc. 2240 
Acyctf construction 2198 
AoiSopeTv Tti/a or rtvt 1678 
\/j.ait/((rdai riva or rti/t 1578 

v with compar. 1353, with superl. 

/ioAto-To with superl. 1365 

H\\ov followed by *} 06 for ff 1351 ; joined 

to compar. 1354 

/*ai/0ck w with part, or infin. 2301 ; 2311, 5 
/ie-ya with compar. 1353, with superl. 1358 

with superl. 1358 ; 1365 
with infin. or part. 2290, 2 
M and inf. expressing fut. 1926, 1927 
with part, or infin. 2301 ; 2311, 5 
fj.f'n(f>fffdai Tij/a and TIVI 1578 
ftfvta construction 2212 

1416, 1 
/xeVo 1837 

fr, see Negatives and Particles; ^ rarely 
used alone for/^ ov 2355; ^ sometimes 
omitted with infinitive after verbs of 
negative meaning 2353 ; ^ of, some- 
times omitted with infinitive after 
verbs of negative meaning 2354 ; ^ 
ov with participles and nouns 2357 
v 1453, 4 

p.6vos 1416, 4 ; fjLdvos ruv &\\<av 1719 
-, ffov etc. as reflex, poss. 1467 

vlKav 'O\vfjLirta etc. 1590 
'TKyv viKav etc. 1588, 1 
'(v 1453, 5 

VKTl 1822 

/t/Cw construction 1803 ; with part, or 
infin. 2311, 11 

o Je, 77 Sf, TO 56, 1377, 2 

<5 fKfifov (for ^/c6?/o') re/folj/ 1620 

o M fV 6 56 1377-1388 

8, 8?T6p, &, with verb announcing some- 
thing following 1520 (6) 
o (8ir6p) irdvrwv Oav/jLaa-Torarov etj. 1520 

(). W 

856, see oyros 
856 6 avtp = t y 1472, 2 
806/ for ^Kftdev ov or ol 1533 
of afjLtpi (ft pi) with name of person 1272 
of aiirf etc. in Homer 1440, 4 



ofra with part, or infin. 2301 ; -2311. 4 
Fos 1493; with superl. 1360; peculiar 
assimilation of 1534 (a), (6) (c) ; in 
exclamations 1542; olos with infin. as 
consec. clause, 2088 
oUs re 14 ( J4 
oUs rt flfii 2088, 2 
orxo/ioi = am gone 1900, 2 
o\iytp with compar. 1353 
o\os 1416, 3 
6fj.o\oytd> construction 2198, 2 ; with 

part, or infin. 2311, 10 
ovona(6/j.(vos etc. 2240 
&r]7 with superl. 1362 
6-irolos with superl. 1362 ; in exclamations 

fartffos with superl. 1362 ; in exclamations 

ov6o-os, 6*0705, 6mj\'iKos, faov, 6ir69fv etc. 


oirus with superl. 1361 
<ipa with part. 2301 ; with infin. 2311, 


os as demonstrative 1509 
os relative, see Particular and Indefinite 

Relatives 1493-1508 
& and 16s as simple possessive pron. in 

Homer 1456 

os and 46s (poetic) as reflexive 1466 
os and Us for ipos 1468 
Is p 1507 
os yt LOOT 
ftf Kol j 1509, 1 

It M<* *' 8 * in oblique cases for 4 pV 

4 8 1501,9 

&roi M^v" etc. 1534 (9) 
8<ror with super!. 1361 
&TOJ 1493; with superl. 1862; in ex- 
clamations 1542 ; with infin. an consec. 

Relatives 1493-1508; oo-ns assimilated 


uAei 1534 (/) 
oo-<? = because, since, as 1530 (d) 
or* with verbs of reinetnbering 2165, 2303 
Sri with superl. 1359 
ov, see Negatives and Particles ; oi> ^, 

see 2358; ov /*^ with subj. or fut. 

indie, expressing strong denial 1977 ; 

with fut. indie, or aor. subj. expressing 

prohibition 1985 

o5, o6ev, of etc. rel. adv. 1493 
ov, ol etc. (pers. pron.) used as reflexives 
in Homer 1444, in Attic 1449-1452 ; as 
personal pronoun in Homer and dia- 
lects 1453 

ouS' (M7?S') S>s 1509, 1 
ovtitls assimilated in owSel? SOTJS ov 1536 
(?<TTIV) fans 1499 
/jLTio'tv) in no wise 1353 

&rf and fcr^rof in plur. with numerical 
meaning 1501 

, see Particular and Indefinite 


IKC?I/O*, see Demonstrative 

pronouns ; ovros repeating emphatic- 
ally preceding subj. or obj. 1473 ; ovros 
in calling to a person 1474 ; ovros as 
vocative 1571 
ovroo-t etc. 1472, 1601 
ovrtas so much, with compar. 1353 


with pres. tense 1900, 3 
, in all respect* 1353, 1358 

with ace. for <J after comparatives 

2182, 5 
iraf 1416, 2 ; rat T.I 1556 
irauu. with part, or infin. 2290, 2 
*/0o M ai 1749 
Ttfto construction 

construction 1759, 1764 



with infin. or part. 2290, 6 
irtvw with gen. and ace. 1639 
Tr\f?<TTov with superl. 1358 ; 1365 
TT\4ov (n) and rb ir\4ov for /xaAAoj/ 1352 
x\4\v 1863, 2234, also under Particles 
eu with part, or infin. 2311, 13 

construction 1763 
iro\\ol and ol woAAof 1397 
TroAAoV with superl. 1358 
TroAu, woAAoV, vo\\cf> with comparatives 

1353, with superl. 1358 
*p\ v 1 2182, 1 and 5 
irplv....irplv 2182, 4 
xp6 with gen. for ^ after comparatives 


Trp6s JJLC 1420 
7r0oV06i/,>/i/2182, 3 

rplif tf, vcrrtpov ^, irp6rcpov 
, irpiv....-irpiv, irdpos, irdpos.... 
tpiv 2182 

Trp6rtpov....irpiv 2182, 3 
irvvQdvonai with infin. or part. 2311, 1 
vtas ov /j.f\\ca ; 1927 

(TTpavov(r0ai TIVI 1789 
(TTfpyu construction 1806 
a-vyyiyvtaffKta (^/ioury) constructions 2306 ; 
2311, 16 

1/j.avrif, constructions 2306 

ioury) n 1780 
rrjs Kpa\r)s 1640 
(r<p(T(pos for 8s 1468 

n added to relatives 1494 

rfOvdvai = to fear 1582 

-re'os, -reo, -TC'OI/ verbal adjectives in 

TfpirfffGai TIVI 1805 
rr)\iKovros 1488-1490 
T7jAi<$(rS6 1488-1490 
n somewhat 1353 
Tt' >oUol<ror ; 1793 
TI /xa0wi/ 2252 

rt ou with indie, aor. in exhortations or 
commands 1913 

Tt OV /ACA-AO) 1927 
TI 7T00W ; 1990 

Tt ttaSAv 2252 

riQri/j.1 assume, with part, or infin. 2311, 


r(\\f<rQai TWO. 1579 
rinds nvi 1798 
Tivt or fo8puirois understood with dat. of 

relation or standpoint 1797 
r(s interrog., see Interrog. Pron. 
rls, rl, see Indefinite Pronouns; r\s as 

subject omitted 1211, 6 ; rls equivalent 

to many a or every one 1557 
r6 = wherefore 1370 
T& 5 adverbial 1382 
Tb/i6V....Tj)5eetc. 1378, 5 
rbri; etc. 1399 (a) 
rb iraa/Ttav Qavp.a(n6ra.rov 1520 (a) 
TotdtrSc 1488-1490 
TOIOVTOS 1488-1490 
rbv Kal r6v etc. 1377, 4 
rbv fff Kal tpe etc. 1399 (6) 
rofftffSc 1488-1490 

TOffOVTOS, TOffdff&f, TOIOVTOS, T0t({(r8e, TjAi- 

KoGros, TTjAucJo-56 1488-1490 
TOUT' tiff'ivo and ToT ^Kclvo 1476 
TOUTO /tei/....ToGro 5 1377, 5; 1475 
TU7x"a 1648-1650; with obj. used 

instead of pass. 1890; with supple- 

mentary participle 2286 
Tvirrt(r6ai nva 1579 
-rtf = therefore 1370 

1743, 1749 

with infin. or part. 2290, 4 
1j 2182, 2 

faivofjiai with part, or infin. 2311, 6 
ffpt (S-n) with imperative 1981, with 

hortative subj. 1986, 2 
<pvy<a as pass, to SIUKW 1888 


<pi)fji.i construction 2198 

<p8dvu with supplementary participle 


4>0opcu> construction 1747 
<pi\f TfKvov etc. 1336 

\a\firws (ptptiv 1806 
' 6t6v 1579 

;struction 1803 

with ace. of person and gen. of 
thing (poet.) 1580 

Xpj) 1748; with ace. of person and gen. 
of thing (poet.) 1580 

&v belonging to a predicate-noun 

or adjective sometimes omitted 

2-278 ; sometimes omitted 

when a supplementary participle 

S>y, avd' vv, 4 wv = TOVTWV ori (for this, 

that, because) 1530 (c) 
is with superl. 1359, 1362 
is in exclamations 15 1_! 
is with supplementary participle 2318 
is with infinitive absolute 2228 
is as conjunction, set 
is as prep, to 1864 
is iAttfis 1501, 9 

is et or is tt re in Homer in clauses of 

comparison 2129, 2130 
is {pof 1797 
io-aurws 1509, 1 

assimilated 1534 
or is with ace. absolute 2268 
&<nrep &v ti in clauses of comparison 

S><TT( with inlin. as consec. clause in 

ind. discourse 2087 
Sxrrf with supplementary infinitive 2217, 

tier* with infinitive expressing condition 

with infin. sometimes expressing a 
condition 2081 

with infinitive after verbs meaning 
to happen 2203; &<rre before object- 
infinitive 2210 
&<rrt and is and infin. with &v consecu- 

tive clause 2086 

&<TTC or is and participle as a consecutive 
clause 2084 

?? with dat. poet. 1578 

as apodosis of unreality in 
Homer 2108, 3 

cAoK (-s, -) with infinitive to express 
unattainable wish 2004-2007 



2 g 

co bo 

O .* 

> d; 
C ^ 

o o 


c < 



Do not 

re move 

the card 
from this