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Full text of "An introduction to Greek and Latin palaeography"

X 



X 



This book belongs to 
THE CAMPBELL COLLECTION 

purchased with the aid of 
The MacDonald-Stewart Foundation 

and 
The Canada Council 



AN INTRODUCTION TO 

GREEK AND LATIN 
PALAEOGRAPHY 



,7 



BY 

SIR EDWARD MAUNDE THOMPSON 

G.C.H.. I.S.O. 

HON. D.C.L., OXFORD AND DURHAM ; HON. LL.D., ST. ANDREWS 
HON. LITT.D., MANCHESTER; HON. FELLOW OF UNIVERSITY COLLEGE 

OXFORD ; FELLOW OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY ; CORRESPONDING 

MEM HER OF THE INSTITI'TE OF FRANCE, AND OF THE ROYAL 

PRUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES; SOMETIME DIRECTOR AND 

PRINCIPAL LIBRARIAN OF THE BRITISH ML'SEfM 



OXFORD 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1912 



HENRY FROWDE, M.A. 

PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY OP OXFORD 

LONDON, EDINBURGH, NEW YORK, TORONTO 
MELBOURNE AND BOMBAY 



IX MEMORIAM 

EDWARDI AVGVSTI BOND 

WILLELMI WATTENBACH 

LEOPOLDI VTCTORIS DELISLE 

MAGISTRORVM AMICORYM 

PIO ANDIO 
DEDICAT DISCIPVLVS 



PREFACE 

WHEN, twenty years ago, at the invitation of Messrs. Kegan 
Paul, Trench, Truebner & Company, I contributed to their 
International Scientific Series a Handbook of Greek and Lnlm 
Paheoijnipliu, I hardly dared to hope that such a work would 
appeal to more than a limited number of students. Yet, even 
at that time, the study of Palaeography had begun to take 
a wider range ; and the ever-growing output of photographic 
reproductions and especially the interest aroused by the 
recovery of valuable relics of Greek Literature which so 
frequently were coming to light among the newly-found papyri 
from Egypt combined to give it a greater stimulus. For this 
reason, and rather because it happened to be the only book of 
its kind in the English language than for any particular merit 
of its own, the Handbook attained a larger circulation than had 
been anticipated, and served more effectually the purpose, for 
which it was written, of a general guide to the subject. 

A certain inconvenience, however, embarrassed the useful- 
ness which might be claimed for the book, almost from the 
first. The small form of the volume and the moderate price of 
the Series prohibited illustration on more than a limited scale ; 
and although the facsimiles, as issued, may have proved 
sufficient as an accompaniment of the text, their value as 
palaeographical specimens, representing as they did only very 
small sections of the pages of the MSS. from which they were 
selected, could not count for much. Moreover, the letter-press 
being stereotyped, the introduction of new matter in any satis- 
factory degree was attended with difficulties. Therefore, when, 
in 1906, a third edition of the Handbook was called for, it was 
suggested to the publishers that the time had arrived for a 
fuller treatment of the subject both in text and in illustration. 
They were, however, of opinion that the Handbook, as it stood, 
still had its value ; at the same time they very handsomely 



vi PREFACE 

gave me authority to make use of it as a basis for a larger 
work. I here desire to record my grateful thanks for this 
concession. 

This, then, is the origin of the present Introduction. It is 
an enlarged edition of the Handbook, following the same lines, 
but being in many parts rewritten as well as revised, and, it is 
hoped, giving a fairly complete account of the history and 
progress of Greek and Latin Palaeography, especially in its 
literary aspect, from the earliest periods represented by sur- 
viving MSS. down to the close of the fifteenth century ; and 
embodying details of the more recent discoveries and the 
results of modern research. A further advantage is the im- 
proved scale of the facsimiles, which the larger format of the 
Introduction has rendered possible. For this and for other 
facilities I am indebted to the liberality of the Delegates of the 
Clarendon Press, to whom their ready acceptance of responsi- 
bility for the publication of this work has placed me under 
peculiar obligations. 

The section of this Introduction which in the future may 
need modification, as the result of further discoveries, is that 
which deals with the Literary and Cursive hands of the Greek 
papyri. In the case of the Literary hands, it will be seen that 
we are still far from being in a position to speak, in all 
instances, with approximate certainty as to the periods of the 
MSS. already before us. Fresh discoveries may require us to 
qualify our present views. As regards the Cursive hands, our 
position is stronger ; but there are still very wide chronological 
gaps to be filled before the palaeographer can have an unbroken 
series of dated documents at his disposal. As an aid to the 
better understanding of this difficult section, and to assist in 
the deciphering of passages in which the facsimiles, from the 
condition of the originals, may have proved obscure, the Table 
of Literary Alphabets, showing the forms of letters employed 
in the several MSS. will, it is hoped, be found useful ; and, not 
less so, the Table of Cursive Alphabets, in the compilation 
of which upwards of two hundred dated papyri have been 
analyzed. 

The Facsimiles throughout have been selected with care. It 



PREFACE 

will be observed that a large proportion of them has been 
reproduced from the plates of the Palaeographical Society. 
This has been done purposely. The series of Facsimiles pub- 
lished by the Society, both in the old issues and in the one still 
in progress, have been chosen with a view to palaeographical 
instruction, and therefore offer the best field in which to gather 
illustrations for such an Introduction as the present one ; and, 
in addition, they are probably more accessible than any other 
series of reproductions to English students, for whom this worl 
is more especially designed. My best thanks are due to the 
Society for permission to make use of their plates. 

Others also I have to thank for similar favours ; and I gladly 
acknowledge my obligations to Monsieur Henri Omont, the 
Keeper of the MSS. in the Bibliotheque Nationale ; to Professor 
W. M. Lindsay, of St. Andrews ; to Professor Franz Steffens, 
of Freiburg (Switzerland) ; and to Professor V. Gardthausen, of 

Leipzig. 

On the indulgence of many of my former colleaguea 
British Museum I fear I have trespassed too freely ; but their 
patience has been inexhaustible. To my successor in the office 
of Director and Principal Librarian, Sir Frederic G. Kenyon, 
I am specially indebted for much valuable advice and assistance 
and for his trouble in kindly reading the proofs of the portion 
of this book relating to Greek Palaeography. To Sir George I 
Warner, late Keeper of the Department of Manuscripts. 
Mr. J. P. Gilson, the present Keeper, and to Mr. H. Idris Bell 
and Mr. G. T. Longley, of that Department ; to Mr. G. K. 
Fortescue, Keeper of the Printed Books ; to Dr. L. D. Barnett, 
Keeper of the Oriental Printed Books and Manuscripts ; to 
Mr. H. A. Grueber, Keeper of the Coins and Medals : and 
to Mr. A. Hamilton Smith, Keeper of the Greek and Roman 
Antiquities, I return my best thanks for all their kindly aid. 

In conclusion, I gratefully acknowledge the care bestowed 
by the Delegates of the Clarendon Press on the production of 
this volume. ^ T 

MAYFIELD, SUSSEX, 
July 1, 1912. 



TABLE OF CHAPTERS 

CHAPTER I PAGE 

History of the Greek and Latin Alphabets ...... 1 

CHAPTER II 

Materials used to receive writing : Leaves Bark Linen Clay and 
Pottery Wall-spaces Precious Metals Lead Bronze Wood 
Waxed and other Tablets Greek Waxed Tablets Latin Waxed 
Tablets 8 

CHAPTER 111 
Materials used to receive writing (continued) : Papyrus Skins Parchment 

and Vellum Paper . . . . . . . . . .21 

CHAPTER IV 
Writing implements : The Stilus, Pen, etc. Inks Various implements . 39 

CHAPTER V 
Forms of Books : The Roll The Codex The Text Punctuation Accents, 

etc. Palimpsests . . . . . . . . . .44 

CHAPTER VI 
Stichometry and Colometry Tachygraphy Cryptography ... 67 

CHAPTER VII 
Abbreviations and Contractions Numerals ...... 75 

CHAPTER VIII 
Greek Palaeography : Papyri Antiquity of Greek writing Divisions of 

Greek Palaeography. ......... 93 

CHAPTER IX 
Greek Palaeography (continued) : The Literary hand or Book-hand in 

Papyri Literary Alphabets ...... .104 

CHAPTER X 

Greek Palaeography (continued) : Cursive Script in Papyri Cursive 

Alphabets Comparison of Literary and Cursive Alphabets . .148 



TABLE OF CHAPTERS is 

CHAPTER XI PAGE 

Greek Palaeography (mtfnul) : The Uncial Book-hand in Vellum Codices 198 

CHAPTER XII 

Greek Palaeography (/'//" '): The Minuscule Book-haiul in the Middle 
\ .res Greek writing in Western Europe . 

CHAPTER XIII 
Latin Palaeography : The Majuscule Book-hand Square Capitals Rustic 

Capitals Uncials . 

CHAPTER XIV 

Latin Palaeography (contimt*I) : The Mixed Uncial and Minuscule Book- 
hand The Half-uncial Book-hand . 

CHAPTER XV 

Latin Palaeography (continual): The Roman Cursive Script Cursive 
Alphabets 

CHAPTER XVI 

Latin Palaeography (continued): National Minuscule Book-hands Visi- 
gothic Lombardic Merovingian Frauco-Lombardic Pre-Carolin- 
<,'ian The C'arolingian Reform . 

CHAPTER XVII 

Latin Palaeography (continued}: The Irish Half-uncial and Minuscule 
Book-hand The Early English Book-hand 

CHAPTER XVIII 

Latin Palaeography (continue,!) : The Minuscule Book-hand in the Middle 
A C es The English Vernacular Book-hand in the Middle Ages . 

CHAPTER XIX 

Latin Palaeography (continued): Official and Legal Cursive Scripts 
(National hands) The Papal Chancery The impeiial Chancery- 
English Charter hand English Chancery hand English Court hand . 491 



TABLES OF ALPHABETS 

The Greek and Latin Alphabets 

Greek Literary Alphabets . . I 44 " 7 

Greek Cursive Alphabets 

Latin Cursive Alphabets ... 335-7 



LIST OF FACSIMILES 

(Greek Literary Papyri) 
No. PAGE 

1. TIMOTHEUS, Persrte : 4th cent. B.C. [Berlin Museums] . . 106 

2. PLATO, Phaedo ; 3rd cent. B. c. [Brit. Mus., Pap. 488] . .110 

3. DIALECTICAL TBEATISE ; before 160 B.C. [Paris, Musee du Louvre, 

Pap. grec. 2] 

4. HYPEBIDES, Athenogenes ; 2nd cent. B.C. [Paris, Musee du Louvre] . 

5. METRODOKUS ; 1st cent. B. c. [Naples, Museo Nazionale] . 

6. BACCHYLIDES ; 1st cent. B.C. [Brit. Mus., Pap. 733] 

7. PETITION; about 10 B.C. [Brit. Mus., Pap. 354] 

8. HOMER, Odyssey iii ; about A. D. 1. [Brit. Mus., Pap. 271] 

9. HYPEBIDES, Euxenippus ; 1st cent. [Brit. Mus., Pap. 115] 

10. HOMEB, Iliad x\iii (Harris Homer) ; 1st cent. [Brit. Mus., Pap. 107] 126 
11 AKISTOTLE, Constitution of Athens ; about A.D. 90. [Brit. Mus., 

Pap. 131] .... . . -128 

12. HOMES, Iliad xiii; 1st or 2nd cent, [Brit. Mus., Pap. 732] 

13. COMMENTARY ON THE THEAETETUS or PLATO; 2nd cent. [Berlin 

Museums, Pap. 9782] . . .132 

14. JULIUS AFRICAXUS ; 3rd cent. [Egypt Explor. Fund, Ox. Pap. 412] . 

15. HOMEE, Iliad v; 3rd cent. [Bodleian Library, Gr. class. A. 8 (P)J . 136 

16. DEED or SALE; A.D. 88. [Brit. Mus., Pap. 141] . 

17. HOMEE, Iliad -aw (Bankes Homer); 2nd cent. [Brit. Mus., Pap. 114] 140 
18 HOMEE, Iliad ii (Haivara Homer); 2nd cent. [Bodleian Library, 

Gr. class. A. 1 (P)] . 142 

(Greek Cursive Papyri) 

19. OFFICIAL LETTER; 242 B. c. [Bodleian Library, Gr. class. C. 21 (P)] 150 

20. PETITION; 223 B.C. [Brit. Mus., Pap. 106] . 

21. TAX RECEIPT; 210-209 B.C. [Brit. Mus., Demot. Pap. 10463] 

22. PETITION; 163 B.C. [Brit, Mus., Pap. 24] 

23. PETITION; 162 B.C. [Brit. Mus., Pap. 21] . . . 156 

24. SALE OF LAND; 123 B.C. [Brit. Mus., Pap. 879 (i)J . 

25. SALE OF LAND; 101 B.C. [Brit. Mus., Pap. 882] . 

26. MARRIAGE SETTLEMENT; 15-5 B.C. [Berlin Museums, Pap. 66 K] . 160 

27. LEASE; A.D. 17. [Brit. Mus., Pap. 795]. . . .162 

28. SALE OF LAND; A.D. 69-79. [Brit. Mus., Pap. 140] 

29. BAILIFF'S ACCOUNTS; A.D. 78-9. | Brit. Mus., Pap. 131]. 

30. ARISTOTLE ; about A.D. 90. [Brit. Mus., Pap. 131] . 

31. SALE OF AN Ass; A.D. 142. [Brit. Mus., Pap. 303] . 168 

32. DIPLOMA; A.D. 194. [Brit. Mus.. Pap. 1178] . 

33. TAXATION RETURN; A.D. 221. [Brit. Mus, Pap. 353] . 

34. SALE; A.D. 226-7. [Brit. Mus., Pap. 1158] . 

35. MILITARY ACCOUNTS; A.D. 295. [Brit. Mus., Pap. 748] . 

36. LETTER ; about A.D. 350. [Brit. Mus., Pap. 234] . 

37. RECEIPT; A.D. 441. [Berlin Museums, Pap. 7452] . 177 



LIST OF FACSIMILE xi 

,, PA<;F 

38. AGREEMENT FOR LEASE ; A.D. 556. [Berlin Museums, Pap. 2558] . 178 

39. CONTRACT FOR LEASK : A.D. 595. [Brit. Mus., Pap. 113]. 

40. LEAM-: : A. D. 633. [Brit. Mus., Tap. 1012] . 

41. Prune ACCOUNTS ; A.D. 700-705. [Brit. Mus.. Pap. 1 I is 
-12. Prr.Lic NOTICE ; 8th cent. [Brit. Mus., Pap. 32] 

(Greek Unciah) 

43. HOMER. IliaJ ; 3rd cent. (1). [Milan, Ambrosian Library, F. 205. inf. 2ol 

44. BIBLE (CW<v Parieowiw); 4th cent. [Rome, Vatican Library, Cod. 

Vat. 1209] ..... 202 

45. BIBLE (Codex Sinaiticus) ; late 4th cent. [Leipzig. Royal Library. 

Cod. Frid.-Aug.] 

46. BIBLE (Codex .1 /..,///// w) : 5th cent. [Brit. Mus., Royal MS. 1 D. 

v viii] ... 

47. DioscOBiLEs; early 6th cent. [Vienna, Imperial Library, Cod. Graec. 5] 210 

48. MATHEMATICAL TREATISE ; 7th cent. [Milan, Ambrosian Library, 

L. 99. sup.] .... 

49. PSALTER ; A. i>. 862. [Library of Up. Uspensky] . 

50. GOSPELS; A.D. 949. [Rome, Vatican Library, MS. Graec. 354] 

51. EVANGELIARIUM ; A. D. 995. [Brit. Mus., Harley MS. 5598] . 216 



(Greek 
52 THEOLOGICAL WORKS ; 8th cent. [Rome, Vatican Library, Colouna 

MS. 39] ........... 219 

53. EUCLID; A.D. 888. [Bodleian Library. D'Orville MS. x. 1] . 

54. PLATO, Dialogues; A.D. 896. [Bodleian Library, Clarke MS. 39] . 224 

55. GOSPELS; early 10th cent. [Brit. Mus., Add. MS. 11300] . . 226 

56. LUCIAX ; about A.D. 915. [Brit. Mus., Harley MS. 5694] 

57. THUCYDIDES ; 10th cent. [Florence. Laurent ian Library, Pint. Ixix. 2] 229 

58. PLUTARCH; 10th cent. [Florence, Laurentian Library. MS. 206] . 230 

59. PSALTER ; about A. D. 950. [Bodleian Library, Qk. Misc. 6] . - 231 
GO. ST. MAXIMUS; A.D. 970. [Mount Atho*. Laura, MS. B. 37] . 

61. ST. CHKYSOSTOM; A.D. 976. [Bodleian Library, Laud MS. Gk. 75]. 236 

62. GOSPELS; A.D. 1023. '[Milan. Ambrosian Library, B. 56. sup.] 

63. M. ESELLCS ; A. D. 1040. [Heidelberg, University Library, Cod. 

Palat. cclxxxi] ... . 239 

64. DEMOSTHENES; early llth cent. [Florence, Laurentian Library, Pint. 

lix. 9] ........... 240 

65. CANONS; A.D. 1042. [Bodleian Library, Barocoi MS. 196] . 212 

66. HOMER, Iliad ('/.'< i>:nl>?i/ Homer); A.D. 1059. [Brit. Mus., Burney 

MS. 86] ........ - 244 

67. EPISTLES, etc.; A.D. 1111. [Brit. Mus., Add. MS. 28816] 247 

68. GOSPELS; A.D. 1128-9. [Rome, Vatican Library, Cod. Urbino-Vat. 

Gr. 2] ........... 248 

69. MARTYEOLOGY; A.D. 1184. [Brit. Mus., Burney MS. 44] . 249 

70. COMMENTARY ON PORPHYRY; A.D. 1223. [Paris, Bibl. Nat., MS. 

grec. 2089] ..... .251 

71. COMMENTARY ox THE OCTOECHUS : A.D. 1252. [Brit. Mus., Add. 

MS. 27359] ..... . 252 

72. HESIOD: A.D. 1280. [Florence, Laurentian Library, Plut. : xxxii. 16] 256 

73. GOSPELS; A.D. 1282. [Monastery of Sei res, Macedonia. MS. r. 10"j 258 

74. GOSPELS; A.D. 1314-15. [Brit. Mus.. Add. MS. 37002] . 260 

75. HERODOTUS; A.D. 1318. [Florence. Laurentian Library. Plut. Ixx. 6] 261 



xii LIST OF FACSIMILES 

NO. PAGE 

76. ST. ATHAXASIUS; A.D. 1321. [Brit. Mus., Harley MS. 5579] . . 262 

77. LIVES OF THE FATHERS; A.D. 1362. [Brit. Mus.. Barney MS. 50] . 263 

78. POLYBIUS; A.D. 1416. [Brit. Mus., Add. MS. 11728] . . .264 

79. THE PBOPHETS; A.D. 1437. [Brit. Mus., Add. MS. 21259] . . 266 

80. MENAEUM; A.D. 1460. [Brit. Mus., Add. MS. 16398] . . .267 

81. HOMEH, Odyssey; A. D. 1479. [Brit. Mus., Harley MS. 5658] . . 268 

(Latin Capitals) 

82. VIEGIL ; 4th or 5th cent. [St. Gall, Cod. 1394] . . . .275 

83. POKM ox THE BATTLE OF ACTIUM ; before A.D. 79. [Naples, Museo 

Xazionale] 276 

84. VIKGIL; 5th cent. ? [P>ome, Vatican Library, Cod. Palat. 1631] . 278 

85. VIEGIL; 4th cent. ? [Rome, Vatican Library, Cod. Vat. 3225] . 280 

86. VIEGIL ; before A. D. 494. [Florence, Laurentian Library, Pint. 

xxxix. 1] ........... 282 

(Latin Uncials) 

87. CICEEO, De Rejmblica; 4th cent. [Piome, Vatican Library, Cod. Vat. 

5757] 286 

88. GOSPELS; 4th cent. [Vercelli, Chapter Library] .... 287 

89. LIVY ; 5th cent. [Vienna, Imperial Library, Cod. Lat. 15] . . 290 

90. GOSPELS; 5th or 6th cent. [St. Gall, Cod. 1394] . . . .292 

91. NEW TESTAMEXT ; about A.D. 546. [Fulda Library] . . . 293 

92. ST. AUGUSTINE ; A. D. 669. [Library of Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan] . 294 

93. BIBLE (Codex Amiatinus); about A.D. 700. [Florence, Laurentiau 

Library, Cod. Amiat. 1] ... .... 295 

94. GOSPELS ; A. D. 739-60. [Brit. Mus., Add. MS. 5463] . . .296 

(Latin Mi. ml fiicials and Minuscules, and Half-uncials) 

95. EPITOME OF LIVY ; 3rd cent. [Brit. Mus., Pap. 1532] . . . 300 

96. CHEOXOLOGICAL NOTES; 6th cent. [Bodleian Library, MS. Auct. T. 

2. 26] . .302 

97. PANDECTS ; 6th or 7th cent. [Florence, Laurentian Library] . . 303 

98. ST. HILARY; before A. D. 509-10. [Uome, Archives of St. Peter's] . 306 

99. ST. AUGUSTIXE ; 6th cent. [Paris, Hibl. Nat, MS. lat. 13367] . 307 

100. BIBLICAL COMMENTARY ; before A. D. 569. [Monte Cassino, Cod. 150] 308 

(Kmnan Cursive) 

101. FORMS OF LETTERS ; before A. D. 79 . ... . . 312 

102. POMPEIAX WAXKD TABLET; A.D. 59. [Naples, ^lusco Naziouale, 

no. cxliii] ........... 314 

103. DACIAX WAXED TABLET; A.D. 167. [Budapest Museum] . . . 316 
104,105. FORMS or LETTERS ; 2nd cent. 317,318 

106. SPEECHES; A.D. 41-54. [Berlin Museums, Pap. 8507] . . . 321 

107. SALE OF A SLAVE; A.D. 166. [Brit. Mus., Pap. 229] . . .322 

108. LETTER; A.D. 167. [Brit. Mus., Pap. 730] .... 323 

109. PETITION; A.D. 247. [Bodleian Library, Lat. class. D. 12 (P)] . 325 

110. LETTER; 4th cent. [Strassburg, Pap. lat. Argent, i] . . . 326 

111. IMPERIAL PiESCRiPT ; 5th cent. [Leyden Museum] . . . 328 

112. ItAVKXNA DEKD OF SALE : A.D. 572. [Brit. Mus., Add. MS. 5412] . 329 

113. FORMS OF LETTERS ; A.D. 572 . 330 

114. ST. MAXIMUS; 7th cent. [Milan, Ambrosial! Library, C. 98, P. inf.]. 338 



LIST <>F K ACS 1 MILKS xiii 

(Lati ,!//</ /'.-. Xi'tii'i'dl AW, -/<,/.>> 

No PAGK 

115. ST.AUGUBHHB; 8th eeot. [The Escurial. MS. K ii. 18 i . - 

116. OBATiuXALKGuTm.0.; ' tt l- e " t [ Blll , A - ] ' " 



. Bu , r nv,o-, 

117. MARTYROLOGY; A.D. 919. [Brit. Mus Add. MS 25600] 
118 BEATUS; A.D. 1109. [Brit. Mus., Add. MS. 11695] 
119' SACRAMENTARIUM ; about A. D. 800. [St. Gall, Cod. 348] 
120. ALCUIN : A. D. 812. [Monte Cassiuo Cod. 111 . . . 3ol 

121 STATIUS ; end of 10th cent. [Eton Coll*-., M>. 1.1. 6. 5 

122. LECTIONAKY ; A.D. 1058-87. [Monte Cassino, Cod. xcix 

123. COMMENTARY ON MONASTIC KVLKS : A. D. 1264-82. [Monte ( uuno, ^ 

124 LECTIONARY: late 7th cent. [Paris, I'.il.l. Nat.Jon.ls l,,t. 9427] 356 

125. ST. GREGORY; 8th cent. [Brit. Mn,, A,W MS. 31031] . . 

126. HOMILIES: 7th ,,r 8th cent, [Brit MM., Harley MS. o041] . 



. 

127. LEX SALICA; A.D. 794. [St. Gall. Cod. 731] . 
128 HOMILIES; 8th cent. [Brussels, Hoyal Library, MS. 9850- 
129. ST. CYPRIAN; 8th cent. [Manchester. John IMands Library, -Mb. 

i K~\ 3l>4 

130 EuoYPpius : early 8th cent. [Library <,f Mons. Jules Desnoyers] 

131. ST. JEROME; A.D. 744. [Eph.al. MS. .58] . . .366 

132, 133. SULPICIUS SEVEKUS : 9th cent, [Quedhnburgj 

(Latin Half-uncials ami Minuscules: Th? Irixh K,->ok-ll) 

134 GOSPELS; late 7th cent. [Dublin, Trinity College, MS. A. 415] 

13o' GOSPELS (Book of A'ell*) : end of 7th cent. [Dublin, Trinity College J 875 

136. GOSPELS or MACREGOL ; about A.D. 800. [Bodleian Library, Auct. 

D 2 19] 

137 NEW TESTAMENT (Book of Anna,,!,) ; A.D. 807. [Dublin. Trinity < '..liege] 

138. PRISCIAN; A.D. 838. [Leyden, Univemty Library. Cod. Lat 6 . 381 

139. GOSPELS or M.ELBRIGTE : A.D. 1138. [Bnt.Mus.. HaileyMS. 1802] 382 



(Latin Half-uncials and Minuscules: The Earl;/ Xn-jlith Hook- 

140. LINDISFARNE GOSPELS (Durham Book) ; about A. D. 700. [Brit. Mus., 

Cotton MS Nero D. iv] . 

141. CANTERBURY GOSPELS; late 8th cent. [Brit. Mus., Royal MS. 1 Ev.J 

142. BEDA; 8th cent. [Cambridge, University Library, MS. Kk. v. 1 

143. BEDA ; A.D. 811-14. [Brit. Mus., Cotton MS YespasB vi] . 39< 
144 PASCHAL COMPUTATIONS ; 9th cent. [Bodleian Library, Digby Mb. 6. 

145. ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE: about A.D. 891. [Cambridge, Corpus 

( la isti College, MS. 173]. 

146. ANGLO-SAXON POEMS (t\.;t<r Book): about A.D. 950. [Exeter, 

Chapter Library, MS. 3501] - 

147 PSAI.TKR: about A.D. 969. [Salisbury, Chapter Library. MS. 1801 . 

148. SHERBORNE PONTIFICAL : about A. D. 992-5. [Paris. Bibl. Nat., MS. 

lat. 943] . 

149. ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE: about A.D. 1001. [Cambridge, Corpus 

Christi College, MS. 173]. 

150. ^LFHIC: early llth cent. [Cambridge, I Diversity Library, 1 ^ 

151. ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE: about A.D. 1045. [Brit. Mus., Cotton 

MS.. Tiberius B. i] . 



xiv LIST OF FACSIMILES 

(Latin Minuscules: The Book-hand in the Middle Ayes) 
No. PAGE 

152. ST. AUGUSTINE; before A. D. 814. [Lyons, Cathedral Library, MS. 

010. . ... 405 

153. PASCHASIUS; A. D. 819. [Brussels, Royal Library, MS. 821G-18] . 407 

154. THEOLOGICAL TRACTS ; A. D. 821. [Munich, Boyal Library, MS. Lftt. 

14468] . 408 

155. ST. AUGUSTINE ; A. D. 823. [Munich, Royal Library, MS. Lat. 14437] 409 

156. CONSTITUTIONS OF CHABLE.MAGNE ; A. D. 825. [St. Gall, Cod. 733] . 410 
157,158. GOSPELS or NEVEES ; about A. D. 840. [Brit. Mus., Harley MS. 

2790] . . . 412, 413 

159. GOSPELS OF LOTHAIR ; about A. D. 850. [Paris, Bibl. Nat., MS. Lit. 

2G6] ... 414 

160. BEDA; before A. D. 848. [Brit. Mus, Cotton MS., Vespas. B. vi] . 415 

161. CANONS; about A. D. 888. [St. Gall, Cod. 672] . . . .416 
102. ALCUIN ; early 10th cent. [Brit. Mus., Royal MS. 8 E. xv] . . 419 
163. GOSPELS OF KING ^THELSTAN : early 10th cent. [Brit. Mus., Royal 

MS. 1 A. xviii] 420 

164,165. RABANUS MAURUS ; after A. D. 948. [Brit. Mus., Add. MS. 

22820] 421, 422 

166. AMALARIUS; A. D. 952. [Cambridge, Corpus Christ! College, MS. 192] 423 
107. MILO; A. D. 1022-41. [Brit. Mus., Royal MS. 5 A. xi] . . .425 
168. MARTYHOLOGY ; A. D. 1040-69. [Avignon, Musee Calvet, MS. 98] . 426 
109. GOSPELS OF THE COUNTESS GODA ; middle of llth cent. [Brit. Mus., 

Royal MS. 1 D. iii] . 427 

170. BIBLE; A. D. 1094-7. [Brit. Mus., Add. MS. 28106] . . .428 

171. ALDHELM; 10th cent. [Lambeth Library, MS. 200] . . . 431 

172. BENEDICTIOXAL OF ST. JETHKLWOLD; A. D. 963-84. [Library of the 

Duke of Devonshire] ......... 432 

173. GREGORY THE GREAT; early llth cent. [Bodleian Library, Bodl. 

MS. 708] 433 

174. GOSPELS; A. b. 1008-23. [Cambridge, Trinity College, MS. B. 10. 4] 434 

175. BENEDICTIONAL; A. D. 1030-40. [Paris, Bibl. Nat., MS. lat. 987] . 435 

176. LIFE OF ST. AUGUSTINE : A. D. 1100-25. [Brit. Mus., Cotton MS., 

Vespas. B. xx] . . . . . . . . . . 438 

177. MIKACLES OF ST. EDMUND; before A. D. 1135. [Library of Sir George 

Holford] . . 439 

178. BEDA; A. n."l 147-76. [Brit. Mus., Eoyal MS. 3 A. xii] . . . 440 

179. LEVITICUS; A. D. 1170. [Brit. Mus., Harley MS. 3038] . . . 441 

180. PETRUS LOMBAHDUS ; A. D.I 166. [Library of Mr. Dyson Perrins] . 442 

181. HOMILIES; early 12th cent. [Brit. Mus., Harley MS. 7183] . . 443 

182. PETRUS COMESTOH ; A. D. 1191-2. [Brit, Mus., Royal MS. 7 F iii] . 446 

183. PETHUS COMESTOH; before A. D. 1215. [Brit. Mus., Royal MS. 4 D. 

vii] ... . 447 

184. MISSAL; A. D. 1218. [Brit. Mus., Add. MS. 17742] . . . 448 

185. PONTIFICAL; about A. D. 1222. [Metz, Salis MS. 23] . . . 449 

186. BIBLE ; A. D. 1225-52. [Brit. Mus., Burney MS. 3J . . . 451 

187. LECTIO.VAKY ; A. D. 1269. [Brit. Mus., Egerton MS. 2569] . . 452 

188. PETRUS COMESTOR ; A. D. 1283-1300. [Brit. Mus., Royal MS. 3 D. vi] 454 

189. CORONATION OATH; A. D. 1308. [Brit. Mus., Harley MS. 2901] . 457 

190. JACOBUS DE YOHAGINF. ; A. D. 1312. [Brit. Mus., Add. MS. 11882] . 458 

191. BREVIARY; A. D. 1322-7. [Brit. Mus., Stowe MS. 12] . . .459 

192. MANDEVILLE ; A. D. 1371. [Paris, Bibl. Nat., Nouv. acq. franc. 

4515] ..... .... 461 



LIST OF FA( 'SI. MILKS 

\n PAtli; 

193 CHRONICLE; about A. D. 1388. [Brit. Mus.. Hai-ley MS. 3634] . . 462 

194. HORACE; A. D. 1301. Brit. Mas.. Add. MS. 1196 . 463 

195. TITCHFIELD ABBEY COLLECTIONS; A. D. 1400-5. [Library of the 

Dnke of Portland] . 

196. ROMANCES (Talbot Book}; A. D. 1445. [Brit. Mus.. Royal MS. 15 E. vi] 
197 MISSAL ; before A. D. 1446. [Brit. Mus., Arundel MS. 109] . 
198. ST. AUGUSTINE : A.D. 1403. [Brit. Mus., Add. MS. 17284] . 

199 \RISTOTLE ; A.D. 1451. [Library of Mr. Dyson Perrini] . 
200. SALLUST ; A. D. 1466. [Brit. Mus., Add. MS. 16422] 



(Latin Minuscules: The English F<?r,w<W R^k-lxnid in the Middle Ages) 

201. ENGLISH LAWS (Textus 7,V//'> ,<*/,-) : before A. D. 1 125. [Rochester, 

Chapter Library] 

202. THE OHMULUM; early 13th cent, [Bodleian Library, .Tuiuus MS. 1J. 

203. HOMILIES ; early 13th cent. [Brit. Mus.. Stow MS. 240] 

204. THE ANCREN RIWLE ; early 13th cent. [Brit. Mus., Cotton MS., 

Titus D. xviii] .... 

905. THE AYENBITE OF INWYT : A. D. 1340. [Brit. Mus., Arundel MS. 57] 
206. WYCLIFFITE BIBLE: late 14th cent. [Brit. Mus., Add. MS. 15580] . 480 
VQl PIERS PLOWMAN ; about A. D. 1380. L Brlt - ^ us -' ^' otton iIS -> Vespas. 

B. xvi] ..... 
>08 WYCLIFFITE BIBLE ; about A. D. 1382. [Bodleian Library, Bodl. MS. 

959] ........ .483 

209. AVYCLIFFITE BIBLE; before A.D. 1397. [Brit. Mus., Egerton MS. 

617,618]. . . ' - 

210. CHAUCER; about A.D. 1400. [Brit. Mus.. Harley MS. 7334] . 

211. TREVISA; beginning of loth cent. [Brit. Mus., Add. MS. 24194] . 487 
212 OCCLEVE: early 15th cent. [Brit, Mus., Harley MS. 4866] 

213. OSBERN BOKKNHAM : A.D. 1447. [Brit. Mus.. Arundel MS. 327] . 489 



(Latin Minuscules: Official and Legal Cwrriw . 

214. BF.NEDICTIO CEREI ; 7th cent. [The Escurial. Cam. de las reliquiasj 493 

215. DEED OF BENEVENTO; A.D. 810. [Moute Cassino, xxxiv] 

216. BULL or JOHN VIII ; A. D. 876. [Paris. Bibl. Nat.] 

217. BULL OF PASCHAL II ; A.D. 1102. " [Milan, State Archives] . . 496 

218. JUDGEMENT OF THIERRY III ; A. D. 679-80. [Paris, Archives Xation- 

ales, K. 2, no. 13] .. . .499 

219. DIPLOMA OF CHAKLEMAGNE ; A.D. 797. [Paris, Archives Xatiouales, 

K. 7, no. 15] ... 500 

220. DIPLOMA OF Louis THE GERMAN ; A. D. 856. [St. Gall, Chapter 

Archives, F. F. i. H. 106] . 

221. MERCIAN CHARTER ; A.D. 812. [Canterbury, Chapter Archives, C. 1] 506 

222. CHARTER OF ETHELBEHHT OF KENT; A.D. 858. [Brit. Mus., Cotton 

MS.. Aug. ii. 66] .... 508 

223. GRANT BY WEEFHITH, BISHOP OF WORCESTER; A.D. 904. [Brit. 

Mus., Add. Ch. 19791] . .510 

224. GRANT BY WILLIAM II ; A. D. 1087 (?). [Brit. Mus., Cotton MS., Aug. 

ii. 53] ...... 513 

225. GRANT BY HENRY I; A.D. 1120-30. [Brit. Mus.. Add. Ch. 33629] . 514 

226. GRANT BY STEPHEN; A.D. 1139. [Brit. Mus., Cotton MS., Xero C. 

iii. 172] ...... 



xvi LIST OF FACSIMILES 

PAGE 

227. GRANT BY HENRY II; A.D. 1156. [Westminster, Chapter Archives, 

228. GRANNY RICHARD I ; A.D. 1189. ' [Brit. Mus., Egerton Ch. 372] . 518 

229. CHARTER OF THE HOSPITALLERS ; A. D. 1205. [Brit. Mus., Harley ^ 

230. CHAR'TER^JOHN ; ' A. D.' 1204. [Wilton, Corporation Records] 524 

231. GRANT BY HENKY III ; A. D. 1227. [Eton College] 

232. NOTIFICATION OF HENRY III; A.D. 1234. [Bnt. Mus., Add. Ch. 

28402] . . ' -, ' ' f ,, ' 

233. LETTERS PATENT OF HENRY III ; A.D. 1270. [Bnt. Mus., Add. Ch. _^ 

234 LICENCED EDWARD I ; A. D. 1 303. " [Brit. Mus., Harley Ch. 43 D. 9] 534 
lit ta JOHNDE ST. JOHN ; A. D. M. [Brit. Mus, Add. Ch. 23834 j 536 

236. INSPEXIMUS OF EDWARD III : A.D. 1331. [Brit. Mus., Harley Ch. 

83 C 13] 

237. LETTERS OF THE BLACK PRINCE; A.D. 1360. [Brit. Mus., Add. Ch. ^ 

238. DEE^OF SEMPRINGHAM PRIORY; A.D. 1379. [Brit. Mus., Add. Ch. _^ 

239 GRANNY RICHARD II ; A.D. 1395. [Brit Mus.', Harley Ch. 43 E 33] 

240. PLEDGE OF PLATE ; A.D. 1415. [Brit Mus., ^Harley Ch. _43 I. 26] - 

241. PARDON BY HEN-RY VI; A.D. 1446^ Bnt Mus, ^dd Ch. 226. 

242. LEASE; A.D. 1457. [Brit. Mus., Harley Ch 44 B. 47] . 

243. TREATY BOND; A.D. 1496. [Brit Mus Add. C h. 989] 

1 -n^ Pl-liM-f Afnc A tin ( h 247"o . ooo 

244. CONVEYANCE; A. D. Io94. [Bnt. Hni., Ad g58 



- : 



AX INTRODUCTION TO 
GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 

CHAPTER I 

THE GREEK AND LATIN ALPHABETS 

ALTHOUGH the task which lies before us of investigating the growth 
ami changes of Greek and Latin palaeography does not require us to deal 
with any form of writing till long after the alphabets of Greece and Rome 
had assumed their final shapes, yet a brief sketch of the developement of 
those alphabets, as far as it is known, forms a natural introduction to the 
subject. 

The alphabet which we use at the present day is directly derived 
from the Roman alphabet; the Roman, from a local form of the Givrk : 
the Greek, from the Phoenician. Whence the Phoenician alphabet was 
derived we are not even yet in a position to declare. The ingenious 
theory set forth, in 1859, by the French Egyptologist de Rouge of its 
descent from the ancient cursive form of Egyptian hieratic writing, 
which had much to recommend it, and which for a time received 
acceptance, must now be put aside, in accordance with recent research. 
Until the alphabetic systems of Crete and C3~prus and other quarters 
of the Mediterranean shall have been solved, we must be content to 
remain in ignorance of the actual materials out of which the Phoenicians 
constructed their letters. 

To trace the connexion of the Greek alphabet with the Phoenician, 
or, as it may be more properly styled, the Semitic, alphabet is not difficult. 
A comparison of the early forms of the letters sufficiently demonstrates 
their common origin ; and. still further, the names of the letters and their 
order in the two alphabets are the same. The names of the Semitic 
letters are Semitic words, each describing the letter from its resemblance 
to some particular object, as alej/k an ox, beth a house, and so on. When 
the Greeks took over the Semitic letters, they also took over their 
Semitic names. 

This Semitic alphabet appears to have been employed in the cities 
and colonies of the Phoenicians and among the Jews and Moabites and 



2 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

other neighbouring tribes : and its most ancient form as known to us is 
preserved in a series of inscriptions which date back to the tenth cen- 
tury B.C. The most important of them is that engraved upon the slab 
known as the Moabite stone, which records the wars of Mesha, king of 
Moab, about 890 B. c., against Israel and Edom, and which was discovered 
in 1868 near the site of Dibon, the ancient capital of Moab. From these 
inscriptions of the oldest type we can construct the primitive Phoenician 
alphabet of twenty-two letters, in a form, however, which must have 
passed through many stages of modification. 

The Greek Alphabet 

The Greeks learned the art of writing from the Phoenicians at least 
as early as the ninth century B.C.; and it is not improbable that they 
had acquired it even one or two centuries earlier. Trading stations and 
colonies of the Phoenicians, pressed at home by the advancing conquests 
of the Hebrews, were established in remote times in the islands and 
mainlands of Greece and Asia Minor ; and their alphabet of two-and- 
twenty letters was adopted by the Greeks among whom they settled or 
with whom they had commei-cial dealings. It is not, however, to be 
supposed that the Greeks received the alphabet from the Phoenicians at 
one single place from whence it was passed on throughout Hellas ; but 
rather at several points of contact from whence it was locally diffused 
among neighbouring cities and their colonies. Hence we are prepared 
to find that, while the Greek alphabet is essentially one and the same in 
all parts of Hellas, as springing from one stock, it exhibits certain local 
peculiarities, partly no doubt inherent from its very first adoption at 
different centres, partly derived from local influences or from linguistic 
or other causes. While, then, the primitive alphabet of Hellas has 
been described by the general title of Cadmean, it must not be assumed 
that that title applies to an alphabet of one uniform pattern for all 
Greece. 

Among the two-and-twenty signs adopted from the Phoenician, four, 
viz. aleph,he,yod,&nduyin (-^, ^,^,, o),were made to represent the vowel- 
sounds a,e, i,o.both long and short, the signs for e and o being also employed 
for the diphthongs ei and ou. The last sound continued to be expressed 
by the omikron alone to a comparatively late period in the history of 
the alphabet. The fifth vowel-sound was provided for by a new letter, 
upsilon, which may have been a modification or ' differentiation ' of the 
Phoenician wau' (Y). This new letter must have been added almost imme- 
diately after the introduction of the Semitic signs, for there is no local 
Greek alphabet which is without it. Next was felt the necessity for 
distinguishing long and short e, and in Ionia, the aspirate gradually falling 
into disuse, the sign H, eta, was adopted to represent long e, probably 



i THE GREEK AND LATIN ALPHABETS 3 

before the end of the seventh century B.C. Aliout tin- saint- time the 
long o began to be distinguished by various signs, that used by the 
lonians, tlie omega, n, being perhaps a differentiation of the omikron. 
The age of the double letters <t>, X. and t. as they appear in the Ionian 
alphabet, must, as is evident from their position, be older than or at least 
coaeval with ar>u</'.i. 

With regard to the sibilants, their history is involved in obscurity. 
The original Semitic names appear to have become confused in the course 
of transmission to the Greeks and to have been applied by them to wrong 
signs. The name zeta sei-ms to correspond to the name tsade, but the 
letter appears to betaken from the letter tayvn (I). XI, which seems to 
1 >e the same word as }, in, represents the letter mtmekh ( ^ ). / s '" n , which is 
probably derived from :ai/!n. represents twin (fv). 8i<j)n<t, which may 
be identified with t,i,rkli, represents .-/,//, (W). But all these sibilants 
were not used simultaneously for any one dialect or locality. In the 
well-known passage of Herodotus (i. 139), where he is speaking of 
the terminations of Persian names, we are told that they ' all end in 
the same letter, which the Dorians call MIII and the lonians rigma'. 
There can be little doubt that the Dorian tmi was originally the 
M-shaped sibilant which is found in the older Dorian inscriptions, as 
in Thera, Melos, Crete. Corinth, and Argos. 1 This sibilant is now known 
to have been derived from the Phoenician letter tsade. In a Greek 
abecedarium scratched upon a small vase discovered at Formello, 
near Veii, this letter is seen to occupy the eighteenth place, corre- 
sponding to the position of toude in the Phoenician alphabet. In 
the damaged Greek alphabet similarly scrawled on the Galassi vase, 
which was found at Cervetri in 1836, it is formed more closely on the 
pattern of the Phoenician letter. In the primitive Greek alphabet, 
therefore, *<(//. existed (representing tsude) as well as >/</,//</ (representing 
-/////), but as both appear to have had nearly the same sibilant sound, the 
one or the other became superfluous. In the Ionian alphabet eigma was 
preferred. 

But the disuse of the letter sun must date far back, for its loss affected 
the numerical value of the Greek letters. When this value was being 
fixed the exclusion of sun was overlooked, and the numbers were calcu- 
lated as though that letter had not existed. The preceding letter (>i 
stands for 80 ; the kopjM for 90, the numerical value of the Phoenician 
fsfi</e and properly also that of S'Ut- At a later period the obsolete letter 
WHS readopted as the numerical sign for 9 IX), and became the modern 
wmipi (i.e. &ni,+ /i!i, so called from its partial resemblance, in its late 
form, to the letter j>i. 

1 It has also bei-ii identified with a T-shaped sign whirh was used fur a special sound 
on coins of Mi -. iiiln-ia, and at Halk-arnasMis in the fifth century n.< . 



4 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

With regard to the local alphabets of Greece, different states and 
different islands either adopted or developed distinctive signs. Certain 
letters underwent gradual changes, as eta from closed B to open H, and 
tketa from the crossed to the dotted circle O, which forms were common 
to all the varieties of the alphabet. The most ancient forms of the 
alphabet are found in Melos, Them, and Crete, which moreover did not 
admit the double letters. While some states retained the digamma or 
the Icoppa, others lost them ; while some developed particular differentia- 
tions to express certain sounds, others were content to express two sounds 
by one letter. The forms J 1 for beta and & for epailon are peculiar to 
Corinth and her colonies ; the Argive alphabet is distinguished by its 
rectangular lambda, \- ; and that letter appears in the Boeotian, Chalci- 
dian, and Athenian alphabets in a primitive form U 1 

But while there are these local differences among the various alphabets 
of ancient Greece, a broad division has been laid down by Kirchhoff. 2 who 
arranges them in two groups, the eastern and the western. The eastern 
group embraces the alphabet which has already been referred to as the 
Ionian, common to the cities on the western coast of Asia Minor and the 
neighbouring islands, and the alphabets of Megara, Argos, and Corinth 
and her colonies ; and, in a modified degree, those of Attica, Naxos, Thasos, 
and some other islands. The western group includes the alphabets of 
Thessaly, Euboea, Phocis, Locris, and Boeotia, and of all the Peloponnese 
(excepting the states specified under the other group), and also those of 
the Achaean and Chalcidian colonies of Italy and Sicily. 

In the eastern group the letter Z has the sound of x ; and the letters 
X, t the sounds of kit, and /*. (In Attica, Naxos, etc., the letters - and 
t'were wanting, and the sounds x and ps were expressed by XZ, <DI.) 
In the western group the letter Z is wanting, and X, t have the values 
of x and A7t ; while the sound ps was expressed by HZ or 4>Z, or rarely 
by a special sign * . In a word, the special test-letters are : 

Eastern: X =/.//. * = ,/. 

Western: X=r. * = /i7<. 

How this distinction came about is not known, although several explana- 
tions have been hazarded. It is unnecessary in this place to do more 

than state the fact. 

As the Semitic languages were written from right to left, so in the 
earliest Greek inscriptions we find the same order followed. Next came 
the method of writing called b&utstropJteduu, in which the written lines 
run alternately from right to left and from left to right, or vice versa, 

i as a form of phi is found on coins of Phocis of COO B. c. ; and a slight modification 
of the Corinthian beta was used in the coinage of Byzantium, 350 s.c.-Hrit. Mus. Cat. of 
* Coins : Phocis, 14-19 ; Thrace, etc., 93-4. 
3 Studien sur Geschichle des griechischen Alphabets, 4th ed., 1887. 



i THE GREEK AND LATIN ALPHABETS 5 

as the plough forms the furrows. Lastly, writing from left to right 
became universal. In the most ancient tomb-inscriptions of Melos and 
Thera we have the earliest form of writing. Boustrophedon was 
commonly used in the sixth century B. c. However, the famous Greek 
inscription at Abu Simbel the earliest to which a date can be given- 
cut on one of the legs of the colossal statues which guard the entrance 
of the great temple, and recording the exploration of the Nile up to the 
second cataract by certain Greek. Ionian, and Carian mercenaries in the 
service of Psammetichus, runs from left to right. The king here 
mentioned may be the first (654-617 B.C.) or. more probably, the second 
(594-589 B.C.) of that name. The date of the writing may therefore be 
roughly placed about 600 B.C. The fact that, besides this inscription, the 
work of two of the soldiers, the names of several of their comrades are 
also cut on the rock, proves how well established was the art of writing 
among the Greeks even at that early period. 

The Latin Alphabet 

Like the local alphabets of Greece, the Italic alphabets varied from 
one another by the adoption or rejection of different signs, according 
to the requirements of language. Thus the Latin and Faliscan, the 
Etruscan, the Umbrian, and the Oscan alphabets are sufficiently dis- 
tinguished in this way : but at the same time the common origin of all 
can be traced to a primitive or so-called Pelasgian alphabet of the 
Chalcidian type. The period of the introduction of writing into. Italy 
from the great trading and colonizing city of Chalcis must be carried 
back to the time when the Greeks wrote from right to left. Two 
Latin inscriptions l have been found thus written ; and in the other Italic 
scripts this ancient system was also followed. The inscription on the 
rectangular pillar found in 1899 near the Forum, of a date not later than 
the fifth century B. C.. is arranged lmittr<>i>l,e<lt>n - We may assume, then, 
that the Greek alphabet was made known to the native tribes of Italy 
as early as the eighth or ninth century B.C., and not improbably through 
the ancient Chalcidian colony of Cumae, which tradition named as the 
earliest Greek settlement in the land. The eventual prevalence of the 
Latin alphabet naturally followed the political supremacy of Rome, 

The Latin alphabet possesses twenty of the letters of the Greek 
western alphabet, and, in addition, three adopted signs. Taking the 
Formello and Galassi abecedaria 3 as representing the primitive alphabet 

1 The earliest, on a fibula from Praeneste assigned to the sixth century B. c. (C. I. L. 
xiv. 4123) ; the other, the Duenos inscription on a vase of the fourth century B. c. found 
near the Quirinal in 1880 C. L I., i. 371). Both are given in Sandys, Compan. Lat. S 
731,733. 

2 Sandys, op. cit. 732. 3 See E. S. Rnlierts, i .'/.-. /</';>/<!/, i- 17. 



6 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY (HAP. 

of Italy, it will be seen that the Latins rejected the letter sun and the 
double letters iheta, />hi. and t-li (*), and disregarded the earlier sign 
for j-.i. In Quintilian's time letter X was the ' ultima nostrarum ' and 
closed the alphabet. The letter zeta representing the soft s sound was 
so used at first by the Latins ; but, this sound in course of time changing 
to an r sound, the letter z ceased to be used. But at a later period it 
was restored to the alphabet for the purpose of transliteration of Greek 
words. As however its original place had been meanwhile filled by the 
new letter C, it was sent down to the end of the alphabet. With regard 
to the creation of G, till the middle of the third century B.C. its want 
was not felt, as C was employed to represent both the hard c and 
g sounds, 1 a survival of this use being seen in the abbreviations 
C. and Cn. for Gains and Gnaeus ; but gradually the new letter was 
developed from C and was placed in the alphabet in the position 
vacated by zeta. The <?/>'// had become the Latin F, and the 
upidlon had been transliterated as the Latin V ; but in the time of 
Cicero ujhilon, as a foreign letter, was required for literary purposes, 
and thus became again incorporated in the Latin alphabet this time 
without change of form, Y. Its position shows that it was admitted 
before Z. 

1 The sound represented by C in Latin no doubt, also gradually, but at a very early 
period, became indistinguishal.lt! from that represented by K. Hence the letter K tell 
into general disuse in writing, and only survived as an archaic form in certain words, 
such as knleitdae. 



THE GREEK AND LATIN 



GREEK. 


LATIN. 




Cadnii 


R 


Local forms. Hasten;. 


Western. Local forrn^. 


gian. 


Latin. 




alpha . . 


A A 


A A 


A A 


A A A A 


a 


>eta 


3 


^ 


*^ Melos. etc. g 


DB 


B B B 


b 








C Pares, Siphnos, 














Thaaos, etc. 












I ~\_ J Corinth. 


Chalcis. 








jamma 
delta . . 


A 
A 


r 

A 


< Cx^etc. ^ r A 

A D 


rr~ r ~ 1'hocis 
1 \ C Arcadia. Elis. 

A>D 


<c 
A!>D 


D 


c 

d 


epsilon . . 






[J Corinth, etc. K U 


& E 


fe 


Ell 


e 


digatnma 


q 


F 


[>] 


F^ F 


^ 


FH 


f 


teta 






i 


i 


X 


a new 

VI letter 
L formed 


g 














fromC. 




eta . . . . 


B 


B 


EH(h,e) 


BH(h) 


Q 


H 


h 


theta . 








O 


<8> O 









iota 


^ 


5 


< Crete. Them. I 
^ ' Melos, Corinth, etc. 


1 


$ 1 


1 


i 


kappa . . 





K 


K 


K 


K 


K 


k 


lambda 


A 


A 


U Attica, H Argos. /" A 


A A 1 Chalcis, B t:.i. 
' /X Ule. 


V 


V L 


1 


mu 


V"\ 


/~ 


N" M 


N* N\ 


r 


M 


m 


nu . . 


v\ 


A/ 


H N 


/^ N 


p 


N 


n 


xi .. 


ffl 


ffl 


{-j-j Later Argos. it 


;See bclovv.) 


H 












[\, Attica. Naxos, 
















Sipimoa, Thasos, etc ] 








ornikron 


O 


O 


ii Paros, Siphnos, etc. O 





O 


O 


o 








O f~ Melos. 










pi .. . 


") 




P n 


r 1 n 


r 


P P 


P 


san (ss) 


M 


M 


THalicarnassus. 
Teoi, Mesetubria. 




M 






koppa . 


9 


9 


[9] 





9 


Q 


q 


rho 


<i 


F> 


? R R 


p f?R 


p R 


R R 


r 


sigma . 


2 


$ 


M ATso^Connlh'ttl: ?5 ?^ M PhocU. etc. $ 


* S 


s 


tau . . . 


T 


T 


T 


T T 


T 


t 


npsilon. 






V Y 


V Y 


V 


V 


uv 


xi .. . 






(See above. J 


X + 


X 


X 


X 


phi.. . 






O 


4> 


0) 






chi . . . 






X + 


4^t 


4, 






psi . . . 






[ifr<r, Attica, Vaxos. L vl/ 
Siphnos, Thasos. etc.] ^r ' 


Ji Ozol. Locris, 
" Arcadia. 








omega . 






O Melos, Taros, f\ 
Siphnos, etc. ** 
r f-*\ used generally i r 




t a later) Y 
period as r 


y 








L ^^ o. oi*, w > except in 


foreign } / 


z 








Ionia.) 


letters. ' 





CHAPTER II 

MATERIALS USED TO RECEIVE WRITING 

OF the various materials which have been used within the memory of 
man to receive writing, there are three, viz. papyrus, vellum, and paper, 
which, from their greater abundance and convenience, have, each one in 
its turn, displaced all others. But of the other materials several, 
including some which at first sight seem of a most unpromising character, 
have been largely used. For such a purpose as writing, men naturally 
make use of the material which can be most readily procured, and is, at 
the same time, the most suitable. If the ordinary material fail, they 
must extemporize a substitute. If something more durable is wanted, 
metal or stone may take the place of vellum or paper. But with 
inscriptions on these harder materials we have, in the present work, but 
little to do. Such inscriptions generally fall under the head of epigraphy. 
Here we have chiefly to consider the softer materials on which hand- 
writing, as distinguished from monumental engraving, has been wont to 
be inscribed. Still, as will be seen in what follows, there are certain 
exceptions; and to some extent we shall have to inquire into the 
employment of metals, clay, potsherds, and wood, as well as of leaves, 
bark, linen, wax, papyrus, vellum, and paper, as materials for writing. 1 
We will first dispose of those substances which were of more limited use. 

Leaves 

It is natural to suppose that, in a primitive state of society, leaves of 
plants and trees, strong enough for the purpose, would be adopted as 
a ready-made material provided by nature, for such an operation as 
writing. In various parts of India and the East the leaves of palm- 
trees have been in use for centuries and continue to be employed for this 
purpose ; and they form an excellent and enduring substance. Manu- 
scripts written on palm-leaves have been found in Nepal which date back 
many hundreds of years. In Europe leaves of plants are not generally 
of the tough character of those which grow in the tropics ; but it is not 
impossible that they were used in ancient Greece and Italy, and that the 

1 Ulpian, Digest, xxxii. 52, <le Legal. 3, thus classifies books : ' Librorum appellatione 
continental- omnia volumina, sive in cliarta, sive in membrana sint, sive in qunvis alia 
matrriu ; sed ct si in pliilyra aut in tilia, ut nonnulli conficiunt, aut in quo alio corio, 
idem erit dicendum. Quod si in codieilius sint membraneis vi-I cliartaceis, vel etiam 
cboreis, vel alterius materiae, vel in ceratis codicillis, an debeantur videamus.' 



MATERIALS USED TO RECEIVE WRITING 9 

references by classical writers to their employment are not merely 
fanciful. There is evidence of the custom of irraAio>ioy, or voting for 
ostracism with olive-leaves, at Syracuse, and of the similar practice at 
Athens under the name of fK^vAAo^o^ia. 1 Pliny, Nat. Hi*t. xiii. 11, 
writes : ' Antea non fuisse chartarum usuin : in palmarum foliis primo 
scriptitatum, deinde quarundam arhorum libris.' 

Bark 

Better adapted for writing purposes than leaves was the bark of 
trees, liber, which we have just seen named by Pliny, and the general 
use of which caused its name to be attached to the book (i.e. the roll) 
which was made from it. The inner bark of the lime-tree, <fn\vpa, tiH". 
was chosen as most suitable. Pliny, Xat. Hist. xvi. 14, describing this 
tree, says : ' Inter corticem et lignum tenues tunicae sunt multiplici 
membrana, e quibus vincula tiliae vocantur tenuissimae earum philyrae.' 
It was these delicate shreds, j>hilt/rae, of this inner skin or bark which 
formed the writing material. In the enumeration of different kinds of 
books by Martianus Capella, ii. 136, those consisting of lime-bark are 
quoted, though as rare : ' Rari vero in philyrae cortice subnotati.' 
Ulpian also, Diijest. xxxii. 52, mentions ' volumina ... in philyra aut in 
tilia.' But not only was the bark of the lime-tree used, but tablets also 
appear to have been made from its wood the 'tiliae pugillares' of 
Symmachus, iv. 34 ; also referred to by Dio Cassius, Ixxii. 8. in the 
passage : 8w5eica ypajuparcia, old ye (K (f>L\vpas TTOidrai. It seems that 
rolls made from lime-bark were co-existent at Rome with those made 
from papyrus, after the introduction of the latter material ; but the 
home-made bark must soon have disappeared before the imported 
Egyptian papyrus, which had so many advantages both in quantity and 
<juality to recommend it. It has rather been the fashion with some 
writers to deride the tradition of the employment of bark as a writing 
material in Europe. They suggest that it has arisen from papyrus 
being ignorantly mistaken for bark. An occasional mistake of the kind 
may well have happened. But the references of early writers to the 
employment of bark is not to be lightly disregarded. 2 

1 The olive-leaf, used in this ceremony, is also mentioned, <f>v\\ov ekalas, as the material 
on which to inscribe a charm. Cat. Gk. Papyri in Brit. 3fus. \. Pap. cxxi. 213; and a 
bay-leaf is enjoined for the same purpose in Papyrus 2207 in the Bibliothecjue Nationals. 

2 See a reference to a copy of A rat us on malva-bark. quoted from Isidore, Orig. vi. 12, liy 
Ellis, Comm. on Catullus, 2nd ed., 1889, p. lix. The employment of birch-bark as a writing 
material in India is, of course, well known. It dates back to a very early time, specimens 
of the fourth century being extant. In Kashmir it was largely used down to the time of 
Akbar's conquest in the seventeenth century, and there are still a considerable number 
of MSS. of the material in that country. Several are in the British Museum, one of them 
being of the year 1268. 



10 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

Linen 

Linen cloth, which is found in use among the ancient Egyptians to 
receive writing, appears also as the material for certain rituals in Roman 
history. Livy, x. 38, refers to a book of this character, ' liber vetus 
linteus,' among the Sammies ; and again, iv. 7. he mentions the ' lintei 
libra ' in the temple of the goddess Moneta ; and Flavius Vopiscus in his 
Life of the Emperor Aurelian refers to 'libri lintei ' in the Ulpian Library 
in Rome. 1 Pliny, Nat. Hist. xiii. 11, names ' volumina lintea ' as in use 
at an early period for private documents, public acts being recorded on 
lead. Martianus Capella, iii. 136, also refers to ' carbasina volumina ' ; 
and in the Codex Tlieodos. vi. 27. 1, ' mappae linteae ' occur. The largest 
extant example of Etruscan writing, now preserved in the Museum at 
Agram, is inscribed on linen. 2 

Clay and Pottery 

Clay was a most common writing material among the Babylonians 
and Assyrians. The excavations made of late years on the ancient sites 
of their great cities have brought to light a whole literature impressed 
on sun-dried or fire-burnt bricks and tablets. Clay tablets have also 
been found in the excavations at Knossos in Crete, ascribed to the 
period about 1500 B.C. Potsherds came ready to the hand in Egypt, 
where earthenware vessels were the most common kind of household 
utensils. They have been found in large numbers, many inscribed in 
Greek with such ephemeral documents as tax and pay receipts, generally 
of the period of the Roman occupation. 3 To such inscribed potsherds 
has been given the title of ostraka, a term which will recall the practice 
of Athenian ostracism in which the votes were recorded on such frag- 
ments. 4 That such material was used in Greece only on such passing 
occasions or from necessity is illustrated by the passage in Diogenes 
Laertius, vii. 174, which narrates that the Stoic Cleanthes was forced by 
poverty to write on potsherds and the shoulder-blades of oxen. Tiles 
also, upon which alphabets or verses were scratched with the stilus 

1 The Ulpian Library was the Public Record Office of Rome. J. W. Clark, Tlie Care of 
Books, 1901, p. 20. 

* It was found cut into strips and used for binding an Egyptian mumuiy. Ed. Krall. 
in the Denkschriften of the Vienna Academy, vol. xli (1892). 

3 See autotypes of some specimens in Pal. Soc. ii. 1, 2. 

* Votes for ostracism at Athens were probably recorded on fragments of broken vases 
which had been used in religious services, and which were given out specially for the 
occasion. Three such voting ostraka are known : one is described by Benndorf, Grit-cli. mid 
sicilische Vase-nbiltler, tab. xxix. 10 ; another, for the ostracism of Xanthippos, the father of 
Pericles (see Aristotle, Cons'. Athens, 61), is noticed by Studniczka, Antencr und arclifii- 
Walerei in Jahrbuch des kais. dextsclien arch. Instituts, ii (187), 101. See also the Brit. j)/s. 

'> Greek and Roman Life, 7. 



H MATERIALS USED TO RECEIVE WRiTIjS'l! 11 

before baking, served occasionally among both Greeks and Romans for 
educational purposes. 1 

Wall-spaces 

It is perhaps straining a term to include the walls of buildings under 
the head of writing materials; but the ;/rnljiti or wall-scribbling*, 
discovered in such large numbers at Pompeii, 2 hold so important a 
place in the history of early Latin palaeography, that it must not be 
forgotten that in ancient times, as now, a vacant wall was held to be 
a very convenient place to present public notices and appeals or to scribble 
idle words. 

Precious Metals 

The precious metals were naturally but seldom used as writing 
materials. For such a purpose, however, as working a charm, an 
occasion when the person specially interested might be supposed not to 
be too niggard in his outlay in order to attain his ends, we find thin 
plates or leaves of gold or silver recommended, 3 a practice which is 
paralleled by the crossing of the palm of the hand with a gold or silver 
coin as enjoined by the gipsy fortune-teller. 

Lead 

Lead was used at an ancient date. Pliny, Xt. Hiat.\ni. 11, refers 
to ' plumbea volumina' as early writing material. Pausanias, ix. 31, 4. 
states that at Helicon he saw a leaden plate (jxo'Ai/38oy) on which the 
"E/jya of Hesiod were inscribed. At Dodona tablets of lead have been 
discovered which contain questions put to the oracle, and in some 
instances the answers. 4 An instance of the employment of lead in 
correspondence occurs in Parthenius, Erotica, cap. 9 ; the story being 
that, when the island of Naxos was invaded by the Milesians in 501 i;.c.. 
the priestess Polycrite, being in a temple outside the capital city, sent 
word to her brothers, by means of a letter written upon lead and 
concealed in a loaf, how they might make a night attack. Lenormant. 
Rhein. Museum, xxii. 276, has described the numerous small leaden 
pieces on which are written names of persons, being apparently sorter 
iin/irii/riae, or lots for selection of judges, of ancient date. Dime, or 
solemn dedications of offending persons to the infernal deities by, or on 
behalf of, those whom they had injured or offended, were inscribed 

1 Facsimiles in C. /. L. iii. 962. The ostrakon no. 18711 in the British Museum i> 
inscribed with 11. 107-18, 128-39 of the P/wenissae of Euripides : see Classical Review, xviii. 2. 
The Berlin ostrakon 4758 contains 11. 616-24 of the Hipjmlytus of Euripiili-. 

2 C.I. L. iv. 

3 Cat. Gk. Papyri in Brit. Hits. i. 102, 12:.' : also papyri in the Bibl. Nationals. -o s . 
2705. 2228. 

4 Carapancs, Dodone et ses finine* (1878% p. 68, pi. xxxiv-xl ; C. I. L. i. 818, 819. 



12 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

on this metal. These maledictory inscriptions, called also defi.eioites or 
/card8eo7/.oi and xaTaSeVetf, appear to have been extensively employed. 
An instance is recorded by Tacitus, AnnaL ii. 69, in his account of the 
last illness and death of Germanicus, in whose house were found, hidden 
in the floor and walls, remains of human bodies and ' carmina et 
devotiones et nomen Germanici plumbeis tabulis insculptum '. Many 
have been found at Athens and other places in Greece and Asia Minor, 
and some in Italy ; others again in a burial-ground near Roman Carthage. 1 
Several were discovered at Cnidus which have been assigned to the period 
between the third and first centuries B.C.; 2 and recently a collection 
was found near Paphos in Cyprus, buried in what appears to have been 
a malefactors' common grave. 3 These Cnidian and Cyprian examples 
are now in the British Museum. Charms and incantations were also 
inscribed on thin leaves of lead. 4 Montfaucon, Palueoyr. Gracca, 16, 181, 
mentions and gives an engraving of a leaden book, apparently connected 
with magic. A leaden roll has been found in Rhodes, inscribed with the 
greater part of Psalm Ixxx in Greek, of the third or fourth century ; which 
may have been used as a charm. 5 There are two inscribed leaden tablets 
found at Bath; the one containing a curse in Latin on some person who had 
carried off a girl named Vilbia. written in reversed characters ; the other 
being a Latin letter of the fourth century." Of later date is a tablet found 
in a grave in Dalmatia, containing a charm against evil spirits, in Latin, 
inscribed in cursive letters of the sixth century." Several specimens 
which have been recovered from mediaeval graves prove that the 
custom of burying leaden inscribed plates with the dead was not 
uncommon in the middle ages. 8 The employment of this metal for such 
purposes may have been recommended by its supposed durability. But 
lead is in fact highly sensitive to chemical action, and is liable to rapid 
disintegration under certain conditions. For the ancient dime it was 
probably used because it was common and cheap. 

Bronze 

Bronze was used both by Greeks and Romans as a material on which 
to engrave votive inscriptions, laws, treaties, and other solemn docu- 

1 Bulletin tie Corresp. Hellenirjue, 1888, p. 294. 

2 Newton, Ditscur. at Halicamassut (1863), ii. 719-45 ; and Collitz and Bechtel, Griech. 
Eialekt-Inscliriflcn, iii. 238. 

3 Soc. Biblical ArcliM-'iinijy. Proceedings, xiii (1891). pt. iv. 

4 Leemans, Papyri Graed Mas. Liigdun. 1885 : Wessely, Griech. Zauber Papyri, 1888 ; Cat. Gk. 
Papyri in Brit. Mits. i. 74, etc. Tin plates were also used, Cat. Gk. Pap. i. 91, etc. 

5 Sitsiingfb<.ricltte of the Roy. Prussian Academy, 1898, p. 582. 

6 Hermes, xv ; Jottrn. Brit. Arch. Assoc. xlii. 410; E. \V. B. Nicholson, Vinisius to 
Mi/*-", 1904. For further notices of inscriptions on lead see Gardthausen, Sriech. l'i. 2nd 
ed., 1911. pp. 26-8. 

7 C. I. L. iii. 961. * Wattenhach, Schriftw. 48-51. 



II 



MATERIALS TSED TO RECEIVE WRITING 13 

ments. These, however, do not come under present consideration, being 
strictly epigraphical monuments. The only class winch we need notice 
is that of the Roman military diplomas, those portable tabulae honedae 
minsionui, as they have been called, which were given to veteran soldiers 
and conferred upon them rights of citizenship and marriage. Upwards 
of one hundred such documents, or portions of them, issued under the 
emperors, have been recovered. 1 They are interesting both palaeo- 
T ,i], Ideally, as giving a series of specimens of the Roman rustic capital 
Fetters, 2 and also for the form which they took, exactly following that 
observed in the legal documents preserved in waxed tablets (see below). 
They were, in fact, codices in metal. The diploma consisted of two 
squared plates of the metal, hinged with rings. The authentic deed was 
engraved on the inner side of the two plates, and was repeated on the 
outside of the first plate. Through two holes a threefold wire was passed 
and bound round the plates, being sealed on the outside of the second 
plate with the seals of the seven witnesses, whose names were also 
engraved thereon. The seals were protected by a strip of metal, attached, 
which was sometimes convex to afford better cover. In case of the outer 
copy being called in question, reference was made to the deed inside by 
breaking the seals, without the necessity of going to the official copy kept 
in the temple of Augustus at Rome. 

The repetition of the deed in one and the same diploma is paralleled 
in some of the Assyrian tablets, which, after being inscribed, received an 
outer casing of clay on which the covered writing was repeated. 

Wood 

Wooden tablets were used in very remote times. In many cases they 
were probably coated, if not with wax, with some kind of composition, 
the writing being scratched upon them with a dry point; in some 
instances we know that ink was inscribed upon the bare wood. The 
ancient Egyptians also used tablets covered with a gla/.ed composition 
capable of receiving ink. 3 Wooden tablets inscribed with the names of 
the dead are found with mummies. They were also used for memoranda 
and accounts, and in the Egyptian schools ; specimens of tablets inscribe.! 
with receipts, alphabets, and verses having survived to the present day. 4 
One of the earliest specimens of Greek writing is a document inscribed 

"' C. /. L. iii. 843 s,qq.publi>hes fifty-eight of them. For facsimiles bee, e.g., J. Arneth, 
ZiV'lr'rZmisi-lx MiUlar-ltiflome. Vienna. 1843 ; Ifaa 1'ul. Soc. KM. 

- See facsimile specimens of the characters employed in the diplomas in i 
Eiempla Script. Epirjr. 2*5-300. 

3 Wilkinson, Anc. Kyjpf. ii. 1*3. 

* Reuvens, Letlns, iii. Ill ; Transoc. l^j. Sue. Lit.. 2nd series, x, pt. 1 ; Leemans, 31 

. ii, tab. 230 ; Bfein. Xwim. xv IStJO, , 157. Several specimens of Egyptian inscribed 
tablets are in the British Museum. 



CHAP. 



14 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 

in ink on a small wooden tablet now in the British Museum (5849 C ) 
it refers to a money transaction of the thirty-first year of Ptolemy Phila- 
delphus (254 or 253 B. C.). 1 In the British Museum there is also'a small 
wooden board (Add. MS. 33293), painted white and inscribed in ink with 
thirteen lines from the Iliad (iii. 273-85), the words being marked off 
and the syllables indicated by accents, no doubt for teaching young 
Greek scholars. It was found in Egypt, and is probably of the third 
century. Of the same period are a board (Add. MS. 37516) and a book 
of eight wooden leaves (Add. MS. 37533), inscribed with school exercises 
in Greek. 2 At Vienna is a board with lines from the Hekah of Calli- 
machus and the Phoenitsue of Euripides, of the fourth century. 3 There is 
also a miscellaneous set of broken tablets (Add. MS. 33369) inscribed on 
a ground of drab paint, with records relating to the recovery of debts, etc. 
at Panopolis, the modern Ekhmim, in the Thebaid ; probably of the 
seventh century. In early Greek history it is stated that the laws of 
Solon were written on revolving wooden tablets, c< t W s and ri p p fa and 
there is an actual record of the employment of wooden boards or tablets 
in the inventory of the expenses of rebuilding the Erechtheum at Athens, 
407 B. c. The price of two boards, on which rough accounts were first 
entered, is set down at two drachmas, or 9$rf. each : ff ow'8s Ivo i s & 9 
rov AJyor avaypcifyo^r* And again a second entry of four boards at the 
same price occurs. In some of the waxed tablets lately recovered at 
Pompeii the pages which have been left in the plain wood are inscribed 
in ink. 3 Wooden tablets were used in schools during the middle ages. In 
England the custom of using wooden tallies, inscribed as well as notched, 
in the public accounts lasted down to a recent date. 

Waxed and other Tablets 

But we may assume that as a general rule tablets were coated with 
wax ~ from the very earliest times in Greece and Rome. Such waxed 
tablets were single, double, triple, or of several pieces or leaves. In 
Greek a tablet was called Tumf immfr, Se'Aroy, SeAn'or, 8Xn'8tor, wvierfoj;, 
nv&ov, xv&biw, ypawarelor s ; in Latin, cent, tu'nda, talella. The wooden 

1 See Peme Hgyptoiogique, ii. Append., 51 ; Pal. Sac. ii. 14-2. 

- Described by Kenyon in Journ. Hellenic Studies, xxix (1909), 28. 

I 'fir. Krzli. Haincr, vi (1897 ; Wattenbach, .sv/,,-,7Vw. 91. 
' RangaW Antig. HelKn. 56; Egger, Note s,ir 6 prfe to pa ,,i er , etc., in Him. d'Hist. 

tlG ( 1 <SI>>> . 



6 Pal - Soc - > ] "''' c Wattenbach, Bchrlflw. 93 sqq. 

7 w6s, ctra, or p&Or,, ^a\6a. Po'.lux, Onomast. x. 57. in his chapter />2 0,ft\l uv mmes 
; composit.on 6 Se e,^ ry waxiSi ^p6 s , t, ^\6^. f, ^6a. 'H.oSoror & yap ,,^ >, 

Kparwof 8c tv rr, Uvnvr, i\9y, >,. MiAfla appears to have been wax mixed with tar Of 
Aristoph. Fiarjm. 206 -rr,v ^KSav IK TOIV ypa^fiaTitaiv fjaffiov. 

8 See Pollux, Onomasticon, x. 57. 



II 



\VAXK1) TABLETS 15 



surface was sunk to a slight depth, leaving a raised frame at the 
edges, after the fashion of a child's school-slate of the present day, 
and a thin coating of wax. usually black, was laid over it. Tablets 
were used for literary composition, 1 school exercises, accounts, or rough 
memoranda. They were sometimes fitted with slings for suspension.* 
Two or more put together, and held together by rings or thongs acting 
as hinges, formed a ,'<iu>h:c or coili'j: Thus Seneca, J)e Bra: Vlt. 13 
'Plurium tuhularum contextus caudex apud smtkiuos vocabatur ; unde 
publicae tabulae codices dicuntur '. 

When the codex consisted of two leaves it was culled bidvpot, binTv^a, 
diptycha, <li>lieets\ of three, Tpinrvxa, t,-; f >t</<-I(. ////,/ <Ves; and of more, 
-fi'Ta-Tv\a, i>eittii/>ft/rli<i, ,/uiii<j(ii/>Ui-es or fiuim-i' />/"<, -o\v-aTvxa, jil;/- 
tl f>/,-l't, m ultiplices.' In Homer we have an instance of the use of a tablet 
in the death-message of King Proetus, 'graving in a folded tablet many 
deadly things.' 4 And Herodotus tells us (vii. 239) how Demaratus 
conveyed to the Lacedaemonians secret intelligence of Xerxes' intended 
invasion of Greece, by means of a message written on the wooden surface 
of a tablet (SeAriW bivTV\ov) from which the wax had been previously 
scraped but was afterwards renewed to cover the writing. On Greek 
vases of the fifth and fourth centuries B.C., tablets, generally triptychs, 
are represented, both open in the hands of the goddess Athena or others, 
and closed and bound round with strings, hanging from the wall by slings 
or handles. r 

Tablets in the codex form would be employed not only as mere note- 
books, but especially in all cases where the writing was to be protected from 
injury either for the moment or for a long period. Hence they were 
used for legal documents, conveyances and wills, and for correspondence. 
When used for wills, each page was technically called cent, as in Gaius, 
ii. 104 'Haec. ita ut in his taUilis cerisque scripta sunt. ita do lego'/ 1 
They were closed against inspection by a triple thread, Atror, linum, and 
by the seals of the witnesses, as will presently be more fully explained. 



1 Catullus. 1. 2 ' multiim lu-imus in meis tabellis'. Quintilian, In*'!!. ;rn'ur. x. 3. 31, 
recommends tlie use of waxed tablets: 'Scribi optime ceris, in quibus facillima et 
ratio.' 

- Horace, Sut. i. 0. 74 ' Laevo suspensi loculos talmlamque lacerto '. 

Martial, xiv. 4. 6. 

4 Iliad vi. 169 7pa^.is iv mVa/ri irrvxry 6vi*o<p9upa iroAAa. 

6 See Gerhard. A- lii. 239; iv. 241. 887, 888, I's'.i. 296; Luynes, 

Vases, 35. 

6 Cf. Horace, Sat. ii. 5. 51 : 

Qui tfstamentiim tradet tibi cunque legendum 
Abnuere et tabulas a te removere memento; 
Sic tamen, ut limis rapias quid prima sc-eundo 
Cera velit versu. 



16 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 



As to correspondence, small tablets, nnlb-'dli 1 or f,,!,/;//,,,^ 2 were employed 
for short letters ; longer letters, epistolae, were written on papyrus. Thus 
Seneca, Ep. 55. 11, makes the distinction: ' Adeo tecum sum, ut dubi tern 
an incipiam non epistulas sed codicillos tibi scribere.' The tablets were 
sent by messengers, tabdlarii, as explained by Festus 3 : 'Tabellis pro 
chartis utebantur antiqui, quibus ultro citro, sive privatim sive publice 
opus erat, certiores absentes faciebant. Unde adhuc tabellarii dicuntur, 
et tabellae missae ab imperatoribus.' 4 The answer to the letter might 
be inscribed on the same set of tablets and returned. Love-letters appear 
to have been sometimes written on very small tablets. 3 Martial, xiv. 
6, 8, 9, calls such tablets Vitelltuni. Tablets containing letters were 
fastened with a thread, which was sealed. The materials for letter- 
writing are enumerated in the passage of Plautus, Bacchides, iv. 714 
' Ecfer cito . . . stilum, ceram et tabellas, linum ' ; and the process of 
sealing in line 748 : ' cedo tu ceram ac linum actutum. age obliga, opsigna 
cito.' In Cicero, Catil. iii. 5, we have the opening of a letter: 'Tabellas 
proferri iussimus. . . . Primo ostendimus Cethego signum ; cognovit; 
nos linum incidimus; legimus. . . . Introductus est Statilius; cognovit 
et signum et manum suam.' 

The custom of writing letters on tablets survived for some centuries 
after classical times. In the fifth century St. Augustine in his epistle to 
Romanianus (Migne, Patroloy. Lot. xxxiii. 80) makes reference to his 
tablets in these words : ' Non haec epistola sic inopiam chartae indicat, 
ut membranas saltern abundare testetur. Tabellas eburneas quas habeo 
avunculo tuo cum litteris misi. Tu enim huic pelliculae facilius ignosces, 
quia differri non potuit quod ei scripsi, et tibi non scribere etiam ineptis- 
simum existimavi. Sed tabellas, si quae ibi nostrae sunt, propter huius- 
modi necessitates mittas peto.' St. Hilary of Aries likewise has the 
following passage in his Life of Honoratus (Migne, Pat ml. Lit. 1. 1261) : 
' Beatus Eucherius cum ab eremo in tabulis, ut assolet, cera illitis, in 
proxima ab ipso degens insula, litteras eius suscepisset : " Mel," iuquit, 
'suum ceris reddidisti." ' Both these passages prove that the custom 
was general at the period. Even as late as the year 1148 a letter 'in 
tabella ' was written by a monk of Fulda. 7 

1 Cicero, Ejip. Q. F. ii. 11. 1 ; Fam. iv. 12. 2, and vi. 18. 1. See also Catullus, xlii. 11. 

2 Catullus uses the \rordpugittaria, xlii. ;j. 

3 De Vcrborum Signif., ed. Muller, p. 359. 

1 Compare St. Jerome, Ep. viii 'Nam et rudes illi Italiae homines, ante chartae et 
membranarum usum, nut in dedolatis e ligno codieillis aut in cortieibus arborum mutuo 
epistolaruin nllnquia missitabant. Unde ct portitores eoruin tabellarios et scriptores a 
libris ai-liorum libraries vocavcre'. 

6 See the drawing in Museo Borbonico, i. L". 

6 Clay, cretula, was originally used : 717 cr^ovrpi's, Herod, ii. 38 ; fvwos, Aristoph. Lysis. 
1200. Pollux, Onoiwi*/. x. r,s. 

7 Wattenbacli, Schriftw. 53. 



n WAXED TABLETS 17 

It will be noticed that St. Augustine refers to his tablets as being of 
ivory. The ancient tablets were ordinarily of common wood, such as 
beech, or fir, or box, the ' vulgaris buxus ' of Propertius (iii. 23) ; but 
they were also made of more expensive material. Two of Martial's 
(i/iopJuireta are ' pugillares citrei ' and ' pugillares eborei '. Propertius 
(1. c.) refers to golden fittings : ' Xon illas fixum caras eflfecerat aurum.' 
The large consular diptychs, as we know from existing specimens, were 
of ivory, often elaborately carved. 

The employment of waxed tablets lasted for certain purposes through 
the middle ages in countries of Western Europe. Specimens inscribed 
with money accounts of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries have 
survived to the present day in France ; l and municipal accounts on 
tablets of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries are still preserved in 
some of the German towns. They also exist in Italy, 2 dating from the 
thirteenth or fourteenth century. They were used in England and also 
in Ireland. 3 It is said that quite recently sales in the fish-market of 
Rouen were noted on waxed tablets. 4 

Greek Waxed Tablets 

Ancient Greek waxed tablets have survived in not many instances. 
In the British Museum are some which have been found in Egypt. The 
most perfect is a book (Add. MS. 33270), perhaps of the third century, 
measuring nearly 9 by 7 inches, which consists of seven leaves coated 
on both sides with black wax and two covers waxed on the inner 
side, inscribed with documents in shorthand, presumably in Greek, and 
with shorthand signs written repeatedly, as if for practice, and with 
notes in Greek ; in one of the covers a groove is hollowed for the 
reception of the writing implements. Another smaller book, of about 
7 by 4 inches, formed of six leaves (Add. MS. 33368), is inscribed, 
probably by some schoolboy of the third century, with grammatical 
xercises and other notes in Greek, and also with a rough drawing, 
perhaps meant for a caricature of the schoolmaster. There are also two 
tablets inscribed with verses in Greek uncial writing, possibly some 

1 See Recueil des Histonens des (?/>'. s xxi 1855 , 284, xxii 1S55 . 480 ; Mem. de I'Acad. 
xviii (2nd series), 536 ; BM. J&cok des C/iartes, xi. 393. A ' Memoire touehant 1'usage d'ecrire 
sur des tablettes de cire', by the Abb<5 Lebeuf, is printed in Mem. de I'Acad. xx (1753), 267. 
A tablet of accounts, of about the year 1300, from Citeaux Abbey, is in the British 
Museum, Add. MS. 33215; printed by H. Omont in Bu.ll. So:. Nat. des Antiq. de France, 
1889, p. 283. Four tablets, of the fourteenth century, found at BeauvaU, are in the 
Bibliotheque Nationale. Acad. des Inscriptions, Comptes rendus, 1887, p 141. 

2 See Milani, Sei TtKotette cerate, in Pithbl. del R. Istituto <li S'udi Superior/, 1877. 

s A mediaeval waxed tablet, belonging to the Royal Irish Academy, is exhibited in 
the National Museum, Dublin. 
4 Wattenbach, Schnftw. 89. 

1184 C 



18 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

literary sketch or a school exercise. 1 Two others of a similar nature have 
been more recently acquired, the one containing a writing exercise, the 
other a multiplication table. The Bodleian Library has also purchased 
a waxed tablet (Gr. Inscr. 4) on which is a writing exercise. Others are 
at Paris ; some containing scribbled alphabets and a contractor's accounts, 
which were found at Memphis. 2 Seven tablets of the third century, 
inscribed with fables of Babrius (a school exercise), are at Leyden. 3 In 
New York is a set of five tablets, on which are verses, in the style of 
Menander, set as a copy by a writing-master and copied by a pupil.* 
Other specimens of a similar character are at Marseilles, the date of 
which can be fixed at the end of the third or beginning of the fourth 
century ; b and the last leaf of a document found at Yerespatak is at 
Karlsburg. At Geneva there is a tablet of the sixth century containing 
accounts, and verses of Psalm xci, probably a charm. 7 

Latin Waxed Tablets 

Extant Latin tablets are more numerous, but have only been found in 
comparatively recent years. 8 Twenty-five, containing deeds ranging in 
date from A.D. 131 to 167, were recovered, between the years 1786 and 
1855, from the ancient mining works in the neighbourhood of Alburnum 
Major, the modern Verespatak, in Dacia. In 1840 Massmann published 
the few which had at that time been discovered, in his LibellusAurariu*, 
but the admission into his book of two undoubtedly spurious documents- 
cast suspicion on the rest, which were accordingly denounced until the 
finding of other tablets proved their genuineness. The whole collection 
is given in the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, vol. iii. 

During the excavations at Pompeii in July, 1875, a box containing 
127 waxed tablets, of the years A.D. 15, 27, 53-62, was discovered in the 
house of L. Caecilius Jucundus. They proved to be perscriptioneu and 
other deeds connected with auctions and tax-receipts. 9 

1 See Verhandl. tier Philologen-Versamml. zu Wiirzburg, 1869, p. 239. 

2 Kewe Arche'ol. viii. 461, 470. 3 Journ. Hellen. Studies, xiii (1893), 293. 
4 Proceedings of the American Acad. of Arts and Sciences, iii. 371. 

6 Anmtaire de la Soc. Fran*;, de Kumism. et d'Archeol. iii. Ixxi-lxxvii. 6 C. I. L. iii. 933. 

7 J. Nicole, Textefs grecs inedits de Centre, 1909. 

8 In addition to the two collections described in the text, a waxed diptych, recording 
the manumission of a female slave, A.D. 221, which was found in Egypt and was recently 
in possession of the late Lord Amherst of Hackney, has been described by S. de Ricci in 
Proceedings Soc. Bibl. Archaeology, xxvi (1904) ; and a leaf of a diptych, containing a veteran's 
discharge, A.D. 94, also from Egypt, is noticed in The Year's Work in Classical Studies (Classical 
Association), 1911, p. 91. 

9 Atti delta R. Accadenv'a dei Lincei, ser. ii, vol. iii, pt. 3 (1875-6), pp. 150-230 ; Hermes, 
xii (1877), 88-141 ; and Overbeck, Pompeii, 4th ed. by Man (1884), 489 sqq. The whole 
collection has been edited by Zangemeister in the C. I. L. iv, Supplementum (1898). See 
Pal. Soc. i. 159. 



II 



WAXED TABLETS 19 



The recovery of so man)- specimens of Latin tablets has afforded 
sufficient means of understanding the mechanical arrangement of such 
documents among the Romans. Like the military tabulae honc.-/<x> 
,n issim if, they contained the deed under seal and the duplicate copy open 
to inspection. But most of them consist of three leaves : they are 
triptychs, the third leaf being of great service in giving cover to the 
seals. The Pompeian and Dacian tablets differ from one another in some 
particulars ; but the general arrangement was as follows. The triptych 
was made from one block of wood, cloven into the three required pieces 
or leaves, which were held together by strings or wires passing through 
two holes near the edge and serving for hinges. In the Pompeian 
tablets, one side of each leaf (that is, pages .2, 3, and 5) was sunk within 
a frame, the hollowed space being coated with wax, while the outside of 
the triptych (that is, pages 1 and 6) was left plain. On page 4 a vertical 
groove was cut down the centre to receive the witnesses' seals, and the 
surface of the page was generally left plain ; but in some instances it 
was waxed on the right, in some on both the right and the left, of the 
groove. On pages 2 and 3 was inscribed the authentic deed, and the 
first two leaves were then bound round with a string of three twisted 
threads, which passed along the groove and was held in place by two 
notches cut in the edges of the leaves at top and bottom. The 
witnesses' seals were then sunk in the groove, thus further securing 
the string, and their names were written on the right, either in ink 
or with the stilus. An abstract or copy of the deed was inscribed 
on page 5, and was thus left open to inspection. The Dacian 
tablets differed in this respect, that page 4 was also waxed, and that 
the copy of the deed was commenced on that page in the space on 
the left of the groove, the space on the right being filled, as usual, 
with the witnesses' names. Further, the string was passed, as an 
additional security, through two holes, at top and bottom of the 
groove, in accordance with a senatus consultum of A.D. 61, instead of 
being merely wound round the leaves as in the case of the Pompeian 
tablets. 1 



1 The practice of closing the authentic deed and leaving tho copy only open to 
inspection is paralleled by the Babylonian and Assyrian usage of enclosing the tablet 
on which a contract or other deed was inscribed within a casing or shell of clay, on which 
an abstract or copy of the document was also written for public ins-pection. A similar 
usage obtained among the Greeks in Egypt, and by inference, as it may be presumed, in 
Hellas itself. Deeds of the early Ptolemaic period have survived, written on papyrus in 
duplicate, the upper deed (the original) being rolled up. folded in two, and sealed, the 
lower copy being left open. 0. Eubensohn, Elephantine Papyri (in Aegypt. Urkunden aus den 
kgl. Museen in Berlin}, 1907. In the British Museum papyri Nos. 879, 8S1-8, 1204, 1206-9, 
second and first centuries B.C., the dockets written in the margins have been similarly 
rolled up and sealed. 

C 2 



20 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 

The following diagram shows the arrangement of a Dacian triptych 





o 




Tieed begins 













tieed: ends 


o 


5 









Copy of deed ends 


o 





o 




CopyoFdeed 

begins 


! 


Names 
of Wil- 
nejjci 


o 



It will be noticed that, although the string which closed the deed 
(as indicated by dotted lines) passed through the holes of only two of 
the leaves, yet the third leaf (pages 5 and 6) is also perforated with 
corresponding holes. This seems to show that the holes were first 
pierced in the solid block, before it was cloven into three, in order that 
they might afterwards adjust themselves accurately.' In one instance 
the fastening threads and seals still remain. 2 

In the Pompeian series were found about a dozen diptychs. These 
were waxed only on the inner pages, 2 and 3, and no groove was cut for 
the seals, which were therefore impressed on the flat surface. It is 
interesting to find that tablets of this series have dockets on the edges, 
proving that they were dropped vertically into the box in which they 
were kept. 



1 See C. I. L. iii. 922. 



- Ibid. 938. 



CHAPTER III 

MATERIALS USED TO RECEIVE WRITING (continued) 

WE now have to examine the history of the more common writing- 
materials of the ancient world and of the middle ages, viz. papyrus, 
vellum, and paper. 

Papyrus 

The papyrus plant, Cyperut Papyrus, which supplied the substance 
for the great writing material of the ancient world, was widely cultivated 
in the Delta of Egypt. From this part of the country it has now 
vanished, but it still grows in Nubia and Abyssinia. Theophrastus, 
Hi<t. Plant, iv. 10, states that it also grew in Syria; and Pliny adds 
that it was native to the Niger and Euphrates. Its Greek name ira-nvpo 1 ;, 
whence Latin i>a[iijrus, was probably derived from one of its ancient 
Egyptian names. Herodotus, our most ancient authority for any details 
of the purposes for which the plant was employed, always calls it flvp\os 
(also written /3i/3/\os). Theophrastus describes the plant as one which 
grows in the shallows to the height of six feet, with a triangular and 
tapering stem crowned with a tufted head ; the root striking out at right 
angles to the stem and being of the thickness of a man's wrist. The 
tufted heads were used for garlands in the temples of the gods ; of the 
wood of the root were made various utensils ; and of the stem, the pith 
of which was also used as food, a variety of articles, including writing 
material, were manufactured : caulking yarn, ships' rigging, light skiffs, 
shoes, etc. The cable with which Ulysses bound the doors of the hall 
when he slew the suitors was 077X01; /3u/3Airoi' (Odyas. xxi. 390). 

As a writing material papyrus was employed in Egypt from the 
earliest times. Papyrus rolls are represented on the sculptured walls of 
Egyptian temples ; and rolls themselves exist of immense antiquity. 
A papyrus containing accounts of King Assa, about 3500 B.C., is extant ; x 
another famous roll is the Papyrus Prisse, at Paris, which contains the 
copy of a work composed in the reign of a king of the fifth dynasty and 
is itself of about the year 12500 B.C. or earlier. The dry atmosphere of 
Egypt has been specially favourable to the preservation of these fragile 
documents. Buried with the dead, they have lain in the tombs or 
swathed in the folds of the mummy-cloths for centuries, untouched by 
decay, and in many instances remain as fresh as on the day when they 
were written. 

1 Petrie, Hist. Egypt, i. 81. 



22 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

Among the Greeks the papyrus material manufactured for writing 
purposes was called \dpT-rjs (Latin charta) as well as by the names of the 
plant itself. Herodotus, v. 58, refers to the early use of papyrus rolls 
among the Ionian Greeks, to which they attached the name of &i<f>Q4pcu, 
' skins,' the writing material to which they had before been accustomed. 
Their neighbours, the Assyrians, were also acquainted with it. 1 They 
called it ' the reed of Egypt '. There is a recorded instance of papyrus 
being sent from Egypt to Phoenicia in the eleventh century B.C.- An 
inscription relating to the expenses of the rebuilding of the Erechtheum 
at Athens in the year 407 B. c. shows that papyrus was used for the fair 
copy of the rough accounts, which were first inscribed on tablets. Two 
rolls, xaprai bvo, cost at the rate of a drachma and two obols each, or 
a little over a shilling of our money. 3 There can hardly be a doubt, 
then, that this writing material was also used in Athens for literary 
purposes as early as the fifth century B. c. 

The period of its first importation into Italy is not known. The 
story of its introduction by Ptolemy, at the suggestion of Aristarchus, is 
of suspicious authenticity. 4 But there can be little hesitation in assuming 
that it was employed as the vehicle for Latin literature almost from the 
first. We know that papyrus was plentiful in Rome under the Empire, 
and that it had at that period become so indispensable that a temporary 
failure of the supply in the reign of Tiberius threatened a general 
interruption of the business of daily life. 5 Pliny also, Nat. Hint. xiii. 11, 
refers to its high social value in the words : ' papyri natura dicetur, cum 
chartae usu maxima humanitas vitae constet, certe memoria,' and again 
he describes it as a thing ' qua constat immortalitas hominum '. 

It is probable that papyrus w r as imported into Italy already 
manufactured ; for it is doubtful whether the plant grew in that 
country. Strabo, indeed, says that it was found in Lake Trasimene 
and other lakes of Etruria ; but the accuracy of this statement has been 
disputed. Still, it is a fact that there was a manufacture of this writing 
material carried on in Rome, the charta Fanniana being an instance ; but 
it has been asserted that this industry was confined to the remaking of 
imported material. The more brittle condition of the Latin papyri, as 
compared with the Greek papyri, found at Herculaneum, has been 
ascribed to the detrimental effect of this remanufacture. 

1 In the Assyrian wall-sculptures in the British Museum there are two scenes (nos. 3 
and 84) in which two couples of scribes are represented taking notes. In each case one of 
the scribes is using a folding tablet (the hinges of one being distinctly represented), and 
the other a scroll. The scroll may be either papyrus or leather. 

2 Zeitsch. fur iigypt. Sprache, xxxviii (1900), 1. 

3 See above, p. 14. * See below, p. 29. 

6 Pliny, Nat. Hist. xiii. 13 ' Sterilitatem sentit hoc quoque, factumque iam Tiberio 
principe inopia chartae, ut e senatu darentur arbitri dispensandis ; alias in tumultu 
vita erat '. 



Ill 



PAPYKCS 23 



At a later period the Syrian variety of the plant was grown in Sicily, 
where it was probably introduced during the Arab occupation. It was 
seen there by the Arab traveller, Ibn-Haukal, A. D. 972-3, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Palermo, where it throve in great luxuriance in the shallows 
of the Papireto, a stream to which it gave its name. Paper was made 
from this source for the use of the Emir ; but in the thirteenth century 
the plant began to fail, and it was finally extinguished by the draining 
of the stream in 1591. It is still, however, to be seen growing in the 
neighbourhood of Syracuse, but was probably transplanted thither at 
a later time, for no mention of it in that place occurs earlier than 1674. 
Some attempts have U-eii made in recent years to manufacture a writing 
material on the pattern ofthe ancient chart a from this Sicilian plant. 1 

The manufacture of the writing material, as practised in Egypt, is 
described by Pliny. -V./f. H'<*t. xiii. 12. His description applies specially 
to the system of his own day ; but no doubt it was essentially the same 
as had been followed for centuries. His text is far from clear, and 
there are consequently many divergences of opinion on different points. 
The stem of the plant, after removal of the rind, was cut longitudinally 
into thin strips (philyrae, sciosurae) with a sharp cutting instrument 
described as a needle (acus). The old idea that the strips were peeled off 
the inner core of the stem is now abandoned, as it has been shown that 
the plant, like other reeds, contains a cellular pith within the rind, which 
was all used in the manufacture. The central strips were naturally the best, 
being the broadest. The strips thus cut were laid vertically upon a board, 
side "by side, to the required width, thus forming a layer, scheda, across 
which another layer of shorter strips was laid at right angles.- The upper 
surface thus formed became the recto, the under surface the verso, of the 
finished sheet ; and the recto received a polish. Pliny applies to the process 
the phraseology of net or basket making. The two layers formed a ' net ', 
playula, or ' wicker ', crates, which was thus ' woven ', texitur. In this 
process Nile water was used for moistening the whole. The special men- 
tion of this particular water has caused some to believe that there were 
adhesive properties in it which acted as a paste or glue on the material ; 
others, more reasonably, have thought that water, whether from the 
Nile or any other source, solved the glutinous matter in the strips and 
thus caused them to adhere. It seems, however, more probable that paste 

1 See G. Cosentino, La Carta di Papiro, in Archirio Storico Siciliano, N. S. xiv. 134-64. 

Birt, Antikes Buchwesen, 229 (followed by Traube and others), applies the word sche>bt 
or scida to a strip. But Pliny distinctly uses the word philyrae for the strips, although lie 
elsewhere describes the inner bark of the lime tree by this name ; and sclieda for a layer, 
i.e. a sheet of strips. Another name for the strips was inae. Birt with others) also 
describes the plagula or sheet of papyrus by the Greek word ffeXis, which, however, is 
rather a page or column of writing. In his more recent work, Die Biickrolk in der Kunst 
(1907), he suggests Assume as an emendation of philijrae. 



24 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

was actually used. 1 The sheets were finally hammered and dried in the 
sun. 2 Rough or uneven places were rubbed down with ivory or a smooth 
shell. 3 Moisture lurking between the layers was to be detected by strokes, 
of the mallet. Spots, stains, and spongy strips (tueniae), in which the ink 
would run, were defects which also had to be encountered. 4 

The sheets were connected together with paste to form a roll, and in 
this process received the name of KoAA?jjuara ; but not more than twenty 
was the prescribed number. There are, however, rolls of more than 
twenty sheets, so that, if Pliny's reading vicinae is correct, the number 
was not constant in all times. Moreover, an author need not be limited 
in the length of his book, and could increase the roll by adding more 
sheets ; but, of course, he would avoid making it inconveniently bulky. 
A length of papyrus, however, as sold by the stationers, called a acapun, 
consisted apparently of twenty KoA\?j/xara, plagulae or schedae:' The 
workman who fastened the sheets together was the KoAA;rj;s or ylutinator. 
The outside of the roll was naturally that part which was more exposed 
to risk of damage and to general wear and tear. The best sheets were 
therefore reserved for this position, those which lay nearer the centre 
or end of the rolled-up roll not being necessarily so good. Besides, the 
end of a roll was not wanted in case of a short text, and might be cut 
away. A protecting strip of papyrus was often pasted along the margin 
at the beginning or end of a roll, in order to give additional strength 
to the material and prevent it tearing. 6 

The first sheet of a papyrus roll was called the Trpa>roVoAAoi>, a term 
which still survives in diplomacy ; the last sheet was called the fo-xaro- 
Ko'AAtov. Among the Romans the protocol-sheet was inscribed with the 
name of the Comes largitionum, who had the control of the manufacture, 
and with the date and name of the place where it was made. Such 
certificates, styled ' protocols ', were in vogue both in the Roman 
and Byzantine periods in Egypt. They were in ordinary practice cut 
away ; but this curtailment was forbidden in legal documents by the 

1 Birt, 231, points out, in regard to Pliny's words, 'turbidus liquor vim glutinia 
praebet,' that 'glutinis' is not a genitive but a dative, Pliny never using the word 
' gl iiten ', but ' glutinum '. 

2 It appears that after being inscribed the papyrus received a second hammering, if a 
passage in Ulpian, ' libri perscripti, nondum malleati ' (Dig. xxxii. 52. 5), may bear that 
meaning. Birt, Buchrolle. But this practica would apply only to rolls intended for the 
market, which would need a finishing touch. 

3 Martial, xiv. 209 : 

Levis ab aequorea cortex Mareotica concha 
Fiat ; inoffensa currit harundo via. 

4 Pliny, Epist. viii. 15 'quae (chartae) si scabrae bibulaeve sint ', &c. 

5 Wattenbach, Buchw. 99; Kenyon, Palaeogr. of Gk. Papyri, 18. 

Wilcken, in Hermes, xxiii. 466. See the Harris Homer, Brit. Mus. Papyrus cvii. A 
Greek document of A. i>. 209 is similarly protected with a strip of vellum. Royal Prussian 
Academy, Sitsungsber. 1910, p. 710. 



Ill 



PAPYRUS 25 



laws of Justinian. 1 After their conquest of Egypt in the seventh 
century, the Arabs continued the manufacture of papyrus and also 
affixed protocols to their rolls. No Roman protocol has hitherto 
come to light. The few extant specimens of the Byzantine period are 
written in a curious, apparently imitative, script formed of rows of 
close-set perpendicular strokes. This script may possibly be an attempt 
of scribes to copy older, Roman, protocols, the meaning of which had 
been forgotten. The normal protocol of the Arab period consists of 
bilingual inscriptions in Greek and Arabic, accompanied with sections 
or blocks of the above-mentioned imitative script ranged to right and 
left, as if ornaments to fill spaces in the lines. 2 

With regard to the height of papyrus rolls, those which date from 
the earliest period of Egyptian history are short, of about 6 inches ; 
later they increase to 9, 11, and even above 15 inches. The height of 
the early Greek papyri of Homer and Hyperides in the British Museum 
runs generally from ( J to 12 inches; the papyrus of Bacchylides 
measures under 10 inches. 

From Pliny we learn that there were various qualities of writing 
material made from papyrus and that they differed from one another in 
size. It has however been found that extant specimens do not tally 
with the figures that he gives ; but an ingenious explanation has been 
proposed, 3 that he refers to the breadth not to the height of the in- 
dividual sheets, xoAAii/xara, which make up the roll. The best kind. 
formed from the broadest strips of the plant, was originally the chart 
l''n. rat leu, a name which was afterwards altered to AI'IJU^IK out of 
flattery to the Emperor Augustus. The charta Livia, or second quality, 
was named after his wife. The h!<-rn/ini thus descended to the third 
rank. The Augusta and Livia were 13 digits, or about 9^ inches, wide ; 
the hieratica 11 digits or 8 inches. The charta aanphitheatrica, of 
9 digits or 6 inches, took its title from the principal place of its 
manufacture, the amphitheatre of Alexandria. The chartu Fmuii'i 
was apparently a variety which was remade at Rome, in the workshops 
of a certain Fannius, from the amp&iftmfrica, the width being increased 
by about an inch through pressure. The Saitira was a common variety, 
named after the city of Sais, being of about 8 digits or 5| inches. 

1 'Tab^Hiones non scribant instrument;! in aliis chartis quam in his quae protocolla 
hubenr, ut tamen protocollum tale sit, quod habeat nomengloriosissimieomitislargitionuni 
et tempus quo charta facta est,' Xotell. xliv. l'. 

2 Professor von Karabacek lias attempted to prove that the enigmatic writing contains 
t race* of Latin : Siteungsberichte of the Vienna Academy, 1908. His views are disputed by 
C. H. Becker. ZeUsch. fit,- Assyriologie, xx. 97, xxii. lti ; and by H. I. Bell, Archie fur 
Papyrusforschtmg, v. 143. Several specimens of Byzantine and Arab protocols are in the 
British Museum. See Cat. Gk. Pap. in Brit. Hus. iv ; Ktvj Pal. Soc. 177. 

3 Birt, Ant. Buchw. 251 sqq. 



26 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

Finally, there were the Tacniotica which was said to have taken its 
name from the place where it was made, a tongue of land (rairia) near 
Alexandria and the common packing-paper, charta emporetica, neither 
of which was more than 5 inches wide. Mention is made by Isidore, 
Eiipnol. vi. 10, of a quality of papyrus called Corneliana, which was 
first made under C. Cornelius Gallus when prefect of Egypt. But the 
name may have disappeared from the vocabulary when Gallus fell into 
disgrace. 1 Another kind was manufactured in the reign of Claudius, 
and on that account was named Claudia. It was a made-up material, 
combining the Auyuata and Livia, to provide a stout substance. Finally, 
there was a large-sized quality, of a cubit or nearly 18 inches in width, 
called macTOcollon. Cicero made use of it (E^p. ad Attic, xiii. 25 ; 
xvi. 3). An examination of existing specimens seems to show that the 
Ko\\i)ij.a.Ta range chiefly between 8 and 12 inches in width, the larger 
number being of 10 inches. Of smaller sizes, a certain proportion are 
between 5 and 6 inches. 2 

Varro, repeated by Pliny, xiii. 11, makes the extraordinary statement 
that papyrus writing material was first made in Alexander's time. He 
may have been misled from having found no reference to its use in 
pre- Alexandrine authors; or he may have meant to say that its first 
free manufacture was only of that date, as it was previously a govern- 
ment monopoly. 

Papyrus continued to be the ordinary writing material in Egypt to 
a comparatively late period ; 3 it was eventually superseded by the 
excellent paper of the Arabs. In Latin literature it was gradually 
displaced in the early centuries of our era by the growing employment 
of vellum, which, by the fourth century had practically superseded it. 
But it still lingered in Europe under various conditions. Long after 
vellum had become the principal writing material, especially for literary 
purposes, papyrus continued in use, particularly for ordinary documents, 
such as letters. St. Jerome, Ep. vii, mentions vellum as a material for 
letters, ' if papyrus fails ' ; and St. Augustine, Ep. xv, apologizes for 
using vellum instead of papyrus. A fragmentary epistle in Greek, 
sent apparently by the Emperor, Michael II or Theophilus, to Louis le 
D^bonnaire between 8:24 and 839, is preserved at Paris. 4 A few 
fragments of Greek literary papyri written in Europe in the early 
middle ages, containing Biblical matter and portions of Graeco-Latin 
glossaries, have also survived. 

1 Birt, Ant. Buchw. 250. 

W. Schuhart, Dus Buck bei den Grieclten und IKmern. 

3 The middle of the tenth century is the period when it has been calculated the manu- 
facture of papyrus in Egypt ceased. Karabacek, Das arabisclie Papier, in Jlittheilimij'n uus 
tier Sammlung der Papyrus Erzherzoy Rainer, ii-iii 1^87 , 98. 

4 H. Omont in llev. Ardieolugique, xix (1892], 384. 



ill 



SKINS 27 



For purely Latin literature papyrus was also occasionally used in the 
West during the middle ages. Examples, made up in codex form, some- 
times with a few vellum leaves incorporated to give stability, are found 
in different libraries of Europe. They are : The Homilies of St. Avitus, 
of the sixth century, at Paris ; Sermons and Epistles of St. Augustine, of 
the sixth or seventh century, at Paris and Geneva ; works of Hilary, of the 
sixth century, at Vienna; fragments of the Digests, of the sixth century, 
at Pommersfeld ; the Antiquities of Josephus, of the seventh century, at 
Milan ; an Isidore, of the seventh century, at St. Gall. At Munich, 
also, is the register of the Church of Ravenna, written on this material 
in the tenth century. Many papyrus documents in Latin, dating from 
the fifth to the tenth century, have survived from the archives of 
Ravenna; and there are extant fragments of two imperial rescripts 
written in Egypt, apparently in the fifth century, in the Roman 
chancery hand "which is otherwise unknown. In the papal chancery, 
following the usage of the imperial court of Byzantium, papyrus appears 
to have been employed down to the middle of the eleventh century. 
Twenty-three papal bulls on this material have survived, ranging from 
A. D. 849 to 1022. 1 In France papyrus was in common use in the sixth 
century. 2 Under the Merovingian kings it was \ised for official docu- 
ments; several papyrus deeds of their period, dated from 625 to 673, 
1 icing still preserved in the French archives. 

Skins 

The skins of animals are of such a durable nature that it is no matter 
for surprise to find that they have been appropriated as writing material 
l>y the ancient nations of the world. They were in use among the 
Egyptians as early as the time of Cheops, in the fourth dynasty, 
ilocmnents written on skins at that period being referred to or copied in 
papyri of later date. 3 Actual specimens of skin rolls from Egypt still 
xist which date back to some 1500 years B.C. But the country which 
not only manufactured but also exported in abundance the writing 
material made from the papyrus plant hardly needed to make use of 
other material, and skin-rolls written in Egypt must, at all times, 
have been rare. In Western Asia the practice of writing on skins was 
doubtless both ancient and widespread. The Jews made use of them 
for their sacred books, and, probably also for their other literature : to 
the present day they employ them for their synagogue-rolls. It may be 
presumed that their neighbours the Phoenicians also availed themselves 
of the same kind of writing material. The Persians inscribed their 

1 II. Ornont, Eulles Pantif. sur papyrus, in i'lM. fccole <les Charles, Ixv 1904), 575. 

2 Gregory of Tours, Hist. Franc, v. 5. 

3 Wilkinson, AHC. Egypt., ed. Birch, ii. 182. 



28 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

history upon skins. 1 We can hardly doubt that such material must also 
have been employed both in Greece and in Rome in ancient times, before 
the introduction of papyrus ; we learn, at all events, that the Ionian 
Greeks wrote on skins, 8u/>0e'p<n, from the words of Herodotus, v. 58, 
who adds that in his day many foreign nations also made use of them. 
The method of preparing skins to serve as writing material in those 
distant ages is unknown to us, but, judging from early Hebrew rolls, it 
probably extended only to a general system of tanning and a more 
careful treatment of the surface which was to receive the writing It 

O 

was probably at no time the custom to write on the back as well as on 
the face of a roll. 

Parchment and Vellum 

The introduction of parchment, or vellum as it is now more generally 
termed, that is to say, skins prepared in such a way that they could be 
written upon on both sides, cannot properly be called an invention ; it 
was rather an extension of, or improvement upon, the old practice. 
The common story, as told by Pliny, Nat. Hist. xiii. 11, on the authority 
of Varro, runs that Eumenes II of Pergamum (197-158 B.C.), wishing to 
extend the library in his capital, was opposed by the jealousy of the 
Ptolemies, who forbade the export of papyrus, hoping thus to check 
the growth of a rival library. The Pergamene king, thus thwarted, was 
forced to fall back again upon skins ; and thus came about the manu- 
facture of vellum : ' Mox aemulatione circa bibliothecas regum Ptolemaei 
et Eumenis, supprimente chartas Ptolemaeo, idem Varro membranas 
Pergami tradit repertas.' 2 Whatever may be the historical value of this 
tradition, at least it points to the fact that Pergamum was the chief 
centre of the vellum trade : the centre, we may conclude, of the revival 
of an old trade and improved manufacture. The name bi^Oepai, 
membraiute, 3 which had been applied to the earlier skins, was extended 
also to the new manufacture, which, however, afterwards became known 
as -nfpyajj.T]vi], cJturta Pergamena. The title Pergamena first occurs in 
the edict of Diocletian, A.D. 301, de pretiis rerum, vii. 38; next in the 
passage in St. Jerome's epistle, quoted in the footnote. The word 
which afterwards designated a vellum MS. as opposed to 



1 Diodorus, ii. 32 ex ruiv $aai\iKtuv SitfiOfpav, iv o's ol Tlipaat rds naAaias irpatts (t^w 
<ruj'TTa'y/uVa?. 

2 St. Jerome, Ep. vii, also refers to the place of its origin: 'Chnrtam defuisse non 
puto, Aegypto ministrante commercia. Et si alicubi Ptolemaeus maria clausisset, tamen 
rex Attalus membranas a Ptrgamo miserat, ut jienuria chartae pellibus pensaretur. 
Uncle et Pergamenarum nomen ad huiic usque diem, tradente sibi invicem posteritate, 
servatum est.' 

3 The Latin membranae was also Graeci/ed as ntuBpavm, being so used in 2 Tim. iv. 13 
^(iXiCTTa TCIS niufSpavas, but whether the Apostle referred to vellum MSS., or possibly to 
Hebrew texts written on skins prepared in the old way, we cannot say. 



Ill 



PARCHMENT AND VELLUM 29 

a papyrus roll, had reference originally to the contents, such a MS. 
being capable of containing an entire work or corpus. 1 

The animals whose skins were found appropriate for the new 
manufacture were generally sheep, goats, and calves. . Others, such as 
swine and asses, provided material for particular purposes; and even 
rarer creatures, such as antelopes, are said to have been selected for 
more delicate and costly volumes. It is only reasonable to assume 
that any skin of suitable quality would be brought under manufacture. 
But in the course of time, a distinction arose between the coarser and 
finer qualities of prepared skins ; and, while parchment made from 
ordinary skins of sheep and goats continued to bear the name, the finer 
material produced from the calf or kid, or even from the newly-born or 
still-born calf or lamb, came to be generally known as vellum, 
material of the skin manuscripts of the middle ages being generally of 
the finer kind, it has come to be the practice to describe them as of 
vellum, although in some instances they may be really composed 
of parchment. The modern process of manufacture, washing, liming, 
scraping, stretching, rubbing with chalk and pumice, probably differs 
but little in principle from the ancient system. 

As to the early use of vellum among the Greeks and Romans, little 
evidence is to be obtained from the results of excavations. No specimens 
have been recovered at Herculaneum or Pompeii, and very few of early 
date in E.-ypt, There can, however, be little doubt that it was imported 
into Rome under the Republic. The general account of its introduction 
thither evidently suggested by Varro's earlier story of the first use of 
itis that Ptolemy, at the suggestion of Aristarchus the grammarian, 
having sent papyrus to Rome, Crates the grammarian, out of rivalry, 
induced Attalus of Pergamum to send vellum. 2 References to the /></</<* 
of certain municipal deeds seem to imply that the latter were inscribed 
in books, that is, in vellum MSS., not on papyrus rolls. 3 When Cicero, 
Epp. ad Attic, xiii. 24, uses the word 5icJ>0epui, he also seems to refer to 
vellum. The advantages of the vellum book over the papyrus roll are 
obvious : it was in the more convenient form of the codex ; it could be 
rewritten ; and the leaves could receive writing on both sides. Martial 
enumerates, among his Apojthoreta, vellum MSS. of Homer (xiv. 184), 
Virgil (186), Cicero (188), Livy (190), and Ovid (192).* Vellum tablets 
began to take the place of the tabulae ceratae, as appears in Martial, 
xiv. 7 ' Esse puta ceras, licet haec membrana vocetur : Delebis, quotiens 

1 Birt, Ant. Buchw. 41. 

2 Boissonade, Anecd. i. 420. 

Mommsen, 'inscr. Xeapol. 6828 ; Annali dP Inst. 1S58;, xxx. 192; Marquardt, Prm 
leben tkr Komer, 796. 

Pliny, Xat. Hist. vii. 21, mentions a curiosity : ' In nuce inclusam Ihadem I: 
carmen in membrana scriptura tradit Cicero.' 



30 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

scripta novare voles.' The same writer also recommends the convenience 
of vellum to the traveller who desires to carry with him the poet's works 
in a compact form. 1 Quintilian, x. 3. 31, recommends the use of vellum 
for drafts of their compositions by persons of weak sight : the ink on 
vellum was more easily read than the scratches of the stilus on wax. 2 
Horace refers to it in Sat. ii. 3 ' Sic raro scribis ut toto non quater 
anno Membranam poscas ' ; and in other places. 

From the dearth of classical specimens and from the scanty number 
of early mediaeval MSS. of secular authors which have come down to us, 
it seems that vellum was not a common writing material under the first 
Roman emperors. There are no records to show its relative value in 
comparison with papyrus ; but there may be some reason for the view 
that vellum was in Martial's time of comparatively little worth, and was 
chiefly used as a poor material for rough drafts and common work. 3 
Perhaps, too, imperfection of manufacture may have retarded its more 
general introduction. A few stray leaves of vellum codices of the first 
centuries of our era have been found in Egypt. A leaf of a MS. of 
Demosthenes, De falsa, legatione, written in a rough hand of the second 
century, is in the British Museum, Add. MS. 34473 (New Pal. Soc. 2). 4 
On the other hand a leaf from a MS. of Euripides' Cretans, now in 
Berlin, 5 is written on thin veliurn in a very neat delicate script, and was 
assigned to the first century ; but on further consideration it has now been 
placed in the second century. Other fragments are of the third century. 
Papyrus had been so long the recognized material for literary use that 
the slow progress of vellum as its rival may be partly ascribed to 
natural conservatism and the jealousy of the book trade. It was par- 
ticularly the influence of the Christian Church that eventually carried 
vellum into the front rank of writing materials and in the end displaced 
papyrus. As papyrus had been the principal material for receiving the 
thoughts of the pagan world, vellum was to be the great medium for 
conveying to mankind the literature of the new religion. 

Independently of the adoption of vellum as a literary vehicle, which 
will be considered when we have to describe the change in the form of 
the ancient book from the roll to the codex, its mere durability recom- 
mended it to an extent that fragile papyrus could in no way pretend 

Qui tecura cupis esse meos ubicumque libellos 

Et comites longae quaeris habere viae, 
Hos erne quos artiit brevibus membrana tabellis : 

Scrinia da magnis, me manus una capit. Epigr. i. 3. 

2 So also Martial, xiv. 5 'Languida ne tristes obscurent lumina cerae, Nigra tibi 
niveutn littera pingat ebur '. 

3 See Birt, Ant. Buchwesen. He has rather overstated his case ; and his views have 
not passed without challenge. 

4 Kenyon, Palaeogr. of Gk. Papyri, 113. 

6 Berliner Klassikertexte, v. 2, p. 73,Taf. iv; Schubart, Papyri GraecaeBirolinenses(l$ll\30a. 



m PARCHMENT AND VELLUM 

to When Constantine required copies of the Scriptures for his new 
churches, he ordered fifty MSS. on vellum, -tvr^ovra M <ma > bi^pais 
to be prepared.' And St. Jerome, Ep. cxli, refers to the replacement 
damaged volumes in the library of Pamphilus at Caesarea by MSS. on 
vellum ' Quam [bibliothecam] ex parte corruptam Acacius dehmc , 
Euzoius eiusdem ecclesiae sacerdotes, in membranis instaurare conati sunt 
The laro-e number of mediaeval MSS. that have been transmitted 
enables usto form some opinion on the character and appearance o 
vellum at different periods and in different countries. It may be stated 
oenerallv that in the most ancient MSS. a thin, delicate material may 
usually be looked for, firm and crisp, with a smooth and glossy surface 
This is generally the character at least of the vellum of the fifth and 
sixth centuries. Later than this period, as a rule, it does not appear to 
have been so carefully prepared: probably, as the demand^ increased, 
a Beater amount of inferior material came into the market.- 
manufacture would naturally vary in different countries. In Ireland 
and England the early MSS. are generally on stouter vellum than their 
contemporaries abroad. In Italy a highly polished surface seems at most 
periods to have been in favour ; hence in the MSS. of that country and 
neighbouring districts, as the South of France, and again in Greece, the 
hard material resisted absorption, and it is often found that both ink and 
paint have flaked off. In contrast to this are the instances of soft vellum. 
Ud in En-land and France and in Northern Europe generally, from 
the thirteenth to the fifteenth century, for MSS. of the better class 
Uterine vellum, taken from the unborn young, or the skins of new-1 
animals were used for special purposes. A good example ot 
delicate material is found in Add. MS. 23933 in the British Museum, 
a volume of no abnormal bulk, but containing in as many as 579 leaves 
a corpus of church service books, written in France in the thirteenth and 
fourteenth centuries. In the fifteenth century the Italian vellum o 
Renaissance is often of extreme whiteness and purity. 

Vellum was also of great service in the ornamentation of books. 
smooth surfaces showed off colours in all their brilliancy. Martial's 
vellum MS. of Virgil (xiv. 186) is adorned with the portrait of the aut 
'Ipsius voltus prima tabella gerit.' Isidore, Orlg. vi. 11. 4, describing 
this material, uses the words: 'Membrana autem aut Candida aut lutea 
aut purpurea sunt. Candida naturaliter existunt. Luteum membranum 
bicolor est, quod a confectore una tingitur parte, id est, crocatur De 
quo Persius (iii. 10), "lam liber et positis bicolor membrana capil 



n ' "enth and tenth centres, of Uum -hich 

or badly prepared, and therefore left blank by the scribes, are noUced in Cat. 
in the Brit. Museum, pt. ii. 51 ; and in Delisle, Melanges, 101. 



32 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

This quotation from Persius refers to the vellum wrapper which the 
Romans were in the habit of attaching to the papyrus roll : the (paivok^, 
paenula, literally a travelling cloak. A vellum wrapper was more 
suitable than one of papyrus to resist constant handling. It was coloured 
of some brilliant hue, generally scarlet or purple, as in Lucian ' : zopQvpa, 
bC (KTOffGtv i; 8i</>0e'pa. Ovid finds a bright colour unsuited to his melan- 
choly book, Trist. i. 1. 5 ' Nee te purpureo velent vaccinia fuco '. Martial's 
lilellux (viii. 72) is ' nondum murice cultus ' ; and again he has the pas- 
sages, iii. 2 ' et te purpura delicata velet ' ; and x. 93 ' carmina, purpurea 
sed inodo culta toga ', the toga being another expression for the wrapper. 
In Tibullus iii. 1. 9, the colour is orange : ' Lutea sed niveum involvat 
membrana libellum.' The strip of vellum, o-i'XAv/Sos (or <rt'r/3<>s), titulus, 
index, which was attached to the papyrus roll and was inscribed with 
the title of the work therein contained, was also coloured, as appears 
from the passages in Martial, iii. 2 'Et cocco rubeat superbus index', 
and in Ovid, Tritt. i. 1. 7 'nee titulus minio nee cedro charta notetur '. 

We do not know how soon was introduced the extravagant practice 
of producing sumptuous volumes written in gold or silver upon purple- 
stained vellum. It was a MS. of this description which Julius Capito- 
linus, early in the fourth century, puts into the possession of the 
younger Maximin : ' Cum grammatico daretur, quaedam parens sua 
libros Homericos omnes purpureos dedit, aureis litteris scriptos.' Against 
luxury of this nature St. Jerome directed the often-quoted words in his 
preface to the Book of Job : ' Habeant qui volunt veteres libros vel in 
membranis purpureis auro argentoque descriptor vel uncialibus, ut vulgo 
aiunt, litteris, onera magis exarata quam codices ' ; and again in his Ep. 
xviii, to Eustochium : ' Inficiuntur membranae colore purpureo, aurum 
liquescit in litteras. gemmis codices vestiuntur, et nudus ante fores earum 
[i.e. wealthy ladies] Christus emoritur.' 

The art of staining or dyeing vellum with purple or similar colour 
was practised chiefly in Constantinople, and also in Rome ; but MSS. of 
this material, either entirely or in part, seem to have been produced in 
most of the civilized countries of Europe at least from the sixth century, 
if we may judge from surviving examples which, though not numerous, 
still exist in fair numbers. Of these the best known are : Portion of the 
Book of Genesis, in Greek, in the Imperial Library at Vienna, written in 
silver letters and illustrated with a series of coloured drawings of the 
greatest interest for the history of the art of the period ; of the sixth 
century. 2 A MS. of the Gospels, in Greek, in silver, the bulk of which 
was found, in 1896, at Sarumsahly in Cappadocia and is now in 

1 Ilfpi ruiv iirl /iiffSoi avvovTaiv, 41. 

2 See a facsimile of one of the pages in Pal. Soc. i. 178 ; and of one of the paintings in 
Labarte, Hist, des arts industr. du Moyen Age (1864), album ii, pi. 77. Ed. by von Hartel and 
Wickhoff, 1895. 



in PARCHMENT AND VELLUM 33 

St. Petersburg (Cod. N), and leaves of which have been long preserved 
in the British Museum, at Vienna, Rome, and in large numbers at Patmos ; 
also of the sixth century. 1 The Codex Rossanensis, discovered at Rossano 
in South Italy, which contains the Gospels in Greek, of the sixth century, 
also written in silver and having a series of drawings illustrative of the 
Life of Christ.' 2 A portion of the Gospels in Greek, from Sinope, in gold, 
with drawings, of the sixth or seventh century, now in Paris. 3 The Gospels 
of Berat in Albania, containing St. Matthew and St. Mark, written in 
silver in the sixth century. 4 The Greek Psalter of Zurich, of the seventh 
century, in silver letters."' The famous Codex Argenteus of Upsala, 
containing the Gothic Gospels of Ulfilas 1 translation, of the sixth century. . 
The Codex Veronensis of the old Latin Gospels(^), written in silver uncials, 
of the fourth or fifth century. 7 The Latin Evangeliarium of Vienna, 
originally from Naples, of the sixth century, in silver letters ; a single 
leaf of the MS. being in Trinity College, Dublin. 8 The Latin Psalter of 
St. Germain (who died A.D. 576) at Paris, also in silver letters. The 
Metz Evangeliarium at Paris, of the same style and period. The Latin 
Gospels of the Hamilton collection, now in the library of Mr. J. Pierpont 
Morgan, which has been assigned to the eighth century." 1 Of later date 
are the MSS. which were produced in the Carolingian period, when a fresh 
impetus was given to this kind of ornamental luxury. Such are : The 
Latin Gospels at Paris, said to have been written for Charlemagne by 
Godescalc, in letters of gold. 11 A similar MS. at Vienna. 12 And lastly 
may be mentioned the Latin Psalter in the Douce collection in the Bodleian 
Library, written in golden Carolingian minuscules and ornamented with 
miniatures. 13 Other specimens of purple MSS. are cited in different 
palaeographical works and catalogues. 14 In imitation of the practice of 
the emperors of the Eastern Empire, imperial and other important 
charters of Germany and Italy were occasionally issued, as duplicates, 
in gold writing on purple vellum, in the tenth to twelfth centuries. 1 ' 



1 Ed. H. S. Cronin, 1899. 

2 Edited, with outline tracings of the drawings, by von Gebhardt and Harnack, 
Eeangeliorum Codex Graeats purpureiis fiossanensis, 1880; and in photographic facsimile liy 
A. Haseloff, 1898 ; also in colours by A. Muiioz, 1907. 

3 Ed. H. Omont, 1901. 4 Ed. Batiffol, 1886. 

5 Ed. Tischendorf, Hon. Sacr. Inert. Aovo Coll. iv. 6 See Pal. Soc. i. 118. 

7 See the Turin Monumenta p&laeographica sacia, pi. ii. 

8 Ed. Tischendorf, 1847. A facsimile of the Dublin leaf is in Par Palimpsest. Dublin, ed. 
Abbott, 1880. 

^ilvestre, Unit: Ptilaeogr. (English ed.\ pi. 110. 

10 Ed. H. C. Hoskier, 1910. 

11 Westwood, Pal. Sacr. Pict., ' Evangelistarium of Charlemagne.' 

12 Denkscliriften der kais. Akatl. der U'issensch. xiii. 85. ls Douce MS. 59. 

14 See references in Wattonbach, Schriftw. 132 ; and in Gardthausen, Griech. Pal. i. 102. 

15 Ib. 137. The Egerton Charter 620, in the British Museum, being a grant from 

1181 D 



34 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

The practice of inserting single leaves of purple-stained vellum for the 
ornamentation of MSS. was not uncommon in the eighth and ninth cen- 
turies. A beautiful example is seen in the fragmentary Latin Gospels 
from Canterbury (Brit. Mus., Royal MS. 1. E. vi), a large folio volume, 
in which there still remain some leaves dyed of a rich deep rose colour 
and decorated with ornamental initials and paintings, the remnant of 
a larger number ; of the latter part of the eighth century. 1 But more 
generally, for such partial decoration, the surface of the vellum was 
coloured, sometimes on only one side of the leaf, or even on only a part 
of it, particularly in MSS. of French or German origin of the tenth and 
eleventh centuries. 3 At the period of the Renaissance there was some 
attempt at reviving this style of book ornamentation, and single leaves 
of stained vellum are occasionally found in MSS. of the fifteenth century. 
Other colours, besides purple, were also employed ; and instances occur 
in MSS. of this late time of leaves painted black to receive gold or 
silver writing. Such examples are, however, to be considered merely 
as curiosities. 

A still more sumptuous mode of decoration than even that by purple- 
staining seems to have been occasionally followed. This consisted in 
gilding the entire surface of the vellum. But the expense must have 
been too great to allow of more than very few leaves being so treated in 
any MS., however important. Fragments of two leaves thus gilt, and 
adorned with painted designs, are preserved in the British Museum, Add. 
MS. 5111. They originally formed part of tables of the Eusebian Canons 
and preliminary matter for a copy of the Greek Gospels, of the sixth 
century. 3 

Paper 

Paper, manufactured from fibrous substances, appears to have been 
known to the Chinese at a most remote period.* Its introduction into 
Europe is due to the agency of the Arabs, who are said to have first 
learnt its use at Samarkand in the middle of the eighth century. Its 
manufacture spread through their empire ; and it received one of its 
mediaeval titles, charta Damaecena, from the fact of Damascus being- 
one of the centres of paper commerce. A comparatively large number 

Conrad III, King of tlie Romans, to the abbey of Corbcy in Westphalia, A.D. 1147, is an 
example. 

1 Cat. of Ancient MSS. in Vie Brit. Mus., pt. ii (1884), 20 ; Westwood, Pal. Sacr. Pict., and 
Facs. of Miniatures and Ornaments of A.-Samii mul Jrisli MSS., pll. 14, 15. 

2 An instance of this superficial colouring occurs in a pnge of the Cotton MS. Vesp. A. 
viii, the foundation charter of Newminster, Winchester, A. t>. 96G. The Harlcy MS. 2821, 
written in Germany in the eleventh century, contains many leaves of this kind. 

3 Cat. Anc. MSS., pt. i (1881), 21. 

4 Specimens of Chinese paper found in the ruined cities of Eastern Turkestan date 
back to the fourth century. 



Ill 



PAPER 35 



of early Arabic MSS. on paper still exist, dating from the ninth century ; 
the earliest is of the year 866. 1 

This oriental paper, introduced into the West at a time when papyrus 
was not yet forgotten, received the same names, chart a and papyrus. It 
was also known in the middle ages as charta b<>i,il></i-in<i, r/.-> ///,*, < /</- 
tn nea, Damascene, and xylina, and in Greek as v\ox<ipruH> or U\OT(VKTOV. 
In recent times it has also been generally styled cotton-paper, that is, 
paper made from the wool of the cotton plant. It is usually stout, of 
a \vllowish tinge, and with a glossy surface. This last quality seems to 
have gained for it one of its titles, charta aerica. Imported through 
Greece into Europe, it is referred to by Theophilus, a writer of the 
twelfth century (Schedula diveivarum artiuni*) as Greek parchment, 
jjeiyameua Graeca; and he adds, 'quae fit ex lana ligni.' But it does 
not appear to have been used to any great extent even in Greece before 
the middle of the thirteenth century, if one may judge from the survival 
of so few early Greek MSS. on that material. 3 

Paper-making in Europe was first established by the Moors in Spain 
and by the Arabs in Sicily ; and their paper was at first still the same 
oriental paper above described. In Spain it was called pergmneno de 
pan no, cloth parchment, a title which distinguished it from the pcr>i- 
meno de cuero, or vellum ; and it is so described in the laws of Alphonso, 
of 1263. On the expulsion of the Moors, an inferior quality was produced 
by the less skilled Christians. From Sicily the manufacture passed over 
into Italy. 

Here we must pause a moment to revert to the question of the 
material of which oriental paper was made. As already stated, its early 
European names point to the general idea that it was made of cotton. 
But recent investigations have thrown doubts on the accuracy of this 
view ; and a careful analysis of many early samples has proved that, 
although cotton was occasionally used, no paper that has been examined 
is entirely made of that substance, in most instances hemp or flax being 
substantially the material. 4 It seems that in the new manufacture the 
Arabs and skilled Persian workmen whom they employed at once 
resorted to flax, which grows abundantly in Khorassan, afterwards also 
making use of rags supplemented, as the trade grew, with any appro- 

1 See facsimiles of several in the Oriental Series of the Palaeographical Society. 

"- Ed. R. Hendrie, 1847, p. 28. 

3 The Greek Vatican MS. 2200, on oriental paper, is of the eighth century (see below, 
Facs. 52). The earliest MSS. of the kind at Mount Sinai date back to the tenth cen- 
tury; the oldest dated MS. in the British Museum is of A.D. 1252 (see below, Facs. 71); 
that at Paris, of A. D. 1255 ; and that at Milan, of A.D. 1259. Gardthausen, Griecli. Pal. i. 117. 

1 C. M. Briquet, Recherches sitr Us Premiers Papiers du X' au XIV" Slide, in the JKmoires 
de la Sac, Nat. das Antirjuaires de France, tome xlvi ; and a review of the same by C. Paoli, 
Carta di Colons e Carlo, di Lino, in the Archirio Storico Italiano, 1885, p. 230. Karabacek, bus 
arabische raider, in Mittheihmgen aus der Sammhm der Papyrus Erzherzorj Eainer, ii-iii. 87. 

D 2 



36 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

priate vegetable fibre ; and that cotton, if used at all, was used very 
sparingly. An ingenious solution of the question has been recently 
offered, that the term \aprr]s /So^imros, charta bombycina, is nothing 
more than an erroneous reading of \apTr\s /3a/x/3vKti>o?, charta bamlycina, 
that is. paper made in the Syrian town of Bambyce, Ba/x/3i5/c7], the Arab 
Mambidsch. 1 The question of material is not, however, of any particular 
importance for our present purpose ; and it is only the distinction which 
has been made between oriental paper and European paper, as being the 
one of cotton and the other of linen raj,, that requires it to be noticed. 
A more satisfactory means of distinguishing the two kinds of paper is 
afforded by the employment of water-marks in European paper, a practice 
which was unknown to the oriental manufacturer. 

Several examples survive of the use of oriental paper, or paper made 
in the oriental fashion, for Western- European documents and MSS. The 
oldest recorded document was a deed of Count Roger of Sicily of the year 
1102; the most ancient extant document is an order of the Countess 
Adelaide, widow of Roger and regent for her son Roger II, in Greek and 
Arabic, A.D. 1109, now at Palermo.- At Genoa there are extant letters of 
Greek emperors, of 1 188-1202. The oldest known imperial deed on paper 
is a charter of Frederic II to the nuns of Goess, in Styria, of 1228. 3 The 
same emperor, however, forbade, in 1231, the use of paper for public deeds ; 
but there are transcripts of imperial acts on paper, of about A.D. 1241, at 
Naples. A Visigothic paper MS. of the twelfth century, from Silos, near 
Burgos, is now in the Bibliotheque Nationale of Paris (Nouv. Acq. Lat. 
1296) ; 4 a paper notarial register at Genoa dates from 1154 ; in the British 
Museum there is a paper MS. (Arundel 268), written in Italy, of the first 
half of the thirteenth century ; and at Munich the autograph MS. of 
Albert de Beham, 1238-55, is also on the same kind of paper. In several 
cities and towns of Italy there exist registers on paper dating back to 
the thirteenth century. 5 In the Public Record Office there is a letter 
on paper from Raymond, son of Raymond, Duke of Narbonne and Count 
of Toulouse, to Henry III of England, 1216-22 ; and letters addressed 
from Castile to Edward I of England, in 1279 and following years, are 
on the same material. A register of the hustings court of Lyme Regis, 
now in the British Museum, which begins with entries of the year 1309, 
is on paper which was probably imported from Spain or Bordeaux, such 
as that employed for the Bordeaux customs register of the beginning of 
the reign of Edward II now in the Record Office. 6 

1 Karabacek, Neue Quellen zur PapiergeschicMe in Mitilieilunqen, iv. 117. 

G. La Mantia, llprimo clocumento in carta, 1908; Bibl EC. des Charles (1910), 238. 

3 J. G. Schwandner, Charta Lined, 1788. 4 Dolisle, Melanges, 109. 

5 Cited by Professor Paoli, La Sturia della Carta secondo gli uUimi shtdi, in Nuova Antoloffia, 
xviii (1888), 297. 

6 See also Rogers, Hist. Agricult. and Prices, i. 641. 



in PAPER 37 

The earliest reference to the material of paper made in Europe appears 
to be that in the tract of Peter, Abbot of Cluny (A.D. 1122-50), Adver.-ns 
Tuihieoi?, cap. 5, in which among the various kinds of books he mentions 
those made e.c rasuris veterum jyannorum. 1 There appears certainly 
to have been an extensive manufacture in Italy in the first half of the 
thirteenth century. There is evidence of a paper trade at Genoa as early 
as 1235. 2 At Fabriano, in the marquisate of Ancona, the industry was 
established before the 3 T ear 1276, and probably much earlier. The 
jurist Bartolo, in his treatise De insigniis et armis, mentions the excel- 
lent paper made there in the fourteenth century. Other centres of early 
manufacture were Colle, Florence, Bologna, Parma, Milan, Padua, Treviso, 
Venice, Pignerol, and Casella in Piedmont, and other places. From the 
northern towns of Italy a trade was carried on with Germany, where 
also factories were rapidly founded in the fourteenth century. France 
borrowed the art of paper-making from Spain, whence it was introduced, 
it is said, as early as 1189, into the district of Herault. The North of 
Europe, at first supplied from the South, gradually took up the manu- 
facture. England drew her supplies, no doubt, at first from such trading 
ports as Bordeaux and Genoa ; but even in the fourteenth century it is 
not improbable that she had a rough home-manufacture of her own. 
although it appears that the first English mill was set up in Hertford by 
John Tate not earlier than the second half of the fifteenth century. 3 

Paper was in fairly general use throughout Europe in the second 
half of the fourteenth century ; at that time it began to rival vellum as 
a material for books ; in the course of the fifteenth century it gradually 
superseded it. MSS. of this later period are sometimes composed of both 
vellum and paper, a sheet of vellum forming the outer, or outer and 
inmost, leaves of a quire, the rest being of paper : a revival of the old 
practice observed in certain papyrus books in which vellum leaves 
protected and gave support to the leaves of papyrus. 

A knowledge of the appearance of paper and of water-marks of 
different periods is of great assistance in assigning dates to undated 
paper MSS. In the fourteenth century European paper is usually 
stout, and was made in frames composed of thick wires which have left 

1 ' Quales quotidie in usu legend! habcmus. utiqu<> f-x pellura arietum, hircorum, vel 
vitulorum, sive ex biblis vel iuncis orieiitalium paludum, aut ex rasuris veterum pan- 
norum, seu ex qualibet alia forte viliore materia compactos.' 

2 Briquet, Papieis et FiUgnmes des Archives tie Gh\es t 1888, p. 36. 

3 In Shakespeare, 2 Henry VI, iv. vii, Jack Cade charges Lord Say with the crime of 
building a paper-mill. Blotting-paper was in use in England in the fifteenth century ; it is 
mentioned by William Herman, in his Vulgaria, 1519, p. 80 b, as serving 'to drye weete 
wryttynge '. It is remarkable how persistent has been the use of sand as an ink absorbent, 
even down to the present day in foreign countries. In England, too, in spite of the more 
convenient blotting-paper, it prevailed within present memory. As late as the year 1838 
sand was used to dry writing in the Reading-room of the British Museum. 



38 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 

strongly defined impressions. In the next century the texture becomes 
finer. The earliest known water-mark, the age of which can be approxi- 
mately fixed, is one on a paper of Bologna, used in the year 1285 ; and 
there are many others, from that and other Italian towns, which fall 
within the thirteenth century. 1 At first the marks are simple, and being 
impressed from thick wires are well defined. In process of time they 
become finer and more elaborate, and, particularly in Italian paper, they 
are enclosed within circles. Their variety is almost endless : animals, 
heads, birds, fishes, flowers, fruits, domestic and warlike implements, 
letters, armorial bearings, and other devices are used ; some being peculiar 
to a country or district, others apparently becoming favourites and lasting 
for comparatively long periods, biit constantly changing in details. For 
example, the glove, a common mark of the sixteenth century developes 
a number of small modifications in its progress ; and of the pot or 
tankard, which runs through the latter part of the sixteenth century 
and the early part of the seventeenth century, there is an extraordinary 
number of different varieties. The names of makers were inserted as 
water-marks quite at the beginning of the fourteenth century ; but this 
practice was very soon abandoned, and was not revived until the sixteenth 
century. The insertion of the name of place of manufacture and of the 
date of manufacture is a modern usage. 

1 See C. 51. Briquet, Les Filigranes : Dictionnairc historique des marques du Papier, 1907 : 
a most exhaustive and valuable work on the subject. 



CHAPTER IV 

WRITING IMPLEMENTS, ETC. 

The Stilus, Pen, etc. 

OF writing implements the orCAos, -ypaffxlov, ypa<f>k, ypa(f>ibi.ov, stilus, 
<l,-iiliiui\, made of iron, bronze, or other metal, ivory, or bone, was 
adapted for writing on waxed tablets, the letters being scratched with 
the sharp point. The butt-end was fashioned into a knob or flat head, 
wherewith the writing could be obliterated by smoothing the wax, for 
correction or erasure : hence the phrase vertere stilum, 1 ' to correct.' 
Among the Roman antiquities found in Britain, now deposited in the 
British Museum, there are several specimens of the stilus, in ivory, 
bronze, etc. 2 Many of them are furnished with a sharp projection, at 
right angles to the shaft, near the head, for the purpose of ruling lines 
on the wax. The passage in Ovid, Metum. ix. 521, thus describes the 
action of the writer: 

Dextra tenet ferrum, vacuam tenet altera ceram. 
Incipit, et dubitat, scribit damnatciue tabellas, 
Et notat et delet, mutat, culpatque probatque. 

Here the stilus is simply ferrum. In another place, Amor. i. 11. 23, 
( hid gives its title of graphium: ' Quid digitos opus est graphic lassare 
tenendo ? ' 

This riddle on the stilus also occurs : 

De summo planus, sed non ego planus in imo. 
Versor utrimque manu ; diversa et munera fungor : 
Altera pars revocat quidquid pars altera fecit. 3 

The case in which such implements were kept was the -ypa<pio6i]K^, 
!/i~(iphiarium; as in Martial, xiv. 21 'armata suo graphiaria ferro'. 

For writing on papyrus the reed, xaXa/xoy, 8oVa, ypcuftfus, a-^olvos, 
<<!/< i mus, can/in, was in use. 4 The Egyptians employed the reed, frayed 
at the end in fashion of a paint-brush ; and the Greeks in Egypt no 
doubt imitated that method in the earliest times, adopting the pen-shaped 
reed perhaps in the third century B.C. 5 Suitable reeds came chiefly from 

1 Horace, Sal. i. 10. 72 ' Saepe stilum vertas' ; Vulgate, i Key. xxii. 13 ' Et delebo 
IiTusalem sicut deleri solent tabulae ; et delens vertnni et ducam crebrius stilum super 
faeiein eius '. 

2 See British Museum Guide fo Greek and Roman Life, 185, 186. 

3 Riese, Anthol. Lat. i, no. 286. 

4 Pliny, Xat. His>. xvi. 36 'Chartisque i-rviunt calami'. 

5 See Sehubart, Das Buck bei den Griechei, . n. Some specimens of ancient reeds 
cut like a pen (Ausonius, ' fissipes calamus' are in the British Museum. 



40 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

Egypt, as referred to by Martial, xiv. 38 'Dat chartis habiles calamos 
Memphitica tellus ' ; or from Cnidus, as in Ausonius, Ep. vii ' Nee iam 
fissipedis per calami vias Grassetur Cnidiae sulcus arundinis '. The case 
in which reeds were kept was the /caAa/xo0?/Kr), KaAajxt'j, calamarium, theca 
calamaria ; as in Martial, xiv. 19 ' Sortitus thecam, calamis armare 
memento'. In Diocletian's edict, De [>rctiis rerum veiialium, the reed- 
case appears as made of leather. 

Reeds seem to have continued in use to some extent through the 
middle ages. In Italy they appear to have survived into the fifteenth 
century. 1 

A score of Roman bronze pens, shaped like our ordinary quill-pens, 
are in existence in various museums of Europe or in private hands. 
Three are in the British Museum : one, found in the Tiber, has not a slit 
in the nib as most specimens have, but a groove ; the second is of a very 
unusual form, having a rather short tube or barrel with a slit nib at 
each end (another example of the same type is at Aosta in Italy) ; the 
third, which was found in London, has a stumpy slit nib. Two broken 
specimens, which have lost their nibs, are also in the British Museum. 
A bone pen, shaped in the same manner, is figured in the Bulletin de 
Correspondance Hellenique (of the French School at Athens), xii. 60. 

The Kovb&iov, 2ieniculus, penicillus, was the brush with which writing 
in gold was applied. 2 

The quill-pen, penna, is first mentioned by an anonymous historian 
who tells us that, in order to enable the unlettered Ostrogoth Theodoric 
to write, he was provided with a stencil plate, through which he drew 
with a pen the strokes forming the four letters of the subscription Leg I- : 
' ut, posita lamina super chartam, per earn penna duceret et subscriptio 
eius tantum videretur.' 3 Isidore, Orlij. vi. 13, describes the pen thus: 
' Instrumenta suut scribendi calamus et penna. Ex his enim verba paginis 
infiguntur ; sed calamus arboris est, penna avis, cuius acumen dividitur 
in duo, in toto corpore unitate servata.' But, although no earlier mention 
of the quill-pen than these has been found, it can scarcely be supposed 
that, as soon as vellum came into general use, so obviously convenient 
an implement, always ready to hand, could have been long overlooked, 
particularly in places where reeds of a kind suitable for writing could not 
be had. 4 The hard surface of the new material could bear the flexible 

1 For detailed information see Wattenbach, SchriJ'ttc. 186. 

2 Theophilus, De diversis artibus, iii. 96, mentions the reed for this purpose : ' Atque 
rogo pariter, calamo cum ceperit aurum, Ilium commoreat, pulchre si scribere quaerit.' 

3 In the Excerpta printed at the end of Gronovius's edition of Ammianus Marcellinus, 
1093. p. 512. 

1 Rich, Did. Antiq., t. v. ' Penna ', represents Victory, both in Trajan's column and in 
the column of Marcus Aurelius. as inscribing the emperors' successes on a shield with 
a pen. But in both instances the^implement appears to be a stilus and not a quill-pen. 



iv WRITING IMPLEMENTS, ETC. 41 

pressure of the pen which in heavy strokes might have proved too much 
for the more fragile papyrus. 

Inks, etc. 

Black ink, the ordinary writing fluid of centuries, nfrar, or more 
exactly ypafyiKov jAar, pcAdi-ior. <it,'<i nientum, or atramentum lllrnrium 
to distinguish it from blacking used for other purposes, later ty/cavo-Toi; 
encautstwn, im-nut-timi, differs in tint at various periods and in different 
countries. In Greek papyri of the earlier periods it is of good quality 
and often of a strong black ; in the Byzantine period it deteriorates. In 
early codices it is either pure black or slightly brown ; in the middle 
ages it varies a good deal according to age and locality. In Italy and 
Southern Europe it is generally blacker than in the North, in France 
and Flanders it is generally darker than in England ; a Spanish MS. of 
the fourteenth or fifteenth century may usually be recognized by the 
peculiar blackness of the ink. Deterioration is observable in the course 
of time. The ink of the fifteenth century particularly is often of 
a faded, grey colour. 

The ancients used the liquid of the cuttle-fish, as in the lines of 
Persius, iii. 1.2 : 

Tune queritur crassus calamo quod pendeat humor, 
Nigra quod infusa vanescat sepia lympha, 
Dilutas queritur geminet quod fistula guttas. 

Pliny, Xut. Hint. xxxv. 6, mentions soot and guru as the ingredients of 
writing ink. Other later authors add gall-apples. 1 Metallic infusions 
seem also to have been used at an early period. In the middle ages 
vitriol was an ordinary ingredient. Theophilus, De divertis urtibus, gives 
a recipe (i. 40) for the manufacture of ink from thorn wood boiled down 
and mingled with wine and vitriol. 

Red, either in the form of a pigment or fluid ink, is of very ancient 
and common use. It is seen in the early Egyptian papyri ; and it 
appears in the earliest extant vellum MSS., either in titles or the 
first lines of columns or chapters. The Greek term was nfkdviov KOK- 
Kiror: Latin minium, rubrica. A volume written entirely in red ink, 
of the ninth or tenth century, is in the British Museum. Harley MS. 
2795 ; and red ink is not infrequently used for sections of the texts of 
mediaeval volumes. The purple ink, Ktwdfiapis, tacrum vncaustum, 
reserved at Byzantium for the exclusive use of the emperors, seems t<> 
have been originally of a distinct kind. Later the same term, mwdflapi.'i, 
appears as a synonymous term with niiitium. Inks of other colours are 

1 Martianus Capella, iii. -i">. 



42 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

also found in MSS. of the middle ages : green, yellow, and others, 
but generally only for ornamental purposes, although volumes written 
entirely in such coloured inks are still extant. 

The ink-pot, jj.(\ai'b6-^oi; fxeAai>So'x?;, p.f\arbo-^elor, atramentarium, used 
by the ancients, was generally, as appears from surviving examples, 
a small cylindrical jar or metal box, the cover often pierced with a hole 
to admit the insertion of the reed. 1 In paintings on the walls of Pompeii 
double ink-pots, with hinged covers, are depicted, the two receptacles 
being probably for black and red ink. 2 Throughout the middle ages the 
ink-horn was in common use. 

Gold was used as a writing fluid at a very early period. In a papyrus 
at Leyden, of the third or fourth century, there is a recipe for its manu- 
facture. 3 Something has already been said on its use in connexion with 
purple-stained vellum. Ordinary white vellum MSS. were also written 
in gold, particularly in the ninth and tenth centuries, in the reigns of the 
Carolingian monarchs. In most of the large national libraries examples 
are to be found. 4 The practice passed from the Continent to England, 
and was followed to some considerable extent in this country, not only 
for partial decoration, but also for entire texts. A MS. was written in 
gold, on purple vellum, by order of Wilfrid of York, late in the seventh 
century, for the monastery of Ripon ; but the way in which this volume 
is referred to, ' Inauditum ante seculis nostris quoddam miraculum,' 
proves that such sumptuous MSS. were not known in England before 
that time. St. Boniface, writing in A. D. 735 to Eadburg, Abbess of 
St. Mildred's, Thanet, asks her to get transcribed for him in gold the 
Epistles of St. Peter. 3 But the existing English examples are of later 
date. Gold writing as a practice died out in the thirteenth century, 
although a few isolated instances of later date are found. 

Writing in silver appears to have ceased contemporaneously with the 
disuse of stained vellum. This metal would not show to advantage on 
a white ground. 

1 Brit. J/ S . Guide Gk. and Horn. Life, fig. 196. 

- .l/.H'o Borlonico, i, pi. 12. 

:1 Leemans, Ripyri Grand Mns. Lugd. Bat., ii (1885), 218. 

4 Such MSS. in the British Museum are Harl. MS. 27SS, the ' Codex Aureus', a copy 
of the Gospels, in uncial letters, of the nintli century ; Harl. MS. 2707, also a copy of the 
Gospels, in minuscule writing, late in the ninth century, from the monastery of St. Gene- 
vii-ve, Paris. The C'ottonian MS., Tiberius A. ii, which was sent as a present to King 
yEthelstan by the Emperor Otho, also contains some leaves written in gold. 

6 ' Sic et aclhuc deprecor . . . ut mihi cum auro conscribas epistolas domini mei 
Sancti Petri apostoli, ad honorem et reverentiam sanctarum scripturarum ante oculos 
i-anialium in praedicando, et quia dicta ems qui me in hoc iter direxit maxime semper in 
praesentia cupiam habere.' Jafft;, Zlviuitntnt/a Zloguntina, iii. 99. 

The foundation charter of Newminster, Winchester, granted by King Edgar in 966, 
in Cotton. MS. Vesp. A.viii, is written in gold. The Benedictional of .Ethel wold, Bishop 
of Winchester, A.D. 963-84, also contains a page in gold. 



IV 



WRITING IMPLEMENTS, ETC. 43 



Various Implements 

For ruling papyri, a circular plate of lead, KVK\orepi^ /io'Aioj, 
no\i ; 1bos, rpoxo'eis /iJAi/38os, rpoxaAos jxo'Ai/38oy, /cvKAojxo'Ai^Sos, was used. 
Ink was removed with the sponge. Papyrus would scarcely bear 
scraping with the knife. If the ink was still wet, or lately applied, its 
removal was of course easy. Martial, iv. 10, sends a sponge with his 
newly-written book of poems, which might thus be wiped out at 
A single stroke. 1 Augustus effaced his half-completed tragedy of Ajax, 
with the remark: ' Aiacem suum in spongiam incubuisse.' 2 With 
vellum MSS. the knife or eraser, i\i*<>riiiin or novacula, came into use. 
While wet the ink could still be sponged away ; but when it was hard 
and dry, and for erasure of single letters and words without obliterating 
also the surrounding text, it was scraped off. 

The penknife was the o>u'A.?;, -y\vtf>ai'or, yAnrn/p, or yAnfus, BCalprum 
It IH-<I riii. in, the mediaeval scalpellum, cultellu*, or m-t'-icus; the ruler 
was the Karwr. <(>//,(. nonha, regula, lincurium ; the pricker, whether 
a compass or other tool, for marking with prick-holes the intervals of 
the ruled lines was Sia^drTjj, circinu*, or jmnctorium ; the implement 
for ruling the lines was the irapaypa^os, pruvluchile ; and lastly, the 
office of the modern pencil was performed by the pointed piece of lead, 
the plummet, /xo'Av/38os, plumbum, still'* plaiiibeti*, or plumbum enb 
n.i 



i Dum novus est rasa iiec a<lhuc milii f rente libellus, 

Pagina dum tangi non bene sicca timet, 
I. puer. et caro perfer leve munua amico, 
Qui nu-i-uit nugas primus liabere meas. 
Curre, sed iustructus : comitetur Punica librum 

Spongia ; muneribus convenit ilia meis. 
Non possunt nostros multae, Faustine, liturae 

Emendare iocos ; una litura potest. 
-MI.- tonius, Aug. 85. 

s VVattenbacli, Schrift<c. "232. The various implements are mostly referred to in the 
Anthv' ,.; see Wattenbach, op. cit., 203; R.Ellis, Comm. on Catullus. They are 

frequently depicted in the miniatures of illuminated MSS., particularly in those repre- 
senting the author or scribe at work. Beissel, Vatican isch? Miniaturen (1S93), pi. xi, 
taken 'from a Greek JIS. of the Gospels, shows one of the Evangelists with his table 
covered with all kinds of writing implements. In pi. xii of Codex purpur. Rossanensis sixtli 
century , ed. Haseloff, 1S9S, an ink-pot and writing reeds are arranged upon the table in 
front "f Pilate's judgement-seat. 



CHAPTER V 
FORMS OF BOOKS, ETC. 

The Boll 

THE form of the book of the ancient Greek and Roman world was 
the roll, composed of one continuous length of material, commonly 
papyrus, and inscribed only on one side. The roll had already had 
a career of thousands of years in Egypt before the dawn of Greek and 
Roman literature. For Greek literature it was probably at once adopted. 
Actual examples of early Greek papyrus rolls are in existence, dating 
from the fourth century B. c. In letters Rome followed the example of 
Greece, and adopted the roll. And in both Greek and Roman literature 
the roll was the constant form of the book down to the opening centuries 
of the Christian era ; being not entirely superseded by the incoming 
codex until the fourth century. 

Among the Greeks the ordinary terms for a written book (that is, 
a roll) were /3i/3Ao? (another form of /3vj3\os, papyrus) and its diminutive 
(3ifi\iop. 1 The corresponding Latin terms were liber and its diminutive 
libelluv. The latter, as a literary title, specially referred to a book of 
poems, a sense in which it is constantly used by the Roman poets. 2 
It came at length to be used as an equivalent of liber and to express 
a book in general. 

The roll, rolled-up, was a volumen. The Greeks do not appear to 
have had any parallel expression at an early date ; the word /<vAiz;5pos 
being comparatively late. Another term was f^a'Ar^a or ea'Aj;/xa ; more 
rare were et'Atjraptoi', eiArjror. A mediaeval Latin term is rotulus. 

A roll of uninscribed material was \dprris, churta, a term easily 
transferred to a written book. 3 Again, a Greek term was TO'^OS (origin- 
ally a cutting of papyrus), applicable to a roll containing a portion or 
division of a large work which extended to more than one roll. 4 
Neither this term nor pifiXiov, nor liber nor libellui-, could be applied in 
the singular number to more than a single roll or volume. A work 
consisting of many volumes, or several divisions, must be described by 

1 0i0\tov also meant a letter, and is used in tins sense by Herodotus. Suidas in his 
Lexicon explains 0t0\iov as imaTo\ri. A later term for a book was /3i/3Xnpior. 

2 ' Quoi dono lepidum novum libellum.' Catullus, i. 1. 

3 ' Omne aevum tribus explicare chartis.' Catullus, i. ('.. 

4 The third roll of Aristotle's Constitution of Athens (Brit. Mus.) is marked f. TOMOC 



THE ROLL 45 

the plural forms /3t/3Aia, ro>t, lilri, etc. On the other hand, the several 
1 looks of a work, if written on one roll, counted only for one /3i/3Aioj- or 
liber. Thus Ulpian, Digest, xxxii. 52, lays down : ' Si cui centum lil.ii 
sint legati, centum volumina ei daliimus, non centum quae quis ingenio 
suo metitus est . . . ut puta. cum haberet Homerum totum in uno 
volumine, non quadraginta octo libros computamus, sed ununi Homeri 
volumen pro libro accipiendum est.' To distinguish a work contained 
in the compass of a single roll, there was also the title ^oi>o'/3i/3Aoy or 



For subdivisions such terms as Ao'yo?, (nyypa^a, vvvTaypa. also 
were used. 

The word revxos, too, appears to have meant a single roll ; but it was 
also employed in the sense of a literary work in several volumes. At 
first it seems to have been applied to the chest or vessel in which the 
several rolls of such work were kept, and came in course of time to refer 
to the contents. 2 Xenophon, A nub. vii. 6. 14, mentions books r rAu>ois 
rev X f<n. In like manner the terms f >:i u.'/wte* and libliotheca, originally 
referring to a work in several rolls kept together in their chest, were 
afterwards used specially to mean a MS. of the entire Bible. 3 Billiotlteca, 
continued to bear this meaning down to the close of the fourteenth 
century, if not later. 4 

There can be no doubt that the convenience of subdividing the 
lengthy works of authors into rolls of moderate size must have been 
appreciated in the earliest period of the publication of Greek literature. 
Of course in writing out the text of a work the scribe might go on 
adding any number of fresh icoAAjj/xaTa or sheets to the normal roll, thus 
extending it to an indefinite length. But proverbially a great book was 
a great evil ; and the inconvenience of having to unroll a bulky volume, 
not only for the purpose of perusing it, but also even for verifying 
a reference, would have proved too exasperating. At the other extreme, 
a roll might be of the most slender proportions, in fact no stouter than 
a rolling-stick. 5 Although the authors themselves may not originally 
have divided their writings into separate portions to suit the ordinary 
length of a conveniently-sized roll, yet the practice of the scribe would 
eventually react on the author. Thus we find the works of Homer 

1 The first book of Propert ius was known to Martial as ' monobiblos Properti ' ; and 
the title survives in the MSS. Ellis, Comm. o Catullus (1889 , 4. 
- Birt, Ant. Buclitc. 89. 

3 BiblMh.cn wa used in this sense by St. Jerome. Others, as Cassiodorus, Bede, 
Alcuin, preferred Pandectes. 

4 See examples in Wattenbach. 152-7. 
" Martial, ii. 6 : 

Quid prodest mihi tarn raacer libellus, 
Nullo crassior ut sit umbilico ? 



46 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

divided into books of a length which could be contained in an ordinary 
roll ; and we know that in course of time authors did regularly adapt 
the divisions of their works to the customary length of the /3i/3Ata and 
volumina. From twenty to thirty feet was probably the normal full 
length of a roll, the higher limit being rarely, if ever, exceeded. 1 

As only one side, the inner side, of the roll was used to receive the 
text, that surface was the more carefully prepared. It was the recto 
side of the material, in which the fibres of the papyrus lay horizontally, 
and parallel to the length of the roll, so that the pen would run the more 
smoothly ; moreover, the joints of the several sheets composing the roll 
were carefully flattened, in order that they too might cause no obstruction 
to the writer. 

The text was written in columns, o-cAtdc?, pafjinae, sufficient margins 
being left at head and foot ; and it was a practice to leave blank the 
beginning of the roll, that portion being most liable to wear through 
handling. The term <reAi? (originally the gangway between the rowing 
benches of a ship) was first applied to the space between two 
columns, and then to the column itself. 2 Other terms were the dimi- 
nutive ortXibiov and KarafiaTov. The lines of writing (<m'xoi, i'er*>ii$) ran 
parallel with the length of the roll ; 3 and lead, we are told, was used 
for drawing the ruled lines. Such ruling, however, was certainly not 
always, and perhaps not generally, employed, for the horizontal fibre of 
the papyrus itself was a sufficient guide for the lines of writing ; and the 
fact that the marginal line of the columns frequently trends away cut 
of the perpendicular proves that in such instances there were no ruled 
lines to bound the columns laterally. There was no regulation for the 
breadth of the columns : this was a matter left to the taste of the 
scribe ; and consequently it is found to vary considerably. But they 
were generally narrow in texts written for the market by skilled scribes. 
In literary papyri of good quality the columns are from two to three 
and a half inches in breadth. 4 Those in the papyrus of Hyperides, in 
Philippidem (Brit. Mus., Pap. 184), of the first century B.C., measure 
only an inch and three-quarters. Occasionally we find the letters made 
smaller at the end of a line in order to accommodate words to the restricted 
space. An example of writing in broad columns is seen in the papyrus 
of Aristotle on the Constitution of Athens ; but this was written for 
private use and not for sale. And, again, the columns of the earliest 

1 Kenyon, Palaeogr. of Greek Papyri, 17. 

2 In the Aphrodito papyri (Brit. 3Iwt. Cat. Gk. rii>/ri, iv, no. 1420, etc.) the word fAir, 
meaning a pace, occurs. It seems to be a corruption of fffXt's. 

3 Before the time of Julius Caesar official dispatches appear to have been written 
transversa charta', that is, with the lines parallel with the height of the roll. He wrcte 
in the book style, the lines parallel with the length of the roll. Suetonius, Jul. Cues. 56. 

4 Kenyon, Palaeogr. of Gk. Papyri, 22. 



v THE ROLL 47 

Greek literary papyrus in existence, the Permc of Timotheus, of the 
fourth century B.C., are very broad; but perhaps at that remote period 
conventional rules in such details had not been established. 

If the title of the work was given, it was ordinarily entered at the 
end of the text : but, as this was obviously an inconvenient practice, it 
was sometimes written at the head. It seems also that it was in some 
instances inscribed on the outside of the roll (falypoftpa). But no doubt 
the reader relied chiefly on the pendent ticket, the (rih\v,3os or (riTTvfios, 
the tituhit? or indent, described below, for information as to the contents 
of a roll. 

The references by classical authors to the style in which their written 
works were presented to the literary world imply a good deal of elaborate 
treatment by scribe and binder, if we may so call the workman who 
u,i\ e the mechanical finish to the roll. But the details so supplied would 
refer more especially to the more expensive productions of the book- 
trade. A large proportion of working copies must have been dealt 
with in a more simple manner. First, the roll was rolled on a stick, 
or ujiilit/ii'tt*, to which the last sheet of the papyrus, ((T^aro- 
i,', was supposed to be attached. But, as a matter of fact, no rolling- 
sticks have been found with extant papyri ; and it has been therefore 
suggested that they were not attached to the material but were rolled in 
loose, and hence were liable to drop out. Many of the rolls found at 
Herculaneum had a mere central core of papyrus. A knob or button, 
usually of bone or wood, was affixed to each end of the stick, the name of 
which, o/ji<a/\oV, umbilicus, appears to have been also extended to these 
ornamental additions. Porphyrion, commenting on Horace, Epod. xiv. 8, 
says : 'In fine libri umbilici exlignoaut osse solent poni.' Or, instead of 
the simple knob or button, there was a tip, xe'pas, cornu, of ivory or some 
such ornamental material; and either might be plain or coloured. 1 The 
edges, /routes, of the roll were cut down and smoothed with pumice, 2 
and sometimes coloured. The wrapper of an ordinary roll might be of 
common papyrus, clturta einjwretlca ; in case of a more valuable work, 
a vellum cover, bi(f>d(pa, toya, which might be stained with colour, was 
used as a protection the ^at^o'Ar/s- or <t>ai\<>vi]s, paenula (the travelling 
cloak), as it was commonly called. 3 Lucian, Ad' 1 . n"i'in ,,i, 7, refers to 

1 Tibullus, iii. 1. 13 ' Atque inter geminas pintrantur cornua frontes ' : Martial, iii. 2. 
' picti umbilici'; v. 6. 15 ' nigri umbilici'; Statius, Silr. iv. 9. 8 'binis decoratus 
umbilieis'. The explanation given above of the Kfpara < -.eems to be the most 

obvious ; but Birt, Buchrolle, 235, and Schubart, /'> Buck bei den Grit" //!, 93, offer 

other interpretation!. See illustrations in Gardthausen, (/nVc/i. Pal. i. 145, 149. 

- Ovid. Tris>. i. 1. 11 ' Xec fragili gtminae poliantur pumice 1'n.intes'; Catullus, i. 2 
' Ariilo modo pumice expolitum" ; xxii. 8 'pumice oninia aeqnata '. 

3 The 'cloak' (<pf\6vr]s) which St. Paul left at Truas 2 Tim. iv. 13 . and which 
Timcithy was to bring together with the books and parchments, may have been in fact 

k-cover. See Birt, Bm-hic. 65. 



48 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

an ornamental work thus : o-no-rav TO ptv fii(3\iov cv T?J \fipi <?x?/ ? tc&yKo^av, 
xopfyvpav fxft> ex " T n v ^^Otpav, \ovrrovv 6e TOV opfpaXov ; and Martial, i. 66, 
has the lines : 

Sed pumicata t'ronte si quis est nonduni 
Nee umbilicis cultus atque membrana, 
Mercare ; tales habeo. 

As a special protection, a wooden case, manuale, to prevent the 
owner's toga or cloak fraying the edges of the roll, is mentioned by 
Martial, xiv. 84: 

Ne toga barbatos faciat vel paenula libros, 
Haec abies chartis tempera longa dabit. 

The roll was sometimes bound round with thongs as fastenings : the 
' lora rubra ' of Catullus, xxii. 7. 

For preservation against moths, etc., cedar oil was rubbed on the 
papyrus. 1 A good poem was worthy of this protection : ' cedro digna 
locutus ' (Persius, i. 42) ; ' cedro nunc licet ambules perunctus ' (Martial, 
iii. 2. 7). But it imparted a yellow tint : ' quod neque sum cedro flavus' 
(Ovid, Trist.ni. 1. 13). 

The chest or box in which the rolls were kept was the KI^OJTO'S, Ki/3u- 
TIOV, scrinium, capsa ; KI'OTT;, cit>ta ; TeCxoy. It might be either square or 
circular. The scrinium was a larger capaa. 2 To tie bundles of rolls 
together was a destructive process, as the papyrus was injured ; so 
Petronius, Satyr icon, cii, ' Chartae alligatae mutant figuram '. 3 Ex- 
tensive works were arranged in their capsae in decades, triads, or other 
.sets, as we know from the examples of the works of Livy, Dio Cassius, 
Varro, and others. 

For convenience of reference when the roll was placed in a box or on 
a shelf, a label, usually of vellum, o-t'AAt>/3oy or (riTT.n/3o 9, 4 TUTTCIKWV, yXdio-o-a, 
yXuxTvapiov, titulus, index, was attached to the edge of the roll and 
inscribed with the title of the work,'' and, for distinction, might also be 
coloured. Cicero, writing to Atticus, iv. 4, gives both Greek and Latin 
names : ' Etiam velim mihi mittas de tuis librariolis duos aliquos, quibus 

1 ' Ex cedro oleum, quod cedrium dicitur, nascitur, quo reliquae res cum sunt unctae, 
uti etiam libri, a tineis et carie non laeduntur.' Vitruvius, ii. 9. 13. 

2 Horace, Sat. i. 1. 120 ; Martial, i. 3. 4, etc. 

3 And yet there are frequent representations in sculptures of rolls tied in bundles 
and lying or standing on the top of the capsa, as if just taken out of it. Birt, Buchrolle. 

4 Marquardt, Pmatl. der Burner, 7!)4. 

An engraving, from a sculpture, in Brower and Masen, Antiqq. et annul. Trei-irenses, 
1670, i. 105, in Schwarz, De ornamentis librorum (1756), tab. ii,and in Gardthauson, Gr. Pal. 
i. 149, represents rolls placed on shelves, like bottles in a wine-bin, with the titali depending 
in front ; a capsa, with rolls enclosed, appears on the title-page of Marini, Papiri Diplom., 
and in Musco Borbonico, tav. xii. In Seeck, Notitia Diguitatum, 1876, are representations of 
rolls, etc., in charge of various officials. 



v THE ROLL 49 

Tyrannic utatur glutinatoribus, ad cetera administris, iisque inipcres ut 
sninant nieinbranulam ex qua indices Hant, quos vos Graeci, ut opinor. 
(n\\v t 3ovs l appellatis.' Among the papyri from Oxyrhynchus a few 
tituli have been found. One of them, of papyrus (Ox. Pap. 301 ; Brit. 
}I us.. Pap. dccci), measuring 5x1 inches, is inscribed C(x)0PONOC MIMOI 

rvNAiKeioi. 2 

In the perusal of a work the reader held the roll upright and 
unrolled it gradually with the right hand ; with the left hand he rolled 
up in the reverse direction what he had read. 3 To unroll a book was 
((i\('iv, avahfli', ai'e\Co-(Tfiv or ai'f\tTT(Lr, ai>aTV\(a(Tfiv or 
fi-ii/>-ere, revolvere. >.>'j>I <'<</ re: as to roll it up was etAeu- or tl\dv, 
uolvere,* />//<-are. The book read to the end was explicitus usque ad 
sua cornua' (Martial, xi. 107). 5 From the term 'explicitus' came the 
mediaeval ' explicit '. formed, 110 doubt, as a pendant to ' incipit '. 

By the time the reader had read the entire roll, it had become 
reversed, the beginning being now in the centre and the end being 
outside; therefore, before putting it away, it must lie rolled back into 

1 Another reading of the word in this ]iu-^im U annftai ; and it has been suggested 
that oiTTvjia. may be more correct than oirTvfios. 

2 Others are : 0. P. 381 (B. M., Pap. 810), of papyrus, A. D. 76 ; 0. P. 958, of vellum, A. D. 
80 ; 0. P. 957, of leather, A.D. 122-3 ; 0. P. 987, of vellum, fifth or sixth century. 

It may be convenient to quote here the two following passages in full, as referring to so 
many details dealt with in the text : 

Vade, sed incultus, qualem decet exsulis es*e ; 

Infelix, habitum temporis huius ha In/. 
Nee te purpureo velent vaccinia fuco ; 

Non est conveniens luctibus ille color. 
Nee titulus minio, iioc cedro charta npU'tur; 

Candida nee nigra cornua fronte geras. 
Felices ornent haec instrumenta libellos ; 

Fortunae memorem t>- cln'i t esse meae. 
Nee fragili geminae poliantur pumice frontes, 

Hirsutus passis ut videare eomis. 
Neve liturarum pudeat. Qui viderit illas 

De lacrimis factas sentiet esse meis. Ovid, Trist. i. 1. 3-14. 

TtVo yap e\ir/8a Kat auryy f\cav e; ra 0il3\ia ttal avarvXiTTfis (unroll) a*i', at 8taoAAay (glue 
together sheets of papyrus), KOI TrepiKoirrfif (trim the edges), feat dX(<^ciy ru> K^UKW Kat TTJ 
Ki&py, Kal SupSipas (vellum wrappers) 7rfpi/3aXAcu, xai un>pa\oijs (rolling-sticks) ivTi8r)s, ws 
&TJ TI diro\avaojv ainaiv ; Lucian, Adr. ind<jrt. 1(5. 

3 See an engraving, from a sculptured sarcophagus, in Daremberg and S;iglio's Die'. 
des Anti'i'i!!''*. s. v. ' Bibliotheca', in which a man is represented reading from an open roll. 

* As where might mean to turn a thing in either direction, it was also used in the 
sense of unrolling : ' volvendi sunt libri', Cic. Brut. 87. 298. 

5 To finish writing a roll was to come down to the umbilicus ; Horace, Epod. xiv. 8 : 

Deus nam me vetat 
Inceptos, olim promissum carmen, iambos 

Ad umbilicum adducere ; 
and Martial, iv. 89 : 

Ohe, iam .satis est, ohe libelle, 

lam pervenimus usque ad umbilicos. 

6 'Solemus completis opusculis, ad distinctionem rei alturius sequentis, medium inter 
ponere Explicit ant Feticiter aut aliud eiusmodi.' St. Jerome Ad MarctUam. 

1184 E 



50 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

its proper form, a process which the idle man would shirk and the 
methodical reader would accomplish by holding the revolving material 
steady under his chin while his two hands were employed in winding 
up the roll. Hence Martial, i. 66, refers to ' virginis . . . chartae, quae 
trita duro non inhorruit mento ' ; and again, x. 93, he has: 'Sic nova 
nee mento sordida charta iuvat.' 

The inconvenience of writing on the hack of the roll is obvious, and 
this practice was probably never followed in the case of works intended 
for sale. 1 Authors' copies, however, being for their own use, were often 
,./V /<.<//"////, as in Juvenal, Sat. i. 4 : 

Impune diem consumpserit ingcns 
Telephus, aut suinini plena iam margine libri 
Scriptus et in tergo necdum finitus Orestes ? 

The younger Pliny also, Epit>t. in. 5. 17, in reference to his uncle's 
numerous works, uses the words : ' Commentaries clx. mihi reliquit, 
opisthographos quidem et minutissime scriptos.' 

In the same manner worthless scribbling is referred to by Martial, 
viii. 62, as written on the back of the charta : 

Scribit in aversa Picens epigrammata charta, 
Et clolet averse quod facit ilia deo. 

Rough draughts or temporary pieces, or children's or scholars' exercises, 
might also be so written. Martial, iv. 86, threatens \nslibellus with the 
fate of waste paper to be utilized for such purposes, if his verses fail to 
please : 

Si damnaverit, ad salariorum 

Curras scrinia protinus licebit, 

Inversa pueris arande charta. 

A most important instance of a scholar's exercise, written on the 
back of a papyrus, is found in the early copy of the Epitaph ios of 
Hyperides in the British Museum; and still more noteworthy is 
Aristotle's Constitution of Atlen* inscribed, for private use, on the 
reverse of rolls containing farm accounts. 

After the establishment of the codex in general use, the roll form 
was almost entirely abandoned for literary purposes in the middle ages. 
It survived, however, for some of the Greek liturgies, 2 for mortuary 
rolls, for poems occasionally, for pedigrees, for certain brief chronicles in 
which historical genealogies form a principal feature, and in a few other 
instances, as in the ' Exultet ' rolls of Italy, in which it was found 
convenient. But in all these the writing was parallel with the height, 

1 A Greek magical text (Pap. cxxi) in the British Museum is written on both recto and 
verso of the roll ; but such a work would not be for the market. 

2 KOVTOKM, so called from the Kovroi, or sticks, on which they were rolled. 



v THE CODEX 51 

not with the length, of the roll. For records, however, the roll form 
has lieen continued throughout the middle ages to our own days. 
particularly in England, where not only public documents relating to 
the business of the country, but also proceedings of private manorial 
courts ami bailiffs' accounts, have been almost invariably entered on 
rolls. 

The Codex 

The earliest form of the book, in our modern sense of the word, that 
is. as a collection of leaves of vellum, paper, or other material, bound 
together, existed, as we have SITU, in the case of waxed tablets, when 
two or more were fastened together and made a camlex or codex. 
Hence vellum books, following the same arrangement, were also called 
codices. Similarly, by usage, the title /iln-r. which had been transferred 
from the original bark roll to the papyrus roll, was also passed on to the 
vellum book. So too the Greek terms Ji'.iAos, fti/J\ior and other words, 
which had been employed to designate the earlier rolls, were transferred 
in the same way. The vellum codex came into general use when it was 
fi mnd how conveniently it could contain a large work in a much smaller 
space than could the papyrus roll. In the words of Isidore, ////,'/ 
vi. 13. 1 ' Codex multorum librorum est, liber unius voluminis '. The 
fact, also, that vellum was a tough material capable of being inscribed 
on both sides; that ink, particularly if recently applied, could be easily 
removed from it, and that the surface could be readily made available 
for a second writing, no doubt contributed lai'gely to the adoption of the 
codex. Further, its advantage over the roll for convenience of reference 
is obvious, and this must have recommended it to the jurists and others, 
the dispatch of whose business depended so much on ready methods of 
c< insulting authorities and precedents. If Ulpian, at the beginning of the 
third century, includes the vellum codex as claiming a place among 
legally recognized llbrl, we may conclude that, by that time, it was 
well known, and. we may infer, was also employed by law writers and 
compilers. The title which it received of mo/xa-rtoi', a corpus, expressive 
of the possible bulk of the contents of such a book, is suggestive of large 
compilations ; and conversely its original name cwlex was adopted at 
a later time for the great digests of Theodosius and Justinian. 

As we have already seen, vellum MSS. existed in the classical period 
at Rome. Their rarity may be partly accounted for, if the view is 
correct that such codices were of a cheap quality, and that the vellum as 
used in Rome at that period was of inferior manufacture, only adapted 
for rough and ready use, and not a material which would be employed 
in the production of fine books. 1 Perhaps a retarding cause of greater 

1 See above, p. 30. 
E2 



52 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

effect was the fact that the papyrus roll was still the recognized vehicle 
for literature, and that the conservative jealousy of the book-trade, as 
well as the habits of writers, would be slow to welcome a new material 
to rival that which had held the field for so many generations. However, 
the vellum codex had made its appearance, and it was now to be seen which 
form, the roll or the codex, was eventually to prevail. We know that in 
the end the codex was victorious, but we also know that the struggle was 
not a short one, and that it was not until the fourth century that the 
vellum codex became the fully recognized form of the book of the future. 

Some of the contributory causes of this result may be briefly noticed. 
In the first place the supply of papyrus, although still comparatively 
plentiful in Rome, began to be insufficient to meet the ever increasing 
demand. We have already (p. 22) noticed the record of a temporary 
scarcity in the reign of Tiberius. The growing impulse given to general 
education and the wider diffusion of literature in the provinces required 
an increase of the material for the multiplication of books ; and this 
necessity favoured the employment of vellum, not so much as a rival 
to papyrus as an auxiliary. In Domitian's time the more popular 
works began to appear in codex form, for school use and for travellers, 
on vellum, as a more enduring material. It has also been suggested that 
the division of the Empire in A.D. 395 between Arcadius and Honorius 
may have been one of the final causes of the decrease of the papyrus 
supply in Rome, as Egypt fell to the Eastern Empire. 1 And, while the 
older literary material was thus beginning to prove inadequate to the 
demand, the encouragement consequently given to the employment of 
vellum undoubtedly tended to improve its manufacture. However rough 
and badly prepared skins may have been in the early decades of the 
Empire, at least by the time the codex had superseded the roll the vellum 
employed had become of excellent quality. The material of the great 
early Biblical codices of the fourth and fifth centuries is particularly fine 
and well prepared. It may, therefore, be assumed that the manufacture 
was from the first in a constantly progressive state of improvement as 
the demand for vellum increased. 

Moreover, the Bible, the book which before all others became the great 
work of reference in the hands of the early Christians, could only be con- 
sulted with convenience and dispatch in the new form. From the writings 
of St. Jerome and others it is evident that Bibles in codex form existed 
at a very early date. When once this form of multiplying texts was 
adopted by the Church, its rapid diffusion became a matter of certainty 
through the medium of monastic institutions. The form adopted for the 
Bible would naturally become the model for theological books of all 
kinds. Thus the vellum codex, as already observed, was destined to be the 

1 See But, Buchrolle, passim. 



v THE CODEX 53 

recipient of Christian literature, as the papyrus roll had been that of the 
pagan world. Eecent excavations in Egypt have given confirmation to 
this view of the early adoption of the codex form by the Christians. Among 
the masses of papyrus documents that have been brought to light, there 
have been found certain fragments of both Old and New Testaments, 
the earliest being of the third century, which are in the codex form, 
that is, they are leaves or portions of leaves from books, not fragments 
of rolls. So, too. 'The Sayings of Our Lord' and other relics of 
Christian writings, of the same period, prove to be written in the same 
form. On the other hand, the papyri of non-Christian writings are in 
nearly all instances in the roll form. From this it appears that, while 
the roll still maintained its place for general literature, the requirements 
of the Egyptian Christians caused them to adopt the codex as the most 
convenient shape for their books, even though made up of papyrus, the 
traditional material for the roll. It has already been noticed (p. 29) 
that only a few leaves of vellum codices have hitherto been found in 
Egypt. This is only what might be expected. Egypt was the land of 
papyrus;; if vellum had been more commonly in use there, no doubt 
many of the extant fragments of Christian writings would have been 
committed to that material as more suited to the codex form. But, in 
default of vellum, the less convenient though more available papyrus had 
to be pressed into the service. 

Still, however, for the older literature the papyrus roll continued 
generally to hold its ground in Rome. 1 But it seems that even in this 
department the codex began from the first to make inroads. For, in 
the case at least of the great authors, such as Homer in Greek and Cicero in 
Latin, there is evidence that even in the earliest centuries of our era the 
codex form was not unknown. 2 By St. Jerome's days vellum MSS. of 
the classics appear to have been in ordinary use, for his library of vellum 
codices included works of profane literature. 3 In the end, the codex 
form became so general that even outside Egypt papyrus, when it was 
used for literature, was put together in leaves and quires in the same 
way as vellum. 

Gatherings or Quires 

The earliest extant 3ISS. on vellum are usually of the broad quarto 
size, in which the width equals, or nearly equals, the height. The quires 
consist, in most instances, of eight leaves, that is, of four folded sheets, 
Ttrpas- or Tfrpabiov, quaternio (a term which eventually losing its strict 
meaning came to indicate a quire, without regard to the number of 
leaves composing it), and this number continued in general favour 

' Birt, Buchw. 109. - Ibid. 113. s Ibid. 115. 



54 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

throughout the middle ages. Quires of three sheets or six leaves, of 
five sheets or ten leaves, and of six sheets or twelve leaves, are also 
met with. For example, the famous Codex Vaticanus of the Greek Bible 
is made up of ten-leaved quires ; as is also the Bembine Terence. Each 
quire was ordinarily numbered or .-/./,< /.to use the technical word, either 
at the beginning, in the upper margin, or more generally at the end, in 
the lower inner corner. In the Codex Alexaiidrinus the signatures are 
at the heads of the quires. The numbers were frequently, in Latin 
MSS., accompanied with the letter Q (for quaternio). The practice of 
numbering the leaves of the quires, e.g. A i. A ii, A iii, etc., dates from 
the fourteenth century. The several leaves of early MSS. are also 
occasionally numbered. Catch-words, reclamantes, to connect the quires, 
first appear, but rarely, in the eleventh century ; from the twelfth century 
they become common. 

In putting together the sheets for the quire, care was generally taken 
to lay them in such a way that hair-side faced hair-side, and flesh- (or 
inner) side faced flesh-side. Thus, when the book was opened, the two 
pages before the reader had the same appearance, either the yellow tinge 
of the hair-side or the whiter surface of the flesh-side. In Greek M*S. 
the arrangement of the sheets was afterwards reduced to a system : the 
first or lowest sheet being laid with the flesh-side downwards, so that 
when the sheets were folded that side always formed the first page of 
the quire. In the Codex Alexaiidrinus, however, the first page of a quire 
is the hair-side of the skin. In Latin MSS. also the hair-side appears to 
have generally begun the quire. 2 

To the folded sheet was given the title diploma ; a barbarous mediaeval 
name for it was arcu*. The leaf was ^apriov, 4>vX*.w, folium. 



Ruling 

In the earlier centuries of the middle ages, the ruled lines of vellum 
MSS. were drawn with a hard-pointed instrument, a blunt bodkin or 
stilus, on one side of the leaf, the lines being impressed with sufficient 
force to cause them to stand out in relief 011 the other side. The ruling 

1 C. R. Gregory, Les Cahitrs rics MSS. Grecs in t!i> ' the Acail. tlrs 
Inscriptions, 1885, p. 261. 

2 There are interesting instance, of the distribution of tin- quires of a MS. for the 
purpose of being copied. The Paris uncial MS. of Livy ,Bibl. Nat. 5730) was. between 
A.D. 804 and 834, given out among seven monks of Tours who produced a copy .'now 
Vatican MS. Reg. 762), each scribe attaching his name to the portion which he wrote 
(Rei: de Philologie, xiv. 1890 ; SU:b. for Jfltocto Her Al.vd. iii. 425 . In thr >aim way a MS. of 
Rabanus Maurus, Pembroke College, Cambridge, No. 308, A.D. 845-881'. bus tin- scribes- 
names. The Laurentian MS. 7i. 10 (Galen, etc., fourteenth century, is an instance of u 
Greek MS. written by sixteen scribes (Gardthausen. Or. l\/l. i. ITT . 



THE TEXT 

almost invarml.lv on the hair- (or outer , side of the skin. Marginal 
lines were drawn to" bound the text laterally. The distances of 
horizontal lines from one another were marked off with pricks ,,t 
,.<>,; > in vertical order down the page. In earlier MSS. these prickings 
are often found near the middle of the leaf, or at least within the space 
occupied by the text, and the lines are drawn right across the sheet and 
not confined within the vertical boundaries. It was afterward. 
custom to prick off the spaces close to the margin and to keep the 
lines within limits : and eventually the prickings often disappeared when 
the edges were shorn by the binder. Each sheet should be ruled sepa- 
rately : but two or more sheets were not infrequently laid and rule- 
together, the lines being so deeply drawn on the upper sheet 
lower sheets also received the impressions. In the case of purple-* 
MSS.. in order to ensure more perfect uniformity in the height of 
letters, double lines were used ; and also occasionally for other ordinary 
uncial codices. In rare instances lines are found ruled on both sides 
the leaf, as in some parts of the Codex Alexandrinus. In this 
also, and in some other early codices, ruling was not drawn for every 
line of writing, but was occasionally spaced so that some lines of the 
text lay in the spaces while others stood on the ruled lines. Ruling with 
the lead point or plummet first appeared in the eleventh, and came into 
ordinary use in the twelfth, century. Coloured inks were also used for 
ornamental ruling in the fifteenth century. 

Arrangement of the Text 

The text, which in early MSS. was written continuously without 
separation of words, might be written across the face of the page: and 
in some cas,,s. as in poetical works, no other arrangement could well 
followed. But, continuing the system observed in the papyrus rolls, the 
arrangement in columns was usual. The superior convenience of the 
column over the long line is obvious, particularly when a small character 
was the type of writing. The number of columns in a page was 
ordinarily two ; but three and even four were also allowed. The Codex 
Sinaiticus of the Greek Bible has four columns in a page, so that the 
open book presents a series of eight columns to the reader, which, it has 
been observed, would forcibly recall the long row of ptgimte of the 
papyrus roll. 1 The Codex Vatic-anus has three columns in a page in the 
portion containing the Old Testament ; and other early MSS. or fragments 
of MSS. exhibit the same arrangement, e. g. the Vatican fragments of 
Sallust. the Latin Pentateuch of Lyons, and others in the libraries 



The phrase of Eusebius, Vita Co,'*', iv. 37. i" iroAt,As ^K^irot, X 
a, probably refers to the number of columns. Seo Wattenbacb, Si 



56 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

of Rome, Milan, etc. 1 But the tri-columnar system appears to have been 
generally abandoned after the sixth century. The Utrecht Psalter, 
written at the beginning of the ninth century, in triple columns, is not 
an instance which counts for later usage, the MS. being only an exact 
copy of an older codex. 2 Usually the later examples are the result of 
necessity, as in the case of Psalters in parallel versions or languages." 
A late instance, however, of a text arranged in this fashion, without any 
compelling causes, occurs in the version of the Latin Bible by Theodulf, 
Bishop of Orleans, written in the ninth century, Add. MS. 24142, in the 
British Museum, and in its companion codices at Paris and Puy. 4 

The line of writing was ort^os, versiis ; ypa/x/z?;, liuea, riga ; the 
individual letters, ypa^ara, grammata, elementa, characteres, figurae. 

The first lines of the main divisions of the text, as for example the 
several books of the Bible, were often written in red for distinction. 

At first, in uncial Latin MSS., there was no enlargement of letters in 
any part of the text to mark the beginnings of sections or chapters ; yet, 
in some of the earliest examples, the first letter of the page, without 
regard to its position in relation to the text, is made larger than the rest. 

Rubrics and titles and colophons (that is, titles, etc., entered at the 
ends of books) were at first written in the same style as the text ; 
afterwards it was found convenient, for distinction, to employ different 
characters. Thus in later uncial Latin MSS. titles might be in capitals 
or rustic capitals ; in minuscule MSS. they might be written in capitals 
or uncials. The convenience of having the title at the beginning of 
a MS., instead of only in colophon-form at the end, was soon recognized ; 
but the use of the colophon still continued, the designation of a work 
being frequently recorded in both title and colophon down to the latest 
period. 

Running titles or head-lines appear in even some of the earliest MSS., 
in the same characters as the text, but of smaller size. 

As already noticed, the text of early MSS. was, with rare excep- 
tions, written continuously without separation of the words. 5 In the 

1 It may also be noted that the most ancient dated MS. in existence, the Syriac MS. of 
A. D. 411, containing the Recognitions of Clement of Rome (Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 12150), is 
written in triple columns. 

- The later copies of this Psalter also maintain the same arrangement. 

3 A Psalter in four pai-allel columns (the Greek and the three Latin versions), 
A. D. 1105, is in the Bibl. Nationals, MS. Lat. 2195. See Pal. Soc. i. 156. 

4 Kenyon, Facs. Bibl. MSS. in Brit. Mus., pi. xv ; Del isle, Les Bibles de Tlievlulfe, Bib!, 
ticole des Cliar/es, xi. The Royal MS. 1. D. ii in the British Museum, containing a portion 
of the Greek Septuagint, has four of its quires written in triple columns, which it is 
suggested may have been copied from an uncial archetype thus arranged : Facs. Bibl. MSS. 
in Brit. Mtts., pi. viii. 

6 The astronomical treatise known as the EuSofov T^x<"lt f *' le second century B.C., at 
Paris, and the grammatical work bearing the name of Tryphon (Brit. Mus., Pap. cxxvi), 
of about 300 B.C., have at least partial separation of words. 



v THE TEXT 57 

case of documents of ordinary life, written cursively, the distinction of 
words was, from the earliest times, more frequently, though still only 
partially, observed. But in literary works non-separation was the rule. 
Yet very occasionally a dot high in the line of writing or a low-placed 
comma was used as a mark of separation where ambiguity might arise, 
even in the early papyri and MSS. During the period of the vellum 
uncial codices, down to the sixth century, continuity of text prevailed; 
in the seventh century there is some tendency to reparation, but without 
system. In early Latin minuscule MSS. partial separation was practised 
iii an uncertain and hesitating manner down to the time of the Carolm- 
o-ian reform. In early Irish and English MSS. separation is more con- 
sistently followed. In Latin MSS. of the ninth and tenth centuries the 
longer words tended to separation. But even when the scribes had 
begun to break up their lines into words it still continued to be the 
fashion to attach short words, e.g. prepositions, to those which imme- 
diately followed them. It was hardly before the eleventh century that 
a perfect system of separately-written words was established in Latin 
MSS. In Greek MSS. it may be said that the system was at no time 
perfectly followed, for. even when the words were distinguished, there 
was always a tendency to separate them inaccurately. 

In order to save space, and to get as much as possible into a line, or 
to avoid division of a word, the letters were often written smaller towards 
the end of the line ; and in Latin MSS.. with the same object, two or 
more letters were linked or combined in a monogrammatic form. 

When, for want of room, a word had to be divided at the end of 
a line and the terminating portion carried over to the beginning of the 
following line, such division was .subject to certain rules. In Greek the 
division was usually made after a vowel, as en^oi ; even monosyllables 
might be so treated, as oi> . But in words containing double consonants 
the division would follow the first of them, as ypdn pa ; and when the 
first of two or more consonants coming together was a liquid or nasal 
the division was made in the same way, as fyo'l 1 ""' "4>0aA/xo's. In the 
case of words compounded with a preposition, the division usually 
followed the preposition, as upo^-nov ; but not infrequently, even in 
such instances, the normal practice of dividing after a vowel prevailed, 
as -polcrei-or. In papyri these rules are seldom infringed. 1 

In Latin MSS., while the observance of the true syllabic division was 
maintained according to ancient usage, and, when tw T o consonants came 
together, they were properly assigned to their several syllables, as 
.dic-tv.*, 2>rop-ter, _p;vWus, hos-pes, hots-tit*, yet in some early instances 
the scribes followed the Greek system and divided after a vowel, as 
di-<ti<*. ho-sil^ etc.; and in some MSS. we find the older style altered 

1 Kenyon, Palaeogr. Gk. Papyri, 31. 



58 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

to suit the later, as in the Fukla MS. of the Gospels, corrected in the 
sixth century by Victor of Capua, 1 and the Harley Gospels of about the 
year 600. 2 

The coupling stroke or hyphen, to indicate connexion of the two 
parts of the divided word, appears to have been unknown in the early 
centuries. A point performs this duty in early instances. In the eleventh 
century the hyphen at the end of the line shows itself on a few occasions ; 
in the twelfth century it becomes more systematic, and sometimes is 
also repeated at the beginning of the next line. 



Paragraphs 

The inconvenience which we experience in reading a continuously 
written text could not have been so greatly felt by the scholars of the 
old Greek world ; otherwise separation of words and a perfect system 
of punctuation would have been established long before was actually 
the case. Still the distinction of paragraphs was found a necessity at 
an ancient period a natural system of subdividing the subject-matter 
of a work as an assistance to the reader. Further, these paragraphs 
were separated from one another by the short dividing stroke, the 
Trapdypa<l>os, which was inserted between them at the beginnings of lines; 
but, it should be remembered, the stroke belonged to the concluding 
paragraph, and marked its termination, and did not form an initial sign 
for the new paragraph which followed. The paragraph mark was not, 
however, uniformly the horizontal stroke ; the wedge > (onr\i)), the 
mark which is also often found at the end of a work, 7 (KO/JCOM'S), and 
similar forms were employed. This system of distinguishing paragraphs 
appears in use in the early papyri ; and analogously the dividing stroke 
marks off the speeches of the different characters in the surviving papyrus 
fragments of the tragedians, as, for example, in the very ancient remains 
of the Antiope of Euripides ; and it is used to indicate the end of 
strophe, antistrophe, and epode in the papyrus of Bacchylides, of the 
first century B.C., in the British Museum. 

But to write every paragraph distinct by itself would have entailed 
a certain loss of space. 3 If the last line were short, there would remain 
a long space after it unoccupied by writing. In early specimens 

1 Zangemeister and Wattenbach, Ex. Codd. Lat., xxxiv. See below, Facs. 91. 

2 Brit. Mus. Cat. Anc. MSS.. pt. ii. 14. 

3 It is rnnarkable that in the oldest Greek classical papyrus, the Persae of Timotheus, 
of the fourth century B.C., the text is written in distinct paragraphs, each commencing 
a new line. This fact, in addition to the employment of broad columns noticed above 
(p. 46\ lends support to the suggestion that the conventional rules which afterwards 
obtained in the setting of texts in papyri had not been definitely established at the time 
when the Persae was written. 



V 



THE TEXT 59 

tlim-fore we find this space occupied by the first words of the next 
paragraph, a slight break being left to mark its commencement, thus: 

eCOMEOA OYTAPAH 
noYOAYMTTIAAIMeN 

The next step was to draw Lack the first letter of the first full 
line of the new paragraph, and leave it slightly projecting into the 
margin ; and lastly to enlarge it. The letter made thus prominent being 
a sufficient indication of the commencement of the new paragraph, the 
stroke or wedge between the lines was no longei necessary and ordinarily 
disappeared. Thus the two lines given above would, in this last stag.- 
of development, be written thus: 

eCOMOA OYTAPAH 
IloYOAYMniAAIMeN 

Of course, it' the paragraph commenced at the beginning of a line, 
the large letter took its natural place as the initial; but. arranged as 
above, any letter, even one in the middle of a word, might be enlarged. 

This last system is found in action in the Codex Alexandrinus, of 
the fifth century, and continued to be practised throughout the middle 
ages. But it should he noted that, although rendered unnecessary by 
the introduction of the large initial, the paragraph mark also appears in 
this MS., but generally in anomalous positions, particularly, as if an 
initial sign, above the first letter of the different books an indication 
that the scribes of the day had already begun to forget the meaning 
and proper use of the mark. 

In Latin literature no such exact system of marking off paragraphs, 
as that just described, was practised in the middle ages, nor, as far as we 
know, in earlier times. But, as in Greek MSS., s,o in some of the more 
ancient Latin MSS., a short space in the line was left to indicate the 
conclusion of a passage or paragraph, but without the accompanying 
dividing stroke or the enlarged letter at the beginning of the first full 
line, which the Greek scribes employed. Yet, at an early period, the 
paragraph mark was used to separate paragraphs or divisions of the text 
(as, for example, in the poem on the Battle of Actium) when the new 
paragraph began a line. Its eventual conversion from a mere sign of 
separation between two paragraphs, or. rather, of the conclusion of the 
preceding paragraph, into a sign distinguishing the head of the new 
paragraph was a natural, though incorrect, development. Our modern 
is directly derived from the simple ancient form 7~. 



60 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

Punctuation. Greek 

We next have to consider punctuation, in the modern sense : that is, by 
points and other similar signs. Dots or points, single, double, or treble, 
are seen in ancient inscriptions, marking off the several words ; but these 
are marks of separation rather than of punctuation, unless, perhaps, we 
are to except those which happen to stand at the conclusions of sentences. 
The earliest instance of their employment in a Greek MS. occurs in the 
very ancient fragment of the fourth century B.C., known as the Artemisia 
papyrus, at Vienna, wherein the double point (:) occasionally closes 
a sentence. Again, in the fragments of the Phaedo of Plato, found at 
Gurob, the same double point appears as a mark of punctuation, in 
conjunction with the paragraph mark noticed above ; and, it is to be 
observed, in the same MS. a short stroke or clash in the line of writing 

O 

is frequently used where there is a change of speaker. The double 
point also, in addition to the Ttapdypa^ios, occasionally marks the close of 
the paragraphs in the Paris Papyrus 49, a letter of about 160 B.C. But 
such isolated instances merely show that there was a knowledge of the 
value of such marks of punctuation, which, however, in practice were 
not systematically employed. 

A more regular system was developed in the schools of Alexandria, 
its invention being ascribed to Aristophanes of Byzantium (260 B.C.). 
This was the use of the full point with certain values in certain positions 
(6e(Tfis) : the high point (orty/xij reAa'a), equivalent to a full stop ; the 
point 011 the line (u-o<Tny^?j), a shorter pause, equivalent to our semicolon ; 
and the point in a middle position (oriy/^?/ ^tV?;), an ordinary pause, 
equivalent to our comma. But this system does not appear in practice 
in extant papyri. The single point placed high is the more usual 
mark of punctuation. It occurs almost regularly in the papyrus of 
Bacchylides. In the Codex Alexandrinus the middle and high points are 
pretty generally used. But the middle point eventually disappeared ; 
and about the ninth century the comma was introduced. It also became 
a common practice to mark the conclusion of a paragraph or chapter 
with a more emphatic sign, such as two or more dots with or without 
a horizontal dash, : :- .'. The mark of interrogation also first 
appears about the eighth or ninth century. 

Punctuation. Latin 

The punctuation of Latin MSS. followed in some respects the systems 
of the Greeks. From the Latin grammarians we know that they 
adopted the Greek system of punctuation by points (foVeu, positurae), to 
which they gave the titles of ' distinctio finalis', ' subdistinctio ', and 



v THE TEXT 61 

'distinctio media': but in practice we find that the scribes used the 
points without consistently < .1. serving their values. 1 

The early codices appear to have l.een originally devoid of punctua- 
tion. In the ancient MSS. of Virgil in the Vatican Library points are 
to be seen, but they are probably due to a second hand. In uncial MS: 
it is not uncommon to find the point, more often in the middle position, 
used as an ordinary stop; and. at the end of a paragraph or chapter, 
I colon, or colon and dash, or a number of points, occasionally indicate 
a final stop. In the seventh century the high point is used with the 
force of a comma, the semicolon with its modern value, and a point and 
vir-ule, -7, or othei> combinations of points, as a lull stop. In the 
Carolingian period and the next centuries we have the inverted semi- 
colon, holding a position between our comma and semicolon, and the 
comma itself. The origin of the inverted semicolon is uncertain, 
appears first with some regularity in MSS. of the -i-hth century : but 
it is noticeable that a mark which resembles it occurs in the Ai-tiuin 
poem, being there formed by the addition of an oblique stroke to an 
ordinary point. Along with these later signs also appears the mark of 
interrogation in common use. 

O 

Breathings and Accents and other Signs. Greek 

ttn-athiiiffs and accents, like the Greek system of punctuation by 
points noticed above, are also attributed to Aristophanes of Byzantium, 
as part of the fie'ica vpo<r, f biai, of which he is called the inventor. 

The rouo-h (K) and the smooth (H) breathings (TTifv^ara) at first 
represented the left and the right half of the letter H, which itself was 
originally the aspirate. They were soon worn down to L and j, in 
which shapes they are found in early MSS. : and eventually these square 
forms beeame the rounded' and ', the period at which they definitely 
arrive.! at this last stage being the twelfth century. Only occasionally 
are marks of breathing found in the more ancient MSS.. and then it is 
generally the rough breathing that is distinguished. 

The accents (niroi) are : the grave v (,3a,>vs), or ordinary tone ; the 
acute ' (o5s), marking a rise in the voice ; and the circumflex " (4{v0apfc 
or -c.H-nraWros), combining the other two, and indicating a rise and fall 
or slide of the voice. 

In the papyrus period, accentuation is not found at all in non- 
literary documents, and in literary works its use is only occasional, 
apparently if it was thought necessary as an aid to reading. The 
earliest example of a more systematic use of accents is in the papyrus of 

i In tl.e poem on the Battle of Aetium, found at Herculaneum, points are used to 
mark off the words, as in inscriptions. 



62 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

Bacchylicles, of the first century B.C.; and they also appear with some 
frequency in the Alcman fragment in the Louvre, of about the same 
date. 1 The accents which appear in the earlier papyri of Homer (Harris, 
Bankes, etc.) in the British Museum are not by the first hand : but in 
one of the third century they are original. The earlier MSS. of Hyperides 
are devoid of them. It would appear, then, that the third century is 
the period when accentuation was becoming more general. But on the 
introduction of vellum codices the practice was again suspended, and 
was not systematically resumed before the seventh century. 

Originally, in theory, all syllables which were not marked with the 
acute accent or circumflex received the grave accent, as Qeobtapbs ; and 
several examples of this practice occur in the papyrus of Bacchylicles, 
and in the Harris Homer. In the same MSS., and occasionally in the 
Bankes Homer, we also see instances of the practice of indicating 
normally oxytone words (in which the acute accent should mark the last 
syllable) by placing a grave accent on the penultimate, as A.cor. In 
later MSS. a double accent marks emphatically fj.lv and 8f. 

The rest of the ten signs attributed to Aristophanes of Byzantium, 
to assist in the correct reading of texts, are as follows : 

The \povoi, or marks to distinguish a long (") and a short (") syllable, 
instances of their employment occurring in the Harris Homer and in 
some other early documents on papyrus. 

The 8tao-roA?j or inroSiao-roA?/, a virgule or comma inserted between 
words where the distinction might be ambiguous, as eo-ri^ovs, not 
TTIV,OVS. 

The hyphen (i$e'f),a curve or line drawn under the letters to indicate 
connexion, as, for example, to indicate compound words. In the Harris 
Homer the hyphen, in the form of a long straight line, is used for this 
purpose. 

The apostrophe (cnroVrpo^os,-), which, besides marking elision, was used 
for other purposes, and whose form varied from a curve to a straight 
accent or even a mere clot. It was very generally placed in early MSS. 
after a foreign name, or a name not having a Greek termination, as, for 
example, 'Appaa.^, and after a word ending in a hard consonant, as K, x, 
, x//-, and also in p. When a double consonant occurred in the middle of 
a word, an apostrophe was placed above the first or between the two 
letters. In a papyrus of A.D. 542 (Pal. Sue. ii. 123) a dot represents the 
apostrophe in this position ; and in a MS. of the eighth or ninth century 
(Pal. Soc. ii. 126) a double apostrophe is employed. The apostrophe is 
also used to distinguish two concurrent vowels, as if/cma'aurw. In some 

1 The occurrence of frequent accentuation in these two MSS. ' suggests the possibility 
that lyric poets were considered to require more aids to the reader than other authors '. 
Kenyon, Bacchylides. xx. 



v THE TKXT 63 

instaiicrs it is even placed between two different consonants, as e.g. 
apiffpos, in the Vienna MS. of Dioscorid.-s. 

In addition to the marks and signs already noticed, there are some 
others which occur in Greek MSS. 

Marks of diaeresis, placed over i and r when at the beginning of 
a word or when they do not form a diphthong with a tor-going vowel, 
occur in papyri, being either a single or double dot or short stroke, 
or, sometimes, a short accent ; in later MSS. usually a double dot. 

' Quotations are indicated by marks in the margin, the most common 
bring the arrow-head, > or < ; the cross, horizontal stroke, or waved 
stroke being also used. More rarely, quoted passages are indented or set 
out. that is, written within or without the marginal line. of the text. 

To distinguish words consisting of a single letter, a short acute accent 
or similar mark is found in use, as, in the Codex Alexandrinus, to mark r, 
in its various meanings as a word. Apparently from ignorance or con- 
fusion the scribes of this MS. even placed a mark on ij when merely 
a letter in a word. The article 6 is found similarly distinguished in 
a papyrus of A.D. 595 (Pal. Soc. ii. 124). 

To till small spaces left vacant at the end of a line, an arrow-head or 
tick was employed : as, for example, in the papyrus of Hyperides (Lyco- 
filn-'ui) and in the Codex Sinaiticus. 

Arbitrary signs, or signs composed of dots or strokes, are used as 
reference marks to marginal scholia, or to indicate insertion of omitted 
words or passages. In the papyrus of Hyperides (/</'/""/') the place 
for insertion of an omitted line is marked, and has the word aro>, while 
the line itself, written in the margin above, has K drco. In the papyrus of 
Aristotle on the Constitution of Athens a letter or word inserted between 
the lines has sometimes a dot on each side. 

In the same manner various signs are employed to indicate transposi- 
tion, such as numerical letters, or (as in the papyrus of Aristotle) slanting 
strokes and dots (/) placed above the words. 

To distinguish words or other combinations of letters from the rest 
of the text, a line was drawn above them ; thus the grammatical forms 
in the papyrus attributed to Tryphon, in the British Museum, and the 
reference letters in the Oxford Euclid of A. D. 888 are so marked. Proper 
names also are sometimes thus distinguished (see Facs. 57, 74). 

Besides actually striking out a letter or word or passage with a pen- 
stroke, the ancient scribes indicated erasure by including the word or 
passage between inverted commas or brackets or dots, one at the beginning 
and one at the end : sometimes by accents above, as e.g. rtav (to erase the 
;). ra and -kavra (to cover the whole word), as seen in the Codex Alex- 
andrinus ; sometimes by a line above, as ioTi ; sometimes by a dot above, 
rarely below, each letter. 



64 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

Accents and other Signs. Latin 

Accents were seldom used by Latin scribes. In early MSS. written 
in Ireland and England, in particular, an acute accent marks a mono- 
syllabic word, as the exclamation <J, or a preposition, as a ; and it is 
sometimes employed to emphasize a syllable. Apparently from the 
ninth to the eleventh century the practice obtained among correctors, 
perhaps from mere affectation of learning, of expressing the aspirate 
by the Greek half-eta symbol (>) instead of writing the letter h in the 
ordinary way, as hnnibal. 1 Very rarely the deletion of h is indicated 
by the smooth breathing (*). 

As in Greek MSS., quotations are indicated by marks in the margin 
or by indentation ; and arbitrary signs are used to fix the place of 
insertion of omissions. Common reference marks are lid, Its = Jttc dfe^t. 
hoc tupra or hie scribas, etc. Transposition of words might be indicated 
in various ways, as by letters or numbers, and very commonly by oblique 
strokes above the line, as mea mater = mater niea. 

Finally, for correction, the simple method of striking out with the 
pen and interlining or adding in the margin was followed, as well as that 
of marking words or letters for deletion with dots above or below them. 

Besides the above, other marks and signs are found in both Greek 
and Latin MSS., such as the private marks of correctors or readers. 
There are also critical symbols, such as the diple and the asterisk 
employed by Aristarchus in the text of Homer, and the obelus and 
asterisk used by St. Jerome to distinguish certain passages in versions of 
the Latin Psalter. But the consideration of these is beyond the scope 
of the present work. 

PALIMPSESTS 

A palimpsest MS. is one from which the first writing has been 
removed by scraping or rubbing or washing in order to make the leaves 
ready to receive fresh writing. Sometimes this process was repeated, 
and the leaves finally received a third text, the MS. being in such a case 
doubly palimpsest. This method of obtaining writing material was prac- 
tised in early times. The term ' palimpsest ' is used by Catullus xxii. 5, 
apparently with reference to papyrus : also by Cicero ; 2 and by Plutarch, 
who narrates 3 that Plato compared Dionysius to a fiifi\iov woAijW/njoro;', 
his tyrannical nature, bvain-nKmos , showing through like the imperfectly 

1 Many instances occur in the Harley MS. 2736, Cicero DC Oratore, of the ninth 
century; others in Harley MS. 2904, f. 210 6, Winchester Psalter, tenth century; 
in the Sherborne Pontifical, Paris, Bibl. Nat. MS. Lat. 943, circ. A. D. 995 ; in Brit. Mus. 
Add. MS. 30861, early eleventh century (Keu l\il. Boe. 111,112, 211) ; and in Royal MSS. 
8 C. iii, 15 B. xix. See also Bodley MS. Lat. Liturg. e. 2. and Cambr. Trin. Coll. MS. B. 10. 4. 

2 Ad Faiii. vii. IS. 3 Cum princip. iiliilosopli., ad fin. 



v PALIMPSESTS 65 

erased writing of a palimpsest MS., that is. a papyrus roll from which 
the first writing had been washed. The word, however, literally indi- 
cating, as it does, the action of scraping or rubbing (^dAir >//aco). could 
originally have only been strictly applied to material strong enough to 
bear such treatment, as vellum or waxed tablets. Papyrus could be 
washed (and then, probably, only when the ink was fresh and had not 
had time to harden), not scraped or rubbed : and the application of the 
term indifferently to a twice-written papyrus or waxed tablet or vellum 
codex proves that the term had become so current as to have passed 
beyond its strict meaning. Specimens of rewritten papyri, even in 
fragments, are rarely met with. 

If the first writing were thoroughly removed from the surface of 
vellum, none of it, of course, could ever be recovered. But. as a matter 
of fact, it seems to have been often very imperfectly effaced ; and even 
if, to all appearance, the vellum was restored to its original condition of 
an unwritten surface, yet slight traces of the text might remain which 
chemical reagents, or even the action of the atmosphere, might again 
intensify and make legible. Thus many capital and uncial texts have 
been recovered from palimpsest MSS. Of modern chemical reagents 
used in the restoration of such texts the most harmless is probably 
hydro-sulphuret of ammonia. 

Great destruction of vellum MSS. of the early centuries of our era 
must have followed the decline of the Roman Empire. Political and social 
changes would interfere with the market, and writing material would 

ft 

become scarce and might be supplied from MSS. which had become useless 
and were considered idle encumbrances of the shelves. In the case of 
Greek codices, so great was their consumption that a synodal decree of 
the year 691 forbade the destruction of MSS. of the Scriptures or of the 
Fathers, imperfect or injured volumes excepted. It has been remarked 
that no entire work has in any instance been found in the original text 
of a palimpsest, but that portions of different MSS. were taken to make 
up a volume for a second text. This fact, however, does not necessarily 
prove that only imperfect volumes were put under requisition ; it is 
quite as probable that scribes supplied their wants indiscriminately from 
any old MSS. that happened to be at hand. 

The most valuable Latin palimpsest texts are found generally in 
volumes rewritten in the seventh to the ninth centuries. In many 
instances the works of classical writers have been obliterated to make 
room for patristic literature or grammatical works. On the other hand, 
there are instances of classical texts having been written over Biblical 
MSS. ; but these are of late date. 

The texts recovered from palimpsest volumes are numerous ; a few of 
the most important may be enumerated : In the great Syriac collection 



66 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 

of MSS. which were obtained from the monastery in the Nitrian Desert 
of Egypt and are now in the British Museum, many important texts have 
been recovered. A volume containing a work of Severus of Antioch, of 
the beginning of the ninth century, is written on palimpsest leaves taken 
from MSS. of the Iliad of Homer and the Gospel of St. Luke of the sixth 
century (Cat. Anc. MSS. i, pis. 9, 10) and of the Elements of Euclid of 
the seventh or eighth century. Another volume of the same collection is 
doubly palimpsest : a Syriac text of St. Chrysostom, of the ninth or tenth 
century, covering a Latin grammatical work of the sixth century, which 
again has displaced the annals of the Latin historian Licinianus of the 
fifth century (Cat. Anc. MSS. ii, pis. 1, 2). At Paris is the Codex 
Ephraemi, containing portions of the Old and New Testaments in Greek, 
of the fifth century, which are rewritten with works of Ephraem Syrus 
in a hand of the twelfth century ; and some fragments of the Phaetbm of 
Euripides are found in the Codex Claromontanus. In the Vatican are 
portions of the De RepuUim of Cicero, of the fourth century, under the 
work of St. Augustine 011 the Psalms of the seventh century ; and an 
Arian fragment of the fifth century. At Verona is the famous palimpsest 
which contains the MS. of Gains of the fifth century, as well as the Fasti 
Consulares of A.D. 486. At Milan are the fragments of Plautus, in rustic 
capitals of the fourth or fifth century, covered by a Biblical text of the 
ninth century. Facsimiles of many of these MSS. are given by Zange- 
meister and Wattenbach in their Exempla Codicum Latinorum. 1 

i See also Wattenbach, Schriftie. 299-317. 



CHAPTER VI 

STICHOMETRY AND COLOMETRY 

IT was the custom of the Greeks and Romans to compute the length 
of their literary works by measured lines. In poetry the unit was of 
course the verse : in prose works an artificial unit had to be found, for 
no two scribes would naturally write lines of the same length. On the 
authority of Galen (De Plac'd. Htp/i. et Pint. viii. 1) we learn that the 
unit of measurement among the Greeks was the average Homeric line 
consisting of about sixteen syllables. Such a standard line was called 
by the earlier writers e-o?, afterwards OTI'XOS (lit. a row). 

Records of measurements are found in two forms : in references to 
the extent of the works of particular authors made by later writers ; and 
in the entries of the figures themselves in MSS. These latter entries 
may actually give the extent of the MSS. in which they are found ; but 
more frequently they transmit the measurements of the archetypes. 
They are, however, of comparatively rare occurrence. 

The quotations found in Greek writers are fairly numerous, and 
were no doubt mainly derived from the catalogues of libraries, where 
details of this nature were collected. Such a catalogue was contained in 
the famous TriVaices of the Alexandrian libraries published by Callimachus 
about the middle of the third century B.C. 

The earliest instances of the entry of the actual number of lines occur 
in papyri. A fragment of Euripides, 1 of a period earlier than the year 
161 B.C., has at the end the words CTlXOI MA. In the Herculanean 
papyri are found such entries as 4>IAOAHMOY fie PI PHTOPIKHC 
XXXXHH (=4,200 lines), or eniKOYPOY H6PI OYCenC l~. API0. 
XXXHH ( = 3,200 lines), which, however, are probably traditional num- 
bers copied from earlier examples. In addition to the number of lines 
we sometimes find a record of the number of columns or o-eAi'Ses. Among 
the mediaeval MSS. which have stichometrical memoranda, a copy of the 
Il'i/u-i'fica of Oppian, of the fifteenth century, at Madrid, contains 
a statement of the number of leaves (<(>v\\a) as well as lines in the 
several books, not of this particular MS., but of its archetype. In like 
manner the Laurentian Sophocles of the eleventh century has similar 
memoranda of the length of the several plays. The Laurentian MS. of 
Herodotus, of the tenth century, and the Paris MS. of Demosthenes, of 
the same period, afford data of the same kind. In certain of the more 

1 Un papyrus initlit de la Bib!, tie 31. A. Firmin-Didot, Paris. 1S79. 



68 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

recent MSS., as well as in the early papyri, the ancient system of Greek 
numeration is employed a proof of the antiquity of this method of 
calculating the length of written works; but, on the other hand, the 
later system of alphabetical numeration is followed in some of the 
Herculanean rolls. 

The practice of stichometry can actually be traced back to nearly 
a century before the time of Callimachus, who has been sometimes 
credited with its invention. Theopompus. as quoted by Photius, 1 boasts 
that he had written 20,000 !-?) in rhetorical speeches, and 150.000 in 
historical books. When we thus find a writer of the fourth century B.C. 
measuring his works in terms which are clearly intelligible and need no 
explanation for those to whom he addresses himself, we can understand 
that even at that early period the system must have been long established 
by common usage. 

The most practical use of such stichometry was no doubt a commercial 
one. By counting the number of lines, the payment of the scribes could 
be exactly calculated and the market price of MSS. arranged. When 
once a standard copy had been written and the number of <m'x<u regis- 
tered, subsequent copies could be made in any form at the pleasure of the 
scribe, who need only enter the ascertained number of standard lines at 
the end of his work. Thus, in practice, papyri and early vellum MSS. 
are commonly written in narrow columns, the lines of which by no means 
correspond in length with the regulation VTI\OI, but which were more 
easily read without tiring the eye. Callimachus. in compiling his cata- 
logue, registered the total ort'xoi of the several works. Although he 
has been generally praised for his care, it has been suggested that this 
methodical action of his is itself answerable for the neglect of scribes to 
record the number of <rn'x<n in the MSS. copied out by them, on the plea 
that it was unnecessary to repeat what could be found in the itivaKfs : 
and hence the paucity of such entries. Another more probable explana- 
tion has been offered, namely, that the booksellers and professional 
scribes combined to suppress them, in order to take advantage of their 
customers. The edict of Diocletian, De pretit* rerum venalium, of 
A.D. 301, settled the tariff for scribes, at the rate of 25 denarii for 
one hundred OTI X O' in writing of the first quality, and of 20 denarii 
for the second quality ; but what the difference was between the two 
qualities does not appear. A survival of the ancient method of calcu- 
lating such remuneration has been found in the practice at Bologna and 
other' Italian universities, in the middle ages, of paying by the jtecia of 
sixteen columns, each of sixty-two lines with thirty-two letters to ^the 
line. An analogous practice in our own day is found in the copyist's 
charge by the folio of either seventy-two or one hundred words. 

i BMMtieca, cod. 176, 120. Sue iilso Isocrates. Panatlien. 136. 



TI STICHOMETRY AND COLOMETRY 69 

The application of stichometry to Latin literature was also in force, 
although actual records in the MSS. are not numerous. The unit of 
measurement was the average Yirgilian line of sixteen syllables. This 
appears from an interesting memorandum, which was written about 
A.D. 359 and is found in a MS. in the Phillipps Library at Cheltenham, 
giving a computation of the versus in the books of the Bible and in the 
works of Ovprian. The text ut' the memorandum is imperfect, but the 
meaning of the writer is clear, namely, that it had become the practice 
both in Rome and elsewhere, with a view to unfair profits (in the book- 
trade), to manipulate the records of the length of the contents of literary 
works : and that therefore he had made calculations of the number of 
venue in the several bonks under his hand, the average Yirgilian hexa- 
meter of sixteen syllables being the unit of measurement, and had noted 
the total in each instance. 1 

In addition to the list in the Cheltenham MS., the oldest extant tables 
of biblical stichometiy are : a list, applying to the Pauline Epistles, in 
the Codex Sinaiticus; one in the Codex Claromontanus, in Paris; one 
in a Freising MS. of the eighth century, in Munich : and the list of 
Nici-phorus of the ninth century. 

Besides the system of stichometiy just explained, to which, on account 
of its dealing with the full measurement of literary works, the title of 
' total stichometiy ' has been applied, there was also another system in 
practice which has been named ' partial stichometiy '. This was the 
numbering of lines or verses at convenient intervals, which, in the first 
place, served the same purpose of literary reference as our modern system 
of numbering the verses of the Bible or the lines of a play or poem. 
Instances of such partial stichometiy indeed are not very numerous 
among existing MSS. ; but they are sufficient to show that the system 
was recognized. Thus, in the Bankes Homer, the verses are numbered 
in the margin by hundreds, and the same practice is followed in other 
papyri of Homer (C/<V<' '/' </,- front Papyri in the Brit. Mut<.); so 
likewise in the Ambrosian Pentateuch of the fifth century, at Milan, the 
Book of Deuteronomy is numbered at every hundredth OTI'XOS. Euthalius, 
a deacon of Alexandria of the fifth century, also announces that he marked 
the <JTI'XOI of the Pauline Epistles by fifties. And in the Codex Urbinas 
of Isocrates, and in the Clarke Plato of A.D. 888, at Oxford, indications 
of partial stichometiy have been traced. 

We have hitherto considered <rn'xot as lines of measurement or space- 
lines. But the same term was also applied to the lines or short periods 

i Mamnuea, 2*r bttlfedtal fi . xxi. 142. The passage, as amended 

by MommM-ii. is as follows : ' Quoniani indiculum vi-r>uum in ui-I.e Eorna non ad liquidum, 
sed et alibi avariciae causa non habent intesrum. i" r singulos libros computatis syllabis 
nuinero xvi, versum Vergilianum omnibus libris adscribsi.' 



70 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

into which certain texts were divided in order to facilitate reading : in 
other words, sense-lines. This system has been more correctly entitled 
Colometry. The works which would naturally more than others call for 
arrangement of this nature would be such as were read in public : speeches 
of orators, or the books of the Bible. The Psalms, Proverbs, and other 
poetical books were anciently thus written, and hence received the 
title of /3i/3Aoi ortx;/5J, or rm x >?pai' ; and it was on the same plan that 
St. Jerome wrote first the books of the Prophets and subsequently all the 
Bible of his version per cold et commata. 1 

Suidas explains a colon as a OTI'XOS forming a complete clause; Joannes 
Siculus lays it down that a clause of less than eight syllables is a comma, 
and that one of from eight to seventeen syllables is a colon. In the 
passage cited, St. Jerome tells us that he has, for convenience in reading, 
followed the system of the MSS. of Demosthenes and Cicero, and arranged 
his translation in this ' new style of writing '. But, as we have seen, he 
had found the same system already followed in the Psalms and poetical 
books of the Old Testament just where one would look for the first 
experiment of casting the text in sense-lines. The o-rt'xos or vert-us had 
therefore, under this new employment, become a sense-line, although the 
ancient stichometrical measurements of the text into space-lines were still 
recorded at the ends of the Biblical books. Euthalius is credited with 
having written at least the Acts and Epistles in this stichometrical 
sense-arrangement ; although it seems more probable that he only 
revised the work of predecessors, also accurately measuring the space- 
lines and numbering them as noticed above. As might be expected, one 
arrangement of the text of the Bible in rhythmical sentences or lines 
of sense would not be consistently followed by all editors and scribes ; 
and hence we find variations in the length of lines and sentences in 
the different extant Biblical MSS. Among Biblical codices which have 
colometrical arrangement of the text are the Codex Bezae, the Codex 
Claromontanus. the Laudian Acts, the Codex Amiatinus, and other 
MSS. of the Vulgate. 2 

We have evidence of an early and regular division of the orations of 
Demosthenes and Cicero into short periods : the cola and commata to 
which St. Jerome refers. Manuscripts of the works of the Latin orator 

1 Preface to Isaiah : 'Nemo cum Prophetas versibus viderit esse descriptos metro eos 
aestimet apud Hebraeos ligari. et aliquid simile habere de Psalmis vel operihus Salomonis; 
sed quod in Demosthene et Tullio solet fieri, ut per cola scribuntur et commata, qui utique 
prosa et non versibus conscripserunt. nos quoque, utilitati legentium providentes, inter- 
pretationem novam novo scribendi genere dietinxlmus.' 

2 On the subject of Stichometry and Colometry see Grnux in Rente cle Philologie, ii. 
97-143 ; Diels in Hermes, xvii ; J. Rendel Harris, Stichometry, in American Joitm. Philol. iv, 
and contribution to Wibley's < ' '/ 8hW, '>"T : W. San. lay in s'ud/a Biblica, 
iii. 217 sqq. 



VI TACHYGRAPHY 71 

are still in existence, the text of which is written in this form, one of 
them bring a MS. of the Tuswlana and the D<> Senedute, attributed to 
the ninth century, at Paris: and it is evident from certain passages in 
the writings of early rhetoricians that they were familiar with this 
system in the orations of Demosthenes. 

TACHYGRAPHY 
Greek 

Although the subject of shorthand writing does not concern the 
study of palaeography very nearly, it calls for a brief notice, inasmuch 
as there is some connexion between its symbols and certain of those 
employed in the abbreviations and contractions of ordinary MSS., and 
as tachygraphic signs themselves are occasionally used by scribes and 
annotators ; and, furthermore, there are in existence a certain number of 
MSS., both Greek and Latin, written in shorthand systems. 

First, as to shorthand systems among the Greeks, we are at once 
involved in difficulties. For the question whether they possessed 
a system of true tachygraphy, that is of a shorthand capable of keeping 
pace with human speech, still remains to be solved. There were, as we 
know from existing records, both as early as the fourth century B.C. and 
in the early centuries of the Christian era, as well as in the middle ages, 
systems whereby words could be expressed in shortened form by signs 
or groups of signs occupying less space than the ordinary long-hand. 
But these systems seem to have been rather in the nature of shortened 
writing, than of the tachygraphic script which we know as shorthand. 
It is true that a passage in Diogenes Laertius was formerly interpreted 
to imply that Xenophon wrote shorthand notes (vircHrq/maxnS/xtt'Ot) of the 
lectures of Socrates ; but a similar expression elsewhere, which will not 
bear this meaning, has caused the idea to be abandoned. The first 
undoubted mention of a Greek writer of what may be shorthand occurs 
in a passage in Galen (nepl rv t'SiW /3t/3\iW ypa</>7j), wherein he refers to 
a copy made by one who could write swiftly in signs, 8to o-jj^eiW eis 
raxos- ypifyfiv ; but whether in this instance a shortened form of writing, 
brachygraphy, or a true tachygraphy is implied, we have no means of 
ascertaining. 

The surviving records of the Greek systems have been divided into 
three groups. At the head of the first group, which embraces all that 
has been found dating down to the third century A.D., stands the 
fragment of an inscription, discovered at Athens in 1884, which is 
ascribed to the fourth century B.C. The inscription describes a system 
whereby certain vowels ami consonants can be expressed by strokes 
placed in various positions. But in this instance, also, it has been 



72 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

maintained that a system of brachygraphy and not one of tachygraphy 
is referred to. 1 A few papyri of the second and third centuries also 
belong to the group ; but the most important member is a waxed book 
of several leaves, in the British Museum (Add. MS. 33270), of the third 
century, inscribed with characters which are inferred to be in Greek 
shorthand, the only words written in ordinary letters being in that 
language. This important MS. appears to be the exercise book of 
a shorthand scholar who has covered its pages with symbols, which in 
places are repeated again and again, as if for practice. Here we may at 
length have a system of true tachygraphy ; but as yet the symbols 
remain undeciphered. 2 

The second group is confined to a few fragmentary papyri and 
tablets, from the fourth to the eighth century, chiefly among the Rainer 
collection in Vienna, to which Professor Wessely has given much 
attention. 3 

The third group stands quite apart from the others, and is repre- 
sentative of the system of the tenth century. First is the Paris MS. of 
Hermogenes, containing some marginal notes in mixed ordinary and 
tachygraphical characters, of which Montfaucon 4 gives an account with 
a table of forms. Next, there is a series of MSS. which owe their 
origin to the monastery of Grotta Ferrata, viz. the Add. MS. 18231 of 
the British Museum, written in the year 972, and others of the same 
period (Pal. *SY>c. ii. 28, 85, 86), which are full of partially tachygraphic 
texts and scholia and also contain passages in shorthand symbols. And 
lastly there is the Vatican MS. 1809, a volume of which forty-seven 
pages are covered with tachygraphic writing of the eleventh century, 
which have been made the subject of special study by Dr. Gitlbauer for 
the Vienna Academy. 3 

Here, again, it appears that the mediaeval system of the third group 
is not one of true tachygraphy, but a syllabic system, having little 
advantage over ordinary writing in respect of speed, but capable of 
ensuring the packing of a lai'ger amount of text into a given space. It is 
therefore not regarded as a developement of any ancient system, but 
rather as a petrified fragment, as it has been called, of an earlier and 
better system. 

1 Gomperz, Ueber cin bisher unbekanntes yriech. Schriftsysttm aus tier llilte rfes tvVc.Vn roc- 
cltris/lichen Jahrlnmderts 'Vienna Academy), 1884, anil Ntne Bi-im //,-//.. 1895. See also 
P. Mitzschke, Eine griech. Kur:s<:hi'iJ'l aus item ricr>e>i Jahrhii/iclerf, in the Archir fiir Stenograph ie, 
no. 434. 

2 See F. W. G. Foat, On old Greek Tacltygraphy (Journ. Hi-Hen. Studies, xxi), giving a full 
bibliography, 1901. 

3 Ein Syslem altgriech. Tachyyrupliic Vienna Ac-nil.), 1896. 

4 Palaeoyr. Graec. 351. 

6 Die drei Systems deryriech. Tacliygraiiliie (Vienna Acacl.), 1896. 



vi TACHYGRAPHY 73 

Other varieties or phases of Greek shorthand, of a later time, have 
been traced. Some shorthand passages which occur in a fourteenth- 
century M.S.. and a passage from a fifteenth-century MS. in the Vatican, 
have recently been published. 1 

Latin 

According to Suetonius,- the first introduction of shorthand signs, 
notae, in Rome was due to Ennius ; but more generally the name of 
Cicero's freedman, Tiro, is associated with the invention, the symbols being 
commonly named notae Tironianae. Seneca is said to have collected 
the various notae known at his time, to the number of five thousand. 
Shorthand appears to have been taught in schools under the Empire ; 
and the Emperor Titus himself is said to have been expert in writing it. 
There seems to have been some connexion between Greek and Latin 
tachygraphy, certain symbols being the same in both. 

The Tironian notes belonged to a system which was actually tachy- 
graphic: each word was represented by an independent character, 
alphabetic in origin, but with an ideographic value. In the mediaeval 
forms in which they have descended to us, they have probably been 
amplified from simpler and more comprehensive shapes of ancient date, 
having received diacritical additions after the practice of the system had 
died out, and when the study of the notes had become a mere antiquarian 
pursuit. 

There are no documents of very ancient date in Tironian notes. But 
the tradition of their employment survived in the Merovingian and 
Carolingian chanceries of the Prankish Empire, where a limited use of 
them was made in the royal diplomas, indicating briefly, e.g. the 
composition of the deed, the name of the person moving for it, that of 
the revising official, etc., perhaps as safeguards against forgery. \ nder 
the Carolingian line they were more largely employed, and official MSS. 
were written in these characters as, e.g.. the formulary of Louis the 
Pious. They are found worked into the subscriptions and other formal 
parts of royal deeds down to the end of the ninth century; and so 
customary had their employment become in those positions, that the 
scribes continued to imitate them after they had forgotten their meaning. 

In literature the Tironian notes were adopted in the ninth and tenth 
centuries by the revisers and annutators of texts. For example, the 
scholia and glosses in a MS. of Virgil, at Berne, of the latter half of 
the ninth century (Pal. .SV. ii. 1:2) are partially written in these signs. 

1 T. W. Allen, Fourtfenth Cen'tm/ Tachygraphij, in the Journal of Hellenic Studies, xi. 286 ; 
Desrou>*eaux, Snr ijtitl^its Manuscriis il'Halit, in the M-' lunges of the Eoole Francaise de 
Rome. 1SSC. p. 544. 

- Viilijan s notas Ennius primus mille et centum invenit.' 



74 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 

Of the same period also are several 31 SS. of the Psalter written in these 
characters, which it has been suggested were composed for practice ; and 
the survival of Tironian lexicons, or collections of the signs, copied at 
this time, seems to point to an effort to keep them in the recollection of 
men. A syllabic system, composed of Tironian notes and other inde- 
pendent signs, has been found in use in documents of North Italy of the 
tenth century ; and has been recognized as the system employed by 
Gerbert d'Aurillac, Abbot of Bobbio in 982 and afterwards Pope 
Silvester II. Traces of similar systems in France and Spain have also 
been discovered. But artificial revivals of systems which have lost their 
real vitality can only prove spasmodic and abortive. Even the pretentious 
vanity of the scribes could not protract the use of the notes, and they 
disappeared entirely in the eleventh century. 1 



CRYPTOGRAPHY 

The various methods which at different periods have been adopted 
for the purpose of concealing the meaning of what is written, either by 
an elaborate system of secret signs or ' ciphers '. or by a simpler and 
less artificial system, such as the substitution of other letters for the 
true letters required by the sense, only incidentally come within the 
scope of a work on Palaeography. The cipher-system, like shorthand, 
has a special department of its own. It is only the modified practice of 
substituting letters and other common signs which need for a moment 
detain us, as it is followed occasionally in mediaeval MSS. This simple 
system, as might be naturally inferred, appears to be of some antiquity. 
Julius Caesar and Augustus, according to Suetonius, both had their own 
private methods of disguise, by changing letters. In the middle ages 
consonants for vowels, or vowels for consonants, or other exchanges 
occur ; sometimes we have the substitution of Greek letters or of 
numerals or other signs. But the surviving instances are not very 
numerous and generally appear in colophons for the purpose of dis- 
guising a name or year of date, at the caprice of the writer. 

1 E. Chatelain, Introduction a la lecture des Notes Tironiennes (with IS plates , 1900, gives 
a full bibliography of the subject. 



CHAPTER VII 
ABBREVIATIONS AND CONTRACTIONS 



Greek 



ABBREVIATIONS and contractions play an important part in Palaeo- 
graphy. Abbreviation is the shortening of a word by the omission or 
8U8pen*<m,a8 it is called, of the end (or of letters from the body, as well 
as the end) ; contraction is the shortening of a word by omitting letters 
from the body and leaving the beginning and end. The system of con- 
traction is superior to that of suspension, in that it affords a key to the 

inflections. 

Two reasons in particular dispose men to curtail written words 
the desire to avoid the labour of writing over and over again words 
of frequent recurrence, which can as easily be understood in an abbre- 
viated as in an extended form : and the necessity of saving space. 

From the earliest times there must have been a constant striving 
among individuals to relieve the toil of writing by shortening words. 
The author would soon construct a system of abbreviation of his own ; 
and, especially if he were writing on a subject into which technical 
words would largely enter, his system would be adopted by other writers 
in the same field. In law deeds, in public and private accounts, in the 
various memoranda of the transactions of daily life, common and oft- 
repeated words must have been always subject to curtailment at first 
at the caprice of individuals, but gradually on recognized systems 

intelligible to all. 

The simplest form of abbreviation is that in which a single letter (or 
at most, two or three letters) represents a word. Thus, there is the 
ancient Greek system of indicating numerals by the first letter, as O = 
nivre, A = 5 6 'Ka, H (aspirate) = liToV, and so on. On ancient coins, where 
available space was limited, we find the names of Greek cities indicated 
by the first two or three letters. Certain ordinary words also occur in 
inscriptions in shortened forms. The Roman usage of employing single 
letters to represent titles of rank is familiar to us from inscriptions, and 
has been handed down in the works of classical authors : the S.P.Q.R. of 
the great Republic will occur to the recollection of every one. Such 
abbreviations by constant usage became a part of the written language. 

The fullest developement to which a system of abbreviation and 
contraction can attain is. of course, a perfected shorthand ; but this is 



76 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

far too artificial for the ordinary business of life. Something between 
simple single-letter signs and complex tachygraphical symbols is required ; 
and hence we find in the middle ages a good working system developed 
by Greek and Latin writers, which combined the advantages of both 
kinds of abbreviation. The letter system was extended, and certain 
tachygraphical symbols were taken over as representatives of entire 
words in common use or as convenient signs for prefixes and termina- 
tions. 

In tracing, then, the history of Greek and Latin abbreviations and 
contractions, as far as it can be ascertained from existing documents, we 
must be prepared to find in the systems of each certain elements which 
are of great antiquity. When we see in the case of mediaeval minuscule 
Greek MSS. considerable differences in the system there in use from 
that which appears in uncial MSS., we might be led to infer that it was 
a new invention ; but a closer examination shows that in its elements 
it is the same as that which was practised hundreds of years before, 
even in the third century B.C. We may even carry our view still 
farther back. For, if in some of the earliest documents which have 
survived abbreviated forms are in existence, not made at i-andom but 
following certain laws in their formation, we have sufficient ground for 
assuming that the practice of abbreviation was, even at that remote 
time, one of some antiquity, and that a long period must have passed 
for the dev elopement of a system intelligible to all readers. A still 
further, and even stronger, proof of the very ancient origin of this 
practice is afforded by the many symbols for particular words which are 
found in early papyri. 

There does not exist, however, sufficient material for the construction 
of a fully continuous history of Greek abbreviation and contraction 
between the two periods noted above, viz. the third century B.C. and the 
ninth century of our era, when the minuscule of the vellum MSS. came 
into use as the literary hand. It will be therefore convenient, first of all, 
to state at once that the ancient Greek system was that of suspension, 
not that of contraction. But, as in the later of our two periods we find 
contraction also in practice, it is necessary to ascertain whence the system 
of contraction was obtained ; and for this purpose we turn especially to 
the uncial MSS. of the vellum period. 1 

The contraction system was a Christian system, an innovation brought 
in through the Hellenistic Jews who translated from the Hebrew, particu- 
larly the authors of the Septuagint translation of the Old Testament. 
In Hebrew MSS. it was the practice to treat the name of Jehovah with 

1 The late Professor L. Traulie has made so thorough an examination of the early 
history of contraction in his work Xomina Sacra, Munich, 1907, that I offer no apology for 
following him in my sketch of the subject. 



VII 



ABBREVIATK >NS AND C( >XTRA< T1ONS 

special reverence. It was, for example, often written in golden letters : 
a usao-e which we find followed in the Greek uncial MSS. on purple 
vellum The Tetragram or Tetragrammaton, a term denoting the 
mystic name of God, was written in the Hebrew Bibles as mrn, that is 
YHVH, Yahveh with the vowels omitted. It was, and still is, considered 
irreverent to pronounce the Name; hence, in vocalized texts, this 
Tetracn-am was usually furnished with the vowels E, 0, A, borrowed, with 
the necessary phonetic modification, from <nx, Adonai, Lord ; and accord- 
ingly it was, and is. usually pronounced Adonai, The Hellenist Jews, 
when translating into Greek, appear, from reverence, to have sometimes 
copied down the actual Hebrew letters of the Tetragram : or else they 
imitated the vowel-less Name by writing the two consonants, and 
omitting the vowels, of the Greek 0COC, thus 0C : a contracted form. 
And a-ain, on the same lines they wrote KC for KYPIOC. Thus 0C was 
an equivalent of the Hebrew Yahveh; and KC of Adonai. 
receiving a horizontal stroke above it, they appear in the Greek 1 
in the forms 0C, KC This employment of the horizontal stroke is to 1 
traced to the ancient practice by Greek scribes of distinguishing in this 
wav from the rest of the text, words or other combinations 
which were to be regarded as foreign or emphatic matter. 1 Thus the 
Hebrew Tetrad-am, when copied by the Greek scribes, was provided 
with the stroke, mf, and, when imitated in Greek letters, appeared as 
fTTTTT And so other Hebrew names transliterated in Greek were marked 
in the same way, as ZTA, 1CPAA. From being applied to the contracted 
forms of 0co'; and ripios, the stroke became by usage the recognized 
mark of contraction, covering the whole contracted word, as ANOC, 

Hvdptoiros.- , 

The sacred names, the Nomina Sacra, comprising words ot a sacred 
character, thus treated by the Greek scribes were strictly limited 
fifteen in number: and it is to be borne in mind that the primary 
motive of presenting these words in a contracted form was a sense of 
reverence, as already explained, and not a desire of saving tune or 
space -the usual reason for abbreviation and contraction. 
are : 

6ft)S, KVplOS, 'l7J(roCs, X/HOTOS, I'lOS, 

vua, Aauei'5, oraupo's, 
jp, 'l<rpai]\, crturi'ip, 



and their cases. 

' Parallel uses of the horizontal stroke also occur in Latin MSS. 

By natural confusion it was sometimes applied even to uncontracted foime, a 
0TUT, GTtfN (Brit, Mus. Cat. Cft. Pap. ii. 301). Mystic woto, includ.ng the , 
names, in Egyptian Greek magical papyri are also thus mark. .1. 



78 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

The contracted forms show several variants; but the most normal are : 
GUI, K~C, i~C X~C , Y~C : the first and last letters expressed. 
nNiA,"AA~A, CTC, MHP : the first, second, and last letter. 
TTHP, IHA. CrTP~: the first, and last two letters. 
ANOC, IAHM, OYNOC : the first and last syllables. 

These Xominu Sacra, then, are found in the earliest vellum codices; 
and, as might be expected, also in theological papyri from the third 
century. But the principle of contraction thus introduced extended 
but little outside Christian literat ure in Greek palaeography. It led to 
but little contraction on the same lines in MSS. of general literature, 
except in the case of certain derivatives. There the suspension system 
prevailed. 1 

We see, then, that in Greek palaeography the contraction system may 
be regarded as an interpolation only, which did not affect the historical 
continuity of the system of suspension. We may now, therefore, turn 
to the papyri recovered from the tombs and sands of Egypt, and note 
the system of suspension, or omission of the end of a word, therein 
followed. In well- written literary papyri abbreviations are rare: in 
cursively written papyri of all classes they are not uncommon. Either 
the word was indicated by its initial letter alone with an abbreviating 
dash, as v = vioi ; or the letter which immediately preceded the omitted 
portion was either marked with a stroke, as rA. = 7e'Xos, or was written 
above the line, as a key to the reading, thus : re' x ; or two letters were 
so written, as r" = re'icm, o/i ot = 6jKoiW. It is true that early examples 
of such abbreviation are comparatively rare, but there are quite enough 
to prove that the system was recognized. 2 Certain of these over-written 
letters, even at this early period, betray a tendency to degenerate into 
clashes, 1 and this natural degeneration becomes more intensified in 
course of time. Thus, in the second and third centuries after Christ, 
this dash system is found to be developed to a considerable degree. 
The long oblique stroke, too, the common mark of suspension in the 
middle ages, is to be seen to some extent in the papyri. 

The scribes of the papyrus of Aristotle's work on the Constitution of 
Athens, of about A.D. 90 (a papyrus written in more or less cursive 
hands), employed a regular system of abbreviation by suspension for 



1 In the uncial codices and in Christian tlH-oloniml papyri abbreviation by suspen- 
sion is rare, being chiefly confined to omission of final N, us TO for TON. 

- See Flinders Petrie Papyri, ed. Mahaffy Royal Irish Academy, Cunningham Memoirs^, 
1891 ; particularly no. xxiii. 

3 Wileken, ObsermiwMes ad hist. Aegyptl prov. Rom, 40, selects from the Paris 
Papyrus no. 5 Notices et Extraits des MSS., pi. xvi\ of the year 114 B.C., the following, 
among other contractions, Tp~Tpa[vtfav], irroAe'~ = irTo\tp[tuov]. aaxXrf^ = duA?;7r[id8i;!]. 
In these we have early cursive form of a, p, and ir. 



VII 



ABBREVIATIONS AND CONTRACTIONS 

certain ordinary words (together with a few symbols). 1 The same 
method may be traced also in the Herculanean rolls of the first century 
B.C. In the papyri of succeeding centuries the same system is followed. 
To descend to the vellum period, the palimpsest fragments of the Ili.i,/, 
in uncial writing of the sixth century, in the British Museum (Add. 
MS. 17210 : Cat. A no. MSS. i. 6), have several words curtailed, an s-shaped 
mark indicating the omitted endings. More numerous are the examples 
in the fragment, preserved at Milan, of a mathematical treatise of the 
seventh century, also written in uncials. In this MS., dealing with a 
subject in which technical expressions constantly occur, an opportunity 
for the full employment of suspension presented itself, and, accordingly, 
not only the ordinary abbreviated endings, but symbols also are found 
(see below, Facs. 48). From the analogy of later MSS. it may be 
taken for certain that all technical works, intended as they were rather 
for the student than for public reading, were subject to unrestrained 
suspension from a very early period. 

Thus the continuity of the old system of abbreviation by suspension 
remained unbroken from the earliest times ; and, although in the early 
vellum period that system was screened, as it were, by the contraction 
system of the uncial biblical and liturgical MSS., which, from the fact of 
their survival in fair numbers, have thrust themselves into more general 
notice, yet it was still practised in the contemporary cursively written 
MSS. and documents of daily life ; and accordingly, when the flood of 
the literary minuscule book-hand of the ninth century suddenly rose and 
swept over the uncial, it brought with it the older system of suspension 
still existent in the cursive writing from which the new literary script 
had been formed : and at the same time it absorbed the limited contraction 
system of the early Christian theological MSS. 

With the disuse of uncial writing, then, as the ordinary literary book- 
hand, the theological system of contraction did not perish. The same 
scribes who had copied out the majuscule texts were now employed upon the 
new minuscule, and naturally introduced into the latter the contractions 
which they had been accustomed to write in the former. In minuscule 
writing, therefore, from the ninth century onwards, the two systems, of 
suspension and of contraction, are available. At first, however, compendia 
were, in general, sparingly used in the calligraphic MSS. of the period, 
although, when necessary, the apparatus was ready at hand to be applied, 
as in the case of marginal and interlinear scholia, where in this matter 
greater freedom was exercised than in the text of a MS. The horizontal 

1 Theyare: 5 = termiiiatiuna 1 .a = ^ci,y = 7<ip,5' = 6f,5 > = 5ia, X = cTvat, / = tori, <* = flat, 
6' = Sen, K=ai', *' = <m, // = /!. p=nrrcL, o' = oZv, v> = *apa, ,' --=pi or rep, s' = aw, T -T^. 
T - = T jjs T' = TOW. v'=uWp, u^i-iru ; and also * = x&f, nd <7 = a"os and cases. Many of 
these abbreviations are also used for syllables in composition. In addition, terminations 
are occasionally abbreviated with the over-written letter as ^ 



80 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

stroke which marked contracted words in the biblical uncial texts served 
the same purpose in minuscules. It also distinguished letters which were 
usc< 1 as numerals or special signs. But the ordinary terminal abbreviations 
by suspension were mai'ked by the long oblique stroke (already noticed as 
in use in the papyrus period), as in a8'/= ab(\<j>6s, 77oA e /=7ro'Ae/xos-, although 
this stroke *vas also often dispensed with, and a mere flourish added to 
the over-written letter. This over-written letter was also subject to 
modifications. It was doubled occasionally to indicate a plural (a prac- 
tice also followed in the papyri), as -na^/^-naitHav, <m = OTI'XOI. It was 
also in some instances the emphatic letter of the omitted portion of the 
word, as AV=Ae'ye', K^/^KUTCI. And the arrangement of letters was 
sometimes inverted, as A = Ao'yos, (o = o<Tios. 1 

But with the new minuscule book-hand also appears a further 
developement in the use of certain signs, mostly tachygraphical, which 
are employed either as component parts of words, or as entire, inde- 
pendent words. They had been employed to some extent also in late 
uncial MSS. They generally are found as terminations, but in MSS. of 
the early minuscule period they are also used in the middle or at the 
beginning of words. For the most part, they are placed above the level 
of the words to which they belong ; in a few instances they are pendent, 
or in the line of writing. At the later period, when the writing became 
more cursive, these signs were linked with the letters below them in 
a nourish. They also, even at an early date, show a disposition to 
combine with the accents, as in Q which is the sign * (?js) combined with 
a circumflex. This developement, when exercised to its full capacity, 
renders the text of a MS. difficult reading, without some considerable 
experience of the meaning of the various compendia with which it may 
be crowded. 

Having thus briefly traced the history of the growth of Greek 
abbreviations and contractions, it may be useful to give, first, a list of the 
more general single-letter abbreviations and symbols, other than ordinary 
abbreviations by suspension, as found in papyri : - to be followed by an 
analysis of the mediaeval symbols of the vellum MSS. 

' From the recently issued catalogue of the Aphrodito Papyri (Gk. Papyri in the British 
Museum, iv), which are of the end of the seventh and early years of the eighth centuries. 
we find that by that time the fuller system of suspension had come into practice in cursive 
papyri. In this collection, in addition to the simple suspension system, e.g. av' = dv0/xams j 



papyri. 

iv'/^lvSuiTiuvos, letters are also omitted from the body, as well as from the end, of a word, 
the over-written letter being almost invariably a consonant (either the first to follow, or 
an emphatic one\ e.g. Sawav 6 = ta*a.vr,6ii>Ta, \" = \(irrus, and $oP/ = QoivtKis ; or two letters 
were over-written, e.g. av 1 " = df opairoSa. This developement is practically unknown in 
papyri of an earlier period ; and we may therein!-.- rc-ard its presence in the Aphrodito 
collection as due to the influence of the contemporary vellum codices. 

2 See Appendix IV in Kenyon's Palaeogr. Gk. Papyri, and the Indexes in the Catalogue 
ofGk. Papyri in. the British Museum. 



vii ABBREVIATIONS AND CONTRACTIONS 81 

The chief single-letter abbreviations and symbols in papyri, then, are 
as follows: 

lj, 3 = at (as part of a word) ; a = ava ; a. a- = OTTO ; / , (J, ^, L/, A = apovpa ; 
, = a..ru : .3?; : a, a~, a', ^, ^> ~f, /> $> Ji Cairo's and cases; /, y = 
yap; 8'=8; 5\ 8/=6ia ; f-, <,(, j. fr. 3 = 8 PX^"i 5 \ = e"-cu ;/=eo-ri; \= 
eio-tV ; t ] = f 7u ; L, S = eros and cases ; </ = TJiAios ; 9., ij/= ;p.f'pa ; V, i/= irSix- 
/, K\ K t , S = KCU; K\ K\ K~=/cara; p = fj.ev ; \ = ^epos and 



TT =7rep and 

(the cursive ^/)=7r^xs; R = TTOUJT^J, irouj^xa ; & (cursive ^/ over 
, OV=-O'AIS; IT', rfi, p = vp6s; \=mpm; d = o-eXi/n; ; o-' = <rw: 
A=rdAaiTo;-; T~=rr/; f = T?jr: r', r', r =TI}S ; f = roV; r\/=raD; r, r' = 
: v>, t/, v', (<_, 4>, $ = vTrep; v={n:6; 6 = </)ij<7U' : x', \ L X~> x'> X)~ = 
= xpoVos. Arithmetical symbols are these: i|, 00 = ; s, i, 

d, d'=i;' =; L, /., c, L. ^ 1=1 ; A u) - )= ; ^=l; c > q. H (^^) 

= 90; 7 (*am^i) = 900; ^ = 10,000; n = 10.000; 011 = 100,000; , , 
-r- = 1 obol; = = 2 obols ; /^=3 obols; /^^bols; =5 obols; X>, X L , 
X. X a = l chalcus; X = 2 chalci ; XT = 3 chalci ; O' = 4 chalci ; 0'X L = 
5 chalci; 0'X = 6 chalci: p', p=l per cent.; v', v=2 per cent.; L = 
minus; /, r, |- . ', /', -7- = total (yiWrat); D, " = remainder (nepiwTi). 

The following are the explanations of the symbols of the mediaeval 
system in alphabetical order, beginning with the vowels. It will assist 
the memory if it is borne in mind that, as in Greek tachygraphic 
writing one sign represented several syllables, different in spelling but 
phonetically the same, so the symbols which we are now considering may 
be phonetic-all}' grouped. For example, in the two groups 

/\ ?/r. /y^ en: y* w. 

s j;y. ss fty. s is. 

we see a sign representing a particular syllable differentiated by being 
doubled or marked to represent its homophones. The same system will 
be observed in other instances. 

a is early represented by the tachygraphical sign, a horizontal 
stroke . It was written either above or in line with the preceding 
letter, as f or 7 , but in the latter position, to aid the eye. it received the 
addition of two dots, as r+, or, coalescing, TT. But this sign -7- thus 
dotted also indicated TO, as the two dots (:) were also the tachygraphical 
sign for r. In course of time the construction was forgotten, and -r was 
taken to mean simply a, and, last of all, the dropped out, and the two 
dots remained to represent the letter. 

1 The symbol d is formed from o. a cursive corruption of A = 4, with a stroke above. 
In the numerals wherein 2 is represented by o, this symbol is derived from the cursive 
tt-shaped Ma. 

1184 Q 



82 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

e is frequently represented by a short waved stroke, as in the word 
H* = pc/a, and in participial terminations, as Aeyoy s = Aeyo/x'oy. 

7] is also occasionally found in a similarly waved-stroke form, nearly 
always written in the line, as 7rei8&, rVr. 

i is very rarely represented by two dots (a late usage), as if" = irepl. 

co appears in the tachygraphical form of a kind of circumflex, as 

avye = arcoye . 

at. The abbreviated sign of this termination is, in its earliest forms, 
an oblique or angular or s-shaped stroke, as K, K K S ; later, ordinarily 
a waved stroke, which was afterwards exaggerated into a flourish; 
sometimes V , as ?;fxe'p v = $pcpat. 

cus. The earlier sign was 1, as <m;A. l = o-i-7;Aais ; later , as ravr = 
ravruts. This second form appears to be a doubling of the sign for ej, a 
phonetic equivalent. 

or. An angular [_ and rounded i, are found in early MSS. Then 
a further developement in the curve took place, and a 6-shaped sign 
comes into use. or' =orav, 7rdir = Trao-az', ytmdirasyfwA&av. 

ap. The horizontal stroke , for a, and a ring representing p, were 
combined as the sign-o. as frvptl = ^prvpfl. Or it was turned upwards, 
aindv = aiJ.<ipTiai'; or written in the line, as IJL-L.DTVS = /xaprvs, with dots 
representing a. 

as. The constant sign was J, as ari^ ^nt-jfja ! \t>i'}<r' l dai = \pi]<raff6ai. 

at'. From a combination of , for a, and the upsilon, comes the 
sign -v, as ^J.d(eL = 6avij.dCfi. A rare sign is //, as TOt/m;=Totawi}. 

fiv. At first was used a single sign f (i.e. also the sign for ?)r, a 
phonetic equivalent), as \T^V=- ertjutVeir. Then this was doubled for 
the sake of distinction /y ; afterwards one or both of the hooks are 
thrown off //>, // ; and finally the strokes are reduced in length //. 

IT / ' =77U', AeiV= \eiTiflV. 

us. The sign s, which represents ?/?, was sometimes also used for ts; 
more generally it was doubled, as rid" = 7i0ls. Another rare form is ^ 
which appears to be the ordinary ligature of e and i with a cross-stroke. 

2'. An angle L, as = ju^, which afterwards took a more rounded 
form, as yiyov = ytyovtv, degenerating at a later period into X, or even 
into a looped flourish like a wide a. The tachygraphic sign \\ is also 
occasionally found in use. 

tp. The oblique stroke, the tachygraphic sign for e, combines with 
a loop, for p, and makes the sign b, as <ooV' = Sxmtp, iir b = iirep. More 
rarely a bar is used, as infr = virep, uHm*r = w<m(p. 

s. The early sign was j, as (pa-yoiT 1 = <pdyovTts. But two dots, 
representing tachygraphically the letter T, being frequently added in the 
common termination Tfs,'j, a confusion between )' and j was the result, 
and at last)' came to be used for es, as \fotri* = kki>Tcs, and superseded 



vii ABBREVIATIONS AND CONTRACTIONS 83 

the simple j. The sign, thus changed, varies occasionally in form, as 

7)i-. The angular form /v . as S apx = ri> apx'i". was sometimes curved, 
as n.[ai'/' = ToifaT;r. Later it degenerated into A, A,, as uper = apeTj>. 

7ip. A not common sign is s, as af = arijp. 

7,*. A sign resembling *, as r = ri>. This sign early combined with 
the circumflex as (5. It is sometimes doubled. 

u: The sign for r,v was often used also for this termination. It was 
also differentiated by two dots, thus, ra A = raii>. It passed through the 
same stages of degeneration as its prototype. 

is. The sign for 77 v was also used for is. It was also differentiated by 
two dots, thus, av^ = avTif. The signs for is and 7/s are sometimes 
confused. 

ois. A horizontal stroke terminating in an angular or round hook, 
-, T; A(-7=A<;yois. In later MSS. the sign is subject to flourishing. 
In some instances the position is oblique, as r* = rois. 

or. The oblique stroke \. as Ao'y = \6yov. The danger of confusion with 
the grave accent led to its being lengthened : but this eventually re- 
sulted in the lengthening of the accent also, as T^ = TOV. In late MSS. 
the sign degenerates into a flourish, or waved line. 

os. The tachygraphical sign for os is sometimes used, as Aoy = Ao'yos- ; 
sometimes the uncial c. as e/Tr c = eKa<jTos. 

ov. An early form V appears in a few places, as f'r = TOVTOV ; this is 
afterwards curved, as r = roi~. The form Y, which is not uncommon, is a 
monogram of the two letters. 

ow. The o with a waved stroke beneath, as xot$TOS=itou>vprot, "iyo = 
"lyovr. 

ous. The sign 14, which is formed by combination of v = ov and s; as 
Ao'y 4 = Ao'youj, wir4 =iwwous. The double waved stroke ss (as in eis) is 
also used: as -^iior" = \p6rov; , also single, as avr" = avTovi. 

wv. A sign resembling a circumflex ; in early MSS., of small size, as 
TuvT = TovTiai-: afterwards, a sweeping flourish: as 6ia$6 = 6ia$o,3<3r. 

cop. A not common sign s> or -, as v^ = vbtap, pi/r" 3 ' = pTjrtop. 

M-;. A curving line < ^>, </ ', as uvT < ^ = ovnai, <s> ~fp = attrirfp. Later, the 
.-ign turns downwards, as KaAs = KoAais. 

Certain prepositions and particles are represented by special 
signs, as 

avri : D, a very rare sign. 

d-o : ^v an '^ -v ! a rare s ig n ^ s ^- > - 



apa : ( . 

Sid: ^, or ^ with a waved pendant, 

-i: ^ the H being a cursive form of -. 

Iva: I. 

G 2 



84 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 



, T 

Kara : 4. 



Trpo's: , p. 
^Tre'p : fc, or V. 
VTTO : X) U V- 
Trapa : w ; also iff. 

yap: )*, or /, f 4 ", f^ ; that is, yamma crossed with an inverted p, or 
with a bar or flourish. 

8e: 7, which becomes rounded j. In course of time it was confused 
with the sign for es (j) ; hence the scribes came to add dots. 



KO.I. From the tachygraphical form lj () came the sign i-, which 
went through various changes : b ^ S S. 



: *, very rare. 

on : / $ (the dots indicating the T) ; also.p 

600-77 ep : 'J. 

The auxiliary e<rrt or toriV was represented by the tachygraphic /. 
( OTI) or * (eoTiV) ; but this distinction was not kept up. Later, from 
confusion with the sign for iv ('/> ), the position of the dots was altered, 
and the sign became /< , which afterwards passed into the flourished style, 
on the pattern of the signs for j\v and . A double tort, //. , was used for 
flirt; and in the same manner -/ft or y^ = d<riv. The symbol ?te= 
The future ea-rai is found in the forms t). fo. 

Certain signs were also used for technical words, as ^=d 
^q = aptf/xot; H, |' = io-os, io-ot; ^ = t\d(ra(av. And, finally, there were 
certain symbols for certain words, as Q=KVK\OS, ^ = j;n'pa, 7=wf, L = 

y, and others already noted above in the list compiled from papyri. 



Latin 

Of Latin abbreviations the most ancient forms are those which consist 
of a single letter (nearly always the initial letter), representing the whole 
word an extreme form of suspension. The most ordinary instances of 
such single-letter abbreviations, litterae singular en, *inyulae litteruc, or 
stylo,, are those which indicate proper names, or titles, or words of common 
occurrence, and which are familiar to us, not only in the inscriptions on 
coins and monuments, but also in the texts of classical writers; being 
generally distinguished from other letters or words by the full point (the 
special mark of abbreviation by suspension) which is placed after them. 
The same system was followed in the middle ages and survives at the 
present day. 

But the representation of words by single letters could only be 
carried out to a limited extent. Obviously the same letter must do 



vii ABBREVIATIONS AND CONTRACTIONS 85 

duty for many words and confusion be the consequence. Hence arises 
a farther extension of the system : the use of special marks, or of two 
or more letters. The Romans wrote M'. = Manius, to distinguish that 
name from M. = Marcus; Cn. = Gnaeus, to pi-event confusion with C. = 
Gaius. These simple methods of abbreviation led on to others, the 
developement of which can be traced in the early legal MSS., such as the 
Gaius of Verona, or the waxed tablets, and particularly in the 'Notarum 
Laterculi ' or ' Notae Juris ' the lists of abbreviations used in the Roman 
law-books. 1 In these documents, as regards single-letter abbreviations, 
we find not only such forms as A. = aut, C.= causa, ~D. = divu, E. = e*t, 
and so on, any of which might occur independently in a sentence, but 
also whole phrases, as, C. D. E. R. N. ~E. = cuius de ea re notio est, or 
A. T. M. D. O. = uio te mill dare oportere, showing to what an extent this 
elementary system could be employed in books of a technical nature. 
Indeed, in technical works, single-letter phrases continued to be used in 
MSS. down to the invention of printing. But the inconvenience of such 
abbreviations is seen in such double meanings as A. = uut or annus, 
C. = causa or circa, D. = divut< or dedit, F.=fecit or familia or fide*. 
Yet the sense of the context might be generally depended upon for 
giving the correct interpretation ; and confusion was also, in some 
instances, obviated by the addition of a distinguishing mark, such as 
a horizontal stroke placed above the letter or an apostrophe or similar 
sign placed after it, as N=/itm, N'=/<ec. The representation of words 
by two or more of their letters is seen in such abbreviations as IT= item, 
ACT. actum,A^ = ante, ED. = edict am, HIP =i iterator, COM. = comes, 
EO = eorum, CVT.=fi'iv.s. F\J-fuit, in which the first letters of each 
word are written, leaving the rest in suspension ; or in such primitive 
compendia as EXP = eaampfom, OMB=omnifaw, MMT=iomenf'U/m, 
BK = '>o/io*'i!/)i, HD = /<em?i>/n, where the salient letters are expressed, in 
some instances with a view to indicating the inflections. From this 
latter method was developed the more systematic syllabic system, in 
which the leading letters of the syllables were given, as EG = ergo, 
HR = //e/r.s. QD=r/*<<We//<, QB=<yU'V.'>-, QR = 'yi'.re, ST = s^V, MT= 
m ntem, T^. tamen, SN = sm, BN = 6c/ie, DD = dcindc, and the like. 

But still there remained the need of indicating inflections and termina- 
tions more exactly than by this simple process. This want was supplied 
in the first place by the adoption of certain of the Tironian symbols 
others of those shorthand signs being at the same time used for certain 
prepositions or prefixes and also by smaller over-written letters, a& 
Q = quo ! V m = i>mim, R c = huitc, ^ = tunc. This over-writing was not, 
however, confined to the indication of terminations : it was also adopted 

1 See in Keil, Giammalici Latini, iv. 205. the Xo'.itrum Laterculi, ed. Mommsen. 



86 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

for general use to mark leading letters, as in S'=si}zf, ~N = noster, 
S sors, etc., a practice which may be regarded as a stage between 
suspension and contraction. As will presently be seen, it holds an 
important place in the later mediaeval scheme. 

Here we have to take account of the new system of contraction 
which, as described above, was introduced into Greek MSS. of the early 
Christian period from the Hellenist treatment of the Nomina Sacra, and 
which was adopted by the Latin scribes from the Greek. On the native 
Greek system of suspension this new system, as we have seen, had no 
serious effect. The result was different in the case of Latin MSS. There 
the system of contraction, once accepted, became predominant, and, 
although that of suspension was not altogether superseded, yet the 
elaborated methods employed in the MSS. of the middle ages were in 
the direction of contraction, not of suspension. By transliterating the 
contracted forms of the following Nomina Sacra, they appeared in 
Latin thus: GC became 0S (the first and last letters of Deus); TTNk 
became SPS (the first two letters and the last letter of Spiritus) ; 
life XPC (a variant of the more normal 1C XC) became IHS XPS 1 
(that is, lesus Christus, the forms of the Greek eta, cJt i, and rho being 
imitated, just as we have seen the Hebrew name of Jehovah copied in 
imitative Greek letters) ; and K"C became DNS or DMS (three letters 
beino- written instead of two, which strict transliteration would have 
required, in order to avoid confusion with DS).- The form IHS XPS was 
the first to be used in Latin; a later form IHC XPC appears in English and 
Irish MSS., and then, from the ninth century, in those of the Continent. 3 
The two forms of Dominut, DNS and DMS, were used simultaneously in 
early MSS. : but the form DNS superseded the other as the title of the 
Almighty, DMS being reserved for human beings. 4 

1 Christian of Stavelot, in the ninth century, commenting on Matt. i. 21 (Migne, cvi. 
1278), writes : ' Scribitur lesws per iota et eta et sigma et apice [stroke of contraction] 
desuper apud nos. Nam in Graecorum libris solummodo per iota et sigma et apice desuper 
invenitur scriptum, et sicut alia nomina Dei comprehensive debent scribi, quia ncmun 
Dei non potest litteris explicari.' 

- It is to be borne in mind that the horizontal stroke marking contraction covers 
all the letters of the contracted words, as it does in the Greek. And as in Greek, as 
already noticed, by a natural confusion the uncontracted 0OC was sometimes marked 
with the stroke, Q6OC ' so in Latin there are instances of a parallel confusion, DEUS, 

DEO, etc. 

3 The researches of Traube (Vorlesunyen und AWiundlimrjen, Bd.i. 1911), of Professor W. M. 
Lindsay, and of others have been directed to the investigation of the systems of inde- 
pendent schools in Western Europe previous to the Carolingian period. 

4 At a later time a distinction was drawn between the full word dominus and the 
syncopated form donmus or dompnus, the latter being employed in monastic life as a human 
title, e.g. ' domnus abbas ', while the former was reserved for the Lord of Heaven. Cus- 
tomary of St. AwjusHne's, Canterbury, etc. < v Henry Bradshaw Soc.\ i. 4. 



vii ABBREVIATIONS AND CONTRACTIONS 



The above contracted Xomina Sacra appear in the early vellum 
uncial codices ; the others were not taken over from the Greek, with the 
exception, afterwards in the sixth century, of the names David. Israel. 
and Jerusalem. But the contracted SCS = M /"* ami N I (to be distin- 
guished from the later NlT) = /rW/v were added. A fe\v abbreviations 
by suspension are also found in those codices, such as B- = termination 
/,(,.,. Q. = termination que, and omission of final M or X represented by 
a horizontal stroke. 

The scribes naturally extended the new principle of contraction to 
general literature and its convenience ensured its adoption, especially in 
books of a legal and other technical nature. 

The principles of the methods sketched out above held good also 
throughout the later middle ages ; but of the simple letter-forms only 
a certain number survived. They were too arbitrary to be continued in 
o-eneral use ; and more exact and convenient combinations and signs took 
their place. Even where they still survived in form their original meaning 
was sometimes superseded; e.g. the early syllabic suspended compendium 
TM = tamen under the contraction system becomes hi. ntt> m. The period of 
transition from the older to the newer system lies in the course of the 
eighth and ninth centuries, at the time when the Carolingian schools 
were effecting their great reform in the handwriting of Western Europe 
and had the authority to enforce the adoption of settled rules. By the 
eleventh century the contraction system had grown to full develope- 
ment. It reached its culminating point in the thirteenth century, the 
period when it was more excessively used than at any other. After 
that date marks and symbols are less exactly formed and gradually 
degenerate into hasty dashes and nourishes. 

Havinf thus traced the general construction of Latin abbreviation 
and contraction, we may now briefly notice the various signs and marks 
which are employed for this purpose in the MSS. of the middle ages. 

Marks or signs of abbreviation or contraction are either general or 
special. General signs are those which indicate the suppression of one 
or more letters without giving a direct clue to what such letters may be. 
Special signs indicate the suppression of particular letters. Among the 
latter must be also included over-written letters which, in some instances, 
have in course of time changed their forms and have worn down into 
mere symbols. 

The earliest and simplest mark of abbreviation is the full point, 
usually placed on a level with the middle of the letter or letters of the 
abbreviated word, as A.- = aut, FF-=fratres, or to give the commonest, 
and often the only, abbreviations in early majuscule MSS. B- = (termina- 
tion) Ijv.tf, Q- = </<!/>, already noticed above. In place of the full point, 
a colon or semicolon was next employed, as in B: B: Q: Q:, and the latter, 



88 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

becoming the favourite form, grew, by rapid writing, into a j-shaped 
sign, which appears from the eleventh century onwards, as ^ = bus, 
(fi = que. From its frequent recurrence in the latter common word it 
even came to represent the q as well as ue, in composition, as at3 = 
atque, \\e$ = neque. But it was not confined to the representation of 
terminal us and ue; it also appears for termination et, as in deb$ = debet, 
pfy= placet, sj = sei (i.e. seel) : a survival of which is seen in the z in our 
common abbreviation, viz. videlicet. At a later period it also repre- 
sented final m. as in naj= num, ite)=item, i&&)=idem. 

The same j-shaped sign likewise is found sometimes as the sign for cst 
in composition, as in inter} = int ereat. But here it has a different deriva- 
tion, being a cursive rendering of the symbol -r- = eat. 

The horizontal stroke (viryula, apex, titulus, tilula, titellus, titella) 
is the most general mark both of suspension and contraction, and in 
both uses it may indicate the omission of many letters. We have seen it 
employed in the ' Notae luris '. It is usually either a straight or a waved 
line. In early carefully-written MSS. it is ornamentally formed with 
hooks at the ends '-,. In its simplest use as a mark of abbreviation it is 
found in majuscule MSS. at the end (rarely in the body) of a line to 
indicate omission of final M or N. It was placed high in the line, at first, 
to the right, as AITTE = autem: and in some instances a point was 
added to distinguish omission of M from omission of N, as ENI~ : ~=em?, 
XO =?ion. Afterwards the simple stroke was placed above the last 

letter, as ENI, NO. 

Analogous to the horizontal stroke is the oblique stroke, which in 
minuscule texts takes the place of the horizontal chiefly in words in 
which the tall letters b and 1 occur, as apti = apoatoli, m\to=muUo, 
YAe libere, iprocl = procuL 

Of the same class is the waved vertical stroke (sometimes in the form 
of a curve rising from the preceding letter), often used to signify the 
omission of er or re; as Wwber=breviter, c*tus=certus. 

Less frequent, because it dropped out of general use, is the final 
oblique stroke, also found in the earlier minuscule MSS., usually for 
terminations us, ur, um (after r), as an/ = anu, &ma,uij. = amamu# 
amat/=awHr, reTJ.=rerum. Of these, the last termination rum con- 
tinued to be represented in this way, especially in words in the genitive 
plural. 1 

Another general sign of early use was the round curve or comma 
above the line, which, as late as the ninth century, continued to repre- 
sent the terminations ur, on, us. In later MSS. the curve alone was 

1 A curious result of the use of this sign is seen in the second name for Salisbury, 
'Sarum.' The Latin Sarisburia in abbreviated form was written Sa^., and came to be 
read Sarum. 



VII 



ABBREVIATIONS AND CONTRACTIONS 89 



retained to indicate the termination z(.s (sometimes OB), and so became 
a special sign (see below). 

A long drooping stroke attached to the end of a word is often found 
as a general sign to indicate the suspension of any termination. It is, 
however, specially used for termination /. In the fourteenth century it 
developes into a loop, as dictf = (?///>. 

A sign nearly resembling an inverted c or the numeral 9, Tironian 
in its origin, usually signifies the syllable con or com, also more rarely 
<-un or cum, as 9do = wm/o, ()mums = coiamunis, cii'9scriptus = cir- , 
cwmecriptus, c)cti = c^lltcti. 1 It always stands in the line of writing. 
A similar sign (to which reference has already been made), above the 
line, represents the termination .--, as lMn s = b<>nus: also more rarely os, 
as n 9 =no8, p 9 t = i>ost. In the last word it is sometimes used for the 
whole termination o*t, as p 9 . 

A sign somewhat resembling the numeral 2 placed obliquely *V, also 
derived from a Tironian note, is written for the termination ur, as 
nu\ai l = <iinatt'f. It is also placed horizontally, as feri 2 =fertur. Being 
commonly employed in the case of verbs, it also sometimes stands for the 
whole termination tar. as ama . 

The letter p having a curve drawn through the down stroke, $, is to 
be read jn-o. In Visigothic MSS., however, it signifies t ./, very rarely 
j,ro, which is usually in such MSS. written in full. P crossed with 
a horizontal bar, p, is per, also j>ar. j>u,\ as ftem = />urtem, optet= 
<.>/>urtet. The same letter with a horizontal or waved oblique stroke or 
curve placed above it (when not at the end of a word) becomes pre, as 
psertim =preserti>n. p'bet=/>re6fl. 

The following conventional signs, partly from Tironian notes, are also 
used with more or less frequency, some of them especially in early Irish 
and English MSS. : 

\=at<teni, 3=eius, = = ettie, -r=cst (which degenerates into a 
-,-shaped sign: see above), \\=i>?r, j=et,j = ctiam, rfJ (later -H- and -H-- 
and thence -n') = eiiim, -i- = id et>t,t=i:el,-Q-=ulnt, obit us, h = Jto<; v and 
u= at. 

With regard to the Latin contracted form of our Lord's name Jesus 
Christ, it is to be noted that it continued to be written by the later 
mediaeval scribes in Greek letters and in contracted form as it had been 
written in uncial -MSS.. thus : TTlS XPS, or IHC XPC. When these words 
came to be written in minuscule letters, the scribes treated them as if 
Latin words written in Latin letters, and transcribed them ihs xps, ihc 
xpc. Hence arose the erroneous idea that the form Ihesus was the 
correct one, and by false analogy the letter h was introduced into other 
proper names, as Iherusalem, Israhel. Similarly the terminating letter c, 

1 The letter c surmounted by a horizontal line :il=o represents ctn. 



90 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

for s, was carried over by scribes to other words, as epC=epi8Cdptt, 
sf c = */^'rifs, t\ic = to input*. 

Most ordinarily, over-written letters are vowels, to which the letter 
r has to be supplied to solve the reading, as g a tia = (jratut, c a ta = rarta, 
tfs = tres, v e ba = ra-ia, ^0? = prior, \ l tus = virtut> i ag a s = agros, cpus 
= corpus, p u dens=prudens, t u iis = turris. The more usual contractions 
of this character are those in which the r precedes the vowel. Other 
letters may also be understood, as in (f = qua, bo a = ?;o/ia, q'bus = g-u-i&tis, 
m i = miJii, m = modo. The letter a when over-written frequently has 
the open form (), which degenerates into a mere zigzag horizontal line 
or flattened u (w). 

When consonants are over-written the number of letters to be 
supplied is quite uncertain : a single vowel is omitted in such words 
as 11 = nee, h c = /t/c; several letters are understood in such a contraction 
as p i =potesi. The over-written consonant is usually the last letter of 
the word. 1 

In some instances two or more letters are over-written, as hu 9 ' = 
huiusmodi, mcorp lea = incorporates; but such full forms are seldom 
wanted. 

The compendia of certain common words, in which the letter g is 
prominent, take a special form, as g 1 and g r = iyitur, g a = e?v/, g = e?v/o. 
The amount of abbreviations and contractions in a MS. depended to a 
considerable extent upon the character of the text. As has been already 
observed, they were more freely used in technical books than in works of 
general literature. In MSS. written in majuscule letters, and particularly 
in biblical and liturgical codices, which were specially required for public 
reading, they are very few (see above). With the introduction of 
minuscule writing for the book-hand, and if the MSS. were written 
for private use, there was more scope for this convenient system of saving 
labour and space ; but in works intended for general use there was 
seldom an excess of compendia or the employment of arbitrary forms 
such as to render the reading of the text difficult. When once the 
elements and principles of the system are understood, and the eye has 
been fairly practised, no ordinary MS. will present difficulties to the 
reader. 

In the case of texts written in the vernacular languages of those 
countries of Europe which have adopted the Roman alphabet, it will be 
found that abbreviation is more rarely allowed than in MSS. written 
in Latin. A system suited to the inflections and terminations of that 
language could not be well adapted to other languages so different in 
their structure. 

1 With regard to over-written s, it may he noted that in Visigothic writing a sign 
resembling that letter is used in the word <j? = que. But this is derived from the cursive- 
form of over-written u. 



Mt 

NUMERALS 

In Greek MSS. we find two systems of expressing numbers by signs, 
both being taken mainly from the alphabet. The older system employ- 
the initial letters of the names of certain numbers as their symbols, as 
TT for 5, A for 10, H (aspirate) for 100, X for 1,000, M for 10,000. The 
numerals from one to four are represented by units, from six to nine by 
n with added units: multiples of tens and upwards are expressed by 
repetitions or differentiations of the several symbols. This has been 
called the Herodiaii system, after the name of the grammarian who 
described it. It is seen in use in the papyri, especially in the sticho- 
metrical memoranda of the numbers of the lines contained in them : 
and such notes are also found transmitted to vellum MSS. of the 
middle ages. 

The other system was to take the first nine letters of the alphabet 
for the units, and the rest for the tens and hundreds, disused letters 
being still retained for numeration, viz. F, digamma, for 6, which in its 
early form appears as c or T, and afterwards, in the middle ages, 
becomes T, like the combined a- and r or stigma ; c, koppu, for 90 ; and 
a symbol derived from the old letter mn, which appears in papyri as T 
or q-v and at later periods as ~% which, from its partial resemblance to 
pi, was called eampi (=*W1 +j>i), for 900. This system was in full use 
in the third century B.C. 1 The numerals were usually distinguished from 
the letters of the text by a horizontal stroke above : thus a. To indi- 
cate thousands a stroke was added to the left of the numeral: thus, 
/ .j = 2,000, ,7 = 3,000. Dots were sometimes added to indicate tens of 
thousands, as a, -a-, -,*. Fractions could be indicated by an acute 
accent above the letter, as /= 1, 8' = -J-, y= |, etc.; or special symbols 
were employed, as shown in the list of those found in the papyri (see 
above, p. 81). 

The Roman system of numerals, with the use of which we are familiar 
even at the present day. was employed throughout the middle ages, and 
was not displaced by the introduction of the Arabic system, although 
the latter, from its convenience, was widely adopted. The Roman system 
was continued as the more official, and money accounts were calculated 
in its numerals. 

To distinguish the numerals from the letters of the text they were 
placed between points: thus -XL-. Besides the ordinary method of 
indicating thousands by repetitions of M. units with horizontal strokes 

1 The practice of numbering the successive books of a work, as e.g. the twenty-four 
books of the Iliad, by the successive letters of the alphabet. i> hardly a >ystem of numera- 
tion in the proper sense of the word. In certain casts we find it convenient to make use 
of our alphabet in a somewhat similar way, to mark a series. 



92 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 

above were also employed for the purpose : thus, 'I', -II-, -III-, etc. 
Certain special signs occur in some MSS. : as the Visigothic T = 1 ,000 
and X"=40, and the not very uncommon sign c = 6, -which has been 
derived from the Greek symbol, but which may be only a combination 
of U (V) and I. A cross-stroke traversing a numeral sometimes indicates 
reduction by half a unit, as iii = 2-|, >^ = 9-|, x\ = 19-|. 

Arabic numerals first appear in European MSS. in the tenth century 
(A.D. 976), but they were not well known till the thirteenth century, 
their early use being general in mathematical works ; by the fourteenth 
century they had become universal. They have not changed much in 
form since their first introduction, the greatest difference from the 
modern shapes being seen in 7=2, Q = 4, i| = 5, and A =7. The modern 
2 became general in the fourteenth century by adding a horizontal foot 
to the old form ; the A became the modern 7 in the fifteenth century, 
simply by alteration of position ; g also in the same way took its modern 
form in that century (in Italy, early in the century) ; and, last of all, the 
i| became the modern 5 partially in the fifteenth, and generally in 
the sixteenth, century. 1 



Here we bring to a close the preliminary section of this work, in which 
we have dealt with the inception, the early growth, and the developement 
of the book in the Greek and Roman world and in the middle ages, its 
external qualities, the materials of which it was composed, the shapes it 
assumed. We have examined the practices which governed the arrange- 
ment of the text; we have noted the implements with which it was 
inscribed, the mechanical devices for its measurement, for its punctuation, 
for its ready delivery, when necessary, in public reading ; and we have 
described the means employed for its compact setting by artificial 
systems of abbreviation. 

Now we pass to the study of the several classes of handwriting which 
fall within the scope of our inquiry under the two separate and compre- 
hensive divisions of Greek Palaeography and Latin Palaeography. 

1 See G. F. Hill, On the early use of Arabic Numerals in, Europe, in Archaeologia, Ixii. 137. 



CHAPTER VIII 

GREEK PALAEOGRAPHY 

Papyri 

THE conditions of the study of Greek Palaeography have become 
subject to serious modifications during the course of the latter part of 
the nineteenth century, owing to tin- extraordinary discoveries of Greek 
papyri in Egypt. At the beginning of the century the existence of such 
papyri was scarcely suspected : at its close the mass of documents accumu- 
lated in the museums and lil.raries of Europe and in private hands has 
proved enough to tax the energies of the scholars who have devoted 
themselves to their decipherment and interpretation. A new 1 .ranch of 
palaeography has grown up, and papyrnlogy is now an important and 
well-established study. 

The excavations to which we owe these results have laid out befoiv 
us not only many examples of the ancient literature of Greece, but also 
a vast store of documents of both an official and private character. The 
dry soil of Egypt has been impartial in its preservation of all that has 
been committed to it either by design or by accident. If, on the one 
hand, there has been recovered a more or less perfect roll containing some 
long-lost work of great writer or poet from the tomb of the scholar who 
owned it when living and had it laid by his body in death, so also, on 
the other hand, have the miscellaneous papers of daily life been dug out 
of the rubbish mounds of the desert records of revenue, taxation rolls, 
conveyances of land, business contracts between man and man, corre- 
spondence of officials, letters of father and son and of master and servant, 
wills of the deceased, the trivial memorandum of an idle moment. 
Hence the student of Greek Palaeography to-day has to extend his view 
over a vastly wider field than his predecessor had to survey. He no 
longer is restricted to the scrutiny of a limited number of papyri of 
classical literature written in the book-hands of the time, and to the 
decipherment of a few documents written in the cursive hands of one or 
two sparse decades. He has now to make a study not only of newly 
discovered and more ancient forms of book-writing, but still more of an 
endless variety of cursive hands of individuals, spread no longer through 
decades but over hundreds of years. In a word, he has to become 
acquainted, during the papyrus period, with Greek handwriting in many 
phases, and not only in its literary dress. And in proportion to the 






94 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

progress of excavations and the acquirement of new material will his 
toil increase. But, if his labours are thus enlarged, so likewise are his 
advantages and opportunities. If before the new discoveries he was 
groping in the dark and could only conjecture whence and how the 
Greek uncial and the Greek minuscule 1 look-hands of the vellum period 
arose, he has now the means for the solution of the problem and can link 
the middle ages with the past. 

In the particular of being representative of all kinds of writing the 
series of Greek papyri stands alone. No other class of MSS. is equally 
comprehensive. For early Latin examples even Egypt fails us. Greek 
was the official and polite language of the Ptolemaic, the Roman, and the 
Byzantine periods of government in that country. But few Roman 
documents in the Latin tongue have come to light there ; and although 
some lucky chance may from time to time yield to the spade of the 
excavator isolated specimens or even small groups of Latin papyri, such 
fortune seems to be the best that we may reasonably look for. 

Turning to the Eui-opean sources of material for studies in both Greek 
and Latin Palaeography, we have literature in those tongues embodied 
in the codices of the early centuries of our era and of the middle ages, in 
which we can follow the progress of the book-hand. We have, too, in 
Greek, in very scanty numbers, in Latin, in large numbers, documents 
which show what were the official cursive hands of the middle ages ; and 
from them and from such cursively written codices as scholars have left 
1 ichiiid, we can, in tentative fashion, reconstruct the domestic handwriting 
of different periods ; but the domestic documents themselves have sur- 
vived in very insignificant numbers. The casual papers of private life, 
once done with and cast aside, naturally perished. 

The first discovery of Greek papyri in Egypt took place in the year 
1778, when fifty rolls were found in the neighbourhood of Memphis, 
according to the native account, but more probably in the Fay urn. 
Unfortunately, all but one were carelessly destroyed ; the survivor was 
presented to Cardinal Stefano Borgia, under whose auspices it was 
published in 1788, Charta papyracea Musei Bofji ni Vel'dril, by Schow. 
It is of the year 191 after Christ, but is of no literary importance. This 
find was followed early in the last century, about 1820, by the discovery 
of a collection, enclosed, according to the story of the Arabs who found 
it, in a single vessel, on the site of the Serapeum or temple of Serapis at 
Memphis. The finders divided the hoard among themselves, and hence 
the collection found its way piecemeal into different libraries of Western 
Europe. Paris secured the largest number, which have been published, 
with an atlas of facsimiles, in the Notices et Extraits des Manuscrits '/< 
l J3ilili>>tkeque Imperiale. etc., vol. xviii, 1865. A certain number fell 
to the share of the British Museum and are published in the Catalogue 



VIII 



GREEK PAPYRI 95 



ofGrti-l /'"/'.'/''' '''' f l' c K'' ! t'*l' Musewm. S^UK- are in the Vatican, and 
others are at Ley den anil Dresden. 

The larger number of the documents thus brought to light have 
perpetuated a little domestic romance, and have preserved the memory 
of two poor twin sisters and the wrongs they endured in the second 
century r..c. Thaues and Thaus were the daughters of a native of 
Memphis, who in an unhappy hour married a woman named Xephoris. 
Deserted by her, and maltreated by her paramour, he fled away and died: 
and the twins were forthwith turned out of doors. But a friend was at 
hand. Among the recluses of the temple of Serapis was one Ptolemy, 
son of Glaucias, a Macedonian by birth, whose father had settled in the 
nome of Heracleopolis, and who had entered on his life of seclusion 
in the year 173 B.C. As an old friend of their father, he now came 
forward and obtained for the two girls a place in the temple. Their 
duties, upon which they entered in the year 165 B.C., included the offering 
of libations to the gods, a service which entitled them to certain allow- 
ances of oil and bread. All went well for a brief six months, but then 
the supplies began to fall into arrears. The poor twins tried in vain to 
get their rights, and their appeals to the subordinate officials, who had 
probably diverted the allowances to their own use, were disregarded. 
Again the good Ptolemy came to the rescue and took the matter in hand : 
and very pertinaciously did he pursue the claims. Petition after petition 
issued from his ready pen. Appeals to the governor ; appeals to the king ; 
a reference to one official was referred again to another, who, in his turn, 
passed it on to a third; reports were returned, duly docketed, and 
pigeon-holed ; again they were called for, and the game was carried on 
in a way which would do credit to the government offices of the most 
civilized nation. But Ptolemy was not to be beaten. We know that he 
at length succeeded in getting for the twins payment of a large portion 
of arrears, and at the moment when the documents cease he is still left 
nVhtina-. That his efforts were eventually crowned with a full success 

I"* O 

we cannot doubt ; and thus ends the story of the twins. 

These documents, then, and certain others including other petitions 
and documents of the persistent Ptolemy, form the bulk of the collection 
which was found on the site of the Serapeum at Memphis. Its palaeo- 
graphical value cannot be too highly estimated. Here, thanks chiefly to 
the ready pen of an obscure recluse, a fairly numerous series of documents 
bearing dates in the second century B.C. has descended to us. If the 
sands of Egypt had preserved a collection of such trivial intrinsic impor- 
tance, probably from the accident of its being buried in the tomb of the 
man who had written so many of its documents, what might not be 
looked for if the last resting-place of a scholar were found ? The expecta- 
tions that papyri inscribed with the works of Greek classical authors, and 



96 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

written in Egypt or imported thither during the reigns of the Ptolemies 
or in the Roman period, would sooner or later come to light gradually 
began to be realized. 

Several papyri containing books, or fragments of books, of Homer's 
Iliad have been recovered. One of the best known is the ' Harris Homer' 
containing a large portion of book xviii, which was found in 1849-50 by 
Mr. A. C. Harris, in the Crocodile Pit at Ma'abdeh, in the Fayum, and 
is now in the British Museum (Cut. Anc. MSS. i, pi. 1 : Pul. .S >c. ii. 64). 
It has been assigned to the first century of our era. Of later date is the 
' Bankes Homer', of the second century, containing the greater part of 
book xxiv. which was bought at Elephantine, in 1821, by the traveller 
William Eankes, and is also in the British Museum (Cot. Anr. MSS. 
i, pi. 6; Pol. Sue. ii. 153). It was the first Greek literary papyrus 
found in Egypt. A third important MS. of Homer, which has also made 
its way into the national collection (Brit. Mus., Papyrus cxxvi), is the 
papyrus in form of a book, inscribed on the recto side of the leaves with the 
Iliad, from line 101 of book ii to line 40 of book iv. It was discovered 
in the same Crocodile Pit as the Harris Homer, and also belonged to 
Mr. Harris. It is not, however, of early date, being probably as late as 
the third century ; but it has a special interest from the existence, on 
the back of three of the leaves, of a portion of a treatise on Greek 
grammar, which gives an outline of various parts of speech, and which 
bears in its title the name of Tryphon, a grammarian who flourished in 
the latter half of the first century B.C. The treatise, however, is prob- 
ably only an abstract of the work of that writer. Among later acquisi- 
tions by the British Museum is a papyrus, brought from Egypt in 1896. 
containing the greater part of books xiii and xiv of the Iliad (Papyrus 
dccxxxii), of the first or second century. And of great palaeographies! 
value is the fragmentary papyrus of book ii, in large uncial letters 
of the second century, which was found by Professor Flinders Petrie 
at Hawara and is now in the Bodleian Library (Petrie, Hamtra, 1889, 
pi. xxiii). Besides these Homeric papyri, there are others of a frag- 
mentary character : such as the British Museum Papyrus cxxviii, con- 
taining considerable portions of the Iliad, books xxiii and xxiv, and the 
fragments in the Louvre of books vi, xiii, and xviii (Not. et Extr., pis. xii, 
xlix), all of an early period ; and, of rather later date, Papyrus cxxxvi in 
the British Museum, containing portions of books iii and iv. 

A noteworthy addition has been made to classical literature by the 
recovery of several of the orations of the Athenian orator Hyperides. 
The papyrus containing his three orations against Demosthenes and for 
Lycophron and Euxenippus originally must have measured some eight 
and twenty feet, and is, for halt' its length, in unusually good condition. 
It was acquired in separate portions by Mr. Arden and Mr. Harris 



vni GREEK PAPYRI 97 

in 1847. (See editions of Professor Babington, 1850, 1853 ; Cat. AM. J/,s',S. 
i, pis. 2, 3 ; Pal. S<'. i. 126.) It is ascribed to the first century A.D. A fourth 
work of the same author is the funeral oration which he delivered over 
the Athenian general Leosthenes and his comrades, who fell in the Lamian 
war in 323 B.C. (ed. Babington, 1858). The date of this text was formerly 
placed in the first or second century B.C. ; a horoscope of a person born 
in A.D. 95 being inscribed on the other side of the papyrus. But it has 
now been proved that the oration is on the verso side of the papyrus (i.e. 
the side on which the fibres run vertically), and therefore was written 
subsequently to the horoscope in the second century A.D. ; and, further, 
the faults in orthography and the rough character of the writing have 
led to the conclusion that it is a student's exercise. All the papyri of 
Hyperides just enumerated are in the British Museum, as well as the 
concluding portion of an oration, which is believed to belong to the speech 
against Philippides, in writing of the first century B.C. The Museum 
of the Louvre has also been fortunate in securing an important 
papyrus of an oration of Hyperides against Athenogenes, of the second 
century B.C. (ed. E. Revillout, 1892>. 

The large collection of papyrus documents and fragments which 
passed in 1877 into the possession of the Archduke Rainer attracted con- 
siderable attention. Slowly, and with the expenditure of much patience 
and skill, they are being deciphered and published. But sifted, as they 
chiefly arc. from the sand and light soil of the Fayum, the rags and 
tatters of ancient dust-bins, they could not be expected to yield any text 
of considerable extent. The Rainer collection is, however, of very great 
palaeographical importance ; for it covers a wide field, principally of 
the Byzantine period, and provides large material for the history of the 
developement of the minuscule literary script. 

But a more important discovery, as far as palaeography is concerned, 
was that of Professor Flinders Petrie, in 1889-90, at the village of Gurob 
in the Fayum. Here he found that the cartonnage coffins obtained 
from the necropolis were composed of papyri pasted together in layers, 
fortunately not in all instances too effectively. The result of careful 
separation has been that a large number of documents dated in the third 
century B. r. have been recovered. These, together with a few of the 
same century which are scattered in different libraries of Europe, and 
whose early date had not in some instances been recognized, formed, at 
the time of their discovery, the most ancient specimens of Greek writing 
(as distinguished from sculptured inscriptions) in existence above ground. 1 
Besides miscellaneous documents, there are not inconsiderable remains of 

1 These papyri have been published in the Cunningham Memoirs of the Royal Irish 
Academy On the Flinders Petrie Papyri. l>y J. P. Mahafly, with additions and corrections by 
J. G. Smyly. 1891-1905, 1 . 



1181 



98 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

registers of wills, entered up from time to time, and thus presenting us 
with a variety of different handwritings as practised under the early 
Ptolemies. Still more interesting in a literary aspect are the fragments 
of the Pha&lo of Plato, and of the lost play, the Antlope, of Euripides, 
two MSS. written in the literary book-hand of the time, which have 
happily been gleaned from the Gurob mummy-cases. 

These discoveries, of such inestimable value for the history both of 
Greek palaeography and of Greek literature, had been scarcely announced, 
when the world was astonished by the appearance of a copy, written 
about the end of the first century, of Aristotle's treatise on the Constitu- 
tion of Athens, the FIoAim'a T>V 'AfojraiW, a work which had vanished 
from sight more than a thousand years ago. The papyrus containing this 
valuable text came into the possession of the British Museum in the course 
of the year 1890. Like the Funeral Oration of Hyperides, the work is 
written on the back of a disused document, the account-roll of a farm 
bailiff in the district of Hennopolis in Egypt, rendered in the reign of 
Vespasian, A.D. 78-79. Four hands were employed in the transcription, 
the first of which is probably that of the scholar who desired the copy 
for his own use ; for a text written so roughly, and that, too, on the back 
of a waste papyrus, would have had no sale in the market. This recovery 
of a lost classic of such traditional fame cast into the shade all previous 
finds of this nature, however important many of them had been ; and 
very reasonable expectations were raised that the more systematic and 
careful exploration of Egypt in our days would achieve still greater 
results. By the side of the work of Aristotle, other papyri which have 
passed into the British Museum, containing fragments of works of 
Demosthenes, of the second or first century B.C., and of Isocrates of the 
first century after Christ, may appear insignificant ; but the acquisition 
of a papyrus of fair length, restoring to us some of the lost poems of the 
iambographer Herodas, who flourished in the first century B.C., is one 
more welcome addition to the long-lost Greek literature which is again 
emerging into light. 1 

In 1892, chiefly on the site of a village in the Fay urn named j 
nesus a large series of documents was found, ranging from the first 
century to the third century of our era. Most of them are now at Berlin 
but a large number have found their way to the British Museum, while 
others are in the libraries of Vienna and Geneva, and elsewhere. 

Again, in 1896-7, an immense collection of papyri, thousands in 

i Aristotle's noA...'a was published in 1891, together with an autotype facsimile of the 
papyrus; and the poems of Herodas, with collations of other papyri, are printed : 
apical T,xt.Jrn Papyri in tke Briti* M~, 1891 : both works edited by F G Kenyon 
for the Trustees of the British Museum. A facsimile of the papyrus of Herodas has alsc 
been issued. The later literature relating to both works is very extensive. 



vin GREEK PAPYRI 99 



. and ranging over the first six centuries of the Christian era, 
discovered at Behnesa, the site of the ancient Oxyrhynchus, by 
Messrs. Grenfell and Hunt, excavating for tlie Egypt Exploration Fund. 
Here, besides innumerable documents of a non-literary character, a con- 
siderable quantity of fragments of literary works were recovered, among 
them being the now well-known Lojia, or ' Sayings of Our Lord ', of the 
third century, and early fragments of the Gospel of St. Matthew, as well as 
remains of classical authors. Excavations were resumed in the winter 
of 1902-3 with a result no less striking than the former one. Another 
fragment of the Logia ; a portion of the Epistle to the Hebrews, of the 
third or fourth century ; and numerous fragments of lost Greek classics 
have been identified. It is to be noted that, while such extensive deposits 
of Greek papyri are being discovered, very few examples of Latin papyri 
have been found; and it is, therefore, of particular interest that in this 
later instalment from Oxyrhynchus there is a Latin historical text of 
some length, which contains part of an epitome of Livy, in a hand of the 
third century (O.r. l'a/>. iv, no. 668; Ncn" P<d. Soc. 53). Once more, in 
1906, a further excavation at Oxyrhynchus was rewarded by the recovery 
of an unusual number of literary papyri including the Paeans of Pindar, 
the Hi/ji*ij>y!e of Euripides, the 8yiii/>!>*ii.nii of Plato, the Hellenica of, 
perhaps, Cratippus, and others. Selections from this great collection 
are in course of publication in The Oxyrhynchus Papyri by the Egypt 
Exploration Fund. 

A further discovery was made in 1899-1900 by Messrs. Grenfell and 
Hunt on the site of the ancient Tebtunis in the south of the Fayum, 
which yielded a great store of papyri, chiefly of a non-literary character, 
which had been generally used in the cartonnage of mummies and as 
wrappings of mummies of crocodiles. They range from the third 
century B.C. to the third century A.D. : and a portion of them has been 
published in The Tebtunis Papyri, 1902, etc. Again, in 1902-3, mummy 
cartonnages found at Hibeh provided a further collection of both 
literary and domestic fragments, of the third century B.C. (The Hibeh 
Papyri, 1906). 

Two smaller groups of miscellaneous documents have also to be noticed, 
viz. the correspondence of a Roman officer named Abinnaeus, of the middle 
of the fourth century, which has been shared between the British Museum 
and the University of Geneva, in 1892 ; and a collection ranging from the 
second century B.C. to the third or fourth century A.D., acquired by 
the Egypt Exploration Fund and published by that Society (FayAm Towns 
and their Papyri, 1900). 

The collection of papyri at Florence (ed. Vitelli and Comparetti, 
1909-11) has been augmented by the bulk of the correspondence and 
papers of Heroninus, steward of domain lands at Theadelphia, of the 

H 2 



100 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

middle of the third century, which have been found within the last 

few years. 

In 1896 the British Museum acquired a papyrus of the first century B.C., 
containing a large part of the odes of Bocchylides, the contemporary of 
Pindar (edited, with a facsimile, by F. G. Kenyon in 1897) ; and early in 
1902 the oldest literary Greek papyrus as yet discovered was found in 
a coffin of a mummy at Abustr, the ancient Basins, near Memphis, and 
proved to contain a large portion of the Perdue of the poet Timotheus in 
writing which has been estimated to be of the latter half of the fourth 
century B.C. It is now in Berlin, and has been edited, with facsimile, Der- 
Timotheos-Pupyrus (Deutsche Orient-Gesellschaft), by von Wilamowitx- 
Mollendorff, 1903. With this papyrus also came to light a number of 
documents written at Alexandria in the reign of Augustus (ed.W. Schubart 
in the Berlin Griech. Urkunden, iv). A few years later, in 1906, a series of 
very early Ptolemaic papyri, one being of the year 311-310 B. c., was found 
at Elephantine (ed. Rubensohn, 1907). Excavations at Aphroditopolis 
(Kom Ishgau) in 1901 and 1905 brought to light collections of papyri of 
later periods, the most valuable being a codex of Menander of the fifth 
century (edited by its discoverer G. Lefebvre). The greater number of 
the documents discovered in 1901 were acquired by the British Museum 
(ed. H. I. Bell, in Greek Papyri in the B. M. iv. 1910) ; they are most 
valuable as illustrating the Arab period within the narrow space of 

A.D. 698-722. 

Among other early literary papyri of importance may be mentioned 
a portion of a commentary on Plato's Tlieattetus contained in a roll of 
seventy narrow columns now in Berlin, and written in the second 
century, and the commentary of Didymus on the Philippics of Demo- 
sthenes, also of the second century (Berliner Klansikertexte, 1904-5). 
Other remains of Corinna, Sappho, Euripides, etc., are also published in 
the Berl. Klawikertexte, 1907. The longest biblical roll in existence i 
now at Leipzig, containing Psalms xxx-lv, written on the back of accounts 
of A.D. 338 ; and at Heidelberg is a papyrus codex of the Minor Prophets, 
of the seventh century (ed. A. Deissmann, 1905). 

Outside of Egypt, Herculaneum, which was destroyed by an eruption 
of Vesuvius in A.D. 79, is the only place in which Greek papyri have been 
found. Here, in a house which was excavated in the year 1752. a number 
of charred rolls were discovered, which were at first taken for pieces of 
charcoal, many being destroyed before their real nature was recognized 
Almost immediately attempts were made to unroll them ; and with more 
or less success the work has been carried on, at intervals, down to the 
present day. The process is a difficult one ; the hardened crust, into 
which the outer portion of the rolls has been converted by the action of 
the heated ashes which buried the devoted city, must be removed before 






VIII 



GREEK PAPYRI 101 



the inner and less injured layers can be reached, and so fragile are these 
that the most skilful and patient handling is required to separate them 
without irreparably injuring the remains. Copies of the texts recovered 
have been engraved and published in a series of volumes, the Hercu- 
l>i nfit*i<i Yolu.rni nn. printed at Naples. 

In the year 1800, the Prince of Wales, afterwards King George the 
Fourth, undertook the expense of unrolling and copying the papyri ; but 
the work was interrupted by the French invasion of 1806. The tracings 
and copper-plates which had been prepared by his agent were presented 
by the Prince to the University of Oxford in 1810, together with a few 
unopened rolls, part of a number which had been given to him by the 
Neapolitan Government. Four of the latter and the unrolled fragments 
of a fifth were subsequently presented by Queen Victoria to the British 
Museum in 1865 ; and the two remaining also came to the Museum, in 
1900, by gift of King Edward the Seventh. In 1824 and 1825 two volumes 
of lithographs of some of the Oxford facsimiles were published ; and, 
in 1885, others have been given in the Frinjno-nt'i Herculanensia of 
Mr. Walter Scott. But none of the facsimiles in these publications can 
be considered sufficient for palaeographical study, and unfortunately the 
blackened condition of the rolls is such that little can be done by the 
agency of photography. 

Of the Herculanean rolls which have been opened, a large proportion 
are found to contain works of the Epicurean Philodemus, while others are 
the writings of Epicurus and the leading members of his school ; and it 
has been suggested that the principal part of the collection was formed 
by Philodemus himself, and that the house in which it was found was 
that of L. Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus, the patron of the philosopher and 
the father-in-law of Julius Caesar. The papyri would in that case be of 
the first century B.C., the period to which on palaeographical grounds 
they may be assigned. 1 



The Antiquity of Greek Writing 

The most important lesson which we, as palaeographers, learn from 
these ancient papyri is, that, as far back as we can reach, we have side 
by side two classes of Greek writing : the Literary hand or Book-hand, 
in which works of literature were usually (but not always) written, and 
the Cursive hand of everyday life ; that, however remote the date of 
these documents, we find in them evidence that then all sorts and 
conditions of men wrote as fluently as we do now ; that the scribe of 
those days could produce finely written texts ; and that the educated or 
professional man could note down records of daily business with as much 

1 See Kenyon, Palaeogr. of Gk. l''<j'<jri, 71. 



102 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

facility as any of his descendants. And if we find these evidences of 
a wide-spread knowledge of Greek writing so far back as the fourth 
century B.C., and writing, too, of a kind which bears on its face the 
stamp of matured developement, the question naturally arises, to what 
remote period are we to assign the first stage of Greek writing, not in 
a primitive condition, but so far developed as to be a practical means of 
intercourse. There has hitherto rather been a tendency to regard the 
earliest existing Greek inscriptions as the first painful efforts of unskilled 
hands. But it is far more natural to suppose that, almost simultaneously 
with the adoption of an alphabet, the keen-witted Greek trader must 
have profited by the example of Egyptian and Phoenician and soon have 
learned to express himself in writing. It is impossible at least to doubt 
that the Greek mercenaries who were able to cut so skilfully not only 
their names but also longer inscriptions on the statue of Abu Simbel 
some 600 years B.C., were perfectly able to write fluently with the pen. 
But without speculating further on this subject, we may rest content 
with the fact that in the papyri of the fourth and third centuries B.C. 
we have styles of writing so confirmed in their character that there is 
no difficulty in forming an approximate idea of the style of the writing 
of the best classical period of Greece. 

Divisions of Greek Palaeography 

It will here be convenient to state the plan adopted in the following 
sketch of the progress of Greek writing. 

First it is necessary to explain the different terms which are used 
to describe various styles of letters. In both Greek and Latin palaeo- j 
graphy, large letters are called ' majuscules'; small letters, 'minuscules." 
Of large letters there are two kinds: Capitals, or large letters, formed, 
as in inscriptions, chiefly by strokes meeting at angles and avoiding! 
curves, except where the actual forms of the letters absolutely require 
them, angular characters being more easily cut with the tool on hard 
substances such as stone or metal ; and Uncials, a modification of capitals 
in which curves are freely introduced as being more readily inscribed 
with the pen on soft material such as papyrus. For example, the fifth 
letter is E as a capital, and as an uncial. The term ' uncial ' first 
appears in St. Jerome's Preface to the Book of Job, and is there applied 
to Latin letters, ' uiicialibus, ut vulgo aiunt, litteris,' but the derivation 
of the word is not decided: we know, however, that it refers to the 
alphabet of curved forms. 

In early Greek papyri, as well as in early vellum MSS., the ordinary 
character in use is the uncial. But, as will be presently seen, in some 
of the very earliest specimens on papyrus certain of the letters still 
retain the capital forms of inscriptions. And, indeed, at no period did 



via 






GREEK PALAEOGRAPHY 103 

tlu> Greek alphabet evolve so fully the uncial type as did the Latin: 
for example, while in the Latin uncials we have the curved evolutions of 
D and M (b and m), in the Greek the capital forms of delta and mu 
remained practically unchanged. 

.Minuscule, or small, letters are derived from majuscules ; but, althoi 
in early Greek cursive specimens on papyrus we find at once certain 
forms from which the later book-minuscules grew, a full minuscule 
alphabet was only slowly developed. 

In the first place, then, we shall have to examine the progress c 
Greek writing on papyrus : and the courses of the two styles, which have 
already been referred to as the Literary hand or Book-hand and the 
Cursive hand, will be separately followed. The examples of the book- 
hand will first be considered ; next, those in non-literary or cursive 

writing. 

But when we come to the period of the vellum MSS. a new condition 
is imposed. Here we have well defined and distinctive styles of the 
book-hand which had not been developed in the early papyrus period. 
We have first the majuscule literary style, the book-hand in uncial 
letters ; and next we have the minuscule book-hand, evolved from the 
cursive (domestic) hand and forming a class of writing of its own, which 
came into general use for literature in the ninth century. Thus, in the 
vellum period, we have not to do with the cursive hand in general, as in the 
papyrus period, but only with that set and refined form of it which was 
used as a minuscule book-hand, and which is in fact no longer a cursive 
hand properly so called, although it is often so described. Naturally 
the cursive (domestic) writing of the time still continued in use in 
the ordinary affairs of life; and, if sufficient independent material had 
survived, this current hand would have formed a separate division of 
the subject. But no such material practically exists. We have no 
great collections even of Greek charters and documents written^ in 
official cursive hands, such as we have in Latin. We must therefore 
look for the traces of the progress of the Greek cursive hand in the 
middle ages in the more hastily written minuscule literary MSS. which 
may be assumed to be, more or less, in the natural cursive handwriting of 
scholars. Our task, then, in describing the Greek palaeography of the 
middle ages will be first to trace the history of the uncial book-hand in 
the vellum codices ; and then to follow the developement and changes 
of the minuscule book-hand through the later centuries. 



CHAPTER IX 

GREEK PALAEOGRAPHY (continued) 

The Literary hand or Book-hand in Papyri 

OUR first division of Greek writing is the Literary hand or Book-hand 
in papyri ; the character employed being a formal uncial, except in the very 
earliest examples in which a more primitive style, approaching nearer to 
the epigraphic alphabet, is found. The general character of the literary 
hand being thus in closer affinity to the capital alphabet than the more 
independent and fluctuating cursive, the papyri written in the book-hand 
may claim to take precedence. It is not, however, to be understood 
that all surviving literary remains are written in this hand : there are 
exceptions, certain works having been copied out, apparently by scholars 
for their own use, or at least by persons not writing for the book-trade, 
in less formal hands which we must class as cursive. There is, indeed, 
in the case of the early papyri, some difficulty in drawing the line of 
separation between the literary hand and the cursive hand ; for, \mtil 
minuscule characters were in course of time evolved, the general structure 
of all Greek writing, whether literary or non-literary, was uncial. 
Certain documents are written with sufficient care to give them a claim 
to be separated from the cursives, and yet with not enough formality to 
be included under the book-hand. On the other hand, there are one or 
two instances of the formal literary script being used for ordinary 
documents. We would define the literary hand to be of the formal 
type which professional scribes would employ in writing books for the 
market ; and, in the following review of this division, chiefly MSS. of 
that formal type are examined, a few (non-literary) documents in which 
this hand is adopted being also included. 

The number of available literary works written in the literary hand 
on papyrus has been largely increased by the recent discoveries in 
Egypt ; and one of the principal difficulties that beset the palaeographer 
has been thereby considerably lessened. Before these discoveries the 
<lata for arriving at a satisfactory estimate of the periods of the several 
specimens were so scanty that it was with extreme hesitation that one 
ventured to risk an opinion on their approximate age. But now 
so much material has been brought to light that we are better 
aci|Uiiinted with the developement of Greek writing on papyrus and 
can therefore essay nearer accuracy. Still it is to be remembered 
that formal hands must always present more serious difficulties than 



GREEK LITERARY PAPYRI 105 

naturally written hands. Book-hands are artificial and progress with 
a certain uniformity which is naturally averse from change, and on 
which the influence of the natural (cursive) handwriting of the scribe 
works but slowly. Still that influence does effect a gradual change and 
brings about those different phases of book-hand writing which it is 
the palaeographer's business to mark and study and explain. And, as 
it was not" the practice to inscribe the date of production in copies of 
literary works, it is only by such scrutiny and study that, in most 
instances, the true periods can be ascertained. On the other hand the 
study of the cursive documents affords special advantages, for among 
them are a sufficient number bearing actual dates to enable us to check 
the progress of the development of that class of writing by fixed land- 
marks T and the student who masters the history of that developement 
finds his labours lightened when he turns to the study of the literary 
hand. The training of the eye acquired from the patient examination 
of a series of dated documents quickens its faculties to a high degree for 
the study of undated examples, not only of cursive papyri but also of 
those written in the literary hand. 

When we come to study the cursive script in papyri, that form c 
writing will be found to pass through certain phases under the influence 
of the changes in the government of the country, successively by the 
Ptolemies, the Romans, and the Byzantine Empire. And it wil 
that in some measure those phases are reflected in the developement . 
the literary script. 

It is only within recent years that anything of certainty has been 
known reo-arding Greek writing previous to the second century B.C. 
excavations of Professor Flinders Petrie at Gurob, in 1889-90, first put 
us in possession of many valuable specimens both of the literary and 
the cursive scripts of the third century ; and enabled us to identify a small 
number of documents already in European collections, which had been 
assigned to a later date, as belonging to that more remote time. To thes< 
are to be added the papyri recovered more recently at Tebtunis, E 
and Elephantine, of the same period. There was, however, one single 
Greek papyrus known to scholars which was tentatively given to the 
fourth century B.C., viz. the so-called Curse of Artemisia, a document in 
the Imperial Library of Vienna, which will be referred to more fully 
below. But in 1902 a literary work of unusual palaeographical impor- 
tance was discovered at Abiisir, which now takes the first place in the 
series of papyri written in the book-hand. This is the unique papyrus, 
now in Berlin, of the Perdue of Timotheus, which is assigned to the 
second half of the fourth century B.C. 1 

i Edited, with facsimile, by U. von Wilamowit,.-M5llendo,-ff, for the Deutsche Orient- 
<3esellschnft, Leipzig, 1903. A specimen is given in SchuU.rt, Pup. Grate. B 



106 -< 7 

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,;KKKK LITERARY PAPYRI 

Before proceeding todescribe the points of interest in the handwriting 
itself it may first he notiued that the arrangement of the text does not 
conform to the rules observed in later examples. The columns of writing 
are broad and vary in dimensions, ranging from 8 to 11* niches : and the 
text runs on continuously without distinguishing the verses of the poem. 
The sections, however, are marked off with the separating stroke, the 
vapdypajos; but in such instances they are kept quite distinct irom one 
another the first word of a new section beginning with a new line, an 
not following 011 in the concluding line of the previous section, as wo. 
have been the case in later periods. 

No. 1 

The writing is in a firm large square character of the epigraphic style, 
without the curved forms of the uncial type ; even sigma, which quickly 
tended to the semicircular shape, is still the ancient angular letter f.. ( 
letters which call for special notice in points of their construction are 
Ma of a clumsy form, running down to a point at the base ; eptnlo 
with a long head-stroke ; zeta, composed of two parallel horizontal 
strokes close together, connected in the centre by a vertical strol 
scarcely more than a dot; theht, small, with a central dot; iota, often 
thickened on the right side of the head; mu, inclined to breadth; an, 
consisting of three parallel horizontal strokes rather compressed, t 
central one shorter than the others ; pi. having the right leg shortened 
upgUvn with shallow cup ; omegii, showing varieties of the epigraphic n 
tendimr to angular cursive forms (see the Table of Literary Alphabets). But 
while This papyrus places before us the forms of letters of the book-hand 
of the fourth century B.C., and is on that account of the greatest valu 
the handwriting itself is of a larger and rougher character than we 
should expect in the best examples of literary MSS. of the time, 
small neat script of the Phuedo and the A,iti<>i* of the third century, 
which we shall presently examine, postulates at least a corresponding 
neatness of execution in the best examples of the book-hand only some 
half-century earlier. 

As already stated, the only document of this class of wri 
known until 11)02 was the Curse of Artemisia, a roughly written 
papyrus, invoking vengeance on the father of the woman's child 
The" forms of the letters are reproduced in the Table of Alphabets 
and it will be seen that, while they are generally similar to those of 
the Pernue, there are certain variations which may be taken as indica- 
tions of a somewhat later date. In particular the angular epigraphic 

i First described by Petrettini, Papiri Greco-Zgi:i dd I. U. -V" di C;'c (1826', *. wh.. 
give, a verv rough facsimile ; afterwards by Blass in Philologus, xli. 740, and in Mu le 
Mandbuch <to- Muu.sc/.e>. AKertkams-^enxhaft (1886 , i. 280; and again by WeaMi) 1 
Eilfter Jahre^ricM iiter as F,,,r-.7.*M-<,>...,, m !'.-. .1885), 4. A facsimile is gi 
in Pal. Soc. ii. 141. 



108 GREEK AND LATIX PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

slgma has disappeared, and the curved uncial letter takes its place ; 
zeta is not so compressed as in the Persae ; and omega by curving 
upwards the initial stroke shows progress towards the uncial CO. It 
is a curious fact that this document should have been written in the 
book-hand ; and it has been suggested that Artemisia, an ignorant 
woman, jotted down her letters in this form, just as children or un- 
educated people among us write in capitals as the characters which they 
are most accustomed to see in public places. This, of course, is possible ; 
but it is more probable that, if the writer was too ignorant to write in 
the cursive writing of the time, she would not have used her own hand 
at all, but would have had recourse, after the custom of the East, 'to 
a professional scribe. But, however this may be, it is remarkable that 
the only document which has hitherto come to light bearing an actual 
date in the fourth century B.C., a marriage contract of the year 311-310 
found in Elephantine in 1906. is also written in the literary hand, though 
roughly. 1 This, however, may be merely accidental ; and further dis- 
coveries will probably prove that it is so. For there can be no doubt 
that a fluent cursive hand was practised at this time. When we come to 
review the cursively written papyri of the third century B.C., we shall 
see that a finely developed cursive was in full vigour already in the first 
half of that century, which could only have been produced by the 
education of many generations in the active use of the pen. 

The writing of the marriage contract of 311-310 B.C. makes no 
pretence to beauty (see the Table of Alphabets). The letters rather 
slope to the right ; they are generally tall and narrow ; and down- 
strokes, as in -iota, rho, tuu, upsiloii, are often exaggerated. Comparing 
the alphabet with that of the Persae, its inferiority of formation is 
evident; although the construction of individual letters is very similar 
in both alphabets. The contract, however, has the curved uncial sigma, 
as against the epigraphic capital letter of the other MS. 

Reverting to the papyrus of Timotheus, the interesting fact must not 
be overlooked that, in point of date, it may be said to bring us into the 
very presence of Alexander the Great, the conqueror of Egypt in 332 B.C. 
There is no reason to dispute the age assigned to the MS., viz. the second 
half of the fourth century, and, therefore, it is a question whether we 
may not have before us a work actually written in Greece and brought 
thence into Egypt ; for the material employed does not prove that it 
must have been written in the latter country. Papyrus, made up as 
a writing material, was, as we know, largely exported and was widely 
used throughout the civilized world. However, we need not stay to 
debate a point which is beyond definite solution, and we may rest satisfied 
with the important fact that, at least in the forms of its letters, the 

1 Scliubart, Pap. Grave. Berolin. 2. 



IX CREEK LITERARY PAPYRI 10 <J 

/', rw no doubt resembles contemporary MSS produced in Athens and 
other literary centres of Hellas. 

It will be" convenient to record in this place certain literary fragments 
which though placed in the early part of the third century, may poss 
fall within the fourth century B.C., being allied in character of writing 
the Timotheus papyrus and other contemporary examples which we bav 
been discussing. These are a number of small fragments containing 
some lines in tragic iambic verse, identified as from the Oenev 
Euripides, written in small neatly formed characters, among whic 
appear the square-headed qiton,the form of siffma, and especially 
, ' in an archaic shape: the three-stroke letter traversed by a vert. 
1 , u - I * Rather younger than these are the fragments of the Adventures 
of Herack- found with the other papyri at Gurob by Professor I 
Petrie 2 They do not appear to be earlier than of the third century B .* 
but as they are Considered to be rather older than the examples of that 
period which will come next under consideration, this seems 
proper place to mention them. 

Passing to the third century B.C., we must not omit first to notice 
a papyrus of considerable literary as well as palaeographical value, and 
one most useful as a chronological landmark, which is written in t 
book-hand and, moreover, can be approximately dated early in 1 
century It is a single sheet inscribed with the words of drinking 
soncrs (,'Aia), etc., which was found in 1906 at Elephantme-a cast 
awav used as the wrapper of a bundle of documents, the latest of which 
is dated in the second year of Ptolemy Philadelphia The papyrus may 
therefore be, at the latest, of about the year 2K) B.C. 3 Comparing the 
alphabet employed (see Table) with those of the examples of 
century, we find the uncial curved epnilon and sigma. and further pro< 
in the shape of the omeya towards uncial developement. But it shoult 
not be forgotten that, although inscribed in the book-hand, the papy 
is only a scrap of private composition (written in that class of 
presumably because the contents were of a literary nature), and that 
therefore a certain laxity tending towards cursiveness was peruna 

None of this tendency is noticeable in the fragments of two literary 
works discovered at Gurob, viz. the Phaedo of Plato and the An*iopt 
of Euripides-the remains of books manifestly written by prof, 
scribes for the market. 

> These fragments, discovered by Mr. B. P. Grenfell, are now in the British Museum ; 
Papyrus 688. See Grenfell and Hunt. Gk Papyri, ii. 1; and Hib* Papyri, 21. Kemo 
gives an alphabet, compiled from the fragments, in his Pal. Gk. Pap. 

= Now in the British Museum ; Pupyrus 592. See the alphabet m Ptine Papyr, ,. 6. 

3 Miner Klanitort,:!*, v. 2, Taf. viii. Schubnrt. Pap. Grate. EeroUn. 3, place 
300 E c. 



FACSIMILE No. 2 












- 






THE PHAEDO OF PLATO. TIIIKD CENTUUY B.C. 



be fK rcuroiju | [fJ.f]v ava\oapeiv ocrofjL JUTJ avayK.r\ 

CLVTT\V 8 eis (avrr]v a-v\\h.f-yerr6ai KO.L ttOpoifftrOcu Tra.pa.Ke \fve(r[6 ] ,ai. TUfrrfveiv be 
a\\Mi | 77 ow[tj]l on av vor}<rei avri] Ka9 ourrjy | OVT.O Ka]tf avro TI TO>V 



OTL | 8 av 8[t a\\](v O-KOTIIJI e.v aAAois aXAo n 
8|] TO \j.(.v TOIO,VTO\V ai(rdi]Tov | Kat oparov coi 8e 
re Kat at8 ranrft OD[I; ri;t] | Avrm o[^u/c oijo^ffTj Stir 
aATj^to? <f>L\ocro(l>ov | \j/v)(T] OVTW airc^fTaL r<av T\$o\v L <av 
Av:ra)i/ | Ka^ ocror Suvaraft Acr/ 
Av7T7j$ft T) (froprjdfL TJ [e7rt0D/i?j |o7jt 
lav TIS oirjOfirj av | OLOV r\ roarjiras r\ TI 



vo\r]Tov 
TOV coi 



ort tTretaf Tt? ri [afyobpa rjrrdrii | TJ 
Tocroyroy Ka.K.[ov] (^[a^Oev air 



GREEK LITERARY PAPYRI HI 

Tin- papyrus of the Phaedo of Plato may l.e placed in the first half of 
the third century B.C, for it was found in company with official and 
other documents which are actually dated in the reigns of the secom 
uul third Ptolemies: and the latter, we may assume, would naturally 
have been regarded as of a more common and ephemeral character than 
a literarv work of a great writer, and would have l>een thrown aside 
an S period of existence. This beauti.ul MS. (Brit. Mus., Pap. 488 
would surely have been treasured l,y its original owner for many years. 
notforalifetime, and it can only have been by some accident that it was 
at length used up as waste material. The small portion of the Autiope of 
Euripides which has met with the same fate and has descended to us in 
the same war must be practically of the same date. But the writing of 
the latter is not quite so good, and, though there may be little to choc 
between the two MSS.. yet preference may be given to the MS. ot 
(see the Table of Alphabets). The text of the latter is written in narrow 
columns of twenty-two lines, which are from 2* to 3 inches in length. 
The height of the papyrus appears to have been about 8| racl 



No. 2 



The writincr is a very beautiful uncial hand, minute, and exact, the 
chief ^eneral characteristic being the great breadth, almost flatness, o 
nmnvof the letters (e.g. garnet, zeta, eta, mu, pi, omega), as compare 
vith their height. That this is a characteristic of the period, and not 
a personal usage of the writer of the MS., is proved by its prominence 
in other, cursive, documents of the third century B.c.-a characteristic 
which is partially observable in the Pew of the fourth century, and 
which we mav forecast, will be also prominent in the cursive writing 
of that century, whenever good fortune may place us in possession of 
samples. As in the specimens of the preceding century, in cerl 
forms the writing has not adopted the recognized curves of the uncial and 
approaches more nearly to the rectangles of lapidary inscriptions, 
is seen in the alpha, and in many instances of ejxdon m which t 
upper horizontal stroke is perfectly straight and of disproportionate 
length Certain, carved, letters are distinguished by their small size a 
thda, omlkron, sigma, and omega. The last-named letter, we may notice, 
is of the nearly full uncial type. For the study of other particulars, tl 
reader is referred to the Table of Alphabets. 

The Phaedo and the Antiope are the best examples of the classical 
works of the third century B.C. recovered at Gurob. Other f ragmen is 
indeed of that age were found there, notably a considerable piece of 
Laches of Plato, but the latter too much defaced to be of use for c 
purpose and the rest not of sufficient importance to be taken into ac. 



112 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 



^v wrc 



FACSIMILE No. 3 

_E* 



^rrf^^JT- 

'-f r-^r-f of <jcoy-Ae 






--: 



DIALECTICAL TREATISE. BEFORE 160 B.C. 



(vai OD aA/c|uai> o WOU/TJJS | OVTWS aiKf^aivfro OD,K TJJ airjp aypoiKOs oi)8e 

os oTro ( <^ati'Oir ai> TLS bfvr e/x 77e8oj i/nt ou6 aoroto-t [ wpoo-Tj^Tjs ov ajm- 
ourcos aii((f>iivaTO ov Seure f/j.7:e8oy i'/it ov8 aorota-t -npocrr] vr\<s vat ov 
a 7TO<aiz'oir a^ ny 8v 

rt 0eto 8i;o fxoi ra ror;jua|ra aTreffxio-Kfv V oi8' orrt | ^eco 8vo juot TO vormara | et 
o ourtoj a7re|</)a<TKev DDK oi5 orrt 6 a> 8vo /xoi ra ro?;/xajra etrrti; rt 
e. TIKOV a[]ico//a avTt|KC(fieifOV root CVK ot 8 OTTI dfu 8t)o juot Ta [ rorj/xara j'at 

ov e(7 TLV rt Ka.Ta<l>aTiKov) 



ix GREEK LITERARY PAPYRI 113 

for illustration of the book-hand. 1 There is, however, at Berlin, a well- 
preserved fragment of the Phacthon of Euripides of the same class of 
near, small handwriting. 2 

Having, then, before us the three papyrus MSS., the Persae, the 
Plaeilo, and the An1l<>/n-. supported by the contemporary documents 
which have been quoted, to represent the most ancient Greek literary 
writing extant, we may consider ourselves fortunate in being in possession 
of even so much material of a marked style on which to base our know- 
ledge of the book-hand of the hundred years lying within 350 and 
250 B.C.: so marked, indeed, as to be unmistakable, when once we have 
mastered the principles of its structure. 

Here, then, we leave the third century B.C., and we have to pas- over 
a gap of about a hundred years before we can resume the thread of our 
inquiry in the first half of the second century. Of this period we meet 
with an example in a fragmentary dialectical treatise, now in Paris, 
which was written earlier than the year 160 i;.c., as proved by the 
existence on the back of it of memoranda of that year (Xot. ct A',///'., 

pi. xi, no. 2). 

No. 3 

In this text advance in details is observable on the older style of the 
third century B.C. The hand is altogether uncial. The alpha has lost 
all trace of the capital formation with the horizontal cross-bar : now it 
is formed in two strokes, the first an angle (in many instances slightly 
looped), the second a downward oblique stroke more or less curved ; 
fliifU'.ni and fi'jnui both curved ; omega of the full uncial type. On the 
other hand the archaic form of :eta in some measure survives, tin- 
connecting central bar, while oblique, keeping well within the extremi- 
ties of the horizontals, so that the letter is still far from the later Z-form ; 
and xi is still the three- stroke letter. But it is perhaps unfortunate, 
for purposes of comparison, that the writing is in a sloping hand. 
and that the MS. thus loses something of the squareness and stately 
procession, if we may use the term, which we naturally connect with our 
idea of a book-hand ; and that in the setting of this text, as it has been 
observed, ; a certain concession to the cursive style is discernible.' " The 
effect on the eye is, perhaps, heightened by the tendency of the columns 
to trend very perceptibly to the left : that is, the marginal line of writing 
is not vertical, but each successive line begins a little 7iiore to the left 
than the one above^it, with the result that the last line may stand as much 
as an inch outside the true perpendicular. 

1 See Kenyon, Pal. nk. l\tp. 63. 

- Sehubart, Pap. Grace. Berolin. 4 b. 3 Kenyon, Pal.. Gk. Pap. 67. 



114 



GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 



CHAP. 



FACSIMILE No. 4 



. . ^. . . 







HYPERIDES AGAIXST ATHENOGENES. SECOND CENTURY B.C. 

aXArjXois cmfi^3aX\ov<ni' oraj; ru | 7701X7} i aj'SparoSoj; -npoXtyeiv tav 
| appwoTTjpia fi 8[e ft]j arayooyi) TOUTOD ejortj; xairot OTTOII ra wa/ia 



ye Trapa aov a8i Krj/xara crDtrKfuao-^eira OUK avaSf I KTfoi' <rot eoriv aXXa /J.JJV 
ai'SpaTroSoi' ov Trpocra-no\\v\ei TOV Tipiap-fvov TI]V ovffiav o 



crv 



raw 



TO 

8e 
crK(\j/ai 8e 



novov 



oiKtrcoj; aXXa xat Tr 



ix CHEEK LITERARY PAPYRI 115 

The second century B. c. is also represented by the unique papyrus of 
the oration of Hyperides against Athenogenes, which was acquired by 
the Louvre in 1888. 1 It is placed in the second half of the century ; 
and it affords a striking contrast to the Dialectical Treatise in its general 

aspect. 

No. 4 

The writing is carefully formed and in some respects is rather in- 
clined to be ornamental. The letters are upright and spaced out with 
regularity, and, in regard to size, are mostly made in body to fill the full 
bulk of the line of writing. Alpha generally reverts to the old capital 
shape, with horizontal cross-bar ; beta, delta, eta, mu, nu, pi are all of the 
formal type. On the other hand :eta. while sometimes using a modified 
old form, is usually of the Z-shape : e/>*!lon, ///". omikron, .-ii/nm more 
than usually circular : si still of the three-stroke pattern, but tending 
to ornamentation: omega the full uncial. When we place this hand- 
writing side by side with the older hands of the third century, at one 
glance we see how great has been the change wrought by the lapse of 
a century and a half. The later hand is no longer of the vigorous, if 
irregular, type which, in our opinion, displays more character than the 
style to which the writing of the Hyperides is tending, that is, one of 
careful exactness aiming rather at calligraphic effect and restraining 
natural freedom in order to attain to even regularity. 

The exact style just referred to, as it developed in the first century r,. . .. 
is well illustrated by the script of the papyri recovered at Herculaneum. 
The terminus ante quern of the latter is, as we know, A. D. 79, the year of 
the destruction of the city ; but the character of the writing indicates an 
earlier date. It has been pointed out that many of the papyri contain 
works, some even in duplicate, of the Epicurean philosopher Philodemus. 
a contemporary of Cicero, and that nearly all the rest are copies of the 
writings of Epicurus or are generally of a philosophical nature ; and 
hence it has been suggested that the collection may have been part of 
the library of Philodemus himself. 2 This view seems to be by no means 
improbable and it receives support from the appearance of the writing, 
which has been placed rather before the middle of the first century B.C. 3 
The deplorable condition of the original fragments, blackened and 
wrinkled by the heat of the volcanic eruption, makes it difficult to pre- 
sent a very legible specimen, but the accompanying reproduction of two 
fragments of Metrodorus 7!f t >l a(V0?jo-eo>r, with the aid of the Table of 
Alphabets, will enable the student to judge of the character of the 
book-hand of that age. 

1 Edited, with facsimile, by E. Revillout, Lc Plaido'j' r </'//i-/.Vide contre A IS92. 

- V\*. Scott, Fnigmu-t'u U. . 11. ' Kenyon, Pal Gk. Pup. 7 

I 2 



116 



GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 



CHAT. 



IO 

6 

w 
S 




IX CHEEK LITERARY PAPYRI 117 

No. 5 

In general structure the writing of this MS. resembles the Hyperides 
(Facs. 4) in the upright and regularly-spaced lettering, evenly sized so as 
to fill the line of writing. But on comparing the individual letters the 
advance in the Herculanean script is evident. The three alphabets in the 
Table, viz. one from the Hyperides and two from Herculanean papyri of 
Philodemus and Metrodorus, show a fairly close alliance in most of the 
letters. The differences appear in the alpha, which in the younger MSS. 
are of the uncial formation, often with the little loop at the left angle, 
like the letter seen in the Dialectical Treatise. Coming down to mu, the 
older and simpler form of the letter, as seen in the Hyperides, breaks 
down in the Herculanean examples, where it fluctuates towards the 
cursive ; and although in most of the rolls the old pattern of xi, written 
in three distinct strokes, prevails, yet the more current form, in which 
the middle and lower strokes are connected and the letter is thus written 
by only two actions of the pen, is of fairly frequent occurrence. 1 Here then 
are interesting indications, in the case of mu as well as of xi, of a break- 
ing away from the strictly formal lettering of the artificial writing of 
the book -hand to the natural writing of the cursive. As we proceed in 
our task we shall find this tendency not uncommon at all periods and 
in all forms of literary script, Th natural cursive hand is, us it were, 
ever watching for its opportunity to take the scribe unawares, and to 
slip into the ranks of the artificial hand. The Herculanean papyri, then, 
may be regarded as occupying a transitional stage towards the close of 
the Ptolemaic period, and demonstrating in the cursive tendencies of the 
two letters referred to the natural law of decadence inherent in any 
artificial system. 

At this point we have to examine a M.S. which, apart from its literary 
value, has a particular interest on account of the type of its writing 
a type quite unlike the regular, even, and carefully spaced style which 
we have just now been considering. This MS. is the unique papyrus of 
the poems of Bacchylides (Brit. Mus., Pap. 733) which has been placed by 
Sir F. G. Kenyon, its editor, in the middle of the first century B.C. 

No. 6 

Hitherto no other MS. of exactly the same character has been re- 
covered. It has in the forms of its letters so much nearer relation to the 
hands of the third century n.C. that it almost seems as if it represented 
a reversion to the older type and a reaction from the exact and rather 
calligraphic style of writing which had been developing since the second 
century. This archaistic rendering of forms is conspicuous in the small 

1 See Kenyon, The Palaeography of the Herculaneum Papyri in Festschrift far Theoanr 
r erz, 1902. 



118 



FACSIMILE No. 6 



> 



irrnr^ t ^rt 

r H ^ 



, 






t.!<J.f-H- 






I'KI-f 
C-fXt/j} 

<tr? 
n^.-r^t/^f HO-M 



n 



no p- f "r-j 



'. - 1 / 









M n * 



H ^ T TT~ 












BACCHYLIDES. FIRST CK.VITKY B.C. 



GREEK LITERARY PAPYRI 119 



-nornv 
a(para 8' fpya. Xeyei Kparawv 

TOV VTifpfiiOV T' (TTOpV 

os i(r\v'i <'praTO? 
Gvartav i)v K/ioviba Xvraiov 
creicrt-xOoros TIKOS' 

ffVV T avbpOKTOVOV 1' I'd 

Tf 



rav re KtpKVovos 

e<r%(v noXvxi'ifjiovos re 

<T(f)Vpav (tj3a\\ev -potto 

Trras aptiovos TVJ(II>V 

(/cores' TO.VTOL 8f8ot)( oirat 

Tiva 5' ffj.fji.(v iroOff avbpa TOVTOV 

Aeyei' rtra re 0-70X01" 

v 

vvv jToXe/uTjioi? o 
arpaTLav ayovra 
7) novvov aw 
xeti' (fJLiTOpov 6 



re KOI aX/a/xoi' 
a)8e xat Qparrvv 6s rourcoj/ 
ai'Qpfuv Kaprepov aOtvos 

0fo<i avror opjj.ai 



ov yap patSior atcv ep 
Soira p.?) vrv\(iv 
TraiT* e; 1 ra)i SoXi^cot 
8vo ot </>&>re fjLor 
Xeyet wepi <atSip.oi<n 8' 



8e 8u' 



120 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

and narrow epstton and sigma ', in the small theta and omikron ; in 
the early shapes of zeta and xi ; and in the flattened, shallow mu and 
<>inr : /<i. The date assigned to this MS. has not passed unchallenged; and 
t\vo fragments among the Oxyrhynchus papyri, which have been placed 
by the editors in the second century of our era, are cited as examples of 
similar and contemporaneous writing. These fragments are no. 26 
(0. P., vol. i, pi. vii), from the Il/joofyua gjj/xijyopiKd of Demosthenes, and 
no. 665 (0. P., vol. iv, pi. i), from a History of Sicily. They certainly 
resemble the Bacchylides in general type of writing, but they do not 
appear to be so early ; and it is open to question whether they themselves 
are not of an earlier date than that to which they are assigned, namely 
of the first rather than of the second century. 1 If this be so, the papyrus 
of Bacchylides may then remain where it has been placed, in the first 
century B.C. However, having regard to the scanty material available, 
it seems wiser to suspend final judgement until further examples of the 
same class of writing are forthcoming. 

We return to the direct line of developement, resuming examination 
of the more exact and evenly spaced book-hand which we have seen in 
the papyrus of Hyperides and the examples from Herculaneum, inclining 
to a formal calligraphic type. First, the student may be referred to the 
papyrus containing the last two books of the ll'uid (British Museum, 
Papyrus cxxviii), a facsimile from which is given by Kenyon. Classical 
T, ./*, pi. viii. The MS. is ascribed to the second half of the first century 
B.C., that is, rather later than the Herculanean fragments. The text, 
evenly spaced, and as far as possible precisely formed to fill the full body 
of the line of writing, as in the earlier papyri just mentioned, is extremely 
delicate, the letters being composed of finely inscribed strokes, and, in 
construction, the body of each one lying within the boundaries of an 
imaginary square : a mark of advance, as compared with the broad 
formation of the early centuries, and characteristic of the period at which 
we now arrive, entering on the time of the Roman occupation towards 
the close of the first century B. c. 

Here a papyrus (Brit. Mus., Pap. cccliv) which can be precisely dated 
comes into view and affords a most valuable criterion for the book-hand 
of this time. It is not a literary document, but a petition of certain 
farmers addressed to the prefect of Egypt, Gaius Tyrrhanius, and the 
date is ascertained to correspond to either 15. or 10, or 7 B.C. The 
script is not cursive, as might perhaps have been expected, but a care- 
fully formed set-hand, nearly equal to the best type of book-hand ; the 
petitioners having followed an excellent practice, which has probably 
obtained in all periods of civilized human history, of writing with 
extreme legibility when asking a favour. 

1 Cf. Kenyon, Pal. Gk. P,/p. 70, 77. 



IX 



GREEK LITERARY PAPYRI 



121 



FACSIMILE No. 7 




PETITION*. ABOUT 10 B.C. 



TO* TOD TTKTOlTOy KOl TOV TOVTUV VLOV TTtlTOlTOS TltlV O77 

pytoi' K.O.I y\f]jj.TSTOptav TLVMV upartKooi' (ba<p<av Tf\o 

i' am KO.T ro$ is \oyoi' t o> KOI apy - a<f> KOI ez/ T?;I- 
ia 5e TO 



DIJ.OV abiaaiiKtov KOI atfi aTroorartKcorepoj; (ppovow 
-Hu>v fTnipeiav ixarcos a7a)8tK7)/xi'oi en TI/V e^ ov SIK 
fletaj ira ivyjuptv COTTIS yap Kat (077ts a^orepot TrtToo- 
ot tOap<Ti)<rav eTTiSorres xopou) TCDI eu'KrTOTrjo-ai'Ti ra)2 
(paa-KovTfS TOV irarfpa O.VTMI- (K. TOV t}V \uQtOTOKtV 
nrfv KaTavTavTes bf xai a-oAoyTjirafieroi e({>ai"i]fj.fv ra> 
a<ra)ores ^r; ff js e^onjo-airo ?]fxcor re Kat TOV nopbov - 
rojuons TO) f 7 )" awous Kii)8wev<rai oia TO 
\j/av oe TOVTCO o-wXeAi-o-^at Trpii- 7) 8e T7)9 

tT airou J3p(i<ru>va ov 



122 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 

No. 7 

The writing of this document, again, has the characteristics of regu- 
larity and even spacing, the letters, as far as the nature of their formation 
will permit, being fairly kept to one scale, so as not to rise above or sink 
below the line of writing and at the same time to fill it. Thus at this 
stage of the formal hand we see, for example, the letters theta and omikron 
not suffered to run large or small, but formed on the pattern of the 
epsilon and sig-rna, that is, occupying the line of writing with a full 
circle; and, again, the letters rho and upeUon not allowed to straggle 
below the line. In a word, the only letters passing the bounds are phi 
and jtsi, which from their nature cannot be so easily restricted. 

The' script of the petition is resembled so nearly by that of book iii 
of the Odytsey in the British Museum Papyrus cclxxi, that there can be no 
hesitation in fixing the date of the latter MS. at the same period as the 
petition, that is, at the end of the first century B.C., or at the very 
beginning of the first century of our era. 

No. 8 

The writer of this MS. was even more skilled than the writer of the 
petition, and may be regarded as an expert, capable of producing the 
best examples of the book-hand for the literary market. There is a cer- 
tain amount of ornamental calligraphy in touching off with little fimals 
or thickenings which indicate much practice and readiness with the pen. 
The letters are very accurately spaced and great endeavour is evident to 
make the lines of writing uniformly even. It may also be noticed that 
the horizontal cross-bar of ep*ilon and theta is level and stands high m 
the body of the respective letters. A comparison of the alphabets of the 
two papyri, showing little variation, satisfies us of their practically con- 
temporaneous execution. The genera) expression of the hands is one of 
roundness, produced not only by the more exact formation of the letters 
which are based on the circle, viz. </ >-H<>, ,, theta, omikron, sigma, phi, but 
also by the increasing cursivoness of alpha, in which the left lower angle 
is frequently converted into a curve, and of mu. The three-stroke xi 
has now disappeared and gives place to the cursive letter formed in 
one stroke of the pen. 

This studied type of writing was probably practised, ordinarily, for 
literary purposes, with little variation through the course of the first 
century A. D. We may notice the fragments of a roll containing Pindaric 
Lyric poetry in this style, found at Oxyrhynchus (0. P., no. 659, vol. iv, 
pis. iii, iv), which may be of the first half of the century ; and also the MS. 
of Isocrates On the Peace (Brit. Mus., Pap. cxxxiii), the first portion of 
which is in a hand of this kind but later in the century : a good hand, 



IX 



GREEK LITERARY PAPYRI 



123 



F \CSIMILK XO. 8 




KO.I epvv(avTO 
opo[vro] 



ODYSSEY III. ABOUT A.D. 1 

(ot 5 

baivvvO 

oivov fvoivo\otvi-Ts 

avrap eirei TTOO-IOS icai 57}Tvos f^ (pov tvro 

8e fiv^tov TJPX* yep'ji'ios nnfora vecrT cop, 
xot aye T7)Xfp- a X C0 ' KO\XiTpixs w^o[u 
app-ar ayorres tra irpijo-o-Tjo-ii' 0801 o 
ot 8 apa rot- 

8 Cev^ay v(/> ap^airiv wxeas IWTT oi 
8 ur?) ra/^irj ai/rov 



re ota 



ai> 8 apa TijAe/naxos TreptKaAAea p^ntro 
wap 8 apa i>eoropi8js TTfio-ttrTparos opxafxos [avdpwv] 
8 ar/3aire KOI ?;rta Aafero 









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GREEK LITERARY PAPY1M 1W 

but showing a certain slackness which may be regarded as M mark of 

advance. 1 

Our next specimen is selected from tin- --rout papyrus containing the 
three speeches of Hyperides. against Demosthenes and for Lycophron and 
Knxenippus (lirit. Mus., Papp. cviii, cxv),and shows a section of tin- text 
near the end of the third oration. By the light gained from more recent 
discoveries, this papyrus is now placed late in the first century of our 
era, rather than in the preceding century to which it was formerly 

assigned. 2 

No. 9 

At the first glance the eye is pleased by the easy flow of the writing 

and its general, gracefulness. It is, indeed, in the best stylo of the time. 

Comparing it with the writing of the 0,/,/w'/ of perhaps some eight or 

nine decades earlier, one perceives some loss of the exact setting of that 

ample and a more unstudied ease : and yet, notwithstanding, there is 

no weakness in the hand, which runs an even and well sustained course 

from end to end of the papyrus. In structure the individual letters are 

not very different from those of the Oily>.-c;/, but have rather more easy 

] .lay in the strokes. We see the a!/Jtn with curved, not angular. 1 ow quite 

established. The horizontal bar of e/<>/7 // and of th?ta is set high in the 

letter, as in the other MS. Of the letters which had become normally 

confined to the limits of the line of writing, it is noticeable that l>et<! alone 

shows an obstinate tendency to out-top the rest. (At all times in the 

papyrus period that letter appears to have caused more or less trouble to 

the scribes ; perhaps the double bow was an inconvenience which induced 

impatience and led to malformation and exaggeration.) And particular 

attention is to be drawn to a tendency to draw down the head of */>//<> 

in a decided curve, especially when the letter stands at the end of a 

line. This is only another instance of invasion by a cursive form, and 

indicates progress. 

An exception to the round-hand style is found in the Harris Homer 
(Brit. Mus., Pap. cvii), which is now placed in the first century A. D.. 
instead of in the preceding century according to former opinion. 

No. 10 

The papyrus takes its name from the first owner, after it was 
recovered in 1849-50, Mr. A. C. Harris of Alexandria ; and it contains 
book xviii of the Iliad, with certain imperfections. It is much discoloured 
and, for that reason, does not lend itself favourably to reproduction. 
The chief characteristics of the writing are its uprightness, if anything 
rather inclining to the left, and the lightly touched and delicate formation 
of the letters. Attention may in particular be drawn to the narrow 

1 Kenyon, Classical Texts, pi. iv. - Kenyon. 1'al. Gk. Pap. 87, 88. 



FACSIMILE No. 10 




vat 8rj raura ye 



HAKRIS HOMER. FIRST CENTURY 

/Li epvxe fxax^js <pi\toviTa irep ov8e 
flerts /cara 
ov f.Ti}TVjj.ov ov KO.KOV 

ajj.vvfiJ.(ii amw o\fdpov 
a\\a TOL fvrea KaAa /nera Tp<aeffaLV tyjavrai 

TO. jj.fv K.opvdaio\os fKT(ap 
TTI <povos eyyvQfv aurcot 

aAAa o-u fiet' fx?) TTCO Karabvcrfa /xcoAoi' af/T)OS 
Trpiv y (fJ.e Seupo (Xdovvav ev cKpOaXpoicnv 
rj[u>]dev yap ve^ai afj, TjeAtan O.VIOVTL 
Tf[v]^fa KaAa (fxpovaa nap ytpaitrTOio 
tos apa (pwviia-aaa r.a\tv rpcxpfO Vios 
Kat (rrpecpdfiiT aA)tcrt nacn.ym]Tt]cn 
rj\j.fis jJifv vw Sure OaXacrcrris fvpfa KO\T>OV 
ti/xt Trap rjffiaia-Tov K\VTOT(-^I^I' at K tQ(.\t]iijiv 
vifi [e]/nan (lopevai K\VTO. 
cos <$a0 1)770 Kt'p.a daXacrnris avrtK 
ri 8 OUT ovhvfj.-01-be 9ea 



1 For the sake of clearness, the corrections and accents inserted by a later hand ;ire not 
noticed in this transcript. 



GREEK LITERARY PAP Y HI 

two and the flattened omega: forms, during from the orthodox 
book-hand characters, which have already been met with in the Bacchy- 
lides Like the latter MS., and one or two others of somewhat 
type' the Harris Homer occupies a position rather off the direct line 

Near the close of the first century a MS. of great interest comes before 
us the >A0r,rai'" IIoAir'of Aristotle (Brit. Mas., Pap. cxxxi),the palaec 
rrkphical value of which is chiefly due to the fact that it can be assign,,! 
^ a period within narrow limits. It is written on the back of son,,. 
disused farm account-rolls of the year 78-79. which, from their ephemeral 
nature, would probably have ceased to be of any use and would have 
been discarded as waste paper within a few years of this date A deead 
of years seems to be a fair allowance of time to have elapsed before the 
papyrus was put to its second use: and we may therefore pretty safely 
place the writing of the Constitution within the first century, about A.D. 
90 The text is in four hands, having been apportioned to as many 
writers, who worked presumably under pressure of time; and unfo 
tunately only one of them (the second) wrote a form ot writing wh 
perhaps only by courtesy, can be called a book-hand. 

No. 11 

It is worth while to give a specimen of this hand, for it is instructive 
to see the kind of writing which might be employed to produce at 
for private use by a copyist who could write the book-hand, but who. in 
the circumstances, did not keep to the formal type winch would my. 
been required in a MS. written for the market, and did his work 
a neMirent style, forming his letters loosely and allowing his pen t 
lapse more or less into cursive. This negligence shows itself especially 
in the fluctuating shapes of e^siloa and eta, ranging from the formal 
uncial to the cursive letters, and in the occasional hurried looping c 
first limb of lambda and tt. 

Another instance of a work written in the first or second century 
without any pretension to calligraphy, is the papyrus of the Mwux 
Herodas (Brit. Mus, Pap. cxxxv). But as the writing is not that 
expert scribe, and is, in fact, a rough and ready script, not connected 
with what may be called the orthodox book-hand, it is enough to men- 
tion it as probably an example of the cheap, if not home-made, schol 
copies which appear to have become more common from this time forwai 

A very favourable example of the orthodox hand, carrying on i 
tradition, is found in the papyrus of the Iliad, xiii and xiv (Brit. Mus.. 
Pap dccxxxii). which is likewise placed at the end of the first 
in the second century. 2 written in the best style, neatly and unit, 
with delicate penmanship. 

issued by the British Mus,um, 1892. See Kenyon, Cta 'l - <* 

- ' 



, )( Kenyon, Pal. '/,-. P.i/>. '> 



128 




GREEK LITERARY PAPYRI 



120 



F*AflRTlf ITVR 'N'o 1 * 







ILIAD XIII. FIRST OR SECOND CENTURY 

/3a\(v i)i p (j(f TO^OV tvt;oov fK 8 apa TOOV 

ia xetpos eA/jXaro x a Ai<eoj' y 
ai/' 8 traptav as (Bros e\aeTO KI]/> 



(cai TO jxv ex 

avnjv be vi>fbi](rev vorpo</)coi oios aeortoi 

r^ij r\v apa 01 dtpairiai' e^e -noi^fvi \a<av 
8 i 6v^ \j.tvi Aaoi) xt^aAt/^oio 

iairpo 8uj'7)<raro )(aA/coi' Aacr<rai 
yap o-aKoy upv KarfK\aa-6ri 8 fi't 
^ e <f>pfmv rjto-t x a P 7 ) Kal ffAnero 

xai tpvava/Jievos t(pos apyvpoi]\ov 
aAr <7Tt 77io-ar8p<oi o 8 



a/xa 8 aAAi/Aajv e<l>LKOi>TO 
?jroi o /nef Kopv^os (f>a\oi' ij\acrfi> 
a/cpoi' U77O Xcxpov avrov o 8e Trpoaioi'ra jMra>770/' 

pfll'OS VTltp 77D^iaT7/J AttKf 8 OfTTea TO) 8f 01 OTITf) 



130 



GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 



The writing is very upright, with even some tendency to slope back- 
wards. Comparing it with that of the Odyssey above and taking 
a .eneral view of the two hands, the advance in the Ihad is percept.l 
in & the compression of the writing and consequent loss of even spaci 
so marked a characteristic of the older MS. This compression or close 
packing seems to be induced by the backward slope given to so many c 
the strokes, and the same reason may account for the scribe s tendency 
to make the cross-stroke in alpha, epvilon, and theta oblique, 
individual letters are generally restrained, and even archaistic in certs 
forms e.g alpha reverts to the old capital shape with cross-bar, a 
zeta not unfrequently shows the old style, with the oblique stroke meel 
the lower horizontal in the middle. These peculiarities, however, mu 
be regarded only as affectations of the scribe ; for we have to set aga, 
them such undoubted later forms as seen in mu and xt. 

Before entering on the second century, the period in which the book- 
hand in papyri may be said to decline from the exactness of the earlier 
examples, we may pause for a moment to consider the situ 

In the fourth century B.C. we found a literary hand, not of the finesl 
type indeed, but, though rough, still vigorous. Further discoveries 
put us in possession of better written examples than the one which iep e- 
sents that century in the Pertae of Timotheus ; and we have ^httle doubt 
that this will be so, for the refined style exhibited in the MS, 
third century must have covered some decades at least m course of 
development and postulates a proportionate refinement in the older 
period The style of the third century B.C. is free and, in a sense, natii 
[hat is, the individual letters are not cast into uniform moulds but , 
allowed to keep to the relative proportions which they had dev 
in natural course. But in the second century B.C. the process of uniform 
moulding had commenced, and thence the direct line of developeinen of 
the book-hand produced, at the commencement of the Roman period of 
government in Egypt, a careful round-hand, in which as far as possible 
She several letters ranged in size of body, so as to fill with fair uniformity 
the line of writing. This style had become the characteristic book-hand 
at the time of th! Christian era, and appears to have maintained itseli 
fairly well for the next hundred years. Other styles we have .Is. 
indicated. The style of the Bacchylides may be as has been suggested 
an archaistic copying of the MSS. of the third century B. o lh 
style of the Harris Homer, not so distinctive, we can only desc 
as a variety, prompted perhaps as a more facile hand and more 
quickly wriU en Both styles indicate independent reaction Irom what 



ix GREEK LITERARY PAPYRI 131 

we have termed the orthodox book-hand of the time. In the second 
century of our era our material is considerably increased. No doubt 
greater literary activity prevailed ; and, with that activity, naturally 
there was a greater variety of scripts. In general character we shall 
see the book-hand decline. The careful accuracy, which has been 
noted as characteristic of the beginning of the Roman period, gives place 
to a more hurried and looser formation, except, of course, in those 
examples which were designedly produced as efforts of calligraphy ; and 
we find styles of writing developed which are the outcome of the 
literary act ivity referred to, and which appear to have reacted on the regular 
book-hand. The collection of papyri from Oxyrhynchus in particular 
is most instructive in providing us with a number of handwritings of 
various styles, particularly of the second and third centuries, generally 
the writings of scholars, none of them conspicuous as specimens of 
calligraphy, and many of them inscribed on the verso of disused papyri. 
Such, for example, is no. 841 (vol. v, pis. i-iii), Pindar's Paeans, written 
early in the second century on the verso of documents of the previous 
century ; and, as well-written MSS., may be cited the two copies of 
Plato's Phaedrus, no. 1017 (vol. vii, pi. vi) and no. 1016 (vol. vii, pi. v), 
assigned respectively to the second or third, and the third, century. 
In this period a small style of hand seems to have come into favour, no 
doubt for convenience and speed in writing : such, for example, as 
no. 853 (vol. vi, pi. iv), a commentary on Thucydides, written on the 
back of documents of the second century, in an upright and neat, but 
not calligraphic, hand ; and again, no. 843 (vol. v, pi. vi), Plato's 
Symposium, in a regular hand but of ordinary character, also of the 
end of the second century. Further, a mark of progress and haste is 
the increasing tendency to write in sloping letters, breaking away from 
the older tradition of the more leisurely upright hand. This style 
asserted itself in the second century, and in the course of the third cen- 
tury became a recognized form of literary hand, and. in a calligraphic 
cast, appears as a book-hand for MSS. produced for the market. Instances 
of this class of literary hand are no. 852 (vol. vi. pis. ii. iii). the Hypsipyle 
of Euripides, in a small, rather fine writing, slightly sloping, of the second 
century ; no. 842 (vol. v, pis. iv, v), the Hellenica, perhaps of Cratippus, 
written on the verso of disused papyrus in a small sloping hand, rather 
restrained, of the second or third century ; no. 33 (vol. i, pi. vii. the Laws 
of Plato, in a fairly good hand of the same style, of the third century ; 
and especially no. 223 (vol. ii, pi. i), the Iliad, book v, written excel- 
lently well, early in the third century, to which there will be occasion to 
refer below. Again, a good example of a hand sloping rather backwards, 
which recalls the style of the Harris Homer, appears in a fragment of 
the Ko'Aa of Menander (no. 409, vol. iii, pis. ii, iii), of the second century ; 

K 2 



132 



GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 



CHAP. 






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P :U:S ^ ^ ,, 



o 

K ' 

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M 



."5 .. 

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c W'T. N ^ -* p" ~ w / r r 

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^ " / P 7-^ " < * ** V 

rS?i-4:E^tr^Hi x 

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Ili^SfllH^i 

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O' O 'i h* O 1 ^ A .'< L, t~" * 4 iC vi). 



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ix GREEK LITERARY PAPYRI 133 

and another, of somewhat like character, in no. 9 (vol. i, pi. iii), Aristo- 
xenus on metre, of the early third century. 

We now proceed on our course. But it will be convenient, for the 
moment, to pass over certain examples which will require separate treat- 
ment, as belonging to a branch through which can be traced more clearly 
the connexion of the book-hand of the papyri with the book-hand of 
the vellum codices. 

To illustrate the papyrus book-hand of the second century, in the 
direct line, we select a facsimile from the remarkably fine MS. contain- 
ing a commentary on the Theuetetw of Plato, now in Berlin (_Y< >' l'<tl. 
,Soc. 103). 

No. 13 

The writing, it will be seen, is of a good fluent style, by a well skilled 
hand, easy in its action. There is a slight tendency to ornamental finish. 
as might be expected of so ready a penman as the scribe must have been. 
Comparing it with the earlier examples, e.g. the Odyssey (Facs. 8) and 
the Iliad (Facs. 12), there is here evident a greater breadth in the 
formation, and a wider spacing, of the letters. It is this breadth and 
increased freedom, as compared with the more precise regularity of the 
older examples, that give the impression of progress ; for in the actual 
structure of the individual letters there is very little variation. Indeed, 
the difficulty, in such an instance as the present one, of judging of the age 
of book-hand papyri is very great ; for the number of examples is com- 
paratively limited, and they have to be distributed over so large a space 
of time, that it is only when certain of them can be grouped within not 
too wide a period and can therefore individually give support to each 
other in the sequence assigned to them, that we can be said to be standing 
on fairly firm ground. Then the eye acquires a familiarity with' the 
character of the writing and its subtle changes, and the palaeographer 
developes a kind of instinct for the exercise of his judgement and for the 
conclusions at which he arrives. But when the examples lie far apart 
in date, then we cannot speak without diffidence and reserve, recognizing 
that further discoveries may largely modify present opinion. 

We are in a better position in regard to the next example, of the third 
century, book x viii of the Ke<rroi of Julius Africanus. found at Oxyrhynchus 
in 1897 (2feu' Pal. Soc. 104). From internal evidence the work itself 
can hardly be earlier than the year 2:25 ; and the verso of the papyrus 
contains a deed of the reign of the Emperor Tacitus, A.D. 275-6. The 
date of the MS. may, therefore, be placed approximately in the middle 
of the century. 



134 



FACSIMILE No. 14 




^ 



" 



JULIUS AFRICANUS. MIDDLE OF THIRD CENTITKY 



(ra ^T)S eir ovv ovrtas (\ov \ avros o TTOUJTTJS TO -eptepyoi^ rrjy 77ippr ( o-ecos 

TO a\Xa | 5ta TO TTJS viroOfo-tios afio) jua crttno>TrriMV a.0 01 Tre 

TO aAXa trvvpa.TiTo(v)\T($ 7rr; Tawa awfirxio-ar | aXXoTpta TOV 

Troii]<T(u>'i (net. . . fniKpfi vavTfs eir . TroXAo . s fyvo>(v) \ art Ktirj^a . . Xvr . . 

f(TT(\pOV fTT . . K . S aVTO? fVTO.V\9oi KClTTaa TH]V Tf . 1]V <TVV\TTa<TO.V VTIodfCTlV 

avaKfi\iJLfi-r)v . . pfa(is (V re TOI? | ap\eioi$ Tr;s apx ala * v r p'|8oj KO\MV . . . 
. . Xtas Ka7n|Ta)Xtrrjs TTJS 7raXato-Tivij . | Kai> 7'V<T7) T?)S Kapias ^XP' I ^ e 70V 
Tpio-KatSfKaTou fr pi>|^"? ~pos rais a\(gavbpov \ Oeppais fv -rrf (v 

/3l/3Xt007JKTJ TTJ KttX?) T/r OD [rOS TJp^lTfKTOJ'rjITa T&> (7e 

tovXtov a<f>pi.Kavov 

KfOTOS 



i,) 



GREEK LITERARY PAPYRI 135 

No. 14 

Here again, there is little to choose between the actual structure of 
the letters of this example and of those of the Theaetetus ; but in the 
execution of the writing there is a very palpable falling off. The writer 
of the MS. before us was no doubt a professional scribe, but not so expert 
as the writer of the earlier MS. The general character is rather com- 
monplace and lacks the distinction of the Theaetetus, being inclined to 
heaviness in the down-strokes. These marks of deterioration, if we may 
venture to generalize on a slender basis, seem to indicate a decline in the 
third century from the higher standard of earlier 



Reference has been made above to the sloping book-hand which 
developed in the course of the second century and was brought to a 
calligraphic perfection in the third century. The growth of this style of 
writing was a natural consequence of the necessity for quicker produc- 
tion on the increasing literary demands of the time ; and it is to be 
remarked that exactly the same result followed in the period of vellum 
MSS. when the pressure of greater expedition produced a sloping hand 
in succession to the early upright uncial. An elegant example is found 
in a fragment of the Shepherd of Hennas, in Berlin; ' and a well-known 
instance is the papyrus book containing the Iliad, books ii-iv, in the 
British Museum (Pap. cxxvi) : both of the third century. Here we give 
a facsimile from the Oxyrhynchus papyrus, no. 223 (vol. ii, pi. i), the 
Ili<nl, book v (now in the Bodleian Library), which has been mentioned 
above. The handwriting is so evidently that of an expert scribe that we 
mirht at once assume that the MS. had been executed for the market, 

o 

had it not been inscribed on the verso of an obsolete document of the 
year 186. Fortunately for the palaeographer, this circumstance provides 
a terminus a quo, and the date of the MS. is accordingly placed early in 

the third century. 

No. 15 

One of the leading characteristics of the sloping hand is the contrast 
of heavy and light strokes, the down-strokes very frequently beginning 
with a thickening and running off fine : very much what we notice in 
a modern sloping hand written with a pliant pointed nib, such as the 
point of a reed-pen might have been. Round curves give place to ovals, 
as seen in the narrow epsilon, theta, om ikron, and sigma and in the bow 
of rho ; and we notice a reversion of omikron to the old small form of 
the letter. 

Here we leave the direct line of developement of the book-hand on 
papyrus. Arrived at the third century we are in touch with the period 

1 Wilcken, Tafeln zur alteren griech. Palaeographie, iii. 



136 



GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 



CHAP. 



33 
O 



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t 



IK GREEK LITERARY PAPYRI 137 

when vellum was 1 incoming the vehicle for the literature of Greece and 
Rome : and. although Greek literary works still continued for some time 
to lie produced in Egypt, the field widens and we no longer have to con- 
centrate our attention on the land of the Nile. All the ancient Western 
world conies under survey ; for the vellum codex, which now began 
to multiply, was not to perish from the effect of climate, as the papyrus 
roll had perished save in the dry sands of Egypt, lint was to endure and 
spread through the countries of the West. 

But, before closing this section of our work, there still remain certain 
examples which were reserved (p. 133) for special examination as illus- 
trating more immediately the growth of the book-hand of the early uncial 
codices on vellum from the book-hand of the papyri. As we have already 
explained, the strong material and smooth surface of prepared vellum 
were adapted to receive a stronger style of writing, one in which the 
scribe could give rein to his skill in calligraphy and could produce such 
examples of ornamental uncial writing as are found in the early biblical 
codices, wherein so great an effect of beauty is attained by the contrast 
of fine and heavy strokes in the structure of the letters. It is tine that, 
in some of the later examples of the papyrus book-hand of the direct line 
of developement which are noted below (p. 141), there appears a tendency 
to write with a certain amount of that ornamental contrast of fine and 
heavy strokes ; but papyrus was not a material to endure such treatment 
in any very great degree, and the leading characteristic of writing on 
papyrus was essentially lightness of stroke. 

None of our earlier specimens down to the first century could be 
pointed to as the lineal ancestor of the vellum uncial hand, although no one 
would dispute that there is a relationship. The forms of individual letters 
may be very similar, both in the papyrus hand and in the vellum hand, and 
yet, if we were to place two such MSS. as the Euxenippua of Hyperides 
(Facs. 9) and the Codex Alexandrinus (Facs. 46) side by side, we should 
not venture to derive the writing of the latter directly from that of the 
more ancient MS. But here a ir.ost valuable document comes to our assis- 
tance in the task of determining the parentage of the later uncial hand. 
This is a papyrus (Brit. Mus., Pap. cxli ; Cat. Gk. Pup. ii. 181) containing a 
deed of sale of vineyards in the Arsinoite nome of the Fayum, which bears 
the date of the seventh year of the Emperor Domitian, A.D. 88. The writ- 
ing is not in the cursive character that one looks for in legal documents, 
but is of a formal style, in which a likeness to the uncial of the early 
vellum MSS. is at once most obvious. In the first century, then, there was 
in use a set form of writing from which that uncial hand was evidently 
derived by direct descent. And it may be concluded with fair certainty 
that, even at that early period, this style of writing must have been in 



138 



GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 



CHAP. 



FACSIMILE No. 16 



i a~- /~. r -_L > Jr r-T'^-^A '*** XZf-9 







DEED OF SALE. A.D. 88 
( tuepymSi TOV apvivonov vo^ov Op. | T ov ywi]i SioScopa i]pa.K\fi5ov 

TOV - | (as (TlOV TpldKOVTO. TT T a fJ.((T)) fJLf\l^p(a L ] - | - a7ro T?;y 



apovpu>v Tpiuiv rjpaKov\ is] 

OD TOV KGU o-apaTTtcovoy rou apTf^ibiopov \ j; 
(vdvpiv | fteo-dit viro Tpi^a o/xez^ 8i8r/xos | 
... | paw ewea rj^urovs Ttraprov \ 'beKabvo 
firi rois ov<n rco; 1 ) 



i TfTdpTOV 1] OCTWl' I 



IX 



GREEK LITERARY PAPYRI 139 



existence for a considerable period of time ; for here we find it common 
enough to be employed by an ordinary clerk. 1 

No. 16 

It is to be noticed that the writer of this document does not keep 
strictly to the formal uncial letters. As if more accustomed to write 
a cursive hand, he mingles certain cursive letters in his text : side by side 
with the round epsilon, there stands in one or two places the cursive, in 
which the cross-stroke is absorbed by the finishing curve; 2 and, more 
frequently, the cursive upsilon is employed as well as the regular uncial 
letter. Among the other letters, may be remarked the tendency to make 
the main stroke of the alpha rather upright, which eventually leads to 
a distinctive form of the letter, as seen fully developed in the palimpsest 
MS. of the Gospel of St. Matthew at Dublin (Codex Z) ; in some of the 
titles of the Codex Alexandrinus ; and above all in the Codex Marcha- 
lianus of the Vatican 3 this being in fact the Coptic form of the letter. 

It is also remarkable that in one or two places the writer has em- 
ployed large letters at the beginning of the clauses into which he breaks 
up the text. This practice foreshadows the use of large initial letters 
which is a mark of advance in the early vellum Greek codices. 

The Bankes Homer (Iliad, book xxiv), from which our next facsimile 
is chosen, is one of the best preserved papyri of the Iliad that have yet 
been found, being nearly 8 feet in length and containing sixteen 
columns of text; and the material being in good condition and the 
writing quite legible (Brit. Mus., Pap. cxiv). It is of the second century. 

No. 17 

The writing of the Eankes Homer brings us very closely to the style 
of the vellum uncials, the letters being carefully formed and exhibiting a 
contrast of heavy and light strokes in their structure, to a greater degree 
than is ordinarily found in papyri. The round letters are well formed 
on the basis of the circle ; and in many instances main vertical strokes 
are ornamentally finished off with small hooks or cross-bars. One or two 
points of interest, apart from the actual handwriting, may be mentioned. 
The lines are marked off in hundreds by numerical letters inserted in the 
margins ; and the speeches of the different persons are indicated by their 
names, and the narrative portions by a contracted form of the word 
With very rare exceptions, corrections, accents, and breathings 



i We have proof that uncial writing was used as the copy-hand for writing lessons in 
schools, such copies being found on early waxed tablets. 
a Accidentally omitted in the Tables of Alphabets. 
3 Reproduced in facsimile, with a commentary by A. Ceriani, Rome, 1890. 



140 



FACSIMILE No. 17 



'" 




BAXKES HOMER. SECOND CENTURY 



?/ Trarep j; xat viov 7) icai /xa\a TroXAot 
apropos ev waAa o8a^ cAoi; airireroj' ouSas 
OD yap pfiXiyos ((TKC iraTijp reos v 8ai \wypi] 
TIO xai fxtv Aaot /xei 1 oSvporrat ire/n aaru 
aptjrov 8e roKeuirt yoor Kat irev^os 0r)/cas 
eKTOp ep.ot 8e p-aAtora AfAftx^erai aAyea Anypo 
ou yap juoi Gvrja-Kuiv \(\f<av fit x 'P as 

Ol'8e Tt p.Ot flTTfS TIVKLVOV 7TOS' OV T 

p.tpj'Tjp.rjv I'vxras re Kai rj.uara baxpv \fovaa 
(as ffjiaro xAatODo- CTTI 8e orevaxoiTO ywai/ces 
TJJITLV 8 aufl fKafii] abivov f^rjp^e yooio 
eicrop fp.oi 0ujua> T^avrtav TroAv (piArare 
?; /xej* p.oi {iuos Trep ecor <f>i\of ritrda 
r] 8 apa (ret) Kj8ozro xai i> ^avaroto wep 
aAAovs ju.i> yap Trat8aj epous 170809 COKUS a 
TTfpi'ao-x ov nr (XcV K< T,fpi]v aAos orpvyroio 
es 'Tap.oj' es r tp./Spoj' Kat Ai;p.;'oj' ap.t^^aAoeo'O'ai' 
aev 8 eTTt efAero \lrvyr\v Tavar)K(i. )(aAaj 
TroAAa pvoTa^ictrKCV eou wept <r?/p. frapoio 

8e pill' ov8 cos) 



GREEK LITERARY PAPYRI 141 

and other marks are by a later hand (omitted in the transcript of tin- 
facsimile) . 

The Bankes Homer, approximating in its style so much nearer to the 
vellum uncial character than the ordinary papyrus hand, was apparently 
not altogether an unusual exception. For there are indications elsewhere 
that a heavier type of writing was occasional among the later papyri. 
For example, among the Oxyrhynchus papyri there is an interesting 
specimen of this new type, bearing a still closer similarity to the uncial 
codices, in no. 661 (vol. iv, pi. v), a fragment of Epodes, which is approxi- 
mately dated in the second half of the second century; and again in no. 
844 (vol. v, pi. vii), the Pat;/!/i-;<'U* of Isocrates, we lind another instance 
of a rather heavy large uncial hand of the second to third century. 

The last MS. with which we have to deal in this section is the 
papyrus of the Iliad, book ii, now in the Bodleian Library, which was 
found by Professor Flinders Petrie, in 1888, at Hawara, and is thence 
sometimes known as the Hawara Homer. This papyrus is of extreme 
interest, for it was the first of its type to be discovered, and its date was 
a matter of conjecture. Subsequently two other fragmentary examples 
of the same large uncial hand were found, at Oxyrhynchus and at 
Tt-btunis, both containing lines from the same book of the II tad. The 

O 

Oxyrhynchus papyrus (now Brit. Mus., Pap. 742) provides valuable 
evidence for fixing the date of this type of handwriting, since it has on its 
verso accounts written in a hand not later than the earl}- part of the third 
century. The second century, then, may be accepted as the period of this 

fine book-hand. 1 

No. 18 

The large scale on which the writing of the Hawara Homer is 
executed suggests that we have before us a portion of a MS. which 
must have been unusually sumptuous in style. It is calculated that 
when complete the whole of this book of the Iliad, thus written, would 
have occupied a roll of about 32 or 33 feet in length : in modern phrase 
the MS. would have been an Edition de luxe. This impression is 
enforced by the style of the letters which, when carefully analyzed, 
appear to be essentially calligraphic and artificial. It will be observed 
that we have not here the contrast of light and heavy strokes which we 
have noticed in other examples as leading on to the style of the vellum 
uncials. On the contrary, in this instance, the letters are of the light- 
stroke character which was so suited to papyrus. But, in regard to scale, 
the Hawara Homer shows a distinct connexion with the uncial codices ; 
and particularly as a MS. of Homer its similarity in style to the 
Ambrosian vellum Homer has been recognized. One is tempted to 
suggest that in producing choice copies of a work of such universal 

' Kenyon, Pal. Gk. Pap. 101 ; A'eic Pal. Soc. 126. 



142 



7 

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GREEK LITERARY PAPYRI 143 

popularity and veneration as the Iliad, a traditional style of fine writing 
grow up for the purpose ; and that the same sentiment of doing honour 
by this means is to be recognized in the adoption of the fine uncial hand 
for choice copies of the sacred text of Scripture. 

The student will perceive how ornamental the several letters in the 
Hawara Homer are rendered by adding delicate hooks or head-curves, or 
by finishing off the extremities with lightly applied thickenings or minute 
cross-bars. This character of ornamentation may be traced in surviving 
examples as far back as the reign of Augustus, when such calligraphic 
treatment of the book-hand was probably suggested by the fine style of 
lapidary inscriptions. Instances occur, among others, in the Berlin poetical 
fragment reproduced in Schubart's PC/V//Y <''<'<'"<.' Berolinenses (pi. 11 b), 
which is placed within the first century B.C. ; in the small fragments of 
Demosthenes in Kenyon's Palaeography uf Greek Papyri (pi. xvi), of the 
latter part of the first century A. D. ; and, most conspicuously, in the 
Hesiodic fragment, also given by Schubart (pi. 19 a), of the early part of 
the second, if not of the end of the first, century A.D. 1 The last-named 
papyrus is a very beautiful example of calligraphy, the lettering being 
rather laterally compressed, and the whole resembling a finely sculptured 
inscription. 

In the accompanying Table of Alphabets of the Literary papyri 
the student will see the forms of the letters used in the several MSS. 
from which facsimiles have been given above in illustration of the 
text, grouped in a leading series from the Timotheus of the fourth 
century B.C. to the Julius Africanus of the third century A.D. ; followed 
by the specimens of sloping writing and of the hands having affinity to 
the uncials of the early vellum period. To these have been added, in 
their proper places, the alphabets of the three early papyri containing 
the Curse of Artemisia, the marriage contract of 311-310 B.C., and the 
&kdia of before 280 B.C.; of the Antiope of the third century B.C.: 
of the Herculanean Philodemus of the first century B.C. ; and of the 
I/ind ii-iv in the sloping hand of the third century A.D. In the 
case of the papyrus containing Aristotle's Constitution, of Athens it has 
been thought convenient to give the alphabets of all the four hand- 
writings of which the MS. is composed, although three of them (the 
first, third, and fourth) might, strictly, be excluded as being examples of 
cursive writing. 

When the Table of Cursive Alphabets in papyri comes under 
examination, there will be occasion to refer to the Literary Alphabets 
again. 

1 First published by WilamcAvitz-Mollendorff in the Sit:ungsberic)ite of the Berlin 
Academy, 1900, p. 839. 



GREEK LITERARY ALPHABETS 



4 : "cENTBja|4 rM CENTB.C. 1 311-310 B.C. BEFORE280B.CJ3"cE:NTB.C.|3" > cENi.B.C. IBEFORCIGO B.C. 

Tumthfus , Fbrsaetiurre of Artem/s/a'-fiarr/ige Contract. \ Skol/'a. \P/ato, Phaedo. '-furipK/es, Antiope ''.Dialectic/ Treatise. 


^AAx^ 


AA 


AAAA 


AAAA 


AA A A A 


xx X A /o- 


AAAA 


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P 


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6 8 


5 CM 


rr r 


r 


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r C c 


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KHK 


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K K 


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K K K 


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(9 06) 





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CREEK LITERARY ALPHABETS 



?" O CENT B.C.i ST CENT B.C.; 


I 5 ! CENT .B.C.; I ST CENT.&C j ABOUT 10 B.C.: ABOUT A.D. 1. , ; ("CENT 

Netndon/s. \ Bacch/lides. \ Petition. Odyssey Hi '.ffyper/O&fweriippus 


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KKK 


KK.)N 


K 1C 


XA/\A 


A^> 


AA> 


XNVA 


/\A\A 


AAAX 


* K 


n n nn 


fAAAK 


/H K 


r-i ri n 


MAAX\ 


M^L^J 


M. XX 


M /V N 


N N- JN 


NMT 


N t^l T^-J 


NKN 


!M /V N 


X) N 


H X-.X 


2: ix 


-^ 


^H TUT 


5?i 


ii-^ 


^^L 


:> O 


OO 


O oO 


o 


000 


o 





t n n n 


n A n 


HTTTC 


n n Y-\ 


njtn 


irjn? 


n R n 


p/yp 


f??/> 


P P 


rfef 


J'ffP 


r p P e 


pep 


1 CC C 


c cc 


CCCC 


Cf" /"* 1 ^*^ 
L W I w 


GCCC 


cccc 


ccco 


TT-TT 


TTT 


TT 1 


-r ~i r 


-r-T~p7 


T^r 


r T 


YYYYv 


^ TY 


YYYY 

CD n> 


YYT7 


YYYY 


Yrrr 


YTY 


*** 


XXX 


NX \/ 


^XTC 


xxa 


XX 


X 


Hf 

O UJ U) i+j 


ftt 

6O tO^o ^o 


03 OO 


' ' 1 

CJ ( > C > . 


6O a) co 


f 

6J a) <x) 


ft 

cu oo CO 



GREEK LITERARY ALPHABETS 



TCENT 

Harm Homer 





--ABOUT A.D. 90 - 

An-stoi/e, Coast- Athens. 




rORZ"CENTi 2 ND CENT 
7//<3</ xiii t xt'v. .Comrn. on Tfmeh 


s~ 




AAA* 


^v *"" Lf 


* k 


A cA. 


/XAAJL 


A A A i\ 


^177 


5^ 


n l\ 


C ^ "K 


21 


88 


535 


fc B 


r r r 


r T" y 


r r 


r 


r r 


r r 


r r r 


2s 2^ 2s 


6, A 


^2,^ 


& 


A 2s 


A A 


zsA A 


trrrr 


6 Y 1 - 1A 


ec- o- 


v^" A^ i/^ 


e c- >w > 


e t e ee 


e ec-e 


*. Z. 


z ? 


2: ^ 


2 


2 ZZ 


2-r^ 


z ^ 


H H H 


Kit*'?) 


nn rr K 


MA7 


>Y hr h 


(x ff KlY 


h h 


/J -A /} 


<^^^ 


e>^ 


^^~ 


^ ^^ 


e e e 


e e- 


1 ) 


)l 


M 


1 1 


'/ 


i) 


)/i _ 


HC K" 


LL \L 


K KK 


IA K v^- 


K- P~ 


Ki/^*" k^ 1 ^ 
JS. Pv IA 


K K K 


A X A 


>A^ 


A^^ 


A /> 


A /-- 


A A > 


A X X 


M. A,L M 


A^A-H 


AA M M. 


/4/K. 


AXA^AX 


J^^JLM 


/^ XX A 


>J ]\J "NN 


N n rt ri 


H Al W 


K N 


/M fV nv 


N "N NT 


r^ M N 





o 


O 


o 


^ 








TT T~r7T 


A A n 


a nil 


TLYllr\ 


11 n v> r\ 


n-n /i 


TT TTTl 


;r/ 


re? 


r p 


r F t 


f c/ 3 . 


p r f 


P P P 


cc r 


c~ ^/^ 


<rcccv> 


c-c o 


C o o c 


CC C^C 


ccccc 


-TTT 


T Y r 


T T T 


TTT 


r-rr 


T7-TT 


TTT 


Yrrr 


t t\v 


rrrv 


t v 


r v 


rrrvv 


YY-y-> 


ffH 


at uy dj 


^> ^p d^ 


$ ^ 


4>H 


H 


cjh c^ 


X.XX 


V/ -^ 


;* 7^ 


p< 


^ 


X X 


X XX 


+ 


f 


v/_ .-J/" *Np 


f f 


f ^ 


Kt 


t t- 


t \ <- 6-3 


O^UA. 


uj oj a) 


u^ 


t-O U) l^> 


uo a) vo 


tO> U) 6O 



GREEK LITERARY ALPHABETS (N4) 



3 B CENT ;3 BO CENT. j 3 B CENT AD 88 2 MD CENT 2 ND CENT 
Julius Aincanus \ 7/tad v '. I/tad ii - iv \ Deed of set /e. 'Elankes Homer. \HawaraHorner. 


****- 


*^-> o^. ^. A. 


^ A 


cL A. 6< 


A ^ ^ 


AA^A 


E E. & 


(55^ 


^ 


J$ R 


b 


6 


r r 


/~ /~ 


r 


r r- 


r 


rr 


^ A 


z^^, ^ 


A 


2N ^ 


A A 


A A 


eec-^ 


c-ef-f-f- 


f- 


(reee- 


e e^ 


e^e 


2. 


^ ^ 21 


Z 2 




Z 2. 


2 Z 2 


H ft H 


/ ^/ i f 

ft 1 \ 


/y 


H n it 


H 


~U LJ ? 1 

n ri I? 


a 


~fr ~ts~0~ 


<? 6 


~s\ s~\ 


6 e 


e e o 


j 1 


Dl 


1 


] i 


n i 


/ J J 


XT Hr K 


K >^ 


/c 


K K 


K X 


"LX" V' r^ 

fs /\ r\. 


A X X A. 


AAA 


X A 


AX 


A A 


AAA 


^^JL 


A^ M AY 


M r~t 


n n n 


JJL AX 


JUiJU 


K/ rs NJ 


/\J A/ /V 


/v 


N TNJ^N 


NI NI 


XI AJ A) 


2LX313 


Xlj: 


X X 


^ 


* 


z r z 





O o 





00 








rx n n 


n n 


n 


nrm 


TTTT 


TTTI 


re 


r.rr? 


f 


p rP 


?P? 


P??P 


c cccc 


rrrrr 


c 


c c cr 


C C 


CCCC 


T-T T 


7-7" r 


T 


T T 


TTT 


"TTT 


V v VT 


yrry 


y 


YT Y 

* 


Y Y Y 


yr r 


X X 


y 


"*^ V 

>^*^ ^^*. 


X X 

T- 


>: X 

tr 


.PC ^V y'X 

t 


CO CO Co 


L^-i iJ C~J 


">-> C-O d^J 


GO GO 


GO GO 0) 


GOGOCU 



CHAPTER X 

GREEK PALAEOGRAPHY (continued) 
Cursive Script in Papyri. 

WE now leave the Book-hand and turn to the examination of Greek 
Cursive writing in papyri. But in this section, as well as in others in 
which cursive handwriting is dealt with, we must endeavour not to 
exceed the limits imposed by the primary object of the present work. 
That object is especially, though not exclusively, to guide to a knowledge 
of the literary hands, the book-hands, in Greek and Latin MSS. ; and our 
treatment of cursive scripts must not take too wide a range, but must 
in the first instance be such as to illustrate the developement of literary 
scripts. In a secondary degree the general developement of official cursive 
hands falls within our scope ; yet much must be passed over which would 
have to be considered were we making a special study of the cursive 
hands for their own sake. Such fuller study belongs to the province of 
plomatic, a large and important branch of Palaeography which demands 
independent treatment. Further, with regard to this present section, 
the papyrus collections of documents, as already noted, range over the 
whole field of cursive and include all kinds of handwritings of private 
persons, writing indifferently their best or their worst, as well as official 
and legal papers drawn up in more formal scripts. When we come to 
examine those cursive styles of the middle ages and later which concern ' 
our subject, we shall not be embarrassed in the same way, for the private 
correspondence and papers of individuals of those times, where they have 
survived, are regarded as lying outside the limits of our field. We may, 
then, follow this later precedent in our treatment of the papyrus cursive 
documents, and, leaving minute investigation to papyrologists, lay before 
the student a series of specimens selected chiefly from the more official 
and trained clerical types of this handwriting, whence, it is hoped, he will 
get a fairly clear idea of its general developement. 

It has already been stated that no specimens of Greek cursive writing 
of the fourth century B.C. have hitherto been discovered. It is true that 
two non-literary documents of that time are known and have already 
been referred to (pp. 107, 108), viz. the so-called Curse of Artemisia and 
a marriage contract of 311-310 B.C. ; but neither of them is written in a 
cursive script. We must await further discoveries to put us in possession 
of examples of the cursive writing of that remote period. 



GREEK CURSIVE PAPYRI 149 

Of cursive writing of the third century B. c. there is now available 
a very fair quantity. To the collection gathered by Professor Petrie at 
Gurob, in 1889-90, have been added the fragments recovered at Tebtunis, 
and from cartonnage mummy-cases at Hibeh.in 190.2-3. by Messrs. Grenfell 
and Hunt, and the specimens from Elephantine, now at Berlin. Thus we 
have material for the study of Greek cursive writing as far back as 
the early decades of the century ; but of this material the Gurob series 
provides the most representative specimens. In addition, it may be 
worth noting that a few scattered pieces had already for many years 
been stored in the various museums of Europe ; but the antiquity of some 
of them had not been recognized, and they were thought to belong to the 
period of the Roman occupation. At Leyden there is a papyrus (Pap. Q), 
containing a receipt of the twenty-sixth year of Ptolemy Philadelphus, 
260 B.C. At Berlin, Paris, and London there are three wooden tablets 
inscribed with deeds relating to a loan of the thirtieth and thirty-first 
years of the same king, about 254 B.C. Among the papyri of the British 
Museum, three, formerly ascribed to a later date, are now more correctly 
placed in the third century, viz. a petition for redress of grievances 
(Pap. cvi) of the twenty-fifth year, apparently, of Ptolemy Euergetes I, 
223 B. c. ; and two others (1 and li A) without dates. The Paris collection 
also contains a long money account for public works (Xot. et Ex.tr. xviii. 
2, pi. xliv) of the same century. A facsimile of a letter of introduction, 
evidently of this time, is given by Passalacqua. 1 Egger describes a 
papyrus at Athens; 2 and various Greek endorsements and dockets on 
Demotic papyri are noticed by Revillout. 3 Ostraka or potsherds also have 
been found with inscriptions of this period. 

Of cursive writing of the second century B. c. we have material in the 
collection from the Serapeum at Memphis, now preserved in London, 
Paris, Leyden, etc. (see above, p. 94); other specimens are to be found 
among the Petrie, Amherst, Tebtunis, Gebelen, and other more recently 
discovered collections. Of the first century B. c. comparatively little has 
yet been found, the later middle period of the century in particular 
being still unrepresented. 

For the first four centuries of our era there is a fairly continuous 
series of documents. On the other hand, the fifth century is almost a 
blank, very few papyri of that time having been recovered. In the sixth 
century, however, the supply revives ; and again of the seventh century 
there is a large series available, particularly of the first half of the 
century. Cursive writing of the early years of the eighth century is 

1 Catalogue Raisonne des Antiquites (ttcomerles en Egypte, Paris, 1826. Also described in 
Notices et Extraits des MSS. xviii. 399. 

2 Journal ties Sarants, 1873, pp. 30, 97. 

3 Chrestomathie Demotigve, 1880. pp. 241, 277; Rente Egypt, ii. 114. 



150 




iS 

3 

t-H 

g 

t-H 

O3 

I 

tn 




fc^. r -c 
if r t 

t ?i 

.- - r.^ c 







a. o o 

P- ^ s 

-e- * e 

s b * 

S a B- 

b s o 

o S * 



o _ 
*" o 



3- 3 >- 5~ 
Mil 



o 
b 
3 

: 



o 

B 

ct 



i- 

^iT 

g O ^ 

'b 2 ^ I 

-< I I ^ 

3 ^4 c h- 

*= s g 

a - 5- 
S a t- fc 



^ u/ 4 ^ 

I [tr^. 2 



i l - ^ 

e II 1 

H 2 fc g-g 

a S*3. K | 



I! 



e s o 

Q t- 

I ? 



a. g 1 S 

, 3 | 

g-f-TJ 

6 W I bl 

1 g I I 

F b F^ 2" 



P- 



1 r 



>4> (^ ?N 

a. b g 



, 

Q. 3 

3 & fc ^ 



<;REEK CURSIVE PAPYRI isi 

chiefly illustrated l>y the more recently acquired collection of documents 
from Aphroditopolis. which extend to about the year 72:2.' 

Greek cursive writing, as found in papyri, has been grouped under 
three phases, corresponding to the three political administrations which 
succeeded one another after the fall of the native Egyptian empire. The 
Ptolemies held the government from 323 to 30 B. r. From the time of 
the conquest by Augustus down to the reorganization of the empire by 
Diocletian at the close of the third century, the Romans were in power. 
From thence to the date of the Arab conquest, A. i>. 640-3, Egypt was 
annexed to the Eastern Division of the Roman empire. With each change 
of government there was a corresponding change in the general character 
of the Greek cursive script; obviously to be attributed to the influence of the 
official handwritings of the time. A change of government was naturally 
accompanied by a change of officials, and a change of officials by a change 
in the style of production of official documents. It must also not be for- 
gotten that Greek was the official language employed during all three 
periods, so that we have the advantage of following the developement of 
one alphabet through the consecutive centuries, although changes in style 
were periodically effected. It is also to be borne in mind that the Arab 
conquest in 640-3 did not bring to an abrupt close the use of the Greek 
language in Egypt. It had, by that time, been employed there for 
centuries, and as a spoken language it was evidently widespread through 
the country. Therefore its displacement under the Arab administration 
was gradual ; and the Aphrodito collection proves its survival, at all 
events for official and business purposes, for another hundred years. 

The characteristics of the cursive writing of the three periods, the 
Ptolemaic, the Roman, and the Byzantine, will be observed in detail as 
the examples selected as illustrations arc passed in review. But, if we 
were called on to describe briefly and in general terms the distinctive 
characteristic of each, we would deh'ne that of the Ptolemaic hand as 
rigid strength with natural facility ; that of the Roman, as roundness 
with fluency ; that of the Byzantine, as artificiality with exaggeration. 

Our first example of Greek cursive writing is from the Gurob collection 
(Petrie Papyri, ii. xxxviii b), a letter from Horos to Harmais, both 
officials, respecting the sale of oil, dated in the fifth year (the symbol L = 
TOUS) of Ptolemy Euergetes = 24'> B.C. (Bodl. Libr , Gr. class. C. 21 (P)). 

No. 19 

The writer of this document must have been an expert penman of 
unusual ability whose handwriting would do credit to any age. And 
yet he was nothing more than a local official of no particular importance. 

1 Described in Gk. Papyri in the British Museum, iv. 1910. 



152 



FACSIMILE No. 20 



. '< 

ikjan 



% ' f "r~ ' 

? : -i $&ji&&1ilr: . W* C 



^ 1 ' ; 



^r & t>* . -v H' * 






- p T 



r* i 



- 






; 




PETITION. 223 B.C. 

((3a<ri\ei wroXe/^fattot] | \aipei.v aptv 
abi\KOVfJiat vno Kf(pa\(avos 



OITOS yap pioi) DTTO juocr- 
auroi' ......... | rov 

Ke L Trawi KCII | us rov . . . [rlowofr] ra re | O-K<VTJ /uov (t^eppi^fv ts | TTJJ; 
oSoi' xat avrov \ p.f rvirrcav eq3aX A'cv | e/xot; 8 ODK eK\<apow\Tos aAA 7rj 
fj.ti>ov TOVS TTdpovras \ /cat (rwbpafjLOi'rutv \ TrXeiovcav KO.I [e 'TTITI\IJ.IOVT(OV 
ovrias | aTTJjAAayrj eya) 8e | ra (TKevri ra airopifpei' ra /xov eis r?;i 0801' | 
vcyKa Seo/xat | ow crov /SacrtAev wpos ra) 



GREEK CURSIVE PAPYRI 153 

The general aspect of the writing suggests the suspension of the letters 
from a horizontal line : an effect pro'lnced l>y the horizontal strokes and 
links being kept on the same level, and so forming a string sufficiently 
connected to convey the idea of continuity. Among the letters are to be 
observed the looped ul/Jt'i: the circular <lil_t<i.. the angles of which are 
altogether merged in the curve ; the link attached to the da (a feature 
of long-lasting persistence) ; the hin</!" with second leg horizontal : the 
flat //i it and pi, each one often reduced to a convex curve ; the stilted nu ; 
and the clipped owe<ja. Such a perfect hand, written evidently with the 
greatest facility, must have a long history behind it ; and we await with 
certainty the discovery of a fully developed cursive handwriting of the 
fourth century in which we shall rind its parent. 

The next facsimile exhibits a handwriting of a totally different 
character. It is taken from a petition for redress of injuries received 
from a soldier named Kephalon, in the twenty-fifth year of (apparently) 
Ptolemy Euergetes, 223 B.C. (Brit, Mus., Pap. cvi ; Cat. GL: P,.i t ,. i. 60, 
pi. 35).' 

No. 20 

This is an example of a very cursive style which, with all its irregular 
appearance, must have been widely used by expert writers, as well as by 
ordinary persons. It will be seen that it has none of the calligraphic 
play with the pen which marked the previous example. The document 
must have been written with great rapidity, perhaps a.s a draft, and pre- 
sumably by an experienced clerk. It is one of the papyri mentioned 
above (p. 149). which, until recently, have not been recognized as 
belonging to so early a period as the third century B.C. The same 
style is found in documents among the Petrie and Hibeh collections. 
Distinctive forms of letters are the wedge-shaped alpha, a peculiarly 
small form of beta, as well as the ordinary letter ; the convex //< a and 
l>i : the stilted uu : tau with the horizontal only on the left of the 
vertical, and not extending to the right ; and the clipped omega. 

We return to an official type in the next example, a receipt issued 
by Hermokles. son of Saranoupeuios. collector of taxes in Thebes, for 
payment of a tax on land by Tlioteus. son of Psemminis. and another, in 
the thirteenth year of Ptolemy Philopator = 210-209 B.C. (Brit. Mus., 
Demot. Pap. 10463 ; Pal. Sac. ii. 143). 

Xo. 21 

In this specimen the descent from the *tyle of the letter of 242 B.C. 
(Facs. 19) is very apparent ; but the calligraphic regularity of that 
example is here abandoned. Among the characteristic letters will be 
observed the wedge-shaped alj/lia. the rounded delta, the convex forms of 
mu and pi. and the clipped mneya. 



154 



C 

O 



GO 

O 




ramirs f 5 

viTfr-q|0 \ 




' i 

^r 



p 

-e- S- 
l| 



a i- 
o a 
fc 3 



is 



o i> 
< 

o 



C 
^.' 



O 3 
^4 



* 3- 

5 P- CL 
C 

i= 



i 



S 3 K 



<M . 



si <f h 

i" a 

3_ \u CJ 

- i- * 

S- 2 v> 

i- g o 



I] || r|J |. 



H:J 



J L JJ. , 

P* <* V. 

v ~S * > 

i 111! 

>j r <kQ ^ v 



a s -i. 

M* O -^ 

!- - 



\^ ^ 

a. - 



?-. ? 



i Z\t ^ 



-li 

^> (^ 
QD ^ 
-^ x.-^ 

xgl 

- g s 

1 s 

t- Si ^ 

,-^-j 3 K 



S P 



O w 

3^1- 

s fe ! 

C " I 

ci ^ uT 

- ff 

^ b 



' ^ 

;x Si 



fe 



S 

H4 

6 



\ "^ -^ 




B 
3 

il 

b -j 



> * 

2 1. 
e s o 
5 a 
s S ^ 



b B 
O ^ 



g I 

w e t> 



CO 

to 



O 
I ( 
H 



S<ju> a 
S e ?- 

5-fe - ^ 
I 1 1 I 

b t= - - 



* b x 



a. g- b 



156 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 



CHAP. 



FACSIMILE No. 23 



$**i# 

, 

rT^f c^'l^fteH |O 
' --LI 

f*j^Hl?'Vf 

* ^ ? * 

't.tr^Xrr^ 



J 



' 



: 

f . t . 



>j~ - 



^ -i^..--. i / .. . 









-^T^ 

: * - i si 



rv >-;--. ,... i X . r y - 

Ji? 7 - .... I^M& 




PETITION. 162 B.C. 

(<TWf<TTr)!Ta croi TOV -aapi^ovfa /not r?;i> Tpo<f>i)[v] 

Ta[vra] 

a[t ou /3ovXo] 
tepcot 



'oz; ra Ka^j;/([orra] airobovvai (f> o[is yivoiro troi] 

TOV be fj.fi>vibo[v] vn-oyeypa^oroy roty ypa/^tar^txn ewi] 
<TKe\j/afj.(vos avei'cyKiiv [KO.I 



GREEK CURSIVE PAPYRI 157 

With the next facsimile we shall pass out of the third century, and 
it will be seen that the distinctive shallow writing of that period forth- 
with ceases. 

This specimen is a section from one of the Serapeum documents : 
a petition to the strategus of Memphis from Harmais, a recluse and 
mendicant, for redress of a fraud by which he had suffered; 163 B.C. 
(Brit, Mus.. Pap. xxiv ; Cat. Gk. Pap. i. 31, pi. 18). 

No. 22 

The Serapeum papyri include several petitions, a class of documents 
which, as already noticed, are naturally more carefully written so as to 
be read without trouble by the person whose favour is solicited. Hence 
the present example is in only a half-cursive style : the writing very 
handsome, bold, firm, and strong ; the letters carefully formed, without 
superfluous linking, eta, pi, and tau being those which chiefly lend them- 
selves to that process. A tendency to run into more cursive forms at 
the ends of lines is noticeable ; in which position the facsimile shows the 
long eta and the wedge-shaped alpla. 

In contrast with the heavy hand, a light delicate script is also found 
among the Serapeum documents. Here is given a section from another 
petition, from Ptolemy, son of Glaucias, the Macedonian recluse already 
mentioned (p. 95) as the champion of the cause of the twin girl attendants 
in the temple; of the year 162 B.C. (Brit. Mus., Pap. xxi ; Cat. Gk. P,> 
i. 12 ; Pal. Soc. i. 1). 

No. 23 

Besides being more delicate in execution than that of the previous 
example, this style of writing also contains more thoroughly cursive 
elements, and hence shows greater variety in the shapes of the letters. 
For example, in the case of eta, kappa, nu, pi, upsilon, we find variations 
ranging from the formal to the quite cursive forms. This will be better 
understood when we come to review the changes undergone by the several 
letters of the alphabet in their progress from the earliest to the latest 
examples of cursive papyri. 

The next facsimile comes from a deed of sale by Patous, son of 
Phagonis, a Persian, to Panobchunis, son of Totoes, and his wife 
Kobaetesis, of land in Pathyris; 123 B.C. (Brit. Mus., Pap. 879 (i); Cat. 
Gk. Pap. iii. 5, pi. 4). 

No. 24 

In this example we recognize the same type of writing as in the two 
preceding deeds, but with some loss of regularity and preciseness, as 
might be expected with the advance of time. But there is no mistaking 
the style of the second century. Individual letters show little general 



158 



c 
fc 

K 



CO 

O 



t$lU?l& 

C i I > I* f Sr &' 



fe!: 




o 
H 



CO 
(M 



O 

w 
3 
<! 

02 



b ' ' S 1 s o t- 
o < 5 9- t- a 
a. 3 p . e u> 



fc b g a o 

4* 3 
= S^ 



- 



c, S o 
2 S- ~ 



-e- g g 
i r 1 1 1 

5 ^ C 3 g 

^ 3 ^ S 

elsllv 



1 S 

_ a 
t- 

a-Y^ 

-i Is 



14, i~ 

^ S 

b 5 



p 



~ 

3 



r 3 *- k-l 

' b c- S-l 

, o fc g c- 

/ Q. 5 ^ <* C 

^^ a. 3 

! It-tr 

. S f~ Q_ ^ -i-L 
CS (^ *J My 

! <x "> 
-, o 5 S 2 



-s-t 3- S 

3 ;, 3 

O , t- , . 



to. a. ?-S 

^ - 2 g-A S 

^ | g-.?3 

^ !"!; 

S 3 S g s 

S a S g g, 
3-1 s^ ~. 1^ 

-^ "" X a ^ x 

g :x t= S < t= 



GREEK CURSIVE PAPYRI 159 



FACSIMILE No. 25 







fr^^w^f^!^ *?:_ 

- -^ .-tf^yvsrV^Z- 1 



SALE OF LAND. 101 B.C. 



/iatrtAicrcri/y xAeowarpay 0eas i>epyeri8os ] erovs 19 TOD xai ly 
itpfiav (cat lepeicor (cat Kavij(popov Ttov | 6i]/3ai,bos ec/> TjpaicAetSou ayopa- 



iraronros StoroAiris cos L | ovAr; fxertowcoi y bfguav vno 
T P'X a f te '" a tvjjiou cos L Ae fJiffrov fi(\t\poov Tfravov /iaxpo77pocr&)7rou | fjifpos 
a-ao yjjs fptyopov aSiaiperov r TCOI TiaQ'vpiTrn] . yetTorts WTOU yr; Lf3ioj3oa-Kiav 
/Soppa (parptovi /xrj rpoSj | 8 aAArjs apovpas fiias Tjy yetrovey VOTOD crATji' io$] 
Ai^os apafMjros y>) >) ot aj; cocnr yfiroves Trai>roc9[ei'] - - | coy L /x juecros fzeAixpcoj 

| Kara rrj^ cot'rjv t9afiovi>is 7; ai7o8o/xem; TJJ; t8e^a[ro ) 



160 

FACSIMILE No. 26 



* " 






^^^ 





eirfL(Ta-yfiv rj eKTireir rrjv (pepvrfv aw 
Xta 777? Trpa^ecos yti'Ofxevjjs ex re curou 
Otoi'Dcrtov K(OI) K raw vna.p\ovTU>v avrui iravriav 
Ka.da.T7fp e/c 8tK?;y K(OI) TTJJ; 8e icribiapav fxrjre airo 
KOITOV p;i"e CKJirjfjiepov yuvecrOat. airo TTJS 
outay aiv TTJS 

TOV OIKOI> fj.i]bf aAAa> 
. rj f.(ai) avrrfv TOVTUIV rt 

i'jji' KpiOeiaav orepecr^at TTJJ tpepi'ris Oecrdai be 
(IVTOVS K(OI) TT)i ^> ifpoOvTwv Ttfpi TOV 
avv/pa<f>riv fv 



TO.I ?) Te (pfpi'r] x(at) raAAa ra ev e$et oira K(at) 
Ta irepi TTJS o-ortpoi) Tcof ya^ovvTuv reAen 

TT/S OJS' ai 67Tt TOV KttlpOV KOlViaS 



MARRIAGE SETTLEMENT. 15-5 B.C. 






GREEK CURSIVE PAPYRI 161 

disposition to change from established forms, except perhaps in the case 
of alpha, mu, and upsilon, which occasionally betray a tendency to 
break into curves. 

Continuation of the delicate style of writing of the petition of 
162 B.C. at a later date is found in a deed of sale, executed at Diopolis 
Parva in the last year of Cleopatra III and her son Ptolemy Alexander, 
conveying land in the Pathyrite nome ; 101 B.C. (Brit. Mus., Pap. 882 : 
Cat Gk. Pap. iii. 13, pi. 7). " 

No. 25 

This document brings us to the close of the second century : and yet 
there is evident but little failure from the firm and steady hand of sixty 
years earlier. It will, however, be observed how very cursively many of 
the words are written, individual letters almost losing their identity in 
the closely linked strokes of which those words are composed. But, 
if the letters are analysed, it will be seen that old forms are still 
generally maintained ; and that only in certain of them, as alpha, delta, 
mu, pi, tau, upsilon, is laxity apparent. 

We here leave the Ptolemaic period, for lack of adequate material 
debars us from more than superficial knowledge of Greek cursive 
writing in the first century B.C. But it is hoped that the specimens 
which have been submitted may suffice to convey to the student 
a fairly correct idea of the character of the Ptolemaic hand, the 
general attributes of which we have defined as naturalness and vigour. 
The Ptolemaic is, indeed, a marked style, generally upright and rigid, 
long resisting that inevitable tendency to pliancy which, as we learn 
from other phases of handwriting, sooner or later invades and weakens 
any form of writing, however well-sustained it may remain through 
a lengthened course of perfection. 

We have to pass almost to the end of the first century B.C. before 
presenting our next facsimile, which stands at the head of the series with 
which it is proposed to illustrate the Greek cursive handwriting of 
Egypt under the Roman administration. We enter on the period when 
the pliancy referred to has taken possession. The contrast of this speci- 
men with those which have preceded it is so self-evident that no words 
are needed to emphasize it. It is a portion of a marriage settlement of 
a certain Isidora, wedded to Dionysius, a citizen of Alexandria, at some 
date between 15 and 5 B.C. (Berlin Mus., Pap. 66 R; Sew Pal. Soc. 176). 

No. 26 

The writing is unusually small and cursive, and at first sight it 
appears intricate owing to its pliant character and the prevalence of 



162 



GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 



CHAP. 



FACSIMILE No. 27 







tfmMJPfcl* 4 '*! 

xy-J J^Kp^sro 

^v^s^r^y 

H 






LEASE OF A MILL. A.D. 17 



((voiKiov ar[(V Trao-jjs [v}T[(p()(a-[e]o)S \ anivftwos be o nv\[os] Kai TO erotictor | 
Trav[Tos] KivSvi-ov KOI /xera TOV \povov \ a.Ti[oKa}Ta<rrr)<rai o jj.avi]s rov /xvAov | 
otor xat jrapei\7](/)r | OTTOU [eavj <n;rrao-o-7)t o i<ribu>pos (v o\ 
?j TT\V ea-rap-fiiiv \ TOVTOV r[t]f*T} r , v] apyvpiov 8paxfias 
fie / L '?]z'OJ ov eav p; awoScoi j TO fvoiKiov [\i-\0 rjjutoXtay TTJJ 
K re TOV 



x GREEK CURSIVE PAPYRI 163 

ligatures. The document may be a lawyer's cop}- : and the writing 
may be classed as a private, as distinguished from an official, hand, but 
at the same time that of an expert writer, such as a lawyer or lawyer's 
clerk would be. As such, the specimen lies rather outside the direct 
line, and might have been left unnoticed but for the dearth of dated 
examples of this period. However, it has its educational value, in that 
it illustrates an extremely fluent style in business documents. 

The following facsimile exhibits a hand of a more usual type. It is 
from part of a lease, at Oxyrhynchus, of a mill by a certain Isidorus to 
Heracleius, son of Soterichus, a Persian; A.D. 17 (Brit. Mus., Pap. 795 ; 
Cat. Gk. Pap. iii, pi. 18 ; Ox. Pap. 278). 

Xo. 27 

A large upright cursive writing of pronounced Roman type ; the 
letters growing loose in construction, with tendency to curves and 
a round-hand formation. The increasing size of the omikron (not 
universal, but frequent), contrasting with the diminutive letter prevalent 
in the Ptolemaic period, may be noticed as a mark of the calligraphic 
effort which now asserted itself to make the body of the letters of 
a uniform size. 

Advancing another half-century we meet with a very neatly written 
document, which sets before us with admirable clearness the perfect 
round-hand to which the writing of the Roman period had now attained. 
It is a sale of a plot of land by one Mysthes to Tesenuphis, in the reign 
of Vespasian; A.D. 69-79 (Brit. Mus., Pap. cxl ; Cat. Gk. Pap. ii. 180, 
pi. 21 ; Pal. Soc. ii. 144). 

No. 28 

This is an excellent instance of the small cursive hand of a trained 
scribe. The run of the writing is so even and sustained that, while the 
writer varies the shapes of his letters to meet the requii-ements of com- 
bination in the different words, there is no hesitation and the pen moves 
on, line after line, without a fault. 

, The next facsimile comes from a document of a similar class of 
writing, on a larger scale, and of about the same time : the farm 
accounts of a bailiff named Didymus, son of Aspasius, employed by 
Epimachus, son of Polydeuces, the owner of an estate in the nome of 
Hermopolis, in the eleventh year of Vespasian, A.D. 78-9 (Brit. Mus.. 
Pap. cxxxi ; Cat. Gk. Pap. i. 166, pi. 108). 

No. 29 

This may be regarded as an example of a good general business hand, 
written by a man skilled in accounts and using his pen with expedition 



164 



GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 



FACSIMILE No. 28 





/Ajf tl Af 

4^i 
i^ ^ x<--i f'-'r/it ^r<^^ J^A^^- I I -TV o 







SALE OF LAND. A.D. 69-79 



( rou avTOKparopos 
/xeptSos TOV apcrtvoeirov 
Tf(revov(f>fi | cot 



ove<T7rao~tarou <Te/3aorov 
O/xo\oya | IDS &)b- L r <f>a.Kos 
o-pi<TTfpa<s /xera Kvpiov TOV eaur?)? vton 



[a]iro rou vui 1 

vitapxov avTuii ] v fiepiSoy rpirov p.fpos \jfei\ov TOTTOV a 
rou TOV aTTofio/xewtJ pvadov KO.I rcav abeXfpcav oiKia \ r otxia icat ewi TI 
s xai foos T<rei(oti](/)to9 TOD ep[ito]s oiia[aj K 



FAOIMII.K No. 29 



165 







; 









. 



N o 



-Vv*T'-^r ^- ' 7 -' ^ 







*>* 







r 






BAILIFF'S ACCOUNTS. A. D. 78-9 

( Erou? evbeKUTov avTOKparopos Kaicrapo-i 
ovicmacriavov <re/3aoTov 



raj 



aAAay 
o/ioio) y /:8 K' Aoi' Ti^ 7 ? oti ov 



o^ioitoy aAAas 
Tas <^)i^ as /XKT* fioiav 
o/ioicoj a 
airo .b u>v 
fj.iff e ov Kadia-TiavT eiii* eu fpfwv' Ly 
ay etr x Z. 



166 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

in a legible style, round, flexible, and not ungraceful. It is of the type 
which is met with in official documents of the time, and which was prob- 
ably employed very widely throughout the country by trained clerks. 
This papyrus is one of a set of rolls famous as having on the verso the 
unique copy of Aristotle's Constitution of Athens written in four different 
hands. A specimen of one of these hands has already been given among 
the facsimiles from literary papyri (Facs. 11). A specimen of another 
hand, cursively written, is here submitted. 

No. 30 

This specimen of a private hand, cramped and inelegant, is quite 
different in general appearance from the legible writing of the bailiff's 
accounts on the recto side of the papyrus. And yet the forms of the 
letters employed in both writings are the same, proving that the Con- 
stitution was transcribed not many years after the accounts. The 
interest aroused by the recovery of this long-lost work of a great writer 
justifies us in placing the facsimile before the student, although the style 
of handwriting lies outside the direct line of developement of the trained 
clerical cursive to which our researches are mainly restricted. 



Of the second century the two following facsimiles illustrate the 
growing laxity of the cursive handwriting. The first is taken from 
a deed of sale of an ass, sold in Heracleia, in the division of Themistes, 
by Dioskoros, son of Castor, to one Stotoetis, of the village of Socnopaei- 
nesus, in the fifth year of Antoninus Pius = A.D. 142 (Brit. Mus., Pap. ccciii ; 
Cat. Glc. Pap. ii. 195, pi. 51 ; Pal. Hoc. ii. 184). 

No. 31 

This is a very cursive document, and consequently the more cursive 
forms of letters which have been gradually growing out of the hurriedly 
written normal shapes (such as tt-shaped beta and kappa, and w-shaped 
pi) prevail. But, notwithstanding its cursiveness, the writing is legible 
and the distinctive forms of the several letters are easily followed. 

The next example is not so cursive, being a fairly well written 
document of the upright type. It represents a section of a very inter- 
esting papyrus : a diploma of membership of an athletic club which 
flourished under the patronage of successive emperors. The section is 
part of the recitation of a letter from the Emperor Claudius, expressing 
satisfaction at the games performed, in his honour, by the club for the 
kings of Commagene and Pontus. The diploma is of A.D. 194 (Brit. 
Mus., Pap. 1178; Cat. Gk. Pap. iii. 214, pi. 41). 



GREEK CURSIVE PAPYRI 



167 



c 
cc 



ac 
O 



iffWftiii 

i-illillf.| 





A <.: -C'i" 




C5 



sS?***saii*l =: 

^ J-: 4 f, f- ,?? * 3$y* 

I 

L?4V^i*-ii3- 



;: 
/ 



5 5 

V >- -g 

" S Q ^- 



o =- 

f I' 

-3 

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- 



s- 
f. 

8 

E- 



3 

"=- c 

3 g 

3 i> 

& -^~ 

3 c 

3 ;J 
*-L0 O 

M/ l- 



t- 

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t 
j. 

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o t= 

a R- 

O 

^ s 

1 4 



~ 5 



< s. 

S 5" 



A 
3 J, 



> 

c- 

tm 

a 



"t" b 

^ 'Zr- 



A * 
S 2 *- S 

O^ b "^ t 

1^8 

-g ^-^g 
^S^f 

3 S c- 4" 

I- I- t=: 

*^* O ^ Ci. 

30-33 

3 * ^ 



~ 



j* t* 
S 



S S 



A 



g- 



& 
p- 



3 3- - 

/. 

3 g- 

-9- t - 

8 T^ 

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8 5 



3- S- 

ii ^ -* 

'B" s 



e 

^ 



f g - 
3 fl 

^r \y ^4. ~ 

^^^ 



'^'g 

3 



2. 2 

?l 

1 I 




3 

iS- 

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3 
I 






4/ 



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9 
b 

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t i s 

5 e- fc 

:-i g i 



-S- 

S 



GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 



CHAP. 



FACSIMILE No. 31 







SALE OF AN Ass. A.D. 142 

(erous irefXTTToi) avroKparopos Kaio-apos | rtrov atXioi) aS/Jtarou aiT 

crrou evcre/3ovs [J.r)vos Kaiaapfiov | 15- ntcropr) i<? ev Tjpax 

Hfpibos TOD apairoeiroi) | VOJJLOV o/xoXoyt 8toiTKopos ica(r|ropos rov 7jpa/cXi8ov 

OTTO afx^>o|8ov \T)Vof3o<rKU6V i;poTu>v coy L AJJ | ovX?; virep ni]\ov apicrTepov OTOTO] 

TJTd <t>pOV TOD Tf(T(VOV(pf<a$ ttTTO | /CO)/J.T)S (TOKrOTTatOV VTjlTOV ft)J L K | OvX?J (J-fTOTtO) 

TT(TTpa.Ke\vai avra> ror o^xoAoyowra roi') 



GREEK (THSIYE PAPYRI 169 

FAOIMILK No. 32 



; 

pi] ^ o--/^t-^>>ri.^'. 

fM-o^-^I;v^ { "-y,^ 
{4 J i/^'fr^ >'T 

I * 

n~ 



I ' 

ry xxKP- VH-rrviTffl*' * ^ -V P V c -Y7V> 



f V w^r^l^ vyrr7i>i YI flfrcf -Y \* Y v. *:~Y/* ! 

TtvH yr^ r ?T->*^ VT^ H S^^t ' ^V - M ' 

I 

^ r 





^VBB^HdM ' ' 

DIPLOMA. A.D. 194 



7 airobo0fi<r[i]v //ot 8t)(ri^ [ eire e~ e/itoi; yatto 
iov\i(o TroAffitoi'i TO) TTOITOV avbpaai \ L wal(T7) o-77ov8)( K 
XpJ?<Taif | [eirji TCO e/ito oi'Ojuan n^e/xerous D77 av | Upas pfv rrjy 
Trpo? avrovs <ux a P lOTtas I T7 ' 1 ' ^P 09 tpavrov per (vvoiav ire | eyrtopicra 
fdaviJ.a<ra. Ot T0[ts] | roi Tjorar Sioyfinjj piKKaXov a^Ttoxvs | s 
or yco xat TTJS pa>\j.au>>v \ <av aiov r]yi}(Taya\v fivai cravboyevr)[s] \ 



170 GKEEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 

No. 32 

It may be assumed that the writer of this document was the secretary 
of the club. Being more formal than the preceding example, the letters 
are less cursive and follow the older patterns. But the general looseness 
of the structure of the writing is obvious and marks the tendency of the 
handwritings of the period. 

To illustrate the cursive of the third century three examples are 
produced. The first two, written in the third decade, are of a fine and 
unusual type of the well-trained clerical hand. They are, in fact, formed 
upon the model of the calligraphic writing which was practised at this 
time in the chancery of the Prefect of Egypt, as it appears in a papyrus, 
now in Berlin, containing an official notification from the prefect to 
a strategus of the completion of a convict's term of punishment and his 
consequent discharge; A.I). 209. 1 

The first facsimile is from an official return by representatives of the 
five tribes of the priests of Socnopaei-nesus for purposes of taxation, 
in the fourth year of Elagabalus, associating with him Severus Alex- 
ander = A. D. 221 (Brit. Mus., Pap. cccliii; Cat. Gk. Pap. ii. 112, pi. 84; 

Pal. Koc. ii. 186). 

No. 33 

The writing is of a particularly careful and formal character ; the 
letters upright and in many instances stilted, while others are written on 
a reduced scale and placed high in the line of writing. This stilting 
and variety in the scale of the letters are characteristic of the chancery 
hand, as displayed in the document referred to above. 

The second is taken from a deed of sale of a share in a house in the 
western quarter of the fort at Hermopolis ; A. D. 226-7 (Brit. Mus., 
Pap. 1158 ; Cat. Gk. Pap. iii. 151, pi. 55). 

No. 34 

If anything, this example, while written in the same style, is even 
more fluent than the preceding one ; and the delicate touch is admirable. 
Both examples show that, while the cursive of the Roman period had 
been growing in looseness of structure, it was still possible to obtain 
a calligraphic perfection even in ordinary documents. This, however, 
would not affect the general law of change in the shapes of the letters, 
as will be shown presently when the cursive alphabet at different 
periods is reviewed. 

1 See the Sitzungsberichte of the Berlin Academy, 1910, p. 710, in which a facsimile 
of this interesting document is given. Cf. also Brit. Mus. Pap. cccxlv, of A. D. 193, and 
Pap. 11G4, of A.D. 212 Cat. Gk. Pap. ii, pi. 94; iii, pi. 47. 



FACSIMILE No. 33 



171 



I 



pfiT? r 



5 








M r^l 












TAXATION RETURN. A. D. 221 

( apcrivoiTov r)pa.K\dbov pepibos \ 'or OTorjT(u>s nrjrpos 6ar](Tetas KOI (apov 
apTta | poj Tar(/5e/i/xea>s Kat (rroroi)rea)y | ros rtav y i(p(u>v 8 <pv\ris KO.I 
OTOTOTJ | ros fx?)rpos ororor/reus xai TroKixreo)? | fjLrjrpos TaapTiayaQt]? Ttav 
re iepeiov T7(i>Ta.<pv\ias <roKj'oTroioi) 0tOV \ Tr 



deov 



Kat Ifp ov ^a'piTtjcriov \ KTI bos vj>op(rriovs Kat rtav <TV[VVO.(O]V deutv 
[(TDK voiraiov z ?)<rot' Kare\(j) ptcra/xev -yp]a<pr)v \ [up OKfifJ.fvov Ifpov TOV 



5S 
8po v xaio-apo? 



[a\vpr]\. 



iov avnovivov (V 



172 



GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 



CHAP. 



FACSIMILE No. 34 



-rrr^-n [^ 



_ 







( y aT77;Auorou cos L j'i; 

[icjai 

t TJ? 



SALE. A. D. 226-7 



TUIKHJ? | fj.iapto TWV avriav yoveov avaypa- 



rifXTjp apyvpiov 

KOI rovj irap aurou TTJV TOV Ticnpa.iJ.evov cos irpo" | [>'}w fin TOV cmavra 
\povov TTJS /3e/3ai6oaecos | rouy wap avrov Trepi /xijSepos TTjfrSe r?;s 
wo TJ rois wap avrov TO. re /3Xa/3; Kai SaTrarrj/xara | yez'ecrflai 



OREKK ( 1'HSIVE PAPYRI 



173 



FACSIMILE Xo. 35 




MILITARY ACCOUNTS. A. D. 295 

a \ toy Trpo/carat avpi)Atoy 



(anpr/Xios 

/3onA(vrrjs) 
j)a avpr)\ios 
Toiy V77O tvflapiv TipfiroaiTOv 

TTJ? 8e <t>povfj.apia$ CJTLV avTiypa(<pov) | rcor two evfiapiv 



Sexa 8t>o ex \irpu>v 



retrapaxoiTa) 



174 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

The last example of the third century conies from some official 
accounts of supplies to the troops ; A. D. 295 (Brit. Mus., Pap. 748 ; 
Cat. Gk. Pap. iii, pi. 63). 

No. 35 

This is a good fluent hand of the official type. The character is 
still Roman, the date of the document almost coinciding with that of 
1 Hocletian's redistribution of the empire. 

Here, then, we come to the end of the second period of Greek 
cursive writing, as found in the papyri of Egypt. Casting our eyes 
again over the series of facsimiles with which we have attempted to 
illustrate the changes through which that handwriting passed, it is not 
difficult to appreciate how great those changes have been, starting from 
the stiff unbending script of the early Ptolemies and ending in the 
flexible and fluent Roman script of the close of the third century. 

In the Byzantine period the succession of facsimiles is less abundant : 
we have to be content to select such examples as are typical and instruc- 
tive for our immediate purpose, and they are not numerous. But they 
will suffice to give a general idea of the leading characteristics of the 
Byzantine type of hand. We pass from the round and flexible writing 
of the Roman period, and find a script of an exaggerated and artificial 
character, but of the greatest interest as developing those long-limbed 
forms of letters from which was to be evolved the minuscule book- 
hand of the middle ages. 

The first example is most typical : a class of writing which appears 
to have been a common one at the time. It is part of a letter from 
Flavius Macarius, chief officer of finance, to Flavius Abinnaeus, ' prae- 
fectus castrorum ' of Dionysias, informing him that Flavius Felicissimus, 
the ' dux ', has authorized him to requisition the services of soldiers to 
assist in levying imperial revenues; about A. D. 350 (Brit. Mus., Pap. 
ccxxxiv ; Pal. Soc. ii. 188). 

No. 36 

An untidy, straggling hand ; the letters varying in shape and size ; 
and the lines of writing wavering from the true hoi'izontal level. And 
yet the general large scale and the uprightness and lateral compression 
of the letters lend to the writing a certain appearance of regularity. 
Notice should be taken of the tall delta, shaped like a modern Roman d, 
and of the tendency in mu to drop the first limb vertically below the 
line, as marking a step in the evolution of minuscule forms. 

The scarcity of papyri of the fifth century has already been noticed. 
The following facsimile is but a rough example ; yet it carries on the 
tradition of the Byzantine hand in the particulars noted above. The 



GREEK CURSIVE PAPYRI 



175 




3 

s- 

b 
3 



c 

CO 



O 





c- 
b 
a 

*3 



-= a 

H 

b 

s 

g 



5 vu 

s 

" 



* x 

^ b 






II 

b w 
b 



S 

en * 

I !! 

1 2 1 

*g|S 

i^S 

^ X ~o 



176 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

papyrus is a portion of a receipt from Aurelius Alypius, of the village 
of Kerkethoeris in the Fay Am, to Aurelia Enkia, daughter of Pekysis, 
in the eleventh indictiou year, in the consulship of Flavius Cyrus 
= A. D. 441 (Berlin, P. 7452 ; * New Pal. Soc. 23 a). 

No. 37 

Again an exaggerated upright style of writing ; with a certain 
strength, notwithstanding. Extravagant forms of letters are con- 
spicuous, as in eps'don and sigma with oblique head-strokes, and large 
theta and kappa. The d-shaped delta and the incipient minuscule mu 
also appear. 

The same upright style continued to prevail in the sixth century, 
of which we give two examples, one from the middle, the other from 
the end, of the century. The first is an acknowledgement from Aurelius 
Nepheras, son of Isaac, to Flavius Apion, orpaTTjAarijs and Trdyapxcs of 
Arsinoe and Theodosiopolis in the Fayum, of the acceptance of a lease 
of certain rooms in the street Psappallius in Arsinoe, in the fourth 
indiction year after the consulship of Flavius Basilius = A. D. 556 (Berlin, 
P. 2558 ; Neiv Pal Soc. 23 b). 

No. 38 

This is an irregular hand of the same upright type of the Byzantine 
period. During the century elapsed since the date of the preceding 
example, further progress has been made in the evolution of minuscule 
forms. In addition to the d-shaped delta and the /x-shaped mu, here 
is present also the h-shaped eta. The exaggeration of other letters is 
also chai-acteristic. The date-clause written at the top of the deed, in 
a straggling sloping cursive, in its general aspect recalls the contem- 
porary Latin cursive writing as seen in the Ravenna deeds. Such 
a resemblance would naturally be expected. 

The example of the close of the sixth century is from a contract for 
lease of a farm from Phoebammon, ' tabularius ' of Arsinoe, to Aurelius 
John and Aurelius Castous, farmers ; A. D. 595 (Brit. Mus., Pap. cxiii. 
4; Cat. Gk. Pap. i. 208 ; Pal. Soc. ii. 124). 

No. 39 

The writing of this deed is of a good, regular, upright type, executed 
with expert facility. The very great advance in the formation of 
minuscule letters here exhibited is very striking : alpha, delta, eta, theta, 
kappa, mil, xi, may be especially cited as almost fully developed letters 
of the minuscule alphabet. The thin sloping cursive of the date-clause 
again recalls the Latin cursive of the time. 



GREEK CURSIVE PAPYRI 



177 



FACSIMILE No. 37 









Atos 




^Y^^ai^W* 

^MC^^J^-.- 

^tttytfy- 



RECEIPT. A. D. 441 



vios 



OTTO 



ouo\oy<a ea) 



os avprj- 
[sl at'p?)\ta 



N 



178 



FACSIMILE No. 38 




^ ; 1 1 

'vdr&tyi 
^^^^^^^n^i 

tmr* ^^^^^ 

} ^^^^ a ^^r . 

^3^^^ M '^ 
\*iw^ 



4. 



\ 



AGREEMENT FOR LEASE. A. D. 556 

( + fxera ri]v vnariav </>A. /iaa-t\to>; | rot) XafX7r/j(oraroi)) wawi 10 : reA(et) 8 n (81- 



<t>A. a^tcon TO) fi/8oorarto (rrpanjAar?) [MU] 
6fobotn\ovno\LTtav avpTjAtos vefapas vios 'i<ra.K 
air] | apfpov i^aTTTraAAtot) x( a 'P fli; ) of^oAoyco /xe 
OTTO TOW wnapyovTviv avrr\ 8ta 



S apcri.vot.rfav KO.I 
airo TTJJ aur?;? ir[oAa>s 
wapa r?js D/xerepas 
TOD fvAa/3oraroD 



I 7Tl Tij(rSe rrjs woAews xai rov aurou afx(/>o|8ov ^aWTraAAiov ej' otxia 
ets | Ai/3a f r<u aidpiia xeAAtoy f afecoy|p:ez'oi' eis 
is Ai/3a 



179 









I- 

o 

fc 



y^f 1 : 
" ^ iii 

lISlD Sm Ti 

r^*&w^>^ ^ \> ~. & 



<rj. ^o s 

* " a 

3 O 

O to t- 

*- f 3 



-< 

b J 



3 S 



3 
x< 



? * 
b to ^^ ^ 



s ^ 3 ^ 
x b 3 

-2 
S-j 2 
C 11 



o 
O 



H 



il'S-l 

ell* 

-: 1 

8 a S-"- 
* o CS _ 



l! 1 1 

S 5 " = a 



I- CD ~ ^> 

o ^- a 

S. i- 3 3 

58 

S Q 2 M 

-J O ^ 






* 5 t 

+ III 



180 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

To illustrate the writing of the early part of the seventh century 
a facsimile is given from a lease of land at Thynis near Hermopolis, the 
parties to which are Christians bearing Jewish names ; A. D. 633 (Brit. 
Mus., Pap. 1012 ; Cat. Gk. Pap. iii. 265, pi. 95). 

No. 40 

This example of the still prevailing upright cursive type, although 
roughly written, carries forward the developement of the minuscule 
alphabet ; there being in this instance less linking and connexion 
between the letters than is usual in cursive writing, their individual 
formation can be more clearly traced. It will be seen that most of 
them are in a shape which with a little more calligraphic finish would 
bring them very close to the literary minuscule ; and little more than 
half a century sufficed to span the narrow space now dividing the two 
classes of handwriting, as will appear from the next facsimile. 

This is taken from a roll of accounts of the pay and allowances of 
the governor (iri^/SovAos) of Egypt under the Arab administration and 
his subordinates, including maivali (freed-men), attendants, and slaves 
(among the papyri from the ancient Aphroditopolis, found in 1901) ; 
the date lying between A. D. 700 and 705 (Brit. Mus., Pap. 1448; Cat. 
Gk. Pap. iv. 359; Xeiv Pal. Soc. 152). 

No. 41 

This document written, there can be no doubt, in the best form of 
the official hand of the time is of the highest palaeographical value. 
It is also interesting as one of a group of papyri illustrating the 
continuance of the official use of the Greek language in Egypt for the 
better part of a century after the date of the Arab conquest of the 
country. The minuscule hand is here complete ; and this example, being 
written with such calligraphic effect, demonstrates most clearly the 
connexion between the cursive writing of the papyri and the literary 
minuscule of the vellum codices. 

To bring this section to a close, a reduced facsimile is given of a 
portion of a fragmentary papyrus, the text of which seems to be a public 
notice respecting certain fugitives; probably of the first half of the 
eighth century (Brit. Mus., Pap. xxxii; Cat. Gk. Pap. i. 230; Journ. 
Hellenic Studies, xxviii). 

No. 42 

This extremely handsome official writing, it will be seen, is of the 
same type as the foregoing example from the Aphrodito collection, but 
written on a larger scale and with bolder sweeps of the pen. It is the 
only specimen of its kind in the British Museum collections. Any 



CHKEK CURSIVE PAPYRI 



181 



FACSIMILE No. 40 




LEASE. A. D. 633 

(+ er oro/xart rrjy ayias xat fcooT7o\ov' | Kat Ojuoovfrioi; rptaSos warpo^s' | K<H 
KOI aytov TrrtUfxaroy | /3a<riAias rtoj; ^iorar&)/> | xai yaATji/orarcor KOI 
; becnroTiav (fr\a.viiav' | TjpaxXeioi; (cat Tj/jaicAeiou | i>eov Ktovarav- 
Tirov ~<av | ai<oj>i'<ur avyovorcoz' avTOKpaTOpwv | xai /xtytorcor (Vfpytrwv \ frovs 
(iKoarov rpiTov 6(1)6 | 8eKaT?) /38o//T)i- ij'5 + | + avpr]\i<i> SavirjAito yecopya) | 
uta> TOD naicapiTOV ^piaro^iap'ov' | OTTO TT;S <pfx' r + 7r a avp?jAiov i(a(Tif(piov \ viov 
[J.apf)a.s yecopyou 0770 



182 



FACSIMILE No. 41 




.- i/ry 

v f 



^' -R --^- 9 w <*+ 



PUBLIC ACCOUNTS. A. D. 700-5 

row aurou oven Tiapa Sata Trat(Sos) TOD avr(ov) 
ewoDKto (KOI) raip(ot$) iraXAtK(aptoi9) TOD avr(oif) 
ar8(pa)7r(o8ots) rou <TV/x/3ow\oD OTTO wypo(s) ouin ei(s) r(r\v) ov<ri(av) au(rov) 



TOD (Tt'ppODAoD 

fff\r]fj. <riKfa<TTT]s p.ctDAe(t) ojup-oD ao-6/x (xai) eTatp(oty) 

fjiovadnr paTiTTj //ai>Ae(i) opp^oD aatp. (KOI) KOpa(<Tt&>) a (xai) 77aAix(apia)) a OI'T(I) 
irapa avr(oD) 

a TOD trvp;/3ou(AoD) O^T(I) Trapa (ratjiovav p^aDAf(tos) TOD aDr(ov)) 



GREEK CURSIVE PAPYRI 



183 



. 



>v- -.. 



Hi ' 



3> : 

t 



2. 



.. . 

Jr 
? 




e- 

T; 




c 




p 

H 

c4 
O 



o 
H 

a 



I I 
I ^3 

S" 3 -< 

-.It 

2 b 

8 C" C 

-SO 
O K Q. 

x a s 



a 



a 

x 

3 

s 



3 

l 

e 



a 
OH 



P s- ^ 

^ >-^K> ?* 

o 2 

s b t- o 

g-g Z I 

V Q_r^ 

1 c- " 5" 
Q. b - O 
c *S ^ 

r f S 2, 







184 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

documents written on this scale would probably have been more liable 
to destruction, whether voluntary or accidental, than those of ordinary 
dimensions. Hence it is to be feared that few specimens of this large 
hand will ever be recovered. 

Of the same type of writing, but of later date, is the fragmentary 
papyrus in the Archives Nationales, Paris, inscribed with an imperial 
letter addressed, it is now thought, by an Emperor of the East to Louis 
le De'bonnaire, between 824 and 839 ; but formerly attributed to the 
year 756. 1 

In the accompanying Table of Alphabets the student will follow 
the course of developement and change in the several letters of Greek 
Cursive writing; and, in the first place, he will learn to appreciate 
the danger of assuming that a particular form of a letter belongs to 
a fixed or limited period. The not infrequent survival or recurrence of 
old forms warns us to proceed with caution, especially as there are still 
existing many gaps in the chronological sequence of our material. On 
the other hand, the birth and early growth of particular forms can be 
usually traced, and the use of any one such form may assist us in 
placing an anterior limit to the date of the document in which it is 
found. Thus, the occurrence of the c-shaped epsilon (Q-) might confirm 
an opinion that the document was not earlier than the first century B. c. ; 
but, at the same time, the occurrence of the old normal form would be 
no criterion of age, as that form keeps reappearing in all times. So, 
too, the down-curved sigma grows up in the first century ; yet the old 
normal form continued in common use for centuries later. The character 
of the writing, however, distinctly changes with the lapse of time ; 
and, though particular letters may be archaic in shape, the true age 
of the text, judged by its general appearance, can usually be fixed with 
fair accuracy. The natural tendency to slackness and flourishing as 
time advances is sufficiently apparent to the eye as it passes along the 
lines of letters in the Table ; still more so if it passes over a series of 
documents, in which the juxtaposition of the letters and the links which 
connect them are so many aids to forming a judgement. 

Viewed as representative of three periods, Ptolemaic, Roman, and 
Byzantine, the series of letters are fairly distinguishable and capable of 
being grouped. Those of the Ptolemaic period stand quite apart in 
their simpler forms from those of the Roman period ; and this distinc- 
tion is made more striking by the paucity of papyri to represent the 
first century B. c. The letters of the Roman period blend more gradually 
into those of the Byzantine period ; but taken in their entirety the 

1 Wattenbach, Script. Graec. Specim. xiv, xv ; H. Omont in Revue Archeologique, 
(1892), 384. See above, p. 2fi. 



xix 



x GREEK CURSIVE ALPHABETS 185 

flourished alphabets of the late centuries afford a sufficient contrast to 
the less untrammelled letters of the Roman period. 

Certain letters are seen to change in form in a comparatively slight 
degree during the eleven hundred years covered by the Table ; some are 
letters which are not very frequently used, others are such as do not 
very readily connect with following letters. And yet how far the tendency 
of a cursive writer to link together his letters could affect even those 
which would not naturally lend themselves to the process is seen in 
even some of the earliest forms. For example, the occasional horizontal 
position of the last limb of alpha or In m '</<( was due to its connexion 
with a following letter, the junction being effected in the upper level 
of the line of writing ; and the opening of the lower right-hand angle 
of delta and the lifting of the right-hand stroke into a more or less 
elevated position was owing to the same cause. To the same tendency 
are due the artificial links which appear attached so early to such letters 
as eta, mu, nu, pi, and, in a less degree, kappa and chi ; and in the case 
of tau this linking may have decided the ulterior shape of the letter 
(as a cursive), having the cross-bar extending also to the right of the 
vertical (as in its normal form) instead of being kept only to the left 
as seen in the earliest examples in the Table. 

How soon certain letters in their most cursive forms might become 
so alike that they might be mistaken for each other is illustrated by 
the pretty close resemblance between the early convex curved forms of 
mu and pi; and, again, there is very little difference between the 
early gamma and the lambda with horizontal final stroke. Such 
similarities naturally increased as the letters, in course of time, assumed 
more flexible shapes. The r-shaped cursive beta and the v-shaped 
cursive kappa are nearly identical ; and the it-shaped forms of the same 
two letters are very similar. .Yd and pi likewise bear a close resem- 
blance to each other in more than one of their forms ; and the y-shaped 
tau and the long gamma and the long upsilon are not unlike. 

We will examine the course of the alphabetical changes in detail : 
ALPHA. The capital form of alpha written quickly falls naturally 
into the uncial shape, in which the cross-bar becomes an oblique stroke 
starting from the base of the first limb : from the first there was a 
natural effort to round off the lower left-hand angle, ultimately leading 
to much variety of form. To throw away the final limb and leave the 
letter as a mere acute angle or wedge was, even in the earliest stages, 
a natural step for the quick writer to take ; and perhaps there is no 
better example to prove the very great age of cursive Greek writing 
than this form of the letter, which is found in general use in the third 
century B. c. and was also employed, though apparently less commonly, 



186 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

in the following century. Quite early, too, the letter developed other 
forms which became common in the following centuries, particularly 
the angular >A The round letter looped at the top became a favourite 
from the third century onwards ; and from the fifth century the open 
u-shaped letter is frequent and is often written on a small scale high in 
the line, in combination. 

BETA. The history of beta is the history of a struggle between 
a capital form and a cursive form, although it is somewhat difficult to 
understand why, when once the latter had become established, the older 
shape, which nearly always appears as a rather clumsy and ungainly 
letter, should not have been discontinued. In the third and second 
centuries B. c., by the side of the normal capital, a small cursive letter 
appears, either somewhat in the shape of the letter n, produced by 
slurring the bows and leaving the base open, or in a cognate form 
with the base closed and usually drawn to a point. Then, in the first 
century B.C., by reversed action of formation, another shape also appears, 
something like the letter v ; and this by the addition of a link becomes the 
ii-shaped letter, which eventually was to be the most generally employed 
form and was to lead on to the similar minuscule letter of the vellum 
book-hand. But it must not be forgotten that the normal capital form 
was also employed throughout the papyrus period, growing more and 
more ill-formed and straggling from the third century onwards. 

GAMMA. It is remarkable that this letter retained its right-angled 
normal capital shape and was employed without an alternative for so 
many centuries. It was not until the first century that it began to 
show a cursive tendency by arching the horizontal ; and it seems that 
it was only in the fifth century that the long y had fully established 
itself, and even then only to be accompanied to the end by the normal 
form, though in a diminishing degree. 

DELTA. Although the normal triangular form of this letter was 
a lasting one, there was, from the first, a constant endeavour to round 
off the angles, a process which influenced the more cursive forms. There 
was also the tendency, already noticed, to open the lower angle on the 
right and to lift the right-hand stroke in order to link it to the following 
letter. Even among the earliest examples also is seen the incipient 
growth of the right-hand stroke above the apex, which, ever increasing 
in length, produces in the Byzantine period the exaggerated form of the 
letter resembling a Roman d and the other cognate forms with long 
oblique stroke, single or bent double ; whence was evolved the minuscule 
of the vellum book-hand. 

EPSILON. That this letter, more frequently used than any other in 
the Greek alphabet, should have been liable to many changes was only 
to be expected. The most radical alteration of its shape, from the 



x GREEK CURSIVE ALPHABETS 187 

normal semicircle with the cross-bar to the broken c in which the cross- 
bar survives only as a link-stroke, is seen along with other cursive 
forms in the first century B. c. ; and from this date the cursive forms 
gradually prevailed over the normal letter, which however was never 
extinguished. 

ZETA. The normal Z-letter lasted throughout the papyrus period. 
From the first century B. c. a more cursive form, rounding the two 
angles and resembling a roughly written numeral 2, was also employed 
down at least to the fourth century; from that date the Z began to 
develope a tail, and in the later centuries the tailed letter prevailed. 

ETA. From the first this letter has the form of a truncated Roman h, 
provided more or less with a horizontal link attached to the shoulder, 
which lasted in a fairly primitive shape down to the second century A.D. 
In the second century B. c. we find also instances of the same general 
form with the vertical produced below the line. The ^J-shaped cursive 
letter, in which the first limb and the horizontal of the normal capital 
are slurred and become a shallow concave curve which is attached to 
the final descending stroke usually turned in at the base, is found in an 
incipient stage even in the second, and in a fairly developed form before 
the close of the first, century B.C. ; and it is not uncommon in the first and 
second centuries A. D., and survived into the third century. From the 
first century the truncated h with a loop at the shoulder, which had 
been growing up in the preceding century and which can be traced even 
in the second century B.C., prevails. In the fourth century there is a later 
developement like a complete Roman h, with the vertical at full length ; 
from which the similar minuscule book-hand letter was moulded. In the 
Byzantine period the letter often appeai-s in the shape of a Roman n. 

THETA. The normal 6 is found at all periods in the papyri. Even 
in the third century B. c. there are also instances of the looped letter, which 
became common in the first century B.C. ; and the two forms then run 
together to the end. In size, the letter is small in the early centuries ; 
in the first century it tends to range with other letters ; in the later 
centuries it is sometimes exaggerated. 

IOTA. There is little variety in this letter, such as there is being 
chiefly due to the length of the stem. In the early centuries this is 
never inordinate ; but from the fourth century it tends to exaggeration. 
In the third and second centuries B. c. the letter is frequently thickened 
or clubbed or hooked at the head, on the right, as well as on the left ; 
later, any such clubbing or hooking, when it occurs, is on the left side. 

KAPPA. Tin's letter follows very much the course of beta, the normal 
form being an awkward letter to write neatly but, like the other, 
persisting to the end, and straggling in the Byzantine period. In the 
early centuries it is often provided with a link from the top of the 



188 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

upper oblique limb. As early as the second century B. c. the u-shaped 
cursive appears and becomes common by the first century A. D., continuing 
onwards through the succeeding centuries. In the second century it 
often takes the form of a v. Both these forms resemble like develope- 
ments of the cursive beta ; but the ti-shaped kappa is usually distin- 
guished from the tt-shaped beta by a slight lengthening of the first 
limb. This lengthening tends to increase until, by the sixth century, 
there is produced a tall letter, somewhat resembling a Roman h. 

LAMBDA. This letter is subject to little change. In the third 
century B. c., like other letters at that period, it is often written in a very 
wide angle, almost approaching a convex curve ; but thenceforward it 
is usually in normal shape and restrained, but always showing a growing 
tendency to thrust the second limb above the apex. In the fourth 
century it is inclined to run large ; and by the sixth century it grows 
into a straggling letter, produced below the line and ending in a sweeping 
stroke. From the sixth century also dates the form having the first 
stroke descending below the line, from which the vellum minuscule is 
derived. 

Mu. The normal capital shape of this letter is, in the third cen- 
tury B. c., made wide and shallow, the central angle being almost flattened ; 
in a still more cursive form it is represented by a convex curve very 
similar to the like form of pi. In the next century it becomes less 
shallow and recovers more of its angular formation. In this early 
period linking by means of a horizontal stroke attached to the right 
shoulder is not uncommon. From the first century B.C. onwards the 
normal form obtains, but as time proceeds there is a growing tendency 
to deepen the central angle into a curve and to lengthen the first limb, 
so that by the fifth century the form p is fairly established. In the 
later centuries an ugly sprawling cursive form of the capital is also 
employed. 

Nu. The normal capital form of nu survives throughout the papyrus 
period, gradually, however, receding before the advance of more cursive 
forms. It is subject to linking, by means of a horizontal stroke attached 
to the right limb, down to the second century at least. The form of 
the letter, common in the third century B.C., which throws the last limb 
high above the line of writing, survives chiefly as a final letter, and can 
be traced, subject to variations, down to the end. In it we see the origin 
of the minuscule of the vellum book-hand. The cursive form of the 
letter, constructed by drawing the middle stroke almost in a horizontal, 
or waved horizontal, line from the top of the left vertical to the top of 
the right vertical and connecting therewith in a small loop (resembling 
one cursive form of pi), is found as early as the first century B. c. and 
becomes common down to the fourth century. A still more cursive 



x GREEK CURSIVE ALPHABETS 189 

developement, fashioned like a Roman n, also dates back to the first 
century, and is in frequent use in the Byzantine period. 

Xi. The three-stroke letter, made, with rare exceptions, by three 
separate strokes of the pen, is the normal form from the third to the first 
century B.C. At the same time there is existent, though less frequently 
employed, a cognate three-stroke form made continuously without lifting 
the pen; and this form is found recurring at later dates in the less- 
cursively written papyri. But in the course of the first century B.C. and 
down to the third century A.D. the ordinary form takes the shape of a 
long-tailed z, the tail usually ending in a curve to the right. From the 
fourth century onwards this tailed letter becomes straggling and exag- 
gerated, and in certain phases runs perilously near in appearance to the 
long-tailed zeiu. 

OMIKRON. Little need be said regarding this letter. It is normally 
small in the early periods ; but from the first century A. D. onwards it 
is subject occasionally to enlargement. When written very cursively it 
sometimes takes the form of a loop. 

Pi. The normal capital form of this letter is employed throughout 
the papyrus period, but more constantly in the earlier centuries, when the 
archaic type sometimes appears, having the second vertical shortened, and 
when the letter is frequently provided with a horizontal link attached to 
the right shoulder. In the third century B. c. the letter also takes a wide 
and shallow formation ; a cursive form resembling a wide n also appears, 
as well as a further developement in shape of a convex curve, similar to 
the like form of inu. From the second century B.C. onwards the n-form, 
and a variety of the same (resembling a modern Roman w), created 
by adding an up-stroke link, are constant. The letter formed like an 
omega, to, surmounted by a horizontal stroke, appears in the eighth 
century ; and afterwards as a minuscule in the vellum period. 

RHO. This letter is subject to no particular changes. The stem is 
normally straight, but occasionally curved. The bow is usually small ; 
but in the late centuries it tends sometimes to enlargement. 

SIGMA. The normal uncial letter, C, and the same with a flattened 
head are constant throughout the papyrus period. During the first 
century, and in the second and third centuries in particular, the head of the 
C is often drawn downwards, especially as a final letter. A cursive form, 
T, is not uncommon from the first century onwards. The round minuscule 
a- has its prototype in a cursive form in which the curve is continued 
almost to a complete circle, and then finishes in a horizontal link-stroke 
CT; this can be traced back to the first century B.C. and reappears at 
intervals, becoming common in the eighth century, when it also assumes 
the exact minuscule shape. 

TAU By the more normal construction of this letter the left portion 



190 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 

of the cross-bar and the vertical are written, by one action of the pen, as 
a right angle, and the right half of the cross-bar is added separately, 
serving also as a link. In the third and, to some extent, in the second 
centuries B. c. the cursive form, without extension of the cross-bar on the 
right, is common. The above normal form led on to the letter with the 
cross-bar made in one stroke (in fact the old capital revived), but it also 
led to the y- and v-shaped cursives, the elementary forms of which can 
be traced back to the earliest times, and which came into common use 
from the first century B.C. In the later Byzantine period the long 
g nnma-form is much exaggerated. 

UPSILON. Besides the normal Y, which was persistent, this letter 
also took, from the first, the form of a concave curve ending in a vertical 
main-stroke, but from the beginning showing tendency to curve the 
main-stroke upwards to the right and hence soon developing the form *>, 
which persisted. In addition, other cursive forms grew up, as V and V. 
In the Byzantine period the usual tendency to exaggerate is restrained 
in regard to this letter, which is then, on the contrary, frequently 
written on a small scale, sometimes as a mere curve above the line. 

PHI. There are two forms of this letter: the one, in which the 
circle and the vertical are distinct ; the other, in which they are combined. 
In a variety of the first, found in the Ptolemaic and Roman periods, the 
circle takes the shape of a chain-link CO. In the early period the circle is 
normally small ; from the first century its size varies ; in the Byzantine 
period it tends to exaggeration. In the case of the combined form, in the 
earlier periods the vertical falls on the right, outside the circle ; in the 
Byzantine period, it traverses it. 

CHI. This letter remained almost unchanged in formation ; only 
varying occasionally in size. In the early period it was sometimes fur- 
nished with a horizontal link attached to the top of the right-hand limb. 

Pfcl. This, too, the most rarely used letter of the alphabet, shows 
little variety. In the earlier period, the transverse bar is usually bent in 
a curve or in a v-shape ; occasionally it is straight. From the first 
century the straight bar is prevalent. 

OMEGA. Although the uncial <o was already developed, the common 
cursive form of the letter, in the third century B. c., was in an incom- 
plete stage, in which the transition from the capital H can be but faintly 
traced. It is generally shallow, and is frequently clipped, that is, 
the second bow is not completed and has the appearance of having been 
cut short. This clipped letter was practically discontinued in the fol- 
lowing centuries, although occasional instances occur. The normal o> 
also appears at times with the addition of a linking curve, like the 
linking curve in our modern cursive w. 



CREEK CURSIVE ALPHABETS (A//J 



3 RD CENT. B.C. 



2* CENT. B.C. 



r T~ r 



r T rr- c- 



~ e t e e - f c^e E 



s- 



A V* A K" l~c h" H~ f~C / l ~/x K v\ Y\ 

m ' if r r r f ; i r J r r n?? 



A /^x A /v / 
~l r^ r~^ r\ - 



A ^ /~ ^" A. A 
. v^ r> vx. r^~ IM - 



N NT K 






7~T T~T 7-r /"" / T 



r- 



(iC6 CCC~L c~6~'(^ c^ c~ <. c cr e c- 
"? ? 7 7 ~7~ T ~7~ HTT 1 "7 r 1 



f 



;x 



h; K: ^-c fv h M |-r 



r- r- A A 



MT MT/v~ M. 



n 



rr vi^ rr ry v\ 



CO 



CO 



GREEK CURSIVE ALPHABETS (N2) 



CENT. B.C. TCENT. 



E N CENT 



r- /- r c~ r 



r rr- 
1> A 



<9 6< 

U M )l 

l< K [c f'- 
\X/\A 



e-6 



K 



c <T r or <r c- c V 



f 

O CO CJL \jkV_ vx. 



"A N TN A X 



TL Y\ A \^, W 70 T] TV 



r 



C~C-crCv^ 
T V 



o 



Ui 



a ^ ^ ^ i>- ^- vs/- ^ 



K 



H Tt 



o o O SL 

i\ TO n. i? >a w n 



cr c cr 



CO OeJ cu^c^. -*- 



CREEK CURSIVE ALPHABETS f/v3) 



3" D CENT. 



4 Trt CENT. 

AD. 302-359. 



5 CENT. 
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GREEK ALPHABETS IN PAPYRI 195 



Having now had befoi-e us the Tables of the Literary and of the 
Cursive Alphabets of Greek papyri, wr may attempt to compare them 
and endeavour to ascertain to what degree the literary hand was, in the 
course of time, modified by the current writing. 

If we run our eyes along the lines of the Literary Alphabets, it is 
at once apparent how little change the majority of the letters underwent 
in their structural forms. Generally the features of the parent capitals 
remained prominent from beginning to end ; and resistance to the aggres- 
sion of the looser, cursive forms was successful. But the career of a 
certain number was less constant, and in their varieties we find our 
opportunity. 1 

The literary Alpha, at first modelled directly on the capital, and then 
adopting the simpler uncial shape, was in both of these forms an angular 
letter. It was not till the Roman period, practically in the first century 
of our era, that the lower angle was rounded off and that this new 
modification took its position as a literary letter. But in cursive alpha- 
bets rounded forms of the letter appear in constant use even in the third 
century B.C. Hence it seems that some two centuries and a half elapsed 
before the cursive penetrated the literary ranks in respect to this letter. 

The literary A/W/tm in nearly the whole course of its career was the 
round uncial. But in the third century B.C. we see it wavering between 
that form and the older square capital ; and the latter form appears to 
have been constant, or nearly so, in the fourth century B.C. On the 
other hand, the early cursive letter, as far back as we can reach, may be 
said to be uniformly of the uncial type (an occasional slight squareness, 
as we think, being accidental and not representative of the square 
capital). Cursive writing of the fourth century B.C. will probably show 
the epsilon even then in the uncial form. 

The literary Zeta down to the second century B.C. was an archaic 
letter, built up with three separate strokes. Only in the course of that 
century does it appear to have assumed the simpler and more easily 
written Z-form of three continuous strokes. But the latter form was in 
full use in cursive alphabets of the third century B.C. ; and we may 
forecast its existence also in cursive writing of the preceding century. 

The literary Eta follows more or less the model of the parent capital 
down to the second century B.C. In the following century a letter of 
looser structure shows itself, which became common from the first 
century A. D. : a truncated h with loop at the shoulder. This form 
appears as a cursive letter in the first, and to some extent even in the 

1 The four columns of letters in the Table of Literary Alphabets, representing the 
four hands employed in the papyrus of the Constitution of Athens, of about A.D. 90, must be 
disregarded in this scrutiny, all being more or less cursive. 

o2 



CHAP. 



196 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 

second, century B.C. In this instance the influence of the cursive on the 
literary hand was operative after a comparatively short interval. 

In the literary Mu the model of the parent capital was followed 
pretty consistently down to the first century, from which period the central 
angle tends to take the form of a deep curve. In the cursive letter we 
have a similar development at the same period. 

The literary Xi retains the old form composed of three separate 
strokes (occasionally modified in two strokes) down to the period of the 
first century B.C. After that date the letter formed by one action, 
without lifting the pen, comes into general use in literary papyri. In 
cursive alphabets we find the latter form employed in the first and 
second, and even, rarely, in the third, century B.C. It seems then the 
lapse of two centuries at least was needed for the cursive letter to be 
established in the literary hand. 

The literary Sigma appears in the fourth century B.C. in two forms: 
viz. the older four-stroke capital, and the round C-shaped uncial which 
subsequently prevailed. The older form had already dropped out of 
cursive alphabets of the third century B.C., and at that time it had 
probably ceased to be employed cursively for a considerable period. 
The practice of drawing downwards the head of the C-letter seems to 
have come into vogue from the first century, in both literary and 
cursive hands. 

The literary V^'don (if we except those examples of the fourth century 
B.C. which are not of the purely literary type, and in which the letter 
shows cursive elements) appears to have been consistently of the normal 
capital type down to the first century, when more cursive forms began to 
encroach. But those forms are already conspicuous in cursive alphabets 
in the third century B.C. This letter, then, affords a further instance of 
the conservatism of the literary hand and of the resistance of which it 
was capable against the inroads of the cursive. 

The literary Omega which, after entering on the third century B.C. 
and subsequently, adopted the uncial form, still retained, in the fourth 
century B.C., recognizable traces of the features of the parent capital n. 
In the earliest cursive alphabets, in which the clipped letter predomi- 
nates, these traces have nearly vanished. When once the uncial CO had 
been evolved, it prevailed in both the literary and cursive hands with 
little variation. An exceptional variety is the shallow letter used in 
the Bacchylides and in the Harris Homer ; which is also found in literary 
papyri of the third century. 

In the course of the above remarks it will have been observed that 
several of the admissions of cursive forms into the literary script are 
practically contemporaneous with the assumption of the administration 



x GREEK ALPHABETS IN PAI'VRI 197 

of Egypt by the Romans. This is not surprising ; for the radical changes 
effected in the general character of both the literary and the cursive 
hands at the time of that political event have already been demonstrated ; 
and the general stimulus would be accountable for the accelerated 
adoption, into the literary ranks, of forms which, under more normal 
conditions, might have had to wait for a longer period before gaining 
admission. In the absence of such adventitious influences, it would seem 
that the normal interval between the rise of a cursive form and its 
ultimate recognition as a literary letter might extend to about a couple 
of centuries. 



CHAPTER XI 

GREEK PALAEOGRAPHY (continued) 
The Uncial Book-hand in Vellum Codices 

THE chapter in which the developement of the Literary hand or Book- 
hand in papyri has been described will have prepared the student for 
the further examination of literary Greek writing at the period when, 
about the fourth century, the vellum codex had established itself as the 
recognized vehicle for the dissemination of literature by superseding the 
ancient vehicle, the papyrus roll. 

In that chapter certain papyri were referred to, the writing of which 
bears, in a greater or less degree, direct relation to the uncial writing in 
early vellum codices, which it is now proposed to discuss. First there 
was a deed (Facs. 16) of A.D. 88, written in characters which demonstrate 
the existence, as early as the first century, of a style of hand which 
was the forerunner of the vellum uncial script. A nearer approach to 
the calligraphic style, distinguished by a contrast of light and heavy 
strokes, of the vellum period, was exhibited in the Bankes Homer 
(Facs. 17) of the second century. But there are more than one point 
of contact between the two classes of writing ; and there was also cited 
another important MS., the Hawara Homer (Fac.s. 18), also of the 
second century, which brings us to the very frontier separating the two 
kingdoms of papyrus and of vellum, resembling as it does in the scale 
and structure of its letters, not in the calligraphic quality just mentioned, 
the famous vellum fragments of the Iliad known as the Ambrosian 
Homer. As the close resemblance between the two MSS. has affected 
former opinions as to the period to which the Ambrosian Homer is to 
be assigned, and has, in fact, raised the latter to pre-eminence as possibly 
the oldest extant velluin MS. written in formal uncials, 1 it stands first in 
our series for illustration of this section of our work. 

The Ambrosian Homer has enjoyed greater celebrity for the illustra- 
tions with which it was adorned than for its script. In fact, in its 
present state, the MS. is represented only by some fifty fragments con- 
taining pictures cut, for their own sake, from the original volume, so that 
the portions of the text that have survived are only those which happened 
to be upon the reverse sides of the illustrations so barbarously abstracted. 

1 Here we do not take account of the few stray vellum leaves of earlier dates which 
have been more recently discovered (see p. 30) and which belong to a different order of 
handwriting. 



GREEK UNCIAL CODICES 199 

This valuable relic, so interesting as an example of ancient art as well 
as of earlv uncial writing on vellum, was in its present condition when 
it was added to the Ambrosian Library of Milan, along with the other 
collections of Vincenzio Pinelli, by Cardinal Federico Borromeo in 1609. 

Xo. 43 

The IIS. has hitherto been generally ascribed to the fifth century, 
and the difference of the style of the writing from that of the typical 
uncial writing of the time was thought to indicate inferiority in age. 
But the discovery of the Hawara Homer and other papyrus fragments 
of the Had/ of the second century written in a character so evidently of 
the style of the Ambrosian Homer caused the question of the period 
of the latter MS. to be reconsidered, and the probability of its earlier 
date was at once suggested. 1 The editors of the facsimile edition of the 
MS. 2 claim the third century to be the true period of its execution ; 
and this claim is now generally allowed. If the writing is compared 
with that of the Hawara MS. (Facs. 18), the likeness between the 
two is very striking : the Hawara text is more delicately inscribed, as 
is fitting, on the more fragile material, papyrus ; the Ambrosian text is 
rather heavier, as the stronger material, vellum, permits ; but the general 
style and structure of the letters bring the two MSS. into one group, 
and it seems that the difference of a century between them may be as 
much as it is needful to allow. Certainly the third century is an early 
period in which to find a vellum codex, such as the Ambrosian Homer, 
handsomely written and decorated a period when a papyrus roll might 
rather have been expected. But it may be urged that vellum was 
undoubtedly the better material to receive the illustrative paintings, and 
that, as the paintings must from the first have been the chief object of 
consideration, vellum was on that account employed. 

Passing now to the consideration of the more typical examples of the 
earl}- vellum uncial codices, in the first place what attracts the eye most 
of all is the great beauty and firmness of the characters. The general 
result of the progress of any form of writing through a number of 
centuries is decadence and not improvement. But in the case of the 
uncial writing of the early codices there is improvement and not 
decadence. This is to be attributed to the change of material, the firm 
and smooth surface of vellum giving the scribe greater scope for dis- 
playing his skill as a calligrapher. In other words, there appears to 
have been a period of renaissance with the general introduction of 
vellum as the ordinary writing material. 

The earliest examples of vellum uncial Greek MSS., which have 

1 Kenyon, Palaeogr. Gk. Papyri, 121. 

2 Homeri lliadis pictae Fragmenta Ambrosiana, ed. A. M. Ceriani and A. Ratti, 1905. 



200 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 

survived practically entire, are the three great codices of the Bible : the 
Codex Vaticanus, the Codex Sinaiticus, and the Codex Alexandrinus. 

The famous Codex Vaticanus has been in the Vatican Library 
certainly since the fifteenth century. It is to all appearance the most 
ancient and may be ascribed to the fourth century. It is written in 
triple columns, without enlarged initial letters to mark paragraphs or even 
the beginnings of the several books. The writing in its original state 
was beautifully regular and delicate; but, unfortunately, the whole of 
the text has been touched over, in darker ink, by a hand of perhaps the 
tenth or eleventh century, only letters or words rejected as superfluous 
or incorrect being allowed to remain intact. 

No. 44 

The accents and marks of punctuation are added, probably by the 
hand that retouched the writing. 

The entire text appears to have been the work of a single scribe, who 
must have been a marvellous workman. As will be seen, the lettering is 
on a smaller scale than that of the other two great codices, and the 
writing is of a lighter touch. Although not identical in regard to the 
forms of the several letters, there is much in the general aspect of the 
Codex Vaticanus that recalls the papyrus commentary on the Theaetetus 
(Facs. 13) of the second century, which is much of the same scale; 
and one is accordingly tempted to think that the text or texts which the 
scribe of this codex used as his prototype may have been papyrus rolls 
very much of the character of the Theaetetus, and that he adapted his 
style to the excellent older patterns which lay before him. 

The Codex Sinaiticus, Tischendorf 's great discovery in the monastery 
of St. Catherine of Mount Sinai, is generally regarded as somewhat 
younger than the Vatican MS. It can hardly be, in any case, earlier 
than the year 340 ; for the Eusebian sections or divisions of the text are 
indicated in the margins of the Gospels by a contemporary hand. Their 
author Eusebius died in that year. The period of the MS. may be the 
latter part of the fourth century. 

No. 45 

The text is written in four columns to a page, the open book thus 
presenting eight columns in sequence, and, as has been suggested, recalling 
the line of columns on a papyrus roll. Like the Vatican MS., it is devoid 
of enlarged letters ; but the initial letter of a line beginning a sentence is 
usually placed slightly in the margin, as will be seen in the facsimile. 
The chief characteristic of the letters is squareness, the width being 
generally equal to the height. The shapes are simple, and horizontal 
strokes are fine. 




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& .\;>xi 





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BIBLE (CODEX ALEXANUEINUS-). FIFTH CENTUHY 



207 



[1 John v. 13-21] 

(TaDTa cypa\]/a vfj.ii' 'ira etoijre 

OTI fa)7]i> e erf aiamof ot TTI 



i ts TO orojua TOV 
TOD 0(o)D ' xai ODTTJ earir 



OTI ar atTco/xea Kara 
ro oimjxa avTov axovet r]fj.iav 
o ai< aiT(ap.fOa ot8a 



juer OTI f\ofjLfv TO. 
a rjTTjxajuej; Trap aVTOi; 
Ear TIS i'Srj rof abeXtyov avrov 
a/j.ai>Tavoi-Ta a^apriav JUTJ irpoy 
BavdTov aiT7jo-f t (cat Saxrei au 
TO) io7ji> Toiy jtirj ajuapTarov(Tt(i/) 

//TJ Trpoj ffavarov ' 
r afj.aprta TT/JO? QOLVO.TOV 
ov TTfpi KfU'j)s Aeyto i>a epto 
TTJCTTJ Traera aSixia a^apTta 
KOI eo-Tiv afjiaprta ov Trpos 
t8a/uj' OTI Tras o ycytvi-rujLt 
i/os K TOV 0(o)u oux' afj.apTa.Vfi 
a\\' o ytvvT)0tlS K TOV 6(o)u TTJ 
pet \'avTor /cat o Tiovr)pos ov 
OTTTfTat ai;Tou otOa/xei' OTt 

<K TOD 5(<o)D T[J.eV KOI O (COITfXOS 

oXos <z> TO) Trorrjpco KetTat 

KOI Ol8a/X' OTt O DtOs- TOD $(O)D 



ira yftfaxiKO/xei' TOI/ a/\?j 
dfU'ov 6((o)v ' /cat f<rp.ev cr 

aAl)(J<t/'0 ff TO) DtO) ttDTOD 

OWTOS ferny o a\i]6f<.vo$ 6(e 
/cat {iorj attoj,'tos TfKvta 
e eaDroDj a:ro TCOJ; 
tcoawoD a.) 



208 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

With the Codex Alexandrinus there is a decided advance; but 
the MS. is probably not later than the first half of the fifth century. 
There can be little doubt of the country of its origin being Egypt, for, 
besides the fact of its having belonged to the Patriarchal Chamber of 
Alexandria, it also contains in its titles certain forms of the letters 
alpha and mu which are distinctly Egyptian. It was sent as a present 
to King Charles the First by Cyril Lucar, Patriarch of Constantinople and 
previously Patriarch of Alexandria, who carried away the MS. from the 
latter city on his promotion. 

No. 46 

The text, which is written in double columns, has enlarged letters to 
mark the beginnings of paragraphs ; the enlarged letter standing in the 
margin at the beginning of the first full line, whether that be the first line 
of the paragraph, or whether the paragraph begin in the course of the 
preceding line after a blank space (see the last line of the Facsimile). 

The writing of the Codex Alexandrinus is more carefully finished 
than that of the Codex Sinaiticus. The letters are rather wide ; hori- 
zontal strokes are very fine ; and there is a general tendency to thicken or 
club the extremities of certain letters, as <ju muni, tan, epeilon^ndsigma. 

Other uncial MSS. which have been ascribed to the fifth century and 
a little later are : the palimpsest MS. of the Bible, known as the Codex 
Ephraemi, at Paris (ed. Tischendorf, 1845) ; the Codex Sarravianus of part 
of the Old Testament, whose extant leaves are divided between Leydeu, 
Paris, and St. Petersburg ; the Genesis of the Cottonian Library, once, 
probably, one of the most beautifully illustrated MSS. of its period, but 
now reduced by fire to blackened and defaced fragments (Cat. Anc. 
MSS. i, pi. 8) ; and the Dio Cassius of the Vatican. 1 

Uncial writing of the sixth century shows an advance on the delicate 
style of the fifth century in the comparatively heavy forms of its letters. 
Horizontal strokes are lengthened, and are generally finished oft' with 
heavy points or finials. The Dioscorides of Vienna (Pal. Soc. i. 177 ; 
and complete facsimile), written early in the century for Juliana Anicia 
(died A. D. 527-8), daughter of Flavius Anicius Olybrius, Emperor of the 
West in 472, is a most valuable MS. for the palaeographer, as it is the 
earliest example of uncial writing on vellum to which an approximate 
date can be given. 

1 The Codex .Sarravianus and the Dio Cassius have both been recently published in 
complete facsimile, 1897 and 1908. A full list of the principal Greek uncial codices is 
given in the third edition of Wattenbach's Anleitung zur griech. Palaeographie, 1895. See also 
Omont, Fac-similes rfes plus anciens Manuscrits Grecs de la Bibl. Xatioiiale, 1892, for specimens 
of many of the MSS. quoted in this chapter. 



xi GREEK UNCIAL CODICES 209 

No. 47 

It is also of great interest for the history of art, as, in addition to the 
coloured drawings of plants, reptiles, insects, etc., which illustrate the 
text, it contains six full-page designs, one of them being the portrait of 
the imperial Juliana herself. 

This is a specimen of careful writing, suitable to a sumptuous book 
prepared for a lady of high rank. The letters exhibit a contrast of 
heavy and fine strokes ; the curve of both epsilon and nig ma is thickened 
at both extremities; the base of delta extends right and left and has 
heavy dots at the ends ; the cross-strokes of pi and tau are treated in 
the same way. In the second line will be noticed an instance, in the 
word /3pafj.j3r]s, of the use of the apostrophe to separate two consonants, 
a common practice in this MS. 

Other MSS. of this period are : the palimpsest Homer in the British 
Museum (Cat. Anc. MSS. i, pi. 9; Pal. Sac. ii. 3). generally named, after 
its editor, the Cureton Homer, and the palimpsest fragments of St. Luke's 
Gospel (Cat. Anc. MSS., pi. 10), which together with the Homer were 
reused by a later Syrian scribe ; the fragments of the Pauline Epistles 
at Mount Athos (complete facsimile, ed. K. Lake, 1905), some leaves of 
which are in Paris and some in Moscow (Silvestre, pis. 63, 64 ; Sabas, 
pi. A) ; the Gospels (N) written on purple vellum in silver and gold, 
leaves of which are in London (Cotton MS., Titus C. xv), Rome, Vienna, 
and Patmos, the place of its origin, and the larger portion of which 
was recovered in 1896 and is now in St. Petersburg; the fragments 
of the Eusebian Canons, written on gilt vellum and sumptuously 
ornamented, in the British Museum (Cat. Anc. MSS. i, pi. 11); the 
Vienna Genesis, with illustrations of very great interest (Pal. Soc. i. 178) ; 
the Rossano Gospels, written in silver on purple vellum and also having 
a remarkable series of illustrations (ed. Gebhardt and Harnack, 1880); 
a portion of St. Matthew's Gospel, in gold on purple vellum, also with 
miniatures, from Sinope, now in Paris (ed. H. Omont, 1901) ; the Gospels, 
in silver on purple vellum, from Berat in Albania (Cod. <J>, ed. Batiffol, 
1886); the Dublin palimpsest fragments of St. Matthew's Gospel and 
of Isaiah (ed. T. K. Abbott, Par Palimpxcstorum Dublin.), the hand- 
writing of the Gospel having the Egyptian forms of alpha and mu 
strongly marked ; and the Freer MS. of Deuteronomy and Joshua, also 
from Egypt (New Pal. Soc. 202). There are also two bilingual Graeco- 
Latin MSS. which are assigned to the sixth century, viz. the Codex Bezae 
of the Gospels and Acts at Cambridge (Pal. Soc. i. 14, 15), and the Codex 
Claromontanus of the Pauline Epistles at Paris (Pal. Soc. i. 63, 64). But 
these were almost certainly written in France or, at all events, in Western 
Europe, and rather belong to the domain of Latin palaeography, as the 
Greek letters are to some extent modelled on the Latin forms. The 



210 



. u < ~ w ^ >~i- 

I w *T ; c 

S- i H 0'- -v 
r 3pi " ~ > c; "^ 
5 ~ r c: ^ <fc : fj5 



I *fc' - S '> 

- s -'k- 

4 *" < Z 



^ s ^ < - o t- 

- ^- 25^^ 

^ p < -< d f 2 




: 75 ^2 c. ^ 1^2 ^ . ^ 

rllji1ffl 

*^-^ ri El^^ n J > 

>/C? I frS 5 1 51! 



- 
& 

E-i 
25 

w 
o 



H 
X 

h- ) 



e a 

f_ 3 

?^ ^* ~* . , 

_.^P- 2 * 

2 a.. . e r ~^' 
~ i- c-"? J^ 



3 



^ O \u 

e t= -e- 



H 

^ 

^ cs 
-<< 



iJ O -&- 



=. 3 

tt \u 
^ X 



5 c- 

8 b 



S = 
CS i. ^> 

x 



** 

X 

o 

i 



5 

QO f ^ 

s --? 

O OQ C 

e""=L ^ 

i?i 

e 3 " 

< e Q. 
^ |-g 

S-'xI 



H 

Vi ~- 

e 3 

K> X 

o c- 

tJ 

e o 
s= 3- 



|P 

i u/ 
O ^ 

II 



|! 



s 



= <~ 



t= S 

Q. b 



X<r> 
sr- g 
t= 2- 



I. 

c- 



?- 



C^> ul" -* 

o f. y 



c 3 



b - S 



?- 



GREEK UNCIAL CODICES 211 

Greek portions of the great Laurentian codex of the Pandects at Florence 
should also be noticed as of this period. 

The decadence of the round uncial hand in the successive centuries 
may be seen in the second Vienna Dioscorides (Pal. Soc. ii. 45), which is 
thought to be of the early part of the seventh century, and in the Vatican 
MS. of Pope Gregory's Dialogues (Pal. Soc. ii. 81), which was written, 
probably at Rome, in the year 800. But in these later centuries Greek 
uncial MSS. were more usually written in another style. 

Soon after the year 600, a variety of the round uncial came into 
ordinary use a change similar to that which has been noticed as taking 
place in the writing of the third century on papyrus. The circular letters 
epsilon, theta, omikron. s-igma become oval, and the letters generally are 
laterally compressed and narrow in proportion to their height. The 
writing slopes to the right, and accentuation begins to be applied 
systematically. 1 At first the character of the writing was light and 
elegant, but as time went on it gradually became heavier and more 
artificial. A few scattered Greek notes are found written in this style in 
Syriac MSS. which bear actual dates in the seventh century ; and there 
are a few palimpsest fragments of Euclid and of Gospel Lectiouaries among 
the Syriac MSS. of the British Museum, of the seventh and eighth 
centuries ; but there is no entire MS. in sloping uncials bearing a date 
earlier than the ninth century. 

As an early specimen we select a few lines from the facsimile ( Watten- 
bach, Script. Gr. Specim., tab. 8) of the fragment of a mathematical 
treatise from Bobbio, now in the Ambrosian Library at Milan, which is 
assigned to the seventh century. 

No. 48 

It will be seen that in this MS., intended for students' use and deal- 
ing with a secular subject, abbreviations are fairly numerous. 

Passing on to the middle of the ninth century, we have a MS. with a 
date : a Psalter of the year 862, belonging to Bishop L T spensky (Watteu- 
bach, Si-ript. Gr. Specim., tab. 10). 

1 Quite recently, in 1907, an early example of sloping uncial writing on vellum, 
a copy of the Gospels, said to have been found at Akhmim in Egypt, was acquired by 
Mr. C. L. Freer. Its discovery may open a new chapter in the history of uncial writing 
in vellum codices, if it is followed by the finding of other MSS. of the same period 
and character. A facsimile of a page appears in Xew Pal. Soc. 201, the date of the 
MS. being given as not later than the fifth century ; and the style of the writing is 
compared with that of the Book of Enoch, found at Akhmim in 1886, now in Cairo 
(facs. in Mrmoiics ilv la Mission Ankiologique F ranfaise au Caire, ix (1892 . pt. 3 , and with 
that of the Magical Papyrus no. 46) in the British Museum. 

p2 



212 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 



FACSIMILE No. 48 
a 



A 

- C to 

/cof/> o n o y /vr x 




MATHEMATICAL TREATISE. SEVENTH CENTURY 



ir\v 

TODT(OD) TOTTOV (eortJ') | TO x(efrpoz') ex 8 a/cp(on) iraXiv Tjrraj a)? Kat f(in) T(O') 
{i)y(u)j') | 8 jc(at) r(toz>) 



fMrc|a>/B((bf<(cv) Kat (u(e)r(a) TO ^eTecopio-^ OK ai' fiov\o]ij.eda TOTTOV 

8f TOU K(fvTpov~) jU7j8e I i'rroppo77owT(a)f) T(WJ;) u(iro)fcccp(ei>au') f}ap(<o 

to? I ovojuotay T(rj)s avdo\Kris T(COI T ) avrippoiiovvT((>>i>) \ azTixei/xei'Tjs TJJ TOIOVTTJ 

8ia Traj/Tos | oAKT/ 7rpo67)\ov 8?) rrj? aiTia? i)7rapxoi'|(77)s euyz-'too'Toi' wj Set TTOCTOS 

o"Xr;fiar(oy) | orepeou Kei/x(f)oii paSicoj ayov TO /iapoj e/c | T(OV) TOV Kfvrp(ov] 

TOV /Sapous ?; coAxTj TTCOJ 8f) 



xi 



GREEK UNCIAL CODICES 



213 



FACSIMILE No. 49 




PSALTER. A. D. 862 



'Erwrtcrat T^ T;pOfre.v\yi}v pov, OVK (V \fi\\fcri. 

'Ex Tipocrtairov <rov, TO \ KpT/xd fj.ov 

Oi 6(j)6a\iJ.oi fxoi, lbeTia\(rav 

Ti}v Kap\biav /XOD, fTirKf\l/a> \ VVKTOS' 
e. KCU ov% r)v\pe6r) tv ffj.ol aStxta' 
av fiTj XaX^crrj TO | CTTOJUO fiou. ra epyo.) 



214 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGEAPHY 

No. 49 

In this specimen progress is seen in the extreme contrast of heavy 
and light strokes ; and the general aspect of the writing is one of excessive 
artificiality. This heavy class of Greek writing has received the name 
of ' Slavonic ', having been accepted as a pattern for the alphabets of 
Eastern Europe. 

The same style continues still later. Of the middle of the tenth 
century is the only extant uncial MS. of the Greek New Testament (with 
one possible exception) which has a precise date. This is a copy of the 
Gospels of A. D. 949, in the Vatican Library (MS. Graec. 354 ; New Pal. 
Soc. 105). 

No. 50 

Other MSS. of this character are : a small volume of hymns in the 
British Museum, Add. MS. 26113, of the eighth or ninth century (Cat. 
Anc. MSS. i. 14; Pal. Soc. ii. 4); a copy of Gregory of Nazianzus, 
written between 867 and 886 (Silvestre, pi. 71) ; a Dionysius Areopagita 
at Florence, also of the ninth century (Vitelli and Paoli, Facsim,. 
Paleogr., tav. 17) ; a Lectionary in the Harleian collection, of the end 
of the ninth or beginning of the tenth century (Cat. Anc. MSS. i. 17) ; and 
the Bodleian Genesis (Gk. Misc. 312), of the tenth century (Pal. Soc. 
ii.26; cf. New Pal. Soc. 3). 

But by this time uncial writing had passed out of ordinary use, and 
only survived, as a rule, for church-books, in which the large character 
was convenient for reading in public. In this capacity it underwent 
another change, the letters reverting from the sloping position to the 
upright position of the early uncial, and again, after a period, becoming 
rounder. This was evidently a mere calligraphic modification, the style 
being better suited for handsome service-books. Of this character are 
the Bodleian Gospels (Gk. Misc. 313) of the tenth century (Pal. Soc. ii. 
7) ; the Laurentian Evangeliarium of the tenth century (Vitelli and 
Paoli, Facsim. Paleogr., tav. 7) ; the Zouche Evangeliarium, of 980 
(Pal. Soc. i. 154) ; and the Harleian Evanjj,eliarium (no. 5598), of the 
year 995 (Pal. Soc. i. 26, 27), from which a few lines are here given. 

No. 51 

As a late instance of uncial writing, a page from a MS. of St. John 
Chrysostom, which is ascribed to the eleventh century, will be found in 
Vitelli and Paoli, Facsim. Paleogr-, tav. 28. It appears to have lingered 
on till about the middle of the twelfth century. 

There are also a certain number of MSS. in which uncial writing 
appears to have been used for distinction, or contrast. Thus, in a MS. at 
Florence of A. D. 886-911, containing Fasti Consulares and other matter 




215 




8 1 



* fc * <f g 

s -3 'I Ij 
< *- a 2 

1 I * I 



v* *"^ 



~ 

s c c 



'S 

'*** Si 

X ^ b 

'S ^ -a O O O 

-<? w fc 3- 

J 1 1 1 

g I + I 

'i v s | 

p p 



x< a o a 
>s i- a. 



o 
O 



(S~ I 

^ * 

I 



x o <* 

,-a yy c^ "- . '** 

1 3 ^ ^ vw , co 

I \4) 



-=> 



O 

X 
Q. 

a 



fc 



'O 

t- 



1 b <3 li 
tr-ri ^ s 

K r ^^ 



^uj O 

b 3_ *N 



t 

k 

..^ 

<3 



216 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

FACSIMILE No. 51 







&ATA-KAH1AA . 




A'jniTAffiino 




TfriAANwiuim* 




EVANGELIAKIUM. A. D. 995 
(fj.iv 8oK?t + fa(v) I yfvr]Tai rivl \ cb-(0/)&>7r)w (Karbv w/Jo'l/Sara- xat 



a- er ra O/JT; 7ropei)5e4S' ';i"ei ro 



/cat ear 



xi GREEK UNCIAL CODICES 217 

arranged in tabulated form, the entries are made in a beautifully neat 
upright uncial (Vitelli and Paoli, Fact! in. Paleogr., tav. 13, 25, 31); so 
also in the Florentine Dionysius Areopagita of the ninth century, referred 
to above, while the text is in large slanting uncials, the commentary is 
in smaller upright uncials ; and we have the Vatican Psalter with catena 
(Cod. Pal. Gr. 44). of the year 897, and the similar Bodleian Psalter 
(Gk. Misc. 5), of about the year 950 (see below, Facs. 59), in both of 
which the text of the Psalms is written in upright uncials, while the 
commentary is in minuscules (New Pal. Soc. 129; Pal. Soc. ii. 5). The 
use, too, of small uncial writing for marginal commentaries and notes in 
minuscule MSS. is not uncommon during the earlier centuries after the 
establishment of the smaller style of writing as a book-hand. 



CHAPTER XII 

GREEK PALAEOGRAPHY (continued) 

The Minuscule Book-hand in the Middle Ages 

IT was shown in Chapter X, on Cursive Writing in Papyri, that in the 
more formal clerical hands of the later Byzantine pei-iod the shapes of 
the alphabetical letters had been gradually tending towards those with 
which we are familiar in the vellum minuscule MSS. of the middle ages, 
and that by the beginning of the eighth century the identity was prac- 
tically complete. It only required the minuscule clerical handwriting of 
the papyri of that age to be moulded to a calligraphic measure of exact- 
ness and symmetry, for the accomplishment of which the smooth and 
firm surface of well-prepared vellum was admirably suited, and the new 
minuscule book-hand at once came into existence. Its appearance as a 
fully-equipped literary form of writing of great beauty somewhat abrupt!}' 
in the course of the ninth century could not be satisfactorily explained 
before the material for the history of the developement of Greek writing 
on papyrus had been found. That it was the offspring of the minuscule 
hand developed in the papyri is now a matter of common knowledge ; 
and its progress from the point where we left the parent handwriting 
will be described in this chapter. 

But first we have to notice a very interesting, though small, group of 
MSS. on vellum which present the new book-hand in an early stage when 
the parent cursive had already been moulded to calligraphic symmetry, 
but while its sloping style was still followed. The existence of these 
examples seems to show that a reformed style of the papyrus hand was 
at least in partial use on vellum for literary purposes in the interval of 
the eighth and early ninth centuries before the appearance of the fully 
formed upright literary minuscule which is the subject of this chapter. 
A facsimile from one of these MSS., which is ascribed to the eighth 
century, is given by Gardthausen, Beitriige zur Griech. Palaeogrcq>/> ie, 
1877 ; and another from a liturgical roll at Mount Sinai, of the ninth 
century, accompanies a paper by the same writer, Differences Pnn-inciales 
de la Minuscule Grecque, in Melanges Graux, 1884. A third MS., 
containing a collection of theological works, is in the Vatican Library 
(Colonna MS. 39), and is probably of the eighth century (Pal. Soc. ii. 
126). A facsimile from it is here given. 



THE GREEK MINUSCULE BOOK-HAND 



219 



FACSIMILE No. 52 




THEOLOGICAL WORKS. EIGHTH CENTURY 

(rep.i'op.fV7)S- TJ T7)i aKTicn-ui (KCU) <rvrai8iGK (KOI) 6|p.ooj(rKdi rpiaSi 
pas Tiros 7; KTio-?js 7; erepoovuioTj <tJD(recos 7rei(Tayo/ii|i'7)s (icat) TOI wepi TTJS evar- 
0p<o-7?(reQ)s T(O)V K(rpio)u | Aoyov a6iaorpo</W (rtotVei" (KOI) n/xo^eos | bf 6 
(Xovpos 6 TTJS aAjjfleias (xOpos OTJTWS | ei- TTJI ypa(/)et(rr)t irap awoC e-io-ro\7)t 
Trp(os) | \tov-ra TOV /3ao-iXea 8ia rov o-e\VTiapiou | 5io/x7j8ovs e^rj- rpiaba yap 
ol8a Tf\fiav | opoovviov TTJI BO^TJI (KOI) TIJI aiSioTTjTt ovtev | eavTTJs -Xeov ft 
(\arrov f\ovcrav TOVTO \ yap (KOI) e~i TT/S viKatiav oi fxaKapioi 7r(art)ps) 



220 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

No. 5:2 

The writing slopes after the manner of a current hand, and yet is 
formed with exact precision ; and, if the letters are analysed and com- 
pared with those of the cursive papyri of the beginning of the eighth 
century, they will be seen to be practically identical. A little more 
moulding is nearly all that is needed to convert them into the letters of 
the typical minuscule book-hand, exclusive of one or two alternative 
cursive forms, such as the n-shaped nu, which were not adopted. 

Greek Minuscule MSS. of the middle ages have been divided into 
classes, as a convenient method of marking periods in a style of writing 
which, being used for the language of a limited area, and being subject 
to no exterior influence, underwent, like all isolated branches of writing, 
only a gradual change. These classes are : (1) codices vetustit-simi, the 
most ancient MSS. of the ninth century and to the middle of the tenth 
century ; (2) codices vetusti, those which range from the middle of the 
tenth century to the middle of the thirteenth century; (3) codices recen- 
tiores, from the middle of the thirteenth century to the middle of the 
fifteenth century ; (4) codices novelli, all MSS. of later date. 

There are still many hundreds of dated Greek MSS. in existence, in 
the different libraries of Europe, written before the year 1500. Of these 
almost all are written in minuscules. Of the ninth century there are 
four and twenty ; of the tenth century there are one hundred and fifteen ; 
of the eleventh century, the number rises to more than two hundred ; 
of the twelfth century there are nearly as many. In the later centuries, 
of course, they become more numerous. 1 There is no lack of facsimiles, 
the number of which increases year by year. 2 

Before examining in detail the progress of this literary hand through 
the different periods or classes which have been enumerated, a few pre- 
liminary remarks may be allowed. 

The student will experience some difficulty in learning to distinguish 
the different ages of the undated MSS. ; for the minuscule book-hand 
was decidedly conservative, and particularly so in the earlier centuries. 
The degeneration of writing from the earliest models of the ninth and 
tenth centuries to the hurried styles of the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries is apparent enough if we turn over a consecutive series of MSS. 
or facsimiles. But this degeneration only became rapid, and, so to say, 
acquired its full impetus, in the later centuries. And certain classes, 
especially sacred and liturgical MSS., which custom had retained for 

1 I am indebted to the kindness of Professor Gardthausen for these particulars. 

2 See a chronological list of facsimiles of dated Greek MSS., from 800 to 1593, in 
Omont's Facsimiles des Manuscrils Grecs dates tie la Bibliotheque Rationale, 1891. 



xii THE GREEK MINUSCULE BOOK-HAND 

special uses, were less tolerant of change, and served in some measure to 
retard the disuse of the formal hands of older times. It will be seen, 
when our series of facsimiles is before the student, how stereotyped the 
writing of such examples may become, and how, for example, century 
after century, copies of the Gospels continue to be written on one 
pattern. 

In the papyrus cursive writing there was never an entire suppression 
of the original capital forms. It was, therefore, only to be expected that, 
however rigorously such capital forms might be excluded from the body 
of the text written in the set literary minuscule hand in its first stage of 
exactness, they would afterwards by degrees creep in and show them- 
selves side by side with their purely minuscule equivalents in literary 
works, just as they did in the ordinary cursive writings of the period. 
This, in fact, happened ; and the presence, in the body of the text, of 
capital forms in lesser or greater numbers affords some criterion of the 
age of a MS. 

In the earlier centuries breathings and accents are applied in a style 
in keeping with the exact writing of the text ; the breathings are, as a 
rule, rectangular and the accents are short. Afterwards, the former 
being more rapidly written become curved ; and the latter are dashed on 
with a bolder stroke. Their last stage is when they even blend with the 
letters which they mark. 

The writing of the period of the codices vetustissimi, of the ninth 
century and to the middle of the tenth century, so far as is shown by 
surviving examples, is very pure and exact. The letters are most sym- 
metrically formed ; they are compact and upright, and have even a 
tendency to lean back to the left. Breathings are rectangular, in keeping 
with the careful and deliberate formation of the letters. In a word, the 
style being practically a new one for literary purposes, the scribes wrote 
it in their best form and kept strictly to the approved pattern. 

The earliest dated example of this class is the copy of the Gospels 
belonging to Bishop Uspensky, written in the year 835. A facsimile, 
but not very satisfactory, appears in Gardthausen's Beitrcige and in 
Wattenbach and von Yelsen's Exempla Codicum Gmecorum, tab. 1. 

Next comes the Oxford Euclid (D'Orville MS. x. 1), which belonged to 
Arethas of Patras, afterwards Archbishop of Caesaria in Cappadocia, and 
was written in A. D. 888 (Pal. Soc. i. 65). 

No. 53 

The breadth of the letters will be noticed, as well as a certain square- 
ness in the general character and the slight inclination to the left. Exact 
finish is best seen in such letters as a and 5, the final stroke of the former, 



222 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 

\vhen unconnected, being brought up to the top of the line, and the 
down-stroke of the latter being drawn down to the base. The set 
forms into which the cursive /3, 17, and K are cast should also be noted. 
The ornamental effect of the writing is added to by the slight turn or 
hook in which down-strokes terminate. Certain of these characteristics 
remain in the minuscule writing of succeeding centuries : others wear off 
and are lost as time advances. 

Of the same type of writing is the famous MS. of Plato's Dialogues, 
also in the Bodleian Library (Clarke MS. 39), written for Arethas of 
Patras in A.U. 896 (Pal. Soc. i. 81). 

No. 54 

The writing is more flowing and rounder than that of the Euclid ; but 
both MSS. are of the finest character, and are typical instances of the 
perfection attained by a new class of handwriting in the freshness of its 
youth. Oxford is fortunate in possessing two of the few extant dated 
MSS. of the ninth century. 

As an example of the early type of the Gospels in minuscules a MS. in 
the British Museum (Add. MS. 11300) is selected. Unfortunately it is not 
dated, but it can hardly be later than the first years of the tenth century. 
The number of ort^oi are noted at the end of each Gospel (Cat. Anc. 
MSS. i. 23). 

No. 55 

The writing is of the most perfect execution ; the care bestowed upon 
the production of the Scriptures at all periods being very conspicuous in 
the Greek minuscule MSS. of the middle ages. It will be seen, from the 
later examples that will be submitted, how conservative is the type of 
writing of sacred books. For this reason there must be always some 
hesitation in attempting to fix the exact date of a MS. such as the present 
one, as it may not be quite so old as it appears to be. 

The next facsimile is from one of the most beautiful minuscule Greek 
MSS. of the time, a volume of the works of Lucian, Harley MS. 5694, in 
the British Museum. It was written by the same hand as the MS. of 
St. Clement of Alexandria at Paris (Omont, Facsimiles, 2), which was 
also executed for Arethas of Patras, in A,D. 914. Another MS. by the 
same hand is the Plato of the Vatican, Gr. 1 (Cavalieri and Lietzmann, 
Spec. Codd. Grace. Vat. 9). The MS. before us may, therefore, be dated 
about the year 915. 

No. 56 

The sustained precision of the writing of this volume, carried on 
faultlessly page after page, attests the marvellous dexterity of the scribe. 



FACSIMILE No. 53 223 

l 



K 



Vt KT 



6xr 



o vn C'r</'rp 

[ore 



0-nn-e -pco 






. o'or> TJ < p f- at to-p 



H-4- 



EUCLID. A. D. 888 

ras Trvpa/xtSaj K(CU) eirei 8vo ev^eiot ?; re Hf 
K(OI) ?; aTro TOI! H Ka^eros vwo 7rapaXA.^A.a)t' e7rnre'8a)2> 
Tt3f ABT OMN rtpvovrat . (is roi/y dvrous Ao'yovj 
TfMijOriffOi'rai ' K(at) T'r/i?)rai ?j Hr 8ixa i~o roC OMN 
fTTiitebov Kara TO N (ai) j; awo roC 5 a/ja Ka^eros 
en ro ABT f-i-foov bi\a Tjj.ijdri<T(Tai v-o TOV 
OMN eirnrfbov ' 8ia ra avra 8r( x(at) 17 dwo TOV KCI 
6eTo* 77t TO AEZ eTrtTrfSol' Sixa rfX7;6rj(TeTai VTTO 
rov 2TT T7t7re8oi; /c(ai) ettrtr 'io-at ai a o Ttav He 
Ka(?rot 77t ra ABT AEZ T7i778a ' 'lo-at apa (ai) at 
diro T&)f OMN 2TT Tpiytaviav cni ra ABr AEZ xd 
0(roi ' i'o-oiii/'Tj apa eart ra irpiVfxara . <J5i' /3cure IS 
fir ettrt ra AHT P*z Tpiytava . avfvcairiov be 
ra OMN 2TT ' aSore (at) ra orepea wapa/\Arj\ei7iVe8a 
ra OTTO rcSv tlpmilAvw ~pi(T\j.a.Ttav avaypafpopf 
ra i(Joi'\//7) rvyx ai ' oz " ra ^P ? wA\T)Ad etfftt' is at 
/3do-eis K(at) ra 7)/j.t(T7j ' apa t(rrai (Ly ^ AST /3a<ny irpos 
TTJV P*Z flacnv . ovTta ra (lft]fi.tva 7rpi'<r//ara Trpos 
aXArjXa . orep 8t Setfat :) 



224 



GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 



CHAP. 








o.^> 
X, 
X 



*^iHfli 



to 

C5 
CO 



o 

! 



ih a 3 -.* 3.$ L*! -tl fi 

if lljiMili 
htiU&ilftt 



V^ 



'< 3 

Jb 



THE GREEK MINUSCULE BOOK-HAND -,"r, 



<S " ~ '= - 
*o 2 -3" " 



- = 'a g . . 

05. 3. . V S "^ 3 3 ~- ^ 

"-' < 




226 



GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 

FAOIMILK No. 55 




GOSPELS. EARLY TKNTH CENTURY 



^/xir. iroi'a e^oDo-ia raura j 77010)' Ti <:e ii/zif So/tet- | 'Ar(^pajTr)oj ttx 

we' KOI irpo\<rt\t)!ai' rdl TrpajTcu et77r' Te'^KFor' i*7?aye a^fpw fpyafcv cr ra> 



MOD' 6 Se 



trtpw. 



ov 
(Ls 







upi)e. xal OVK d|i7J)Aflei'' Ti'j (K TUV bvo eco't ?j(re ro 0e'A))p.a rou n(ar)p(o)j - 
fova-LV avria- 6 TrpoUros' Ae'yi aiTOis 6 i(?j(rou)s - d^?;r Ae'ya) i)/xir' ort j oi 

tts r?)r t latnXtia.v \ TOV 6(eo)u' 



at 

'O ioud 
xat ai 
v&T(?ov TOV I wiOTfCcrat airui') 



yap 
be 



o 



FACSIMILE No. 56 









p^ryil- G<rpjS-o 




U-flc UJ o- 1{ *- u <JLJ/ C^rU ttfiy -oil u-frij t <rq^/ gji) p a> j 



A/T t^tw cxun> p {/ ^-e p^y a t q-6A 04; t\A o p 6^ v oi f/ 

<xi j *>L 



t fl 



i cfflLjAj6~pU.<*raj^p v^t^- 1 



LUCIAX. ABOUT A.D. 915 

(TOV Ipov tv TTJI Indues tpoi Tpttpoi'Tai TroAAol . /cat TroAvetSses . yi'yz,wJTai Se 
auTwr einoi . /copra p.eyaAot ovrot be . Kal owo'/xara e\ov(ru' ' \ /cat epyorrat 
KaAeo'/xeiw . e~' e^eo be TIS jjv h> airotirt . \pviro<f>0\pt<av ev ri]i -nrepvyi . irowj/xa 
Xpnifffov din-tan, avaKtaro . /cat p.tr | jyw roAAa/cty e0?j<raVqi> . /cat etxfi- ro 
Tfoujpa /3d^os 8e | T?/s At/xzrjy . TroAAo'r . eyco ^ter . oi/c (Treipi'jd^v . Ae'yoim 8" wr . 
/cat ou/Koo'twi' opyview ir\eor e^trai. ' Kara fjittrov be air?]? . I yScufxoy \Ldov 

jroAAot <5tSe ro[j.Lovfriv ' | e/xot Se boKtei . OTV\O$ e<p((TTetos /'yay, ave^eiv TOV 
/ico//oy ' eoreJTrrai 6e aet ' /cat Ofco/xara x ' ' "oAAoi 6e, KOI eKacrTi]^ 7/j 
ei'X'Ji' aiiroi' j?/x<'Mrot ffTe^iavri^opeova-LV yiyvovrai \ be airoOi.Kal 

TT}V At/xn/i ra tpa | TTavra /care'pxerat ' ev Tolariv . ?) jjipj TT/JCOT?) axiKveeTai ' ru>v 
txovcoi' eire/ca . f/?/ (Ttpeas* o ^evs Trpwros t8?/rat ' ?/i> yap TO 8e yeviiTdi . \eyov<ru 
ort warrc s avoAAwrat . KOI STJTO . | o n'ev . ep\erai. 6\j/6fj.evos ' i) be, Trpo'ow lora- 
iifrn a-epyei re | fj.u' . Kal TroAAa \iTiapeuvaa aKOT.enirei fxeyiorat 8e 
.at s' OuKairaav vop.lovTat ' aAA' eyou 



228 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

The MS. is, however, not a singular instance of the beauty to which the 
Greek minuscule book-hand had attained in the tenth century. The 
stiff uprightness which contributes to that beauty indicates the leisurely 
action of a school of scribes, undisturbed by haste or any need for haste. 
The minuscule lettering is nearly perfect ; the forms of beta, eta, and 
ka/>pa are of the u-shape (varying little from each other except in the 
height of the initial stroke), to the exclusion of the capital or uncial 
forms ; cpdlon alone occasionally breaks back to a more cursive shape. 

Two other codices of classical authors commend themselves so con- 
spicuously on account of their beautiful execution that, although they 
are undated, specimens of them may be usefully submitted for comparison. 
They are both in the Laurentian Library of Florence : the first a MS. of 
Thucydides (Pint. Ixix. 2), the other a volume of Plutarch's ' Lives ' 
(MS. 206) ; and they may be placed in the middle of the tenth century, 
or perhaps a little earlier (Pal. 8oc. ii. 103, 83). 

No. 57 

The accents and breathings have been touched over by a later hand. 
Proper names of persons are distinguished by a waved horizontal stroke. 

No. 58 

It will be observed that in this MS. uncial forms are freely introduced. 
Their employment, however, appears to be rather an affectation of the 
scribe than the intrusion referred to above which marks a deterioration 
of style ; for all such forms (excepting those which indicate the beginning 
of a new paragraph : see line 7) are kept to the scale of the minuscules. 

The Bodleian Psalter with catena (Gk. Misc. 5), of which a specimen 
here follows, is also of the tenth century ; and, as the Table of Indictions 
is calculated for the years 931-5)56, the MS. may be assigned to the middle 
of the century. The text of the Psalms is in small upright uncials, 
the commentaries in minuscules (Pal. Soc. ii. 5). 

No. 59 

Here, again, the minuscules are of a pure type; and the writing is 
<mite of the class of the two preceding specimens. Iota ascript has been 
added in some instances by a second hand. 

We now pass on to the co lices v tusti, from the middle of the tenth 
century to the middle of the thirteenth century. But before proceeding 
to survey the MSS. of this period, a few words should be said regarding 
a style of writing which is noteworthy, because certain important 
codices of classical literature are written in it, whose date it is of 
interest to determine. 



xir THE GREEK MINUSCULE BOOK-HAND 29 





FAOIMII.K No. 57 



ouiooy 

otxr TCU 1 tj/Jn, "700 N 




. 6njfroi ^ \Jt*+u3Jxavr <xu 

fc x ,>> ^^4 /N * X 

OUTOU^TTpO 



fr^' . _ ^. "... \j_Q4 otnroLiTTj 



1 



IjLp CXTTt^ U-04 




THUCYDIDES. TENTH CKNTURY 

a6iiraiu>v ' Kal XUrTt(Tav\TtS avrov TOIJ opxois ovs TO. re'A?) 
'Ui)* 1 OMoVatTa avrov (( l ~eij.\lfar, ?/ j/i;i> Zaevdai fvn^d^ov 
ovy av J7po<rayay?)ra(, O{/TCO | Se'^oiTai Tor arparov ' Kal oil TTO\V v\nT(pov /cat 
orayapos ai'bpiw a^otxia | vrcn;t<TTti ravra pet' ovv (i< ral Oepu | rovriu 
tye'j'tro' roC 8" eriyiyi'o^e'rov ] Xd/ictroj v(?iiy ap\of/e'ruv ds rw i7r|770Kparf t 
/cat 87/fyioo-tfeVtt (irpaT7)yots) 



230 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 



/ 



FACSIMILE No. 58 

" A* *yn i n rmj < 
H c^dfr yHpooN-rdr. CLN N tun; TTCLU N aim. ei V^NT 

^cyHpcurciKcinmi/crtNq-pcirrJaDN .^CLujfiH crpan~H 



JJ N ^n^^creiocr<343rDcr.uawcixT^HTDcr- currocr 

I J n < *\ . 

cKTcurrou. 



PLUTARCH. TENTH CEXTURY 

(rts 8e yaXdrats . {ITT/LI airj/s traAias t-oXe/jiovv ' \ TJbi] 8e yi/pwyres . avvifia ird 
ffvv(t\oi'TO, | (KCU) Kap)(i;5ot'tots . oi/x l^orres uxriifp ol iroAAiu . | 8ia y^pas 

arpaTMv . a\\' fTri orpaTi/'yias' i;o\tij.(av (KOI) ?/yf/xoft'ay . ar' 
KOI | aper?)!' ayo'fierot : [j.dpK(\Xos bf . Tipos oiibev juj' | 
dpyos . o^8e az'ao-KijTos O.VTOS \ 8e avroO . Kpartoroj . er TCO jj.orofj.axdv 
ovoepiav TrpOK\r](ri.v etfivytv ' 77arras 8e | rois TTpOKa\fcraiJ.ti'ovs 
8e <rtKe\ta . 762; abtX<j)ov oraxtAior KirOwevorjra SieVaxref v-epao-Triaas (xat) 
roi/y STrt^epo/xe'fODS . arO' (Sr OITI /^fj; rt vlw 



xii THE (.{REEK MINUSCULE BOOK-HAND 231 

FACSIMILE No. 59 



v^ 

- 



. 




^JUlOVJl^^MOV ^<^^CXJ^T5W^XI_Una5^*^pCL> 




00 \J-OJDuKp CO U ^TD'TtrM OU 
S~*s- * ** >y ,' -^ *5 ^^ 




PsALTKK. MIDDLE OK TKNTH CEXITRY 



(Eu|a(T0e xal diroSoTe K(upi)u TW 6e 
dflaj>a((rios) . <"! itapaivtaiv 6 \6yos Tpfr.trai . e-t6; ! ra flprjfi.fva <f>T}<riv . torcu 
r T<5i ^ft'ooi Stxaia) -njpuri . TOVTOII xap' 1 ' ^s lorai ei' r&Ji -a /jJrrt /Stu) ra^a<r(?at 
rail K(vpi)aji . ayaQ&v tpyco(r) | ttrat (T!iiJ.(\(i.TaL . (KOI) TOUTCOI" /x?j jBpabv \vi]v 



ol KUK\(U auTOu otaoucri 8upa' 

Tui <|>of3epu>i KOI d4>aipou(j.eV(d Trreufiar 

"fcopepdi irapa TOIS pauiXeuai TTJS Y>i s 

a0afd((rio?) . e77ayxetAa(T(^ai </>7}o-lv ayaQotjiytiv . el Cores a>s 81 ^( 
rail TO7TO) ytvofilvovs . olov (I b<0>pa raj eavTwr Trpdj^eiS vpoffayaycuf T<ai 6(e)an. 
oZiroj 8e 6 0(eo)s (fro j3 epos e<mv . (KOI) OTTO TOUV ird\ai dpdj>TO)(i;) . | (at) yero- 
peviav itovrip&i> . TO -v[fVfj.)a. a<f>m pe0?/crerat . ev yap' (Kfivta rial Qeiwi (/ecu ) 



232 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

It is not to be supposed that MSS. of the earlier period of minuscule 
writing which has been discussed were only written by the most accom- 
plished scribes and in the best style. The working copies of scholars 
were no doubt then as rough and cursive in comparison with the facsimiles 
given above as a modern scholar's own composition is in comparison with 
a printed text ; and, except for choice copies, written for some special 
purpose, such, for example, as the Bodleian Plato or the Harley Lucian, 
the extreme calligraphic style was not called for in books which were 
intended for private use. Hence a more fluent character of writing 
appears to have been practised as a book-hand for copies which would 
serve ordinary purposes : a good working hand, perfectly clear and well- 
i'ormed, more set and formal than a domestic cursive hand would be, but 
yet not finished off with the precise care given to copies of the Scriptures 
and liturgies adapted for public reading. In the tenth and eleventh 
centuries, then, we find MSS. written in this style, and no doubt still 
earlier examples existed. 

Presently a specimen of this class of writing will be submitted; but, 
now proceeding in chronological sequence, our first example of the codices 
vetudi represents the formal book-hand following in direct line of develope- 
ment from the style last examined. This example is taken from a MS. 
of the writings of St. Maximus now in the monastery of the Laura of 
Mount Athos (MS. B. 37), bearing the date of A.D. 970 (New Pal. tioc. 49). 

No. CO 

The hand is a good instance of the upright minuscule; but it does 
not compare in beauty with our previous rounder examples of the tenth 
century, although it maintains almost wholly the pure minuscule char- 
acter, save for an occasional uncial eta. There is a certain tendency to 
lateral compression. 

The next specimen affords an interesting example of the less formal 
style of writing, to which reference has just now been made, and which may 
be called the scholar's hand, in contrast with the ordinary scribe's hand. 
The MS. which supplies the facsimile is Laud MS. Gk. 75, in the Bodleian 
Library, containing Homilies of St. Chrysostoin, dated A.D. 976. The 
text is written in double columns ; and the first column of one of the 
pages has been written in the informal hand, the authorized scribe 
resuming the pen with the second column. It is the upper portion of 
this page which is here reproduced (Pul. X<ic. ii. 6). 

No. 61 

In the set book-hand of the right-hand column uncial forms of letters 
begin to make their appearance by the side of the pure minuscules. The 



THE GREEK MINUSCULE BOOK-HAND 233 

FACSIMILE No. 60 




ST. MAXIMUS. A.D. 970 

(olov eK\aa-6i] ro'oe a~e 6ai>fi> 6 belva ' bia yap ra | Toiat'ra \movjj.tda JJLO vov ' bta 
yap TO. AoiTra . (KOI) | Xvirov^eda KO.L opyi^o jjifOa ' a<(>L\oao<j)cas \ 8tOKi.';zerot ' j 
Af\ujj.fi'os o vovs TOL rS>v | Kpayfj.a.Tiai' r?;fxara j Trpos' e/caarof ro'?j/xa ' 
' 6ap<av 8e rav TO 7n(eiijuar)iKcos . Trpos ^aoro 

\ (V 8e 6(e)a) yero^ieros . | a/iOp(/>os 77am xal a <r\?;- 
yierai TOV yap fxorqetSJ; ^eio 

y vTiepfyvtaKtas ' KO.L \ f(av aiirov 8>)f*ioi>py>;/xo rtor ra 

oAoy 0eacrd|/Mei'oj ' Kal TJJS- ev avroiy | wporoias xat xpicreajj | rijr TTfpi- 
> Trapa 6(o)u fi\rj<^aiy | a>s ai{^pa)7r)ots 8e <p'/M' 
o xpoi'os ' | KOI ?; p-tr irtcTTts . rolj rp^cri crt'p.^apareu f fTat rp./- 
' '/ 8e eAwiy r<3 evt ' | j; 8e ayciT;)) . TOIJ 8t;o-t ' Kai | ?; p.i> iriorts xai cA-U- | 
Tivo<i 'TI be dyavr?; . | ii cmeipovs aliovas T<a \ VTtfpa~fipu> imtpi]v<a / 
(tat dei {ntfpa.iiuv(Ta) 



GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

irregular writing of the first column is characterized by a certain stiff- 
ness ; the period of pliant strokes has not yet arrived. The fact that this 
style of hand appears here in a dated MS. is of much palaeographical 
value for comparison with undated examples. Another dated specimen 
occurs in a Chrysostom in Paris of A.D. 954 (Omont, Fai'vimilex, 5). 

Passing into the eleventh century, the set book-hand is first illus- 
trated by a MS. of the Gospels in the Ambrosian Library of Milan 
(B. 56. sup.) of the year 1023, which perhaps was written in Southern 
Italy (Pal. $<-. i. 130). 

No. 62 

The conservative character of the writing is very marked, as is cus- 
tomary in copies of the Gospels and church-books. It will be noticed 
how the letters are modelled on the pattern of those of the ninth and 
tenth centuries, and how pure minuscule writing is affected. But place 
this example by the side of the facsimile from the Gospels of the early 
tenth century (Facs. 55), and the later period of the present MS. is to 
be detected in the growing slackness of the text, and in the occasional 
enlargement of certain letters, as zeta, theta, j>ki, chi, etc., as well as in 
roundness of the breathings and less precision in the accents. 

A strong contrast to the above is a MS. of the mathematical and 
other writings of Michael Psellus in the University Library of Heidelberg 
i( 'ml. Palat. cclxxxi), written at Seleucia in A. D. 1040 (AY/' 1 Pal. X<><\ 51). 

No. 63 

The handwriting has individual peculiarities. It is formal, written 
by a professed scribe, Nicholas the Calligrapher ; but at the same time it 
is rather .slack and widespread, and a certain latitude is allowed in the 
use of uncial forms ; while the affected squareness of some of the letters 
and of the breathings suggests an intention on the part of the writer to 
lend an archaistic appearance to his text. 

Next follows a specimen from a classical MS., written in the light 
informal hand, as distinguished from the conventional book-hand ordi- 
narily employed in codices of the Scriptures and liturgies : a Demosthenes 
in the Laurentian Library of Florence (Pint. lix. 9). Unfortunately, 
like the majority of the classical MSS. of which this one is a fine 
example, it bears no date ; but there seems good reason, from the 
character of the writing, to place it fairly early in the eleventh century 
(Pal. /SV. ii. 89). 

No. 64 

The writing is obviously that of a practised penman, flowing easily 
and rapidly with a slight natural slope to the right, and without the 



xii THE CHEEK MINUSCULE BOOK-HAND 235 

restraint of the conventional hand. It is also to Vie observed that, with 
all its freedom, the text exhibits very little tendency to mix enlarged or 
uncial forms with the minuscules an indication that the writer was 
skilled in the practice of the best style of his day, and could there!'.. iv 
no doubt have executed any kind of MS. in a calligraphic manner. 
The fact that so many classical MSS. of the period are found to be written 
in this style justifies the assumption that this character of handwriting 
was specially used for the better MSS. of general literature. 

In the next specimen we have an instance of the more conventional 
character: a good example of the more ordinary type of book-hand of 
the middle of the eleventh century. It conies from a volume of eccle- 
siastical canons in the Bodleian Library (Barocci MS. 19fi\ dated 
A..D. 104-2 (Pul. Soc. ii. 29). 

No. 65 

In this hand the conventional Greek minuscule book-hand may be 
said to have broken with the upright close-set style of the tenth century. 
There is a tendency to slope the writing, perhaps indicative of more 
haste: and the letters are more spaced than in the earlier centuries. 
The growing habit, too. of introducing enlarged letters and uncial forms 
among the minuscules is manifest; and (a small but not insignificant 
detail) the circumflex is enlarged. At the same time the lettering itself 
is still well formed and exact. 

The Townley Homer in the British Museum (Burney MS. 86) is a 
valuable example of a classical MS., with scholia, entering on the second 
half of the eleventh century. It was purchased by Charles Townley in 
Rome in 1771. A note at the end of the volume states that it was 
finished on Saturday, the 18th September, in the thirteenth Indiction, 
that is, in A.D. 1059 (Pal. So : i. ( 7). 1 

No. 66 

The writing is a little sloped and is in a fluent style, the scribe being 
skilful and experienced, and maintaining an even regularity. A few 
uncial forms are introduced among the minuscules : and there is a ten- 
dency to form combinations of letters, as in the case of ay, a\, -e, -no, T{, 
TO, and f and r with a following letter. There are few contractions in 
the text, but many in the scholia, which for the most part are contem- 
poraneous and are in the hand of the scribe. The frequent use of a more 
cursive form of uljJui in the scholia (occasionally appearing also in the 
text i. with a long, thin, oblique main stroke, is to be noted: as well as 
the enlargement of the circumflex and of marks of abbreviation. 

1 By an error in calculation, the date of the MS. lias U.-n stated l>y (lie editors of the 

al Society to be A.I>. 1'2~>~> ; <-]TI .-ted in -''etc pa!, sue. 204. 



2S6 



GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 



CHAP. 




;-rif!lht 



. 

O r Jo k 




C 



O3 



xir THE GREEK MINUSCULE BOOK-HAND 237 



tS.~7<. J S --A 

C -~l fe ^ 



'5 '? *8 *Z> 



p. " Jb. ' ^ ,8 B 



'*J , 

*-W v_i I- =4 I- fc 

:^ Ms- s si ;r. 

. ?* *> uj H * 



"* - - - , 

' S J 8 f C'g I l^ 

I- c3 1 4 * i 2 s *" 

V ~"S=: -S- 83 a 8w,o 

- - ^^ ,g g g-i ^ 8 '? ^ 

11-^ 1 1i -^-J c^-' l 

-< < --" 'i '" 1 ^ L *= "^" -3 

1 = J;'3 <3 - *- ' c5 ^ "x 

- S ,~ , '2 ' g =? 



a. 







^<^ -= 'C B 3* " i 8 

g 3 *, Jj- -- * 'g c, ts 

-- a '3 g 8 >u 

'S ,* as % "" I- ^ '8 < =. u 

: = - ^ . <p > 1) S '' 

<o w . '3 i S < t= ' 

u> ! ~ I- c s- ~ -2 i. ,g -*. ~3 ^- -; 

f 1 3 -I J *" ' 7 * s ^ 

"2 "w- <a IS 'S ! j C a 

8 "* 5 . - *J .~~vJSb i: 

* 5 ^_ S "" \^ , t f w v ' 

-.Sbg^o * > _ ^ 8 

1*^.^1 I'M l- Ct ? 

? * '^ S " ^ t ^ ^ 

- s 8 -w s*" T 1 

2- -S ,^ '8 -- a > >-- -^= 

-<g B g g JX -Silk's 

IJL-S-S ,' | : =lcS- "*A 

^ * ,2 r=- a p * 'e 

S. 2 " a 2 ^ S ts a * 

B s g a * 5? 1 - 

^ * 9 ** i T * 1 i- 

3 r" ^ v*" c ^ * w -^ ^^" *- S) 

'ii i nil IH 



GREEK AN]) LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

FACSIMILF. No. 62 



Y' ri t x 

3Jt*t O Ul VX-p f O O OTIJJ In l/ P-! 

JJU N o I OLrrxj-pLp *)^A <r curro 

trroilijou.-yjcxrkptj-Tcu'Y'O- TO^J Of\3ajj-ro^jfrLj r r{/> 
' ..L k *.. ' ' x _"'BI / x 

Zf H-TWTf CplnJiTTpI ttjf'fi 

< ' *.'l*~* > /i J 

U OUTTTJ U TJJ -JJ T( T~D IT 



X 



1 x j x v /i -^ ~ r^ /* 

' Q f^f.'' *' F * * ^ x * ^ ~~" 

Ocpi^-b" i p ou crort r \Ajoo<r* f ia~r'ojj|jauop i TwoiAu 

A& *^oo ^j~r"iAijj CLOJ^ ^*Jx\ t OLCJ'* iojo\) IAAXT txi o oflr^Li *vo t ? t 

.^rff _ -* _ t / **." ^ / "*>C *' 



^ ' -" ^ x 



|J o p 6^ oo *-r\f oo 
OTOUUDUTT 
Jri'oudWcar^ 2\ 

/ ^ . ^ * 7 . 4 * 

g/OJOTTl O*|JO pnTTl^CX/'VOO 

eA 41 ^)^ e$ u n^p , 'aur 

_.Ai_ ,. f _ * 






* x *Y v t > -'/ 

cuxicu*Uail/>'yvfjli cxajTDtl -ro<y J *vu.6r-raj^^/\5* /1 

- / i ^^^^ "* /\ ^ -^ ' * ' TV "^ ^- 

cruj''<5 yrt7V\/ou i p ooucsJ < arvcuo i c^jcrl d^ou' 
OLpooN-j ^" ' ' '' 




GOSPELS A.D. 1023 



ot a?7apxs aro^irrai Kal wn/ps'rai 
oVt avia0(i> iracnv d 



Ao'ytor r?V a<r(t>d 

'EyeYero et> raij ^t'|pois i]p(abov TOV /^aTtJAca)? r?/y tot8at'as . ie pew 
faxa]ptas e Kfnifuplas | d/jia KCU ?'/ ywf) airoC ex raij; Bvyartjmv apptav 
icat TO oro/jia | awri]j fAio-d/3er ' 

s avr&v f]<rav' | 'EyVero 8e r rai upajrcteiv airw er TJ; rd^ei TJ;S 
iay j aiiroC (vavn TOV 6(fo)v | Kara TO l^oy TJ/S tcjparcM?. f\a\f TOV I 
raov TOV K(vpio)v xal | 7rai> ro TrAj^os roC | Aao? )'/ 
d!pa TOV | Ayudjiarof ' w<^^j/ | 8e avToi ayyeAos n.(vpio)v 



KCU 



i'Scoi' (xai) c/)o'|/3os (TTfTifcreit TT aijro'r ei^ey Se 77pos) 



XII 



THE GKKKK MINUSCULE BOOK-HAN!) 



239 



ST'S, ,U 




ta-' v, S 

* X ~~ '- 



r ? '- P Ji '? * I \ 'W 

i#v^ | 5.^1 

? 




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- a a. 
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v . . 

< ^Z 3 ~? t; 

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"" = fc '3 r^ 



GREEK AX]) LATIN PALAEOGRAPHV 



CHAP. 





Jlt4lf| 

X |e'ffi|>l 

ftilli 

3 vs. ** k ' 

*t*^j ^T! ' 




xii THE GREEK MINUSCULE BOOK-HAND 



a 5 a C 

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1 .4- 6 I" I e .1 



242 



CHEEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 



CHAP. 



lO 

<0 

6 



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ro 
o 



4 * x i 3 N a l 

* 5 ^ 8 

7 * 








ftftt 




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IM 

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32 

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xii THE GREEK MINUSCULE BOOK- HAND Ml '5 



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244 



GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 



CHAP. 



to 

6 
fc 





g 




10 

c 



> 



xii THE GREEK MINUSCULE BOOK-HAND 245 



-i 



O 
* & 



M 

i- 1 * f s - F 



X 

6 

3 



S .'. <E- 

: 11 



J. 

O TO 

5 * i - * S 1 

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^ B 1 5 - 1 1 i - v * 1 ~ '- g 

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a 5.7 -e ^3 g 2 -s - * . - 

r^-b^s^^iij.^ -s ;i . c 

!iitiiij:-N *: = in 

a =_ x "* s '= x g" ,S ,3. =1? -- J= d 

* t 'I 'I 'I 'I ' 1 1 1 4 '? g a 1 ^ 

.? - a o * -C. =. ^ g- $ - ^ '" S- ,~ 



3 t *- -w <JS, b 1 g ,= ^ = 



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^^i^'"t> = a - < 'r :t?v - *s- ^l 

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5 a "= '<o v J[= 'g - 'J g "e- x 

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^i-Pl! 

S 'fi. S ^ 



246 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

In the twelfth century the minuscule book-hand maintains traditional 
regularity, so far as existing examples teach us. Our first specimen is 
taken from a MS. of the Acts, Epistles, and Apocalypse in the British 
Museum (Add. MS. 28816), dated A.D. 1111 (Pal. Soc. i. 84). 

No. 67 

This MS., being a copy of the Scriptures, is written with some care 
and ostensibly on the lines of the early type of book-hand, upright and 
regular; not, however, on the stereotyped model which seems to have 
been reserved for MSS. of the Gospels. Progress in the course of the 
minuscule book-hand shows itself in the spacing of the letters and in 
less careful finish in their formation. 

A copy of the Gospels in the Vatican Library (Cod. Urbino-Vat. Gr. 2) 
provides a good typical example of the careful conventional book-hand 
used for MSS. of this class in the twelfth century. It was apparently 
executed for John Comnenus, son of the Emperor Alexius Comnenus. in 
A.D. 1128-9 (New Pal. Soc. 106). 

No. 68 

Although the letters generally are formed on the old model, their 
later date is betrayed by the growing looseness of their structure and 
their wider spacing. Enlarged letters, such as epsiloit, tlteta, ka^m. 
and phi, and the wide omega, as well as the long circumflex, catch 
the eye and warn us that there is a sensible advance in the book-hand. 
Compare the facsimile with that from the copy of the Gospels a hundred 
years earlier (Facs. 62), still more with the Gospels of the tenth 
century (Facs. 55), and it will be seen how conservative in general type 
the texts of Gospel MSS. continue to be, and at the same time it needs 
little more than a glance from one to the other to distinguish the 
general progress made during the two centuries covered by the three 
specimens. 

To give one more specimen of the twelfth century, showing the con- 
ventional book-hand as it advances towards the close of that period, we 
select a facsimile of a few lines from a MS. of Lives of the Martyrs 
(Brit. Mus., Burney MS. 44) of the year 1184 (Pal. Soc. i. 180). 

No. 69 

This example proves how very gradual might be the changes effected 
within a given period. The writing is still very conservative ; the 
subject-matter being such as would be used in monastic or church 
lections, and therefore demanding a clearly written text. But the 



XII 



s. 

5 



FK 



THE GREEK MINUSCULE BOOK-HAND 247 

. ;z* * 

- S '3 3 

o -irr ^ . v ~" 



~ *- ; ^ 

C~ <J^ ^ v^i* 

I ' 3 . 

I- xtV I- (. 

i. I- ~ 



-< ; a 

'S ~2 S -5 




13 '''III* '^'tl 

^i^ i Tl, ''-'! 

ru * x C-N?C ( ? r r 



H 



P fr F $ 

C F ;>! 

* /w> 'X, 



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t 




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s- 



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b 



s 



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Vl 



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B 

w 



^ B ' 
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~ 

8 



g .g- * *t. 

- S ' o 

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s^/ b -^ 

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3.4- 



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= t= 



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P^ c3 

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cS . 



-i ~i cs s 

'-< t S 2_ a. 

P l< _W 9 i 

t "S ~Z~ s b 

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H 5 *S F 

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248 FACSIMILE No. 68 






r 

r o cr TD u ^6nrp o v^ Tijp 
\ * f * 



KO J- 



ou-M p OLO-TTO u a_p o_f K i p-f o u 
p T-O3- 06" o i j j-OLr^l^rrrxjauurT 

o p Ttfc- O C *-ri H CL 
i>v o Viua 




C " r~JJ oxrrd rrr>io~ci -TT? jj 



GOSPELS. A. D. 1128-9 



oi' i(rjcroi5)!' 5o'Aa> Kparj'j <TUXTI, Kal airoKTf ividcriv (\cyoi> \ be fj.i] e/'V)^' 
u>a IJ.TI Oopvftos \ ye'i'7)rat ei^rai Aaw W(Xos)' dpx(r)) TOU 8e i Tjo-o 1 ^ | Fei'D/xeVov 
'La tv otia'a ai jjuai'os TOV XtTTpov, T7/>otr?]\dfv ai> TO) yny^ aAa/Saorpoj' f^ovcra 

' 



8e ot nadr/Tal avrov f]ya\va.KTTf]<Tav Ae'yorres' eiy rt ?; a77&5 Aeta ai/V; ToC IJ.VPOV' 
?}8i;i>aro | yap TtpaQijvat. TroAAoiS /cat 6o0}(i>ai) j roty Trrcu^ois' yi'oCy 8e o i(r;o-of5)9 
airois' ri xoVous' T7ape\(Te rrj ywat/d' tpyov yap KCI\OV tliiyacra.TO 6t\- 



oi/s yap 7ra(i>) TOT ?X ere M e ^' eawaJi'' fjue 6e, oi | Trarrore fX (T( ' 
i3a\ovcra yap av TJJ TO fj.vpov TOVTO tiri TOV (rw/na^o's /nov, wpos- TO ti'Ta<pia.(rai fj.f | 



THE GREEK MINUSCULE BOOK-HAND 



249 



FACSIMILE No. 69 












V*-o erf 



ou. 



> N 

K 



j i OUET 



_ 

w tirpoo 

\ 



P o/3 OOH * F 



opxcrf cr 



au * y* _/ 



.*! \jojf en. aopcop ni 1 1<"" - 

MARTYROLOGY. A.D. 1184 

(ro^ov KaOiaTaaOai ' fvpto-KO/^f I'ors Of, p.7) avaiptl(rdai ^fi>' | \rjv. p:?j8e iia 

lyvarlmj . "jbrj 5e Kal ?; rfAfirn; ~o\\(i>v npo^fvo'i aydQSiv KaTf'<rr; itait^ 
(ii | ^(piar)(o ~i'f7Tea)j ' fWTfficici$ f ~i'8o <rty 77apciKA7;(Tis ~puy TOI/J | Kara ^(eo)^ 
TTorous . KOI Trpoo-Kai pov (iojjs KaTa^povrjen's t yKpa T( id re ruij; /JAa^ep&ii' . Kal 
,3iOD Ka^aptorTjroy fTn/xe'Aeia ' ^d ptrt Kat ^)iAni'(0paj~)ta row K(vpio)u rj^G>v i(7j<7o)0 
X(pt<rTo)D ' (3 TJ 8o^a Kal TO Kparoj, I rfr Kal cut Kat ets roi/s atb>ra9 | rail 1 



250 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

enlargement of letters and tin- mixture of forms and other signs of 
advance specified in our other examples of the century mark the 
date. 

The two hundred years from the middle of the thirteenth century to 
the middle of the fifteenth century, which are the period of the coilirf* 
recentiores, witness more rapid changes than have appeared in the 
previous periods. There was naturally a wider diffusion of learning and 
a consequent multiplication of copies of books of all kinds. Among them 
are instances of a class which may be regarded as students' books ; not 
the fairly, but at the same time unconventionally, written copies of 
classical authors to which attention has already been directed and 
of which instances have been given, but volumes in current script such 
as would have been employed in domestic life; and not produced for 
the general market, but for the personal use of students. Such cursively 
written MSS., it may be assumed, were in existence in earlier times, but 
none such are known to have survived, and the earliest examples appear 
in this century. 

A facsimile is here given from a MS. of this description, which, 
although in date earlier than the middle of the thirteenth century, may 1 ie 
conveniently classed with the recent tores; a Commentary on Porphyry's 
Introduction to Aristotle in the Bibliotheque Nationale of Paris (MS. 
grec. 2089 ; Omont, Faoim. 52), written in A.D. 1223. 

No. 70 

In a MS. intended for the student's use there could be no object in 
stinting contractions and abbreviations. He would be familiar with such 
methods of reducing the labour of writing and of saving space, and would 
be trained to read with facility the texts of books thus treated. Accord- 
ingly, in the text before us, there are numerous compendia on a scale 
quite inadmissible in MSS. of the conventional book-hand minuscule. 
As to the writing itself, it is to be observed that, although at first sight 
it may appear intricate, it really presents little difficulty in decipher- 
ment, apart from the solution of the compendia. There is a certain 
stiffness or, if we may use the phrase, a wiry appearance, in the hand, 
which we may conclude to be characteristic of the domestic cursive of the 
thirteenth century. 

The next example of this century is also from a MS. of the less con- 
ventional style, a Commentary on the Octoechus, a service-book of the 
Greek Church, in the British Museum (Add. MS. 27359) written in 
A.D. 1252 (Pal. Soc. i. 203). 



xii 



THE (JHKEK MINTSCTLE BOOK-HAND 



:.'.-,! 



FACSIMILE No. 70 




COMMENTARY ON PORPHYRY. A. D. 1^ 



x(ai) 



vrai . et >ap yi^? cto'' at Ka 

al) r(as) aAA(ay) ^>(oj.'(af) vweuf^tpowrt . OTTOV y(ap] ycvo(s) 
ai tiTToXoiTTOt </>corai (TfrdpTtji') . trl 6p<an(ev) avT(dli') K'irrt(ai>) [ TO 
op(ovs) x(al) 77f'para rur (t(a)ra <f>i\oiro<t>i(av) <$><i)v(S>v) . | 7r(a<r)nt y(ap) ai x(a)ra 
(j)'i\ocro<pi(av) (^coral ets- avr(ds) i7fparot>i>T(ai) | (at) fxrc(s) aiT(aiz.') OVK (lariv) . 
ertpa (ireV'"' 1 "')) OVT(QJI') KOii-iavia oparai . \ TO (rvv(i.<ray((tv) KOI awavat^ew) 
dXAjjA(as-) . oTTov y( tip) (ffTTt) /xi'a ^>coi'j) | TOUT(O)J'), e-ei eio-l'r, (KOI) al iiTroAot7r(oi) . 
011(0)1; (8e) jx'ia (cAet77i, | eicei (icai) 77(017)01 KAt770Dcri . <i'p7jKOT(es) raj Koirco- 
(<7') (xai) ( TTL Toy ?(ia)</>o(pd$) . 8eirr(Va) (8) 5(ta)(/)i>pa air(a>r) 
), | 6 rpo'77o(y) T(^S) K(a)rt7yopi(us) . ai ft(c) y(dp) V TO! Ti'(o-rt) x(a)r)/yo- 
| warifp TO yeVos, K(at) ro t8o(s) . ai (8e) er rai 6770101' TI (o-TU') | wa~ep 
i) b(ia)<f>o(pa), (KOI) TO Ib'iov, K(OI) TO 



252 



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254 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAT. 

No. 71 

The general character of the writing is of the set book-band type, 
Imt written fluently and with ample spacing, and thereby assuming 
a half -cursive appearance. The thickening of the strokes is to be 
attributed to the coarse paper of which the MS. is composed. The 
enlargement of certain letters and the mixture of forms arrest the eye. 
Wr may note the appearance of the v-shaped nu. 

Another instance of a student's book occurs in a MS. of Hesiod, on 
paper, in the Laurentian Library of Florence (Plut. xxxii. 16), of the year 
1280 (New Pal. Soc. 154). 

No. 72 

The text in double columns is arranged in a very unusual fashion, to 
be read continuously across the page. The writing is very delicate and 
of a lighter touch than that of the Porphyry of 1223 (Facs. 70) ; but 
it is still of the same stiff or wiry character, although approaching the 
close of the thirteenth century. 

In our next facsimile we return to the conventional style of the 
Gospel MSS. This specimen is from a MS. in the monastery of Serres 
(MS. F. 10) in Macedonia, written in A.D. 1282 (Neiv Pal. Soc. 78). 

No. 73 

Looking back at the facsimiles given above of the Gospels of the tenth 
century (no. 55), of A.D. 10.23 (no- 62), and of A.D. 1128-9 (no. 68), the 
success with which the traditional style is maintained in this example is 
remarkable. But the general character of the thirteenth century, and 
the effect on the eye of enlarged letters, as seta, tJteta, rho, upsilon, />/(/, 
and of the mixture of forms, are not to be ignored 

Another copy of the Gospels, a third of a century later, is less imita- 
tive and discloses its true period more easily. This is a MS. in the 
British Museum (Add. MS. 37002). written in A.D. 1314-15 (Xeic Pal. 
/>. 52). 

No. 74 

The writing is a good typical example of the conventional minuscule 
book-hand of the fourteenth century. Spacing of the text, enlarged 
letters, and intermixture of uncial forms, and also the free manner in 
which the accents are dashed on, sufficiently indicate the period. The 
us.' of a waved horizontal stroke to distinguish the proper name Abraam 
will be observed. It may also be noticed that the ink used is very 
black, such as is often found in Greek MSS. of the thirteenth century in 
particular. 






xii THE GREEK MIM S( I'LE BOOK-HAND 255 

In the course of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries MSS. written 
liy independent hands, not strictly following the conventions of the 
professional scribes of the minuscule book-hand, necessarily multiply. 
particularly in the field of classical and general literature and of works 
not connected with liturgical and Scriptural subjects. Of these indepen- 
dent MSS., the Herodotus of the Laurentian Library of Florence (Pint. 
Ixx. 6), of the year 1318, is an instance (Xctc PL Xoc. 156). 

No. 75 

Here the writing is clear and simple and the letters are normally 
formed; but there is no attempt at calligraphic neatness, and there is an 
element of cursiveness in the general style. By this time the inter- 
mixture of uncial with minuscule forms has become normal, and the 
v-shaped nu is the prevalent shape of that letter. 

The next, nearly contemporary, specimen is more decidedly cursive 
and is much abbreviated. It is taken from a MS. of the treatises of 
St. Atbanasius in the British Museum (Harley MS. 5579). written in the 
year 1321 (Pal. Soc. i. 133). 

No. 76 

The writing has no claim to beauty, but it is quite legible; and, as 
a working copy, the MS. holds a respectable place. The fact that it is 
written on paper accounts for a slight thickening or blottiness of the 
letters ; and the exaggeration in the accents and in the signs of abbrevia- 
tion lends an air of untidiness to the text. But the actual structure of 
the lettering is fairly neat. 

In the next example there is a return to the set hand. The facsimile 
is from a MS., on paper, of Lives of the Fathers, in the British Museum 
(Burney MS. 50), of the year 136:2 (7W. Soc. i. 207). 

No. 77 

This MS., probably intended for purposes of monastic lections, follows 
the conventional style of the book-hand, its late date being manifested in 
the spacing out of the letters and in the usual exaggerated forms of the 
period. But the regularity of the writing indicates a practised hand. 
The paper being apparently of the manufacture of Italy, the MS. may 
most probably have been executed in that country. The scribe was 
named John Philagrius. 

Our first specimen- of the fifteenth century is from a classical MS. : 
the History of Polybius (Brit. Mus., A.M. MS. 11728), of the year 1416 
(l\d. ,SV. i. 134). 



256 



GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 



CHAP. 



O 

w 




SI^^MSli 

<7^f .rr> |:,~f ^t-J^'1' 5 *S^ 

ttfJWififif!^ 

3 si^'J ' -4 *"$ ^r d-1 i?.-" 



Tg\-VT -i vii 

4 X^v5^ f> 
^ S^f^l^-f 

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I fi _S* Vr" c * <^ . - j 

-'IJ)U<^^vl 

t l^f^^a *-~c2. 
: ' t - -<* i^i. ,^ >r- 

T*% 



^'1^,4 



o 

CO 
(M 



O 

o 



xii THE GREEK MINUSCULE BOOK-HAND 257 



1 

x a 3 

s T- : b ~ 

,-3 

339 'P a a. '^ ^ *2 

| - ^ A : C :| 1 ^ A T S a I 

"I - < ~ -, & v s '- ! b 'a. -- ^2 * b 

->B-v^3,Sfc .e * 3 I a !2 



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*T? C * 

ft :?T O - 

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,2 t' 2 - 3 !?" 3 -I f s 

a ^_^ 2~ * <-N ^ ^ Q. 1 II * j" 1 

"^ vi- CA "= S -. V 3 ' s o '^ iS- 'B J? "" 

S : c r g x^- , i; " ^ s, *fe f ?. 

"s. ;? * - S A e '= * s 3 S. * '^ 

IT : l- T a " ;K v*, ^ ? I 'I P * - -^ b 



^ I ^ J. :| g -I- J- T 1 X - = a. 

1-151"^^ i# fill I: 1 ! 

* v o '^ s en "^ "^ b rvy x K f3 . o s~>* D 

x ^> w *.^ ** ~*- ,. > M/ x N V, -^ *~* s * 

HfTisit lJilv|;f 

li-=4|!||Jl| ll'e 

BF-^A, s^ - A S t. { ^ 

Illi^l-il fl?^li? 
'i rJ^S^Ii t^i-'-t-S 

5. .. S ^ V S ! ^ S ^. S - 3 -e 

3- ; J -^ -^ " < "" a <x => s 9. : 3 a_ 

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v ^< ^^ ** ^^ ^^ *_ v c) ^- ^3 o 

O *"CJ u/ i v !^ ^S" r w >* t^ r CJ t~ b- r^ ^ r B 



258 



GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 



CHAP. 




' 9 <a -^ 2 N c"3 N ~ -L tr ' 

J X -4 *v t au V ?" . r T 



|lrfltHj]Ys>^_ 

r al-ItBj-phpjr 

L ,L / ,UJ & y~ p. r^o o"*** - r- r*> 3- 



sl 




XH THE GREEK MINUSCULE BOOK-HAND 259 



= 



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r 



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260 



FACSIMILE No. 74 



o j/ TT//OJ 

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v rt i\ctj ouurroiy e OTJUUBIA o juus i o 

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C?S V i*<M*oi 



ot/rooo* 

<Moii rrv %*>^ V 
>TT 



GOSPELS. A. D. 1314-15 

(aired ai'ov' riva a-eavrbv Troieis' atre KpiOr) t(j7(rou)s' edv eyco 6oa(/o fjj.avTov' 
>] So'j^a /xoti ovbev forii 1 ' (<mv o 7r(ar)?jp /MOD 6 5o|a(W fxe' ov i/uei? Ae'yere ort 
9(d)y i)|jud)v tori Kai ov/c ey^ajxare avrbv' eyw | 8 ot8a durof /cat ecu 
on | OVK dtfia durdf, Icro/xai Sfiotos v/z<S(f) | \//evo-r?)s' dXX' ot5a avrov' K 

Xo|yov duToC TrjpS)' a/3pad/x 6 7r(aT)?;p V/iwW | 7/yaAXiao-aro IVa t6 

w ot 



eya> 



Kovr(a) 



ii 1 d^padju, 



' ?;pai> 



6ta 



avrSiv, KOI Traprj-yev 



' TeAo(5) | Kat 77apdy<ov eiSev av(Dpioif)oi> 

TV(J)\OV (K ytvvfTijs' Kai fjp<&n}(ra,v airov ol jbia0i;r(ai) I aiiroC Aeyozres" pafifit, 
Tis- iJij.apT((i'')' | oCros, ) ol yams dt>ToC IV'a TV<J>\OS \ yfvv>)dij - liirfKpUhi Z(ij<roO)s' 
i!re OITOS-) 



THE GREEK MINUSCULE BOOK-HAND 261 

FACSIMILE No. 75 

\ V 

19M f 
-iff 



' 



. y t C K** -m X\oVT ' 



HERODOTUS. A.D. 1318 



w 






-- T 

' 



(avrb TOVTO flvai' KOI CITTOI' KOV Ttapa (rtyiviv avrdia-c vvv \ av etij o 

ruilv vvv r)fjvlrpw epyov' \ OVTUI rolcri Tifpivdioiari T!aiu>vicra(fLv, 



ol \ iraioves' KOI woXXoV re fKparrja-av' Kai e\nrov <r<eay | oXtyoW 
TO. [J.(i> 8tj airb -vaiui'iav Trporepov yevo^fva, \ w8e eye'rero' Tore 8e avpu>v ayaOtav 
TTJS eAeu0epi(as) | yiroptvuv TUV -xfpii'ditav, ol we'paai re x(ai) 6 



8ta r^ 

@aai\ti : raCra yap 01 (V(Tfra\TO eK Sapetou Opri'iKijv 

8e foo? fj.eyi<TTov <m p.era iVSovy T7ayT(a)j') dz (0paj7r)a)zr | ft 6e IK^)' 
o' 7; (ppovfoi Kara rcoiJro, a.fj.a\ov T av \ fir]' KOI TroAXaj KpaTicrrov 
(drew Kara yvui^r \ rr\v f\j.i)V dAXa yap rouro a-nopoi' cr(pi Kai 



262 FACSIMILE No. 76 




Y"* tunrwiy<*'*T*u- . 

S^ 
XN> --^ *Sf 



~ 

^^ 



ST. ATHANASIUS. A.D. 1321 

(TOJ; ^y, rty ay dt^e'Aei ro dfdi'(oj>) rourot? y(ap) (/cai) 7rai}Ao(y) e^ TJJ 7rpo(s) 
s) ' | i"ot;8ai(ojjy) /i(r) f^f-yx e ypd<jxv ' e uv o xCpttrro)? ro K(a)r(a) 
' 6 >v e-nl irdi>\T(u>i>') 6((o)s i(A)o(yj;)r(6y) f ts T(O{IS) atco(vas). eAA.rj;.(as) 
(8e) evTp(.Tt(<av) lA(e)y(e) ' ra y(a,o) ao'par(a) aOToC OTTO | KTto-e(a)f) KOO-/XOD. roiy 
TTOu^acri' voov^eva K.aQopar(ai). ij re ai'6to(s) airoO | bvvafjiis (/cai) flao'njj. ris 
(8e) ^ roS 0(eo)D Svj'a/xi? TraSAos 8t5do-xei A(e')y(aw) | x(pto-ro)s 5(eo)0 Swap's 
(/cai) 0(o)B o-o(/)i'a ' ou y(ap) 8ei roCro \(f)y(o>v) TOV w(ar^)pa ar^aivfi | a)? 
TToAAa/d'y 7rpo(s) dAA?yA(oi;s) f\lni9vpi<ra.T(e} Ae'yorrej. o 7r(ar)i;p eo-riz; ^ dtSi'os 
avr(oC) 8wa/ui'y ' oi/c ecrrt (8e) oi'ru)? 011 y(dp) etprjic(ej>) airoy 6 ^(eo)j etrriii ^ 
jCis ' | dAA' airoC f trrlz' ^ bvva.fj.'is ' fiJb>]\(ov') (6e) -aarfiv a>y ro aiirov, OVK 
TLf auro(s). | dAA' oi(6e) fi>(ov) ' ib'i(ov} (Se) ^aAA(oi>) airou. dydyfa)r(e) (8e) 
(/cat) r?jj a.KO\ov9i(av) T(>V) prj(fj.a}r(S>i>~) | (/cai) ewi'ypd\//ar(e) 7Tp6(s) K(vpio]v. 6 
(Se) K(vpio)y ro 7rv(ei5^)a e<rri (/cat) o^fa-Qe -nepl r(oC) utoO ei(i>ai) | ro arifj.ai.v6- 
p(fvov~) Trepi y(dp) r?}y /crio-((os) fjui[j.ovevwv aKO\ov6a>s ypd^et | (/cat) Trept 
r>;9 ev rrj KrtVei r(oD) 8?]/ J itovpy(oC) Swd/xe(oo?), ?;rts eaTti- 6 Ao'yo(s) r(oC) ^(eo)C * | 
8t' ov (/cat) rd Trdj'r(a) ytyov(fv}. el /^(ev) ovv avTdpKrfs (crrlv f] Kri'crt? a(f>' 



(/cat) xtopb vioC | T?/j; /cpiVtV ytyov^vai). et (8e) 8t' vlov yeyove (/cai) 
rd 7raz/T(a) 



FACSIMILE No. 



263 



cu! 



cue 



UJI W 






(fflUT, 



'X 




LIVES OF THE FATHERS. A.D. 1362 



((KOI) uxrirep atxna 



, xa 



O ?;/\toi; biaK.ai.6iJ.eros' al'Opios Suv iranoTf ' Kp'ifxrois ipt]fU&V TT\avofj.evo^, 



rovrw ets 



f rarayi'ou ris a77oppi(/>eis, ovrcos 

clSvpero ' etra (e\d(<l^ | riy rail' aoeA(J>(c3i.'), evpe TOIJTOI; is wpoo-tr^z' Tti'a e 
Tof5 KOO-/XOV | K.a6r'iiJ.fi'ov . Kal eyyftras, f\ey(v avrSi r't K\aieis av 
5'et T'ivds T(O>I>) drayxaiaj!' ; e^ ry/xcS;' TO Kara bvvafi(iv)) 



264 



cc 



H 



CO 

O 




^ifilill 1 !! 




aflllfil! 

f\y o o v . d 3x5 * \** fi 3 

f\*e<*. > ' **>,./* ^3 V ft. 

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3 3.^ 



THE GREEK MINTSCULE BOOK-HAND :2t\r, 

No. 78 

This is an excellent instance of the fluent hand of the period, the 
letters, in a restrained cursive, being well formed and very legible ; and, 
although enlarged letters are freely employed, they are not aggivssivdy 
exaggerated. Thus there is a pleasing harmony in the general .setting 
of the text, indicating a skilful and practised scribe. 

For the next example we turn to a copy of the Books of the 
Prophets and Job (Brit. Mus., Add. MS. 21259), of the year 1437 (/'.//. 

Soc. i. 232). 

No. 79 

This is a good instance of the conservative, conventional style of 
writing maintained in MSS. of the Scriptures. Certain pure minuscule 
forms continue to be used, which in the more independent hands are 
generally abandoned ; and the accents are in most instances unobtrusive. 
It is a valuable point to note in palaeography that a stereotyped form of 
writing may persist for special purposes, especially in the case of MSS. 
produced within a limited area and more or less excluded from foreign 
influences. 

A Menaeum, or monthly offices of the Greek Church for saints' days, 
provides us with our last example of a liturgy : the Add. MS. 16398 in 
the British Museum, of A.D. 1460 (Pal. Soc. i. 233). 

No. 80 

This is a less striking instance of conservative adherence to the con- 
ventional book-hand than the preceding specimen. The writing is less 
exact, and shows a certain disposition to combinations and to varieties 
of forms. But at the same time the text is mostly composed of clearly 
formed, though small, minuscules which would present no difficulty to 
the reader in monastic or church service ; and abbreviations and contrac- 
tions are few. 

The history of the codices novelli lies beyond the scope of this work, 
for with the middle of the fifteenth century written codices practically 
give place to the productions of the printing press. The Greek refugee 
calligraphers, who in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries settled in Italy 
and in other countries of Western Europe, executed many exquisite MSS. 
for wealthy patrons, and for a brief period prolonged the existence of an 
expiring art. But they, too, had to succumb to the march of events, and 
in many instances turned their knowledge to other uses as correctors of 
the press. 1 

1 The student will find an excellent series of reproductions from the MSS. of the Greek 
calligraphers in Omont's Facsimile '/ts Manuscriis yrecs des XV* et XV l e siicles, Paris. 1 s>7. 



266 



GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 



CHAP. 



FACSIMILE No. 79 






f I V 



N V* "1 V ' v T^wr o AJ r ou V"* A'-H^l*" t P TV<b Tjo virj/ 

v I ' v rv ' i'l >< \ + J C\ i 

<*rmnAMl ' -r^iam^iei-'aDcl -fGi f <r o V\aJtmD- cOViW Tcy 






I > ' * ' 
IT" TVCurroVC o 




o 



r 



v 



z 



mop 






THE PROPHETS. A.D. 1437 

(cure ^iji> eiiAoyTjo-oxrij; trr)p(ia re fv f6vnv fv ov(pa)v(a ov fj.rj \ b(Cc(nv ' ovrt 
(OS 6 ?/Aio$ ov nr] Xap-tytacriv ' ovrf (f>iaTiov<riv \ a>s TJ <rfX-!]vr] TO, 6r]pia e<rrl /cpetV- 
a-ova avT&v ' a bvvavTai l*e|^>iiyoWa iy (TKfTrrjv, edvra w$eA?jo-ai Kar' ovbtva 
ovv rpoTiov tarlv r^juv tfravfpbv OTI d<rl Oeol 8to /ir; <^o/37j|5?/re awois uxnrep 
yap tv (TiKvt]\aT<a Trpof3aaKa.vi.ov ov\bfv ^vAaera-n;; OOTOJS eiirlj; ol ^eot avrwv 
V\IVOL Kal T7f\pixpvcroL Kol TTfpidpyvpoi aTTu Tf r)js iropfpvpas KW. | (KOI) TTJS 
fj.apfj.dpov TOIS 7r' airois o-Tjwo/xeV?)? ' yrco(re|o-0ai ort oix tlal 6eol ' avra re e 
vcrTfpov [3p(o6ri(TfTa.i. \ (Kal) tcrrai orfibos (v TTJ x&pa ' Kpfto-friav ovv av(0pa>-)o$ 
Suatos , OVJK ex a)z; f'SwAa ' eoreu yap paKpav O.TTO 6i'i8i<r/MoO : + + 
+ Tt'Aos iepe/xi'ov afj.rjv: + +) 



XII 



THE GREEK MINUSCULE BOOK-HAND 



267 




~\ ft 8 ._. 

F -Min 

. ** 



r ?'4v|,i-j:^-f.4Jf 
3-3 I f \\-\ i s;|.j:| 

|;1 5 * O f:'T x 9 > 4 ^ ^ 



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1 3. 5 ^ 

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'b ^ 

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" g tx,' 

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b - fc ^ -a ' 

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1 

B 

b 



268 



GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 



CHAP 



FACSIMILE No. 81 






t si oo no 






' ^ jf */\ /****Af > * 

t/\F"F *V^et/ > l OIJ/OB v^/ otujaJu^JTT^KrJruwoU 

Tsraunic S^fj^uut^S^etu KaK^ k> ^ u X f C i 9^1 

' /v 1 ^ ' a-' i N < \* 

T^//dBujrTT^yooTt'7n45J / Jv7p^f iu/>u^\c; . 
^ CV % -v ' / / . -o ~ v . (.ar 

J/dTTJLrTan*W/ / ^fJt^|/t<WT*JU*/BWf^7P . 

v > ^ . - r ' v '-r. .:./ to 



^%S C*f^'*T* oo/hr?ri^fftTir*i^pcj/fvBu>^ < 
, x /*' "" x *' " * ^J. * i." 




ODYSSEY. A. D. 1479 



XII 



THE GREEK MINUSCULE BOOK-HAND 269 



(Oure Oeaov ypijv KO.KU>V OKOS ola-f 8e H<H TTI;J ' 
o<j>pa deeuaaia peyapov. <rv 8e -ni 
(\0flv fvOabe avio\0'i <rvv d/itpiTro'Aoiai 
iracras 8' arpvi'ov 8fitoas Kara Saifxa vft 

ToV 6' ttllTf TTpO<Tt(LTT (pl\ll TpO<j>US 

val ?7( rafra ye rtM-or fpbv Kara 

d\A.' aye 8^ x^ a ^ vav Tf X 11 "" 1 '" re 
ju?) 8' ovrco pexeo-ir T7e7nkaa>i(eV)os evpe'as to^(oi)s) 
fffraO' h-l /xeydpoiffi', vfjU^TOV 8e KI> eu/. 
TJ/J- 6' ^^^^(^(f^oy -npofft^r] woXv/x^COs d8ii(o-(revs) : 
fiiv fxoi TTpvfitTTOV fvl ptyapoicri ytvicrQia. 



8' apa T7iip xai 07j'ioi 
S b'ifOfitacrfi,' jj.eya.poi> KW. 85/ia KOI av^(i]v). 
ypTjiJi 8' aSr' aTrs'/Sij 8ia SaSfxara KaA.' o8v<T7>s. 
ayyeAe'ouo-a ywait ical drpweouo-a vtf(rdai' 
at 8' "fa-ai; K /xeyapoio Sdos jxeTa xp^ ex ot ' (ral ' 
at jnef ap' d/i<^)' fx ' ol ' TO Ka ' 
KOI Kvveov ayaTia&ufvai. Ke<pa\i]i> Tf ic(ai) 
Xipay T alvvp-fvai TOV 8e yXvitvs 

K\avdfj.ov KO.L OTOra 

8' apa <|>pecrt -duas :) 



270 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

To conclude this section of our work we give a specimen from a MS. 
executed by one of these calligraphers. It is a copy of the Odyssey 
written in Italy (probably in Rome) by John Rhosus of Crete (Brit. 
Mus., Harley MS. 5658), in the year 1479 (Pal. Soc. i. 182). 

No. 81 

Greek Writing in Western Europe 

A few MSS. may be noted which illustrate the course of Greek 
writing in Western Europe. We refer only to those MSS. which are 
written in actual Greek letters or in imitative letters, not to those in 
which Greek words or texts are inscribed in ordinary Latin letters, of 
which there are not a few examples. 

Two celebrated MSS. of the sixth century containing bilingual 
texts have already been referred to * as having been written in Western 
Europe. The ' Codex Bezae ', of the Gospels and Acts of the Apostles, at 
Cambridge, and the ' Codex Claromontanus ', of the Epistles of St. Paul, 
at Paris, are both written in Greek and Latin in uncial letters, the Greek 
being to some extent modelled on the Latin forms. In a third example 
of a bilingual text, the Harley MS. 5792 (Cat. Anc. MSS. i. 13 ; Pal. Soc. ii. 
25), which contains a Graeco-Latin Glossary, written probably in France 
in the seventh century, the Greek writing betrays its Western origin 
very palpably. An example of the eighth century is the Graeco-Latin 
Psalter at Paris, MS. Coislin 180 (Omont, Facs. des plus anciens MSS. 
grecs, 7). Distinctly imitative is the Greek text in the ' Codex Augiensis ', 
of Trinity College, Cambridge, in which the Epistles of St. Pcaul were 
written in Latin minuscules and Greek bastard uncials in the latter 
part of the ninth century, at Reichenau in Baden (Pal. Soc. i. 127) ; in 
a Graeco-Latin MS. of some of the Psalms, in the Library of St. Nicholas 
of Cusa, of the same character, written early in the tenth century (Pal. 
Soc. i. 128) ; and in the 'Codex Sangallensis' and the ' Codex Boernerianus ' 
of Dresden, which once formed one MS. and contain the Gospels and 
Pauline Epistles in Latinized Greek letters of the tenth century, with 
an interlinear Latin version (Pal. Soc. i. 179). Other MSS. of a like 
character are : the Pauline Epistles, the ' Codex Sangermanensis ', of the 
ninth century (Omont, Facsim. 5 Us) ; a Graeco-Latin Glossary, MS. Lat, 
7651, of the ninth century (ibid. 23) ; and a Psalter, Arsenal MS. 8407, 
also of the ninth century (ibid. 24).- 

A few instances survive of the employment of Greek letters in Latin 
signatures and subscriptions to documents of the sixth and seventh 
centuries from Ravenna and Naples (Marini, / Papiri Diplom. 90, 92, 

1 See p. 209. 

2 See also Wattenbach. Anleititng :ur griech. Palaecgraphie, 3rd ed. (1895), 40, 41. 



xii GREEK WRITING IN WESTERN EUROPE 

121 ; Cod. Diplom. CV<r/, ,>/'*, ii, no. 250 ; Pal. Soc. ii. 53) ; and the same 
practice appears to have been followed in France and Spain as late as the 
eleventh century. 1 There is an instance of a Sardinian charter, of the 
eleventh or twelfth century, in Latin written in Greek characters. 2 But 
we may regard such a superfluous use of a foreign alphabet, at least in 
most instances, as a mere affectation of learning. 3 In the ornamental 
pages of fanciful letters, also, which adorn early Anglo-Saxon and 
Franco-Saxon MSS.. a Greek letter occasionally finds a place, serving, no 
doubt, to show off the erudition of the illuminator. 4 

1 Biblioth'eque de I'Ecole des Charles, vi. 443 ; Delisle, Melanges de PaUographie, 95 ; Giry, 
Manuel de Diplomatique. 596, n. 3. 

2 Bibl. de I'ficole des Charles, xxxv. 255. 

3 There are, however, early instances of the employment of Greek for Latin letters 
which may be attributed to imperfect knowledge of the Latin language and alphabet. 
A form of receipt is thus written in one of the Pompeian waxed tablets, A.D. 57 (C. I. L. iv, 
Suppl. no. xxxii) ; and the British Museum Papyrus cccclxxxi (Cat. Gk. Pap. ii. 321) 
contains a fragmentary Latin-Greek glossary of the fourth century, in which the Latin 
words are written in Greek letters somewhat phonetically : perhaps a Greek school-boy's 
list of words. 

4 Delisle, L' Erangeliaire de Saint-Vaast d' Arras. 



CHAPTER XIII 

LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 

WE now proceed to trace the history of Latin Palaeography ; and the 
scheme which will be followed in this division of our subject may first be 
briefly stated. 

Latin Majuscule writing, in its two branches of (1) Square Capitals 
and Rustic Capitals, and (2) Uncials the most ancient extant forms of 
the Latin book-hand claims our first attention. Next, the modified 
forms of Uncial writing, viz. the mixed hands of uncial and minuscule 
letters, and the later developed Half-uncial writing, will be examined. 
We shall then have to pass in review the various styles of Roman Cursive 
writing, beginning with its earliest examples ; and from this we shall 
proceed to follow the course of the National Minuscule hands, which were 
derived directly from that source, down to the period of the reform of 
the Merovingian school in the reign of Charlemagne. The independent 
history of the early Irish and English schools forms a chapter apart. 
From the period of Charlemagne to the close of the fifteenth century, 
the vicissitudes of the literary handwritings of Western Europe will be 
described ; and this portion of our work will be brought to a close with 
some account of the official Cursive writing of Western Europe and 
a review of the English Charter-hands. 

The Majuscule Book-hand. Capitals 

The Latin Majuscule Book-hand of early MSS. is divided into two 
branches : writing in Capitals, and writing in Uncials. 1 Capitals, again, 
are of two kinds : Square Capitals and Rustic Capitals. The most 
ancient Latin MSS. in existence are in Rustic Capitals ; but there is no 
reason to pi'esume that the rustic hand was employed in MSS. before the 
square hand, nay, rather, following the analogy of sculptured inscrip- 
tions, the priority should be given to square letters. At the same time 
square capital writing was obviously so tedious a means for preserving 
literature that we may be pretty certain that it was seldom used, and 
that the scribes hastened to escape to quicker methods. This seems to 
In- proved by the paucity of extant examples in that character, as com- 
pared with those in rustic letters. 

Capital writing, in its two styles, copies the letterings of inscriptions 
which have been classed under the heads of ' scriptura monuinentalis ' 
1 Traube supplies a list of extant Capital and Uncial MSS. in his Yorlesungen, i. 157-263. 



THE LATIN MAJUSCULE BOOK-HAND :>r:3 

and ' scripfcura actuaria ', as executed in the time of Augustus and succes- 
sive emperors: 1 the square character following generally the first, and 
the rustic the second. 

In square capital writing the letters are in general of the same 
height ; but F and L, rising abos~e the line, are exceptions. The angles 
are. by preference, right angles, and the bases and tops and extremities 
are usually finished off with the fine strokes and pendants which are 
familiar to all in our modern copies of this type of letters. 

Rustic capitals, on the other hand, are, as the name implies, of a 
more negligent pattern, although, as a style of writing for choice books, 
they were no less carefully formed than the square capitals. But the 
strokes are more slender, cross-strokes are short and are more or less oblique 
and waved, and finials are not added to them. Being thus, in appear- 
ance, less finished as perfect letters, although accurately shaped, they 
have received the somewhat misleading title which distinguishes them. 
Besides F and L, other letters of the rustic alphabet occasionally show 
a tendency to rise above the line. 

The fact that a large proportion of the surviving MSS. in capital 
letters of the best class contain the works of Virgil points to the same 
conclusion as that suggested by the discovery of comparatively so many 
copies of the Iliad of Homer in early papyri, and by the existence of the 
Bible in three of the most important Greek vellum codices which have 
descended to us : namely, that a sumptuous style of production was. 
if not reserved, at least more especially employed, for those books which 
were the great works of their day. Homer in the Greek world. Virgil in 
the classical period of Rome, and the Bible in the early centuries of the 
Christian Church filled a space to which no other books of their time 
could pretend. And the survival of even the not very numerous copies 
which we possess is an indication that such fine MSS. were more valued 
and better cared for than ordinary volumes. 

Of Square Capital writing of ancient date there is. as already 
remarked, very little now in existence, viz. a few leaves of a MS. of 
Virgil, divided between the Vatican Library and Berlin, which are attri- 
buted to the close of the fourth century (Z. W. Ex. 14) : - and a few 
from another MS. of the same poet, of the fourth or fifth century, pre- 
-'rved in the library of St. Gall in Switzerland (Z. W. Ex. 14 a : Pal. Xo<: 
i. 208) ; and also some palimpsest fragments : of Virgil, at Verona, and 
of Lucan, at Vienna and Naples. We take a specimen from one of the 
St. Gall leaves (Cod. 1394) : 

' S..L- EC. i,:, L'.), ed. Hubner, 1885. I 

Zangemeister and Watu-i>!>ach, Exempla Cod ' //// /.< , 

H.-i.l.lli. i-. IsTf,. 1879. 



274 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 

No. 82 

It is certainly remarkable that this large character should still have 
been employed at the time to which these fragments are attributed, so 
long after the classical period of Home. We might have conjectured 
that the use of so inconvenient a form of writing, and one which 
covered so much material in the case of any work of average length, 
would have been entirely abandoned in favour of the more ready 
uncial character, or at least of the less cumbersome rustic capitals. Its 
continuance may be regarded as a survival of a style first employed 
at an early period to do honour to the great national Latin poet ; and 
may, in some degree, be compared with the conservative practice in the 
middle ages of keeping to an old style of writing for biblical and liturgical 
MSS. The same remark applies also to the comparatively late employ- 
ment of Rustic Capital writing under similar conditions. 

This latter style of writing is found in the earliest extant Latin codices. 
Like the square capitals, the rustic alphabet was used for inscriptions 
on stone and metal ; and it appears to have been also employed when an 
exact and formal type of writing was required for any particular purpose. 
Thus, we have an example in a muster-roll of the First Cohort of 
Spain when on service in Egypt in A.r>. 156 (Pal. *S'oc. ii. 165), a kind 
of document which naturally demanded a clear and formal script. 
But in its application to literature, while it was employed in the pro- 
duction of books intended for the market, examples can hardly have 
been at any time very numerous. It could not have been the only style 
of literary hand of its time. It was far too cumbersome ; and it is 
probable that the better class of cursive hands also were moulded into 
uniformity for literary purposes. More will be said on this subject 
when we come to discuss the formation of uncial writing. 

In some of the papyrus fragments recovered at Herculaneum the 
rustic writing is of a character copied closely from the lettering of 
inscriptions on stone or metal (Z. W. Ex. 1, 2); in others it is of a less 
severe style. We give a specimen of the latter kind, making use of 
one of the engraved plates, from the fragments of a poem on the Battle 
of Actium (Frugmenta Herculanensia, ed. W. Scott, 1885), written in 
light, quickly-formed letters. The year of the destruction of Herculaneum 
was A.D. 79. 

No. 83 

Here the words are separated from one another with the full point, 
as in inscriptions. Long vowels are also, in many instances, marked 
with an accent ; in the case of long i, as an alternative to the accent, 
the corrector adds to the height of the letter, which then has the 




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THE LATIN MAJUSCULE BOOK-HAND 277 

appearance of being doubled vertically. The paragraph mark will I it- 
observed between Hues 7 and 8. 

Specimens of nearly all the existing vellum MSS. written in rustic 
capital letters are represented in facsimile in the E.cempla of Zange- 
meister and Wattenbach, the publications of the Palaeographical Societ\% 
and other works. 1 The writing on this material is of a more careful 
type than that which we have seen in the last facsimile from a papyrus : 
and the estimation of the age of the earliest of these MSS. is a 
matter of uncertainty, as we have no specimen to which a date can be 
approximately assigned before the latter part of the fifth century. But 
some of them may be placed earlier than that period. For example, the 
palimpsest fragments of the Verrine Orations of Cicero, in the Vatican 
Library (Z. W. Ex. 4 \ are generally assigned to the fourth century. But 
the MSS. which before all others approach nearest in the forms of their 
letters to those of inscriptions, are the two famous codices of Virgil, 
known as the ' Codex Romanus ', and the ' Codex Palatinus ' (Z. W. /:'./ . 
11, 12; Pal. ;Soc. i. 113-15). In these the style of lettering found in 
formal inscriptions of the first century of our era has been closely 
followed ; and although no one has ever thought of placing the MSS. in 
so remote a period, yet it has. been suggested that, as scribes ma}' have 
kept up the style without degeneration for one or two centuries. 
they may therefore be as old as the third century. Others assert that 
they are merely imitative, and that the Codex Romanus in particular, 
on account of the barbarisms of its text and the coarse character of the 
coloured drawings with which it is illustrated, must be of a later date. 
The general opinion at the present time is that these MSS. are of the 
fifth century. 

The following facsimile is from the Codex Palatinus (Cod. Vat. 1631): 

No. 84 

In this writing the contrast of the heavy and light strokes is as 
strongly marked as in inscriptions on stone or metal. Shortness of 
horizontal strokes, smallness of bows, as seen in letters P and R, and 
general lateral compression are characteristic. The formation of the 
letter H is easily explained by referring to the same letter in the 
facsimile from the poem on the Battle of Actium. It recalls the forma- 
tion of the common truncated h-shaped eta in Greek papyri. The points 
are inserted by a later hand. 

But probably an earlier MS. of Virgil in rustic capitals is that known 
as the ' Schedae Vaticanae ' (Cod. Vat. 3225). which is ornamented with 
a series of most interesting paintings in classical style, no doubt copied 

1 Traulie's list enumerates t \vi-ntv-ilirc-f extant 



sirs 



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VIRGIL (Cod. Medic.). BEFORE A.D. 494 

(area cum primis ingenti aequanda cylindro 
et vertenda manu et creta solidanda tenaci 
ne subeant herbae neu pulvere victa fatiscat 

u 

turn variae inludant pestes . saepe exiguus mus ' 
sub ten-is . posuitqwe domos atqwc horrea fecit 
aut oculis 'c'apti fodere cubilia talpae 
inventusqwe cavis bufo . et quae plurima terrae 
monstra ferunt populatqHC ingentem tarns acerv[um] 
curculio . atq?(e inopi metuens formica senectVe 
contemplator item . cum se mix plurima silvis 
induet in florem et ramos curvavit olentes 
si superant fetus . pariter frumenta sequentur 
inaynaq^e cum magno veniet tritura calore 
at si luxuria foliorum e.xuberat umbra 
nequicquam pinguis palea teret area culmos 
semina vidi equidem nuiltos medicare serentes ) 



THE LATIN MAJUSCULE BOOK-HAND 

from more ancient prototypes (Z. W. E.c. 13; Pal. So<\ i. 116, 117). It 
is assigned to the fourth century. 

No. 85 

The writing of this MS. is less monumental than that of the Codex 
Palatinus, and may be regarded as a more typical example of the books 
produced in the fourth and fifth centuries in the rustic hand. Writing 
in capital letters would be an appropriate style for a finely illustrated 
codex, such as the present one. 

The first rustic MS. to which an approximate date can be given is the 
Medicean Virgil (Plut. 39. 1) in the Laurentian Library at Florence (Z. W. 
A\>: 10 ; Pal. S'>c. i. 86). A note at the end of the Bucolics states that the 
MS. was read, pointed, and corrected by the ' consul ordinarius ' Asterius, 
who held office in the year 494. Consequently, the text must have been 
written at or before that date. A specimen is here given. 

No. 86 

This smaller and more lightly inscribed hand no doubt was written 
with fair speed; and the MS. may, therefore, represent an ordinary 
style of codex in rustic capitals when produced for scholastic use and 
not merelv as a handsome book. 

Among the remaining older MSS. of the rustic class the most important 
is the Codex Bembinusof Terence (Z. W. Es. 8, 9 : Pal. Soc. i. 135) in the 
Vatican Library, a MS. of the fourth or fifth century, which takes its 
name from a former owner, Bernardo Bembo, in the fifteenth century, 
and which is valuable oil account of its annotations. 

This handsome but inconvenient style of literary writing could not 
be expected to last, even for editions de luxe, for a very long period. 
There still survives, however, one very finely executed MS., the poems of 
Prudentius, in the Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris (Z. W. Ex. 15 ; Pal. 
tioc. i. 29, 30), written with great skill, but thought not to be earlier than 
the sixth century. In the Turin Sedulius (Z. W. E.<: 1 6) of the seventh 
century the rustic letters have altogether passed out of the domain of 
calligraphy in its true sense, and are rough and misshapen. Lastly, we 
may notice a MS. which, on account of its contents and history, has 
attracted more than usual attention: the Utrecht Psalter, which is 
written in rustic capitals and yet can be scarcely older than the begin- 
ning of the ninth century. Copied from an ancient original which was 
illustrated with drawings, it seems that, in order to maintain the same 
relative arrangements of text and illustrations, the scribe found it the 
simplest course to copy the actual character of the letters, the text thus 
filling the same space as the original and leaving the proper intervals for 
the insertion of the drawings. And yet the text was not so exactly 



284 CHEEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

copied as to be quite consistent with ancient usage ; for titles are intro- 
duced in uncial letters an intrusion which would have been quite 
impossible in the earlier and purer period of rustic capital writing. In 
a word, the form in which the Utrecht Psalter is cast must be re- 
garded as accidental, a mere imitation of a style which had practically 
passed away. 

Judging by the specimens which have survived, capital writing may 
!' said to have ceased to exist as a literary hand for entire texts about 
I lie close of the fifth century. In the middle ages it survived, in both 
square and rustic styles, as an ornamental form of writing for titles and 
initials, and occasionally for a few pages of text. For example, in the 
Psalter of St. Augustine's, Canterbury, of the beginning of the eighth 
century, now one of the Cottonian MSS. in the British Museum, there 
are several prefatory leaves written in imitative rustic letters (Pal. Soc. 
i. 19; Cut. Anc. MSS. ii. 12, 13); and in the Benedictional of Bishop 
^Ethelwold {Pal. Soc. i. 143) of the tenth century, and in a MS. of Aratus 
at Boulogne (Pal. Soc. i. 96) written quite at the end of the tenth century, 
pages in the same style are to be found. In the profusely ornamented 
MSS. of the Gospels and other sacred texts of the period of the 
Carolingian kings the bountiful use of capitals is a prominent feature of 
their decoration. 

Uncials 

The second form of Majuscule writing employed as a literary hand 
for the texts of MSS. is that to which the name of Uncial has been 
given. 1 It is a modification of the square capital writing. As square 
letters were the easiest to carve on stone or metal, so was it more simple, 
when writing letters Avith the reed or pen on a material more or less soft, 
to avoid right angles by the use of curves. Uncial, then, is essentially 
a round hand, and its principal characteristic letters are the curved 
forms, A b e b 09- The main vertical strokes generally rise above or 
fall below the line of writing. This style appears to have come into 
common use as a literary hand at least as early as the fourth century. 
How much earlier it may have been employed remains uncertain; but 
as in the most ancient specimens it appears in a fully developed shape, 
it is not improbable that it was used for books even in the third century. 
The period of the growth of the hand has been determined, from the 
occurrence of isolated uncial forms in inscriptions, etc., to lie between 
the latter part of the second century and the latter part of the fourth 
century. 2 But some light is thrown on its developement by the recovery 
at Oxyrhynchus of a fragmentary papyrus containing a portion of an 

1 See above, p. 102. 

2 Z. AV. Exsmpla, ]>. 5. Uncials were usi-d in Latin inscriptions in Africa in the third 
century. 



XIII 



THE LATIN MAJUSCULE BOOK-HAND 585 

epitome of Livy, of the third century. 1 Here the writing is mainly 
in characters of the uncial type; l>ut certain letters are minuscules 
derived from cursive writing of the time. Thus we have at this early 
date an example of the mixed style of writing, to be examined in the 
next chapter, which may suggest that at that time the uncial script was 
not definitely developed, or. if, as is more probable, it was so developed, 
that another, mixed, style of writing was also employed as a literary 
hand. 

From the fifth to the eighth century uncial was the ordinary book- 
hand of the first rank. In MSS. of the fifth and sixth centuries, and 
particularly in those of the earlier century, uncial writing is exact, and 
is generally formed with much beauty and precision of stroke : in the 
seventh century it becomes more artificial ; in the course of the eighth 
century it rapidly degenerates and breaks down into a rough, badly- 
formed hand, or, when written with care, is forced and imitative. As 
a test letter of age, the letter 00 has been selected, which in its earliest 
forms appears with the first limb straight, or at least not curved inwards 
at the bottom, as it is seen in later examples. And the shape of the 
letter e may also be of assistance for determining the period of a MS. : 
in the earlier centuries, the cross-stroke is consistently placed high, but 
when the hand begins to give way in its later stages the stroke varies in 
position, being sometimes high, sometimes low. in the letter. In fact, as 
is the case with the handwriting of all periods and countries, the first 
examples of an established hand are the purest and best : the letters are 
formed naturally, and therefore consistently. 

Of MSS. in uncial writing there are still a not inconsiderable number 
extant, 2 and the earliest and most important have been represented by 
facsimiles in various palaeographical works. The palimpsest fragments 
of Cicero (Z. W. Ex. 17; Pal. Soc. i. 160) in the Vatican Library (Cod. 
Vat. 5757) are generally quoted as the most ancient example, and are 
assigned to the fourth centuiy. 

No. 87 

The letters are massive and regular, and the columns of writing are 
very narrow. A few lines will give an idea of the amount of material 
which must have been required for the whole work, there being only- 
fifteen such lines in each column, or thirty in a page. The later text is 
St. Augustine's Commentary on the Psalms, of the seventh century. 

Probably of a nearly equal age are the fragments of the Gospels of 
Vercelli (Z. W. EJ\ ;><>), a MS. which is traditionally said to have been 
written by St. Eusebius himself, who died A. i>. 371, and which may 
safely be placed in the fourth century. 

1 See below, p. 298. - Tr.iube's list extends t'. 36!) uos. 



286 




8 ~S 
i a 

"* A fl s 

lilt 

2 c3 , O 



p 

EH 

S 5 

O -3 



H 

- 
D 



<: 

O 

M 

Hi 

H 

p 

04 

w 
P3 


Q 



Q 
i i 

o 



S 



S 



ffi % ff 
s 6 *" ^ 



3 S" 





S 

a x, a 

I 3 * |^ 

G fcC CS IT 1 



41 O ^ 

S 53 .2 M 



-w o 'a t> 

w t- d) <u 

S. fcC c! CH 



287 



FACSIMILE No. 88 



ijquM** 



%cJCg05iTs'ee 




GOSPELS OF VERCELLI. FOURTH CENTURY 

(niam si quid j petieritis pa|trem in no mine meo dajvit vobis us|que aM'huc 
now | petistis quiciquam in no|mine meo pe tite et accipie^tis ut gaudium 
mine meo pe'tite 'et ego' rogabo prop ter vos ipse e|nim pater a'mat vos me 
a'mastis et cre^lidistis quo niam ego a deo 1 \ exivi et a pa trem veni in 
hunc mun) 

1 An instance of the use of the mark of contraction with an uncontracted sacred name. 
See above, p. 86, note 2. 



288 CREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

No. 88 

The letters have tin.- characteristics of an early 'late, such as the 
straight first limb of CO and the consistently high-placed horizontal of 6, 
and the firmness of stroke which signifies practice in a familiar style. In 
this MS. also we have another example of the early practice of writing 
the text in extremely narrow columns. 

Among early uncial MSS. two of the most famous an- the codices of 
Livy at Vienna and Paris (Z. W. Ex. 18, 19; Pal. ,S'o'. i. 31, 3.2, 183). 
The writing of the Viennese MS. (Cod. Lat. 15) is rather smaller than 
that of the other. It is also a volume historically interesting to 
Englishmen, as it is conjectured, from the occurrence of a note in it, to 
have belonged to the English monk, Suitbert, or Suiberht, one of the 
apostles to the Frisians, who became their bishop about the year 693. 
We select from it a specimen as a good example of uncial writing of the 
fifth century. 

No. 89 

The uniformity and precision of the writing of this MS. are most 
remarkable, and testify so perfect a training in the uncial script that the 
scribe must have written it with all the ease and fluency of a natural 
hand. These characteristics mark an early period, when this form of 
writing was in full vigour as the choice hand for the production of books 
for the market ; and there can therefore be no hesitation in placing the 
MS. in the period stated above. It will be observed that, in accordance 
with the practice followed in early MSS. of this class, the first letter in the 
page is enlarged, even though that letter may, as in this instance, occur 
in the middle of a word (consilia|bula). 

As in other series of Western MSS., codices or portions of codices of 
the Scriptures, especially of the Gospels, form a large proportion of the 
uncial series of the fifth and sixth centuries. From among them the few 
leaves of what must have been a noble volume, now preserved in the 
library of St. Gall in Switzerland (Cod. 1394), may be selected as a repre- 
sentative example of the best class. The date of this MS. has been 
placed late in the fifth or early in the sixth century (/'//. ,W. ii. 50). 

\n. 90 

Comparing the writing with that of the Vercelli Gospels (Facs. 88), 
there appears no appreciable difference in the general forms of the letters ; 
but allowance must always be made for the maintenance of a conserva- 
tive type of hand in sacred and liturgical codices. Other indications, 
too, such as, perhaps, a little more simplicity in the cast of the lettering, 
and the narrowness of the columns, mark the greater antiquity of the 
\Vrrelli MS. 



xin THE LATIN MAJUSCULE BOOK-HAND 289 

For an example of uncial writing of the sixth century \ve are able to 
turn to a MS. which can be approximately dated the Fulda MS. of the 
Gospels and other books of the New Testament, which was revised by 
Victor, Bishop of Capua, in the years 546 and 547, and is itself probably 
of about the same period (Z. W. Ex. 34). 

No. 91 

Even in this MS., as early as the middle of the sixth century, there 
is a falling off in ease and firmness of writing as compared with the earlier 
examples. There is a wider spacing of the letters, instead of the older 
more compact script. The curving of the first limb of 00 is to be noticed ; 
and a certain feebleness in the management of curves, as for example in 
the letters B and S, appears to indicate that the scribe was not in perfect 
command of the style. 

To illustrate the uncial writing of the seventh century we are again 
fortunate in being able to draw on a MS. which is actually dated. This 
is a MS. of homilies of St. Augustine, written in the abbey of Luxeuil in 
A.D. 669. 1 

No. 92 

A rough hand of the Merovingian period ; the letters hasty, uneven, 
and careless in regard to uniformity. These shortcomings indicate surely 
the failing power of the uncial as a model literary hand. 

The next facsimile is taken from the great MS. of the Bible known 
as the Codex Amiatinus (Z. W. Ex. 35 ; Pal. Soc. ii. 65, 66), in the 
Laurentian Library at Florence. It is one of three codices of the Bible 
which were written by order of Ceolfrid, abbot of Jarrow in Northumbria 
from A. D. 690 ; and it was taken by him on his journey to Italy, during 
which he died, in 716, for presentation to the Pope. The date of the MS. 
is therefore about the year 700. It 1 must, however, be remembered 
that the uncial book-hand appears never to have gained favour in 
England : and it is probable that the MS. was written by Italian 
scribes brought over to this country. 

No. 93 


The text is arranged stichometrically, and the characters are rather 
ornamental but are bold and in harmony with the large scale of the 
volume, which measures nearly 20 inches in height and contains more than 
a thousand leaves. But, if the letters are individually examined, their 
imitative structure is soon detected ; and their lack of uniformity and 

1 See Notice sr un Manuscrit de fAbbaye tie Luxeuil, by L. Delisle, in Notices et Exlraits des 
MSB., torn, xxxi ; and Questions Merovingitnnes, no. iii, by J. Havet, in BiU. de I'Ecole des 
Charles, xlvi. 430. The MS. is now in the library of Mr. Pierpont Morgan. 

1184 \J 



290 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

FACSIMILE No. 89 



1 U 






c 

T 1 M1 5 
d 5 1 







. 



LIVY. FIFTH CENTURY 



xiir THE LATIN MAJUSCULE BOOK-HAND 291 



(Bula dimissis tanta multitude iu niorum romam convenit ut gra'vis urbi 
turba insolita esset praeter dilectu eorum quos in supplelmentum mitti 
oportebat quattuor a -c- sulpicio praetore scriptae legiones | sunt intraque 
undecim dies dilec tus est perfectus consules deinde | sortiti provincias sunt 
nam prae tores propter iurisdictionem ma turius sortiti erant urbana -c- sul picio 
peregrina c- decimio obtigerat | hispaniam -nv claudius marcellus | siciliam 
ser. Cornelius lentulus | sardiniam -p- fonteiuscapitoclas'semc- marciusfigulus 
erat sorti tus eonsulumque servilio italia j c- marcio niacedonia obvenit 
la tinisque actis marcius extemplo | est profectus cepione deinde reiferente ad 
senatu quasex novis | legionibus duas legiones secum in galliam duceret decre- 
vere patres | ut -c- sulpicius -m- claudius piaetores ex his | quas scripsissent 
legionibus quas | viderentur consuli darent indigne patiente praetorum 
arbitrio co?zsulem subdectuni demisso se non | ad tribunal praetorum 
stans postu) 



it 2 



292 






^ t ^- 

j -r: x- t/ 

x o /s 'S 

c* Z . O < 



8 



=rO u r ^ 

.?/). f j << . t/|- HI 

O 7 7 : -* t? 

^ 6 4 tr <T. 

--* I .<-- j U 

XZg^fi 

,/>> f j , X- 



*;?7'Vi 

^' ^ p lT?"5 

i^ <V^ rjs 



c 



s-v "T 

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^ P P ^ < 

E V> 1J r r ei -r 




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A'.- ^' Sfl"7 " Q 1 '^ 

> ^* ^ y o 

=j U>l s 

^ v f i _ 

r *^ ^.-. ^_^ ^^ \^ J - 

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'0 ^ S -J ^ 3 

'J CO & CP 1 



z 
.2 



." 2 

'3 CO 

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i-S 



i'g S, 

ca aj - 

S ^r- 

1 J 5 









. >* SO 
> <. 7 ^ "^ 

3 ^. 6 

^ r ^ 

'*Z?4Zr 

r C Z CC 

5 5 3 c jj- 

Z' rr ^ k ^/ 
7 Z ' j ^ 

u ^rr O ct 3 ^ 

^l4^:f 

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ri, /3 'X. X- O"t*. o 

^ g. Z- A 9 3 

/\jr *X - is^ v ' l ^ s f ^ 



I a 

-/D 

1 1 
II 

r ' S' 
W r 1 

Z 

D 



O 



~T* 
'U 



c O 



^^ /^ D CO C *~ 

^J .S QJ ^-4J 



s mi 



o 



r! o " 



^-i * ^^ S 

M ^ ~" 

P'sS.s 




r* C^ .g g.s g 

5v3 - 
O/D 

cr U 
t) ">- 

to' 

3-C 
crU 

/' 



Q CO =. 

-4-J "^ O *^ H 

a ^ s 

' CO O 



- 

^ 



w> 



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0) 
C3 



SS-35 



FACSIMILE No. 91 



293 



U>0|Mr 

1 >C'Lc\\ It' Kl Xl VXiX' | 



III 



MUNI I lAUlM XU I Loi'tl I CIS 




XF.W TKSTAMKXT OF FULDA. ABOUT A.D. 546 

(Propter spem enim isra hel catena hae eircum|datus sum. At illi dixejrunt 
ad eum. Nos neqMC | litteras accepimus de j te a iudaea. Neqzte adve'niens 
aliquis fratrum nuntiavit aufc locutus est quid de te malum Rogamus autem 
a te audi|re quae sentis. Nam | de secta hac notum est | nobis quia ubique ei 
contra'dicitur. Cum consti tuissent autem illi diem | Venerunt ad eum in 
hospi'tium plures. Quibus | exponebat testifieans | regnum dei. Suadensqwe | 
fis de iesu ex lege mosi et | prophetis a mane usque | ad vesperam. Et 
qui dam eredebant his quae ; dicebantur. Quidam vero non credebant) 



294 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 



FACSIMILE No. 92 

QcuOi>c*i 



es 



Tl 

u c> e^ o oo i TM u 



s o 



-p ei^, 



ST. AUGUSTINE. A.D. 669 

(aliquid boni dilectione operamur/ | et ubi hoc cognuscimus, ante dewm es | 
interroga cor tuum vide quid fecisjti et quid ibi appetisti. salutem tuawz | 
an laude hominuiw ventosam, intus | vide Nam homo iudicare non potest | 
quern videre non potest, Si persuajdemus corde nostro : coram ipso per|suade- 
amus, quia se male sentiat | cor nostruwz. id est accuset nos in) 



xiii THE LATIN MAJUSCULE BOOK-HAND 295 

FACSIMILE No. 93 



XCTUOO esT xuTecn cucn 
* 



urxuOi RCNT ueRBtieo 1 




pisc\TORes 



X5CNOeNS XUTCCD INUNXCV) 

N\ueor> 




BIBLE (CODEX AMIATINUS). ABOUT A.D. 700 

(Factum est autem cum | turbae inruerent in euni ] ut audirent verbum dei j 
et ipse stabat secus stagnuui | genesareth | et vidit duas naves stantes j secus 
stagnum | piscatores autem discende rant et leavabant retia | ascendens autem 
in unam | navem quae erat | simonis I rogavit autem a terra | reducere pusil- 
lum | et sedens docebat | de navicula turbas) 



296 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

FACSIMILE No. 94 

4 ' 

pbxiie a>oTeco c e 









N07TXRXCO 





/KU J XSXlXD ON 




J 






GOSPELS. -A.U. 739-60 

(phares autem ge|nuit esrom | esrom autem ge'nuit aram | aram autem genuit 
aminadab ; aminadab autem j genuit naasson naasson autem gejnuit salmon 
salmon autem genuit | booz de rachab) 



xin THE LATIN MAJUSCULE BOOK-HAND 297 

general unsteadiness indicate that the uncial hand is here passing into 
the period of decadence, although the handsome scale of the writing 
rather screens its defects. 

Of the other two codices mentioned above, which Ceolfrid presented 
to the monasteries of Wearmouth and Jarrow, only a single leaf appears 
to have survived. This leaf (Brit. Mus., Add. MS. 37777 ; Net'- Pal. Soc. 
158, 159) is written in the same uncial style, though in a smaller hand, 
and is evidently of the same date as the Codex Amiatinus. There is 
every reason to believe that its identification as a leaf from one of Ceol- 
frid's famous codices is correct. The writing, like that of the Amiatinus, 
has no distinctively English characteristics. 

To illustrate the uncial hand when it had passed further into the 
imitative stage of the eighth century, a specimen is selected from a MS. 
of the Gospels (Brit. Mus., Add. MS. 5463), written by the monk Lupus 
at the command of Ato or Atto, abbot, apparently, of the monastery of 
St. Vincent on the Volturno, in the territory of Benevento, from A.D. 739 
to 760 (Pal. -S'oc. i. 236). 

No. 94 

The writing is quite calligraphic, displaying the fine sense of beauty 
of form which is conspicuous in the best specimens of Italian writing of 
all ages ; but its imitative character is easily detected if the letters are 
analysed. It will be seen how inconstant and weak in formation many 
of them are, in spite of the fine appearance of the MS. as a whole. 

It is not necessary to follow the history of the uncial hand in the 
ninth century, when it was practically dead as a literary hand and was 
chiefly employed in adding a further air of splendour to the costly MSS. 
of the Carolingian monarchs. 



CHAPTER XIV 

LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY (continued) 
The Mixed Uncial and Minuscule Book-hand 

THE fact must not be lost sight of that, after all, the majuscule forms 
of writing, both capital and uncial, which have been under discussion, 
represent only one class of the handwritings of the periods in which they 
were practised, namely, the literary script used in the production of 
exactly written codices, and therefore a hand of comparatively limited 
range. By its side, and of course of far more extensive and general 
use, was the cursive hand of the time, which under certain condi- 
tions, and particularly when a book was being produced, not for the 
general market, but for private or limited circulation, would invade 
the literary domain of pure majuscule writing and show its presence 
by the intrusion of minuscule letters which are proper to the cursive 
alphabet. 1 Thus some of the notes of scholars in the margins of early 
majuscule MSS., or sometimes a few inserted leaves of additions, are 
found written in a mixed style of negligently formed uncials with certain 
cursive forms in limited numbers. 

But some recently discovered fragments carry us back still further 
to a period earlier than our earliest Latin vellum codices (the Ambrosian 
Homer, perhaps, excepted), and suggest interesting speculations regarding 
these ancient mixed hands. These fragments are the remains of a papyrus 
roll containing portions of an epitome of Livy (Brit. Mus., Pap. 1532), 
found at Oxyrhynchus in 1903 (Ox. Pap. iv. 90-116), which may be 
assigned with confidence to the second half of the third century (Neiv 
Pal. Soc. 53). 

No. 95 

Here we find a handwriting mainly following the uncial book-hand, 
but admitting certain minuscule forms, as b, d, m, r ; and with the 
letter f fluctuating between the uncial and minuscule. The MS. there- 
fore, while in no sense a calligraphically written one, may be regarded 
as a characteristic working copy for ordinary use, and as an ancestor of 
the mixed-uncial and half-uncial MSS. which form the subject of the 
present chapter. 

1 In describing these mixed hands it is necessary to anticipate the discussion of the 
Roman cursive writing. 



THE LATIN MIXED BOOK-HAND 299 

But the occurrence of this example at so early a date, and at a period 
when it has been thought that the uncial was only in course of develope- 
ment, raises the question whether it is an instance of the Latin book- 
hand making for that developement, or, like the later examples of mixed 
hands, a variation from the uncial already fully developed. It is more 
probable that the latter view will turn out to be the correct one, and 
that further discoveries will prove that the uncial book-hand had reached 
its final stage of perfection at an earlier period than has been supposed ; l 
and, further, that, as the present MS. shows, the uncial was not the only 
style of book-hand current in the third century. 2 

A good instance of mixed writing occurs in the notes and additions 
to a MS. of St. Jerome's version of the Chronicle of Eusebius in the 
Bodleian Library (MS. Auct, T. 2. 26), of the sixth century (Pal. Soc. 
ii. 129, 130). 

No. 96 

Here the general character is a sloping uncial, but the letters b and d 
are minuscule forms, and the cursive influence also shows itself in the 
lengthening of vertical strokes. An unusual method of abbreviation of 
the termination bus, by placing a dot above, instead of at the side of, the 
bow of b will be noticed in line 7. 

The adaptation of this mixed hand, growing as it were by accident 
into a recognized style of writing, to more formal literary purposes would 
naturally follow. In the MS. of Gaius at Verona (Z. W. Ex. 24) of the 
fifth century, besides the ordinary uncial forms, the cursive- shaped d and 
long s 3 are used ; and also in the few fragmentary leaves of Ulpian at 
Strassburg, of the fifth or sixth century, the cursive long s occurs (Berlin 
Acad., Sitzungsber. (1903), 922, 1034; (1904), 1156). In the Florentine 
Pandects, written by many scribes, several cursive forms appear (Z. W. 
Ex. 54 ; Pal. Soc. ii. 108) in one portion of the MS. And fragments of 
a Graeco-Latin glossary on papyrus (Comment. Soc. Gottingen. iv. 156 ; 

1 When writing the chapter on 'Palaeography' in A Companion to Latin Studies, 
Cambridge, 1910, I was inclined to take the view of the later perfection of the uncial 
book-hand. 

- That the mixed hand continued in use in Egypt even for classical works is proved 
by the papyrus fragments of Virgil (Aen. i. 495-507) and Sallust (Catiline\ of the fifth 
century, found at Oxyrhynchus (Ox. Pap., nos. 31, 884). In the Rainer collection at 
Vienna, also, is a fragment of the ' Formula Fabiana ', on vellum, in a mixed hand, said to 
be of the fourth century (Mittheilungen aus der Sammlung Rainer, iv. 1). 

3 A curious instance of misunderstanding of the cursive or long s (f ) by an ignorant 
scribe is afforded by the Harley MS. 5792, which contains a Graeco-Latin glossary, written 
probably in France in the seventh century. The archetype from which the MS. was 
transcribed, evidently had this form of the letter in several places. The scribe of the 
Harley MS., not understanding it, copied it sometimes as an i without a dot (i), some- 
times as an i with a dot (i . Glossae Latino-graecae, etc., ed. Goetz and Gundermann, 1888, 
praef. xxii. 



300 



FACSIMILE No. 95 




L 



tnAt t 



dl 



EPITOME OF LIVY. THIRD CENTURY 



301 



(sua manu bonu . . . | a lanatone cen . . . | vastaita porci[a] ... ] m. claudio 
marcello ... | p. licini crassi po . . . | ludis funeribus . . . | t[abernac]ulis 

po . . . nate . . eci . . rat ... | in foro futura i . . | dim . . . m ban ... 

... 1 ...... n beri bellum p ..... . llites in ....... theoxen . . . 

in mare m . ugien . . . | ficti egrimonibus . . . | per patrem coactu ... | p. len- 
tulo m . . aebio ... j in agro l.nerylli sc . . . | a- postumio c- | cum l.guribus 
his ... | 1. livius tribunes p\ebis quo . . . | magistratum pete ... | est | q. fulvio 
1. manlio c . . . | m lepidi et fulv . i no . . .) 



302 



FACSIMILE No. 96 



/no /C7-^rrx^/ is uyy 



nxu -j: t u VT^SVA// CfCCbGocm 



**NNI ccec uttn 
u<rn 







CHRONOLOGICAL NOTES. SIXTH CENTURY 

(A morte caesaris usqwe in consM?a<wm tlieodosii -xv- fiunt anni cccclxxxiii I 
passus est dowimws ies;s chriWws a constitutione mundi post anos -v- milia 
ccxxviiii | ab abraam autem usque ad passionem anni sunt -IT- xliiii | A 
passione do'ni usqite ad consulatum eustathii anni sunt cccxciiii et usque | 
ad constilatum domini nostri theodosii -xv- anni ccccviiii | Item ab adventu 
dom/ni usq;<e ad consulatum eundem quotiens persecutio | chr/s^ianorum vel 
a quib?/s designatis temporibws facta est | I a nerone qui sextus regnavit post 
passionem domini anno xxxviiii | prima persecutio orta est anno imperii eitis 
xiii in qua petrus et | paulus apostoli gloriose occubuerunt | II Secunda 
persecutio a dometiano fratre titi qui nonus | regnavit orta est anno imperii 
eius xiiii a quo etiam iohannes | evangelista in insula quae pathmos appel- 
latur relegatus | apocalypsim vidit | III tertia persecutio facta est a traiano 
qui -xi- regnavit anwo imperil eius x. | IIII quarta facta est a marco antonino 
vero qui cum aurelio com^modo xiiii regnavit anno imperii eorum -vi-) 






FACSIMILE No. 97 303 



\piMiXNUSquoqueppoBxt: 
o&onliBpOTefrriabi 

* mxMewref \ I ixpXT^p 

T t^pc pollsters perns xl i xt> \ ?.solu e p ec>4 imue* 
Si ecnxviGi pXTxesiMOHpoTf .STHe^ue^mNTiu v 
P^WIT repc-nequeq u XC^OT i s cxusxfc VIXSUMT 



. pLCpeTiTiovu: 
u li XH u s 1 1 6 p os ex rofcoe unobu;csTOp.Lun 

MUpTl XeCOHSCHSLlCOHl p^_ 

^ 



Sxl 1 6 usphxn >pxir>i 1 1 XSCOHSC 




TI e-Ht^ i xpxi pcli cei4 n x 



PANDECTS. SIXTH-SEVENTH CENTURY 

(Papinianus quoque probat 

Idem libro tertio disputationum in potestate | manente filia pater sponso 
nuutium remitiere potest et sponsalia dissolvere enimvevo | si emancipata 
est non potest neque nuntiuw* | remittere neque quae dotis causa data sunt | 
condicere ipsa enim filia nubendo efficiet | dotem esse condictionemque 
extinguet quae | causa non secuta nasci poterit nisi forte | quis proponat ita 
dotem patrem pro eman cipata filia dedisse ut si nuptiis non consew tiret vel 
contractis vel non contractis rejpeteret quae dederat tune enim habebit | 
repetitionem : 

lulianus libro sexto decimo digestorum sponsalia sicut nuptiae consensu 
contrajhentium fiunt et ideo sicut nuptiis ita spottjsalibus filiam familias 
consentire oportet : 

Ulpianus libro singulari de spousalibus sed quae patris voluntati non repugnat 
conse tire intellegitur tune autem solum dissew|tiendi a patre licentia filiae 
conceditur si in dignum moribus vel turpem sponsum ei [ pater eligat :) 



304 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 



Rhein. M/i^i'm. v. 301) are also written in mixed characters. 1 These 
examples are so many proofs that secular MSS., such as those relating to 
la\v and grammar, were not always subject in their production to the 
same strict calligraphic rules as MSS. for church use or of a specially 
sumptuous character. The scribe, writing rather for the scholar than 
for the public reader or book-collector, allowed himself a certain freedom 
and adopted a style which he could write more rapidly ; and yet at the 
same time the preponderating element remained uncial. 

In the following facsimile from the Pandects of the Laurentian Library 
at Florence (Pal. Soc. ii. 108), probably of the end of the sixth or begin- 
ning of the seventh century, it will be noticed that the minuscule cursive 
forms are used at the ends of lines, generally the weak point of texts, 
where innovations make their first appearance. 

No. 97 

In other pages of the MS. the minuscule letters adapted from the 
cursive are more general, extending to b, d, in, r, s, not only at the ends 
of lines, but promiscuously with the uncial forms, and illustrate a further 
stage of developement. 

But these examples represent the mixed hand in its simpler stages. 
A reference to the early MSS. in which it is employed by the writers of 
annotations shows that the proportion of the uncial and cursive minuscule 
forms depended a good deal on the taste or practice of the writer. He 
was necessarily limited in the space left for his notes, and was therefore 
constrained to use a more formal kind of writing than his ordinary current 
hand would have been, somewhat in the same way as in annotating 
a printed book we, at the present day, often employ a half-print kind of 
writing, accommodated to the narrow margins at our disposal. He there- 
fore naturally used a disconnected, and not his ordinary cursive, form of 
writing; and the negligent uncial, referred to above, seems to have been 
generally found most suitable for the purpose, qualified, as already 
described, by an admixture of cursive forms. It is the varying extent 
to which these cursive forms were admitted by different writers that 
here claims our attention. The marginal directions for the artist in the 
Quedlinburg fragment of an illustrated early Italic version of the Bible 
(Schum, Theolog. Studien, 1876), and the scholia and notes in such MSS. 
as the fragments of Juvenal in the Vatican (Z. W. Ex. 5), the Codex 
Bembinus of Terence (Z. W. EJ:. 8; Pal. Sue. i. 135), the Medicean Virgil 

1 The same mixed style is found in Latin inscriptions of Northern Africa ; e.g. the 
Makter inscription (Pal. Soc. ii. 49). It also appears in the more recently discovered inscrip- 
tion of Diocletian's edict, 'de pretiis venalium' of A.D. 301 (Pal. Soc. ii. 127, 128). Even in 
inscriptions in square capitals small letters sometimes intruded : see an instance of a small 
b in an inscription of A. D. 104, given in Letronne, Inscriptions de VEgypte, 1842, 1848, atlas, 
pi. 31. 



xiv THE LATIN HALF-UNCIAL BOOK-HAND 305 

(Z. W. Ex. 10; Pal. Soc. i. 86), the Bible fragment at Weingarten 
<Z. W. Ex. 21), and others, exhibit tin.- hand in various phases between 
the uncial and minuscule styles. 

At length in the scholia on the Bembine Terence, \ve have the hand 
in the fully developed condition, in which the minuscule element asserts 
itself so strongly that but few of the purely uncial forms remain. In 
this developed stage the mixed hand attains a recognized position. It is 
the Half-uncial hand which we find employed as far back as the fifth 
century as a literary hand in the production of formally written MSS. 



The Half-uncial Book-hand 

This writing, as will afterwards be seen, plays a veiy important part 
in the history of certain national hands. A modified form of the uncial 
as just explained, and recommending itself no doubt from the greater 
ease with which it could be written than the more laborious pure uncial, 
it was quickly adopted as a book-hand ; and the not inconsiderable 
number of examples which are still extant prove how largely it was 
practised, at least within a certain area, chiefly comprising, it seems, 
Italy and Southern France. The earliest example appears to be the Fasti 
Consulares of the years 487-94 in a palimpsest at Verona (Z. W. E.c. 30). 
Of more importance is the MS. of St. Hilary at Rome, written before 509- 
10 (Z. W. Ex. 52 ; Pal. Soc. i. 136 ; Facs. 98, below). Other examples are 
the Sulpicius Severus of Verona, of the year 517 (Z. W. Ex. 32) ; a list of 
popes to 523, and carried on to 530, together with a collection of canons, 
in a MS. from Corbie (Z. W. Ex. 40-2 ; Alb. Pal. 1 11) ; a similar MS. at 
Cologne (Z. \V. Ex. 37, 38, 44) ; a Bible commentary at Monte Cassino 
earlier than 569 (Z. W. Ex. 53 ; Facs. 100, below) ; various MSS. at Milan, 
originally in the monastery of Bobbio (Pal. Soc. i. 137, 138, 161, 162) ; 
& MS. in the Libri collection (Pal. Soc. ii. 10) ; a Hilary on papyrus at 
Vienna (Pal. Soc. ii. 31); and several MSS. at Lyons, Paris, and Cambrai 
(Alb. Pal. 6-9, 11, 13) of the sixth or seventh centuries. 

As in this style of writing a large proportion of the forms of letters 
which are afterwards found in the minuscule hand of the Carolingian 
period are already developed, it has also been called the pre-Caroline 
minuscule. This title, however, being anticipatory, it is better to give 
the hand an independent name, and that of Half-uncial is sufficiently 
distinctive ; unless, indeed, the still more exact title of Roman Half- 
uncial is preferable. 

The following specimen is taken from the MS. of St. Hilary on the 

1 Album Paleographique, arec des notices explicates par la. Societe de I'Ecole des Ckartes, Paris, 
1887. 

114 X 



306 



GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 



CHAP. 



CO 

o" 

to 



i- s trv o 

ft. r^ X V-O 



i. 



P -a ^ ^o g-ftz- 

o -frT-c P-i 1 1 i -^ 

-R S Ji L I I & e 







-3 7n " 

.a S S -g 



ts o 



~ 0) 

!i !J 

^ C g,^ 

s ^'5 



- r 



G r- 

-w * SH 



H 







i 

O 

o 



as w P .2 S 

r-i CJ C3 __ O 

5 H 9 

p- r* " 

/I ~^ ^" O 

S o> 13 S m 



H 

PQ 






will 



o to 

-4-J CO ' 



i 



3 S 



c .s -_g 'S ^ " 

w & ^ '^ 

111 8 1 



THE LATIX HALF-UNCIAL BOOK-HAND 



307 



h4 
i-^ 

g 
o 

fe 







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5 



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* r ,<v -* - 

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f ? 3 

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o> -t> .'>.' e 

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r< O 9> ^3 

3 el> a> 3 



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- . os 

^ S '? ~ 

- _^, CO CJ 

> q> * rQ -*^ 

.-ef ~ S 



^ 
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"m ."i- O rH C3 

= 7 M 3 ^ 

? S <n 2 

SMs 2 

s ^ 2 1 a 



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^ =S g'^.2 

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fci S tO _ ^ 



3 .= O 
^ cJD SJ 



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f 9. 



308 



GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 



CHAP. 



K 

y 



-, ' C y ^ - m 

Z '1 '~ - o t 

7 * Z~ S ^ 

- 5 5 ? 7 2 



2 r 22 r -^ 

x / 



-'- 

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A 
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82 

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KNTAKY. ] 

virgine eva 


t j| 

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lfe MM 


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o 1 
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V. 





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xiv THE LATIN HALF-UXCTAL BOOK-HAND 309 

Trinity in the Archives of St. Peter's at Rome, which, as a note records. 
was revised in the fourteenth year of Trasamund, King of the Vandals, 
that is, in A.D. 509-10 (Pal. Soc. i. 136). 

No. 98 

In this facsimile an almost complete minuscule alphabet is represented ; 
and it will be seen that, while the round style of uncial writing is still 
maintained, there are very few of the letters which are really uncials, 
N being the only one which prominently asserts itself. Several instances 
of the cursive r-shaped u, written above the line, just as the letter is 
frequently placed in cursive texts, will be noticed. 

A carefully executed example of French origin is a MS. of the works 
of St. Augustine in the Bibliotheque Nationale of Paris (MS. lat. 13367), 
which at one time belonged to the monastery of Corbie ; of the sixth 
century (New Pal. Sue. 80). 

No. 99 

The style of writing is rather more calligraphic than that of the last 
example ; and the MS. may be regarded as belonging to the class which 
obviously provided models when the reformation of the minuscule book- 
hand was being carried out under the authority of Charlemagne. The 
persistence of the capital form of N in the half-uncial hand was no doubt 
owing to a desire to avoid ambiguity which would have followed the 
sul istitution of the minuscule n, a letter which might be easily confused 
with the short-stemmed r, as seen in this example. This persistence 
accounts for the survival of the capital N, side by side with the minus- 
cule letter, in minuscule MSS. Of the marks of punctuation only the full 
point appears to be original. 

But the most beautifully executed MS. of early date in this style of 
hand is the biblical commentary of Monte Cassino, written before the 
year 569 (Z. W. Ex. 53). 

No. 100 

This may be accepted as a standard example of the perfect half-uncial, 
written with a full sense of beauty by an Italian scribe. 

Here, then, we bring to a close the section dealing with the Latin 
majuscule, capital and uncial, literary scripts, and the mixed styles imme- 
diately derived from the uncial ; and we break off our examination of 
the formal book-hands to take up that of the Roman Cursive writing 
which, as we have seen, essentially affected the half-uncial, and which 
had an all-important influence in forming the later handwritings of 
Western Europe. 



CHAPTER XV 

LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY (continued) 
The Roman Cursive Script 

THE poverty of material for the early history of Roman writing, as 
compared with that for the history of Greek writing, has already been 
noted. Though we can now follow, more or less perfectly, in the recently 
recovered papyri, the developement of Greek writing from the fourth 
century B.C., very few Latin documents, and none that can be placed 
earlier than the Christian era, have been found among them. While 
therefore there has been so great an accession of material during the 
last five-and-twenty years for the study of early Greek palaeography, 
the condition of things in regard to Latin palaeography and in particular 
for the history of Roman Cursive writing has undergone but little 
change. 

Much of the earliest material is found among the wall-inscriptions of 
Pompeii. These inscriptions have been divided into two classes : (1) those 
traced with the brush, generally in formal and not cursive capitals, and 
consisting of advertisements, recommendations of candidates, announce- 
ments of public games, of lost articles, of houses to let, etc. ; and (2) scrawls 
and scribblings, sometimes written in charcoal, chalk, etc.. but more 
generally scratched with a point (the so-called graffiti) in cursive 
letters, being quotations from poets, idle words, reckonings, salutations, 
love addresses, pasquinades, satirical remarks, etc. A few are of ancient 
<late, but most of them range between A.D. 63 and the year of the 
destruction of the city, A.D. 79. Similar inscriptions have been found 
at Herculaneum and in the excavations and catacombs of Rome. Most 
of all these have been collected by Zangemeister in the Coi'pus I n*rrip- 
tionum Latinarum, vol. iv, which also contains a carefully compiled 
table of the forms of letters employed. 1 Some of those found in Rome 
are represented in the Roma subterraueu (.'hi'intiaua of De Rossi. 

Contemporary with these wall-inscriptions are the waxed tablets 
found in 1875 at Pompeii, in the house of the banker L. Caecilius 
Jucundus, 2 inscribed with documents connected with sales by auction 

1 Reproduced, together with the table of letters of the Dacian waxed tablets printed in 
vol. iii, by permission of the Royal Prussian Academy, in Pal. Soc. ii. 30. 

2 See above, p. 18. 



ROMAN CURSIVE 311 

and tax-receipts, in cursive writing, ami ranging in date chiefly from 
A. D. 53 to 62 ; edited also, in 1898, by Zangemeister in a supplement to 
the C. I. L. iv. Of similar character are the waxed tablets, some of 
which are dated between A.D. 131 and 167. found in the ancient mining 
works of Verespatak in Dacia, 1 and published with a table of forms of 
letters in the C. I. L. in. With these also must be grouped the tiles 
which have been found on various sites, scratched, before being baked, 
with alphabets, verses, or miscellaneous memoranda.*' 

Among the single papyrus documents which have been found in recent 
years in Egypt, and of which facsimiles are given in different works, the 
following may Vie enumerated for the convenience of students. At Berlin 
there is a copy of an Imperial edict, said to be of the time of Tiberius 
(Aeyypt. Urkuiulen aus den knui-jl. Mu*ee,i, no. 628) ; and also a papyrus 
containing portions of two speeches in the senate, ascribed to the reign 
of Claudius, A.D. 41-54 (Stetfens, Entwicklunj der hiteii*. >-W/v>/. 
pi. 101). A papyrus at Geneva contains Roman military accounts of 
the first century (Nicole and Morel, Arch ices Militaires du premier 
siMe). A similar papyrus, of the second century, is printed by Grenfell 
and Hunt, Fay Am Toivns, no. cv. From Oxyrhynchus there are a note 
of enrolment of recruits of A.D. 103 (O.c. Pap. vii, no. 1022), a frag- 
mentary military account of A.D. 205 (ibid, iv, no. 735), and a declara- 
tion of birth, A.D. 194-6 (ibid, vi, no. 894). A roll, now in Berlin, of the 
First Augustan cohort of Spain, when serving in Egypt, A.D. 156, is 
reproduced by the Palaeuyraphical Society, ii. 165. The most perfect 
Latin document on papyrus is in the British Museum, and records the 
purchase of a slave by an officer of the Roman fleet on the Syrian coast, 
A.D. 166 (Pal. Sac. ii. 190). Two letters of the first century are given in 
facsimile in Wessely's Schrifttafeln zur aelU-ren lutd ,>'i>ch?n Palaeo- 
ij.v.phie, Vienna, 1898; one of A.D. 167, by Grenfell and Hunt, Greek 
Papyri, ser. ii, no. cviii mow Brit. Mus., Pap. 730) ; and one of the second 
century, by the same, in Ox. Pp. i,no.32; and a declaration of the year 
237 and a petition of 247 appear in Ox. Pap. viii, no. 1114, and iv, 

no. 7:20. 

All the above examples of Roman cursive writing represent the 
ordinary writing of the people for about the first three centuries of the 
Christian era. The letters are essentially the old Roman letters written 
with fluency, and undergoing certain modifications in their forms, which 
eventually developed into the minuscule hand. The same original 
Roman letters written carefully became, as we have seen, the formal 

1 See above, p. 18. 

"- Some of them are inscribed with memoranda of the brickfields. One found at 
Aquileia bears the warning of a severe taskmaster to some unfortunate workman : "Cave 
malum, si non raseris lateres DC ; si raseris minus, malum formidabis.' C. /. L. v, 
no. 8110 (17(1 . 



N 



N 



X 



X 



X 






X 



7 



J 



r 



1- 



V 






c_ 



/o 



o 

fc 

H 



02 

O 

a 



x 






1 











V 



J 



ViJ 



L 









- 



"XL 



ROMAN CURSIVE 313 

capital alphabets in use in inscriptions under the Empire and in the 
.sumptuous MSS. of the early centuries of our era. It is probable that 
the wallnscribblings of Pompeii essentially represent the style of cursive 
writing which had been followed for some two or three centuries before 
their date ; for, in the other direction, the difference between the style 
of the Dacian tablets and that of the Ponipeian period, although they 
are separated by a long interval, is not so marked as might have been 
expected. 

If we turn to the table of letters employed in the graffiti of Pompeii. 
we see how in the first century the original capital forms stand side 
by side with other modified forms which even at that date had begun to 
tend towards minuscules. 

No. 101 

In A the cross stroke falls, so to say, out of its horizontal position, 
and hangs as a short middle stroke or entirely disappears. The slurring 
of the bows of B, in quick writing, produces the form of the letter 
resembling a stilted a, the waved stroke representing the bows, and the 
loop the original upright main stroke. This is the most complete trans- 
formation of any letter in the alphabet. C and G exaggerate the length 
of the upper part of the curve. The letter D developes gradually the 
uncial form, which afterwards produces the minuscule by lengthening 
the upper stroke of the bow, while the straight main stroke, like that of 
the B, turns into a curve. The letter E is represented in two forms, the 
first being the capital more or less negligently written (later, -worn down 
into a mere tick or hook, k), the second being the double vertical - 
stroke letter, used also in inscriptions and in the Faliscan alphabet. F in 
like manner takes the form of a long and a short stroke, both more or 
less vertical, the short stroke gradually degenerating into a curve. In 
the changes of H we see the origin of the minuscule in the shortening 
of the second main stroke. Besides the normal capital form, we have M 
represented by four vertical strokes, ||||, the first usually longer than the 
rest; and so, too, X appears also in the form of three strokes, III. The 
hastily written is no longer a circle, but is formed \>y two curves ; 
and, the natural tendency when writing with a hard point being to 
form concave rather than convex curves, the second curve of the letter 
also becomes concave. In the letter P we see the gradual wearing down 
of the bow into a mere oblique stroke ; in R the slurring of the bow 
into a waved stroke ; and in S the straightening of the lower curve and 
the developement of the upper one into an oblique stroke. 

This style of cursive lettering, in vogue during the first three cen- 
turies of our era, was of course subject to modifications arising through 



314 



GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 



CHAP. 



FACSIMILE No. 102 




POMPEIAX WAXEU TABLE r. A.D. 59 

(en. pompeio grospho grospho | pompeio gaviano ii vir iur die ] vi idus 
iulias | privatus colonorum coloniae veneriae corneliae pompei^anorum 
ser[vus scripsi me | accepisse ab 1 caeeilio iucumlo | sestertios mille se scentos 



xv ROMAN CURSIVE 315 

progress of time and from the nature of the writing material employed, 
whether the smooth but clinging surface of wax scratched with the 
point of the stilus, or the less impeding papyrus or wood or vellum 
inscribed in ink with the reed or pen. 

We will now turn our attention to specimens from the two collections 
of waxed tablets mentioned above, viz., the earlier series found in the 
house of the banker L. Caecilius Jucundus at Pompeii, and the later 
Dacian series of the second century. 

In the tablets found at Pompeii we have writing on two kinds of 
material, and differing accordingly: that of the deeds themselves, 
incised on the waxed pages with the stilus in decidedly cursive 
characters ; and that of the endorsements and lists of witnesses, written 
in ink upon the bare wood of the pages which were not coated with 
wax, 1 in a generally more restrained style and employing other forms 
of certain letters. But at this moment we are considering only the 
writing on the waxed surfaces ; and as a well written example a page 
is selected from a tablet of A.D. 59 (C. I. L. iv ; suppl. cxliii; Sandys, 
Companion to Latin Studies, 768). 

Xo. 102 

The natural tendency, in writing on a resisting or clinging surface 
such as wax, is to turn the point of the writing implement inwards and 
hence to slope the letters to the left. The letters employed by prefer- 
ence, where a choice is possible, would usually be those which are more 
easily written in disconnected strokes, such as the two-stroke E and the 
four-stroke M. as used in this example. On the other hand, we find 
here the ordinary capital N, instead of the letter formed of three vertical 
strokes; perhaps to avoid ambiguity. The handwriting is that of a 
practised scribe, regular and clear; nor at this time is the lettering 
complicated by the linking and monogrammatic combinations of two 
or more letters, which occur particularly in the Dacian tablets. 

The forms of the letters inscribed with the stilus in the Pompeian 
tablets are given in the Table of Latin Cursive Alphabets (Plate 1. col. 
2) at the end of this chapter; the forms of the letters written in ink 
will be found in the Table (Plate 2, col. 3). 

Next follows a facsimile from the Dacian tablets of the second 
century. It is taken from one of the pages of a tablet recording the 
dissolution of a burial club at Alburnus Major, or Yerespatak, in the 
year 167 (Massmann, Lib. aur., tab. 2 ; C. I.L. iii. 926-7). 

1 See above, p. 19, 



316 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 



FACSIMILE No. 103 




l ^MiMf^^^r4v(Uv 

^s^^j^v rmn wt-^a (., , MST ^ v-, SxiCvs 



Mw^s^ssswat^ 



Wf^iXK^v)^ 
U"^-^ tvv 



DACIAX WAXED TABLET. A.D. 167 

(iulium iuli quoque eommagistrum suum [ ex die magisteri sui non accessise 
ad alburnum neq?<c | in collegio seque eis qui presentes fuerunt ratio'nem 
reddedisse et si quit eorum abuerat redde disset sive funeribus et cautionem 
suam in qua [ eis cave rat recepisset modo que autem neque fu neraticis 
sufficerent neque loculum aberet neque \ quisquam tarn magno tempore 
diebus qui]bus legi | continetur convenire voluerint aut confer re fimeraticia 
sive munera | seque idcirco per hunc libellum publice testantur ut si quis 
defunctus fuerit ne putet se collegium abere aut | ab eis aliquem petitionem 
funeris abiturum | propositus alb maiori v idus febr imp 1 aur ver iii et ; 
quadrate cs act alb maiori) 



XV 



ROMAN CURSIVE 



317 



x 3( 



a 7 



- I- 



O 
i ( 

6 



JO 



H- 



X 



2E 



u^ 






A 



n 



u, 



X 









j 



0, 



/O 



XJ 



\o 



X. 



rs 



o 






X 



A 



ntS 



5 



S 



V 



W 



X 



L 



A 



LI 



t> 



v 



A 



L> 



x 
| 
a 

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5! 



Q 



W 
I 

w 




A 



O 




u 



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cc 



J. 

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:cc 

r o o u_ ": ~ 7^1 

"53 ""^ ^ 

"Q -2 ~" rt LU - 

ISjJraEz'jifc 

i LJ * Q > O 7^ 
: ..* ~ - S UJ 5 



-o : <3 r, is 

UJ ~" ,^ "< o" C 

i5^fc 

^v{ ^J AI 

/\ /: " 1 

y x s ::: ^ s 

< :'.,- ss 3 ~w 

Q< --_'_..i--<O 

... g CD Q 5 O QC 

Ouj -ICQ S 



. . 

- ,-; oo . a: ^ 

. IM S so -r 

N ^* O - ' ~ CO 



CO 

M 



^ * 

_ Hr-lt^^Or-(M 
-^^ (M-T-OOOrHr-lT-i 



ROMAN CURSIVE 319 

Xo. 103 

In following the structure of the writing, it will be of advantage to 
the student to have before him the table of the letters of the Dacian 
tablets, care full}- compiled by Zangemeister (C. I. L. iii, tab. A). 

Xo. 104 

It will be noticed that the form of 51 composed of four, as well as 
that of X composed of three, vertical strokes has disappeared : perhaps 
such forms had been found to cause too frequent ambiguities in a script 
consisting so largely of detached strokes ; and the ordinary capital M 
and X are not difficult in formation. But the two-stroke E was too 
useful a form, as against the capital, to be set aside : and it still pre- 
dominates. Among other letters we may note the growth of the flat- 
headed G, a shape which lias a later history in the mediaeval book- 
hands. A system of linking also has grown up, which dismembers the 
letters and leaves the initial stroke of a letter attached to its prede- 
cessor, while the rest stands quite separate, thus intensifying the natural 
disposition to write in disjointed strokes upon such a material as wax, 
and increasing the difficulty of reading. It is useful to examine these 
monogrammatic linkings, for some of them are the ancestors of similar 
combinations which occur in later cursive scripts and are imitated even 
in book-hands. 

No. 105 



The typical forms of the letters of the wall inscriptions or /j 
of the Pompeian Tablets, and of the Dacian Tablets are set out in the 
Table of Latin Cursive Alphabets (Plate 1) at the end of this chapter : 
affording the student a means of comparing the alphabets written with 
the stilus. There will be occasion for some observations upon them, 
after tracing the developement of the Roman cursive as written with 
the pen, when the whole series of cursive alphabets, whether produced 
by pen or stilus, as shown in the three plates of the Table, can lit- 
re viewed. 

Turning to the Roman cursive script as written in ink on papyrus or 
plain wood or vellum, we find a more fluent style naturally accompany- 
ing the more easily moving hand when using the pen on an unresisting 
surface. The following examples, limited in number but usefully sup- 
plemented by the Table of Alphabets, will, it is hoped, give a fairly 
general idea of its developement. 

A papyrus at Berlin (P. 8507) containing portions of speeches 
delivered in the Senate, which are ascribed to the reign of Claudius, 
A.D. 41-54, supplies the first facsimile (Steffens, Lat. Palaeogr., ed. 1906, 
tab. 101). 



320 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 

No. 106 

The words are separated by a full point ; and accents, perhaps as 
a guide in reading aloud, are numerous. It is noteworthy that the 
writing, although of a more flowing type than that of the contemporary 
waxed tablets and graffiti, is still somewhat restrained, and that the 
letters are generally unconnected, as though the writer's hand was 
influenced by a habit of also writing with the stilus. 

Two of the few surviving Latin papyrus documents of the second 
century happen to fall in date close to the waxed tablet of A.D. 167 
(Facs. 103), and as the three are written in three varieties of the Roman 
cursive they offer an opportunity for useful comparison. The first (Brit. 
Mus., Pap. ccxxix), written in a formal style appropriate to a legal 
instrument, is a deed whereby C. Fabullius Macer, ' optio ' or adjutant of 
the trireme Tigris, in the fleet of Misenum, purchases from G. Julius 
Priscus, a soldier of the same ship, an Arab boy named Abbas or 
Eutyches ; dated at Seleucia Pieria, a naval station on the Syrian coast, 
24 May, A.D. 166 (Pal. Soc. ii. 190 ; Archaeologia, liv. 433). 

No. 107 

There is no difficulty in this bold clear writing ; and, if the eye is 
carried along the lines, the general evenness of the lettering is appre- 
ciated. But, though thus evenly written, the forms of the letters are of 
the cursive type, and in structure are very close to those of the Dacian 
tablets. The cursive B and the flat-headed P are conspicuous by reason 
of their height. The employment here of the cursive type demon- 
strates the lasting influence of the style acquired in writing on wax, 
which brought it into general use, to the exclusion of the old capital 
shapes, even in formally written documents. 1 

The second papyrus of the two referred to above is a fragment 
of a letter written in very illiterate Latin (Brit. Mus. Pap. 730), and 
dated in the year 167 (Grenfell and Hunt, GL Papyri, ii. 157, pi. v). 

No. 108 

In this example, while the forms of the letters remain fairly con- 
servative, indications of an easier flow may be observed in the curves 
adopted in certain letters and in their connecting links. 

To represent the Roman cursive hand of the third century there is 
a fragmentary petition addressed to the Prefect of Egypt, Claudius 
Valerius Firmus, by a woman named Aurelia Ammonarion, to appoint a 

1 The letters in the Table of Alphabets (PI. 2, col. 7) are those of the very cursive 
subscriptions. 






'' 



321 



^ .^?% !^oiMI 



T^-i c-v\v^ -X 

QtM > i >\i* H- x x : 

^Wllii 







H'^^A ' rf K tWi 






."jsH^ 

A. Sj - 

^i 

s. ' - 

^ Lfc * ' ^ ~< A *^' 

Y ^- V^ }? 

\J ^C"^ >4 ^ 

V^ .x u i v . 








\m 

\ . -\ 



3 5 S 
' 



ja- o 

tli 



<B to 

003 



= 5 & <D 

P y g 

S 50 e5 " S 

. c T5 ^-f 



322 






$& m 

x v \ *r uT v .- 




S %.| 8 

-" g co 
aj _ jj a 
c -s s ;" 
* 3 2 



CfcM ^ 
CP ^ 
2 .-S a) 



c ^ 
^ ^ 



.rr eg w c3 i- 

-4-> ^> M CLi S 

CO o *^ 

s -^--al 

R -SS.sgs- 

-' -C '3 ^= 2 



02 



1 ' ^ O" 1 r- ^_a 

SO H CO 

SS e 9 



iu/ ; - ^ I ri .H 

::V ^&s'.l*q 111 "-5 1 






0. 









mA) 

& 1 



t- "S S S 

P-SSJ.- 3 

2 -5 g 2 

a> ^_ ! --'a5 







o 

< 



'' 'S sr < 
* 



x 





323 



^ 



M a c 

cs 3 O 

^ 



il 



_ 



3 P S" 



I a 

P3 * ' 

| c . 

r- 2O 

a A '- 



QQ 

I" 
M 

C 



: 


G 
; 



' / 
o 



I'S f* 




-B 



324 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

certain person her guardian, in accordance with the Lex Julia et Titia, 
in A.D. 247 (Ox. Pap. iv. 720, pi. vii ; Bodl. Lil>r., Lat. class. D. 12 (P)). 1 

No. 109 

The writing is in a well-formed cursive hand, sloping, and still 
remaining true to old forms. 

So far as we may gather from the few examples set before us of 

the Roman cursive in the first three centuries of our era, it seems that 

the influence of the style acquired from the habitual practice of writing 

on waxed surfaces had a strong controlling effect on the handwriting 

with the pen on papyrus and other smooth surfaces. We should, indeed, 

have expected the latter to have developed earlier a more flowing 

character than it did ; and we must, it seems, attribute the restraint 

and disconnected fashion of inscribing the letters, which was so long 

maintained, to the above influence, and also to difficulties in adapting 

forms of letters which had grown up under a rigid single-stroke system 

to a more pliant and current style. But, when we emerge from the 

third century, we find a great change : an enlarged and flowing hand of 

a rounder type, as seen in the Latin translation of the fables of Babrius 

in the fragmentary papyrus of the Amherst collection (no. xxvi), probably 

of the fourth century ; and in a letter of recommendation from an 

Egyptian official, probably of the middle of the fourth century, now 

at Straasfourg. The handwriting of the latter recalls the large style of 

Greek cursive of the Byzantine period; and we may conjecture, as 

indeed would be natural, that Latin writing on papyrus passed through 

phases not very dissimilar to those of Greek writing on the same 

material. A few lines from the Strassburg letter (Pap. lat. Argent, i) 

are here given. (See H. Bresslau in Archiv fiir Papyrusfcrschung, 

iii. 2, p. 168.) 

No. 110 

By this time the influence of the disjointed script of the waxed tablets 
has ceased. The writing is quite fluent ; the formation of the letters 
inclines to curves, and the letters individually are for the most part 
written off in connected strokes, and, although certain of them stand 
independently, there is much linking and combining among them ; c, e, t, 
in particular, lend themselves to such combinations, with consequent 
variations in their structure to suit the occasion. We here have prac- 
tically a complete minuscule alphabet. The letter a, like the Greek 
ul/>}ta in contemporary papyri, is often a mere pot-hook, connected with 
the following letter, sometimes with a tendency to rise high in the line, 

i Since this was written, a more perfect document, oftheyenr287,hasbeenpubli8bedin 

Ox. l'u,i. viii. ).l. vii. It has been made use of fV-r tl,r Tal.l.' n( L:.tin CUI-MV- Alphabets. 



linMAX CTKSIVK 325 



FACSIMILE No. 109 




-.f V ' r i ' 




PETITION. A.D. 24~ 

([C]l(audio) valerio firm, o praefecto Aegypti] | ab aurelia e ammo[nario] | rogo 
domine des mi^hi. . . .] | auctorein aurel(ium) pjutamruonem] | e lege iulia 

titia et j dat(um) dd. nn. (domini* nostris) philippo aug(usto) ii [et] j 

philippo caesar[e (?) consulibus]) 



326 



o 
fc 



s 
S3 




2 r> 

5 

OJ ki 

a o 



I'll 
33 S 

" 



o -3 -^ 

^ x 8 

O 4* M 



* o a 

* '1 

> .2 c ,2 

^ x a w 

= I IT 

^ ^> O 3 

a 2 "3 

O C3SE 



/ \ j^> 

>. r % ? ^ 111 

2 ?v< p |f| 







ROMAN CURSIVE 327 

a portion which is often found in later cursive writing; b still keeps 
the bow on the left (although it has become transferred to the right in 
the fragment-; of Babriusi, but it can be distinguished from d, in that 
it is linked by a down-stroke with a following letter, while d is not so 
connected : m is now altogether minuscule ; while X appears both as 
a capital X and as a minuscule n : o varies in size from a full letter 
to a diminutive oval or loop: u, ahvays /'-shaped, often appears as a 
small curve placed high in the line, as it is found in later cursive 
and in other scripts. The general style of the hand is not unlike that 
of some of the Greek cursive papyri of the middle of the fourth century, 
with which this document may be compared : e.g. the deed of sale of 
a slave of A.D. 359 (Wilcken, Tafeln, xvi). 

Next in order we examine some interesting fragments of papyrus. 
in Paris and Leyden, inscribed in a character which is otherwise quite 
unknown, being a modification of the Roman cursive, no doubt specially 
devised for official purposes. The documents contained in them are 
portions of two rescripts addressed to Egyptian officials : said to have 
been found at Philae and Elephantine. The writing is the official 
cursive of the Roman chancery in Egypt, and is ascribed to the fifth 
century. Both documents are in the same hand. For a long time 
they remained undeciphered ; and Champollion-Figeac, while publishing 
a facsimile (Clmrtes et MSS. sur papyrus, 1840, pi. 14), was obliged to 
admit his inability to read them. Massmann, however, after his ex- 
perience of the writing of the waxed tablets, succeeded in deciphering 
the Leyden fragment (LiMlus aurarius, 147). and the whole of the 
fragments were subsequently published by De Wailly (Mem. de I' In^i/nl. 
xv. 399). Mommsen and Jaffe (Ja/> ,-/n// des gem. deut. Redds, vi. 398; 
see aUo Pl. <S'<>. ii. 30) have discussed the text and given a table of 
the letters compared with those of the Dacian tablets. The following 
facsimile gives portions of a few lines on a reduced scale (Steffens, Lat. 
Palaeofjr., 1st ed.. suppl. 6). 

No. Ill 

The body of the writing is large, being above three-quarters of an 
inch high. The letters are tall and narrow. Their affinity to the forms 
of the graffiti and waxed tablets is closer than that of the preceding 
specimen of the fourth century : an official class of writing is naturally 
more conservative than independent hands. Thus we go back behind 
the fourth century cursive and approach nearer to the forms of the 
waxed tablets in such letters as A, P, and R. The looped form of E is 
probably a fanciful variety of the wedge-shaped letter of the earlier 
centuries : }I and X are stilted ; and o and u (v) are on a minute scale 
and are placed high in the line. 



3.28 



GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 



CHAP. 



FACSIMILE No. Ill 



' : '^N 




" --J . 1 1 

{ ^^*'t ~-,. f '-^ 

< ' - * /x '-. ^t 

W&ti 
ifi 



V 



/ 7^&/J 



IMPERIAL RESCKIPT. FIFTH CENTURY 

(iniquos vero detentatores niancipior[um ad eum pertinentium] 

portionem ipsi debitam resarcire 

iiec ullum precatorem ex instrument[o emptionali] 

pro memorata narratione per vim c[onfecto praeiudicium pati] 

sed hoc viribus vacuato 

possessiones ad ipsum pertinences ) 




xv 



ROMAN CURSIVE 



329 



FACSIMILE N<>. 112 



- 

. 7- r 

- - ^ 




RAVENNA DEED OF SALE. A. D. 

(et successoribus eidem conparatori suprascripto eiusque hemftbus [et suc- 
ces]soribus cogantur inferre sed et rei quoque meliorat[ae instruc] tae aedifi- 
cateque taxatione habita siniili modo omni a dupla riae rei se <[ui supra 
venditor hcredesque sues reddere polircetur vel] ] quantum suprascripto 
emptori interfuerit huic venditioni ti[aditioni] ] mancipationique rei sitpni- 
scryjtae dolum malum abesse [afuturum] que esse vi metu et circumscriptione 
cessante d" L e quibus] | unciis superius designatis sibi suprascriptua venditor 
usum ffructum 1 ! 



330 



GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 



CHAP. 



FACSIMILE Xo. 113 



U u' 





^-ii iX V^c- 




LETTERS OK RAVKNXA DEED. A.D. 572 



x\ ROMAN (TliSIVK 331 

It is remarkable that these.' features tall and narrow structure, 
stilting, and small-scale letters high in the line are conspicuous in the 
( Ireek official hand of the Roman chancery in Egypt as far back as the 
beginning of the third century (aee above, p. 170). Their occurrence 
IN nh there and in this Latin deed can hardly be accidental; and we may 
be entitled to find in the fact of their presence in documents so far apart 
a proof that the style of the chancery hand became so traditional that 
it maintained leading features for centuries. 

This official hand, however, is exceptional, and we turn to the docu- 
ments on papyrus from Ravenna, Naples, and other places in Italy, dating 
from the fifth century, for examples of the less trammelled developeinent 
of the Roman cursive. The largest number are brought together by 
Marini (I l\n>i ri Dii>l<>i,;ati<-i) ; other examples will be found in Mabillon 
(De Hi' J>i/if<iinati<;i). Champollion-Figeac (Charteaet J/.SN. eur papyrus), 
Massmann (tYA'/f /H/O/ in Nci-l wnd Airz:u), Gloria (Paleografia) ; in 
' miles of Ancient Charters in Brit. Mu.s. iv. nos. 45, 46: and in 
Pal. Sue. i. 2, 28, ii. 51-3. The following facsimile is from a deed of sale 
in Rimini (Brit. Mus., Add. MS. 541:2), drawn up at Ravenna, A.D. 57:2 
i J'n/. ,sV. i. 2). The writing, not only of the deed itself, but also of the 
attestations, is on a large scale ; here reduced. 



This hand is a direct developemeiit of that of the fourth century. 
Most of the letters have now assumed the shapes from which the 
minuscules of the literary hand of the Carolingian period were 
derived. The letter a is now the open u-shaped minuscule, the deriva- 
tion of which from the capital can be traced through the intermediate 
form of the fourth century ; it is sometimes written in a small form 
high in the line, and, in that position, when combined with other letters, 
it is also reduced to a diminutive curve ; and it is to be noticed that it is 
always connected with the next following letter, and on this account 
may be distinguished from the letter u, which is never thus connected. 
The letter b has finally thrown away the open bow on the left in 
favour of that on the right, and appears in the form familiar in modern 
writing. The rest of the letters follow those of the fourth century in 
structure ; but the capital form of N no longer appears as an alterna- 
tive of the minuscule. 

No. 113 

A good knowledge of the structure of the Roman cursive at this 
period is so important for a right understanding of certain points which 
arise in the developeinent of the minuscule book-hands of the middle 
a<'vs, that it is useful to place before the student a scheme of the letters 

O ' J. 

and of their combinations as they appear in the Ravenna deed. 



GREEK AND LATIX PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

The Table of Latin Cursive Alphabets is arranged in three plates. 
The tirst comprises alphabets written with the stilus, compiled from the 
Pompeian wall-inscriptions or (j-mffitt and from the two series of waxed 
tablets of Pompeii and Dacia. The second and third plates exhibit 
alphabets written with the pen, selected from a series of documents 
ranging from the beginning of our era to A. i>. 572, some of which have 
already provided our Facsimiles 106-13. 

The difference between the stilus-written and the ink-written alpha- 
bet s is marked by the cessation in the latter of those peculiar forms 
which were of special convenience in plying the stilus, namely, the 
vertical-stroke forms of E, F, M, and N. The best illustration of this 
difference is to be sought by comparing the contemporaneous stilus- 
written and pen-written alphabets which are drawn from the same series 
of documents, the Pompeian waxed tablets, as shown in Plate 1, col. 2, and 
Plate 2, col. 3. It will there be seen that the scribe, on laying down 
the stilus and assuming the pen. abandons those special forms and 
employs the ordinary capitals or direct modifications of them. 

Other minor distinctions between the two classes of writing will be 
observed as the several letters, as represented in the three plates of the 
Table, are passed in review. 

The shifting of the cross-bar of the capital A from its normal position 
to that of a suspended vertical has already been noticed above. The 
next developement of this action was to attach the suspended stroke to 
the end of the second limb, thus producing a form which is found under 
both stilus and pen in the first century; but thenceforward it is 
superseded by the simpler form of the letter composed of only the two 
oblique limbs, which appeared in the earliest period and became the 
prevailing letter of the second and third centuries. The change from 
this angular shape to the rounded letter leading on eventually to the 
minuscule was accomplished in the fourth century. 

The capital form of 1>, which appears among the stilus-written letters 
of Pompeii, vanishes from the contemporary pen-written alphabets ; and 
the alternative form, shaped like a tall Roman a or d, the structure of 
which has been explained, is consistently employed down to the fourth 
century, when the minuscule letter of the modern type appears under the 
influence of the flowing round-hand. But the letter with the bow on 
the left was not entirely superseded until the sixth century. 

The simple structure of C does not invite much variety. We may 
notice the tendency in the earlier centuries to flatten the head of the 
letter; but that tendency was naturally corrected when the round-hand 
fashion set in. The fantastic shape given to the letter in the alphabet 
of the Imperial Rescripts of the fifth century (Plate 3, col. 6) may be 



xv LATIN CURSIVE ALPHABETS 

dismissed, along with other fanciful shapes in that alphabet, as an 
extravagance of the Chancery scribes a class of officials who in all 
appear to have taken a perverse, though professional, pleasure in 
sacrificing legibility to ornamental complication. 

The letter D, which, soon changing from the capital to the minuscule, 
is under the stilus a stiff disjointed letter, gradually assumes, under the 
pen, more pliant shapes wherein, during the third and fourth centuries, 
a distinct advance towards the later minuscule is visible. 

The letter E, as already noticed, has under the stilus its special, as 
well as the normal, form. The normal capital passes naturally into the 
rounded uncial, and, under the pen, a modification of the latter is the 
wedge or tick-shaped letter which appears as early as the first, and 
continues down to the third, century. 

The capital form of F, which under the stilus divided honours with 
the special cursive, under the pen held the field down to the transitional 
period of the fourth century, leading on to the later minuscule letter. 

The letter G, like its fellow-letter C, has an early tendency to flatten 
the head. In the Dacian tablets a form is already developed, with 
flattened head and lengthened tail, which is practically identical with 
the later flat-headed minuscule. A similar, but less developed, form is 
found under the year 156, and in the fourth century we have it again, 
fully developed, leading on to the letter of the Ravenna deed of 572. 

The growth of the minuscule form of H is to be traced from the 
earliest examples under both stilus and pen, the influence of the latter 
gradually lengthening the shaft and rounding the bod}*. 

The letter I, long and short, and the little used letter K call for no 
remarks. Nor need the letter L detain us further than to notice that 
the scribe using the stilus often found it easier to indicate the base line 
by a short oblique stroke. 

We have noticed the use of the vertical cursive form of M by the 
side of the normal capital under the stilus. The capital, sometimes 
rounded almost into an uncial, prevailed, under stilus or pen, through the 
first three centuries. The minuscule letter is established in the fourth 
century. 

So, too, in the case of N, the normal capital (save the limited use of 
the vertical-stroke letter in the ijraffiti) is constant in the first three 
centuries, its modifications in many instances resembling those in the 
Greek cursive ; and the round-headed minuscule appears in the fourth 
century. 

The letter O naturally recovers its oval shape under the pen, which 
it had partially lost under the stilus, as already described. 

The bow-less P, which had developed under the stilus, survived 
under the pen for a longer period than might have been expected. The 



334 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 

Table shows the revival of the normal form only as late as the second 
century. 

Again, in the case of Q, the letter sloping- backwards to the left, 
a convenient formation under the stilus, continued in the first centurv 
under the pen ; and not until the next century is the slope turned over 
to the right, an easier position for the pen. 

The developement of the bow-less R from the normal capital is to be 
traced in the stilus-written alphabets. It prevails under the pen (and 
may often be easily confounded with the letter A of like structure) 
down to the fourth century, when, under the influence of the flowing, 
connected style, it developes a shoulder and thus passes into the 
minuscule form. 

So, too, the letter S, proceeding with little variety, but persistently 
exhibiting a tendency in the first three centuries to flatten the head in 
an oblique stroke, only attains the roundness of the tall minuscule letter 
when the flowing style is established. 

The monotony of the stiff" letter T is only relieved by the intermittent 
appearance of the curved base, which at last becomes constant. 

The letter U or V, which under the stilus sometimes assumed a form 
not unlike the ordinary late minuscule u, keeps to the v-shape (with either 
pointed or round base) under the pen, being sometimes, like the Greek 
cursive letter, written in a diminutive size high in the line. The minus- 
cule form developes again under the flowing style of the Ravenna deed. 

The uninteresting letter X, and the little used, and almost foreign, 
letters Y and Z may be dismissed without observation. 






LATIN CURSIVE ALPHABETS 

Written with the stilus 

BEFORE A.D. 79. A.D. 15- 61. A.D. 131-167 

Pomjoe/'an tt/a// -/ascriptions Pompefan Waxed Tablets. \ Dacian Wctxec/ Tablets. 



/> A 



/\ l\ /> A A A 



D D 7) 

fee 6 " 



H- H H K 



Jr 



Kl 



n 



'V. JHv (nv 
\\\ \\\ 

x e- a 



r $Tr// 

rrrr 

v w a a V y 
x x x 

rrrry y 

z 



(( i 



0- 



c 




\\ 



K 



^ n nn r 
a c^ c- v> c^ o 



u 



L\ 



u 



X 

\) 



LATIN CURSIVE ALPHABETS (Ni 

Written in ink. 



ABOUT A.D-I. 
Wesse// Schr. - Taf., 1. 


A.D. 37- 6 L 

Cl.UV.Suppl. 


A.D. 4-1-54: A.D. 103. | A.D. 156, ; A.D. 166 

3t*Hw,ljaJHMOx.Fbp.VUJ> \Pa/. Soc.ii. l65,\Pa./.2oc.ii.i90. 


A /"? /> 


y\X V 


A /x /\ >> K 

o cLcL a. cL 


X >> h J^j 
CJ*- ^i 


J^ X X >> 

<J. cL 


JLJL 


A > A r- 


C 


C 


a ^r 


rc 


C-CC 


cr 


,cf 


6 


Et 


^ffft 


tt*t 


ffl- 


fee 


/L. L- / \ \x 

C^/ r r t 


{ 


c: C. 


/^-f/7f 


Ff 

6. 


f f- 


ryr 


^ . 


H h- 




MHMh/i 


^ H 


/T 


7)^77/1 


h 


11 


]>L 


/;V;J 


7^; 


y- 


Z/^ 


J'l 


ll \ 


E i 


w 


L I 


Uu 


4a 


Si, 





Xl "K 


/N 7~t /~i /T. 


^^^ 


K^ 


XV N^ 7x 
\j ii \_y \) 


N^ 





* 


o o tr a o o 


o 


O 


O D ~B"~ 


Oc IT 


<Vv\ 


r r 


V^ 


\^ 


Ctf 


7 rr 


ferr 


rr? 


rrrr 


//^/Tr 


y/r^ 


rrrr 


T\ A rv 


/rrr/v 


r T 


rrr 


rrcrrrr 


rrrr 


rrT 


r r 


rTr~tj 


V VI 


o \> y 


V/^v,^ 


V " 


u \s " ^ 


v^\ ./*" 


- -%x 


> 




x?t* 


/ 


-y ^S ^* 

-A /\ A 


*"Y" *^/* 








?7iv^r 






r 








k 











LATIN CURSIVE ALPHABETS (/v3) 

Written in ink. 



A.D. 167 ! 2 ND cENT. A.D. 194-6.: A.D237247 4c E NT. 5 TH c E NT. A.D 57E 
* '-^.734. o,pi,,./.v^. o^.fb.vi.vi. l^^v 



C (. 
V 



(> o y c 

r? I 



/ r 
r r 



r 



ffff 







r/v 
rrr 

V v/ v 



A \ X 

JAJ 



/=/= 



fr 



rt 



>: 

V V 



Ut( 
(- (- v v 

//f 



L kkL 
2)f)irjf 

IIL2LL 



rrrrr 



v V 7 







til 





Tnm 



r> 

Ou 



zrzr 




y-n 




LTT 
U Ll-L 



r 



it 



Y 



n n 



u 



VLL 



, 



338 




0) Q> CO 

3 5 



. 

o s 

8 '" & 8 
2.8 



3 S 



3.aJ 

|l-|i 



^ tn c3 ' - -- 
O rt '3 o "" 

c ~o'S. 



?5 3 3 'S 

w ^ a 

> -t> .S 

H o> - a 
O2 . ^2 '^ ,2 

G ? ? 

g - Ba il 

U ?! O O 5? 



2 



fl 43 d 

I l^'-gl 

^ O, o g _S 



03 

s 



2 



a| I g I 

ij C . i ^* S 

2 ""S's 
2 e 1 

S 2 g S 2. 



150 MAX CURSIVE 339 

The general application of the Roman cursive hand to the purposes 
of literatim^ would hardly In- expected : l>ut a few surviving instances of 
its employment for annotations and even for entire texts are found in 
the notes written, probably in the fifth century, l>y the Arian bishop 
Maximal in the margins of a MS. at Paris containing the Acts of the 
Council of Aquileia ; in a short ( iracco-Latin vocabulary on papyrus 
(the Greek words being written in Roman letters', perhaps of the fifth 
or sixth century uAW. <.t h'.>'/r. >/<s J/.S.S'. xviii, pi. 18); in the gram- 
matical treatise of the sixtli century in the palimpsest MS. of Licinianus 
in the British Museum (Cat. Am: J/NN. H. pis. 1. :J): and in the texts of 
the Homilies of St. Avitus at Paris, perhaps of the sixtli century (Pal. 
Soc. i. 68), the Ambrosian Josephus on papyrus, ascribed to the seventh 
century (Pal. SV. i. 59), and the Homilies of St. Maximus of Turin, also 
in the Ambrosian Library of Milan (MS. C. 98. P. Inf.), of about the same 
period (Pal. S-Ji: ii. 32) ; and in other MSS. From the survival of com- 
paratively so manj- literary remains in this style, it may be inferred 
that it was used as a quick and convenient means of writing texts 
intended probably for ordinary use rather than for the market. As an 
example, we sive a few lines from the MS. <.f St. Maximus. 

No. 114 

In this handwriting we see the Roman cursive in course of being 
moulded into the minuscule script of the pre-Carolingian period and 
already developing characteristics in forms of letters and in thickening 
or clubbing of tall main strokes, which continued to mark the Western 
continental book-hands for many generations. 

The connexion of the Roman cursive script with the national hands 
of continental Western Europe will be described in the next chapter. 
In direct descent it was employed in the legal documents of Italy for 
some centuries, ever becoming more and more corrupt and complicated 
and illegible: see Fumagalli, Delle Istituzioni diplomatiche; Sickel, 
(i r<i I'ldi-ii '. ('ni/e.c Dif>li>i/.ati--iifi Cavensis, vol. i; and 
artistica di Mtnit-<t^>', mi. The illegible scrawl into which 
it finally degenerated was at length suppressed by decrees of Frederic II 
in 1220 and 1231. 1 

1 In the thirteenth century tin' l.Vman i-ur.-ive was unintelligible. Simon of Genoa, 
Claris Sanctiunis ,1514. f. 37 , >ays : 'Ego vidi Romae in gazophilaeiis antiquorum mona- 
steriorum Romae libros et privilegia ex liac materia (sc. charta) scripta ex litteris apud nos 
non intelligibilibus. nam figurae nee ex toto Graeeae nee ex toto Latinae erant.' And 
again, when speaking of papyrus (f. 47 . he u^-s these words : 'Ego vidi Romae in aliqui- 
bus monasteriis antiquissima volumina ex eisdem litteris semi-graecis scripta ac nullis 
modernis legibilia.' See De Rossi, Cocld. Palatini Laiini, 1886, Introd. ci. 

z2 



CHAPTER XVI 

LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY (continued) 

National Minuscule Book-hands 

WE have now to investigate the very interesting subject of the 
formation of the national handwritings of Western Europe, derived 
from Roman writing. As long as the Roman Empire was the central 
power dominating her colonies and subject nations, the Roman script 
in all countries where it was employed, and however far apart those 
countries lay, naturally remained the same. Wherever the Latin 
language was adopted, the Roman form of writing accompanied it as 
a matter of course ; and, whether it was written by an educated Italian 
or Gaul or Frank or Spaniard or Briton, in all cases it remained the 
Roman script pure and simple. But when the Empire was broken and 
independent nationalities arose and began to advance on their own 
independent paths of civilization, the handwriting which they had 
learned from their Roman masters gradually assumed distinctive 
characteristics, and in each country where it was used it took the 
complexion of its surroundings and finally developed into a national 
hand ; unless from some particular cause the continuity of the effects of 
the Roman occupation was interrupted, as it was in Britain by the 
Saxon invasions and conquests. On the Continent the cursive hand 
which has been described in the last chapter became the basis of the 
writing of Italy, Spain, and Frankland, and from it were moulded the 
three national hands which we know as Lombardic, Visigothic, and 
Merovingian. The common origin of all three is sufficiently evident 
on an inspection of the earliest charters of those countries which, dating 
generally from the seventh century, remained fairly close to each other 
in the character of their writing. Something will be said in a future 
chapter regarding the cursive hands in which these documents are 
written. In this place we are dealing with the literary scripts. 

In the book-hands elaborated by professional scribes from the 
cursive, with a certain admixture of uncial and half-uncial forms, we 
shall find the lines of demarcation between the three kinds of writing 
more clearly defined. But it was only to be expected that, particularly 
in the earlier stages of the growth of the national literary hands, there 
should be examples which it would- be difficult to assign definitely to 



LATIX NATIONAL BOOK-HANDS 341 

either one or other of these national divisions; and. as a matter of fact. 
the difference between a MS. written in France and another written in 
Italy is not always so strongly marked as to enable us to call the one 
decidedly Merovingian or the other decidedly Lombardic in its style. 
For this reason it seems the best course to examine the Visigothic script 
first, as being more independent of the other two national handwritings : 
and afterwards to take up the history of the Lombardic and the 
Merovingian hands, reserving to the end the consideration of the mixed 
hands which lead on to the pre-Carolingian series, and thence to the 
minuscule book-hand resulting from the Carolingian reform. 1 

Visigothic 

Visigothic is the title given to the national writing of Spain derived 
from the Roman cursive. It developed a book-hand of distinctive 
character, which is well established in the eighth and ninth centuries 
and lasts down to the twelfth century. Its final disuse was due, as in 
the case of the other continental national hands, to the advance of the 
Carolingian minuscule hand, which, however, as was to be expected, 
could only displace the native hand by degrees, making its presence felt 
at first in the north of the Peninsula. 2 In the collection of photographic 
facsimiles E.cempla Scripturae Visigoticae, edited by Ewald and Loewe 
(Heidelberg, 1883), the course of the Visigothic writing can be fairly 
\vdl followed. In the cursive hand of the seventh century there 
is little variation from the Roman cursive; but soon after we find 
a half-cursive book-hand (op. cit., tab. 4) which has already assumed 

1 Dr. E. A. Loew, who has made a particular study of the continental national scripts, 
has recently described in his Studio, Pulaeograpliica (Sitzmiysber. d. kyl. Sayerischtn Akademie, 
1910), the employment in South Italian, or Beneventan, and in Visigothic MSS. of the 
i-lonr/a or tall i, and of the ligatured ti, for special purposes. 

(i) In Visigothic MSS. the i-loya was employed initially for convenience of marking 
the beginning of the word (in fact, as a capital initial), as lam, In, 2ste. But, if the letter 
following the i happened to be a tall letter, then the use of i-longa was not obligatory ; 
thus ibi, id, ille might be preferred to Ibi, Id, llle. It was employed medially to represent 
the semi-vocal i, as malas, alebat, ejus. In Beneventan MSS. the same rules obtained, 
with this difference that the i-longa was not used initially, if the second letter of the word 
was shafted either above or below the line ; thus, ibi, ills, ipse (not Ibi, Hie, Ipse). 

(ii) In both Visigothic after about A.I>. 900) and in Beneventan MSS. the scribes 
appear to have consistently written ti in form of a ligature as found in the cursive hands) 
to represent the assibilated sound : it being the general rule that before a vowel ti has 
the assibilated sound ; but, if preceded by the letter s, it has the unassibilated sound. 

' Dans un des volumes acquis par nous se trouve le catalogue des livres que le 
monastere de Silos possedait au commencement du xm e siecle .... Le redacteur du cata- 
logue a pris soin d'avertir que plusieurs des livres de son abbnye etaient ecrits en lettres 
franchises. . . . C'est line allusion a la revolution qui s'introduit an xir* siecle, et peut- 
etre des le xi e , dans les habitudes des copistes espngnols, probablement sous 1'influence des 
colonies franyaises que noire grande abbaye de Cluni envoya dans plusieurs dioceses 
'e.' Deli>l. . Melangtsdt Paleogrttpku, :>$. 



342 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

a distinctive character, as will be seen from the following facsimile. It 
comes from a treatise of St. Augustine in the Escurial (R. ii. 18) written 
apparently in the first half of the eighth century. 

No. 115 

In this specimen the forms of the later Roman cursive letters are 
treated in a peculiar method, the inclination of the writing to the left 
imparting a compressed and angular character. The high-shouldered 
letter r and letter t are already in the shapes which at a later period are 
prominent in Visigothic MSS., and the letter g is beginning to take the 
q-form which makes it the most characteristic letter of the Visigothic 
alphabet. It is interesting to notice the shapes of a, frequently written 
above the lir.e, and of u (the linking of the a, which distinguishes 
it, as in its Roman prototype, from the independently written u, still 
being observed), the forms of p, and the different changes of t when in 
combination with other letters all referable to their Roman ancestors. 
Further there are instances of the use of i-Ionga (see p. 341 note) and, in 
line 6, of the ligature for assibilated ti. 

In many of the specimens of the eighth and ninth centuries we find 
a small evenly-written hand, in which the light and heavy strokes are in 
strong contrast, the inclination of the letters being still rather to the 
left. As a fine example of the writing of the ninth century, we select 
a facsimile from an Orationale Gothicum, or prayers for the services in 
the early Mozarabic liturgy, in the British Museum (Add. MS. 30852) 
from the monastery of S. Domingo de Silos near Burgos (Cat. .Inc. 
MS& ii. 58). 

No. 116 

The letters of the Visigothic hand are here fully developed ; and at 
the same time the thickening or clubbing of the tall vertical strokes 
seems to indicate the influence of the French school. The MS. being 
for liturgical use is written on a large scale. 

Advancing some hundred years, our next facsimile is from a 
Martyrology in the British Museum (Add. MS. 25600), which was 
written in the monastery of S. Pedro de Cardena in the diocese of 
Burgos in the year 919 (Cut. Anc. MSS. ii. 65 : Pal. Soc. i. 95). 

No. 117 

It will be seen that this specimen differs from the last one in being 
rather squarer in form of letters and in having the vertical strokes finer. 
There is, in fact, a decided loss as regards actual beauty of writing. 



LATIN NATIONAL BOOK-HANDS 



343 



>-) 

I I 

s 






S 



._, ^* 

= w , r r _l 









s c -r - 
S.s Sj a 




-I I 

^?4 



V 







i 



^-^i 5' 
^ t*^ < 

- f 5 _ 

.-^r t$^--< 



- 




s -' .r: 



z I S 

1^1-= ^ ^ "^ 

> 1 1 ~ 1 1 

?j S ^ ^ 



W 8 o 1 "E 

I 3 ^ "* 

x ~ . 2 i c 



^ -s".2 . 



5 s '2 ^ '-S - 



S-g M .i 



a * s 1*5 

v.I-' O ~ 7". ~ ^ 



344 



GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 



CHAP. 



FACSIMILE No. 116 




ntun e 







ORATIOXALE GOTHICUM. NINTH CENTURY 

(Illic a te percipere In ' munere mererentur . [ fac nos splendore et lu'cere de 
beneplacita j tibi dulcedine proxi morum . et dignita te operum perfectoruw . 
ut etsi eiFusione sacri [ sanguinis coronas non meremur accipere .) 



xvi LATIN NATIONAL BOOK-HANDS 345 



FACSIMILE No. 117 
> ) I 




h ob te D 



chiccti'taaf f ctLit OOP ftf 
T'' fi 



lufitcrettm catnee-fcifroi.' qutuf 
t ti 

bdiau<tfoau 







dtoHf t 
1 

tu^puf. 
fuimm 



do f o b cc^r ^. In If 



ait afca 



MAUTYBOLOGY. A. D. 919 

(Age ergo quod cepisti .' ut mici pos sit cum meo fratre gervasio .' | hodie be- 
nignitus salvatoris occurrere : Tune astacius comes | lussit eum capite plecti : 
quuwqw [ decollatus esset beatus prota sius .' ego servus christi philippus | 
abstuli cum filio meo furtim [ nocte corpora sancfa .' et Indomo | mea deo 
solo teste . In 1st a area | saxea sepelivi : credens me) 



346 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

The MS. is one which may be classed as a specimen of calligraphy, ami 
therefore rather in advance of others of the same period which still 
retain much of the older character : and it is dominated by the increasing 
influence of the French hand. In passing, the use of the conjunction 
'/ n n in in our specimen may be noticed, a practice of Visigothic scribes, 
while those of other nations usually employ the form cum. 1 

Squareness and thinness of type increase in course of time, and 
are most characteristic of later Visigothic writing of the eleventh and 
early twelfth centuries. In this change we may trace the same influence 
which was at work in other handwritings of Western Europe of that 
period. 

In illustration of this more meagre style, a facsimile is given from 
a MS. of the Commentary of Beatus on the Apocalypse, in the British 
Museum (Add. MS. 11695). which was written in the monastery of 
S. Domingo of Silos in the year 1109 (Pal. >S'.-. i. 48). 

No. 11* 

In lines 3 and 4 are instances of medial i-lmtr/a in elus, and in line 8 
of the ligature for the assibilated ti in <;,jti/ri'ffatio: and attention may 
be called to the use of the abbreviated form of per (or par) peculiar to 
the Visigothic hand, which in other countries would represent pro. 

The few examples of the Visigothic book-hand which have been 
submitted may suffice to show that the Spanish scribes, in forming their 
literary hand, fastened on certain prominent features in the later Roman 
cursive and manipulated them in a fashion which to our modern ideas 
might seem affected. But the same remark, as will be presently seen, may 
be applied also to the methods of other national hands. In this script 
the Roman cursive u-shaped a of the Ravenna deeds becomes the open 
Visigothic letter ; g assumes its characteristic q-shape : the shoulder of 
r is inclined to exaggeration ; the incipient backward curve of the cross 
stroke of t, as seen in the later Roman cursive, is here brought right 
down to the base producing the a-shaped letter, which, however, like its 
prototype, takes other forms in combination with other letters. In 
certain signs of abbreviation, too, we find a survival of the cursive u 
written as a curve above the line, as in terminations ue and us. But of 
course at the same time there is also the national character inherent 
in the script, which, quite independently of any peculiar forms of letters, 
reveals the nationality of a handwriting as clearly as personal hand- 
writing reveals the individual. 

1 To quote an exception to the general rule, the forms qmtm and yxius occur in a Corbie 
MS. of St. Augustine, ascribed to the fifth century, now at St. Petersburg. Chatelain, 
Uncialis Scriptura, iii. 



xvi LATIN NATIONAL BOOK-HANDS 347 



FACSIMILE No. 118 
IT J ' 



. kocccdnpLuta inc^lo . hoc 



fiP. -Tumaucu fi 
fold^ 
mt?qicut> -f. 




BEATUS ON THE APOCALYPSE. A.D. 1109 

(est cglum . hoc teruplum In cf lo . hoc | mulier amicta sole : hoc lima sub 
pedib<s | els .' Taruquai si cliceret mulier amicta | sole .' et mulier sub pe- 



oma enm 



bipartita SMH^ .' ^cclrstam dicit part em suawt ] sub 
pedibws habere .' Ista pars que sub | pedibws est ad ecclesi'am videtur per- 
tinere .' | Sed eccle5('a non est . quia congregatio ma ligna est . que desuperiores 
stellas cum | dracone diabolo et suo pseudo profeto) 



348 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 



Lombardic 

That the national handwriting of Italy, founded on the old Roman 
cursive, should not have developed on the same lines throughout the 
country is attributable to political causes. The defeat of the Lombards 
in Northern Italy by Charlemagne subjected it there to new influences, 
and checked its developement in the direction which it continued to 
follow in the Lombard duchies of the south, and particularly in the 
monasteries of Monte Cassino near Naples and La Cava near Salerno. 
Therefore, although the title of Lombardic is applied as a general term 
to the writing of Italy in the early middle ages, that title might be more 
properly restricted to its particular developement in the south, to which 
the titles of Beneventan is also given, covering the period from the ninth 
to the thirteenth century, and reaching its climax in the eleventh 
century. 

In the early specimens of the Italian literary hand the marked 
character which it developed at a later time is only incipient. In an 
example of the book-hand of Northern Italy in the seventh century, 
the Verona Augustine (Sickel, M,,n. (JrajJt. iii. 1), we find the half- 
uncial element very strong, and what would be termed the Lombardic 
element, the peculiar adaptation of certain cursive forms, rather sub- 
ordinate. Again, in the Sacramentarium (MS. 348) of St. Gall, which 
belonged to Remedius, Bishop of Chur (A.D. 800-20), and which may 
therefore be placed at least as early as the beginning of the ninth 
century, if not at the end of the eighth century, the writing is rather of 
a type which we should prefer to call incipient Lombardic. In the 
facsimile here given, while the descent of the writing from the Roman 
cursive can pretty readily be traced, the national character of the hand 
is not as yet very marked (Pal. Soc. i. 185). 



No. 119 

In this hand, as in the Visigothic, the letters a and t are character- 
istic, the latter letter being constructed on the same lines as the 
Visigothic letter; but it will he observed that it is not universally 
employed (see condition;?, 1. 5). The letter a, open and in the form of 
double-c, marks the Lombardic hand. The occasional use of the high- 
shouldered r, and its cursive combination with i and o, will also be 
noticed. 

The next facsimile is from a MS. of Alcuin De Trinitate, of the 
year 812, in the monastery of Montr < 'assino (Pl . art. <H M. C. xxxvii). 



xvi 



LATIN NATIONAL BOOK-HANDS 



349 









FACSIMILE No. 119 



' 



muCntcftr- ttic&hfione-" p 

J-' 

<nbt cfne^ ceieirvcticlurn pLx 

f / I 
er' quod 
, 

I * / __ 
emuncietr-f e**mto 







SACKAMKN'TAKIl'M. ABOUT A. D. 800 

(ens film's' tuus dow/rws noster . paratam sibi in nobis inveniat mansioneJi/ . 
per 'qui tecuw; vivit' Supec o r L blationem] Sacrificium tibi do);ue celebran- 
dum . pla cattis intende .' quod et nos a vitiis nostr$ conditionis emundet .' 
et tuo nomini reddat acceptos . per domimim nostrum . \ O '^terne dews ' 411! 

u 

nos tamquam nutrimentis insti tuens parvolorum . dispensatis mrtis | et 
corporis alimentis . pcHuimanorum | foves incvementa profectuum .' donee 



350 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

No. 120 

In this example we see the characteristic shapes of the letters a and t 
now quite developed ; and the growth of the tall e, with indented back- 
curve, which also became a characteristic Lombardic letter. Instances 
of the use of the ligature for assibilated ti are to be seen in lines 5 and 7. 
And even at this early period there is discernible the tendency to give 
a finish to short vertical strokes, as in in, n, and u, by adding heavy 
oblique heads and feet, which later became so marked a characteristic of 
the Lombardic book-hand. 

In a script which thus early displayed a partiality for extreme orna- 
ment, it is obvious that the tendency to artificiality would strengthen, 
as scribe after scribe sought to maintain the tradition of the standard 
thus set up. This we find to be the case ; and, as time proceeds, the 
artificiality is intensified. 

The next facsimile, taken from a MS. of the Achilleis of Statins in 
Eton College Library (MS. Bl. 6. 5), shows the Lombardic book-hand 
at the end of the tenth century, having made comparatively small 
progress on the style of the previous example ; the inherent conserva- 
tism of any extremely artificial form of writing naturally running in 
a narrow groove and resisting changes from outside influence (New Pal. 
8oc.HO). 

NO. m 

The hand is here in settled form, with its characteristic letters quite 
defined. The double-c form of a is generally so close-set that it more 
nearly resembles oc combined, and it occasionally runs a risk of con-, 
fusion with letter t. The memory of the varieties in Roman cursive 
still finds expression in the changes of letters r and t in different 
positions. 

The style of ornamental finish noticed above was carried to its 
height in the course of the eleventh century, and had the result of 
imparting to Lombardic writing of that period, by the strong contrast 
of the fine and heavy strokes, the peculiar appearance which has gained 
for it the name of broken Lombardic. The facsimile which follows is 
a, handsome specimen of this type. It is from a Lectionary written at 
Monte Cassino between the years 1058 and 1087 (Pal. art. diM.C.xlv). 

No. 122 

It will be observed that in the structure of the letters, especially in 
the case of the short square letters i, m, n, u, and partially in others, the 
natural methods of writing are in some measure inverted ; a fine stroke 
often taking the place of the heavy stroke of the ordinary hand, and 
a heavy stroke the place of the fine stroke. Using a broad-pointed pen, 



XVI 



LATIN NATIONAL BOOK-HANDS 



351 




2 

00 



= c 5 ^ 






= E 





fr ^ 



cS ffl 

.2 I! ^ 



P S c -2 

" O O J> 

ili: 

~ .2 .2 

:r 2 "3 JC 



I 



CJ 

= i 



fc'S'J 

alii 

g 1 1 8 

3 '-M 
5 J 5 a 

rr ffl S 

JjS 

so . -r! w 



I 2 = - 

o "2 3 

c 5 ^ 

^5 8 



s 



e 3 - .br 1 s 

_!l'-3 2 5 
^ ^ s = = 
^ .= '> 5 ^ 

O "C T5 

05 O * " -* 

s r: ^ g - 

s p c S - 

si I s i 

: o S -^ 

r-! :- G O 



"w ^ c *t . 

.^- -4J IB 

1 a-pir-a 

-: Q) ffl 0) 

-S S S C 

i " 3 < 3 

-S a, -d co S 



352 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

FACSIMILE No. 121 



StC cowiors**- hetw ceueljf.fchtfc^ 
V^ 



H 
I 



O a?ttntcJ!^a?C a^-jo^utn proc^ff- hoCfu 



STATIUS. END OF TENTH CENTURY 
(Sic amor est hero avelis schiroq?/e latentem 

Cdfft 

Dulichia proferre tuba nee In hectore tracto 

i^^^itegra. achilew. 

Sistere sed tota luvenew deducere troia 
Tu mo si veteres digno deplevimus haustu 

o' 

Da miJi'i feve novos fontes ac fronde sectoida 

Necte comas neqwe enim anniu nems advena pulso 

Nee mea nunc primis augescunt tiwpora vittis 

me 

Scit dirceus ager nieqwe Inter prisca paventum 
Nomina cumq?e suo numerant tuo anphione the[be"i 

octavine 7vl domitiane \.{ es! multuw. 

At tu quern longe primuwi stupet Itala virtus 
Graiaqwc cui gemine florent vatuqi<e ducumqwe 
Certatiwi laurus ' olim dolet altera vinci 
Da veniam .' ac trepidum patere hoc sudare 
Pulvere te longo nodu> fidente paratu 
Molimw magnusque tibi prdudit achilles) 



xvi LATIX NATIONAL BOOK-HANDS 353 

FACSIMILE No. 122 



ccb 












ncf Iccuur ncf 
cr Scco~nf> In 







C 




urnfw 
foxff&xrff^ 







LECTIONARY. A.D. 1058-87 

(ab iesu chr/sio qui est | testis fidelis . prime genitus mortuono | et princeps 
regum | terrg . Qui dilexit | nos et lavit nos | a peccatis nostris In | sanguine 
suo .' et fe cit nostrum regnuni | sacerdotes deo et | patri suo . Ipsi glon'a 
et Imperium In sg[cula") 

A a 



354 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 



FACSIMILE No. 123 



, 



wruxu.ftln fdjf ft fm^ frtj.f&t out. 



. t 



COMMENTARY ON MONASTIC RULES. A.D. 1264-82 

(iwtegra numeruiH pealmorum numeiwii lee tionu> agaut sibi . id est . apud 
se secrete | sine cantu . sibi solis si sint soli . sibi vicis sim clicendo versus 
psalmorww et ympnorMW | si sunt duo vd plures . et servitutis pen sum . id 
est . tributum quod ex debito debent | sicwt servi do'no videlicet septem vici- 
bus in | die et semel in nocte psallere . now negli gant redclere . id est . reddant 
diligenter | et studiose . debent eniw habere a blibio L theca]) 



xvi LATIN NATIONAL BOOK-HANDS 355 

the scribe turns his hand inwards and thus gives full breadth and 
solidity to oblique strokes drawn from left to right, while the vertical 
strokes of the short square letters named above, and the oblique strokes, 
from right to left, of others, are little more than hair-lines. It is this 
inversion of the customary practice of penmanship that lends to broken 
Lombardic its striking aspect of ornamentation. 

After this period the Lombardic hand declines in beauty, though it 
still maintains its artificial character. A specimen of the later style is 
found in a commentary on monastic rules by Bernard, abbot of Monte 
Cassino from 1264 to 1282 (Pol. art. di M.C. liii). 

No. 123 

There is an instance of the use of the ligature for the assibilated ti 
at the beginning of line 2. 

In the above specimens the developement of the Lombardic book- 
hand has been followed only in the direct line, leaving out of account 
those varieties, to which reference has been made, lying on the border- 
land between Lombardic and Prankish styles of writing. It is more 
convenient to place them in a class which may be styled Franco- 
Lombardic, to be noticed in succession to the purely Merovingian 
literary hand which has now to be described. 

Merovingian 

The many hands which have been classed as Merovingian, practised 
as they were through the wide extent of the Prankish Empire, were 
necessarily of different types ; and. as we have already stated, the 
boundary lines between the several national hands are not always to 
be accurately defined. The style of writing to which the name of 
Merovingian may /'/ < .ivelleiice be applied, is seen in its cursive form 
in the diplomas still existing of the Merovingian sovereigns ; but this 
official cursive writing and its later developement in the scripts employed 
in the Imperial Chancery will be considered in a later chapter, in con- 
junction with other official cursive hands of Western Europe. It may 
suffice in this place to state briefly that there is no difficulty in tracing 
the descent of the various forms of letters employed in these documents 
From the parent stock, the Roman cursive. But, besides shapes and 
varieties of Roman cursive origin, to be found here as well as in other 
national hands, special notice may be taken of the narrow double-c 
shaped a, which is characteristic in the Merovingian hand, and, in a less 
degree, of the u, worn down into a curved or sickle-shaped stroke a form 
which is also found in Prankish literary writing, not only as an over- 
written u, but also as a letter in the body of the writing. 

Aa2 



356 



GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 



CHAP, 



S 

M 
OS 

<; 




's P _i = 



o 
& 



ffl 

E 

O) 

a, 



_ a, 

03 



02 
3 



H 

co 2 
0) 5 



CO O 

5 3 



n be 

H 0) 

5S S 

S <D 



i J 

> S 



o 

O> (- 

cc a 
'II 



r 
'- 






1-5 
S "S 

O N 






6C 
0> 



S? 



o 5 o 

S -S ' : 
a fe 



co 
o ^ 



.11 

r ~Z O 



- 

- 



'H 

5 

cr 1 

.2 

3 

S 

o 



O ffi 

o a, 



2 



a 



-, 
P 



* B * a 

^ Lt 



0) 

. O3 
ll 

C o; 



s| 



XVI 



LATIN NATIONAL BOOK-HANDS 



357 



u 




= .S ~~ ^ = 2 

>> <* f f ji g, 

s '3 rs '*5 ' 
a ="3 3 g J 

HH ^ - Q rf 

. _., 05-0 fl 

3 '? '5a $ ^ 

.2 .2 s 2 o 
.2 -2 ^- 1 .2 



-= -.- 5 



" -" , 

-^ 
~ u 



" 3T? S a> 

S -a * '"a 2 .-2 S 

^ > $ : ^ : ^ 

I = = * g .. S 

L2 ^ '= '5 -r = = 



s a <B S ".S^ 

-5 -S "| J - -"H 

3 a J P *.S o 

->i "~5 - c^ o 

*J ^ ^ . T5 CH ^ 

^ J g 

. 0) '" ^ 
^g fj-j C/J Cf? -j 

Q; ^ QJ JH O ,2 S 

^j c* "^3 . ^^ 3 S 

C fl o *& ** 

>"*$ Z-ZJ*^ 

y> J C S ~" s .2 

r% ?^ pi ?/ ^J " 



> 
O ' 



358 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY OHAP. 

The Merovingian book-hand, immediately derived from the official 
cursive writing, is, in fact, that hand moulded into a set calligraphic 
style, and appears in certain, not very numerous, MSS. of the seventh 
and eighth centuries. Professor Traube has classed this book-hand as the 

O 

Luxeuil script. 1 We select a specimen from the Lectionary of Luxeuil 
Abbey (Paris, Bibl. Nat., fonds lat. 9427) ; late seventh century. 2 

No. 124 

The points to be noticed are : the characteristic open a, formed by 
two curves like a double-c, but generally with thin pointed heads, and 
wanting the dots or thickenings seen in the Lombardic letter ; the letter 
t having the hinder curve of the cross stroke joined to the main stroke at 
the centre, instead of, as usually in the Visigothic and Lombardic forms, 
at the base ; the varying shapes of the same letter in different combina- 
tions ; and the long and high-shouldered r under certain conditions, in 
place of the more ordinary letter all of Roman cursive origin. Especially 
is the clubbing of the main strokes of tall letters to be noted as 
influencing the character of the later, Carolingian, hand. 

Another example of the Luxeuil type, but of later date, is taken 
from a MS. of Pope Gregory's Moralia, of the eighth century (Brit. Mus., 
Add. MS. 31031 ; Cat. Anc. MSS. ii. 51). 



Here are the same features as in the previous example : the same 
style of letters, combinations, and clubbing of the tall main strokes. The 
strongly-defined angularity of the two limbs of a has been noted as 
characteristic of this later hand. 3 

These two specimens may suffice to show the Merovingian book-hand 
as normally developed from the official cursive. 

Franco-Lombardic 

The mixed styles above referred to, as used within the limits of the 
Prankish Empire, we have, for convenience, classed under the general 
title of Franco-Lombardic. For this particular section the material is 
still far from complete, and it is more prudent to await the result of 
special research before venturing on a more definite classification. To 
give a general idea of the diversity of these handwritings, we must be 
content with a few examples. 

1 Vorlesungon, ii. 22-27. See a list of MSS. in Loew, Stadia Palaeogr. 31. 

2 See Notice s>tr un Manuscrit de I'Abbaye de Luxeuil, by L. Delisle, in Notices et Extraits des 
MSS., tome xxxi, pi. iv. 

3 Loew. 33-4. 



XVT 



LATIN NATIONAL BOOK-HANDS 



33!) 



FACSIMILE No. 126 




HOMILIES. SEVENTH OR EIGHTH CKNTURY 

(praedicatio dispicitur quia duru delinquentium | facta corripiunt Si tamen 
eis necessaria praesen tis vitae non tribuunt Sic itaqt<e pastores erga | interiora 
studia subditorum suorum ferveant Quatinus in eis exteriora quoqwe vitae 
providentia non relinquant Unde alibi scriptum est | Cum praees hominibus 
memento quia tibi est d<?(/s | iudicans homines scito quia ipse iudicaveris 
a deo | Qui locum p>'fdicationis suscipit ad altitudine | boni actionis ad 
excelsa transeat et eorum ] qui sibi commissi sunt opera transcendat) 



360 



GREEK AND LATIX PALAEOGRAPHY 



CHAP. 



FACSIMILE No. 127 



U lltuifc 
R 




1 tftnu; cf, 

v 



d 



<& yr 

.cot, jud% 
9 truxnrc'&iiofi -mm 




t 7 ^wiYiHUim Uocoh<rd 




LEX SALICA. A.D. 794 

(Si quis ad mallmn . legibws dominicis . | mannitus . fuerit . et non venu'erit . 
se eum . sunnis non detenus-it . solidon . xv . culfxibilis iudicetur . \ Illi vero . 
qui alio manit et ipsi non | venerit . se em sunnis . non detenuerit . | solidos 
xv . ei . cui . manuit . conponat . n . DE FVKTIS . PORCOBVM | Si quis . purcellum . 
lactentem de cranne | furaverit . et ei . fuerit . adprobatum | mattery chranne 
chalti rechalti . solidos . iii . | cu]pabilis iudicetur Si quis purcellmw furaverit 
qui sine matre vivere possit . et ei . fuerit adpro'latum . mal//(vv/ himnes 
theca . solid HI . i . culpabilix h 



XVI 



LATIN NATIONAL BOOK-HANDS 



361 




; 



aj'a-s 

o> rt ^ o 

= S h -2 



^ = 

0) 



S /: 

2 * 

a g 
II 

O ;, 

"~^ 



C c 

1-1 3 
f. S 



3 


a -a 



g c< 

'& t- 

O ^ 



.= .2 ~S 
i^ ^ _ 



o o 
a ; , 

r. * 

'Sc 2 

- r 
O 



i || 

C 3-3 



.Tl' 8 

g "S,| 

03 

^n! 

3 T3 



9-3 



=S a -O 
_ ~ 3 ffl 
? 3 - 

r^ " 3 " ^" 
^ 1111 

S T= ^ e 

~ -S -J: -= 

r ^ 

."^ -5 '^ ^ -o 

-r ~ _" 3 3 



O rN ^ 

^ E _' 



- 



362 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

The following specimen is from the Harley MS. .")<>!!, in the British 
Museum, containing theological treatises and homilies, of the seventh or 
eighth century. 

No. l:>6 

This MS. has been grouped with those of the Luxeuil type, 1 but it 
can hardly claim a close affinity. A characteristic is the bent or broken 
stem of b and 1 ; and other letters to be specially noticed are the a, 
which is of a type neither decidedly Merovingian nor decidedly Lom- 
bardic, though rather inclining to the latter ; and the sickle-shaped u. 

Next, we select a facsimile from an interesting MS. of the Lex 
Salica at St. Gall (Cod. 731) written in a mixed hand in A..D. 71)4 (Pal. 
Soc. i. 184). 

No. 127 

Here, although the writing has been classed as Lombardic, the style 
is mixed, and the test letter a appears in Lombardic, Merovingian, and 
Carolingian forms. 

Above all, there is a class of MSS. of the eighth and ninth centuries 
of a conventional type, which Professor Traube has identified as of the 
Corbie script. 2 but which has hitherto been usually described as 
Lombardic. Among other examples 3 are the Paris MS. 3836, containing 
a collection of Ecclesiastical Canons, of the eighth century (Put. Soc. i. 
8, 9) ; some leaves of the eighth century added to a MS. of Homilies, etc., 
written at Soissons; 4 and the Harley MS. 3063, the commentary of 
Theodore of Mopsuestia on the Pauline Epistles (Cat. Anc. MSS. ii. 35), 
of the ninth century. We select a few lines from the Soissons MS. of 
the eighth century (Brussels, Royal Library, MS. 9850-2). 

No. 128 

The characteristic letters to be noted in this hand are : open a, formed 
as if a combination of u and c, the first limb straight, the second curved : 
and b with an abnormally small bow, and a connecting stroke proceeding 
at right angles from the shaft. We may also observe the letter e 
generally rising above the line ; looped o; long r ; and looped t. changing 
in shape according to its combinations. 

Fre-Carolingiau 

But it must not be forgotten that the Uncial and Ha If -uncial styles 
were still employed in the Frankish Empire for the production of the 

1 Loew, 34. 2 Ihid. 36. 3 Locw, 3G, gives a list of seventeen MSS. 

( See Notice sur un Manuscrit Merovingien cle la Bibliothtque Royale de Belyique, by L. Delisle. 
in Notices el Extrails des MSS , tome xxxi. Delisle classes these leaves as Lombardic, and 
remarks : ' II nous fait voir combien 1'emploi de 1'ecriture lombardique. importi5e die/ 
nous par des moines italiens, devait etre ordinaire dans les abbayes franques. ' 



xvi LATIN NATIONAL BOOK-HANDS 363 

greater number of literary MSS. : and that the professional scribes, who 
were of course expert both in those formal book-hands and in the more 
cursive characters of the Merovingian. would naturally, when writing 
without special care or in a rough and ready style, mix the 
characters of the different hands. Thus we are prepared to find the 
influence of the uncial and half-uncial showing itself in modifying the 
extravagances of the cursive Merovingian, and. on the other hand, 
the cursive breaking out even in lines written in a more formal character. 
First we select an example of writing which may be said to form 
a link with the miscellaneous class which we have named Franco- Lom- 
bardic. This is in a MS. of the Epistles of St. Cyprian, written in several 
hands of the eighth century, which in the fifteenth century was in the 
abbey of Murbach in Alsace : but there is nothing to show that it 
was written there. The MS. now belongs to the John Rylands Library 
in Manchester (MS. Lat. 15) (Nev: Pal. So>.: 160, 161). 

No. 129 

It will be seen that the letter a is usually, but not always, of the 
Lombardic pattern. But the general style of the hand is quite different 
from either the standard Lombardic or Merovingian type. It is, in fact, 
a good example of the book-hand which was gradually being constructed in 
the eighth century under the influence of uncial and half-uncial literary 
scripts, combining, however, elements from the cursive and national 
hands. Regarding it simply as a specimen of writing, its bold style and 
well-rounded letters, and the ornamental thickening of tall main strokes, 
all give promise of the evolution of a fine literary script, when once it 
had been subjected to systematic calligraphic treatment. 

Two very interesting MSS. written in a variety of hands have been 
described byDelisle: Notice mrun Manuscrit Meinviityien (PEugyppvus 
(1875) written early in the eighth century, and Xutice ->' r un Mi.tnut-crtt 
Mi-roving ten <le la BHiUutlieque d'fcpinul (1878) of the Epistles of 
St. Jerome, written in the year 744 (see also Xfn- P/. Soc. 207. 208). 
The following facsimile represents one of the many hands employed in 
the MS. of Eugyppius. 

No. 130 

Here we have a hand cast into a fairly simple but uncultured form. 
in which are to be traced the elements of the refined book-hand which 
eventually emerged out of material of this kind under the correcting 
hands of the new schools under Charlemagne. We see still the lingering 
influence of the Roman cursive, breaking out here and there, as in the 
tall c (in line 2), the open a written above the line (in line 7), the high- 
shouldered r. and the varying forms of t. 






364 



(iBEEK AND LATIN PALAE< XiRAPHY 



CHAP. 



05 
C\i 



C 

K 

K 
tl 



x 

% 

fc 



Ul 

" 3 

S 



<U- 



S 3 * B I < H j 

I HH f f e 

-If I % f F'g Lf 

|g I-f I k e fr^ 
~TLf4j sJO 

JL C- g_r~* r fi <= 

Tf I S? e 
JT k fc c K 

f r^ ^ S C ^. 

x55E\?3jB v "f 

4jiiJtiif 



1i 41 1 

-^ ? I e 
^ & 2 ft I 




44T 

\5 * ' "*" * A 

4. If H i ! 9 







"^? I Jb-5 g 3-5 '3 



5 

X 



H 

a 
a 



I s a s. 

^^ cs *rl 



0".S 





) 

o 
c* 
* 
0) 









01 



8|- 

c 3 *3 

CH S 



S := ^ a -2 



rs <s 



S 



<= 5 



^ I = ^ 



SB 

j 



i- .-^ ^-> o 

O T3 " .55 



O 
X 



o 

5" 



O <B O 
32 3 



B= 5 

S 2 .i - 

c r ^ " 



w .2 i-o .a 

* ^a 

S "2 * 

J 00 
O jtj. i^_ " 5 

-2 E | Jf 3 

a =*-. C< -5 

3 tt U <* 



0) 



r J cs -3 
f S | S 



XVI 



LATIN NATIONAL BOOK-HANDS 



365 



i^%b ^i/t^ 

i - '^'<v3g'--2 



i 



;l 






r v 



- 



^iy* 

f s 

-J i-f- E 



z 
o 
<J 



*- F 

J V 
f-i f 

p ^ or 

3 ,3 



P"S 
ffe 

^^ 



o 

- 






1 $ 






yilil 



|| I s 1 * 



- -r. ?. 

"1 ^f ll 

P |lla 

^ e- i U 

' 5 -j_> ' ^i 



"""!- ^- > ^^ 

^- .g g r 

;, C -*_- 



_ 



3 ?J. = - - S 

= -s s -5 -5 ' s 

^ ff 5 M X X 



^r -r ^ " o 

- ^ c i = = 
-- _ i i . i i 

* S^liljF 

_ - 4) 
x . > 

x c "^ -- ^ "S -. 

E - II||I 

r sjljli 

1^'lN.s 



lll.l= = 



i* 00 ? 

OJ 01 



6C 



Illl 111 



366 



CO 

d 
fc 



\ 

$ 4~> B I-VUJ 1 
Mia c i1 ^ 

Xj C o a . R n 



"" *^ QJ ** 

-4-S Z W ' 





v 



:V5 t^llS 
< T-p v I|j 

4, r f : 3 >2 fe'.'if | 
-* 5 KSJS f-f^ 

^"^"7 r ^ 

5^!i 

V 



3 r~s 



I ! PUJ1 

L"! eT ^^ O-* ^- Q 




-S '/> 

1 _ *s <s 

1 S i"? 

5 ^ s o '3 

"S 5 K - * 
- * 

- IH _^ 

'-H. - ' | 

1111-2 






o.S 



r o & o 5 

0) . . 
H fl "^ S O 

1-5 ~ '&," ! -2 



= =, 

= - -S. . ? 

~ ' . L- O 

a> 3 -" 
. T ? -2 o 

= .z! .S 3 



g.2cT, 



SS-1 

> .S ._ <D 



i. s "^ 



Sfl 

s li i^ 



Sill 1 1 



LATIN NATIONAL BOOK-HANDS 367 

In the next example, taken from the Spinal St. Jerome of A.D. 744, 
there is a rather better attempt at uniformity, in which the influence of 
the half-uncial style is more evident. 

No. 131 

It will be observed that the note of emendation at the end is written 
with a larger proportion of cursive forms ; probably having been incor- 
porated in the text from a cursively-written marginal note. 

MSS. of the pre- Carolingian style, such as those which have been here 
submitted, are still sufficiently numerous to prove that during the eighth 
century there was a growing effort to mould into a serviceable form 
a minuscule book-hand which should be free from the difficulties and 
intricacies of the national hands. The finishing touch was now to be 
applied. 

The Carolingian Reform 

The reign of Charlemagne is an epoch in the history of the hand- 
writings of Western Europe. With the revival of learning naturally 
came a reform of the writing in which the works of literature were to 
be made known. A decree of the year 789 called for the revision of 
church-books : and this work naturally brought with it a great activity 
in the writing schools of the chief monastic centres of France. And in 
none was there greater activity than at Tours, where, under the rule of 
Alcuin of York, who was abbot of St. Martin's from 796 to 804, was 
specially developed the exact hand which has received the name of the 
Carolingian Minuscule. Delislc, in his useful Memoire sur I'Ecole cctlli- 
yni/Jtii/ite de Tours au /,<" a'llde (1885) 1 enumerates as many as twenty- 
five MSS. of the Carolingian period still in existence which, from the 
character of the writing, may be ascribed to the school of Tours or 
at least to scribes connected with that school. The general practice 
followed in the production of fine MSS. in this school, and no doubt in 
other contemporary schools also, which set the fashion for the future, 
was to employ majuscule letters, either capitals or uncials, for titles and 
other ornamental parts of the volume ; for the general text, minuscule 
script : but for special passages which it was desired to bring into 
prominence, such as tables of chapters, prefaces, and introductory 
sentences or paragraphs of sections of the work, a handsome style of 
writing was reserved which was adapted from the old half-uncial script 
of the fifth and sixth centuries. 

Delisle has cited an excellent example of the reformed Carolingian 
book-hand in a MS., now at Quedlinburg, containing collections relating 

1 Extrait des Henioins de I'Academie cits Inscriptions et Belles Lttlres, tome xxxii. 



368 



GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 



CHAP. 



FACSIMILE No. 13:2 



-a tsj t u tnruri bu C Locuru 
(JLbtpueLLxro d 






urer^orourctm 
vlbioleurn (ubeiu 



CcccrnpuLLcL-cumo 
Leo quod behjedipccr 
Co NJ (xrxxr u rr> m cxmr> o r*ero p 
ccxecidtr: 



vj bt tpf7urNiorr>iKie-lKiuocccro 

SULPICIUS SEVERUS. EARLY NINTH CEXTURY 

(audire gallum de sac<i mar,tini virtutibus locuturo | Ubi puellam duode- 
cennem ab | utero mutam curavit | Ubi oleum sub eius benedictiojne crevit 
et ampulla cum o|leo quod benedixerat super | constratum marmorem pa| 
vimentum caeeidit et in tegra est inventa | Ubi ipsius nomine invocato) 



LATIN; NATIONAL BOOK-HANDS 369 



FACSIMILE No. 133 



Jc/quoc/tpfjL 




dum eft oceYeTut f?t^r A.<rtb 
rtobi fhcfcio q 



SULPICIUS SEVERl'8. EARLY NlNTH CEXTURY 

(ex uberibws oaprarum . aut ovium pas torum manu praessis . longa linea | co- 
piosi lactis effluere.' Puer . sur rexit incolomis.' Nos obstupefacti | tantae rei 
miraculo . id quod ipsa | cogebat veritas fatebamur . non | esso . sub caelo . 
qui martinum possit | iinitari . | Consequent! itidem | tempore . iter cum 
eode( | dum dioceses visitat agebamus [ nobis nescio qua necessitate remo) 



Bb 



370 ({REEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 

to the life and cult of St. Martin, and including epistles and dialogues of 
Sulpicius Severus ; written in the abbey of St. Martin of Tours in the 
early part of the ninth century. This MS. shows the Carolingian 
reformed hand brought to perfection ; and, when we cite it, we do not 
foi'get that there is a wide gap between it and the pre-Carolingian MSS. 
noticed above. But here we wish only to place before the student the 
consummate result of the reform ; and we reserve for a later chapter 
illustrations of the Carolingian book-hand of the ninth century in fuller 
detail. We reproduce specimens of the hand adapted from the half-uncial 
style and of the minuscule script of the text, from the Quedlinburg MS. 

No. 132 

If reference is made to the Facsimiles of half-uncial writing above 
(nos. 98-100) it will be seen how in the specimen before us the senti- 
ment of breadth in the older hand is maintained, as e.g. in the sweeping 
strokes of r and s and in the width and curves of a and m. The shape 
of flat-headed g is also to be noticed ; and not less the employment of the 
capital N. 

The habit of copying the tine bold type of the half-uncial undoubtedly 
contributed to the elegance of the minuscule book-hand developed in 
the French schools. This is conspicuous in the following facsimile 
selected from the text of the MS. 

No. 133 

How the reformed Carolingian minuscule book- hand fared in the 
subsequent period will be described in a later chapter. Here we must 
leave it for the present and devote the following chapter to an examina- 
tion of the early Irish and English schools of writing, which followed 
a different line from that of the continental national hands. 

Surveying the facsimiles, although limited in number, which have 
been submitted in illustration of the various styles of writing pi actised 
in the Frankish empire and here classed under the heads of Merovingian, 
Franco-Lombard ic, and Pre-Carolingian. closing with specimens of the 
perfected book-hand of the Carolingian Reform, the student will appre- 
ciate the wide field over which the national hands of that empire ranged, 
and the difficulties to be confronted in their study. The outline which 
has been sketched may serve as a general guide ; a more intimate 
knowledge of the varieties of these scripts must be sought in special 
investigation. As we have already noted, the subject still offers a field 
for expert research. 1 

1 A work by Dr. E. A. Loew, Scriptura Lntitin .Minn^-nln ^l/i/i'/"""', is announced, but is 
not yet published. 



CHAPTEE XVII 
LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY (continued] 

The Irish Book-hand i Half-uncial and Minuscule) 

THE origin and developement of the early handwritings of our own 
Islands differ from those of the continental nations of Western Europe 
which have been examined in the last chapter. While on the Continent 
the Roman Cursive hand formed the basis of the national forms of 
writing, in Ireland and England the basis was the Roman Half-uncial. 

The foundation of the early Church in Ireland and the consequent 
spread of civilization naturally fostered learning and the developement 
of a national school of writing : while at a later period the isolation of 
the country prevented the introduction of new ideas and of the changes 
which contact with neighbouring nations invariably effects. Ireland 
borrowed the types for her handwriting from the MSS. which the Roman 
missionaries brought with them; and we must assume that most of 
those MSS. were written in the literary half-uncial character, and that 
there was an unusually scanty number of uncial MSS. among the works 
thus imported; otherwise it is difficult to account for the developement 
of the Irish hand on the line which it followed. 

In writing of the course of Greek Palaeography we had occasion to 
notice the very gradual changes which came over the handwriting of 
Greece, confined as it was to a comparatively small district and to 
a single language. In Ireland this conservatism is still more strongly 
marked. The hand which the modern Irish scholar writes is essentially, 
in the forms of its letters, the pointed hand of the early middle ages: 
and there is no class of MSS. which can be more perplexing to the 
palaeographer than Irish MSS. Having once obtained their models, 
the Irish scribes developed their own style of writing and went on 
practising it. generation after generation, with an astonishing uniforrnitjr. 
The English conquest did not disturb this even course. The invaders 
concerned themselves not with the language and literature of the country. 
They were content to use their own style of writing for grants of land 
and other official deeds ; but they left it to the Irish scribes to produce 
MSS. in the native characters. 

The early Irish handwriting appears in two forms : the round and 
the pointed ; and it is necessary to state that we have to do with both 
forms only as literary hands. There are no early Irish charters in 

B b :J 



372 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

existence to show us positively what was the style of the legal and 
official cursive writing in Ireland in remote times, although, judging 
from the practice in England, we may be pretty confident that the 
pointed hand was employed. 

Of pure uncial writing we have to take no account. There are no 
undisputed Irish MSS. in existence which are written in that style ; 
although the copy of the Gospels in uncials, which was found in the tomb 
of St. Kilian and is preserved at Wiirzburg, has been quoted as an instance 
of an Irish uncial MS. The writing is in ordinary uncial characters and 
bears no indication of Irish nationality (Z. and W.. Exempla, 58). 

The round Irish hand is half-uncial, and in its characters there is close 
relationship with the Roman half-uncial writing as seen in the MSS. of 
Italy and France dating from the fifth and sixth centuries. A comparison 
of the earliest surviving Irish MSS. with specimens of this style leaves no 
room to doubt the origin of the Irish round-hand; and, without acceptino- 
the traditional ascription of certain of them to St. Patrick or St. Columba 
or other Irish saints, there can be no hesitation in dating some as far 
back as the seventh century. We may therefore place the period of the 
first developement of the Irish round-hand somewhat earlier, namely, in 
the sixth century, the Roman half-uncial MSS. of that time and earlier 
evidently serving as models. 

Among the oldest extant Irish MSS. of this character is the fra<r- 
mentary copy of the Gospels, of an early version, in the library of Trinity 
College, Dublin, which may be placed in the latter part of the seventh 
century (Nat. MSS. Ireland, i. 2; Pal. Sot: ii. 33). 

No. 134 

The writing bears a very close resemblance to the continental half- 
uncial hand, but at the same tinje it has the distinct impress of its Irish 
nationality, indicated generally in ^ certain angular treatment of some 
of the strokes which in the Roman hhlf-uncial MSS. are round. Among 
the letters it will be noticed that the capital N is more commonly employed, 
the minuscule appearing but rarely. 

The MS. may be cited as a specimen of a style of writing which was, 
no doubt, pretty widely used at the time for the production of MSS. of 
a good class a careful working book-hand, which, however, did not 
compete with the sumptuous style for which the Irish scribes had by this 
time become famous. The same kind of writing, but more ornamental, 
is found in a Psalter (Nat. MSS. Ireland, i. 3, 4) traditionally ascribed 
to St. Columba, but probably also of the same date as the Gospels 
just described. 

No school of writing developed so thoroughly, and, apparently, so 
quickly, the purely ornamental side of calligraphy as the Irish school. 
The wonderful interlaced designs which were introduced as decorative 



xvii 



THE IRISH BOOK- HAND 



373 



FACSIMILE No. 134 



r 

iV*Ctfc<fct* dicccivro vi 




GOSPELS. LATE SEVENTH CENTURY 

(o nunc mandutum novum do vobis u[t di li'gatis invicem sicut dilexi vos ut 
et vos [di ITgatis invicem in hoc scient omnes q t uon ia m discipuli mei estis 
si caritatem habea tis ad ] invi cem . ait illi simon petrus domine ubi vad.is 
resp ondit illi iesus ubi ego vado non potes me m od o s n equi sequaeris autem 
postea dicit il[li | domtn]e quare non possum te sequi mode an^i ma m meam pro 
te ponam respondens ie[.>'/s | dici]t animam tuam pro me ponis amen J [am'en 
dico tibi quoniam non cantabit h[o die] gallus donee tti ter me abneges non) 



374 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

adjuncts to Irish MSS. of the seventh aud eighth centuries are astonishing 
examples of skilful drawing and generally of brilliant colouring. And 
this passion for ornamentation also affected the character of the writing 
in the more elaborately executed MSS. sometimes even to the verge of 
the fantastic. Not only were fancifully formed initial letters common 
in the principal decorated pages, but the striving after ornamental effect 
also manifested itself in the capricious shapes given to various letters of 
the text whenever an opportunity could be found, as, for instance, at the 
end of a line. The ornamental round-hand, which was elaborated under 
this influence, is remarkable both for its solidity and its graceful outlines. 
The finest MS. of this style is the famous cop}- of the Gospels known 
as the 'Book of Kells'. now in the library of Trinity College, Dublin, 
in which both text and ornamentation are brought to the highest point 
of excellence. Although tradition declares that the MS. belonged to 
St. Columba, who died in A.D. 507, it does not appear to be earlier than 
the close of the seventh century (Xn(. MSX. Jrebuid, i. 7-17 ; Pal. Soc. i. 

55-8, 88, 89). 

No. 135 

In this hand (reduced in the Facsimile) there is a departure from the 
strictly normal forms of some of the half-uncial letters. Both forms 
of s are used, the round capital and the tall half-uncial, varying in 
prevalence in different parts of the MS. This scribe also prefers the 
capital R ; but there is a return to the orthodox half-uncial form in other 
parts of the MS. written in other, lighter styles. The capital N, too 
(here in its characteristic Irish form), in other hands is replaced by the 
minuscule. These shifting uses of these two letters in particular seem to 
indicate the presence in the minds of the scribes of a desire to avoid the 
risk of confusion between the minuscule n and the somewhat similar 
half -uncial r. The letters b and 1 with bent main-strokes should be 
noticed as characteristic of this hand, as practised both in Ireland and 
in England. 

It was a volume of this description, if not the Book of Kells itself, 
which Giraklus Cambrensis, in the twelfth century, sa\v at Kildare, and 
which he declared was so wonderful in the execution of its intricate 
ornamental designs, that its production was rather to be attributed to the 
hand of an angel than to human skill. The oftener and the mure closely 
he examined it, the more he found in it to excite his admiration. 1 

1 'Sin autem ad perspicacius intueiidum oeulorum aciem invitaveris et longe penitius 
ad artis arcana transpenetraveris, tarn delicatas et subtiles. tarn arctas et artitas, tarn 
nodosas et vinculatim colligatas. tamque recent ilm.s Millmc colorilm* illustratas notare 
poteris intricaturas, ut vere haec omnia potius angelica quam hmntina diligentia iam 
asseveraveris esse composita. Haec equidem quunto frequentius et diligentius intueor. 
semper quasi novis abstupeo, semper magis ac magis admiranda conspicio.' Topographia 
Hibermae, ii. 38. See Nat. MSS. Ireland, ii. 66. 



xvn 



THE IRISH BOOK-HAND 



375 



FACSIMILE No. 135 




uirm 




qtnoDi 



p i 



GOSPELS (BOOK OF KELLP). END OF SEVENTH CENTURY 

Similiter et principes sacerdotum J inludebant eum cum scribis | et seniori- 

1>^> dicentes alios salvos ! fecit . Se ipsum non potest sal vum facere si rex 

israhel est discendat nunc de cruce et crede'mus ei . Confidit in do>h} 

et nunc li beret eum si vult dixit enim quia dei | nlius sum) 



376 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

Another MS. of Irish style but of Welsh origin, of the same character 
but not nearly so elaborate as the Book of Kells, is the copy of the 
Gospels of St. Chad, at Lichfield, formerly belonging to the church of 
Llandaff (Pal. Soc. i. 20, 21, 35); and an imperfect Anglo-Irish copy 
of the Gospels at Durham (A. ii 16) may also be compared (Neu- Pal. 
Soc. 30). But the grand style of round half-uncial writing which is 
used in these MSS. was not adapted for the more ordinary purposes of 
literature or the requirements of daily intercourse, and, after reaching 
the culminating point of excellence in the Book of Kells, it appears to 
have quickly deteriorated at all events, the lack of surviving examples 
would appear to indicate a limit to its practice. 

No. 136 

The MS. of the Gospels of MacRegol, written about the year 800, 
now in the Bodleian Library (Auct. D. 2. 19), is a late specimen, in 
which the comparative feebleness and inexact style of the writing 
contrast very markedly with the practised exactness of the older MSS. 
(Pal. Soc. i. 90, 91). 

The pointed Irish hand was derived from the same source as the 
round-hand. On the Continent we have seen that the national cursive 
hands were but sequels of the Roman cursive subjected to varying 
conditions, and were distinct from the literary or book-hands which 
were used contemporaneously by their side. The Irish scribes had, or 
at least followed, but one model the Roman Half- uncial. The pointed 
hand is nothing more than a modification of the round-hand, with the 
letters subjected to lateral compression and drawn out into points or 
hair-lines ; it is a minuscule hand. 1 There cannot be much doubt that 
this style of writing came into existence almost contemporaneously with 
the establishment of a national hand. The round-hand may have 
preceded it ; but the necessity for a more cursive character must imme- 
diately have made itself felt. The pointed hand, of an ornamental kind, 
appears in some of the pages of the Book of Kells, a fact which proves 
its full establishment at a much earlier period. The Book of Dimma 
(Nat. MSS. J I'd" ml, i. 18, 19) has been conjecturally ascribed to the 
period of about the year 650, but can scarcely be older than the eighth 
century. The first dated example, of native origin, is the Book of 
Armagh (Nat. MSS. Ireland, i. 25-9; Lindsay, Early Irish Minuscule 

1 This seems to be the proper place to mention the classification which has been 
made of the Insular (Irish and English, or Hiberno-Saxon) minuscule script into four 
types: Irish, Anglo-Saxon. Welsh, and Cornish. Examples of the last two types, which 
naturally should be associated with the Irish type, are rare ; of the Cornish type, indeed, 
there appears to be only one, or possibly two, recognized at the present time (see letters 
in The Athenaeum, Dec. 23 and 30, 1911). 



XVII 



THE IRISH BOOK-HAND 



377 



CO 



9 



OQ 

5 



I fii 

3^5 






I S3 g 



^f 

l-s 




~. y *3 

1? 1 I 

ti c O W 

f I 
S P 3 fi? 

iS I 



o: 
Q 



E ,.*?' n 

R 8 te 



3 -0 S 



Jg S g 

S S> e 



R P 

5 p 

^ 3 . c 

^l?5 1 

O g D ^ 

I 5 8 

P 



fr 

O.'S 



* s = 

111 

~ - 



s 



B 



O ^ OJ a 
O S K- 
ID 



x s 



0) O C" !0 



< .2 



g 5 -3 

i r s 

tc ' -s a 

h 

o "" ^" 



378 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 



rttmr CV > 



FACSIMILE No. 137 

nrn.Y .-. .Vfinm: .^rrni 1 ir<* p-.'.mr ".''' 

V-'-'i'v, .v^n^Afi'l"^ ^.n.i-r^.-n'u 

fcf^miwirtf niV^ui-V^'p M(VtVM- 

Vf;"H)T,fffrt1 0- Jrl? nilTt.V Ti'pi-H Tflrt.\ 

^^ K )r iir > mwinmTn';|Vniii.v.i|:.(rmni 



m.ilr J. 

m .lVT7Tn< > niMmf 
V 



|:nm Aim: pi"'f .OmAur)'? v*^ " 
-- : . in,r r.Utf^m : >r,' 



Iftirrt 

r imr tii'nhff K 



. N i7HlTi: 



.'l -> - ii!prrn 



NE\V TESTAMENT (BOOK OF ARMAGH). A. D. 807 



XVII 



THE IRISH BOOK-HAM) 379 



(iesum de discipitlis tin* suis ct de doctrina cius respondit \ iesus ego palam 
locutus sum mundo ego ! semper docui in synagor/rt ct in templo quo [ omes 
iudei conveniunt et in oculto locu tus sum nihil quid me intm-ogas interroga 
eos qui audierunt quid locutus sum \ ipsis ecce hii sciunt qwe dixerim ego hec 
autcm \ cum dix;'rf unus adsistens ministroraw dedit alapam ie.?u dice ns sic re- 
spondes | pontifici respo<W ei iesns si male locutus | sum testimonium pcrhibe 
de malo sin aufctn bene quid me cedis ct missit eum an nas ligatum ad caifan 
pontificem | erat aiitcm symon petrus stans ct calefaciens se dixerunt ergo ei 
numquid tii ex I disc>2>nli* ritt* es negavit ille et dixit non sum dicit [ unus 
ex servis pontificis cognatus [ citt* cuius abscidit petrus auricolam | no/me 
ego te vidi in orto cum illo Iterum | ergo negavit petrus ct statim gallus 
can tavit Adducunt ergo iesum ad caiphan in pirtorium erat autcm mane et 
ipsi non itroierunt in pretorium ut non ootttaminarjentwr scd manducarent 
pasca exivit | ergo pylatus ad eos foras et dis.it quam ac cussationemj 
et region/lit ietits a temet ipso hoc dicis an alii tibi dixerunt de me respondit 
ei pylatus iiu(quid et ego iudaeus sum gens tua et pontifices | tradiderunt te 
mihi quid fecisti respond it iesus \ regnuni mcm non c.*t de hor mundo si ex 
hoc mundo | essci regnum niPi/m ministri utiqwc decerta rent ut non traderer 
iudaeis mine autcm regn um me um non et hinc Dixit itaq/(p ei pylatus [ ergo 
rex es tu respondit ie*H.s tu dicis qui a rex sum j ego in hoc natus sum et ad 
hoc veni in huno mun dum ut testimonium i '/iiibeam v ntati | Omnis qui 
est ex veritate audit mpm voceni j d/t-it ei pylatus quid r>/ v / itas et cum hoc 
dix.is.sct | Itcrum exivit foras ad iudaeos ct dixit eis ego nullam invenio in eo 
caussam est autcm cm suitudo ut unum vinctuwi dimittam vo bis in pascha 
vultis ergo ego dimittam vo.bis regem iudaeoru; clamaverunt rursum omwcs 
non hwc sed barabban erat autcm \ barabljas latro tune ergo . adprehendit ; 
pj r latus ieswm et flagellavit eum milites plectentes coronam de spinis in- 
posuerwwt | capiti eins ct vest em porpoream circuwde|derunt eum ct veniebant 
ad eum et dice bant | 



380 (iHKKK AM) LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 

Script, pi. ix), a MS. containing portions of the New Testament and 
other matter, written, T>y the scribe Ferdomnach, in A. n. 807. 

No. 137 

This very delicate and minutely written MS. is a good instance of the 
patience and facility which the Irish scribes of the ninth century could 
bring to their work. The principal object of the present scribe appears 
to have been to pack into the page as much as possible: and this 
perhaps may explain the lateral compression of the writing, for a rather 
wider-spread script might have been expected so early in the century. 
The large number of abbreviations and contractions is also to be noted. 

Little later than the Book of Armagh is the MS. of Priscian in the 
University Library of Leyden (Cod. Lat. 67), written, probably on the 
Continent, in various hands of Anglo-Irish type, and having at the begin- 
ning Priscian's Periegesis in hexameters, written by the Irish scribe 
Dubthach in A. D. 838 (Fr-a- Pal. So<: 32). 

No. 138 

This beautiful hand is notable for the easy formation of the letters 
and the ample space allowed for the flow of the writing, which we 
missed in the compressed style of the preceding MS. The scribe had 
complete command of his pen, and while forming his letters gracefully 
must at the same time have written with considerable speed. The 
prevalence of open a is to be remarked, a form of the letter which is 
not so much employed in the Irish book-hand of this period. Perhaps 
the style of the Carolingian minuscule, in which the open a was a leading 
feature, may have had some influence upon the practice of the scribe, 
if the MS., as suggested, was written abroad. 

The MS. of the Gospels of MacDurnan, in the Lambeth Library (Nat. 
MtiS. Ireland, i. 30, 31), of the end of the ninth or beginning of the 
tenth century, may be referred to as another specimen of the very 
delicate and rather cramped writing which the Irish scribes at this time 
affected. 

In the eleventh and twelfth centuries the pointed hand took the 
final stereotyped form which it was to follow in the future, and had 
assumed the angular shapes which are henceforth characteristic of the 
Irish hand. As a good example of the early part of the twelfth century 
we select a passage from the Gospels written by the scribe Mrelbrigte 
(Brit. Mus., Harl. MS. 180.2 ; Nut. MM. Ireland, i.40-2 : P,il. Sue. i. 212). 

No. 139 

In the writing of this MS. the old forms of letters have undergone 
but little change, but at the same time it lias assumed the essential 
character of the Irish mediaeval hand. 



381 

FACSIMILE No. 138 




PEISCIAN. A. u. 838. 

(divolvens hippanis trahit rapidusqwe magircus 
quosqt<c capit modo niisos gangeitica monte 
tellus . porrigit>- quae ad twrae colcidis austros 
occeani tangens pelagus sub collibMS altis 
quos volucres metuunt celeri cowtingere penna 
unde graii posuerunt iiomen oronis . 
hie via quam celebrat iiunc dionisia bachi 
cui statuas dederat victoria finibir.S'.illis 
hie tellus est supr;-ans vastae miracula tm - ae 
insola nanquc viret cunctis i;; partibir< anni 
nee foliis mid at ramos autumnus in ilia 
assiduusqwe tenet flos germcw- arboris oinne 
hie adanias fulget limphantia pectora sanans 
et prohibens miseris occulti damna veneni 
quern minime valeat ferrum superare nee ignis 
frangitwr hircino maceratus sanguine tantuw) 
sed tepido . fractis multis incudibus ante 
hie iuxta positus magniten viribMS arcet 
occultis . ferri raptu vc\ tractibs ante 
ammotum retrahit defendens robore miro) 



382 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 



FACSIMILE No. 139 




re T*i 



" 



GOSPELS OF M.ELBRIGTE. A. D. 1138 



xvii THE IRISH BOOK-HAND 383 



(eris potestatem huleus super decem civitates . et | alter venit d/cens dow'ne . 
mina * tua fecit quiqz/e minas . | Et huic ait esto *uj>cr v. civitates . Et alter 
venit dicens . doinine \ ecce mina tua quaw habui repositum in sodario 
Timui enim quia howo austeras es . tollis quod now possu isti ct metis quod 
unit seminasti . Dicit ei de ore tuo te iudico serve nequam . Sciebas quod ego 
austere sum homo . tollens quod no posui ct metens quod [ now seminavi . 
i / i|/<are now dedisti pecuniawi meaw ad mcwsam . Et ego veniens cum ussuris 
utiqe exegis^sera ilium -' . ct adstantibi/s dixit . Auferte ab illo | minam . 
ft date ei qui decem minas lu/oet . ct d/xer?(t | ei doi/ne habet decem minas . 
Dico (intern vob/s quia oinni habenti dabitur . ab eo autem qui now hrttft . et 
quod habi't an feretwr ab eo . Verumta>en inimicos meos illos qui noluerunt 
me regnare super se . adducite hue j intfrficite nnte me . Et his dictis p>Tce- 
debat ascendens in hierusolimaw . Et factum est cum appropiwqwas set ad 
bethphage et betbaniam ad montem qui | vocatur oliveti . missit duos disci- 
pulos | dicens . ite in castellum quod contra vos cat hi quod \ introeuntes 
invenietis pullum assinae alii gaturn . cui nemo unquam hominuw sedit . 
sol vite ilium et adducite raiJii . ct si qwis vos intf rroga verit q?;ire solvitis . 
Sic dicetis ei . q/ dominus ope mm 3 \ cius desiderat . Abierwwt autem qui 
rnissi erant .) 

1 The i erased, as elsewhere, by the corrector. - Correction : >>1 'ill "ml. 

2 In margin : rel opus. 



384 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

While the writing of Ireland remained untouched l.y external influ- 
ences, and passed on from generation to generation with little change, 
the influence which, in revenge, it exercised abroad was verv wide. We 
shall presently see how England was almost entirely indebted to Ireland 
for her national handwriting. In the early middle ai'es Irish mission- 
aries spread over the Continent and founded religious houses in France 
and Italy and other countries ; and where they settled there the Irish 
form of handwriting was practised. At such centres as Luxeuil in 
France, Wlirzburg in Germany, St. Gall in Switzerland, and Bobbio in 
Italy, it flourished. At first, naturally, the MSS. thus produced were 
true specimens of the Irish hand. But thus distributed in isolated spots, 
as the bonds of connexion with home became loosened and as the 
influence of the native styles of writing in their neighbourhoods made 
itself more felt, the Irish writers would gradually lose the spirit of their 
early teaching and their writing would become traditional and simply 
imitative. Thus the later MSS. produced at these Irish settlements 
have none of the beauty of the native hand ; all elasticity disappears, 
and we have only the form without the life. 



The Early English Book-hand (Half-uncial and Minuscule) 

The history of writing in England previous to the Norman Conquest 
has a wider range than that of writing in Ireland, although, at least 
in the earlier periods, it runs on the same lines. Here we have to take 
into account influences which had no part in the destinies of the Irish 
script. In England there were two early schools of writing at work : 
the one originating from Ireland, in the north, from which emanated 
the national hand, holding its own and resisting for a long time foreign 
domination ; the other, the school of the Roman missionaries, essentially 
a foreign school making use of the foreign styles which they brought 
with them but which never appear to have become naturalized. 

We may commence with stating what little can be gathered regarding 
the foreign school from the few remains which it has left behind. That 
the Roman Rustic capital writing was made use of by the missionaries 
and was taught in their school, whose principal seat must have been at 
Canterbury, is proved by the occurrence of such specimens a? those 
found in a Psalter of about A. D. 700, in the Cottonian collection (Vespa- 
sian A. 1), which belonged to St. Augustine's monastery at Canterbury 
(Cat. Anc.MSS. ii. 12, 13), and in one or two charters, or, more properly, 
copies of charters. The Psalter just referred to also affords an example 
of the character which the foreign uncial assumed in this Canterbury 
school an unmistakably local character, of which, however, so few 
specimens have survived that perhaps no better proof, negative as it is, 



xvii THE EARLY ENGLISH BOOK-HAND 385 

could be found of the failure of the Roman majuscule styles of writing 
to make their way in this country. We must suppose that the Canter- 
bury, foreign, school of writing ceased to exist at a comparatively early 
period ; and, as it had no influence upon the native hand, its interest for 
us is merely academic. 

The introduction of the foreign Carolingian minuscule hand in the 
tenth century was due to later political causes and to the growth of 
intercourse with the Continent ; and it' is altogether unconnected with 
the early foreign school which has just been referred to. 

As to the native school of writing 

St. Columba's settlement in lona was the centre from whence pro- 
ceeded the founders of monasteries in the north of England ; and in the 
year 634 the Irish missionary Aidan founded the see of Lindisfarne (Holy 
Isle), which became a great centre of English writing. At first the 
writing was indeed nothing more than the Irish script transplanted into 
new soil, and for a time the English style is scarcely to be distinguished 
from that of the sister island. But gradually distinctions arose ; and the 
English school, under wider influences, developed more graceful forms 
and threw off the restraints which fettered the growth of Irish writing. 

We have, then, first to follow the course of the English script on the 
same lines as that of Ireland, and to examine the two styles, the round and 
the pointed, which here, as in Ireland, were adopted as national forms of 
writing ; but it is proposed to confine our attention in this place to the 
employment of these hands for literary purposes, and to postpone what 
has to be said regarding the charter-writing of the Anglo-Saxon period 
to a later chapter where it will be more conveniently considered along 
with other forms of official and legal cursive writing. 

The earliest and most beautiful MS. of the English round half-uncial 
is the copy of the Lindisfarne Gospels, or the ' Durham Book ', in the 
British Museum (Cotton MS., Nero D. iv), said to have been written, in 
honour of St. Cuthbert, by Eadfrith, Bishop of Lindisfarne. about the 
year 700 (Pal. Soc. i. 3-6, 22 ; Cut. Am. MSS. ii. 8-11). 

No. 140 

This very beautiful hand leaves nothing to be desired in the precision 
and grace with which it is executed, and the MS. fairly rivals the great 
Irish codices of the same period. How nearly it follows the Irish model 
needs no demonstration. The remarks made on the forms of the letters 
in the specimen from the Book of Kells apply generally to this example. 
At the same time, a difference is discernible between the two MSS., which 
seems to indicate the difference of country of origin. The letters of the 
Lindisfarne Gospels, besides being of a more solid type, are rather broader 



386 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 

and the curves are even more .symmetrically drawn than in the Book of 
Kells. The glosses in the Northumlirian dialect were added by Aldred, 
a priest of the tenth century. 

The round-hand was used for books, and, less frequently, even for 
charters, during the eighth and ninth centuries ; but, although in very 
carefully written MSS. the writing is still solid, the heavy-stroke style 
of the Lindisfarne Gospels appears generally to have ceased at an early 
date. We give a specimen of a lighter character from a fragmentary 
copy of the Gospels (Brit. Mus., Royal MS. 1. E. vi) which belonged to 
the monastery of St. Augustine, Canterbury, though not necessarily 
written there. It is probably of the end of the eighth century (Pal. Soc. 
i. 8; Cat. Anc. MSS. ii. 17, 18). 

No. 141 

In its original state this MS. must have been a volume of extra- 
ordinary magnificence, adorned with paintings and illuminated designs, 
and having many leaves stained, after the ancient method, with a beautiful 
purple, a few of which still remain. The general structure of the letters 
in this lighter style is the same as in the Lindisfarne Gospels ; but the 
greater prevalence of the half-uncial r and the minuscule n is observable. 

Other specimens of this hand are found in the Durham Cassiodorus 
(Pal. Soc. i. 164), in a MS. of the Gospels at Durham (Neiv Pal. 
Sue. 56), in the Epinal Glossary (Early Encjl. Text Soc.), and in some 
charters (Face. Anc. Ch. i. 15, ii. 2, 3 ; Pal. Sac. i. 10). One of the latest 
MSS. in which the hand is written in its best form is the ' Liber Vitae ', 
or list of benefactors of Durham (Cat. Anc. MSS. ii. 25 ; Pal. Sue. i. 238), 
which was compiled about the year 840. 

For study of the pointed English hand there has survived a fail- 
amount of material, ranging from the eighth to the tenth century : later 
than this time, the changes effected in its structure by contact with 
southern influences mark a new departure. In the oldest specimens the 
writing generally exhibits that breadth of form and elegance of shape 
which we have noticed in other handwritings in their early stages. Then 
conies, in the ninth century, the tendency to lateral compression and 
fanciful variations from the older and simpler types : but the script still 
retains the sense of grace and fineness of touch. 

Our first example shall be selected from the remarkably handsome 
copy of Beda's Ecclc.-ia.fl'n-nl JH.^turi/. in the University Library of 
( ,-imbridge (MS. Kk. v. 16), written probably not long after the year 730 
and, it has been conjectured, at Epternach or Echternach, near Luxemburg, 
or some other Anglo-Saxon colony on the Continent. The MS. is also 
famous as containing the original Anglo-Saxon of the song of Casdmon 
(Pal. Soc. i. 139, 140). 



FACSIMILE No. 14 f > 387 




quornccirn psi 
( cou.sotcdbuuxuT^- 

i.Vv .^A ^r- t'vuceTW** 




Coca 



quouicximpsv 

-- 




TTTiseniccmoes 

lnoyvA 

Quouicxmipsi 

^11 Iff Vi ^t^- 1 ^ " 1 ft''' 

TmsacoTir)ia 

littn CP-^-l-Wt^y" 

cousequeuarrr- 




. . __ , 

quouiamipsidTn 

crr^r 



LlXDIffFAKNE GOSPELF. ABOUT A.I). 700 

(Beati qui lugunt mine [ quoniam ipsi | consolabuntur | Beati qui esuriunt | 
et sitiunt iustitiam | quoniam ipsi j saturabuntur | Beati misericordes | quo- 
niam ipsi [ miseiicordiam | consequentur | Beati mundo corde | quoniam ipsi 
d< cm | videbunt || Gloss: eadge bifonfa Ce gema?nas mi | for^on fa | gefroe- 
fred bi?on | eadge bifon t'a (?e hyncgraS | and '^yrstas so'ffaestnisse | forSon 
ffa ilco get'ylled bifon I'd geriorded | eadge bifon miltlieoile | forfon hiora 
rcl fa | miltheoitnise | him gefylges | eadge bifon claene of rel from bearte | 
forSon fa god [ geseas ! eadge bif on fa fe f yrstas and hyncgras a'ftcr sof- 
faestnisse forfou fa gefylled bifon in ece Iff. eadge bi^on fa claene hearte 
bute esuice and eghwoelcum facne for? on liia geseas god iu ecnise) 



388 FACSIMILE No. 141 

v 




0106 OGofe& OOpUTH dbT}6l 

Tpguedi detndjem quoE 



duocs indpns ueLduos pedes 
hcc&enoein mrcq 




Spiioioe 




Uidece 

. , ^ 

uooil 





qunao . 

Setriperv inderro rocciein pcocKii 

i rrr i 

7T>ei Q^i incoceus 
Uepit? 




CANTERBURY GOSPELS. LATE EIGHTH CENTURY 

(et proice abs te bonum eVt tibi | ad vitam ingredi debilem quam | duas 
manus vel duos pedes | habentem mitti in ignem aeternam | Et si oculus tuus 
scandalizat te | erue eum et proice abs te . [ bonum tibi est cum uno oculo | 
in vitam intrare quaw duos | oculos habentem mitti | in geliennam ignis . 
Videte ne contemnatis unum | ex his pussillis dico enim vobis | quia angeli 
eorum in caelis | semper vident faciem patris | mei qui in caelis est | Venit 
enim filius hominis \ salvare quod perierat.) 



THE EARLY ENGLISH BOOK-HAND 



389 



re, 
X 




a 
o 



~_ i _ . 

S is 2 '- -u 
0> o 2 5 ? 
S.5.2 S g-s 
5 .S bo c 

-^-t (-i qj -^ 

-2 ~".2.2 * 

s -3 e 



7 3 *' m | 

5 ...2 A -" 



^j 'J2 , , t-> 



> C " 

1 



2S . S 



^ S* M s*? ' 






a a z 






. . 

'" ffl T5 -Q -u <B 2 

2 = S T g 

- 



< "" r^ O g G ^ 



- 



a 

OJ _4jj .^ 

- S 03 ^ 






390 



FACSIMILE No. 143 
/ 




BEDA'S MARTYROLO^ICM POETICUM. A.D. 811-14 

(Tempore posterior morum now flore secundus 
Jacobus servus doHi/ni pius atqc philippus 
Mirifico maias venerantur hoiiore kffllMdas 
His Ijinis sequitur pancratius idib?(i' insons 
Ter quinis marcus meruit pausare k((lt'dis 
lunius in nonis mundo miratur ademtam 
Et sunimis tatberhti animam tran sidera vecta> 
Atqi/c die vincens eandem bonifatius liostes 
Martyrio fortis bellator ad astra recessit 
InqMC suis quadris barnaban idib?(S aequat 
Gerbasius denis patitur ternisq(C kale^idis 
Protasius simul in regnurnqt/e perenne vocati 
Estq*(C iohannes bis quadiis baptista colendus 
Natalis pulchre feste plaudente corona 
Martyrio et paulus senis ovat atqe iohannes 
Doctores petrus et paulus ternis sociantur 
Maxima quos palraa clarat sibi lumina mundus) 



FACMMILE No. 144 391 



^ 




PASCHAL COMPUTATIONS. MIDDLE OF NINTH CEXTURY 

(foras limite/ . excludatur . Sed hii .iii. dies ] inducantur intra 
et desubto 1 j retrahantur . Constitutuwi esf ergo . in | ilia sinodo . ut ab .xi. kl. 
Apn'h's. usqe in .xii. | kl. Mai . Pa sea debeat observari . Et | nee. antea . nee 
postea . Cuicuiq;(t' consti ttitu* limitei transgrediendi esset . fa cultas . Simi- 
liter et de luna p^eceptuw di viiiuui teneatur . mandatuw* cst per moj'sen | sit 
\obis . observatuHi . a .xiiii. luna . usqw j xxi. Has ergo .vii. lunas . similiter . 
in | pasca . tenendas constat fuisse . conse cratas . Qando ergo fit . iiitra ilium | 
limitewj . a .xii. kl. April /s . usqc in .xi. kl. [ Mai .v. Dies dominicus et luna . 
Ex illis | viii. s<(c?ificata fuerit pasca . nobis | iusu* cst cglebrare .) 



392 



GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 



CHAP. 



in 



K 
t-t 
S 
H 

o 
fa 




PlA-frO^j 

s^tttfm 

^ifcf'i.fj 

_ s r -f-^ 

~. V: Q * c ^ 
^.^ rrrJ^^ 

JB . 5 b - -i? e -a 

- * _ .? >Q ff r- ^** 
_ J~- cE 'j' ^ E * 

s^^ r ^ ^_ ' Ex - 

^^c ^ - v~ W r 



- 
- 




c: 



i 
3 



o 

K 

S 

O 

x 

c 

'S, 

** 

Ul 



a 
z 
<S 



Ij^l-fl 

W) O p p S: 

'?! a 9 



. 

** -S 



-^ -^ 5 > 

J =3 S o -? 

' "B " 



QJ r* O ^ ^ 



s S * " 

^yH ffi j3 

''?" 
60 S a, 

.5 -2 
? -s -fl 

CJ ^ tn 

^ 42 

'w CD Ofi 
CD i. O 

i S 



a * 

5 ff ^3 



3: = !J5 

S O CD 

, oc 



w O Cj ^^ Qi - 

+_ -S H 



S s 



CD CD 
-S S ^3 

"S S 

O "* CD 

^ ^ 60 

- > CD 



"^ w ^^ p| 



O ^^ 
. OJ ^-i 



CD 
-i- 'O ^ 

III 

S W 

|S 

ill 



s o a 

C - o 

O CD 



S CD . 

43 CC r- 
03 S CS 



S ? . 
~$ S 
g^t^ 

o* S 

^S (D o 

^ ~ o ^S 

^H ^ es 
c 5: ^ <n 



03 3 "> ^ 

& ^ 'I -^ 
Q c^ o^ r^j 

ilf| 



O i , 



xvn THE EARLY ENGLISH BOOK-HAND 393 



Nothing could be finer of its kind than the broad, bold, style of this 
hand, carrying on the best traditions of its ancestor, the Roman half- 
uncial, and combining simplicity of form with symmetry in the structure 
of the letters. Although the MS. may have been executed abroad, the 
writing is purely native without any mark of foreign influence. 

For the next specimen a MS. is selected, containing chronological 
notes and computations, with lists of kings and bishops, etc. (Brit. Mas., 
Cotton. Vespasian B. vi). The lines here given come from Beda's 
Martyrologiurn Poetic urn. The MS. was written in Mercia between 
the years 811 and 814 (Cat. Am: J/,S.S. ii. 79; Pal. tioc. i. 165). 

No. 143 

The writing, being some eighty years later, is more laterally com- 
pressed than the preceding example, and is of the refined and elegant 
style which is found in many Mercian documents of this period, proving 
the existence of an advanced school of penmanship in the Mercian 
kingdom. 

In contrast with this elegant style of writing we find a hand 
practised chiefly in Wessex, and less widely in Kent, in which the letters 
are roughly formed and adopt in some instances peculiar shapes. The 
following specimen is taken from a MS. in the Bodleian Library (Digby 
MS. 63), which was written at Winchester, apparently before the 
year 863, and contains collections relating to the paschal cycle and other 
computations (Pal. 8oc. i. 168). 

No. 144 

It will be observed that in this MS., although the writing is cast 
into a fairly regular mould as a book-hand, the letters are rather 
straggling in shape : as for example long s and r. and particularly 
t, the bow of which is rather contracted and terminates in a short 
thickened stroke or dot. These characteristics show themselves more 
prominently in the more cursive writing of the Wessex charters. 

A MS. of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in Corpus Christ! College 
Library (no. 173), Cambridge, the text of which was taken up by 
different hands at successive intervals, affords a good example of 
a careful hand of about the year 891 (Xew PL &>c. 134). 

No. 145 

This again is a Wessex MS., written at Winchester, but showing 
none of the rather rustic peculiarities of the previous specimen, except 
in the heavy dot terminating final or disconnected t. Otherwise the 
writing is well formed and regular, such as a trained monastic scribe 
would write. 



394 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

The change which took place in the English pointed hand in the 
course of the tenth century is very marked, and towards the close of 
the century the influence of the Carolingian minuscule hand begins to 
assert itself, and even, under certain conditions, to usurp the place of 
the native hand. Characteristic is the disposition to flatten the top 
of such letters as a and q, and, so to say, cut it off at an oblique 
angle. This is well shown in the following specimen from the col- 
lection of Anglo-Saxon poetry in the Wessex dialect in a volume 
known as the 'Exeter Book', belonging to the Chapter Library of 
Exeter (no. 3501), written in the middle of the century (New P<d 
8oc. 9). 



Xo. 146 



The large scale on which the text is written renders this M.S. of 
particular value as a standard example of the Anglo-Saxon hand of the 
tenth century. The advance upon the writing of the ninth century is 
conspicuous in the growing squareness of the letters, in contrast with 
the more elegant pointed style of the older period : and yet something 
of that elegance remains in the balance of light and heavy strokes in 
the formation of the letters. 

A little later is the next specimen from a Latin Psalter in Salisbury 
Chapter Library (MS. 150) of about the year 969, with an interlinear 
Anglo-Saxon gloss (Pal. Hoc. i. 18D). 

No. 147 

The text is written with regularity in well-formed minuscules ; but 
the influence of the foreign school can be detected in the fluctuations of 
certain forms, as e.g. in the letter s, the round shape being more 
generally used than the long Saxon letter, and the tall Carolingian letter 
also appearing (lines 1 and '2). 

The establishment of the foreign minuscule hand as an independent 
form of writing in England will engage our attention when the history 
of that script will be treated as a whole and its progress throughout 
the different countries of Western Europe will be taken into one view. 
But here it should lie noticed that foreign minuscules generally take 
the place of the native hand in the course of the tenth century for 
Latin texts, while the Saxon writing still holds its own for texts in the 
vernacular. Thus, in charters of this period we find the two styles 
standing side by side, the body of the document, in Latin, being written 
in the foreign minuscule hand, and the boundaries of the property con- 
veyed, expressed in Anglo-Saxon, being in the native hand. This foreign 
invasion naturally made its chief impression in the south. 

To bring the tenth century to a close, we select an example from 



XVII 



THE EARLY ENGLISH BOOK-HAND 



395 



00 

c 




s a 

? P- 



10 

Ci 



*i 

J.s 

so S 

'- j 

1 

* e 



0) 

-3 O 

c 2 

^ to 



< 
! bo 



g, 



s g a 



e a 

tT' 






c 

^ 



00 



O 

M 



;: s 

^ ~ 



a * 

. a g 

1 bo ? S 

~ 

-sM 




JllS 8 "^ 



g| 

.'tn" S 



'? i 2 

111 

" c i 



o S 3 Z. 
"a" S j2 ^ -3 



o JS 



so 

C ra 
^.o'S 



bo 



^2 ' 



C TSrfS 
COg, 



,a o bo 



396 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 



FACSIMILE No. 147 







t 

srmu munles 












PSALTER. ABOUT A.D. 969 

(qui faciad boniu . non esf uscprc ad untuu | [Domi]ns de cgio prospexit super 
filios hominum.' tit videad si est intellegens aut requirens deum | [O'mnes 
declinaverunt . simul inutiles j facti stint.' non est qui faciat bonuw | non est 
usque ad unum | ^S]epulchrum patens est guttur eorww. || Gloss: ]>& do god 
na of) on anne | drihten of heofena besceawaj) ofer bear j manna ]xct geseo 
gif is ynderstan^dende o^Se secende drihten | ealle fram ahyldan tetgasdere 
unnyt | gedone synd na is }>a do god ( iia is o\> on anuw | byrigen opengende 
is celo heora) 



XVII 



THE EARLY ENGLISH BOOK-HAND 



397 




j^SJ^o,-, 

1 -" 3 a a 
5 3 &.2 
^ o g-S g 

'3 o ; 5 
S^s S 

61 1. II .s 



-*J "" -*J ' 

-w c > -" 

^ - - s r o 

- a-s s s 

1 e-^ S 



"S S -i 



0) 



oe 

e 



' 



srl 

l'3 & 

-. . _ ^^ . 
GJ O ^ 

" 05 *^ 

T2 . O ^ -/: 

QJ ;n * -i '-3 

I-" 3 -! 

tl!- 9g 



a 
DQ 



a ^ -s 
s*sS.S-f. 

^^_2 u 
S s a 5.3 
n -.S g^s 

r- ffi S-> 03 "- 

S'S * a 1 

l'3< g ^ 
o ^ 1.3 

-S ' =s '3 

! a | " 

i .lii-^,8 

5< S o "" 

1 k a o ' 

^ S JH 
EH ^ "S "g 

o ' p 5 3 
^31-.;; 

lilgj 

"" -i " * M 
^i R 43 n 



398 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

a pontifical, apparently of the church of Sherborne, in Dorset, now in 
the Bibliotheque Nationals (MS. lat. 943), Paris, which was written 
about A.D. 992-5 (Xew Pal. Soc. Ill, 112). 

No. 148 

This very handsome writing, executed with the precision required for 
a volume intended for public service, maintains the characteristics of 
its century unimpaired, and might pass for the script of some fifty years 
earlier, church service-books being naturally conservative in execution. 

The beginning of the eleventh century is an epoch of decided change 
in the native minuscule hand. It cannot any longer be called a pointed 
hand. The body of the letters increases in squareness, the growth of 
which we have noticed in the tenth century, and the limbs extending 
above and below the line become longer than before. In a word, the 
writing has by this time lost the compactness and graceful penmanship 
of the earlier period. 

The change is to be attributed to the exterior influence of the foreign 
style which is marked in the eleventh century by u meagreness of form 
contrasting very decidedly with the calligraphic fullness of the earlier 
script. 

In a specimen taken from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in Corpus 
Christi College, Cambridge, described above (no. 145), we have a very 
good illustration of the new style of the eleventh century. It is from 
the portion of the Chronicle written up in the year 1001 (Neiv Pal. 
Soc. 136). 

No. 149 

In this hand the general meagreness of the script, the departure from 
the pointed style, the lengthening of limbs above and below the line, 
referred to above, are all full}- present, although the MS. has only just 
turned the century. It is probable that in this example, written in a 
busy centre such as Winchester, we may see the work of a scribe practising 
the newest style of his time. Many MSS. of actually later date are not 
so advanced, having perhaps been written in places where life moved 
more placidly. 

Another typical example is a MS. of the Latin-English grammar of 
^Elfric, Abbot of Cerne in Dorset, now in the Cambridge University 
Library (MS. HH. 1. 10), written in the first half of the eleventh 
century (Nev: Pal. Soc. 137). 

No. 150 

This is an instance of writing in two alphabets, the scribe being 
equally versed in the continental minuscule for the Latin portions of 



XVII 



THE EARLY ENGLISH BOOK-HAND 



399 



g 
-_ 




i td 

fi __^ ^ ^ >"_ *> 

; 14-4= I Ijf-Tfe 



V 

fc 

c 



^ ^ 8w. 



Jr'^J 

^ ^ r^r-^ 




Q 



o 

X 



ti||1 

s - ^ ^ 

2*1 --r 

-el ^r-='i 
a ti>~~^: 
*s c .~ -5 

^ - .- ; 



S O > 



'& a, Z P * ^ 

"3 2 3 ?. "s .2 
to a - >> ^ ^ 

3 a a 







S B " O 9 

>.J 5^^ | 

- '-" ~~ 
a e Sb s S2 ^ 

o 53- 



d.~ = 

5 f 1 3 1 

* 



400 GKEEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

FACSIMILE Xo. 150 



pmrrrro itrpfufttf docekir aTr-jni TtfltiWc mi <rn . 
'jivtrrtrv t>|ta'doml frar A7ioB.i'priTnn)Ti--m)i 

i.JC 1 P r j . 1 1/ 

nunuo tuodo-ciocen Jme nolo-TcWl?? 
4ocon .indb xioltmi-'pr pyllaf> nttan- Ac 

I / 1 1 \. 



- 
ucrb^lunch.pc. docenJi. Jocendo- Joc^ncjij. 

\ docendV^nuv brar CDOT- 



eft tn. me it- rr>rir<^nr. oatef -puerp 

litffjc |>u cyb TD l^nennr. uifdofe ire.pylr li 

1 SV /\ V 1 mf 

fcWtu uem-trpa.nj lane iccom.]?a/ 
i a> calln hadutn -it 



u? mjixan gecc.-|n><?tttm cyntir. 
rple Liliomr docendo -puerof fpypr lie fp 
rflcttntt ^atn clfu-Ifli inoniauf tlIffC 



a?cctit>r 
mr * r 



GRAMMAR. EARLY ELEVENTH CENTURY 

(Preterite iiiperfecto doceb.itr a te . ]ni taehtest nu aer . | Preterite pe^fecto . 
doctu/ erat a nobis . we taehton . ami swa | for'S . Infinitive mode . doceri a 
me vole . ie wylle | tsecan . doceri a nobis volum?(s . we wyllaf taecan . Ac j 
f>ises gemetes nis nan need . Gerundia vc\ partici palia verba sunt liec . docendi . 
docendo . docendum . | doctum . doctu . Tenipws cst docendi . tima hit ys to 
taejcenne . docendo loquor . taecende ic sprece . docenduwt | est mihi . me is 
to tjccenne . Habes pueros ad docendmw | lisufst )?u cyld to Iterenne . vis 
doctuw ire . wylt \>u \ gan t&caii . Doctu veni . fram lare ic com . f>a | word 
magon to eallum hadum and to eallum tydum and to aegtSrum getele . and to 
aolcum cynne . Multum | ipse laborat docendo pueros . swyfie he swync | 
taecende pam cyldu/w . Ipsa monialis vigilat dojcendo puellas . se mineceiiu 
wacaft taBcende pa> j masden cyldum . Legendo docetitr vir . et legendo) 



XVII 



THE EARLY ENGLISH BOOK-HAND 



401 







P 






1HM|I 

-g>| C u ^ 

Sr ; 1L 1 ^ 

- fii 1 1 r 

r-^ ^ 
9+ 
C^M^ 
^^ 







2 rt rt 

- o> 2 - 

& a g 

^ H : 

^=2 tjoj 
B i 

3 h H 
s- -2- ; 



SC 

c 



1X5 03 

i ss"|- 



m 

* 



E-i 
- 



Q 

J5 



O 

-*J rH 

a s 



o e 



- 

O 






c3 F? 
cS 



i-a 



- 



a s :! 



cc 
6 



S 8 ' 



o B 
^ a 
- ? 
.S jo 



- 

ID c 



CO 73 
. B 



73 03 "^ 

bj) 

3 O 

J tc - 
"o , o 



Dd 



402 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 

the text, and in the Anglo-Saxon script for the vernacular. It will be 
observed that he is careful to keep up the distinction even between 
such letters of the two alphabets as might be easily interchanged ; for 
example, the Anglo-Saxon form of e is differentiated from the foreign 
letter only by a small hook at the back of the loop. 

To close our Anglo-Saxon specimens we give a facsimile from a MS. 
written near the middle of the century and within appreciable distance 
of the Norman Conquest, a copy of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (Brit. 
Mus., Cotton, Tiberius B. i) of about the year 1045 (Pal. Soc. i. 242). 

No. 151 

This is a good hand, written with great firmness and regularity, 
and heavier in style than the two previous specimens ; with the ten- 
dency to square formation and to long limbs above and below the line, 
characteristic of the period. 

With the Norman Conquest the native English form of writing was 
doomed. From the tenth century, as we have seen, the continental 
minuscule had been displacing it as the handwriting for Latin 11 SS. 
There remained for it only books composed in the native tongue ; and 
there it continued, for a certain time, to survive, but gradually losing 
its independent character, and being evermore overshadowed and super- 
seded by the new writing of the continental school, until at length the 
memory of the old hand survives in our modern writing only in the 
paradoxical employment of the letter y to represent the old Saxon long 
thorn )>. We break oft* then, with the period of the Norman Conquest as 
virtually marking the end of the English hand of the Anglo-Saxon type. 



CHAPTER XVIII 
LATIN PALAEOGEAPHY (continued) 

The Minuscule Book-hand in. the Middle Ages 

WE have now examined the various national handwritings of 
Western Europe, as they were developed within the borders of their 
respective countries. We have seen how they had their origin in 
different styles of Roman writing, and how they followed their own lines 
and grew up in different forms under different conditions. We have now 
to gather the threads together and follow the course of the handwritings 
of Western Europe along a new line. One form of handwriting had 
been developed, which by its admirable simplicity recommended itself 
at once as a standard script. The Carolingian minuscule, which we 
have already found brought to perfection at Tours and at other centres 
of France, was the literary hand of the Frankish Empire, and extended 
its influence and was gradually adopted in neighbouring countries. 
But at the same time, with this widespread use of the reformed hand, 
uniformity of character could not be ensured. National idiosyncrasies 
show themselves as manifestly in the different scripts of different 
peoples as they do in their mental and moral qualities ; and, although 
the Carolingian minuscule hand formed the basis of all modern writing 
of Western Europe, which thus started with more chance of uniformity 
than the old national hands which we have been discussing, yet the 
national character of each country soon stamped itself upon the adopted 
script. Thus in the later middle ages we have again a series of 
national hands, developed from the Carolingian minuscule, and clearly 
distinguishable from each other, although in some degree falling into 
groups. 

We now follow the course of the mediaeval minuscule script as a book- 
hand, reserving for a later chapter what we have to say regarding the 
more cursive styles used in official and legal documents. 

We have already described the final calligraphic moulding of the 
Carolingian minuscule book-hand, the literary hand of the Frankish 
Empire. Its course through the ninth and tenth centuries, particularly 
on the Continent, can be traced with fair precision by means of the 
excellent facsimiles which have been published during recent years. 
Its general characteristics during the ninth century, at least in the 
better written examples, are these : the contrast of fine and heavy 

Dd 2 



404 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 

strokes is marked, the old 'tendency to thicken or club the stems of tall 
letters, as in b, d, h, is still maintained ; the letter a is often in the open 
u-form, and the bows of the letter g frequently remain unclosed, some- 
what after the fashion of the numeral 3. In the tenth century, the 
strokes are usually of less solidity ; the clubbing gradually declines ; 
the open a (in its pure form) is less frequently used, and the upper 
bow of g closes. No fixed laws can, however, be laid down for dis- 
tinguishing the MSS. of the two centuries, and the characteristics 
which have been named must not be too rigidly exacted. As in all 
other departments of our subject, practice and familiarity are the best 
guides ; and. as a considerable number of MSS. written in this book- 
hand have survived, many of them of classical and other literary value, 
the student will not find the time wasted which he will bestow in 
acquiring a nearer acquaintance with this form of writing, and in thus 
preparing himself to form a judgement of the ages of the undated MSS. 
in the series. 

In dealing with a type of book-hand so widely diffused as was 
the Carolingiaii minuscule in Western Europe, we must expect givat 
diversity of style, of personal or local character, among surviving MSS. 
Naturally we look for the best written examples within the boundaries 
of France itself, and necessarily a less accomplished style in parts more 
distant, and thus more removed from the central influence of the 
reformed hand. Hence in the following series of examples it will 1 it- 
found that there are variations which are to be explained as resulting 
from the above conditions, and that one common standard is not to be 
set up for MSS. written in different districts and countries. 

Our first example is from a MS. of St. Augustine contra F<iu*hii,i 
at Lyons (MS. 610), which was presented to the cathedral church by 
Bishop Leidrade who held the see in A.I). 798-814, and which may there- 
fore be placed in the early years of the ninth century (Xfir Pl. 
Soc. 58). 

No. 152 

The writing here is of the French type, showing the Carolingian 
minuscule still in a progressive stage but fairly on its way toward* 
calligraphic completion. The old-fashioned form of the letter a will be 
noticed in places, when following r ; as well as the occasional employment 
of the high-shouldered form of the last-named letter, and the use of the 
combined et, both as a separate word and as part of another word. It is 
true that such survivals persist even to later times, but they become 
gradually more exceptional. 

For the next specimen a MS. with a curious history is selected. 
This is a volume of Lives of the Fathers by Pa^ehasius and others, now 
in the Royal Library of Brussels (MS. 8215-18), which was commenced 



405 



- 

s 



6. 




406 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

during a military expedition and was completed at the Abbey of 
St. Florian near Linz in Upper Austria in A.D. 819 (New Pal. Soc. 31). 

No. 153 

In this example, an instance of a MS. written at a distance from 
restraining and correcting influence, the writing lacks the more perfect 
finish. The letters are of a thinner type ; the tall main strokes rather 
meagre. The prevalent, though not universal, employment of the open 
a, rather of the old double-c form, will be noticed. 

Two MSS. written by order of Baturich, Bishop of Regensburg, and 
formerly belonging to the monastery of St. Kmmeran of Regensburg, 
may be taken as illustrating the Carolingian minuscule written in 
Germany early in the ninth century. The first is a volume of theological 
and canonical tracts, now in the Royal Library in Munich (MS. Lat. 
14468), dated A.D. 821 (Pal. Soc. i. 122). 

No. 154 

The handwriting is of a good character, though it does not rise to 
the standard of the best-written MSS. of France. The clubbing of the 
tall main strokes is partial : open a is rarely used : an instance of the 
employment of the high-shouldered cursive r in conjunction with t will 
be observed in line 7. 

The second MS. from Regensburg is the commentary of St. Augustine 
on the First Epistle of St. John, now at Munich (MS. Lat. 14437), of the 
year 823 (Pal. Soc. i. 123). 

No. 155 

This writing is more archaic in style than the foregoing example. 
The open a is in general use, of the double-c type. The clubbing of tall 
main strokes is fairly consistent. An instance of the surviving cursive i, 
drawn under the line after r, will be seen in line 7. 

A MS. of the Capitularia, or Constitutions, of Charlemagne in the 
Library of St. Gall (Cod. 733) provides our next example. It was 
written in A.D. 8'J5 (Pal. Soc. i. 20! M. 

No. 156 

This hand approaches more nearly to the French type in the contrast 
of light and heavy strokes, and in the more ornamental clubbing of the 
vertical main strokes. The two forms, too, of a are used at discretion, 
the open letter, it will be noticed, being not exactly of the double-c type, 
but rather following the Franco-Lombardic (Corbie) pattern as seen 
above in Facs. 128, the first limb being pointed and the second only 
having the curved head of a c. 



XVIII 



THE LATIN MINUSCULE BOOK-HAND 



407 



cc 



o 




C *' '" 

s. 



U * a i3 



S CH"O S 

c g B 

s * S o 

'- < .S ~ 

2 3 i 

lilt 
o'STS 



s -72- 

= ^ 

O 

~ 



x 

= 



~ C fct 

3 32 3 

'-3 33 a 

3 ?* 'O * 

s S^-S 



'S "S '?. "= 

! rti *-* ,-* 



< .^ : 



I 2 I 

ai c* c 



= = SL-H S 

= ="= 3 

5 "-S ^ 



|J 

C rn $ -*-! 



-** O ^ * 

* ^ ^* 

^ F ^* ^ c3 

0) .^ CJ . fc- 

3; o 22 S 

1 .2 ' S 

^ s o S S 

v5- So'S "S .* 



408 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 



FACSIMILE No. 154 



ftcommu 



v 



<zu\a 

fcu> rftrnUum. 
ojTurrc \e\ur\\\f A/tru^n 







THEOLOGICAL TKACTS. A.D. 821 

(capti sunt et cum illis gentiliter convixerunt cum | adhuc ad romaniam 
iuvenes venerint si commu nionem petierint quid eis observandum sit 
Si convivio solo gentilium et gscis immolaticis usi | sunt possunt ieiuniis 
et manus inpositione pur!gari ut deinceps idolaticis abstinentes sacramewj 
torum chr/sd possint esse participes > Si autem | aut idolum adoraverunt aut 
homicidiis vel forni cationibus contaminati sunt ad communionem) 



xvni THE LATIN MINUSCULE BOOK-HAND 409 



FACSIMILE No. 155 




ST. AUGUSTINE. A.D. 8^ 



(sic et vos inaneatis in eternum - J quia talis ettf (jui-ij/f <|alis | eius dilectio 
es< : Terrain diligis .- terra eris : dewm diligis .- | quid dicam dots eris ? Non 
audeo dicere ex me .- scribtur as" ] audiamus.- ego dixi dii estis et filii excelsi 
omncs ; si ergo | vultis esse dii et filii altissimi- nolite diligere mundum 
neqf ea quae snnt in mundo si quis dilexerit mundum | non e*f caritas 
patris in illo .- quia omnia quae sunt in | mundo desiderium carnis est et 
desideriuw oculomm | et ambitio seoili quae non e*t ex patre sed <-x 
mundo est ) 



410 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 



FACSIMILE No. 156 



... 



' 



>~"- v 
ufrrw*e AufceurrtT* QjM&prxfVi?. , 

i ^^ v 

&u<?ri w rerrnuT A*vo> o n CY?^ 






<3 




CONSTITUTIONS OF CHARLEMAGNE. A. D. 825 

(mereamini ; Scit naniqwe pru.dentia \estra. qtiawi terribili | anathematis 
censura ferientur | Qui presumptiose contra statu ta universalia concilio- 
rum | venire audeunt. Quaproptf/- | et vos diligentius ammonems | ut omni 
mtentione illud orribile execrationew iudicio | vobis capere studeatis : Sed 
magis canonica instituta sequences et pacificawz unitatew nitentes | ad 
aeterne pacis gaudia perveni(re) 



XYIII THE LATIN MINUSCULE BOOK-HAND 411 

A fine example of the Carolingian minuscule in the best style is 
a copy of the Gospels (Brit. Mus., Harley MS. 2790) which was given by 
Herimann, Bishop of Nevers, to the cathedral church of St. Cyr of 
Nevers. Herimann held the bishopric from A.D. 840 to 860; and it 
seems probable that he would have presented the MS. early in his 
episcopate. We may, then, fairly place the period of its execution before 
the middle of the century. As the MS. is of palaeographical value as a 
standard of handsome writing, specimens are given of two different hands 
(Brit, Mus., Cat. Anc. MSS. ii. 24; Pal. Soc. i. 239). 

Nos. 157, 158 

In the first hand there is a greater effort at an ornamental style, the 
letters deliberately formed, and the open a inclining to the double-c type 
common. The second hand is an excellent example of the finished form 
of the Carolingian minuscule used generally for texts. In both hands 
the surviving influence of the half-uncial hand is seen in such a detail 
as the sweeping head-stroke of the letter r. 

Another perfect example of the same period is to be found in the 
Gospels of the Emperor Lothair (A.D. 840-55), executed in the middle 
of the century in the Abbey of St. Martin of Tours and now preserved 
in the Bibliotheque Rationale in Paris (MS. lat. 266 ; Album 
Paleogr. 22). 

No. 159 

For such a book the most skilful writers were of course employed, 
and the handwriting was formed in the most accurate and finished 
style of the new school. 

This MS. and the Gospels of Nevers, it is to be noted, being texts of 
the Scriptures, naturally follow the more conservative style, and there- 
fore should be compared with the MS. of Quedlinburg, quoted above 
(Facs. 132, 133). It will be seen that the fine standard of writing 
therein achieved, at the beginning of the century, is maintained in these 
two Gospel MSS. : and the script of the three examples may be accepted 
as the purest form of the Carolingian minuscule of the ninth century. 

A MS. of Beda De Temporum Katione in the British Museum (Cotton 
MS.. Vespasian B. vi), written before A.D. 848, is an example of the 
Carolingian minuscule used for a secular work, and is therefore less con- 
servatively written than the Gospel MSS. which have been last discussed 
(Pal. Soc. i. 166, 167). 

No. 160 

The writing is a good specimen of the usual t\-pe of the ninth 
century which was carried on without much variation into the tenth 



GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

FACSIMILE No. 157 



Coco 




* / 




etdicen/T 



Ac-dp er-ermaj~tctm conti_t v ?-em 

I ~ ' - 

^eccricc/ce^-cu.r^de/pcj./co e/^- paj-T.ec 



f 



- r) 



ou.U^rntuj.r77 
ocActcC> n 









GOSPELS OF NEVERS. ABOUT A.D. 840 

(et nollet earn traducere voluit occulte | dimittere earn . Haec autem eo cogi- 
tanjte ecce angelus dowmi in somnis apparuit | ei dicens . Joseph fili david noli 
timere | aecipere mariam coniugem tuam . quod | enim ex ea nascetur de 
spiritu sancto est . Pariet | autem filium et vocabis nomen eius iesum | Ipse 
enim salvum faciet populum suum a peccatis eorum . Hoc autem totum 
faotum est . | ut adimpleretur quod dictum est a domino \ per prophetam 
dicentem . Ecce virgo) 



xvni THE LATIN MIXl'SCTLE BOOK-HAND 413 



FACSIMILE No. 158 







aui 



e-rr^fXf^ 



01 

i) 




tmbutatnone- e*rTxr~/ 

GOSPELS OF NEVERS. ABOUT A.D. 840 

nis qui audit verbuin regni et non intellegi" L t i Yenit malus et rapit quod 
seminatum est | in corde eius . Hie est qui secus viam seminatus | est Qui 
autem super petrosa seminatus est | Hie est qui verbum audit et continue 
cum | gaudio accipit illud non habet autem in se | radicem sed est temporal^ . 
facta autem | tribulatione et persecutione propter ver) 



414 GREEK AND LATIX PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 



FACSIMILE No. 159 



CJ uid-c- pvcilm 
nrur^ 
. xndtcer-er 



u r n am t ni 



Tlbtdico 



fttrjtr. 



tt\b ite i nd 



orh u 

GOSPELS OF LOIHAIR. ABOUT A. D. 850 

(Quid esi facilius dicere | dimittuntur tibi | peccata . an dicere | surge et 
ambula? | Ut autem sciatis quia | filius hominis potesjtatem habet in terra | 
dimittere peccata ; | Ait paralytico . tibi dico | surge . et tolle lectum | tuum . 
et vade in domum | tuam ; Et confestim \ surgens coram illis | tulit in quo 
iacebat | et abiit in domum suaw() 



xvn i 



THE LATIN MINUSCULE BOOK-HAND 



415 



o 

fc 



cc 
O 



* V * 

P 3 L <r - 

=5 Jl f |1Ti 



^3 




S .s s S : s 1 &- 

|1|J| ai| 
.ll"| s 1 s 

Jj fl S rS -2 '^ "5 

=_ST* g^-r 



30 

* 

X 



S-3 g 3:s 
C _S > 



J 



8 

T3 



3 
cr 1 



a *, IT; 

O 'S S< ! 

a) a ^ ,a> 



Jl 



? 3 
i 

a 

33 



o> 

*= 33 

a & 

flj O 

rs -2 



2 _ 

^ 

rr> rf 



*~^ S ^ 

g "9 12 

K> l~* 

^ 

S "H .2 : p 

- c ^ 



: .t? o 

2 > 



d ^ o :- 

5,^-g" 



2 > ^ 



a 
33 



a <B 

T3 

' a> 

33 

r O 



3, g 

s 



'a I'M 

c ^ 2 ? 
S 3 2 > 



2 A.2 g 






o d 

*r^ 

S 

33 ^ 



: ;.as 

'S r" ^ 



^s gag 

rr rZ ""t ~ 



d > 



33 a 
o 

.-]. 



S" 3 ^ 

5S i^ 

33 "3 

a 3-3 a 

-^ a ?, 

^ ^ 

' p.2 

5 h - 



so ' .5 > -S 



r3 o 
d 



, X o s > 

:! c- S 

;: s-2 s 



416 



GREEK AND LATIN PA1.A K( )( JRAPHY 



CHAP. 



:; 

PP'P 

Q M *-. *? es JU 



-.r 




o -; .4. o o 



x 

cc 



O 

n 



O 



. 

.2 3 



o o 

^&s < 

|'1| 

1* !r 1 



S 8 ' .5 *f> S 

'S :s S 03 '03 o '5 
o 'o .2 .2 S _o_ 

7^ 2 "? "a; S/T~ 



aj o 
& ~ 



c ss 

s^ 

a) 5" 



o 

a 



o 

03 SH 



r2 S 
CO 

o 1 

& 

<X> O 



O Q) 

a 
II 

"^ 

2 ' 
Tc.J 

'o "S 
S 9 

o 
d 



oj ^ - 
^ ( C* O 

^ 2 M 

* 01 
f 1 1 3 

03 <^i c3 o 

^ co ^_, t^ 

^ ?! rt o^ 
WH ^ 

_ ^ Q c^ 

o o g 1 ^ 

a a. a 

'53 '53 ft 

.g.a s 

.2-2al 

6c be. H 3 

- '"^ in o 
0) 0) .2 Tn 



| 


- - 



,2-S 

a 3 ^ 

"S o 

2 



.2? c - a 



S 2 so 'a, 

I if; 



s 

I' 



' J3 S 

1 o a - 



an 



c .a 



C 5 

o 5 1 



'S o 
g"? 

O I/ 



^ is N g ^ a 
-. -^ ? s o 



a 3 .2 S 



8- 1 



xvni THE LATIN MINUSCULE BOOK-HAND 417 

century, having now settled down into a fairly conventional character, 
with only occasional reminiscences of the lingering influence of the Roman 
cursive. The contrast of light and heavy strokes is still fairly maintained 
and the clubbing of vertical main strokes continues ; on the other hand 
the open a becomes less frequent, and the upper bow of the old 
3-shaped g gradually closes. 

To conclude the ninth century we give a specimen from a MS. of the 
Canons of the Second Council of Constantinople, written at St. Gall 
(Cod. 672) about A. D. 888 (Pol '. i. 186). 

No. 161 

In this writing we recognize a different style from the MSS. of 
France : a greater tendency to slope the letters, and a loss of symmetry 
in their formation. The MS. is interesting as being one of the earliest 
displaying these characteristics, which later marked the script of MSS. 
written in Germany. The letter g is particularly characteristic. 

The transition from the ninth to the tenth century is not prominently 
defined in the Carolingian minuscule book-hand. As a general rule, in 
the latter century the writing may be classed as of a thinner type, the 
clubbing of the vertical main strokes not so pronounced, open a less 
frequently employed, and the bows of the letter g showing a tendency 
to close up. But exceptions so frequently occur, and the influence of 
locality also appears to have been so determining a factor in the 
character of the script employed (old-fashioned hands, as it seems, 
prevailing in isolated places, while the newer and more advanced style 
would be in vogue in the busier centres), that no exact rules can be 
safely laid down for deciding the ages of the MSS. of this period. Our 
difficulties are further increased by the comparative scarcity of examples 
bearing actual dates within the tenth century. Therefore, perhaps 
more than in any other period, does it seem expedient to exercise 
caution in discriminating between MSS. in this script of the ninth and 
tenth centuries. 

Our first specimen of the tenth century is selected from a MS. which, 
in the style of its writing, satisfies the general conditions of this period, 
as noted above. The MS. is a collection of Alcuin's Letters (Brit. Mus., 
Royal MS. 8 E. xv). which may be assigned to the early years of the 
century (Cat. An-. .!//>' >'. ii. 87). 

Nu. 162 

The generally thin character of the letters, the absence of the open 
a, and the closing up of the ring of the g, are points to be noted. 

In the next example we find a rather more conservative style. This 



i. u 



418 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

is a copy of the Gospels (Brit. Mus., Royal MS. 1 A. xviii) which was 
given by King yEthelstan (A. D. 925-40) to the church of St. Augus- 
tine, Canterbury, written in Germany early in the tenth century (Cat. 
Anc. MSS. ii. 37). The volume was a gift to ^thelstan from his brother- 
in-law, the Emperor Otto (A.D. 936-73). 

No. 163 

As a MS. of the Scriptures the writing, in accordance with observed 
practice, follows an older pattern and retains much of the general 
character of the ninth century ; but its want of uniformity and the 
formation of certain letters indicate a later date. 

A MS. in the British Museum (Add. MS. 22820) containing the 
commentary of Rabanus Maurus on Jeremiah, was written by order of 
Mayeul, Abbot of Cluny from 948 to 994. It was probably executed 
at an early period of his abbacy, and may be placed in the middle of 
the century. Specimens of two different hands are here given (Pal. Soc. 
ii. 109, 110). 

No. 164 

This is a somewhat old-fashioned hand, retaining some of the charac- 
teristics of the ninth century, as in the clubbing of the vertical main 
strokes. It will be noticed also that the scribe makes use of three 
forms of a, one of them being the open letter. On the other hand the 
letter g is closed up ; and there is a certain squareness, or loss of pliancy, 
in the general formation of the letters. 

No. 165 

This hand is more palpably of the later style, of the tenth century, 
in the general meagreness of the script and in the increasing squareness 
in the formation of the letters. But here also the scribe employs three 
forms of a, of which the open letter appears with unusual frequency. 

The peculiarities of these two hands are of interest, for they may be 
regarded as marking apparently a conservative tendency to follow old 
models in the locality where the MS. was produced : viz. Cluny in East- 
central France. 

Another example of the Carolingian minuscule, written in the extreme 
west of France, is in a MS. of the De Ojjiciis Ecclesiastic la of Amalarius 
of Metz, now in the library of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge 
(MS. 192), written in the Breton monastery of Landevenec, Finisterre, 
in A. D. 952 (New Pal. Soc. 109). 

No. 166 

Here a more disconnected style prevails. The letters in most in- 
stances standing apart, with more than ordinary spacing; and their 



xvni THE LATIX MINUSCULE BOOK-HAND 419 



FACSIMILE No. 162 



J 



u 



princtf tK^p A&cxr-rT 



ALCUIX. EARLY TEXTH CENTURY 

(Domino beatissimo atq?<e omni honore nominando | dignissimo leoni papae . 
humilis levita albinus ae ternae glon'ae in chmfo salutem . Suscipiat obsecro 
mnctis sima pietas ves/ra pater clarissime benivolo animo | nos/rae parvitatis 
litterulas . et me devotum vca^rae dilec;tionis famulum agnosce . semper 
sc?ae romanae sedis | beatissimos quantum valid principes et pastores j 
amavi . Cupiens illorum sowcfissimis intercessionibus | inter oves 
numerari . quas dominus chvistits post resurre) 



420 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

f 



FACSIMILE No. 163 



V f ACOD !* I Acofc 




GOSPELS OF KING .ETHELSTAN. EARLY TENTH CENTURY 

(genuit iacob ; Jacob autem .' genuit ] iosep virum marie ; de qua natus | est 
iesHS .' qui vocatur christits . ; \ Omcs .' ergo generationes ab | abraliam usque 
ad david | regem generationes sunt qua tuordecim . et ad david usque | ad 
tranamigrationem babilonis | generationes sunt quatuorde|decim . ; Et a 
transmigratione) 



XVIII 



THE LATIX MINUSCULE BOOK-HAND 



421 



o 

fc 

K 




li-f' : 3 

&* 5 *^ .a :S 



*j O) ^ ^ ^7 



oc 






^ g . T3 -_H 



- H^i-a 



O 

2 "a 



< S|.= |^ 






U & Z =- a 

r ' '" 2 S 



.2 
-*^ -f. 

-2 = 

o J3 



= = 9 2 



oJ '5 c ~ ~ rs 
^ '3 i _a * S JT 



< a; g .; = a 
H * o'^S 

-*J O -*7 > 



. 
o -s 



O < 0) O 
0-^-r: 






j* H. 
-5^-^ =. 

?! ~ _ ? F 
=T.= ^I 

8 * S I S 



' 



-g 2 -^ j ~" 



422 



GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 



CHAP. 



IO 

<o 




? Ol <K ^ O 

3 5 .5 R -is 



CO 

5 

05 



cc 



CO 
p 
Z 



M 



. . 

I 1 * "55 1 3 



c 

& 

! - 



. 

i-S'S 3 s g 
all-ill 

- a - > 'B .- 

S ~ - <s ~ s . 
s s = rt c\ 

rs - i 

1 js -s -a "I s 

3 -2 H - g w 



'S ' * > * < 

5 ~w =2 6 e t> = 

o p ;t3 . 1 

8 " i *3 i- "o 

Ws C "^ ^ 5 i: 

-w e -2 ej CH 

o , , ^ x ~~ ~^ 



e. -- s 
5 g" == S-S 

S 8 1 g =,_c_.a 

S S S s 's '.s -u 
c ^ c-5^ 
.2 '3 03 5 c T; 

" = 



8 



c^ cj s S o c 

^ ~" _ ^ 

" n ^ '^- -^ " H!3 



O 5 - C 
B -fci fl ~ C 

O M C IB 01 c* 



XVIII 



THE LATIN MINUSCULE BOOK-HAND 



423 



O 



g 


QQ 

Q 

< 




i 



i -t o 0> S 

S <s ~- -^ - 

o . ^3 = 3 

> a a 

- 5 n '3 P 



3 C3 ' 



^ r< 'S 

a a 



H |-^_^o 1 "S 



11^1 g |l 

S m IX ~2 a B 



5 S 5 g ~ 

3 E, 1 - 1 ^3 -5 i 



_ 

= '- Z '" % ^ ^ 



^- ^ K w 

-; JO .2 2 3 

-S "o> "S S % o! ri 

SlS-i IS 

i Ji -5 S 01 

= -^ i ^ 3 S'S 



424 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 

general formation tending to squareness. The scribe does not use the 
open a ; on the other hand his g is of the old open pattern, and to some 
extent he follows the old style in clubbing vertical main strokes. But 
the spacing and the square formation of letters are indications that the 
tradition of the Carolingian school is passing away and that we are 
approaching a new phase in the mediaeval book-hand. 

In the eleventh century lies the period in which the handwritings 
of the different countries of Western Europe, cast and consolidated in 
the new mould, began to assume their several national characters, and 
which may be said to be the starting-point of the modern hands em- 
ploying the Roman lettering. In the course of the century many old 
practices and archaisms which had lingered were cast off, and general 
principles were more systematically observed. The words of the text 
were now more systematically separated from one another : abbreviations 
and contractions were more methodical ; and the handwriting made 
a palpable advance towards the rigid and exact character which culmi- 
nates in the MSS. of the thirteenth century. At the same time it 
would be a mistake to suppose that the new developement was equally 
progressive in all districts and in all countries. For example, in the north 
of France it appears to have made a more rapid advance than in the 
south, and to have resulted in a beautiful form of writing which had 
a lasting influence on the book-hand of the English school. 

The few specimens which here follow will suffice to indicate generally 
the character of the eleventh century literary minuscule hand in the west 
of Europe. 

The first is from a MS. of Milo De Sobrietate (Brit, Mus., Royal MS. 
5 A. xi), written by order of Rodericus, Abbot of St. Bertin in the diocese 
of St. Orner, and presented by him to Lefwin (or Ledwin), Abbot of 
St. Vedast at Trier, between the years 1022 and 1041. 

No. 167 

Comparing this writing with that of Facs. 166, one appreciates the 
important change that has been effected in the book-hand of Northern 
France within a century. We have literally emerged into a modern 
atmosphere. The connexion with the past is severed: and we are in 
presence of the new style which was to be the basis of the later scripts. 

But we take up another MS. from the south : a copy of the Martyr- 
ology of Udo, Bishop of Vienne, written at Avignon (Muse'e Calvet. 
MS. 98) between the years 1040 and 1069 (Neic Pul. *S'oc. 59). 

No. 168 

This hand is altogether of the old type, and might very well pass 
for writing of the end of the tenth century. The scribe uses two forms 



FACSIMILE No. 167 425 




b Kta A. una- faluf- dratf he tndia 
Dona eft runUnr . ofu^r %adm tiocmr ; 
duo cr ctrcwrfti po^V lioc ftCtctc 



I") fc i^rr falcbro fmr qoainfcartmtw, uerfu 
O bfcctf tic croipruf r<t pte.ftrf 
C| gdr tnue-poc 

^ 

JD ttbaUt c[: rnemcH fifttgp. pofco- 

kanoto 



__^ r -^ v 

\ 

- -^ 

N II outtmtf ce lupcof tad j> tnuncrr 
""^itgidufcj-.ltni caLamo nnuifR: tabdlu 
JVJoncJodtTc. ^m cdnuffrf ferttaurr agvllof, 
]^ alb onucamf perojrm ot* Qrtil TO bonf 
Carrtime mufczpbct mtttcetai: pnnaptf cwref; 



MILO. A. D. 1022-41 

(Ad decus ccles/ fers pia dona saerg ; 
Hie via . vita . salus . divis hie inclitn gazis 
Dona <\c i rutilant . qu supt; 1 astra vocant ; 
Quo te decursuut- post hoc felicitf/ 1 e\uin . 
Kegna Leata teiiens collocet omnipotens ; 
Hc igitr salebro sint quajvis carmina verso .' 
Obsecro lie tempnas rex pie . sed relegas ; 
Cesar vive potens . felix sine fine valeto . 
Hubaldique memor sis rogo . posco . precor . 

Glorioso regi karolo . milo supplex. 
Principibiis priscis vatum placuisse camenas 
Novimus .' et su>ptos tali pro munere honores ; 
Yirgiliusqe SUUMI calamo trivisse labelling 
Non doluit . qow/m diniissos servavit agellos ; 
Isaso toniitanis peregrinwa et exul in lioris. 
Carmine multiplici mulcebat principis aures ;) 



426 



GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 



CHAP. 



00 

CO 







05 5 . 



v^/ ~* -^ t uj CB ^T 

O S . J3 ' ^ 

i i 2 ^""2 S 8 2 
g o _= g _= 

S |l||l| 

Q -2 CD 9 3 O -, 



r _, ^ W ~" ^ "^ 

' 1 3 .a ' 

."3 -S ^- =! > .-S 

C OJ .-4 ^ 

^^"J| 

ifllll 

^ S ., s o 2 

^* S 3 ~*~* '"^ 
C^ fcc'S cc fi 






XVIII 



THE LATIN MINUSCULE BOOK-HAND 



427 



s 




g I 1 1 1 

^ S rn O -^ 

g C, a ~ 

^ < 3 

O S S 3 3 

a o-s ^ 

: i 1 s 2 J 

5 = S | -g 

J .2 * . ^1 

= 11-2 1 

s .1 ^ J o 



o 

O 



O ;- 

i, ^ ^ 

_ - - '-= 

"1 -s -S 

$ ^ ^1 

J. r^ , 2 

g g I s .S 

55 _ 3 S -a 

& 

O 



Ci r f, r-' ^ 2 

-f ._, c - C 

5 ^ '% o ' 

^ S =0 S 

O r" '" " ^ 

o ; o = -2 '= 

-^- O *T3 ^ OJ 



428 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 



FACSIMILE No. 170 



J>roprzr traihraidmcm micfuttxaf-ny:. ditrk 
fyccz, fanr peccxa^'ni3C Quid dAmAffupercon 
'."'jnfanMlifcfr dolor'tunf* J>rop 




rcr'rnuttniidmcm 



qui comedunrw deu(&Jxmtur:6(unweHi ho 
fteftut m capntmaaw 



fbrrr uafhbunwr'. amcwfcp 

dabo m prpLxm' Obduczm own acxmcem 
&wdnmbufTwfOmJ^ 

eiccizm uocAumtrirTrti<m;hfc 



BIBLE. A. D. 1094-7 

(Propter multitudinem iniquitatis tue dura | facta sunt peccata tua . Quid 
clamas super con tritione tua? Insanabilis est dolor tuns . Propter multi- 
tudinem iniquitatis tu . et propter dura peccata tua feci hec tibi . Propterea 
omes qui corned unt te devorabuntur . et universi ho stestui in captivitatem 
ducentur . et qui te va'stant vastabuntur . cunclosque predatores tuos | dabo 
in predam . Obducam enim cicatricem \ tibi . et a vulneribus tuis sanabo te 
dicit doHimMS . | quia eiectam vocaverunt te syon ; hec est que) 



XTIII THE LATIN MINUSCULE BOOK-HAND 429 

of a, one being the old round letter. Generally the writing is rather 
weak, and may be the work of an old man ; a circumstance which might 
explain the archaic style of the script. In any case the MS. illustrates the 
conservative influence which may be exercised by local schools of 

writing. 

From the south we turn again to the north of France, where i 
pretty certain that the MS. now to be examined was written. This 
is a copy of the Gospels which belonged to, and may have been written 
for, the Countess Goda, or Godgifu, sister of Edward the Confessor 
(Brit. Mus., Royal MS. 1 D. iii). The volume might therefore have 
been written in England ; but, as the style of ornamentation is foreign, 
it is more probable that it was imported from Normandy, or at least 
from Northern France. It may be placed in the middle of the eleventh 

century. 

No. 169 

This writing is of the fine calligraphic type which we saw in the 
St. Bertin MS. (Facs. 167), and which was probably widely employed 
through Northern France : the structure of the individual letters care- 
fully exact, vertical strokes rigidly upright, and curves symmetrically 

formed. 

Of the close of the century is the next facsimile, from a Bible (Brit. 
Mus., Add. MS. 28108) written at Stavelot, in the Low Countries, 1 ictwwn 
the years 1094 and 1097 (Pal. Hoc. ii, pi. 92). 

No. 170 

In this example we see the growth of the style leading on to the 
large scale of script which was a striking feature of fine MSS. of the 
twelfth century. The tendency shown in this MS. to slope the letters 
and rather to cramp them laterally was first noticed above in the 
specimen of A. D. 883 (Facs. 161), as characteristic of the German book- 
hand of the late middle ages. 

At this point it is necessary to turn to England and to see how far 
the Carolingian minuscule was adopted in our country, in order to bring 
the history of English literary writing into line with that of the 
Continent at the period of the Norman Conquest. Reference has 
already been made above to the acceptance, under the Anglo-Saxon rule, 
of the foreign hand for Latin texts, as early as the tenth century ; and 
the following examples will illustrate the process of its adoption. 

The first is from a MS. of Aldhelm De Vi i-<i', ni.tate in the Lambeth 
Library (MS. 200), which may be placed in the second half of the tenth 
century (Pal. Soc. ii. 191). 



430 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

No. 171 

This is a very interesting instance of transition : a compromise 
between the native script and the foreign lettering. The shapes of the 
letters are mainly of the Carolingian type, but the general character 
of the writing is that of the pointed Anglo-Saxon. The letters g 
and r, especially, in their uncertain formation disclose the native scribe's 
difficulty in dealing with new forms. 

But at least some of the English scribes of the tenth century had 
mastered the foreign hand and could write it in a bold style, such 
as appears in the famous Benedictional of St. ^thelwold Bishop of 
Winchester from A. D. 963 to 984 (now belonging to the Duke of Devon- 
shire), written by Godeman, afterwards Abbot of Thorney, probably 
between A.D. 970 and 980 (Pal. Soc. i. 14:2). 

No. 172 

Written at Winchester and in the best style of that scriptorium, this 
hand follows the pattern of the Carolingian minuscule very closely. It 
will be observed that the scribe has been careful to differentiate the 
character of the letter a when it follows r (11.4, 6), using in that position 
the round letter or modification of the old doubloc form. 

Our next example is from a MS. in the Bodleian Library (MS. Bodl. 
708) of the DC Cum Pastorali of Pope Gregory, probably of the begin- 
ning of the eleventh century (Pal. Soc. ii. 69). 

No. 173 

^ Here again we have an instance of the English scribe contending 
with a form of writing not quite familiar to him. As in the case of 
Facs. 171, we see the compromise between the flat-headed Saxon g 
and the 3-shaped French minuscule ; but generally in the other letters 
the foreign type is fairly attained. The relationship of the calligraphic- 
character of the writing to that practised in the North of France, as 
seen in nos. 167 and 169, is very evident, and indicates the growing- 
connexion between our country and the Continent. 

The next specimen is from a copy of the Gospels, now in Trinity 
College, Cambridge (MS. B. 10. 4), written, probably at Winchester, 
between the years 1008 and 10.23 (J\>,<- Pal. Sue. 1.2). 

No. 174 

Here the forms of the letters are entirely on the foreign model, and. 
except perhaps for the general character of symmetry which now is 
a marked feature in English writing, the MS. has no specially insular 
appearance, as distinct from the similar writing of Northern France. 

The last specimen, to close this English section, is from a Beiiedictional 



xviii THE LATIN MINUSCULE BOOK-HAND 431 



FACSIMILE No. 171 



fpcf-pafcetxtc- rrxxmf 
Warw ttijlautcf: Cceteftmrcu amf ffa 

iUa^^ 1K 

cnr- Gr diJtcere-CTmcercfrtmrertjaye lecnef: 

o ^ fafuf fWi 



mem 



ALDHELM. TENTH CEXTURY 

(invisa spes pascebat inanis clum furibunda ferarum rabies et gulosa 
beluarum ingluvies . caelesti nutu conprcssa oblatam predam | lurcare non 
audens . hiulcas faucium gurguliones oppilavit . ut | poeta de pcofeta dicit ; 
Et didicere truces predam servare leones ; | Ad ultimum beatus iulianus cum 
ceteris conmilitonibus stricta machera crudeliter percussus . et rubicundo 
cruoris rivo pcrfusus feliciter occubuit ; Ad quorum venerabiles sarcofagos 
. cum -x- leprosi quos | dira cutis eallositas elephantino tabo deturpans . non 
particulatim | sed membratim maculaverat venissent . ilico et secunde 
o&tivitatis) 



432 



GREEK AND LATIX PALAEOGRAPHY 



CHAP. 



-J 

-^ 

^ 
I I 
0! 




CO 

Ci 
M 

< 

I 
J 



s a 



3 

""S 

-- ~ 

C3 V3 

_5L 

"3 ^ 

=" S 

'S 0) 

o ^ 



QJ ( 

.111 



.S -2 'S 
as ^ ^3 

2 ~ a 
5 



S ~ 



-i 

!S -w 



S S * 

'. s JH 
j a 

ill 

i ^ 

O M 0) 
> o * 

c S 

*^ ^ ^ 

.5 ~ S 



2 

C3 



XVIII 



THE LATIN MIM'SfTLE POOR-HAND 



433 



CO 




.P *> -. 2 

, ^ X >M 

~*~* ** C 

M at fl fi 7 

.2.2- g | 

.^H t, r ^ y 

^ 



_ 
2 



H 

O 



8 

73 _ CS T3 ._ 

o 



^ G cc 



r ^ op 



o w 3 



CO 

O S S 
*=3 '2 S 



m a y 

all =- 2 - 

S 'S "S S 
s s V ~ o 
^ to 



. - 
C c! 



- 

S C " 



r'i ^s 2 

J O S !=, 

a 3 2 = -^ 
5 s s s 



F f 



434 



GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 



CHAP. 



91 
7 




a> to B . 

.S c -2 

'3 *2 rt 

".S 

S S 53 



.s-s^ 

S ' 

.i S^ 



05 " Hi 

S O C3 

'? = .5 

~ 



'2 x .S 

.i- r - - 
'S .05 'S 

all 



, 

o 3 



. 
^ a 

o rt 

. 



s" l-sl' - 

O M (I -4 



< 



C5 

O 



3 
S "^ 
a) S* 



oo y5 B 

Is & 

o oV 

QJ QJ 



S .2 ss 



S K - '3 



X 

* 



s _S 

a-f.s- 

C3 -^ 5 

-2 S w 

2 S 
25 *9 S3 






g M 

5 

p| 

i/? O & 

QJ CJ +- 



1 1 1 .1 a * 



2 3 s 

o p . 



CD O 

2 x 



i 

M 

'5 



^2 63 O 

O 03 r^ 

x -% a 
e C , 

M 03 

., O rt 



S u 



XVIII 



THE LATIN MINUSCULE BOOK-HAND 



435 



s 

H- 1 

02 




O 



] 

z 
- 

P3 






ffl O 0! 
^ 

*' 



1 1 a 



s 



c3 cc 

' 



TT 1 O C ? 

-S.lTf 

^H " 4 > Cj *"^ "~" 



-t CC ** 

<; cu f , 

1 Jl 



.2 x 

c 



- 



a, .g .s 



S a 
o _ 

3 

'S G 

S as 



K ^ ' 

o ' 



Me mi 
sit in 



c 2 
^ 



2^ 

n . 05 

^ . ** 



S-c 

o ^ 
II 



436 GKEEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

of English origin, now in Paris (Bibl. Nat., MS. lat. 987), and is taken 
from a portion of the MS. which was written between 1030 and 1040 
(New Pal. Soc. 83, 84). 

No. 175 

This example brings us near to the period of the Norman Conquest, 
and shows us that at that time, for Latin texts, the Saxon scribes had 
learned to write quite efficiently in the style used on the other side of the 
Channel. So far, then, the Conquest itself would not have caused any 
abrupt disarrangement in the Latin literary script of the country. 

We now resume our survey of the general progress of the literary 
handwritings of the middle ages ; and, entering on the twelfth century, 
we reach the finest period. It is the period of large volumes, with 
writing on a large scale, and adorned with initials and borders of bold 
design. With the increasing diffusion of literature, MSS. rapidly multi- 
plied, and now the book-hands of the several countries of Western 
Europe, all now derived, as we have seen, from the Carolingian minus- 
cule, exhibit their individual characteristics ; each one developing 
its own national style and, in course of time, diverging more and more 
from the rest. The MSS. of the northern countries of Western Europe 
are now to be distinguished from those of the south : the book-hands of 
England, France, and the Low Countries being modelled on one pattern, 
and, especially at first, bearing a family resemblance to each other ; 
and those of Italy, Southern France, and the Peninsula being of a 
type which was the creation of the Italian scribes. The German script, 
which belongs to the northern group, rather holds a place by itself, 
being generally of a less graceful character than the others. 

In a work of limited scope, such as the present one, it is impossible 
to follow in detail the developements and varieties of the several national 
literary hands of the later middle ages. We must be content to illus- 
trate the main line of our subject by typical examples ; and in making 
the selection we shall depend mostly upon MSS. of English origin, as 
being of more practical value to those who will make the chief use of 
this book. 

In the twelfth century the scribes seem to have vied with each 
other in producing the best types of book-writing of which they were 
capable, with the result that remarkable precision in the formation of 
the letters was attained, and that the century may be named as excelling 
all others for the beauty of its MSS. Perfect symmetry of letters, mar- 
vellous uniformity in their structure, sustained contrast of light and 
heavy strokes, and unerring accuracy of the practised hand, are all 
conspicuous in the finest examples. The sense of beauty which pervades 
the lettering is even extended to such small details as the marks of 



xvni THE LATIN MINUSCULE BOOK-HAND 437 

abbreviation and contraction. The common mark of abbreviation in Eng- 
lish MSS. in particular is a short up-turned and gracefully formed curve, 
which was so generally employed that it has become characteristic 
of the century. 

The first specimen illustrating the English book-hand at the begin- 
ning of the century is from a MS. of the Life and Miracles of St. Augus- 
tine, by Goscelin, a monk of St. Augustine's, Canterbury (Brit. Mus., 
Cotton MS., Vespasian B. xx) ; written in the abbey between A. D. 1100 
and 1125 (Xeiv Pal. Soc. 85). 

No. 176 

In this handwriting we have a worthy developement of the fine sym- 
metrical hand which we saw adopted by the Anglo-Saxon scribes for their 
Latin MSS. before the Norman Conquest, and which was to influence 
the English book-writing for many generations. From this and the 
next following examples it will be seen how generally this handsome 
type of book-script was practised in the monastic scriptoria of England. 

Next in date, and falling within the second quarter of the twelfth 
century, is a MS. of the Miracles of St. Edmund (belonging to Sir George 
Holford), written in St. Edmund's Abbey, Bury, probably before, A. D. 1 135 
(New Pal. Soc. 113). 

No. 177 

Passing to the west of the country, we find a very beautiful hand 
in a MS. of Beda's Commentary on Ezra (Brit. Mus., Royal MS. 3 A. xii), 
written in Cirencester Abbey between the years 1147 and 1176 (Pal. 

Soc. ii 72). 

No. 178 

And rivalling this last example in its solidity and in its accuracy and 
firmness of stroke is a MS. of Leviticus (Brit. Mus., Harley MS. 3038), 
written in the monastery of St. Mary of Buildwas, Shropshire, in 
A. D. 1176 (Pal. Soc. i. 37). 

No. 179 

In the foregoing four examples of the twelfth-century book-hand in 
England perfection is wellnigh attained. And it is to be borne in mind 
that, fine as they are, they are not unique or even specially exceptional, 
for they can be matched by extant MSS. of the time executed in other 
religious houses in different parts of the country. If, then, among the 
volumes that have survived the havoc wrought at the time of the Dis- 
solution so many exquisite specimens of this script are to be found, we 
have no difficulty in appreciating the extraordinary skill developed by 
the English scribes. 

The MSS. of the twelfth century of northern French origin are 
generally of much the same type as those of England. 



438 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 



FACSIMILE No. 176 



fefttua rtioturtot) ortcgfo .noiut^acu, .fbknrauf 
noua .Jt fttfu fco^cp cdXe<$rum1ucett 



fb 



cda .Tnprtaii ftfto de-fcfi agonc/ ^ce 

r. tmfto do dwnio fnmu eropfhi 
/tfrde^ 
flic de-muiidano tarn) 



ur *nc cto 
Q, tongaio fcy^-TOiT^umocetwgito 

am de/c^o^mdC'^uld^o andainb:%tiif 
ndic.iuoc5pea^;t^^ 
^auiaffingulartf eteno um. 

achimc 



LIFE OF ST. AUGUSTINE. A. D. 1100-25 

(solennia clo triumphata qu nuper egimus laude | festiva . J nova nob/5 oritwr 
gloria . nova 1 titia . solennitas | nova . Ipsa est sua sanctorumque collegarum 
suorum translatio | nova .' qu post centuwi fere lustra in nova eius facta iaw 
lucet | eccles/a . In priori festo de secwli agone et tenebris ad solem j glon'g 
palniatts ascendit . in isto de diuttmio humi ergastujlo suam lucem osten- 
dit . J et de thereo honore ad vitalia | busta nos revisit . Illic de mundano 
utero superis nascitwr.- 1 | hie de sepulchrali alvo nob/s renascitio' . Ibi laudi- 
bus dedujxiniMS victorejw transeuntewi ad sidera . J hie colligimws thesauruw 
renitentew de terra . Tune ternf pacis somno qwievit . J nwwc de | ta lon- 
gevo sopore nostm manu rnotws evigilavit . seseqicc \ adesse tarn de celo qifam 
de sepulchro evidentibws signis | respondit . J ut co?petentibi<s locis clarebit . 
At superior | festivitas singularis est bravio uniws . ista tot resplenjdet festivi- 
tatum sideribifs . J qttot adiunctis cu? principe) 



FACSIMILE No. 177 439 

rt -p^c &ferurtraf .'tr \\ycc& tlfud 
ApTi fumimtr r^aTnn rt tmxrTc-ficwr dotor tnttro Vaben 
-of Am itT'icrtmwf reftnr ( \1bacjl(ni^p,indc^m^lit fuj 

pcrtctoi ' 

imperil Itnutnb; 



. Sftqdt drdacu crnnef qda- 

to cofwrnorortf dgmtnr ttilLti? rnflrccnndo pclai U4 
a wttapcdme.apud Gypcs<s#icJ> dpptilfis rants 



.iiicaidta frtquen 



uencnutr rcgrutun .'fcdmul-aoti^confangTittitainf imt 



fthutufcc- calamtciaf fmnttefcrumtn )cp0 

tf b^fbruf qtnfiifccp 

oil ttaronu r^carr rid Aim -TSw eni fiitcefTto 
acodetKu reru.j mitumonef T^>CJ^ ordinirt 



MIRACLES OF ST. EDMUND. BEFORE A. D. 1135 

(satis . Vermn cum speraret(r pax et securitas . J tune, iuxta illud | apostoli super- 
venit repentinws interims . sicut dolor in utero babenjtia . QuoHtOm ut 
ieremias testatwr ab aqwilone pandetwr malum super | habitatores terrg .- 1 
rursus aq^^ilonaHb^<s excitata spiraculis | naufragosa prooella ferociore impetu 
littoribM.s anglicis | allabitur . Siquidem de dacia comes quidam Turchillus 
muljto oowpatriotarum agmine vallatws transfretando pelagi va'staw inter- 
capedine; . apud Gypeswich appulsis ratibs optati | qwiete littoris cum suis 
potitttr . Dehinc omes ad qwod venerant . ma]turi<s aggrediuntr . Rapinas 
continuant . incendia frequeirtant . neces exaggerant . J neminew vivificant . 
Quippe qwi non venerant regnaturi . J sed in ultionem consanguinitatis uni 
versaw cultorew deleto patriaw; si liceret vastitati mancipajturi . Nos vero si 
huiusce calamitatis fomitew seriatim expojnere velimws . J inextricablies magis 
hysterias qwam suscep]tum negotiuwi taxare ridebimwr . Noil eniw succes- 
siones regum . | accidentia reruwj . permutationes tempontm ordinare sta- 
tuim?(S :') 



440 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 



FACSIMILE No 178 



j^l^adiudeofqut umdiccnCPopufaiifttdi 

l- - -.X> -r*v' f > ^t^ 




jr 

i wfedcd> C 







BEDA. A. i>. 1147-76 

(prvphefentea ad iudeos qui | erant in iudea et iei-Msalcm in | nomine dci israel . 
Tune surrexerunt zorobabel filiMS | salathiel . J et iosue filius | iosedech . Et 
cepii'mnt edi ficare templuwi dei in iemsalem ." | et cum eis prophe/e dci adiuvj 
antes eos . Hec in libris | eoruw;de( prophefarum plenius | scripta stint . J qui- 
bws videlicet 

um dicens . Populus iste di cit . Nonduwt venit temp!(.s do ms domini edificandg . 
Et factuwi | est verbnm domini in manu aggei | prophefe dicens . Nunq?<id tem- 
pws | vobis t'xt ut liabitetis in do mibws laqueatis . et doms ista | erit deserta? 
Et paulo post . | Et suscitavit dominus spiritual zorobabel filii salathiel ducis' 
iuda . et sp?>/fr<m iesu filii iosedech) 



xvin THE LATIN MINUSCULE BOOK-HAND 441 



FACSIMILE No. 179 





fccmr turn devUittb; 








n finloffmc Mha 






mand 





ca 

at ilddlwtt filer 
MocauM omtn 



LEVITICUS. A. D. 1176 

(Si peccaverit princeps . et | fecerit unum de pluribus per \ ignorantUm . q<od 
domini lege prohibetzo- . et postea intellexerit | pecco/wm SUUMI . offeret 
hostiam | domo . hyrcuwj- de capris in'maeulatiiJH ponetq?/e manu | suaJ 
super caput eitis . Cuwiqwe i)mola 'verint mm in lociun ubi solet | mactari 
holocaustum coram) 



442 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

FACSIMILE No. 180 



jjafl^ 



Otttuifct y&cfcjwrt&mW qah%q>uttipfc 
fotmr.it^(unr j qyntc^l)^tulq5.tttpttdt < 
nuUfppimfiia ceiftmofliontEi to tlittict 



PETRUS LOMBARDUS. A. D. 1166 

(Ap;Z grecos v<;'o pasca passionewi sigi_/?ca. e< es/ ordo tytuli. Psa/wws iste | 
dirigews nos in fine irf ei'i in chnstam attribaitwr ipsi dafid icZ cs^ chr/sto. 
qwi j hie loqwifr(r seciindiun caput et covpK.s. agens pro his id es< de his id! es< 
de causa, cowjmutationis eorz scilicet de passione ohrisfi qui commutabuttw | 
de malo in bonuwi. de timore in secwntatem. de mundo ad | celum. Et est 
psalmits iste ,iiii." s eoruui qi latis de passione et resurjrectiowe christi aguwt. 
Intentions monet ad laudew pro facto commatajtione. Modus, v. Bunipartitiones. 
prirao precatur salvus fieri. \ <\uia multa patitwr quantum ad se. gratis, sed 
yue aliws rapuit ipse | solvit. ii". qMg solvent exponit. ibi. Dews tu seis. iii. 
predictis malis pro parte sua oratioiiem opponit. Hi. Ego vero. iiii. circa. 
adversaries prophe/at. ibi. Fiat mo/sa. v t(l . dispensationewi injcarnationis. et 
sac<itate>rt propositi exponit. i?>i. Ego suw p[auper]. | Chris^ua ergo in passione 
damans ad patrew ait. o Acus sal[Vum]) 



xviii THE LATIN MINUSCULE BOOK-HAND 443 



FACSIMILE No. 181 

cruccTamquam nouctlus utuilus-^p 
peccaos pptt uoluntarip macorus in 
paJftonc 6t ftctn: aquiLa utbemens rt 
cepto corpore de tumuLo turgtns -fba 
cto tccans acrem -omrnum LaptucaLca- 
utt ^cctiip^ d^crubin alccndir -ccuola- 
lut/qiiiarntnilacfiipcrpcnnas ucnto 
rum CUccncte in cftum on eft honor 
et^ gioria infccula (cculorum -aooeN 

HOMILIES. EARLY TWELFTH CENTUKY 

(cruce Tamquam novellus vitulus pro | peccatis popuM voluntarif niactatus 
in | passione Et sicut aquila vehemens re cepto corpora de turnulo surgens 
strijcto secans aerem omnium lapsu calca'vit .' et super cherubin ascendit 
et volajvit .' qui ambulat super pennas vento rum Ascendit in celum. cui 
est honor | et gloria in secula seculorum amen ) 



444 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

In Germany a less elegant style \vas followed, as will be seen from 
the specimen here given from a MS. of the Commentary of Petrus 
Lombardus on the Psalms (belonging to Mr. Dyson Perrins), written for 
Hartwig, Archbishop of Bremen, in A. D. 1166 (New Pal. Soc. 188). 

No. 180 

The characteristics of the German type of writing which were shown 
in the two specimens (Facs. 161, 170) of the end of the ninth and end 
of the eleventh centuries will be recognized in this example, here settled 
down into a regular, but rather cramped and angular, script. 

We may be content with these examples to represent the writing 
of Northern Europe in the twelfth century. In the south a different 
style prevailed. The sense of grace of form which we perceive in the 
Lombardic writing of Italy was maintained in that country in the later 
writing of the new minuscule type, which assumed under the pens of 
the most expert Italian scribes a very beautiful and round, even style. 
This style, though peculiarly Italian, extended its influence abroad, 
especially to the south of France, and also became the model of the 
writing of the Peninsula. We select a specimen from a very handsome 
MS. of Homilies of the first half of the twelfth century (Brit. Mus., 
Harley MS. 7183), written in bold letters of the best type, to which we 
shall find the scribes of the fifteenth century reverting in order to 
obtain a model for their MSS. of the Renaissance. The exactness with 
which the writing is here executed is truly marvellous, and was only 
rivalled, not surpassed, by the finished handiwork of its later imitators 
(Pal. Soc. ii. 55). 

No. 181 

It will of course be understood that this was not the only style of 
hand that prevailed in Italy. Others of a much rougher cast were also 
employed. But as a typical book-hand, which w r as the parent of the 
hands in which the greater proportion of carefully written MSS. of 
succeeding periods were produced in Italy, it is to be specially noticed. . 

The change from the grand style of the twelfth century to the 
general minuteness of the thirteenth century is very striking. In the 
latter century we reach the height of exact formation, in which 
the vertical strokes are perfectly correct and are brought into closer 
order, the letters being laterally compressed, the round bends becoming 
angular, and the oblique strokes being fined down into hair-lines. In this 
century, too, there was a great demand for copies of the Bible, of which 
there are a large number of surviving examples ; and the minuteness 
with which many of them were written enabled the scribes to compress 



xvin THE LATIN MINUSCULE BOOK-HAND 445 

their work into small volumes, in extreme contrast to the large folios 
so common in the preceding century. The wide practice of this minute 
style for a special and numerous class of MSS. naturally led to its 
adoption in other branches of literature ; and it may be counted as one 
of the factors in determining the new calligraphy. 

If we review our examples illustrating the period of the twelfth 
century, we may already trace indications of a coming change. Facs. 
179, of the year 1176, while it retains the grand style of its century, 
yet shows a certain tendency to compression, as, for example, in the 
narrow formation of g and o. Passing out eyes over nos. 176-8, pro- 
ductions of the broad style, and then resting them on no. 179, we are 
conscious of a difference. If we then pass on to the example which is 
now to be submitted, we recognize in it and in no. 179 stepping stones 
towards the new hand of the thirteenth century. This example shows a 
transitional hand of the end of the twelfth century, in which the writing 
is reduced to a small size, but yet is not compressed with the rather 
ai'tificial precision of some fifty years later. It is a MS. of the Historia 
Scholastica of Petrus Comestor (Brit. Mus., Royal MS. 7 F. iii), written 
forElstow Abbey, in Bedfordshire, in A.D. 1191 or 1192 (Pal. Soc. ii. 74). 

No. 182 

The increase in the number of abbreviations and contractions, as 
well as the smaller scale of the writing in this MS., is a token of the 
necessity imposed upon the scribes of economizing their material in 
order to meet the growing demands of literature. 

We will open the thirteenth century with an example from the 
scriptorium of St. Alban's Abbey, again a MS. of the Hitiuria k>r]itil<i^icii 
(Brit. Mus., Royal MS. 4 D. vii), written before A.D. 1215. 

No. 183 

The change from the easier style of the preceding century to the rigid 
lettering of the thirteenth century is now complete in this MS. written in 
one of the most famous monastic schools of the South of England, where 
the new style would have been quickly adopted. 

Turning next to France, we have an early example of the century in 
a Missal (Brit. Mus., Add. MS. 17742), written in the north in A.D. 1218 

(Pal. Soc. ii. 194). 

No. 184 

Another nearly contemporary specimen is taken from a Pontifical of 
Sens, in the Library of Metz (Salis MS. 23), written about the year 

1222 (iVeio Pal. Soc. 36). 

No. 185 

These two specimens of French liturgical writing, it is to be observed, 
are almost identical with the contemporary English book-hand for such 



446 FACSIMILE No. 182 



itua cca 

t wrtf 



J& 

[TmnfctttgBrufoCflg atbnmiE wmn jaff 
ttncfw ttmo1d)i2 cwtatf. 



t nahmm tua/ifcqtt m* 



At? 



PETRUS COMESTOR. A. D. 1191-2 

(rat enim cingwlwrn ad tempws propter molestiawi careens ut tu|nica circa 
pedes demissa temperaret frigz^ noctis | In qwo datum cst excmplum viris 
sanctis qod in angwstiis licet liquid \ laxare de rigore ordinis legimws 
enim aposfolos ct prophets j duris cingul/s usos propter afflictionew carnis 
et petrwwi | ad temp?^ deposuisse cingwlwin propfer molestia carceris | Et 
fecit Petrws iuxte mandatuw* angeli Et addidit | angelws Circuwda tibi vesti- 
mmta tua et seqwere me Et \ exiens seqwebatwr euw et nesciebat quid 
\erum est quod fiebat | per angphtni id est iwn putabat in rei veritate fieri 
sty? imagi|narie ostendi unde seq<itr Estimabat autem se visum | videre 
et hoc sibi ostensuw imaginaria ostensione Tran|seuwtes aufem primam 
ctstodi<am if? cst cwstodes caret/is scilicet ad cu|stodiendtt deputatos Et 
aecund&m id cst duos qwatcrniones vel | primam cwstodiam id est primum 
qwaternionewi cum suis et secundB.rn id est secundum qwatmrionem cum suis 
venerwrat ad portam ferream qwe ducit | ad civitatewj quc putatwr fuisse in atrio 
carceris Carjcer enim hoiebat atriuw et erat in exteriori parte civitatis 
sive | exfra ciritatetn et ultro aperta est eis Et exeuntes processerwwt vi) 



FACSIMILE No. 183 447 






cntcon qucaqmiw duemm.tno. 
f fcnraptumecttim'briifcncnotlnqm nul, 
lum ueft^umTrioms tf tdtmtm Quofc 



e.floncnmi otflcndue 
f fcdifrritdtatuilTcmmtoquettf iM^.Y 



q6 mfnum diem tttcruart non pAr-tH^ 

j Hj(i HKnialrum jrc\uir % .. 

Ttwimano awfUio orariotut. fleq: tmm 
nanftcnitrpuntnnctnmftj: tnfqmmu 4i?, 

TV " 



. 

tjuoe nin< rairtr 
mown funr. ft>ft-ttdnum q tuntttnduo 5^ 



f mifcrg-dne itraitaujr.cnnntiotttc; ntletn^ 
ub fine cUuino tonfiUo48p 
: mm dmITcrt>tfe t nop^ 



PETRUS COMESTOR. BEFORE A. D. 1215 

\ii t-sf desti u.xit. 

(Et nota quin cum dixit moyses mortuus est.' j suggillavit errorem quoium- 
dam dicentiu/w . moysen raptum esse cum helya et enoch .' quoniam nul hi in 

ut ^epulcrum. 

vestigium mortis eiws relictum est . Quod j ven> addidit sei~vus meus.' de- 
struxit et aliori< errorem dicentium .' moysen datnnatum eternaliter propter 

desp^rationem ad aquas. \d est tropus nfn zst propria locutio. 

aquas contradictionis . Quod \ero dixit .' sur[ge .' locutio est . et non sens!<* . 
Non enim credendus ] est sedisse vel iacuisse cum loqueretur ei doims . 

clamantes 

Tune precepit iosue populo per pmxmes . preparate vobis ciba|ria .' qo^/m 
post diem te/'tium transibitis iordanem . Qwod | de cibariis aliis a manna 
intelligenduni est . | qwod in tertium diem reservari non potmtt . Hoc | de 

Quasi hie multuni errnvit. 

humane consilio dixit iosue . Neq?/e enim ] transierunt iordanem .' usqe in 

De quib^ in proxi;//o capit//lm. 

septimu diewi . Exploratores eniw quos tune misit .' per triduuw j morati 
sunt . Post reditum quorum.' triduo ex pectavit popwhfs diminutionewi aqua- 
rum . et tune i preparavit sibi cibaria .' iuxta mandatunt iosue . | Pomisit ergo 
domintiBut ait augMs/(z/seri - are iosue .' ne dein|ceps simile aliquid sine divino 

ScihVct iosue 

consilio aggrederetur . Presertim .' cum dixisset dommwa moysi | in electione 
eitis . Iosue succedet tibi pro eo si quid) 



448 



GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 



CHAP. 



\ 




? 0) CD m 

I .s -g 

~ ~ ll 



jt -IS 

S - 

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c < 



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<! S -5 S M 

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a: S S _, 

.!-< o C*_2 



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w .2 a r^z/2 

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S .5 M 02 . 



XVIII 



THE LATIN MINUSCULE BOOK-HAND 



449 



oc 



71 

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35 

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450 GEEEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 

MSS. If there is a difference, perhaps it consists in a little more hardness 
in the French hands. It will be noticed that the conservative character 
of the writing in these Church Service-books retains a good deal of the 
style of the twelfth century, especially in the second example. 

As a specimen of the numerous class of Bibles which are among the 
chief productions of the scriptoria of the thirteenth century, a facsimile 
is selected from a MS. written at Canterbury (Brit. Mus., Burney MS. 3) 
between the years 1225 and 1252 (Pal. Soc. i. 73). 

No. 186 

Here the thirteenth-century hand has settled down into its normal 
character, exhibiting great accuracy in the formation of the letters, with 
the characteristic lateral compression which gives room for close-packing 
of the lines of writing. 

An interesting instance of a MS. written by an Englishman abroad 
is a Lectionary in the British Museum (Egerton MS. 2569), which was 
the work of John of Salisbury at Mons in Hainault, A. D. 1269 (Pal. Soc. 
ii. 113). 

No. 187 

John of Salisbury, however, does not write an English hand. The 
foreign (that is, Flemish) type of the writing shows itself in the hard 
outlines and angularity of some letters, such as the small round s, and 
in the rather ornamental flourishes of the smaller capitals. 

For the last example of the century we draw upon another copy of 
that common work of the period, the Historic Scholastica, in the Royal 
MS. 3 D. vi, in the British Museum, which was executed for Edmund, 
Earl of Cornwall (died A. D. 1300), and was given by him to Ashridge 
College, co. Bucks, which he founded about A. D. 1283. The date of 
the MS. therefore falls between 1283 and 1300, and probably nearer to 
the first of those years (Neiv Pal. tioc. 13). 

No. 188 

Here the simplicity of the earlier part of the century has passed; 
and this writing is to be placed in what may be styled the decorated 
class, which, departing from the rigid formation of the time and employ- 
ing an ornamental pliancy in the formation of the letters, contributed to 
the opening of the way to the great change to be effected in the literary 
hands in the course of the fourteenth century. 

With the fourteenth century we enter on a new phase in the history 
of Latin palaeography ; and this and the following century are a period 
of gradual decadence from the high standard which had been attained 
in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. As if wearied by the exactness 



FACSIMILE No. 186 451 



qscfr ttajwtnflnr dtw tmtwr&ti 
mtntdio 



fmtianimratn dmtfttqs aqttat qur ctar 



mamtmp. IT fcfii dhm. qoetunrqt ftrma 
i cfrttcfttinia 



fln&ft.fnhcy ffttra-fnf wmttrft 
aniam i 



fetmwcm fcmcmltgnmn pmriwfnn 
mf fratcft itjna gtna? fmim .ctJ?fon rt^f 



Tttitr ha Ivrtnm 
rowa gmtts fttnni'tt^ntitTw factcnf frttt 
fcmmrcm fcShi 



Cttndirtfe cj-OTrtvnumflfctn 



iftna tti famamcnw orft ttrrtuotet 
Ann acnodtimfainn^flnaiTrmpKfl'i 
diftt^annos ttr hj tr.inr TTI nrmatftiD frt v? 
i" Crfnn cftna . 



BIBLE. A. D. 1225-52 

(Appellavitqxc lueem diem ct tenebras noctem | Factumqw est vcspere et 
mane dies unus . Dis.it \ quoqwe dens . fiat firmamentum in medio | aquan/m 
et dividat aquas ab aquis . Et fecit dews | firmamentum divisitq!?e aquas que 
erat sup- firmamentu) ab hiis que erant sub fir mamento . Et faclura est 
ita . Vocavitqwe firma mentum ' deus celum . Et faetum est vespere et ma no 
dies secundus . Dixit vero deus . Congregentur | aque que sub celo sunt in 
locum unum .' ct appareat arida . factumque est ita . Et vocavit deus \ aridam 
terram .' congregationesqHC aquar | appellavit maria . Et vidit deus quod 
esset bon?// j et ait . Germinet terra herbam virentem . et \ facientem semen 
et lignum pomifentw faci ens fructuw iuxta genus suum . cuiws semen in \ 
semet ipso sit super terram . Et factum est ita . Et pro tulit terra herbam 
virentern et afferentew seme | iuxta genus suum . lignumqwe faciens fruc tuwi 
et hotens unumqwodqwe sementem sccdm speciewi suam . Et vidit dews 
quod essei bonum et factum est vespere et mane dies tercius . Dixit autew 
deus . Fiant | luminaria in firmamento celi ut dividaxt | diem ac noctem et 
sint in signa ct tempera et \ dies ct annos ut luceant in firmamewto celi . et \ 
illuminent terram . Et facfraii est ita . Fecitq?e dee^s | duo magna luminaria : 
luminare maiws ut pre|esset diei et luuiinare min;<s ut preesset nocti . Et) 

1 The oblique double hair-lines above the words ' Vocavitque ' and ' firmamentum ' are 
marks of transposition. 



452 



GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 



CHAP. 



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xvni THE LATIN MINUSCULE BOOK-HAND 453 



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CHAP. 



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XVIII 



THE LATIN MINUSCULE BOOK-HAND 



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456 GEEEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

and rigidity of the book-hand of the thirteenth century, literary hand- 
writing now became more lax, the letters fell away in beauty of shape, 
and in those MSS., such as biblical and liturgical works, in which the 
old form of script still remained prevalent, it degenerated into a me- 
chanical and imitative hand. New styles of writing entered the field. 
The cursive element began to prevail and break up the formal con- 
servatism of the old school ; a round pliant character took the place 
of the older serried script ; and mixed hands came into vogue, sometimes 
expressive of the particular classes of literature for which they were 
employed. For example, in this period, and including even the latter 
part of the thirteenth century, we have numerous instances of charter- 
hands being employed in the production of books, as well as for single 
documents. In England particularly, a large number of legal MSS., 
which date from the reigns of Edward I and Edward II, are written 
in this hand. 

Space does not permit us to give more than a few illustrations of 
the general character of the change effected in the literary scripts of 
Western Europe during the two centuries which close our period ; but 
even from the limited number of our examples it will be seen how, 
while the book-hands of England and France, and of Germany and the 
Netherlands, declined, that of Italy pushed forward and at length 
occupied the first position at the time when hand-written books were 
superseded by the printing-press. 

The first MS. to be cited affords an instance of the influence exercised 
by the cursive element referred to above. It contains the ritual for 
the coronation, apparently of Edward II (Brit. Mus., Harley MS. 2901), 
which took place in A.D. 1308. The specimen gives the king's oath 
(Pal. Soc. ii. 196). 

No. 189 

The MS. generally is written in fine bold characters of the book-hand 
type ; but the text of the oath is here varied by the introduction of an 
element from the charter- hand of the time, viz. the finishing oft' of 
certain letters, h, 1, v, y, in hair-lines. 

A class of writing not uncommon in the first half of the century is 
shown in a MS. of the Legenda Aurea of Jacobus de Voragine (Brit. 
MS., Add. MS. 11882), written in Paris in A.D. 1312 (Pal. Soc. i. 222). 

No. 190 

Here will be observed the incipient roundness and looser formation 
of letters which marks the book-hand of this period and distinguishes it 
from the unbending and close-packed script of the previous century. 
The letter a, which in the thirteenth century was usually open in the 
upper bow, is now closed. 



xvin THE LATIN UIM'SCULE BOOK-HAND 457 

FACSIMILE No. 189 

(tic- folq vous graumcrogar 

scrmcntcwiftr 






fcs cuftumcs 
Ics aunaens 

tttttuttus i tout? 
a 





cottfbmcs i 




CORONATION OATH. A.D. 1308 

(Sire . J volez vous graunter et gar'der ct par vostre serment confer|mer 
au poeple dengleten-e les leys e< j les custumes a eux grauntees par | les 
aunciens Koys Dengletcn-e voz | predecessotirs dreitureus et devotz | a dieu 
et nomenenl les leys les | coustumes tt les franchises graun tees au Clerge 
et au Poeple par le | Glorious Roy seint Edward vostre ) predecessour. 
Respouns. Je les grante ct promette.) 



458 



FACSIMILE No. 190 



cctacK^HCtnat1jdaba*^ai>m . 
KfewyiptHMcvw^^<i^ 

tBgtt&m mrtpaH* cCfcauatta 



ft* s HoptaluMi<itijetf ov^jf 
So; rihtp aJd*C|>crt pTm^vftc 
^toteihas^ftpttftemag 



i^>^tsftBmti^cdc{im*ct' 
*Uft?i 

a^ttinTtRfictttJictvai] 




fl^ttt^xtrwroT^twienai^r* 

"\t11. 1->l>-i .A__ '.-f^ _y t&i' 




JACOBUS DE VORAGIXE. A.D. 1312 

(genera pertulenjHt . secundum quod in secundo machabeorwm | pleniws cowti- 
netr . Et notendwrn quod ecclesia, ori|ental/s facit festum de sanctis utriusqze | 
testameti . occidental/s autewi now facit [ festuwt de sawciis veteris testamewft . 
eo qorZ ad iwfe|ros descenderut . preterq?<a de iwnocentibts | ex eo quod in 
ipsis singfjlis occisi<s est chrisius -- 1 et de | machabeis . suwt autem . iiij or . ra<<ones 
qware | ecclesia. de istis machabeis licet ad iwferos j descenderiint solewzpnizat . 
pri(a est propter pre'rogatifam martyrii . quia enim iwaudita | supplicia et 
ultra sawcfos veteris testamenti passi | swwt . Et irfeo privile/yiati sunt ut 
eorum pas sio merito celebrett<r . hec ratio ponitur in hysto|riis scolasticis . 
secunda, est propter representato|newi misteni . septewnarius ei nu;eris 
est j univositatis . significawti(r ergo in isto otnnes \ paires veteris testamewti . J 
celebritate dilgni . na? licet de istis now solewpnizet ecjclesia . turn quia ad 
limbum descenderunt . tuw quia mi<l/itudo novorwi sifbintravit . in hiis 
tawzen | septew inpendit oiwib?<s reverenciawi . quia per [ . vij . ut dictum. 
est . universitas desigwatwr . j tercia est proper exemplum paciendi . propo- 
nuntt/r ewiw | in e\cmplum fidelib?<s . iiij . scilicet horum ut horwm cowstan^a | 
ad zeluw fidei awiientz/r et ad pacienduwi | pro lege evangelii . sicf illi 
pro lege) 



THE LATIN MINUSCULE BOOK-HAND 
FACSIMILE No. 191 



459 




w maims jtcflo mrnoa 



mmprrns aoma papraty 




tflmmifon ferns cBtfuns 



munar irn ftmnadt tontus om w 
amuonfnomaDerj (qrnun cfte 
nrnomf tnoitbi oiot Dtls tf (6-op. 



BREVIARY. A. D. 1322-7 

(Nova veniens e celo nupcia[li thalamo prepamta. ut spowsata | eopuletw;- 
doH!/noplateee<murieiMsex | auro purissimo . Porte intent | margaritis aditis 
patentib(s | et virtute mcritorwn illuc introducitwr [ omnis qui pro christi 
nomine hie in muwdo premitwr . Tunsionibws prcssuris [ expoliti lapides 
suis coaptawtwr | locis per mans artificis disponuw tier permansuri sacris 
edificiis . | Gloria, et honor deo usq?<eqwo altissi|mo una pa/ri filioquc inclito 
parajclito cui laus est et potestas per etcr|na secula. . amen . Versus . Domum 
tuam domine . \ Decefc sawc/itudo . AnfipJiona . Sawciincavit dominus \ tabe/-- 
nacMlm suum hec est domus domini in | qua. invocetwr nomew eiws de qua. 
scriptum est e|rit nomez meum ibi dicit dominus . Psolmus Magnificat . Oratio .) 



460 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

Next is selected a specimen from a liturgical MS., a Breviary of 
English use adapted to the service of Norwich (Brit. MS., Stowe 
MS. 12), and written between the years 1322 and 1327 (Pal. Soc. ii. 197). 

No. 191 

The MS., as a liturgy and written for public reading, carries on the 
earlier traditional set hand of the thirteenth century, but with the loss 
of the firm incisive strokes of that time. An air of softness, if the 
expression may be allowed, pervades the writing. The type of hand 
grows mechanical and is continued, as we shall find, with little modifica- 
tion, into the next century, being in the end adopted for printed books 
of this class. 

An example of the careful book-hand written in France, as the 
century advances, is found in a MS. of the Travels of Sir John Mandeville 
(Bibl. Nat., Nouv. acq. franc. 4515), written in A.D. 1371 (Pal. Soc. 
ii. 168). 

No. 192 

The hand is very neat; but is subject to the remark made on the 
foregoing specimen, that it betrays the softness of style which dis- 
tinguishes the set writing of the fourteenth from that of the thirteenth 
centuiy. 

Next, we select a facsimile of a not uncommon type of the English 
hand of the latter part of the century, which has a slightly cursive 
element in it, and which developed into the ordinary hand of the 
fifteenth century. It is taken from a Chronicle of English history 
(Brit. Mus., Harley MS. 3634), written about the year 1388 (Pal. Soc. 
ii. 170). 

No. 193 

The letters which in particular are borrowed from the charter-hand 
are the round d which is almost in constant use, and the 6-shaped s as 
seen in the word ' sexto ' in the first line. 

By this time the curves characteristic of the fourteenth century are 
beginning in many instances to become pointed : a phase of the book-hand 
which indicates the approach of the carelessness of the fifteenth century. 

Reference has been made above to the important position which the 
book-hand of Italy was assuming in the course of the fourteenth 
century. A specimen is here given from a MS. of Horace (Brit. Mus.. 
Add. MS. 11964), written at Cremona in A.D. 1391 (Pal. Soc. i. 249). 

No. 194 

It is not difficult to recognize the descent of this script from the 
fine Italian writing which had been evolved in the twelfth century 
from the Carolingian minuscule and which is represented in Facs. 181 ; 



xviii THE LATIN MINUSCULE BOOK-HAND 461 

FACSIMILE No. 192 



Iclmn tr iiumtauUr tctfue t> tt qtumc |mti tc nofttt jave 
lawtt'-lan tc grace *Ml.xcer.v\*M.qut mffintc 



tctotmc cottTjnigiuc.cr \xu mmnf btau finr- cotnlnm epic 
tc nc&iffc cniqucs tml frl fait nc nuQe teUc cnipnfc- tic 
auttce toctid nr on tote fait ccmtptc ne ncue tcrar cttjui 
fov \rnti ap mawguf mor pur gotUce 



cutcttquce qni me fcftmmgnair en pwuwr ibtuae en me 



{nttcce rt-mtCcecucCcupt tour mfi qu racti ptterfouucnu- 

*. n (uc tcntc jartv 



qua vuciOcm- aDttupncrpnrmop.cfiqnittftv pnrlte 

* tuov \>nc ptttrmr 



quf&wi me fart ttnttffumte race frdjuo- 
mo rt? Iir octtoic |wr atone U tond plermageu 
Ustocne feta 4c onquw trauc tt frtav oumc ntfij* 



MAXDEVILLE. A.D. 1371 

(daucuns pays vous doit soufifire tant que au present . Et Je | Jehan de rnande- 
ville dessus dit qui me parti de nostre paj'S et passay la nier . Ian de grace 
Mil . ccc . et . xxij . qui mainte | terre et maint pays ay depuis cerchie . et 
qui ay este en maiw'te bonne compagnie . et veu maint biau fait . combien 
que | ie ne feisse onques nul bel fait ne nulle belle emprise . ne | autres biens 
dont on doie faire compte ne rieiis tenir . et qui j maintenant suy venu a 
repos maugre moy pour goutes | artetiques qui me destraingnent en prenant 
soulas en mo | chetif repos . et en recordant !e temps passe . Jay ces choses 
co[pulees et mises en escript tout ainsi quil men peut souvenir . J laii de grace . 
Mil . ccc . Ivij . le . xxxv e . an que ie me party de | nostre paj-s . Si prie a tons 
les liseurs et lisans sil leur plaist | quil vueillent a dieu prier pour moy . et 
ie prieray pour euls | aussi . Et pour tons ceuls qui diront pour moy line 
pater nosire que dieu me face remission de mes pechies . Je les fais percon 
niers et leur octroie part a tous les bons pelerinages et a tous les biens fais 
que onques et que ie feray encore iusqwes j en fin . Et si prie adieu de qui tous 
biens et toute grace) 



462 



GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 

FACSIMILE No. 193 



CHAP. 



Scm ttm votdm Art? iScm ftftfi 




CHRONICLE. ABOUT A.D. 1388 



(dit sexto Idus lunii obiit cultor trinitatis | iwvictissinms prinoepa EdwardttS de 
Wodstok | dommi regis Edwardi ttrcii a conquestu pnmo]genitMS emits animws 
sicut in hostes et ad bella | ita et in mortem invictws fuit Nam valedic turi(.s- 
scculo tawiqwam now moriturus obiit scd velut | de peregrinacione Yd patriam 
velut de morte | ad vitam velut de scrvitute transiturus | esset ad gloriam 
ut niori possit sanctissimam \ trinitatem suppliciter exoravit Trinitas | in- 
quiens si benedicta cuiws nomen semper in ten-is colui cuiws honorem 
ampliare studui in \ cuius fide qwamqwam alias sceleratus ct pec[ca]tor | fui 
sempe/ digui te deprccor ut sicut ego | iuum istud festiuw magnificavi in 
terris populum \ etiam ob honorem tuum vocavi ut idem festuwi | mecum letws 
agcret tu me liberes de corpore | mortis huits et vocare digneris ad festuw | 
illud dulcissimuw quod iecum in celis agitr in \ hac die Cuiws preces ut 
cr ilimMS a dommo suwt | exaudite Namqwe eodem die circa horam terci&m 
ex hoc mimdo transivit . Decubuerat x atttem' fere) 



xvm THE LATIN MINUSCULE BOOK-HAND 463 



FACSIMILE No. 194 

<unlt* bxc Ten tymttnue 
cfjrtic apuonntus unoc / 
micpntmincrcaibilimcdo 
& cmfcnnr ^ftnrml'tctouis inifno 
titcLa ftaniio rcfiiltus 
npwtuolumeq; 



cmin tteima tn crcpuir fbnum , 
c tritnato lUams caclno /\f 
uftiilcmr ntfi mitiua icaim 
crttn lauflcr mat Ulmra 
(E uflte uttmMTcttcrc 
Trm q; uomurn 



HORACE. A.D. 1391 

(Natalis hore seu tyrannus | Hesperie caprieornius unde ] Utruwiqiic nosirum 
incredibili modo | Consentit astrum . te iovis impio | Tutela saturno reful- 
gens ] Eripuit . volucrisq^fe fati | Tardavit alas cum popds frequens | Letum 
theatris ter crepuit sonum . ] Me truncus illap's'us cerebro | Sustulerat nisi 
faunus ictum | Dextra levasset merceo'ialium J Gustos \iromm . reddere 
victimas | Edemqwe votivam memento . | Nos humilem feriemus agnai .) 



464 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

making allowance, however, for stiffness and lateral compression 
inherited from the tradition of the thirteenth century. The sense of 
beauty, so conspicuous in that example, did not fail the Italian book- 
hand in its best specimens during the succeeding centuries. As com- 
pared with other national scripts, the high level of general excellence 
maintained by the Italian scribes is very striking. And it was this 
general excellence that placed them in the position to take the lead at 
the crucial moment of the adoption of printing in Europe. 

The course of the fifteenth century witnessed the final dissolution 
of the mediaeval minuscule book-writing. In this century there is, 
necessarily, an ever-increasing number of varieties of hands. The 
charter-hand is now very generally used for books as well as for 
documents. And while the formal minuscule hand is still employed for 
liturgical and other books, and under certain conditions is written with 
exactness, it generally betrays an increasing tendency to slackness and 
to malformation or exaggeration of individual forms of letters. If we 
make an exception in favour of the calligraphic MSS. of Italy, we place 
the general character of the book-hand of the fifteenth century at a low 
standard. It had become too artificial. Further, between those written 
in the cursive charter-hand and the formal minuscule book-hand, there 
is that large mass of MSS., all more or less individual in their charac- 
teristics, which are written with a freedom partaking of the elements 
of both styles : the ordinary working hands of scholars and other inde- 
pendent writers, which have no pretensions to beauty of form, and 
which, in course of time, grow more and more angular, not with the 
precise serried formation of letters as in the thirteenth century, but 
with the careless disregard of curves which accompanies rapid writing. 
And lastly, when the art of printing was established, and after the 
early type-cutters had selected their first models in the contemporary 
MS. book-hands of their several countries, it is no wonder that, in the 
end, the type copied from the Italian script prevailed over all others. 

We cannot here do more than select a few specimens to illustrate 
some of the many varieties of handwritings of this century. 

The first is from a MS. containing the catalogue of the library of, and 
collections relating to, Titchfield Abbey, co. Hants (Duke of Portland's 
Library), written between the years 1400 and 1405 (Neiv Pal. Soc. 19). 

No. 195 

The writing is in the formal square literary hand, but is entirely 
wanting in the old regularity. In the nature of things, the set book- 
hand was generally practised in the monastic scriptoria rather than the 
more cursive styles ; and hence a volume such as the present one, 



xvni THE LATIN MINUSCULE BOOK-HAND 465 



FACSIMILE No. 195 



fc rouljttatos ^ crecutotf mmnitt Ins 

utits Atriu i oiumtw aruirauo conccflis ^p^rcttm cnrti6 ^pic 

tfittfi* fccuto mutmieftiutu cn(ht\3titt crpartn^fimtf OJIR 

tttihutoa txqwftti utlme aplimd ijt imfmom ultenud ontf tfbs 

1)a"brttp^s ctcatto:c8 m^eflatiw ^qiioioiy altos 

umtcs cvcquibifnaimtHrtaiwfl|jllmc^bv 

modi crtgninmii itniomtt -\jolct itc$ 



cvctjui <f tctumuruobtd aurtoumtt flplim i mrttitc o 

x 



m fltiabp qtulij majtd fcjirturr vutmtis vii rtttn ocbi: 
uuauf fumtie courue iwuUiti f 



(inter ud 5mtGm tiitituctid tufiititctx^ ^ u 



TITCHFIELD ABBEY COLLECTIONS. A.D. 1400-5 

(dicfontm habitatontm et execute rum excercentewz lilteria apostolicis predicts 
religiosis viris abbad e< cowventui ac vicario concessis et processui executoris 
pre|dic^i ex eis secuto minime parituwj existit. Unde ex parte ipsorttm fuimus 
cum | instancia requisiti ut littcras apostdlicas huiusmodi ulterius contra 
ipsos | habitatores executores capellanum et quoscumque alios eis in hac parte 
fa'ventes exequi dignaremr iuxta litfer&mm apostolicarum predictaxmn et 
processus huiws modi exigenciam ct tenorem . Volentes igitur in hac parte 
facere et | exequi quod tenemur vobis auctoritate apostolica in virtute obedien- 
cie | firmiter iniungendo mandamws quatinzw ad capellam predictam et ad 
lo ca alia de quibz<s magis expedire videritis et per pnrtem di'c^orum religio- 
soTitm ] virorwn ac vicarii fueritis congrue requisiti po-sonaliter accedentes | 
predict omnia et singula in dictis litteris apostolicis ct processu predicto con- 
tenta [ dictis hafeitatoribMs executorib?<s et quibwslibet aliis quorum interest 
vel intererit | comnmwiter vel divisim intimetis insinuetis et notificetis con- 
tradictores) 



H h 



466 



GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

FACSIMILE No. 196 



ct/Tw icur 
nt wi m 




ROMANCES. A.D. 1445 

(Et manderoit a tous les princes qui de lui tenoiewt | terre quilz venissent 
a celle feste . Car a cellui iour | se voulloit couronner de lempire du monde . 
Et auxi | comme il pensa le fist il . Car a leure fist faire les ]edres \ pour 
envoyer a tous les grans princes quil [ scavoit ou monde pour venir a celle 
feste . Et quant [ il eust baillees ses lectres aux messaiges, et la | nouvelle fu 
espandue par le pais de celle feste . Si y | vint tant de monde de toutes terres 
que oncques | greigneur ne fu veu iusques a cellui iour po?/r une | iournee 
Et entre les autres messaiges que alixawdre | envoya manda il en gresse a sa 
mere La quelle fu | moult ioyeuse . Quant elle eust entendu le bon | estat 
de son filz . Si lui remanda lines lectres esquelles | lui prioit quil se voulsist 
garder dantipater qui | estoit sire de tir . qui est sur appellee . Et de ses enffaws | 
Easadron et iobras . Car il ne lui sembloit mie que | antipater lamast de bon 
ceur . Quant alixandre ot | leues. les lectres . si ne creust mie legierement ce que) 



xvin THE LATIN MINUSCULE BOOK-HAND 467 

written within the walls of the abbey, would be preferably drawn up 
in the customary hand of the house. This preference for a set hand, 
in cases where a cursive hand would be more usual, is specially notice- 
able in mediaeval monastic charters, which are so frequently written in 
a book-hand instead of the ordinary charter-hand of the time. 

In France a form of writing, founded on the cursive legal script, 
came into use as a literary hand, and was employed in the north, and 
beyond the frontier in the Low Countries subject to French influence. 
The well-known collection of Romances (Brit. Mus., Royal MS. 15 E. vi), 
which was presented by John Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury, to Margaret 
of Anjou, on her marriage to Henry VI in A.D. 1445, is written in this 
style (Pal, Soc. ii. 173). 

No. 196 

It is not a pleasing example of writing ; and in many instances this 
hand degenerates into coarseness. It has, however, a typographical 
interest as the basis of a common form of early French printing founts. 

The next specimen, of the English liturgical script of the fifteenth 
century, is from a Missal (Brit. Mus., Arundel MS. 109), which was 
given to the Church of St. Laurence in the Old Jewry. London, before 
A.D. 1446 (Pal. Soc. ii. 203). 

No. 197 

Comparing this example with that in the same style of writing of 
the first half of the fourteenth century (Facs. 191), we find the tradition 
of the older hand closely adhered to. There is little change in forms of 
letters ; but the general character of the writing is harder and appears 
more mechanically executed. Its rather ornate style is to be noticed. 

Turning to other countries, we give a typical specimen of a common 
class of handwriting found in MSS. of the Netherlands and Northern 
Germany at this period. The facsimile is taken from a MS. of St. Augus- 
tine De Clvitate Dei (Brit, Mus., Add. MS. 17284), written at Op-liuter 
in Belgium, in A.D. 1463. 

No. 198 

This angular style, with pointed forms of letters, is characteristic of 
the North German and Flemish ordinary book-hands of this century. 
In South Germany the influence of the Italian school imparted to the 
native hands a more graceful form. But while the German book-hand 
in general was of a rough and careless character, it is to be remembered 
that, as in England and other countries, a traditional set hand survived 
for liturgical and biblical works. 

We close our series of examples of the fifteenth century with two 
specimens of Italian writing. The first is from a MS. of the Politics ' 

H h2 



468 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY ( HAP. 

FACSIMILE No. 197 

>fummr rr wimint uto mattf 



!n0.ttdffl awfrrar (limit an 
imu CrarainfatUuma ftonrfy 
1 moms pan: uuu$ p ftuotote < 
(im auinmmrau wtiauntf fr 
am ftiiwjU'flim.iHiimir dirr 
mufctt!ffmim(iHnonf:er&i < 
nrn. 



mm aft Umt.liuiimis mof 
em ititi$: Dtnt.Cu a fpiiujn 



oaihnu aiitf touur rnrrm gn 
Ulmnv: ^iminur pftiupl <n 
tiinrfi rtfus Jfliunrmt<fmr d 
awf ptU4pB a irtlifaOH: aur 
tatrflntofffrpm.3iiufliir.pWi 



piopiiftrnuumuuua Him film 
n runauiii.a-Diarfl na 



MISSAL. BEFORE A.D. 1446 

(Venerunt et viderunt ubi mane|ret : et apud eum manserunt die | illo . Fora 
autem erat quasi deci'ma . Erat autew andreas frater sy|monis petri : unus ex 
duobus qui audierant ab iohanne . et secuti fuerant eum . Invenit hie 
pn" : mui fratrewi suum symonew : et di cit ei . Invenimu's messyam : qwod | 
est interpretatum cliristus . Et adduxiit eum ad ieswm . Intuitus autew | eum 
iesus : dixit . Tu es symon | filius iohanna : tu vocaberis ce|phas . quod 
interpretatt<r petrus . In | crastinuw autew voluit exire in galileam : etinvenit 
philippuwt . Et | dicit ei iesus . Sequere me . Erat ] autem philippus a bethsaida : 
civijtate andree et petri . Invenit phijlippusnathanaelem: et dicit ei . | Quern 
scripsit moyses in lege et | prophete : invenimus ies<m filiuw | ioseph a 
nazareth . Et dicit ei na) 



xviii THE LATIN MINUSCULE BOOK-HAND 469 



FACSIMILE No. 198 

f icvnr nnpUtiini.nMliYi pfyhmtf* frtn f fp H^ morl** <p fpli Upfaat 

* 



Uf ilrt Vomit: <-> 



CM* 



>* 
Jet 



ST. AUGUSTINE. A.D. 1463 

(fuerat impletura . cuis rei prcfiguratio factaes/ . q?<od now inoysesqui pop?/lo 
legem acce'perat in monte syna : sed iesus cui etiaw nomew deo precipiente 
mutatujw fue/at | ut iesus vocaretao- . populun: in terr&m promissionis induxit . 
Temponbus autfw iudi cuw sicut se hafcebant et pecea/a popj<]i et mixcrk-onlin 
dei altemaverut praspera et advej-sa bellorion | Inde ventu> est ad reguw 
tempo>-a, quorum pr/'mus regnavit saul Cui reprobate | et bellica elade pro- 
strato eiusq?e stirpe proiecta ne inde reges orirentw . david ] successit in 
regnum . Cuius niaxie chmlus dictus est h'lius, in quo articulus | quicla? 
factus est et exordium quodawmorfo iuvetutis populi dei, cui^s grnens qc- 
dawt | velut adolescewcia ducebat?<r ab ipso abraha usq^c ad huwc david 
Neq?<e enim | frustra matheus evangelista sic gcno-ationes cowimeHioravit ut 
hoc pr/mum | intervaUum quatuordeeiffi gcnerationibus co?mendaret . ab abra- 
hai scil/ce< usqwe | ad david . Ab adolescencia quippe incipit homo posse 
generare . proptewa gene ratio nuw ex ab^ahaj su/;;psit exordiu). qui etiam 
pater gencium constitutus est iuando mu tatui nome accepit . Ante huc 
ergo velut pumcia fuerat hui genens populi dei | a noe usqe ad ipswrn 
abraham . et ideo pn'ma lingua iwventa est id est hebrea .) 



470 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 



FACSIMILE No. 199 

ilXmmc ucro pnap4liflimum owni quc c 
pnap4liiTint4 ct cctas onis coinplcctit*. Cfh 
.nitcm Ixc iU4 qucauitas .ippdUtur ct cuiir . 
foact4d . <Q uicuncp ucro putint gul?u4ton c 
cuuttti* ct itgts patnsq? famtlus ct term 
c4iTtcm cc itmcm.nontcnc diaint. fOultttu 
dine ciuin cr p^uaratt . fed non fpcac Ulont$ 
fin^iilos pimmt dif^nt . uduti fi p4uconjm 
quiTJcm uommii fiiicro plurmm p4titmfiu 
U46.fi etui in plumun gu&iwtoitin cuutiitw, 
ucl icgcm. qiull nil? diffcrat m4^n4 romue 
ct p.mu cuutvis. guBiutonq; ciutatis ct rcr. 
CliunitD qnuxm ircm pfioct tttr. qn ucrofTii 
ro nan wlisfaenuc mpj:tc pfittt cri 



ARISTOTLE. A.D. 1451 

(Maxime vero pnncipalissimum omnium que est \ prineipalissima et ceteras 
omnes complectitwr. Est | autem hec ilia que civitas appellatur et civilis | 
societas. Quicunqwe vero putant gubcrnatoris | civitatis et regis patrisqwe 
familias et domini \ eandem esse rationem .' non bene dicunt. Multitu dine 
enim et paucitate .' sed non specie illormw | singulos putant differre . veluti 
si paucorum | quidem domiiiu . si vero pluriuin patremfawi.lias .' si etiam 
plurium gube-nafcorem civitatis . | vel regeni . quasi nihil diiferat magna 
domus | et parva civitas . gubmiatorqMC civitatis et rex. | Quando quidem 
idem presidet rex . qwando vero secundum \ rationem talis scientie in parte 
prcsidet et in parte) 



KACSIMII.K No. 200 471 



am ubt a<l<rt0riam uiraittf tua-crafTatiir? a. ' 
bun^po 
ecctr ( 
iaf art 

5 tn captufprauif 
ta 
cUne 



bmiaf artef>nett> cur^nett.mpetr'cuicf poteft-'. 
rauifaaptdintbufarl tncraam-uolup 



. 

necroctatranflferunt. (^uoA ft botmmbuf bona*/. 
rerumtamaomuffc^.'auantofttidto alwinxac 
ntbtl profutura multoep eaampenculofkpettur ' 
neo> reomnturaxaftbuf macrtfcpreqierenrcafef. 
<eoma<mittuiimfprDceilerenr'ubi protrwrta - 
etcrnt fteretTT. "Nam. u onenuf fjomi * 
tum^corpore-cSranttnaeft^'ltareT 
fttukaxfcomnianoftnL. ahacorponf alct 
anwm natur2unlec[uuntur / /qttur prcclarafa - 



rcut 



nt eorema actnora. fc 

junr- -poftremo convnf Afbrtunt-botitw^' ur 

tnittum lie ftmfefV. omnia<*. ortaocctcliintrtS: 

SALLUST. A.D. 1466 

(atqi<c imperator vite mortalium animus est .' | qui ubi ad gloriam virtutis via 
crassatur: a ! bunde pollens potensqie et clarus est, neq?<e fortujna eget. 
Quippe v que' probitatem, industriam, aliasqz<e | bonas artes, neqifg dare neqwe 
eripere cuiqa* potest. | Sin captus pravis cupidinibus ad inertiam volup| 
tatesq*(e corporis pesstindatus est : pernitiosa libi dine paulisper usus : ubi 
per socordiam, vires, tern pus etas: ingenium defluxere : nature infirmijtas 
accusatur. Suam quiq?<c culpam auctores ad ] negocia transferunt. Quod si 
hominibus bonar/o rerum tanta cura esset : quanto studio aliena ac | nihil 
profutura multoqwe etiam periculosa petuwt : | neqwe regerentur a casibus, 
magis qwa regerent casus .' | et eo magnitudinis procederent .' ubi pro morta) 
libus gloria eterni fierent. Nam uti genus homi nuin compositum ex corpore 
et anima est .' ita res | cunete, studiaqwe omnia nostra .' alia corporis : alia | 
animi naturam sequuntur. Igitur preclara fajcies : magne divitie, ad hec vis 
corporis . et alia omnia huiuscemodi brevi dilabuntur. At ingeinii egregia 
facinora sicuti anima immortalia | sunt. Postremo corporis et fortune bono- 
rum ut j initium sic finis est omniaqMC orta occidunt: et) 



472 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAT. 

and Economics of Aristotle, translated by Leonardo Aretino, in the 
library of Mr. Dyson Perrins, which was written at Milan in A. D. 1451 
(New Pal. Soc. 122). 

No. 199 

This is an extremely neat example of the book-hand of the Italian 
Renaissance period ; but still of the rather compressed type seen in the 
previous specimen, Facs. 194, of A. D. 1391. 

The second example shows a further advance. It is from a MS. of 
Sallust's Catiline and Jugurtha (Brit. Mus., Add. MS. 16422), written 
at Florence, A.D. 1466. 

No. 200 

Here the scribe has closely followed the pattern of the twelfth century 
(see Facs. 181), and has produced a beautiful MS. successfully imitating 
the graceful roundness of the older hand. The early printers of Italy 
had, happily, ample material of the same excellence as this MS. from 
which to construct their choice founts of type. For the widely diffused 
taste for choice volumes written in this beautiful style is proved by the 
survival of numerous examples which once adorned the libraries of 
wealthy patrons and collectors. 

It is not necessary to pursue the history of the Latin minuscule 
literary hand beyond the fifteenth century. Indeed, after the general 
adoption of printing, MS. books ceased to be produced for ordinary use, 
and the book-hand practically disappeared in the several countries of 
Western Europe. As regards the small number of extant literary MSS. 
of a later date than the close of the century, it is noticeable that a 
large proportion of them are written in the style of the book-hand of 
the Italian Renaissance. The scribes of these late examples only followed 
the taste of the day in preferring its clear and simple characters to the 
rough letters of the native scripts. 

The English Vernacular Book-hand in the Middle Ages 

A work on Palaeography which is intended chiefly for the use of 
English students would be incomplete without dealing separately with 
the scripts employed by English scribes of the later middle ages when 
writing in the vernacular. 

We have already followed the course of minuscule literary writing in 
England down to the period of the Norman Conquest. At that date, as 
we have seen, the foreign hand had already become a recognized literary 
hand and was employed for Latin literature ; and after the Conquest 
the old Saxon hand was no longer required in that department. For 
vernacular works, however, the latter naturally continued in use ; and 



xvin THE ENGLISH VERNACULAR BOOK-HAND 473 

FACSIMILE No. 201 



ji 1nr1)r twjitniK 

tf liautli t 




mttwjutn . cutlt twnnum 




nwm 

5<;irwr a 




li<jCbW cn^ 
iw titr 



ENGLISH LAWS (TEXTUS ROFFENSIS). BEFORE A.D. 1125, 

(flyman feormige. Gif hit sy her inne . gif hit | sj- east inne . gif hit sy nort? 
inne . bete be tSam [ ]>e f>a friS gehwritu sajegan. Gif hwa furh stael | tihtlan 
freot forwyrce . and his hand on hand | sj'lle . and hine his magas forlaetan . 
and he nyte | hwa him fore bete . Sonne sy he ^ses ?eow weor^ces wj r r?e . Se 
daer to gebyrige . and o?ifealle se | wer ?am magum. Ne underfo nan man 
otSres j mannes man butan J^aes leafe fe he xr fylig de . and hasr he sylla?> 
leas wiS selce hand . gif hit | hwa do . bete mine oferhyrnesse. Ic wille faet 
aelc gerefa ha;bbe gemot a jmbe feower wu can . and gedon <5aet aelc man sy 
folc rihtes wj-rtfe . and <5aat selc sprsec hsebbe ende . and andagan hwaen ne hit 
for? cume . gif hit hwa ofer hebbe .) 



474 



GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 



FACSIMILE No. 202 




THE ORMULUM. EARLY THIRTEENTH CENTURY 

(And he fejjm sennde sone for>> .' | Till be^lesem . and sejjde . Nu lalferrdinn- 
gess fare]?)? forTp . And sejke])]? swij^e jeoriie . patt newe | king . \alt borenn 
iss .' Her i ) iss | lawcl to manne . And sone sumui jejfindenn himm . Whser 
summ he beo)? I onn eor)?e .' Wi]?f> jure maddjmess lake]^ himm . And bujhe)?]? | 
himm . and lute)?]? . And cume)}]j efft onnljsen till me.' And wite]?]? me to | 
seggenn . Whaer ice me mujhe | finclenn himm .' To lakenn himm . and lu| 
tenn . And tej3 ]?a wenndenn fra }>& king '. Till ]?e^re rihhte wej-) 



XVIIT THE ENGLISH VERNACULAR BOOK-HAND 475 

eventually, after its cessation as a separate style of writing, a few special 
Saxon forms of letters, the g. the thorn (J> and $), and the w, still survived 
in MSS. to later times. But it must be remembered that, as we have 
seen above, the influence of the foreign minuscule had already begun to 
tell upon the native script even before the Conquest. In the eleventh 
century the spirit of the developement which marks the general progress 
of the handwriting of Western Europe is also evident in the cast of Anglo- 
Saxon writing, and after the Conquest the assimilation of the native 
hand to the imported hand, which was soon practised in all parts of the 
country, naturally became more rapid. In some English MSS. of the 
twelfth century we still find a hand which, in a certain sense, we may 
call Anglo-Saxon, as distinguished from the ordinary Latin minuscule 
of the period ; but, later, this distinction disappears, and the writing of 
English scribes for vernacular books became practically nothing more than 
the ordinary writing of the day with an admixture of a few special 
Old-English letters. On the other hand, it is observed that there was a 
tendency to prefer the use of the charter-hand for books in the English 
language, and in many MSS. of the late fourteenth and early fifteenth 
centuries we find a kind of writing, developing from that style, which 
may be called an English hand, in the sense of a hand employed in 
vernacular MSS. 

To illustrate the handwriting of the twelfth century referred to above, 
we select a specimen from a copy of the Textus Ro/ensis, a collection of 
the Laws of Kent and of Anglo-Saxon kings and William the Conqueror, 
now in the Chapter Library of Rochester, which was written before 
A.D. 1125 (Pal. Soc. ii. 73). 

No. 201 

The forms of the letters are for the most part Anglo-Saxon ; but the 
general aspect of the writing is that of the Norman script, inclining to 
the charter-hand type. If we compare this specimen with the contem- 
porary example of the fine book-hand of Canterbury, written with 
elaborate care, as shown in Facs. 176, it will be seen that the writing 
of the Rochester MS. is of quite a different class. The lettering, 
while firm and well formed, is not so calligraphic and is more com- 
pressed. At the same time the hand ranks as a thoroughly good one 
for general literary purposes. If we now turn to the contemporary 
charter of Henry I, Facs. 2^5, we appreciate the influence so manifestly 
exercised on the character of the writing before us by the vigorous style 
of the official Chancery hand of the charter. 

The Ormulum. or homilies on the Gospel Lessons, composed in metre 
by Orm, or Ormin. an Austin canon, in the East-Midland dialect, perhaps 
in the neighbourhood of Lincoln, is preserved in the Bodleian Library 



476 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

(Junius MS. 1). and was written probably in the early years of the 
thirteenth century (Pal. Soc. ii. 133). 

No. 202 

The hand is peculiarly rough, but strong ; and is the work of a writer 
who could use his pen effectively and with simple uniformity, but with- 
out any attempt at beauty. Both shapes of the thorn are used ; the soft 
or guttural sound of g is represented by the flat-headed Saxon letter, 
the hard sound by the same form with the addition of a curve which 
converts the bow under the head into a loop like that of the Roman 
letter. A peculiar feature is the doubling of the consonant after a short 
vowel. The second consonant is frequently written above the first ; and, 
in cases where the first consonant is soft g, its duplication is represented 
by h ; the over-written r is of the ordinary Roman form ; and some 
double consonants are written on one stem, as in the case of ]> and h. 

Another example of a strong, unadorned style is a collection of 
Homilies (Brit. Mus., Stowe MS. 340); also of the early part of the 
thirteenth century (Pal. Soc. ii. 94). 

No. 203 

This again is writing of the charter-hand type and, like the Ormu- 
lum, displays the virile strength which is so conspicuous in the cursive 
hands of this period, as found, not only in legal documents, but also in 
the literary annotations, generally written with the plummet, whether 
by scribe or scholar, in the margins of their books. 

A very pretty and regular book-hand appears in a copy of the Ancren 
Riwle, or Rule for Anchoresses (Brit. Mus., Cotton MS. Titus D. xviii), 
written at the beginning of the thirteenth century (Pal. Soc. ii. 75). 

No. 204 

For a work in the vernacular this MS. is unusually well executed. 
In general style, the writing may be compared with that of Facs. 182, 
of A. D. 1191-2, though the latter is rather more formal. The hand 
before us has all the vigour that we have noticed as characteristic in 
the two foregoing examples. 

Following on the same lines as the Latin hands, the transition from 
the stiff characters of the thirteenth century to the more pliant style of 
the fourteenth centuiy is seen in the Ayenbite of Inwyt, or Remorse 
of Conscience (Brit. Mus., Arundel MS. 57), written by Dan Michael, of 
Northgate, in Kent, a brother of St. Augustine's, Canterbury, A.D. 1340 
(Pal. Soc. i. 197). 



xvm THE ENGLISH VERNACULAR BOOK-HAND 477 



FACSIMILE No. 203 



BrffCdf ^ti&MfCmt^t-TM n3~aVS55^lu nul^r- tpet) fcf' 

octaif ctmtfSrytfyje ^* fc^^^tirytfi^^m^ J> Stt^r^ 

.) _J- f IP ^__JSrr (. ~^?L ^.(* .rtj _1 ./ -TtlO'-v_ 





HOMILIES. EARLY THIRTEENTH CEXTURY 

(Sese strewgfe of gode ' ne miht tu now god do . Du miht isieii sui j wel 
wis clerec . ?e wisliche him selves naht ne wisse? . and jjincjs ?at he | hafS 
inoh; on his witte t5e he cann . ne tSese strangle ne besek? v nauht' at | gode 
for t5i he belaefS among t5an Se now god ne cuwnen . And he>n | he is ilich of 
werkes . alswa lihtliche offerhwiie he misdotS alswo he Se now god ne cawn . 
Se fe for godes eijhe hi>w halt frai. alle heved | senwes . and frawj alle Se 
forbodes t$e god hiwi forbiet . he hafS Sese strewg)>e | of gode . Dese hali 
mihte forleas david k\-ng t5a $e he forlaij | mid bersabee Salomones moder Ipe 
was bewedded urie . Ac he | navre ne jeswaoc aer he hes eft Vafde . Misarere 
mei deMS Sane dereAvurSe salm anew he makede '. and godes wratS he tSar 
mide acolede) 



478 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

FACSIMILE No. 204 




THE ANCRES RTWLE. BEGINNING OF THIRTEENTH CENTURY 

(in on hire se hali king as he was | and godes prophete. Nu cumes forS | 
a feble mon . haldis him f>ah hehlich jif he haves a wid hod | and a lokin 
cape . and wile iseon junge | ancres . and loke neode as stan hu hire wlite 
him like . }>at naves i^awt hire leor forbarnd i f>e simne | and seis ho mai 
bakleliche iseow hajli men . jea swuch as he is for his | wide and his lokene 
sieve . Mesur qui \ desire ne heres tu ]>at david godes prophete | hi hwam he 
seide . Inveni virum | secuftdum cor meum . I have ifunden quotf \ he a mon 
after mi heorte . He ]>at \ godd self seide bi ])is deorewurSe | sahe . kig and 
prophete culed ut of alle. 

urie hire laverd . And tu a sune|ful mon art swa hardi to caster | J'in ehe 
on a jung wuwunon . pis \ pat is nu seid limpes to wimmen ah ase muehe 
neod is wepman | to wite wel his ehsihfre frai, winimew nes sihfe . Nu mi 
leove suster if a;ni 4s' ful willesful to seoii ow . J ne wejne 50 per neaver god 
ah leves him | pe lasse. Nule ich pat nan seo o\v bote he have special leave 
of ow|re maister . for alle f>a preo sunes | pat i spec of last . and al pat uvel 
of di|na pat i ear spek of . al com nawt | for pi pat te wimmen lokeden 
cangejliche o wepmen. J ah ]mrh pat ha unjwrihen ham i monnes ehesihtSe) 



xvin THE ENGLISH VERNACULAR BOOK-HAND 479 

FACSIMILE No. 205 



Mlty 

r c<mfUeue.fnc^K^l)j5j 
rileV^tioffcXW.aj^ 




AYENBITE OF IXWYT. A.D. 1340 

(ine )?ise live. Ac f>ise bye)? yef):es ari}t Avyjjoute wy^nymynge / and wyfoujte 
lere. Vor huawne fe olpre ssolle fayli / Jsise ssolle ous bleve. pawne byef 
hi zuo ' propreliche cure . J fiet we his ne moje najt lyese wylle we nolle we. 
ase we | moje fe oj^re. pe )?ridde seele and f>e hejeste is. vor Iper bye]? yeff>es 
clenliche | be love, and f>ou west wel fet yef J?e lyest fiane name of yeffe . J 
huawne hit | ne is na;t yyeve clenliche be love. Vor huane ]>e yevere he)? 
zijfe to his oje|ne prov.- 1 ]?et ne is no yefye. J ac ra)>re is chapvare. Huawne 
he yzyj)? guod nesse ondervonge / o)-e'r' service / f>et ne is no yef)-e / ac hit 
is rafre dette yyol'de. Ac huanne pe yeffe com]? proprelich'e' and chenliche 
of fe welle of love wtyjoute prov. wyfoute yef^e. wy^'oute drede. wy]?oute 
enie dette . J fawne is hit | arijt ycleped / yef]-e. Huerof ]?e filosofe zay)7. 
f>et yeffe / is yevynge . J Avy)i|oute ayenyef):e. fiet is wyoute onderstondinge 
of ayenyefjje. ac wy^loute more . J vor to zeche love. Ine ziiyche mancre god 
yeffj ous his yef)-es j clenliche ' vor tye love jjet he hef> to ous / and vor to 
gaderi cure herten.) 



480 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

FACSIMILE No. 206 

ftw0:tHn7tvctvoi 

jEftmttfi/i 

rtttcyrajis.tn 

taDKfoi n*tcefcm:vcW of m*cttatio2t 
WtwnO V^TC fthuimt tfiit) off: fbito be 



lp,mmc, roe oflttfcljmfljjc dqjiD to cn^c 
tovcatrfrbe rlqjilc tlicf wnat 
o 



fftttdi g^onttr/ mto Uc nnnaiiOiCt i?f 
tugtof vti^toitfct^cihanoze kitf-o^ 
to oe;ottctoijnDDrs 

^rt)otio of yc IBOOO mati : for 



Utptc l)i place vnttfbirtiD/ fozfoyf w 
^anittit|} iucitftno2is ijcOTvOff^ft" 
rfrt WGC citptcirt (pteicnK to^ 



WYCLIFFITE BIBLE. LATE FOURTEENTH CENTURY 

(stirid . J by cuwtree voyce \>ei Uessiden fe lord | almijti / forsof>e ludas comauM- 
dide ]>a,i bi | alle j)ingis . in body and ymvitt was redy for,to dye for cytee- 
seyns .' Ipe lied of nychanore . | and J?e bond \rith ]>e schuldre gird off . J forto 
be | broujt for]? to lenisdlem / whidre whan he ful|ly came . men of his 
lynage clepid togydre | and prestis to f>e autre . J he clepide and hem Ipat 
weren | in Ipe heej rocke / and ]>e hed of nychanore schejwid and f>e cursid 
bond whiche he holdige | forj> a3einws )?e holy hous of almijty god . J | greteli 
gloriede / also he comaimdide Ipe \ timge of unjjitouse nychanore kitt off . J 
for^o be jovew to briddis gobetmele / forsope | fe bond of f>e wood man . J 
forto be hongid | up ajeinus Ipe temple / ]>erfore . J alle blesside?z | ]>e lord of 
hevew seiynge / blessid ]>e lord ]>at \ kepte his place undefoulid / forsof>e he | 
hangide up nychanoris hed in ]>e hee3ist j rocke . J ]>at it were evydent 
or knowew and opyn) 



xvm THE ENd.IsH VERNACTI.AR BOOK-HAM) 



FACSIMILE No. 207 



481 



A vo&c 

Poet 9tUfc*SmaitS n tump* 
wcytdi 




.ltn> biitrt>< boltec - in* 



nesc 

i cdtcUmid Ujw t>t 
* tn louetillK ItuUK 

'*n9 mote i 
t fo0s nt$*l!*c no 




aniaencc 



TKI mo 



PIERS PLOWMAN*. ABOUT A. D. 1380 

(Quod peres fe plouhman pacientes vincunt . | Bifore perpetuel pees . i schal 
proven )?at i seide j And a vowe bifore god . and forsake hit nevere | pat 
disce doce dilige deum . and Ipyn enmy . | Herteli fow him lielpe . evene for]) 
J?i myth | Cast hote coles on his hed . of alle kynde speche | Fond vrilp ]>i wit 
and wif> )^i word . his love forte wynne | And jef him eft and eft . evere at 
his nede | Comforte him wi}5 ]>i catel . and wi)? )?i kynde speche | And lauhe 
on him j?us wif> love . til he lauhe on J?e | And but he bowe for ]>is betyng. 
bl\-nd mote i wor]?e | And whan he hadde iworded ]ms . wiste no man 
at't/n- | Wher peres fe plouhman bicam . so preveili he wente | And reson 



ran after . and rith wif> him jede 
aspie) 



Save concience and clergie . i coude no mo 



I i 



482 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 

No. 205 

In this example we have a heavy broad minuscule akin to the 
charter-hand type. The writing, while perfectly legible and of a good 
serviceable form, is of a somewhat rustic appearance, the lettering being 
clumsy and irregular and lacking the uniformity of a well-trained hand. 

Next, as a contrast, we take a few lines from a Wycliffite Bible of 
the earlier version (Brit. Mus., Add. MS. 15580), of the latter part of the 
fourteenth century (Pal. Soc. i. 75). 

No. 206 

The square character in which this MS. is written is akin to the 
formal script maintained in the contemporary Latin liturgical and biblical 
codices, and is therefore suitable to the nature of the volume, which, 
we may fairly assume, was drawn up in this style with a view to being 
read aloud in the household, and not only for private study. 

A MS. of the Vision of Piers Plowman (Brit. Mus., Cotton MS. 
Vespasian B. xvi), from which the next specimen is selected, may be 
placed in the latter part of the fourteenth century, perhaps about the 
year 1380 (Pal. Soc. ii. 56). 

No. 207 

The writing, in a round book-hand, partly formed on the charter- 
hand of the time, may be compared with the Facs. 193 from a 
Chronicle of about the year 1388. This style, as already stated, was 
employed in England very commonly at this period. Of a good legible 
type, it could be written with fair speed by a skilled penman ; and it 
appears ordinarily in MSS. of general literature. Without criticiz- 
ing the forms of the letters, which are generally those of the more 
flowing character of the time, it may be allowed to refer to one in 
particular, which seems to thrust itself upon the notice : this is the 
small round d of the shape seen especially in Facs. 193, which appears 
to be typical of this hand. 

A carelessly written volume is the original MS. of the Wycliffite 
version of the Old Testament at Oxford (Bodley MS. 959), by Nicholas 
Hereford, the date of which may be placed about A.D. 1382 (Pal. Sue. 
ii. 151). 

No. 208 

This is one of the five hands in w r hich the MS. is written, and is of 
the cursive charter-hand type which became common in the next century. 

The palaeographical interest of this volume chiefly consists in its 
being an author's MS. The style of the writing was naturally unim- 



483 



FACSIMILE No. 208 




WYCLIFFITE BIBLE. ABOUT A.D. 1382 

(fore f>e lord / and ]>e sonys off aaron J>e p>rst | sholen oifre ]:e blood off hit . 
shedynge by | envyron of ]:e auter . ["at is byfore Ipe dojre of ]>e tabernacle / 
and }>G skyn of ];e boost | drawyn off J ]~e grete lemys ]^ei sholen kyt|te in 
gobetes . and ^ei sholen ley fuyr i ]:e | auter J made byfore ]?e heep of woode . 
and | Ipe lemes ]5at ben kut above ordeynynge / | fe heed ]Jat is . and al ]?at 
clevyn to )^e niajwe . J )~e entrailes awd ]?e feet wasche wij) I water / and ]>e 
prest shal brewne hem upon Ipe auier into al bre/zte sacrifice and sweete 
smul to )?e lord / \ai jif of )^e beestes is ^\>e offrynge | Ipe al brent sacrifice 
of sheep or of gete . J | he shal offre a loomp of o jeer . wij?oute | wem . and 
lie shal offre at J5e syde of Ipe \ auter pat byholdej) to ]pe norpe . J byfore | )?e 
lord / J?e blood forsope of hit Ipe sonys | of aaron sholen helden opon J^e auter . J 
by | envyron / and pei sholle dyvyden J~e lemes | J>e heed and al pat eleven 
to pe mawe . J and \ leye opon pe \voode J to pe whiche fuyr is to be under- 
put . ]?e entrailes forsope and pe | feet f>ei sholew whnsche wip water . and 
pe | prrst shal bre;me alle pyuges offred opon | Ipe auter in to brent sacrifise and 
most sweet | smul to pe lord / jif forsope off pe briddes | J>e offryuge of brewt 
sacrifice were to pe | lord of turtris or colvyr briddys .- ]?e prest) 



484 



GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 



FACSIMILE No. 2 



CHAP. 






uigr tor coftau of v&i 
mi* w of pc iserfus of flufttoti:for jar 



Dcu t&mtu; 



ittfe jfaowigc yc iirtfcc truioiptfgc U* r 
uiari o umttjfiigr uau toCratJ 
^ iris to irtf p 1 * 



aiwOii? man ^ of crafc ftut Qrrtjc oc 



uot 
fioiuc of^Ojnuoilbcfinu o|T/ 



is to bcu fad H f |pl)ctc:i^tu cudum* 



BIBLE. BEFORE A.D. 1397 

(bounden and eny finge liic to ban of psalimys or of j^e werkis of saro'nion .- 1 
bot >at | in demostene and tullio . J it is wont to be | don \>ak bi devysioims 
and \erdcr distinccyouws J>ei [ ben writen .- 1 J^e whiche forsoj)e in prose and j 
not in verse writew / we forso]-e to ]?e profit of | reders pwrveyinge ]>e newe 
remenynge wit/) | a new maner of wriitynge ban distinctly | writen / and 
first of ysay it is to wytew 'pat \ in his sermouw be is wiisse / forso})e as | a 
noble man and of cwrteise feire speche ne | eny ]nnge is mengid of cherlhede 
in bis | feire speche / wherfor it falli]) ]>ai Ipe trans|lacyoui schal not mowuw 
keepen Jse floure of his sermoim beforii oper Jseraftcr | also ]>er is to be leid 
to . ]?at not more he | is to ben seid a prophete . J ]>an evange) 



xvm THE ENGLISH VERNACULAR BOOK-HAND 485 

portant, provided that it was legible. The cramped character of the 
hand is in strong contrast to the handsome and leisurely script of the 
foregoing example. We have here, in this unguarded and natural hand, 
indications of the impending change to the hurried and ill- formed scripts 
of the fifteenth century. Among the forms of letters we have to notice 
the common use of the round 6-shaped cursive s. 

Another, finely written, Wyclifiite Bible of the earlier version is that 
executed for Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester, youngest son of 
Edward the Third, who was put to death in 13S7 (Brit. Mus., Egerton 
MSS. 617, 618). The MS. must therefore date before that year (Pal. 
Soc. i. 171). 

No. 209 

In this instance again, as in the W3'cliffite Bible quoted above 
(Facs. 206), the writing is rather of the liturgical type : a set book-hand. 1 
It is not, however, of the precise calligraphy that would be found in 
a MS. actually written by a professional scribe for church use. It will 
be noticed that it is of a rather rougher character. But, at the same 
time, the MS. is a very handsome one and is on a large scale in two 
folio volumes, a fact pointing to the conclusion (which has its historical 
significance) that, like Facs. 206, it was written for reading aloud, and 
that it was so used in Thomas of Woodstock's household. 

We will open the fifteenth century with a specimen from a very 
handsome MS. of Chaucer (Brit. Mus., Harley MS. 7334), which must 
probably have been written ([iiite at the beginning of (he century (Pal. 
Soc. i. 101). 



This is the best style developed by the scribes of the vernacular MSS. 
at this time. We recognize its connexion with the class of writing to 
which Facs. 193 and 207 belong, and also its superiority in calligraphic 
finish. Remembering that it is a script in the composition of which the 
cursive element is prominent, we may be satisfied with the measure of 
success attained in moulding it into a book-hand not wanting in 
symmetry. It will be noticed that the dot which marks the letter y 
in older MSS. is here generally indicated by a faint hair-line, like that 
marking the letter i. 

The next specimen is from a MS. of Trevisa's translation of Ralph 
Higden's Polychronicon (Brit. Mus., Add. MS. 24194), written at the 
beginning of the fifteenth century (Pa!. *SV. ii. 171). 



1 It may here be noted that the exact liturgical hand, as used for Latin service-books, 
was also employed in the MSS. of the English prynier see .Veio Pal. Soc. 93). 



486 



FACSIMILE No. 210 




fouf /vjtiro *n$ fltmi o 
gftttfuf to nip- An9 to $iB 

men 

tt ffca$ f attf open at cumd) 
fitcf (tofc of ni 
at ^>c W^ cn m 
an 




Of AC 

(Son* 



( 



one 



* fb 
cnjfcS tno^ci* fiaS c tn 

to fticfc? a ^o 



CHAUCER. ABOUT A.D. 1400 

(Ther was in acy in a greet Citee | Amonges cristen folk a Jewerye | Sus- 
teyned by a lord of fat eontre | For foul usure and lucre of feloiiye 
Hateful to crist and to his compaignye | And )nirgh ]?e strete men might 
ride and wende | For it was fre and open at everich ende | A litel scole of 
cristen folk )?er stood | Doun at fe former ende in which J>er were | Children 
an heep yeomen of cristes blood | That lered in fat scole jer by jere | Such 
maner doctrine as men used f^ere | This is to say to synge and to rede | As 
smale childer doon in her childhede / | Among fese children was a wydow 
sone | A litel clergeouH fat save jer was of age That day by day to scole 
was his wone | And eek also wher so he saugh jiymage | Of cristes moder had 
he in usage | As him was taught to knele a doun and say) 



THE ENGLISH VERNACULAR BOOK-HAND 487 

FACSIMILE No. 211 



c Jjfaa r^ <JTJI ittC men fittucp nolfe 

Ji feft ffcito tsdjfi (Jc) c^ifJfycti ff n 

ttr ffclticf Hffyzttt UJOllflty ()oU? CH 



op Att<yyt* Po 

Atfd> 

tt'Cllppl -j 




TKEVIS.V. BEGINNING OF FIFTEENTH CENTUKY 

(o]>ere places . Also gentil men havej) now | moche Heft forto teche here 
children fren sche R anulphus] hit seme)) a grete wonder how en glisshe }>at 
is J>e bur]7e tonge of Englisshe | men and here owne longage and tonge | is 
so dyvers of SOUH yn }iis oon Ilond and | f>e longage of Normandye is com- 
lynge of ano]:er lend and ha)) oon manere souw | among alle men pat speke)) 
hit aryjt | yn engelond trevysa / neverj'eles pere is | as meny dyvers manere 
frensche in pe reem | of Frauwce as is dyvers manere englisshe | in ]>e reem 
of Engelond R[anulphus] also of )>e for seid saxon tonge J?at is deled af>re 
and | is abide scarsliche wij) fewe uplondisshe | men . J is gret wonder for 
men of >e Est j wij> men of fe west as hit were under Ipe same partye of 
heve/i acorde)) more in | sownynge of speche j^an men of J>e north | wip men 
of )3e south . perfore hit is pat) 



488 



FACSIMILE No. 212 




OCCLEVE. EARLY FIFTEENTH CENTURY 

(Al f o}h his lyfe be queynt f e resemblaunce j Of him ha)? in me so fressh 
lyflynesse | pat to putte othir men in remembraunce | Of his persone I have 
heere his lyknesse | Do make to f is ende in sothfastnesse | pat fei fat have 
of him lest fought and mynde | By ]> is peynture may ajeyn him fynde 
The ymages fat in fe chirche been | Maken folk fenke on god and on his 
seyntes | Whan fe ymages f ei beholden and seen | Were oft unsyte of hem 
causith restreyntes | Of f oughtes gode whan a ] ing depeynt is | Or entailed 
if men take of it heede | Thoght of f e lyknesse it wil in hym brede 
Yit somme holden oppynyouw and sey | pat none ymages schuld Imaked be 
pei erren foule and goon out of fe wey | Of trouth have f ei scant sensibilite 
Passe over fat now blessid trinite | Uppon my maistres soule mercy have 
For him lady eke f i mercy I crave) 



THE ENGLISH VERNACULAR BooK-HAXJ) 
FACSIMILE Xo. 213 



489 



V -i 



)u ftmt h*m Irtt O^nttf. 

.'~h 

I yu3 ictfttuY Ir^wt i UH tH'i' J / 
i frtf holp j'^vti^ Jiuui' ttciwttnit -Jl 

UmaJ 

UlMlirtni'rt ^J 
-.14 1, t ufviT**} 10 flictttj;i) Of (irrtvf^ 



rrpftcu 4T|jU atruri tmnmttotit- 

tfui 

of ; 




i Iv tmntct^lfum tem 
^utt|nt UrtO fitt nitiity A&VV fctute _ I 



io Irf 

^tl l^nx tte&mre 



- 



OSBERN" BOKEXHAM. A. IX 1447 



(O btysful lesu sum beem lete shyne 
}?is legende begune I may tcrmyne 



Upon me of hevenely influence | That 
To f>at holy virgyns laude and rever- 



ence | Wych next ]>i modyr hath ^e excellence | Of virgynyte by many a pre- 
rogatyf As by ]>e processys is shewyd of hyr lyf 
Here begywnys the lyf of seynt kateryne 

Whylom whyl Maxewce was emperoure | Of crysten peple a cruel tormentour 
Lj'ch as J>e story us doth telle | In ]>e cyte of Alysaundyr dede dwelle 
A maydyn )>inge ful feyr of faas [ Wych of kyng Constaunce doughtyr was | 
Kateryn be name whom dam nature Yovyn had ful many a feyr feture \ 
For as it semyd in hyre formyng | She forgetyn had ych o\>ir j^ing | So besy 



she was on hyr to pore | Al hyre tresoure |^at very pore 
whan she had do ] And to ]>e yiftys of nature also) 



She semyd to be 



490 



GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 



No. 211 



This is of the same class of hand as the last, but not so exactly 
written and displaying more of the cursive element. 

Early in the century, in some of the more carefully written MSS., 
a hand of the charter-hand type, but cast in a regular and rather pointed 
form, is employed. Such is the writing of a copy of Occleve's poem 
De Regimine Principum (Brit. Mus., Harley MS. 4866; Pal. Soc. ii. 57), 
written in the reign of Heniy IV. 

No. 212 

If this example is compared with the MS. of Chaucer (Facs. 210) 
the change of style is seen to be from one which was growing in breadth 
to another of which the leading feature is compression. Here the 
pointed element characteristic of the fifteenth century is prominent 
treated in a decorative and rather artificial manner : but, on the whole, 
the result is not wanting in success. 

In conclusion of the English vernacular series, a specimen is given 
from a MS. of Saints' Lives in verse by Osbern Bokenham, an Austin 
Friar (Brit. Mus., Arundel MS. 327), written at Cambridge in A.D. 1447 
(Pal. Soc. ii. 58). 

No. 213 

Little observation on this example is called for. The writing is the 
ordinary book-hand of the period ; the thorn being the only Old-English 
letter required by the text. By this time the literary script in England, 
except under special conditions, had deteriorated and passed into the 
featureless and ill-formed character of careless decadence. 



CHAPTER XIX 

LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY (continued) 

Official and Legal Cursive Scripts 

THE history of the official and legal Cursive Scripts of Western 
Europe in the middle ages covers nearly as wide a field as that of the 
literary hand. Practically, however, a full knowledge of the peculiarities 
of the different official hands of Europe is not so necessary and is not so 
easily attainable as that of the various kinds of literary MSS. Each 
country has naturally guarded its official deeds with more or less jealousy, 
and such documents have therefore been less scattered than the contents 
of ordinary libraries. And while the student will find it of chief advan- 
tage to be familiar with the history of the book-hands of all countries 
because his researches, in most instances, will be connected with literary 
matters, and his labours will mainly lie among MS. books -he will be 
generally content with a slighter acquaintance with the official hand- 
writings of foreign countries, for the study of which the available 
material is limited. A fair knowledge, however, of the official and 
legal hands of his own country is as necessary to him as the knowledge 
of the literary hands, if he wishes to be in a position to make use of the 
vast mass of historical information to be extracted from the official ami 
private records which lie ready to hand in the national repositories. 

With the object, then, of assisting the student to have, though it be 
only to a limited extent, acquaintance with the official and legal cursive 
scripts, it is proposed to touch very briefly on the developement of the 
foreign hands of this character, and to deal more fully with that of our 
own country. For a full treatment of the subject the reader must be 
referred to the various works on Diplomatic, a study which embraces the 
history, often very complex, of the developement of the practices of the 
several national Chanceries of Europe, as well as of the different styles of 
writings employed. Here we confine our attention and remarks to the 
palaeography of the documents which will be cited, regarding them in 
their quality of specimens of particular scripts, and not in their quality 
of official diplomas or legal instruments. 

In dealing above with the national literary scripts of Western Europe, 
we followed the developement of the Yisigothic, the Lombardic. and the 
Merovingian styles, as practised respectively in the Peninsula, in Italy, 



492 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY , HAP. 

and iu the Merovingian or Frankish Empire. It was there shown how 
those scripts had their origin in the Roman cursive hand. But it was 
more convenient in that place to omit the intermediate national cursive 
examples which led up from the Roman hand to the literary scripts, and 
to defer quoting them until this chapter, where they can be produced 
together and can be compared with one another. It is not proposed, 
however, to do more than give early specimens of those several hands, 
in order to illustrate their origin and their connexion with one another. 
Of the Visigothic cursive the available material is limited. We have 
to be content with an example from a cursive MS. in the Escurial (Ewald 
and Loewe, Exempli S< ript. Visigot. iii) containing the liturgy for the 
Benedict io cerei, written in the seventh century. 

No. 214 

In this writing little variation is to be observed from the Roman 
cursive as it appears in its later stage (Facs. 112); and the dis- 
tinctively typical letters which mark the Visigothic book-hand are 
not yet developed. The example given above (Facs. 115) from a MS. of 
St. Augustine, written in a half-cursive book-hand of the first half of the 
eighth century, contains some of the typical letters in an incipient stage. 
From this it would appear that the typical letters took shape in the 
literary hand in the course of that century. In the seventh century 
the cursive hand, as exemplified by the present specimen, was still too 
strongly affected l>y the pattern Roman hand to vary greatly from it. 

To illustrate the Lombardic or old Italian cursive hand, a specimen is 
selected from a deed, very illiterate, of Grimoaldus IV, Duke of Bene- 
vento, of A.D. 810 (Paleoyr. urtittica di Monte<as*iuo, xxxiv). 

No. 215 

The connexion between this writing and the Roman cursive is obvious. 
The scribe has not stinted himself in extravagant nourishes; but even 
in his fantastic tall c and in his exaggerated long s, as well as in other 
letters, he only caricatures, but does not depart from, the lines of the 
parent alphabet. The zigzag form of a (as in hub, 1. 4, and in /thatus, 
1. 5) is a curious developement of the open letter written above the line 
in the Roman cursive. The document being of a fairly advanced period, 
it is seen that the forms of certain letters, as the looped t and the e 
with indented back, which are characteristic of the Lombardic book- 
hand, are developed. The exaggeration which tended to make the cursive 
writing of this type, as it did the Merovingian, so involved and difficult 
to decipher became more aggressive in process of time ; but, with the 
natural conservatism attaching to official and legal practice, the employ- 
ment of this script persisted in spite of hindering causes. As a con- 



XIX 



LATIN OFFICIAL CTRSIVE SCRIPTS 



493 



s. 

t-> 

DD 




= - 

^ O r- 





g 

cc s 

3 gj ,-,-- 

" 3 

ce 






^ .s-- 



I 

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H 



_0) 

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o /-fc , 

_OJ 

o '= ( 

CO Ci 







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.2 
g S 



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' 



> 



3 ^;.^ 



_t! " 

5 2 SP' 



10 



s 

M 

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o 

X 



S5 

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a 



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--'5 o. 



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2 <x _ 
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3.9 

ii'a? ^ 

g'3 j 

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s * 



2^-^ 

X -2 a 
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0> O) 

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"? "3 3 



O T3 3 " 
0) IS 'f. 



'> 2 o 






_o 



T- 



f> 



2 




9 




8 
4 


' 3 

if 1 


9 


^ j 


C. 

3 


.*^*^ / v^x 


fe/ T 

^ - j 



495 




c3.' : 


n^ 


i 


5 


3 


4 


fe 


i 

2. 


V 

5 
P 


^^ s t t r 


i* 


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3 







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r 
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to 

00 



"5 2 

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-2 



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-s 



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j a> '^ 

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8 s_2 
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S =H 3 

S 
g-l-o 
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S 2 g 

112 

5 * 

O O QJ 
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*j 7t ^; 



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2.3 S 

ft. 3 > 
vS O C5 



496 



o 

to 

K 

M 
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4- H ^ r 

1 L * . s f- 




o 

02 



3 !3 ' -2 

^3 ~ ( eg 05 

"T* " ""* CJ 3 ? 

Cf ^ c/; ._ i^j 

' A- g c S 

o" 5 s " - 



s. 



ill I" 8 " 1 

I I III | 

l^ O o) cS 3 " 



l^ O o) 

.2 S. 



I~1M 

~ "S *o> . 

^2 o> 13 'c 
c3 ^ 

PB 

3 i i i 

CO |^ .p4 

i -2-5 

*J,5 S S 

g .2 g c ._ 

<u 3 ^H T1 C 





O 

&.S.S.S 



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<B -e 'c '-3 



53 1C 



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p . 



o "" a.g -S 

> QI ^ -u cfl 

-S S -w 2^5 



a. 



S a cL 

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2 > ^ .2 "^ 
S ^ 'S cs 

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^.2 S -S S 

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xix LATIN OFFICIAL CURSIVE SCRIPTS 497 

sequence of the Norman conquests in Southern Italy in 1062-77, the 
Carolingian minuscule was introduced, but the notaries still clung to the 
native writing; and even the injunctions of Frederic II against its use, 
in 1:220 and 1231. did not entirely suppress it, for it lingered on in 
isolated cases as late as the fourteenth century. 

The principal interest in connexion with the old Italian cursive 
lit- in the fact that from it was developed the special form of official 
writing, the I'Mvrn Romana, which was practised in the Papal Chancery 
for a period of some centuries. This peculiar script is found fully 
developed in examples of the end of the eighth and beginning of the 
ninth centuries; but material no longer exists to show when it had 
assumed its final shape. Among its special forms of letters are the 
a made almost like a Greek u>, the e in shape of a circle with a knot 
at the top, and the t in that of a loop. (Facsimiles are to be found 
in various palaeographical collections, and especially in the work of 
Pflugk-Harttung, Sfte /'//<''/< i edxta <// irt<iram />jn'i'i''uin RomaJiorum, 
1885-7.) 

The following specimen (reduced) is from a confirmation by Pope 
John VIII of privileges granted to the monastery of Tournus. written 
on a very large scale, A.r>. 876 (Pf.-Hart. 5 ; Steft'ens. Lit. Palneoyr. 52). 

No. 216 

In the course of the eleventh century this official hand underwent 
considerable modification, chiefly attributable to the ever growing 
influence of the Carolingian minuscule, partly also no doubt to the 
abandonment by the Chancery of the use of papyrus in favour of parch- 
ment or vellum. The writing becomes smaller, though not on that 
account more legible, and is not spread over so large a surface. But 
the introduction of the Carolingian minuscule was not accomplished 
all at once. First used in the dating clause, it was not adopted for the 
text of documents until the pontificate of Clement II. A.D. 1046-7; 
and it was not until after Calixtus II, A.D. 1119-24, that it altogether 
superseded the old Italian hand. 

An example (here on a reduced scale) of the later style of this old 
official hand is found in a bull of Paschal II, confirming the possessions 
of the Abbey of San Pietro in Cielo d'Oro in Pavia, A.I). 110.2 (Steftens, 
Lat. Pulaeoijr. 63). 

No. 217 

It will be observed in this hand that, while the peculiar forms of the 
letters a and t of the old type are still maintained, the letter e often 
reverts to the more ordinary shape of the Roman cursive; but, on the 
1181 K k 



498 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 

other hand, the letters r ami s, both exaggerated in length, have assumed 
forms which are often so nearly alike that there is some danger of 
confusion. 

After the full adoption of the Carolingian minuscule for the docu- 
ments of the Papal Chancery, the official writing of the twelfth and 
thirteenth centuries, and subsequently of the later middle ages, followed 
the general lines of the developement of the writing of Western Europe, 
cast, it must be remembered, in the mould of the symmetrical Italian 
style. 

A very peculiar and intricate character introduced at a late period 
for papal documents may here be mentioned. This is the so-called 
Littem Sanrti Petri or Xi.-rittura liollutica. a character which appears to 
have been invented for the purpose of baffling the uninitiated. It first 
appeared in the reign of Clement VIII, A.D. 1592-1605, and was only 
abolished in our own time, at the end of the year 1878. 

The Merovingian official cursive had a career resembling that of the 
Lombardic or old Italian hands. As the latter led the way to the official 
script of the Roman Curia, so the former was the direct ancestor of the 
official hands which grew up and flourished in the Imperial Chancery. 
Facsimiles of most of the documents are to be found in such works as 
Letronne's Diplomats. (1848), the Facsimile de Clia/lt:* et Diplomea 
Meroringiens et Carlovingiens of Jules Tardif (1866), Sickel's Nafhlasee 
von U. F. von Kopi> (1870), the Kctiserurkunden in Abbildungen of 
von Sybel and Sickel (1880, etc.), and the Mu>ee des Archives Depart e- 
mentales (1878). 

In the Merovingian cursive we find the parent Roman script 
transformed into a curiously cramped style of writing, the letters being 
laterally compressed, the strokes usually slender, and the stems of letters 
above and below the line much exaggerated. 

The following example is taken from a document in the Archives 
Nationales of France (K. 2. no. 13) containing the Judgement of 
Thierry III in a suit by a woman named Acchildis against a certain 
Amalgarius concerning land in BaillevaP in Beauvaisis, A.D. 679-80 
(Pal. Soc.i. 119). 

No. 218 

This intricate script might almost seem to be purposely complicated; 
and, indeed, it is not impossible that the official scribes were not un- 
willing to render the decipherment of the diplomas difficult. Among 
the letters may be noticed the a, formed as double-c closely written, and 
also as an open letter above the line ; the t with looped back, and other 
forms of the letter in combination : tho high-shouldered r ; and occasion- 
ally the sickle-shaped u. We have seen above (Facs. 124) how this 



? ~ *~ 
f> Vr- CL 

V-0-/ J^ 



x; 

a 



^ S-IF 




499 



S 9 < d 

55 c5 C 
'^ P 



% ' s 2 

T'ii 

.53 3 S 

-w o 

- O * ft 



rt -5 = -S 
s - tr 55 

03 O T 1 O 



O 
GO 



o 



S 2 








~ ' a 



|J 



5.3)6 g 






'^ Q ^ c5 ^5 



L f* 

'a a .-S 8 8 

> = & 



500 



FACSIMILE No. 219 



wuv thKto WH 




DIPLOMA OF CHARLEMAGNE. A. D. 797 



501 



(Carolus gratia dei rex francorum et] | fidelibus suis largiente doimo 
eonsultissime muneratu'r] | in vita et regno nobis a dco concesso impie 
conatus est iudicium francorum diiudicati aliqui vero fideles | deprac- 
cationem et servitio ac meritis conpellentibus | et nostra gratia iure firmis- 
simo ad legitimam propriet ate] | vel per strumenta cartarum tune tempore 
ut diximu[s - praeceptum cum dei et nostra gratia a modo et d einceps" | 
habeatur et diuturnis temporibus auxiliante domino) 



502 



d 
55 




ill 



. 2 

" 



c ? ': 'Jz 

S > " "S . : : 

S ^ : ~ 

S ? K^ ~ 



03 QJ 

!0 

fi .* 

o! 



o s "S : 

.- -i ~ : 

^ - = r 



i 



j "ft. .2 ? 
- ^ "S S 



& 



- 



a, 
."t: * 



? &-j I 

i - 5 = 

^ ~ *^ 

:- S to . 



.2 ~ 

^ o 



C3 = 
' 0> 



* 

.-^ o 






ft. S 

r= -? -= 

' ^ I 

~ = 5 



C = O 






_ o 
- ^ 



o "^ 
1C , 



K 



a o o 






503 



.^ ^ - - 

,5 ' ^ ~ 

'= Z* - ^ 

'n ^ " = 



" 

f ^ 
- .- 



^ .S " -, 

S " - CJ 3 



O ^ 



g" 



03 O B 

3*9 



- 



2 2 



= 



504 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

rough irregular script was drilled into a book-hand not wanting in 
calligraphic symmetry. 

After the middle of the eighth century the Merovingian cursive 
becomes less irregular, and in the reign of Charlemagne it is fairly- 
legible. The following specimen is a section of a diploma of that 
monarch (Paris, Archives Nationales, K. 7, no. 15), restoring his forfeited 
possessions to Count Theobold, A.D. 797 (Album imU : <jr. 16). 

No. 219 

In the ninth century a small hand of increasing regularity and 
gradually falling into the lines of the Carolingian minuscule was 
established; but, while the influence of the reformed hand is quite 
evident, old shapes of letters were retained for some time, as mio-ht be 
expected in a style of writing which would, in thel nature of things, 
cling to old traditions more closely than would that of the literary 
schools. And so it progressed, affected by the changes which are seen 
at work in the literary hands, but still continuing to maintain its own 
individuality as a cursive form of writing. 

As an illustration of this progress, we select a specimen (reduced) 
from a diploma of Louis the German (St. Gall, Chapter Archives, 
F. F. i. H. 106), exchanging property with the priest Otulf, A.D. 856 
(Stettens, Lat. Palaeoyr. 50). 

No. 220 

In this writing of the Imperial Chancery, as indeed in all other 
cursive styles derived from the Roman cursive, the exaggeration of the 
heads and tails of letters is a marked feature. And this exaggeration 
continued inherent in the hand and was eventually carried over into the 
official Chancery hands of France and Germany and Italj-. In England 
we see the influence of the script of the Imperial Chancery in the official 
hand which the Normans brought with them and established in the 
country. 

Each of the nations, then, of Western Europe developed its own style 
of official and legal writing, and in eacli country that writing ran its 
own course, becoming in process of time more and more individualized 
and distinct in its national characteristics. But at the same time, as we 
have seen in the case of the literary script, it was subject to the general 
law of change ; in each country it passed through the periods of the large 
bold style of the eleventh and twelfth centuries, the exact style of the 
thirteenth, the declining style of the fourteenth, and the careless pointed 
style and decadence of the fifteenth century. With its later career we 
have not to do, except to note that certain forms of it still linger in law 
documents, as for example in the engrossing of modern English deeds ; 



xix LATIN OFFICIAL CURSIVE SCRIPTS 505 

and that every ordinary current hand of modern Europe might have 
1 pi-en as directly descended from the old legal cursive hand as is the 
modern German. What saved Europe from this diversity of current 
handwriting was the welcome which was given to the beautiful Italian 
cursive hand of the Renaissance, a form of writing which stood in the 
same relation to the book-hand of the Renaissance as the modern 
printer's //"//<.- (the name preserving the memory of their origin) do to 
his ordinary Roman type. As the Italian book-hand of the Renais- 
sance was not infrequently adopted at the end of the fifteenth and 
beginning of the sixteenth centuries as a style of writing for tin- 
production of select MSS. in England and France and other countries 
beyond the borders of Italy, so the Italian cursive hand at once came 
into favour as an elegant and simple style for domestic use. In the 
sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries an educated Englishman could 
write two styles of current writing, his own native hand lineally 
descended from the charter-hand, and the new Italian hand; just as a 
German scholar of the present day can write the native German and the 
Italian hands. And in concluding these remarks it is worth noting that 
the introduction and wide acceptance of the Italian hand has constituted 
a new starting-point for the history of modern cursive writing in 
Western Europe. As the Roman cursive was adopted and gradually 
became nationalized in different forms in different countries; and, again, 
as the reformed minuscule writing of Charlemagne's reign was taken as 
a fresh basis, and in its turn gradually received the stamp of the several 
national characteristics of the countries where it was adopted ; so the 
Italian cursive hand of the Renaissance has received the impress of those 
same characteristics, in the course of its transformation into the current 
handwritings of modern Europe. 

The Official and Legal Cursive Script in England 

The handwriting employed in England for official and legal docu- 
ments after the Xorman Conquest was the foreign official and legal 
script introduced by the conquerors. 

It has already been shown that in England, during the Anglo-Saxon 
period, there was in use no form of writing derived directly from the 
Roman cursive, as was the case in other countries of the Continent. The 
official and legal cursive script was practically the same as that employed 
in literary productions, but, in the nature of tilings, not always written 
with the care and precision of the book-hand. We even find charters 
drawn up in the English half-uncial hand ; but these are exceptional and 
may perhaps Vie monastic copies. The more usual official script was the 
pointed writing. The Facsimiles <>< Ancient I'lun-li-,-* in the Briti*li 



503 



G* 

O 



K 



< 
fc 



'2 






|ff 

: -^0 







5 i, 
-: - - 



-5 : i 



3 

w 5* 






st- 



fc 5 

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LATIX OFFICIAL CURSIVE SCULPTS 511 



and the F" of Aiil<>-*<i.!:<>n J/.s'X. (Rolls Series) con- 

tribute largely to our knowledge of the different varieties of the hand 
as practised in different parts of the country, and we are able even to 
distinguish certain styles as peculiar to certain districts. In this place it 
is not necessary to give more than a few examples to illustrate the 
broad distinctions that existed ; to do more than this would be to go 
over a second time the ground already traversed in the description of 
the English book-hand previous to the Norman Conquest. 

Among the early examples of Anglo-Saxon charters there are many 
to prove that a fine character of writing was cultivated in several of the 
kingdoms of the Heptarchy: but, if one kingdom is to be preferred to 
the rest, we should select Mercia, as generally the district of origin of 
the best style. The following is taken from a deed of exchange of lands 
lit-t ween Cynewulf of Mercia and Wulfred Archbishop of Canterbury, 
among the Chapter deeds of Canterbury, of the year 812 (Pal. ,s'oc. i. 11). 



This excellent example of Mercian writing of the early years of the 
ninth century, with its delicate play in the structure of the letters, bears 
witness to the culture of that kingdom and to the high standard attained 
by the official scribes of the time. With it may be compared the con- 
temporary example of the Mercian book-hand shown in Facs. 143. 

In forcible contrast to this elegant style, a curiously rough hand was 
practised in the south of England, particularly in the kingdom of Wessex, 
in the ninth century. The same appears also to some extent in the 
Kentish charters, presumably the result of political influence. We have 
also seen it adapted as a book-hand (Facs. 144( in a MS. in the 
Bodleian Library of the middle of the century. Here is given a specimen 
from a charter of Ethelberht of Kent, exchanging land in Wassingwelle, 
A.D. 858 (Brit. Mus.. Cotton MS. Aug. ii. 66). 



The general aspect of the writing may be very well described by the 
epithet of ragged, so meagre and careless is the formation of the letters. 
In particular, the ill-shapen letter t, with its inelegant contracted bow 
ending in a heavy dot or small hook, seems to thrust itself into obtrush v 
prominence. One is tempted to seek an explanation of the apparent 
indifference to a good style of writing, even in royal deeds, in the 
disturbed state of the country owing to the Danish invasions. 

Passing on to the tenth century it will suffice to give one example of 
the charter-hand, a grant from Werfrith, Bishop of Worcester, of land at 
Easton (Brit. Mus.. Add. Ch. 11)791 1 ; of the year 904 (Pal. ,SW. i. 13). 



512 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 

No. 223 

This is a good typical instance of the pointed cursive of the period, 
written with less care than in the book-hand, but not differing from it in 
the structure of the letters. Here are already indications of the change 
which was effected in the course of this century from what may be 
termed the natural pointed style of the ninth century to the artificial 
pointing of the heads of such letters as a and q, which has been noticed 
above in commenting upon the book-hand of the period (Facs. 146). 

From this time onward there is but little distinction to be observed 
between the Anglo-Saxon script as shown in the charters and the same 
written as a book-hand. It is therefore needless to multiply examples, 
and what has been written above in regard to the literary handwriting 
may be taken to apply generally to the charter-script. 

It has already been stated that the handwriting employed in England 
for official and legal documents after the Norman Conquest was the 
foreign official and legal cursive script intixxluced by the conquerors, 
which was founded on the Roman cursive and had been practised in 
the Chanceries of France. This form of writing, from the date of the 
Conquest down to the close of the twelfth century, remained fairly 
conservative. In the surviving charters of the early kings of the 
Norman line it commonly appears with the exaggeration of long limbs 
which we have noticed in the earlier hands derived from the Roman 
cursive. In such official documents as the Pipe Rolls the writing is 
more careful and formal ; in the great volume of Domesday, while it 
still retains the official cast, it has a good deal of the literary style 
of lettering, perhaps from the fact of the work being drawn up in form 
of a book. In fact, the intrinsic character of the document had a good 
deal to do with the style of writing in which it was to be inscribed. 

We begin our series of examples with a grant by William II to 
Battle Abbey of the manor of Bromham, co. Wilts (Brit. Mus., Cotton 
MS. Aug. ii. 53), probably of the year 10S7 (Facs. Royal Charters, Brit. 
M. 2). 

No. 224 

The charter, bestowing a royal grant, is drawn up in the large 
Chancery set hand, much in the style of a literary work if it were not 
ornamented with a profusion of capital letters of cursive type. The 
bold character of the minuscule lettering of this example has its origin 
in the handsome script which we have seen developing in the course of 
the eleventh century in the North of France (Facs. 167, 169), and then 
already affecting the book-hand of the English scrilies. 



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520 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

In another style is the next specimen, being a grant by Henry I to 
the Abbot of Bamsey of the hundred of Hurstingstone, co. Huntingdon, 
at a rent of four marcs (Brit. Mus., Add. Ch. 33629), between the years 
1120 and 1130 (Far*. Hoy. CJi. 4). 

No. 225 

This charter, being in the nature of a notification to the sheriff and 
others of the county of Huntingdon and therefore an administrative 
document, is written in the smaller Chancery hand, a rather rough but 
vigorous, pointed, backward-sloping script, the characteristics of which 
can be followed in similar documents of succeeding reigns. 

Next is a charter of Stephen confirming to the Abbey of St. Chad of 
Buildwas, in Shropshire, the manor of Buildwas, and releasing it from 
all service (Brit. Mus., Cotton MS. Nero C. iii. f. 172), dated atthe siege 
of Shrewsbury, A.D. 1139 (Pal. Soc. ii. 21). 

No. 226 

Here again, the deed being a confirmation, the writing is altogether 
of an official character : the recognized, pointed Chancery hand. The 
exaggeration of the vertical strokes of the letters forming the first line 
of the deed is quite in accordance with the practice of the foreign 
Chanceries. 

Of the next reign a good example is found in a charter among the 
muniments of Westminster Abbey (no. xliv), whereby Henry II confirms 
to Abbot Gervase the right of pleas, etc., throughout the possessions of 
the abbey, without interference of the sheriff; A.D. 1156 (New Pal. 
ISoc. 98). 

No. 227 

The writing is again in the pointed Chancery hand, reduced to 
a more refined type, and exhibiting a sense of more careful calligraphy 
in the better uniformity of the scale of the letters. 

A specimen of the reign of Richard I is taken from a charter (Brit. 
Mus., Egerton Ch. 372) whereby the king confirms Alured de Saint 
Martin in the possession of lands, in Ewelme and Bensington, in Oxford- 
shire, A.D. 1189 (Pal. Soc. i. 195). 

No. 228 

This Chancery hand reverts rather to the less exact style, as com- 
pared with the last specimen; but, notwithstanding, it is a vigorous, 
and, in the general formation of the letters, fairly uniform hand, dis- 
guising its better qualities by the dashing freedom of the exaggerated 
strokes. 



xix LATIN OFFICIAL CURSIVE SCRIPTS 521 

In the five deeds of the Norman period which have been suVmiitted, 
the profusion of large letters is a prominent feature ; and long strokes 
are drawn out into fine hair-lines, and are occasionally provided with an 
ornamental spur near the top of the vertical stems, which thus have the 
appearance of being cloven. It will be seen that this last detail leads on 
in the thirteenth century to an elaborate system of calligraphic orna- 
mentation, which becomes so systematized as, by the stages of its 
developement, to afford clues for fixing the periods of undated documents. 

A style of the charter-hand not uncommon in private documents of 
the end of the twelfth and beginning of the thirteenth century rather 
squarer in its forms of letters and less exaggerated than the official 
hand is shown in the following facsimile. It is taken from a deed of 
the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem (Brit. Mus., Harley Ch. 44, E. 21), 
granting land in Wykeham, co. Lincoln, A.D. 1205 (Pat. Soc. ii. 117). 

No. 229 

Except for its being rather looser in the formation of its letters and 
more subject to nourishes, there is no great difference between this 
writing and the ordinary book-hand of the period ; and it is to be observed 
that not infrequently the style of writing employed in monastic charters 
is rather of the literary than of the legal type, that is, it is more set than 
cursive. This is only what might be expected, as the monastic scriptoria 
would naturally cultivate the book-hand before all other styles (see 
p. 464). 

This preference of the more exact style of writing is conspicuous in 
many of the charters of the thirteenth century (the period when, as we 
have seen above, a more minute character was in vogue), contrasting 
strongly with the bold writing of the preceding century. Under this 
restrictive influence, a highly decorative class of documents was produced, 
in which the scribe exercised with effect his powers of penmanship in 
fanciful ornamentation of the capitals and the stems of tall letters. 

This tendency to ornament shows itself not only in private charters 
but also in the official hands. An example of this style occurs in 
a charter of King John among the Corporation records of Wilton, 
in Wiltshire, confirming to the burgesses of the merchants' guild freedom 
from tolls and customary dues, A. D. 1:204 (Pal. Soc. i. 214). 

No. 230 

In this specimen of Chancery hand the regulating influence of the 
thirteenth-century style is very apparent ; and the ornamental character 
in general of the writing and the decoration of the stems, above referred 
to, mark a new period, in strong contrast to the rougher, though 
vigorous, character of the cursive official writing of the previous century. 



522 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

This style is carried a stage further in a grant by Henry III to the 
Abbey of Bee in Normandy of land in the manor of Weedon Bee, co. 
Northampton ; A.D. 1227 (Eton College Library ; Neu' Pal. Xuc. 149). 

No. 231 

This document, like the preceding one, exhibits the growing tendency 
to regularity in the general style of the writing, but at the same time 
compliance with the tradition of the official cursive in the exaggerated 

* do 

length of the stems of letters rising above the line. The decoration with 
notches or spurs at the top of the stems began at this period to take 
a further developement by extending the spurs in hair-lines which fall 
to the right and left of the stems in curves or loops. Some instances of 
this may be seen in the present example. This form of ornamentation 
became characteristic of charters of Henry the Third towards the middle 
of the thirteenth century, and lasted, with modifications, into the four- 
teenth century. 

The next example is an instance of the lightly written pointed 
Chancery hand. It is a notification, issued by Henry III to his foresters 
of Essex, of the submission of Gilbert Marshall and others, and of the 
restoration to them of their lands (Brit. Mus., Add. Ch. 28402), and com- 
manding the said foresters to aid the sheriff against disturbers of the 
peace ; A.D. 1234 (New Pal. Soc. 150). 

No. 232 

In this example we can discern the traditional style of the earlier 
Chancery hands of Henry I and Henry II (Facs. 225, 227) still main- 
tained in the pointed character of the letters and the backward slope 
of the writing, but of course modified in details in accordance with the 
general developement of the period. 

As the century advances, more pliancy in the character of the cursive 
hands, both in official and in private documents, is observable, leading to 
modifications in the forms of letters. The curving and looping of the 
hair-strokes attached to the tall stems has already been referred to. The 
head of the letter a, on the same principle, is gradually bent downwards 
and, eventually touching the lower bow, forms an upper closed loop ; and 
the small round s becomes more frequent at the ends of words and is 
formed, somewhat like the numeral 6, with a loop which tends to 
exaggeration. 

The following Letters Patent of Henry III (Brit. Mus., Add. Ch. 19828) 
is a good instance of this later developement. The deed is an official 
recognition of the attorneys of a crusader, who is accompanying Prince 
Edward to the Holy Laud ; A.D. 1270 (New Pal. *b'oc. 219). 



xix LATIN OFFICIAL CTKSIVK SCRIPTS 523 



FACSIMILE No. 229 




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ami fmnoo n Aw 
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CHARTER OF THE HospirAi.i.i:i;s. A.D. 1205 

*it Omib<s prcsentibws ft futuris Q?(od Ego Fi-ater Kobehw* The- 
Prior f rat mm Hospital is lerosolomitani in Angl/a de co)/u;ii 
assensu e/ voluntate f rat mm nostrorum concessimws et presentae Carta con- 
firmaviinij Robe/to fil/o Ivonis de Wicham ct lu/vdili/rv suis uniuu Toftuw 
rf | Croftum que fuerwt Ivonis patris ciwx in Wicliam . ft \mt\m portioned 
terre (\ue abutissat | super Benecroftewelle . d aliam portionewt terre ad 
Wirmodewellesichaffl . ft unuwi Es.sartui ! Bosci ad frithwude . ct una; 
Gaira/y; t'vre sujvr Hagenegate . ct unawz peeiaw; tcrre i estdale uverliende . 
qe laabuimvs ex donat/one Hugo/s Malet de Lindwude .' tenenda et Ivibendu 
de do mo nostr& lure hrreditario libcre cl qiete . reddeiido inde sing^lis 
annis domui nos^re Duodecim [ denar/os . medieta<ewi . ad Pascha . et medie- 
iitt< HI ad festuHi Sancti Michael ig .' pro omn'i servicio nob/5 hide p'/tinente. 
Ita tanic qod in Obitu suo et heredum suorut similitcr.' tota tercia pars 
Omiu)/< Ca talloru suoruut domui nosh'e remanebit . Hiis Testibws . fiatre 
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532 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

No. 233 

In this charter we have an instance of a new developement of what 
may be termed the decorative side of diplomatic penmanship, namely, 
the accentuation of the contrast of light and heavy strokes, effected hj- 
a greater stress of the pen in the formation of tall vertical limbs, and 
of downward curves as seen especially in such letters as a and d and in 
the marks of abbreviation and contraction. This exaggeration of contrast 
affected the structure of the official hands for a lono- time. 

O 

The charters of the reign of Edward I carry on the tradition of the 
cursive official hand, as we have just now seen it, in its relaxing stage, 
and show a further advance in the more open order of the letters and in 
the tendency to roundness characteristic of the fourteenth century. 

The following is a typical example (Brit. Mus., Harley Ch. 43, D. 9). 
It is a licence to Newhouse Abbey, co. Lincoln, to receive a re-grant of 
land from the Earl of Lincoln ; A. D. 1303 (Pal. Soc. i. 254). 

No. 234 

Here we have entered on the fourteenth century, a period when the 
great change which, as we have seen, came over the literary handwritino- 
of England, also affected the official and legal cursive hands. In the 
charter before us a further developement in the closed and looped a and 
in the round s referred to above is to be noticed. At this time also 
a change begins in the formation of the tall letters : the spur or flourish 
on the left side at the top of the stem is in some instances dispensed 
with, leaving the letter provided with a simple curve or loop 011 the 
right, instead of a cloven top. Further progress in these particulars 
is seen in the charters of the reign of Edward II, in the course of which 
the style of decoration of the tall stems, just noticed, becomes more and 
more characteristic. 

As a specimen of a private charter, in which the developements 
afl'ecting the official and legal cursive hand, noted above, are fairly well 
represented, we may select a release (Brit. Mus., Add. Ch. 23834) by 
John de St. John of the manor of Amport, co. Southampton, of the 
year 1306 (New Pal. Soc. 197). 

No. 235 

The writing of this charter is interesting as an illustration of 
a transitional stage, in which the stiffness of the thirteenth century is 
not altogether forgotten, while the pliancy of the new style manifests 
itself in the easier flow and wider spacing generally of the text. The 
characteristic forms of closed a and round s, noted above, and the 
prevalence of the curve or loop on the right of the tall stems, are to 



xix LATIN OFFICIAL CURSIVE SCRIPTS 533 

be observed. This class of writing is prevalent in charters of the later 
years of Edward I's reign. 

The official deeds of Edward Ill's reign gradually throw off the 
round style which was characteristic of the two preceding reigns, and 
begin to assume the rather pointed formation of the letters which 
developes more strongly as time passes. The following specimen (reduced) 
is from an Inspeximus of Edward III, under the Great Seal (Brit. Mus., 
Harley Ch. 83, C. 13), of an accord in Parliament restoring Richard de 
Arundel to the honours of the earldom of Arundel ; A. D. 1331 (New 
Pal. tioc. 198). 

Xo. 236 

This formal Chancery hand appears in the Letters Patent and other 
deeds issued under the Great Seal of Edward's reign, and has an 
individual character which cannot be mistaken. Examining the several 
letters, one readily traces their descent from those of the later period of 
the reign of Henry III (e.g. Facs. 233); but, at the same time, the 
wide difference in general character between the hands of the two reigns 
marks the rapid progress effected in the interval. It is interesting to 
note the employment of exaggerated ornamental letters in the first 
line : a survival of the ancient practice, which again, as we shall see 
from other examples, lasted to a still later date. 

The next specimen (Brit. Mus., Add. Ch. 11308), written more freely, 
shows the growing angular or pointed treatment of the letters. It is 
an undertaking of the Black Prince to observe the extension of time 
for fulfilment of the treaty of Bretigny; A. D. 1360 (Pal. Soc. ii. 140). 

Xo. 237 

This deed, written by an official secretary, exhibits an advanced 
style, foreshadowing the pointed and angular character which was to 
be the common form of the cursive of the next generation. But the 
same progress was not to be looked for everywhere. While an official 
clerk, working in the centre of public affairs, would be conversant with 
the latest forms of official handwriting, in the provinces or in the quiet 
of monastic life, where things would not move so fast, older fashions 
would prevail. 

Thus, our next example presents an older appearance (Brit. Mus., 
Add. Ch. 20620). It is an undertaking of the Prior and Convent of 
Sempringham to pray for members of the family of Marmion ; A. D. 1379 
(Pal. Sw. i. 256). 

Xo. 238 

This less cursive hand is of the class which was much practised 
in monastic establishments, and was employed to a considerable extent 



534 



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LATIN OFFICIAL CURSIVE SCRIPTS 545 

in chronicles and other MS. volumes compiled in their scriptoria. It 
is akin to the more regular style which we have seen developed as 
a literary hand in Facs. 193. The natural tendency of monastic 
scribes to incline to a more formal style, even in legal documents, has 
already called for remark. 

The official cursive of Richard II's reign assumed, towards the close 
of the century, a small pointed style ; quite characteristic also of the 
next two reigns. A specimen is selected from Letters Patent of Richard 
(Brit. Mus., Hurley Cii. 43, E. 33). granting the wardship and marriage 
of Elizabeth Fychet ; A. D. 1395 {Pal. Soc. i. 257). 

No. 239 

In this example we have a developement in the direct line of the 
official hand of the Black Prince's deed of 1300 (Facs. 237) ; and if the 
two documents are compared we are struck with the great change 
effected in the course of five and thirty years ; with the disappearance 
of the flexibility of the fourteenth century, which still, to a fair extent, 
characterized the writing of the earlier deed ; and with the rapid growth 
of the new pointed style. At the same time the writing, as an official 
hand, is regular, the lettering, as already noted, being on a compara- 
tively small scale, which seems to have been much affected by the 
scribes of the early years of the fifteenth century. 

As a specimen of an ordinary cursive hand of the time we may 
take a deed (Brit. Mus.. Harley Cli. 43. I. 25) whereby the Bishop of 
Norwich, Treasurer of the King's Chamber, pledges certain plate as 
security for a quarter's pay of a soldier serving beyond sea; A. D. 1415 
(Pal. Soc. i. 258). 

No. 240 

Although the letters are roughly formed, there is still a certain sim- 
plicity in the general character of the writing which marks the deed as 
belonging to the early period of the century. 

To illustrate the charter-hand of the middle and latter part of the 
century when the pointed style was carried to an extreme, we must be 
content to select the three following examples, which may serve to 
give some indication of its later developement ; but a really adequate 
idea of the changes effected in the course of this period can only be 
gained by examination of a full series of documents. 

The first specimen (Brit. Mus., Add. Ch. 22640) is a general pardon 
d by Henry VI in favour of Nicholas Carew ; A. D. 1446 (Pal. Soc. 
ii. 178). 

No. 241 

This is a favourable example of the formal Chancery hand of the 
period, written with laborious minuteness, but abandoning exact dis- 
ii-t x n 



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554 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY CHAP. 

tinctions between individual letters which the scribes of earlier centuries 
were careful to observe. In this advancing stage of the pointed style 
the letters i, m, n, u are formed by so many uniform strokes, without 
differentiating curves : one of the indications of the general carelessness 
that marks the cursive writing of the fifteenth century. Here, too, we 
observe a growing tendency to systematic flourishes, as for example in 
the marks of abbreviation. 

The next specimen (Brit. Mus., Harley Ch.44, B.47) is from a private 
deed : a lease from the Prior of Canterbury of the Windmill of West- 
Cliffe by Cooling: A. i>. 1457 (Pal. Sue. i. 260). 

No. 24'2 

This hand is of a rougher style, and is rather of the class of the 
document of 1415 (Facs. 240); its later date, however, being marked by 
the more pointed character of the letters in general, and by the increasing 
tendency to use flourishes. 

Lastly, to close the century, the following example (Brit. Mus., Add. 
Ch. 989) is from a bond of John de Vere, Earl of Oxford, Great 
Chamberlain and Admiral of England, to Philip, Archduke of Austria 
and Duke of Burgundy, for the observance of the treaty between 
England and Burgundy ; A. I). 141)6. 

No. 243 

In this hand we reach the climax of the official pointed style at 
the end of the fifteenth century, still restrained, however, and carefully 
written on account of the important nature of the document. 

Having thus seen passed in review the series of examples which have 
been placed before him, the student will have gathered a general idea 
of the changes which passed over the official and legal cursive hand- 
writing of England from the period of the Norman Conquest to the 
close of the fifteenth century. The means to extend the knowledge thus 
acquired is fortunately not far to seek. Collections of charters are of 
course to be found in public libraries, but they are not confined to those 
repositories. They are not uncommon even in private hands. How 
profitable the study of such collections may prove in training and in 
practising the faculties of the eye, those who undertake it will soon 
appreciate. 

It is not the design of this work to pursue the history of Latin 
Palaeography beyond the end of the fifteenth century ; and the examina- 
tion of the literary hand was accordingly brought to a close when it 
had reached that limit. With regard, however, to the official and legal 
cursive writing which has just been examined and which was not super- 
seded by the printing press, as was the case with the set literary style. 



xix LATIN OFFICIAL CURSIVE SCRIPTS 555 

it will not lie out of place to lay before the student, very briefly, a few 
later varieties, some of which were elaborated in certain of the law 
courts and became the styles peculiar to those courts. 

In most of the English legal cursive handwriting of the first half of 
the sixteenth century a certain heaviness of style was the fashion ; but 
afterwards this gave place to a lighter and more elegant character, 
which was fully established by the reign of Elizabeth, and was most 
commonly used from that time onwards far into the seventeenth century, 
and then was gradually toned down into a form modified by the Italian 
current hand of the day. The following specimen of this Elizabethan 
cursive legal hand is taken from a deed of the year 1594 (Brit. Mus. 

Add. Ch. 24798). 

No. 244 

In this hand we have a flowing style which has shaken off the 
angular treatment of the fifteenth century, although the line of descent 
of the Elizabethan hand is still quite apparent. If, for example, we 
compare it with the charter of the year 1457 (Facs. 242), written in the 
ordinary legal hand of that day, the relationship between the two 
documents may readily be traced ; and yet there is an interval of nearly 
a century and a half between them. But that interval has 7iiade all 
the difference in the genius of the penmanship, and has induced an easy 
pliancy, compared with which the character of the older hand appears 
to be one of awkward restraint. The close of the sixteenth century 
may be referred to as the epoch of the rise of the modern current hand, 
as distinguished from the more slowly written and more disjointed 
cursive writing of the middle ages. 

The new flowing character early in the seventeenth century is well 
shown in a deed of the year 1612 (Brit. Mus.. Add. Ch. 24000). 

No. 245 

In this example we have a further advance on the style of the 
preceding document. This is the type of legal hand which continued 
fairly constant for some time and which was the direct ancestor of the 
ordinary engrossing hand of the modern law-writers. 

Here, then, we may take leave of the ordinary type of legal cursive 
writing, and turn to the peculiar official legal hands referred to above. 
From the earliest times succeeding the Norman Conquest there were, as 
we have seen, certain styles followed, though not uniformly, for parti- 
cular official documents. But it was not until the sixteenth century that a 
perfected system of special stj'les for certain courts was finally established. 

Without regarding the class to which has been given the name of 
' secretary ', l and which is in fact the hand which has been illustrated 

1 Wright, Court Hand Restored, ed. Martin, 1879. p. xii. 



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S H3 ; 


2 r- ^ 


^ . 


i 3 cs 


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< ': 

p, J 


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^3 




= g i 


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= a .S 


^ ^ 


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'x S j 

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i-M 

s S = 

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fli 

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s ^ = 


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IT' 



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563 



564 GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 

by the two preceding facsimiles, there are two main styles which 
practically cover the varieties enumerated in the special works on the 
subject, viz., the Chancery hand and the Court hand. The former was 
used for records under the great seal ; the latter was employed in the 
courts of King's Bench and Common Pleas, for fines and recoveries, 
placita, etc. These two kinds of writing do not vary very materially ; 
both may be described as fanciful renderings of the ordinary legal hand. 
The Chancery hand, of the pattern found in its developed form in the 
sixteenth century, appears in an incipient stage in the latter part of the 
fourteenth century, and is therefore of an earlier origin than the Court 
hand, which indeed is rather a modification of the Chancery hand itself. 
It will be enough to select one or two examples of each style in order to 
give a general idea of their character. 

First we take a few lines from an exemplification of a Chancery 
decree of the year 1539 (Brit. Mus., Add. Ch. 26969) in illustration of 
the Chancery hand of the reign of Henry VIII. 

No. 246 

Also an example from a grant of wardship and marriage of the 
year 1618, which illustrates the form which the hand had assumed in 
the reign of James I (Brit. Mus., Add. Ch. 28271), a form altogether of 
the modern type, which continued in practice to quite a recent date. 

No. 247 

In these two examples of the Chancery hand it will be seen that the 
chief characteristic is a fanciful angular and upright treatment of 
the letters without deviating from the setting of ordinary writing. It 
is not easy to find words to convey any concise description of this 
fantastic script. We may content ourselves with seeing in it, as in the 
official writing of chanceries in general, an attempt on the part of the 
scrivener to render his chancery script difficult reading for the uninitiated 
layman, and thus to reserve to himself some professional advantage. 

With the Court hand the treatment is different. While the shapes 
of the letters (with the exception of e, which in this style is in the 
circular form) are practically the same as in the Chancery hand, the cast 
of the writing is quite altered by lateral compression, which cramps and 
narrows the letters in an exaggerated manner. At the same time the 
Court hand follows the lead of the Chancery hand and rivals it in its 
fantastic character. 

Our first example of the Court hand is of Henry A T III's reign, and is 
taken from a final concord, or foot of a fine, of the year 1530 (Brit. Mus., 
Add. Ch. 23639). 



cc 




cc 



~- -* < ? ^. 

i ^r r _J r 




505 



a* 5 






1 & -J 4 

^& S^TS- 



? i,l^ r-^^ 



^ s,^ ' s I ^ 

'- =O^5 T; ^ * 

s ^5 S ^ g > 



^sa j-js 



tr^ = 



H i - S 

iljS-ill 

"" a ' 

, .- r^ CD I 

i ;r. 

i' ^ r 5 J '- 



o"Sg~" t i 

S > j "! 2 -T 2 " 
_ s !>4 |^ = A < 



o 
i fcO 

c 



" .a ~ s S S y> 
sEl s =. ^ 2 , 



alh^^ 



S .S .2 S = .-a i S E. 

^ G "= X .2 ~ = *-> 

i i~ 5 : ? = ^~ 



^^ -c * *" '-' 

S ^3 >5 ( tr* *^^ <M o 

OP ^ ^Tl J^ f~i ^- * fe 



g 55 

c 
x 

^ ?" _O j. >>'2 O g O 






^'^ a | 

8 S 3 a s ^v 



- '" ~^ =W 

- = t S rl " , 




- ..- 

- = '= ^ 3 5 I 'i 
'5 - ~r. ^ ^ 2 '= 

i_i S S >,.!j S - 



566 



1 




00 
1:^ 

>n 







a. ^i 




JSDt-l 



Ed 

r* 



it 1 1 13. fc 




>~. 'C O 

= 2 ^ 
,9 3 



3 / 3 "- ? 



567 



1 


- 


, 

-2. 


; 


g 


* 


M 

- 


^ . 


- 



- 


4: 


5 


I 


7 


1 


s 


- 


_ 


~ 


J; 





R 


T 




z 


I! 


_^ 




~ 


- 




s 


' 


i 


T 


^ 


' 





. 





_"> 


_ 


. 


- 





- 


: 


- 


- 





r*; 


ZH 


2 


' ' 


| 


- 


7 


| 


-~ 


' 


i 


-~ 





g 


J 


~ 




fS 


_ 


TB 


t 


S 




: 





z- 


w 


^ 


.S 


_ 


a 

:_, 


o 

<D 


--> 


- 


H 


E 


o 


S 


: 






- 


- 


. ~ 


^ 


__^ 


. 


2 


- 


- 


'T 


fl 

- 


\ 


.s 







I 


o 


T 


3 


i 


O 


jr 


TS 


x 


1 


- 


I 




_ 





E v 



- :: 

: i 
-' - 



o 

~ J3 

-3 'Si 



^ II I El 

"lj -"^ " i ^~* ^ 

; ^ . a -j o 



- 
": ~T- 



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S = 



^ .-, V5 



2 

7 = 




| 4 

/ 

'S " 



ic 2 .2 S j 

2 S 2 1 " I 

IP p o a- a g 

f 2 5 "? 2 = 



^ s 



o 

. <D 



.-c o :d 



CO S 

^ ^j 



T! 
30 



W -3 

w ?J ^^ 
% 9 



5 .2 



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^ - 

'2 T r * C 

"f. ^: 

-^ C _Zl ^ 

^- ^. ^ 

1 51^ 

a i i o 



*T HB 12! ~ -^ 

r- - "? S - S> 



^ ' 

1 "3 

^ 



-~ ^ 



'-c ^ 



s "p a 

^ 2 3 

I ar= 



i ,-r - - 




568 



10 



pe 



01 

O 




iQF%g^h^ -^ 

*->-3 III 4^1 

5_ 




s 

a 



f I f ' [= | 



S W 

* s s = 

c br. .- c ; 

^ ^ = 5'S C 



IS 

js 



S S 2 S 



O -S 



o 
O 



a c 
*~ E 



p 2 ~ 



< 
z 



DO 

T/i 1 " ^i 5 

-i i-SO 

E O K ~ 



a 3 



2 8.S 
I 8.S 



^ ^ J2 02 _S 

" r~ ^_^ 5R S 



. cc s_ v 

' ' -"* ^ r^ ^ 

- - J "* J I 

5-S-S 11 g 



l?-i^ 



^g : 






c * 3 "C * 



LATIN OFFICIAL (TKSIYK SCRIPTS 569 

No. 248 

We also select a passage from an exemplification of a plea of 
Elizabeth'- reign, dated in the year 1578 (Brit. Mus.. Add. Ch. 25968). 

No. 249 

There is practically no great difference in style between these two 
specimens. The latter is perhaps to some extent the better hand and 
shows a very slight advance on the other; but the forms of the letter- 
are so stereotyped in this class of writing that the spare of nearly half 
a century which lies between the two documents ha- impressed but little 
trace of change on the later one. In the case of official scripts such as 
the Chancery hand and the Court hand, employed, a- they were, only for 
special purposes, and uninfluenced by other styles of writing, we find 
the same conditions, on a more restricted scale, as have been noticed in 
the history of those national hands which were confined to a compara- 
tively limited career and remained secluded from intercourse with the 
styles of other countries. Such scripts naturally become more and more 
conservative, and in the end are mere petrifactions. 

Lastly, to show further how very gradual was the alteration wrought 
by time in the character of the Court hand, an example is taken from 
a final concord of the reign of Charles II. bearing the date of 1673 (Brit. 
Mus.. Add. Ch. 25871), nearly a century and a half after the date of 
the final concord above (Facs. 248). of the time of Henry VIII, with 
which it is t<> be compared. 

Xo. 250 

The more recent date of this document is to be recognized by the 
coarser style of the writing and by the broken appearance of the letters, 
which is effected by their more strongly defined angularity. 

The Court hand continued in practice down to the reign of George II ; 
the Chancery hand still survives in the modern engrossing hands employed 
in enrolments and patents. 



Our task is ended. We have traced the develupement and progress 
of Greek handwriting, in its literary form, from the earliest examples 
beginning in the fourth century B.C., down to the close of the fifteenth 
century of our era. We have also been able to follow the course of 
Greek cursive writing from the third century B.C. down to the eighth 
century, the date when material fails us. 

In the domain of Latin Palaeography the anterior limit has been less 



570 CREEK AND LATIN PALAE< x.'.RAPHY 

remote; but we have followed its progress through a wider field. We 
have seen it, in its literary dress, pass through the stages of Capital 
writing, and of Uncial writing and the scripts immediately connected 
therewith. For the history of Latin cursive writing in the early 
centuries of our era we have been able to gather valuable details from 
the scanty material at our command. We have witnessed the trans- 
formations which the Latin script assumed in its course of developement 
under national influences. And we have followed it in its career through 
the book-hands of Western Europe, from the days of Charlemagne to the 
end of the fifteenth century. Finally, we have taken account, in a limited 
degree, of the official and legal cursive writing of the middle ages, and, 
in particular, of its styles as practised in our own country. 

But this work does not pretend to be more than an Introduction to 
the study of Greek and Latin Palaeography. The main object kept in 
view has been to place before the student a clear outline representing 
salient features, and to leave the details to be filled in by more minute 
and specialized research. 

In its secondary aspect, as a contribution to the general history of 
handwriting, if it may be allowed that function, a palaeographical work 
such as this brings out clearly the fact that national and personal 
character is as strongly marked in the handwriting of nations and of 
individuals as it is in their moral and physical attributes. The modern 
nations of Europe can never suffer the varieties and changes in their 
handwritings which fell to the lot of their ancestors. The printing press 
has rendered such a possibility impossible. Yet the printing press itself, 
with all its power to enforce uniformity, at least in literary works, has 
been powerless to repress the national and individual character, which 
breaks out, and will continue to break out, in the domestic handwriting 
of the day. This assertion of character will last to the end, whatever 
mechanical influences may rise up to check its natural course. Un- 
doubtedly huch mechanical changes as the abandonment of the quill-pen 
for the steel nib and the introduction of the stylographic pen have 
affected our modern current writing very much for the worse, and other 
inventions may serve to give it a still worse turn in the future; but the 
natural hand is not to be expelled. Character will persist, though the 
writing may become villainous. Whether the palaeographer of the 
distant ages will direct his researches to the elucidation of the national 
1 lands of his day we need not stop to consider. We do not envy him his 
task, content as we are that the lines have (alien unto us in pleasanter 
places. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 
GENERAL 

///*//// ./ f/ic Al/ihitliit. 

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Giitersloh, 1887, 8vo. 

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i l.'uuul (H.). J-:.-:*in' .-"/ l,- Litre* dans fA-nii<i<'it''. I'iiris, 1840, 8vo. _ 

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GREEK AXD LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 

Genri-ul Treatise*, H'didlooks. and Facsimile*. 

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Silve&tre (J. B.), Pal^^jmphie UniierseUe. Paris, 1839-41.4 vols. fol. : English 

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572 BIBLIOGRAPHY 



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GREEK PALAEOGRAPHY 

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"and A. S. Hunt, London, 1898-1912, 8vo. In progress. 

. Fayum Towns and their Papyi-i, ed. B. P. Grenfell, A. S. Hunt, and 

D. G. Hogarth, London, 1900. 8vo. 
Grenfell (B. "P.) and Hunt (A. S.). The Atnhtrst Papyri, 2 vols, London, 1900, 

1901, fol. 

Egypt Exploration Fund and University of California. The Teltunis Papyri, 
"2 vols., ed. B. P. Greufell, A. S. Hunt, J. G. Smyly, and E. J. Goods-peed, 

London, 1902, 1907, 8vo. In progress. 
"Wessely (C.), Papyrorum scripturae Graecae Specimina, Leipzig, 1900, fol. 

, Sludien zur Pahieoyiaphie <<iid Papyruskunde, Leipzig, 1901, etc., 4to. 

In progress. 
'SYilumowitz-Molleudorff (U. von), Der Timotheos-Papi/rus, with facsimile, Berlin, 

1903, 4to. 
Berlin. Berliner Klassikertexte, with facsimiles, ed. H. Diels, W. Schubart and 

others, Beilin, 1904, etc., 4to. In progress. 

. Didi/mos Kommmtur ,:/' Demosthenes [in B. K.~\, Berlin, 1904, 8vo and fol. 
Florence. Papiri Fiorentini \ in Papiri Greco-Egizii, ed. D. Comparetti and 

(T. Vitellil, ed. G. Vitelli, Milan, 1905-6, etc., 4 to. In progress. 
Pieinach (T.), Papyrus grecs et demotiques (facsimiles), Pari>, 1905, 8vo. 
Heidelberg. Die Sepluaginten- Papyri und undt.re altdtristliche Texte atts <l<r 

Heidelberger Papyrus-sammlung, ed. G. A. Deissmann, Heidelberg, 1905, fol. 



574 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Heidelberg. Papyri Schott-Reinhardt, part i, ed. C. H. Becker [Arabic and 

bilingual Arabic-Greek papyri], Heidelberg, 1906, fol. 

. Ptolemaische Homerfratjiint>'. ...1. G. A. Gerhard, Heidelberg, 1911, fol. 
Leipzig. Griechische Urkunden (/</ Papyrnx-sammlnnj :.n Leipzig, ed.L.Mitteii 

Leipzig, 1906. 4to. In progress. 
Egypt Exploration Fund. The Hibeh Papyri, part i, ed. B. P. Grenfrll and 

A. S. Hunt, London. 1906, 8vo. In progress. 
Berlin. Elephantine-Papyri [in Aegypt. Urkunden uus den kgl. Museen in 

Berlin], ed. O. Rubensohn, Berlin, 1907, 8vo. 
Lille. Institut Papyi ologique de 1'Universite. Papyrus i/reca. 2 vols.. ed. 

P. Jouguet and others, 15)07-12, Paris, 4to. In progress. 
Geneva. Textes grecs inedits de la collection papi/rologique de Genh-e, ed. 

J. Nicole. Geneva, 1909, 8vo. 
Giessen. Griechische Papyri im Museum des oberhessischen Geschichtsrereins zu 

Giessen, ed. P. M. Meyer and others, Leipzig and Berlin, 1910, etc., 4to. In 

progress. 
Cairo. Papyrus grecs d'epoque byzantine [in the Catalogue general des antiijidten 

egyptiennes du Musee du Caire], ed. J. Maspero, Cairo, 1910, etc., fol. In 

progress. 

. Griechische Urkunden des Aegyptischen Museums zu Kairo, ed. F. Preisin-ke 

Strassburg, 1911, 8vo. 
Manchester. Catalogue of Greek Papyri in the John Rylands Library, vol. i, ed. 

A. S. Hunt, Manchester and London, 1911, etc., 4to. In progress. 
Schubart (W-), Papyri graecae Berolinenses, Bonn, 1911, 4to. 
Jouguet (P.), Papyrus de Theadelphie, Paris, 1911, 8vo. 
Hamburg. Griechische Papyrus- Urkunden der Hamburger StadtbibUotkek, Bd. i, ed. 

P. M. Meyer, Leipzig and Berlin. 1911, etc., 4to. In progress. 
Strassburg. Griechische Papyrus der kais. UniversitfitsbibHothek zu Strasibunj, ed. 

F. Preisigke, Bd. i, Leipzig, 1912, 4to. In progress. 
Sociela Italiana per la ricerca dei Papiri greci e latini in Egitto. Papiri i/r, ./ ,' 

latini, vol. i, ed. G. Vitelli and others, Florence, 1912, 4to. In progress.* 

Greek Mediaeval Manuscripts (Facximileti). 

Omont (H.), Chronological table of facsimiles of dated Greek MSS. from 800 to 

1593 [in Fac-si miles des manuscrits grecs dates de la Bibliothirrue national? \ 

Paris, 1891, fol. 
Sabas, Specimina Palaeoyraphica codicum Graecorum el Slavonicorum, Moscow 

1863, 4to. 
Amphilochi ( ), Palaeoyraphical dfscrijHion of Greek MSS. of tlie ixth to a-riitli 

centuries [in Russian], Moscow, 1879-80, 4to. 

, Facsimiles of Greek MSS. in the Kondaki Collection, of the xiith an,/ ,-//;/// 

centuries [in Russian], Moscow, 1879, 8vo. 
Wattenbacb (\V.), Schrifttafdn ziir Geschichte der rjrifchischen Schrift, Berlin, 

1876-7, fol. 

, Scripturae Graecae Specimina. Berlin, 1883, sin. fol. 
Wattenbach (W.)aud Velsen (A. von), Exempla Codicum Graecorum litteris ///>- 

cults scriptorum, Heidelberg, 1878, fol. 
Omont (B.), Fac-similes des manuscrits grecs dates de la Jiibliotherjue national: du 

iaf au xiv 6 siecle, Paris, 1891, fol. 
, Fac-similes des plus anciens manuscrits grecs, en om'iale et en minuscule, </< hi 

Bibliotheque nationale du iv e au xii e sin-/e, Paris, 1892. fol. 

* In this series and others, e. g. The OfyrJujHclius Papyri, Ltitiu Papyri are included ; but 
thev are very few in number. 



GREEK PALAEOGRAPHY 575 



Oiuont (\\.). '/'res anciens nianiifrrit* <//> />//,/ i, /n, * <t ./,,.;,///<> de la Billi<itli!-'in<' 

nationale, //>,->/;'<'. > *. M. Xicholas II, etc., Paris. 1896, fol. 
. - . Fac-niniil<'s da H HHIH writs grecs (leg arc 8 rtxvi e siecles reproduits enphotolitlm- 

iii-iipJtif il'apri.* Im in-iijinn.ii.'' </< I" /!il> l iiif/i--i/in' nationale. Paris. 1887. 4to. 
Martin (A.), Fac-simitfs des manus,',-i/.^ greet /'/.'.-'/ <;/;. <jrni;',< c/'c/-/-^-. I,* photo- 

ijraplties de <_']>r\<:* Grow, 2 v<>ls.. Paris. 1891, 8vo and atlas. 
Franclii de' (.'avalieil (P.) and Liet/mann ('.). *pfcimi,ui co<H<-i>in Grn<v ,,-in.i. 

Vaticaitorum. Bonn and Oxford, 1910. 8vo. 
StcH'ens (F.), Prol',> OKU grietHnschen llni"l*<-lrift>-ii "/// Urkundm, Trier, 

1912, 4to.' 



T<i<'lti/<ii-ii/>lj du<( Abbreviation*. 

Gardthauseii (V.). Guschichte dcr <jri-]iiwhfit Taehygraphie [in Archiv fiir titeno- 

yraphie], Berlin, 1906. 8vo. In progress. 
Gitlbauer (JF.), Die UebemBte griecliMcher Taehygraphie >,< <-<>fl. Vat. </raec. 1809, 

Vienna, 1878, 4to. 
-, Die drei Systeme altgriechisclier TacJtygraphit [w the DenJkachriften of tin- 



Imp. Acad. Vienna, xlivj, Vienna, 1894, 4to. 
Wessely (L 1 .). L'in ^//steut /?.///',./,/.<./(./ Tm-liiiijrupliic [in Denk*<Jir. Imp. Acad. 

Vienna, xliv], Vienna, 189o. 4tc>. 
Lelimann (O.), Die tockygraphitchen Al,kiir;n<j' < <ler yriubuehen Handechriften, 

Leijizig, 1880, 8vo. 

Allen (T. W.), Notes on Abbreriativ,i* in t;m/.- .M<tntn-ripts, Oxford, 1889. 8vo. 
ZenteM (Q.\ Abbreviations in Greet JUJSS., nwre etptciatty in >h< ,l,ii^l J/>\. of 

St. l'it, r.j>nr<j di"/ J/omw [in liussian], St. Petersburg. 1904, 8vo. 



LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 

Trct.ifi*t*. Handbooks, ft''- 

ilabilloii (J.), De Ke Diplomatica, 2nd ed., Paris. 1709, fol. 

Tassiu and Toustain, Benedictines, Xouveau Trait'' </ [tij>l<nt'ti''j<>f. 6 vols., Paris. 

1750-65. 4to. 
Madox (T.), Formulare AnijlinuiiiM (with A dissertation concerning ancient charters 

awl iittttrii.meiittt). London, 1702, fol. 

Hitkes (G.), Z''//</'"""">" stpteiitrinnnlimn TJi'sanrns, Oxford, 1703-5, fol. 
Massinann (H. F.). Lie gotliis'-l<en L'rkiunlen ran .\eap>! mul Arez-.o. Munich. 

1S37, fol. 
Maffei (F. S.), Istoria dipTwiiatn-n. c<.,, ruccoJta de' iI^ci'Men'i in ^upiro, Mantua. 

17l'7. -KM. 

Marini (G.\. 1 pupiri dipioiimtici, Emne, 1805, fol. 
Bessel (G.), Chronii'on Gottricfnf (!> <lij,l<>ina/ilin* imp< ratorum uc rajinn Ger- 

maniae), Tegernsee, 1732. fol. 

Fumagalli (A.), Delle istitnzioni diphmatiche, 2 vols., Milan, 1802, 4to. 
Kopp (TI. F.), Palaeographia Critica, 4 vols., Mannheim, 1817-29, 4to. 
Siekel (T.), Schrifttafeln aus dein Nuehlattse roti ('. F. van Kopp, Vienna, 

1870, fol. 
Schunemann (C. T. G.), Versuch tines vottst&ndigen Systems der allgemeinen, leson- 

ders alteren, Diplmnatik, with copperplates, 2 vols., Leipzig, 1818, 8vo. 
Siekel (T.). Lehre von den Urkunden drr frstrn A'aroliiiyer [in Acta reyiun >> 

impcntt innit KaroKnorv/m], Vienna, 1867, 8vo. 



576 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Ficker (J.), Beitriiye zur t'rkiiiide>il,'Ji/v, 2 vols., Innsbruck, 1877-8, 8vo. 

Wailly (X. de), AUmemts </<- /V/<V//-< f/ 7,<V, _> V ils.. Paris. 1838, 4to. 

Quantiu (M.), Diction, mi n- ./- hi^lomatique Chretieime [vol. 47 of Migne's Encyclo- 
pedic Theologique], Paris, 1845. 8vo. 

(.'hassant (A.), Palfoyniplue <les diaries et des manuscrits du xi e au xvii e siecle 
8th ed., Paris, 1885, vo. 

Delisle (L.), Melanges de Paleographie et de Bibliorj rap/tie, Paris, 1880, 8vo and 
atlas. 



, Le Cabinet ties m<tnns<-rits <!c la Bibliolh^jm nalionale, 3 vols. and plates 
Paris. 1868-81. fol. 

, Etudes paleographiqutt et historiquet sur UK papi/rus <h< of* ai^-h renfer- 
maiit dvs homilies de St. Avit et des ecrits de St. .!.///.,//,/. Geneva, 1866, 4to. 



-, Notice sur un manuscrit merovingien tontenaitt des fragments 
Paris, 1875, fol. 

, Notice sur un maimscrit mtrorin'i'i, ,,, de la Billiotlicnue d'Eninal Paris 
1878, fol. 




JISS., tome xxxi], Paris, 1886, 4to. 

, Memoire sur I'ecole calligraphique de Tours au i.t* siecle [in Memoires de 

I' Academic des Inscriptions, tome xxxii], Paris, 1885, 4to. 

, Memoire sur d' ancicns .iacramentaires['ni Memoires de I'Acadcmie des Insert ji- 

tions, tome xxxii], Paris, 1885, 4to. 

, L' Ei-angeliaire de Saint Vutixt <!' Arras et IK. cattigraphie franco- saxonne du 

ix siecle, Paris, 1888, fol. 
AVattenbaeh (W.), Anleitunn zur lateinischen Palaeotjraphie, 4th ed Leinxi" 

18S6. 4to. 
Gloria (A.), Compendio Jelle lexioni leorico-pratiche di Paleografia e Diplomatics, 

Padua. 1870, 8vo. and atlas. 
Paoli (C.), Proyranwi'i scolastico di Paleo/jrufia latina e di Diplomatica, Padua, 

1870, 8vo and atlas. 
Bresslau (H.), Ilandlucli tf< -r I' rkuwlutMin fr ]>< ntscJilnnl. v.it<! Italien. vol. i, 

Leipzig-, 1889, 8vo. 

Leist (F.), Urkuitde-nle/ire, 2nd ed., Leipzig, 1893, 8vo. 
Giry (A.), Manuel de Diplomatique, Paris, 1894, 8vo. 
Keusens(E. H. J.), Elements </< Paltographie, Louvain, 1897, 1899, 8vo. 
Him (M.), Lateinische Papyri [a catalogue of extant Latin Papyri, with biblio- 
graphy; in Centralblatt fiir Biblioth?.ksi<:esvn~\, Leipzig, 1899, 8vo. 
Traube (L.), Vorle&ungen mid Abh>u/ lluityen, Munich, 1909, 1911, etc., 8vo. 

In progress. 

- -, Palaeoijraphischfl Forschumjen [in the Alhi/ndl. der histor. dasse of the 

Uoyal Bavarian Academy], Munich, 1904. etc.. 4to. In progress. 
Prou (M.), Mann, -I de pa liogr aphie latine et francaise, Paris, 3rd ed., 1910, Svo. 
Chatelain (E.), Melanges offerts a . . . par ses eleveset ami*. Paris, 1910, 4to. 
Li]]il>ay (\V. ML.), Contractions i,, ]-:,,rl>i Lnii,, minuscule ^fSS., Oxford, 1908, 8vo. 

, Early Irish minuscule script, Oxford, 1910, 8vo. 
Loew (E. A.), $ti<dia Palaeographica : A contribution to the histori/ of early Latin 

minuscule and to the dating of Visigothic MSS. [Sitisungsber., R. Bavarian 

Academy], Munich, 1910, 8vo. 



Rodriguez (C.), Bibliotheca Universal de la Poli/nravlna Esimtwla .Madiid, 

1738, fol. 
Terreros y Pando (E. de), Paleoyrafla Kspanola, Madrid. 1 758, 4to. 



LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 577 

Jlerino (A.V Exrutlu Paleographica <> <l< Iff-r li/rris anfiijitas desde la cntradadelos 

Godos en np<tiia. Madrid, 1780, fol. 
Muiioz y Eivero (!.), Paleografla Vi*i<joda. Madrid, 1881, 8vo. 

. M^uiuinl de Paleoijra/M diplomdtica Expiutola, 2nd ed., Madrid, 1890, 8vo. 
Rossi (M.), Paleografia e Diplomatiea de' documents delle provincie Xapolitane, 

Naples. 1883, 8vo. 

Facsimiles : General. 

Ariult |'W.), Fi-Jirift/dfr/H :"/ Erhrnunfj <ler lateinischen Palaeographie. 4th ed.. 

ed. IT. Tangl, Berlin, 1903-6, fol. 
AVessely (C.), Schrifttafeln xur alteren lateinischen Palaeoyraphie, Leipzig, 

1898, 4to. 
Steft'ens (F.), Latcinische Palaeographie : Hundert Tafeln, 2nd ed., Freiburg 

(Switzerland) 1909, 4to. 
Ihin (M.), Palaeographia Latina : exemfla codicum Latinorum, Leipzig, 1909, etc., 

8vo. and fol. In progress. 

Facsimiles: Roman Cursive. 

Garrucci (E.), Graffiti de Pompei, 2nd ed., Paris, 1865, 4to and atlas. 

Itoyal Prussian Academy. Interiptiones par/it<tri>i'' Pompeianae [in Corp. Inscr. 

Lat., iv], ed. C. Zangemeister, Berlin, 1871, fol. 

. Inscriptiones parietariae et rasonu/i /ictilium [C. I. L. iv. suppl. ii.], ed. 

A. Mau, Berlin, 1909, fol. 

Tabulae ccratae Ponipeis reperlae annis 1875 et 1877 [C. I. L. iv. suppl.], 



ed. C. Zangemeister, Berlin, 1898, fol. 
lioyal Academy of the Lincei, Koine. Le Toi-olelte cerate di Pompei, ed. G. de 

Petra, Rome, 1876, 8vo. 
ilassmann (J. F.), LiMlv.a .1 i-rii<s >/ce Tabulae Ceratae [Dacian tablets], Leipzig, 

1841, 4to. 
Eoyal Prussian Academy. Instrmnenta Dacica in tabulis ceratis conscnpta aliaque 

isinrilia [C. I. L. iii, part 2], ed. T. Mommsen, Berlin, 1873, fol. 
Nicole (J.) and llorel (C.), Archives mililaires du premier siecle. Texte inedit du 

papyrus latin de Gtnere, no. 1, Geneva, 1900, fol. 

Facsimiles: chiefly Diplomatic. 

Poupardiu (R.) and Prou (M.), Li ate des Recueils de Fac-simile de Charles [in 

Actes du Conyrea International pour la reproduction des Manuscrits, etc.], 

Brussels, 1905, 8vo. 
Ecole des C'hartes. Kecueil de fac-similes a I'usaye de VcdU des Chartes, Paris, 

1837-1910, fol. 
Champollion-Figeac (A.), C'hartes et inanuscrits si'r papyrus de la Bibliotheque 

rotjale, Paris, 1840, fol. 
Letronne (A.), DipUmes et charles de I'epoque merovingienne sur papyrus et sw 

trlrn, Paris [1851], fol. 
Tardif (J.), Archives de V Empire : Fac-simile de chartes et diplomes mtrovingiens 

et carloringiens, Paris, 1866, fol. 
Lauer (P.) and Samarau (C.), Les Dipldmes oriyinaux des Merovingiens, Paris, 

1908, fol. 
Pertz (G. H.), Schrifttofeln xvm Gebrauch bei diplomatiscfien Vorlesungen, Hanover, 

1844-69, fol. 
Sybel (H. von) and Sickel (T.), Kaiserurkunden in Allildunrjm, Vienna, 1880-91, 

4to and atlas. 



578 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Pflugk-Harttmig (J _vo,,), ^a-w^m selecla chartonun Po^Jicum Xomanorum, 

otuttgart, 188o 8/, fo!. 
Specimma palaeoyr^phica regestorum Romanm-vm pontificum, 1198-1376 eel 

I. H. Denifle and P. U. Palmieri, Rome, 1888, fol. 

Facsimiles: Spscial Masses. 

Champollion-Figeac (A.), Paleographie des deques latins, Paris, 1839 fol 
Uiatelain (E.), Paleog rap/tie des ch<s*iq,,<-s latins. Paris, 1884-1900 fol 
Wattenbach (\V.) and Zangemeister (0.), Exempla Codicum Latinorum litteris 
^ majuscuhs scriptorum, Heidelberg, 1876, 1879, fol. 

C'hatelain (E.), Unnalia Scriptwa codicum Latin,,,-,,,* novi* exemplis illus!r, ( ta 
rang, 1901, 1902, fol. and 8vo. 



. 

E11 n I 11 '! 1 T ^ y Fa mile f rom Lati MaHwitte ia ih, Bodkian Library, 
Oxford, 1891, sm. fol. 

France. 

Musee des archives rationales [numerous facsimiles in the text], Paris, 1872 4to 
Jfusee des archives departementales ; Recueil de fac-si milts, etc.,' ed. 0*. DesiardiiM 

Paris, 1878, fol. and atlas. 
Ecole Ues Cliartes. Album paUograjtliiqu*, arec Jes notices exaUcatii-es ed 

L. Delisle, Pans, 1887, fol. 
Prou (M.), Jtecmil de facsimiles d'ecritnr^ (Manuscrits latins, francais et 

proven caux), three series, Paris, 1887, 1896, 1904, 4to. 
Flammermout (J.), Album paleoyraphique du Nord de la France (charters), Lille, 

i oyt)j 4 to. 

Belgium. 

Van den Gheyn (J.), Album lelje de paleographie, Brussels, 1908, fol. 
Pirenne (H.), Album beige de diplomatique, Brussels, 1909, 4to. ' 

Holland. 

Brugmans (H.) and Oppermann (0.), Atlca d.-r XnhrlmlsiUe Palaiogr^pJue 
Hague, 1910, fol. 

Denmark. 

Kllund (K.), Palaeografisk Atlas, 3 vols., Copenhagen, 1903-7, fol. 

Germany. 

Sclium (W.), Exempla codicum Amplonianorum Erfu -tensium siec. ix-xv, Berlin, 
1 882, fol. 

Cliroust (A.), Denhnaler der Schriftkunsl des Mittelalters, 3 vols., Munich, 1899- 
1906, etc., fol. In progress. 

Austria. 

Sickel (T.), Monumenta Graphic j. medii at vi ex urchins ct bibliothscis Imperii A<- 

ftnaei collecta, 4 vols., Vienna, 1858-82, 4 to and atlas. 
Vienna, Imperial Library. Monumental Pa'aeoynijJtica V'mdoboH >nsia : 

maler der SckrtiMmut, ed. E. Beer, Leipxig, 1910, fol. In progress. 



LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 579 

Poland. 

Cracow Academy. Monumenta Poloniae palaeographies (charters); Cracow, 
1907-10, 8vo. and fol. 

Italy. 

Foucard (C.), La sc-ritttira in Italia sino a Carlomayno, Milan, 1888, fol. 
Federici (V.), Esempidi corsiva antica dal secolo i dell' era mode ma al n; Home, 

1906, 8vo. 

Monaci (E.), Facsimili di fni'ichi manager itii, Rome, 1881-3, fol. 
Monaci (E,), and Paoli (C'.), Archtvio paleografieo italiano, two series, Rome,'1882 

90, fol. 
R. Societa Romana di Storia patria. Diplomi imperiali e re.ali ddle cancellarie 

d' Italia, Rome, 1892, fol. 
Carta (F.), Cipolla (C.), and Frati (C.), Monumenta palaeoyraphica sacra. Atlnntr 

2>aJe->yraftco-(irtistico. Turin, 1899. tnl. 
Cipolla (C.), Cod id Bobbieti detta Bibliottca nazio.iale univerailaria di Torino, 

etc., Milan, 1907, fol. 
Ehrle (F.) and Liebart (F.), Specimiiia codicum Latino-runt Vatiounoriim, Bonn, 

1912, 8vo. 
Morcaldi (M.), Cod-tx Diplomaticut Cavensis, 7 voli., Naples, 1873, etc., in 

progress, 4to. 

Tosti (L.), Bibliotheca Casinensis, 4 vols., Montec.issiuo, 1873-1880, in pro- 
gress, 4to. 
Piscicelli Tasggi (0.), Paleojrajia artistic/I di Montecassino, Montecassino, 1876- 

1882, 4to. 

Eonelli (Gr.), Codice paleografico Lombardo : Siproditzione di tittti i docuwenti 

anterlori al 1000 esistenti in Lvn'iarlia. Milan, 1908, etc., fol. In progress. 
Vayra (P.), II Jf-useo st)rico delta casa di Savoia, (charters), Turin, 1880, 8vo. 

Spain. 

Ewald (P.) aud Loewe (G.), Exempla Scrlpturat Visiyoticae, Heidelberg, 

1883, fol. 

Muiioz y Rivero (.!.), Ckreetomatkia palaeographies,: Scrijtlurae Hupanae vetsria 
specimiiia (charters), Madrid, 1890, sm. 8vo. 

Russia,. 

Staerk (A.), Lf.s Ma inherits J-i'.im dn v e au xiii e siede consents <l la, BiWtollieqne 
imperiale de Saint-Peternboury, 2 vols., St. Petersburg, 1910, 4to. 

Einjland. 

Keller (\V.), Angels&chsisehe Palaeographie, Berlin, 1903, 8vo and fol. 

British Museum. Facsimiles of Ancient Charters in the British Museum (Anglo- 
Saxon, etc.), 4 parts, ed. E. A. Bond, London, 1873-8, 4to and fol. 

Ordnance Survey. Facsimiles of Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts (charters), 3 parts, ed. 
W. B.Sanders, Southampton, 1878-84, fol. 

. Facsimiles of National Manuscripts of Enjlanl, 4 parts, ed. W. B. Sanders, 
Southampton, 1865-8, fol. 

British Museum. Facsimiles of Royal and o'her Charters in the British Jfuseum, 
vol. i, William I Richard I, ed. G. F. Warner and H. J. Ellis, London, 
1903, 4to. 

Pp 2 



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L. Delisle, lieeutil des actes de Henri II, rol d' Anrjleterre et due de Normandit 

Paris, 1909, fol. 
Skeat (W. W.), Tireh-e Facsimiles of Old English Jfamtscrij>fs, Oxford, 1892, 4to. 

Scotland. 

Ordnance Survey. Facsimiles of National Manuscripts of Scotland, 3 parts, ed. 

C. Innes, Southampton, 1867-71. 
Anderson (.!.), Selectus diplomatum et numismatum Scotiae Thesaurus Edinbumb 

1739, fol. 

Ireland. 

Ordnance Survey. Facsimiles of National Manuscripts of Ireland, 4 parts (in 5 
vols.), ed. J. T. Gilbert, Dublin and London. 1874-84, fol. 

Latin Abbreviations, etc. 

Mommsen (T.), Sotaruin Laterculi (Roman abbreviations) [in Keil's Grammatici 

Latini, vol. iv], Leipzig, 1864, 4to. 

Scbmitz (W.), Contmentarii notarum Tironianarum, Leipzig, 1893, fol. 
Cliatelain (E.), Introduction a la lecture des Notes Tironir.nn.es. Paris, 1900, 8vo. 
Waltber (J. L.), Lexicon Diplcmaticum, abbreviations* syllalarwit et vccum 

exponens, Giittingeu, 1747, fol. 
Chassant (A.), Dictionnaire des Abrcviations latines et francaises, 5<b ed Paris 

1884, 8vo. 

Cappelli (A.), Dizionario di Abbreviature laline ed italicJie, Milan, 1889, 12mo. 
Volta (Z.), Delle Abbreviature nella Paleoyrujia latin a, Milan, 1892, 8vo. 
Lindsay (W. M.), Contractions in early Latin minuscule MSX., Oxford, 1908, 8vo. 

, Early Irish ininuscule script [abbreviation symbols specially noted] Oxford 

1910, 8vo. 

Wright (A.), Court-Hand restored (abbreviations, etc.), ed. C. T. Martin, London, 

10th ed., 1912, 4to. 
Martin (C. T.), The Kecord Interjireter : Abbreviations, etc., in English historical 

Manuscripts and Records, London, 2nd ed., 1910. 8vo. 



Nicolas (Sir H.), The Chronology of History [in Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopaedia,'], 

London, 1845, 8vo. 
Bond (J. J.). Handy-Book of Rules and Tables for verifyiny Dates, London, 

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BIBLIOGRAPHY 581 



REPRODUCTIONS OF MANUSCRIPTS 

[There are three important series of Reproductions of Manuscripts, viz : 

1. Codices Graeci et Latini jihotographice depict!, dace Guilelmo Nicolao Du 

liieu [et Scatone De Tries]. Issued at Leyden since 1897. 

2. Codices e Yaticanis select!, phototypice express! jussu Leonis PP.XIIT [et Pi! 

PP. X], consilio et opera curatorum Bibliothecae Vaticanae. Issued at Home, 
Milan, etc., since 1899. 

3. Reproductions de manuscrits et miniatures de la Bibliotheque nationale, 

publiees sous la direction et avec notices de M. Henri Oniont. Issued in 
uniform size, octavo, since 1901. 

In the following list of the principal reproductions, those which have been 
issued in these series are indicated by the letters [C. G. L.], [C. V. S.J, and 
[II. B. N.], respectively.] 

Aeschylus : Codex Laurentianus, xxxii. 9; ed. E. Rostagno. 189G. 
Aesop: Codex Vossianus lat. oct. 15 ; ed. G. Thiele, 1905. [C. G. L. suppl. iii.] 
Anglo-Saxon: Codex Yercellensis ; ed. R. Wiilker, 1891. 

: The Epinal Glossary. Latin and Old English ; ed. H. Sweet, 1 883. 

Anthologia Latina : Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, MS. lat. 10318 ; ed. H. Omont, 

1903. [E. B. X. iv.] 
Anthologia Pulatina : Codex Palatinus and Codex Parisinus ; ed. C. Preisendanz, 

1911. [C. G. L. xv.] 
Aristophanes: Codex Kavennas 13", 4, A; ed. J. Van Leeuwen, 1904. 

[C. G. L. ix.] 
: Codex Venetus Mnrcianus 474; ed. J. "W. White and T. AY. Allen, 

1902, [Soc. Hellenic Studies.] 
Aristotle, Constitution of A/lienn : British Museum, Papyrus cxxxi ; ed. 

F. G. Kenyon, 1891. 
, Poetics: Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, MS. 1741 fonds grec ; ed. H. 

Omont, 1891. 

Bacchylides : British Museum, Papyrus dccxxxiii ; ed. F. G. Kenyon, 1897. 
Beowulf: British Museum, Cotton MS. Yitellius A. xv ; ed. J. Zupitza, 1882. 

[Early English Text Soc.] 
Bible, Greek : Codex Alexandrinus, British Museum, Royal MS. 1 D. v-viii ; ed. 

E. M. Thompson, 1879-83. 
-: - - (New Test, and Clementine Epp.) ; ed. F. G. Kenyon, 1909. 

[Reduced.] 

: Codex Yaticanus 1209; ed. J. Cozza-Luzi, 1889-90. 

: .; ed. J. Mercati, 1904-7. [C. V. S. iv.] 

, Pentateuch, etc.: Codex Sarravianus-Colbertinus, Leyden, etc.; ed. 

H. Omont, 1897. [C. G. L. i.] 

, Octateuch : Constantinople, Seraglio Library ; ed. T. Uspensky, 1907. 

: Genesis ; Vienna MS., ed. R. von Hartel and F. Wickhoff, 1895. 

, Deuteronomy and Joshua : Freer MS., ed. H. A. Sanders, 1910. 

, Joshua : Vatican, Cod. Palat. graec. 431 ; ed. P. Franchi de' Cavalieri, 1905. 

[C. V. S. v.] 
, The Prophets: Codex Marchalianus, Vatican, cod. graec. 2125; ed. 

J. Cozza-Luzi and A. Ceriani, 1890. 

, New Testament : Codex Sinaiticus Petropolitanus ; ed. K. Lake, 1911. 

-, Gospels : Codex Rossanensis, 2 ; ed. O. von Gebhardt and A. Harnack, 



1880. 
, : Codex Rossanensis and Codex Sinopensis; ed. A. Muuoz, 1907. 



t 



582 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Bible, Greek-Latin, Gospels and Acts : Codex Bezae ; Cambridge University pub- 
lication, 1899. 

-, Pauline Epistles : Codex Boernerianus, Dresden, A. 1 45 b ; ed. A. Reiehardt, 
i y uy > 
Bible, Latin, The Utrecht Psalter ; Palaeographical Society, 1874. 

, The Gospel Book of .Saint Margaret: Bodleian MS. 29744 ed "W Forbes- 
Leith, 1896. 

, Pauline Epistles, with Irish glosses : Wiirzburg University Library ed 

L. C. Stern, 1910. 
Catullus: Codex Sangeruianensis, Paris, Bibl. Nat., MS. Lit 14137- ed 

E. Chatelain, 1890. 
Deinosthenes : Codex 2, Paris, Bibl. Nat., MS. grec 2934 ; ed. H. Omont, 1892-3. 

-: Commentary of Didymus, Berlin, Papyrus 9780; ed. H Diels "and 

W. Schubart, 1904. 
Dio Cassius: Codex Vaticanus graecus 1288; ed. P. Franchi de' Cavalier! 

1908. [C. V. S. ix.] 
Dioscorides : Codex Aniciae Julianae, Vienna, Med. gr. i ; ed A de Premerstein 

and others; 1906. [C. G. L. x.J 

Domesday Book; ed. Sir H. James [Ordnance Survey], 1861-4. 
Enoch, The Book of, and the Gospel and Revelation of Peter; ed. A. Lods 

(Memoires de la Mission archeol. franfaise au Caire), 1893. 
Exchequer Receipt Roll, A. ]>. 1185: Public Record Office ; ed. H. Hall 1899 
Fronto: Codex Vaticanus 5750; ed. F. Ehrle, 1906. [C. V. S. vii.l 
Gaius: Codex rescriptus Veronensis, Bibl. Capit. xv (13); ed. A. Spagnolo, 

J. '(/,', 

Gregory of Tours: Paris, Bibl. Nat., MS. lat. 17G54; ed. H. Omont, 1905 

[R. B. N. iii.J 

Herodas : British Museum, Papyrus cxxxv ; ed. F. G. Kenyon, 1892. 
Homer, Iliad. Fragments Ambrosiana, F. 205 inf.; ed. A M 'Ceriani and 

A. Ratti, 1905. 
- : Codex Venetus A, Marcianus 454 ; ed. D. Comparetti, 1901. [C. G. L. vi.l 

The Cureton Homer: British Museum, Add. MS. 17210; ed. W. Curetoni, 

1 oo 1. 

Horace : Codex Bernensis 363 ; ed. H. Hagen, 1897. [C. G. L. ii.] 
Hyperides, Athenogenes : Louvre Papyrus ; ed. E. Revillout, 1892. 
Irish : The Book of Ballymote : MS. Royal Irish Academy ; ed. R. Atkinson, 

1 887. 

, Leabhar Breac : MS. Royal Irish Academy ; ed. J. O'Lon^an and 

Prof. O'Looney, 1876. 

, Leabhar na h-Uidhri : MS. Royal Irish Academy ; ed. J. T. Gilbert, 1870. 
The Yellow Book of Lecan : MS. Royal Irish Academy ; ed. R. Atkinson, 

I o Ju 

, The Book of Leinster: MS. Royal Irish Academy; ed. R. Atkinson, 1880. 
: Bodleian Library, Rawlinson MS. B. 502 ; ed. K. Meyer, 1909. 



J 7 E - r * uvy^. . c*j. -iv. jii_rr y t-i. ic/vi/. 

Isidore, Etymoloyiae : Codex Toletanus 15, 8 ; ed. R. Beer, 1909. [C. G. L. xiii.] 

Jerome, St., Chronica, : Codex Floriaceusis; ed. L. Traube, 1902. [C. G. L. 
suppl. i.] 

- Bodleian MS. Auct. T. ii. 26 ; ed. J. K. Fotheringhain , 1905. 

Justinian, Pandects : Codex Florentinus, olim Pisanus ; Laurentian Library pub- 
lication, 1902-11. In progress. 

Liturgies, Antiphoual of St. Gregory : MS. of St. Gall ; ed. Pere Lambillotte, 
1867. 

, Benedictional of St. ^Ethelwold, Bishop of Winchester : Duke of Devon- 
shire's MS.; ed. G. F. Warner and H. A. Wilson, 1910. [Roxburghe Club.] 



REPRODUCTIONS OF MANUSCRIPTS 583 

Liturgies, Menologium of Basil II: Vatican, cod. graec. 1613; ed. P. Franclii de' 

Cuvalieri, 1907. [C. V. S. viii.] 
, The Stowe Missal : Royal Irish Academy, D. ii. 3 ; ed. G. F. Warner, 1906. 

, The Metz Pontifical: Sir T. Brooke's MS. ; ed. E. S. Bewick, 1902. 
Livy : Paris, Bibl. Nat., MS. lat. 5730 ; ed. H. Omont, 1907. [E. B. N. i.] 
: Codex Vindobonensis, lat. 15 ; ed. C. Wessely, 1907. [C. G. L. xi.] 
Lucretius: Codex Yossianus; ed. E. Chatelaiu, 1908. [C. G. L. xii.] 
Menander : Papyrus, Cairo Museum, no. 43227 ; ed. G. Lefebvre, 1911. 
Mortuary Roll of St. Vitalis, Abbot of Savigni ; ed. L. Delisle, 1909. 
Nibelungenlied : Hohenems-Munich MS. A. ; ed. L. Laistner, 1886. 
Ordericus Yitalis : Codex Yaticanus, Reg. 703 A. ; ed. H. Omont, 1902. 
Ordericus Yitalis and Robert of Torigni : Rouen MS. 1174 and Leyden MS. 20 ; 

ed. J. Lair, 1910. 

Philip Augustus' Register: Vatican, MS. Ottoboni 2796 ; ed. L. Delisle, 1883. 
Plato : Codex Oxoniensis Clarkianus ; ed. T. W. Allen, 1898-9. [C. G. L. iii, iv.] 
-: Codex Parisinus A. ; ed. H. Oinout, 1908. 

, Theaetelus, Commentary on : Berlin, Papyrus 9782 ; publication of the 

Berlin Museums, 1905. 

Plautus : Codex Palatinus C. ; ed. C. Zaugemeister, 1900. [C. G. L. v.] 
Propertius : Codex Guelferbytanus Gudianus 224 ; ed. T. Birt, 1911. [C. G. L. xvi.] 
Ptolemy : Mount Athos MS. ; ed. V. Langlois, 1 867. 

Roland, Chanson de : Bodleian Library, Digby MS. 23 ; ed. E. Stengel, 1878. 
Sophocles: Codex Laurentianus, xxxii. 9; ed. E. M. Thompson and R. C. Jebb, 

1885. [Soc. Hellenic Studies.] 
Tacitus: C'udex Laurentianus Mediceus 68, i, ii; ed.H. Fiostagno, 1902. [C.G. L.vii.] 

, De oratoribus and Germania : Codex Leidensis Perizoiiiauus ; ed. G. Wis- 

sowa, 1907. [C. G. L. suppl. iv.] 

Terence: Codex Ambrosianus H. 75 inf. ; ed. E. Bethe, 1903. [C. G. L. viii.] 
Theodosius, Codex vi-viii : Paris, Bibl. Nat., MS. lat. 9643; ed. H. Omont, 1909, 

[R. B. N. ii.] 
Tliietmar, Bishop of Merseburg, Chronicle ; Dresden MS. R. 117; ed. L. Schmidt, 

1905. 

Tibullus: Codex Guelferbytanus 2829 ; ed. F. Leo, 1910. [C. G. L. xiv.] 
Timotheus, Persae: Berlin Papyrus; ed. U. von Wilamowitz-Miillendorff, 1903. 
Yirsil : Codex Yaticanus 3225 ; eel. F. Ehrle, 1899. [C. Y. S. i.] 

: Codex Eomanus, Cod. Yat. 3867 ; ed. F. Ehrle, 1902. [C. Y. S. ii.] 

Welsh: The Black Book of Carmarthen ; ed. J. G. Evans, 1888. 



%* Monsieur Henri Omont has recently issued an enlarged second edition of his 
Ltstes des KecueUs de Foe-similes et des reproductions de manuscrits conserves a la 
Jiiblwt/ifque nationale, Paris, 1912. It comprises reproductions of miniatures and 
ornaments of MSS. as well as reproductions of texts. 



INDEX 



Abbas, or Eutyches, a slave, sale of, 320. 
Abbreviations. See Contractions. 
Abinnaeus, Flavius, 'praefectus castrorum ' 

at Dionysias, correspondence, 99 ; 

official letter to, 174-5. 
Abu-Sinibel, Greek inscri]itions at, 5. 
Ab usir (Busing), Pemre of Timotheug found 

at, 100. 

Accents, Greek, 61-2 ; Latin, 64. 
Acchildis, judgement in suit of, 498-9. 
Actium, Battle of, poem on, 274, 276. 
Acts of the Apostles. See Bible. 
.Elfric,Abbot of Cerne, grammar, 398, 400. 
/Ethelstan, King of England, his MS. 

Gospels, 418, 420. 
jEthelwold, St., Bp. of Winchester, Bene- 

dictional, 284, 430, 432. 
Aidan, founder of the see of Lindisfarne, 

385. 
Alburnus Major, in Dacia, waxed tablets 

found at, 18, 311, 315-19. 
Alcuin of York, Abbot of St. Martin's of 

Tours, assists in reform of writing in 

France, 367 ; works of, 348, 350-1, 417, 

419. 

Aldhelin, De Vinjinitate, 429-31. 
Aldred, priest, writer of glosses in the 

Lindisfarne Gospels, 386. 
' Alexandrinus, Codex ', Gk. Bible, 206-8. 
Alphabets : Greek and Latin, 1-7 ; age and 

developement of the Greek alphabet, 

2-3 ; its sibilants, 3 ; local forms, 4 ; 

groups, 4 ; developement of the Latin 

alphabet, 5-6 ; tables of Gk. literary and 

cursive alphabets in papyri, 143-7, 

191-4 ; analysis and comparison of the 

same, 184-90, 195-7 ; tables of letters in 

</i;i_()i/i and waxed tablets, 312-13, 317- 

18 ; tables and analysis of Latin cursive 

alphabets, 332-7. 
Alypius, Auivlius, receipt, 176-7. 
Amalariusof Met/., I)i fi/'/ii-i/x K-r/rxiitxi !<!.*, 

418, 423-4. 

'Ambrosian Homer', Iliad, 141, 198-9,201. 
Ambrosian Library. .See Milan. 
Amherst Library, Fables of Babrius in, 

324. 

' Amiatinus, Codex', Latin Bible, 289, 295. 
Amport Manor, co. Southampton, grant 

of, 532, 536-7. 

Ann-en Kiwle, The', 476, 47-. 
Anicia. Juliana, MS. of Dioscorides written 

for, 208-10. 



Aphroditopolia, papyri found at, 100. 
Apocalypse, The, commentary of Beatus 

on, 346-7. 

Apostrophe : uses in Gk. MSS., 62-3. 
Aqnileia, Council of. Acts, 339. 
Arabs: papyri relating to their adminis- 
tration in Egypt, 100, 180-3; their 

' protocols ' in papyri, 25 ; their manu- 
facture of paper, 25, 34-6. 
Aratus, MS. at Boulogne, 284. 
.Imi.i, a folded sheet, 54. 
Arethas of Patras, Archbp. of Caesarea, 

MSS. owned by, 221-2. 
Aretino, Leonardo, translation of Aris- 
totle's I'nlitirn, 470, 472. 
Aristophanes of Byzantium, his system of 

punctuation, accents, etc., 60-2. 
Aristotle, Constitution of Atlirtis, 46, 50, 

78-9, 98, 127-8, 166-7 ; comment, on 

Porphyry's Introduction to, 250 1 ; 

Latin translation of his Politics, 470, 

472. 

Aristoxenus, on metre, 13o. 
'Armagh, Book of, Latin N. Testament, 

376, 378-80. 
Atintiig, a penknife, 43. 
Artemisia, the curse of. 107 8. 
Arundel, Richard, Earl of, restoration of, 

V S3, 538-9. 
Aslnidge College, co. Bucks., ow